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Full text of "The California Farmer (1857)"

,' ' i -liinji - 



■%■ 



51 ui 5) i is as s si'ia 4 a i| . 



3B a a a ea fl. ©jitfasss. 



SACKAMENTO, CALIFOBNM, FMDAY MORNING, JANUARY 16, 1857. 



Cjjc California J a rim 



' (ISISt'Iili SCIKNtKS. 



""•?fi" 



ivcly demands. 






jr,;,-; 



The Earth, Piaparod for Mali. 
We have received tbo annexed Lollar fron 

heory" advanced by Dr. C. F. Window, ir, 
e learned Address to which tho writer alludes, 
a kg have published [ho Address so widely, 
l cheerfully publish the Criticism, confident 



Lai a ilist 



,t III" 



objee 



■a East 



leap interest, and one worthy □ J 
.un.mg scientific mimls. Dr. Win=lni 
it tbo present lime, and as we mail 
ouraal, it will reach him, and wo bavo no doubt 
itU draw from him n prompt response. 

Mostcboerfully dowa offer our columns for 
.ay sci'.-ntilie i]i--:'i-7i-n upon mutters tlmt shall 
end to moke our Earth more fitted to bo tbo 
■bode of tbo "intellectual races;" wo should 
pjoice most esjitiiislty if * . ' 1 1 [ i ["- ■ r r i i i -. ~1 L . . u 1 .J . . ii'.. ■ r 
tho world o linrit^t of mi nil ooncf [■.-..nil tup In 
ho growth of the mutter upon the soil which is 
be subjeel of discussion : 

EDITORS. FaIUIEB; My attention has heon 
lulled lo Jiu Address, winch appeared in you: 
ournal of (lie 17th nit., purporting to have boei 
lelivorcd hj- request before tbo Legislature ii 
FY'hruary, lti-1, >:uti(1->il "The preparation of tin 
■jirth fur [ho Intellectual Kaces, by Doct. C.F. 
iVitislow." 



greo of set 
like this, Hi 

'■ll.'iTVfil. Ill 

terial atoms 

under the efficient force of gravitation «r i 
ti»n, or in bis own words, condensation | 
signify the same, for those words bnve s 
meaning;, nnd arc applied to one and tbi 
principle), ho is pleased to subject tho 
moss to a stnte of fusion. What diflieul 
•ought to moid in the investigation of hi 
jeet, in the pursuit of tbe theory upon wl 
"rat set out (which was in good working 
J far, that under its efficient influence th 
d-naation of our globe bad becomo sol 
vauccd that tbe orystnliitntian of various I 
bud already assumed tho obarac 
wlid sobstanco), by this altogelbi 
presumption, he has aoL disclosed, 
wore, they certainly could not 1 



Wl,, 



■ laid- ■ 



r than is fount 



Asa 









ion. The language with which he has clothed 
lis ideas, is most forcibly nnd eloquently nr- 
soged, and contributes greatly to the interest oi 
he reader. Tbo subject presents to tlio refloat- 
ig mind a field of bonnaloss researeb, replete 
lilh the loftiest aspirations of tbo human mind, 
Mphiog tbo intellectual reader with sentiments 
f delight, in tbo contemplation of a thomo so 
ill ofgnmdeor and sublimity. In thus obtrud- 
igupoayonr columns, permit me to call the 
tlention of your readers to tho positiun assumed 
r thn Doctor in his theory of tbo organization 
Four earth. In the introduction of tbo Bab- 
el, bo soys : "Some of tbo most striking con- 
aeratious you may observe to bo original, and 
to application of tho whole rnngo of thought, 
any persons may imagine bold and novel." 
no he may havo added, likewise with grent pro- 
I'oiy, chaotic. In order to pucifiy tbe bollig- 
eot attitude of antagonistic Iboorios, in tho 
"nation of tbo earth, ho has sought to com- 
pe, ia tbo construction of his original, bold, 
id aablo system, tbo advantagcit conceived by 
bodvocates of both the Aqueous, or Electrical, 
a that of the Igneous theories. Ho fays : "As 
|W exist in tbo ocean, dissolved anil invisible, 
P the original coadition of things, the mnltor 
|potio fi this cortb, ciistcd as a solution in 
JM. and was diffused throughout spuoo. As j 
palls of luo ocean cryatuliso by coudonsa- j 
iMnaioi>peci6odshope»,so primordial! 
p», subjected to forces, ioslitolod by Supreme ! 
■Mi. assumed solidity, and becaroa planoto- 



glnbe t( 

which h 
iufini 



or by what laws, can be drive, ii 
around tho sun, a globo of liquid or mi 

Ho bos destroyed tbo force of gravita- 
- attraction— (the foroo to which tho onrtb 
I was indebted, to nnnblo it to perform its 
. around tno sun)— by tbo introduction of 
f repulsion — extreme, mad, unbridled re- 
rbicb would scatter into infinitesimal 
the liquid globo arc it hud revolved 
. If it wero possible to subject our 
state of liquid heat, it would lose its 
it would cease to bo o globo ; for the 
forco of that iuenndoseont hoot of 
peaks, would separate its atoms into 
space, where tbey would lose tbe iden- 




tity of their prior organizatioi 
tho controlling inflaeneos 
spheres, into which they n 
w.-nild terminate the exigence, n 
own great and beautiful world, but 
of the Doctor's most wonderful sin 
cease to exist. 

In the force of attraction, rogi 
in cheek by tho lessor forco of re 

ami loam the hidden mysteries t 
further evidence ware necessary 
tho absurdity of tbo Doctor's pi 
ba found in tbe fallowing deolaral 









M 


VLB CASI 


«ui e ht 155 lb! 


n 


cot 


Til 


son Tils. T 


nt herewith ct 


ts made 


bv 


J. W. Orr, 


d female Cash 




of) 






ers, of Atlanta 


fi 






These oni- 


troduced here 


rn 


o Ih 


F, 


st in 1849, 


J. Davis, of S. 


c 


fro 




horn tbey 



e pmptrtj of lticuard Peter', of Atlanta, Qu. 
were mostly purchased by Mr. Peters, in 181 
His flock now consists of twenty-five head, 
few nnimuls arc owned by other gentlemen, fc 
this is the largest collection. IIow far they m 
become a useful addition to the stock of the coo 



Prune your Fruit Trees, 
is the time to prune your fruit trees, 
,scs, shrubs, fie, and to form your hedges, 
is a science. Wo read, '•just as tbe twig 

d, so will bo the beauty of iis form, tbo 
d healthiness or its growth, and thequul- 
quoulity of its fruit, or the •perfee tion nnd 
f its flowers. 

ine can bo pruned in several ways, tbe 
a be adapted depends upon the place the 
upies — whether in the vineyard, on tho 



is of fru> 



t pruning 



eauV 



■ii we visit orchards wa do not find one 
in twenty that understands tbe true 

of pruning. In many orchards we havo 
rccs pruned up as standard trees some six 
lit feet fiom the ground before they blanch 

country nothing can be more fatal to suo- 
Fruit trees should branch low; tbe Iree 
s this, Tor two important reasons: 1st, 
lose branches may slay the tree, and sup- 

ogainst the stiong winds that prevail ; 
it these branches may also shade the 






ithcr 



ether, and after 
% metallic and i 



nrdsus 
It.erid c 



ingle.] injrf-ih. 



aid, became, when ultimate! 
;|,.wing glol.oof coin pound 
i' schoolboy, who is acquainted 
iCuU of chemistry only, would at onco dis- 
Iho presumptiou that gas, or fluids, could 
by any possibility commingle with, or bo re- 
tained by a mass of liquid mnlteii rook, gluwiu^ 
1'iith iin\iinL'-..iTit ln.-ii "(.; luitin^ iucaodeseent" 
■ignify a white heat, tho intensity of which will 
lot only fuse, but it will decompose tho constit- 
leiiL- of all the mutuls with n-hieh wo are ac- 




id e-..l , 



ted. A diamond yields up a sacrifice l 
tho stem mandates of incundescent beat. Ouse 
and fluids, and many of the more fusible metals 
would havo been driven off into unknown space 
far beyond tbe original orbit of the earth, at i 
temperature very many decrees below that of I 
white beat; a degree which it would most un- 
doubtedly require, in order lo subject granite U 
a state of fusion. Nature socks not an ngency 
in liquid glowing beat, in ordor to create worlds, 
nor yot to lay ovon tho foundations, or rib work, 
■" far bo bos set out, open tbo I of her tnngiiiliccnl structures. Tbo formation 
theories, ndvuuood by j of granite rook, like unto alt other rook, roino- 
llcetuol phitotonhcra of rols and motnls, is the result of one and tbe 
same law, by which tbo Groat Architect of 
Nature perfects all bis works. 

I am at a loss to inference tho source from 
which tho Doctor derived the conciqjliotj ,.f this 
anomalous theory, the character of which it is 
j difficult to unravel. Laplace's Nebular Theory. 



FEMALE CASHMERE GOAT 
Lire .night, 103 lbi; BeitLt of joirlj utec I", Ibi. Tit prawrtv or R[o 
try. is not yet fully determined j those 
given the most attention lo 1 he subject 
cherish high hopes of them. 



who hav 
oppear t 



,rl IV,. 



,ta, Gl. 



make a still further division of swnnns7 Wc 
Would yet inquire what hove been, what will bo 
the result 7 For if by these subdivisions if bv 
Peters saysr 'That th* are nol-the Thibet I increasing t bo number ol , WBrm , ,"3,£ 
laivl Goat, Is proved by their loul ,li^imih r iij- j i„ cr o.-, 51! ( | lc pta i ocl£ l1l(!ll |t :, „,, . „„„,„ :. 

a specimen uf that breed in pa-^ession of the time and labor, 
bscriher; tho latter variety having only on 
idcr-couting of a few ounces— which portion 
of Us fleece is alone vol uablc. Works on Natural 
thai they 



inrestigatione along the [jrid cban- 
» graad end Comprehensive system, 
Inch tbo etodent is borne with K entlo 
tbo boondless »torcbou«o.- ,,f nature's 
'"lory, apporeoUy with 



abruptly changes tho hnr- j and Macintosh's Electi 
«y forces of Creation, by Milton' 
' grand and magnificent , lures t' 



al Theory, alloyed with 



ml,!,; i, 



ofou 



first os inoleculi-a 

"tli.r. and nfterwurds us solid musies 

oetaUioand mineral eompciii.,,,, „ r 

fluid, becmo, when ultimately min- 

Egother, a glowinfj B l ubf , of com pouua and 

O00 .Mil.-, thick, circling around 

What amagnificoui spectacle tbo po- 

r tbo Bontor bus wrought in 



y [ihili,-.i| 

errors in tbo Addrosa, which 
much space in a newspaper 
. Enough I tbink, has been 
v intelligent mind of the 
absordily of tbo Doctor's Electro, Aqua, Igne- 
ous theory of tho formatioa of our world. 

Aod with tbo highest considerations, I am 
your moat obedient servant, 

E. F. BllUMDAOE. 
Jlnc«Bi 6lh, 1BS7. 



i tbo 



Douutlcea 



|Iobe, gin i 

Hit lb) orbit urouod the 

Jtollatioue of tho Universe wero veiled [ n I marked 
M«rknoea, by tbo brilliancy of that epoch; | Piclwickii 
^Igioolity. boldnea. nnd novelty of which, I "P? 11 tb « 
fMume, there will bo none to dispute. It is "" 

r 



MOHC ANTIQUAniAM D 

t lli.r:,|.) uays; Some m 
nch of Mr. linn.. . i,i... 
dim Valley Hi 



giouu 



innlry. found, a 
. quantity of !■■ 
dlflercnt pattt 



ilb letters nnd Bgi 

m antiquarians hereabouts bave built 
^ , " - 1 T 1 *""'"* theory, by which the im- 
P?S1 1 but wo apprehend soma u " 
nintr could explain all iboat IL 



a unfartumtc forty- 



or that name in Asiatic 
Turkey, as that animal is of varied color, ivith 
a fleece of indifferent value. Tbey have becomo 
known as '-Cashmere Goats," from tho puro 
while color and fineness of their fleeces, and their 
undoubted Eastern origin. 

Tho fleeces of the matured bucks weigh from 
sia lo reven pounds. Ewes yield from three lo 
fonr pounds. Ttio flesh of Iho crosses is superior 
to most mutton, lender and delicious, making 
them a desirable acquisition to our food-pro- 
duciogaoimsk The case with which llioy are 
kepi, living as tbey do On weeds, briars, brow.se, 
and other coarse herbage, tits ibem for many por 
itry where sheep could not bo 
sustained to advantage; while their ability and 
disposition to defend Ihc.nvJiv-i from [he attacks 
of dogs, evidence a valuo peculiar to this race of 
Tbey aro free from all diseases lo which ' 
. liable, hardy and prolific ; and 
s proven that tbey readily adapt I 
oil p ortions of the United Slates," 

Tho Boes. 

cent astonishing account of Bees, given 

-L. Briggs, while it thoits an increased 

J Of their habits should also call into 

hat shall ■■•c'.io lo 

icicnso of bis stock 

ongand healthy stock. 

of Mr. Briggs would 

as to his success in 



The grand object of an apiarist should be, r. 
only lo increase Ihc number of bis swain 
"■hereby bis product of honey should also bo i 
creased, but also lo know that his swarms are i 
strong In numbers, healthy and free from i 
symptoms oi disease, that thoy will he enabled 



The formation of the Iree will then bo natural 
and the sdemwof pruning will then come to form 
ic tree and aid it in the fruiting process, by 
taking otr tbe useless branches, and shortening 
others so as to give vigor to tho fruit buds. 

Fruit trees make such very bald growth that 
it is necessary to shorten in every year; this sys- 
tem is tho best, and all that is required is to have 
un eye to forming o round head, taking cure to 
havo the branches form in a handsome shape, 
something like tho cone of a pine apple of a 
targe size. TVe notice with pleasure an increased 
attention to tho pruning of trees, and while at 
San Jose, we were exceedingly gratified in a, 
visit to the froil orchard of Ii. G. Moody, Esq. 
It was a small orchard of some one hundred and 
fifty trees, but it was a gem of an orchard. Every 
tree was No. 1, nnd the beautiful form of tho 
trees, their clean, shining bark, their bold buds 
standing out on tbo branches, gave evidence of 
care and attention of tho right character. In all 
that wc have seen in California among orchards 
wc have seen no one example of com plete, finished 
pruning that would excel this orchard. In a 
with tbo proprietor wo wero satisfied 
nderstood the science of nature and Iho claim 
the tree hud upon him for his care nnd attention, 
d tbo proprietor also know (for bis practice 
inced it) that the tree would pay him well for 
tho attention he gave it. Wo give all lice 
nor. to Mr. Moody, and hope his neighbors, far 
lis orchard and copy his 



raplc. 



ward those who b»v 



of then 



turns of honey, and at tbo same time to 
themselves o stock for their winter uso 
contingcnccs of tho seasons. 
While wo take pleasure in making kno 


ndfor 


cceRsnf Mr. Briggs 
Bees, we havo wa 
t ask tbo questions 


in his 
cd to s 


eccnt experiments 
co if others would 
no iv propounded. 



ledge of t 



little i: 



S.tllO 






bo aplnrist not only a rapid 
of Bees, but also secure aslroi 

The remarkable huccc 
lead us lo inquire of h) 

these particulars r If a strong hive shall give of! 
two, three, four or live swarms in a season are 
tbeso swurms us strong, bcallby and as produc- 
tive or honey as when only ono or two swarms 
are sent off from a hive 1 Wo would also know 
the result of so large an increase of swarms ; and 
moK, if tho apiarist can, by making now Queens, 



for if tbo mere love of gain shall 
object, if the object shall only be to incre 
number of swarms, as a matter of gain in dollars 
and, -un-, ihen surely we shall lc,e sight of the 
higher law of nature, and tbe consequence wl 

swarms and unfit (hem for labor, which i, 
necessarily end in a loss of the hive. 

Most earnestly do wo urge upon all who 
inleiisted in tho Bees ' 
serious attention, and c 
fur by so doing they 
the public, which will 

FnEi 



subject their 
inlcato with os freely, 
:onfer n benollt upon 



iONT'aMABiroa*Ci,Aiii— TaxcbDue.— 

/'^rr^'r'TW-'fr'' : '^' lh '- "---'■'■me l,t this 
-m (1". '..)..f I ol. lT,:m„ r „, ,-Mil,,,. MUM,. 

luo taxes unon whirl. „rc <M7rvm ' ,- vl ' v . 

a ujiuu which are fel(,(K)0— a r .j u .-, , I ., Jri i 
I- be pii.l j early .pan property which, as yet 
^ ..'l..! '...th,,,, ,„ , ht p^rtetors. The 

S\';'i> i.i-. d.i, il„, ,,„„„,. ,-„_,,„ „ |i: d;| . ((i . (i 
'"■'" "-""'.j: I'M logfil.-T with th E laxes as as- 
'■;'.-.■"..! IV;-.., oil,;,,,,.,. | 1JV i„ s ,|„, „ n „", „ r 



Tin- PnuiT Orguard and Nursery.— Go 

long tbo bearing fruit trees, and examine tho 

ink und limbs; tnko out the diseased wood; 

,-iipr ,ul" the r.,u L -li burl; of lli.-npj.lii and pear, 

d smear their trunk, with toft simp; remove 

) gum oround the base „f the pencb tree, and 

In. in thi-S[iout i.fn ten \wU\o pour liuiliug water 

into the holes of the worms ill tlio root; this 

vill kill the wunu without injury Ii. tlietne; 

iborteu tho long l.n.nelir. of the poach Irco; 

lighten tin; soil iir..nnd nil fruit tr. e, with a fi-rh, 

tit the rootlets may not bo out. 

If you look far profit from un orohurd, culti- 

lo the orchord for its fruit, and not for cotton, 

(ts or potatoes. Young fruit trees may nuw 

-t.irle.l from heeds. L'hoico fruit trees may 

he grufted int., i=£,dling rootf. and may bo 

on tho liiiilm or trunk of old healthy 

All amuteur cultivators, and farrnors, 

fihuuld have n. stock of seedlings on hand, (but 
thoy may gruff choice varieties/ upon. Grafting 
i= u very simph. proc.-ts. ami u,i, v bo performed 
by children and servants with success, aftor a 
•iv hour.- instruction.— [Soil „f tho South. 
Wo selcot tbo above as peculiarly npphoablo 
the present time, an work that should bo 

UNaBorriiE I'oF.rs.— Several interesting 
soirees havo recently been hold in San Francisco, 
both in public nnd in private, which hava donn 
much to create a tusle for social ami intellectual 
'■, which bespeaks a good future for Cali- 



grnftcd 






r privilege lo bo present and 



ijoy tho intellectual treat offered to o tavt friends 
. the llassette House, and afterwards to bs prc- 
nt at Musical 11,11 and hear tho readings by 
rs. E. Lcsdernicr. The best proof of their ck- 
llence and beauty was given by the character 
id attention of tho audience. Hardy do wo 
dncfis ono so large and select ns the audience 
hich listened to the lost named readings. There 
is a graceful ond easy manner presented by tbo 
reader, a perfect modulutiou of tho voice, an easy 

turnor'^Cw 11 ""'^ * ka0,rled 3° "f ""> 
■uthor. Iho lady was ,n costume dress iu tho 
eadiogsof Loiutrello,,', llm-.v,,,],,. :i ,,d difflcult 
s "as tins poem, it wi,., „i,,., admirably personl- 
iTi'i lrUst °" r cili ^»e, wherever this lady 

stiull go, wi|] ,mprovc the opportunity of bearine 
accomplished an orliste. 



nly the present yes 
'0 a bulnnce in tbi 
ion bo paid by Col. „,„„,„ ,, 
sale of the properly for Ibis purpose. 



; . , BA B8Er T B .-T| lifl hotel is rapidly filling up. 
'he tax I llan - v f^niSers by the Golden Gato took lodg- 
by the ln E it the Rassctle. Q. W. Grannls, Esq., so 
favorably known at Iho International, is Iberc. 



THE CA-LIJTORISriA. FARMER. 



REJECTED E5SAT. 
.•. po^lw;TCii8 , J.MiiJS Ol California. 
:■"■: : ; :'.!f«Wr,^b».-H-VMfi* 1 " iviboil. 
. ..Who tktUai tier booain^mejTy.L'ngland, 
V'ntri lias "rAveta over Hit; lingVb itVcJ-Orcadlh of 
' tnaVp]eaHnl''land7orlli'.U lias v*<iicd'lho fertile 
countries of the Nelherlands, and seen what in- 
dustry his there accomplished, in reclaiming from 
the dominions of Neptune si 



... or their 



her Tule : 



■sure which California possesses 
nips, and the comparali 



which those swamps may be brought under cul- 
tivation? I despise, as much as ever Horace did, 
the &emi"fcgenu» imalonim," those mere copy- 
Els who have not a grain or originality in their 
composition, but as I hare been in those coun- 
tries, and have "lined information from witness- 
ing their labors, it is but honest and right that I 
should acknowledge 'bo debt of gratitude which 
I owe them, and seriously recommend to others 
who ore my friends, to follow their exam 

There was once a time, when tho dom 
England— that giant power trhicb now 

"Bertridti Ibil Bartow world like a Coloj 
or, if 1 may bo allowed to traveslio the fable of 
the ancients of Briarius with his hundred hands, 
like a hnge centipede, with one foot in her island 
home, and another on every shore, and exchang- 
ing her manufactured goods for the raw produc- 
tions of eveiy country on earth— There was a 
time when those dominions were confined to the 
southern portion of tho island, and when a great 
proportion of her richest soils wero sedgy swamps, 
where the sea and tier lazy rivers contended for 
tbo mastery. Bot tho active hand of perse- 
verance mastered them both, and confined them 
Within narrower limits, aod changed those rushy 
bottoms into grassy fields, and covered them with 
golden grain. Nor was this praiseworthy object 
deferred, till the necessities of the people com- 
pelled them to reclaim their hogs, for the purpose 
of eking out a scanty provision for the increasing 
in habitants, nor till Mammon had found out their 
value, and discovered that they might alfurd a 
profitable investment for his superfluous capital. 
Th:re have always been some good men and true, 
even in the darkest times, who are actuated by 
Other than merely selGsh motives, who believe 
that they cannot bo better employed than in con- 
tributing to the comfort and advancement of tbeir 
fellow mortals. Long, long ago, when learning 
had taken refuge in the monasteries, and only 
existed within tbeir sacred walls, the holy abbots 
directed the attention of their tenant farmers to 
this important object, and aided them with money 
and counsel, to enable them to accomplish it. 

In contending in peaceful rii.ilry ivith England, 
we bare no mean opponent to deal with; but 
who, that has the heart and spirit of a man, docs 
not feel his courage rise, and his soul animated in 
consequence, with 

"Sttibjor.MifarrioufwI, 

There arc none of the reclaimed swamps in 
Englrnd, which the public generally have bad a 
belter opportunity of seeing frequently, than the 
Essex Marshes; which extend from the outskirts of 
London a long way down the river. 1 recollect, 
some nine or ten years ago, accompanying my 
friend Mr. Elliot, one afternoon, for the purpose 
Of Cxoraing those evergreen pastures, whose dark 
Emerald hues make them so conspicuos, and to 
rivet the attention of farmers. They comprise 
without exception the richest pasturage I have 
over seen. Of these lands Sir. Elliot, who was a 
cattle salesman in Smith field Market, then rented 
1G0 acres, for which, with an elegant house and 
its accompaniments, built as a residence by the 
late Lord Holland, he paid the moderate yearly 
rcnt of twelve hundred and eighty pounds ster- 
ling. And for such land, and so situated (with- 
in six miles of (he Bonk), even Mr. Elliot him- 
self admitted it nas a moderate rent. But Elliot 
was a magnanimous fellow, and on honest de- 
scendant of those notorious frecboolers aod cattle- 
lifters, so renowned in border song and story, who 



With tho i 



Si did CO 



He had been "a laird" in Scotland, but bod sold 
bis patrimony, and come up to London for the 
purpose of dealing in cattle, for which, donbtless, 
he felt a sort of hereditary propensity, but which 
tho altered times made it necessary to follow in 
"the honest way of trade." 

I stayed at my friend's house a day or two,nnd 
during that lime had an ample opportunity of 
getting perfectly acquainted with the simple way, 
in which tho so-called "marshes" ore managed. 
At one lime thoy had been partially covered at 
high-water. Tho arms of the old sloughs still 
remain, and supply, by turns, the place of veins 
and arteries, in conducting in and off the water ; 
[or no double system of catch-drain irrigation is' 
there ptacliccd. This simple plan is not only 
cheaper, but f Qf tillo e ^ or pasturage the only one 
that in suitable. But let me describe these 
marshes as they are, and what boa been done to 
make Ibern so valuable, 

Close by the edge of the river an embankment 
about seven feet high has been thrown up with 
• ditch inside, from the earth of which tho em- 
bankment, doubtles*, has b« n ch ielly concoct- 
ed This embankment, as it u washed by the 
tide ,n the river at high water, presents a consid- 
erable alope on the side next the tint and has 
consequently a much greater base than would be 
necessary with us, where the still water, from 
which wewould require to pretectourscl« a ,would 
not require a defense of so great strength nor 
one which would cost so much in electing, There 
eveiy three or four days fresh water is admitted' 
from the river at high water, to supply the place 
of that which is allowed to remain for such 
length of time in the arms of tho old sloughs 
Which form a sort of natural channels, by means 



of which, as I stated, the marshes are irrigatt 

Into these natural ditches the water is taken, till 

thev aro filled within about eighteen inches of 

the surface. They form a perfect li 

network; ond no stronger could possibly thread 

bis way through the 

claiming or swamp land in ibis way, therefore, 

however suitable for pasture lands, 

sufficient for those intended for tillage. In which 

case it would be necessary to cut new ditches fc 

a similar purpose, and fill up tho old channels 

with the earth thence taken. There 



besides 



vhich ' 



■ji.1.1 



lake the r 



attended i 

considerable additional expense. There, llio 
ural rise and fill of the river, from the influx 
efflux of tho tides, renders any apparatus for i 
ing water unnecessary. Hero, we would be 
obliged to use. generally, steam or other powei 
to effect the some purpose. 

Tho reason which induces mo to refer especial- 
ly to the management of the Essex Marshes is. 
that they are irrigratcd systematically, a thing 
which ought to be done with our Tule swamps 
as, otherwise, one-hair of their productive Hon- 
ors would remain in abeyance. The polders it 
the Netherlands, so far as they have come undei 
my own observation, arc made to subserve the 
purpose or pasi-ure lands, by being only partially- 
drained by navigable canals, and ditches leading 
at great intervals into those canals. Wo. want our 
swamp lands for cultivation; and every farmer 
knows that land which is imperfectly drained is 
not well adapted for that purpose. Still it is 
better to h avo land in a half-drained condition, 
continued heat and drought of Cali- 
fornia summers, than to have it too dry. As an 
this, tho lands of "Tho Monte," near 
Los Angeles, which once were- so fertile, have, I 
oin told, by draining been very much deteriorated. 
We wont to combine irrigntion with draining; 
and in our case, no better system con bo adopted, 
than that which is followed in tho instance which 
I have referred to, modi lied so as to accommodate 
it to our altered circumstances. 

Before attempting to describe any method, by 
which the cultivation of swamp lands may he 
effected. I wish to say a few words in regard lo 
■ expense, which every one knows must depend 
i:ir.:umst--]!u'v=. which lli.TV ii no jio-silnlity i.f 
■-■i liiimiiL' [.ii.riini.lv ; inclii'lini J~ they <lo tho 
of the embankments: wanted, and the coin- 
alive difficulty of constructing them. To use 
tho words of Mr. Blackie, in a prize essay fur- 
nished by him on the similar topic of reclaiming 
lands from the sea for the Highland Society of 
Scotland : "It would be an Herculean task, to at- 
tempt to lay down rules, or give directions for 
raising the requisite structures in every situation, 
ny local impediments occur, so many un- 
looked for obstacles must be surmounted, and 
Iways so many circumstances to be at- 
tended to, and provided for, that much must ever 
depend on Ihe ability of the director." But there 
one rule of universal application, because it is 
athcmalically correct, which is apparent to overy 
c, that the greater the extent of land brough 
ider cultivation, the less in proportion will h 
the expense ; as by embanking a wholo tract < 
ifry along a lake or river at once, tho least 
possible length of embankment is wanted, whili 
portion of land would require to be em- 
banked all round. Thus, the expense of securing 
such lands only increases, in proportion to the 
cngth of the embankment required to { 
.gainst the rise of the river or lake, while til 



(with a few additional ndji 



.e of which in that 
and theothei 



II 111- t 



■ouhlo 



effeci 



Wo 



K'ts) by one system of 

e have two things lo 

lance was not wanted 

-cqiiired hut little 

lo have our drains 

lances, so lhat tho 



iiimli- .-.rLili-hllv nl regular di 
land may admit of easy cultivation ; and iu most 
instances we would have lo uso a regular power, 
for the purpose of pumping in and out water. 

As tho susceptibility of such lands being mado 
more than usually productive depends, in a great 
measure, on their being properly irrigated, such 
drains ought not to bo too far apart, and, as in 
the instance referred lo, the water should bo 
brought, as a general rule, which however the 
circumstances of differont cases would modify, to 
within about eighteen inches of tho surface. 
These drains it would be better not to havo too 
small, as tho object can be better accomplished, 
where there is a considerable body of water col- 
lected. I shall, therefore, suppose by nay of ex- 
ample, lhat they hove been dug 4 feet deep, feet 
wide at tho surface, and 4 feet at the bottom ; and 
lhat (he land reclaimed is, by such n system of 
drains alt communicating, subdivided intorcgulr 
square fields, of eight or ten acres each, or what 
would give them a little mora advantage in regard 
to draining and irrigation, that thoy ate parallel, 
ograms, having their breadth in tbo proportion 
of about 8 to 10 to tho length, 
voted from the ditches should bo carted into any 
arms of sloughs, which may bo on tbo ground, 
or hollow places, which without being tilled up 
might be injured, Instead of being benefitted by 
irrigation. By such a network of ditches th 
land would not only be drained, and made su; 
coptiblo of irrigation, but would" also be subdi 
vided into little fields, having all the advantages 
of inclo5cres. Nay further, such trees 
willow, tho lime-tree, and the poplar might be 
planted along their edges, and all the advantage 
or shade and shelter for cattle which might be 

ng within, procured, without any additi 
ground being wasted in consequence. 

fn some portions of Holland, wind-mills 
used, for the purpose of pumping out the di 
age of their rich picture lands ; but wind at best 
is but a fickle power, and too variable in its oper- 
ation to be used advantageously where valuable 
grain, and other cultivated crops are laised ; and 

ngland, such unsteady appliances are now 
superseded by slcom. Deeping Fen near Spald- 

ontaining 2-VOOO acres, is effectually drained 
by two slcain engines, of <)(> and -'"i itor.-c-|..Hvcr; 
ond Little-port Fon near Ely, containing 23,000, 

lined by two engines, of .10 and .50 horse- 



ounlry embanked is iu gcomi 






It would be well, therefore, that 
operations should be condocted by companies, and 

ought, under certain limitations 
be held out to those who aro willing to fori 
oncetion for soch an object. 
A company formed for such a purpose must be 
are that such labors would prove highly 
rativo, from the case with which a largo i 
valuable land may bo reclaimed, and brought 
der cullivalion. The principal objects 
ws would be, to select somo suitable tract of 
id, extending back for a considerable distal 
d lo have an embankment, of sufficient bight 
d strength, erected ogalnst those pi: 
which the lands are liable lo be overflowed— lot 
us suppose, by way of example, 7 feet high, 
21 feet of base, and 7 reel brood at the lop. This 
would allow both sides to have their slopes at an 
mgle of -io", Inside this embankment, but not 
oo near it, let a ditch be cut, about feet deep, 
nd su indent ly wide to famish the greater por- 
ion of tho material for the embankment. (A 
small portion may generally be taken from tho 
outside, without doing any injury.) Great 
must bo taken in having this embankment firmly 
mipactty built; and perhaps no heller sys- 
tem could be adopted, than to work in with the 
is excavated from the ditch, a quantity of 
ilis, reeds, and rushes, which grow in the 
J, thus forming tho embankment into a 
r mud wall. To do this the more efficient- 
ly, abundance of water should bo pumped on the 
wall when building, ond oxen used for treading 
and properly mixing the materials together, Tho 
propriety of some such system will be tho more 
apparent, when it is considered that Ihe embank- 
water-tight, and every ono knows 
that a small leak.during the time the lands would 
aturally be subject to orerflow, might soon inaka 
large breach, which it might be impossible to 
stop for several monlba. 
Having properly secured the lands to bo re- 
icd by an embankment, with a large canal 
ipable of carrying off leisurely their 
mage, and the walcr used for irrigation we 
havo next lo take into account, lhat, lo render 
lands susceptible of yielding the greatest 
possible produce, they have to bo both drained 
igaled. As in the case of the Essex 
Marshes, this doublo purpose may ho effecled 






power would ho wanted, 
fur draining an equal oxlont of land. A good 
water-tight ctnbanbment once built, wo would 
seldom have to pump out more water, than tho 
rain which falls on the land in winter, and two 
comparatively small engines— ono to pump in 
water ond another to pump it out— would keep a 
cooslant flow of fresh water in circulation through 
all ourdilches.sutlideiilfrjjrrig.ilelhc whole. This 
wuuld be necessary, as every ono knows lhat irri- 
gation cannot be profitably effected, without a con- 
stant supply of fresh water. These engines once 
erected, the expense of keeping them working 
would not be very great. It is said, that "it has 
been proved, that by a common condensing steam 
engine, one bushel of coals will raise more than 
50,000,000 pounds of water, one foot." But in 
several instances one, and in some, both of those 
engines might be dispensed with. In reclaiming 
sueR a large extern of country, we would fre- 
quently have an opportunity of diverting a moun- 
tain stream, or walcr from a river, so as to pro- 
vide a sufficient supply, for tho purpose for which 
we want it- In others, in consequence, 
draining a large extent of groond, n sufficient fall 
would be afforded for draining off the water, and 
where the land reclaimed was bounded, and ren- 
dered naturally unproductive by a river, in which 
tho tides rose and fell, we might tako advantage 
of the circumstance, and construct proper flood- 
gates, by means of which the expense or pump- 
ing out might be saved. In treating on the 
proper management of land so situated, I cannot 
do better than repeat the sensible directions or 
Mr. T. F. Lambson, of Salem, New Jersey : ''L 
The marsh should be soured from the tide by 
permnnent bank. 2d. A sloico, or sluices, of 
sufilcient capacity must bo laid, to discharge tho 
rain water, and back-waters, which proceed from 
adjacent uplands, so that, at uo time, tho wa 
courses and ditches will be filled to overflow 
Tho sluices should be laid deep enough to draw 
tho water through them, from tho lowest part of 
tho marsh. Great core should bo taken to have 
the doors made tight, so as to exclude all tho 
water possible. Tho watercourses and drains 
should intersect each other at right angles, and 
no lot ol marsh land should contain more than 
ten acres. IX any rainwater should lay upon tbo 
middle or these lots, if wilt be necessary to cat 
smalt drains, to let it pass off freely.* These 
might bo covered where the materials are at hand. 
Tho mud and earth, which come out or water- 
courses and ditches, should bo removed into tho 
lowest part of the marsh. By a neglect of this 
the rainwater will be conllned too long on the' 
surface, and tho most luxuriant growth of timo- 
thy or clover may, in a short time, bo converted 
nursery of rushes." 

swamp lands properly drained, and tho 
ground sufficiently dry to admitof being plowed 
let tho tides, and other aquatic plants, reeds, and 
grasses, which grow on them, which can bo burnt 
)e so, so as lo form no impediment to the plow.' 
Vfler wh,ch, let tho land be well turned up with 
. trench plow. When plowed over, the Tuturo 
nnnogement will depend vorv much on eircum 
lances. Where there a,e a great number of 
* This r entirely coincide wiih. 



roots, and the furrows lio open, and the surface is 
much exposed, it would frequently bo better not 
lo atlempt crorqiiui: fur tln> lirsl year, especially 
as in such cases we would have all opportunity, 
during our dry summer weather, of burning up 
tho rough suifaco and roots, and thus ot once re- 
moving every incumbrance. But where no such 
impediments prevail, the ground may be sown 
wilh oats for hay, or any other crop, which tho 
experienced farmer thinks most suitable, taking 
all the circumstances of the case 
am partial to the diagonal Scotch harrow, but for 
such land, when newly broken up, it is Unsu 
able. Its great recommendation is lightness, a 
efficiency in making a smooth surface. Hero ' 
would require a strong and heavy harrow, a> 
none is equal for our purpose to tho Irlanguh 
with coulter shaped teeth, strongly fastened with 
screws and bolts, and having plates of iron under- 
neath the bats, with handles attached to it, so as 
to admit of its being lifted, for tbo purpose ol re- 
moving rools and weeds. 

When the ground is lea fallow for tho first 
season, nn opportunity is afforded oi having it 
well broken up in the course of tho summer; and 
it would, in consequence, bo in an excellent con- 
dition for being planted noxt year with potatoes, 
a crop for which it would generally be found par- 
ticularly adapted. But there is no crop for which 
such land is not suited, and it is this circumstance, 
amongothers, which would make our Tule swamps, 
when properly subdued, so pre-eminently valu 
able ; as we would, an such lands, havo an oppor- 
tunity of introducing a system of Agriculture not 
hitherto practiced in California, and which in 
most cases has so many obstacles to contend with, 
as lo render it almost impractical. I mean a regu- 
lar system of convertible agriculture, where grass, 
groin, and green crops follow each other in proper 
succession, ond by moons of which, the natural 
fertility of tho soil may be retained ad infinitum. 
It is usual, in describing a rotation of craps, to 
commence with the green crop ; but let us in this 
instance suppose lhat such crops hat o been car- 
ried, aod that the land properly broken, and per- 
fectly free from weeds, is in proper condition to 
be sown wilh a grain crop, to be followed by ar- 
tificial grass. Of course I do not mean that tho 
whole land, under the management of one former, 
has been in any ono crop at once, but that an 
equal proportion of his fields, adapted lo tho par- 
ticular rotation which he has concloded to adopt, 
have been so, and which any one, having a farm 
divided into a number of small fields, such as tho 
peculiar circumstances of our low lands render 
necessary, will have an excellent Opportunity ol 
adjusting, so that while somo ol tho fields in one 
crop nro at a considerable distance, others may, 
for the sake or convenience, more immediatcly 
adioin the homestead. But let us proceed to lay 
tbc land in a suitable grain crop. Or all 
grain crops, as I know from my own experience, 
no of those usually grown in this State is so 
•II adopted for giving the young grasses, which 
; now to be sown, the best opportunity of hav- 
; a vigorous start, as barley. It does not ro- 
ire to bo so early sown as wheat, and is not so 
tall, ond it grows more sparsely on tho ground 
so that the young grasses , among its 
roots would have more air, and besides it grows 



myself that v 



f the ground. I fiat 



have chevalier, and 

r superior varieties of barley, introduced into 

Stale, the weight and plumpness of which 

1 not fail lo recommend them to the especial 

:o of the mallsler, and procure for them the 

highest price in the market, Barley is a crop 

which seems prescriplivcly suited for California, 

id such superior soils would bo admirably 

i'l-qik-.l for Ihe Lent varieties, 

It is usual in California to commence at tho 
outside of the field, and plow round and round. 
Such n clumsy mode of cultivation ought, on no 
account, to bo adopted on low lying lands. "Wa 
want straight open furrows, to assist in letting 
the water as freely off as possible. Lot such 
ground bo plowed in regular lands, or ridges, of 
the same width, and not too broad, wilh wall- 
opened water furrows between them. As well as 
lotting the water more freely ofT; this will greatly 
facilitate the operation of sowing, and givo Ihe 
field a far more respectable appearance. Let us 
suppose that wo havo concluded to make our 
lauds twenty-four feet wide. The farmer, or somo 
experienced and intelligent laborer, should meas- 
ure off with a tape line, or rod, a dislouco of six 
feet from the edge of tho field, setting a row of 
poles at such distance all the length. Let one of 
tho best plowmen on the farm proceed to open a 
furrow aloug the line of these poles. This, with 
a little practice, ho will perform so as Lo make his 
furrow perfectly straight. Let hira then turn 
round the horses, and throw another furrow from 
the same place to the other side, thus leaving a 
wide, open furrow, with an equal quantity of 
mold on both sides of it, Whilst ho is making 
this second furrow, let tho person who is selling 
the poles proceed, expeditiously, lo remove them 
ndUtauMofthirty feet, in astraight lino as before; 
which ho ought to have done by the time tbo 
plowman has completed bis second furrow. 
Along this lino tho plowman opens up a doublo 
furrow as before. And again the poles aro re- 
moved, for such operation being again performed 
Bot tins time, and consecutively, only a distance 
of twenty-four feet. Tho reason of six feet being 
taken off the edge, and thirty feot instead of 
twenty-rour, on tho next occasion, was, lhat the 
lands may bo all twenty-four feot wide, which is 
odueed, The plowman proceeds to gather 
ground next tho edge of the Hold, thus 
He plows again into tbo newly opened furrow 
and continues so plowing till he 
has reached the edge of tbo field. By Uoinc 
which, as any one will perceive, he plows a land 
of twelve feet in width, and the land which was 
thirty feet broad has been reduced to twenty-four 



feet, the same as the others. The plowman now 
proceeds to split out tho twenly-iour feot lands, 
by laying twelve feet to Ihe one side, and twolvo 
feot to the other. Thus twelve feet more is added 
to the twelve already plowed, by the lime Ihe lost 
furrow in tho unploived ridge is turned over, and 
regular ridges, or lands, twenty-four feet wide, 
minus tho water- furrows between (hem, will bo 
made all over the field. 

Let no one say this is a needless refinement in 
Agriculture, and a waste or ii mo . <f wo men and 
two horses will thus lay off a field often acres In 
a few hours ; so that afterwards any boy may 
plow it unmistakeably, and well. And besides, 
the lands ore thus laid down for the wholo rela- 
tion, and the operation of sowing is rendered 
more easy ond perfect. But the groat advantage, 
I would almost say the necessity, of laying off low 
ground in regular lands, with water-furrows 
between them, is, that in winter they iorm so 
many drains, along which the water will run 
with ease ; and if the work ought to bo done in 
some shape, I seo no reason why it should not bo 
dona well. 

Tho ground so plowed, and sown with barley 
or some other grain, with timothy and clover 
sown along with it, may bo expected to grow an 
excellent crop; mid tbecxlra returns, it is proba- 
ble, will compensate tho farmer for any littlo 
additional labor which ho has loid out in pre- 
paring tbc ground for its reception. But it is 
in his valuable hay crops which follow, and which 
he has such facilities, by means of irrigation, 
of growing in perfection, lhat the superiority of 
such lands will become most distinctly apparent. 
And I would be loth to say, because [ might not 
be credited, how many aftermaths of clover, be- 
sides bis principal hay crop, he might cut under 
tho circumstances, in one season. For this rea- 
son, ond because such land is so admirably adop- 
ted for pasturage, I would recommend that the 
fields should remain two years in grass— tho first 
for hay, and the second for pasture. 

By being depastured for one year, by moans of 
which it would be enriched by tbo droppings of 
ds which grazed on it, and consolidated 
by their tread, the land would bo in on excellent 
condition Tor growing wheat, which wii! always 
be a principal ond profitable crop, in this and 
ever other country adapted for its growth. 

When tho wheat crop has been gathered, we 
would, in the same season, have an excellent oppor- 
tunity of giving such land a summer Tallow. 
Under other circumstances, tho farmers of Cali- 
fornia hove to wail till the rains of winter have 
sufficiently moislened their fields to admit of 
their being plowed, but all that we would require 
to do would he to raise tho walcr a few inches in 
our water-courses, or, if that were not enough, we 
might easily put the whole field under water 
together. Before winter arrived, we could thus 
havo our fields plowed, and cross-plowed, and 
renovated in vigor, and every weed and grass, 
whothernaturaiorartificial.extcrminated; soos 
to have them iu the best possible condition for 



Itw 






II be perceived that such a system of hus- 
bandry is meant to have slock-ralsing and stall- 
feeding conjoined with it. This, as every t 
knows, is one of the most pleasant and profitable 
occupations of rural life. But apart from the 
direct proOts resulting from tho sale of hi 
ond dairy produce, when conjoined with tillage, 
the farmer thus possesses an inexhaustible supply 
of manure, capable, when properly cared for, of 
preserving his land for any length of time in all 
its original fertility. And now is the time t, 
lpply it, as the land is being planted with potatoes. 

In planting potatoes in such low lands, il 
ilways better to havo them in raised drills ; ond 
or this purpose, ond lo allow the mac 
lpplied to bo properly covered, no better sysl 
could bo lullowed, thou that described so graphi- 
cally in Stephens' Book of the Farm. 

And here again, we are fortunately ani 
larly circumstanced. There is nothing to prevent 
us having two green crops in the same 
ono of potatoes, ond one of turnips. Polatocs, if I 
planted early in March, would be ready to bo dug J 
about the 1st of July ; and Lurnips would hero bo I 
sown iu good season in the month of Soplembor. 
This would be impossible on most farms i 
under cultivation in this State, in consequence of I 
the ground being too dry lo admit of 
being sown at that season. But, as I bavealready I 
observed, wo have an opportunity of irrigating I 
attr land to any extent— Ihus making o 
lands, when reclaimed, susceptible of a system of I 
Agriculture, in somo measure resembiinf 
practice of the market gardener. Tn most > 
tries two such crops following insuccessionv 
bo highly objectionable, as the component 
stituents of both plants aro so much alike, audi 
both contain an unusually largo quantity of alko-f 
lies. But these lands also contain them i 
unusual abundance, and as the turnip crop, and! 
probably a largo portion of tho polalo crop would I 
be consumed on the farm, and the menu 
from their consu in pluiii mor: unmfui..ii ') qiplieil I 
foi the growth of such crops, iheic car 
rational objection to such a practice, > 
doubt of its satisfying the expectations of thoB 
farmer. Tho lurnips, too, tbus raised, ivouldjj 
■ al the very time when tboy aie 
ed. Thcto are two mouths, even in Califtr-| 
whcii vegetation generally makes : 
gress— tbo momhs of December nud January.! 
lul tho hardy turnip is tho nnlho of a ncrlheroj 
climate, and, like tho cabbage, forms an ex 
tho general rule, and when advanced b 
n stage of its growth will conlinua lo grow in 
tho plains, through our coldest winters, 
an advantage would the systematic tt^ck lJ'H' l ' r H 
thus derive! And bow opportunely woi" 
userul aid come in, at tho very time when 
such auxiliary is most needed 7 Wbon tbo lalfl 
olorers havo been cut down by early frosttB 



THE CALIFORNIA FA.EMEE. 



\ and Ihe csttlo refuse lo cat Lhcir blackened 

re I have said enough lo convince any 
D ncof the preponderating valued our Tnle lands, 
when once reclaimed, over every other kind in 
Ibe Slate. And I cannot contemplate any more 
f prudent or profitable investment of capital, than 
' that which may be laid out for bringing them 
under cultivation. IV a. Thompson. 



Are Carrots worth Cultivating. 

A correspondent inquires whether Carrots are 
p-illv worth cultivating as fond for entile ? In 
answer to his inquiry, we present a few brief 
eitracrs from standard authorities : 

liv llirui-lii.lt. comprise 9 per cent, of starch 
and fibre, 1.75 of gum, 7.6 sugar. 0.35 of oil, 



jtiscElUnn. 



THE GKASSIIOPI'CK. 



she had gone, the vegeta- 
luxuriant, and the rccep- 
natives, though nol always 



Too dt> 



m lata 



..;i.,.,... 



"fl.iler 



4 them 



e tln-y oonlnin the lust 
medicine ttiat can oc given, either when the 
iiiiiiisnl is sluwh- rciv.voring fr ■ ■ u j .-evore illm- s. 
or when ho hiis inueli cough, ur ConsidernM* 
humor or foulness aboat him." Prof. Norton 
says "n half bushel of carrots I" each cow daily, 
will be found an eicelleut addition to tboir food; : 
it gives sweetness and richness to the milk, 
mating the butter of a yellovr color, even io [ 
winter.'' Thar remarks, tint "Cur rots afford 
eicellent nourishment fur all kinds of live stock; j 
for this purple, they luv in*ttnr than any kiud 
of turoi[i," The same author, in his ■■English 
Acrioiilluro." tir.-:: "the English, uud particu- , 
larfy the Suffolk cull i valors, were the first to 
show that horses may bo kept in full vigor sii , 
months upon this food. allh'-.'Jgh employed in lie- 
most laborious oocupafion." Mr. Merrill, of 
Mass., soys, "for ft ..-ding hnrs-es, I should pre- 
fer 100 bnshels of Carrots and 100 basbols of I 
oats, to 200 bushels of oats." Mr. Corner re- i 
marks, "I hnve found by the experience of the 
last two years, thnt where eight pounds of oat I 
feeding was allowed lo draugh 



And I 1. j vc , J. 

'Til flll'd whenrer Ihou do 

Nutomieirdoj Gore/a. oil 

ilirpiul than the bappiu 
All the nclrli which thou d< 

All thai n 

Fertile mi 
Mao for II 



all the old debts of the State ; the equal liability or country. As fur 

of men or all religions and races to conscription ; lion on [he ku,l;s wo 

and the decision or a great mass of mailers for a lion given lnm belli, 

lonjr time in liligplion uv nuiir.il ion instead oi ihi- favorable, was not ho 
tedious process of law. As I may nol be nearer to the Descrtof Sahara 

The railroad from Alexandria lo Cairo is a (or some lime in tome, 1 will here add, thai unde 

work Of more than two years' -landing, hut ihe the direction of a French General or Algiers, 

fruit of the present F'ri-losi cuter p.-i -.i'ng spirit, boring has been made in the desert for wale 

In addition to this, he has built two branches in with Hie most complete success. The Artesia 

the Bella and is eieeiL-ed in o.-.L.-iidiuc the mam well is IMi feel deep, and the spring furnishe 

line from Cairo lo tine/ on the Ked Sen. which nboi.t ltun> gallons of water per minute, which i 

when completed ",;: [;t a line ..Love 2vi't miles clear and of an excellent quality. Tho engineer 

Ion;. A telegraphic lint is b'nlt alutij; the rail- who cone" 
road from Alexandria lo Cairo, and for soma , and rest 

months has been in operation: wilh the com- nights Ih 

pletionof the railroad it will be extended loSueK, ruplion, 
and connected with a |i~ *~ 






Farmer 



rdlhou 



le to Constantinople, and 
r along the coast of Africa lo Algiers, 
1 and thence across the Mediterranean to Europe. 

Lighting Cairo and Alexandria aliIi lm- 
jpcdilion" " 



.... ork exhibited great energy 
less. For thirty-nine days and 
rk went on without the least inlor- 
itbstunding tho tliermomcler some- 

stood 115 degrees 1 

Should the same process he followed in the 
scrt between Mount Sinai and tho Holy Land, 
hich is as utterly without wells and fouolaini 
days of the Israelite;, though : 



Too (hephord eladlf h< 



To Ihoe, i 
Lift if no 
Happt In 



tor id jo Ih; mirth. 
.! aappT thou, 



Hodm'lh Ihjr cummer itoi 



of the Nile, the ... 

of seh ools. and especially "i the Medical places puddles of brackish 
School, and Hie cleaning out or the Mohnioudich neither men nor animals can drink, protiah 
canal, arc also among the honorable and useful same success would fulI'V.v. and ir.ir. 1. r tit 
acls o! the Pasha wilhin the last two years. the necessity of carrying water in skins for 

Tho Mahruoudieh canal was built in the year I twenty days' march. Perhaps water cot 
JnK' bv Meheinci All, coniicctiiis Alexandria found in the great American desert by the 
with th"e Nile Tht k-nclh of the canal is '" .■.p-.-niiion. and thus an immense waste bo 
miles, with a deplh or 18 Teet and a width of mi. inhabitable by mill! 
It was navigable onlv during the overflow of the 
Nile, and for eight monlhs was ilry. It is stated 
that l.M'/K'iO men, impressed inlo the service li- 
ttle ViceroyjComplcted the work inaycar, though 
tens of thousands of the laborers perished from 
excessive toil, insufficient provisions and accom- 
modations, and a pestilential air. Burnt; ne^le-'.- 
ed for a long period, the canal partially tilled ii[i 
again, and made the natij: -itiou impmeti. ililc. 
Seeing this, Said Pasha resolved lo throw out the 
" bicb had fallen ii 



id Longevity. 

i expressed (says Mr 



Literature 

Ax opinion has b 

Siyournoy, in her i 

Meridian"), that literary labors, or habitual 
cursions into tho regions of imagination, 
adverse to the continuance of health, or e 
the integrity of intellect. Grnvo charges, trt 
and examples to tho contrary may ho eo: 



InteraatlnB Loiter from Egypt. 
A correspondent of the Boston Traveler, writ- 
..igfrom Beirut, Aug. 20lh. 1?5G, gives the fol- 
pouuds might be tnkenaway mid -i !T l>ed l.y ,u, ,,„,]„._.,-,,-, j l)tl: rating sketch: 
equal weigiit of carrots; and th^ lieal.h s,.,r,t ^ 

s^Ws^^^^-, sasasaftsa 'ssssrs 

oats. Anacrtij turn-'--- ■■^•VV 1 " .; 'j "•■'''■' ;' ':■ llt3l ,„j Mehernet Ali. Having been elevated to 
jWn-.r rrerAi.ie' >,»r-.. .<,.,■. ■■•' ■■ ii.. ; . ,i in r. • , he rlnk of - p as l,i Trom an humble position and 
■ ■■:'■■■„ , I :" , I *»>:*' ',' [^\^---'- } '; ^" in ,"™- with a foreign origin, as he was an Albanian and 
not a Turk, and hod embraced tho Turk's re] ig inn 
, n " En for the sake of office and ombition, he was sent 
: L01lt to Egypt by the Sultan as a province suitable for 
a man of his energy and restlessness. Irritated 
by provocations from the Porte, conscious of his 
great executive powers, and yielding to the 
promptings of bis ambition, he made Egypt his 
' idependent kingdom ; and throwing offhi 



Pro mature death 
confined to no proft 

the brain, is doubtle; 
consequences. Still, thei: 



rot} is admi 

tile for all kinds of stock." We have London' 
authority for asserting, " ihnt Carrots who 
miied with cot straw mid n little hr_ . 
com, keep the horsi-s- in i-.i .:■,-•! I .-i it ■ ..nditioii f>i 
performing nil kinds of labor." Burrows foi 
his horses on Carrots nnd hay only, from the 
last week of October until th.- lir-t of Jane; hi 
s that ha fed ten 



six yeare, without giving tbsm any corn what- allegiance to the Sultan, invaded and conqoered 
ever.effectingnlsoaconsiderablesavingofhay. Syria and Palestine, and was about to take pos- 
Slen-art in his "Stable l-.cm.-.wy," -p" ak- oi tin- H :,,j orl „i Constanlinoplc itself, and make it the 
Carrot, as follows: "The Currot is hold m high copiul of /n> empire instead of being thai of the 
esteem. There i* none beth-r. nor p. rlui|i- ,... rc„| Uln , when the allied fleets of England, France, 
good. When rlr~i uiven it i- -lightly iin.r.-tio alh j Hussii, drote him back lo Egypt at the mo- 
und loiative, hut, i.~ ihe hursts livtonit actus- m( , n i Turkey lay at his feet. The Porte and its 
tomed to it, tho effects cease to I:*- produced, allies stipulated that he and his heirsshould have 
Tboy also improve the state of tho skin. They ( Ile government of Egypt hencerorlh lo all future 
form a good substitute for grass, and an evcel- timer, independent and undisturbed, upon the 
lent alterative for horses out of condition. To payment or on annual tribula to Ihe Porte of 

sick and idle horses, they render corn unneces. uboul s;"i'. '. and he dignified with Ihe title ol 

sary. They are beneficial in all chronic dis- Viceroy. The no less celebrated Ibrahim Pasha, 

eases connected with breathing, and have a under whom he won most of his victories and 

marked influence on chronic cough or broken made moat of his conquests, was not (he son o( 

wind." Wo might multiply these quotations, id Mehemet Ali, as generally supposed, bat of one 

infinilxm ; bat enough have been given to sat- of his numerous wives. Abbas Pasha succeeded 
iafy any reasonable farmer that Carrots are a ' lo the vice-royalty upon the death of Mehemet 

most valuable article of food for caltlo and Ali, and the present Pasha, Mohammed Said, 

horses, and if so. why should they not be more apon ihe decease of Abbas. The present Vice- 

«itensidely cultivated ! If tho Suffolk horses roy is said lo bo a man of great energy- nnd large 

are kept in foil vigor on them for sii month- in views, bul sometimes croel to his subjects, ca- 

Iho year, why should not our hor-.-s he t-juiillv i.ricious in his movements, and given 10 Imuri- 

beoofitted by their use T If, as experience has ous habils which must shorten his lire, ir they do 

abundantly proven, Carrots are eicellent nnd not indeed, as most predict who know him, soon 
profitable foud for cows, why should not our , end it. 

farmers avail themselves of (he-c excellences ! /V 1 ' ; ^ > 2 S ' U (' P ' 



Original use. Purposing lo do the work in 
month, if possible, he inquired of bis enginet 

wiin j.-:iit i.'.T.iji'l'. Every villj|/c and locality wtr 
required lo furnish their proper continents. I 
whom a certain portion of the new i.wc.ivatio 
was assigned, wilh the assurance- the quicker i 
Was done the sooner they might return. As th 
time of harvest was. :i[ijir",cliiiu and the clean 
iug of the canal must be finished by ihe end of 
April, officers, overseers and laborers understood 
the importance of haste ; and when the forces de> 
[■loved alone, .ihe line of the canal. | bey were 
found to number 15ii.Oi.iO instead o7,0G0. _As 
soon as a party reached its "claim," hoes, shov- 
els, pick-ux.es and baskets were found awaiting 
them. One used the hoe or shovel, another filled 
Ihe basket, and three bore it away and emptied 
put its contents. A great number were up to 
their waists in water, and at night the ground 
was their bed, the heavens their curtain;, and the 
stars tho guardians which watched over them. 
The labor went on in the midst of jojTul shouts, 
the workmen vieing wilh each other lo see who 
could first execute the task assigned them, and , 
putting forth all their strength lo the sound of , "'".' 
music,— for every province and every village had ' " J " 
brought their eminent performers, such as are 
called fur on great occasions, as the birth of a 
child, tho riiu of circumcision, marriage, and ihe continued to 
feast davs of the Moslem -oio'oii;. or saints; for nnd Crab be, 
tho Mahommodan calendar is as rich in the names wn ' cu llflJ ^K-le-h 



d mental declension are 
on or condition of life, 
ess laid on tho organs of 

fraught with disastrous 

-'- -onstanl -* 



J _.mport both with pin-sited «■.■]- 
fare oud longevity. 

Itia indeed true, that Swift ■■expired n driv- 
eler and o show" — but not unlil he had passed 
seven yearn beyond, the span allotted lo human 
life; and Ibe amiable author of tho "Task" 
closed his j.ilcriiuage in u nivless tloud nt si.v- 
ly-six; ontl Walter Scott Bank at sixty-one, 
under toils too nmluliouslv pursued for the safe 
union ol lle.sli iviih spirit : nnd Snutbty. whos,- 
reckless industry proelinti-.l needful rest, sub- 
sided ere sixty-eight inlo syncope and thu 
shadows of darkness ■ and Henry Kir lie White 
fudod nt twenty-one. in the fresh blossom of bis 
young renown; and Byron, at thirty-six, rent 
the fiery armor of genius nnd of passion, and 



undertook tht 
cnlliviiti.jii, os be does everything else, in a: 
uii-fiiriu'.iliko milliner, "nots ar com are toor 
profitable." We will feel greatly obliged t 
lli I- eorrespondent who will satisfactorily prov 
tL.at tin.' Cur rot crop is not une of the most vid 
nable which can be growu. With anything like 
proper cultivation, Carrots will y" 
■il'ii l.isliels to the acre, and in so 
Ihe yield ha? been treble tbnt qua 



.oi'd tin- ■-. 



n mingling freely 
wilh the English and the French, has conceived 
ideas as humane as they arc expensive; and 
should he be able to carry out his projected meas- 
ures, he may bring bock lo Egypt something of 
its ancient glory. The internal improvements 
and public works projected, and in some instances 
completed or commenced by Mehemet Ali, he 
"least nos adopted as his own, and designs not only lo 
carry Ihem out fully, but to add la them lirgely. 
His alleged cruelly is not exhibited, 



and days of such characters as the Catbt.._. 
When the engineers and olfioers passed by in in- 
specting the works, they saluted them In the 
Arabic form : " (iod preserve your days !" Near 
by markets were located at suitable intervals, at 
which tho laborers procured onions, nuts, dates, 
Iil-s. cheese, t^gs, ic; while every morning fresh 
bread was distributed by the government Thus 
Itic-f. lijvplian peasants, called/<;i7uJis, converted 
the period of lhcir hard toil into a long festivity. 
Through the precautions taken by the authori- 
ties and the good spirits or the workmen, there 
was not a single case or mortality in this im- 
mense multitude of 150,001) men, whilst the in- 
stances of sickness was not more than fire in a 
thousand. Thus with little expense to the gov- 
ernment (for such labor is unpaid J this important 
canal was cleaned out, deepened and enlarged, 
though sixty miles long, between April 10th and 
May 3d. A government and people capable of so 
much well-directed energy are able to construct 
the proposed ship canal from sea to sea, and any 
■ks which public utility may reqi ' 



Qed from tho conflict of life. 

Yet Goethe, iiniioo.iireil by tlii; slrong excite- 
ments of imagination, saw his eightv--, -.j.-ml 
and tho sententious architect of the 
Night Thoughts" reached fourscore nnd four; 
id Voltaire, nt the tame period, was still in 
vt with Ihe vanity of fame; and Corneille 
ntinued to eniov his. Inure!* to seventy. ,- i_;l it ; 
■qunl age, resigned tho pen 
" with daguerreotype " 



Even now I imagine that I hear tho voice of 
the venerable poet repeating, with deliberate in- 
tonation and perfect emphasis, his favorite passage 
from Mrs. Birbauld, who herself resided in the 
immediate vicinity, at flampslcnd. It was writ- 
ten in extreme old age, but with unfaded rigor 
ofinlellcc' 



■o been ten 



■ hard K, 



.-.lit.- :,N .l.:ii 



-i;dr malhcr 



s.iv mil. lu-j-i.k-lii! hut Id 500 biipiiiorcllrao 
Bill mc, Good-oiorolos!" 
Ploto wove for the men of Allien bis beautiful 
theories lo tho ago of eighty-one. Newlon. as il- 
lustrious for Christian humility as for intellectual 
.•-.•■ 1 ■.' . ir, 1.. ■ .fii-l. I. .-' at f.j'liti 
live; and Franklin, who, in the wurds of Mira- 
heau, "stole the lightnings Tram heaven, and tho 
scepter from tyrants," cheered us with the mild 
radiance of his philanthrope till eighty. four; and 
Herschel rose above the slars, with which he hud 
long communed, at eighty-three — while his sister, 
whom he had so kindly made the companion of 
his cele'tinl intercourse, survived until ninety- 
seven, Mrs. HoQand and Miss Jane Porter 
reached seventy-rour, in dignity and honor; Mrs. 
Chanipoue, seteiily-tlvc; Mrs. I'ior.zi, the bio- 
grapher of Dr. Johnson, eighty-one; Miss Burncy, 
eighty-eight; Mrs. Carler, ek-lity-hine, and the 
venerable Hannah More died only one year 
younger, having, with indefatigable industry, 
composed eleven books after she had numbered 
her sixtieth birthday; Mrs. Elizabeth Montague 
and Mrs. Sherwood lived to be eighty-one; and 
Mrs. Barbauld lo a more advanced ogc.— [Wcs- 
leyan Methodist Magazine. 



iiotcnt-s 1 he passing scene. Joseph Wurion, 
until his seventy-ninth year, mado his mantel 
riches und cheerful piety sources of delight to 
all around him; Charles Wealey, 
of eighty, called his wife to his 
nnd, with an inexpressible smile, _. 
ui.'tFL.-,il effusion: immI Klopst'.ek. tho hard of 
the "Messiah," continued until Ihe same period 
to cheer and delight his friends. Isaac W 
laid down his consecrated harp at seventy-four; 
and our own [American] Trumbull, the 'author 
of ••McFingnl," preserved till eighty-two tin 
bright clear intellect whose strains bad aid 
mated both the cnuip and tho cuttuge. Tho il 
1 '■' " ' " : - 'ifainnd Ihn admiring em 



of ill nslnrc. passion, jealously, 
.lice towards individuals. Ile does not 
tolmbl; »°«aM;pH»»i«pn«rcm,pi™,lIl, 



if..:l!]iL' tlicm at 35 cents 

pense of cultivation nt 

eats, it i~ ri"l. diuK.lt l" .1, 1.- ■.■ .'i ■■.::■■: 11 :■. 

<al.f,«l..„- t.,»d».i„ „, ,., il„ „.|uiiv. v«lui kmSof.'.-pHyorlH.lra 

iftln Iwo Ten,,,,. Al ll.l. ii,,„, r.rr-l. ..„i„. ".'.rk. O.mp du.^n,, .r rad ll,m..ta ,!.„ 

p.rl,.„bd,„,,a », ,■!.,„. il,, ..-.,„i„„ ,|„„ >-",.,.„ of jo.ng m,n .., ll..- .,.»,■.„,»,„ 

««.i u,:,„nd, of ta,i«i, „„„id ih, „.,.ir«i »"^-"'i»»i -i"'." 1 ;■'"»•« '»-'»■ ;'«: 

10 ,.p»l, Ik. d™.»d in lli, oil, .looo rflhoi, •"*>■ ^ '"I"", ,1 , „ T' ,""T 

v.l„ „ food fo, I.OTC, ond OU11. m, prop.rlj- l»™-'"» >° f 1 ' '•'™f ,<° '^ "»I !•>" J- 

understood r • j most, lorced bbor is u.j.i common upon the 

'•r'l " ill-* 1.. 1 . 1 - ,1 r ., - public works, in which emit tullerloe is often 

That dffieulties do slnnd m tho way o their ^„,i„„j , ri ,i .:.,._ 

, i,. , . , . , , ■ ll-l Jf'.'l ■'. lill ■ ..!■■ 

■ 'iltivaiion, 1- mln. ui- il, hut th. - Jlli. ultn- ..1... .,-. , . , , 

m i.™.b,,. r .„ a,., .„. ,„„i,.b„ 1 J,% ;;• " T t™ S £"£%?££% 

m S 1? .? °T , '"°°™f^ li.i: llo b„ ,n iolrcbild, . soo.o.t .bore 

Wb„, ,11 ,b. re,o,„,o. or ,»i«,,,f.l ool,,- ,„„,,„„ o M , „bo l „l!,b.,;.,nmll t d .olirel, 

J«l... tov. b.00 oo»pb.d «,lb b. ...I 1,„ „ „,.'oo„ ,.d ...loins ol ... Eo B li,b jov.ro.i 

too .■mriom.d ,,ot ,o o,«.d 15 col. ,., X „, |„„ „„., q » lb, ra..loo of . e „.l !» 

bo,b,l, ood „, m:,r,v .:,.,., ,. muob ,. ,: ; „, -looril, llvl , v . wheQ oum.ioo, P^b.s ,od bi.h officials 

.,,. Bot .doolnoo ,l,„l U,., oo.i ,b- ,..r,„.r w ,„" pra «"l, «« "«lmd lb, porerool 1. b, In 

16 oral., wo oooiood lliol lo.y ore ,lil| ,„„ M „oiid lolo lb, pramn of ll.. di.liog.isbj 
guests, and she remained wilh her charge for 



profitable than oats or corn ; for in oddili 

the fact that the yield is very lu.ge, t thtr rool 

orop leaves tht -oil in s-. line n uietliiuneal -into 
for tho growth of tho following crop. In our 
-' - will give tho detaihi of tho preparalion 



. _ igo company. The child 

clung confidently and affectionately to bis guard- 
■— ~ riewof such an orrav of beards and swords, 
idehr— "■ 



while the governess m 



herself as cosy as In 



of the land and seed, end Hit- Dnlb.riit.on mid English parlor. So bold a deed on the part of 
■■"'■■ the Viceroy, indicating a paternal heart and his 

approval of European usage in the social inlcr- 
, course of the sexes, natorally created a great deal 
strawberries' "nerved ',..■' j,,' "the foUowinK o /. ,T0 " d . t T '" li } c llnd of lh / Pljeraohs. Besides 
" -— eat them in ,mv ..,l,.r v.-im- f hls . ??'? V«b» h M niijDifeital a tolerant spirit 
paper, who, we have nil-.",,, '" rill B">n- .Not only have the native Christian 
. , ...yo reason 5^,,, (,ad the fullest liherty of worship, but Eng- 

lish and American missionaries are allowed to 
prosecute their work without molestation, and 
recently tho T ice roy ordered thai all i.'hristian 
soldiers in bis army should be allowed to hold 
religious services in lhcir own way. In the late 
war be furnished a alroiiir i.uxsliary r'.,i. ■■■ ■.■;■ ii,t 
j 1 . Porto, for which service the Sultan recently sent 
him a eostly sword by one of his Ministers or 
State, with a totter of thanks in his own hand. 



Metastasto 

of Italy until eighty-four; and Milton, at 
sii, opened his bti^r eclipsed tvts on "cloudles- 
light eoroiic," It-m in.- lo ihe norld th- m-.iirin\i 
memories of -Lost IVmidii-o." with living slruim 
of horoio and sublime counsel. Mason reai 
seventy -two ero "tho holy earth," where bit 
■■dead Marin" slumbered, admitted him to shnrc 
ipoBe; aud the tender Petrarch, and tho 



Tho common day wages of the Egyption peas- | bravo old John Drydcn, told out fully their 
ants are sixteen cents, they furnishing their own j seventy yours, and the ingenious- La F * ' 
provision! ^ j aoventy-four-, while Fontenelle, whoso powers 



The railroad already constructed and in 

tion between Alexandria and Cairo is more _ 

100 miles in length, and though the sliced would 
Tail lo satisfy the go-ahead Yankee, a full day 
being required to pass over it, the utility, iniblii 
nnd private, is incalculable, i'tie condu- 1 oi .'o.I 
Pasha is often vexatious to travelers; for ivhen 
he is traveling ho will sometimes; detail] the train 
fnr a day at some depot on the route, whenever 
the (it comes over him, whatever the inconveni- 
ence and loss to the passengers. The road is in 
the process of construction from Cairo to Suez, 
on the Red Sea, a distance less than that from 
Alexandria to Cairo, and will he completed by the 
end of tho year. The line of electric telegraph 
will be extended to the same paint — J -' "-- 






wilh 



j of sight and hearing extended thoii 
to the unusual term of ninety-six vears, Incited 

I only thu revolution of a few moons to complete 
Id- entire century. 

Those masters of the Grecian lyre, Auacrcon, 
the sweet Sopht.ele-, und the litry-soultd I'in- 
dur, felt no frost of intellect, but wore trans- 
planted as evergreens in the winter of fourscore, 
At tho same itdvunted period, Wordsworth, in 
our own times, tontiunrd to mingle the iiiu-ie 
of his verse with the murmur of liydnls ;.,llii,e- 
water; nnd Joanna Bnillio, 1.. lold around her 
the robe of trap.- power, enjf.yins her ninetieth 

year the friendship 1.1" tin.- 2 .1. 'nnd the fruit- 

of a fair renown. Montgomery, the re I igi. ...... 

pool, el. long ii .-lierislitd ^"u,-[ nVuid the roman- 
tic scenery of i-li.-liielil. d- 'parted at tho ago of 
.■i(.-lit_v-tw..; und l;..^.T.s, who gave us in early 
life the "l'lt-..>ur. ■.,,]' Memory," was cln.-ered, ut 
iiinetv-three, with ihe toy.' .if nil who eve- "—"- 
within the sphoro of his amiable virtues. 
It was a brighter vernal day than often 
English skits (says tho lady writer 



storing 01 th e crop.— Il'liila. Farm Journal. 
HowtoEatStiiawheriues.— ThoJulr 
nock Jourmil sayt, that tln.se person* wlio hay... 
riea se — '' 

Tho readers of 

to behove, are lovers" of atrawbenies, will do 

well to try the experiment: 

"Place as many berries aa will form oae layer 
at tho bottom of a dish, and sift some fine loaf- 
stigar :i\ ei Hum: then place another layer, and ! 
sift ogam. When there ore five - "' 



the long line projected to the Ei 

Another enterprise projected by Ihe Viceroy, 
and sustained at his own expense cxclosiulv. n 
11 seienliiie eipeditioii to discover the source of 
the Nile. Tho expedition will bo composed of 
scientifje men of different countries, and be con- _.,„ , 
ducted by a young traveler already favorably ' nhote) when i drove 'to 'i lamps 

known by his Aftican explorations. From the Baillie. I found her sealed en the "sofa, h 

»? T™L? ,h a "^ mt °f I" f L ° nd , 0Q i alld ! r"lor, surrounded by many pictures-herself, m 
from the feet that be government of that coun- ,„.,. Hi, n,o-t pl.^mt picture of dignified and 
try ,s id ho hands or ano her Son of Mehetnel healthful age. U„ her cheek was somewhat more 
All, it Is hought the exped, lur , will encounter of a color than usual ; fur she had just returned 
no ohslruc 10 ns in pursuing heir object, and be ftom a long walk among her pensioners, and the 
able to solve the grand problem of ancient and exercise oud ihe comlo/r of .,-n™ K»™™i™™ 
modern geography which has hilherlo defied the ^ntnew life a n^ ^expretion to h r so' e S "n 
mos ardent seal, .ad resolute self-devolm,,. P,.,- t ,. siK , arH hid , b £ rbfl(J c]mrm ^^"^ 
parations for this enter prise arc already m pro- ' might have bestowed ; yet to my eye she irns 
gross, whose results will he awaited with much j beautiful. On the same ^fe was he'.- sister Agnes! 
nlensely IotmI, and to whom one of 
p.. 1ic.1l ttl'usionE was addressed, 
beyond fourscore, her corn- 



serving people move slow — their bends move 
nltemalely from side to side, while they acca- 
sionully stop and turn round. Careful persons 
lift their feet high nnd plnco them down Ant mid 
firm. Sometimes they stoop down, pick up 
some little obstruction, nnd pin-'- it quietly by 
Ihe side of the way, Cnlcnlnting persons gene- 
rally walk with their bauds in their pockets, nnd 
thoir heads slightly inclined. Modest persons 
generally stop softly for fear of being' observed. 
Timid parsons often stop oil" from the sidewalk 
n mooting another, nnd always go round a 
tone instead of slopping over it. Wide nwako 
ersons "too out," and have a. long swing with 
teir arms, ivlii!..- tli.ir hun-ls -huke uhout mis- 
eel Inneou sly. Careless persons nro forever 
stubbing their toes, Lu-ty persons scrape about 
loosely with their heels, and are first on ono 
lido of tho walk mid then on the other. Very 
itrong minded persons have their toes directly 
n front of them, nnd have a kind of stamp 
novement. Unatnhlo persons walk fast and 
slow, by tarns. Venturous persons try all 
roads, frequently climb fences, instead of going 

5h the gate, aud never lot down a bar. 
ea persons are very selfish, and "too in." 
i persons are npt to hit their knees to- 
gether. Good-natured persons snap their thumb 
and finger every few steps. Fun-loving per- 
—- s have a kind of jig movement. Absent 
ided persons often take the wrong road, and 
sometimes find themselves up to their knees in 
a. mild puddlo, although tho sidewalks nro ex- 
cellent. Dignified men movo slow und erect. 
Fast persons cut ni'russ the corner, kiok every 
dog they meet, knock down Utile children, run 
against the ladies, and hit every twelfth man's 
ribs with their t-lbews. Very neat men orica- 
sionally stop to wipe the dust from their hoots; 
their hands hnng by their sides. Verv polite 



t girls 1 



wing 



i their 



d black stumps. 



sugar,' 



-The 



1 It in suspected by some that the Viccroy r s r 
bitten and energy suggest the thought of ii 
pendence at some no distant doy, of which & 



interest by tbescitnliDc world. 

In Ibis connection It may be proper lo add, 
that the Sardinian government has lately r:>.i, ■.) 
a letter from Mr. Brun ffollct, Vice Consul of 
Sardinia al Khartum, in Nubia, doted from tho 
banks of tho Misselad, in which he states that 
(.(tor a month's exploration he had sueeceded in 
rcconnoitering the lake by which the water 






.:■ ];..d,.,rd M. 
."j eays: ine wnaniig uaru Maria, which 1 

fently returned to Sew Bedrord from the I'ncilic, of bis public works arc in antieipati ... 
!? b '->"«u TJctSum the oldest vt = =. ; | in tht United giving nothing of tho ship canal projected 
™«s. We have so often sketched her prolonged acros's the Isthmus or Sue/., within twoyearsonly | 
arcer lhat a repetition is perhaps unnecessary, ihe Viceroy Inn introduced Ihe following odniin- 
"cepiing always, Ihe memorable fact lhat she , islralive measures, besides others of the same j 
™ the first ship that hoisted tho American flag character: The abolition of slavery ; discharging 1 
at it," "1" T . h,ltnes " lne oonclusion of Ihe war I all Ihe villages of nrrear taxes; liberty of com- ! 
oiuT 1 nlcr . ,can "evolution. She has already ; raerce and trade, instead of the former system of 
Unni ■ ° D ? lan mtn? of ho ' more Pteton- , monopoly ; the payment of taxes and dutiea io 
to htt n"'" 5, a no P ,on,i ses to do good service yel money instead of payment in kind ; tho amellor- 



tno Misselad and the Madj 

those of tho While Nile; 1- 

the mouth of the Misiebd, 

lake, ho had, 

Egyptii 

oscende 



Though 

plexion was singularly fair, her features symme- 
trical, and her demeanor graceful and attractive 

IU-li.u-.-ii Ihem whs ,..aled Rogers, Ihe banker- 
poet, with locks like the driven snow, h.ivi,,.. 
,, 1 .. come out several miles ftom his mansion in St° 

d the Mad, comuiunicate w,th J.^. p„ k to ullk e Ihem a friendly . ■" II, 

te Nil. : ,ud thai having found ,i lm ,.,th hro-.v and fresh lloivof conversation made 

s he bod been kindly 
.. Ploys of Ihe Passions" 



ich flows ir 



wd, under the escort of twenty-three eightieth spring. It seems 
solders, penetraled to the nver and ,!,.,„, ,i!e authorcssofP; 
.t to the distance of 12(1 miles when he to collect her fugitive poem 



nile. .Mr. Jtollel - opinion on bueli a subject is and was now dkeii-nm., ■).» ■.- «™ ,f ii.. _..tn 

s id ,0 1. .oiniod ,. g,o,i „,„.,, r r „,o ,„, , ,.,, „„.; ,„i rjSsSBJB .s™,. . . iE .-i 

that he hoa mode numerous excuraiona up hoib rw if tha* a '■ " ■ ■ , fT - t "." Llsm 

Ihe Blue Nile and the Wl I I '' Q E Wous 

the natives told him.it onnears thai thaUlualarl. i SS „?^„^ !']™ <, .* d J aod " on lal common la r 
in (he rainy seaeoi 



w "io " une .'lie. rrin, nna tones nl unlls i.i..„.i..,i . ..,,1 ,.1 ..„ " , 

hin„it appears thai .be Misselad, ond S ^ wwCive'n h™ newyout" 
son, overflows an immense extent I or nlht! to hm kcpl j" p^Wi.i. ao,r 7 DUlh ' 



Agriciiltur.il Bureau at W.iuhingtoD. 
We lenrn, says tho Country Genllomnn, from 
one who has recutlv visittd (hi. department of 
tho Patent Office, Unit it is grinluully gaining in 
usefulness aud importaui.v to the int.-n-sl- of 
the Agrioultural public. An appropriation of 
9-tO.OOO has nlready been rrnule l.y the present 
Congress, and n further npproprmli'.in of S7M. mil) 
will bo asked for before Ihe olnse of the sessiou, 
making in all the sum of $100,000 for tho oux- 

Ahmit r30,lXl(l are to be expended for seeds 

and cuttings. About fortv Ijiisliels r.f Knelish 

luniip seed has recently arrived at New York, 

and is now probably in Ihe pioeess of bt-inir 

distrihutod. The Bureau received nt tho same 

four hundred hu-hols of pea-, nud seven 

idrcd pound- of early York cabbage seed. 

lne thousand Inii-hels of wheal have boonor- 

dered from the Mediterranean. In distributing 

this wheat, especial reference will ho had lo ex- 

perimonls in cross-foundation, by which it ii 

thought new and valuable varieties of wheat 

iiuiv !.-■ i.hlainod. 

fir. Parker, U. S. Commissioner to China, 

is had 31,000 plutt.l at his disposal for tho 

pur. hu-i- of ecod. 

Mr. VV. T. Dennis hits been commissioned lo 

sit every Stuto in the Union, report upon its 

osses, nnd procure aeed for distributlm. 

Vhen seed has been procured, experiments will 

ith n view of ascorUiiiiing what 

most permanent, most prolific, aud 

itious for stock, in every district or 

county in ihe Union. 

_ Dr. CJ. T. Jnckson, is permnncnlly ongoged 
in chemical experiment- of considerable value. 
By ono sot of experiments, Dr. Jackson lias 
proved that oil, worth ubout sovonty.fivo couta 
por gallon, enn bo oitraotod from cotton sob' 1 , 
leaving a cako worth two or three cents por 
pound. 

Experiments of much promiso nro projected, 
nmoug which are those lie which the amount of 
phosphnte in the worn out soils of the east, as 
compared wilh tho virgin .soils of tho west, aro 
to ho determined. 

Those- aro some of tho chief operations at 
present heme; carried on or projected by tha 
Agricultural liun-ie.. under tho direction of Dr. 
D. J. Brown. They eerlumly promise impurt- 
nt results to the ii^ritu H.iritl fraternity. 
A tin case 



illslilntcil i. 



I lie. il 



dud of a 



— We learn that a 

got up at Felch- 

tho afternoon of 



town of Naliclt, 
ksgiving rj B/ . a small pig with the bristles 
It, was greased all over and placed in a field, 
wclvo young chaps entered to compete for 
irinc, the ono who should first should the 
] have it. Prank Murphy won Ihe pig. 
wheelbarrow feat, more profitable limn l;,n 
Pcrley Poare's also came oil', ihe one who should, 
blindfolded, wheel nearest to a slake in Hit held, 
having the pri?.e of S- 50. A largo crowd assem- 
bled lo seo th o fan.— [Millard Jour nal. 

Lire in tub Mountains. — An individual, 
known as Maltey, recently turned up after travel- 
ing three days -- ' ■ ... 

vicinity ofSha „.„. 

that he had perished in the si 



THE CALIFOENIA FARMER. 



Cjje (Ulifornia Jfanitrr. 

SACBAUEKTO, FBIDAY, JAUTIABY 16, 1837. 



camlv, luvios oBt 



dwfiro. 


jo «■..:, i,l.;l 


n >!«»), nurSiuo 






Onr B 


ow Volume. 




With 


Ihis issue o 


r patrons will w 


•cite KUM 


ber On 


Of VoLUH 


SEVKnof the C 


vi.i run si 


Farm cm 


Three vn 


rs we hive teen 


permit le 


to addrc 


tmanyfriei 


dauhoharcjO'ir 


eve.1 wil 


us, oi:d 1 


these and 


o nil who have jo 


ncd us o 


Oarjoun 


ey, we tend 


r our warmest th 


nks. Th 


cflbr Is uf 




trust. wM be oor 


-unranlc 


for Ihe f. 


Hire. We 


i'!l aim lo impr, 


-\- in it 


TOluniC. 


Some plan 


which WO have 1 


progn-s. 


not jc I co 


iipktcd. itc 




ir friends 


when wc 






Our sin 


shall eve 


be to impr 


ore— our mottu 


8 Onwari 


progress. 








Wo do 


not wish to 


promise too nine 


I. hut wo 


will do all we can to 


deserve well of o 


r friends 


and may wo not hope 


• r their obei-iTul and lieiirti 


CO-Opora 


ud and OS! 


stance. If each 


ibsc ril.:..:i 



W.igonro.id vs. Railroad— ImmlgratSc: 
Evwiv citizen of California who has ill ton 
nt stake, and who feels that ho is identified v, 
tho prosporitj- or adversity of tho State, ra 
seo tho pressing necessity of action upon th 
two grant moasuros. tho WiigonrooJ nnil 
linilrond bills, which must coma up nirniii 
present session of Congress. Now that tho 
great and nil -pervading Inpio of tlio past montl 
ile.cliou of Senators) is diaposed of, w. 
trust our citiiens, one and all, will unite ii 
■cry measure that will increase our popullttioi 
id build up our State. 

We are grateful to know that all classes of 
ieuiicsj min are awake to the vast inipnrtanc" of 
Inljiiii; Tiio:iiiirc3 to induce an emigration lo Culi 
unless we can have un increased pop u 
must admit lhat so far as merchandising 

ry wealthy and distinguished merchant 



hr.ly piui 



•?::, 



in,-..-. Lhal 
I, Califon 
cw York 



micas 



whoso 
should h 



mid only a 



.. ...j.l.'i 



much mora we could accomplish. 

Our plans for tho future, with onr Pros 
will appear in N'o, 2, and ore that we 1 
have many hundred new subscribers fr 
friends, to commence our New Volume 
ask a fair judgment of our journal— w< 
generous support. 

i Coming. 



The People a 



IhB wliole horizon of tho P 


cific,nndw=s 


the coming sp 


inganemigr 


tion setting th 


that will chee 


the hearts c 




awoken to n 


W life tho n 


reels of induE 


prosperity. 






We feel cor 


sotouG tbat 


no one will es 


egotistical on 


or part when we say that i 








have labored 






fomio. We 


ave eier be 




above the valu 


e of her mine 


al treasures th 



iltle cloud, 
shall see 






bid in her soil 
Qolcondn's trea 
prod o els, ond It 
nestly.and we feel we hnvedouo it consci 
ly and faithfully, believing great good wo 
from it, and we can say with some degrei 
it labored in vain. 



The great effort should i 
shores thousands, tens of t 



ig fir and wide over 
id.Europe, a 
Srneand fail 



: Uni 



v be to call to our 
usands, and him- 
i only bo done by 
II the great Slates 
rue knowledge of 



iy several of the promi- 
j iiont men of California unci Oregon, lo awaken 
aitoiilinn to this subject, was a movement of great 
importance to California ; am! it will hi a poor 
return for such cftort to Ihosc gentlemen to know 
that here, in r.alifomia, no feeling of interest was 
mule in response lo that action. Wc sincerely 
lupe another steamer will not leave the port o'f 
Sau Francisco, without conveying to the friends 
in New York, a spirit of approval and co-operation 
[rt>ni L'jlifomiatts, 

But to the subject mutter in hand, the "Great 
Highway" for un in-comiag population 
road and n Railroad .- both Ihese can be secured 
only by earnest and efficient acliou. directed 
these results, and as we desire to lay before 
readers nrgomenls in suppnrt'or our premises, 
Ihink of none more powerful, none more to 
point, and none more honorable to the author i 
to California, for whom he plead, thin the follow- 
ing clime-is from tlie speech of the Hon. Job 
Weller. delivered in the Senate of the United 
States, on the bill to authorize and facilitate 
conslruclion of n ltailroad and Magnetics 1 
graph through the territories of the United Si! 
from the Mississippi River lo the Pacific On 
April 18.185D. Should aoy one say, Ibis is an 
speech, nude a year ago, this is tree, but if 
one will read these extracts aud see their trull 
applied lo California interests, thev will say, v 
Mynheer, » Tab. potter as new." 

The following extracts, being only part of lbs 9ni u 
eloquent appeal, should be carefully read : 

Mr. Weller said : Mr. President, this subject 
occupied a good deal of the ntlenlinn if the 
It has 



•.■ers have converted that "barren wil- 
to a 'beuutifuL garden, which now 
13 uud blossoms as the ro=e. 
aiu, when we acquired Texas, it was said 
hut country was covered with swamps and 
es, which must forever prevent its eultiva- 
but my friend hero from Texas [Gen. Busk] 
win now lei! you lhal [lie best coltou lands in Ihe 
world are to be found within that Stale. Tho 
large exportation; .if coltun which she annual ly 

Whea that country from whence I come was 
purchased from Mexico, ir was declared by one of 
our must dislin^iiHlii.t si itcrnen lhal il was " nol 
worth u dollar ," and yet within Hie lasl six years 
some four hnndr.-d millions of do I hi i, in gold have 
Ibh-ii taken from her soil, and this is but tho be- 
ginning of the work. 

I have no doubt that Senators from the old 
Sialic are falline- into the same error with regard 
lo tho territory through which this road is pro- 
posed to pass. Ui.-li and pro.luetiio valleys, of no 
'ln'iiiisiiiiT.iblc o.vieul, will be found in the ranges 
■I ilie Hocky .\l..iinliiiiis. ci|iaUc of siistiiiiiu^' u 
":'■ population. We lind bytlieoftici.il r..:|i.irl 
.f ihe SciTclary of War. Ihit'what is called the 
Culnradinl-s.jrt is siiseeptitilu uf reduction to cul- 
tivation by irrigation. He says : 

Another feature of interest developed in the 

-f! or the furlhcr I'.vaininatioti of Ihe work on 

route of the th riv-econd pirallsl is, that the 

Colorado deserl, wliidi i> Ir.uersed by the roule 

fono hundred and thirtv miles, and 

!porl referred to, was noted as com 
sisliiiL," id » ill that needed onlv waler to render il 
' i«li!y pr...lnetv.r, is, in tad. i lie delta uf llie Culi... 
radu river ; mid. jceordinj; t,> l.aronielric levels, is 
^i. mm-li lower limn llial stream. :is Lo be easily irri- 
ij.itt.1 frnm it. Thus there is every reason lo be- 
lieve four thousand tire bundrcl square miles uf 
anl. or greal feriilily, of which nearly one balfis 
in ear territory, may be br-ni.-lu into .'■ii|ri-,,ii,„, i„ 
)iie unbroken tract along Ihe route." 
I lie ^ ccretury further says: 

the first years of a ivnr with any groat 



i bnnilred vessels engaged in 
1 m Pacific, and also a large 
^3 there, which could easily 
in- uunverled inlo privateers men. iT suitable ord- 
nance and ordnance stores could be obtained at 
our navy yard on the bay of San Francisco. 
Sleainers could be dispatched to tho whaling 
grounds immediately wiih intelligence lhat a " * 
of war existed, uud in this way wc might cqi 
Heel ivliieli no ordinary force could easily overc 

Although we are now separated from yoa by 
uceans and foreign Slate- nil llie one hand, ond on 
the other by mountains, and (ho wild, uneidliniled 
country inhabited by some one hundred and lifly 
thonsand uncivilized Indians (most of whom, by 
your policy, have been thrown between us), we 
still cling to tho Union with all lhat ardent 
enthusiasm und nil that patriotic devotion which 
churacteriM true Americans. Let us feel that 
" his, your sympathies, us well ns your 
interests, are identified with ours— allow ns to have 
and frequent eonimutiicaliiin with you as 



u of the si 



nbys, 






not be relied upon for the transporlaliiin of mi 
plies from Ihe A'l.iiiiie lo the I'icilic States, Oor 
naval peace establishment would nol furnish adc 

Hualocanvrt^forllien her ol More -hip, which 

it would be nccessnrv In employ, and store-ship, 
alone laden m .it. Mipphes c.n.ld nol undertake = 
voyage of Iweiily llioii-.iinl miles, pis-ing nuiner- 
lOUIral poil.s, where an eneinv's .nruieil v-s- 
aven of ihe i.mille.t size, mi-ill lie in wait lo 
intercept ihem. 

The only line of com niuniesi lion, llien, would 
o.e.l.in.l, and by ll,j, jt uiiuld l,e ,n,pr.i,.:ti,-:i- 
ivitli nny m,.-ui. heretofore used, lo fiirnMi 

■'"",' f>ep|.lics req.iired lor Ihe defeat 

he Pacihclrouucr. Atilie present prices 
iho best part of ibis ronle, the expense of 
■-.nsporlolion alone, for the annual supnlic 
i vis ions, c I oil I log, 



.'liuils and as bra tin 

[.ml California will never desert you, 

sidor it utterly impos si I de in tlie very natuco of 

things to reluin our l'ncilic possis-inns unless 

you ,..|„l,lisli a direct couiuoiniealiun with thorn; 

and f predict thai, unless this is done, tllCl 

bo nn iud,q dent irovenimeul on that ea 

loss than fifteen year*. Yuu must break down 
tho barriers which Noluro has interposed bo. 
Iween you und them, or such will be llie iuevit- 
ablo result, There is a "sick man" who is tin 
owner of very rich and valuable lands imme. 
diately upon onr soulliern border, and in tht 
ovont of his death California might claim the 
right to udministar upon his estuto. 
As un American who desires to seo this Union 

Sopetualod, I have made this declaration in the 
earing of the Senate. Although loyal, as I 
haio already said, to tho Union, wo must have 
equal frtiei, t-pial rights, and equal protection. 

Aflcr giving various catimiles of the time re- 
nuired to build the road— its costs and profits— 
with tables of other roads, &c, Mr. Weller pro- 
ceeds in his eloquent elosiu-.- remarks, thus : 
But, Mr. President, I have already trespassed 



1 We 



seen oner trees grown. Many trees of two years' 
growth were from six lo ten feet high, and H .-l| 
formed from tho ground, and fully furnished wit), 
sido branches in beautiful conical form. To alio* 
how much interest is manifested in orchar" 
wo can give aclual sales as reported lo us 
this nursery. Messrs. Smith k Winchell 
made one saleor §2,300, three sales of oi 
each, and many of 5300, §500 and §000 c«£ 
They have sold tho present season bouio SO 000 
trees of various kinds. The peculiar conditio'nof 
tho financial market renders it necessary to ac . 
commodate in terms, and this wo find is the casa 
withall nurserymen. About twenty -Ave percent, 
only of all sales is cash ; the balance on lime. 

mnso amount of trees of all kinds are 
daily forced on tho market at auelion, yet treea 
from tho regular nurseries, fresh dug, are always 
worth twice or three limes as much, and orchard- 
ill learn this by and by. 
are glad lo set, our nurserymen huity and 
prospering. 



perhaps too far upon ihe lime of" the Senate; but 

I -in..-..' rely .le.sire, il possible, to obtain speedy ac- 
tion upon this bill. Senators who line o r r,o-'.-d il 
here l., fore upon the ground !hi! we bad not sufli- 
cicnt information on the sal.iecl. can no lon-ei 
doiibl upon this, point. 1 mk Ihern to coin., up in 
the spirit of patriutism, lo aid mu in I" 
lion of Ihis work, which will redound ,„„., 
glory and hunor. and the future wealth nnd 



people for . 

di-c.i,,e.i in the public press, 

mal conventions, and in Slate 

More lhan twenty .Slat,... li JV ,. p^.e.i 

- ,: — ifa railroad 

lh- IV.iiir 
.ery l.^,. 



climate and soil, and its capacity uf sustaining a 
great population ; and also of giving wings to the 
troth, that we have churches, colleges, schools 
and all tho needed facilities for sup-taining 
making comfortable and happy all who desi 
come- Let the people of California do this, ond 
there shall come to our shores a population ol 
right bind. They will not be mere hunter, 
gold ; they will not be office-seekers i they 
not be loafers nnd idlers, the mero scum ol o 
populated cilies; but they will be fanners, 
cbanics and manufacturers, ond they will 
como alone, but they will come in families 
whole districts, and thus bring their wealth wilh 
Ihem— wealth of more priceless 
gold of Ophir, for they will bring their industrial 
habit! Tbcy will be working men and irorkii 
women, and they will come, os the great tc 
book says, a as doves flocking lo their windows 
Wc have said we have not labored in vain. N 
for wc have continual proof that Ihere is on ca 

lion aba 
*he opportunity o| 



Willn 



be los 



In proof of this, we h.y before our reader a 
letter, which wo have received from a eorre 
.pooden. el Marysville, jn,t from the Eastern 

wode/m it rt ^^'^LK XfE 

md u ri n a: louM r' n ^ f " rmnki "e i 'p"^- 

L :' '""''" l'" ,l -'"'''»l>'«*iiri.|halw.. 

d" »f"n «Uhv tho ball 



inl.li 
f*S'sh 

resolutions m favor of the construct! 
from the vail y of Ihe Misr.i^ippi (., 
nd it cannot be doubted that 
majority of tLe American people an 
this enterprise. Nolwiih standing we nav. . , , 
j i id.' meat prunounivd al cj.-h s : ...j,„, ,,, ,;,„ 
yre.-., in the form of in .jnoriab, peiitiuns ;„„) 
ruclalmn--, yd wc have been unable, up |„ ,|,i, 
lime, Lo procire ilia i-smetion ol ibeir renr.-eatv 
lives in r,.n^a-= In ll.is measure. ' 

The impurtuiiee ur a railroad eonueclin- the 
Mis-is-ippi river wilh the J-.H-iuV ,„,,,„' „„= 
brought to the attention of Congres 
1845, by the memorial of Asa \\'h 
some shape or form it h.is been before uV 
session of Congress since that year N 
close or the Ins; session a bill was" for the fir 
passed through the Senate, providing for a 1' 
railroad, wilh I.-.. I......-1... ..... .. 



inp equipage, and ammi 
ill nu army as it would bo necess 
i there, would exceed §20,000,01 
ilain troops and carry on defens 



opcralioiu, uua^r l UO so circumstances, ihe expend 
per man would be sii limes -renter ihan it is 
now : ibc land tran.poriaiiou of ■; ,eb lieid twelve 
pounder, wilh a doe supply of runmunilion f,„ 
one year, would cost f?2 5iM; of each LweuL V -f,„,r 
rounder and iinii,.iiMiln r Jiin,i,. , -r 



ii lliey,- 






■o tan 



be acled upon in ihe House of Repre.eniaiives. 

Wbaterer opposition this bill mav mis t with i 
the Scnaie. it can t, w.lly I, . .-han..,] |... „,,, ,, nr 



it constructionii 

; spirit or ibu Conrt. 

ie absolute neccsiiy, 



rl's'i.ri.in, - 
which 

d.l 1101 



my jiiij^itii'iii 
i lliis r.ind, 1 e. 

■■■ ' "in whieli vinlilt- .. 

L ' '•""■"""""-I [iriu-iplcH by ,l,i..|, | ha,,. 

been governed sniec my first entrance inlo public 

mn'ov^i™" . th , E p0li f J ' °, f m Goi "nment, for 
ions of Ihe public land, to Slates and compar 
to aid them in the conslruclion of roads nnil 
nala. Nor has the Government suilered anvil, 
by tins pohcy. Whilst the States have been 
lermlly benetiled. IheG.meraUiov.rnui.ni I . 
increased value of ils rv-au-d lai, J.- hn"l ■■'. f 
rciannerulei] for the-., donalioi, ii|i ' iii- 

Al:d..,r„j, liniiana, M i,.i: -i,,,,, ' tli, .!,;!: , 
some other Stales, ha,,. I,., '„' ,. n . lU ,i" , .'. . 



lOfai 



JUS would COst Sill> r l>tKVH10. 11,11 

ihe eipense ol transpo rial ion would be vaslk- 
mcrea-ed by a war; and al the rales lhat acre 
I....I -.. rl.v ■..„--h..r„ (...niierdnr,,.;.. Uicla.l *„ 

win, i, real Hum,,. il,. : ,i.„ v ._, ,., u , , , 

trebled. The lime 
ney would be Troni 

uf fact, however, so.. , 

HOI bu tran-porte-,1 acrovi the eonlinetn '"'! In"i'b t 

■id and birren belts i„ be crossed. ,!,,; li,„j lv ,| 

"' -nd grass would 



louily. 
the ilisr- 



inlitiesof wal 



' the 



aught 






'On ihoolherhau 






..- fed r. 



-tho o 



I'lider 



■;.dl.,lu 1 ,-,ut. 1 c..alr[bn,et.o,'. lri |';; j ;' 
bieb render., Mluable. buds K ],i ( . 
pre-ei.t ( ;,>[].| itiun ar,- l.lueless. 

' ibabited regii 



eqiiired for heavy trains, and over such di 

bo carried for their miLiisttni 
icuiy would send o 
nth toone-twenlielh 

■'Any reliance iberefore, upon furnishing th. 
rt or our Tron let w.th meam, or defense fro. 
e Atlanta and interior Slatcx, alter the con 
enccment ofhosiilitiLs, w.,ol.| be rain; an-i' tl. 
it resource would be to accumulate Ihere sue 
lonnt or stores and supplies as wnuhl c.ni. 
ring the continuance of the conli 
uld obtain command of the sea. 



until 
'ia llileralehuiiiio tl.H p.ni'u ..^" ^.V. 
>o"ld yet be enormous. The lorlili,,,t,„n' ,|... 
pois and store-houses would no-i ., r ,l, l„. „-, 
« k- l.^e;i™cale,and Ihe cost of placing supplies 
there for live years would amount to nearlVn,™ 
hundred roillionsof dollars 

1 impraclicable lo put jirovisioni hi <], 

■' lenixih of lime; and in any cas 
I be rieierioraii.ni umouniinu to son 
nf dollars per year, 
hi'ie consideraiions. and olbersofa 
■ry cbnracler.eau-s., U,,. |„.. r ,. lr „ 1K , ||[Lu 
ilb.ntercsl all projccls promising (heap 

plLh-nentof a railroad eommunicalion bat...... 

MLssis-ippiand those 



icily 






As mjlitai 



ily of railroad tra 
vvlenrl,,] to til.; I'aetlic coa 
compleled, our Pacific co 
fiirihei- removed io lime, ar 




ay transporlalioi 
■ of defending oiii 



ived (lit: 
die and inland fron....„, . „ 

Of security I",,,,,, att:,el, „., ull ,|„, . \ ' 

posed porliouof oar terrii..,y. „ ,. , .,„. rll:l 

' '--isportation sliould \ K 



Wei 






st, iisteod of beh 



taken by any (Jov.rumjni of ciiher undent o, 
ni'..leru lime-. Standing here a= the sole repre- 
sentative of ihe Pacilie coast, 1 am asking, at vmir 
h.imt-.lhat jusli.-e and imparlialtlv a hirli will eni I, i,. 
■" '" feci proud that we are a. part of Ihe Americiri 
I ask yoo, Senators, to turn aside from 
issioii of scclional questions, which are 

■i»n wiwulsing the Republic Ir itj center lo its 

circuin Prince, uud unite with nie in esirrvinj 

Ihr.iugh i ;J .sure which will ultimately make* — - - 

the greatest commercial nation on tho globe 
invito you, in the name of n far and distant 
slituency, to observe tho golden rule, and do i 
them as you would others should do nolo 

'M'ey Ine,, ,|,e Union, Thev are ready to S4Ct. 

I .eir lives, il n,.-.-oi;a-y, t linnin it; but loyally 

and |,r.,|i., .ti.ni are correlative duties. Whilst , V e 
:-tar,d by y,.„, yoa mu,t deal justly and imparliallv 
with us. ^o union, unless founded upon Ihe 
ennui,!;/ of the Slate,, can command their eonfi- 
denee or respect. Do to on. people ai vou have 
done to others. t.i,e,. us the ..ime protoetn.m, tho 
same facilin.-., ofoi.iniiiunicaiing with the Central 
(jovernmenl, and we will be lh- last a.< I have al 
ready remarked— the very last— lo ab.m.|..n .,,. N 

" ■ E blood lhal runs through your v'.,,,s 

irough theirs; and, although mojt ,.f them 
are now fur from their naii.e places, they have 
lost, none of tl,,,,, at !..„.■), men 1 b. the l.'oiiiluuliou 
which binds us together as one people— none of 
Ihe veneration lor ih-ir illustrious aucesturs who 

'i'" 1 lL - l " lltlli: ' 1 ' •■' >■'•"■ u.lnmal greatness. As 

Aiii.:ric:nii. ili.y l.,ol: ,,iili admiration upon Ihe 
■'■jiiii ll.g lhal now llo.ais upon every sea and i; 
respected ,„ ,,, :r? . 1|>nr , er „, „„ ^ . a[]|1 ^^ 
'he S.IU.- loch ho,-..-, of ,,ur lutur.. u-rcatntas. 

I m-.t,,;.. yon, by Iho high charuct-.r which your 

'■""' llr >- I'a-i a, H.-.1 an,,.,,, Ihe nalions ot ihe 

■ 'I ih-by the memo,..- „f ,he p.est-b; tl,.- ho,,- ; 
ling Ibis, Ihe best and freest llovern 
the wisdom of mm over devised, to 
and by me a nd giv.. y 03 r s anction to this bill. 

A Vlatt to Sau Joao. 

We took a flying visit lo the city ol San Joso 
c present week, to look at the nurserymen at 
work. Wo visited Sir. Provost's nursery and 
garden, and found he had mado great 
ioiha Fair lime. He had rei 
*s lo Ihe new ground lately cleared, 
morning sun could rest upon them. 
it's whole place is in very fine order, 
ami mscuslcmers keep all hands 
busily. This gen.leman is soon expecting f, om 
trance a large collection of orange trees and large 
camellias. We were pleased lo hear from Mr. 
I revost (hi, r,cl, that Ihere was a large!, m.-roas- 
mg demand for roses, garden plants, & c , nl i h „ 
attributes ,ho increased attenliento this subjeel 
lo tho homes-' now Wing built. Wherever a 



Good Titles. 
[f tharo is one thing that will makoii 
feel hnppywhen ijnielly seated by his fircsida 
and surrounded by those he loves, and in what 
ho calls his homo, it is to knoie. lhat il it a home, 
and one that no outsider can como and lay a bet- 
ler claim to what he has piid for than himself. 

One of the heaviest corses, ono that has inflict- 
ed a deadlier blow to the prosperity or California 
than even political misrule (if that were possible), 
has been, and still is, tho unsettled condition of 
ihe land titles, so mixed up, so covered with grant 
liter grant, or with Peter Smith, or Argenti, or 
Limantoor titles, that purchasers get heart-sick, 
and leave Ihe country in disgust. YVc would fain 
hope ihat before long the. Imsinut men all over 
Slate will see the necessity of some action 
mot will give security lo land titles, and then 
we could ofTer better inducements for families to 
como to California and seule wilh us. 

These remarks are now presented lo show wo 
wish lo present everything lhat shall tend to a 
great public good. lVhoovcr aims to this point 
of N3ttling titles and labors for it, should bo 
esteemed of more than ordinary patriotism and 
abillies. 
To puchasers- of real estate in California, espe- 
iilly in San Francisco, where real estate is cov- 
ered a foot thick with lilies, he who can explain 
perfect a title is indeed a benefactor. Wo 
-einuch instructed and also interested recently 
camming the famous records of tho Arm of 
Gunnison & Porker, who have been at a heavy 
expense to prepare a "chain of title" from an 
early dato to Iho present lime. We saw several 
cases where estates had been conveyed from parly 
to parly, in all the changeable affairs, unlil the 
cost of the transfer had for exceeded the value of 
the estate in question. 

Messrs. Gunnison & Parker have been at work 
for more than three years in preparing complete 
ond reliable volumes which are of great interest 
to all who arc engaged in real estate large or 
II ; and wc foci sure that these gentlemen will 
be amply rewarded for nil they do to introduce 



Wo b 



. Tain'. 



f pcrpelua 



Mr. 1'revo 






persons about lo buy land in Sa 
:o will call at Messrs. Gunnison & Parker 
the labor that has been given to tl 
jecl; aud newish tho samo thing would be di 
in everycountyin Ihe Slate. We can nu 
pleasure that W. S. Music, Esq., of Sacramen 
county, has a similar chain or title for tbat county. 
Everything done lo perfect and quiet land 
lilies we look upon as a corner stono in tho foun- 
dation work of California. It is llie slarting- 
poiut of tbo goodly, llio beautiful structure 
must rise ore long to attract the gaio of Iho 
world. 



True Lnjcnry_ 



.islelh ■ 






lor 



obtaining i bc eonlro| ( 



ornamental part, and this should 
■so over the whole Stale, for the homo 
i made as beautiful as possible. Mr. 
dwoys manifests a very generous spirit 
i busiuess transactions. Ills motto is 
let live," and he lakes pleasure Fn sce- 
lighbors prober as well.os himself, and 
mown of his cllbrls to secure busin, 
BighbDra lv iu,out tho least jealous, 
i, and in a business of the kind 
"l is an cample of disinterested kiod. 



■ .. I 



!, however gratifying it may be to C 

ppelfle; even lo our most exalted 

luxury can only be found in lhal inward 

of having secured happinc 

"lies Wealth, pleasure, ,ho fruils of the earth, 

and llio beautiful flowers lhat are scattered s 

profusely around us, when enjoyed alone, lose 

alue. Tho greater half is gone, u 






doing good 



halftbt 

we can lind object: 

we can confer a portion, si 

merit may be enhanced, 

The purely selGsh being 
enjoyment. That luxury , 
and conferring hoppjness on 

" Thou tbalt love Ibv neighbor as thjiolf." 
This- command of Him " who spake as never 
spake," was intended as a lesson to train llie n 
be forgetful of iMf while in the puraui 
happiness, and seek to lind it wilncssing the I 
piness wc could confer upon others. The joy 

in others must of necessity flow back opoi 
es, the same as tho gentb 



■ ar,.,| ..J,,,, 



flehn. 



aid found h 



img Ins grapes. It will bo 
'ii gentleman received the first premium 
Slate Society for the best collection of for- 
"PCB, and also for the best white wine, 
tucd us his system of pruning and the 
e 13 making for the coming year lo have 
pes and wino. His grounds are In mosl 



go nursery of Smith a: Win- 
a great demand 



cioivinio.J n 

■ult irecs. Hero 

more of California would bo "grai 

orchards. Messrs. Smith & Win 

g trees by tho thousand, and wo hi 



■ered upon earth lomako it bod and blossom 
gain drawn up by the heat of Ibo su 
Is, again ond again to be dispensed u 



gave lo the flowers. 
Go, mortal ! go a 

blibs of the truly happy m 
Fine Seed" 



arn by this how ported 



>r quality of Seed I'olab 
.'ssrs. 11 >y Holds & Co,, 



-Wo 



, very supe- 



ihouscof 
street, Sin J 
3— the trail 
Kidneys and the Lady Fingers, bath, while pol»- ) 
iocs. These were very line, and wo hopo will b* J 
freely grown. Messrs. Reynolds &, Oo., always J| 
have tho very best. 



THE OALIPOENIA FARMER. 



The Valno of Winter Esooings. 
Jr must be q source of great satisfaction to cecry 
W c!l Hisbcr to the moral interests of California to 
sole (be change that bas (aben place* in regard lo 
*" the taste anil desires of tinny or the young men 
of the present lime. Until recently, Iho colli va- 
tion of the social and intellectual nature was over- 
looted or garo place to a desire for the acquisition 
1 of wealth or the pursuit or pleasure; but non 
' most happily, our Stale and cities teem ivith nsso 
cil tion 5 farmed for Iho high purposes of acquiring 
fiste and knowledge of tho highest and mos 
useful scicaccE, and for contraling, directing and 
educating the moral, social and intellectual lastos 
of the community. 

We clip the following from the Buffalo Repub- 
lican, and agreeing most fully with these Sugges- 
tions, ire fcel we bate reason of rejoicing lo know 
that here in California no have such institutions 
as the Young Men's Christian Association, the 
Mercantile Library, the Mechanics' Institute and 
Reading Room, and many other means, such as 
Debating Societies, Lyceums, Ac. But hear what 
the Buffalo Republican says on ninler evenings; 
YfrKTEit EvENinaa.— The long evenings are 
coir fully at hand and much limr may be devoted 

Instead or spending their leisure hours on Iho 
corners of Ihc-sltoets. indulging as too many do. 
in profane and ,.l.:.._-i.-iit hn^nnu'c, il they would 
improve the hour-; thus speni in [lie acquiring of 
useful knowledge, which may be obtained at Toss 
expense than tobacco and cigars, Ihey would not 
only benefit themselves but society at large, by 
becoming sober, intelligent and virtunus citizens, 
qualified to Gil the various stations lo which they 
may be called in after lire. Could our youth but 
appreciate (be value of ivell formed habits upon 
their future usefulness and prosperity in life, we 
feel persuaded ihat they would embrace every 
opportunity \<i cultivate (ho fncul(k-.i with which 
tfasy are endowed, ond thus lav the foundation 
for future usefulness. 

Valuable as are the suggestions of oorcolempo- 
rnry of Buffalo we, here in California, are improv- 
ing our winter evenings. Besides the institutions 
of which we speak, and ol which we are proud, an 
increasing taste fur literature is evinced by means 
or social entertain men Is in private circles, conver- 
sation, music and readings of (he best writers in 
prose and poetry. In all our cities we note this 
feeling Willi Intense pleasure, and bail it with joy, 
and every well wisher to California's best inlcresla 
should givo this bright epoch a helping hand. 

While we acknowledge there is great room 
improvement in the social circles of fashion and 
pleasure we cannot but anticipate a change as 
striking as there has been in Iho condili 
many in other mailers. 



rAJs, Half-Una* Bat. '"' '*&> <*»« "*= 
FWIgnAgt-nU. ^ on 









f postuwlcr. "outd otitic by • Itrlel [i 



TRAVELING. 



Paiiiid Mai) Steamslilp Company's Line 
TO PANAMA, 

VIA. PANAMA RAILROAD 



For New York and New Orleans Direct. 



GOLDEN GATE, 

Will loare Vdlq o street Wharf. nlOi lb- t/n!i«l Bute, fill! 

On TWHSDA? - ,™*- -^"li™ 1 - 'jAKUAKY, 4011 
At IS M, punctually. 

PaaseoEors lir llit, Liar an- InnJcl no Ih.-if srHralnl Pan 
m* upon loe WLirf cl 111,- JIfl]|r':'.'l T.-ntilmi-, t'r 1 -h - ■ Ci-t 

Ba ilron d Aerui litd Inlmui to Atp lnwa li, 



THROTJQH TICKETS 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



,f;.i 



- purchase of "Hdiet, It Ss 



California Steam Navigation Company, 



KT- The Iliron of the Aerie 



il Society, for th. 



Sui'Kiiiok Sheep fob California; — IVe 
learn from Slesira. SonrJo and Wynu, thut 

thoy received by the steamer Golden Gut,- fr 

Now York, two Ducks and two Ewes, of very 
high character. These nnimuls ore yearling*, 
but weigh about 175 pounds eueli. Messrs. S. 
and W. inform hb that thoy nra reported to 
yield a fieeoo of 18 pounds nt n shearing. The 
cost of tho Bleep in Now York, was $1400. 

Wo receivi.il a kind iuviliitiiiu to go and seo 
these s hoop, and ahull do so nt an early day and 
report particulars. Such stock aro a grent 
benefit to our Stulo, and the importers an 
benofaalors. 

Ami-be wests.— Go lo tbo Museum, and ace 
that genius Adams bundle tho hears, and Wirsot 
Charm tho sunkea— comer of Chiy and Kearny. 

Gn to Concert Hall-comer of WnshTngUn 
and Sansomo — and eco the interesting Diommo 
Of Bonker Hill .ind Burning of Churlpstown- 
theso are worthy a visit 



ami lingular. Tut -ell 01 the boiulifol «tl» s « of Col 
A.J.ar»jiooroja we Piglet inches aboro lbs mrua 
low, and tbea fell suddenly u much below— rag and fat 
(sural limn and then resumed In until enmrl. Th- 
ant well sunk, near Smith A Winchcll 'l, -hlch hid Boise, 
hotsWr of lit*, ceased allocttber. Aoolhsr, arCoii, 
A DrcWs, .ru Hopped. Serosal others (OS. and Ml 

Bow barnlr run. We bare heard of other strange r , r anlu 
both on eylh noil in the water. Wa eba.ll nor, furlhe 



a, nalln of Abctdcco, Foulland. Whan last haord iroui 
(llth June, J.BS1) *« ,,t Salmon Hirer, Soula county. 

raai.ed at the ftr, ■'■„! this 1 3 | qt, 130 Wi.hl,i,-t..u sittct, 

AllBIVAL. il!" A\ AUTIIflUESS. — Tim Hon. 

3lr«. Grnimll" Wliyt,. „f Enghnd. arrived in 
tu^rn yi-.-liT'liiv, inn! In,-, nuarlmi-nt^ nt llio 
Brovoort Hou-e. ^^r.-. Wl.vto i, ivliblv ln,..w„ 
in Europe nnd America ,is Mi.-s MuWfc. Hi- 
talented nuttiures, of Tlu- i^-llvi,,. Apctlm's 
Husband, Olive, Juhn H.,lif (1 A," (;,,ull.-. ( mu, :in.l 
other inliTi-.nting nnd .Iimlt novels. 
* Porhaps no work of fictu. 



i lnul , 



i iiitlnc 



onil - 



i-iiii;.'.- 



lacb individual 
Bwttloman. It .... 

•ndlm-,, 1 |,e ; .,lyi 1 cl 1 ii-v l ,l ll N.,iv,.r, ;i | ,.,.,, .,l„,if 
Wb undersLinil tL lt ll„. K lft,-,] ...ih..,, -- lv il| 
Mud 1-, tho nr,,,., .-,( „„ ,,, r lv ,|„ v , nll „„„, r Wl:rk 
"Wl- . .,,, |..., tl .,l, l.y ,!„„, ,,,„, w- seen parts 
Of it, loenhnni. h,.r:.lr..i,.lv n,,1i,1,1,. r..i.,il„,j..„ 
-[Sew York 1'ost, 23d Kov. 
Hollo way's i iisTSiBNT.-HcorbolicE roplton 
sir wanes." 1„ il,,. ,iii,.,,. ; „, „,,.. „„„,,, „■„, lm . 
wntinilicc,jre.,( ihu.-, ,1,^-,,,. TI.e, ,„■.,., 
Ull,boivcver l-n- - : [ url,,,- „ r .l,..,,, r .i,. [],,- ,. ,„. 
»T ; be Sell al II ,, f '-,,. ■*■;.:■ 
, Now York, ond No.M4 Strand, 
by all druggists, at Baft, 024c, nnd 



' ;■ ■ 



Was So, * and Wonnw0ud Bitten. 

n™ »°HM b ,°M 1 !.'1 ll ' J """V'- 1 " «" ,i ;"!'S*™ 

• ic.-r-'i i.','.. ' ;,', i ',„';,'';,". .,..!j"b« Lho" 

jwalj^iad «, r uiher lliiterwilb lht> n 
titah b T lb. Dottle, Leailioho. or Ca»k, be 

na „ . llABItY A J'A-fTEN. 
116 M.inLjtmor, ilmet. ."at, Krasri-, 



,.im.: iha full Ri 

lbs Forau and Vlaovanti thruuchoul the 

Stale, Heporti on the Biblbllioa, Iho Annual Addrera of 

the President, AJdrou or Col. J. B. Crockett, detailed 

IL-t t,t lbs Exhibited Article*, Iho Priio Kuar on (he 

to, whh other Imnortanl mo(tor, i> Dow iuned In a 

Pamphlet or about oirhly naiu, illutnitod. Por- 

doiroDs of obtaining- copiej will please addro-j (he 

Offit* or tho CauroBKU FAnieiD, when ooplu will be 

forwirdeduptrorder. Price Flfti Ccnti. 

For sale at (ho Omen or Iho Cilivobnia Faeheo, 
Stale AsTicDttural Socletv'v Hooou, Sacraroealo — oad at 
Ko. 130 Waihiatton itreel, Sao Jnncieco. Alto, at 
BllBt=u & Cs.'j. J. W. Sullivan's, J. J. LiCoanfj, San 
Fraacixa; Dr. J. C. Cobb, aoilj B. Maooy, Sin Jr -.■. 



Whit lady or Koalleoiaa won Id rem Bin uader tl 
unwof a duagreeoble breilb, whon bj atiag- the "Bal 
■r ft II, ■u-nr.,1 Flonori" u a dentifrice would not ooi 
coder II neot, bat teavo the u-.it while ai alabutei 
■Uny i-.-.i," .!■■ not know llolr breath ia bad, and tt 
ubjtct is to delicate their frtoadi will never mention i 



h Iba 



■ of lha ' 



A flftr ci 



ASTKIjOPF, C.pL P t Aroole*" 1 ™" 



BUSITSTESS CARDS. 



GEORGE PAGE i CO., 
Putcnl and Portable Saw Mllla. 

Steam Engines nnd Boilers, Grist Hills, 



B3" Pamphlets with Tall descriptions will bo forwa 
■> all applicants. 

SCflROEnilR STREKT, 
Selwaea Baltimore and Fayetto streets. 
vn-21 3m ji ,n i.n,.rr, BIi 



M I S CELLANEOXJS. 



Thorough-brpd Devon and Ayrshire Bulls. 

I HAVE for «alo, a law eholca Touae 
Bull., bred frcm tho best stock, with futl 
padl C r(iei.. Frlcoa varying rnm 8150 to 

For particular", 'addrora ma it Ko. 23 Fallon Unlet, 

Tcrmi, Caih on dclircrr on shlnboard In Now York. 
ALHtED M. TRED1VGIL, 
Imi orlsr, Brcodor and Doalcr lo North Usron 
'Ayrshire Cattle. 



tVUKTJ.ILEY & CO., 



J. HOWELL 4; CO., 

iIAKEIts Airs JEWIiLH 
Watehea, Diamond WorSr, Jewelry, Qonxtt Setting!, 
! U ?"rk""-ill bS 



pfifullj- Eunn.ni™! u of [lie 
to Duunood Selling, Quail 



B. it J. S. DOE, 
, °S T a ■ h' ■"""V™ indi 



Maryivil^o, 

Ca'lnia, and 

fia d B Inffa, 

vg-t SAM. J. JIENSLEV, Preside: 



Contra Costa Feny Notice. 

CHAUaE OF BEKTH. 






Ollagthe "llolm of a Thousand Flowers." Itnlllro- 
more Ian. pimples nod freckle, from (he skin, leavio; it 
or a soft and rosea te hue. Wot a lowol, pour on two or 
(hreo drops, and wuh (be face alght and momiac 

Biuvixa Mioa Eur.— Wet your (havin E -braih In 
either worm or cold water, pouron two or tbrea dropior 
"Balsam of a Thousand Flonon," rub the haerdwell 
aad It will mako a beautiful soft lolhor much facilltatlne; 
the operation of shaving. Price only Fifty Ceati. 


Facing Stallion 

fl.o.ovorlUoPinnccrCi.urjc 

■■! t.i- ■■■■Jir.j.-esjKin, DJDJ 

',,,:,:.-, IfublafKinitibt 
ilond. " "' ' ( 


Billy Blossom," 

e br.it ed Smllioojsballeoaot 
EurTHtinKSl-rtTtjOnlbe 
lus for from SL0lVJTo>5Gi». 

n three', or tbi beat thrae io 

S.o Fmod.v,., ..r.i .,, .., 

t be o ff reed upon, 
rquire of 11 MuKALLV, 

en trhau anrj nhire hantlj 

v6-ai it 


W. P. I'BTRiltOB * CO, 


"E X C E 





'" '.«P!93fB 



a. NoncRoss, 

Hi Becre mcato sli ocl, abo.e Moucorot 
MILITAHT GOODS. 



i> snitcmi-;*, 

MASONIC REGALIA. 
APRONS! .SASiii'.s Ax'f) JEWELS 
|i N0HCHQ5S, 

Odd Fcllpwe' Lodges and Encampments 



. N. REYNOLDS & CO., 

, Produce and General Commiaiton Uerehonbt, 



Hudson 'a Golden California Mustard. 

THE jinipiicliir .,f lliL. ii.aiiuf.icl.ir)- »„ulj iovilo oil 
nhofcolon lur.-r.---r. Hn i-.l,lo„n.., |,„-.,(n;i,.,,:i in li.iH 
'ii- •-' -II, .■■,,„,,„ ,,,.! ,.,,,„,„. |-,i. , ; ..|,i.|, ;,!„ ,.,,j 

tuallly, and poi up iu lln»or*o"bs-,"5 lb" . '.' irV.Tll,' 



tbo I 




■Tim Aluitard Seed. 



II, i- .Mi. ;..!. 

32 Frool itreel, corner of Pino, 

II. O. in |i-":." 
hi chos I price always paid for pure A No. 1 



WALTER £ TOMPKINS, 
| GENERAL OUTFITTERS, 

6fntIniiEit's ^pjiarcl, 

No. 170 Montgomery Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Ban Francisco Planing and Sawing Hiils, 
HOURS. GILMOKE ,v CO., PnopntETons, 

MAhlJF-ACTI'HEHa OP' UOXEJi, 

VLirtai lid UV'.lrr,,;.,., ,ir™, Kt„ /Venci.a. 
TJo.1, Spctlt ni, a F'rsill Uoirm, and all other 



V6-21 3m 



Rsildonco— M. 



-,"_'■ 



OTIS V. SAWYER & 00., 
LEATHER AND SHOE FINDINGS, 



Rubber Hobo and Fi 



O. II. BOG ART, 

SPORTSMAN'S EMPORIUM, 



Gnna, Rifle;. Finals, Cnllny, Fishing Tscklsj, Rods, 
Bcoli, BoalDota, Linci and Hooka. 



Mnwii.li, (Vblitlm, r.-;,-.--.,i,:-. 



BOSTON TYPE FOUNDRY. 



TYPE 



:. soncsBs & oo 



,.,r-.,„u,^..,.rlulyof 




COMMISSION CARDS. 



AGENTS FOR LICK'S FLOUR 
4& HIRSHFELD & JORDAN, 

jL Frodnce and Commlujon Uarchanb 

-.1 hdraoco. mule on consignments, and Sloroj. 

rWOOL, HIDES, SKINS, TALLOW, ^ 
Jm M^tollMi p'l'idas. t6-IS llg 



MEAD i. BENNEIt! 
in and Produce Hareha 



Carpets, Oil Cloths and Paper Hangings, 

- & Tul^founuinallilylojanaon.MieiM 

C. H. SHERMAN'S 

'E PKIOB STOBE, 




B"y JACOjV t ^mi^BER" K ™ r0rt ' 
Monufocluror and Sealer In Dedt, RI 
■lScLrto ads, Cots, Mollrr^es.SheelJ.liiw 
|Comforlari, and ororylhlne in Lhb/n 

UPHOLSTERING DONE. 

■Constantly on hand. Hair, Mm, Wool. Polo and 

Foathen. For lain nl the lowest prices, wholesale and 

Ko. 173 Jackson Ureal (3d door below Kearny), 

Nearly apposite tho Inlernillonal Hotel. 
B.— All ordom promptly attended to, and sjxKstad 
tuataen and dispatch. rf-16 



DR 


. S. 


F. 


ELLIOT, 










Court 


Ulii 


CK 


Clay sjtreel, 

3AH PnANCISCO. 



MARBLE! MARBLE!! 



H :!.i.'i.-''i.n.r,-:.. l ,i...^.'!:„ I l';' l '.;„,'' V-;:!,.' ':' ; i;J; 

oii'l°nXr»«hv"mlV'lm"v'!r'l, i '''' Tp - ! ' k "' y '"!-^U'!'f. 



II. _ WELLS A- CO., 



tb»^iii«y^ ''''■'"■■' !irt - 

^■li'i'-nn',-. l 4 r ;i^lo''a^' r La|h K, Saw1or l M«hloos, 



Pnae Medal Ionio Gold Pons. 

MAM t>-,li'Trill,|i ,r,-l .-II 1V|,.,|, ..il„ ami llehil h T 
STIMPSON i. CU , 111 Wo.hli'"l°o '."col. Bolted 

^HziTi'r 8I > -a I *u ' ^- K »Bros.la B .. -»l 76 

"vt£2s£iiiiiiir id. ^SSa * ■'■' ■ ■? .™ 

l-orfe'et. "' '° n ™ " 3r " nUd 



To Florists, Hursory and Beedsnen, and 
Others, 

^yA.'VTn,. i,,- .,„ i;„.:ii.i,„, , n , io,i y yean of u E o, a 
planl°%n]Vi[FVat"mMy"l!iBV.' i '!.;- k "''' "' 




• POWER &, MEWCOMB, 

. Frodaca Commiiiic-n hlorchanti and General 






JOHN T. LI1TLE i CO., 



U How, Clay tire;), Lh:i Ii,h. 



McCOMU i- CO., 
Gonernl Commlajlon Morchanta, 



.■.y.i. ',;.;;■ 



£ BENNETT, JJLASDEL i CO., 
Prnduoo Commliiion Uorobnnti, 



- SCALES & JOHNSON, 

. Frodnco Commission Morchanta and Oeneral 
Agente, 



WM. SCIIMOLZ, 
U. S. Bnrveyor's Instnunent Maker 

\lll tb.,*,^ Mr. >V.mc(.M. 

{^te; HAS olrtoy. on hand Thoodolilroi, 
*=f ^^Trousil Jn.tmu^nL.. Solar and Surrey; 

<T' -J C..tD|„V:SJ, l.-^rlir.. ( „ ! ,.„„ „ , - (, ., ,.,.-,,,],■,„.,. 

lion), Locellot StsTij rjfEaih , Uaonlaii Banmotan and 
BrAm^fc'te' ^stT^^™'".! 1 "l*T* W "' 1 "' 
the EUID Fair sred luo°°aly mitnSiyliror of*totrumonU 

■..„-, ,, r. t . and s:»e h, 

»foraiioriABilnreli«rtBr«, hDuldsoooarnalriniprorod 

by Win. Schmol-", llBMtj nlgMrjilraal . "" "*™26 



this molto, of "Quick S 



Hucki e} Lamb^r, /■<■!. „< Aiiti-frictiim Axle 

Grease, 
An articlo unciuoleJ hy nnylhioj; of tbo kind nan in uio, 
n.-JtrM! .in the cuulry nllcndcl to wllh promptnon 



,. „ , 'sAnfr^LVLl!shUR\{^° r ' fr ' 
lio Feed Sloio, HSm Sansuno si. eor. Olay 



Shell Mound Nurseries 

^RTJIT Q A B D E Kf S, 



m 



V, J. BLAKE a^co""'"* 
rodnoo Commiuion Mor'oho 

STORE-SHIP SAN MARTIM. 



COLBY St, BELL, 

J)'-i*'JJlii iiuj> ijy^ /;! i-ii'jj^j 

milOMdOJlEIll STBBBT, 

. '^i.';;; 7, " iMri i" 1 "" ■■<'«• ''••<•-•<•■'•• a^ «im nctosa, 



KulibrdoDs 
llnceliepR 

« ^ll->ivi^ : j-,cprietu,, 



■niary gl *ggj« "I" 



Peach Trees! Peaoh Trees!! 

';■!*»'" i'h'iimjV ;,',',',, 

Mlt, API'Li:, i-l. mi ,„,., 

'rK.M-i; vi'KI.J* A!,, , |uk ]L tl 



;;: ' ; "' ■ V- 1 • /.'.V.' tK-.V. .','!,. : TlV-''"I'ii>r«'I?r/i«frI- 



THE CALIFOBNIA FARMER,. 



ira' gfjnrtintnt. 





itok, whilom, were weal 


Watching tho [Side 


moments u they posed 






tlnlll oar souls in 


so tn thos* einanst*, 



P,rui 



uging eiot 



c, loco 



Coptd Ihroash njialned immortality— 
A passport threojh the eetes of Eden was, 
Sin M, while our Dime lent aider lo Ibo job, 

lHnIdirllninitMtraroritT 

That Ihlid it above the Ihonjtat of «in— 

Acd Iho Cull saocilon of both boeven awl earth did ■! 

II; late Tor Iheo had not a parallel— 
Ibe dusky Qaetn of Efypt hod Ifnoitd 



leifibt lo 
c Lesbian, 



n her Island, 






And laid a 


Ishillered, fh 


Taring like her heart 


Bud lore b»eot not Helen's 


ntsl flichl, 


M thfu, Adbeamr, in my b 




Bad Ante 


j, Pheon, Fan 


been as true 


To all lot 


over dreamed, 


or felt or know, 


As tboo, wb 


» eallanl sool 


By beinc fired. 


Tho Orien 






Xoi Gappb 


o made the wild Leneadian leap. 




tVOUAS 


5_EYBS. 


IlOTOtb 


eye thel looks 


an aiare world, 


For then 


Idroamof ■ki- 


.andnllthelrblaeEe 


OrYlolt 


te in their oim male worth imparled 



Whose look is like Ihc crenino's silent fa 
An indistinct, onsctlled kind of light, 
Tho mingled poetry of day and nlebt; 



Hard Times, Economy, and Housekeeping. 

Some very sensible soggcslions arc contained 
ia the following, from the Boston Traveler, which 
we commend lo the proud and lazy : 

Sard Tivxei. — Sir. Editor: I have read sever- 
al articles on this subject Inlely, and, as the cose 
is a Tery serious one, I wish to offer some ideas 
from rny own experience of forty years' boose, 
keeping. I have kept a record, during the afore- 
said ti ' 

during said period will. 
Almost every article of: 
nearly doubled in price, and, in son 
three or four times dearer Ihnn they wcro in 1810. 
'Tea, coffee, sugar, and some other imported art' 
clesore less now lhari formerly. All vegolablt 
of onr own raising are double what thoy wei 
and potatoes cost now more than five limes tb 
price I paid for the very best quality (on year, 
ago, and they were carted fourteen miles and pot 
into my cellar in Boston. Labor was lower by 
one-half than it is now, and wages to female do- 
mestics ranged from fifty cents per week to one 
dollar. Clothing (if ire exclude jewelry and ex- 
travagant silks, laces, etc.) is less than formerly. 

But the extravagance of fashion is truly awful 
In men, and worse in women. These changes 
may be said lo indicate prosperous times, and so 
it may he said with tho^o who have accumulated 
fortunes, and arc obtaining great profits on their 
business, and exorbitant interest on their sui plos 
incomes. This class can affor to pay tho highest 
prices for everything, as Ihey are realising a lar- 
ger interest upon their capital thon any Increase 
in the expense of living could effect, however ex- 
travagant. 1 do not mean 10 Gnu" fault with any 
one for using his own property as he pleases, and 
obtaining for his money whatever it ia worth in 
the same manner as he would far colfee, cotton 
sugar, or any other article of commerce. Nor do 
I object to his paying a high price for any article 
ho may fancy, keeping a good table, horses and 
carriage;, or any other luxuries in which hemay 
choosc to indulge his fiirnily, and which his means 
justify, but 1 merely stale the means as a cauBO. 
in a measure, for tho hard limes complained of. 
by those of limited means, from small business; 
clerks and women, whoso stipends were sufficient 
for their rcspecuible maintenance somcycars ago 
Which remuneration has not been iocreascd, but 
in soma cases been sadly reduced. 

These are the persons who are tho sufferers 
from tho prosperous times and the increase of 
prices for all articles of ahsoluto necessity. But 
this class of society ore not altogether free from 
blame, and they have it in their power to remedy 
tho evil in some degree, if they aro disposed to do 
so, by curtailing some unnecessary eiptu=ei and 
extravagances into which thev have been led by 
untvi^ly imitating those who are able to hear 
«iem from hanng more ample means. It may 
be justifiable in a lady ofiurlune tonvoid thocaies 
of housekeeping, and placing u, c burden upon 
her superintendent and domestics. It may cost 
& third more, or perhaps dooble what tho expen- 
ses ought lo be, but for this freedom from caro 
and trouble her husband is willing and ablo to 
pay. But with a wife whose husband is work- 
ing hard lo maintain his family, perhaps on Mm 
■led means (which is the case with olmost all Hie 
world, with few exceptions), the case is very dii- 

lu such instances, tho wife should superintend 
every thing herself, and dispense with all possi- 
ble domestic aid. Tho diQerence between the ex- 
pense of one or two domeslics is very great it is 

I-!...-.-.. ! iL,,, .„ ,-„„,. hundred dollars i inoWlv 

as the wages not, paid lo females U from one to 
two dollars per week, and their board, at Hie pro- 
Mot cost Of provision's, rent, elc, can not be less 
r _h«ndred dollars per week, 



than three or igur Hundred dollars per 
Without allow.ng any thing for tho fW...„ 
inM 7 r™* 1 r' pe ! h *> w > lboir disbnnc-sty. 

at onco, at tho end ol the week or u» in „ whelh 
er any wasle has been made, and Glop lh ' c |J_£ at 
oneo; or, if living loo fust, she can than , sU „ hat 
can most easily be dispensed wilb, t d 
tlni. ^.■r.d.tures lo tl,„. means; and a Zn 
and his wife should frequently look over Ibe or 
count of their expenses i^,L^r a ,„j u,.t, ,|..,'' 
wino whot they can afford. 

If fifty pounds of sugar, a barrel of flour, or any 
Other artidut 55 ent home on a given day, and 

that the same quantity will s.fDce wilh theusoa 
care for another month ; and, if it docs not it 



hi th 


t dream 


Is pull 


lest childhood' 
red the heart th 


?H 


edwh 


" '"""" 


earn.! 



would be as well to look into tho cause. These 
things may bo done by tho wife alone, as her 
husband is occupied in winning bread Tor the 
bairns, and it is unreasonable to expect that our 
domestics will lake much trouble in economizing 
for us. I have often heart! such nrgumenls used, 
and replied to by the lady of the house, by say- 
ing that such a course would not leave her any 
lime to read, visit her friends, or amnso herself. 
I can only say that one case is an absolute neces- 
sity, and the other is not. But I also say there 
ft tjnio (o dobolh. 

I bcliovc, Mr. Kdilor, ihat many men are de- 
terred from marry log, whose rnvini a,v pullkitnt. 
with economy, lo maintain a family, from the fear 
ol incurring expenses which their business and 
incoino would" not justify, and from no other rea- 
son; and this difficulty' is not confined to the 
middle I'hcrc; ofsucidv. but is felt in tho highest 
and most wealthy ; and the last season at the 
watering places lias been productive of Tery few 
engagements, fram the exorbitant expectations of 
the belles and their papas and mammas; this is, 
however, occasionally obviated by uniting a rich 
young man to a lady equally wealthy. There aro 
now so many conveniences, Mr. Editor, for load- 
ing a single life, by our own sex, that unless the 
ladies can make up their minds to be real wives, 
and dispense with some of tho frivolities and ex- 
travagances or the limes— to learn to help, rear 
and care for the family — I am afraid the aforesaid 
conveniences for celibacy may be extended lo 
those who were inlcnded to be the greatest bless- 
ing of this life. Cambridge. 



Halt 



Selections from "Young America." 

The following compositions arc taken from 
the Young America, a manuscript quarterly, pub- 
lished by tho lads at tho Iligh School for buys at 
Benicia. under Iho charge of C. T. Flalt, Esq. 
Whatever may be said of the style or merit o; 
these compositions, it is very certain tho lad is i 
real Toung America" lhat dare attack Ihc rash- 
ions thus boldly. 

"We publish these brief pieces of composition 
to encourage boys lo think and to put their 
thoughts on paper. By so doing, thoy will bo 
enabled by a just criticism kindly given to culti- 
vate a love and desire for that which is worthy. 

Boys and girls' minds are like rich soils— if we 
do not grow flowers and fruit, rank utcdi will 
spring up spontaneously, and soon outgrow and 
overshadow tho bright flowers that nature placed 
originally there. 

Hick of the Woods. 

At the time of tho settlement of Kentucky, the 
early settlers were very much annoyed by tho 
Indians. They would sometimes attack them at 
night and early in the morning. If any one went 
to see a friend near by he would be in danger of 
being killed by some lowering Indian. When 
the settlers went to bed it was with a doubt as to 
whether they would ever rise again. 

There was only one man in the settlements 
who would venture in the woods alone. Uo 
would roam about day and night. Tho settlers 
called him " Nick of the Woods." He was tall 
and robust, and the settlers called him Nick, bo- 
ugly and big they thought surely 
thot he could bo no other than tho " Old Nick." 
about howling for his pig, like a wild 
boar. Tho people could tell when he was around, 
he killed an Indian ho would mark him 
oss. Ho was the dread of the Indians : 
if fifty of them wcro in a body they would run 
from him. If he was about you might look out 
for Indians, for be never went whore he could get 
no prey, for he delighted in killing Indians. The 
Indians called him "Jibbenanoisa," which meant 
the Walking Spirit. Young America. 

Wht nre the Benicia school boys out of tune 7 
thoy can B sharp they will 



BOOKS, &o. 

ST A GtFT^ON'FCH^llTeflSONS. J 

FLORA'S DICTIONARY. 

BV MBS. E. W. WIBT, OF VIRGINIA. 

_ Muslin, .u«r nto ( lll ole« nDd foil E ill ilda, vriUi Ei 6 
M, 1 :.-..,.Mr-"t'tiiplBo.'° n J(ull fill .Uw.wIthFourw 
^Turkq-Morocco/l'u'f^rmlri, fill cJff. "ill. Fifty-El); 

d lio boot 

Tji-h.-v ■■:■.,..■■■■,■, .l.wnirr. riH ■-!.-■- . ■vi"i i'liiy '.-'-■ 

&T Tboabnir Irak tnpcio work Is tortile by 

WARIiEJt i CO.. ?[«!..■ =.,.:i-ti',. Iteoru", 
Fourtl, ■i..-r. J.nt !■■;,!.-.; 



Important New Works, 

JUST PUBLISHED BY 
APPIiETOKT <Sc CO., 



: BILLS OF TilK 
Ibe Wiile. Wide Wc 
jwpulnrily of i Li: ■■■■ 



at tho commaai] of tho Auori 

Ota ™ Fr.nrf°L° UmIcs, D. 1?™ v°™n™ Sv 

with uj.iriir.l- *f iii L-orruviuiii. Price in cloth S5 1 
'= mo , M W; foil talf, 47 fl; fall morocw, 8800. 
lis book, KDtilnloE ns It docs, the te.-"r.l r-f urns i.f 1" 
m~t brilliADl N.ilioDiil Eirtdilions over uoderlakt 



MC.'IORIAL* 'HF HIS TIME. Bj Li 



L i'lMLlj.-rjMlY; .' 
1. !)y HuHiiiiJWi 
.rbr. 1 vol, lino. 



SIZE 



:::,;;.'; 



lish L.in 



MJNDEVlLLrs NEW SI 
for ComEDoa Sebc ' 
SlaniloTillo, D. I). 



f.'m.j.' fl (■ 

— . .HE FIFTH B 
■ndAeademles. By Rev 
■ •"no. 81 DO. 

GEOOtlAFIIY j 

iej..l>',-bi-i|iu- v - 

loWorlfl- :,„..„■ 

the Waal 



Er^ial Kolcrorr;,. I,. llieW.iol., ml'- ■,j,.,-ii„ ■ ..," ['„. 
E'l' in the Senior Cl.-ic.mr Public and 1'rivjie -,-i,, ,,!, 






larg aiidM_,._._ 

iresily for this work By S. S Con 
3D. ^i.. Sc CO. 



EDUCATION. 

Benicia High School. 

TUtS Instltullon, torfflcrlj the " Collccial 
under tho ebarcc u f tho Kov. C M. lllc 
now wnduclcd by Cobskmoi J. Flatt, a 

lb,. N,..i= V.tI: Smlc N'nrmal School. 






The mu.tSenii-Annii.il tcssiun Kill ™inmencB on tho 
IV7H..i,l.'M AliY. !!-.'.: It will be tho i.lnor.f thi: ln- 
Etllutloa to onlto Iho siflom imrfuod In out l.,-i |.ubli- 
schools with tho usual n.Mdcmi-vil ,..uro We shall nay 
iiiLrlUnlnr Qllooli-m that out j.uiills, in j.iirsuinn Iho dojd 
■ - - mnlaoit.1;..:.- Ui- 
,_._ Sciences mil occony 
fuiT-i ..rin-tliiiiiDQ. Thoroucli- 



517, Molhon 

- .— -CJ-j-i. i!-U- 

,e« in ihc E 

ll,:b.r>l 
A daily 






it, before 



is, the build lairs 



VndVnflno 

"fholocationiseasyof .- ■ . ;!.■■ huil-iir,.- ■.-■■II, i,- 
and tho oniolnc^ and bc.illhr u lnr--onbo village aro un- 
sniTM'ed by cny place nithln tho Stato. 

TERMS: rrB aoKTU 



HORT ICULTURAL, & c . 



Mnujitaiii Viaw NnrsBry, 

"■rnprlcror i ~ 




FRTJIT IEEES! FRUIT THEEB!! 
Oak Grove Nursery, Alameda, 

lEg THE cubietlbor, whmo sto-v ' > 

a^v„l,ti,..,,.FRii|T TliEES.Iti 

v,-nr' l.1,1, itjnijy le I -sjirtnc [lie yrt:-e> 



it Tli!n|t. SMoclod 



:-^.-- f, .■ Iil-l |.ul.|i;bf.J a 

tforn,nnul„.:n,Lilul t dL( h- n 

■fallMrt.Ucnli'fitorki.vrinieaiinnmn _ 
nnorandbcllerinpor. and in far suj.cr 
■t.lol.ivl. ,i ib-y b.iiT.-.crbtf-.T.-l.. .r, i. imlin La 
V....1: .•.■.nl.Linssbcautuul cnrrarini,-, illojtr.tllo of o 
of the best scenes ia each nork. Thefolk-nioj ,„ il,. 



THE PLANTER'S NORTHERN BRIBR With ilia 

tnitiuns. Comidoloin ' 

raga, price Onn Eolla 



tofthoBolloCre. 



. Twoi__., 

■-■,dnb rill, 



RODERT GRAHAM. Tho Seqaol t 

>, i-ioiL™ii* |i "a!*" " 

Tho Soon Bird. A Talo 
;r coyer, price One Dolli 

;r cover, pr(ce Ona Doll! 



if "Lindi 
ItESA 



onllnu 






ifiing 



J Flatt. 



A few Wordi about Hcnni-u. 
.t the present time, if a man happens to hare 
i dden longing for rural scenery, or wishes tt 
regale his eyes with tho sight of delicious loottini 
ilyharolo step out upon the great 
thoroughfares of all our cities, and, by wailing a 
ew minutes, he will aee a moving flower or fruit- 
land, as the ease may be, perched upon tho head 
if some or fashion's dorolcd fbllovrera. Oi 
;ide will hang a beautiful bunch of grapes 
the loaycs entwined throughout Ibe fabric; right 
behind that, Ihero will bo a nice bunch of plums; 
the other side, like as not, there will bo E otne 
strawberries and cherries, and especially if the 
happens to bo young and prolty tho ob- 
will hare an overwhelming desire to atop 
Rirward and lest tho reality of iho fruit ; only, as 
ho is about (o do so, ho will make a mistake and 
touch tho lulipi, which had hilherlo been unob- 
served, instead of tho fruit. Ho will see honnets 
embolliEhod by clusters of vegetables lhat would 
make an epicure's mouth water, and farmers 
.■Hiking along tho street aro surprised at Beting a 
peculiarly marked stalk of wheat, which he con- 
fidently supposed was In his granary, sailing 
along upon tho head of some belle. 
Now such bonnets as thoy have now-a-days 
ahould like to know tho use of. Suppose the 
irer happened lo bo out on a pleasant after- 
m, and suddenly a shower comes on and no 
vehicles In sight, D0W would not that lady bo s„ 
pretty predicament by the time she got home 1 
and sho would most likely be laid up ^ r , h , co]d 
for the next week. In our grand -mother's timo 
wii which, covered the head, and 



bonnets w 



did ri. 









;ord, tho iionnols of thc'pre'l 
What is (ho difference between the ages lo and 



if Heal Life. Tit. 

MoisSprine. T» 

... -. 'IS' ™>'or, imco uno uona 

Eill, ai -2S. 

LMfRTSlllP AND MARRIAHE Two volumes 
__corer, price One IMIar, ■•: one ivil., dotb .ill SI 
Li.l.l;,! 1 ;,,, M,,o,lia Valo. Tko volao.es, papc tt 

™™i.,Msr rc ""' p * ,0t ' Mi 

HELEN AND ARTHDR. Tworols.na™ 

"no l'.illiir,.,r.ino v..l..|.,ib .-ill J. I Li 
TMi; IIANl-JHJl- .-'iN; and uthcr Stories of Real Life 

ir other work. Two v.iiuum. y.,,-:, 
liar, or one vol, doth .-ilLVI i, 
rciltllonofaDiot Iho above >vorks 






edition of Ibis oi 



-T wish, tu iho 



ihelr reralltlnKlho; 



and for sale by 
l I.E. l'ETi:i;-..:;, 

'- -t, Philadelphia. 



JOSIAH J. LECOUNT. 
ggaForeiK" and Domestic 



STATIONERY, 

WHOLESALE AMI) RETAIL, 
AT THE LOWEST CASH PR 




Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste. 

COSMUUtcCD BI A. J. DOWNING. 

' < ^SS!,. G f'i"S"S}" '•Dalgnifir Colli 



Hi 3 



runHylv 



THIS noptilat pablitilion, which If sradoalty e 
os (u InBoonco throughout tho ciuotry, and" is n 

■-■[i.io. ir,.|,-|.oofal.lo u, the ti'lcful OirJcncr, Ibo !>.■ 
Cultun.-l, and Hit- FlorieuUurisl, .vill ho coniinucti oml 
lhecJitur=hi|. .,1 .1 .lay .--lull,, i,tr, ,, .il.iljtv anj t;i-lc 
matlorj of conntry life aio highly apprceiatod tbrouf 

if the bean liful, both la Nature ai 

lUelfto the allontion o^f all' whoosh" 



n tsjastlyvs, 



;--,tti,-ir,!>.,-lli[„: ,„.| ,- 

wlihtl 



liv.ie-.-.j by tb 
cnllonofthoHonTtn 
to 11* coatents— neat, 



lb' ULiiiliil l'-::i.-morihoearlbirl 

":ttcal hand. The typographic 

is designed to ben 



!■.- i.ln-.-.rlj- 'liii.n- .|,|. r .-l-:l' ir",'!, 



- Pioneer Nnraery, 

SStabltihedKuSe^VXch^^ 

Premium by tho .-^i,- A,: ro- jli ur.il --.-iory al it- Lrl 

bo i- pre |, 3 rod In otfor them, Iho present (ca»n, a coIIk- 

COUBtr}-, and fir superior lo nnv herotafore ""ifere^d '" 

_ 1 1 ...I. .7 i, v i ,!, l. L .,;i„ L - 1,1 i ),-■■•'- i-ny-.ovon kiodsrf 

Ihlrtv-nvc varieties of Peochtj, addedlu Ibo'kno'wItJii 

srawn in various localities, no hate been enabledW 
ct-rtam Kiln I'trlainty ivbr.l l;iod. arc K'Tlhy of ,-ul:rr. 
nndsuoh varieties only do wo olor to iho puhlie Urnia- 

We call jonr allontion rarllculaily lo oar Eeedfef 
Peaoh. named by iho Andoim ,.f .'Citor.il f-.i-:::.', 

Myers Rarenpe," which Bo ofl'or thi-sen^n for lis 
finttimo. Thefollo-.tiot-.trtit-,,.-.!!.-. Kill .,, ,..,|; fi.ri'j.;. 

_. . ALjssirn, July ailli, ■>■■', 

III- ill. cri|- ,- o-i-. I r,.; .■■ii „:..| , .„. ,, ... ,|... ,., ... ,..;,,, 

'"■■'i.. : 'i'l :■;, ii ■ A,-, i .... .1 :.-.u„ri,lV.-',' :,.-'."."! ; V 
^''"J'"";'.' 1 ' y ^"' n ! ■ I ■ "J J ■ . ■ ■!., .-■■nllJ-y „r,J lah-- 



f^*t^SSlS!1^ r Ss!i 



rsssBeegsm 

udco-. ,. r -;bai.|., or -,ootrv-reaf-l,, , :,„ii,-, Vi 

- -'■■■K. 1 i,uiii,utor ? ,r ! b,...,,,f-„ imil , ;,„;., '■„,,.. ::; 

or"! anllm ZoL. L en i o, J er''-' *'"'"'* "" la, 4 ^»"" 



loUJlh 



io.i-.Tf.„Fr,; ; „ n j i! n] || lclbl 



inonces with Iho Jan 



Eeclts! 
E 

no Fnbei . 






-: '-ll.:,..|-,l,erPens.ndPcn ll' 
. Gold, Sleol and Qull] l» Bn . . 
ker's Cases, ITallols, Porie-MonS™.. 

'},V.^^U^\^-. Mai ■ 

— "-Ulnj and Trnveliut Lcltt- 
nl !■;...., and SSaai3 , 



io of ihoj«ri 
■it, eml.ollL.l 



i-i. ,0.1 



d with ti 



I;' ■oihl. J |ly,l|. 1 ..|raied wllb over 100 
thom drawinn of fruit and Bowers 
v,,|umw, if t.-itcnf t ,ranumborufrs 
or.blo Llo v-l,.|,(JUf,f Horlkuttural 



ated by i 



to nor friends end palrons (has earlv, ttu 

'ir'.- .1 ■■! ■■■.!. i.l.itily [.. u|,|,ly thL-m " .1 

f-|-.Ti:o .■! ,,„, Ii„„- ,.„i ".,; lb. ''.-,, ui,,ri':" 
e cao assure thorn ibot lline and money ri 



Wo p'artienlarly lo 
amuiofortheiasoli 

inline and prunln B 



I, ,'-. ',!.,:. L ;i 

teilisonst- 



^ar«ry»l 



Smith's Pomologioal Gardens 

ISTTJRSEjR-S-. 

S.- [ " ::: .''• ,'.',':■"„.'.!■■•.■'■ .:£? -x 

......i.a.i;,,,,,., ,„„i„„. ,„,l„ r , c „:., I,j l„, „,.J8! '. - 1 



CopjlnB e 
A- O OOtJMT 300-K1S 



Or sold from Use i 



THE nALL u 
bundled and 
high above Ihebr 

of iho bu'ldln"o 

buii.lred andthlr 



uid tho laird Mine 
a corner lot, seven 



o be desicne 



edo,,lcdJ,y the Hoard of [uleckrs. ' *" b "' b " n 



aecomary 



""^[ahio'co. 

ffoated by a t« 

™ldeni^ucdbyadg r lfc, 



By orfor of Iho Board or Bireeton 

Ohelm.. r^ °-,»- STREET. 
IU11 of the MKiS^Ti^i"" S Bu> '^Jffi 



17 and IB Minor slreet, l'hiladelnhir. 



v „« A .-, ( . ■■/<■ i.vvE.VTonar 

LOW, HASKELL &. CO 

SOJ.I0ITOHB OF PATENTS AMD PUBLISHER. 

"iWyENTOH." 

■''"^y?od\,; i i: 1 a,:.;'^io;' C n;:^:;; l .^i''-; 

(,-ur.r,.- I.L.iluf I'otont iit-,',1 r.r,l i r ..-a. ,'i , 
■i ! i'."'bf.^..iio, : „:.k.,t,bof Ibelrlnveu- 
pr-i-or de-:n|.ti ! .„, tl,..., r |,„ in , . ,,,,, [.,. 
unrliirt. V*t.u n-r_L..,_ ._.,.., ,JI ."° 



pitEPAltl 



apjllca. 



nOLLAlt A YEA1L 



■<■ f..r 



"DANKLIL*:. t 



|.r.,,. i. ,1 f. .,i.j 
, u; l„„. ...... . 

do end 



" :lh "\ [ "i- 



■ro .is. pUc™ rC,''ViVl'7od^ , Vr''.'v 'l-:i^o'? ' 

ks.™™ "' r 1 " , ■"' l, "■," ,l "■'■ "■ '" ""■ * ■ 



t 



iioni'- i, iB |[,h,. 


rim 


es ubllom-T 


•s Bomb" 


















(i.ih'nKN si'i:i'i^^i,o 


U|'','^'i^Minr, 


u=eedsll 




















B 


, m « wu £ rp o 


SMITH. 



-.'i Tnuiii tl ii[,.j i mid'ull business 
JOHMC00R,Ja., J lBread>v», 



THIIE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 




GRAVES & SMITH, 

COPPEKSMITHS, 

PLUMBERS AND HOSE MAKERS. 

SODA WATER APPABATOS, 

StUls, Worms, Brew Kettles and Heaters, 

lilt and Force Pumps, Brass Work, 

No. 8 Jack so n street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




AGIUCULTtTRAL. 



AGRICULTURAL WORKS) 

"-.I -c .jw PROPRIETO! 

"The, Bul, the Cheopeit" 

• RAILWAY HORSE POWERS 




AGRICULTURAL. 



Hew York Agrienltoral Warehonae 

SEED STOHE. 



B.ii 




Agrical tnral Warehouse. 



"WIRE FENCE, 



Gardens, 4c, TIili i jiLLl ! I L J=^r F w" a -~tf? aarrj =^ 



ALL kinds of ton Shutter*. Vaults, Safes, and ovorv 
description ..( lle-uso Work, Machinery, Steam Bod- 
en, Edge Tools, Ae. 

There il no other establishment In the Stile that hm 
lb, tame irfvanUssea for ciMBtlOi Fir'! Class Work.and 
at prices as low u on v Id :'-■■ Miami- -n.- 

■ :.- ■,!.:■..,■! Mililtotts bMtof inrSUtOi nad^alto 
innorior lo mueb ina.ufaelarod in this Slate. 



Aumort Hilt,, ocr. Sacramento and Montgomot 
Eims. Udilpiso. cor California sod Monlg, 
M.HOMt Hill, MonliEomery llnat. 
Wbioiit', H.MMVO Iba-c, cor. Montgomery* 

r:.,, -!,-!-. S;,o Fmucisoo. 

And many olhcr of the Cnoil building i" San 1 
slid, Hni of Iho but building Id Sac runt mo 
Mary.vUle. 

K. B.— Oris » from Interior Towoi filled irilb 




PHENIX WORKS, 

rm&JBOOF BOOBS, SHUTTERS, VAULTS, tie., 




Fulton Foundry and Iron Works, 






■ ..niit",- i" 



haniEcfclfai....,,. 



Coffey & Risdon Boiler Works, 

a/ flusH and ■^"p'™^ ^"'"'* ° rin "' 

THE nndon! 
and uttn 

lhool.1 



»llL;tt, in.l other places where b 

■ i. . i ■ , i-.. i: .1.1 •- 



Reapers, Threshers, Horte Powers, Mowers. 



5,000 VS.'.W, 



a _ fa!- A - , ;- ., I : : r 



fTUESE Poofd are double action, and combine boll 

- 1 lbs Su;ti, ti ..:■! E,.r,-e I'rir.eipli i Tbo Pistons on 

Jflhobe.l loll .... : .1 .,. ,.:,. uiAin.-ib-mavaLLol. " 

I':,i i ,-..i,,. L rl!,,i,..l 1 .,...|.| |,. |U L1 

.j'' ''i'"' I- r i ■ ■-.■!■ I = -.-jl ,jr.l-i:.r„ -,r <-h unban, bu s< 

•W porfccllyjo tho ntindw. 3%ninporUn*OTnsli 



■ r:l |.i<!. il. l-iu : p. rt'.'ll; (- 



:.■;".'':-;>>■>■ : ,,ir >• 't- ,■■..■, ( ,.,;i ':,;..i\: ji . 

■■ ■ " -'■■' ''> '■■i : 'i l -':..: , .''l,'!v;r;'; j ; v 
tti iiSLwS 'rlli ^faStS: "rltSffiT- ■ 

tuw, &c , ma. bo obtained by addreuing the ° "*' 

Missus. BODGE. Newburgh, H. Y- 
,5.3, Or, KBILOulO .V iJDini'i:. 






Peoria Premium Steel Plows. 




California Premium Plows. 




ALL WHO USE THEM KNOW THEIR VALb 
TraYrvBelvMlbaPlimh^ttbu Stale Aurieul.or.1 i 



To the Farmers. 



The Victoria Resda. 

A »Ew corny .,, ,u. i^u'iim nW, i„ . 

5..\ 1 .'",-:'" i V -'■ '■ i.' i^.u':. ,,.. 




air) in Ibo above e;lablHhlnonI Tor 
-., b.vin.: |-.L.r,:ba.-,.l Mr Soi.iiMn- 
'ill continued Ibo buiino.-) M herelo- 
-hOMWenni propair-1 •« m»nnf»A. 
r7'J.-:.:rlj.M,-.a.JU 



ron wWof 



:ind! at tbo ?b°rl 




HAS, bj Ibo «=p«l«.l T of hi, L 
Ambrotjrnes, «alu trtelvid ih« FIII-t r !'l.r..MH M. 
■„..,r!-l n. lb" -m:- lair of 1856, ' " 



SAN FRANCiaCO. 

What is an Ambrotype 1 



And irhyli Iblil Whohalli tbe poiror 
To paint or ploturo tbui, tai mako of ui 
A la mo thing mo ro tbao ihadoirod solf I 
To brine boforo our vi,ion a form 
So trus to natoro, tbst o'.o ounolf deeslvcd 
Mom than Bbcn no too oar face In glow! 
Who bath thla power, wo'uk a B oln, 
To mako iiraalnt appear so plain 1 
To caloh each took, olpreMlon, fonn- 
Tbo yotj oya nilb lovo to warm? 
WbohiththlipoKerl thia wondrotu aril 
Tbli ponor to gits oar coaoiorpartl 
To paint llko life, alilugla glanes 1- 



Lyon & Co.'s Brewery, 



iml.ir,ii:i,..-lbsi r lBBTOtomako ^an, 

».. -. to Ikcfr friondi and ijilromMaBl 
that tboy a,a hard at work domg alllfflHl 
thoy can to mpplj Ibo urdtn that aTo gME 
mllin,: lo o|-ob them from all .luorlor- 

Our Card In another c.lumi. .nil otplilo Ibot tro gofer 
tbo "Piuraii'.i PnirjiiiiH," and a, wo feel Ihov havo 
awarJeiUhal to uj, wa do notfear aoj nppoiltlon or com- 



■'. CO., Eraplro Diawory. 
K Jo M !o rtraai. Sin Franci 



NOTICE. 
PKEMIUM J 

' PREMIUM 1 



Tlir. -lIjo-ii ciui.i.nj IhIitJ [,i keep outbsl 



Agrionl tnral Bnsiness, 

A " : 1 ..' ! ;V. ' I ^""rl tor "ntn"*™ rV" nroEUbuTb 

.-.mfurnhb 5S.W0 .ach. Tbo cbaneebjar 



'li : . .,10:. 1 e nfidencocaoboiollod u™n,andDu por- 
«a will be Irtolod wilb but tbo MriocipjI. Lttterj, with 
'■-.I !.:o.iiii, : . a.Ur, ',-,1 bi " 0. A It." aadlcflal.or 
ina!ledtolhoofflw.:rrb»L'AL[10UNl.\ \\\ \: li t !:. ,.,>> 
toMlvo prompt roplT. rt-15 



WOOL, HIDES, TAILOW &o 

puimuASCD vy 
Hehsbb. Wh. J1EYEH-ELTON & 00 

IBO Jubion uLnet (abo.e HooHomerfl, ' 



Qoa Worki. «,„ ih, l, w| 



'.AJdEMTO. 



MEDICINES, Sac. 




O F F I C I A L N O T 1 C E ! 
POLHEMUS """d" RUG STORE 



.0 oror clorioua FORTY-;. - tli V.. u.;: ■• .mi-t.-! "Lib 
i threo Qroj and three nood«, and Intend to lira 
: you wiUi mjr family during tbo term of mr natural 

onabiod mo "to [07 One Hundred CouU on'lho Dollar 
thnrajh all my adt-erc« fortuno. I would also givo you 



o between thoio who bavo picket ... ... 

;vcfioU.' n 'i\ubi, laiier"clM.'l luvethV bono,'; -'■ ';'': " 
avlng learned my bu.-inrjj in the Allonlie ililej, joJ 
sen engaged in said businow Tor tbo last oightoon jean. 

Believing Ibat life isiwoot to all, and t bat the people 
■isb to know i.boro Ibcy ,:.vn set their nrc;e:i [■!:- :i [ili. 
.■ito sifety, I "ill hereofior fill them for 



. .-lend my -tore .'ball bo ONE oRbo bet, i.' nol THE 
111.- I - S'ln..-.. in i'..li!-..rni:i M .l.l.io c eery I bine, NEW, 
MM' -ol -■niA.MJUirirbe l'ro.. lino, nnd e-poclally to 

Palont'BIedLino.'Dru^'an.j'c'hoSU" Wo r Tnv V ito°Dro- 

r .rit !■■.?■■-■['■.■ -ilu.il.l, :i<, I r..h,l.l- l',l,r,l M.. li.-in.-.i-'.-cil 
ihmg. lVrh..v..liT:.'ir,J ll,.,r..o.;blv lirc-i-n-,! 



nediclncs than in Ibo day lime 



[oreaftorno will do a baiinm on a CASH LA.^IS 

LV. Tbo aiuooi.l s.b.i .»!.- 1 !i.t,.i. ■(,.,.:■ I. voredil- 

«o inl.n.1 l... il.-trlL.ul., ,: V ,-,[\, , in; ..or , , - iio„,, in 

tbo future. In tbo dc-ersojod price of our goods. 



; rlv!.-.-.-.r,-,i,:-::,.| 
e]l H l>f. S|Jm. 



os for the following valu 






irjoods. Wo think wo knoi 



. lirico and noalily. 
E WILL THY. 



J. L. POLHEMUS. 




cA^r 5 1 "* 1 - ■* < J" kc ''J ""'bTl ledAgnitrortboLIO 



California Steam Havigation Company, 

rjjIC— s Till-; fmt and jplcndld Ion nreui. 

^fr .rrr " , , . :: : l : , : - L ,"' V ,!i " ■■■' ■^■'i'-'"^ 

il.'.. I--. rj.'.-r :.■'!. u'-'i'.-i'.i'iu-. - r '.'.' rm!iur Masler, irl 
loaToonTuc^ay. Tbur.-laj- ao.l Saturday. 

Tbo ileanicr A !. - T El,. i|'i:, ]] ,\ }.„,|, v|„: loI , si 
leive m JI.iij.Jaj-, IVjIn,,]:,,- L „i,| Kri.|„ T . 

ThemoomerllELKiN UEKaLEY, K. U. M. Chadwicl 



-i-.iijj'-r i.l.l iFIWIHA, w || T.ijlor. Master, Will 
.-lonm.j'il-V TV.'.A.'"^ '.-"'"-'ioml.ir" Afailor will 

leave Sl.nd,,, -A : J,, .J, y : . .J i.- r . J; , , :.. ! . 

If '■■(!! Ij.rl. iJrb. "«».»«. a.. 

For Colasn, Bed Blaffe and InMrmedinw Londinin 

Tboileanicr-SAM .-ull.r.ii V |l lrtl( M „ ., =, 
liKH, M Linlulon. M.. l-r ..ill |„,-„ i, . I, ', 
o:.rne-l |,la,,-. ..,, T„. J ,v. 1 I.-.,, i.,., '.„.. -■„,-':,, 
o'clock A.M., fromlb.j .lo:e:l,i|. An(.'|.,|, a . ''"' 

For freight or pu»g( br any of the above, boabl onpl. 

■■""■■■■■■m.-ti.-.m, ., ; , ■ ■■.lil-r,,,,.,,eomKavlS 

tion OompiQf. on b-j.ir-1 Ibo Lri.- i;|.,l,„ '"""""avig* 
ILEBIKOTOH. Agent. 



JOI1N L. OrnQNON. 
PSEMIUM GABBIAOE FACTOBS 



2Si T ^£&Sr n 



MEDICINES, &c. 




FOR T11E REMOVAL AND rERlfANENT CI 

All Diseases arising from an Impure 

State of the Blood or Habit 

of the System, 



il lo 111 opeuuon on tbo »ylu!m when laboring 
bu boon to fully 0*11-4. not only Ly pitlti.li 
io by pbplelsas, that IL bu received Lbelr OB* 



Jtmii tlir Slnnij. 



Ho-srt. A. B. A D. 'im-. f 



Prtpared and Bold by A. n J: D. 3ASD3, Wboleudo 1 

e..il a:,.| - li. :ni.f. U-i Mltt.'ftt Corner of William, 

1VATTJ A Co'.! M-.'.v.viII.'; li." Il' M-Li.jNALL' i" L'... .' t 

mtmo; and by Drogglsti gtnemlly. 



CLOYE ANODYNE 

TOOTHACHE DROPS. 

Complain no more of Aching: Teeth. 



gl!l% Ko. 1W Pulton-streel, eerner William. Kcw York. Bold 
by lLJ01ISaijS,kCo. 1 EM Fmibn; S. T. WATTS * Co., 
Uirjivlllc; E. II. MCDONALD & Co, Sictamealo; and by 



WHO IS IT? 



dtyl 



porionced A[»lb«arT 



LITTLE. 

bonuroi 

EST PRICE! 

LITTLE. 

TTTHO puta op the most Physicians' ProserlplioniJ 

LITTLE. 

"^ryHO is over ready to anpply tho Poor without ohirgaJ 

LITTLE. 

WltO keep, hi, . -.!,;■, ui' iis ALL NIUIII, M accom- 
modoto the public! 

LITTLE. 

\I7"H0 noror omploya boys or inoiperioncod personal 

LITTLE. 

ll'IT' bu the largiMl nnd be.n iloeV ■:•; M.:Ji:io?.., 
*T Forfumory and Toilet article. In tbo olty 1 

LITTLE. 

"IT'IIO Mil, Dcvlno's Pileh Loud ges (price ooly 25 obi * 

"i u boil, tbo srfj!..-;l ri'mc iv ever JbcOVorcd for 
Coughs, Colds nod Disoaeea of tbo Langsl 

LITTLE. 

~\yn" 'Oil' tbo real, genuine Bay Bum, only 75 cent* 

LITTLE. 

T.Y'UO soils lbe_ 110 jEJIAliY AND_ CASTOR OIL 



LITTLE. 

y^TUO trie-i lo deserve tho patronaga of tlu public ] 
W M . B. LITTLE, 

CHEMIST AND APOTHECARY, 



EB 



0. L. TAYLOR i CO., 

Sash, Doors anil Blinds, 



Stair Bail, Balusters and Newel 
Posts, French Wind owe, Mouldings, 
Sash and Glass. 

lies for <i : . ..■lib...: ■.., and Hot Beds, 
ounlrj order, will be faithfully and 
OMcuted, Ibo samo oa If purchasers 

IDelncen Davis and Urum, San Franolsco ) 
J.' B-' BmtiieV, J 



O I LI O I LI 1 O I LI! I 

Kd COOK, FOLGEIt i CO., 
30,000 GALLONS OF POLAB™flrix'l ! I 

OHIJDE OR DLEJOHED, 
EN 0.DAJJT1TIE3 TO SUIT PnBCHAtTESl. 




MmolEUle Deal en In Turpentine. 

„ COOK. Ful.(ii:il A 'i... 
7 'n 123 Front •uea, 8uj Pr«els 



T 



hFcalifoenia farmer. 



a n lyed Til ui ■ laj 




(lid already been ,-iililc I 111 ir," .ily -1 N-:« V; ri; 1'i.r 
NiSRSH !"1 I/IJ-,'! !,^n :.[.■■!■-. "V. ,:rntl ... 
o. I ...i ,. a "i'iiL- l.i. . "i'!i ■ "■ b.ii. ii. 1 I' Toil- '■ :i r-.'.l.- 
Kw.lSiU ^ Ik * rt „!rf«B »U?" Ob 



To be a man In this World ! 

TWO VERY IMPORTANT MAXIMS!! 

"Economy it the only laxo Road to Wealth;" 

"Early to Bod and early to Eiie." 

r^. Tly Ibc l.y, .|-i-skln = ii twuimy, ""'• |**jt 

' I" r. cii-.fi-l- n.iil ili.-.e inac- B 

jlB nlnclnj S»«Ut^n=h Spring UcU. liljB 

EXTRA ORDI WAR Y HBDOOTIOH 

PRICE of lodgings: 

Woodward's wiint CUeer House, 

110 and 121 Sacmmonto street, 
87, 80 and 01 (now addition) Lcidc^lo. tl sired. 

Lodelnc!, per nhjkl M and 13 cealr, 

L. !:.iii_. In Nr.l rlr,. .n„-l,: icii-n:>. Iiinil.|..-I 

-rnplete, per night aceuu. 

in cbcrUh lb* tarn Wind "I r.-s«rJ for Hi-- |.r..»l.ij 
o( iho "Innarrjiiin," tbe n. e-.il I in.- Imv pr it.- .11 hoard 



ilMi lili.l'l ■! I ill, - ■ ■ b ■ 3 ■ ■ i 1 '-I'll I'.ii'l', !■■ r I . . ■ -. 

15" FREE BATHS. .sEl 

.'^".mniel''!-..' -." I - - £ r . it'v m|" iC '! :',!,. -Y 7^,'-- Ui'i.tli' 
It. B. WljOl'lVAltD, 




."mJ.-ti-'i «i<l ' 

^!d rll« S S"b i-= J 7 .^ " ^ i r'o ' lU 1 1 v", . ij ^1 1 SI dn.^u.^s' 1 r« 
InLomipuniT their biuincis ^ ^ ^ 

20;h!iB tbt Sc" Votk SlipreiEl '-'-■■url . .-.nr.-. lb- -■■: ; - 
KrVTramll Company, in which thn plaintm- nlk.-c lb;.'. 
SeVh>inmel 1 im=rT.ir..'ll!]-..-i.!l^,> for nearly Iwcall- 
ono tbon-and dollar?. They ajked also for Ibo rale of tho 
;."'. ■:.,, | belnnilas U> Ilia line. TheeasewaEadjomtud 
to ? ri J ay . Ibe 26th. 

' a "■-'.-:...'■ -j l" 
Iltboa-.a^*!" b* CniibeJ. il i« Bii, by Ibc G«L of 

,™irfftV,SBdnrccii^elcdloL.n:hmr«ilfic.uKnitlurt 

bylhoBntorJi.oii-.-v_ '.-1- ..■■<■■ '.underbill, HibmiJ, 

fcjthec arrange men 11. 
K*s.is.— Affairs in Kataai remain quiet. Governor 

Ihe a '7iTiWiT' , Jii3« Lf^-ini li' Mi.f M^'nal'l-onill™ 
Imyobeoll removed, and J^ O ll.im...r.. ,.( K.mrutli;. 
^pcinKdin Ibo placed the former, and WllliiintV-iottr 

■} . 1 .. . r,l. .1.11,, Til,, lan.l •.*! it.-iv 1 r..-.. I,.,.- 






[0 Henry -J I'.-iviii .r.i, ...lilor ,|" Ibc N,:n Y.-rt Jiniiy 

Lp which Mr Uutfier wu chanted, bj 
breakinehis parole in Australia. Thi 



■flh* Nei _.... 

aa 1 r r ■: 1 ,. [n tbe Timoi 

nod, by implication, nil; 



Sy benefit onld-i li'ili all. 












Pacific Railroad wore adopted, aa wajalioon 




','>■;■ ■■!■' :.tA '■■lii.ri.i-. by Ibo nropoicd Tebo 
mule. The w»i«i o( ihe re-or^olne, of [bo Afri- 


tnln'il 








ThoUniin.l Ei*'V "Mivitig iblp Union, nla 


ehor 



the Key. Yard, Philadelphia, waj R badly cut by Iblo, 
ucatiOKieo lhal ibo funk, id ab.,at thirty feet of water. 

Tin: I' >■ .l-'l- ■- , ;';-' r j _' : . |ljk ' "■;■ »■ "f^bur olo'e by. and 
VlV ' i.i-.n i- 1 irrjolJ.TeiTel.ar.d bo." t?on unwairortbl 

Tbo Suprtme Coin • ! Mi.-.i3ri ii;: iivn <-■! .ti i re- 
manded Ibo caeoof the Ciljof St- Lo-abj ocalmlj. A. 
Alexander better known as the Onia and .Mi. .-,,[.. 
Kailroadleioatticaca™. 

Pollliral eiielee are Hill >tilatins tbo nlectien of Mr. 

IrMedj, bite diiapreed They ;t»Jill for manelBn E blor 
in the third J".;ri--, ..l1 . 1 ;■■- 1 :,'.■■■ . 

:,., . ■ ;. LMiunt -,r » ine-iiialcJ imurrecllon of Ibo 
.UVS, -bitb ™ fixed for Cbrblma, oro NamtToa. ar- 

Kbil* men bnn B , aDd'olhcr[«bi : iped 

ban Eacland.io a lawnirnjuiof oun.daied Korember 
iS, ilalci that the llto in the price of copper bu been al 
lbs uDptecedcDled rata of xS 10!. alcrline per ten, and 
Ibal aa aJdiLiunal life of ilOwai eipeclodin afewd»Ii. 
— I C uluai bli =".-ulh Carolinian. 

Alboit Pike, of Ar.aniif, haarccoired a .fceof 8160, 



> cnablo him U> lira 1 






theitroolior [beeiiy-iibapau, aod rule lllllo dau^h- 
tet.bu juit fallen heir lo ao ulalo la Wi,l. : -. . ,i,n:,,.J 
In ba worth » million of dnllan. Aprovnictulli>;al Bra 
in Rochcslcr "? Dow engaged in DJakiop; out 1L0 ncocuari 

Peler Huon, aeolored man, now a rcr-idontof Wood- 

ltOik,Vorinool.b:. rt.,:,.. .ill...-,, I, .,M, ; ..,„ ;,,;.. ,,| |..,i 
jeanl and laduubsl. 1. ill' •-!>■. ■■- u>n,- msnlnlhl. 00, 
try. TJIihi.-|.ryli:.il:i : i.ii-..i.;'U':'i., ;, ll,i.,-,i. ]■ 
- '"'oodstiKk, aDd It a W t*Ti be wo. bom 1 
iliiiirt.jn-.7i" f.rly-ii! yuan old il 

with Great E.ilain broko i,o^ t ho°l 
paned lha nrlplural limit of life. 

The (Jcorrla pipem record I be deitb, Id Ho-,1; tour 
in Ibal Elala, at St. Joieph Calhoon al the a E a of 



[11 . 1 


uuti] 








HOTEL 




T N 


TEE N-A 


T I O N 


AL, 




JACKSON 


STREET, 




AHOfE 


wtsnoiiBRy, 


Sax Fbascl. 


0, C..L. 


S-iVi 






VT. ^J 


(M. A. 


FBBKOH.) 


[A. S. HALEY 


L»e«,] 



^A^Ya^al^bCbi ™I««cd Jil™ ellLa. 



Bassetta House, 

IgbtjinJe.. hj lb°J.™oti' a , ronli°»rilh n or vti'iho 
» tree) forOooDoL7" n " ' JodU'il'* A lr.-l."f-TI., 



MERCHANDISE, &c. 



CHINA GOODS, 

HT. Wuhli.gtDi. .ti«[ OloDWomerr Hlcei.i 
SnN FRANCE I/ <J 
_____ HAVE opened in aboic, -nil nDJ ksgn eon- 
. Wj & ■taalljtar.Be 

Trnden, Hotel and Btitauront SMpcTBnndFnxoiljes, 






u.-.lly !'..-J[*i.|-,|.'J [., .nl.ir. n. 11 p-r-.r -.1';. ;.r.- : 
II". VVi.-blnrt'.ii Mrcet, I 



CoilaRicaCoUoej 



> Co lee, 60-lb. 



Allfpiee; 

t'l.V'r'i.i; Jlu'l 



Kalmep, Caida In mall, and all kinds of S 
. ■ r.. in For sale by 

l('M. H, 



BOVEE Av CO., 



Serchandi_e for Sale by Brarlihaw & Co., 

Corner f-Urnn,1r, and Ii.lUry rtniU, 

SAN FRAKUIaCO, 

j-i l!.l!n[l>iIA Lr.rd, Bailor, U,nu, Eicon and a_Dk« 






IN,;... 



itiui.iTj;: sr.l -I; 



.r ibc i-<o 


oiioaary War, In nhitb be porllcif -ted- 11= 
















"" V/yg,* -edlnlhotllyof Now York on 
- xod 10. j.u,, fl[ty D r which tbe paued In 










d, nMH^c ™r«lil*lMl th=y7c»Val1cr 
















Baibi 


Sah Jobe Valley.— Wi h,, Te c - lm . 


intd many 


rl-ces Id Ibi- valley, and ll _ _, K w ,|, 


fitted for p 








T.lley. Si 


1 Jdk, or rather Santa Clara -alley _ nQ - 






In dcflroy Ibe r-ophers and Kiairrely. which icem to infmi 




.Imwt like the locnim of Ejjpt. In do ™i 


of tbe Slato do we belloyo lbe» anlmali are 10 nnneroai 


or MicntalhelT depredation.. They tit ctf two yean 


old f run 




MJS 


I the htaiy ralai and a temporary Scod c _d 



„"•■ &.';."• 


"' ''"'..'v^!' ' ' "^1 .'n.i'i.Vv.' '!■ '■■':•" 


1 ? ;. 


■ ■! '■■! 1.1! Hi 'HAW .'. 1 11 . 


9S_S 


r,.,Kft.|..-r..l-M ,iom„l, j, : ,i l-.,.h.,|. lu 

r:.,u'i:,- .Int..-, ..111.!, ■.-....,.. 11 : ,';.i,/l. 

UB-tDiiHAW .11 i.ll. 


■ -Jlli.-Ki.!! Kl 


ERAD311AW ft CO. 


5,000 


1 II K '.'■■' 1 1 .M 11 11. 1. 1.li -.,!, -1: ■..,. 


JS'i •" 

■'■,^-.|.r..,lj-Jo 


- r.-i-. lni|7L.r..il i.y M.-..I [l.i. 1. ! i, : ;,i. j. 


«; 


1 -1» H' — l.i .rj 1.:ni!l, ■.-.:... -i.:i : .-: . ...,i. ■■;,,- 


M_St_ 


" V °ST^i"^' m^l^A'F 


i j ■- i - ■ - - . 1 1 si 




SSkf 


^"^U iC "^MDsu7<fit%a ! 'P 


0„SK 

1 5 ud 10 e -llo 


BRAD-IIAW Ii. CO. 


JN^'iS". 


RRAD3UAW Av CO. 



w. 



Cordage In^tilh.otory. 



PcniiHylvanla Slate Elecllons. 

" B __ O EL'S - O I- -" 
IMMENSE ATTRACTION 

WALTER & TOMPKINS, 
Ho, 170 Montgomery .treet. 

_J, ]iV Iho .irri.-nl ..I'lli- "ll.. Mon-^yr 1 - , ' t,. " T ^ 
«'■-!■. i.r»i.-ii.;1l.oner.i...flhfjrag iJ j fj; ; ii 

an in-olcii 1 1 inlandi. BH -Jj,'" in ud- ^ T -a. -^*** 

- ■'--"'--ilrolflT-" — -■ 

in 111. ir Hi 

ifCASIIMEItES 
andVESTrMlSinlhis Cilr, 

G. F. H'alt-r, hatiDc lolurned, odd now bo found at 

lii-],-.l, rci.il- I ri-r hi. I'riiioi, nnil (lit |-iil-li.- ,:.t.m- 

■ lI Ey , I. ,-. in.: I.,i 11 iiii|l.-7'.l- ..mil ■ I u mi l In-' ■'! ''ii. ■ 

It 1) now conccled fhal W 1- T. have not oror-ronohod 
Ihtir mollo, llntllioy uro cnlirlcil ti. bo callod I ho 



nn'.i [Ii-... .;.l,nl|.| llii.M. Coat. Hill b.ivu l'; 
ill koep tbe load. 
GENTLEMEN'S FI'RSISHIXtl iJuOHS 



GREAT LOSS OF LIFE! 

MI-OEH GATE CLOTHING- WABEHOUSE, 

Clothing and Irunii-hing Good;;. 

eSeed from' .Tr' b-'.J.'!-.' .0;. "ll',". -.'ii.',;, :.'!-"!' York, \h 

black, blue, nnoivtt akd olive fh 

BLA'CK, BLUK AK»I1IF|/k l!HE„'iv"hU61NBH& G 

BHSIKESS 1 iat Ml \ D PANTS i 

RICH VELVET Vr-STS B AND PARTY VESTS; 
1IIAVV I IllCNCH AND ESQMSII CASSI.MKRE 
1'AhTd. Ac. i.i.d i-v.-rribiti- In L... line of Foroliblne 

Solo leather Tr- nnlr- , Volifes, —cl, ie. 



HORTICU LTURAL. 
To FaxmerB and Nor;erymeu 

— ■=— Loall H..11 do J.-.t-..y — .11 E nried oil aidnro 

so » ijprl"^'- : ' 



-"*-- FIGST PREMIUM _2-S 



One Huniire. Tliousand Trees, 

FROM FOUR 




J. C. EDDY & CO.'S 



HATS, CAPS 



Q 



-5_Fui-iil8l-ing GooiIk, 

Gentle-men's Wearing Apparel, 



£_?' 



O-A.K HALL! 

THE PIONEER CLOTHING HOUSE ! 

Established in Boston, Hass., in 1841. 

This House, which fully sustains its enviable 
position, is daily receiving largo supplies of 
recently mnnufnetured seasonable Clothing. 
Dealers, Travelers and resident Citizens will 
find ovory tiling to meet their demands, nt 
]irii_'i.-ii defjiug i; ii in petition. 



Pacific Oil and Camphene Vorke. 



rpni. > ii'.-- and r:,. 7. ,,[- iliL-'L-liblbhiacolarertniTji 

rtr inloln |..l. i/. ruil— ' rcoDlio 

10.000 rillQDi Crude Wbalo Oil - 
Ifl.UOO ■• Winter Oll-ln bUK njidtua- 
■5,000 -i China Hoi Oil—In Jan 
3,000 " Chlno Nul Oil— In cmo 
3.M0 _'_' ClilaaTM-uibblf.! 
3,l»0 " Lard Ol'l. ' ' 
Camplieiio and Ileu-.,| n n; Plnld, 
ALCOHOL AND TURPENTlN&-i>Jwiya on him 



' Vyn ', 






H E MOVAL. 

Mercantile Library Aisooiation 

'Pill: Il'iiiil- -ii' TIM; A^liUlATION hoini- lho<o 
^formerly oceupiedhyihe PaciDc Club, on Ibc T corner 

.mntl. Tborapldljine°oai?nreiblntc h f(bo D L]b^ 

ample a«ommodalioo° nDdwil| U l:"°"llcd on "llbolfery 

', '■■■■ :: ',' l! '',' l " J , l '"-' l ' J "'' ,J ' ■: Va"o ■onl'iio'couly 

ESSdKSS 

Jva^a^Sbuio'fr.red "" m '" " T * 11 lh,!lnI0 i v « ottbo 



For Bale Low, 

TO CLOBtt au-p a CONCERN 
T U 0«B S'rKTB" 10 " CAHI " A «E ANU FAH1 
,/:'-'"' IRON BALCOKY HAJLlNO.foruJeUi. 

™* U wh. rabf; wacuyT,™,. 



BriggB 1 Nnreery, 

Tliree Mile, fmui Mnrj -hvIII. , ... ( 



S:t 



CHINESE SUGAR CANE, 
SORGHOS U C R T-; . 

PURE SEED. 

THE (ubwriber hereby ict.ircn. Ibo I'laonm. Parm-u, 
ftn.|0*rdtP'.--f il< I '.-. K I •■-i--.ihnthebn7ct 




.IiIipi-, n-lli l.-i l.ni.i, I, ...1 l.v i, .-.ill., „il , ; . 1 .i|,,.„L. ' 
J.IH-, a ltd |.l.ll[> .I.I..I...... !.., inul,,,; .„ ,. I , j,, ,, l„ c, 



SEED WAREHOUSE, 



l.i.lii -' I'liiulii.; SIi.-m-.. i.n.l .-. 



ii L'lieri^- Tr.i.v, cnoj nlje — beflt inru 
"I A]>7i!f Tri:.-', reftily far orchnrd; 



Fitly TIinnBniul Tltci, - 

'.■"I"!-!..,- bri r.i.i. u „.:„r.ntoDra5lnaolhera[opla 

cjcfaae FrckTrftY. ..UI U fcr lh- fc1:a«,,o: laju; 






The French Garden, 



GHAPE VINES ! GRAPE VISES 1 

air. and rcjd™S Uic Blptoina'of rto Society! VoV 

'ill,- M.i.1.- II. .in lli;, V >H,.I !■'■ n,,l 111- iil.l 1'r.nilll,,, .„ 

r.uiluin lui lb- ll-.-l Vii...,..|,l al" V -a limpr.-., Ill- pre rLI 

cdou of fcubty One Variolic. Among rJiiaiplencUda 



;>!■'' ^-1. ';'■'' ^-Si'."'' '.■ , ; V U n. ,1 "iiMU^c"?lc?Uon^?^Mq^ 

fihcr I FiulhT(«.T* t ' rEAC11, Al ' n,c 0T, NECTARINE, 

SpnEBJlY. CURHANT ' -j.- D COOSEDERRY TREES, 

.col*lo , Xwb'"d')." ' " !• G"doo»lllbc 

'"a 1 "'^ "™' ' ™"° liL, ' ,1 " :, " D "" , ' ,ro - 

-i.-s.jlly /=-!-.'.■■] I'^'i^'Vil'^'-i'nTSwSmrjjI ■ I,I ™•■ ,1 ' 1 '"'"" 

_,,,,_, , A. DELUA8, 



San Jose Nursery. 

SitNurlcry nS'rS'd'VoJ n^Jko^b ° nd, "' :,l '""•" 



'^rSe.'S n ™rU^ ,b ' 1 ° M * C '' *^^nd'w*oa^ 

'u^li'.'..'."'",'^ 1 ".',!"' '''"n'^TlBllo.. 



[n ROSES! ROSESII ROSES ! I ! 

Addremenorato I.. PREV03T, 

a Joae Clly, Oct IB, IBM, S,n J ™(.*!, ,, j u 



S T£! BJD S. 
UOVEV& CO., 

DEALERS IN SEEDS, 

AULnoit [.:■ -ii in.- il,.- ;■,...■ ,i,i ;,. -I, -itek. ctobrac 
in,: nil ll,o l„..l no 1 ,.r.,[ .[.. ,r..i.k. i .,-itli.:. ..f Ai;ii- 
■■.ili.ir.'l. li.ir.li.i, ,nd i'|...7.i ■'.:■ |., .-r.-,i.„ .. .1 ,. r .-.'.- 1 S - [,,r 
tbota by tho uiuhI ii^iifi,.,-,! uilir. ii.i- I'urctia.-crj 

to farwnrd Iht-ir'ordar" ^rly" '* 

Seeds packed -ecnrcly for California or any other part 
of tha conn try. 

Also, from lhoirownNnniorief,a very oxICDmocollec- 
lionof Fruit nod Ijroti menial Tree! bdJ Shrobi, Oiapo 
Vines, Slrawborrii-... ii;,.ii.Ur.„ -, K....C,., Orocnhoiio 
PlanH, eVo-.oinbratin,- tbo Le-i vimniio.i in otcrydepan- 



TSTE: - W7' S^ET3S. 



Seed Trees, &c, 

KV. l.„|..rl.r„,.J ,|. -I. ,..,!. 1 






Garden Seeds. 



Jl.-tllnuk fau, J",,r...l".!i,, 



The Great Qiant Bhnbard. 

Rtniu aill,.- -., ll,- I....1 I., si.-i |, „.,. . . r .l, r ,.,„!,-. 

Pot "In ni lb.; [[.,.i T ,.. .-1 1|],, iHt„ro A.-. 71 hrl.iy, 



Seed Bice. 

A SMALL lot of dow MANILA CADDY RICE, or 
rci-tnl iiD|-.r(nii..n, i,l,h-h i- I ,i,..| .Icjirulil--- liir.il 



arkot io the fhapo of I 
1-621 1m If 



.r!:.r... t i.„i! I... |.. r il,:. 
it will bo hulled and pi 
"WAITEi- RATTLE 



Seed of tho Groat Tree. 

A PEW packed" of tho Seed onhli faraonu Trea are for 
sale al Ibo Slato Society's Rooms, on Fourth slreol, 



OIQeooflhoCAL 



CALIFORNIA WINES. 



CREVOLIN & 




California Pradaation. 

PORE LOS ANGELES WINE 
10 Vtnejaidof JNO. FROHL1NG & CHA9. KOHLEIL 

i i ; i 'ii':"Ji':iV 1 / ( ','i'^,' ! .'' n , lm °'*' 5U " 1 









Union Gardens, 



^rSSpsfHsS* 



tt»W»te*lftl^ 




California 



By WARBEW It 00. 



to - cd San Friiici; ». 






.1 Subscription! inu.I I 



nt Hatib. 
cecbt, tiisl M Cbridmu «u I'U! anil P>D0, 
Id -.11. forth. 

i lit Hail, Bed be called on iheiti". 
eaUedoolbefralv Wind, 
^bo told lhera.'l.»ai time tor them all lo pi, 

»tJc [ Tc:;:l-.--Hibint; 

BtTon bo cut iUft ud old, 

'Aid smooir car. Und or Gold ! 

I looked on Ihe Ijkei u fas paaed along, 

lad their waters were turned loitono, 

E bii Gcr(in .(Ikki WB1 (0 pawarfallj' rlruir!, 

Tit j were ipell-bound orerv ui. 

■ tavtbit BoiUd could DDTtrb* loil, 

Set ■ fool of the Granite Stale ; 

i be left to comnuo J old Hi jot Prort, 

ad the bulla end the dudlu ihirond aodihooa, 



ho He r»d» he eaitd on out rlouanl '"d, 
Ai II lar before hiioje*. 

id hi i-,i:l— " Let ui C o, ni ftllaat bud. 



-.1 Iti rtnetonf R.In te(in to till, 
ltd lit Gran b[r«n 10 IBriojr, 
ad Ibe Flu««-iud» llluei foilii ni lie ' 
Ctlbt Bills "bich etnimiOMd lo .to E - 



Hiiits for Country Howes. 
Tbe engraving which wo present lo 
ir readers is the view of the Interesting 
old building of tbe English cottage style, 
known as the birthplace of the cele- 
brated Sir IVavtgb Rut-Eiair, and 
called the "Hayes* Farm," situated in 
Devonshire, England, and is to us doubly 
interesting as connected with the name 
the distinguished nobleman, whoso 
name was associated with the early his- 
tory of America. 
This specimen of Architeclore is a 
of tbe style of Country 
scattered through the rntal 
or England. It is plain and 
simple in style, tbo materials of Hie 
solid and durablo character, the 
dimensions large, and the whole plan 
and 6lyle baring reference to substantial 
comfort 

Beferritlg to it as a whole, it appears 
a far better stylo lo copy, than many of 
the fancy collages and villas that arc so 
much in fashion at tbe present lime. 
This specimen of a country house is 
it faultless, but its general expression 
is that of real comfort and of great du- 
rability. This style makes no preten- 
>n to beauty which it docs not fulfill, 
dwhatltaimaatilGulolU. 
There is a simplicity and solidity 
the rough-cut alone walls, with their gable 
windows and ample porth. This style can be so 
planned as lo make tho rooms lo suit all want*. 
To this present stylo there could be added a ve- 
randa, and it would ho difficult to plan a more 
convenient residence. We trust there will be an 
increased love of rural architecture, until our 
whole land shall be dotted over with rural homes. 



Pmoiflji Gmpe Vint. In Los Angeles. 
We find r-omo interesting paragraphs On lb 
aJNl, by the Los Angeles correspondent of the 
iUelin, under dale of January 9. He says : 
Vineyard people have commenced pruning, 
BDh jet Farther early. Tbe month of Ftbru- 
ii generally thought to bo the most favorable 
'■*-- the health of. the tine. In the Gaining 
Is, tbe prnrfing must bo done with 
-indeed it becomes an ari.lhnl is only 
by milch ciperiencc; and is, 1 beliti 
Icrtd in France, Spain and Italy. 7Vui 
like a surgeon, must understand 
n the East, Khun they have 

lb keep tbo fruit off the ground. In 
~ — *" sro the dry season prevails until 

are matured, it is better, tn many re- 
, ., . . .rain low. near the ground. This plan 
(Bins far less trouble; it is alio cheaper, and 
Bine is stronger and bears better fruit. " 
£»g a 

aaafoc 

KwL Thai, from 1 
ftsfaccordingli ~ 
BUIvfiwillitw 
Attend out branches'. 
Itch of grapes. Cut i 
*"*■ leave generals 



iilowed lo „ . . . 
bu_lf high From tbe 

- eight branch 

1 of the 

i each. These 

r of which gives 

jtside bra neb cs- 

Dearcsl the old 



,..li., 



:upy 



,:, 



,,ii , f .. 

. There 
In old ti 



I being 
gor than 
vineyards lie 



d In old limes, the vinej of wbkh are !>■■ 

»itx feet high ; but ibev art i II- lIii, [.■_!, ;.i 
to work among. AH, the vineyon 
are irjtycd toic ™ 



i late yea 

ui <'Ff art' centrally ■ ■.■ 
1, when not needed i'gr p 



Osbournc and Mr. Kcller.of-lhis place, hare 
>""' ample* of Los^'--' 

s in the Allan! 

others to the Ken Yor£-A 
*hd the Patent Office at JVj 
Icttved very nattering ioj 
leem astonished in the Eu 




[For 



* Sum J-'loweu.— It is BtUttt that 
| f.',, a crop is about to be" gather 



of * 



. Ilowori 
o fend c 



Wo Should Mauuioc tore More. 

Me. EniroB: This, you claim, is u last coootry. 
That this is an age of improvement, with you, sir, 1 
agree, 'Tbehistoryofour State is but of yesterday. 
Her golden dreams ore but now being realized. 
Oar State, bnt a few Tears since was spoken of as 
tbe golden Stale; but now as abounding in other 
sources of wealth. Ber prod active soil lias iuviied 
the enterprising laborer to her feast. The me- 
chanic, the manufacturer, too, are here no longer 
cariosities. Well may Californians be pleased 
with their own energy, patience und untiring per- 
severance. A brief lime since, no grist mills, uo 
tanneries— now they abound- The same could be 
said of many other branches or industry that are 
now reaping for their enterprising owners ample 
returns for their investments. 

One branch, more in particular, is much needed 
at the preeent. I mean woolen factories, which I 
believe can be carried on with the greatest success. 
My reasons are that wc have (although there ore 
many who deny it,) cheap labor; the prices or 
many kinds of machinery are at very reasonable 
figures; water power is handy ; raw material both 
cheap and abundant (less than one-half the price 
in the Atlantic States). And, I repeat it, we have 
cheap labor, for who has not heard, in mining, 
agricultural and city loaQng localities, the almost 
nnivcrsa] complaint—" can't gel employment ; 
would ralhcr work for my board than wait here for 
water, or for work on tbalnaw brickstore of Jake 
Oldensniders, or for plowing lime to come, so that 
I can get to drive a yoke of whoo-haws, or a span 
of long cars." 

Sir, I am of the opinion that a suOieieut number 
of operatives coold be (band in the Slate, to ma na- 
me tare all the raw material tbut ive ore obliged lo 
ship out of the State, and at a figure not much 
above Ibc low price in the Stales, and, save the 
delay and interest an capital, co=tof carriage both 
ways, insurance, £c, thus giving an opportunity 
for a, largo profit to dealers in ttii? Slate. 

Some may say the tendency would be (o enslave 
the poor operative. This is a free country — lii&se 
thai hare no shoes can go without. So any one 
has a right lo labor who prefers to he employed, 
instead of beggiog whisky over a counter, raiher 
than work for cheap wages at a uselul ijiii j.l ...j-n i m . 
good grub, steady pay , and.as Webster soys, labor 
make* man happy, so whilst making an honest 
living for liimscll.the tailor thereby makes him- 
itlf, hia employer, the wool-grower and tho con- 
sumer nil the happier for his industry. Then, in 
esse orwnr or other misliap, they coald wear their 
own jackets as they now can wear Iheir own boots, 
and cat their own bread and meat. 

Who Is the enterprising manufacturer tliat will 
pilch in and moke his pile? M. 

Above we havo a hint for Ibe wise ones, for the 
thoughtful and rcHceting. Here we have sugges- 
tions for onr Legislator?, to whom wc look for aid 



.nd n6i 



ndeve 



g the VI 



be of our noble! 



■Onth of France , „. 
Ju il„. r,|,, r r ,{ ,U e walks for poper 
■ If the cultivation succeed*, ii i-. ..i- 
■lo supply abundant malenels fur lino 
and printing papc-,, a „ „ c \\ ^ fi no oud 
lor piij.tr hangings. 



i become a murinCicti 
nil Iht di.-partravnk! of Stolen uiu nufuc lures ' 
have no doobl of saeoesi— for no country in 1 
world csn boast of greater Or better water pri 
leges, or none thai can erect woolen Fiielorlcs 
less cost, saving the machinery. When erected 



latter way. Besides these two qualities the Jfai- 
etu SacAaratui proves to be a most abundant 
forage, both for cattle and horses ; the seeds too. 
arc not of little value for poultry, and even for 
fattening hog?. The shell of Ihc grains produces 
' durable red ' " 



: ,. !l l;ll 






juld t 



Wc regret not to be able to send you mure sub- 
scribers lo your paper, though we recommend it 
to our friends as very interesting, and full of use- 
ful knowledge; but as the English language is 
not much cultivated in France, it rs not easy to 
tind among our farmers people to whom it would 
be of real use. 

Wc can send you, if you like it, several copies 
of our price lists for distribution. 

Wo are gentlemen, yours most obediently, 

V 1 1, ■■n.-.li r:, , AftMUEUX & CO. 



HAYES FARM, DEVONSHIRE— THE BIRTHPLACE OP SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

our mountain streams, we have plenty of wood fa 
steam furnaces Tor heating and drying, or to nse fo 
sleam power altogether ; and surely we havo lb 
power to obtain the raw material cheaper than 
any other country. Soon we shall have fine 
wool — aye, the very finest, for already the begi 
nings arc with as, as will be seen by oor notices 
new varieties of sheep recently introduced (i 
notice), and history gives no parallel to California 
in the rapid increase of flocks. Oar climate 
better adapted for sheep raiding and wool growiog 
than any other portion of Ihc earth. 

Oar correspondent has touched tbo right chord. 
Better is it for the loafers of our cities or tbe min- 
ing or agricultural districts to go to work at one 
dollar per doy than lo remain idle; and If they 
won't work, Ihc Scriptures say, they shan't cat -, and 
we say, emphatically, California has suffered enough 
already by Ibe (/rone/ — there are even now thou- 
sands that are living upon their friends, that never 
do a day's work. Build factories! Give such 
men a chance to work, and, then, if they in'll not 
icorAr, send them away out of the hire, as tbe liea 
do— they have no droaes, and wc should imitate 
them, if wc would have our hive well stored when 
winter comes. Muchos wedeprecalo Ellibnstering 
expeditions, we acknowledge tbey have done some 
good— and if we caanat get rid of Inafun in any 
other way, wo pray that new countries may be dis- 
covered, where snch adventnrtrt may go to seek a 
fortune that can be won without labor, if such a 
thing is possible. California wants working men 
only far her citizens. 

A Voice from Francs. 

The annexed letter from Ihe celebrated house 
of Vilmorin, Andrieux k Co., will be read we 
are sure with Interest. It will show with what 
interest others look oo our famed land, and on 
everything which emanates from Iter rloh soil, or 
the genius of her people. It will be seen 
also that even in sunny Prance, where wo hove I 
supposed every product could be successfully 
reared, some of the articles we have wilh us of 
spontaneous growth, cannot be grown. 

We commend the letter to our readers, and 
hope it trill awaken them to the value of tho 
blessings wo enjoy: 



Will High Prices Contlnuo ? 

The Prairie Farmer discus.«cs this question as 
fallows : 

To tho farmer there is no question, which for 
the moment is so important, on which ho feels 
wilh so much force, as ihc one at tho head of this 
srticle. All his calculations, all his expenditures 
for improvements during the year to come, depend 
upon Ibe prices which he shall receive for his 
Staples. For several years past Ihc price of agri- 
cultural products has been advancing and in 
nearly the same ratio has that of manufactured 
articles decreased. 

Let us now proceed to inqi 
the high prices of agricultural produclfl, as from 
the investigation wc shall be able lo draw i 
tolerably ccrlaln conclusions relative lo thofu 
To aid us in illustrating this subject, wo 
compiled this table of figures. The first col 
L — the production for 1840; tho second 

... he same for 1850; the ihird shows v.„_. 
theamoonlirftoufoiAarcoeenlo have corresponded 
" ■ — '- of iiicrtasc of population ■ 

Ought 



,-ith Iho n 



1910 



bftn 



■,MlbSbv.,lB6fl. 
Gentlehek: Your favors of lite 18th Oct., 
'55, and 4th January lost, have duly come lohnnd, 
and wc beg leave to return our bet tlmnhs 
for the sundry articles you had the kindness to 
send us, aud which all arrived safely. 

Your specimens of wheat, barley, etc., are very 
fine, and prove the fertility or your climate and 
■e already tried your Chinannd Castor 



fhcal. 84.S23.272 10(1 Js&.'.M-i 115 4«5 04-1 

lorn, 377,S.>l,*7fi 592,071 llll r. Jr- '"71 |n-l 

:yc, 18,045.507 UlKBiH:-! 2'/l.^-T, 

<als, I23.07t.341 MC5K4 17!* k,n r,«.| j ->, 

lay, 10,348,108 IS.SaS.tHSFCeplpacewith 

Dy this table it will bo observed that (here is 

deficiency In.otery thing except Indi 



which has increased It 



i _grca.li! 



than lite 
increased in the 
issupposed that 



Ui! U-.-i 



ale does 



hem, ond the grains don 
should like very much to 
evergreen trees, which wo 




TVilt, „.: 


w.. 


ost valu 


your 
b!e to 


We IBank 


ou al'o far 


yours 




very 


!■ jolji Ii ■, .nil [opi-r, wh 
lie, and are glad (o see tl 


'(■.""/ 


nd most 


, ; "'■ 


destiny of Ca 

system. Wc 
lands in wor 


to your cou 
ifornia lies 
prod oc Is, m 


iL.yi.l, 
n 1 bo s 

nvineer 

,;,m;'. 

t ifaal < 


lint. lh 
per, only 

that fa 


of if: 
oring 


ng, will obln 
aft^r gold. 1 


;.'_,';.;;"■„';_' 


'i....r "..'. 


■l,„i_- 



population; and hay, 
same rollo u.h (h» p..,|..il;ui 

15,000,000 bushels of cor . ,.„ 

nlly in llm manufacture of whisky. But let c 

illustrate Ihh ..nl. j.l'. :i IuiV (ui-llicr. The popi 
Inlion of the United Stol. ;! , «■)■ inl.-ln 17m, t 
■ih".; inlWii, ili.l'Jl.S'JOj :,„ ir.ere.i!;eiiilit)«, 
of 30 per cent. The increase uf wheat during tl 
.:iim. |.< riud was only 20 percent. The incr,- 1-, . 
■.■■Mi, dm inc. the miiiu' |-.n.,.| m.ih 2n |„r c.Tit, ; Ir 
■lijii corn, dining same period, 57 per cent, or 2 
pei mut., over tho rate of Increase nf populalioi 
ing the same period rjedcereascd nearly fou 



half hiilli.,1 
■-■ Ucl^, ": 



■c I tie- 



have tried this year tho " Uolcua Sac- , A 
." the Chineso Sugar Cane. Il.U very ir. 
plant lias been introduced into Europe,! V 



ex-porting largely of c( 
then, high prices .-..,, u 
We ihink ihey ui 
growing demand ot hi 
crease or population o 

i of grain nro c 



iini' ppareul, vit: that 

■ins not increased in proportion lo 
population, bul has rather fallen 
: fa the only crop which advances 
ir rapidly increasing population. 
--* r ~T bread and wo arc 



.er pruduclioi 
intinually an 



So. Cattle, 14,971,580 18378,907 20,178,907 
No. Sheep, 10,311.374 21,723.220 20,223220 
No. Swine, 28,301,293 30,254.213 34,854,213 
Now let us compare tbo ratio of increase of 
animals wilh that of Iho population ; as above 
stated the latter is 30 par cent.; of cat He the 
ratio of increase is 24 per cent ; of sheep the ratio 
of increase is 13 per cent. ; of swine Ihe ratio of 

These facte are instructive; and they go far 

towardsciplainingtboQiysteiy of the high prices 
of grain, beef, pork, and mutton, which the farmer 
has enjoyed for the last few years. This state of 
things will continue until tho prices range so 
high, and the demand for bread and meat be- 
comes so great, that capital and labor will be 
drawn into the channel of agricultural produc- 
tion ; until this Is done wc can see no permanent 
diminution of prices. 

The immense internal improvements which 
have been in progress in all parts of the country, 
especially in Ibe grain and meat producing States 
— and tbe ready returns which flicy offer to 
labor, havo drawn thousands away from agricul- 
tural craploytacnts ; and once in the harness and 
Hid disciplined to iho work, they remain in it, 
and follow these works from point to point and 
from one locality to another. 

There is one or two Acts wo have drawn from 
the above tables, lo which wc desire to call par- 
ticular attention. While wheat, rye and oals; 
horses, caltic, sheep and swine have fallen off— 
per man— 12 to 20 per cent, during the period 
from 1840 to 1850; Indian corn, during that 
time, increased at the rate of nearly six per ctnl. 
per annum— or a little more than liO per cent, for 
the whole ten years. This is a proligious in. 
crease. The crop of last year calculates! on this 
ratio, must have been not far from 800,000,000 
bushels 1 and at the same rate tho crop for 1860 
must run up to the enormous yield of one thou- 
sand million bushels 1 The foreign demand far 
corn Is now so rapidly advancing, that we shall 
probably Und a ready market for even this im- 
mense product. To givo Ihc reader some idea of 
the extent of ibe trade in corn at Ihe preterit 



nearly Ihiriy-five thousand barrels of ce 
and about two million bushels of corn — being an 
increase over ihc shipments of last year during 
tho same period, of six thousand barrels of corn 
meal and three hundred thousand bushels of com. 
Wc contemplate with no ordinary interest Ihe 
portentous nnlaie or there facts. Tho corn crop 
is ona which is cosily raised, and its culture may 
be pushed to an indefinite extent. It must there- 
fore become the staple production of the northern 
and middle States. Our belief in this Is fixed. 

Besides [he reasons already given lo show that 
high prices will continue, wc have to mention the 
constant increase in the exports of grain to Eu- 
ropean countries. For the Erst six months of 
1855, Ihe total number bushels of wheat sent 
from New York was 31 288 ; this year Iho total 
for the same time is 2,004,730 bushels. The 
shipments of rye Tor the last six months arc over 
a million bushels, being greater ihan any previ- 
ous year, in tho history of the trade. In wheat 
flour tho exports have been largely increased. 
There is also a great gain in certain kinds of 
meats. On tho whole, farmers will bo safe- wo 
think, in calculating on past average prices for 
Iheir products of tho present year. And in con- 
sequence of Ihe drought, which has prevailed so 
extensively throughout many of Iho corn-growing 
States, this crop will be much diminished and the 
price will probably advance. Those who have 
old coru will lose nothing by holding oil. 



: Pbic 



contains is very important, bul its product in 
alcohol Ii ilill more import int, and it would per- 



again: The price ol nli |;i„ds of animal 

luo<], lm- incu-;,.,.'l win, Uie increase of Ihe price 

Il ' e ,''"-' iri prico of meat, Is perhaps I 



__Pqxh IN Deyonsiiiee, 

Esai.ASi!i. — Tho North Devon Journal. i u 
■peaking of a sale of twenty-four pure high- 
bred North Devon cultlo sold by Mr. IV. Hole, 
oi llmiiiiiford, says : 

Tho first cow put up was sold nt 15 guineas, 
tho second nt 20 puiii.n-. tho third m £2.",. il.,. 
fourth at £23, tho fifth £22, the .d.tli called 
Itosolta, which had gained a prize at Birming- 
ham, and was commended at Leicester, went up 

£30. She whb pronounced n perfect model. 

10 seventh and last, sold ut £lt>. Tho fore- 
going wero all in calf. These were succeeded 
by tbroo heifors in calf, which wero knocked 
down nt £15. £19, and £1(5. Three y.urlii,/; 
heifers sold nt, respectively, £11 15s., £fj, 
£15. Time steers yearlings, wont, one nt 
£12 10- and tho ether two nt £9 I0s„ each, 
t'ho hulls sold. Rob liny, at JC'2'2 10,i, : Juni ji 
£20; Zone, £11 10s., und Z.-lue,., £17. Tho 
bull cnlvos mode from £6 lo £17. After tho 
solo of Mr. Hole's cultlo was concluded, Iwo 
hcifora and eight steers from the herd of Mr. 
George Burden, were brought to the hummer. 
Thny wero very lin... animal-., and ...Id, the lir,| 
heifer nt £J8, and the second £17; Iho steers 

eraged about £30 a pair. 

Fho editor of tbo Journal apparently apolo- 
gising for ihe low prico obtained for those ani- 
mals, says, in spenliiny „f Hi,, rhiiracter of tho" 
pcrsons who otlended the nih-, (hut M r . j[„| e ;„ 
itenavr-ly knnwii as a careful l.reeiler of North 
Jovons, nnd having eihihiled at Iho Hoyal aud 

"ig "lately I., .ii I.„ui;l,i (,„■ i|„ 'i.;',,','!,,,". 1 ,, 
tho French, it m.. ,:ipo L i,il thai Iho snlo would 
attract aomfl ol th.ise ]iuivhnsere nf 6 took to 

r toon evident that tho purcliuers pres- 
to not oxcluhively inllooncod by beauty 
of form or purity of breed in thu animals to be 
sold, but by a strong regard lo the quantity of 
beef, milti, etc.. Him they would yield. 

Black HAWK—The original Vox ii dlrxah 

Hawk horse, died at ilridgepnrt. V.., „,, the 1st 
Docemher. at David Hills tI ,t,|,. j t i= rer.orled, 
Ue was twonty-lhree yeaaa old. 



THE CALIFOENIA FARMER. 



^, « 



send it copy to Mr. N. Hedges, P. M., Smith's 
Ranch, Sonoma, who has assured me ho would 
take an interest in promoting its circulation. 
Respectfully yours, 



Sonoma County. 

The annexed communication wc gladly publish 
as ono of general interest, and feel very grateful 
for the interest our correspondent feels in the im- 
portant work of making known the rich resources 
of Ibis "Promised Land." Improvement of the SoiL 

We know these valleys are fruitful beyond , V( , mak| , l]|{ , anBOXt:d MlrMt from a work | t™ s ™ 
description, and we cheerfully give wings to ibe : ust rcceiTC( i DJ ,,5 f nm lQ0 publishers, C. M. 
glowing yet truthfol piclore of these bright | gaxtou k Co, edited by W.N. White, Esq. The 1 pared. 
valleys among the mountain?. Wo regret we c ii miI[0 f California is so similar 10 tha 
"t every part of the district where tho bwk was intended for 



State and hold communion with those who 
making the wilds " blossom like the rose." 
will do so J* an early day. Wo thank our friend, 
for the hint to send our Fanaicn. Wc shall do 
so, and ire will be grateful if oar friends there 
trill piil us in furwoiding us a subscribers' club. 
We will try to deserve it. Wo believe onr Fah- 
jscn will respond promptly to every plan that 
tends to dcvclopc these sources of wealth and 
happiness. To our friend thin wc look for a 
goodly list for oar new volume. 

The Farmer will be found at friend Hedges, 
and wo will hope to como and peep over the 
Hedges, and see bow many good things he has. 
Our subscribers nil will see by the columns of 
the Farmer that wc feci deeply upon the unset- 
tled condition of our titles, and we hope remedies 



following, belie 



.vn,lm. 



mg ; 



lion, that wc copy 11m 
equally appropriate for our 

A soil may be improved in texture by the ad- 
dition of any necessary constituents for the growth 
of plants which may bo wanting. 

The texture of a clayey tail can he rendered 






[,.l ;. 






rjt.iir.-t to produi 

proving a heavy clay, tint ii is the most expensive 
inuJe i.f improvement. Ashes and lime both 
Live tlv.' property of rendering heavy ?n\\a liphli-r 

:in<l liL-lilioilii morv tenrii.kiu.;, -mil hoih more pro- 
ofs turnips, beets ami 



Increasing the depth of the soil in this mode, is 
to all intents and purposes increasing the size of 
your garden ; for one-fourth of an acre thus pro- 
pared, will yield in a dry season, as much as an 
"" with shallow tillage; and the growth uf 
a in a good season, will be fully doubled. 
ecially feel the benefit of this prepara- 
all fruit gardens should be thus pre- 
Jo matter liow deep you may work the 
n lor trees or plants, their libres will penetrate 
and feel the good effect. 
Trenching should be performed in the Fall — tho 



-edug it 



t lime. At tl 



ith well rotted dung, 
charcoal dust, ashes, or other good manure, dug 
in shailowly, taking care to level tho grou 
while trenching, so as lo prevent washing. J 
other good coal of compost should bo added j 
hefoie planting in the spring. 



will soon b 
this euibarr: 



lad, a 



intry freed fron 
;nt, and rise to full prosperity. 



Smith's Rasch, Bed«pi, Jan. 10, 15ST. 
EniTORS California Farmer: Duringaret 
idence of seven years in California I have beeonl 
acquainted with most of the prominent localities 
north and south, tho characteristics of which hav 
been accurately noted in yoi 



tes. plov 



■liel,i 1, 



ili iIl-l-j.K- II 

aiiu v.v(jumii S li><.-iu u iue action or tb' 

fret, is very beneficial, lull in sections wi 

worse than useless. Turning under co; 
table or carbonaceous matter, as stra 
pine brush, corn-stalks, 
any other green crop, bog 
posed peat, and even tan-bark itself, so deeply 
neath the surface as not to interfere with cult 
lion, will by the slow decomposition of these 1 
terials much increase the fertility ot a clay 
: ovlngil 



Ornamental Trees for California. 

The following sketch of tho best trees suitable 

for California, and which are easy to procure, we 

notice. Or i\ie jEscuttu, our Buckoyo wc esteem 

one of the Dnesi ornamental tries for a paik that 

can be had, and our Maples equal any known. 

fn cold | We give from Brock's Flower Garden, and other 

ihe 1 jII, ^d authority, tho fullowing varieties, which we 

11 "'|' ;l ■ hope will be eulliraled. Wo know wc have, on' 

ins, it is ' ° 1 "' u '" 3 DDU mountain?, as line oruamentul shade 

and evergreens ss the world can produce. 









I do 



mber I 



■my 



Bene Chotnu 
in shape, foliage 

shade in streets, 

grounds. 
The Double-Jlo 
- larcc size, a 

e Cll'.'~lliul ; 






special description of tho southern, porti 

Sonoma county, lying between Pelaluma and 

Russian rircr, and Santo Kosa and the coast, tho 

peculiarities of which I think are sufficiently 

rcmorkablo lo justify a paragraph. 

A stranger accustomed lo the topography of 

other portions of the State, leaving Pelalnma in 

the month of January (in one of the two cxccl- 

lent lines of singes for Bodega) is forcibly struck 

with what appears to bo the strong contrast be- 
tween the sterile appearance of Iho constant hilts 

and Aa evidences of fertility furnished by the 

attested reports of (he produce sent to market. 

from the Embarcadero. 
Tho hills which appear like others on the 

coast, bleak and barren, have an exceedingly rich 

and productive soil to their very tops, and arc in 
fact more esteemed than tho valleys, for Ihe crops 

they produce, and the fresh, luxi " 
a t all seasons of the year. 

The chief article of export from this region, Ihe 
past season, was potatoes, tho superior quality of 
which is nndorslood in Ibo San Francisco 
market, where thoy command a much higher 
price than any others. From careful inquiry, I 
think it fair to presume there was ot least 1500 
acres planted the last year, yielding on an average, 
say five tons to the acre, which ft 24 cents per 
pound woald produce 750,000 dollars from Ibis 
item alone, to which ifyou odd the crops of bar- 
ley and oats, which were eitensi rely and success- 
fully cultivated, and the profits arising from livo 
slock, which would perhaps compare in number 
and value with that of any distri. 

of the same eilent, and you have an aggregate of , friable loamy texture,' and tbi. , 

returns challenging comparison. j improvement is lo bring Ihcm to this condition. 

Wheat, in some portions, is considered some- A , ' , : r| "'" ! '-"on^ieney bestagrces with vegetation.' 

JSltablo necessary that theroots may penetrate it freclyin 
I search of food, and be able toendure 
, droughts. Tho roots of a strawberry have been 



it fre-vicnt wiikiri^'jl' the soil willi Ihe hoe L0 
.j.;,'K'..-,diiiiltiFi- iht :i mrii.ii. h and ferliliai, ' 

of the atmo-phere is it,tlf very beneficial ._.„,, , ... 

.oils, if done when the earth is dry. A clay I «, double a 
i exceedingly injured if worked wot. Aclav I cinlh. Thi 
5 so difficult la work, and so liable to break , 
1 hard crost after every rain, that it will well I 
■ where materials for the purpose are at all 
1 a good deal of time and la- 
bor in improving its mechanical texture. 

The texture of a. iiindj ; .i,il is much more easily 
improved than a clay, as the per eeulnge of c un- 
required lo convert any sand into a loam Is not ' 
very largo and can easily bo added. Fortunately I 
loo in sandy soils, clay i- n t ri -rally near at band, 
often lying but a few inches beneath tho surface. 
A few loads of still" clay, scaltcred thinly over the 
surface in autumn, aro worth moreapplieil 10 su'.-ii 
a soil than any manure, for the clay will render 
manures permanent in their effect, which else 
would leach through without benefit to Ibcerops; 
the effect of the clay itself is lnsling. Lime, as 
before observed, stiffens the lex lure of a sandy 
soil, and gympsom has the same effect. Ashes 
arc also an excellent and profitable drcssin' 
lo such a soil, leached and unleachcd, but the best 
of all applications is a good clay marl. Peat, 
vegetable manure, and carbonaceous mailers of 
oil kinds, as refuse charcoal, are good applications 
lo sandy soils, as they enable thtm belter to re- 
tain tho fertilizing properties of Iho manure ap- 
plied, if they donotmuch affect tho texture of tho 
soil. Sandy soils very often rest upon a clay bot- 
■'■•■'- - l -7ough trenching a garden 






ring Horse Oluuln 
1 is much like Iho 
it, when in bloom, presents a 
ppearanco, the (lowers being 
mblo the Double Pink Ilya- 
olh. The tree (lowers when quite young, and 
readily propagated by grafting on tho common 



.!■:., l,r, 
>stern Sis 
eighty feet, and four ft 



orour western and south- 
found growing to the hight 
'"* : " diameter ; and has 



;, will often gt 



ind the 



under it ir 



it is astonishing bow small quantity of lino clay 
will cement a loose sand into a good loam. 

To conclude, in regard lo the texture of soils 
:hooso or mnkc for your garden a loam of medi- 
an) texture a little inclined U, sand, and the lin'T 
its particles Iho better. Clays and sands both 
Ibo fctlale 1 become objectionable, as they depart from this 



JB. glabra, or tho Ohio Buckeye, is a Iron 
ivitb rough bark. 

Tho Cut leaf, I'ariegaicd leaf, and other 
species and varieties of this tree, aro suitable for 
streets, or tho shrubbery. Somo of Ibem are 
shrubs, or small trees,— as -E. jiarcijloro, Cali- 
Jamica, pavia, ^-c jE. rubiciiiiita is a very 
handsome species, with pink flowers. 



they supposed they had only one ; in other words 
that tho sub-soil, brought up and combined wilt 
top-soil, nnd enriched with tho atmospheric in 
lluenecs, and those other elements which agricul- 
tural science leaches them to apply to their 
ground, will increase three-fold Iho measure of 
its productiveness." 

Beat Aspect for Vineyards, 
The following hints from the best authors, and 
from practical as well as as scientific minds, 
should ho carefully perused. It will bo seen that 
the position wc bare taken in relation to tho hill- 
side culture, is fully sustained by the best au- 
thority : 

Mr. Hoare. in his Treatise on tho Grape, says: 
"In tho choice of a good aspect, therefore, shelter 
from high winds, and those aspects that are Ihe 
least exposed to Ihcir effects, and that receive a 
full portion of the solar rays, may be deemed tho 
best. The best aspects in the southern parls of 
England are those that range from Ibo eastern to 
the southeastern, tile lust of which may bo con- 
sidered tho very besl. Tho next best aro those 
Which follow in succession from southest to south. 
An aspect duo sooth is undoubtedly a very good 
ono, but its exposure lo those strong winds which 
frequently blow from Ibo southwest forms a great 
drawback. Tho remaining aspects aro thosr 
which range su. ecssivvly Iriun ilue south to du 
west. These aro all good ones provided Ihey at> 
sheltered, or partially so, from the destructive 
effects of tho high winds above mentioned. North 
of tho western point, Ibe maturation of tho wood 
and fruit of the vino becomes uncertain. East 
! north is a very good one. North of this point, 
o solar rays aro not sufficiently powerful 10 
ature either tho wood or fruit." 
Chaptal says, "That tho middle of a hill-side 
produces Ihn best wine, the upper part Iho second 
best, and thcbolloniof Ihehill tho most interior:" 
showing, apparently, that the middle location 
itains the essential nourishment required ; tint 
the upper part, there is a lack of this, and at 
Iho foot ol the hill there is cither Loo much of it, 



tho felled trees that you cannot dec fori 
timber. Ifyou must clear land, clear it 
ground, leaving tho hill-sides and tas 
covered wilh their leafy honors. Them. 
reasons than ono for Ibie advice. 

Under the head of planting, wo nou], 

mend the following things. Wo may » 

same suggestions hereafter. So wo r 

now. Plant trees around wells an d « 

bodies of water. Plant trees along hrok, 

on the peaks and sides of rocky hed™ 

trees to protect housesand barns, and oth 

ings, from tho heals of summer, and | 

storms of winter. If your farm is c] e 

much, and you decide to keep it, devote 

of the cleared land to tho growth of f or , 

ot the best ndvico you can. Select lot 

ith the best jndgmentyou can commoatl' 

up well, nnd plant a good variety rj 

^clfiSTfyo 1 ^"?"^"^- 



hy t 



c to use them yourself, and 
j, that thoy render the eroSJl 
■ most valuable part' 



Mob 



de la Quintiney says of the Muse 
t Ihey ''require a temperalc counli 
positions of Iho south and cost, ai 

it ground ; we seldom see any got 



a rib, 



the climate, which renders it 

to rnst and smut. I »,«, „, ,uifu, 1 

Tha foregoing remarks apply generally lo the 1 ? rou ? h n U ' ? bo , , ools of n «l«wberry »: 
country, from Pelaluma lo the Bussmn river ! ff '■ * t° Wn m , a Jm P rich s0 "- ™ 

iltw-l. c w j- -n , . '"" mcr - , diligence in frt'Jine^and groinh of r,i,m; - rai-._.| 

although somewhat d.vcrsifled. In the neigh- I upon trenched soils, and those growin* upon mS 
borhood of Pelaluma the hilly p^ion y M , U an prepared in the common manner is reXrtob U7 
.dpastn l la ' 






replaced by tho 



abondant crop of wild 
while further on, Ibis 
productive soil before 

Tho Embarcadcro, some twenty mile B from 
Pelaluma and fifteen from Santa Rosa, affords to 



the intermediate ... 



ntry an economical ai 



is of transport in a few hours tt 



venivnt m 
Francisco. 

tast, though not the least important considera- 
tion, is the delightful climate, free from the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, being tempered by Iho 
sea breezes which exert a genial influence, bolh in 
summer and winter, and in the Russian river 
portion of it, which is free from frosls, it is pro- 
Bamed that all the varieties of frnit common lo 
" "s climate 



lawns, the color of the jn-s nil! mil, 
partly the greateror less depth of Ibe soil. Tho 
depth of soils may be increased by sub=oil Blow- 
ing, or trenching. * 

■■i">j„.it plying i s mud, coeapw Bn(3 answers 
a very good porpose when the spot to be prepared 
is large, A common turning plow goes fl, at ' nnd 
■].,«:> a a d,- V |, a lurr.v,,- „,, pr-icticable. It Is fol- 
lowed by lbesub-.„il t ,l„, v ,„ lha lnmQ fllr V„*. 
which loosens tho soil without turni 
llK-.l.. r ,lli.,r eJ^hlceu cr twenty inrl„ 
i.-j :; ;.'.,!] .I^y or gravel. 

Tfr ncftlns is the mode of improving Ihe depth 
of the sod m sm ,IL, ,„„!..„ .,„'., j -, r ^ 

>ou dig with the ,[„.!, a trench thu, f,, ; , ,,„]„■ 
and two feet deep; J0U Ihrow the earth out on 
away from the plot to bo trenched 






o Shovel the bottoi 
EUccessfully cultivated, at- pendicular. leaving 
Ihough but liui, .ttaoilon has yet been given to i of ' ho P |o <- f P«» '"Other trench'th'o 
)t^ m conseiuenco f tb o blighting influence of 
the uncertain tenure of land. 

Tho trarcler and transient inhabitant will find 
the great desideratum of a comfortable hotel in 
many places, and without meaning to be invid- 
ious I would mention that of the Me; 



Ibe : 



■> 1 .■■-■]■ 



■onch Ihe width 

'l|.- : :-,[,,. ■■ 1, ||j, 

. the surface spadeful of that into the bot- 
tom ol the former trench, and the next spadeM 

jirtl one. When the plot ,,. trl , lf ,i,. ,„.„,.,„ ,, ; 
ibis way, the lost trench will remain m--,, ubrT 
must he filled with the earth thrown "ilu ". ,'i 
first one, which finishes Ihe work, [f the subtil 
spoor and gravelly, it Is better to "uKSTfi 
(op BpadoroL and loosen up the bottom lo the re- 
quired depth, with a pwk, without bringing it lo 
thosnrface. If the soil requires it „ ;. ^ft 



■■■ :..■ 

-. «u.„u-, nanen, woere Ibo weary wanderer 
Bnai himself comfortably at home. 

A wrions drawback to Ihcsa advantages is ci ,n °Bnrlace. If the soil requires it, 
perieneed hero, as well as elsewhere in California ^",1^ oC , ?*"'?? W b « "Ai«d lo"ih"oso'of 
paralyzing „„y description of enterprise in tho ' Sk """"'^ lf "'° Mil i6 t0 ° "^ ^ay 

ZT ^t *""* Wb!ch eoter CI" ">«y ba I^ or »r olh " "'Sctable refuse ^ Z ^ 
instances double) th c soil f [be Bilo]c [0Qnt ' "ted, put.iV the coarsest materials at ibo b t. 
rendenngit dillleull to either lease or purchase! M.-as! si, i" h' ^"^ ° h ? M h " nu '^ 

The &^^ which w ^ uch . l roui ;,:;. ,■;:;,; '■■ ;■ t.^L^,^ 

th t,m e of tho lost session of , ho Legislature, is ' P^^'oes, (0 rtSHfiS XnSS,^ ' I "" h 

arlfullyrepresentedhythegranthoiacrasuncon- 1 T "«™i"B I" « expe™- 

Stitutionol and void. Woold U noMu ,1' „,, ■ !l111 .; ''""y or forty doll; 

that .his point ahould be decided ££ s u ^ ] £,Z ^ "^ , 

Court, so that cultivators dependVu" a Z ™| S.SSffi 1 ?^ 

judicious provisions may know what lo «™,l J wb ** lh = 

: '--ld,lhalll SF lacen,ayb=sur-plI t d b I :^iS!. b J; ^, m .«^ t Ea-deners oflho Nortl 



^pensive operation, costing 

do lit lk>r n>« k... I! ," 



»may be supplied by tha 



K " SO 111- Ihn m,,\,... _...!.... ,' a ,"°' , "" ,o r0 



.-leer, or tht Maple Family.— More than forty 
special of .Maple are known, of which ton belong 
to tho United Stoles, and nearly all arc desirable 
ornamental shade trees. The common species t 
Now England arc tho Red Maple. Rock Maph 
and TVhilo Maple, all first-ralo shade trees. We 
have, also, tho Slripcd and Mountain Maple, 
smaller trees, not so well known as the others, 
and interesling in large plantations. 

" Tho Red Maple, called also Ihe While. Swamp, 
Scarlet, and tho Soft Maple, is a tree ol uieJilliii" 
size, growing abundantly in the swamps and low 
grounds in most parts of Ihe Slate. Us flowers, 
which appear in April or May, before tho leaves^ 
are of a bright crimson or scarlet, and moko a 
,'.111,11,- jpnearance in whorls, or puirs of sessile- 
crowned bunches, on the scarlet or purplo 
branches. Tbc Red Maple is usually a low 
mnd-headed tree, of less beauty of shape than 
iber of the other species. But tho great variety 
of rich hues, which it assumes earlier in tho fall 
than any other tree, gives it a conspicuous place 
" our many colored landscape." It is a tree of 
y rapid growth, and, although it is more at 
uume in a wot soil, succeeds very well in any 
common good soil. This tree is sufficiently large 
for streets or parks, growing in reoist land to Ihe 
night of eighty feet; it is highly ornamental 
while in flower, in seed, or in the rich autumnal 

.-lew daxycaqmoi.— White Maple— This spe- 
cies is sometimes confounded wilh Ihe Rod Maple 
hut Emerson says, -ft may bo easily .ir-iiti- 
■iii hei I.; Iho silvery whiteness of tho under 
surface of tho leaves, and by tho color of the 
spray. The young shoots ore of n light green, 
inclined to yellow, with oblong brown dots; in 
the second year they become linely striate with 
brown, and tho dots enlarge. Tho beauty of tho 
finely cut foliage, tho contrast between the rich 
green of the upper surface of Ihe leaves and 
the silver color of the lower, and the magnificent 
spread of the limbs of the White Maple, recom- 
mend it as on ornamental Irco ; and it has been 
txiemiiely introduced in New York, Philadel- 
phia, and some other cities." I was familiar wilh 
a number of large While Maple trees, growing 
in Lancaster, Mass., one of which near Centre 
liri-Ie,* ,ina meadow-pasture, id thud described 
hy.drl-.ui.-rs-on: "In V6V) ,t was ,-ifl,r„„ f„ ( 
ate inches in circumference at one fool from the 
ground, Ihe bulging roots preventing a nearer 
ineasuroinent at Ihu surface. At three f.-r it 
nrcd sixteen feetoight inches; at six feet 
' a linlf inches. It divides^ 



avelly and sandy grounds." 

The Penny Cyclopedia says of the aspect r "On 
the steep slopes of hills towards tho soutt 
sheltered from the northeast, the grapes ; 
tho grealcst maturity, and tho vinlago is 
certain. So great an iulluciico has a favorable 
exposure, lhat in the same vineyard tho greatest 
difference exists between tho wino made from 1 
part and that mado from another, merely beca 
there is a turn round the hill, and the aspect 
ries a very few degrees. A change of soil f. 
duces a similar effect. Tho famous Rhino wi 
called Johannisbergh, when made from the grapes 
which grow near tho castle, is worth twice t 
much as that made a few hundred yards furtbt. 
off. Hero bolh soil and aspect change. Tho Clos 
de Vovgeau, which produces tho finest Burgun- 
dy, is confined^ to a few acres; beyond a certain 
wall, tho wine is a common Burgundy, good, but 
without extraordinary merit." 

At Bourdeaux, a sou tlieast exposure ispreferred, 
and in Germany, generally, a southwest ; in 
places, a northern exposure is thought bti 
the danger from late frosts is less. 



We select from Colo's I 

sos of Animals, thonnne! 

tho attention of our road 01 

osted in sheep raising, wl 

one of the greatest inferos! 

LA JIBS. — Young lnuibs 
tentiou. If tho wenthor 
stormy, thoy should bo in 
yot pretty well vontilotod 
around the sheep's bag, in 
-,1 hi-11 :-iu.!ji,^. cut it off. 
& feeblo soon after they 
without nssis 



--■[ m 
,.- ki 

:: : 

":: a 
la 

t ! 



weak or stupid thai 
oxortton to help thei 
often becomes necoss 
tho teat, as th 
draw out tho thick re 
lay tho 1 



LmbW 



til.. t,-:,t 






1 largo branches 



tu lata I b° irc - E "" 1 J *°t«rpHslng agricul- 1 & 
oris in tins region -,| 1L , KCulll ap?n , ci ^ aw 



ndll 



feet ten and 
at a low point, into t 
rises to about sixty fe 

AceTiacchannum.-'lha Rock or Sugar Ma- 

the other Maples by lha roundness or the notch 
between tho lobes or Ihe leaves, which, in ih oso 
airily .Wribed, is somewhat aiule Tlii -,,". 
wl, 'chtsalso called Hard Maple, from tho ohar- 
.,.i.:r 01 us wood,and Sugar Maplo, from tho 
valuable product of its aan.ls, in all -ejects h^ 
most remarkable Iree of th* fcSST!&fc„ 
JSH? 8, ' rJ'A, b " ntifo, i ncat.ond shapely tree 
»"!' " "■•;li, full, leafy head, of a great variel, f 
terms, enlarging upwards, and forming a broad 

mZ^mludle' ^7,'!^ ««"W Sd 
m tuo rmddlo, supported by nn erect, smooth 

.»J b„i; .[" ",',"0™;!?.",.'" "■" "««'">»«• 

How to Maec Ohe Pa'bh Equai, to Tbbeb 
In a recent address beforo tho Ohio Slate A c - 

SrwJiSSf' G - T - s,cni " t . e %. ""isspoko 

destroying Iho productiro- 
by shallow ffort, Ai they 
diminishing, thoy think only 



Droughta— Whither ore wo tending 

'he remarks on tho above subject, by tho 

iu Farmer, aro more particularly odapled lo 

that locality than to oors ; yet, from tho Import- 

of the suggestions in relation to taring tat- 

and planting trees, wo copy it; and tho 

application or tho samo reasoning would perhaps 

atlrlbule the cause of our "dry season" in part 

Iho absence of Irees from our plainsand valleys, 

nnd hence, i( trees aro planted extensively, our 

climate might bo much improved. 

destruction of our forests, a destruction 
which has been going on now ever since the set- 
nt ol the country, and which has been 
remarkably rapid in tho West for tho last fifty 
-:ars, is producing the following results, which 
ust bu very obvious to ever)' observant pers 
The surface of Iho earth is more exposed to 
drying winds, and to tho beams of our sumn... 
sun. These causes iiuiekcn the drying of the 
soils, 



milk, press it 

Somo young; slier 
lambs, or owning the 
and allow thorn tosut 

tho tanderncss of t 
necessary, clso tho 
lambs aro troubled i 
cannot suck well for 
such cases, rub hard 
thumb-nail, or other 
which will promote b 
Somo shcap, old a 
own their lambs, so 
all ; this is n very tic 
times difficult to romi 
tha lamb may hnva s 
disposed to protect he 
in its defence. If sho 
course, bold ber often. 



Let him suck as often 

ing, and nt night, just 

way, sbeop will often own tholr 

ao m etiuies in ono week, and ngain 

two or three weeks. 

If a singlo lamb di 
not own her lamb, or 
skin tho dead lamb br 
nient, nnd put Iho 
havo tho lambteis shi 

had th 

lambs; at that timo 1 

put tho skin on ono 

poor chiliile&t sboep 

sheep that had somo I 

tho other two sucked hi 

did not own thorn until t> 

But after thoy had br>< 

noticed that tho t' 

cared for, each hav 

When tho oxeren 

us aa to fasten th 

ished clean, and t 

rubbed wilh paw 

mild re-medy, 





Tho sources of many a woll and stream an 
dried by Ihe removal of trees from slopes and 
bills, from whoso bosoms they onco drew a per 
tpanent supply of water. 

Far less rain falls on iho soil during tho summer 
months llion would fall if the earth was more 
generally shaded with trees. Wido forests 
attract showers. Many a forest on" 
oub rain, when the wide, open plain 
with drought. Forests act as do 
direct tho courses of showers, ami 
them upon their own area. Perhi 
water falls in 1 year on a prairio or open country 
but it comes in great storms, and in tho winto ' 
or spring, or autumn. When it is needed most 
is most lacking. 
Forests ft 



deep ni 1 hi. grouud. 



pumps to draw op water from 
""cry ono who knows whal 
. -jgle large tree will draw 
from the ground by its roots, and throw into Ihe 
air from its leaves, can form some idea of the vast 
quantity of moisture which is exhaled by 1 wide 
tore.tiu a singlo week, or oven in a single day. 
Ibo ordinary vegetation of n form does this in a 
far less degree. Tho removal of the forests 
therefore, greatly diminishes tho amount of mois- 
ture, which, during the summer, is exhaled into 
1 air from tho vegetation which covers a civi 
a. Consequently, much loss exists in tho n 
the material for showers, than would exl 
10 tho forests drawing from tho deep earth 
■re generous supply. 
It will be seen from 

n of tho Torests is „ 

ights whiah baro becoi 



. iiractd. .i'Thi 
'^ yoa- le-i InovudV-rs bettwothen H 




these facts that tho doalruc- 
auso for tha 

intense 1 for tho"la"s t ' "sc vVra'l ' ",^." Somo°"f n^t 
ill, of these, rosulu of tl , e „,„„„, of f 
h'v, .Mtraeirf tho notice of our farmers, and tW 
w hat the qucshon what remedy is feogible. 

tmedy possible is simple and plain. 

less finish r !t coasts ofVn ScnTf 

foUowlug maxims: Save all the forest tree, 

Sod plant (on tho prairies especially) 



\\ r |,u 



you give 

inilvti ....■■ 



BltOVl'SB FOB. St 

kinds is good for e 
very fond of it, as i 
green food. The bro 
e-rful oslringmils -h..i 
uf rvcr^iveuj is used, 
ki.'.I, but for its modi 
pine nnd hemlock, 
11-eil to considerablt 
nlhor fodder. Pino 
sp>'ucc nnd 11 1 nra als 
Somo farmers hay 
sheop on browso foi 
" Whitmal 
used pino and bemld 
than forty years, nni 
from thorn, hut a be 
Ho says that hemlj 
with lombjt. Ho i 
houghs to spnici'ii 

To Destroy f" 
fosted with isrli- 

ich damage. __ 
animal to pull od 
biting and scralc 
'itolerablo itohtq 
mes almost tho 
Ticka always 
sheop; and in _ 
ly injurious, by j 
"o that thoy or" 
iffeoU of inch 
causing death. 

Remedy. — ' 
sheop from l 
after the shea; 
tlioir natural 
will nearly nil 

jlosely shori 

'ni.ri:.ui.; I hi 
bacco. " 



all tbe tree ,,__ 

Undor the bead of : 




airah 

. :' luarl 



mg Ireef 



the 



boar up unilvrU'— 
■r; thus rcffloWJ 

several ways 1 

tuo 110KS l>sviof>!y 

. .irolection, tlio #*m 

ie lambs j " ,0 flee E^ 

toj enough to "^ 

fhor can gel f 

A tuJ old sheep. AI 

l-y . • : 1 -t i 1 V iK-Miovi'.-l I'. 1 .;' 

rl.B stroii!- solution J»jG 

purpose, a tub or vat °'*^ 

■nprocured. into which, £■ 

boifed or steeped the Kh ■ 

r l i, ;; ;;;,:br.uo^| 



lM.«lt BO.UjWiliu&mBg,. 

; ': 'iPnWtoHWfflirrjji 




**- 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



.bservcd tint srnoko is Inslnnt dealh to 
jfUthy rascals. It may bo taken up into n 

iooI. A Tory cheap and convenient nppa- 

1 maybe made of tin or green wood, into 

_h tobacco and a lire coal may be put, anil 

,Ji the bellows tbo smoko ranv lie blown into 

pirool. The apparatus should bo pointed, oni 

[wood opened, and tho point put near the 

n Eiod closed around it. After blowing in tin 

"jte, lake it out, close up Iho wool, and move 

[Bother place somo eight or ten inches off, 

then go over the whole fleece, ivbioh requires 

a short time. We prefer Ibis to nil other 

ads, as nothing is more effectual and bam 

; Id the sheep. Sometimes tobacco oinki 

p sick, and it has killed lambs. 

r whiskey, rubbed nil over the an 
a good remedy for vermin of almost erei 



Lopped IIohns. — Ashi 

ipondcnt inquired if there wa 

-' raising lopped horns. 

upon tho folh " 

Albany Cultivator, for"lSI 

_ y j: " The horns of steers con bo raised wil 

bt the lc«L damage to their growth [tbo m< 

Snrmienl time lo do it is when they ore kept 

seel 



fthi 



-II,.. ... 1 1 « -_ r 



y phc, V 
'it of Mil. 



wiiii a loop at one end, lo slip or- 
o end nftho horn; al (he olhi. 
eigbL of from tiro to four pounds. 
' — every nigh" -' 



-inl.l.. 



ad taken olTin the i 



*, when faithfolly performed, to fail o 
nc or both of the horns to any desiret 
in from two to six weeks lime. Oui 
ios been such that we consider the lop 

inn rtr hnth nf >!.-. I...*.- _„ „ T _, 






olherivi 



First Principles of Panning. 
1. Alllands on which clover or Iho grosses we 
PC limo in them naturally, 
be nrtiliciully mipplie.l 'in 

provemtat of land, must 



'.■ilhur llll'. 



state 



he preserved Ihri 

" by opplicalio 
onts of mold. 



ind— that if land which 



is Ihc gra=.-cs ink-naVd 
d when in hloom. 
be most effectually tm- 
n such lands require 



■ rr' j ;ii.. lime and labor amy. 

4. Shallow plowing one-rates to impoverish 

-■-■il. iv In N- n il-en.-ii-f, production. 
p. One bushel of plaster per ae 
Mcast over clover, will add ono bnr 



1"iT~.'. ™>»m "iu uuu uiiu uanored pel 
ta its prodnee, 
6. Periodical applicnlions of ushos tend to 
p tic nltpity of soils, by supplying most, 
M all, the organic substances. 
7> Thorough preparation of land is absolute, 
pessary to the successful luxuriant growth 

|Abandant props, cannot: bo grown for a 
g|iiun ot years, unless care be token to 
pn>on rqoi vol tut for that substance carried 
P *™ product- grown thi 



I Stiff clays are benefited by fall and wi 
omug._[Wo a tem Agriculturist, 
rrncrs nil] do well to take thin list of ii 
'-• ""d net upon them. 



,of a 



"UllM. 



'.' i- kept ii 



id. For 



roignl < 



»a.iitio. 



r 



1 pounds of 



trotking 
■ -• -■"■ »u" wn poandi 

amc time with the rig 

luce the same results as 'the c«ii 

tsi In Ii,Tj.-.,r. !■;,,, i, ,„„., (J f j. ,,,„ 

"-'i by Smith, [l„.. ri . j, u '.-r,,l,|.- ,. 

— -, which will be found useful to thns 

Ine management of stock. The folio win; 

Is of hay an, equal to SGpoundsof 
tt»y made w hcn fully blossomed : 9S 
iBidu Lu-forc jt Llo^oms; OSpoonds sa. 
F'oyer; 9B pounds. Lueerne hay ; BO 
Satfmn ; 410 pounds green r'— "- 
Fetches and lave?:, green ■ 
oncorn', 374pounds wheat oimn 
"straw; 1U4 poonds oal straw' 

toiled potatoes; 339 ponnds S 
" English - 



IETTER SO. 1. 
Editors Farmer: Knowing the interest you 
take in educational matters, and feeling assured 
that the Famish will ever be open lo the advo- 
cacy of mental as wel! as material improvements, 
1 shall endcavorlo suggest a few practical ideas 
on the cause of Popular Education. 

It seems to be pretty generally recognized, thot 
no libera! government can exist wliei 
are uneducated. Should any one, however, bo 
disposed to dooU this principle, referring liber- 
ality of government (o inherent nature, instead of. 
education, I shall point him to the government of 
all savage tribes, lo the relative grades of govern- 
ment existing among tho different grades or the 
human race, to the gradual change which gove 
it has undergone since Iho days of the Palri- 
is, to the modern history of France, ti 
history of Mosico and the South American States, 
liberal, only, in the name of their governments ; 
id finally, I shall point him lo the States of oi 
rn Union; and ask if bo sees no difference be- 
rccn thoso that have a flourishing system of 
public instruction and those that have neglected 
provide for such a department. I say, so gei 
,lly has Ibis principle been acknowledged, i 
our own country, that among tho Grst acls of tho 
legislatures of new Slates, will be fonnd i 
porated, provisions fostering the public school 

Neither colleges nor academies, however 
endowed, or by whotevcr talent presided ore 
competent to do the necessary work ; as it 
educated public sentiment only that ad van 
nation. Of the advantages of common educ 
in bringing together, and in competition, all ranks 
and grades, and in breaking down arbitrary (and 
equcnlly false) distinctions in society, private 
tutions can claim no pari. But of this I pre- 
lo say more hereafter, as I consider it one o 
great advontages of a public School over i 
select school. A select school system— the syslcn 
of the favored sons of wealth— may perpetuate 
[carniog, bat it will never educate mankind. It ; 
may, and has produced great men— men wl 
have boon monaments to all succeeding ages, bi 
whose very greatness shows us the abject condi- 
tion of Iho masses. It is questionable whether 
the miwt elevated minds can render great odvi 
luges in a society that cannot oppieciato (hem. 
Judea, Egypt, Greece and Rome produced hosts ' 
of isolated individual talent, yet these conn trios at 
tho same ttmo wero full of ignorance, supcrstilim 
and misrule. lie who should judge the ciriliu 
Hon and enlightenment of tho time of Socrates 
and Plato by their writings, would make as great | d=(,to 
a mistake as woold tho histurian, a thousand 
years hence, in deducing bis conclusions of the 
American nation from tho Walker i 
Forms of government, as perfect asouroi 
developed by statesmen long before our age, only 
to be pronounced Utopian. The most perfect 
code of morals was given lo the world eighteen 

' years ago. and the history of the past ' 
(perhaps the present too) shows how ltttlo it was ' 
appreciated. It is a distinguishing trait between 
select schools and our common school system that 
the great mon of post ages have been exponents 
tdeveloped principles, while the great of 



nly of ui 






,tho 



the national character. Elevate the masses, 
we may have less great men, but wo shall cer- 
tainly have more great communities. 

Comfort, wealth ond refinement follow in the 
road opened by intelligence. Good laws uad 
proper obedieoce lo low are also of its results. 
And I think, that it will bo fonnd by all that 
those Slates and governments which have pro- 
vided the best, and possessed longest, a general 
system of public instruction, ho*o produced the 
greatest number of mechanical improvements, 
have best tilled the ground, have built tho most 
ships, Iho most miles of railroad and telegraph, 
have the greatest uuiuber of comfortable, wealthy, 

" refined families, have tho largest freedom of 
the press and of speech, and the largest freedom 
from anarchy or mob law. 

If this be line, and 1 tbink few will doubt its 
truth, then a wise, government will provide for its 
own permanency and prosperity, by the cslablish- 



mt of a 



tnplole svst 



'• pound. 



B pounds ivht-a 



18 pounds rutabaga 



* pounflsos 






pick wheat ; 57 pounds 

-5 ponnds beut; 00 poands'herso 

unds acorns; C^poundaeon flower 

'"''-; 105 pounds wheal 

107 pounds wheat 
ond barley ehaQ". 



''-' i'lui,.]- i 



I'Nll; H,T, 
n <l"i,v T ii | 



mda 



air ,. 



A fattu.._ & 
ond four per cent, when 
— erwards. Sheep, when 
f^'hsirofihch-liw weight in 
Ihavofound this table of Et cat 



— [Qermkniown Telegraph, 
Madatu of groat value to Slock rais- 



educatiou. Not a system which shall be confined 
to the spelling book, arithmetic and geography, 

capable of changing the ' 
the finished scholar j one which shall lead thi 
hild, by a nolural gradation of studies, from Lb< 
lormal branches through [lie highest 'col 
acquisitions. We want primary schools, 
--" schools, high schools and a State Cnis 



all connected in their operolionsandfrco in tuition. 
Such a system is not only an object of just 
pride lo any State, but, financially speaking, it is 
paying institution. And Ibis is especially so in 
regard lo California, where permanent residents 
and families ore tbo greatest dcsiderola of the 
State. But until we can allbrd ample and cheap 
advantages for a liberal education, it will always 
objection lo those who would othtrwisu 
gladly avail themselves of oar natural advantages. 
It is a common complaint of that largo closs of 
our citizens who are monthly sending homo 
money for tho support ond education of their 
families, that the condition of our schools does not 
>r their bringing them here, ond locating 
nes os permanent residents. Oueua. 




U ono of tbo n 

kind to Ihink, that t 

which thoy cannot a I 

ii,.:. happiness. 

" a fair stop towards happinea 
"ght in tho company and con 



rsofm 



yon may cfTccl 

thing to enndemn the fallen 

how ho fell." Above nil. let 

made in the troe spirit of th. 

More deeply trenchant thi 

" —lily ever howled forth 

'cnant — sweeter and 



■nii.i. 



ioro pcrsuasli 
.l, u „, crowded wil 
bounding " 



nf tho Oi 

than tbo most 

tropes, redoloDt of rhctorit 

i' 1 ""- j' i ■■''»■ hm ..t..rih,.i tOn'i' ,■'.;;,:,; 

ol Uhary-n,,,,, c.jmj.r.'li.'in.iv,: ■„„] „„,,.„,„. 

'"'"-'"'I-- ' ll "-'i'l"l''"l'l'i'.:illli..ori t -sofaPIato 

a Socrates, or a. Seneca— bettor Kir lli.ni the lea.n' 
ingof Paul, the worldly »i-,lu,ii .,[>,!..,.: „,. 
of Isaiah, the plaintive lament of Jero- 



•-IN, 



>r the si 






of Hie 



^Er^pej-seding, arid setting aside the loi- 
immandmcnl 
i another. 1 " 



J com puny n 
1 mediocrity 



all. 



s Urn Burial, i-ny.- : "i Ir.ive-tuu.^'i 
scarce furly years. Generation;- pi-; wl 
trees aland, and old families last not lb 
To be read by bare inscriptions, lo hop, 
nity by enigmatical epithets, or Aral 
our names, to be ^luilinl by iiiiliiiuurhin 
•re and have new names gnen us like 
ol Hie mummies, niv cold cuiiiohitioni 
students of perpetuity, even by cverlos 
mlaees." 



San Josa NtiTierT, 

aaS.. 1,,E P"i'ri«orcl tl.l, l,r-» ,,,,] „dl !,„„„ 

Fltl-IT AX l.i OIINAMENT-U TRFFq 

R0SE f^ , i 1 : 1 :.. ''i-V'T- -m!,^ Vbbm 



■ ".i'.i.iI ,'l. .-,..-, ,1,, IVi.j.c-nmHB- 



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18 

Elu California Javmtv. 



^HE OAlli-OENIA F^RMEB. 



n ! C.t£/FO^_F.^WEKOFf/M. | ^^ 1 



out r-»r«bGrc.ncr ; ffi(e , In both [>1 
ito." So. 130 Wuhtol»u .m>^«Brb 



p.,BTeBi«nl for Unm. Letlan, **■■ •* , ™" lt 
TpUe.i-mb.rrompHj.i'UaDJ*! 'o- Our 
li plww fortraid their fi 
i publish t» »no an In - 
Lrpleam forward th«i 



■_- irtt !]-' odoueo ™> I 



ill Kotici— A ipsclil i 
'oot mbferibin-ho mil 
ad Hortlenllurat Booli i 



will b» taelewd I 



Oar Now Volnme. 

In oorlsst issue wc promised to lay before our 
readers oar plans, prospects, wishes anil hopes for 
the future. Wc shall briefly present them p»» 
■nil in this appeal we ask the kind and candid 
sideratioo of nil to whom this, our address, ta mnde. 
Three years of oar California -life and labor have 
been given to our present aMftisfr-in editing 
»ud publishing the OALiroartli FinsiER, and 
three years of such a wort, surrounded as it has 
been with doubts and difficulties, tore and trials ol 
no ordinary character, has been to us canal to 
years of the ordinary events •( one's Ufo. O 
mencing u we did this work at a period when the 
cause of Agriculture wis bnt little understood or 
appreciated, we knew and felt that * Herculean 
task was before us. But oar hope lay in the con- 
sciousness that it was an enterprise worthy of 
man's highest effort, and a wnrk that must orenli 
aHybeproduclivcof great good to thowholo peo- 
ple, and be the means of awakening nllention to 
the resources of our noble Slate, whose untold 
riches lay as jet uareTcalod, Three years web»vo 
labored to this end—and although the era and 
heart of the people or California were fiied mainly 
upon her " gold fields," yet we felt that the great 
reliable wealth, thai which would tend to build np 
and make permanent her Institutions, and give 
prosperity and happiness to her citiicr 
hidden treasures of her ogricnIUtra 
These awakened, these encouraged, lb 
forth— they, in their turn, would give I 
other industrial employments of her cituwns, would 
quicken the genius of her artists, ond bring 
action all the mauuboturing powers that nature 
bad designed should barters!. 

How well wo have accomplished this, how 
Faithfully wo bava labored, it is not for us t 
Bpeok — we can only say, we have most eonso 
entionsly labored with na eye single to tho grei 
cause of Ibo -working man's interest," in over 
department of the Industrials. Wo hove labored 
to this end, 1GB wn beliovo not in vnir 
look with heaiUclt pleasure upon our fields of 
waving grain, our orchards of luscious fruits, 
our vineyards of the clustering grape, and the 
presses bun-ting outwitk new wine; wi 
happy home of thousands whose pathwc 
grant with the riches of Nature's own flowers j 
wo see, too, tho workshops of tho meohunic, 
whom thriving industry is rewarded; wo soo 
the foundries, mills and manufactories sanding 
forth tho results of genius and skill, and wo see 
our land dotted over liko stars in tho firmament 
with schools, and other institutions, wiiioh 
apeak a people's rapid advance — and it is this 
thbt bos cheered us ; it Is to these wo look as 
more sura aud certain to secure a people's 
prosperity and happiness, than nil tho "gold 
bills" or "placers" tho world over revealed. 

In laboring to reveal tho Agricultural re- 
sources of California, wo believed and wo knew 
these glorious results were to follow, as certain as 
wo know that good wheat, well sown nnd care- 
fully tended, would hriug a rich harvest; and 
we now begin to see that "bettor day ooming," 
and wo believe our citizens all see this, for this 
is our hope, aud tho merchant, tho ship owner, 
tho real estate owoer, the manufaoturcr and tho 
meohnnic begin to see this and begin to feel i 
and wc rejoice to announce that they are begii 
ning to act up. it— aye, lo join in tho work of 
aiding tho "industrial class," that shall carry 
them safely over tho waste places and dark 
spots into nbnvonoFprospority thoyhi 
seen or known before. 

Tin: CALIFOH51A Fahmbb has been tho 
friend of these great interests from the day of 
"ic present 



r journal. Three years it has 
been before tho public, and wo are happy lo say 
received by subscribers in every Stale of the 
Union and in Europe, as well as in every portion 
r own Slate,— approved and highly spoken or; 
d we now anneal lo the citiicns of California, 
give 115 that union of aid in an increased power, 
all these branches of labor and interest thai 
: may accomplish more for these interests, and 
bring about still greater and belter results. 
The first and second numbers or Ibo New Vol- 
ne (Vll.) wo hsvo now laid before you. They 
shall speak for us in their typography ; Histori- 
cal, Selected, Editorial and Other matter. Wo 

;peak with strong confidence, and say, " 
Califohma FiHMKR shall steadily keep pace 
wilh every improvement of Ihe age. 

We can announce in advance that we 
iBde arrangements with some of the most 
ilentcd female writers that will soon grace our 
ilumns, in addition to many who havo hereto- 
ircbccn withus. Talentofthebighcstordcr in 
:icuco has been secured, from the other sex. In 
tho ornamental, wc shall constantly improve, by 
plate numbers in every department of which 
speak. Our type and papor shall always bo 

cfTorts the most earnest ; our devotion 
id nc finally appeal for that support 
which it shall be our aim to deserve. Te 
subscribers wo appeal, that Ihey may giva u 
only lAei'r sympathy, but bring that of their friends 
to unite wilh them. Those lo whom wo send - 
marked number of ibis issue wo appeal for tbei 
aid, to join onr ranks. To all who are intcreste 
in these plans we appeal, and say, try our journal 
one year— and Iry it this year— and wc believe 
you "ill always remain wilh US. 

With our best and most heartfelt gratitude for 
ill past favors we leave our appeal with you. 



Valuable Experiments. 

Wi: hnvo been indebted to G. F. Louck, Esq,, 
Produce Dealer, for tho following dntn. Care- 
ful Experiments were mode, before planting, 
which wero as follows : 

1st One ounce ufbluo vitriol to one hushel of 
wheat, soaked four hours, nnd dried with ashes. 
2d. One ounce of vitriol to tho bushel, soaked 
eight nnd ten hours, nnd dried in nsht-s. 3d. 

rain sonked in tho bags, and planted plain. 

Hesults— No. 1, olean, and perfectly free froii 

int. 2. Nearly rquol to No. 1, but not quite. 
3. Showed smut, plainly. 

Another lot of 800 sacks of wheat was sold 
by Mr.L. for a former; half of this lot had boon 
soaked in vitriol, nnd half had not — tho 
wns that tho soaked wheat brought f 2 GS, end 
tho olhor 82 35, mating a difference and i 
in favor of soaking of $120 in 400 bags. 
saw tho samples, and Iho first was perfectly free 
from smut, and full nnd plump wheat. 




To tho Members of tho Legislature. 

Tire Members of tho Legislature aro kindly 
invited to visit tho Exhibition Rooms of the 
State Agricultural Society, whero they will see 
govern! thousand specimens of Agriculture, Hor- 
tioulturc, Floriculture, Minerals, Curiosities, 
and muuh else lliut Li worthy their eapooial no- 
tice ns products of our soil, tho works of our 
Artists, or tho skill of our Mechanics nnd Man- 
ufacturers. At these lioorns may also bo found 
Agrioulturr.l nnd other valuable Books of refer- 
ence, nnd tho papers of nearly every State of 
Union, nnd of Europe. , 

'u these Rooms all aro invited frcoly, where 
every courtesy will bo shown those who labor 
advance the public wenl. 
Rooms on Fourth street, between J nnd K — 
inr tho Dawson Hotel. 



Popular Education.— We present our read- 
's in Ibis number of the Faumeu, wilh the Oral 
I a scries of letters from our correspondent 
Omega," upon tho all important theme of Situ- 
ation far tht People, ll is wilh great pleasure 
re call tho attention of all to these letters, 
'ho cause they espouse, tho sound practi 
aanner in which they are presented, must ins 
,n interest for them. Wc can assure our read 
hat wc know the writer Is engaged wilh all the 
wwers of his mind in advocating the cause; his 
ieiotion to it will, we trust, awaken a new interest 
for it over the State, and we should rejoice lo have 
others enter the Held and discuss the subject free- 
ly. Our columns are open, and our aid shall In 
cheerfully given to carry forward to it- highes' 
point, the cause of Popular Education. 

Santa. Clmia Aoiucultural Society.— W> 
aro much gratified lo see the interest 
by the members of Ihls Society at thci 
ing, at which we had the opportunity of being 
present. There seemed to be good spirit prevail- 
ing; a harmony of action and earnest desire tt 
produce results. There was a goodly nurnbci 
ever will | present; and among those who had been very ac- 
he — unfaltering, unwavering and fearless, indc- I live wo noticed Dr. Bascom, Judge Daniels, Dr. 
pendent of all political, sectarian, or sectionnl Cobb, J. K. Kennedy, E?q., 0. Peebles, Esq., and 



ni tested 



many others. They took bold of tho 
they were in earnest, and we look for good results, 
Corn 



it shall still Ubor for tho grout working 

interest of Cube, mi,,, it : .|iuJI labor to build up 

and establish prosperous and hnppy homos, 

where those who toil can "sit under their own 

vino and fig tree, with none to molest or make 

them afraid" — aad can wo not ask tho aid and 

hearty co-operation of every family in tho land 

for such workT Can wo not ask, and shall wo 

not receive tho aid, a generous and hearty 

aid in Ibis work, of every merchant, manufao- 
turcr nnd mechanic, as well as the farmer and 
day laborer, in the cause in which wo arc non 
engaged 7 

Wo ask your aid 1 We ask yoor co-operation 
with up, and your name to our subscription list, 
that we may through the columns or our journal 
make known lo you the various plans in opera- 1 that wo inl 

lion Tor your o«n success. We hope It Is not Ihe Bulletin on Beet Sugar, an article on Sheep, 
accessary lor us at this late day to speak of Ihe ' and several others, which will appear li 



Mink. — A discovery of very fii 
specimens of Copper Ore, or rather a apecios of 
Copper Quartz, was mode recently at 
Diego, by Mr. H. Lnidloy. An analysis has 
been made, which proves from the surface, tbt 
quality to bo ns follows: from ono ton of thi 
ore, one hundred and twonty-fivo pounds pun 
ore. A bnndaomo specimen was kindly ;;iivo 
us by Mr. Laidloy, for which bo has our tin 
and we trust bo will ha enabled to raise a 
eient capital and n company to Work tho 
and thus add to tho riches of our country. 



Dr. John Idndloy. 
[We beliovo we cannot belter stimulate Ibo 
minds of those who are engaged in tho ennobling 
pursuits connected with tho Science or Agriuul- 
thnn by presenting to Ihem tho name and 
portrait of one of England's most distinguished 
botanists. Tht brief sketch oF Dr. John Lind- 
loy's life, his rise to eminence, and the mark he 
has made npon the age, is copied from the 
London Cottage Gardener, and this will servo, 
to lead men's minds to a proper study 
and appreciation or this noble science] 

Very recently wo recorded a living example of 
_ country gardener's son deservedly elevated for 
"his deals of noble daring nnd honorable condoct, 
the associate and the admired of our coun- 
nobility. It is noblo aud animating to sco 
such examples of the gifted son of the poor man 
elevated upon tho pinnacle to which he has buf- 
feted his way — 

Ron ibid to Hi point ajaiait the advene itroami" 
and we have this day to place before our readers 
another such example in Dr. John Lindlcy, 

Dr. Lindlcy was horn at Cation, near Norwich, 
where his father, Mr. Oeorgo Lindlcy, for many 
years carried on the business oF nurseryman nnd 
seedsman; but, being unsuccessful in business, 
he ultimately became Foreman to Messrs. Miller 
and Sweel, of Bristol Nursery, where, no doubt, 
mnny of our professional readers knew him per- 
sonally. Tho early lift of the subject of this no- 
tice -A*»s not distinguished by any remarkable 
occurrence. His rudimentary education being 
obtained in his native country, he wai 
qucnlly sent to Franco to prosecute the r 
vanced branches; nnd, on his return, it. . ... 

Sience of bis father's reverses, ho was early 
rown upon his own resources. These 
cere a well-stored mind, great self relii 
_i ready perception of the art of rising. Soon 
after his return from the continent, ho attracted 
notice Of Sir Joseph Banks, by being engaged 
... _ controversy- wilh Sir James Edward Smith, 
laic President or llic Linncan Society. Sir Joseph 
favored the opinion of Mr. Lindlcy, and appre- 
ciating the ability of the young controversialist, 
he took him under his patronage, and through 
Ins influence he wji cmplnyeu by the Horticul- 
tural Society, to whose "Transactions" his father 
has been a contributor. 

Tho Horticultural Society bavin- ilLtermiucd. 
much against Iho wishes of many of its fellows, 
to occupy an extensive garden, finally arranged 
in 1--J1. Tor Ibat at Chiswick. 

The Garden required for its care a resident 
stafT, and as Assistant Secretary of Ihe Garden 
wo find, in 1B22, Mr. Lindlcy was for the first 
time announced as an officer of the society. As 
bolder of that office, ho had to superintend the 
collection of planus and other transactions in Iho 
Garden, besides keeping all accounts and min- 
utes of reports addressed lo the Society's Council. 
Mr. Sabine retired from tho Secretary -lii]>, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Benlharu, Mr. Lindlcy con- 
tinuing In , Assistant Secretary. 

Mr. Liudley's connection with the Horticul- 
tural .Society, sustained by his undoubted great 
— uiremcnls as as Bulanist. aided bis rapid up- 
■d progress. The Botanical Register, estab- 
lished by Mr. Sydenham Edwards, in 1S15, 
Cissed in 1M-(J In iho editr,rHlii|i of Mr. Lindlcy, 
aving prcviousld been under the iiumu'e- 
ment of his friend Mr. Hcllondim Eor. Tho 
sound knowlcili'.- he her ■'■ exhibited, its null as in 
bis liosoruui Monngmpliiu, mil Svu.i|.-is nf the 
British Flora, [lubli.-diud in lSJD, fully juMlfi.-i] 
the University of London in placing fnin iu the 
Choir uf Botany, from which, us 1'rofessot, ho 
il-liiir-_J lii.- Iiitr-jilnclxry Lecture at tho olflSO 
of April, in 1620. In this bo boldly made a 
stand in favor uf Urn Nntur.il System of Bulany, 
and announced his inteiiliuu < J ud<>|dli]._- ji j,. 
tho basis of his course ef Instruction- Mr. Teg- 
Says, in a letter now before us : "I am 
old pupil of Dr. Lindloy's. Twenty 
years ago I took his guld iiLoriid'nl University 
College, arid maintained tho supuriorty of his 
leaching by takiug tho silver bulnnioal medal of 
ll,.- :\[...|liee,iries' Company, opun tu tho oom- 
jieliuun of ull tho students in England. SVo 
have long boon strangers ; hut I Oun truly say, 
as a lecturer, ho was ono of the best ttncliiTs I 
ever heard. Free mid conversational in bis 
manner, bis matter woo eicellent, and i n..< [1 , . .. Li - 
colly arranged. I intired bis cIiim ivilh Ijith- 
knowledge of, aud b-s.i liking for, Botany, and 

left it with the results that I Imve m.-nii d, 

having amongst my competitors Dr. \V, II. 1 '. ur '. 
peRler, Dr. Lankestt- 



loy beyond a list of his principal fjniilioahe . 
in addition to those already noticed, and (boy 
desorvp tho general criticism that they ara S" 
exoiltcnt. 

In 1333 hn published his Nixus planuirium 
{Approxinmtions of Plant*), ond in lKtS, Flora 
Medina, and Sortuin Orohidaconm, besides re- 
porting upon the short-comings nt Kow Gardens. 

In 1830 npponred his Ladies' Botany, nnd 
School Botany, and in 18-10, his Theory of 
Hortioultare— decidedly ono of tho best efforts 

illuminate and direct practice by soience. 

In 1841 ho published bis Elements of Botany, 

d in conjunction with Mr. Paxtou nnd Mr. 
Dileke, founded tho Gardener's Chronicle, ovel 
which ho continues to preside ns editor. The 
snmo yenr, nW>, he Ii.'cnnie I'mfessor of Botany 
at tho Royal Institution, and published, in . 
with Mr. Hutton, The Fossil Floi 



.t Drito 



raluaulu 



In irMG appeared his largest 
ork, The Vegetable Kingdom. 
Wo must hero closo our very imperfect notes, 
and will do bo by expressing a nopo that for 
■ yours to como our generation mny benofit 
by tho high botanical acquirements of Doctor 
Lindlcy. 



.. .fir.Jc.„„.. 

In l-:;-J Mi. Lii.ill,.;, |.i.„;,ji, ,1 i r ,,ni aGermon 
M.iivirsiiy tl,c degrco of "Doctor of I'hili 
phy." From that time ho wns known as _ 
Lindloy. In IslJS ho hnontno Vieo-SeorotaVy 
of tho Horticultural Society— a po«,i whi-h lm 
lin:i ,>vi.n- ..iiir,. c„n tinned to hold. 

Wo have little more to chronioloof Dr. Lind' 



A Coat at Mail. 

Most deeply interesting is the History of the 
■Knight Templars," tho "Knights of Mnlti 
md other Royal robed Warriors of old, that 
left their homes, hearing tho knot upon their 
breasts, given them at parting with thoso they 
most dear. These Knights have passed 
away — they, and their achievements, aro mat- 
ters of history. Wo can look back upon thorn 
and their Surucen foes, as did thoso beautiful 
maideus to whom they wore plighted ; wo, like 
tho maiden gazing, can see their nodding plumes 
fsst fading away in the distance ; wo can catch 
glimpses of their burnished shields, and their 
lance points gleam to ua liko stars. These 
Knights were betrothed to tho maidens in 
heart; they Era betrothed to us, in history. 
Brnvoly did they battle for their cause, nobly 
did they fight for ours; tlioy battled for tho 
Cross. Fearful as was tho contest, bloody ns 
was tho strife, yot tho history of those days 
comes down to us like a beautiful pioturo full 
of startling figures, standing oat in bold relief, 
whilo tho back ground shines forth in ull its 
varied loveliness of light nnd shade, flowers nnd 

These Knights went forth to battle in nit the 
strength of u noblu purpose, nnd full of foith — 
some felt upon the field of battle, some returned 
victorious, to enjoy tho reward of their achieve- 
monts. Thoso Knights wore a Coat offtmil, 
nnd hidden benenth tho outer gnrraents lay the 
Talisman, that wns to thoni "u pillar of firo by 
night nnd a pillar of cloud by day," nnd hiddt 
from tho gnr.o of open or secret foes lay tho 
•binim; links uf tliic lii\:-pr.:-.-i-ver there ; over 
tho vital port, closely and perfectly fitted was 
this Coal of Mail, nnd whan tho contest coma, 
lowaver thick mi-l b>'uvy fill the bljws, however 
iwift the spear or Innco flew, or however uner- 
ring tho aim, harmless fell tho weapon at the 
of tho warrior, for ho worn a Coal of Mail. 
The mailed Knight sought no undue udvnntago : 
tho open, manly foe, ho mot in open field ; tho 
wily, orofty assassin, ho was obliged to moot as 
best he mny ; fear ho know not, nnd death ho 
feared not. Ho had entered tho fiold prepared 
for battle, nnd "Victory or Death" was tho 
motto of tho mailed warrior. Hnppy it that 
warrior who always wean a Coal o/Jtfati. 

Tho world is a great battle Geld, aud tho 
people are oil at warfare — all tho devices of art 
and genius nro used by tho bravo and noblo to 
guard against defeat, but tho bravo aud noblo 
have seorot foes, that liko tho wilyBavagoortho 
cold-lloodod assassin, strike in tbo dark, and 
■triko from behind; from suoh nttaoks tho or- 
dinary weapons of war will not avail, and for 
inch foes tho warrior must wear n Coal of Mail, 
Even thou, though the victory Is certain, tho 
mailed warrior will hnvo tho appearance of da- 
tea!— for a while— for his outer garments will 
bo soilod aud torn, and ho will bo stained by the 
blood of his foe; and although tho struggle 
may bo long, tho result U sure, for victory 



aver belongs to him who wears tho "Can 
nf Mail." 

There wore Knights in onciont days, ni 
thero are Knights in modern times— tho Fomut 
want forth to battle for their King, and for cog. 
quest; the latter go forth at tho present tUyi, 
all tho walks of life, in all the varied pursuit] 
and callings, in whioh tctalth.fame or nappiao, 
nro to be tho rewords of victory, Those nbj 
buttle for wealth, their eoai o/Matil is a "u, n # 
gold;" all their energies are given to its pn, 
suit, regardless of every other object j bnt whu 
the real contest comes, nnd they look to thi, 
ibiold for safety, lo ! "riohes hava taken wings," 
and they are vanquished, pierced through *rita 
many wounds. _Thoao.nlio_JitiilluiJ>r/ame treu 
a, coat of mail of many colors, ns many 
varied pursuits in whloh it mny ha worn 
tho professions that adorn life by tho amount of 
usefulness they bestow; but the great road ta 
fame in California has been that whioh tho Pal- 
itioian sought. Almost all other pursuits hs<n 
bean sacrificed to this bought patronage aai 
power, that led to wealth and then to f 
coat of nail worn in this battle has boon scloib- 
nnd the war not in the open field, but t-_, 
of schemes in ambush laid, whero hired soldim 
ofton lad by traitors and by traitors bs. 
tray -id; nnd in the ond, liko Fharaoh'a hotti, 
the horao and his rider arc thrown into 
and tho fame thus won would bo oblivion. Bit 
tbo Politician whu seeks true fame, must woe: 
Other armor. The Politician must become 
Statesman— his cOoJ of mail self reliance, wlikl 
ongrnvod upon its polisi^cl surface should ap-F 
pear in golden letters, "The "f-hpplo's; unbougla 
will." With such on armor ho will g» forth tgj 
battle with the patriot's watchword, "Godsn) 
my country, victory or death ;" armed thus si 
fears not, his chock novor pales, bis step nova 
falters, onward is tho word — the vnn of fill 1 
battle js his post, in the tbioket of tho struggle 
bis sword i-i uplifted, and over and abovo all cm 
en his wovi-ig plume swaying to and froit 
lemies fall on the right band and on tb 
nnd when tho smokO of buttle shall clesr 
uwny, when tho bottle is ouSell and tho victory 
that patriot warrior abali be found un- 
harmed — his shield of "self reliance" is unstain- 
ed, for its metal was pure — and now Iris oxam['l! 
has diffused itself over the legion that surround 1 
him, and higher motives und nobler nets stimi. 
lato all, until every profession, guided by tbt 
true stnti.'sruun, shall find that "truo fame" if 
only Found lnboring to elevate a people and ii 
promoting their best welfare, and not in self- 
aggrandizement alone. 

Those who strive for Happiness aro like tbt 
sentinels of a great army, fboy huvo the watefc- 
word, and cone pass without it; the whole 
are engaged in tho battle, few only can give Uwl 
countersign, and fewer only win the citadel. 
He who sooks true Happiness, must we 
.polished shield — upon it will BpjpEur that I 
trie word. Home ; yet from this fountain 
out streams of living water that can alone a 
isll, sustain and bring to bud and Fruit tho 
of life. If this fountain is pure, tho fruit will b) 
pleasant to the taste, and millions 
upon it ; if corrupt, then like the deadly Upsfc 
death only can bo tho result. 

on wear this Coat of Mail, let tht 
Homes of the Pacific bo what they should t* 
od from thence will issue men, full grown 
ho shall go out into the world educated aw 
reparod for tho "buttlo of life ;" and weariftj 
this coat of mail, they shall bo victorious. Ertlf 
foo shall falf hefora them, and thoy shall b! 
a should he. Statesmen and Patriatlj 
and thus they will secure to themselves Fans 
Wealth aud Happiness, that will i 
away — for tho early genii was planted witbS 
tho sacred circle of Home. Thus protected Iff 
this Coal of Mail, whose every link is liko a sill* 
chord, tho heart makes musio from villus,"" 
tho singing bird which sends Forth its notes 
melody from tho Home whero it sings, protecti* 
by the shield whiob surrounds it. 



..eras tfl 



How Music. 

Ths Following now pieces of Musio hnvej«* 
been published by William Hall & Son, 
way, New York : 

KatioSlraug— Scotoh ballad; words by «' 
W. Fosdiok, composed by W. Vincent WaU**| 

I hnvo Waited For thy Coming— ballad, a* 
posed by W. Vincent Wallace. 

Some ono to Lovo— ballad, sung by 
eivnl, nt Buokluy's Opera House; ' 
James Simmouds, musio by J- It. Thomas- 
Bring mo my Harp— ballad for the P*|i 
Forte, or Harp ; written by E. Fitsbsll, «■ 
posed by Win. Vincent Wallace. , 

Minnehaha, or Laughing Water Fu'^T 
Fr,moi, li. Brown. Hesitation Folka-br*H 

Horaon Waters, Broadway, Now Vo ik, J 
just published tho following -—""■' 

Acacia Walts— by Miss Holou A. Chili- 
Aurelia Walts— by F. W. Smith. ,i 

Tom Tit— r L - ,:- "- "—*»"«B ff ' 

iuhor oharaot . 

tized from Mrs. Stowc'- — ■ 

Fanny in her Grow— song, words .by - . 
M. Bynw, M.D., musio by F^V-SmUh.^i] 
tho most tou.oh.ing und beautiful songs i iu % j 

Persons wishing collections of Music, I 
well to order from these Houses; thoy* 1 | 
llavn tho very latest, 

■Kent (S 



i sung by little Cordelia 1W«J 
rofTomTitin"Dred,"nrt" 



Holcocvay' 
medicine, and 
from diseases c 
dlsputably n'-li 



lories, No. 60 Maiden Lane, N 
244 Strand, London ; nnd by 
25c„ G21c, and $1 per box. 



,v reco ended to all ' 

the i.ivei and Slonioch. 

tied that thoy b«c n«« 

" ' Tnrk^ 
drugs!* 1 * I 



THE CALIFOENIA FARMER. 



13 



Important Decision. 

Wa are pleased to learn that the 

gent of the medical faculty are fast approaching 
aaruo estimate of Dr. Wesley Grindles' celebrated 
JBagie Compound, for the treatment of all Pul 
nonary complaints. Some of our most conserv- 
atiro physicians, who have (he greatest dread of 
■quicker? , hare been compelled, by the (tucr Iota 
of the evidence produced be faro their eves to ad 
mil that tut doctor does curi coninmption, am 
Strongly recommend the Compound to their oivii 
pationU when all their own remedies fail, This 
B at once a compliment to the, dinar*, -f [ n |i 
great medicine, and ■B.is«>: 4ntt l0 ,„; publi i 
that lb,, (.ompou^ is !ndeed B ■■Magic'com. 
pouad, and tun It is destined to savo the lires 
V. thousands who woald otherwise so down to 
early graves. 

tike ill great scientific discovers, Dr. Grindle 
had to contend wllti much prejudice, and en- 
counter strong opposition i but, mighty " " 
consciousness of holding in his hands ™ 
most blessed boons (o mankind, quietly, 
mit resort to the usual method! of trumpeting his 
discoverj to the world, bo took measurcsto show 
the eicellenco of his prescription by its actual 
working on the human lungs. Astoniihment at 
first took possession or his enemies as thej saw 
the wonderful cores effected by his Compound and 
gradually they laid aside their prejudiees, and bo- 
came the doctor's friruda,and the advocates offals 
cause— pl.cng his came in (bat bright galaay of 
great discoveries which spans the scientific world- 
tod be has now the aatislaclion of feeling that he 
is an acknowledged benefactor of his race, and bis 
medicine one of (ho institutions ofbis country 

But the intelligence of this wonderful discovery 
has swept orer the wide waters of tbe Atlantic 
and ordcrsare rapidly pouring in upon Dr. Grii 

die from cvfre mrt of Vnmr^. r„ r k:.. i ._■.. _ *. 



10 of tbe 



1 Willi Tirj gteal pi s as 






e moat Important h 



. . . . It purports 

u oo, ajreet nalioae] work. "Tha Abrldemant of tbe 
Debates of Consresj, from Galea A Saelen's Aonela of. 
ContTM ; from their. Ketiater of Debates ; and from ine 
fJBsial Reported Debates by J 



I, Anther or Tnl 
in 15 volumes, 8 rt 



n C. Ilirui— hi 



100 volumes. Price, 13 pen 
thlt InperiantNatfooel Worl 
Iral of Jannnrr, and will be : 
liona, From tbe Itronj; into 



tuoo-eoDl.in.imo™ 
me. IktJflnt nlome ol 
III be pebllsbtd abont the 
i fi^lu-iirclj \>j tabserip- 
I shown bj- the public In 
uKpuLicauon.weiMi eoaadent tbat a W. lart* sab- 
rerlntlon lilt may be pMelard, and I hi! erery town and 
Alan will tarnish Iti ooots of snbseribers." We hop* 
toueaworkeflbi>ra]at fa everr Llbrarr and ovorr 
lastllatioo on tho Paolne wast, as una u possible after 
iblleat»D. Thiitomutim D Arrmoii O 
o Pnbllshan. 



J^Q^LA NEOU S. 



PACIFIC ^UBEUM 

INTERESTING AND INSTRUCTIVE AMCSE1IENT 

SOB FA Jl 1LIIS ' 
-f* THIS MUSEUM hurler. 



-hu tiricBj 

■ 9 Bear. 

in Whiio 



SAMSON, th 



ISON, the 1.™ 
migbiot 1,500 i 



Rockj- Mum 



SPECIAL MOTIOE8. 



IT" CIUUSTMAS OIBT.-Onoof Ibo nu*t bOJHUi 



icuoiain Hbilo Us 
Tbreo Black Cob 
lof Bea,„ 

■l;.i(,.« 



-e, js •nMtninrovia 

~m». ...... VlCTORfA, or Ine 

The Blsjk H>an» Dear. Twp 



BOOKS, &c. 



re Cineaaon 
o. la 



ivory -W *™ Report of tl 



■","""""■ 'a|»uiy pouring : 

die from every part of Europe for his invaluable 
renovator of weakened and decayed lungs. The 



ruigush physician^ 
trans-Atlantic breth 



» Wb.tLLe.jtoq 



i Afrioultursl Social^, for the 
HI Report, of the VisiUiij; Com- 

"— -"d Vineyards thranfhoot Ibe 

Slate, Reports on the Ejhlbltlon, tbo Annual Add™ of 

Hi rroTld.nl, Address of Col. J. B. Crodielt, dtlnHea 

. of tho Einlbitod Articles, tha Priw Eaaj on tbe 

tab. with other ImporUnt matter, b now Issued in a 

it Pamphlot or .boot «l e hi, jaees, lllustmled. Pcr- 

sdeslrom of obtaining copies will please address the 

ice of the Calisob-ili Paaaea, when ~>-'« -"' «■- 

•aided as p«r erdor. Price Fitlj/ Cei 

.'or sale at the Omee? of the Oitn 

Slate Agricultural Society's Rooms, Sac 

Ho. 130 Washington rireot, San Prai. tl ™,. 

'■■■ 4 Cs.'.. J.VT. Snllivaa's J. J.LoCoont 



ii': J ^- Snllivao's, J. J. LeCoonf ». S, 
lr. J.C. Cobb, and J.B. Manoy, Su J wo . 



i Thousand Flowers" ai i 
a j persons do not know th> 



when b/ a 



JO baokward'as their 
--™™.«i.,k oiciuern in acknowledging merit, 
although It appear not m tho presen'oed/onn at 
once have adopted and prescribe Ibo Magic Com- 
pound. In fact, it is fast becoming, both in Eng- 
SwSrf * * nd ■ in " rica ' an inlc e"l P»rt of Materia 
Wo do not know but we miy offend tha mod- 
esty of Dr. GrindJo, for wn know him to be ad- 
Tcrao to laudatLon; but we have ourselvci seen 
enough to satisfy us that measured language will 
not do him and his medicine justico ; and wo have f aTbbfttied bkf 

sst'.ks'^sss.&e.' 1 - ""- » ™ -^ 

For (he information of those who may wish to 
avail themselves of this valuable remedy 
■q-ooto tho doctor's prices as follows: 

"Pnicsa.-Oneboa, S3; three boxes, ordered 
at one lime, £5 ; half down, $11; one down or 
any number greater, nt tbe rate Of S2 a box. The 
postage in Itie United Slates, not over 3 OOOmiles 
is fifteen cents a boi ; over 3,000 miles, fifty cenrJ 
a box. In all cases where the postage must bo 
prepaid, the amount should be inclosed in money 

His general depots are at No. 5i White street, 
Mew York; and No.TO, South Thirdstrcct Phila^ 
delphia. All orders addressed to Da. IV. GRIN- 
DLE £ BRO., lo either the above places, will 
Kl^! al,Bnti0a '-[* *• *«>P"* Organ 



F^aj 



--, -^thes,ba^.V.blihr T ?r«" n ,d , »od"nremSao7u' 
Mrform nomarons and sorprltlng faati at tbe rrill n f thoir 
k«i»r A great Tarielyot other wild animals, arnmi' 
ri b 'S» r " C »'«™I»W»B end Tiger: . b»»m ifolp.fr 

Prams Worf, Poies, hlountalna Cats. C«lo- 
ireevarlatla.orBi ( ] M , &, &,. 
atio, a SEA LEOPARD In n caic ineonir,nil» ™. 
tn.ed lo eihlblthlm Id his hiUto elenwol H.romaV 
■Iso ba men tha Mammoth Pig, whioh oicitod to -,„.£ 
"ocjJsr at tbo late Slat. F»ir. walghlog o.erH»nmmdj 
large eo|[«lien of Sloff.d Anfm.u, oad man, othir 
ir; ikUaael on interesting natnrs imnnr ■hu ij nt 
■a* eolleelion of beaolifol Bird,, form,"? ™id % liu 



O^t^rj da; 






"■ V7-2 



The Farmer's Drill. 

Ihtistiib, Aoocar, 1853 1 

rpHDl "W^lcdBrtUbuukraiechljbBilDreinliim.lOi* 

and ^f 1 ™'' :!i,:lt!, * H "'-b«U u Eiliimorr, <5riMuriM3- 

'; ■' ::: ' ] : fT '. o? ?* Wib.i»ib^dai' J ot a^''!-''?!''^'"' 
■;■■■:■■■> :<'" C ? un» P.lTi.uftla ,ft 0n . B6 !.-., . ri .,\- .■:■' 

Bang lajlD, tmpowrral to set as Annl for dGbrak and 

■ ■ ■ ■ : ' ■■■ ■ ■ ,;... " 

■■■'■: . . ■■■ ','! 

■—■J-nl D nc hjr dipper. j.-iuiiDiimj 



Importunt Standard Publications 
.'->- pcBLisriED ur ; 

'D- -A-IP^IiETOISr dtOO., 
tBeXaWMV. 3*0 nnil 3*9 Dnuilin,, Nc« Vork. 
AEPLBTOh-S' CYCLOPEDIA. OB BIOGRAPHY FOB- 

huni x'.-r, .\in:\n-.:.\y. Kiii-i t., u„ i> r or 

Hawks. I rol. rojal Bio. lIlDitritaii »hh GOO Fn. 
gradan. doth, (3 . do, b.lf-mor«eo, 16 ™ 

i \vs vie"/: w 1.-CT, , 

tb.ffo*lagof tboAmsrican Qow-^' V, H 4?,7 ° r 
Years, from IBM to I6S1- *■'■ -f«tB« ''-;;• 

pages- Cloth. «i.*- V -»i* r f; T if^S 8 "■ ''S? 

_ .__ ,;,,,.■■ ,*:>i -J'. d.i . Inl f-nv.-r, ■,■-.-. ...; 

-•■'-I'Mt'v:' vi mi' i>i:n.vrE> ■.:;■ 

I»£5arHS 1 fr»n 1TE9I0 1656. From Oalai «d B. s - 

WaAneals of CongroM.from their rt ti litiir rl)sb.tes, 

and from tho Official Rsoortad robalm, bT John C. 

, Hi™. Bj the aulhor of tha " Tbirtj Yeanf View." 

To bo eompleted In 15 volumes- Voluma L now ready. 

BLTLlrVi >i ( iL0S0PHT OF TUB WEATHER, and 

eGaldotolUCWr"- s2me..»l. 
Br.V.lM.- |>|-,£v,i :■-•'. I2m.> 1 *telb,t2. 
OALHOUM (J. C), TJIBVO 11 , 115 0f ^"f "«' «1" 
■ JfODESS PHDL030PBT. 

Traajl.!!-,!!,, SVi-.:ht. ■> rni> . Kain, 'iJ. 
DADRAKTEV Mr'Ri.f^:! R I TOLEON, his Court 

' '■"'■ " ■■■! ■ ■ ■'• -i. ' 

OAKLAND'S LUE OF JOHN RANDOLPH. 2 «.'•■ la 

teas 9 si " I - pi «- »^srt 

' i i^T ftp COMMON MFB. IUu- 

HAMULI!'! ESJA!8, C,S„1 ;3T«S3lS;„ 

'■"^ol.!"'^ -,'■■!. JCllN -I - -\-.rh 117^ 

3 ^KJK'rJ^"ft ; ffs^ 
PEBRr'S narrAIvk -■f'/.':? KXPEDITION OP 
B ^a/a Rn l ri S . gODApMM T0 ™B fflfn rI 
,.':: M3.?A*Wi Porfurmod In the Taus. 1852. 

6 tarjo roll , Sro. Cloth. «. ' . 

THfBBS^. FRBNOH REVOLtTTIOK. 4 yels 



COMMISSION- C ABD9. 



afk N. F.E V'N0L»S & CO., 

fM^ Frodnn and Qeneral Commission Merchants, 
. 79 and 81 Dirts street (bet CUT "od WasMnitoa itntu), 
San Fnnetseo. 






San FraneUeo. 
vrtoietaioino Retail Dolen In 

Class 5tonso furnished, and llboral aJrineea 



__ _OEKT9 FOR LICK'S FLOUR jft 

A H1RSHF£LD & JORDAN, 

-"-. Produco and Couunluion KerchanO. 
Ho. K CL-.y area, ctu Franelsce. 

f> ^MW00L. HISBS, SKINS, TALLOW. 



HATDEN Ai HUMPHREY'S 



s. 



MEAD i BENNETT," 1 ™ 
. and Produce Morehaai 
icr of Em and Heichut Uteetl. 
2ky and WisblnBtoB ilnel Whanw, 



„^?s 



G. P. LOUCKS, 

Produce Comraiuion HerciUuit, 



)Bslgnraenii, andSiaruein i 



2 



■■; Oi , ■.-:■;, i.illl.tduipoirf^ 
M. ti. GRIFFITH, Airot, Dkmi 



CdiT ( 



it to the fa 



' Mail. — We made a vii 
mouB Dennis Wire Works, a few days since, and 
found the proprietor at work upon a real coat o! 
mail, of-silvrr wire. He .as miking it for a 
(rapper, tehoie life was constantly eaposed among 
tht Indians in tbe far mountains. The coal " 
mail and the birds in the cages at tho same pi: 
fitiggesled Ihe article, "Coat of Mail" Let 
others go and nee Ihe coat uf mail, and procure 
oneoftherigbtkind. 



using the "Balm 
tan, pimples 
left and raso 

three drops, and w 



flsziom may •«!!» be esquired bj 
a Thousand Flowore." It will ro- 
ad freckles from tho akin, leaving it 



t EA«r.-Wet jour sharina-hrush .. 

Jld water, pour on (we or three drops of 

iounnd Flowon," rub the beard „. 

. bountiful soft lather ranch fneilitali 

ladog. Price only Fiflj Csala- 

W. F, FETRrDOE • "" 

Franklin Square 



ffi iVAVl i! 



TYPE FOUNDRY 
^RUSTTBUS* "eivjtfoiiitjm:. 






W. II 1GAR, Jr., A. Co., 

t ^"",7"'' """ V ™" c " y - 

«bccn7nnT ibu'iw? lli»fri.adj(, a d ihe Prlotlnj 
a . „M°»Ef" 7MPH07EMMT H™' 01 ™"' 
■ ihcrcforo ui"W»dj t£fliUe?foi'"rodoeini """'"' 



Rural Piiblication". 

THE CO'PNXBr GENTLEMAn-— 
I.n.SDd lhou,h furaubpl .1 Iht loi. pricoof F?n, (fsnli 



Produee Coa."" 
o. sj Clay (tree! 



a & NEWCOMB, 

■ion Merchant! and Oenoral 
Agents, 



JOHN T. LITTlL' 5 * co -' 




MgoombTco., 

General Commission Marciuuita, 

■-■■■"•<"— mslnwa, Baa Fnmeu 



cost.' Prlco Tnontr-Ero Cc 
and 1656, uae price. Far 






Ma< bine and Uand 



ig Informed 



1 ".'I'"""; «« ?«">« laloroed tothatoffMt., Address all 



- - '.■.::;, a lfn»i.«.j nNJ „. 

Fin Prnel iVirihoiue,c*sHcti r 
ty- LIWn.1 cish advi 



el Inmenee effected 



BENNETT," BLASDEL k cb" 
r0dQ0 B B T 5, o 1 m ™ i " iD "n Merohan 



> SCALES 4 JOHNSON,' D: ' M,>fl ' 

. Frodneo Coininiealoa Herchanta and General 

Agents, 



WtMTEBzse Oowa. — At a recoDt Farmers' 
ub meeting in New York, a member made h 
in" or'" 5 su ?^(ions in reference to the wioter 
.., ; If I "ere to have cows wintered just to mv 
liking, Ibey should be fed on corn S .«lk B and if 
j.ro6t m consulted- these, by all means, should 
trtpt run through n elalk cutter. This in mv i 
titnation is a saving of ut least one-fourth th 
va ue. My method of fcediog, j, , ri re Si* 
Mtaalabpshel basket full ol chopped slalks; 
they will not eat them clean, but to save all 
throw what they leave in the mangers to mv 

Sine' "h "S ' ii5p0M "' lbim ' and wilhoul • 
remainder. Those cows which arc ;„ milk are 
ed a slop of buckwheat bron, night end n ,' ! 
ears' of of "° J-ct come in are given two or three 

«me^,f' "'" : " ' h l y - r M on " ■ <>", 'he 

ame as the cows which are milked. In i " • 

"^Tb-kcptj ..jM,l ngcond 



I belivea greater yield of milk "and but 
be obuintd than from any other mode 




»"J'."«l..».Ji.. E »tg raK ™™,SS£S L E A T H E H DEPOT 

DOW hnd u map 011 u^, ; n0 d J»= I OA^.,.L t . ..ik:i.vvv. Agtnt . 

1. ,.1..J.. toilb,lr.!» J „„ rt,tbi s ZTlO, "' 1U, »""-""VS"„V;""» ■»■ m mo. 

» "• *'iw«rt™,., „„. 1L „ 

.!.. „ kcBm "' ' "". much Int.r.itcd in 5e ci nc 

obtain dngnorrootypes. I 

: n tbe brief epneo 

'ugRostod tbo fol- 



tttingl 



^ J pern.,. „., „ 
tiiL'30 few ,t ra y 



Counted focty-ei a bt n 
ofboironhour. Tofooro 
lowing, und I would M k jf 

■tbSSuf '"" "fj 

* a P!, ^;' ^" a "in^.b™" "'" 

* ttib.le of bl. woodnni till. 



^ , '"''^t>i. D . nJ , lhrDmfh , n m 1 ,. Kll 



......... nt.,,., .,..]. r-p,iErii.-i iji .ill Kiv .„. „,. 

'■■ a ■•: .:■■„".! ,"'m ' .' '. '' , ''.' 1 '""' ■' ' " : • ' ' ■ ■ 



SU1= AjTliTuUuriJ 3«l 



Oaage Orange for Hedge, 

ilnwConnli WM ' P ' U ' L> *»^ ^OoS Santa 



ivrASoisric Heqalia. 

APB0N 5 L 'i vx if !■"?.'' ■. : 'rj* r JEWELS 

At 'eij ruluoai prie™. 

144 Sk d norcrose, 

■■■ ■' ■ «l tm«t[.. i ||., 1 | l . rr , tllll . illi 

•M m a.^ram C t, "OBCBOS-i, 

■ ■'--". y...t,. :r.. r , ..-|....... 



SPENCER HOUSE' 

CINCINNATI, Ohio. 
_ PRATT 4 MEICdLFP, F 



WE DDE LL H OUSEr 

LOUISVILLE, Oato. 

■2 In J P. B0S3, p,p„ , „ oa 

8T. LOUIS HOTEL, 



NATIONAL HOTEL " 
LOUISVILLE, KcitTucKY-. 
v7-I 3d j. c _ p£, AC R ( Pbopwbtoi 



For Sale low, 

T»!! T iSE™SoffiS"i„ 

*'« o( lilOH BAt.OOkv ftAILINO.ror«I.I a 

11 wn. Haas, i»j ci. r 




SGEO. G. POPE & CO , 
, aa ^"f*. nnd CommisaJon Bcrehaiita, 
1. 1. r.-ii'.'-i, ,';,;, ',:,.„^,'l"; ! .';,-V : '■^">»,*- J1 f™,',^ 

H»fur W Hours. MiKODdriv 4. Co. 



^TOAVELINgk 

California Steam _Navie a ti on ~ Company"; 

■7 K» inn J a.-.-j „r f .-, - t, r/| ,| I -■,:".!, V.y"- 



"7" SnS^eiSlS KS.-— ' ' 
e-UKnuEoCf ^^-^^oolo. 
WILSOH 1. h|:;m- 

- ""»iE5iB'!£LSS-Si. ,I -'**»*t 
: SSSiftffiiS? "~ 




w.«b», iiiSa'wWS VSS"ifi^ Ma,,. 

— . - AllVbol eo^JBeuu. ""f' 



GEO. J. BROOKS & CO 
BAPEE WABEHOUb'e 



1-. M.3o, 21.38, fc 



Bi«T ' H " 1 " p '™ 
"'™SS'"' "°* *•«'• a «» «. « .«t 

" w ".'CS'"' """»!■ ™n bu„ ,t M 

»A^c-air,^sESj™fe-' 

tB-10 



Contra Costa_Perry IvoticeT 

OHAWO-E OF BEHTB 
™S|j. corocr 5 iClSlT^E^™ 






^i^iMmr^RH^L 




E XCeTsY^T 
WALTER s, 10MPCIHS, 
GENEBaI'ouxfi xtees 

01 uk, taad cnos baattful iijiei or 

®«tltmeirs S.jrjgrr'1., 

Ao. 170 Montgomery Strut, 
-^ SAIT' FRANfl fHnn 



•; »">i, sptVii Ef..a fSSib™- 1j " ''"■"■»-■»■ 

L™^ ° M ""^ ,D «■■** « h-od , n d™*e tooriVjJlth 
,&■• Plulag and a.„b g dono w otJof _ u (|]o Iomit 1 

IJEWNiS IVIRE WOIUts" '^~' 

mil tt^.'. r ? Cloch ' W»"e'"w»tt£ii B , 

■ IlUnd., wi™ FFtsEtaij., tie,^ 



re Clotiiffot™ iol! 



COLBVoiBELL 



^3^ifsT^ifcut. 




•A B«aUia»«t cn:h eye, 

_ _doHj -*!B?i»»'M.S¥l™':'":_ 

■ s,IB tfliaa»im*i«*-> wch,(*a«n, 

r^lri^Acrtoynuy/tftfk 

|ad5i -iwk-"^-""— 
yoe^dccptjlw eca t 

_ Mttrnmr** ««*», 




- tam^^f 



■ ■■'MUBBi shiyerint- Wtftberepl*- 
And Is lhat rich la™ I k» 




'-ifflliliiiB" lii. 
!■■■.: ;■■■ rncen Bnii.fjy, 



gnsl'l -jiWktiu lit: 

Ar.O t"l:i li-of'thiM :iiritJ :■' riiirb'l 



■""Ifl ftf * We trerj hour of loll 

1. ripaM *M KMm'l smile--. 

-"<H*»e j**rertaowB o-Mori 



JB gaf -^jytrtfi^™ « t8ij* 




Drive eat l lK L p1.:o> 
IKaLb.lai'fhu.icj Anpjoi 
-oHpDD Ihc famat e»ri 



t:i','rT,vno-:.; : m- 1->.mut,i-ii-.i. —Since thoro IB 
abeiton r jSi.j,-i1H'" , y'>.uUiCi|lnO>ujit cease to bo 
y<JiS£'3 n £EH r - x ''J' '" ■ ie '"i t ' ° lJ "?'i-'tii'n, tu It urn 

lWnnvt eaduBiott jialuiUu, arbi that cuu be 

httTO nolhin^-'fl.^lv.'-nitrJiT;''* is for this 
Kobcr r^nmlvtrrj tlifaibit cdiicution should lay 
np^Jjj^lr^^iirri'i- ffifeppj disregarded 

(,;.i,- ■ ■■ ■■vill I..- ■,■;: 

ed nfiffijriTTffT' ll " ft ' llg ^' haHIW;m flBt,( " 

b «uMffj rjWm <li«ii>.uiWiM°b»diiven to re 
intrHfFIK^ffrl'iPW^flb*^ cPMrt erlninmea 
'ijngouu with inor. 



f ojflueively for the 







A Volco from tho Ben. 

The letter from our friend and former corres- 
pondent "It." which vro anncs, will bo read with 
much interest The claims of a family required 
him to return to the East, nnd leave the "Land of 
Gold." His homo in the Empire State was of 
uo to biro than the uncertain wealth for 
which men toil here. That homo was his em- 
pire ; there ho was enthroned a monarch" in the 
affections or tboso he lOTcd. Mncb as wo regret 
(bathe should have left uilhout attaining: what 
he sought here, he is and will bo richer there. 

The California Fahmer will still he the me- 
dium through which he will bold conrerw with 
those to whom ho was allied hero by social and 
intellectual bonds, nod we trust those to whom 
be has now appealed -A lice, Bessie, Katie, E. M. 
S„ Old Block and Agricola, will not fail to re- 
spond to this "Voice from the Sea." We believe 
there is a sympathetic chord in kindred minds, 
that when touched revcalB intellectual masic; 
and our own sympathies £° out t0 < M ' t ° nc 
friend, in the warmest wishes for his safu anivnl 
at his' homo, whore we know warm and true 
hearts await him; and wo trust years of peace, 
prosperity and happiness shall be his to enjoy 
with Ibem, and we know the same wish wiit bo 
sent from those he has so kindly remembered. 

Our columns will be the medium of future com- 
munion with our friends and our readers, and 
this will afford pleasure to all. 

To the Edtiou, Headers, and Correspondents 
of the Farmer: 

I introduced myself rather abruptly to you, - 
some mnnths ago, anil havo been a frequent visit- 
or to your domicils over since. 1 have presented 
to your notice many topics deemed of interest 
and importance to all well wishers of the State. 
" egret that I havo been compelled, from the 
circumstances by which I was surrounded, to 
a hurried manner, and to often do. in- 
itio subject discussed. 
Katie King, Bessie, E. M. S., Old Block 
and Agricola, seem like old and tried friends. 
Xho first object of interest to me in the Farmer 
is to look far one or all of the above names, and 
all the articles from their pens are read with 
great pleasure and interest. The various topics 
Introduced by them, serve to cheer one in the 
midst cf liTt'e rugged path. 

Man's everyday toils harrass and perplex the 
mind, and sooner or later break down the ma- 
chinery of the body, which in its irregular and 
imperfect action deranges the mental economy, 
and very often paralyzes the whole man and ren- 
ders him unfit for the severe, but over- varying, 
duties of life. Whoever can throw a sunbeam 
across the thorny road we are compelled to 
tread, whoever plants a single flower that spreads 
its gay petals to tho sun and perfumes the air 
with its rich fragrance, is thus far a benefactor to 

The fair correspondents of the Farmer have 
woven many a garland of beauty to embellish its 
columns, and have added much to interest the 
reader, by their numerous articles, familiar home 
scenes. 80 vividly arc they drawn, that many 
are constrained to exclaim, "Oh 1 that I were 
young again." 

When tic ladies of any country arc able and 
willing to contribute (0 the columns of journals 
sustaining the great industrial interests of the 
country, there is a bright future in store for that 
country. Oar male writers have added to the 
literary wealth of the world far more largely 
than any other nation of tho same age. At the 
ir female writers have blended tho 
graceful with tho strong, and twined many 
wreaths of perennial beauty around Ihc magnifi- 
cent structures reared by stronger hands. Our 
female writers are enriching our national 
tore in many departments, in which they 
limes bear off the palm from the sterner se 

Many of our fair countrywomen in California 
wield gifted peus, and may be justly considered 
as exerting a wide-spread influence for good 
the State. Katie King! have you laid asideyc 
pen 1 are wo to hear from yon no more') 1 
there no themes, or no interests that can indi 
you to resume your labors, and lead your readers 
with the sprightly flow of your thoughts, as they 
gush forth in sparkling beauty, and elevate and 
cheer the heart in many a lonely hoar 1 Yoi 
rely can do much to cheer on those who ar 
toiling aiound you. Do what you can, and yoi 
■ill promoteyourown happiness by contributing 
) that of those around you. 
And Bessie, whero is your pen 7 Why does 
your genius seek to hide itself, and not give fiee 
scope to your ir.cnlal activity 7 You may add 
something to tbc happiness ol some ono whose 
fcee yon nay netcr behold. Into the rugged 
mountain gorge, into tho minor's lonely cabin, 
or to the ..1 ■ ■ on the ranch, your pen may 
carry comfort and hope, and thus cheer many a 
lonely dwelling. Wby not use it then? 

Alice sometimes peeps down from her moun- 
n houiOjJHEtio sec how tho denizens ol the 
ies^alloys and plains are progressing in life's 
journey. We suppose that the snowy mantle 
bos long since been thrown around her dwelling, 
and that she peers forth upon the wintry sky 
with tho stare blazing around the mighty dome 
that bends over and around her. But when the 
fleecy drapery passes away, and spring spreads 
her gorgeous carpet of flowers uponbilt and plain, 
let us hear again, Alice, will you not? 

E. M. S.: Why sweep those mournful strings 
So long? Why coll up around you, by your 
magic pen, those wailing uolcs of sorrow, that 
cast a cloud of sadness upon tbc hearts of those 
who read, and invest nil you write with a peculiar 
Charm, linged with woe. Those who read ihtiu 
love to liugcr under their spell, aa they would 
around a crushed Boner, lovely in ita ruiuj. ilm.--,. 
ing around you its last and choicest perfume as it 
passes away (rem the gaze of mortals. 



Life has more of joy than of sorrow, 
good than of ill. Wollvo in a bright and beauti- 
ful world. There is more of sunshine than of 
shade, more hcauty than deformity. Look then, 
I beg you, opon tho smiling landscape and tho 
iparkling stream, and from them up to nature s 
God, and rejoice. 

eo Old Block peeping out from behind bags 
or gold and express matter, wondering what 1 
,m to say to him. Did I not know bim person- 
lly, I should hardly dare address so renowned a 
personage. But having seen a part of tbc "proof" 
Of Mb last letter to Alice, I am fully persuaded 
his heart is all right, and that ho can write better 
with spectacles, than many can without them. 
As ho is n banker and wishes short yarns and 
good security, I will just soy to him, continue as 
you havo begun, in well doing, and you will have 
your reward. 

With diffidence and profound respect I men- 
tion the name of one who has contributed so 
much to the columns of the Farmer. His arti- 
cles are rich in classic lure^e filled with massive 
gems of original thought, wrought into an un- 
broken logical chain by a master mind, and pol- 
ished with the practiced skill of the rhetorician's 
hand. May lie long bo spared to enrich your 
columns with his varied and useful knowledge 



,„- 1H tho Winfls nnd Wuves. Woman, 
Without thy Winning Ways, Wealth Wore 
Wnrthl.-.aWilloMl...\Vii|.. Tl,- AW'U.-i-y 
1,1' ii,,- W.H.inc Words Works Wonders hko tho 
Waving of tho Wi M rd'H\V..nd; Witno- thy 
Weariless Wntehings n'or the Wnunded nnd 
Wretched, Withstanding our Waywardness 
through Won! and Woo. Wnntoii W nddlera on 
tho Wane, Writhing under Wnukles may Wage 
a Warfare with, but tho Wise Wolcomo nnd 
Worship thee. ^^^^^_^^^^^___ 



AGrBICU LTU HAL. 
"wire FENCE, 



mode ef fence la superior 10 any 
onoinj, firsngta, closeness, ele- 



Fanns, Highways, Eailronfli, Cemeteries, 
Gardens, &0. 

THE ratolla of experience nod Ihc theoriM of sclonc 
all atleft that tbis made of fori 
heretofore la bid, 
Csnee, perinblUt-jr 

Thisfanca Is vftriixiouHj »*i«i im^u, ■ ... , 
rroricls II from ru?l, nnd Imrmrl* 1" It a beautiful bind 
— '— " '1 porfMily iccnro n» a barrier airaioit fnni 
no! Mich Iho xiod; iodcjU-uitiblo bj bre 
:■ nul conOnn the heat, but odmils frooly (.hi 
B| dwi not ocoopi th*. soil, or twrbor vermin, 01 

'puffii-ic'nloii-ticilj'toennblclt.nllhnal tlio'lcag 
I that contraetlou bj- (ho colrl of winter, nhfcl 



■leek; docim 



It will e 



could not have had tho pleasure of clasping by 
tho hand the veritable AonicoL*, tho correspon- 
dent of tho CiLiFoniA Farmer, under the bright 
of tho glorious Golden Slate. My first 
greeting and farewell to him come from the son. 

This will notify tho reader of the above, that 
urn no longer in California, and it remains for 
to say, that I have no crpcctalion of over be- 
holding that glorious land again. Ties and duties, 
paramount to all that California can over impose 
upon me, imperatively demand my presence at 
my distant home. 

! on my way to that home after a long, 

painful absence. I too, havo daugh- 

is,who morning and night kneel before 

heaven's high altar and pray for God's blessing 

upon their dear father in California. One who 

has never seen the form of her father, nightly, 

she rests her iittlc head upon her pillow, falls 

asleep with tho words, "God bless my dear pa-pa," 

lingering upon her rosy lips. 

To such fond and loving hearts, I am now re- 
turning, after long years of wandering, nniioly 
and toil. Who can blame me for tarrying no 
longer in the beautiful land of the Occident. 

Though I shall probably never hold any per- 
sonal converse with any of you again, yet I hope 
tonally, through the columns of the Farmer. 
at awhile with my old friends, if onr mutual 
friend the Colonel shall think my yarns worth 
the space they would occupy in his paper. 

Wishing you, one and all, long life, health, 
prosperity and happiness, I am, as ever, 

Yours, B. 

Tho Ughta and Shadows of Momoiy. 

This is Sunday morning 1 and with it comas 
a strange kind of melancholy, I know not what. 
A thousand tender recollections crowd upon 
my thoughts, and then depart like clouds, that 
chase each other along tho moonlit aky — now 
light, now dark, and yet an unchanged cold and 
gloomy aspect o'ercanopies all. 

And yet, how often — ob ! how often, the mem- 
ories of days that are gone, long ago— aye, to re- 
turn not — recalled to my mind the sweet dreams 
of my early childhood, wherein was hope, friend- 
ship and love— all now melted away like a fairy 
frost-work. Alas I farewell, ye light dreams of 
my fancy ; ye have faded and gone, and with ye, 
my childhood hopes and the friends I used to 
lovo so fondly— among the tilings Ihi 
Gone from all save their sweet memory, whereon 
I love so much to dwell. Yea, I love 
sometimes on the past — on those long-chcrishcd 
memories, which fade not, which dcceWo not, 
which cannot betray. In theo alone there is 
truth ; and though to call up tho past from tho 
deep and oblivious bosom of years that h: 
down, wherein day by day it has been quietly 
inumed, doth ofttimes (ill my heart 
flowing tears, that, ore they reach my eyelids, fall 
within the deepest, tendorest recesses of my very 
sonl, as if to scorch tbc few sweet hopes that still 
linger there. 

Yet still, amid the Ills or lire, it is pli 
look back upon the past ; and however much 
there may be or sorrow orofllietion mingled wilb 
it,- still there is so much 1 love, so fondly nnd so 
dearly, that when I review the traces still so fresh 
in my mind, nnd think how tenderly, oh how 
tenderly, I have watched over tbosc that have 
gone to join the innumerable hosts whose spirits 
have now passed to the pale, cold realms of death's 
eternal shade— it is then, then, that 1 could 
wish to quit Ibis vale of misery and woe, and 
become a part of what men call— Memory, 

IUpilf.EI.IK A. 

Man ash Woman.— M— Man iaaMurvolous 

riud Matehles." SlmH .>i M,. ( :hiLi>iMii; 11 Hubdilc 

Muss of Mirth .111,1 Mi--ii,H Jr ..|iv , Murry Midst 

Mourning, Mournful Midst Mirth. Man Mars 

his Mundane Misaiou l,y Mixing in Mvnislroui- 

Mummeries, Mindless of lb,. M,., k M.)nKi.,in .,[ 

1.L- Mikity Muster, Mildly Mi^f.ri, ..,- I, ln Mil,] 

uud M- di rat* Mimdsiles Mill thu Mutiifold Man- 

if. -.-!.■! Ii,. „:■ f,f 11,,. M.iRi|,|i,.,] M,,,„., Motfd nut 

by his Maker. Mute, thou. Mi.--uidi.-i] M.irHl. 

■F thy Misdemeanors, Mind 

i Machinations of Malovu. 

1,1,1 Mmi-iv,-, ],.,( M.rit ,1,., M cud of a Morci. 

ful Mission . 

W— Wi 



Sited pcrfccllv to the cylinder.' 
1'umru ttonorolly, are lhu.oroR._ 
of rawer required to work thorn, 
[aekioK. TSuej-lin.krQDd pistoru _ . 
and FOiboth, it naturally (tiWtini Mil,! tber,.' tb< 
irittion, act, consequently, tea wear, than in ] 

The water onto » tho cylinder upon ltniile,i 
ternately, panes through Ibo nfston hoods. 1 
larficd through tho — ~ J 





. Tho tunc 












:.;■'; 


iparf^Md' 




nd 














■c tho retail • , ., i ii |ti, 














ajneb. wetn.lfa 




































•1\ 1-1 li'sb 
, L.alV "I ■.<:. 
r, I. -t l,!,l.. 












x 


















NaT 


'-.. ■■ -"Ii 




J™1 



SEEDS, Sco. 



J- HEW ESCULENT, ivon.nl. in In cniimilns"!] wo u 
10 Iw full ievdopoeat, the r«ult hi. proved cnilnly uiirf* 



^fmtlagr. pffpaiiL H»cti|it!ou fli.d direcliuna fa. 
V C11IKE5E FIKiAll CASE (fonetmr Sucai).- 



WATEIt-SIELON i 



e Bond LjUwUdJ ltd 
promptly roipowlcd' 



CHINESE SUGAR CANE, 



■i Hi- r„ii.;.| .;,-, 


or that ho bis ob 








ooftboprapcrtie 







re- PI* I 



illy tboa 

ifher fpecd Lhin pumpa genera 

Than pumps havo received 

lorn as oJlu comuitndatory noticoi 

' County Fairs, including Meual ana inplon 
HI l'atae Einibili™ in Now York 
10 power of a single individual onyitlcd Id 
illy famished for family 0,0, Is lUffltfcDt . _. 

ir from a well tiicnly-Cvo feet deep, nnd throw il u| 

wards of fifty feel from a base-pipe, lendcring it a 1 ci 
• ti-iily f'.T u.-o ntany moment. 



u Stato and 






.Uininl 



Heapers, Threshers, Horse Powers, Mowera. 

Q I- 1'AI.MHit i CO. l^vooov.oolii.odon.lanlhomy 

p. tl,.- 1,11. .,.„,, M,„:l.l„, ..,,11 „i ,| : ..t,.i u.ncnt*, Willi 1U0 

■Icllltatlugiljapori 



HnitcyV, IWUjaoiB do do 




1'i.liiiCE'h L'Oli.-bniled ilowort— FUe 


ted J 


icri 





To Farmers. 

t),UUU iD.wVj ir,' y> Mi'iiVu '.''" 



ikss* 



I. M.iN.U.I.Y, 



r. Maker. 
1 the Magnitude 
iot the Mcretrieii 



''. Win., Wl.il Wils Wrought 

.-. -VheedlincWnrdBofthoWilyono, 
-in. '. \V1,.-.i, the World Wei-p- g'.-r it,. Wi'rk.rt. 
liens. Wantiuc Women, tho World Were 1 
Waste nnd Wo Wending our Wcnry Way 



through ita WHderneej, Would U',ji „i 



Wail 



CALIFORNIA WINES. 
BE VO LI N & 00., 
SIRUPS,' CORDfALS t 



SEEDS. 



UOVEI & C O.. 
DEALERS IN SEEDS, 

AltE now ic'cclvinE llieir nevr n'lil !r,-!h flock. <:mhr»c- 
incallUicboit andiu^i dv.-ii.ii.l-! .'.rii-li,.-i i.-l .\,:r.- 
cullurai, Garden nnd Flexor mci1«, gropfn oipressly for 
them by tho m^l o?.| <hk\k\ -1 -iilii-.J,,!! Purchasers 
vf ho wish to obtain Ihc- most lolinblo Seeds nro requested 
■ ivordthoir orders early. 

ds picked securvly for Cjlifi'mij ir jny other port 



A™ 



msr&T SEEDS. 



£ UiJiIuuuj Scee* 



7: "^ 

' v "; , ;v;;;.-r: , ; i -;-;: l h. .;";■-; '■- : :r^"' 

rx; , ( £^ > - 

CuN-V^l-NlnnlTi.-'^J-l'-.' 





lit porfoclly, i...^... 

Cula and IAst of I» 




The Piin-,1. Drug, nnil ciii 
„ , tumiiLr. 

MSl?"fflytfSj&J^ Uw bf ",f ■* THE 

........ ?..!""? md 

liem n'l<Hi e . ... 

SniW'Mhiu.tofcoM U^aS ^2 ;' 

, r , „. ™* E «T Op->n bU Sign 1 1 

AnlcbirffoDOfflsrsformodieinj, lW in tin da r til 

U.0 full™. In [0= J« r01 « d J ti „* f U V^: 



KecpcoaHflinly onhBndaccmpleleMMrtinpnEQratu! 

Goni, Elflaa, Piitolj, Callory, Filing TncUn, Bodi 

EmIj, BukcU, linoi ttnj Hoots. 



P<rac°[ '" "'l.'S 1 ™ nK:ul * d **& diipnlcb. 

iuhrly Ir.iLl.; r.-ilr.-r- . i"". . . -_ 1 1 ' J ' * 

WSCKLEY. BIDE 







Complain Earaors of -AcHag-Iotetfc^s 
Ti«»Dwp. h,iiutt lim &tt r e***rTOW«v .flit, 

ii i. M •, a utanAwaiMlHiM; 
' — a.™*****, 



I no —■»■)■«— m i I » Sffi , 



■ COMPANY OHKIVEHV^ ™ c^" 1 ,h ° " WON 

"'-.-»..■ :. 1 ,.;:„"ii;,!-:?;j.;;.' 




I' EST |||l|l I I I'f ' '.' jl III! ll][ 

#Jta*ft k. •■ s - 

n/rAr ri .." 






GRAVES & SMITH 

COPPEESMITHS 

PLOMBERS AND II08E MAKERS. 

SODA WATEE APPABATDB 

Still*, Worms, Braw Kettles and Heatera, 

Liil hijJ Foreo. Punjps, Brass Work, 

: -_ - - CnSHTlKTW^ON JLl.tD.. ... ,, 




'""■.".froicihtfoolofKiiIrcol * "*"•"• B 'i 

. EMuntr Q&V. DANA, IV ,= ' ™ T ' * na - - 
udij-nntl 














How Books Received. 

MAitBTiso MP EAT* o. Tale, by GvO.fl ^, 
author of Peter ScHemihl in Ameriao, iw.a Mofl- 
C rn Pilgrims. Sow York: D. AppkU-11 & Co 

BW **> «■ W0 KM , b, the author of 
SmTamnofaHcriaencomEowpe. iwYoA- 
D. Anplelon & Co. 

■ Memo.iis o F WABdWWWh wilh il]"trr.t 10 n 5 ; 
byMn. CM.Kirklnnd: Applutc-D & Co - 

Man-of-Wae Life, a Boy's Esponen™ n 

the World in ■ Ship of *« !»«. b y C^ 1 " 8 
Wordboff. ' „ 

The JfcncHAST Vessel, n Sailor iJoj-e 
Voyseea to see tbo World; by same author. 



THE CAL I FOBN U EJ R H E_R. 

HORTICULTURAL, &C 



GLOTHlNGr, to ■- | ^J^L 



Wbaijmo akb Fibbing ; by same either. 

The aboTO eerica aw jaBt published by Moore. 
W'iUtaeb.Koy«oiCo..C!noinnBti,Ohb. There 
have been no belter work* written npon ■ «ea- 
Biao'e life since Dana, buS are ndmirably adapt- 
ed for yonng people interested in traveliog aa- 
Teotore, containiDga »ait amount of information 
and the trneit description of a 



[Copies of each of the aboyo « 



received 
byWlart steamer, and of which wo ahaUmako 
morcjnention in future-] 

new public Ariose. 
The Farmer and Emigrant's Complete GnMe, 
or Hand Book— witb copious Hints. ReeiprsE 
and Tables, designed for tho Fnrmcr and tm- 
igtant; by JdsJbq T. Marshall: Poblished by 
Applegnte & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio : 
A most valuable work, especially for settlers 
and emigrants, coDtoining important articles es- 
pecially adapted to their life, derived from the 
best sources in the country; some of tha arti- 
cles of greatest value are from the Transactions 
of the N. Y. Stale Agricultural Society, and 
from standard Miscellanies, thus combining a 
complete directory and guide which bas long 
been desired for tho emigrant Fnll desorip- 
tionB relative to purchasing and clearing timber 
Jond, prairie fanning and general management 
of a farm, also tha diseases of cattle, sheep and 
swine, and the methods of treatment and core, 
ore fully given. A medical department, with 
.netful hints for tho treatment of wouads, bites, 
etc.: chapters on the fruit cordon, fruit trees, 
etc. ; with a glance at the Constitution of the 
United Slates, and a whole miscellany of recipes, 
etc., for tho household department. 

When will the Piakos Cows Back !— The 
^increase of travel on the steamers up and down 
the Sacramento river, and tie handsome profit! 
now received by tho California Steam naviga- 
tion Company, will induce them, we trust, to 
return tho Plan tt* which once added so much to 
the pleasure of a trip on the river, and at th( 
■amo Cms gave euch a social look to the hand- 
■ome saloons of tho steamers. Wo understand 
that tho Now Steam Company intend to plar<* 
Cbiokermg'fl best on eaob of their boots, on tl 
first trip, and to add a collection of music of the 
very best and latest authors. 

»** SebehitV of mind is nothing worth, unless it 
has been earned; a man should be susceptible 
of passions, and able to eubdoe them. 

DrroaaiTios Wairran— 01 Chau.ii DocoLAa Cl i.t v , 

i native tf Aberdeen, Swtlan.i. When lut heard from 
illlh Job*, 1654) rail Salmon Hirer, Shnila cosrnty. 
it y infirm atlon re sardine raid person will be thutfallr 
received at tat oDesef IMi paper, 130 Washington errei " 
£u FiucIko. 



Pennsylvania Stale Elections. 

"EXC ELS TOR." 

IMMENSE ATTRACTION 

WALTER & TOMPKINS, 
Ho. 170 Montgomery s treet. 

v«l BYthBMrivolorth«"Qolder — 

TtGMo," brinrini; ibe news orthi 

jW Election io PenmYlvanra, Wal 
-""ler £ Tompkins have receWci 
■n invoioo of splendid (roods, In ad 
dltior. to their already elegant aasoiW...- 

OnI-7 .Look In their Window* - 
Ifjmwiiht<.»e*lli«cliiiie«t»krtI(.asofOASHSIEBES 

and VESTINGS in Ibis City, __.--- , 

FRESH FROM THE ATLANTIC STATES 1 
F. Walter, ha.lni; relumed, cm bow be toon d at 

lo Saw York, in cjterin* to lie tasM of Eli nomerotu 

II fences «o«drf that W. <t T. h»™ not ovoMcaebec 
-elr mono, that they ore enlsiled to be called the 
"EXCELSIORS OF THE PACIFIC." 
At their plies cm be found at all tines, [be latest 
maeesofEorepean fabric*, fresh from tat looms of tbr 

addition lo the piece rood" job. can obtain 
CUSTOM MADE CLOTHING 
From the wsll known home of 
Gbokey £ Lent, 753 Broadway, Now York. 
All the Clolhintr «°'d *r W. 4 T. li manoIacWred 
rajiresaly to their order, 
"sw style Basis 

Jjood those si 

(till keen Ibe lend. 



W \ LTER & T05IPKISS, 

Ho. 170 Montgomery street. 

li,., ■ ,i,.ii., m.v.j .liianTbcntre, 
6tf >,cTiiirk5lnra. 



GREAT LOSS OF LIFE! 

UMlUutiiNrflr.fi Use late Accident to Uie 
PmiAiiin Rallronll. llie 

GOLDEN QATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 



Clothing and Eurpinhing Geodf. 

WE IbtIIo the iivblic 10 call >nl csmnino am Good 
Ibej miy bo wlimcd «re line Ifcc fin wtAtMi 



TL.E G1LEEN UUE1NES5 COATai 
IS, VESTS AND PANTSi 
KICH VELVET VESTS SsB PAKTY VESTS ; 
PAKTS, it, ud tr^lhiBji In Uo l!a« O^ForallMo*. 
Sola Leather Tmala, Valiaea, to'., it. 
lo^cmaBd^BBoriBe'eer'lwlt fc™fed «n£itail°»e on 
■ait erojy one Ln tjlc Add qualilj, atfwafftUlnl 

QOLDEH QATE CLOTHING W AB.EH0USE, 



BOOKS. &C. 

FLORA'S 1 DICTTONARY. 







United States NnrBery, 

Sew JUIulon Road, San tsrmncti 
TTJE Proprietor of ibli ItJeo Nun- 



_ieeii-liBiBci™ni*, «nd Onrden PliuiO. 
T«j«tier will- near "' : ifc ooorled !l ? Orchard, Gard™ 
Tr.cur.ifcr.lrrrnJBOulurrio.1 io|«nfali» lainte purehiu 
,„ rl.it hi- Gulden and Gra.'nhoo.a. ilnHLirjl--.il l.-.r.c 
Hbluhed lDthel!ruloe"ho I, corrfldonl hr. tun fumi»tr oir 



T. innm mt Botanic Garden and Horseries, 

rihriss: 



/rafj*. WJL B.FKIKCE * CO, orTerfor uleaiirjl 
^CFruU »od Onumoo'Jil Troon Onelmtbirj ever 



trucks fur lncraflinr Fr 
Vouns Treef, V ill Irinrt 

Garden, Acricultund er 



lb ?■;;'.■. iDClodlDg El 

teerui In in.,- nuaotitj, u 



. Ice, TumcrV Sinoach, Mad- 

■ " l |,LBn'BrJorrf ; 
llaeph-rrlo, GrMntoorrioi, thimnll rind Black- 
all lie nirKrlor TerieUO. 

Ic, Pear, Peach, Flam, Cherry, Quince. Almond. 



EDUCATION. 
Beniciii Higit School 

■;,„!, .,-.:,.ri,..rli'll.r ! " Clival* Inslilriie. 
" loBev.C 11 I 

.iim ,1 Fj-a:t, .i :-r.idni'.c- 



Important New Works, 

JUST PUBLISHED BY 
D. AEPLETOJT &= OC3-, 
3W niraMS Broa4war, Wow York. 

OF THF. aUATEUljC. By u 



IbefDrmorworkbylh 
COHSIOTJORE PERHVS JAPAN EXPEDITIOH-l 



fM mTfoltcalf.'il' OoTfa" tnoroow"! !S0O. 
" dooJ, the record of one ol 



This book, conteimnt; ne it does, 1 

:.: I V, ■ :■ 

BBUmdard tolonie lor llbfiriei. Ilia 



. MKMOItlAL VOLUME T 
Uonlainl ^-Thirty-til Sot 
ii. ( Ncit Jenoj.. 1 



i BISHOP ivilsi •■■■: ■ 



. 1125. 

:,..:t 



ruitciliicdinE-Jlabureb li 



losteX 



the locntiM 1« eisT of nccoJU, tho buildlopi oieelloLt, 

..;,i, .', ^„ v ..nndhealtbtoloef>ijnhotillagoarDnn- 

ptieawithin the Stale. 

TSXtJVCS: raa -r, 

In the Hither Eogllih Studlni (Inolurllnc The 

_. ... ^..^-.'yjrit.'UnCLtr-iirvl 1 .Inrair PerenrB!. 






,":.: ,'.'.,'[. ■■ 






Young Ladies' Seminary, Benioia, 

MISS MARY ATKINS, : : : PRINCIPAL. 

THE School Year of this, Institution is dirided ioto two 
termiof Eto monlhs each: bur Iho tn™ oommoecin*' 
January 5, 1S57, will clwo May 1st, 1857. : 






.': Ill 



May and October. 

ALtheckooorench 
ornlnallonofthepui.il. 

Tho Courrc of (nslruotion [s snen at 

.nlli.il. ^.ihoolH.and also include., lb- i-:-r -li-liTii- 

■ . ....,,, ■ r. ■ sa :- .'■.--■ 1 - ■ = - 1 r. : :>r.,,.-.-!' ■ I M-: ■ 

The Government of tho school Lr penile, lint de 



tboroogh e: 
illy pnrmtd 



daily ne 



of the to 
onlhly.t. 



softheird, 



I ..; rati of thopromi 

All Of thoropll" boitd tlumr mm i«i-i 

the seminary, and are under the special 
parents, or if the reacboni ol the Instituti, 



I .rlin-ril ■■!' ' n - ti 
Shlers. 



EI.EKEHTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY ; Analytical, Bye. 
Ibellcat and Practical. By Hubbard Winil'iw, aoltor 
of Intellectual Fhilittoiiby. 1 vol., 12 mo. SI 25. 
VI. 

PHOGILSSSIVE SFAHI3II HEADEit; uith on Amljlicrd 
Stndy of tbn Sp-inljh Lanruarte. By Aucojtin Jdjo 
Morales, A.M. and M M. I rol., l2mo. SI 00. 

_ ._ Schools, and Aeatloin 
itille,D.D. - ■ 



no. SI 00. 



n 



HATS, CAPS 

Goo 



Isblil 

Ai they hite nneannled fteiJjUes for rmnplylnji eiery anl 

Gentleman's Wearing Apparel, 



ay 



Pioneer Nnreeiy. 

E undoniirncd, proprietor of this con veil en- 

by lie SUld AErlcultural Seciety at its, lut 
annnar lair, announces to his friends and patrons that 
be li prepared to offer them, the jiicsenl eeaton, a collec- 
tion of Fruit and Ornamental Trees equal Io any in tho 
country, and far mjierior Io any heretofore offered. 
Har'nrj bad in beariar last year, forty-coven kinds of 

thirty ^"o varieties 'or Peacht-, added lo the knowledge 
we hare acquired by cotnpartns; them with other varieties 

and such varieties only do we offer to the public the pra- 



CORHELL'8 HIGH BCtHJOL GEOGltAPUV ; FonnhuJ 
I'litTbird of a Systematic Series of School OcOEraphics. 
compriilnrtaDercriplionof the World; arran B e<f witn 
Special Reference to the Wants and Capacities of Pu- 
!>. In lit ,-r:0iorCl seres of Public and Private Schools. 
Embellished by nnmerom Enrrravints, and aecom- 
paniod by a largo and completo Alias, Jriwo angra- 
graved oipreeriy Tor this work. By S. S. Cornell. SI BO. 
13. A- Be OO. 



Ml'iVi'.i, !>lli.(*!A' A Thiiiuniid Pkuant Tulnjnv Setectod 
" n Notes and Qnoriea. I vol.. 12tuo. 

CYCLOPEDIA OF SERMOHg. By Jubei Bun». 

.1,8(0. 

STORIES OF AH OLD MAID; nilh lllnuiMlriiu. 



.■.,-■: :-■'■. . r,,i,| :t . r arc thnponil.. K «|uif.-1 to lurur.li t 
roomi, beddiuj;, ic. ; hot each pupil must have every 

do of clolhinKdL'tinclly marked with her name. 

Payments ire to be made Invariably at the begin) 

iir.r Earner *: 
L Iter. J. larnhun Kip, R. L JoUnsoo, Ej.[„ 
m. Orange Clark. D. D., 3, L. L. F. Warrcn.Eaq., 



TEA WAREHOUSE. 
C. D. ODSHING & CO.. 

nTFOItTEilS AHD DEALEBS IU 

CHINA GOODS, 

.. , — ..... meet (Uonlcorocn B:^ek.) 
. ai wry Irtitr Pricca, 

VfW 

Coaalrj atsde C 
tiij end ctiurBTJ uvic, til Mr«i=J<J to rdve ccurc uukti^tlDn 
In qurJIly "rid price; aad the ttleoUon of 
Trtdere, Hotel and Beataorant Eeepen and Famillu, 
biBpeciruiiy te^"* l^;,"^ ^jjj, JMrn[ 

BTi '^~ En™ FlncEnshah Breaktavl Tea ; 

anpvrior and Floe Imperial Tea; 
Baperlor and Fine Ooloor; Tea ; 



KE MOVAL. 

Mercantile Library Association. 

THE ROOMS OF THE ASSOCIATION, bains; those 
formerly occupied by tha Paeibe Club, on the comer 
of Montgomery and Jackson streets, over tbo Baokinr; 
Iloc-eof Monrd. Ii bi ■:::■■ Do, cillbe Ihmwn 

open to the public on Monday acit (I5tbct December In- 
rtantV The rapidly Increasing eatenl of the Library and 
ibe constant eceenioa of members, rendertd it Imperatlvo 
that more rq.acloos apartment* should bo recered fur Ibe 
purpows of the Imtiiullon. The new rooms will afford 
ample accommodations and will be fitted un wilh every 
reiard lo eomlort and convenience- A flALLER? OF 
FfeEARTSwiUooniUtuleanowaadaUiaclivere " 
in tho now roams, and the attention of cilireus and 
having Paintings and other Works: of Art in their i 

linn, it respectfully called thereto; all mob object 

be received and r;t-i[.". 1 f'.r ; ili.cy .-.II lie ooorficuously 
dL'played, and will be al all limes subject lo Ihe order of 
Ibe depositors. To art kn especially this will afford i 
fni-orahlo opporlouUy to ciblhlt Iheir worki: and Ihi 
Directon cordially invito them to avail Ihemicirea of thi 

Eooks of Baference, Maps, Cbails and Manuscript 
would be eladly received on the same Gondii 
Natural Curiosities, and Specimens for the tormaliun of i 
CasiieL. 

Brrancement, Ihe Library and Reading- will be closed 
from Ihis dale, nnlil Monday, December Ujth. v5-?4 



trjuTbe lunnd iir; 

(allifallj 6ttol and 'hipped, Tree o[d™j.|rc, U 
counlry. Asonr ir : ,;.:. f.i. i:l-1. pr.rl. . ., 



wblcb we offer this ecu., i. f> r il.t 
EiBlUrne. The follnwioB eertificale will speak for itself 
AUHBIU. July SSrh. leSC. 

1 " Myor»' Itnjtrlpe,"' do corihnlly and unhoilra 



Henry (inborn,. 

H.W^P.tocr.ir 

T. J. Kevins, Amateur Gordenei 
A. M. Crane, County Judge. 



I lit'. I. & Cu., HurUctlturat.'. 



MRS. HENTZ'S WORKS. 

THE MOST POPULAH IS THE WORLD. 

COPIES OF AN1-0FTHEM SOLD SEPAHAT6LY. 

Mm. Caroline JLee Henlr's Wonts, 

j=V=>_ T. U. PETEHSON has just published a 
nflULnew, revised, uniform and beauiH,: 






tofthe Belle Creole. 



inls and goirdiaot 10 Ibe pi 

TERMS: 

ir lli.r - It'.cl'jhBlnruca.... 



Edited by J. JAV SMITH, Editovol tl 
rriJIIS popular poblicallon, vshio_ _ 
J- Ine Its influence IhTougbout ibo t 



■ '. II :<■-. 

ioer and belter i 
slylo to wont they hare over b 
book contain, a beautiful one 
of the best sceuen In each woil 

THE PLANTER'S HORTHERN BRIDE. Wilh 
Iralloru. Complole ii " 
pajei, price One Doll 

LiSrjA:The Tonnrj Pi 

riper eoror, price One unsiat, 
Y3S. 
R01IERT QRAIIAM. Tho Sec 
of "Linda." Twovolsr., paper ™ver, par* ™»«»i 
oronovol.,clolhirilt,8l 2S. 
RENA j or, The Snow Bird A Tale, of Real Life. Two 
vols., paper cover, prlte One Dollar, or ono yal.elolh 

MARCUS WARLAND: or, The Lone MouSprlnir. Two 
■'- —per cover, price One Dollar, or ono vol , elolh 

Ciji'llTSllIP AND MARRIAGE Two volumes, parer 

.. |, ... -. j..,.| j-ib.di.tl A 
i. ■:.■■.: ir, Miisoolla Vale. Two volumes, ].it*roovor, 

price One Dollar, or ono volume, clolb srllt. SI 26. 
LOVE AFTER MARRIAGE; nnd other Sn.ri-- "I ih« 
price One Dollar, or 



Tho 



rt, fa justly es 



blchiy appreciated thrtio E h 
itlrnllon of tha beautiful, both in Kolure and 






..cloth gill, 
contiDDallon 



■■, In bad, ncsl varieties; 



11ETAII. CIIH.I-;-. OP 

Prize Meddl Ionic Gold Fens. 

MAKB FACTORED and »Id Wholesale and Rel 
SILMJ'SON A CO.. ill W as blnetou street, 1 

i.4 — EarmzsSos; .- 



To Floriits, Noieery and Seedtmeii, and 
Others. 

"mANlEp, by on Eoellsbman, forty yean of ago, a 

and thorough practical Gardener, in all lu brioches, 
bavins prcpiBBled and (rrutm Cimellias, Ericas, Foeh- 
llas, and Aiailas. and many other kinds of Greenhouse 

Fruit uid ornamcolal Shrubs and PlanU. I nm eiperi 
and soccessfol In bnddinc; nod crf-flioc, havinl; had a 
rrrictlce at It in >n EnclirhNunery ; can wel e h and 

.... jlaln band, and my character is unimpeic 

Should any eentlomin want such a parson I amn 

to encaeo tilth him fur modoralo wapes, ond ho will Dcd 
e qolleequal lowhaLIhave said of rnyielf, wht~ - 

Please state whit wages would be given, ic. 



rerfeet 



ra the above price: to the trade. 
)W. Practical Manufacturer, 
ill Washington street, Boston, 



io for themselves before 



oNhcm cheerfully re 
A. II J 



Smith' b Pomological Qaidena 

NTJKSEBT . 



fi,JSJ 



iusesssl 



I m . HI8HHB BOHji 
|apero( 



cloth EilL, *l 
I'ST 1'ATTl 



'S SCRAP BAG, 
before ou> 
olnev worl 



Kthcr mtb liLTk'O a 
ted In any form 

.I.eTuthgilt.siS. 
ay of the above vrar 
y part at tbo Uoll 



vC-lfi 



Prtbllibed and for 
Ho. 



i/,jp:»;.llri- n.ri.-.i,:-.. 



Pitific Oil and Ciun pile ne Works. 



MARBL^'^jviAReLE! 



X. lictnuiioi 1v&*. Botn Stone. 
. lervr-rtrr,-,;!,.!,,,!.!, ,.;,.-, .,!,.(!! 



rpilE OOioondSl. 
I0,r>»pl| oc , 



Caiuplnr.c nnd Rurnliic Fluid, 

ALCOHOL UCD TVitPEiiTINeL^ways on ba; 



PALMER, COOK tt CO., 

BABKEBS, conv r ■ H 

cf Dupoarr, C1C-, boa^hr *i vl^hi-i.,.1 ui,r^'i n,i-.. r 



A'.?Z" 



^spberrie*, 
ORKAUBSfAL Tltl 



"a 



Woeolno Willow, 
'nher Tree, aud Shrub* ti 






Cordage Mannfactory. 



. .■(., I', ..11. .I',... |„..| .:,,;, .,| -|, . , | ., .,, 
■-•■ I ,1 --. ,, - 

■■■■■ H/..I.1. l'..|.-':.:l, M ■ '. -..ir-..,,,. ..,„.. |t ,'.'' 

:;..; itirju-f i-r-*!.^;,!,'.,;:! '„.,,> .,'^'i'i',;'.. ■,,,;,,'';',. 

A. P. HJU- 
Woeantloalbe nhri'* °bl ' C E " 



JOSIAH J. LECOUNT, 
(.Foiefgn and Domeslie 

STATIONERY, 

IT 'THE LOWEST 



mds itself lo tho attention of all who wish to 
malic their duelling and grounds nltractira. and tosnr- 
vtiuorl Ihonuelvc* with Ibose lumrics and adornments 
that spring from the fruitful bosom of tho earth when cul- 
tivated by Ibe prMtieal bind. The lypojrnr.bical cit- 
ation of tho HoUTicuLTijnisT is designed lo bean Indel 
i its c-jQienir — neat, chaste and elegant. It embrace! 
JUiIn ihnoope— 
1. Tin Daacrur-no.1 awn CoLirviTrod or Farm *sD 
— - .ulij.ct of vast lmr.jni.ncc, and In 



"'•'■ 









,1 FLOW! 



nub me i n-i D & lens ;or llurai 



.1 in America | >bo 



2S£?X 






ra,.. i„l .,,.],„..... U.L ,...,..,.1, ...vi,..: Lb. I.t,,...^ ' 



cn,:f. 



S1I PRICE 



eUnlo and fnnov, eonslitine in 

.irt or Knr-llsh, French nnd Amerlein r,,;.^..; 

Eofilisli Drnwin C and Tracing Pniwrs; 

Eovl-Iijjb;-, Plain, Adhesive, 

nnd Clotb Lined. 

Genuine Fubor's Drawinc and other Fciiril,. ; I'ni.ler 

Macho (iirtds; Gold sod Silver Pens anl [Vi.til 

Cases i Gold, Bool nnd Quill I'oos ; 

Banker's Casts, Wallets, Porto -Monn lies. 

srood andlroalborlVrltlni and Trav.'il'ii'^'l'i.'.'l, ■■ '' 

Copylotj nnrl Notarial T?resses inrl fiundf, 

Etc, Elo, Ete. 

^4. O O O TJ N X EOOKS 



InSau FraaeUco for emllb-. Poilclosical OvSuET^ 



THE HALL ir 
hundred and 

fofstartu" 



II. .11 Ibo eudro I., n -il, 
collaneotui. Tho Hull 



thobuildlne, andl_ 
lo bo situaled on a corner lut, roveuly Ice i,.., i l.v . , 
hundred nnd lhirtv-;oven and onc-hnlffeet In il,-ull,. 

■-■■■■ -ibovov.111 l.„ r.-.-ii.:l ii]- I.. ['u. 

^ijtr.andforthosetof ,,W moil n 



























" M^ B d ~AvSh 


fee."™ 




",n'|' 






and in J no cue 
eiplanatlon , 
by which tlioy 


aTmr! 


::; 


IJn 


by ad 


cvst of building. 




















ii li 


STREET, 


H.Uofthnll 


'hi'dcl 


fr« 






puBulldiniss 



e'er) commences with lb; Jann- 
d It trill be Iho conslJOtaimci 
byovorymoawinlbelr ««r, ■ 
orthy, by ovcry i-MtU'-ioIr iu 



-,-., ..N 1 l,.:llii,,,ii,-illi ,i I'lonli^.i. 
isinnl unit » ell-executed on B rav 
oyear it will malto n volume ol 
■nulifulIyUlmlrolcl viri. .■'■<rl'-'i 

"' ;lopedla of Horticultural 



for Sii 



Ii:ilil.-- Tim Dollt... _ . 
Minn. pivaUc-in advnneo. 

TG-Klf 17 H'.IMiiM.r.-r,-;. I'K^l^Wl^i, 



LOW, HASKELL & CO, 

" JT^VJE3asrT;OEt-". 



[_)ia.!'Aiii: 

lonii'Sn'ib", It 

■It, llflLI uf .-! 

oipenio .Ta v 



Si 



Wms^s^ms^mm 



y :->^&: 



SIsiSj a) o a « hi a ;l io i 



ffissSaa ©«4«i»sss. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAUFOBMA, FRIDAY MORNING, JANUARY 30, 1857. 



NUMBER 3. 



C|( ftaliforitia farmer 



OF U9EPIH, SCIENCES. 



37 WASBEK .'. 


00. 












Slnnllaaeouilj atSaon 


mania ■ 


an San 


Pranelsoo. 


^**^si. 1°M irilSjro. 


"t"? 


2&S" 


Z3&ini 


nlttZ5£SZ£Z 


£5^* 


.&™ 


^r""' 


|7 AdrerBHmeau la la 


[•Jeer*. 




e.elrcuUHoa 


ty Ad* trtlKKcn U 


j.dBut-crtp.1 


"'""""" 



Agricultural Reviews and Essays— No. 1. 

On tbe present state o( tbo Netherlands. 

Pitcst Office Fjoorf on Agrltaltnn, 1535. ^riLcfu— 
"Improronunt of Land," i°d "Ftrtilimn." 

"Accocrrr of & Joareer th™,iii ton NttWInod!, b. 
William Chunbtn (of Count™' Ediobutiti /™n 

JonaiL of Ror*l Acricnllunil Society of EBtfaad, voL 
"Tbob Ib Ftaad.n," brllmltor-T.Radelirr. 

We hova several advantages in the United 
Stales, which the people or in any countries do not 
enjoy. Generally speaking, we do not require to 
traverse other lands. Tor the purpose of gaining 
information on the different modes of Agrieu! tare 
u practiced abioad. All wo have to do is to 
watch their systems, as followed on their first 
arrival by foreigners from different places, and 
adopting what is of advantage, let alone their 
peculiar crotchets, which, though to them time- 
honored and respectable, srs behind anr own go- 
ahead progress. In most cases we conld not 
adopt a wiser policy. But, as says tho proverb, 
"There is no rulo so general as to bo without ex- 
ceptions," if we do not feel disposed to leave our 
own comfortable firesides, or if oar business Ten- 
ders it impossible for us to do so, there is no kind 
of reading which is more likely to repay so well 
the time spent in iu perusal, as descriptions by 
practical men of the stale of Agriculture in differ- 
Though the inhabitants of our great country 
are pretty much disposed to visit other States 
than their own, but comparatively lew have vis- 
ited Europe Consequently, very incorrect notions 
are entertained by many concerning its present 
Stale of advancement, not only in Agriculture, but 
in the arts generally. 

I confess 1 was not a little surprised, tho first 

time I visited Antwerp, tu observe tho care and 

attention, which Ihe inhabitants of that venerable 

city pay to keeping their houses in complete 

repair. The city is itself a history in stone and 

| lime. In one place, wo have the fine old Norman 

Architecture, which the original Gaulish inbab- 

I itanls had Introduced in all Its massive sublimity ; 

la anoiher, the light and elegant Moorish Gothic 

I Of their Spanish invaders. Here, the equally cor- 

n according to modem Flemish lasle ; 

tho Cottage Qrne of their French 

hbors. And lowering over nil, tho ono Spire 

as originally intended) of their 

wld-renoirncd Cathedral. 

it wo have looked over 

city, and seen its lions— thai wo have visited 

Eicbango and tho Citadel, and have feasted 

camming that chef d'eouvro of 

ibens, tho descent from the Cross— that we 

been shown his monument, and the identi- 

grating, made hy Quentin Maslys wilhout 

nmcr or file, lying over tho identical well 

here It was first placed. It is lime wo were 

my readers are farmers, and do not wish 

be taken into old cities to examine works of 

to go Inlo ihe country, where they may 

opportunity of teeing something which is 

practical interest to them. 

Well, let us suppose that we are seated in a 

md-clag& carriage on tho railway. If it jg in 

Ihe second-class carriage is preferable to 

first, there being no comparison between 

>nd those uf the second class in England, 

every respect Inferior. Let us sup- 

a have got out of the city— have 

double ditch— crossed the draw- 

SEgcs— gone through tho bole in the Wall— and 

HP the gates expeditiously and courteously 

Bencd for our escape— and that we are in the 

Rinlry again. Heavens 1 what a country 1 

fcglishmcti may talk, and Frenchmen jabber, but 

Intro U nothing like it under Ibe whole canopy 

■Beaten I Only look at tho railway, and tho 

By in which it has been constructed ; and 

Rnirely, for yon have plenty or time. The 

•» moving as fas! as tho lnw allows, but th 

Wlj at the rale of eleven milts per boor! They 

■» t. steady people, those Brians. They have 

""■ '■ ■' "■-'- work. They have no oecasl, 

a see how they have constructed 
■HP«"»y— the Great Brussels Hallway, the 
Mttt In the whole country. Let Englishmen 
1 B> When an act of Parliament has been ob- 
Wned for mik lug a new line of railroad in Eng. 
J"d, Ihe .hardioNm have not only to purchase 
™ !" d °" r *' oi <=° » P"se=, of sufficient width 
WI tbo railroad, but in many places considerably 



fiuiilis.d theii 



; in one place, to enable them to make a 
deep cut through a low hill ; in another, for tho 
purpose of getting the soil Tor filling up hollows. 
n case of a cut through such a hill, tfaa bank 
is allowed to remain in naked deformity; and 
where tho soil has been taken for filling up hol- 
lows, unshapely pools may bo Been which aro a 
disgrace to tho country. They manage these 
■rs better in Belgium. Where such cuts 
have been made, the ground is there beautifully 
and gradually sloped, and the banks planted with 
flowering shrubs and evergreens. The hollows 
again, whence soil has been taken, are formed 
irnamental lakes, and their borders adorned 
similar manner. And along their whole 
the railroads are not only as neatly, and as 
substantially constructed as they are In England, 
hut the station-houses arc temples of architec- 
tural taste, rising amid knots of Sowers, while 
those ofEugland are only clumsy warehouses of 
brick and mortar. Nor is it the railway and its 
ippartcnances alone, which call forth the admira- 
tion of the traveler. The whole country is a 
garden tastefully laid out ; the houses in the neat- 
est condition and kept in constant and complete 
repair; the land well cultivated; and the line- 
fences well trimmed ; presenting altogether such 
scene of rural comfort, and correct taste, as do 
her peasantry on earth ore possessed of. 
All this was the work of industry. "From tho 
middle of Belgium," says the Patent Office Ke- 
t on Improvement of Land, "a fow miles 
thof Brussels, tho country north-outwardly 
becomes almost entirely a dead level For the 
purpose of securing tho permanence of their terri- 
torial possessions, (ho early occupants of this 
country had recourse to dikes or embankments, 
high and strong enough to protect them under 
Ordinary c i re urn stances from Ihe tides ; and 
placing windmills on these dikes, exposed to the 
breeze, they worked the pumps which drained 
the inclosed lands. Tho Netherlands now pre- 
o our view an artificially constructed coun- 
Dmo portions of which are many feet below 
thu level or tho sea, and nearly all too low for 
I to rat drainage." 

These facts aro exemplified by the draining of 
Haarlem Lake, having a surface of upwards of 
acres, which a few years ago was success- 
fully executed hy tho industrious and enterprising 
ihabitants. The bringing such an undertaking, 
f a Patent Office IlepprtAjlhin tbo notice of 
ihe .AiriL-riCiin jiulilk. rt !]<'.;.< h i;i'-«t lienor on the 
Commissioner j and ougffla bo particularly inter- 
ring to Lbo farmers ol California on tho present 
cession, when tho subject of tho Tule Lands is 
iltracling general attention. 

In the "polder" lands, husbandry is almost 
exclusively confined to the dairy, and to stall- 
feeding. It is in tho north-eastern part of Flan- 
ders, where tbe soil is a good sandy loam, that 
Flemish Agriculture is most conspicuously dis- 
played, and its superior claims to notice princi- 
pally exemplified. There, they bave adopted a 
half-farm, half-garden mode of cultivation, partly 
by tho plow, and partly by the spade. "Wilhout 
the spade," (I quote from the Journal of tha 
Royal Agricultural Society,) "it wootd be impos- 
sible to give that finish to tbe land after it is 
sown, which is tbe chief cause of tho more certain 
vegetation of the seed. In large [anus in Eng- 
land, the Epade is only used to dig out water-fur- 
rows; but in Flanders, where the land is usually 
laid off in stilches of about six or seven feet wide, 
the intervals aro always dug out with the spade, 
and the earth spread evenly over the seed which 
bos been harrowed in. If it is very light and 
poor, a good soaking with urine imparts sufficient 
rerlility to it. If it is very stilT, tho clods are 
broken as small as possible in the digging, as is 
done when stiff ground Is trenched in gardens. 
The soil from tbe bottom of the trench contains 
Tew seeds of weeds, and the root-weeds are neces- 
sarily cleaned out in spreading. Tho trench 
which Is thus dug is a foot wide, or mora properly 
one-sixth part or the width of the stitch or bed, 
and the depth Is from a foot to eighteen inches, 
according to tho soiL Thus a layer of earth about 
two inches deep is thrown over tho seed, whioh 
has been sown on asurrace made smooth by their 
small harrows, rheso two inches or mold gradu- 
ally incorporate with tho soil below, and ihus at 
every such operation the soil iadeepenedBOmuch. 
Tho trenches aro so arranged that every year a 
fresh portion of ground is dug eat, and in six 
years tho whole land is dug to tho depth or at 
least ono root. In the next course the trench is 
dug a Tow inches deeper, which brings up a Utile 
of the subsoil, and after Tour or five such courses 
of trenching, tho whole soil cornea to bo or a uni- 
form quality to the depth of eighteen or twenty 
inches. In the Was* cnuntry they proceed differ- 
ently, for they have a soil which by repeated 
trenchings has long been uniform in quality to 
tho required depth. There they regularly trench 
one-sixth part of the tend every year, and plant 
it with potatoes or sow carrots in it." 

In England, and most other countries, the crops 
receive no manure alter they have been E 




DDOHESSE D'AHGOULEJIE. 



Uuckeuue d'Angonlomo Fear. 
This celebrated Pear whioh is figured in our 
pnpor this weak, is ono of tho largest and finest 
winter Pours known. It requires a Gnu warm 
location, nnd a deep rich soil; it is ofton poor 
and insipid, when budded on pear stocks, if not 
in good loontionaj ripons obout Novotnbor In 
tho eastern States, nnd ofton weighs a pound nr 
more. It will do ntnofa bettor bndded on tbo 
Quince, and wo think will beeomo one of tha 
choicest Poara among us. We believe from tho 
experience wo bavo already of its quolitios, 
having soon several, that wo shall produce thorn 
hero of enormous sice, nnd of tho most lusoious 
quality; wo learn they have been grown here, 
weighing from ono and a half to two pounds. 



..; bought hia 
a paper ; and 
a tho extent of 



Tbo Flemish husbandman would look on such a 
system asiadicativc of inexcusable neglect, Thoir 
dung-bills are so situated that tho whole drainage 
is collected in cisterns, with which Is mixed the 
emptyings of privies, and pulverized ropo and 
rcfuso linseed cake. This liquid, after remaining 
for a certain length of time to allow fermentation 
lo commence, Is convoyed to tho field in barrels 
fixed on wheels, and spread at the rato of about 
3,000 gallons per acre over the growing crop, by 
means of a scoop. The article on Fertilisers in 
tho Patent Office Report will show any ono, not 
only that a dno attention to the health of Towns 
requires that a principal article in this compound 
ought to bo bet tor attended to for sanatory reasons, 
but that it is possessed of fertilizing qualities of a 
very high order. Ought not its successful appli- 
cation by Belgian husbandmen to induce market 
gardeners in tho neighborhood of cities to bring 
it inlo more common use 7 For fields, it might 
bo carted out and distributed in a liquid state, by 
being let Into a transrerso trough pierced with 
holes, in (he manner used Tor watering streets j 
and for gardens, [t might bo evenly nnd readily 
distributed, by means of a common wolering-pot, 
or garden onglno. 

When I first visited Belgium, I had other 
objects in view than to examine particularly tho 
statoof thciragriculture. But my otlention was 
uncontrollably arrested. I do not caro for what 
purpose a man may visit that country, I bolioio 
it is impossible for any ono not to be taken by 
surprise Let os read of it as wo may, It is infi- 
nitely superior to what wo are likely to have 
conceived. Tho whole country Is not only a gar- 
den, but a garden laid out with great taslo, and 
kept In tbo most perfect condition. 

"Tho two provinces of Holland," as ssjb the 
Patent Office Report, "comprise ^140 square 
miles, or 1,983,440 acres. Tbo population or 
these provinces is 1,106,248. 'There is therefore 
one person lo every aero and a quarter ; and at 
this ratio, tha ares of Haarlem lake, rendered cul- 
tivable and habitable, is adapted to tbo mainten- 
ance and occupancy of 35,6IG people. But when 
it is remembered that there is of conreo much 
waste and Inferior land taken into the aggregate, 
and that this polder is all equal to tho best land 
of the provinces, Ha capacity maybe staled as 
equal to the support of 70,000 persons, or twice 
tho Dumber indicated by tho general apportion- 

Tho bet that three or four acres of land in the 
Netherlands, by their superior mode of cultiva- 
tion, aru made to furnish a comfortable subsist- 
ence to a whole famity^sccms scarcely orcdlble to 
those who hot*. never* visited those countries. 
But it is novertfiajjss true ibatsuehis tho case 
in ninny instances,, not only on the rich polder 
lands of Holland, but also on the fine alluvial 
sandy loams of Flanders, iu the United Stotes, 



where laud of tho best description can frequently 
be bought at the low price of $1.25 per acr 
minute garden system or those industrious hus- 
bandmen, as St has no occasion to be used, has 
chance of being generally adopted. But in choice 
little spots near our cities, ihero is many a bolder 
of n suburban lot, who would like to know haw 
it is possible to raise a hare sufficiency on such a 
small portion of land. To such t would say, 
"You ought to get acquainted with Flemish Hus- 
bandry," Alter a while wo shall bavo fruit in 
exuberant abundance ; hut to have, from a 
patch, all the common luxuries and conveniences, 
not only of the dairy and tho poultry-yard, be 
also or the kitchen garden nnd the farm, is a cor 
summation so devoutly to ha wished, that I bt 
Have there are few In California who do not feel 
anxious to bo better informed on tbo subject. 
Let them read tbe several treatises which I bavo 
pointed out as worthy ol their study. 

Aanicou, 



Shall wd Continue to Import? 

A glance at the manifest of a single cargo of 
merchandise to this port, will show tho enor- 
mous amount of articles whioh aro continually 
imported, yet whioh could ho manufactured 
here, and save tho continued drain of gold which 
is steadily embarrassing and making tha State 
poorer and poorer, so long as she sends abroad 
her wealth Tor that whioh she can produce or 
manufacture at honu. 

Tha ship Gnlntco, which arrived on tho 23th, 
reports among the cargo, tho following : 

S2S3 boxes caudles, 1197 boxes soap, 

360 oases lard, ISO tierces cheese, 

506 hfads. tierces nnd bbls. butter, 

216 hhds. and tierces bacon and hams, 

200 bbts, beef, oto., etc., 

nnd these uro only the specified packages; mora 

than half tha cargo is entered mcrdiandist, and 

it Is fair to presumu en equal amount ib also in 

tho cargo unspecified. Hero wo havo lie tfiou- 

sand packagi) of goods, that ore manufactured 

bora to soma extent, nnd can bo wholly, if 

proper attention and encouragement are given ; 

this is but tho roll of one cargo, and ships are 

arriving ovory day. Not only does it drain tho 

wealth of tho State for the goods, bnt a very 

large amount baa to be sent away for tho freight. 

To those who are looking for ." the bettor 
timoa coming," lot them look to those mnttora 
and made Ihoir estimates, nnd thoy will see that 
this leak must bo stopped, before those days 



Tha Early Dnja of ArjTiotdtnrB. 

We bovo been kindly favored with tbo perusal 
of a hound volume of tho spirited littln paper 
called "Tbe Hombre," which was publiihcd by 
Dr. Wm. Babe, in 1851, ond of which four n«m- 
bers appeared, nnd this is tho oniy eojume in ex- 
istence— bound in red morrocco and gilt. There 
are many spiey and tunny things in it, and tho 
paper was only designed as an advertising sheet 
for the Doctor, vrho at that time had taiga quan- 
tities of goods on sale, among them plows, garden 
seeds, ic; also a printing press and typo; and 
be advertised that unless some on 
press and typo he should pablist 
this he did, as above described, t 
four numbers. Tho Doctor's molla was, "Help 
yourself and the Gods will help you." 

In looking over this volume, wo find one article 
which we wish to preserve as tha gem of the 
book. It is a truth uttered for tho cause of Ag- 
riculture, which though thEn lightly esteemed, 
has been more than fulfilled, as will appear by 
tho reading. We copy as follows: 

Among all the attempts which havo been mado 
lo raise our new State into power and pride, tbo 
most Sure path lo wealth and virtue, comfort and 
power of mind — AaHicuLTcns — has been ne- 
glected. 

Whilst people havo been deluded from their 
regular pursuits by reports of the acquisition of 
enormous quantities or gold in a short time, they 
havo forgotten that there is a slow but a sura 
way to attain wealth and enjoy dignified pros- 
perity by tilling tho lands. 

It bos been eur fortune to havo traveled through 
tho greater part of tho two Atlantic contiuents, 
andberewehave resided long enough to ho nearly 
ono of the oldest inhabitants, and, after ripe re- 
flection and study, Bra prepared to say, that there 
is no country among civilized nations bottor 
adapted for farming and planting, than tha rich 
and virgin soil of California. Wo havo advan- 
tages here, which counter-balance any disadvan- 
tages which might be quoted. In this country 
the farmer need not examine the sky, when ha 

Soes to bed, with anxious eye, fearing that a 
renching rain would ruin bis harvest or crop. 
Ho may thrash his grain in the field, leave his 
straw without necessity of housing, and find a 
ready market for the abundant yield, which our 
rich soil will be sure to repay the husbandman. 
Flocks of sheep can, by ordinary caro, bo kept 
free from the diseases which so generally affect 
them in less congenial climes, and orchards once 
planted would soon pay for thcmselvesa thousand 
... — _ -jy be] j QV0 ( hero | fl dot ft si nglo cereal 
which will not flourish here. 
ese aro tho mighty resources whioh must 
finally be the basis even of California's great- 
ness, nnd he who will produce any ono year tho 
heaviest crap, will he her greatest benefactor. 
Knowing this to be the foot, wo shall so far devi- 
ate from tho course laid out for our paper as to 
admit, occasionally, on article expressive of tho 
reelings here laid down, and encouraging tho de- 
velopments of resources without which no slate 
n flourish forany length of time. 
Wo therefore invito contributions, under the 
mu conditions ex pressed in our general editorial. 



Them: is no cuuntry in tho world tliot con 
oro successfully grow Hops than California, 
■ moro perfectly ripen them. Wo bavo soon 
several vines grown as ornamental or for shade, 
never havo wo Been vinos bo prulifio; im- 
so long clusters, thickly studded with largo 
sice Hops — ond wo aro informed by grow- 
that thoy exceed anything over soon before. 
Largo quantities aro imported for tho breweries, 
and wo call the attention of oultivators to thia 
ortiolo. 

Messrs .Worthley & Co. of Clay street wharf, 
hnvo sent us a oaso of samplo roots, of wonderful 
i— thoy con bo scon at tho Booms, on 
Fourth street, Snoramanto. Mnny of tha vines 
form roots in clusters of twenty, and of three, 
four and Cvo font long ; they grow best in deop 
Bandy loam, and tho soil should ho auiuvatod very 
deop. See Mr. W.'s ooid in another column. 



Mn. TnonHE'a SaonTHonNB.— Mr. Thome's 
celebrated Shorthorn cow LaUah Raotth, wasdo- 
livcred of twins— a bull and a hoircr calf, since 
the N. Y. State Fair. Tho celebrated cow, 
Docket*, which Mr, Thorue Imported at an ex- 
pease of §3000, has receatly hud a bull calr. 



New CtTLTrvATon,,— Mr, Bobert BooohinE;, 

No, 35 Pino street. Son Frnnoisoo, hns mode 
now stylo Cultivator, of durable materials ; 
tho frame work is of oak nnd very heavy, tho 
tee lb oro shovel form, seven in number,' and sink 
some twolva and fourteen inches, doing tho 
work finely and thoroughly, Wo think it tho 
best imploment that is out, and hope nil will go 

' !0 it. 



^i B OALWOBNIAJ^EMEE. 



notional Bureau of Agriculture. 
TV E belie™ "0 cannot better serve the oauo 
f Agriculture, than by publishing, mU.ro, the 
very able Roport of the Comm.tleo on Agncul 
turo made to the House of Representative ut 
Woshington, D. C. (Report Ml, W WW" 
3-lth Congress), by their Chairman, Hon. U. l. 
Holloway. Tl.ifi Report presents very import- 
ant data, both ns history and stat.st.0, and is 
worthy an nttontivo perusal, nnd wo trust loo 
eatabliabownl of a National Board of Agricul- 
ture will give a new impetus to this great inter- 
Mt, ana servo to place it where >t by light 
belongs to the 6rst and highest interest of oui 

CaUDlr) ' : REPORT: 

The majority of the Committee on Agnail- 
tore regardin- the interests committed t- their 

c.n-'l.i. r.M' f piaiimn miL-i'tanec. beg leave 

t-j Mil, mi I a hill I,, •■.-lubli.-lmii eeoti,,mieul de- 
partment of the government, which -hall be de- 
voted to the promotion and encouragoui.nl „t 
the. great Agricultural interest.* of the country. 
Agriculture is the '.oifs of our national pros- 
perity. It is the ffib.rn.fa* of all other inter- 
ests; and the degree of advancement^ wmol 
marka tho progress of our country 
pie in wealth, on 
stautial indeponde 

perity of its ruro. 

arts which, from the earliest periods, have 
dc-crvi ,llv In Li in 111,' highest estimation. Oui 
ofTtho fir?! injunctions upon oor original pro- 
genitor, after ids ,.:,], uIm, -ii ir,, in tho _gardi 



Kationnl Board of Agriculture, -ro- 
lommonded by mo at the opening of the s^um- 
. • ■ I think it highly probablo that next 

.i-..-i,,Ei will brine iln- mutter to niuturity." 

Tim- - r ..ke the Father of his Oui.l..v-lh- 
I., tmi .vl'v,-i.l„ul ..f this republic. And although 
• ' BCO unother session of Congress pa** 
lything being dc 



„, ,„,„„ ..ith blsfe. 
projeel, yet all n»*}#™ ** %**£« 



.■ir rom ill" would long ■-"■'■ 

„-i,h tho nl lv,,nlu*- S i.f - XuthMinL Board of Ag" 
■ S objeots mid purposes, it 






t:.il, 



ith tho 01 
luourquolnti. 

respOUlll.lICO 

volume, but v, 



■ !":;'." 



w. 



education and sub- 
eaaiirod by tho proa- 
of those 



Edee 



,ulil "till the I 



Thi 



o of InGnito 

^^m^ulo th'is'o'mmi.tid imperative from 
the first, has over eiistrf ;_ end the oip( 
of all the world, 
wiUa of primary :mportauoo :n scouring pros- 
peritT. end bone* should receive the first and 
In.^riilMT.J puinitioev ..f tin.- government. It 
fnrni-li'-.- ill- mai-rial upon which the manulac- 
.,,„., ,-.j..,.i- J,i- -kill. It tarnishes commerce 
, -itii' il-' i,u-iii„--. und is intimately Connected 
will, Ik, ii.'tJ, social and political interests of 
the people. In our country, above all others, 
should ill.- i-r.-al interest bo promoted. 
Your committco, bowo-i 



9 from Washingb 

id this subject to tho 

deem tho above suf- 

notion to ihcsul.ieot. 

Wo might iil-o^l,.|i,l (his report iv, ill ,|,i.,',i- 
tion»frSinih m l -^.-»r.Tefl ; r,...,,M.»li-.;-. 
Jl.mroe. nod Adams, but ""ill forbear \\ e 
,,,,,.1 however, bo indulg.-d in giving ibe fol- 
lowing extract from the Erst annual message ol 
i:,.,,.ral Jackson. 

-The agricultural interest of our country is 

■ ■ ■ enliallv cun'otoil with every other, and 

5 ,',-,.',„„■ ill („/.„t^,.: C lo Ihtm all. that it is 

ar,„lv uceoH.-on-loiuvitotoityoUrpailooiU. 

tuition It U'priiieipullv us inuiiLiia.-iosvs 

lU commerce tend to increase tho value, of ag- 

r i,,,Uan,l pr.,,.li.vli.™-, and to estend their up- 

,,lic ,ii»n to tho wonts and comforts of society, 

■ at theg deserve tho fostering care of tho gov- 

Tbus emphatically aeclaring ngriculture to 

I f .mr.imoiiHtiiq.Mi-l.iiu'-, m"! ''"- o'""'' 1 '"'- 

t„r,- i.inl L „ain, i ..c>' hiivo but little claim upon 
the government, save and except as handmaids 
of oeriouiWro. . , _ 

I'lL-hlmt Toll; called the attention of Con - 

ress to tho subject, in his fourth annual mes- 

igo. 



thonsana millions of dollars.nnd their annual 

, ro .l.ic( nt two thousand million, of dollars. 

•he agriculturists of tho United States have 
m oretEan double the amount of capital inverted 
in the single and simple item of foucCB tnan 

-„ u invented in every department ot mnnu- 

irinE combined, r.'.ur-lifth- of our p-'I'l- 
" . - i „i, r0 i,ii K nnd by tboir 

of ontatoes, :MI(l.lMIII,()l)[)hll ? ll0lH "t ont-S 1..1U.- 

nm»usUof,-i t,> 'ihm i"-; -■•' 

,.,,rn 1 lj()l),(JIKI,lMMl p.,1111,1^ ,.f eiilton, JJU.UW.- 
r)(l(1,„„ii 1 .l-,.f loha,.',;,.. aii'l th- 1"- 'inV""-'"" 1 
v„ L ., table in untold ,|uantitios. Thi^prosents « 
glorious pictur" " r - 



,, uuro from tho advanlaEes "' "' lllcb lho an , 1 ' /" 
natcabencGtsareso great that l°W <»"<£ £ 
computed. Assuming the position declared to be 
truo by Gen. Jsckeou, that "the agricultural in- 
terest of our country is e^ontinlly connected with 
every other, and ju^crior in importance to thc~ 
oi;, ,! your committee doom 
proper to refer to tho smn 

been emended directly far ,.„ 

iron with other interests of far less 
Sine,. tlieoie..iii^ili"n of tliegevcri 
had not been expended direc' '■ " 
lericulturo. by the govornuv 

,T_ L__-n. „r ilwh Wir ll-,| 



ask that 
Economy of 
upon this subject, "" 

,.,,!,,,..,.., of those" who have higher claims 

poo your oouBdBnee, and partioularly 

id political esporieocB i 



ing 






il \V.n 



n his last a 



.o Concress, end after seven y 
as r're-iilont, to lli 1 ' ■ ■"- 1 ■ - n 1 ■ ruti 
means to develop tho : 



n of the best 
tbo country. 



Importance ' 

t which hn 



,unl prosponty. 
■y Americtui with pride j 

^i ,..„ many say. It i^.b.ieg w.-ll; 1,-! H .ih-i.". 
TruL.. it has done well, but it can do much bet- 
tor. Every acre, -penkiop y...iii|.nr,il'v-ly . j--i.ii, 
under proper oullivatwn. lie made to produce 
double the quantity it now does The broad 
fields which have been opened in tho west 
,.„„,r'il..it.-,l niiieli t" 111' 1 yr"' 1 ' ^-V.'r"'-" -, " 
have presented. Their binds are ,lill i;-rlil.., 
|,ut under the pref-ut system "f farming in too 
many instances the spoil.-, is wot km -In. ivr.y 
„,„„;. I,, t,;..l. Xotl.ine; lint I, .nixing within the 
of every till-r ,,f ilio --il « l;nowleJgo ol 
ans to preserve tho fertility of bis lands 
vo them from failing, as have tho lands in 
tho older States. 

By Hnt i sties rolleotcid end puhh-lu'd l.v lli- 
C.,[iu.iis,loner of l'atellts. wo find that in tho 
-at Stato of New York, v.-liilo the number ol 
ivs of land in enlliviitioi. has vn-(ly in.-r.-irod, 
, nuri cultural pro.luet Inn .loereasrd. It 
,y svoin strange, but figured are giv.-n ■.villi 
nmoli aoenracv ns is t ',-aei-iillv |,-ni.,l, ivlii. h 



ii.il Tho 



„„ jo doubted that, with rel'.r.-iK-; 
either to individual or national welfare, A-ri- 
culture is of /iriw'nj importance. In proper- 
tion as nation- .elvMii.e in populalioii and i.tln-i 
circumstnne.-s of maturity, this truth become, 
nii-r.' uppari-iit. nud t.:miers the cultivntiou of 
the soil ai'Te ami nn.ro an object of public pat- 
ronage. Institute. ";■ f-.r promoting it grow up, 
Fa- r .["xl.:il by the public purse,; and to wht ' 
obji-et i:mi it'll-.- deJiciittil with -r.aler proprb 
ty' Among tbo means which have been en 
p 'h,vi-,l f, this ..-lid in .lie i,n-.e be.m attuid.nl '.villi 
greater cucc.. ; s than lliootialilisliuiont,,fl„,ardH, 
tom|io:.:il ..f pro|,yr obavaelcr;, charged with 
collecting i.ml (iiirn.-itig iiifoi-umti.iu, and. en- 
abled by premiums and small uetuuiary ui.ls. t. 
encourage and assist a spirit of discovery am 
imptov.-ineiit. This species of estalilishuieui 
coiitriliutes Ji.uhly to the increase of improve 
mont, by stimulatiug to entorpriso and export 
meut- and by drawing In a common cetiter tin 
rcfiults, ev.-rv-.-.-tiei..,, of individual skill '* ■' 
gervatjon, and spreadiog them thence 



,1 that th.-y 






tbe 
nccDrdingly has 



id bene Eta-" 
The same distinguished st 
to a friend, eipressi-s the following r . 



"Tot 






reap 



f lnurola, don't core bow many 
seeds of war are sown ; but, for the sake of hu- 
manity, it is devoutly to be wished that the 
manly employment ot agriculture, and tho bu- 

sede tin. .., its'.: '</ 'r.ir and the rags of coiinucst ■ 
that the sword mi^lit he turn, d to plou^h-rharei 
and spears into pruniug-hooks, and, as tin 
Script ute expresses it, tho nations learn war m 

Judgo Peters declares, that it was in contem 
platinn by Wa.sliingt.iii to bring to tho cousid 
oration of t'ongn'ss "In..- ui'tl I'lau ;i iuirral't- 
ing the suhjett of a/riculture into a national 
system of . dne.ili.rii. and [.lacing the cultivators 
of tbo foil, and tln-ir iiislriieli'.n and escitements 
to improvement in tb-ir urt, under national pat- 
ronage. Ho was anriously solicitous in this 
Ca(riolio endeavor. It was not imputable to 
im that it failed. Had be been fortunate 
enough to accomplish it, no action of his life 
would have deserved more celebrity and pnblio 
gratitude." 



dent Taylor, in his annual message, rtftoi 

.-I earnestly recommending tbo estehlishiuent 
an agricultural bureau, says: 
■■To"..|eviil., the social condition .if tho agn- 
"loii-t t-i inc.. a.-o Ins prosperity, and to 01- 

„1 |,i, mean, of usefulness to his c. .v, hv 

iltiplyin- hi- -airces of information, should 
he il,o 'study of every statesman, nnd a primary 
ijcct with ovory legislator." 
Vr, .-l.l'-iii 1'iHuii.r.., in his message of 1830, 
„d,, tliLsrocuiiiu-ndiition: 
-Moro than three- fourths of our pr,].„l,,!i.,i, 
-e engaged in tho cultivation of thr 
niinareial, manufueturiug und nas-igi 
rests are all. to a groat citoat, dependt 
in-ri-ulturo. It is. therefore, ih, ),:■.■>' rm/'Thnl 
of the notion, and bns a just claim to tho foster. 
ing euro and protection of tho gjvo.nm-iit, si 
fur as they can be eiteuded consistently with 
the pi-ovi-ioiis of the Constitution. As this cu. 
,ot 1... done hv the ordinu.y ueeles .■!" ledsb 
ion I respectfully rccniuic-inl the c-lj.hli-l 
neti'tof hu agricultural bureau, to bo charged 
nth the duty of giving t" this leading l.raiich ol 
Imerican industry the encouragement " " 
lesorves." 

President Fillmore, at the nest session, again 
everted to this subject: 

■•Agriculture may justly l.,o re.o.ird.d tu. tie 
■rent interest ,.,f our pe-ople. rour-liltlis of ou. 
native |iopolatioii are .mpl"_vo.l in the cnllivu. 
tion of tln> soil, and tilt oipansion of oar solrh- 
ments over new territory is daily adding to tin 
number of those engaged iu that vocation 
iiutiee and sound poli.-v. the re fire, alike re 
■o that tho government should use all thi 
ns authorized by the constitution to pramob 
interests and welfare of that important clas 
ur fellow citizens. And yet it is a singula 
, that, whilst the m iron fao luring and com 
-cial interests have engaged the attention <■ 
Congress during a largo portion of every sor 
pinii, mill our statute., abound in provi-i.ois f. 
their protection and euciurageiiieiit, little ha 
y.-t been done directly for the mlvuncoment of 
re Tie u I Lu ro. It is time that this reproach to 
our legislation should bo removed; uud I sin- 
cerely liopo iliut the present Congress will nut 
close their labors without adopting efficient 
means to supply the omissions of those mlio 
'nive preceded them. An agricultural bureau, 
ihurgvd with the doty oftiollcetini; ond disscui- 
inniiui; correct information as to the host modes 
of cultivation, and of the 

csorviiig mid restoring tb- fertility of lb" 
and of procuriog and distributing 
plants, and other vegoliildo prodi 



p,.r tan ■■■.■- 

ihe l«.ncfit of 
!00,000. For 

'tho'bc'uelu'or'thoWar Dopirtmeul o military 
..hoi.l wro, estaldi.-li'd und I.-.- l..-cit mainlained 
at an expense of more than So f«.,O0O. For tho 
Nnv ll.-p.rtuient a rehool has also been cslab- 
ii -hc'il and conducted nt an expense of millions. 
.... ^....ilihnn was lilted out fur tho purpose of 
Dead Sea, at an espenso of live 
mil v.hi.h hi- been ei ponded for 
omoting agricnlture. Far more money his 
■,-, ...,„ inl.-.l in orniim<(.liiH' n»l -e.|.i"g op 

,', t.Miiiv ncrcsof grounds aro 1 Ibe (.'ip.tol 

,,m haslieei) dovoled to foMcring tint great 

or. ~t which is "superior in importance in »H 

hers." A larger sum has been osponded in 

.ntuary to adorn tho public buildings ond 

grounds; more has been expended in lho simple 



jplor 



rofess to bo positively accurate. By 
ion, in Now York, in lrfl.1 there were 
305,155 homos in that State, mid in 1850 but 
•1-17.(111, being a decrease of 58,141; the 
in tho number of cows for tbo sumo 
us C3.0GC; of other cattle. 127,525; of 
566,032; of sheep, 2,i.i!P[(,i;24 ; and but 
slight increase in tin: great staples of grain an 
other agricultural produols. Iu speaking < 
Virginia, l'r.ifessor Licbig says: "Harvests ( 
wheat and tohaceo wore oldaineil for a ooutury 
from ono nnd tho same field without the aid of 
manure ; but now whole districts are converted 
into pasture-land, which, without manure, pro- 
duces neither wbeot nor tobacco. From every 
aero of this land thero were removed, in tho 
space of ono hundred years, twelve hundred 
pounds of alkalies, in leaves, graia, and straw." 
This same system of farming, which has ex- 
tracted the original fertility of Virginia, has done 
its fi.Ul work in tho Now England Suites. The 
soil in these States is now utterly incapable of 
producing wheat nsn remunerative crop. In 1850, 
by tho census report, the Slate of Connecticut 
produced but -11. '•'■- l.nsl.els ol ivheat, while in 
1,-iH' it produced J-'i.tlW' Imshels. .Mas-.icliu-ell, 
but .11,211 ; ia IS!'). Io7,o2:: l.ushels. And the 
whole State of Rhode Island, once famed for her 
fertility of soil, produced but 3 098; in 1840, 
2C.-I0U". The Mine, stale' of facts exist in many 
parts of New York. In speaking of this vast 
depletion of lliosoil.it is declared, in an official 
iport mode to Congi 



thousand 
of dollars would not more than restore I 

tli-ir original (,'rtilily the one handled anile 
acres ol lands in the United Stales which hai 
been already subjected to thin exhausting and 
depleiiii- process." 

Tbo cause ol" thi-. great deierionlion of the soil 
must be apparent to every reflecting mind. It i 
simply the continued extracting from the soil c 
tin....- iinli.p...u-:i!,lc elei lie i.oi which on lei into all 
constitute vegetable production— taking than 
from, and not returning anything thereto. It is 
conceded that this is not universal. Tho lights of 
science and intelligent observation have enabled 
many farmers to oven improve Ibe fertility of their 
; ; and if this knowledge were universal, such 
. dd bo the result, with but few exceptions. 
The olijecl of the hill herewith submitted is to 
place before the people a knowledge of the posi- 
icaus by which this de.irahle result maybe 
ed, and to explore still further this wildcr- 
f ignorance which is believed to exist in 



tpondi 

its to cover the iioors. of the public offices, than 
is been contributed lo advance that great iiiteiesl 
hieh I're.-iilent I'olk said should be "the object 
or every statesman." We might refer to many 
other expenditures of a similar character, hut let 
these suffice. Nor would your committee be 
understood as complaining of those above noticed 
II,..,,. simple, object is to suggest comparisons. 

Umay he said ih't acne a It me having done so 
long, and succeeded so well, without tho aid of 
government, it can continue lo do so. Truo ; in 
vioiv of tho disregard U'ilh which Congress has 
treated this great interest, tbo people in self- 
reliance have been compelled lo exert themselves 
for tho promotion of theirs and ibeir country's 
prosperity. To this end, societies have been 
established in almost every part of tho Union, 
demonstrating in every instance tho greater good 
which could bo done through a systematic and 
liberal effort on Ihe part of lho government, nnd 
such an one as your com m it tec respectfully recom- 
mend. The eifort on the part of the people has 
been constrained by the want or sufficient means- 
it has been too partial nnd limited. It has been 
without concert and co-operation. It has lucked 
a head, to which results could be reported, com- 
parisons made, and correct conclusions drawn. 
It cannot bo expected that private enterprise will 
bo able to conduct any system of in.cstigi- 
i which shall fully and successfully develop 
thegreat science or rural economy, liive.stic.itc- 
ai i do* per im enters' ir.usl be paid for their ti, 
and labor. The mechanic is protected in tho 
enlions or his genius; hut the ojtpcrimonls and 
esults or investigations made by the runner are 
ouiiroo property. Suite boards of agriculture 
,nd State ogricullural societies have been estab- 
lished, and in most instances have received in mere 
pittances, aid from their respective State govern- 
ments. A national ignciiltni-al seciuty has been 
organized by the enterprise or a few individuals ; 
Luit it is not, as ils name would imply, the ol.ject 
i.f gi.veriiiiiuni pilroiuipc. To sustain its exhibi- 
tions, n tax of from ten to twenty thousand dol- 
lars has to be assessed upon the liberality of the 
people of the cities where it is proposed to hold 
its annual fairs. These associations have been 
vastly lieneliciil lo the people and Ihe country, 
and lire indispensable to future operations. They 
valuable auxiliaries under a depurt- 



Buch rules as said Secretary may prescribe : and 
Shall receive such compensation as Ihe Secrclary 
may deem proper, no ono to receive moro than 
Cvo hundred dollars per annum. The object and 
utility of this section must bo apparent to oU. 
Tho farmers of this country havo too long been 
dependent upon tho commercial press ol th B 
country for their knowledge of the oxlent of the 
crops, and the effect to bo produced by a failure 
orahundaulproduiition. Without being disposed 
to impugn Ihe motives or denounce tho conduct 
or the press, expel ienoo convinces us that opera- 
tors and speculators in agricultural p rod u els have 
frequently subsidized tho press to advance 
their personal interests at Ihe expense of lho pro- 
ducer. By correct statement or the extent and 
probable product of the crops in each Stato— the 
number of callle, lugs, sheep, liovfes,.ic. lc,— all 
of which is easily and cheaply obtained Ihroogb. 
tbo officers of each Stale, and these suitcmeuts 
published from month to month, the produe. 
will bo enabled to form a correct estimate as | 
tho value of each, without being mystified by ibe 
statements and counter statements of interested 
parties or purchasers. This section provides Tar 
the appointment of corresponding agents in lho 
different governments of tho world with whom 
ree havo commercial relations by treaty, ivbos< 
duties shall be similar to those or lho ogenls it 
the Stales, and at like compensation. It is pre 
sutned the Secretary will select Tor these agents, 
whenever qualilicl, American consuls, ond in the 
States lho secretaries of the State Eourdsol Agri- 
culture, where such are or may be established. 
With ngents in the Slates and tho different gov- 
crnmetils of Ihe world, our producers will have all 
the advantages of information that speculators 



The fifth scclion provides for an official seal ol 
tho department, and the attestation or records, ie. 

Section six provides for tbo taking oaths of 
office and tbo giving of bonds Tor tho faithful dis- 
charge of the duties nnd ? ifi> disbursement of LbD 

Seventh section provides for a library of works 
upon tho subject of agriculture. 

Eighth section provides lor lho collection and 
exhibition of specimens or seeds, fruits, casts, 
isccts, and other animals of interest to the 
former. 

Ninth section requires a transfer by tho Secre- 
tary of the Interior to tbo Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, of the booka, papers, uud all other articles 
now connected with his department. 

Section ten provides for tho publication of 
monthly reports through the public press, or 
otherwise, of the facts elicited through the corre- 
sponding agents. 

D. P. F 



B. Mohoah, 
.LVAti Sabin, 
I. D. CnuLEti, 
iEIVIS D. Campdeli. 

i. A. Grow. 



But 



it nothing 1 



cod tho 



> the st 



a "very cheap 
benefit.* " 
Wo might 



it fail to be. i 






i tho 



mint of 



. climate, 
r growth, 

of Wash- 
Couore,. 



Will any ono say tl 



o have 






tulional right lo appropriate the funds of the. 
mon treasury lor such an object 7 We trust 
will raise such a question ; but If any one 

pusses^ R ueh scruples, we lies: leave to refer him 



Again, 
raj Washington says 

"I know of no pursuit i 
important serriccs can 
country thiui by improvi 
breed of useful animals, . 



Sir John Sinclair, Geno- 

which more real nui 

>o rendered to any 

gri Culture, it' 



„i o,l„l 






ealllh... 



nlo 



.eed for bringing to new tl, 
wliud sl-il-- .,f them in nil p-ti , nt tin- hiiiL',l,.n 
by which good nnd bud habits are eihihii..,] i 



,f. 


Tr 


b congr 


ssio 


til ui 


, B 


ill h 




dun 


country 

before, 


befo 
■oth 




for 






lUl... i 


imrr 


us, 






be 


bet 




luato 


Fro u 


tl" 


B firs 



ponito hero the strong and 
utionsof Hovcmlof the heads 
fnvor of denided legislative 
rjjoot of agriculture- hut wo 

have shoivii ti'.iuclu.sivoly that I I'-ie-ral Washing- 

t and almost every successor in the prori.leii- 

tial ahnir, in obedience to tho duty imposed 
upnu them by tin 1 <.■••[islilnli.ni. to recommend 
from time to time to Congress such measures as 
th.-v may de-ni lalcolal.-.l to pr,.ui.,te lho i.uhlie 
nelfare, have regarded tbo promotion of agri- 

1 tho publio good, und add to our national 

Erosperily. Our oiceutive oilieers have, per- 
aps, done their duty; Cou^re-s has utlorly 
• obll S alioaa_ to the people. While 
itiouul odviiert of Congress have 
d recommended auliuu, to which 
Congress has turned a listless ear, tho people— 
the i»rert\£ii ptoplc— are now demaiiding that 

this great interest shall 

and patronage of govorni 

years., petition nflor pctii 

from tha people; as rice It oral v.-ietn-s in th.- 

counties, Suite boards of ajrieulture, the United 

States Agricultural Society, and .State legirilu- 

tli" estahli-hnient of an agricultural ilepartuieiil. 

and so generally recoiiimonileil lo CougreM by 
those whose du't,, it is, und lliosc whose .nn-r. 
{71 right il is, to eull the atleuliun of Con- 
is to measures of publio importance Will 
lgrcss longer disobey tho injunctions of tho 
i and the demands of the other < No matter 



i defence and general 



proposed to secure the 
do fence" —whether by erecting rarLifl- 

i. hiiildinc, ve:-sels lu constitute 



trej/iire of tho [Ji 
judge as to the 









needed by the farm 

his way in tho dark, excepting 

through lho various periodicals and 
devoted to his interests. Of the patron- 
age extended to other industrial pursuits tho 
-— Icoltural interest has not complained; bul 
,v demands some share iu ihe .li-hor-e-iiii.ts ol 
ovenue towards which it contributes by tar the 
largest portion. 

To the impiiiy, what good is anticipated frot 
Ihe creation ol" this department, we reply, all lhat 
good which has resulted lo every other industrial 
— '■ toivards ivhieh Ihe energies or mankind 
en directed under the stimulus of hor - - 
ffard. Tho establishment of a nitio 
observatory was once flouted at as a ridiculous 
and wasteful outlay of money ; but who is there 
lhat will not admit that, under the charge of 
Lieutenant Mauiy, this in. -nullum has shed honor 
upon the country, as well ns conferred substantial 
benefit to Ihe commercial interests Of the 
world? If, under tha judicious ad ministration 
of the proposed department. iuvciigMions should 
result in securing a prevention of lho potato 
or a discovery of tho habits of such insect 
pro y upon thi " " " 



Strowberrieu. 
We copy from "Pardee on Strawbery Culture," 
history of the three following kinds, as partic- 
ularly worthy the attention of growers of this 
delicious fruit in California. Wc give also the 
analysis of the Strawberry, as worthy of note; 
make these plants thrive and fruit well, tho 
proper qualities should be found in the soil— or 
rather this analysis shows what their rood is, and 
; present in lho soil in sufficient quantity, 
it should he artificially supplied. 

is has been trnly called a noblo fruit, and & 
mo r to tho originator. Mr. CM. Uovey.of 
in. It has undoubtedly taken more prim 
.0 various llortieoliurai Exhibitions ofoot 
country, from Maine lo Louisiana, than any olbn 
variety and il retains the same position nt the 
present time, although it is not equal in flavor to 
" -Hs Now Pine ond others, ur or the averogt 
ofMoAvu.'s Superior mid some other varieties; 
_„ iu almost every quarter, w- ■— 
complaints of its licUeiieSS il 
with tho strongest approvals of its product!. 

Notwithstanding all murmurs, ils flavor v. „ 
when well ripened; it is too often picked and tit 
when first colored and unripe; ond some of ,i. 
bviricsso siu-pa.-Ls nil other vs~-'- ■ 



■uifUd 
is good 



schools, establishment, uf armories, or investiga- 
tions of firearms and munitions of w 
doubted the power ol Congress It 
things, it has been dune, and will 

igssour goiaoiiiiienl shall exist. The tamo 
e re ti. m. in. to what v. ill pro i nolo the " ■.•tilt r. if 
IJ.ir,:" «f lhecf.ur,lry,.scoi,liiled to Coneres-. 

I 'I concede that the general welfare em. in 

way bo bettor advanced or promoted, than In 
.-li uie-ins as -hall secure the lr.i--.ii. amount of 
;allh from its orieiml somce, the coltivaiiou ol 
if industry 



t) the; 






i froi 



aelioli, Ihe 
. alone will 



r-.bys. 






On the 7th of December, 1705, Gcut-rul 

suT.jeel of Agriculture, as wo have quut 

subseqiieiilly w ritiug to a. friend, ho say 

"I am eony to add, that nothing j 

Congress has been decided respecting tl 



moling moral and poliiicjl lirtneauiongall classes 
of people, upon whom rests ihe maintenance and 
perpetuity of our free institutions. These are 
intimately eoniiccie.l with the prosperity of the 
acrieiillar.il population of our country.' Every- 
thing which legitimately hrlugs wealth to them, 
brines treasures lo the whole people. Whilst 

- U.-.r-i.-'-s, -. r .on. ,-(.- |..i. . 

ilhers, our country will die. Every 

makes "two blades of grass to grow 

grew before." adds to the wealth ol the 

Any discovery ivhieh shall enable the 

loul.lo Ihe product ofhis crop, wilh the 

ss labor than be now eserts, will add 

to Ihe -'general well.ie." That thi, has hcen done 

mo inatiiice- will not he doubted ; that I 

■o done In almust every iiiKlauco, will be dt 

proposed In 



neglea 






what they havo i 



Hold of tin 



!„„,. 



:,,!,, 



:compjiiying hill. Congro: 
ago of ahuuflt every proposil 
oiisider.iiioii (or ihe comHi 
mtry. Of ibis, it is not o 



li sol. milted 



a neglec 



,-.l,-,,l,.i...l 
United Stn . 
Some, perhaps, may object to the passage of 

the prop.,-,,1 loll ,, r , aeennnt of R., ,„,,,,,.„„. u„, 
e^pelnlunres and iimllipK-ing the ..(lieerM of L -ov- 
enune.it. [he reply lo this is ; ihai so far asthe 
:.-M-ail'.,,,,l ii,t, : „, i l:i eoneeiui.,!, lliiB ought 10 
have been done long ngo; in other w,,,,]., i ll( „„. 
:pense bo what it may, within the alnliiv ,,f ih,. 



v be Bofoly ostimatod at Bvo | government, It should 'not be urged' 



»g»ii 



expense attending these 

be but as a drop in the bucket 

ilie resulting beuoQls. 

With these suggestions, wo beg leave to submit 

a brief exposition or Ihe provisions of the bill 

accompanying this report. 

The lirsl section provides Tor tbo appointment 

by the President, with the advice ami consent ol 

the Senate, uf a Secretary, u. ho shall hold his 
dike by the same tenure as the Secretaries of tho 
Csecutivo departments, and receive- ns a salary 
Ive thousand dollars per aunum. The object in 
mt making a full Secretary , and a member of the 
Cabinet, is to avoid, as lar as possible, politic il 
.artisan ship. If a member of the Cabinet, the 

Secretary would jiecessirily bo a politician, and 

much of bin time would be lletoled to tho inves- 
tigation of political questions, iu which Ills depart- 
ment coub! bate bul little intercil. As il is 
rJesigocd lo make thii strictly an economical, 
practical, and ecienlillc department, It is to bo 
hoped, whatever may be the changus of parly, 
that this department, like U.e Supremu Court, 
will remain undisturbed, so loug as il is well 
odminislcred. 

The second scclion dcllncs tho duties of the 
Secretary lo he, lo collect agricultural statistics, 
pursue investigations for looinotmg agricultural 
and rural economy, procure and distribute see ' 

outlines, and hull,,. iiimI.t such rules and reg. 

lions as he shall prescribe. 

The third section provides for the :.p|-,i 

ol ■.. chicl clerk, and four men of suflici.nt ,i-i 
Lille and practical nialilicntions lo prosccuto si 
inve.iligationa in (igrkuHuriil science and rural 
economy ns he may direct, ol a salary of 
thousand dollais per annum. Also four clerKs 

and four operators, nt noi more than three dollars 
per day when actually employed. 

Section four provides fur the appointment in 
each State of lho Uniuo of ono corresponding 
agent, whose duly il shall be to collect such agri- 
cultural statistics, information in regard to lho 
amount or land iu cultivation, the extent and 
state or the raspvetive crops, and such other sta- 
tistics ns said Secretary may direct, and under 



■e-ofeen 
■M inch a in 

circumference- as lo carry along t'ho judges it 
our exhibitions; and the size under good colli!*- j 
tL..ii abva. ; proves satisfactory. 

Wc have, in times past, been eu.h.-ras-vl ley 
il^ inlore in be:i.uic,but we are inclined lo tliinfc 
it was in a great measure erring to our want el 
l;noal,d|ieof its hahi'-S, and r,.n-c. [lo.-nl ly vrft> 
now.! cultivation. It le.p.iics a -real .leal c 
water, or moist soil, ami <> ill uol \"" -;■■ "'■■'' =">• 
~ on Pino and many other kinds; >oa 
reduction of the soil lo the cornice!! 
souieiinii s iham-ed ihe barren 
productive plants. It originated in 183-1. 
incs are vigorous, leaves large in rich soil.ra 
ght preen, and fruit stalks are of good hm 
Fruit is very large, roundish-oval, conical; O 
r K li.Jirle«;M.ol,sl,.,',ily 1 , ;1 l..d.bd.hr".lb 
well adapted for market, and of medium 
flowers pis li I late. 

led in I'inciiiti-ili at Ur* 



o time with McAtoy's Superior. 



Mr. Lo"£- 



irth to 



liety, wl.icii 



nished tbo seed for both plants 
l, McAvoy ami Scbuecke, lb" "' 






and (hcbll.r 
, was called "Ssdia" 
hut afterwards nameal by iw 
cultural Society, "Longer 

,r of Nicholas- buuc.v.orm, ' 
■ - tUB o,cn.l.em. "!'■ 



or'th, l-l' 






II do what ' 



jettrJ 



Ina nolo to Mr Harry in the fall ol 

,. ■, .- .-,11 t„„l the Prolificot^ 

than oil the seedlings ever raised. - ,|r ; J^J 

in his rjuide, says, "P "ri-ni culture we ^ j 

It of more value tha 
wo havo heard Dr. 

testimony to its excellence. . . wa- 

it has been almost iu.p.ssihle toget IWS^ 
nine variety. In our attempts w 
pcatcd failures 
politely took u[ 
ing. and iinlos.vd them i 
lived, and wo have been 
with them intelligently. We have al-j >J' unV -; 
geiiuino in a few other gardens lunula ^ „,.,,- 
aj.,.rt during the last urn seasons, ^^^j| 
allele we have seen it, if it 111 
ha, done well. Mm, will "aut."^^ .p* 
•■Longworth's P"'.' 1 " ■ ■ 



"" 5 ' W The pl»f 



is kinds. 



Our 



liled 



quoted, yel v 
il, and hope i 



. ;iiT"da.wiU.;" 

" who have on 
merienco irill not enn ' ^ 

ili-rllv ii .,,uie "I He'^ ,,,,.. 

:!,'-.: ;o'«gs; 

...II «.| I," I»= S| V , -l'"' 

"-'■»" i ;v:;:, P-»"- 

ouaiulailee in SliO iu» r 




w* g ■ . ..,-,. 1m •■■ roundish obvate, hrii 
ErimLn; ** orai a.™ «>tor. spumes 
lavish =ellu ratlier deep indentation^ wih 
C llt ;,„L:; llesh red, flavor fine, quality 

:'"';.;'„..,, ^..frr,^ e,ccllence .perfect 
a -kablypro- 



ual Orgai 

li 
and hardv 

• ' B ft 



,1-ith stainioa 



. „„, u , j largo broad leaf, 
E [he fruit well up in largo 



Incbe 

Tbi 

bjlil 

tie 30 

tt appears 



foot-stalks, set- 
full trusses, pro- 
..,..03 at the medium 
loses ils fine color' when o 
.en the fruit from four to 



isanolhci of the new Ohio strawberries, 
ted by Mr. Longworlh in his garden, 
tenant and prucner, Mr. D. McAvoy, 
ne lime with lhe Superior, which Tanc 
every respect to equal, eicept in 
■- Cincinnati re- 

. , proline; qual- 

icid not liigh-uivored." We 

a a. valuable market ftuit: it 

d hardy ; fruit largo and ban d- 

"• exhibited 



himself of 
ing Hi-- 1 dish right side up, ready 
luek,isofso much importance to me u 
if neglected, ho will have no occasion 
success. 

Bad luck often follows tho firmer t 
his time in the spring at the store, oi 
and hunting to a lain hour. Willi all 
his business drags; his di-h is uolioiu 
is often sceu fretting and driving to go 
the ground in tho right B 
■ li Iriry-.J by Ihcdrougbl 



gligenco. lvecp- 



Bum 



i early frosL 
luck among farm 
" ,nd than 



Tin- Fruil'-Cmiiinillee i 



well. 



aflor twenty mill 
ained the brigbti 






..f hiel. 



arkel frui 



■e ,U, n< 



pendent o! 
necessary animals 
dog will, if fed to 



ing in debt for 

i advantage; buying unnecessary 

doing without thoso which aro -~ 

Of economy; neglecting lhe pa 
counls till ihcy accumulate in 
o afford him a rim of busincs; 

r.i--.-: f.ni.iiiijjoperalB 



> full, c 



tl.iui, ujlcss ho considi 

other animals frightened and 
bors' sheep devoured is l,:l''sv_-ine 
farm operations. More hor-es ilia 
to advantage indi 



as much 
ing his cattle and 






:s bad economy. Ilorses re 
.tor fodder than any of oui 
id if ibeynro not profilabl; 



or tho e 



.'■ u»h< 



,r light eooMf«lH«™- 

I "■ V.1I-M "il'C !■!'■--:■'' "« 

luloitroo.mrti; 

1 i-lic dull 11'^' ••'■■■ »'« ' 

>m from the bright'nlnr; il 
-itbursiilnocbaieJoicH 
,, and soars airay 



rl„ li-,! 



"■■'^_"; , i'iin»i'i'.'>'ii^V , ..VTiiB bbbaiesop 
■ ™„„™« r„ „, iT'-.m,,!--.', v, .<■■'■■ ,;"■■■■; ■■ 

, rr.nillwirlUciJt.-rnnu.H^, 

^,..,,,1 |,,h,„ , Lv.M.n '.;, 
. ,., it,-, TlnrlTloar 



_ „RIDbEMB»tJ9? T „ n 

OONQRBSS, 

S&tfS v,: v-v,'..-.; k. s 

D-Tl!;?" .PHtLMOPHTW THE WEiTIIEK, end 
TllE°WOrilis'OF (now lint eol- 

cousins "combe 'of 'modern philosopht. 

i/^.nViWMM.: l^CLOPEDU OF SCIENCE, 

Illuixalcd *ttb 500 Kino Steal-Plat" »»*« 
JOHJraOs'sOluilriSTBY DP COMMON LIFE II1o4- 

MACM!LAV'i'j>^"*^-'::v ll '' 1 V/^r 1 ^' ,LU: ' C011 '' 



indispensable fur 

Tho following analysts of Ihc strawberry plan 
(vine-) ..asm.oel.vMr. LliluK Kirll-.n.l Ml.,-:,. 

In 1 l«"i "i-aiu- of iher^hesoflho Garden Straw 
berry he found ; 



In the Annual Report of the Pmjr^ of Chem- 
istry and allied r-J ■= b" 1S-1T and W* «« 

fi n ,| th, f...lio«-i.iir analysis of the Strawberry by 
"icbardsoo : 



'Dived, and fai 
economy give wi 
the go-ahead prii 
1 believe if Br. i 
singe of action i 

ercd by men wh' 
■ three years lu 



will l".n 

tiev are aware of it. The fm,s-, 
, of but little value for food, and al 
icy render us is their labor, 
uee causes its share of bad lock, Es 
:ires 10 gel rich, cause many in,li'.-,.l 
do in business ^..emii'ins, bwiiu. 
All kiods of prudence am 



-trultirij; 






m tbn iltl- 



To Farmars ttnd Nureerymeft 

.-- DWA11F FIHIIV Till. - M' - ■;.■' V..'." 1 ? 

,,t ^D.'i;%lo--On!0Be«di 
W " DramIlSaLWoi*0| 



u dn,Ji'p»ckrf Irct 



;«»,• 



'"uiiAOaiiAW t co„ 



g*»i 



FIH3T PaEMlr/M 
'ATB SOCIE 

j. havii 11; iitoratt. or «™ 



leiplo. heedless of consequences, 
'(anklin should como on to the 
gain, and Inculcate his maxims 
onoiny, thai he would bo consid- 
i go into chancery once in two 
replenish their funds, as a stingy 

'Vhe lamer who has any reason to expect good 
luck mu.l filial his fencL-sarc "ell repaired 
early in the spring, that his cattle may bo r, 
„,.„■. ,,,| H i,liii, .lie limits i.,-ie.m-'l lu ll.um k- 

Ibev become mubiii-n.-i and c.min.ii. ll,l.-> 

Nri'hi: , :.-[.. .iili.j.1 l" aa 1 .iir.-m.uel..rnl-.M> .-,,,.1 
r , , !1I1L -.v |:„„,ls,,.r-"iii,.llim=nioie^i- L e.l,l ; . 
Lisic. If his di=h ^ ri-hi side up. lie will plant 
_.j ' a „ ]ij^ varieiv of vte.k in llieir proper s" 

aod keep his fields and garden clean fr 
wl-,1- or else at the end of harrtst ho will ex- 
claim? "I have nothing but bad luck: when it 
sh is always boitom up." 
M. poverty and bad luck all 
□ily,andamorodiscordant 
elalives never cohabited under tho same 
t would bo advisable Tar Iho fn 
others, to form no acquaintance with the 
two former character— thai ihey fall not tnlo the 
clutches of tho two latter. To avoid bad luck 
beprompl, lei etery thing be dono in good 
keep intoresl money and small debls paid up ; > 
»".= of Instruction, I 
.,,.,:■ ; . :! ,-. membereu, among 'be rest, a 
bad luck will seldom vi-it you' esUiblishment.- 
[S. Brown, in Boston Cultivator. 

Effect of Cuabooal oh Flowehh.— Tin 
following extract canno" 

III,. I . , uii't and tho cbt.".=-. — — j 

lady who has a rose-bush in her s a,-l,n. ..„■ 
li.,,.-,r-i,:l in her parlor. Uisfrom Hie I ,« IN 
ticultural Review, Tho eiperiment, d.sril. ■■ 
wcremade by Robert llerauds, who says ; "Aboul 
a year ago 1 made a bargain for a rose-bush of 
magnificent growth, and full buds. I waited fi 
,!:■,,, i,.l,low, and expecled roses worthy of sut 
a noble plant, and of ihe praise" bcslowed 
by the vendor. At length, when" "»»'■■' 
my hopes were blasted Tho Ho 
foded color, and I discovered that I had 
iddling mulllflora, Blale-colorcd 
fore resolved to sacrifice it to 

a which I had iriviow. My _ 

captivated with Iho effect or charcoal, -s 

slated In some English publications. 1 thencov- 

■rcd the earth in tho pot in which my r.i-e-l,u-li 

ffas, about half an inch deep wilh pulverized clnr- 

coal. Some days aflor, I was astonished to sec 

rose which bloomed of as fine a lively rose- 

ir as! conld with. I determined to repeat 

experiment; and, therefore, when the ruse- 

l,„-l, l,„l dun.- llnA-erine, 1 lu..l: oil all llie char- 

oal and put fresh earth about tho rools. You 

iiy eorici-iv-. lli.it I nailed ler thu next spring 

impatiently, to see tho result of Ibi 



io such losses a; 



the end 
of 'life. 



TfJEiiB is a call upon mankind to value mid oh 
it, in iii"-e who set a moderate price upon lli, ir 

"."..,■„ ,, ■ -.lid elfd-iinil is fr,'.|'ieiiily attended 

ivilh unexpected blessings. ~ 1 "* 1 ' ' 

ibuiidintlv recomper : ' 

icem to suffer in tho „.»...».., 
Then tho curious tell us, a de tern, urn,, u,, ,u „». 
favor or to our disadvantage is made upon our 
first appearance, oven htlore they know ^"£"6 

men gather from uur respect. 

\ mil, ilie. i-av, wears tho picture of his mind 
in hiscooiileuanco; and one man's eyes are spec- 
lacle.- to his, who leeks at him to read his hear!. 
But though that way of raisin; an oinni'-.ii oi 
t , wel.elnil'l in net, he is very fallacious, <»r- 

!„;„ it is that those, who by their words ar- 1 — 



M:AS ASH JA^tN, l'e,f,r,,eJ^n the J, , - -. 

i;Vi.M,.HfM I ■■■■!■;■■■■■ ..':''■■ ' , revL.td 



SPECTATOR. 1 c[ 

ilii'i-K-^'Ui::;'']! uiivotiDTlos. 



Earal Publications. 



""■ ■' '•" „,, in il. mcmy-ib.rJ jo^r. and <o 



is take , 



ih n 






bloomed, all 




n't barely demand in thu strict scrutiny of Ibi 
oserts, will und their account less every day. 
A modest man presents his character, as a fi 
s his fortune ; if either of them live 
either, one will find losses, Lhe oth 
, he has nol stock by him lo inako 
therefore a jusL rule, to keep j our de- 
ords, and actions, within lhe regard 
your friends hi ' 






„ lake a 



,■ possibly might, cither in prefen 

In tho tragedy of Macbolh, wo aro wondcrr-illi 
,,1,1, wiili ilie-kiH „f tho poet, in making lhe 

urderer lake fear M hiuisdf fr I tic mode — " 

of tho prince whoso lifu he was going tr. 
Ue says of the king: "Hoborehis 
ocekly j" and justly inferred Trtim t 
divinu and human power would j, 
lis death, who had made such anabi 



■lory, and which he for 
ainsttheday ofdistr 
lis portion in advcrl 
i in prosperity. 



' t'i i [': ".-) : LT i v at i >s : — >i - n nij v - 



TIIE°nllJSTBATED C Af::;i 'u'. ' iLi'lf.-in:^! 

,j i.,v«n ;,i|ari« io ibi pnsioceto 
eroki ,v ee-uiellleol roporlorj or IB 



WRMi AFFAIRS—*; 

oTlcSTTiii-'t 

,i„) liko lb- 



One Hundred Thousand Trees, 

OH FOIJ11 TO BLETOt FEET IN EdOUT. 



Africut.', S,.-tljrim»,Flg<> 

Gewcbornw, loi'l 1 '- 1 ' 1 ' 1, '■ ~- r " '■" crj ' 









r, UonHoum ore rrralr aop- 
...ill -.-n 1 .! e ■!-> ,., lhe It'-.i'. 



, LWi.Eii l TrjoKBn & 



cOMJiuliiiiii: i'i 



ily, w 



)batii.— Thn New York Herald re- 
lates tho following circumstances attending tho 
death ura highly respected physician : 

Dr. James H. Bogardus, of Kingston, Ulster 
county, N. Y., died at Lhe Girord House "n Sun- 
day atler a very shurt illnes.i, under singular cir- 
nmstanccs. Tho deceased was iibeet fiirlyllir.e 
e.-.r-.uld.,,f the hi|;li,.-t r^.si-e-e r..i l . H 1 1 v . and rmkel 
he Dm in his profession in the county in which 
e resided. For about two years ho has bconen- 
Miss Isabella Homillon, a young lady, 
ideril 'A Kingston, and on two occasions 
o Bind for their nuptials, on each of 
which death presented a harrier to the consum- 
mation or their wishes- On the former instance, 
Lhe d-ath o! his l.rui.her's child rendered a post- 
if iho day of their contemplated mar- 
iarv. and both the doc lor and his af- 
:d tho funeral. On tho second 
.heir union, Miss Hamilton's 
and ngain they both attended 
instead of their own mar' - " 



rosy red 



lion fixed for 



On Monday Dr.Bogardus camo to tho I 
put up at tho Girard House, in Chamber 
and, on retiring, complained to Dr. Dai 
whom ho was well acquainted, lhat ho « 
unwell. The following day, not feeling 
leave his bed, Dr. Say re and other emini 
called in and consulted. 



Important Hew Works, 

JUST PUBLISHED BY 
APPLETOW* CO, 



. ,,,il l.i.li fair lomOHi Lloi 
ibi i.ieE.ced anthor. 

i-'S JAVAN eXPCHTi'lS-IV 
....iinil- ,.f ll.o Oiimmedoro P 

if tbi 



„,,:; ,r.l. ..:" -.-: H i:,,:...eii,-- 
, -■,,.,, .Ml. rH-'il'.l 

•raafsa-"" 



38 GO. 



.1 I've, l,i: ■■[. 



a.'llTH J^ tl'ISCIIELL. 






iSco ' 



:!olr a» it oiiitcd In EdiaburBh tornudi 



. 3125. 



man anvil, i.f;s he 

fur Cjiutuud S^h< 
.M ii.-J-,- il I ■.■ . D. D. 

CORNEL! 



\"'^ m | ,-,.-.,.rid days' aiietidance, the) 
:d litem 



ung n 



ll,:,"t ln- 



10 (act, whereupon llr. 

frankly informed his medical adiisert 

is deeply attached to a young lady, to 

was to be married on Tuesday, that 

their inorrioge had been twice frustrated l,y deaili, 

and ho now feared that his own illness would 

prove a third lolerposition to his happiness. 

Dr. Say re, perceiving tho sad effect which the 
fear of another disappointment had upon his 
mind, -ne^eslcd the propriety of tending a tele- 
4 ,lii,- ,!,H|.,t,:h to Miss Hamilton to como lo 
ew York without delay, for tho purpose of car- 
rying out Iho wishes of Dr. Bogardus. Tho dis- 
patch was accordingly sent, and Miss Hamilton 
arrived about four o'clock on Sunday morning, 
and as early as possible some of their friends re- 
siding in Newark, were sent for to attend tho 
mamarje ceremony. At one o'elo-k tho i 
day Dr. Sayro visited his patient, and found 
so "unieli better that he eunsidcred that it w 
be Dim tee sure fur him lo attend again. At half 
clock lhe parlies were united, and Dr. 
igard us expressed his thankfulness In being, 
__led to carry ont his Intentions of marriagi 
the lady in question. The friends then retired 
' i moments for lhe purpose of pirinkm,; .,f 
refreshments. He then remarked th " ' 
o much better that ho would get up, i 
proceeded lu rai-e himself in bed. llfs bride 
ptreeivine; his efforts to rise, went to assist I 

-' - "sprang to the bell and rang fo 
beforu thu friends could reach 



HIGH SCHOOL neClGlLAl'DY . . . 

,.(: J Sj.,, 1II ,i,,>, ! ,i„...is-h.-,Hi 1 '.-r.i|.hie'. 

'■ i|-li.ii,.f Uie W...].1l .-ir.MT..:,.lv,illi 

........ Li^nf IV 



f nc-ial ilrfuTCno! t,i Ilia Waula au-l C»|iae ilie., of I'i 
,,i|. la tin Seel„r CImjc- of 1'aWlo anU Printo Bebwl 

!■;,■■ i,. 1 I'i ■-■ 

iianii-l by a lari;e ; 
[raved mi.«m1t f. 



ID. A. Sc CO. 



-■-trs 



Tho FTenoh Garden, 



GRAPfi VINES! GRAPH VINES 1! 






•--,: i:i, I UI..-II-. i„i,|.!.- ii, is- '■,., ■■'.,/. ",.J lu rhia [hoaLixDLlua 
,-,-[|,.. jmhllc I. i.^rilriil.-rle ,i,.ii,:L 

IPPLB,, FEAS, PLU11, rEACtt, APS1COT, NECTARIHE, 

lUaPDEIUlY, CUIUIANT ' and elOOSEBEnRY TTtEES, 

CnlnlorfuaDf nil il,.- ■"■„,.ll.- .:,-..■.. ii In Ihi* Onnfcn«illl» 

irlmirill l» ii»r.,.i,..l rirnuii-lls. Mid TnM and Vlnen 
1; pitted far onj illnco Ui I D Mn 5^ni.««l 



FLORA'S DICTIONARY. 

JV MRS. E. W. tyillT, OF VIRGIN!, 
LUCAB Br.OTIIEIi.1, ■;„ | J,t M„r«,-: 



,. .in .-).:,-, u-hi, rue.- i.-. in 
. i;lli inl;:p.., i.-lili FLi-.j.i;i..l,: 






'a Vebdict.— In alldelicaW 
where blame is due, ,o,i .. ill generally Und tht 
following law acted Upon : " The poor man is ac 
cuscd ; lhe rich man eicuaod." 



:o would bring up two 
111 do more work than 



* RE rt all limes 
A. (.laale «r AiM 



Za: 



For Bale Low, 

ili'lll I I HUM CAIUil.Mii: .1 

-S bVi.i'JM- n 



San Jose Nursery. 






nortlij Uiuipcchlotltmioa i:.i „ur dllieii- teiierullj- 

ROSES! ROSES!! ROSES^ 

l^.| 1 ,'..r|-i'...'.|'le'', ','..[ '|.„ :.■-:'.'.■■.':,. l.-u.i'n ■-; 



l> CmalDirue, ffrall*, la eery dp- 



?iuiij i!-c]i!s! *nd aen 
JrMCirj.Osu 16,18 



20 



' THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



jjjt Calitoia^l W^ 



8iH FEAKCBCO, FRIDAY^ J AHnABYJft^; 

ST 



OUR PCOtJOATTOK OFFICES. 



IdSTKH 






—Oat eorTBIpoudolltl CI 



■hull bo mart cc 



them. LotlBI«,4o.,«J<Jt«»4 
li plaeo will be promptly attended to. Our 
;„h M p 8n U1 plcuororwardtb.tr favor, lo as at S»o 
Pnnci«o, and poblljhcra who are in wrrMfflndenco mm 
a Hill hereafter pleoso forward their works fjrmvlBW to 
Bin ftonolieo. ___ 



LlTs 

Ose of the most important of nil the- duties 
■which a pnrent owes to bis family, is so to labor 
as to secure to his family a competence in ease 
of his sudden removal by death, or of any pet- 
Bonal misfortune thatohould arrest his usefulness. 
In tho case of sudden death and in fho midst of 
business, a wealthy man by being suddenly re- 
moved, is often made bankrupt— hU own pres- 
ence is wonting to give value to bU property, 
nod being exposed to immediate solo the losses 
consequent upon sudden death and a forced 
often obongo the value of property, bo that what 
would have been a fortune, is found to be insuf- 
ficient to pay the debts of the estate and charges, 
and the family is loft destitute ; and in Califor- 
nia it has been a most lomontablo faat thai 
many large estates, by tho long and slow pro- 
cesses of law, havo been wholly absorbed, nod 
wiles and children hove been left homeless, pen- 
niless and friendless— for to be poor iu Califor- 
nia is synonymous to being friendless. 

To a husband and father there is one way to 
provide against so terrible a. misfoitnno as 
leaving his family friendless, it is by securing 
to them, while living, a certain homo beyond tho 
contingencies of such events as loss of property, 
and tbis is by life assurance. This can be done 
by setting apart a moderate sum yearly, for a 
life policy, payable to the wife or children in 
ease of sudden death ; tho money thus paid is n 
good investment while living, and often pays a 
good interest, and if necessity occurs, a life 
policy will bring money, or can bo used as col- 
lateral security in I 
tho prospect of sue 
the person engngei 
have had many inst 
edge of persons w! 
their families, and 
from the cold charity of the world. 

It is also highly important that in seeuri 
Polioy of n Life, tho investment should be 
safe institution, and we are glad we can point to 
such on one tliat now appears in onr advertising 
columns. Tho Northern Assurance Company 
of London is beyond question one of tho best in 
Europe, with ample capital, and their Agency 
here, Messrs. Smith Brothers, ate so well known 



I depends 



ces brought ' 

thns wisely provididfor 
aved them, by such acts, 



Moonanlea Association or Ban Pranotsco. 

The Great Mo-ebonies' Fair, to take place io 
August next, is exciting; a vory laudable inter- 
est—by request, wo publish again tho remarks 
wo mode at tho time of tho State Pair, aud hope 
it will arouse a due interest in their cause : 

It has been a source of great satisfaction to 
us to note the now and earnest in tores t mani- 
fested by the Directors of tho San Francisco 
M. amnio:.' A ■:.-... iulimi, te> arouse the Mechanics 
and Workingmen of tho State to their true 

Who docs not believe and know that tho future 
prosperity of California depends upon the action 
or her Workingmen— her Mechanics, farmers, 
and Manufacturers. It is their labor that estab- 
li.i.. ,., ami builda up. They give life to trade. Iho 
[..M Jp .rily of this class builds up our ■merchants 
mi.] ; =lji].-T.-.vocre- The prosperity ol the working 
cb;ses enhances the value of real estate, and to 
the Workiogtnen of California all eyes are now 
turned with hope for a true end durable reform in 
those portions of our government, State, city and 
district, as most need it. 

The UEcniMCs' Ixstudte of San Francisco, 
n j believe, is the only incorporated institut 
the kind in the State, and it is worthy of ll 
Wring care of our Merchants and wealthy 



■ ■:>rv.-: 



Ando 



rord fro 



othif 



and to the moat excellent plan of Life Assurance, 
we recommend every farmer, mechanic or mer- 
chant who wishes to provido for his family against 
any and all contingencies, even of death. We 
can rpcak from experience, and although to 
one in health, it may not appear important, yet 
it is so ; eight years since wo felt it important, 
when we came to California, and wo havo never 
regretted it. We recommend ell to reflect 
upon it, and go to Messrs. Smith Brothers, and 
consult them upon this matter, and we believo 
they will adopt our suggestions. 

Mora Blood Block. 
It is always a pleasure for us to make a 
record of adtanei in any branch of Agriculture, 
and tho introduction of now breeds of Stock we 
feel to be of tho highest importance to agricul- 
tural development. Wo learn from George H. 
Howard, Esq., that he has now oa the way 
hither some of the finest Blood Stock that coald 
be procured in tho States, principally dniry 
stock, and intended for the beautiful ranch of 
bis late lamented brother at San M&ti 

Every importation of this character is apublic 
benefit, and should oxcito a lively 



The Moi 



-In c 



iming down 
r friend and brother 
Lovcjoy, editor of the Mountaineer, and learned 
from him that he had been conning over some of 
bis editorials on hisw«ydown,and on something 
of a peculiar route too, having footed itforlyfour 
miles over snowdrifts varying from six feet lo 
thirty feet ; that ho and several companions bad 
actually passed over peaks and gulches of snow 
of astonishing character. Wo also learned that 
in 1852 then were drifts of snow measuring forty 
and fifty rcet; and jet, says our friend, I feel 
your cold and chilly winds more than I do tho 
breezes from tho fqowb round "Pilot Hill." 
shall look for sketches In tho Mountaineer 
result of this tour, sparkling as tho crystal 
drops over which our editorial brother has 



Mechanic, iu that county especially, should 
his name oa a mcaiber, take an active part 
labors, and enjoy its privileges. Tho seed of it was i 

The Hall of tho Mechanics' Institute of Son jjillabrand. 
Francisco, we feci confident is ono of the most j would premise, 
spacious, most neatly furnished and best supplied ng ucst jtulo as gri 
with papers and the best library, in that county. 
Many hundred volumes of valuable works, and 
iS.oist :-i s 1 v ii.ir-r,. v.-.ili every coraforl and conve- 
nience that could be required, make tin;-; r,>"iii* 
worthy tbeattention of every Mechanic in our State. 
We feel called upon oa the friend of the me- 
chanic and working-man to call their specie at- 
tention to this noble Institution, as worthy their 
highest consideration. It has been onr pleasure 
in nut- 1 with the gentlemen who compose the 
Board of Directors, often, while urging their kind 
attention to u union of their interests with those 
of the cause of Agriculture, and we now feel a 
great pleasure in announcing a happy result of 
these efforts. 

It will be seen by the call in another place, that 
this Institute has come forward promptly. ;,i.;l ili-.y 
do by their call invite all their co-laborers over the 
State to unite with them and join them in the an- 
j,r- ■ idiiiii: SUte Fair. What a glorious exhibition 
could bo made of Manufactures and of the Me- 
chanic Arts. How much beauty could be revealed 
I.',- tlf Mi.-uimiins that unw grace the galleries of 
our Artists, and if all would but unite, how great 
an impetus would bo given to our prosperity ; and 
we ask in all earnestness— Wilt ?iut etery one da 
something J 

It bos afforded m much pleasure to sco tbis 
work progress, and we hope to see it triumph. 

For the honor done us by this Institute in 
adopting onr journal, we feel most grateful, and 
will i.-rnlravur W merit it. We arc the friend of 
the Mechanic nnd Workingman, and we hive 
r,l..il^..il i.njr uiu-t ejrrii^t til'jri- in their cause, for 
it i* twin with the cause of the Farmer — our own 
lone cheriphed science. 

We shall he grulelul lo receive the co-operation 
nnd support r,i 111-.- M-..:L<rjr. .= anil .Manufacturers 
to our journal, and to receive from them such in- 
formation toudiiiii; their iui-.-n 5' r iht- publication 
if ivini I, will iLik,un;i_- ihe general welfare. 

We appeal to all thu Workingmen of the State. 
The OsxiFoasu Fahiieii is the Workingman's 
journal, and ss such open to all subjects of general 
interest We do bone they will be pleased to add 
their names to our fist Such as deiire s|x-dun;u 
opies will receive them by making known their 
rishea. Give our journal but that appri-L-iati'ju 
and support it deserves, and wo are content. 
We herewith annex a complimentary letter, 
ived at the same time wo published the Card of 
the Institution, and which we re-publish now, t" 
Mechanics all over the State may know that 
journal is open to their interests ; and with this 
we again present Ihc Card of this excellent Insti- 
tution, calling attention 10 the great coming Fail 
to which we invite an earnest interest. 

It was by unanimous vote decided to have the 
inclosed Circular distributed through tho agency 
oflbo CALn-oaNiA Farmer, which we are pleased 
to recognize as the Organ of our Institute, - r,. J t 1l ■ ■ 
journal of the industrial interests of the State. We 
further desire lo call the attention of all mechanics 
and manufacturers especially to the Califohma 
Farmer as a journal particularly earnest in the 
tbe workingmen of California, and a 
journal worthy their interest and support. 

The Califoiisia Faiimku having long been en- 
gaged in the cause of fostering and encouraging 
Hi- iii-lii tri.il iiil'.Te.-ts of our State, and having 
voluntarily offered to aid our iiil.-r. -i.. I.y i.|V ni.-,,; 
its columns for the publication of all our meetings 
and rt-purls, aud otherwise aiding onr inter! ' 
without cost to us or any pecuniary reward for 
doing, we feel called upon to recommend It to o 
co-laborers as the journal nf our interests, and 
adopt it as the organ or our Association, and 
thereby cheerfully recommend it lo the mccnani 
manufacturers and workingmen of our State. 

Accompanying this you will receive the Circular 
alluded to, and which, wo tru.it, will hi; aeeepUUs 
to you to publish, and be rtc. ivi-.l -nil „ t,,| ,)|,,u, 
promptly over our whole Stale. 

Gaiidnes. Elliott, President. 
P. B. Dextkh, Itec. Secretary. 
H. F. Williams, Cor. Secretary. 



ing exhibition ever witnessed on the P"'"? ^ L 
and the hearty cm Deration nf all well-wishcm or 
- e enterprise is most earnestly solicited 

Special premiums and diplomas will be »warded 
for articles ol superior merit. uktiint, 

As Boon as some definite plan for the «h'»'!«™ 
shall hava been matured, the public will be advised 
or tbe same. 

By order of the Institute : 

H. F. Williams, Cor. Secretory. 



Chlnnao Su B ot Cono— Sorgho Snore. 
As everything relating to this now and inter- 
esting plant is of importance, wo give tho follow- 
ing from tho Commorcial Advertiser, published 
at Honolula, and shall try lo keep our readers 
posted in relation to tba subject. Wo also give 
m in relation to tho cotton raised at the 
Islands. It will bo remembered also that the 
samples of cotton roised in California in 1855,and 
o New Orleans and examined by the Board 
ofCotton Brokers, was then pronounced superior 
to any cotton yot shawo. That sample was grown 
at Iho ranoh of Maj. P. B. Beading, Cottonwood : 
Mh. Editor r Tn the Advertiser of Sept. 8lh, 
ere appeared a notice of tho " Sorghum Sacha- 
num end its innumerable good qualities. 1 
irewith send you o quantity of what I supposed 
ha tho article to disnoso of to those who would 



coived originally from Dr. 

rover, that the stalks are 
saccharine taste. But its 
s than commensurate to its 
lck of sugar. It is a most boa utilul cereal, white, 
_ound, and delicate as sago in looks, and yields 
enormouidy. From a specimen riddled by wee- 
vils (nothing but what is good will they cat), I 
got eighteen grains to gtow, planted last February. 
It looked like broom corn at first, but soon threw 
up eighteen or twenty side shoots from each root. 
On tho lop of each shoot orpanded a bead, heavy 
,-iLh most bciotiru] grain, like Ihosc I send you, 
ipening in four months from planting. From 
each seed there must hare been a yield ur more 
""" at the first cutting. But in a few 
weeks there shot up, both from the root and from 
each Joint of the stocks left bolow tho cutting, 
new heads, not quite so heavy as those gathered 
first, but from their number amounting lo much 
mora grain ia the aggregate. Up to Ibis date it 
bos been gathered four times. 

I July 1 gathered tbe first seed and planted 
igain fresh from the stock, and in November 
gathered this which I send yon, a larger growth 
"■an from Ihe original. 
Its good qualities as I have tested it ere— 
1st. An unparalleled yield. 
°J if '.-."ll inoted, worms cannot kill it.asthev 
i com and beans, for It will throw out new 
shoots from the root liko wheat. 
3d. It is a Gno feed Tor cattle or horses, cither 
grain, or to be cut up and fed green for fodder. 
The latter process only makes it grow up thicker, 
"ut for feeding fowls it is unsurpassed. It fattens 
leui equally well with wheat. Chickens just 
from tho shell eat it as they would crumbs of 

With the aid of this grain, fowl raising may be 
carried on to ony extent, as the grain is growing, 
ripening, and ready for them to shell out for 
themselves at any time. II. 

Cotton.— By Into advices from Boston, wo 
learn that tho samples of col ton raised on Maui, 
and sent to tho United States for examination, 
havo been beard from, and said by cotton 
brokers to equal if nut oxcel any samples of 
American growth. An offer has be-on received 
to purchase any quantity that might bo for salo. 
Wo havo hnd several inquiries fur seed, of Inte, 
but are unable to refer to any. Good Sea- 
Island cotton seed should be imported. 




tho estimation of those who desire to come to ui 
and settle, than all othor means that could bo 
used, for it reveals tbe truo resources of out 
State — and tho Reports oto corroborated by tha 
ithority of hundreds of names that ore known 
ovory Stnto, and will carry conviction of tha 
truth a made therein, 

Thoso who desire ns to moil copies' to the 
Eastom States, by remitting the amount, oan 
them forwarded at oneo, 



Directors. 



A Nattobal Bdbbao op Aoricoltuile, 
This Boport of tho Committee of Agriculture in 
the Congress of tho United Stales, we hope will 
be read by all legislators, nnd wo baliovo tho 
members of our State Legislature will End in it 
much that is valuable as aid and authority, far 
tho legislative aid which California demands at 
Ihe hands of her law givers. 



E. Cooe, Treasurer. 
J. B. Kinoaid, 
J. A. Banes, 
Wb. McKieue 
Q. D. Street, 
E. F. Bwett, 

C. L. Tatloii, 

D. Ta» Pslt, 
The annexed call is fnr the present yejr, and 
e trust every mechanic and manufacturer in the 

land will give it their best influence, and thut 
every press will herald the news: 

ot Um cir/"*" ' .,,,', 

F-nnoas FiBHBti: Gentlemen— fn'ck'.-.'l von ..ill 

find a "Circular" emauaiin^ f ri -. lu ,,. jr l^-uum 

which you will insert in y uur columns, with such 

comments as yon may think the enterprise deserves. 

Tery respectfully, yonre, 

H. F. Willuiuj, Cor. Secretary. 

The Mechanics' Institute of the City of San 
Francisco have resolved to hold an buhmtrial Fair 
in faid city, in the month orAuguii, in',; ■ liJL1 j 
they eortiully invite the mechanic, nuimiliwturer 
miuer.uniat, flgricultnri.it, horticulturist, and every 
other producer, to be represented. 
No pains will be spared, on behalf of the Instl- 
I late, lo reader ibis the moat brilliant and Inleresl- 



Tnc New Hotel, Sachamento.— This m 
structure recently opened by mine host of the 
"Dawson," is one of the striking objects ii 
architectural beauty of the Levee City. 
New Dawboh Hotel, is situated on tho corner 
f J and Fourth streets, and extends from J to 
be alley an Fourth, being half a block, and pre- 
;ents a front on J of nearly ono hundred met 
Rising foot ttorits above the raised basement, it 
looms up above all other blocks Ilka some grand 
castle, and presents to tbe eyes really superb 
i, adding much to the beauty of J and 
Fourth, and, indeed, Ibo wboto city. The first 
Blory is of granite, tbn remainder of face brick, 
with cast-iron window ops, of gol hie form ; the 
whole general appearance is one of attractive 
beauty. Tho first story Is already occupied as 
stores, eiccpt Iho receiving rooms ond offices for 
tha hotel, which are on Fourth street. Over two 
hundred . I- I, . ■ . . . I rooms, arranged In 
its of rooms, for families or single boarders, 
ith splendid ball and dioicg- rooms, inako this 
hotel one of the finest hotels in California. It is 
nnnecessary to compliment mine host of the 
" Dawson," for his seal and pcrsoveraueo in 
erecting end opening so Eplondid a building are 
the best proofs that he Is now determined to have 
the bat Hotel in the Stale. Tho location is 
central, and from tho lop ono of tho finest viows 
of tho valley can bo had. Most sincerely do wo 
commend tho noble enterprise of the Dawson, 
in calling attention to it, wish tho proprie- 
tho full merit they deserve, which is success. 



Gold ExcrTEMEitT in Sah Fhancib 
Quito a hullabatlo was caused, during Iho pres- 
ent week, in tho city of San Francisco, by tin 
rumnrs that gold was found below Davis nn Drum 
and wonderful stories of "big lumps" and 
rich diggings flew thick and fast. For two o 
days, people flocked thither with shovck 
picks and pans, and many a paragraph was tha 
consequence. Passing up Olay etrect wharf wo 
slopped to view the scene, and it was a scene for 
a painter. It reminded us of our prospecting on 
the -north fork," in 49. H ow sharp w„ looked 
for a "show" when near tho bottom of the nan 
We watched a *«* h ero , bia ^ y< anQ ^ ^ 
washing, Tor some twenty minutes, ho cried out 
"hero's gold I" All dropped their tools and ran 
to Iho discoverer, and ho hid found— a spec— ono 
spec— so small, it was with difficulty seen at all 
So much for tho gold discovery In San Francisco' 
We believe the gin shnps and lager beer saloons 
near by made the most out of it, and should not 
be surprised if they know about it first. 



We call tbe attention of Printers, Publishers. 

,nd all desirous to know where to purchase dura- 

ile and elegant type, to tbe advertisement of 

Wm. Hagar, Jr. &. Co., Typo Founders, New York 

City, who desire to advise their friends and the 

printing interest generally that they havo refitted 

their establishment with now machinery, an 1 * 

have availed themselves of every modern improvo- 

t which long experience or capital can cora- 

id, aud that tboy have, therefore, unequaled 

facilities for producing typo of superior excellence 

and durability, and for supplying all orders for 

d some with great accuracy and promptness. 

Their fpecimon books (which may bo had 

ir office) will be found to contain everything 

desirable to tho Newspaper, Book, and pli 

foncy Job Printer, and they are constantly 

making additions to their already largo assort- 

Theso gentlemen are the sons of Mr. Wm, 
Hager, who commenced the business in the year 
1818, and still superintends tho manufacturing 
marlmcnt ; and wo havo visited their establish- 
ent, an engraving of which wo givo above, and 
irchascd from them, and find their pretensions 
fully sustained. In fact wo can cordially 
ii.iul them lo our Brothers in California (lo 
iiose orders we aie assured they will give par- 
ticular attention) and in the States. 

They keep on hond, aud furnish at short notice, 
■terything required in a printing office, in fuel, 
and wish it to be distinctly understood, their 
establishment is a Printers' Emporium, 
everything can be had, from a Cylinder Pi 
tho smallest article of service to the printer, all 
of which will be furnished on the most liberal 
terms, for cash or credit. 

The Hotels ol tho FaoiQc. 

Strakrebs who visit the Pacific Coast are de- 
sirous of knowing where to find a " Homo," a 
residenoe of nearly eight years enables us to make 
an estimate ol what a stranger needs on the shores 
"' " ltrauge land, 

of the best Houses for the great masses that 
have business at the Bay City, wo announce to be 
the "What Cheer House." We do not believe 
there is n hotel keeper on tho Pacific that deserves 
a belter fortune, than Woodward of the "What 
Cheer." Benily, Woodward is a genius— go look 
at his free baths, and free reading rooms ; hut first 
note that the What Cheer is the house for the 
sscs of tho people; Woodward can accommodate 
all that visit him, and, what is important, bo can 
alt. Any person visiting this famed Honse, 
ecu by the rush there, that it is justly a popu- 
lar Hotel— and not only is the proprietor a favor- 
ite, but also his attentive book-keeper and clerk, 
tho several departments, arc obliging 
and courteous. 
Tne Babsstte— This Hotel continues to in- 
case in public favor, and io addition to other 
attractions tho proprietor has secured tho ser- 
of G. W. Graonis, Ebil, so long known 
as tbe efficient Clerk of the International Hotel. 
This act of Mr. Bussette we esteem a wise one, for 
n more popular assistant could not bo found than 
Mr. Grannis ; ho has "troops of rriends," and they 
will bo pleased lo know he is a fixed piece of fur- 
niture at this Huuse. Mr. and Mrs. Bassette, by 
their attcntivo care ond kindness, will always se- 
cure a homo to families and strangers at this Hotel. 
At the present time is very folly patronized. 
TnE ISTEiiKATioKAi. Hotel.— This old and long 



Gooo! J 



established Hotel has again changed bauds, and as 
will be perceived, now hoists the Flagg of tho 
former proprietor of the Railroad House. It i 
only necessary to announco the name of "Haley, 
to secure a share of public patronage. M. A 
Freneh,E?q., so kindly remembered at the Rus- 
sctte, stands ready at the desk of the Internotional 
lo welcome his many frl ;nds and those of Mr. nnd 
Sirs. Haley, and E. B. Robinson, Esq., whoso 
names severally appear in Iho card in onr columns. 
Wo cheerfully recommend these favorite Hotels, 



Favors Receive d. 
e. — ''Good wine needs no hush"— 
nld provorb,and wo can provo it, forvre 
have tried it and found it so with tho boxes of 
kindly sent us by Messrs. Koblcr & Co., 
from their Wine Cellar in Merchant street. The 
Claret seat us wo know is far bettor than most 
of the claret sold in California, and will compare 
irnbly with tho fins brands of the Burgundy, 
of Franco. The "Angelica" is indeed drink far 
thoso winged beings whose name it indicates, and 
lakes one feel almost as happy. These are Cali- 
•rnio Wines, and are of very high character. Wo 
lw, whan at their office last week, cases marked 
for the London market, and soma cases marked 
James Buchanan, Pres. U. S. Thcso, with casks 
for many portions of tho United States 
and Europe, aro sure indications that California 
Wine will soon bo known the world over. Those 
whodesire Pure California Wines can find thorn 
at Kohler &, Co.'s. 

A Good Pen. — Wo have boon furnished wilh 
ono of "Princo'a Protean Fountain Pens," from 
tho manufacturing office in Now York, and 
upon a thorough trial wo hava found it all that it 
is represented to be, and more. Our editorial 
duties often require of us many hours of contin- 
uous writing, and wo feel that we bare found In 
this pen, aid, equal to one-third of our labor. It 
is recommended as "self-sopplyiog," feeding itself 
fnr "three to ten hours." "Incorrodible," in fact, 
''the pen of a ready writer." It is all these aud 
more. It saves much in the wear and tear of the 
temper ol an irritable person, who would other- 
wise be obliged to change pens, or clean them, 
besides the lass of time in Ailing an ordinary pen. 
We can say most emphatically, that no t 
form any conception of tho value of tbis 
parable invention until they have tried nn 
veribty believe tho pleasure derived from this pen 
in writing will aid in developing and in giving an 
easier flow of thought to the writer. Wo have 
written thrco, four and sis hours steadily, and 
we have no words or sentence of words tbatca 
express the satisfaction wo enjoy in tho possei 
sian of this invaluable aid to onr editorial 
labors. Wo know from the largo list of talented 
writers that havo highly extolled this 
it has no equal ; and every person who is called 
to labor with tho pen, should secure tl 

With the lost steamer wo received the list 
issuo of the Patent Office Reports, and Smithso- 
nian Reports, for which wo aro indebted to the 
Hon. C. Mason. 

A most valuable work, being an Essay on tho 
Morgan breed of Horses, with numerous fine 
plates of those splendid animals and their full 
pedigrceo, with hints for breeding, breaking, 4c, 
red from the publishers, 0. M. Saxtan i. Co. 
Now York. 

Many other valuable and very interesting 
works named in our Literary Notices, also re- 
ived from the publishers, to whom wo rctarn 
thanks. 

Collections of Music, also named, will be re- 
viewed — thoso who publish Now Music, at the 
East, can remit closo-rolled parcels by mail lo us 
at San Francisco, and their announcement will bo 
made in advance, so as to secure them orders. 

A Fashionable Hat— Stepping into a fashion- 
able bat store on Commercial street, the other 
day, and while looking at tho various forms and 
itylos, suddenly iho hat wo bad worn for some 
imo and which bad become somowbat worn and 
itorm-benten, was taken from our head, and one 
of the latest styles of Collins' (Collins mokes the 
styles) wosonourhcadinplacoofit, Nntwisb- 
ing to make any difficulty for tho liberty which 
had been taken, wo passed down Montgomery 
strcot with our fashionable beaver on, ond wo 
actually bowed and recognized our friends, with 
our jieio hat on, just as usual. 

New Clothing Wahbhoose.-Wo stepped 
into tho uowly finished warehouse of Messrs. 
Mansfield & Wood, on Montgomery street, for a 
simple purchase, and wore surprised at tho ele- 
gance of tho establishment. Tbo stylo ol the 
finish as a clothes warehouse is peculiarly nw 
and chaste, and wo con say elegant, Tor Ihit U 
tho word, ond the goods within aro in kecp'"S 
wilh tho stylo of tho store. 

It will bo no disparagement to other warehouses 
to say that there is no establishment on Iho Paclne 
coast that has a marc pel feet and complete assort 
ment of goods, or of higher quality 



Good Reports ron Caltpohma.— Those 
who desire to make a good report of California, 
and to show their kiadred and friends 11 " 
Eastom States tho (rue cofirfilion of Califo 
can find no bettor way than by sending them 
the Reports of iht State Fair, which have boon 
puhlUbed hi pamphlet form. 

This work will do more to raise California in 



Messrs. Mansfield k Wood. Of this f«t 
visitors can bo tho judge. It is really pleasure 
lo view a store where there is so much that is • 
keeping with truo "elegance, and wobopo this A" 
will bo patronized according to their merits, to 
bringing to this market so splended on ossort- 



Sqkip Raisiko — Beet Sooab— Biob Ccl- 
tubv— New Pkoducts.— Wo regret lo bo obliged 
to poatpoDo several articles this week, but tbe two 
long articles which occupy so much spoee, compel 
us to do so ; they will appear in our next with i n_ 
tercsting statistics. 

We regret also to bo obliged lo delay some very 
Important correspondence from our corresponding 
editor at Boston, upon Eastern Agriculture, and 
visiU to tho Farms nnd Nurseries of the Middle, 
Western and Southern States. 



"^TT-F. nALIFOBNIA^ ABMEB. 



MoBiciL Febtival— It U not in our protinca 
to ute nato e*"*™ 11 ? of 1 " ne,t « rs i OobwtU, 
Jlusidl Festivals 4c, bqt wo ■« W fond of too 
DIMM, of Concerts and Musical Feasts u any 
-erton need be, and without vanity on 6»y wo 
two enjoyed thera in their highest degrco of ex- 
cellence, both in Eoropo and oor own country i 
but wo bite eo much tnsh ntra-ndajs, so much 
that is not worth naming, that when wo can pro- 
mote ibal which is worthy wo lovo to do so, trad 
■ttho present moment wo hear that 
will ere long be surprised by a Cor" 
f Iho very highest order, hy 
■rtiilo, whose 



of Music 
accomplished 
liberty 



a,N.Y 



MARRIED, 
nento, on WednenUy. »d liut-, >>J R«- . X 
^.E.Bnrto.JorWrtbn Thirteenth Jodkl. 
a" ML* M. A. Col>, of Snornmnntn, fonnorl j or 
It had «ont ni, wo note 



i j Ihanka for tho cake 
1 by tbii tnarrtajie Iho 3 odea — 
, la *hom wo know oar nadon -111 wlih all rmso-irUy 
Ibnpplnan — one who hat e 
•pj atnlni of Kalla Klne. 
0, ernol Jodio I yos, Jndgo mi JnTT, 



a acid well joa 



7. lift 



id When lbs roll 
iSlnloi Col*." 



Htprosent. From tho most relUblo authority wi 
ere informed Ih at tho selections will embrace Con- 
oarL Opera nod Ballad pieces. Tho Debotanto 
Kill be alilv eu p ported, nnd this fcstiTalnf 
will be worthy tho patronage of Ihe lovers of 
mnsic. The particulars will he announced in 
■bout ten dayf. __ 

IIhs. Lesdebmeb'b Readings at Sacra- 

HBKTO.— We aro pleased to record tho success 
«f this- highly accomplished lady at the Lovco 
(Sty. Tho first reading was on Friday oiening 
last, at Rev. Mr. Benton's Church; thn nudience 
■was largo and of tho highest character, Tho 
seCODd reading was at tho Capitol building, 
which was filled with ono of tho most fashinna- 
nlo audiences of tho season. Mrs. L. was in 
costume, and her npppnmoco and her readings 
(nrpri.--.-d ,.jp eolation nnd guvo perfect satiHV- 
lioii andwou lo herself much honor, TVe return 
thanks for the courtesy of tiokcU, and regret 
we could not bo present to enjoy the readings. 

B To or a Friends.— "Will not onr friends in 
Bhe interior of tho State becomu ogente for us, 
and ouluin additions to our subscription list I 
Wo wish to increase the value and interest of 
onr piper by haudsomo plates and cats, and if 
onr friends will lend us a little of their aid, each 
one of our ptr^cnt juili^cribers can do 
r-amoant of gnnd. Whr ~ : " 



If Jad|[U ileal I 
To Uks a Cals I 

0, 1=1 



oBtlmi 



"KnlieKini 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 
J5f- CIUUSTMAS GIFT — One of Ihe rami b 



MISCELLANEOUS.^ 



" n o t b x, 

I INTERNATIONAL, 
JACKSON STKEET, 
, mowoomkily, Sas Fravcwm. 0; 



rin"p«i™ n .nflW>»> 






OY'S FINE OY'S. 

IHE loIur/or»ffood ,, OI•Ul■ J, 
-a«Duino " Coro OkIcm" °nc 

,,-,,..„ ;;...;,„ .,.-,, N.i,V-:lr.T- 



'•■'j, ;':."; CiY jTEIl SALOON :" nnd 
b=forn or after, """T/J 111 " Aiib j£ 



pacific Mail Steamship Company's Line 
TO PANAMA, 

I>.A.3Sr_A_:rwE.A. BAII.BOAD 



3- The Report of Iho Atrlcnlloral 
,rlEG6,inc " 



Ibcl 



arms aod Vlnoynrtls throuthout ll 
SWo, Roporti on tho Eihihltloo, tho Annnnl Add™ 
Iho Preiidoot, Addrwi or CoL J. B. Ciwkelt, detail' 
liit of Iho Exhibited Artiole., Iho Prim Ecy on ti 
rotsto, wilh othor Important mailer, I; ...v.. i-.'jchn 
aaat Pamphlet of nbaul oi^hty najoi, llluitntcd. K 
toot deiiioBi of obtaining eoplei mill flam addioa I 
OHM of Iho Calitomiii F»anan, when coploj wili 
forwanltdaapororatr. Price FiKjCoate. 



,t the Office! 



ia CiLin 



Stats AjrtcultnroJ Eoeietr'i Boomi, SaeramooLo- 
No. 130 WmhlDslon stroot, Snn Fronclrw. . 
UIIhijui & Oj.'i, J.W. Solllvan'a, J J.LeCoao 

FtMotscoir- •-•-■'■ ■■ ■■ '■ 






■ill send us tho first 
ird shall bo madn of such kind- 
Wo ask attention to our journal— is it 
ethy your support nnd aid 7 



iF Aoricoi^.— 



A PERFUMED BREATH 

Whit lady or cootleniao noald remain i 

inaof adlHgroeahlo breath, »hca bjnrioel 

of a Tboojand Elowan" ai a denllfrico wou! 

idartlawMl 



TOOBS, 

BASH and BLINDS 
i iiENcii xruMovrB, 

Sua, Soorl, Lumber, to., ii 



TMPORTAKT 



Life Assuranff. 

^aui^fCalifmoia 
.giaodlhal toe luhjoot of Life Auar- 
lio thought uf~oad Iho p.rson nho 

i ff '-itllb o iffi c uliiM , 1 o deeO , o f man y 
,ut earlain Indlrliiuati are h conilf- 

iifficuitie(pu.t-orr^ii)™or c ™.=| 

oTn " f reiTearly hih l" of SlnkiB c ■ 

„SL lis b«. b«fl°™™rf to IliU wry 

elnaconunuolty pi,-Ju.]:.-..lL...oj[].; r,„,l 
: lo npr»r"clAle toch a principle— (I U 
II. 'ijir.:;-'.'.! "he prinople— ho o»cr- 



cV|:^ Ll.r |.:ii.j i: ■■ '■'..> ' 'InLH-!.'- 



it know tholl 



nill nev 



\ KEVHTiTS o: 

ranch pleasnro tho first number of a series 

Beriews, which will appear regularly, from I 

| able pen of our correspondent "Agricola," e 

which wo know our readers will pernso w 

interest and profit. 

\ Gaomso Ricb.— Two of the momherB of i 
Alhlon Qunrht lead at Grnsa Valley, camo down 
on Tuesday last, with their bag of dust, weigh- 
ing about three hundred pounds; nnd this ii 
reported as tho usual amount. Every twe 
weeks $60,0 00— only about $5,000 per day. 

Hutching s' Magazine. — This vnlnnblo 

Magazine for February has been laid upon 

our table, nnd we are pleased to nolo the steady 

onwnrd progress of this interesting work. ** ■ 

■ worthy a liberal support 

\ STEAsran. Papers. — Wo are nnder obliga- 

tionB to tho Pacific Express Compnny for tho | 

filea of Eastern papers, promptly fnmishod on 

nmvsl of the steamer in advance of tho mail. 

. SnpEBHTiTiotrp Belief in Dehtihv — The 

Miuion of the Philanthropist.— Napoleon tho 

" ' w, like Napoleon the Uncle, beli-v..; tin! 

a great Mis-ion to fulBIl and that his life 

an peril until it is accomplished. But of 

ttlo imparlance to the world is tho mission 

Emperor, when compared with that of a 

philanthropist like Hollo way. He Indeed with- 

oat impropriety perhaps, might bo supposed to 

» prolcclion of a special providence, 

sion is to revive the sick, to soothe 

adily anguish, lo save human lire; these are tho 

-is of beuetlcenCQ and lore and mercy. From 

juarters wchear of tho most astounding cures 

complished by bis inestimable Pills and Oint- 

it. To tho Termor of these remedies all dis 

■x of the skin, tho muscles, nnd the glands, 

n to yield like morning mists before the sun. 

II Pills put lo the rout indigestion, liver com- 

lalnt, and disorders 1 of the bowels with equal 

^miTiiv. *Jur ''naiional disease." dyspepsia, ' 

n peril 'of anuiliilitlon. and we have so.cn enouj. 

lo feel assured that whenever Hollo way's Pills 

ire universally administered for this distressing 

complaint, it will inevitably he "eipelled rron- 

— '-'j-." Every day conflrms the opinion K 

a crv to Pj reel pressed, that Hollowny's medi 

_. are the only preparations in existence thai 

rale directly upon ihe sources ot disease, and 



and freokloi from Ibe (kin, leaving! 



a Tboojind Flow 






raelUUllng 
orarellon ofibavinn. Prieo only Fifty CanU. 
W. P. FETRIDOS * CO., 
FreakllnSqoi - ™- 

?-" AR& 4 WIiFte! Wasbinilor 



!t- Office, Agon- 



o. So* Yi 



MANSFIELD & WOOD, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

CLOTHING WAREHOUSE 

Bolt AgonUforlh. Sale of 

Messrs. WYMAN k CO.'S 

SUPERFINE CLOTHING, 



I LL' i'ni:-iji!'". 



' MAO H IF [CENT STEAMSHIP 

GOLDEN AGE, 

IV V I AB'b't 

IU leave ViUejoturtt Wh.rf, ndUjUio <I^j! |A ^ Mi "* 



B^lrosd Acrou the Irth mu, In A^ Lnwdl, 
fi BM»BgSBS t^^S 



■hjj'm Oll.-i- i'-' rti .Upm^nt 
for irdfbt o, I.".* .jr.IT W ocf ^ A ^ 

... ...I 1 .;,....!,. rnl .-,.-.[-. 



21 



N. REYNOLDS & CO., 
Ml Prnonoo and General Oonuniiiian Merchant., 

•^ .. -^ert{lKLCUv"dWaihlr.riIon.IrcsW, 






rAOENTS FOR LICK'S FLOUR, J 
■■■:> HIBSHFELD rt JORDAN, 

£ Prodnee and Comnrdiuion Mtrehnnta, 



MEAD i BENNETT. 



X 



CBlifomia SbBam navigation Company, 
ATfiA 1 : 



WILSOS '■■ IIUHT, 
COLIN ELIAtc.pl E 



'£ A. Poolo; "" ' 

pLE. C. M. Chndlrickl 



he lljht di^ lirsmon 



ncr Bjipnrenlly trrffsu 
ban rtruUirliT In Iho c. 

StawSblBeneimt ■ from 1 



conlcmpbilnl urwo " iiULcicnllj 

.'.'„.', ncli'jfin I »r..l cn T rv„ :-ill 



■. 






pc»n '11T. " Huir'.n- - ™y 1, "™j™^ , ',|'. r .' D.-,°f lull? UaKot 

"Id L^bTr.-ilr'w.-l-,- :':-:■' .'— - 1 *> "■• 'J-.' -r,. -.j i... 

, . . ,|. „„.... :. ■■ ! ,'.,-.: :l:.: I.- ' •.'i uj. J. ? rt*1a.-D l.y ibo 

JSjonnlo llni' 'I ' ..,....■.,. 

'•"'■'■I'-'l .r '■' 'i.."li. ■-■■'■■■ ■'. <!-■'■' '■'■■■"■- '■■ I' 1 - 1 ' ,I|J l! '". >'» 



PEePAILED TO OFFEil THE LAHGEST 
AND DEST ASSORTED 
S T O O IC 

a exhibited is calitornia, 



l,OIU\ BROOKS' 

FTME CAXF, PATEHT LEATHEE. DBEBS AMD 

lVattr-l'ruol' il<> •>!■>. 



PAETICULAR ATTBNTIOS t 



ALL OnOEIlS 



'Bad Bin 
. J. HENBLEY, Pr 



McOOMB & CO., 

General Commluion Uerchant), 

-«7w«rpboiiM!«*A= i 'T of3,0t»iorJ— .lor 



( .!J.- !■;';■ 



B. H. BKNNEI'T, &. CO., 
duos Comminion Herchanta, 

store SHlp i nnF „ ni: i, c CaL 
Si %&uk£o$?™ Conjlgnmenu of floor and _ 



SCALES & JOHNSON, 

Prodnte Cammisnon HBTChanta and General 

AgenM, 



honCoodX 



Contra Cost a Fe ny Notica. 

CHA-WQE OP BEKTH. 



BOOKS, &c. 



New Agricultural Books. 



obS.'wnJ BiKlall; ! ■■- il- ■■■■ II'' ■■■■■" i- ';■'■ 

kIMcbW. bato mide o t-n.ii'n pi.ni.l.jn. 
..ill j et .-..-, taili, li.r 111'' ;■■ ■!•.'. I -.c.'J |;:,yif. 



u:ll toid I.J 

J ,' -': ;.. : )':Vi . 



poralj*!*, JcTcr, ic 



tic In tULItax htakh oue 
U>rir mlD.li will be mm 



OFFICERS OF THE AltMY AND NAVY, 

And all *uo wijh Ihe Beit Qualll? 

OLOTECITSrO-, 

MADE DT THE M03T APPEOYED STYLE. 



DUM ll- 



[Bob 



i Juurnal- 



nf ticknci". 
icrj|»i-in, forbid the docloi 
" them and 



thro n 



Hollowav's Ointment.— Salt Rheum, Scor- 
butic Eruption and Sera full.— Nearly half the 
baman race can bear witness to the efficacy of 
(his wonderful unguent in the euro of these dis- 
eases. They never fail, boivcver longstanding 
desperate tho ofo may be. Sold at the mnnufn 
tones, No. 80 Maiden Lane, New York, and Nn. 
24* Strand, London; and by all druggists, at 
25c, G2ic, and SI per pot. 



CONCERT HALL. 

HE GBAKD MOYINO DI0B.AH. 
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, 



LITTLE AND UTILE. 



' '[J.D-Ad 
i[ Little^ draji and pllli, 



i.jl.U.-.-ll. 

lan'athtplani 



OITY COACH. 

X" A. R S OWE D CtfC -L.A.1 

mm Iho HAB3ETTE U 



I'. SIATHElVd £ J. EHQLI9U. 



Olonle Crlsto, 

VhoH pciftmancs In Vcnlrtlogjuhim trA Ibo Mule Aj 
dmfali t!o"°o AuBim.Mil LITTLE BOBDT, who will 

PATBY LAHD AND FALACE 0? THE FA13EES. 

Open amn ■•cclnj (3und«j» cicoploj), nnd uu Bilnrdji 
Jtem^.n, oi J c.'cli^t **' 3 



Hop Buots, Hone Eadisli, && 

THE virj bait TirietT nnd qualilT oT Hop Ba 
on* quantity cubi fnnillLed bj Iho under* 



-ir eUldwi 






. ii... IK ■■■;■, 111 ■- ' I Hi "I rrML . -.l.l.'i- — Ui ■ n:,^^'.]iLC — LJ 

,,,,!.,,, i|.- h . ■.!...■ ■.:, !.-.■ ii:-rr..li >'r ■-...I; .,r, :!..;, 

of Uj.poae e.-i.^l.ilQn.—.tid IH H.iLh >ij for wlikh bo U ttiUl 

T. ;",'., .Hi-. .lui> I. ,<>.-. ,..-,.., r.r. r it, ih, ; Oly K.~„: l', 
H..,.. in .,1 tin l-r.. ii ■::•.'., I'.r il.., I...I |.-:r, ut,etTU,ii u-dl Le 

,1.-nr.. M. ■'■-■. i.l ■-.! i." I.i.ii: .' Il-'T". 1. 1 ..■ ilurlu.- 1 1;^ j: -,f. 'H 
l'';^.^'"'' : -0".'. : : i '=■■'. v---^ 1 '' '■'-* ■ -c. .!■. .^..1 I-, jMl-i.ll- TcJ 
• l.^.t. .-. .-.r,,- ^r \-r.'Mi'a^n'''iieconrfe™ fill 

SORTIISRR ABSUnAKCB COMPASV, 



£. 



W. J. BLAKE & CO., 
oduce commission Uerc 
STORE-SHIP S 




BUSINESS CARDS. 



GEORGE PAGE &. 00., 
Patent and Portable Saw mills. 

Steam Engines and Boilers, Grist Hillfl, 

S3- PnmrbleU nlth full dcecriptlonj nill be fonra 
10 a npp icnn . scmtOEDER STREET, 

Belwoon Ballhmiro nod Vnjetto itreoli 
rf.21 3m Enltlmore, hid. 



POHTRAIT AND P 



JOSIAH J. LECOUNT, 
iForcign and Domestic 

STATIONERY, ' 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, 

M THE LOWEST CASH PBIOBS, 

Offon for uls lo tho trade: 

■-.oil r-lr,:l.-.l nr-clr ot iltvplo nnd lunev, »nsi!lin S In 

jurl-f Ln.-li-l,. |-..n:U and American I'npora [ 

Eoeluh Drnninf and Traolog Pi[>era ; 

Enveloi*., Plain, Adhoiive, 

and Clolh Lined. 

ennlnn Faber 1 ! Dra»in t ' nnd olhor Ponsilj : r.ij.ltr 

o G.^-1? ; lluM and Piker 1'eOfl nntj Pencil 



Ouu 



:, Stool and Qnll 



'"lid enrL°nt]jor Writii 
0.|.yin.: nnd Noli ' ' 

Aoaou 



Iok-lr 



:;- M. !,M.:I 
■i M -lj- .:■ 



it b o o ^ a 



WORTIILEY & C 

Donlenln 

llonii P r ■ 

Jt up (whole or prrnted), li 



'atche^ Dinmond " 
i BE1KO fitnlb 






IS AMD JEWEI1ER8, 
ork, Jewolry, Quart* Settings, 



0. 0. HUNTER, 



siiiuaiof mahin C pUnlahonii>rthafloph 
OraidrauadloWORiaLETAOO., 



"E X C E_L S I O R." 
WALTER A TOMPKINS, 

GENERAL OUTFITTERS, 

(§£ittUmnt'fl i-5B«r«l, 



To Bntchen. 

CAUSAOE SKINS AND HICKORY SKBWEBS- 
J ConiUatlv on bund and fnr lale br 

CODINli'f":i .■ idLii. % , 



DR. S. F. ELLIOT. 

NOS. ■«■ A.N33 e 

onrt Block, Clay streot 

4 U aAN FOAMCUCO. 



To be a man In thla Worm : 

TWO VERY IMPORTANT UAXI1 
" Economy la Ihs only nrn Road to 'Wealth ; 
"Early to Bed anrl early lo Blto." 

MDj tbo by, ipfliMac nf Economy, Bodr, ildtfA. 
Earfy ItLlnj. te, ™!1«J« u, ul lhe.o ..»(■ >| MX 
clflaat p *» nl ^^!j Hl " 1 "B ""''■ JiilBt 
EXTHA ORDINARY HEDDOTION 

PRICE OP LODGINGSI 

Woodwaru'H Wiitu tinti llouie, 

110 and 121 Sic ram en 10 street, 
I and 01 (now addition) LeidcralorQ" atreot. 
LodrA0Bv.pcrnl||bl -■ ..Mind Wcenu. 

LuJ;ln_-. la liin cla- - ■ui.;l« r..-iint. rnml^hnl 

-nmplate, rieroljtil ISccnta. 

On Cbortlh Ibo leaH [rellni; "I r.-i.r.r.l |..r 11,.; |.n — ina 



San FiancUco Planing and Sawing Hills, 
U011HS, 01LMOKE Jt CO., PnopniETOBB, 

MA-VCrPACTCllEIlH OF HOIKS, 
' (,-<>l,l Un-,1, h|>i 1 Ii mid Frull heiirj, nnd nU other 



il BROTHERS A CO., 



lOlli'fMn.'f/rtod 



ilBl.llretlly oppi-Uo di! 



111 ■ ■ t.',. i'.'.i:-.. 

R. B. WOOUV.MIiD, 



"X"'[ 



w. 



Cordage Manuiaelery. 



f rianln^ 11 






DENNIS WIRE WORKS, 
Wlro Cl(Hh7 1 Wl L ro OF lTatting, 

'iv^iuVr^'ii'v, 









) I L ! OIL!! OIL!!! 

FOB 6ALE BY 

COOK, FOLGER & CO., 

30,000 GALLONS OF POLAB OIL 1 11 

oaunn or nLSAOBBD, 

IB (IUAMT1TIE3 TO BuTT PURCHASE S. 

BUM, ' ' 

ELBPHAXT, 






22 



THE CALIFOENIA F A 13 M Ei _R. 



fates' §rpartii.fltt. 



U-TTKI13 FHOM 1 



Choice packet I hos dour, lionun »IW bo 11a lenroi, 



_0iteod. 10 BIT innortncl t,o:.r 
ujajjoflbtrMlWlmplro, 
u<« do>r, nod hope to impart. 

End ;ad. 1 dojnnlr at tic file 
" oiilo [q naidtr and . 



.........I, =1.. 



When nintrj- «tndi ■ 

rniBedalldnarrhooraofnil- 
Bribe Uickorinsriyj of thofae 

With deliabl o'or tho pngei of " lo 
Eiigot Ktnci of tho put como ho«or 

Tho donrlr lavod. fuim of my wife I 
Tho pntUinj tonjncj of uj hahm re 

Entranced in tho foul-stlrrinc. itraioj 



r lint. fricBd..- .raises dr., 

the futon rej_.lt. ndon! »i 
ij tho devn Milled gloom 



E. F. 1 



The following sketch upon the subject of 
"tnmmging iiillucnces," from thi? pen nf l.ie..ie, 
Written for I-lni'-MojV Mn^n/.iiic, and copied 
into several other papers, wo tr=tocm one of 
Risk's very best und lii-.pp_E.--t efforts. We 
nith Sl'Ssid would write more upon tins subject 
of "mnnnging" not Only woman, but man, for 
the times smi) to be oul of joint, nail, like sheep 
without a shepherd, every body aod everything 
jseems to ho DnmmHgeHble. Tho deplorable 
condition of tho married relations, and the siitl 
anil blighting influences now fulling upon the 
youth of our land, should awaken every pon to 
action, that wo might see if a better way of 
"managing" would not produce better results. 
What is witnessed daily in our midst is enough 
to alarm, for, from those high in power in our 
government, through tho several grndes, and in 
the whole rango of private circles, tboro is 
needed a. bettor "managing," if we desiro pros- 
perity to our State. 

Tho closing paragraph of Bessie's sketch is 
worthy particular note, and wbilo we admit tho 
potency of a good man's injlvtncc over a woman 
that he loves, or that loves him, wo would ask 
of Bessie, if she does not also believe, that n 
good, (rue and denoted woman can mako of her 
husband not all that sho pleases, hut ail that a 
good man iluntld be ? 



"Show 



Huutgiag a Woman. 



Do yon speak from experience, Mr. Block ? 
or, are you so fur without the pole of women's 
influence that you have become o rai.'illitlirqit' » 
If not, look aroand you, and see, if among your 
acquaintances, there are not a few who make 
exceptions, Can yon find none j Then, let 
mo point yon to two or three of mine. 

Do you sco that palo, care-worn woman, with 
Ijipli iut.-llfctual brow, and noble, ili-mln-d 
mien? She sits alone, in her little cot tug..., to- 
night, keeping sleepless vigil over u little piece 
of clay, which -iems all too iluiuty for the cold 
earth yet to recover. Tlio little child, tho lost 
of three, who bus, for days past, straggled on 
tho confines of eternity, is dead 1 The lamp in 
the Utile front parlor, emits a fccbUi li-lil— 
emblem of tho hope thut Is. dying out in the 
mother's heart. God pity her— tbe time was, 
"hen her heart was as blithe 03 Slav biinln-um; 
but wedded to nn intemperate brute, who ha.-,, 
long since, ceased to regard her otlienririt- than 
as a slave to his caprices ; there is nothing left 
to her, but tho grave. Her weary, tliruliliing 
band will soon recline, on the dark, damn, wel- 
come pillow. Tho Little bube, her bright and 
beautiful hoy — for whom her last proud hopes 
were garnered uo, bus only gone before'— the. 
wovos of tho Jordan of death ore already dash- 
ing oyot hnr frail form— and the friends of her 
youth, those who know how to appri'dute her 
excellence — are far, far away. 

I have not asked concerning her history. ] 
only know sb., liven in the nlley, near our house 
and, that she is poor and destitute, und hoi 
husbuud baa managed to crush the loving 
guileless heart, that ventured her life's Imppi 
ticfs in bis keeping. 

Lot me introduce you to another. There h 

my friend. Annlo P . Mr. "Block-" I wot 

her bridesmaid fifteen years ago — the whito 
orange wrenlh, and the snowy satin dress, • 
not Ies3 pure than tho heart thut boat Bo 
lidmi'ly ln-ii.-iith lln-m. She was musl lieuntifi 



■r.-inut 



I, -Hi; I III 



-villi l!.- 



,„f r,„.,.„ 



!.*,«■].,■ 



"!,e,l 



ono superior to ben-elf— it seemed as if they 
wre formed for eueh other. When she (ravo 
her limul ut [-art,,,;. „ t.-., r , r ,. Dlt ,|,.j ;,, |„ :r ;,..,,, 
for wo were to see each other no inore-fnr 

y.,- ir ,— j-.-rln.^neeer. ISul .i i.(|.. r ,-uuie. |.-I1ii,k 
- of all tbe deep bliss which flhe ei 



i-il-.e 






■muling with n 



,-1 llul. 



h filled her soul. It spoko of i OT „ s . » 
'of fireside rtndiiigs, and of two levin-- h 
Years went l.y, on tbe wii^s „f Hj-ht un.l 
ow, and etruu-.- tbingi wem lold of Ivlwurtl 



hearl, you would there sec only the records of 
'li-!i[.p'.ii>liil In, pen und iinvurd eimtlict of her 
experience. They met with reverses, and tint) 
not tho courop.' fn brave mi.-fiirt.iuo, and meet 
i! heroically, mul is now lho self- indulgent, ei 
noting man you see him. Ho managed ' 
.-ipmiider bis own and his wife's fr.rtil.ii', an 
ii"W seek.~ ihe ginning tixtili- to retrieve hi- Ic" 
es, and tbe wine cup !■■ .lull hi- sen--.' of lemur. 
I was sitting alone, in my quiet, little Mineun. 
the other evening, when the door opened, nn 
Annie entered ; hut tho bright, joyous girl of 
years ago slood not before mo. She came to lay 
"her head upon the only breast thai could -yuipri. 
thizo with her in the land of strangers— to tell 
mo of her heart's sorrow. Sbo saya, "an awful 
thought has obtruded itself upon me of lulu— llinl 
of killing my hunlunil and returning home— 
what shall 1 dn ?" Do no such thing, said I, it 
is a fearful step fur a wife to take. He ihe fame 
angel you always have been, and take Gel al his 



,f >..|,ir 






mcl t. 



ti;*s lion i e. to sulli'r. ami en. 1. ire, und Ije^r p iiient- 
ly, like a good christian as she is. until such lime 
as an nll-wiso Providence sees Cl to remove tho 
burden ironi her heart. In God's own appointed 
time, she will meet with her reward, nod, over 
her night of sorrows, stars shall arise, und she 
will walk by their heavenly light. 

And then, there is my old tnuiiiiary chuin. Mr. 

Block, Mrs. M d (now a staid matron ol 

thirly-Gvo). The calm, sweet conn ten a nee before 
does not look as if it masked an evil spirit, 
it? No— neither does it. It is the index 
happy a heart as over beat. And yet, could 
the walls of No. 9 speak, they could bear testi- 
mony to many a -hiiineful s.:ene ; lor she was the 

1 specimen of feminine ugliness thut I over 

•. Why sbo quarreled with ino every week, 
)nce came near being sent home, in disgrace, 
g an only child of wealthy and indulgent 
its, her every wish was gratified, and sho 
petted and spoiled. Uer wayward and im- 
petuous spirit could nol, seemingly, be swayed 
l.y evmlcin-s ; even ihe [cars of her coin pinions, 
filled to soften her heart towards them. Her 
!pulalion for being a wild and hearties- i;hl, al- 
iv ays precede-l her everywhere, and had fnund its 
ay into the seminary before she arrived; and it 
as uiih many misgivings that I accepieil her as 
■; r-oiii-iiiate. Willfuline--., wn her ruling pas- 
on, and she cared no more fur tbe enconraging 
Ltd. ill o temler look, the loving caress ilie up- 
rovinj; smile of her teachers and cbss-maies. 
mu she did Tor Ihe beautiful " book" that I ono 
iv pre-enled to her] thinking in mi ehi].ii-h 
m|ii i'.v. lo L.-:iiu Iut iri'-ml;lii|i ; -lie leoke.l i.liy- 
_ers at me, snd threw it oul of tbe windo.v. Arter 
that, I sought no more for her confidence, and our 



Iter, I h 



.id of her 






-ringo- It 



\3 £<■ 



lebyo 



uion- I 



s of 



;oms or hope and love, 
■cry aimosphere of their home, whidi charms 
iway the world's infections. What 7 — do you 
isk— bis wrought this great change? Ah! Mr. 
Ulock.beknew just how to manage her; Ufa 
libels like, you kn-jiv — ami /ore liecets/we; and 
the inisierv ofsyiiipalhy i, curiiius [igwcr-thal 
whiuli in ivk u» us leel "e pj-atss tli^ rieli hles>ing 
heart on which our own can lean ; and, when 
faults are kindly made known to us, by those 
to whom wo have surrendered up the best and 
Dliest aifccLions of our natures, wo ore very apt 
■commence n reform. I have always thought, 
nl still per-isL In thinking, that a good man can 
ake his wife almost what bo pleases. 

Bessie. 

The Fighting Ehitob.— Mrs. Prowett, ed- 
ress of Oju Yuj.... I.'ily (.Mi-,.) Banner, wriles 

< ceruiug IT]..- lighting ,-diinr ut' that paper, as 

follows: "' Honii- iiii^iippreheii-iiin seems to 
exist about our Editor, Mr, Smith. We oro 
itantly receiving ,ntj,.;Tivnt busine-s letters 
uddres-ed lo him. Ho ia only the iigiiting 
iditor, and has nothing to do whatever [lucky 
nun] with tho money matters of this cmo-rii. 
' I ... I U: n ^.. -- may he u.J.Jre-se.l to him as hereto- 

i;ns, ic, ic. Wo hive no objections lo having 
duni included in the category, and as we regard 
as personal, and pa-tic elirly oflemive, 
persons having business of this sort Willi this 

™ will please address Mr. Smith, the fighting 



A Happy Fiucbide.— Home is tho residence 
t merely of ilie li-.ily hut of the heart; it is a 
. ace for tho affections to unfold nod develop 
thein-.-lvts; for children lo love and learn, and 
play in ; for husband and wife lo toil siuiliriL-ly 
tu^eilnr, and make life a blessing. The ubjec't 
or all ambilian should he to be happy ,il home ; 
" woaionot happy there, we cannot be happy 
feivlmn;. It is the best proof of Ihe virtues of 
family cirolu to see a happy fireside. 

Pokcu gives as a notice Lo h-himiable : ;ln-p- 
pors that, ladies not intending la purelini-e any- 
thing, aro requested not Lo keep any ono article 
longer [ban ton minutes ! 

Moult: notonl) 

morals, It give^ 

amends his habits wonderfully. 'Hie man who 
Hpctuls his i-veainps with a piano, is seldom seen 
im shops, and never with in-ht l.r.uvlcrs. 
clioTe in music, and candidly think that one 

-, u .k will dn ns eh towards driving rowdyism 

out of a neighborhood as four policemen and a 
bull- bog. 

_..yb a scientific writer: To obtain some idea 
or Iba immensity nf the Creator's works, let mi 
'■".I: thi-oncli [,ord l:o;>' telescope, and we dis- 

iver a mu- ,i, t| lt infinite depths of space wl e 

Shtln.i.r J i« l i|ill.,,, rs i lllrllvl;r ,i, l; ;L,.,..r.-,irl]i. 
m-.l..^M.lie-.el.,eilv ol tv.-.-l -.- mil |,.„-,i „f mil,-,'. 

laruiuuto. Aod behold God wuj there. 



SlATnottasto be compared, asks Orcvillc, to 

ill.-.'. -.-.. j ui, lie fenseoflhe b,-e, wliicb in-ilaiitly 
ers ond eitracta the quina-sceuco of every 




as whitU, u- frail, ami as pur- (is u lilly, vet. . 
lint strung vv.iiniiiily i-hnr,ii.i,-r — ;, |'.|.rli-ct c. 

— t to her husband. Could you r ' ' 



inovolent gentleman used Lo g 
■"■■ " ior by tbo cord, in order, as bo said, 
ml- id above. 

nosiE comiiriwfi all tbe spaco that a woman 
should desire ... shine in. 



A nee do to of Harrison Qroy OtlB. 

On a cold, rainy Sunday morning in October, 
several years ago, [Ion. II. G. Otis found himself 
traveling through Lho State of OouneCtlCUt, An 
important cause was lo be argued by him, on Ihc 
nest Monday morning, in lloslon, nod ho had 
started fro.u'New York on the previous Saturday 
and had rodo all night, in order lo meat his legal 
engagement. 

After he hail finished his breakfast .U his holel 
and was about pre,-, e-lini: on bis way, be was in- 
formed that it would be perfecilv useless to at- 
tempt to drive through the St:ite. as he would cer- 
tainly be slopped by the lyni-cycd "tiilinc ninn." 

Connecticut was of old a very pious Stale, and 
her rigid lows against traveling on the Sabbalb. 
havo made her I'uiilanic morality notorious. But 
Mr. Otis was inclined lo try his shrewdness 
against tho anti-Sabbath breaking olGcer. Ac- 
cordingly, ho went to the oflke of a friendly bar- 
rister in the town where he break In sled, and 
asked o( him tho favor of a loan of his Revised 
Statutes of tho Slate until he should be clearly 
beyond her borders. The attorney complied, and 
Mr. Otis, with gig and low-book, proceeded on 
bis journey. 

lie bad Vareelv tiiim-l (lie -..eond corner, when 
as ho and even bodv .be i-.vp-.-ete.l. a grave look- 
ing puritan, ill Ihe shape ol a lidiug man, took 
bis horse by the head, nnd coolly informed him 
that he was a prisoner ; suggesting at the same 
time that ho bad heller attend him to the noil 
jail! 

Mr. Otis, nothing daunted, and ii-suiuing bis 
legal dignity, replied : "Sir, I re-pect the day and 
tho law, but I shall be obliged in break the Sab- 
bath, the day, and your head, If you don't quietly 
remove yourself from my path." 

But the pious officer was nol lo bo bluffed by 
this, and again repealed his command. 

Mr. Olis saw that nothing was to bo gained 
from intimidation, and tbat be must Tall back 
upon his last resource. He accordingly begau to 
feel around him for the Revised Statutes." 

" Well, my friend," said be, " It won't do any 
hurt lo look at the law a liitle— which puts me 
so completely in your power ; Tor you know it is 
a good old legal maxim, that no man shall be 
condemned, but be thu judgment ol bis peers, and 
tho law nf lho land." 

Mr. Otis opened the statutes and turned atonco 
to the article against Sabbath breaking. "You 
will find it all there," said the ofiicor, with a 
shrewd shrug of his shoulders at tho ideo 









rdis 



e attorney. Mr. Otis proceeded 



covered lo 
to road. 

" ir any person shrill I...- guil'.v of breaking the 
Sabbalh, as aforesaid, it shall 'be lawful for the 
liding man to arrest and jfojj him, etc." The 03-0 
of ihegreaL lawyer tlvlv sparkhd us ho read lb 
statute, though with rather a doleful air he added 
—"it is true, sir; the law is against me, and I 
DiuBl snbmit." 

" Well then," rejoined lho liding man, ''you 
must make up your mind to quarter in ihe lock- 
up till to-morrow, so, if you please wo will ride 
back together." 

■'0,no!" relorted Otis; " Ibat will never do. 
I don't intend that you shall ride back, or with 
me, either— loday! Ihe sUtiite reads, mind 
you— that you shall nrrcjt nnd Hop. That is all. 
You can stop me as longosyou plcaso. But that 
is the client of your power. Tho law says 
nothing at -ill about your carrying me off to lho 
lock up— nor uf your riding in my gig on tho 
Sibliaili, either!" 

It Was a terrible stormy day. Tho poor tiding 
man was already eimpleieli drenched, and Itio 
prospect or standing by the gig all day ami night, 
in a muddy m:«l. was liy 110 mean, either plea-ai 
■u- ...,i.|-:.ni,iv i.itl, Li.- 'iicnm ..f I, is office. 

Mr. Otis again repented, ■' I still wish yon 1 
consider, Birr, lint I am your prisoner— ror f 
reads lho law — nothing more. 1'uti can go back 
if you please, but /intend Lo stop where I am"— 
nnd accordingly he drew his rob around him 
and made preparations for a quiet snooze, til 
.Moii'h;, maming, 

Tho officer looked as blank as a piece of marble 
and felt as uncommrtablo as a young g)..line. in 1 
shower. lie gazed a moment ar ino up. in lie 
composed expression of tho learned advocale 
and— sure enough he did go back. Mr. Oii. 
slopped— just long enough to permit his lega 
friend to get comfortably out of sight— and then 
lie ijnietly prueeuled on his way ; reaching tin 
line without further molestation. 

The fame of this ''legal quirk" soon spread ant 
in a few weeks limbing ivas beard or -een of lidim- 
meli ...Lopping traveler ui„b:r Ike Statute ■ 



MERCHANDISE, &c. 



REMOVAL. 
WM. H. BOVEE 4 CO., 



o,BO-lb.(iaclu; (iroon Ji 

o,60-lb.ri.aUi a 

AllrplM I 



i CorTeo, BO-lb. 



its, aod all klndi of Snleu to tb. 
' ° yJm. H. EOVEB ft CO., 



Merchandise for Sole by Bradshaw & Co,, 

Cunu-r <-..llf..i-"l» r.,..r U.,n.,-j- utrreU, 
HAH FLlANt'WUO. 

C 



JuwleJ DwL 

" r, |i'- : -e.'l' '"'liK.ll.isliAlv -V 



LKT ov D ry ei 



1 .Slice, n-bjcli™ 









--, / K|() '"'i-'- ■'■■'" I'-^'i' I'-'-i--- ■■■'-'■" ■■■■ 

0,*J{l<~J l-v.rn.iii i.-.i >.-::,---ln . 1 ■■ i.;,- u. ii-.. 



0':!''S 



™i: 



W'l 



^SiodlOiiiiorikcjn 



SEEDS. &c. 



BEW CI11NESK SlfOAR CAHE (SonollUH Sue 
un Bupaly Ee-cl ol Ilii, cut cclriimlfd and LiwdIud: 
a picke-w, Bt twcul]- five cent* each, prepnLd liy □: 



found In tho UnltoJ 
.rompUy laipoiidea. 



CHINESE SUGAR CANE, 

SOEGHO'SUCEE. 

PURE SEED. 

THE snbjcribor hereby infurm.. Ihe I'limtur.-. I"nn 
,in..i.l..r.i,.„,-r...l ll„, I ,..!,. I -, ,!,, ,1,1. In- i,[. 



um-)O0ioB»l gnlloruof 









\|o, j ciiika mcE- 



BRADSUAW i CO. 



imond Cut Dmsiokd.— Rcadinp; tho fol 
6, ono is inclined (o think that Yankee 
tress" is not a natiro production after all. 
hat lho genius for getting lho beat of lho 
in came oyer with tho early settlors, and so 
ronsmitled quality. At any rato this story 
rly as gnod as any told of our itinerants. 



Wick. „„. 

..f ll...ie uiiK-ru.il auctioneers who vhiit Wick at 
llierh.-e m Lb,' li-hinc was busily plying his vo- 
cation 11. ihe rn.irket plnec. l,,f,,re ;i enini.li-ril.lo 

crowd of people, and m ijr ot | !( . r n-iielei held 

out a hi idle I..1- i-.-ile. Starling il :.l .| s . an indi- 
vidual in Ibeeniiiil olfere.l "a crown " ivbjeli was 

1 --"-haiel. [,e.-,-|'i,.,l. a.i.l pivii.ent demanded'. 

"It was lho crown of my hut," said the purchaser. 
'Very well." r,--|,oii,W Lb.- oilier 'a bargain's a 
brir.j-.iiii , liiiuii u here." Thinking lho wb„le 
ullair a .|..l;e, mul j.|.Jgin L - hiin-eK very ,;l,,ver. tbe 
inded up tho bat and received tho 
orooolly proceed- 
' tr — -ilf. by 



bridle; whereupon Ibi 

td to npproprioto Lhc "crown" to hi 

.-muioihly eulting it out of the bat ' 

aii.l l. ben LliepiiB.-,-.-iv;e,.n-en-,-liu-|lii 

le-slml to its, erl 11, ih,., time 

(lecide.lly lurne.l against thu buyer, 1 
nl laughter whieli greeted biui as ho walked 
away will, i.ia l.rirllt- a „.j ,; r ,nu,Us.^ but, lateli 
"...tl, [erlmps 10s. must have been r r,ll and 
■a-oriuwooil, a,„| were L-ri.utly itierea.-ed « l,.-n Lb,- 

onclionuer naively offered biui -'a " -' <-- 

■■■'■■"I'! I't'illl i|, t |„id|e. But toi 

of a had bargain ho kept thr, brldle.„„ u 

party held tho crown. -[Nor lb ern Ensign. 

Aro vau an Odd Fellow? No sir, I'ro been 
married a week. I mean do vou belong m H,., 

!*•'»«»« k.?i ,»£?,'." 

« i,..°„i"s;,i ,''„„'' d " mb! Ar ° *°: 

Wo.^ nnd wor SJ ! Areyon a fiSn of TompawnUl 

"": '{"". »"' 1™ •.». ., 11, .,,,„ 



■ e |..!ie llil.l 



e Ihe be .1 



CS;"",":?' ""■•S.n.l.ra, I,|,„a,,„ 

u» .a,,..,,,,, „ C c°'5: Z:,".X°S", 

s,,,| - 1 - '.V - .M-l.l-.i 1 I,, ., ,' 



HOTELS, &c. 



>f LoultvUllv Ky. Of LauliEirje f 

|r SPENCER HOUSE, 

H CLNCIKNATI, Ouio. 

im PRATT ft METCALFF, Pbopbictoihi 



WEDDELL HOUSE, 

LOUISVILLE, Ohio. 

■aim J P. R0S3, PoopniKTO 



NATIONAL HOTEL, 

LOUISVILLE, Kem-ucky. 
■2 3ra J. C. PLACE, rnorniETa 



KC O 0? E U 

INTERNATIONAL 

JACKSON STREET, 



|A.S. HALEY, L«i 









CALIFORNIA WINES. 



CREVOLIN &.0 0.. 

sirup¥"cordIals f 




SEED "WTA-ItBl^OILTSE, 
FIELD, C 



THE] u,,.I.T.i:n--!. Jiiii-in,-r .-.i,-L 
I1KS AND l--|.i.,Wi;n .1.1:111.-. 
cioit SiMincr and Clipper from li 



i.)r Cl.ili Cl.'.ivr J«J :' 



II O V E I £l CO., 

DEALERS IN SEEDS, 

No. 1 Me, til mil'. Row, IIo,luri, SDiiu, 

A i'.E u-ir, iLe.-iviniT ilicir iiiir ,111,1 I'l.-.'li.st^k. uratirati- 
"■Lneallih«bo ! iiiuli,i. J ..ii| l .,ir„i.| 1 , v...l,ii t , ..( A-,;- 

,-ul(ur:,I.C.„r.(en „i,.| i-L.-.ver -,.-|. „n UI1 ,, .. „ (.., 

(hum Lit lhc 111....1 -jie.-riv^.-e-l ,-uIeL. ..i..i - l' ur ,-ii-l-- -i 
lib" Willi 0< "I. Mill ib- ,,.-.. I , L .|j.!l,|,.. v... i., -,„ ,, .j L ..,.i 
K, for.ti.nl Iboir nrdora oarlv. "* 

^ .-■ ,: I - .- ..Tiswi -ccnroly for CallTurnla or any other part 

Al -..:,., i/inciroira Kiinorin, a vorj oitiimlro collsc 
lionnf Iru.t an-1 "neimeiicil Tr,-.-, .,•,! .-I,,,,!-. ,;,,,,. 
Vines, Slrarrberrle -, li ., -■ .-.l-.-rrie.-. It.ijcJ, Oiconboojo 



XXTBTW SEEDS. 
1 FEW Ilr,™ Boni. from Fr«.«— 
Jl. TI1E LLUNAItlil CAtlLlFL.OWKFL. 

Frr.-i.ch_ ll-.-l'lell' ii.'j.." , .,r\-" r t,, 1 .,fi.-,i..| 



Seed Trees, &c 



.,,1 GTJJ 






California Production. 



'lUB, Eimronlnd 10 be U]o 



Li,III,„„i., Willi, nin, 
,..,.,., | 1 nl 'ri"","''' IL "' W 

■ ■' ■ '■■'; 'li.ii^'^.:'^, 



^Pacifio^Oil and Camphene Works. 



T" 



ALCOHOL ,iriii L,! i-i l ii'n':Vi-|'. : , : i:!- l itr... 1T , , 

iZ!Z " ' "'" ^™- "™"" & co -, r^prletor.. 
Son FrrticlicD 



IV- I't'i.K 11.1 L ,1-pnni^m lOjolaj 

r.,i.il...,u- . -,i-,ih-' ,,-..l). li.rd-iL--.--o- t.v rim „l October. 

t,-.„u-i.i,ieiil„ u |-|r.-.-.„„il.l,-,:,.u| [ur ,| („,,... ,.ir. ^,:|h-.I 



T~lll._l.-7Kivli-.il,'. lie .i.-.r.l.-ii.-i.,,! 
.mil t.L- [,.,,,1,1,111- GtienJ.^I r,>. 



The Great Giant Rhnbard. 

rpiTE inl s hlj- Oinnt HI,,,.,,, I,. „| WL.eun-ii,. ..ill 



Seed Bice. 

A SMALL lei (turn MANILA OAI-BV ItTCE, Of 

i'. r , '..,.'. .'■;'.. .'. ,n '.'.'f ' ■ "..'i 1 1-.' iVt 1 .i- . 'iV-'i 1 1'.''\ wj!,!'"""'!, 

l.i...!:..., u,u; i; , I, .,!■,.',. f R]J Di "' * fill 

- „. . . , WAITE & BATTLES, 



Seed of tho Grout Ttob. 
ekots of lho Seed of .hi. f.iino.i, Trci 
>•> .7t.ie .-i'viotj-'n Jtwuif, on Fount 



Shell Mound Norseries 

? RTJI T GAKDBNS, 



!..l".i,.-.-.^ , ,[i'l,',,,;'','i.n. r '^l, , ,.,n'|. ',,".;!.''l,.':l ...j "i'1'N- 
N .,r.l,-r,,i.. t .>N 1 |„ 1 i.i.-aL,j-,.-,„t 1 „ nw ,,Tlllr«elvoprompl 
Hon. -In-.iNn-.. 

IL W. WA "IlIiVriK, PnqirMcr, 

Or. J A. -.OS L. PANI llllll .1 .. I. [ir.-.l'.lvn 
_ r. !' u: ■ -,, , (,.. ,..,,., I,, M ■ ,,...,, ■".,- -in; 



"^FfTE CALIFOBKIA FA.BMEB. 




FRUIT TREES 1 J7RTJIT TREES!! 
Oak Qrova Hursery, Alameda. 



~ HORTICULTURAL, fire. 

Mewa by the Steamer. tiKJO, l a'-' -j_ 

The P. M. S. Co.'s Htenmor Sonora, P- W. 
Lunpiace. Esq., commandor, arrived bare this 

Gig passeiigers, of «vl>om 128 n»ro Mies. _ 
Tb P most important no." by thiB rtumor. » 

tho desptnt* condition of Walker nnd tho 

army J ; SicWf"- Walk" bns been most 

si^ally defeated b three bnttM «d w.fl. 

hl-y Le, of m«a and am-aa.Uon : tho Gpst- 

Ri.uus have n«ftllpo«M«» of tho transit 
. nnd have ample nmmunitiou nnd forces, 

both by land anfl water. A pwolnmatioD has 

been issued by tbo Costa Ricun General, offcr- 

ine free pnrdon mia conveynnne to Walker's 

officers and men if thoy will leave Walkor. and 

from appearances no doubt hb fate will soon be 

sealed, and the Nicaragua, Eipedition exploded. 
The neit important event announced by this 

steamer, is too great question of the Missouri 

Compromise, which report speaks as baring 

been decided by the Supremo Court of the 

United States aa unconstitutional, thus opening 
questions of debate which only lead to strife and 
disunion. We hope this report may prove untrue. 
Fearful shipwrecks are recorded at NewYork. 
One, tbo packet ship Now York, with 300 pas- 
sengers, stranded on Island Beaoh, New Jersey; 
tbo passengers ail saved. Another, the British 
bark Tnsso, at Barnegat Bay ; in attempting *" 
land the passengers, air men were lost. 

Tbo LT- S. Mail steamship Hermann, whioh 
left Sonthnmpton for New York, on the 3d Do 
comber, returned to that port disabled, after en- 
countering a terrible gala. 
Tbo loss of numerous vessels and many lives 



EDUCATION. 



„.-,i j , 1 w..Wj. 
A;iUB)t««™iini«ofAr 

3003 Lw Aortic* drape > 
B\rt*brrrr Plants, ie. 

p- -, r. wi«.\l -.- : Itrol. 

tbtt Ed Intait the bolto* gr 



United States Nnrsery, 



9 offered, worms "bleb nit 



ler.lsned wonW moil trapectfulll laille 
i. Gardes and Grwohoute*. ll.vloi be 



thine desired, ni irmblfiili 



JAME3 OTJOBMELL. 



ore recorded. 

Great interest was manirested in England by 
tbe arrival of the old Artie discovery ship Resolute, 
which was returned and presented to England by 
tba U. S. Government, in charge of Capt. Hnrt- 
steen, of the U. S. Navy. The Resolute was re- 
covered from the ice country by an American 
whale ship. A public festival scene was mode, tbo 
Queen nndPriace Albert vilitcd the ship, Capt. 
H. with the American officers, were made lions, the 
ntlional flags entwined, salutes Ered, and a union 
and exchange of kindly feelings made the occasion 
one of more than ordinary interest. Wo trust 
these generous und reciprocal feeling? miy continue. 
A great fire at Phil adelphia— loss S100.QOD. 
A terrible Ere at Halifax, N. S.— loss 3100,000. 
A treaty baa been signed between Great Britain 
and the United States, relatire to Nicaragua and 
the Costa Ricans. 

Asccond bloody tragedy bos been enacted 
the N. Y. State Prison, by which the warden, Solcn 
H. Fennej was killed ; the deputy warden Gab 
C. Walker, was murdered two weeks previously. 

England has formally declared war against 
Persia, and it appears Raasia goes to the aid of 

The grain markets ofNewYork are firm, and 
farmers crops heavy and prices good. 

"A Goon Mah bah Gone"— Dea.Ti 
Fatbeh Matthew. — The Sonora brings the 
news of the death of Father Matthew, the great 
Apostle of Temperance, of Ireland. Few 
have everdoneas mochas this noble philanthro- 
pist, and few ever acted with as poro and self- 
sacrificing a BpiriL Ilis name will ever be hal- 
lowed and cherished in the memory of tbo warm- 
hearted and good. Wo look back to tho dark 
winter of '4G-4T, when starvation and distress so 
widely prevailed in Europe : it was our privilege 
to labor wilh him then and there for the desti- 
tote, and we can speak from experience of the 
nobleness of bis life end conduct. The news of 
his death will be received with deep sorrow, al- 
though ho had arrived at tha age of 6T years. 

The Ktso Mosuhent. — In examining the 
marble works of T. W. Ladd, on Bush street, 
among the many specimens of superior skill 
that are displayed in hi * room, our attention 
attracted to tho piece of marble, now preparing 
for the monument of lha lato lamented James 
King of Wm. The insoription piece is now 
ready for the sculptured engraving, which will 
bo upon it-, it is a fine clear block of Italian mar- 
ble of some four feat high and three feet square, 
upon which will be engraved tho following; on 
the front, Hnrrounded by n wreath, the simple 

" James King of William." 
Upon the reverse — 

Jnmes King of William, 
Born Jan. 28, 1822, 
Died 
May 20, 1B5C. 
This monumental pieco will bo placed upon i 
solid and handsome base, and from this the en- 
graved piece will rise o beautiful obelisk of fif- 
teen feet; the whole will be not only chaste and 
appropriate, bot forever bo a fitting monument 
of ouv of the best uf men, and of one of tho mnst 
eventful periods of California history. 
This monument is tho work of P. W. Sterling. 

Amnasmenta. 
Tire Pacific, Hubeum is now one of tho 
principal places of interest of an evening— hun- 
dreds go constantly w « e Adams order Old 
Bruin and the nubs pi.rfor,,, tUfir pvimiiu-litrt. 
Adauu in a (ji-ii)u-. ;,r,d .].;,,■.■*„ a guo d patron- 
age. Wirrt'ii i-ki, ohurming u„, » rpents, and 
thoy coil around him with nucb Joiterity that 
one almost can feci llum crawl. The Mubuuiu 

Hijnkeil Hill ash Ciiaui.estowk. This 

mosliiniMi-iiic' .■iliiiiiii.iTi i» uitractiuK inercaa. 
ing attention, und it indeed worthy tho poiroimci 
Of nil who hav.. liny love of our early lii,i., ry '.'., 
tho ioeui's of the Involution. This Diorann 
bus been gotten up ot very great cost, and as i 
work ofnrt U Mteemod very uicellent. In con. 
miction with tho Dioraino. are several amusing 
eiliil.itii.ii* ..I" Viiitril.in'iiHin. mid other amusc- 
niiiil-. I.i v.liinli tin' t iniL- can by pleasantly and 
will im profitably employed. 



T.innnmw Botanic Garden and Nurseries, 

ETnsDlns, Heiv York. 

SClfralt mil Onumculal Trra {lacluilng crcr-2& 
meiu)Df>nklndimoil»liei; 



Benieia High School, 

THIS ImlituUm, furmiirlr too " OoU'riate lorlilutt,' 1 
uodor Its tli»r.-,i ■! it..' It ■■■■ ' M- l»ako, A. M, is 
now c.,o.lo-r.-.l by Coiisri-un J.Ki.att, a gradualo ot 

tt,-, N,»t V-,rk .•> H« N.Tnnil StM-^ ; .^ (Jf Sl(( , 

Tnomil'so'uj'l-An'du.l Serai™ will eomnicncj on jbe 
IT, ii .if .1 AM AKY, 1557. II will b« tho pluo of this In- 

-ihuli.il. !■■ unii,. lln .y.-lvui |.u.,n,-.l in u«r_t>r?t l ; ublio 
,,1.-,! ■ ..iih tin. ii-uil ii.-nd.iiiii.Ml ..-.ii'-n « " "■""'l'** 

prticul.irallcini-.nl!.... r |-,|-.. 

ImiEiiiiircr, ahnll not ncflccl Ihc 
I, TV, Mniti..in.,tict«ndUi8Physl 



AGEICULTUEAL. 



X 



:-, Id Ibc ::>.::,, nl .rj Brannhej, before advancing Into 
III ib or Stud ion, will boa primary requirement. 
A dsilT uccount of rtolwliou. and doportraont will bo 

"InSloeatlon'liaae/or aooui, the bolldlnra oxcollonl, 
and tho oalotnon and boalibrulocifuf Iho vlllogoaro un- 
torpaa™ hj any ptaco within tho Slate. 

TEEMS: ran hobtii 

?h"'l?ri.°ii^i-" : " "'■ -■'. '■ " * "'' ' M ™ 

TiilIloi.lnlt.cAoc--.'. ::i* ""-l-rr l.ii>;u«jr« S 00 

|l.,,,,i ,;|,t v..,,k) 6M 

Mi°l* «rr»™in"- u'«Ll'bc'n^Jo In ioiwininiuJ* Mullo 
Nn lSiu, BoKlai oi Fomncm tor ro-irru rapjrsd tobo 



The Farmer's Iti'ill. 

(PATEHTEO, AC0VI1T, 1S53 ] 

T03 cdcbrel"! Drill h« Una "■' l''''''"^^? f^° 

."prttbor^i. ^ n f; h t ;^ , .^ i ^trt..t a o^'r : brou^i; 

^dn^n" MtleSiStr 1 o*» tta'lt/^SiBOttilr, u 1 bat tatdy 
ounUM or ibo bSo^III bo °a"p«Bt ot on reuooible lenni. 



Young Ladies' Seminary, Benioia. 

ISS MflHV ATKIMS, :::::: PRINCIPAL 
■111-: -:.:li-.l Vcororibljinjiltution In divided Inlotir 

. i-r.,i-. i tii-.. ,,,. . . l.|,i ill- I'M. 

,i,.i.,n :., Ir-.;.nill .-l..ic .May L.t. 1S57, In order thg 
— i , .,_„. mK y [^,„ pi K0 beroaftor I 



M tlio c 



id Oclob 



.minmlcn of tho nunlli in all of th, 
ThoCoursODfln.irii.tii.il i— ii.' 
in lli.-h >.ti-,l', and nlfO Inolud 
of Dmninc, Pnlntlnr;. Vocal and . 

Ti 1 ,-^..i..rnm"lllr.f the school 

A.l.,1, ...... in.i of tho reoitatioos 

■.■ nt i, I y. ti 



TO Kill b. 



. tbr.n 



^VSlS 



tocli fur lnjninlos Pmll Tr.ra ; 

,-,i.l..,,. A.-'l-'iltuml and Flower 3i 






■id, RoHibcnioi. BooiebeiriB, Cumnu end BlKk- 

"TlTfl.— Apple, Ponr, Pacb. Plum, Cbcrrj, Quiiiei.. MmwA, 
r,w y-r- iu.1 ."■(. >f>. .-^.J.'s,!,-. .,rf'o-i •<-■. 

Premium by tho Stain Agriculiural Society at 

tion of Frail nod Ornamental Treci equal to on; 
country, and f»r juperior to any heretofore effort 
Having bad In beirioe lait yoir, forty, eien 
AnpleMndhntlne in boarinu tbo present yci 
Ibirtylivo ■Brielles uf Poncbc, added to tbe lit 
no bato iKqulnd by torn pari oe them with othor 

cortiin with certainty what kinds am worthy of 



„, „f tbo icachori o[ tho Inutltnllon. 

ol bi opoa to Injpeclion at any tlmo, 

■,, t ,]i-,i|y i-vil--! l,-.-;.ii I. : lijl i.,.. il. 

fnii . .. i i-i.-: )». oirei-iihi: Hi ■■■■• --; 'n-li 
its and ■ 'i ..-. ■■ to tbo ,'■!:>. ■' 

TERMS: rum 






fo axlra chatco will be amdo for Vocal Music or Em 
.idory: nuill.'' ai- tie J-Jl ■-« ".ain-J 1-. firr- '. iboi 
■ms, noddlnE.lc t I.ji earS i-j|.il muilhovoovory ai 
loof clothing Iji.urHy laorbcJ niiubtr oomo. 
'nymcnti are to bo Dade invariably at tbo bcglanlo 



B, M-- ii -, !'-■ ,|. , 

rr, a Woodbrldeo, Jr, 



L. P. i W. F. DODGE'S 
DOUBLE ACTING PUMP. 

(Fitenlcil Juno Tib, 16S1) 

THESE Pumps ore donblo netlnc and oomblao bolh 
IhTsuciion and Poroo Prlnalplai. Tho Pliions are 
•thabottboll t:,.-!.! .,.|,....itiod.makinEthofaaiailnblo 
1 ojo In oltber hoi or cold liquids. 
Tbo Cylinder iMiiiii-'i il.,.:-i-:.n. -r d.aniborj, ba- — 
iIvm at (ho eduction port, and I* borodont porfectlj 
iditooolh. Fromtlioo.jnilruclli.n of tho oyllndor 
^ator juiMupii, Ibo puMoaa require no picking, being 
fitted perfectly to Iho cylinder. Two Important (Mr - 
in.:,. nuBraUv, aro thin tji'orcotno— vli : Ihoatai 

ing' Tbccyln.-li.i -i.i i-i i-:i!V,-i!y 

imwlh It naturally f^lloirs ih.it tbero rbould 1» 



ood^ and b 



.Vi,„-l y ,..n 



C LOTHING, &c. 
FcnuatylvanJa §talo Elcclioni, 

"EXO ELB IOR.'' 

IMMENSE ATTRACTION 

WALTER & TOMPKINS, 

No. 170 Montgomery street. 

dltlon to their already elBB»»t aniorlniont. 

Only Laoh. In their Windows ! 

If you irtih to <eo tbo obulcoK BOlectlons or CASilJIBRFs 
nnd VBSTIKSS In Ibis City, 

FRESH PROM THE ATLANTIC STATES | 

]ii'.',,..'-',''--''iy ::. ! ^;.'' ii ;-!:, ■=:■::. .Ndiiiojinb"- - 

ally, hovinB boon employed coos t™tly dorins h_ . 
In Aow Tfnrlt in oaterlnj to the tMto of hit nn 
eiutomcTO- 

It la bow eoucotTed that Tf. itT. hote not OTer-rta 
tbeir motto, toil thoy aro entitled to bo c.illo-l tbs 
"EXCELSIORS Of THE PACIFIC." 

At tholrnlaoo can bo bond, .at, all lima*, tbo liltt) 



ir hit abHK, 






> f ut-Ti t ->, froab from thn looms of Ikt 
italn 



In addition to the pieee goods you 

CXJB10K MAPS CLOTHIHO 
Prom the well hnon-n houte of 
OnoitET t Leht, 753 Broatln , aj' l Neiv York. 
All tho Clothing iota by ff, 1 1. b manofactnitj 
How stylo Raglan OrcTeoatf, of liehl and bea* 



and "County"^" including Medal nnd Diploma at tho 
CryMal Paluco Eihlbilion In K«r Vork 

Tbo i-),'or.if 11 Mode individual nioillod to thotlw 
usuilly furnLsbcd for family mo, It tnffloloot to draw 
voter from a wall ti-onti-tivc feat deep, and throw it up- 
mnltaf fifty foot front nhoJo-pi^rcndorint I 



v6-22 



ready fir 

■■.,., im,u« loll ii.f..r. u ... 

uav bo oblalnod by n.|il^-i.ii; lin, 

iliar ■■' : 



Heauers, Thresliers, Horse Powers, Mowers. 

O L PALMES It CO. h..c no- au hand and on Ibo way 

''','' l'...-. 1. 'l\n II N.,...-Xl Mil Iri. it |t.-,r,,r : 



MaliNvM 
JtarrilV. 

r-:rn; I'- I 1 - 



Wo call your atd ath a puliaularl) to our Seedling 
Peach, named by tho Academy of S'oioral Science/ 

'.!.. i Itarerini," nhlch wo ofTor thiiHuon for Ihi 
fint time. Tbo followius certifioaio -ill n«tk for itrelf 



lacda, led bj tor Acudrmy ol Natural Sclrur I ^--.i. I'uii- 

cbconamed '■ Wv-.-r.- - I--.i-.rli-." ,l: ' .- ..--SLi.ly I mil,. .Ii... 



G^..q;e I...... I.i-e'- Garden, OakUod. 

T. J. Ncrlfl*, AmHtcur Gmibraer. 
A. M, Cmne. County Judge. 

ot may bo apprised ot our ability to iu 
1 the dciiraUe variolic, of 1'rulll, ood 
•ublo and oiponae of lendinc out of 

> raved by (riving iu a call. 



PlSrp*' « 

K«urluoTm.. 

■ i-'i'iT.' ■',. i,'..'i'.'.-, »lihi .pdntllnc orcveryihlne rlel 
.'■ ■■■■■ UalJij "invito onr c'unTons to. our tfonory ant 
Vu". and 

,- li-'-l. 

I :.!vi-:i!.-. 



"HOETICULTUEIST" 
Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste. 

AmAlrr of "tii''"..,- t.^r-Jfii-ix 1 ," " /'oiv-i* J-:< '"-11-^, 
Hsllflicu," "frill H'd fail Tit:i of Amaiu," 

Edited by J. JAVaStlTO, Editor ot tbo North American 3j!>o 

THIS pooulor publication, nhlch i> eradootlT eilond. 
lug fl> influence tbmugboul tht 

u-.n.iltii.. iodi.i^ti.-7.ble to the taalo*"' 
CuUuri-i.ar.Jlli.. l-l.Tiroliari-t. 

' — "-'lh. whoso ability o 
highly apprnofaH 

la beauttfot, both la '.'- 

.nlnponantolomontin 

i-ull i-., in. nttoutlonotalli 



■ Infill Hun 



tho i m 



A.l.i ji^ily.-,- 



r.,und the iiki I.e. . .nl, i],-.- 
tli ni sprinii from tbo froiiLi! 



u. .till., I- 



led hy tho practical . 



-f tho Hi 

,n!.i„'l!.' 



JV TaBTB— Hilh Dt 



5,000* 



.^'.T^'^'garden'ske' 



8ml v D ' r I ^ r * rdS °"" M °' :b ' nM 'e.HcrIALLY, 
Blato Afrriculturrd Warcbouje, 



Agricaltoinl Business. 

A N deZ I e 5 t o U o' , nL r r , inW D i f Tory J Mt&XVKES. Sd 
oanfnrntth S^.DOO each Tbo chance it a rare onr —' 
■ ■„,: ,„.-. . ,ti.r,i.-..iry testimony c-irilmivnn or ilttt„_. 
unicato lhat cannol command tbo 



i.ly ,, 



lence caa bo rolled upon, and no per> 
irith but tho principal. Letter?, with 
ironed 10 "Q. A B." and left g 
of the OALIFOBSr A FABMbK, 



Smith 'o FomolDgioal Oardenj 

NTJESEHT. 
On Iho American lU'or, Dti mlloi from Pacraoieilto. 

JgL TUEiti^ik .,1 Tret, oil.-.-i.] !■■ tbe p.ilrooi i>! (STS 

rull arid FnitH Trcia, Mliralilwrj-, Vltice ana 

I l.i'i i ill' .... .. i.i. i i.i ■ , ■ i < vi.n.ij .., it,, 

""i"^ 1 PoKb, Prar 

RMpberrlea, auuvberriea, GrapoVlaej, 
ORNANEtTAL TREKS, fLUU'EIIIDa SI/BUBS AND 

'jfiiV "AltoMbai, nnd ClJlu'T™ 

linnu.™? lru[t U r™l.tUU-il by u.. In tbe S-cranimlo >od i.u 






Ittiri.1. Pr-riattul, llnu 
CAMELLIAS .rent it 

ttJtfs'tiWKil.J— l,ui',"! 



VII. To&irj.«AK"E-rTo a,,r.oo^afariiithc.obronci 

Thooilonded and valuable ooncipoadonco of Tn t Hob- 
rtcoLTUaiBT pr«enl 5 the oii^rienco of tbo i,„ i ii,t,,lli- 

tent cullivulom in Ame.ico; li, -0|,Ti,.r ..i.iii,.,. ., 

i.t,l Hi, iiriioiiiro ,.r„l ..;.,.,. .,1,1,. iinicle.i from llm |«ny 
of thi) tJiiiir nnl contributor!, tuiilto it oiiijarly rongbt 

life To all israom aliio to tbo Improvement ot ibelr 

.;i,[.i-:n.. ..t.li.irdj, or counlryjcata — to it i. .11 til".;- u:id 
|.r.ii-ii..il culiinii.ir., ..|" il,. : ..!,— [., our erymco and com- 

IlTrti™llu™a"ndVb"Ur«o^ 
i.itl.it. -.ill I,., invaluable. 

A Son V,,|uioe(l'itb year) cimmoucei -1th the T— . •- 
ary Dumber for IBo7; and it iilll be tho oomlan 
tho editor and publisher, by every meant In thcii 
toreodor It .till Inn re "on hy, by every pra< .i icl 
prorotuont, ortho liberal pnlrunaeo It 1] rocolvi 

Tbe work Ii Lhiw,|, :D 11i d tir.t „f , ; -,.-;h ,„„i,tt,.i 
Ilylo of Ibo tnrlodical prom, each numbor contain 
pager, ou.bnllL.hed nllh a frontirpleco nod lOYOral 

Iho year It rr"* 
beautifully 111 
themdraHingioi iron 
volume* If taken (or ki 
uable Eocycloi-idio .,( 1] 
TBHJ1S— Tm l.i.,ll., 



PACIFIC MUSEUM' 

IKTBRBSTING AND rNSTRUCTIVE AUnSESIBNT 

FORFAMtLIES! 
-ejft. THIS MU3EDM having beoo , 
^^k=.naal\i groally improved and J 
SgKienltirced, and numonuj addition, ^ 

1 : =: -."-" 1 - - ." 1 - 1 i - : " =■ 1 _ J - - .'ik'i'.'i ii' "i"'.>i:u!i ; -'nii:; m- 

LIVING WILD ASIWALS 
containing many objoeU of r 



the I 



!l llrliily II* n 



with 



■I of 
ibirim- 
*l'bebci[ 

id engrdvingt. At thl 

■■■iiu,,„. .-.]■ -i.; huadn ! nags), 
ITOenaruviog,, miinyof 
if'yea'r. 1 ? 



rtlenll 



.1 Literal 



1 for 6 

- ntiruni ii pMitUkid ititE piaUM colored in ttr bal ay U of 
r All (ubjcriptloni moit bo addronad to tho Atrenti 
. , H011ERT I'EARSALL SMiTlI, 

■22 If Hand 19 Minor rtreot. l'blla,lcl|iblu 



1 1NT-V E1ST TO It ." 

pitKPABE tho noceuary lJrBwtan'ind™™™ ™d 

- 1 |.i.-:-iito to a «i«(ar„| iisoo. 01 ,|,|l C atl.,i,, fi^ l'i- 
let,L-untbi.i.r,otil rr -„„.|io i:un,po lotctilon, and other, 
doilnui of ieeuriEi; L.tlen Puleiil, nee. J not incur 1L0 






;:.■,>■;.;;, 



Peach Trees! Peaoh Trees I! 

•■'■'■ ■■ ■ i'- •■'..-. .'V'.'i'."'''!. iXi'-'oiAv'" 1 !' 1 . 1 ,, 1 ,, 

beA^iSi' .' LUM " ,,J '-'"■■""^i-'Wr-*, '.'..,i 
UH.ll'f: vi':lM.V,tn. anility; 
t-«S^ ' l '"* ""•"■ ■"PPllo>«"ue n d ««„,. 



icribcr before purthubig elio 



F^S^tS.Vi^rao"'^!?^ 



1 Ilea. VICTORIA, 

l!l..|- ill,:l„i Kour I1.1 

. The lt-1 Boar of Call- 



Elk, Doe 

m-ri.:.i. l'r.111 
...,i,!, Hi.,, ,-. 



■if EjitIm, .i- 
AUII in 11 , 

In l,i.ti-.ii,-, 

Mammolh Pig, nl 



idTi^or; a beauliful pall 
■ Ant -En ion, fre-m So ■' 
-, Mount al a, Cab), Ci 



" that 

id itlll keep thi 

GBNTLEaEH'S FDRiflSHINS GOOES 
f ovary tleHrrinllon. Parlleular attention mill be 

WALTER & TOMPBIS8, 

No. ITOMuntgumeryJlrec! 
Oppotite tbe Mr' " ' ' " 






r6-16 If 






J. C. EDDY & OO.'S 

IS THE PLACE TO BUY YOUB 

C2 an-. «r» rH7 xacxM *■£•>•> 
cm* HATS, CAPS 

Slmrnlshln; Goods. 

ilbeybliteuneqaalcdfiie!lltieirorlopplybi B cvcijarlbil(el 

Qtmtlemeii's Wearing Apparel, 



IMTJPOHT-elJN-aT 

TO THE LADIES! 

THE uuderairaed hai lull rceclred a iplendld Odiairmut 
0faBllsn>cf 



LABIf^. UBEK made to our own order, mncb lupoi 

BOY'S and CHLLDEEITS CLOTHiHBT 
LADIES' DRESS TRIMMINGS, GLOVES, 4ft, 



D. MOB0R0S3, 



Lady li Inril 



I«IILITJi.H _ X - GOODS. 



KMBUQIDKniES, ETC. 
I or wbJcn win no Mil at reduced nriew. 

D K0BCRO33, 

JMrA-SOT^IO BHO..\T,IA. 

APRONS, SASHES AND JEWELS 
At Ttry i^ M0R0R0S3i 

Odd Fellows' Lodges arid EBcampments 

Furnlabod vrilh FULL BLT8, at lo»or prto" - L — 



TYPE FOUNDBY 

PSINTBBS' Elvrr'OHITJ'Ivtl- 
W. IIAGAR, Jr., &. Co., 

1 IntoicU BCncniUV.tlii.l liny b:iv,.-r.-.-.-,ill 1 - ,-,.!ir,-l 
IIH::tlj II li-H i 

a? •«■ i> e _ 

" "irablllry.nnd for iUpplM'* 






invrith 



i'te^tTmuS 

A lorao collection of StiitT..,'l A-i.i'ui r, 1 ■'. ,,r„i ii, .';■'-. "ii- 
'i,.i.,..|l|. • i.f ,m InlorcJllns nature, nmoni; iii,i-h ,- tl... 
loo collactloo of bcautlfol llirda, formerly oirnod by Lola 

Ipco ovory day nnd ovonicr: (Sunday* oieoptod|. 



SPECIMEN OOOK 

■1; -..'..-...it. nil ivbovtlli to pa 
-n will ]>teue tv punlculai in 



Hudtion'a Golden California, Muatard, 

THE proprietor ol thlr mnnufnclory nuold Invito all 
iho feci 10 Into rent In Cnlllornii. productions to via 1 1 
hit Mtabll.bmont und oiiitulno hit Ooldon Mustard. 
This article Ii lundo of California .Seed of Iho very purest 
quality, nnd put up In tins of 10 Ibt, 5 lbs, 3 lot, 1 lb. 
and H lb , and In slata ol I lb. and u, , ttnr | | t oaI1 b s had 

Ol |,rif,-. |.„i.,, lil-io i ii, ni.-. i,„| ,( tl, .-..,:, .Mi,,., 

|i...il f I.i. purer and better tban tbo imported. 

'■'■■l-iii-i-iil .-ii.. nunc •:!-. .>-.,i|....ri..nir[|cle 



! ■■■: .my tortbor Inlbnniliaji rcjardlnK this Mustard, 
in rofor U) Iho [innoip ,1 bminoM bmi^cl in Ihltolty. 

1 OMbaeej at vtboloilo or rotu.il aro »r<cl»lly Invited to 
.all Df ,1 li ■ . ' ' 



Pi-ii'-c Medal lonio Gold Pens. 

M ' M'l- Ai ! I lii-.L and -old ffholeiaio and Rolall hi 
«A bTIlll'SON 4 CO, 91 Waahlnatou .trool, Bojttui 

No. I-Ladiu SI C0IHo.4-EoeroMlurc.-Bl 71 

" "-Milioti, I i", " S-lt,i,1.. I',,, ■■ ,,| 

" S-Urgo 150 ■■ 6-Levlath.n 3 « 

II,- .,i..i.„f.,.:loren.iflb.- ! ol , t .,:.hav u ,i[„:.,i, .. 

[li, :.l,,lil.. and Ten Diploma., (one „«!, U .nlV.,,., . 

1 ..ir.i. ,,i.,m for tb.lr exeelloueo. Bv.ry Poa B a mn u, 

A liberal discount from tho above prices to tho trado 
■B_on_ B " w -'SK0W, Prnotloal Munuf.i.'i 



Osage Orange for Hedge. 

Addteta to vVai I»a'o'i. i "',Vi'i 1 1!.''| I .j ktl-OfflS; Santa 
Olara County. Tj . a!t » 



Uu>tlliued), 1.111 b< 

MacblDe 1— . u ..„..,».. 

Sda%. ! PRESSES. { HSSa 

CHASE'S DIAMOND PRESS 

.y. .-.„: . i.;..„i|.„1o; Stlckt. Oalk-ji' (bron'ood vr*Id), Cb« 



T7PB OOPPBH-FAOED TO OBDBB. 
Old Typo rocctved In exchangn fur no** al nioocDJl? 

1 .,1. 11 ,Mi.,:,n-J in ,1-. ilnvi trom tbo dfltu of puicbtsj.'i'l 

rr^>- I'ubliihen of neiviptpen who bucrt tlila 

nietii tin.-; Ilmo, Willi ibLi nolo, aod lonviirj .1 -i [■ . 

i-'i. l'i"-- .-, lull rj._. i^sjj |a nrinilne niitM-Lil.' bf purr-*' 

In.: 1 1:„,.,:l. ,,,:.,„ C:„ r I'll 1. r :l,- -. i.. H' - ' "' 

13? H« „d-ll«nd P«t»« (Slacldae and IlaBB'*' 



MARBLE! MARBLE!! 
L J. W. LADD, 

IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 

TTAB no„ ,££, aod for .ale, .be larec. «-►/ "5 

S-d Mantlet „„,] ir.il,.- ■ : ,.1 ,. M. ni.r, ill--. "' ■'' ; ■ "j- :.- 

in .li,- rl-,,i),. |_.,.„„|,j, Ti.ipi. It.-.. 11, or. .lit T,.!,l.--- :--i '-.,.■! 

i-.l|..ll|,.r^rl!,.|, , In 1,1.0 ■„-,...-. I„,i, -111 I-'i! 



WOOL, HIDES, TALLOW, *'' 

Mnaana. Wm. MEYER-KLTON ■'■''"- 

15U an ■■ alrnet '''""^"paANt-iSo* 
-ssFfl a SJC3 m *M?T , ''«:ss> •«=- **' 






- 

TOLUM 



mMm®BmmMmMm 



SJ :» 5; 3 io so s (B 'fl i &$ 



t\ 3 1! il'.ttll S3 1? li 8 Ijl 1$ 1$ § , 



SAN FBANCISCO, CAUFOBNIA, FRIDAY MOENING, FHUTOAHI 6, 1857. 



■t Cnlifornia ^farmtr 




fnbmrlpUonl moi 



Bcnltnral Reviews and Essays— No. 2. 

Science for Formats. 

for OHm Rsport on ArrlealtuK, IKS. .drffefe— 
flpfcnllom Ej JcMph Il'unrj, of ^"sfflUhKolin 



'j req.irril bcf'iro the 
.it. ten, b r a F. W 



elllv, (d tl» Ar-pea 


dlx nribcir Official R.!«[, I5S6 


' is seldom lhat 


n oblcr document than the 


dI those named 


s brought before the public 


a. In (act, it a. 


ntains so much science in 



fr sentence, as to remind us more or the works 
Whig than of any other modern writer. It ii 
Lnilv scientific, that the reader is surprised n 

many and varied subjects distinctly brooghl 
^nhis notice in so small ■ compass, and Is 
Ut bewildered and stopefled with the brilliant 
re of light which meets bis eyes in every par- 
tite talented writer commences by showing ns 
leren the statistics of crime may be made a 
Iter of calculation, and thai an index 
111 and intellectual education of a people may 
■ be unmistakably afforded, and clearly cstob- 

t: the humiliating fact, that man, the free 
nl, and the responsible creature of Almighty 
si-r. is after all but the creatnrc of circum- 

leneil proceeds with the subject more directly 
posed, and points outtbo importance of Science 
the] rf,. !.:■.„ .,i Art; wbich he exemplifies 
a reference to the case of the Chinese, as one 
winl ; with whom invention depends more on 
Haul than a full apprehension or the laws of 
arc. and is consequently lardy in its progress, 
(Baneful in its operation. 
Is then goes on to describe the physiology of 
lis. and the manner of thoir growth, and 
ounces the brilliant troth, that It is a prin- 
it of Nature that power is always absorbed in 
Joeing a ebango in matter." But this power 
51! always lost. r 'This change may be perma- 
f, or it may bo of socb a character as to repra- 
t the power which was expended in effecting 
wor example, the moving power, of a cannon 
Sjpermanenlly expended in passing into the 
[of a ship, but ir the same ball w era shot Into 
Booth of another cannon, and made to com- 
fc» spring, too recoiling of the latter would 
go tbu bill in an opposite direction, precisely 
fcrsa Telocity which it had expended in com- 
iling the spring, supposing nothing lost by 
Hon, ic. This example screes to illustrate 
(fleeter the impulto from tbesun, Ildecnm- 
jilhe carbonic acid which surrounds tho leal 
tie plsut; or, in other words, overcomes Ihe 
pi atlraelion between the carbon and Ihe 
J*nof which ibt acid iscoroposed; and in this 
■the motions of the atoms of the cthorial 
W are themselves stopped. Tho power, 
&«r, In this case is not permanently neutral- 
Rirwhen the plant is consumed, either by 
loom bastion, or by slow decay, that is, when 
boon and the oxygen are again suffered 
Rnlo union to form carbonic acid— the lame 
m of power iiecokedin the/arm of light, 
tor nerams JbrCe, which was absorbed in 
.original competition. If the plant, more- 
lb consumed in Ilia animal, tho same power 
R*nd«] in building op tho organization, in 
ping locomotion, and Ihe Incessant action of 
W«l,and the other involuntary movements 
mtj to the vital process. Plants ore there- 
Mredpienl, of the power of the sunbeam." 
Lme endeavor to explain this a little. It is 
Ipowor of the solar rnya that Ihe carbonic 
« the itmosphorc Is decomposed, for for- 
■on, that necessary constituent of 
ich, water excepted, they are almost 
P™*- To do this, according to 
. er equal to a moderate rod beat [» 
■d- This does not mean that Iho weather 
be red-hot; but that, by th oi , fln)!nMS , olJ 
he solar rays exercise such a power. Bol 

Bi which our writer means to demonstrate 
,*"> power Is not wasted, but onlyab- 
plant, and that so much heal as was 

B 1 "*! hy Ihe plant, the plant in its turn 
8 of iflbrdfuftud so of light, and | 
IW quality afforded to it by lhr 



'th and perfection. 

If*llhlllh*d Ihi, g rf at truth by legi.i- 
^™^lhc writer now proposes lo turn 
lento good account. "Properly to to 



direct this power of Ihe sunbeam, that 
of it may rnn to waste, or be unproductive of 
economical results, it is Cfscnlial that we know 
somothingof its nature; and tha lifetit 
of many individuals, supported at tho public 
expense, would ho well expended in exclusive 
devotion lo this one object. Tho rescarche! 
which have been mode in regard lo it have devel- 
oped the fact, thai the impulses from Ihe sun art 
of at least four different characters; namely, Iho 
lighting impolse. the healing impulse, the chemi- 
cal impulse, and tha pbosphorogonic impolse." 

In consequence of tho discovery of Sir Isaac 
Newton, that tho rays of light are not all of the 
snmc color, experiments have been mode, and Ihe 
truth satisfactorily established, that they are not 
allequsllypossesscdofibfisamequalitics. Among 
those who bare been most successful in investi- 
gating this department or science, is oar own ac- 
complished Professor Draper. Thesubjecl, how- 
aver, or bow far the knowledge thus obtained may 
be uiii.lt' of practical utility to tho farmer and 
gardener, has not yet been sufficiently investi- 
gated; bat that it deserves investigation, it docs 
not require much study la enable any odd to pcr- 
ceive. It is well known that tho highest point in 
tho curve of tho rainbow, aod tha hight of tha 
sua, when Ifaat phenomenon is observable, are 
always equal, between them, lo GO . Conse- 
quently, the rainbow in summer can only be seen 
in the mornings and evenings- But in the spring, 
before the sun at noon-day reaches the bight of 
00 s , tha rainbow is seen at any lime during Ihe 
day. Now, as tho rainbow shows that the drop* 
of falling rain posses the property of separating 
tho rays of tho sun, when they fall upon them at 
1 1 y as an artificial prism 
of glass, if it should also appear that, when the 
n-day reaches a certain altitodc, plant! 
no temperature, and equally circum- 
olher respects, nro differently affected 
from what they are at other seasons of the year — 
would we not be justified in concluding, that thii 
difference is produced by the different power of thi 
in separating the rays or light, under certain 
umslanecs,nt different seasons} The subject 
has hitherto been little investigated. But,aslhi 
nlhfnlly remarks— "It will be evident 
that the hopes of the future, in regard to Agri- 
culture, principally reit upon the advance of ab- 
ttracl «cience~not upon Iho mere accomulation 
of facts, of which Ihe connection and dependence 
iknown, but upon a definite conception of 
the general principiei of which that facts are 
the retail," And well does Ihis writer deserve 
credit Tor the lucid enunciation of facts involving 
scientific principles. "If," says ho, as bo pro- 
ceeds with his subject, "a certain weight of air 
ere carried from thcsur&co of the earth, lOEUch 
hight that it would expand into double its vol- 
tnc, the heat which it contained would then he 
distributed thiooghout twico the space, end the 
temperature consequently ba much diminished, 
though tho absolute amount of heat would be 
unchanged. If the same air were returned to th 
earth, whence it was taken, condensation wool 
■uc, and tho temperatore would be the 6amo a 
first. On this principle, a wind passing ovt 
a high mountain is not necessarily cooled [ fo 
the diminution of temperature, which is produced 
by the rarefaction of Iho ascent, would ho jo 
equivalent lo Iho iuocasc which is duo to tl 
condensation in an equal descent. This would 1 
the case ir tho air were perfectly dry, but if 
contained moisture, paradoxical as it may sect 
it would bo warmer when it returned to tho lower 
level than when it left il. In ascending lo the 
lop of the mounlaln, ft would deposit ils moisture 
in Ibe form of water or snow, and the latent heal 
given out from this would increase- tho heat of 
tho air, and when it descended on Iho opposite 
level from wbich it a:-. 




BLACK HA 

Tin- bcautiM animal which figures In our 
journal this week, and from whoso stock our 
country has received so great an acquisition, was 
foaled in 1833. Wo givo his history from tho 

iw work "Morgan Horses," published by CM. 

nion & Co, irho kindly sent us a copy. 

This horso was tho property of Wingato Twom- 
bly, of Greenland (formerly of Durham), N. H.: 
sired by Sherman, g. sire, Justin Morgan. His 



dam was raised in Now Brunswick, and is de- 
scribed as a hnlf-blood English mare, a very Gno 
animal, and a fast trotter. When four years old, 
Black Hawk was purchased by Benj. Thurston, 
of Lowell, Mass, for a family horse, and kept far 
that purpose until 1844, when ha was purchased 
by David Hill, Esq., of Bridporl, VL, by whom 
ho is now owned. 



would be warmer o 
lieat." 

Tho principle i 
depend on other 



jnt or Ihis additional 

but tho result would 
A wind in som- 






Ider when it reached its 
other side, not however from tho operation of a 
different principle at that season, but because Iho 
warm air of the volley, when it reached Iho 
mountain-lop, would not bo carried up into the 
otmosphere, nor even bo rarcued so much as the 
air at tbat elevated region would naturally bo, 
but would be drawn with a rapidity in the ratio 

ils greater density, over the summit— just as 
water in tho shallow or a river runs as much 

re quickly than where it is deeper, as makes 



distance in Iho 



t of » 






■ the sa 



ilo i.h. 
laln-top beiog partially thawed by tho 
ind denser current of air from below, 
the wind would partake lo a certain exleat of ils 
temperature. Consequently, when it reached the 
other side of the mounlaln, il would necessarily 
be colder ihon it was before. Both these facts 
those who reside in mounuiiuous 
districts, 

liter then goes on with equol talent, and 



itrictly scienliDc reasoning, to investigate thi 
iffccts of tho proximity of walcr, of cultivation 
iho culling down of forests, and tho draining o 
marshes^ on climate; and proves satisfactorily. 
that human industry guided by science may do 
mora than many suppose, in making 

unnecessary for me to follow him through the 
whole of bis most oxcellet treatise, which, I have 
no doubt, those who arc at tbo trouble to read 
this article will not fall lo examine for thomscli 

In placing Dr. IVinsIow alongside of this giant 
in science, I evidently introduce him in good 
society. Bat he, who has aspired 

"The appUua of l[i!(Dia(Hoatea to command," 
need not labor under any apprehension, especially 
his address is a piece of finished oratory. I 
confess I have a sort of dread or world-mokcrs, 
which may be a prejudice on my part, in conso- 
quencc of being so provoked, when a boy, wilh 
janner in which poor Moses Primrose, the 
of Wakefield's son was taken in, in Ihe 
matter of tbo ''spectacles," by thai arch rogue 
with Iho big book who talked so learnedly about 
the "cosmogony or creation of the World." Bui 
let tho Doctor speak for himself. After intro- 
ducing to the notice of .his august auditory the 
ibject in view, by proposing to "unbind,link by 
link, the golden chain whi:b unites man with 
thecarth,and earth wilh lis Creator, 
onto say, "I shall solicit your patient attention 
and kind indulgence for a short lime, trusting 
that n kind and confiding itrott, hand in nonof, 
wilh the Infinite Creator, may conduct as lo 
brighter insights into his nature 1" 

It would be impossible for me to do justice .. 
tho subjects discussed in what tho Doctor himself 
characterises as "a discourse so philosophical, and 
extending over so wide a range." Let me how- 
over make one more quotation. "The humble 
origin of the stale-beds, and their eitrcmo an- 
tiquity, era do less remarkable than tho purpose 
which Ihoy have subserved, in Iho improvement 
ond cultivation of tho loftiest faculties of 
It Is the first Instrument placed In tho hands of 
Iho young, in alt enlightened communities of tbo 
world. II is hy tho agency of Ibeso rudo slabs of 
anciont rock, that the human faculties have been 
cultivated and enlarged, until they are trained lo 
weigh the earth as in a balance, to measure un- 
imaginable distances into Infinite space, and to 
calculate the positive existence of undiscovered 
worlds. Here again, we trace an unmistakable 
xmnictim between the mind of God and the 
leitiny of man, and behold the wonderful fact, 
cvealed in charaetcri of lining light, that 
'/trough the inilrumentalitt/ of the humblest 
vegetable growths, was appointed to spring the 
loftiest truths which adorn the pages af leiencc 
and philosophy I" 
A friend or mino says tbat metallic slates are 
uch bettor. That matter I leave to school boys 
. decide; and Bblll conclude this article by 
quoting Ihe opinion of Professor Brando, who 
thinks veiy differently from Dr. Window, but 
who aught lo know a great deal mora about the 
materials and manufacture of the Earth than f 
■The lii.-.L and loading object of Geology," 
says he, ''is lo become practically acquainted 
itb thu preunf state ol tbo Earth's external 
.rfaoc, for eaceptingof iU crust or rind we know 
nothing; and all thai has been suggested cither 



by theory, or hy experiment, relotiog to its in- 
ternal composition, ils density, and the constitu- 
tion of the entire mail, is mora sunoiiro snd 
guetus-work— deductions hastily drawnfrom super- 
ficial observation, or unwarranted inferences from 



imperfect r- 



A Git ICO 1.1. 



Ornament for Dried Flowers. 

The accompanying drawings, mado by an 
accomplished lady, represent a pasteboard hanging 
vase, covered with moss, ond attached to an oak 
branch, for a parlor ornament. From tho ma- 



Callfomla Post Officeeu 
Editors Psriied: There is no telling what 
number of letters miscarry, or are stolen, through 
neglect or crime in tho Postmasters of this Slalo. 
The postofilces are generally kept in doggeries, 
or other public places — and, when iho mail ar- 
rives, it is opened publicly, and tha letters, papers 
etc., are thrown into a box to which everybody 
has access. Is Ihis as it should be? Are Ibero 
not hundreds of times, when n man would like to 
got a peep at another's correspondenco 7 And are 
there not thousand* ofmon who would not scru- 
ple to lake a letter out of tho office, belonging lo 
another, if Ihoy thought that it could never ba 
known who did it, or that it was dono at all? 
Letters put into tbo office, to bo mailed, are also 
liable lo be stolen, read and destroyed. Then, if 
a letter does not reach Its destination, all that can 
be said about it is that it must have been mis- 
placed by some careless Postmaster. 

I have hod letters Stolen — and, upon one occa- 
sion, 1 saw enough to satisfy mo that the ono I 
put in was not mailed; I said nothing, hut tried 
to gel better proof I bund out that il had uot 
got sixty miles in one month. This satisfied me, 
but, witb all put together, it would not have satis- 
fied a jury. 

If 1 was on a jury I could not ccmviel on such 
testimony, and it would ba hard to get proof that 
wonld convict. All that I can see lo remedy this 
evil, is for Iho Government to appoint secret 
agents to Iravol through tho Stale, and sea what 
Postmasters conduct Iho business in so loose a 
', and remove them from office. If 1 bad 
thought that mino was the ooly case, I should 
havo said nothing about It— but, I believe, it is a 
wido-spreod evil, and should bo remedied. 

W. S. Q. 
P. S. — Tho above are my true initials; and if 









f person, in this Slalo, 




UrUl omplnyed, it is better suited fnr dried 
flowers than those which require water. 

Tho smaller basket represents Iho tnodo In 
which the pasteboard Is united after being shaped 
ond tho larger exhibits the sama covered with 
moss. Every lady of the least lasto can mako 
Ibeso baskets, and ornament her boudoir, parlor, 
or sitting-room with her own handiwork, which 
sho will enjoy mora than expensive purchased 
injects. 
Thooak-Icavos may bo represented in v> 



B 

An Oheoon Apple.— An apple af tha "Glorii 
Mundl" variety was raised near Corvallis on thi 
Willamette, some 140 miles southeast of Port- 
laud, which weighed thirty-flvo ounces and 
half, and measured seventeen inches and a ha, 
in circumference. It Is reported as from » tree 
four years old, Wo would just inl 
goo friends that we can grow apples down this 
way. Tho priio opplo at tho late State Fair at 
San Jose, was of tho sama variety, measured 
seventeen inches also, weighed thirty-flvo ounces 



and a half, and, t 
year younger. Wha 









ir Oregon friend I 



.iur,™*.™"'.^"' ^ W ' B D "-*v.-Aboul 
to 60 cents per pound, about 130 hales were im 

t™!^!™!!,' !*!.*"£?.! . f [° m Ao ">"<*- owing™ 

and tho warc- 
n "intoOhan- 

ed until n few days 



owner, thu cotton 

and ihtrtii has ( 

.. wh «H il was sold by order u( Ibe 
realixmg 81 cents per pcuud. 



who thinks that the shoo pinches Am corns, and 
can address mo through 
tbo Editor of this paper, and I will be responsible 
for everything that I hnve said. 

WDhavosevernHaclslocommunicatouponpost- 
Hco matters, but must defer till next week.— £En. 

EnODATlOM OP TUB AarttCOLTUBIBT. — No 
man is so high as lo be independent of the success 
or this great interest; no man is so low as 
not to be nlTceled by its prosperity or de- 
cline Agriculture feeds us; toa great de- 
free it clothes us; without it wo could not 
avo manufacture!, and wo should nut havo 
commerce. These all stand together, but 
Ihoy stand together like pillars in a cluster 
tho largest in tbo middle, and that largest 
is Agriculture, Wo live in a country of 
small farms and freehold tenements- a 
country in which men cultivate with their 
own hands their own fee-simple acres, draw- 
ing not only their subsistence, but also their 
spirit of independence and manly freedom 
from the ground thoy plow. They are 
at onco its owners, its cultivators, and its 
defenders. Tho cultivation of tho earth is 
tho most important labor of men Man 
may be civilised in some degree, without 
great progress in manufactures, and wilh 
little commerce with his dislanTI oeigbbora 
but without cultivation of the earth ho is. 
in all countri cs,a savage— [Danie l Webster 

Negative Artesian Wells.— Tho So- 
ciety or Arts have published Here Bruckto 
ann's paper on " Negative Artesian Wells" 
—that Is, wells which take in instead nf 
giving out wslcr. Such wellsscrveas per- 
manent drains; Ihey are sunk in loose 
Strata, or where eommonicatioiis exist wilh 
fathomless fissures, ur with deep-lying 
streams. Mr. Bruekmann, who ib a native 
or Wurtcmborg, stales that they may be 
esloblishcd "in all tho so-called normol or-- 
sediment formations : diluvium, tertiary de- 
posits, chalk, Jurassic rocks," and others. 
And ho brings forward examples of tho ben- 
efits that hove followed tho sinking -or noea- 
livo walls in towns or in swampy country dis- 
Irrets. Tho drainage becomes at onco perfect and 
constant; fluid matters of all kinds llnd their way 
lo the mouth, and flow away, while solid matters 
may be stop ped and used j n fertilization. 

Woor---Tlio Ohio Former estimates tho profits 
on sheep in that Stole, the last veer, ut sii millions 
of dollars, and the whole capital Invested sixty 
mi ions. The number of sheen, is probably, Ave 

h! i. Toon thB , WMl cU ^ lust ^ nr - ""H** 
10,196,1)00 pounds— and stated as 1 -- : - 
of the entire wool crop of iho Unioi 



i being one-Dab 



ToiJAcco^-This articlo bos uecomooncoftho 
staple productions of the sell of the Chenmnir Vol 
ey, New York, and Is said to be mor* pmfeubto 
than any other. It is nnly ..bout three s 4rs si,,™ 

".1?, Li" l^",^' ? Dd t a Jeat - h '■'■filri, two 
or three hundred tuns have been raised in tlmt 
county nlone. ' 

SS5f*4 su»».»i,o ,„ „ w ^ j 

""" ™ 1 «»fa»H]a.li„, tm , „,,„£, ' ""• 
A WicKcn thiso — Tho WnaliWton corre- 

K ;;,"," Tf'f ";* «■" «■»"»• »"• 

n.nu im,,,,, ii,,],, „.] tll |, i rmi^b.vsed of the 

"""'!!i nd ? ollars ' Bad ,oal lnt "="»« 1'irtles ban 
led a large building near the railre.d depot 
1" ^'"''K'on, M 6.00,1 of. probably $10,000. 
more. This targe outlay is to l,e reimbu.Bed bv 
IthamonuroclureondsaloofWashington canes. * 




Ha nove r. Jull: 
lerruptiiiu, Ihrougu 
tbo lowest part of th 
which has mosl 
is undoubtedly 
mouths of the 
dialanci Iho 
and other ri . 

which by 
their nmi 

The dello. of 
bevc been in 

ohanges of foi..., .._ — 

posited, blodii iji ill'- old r-lmsitirla, and lend- 
ing to tbo formntiun of now onus. Besides, it 
ia obvious tbot thu river, in forming a domain 
of alluvial deposits had to extend with tha j-ea, 
which, washed oway the accumulations- of mud, 
or covered them with sand, according to tho vi- 
cissitudes of tho seasons. The soil of tho Neth- 
erlands shows everywhere tho proofs of this 
struggle between the billows of the ocean and 
the river floods, in tho alternation of salt and 
fresh water deposits. It also hears e 
the fact, that these ohanges. effected . 
undotJoua of the Khine, or by encroach menu of 
the sea, occurred frequently, lone; nftar tho 
country hod becomo inbobitod. itemains of 
foroals now lie buried under tho waves of tht 
German ocean ; paved roads arid traces of vil 
lages and of cultivation arc fouud beneath thi 
morasses on the banks of tho Ems, and man; 
bimilac proofs onist of great physical changes 
respecting which history is silent. 

For the purple of ~.-enriiig tho purroancne 
oE their torriinrinl po.-i'^-ioiis. tho oarly occu 
pants of this country had recourse to dikes, 
embankments- high and strong enough to pro 
toot them under ordinary circumstances fror 
tho tides; and, placing wind-mill* on these 
dikes, exposed to the sea-breeze, they worked 
tfae pumps whiuh drained the iuclosed lands. 

The Netherlands now present to oar view an 
artificially constructed country, seme portion! 
of whioh are uiony feet below the serfuce of the 
sea, and nearly all loo low for natural drainage. 
How Ibis land has boon rescued ftum tho floods 
and waves, nud how it is preserved from their 
attempted inroads, it is the purpose of this 
paper to explain. 

Tho recovery of land from tho water, in Hol- 
land, is tho most important branch of engineer- 
ing, insomuch that a Government Board has 
exuted for centuries, the duties of whioh oro 
confined to th- ndmini-triitioii ■>! tho hydraulic 
works of the kingdom. ThU Board is denomi- 
nated the " Walorslaul," or Bourd of Marino 
Engineers ; and in matters affecting tho proteo- 
tionof tho country from tho waters "f either the 
rivers or tlio ?ca. its power.- ore very great, if 
not absolute. A school of instruction in this 
particular branch has alio long beeu maintained 
by the government. 

"Polder" is a term applied in the Netherlands 
to a trnot of country tho surfaco of whioh is 
lower than the wulorfl adjacent to it, aud whioh, 
therefore, requires to In- protected from them. 
Such tracts nr.' uliiinJunt throughout the coun- 
try here de^ei-ibed. oscn-iling i\ thousand in 
Middle Holland nloao. They are of varioas 
eires, end of various degrees of depth, some of 
them indeed being twenty feet bcluw the level 
of the sea. 

These polders are formed in four different 
ways, namely, firiit, of ground reclaimed from 
tho sea by tho skill of the engineer ; second, of 
ground protected from the rivers by cirenm- 
soribinK, nnd con-e.piontly divi-rting uml deep- 
ening their torrent.--, third, liy the draining of 
lakes; fourth, by the digging of turf for fuel, in 
such qunnli lie- ii- to mill.,- ■:■. (, n-ivo depressions 
of this character. In Ithhieland, there is of 
Nature's formation of dry land (more than one- 
third of which i* "dnwiiV iir formations caused 

by deposits of snml u[ the margin of tho sea), 

but TG.tKIU ace-, while tl,.i, is of polder hind 
173,1X10, and of laud btill redeemable as polder 
land, 56,UDU. But one-fourth of tho land of 
Kbiuoluud, therefore, is above the level of thu 
tea; and a system of drainage adapted toils 
only 






40 miles long; 

is 1471 feet wide, nt tho lovel of 

which is the lovol of the datum nt Amsterdam- 
ho west nnd south, the width at this point 
little over 131 feet; and, on tho east, it is r 

little over 1244 feet wide. Its depth through- 
it is '.) 4-5 feet. Tho dike between tho canal 
id tho lake is 13J feet on the crown. 
Tbo flow of water out of tha canal 
it always to bo depended upon ; ns, when the 
intl was strong and adverse, it was repelled lo 

such a degree as to render farther 

From an examination of PI. St., it will he 
seen (hat the passage of tho water from the 
canal is provided for at three points 
the North Sea, or Germun Ocean, by tha groat 
out and sluices nt Kolwyk; second, by tho 
sluices ut Hiilfwr-"!', or ll.ilfwiiy, batweei ' 
Bterdam and Hnarlcm ; third, by tho Spi 
through the sluices at Spaarndom, by both of 
which cut Ms ilo- 111 ,11, T.- nre .li-elmr-.d into the 
arm of tho Xuyder Zee, called the Y. At the 
first-named of these places, the oaly remedy 
applied is on arrangement of gttti 



II on.-i 



sed when the pressure of the lid 

At the second, the resistance 
so frequent nor serious ae to req 
ition of a remedy; but nt Spat 
" -a the Ben, n 






etho 



applii 

whore tho canal 

engine and machinery adapted lo raise a great 
quantity of water to a limited bight, of from a 
lew inches to two and n half feet, hare been 
provided, and ore used whenever tho wind blows 
the north or northeast. 



Tho co 
powered I 

inund..lic 

'lililc Hi. 



■ borrow S,000,0n0uor; 
for the defence of J 
1 ; lo purchase all lat 
soil when drained; to 



e beginning c 



■■;!■ 



The work was commenced by the cons-tn 

of the dike and canal around the lake. Th 

generally difficult, the excavations 

tgh firm peaty soil, impervious to 

h was thrown up lo form the body 1 



thu a 



iieohati 



but 1 



es, diti 



mil- 1 



i,.ry 



abovu the ciirfucu "f tlu'i contignoiie rivert. 
seua, in order that it may flow into them. ' 
illustrate tho metliod which oxperienco 1 
proved to be the best for tlia aecninpli.-lmii 
of this object, a singlu groat and success 
instance will hero bo reviowed. 

Haarlem Like, or Haarlcmmer Alter (Pis 
was two miles south of tho city ...r Ui-.m-l-.n. 
of North Holland, a city that 



been describe 


1 in 


•very well bu 




I.-1.1 


and very dull 






1 Who , 




intelligence. 


ndus 




th nod 














world. This 


nl-o 








Zuyoer Zee 




If of tho Ger 












thru. |„ 
























with the rive 


V 11 






Ithino. lu 




go depth »as 






than thirteen 








Zuyder Zee. 


Th 


recovery of tho laud 










tho p 




ohjeot leodi 
of its orten 


j to 




soft alluvial 


HJ|| 


of thu surtull 




imtri 



ds required ; I 

supply the nc 

liner wiin water in time 01 drought; and I 

-range a system of canals, channels, or dilebe 



ads, at 



■ ridges. 



:r of tt 



> fiei 



s othoi 



nil 


nee. On tho narrow neck of land betwee 




or Haarlem nnd the Turf-piL lakes near 




, which is Of a soft and spongy nolur 


■=nrl 




ft! 


a and soft peat forming the subslr 


land rose and Tell with the water i 


ake 


Ingenious, vet tedious, lahorioiisflnd 


Siva 


means of overcoming these obstacles 



yer after layer of tho peaty soil 10 tl 

1, and sinking them gradually by I 

of additional layers, until tho whole n 

■ugh tho soft peat to thi-Ruli'l l:i<jimii 



led positions, and then loaded w 

at right angles. They were (h 
ositlon by stakes driven thre 
the wall thus formed, earth was 
the slopes of the dike and canal. 
■l only was it necessary to cons 
ccn the canal nnd the' like, or 
between tho canal and the Turf pit 



from rains and lenknv" ; but 

the system of interior canals and diniie- l-nn;; 
then regarded ns perfected, including a basin 
for tho reception of tho wate 
peared to be nearly competed 
1854; yet, although tho winter had hoen very 
remarkable for its copious rains, it was to tho 
■ooral disappointment that tbo central and 
nor portion of tho grout polder was found to 
have accumulated much water in tho winter of 
1B54-5. There wcro two causes for this up. 
parent failure : first, tho engine boilers wero not 
niippli-d with filtered water in sufficient quan- 
tities, and tho earthy deposits impaired their 
effieieney; mid, secondly nnd chiefly, to tho 
system of interior drainage adopted, too much 
dependence had been placed upon tho efforts of 
tho proprietor of each tract of 2l> hectares, or 
nearly J9i ncres, in draining his own land. In 
ninny in -lance-', this wh- deferred by tbcsp in- 
dividunls ; nnd, in tho less lav., ruble sitniLti-in.-, 
the lands had not been taken up at all. The 
annual amount of rain, a depth of about 27 
inches, whioh had fallen at thnt period, could 
neither sink into tho ourth nor now from its 
surface; neither was tho process of evaporation 
equal to its removal. 

In the monln of October, 1855, when the 
writer visited the scene, not only ivas the work 
of drainage fuuad lo he perfected, but what had 
been, so short a lime before, the bed of a great 
lokc, was then a region of exceedingly fertile laud 
in a fins shto of cultivation. (PI. Kit.) It was 
dry, comfortable nnd healthy, or Iho only indica- 

' discoBes from local causes opnearcd to 

n among persons whoso severe and cx- 
iployments would in almost any locality 
produce similar effects. Numerous neat, quaint 
'. conveniently constructed cottages were seen 
'arious directions; a population or about two 
thousand dwelt within the polder ; fields of ver- 
:tcndcd far and wide, enlivened by cattle, 
horses and sheep, grazing on Hit fmufnl UK-.v.lnw.i; 
and everything tho eyoco 
the triumphant acbicvcm 
iBcent design, with the e: , 
patches of soil, charged with vegetable acids nnd 
salts of iron, upon which vegetation would not 
grow, but which may be restored through 
the agency of lime. 

;t of tho works herein described, and all 
-Eoriei. inelmling their preservation and 
.... the end of 1SS5, and interest on loans 
made for the general purpose, is stated to have 
teen SW-'^JV, but £250,537 more (ban the 
■■ii-inil e.iimute. The number of acres rccov- 
erci hcing 44,520; the cost per acre was there- 
fore §80.60. 

Tbo tnsim'.? uied in d,-nirriiy Hie lake will Con- 
nie to bo kept in working order, and will at 
me jea.ioii-, be applied daily in expelling the 
cum "latin- waters; not Ihit they will all bo 

cin~c such an cinc'geney i.i possible; and, 
[ould it come but once in ten or twenty years. 
motives of economy leading to the setting 
ido of any of the engines will bu regrelted. 
nus an inconsiderable annual e\pens.? must be 
■riiniii.ntlv 'U.'.uiii'.-ii l.y th'; h.ilii.-rs of the land 
Haarlem 1'older, in conjunction with tho gov 

It is believed lint the p.rliciibrity with which 
lis subject has been treated will not he regrelted 
by the intelligent readur. What can he achieved 
by patient industry, "iiidi'l bv enli-litened ji. 'la- 
ment, is happily everii|'lili'..l in tlii-i rein.irknt.le 
instance. A sm^ll kingdom v.illi an overflowing 
population, lias tbn. added lo its area many 
thousands of ncres ol the rieln.-t ■oil, in the most 
.lc-irtd [vi. it iu 11, proi iding tionie-, for a iiinnerous 
i-riciiHiir:il popi;l|i ion. prod mi: I i"ns fur the sub- 
iistunco of many more, and mldine, to tho wealth, 
nrength " 



ill, obtained 
iih the soft si 






n 1843, 



So well did this work pro'per, lb 
was regai ded as nearly completed ; out, in cor 
qnenee of delays In obtaining the requisite ste. 
engines and pumps, the lake was not closed u 
May, 1848. 

Pumping a very large quantity of water lo 
Inconsiderable lii^'it mis 1 purj o.-e 10 which ... 

luteal enftine luil been pivvi :lv adapted ; and, 

n- ihii bklii mi. !"!.■ ;:.i.It,II> increased, 



,.;hiu 



No extensi 



h Gibbs nnd Arthur 




sillily a, 



ont dotexmii 
uer taking it has 
pliihcd. 

The Blteationof the people had hoen directed 
to this .-.il-rpris.. „s , „rly M i|„, v ,.. lr J1H7. ,„ 1 , | 
from that penud lo tho year 1839, many p t0 . 




'nil field of 
ng at Verriires, in Franco in the au 
.•;-!. Mr. D. J. Browne, then 

collecting agricultural information 
and products, Was led to infer, that, from Ihe pc- 
'iarily of tho climate in which it was growing, 
' its resemblance in appearance and habit to 
in corn, it would flourish in any region wbere- 
tbat plint would thrive. From this source, 
ho obtained some 200 pounds of tho seed, which 
was dislribulcd in small packages, by this Office, 
among tho members of Congress, with tbo 
of experimenting with it in all perls of the Union, 
and thereby ascertaining its adaptation lo our 
soil and climate. In numerous instances, the re- 
sults proved highly satisfactory, os it attained (ho 
high t or eight or ten feet, as Tar north ns St. Pauls, 
" Minnesota, and matured its seeds at various 
ints in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsjlvo- 
1, Illinois, and other places further south. Tho 
following year, while in Franco on a similar mis- 
sion as above, Mr. Browne obtained several bush- 
els of tho seed of this plant, grown from that re 
Snted to have been brought from South Africa, by 
Tr. Leonard Wray, of Loudon, and which has 
since proved lo be identical with that obtained 
by this Office in 1854. 

Thoro appears to he a doubt among many in 
Europe, as well as in this country, as 10 tho true 
botanical nameof this plant. M. Louis Vilmorin, 
n scientific cultivator, of Paris, provisionally gavo 
it tho name of flolcus saccfiaralui, which had 
previously been applied to tho common broom 
corn, if not lo other species, or at least varieties, 
of some allied plant. He also conjectured Ihnt 
it might be ihe .Sors-um vulgare (Andropogon 
sorghum of others), and thought that it might 
ci.miircheii'l 11 vaiioly of it, as well as Anttrtipo- 
- -ijra, bicolar, etc., of Kunth. itlr. Wray, 



in mo course of ihe. '.,;,,.„. 
simi.nr manner lo Indian corn. Aoy sutU 

super fl e -lo.-'Oi 1 which may spring up 

removed. Tho seed should not be h 
before it acquires a dark or black hue, 
tho plants lodge, or fall lo Ihe ground ,1» 
e;:cr; -ivo weight of Iho heads, during slonj. 
wind or rain, before the seed matures, th 6J , 
remain for weeks without injury. In col It, 
(he seed, o. convenient method is (0 coti 
stalks about a Toot below the panicles, ti, 
up in bunches of twenty-five, and suipent 
iu any secure, airy place, sheltered from nio. 
intended solely for fodder, Iho firr' — 
bo cut juBt before the panicles woul 
the second, as soon as tho seed 
milky stage. It may bo lied ui 
shocked and cured, like the tops or sUlti d' 
dian corn. If not intended to he employs' 
any other economical use, alter the seed hut 
removed, and tho weather bo cool, and tliei 
ago temperature of the day dooa not oiewil 
or 50" t'., the stalks may be cut up clow in J 
ground, lied in bundle?, collected into shwli 
stowed in A mass iu a succulent state forlnL 
in sheds or barns, where they will kcepiitM 
injury, if desired, until spring. In tbUm 
tion, however, Ihe lower parts of tbo stilt 
be found to ho quite hard and woody, m>_ 
require to he chopped into small pieces hit. 



Precaution. — Particular car 
served not to cultivate Ibis ph 
of Dourah corn, Guinea corn, nor oroi 
it hybridizes or mixes freely with lb 
which would render tho seeds of t! 
unfit for sowing. Tours, very rcspet 



1'hnuld b: 



Ohai 



3 Mas 



■,hr. del' 



meh I, 



ind nltentioi 



■f this pirn . 
trading sugar from its juice, at Cape Nalal and 
other place-, stales thai, in Ihe southeast part of 
Cnffiaria, thoro are at least fifteen varieties of it, 
some of them growing to a bight of twelve or 
fifteen feet, with stems as Ihick as those of tho 
sugar-cane (Saccharum ojfianarum). M. Vil- 
niorin, also, savs thai, in a collection of seeds 
Edit to the Museum of Natural History at Paris, 
in 1840. by M. d'Abndie, there wcro thirty kinds 
of sorghum, among tho growth of which he par- 
ticularly recognized several plants having stems 
of a saccharine flavor. Others are of the opinion 
that tho common broom-corn [llolcits Sacchar- 
tus), the chocolate or Guinea-corn (Sor^num. 
rulgtire), and tho Chinese sogar-cano (Snrghum 
saccharatum), all of which, containing inoro or 
saccharine iimller, belong to the fame species, 
are variations canted by differences of soil 
and climate, or by n disposition lo sport, after 
the manner of Indian corn and other plants under 
cultivation. The Chinese sugar-cane, however, 
differs from the others, in containing a far larger 
proportion of juice, and consequently is more val- 
uable for fodder and other economical uses. 
In 1TGG, a plant analogous to the one in qocs- 
iledopon at Florence, in Italy, 



■ 01 II 



.., J.l-ii 



' I"'!".' 1 - 



uare miles, 
1 of these 



In Ihe Unilnd Stab 
ad al very low pric, 
I present no need to 



c good people of Am 



nil. a 



rllau 



timed homes and markets of our people, if 
s desirable 10 them as to tho people ol 
ountrics. Immense regions of tbo most 
oil ever trodden by man, lying adjacent 
)clln and current of Hie Mis^ssippi river, lb 
iimdredsof miles ul its course, as well as . 
ivc salt-marshes along our sea hoard, 



1. of Ihe 



e tbiiii in 



by I'll 



.1 Anlni 



., for 



a of : 



ig«r 



she 



must have been of a dilfeieut variety, 
bes its seeds as of a clear brown color, while 
of the Chinese sogar-cano arc of a shining 
ack. nnd in aonearanco identical with those 
, of the old collections. 



of the Sorghi 

'The Chinese suglr-canc, when cultivated on 
ordinary land, in tho United Slates, somewhat 
after the manner of broom corn, grows la n bight 
of from eight to sixteen feet, while in Europe it 
docs not attain much more than half of 111 is alti- 
tude, lis stems are straight and smooth, often 
covered with a white bloom, or down, having 
Lave; somewhat flexuous, falling Over ond greatly 
resembling in appearance those of Indian corn, 
but more elegant in form. When cultivated in 
hills, '-outlining eiyhl or ten siilks each, it puts 
forLli ut its lop a conic il panicle uf denso flowers, 
green at lli-st, but dunging into violet shades, 
and finally into dark purple, nt maturity. In 
id tho central and northi 



Iho United Sta 









observations made by M. Vihuo- 
as well as some experiments made in our 
thorn States, it is conjectured that, from the 
)r and fullness of the lower part of tho stalks, 
.utuinn, by protecting them during the winter, 
f would produce- new plants the following 
ng. It standi, drought fur better than Indian 



offered 10 renin 
ipencd nnd hnv 
i sufficiently it 



CBLTIVATlOr,'. 

1 Introduction Into this country, tho 
;ar-cane has proved itself well adapted 



Wo give a very inleresting letter, whiol 
find in tha Carolina Cultivator, relative) U 
cultivation of the Chinese Sugar Cane, whit 
now attracting universal attention : 

CIBOVYINO CHINESE SUGAR OAKE. 

Messrs. Editors : As tho Chinese Sj 
Cauo is nttraeling tho attention of tho earn 
nity, and as it is likely to bo of great vala 
tho farmers of tho United Slates, and at: 
have given us nn article on this subject in Ki 
Vol. XI, of tho Scientific American, I thM 
I would writu down ninl send yi.'U the rev,!: ^ 
my own experience in the growth of this [" 

Some time during tho last winter I o 1 ' 
ubout threo hundred seeds of tho " c 
Sucre" from tho Patent OfSce. whioh 1 pilot 
on tho first of May Inst, on liuid tliat bad la 
cleared three yeara ngn. I hiid tho fiold'ol 
ohooks tbreo feot apart For c 
these hills I planted the eoods of Ibis 
cane, dropping eight sends in a bill. mihQ 
thirty-seven hills in nil. I worked iho t 
precisely no I did tho corn, giving it thrcj 
nigs and threo hocings. In four u 
tbo lime the seed was planted timer 
matured. It then measured ten foi 
high, and ono inch and three- eights in diani 
at tho butt end. Tho joints nvorago 
number to Iho anno, measuring froi 
eleven inches long, tho shortest ut tho 
and tbo longest nt tho top. As soon m 
was ripe, nnothor head of seed put 
the second joint from the top, and ii 
time grow as high as tho original head, altbc 
not quito so largo. By tbo tii 

this head begun to turn dork a tl 

up from the third joint, which was ohtuf * 
size of tho lost head, nnd now a fourth bar 3 
making its appearance from tho fourth jo 
Where this shooting forth of new heads <l 
ond, if no frost should come to kill it, I cs 
tell. The roots, where I cut off som 
oanes soma titno ngo, are sending up new 
some of which ore four inches high, 
lie- ■■[■inioii tho Sorgho Suoro is 11 1 
plnnt, and would grow nil tho time if thers^ 
no severe cold to Kill it. It appears to our 
anything wo Dan plant in producing fooJ 
cattle. Tbero aro commonly twelve leniatj 
n cane, and these measure, on an average, tt"^ 
feot long, and threo inohes and a hnlf br 
Wo commonly plant two stnlks of Ci 
1 lih'l ■i'.-ht i-.iiiej in If"' -mil" .-pi.i.'o. cucli c 
producing full n.i much food ns ono stalk of til 
At this rate, which is to mo mailer of fuet,^ 
noro of ceno will produce us much fuiUrcf 
four noros of corn. But I am persiiiil'il Lh 
might novo plnntcd the cano in drill: ' " 
feet apart, dropping eight Beeds in 01 
of eighteen inches, and by this m' 
eight times us much fodder OS corn 1 

Onohcndof seed that I picked up ut 
measured three gills, aud one gill 
eight hundred seeds. I thou solool 
head, nnd measured it, and found it I 
four und a hulf gills of seed. Tho thirty-* 
llijbj thnt I planted produced three pect! 
seeds, this, after drying it two days i~ "■■ 
weighed thirty-two pounds. I hod 
squeeze tho onne, in ordor to make e: 
in sirup nnd sugnr. I mode a little 10 
I thought might press nul some of the "P' 1 
it was a failure, for want of sufficient 1 ~ 
Battened the cano, but did not press 011 
Of which the cano appeared to be full, 
u joint in my hands nftor being unit™™, 1 
Ihe roller, and ol.tnin. .1 id i linlf a g 11 ' 

which was au sweet aa any of tho m| 
sugur ouno of (bo south. I intend, Pre 
permittiug, to plant at lonst half a' " 
aprii 



■ , <iv. M--|.r. IS." 



mill a 

' a Job. MoR* 



,,-U' 



usual bight. If tho s 
the Middle States, 01 



from regions further soiith. If it 



Let Hens bit whbhb they Ouoosc 
long been a keeper of poultry, and an obarrt 
habits ; and f have arrived at tho conclosi** 
; are most prolific when loft to tholr *" 
net, as 1 think the following iiiler»Ui?. 



,f my hei" f»lj 
brood last year) formed herself y 



of a 

^^^HBhop'of; 

and from sixteen eggs brough 
Jtrong, healthy chickt 
tho hen " 



irgW.i 



.uld f 



uiporlanf 



the spring and 
... ... ".uviintaboutthc period or plant 

mg Indian cum, u fu>r which Lbey would fully ma- 
ture. One quart of needs are tumid to be-tuBi- 
ciant for an acre, if the soil bu indillhrcnt or 
pour, they may be sown in rows Or drills about 



.. ,™ the Gold-F-* 
Hamburg and the Gray Dorking D°'**| 
time of sitting, shu was several times "fTj 

eiiilenl '.l,,r.„. ivfill l'.-ic-1-.-i lll-l !'''' 



A«Amii:»iO.K.-Oi,drflb.»l*«fl 

'..«"'■■' -..rsi™ it;«« 

lij lajimloroiuuipcn, Th. 0,1 ■"» , 



mpngne. 
led T8I) years, »n. 
In circum(cronce, a 



hid P& 



THE CALIFORNIA. FARMER. 



= F- 



to call attention to Litis beautiful 
clest and One of llio most fragrant 
ribes, which can be easily cultivated 
or in the garden. We ore pleased 
ce of tbiB bulb, and tho directions 
Kgrowing, which ire find in tbo llorticullur- 
TOlb re marlis we ivitb pleasure copy, and 
iv induce many to purchase ind cul- 
autiful bulb ; and not only tllta, but 
,- of tbo fragrant and showy tribe, 
Tubcrosa, Jongullu, Tulip, Lilly, 
riles, *ft 

i.i.i .v be found at the seed stores 

[ cities. We noticed a fine collection at S. 

feed store, on California street, San 

j whom we were indebted for a few 

Rjd bulbs. Wo examined minutely the 

i bulbs, and other new plants and seeds 

interest induced us to examine, and 

t hippy to notice this house is import- 

'benelit the State. Wo retorn thanks for 

re will hand them to one who can 

e them, and grow them, and enjoy their 

We hope the citizens of San Fron- 

lisit Mr. Moore's seed store, and secure 

oibs and other valuable articles recently re- 

irn that our fellow citizen of Sacramento, 
y, his also imported afew coltectii 
add to his collections of seeds, tree 
hich he offers to bis friends at bis 



ilice grufling. (Sc 
in only be done m 
.. - 1 ■ ■ h r i ■ i pretty near 



No large fro 



kcly to tell "lor 

Is sometimes will. 

perfect mode of graftin 



g I settled Governments. Somo of thorn prnolieed 

j Inooulation. iind nsed quinine, nnd all ware eager 

;, I for trade, brine entirely dependent on English 

) I caKeo for clothing, a small piece of which would 



BOOKS, &e. 



Important Standard Pnblications 
rUBLESIJED BY 
D. APPLETON On CO. 



SEEDS. &C. 






iigh, that stands, r, 

_'OU would 111; 1 1 -■ 1 1 n 1 r 1 1.- . J 
may be made to bear 
something as good, in 1 
ixpendilurc of a couple 
ind grafting all the prin 
i|> i:-' I'jirlv in motion, 
eadiest sort for this tor 
.raciii.; nill enable any 

don't be afraid ol world 
ibber macintosh. Not 

ay be fun to you, hut ' 
Dress your taivi 



■Villi H 



agon- 
avoriie is tne nyacintb, and ce " ' 

Ulwcd . 

W retaining moisture but it will grow in, and 
ftl give us as good a bloom when planted in 
■ted as it will in the richest compost. Many 
pleoogbtto bo thankful for this spring visitor, 
1 those wbuse delicate bands put the finish to 
'beautiful stands which grace the drawing 
n, to the salamander-like men who, in a heat 
prould broil a steak, blow the thousands or 

01 a smoky hob 



I the 






There ii 



ir v 



will not 

lculatcd 
required for its growth, instead of 
" might truly bo coiled Hit 
- ; - "carcely an indl- 
. ^iuii..™ iu inu in daylight, but 
limself with two or three, ir he be 
•s, and tboy will alford gratification 



if guano and 
■bel of tbe former to foar bushels 
of the latter. The earlier in the spring it can b< 
the belter, so that the rains may carry tin 
soluble parts to the roots. A light coat of this, 
spread broad-cast, is much belter for grass than 
any other manure. 

The best top-dressing for a strawberry bed is 
burnt sods. Pile up [ho brush and rubb'i-ti iou 
have at baud in layers with the soda, and sot fire 
lo the heap; let it smoulder away for several 
days, till the wood is pretty well burnt Oat, and 
the sods well roasted. Then overhaul tbe heap, 
chop and beat it np with the spade, and. after 
loosening up the soil in tbe bed, give them o coat 
an inch or two in thickness. It will give new 
life to the plants, and sot them in a way to give 



Let e 



riMy 



:':;! ii-, 


ower pots, or thiee 
of each color, and 
if they giow them 
re smoky kitchen. 


jacinth glas 









Practical Hints far Amateurs. 



as the 



peas, for the carl) 

dig. Choose a warm, sheltered spot, oo- 
rotten stable manure and ashes in picparin 
Mil, before sowing the teed. Peas don' 

1 a hard frost, even when on rich or too high 
ud; and therefore the earlier you plan 1 
er you pick. If you have to plant i 
i pidea, yoo may hasten your crop by 
Ic drills cast and west, and setting a board 
be ground edgeways, on the north side, to 
to ejeb row. " Prince Albert" is one of the 

lobirb is an involuable plant lo those wbo 
a spring tart. You may have yours ready 
t a week before yonr neighbor's, without the 
lie or forcing, if you setyoor plants in a bor. 
on the south tide of o wall or tight fence 
lake tbo precaution to loosen up the soil 
coicr each crown or roots with n bushel 
"full or black peat earth theautumn before, 
me men are marvelous!)" fond of priming-, 
50 aboot cutting a limb here, and a branch 
i without " rhyme or reason." Don't prune 
""" branches are so 



1, ,,tl,. r 



little . 



I a shortening-back the terminal shoots, 
!«ilh a good dressing of manure, will make 
lb out strong, healllily shoots again, 
jou wish to get early crops in jour kitchen 
ID, make some boxes two feet square, and a 
[Igh. Knock them together out ol any rough 
«! and if you cannot afford to glaze tbo 
(top (and, to say the truth, it is a wasto of 
J), put a single light in— 7-bv-9. If you 
J nill or early cucumbers, melons, or loma- 
pig out 1 hole of the size of tbo box, and two 
fcbslrfeet deep, fill it with fresh stable inan- 
uxtd with litter, tread tbo manure down 
Mill there is room for six or eight inches of 
bight sell. On the Utter plant your <ecd-. 
gill soon start, with the slight warmth or 

find during »M anYstormy d^y^tm'lhc 
f is settled. Every mid day you will, ol 

positively warm days, remove 
; altogether. In this way, you 
it small cosl, a long start in ad- 
liollered growth along side, ood 
le or the bother and vexation of i; 
f from hotbeds. The boxes cost 
nake them yourself; and if laid: 
' -' ;r need for them, 



Dr. Livings tone's Discoveries. 
Tin. secret of Africa bits ceased lo bo. That 
■■ ?■•■■■ ""ii- i|iiartPr of tbe globo. last in cfriluw- 
>n — for in the geography of human advauce- 
?nt, as well as in physical geographi-. !■:■■ ;v['i 
anlways been apart of Asia— fortified nguinsi 
f.Tfi-ri-r.-. I.y it- ei.Mir.riel firm, il- Jul,, I [■.-.-,.,- 

thB fnbulous savagery of its inhabit .-mi-, uin 
ro thun nil, the uncertnin terror which 1- 
irywhero projected liko a sbnduw from tin 
unKnown, has within a few years past, lost o 
great part of its Know Nothing choruo lor. Tbo 
sources of the Nilohuva been almost reached 
The countries to tbo south of Sahara have been 
crossed nnd recrossed by white, men. Steam 
has vexed a thousand miles of the waters .if tbo 
Niger, nnd Tribunes have been regularly Ben I 
to within three or four hundred milts '■■( Hie 
1;, "L-ri,j,|ik.,l .-..-iiti.T r,f tin- country. North of 
the Capo of Guod Hope Lake Ngnmi has ra. 
conlly liddtd tLXiielhiue; to our knowledge, and 
11- Jii'i-i.ivenr, Dr. Living-lone., i- 11, .v.- uMoni-li. 
ing the lovers ef heroic perseverance nnd per- 
fect maps, by bis details of n wnlk of 2,000 
mil,-- frfltn St. Paul do Loando on the Atlantic, 
to QtiillimiMie on the. Indion Ocean. 

Dr. Livingstono is nearly forty years old. His 
Inc.' H furrowed by liurds-t.ips mid thirty lovr-. 
and black with i-^-.-.mii-.- 1,, <, Liiniior B un. His 

left arm is crushed nnd m-nvlv It. H j. I - from 

tbo too cordial embrace of on African Li,.„. i„i,1 
m-Iivei y.iirr niiiong -uvoges have given '■'- — 

African accent and great h— ; ' * 

English. Passing through 
III'- In-art of ei trui; lu-ro. nor i,s ~'i,tIi3.-,.. |,„t „ 
liclori.-s he reached St. Paul d,- L,,,,,],, [„ 
Miy. IM-I, oftwn foot journey of a iIioii-uie.1 
miles from hi* mis-km urji„n K 'ilm Bwlim 
He remained nt St. Louud,. "until U,,, ,-]„. L . „■ 

i'"- > "■ when he set nut for 1 lie uii!:i,.,r,-n E 1-1 

In Maroh ho arrive,! at Ijuillimnue. wlu-r- 1„ 
^-,i- liib-,1 up l,y .1 l!ri,i-l, mmi-of-ivar. Olitll, 
way he traced tii» [.■;!.-, uiibi.- .].,,-,■„ |,, ,),,. y_ hm 

boze, thus de ,., ruling tho cxi-Uni.-,- i„ th, 

ci-ntor nt this unknown land of a river «,„.. tw.. 
tlioii.-unil miles lung. 

This immunse slreum, whose discove 
great fniTl of the journey, is in itself ni 
-'"out parallel. But a small portii 
rs reach the nca-coast Liko thi 
n Nile, it falls through a basaltic n 
middle of its course, which reduces 
lihf,..r„ l.film l„ 20 VBrl]i . Above th 
lull- It -[.roiol- ,.iil |,..,-i„.ii, „||.- ] ll( ., ,. . , 
tilliii:;l,iimlr.-.l- of 1,,,,,,,, . i,,,",,,,,., . . U ..]. . , ._. i( {_ 

- 'ranquil strenm of a totally Jiff, r.-nt clmr 

. Its mouths seorn lo bo closing. The 
therumostwas navigablo when tho Portu' 
B » t??™- '" "' U =•«"* V.aOO years ugo, 
bn proctioubie. 



[ilhallblainolJloirli'lliDcill 



n -]i..-. il.in..- 



Tdd >Drlit i--y 
Thar -if tho nor' 



1 do— 'til a t 



Tha inn in glory, tike 1 



li radiaat of Imaori 




MAOAPtATi'S ESSAYS, 

JIILLEOUtCL 

fniii .Vi-i.-'iu, 
I'EHttV 1 



1 ■ .I-..I..C- i Id tho Yaai 

.L^..U .».. ,10..,d»- Will, -Jl.l.l HI,, l,.-,l 

SPECrATOR, TliP, ,1 S-™ EJiliun. -.-...<: full, 

tiliKi-vol.. .=™. CI01I1. 89. 
Tllli;tL-:' rilENOIl It !■: VOLUTION. 4 tpI 

Cloth, 86. t; 



a'larrrbf^ r : B0 

i:.":.i- M. HEOISTBR OF 



SOBGHO STJCEE. 

PTJHE SEED 

T1TB mlfcrlbor hcrcly ianirnn loc Planlow. Fonnon 
and OardcoE.-M of Iho l.-nlicj Suit.., ihm ho has ob- 
in R ; Potam, Ef;(, of thtj eily, tbo c 



-,of?«doflWav( 



■l,ri = iiv,- u 



llvnlnl T.-1IJ yloli 



a crop rliFj pljULLTB^mRy 



and liko J tn m. n f 0rn ^"' , cvavE n !cn't rqUl'-iy '■ ■:' 'n,'-,.' 
.k' , .V'ill 1 , 1 n''r 1 ncVitnb?rrrt C 'ob[uiaVlr^ J r U | 1 i m VMi,'o 


SEED WABEHOUSE 


l i'l - ; "■'I' 1 i.ii'.v'i'.'i: -;>:'ll'~, ■-,'.'.i', r i.!.' l 'iij- fic.vm'.V- 
















/Vli^.r'i-aul'n"™^'-' 










I'l.' 'ifir,,|ii,r-. . , r ,r.l.|. ,.- -..ri,| 1 lo l|,.- -■ i- £,. ... 


ApJjl^P"!. «vlwc, 1'lum, C&rrr, 








Important Nev7 Works, 


Ef?- ah s,„i, iv,„™„, fl Prl , A . ^ 
,.^;;' '"■■'■•;;■ '.;■■■«".■.■ [:-.' ■*;;■■■■■ r i-. sijJI^Snpiij 


SfrfSfa JUST PDBLIS1TED Bl r 








rtsiIRn ,wfor "'-° 1D ™ , " ,IWG *"SS ,1 f^?J (> 



Tlioijoillininne mcutb 
ary, nnd for 2nd ,, r ,'liiu . 



a of Ir 

?, from July t 

i il,.- .li--. 



dies i 









iplanliug a trte or shrub, don't 
■1 ptjund-fuolisb ; inolbcrwoids, 
e it loot large, as to he um.ill- 
njjle inch of its top to balance 
Heniember ihot if your treo 
nches if ltd "unshorlened," it 
-'p if properly shortened, besides 
iier Btioots ond bigger leaves, to 
s being five time* a. likely ' lu> t 

t lo turn " Drchaidist," never 
itity of trees of any nurseryman 



" cosy to say One things 



■.Jin,,,,, 
<Ho. ,.i.., r, of 



.'.'■■'■""' ' "'■■'■<'■■ .i "ilderncssofcon 

*"". u,:-U.,:t. buy i large (juanlity ; 
■ of any ni.n who is „ nn„ s „ to L» 
"luiriog tlrst .11 about hU accuracy 
S^5. Wh « "f 10 dtttlt *»" him and I ferocious n 
"° ru - iocb People, who bave tasted I tribes, bad , 



and tho hostility of tb. 



'■f .Tuly, when 'tbo 
.-r il.i April frenlii.-.K hn- 
lot, nbovo tho falls the 

n sen over liuml],,]. .,| 
rith freqc 

'hiL-lVh.' 



mid 



...-..^Bof fat t 

nd filiibuslcnng in which English merob 

now indulging. 

nprccedeuled Inarch, ulono 

whom n whito face w 



During thi, 
among savag, 

miracle, I1r.Liviiigsl,.n L ..„.,, 
gin throuch indescribable hards 
tility nf tho natives lie eunnue 
mate knowledgo of their ch, 
lii-i-lniMiii ii-jn^io to which llieii. 

w,i,i,-d ,i, L .r,- „u,i f i,.,, t i„ ,i,, ,i„ iri ,;;~ j "■„„;; 

,■1 .Nnr.ru,. s., being oil..,, „„ d rl .„ cuc a ns to bo 

' "Hi|-,-lli It rn ln-i,ri.i|iil in(,, 11 ,;■(,(,.[, puil i<| 

Hi- entile w.'iv .1,-lroyi-d I.y |1„. tonil.h. t I-- 

fly, nnd ho was too poor to purchngo a canoe. 
Lions were numerous, being wonmipod hy many 

duiioern 
"lowever, 

i-,r 

in whiuh li 

1 "-on.. In- life also, bnt ho has memoranda of 
the latitudes and longitudes of tnultitude of 
towns, rivera and mountninH, ..l.o-li -..III 



i by In 



of tin.- tribes ns tho reeopluck-B ..f ili„ ,b,|," lr i, .1 
>ls of I heir ohiefs; dungorous, too, rm bis 
nhod arm tesliGos. However, bo thinks Ihe 
r of African wild beasts greater in England 
n in Africa. Mnny of ■■=- J - 



Teward the 
lore fertile an- -.„ 
'orsbiped idols, beb' 



lulou 



md tho c 
• Thu 




........ "■■■■ , miu wnose (•nate-l solioiludl 

iraaition of tho deluge and more | heard of a leiicon. 



THE C^LI^OR^I^ 



FARMER. 



Cjp Cattfrrnria $anwr. 



T , Woodride, Slots 
Bi place on tho mala of II 
0™,^,^ «a forward to a. Itaoujh thorn, . 

Lxntu ron thi F*B*ae.-Oar eomwpt 

DD w «ddr«M u» tSUwr nt Bid FtMclKffl or Ek. 
iball be e™l oonvBoltnl for Hum- Lutturs, ** 
lo ni at altlm r 1»« »"' t» ptofT'll atWDl11 
elchwpM irill pleuM forward Umlr f»™ lo 
Franelioo, and pobHjhon 
ttmlUhoteafur ploaaol 
Eu Franctico. 



mnle by those who know nothing of the eopoo- 
ity of our aoU to produce. Wo now offor the 
following, as reliable facts: Many auluVoto.-s 
hnvo already mined more than the rate of fifty 
without effort, and we need 
Dr. J. C. Cobb 



mild thill "' 



awake to i 



Beet Sugar. 
Reoektly, the journals of San Fraoeisco hare 
been ranch engaged in a controversy upon the 
subject of Beet Sugar. Several interesting Hems 
hare been laid before Ibe readers or the Bulletin, 
Alt* and the Uorald, and we believe tho Chron- 
icle has also taken part in tho debate. This is 
well : it is a good sign, and we note with much 
pleasure the great interest Ibe press ia taking 10 
the cause of Agriculture generally, and in wool- 
growing and sugar making particularly. When 
Ibis great interest of Agrieult! 
prominent, as it will bo perceive! 
prcss_/eef its influence, and mu 
vast importance, and we certainly rcjol™ w .,™ 
how readily they lake hold of the topics that now 
form an epoch In tho development of tho true 
wealth of California. 

Onc journal is indeed cnthosiastio upon the 
prospect of California becoming tho producer of 
her own sugar, and would bo willing to crown 
tho gentleman who is new using every laudable 
means to Introduce the manufacture of 
from the Beet; and the same journal, and others, 
after giving the history of some distinguished 
manufacturer of France, whose capital used 
amounts to nearly three millions annually, pro. 
ceed lo say that to manufacture the sugar suc- 
cessfully it would require one or two hundred 
thousand dollars; but it is necessary to begin 
small— sly fifty thousand dollars j because there 
is no information relating to the success in grow- 
ing tho Beet, or the quantity that can be raised 
on the acre, and that we must therefore wait 
until the people see that it will be profitable to 
raise the Sugar Beet, 

Another journal comes out upon tho subject, 
tbHiramilhtptopU to bcwarooflbisnow enter- 
prise, lest it should provo a disastrous speculation, 
like the Moms MullicavlU, and gives as a rca- 
• *hat there is no instanceol sugar being made 
MO, . Beet, south of Lbo forty-fifth degree of 

fromtba "-. And again, the Mexican Panache, 
berth IntllotK Sugar, will more successfully 

or tho Chines* >. Just as well might 

compete against ibelu -ainst any manufacture 
same argument ho us^d •,, v ond II 
that was never introduced in, ">ce 
lode. WbllewoyierdduoderW ' chair, and 
experienced brethren of the edfWftt. "*ol 

While we are glad to note (Ma rffeeUs*. 
must bo permit! ed lo express an opinion. iUh->. 
it tnnydlffer widely from all that has been wfiitar, 
and Ibis opinion, we know they will cheerfully 
admit is offered with the same motives Oat 
prompted them lo act — the general good ; though 
iinaj- take different trays of attain iog it. 
In "" " rst P' 1 ™. *° beljevo tho honor of 
making **" ^rst sugar in California justly belongs 
to a Mr. 1 ^o*^*n<l his friend, who made end ex- 
hibited Ibir.'-f poinds Beet Sugar, nt too laic 
S^BtcFni^BtSa■-■ , Joaf.and lowham wefiawarded 
-a special premium for the same, and tho diploma 
IbeState is now the evidence of ibis now man- 
^luro, and the person to whom belongs the 
jonor of the first attem- ro i n irodueeit, Wesay 
this much as „„ w t of josUea » Mr. Rose, for we 
taw the first sugarinthc process oi manufacture; 
tnd if »r M «* m a two-hundred-thousand-on-llar 
"ip of a houso on 



only give ono foot to E „ 

of Son Jose, the Treasurer of tho Stulo Agri- 
cultural Society, raised in 1655 upon ono-o.ghth 
of an ncre, seven tons of Sugar Beet nnd thoy 
woro not thickly grown, either— nnd tho Beets 
weighed thirty, forty and fifty pounds enoh; tho 
last year, '56, ho planted one-tbird of an acre, 
and sold tho orop standing for §125, leaving o. 
certain portion to himself for seed-tho amount 
lokon off was seventeen tent, end two more re- 
mained for seed ; and theso Beets weighed frotr 
thirty to sixty pounds caoh ; a Beet of twenty- 
five pounds was considered small— and this oroi 
ilurnod without effort. Wo bavo sooi 
other crops, of enormous amounts; Messrs 
Guild & Brown of San Jose, who product tho 
largo Beat of onn hundred nnd tbreo pounds, 
had also a very Inrgo orop and of the lorgest 
sized Beets, and this too upon laud called "nl- 
kalio soil." Wo examined the land, and saw the 
flurfnen wbita with this property, yet tho Beet 
seemed lo grow bolter hero thnn nny whom else. 
As to the properties of the Beet for sugar as 
grown in California, wo bavo no doubt of the 
richness of this vegetable, or that it contains- as 
much saonharino mailer as any ever produced in 
France; therefore wo have facts enough to prove 
we can 'not only raise tho Beet, but in such quan- 
tities per acre as to make Its cost only about one- 
third thai of France, 
one fact certain, relative to tho eulluro 
of tho Sugar Bed— there is no root crop that 
will pay as well for food for slock, and wo are 
astonished that farmers do not grow it morr 
abundantly. Tho average price has been glO pel 
ion ; but at §5 it would yield §250 per acre, and 
nt small cost of raising. Wo bavo nol tho least 
shadow of doubt, but that land deeply and finely 
plowed would produce seventy-live tons per acre, 
nnd wo really hope some persoo who understands 
Ihe cultivation of root crops will make a care- 
ful experiment upon this Beet the coming year. 
Wo shall present mure facta Ibe coming week, 
id shall be glad to offer our columns to any oi 
all who feel an interest in this subject. 



of Europe may not understand it, it will not bo 
lung before Ihe Pomologist, of Caiifornxa W.U 
Wo also inform our friend that "Lougworth s 
Proliflo" strawberry ia not only well known hero, 
hut is extensively cultivated and highly a ppro- 
iated. We have seen some small ones, measuring 
only Ave or six inches in circumference, grown 
tho beautiful "Stockton Ranch" at Santa Clara, 



under Ibe charge oi 



ir roost earnest nnd 



quarter or oi 



California Grapes. 
Tub following letter addressed to SI. Keller, 
Esq, of Los Angeles, from the celebrated wine 
maker of Cincinnati, Ohio, will be read with io- 
by all who are interested in tho vino. 
This letter was published in the Los Angeles 
and several other journals, and wo hnpe our vino 
grower, will carefully nole Mr. Longworth's re- 
marks. This letter of Mr. L.'s is in reply to a 
from Mr. Keller, who sent grapes lo Mr. L. 
for bis opinion and trial : 



.f trrij •--. lira daysi 
ics were very large, and 
have sent ono bunch 
■cultural society lo-mor- 



*iS 



Dear Sir: Your lew 
days since ; and the boi 
in fine order. The bui 
the grapes very sweet, 
for exhibition at our he 
row. and two others to our lending ii-aw 
Tho seed will ho distributed, though I bi 
moeh hope ol its bearing our climate, or 
well in the open air. I have never seen 
European grape III 



■a paid a heavy charge. If they 
ty steamer lo New York, care of 
il k Co.. they would have cost 
bad grafts sent me by a private 
York, from San Francisco, and 
-antile house from whon 
and they came in a b 



thusiastic cultivators. I. F. Kennedy, Esq, who 
has done much to awaken a duo interest In tho 
causo of Horticulture. 

Mr. Longworth oan dn ua all good in Califor- 
nia, if ho will communicate with hia friends hero, 
of whom ho has a groat many ; nnd wo should 
liko muoh to make known his viows upon tho 
vino and its culture, ond tho strawberry also, 
through our columns, whioh would roaoh many 
warm-hearted oultivntors who would bo glad to 
hear from him. Wo further add that wo do 
bavo ioo in California, nnd aro beginning to 
have our own fee kotaei, and famish our own 
ice— so that soon we need not aond our money 
lo Basting nor Sitka, but keop it and give it to 
oor own people for tho labor of getting out ioo 
and building ico houses, nnd planting vineyards 
and making champagne and all other kinds of 
good mine ; and our friond Longworth will re- 
ceive samples of California winoa of Messrs. 
Kohler & Co.'s celebrated mako, probably bo- 
re or about tho time bo receives this informa- 
<a, as wo know this boaso has sent him some 

Wo shall always tnko pleasure to post oor 
frionds up on theso subjects, if thoy will write 
us from tho East, but wo do know thoy are very 
muoh in tho dark relative to 
California, and Bomolimes wo 
those persons spoken of in I 
■'thoy havo ears hut thoy mill not hear, and 
tyu hut they vail not see, lest thoy become 
converted," ond come to our country, where 
thoy can enjoy tho best nod riohest country 
over vouchsafed to man ; or it may bo, ns wo 
sometimes fear, nay, wo know it tho press at 
tho East keep back these 'foots, lost there bo a 
second exodus and the people leave there to come 
we will try and spread theso facts 
before them for their benefit 

Haw they Spunk of California. 
We havo often complained that the Press in 
Ihe East bold back the true condition of Cali- 
fornia from tho people, or thoy so garble their 
articles as to show us in Ihe most unfavorable 
light ; and il is this action that Is preventing Iho 
emigration wo should otherwise have. W-e hav 
spoken of this fact in another column, whore w 
publish a letter from Mr. Longworth on the Call 
fornia Grape. 

Here we shall copy an article entire from 

paper that wo always hold in high repute, an 

often quote from as a very valuable paper. Bi 

wo must now speak of this article, because it i 

California, and to Ihe interest involved, 

should correct a most egreglt 



cost tho dimes. - 

hundred dollars, too. Let us Anally infoi 
friends of Life HluBtrstcd, that If they had given 
the source from whence Iboy dcrl.ed such reli- 
able (1) information, wo wonld send tho writer 
the reports or tho Stato Society ot tboir late An- 
nual Fair, and this might open hia eyes a little. 
A word mora and wo have done. Wo were at 
Mr. Appleton's apiary In the middle or January, 
the hcesbil5ily engaged bringing In upon 
their loaded bodies tho material fi 
and thoy will tell thisseribhler thi 
flowers and honey cupa, too, oven 
of California. 

\Ye publish below a valuable item from lbo 
Patent Office Report, on the care of Iho boo, in 
support of our argument, that tho swarms natu- 
rally formed are better and more profitable than 
those artificially mado. 
Statement of Henry Eddy, "f^^^t 



Quid SlBcovorlco. 

Tns; news from the gold diggings la of a 

dorful character, so much so as almost to i 

credible. Wo do not publish half we s« 



half I: 






i indeed o 



tho 



rcil,. 



r their bi 
it ihoy can find 
in tho winters 



wafer, Phpnohth count./, jMewiocAuieifi 

relation to Bees. 

I Diva had much experience In tho produi 
of "artificial colonies," and also In what Is termed 
the "non-swarming" system of bees. Rot I have 
abandoned bolh, and am satisfied that tho bees 
know the best lime and modoof conducting their 
colonization. I do not feed my bees with tho 
expectation of obtaining thereby surpluB honey 
for market ; for no one receives back the 
hv ihus feed*, and what ho does receive la not 
much changed nor improved. I adopt tho natural 
system of swarming, destroy no bees, but keep 
them alive and at work ; and, if 1 have any advant- 
age over others, it consists in placing them in 
circumstances under which foil scope is given to 
lliL-ir iri-nncls. My profits from bee culture sel- 
dom foil from the loss of colonies in wintcr.or by 
depredations of the bee-moth at other seasons. 
By the mode I pursue, certain swarms are made 
to nay in the increase or slock and honey, a prom 
o( 100 per cent, while others give from 500 to 600 
per cent The average profit upon ray entire 
stock, for several years, has been 327 per cent 
n. I accomplish this by tho use of n 

■plus honey sells readily in market for 
25 cents a pounu\ 



irffcr 

person to R«W 

nls buy fiooffli, ^^i ^ fnsh ^ w [jBn 

thc*s. Thoy were nv < balforthrec qoar- 



n RcAucns. 
letter of t 

Agricola, upon Sci 
Omega's letter 
each and both, i 
perusal. 



Wo oall especial attention 

■ valuable correapondent 

co for Farmers, and to 

Popular Education. Theso, 



particularly worthy of careful 



II V.i 



„.„ I can send yun some irae neu . - i , 
bears a full crop of Urge P^^'j 



iliu .!■ ■■.jiii-itioii of California by tho 
ho honey-bee was, wo bclicvo, a 
stranger to its climate and its flowers. Thoy 
existed in great numbers as far weft as Texas, 
and perhaps still farther; but in this land of 
flowers those little architects, "the busy bees," 
did nut "jiather honey all tho day from every 
i.|n.iiiii^ ri-.u.T." Si net- tlii.ri.iiiur|irise has intro- 
duced them at great expense and trouble. Shel- 
ton, that undisciplined but ardent lover of nature, 
who Iravcrwd the Stale, making collections of 
minerals ami plurii-, Mi'l -»|'|".'i ling himself by 
collecting ihu feeds of tho bcauiiful wild (lowers, 
for sale, was the first, we think, who made Ihe 
trial of bringing hives of bees from tho East by 
sea and over ihe ImIiiiiii*. -liorlly before his un- 
timely death br the cspto.-iiuii of the ill-filed 
.kU-amer Jenny Lind. How, or whether hie bees 
Unlimited, »e do nol know, but ot any rate ihcy 
are now inhabitants of California. Wo f " "*' 
re-itl k of their busy industry yesterday, 
\\';i-.l.ii>!;ion Mitrkii. There were the great folds 
ofcouib, the colls foil of honey, white and clear, 
at live- dollars a pound. Another lot, the color 
of amber — ''the tears of tho gods" — colored fr 
ring been ma nufnc lured by the bees from the 
' i half 

'{ 111! 



Viii.ri!l'ii'.t'.iry, tm$ 

Keaxnv street, and tho cauldron was acommon 
rtew not; the Boots wero raised, by iho mano- 
/aclorcr. seed planted in July, and tho Sugar 
ezhihittd in LWaoer-and this is the beginning 
of tho sugur manufacturing in California, whioh 
..hall, within ten years, .count in millions of 
■dollars annually. 

And bow ofow words relaSvo to tho capabil- 
ity .of our olimeto to produce the Boot in aoffi- 
sliont .quantities and of .a character to mako 
-ood^upir, and make it profitable. Inopinion* . wtOB „ B .„„„„... — . 

' uy ns at former times, in our joumel, sball know the results o( the expenmenMn ptot- 
* lave always. nsscrtod that success would \ inf , lhiw l „. our California gropi 
Vnfl lhfe manufacture in . California, .and 
„ n , only before, but knaw,.that it oan be pro- I ^ ^worthy parlici 

tL «*«» oWper than by any other process worthi firing Ibe h.story of Ihis grape , ask 

a ""_ -«™„™ I .r J ,lifoxma, li. «nurs a native of your regionl Have y 

ita wild slate 7 Myebampange 



and ia many vii 
the ground. I 
talking for roe ( 

¥ J5-— Do joe 



tyards the vines wtre 

,ust close as there is 

avoid mistakes. 

nrft trulv N. LOHQWSUTH. 

h«eic£-ifso,howibiek.* 

eb Sn- 









did i 



B- '. doubtless that price is tow enough 
*»v v is considered, and also that Hi 
,. . scaTO, nufaclurcs paid ono hundre 
owner of thO' rt^- Everv thing is worth win 

(l„lbrs.->ir I'nohrW.- -. f t [„ doubtful il bd 
il uill lelerr m_merit^ ^ Utilb1o !n lnis ,.„ mil , 

will siiccec/. wrll, u. uaf" ., lsr Llla , , hu bcQS c 



hope tho sketch of tho Drainago of Haarlem 
Lake, which wo give from Ihe Report mado to tho 
Bureau of Palents, will receive duo attention. 

It is hardly necessary to say a word for Alice, 
for sho has spoken for herself so happily that wo 
can only say, sho roust have had pleasant dreams 
over that "cake" of ■■Katie's." For ourselves, 
we wish somebody would get married often, if 
the cake would always bring us such dreams. 

The letter of W. S. <3. on Post>oflico matters, 
is of Borious moment, nnd wo have no doubt will 
receive tho attention it desorvea at "hood quar- 
ters." Wo suffer in common with others, and 
shnll be glad to hear from all who have sirailnr 
coses of W. S. G. Another week wo will hnvo 
something to ony of Post Office offairs. 

Wo regret we could not present the nrticles 

Sheep Raising, Wool Growing, ond Rico 

Planting, this week; but somo fnola did not 

Fwes. — ''It ia nn evil wind that Wowb no 
good." Tho fires nt Saoramcnto nnd San Fron- 
sco, tho post wock, although of serious loss to 
inny individual.-!, results ill good to the publio, 
for tho buildings lhat woro destroyod woro not 
of much value, and will bo roplaood by valuable 
structures that will add beauty and strongtb to 
offer mora protection for the 
future against tho ravages of this fell destroyer. 
And while wo truly sympatliiao with the hnrd 
working and industrious, who bavo been thin 
beroft ia soma coses o their all, we can say to 
them, they ore not alona in their trials — thou- 
sands hnvo suffered boforo them, and tbey must 
not be faint-hearted, hat put an good couroga 
and up und "try again." 

We particularly regret the loss by our friend 
Mons. lltcard, tho florist, who was burned out 
on Wnsbiugton street, San FranoUco. Ho was 
industrious florist, and suffered severely, 
having lost nil. We hopn his muny froinda will 
give him a benefit by liberal pntronngo, when 



wealth i that Is, if wo con keep the galdian,! 

country, and glvo it to our working-moo, ]v| 

' California belongs to Califoro'u, u 

itended by Providence to ho otd t 

build up California, to Improve her lands, ^ 

houses, workshipB and menu foe lories, railro^ 

wagonroads, Ac : and when our legislation ^ 

i for California and California intcresls,U«Dt, 

ay expect a greater degree of prosperity thJ 

o now enjoy. 

Tho following aro a few of tho items wo gife 
Tho Sonoma Herald reports from that vidnij; 
Aiken & Co. aro washing with two il«„ 
glOOOpcrdayi tho Columbia Company, fc.;.; 
tho Fair Company, with one aluice, 8500, a] 
nearly every company there ia doing well. 

Tho Butte Record Bays Lbo quartz lud ( 

Mcssre. Williams & Co., is opening very rii 

and other lends give promise of graal prospiri, 

Wo also And tho following account from Crs 

"""""'■ o™».«.o,„.j«,.aid 

Mebbbs. Wells, Fahoo & Co.: Web*J 
Inst received at ihis place, some astounding an, 
which, being of interest to every ono, I lay btt, 
you, under an extract from a letter received U 
day by Mr. W. Stnilb, of this city : 

"Dear Brother : Times aro very dull her 
ith great excitement. Mel 
taken out from their claim one lump oi » 
■iphinf, one hundred pounds; one ditto fr« 
twenty-live 10 twenty-six pounds; one dtllofe 
to twelve pounds ; and upwards of ono hunfe 
pounds in small pieces. Thoy say that theyh 
token out upwardsof §100,000. Thevhavewt 
on a spreo for tho last three day? at our ston 
r Prrrn B. Ssiin, 

"Mb. W. Smith, Crescent City." 
The above is an extract copied by nit Fnv 
personal acquaintance with the Messrs. H-miit, 
pronounce litem persons in whom every reliuo 
can bo placed. This story, wonderful as iliM 
to some oxtont corroborated by Messrs. Sibk 
Rice & Guthrie, residents of Sailor Diggings, it 
are woll-known in San Francisco, and wbo a 
there this trip per stcainet Chimin:,, 'lliey m. 
that Sheriff IlenrLr.-bulL, .,f Jo.-tphino con:! 
told them lhat ho sow [Sucker Creek is in J» 
phine] himself, in tho possession of McDwui 
& Co., one pii.<:e ■■]' ,.->H i-.-ei ; ;!nr,;.' :iU."ji. '■-. 
pounds, and a camp-ketLle full of the um[| iJ 
lhat they (McD. & Co.) had lold him, ( Rento 
holt) thot they had in their possession Lhelanj 



"i 



mpsci 

Sucker Greek is 



LanoE C*i 
presented with oi 



-We hav 



:nki^ 



of the finest CaulifloororH . 
raised, and we venture to oti 
never beaten. It was raised by Mr.CI. 
Zeirwullett, a practical gardener, of Yolo coo* 
nd weighed twenty-two pounds. Anolhtr » 
hw weighed eighteen pounds. Beat this, je 
deners, if you can ! 

Shipment op Treasuue. — The shipment 
treusuru bv the mail -tei.nier Smiorii, yestfrifl 
" 81,670,6u7 7C— an inorew " 
8137,02'! 44 over tho shipment by tho CMta 
Gate, Janu ary 20th. 

PROSPECTUS 
VOLTTME VII. I 

CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

TUB CALIFORNIA FARMER was wubluW* 
Joaaarr, lBH; its aaeecai ™«pi" 



"o'fr'lnTrilwo^ 


l.ili 


„ 


Mr 






























oanoiTcounlrr, 

and impedimcnl 

oulb Of hti brookln 


':::, 


"5, 


11 1 


r 'ih"t*Sr* 






■i" 





It will be noticed with pleasure how mueh m 
erostia shown for our g-apo, and wo bono- w- 



sldoration. Mr. Long- 



of bn '"©"B "6" to Colifornja. L is yours 

It m*? mtbeeeneraily.known, yet Buchm seenitin™ 

the fact, that large Vm^^ BoBt Sugar *" nbc ^ T le,iBiQ0 " " '^ * ' 
— uually Imported into our filato .fromi'rance | U ero wodw 



i only during i 






of thanes 



nnd Germany, and used in making -aiiaps and 1 „i n0 m »U er s.lnlhe country, 
confociionery and other ways, besida».famU" nso champagne grape, and thiB 
mnorally- Any ono detkous of seeing Beet fully noted. 
H™, can eawly oeo a very superior gaollty at We are -somewhat surprised 

toow Sirnp Manufaelory of Turner, Lueslians asked by ilr. Long worth, for 

Market street, vfho being the suppose a person « celebr.Ud » is Ih.sdistin. 
of Ginger Wine, Syrups guUbtd gentleman, would bo better posted in 
consequently largo importora | l.tion lo a country like Call fornia- that 



t hybcrnalc. b-it,cat,rtwJO(, 

,llo, besides, the l!e.vier.= c^'' n '- 

rtio'n or \lie year. Yet, tbsy 

■ney every year irfGlfia. 

The article appears lo come, from /jorue 

cr in California, In whole or in nart.; ..nil *'- 

ougli ho seems lo know a little of.^ha cnte- 

dents of Iho bee In California, ho to_._eKhfir 

grossly Ignoranlof Ihcir present nelfare hero, M\ 

Ira willfully misrepresents it. Ho may hoag on, 

either hom of tho dilemma; and as wo publish 

Ihe arliclo entire, our readors.can see how much 

be Is out of tho way. 

To (he points of his argument, against, the heo, 
e shall m answer only say: There Is no doubt 
of making them 



■ e>[uiiis iigmii 



:raft,haifailhloborr 



:.v,; :,■: 



. Jf 111, j:«lW» 



largest mauuta 
( «,0 Cordials, e 



y would b 



of sugar, and thoy 

California Beet Sugar very promptly. 

But to ibe capacity of our climate and Mil. 
ta rising the Sugar B«t-in November l^t, 
ovo staled, in remarks upon this subject, lhat no 
gantry could compete with as in raising the 
Boot, and asserted that fifty loi 



o long to produce better wine, ay 



Vict "should" bo caw- I profitable} neither Is there so short a winter as 1 
" lo give lbo required reii lo the bee; no 
rcra deficient; nor do they eat all the year 
nd ; but far to the contrary, for wo can prove 
t In no instance in tho history or Ibis wonder- 
ercatoro has there over heon so greet success, 
is can be proved by F. Q. Applcton, of Santa 
Judge Daniels, of San Jose, and many 



he raised', 



ia woa esteemed b 



lined 

diampagne p"'""" '""'"""" " | n, km state Foir. And as to the profit, the 

champagne ut IjmigvtoiHi MmsetJ. I ' ,,,, , . 

W, late tills opportunity to say to Mr. Long- writer himself speaks of tho "great folds of comb 
«orlh that the sul.Ject-of which he speaks, the and cells full of honey," selling at lioo dollar, per 
-soxual chwacter.of the aurawbery," though not pound. Another lot of amber color, which he 
jenernlly understood, Ubesinninglo receive due I calls tbo "te.rsof the gods," at 
high nn.0Btt-'l alteoUon,; and .although ±m says "■■ 



tho famed Cataviba others who cihibiled hives of bees and honoy i 



o flo(QJiu'< 1 a-halfper uound." 



Our National Legislature. — Soon 
delegation from California will bo at tfaeit \ 
a Congress, nnd wo shnll bo fully nnd strongly 
epresented in Congress, and may wo not expeot 
a see California rocoivo hor portion of Ibe pro- 
tection and houuty of our pacont legislature. 
To represent n Statu liko ours nt Washington 
|ii indoad a high honor, and what honor can a 
rpau desire- greater thnn to stand in that most 
ijnlted position — a Senator at Washington — to 
a present tin cb a Stato as California, nnd labor 
for her. welfare. 

Wo lank Kith strong hopes to the future. 

Leoihlatios. — V'"- California Legislature is 

twin session. .(low muoh depend* upon tho 

ition of tho preeont ^noinbcrsl Wo behove 

O have good men in our. -Legislature, men that 

regard tho .welfare of tho.-Stota Jn spito of the 

railings and cnvilln^s qf Jtaxty, nnd wo hopo 

that wo shnll hnva a duo proportion. oi (lie time 

tbo Workingmun's interest, and that 

Agriculture, Manufactures and tho Moohaoic 

Arts, will receive n full proportion of'thelintox- 

Olt, labor nnd warm sympathies of 

and Hep rose ntnttves, 

Battlk op Bunkbb Hitu— This attractive 
diorama is now drawing largo audiences. ,It is 
truly worthy of a visit ; and Iho ventriloquism of 
« Monte CrFsio,".is most, remarkable, The nUnlo 
exhibition Is commendable. 



Ti, than wn u aro «iria K era to us »°<1 ll1 ?. >™L. 
pebll-b.^on.-iin 1 .r,...,i lbo l.'M.i, ,m.«- '" £j, 

*Z a B r J°™ ,iU tZ Ko^rJmTvtJJga 

j-V.'-V:;,' --=\-"-!" '';.,':'■■:'■".. "t .1 

Tho Callfornm Parinor-lll .InajJtako »^'L»J 

U. c.l,il.li:h, Inillil op unit inalw V'•"i■"■^■^ ':'.. :i-"' 
i. 1 ,.:i..,|.. u ..i l i.i . Fre. rr..,n C "rnr jl "- 1 ''..-.,-.- 
.-.r I.- il l.i j., llm Farmer ™illoi-ff»oi"" li1 "' ;".,.- i,l"' 
So moKenarj inlcrut or inllucOCii OP" 11 ; J,.. 

!'.'■■ to nlsail. _ „, li^lM 

TV uur frltnd. ami Pnlre-ns vi m ^^V .!\ ii-' 

«™ n ™^™I°tflll?; 1 1 ™^n« 1 i ; wiiV' a ii >'■■• '; V 



in llti, Gutom Siilu and Eu™*, »J ^■'% a A J 

fnmlti or Iho TorriloriiM nhom 11 won* W ^> •■ 

ehaa^and "riodla^lhovoi vtla^r« 

Ihedo.i.Hm.utofE.luoatloa.otll^^ 

... It.j. aatl Ihii ileparlnwat »• art ■» M 

lariolj inorouoJ dn, Ins Iho H"- „„ M«"*^Sai 
Culllvatoniof Iho Soil, M° nur * rlu ! ™ r ftB" t 9 g# f 
lantalmuiecauf nrw|Biil7»' ll *»r rl J I j ! «iWl 1 ^| 
tlltod lo oorreiHood will uli Uwlr*» M 

tort ralulblo. , ii,f.l! ('»»*;■' 

Ai a Family Journal, tu "'^"'^t^iU'Zt 1 
llov. wo can offor ono u -orlhf ^.^M^aV 
journal nun Iwuod. A„ an Ad« J \^" tt " 
/ully equal to th«b».ii andehotrruiij" jaj 

mrltun.and atiiilo Ibolaao &,irt»< 1, *5B 

Jauoary, IBtT. 






THE OALIFOENIA F A-RMEK. 



LETTER HO, IL 
I Editors Pap-WKB : la mv first letter I set oat 
I with tho assertion, that I should endeavor to ea\ 
I grat a few practical ideas on lho cause of Populi 
Bdnration. It is much easier for o child, in 
I broad field, where every change of the nye presents 
I new objects of attraction, to wander where fnncj 
leads, thui to travel in (he path which reason dio- 
! tiles- It is also easy to promise ; bat it Is a difli- 
I calttasl fora poornrtisttocondcnse,ii 

the broad landscapes stretched ont before him. 

I said in mjr Erst letter, thai "wo wool a system 
of public instruction which shall embrace Primary. 
I Intermediate, Grammar, and High Schools, with a 
State University at their head ;" the system should 
llso have a prescribed coarse of study, and 
of text books. The benefit of system in pablic 
Instruction, as in all other things, \i so evident, 
that I feel that I should be imposing on the good 
sense of your readers by arguing itancccs;" 
it not, that in so doing, I may call their attention 
to the present condition of the schools. Loos: at 
them — ia what condition are they to educate the. 
childrea of the State ? With the exception ofoao 
city, where can you Sad a single creditable school 
building! With the exception of three ar four 
cities, where can you find two schools nsiag like 
books? Then, there are as many methods of 
teochiag as there are different teachers, and as 
many different courses of study, t am informed 
by the 3 lite Su peri u ten dent, Hon. Paul K. Hnbbs, 
that the schools are not open an an average, over 
fire months in the year ; consequently it almost 
variably results that as often as the schools are 
opened a new teacher is engaged, and a now system 
of instruction introduced. This is of 
jury; for, not offering permanent employment, 
teaching Is entered into by those who happen lo 
be nut of business with a view only to presen 
eessities, aad without a thought of making 
profession. It also leads to the employment or 
men on account of their cheapness; thus sacrificing 
fitness Tor th_- l,a;io..-.vi i>i sli'Tt-.^ighted economy. 
So general is this, that few schools can be found 
above the grade of primaries; nnd we have pre- 
sented to our vision tie three ofa State educating 
lis children in symbols, and neglecting to coltivote 
thonghU; teaching [hem the signs of ideas — the 
mechanical rudidi.nts — then k-aving them just at 
the paint where education truly begins. 

Here let me digress a moment lo say a word 
about the necessity .1 the immediate establishment 
of the SLale University, and a preparatory High 
School, which could be connected with it at very 
littls additional expense. 

Our Stat*', unlike the States of the East, has but 
Tew children indigenous Lo the soil. We have no 
Infancy, that we may wait Tor time to : 
institution*. Our State has sprung into existence 
full grown, end has now more than twenty- 
thousand children in its schools ; by far the larger 
part of this number are from the East. They 
left excellent tohools behind them, and if wo expect 
to give them opportunities Lo pursue their educa- 
tion, our Bcb iol- lun^l nnt Lo couliutd to primaries 
alone. We cannot wait for the country to become 
thickly populated ; our children are hero, many of 
Ihcm young men nnd women who have passed 
through the lower grade of schools, in their old 
homea, and now require the advantages ufnhij 
order of instruction than our present system ofFrec 
Schools can afford. It is for such, that we require 
» Slate High School nnd University. Their 
commodntions need not be extensive for the present, 
yet wo require them both, and immediataly. We 
have, to t>e sure, private high schools, private 
seminaries, and private colleges— all institutions or 
undoubted preieusiuns ; yet :o much great* 
reason for mam completeness in our present system 
ofSiale schools. The fact that private iuatitu- 
tioos of Lhi?\jj.-\- nr.j -iipported. is eouclu.iire evi- 
dence to my mind, that ihe Stole University, with 
■ preparatory high school, should be established. 
It Is also evidence, of Lhe financial ability of (ho 
Stale. For ir Lhu people, individually, can sup- 
port such c^tulni-limviilJ, [lii-T cin. eolL'.-:liu:!v 
pay a bx thnt would support them; and their 
support would not, as now, fall entirely upon ooa 
class. Bui, with proper legislation, lhe University 
•ad a High School might be uddtd to thu system, 
i at once, without additional taxation 

brancc lo the School Fund. Their establishment 
Would, in addition, hind tn introduce rngulr 
and harmony in the lower but mora extended 
branches of thu system. A regular conrto of 
studies- would hovo to bo pursued in our Com- 
ils, in order to reach tho High Schools; 
n Lho High School, to prepare for the Univer- 
Tho University would givo the Common 
Sohooli Lachers, and thus we should introduce 
into tho syHl.i.i rimiluriiy in teaching, in books, 

r present School Law provides, (hut tho 

i Bjnrd of Education shall rocommond n 

is of Text bunks for tho schools, but docs 

not make their uso obligatory; nnd the provi- 

witbout any force. If Buob a provision 

il worthy of recommendation, it is worthy of 

enforcement; the uso of lho recommended 

, Buries in a echoul should bo made one of tho 

conditions of its receiving a shore of the Statu 

fund. But we ab.uld go further than tbifl, wo 

•huuld prusoribo nnd enforce not only a regular 

• Mrios of Text book*, but «hso co 0re0 „f staiy 

Children would not theu, will, ovcr y ohango of 

JMidanCu, he undor the necessity of purchasing 

BOW hooks nnd of changing lho order of their 

_ ThLi ibould bo tho first stop towards 

educing regularity into oar schools. 

Tho idea was advanced ul tho Stato Tcucb- 

" ■' Convention, held at Benioio last fall, by two 

roraineut educutional gentlemen, that "it is 

ot only the ri K hi of thu parent lodiclaLo to tho 

"dier whnl his children *Uull study, but also 

to province of the teacher to seek out the pe- 



culiar tondonoy of tho pupil's mind, and to i 
courage that tendency." In other words, 
find in wliut branch of learning tho scholar is 
smartest, that be may be taught that, to 
oiclusion of all others. I must confess that 
while I think that such views must be sabser- 
sive of all order in our suboots, thoy are nlso 
quite contrary to my ideas of tho object of a 
item of education, 
But, Messrs. Editors, as my letter is already 
as lung as I thiak any ono can be indaoed to 
read, I shall reserve tho balance of my remarks 
on this subject for my next letter. 

Respectfully, yours. Omega. 



BOOKS, &c. 



SCHOOL BOOKS FOR THE UNION. 

National Series of Standard School Book), 
PUBLISHES BY 
BARNES Oc CO., 




H. S. BURG-ESS. 

ipurWr, Wasfeuta ocd Deill Dclui 

DRUGS, MEDICINES. 
Paints, Oils, Perfumery, Brushes, 

No. 2G0 J Street 

(OPr-OfllTE THE PUBLIC SQUARE), 



Notice. 

rrtllE Cupaitnenhlp bnrcmfor 

». ud being oniiiiaj w ^ink:.. e ■X'"i "', 



1 ■ i 1 1 1 : ' , i . v 
>bi. Auonicj, una, 
i.r.iv^ni j,.ise:h .., i 



anting lI«,ol old 



Db. o. g. DAlfDEK, 
DENTIST, 

HO. 113 Uoulgamery street, 



mi 



To Butchers. 

S-U'EAfiE SKINS ,i:,-|, IIK.Ki.nV tKKWEIla- 
CuniUnllj on hoiid and form Id hi 

tVLJJ :,..i,..s i, TA1IER, 

lVbglcu'e «ni Jlcull Grown, 
ln = So 110 Ktnraj. Irani. 



B MOVINQ DIORAMA 
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, 

TUB COYFLAGRATIOS OP CHAILLESTOWN, 

■ h\U m EVEBV EVENING: (S UD d.„ aceplri), it 
CONCEBT HAIL 
"■- "-lebmoi HnilcLu >al Vcolrttonuln, 

Monte Ci-falo, 



"E X C ELS I O R." 

WALTER k TOMPKINS, 

GENERAL OUTFITTERS, 

(Seniliiimi'jJ &j parti, 

No. 170 JUonleovury Street, 
\ SAN FRANCISCO. 



DR. S. p. ELLIOT 

N09. 4 -A.ND e 

ourt Block., Clay atreol, 



Ith^rluthoSticll. Jjmil, I i-i-,1 ... .^i | , lu .j :„' 

lilclimin <l}ln, ul '■IM.V.-r,Y-l|;i!.-.w.,"i';." 
Fiiti ihii »ri>o'-l«ir- tio'uro or .ifinr, ovnry oihnr db 
■ nioliu, luch oi Lbi.-a ivl,„ nj.i r.. .-i.i,: , : ,. 1: | ,(,!„ 

^i i o.avb (i'imi.ii jai.imi:,-; 

Sun Pn.i 



Hop Eoota, Horse Radish &n 

T»IIE rnrj bet v.rl.tj mul ,„«,, r' ILl ^ 
»t thn.t wiiaj. Al^-Uom lUdisb f ip, ,„, yZ 
» , » ° f . mUln e plnntetlooi ul Ibn III 

:lkr iiinL,: n|,i.|iu(inn mm. 
Order. Inft with COL. WARREN, or thn -P... 
Or "Unatdto WortnlLEY A CO 



5,000 V, 



To Formers. 



HrulUi'.ln^.cdymo, 
1 SS Wuhlnston • 






80,000 QALL0HS OF POLiE OIL M I 

OBUDE OB BLEACHED 
ra A?8 1 ? T OH IEfl W BDIT P 1BC11ME 13. 

fipraui, AND AND F0B b*>-e, 

■-« ..B^r IT!'.. 0LJ "- 

'--) ■'■ Hi- :-r.l. ... .... , , ' '' " '■-.">" \ - -l"«'rc- 



COLBY &, BELL ~ 



Taj "■■ *i 



30 



■-^^ c^tLj^^^]£jEEE£^ 



fata' Itjartintirt. 



iiSl TjABT «OOD NIGHT 


Clow 1" 


,yelld»-r,r<eillierac*at]y 




dead and ltadcn eje*. 








turned enlo tlia (Met! 












eT haodj nil meeklj, 




Ihtlilllomowldrt"; 


Scatter Honor; o'or her jifllow— 






Ujll« 


bgdopmhurbaMn, 



DOW Bfllf •* 

Thouil. oar Uan flow fa.t ood farter. 



i E h and 1 1 ■ m v tretl ; 



Tread life'' 
Wan (lad ™ Heavenly miner 

Took her whUo nor henrt °" F°™' 
We are {lo4 Bo did DOt lean Lei 

All luV« trial" to endure ; 
TTo ote elod— mad jet (ho teat-drop 

Fm.llolh;for,BleiIweknow 
Ihit oar fliulde will be lonely, 

It ibill niL'j our ilirl'mr '<■■ 
Wbilo Ifae twilight ehadowi titter, 

Llule arm:, all white and Dimpled, 

Ronnd obi eeekiaowftlT ileal; 
Oar w«t cheeki will mhs tho proDore 

Of aweeiUniio warm ud red, 
And od bofom radly. Badly, 

Mho s b at darilDEllttlehead, 
Which wa» lost to r*tt there mml i ; 

And Iter- [tMti eywiobrie'bt, 
We (ball mill their loric p rlaneef , 

W« ahall mln their toft Good Sight 
Wbeo the morion 1 ! ion It rainier;, 

ThOTwllI take tali eberiibed form, 
Thoy will boar it to the ehsrehjaid, 



Fell— what m 



1 III- 



Tho clay-dreas odi darling wore : 
Qod halb robed her ai u anew!, 

She hath need of thii do more; 
Fold her hand*, and o'er her pillow 

Scatter Oowen all pore m 1 while, 
Kilt that marble brow and whiijwr, 

Gnea again, a last Good Nipht. 

[FortlcCliion 



ni the drops that fall 



u from her father'a hall; 



She pult from lore abich I 



j FlUl 1* 



liiltB Lakbo*. 



of you, whom 
elected to tho highi 
mortality- ' 



and heath, mountain and volo, and In 
.ssemblage ; and she astounds the 
hardy, lugging miner with hor words of cheer, 
glee and wisdom, as ho sits at nightfall in his 
cosyc»binbome,thoelernal silence unly broken by 
the dashing of headlong streams tumbling way 
down thedizzy hight of time-worn rocks, or the 
mind moaning and whistling among tho lowering 
pines that stand by thedoonvay, whoso evergreen 
houghs seem to reach and kiss tho palo b!uo 
clouds lhat wcepingly hang above them. Lan- 
guage is too lean to espress the exalted opinion I 
have pleased to entertain for so gifted a being 
Overawed, like her many gentleman admirers, 1 
can only master good words enough out of the 
Yoeabalary, to pay a passing tribute to tho child 
of Genius, and whisper in her ear tho oft-repeated 
tale of "Bessie, how I lovo you." Where the 
spirit leads, go magnets which havo 
traction than affinities oi the soul. Contentment 
seems to brush the cobwebs from tho walls of her 
"eryday life and makes her (the danghti 

harity), to look upon tho dark c]oud3 that flit 
around and overshadow her horiion.as though 
each and all had a bright silver lining, and peep 
she will out upon the busy world as though it 
was really flooded with rich rainbow tints, or 
gashes of love and sunshino from tho dome of 
Heaven. Cheerfulness is the fountain of inward 
rest, whence flows the sweet stream of content- 
ment, tranquility and hope. It is a faint gleam 
of Paradise, sprinkling tho mind with tho beams 
ofradiantjoy. Is it not tho magnetism nf tho 
soul, the low sphere of trust circling with a bright 
bow of peace and promise J Though Time, the 
unfeeling monster, may bleach tho hair and furrow 
tho cheek, yet, Bessie, the original, talented one, 
will always feel the inflowings of youthful vigor. 
Now, as we take leave of Katie, we all hope 
there are many bright, rosy hours in store foi 
her in future years; and when life's summc; 
hloom may have passed irom the brow of youth 
and the pattering of a dozen tiny feet of Utile 
Burkes are heard upon the floor, ond clustering 
around the maternal knee ; then, Katie, how 
pleasant will bo the retrospect of thy past and perfect fot 
well spent life; how hallowed the winter of its ' 
pilgrimage and how glorious its future, pointed to 
by the hand of Faith, and may your thoughts and 
attraction) 



., ___ . iguish of 

wh"m J Tlo"most"!Svcd Bud most 
,bercd in his last hour. «)•«•«* 
bas now a more serious and sacred character than 
at first ; now I can claim your sympathy and sis- 
terly-aid in a common purpose-an equal mi.-r ->l. 
Now I tow. your hearts will bo with me, by J the 
ouickened throb, the earnest, imsolHsh glow ol 
mvowo. So let us hegin the new year- count- 
ing surely and confidingly upon each others sym- 



pathy and Rod's blessing. 



i'j ii *■-■-. l 



Monomnnla of Conrtabip. 
Why is it lhat so many pictures of happiness, 
that are onl-liued in tho days of courtships are 
never filled up by the rcalilicsof marriage? Why- 
is it thai the 
betrothed, 



ho attractive, farina ling hcauly ■ of tho 
is so scon laded in tho wife 1 Why is 



matronly companion ol 
does the elegant form a 
trappings of fashion, lose ,. 
' it, plain garb of it 



To Fanners and Nurserymen, 

DWARF FRUIT TREES AND SEEDS, only 

",! , "it '':,/, i'.l'mtrkii con" Wins "j,^™^™^ 



■ An-ii' ~'.'-i1 ■ 



jp'arkling'wit.from the lips of tho 

nartnor in tho gay, pleasure-seeking circles, be- 
comes stale and common-place, when heard from a 
'the home Gresido? Why 
nlorned with the showy 
charm when attired 
j hooso-wifc ? Why 
"E ^lle, in It 
over-healed hall-rcoin, withheld from her, who 
Com some of the thousand ills tb, 
woman is heir 10 in tho performance of hi 
duties as wife and'motherl Is she so changed? 
Can a few days have wrought such a strange 
metamorphosis, that sbo at the ten/ J"-" 1 ' 10 " ,° r 
uAtue name your soul was stirred with the deep- 
est, fondest emotion of admiration and lovo of 
which your man's nature was ca pa blOj is now only 
retarded with indifference, if not with absolute 
dislike 1 Is woman such a paradur, that tho 
thousand charms in -which jour h,.;.,, .,..:,. 
vision encircled her, are Ihrown off with the 
bridal veil, or baa the possession of the object so 
ardently sought after, caused a reacliou of your 
heart's affeclion, and you ore too weak ever to 
regain an equilibriom ? Hnvo you so long been 
bewildered by enchantment, blinded by passion, 
deceived by imagination, and distilled by external 
appearances, to the exclusion of all that is real, 
that with regard to tho subject of your idolatry, 
you have become a mouomanlac * 

Let us make a slight examination of n case of 
lovo at first sight,— fever high— pulse up to one 
hundred and thirty— but ono subject occupies the 
brain— strong symptoms of mania ; he has mag- 
nified his divinity into something too pure and 
iblunary converse. 
Fancy runs riot with his thoughts, as she ap- 
pears before him, her brow or alabaster, her eyes 
rivaling the brightness of Orion, her lips of coral, 
her teeth of pearl, her wreathing tresses, her 
tread life's flowery valosond sylph-like form of elegance, her voice of^mclody 



FIRST PBHMIWM 






One Hundred Thousand Trees, 

FROM FOUR TO ELEVEN FEET IN HtGUT. 



ipportoittIFDl<&U 



& Pacific Expnue. or I 



Yes, Iho sweet, rogoish Katie is married ! and 
this huge, white frosted cake lhat lajs beside m 
came (safely enveloped, by Wells, Fargo & Co. 
Express), the good qoali ties of whichl duly appre- 
ciate by now and then laying aside this rattling 
goose-quill to nibble at. Well ! then here is this 
little sweet-scented oiileKiour, loo, with Katie's 
own fair autograph speaking with a heart over- 
flowing with love and hope, thai she, tbo happi- 
est mortal out of Paradise, really jumped tbo 
"broomstick," in company with tho Hon. Judge I ( j ]at 
Burke, of Mariposa, and the awful deed of : 



ragged hills, bo on and for tho tree, beautiful and 
good, and when the spirit shall ascend to a higher 
life and a more ennobling view of its destiny, then 
naught can intercept a reciprocation or tho holiest 
and most blissful ebbings and Mowings of the 
kindred soul. 

So good-bye, Katie, for 



With the aad thought that we mult part. 
And like tome ion and mournful ipoil 
To whisper bat one word— Farewell. 



Grace Qreairwoad," and the Little Pilgrim. 
Tats distinguished writer— the able Editress or 
interesting little paper the Little Pil- 
grim, on presenting the prospectus or the 4lh 



\,.\ sbiiil; ■■■;■ 



CLOTHING, & ^_-__ 

"JW'STOBK ! 
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CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Bole AgODUl for tho Sale of 

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SUPERFINE CLOTHING, 

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itE HOW FitKl'.Mitl' TO ■>IHI'. THE LARGEST 

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S T O C EC 

BVBR EXHIBITED IN CALIFORNIA, 

ALL THE LATEST STYLES 



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PAltTlCULAa ATTENTION GIVEN TO ALL OHDEH8 

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And atl who with tho But Quality 

OL O X HI INT <3, 

MADE LTt THE MOST APPBOVED STYLE. 



Briggs' HurBery 

a 1 1-.. m MnryHvUlc, oi 



PcnnHflvanla State Elections. 

"EXOELSIOR." 

MMENSE ATTRACTION 

■WALTER & TOMPKINS, 

No. 170 Montgomery street. 

^e. BY the arriTBl of tho" Golden 
THQiilo," brlaeinethenewioflhi 

-^ler £ Tompkins have n— ■-■ ' 

dUS«n w' C? ° 






.] ■ ■ sTiXiiSinihii CUr, 



ATLANTIC STATES ! 



""^"Ymk'in eatoriDg to°tl 



■ a V°"l 



At 11 



r,l r 



o found, a 



os, tho 



a fabrlcf, fresh from the loornr of tl 






rioDy was perpetrated 
the Rot. Mr. Phillips, '.vl. 
halter lj rmly round tbeir 

day was scarcely fire hoorE old, at "Pleasure 
Collage," tho boose of her loving brother, Corne- 
lius Cole, Esq.,Tfhose homo is in the fair City of 
tho Plains. 

Who all wero in attendance can irell bo imag- 
ined. Undoubtedly, Old Block (Katie's old ad- 
mirer), McDonald, Hutchicgs, and a host of 
literary stars, who no doobt felt very sorry that 
their petted Katlo had left their ranks, oneiu 
and singlc-blcssedness, ior that of connubial bli 
Which wo all hope lhat clasping of hands and 
union of hurts and pledging of eternal loco and 
constancy (till death do part them), will be .the 
crowning of their earthly bliss, 

"Will not that day be looked back to by those 
two happy candidates with joy and ecstasy, when 
turning over the records of the past, and the 
sweet remembrance will yet come down, twining 
like fresh Spring Qowers oroanii life's pathway. 
Yes, Katie, the marriage crown is now put on, 
and Lho traslful wearer, leaning upon him whose 
lore is the brightest jewel in the diadem set amid 
tho orange blossoms of the bridal wreath. — 
comes, with fond entreaties and words of lovo, 
steal away sweet Katie King from the dear old 
home, nestling far away on Sew England's shore, 
■where she, in happy childhood, dreamed away 
with kindred spirits so many hours of sonsbiue 
and glee. But again, ho places her in the fairy 
cot where lore's hands have trained tbc 
hoDoy.sncklo to clamber over the latticed 
way, and placed eoliao iyrts in all the 
Then, who does not know there arc pearls and 
gold shining now amid tho Bowers lhat fringe and i ,, T) Mr Friends 

beautify dear Katie's future pathway, and bright Binrj0 r loBt addressed you, another year has 
Stars gleaming like great chandeliers suspended passed over us— a peaceful and fortunate ye»r, 
On spacioos walls In tbo great castle of Hope. 1 mosUf you, I trust, yet doubtless bringing 



But as the disease advances, hope 
what cheering ray through a breaking 
clouds of despair. He casts the die which will 
decido his hopes of happiness, and strango to loll 

Rapt u ro us moment, — hi 
ho has drawn an angel doi»u l U «.... u ~ „„„.„... 
murtal companionship. The scales fall from his 
eyes, tho light of reason enters his soul, and, 
looking through tho sober eyes of judgment, he 
begins to Taney that he has, like Jacob, Eorved for 
Rachel, and been rewarded with Leah. Tho fon- 
cicd pictures vanish like tbc dazzling colors of 
the rainbow, but tbo pure, scrcno azure of tho 
cloudless heavens, is ever left in their stead. 

As clouds sweep over tho sunny sky, so they 
may sometimes cast a saddened glonm over the 
scene of married life; but, the sunlight of an im- 
passioned affection may over dispel them. Then 
when seeking [or a kindred spirit, for a heart 
Uaiing in unison with your Own, for i. .. 
will over share your joys and sorrows, look, by 
I the clear light of reason, upon the real chi 

nor oapeet perfection from earthly growth ; and, 

I never for a moment, believe tbc object of yoi— 

angelj tilt yon havo seen her wings. 



-[Matlle Warble, in Wisconsin Farmer. 

9 APPEIL.— 



In ndJiticn to tho piece enodi to 

CUSTOM MADS CLOTHING 
From lho well known heiuo of 
CnoNEV & Lbjjt, 753 Broadway. New York. 
AH lho Clolhinir 'aid by W. i T. is mann/aetured 
cut.- .-if !■■- their order. 

Now fllyle Rarjan OierooatB, of licht and heavy ma- 
terial : and those splcodld Frock Coats tb.it huro token, 
.i -rill keep (he lead. 

GENTLEMEN'S FURNI9IIINQ QOt " 
Qfeverj-iiaMriplioa. PartioalarattentioawiUbo 
ili.- branch of the l.u-itu , .- 

tV.4X.TER & TOMPKINS, 

No. 170 MootpnmorT rtreat. 
Opposite the .M^lr..(--.|ir 1 - r - 
6-16 If Kei 



,c 21st of January, by , vo)omo ^ 

tied the matrimonial In order ^ mlko lhj3 popular publication more 
illing necks, when the | tonTCnieilt f or binding and preserving, the pro- 
priotors have decided to change its form from 
ught quirlo pages to sixteen largo oclato pages, 
ind though it will require a large additional ex- 
pense, the price tei'U remain unchanged. 
— he numher for January will contain thecom- 
icementof a" Beautiful New Christinas Story, 
by tho distinguished English author, William 
called :i Nifpgr & Toby," lho Austra- 
lian Peasant Boys. 

We lake pleasure in thus announcing this, 
work, and the plan this gifted lady offers, by Magazine for January we Ond the following : 
, . ' ,, ,F. , , D , f r :, , ' In a metropolitan criminal court, eight years ego, 

which the youth of our land may he furuwhed a ^Ztin, whoso boy hod been sentenced - 

with a paper suited to their capacities, and whose 
every line conveys a pleasing moral infloenco, I 
ever be promotive of good. No family 
should ho without tbo Little Pilgrim in the 
household. It is published every month, at the 
very trifling sum of Dfty cents per annum. Per- 
sons desirous of this sweet little work, by send- 
ing to us we will order for them, and see that it 
comes regularly. Wo hope a liberal patronage 
to so worthy a work. 

In order that wo may indoco mothers to! muchjbrhi 
have this paper in their families, we poblish the 
opening address of the Little Pilgrim, as ad- 
dressed to mothers, and «o think it one of tin 
very beet and ino-t lnjinitif-il i- ,:tys we have evoi 
read. Well would it be if overy mother In Cali 
fornla realized tho responsibility that rests upoi 



it tbc penitentiary, for 



We givo the article, and 1 
appreciate this noble address 



r readers t 



. of lb. 



There a< 



w Bright fdncios, happy thoughts, 



hoppicst hearts and homes something of change 



tinkling around and plnying with the heart- 
strings, sweeter by far Iban Lho evening belli 
vesper hymns, or angels' chants, and puro young . . 
joyS (ailing upon thai trusting heart that wis but i 0101 
yesterday wed, descending like copious showers 
of amethysts. Lile, now, to tho Innocent, blush- 
ing bride, baa become suddenly heautlful, and her 
eouI soars upward from thiacold, distrustful, sin- 
Btaincd world, dove-like, loosed from its prison 
cage. For there seems heavenly nymphs aiound 
her path, with tbe linger prints of God's hand 
opon their brows, with a myrtle wreath for the 
daughter of Fame. 

I had forgotten, in a moment of carelessness, to 
tell the readers that sister "Bessie" was of tbe 
distinguished guests who helped to make tho wed- 
diui, group i one, too, dear readers, who bas raade 
your acquaintance long ago, Her bright sclnlil- 
laUoDBire read, appi eclated and applauded, by 
true-hearted Californiant in cottage and palace, 



molt has brought the i 
, tbo most soli-inn u..i . 
•nliuoJ— for within this 
1 to " tho great and nobh 

' i. Oh, inhere 



UMlVCnSALLoVE 


is like a miller 


all hands alike but n 








closely to thai ono. 





. Maki 



a Pi 






«l yitt. '.Hi. if ih..H'i-j3 liiiu--.Un.il 
Iwl Unit. ~1jL-. lilsu Mary of Old, is I 
■ sbo folds i 



among worn 

onnu her lirst-born ci 

ender tittle li;.inl : ; thrill 

feels upon her cheek tho lb 

immortal — sees faintly t» 



blc, this holy trim . 

abundant compensation for all that 

woman— for all that is denied to hi 






1 I'll E *o it,'- 



With eiistence renewed and freshened by the 
inflowing of this pure rill from the divine inin- 
lain of life— with my heart mada more kuik-raiid 
loving by the sweet mjsleriaun influences: by 
which babyhood, mightly In helplessness, and 
without speech most eloquent, comes to us — I feel 
like consecrating myself anew to the service of 
such as Jesus took in his arms and biassed— and 




long 
proved oflem . 

him a shorter term 7 lie is a good boy to me, 
" just made him 
. which fit him 
beautiful" (uinl she looked, as she said this, as 
only n mother can look at her boy) ; ''and if you 
give him a long time to stay in prison the clothes 
won't Jit him. when ho comes out— for he's a 
grow in' boy. Poor MoTtim ! she had saved much 
(for her) from her scant earnings, to clolhe her 
' neighbor's children." Thiswastoo 
ion. Ho melted — he went — he re- 
pented — ho was forgiven. And he 
of the most promising, enterprutn_ 
alik i/ouii£ iiitrchtiittt in our city. Every word 
of this is true, and known to be so to very many 



Wohds.— Listen to Hie mother talk- 
... lii j' :,u "B habe. The comfort it 
tin: word';, for the child underhand: 
.-m. it lies, of courw, then in ll„ 
Is. Ilislhemothcr'slonoof'.-.-. 
which the child understands aud 
its little troubled heart, 



■Dohbs walked into 

l),„ t;.;.„l.. n, .,ri C.-nirlstrcel.and began to lo.il; 
round. A double jint'.d clerk immediately an- 
i pcared to Dohbs. J ' 

" What can 1 do for your, sir," says ho. 
A^good deal," says Dobbs, "bullbatyou 



I'll bet I will," saya Hie knight of the yard- 
What'll yon bet of that 1" says tho impcrtur. 

I.. T^rtklw. rf r 

" says tho olerk, with i 



a Dubbs. "Now trust mo for 

wutli ofyurstnlft!" 

"" says yard-stick. "Well, 



if dolh 

" Loit, by Ned 
Llii;i..' h -. ilie IburpeiK 

"Thank yon-, call again, when I want to 
trade I" saya Dobbs. 

" Do, if you please ; wouldn't like to lose yi 
custom," says lho clerk, "nohow." 

Polite young man, that; M soon as his chin 
vegetates, provided Ida dickey don'tout his throat 
he'll be nrtcr the gala, Dobba thinks. 



THE OALIFOBNIA FA.EMEE 



31 




0. H. BOGART, 

POIISKAS'8 EHP0EIOK 
So. lia Wojlilmrlon. unci, 



Dam, EMet Fiiwli, Cnilery, PiilUiig Teckle 'and*, 
BwIi, Baskets, tinea and HooIdl 

jU< si.J"^ i s:::'' , ;v:;: r :; ! , r ::. : v:- ;,'.■' '>'■ r™ d ". "«**. 



BOSTON TYPE FOUNDRY 
V— —-v Tins EnnblLfcm.m lib" oldon I 

• % 0^T OjV >■■■ ..,., i .-. ,; a 

I* E _j , JOHN S. BODGEBS ft 00., 

b£. i:k» u, ri> pre '" ™M, t"T ""i ' hn ™' 1 * of ™ 

i'' ",',' ■ '. ,'| ,:'" -.'. s.' ' ', ' ""■"' ' ';- ,:l -' : i '-tl. li- , 

'.']]',* ?,'' ! " ''-' ■ '"." ' ■' ■■"■ |l ' !l ] ri^.1 [, .rllc.jr 



KOCHE3TEH 

BEDDING ABD FUENITDBE BTOEB, 




600 Peoria Freminm 8teel Plow*. 




M-", '"^' "!■■".' ■ ; ., !l . i ; : . ; - : : ,: i , ''' i: ''-' -■■[■ '-ii-.J.-.ir!-. 
For MarjiriUo and Intermediate Imdimti 



-Hi!! A. >KDIHflTOH. A, 



ALE AND POBIEE 

iDt ID Dseicelfo! In ufcber Jlroo^ib or Fisior by u, b 



HEM O VAX, . 

Mercantile library Association 

"i ■ e*.r'<Lrri ','.r,l M-':''-.'!.:lT,'','i" ' l " , ' l >: c - 11 ":» *1mi.U,ui "^lyn-wni: Jiliso, „„j Mll L,° QllS'S', ^!||, ° 



M. K OBlFFlTB.A^nt. nismc^ Bprinp. C, 



S ,D " Wraoto I S 

Eiophtuua frBantMj'aThrfHhen- 

A flic fiUor.il Ensinc-s;i. 
A". "PPorlooHj ooirolfsni lo ona 0( Lnopamoc- -" 
".. ,'! "'.^li' io| o » v«7 [in>fii»ile brines 



™'maTOJtrf^rtr| 1 i I bj f ..™cUjiB*r "■! .l.o. ln ™ „^_ . '^ |" loc W t.U.1., *llh 

■"a a. X> Hum -■«J£&».K?,X, S„, A „f. .;-"'."'".« 



-Z3bu eggg^Ka^attSs 



'■"■>i -L-lfdll, ,;,|l-.| ..... '■ ■ 

U&Jki or licfercaw ' Mini. (Ti.ri. „ j ., 

j-ogij bijiwiiT TOC oi,;d ,-„ ib, „„,, ll,,;' '"" 

Crtfo'S. n ° a SpM[n " JD ' f " '"» ro-oition tfi 

™™'«'il", r 1 '? r " liR,n '" It" fraor.1 end n> 
jrtnnir.iUH.nl, luo l.lbnry and IWlin- .?ii L i ; 

r nilBt l l i.diu,,uouiM nn S,^g ^ b ^ ] ^" ■» riggj 
To Architects, 

fLASS AHK SOLIurfUD roil A IULL 

jiiejajl 5T'"?„ ™,™„, J, ™ m 

hlirb ul-. to ih^ i ■ niji "i- '',':' : ' , r ' 11 ' 1 'oioeKorlai 

D*I, rM.,r„K..i, a ndrnrlb<,. n ,„f D 'i" ,l " ,F ,"'« 
=Jw.i(d b) °h« n ih u U ,d ' o ri)°rt(ujra P ''" U ' blJl b *" bM0 




F I B a T P h E_M_i UK A o A I H 
rr* S v ? ■ H " VANCE, 

-^■"'■'■'''■;^./,".:;: , v^;;:! l f4j' I t^. ! ',' n E ^ ll ' ,r ' 

«Miiodn B =in(lnn n , rapc t|ron', 

8AN FRAH CISCO? ' S '" r " :,T "*"*"' 

What is an Ambrotype 1 



-.,..,- loptnot id mo Tinom conipiHiadj boidnr In 
of BmapuDIi. 

/turn tjjt iBtnu. 

,Ott,Juiowj 18,16m. 
■M HbK*«l w ||b ■ nrr dlttsr«»blo ciocUun of Uio lUn. 

' WlUiWgbViSilriJ 5™ 1^"""' 

J. IL MlLLEB, LtaBL rj. b, a, 

.iD.flANDB, WooIouJa Dnu. 

CtOTB ANODYJTB 

TOOTHACHE DROPS. 

Complain no more of Aching Teeth. 



Pnpired lid Wld bf 4. B. * D. B4KD3, Wblkul. dor. 
El-U,ho.lmFnlloi,HiU«l,« merW l]lU miK „ T( , rki p^ 
V V. JOHHB0N 4 Co,Sia Frurfw,! B. T. WATTS & Oa 
UirjivdUo; B. IL MoDOSALD k Co, SunmtDT ' "^ 

YHO IS ITP' 

i.^oWoit nnd molt OIparioncBd Ap)l6 M ,^ 

,„„ LITTLE. 

W H fe"KJsi;™" '"" "-»M««'I»- « Hi MIT- 

T , I T T T T? 

■^yHOpnbup.homo.tParritlo.u' P„« t |pii M , 

ITTnm LITTLE. 

yy^HO Ii oror ready tosnrplilho Poorwiliont cbareal 

LITTLE 

W^rial* I tB hfa Sl °™ 0PBN ALL NIGHT, t 

wno n KITTLE. 

■^HO n ,vor eunloj, boya or ineaperteaced pereon.1 

L I T T L 1? 

"W ^rro"ery%nd^ t |o"«iI ^iL!? n ' "' M<rficil1 "' 

LITTLE 

~W a °bS^\ V?^''' Pi ^ h I^eoEo, (priee only 25 oU. 
Coosb., Coli and SSSS oTHm ,"p 7 ^"""l <■« 

*,™„ LITTLE. 

W°" „£".',£■, M SKMA*T AKD CASTOR OIL 

t'.= liv "■'..' i,"," N : ." ; -" 'i"-=ei » beiull. 

bi-il i DL^iyj " lu <i """""it grow, and oleani tbe 

L I T T L 1** 

■WHO trie, (o d w „ a tho paironajo of toe n„b]L>J 
WDI. B. tlTTtE 

cn E«lflT AND AFOTlfKCAKY, 



„i*;. 



■ M R R r L, L , 






IS 



Who h.th ibl. iww.tl HI, Jo, 



LEATHEH r> E P o T 

HAJ.O.AUIU...,, VilJ *'■' J ^- A* 1 "". 






SEEDS! BEEDSt! SEEDSIII 

ic ,'', l ,- ! ' 1 ''' ! "' !',' , ". ,,, ' W!:E ■■•■•'' yitn.o bsbds, 

Hb.lsnV.1 li„?.t E,k-i° S "'"'* "' * BM> a, '«l fr"n U 
Ajio-Shrter Iltrb., Eilnveu ani B 0Inaic m^u,^ 

'■'■'Ji'-niLL, Drugget,'™' 



0. h. TAYLOR A CO^ 

Sash, Doors aDrBTlVd's, 

Eospeooitanllyonbiad 
A LARQB AS80nTmENX 

^o«ts, French WmdovnuMoiildinRi 
Saah and Glaa, ^' 

1. E. Elrthik, f 



32 



^g B c ^T,Y¥o^f^£±^S^3L 



rialit in fBTorably m.ntiomng onU toe™ 

2, LL P .b«/tbi. *.n k»™ «■' f™ , 
;,„ i*. »w,,. F»»h p-»"' •*"*%£, 

™,b ib. b,* «r -M b.ir ».■».."•*»" 
«i, E ,..o, .. B .».i -«V'"°Z. "i . 

1„ ,.?< or cl.rg.1 »»> ■ 1 "'1» "" kl ""' 

oaironoKe. th« proprietor has i just """P le '™ 

i l(g; lh« Erst Btory of which contains u *Pf' ou * 
K room nnd'ubrury, amply for<..-hed ",,)„ 
robofw collection of •!■>>£* "°. rk n % ™ 
wish the proprietor of Ibo "Wbnt Cboor- boo- 
oftsa io his futnro career. 

On Drra.-Rowo,tho c*!-brat*f C .rcu B pioneer, 
has returned from Honolulu, and ve may c*P«- 
foil for the laugh tor-loring. 

Death of dm. A. ifi^.-Tho friends of Ibis 
comedian PHI learn with deep regret Ibe loss of 
their friend and co-labo-cr on the stage. What- 
otct tuaj be said of tbo stageor of actors, Uharloj 
Kins will ever shine as a Star in their memories, 
for his many good qualities and generous aMIons. 
All our friends in the country, trim are visiting 
IBs city, and desire to subscribe for the CiUiM- 
„,I F*i,NEn.or learc a Five spot, can find the 
office at 130 Washington Bireei, San Francisco 
Don't forgot to call. 

Father Adams continues to make the bears 
dance, and Wirsen coils the snakes about hi 
like so many cords, and fears them aa little as U 
jump-rope of a little girl Verily the days a 
coming -ben wo shall see '-the lion lie down 
with the ]>mb, and a little child lead them. Go 

Limastoub— In tbo U. S. Circuit Court, 
yesterday, Jose T. Limontour gave bail m the 
aum of 835.000. to appear and iimi -to |Um . ib- 
aiolment now pending agiuust him nt Lie Jul} 
term of tho Court. It is staled he left tbiaoity 
by Iho steamer Sonom, on bis way tolleneo. 



MERCHAN DISE,^-^ 

REM OVAL. 
TVJi. II. BOVEB & CO., 

M.MI-ll. .' 

»«•'»•«>■»-—■ .n^r- 

™, fresh ground, In W-lb. slnsa. 
moii Cassia in tnal«, and nl- kinds of 3p ,M * ln 
in. ^'^^u H. BOVEB* CO., 
173 Front Urovl. " 



Merchandise for Sale ^J, 1 *^™ e * Cft 

CornM gii? FRANCISCO 

CALIFORNIA Lard, Buller. DaniJ, ™eoa u 



ST^TTrri-TTii." diu:i «" .■■■:- i -.i = :--..! — :^-i' "ill lor • 1« 

LZ,r?T °.u«i« s fou . &».;. o^jerv' !■ .i! ' 



Bountain View -* n ^ ei 7' n 



OLD SIOCUO COFFEK-S.MO I™-- . 

IlltADSHAW ICO 



■ Illi'KtN FKED— 5 wm bmlin 



E /tf"\r\ APPLE * NI1 PEiCU „! r "f iU 'K.",^?V. 

5,000 ^g^^SsKMtf 







TDONNEI.L. 

rami TEKESI^EOTi' TlEBB'.l 
Onk Gn>7. Hnnory, Alamiiao. 

ft 

vnir. old, numj In bortng U" 



EDUCATION^ 



MISCELI^ANEOUS." 



adj. N«lonnf, «c. 
lowlo [rBlr.UiieoJcanoM. 

aroond. hUI do wdl 10 tUIi 
(hi'iiuclTU, bvnrluij Id mind 



,i luiJlojE' 

^FoVt^ ^^™"' a L - PAL U K!t F ™ C c Soo' 
conioroTWiualDpoi. ibJ ""^ ;?™||'; C oOK, Proaiii 



Benioia High School. 

THIS InilltoiioD, Gunarij ih« " ■ ™ le s'»<J ^ , j U 1 ' ' 
□ odor Ibo chnnro r>f Iho He*. L. 31. UIAHO, rt. ai., 
, pmi^irf b, ConsKLius JFlatt, a B mdeat« ^ 

.■bo uril Somi-Aonu"! SohIdb dill conjiocdco on It. 

SS^ttoBll^™Bcon«ta boftro ..i™«i fl|( Into 
"fdVlfr^r"'!!^^^^^^ 

"fho tMloot^'/.!.' & Wldto- ««ll .nt, 
and Ibo omrtnw and l,.„l.Lfi.l»M<.nbo ..Hugo aro nn- 
.orpiMtd bj »nr Place wiUnn Ibo SUto. 

TEKM3: ni hoktii 

TuiUoi, Io lie lllghec En ^ h c ^™Jj\S' 1 |j!j; B S 

U^riPr^sh^/a'ndVK^oJl »'» « 

T-jlii -11 ■-■■ r.,=T.:„, F.i,.-n.l> -tud,-, BOO 

^ri^i^^TmoeU^Ul'bo'^oVoi'ioiu^ 



0| ,, |.;;,,j'|-ll ~i.ill'-::,,.; ,.:, ,,v v !.,.,,:.!,■ ■ -■■'"")', 
■booldo-othi-.i,;.; 1--Ln; ■■■. -i i» ,«i»MBifcJ« 



MAKF, VOIHI OWM -<>"■,!' -.1 ,-i-, I :■■! I'. '■■■■■ ii- 
— ,,.,n tlvn nutlnc "nc uurcl of Soon. Friei: (i per i 
»1,1, jinSsrSZ (i&MJ BHAOaHAW 4 CO 



HOWS GRANULATKD StldA 






u 1 , 1 :;: 



Holi 



esofU 



minalion or blood to the head, and sare iho 1; res 
Of thousands who suffer f™m l>y~l-T -"■ <■•■'' 
i^,,,,..,,,,,,^ and Bflo, Sold »I Ow uwouftcloriBB, 
No. SO Maiden Lane, New lork, and i u. -14 
Stiand, London; and by all druggists, at 25c, 

C24c, and SI per box. 

' The -un is like God, sending abroad bTo.hcauty, 
and happinc-s; and the stars like human soul", 
for all their glory comes from tho boo. 



BO OKS, Sec. 

New Agrionltnral Books. 

TflB lollowlm Ibtot uj« am..... 
rm ,k, ail ju!t boon received br n. 
ibo E*M, aod Ibe Eookt eaa tw bad al 
offieu In San Francisco and Saenunoal 

dheck's floweh oakdes ; 

boidwoe'a teeat1be oh qabdes1sq ; 

])IKltiflES OP AKIMAIS, DV COLS ; 



United States Nnrsery, 

On tuD Ktir MUalon Rood, Sun Km. 
50*351. THE Proprietor ol lUta '"^^^U^ 

|^IJK§£ oifcnX">"oW "bleb »m *e foNowtas : 

IiniisBaB Botanio Garden and Nurseries, 



Yonng ladies' Seminaxy, Benioia, 

•1'UF, flchool Year 0! Ibis limitation la diridod into 

SfUa Jnanrt^^altanTmW,; ^b-S 
"a^o^r'eaeb.o™ lbe™ n illb athem 0e b e: 

awinali'..!. 'Tlbc 1'm.lH in oil cflhulr ftaiilei. 
Tbo .'■...,,.. .-.f liulroctlon Is rach as Isajoal 
" Uisb_Sebu-' 



H.1.1HS. 



Sk 



TYPE FOUNDRY 

I>HZ3>TXBItS* EMFOHITTM- 

W. IIACAB, Jr., &. Co., 

rpSE rat-crnVr. dffllre n,^dri« lb* Head, aod IbJ Pltall. 

1 I,,,.. .1 ,.1. 1 Mi. Ill I- !!.■ ■ I "' ■■'"'■'> 

tr?™ 1 modern 1 Improvement 



"'" '"■'t 1 ^ 



u, and dsnbilitj, Ind fi 



S 

• of 

ip|ilj-lo; nil 



Hactilne and liana 

AOANS-, ! PRESSES. { ROOOLeJ 

CHASE'S DIAMOND PRESS 



ForEaleatl30Waibinrton«reol,SiaFrancitooi and 

... ill,- M ,1" K-.-i'lv' H'.'.E.'. 1 "Uilh 'lie-'. 

;.:,,'„■ ■:„n».»i» Wi-'i] wahui::; A <_^ 



JOSIA& J. LECOUNT, 

r^l^roieign and Domestic fjijt 



bryWir, HoMK.llulboni nod HrrUMOM Floworieg P 
, , ' 1'i'uiL, ,ii all kiodi, Inclodlni SOOiplondid Ti: 
'annlnu. 

BksaL^ 

t CbinnBe PotatD, Ibe anlj Amerii 

Tbli catnubihraint cooiprtioi ihe moB eatcniiri 
Pricod Calalesua « <t"> lowot nd» "rill b«i 



llJ'TlkCea'u 

, ,1,11, iu,:..onli.f Ibo .coilaliuna and .lo|.-.rta.' -■■ ->■ ■"■" 
,,,.;!,. .-. ,,,. mi,„tl,l r , t« IbL- P a«nla, «bo n « Ibu. n. G a 
uWiDformBdormanroipt hull dangblori. 

bo -tmlnnrr, »"d i 1 " 1 u °d p r 'tin Facial cam of their 
-arc'nli or ni ibn laiirbom ol Ibo Iostiti " 
Tbo Scbwl Is npoa ta insptdioo 1 

,i L :,„l f [,ri..-«.r.lially)Bviir]t: 



y lime, anil 






lotbaprfutipBl. 

bo Blghor Enalub BnnU™ 



jLII© isiuraacc. 

TJUPORTANTTO ALL. lB *^\ ry s ™| l *™ | fj.'ifi™P 1 <d 

-\ L^RaVoa?aa>1ndia at th" luyaelofllfaABauS 

an.-o bni been bal lltUo Ibnnght of-and Ibo i-irjoo nbo 

has tbo tomcrily lo ouljr upen snob 00 ui>rl E rLiau.B „ 

Iho c5loblL-hmenli.r ; o(b a vraolKC ini-jnc-.-h .,: ,i,p. j 

r,«loloof locioll— mast I17 H I" nccjonL— Ihalbmlll 

. ,.;,;, ,,.,„■.■ r..|,i,!l".— ivilh'iiliirullu-.inlmd.QrmaCT 

and .a.WoJ lllilds-bu! coitall. Individual., are so eoBitf- 

tuledtbal ioibom,'lifficiiHu-!|'J.'i— "i'|s'>nl"ii '■■■.■;;■, itn 

— hut as inrtPDIi".- I" <•<■'••> .'lrcou4aJCierii-.il— .,aJ will 

lortako labors, bonovar uniir.m,l-in- ot sul-p -"-trm 

nVj loronfasorulooHnrliom oarlf habits of Ihlnfclni, 

Tio nitlar hjuciiicrimcod ilUBcalUe* of no coioo 

bo 000™ of hh .iijoiim. Hi b». b-.-o i-ii! .-'.-1 In 

Mri Up "m^.o'or" lg°»pp n rccb"c ,™b » prinrJele^ 

111.-,,- |r,ill Hi, I II,- ITillllclMlll nil- 1.3-|-,(T.j,|.^ ,-■ ,„,.,. 

bo Sb to« la°li'™ • brief ollEl £■ pra.n;.r. .,.,.!,■', 

Too prloclplo on wb>cb oJi ln»i 

iaX^an^mb lbi™aJ rt.Si'i u«^« «" clrc " m "™' 
howotor oppan.-ntIj rrr^k'iilor "lien vn-,»"l in "mall nutobr]- 
oro ib.oluItlT rr^oinr, ttfiftn ooolcmiilMcl OT*" 1 u 1110301001 
xlfndcd Idda. 

vv ' AccunUna lo ibo Carlltlo Toblcn, ouiaf tan iboasu 
icriom of [be afoul hilv- 1 . -.'■", '-'i" l,u'„ir,d iiriJ liltr-nre v 
li.- i.iil; [„■ y. -if fn.iri! III."- ■ ! r. 1 ■ ■ nl ■ .1 ..-iTvali on. ili.T>ln, oul 

ii'"'-. • ''-.li '■.■i.-'.. -ah. Willi !■■ l.-r.-i.'. I" «.■■ ■■■la !■■ 1 -pull. 

lion 0* London H Ibn li" auii|li.-f i.i lari'i.H ill" 1,1 --. : !■-■ iIJi, [i- 

liuo Ln Uiaiclty In cich year, nnd In ■ v-i->- ,i:li- r ,ili-l c--i'il j- 

fairlr lifcr Ibol li.Mili, 1 .'v.-r iil-cmmi ivitb iqaud ID an 

Inillridiud, 1. pi.Tfi-ill) .,-, ,'jr in 1! ■ ■ ■:■■ i Jon OBin "'"«» 
Ihlak, bOClBirly mid-nlnod ibm iho loucil-Ui.ii li ..-.ir; tp,- 

iioiu by wblcb |i.:r...;i ■ li- ■: y.-. ...1 nl ...r.-nulj'-, ■ |.i1.J. 

ou linked tdroacif,— llinbl;no.ttjwo;<bj iholwbJcb regard 

Ik,- l.l..;..-iili-.-fi-,i Iho luluir bnppm=ai:l rilln... IimI.^ 
™ro"5», "liappiioii mi born a tirla* — mil talb il boaal 
LDibbui, SI 



No ojlra c bar B o w alL be made for Vocal Mos.c or Kid 
bwidorv: Htilbor aio Iho , ,--m .fl|u..,d D. lo.Bilb ltd- 
r „:■ [.L-.l-lmj.iij ; la" >vii|v,n »"■ bare ore n sr 
■ '- ,i ,i..ii,inii||.iui.-i.. ■ •■. ". "i: - ! her Dime 

imonUaro to bo I'uJe m. ailablj at Ibe beglDOio; 



He*. T.TlTlrJil Ua'nt,' 
On. Colo iTlnnor, 



L. L. F. Wirnoi'aa, 
rv.E.B.W^ CTO nb, 



I and body, 

- uunu', but vrba T and bo' done for 

!"j,,ri lh«livll=l..y'-ia nia-l pl^.nlly.- Il 1* a rjlfhw 
lair lor wo arc uiil;1i1 lliat " II" iIl-i-. |,r... ' "' - 
KA.nX™o I r;cIl^n^n'lNl:j'r' ll i. , i'.'- ! 
S?-^ V^ l 'aV 4 ". i" u"°p 1 '-^"V t h!T™ ^afCsaT^hlaaaaHdl -._-.. 
, li"!,, ,, ll.l-i.li.l l.'.'e ai-.l" ■' r-TUn (n-.Ti-L-in. Il l! a doiT 
uni«ru% pnaicuU; it ibi- |.i-ri -liwl pijnienls ore imall 

^■i'-.i''.' 1 ' 1 . ai--.nin-ii i.' il i- .-I"..-'- — ''.''i '■' '■"!■:■ ■■'" ■ 

.,,.i„l, ,„;.■<. I 11- ...!;■!• l-ai: 1- ■'„; n,,|,lj-. Til i.i 

. . . ,.J,,„ ,. .I-..,.,,!,!-.,,,,!, ,„-,i..,!. r 



,-..^,l|..|. . I ,.■ m,.n >...■., ...-„. . ,^ L f , r 

bona, naldbli |iriioluiii k.i a -ml- ,.!.;■_■ I.H.. -L'-i 
ivln, r,r.- .■. '..!'■■■'■ "Uibl in i-.'in-.: irtli'-J ::n-ui- 



Pioneer Sursery. 

** TnEnodomcnud.nrojiriolorDf ibis ooo weU es. 
•e^blishe-l Nurajiry. ^^Ua™? a'S^t it. latt 

!'.■'! I i .it. noi.'iunccj in bli> friends and |ialrons Ihnt 
«°^r» r (ait.nd Ornaw.au] XnumA lout in tho 

...i.m,iii.li.r .,|.i.ri..rioi,DybereIoforoolTerod. 
Unii,.: i, nl in bc.rina la>l year, trjrly-fo.co kinds of 

th'tily-Sre iBriVtlfjo" Paathea, added lo Ibe knoiilcdijs 



^utD-ha'c^Xlywhtikfe^^e-orthyoroullure' 
AJ1AHB-, ) x ivajk.^^^. t . „„.!,-„,■!, ci iii.tlsl i.dIj d'J no offer lo Ibe public Ibo pro- 

CHASE'S DIAMOND PRESS ^ ..ntsaaaoD. ^ ^^^ , onr gmdUllB 

Jaiw'b!' 5° UaltrfVlDw" "ot ci^'SuX'Fouioilai! p C ach," aoTod 'by l"b. A-' l'.-:ii\ .'i .', .Mr .1 - nn . 

Hiobm, Cotnpaiin; arJckis Uallcy (brm and wood), Cli--«, I ".Myor. 1 llnrcril-.'." -hlcb na ulToI IbissoiunD fur Iho 

rJ^.rt.tf^i _^,„n,i, f f,,M D3 „J nnttlmo. Tb. fallals cartlGcala -HI .f-ak far Ibeir: 



,r P APE Ft, C 
ELECTEOTTPIBO ABD ETEEEOrmHa 



TSPB OOPPEK-rAOED TO 0HDB8. 
dslo at purebn 
Imeit ibis adToniao- 



Old TTpo lecein-a in eieban^i <• 

■ ..-I, u .Miir r,.ild«Ta liom 

^;pnbllSniff 



THE 

''HORTICULTURIST' 1 
Journal of Enral Art and Rural Taste. 

^mAar of "Lundtrart OafOValnf," " Po*« ^rr C'tiog 

Edited bj 3. JAY SMITH, Editor ol Ibe North American Syl« 
millS impulnr publlcallo* wbinh Is Eradonlly eilond 
I. ,„ ii,. inllueni-o IhrnuBhool iho eaunlry, and u bo- 
■(uiiini.- indi.|«n>alilo lo lb..- la-leful nardenor, tho Fruit 

..,. ,'. ■ ....] ihf t'lurioulturisl. "ill bo i-.. mi/,,; 
).,. , |,i. rphln -i X Jay Smilh, -hose ability and lantaln 
„. r .I . nioir-y life am hiably apineeSated tbroagh 



.nuaili'''o r to tbo eWi ol Mnl'irata .nitty— tbi. inwbanic— tba 

,rtl-,i", ,|.-i-i..l-..,t ■ I, 111- r 'ill;. ■■!■ .-■ ;.lv "ir.ilj.sJ. 

OMUpj™'" WJu'ldV^ 

u?"lS^ n Wrien l ds and TeJaSi cihu* ' a^reool lirfM- 



>opa 
and IVhci fUaibino and H(t- Jl — 



, STATIONERY, _ 

WHOLESAL.E AND KETAIL, 
AT THE LOWEST 0A3H pniCEB. 

Offer, for sale to the trade: 

t nell soleclod slnek of alaplo and facer, ctra.btlng ! 

pail of EDEliah, FicDob and Atnoricao Papon; 

Jiatllah Ursine aod TraciDg Papon ; 

EDielopcs, rialo, Adhealw, 

and Cloth Lined- „ , 

]0Doln« Faber 1 ! DnlMlng and othor Pcnclltl Papl 

Macho Oi-odt; Qold aod Silrar fens and PobcII 

Cuts : Hold, Eloel and Qnlll 1'tns ; 

Daokcr'j Com., Wallop, Fori 0-5'on Bale a. 

=, Bmnie am] Ee-nv '"' " ' '" ' 

rood anil Lealhcr 



Fan 



^1 and Lemhci iVnilnc an.l ruvoln.;- In ■-.,, 
C.. r yiti;; 1.I..I y.,lari.il I'rr«*l Bad Standi. 

Etc., Ktc, Etc. 
ACOOTJNT SOOK3 
NANUPACTtlltEB TO OltDEB. 
Or .old [mta tbo .boltot— all ilms. t-S 



S J. S. DOB, 



TDOOlFtS. 

IA8H and BLIHTJB. 



Baab, Deon, Lamber, Ox., ii.. 



Hudson's Qolden California Mustard. 

JL who fool an intrtfl In Calil-rnia pnvlojiioDS lu visit 

,1.1, I ...I and ■ ...lain- tii" IJuldon M ' 

Tbls avikk L. made ol Oattfornla ?.■:■] .,[ ilm v.-ti 
oualltT am] l.ul up In tinji ol 10 IK. . 6 lbs , 3 lb , , iu. 
and Hi lb , aod In elaas of 1 lb and tt ; and It can ba bad 
atprlgaalewarfjau Saltern pile*", bo I oi ibo iam 
iiroied 10 ba purer and Keller lhan Ibo ImjairHd. 

la-It ..j.ri.:t.iraL".imanufiwtnrcii avorysuiflrior ortlelo 
of Salfad Oil. In tthich ho desirol Io call iho uln-ntlijn of 
the l hI.Im: Sample battles of his make will be seat W 

'Vor any f jrlbor liifiinnaliun rcc ardinc Iht. Slailani, 
•o refer la tbo priooij'al business hoojos ia Iblseity. 

Purebasei at oholcsalo or retail are specially Invited lo 
oall atlheolSco, 

ron e roc eornor_o ^ ( 

—The bltbect price >!"*Ti P^d for pur 



Thororigh-brea Devon and Ayrfahire Bulla. 

— , I HAVE Sir sale, r. fen cboloo (Oonrr 
i Hall-, 1...1 frup ibc ^* "^"slM i to 

iab on dolirery on shipboard In No- York. 

ALFRED il. TKEDWELL, 
ir, Hreedor and Sealer Id KoriU Devon 

Bc-Uto*c-M."iso". Morris eonnlj, 



MARBLE! MARBLE!! 



J.WJK J^a. .»■_«. na .aaL-s .sn. 9 

HAfl no» In aturo and for sale, the larpwt .10.I1 nr Unrhl. 
Mantle*, nl 'Ji-1-'. ■■.!■■■. '■!■ «»■ ni-, H ■■■ •! .-t-.T- ■. I:f. 
. .,....-:.:,. f ." - . J 1 1 1 . :T.,|" K'. .'.j-'M r IY !.!■■■, H,.-,|, liU'i;- 
-.,,,! i.'.l ,,,1.,-r iiilL'V-. 1 1. I.i. 11 •-", l,i,,„..|-i :.,ii,,. 1 1'^ . ..;,,,:: 




j I ,-. 1, ,.l .',;,. Upon "ham ifto, v ---■ 

Ihe rcrfo W C p™ of bi" "-c^io, ibe einaanl woukl be palSw 
Tobrin(V,odutihoincv.o^yofcMotto^ i Bi^o|s 

TjO^S^ brfHeenW.od'pJ.'^in-i.i'liI' T:,J 



NOalTIUBIUi Afi^tTOAKOB COSIPANY, 

ir Tire and Life Aaanranca at Homo and Abroad. 



Cfiiiiets, Oil Cloths and Paper Hangings, 

_ mc-^k Tn U [ouad hi ill styles soil o.aallllea at 

4& JtPt '\" " C. 11. SI1EKMAN' C 



Spice and Wormwood Bitters. 

THE ..have Colobralcd Tonio, » loan aBd favorably 
konvD In Iho AllBDllc Slates, Is oektiowl odjed sn- 
rioni.iLi,j Blil«r nan io u,e. li I' (-jn&JCtod from iho 

- 1 ■. : "~t-''°' U **■ M. . .' ■ 1 r. , 



la bj the Uoltle, Dotnijahn. or Calk, by 

BARKY 4 PATTEN, 
1IB Uonlsotnory ilrecl, ,-m t'r.i.a.vca 



Suiith'E Fomological Gardens 

ISTTTHSEIfX", 

a Til E «toek of Trees olfe™l In tb. 






r«ln B byrartboJ 
ahhery, Vines 



l.r.nli ,l|-.llll.;..l..t...| |].-. -Il Ml, 1.1 ,-ry„„.n:,f,.| t ,, 1 ,- 

marelol Bardonors, Ihis Journal, irivln- lh... l,ii.:il .lir.j.,1- 
h Ith if -m°bo n i D t-l luoli la 



,, olher Billor nilb this 
1) END IKE. 
" iialabr 






IUSTAH, PUll'El. OP 

Prize Mfiditl Ionic Qold Fens. 

MAM. 1 1 .W.n Ki:D ar.d.ol.l Wholosalo and Retail by 
liTI.MI-.iu:; .veil... i| V.'a.l.u.ilanftreet.lto.tOD, 



(Sie'rrj, Noclarloo, Apricot, 



sod fur health 




J 


with [saassssiizs^Lf^^-.-i ,- 7. r. .":■;: - 


1 


Wiibnm|3H5£S?iS^Si£?.2S3i1S55R353 


A- 


1 3-3535=553 aa9S jr BSE BsaaB 


jj 


with |SP.I3SS352Eiaa5S;aS5E3SSS2 


wiibnutliaaaBSgaEetssssssaBSKaGS 


A 


SMITH B110TUER5 A CO, 
Aitonu for California, __ 
Corner of C<Jli...ra'.,i ,.i,.l I!.-,! vry -!"■■■ ;. .. 



., l-I.nJi...... 

■ ."( --I. ..,-,-.'■' ■ 



■Ol I.i I K-,.. l-K 1 ,; 1 ..-,ir,;: 
■-■123 " 6-IUnklVn. 
.-■■I GO I " G-l, ,.,,.„„: 



Osage Orange for Hedge. 

A FEW Tlltll^AStl stronjr lio,lih> pin 
Iran old. F,. r ,.,lc|.,i.,!l ^,,,,11, I !■„ , . 
A tilt,-, ■ i„ ,VM. PAUL, alajfiold Past-OS 



"ft 



aum, WeeplocWIIlo--, 

nthns, aod ChlDaT'ieas, 
m«. hub ™>i^i vuia Hod other Trees and Shrubs lee 

IV, ...nil -I ,m1I p.-irrlcalar aiirntlua to orjrlnrcn slock of n 

.p -.im.i.- ,.l ImLr .-Oil'....!, -I l.v ... ,n rl,,- *- .[..utiI-i .-.,. I r ,■ 
If l.Jf.r», Ir, i, 1 1 Ih.ilrcu- ,,-., ,.. I„ll.,.;. : Tra, BJurboB, Noll 

rillilil.il -I i I ■ - ■ . ii.. i,; „.. 



t^alVa-ho ' B a 1 ' i l| It "' r rijl " 

IV .-..,„ -...,. f|:„.i. ... I, .-,,. ,., 



Copies fi 
plain colorei f ■ tit btn e V u pf 

uli-oripiions mini bo nddressod to the Acents 

■■■"■■ iiii :i .. mm 

tS-atf IT and ltl Miner .irwt.l' hll:! , Iphli,., 



L. P. & W. F. DODGE'S 
DOUBLE ACTING PUMP* 

THESE Pumps are double aellni, and cooll" 
IhoSooliou and F.>r ; , l-rln-itdev > b . 4 ' .' Y °iU» 
eftho best boll metal eani-i-ilinn. miikinillbcoH""*" 
for uje in ellhor hot or cold liquids. w „ 

Tho Cylinder I. iilibnut dtvislmis or ohatnt"^. » 
yalve. at tho eduelion ^rl.and Lt b"'ed<;^K«ll'S 
and .ntoolh F„ 1 „ill > ...-...-trii,!-i. '.I tb" '( 'a d( 

nalor pasEiEoi, tb- l-inar,. ic-nni. !■-"- ■■'",■ . ,, ■■ 

Otlcd /erfcetly'lo Ibe oyliador. Tiro i-"!"/ 1 " ^ 
-loipsareoerally, nte thni overeomo-v a ■ t^ 



LOW, HASKELL &. CO, 

i-nnsi or PATEWT8 AMD publisher:; 
1 1ST V E3STTOH 
pitEPAKE the n 




Bnnierlrtioii Eolht "roKentor," -■■ FJId -..-. i Honta 

.','f ll!'°u l ij'tir t .r l 't' 1 !- r i..' , i'' T' 1 Artlj: " 1 > ,he En ^ 



Pettoh Trees I Peach Trees !1 

d" , ci|E a Bnv 'T&KrJfSc v , 






•appilal ol liberal dtacoi 



in r,ni io vrork thon,, — 
Tbo oylindor and p'uloo.H boiD( 
:h. It naturally IVIIm-.. Hi" Hat. 
ieo.uentlt,Ii 



"ally- .. ij„ .icaebl^ 

Tho iralor oolnra tho oylindor upon lit. flll "'*'j r, JTj- 
,ill.ln:il, ly, [,:l -,, ■ llir,,n i: !l lbi> pijli.n lioal". "'. , ,f it" 
-bunted liirntiirti lij.J I „0I|. I alf. .- -1 ' '- l "r ' '.',■- :,' ,a|i- 
■■uiiip. Tli'i-o iil'l.iti-. uru i:-i"Ii intt"' 1 "' 1 , ,"nls llO- 
lunneoted in nuoh a uianner that bulb moil " ^ .„|it> 
.1. II . l,..,,^i-, 1 |,e" t - J nl"^attbop.oeL.olii™J» !|1 , 
.ilnr.il., c.: e(,ii,co,iieiiUy these |iuinpl »ay w 
"'ih'e^S^arre^^ 

■nl '■...,.(, .,.|„.|i, ai" '■'!''■ 

CryiUI Palace EilnUII. ail. ,.'.:» .-tH ,. . ,„ ,h.ll* 
Tbo ioaror of a single Individual madied 10 , 

o'5et.ntMB«Vo\M l ^y™oTnAanymain"n^^ 

liiieular,, ,-,nl„l„i,„- lull Lnl-.rwili"«l relM" 
prices, io , may bo illjlalne) by addras-mS "". V ; 

»— sjIfijSMgafc. 



w 



Cotdage Blanuiaclory. ,,,„ 

., Ill.i-I -■ 1M> ■■ ■■ . V':, 



iv>* 



VOLUME VII. 



SAM FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, FEBRUARY 13, 1857. 



it California $armn 



I J1HUMI, OF T 



Bt wabhbh & a o. 



kmeDlo nn-1 Sao Frocb 






&£zn 



igiitullural Reviews aEil Essays— No. 3, 



The Scandinavians arc now a people of littlo 
poll tied importance among tho nations of Eu- 
rope, "ml least of all tho humble inhabitants of 
Korwny. Once however, oven tboy had their 
Cine i'f power, when us Sea-Kings of tho North 
they mode successful invnsions on tho shores of 
Great Britain and Ireland, whore by foreo of 
snns Ihey established littlo colonic;, and whence 
Ihey cn-rried awny considerable booty. Nor 
were tlin territories of their sovereign confined 
to their own sida of tho German Ocean, nor his 
jurisdiction beyond sens of an ephemeral char- 
acter. The Se.i|ti,-h island's of Orkney nnd of 
Zetland formed a part of tho Norwegian domin- 
ions nnlil the year M63, when they were given 
a* n marriage portion by Christian 1. King of 
K-rivi.v tud Denmark to his only daughter 
Margaret, on her tnarringo with James III. of 
Scotland. 

One of tho principal of their Sea-KingB was 
Swi in. Every year, oa soon as that noted lilli- 
buster Jiad wiitn his barley, ho was in tho prac- 
tice of making a regular summer cruise, samo- 
tiouM willi nli or eight ships, and going bock to 
bis lilt!'- islnnil nf Gairsoy in autumn, to divide 
with liin cuiiipiuiions tho booty ho had collected 
in his expedition, and in time to harvest bis 

Ttio eld legends and family traditions of 
Scotland tell of many a bloody battle fought on 
the occasion of such petty invasions ■, and chief 
of all, !n» tho ancestor of tbo present noble 
family <if ErrcL unyoking bis steers from the 
plow, and taking tho yokes from their necks, 
Trith ..inly his two sons (o assist him, met boldly 
m a narrow defile a large body of those reck- 
less invaders, and put every man of them to 
death. 

But tho Scots wore not always so fortunate. 
S . it. i , .11, d nt i.p ih- i, til, - ).|. r.. - -r.it - 1 
Scotland a firm I'-uling, v.IlI.Ii (li.'y managed to 
retain for tome time, and carried their iusulmtci.' 
M far as Lo quarter in every farm-house one of 
their number, to act as a spy, nnd report to tho 
garrison at bead- quarters anything which ho 
11%'lit i i,ii-i,l.-r Mi-]iicious in tho eoaduct of tho 
inmates. But tho SootB would not submit to 
until ill -^I'iidiiig bondage. And as Ihi-y did n<it 
underrianil (heir laogoago, they concerted a 
plan to rid themselves of those during invaders 
at ono blow. Tbo ovo of tbo festival of All- 
balluws was tho night selected, on which to pat 
their plan in execution. It was a bloody one, 
but it proved their salvation. Tbo plan was 
this: As soon as it was night, and all quietly 
seated together at tho family hearth, without 
previous notice, or giving him tune lo suspect, 
»t onoe to assassinate the noxious intruder, or 
rather robber, who had dared, unbidden, to 
s"haro so long and so ungratefully in their hos- 
pitalities. And then, to set Era to a pile of 
('■.:.■■■'■. collected for Lha purpose of thereby 
annouiiaing to their neighbors that they had 
done the deed ; and as soon as tho fires became 
general, to convene at a place agroed upon, and 
marching boldly together to attack tho garrison 
at head- q nar ten), and drive- every man of them 
Into the sen, They succeeded! and tho Scots 
"ever afterwards allowed the Sea-Kiuga to gain 
afoot-hold on their shores. But tboy kepi up 
8 memorial of ibeir dolivoranoo i aad to this day 
coounuo lo kindle bonfires on "Hallow-een," 
and spend the evening with all those ianoceut 
festivities nnd amusements, which Burns de- 
scribes so pleasantly. 

Tho times aro altered. Norway now affords 
an agreeable place for tbo cockneys of London 
lo picnie i„, during Hie summer months; where 
th„y enjoy scenery still more grand and romaulio 
than that of Scotland, and catoh fish with fewer 
Rsstriolions, and in greater abandonee Such 
Pleasing writers as Inglis have done maoh to 
dniT ih,., n ihither— writers who do not travel 

' ^"oworcial purposes, or a desire ofgoia; 
"or f„ r ||„. [, utuo9n L . IBCt! y of gdiiag 0C quiunt, 
with tho mauusrs of tho people, but lo got 
fetter acquainted wi lb Nature In Lor sublimity 
»o beauty, aad who perhaps do moro to softon 
*»«n the M1(!ri iJo« ofnatiot 



I faeling, by ii 



ducing others to follow in their footsteps, than 
any other class. 

Our author, though an educated and intelli- 
gent man, is not exactly one of this cbaraotor. 
At all events ho wishes to bo more practical. 
He sees among tho Norwegians an example for 
all Europe, in (heir institutions and laws; and 
in their fertile valleys, an excellent opportunity 
for gentlemen of moderate means to got them- 
selves farms of their own, nnd have all tho com- 
forts and conveniences of life, at moch loss cost 
than tboy conld do in Britain. He is a Scotch- 
man, nnd rather an ecoontrio oao. Ho sees 
everything through bis Scotli.sh speotucles, and 
measures everything by tbo Scotch ell, and not 
by tbo standard yard. Instead of stating tho 
width of a river in plain English, ho tells as 
of oao which is as broad as tbo Tay at Dua- 
keld, and of another, as tbo Tweed at Kelso. 
And bo goes on, sometimes using much sophis- 
tical reasoning to prove undisputed facts; and 
sometimes, after reasoning soundly, drawing 
very singular conclusions. Ho is an amateur 
farmer, and not a really practical one; although 
tho reader (if a farmor) discovers it without his 
meaning to tell him so. But after all, h( 
agreeable writer; and from his having lived 
three years in the country, and been himself 
engaged in farming there, bo has succeeded in 
making a very interesting and instractivo book, 
especially to agriculturists. 

Ho speaks like a good republican too, and 
looks on farming as but a minor object, "Tho 
condition of tho people hero in relation to soil, 
climate, crops, aad pasturage, appears less 
favorable than in the Scottish highlands. It is 
vastly better however in another respect— they 
have no rents to pay, being the owners of the 
farmB they cultivate. Hero aro the highland 
highland lairds. 



. f„....r 



ion uf 



agricultural "writers, that small proprietors 
make the worst farmers. It may be so ; but i 
population may be in a wretched condition, al- 
though tbo country is very well farmed; oi 
they may bo happy, although bad cultivators, 
Good farming is a phrase composed of two 
words, which have no moro application to tbo 
happiness or well-being of a people than good 
wearing, or good iron -founding. That the 
human powers should bo well applied, and not 
[iii->l[ilii-il, in the production of grain, or iron, 
or clothing, is no doubt an object of great im- 
portance; bat tho happiness, or well-being of a 
people, does not entirely depend upon it." 
"Why," says the reader, "does bo not oomo at 
once to California!" But tho reader does not 
know him yet. Ho has a sort of prejudice 
against America; and for tbo best of reasons, 
that like many a hapli 



-.■hi I- 



and 



would absolutely bo helpless, aad of no use 
whatever. Ho does not mean to cross tho At- 
lantic oa nay consideration. So he does not 
care for flattering us. He will not even givo 
Americans credit for building log-houses, which 
are tho only kind of houses used in Norway. 
'•I give this nihi.il.> ilr-criptioii," says ho, after 
describing their farm -buildings, "because ono 
hoars so much of tho log-houses of America, 
and this is probably their mother country." 
Wo might ciecso him for this, as ho seems so 
much in lovo with tho Norwegians, os scarcely 
to give his own countrymen justice. "I am 
afraid," bo says, "wo aro n littlo too apt in 
Scotland to claim tbo merit of iovontions which 
wo never made, ffc claim tbo invention of the 
thrashing-machine, yet it is diffused over a part 
of Norway, so much moro universally than it is 
in Scotland, that oor right to tho invention 
scorns very doubtful. It ig certainly not pro- 
bable that u Scotch invention should find its way 
to Norway, aad bo much more generally diffused 
in its most romoto districts, than in any port of 
lha country which claims tho invention. It 
seems much moro likely, that it was borrowed 
from our poor neighbor in tbo North by our 
ingenious Scotch inventors." 

But lot tho author tell his reasons for prefer- 
ring Norway to America, for it is ono of the 
most sensible paragraphs of his book. "Nor- 
way is certainly not a country in which tho 
emigrant c*n make moaoyj and being fully 
peopled ap to its resources, it aonld absorb 
none of our laboring class of emigrants. Tho 
man who can work nt a trade, or even at ordi- 
nary farm- work, will da much better in America. 
Ho who has a little capital, and wishes to 
increase it, and knows how, will also I have no 
doubt do much bettor thorn. Bnt thora is a 
class who can neither work nor trade, but wbo 
have a littlo money, either as capital or as in- 
come, which they merely seek to live upon with 
some degree of comfort. Thoy may bavo tlio 
wish, but tboy aro sensible that thoy have not 
tbo skill, to luru their capital to any advantage. 
For such people, it is evidently ruiu to omigrnto 
to a coantry whore labor Is dear, as it in Amor- 




P.4TJL CLIFFORD, 
W e present another specimen of the Morgan I Bishop's Hamilton ian, and ho by Imported Mes- 
Horso, as figured in the work upon that animal, senger, Qrand dam by Leo nidus, an imported 
published by 0. M. Saltan & Co., Lo which, wo | horse. Color, mahogany bay, 151 hands high, 
referral last week. Tbo pedigree of this animal t Now owned by Messrs, Hunsdcn & Wilcox, of 
is as follows: Was foaled in 1843. Sired by Oswego, Tioga Co., N.Y. no is a very fine horse, 
Black Hawk;g Eire, Sherman ; g g sire. Justin 1 nnd received the first premium at tha National 
Morgan. Dam by Young Hamiltonian, lie by Fair, Springfield, Mass., in 1SS4. 



ica; for labor is the very thing they must b 
cost what it will. Cheap land is of no uso to th 
without cheap labor to oultivoto it. Tha di 
ncss of labor in America makes it. no doubt, an 
excellent country for those who have labor 
sell. But bow does it answer for tho emigrant 
who is out-and-out a consumer, not a producoi 
— who cannot labor himself in any way that is 
profitable? To this class, tho country in which 
labor costs sixpence a day is ten times boltoi 
Ihnn that in which it costs five shillings. Norway 
presents many advantages to such emigrants." 

To Norway lot them go. Thoy would only 
be gentlemen loafers here ; and we bavo plenty 
of that class already. 

Ho talks freely too of our domestic nrmQgo- 
monts on this side of the Atlantic ; but ho does 
not appear to bo very correctly informed oil tho 
subject. Tho class of domeslia servants in 
America (ho doos not mean slaves) appears, by 
tbo accounts of travelers, to add littlo to tho 
comforts of social life. Thoy appear to labor 
under a constant desire to show that tbBy 
equal in all rcspeota to those whom thoy set 
or as tboy express it, help. Tho cause of this 
lies perhaps as much in tho position of the 
masicr, ns of the servant class in American i 
ciety. Hank and privilege do not exist, or tin 
no social distinction. Wealth can command 
particular respect, where, to tho extent' ol 
good and independent living, it can be so easily 
acquired, and education to a certain cite 
common to all. Tho serving class arc in tho 
right. In tho structure of the eooioly, there 
no basis real or fictitious,' upon which tbo on 
player can claim tho respeot of tho employed. 

By this time I suppose tho reader is tired of 
bin, philos op hiring, and wishes to know whntl 
gottosayaboutNorway. With tho xeadei 
permissinn I will pnrtly ho his spokesman. 

Ho arrived at Christiana on tbo 21st of 
July; end only staid few days before ho was 
ly among tho farmers, where be met any 
quantity of Scotchmen, all of whom woro doing 
well. Tho work was going on briskly in every 
direction. Thoy were horio-hooing their pota- 
drniniug and clearing now hind, and npply- 
me as manure; and ha bad tbo satisfaction 
of thinking tbat tbo peasantry were not moro 
petty bullions, from hearing a largo boll used, "as 
"Scotland," for tho purpose of calling tho labor- 
is to dinner. All this set oor author u-think- 
ing ; and for tha benefit of tho public ho thinks 
aloud, and calculates considerably about what 
ho sees going on around htm. But bo his not 



1 bo moots temptations which arrest him for 
by tha way. "Ono of tho Englishmen 
whom 1 mot at Jerkin gave me a fishing rod. 
He bad caught trout until he was actually tired, 
having killed above three hundred in a very few 
lays. Having fortunately brought with mu some 
Qles and tackle, I weal out this forenoon (August 
21st) to try my skill. Although I never fished 
treat before, I caught above six dozen between 
breakfast and dinner. They were small, bat the 
landlord brought in some as big as salmon, caught 
— - lake on the Fjolde, I have seen ordinary 
out of three or four ponnds weight, but 
these exceed eighteen pounds." Whata glorious 
country for old Izaic Walton! 

Uo grumbles a little about tho country inn; 
mi'l then grumbles with Englishmen for being 



too particular. "An Englishman, bred in tbo 
midst of that peculiar attention lo cleanliness) and 
nicety, which even now is almost exclusively 
I ji : ;li I., v.ill find much lo horrify him in a Nor- 
wegian ion; but such gentlemen are scarcely in 
a situation lo judge of the habits of a people. 
Thoy have been bred in a very nice, cleanly little 
world, bounded perhaps by tho Trent, or at mosi 
the Angel at Ferrybridge oa tho north, and (In 
Ship inn nt Dover on the south. It is scarcely 
fair to compare the state of manners of all Euro- 
pean n.itioin with this slandsrd. He who nil! 
Irncel faith) must eat what it placed before him. 
and sleep wltere there la a bed lo lie down upon." 
To he sura ha must, tiko a good Christian, and a 
good Californian. Docs not St. Paul himself toll 
us to "cat that which is set before us, asking 
questions?" And if wo had those fastldi 
Englishmen in tho mines, I suppose they would 
sometimes be glad lo sleep on any kind of 
Ihey could get one! 

Ho docs not stay long at Dronthoim. Ho goes 
on lo Lcvangcr; in the neighborhood of which is 
the beautiful valley of Vmrdal. "I do not knon 
in Scotland, says be, a valley so beautiful as Ibt 
of Vmrdal; the crops of grain so rich and mellow 
the houses so substantial nnd thickly set; farn 
after farm without interruption, each fully inclosed 
and subdivided with paling ; tbo grass Heidi 
so lively a green, os free from weedsond rubbish, 
and as neally shaven as a lawn before a country 
gentleman's windows; every k null, and all lbi 
bock-ground covered with trees; and a noble, 
clear river running briskly through It. 

In this valley our author rented a small farm, 
for which with another pasture form a few miles 
from it, one of which universally forms an append- 
age to tho farms ol tbo lower valleys, which con- 
lain tho only land that is cultivated, he paid (the 
out-farm excluded) about one dollar per acre. In 
such a district, such a farm, with all tho advanl- 
iges which he goes on lo doscribc, must have been 
rery cheap indeed ; and ono feels disposed to con- 
cede lo himtha point, that n man with a small 
eme derived from other sources might live very 
ifortably in such a counlry j especially as tho 
ill wages of farm laborers, with provisions, is 
only nine eonis per day. 
Tho method of plowing the land in Norway 
ppcars singulor, and is quite absurd. "Tho 
rholeof tho field is plowed qui lo flat, not gath- 
red into ridges, which is an error ; as the surface 
i aler, not finding an issue, sours the land, and 
utards tho seed. A still greater disadvantage is 
hat tho plow, not being a turn-wrest one, returns 
rapty to tho place it set oat from to begin each 
iciv Turrow. The plowman does not make a 
fresh ono in coming back, but trails the empty 
on Its side to the head of tbo Geld, He re- 
quires, consequently, iuhldouble tho time to slow 
au acre that wo toko." 

Some portions of their harvest work also appear 
singular, but ore moro rational, and may be neces- 
sary in that country. "For every ten sheaves, a 
pole of light, strong wood, about the thickness of 
"" 9 handle of a garden rake, and about nine feet 
length, is Hied in tho ground by nn iron shod 
borer (It costs almost nothing), A man sets 
heaves on the ground ngalnsl the sicui, nnd 
Impales all tho rest upon Iho polo, one ab.no ibe 
.Iber, with the heads hanging downwards. The 
pole enters before Iho band or each sheaf, ond 
comas out at the boltom. The sbcal Is put on 
with a pitchfork ; and a whole Held Is pickoled 
in this way with the greatest ease, as soon as it 



is cat. When sufficiently dried, a etedgo or car 
on low wheels comes along to the pole, which is 
lifted with nil its shcavesand laid into it at once ; 
and each pole, when in lha bam, is a tally for a 
tbrcave ol ten sheaves." 

Bat the most interesting portion of their hus- 
bandry Is their irrigation, in which wo would do 
wall to imitatu ihem. "The extent to which Irri- 
gation is carried in the glens and valleys shows a 
spirit of exertion and co-operation, to which Scot- 
land can show nothing similar. Tbo greatest 
exertions arc made to bring water from the head 
of each glen, along such a level as will give tho 
command of it to each farmer, at Iho head of his 
fields. This is done by leading It Into wooden, 
troughs from the highest perennial stream, among 
the hills, through woods, across ravines, along 
tha rocky, often perpendicular sides of tho glens, 
and from this main trough giving a lateral one to 
each farmer in passing the head of bis farm. Ho 
distributes this supply to movable troughsamong 
tho fields, and in the summer season waters each 
ridge successively with scoops, like Ihoso used by 
bleachers in watering cloth, laying his trough, 
between every two ridges." 

The manners of the peoplo are simple, affection- 
ate and easy ; and 1 am sorry that I have already 
occupied so much space, that 1 cannot think of 
making a single quotation in regard to them. 
Let mo, however, make ono more, descriptive of a 
Fiord, or that singular species of armlet of tho 
sea which is so common in Norway. 'Tho littlo 
laud-locked bay is so shut in with rocks nnd 
woods that it resembles a small mountain lake. 
The entrance is bid by trees, and the mark of 
high walcr at tho bead ol the cove is tho only in- 
dicaliun that it belongs to the ocean. There is 
generally room at its head for ouo Qsbing farmer, 
wilb his house at tho foot of tha rocks, a green 
spot far his cows and goats, and his little skiff at 
anchor before his door; where the lucky fel- 
low, without ever knowing what a soastorm is, 
or going out of sight of his Own chimney smoke, 
catches in his sheltered creek lha finest sea fish, 
beneath the shadow of the rocky forest that sur- 
rounds him. When tho traveler drops suddenly 
upon ono of these nooks, his toil in scrambling 
up and down the rocks is repaid." 

The population of Norway is over one million; 
who form, according to our author, about the hap- 
piest and most comfortable peasantry in Europe. 
May Gad continue to bless them I Aontpou. 
Valuable Implements. 
We have seen tho Gang Plow offered at S. L. 
Palmer's Agricultural Warehouse, San Francisco. 
It is undoubtedly one of tho best Implements now 
used. Farmers should always remember that 
tho 6ei( loalt are tho cheapest; and bow much 
depends upon a good plow. Ono proof of tho 
excellence of this implement is, that Mr. Palmer 
sells tbo plows as fast as bo can make them. 

The Patent Thermometer Churn, of Mr. Pal- 
mer, is now esteemed one or the best In use. 
There are three sizes— eight, twelve, and sixteen 
gallons— and tboy sell at §12, > I -I. and $18, at 
rola.iL These churns are with trwfciiig- ther- 
mometers; the ordinary ones, imported, do not 
work well. It is pleasant, also, to know that 
theso two articles are of California manufacture. 
Wo call attention, onto more, lo the valuable 
Cultivator made by Messrs. Beeching & Post,' 35 
Pine street, San Francisco. Wo have seen parlies 
that know how well they work. Tho cultivator 
was tested near tho Mission Dolores. John Cen- 
ter, Esq.; S. L. Palmer, Esq., of tho Agricultural 
Warehouse; A. B. Souihworth, Esq., of South- 
worth & Co.'s Agricultural Warehouse, and 
others, can attest to tho value of this implement, 
and Ihey accord to it tho highest praise. Wu 
hopo Ihoso who need willgo and seo it. Messrs. 
B. & P. deserve well for their excellent invention. 
Another excellent implement (for wo supposo 
i may call a beautiful wagon on implement)' wo 
it it J. L. OLtlgnon's Carriage Factory on Cal- 
ifornia street, In the shipe of a splendidly fin- 
ished Express Wagon, and wo feel confident it 
be excelled in the United Stales. Mr. 
0. has made several, and we should think our 
dairymen, marketmen, and all carriers, would go 
bia specimen wagon, and order from 
homo manufactoro. This would encourage, and 
this Is what we need to do, to secure prosperity : 
Ey Encourage Home Industry. 

Tho May Queen Washer, that unique Washing 
Machine which obtained the Premium at tho 
State Fair, is now being manufactured In quanti- 
ties at San Francisco, the Patent Eight for tho 

ity having been secured by Mr, Ames, On 

Imiglou street, and wo advise all good houso- 



Amlhioa I Hkk Glony ma Ilea Shame,— 
• hi8mostcxcellent,lruthfulsnd spirited composj- 
tlou, which is found in our columns, is by onooftho 
■■—-■, ; ladles of the Bcnioia Seminary, and reflects 
honor upon her head and heart. Well may 
p-irents be proud of daughters that shall Ihink 
Tito thus; for when called lo tako part In 
- life, their inilueiice ruunt bo felt for good, 
ii e rejoice to see luch an influence emanating 
Iioni oor institutions of learning. It bespeaks a 
glorious future fur California. 



34 



iHE OALIFOBNIA F ARMER- 



To Formers. 
The annexed very able editorial wo l » kc f £ ra 
the New York Tribune of December 27, 1856, 
and we lay it before our readers is an evidence of 
the value of agricultural knowledge 10 a farmer 
It is Important that tho cultivator of the soil 
ehoold not only be familiar with the science as 
practised in bis own county. but in "H countries, 
and Ibus extract all the practical good ho can 






:, lb, 



intelligent 



That the frrcat mass or the farmers 
United Sulci are an intelligent class of people, 
may hardly be doubted, In this respect they 
will comp^ favorably With the cult, valors o he 
soil as a class, in nny "I'.'f nation of the globe. 
Yet that they cultivate this land wit' 
all com mens u rata with Ibeir general 
js q„in.. another thing. In that regard, ihey an 
Tisllj' behind their collaborators in most of Ihi 
leading Slates of Europe; the aggregate annual 
produclion of tho American farm makes a very 
poor appearance when compared with that of the 
Eoiopenn. 

For some part of this defect, our farmers are 
not to be Warned. They lack the capital accumu- 
lated in Europe through hundreds of years of cul- 
tivation. Bui for much of this had and unprofit- 
able farming, they should he held responsible. 
Tho first great evil, on this head, is in the desire 
to own large farms, without tho necessary capital 
lo secure good cultivation. The next radical de- 
fect Is in not properly understanding tbo true 
principles of their business; for agriculture is 
based upon certain unerring and unchanging laws, 
easy to understand and simple lo follow. let, if 
disregarded, Or but inditlbrcntly carried ocl, tho 
business becomes impoverishing, holb (o the Eoil 
and its owner. For the purpose, therefore, of re- 
forming these shortcomings, and leaching th 
]aws of Plenty, wo shall now be axiomatic ar 
particular, 



killed at tho precise period when tho animals 
have reached their maximum growth. Franco 
supports ten million head of unimproved breeds, 
many or them kept to an ago when growth has 
long ceased, and when tho food consumed no longer 
contributes to their growth ; and many of them 
killed as calves, at an age when growth is most 
rapid. Great Britain slaughters annually two 
million head of calile.ol an average weight of six 
hundred pounds; Franco Hi aughlers annually four 
million head, of an average treightof two hundred 
and forty pounds- - 

Without further details, comparing the lout 
production of Iho two agricultures, it Will appear 
that, while France as a whole produces ter, 
au acre, England proper produces twenty 
The annual animal produce alone of en English 
f ;l nn is r.pial to at least Iho total produce 
French farm of equal area, all tho vegetable . 
duct being additional. Comparing tho wheal 
raised in Franco with all its acres, it A "™ '•'•' 
average more than two bushels to iho a 
paring all the wheal raised in England with all 
lis acres it averages four bushels 10 the acre. 
Taking tho three principal kinds of domestic 
animals, sheep cattle and pigs, the English obtain 
l„ir times more than tbo French do in meat, milk 
and wool. We Qnd, as the result of the com- 
parison of the two agricultures, that while the 
iltie of tho animal produce of England is greater 
an its vegetable produce, tho valucol the animal 
produce of Franco is less than one-half the vege- 
table produce, and as a consequence wo find tbo 
agriculture of Fngland rich while that of Franco 



> shall t 
ienco of ages b 



w propose It 



demonstrated this 
truth: That no system of agriculture worthy a 
civiliied people can be permanently prosperous 
when the value of tbo annual animal product of 
the farm does not equal that of tho vegetable 
product. When the vegetable product is greater 
in value than the animal, the condition of agri- 
culture will bo found unsatisfactory and the 
country poor. The cause of this is simple. The 
main reliance of the farmer for means to amelior- 
ate the condition of his soil, to maintain 
crease its fertility, must ever be upon the 
made by the domeslic animals which are kept 
upon his [arm. Any and oil other schemes for 
keeping up the fertility of the soil over all [be 
country will end in disappointment and serious 

In no part of Europe is agriculture so prosper- 
ous as in Flanders, and portions of Holland. And 
any American fanner who has traveled through 
those countries, could not help being astonished 
at Ihe Urge number of animals which arc kept, 
and the quantity of grain which is produced upon 
a farm of ordinary siie, or what would bo called 
so here. We give a single instance, by no means 
rare, except that the quantity of tho land is 
larger lhan the average of Flanders farms, being 
about one bundled and thirty acres. About one- 
fourth was in pcimanenl pasture; the remainder 
arable, ef which thirty ncres were in wheal, ten 
rye, fourteen oaLs, fourteen clover, ten flax, twelve 
colza, three beans, three barley, and six potatoes 
—or one hundred and two acres, cighly-eigbt in 
crop?. The slock of this Turin consisted of seven- 
teen cows, livec ih <.-.-, five heirern, nine cart-horses, 
and three edits— tiiitiT-niiiL- ti-nd in all. Every- 
thing grown upon the farm was consumed upon 
it, except ihe wheat, flax and colza, or rape-seed. 
-'._.! staged thirty-five bushele *- "' 



he agriculture of 
tho Onion, to see Tiow it a 
ilh the last mentioned country ; ant 
o wo ore compelled to rely upon tho Con 
of i§50, which in many particulars, is very 
fective. The Stale of New York had nine! 
millions or acres in use, one-third being un 
proved, She had six acres lo one sheep, and the 
average net weight of the carcass would not 
coed forty pounds. As our sheep husbandry 
oimilatos to Ihe French, the annual product of 
meat would be bul thirty-six millions of pounds, 
or only two pounds of meat to the acre, while in 
England proper it was twenty-seven pounds. Of 
wheat, compared with all our acres, we obtained 
three-fourths of a bushel from the acre. The 
value of the animal product Was thirty-four mil- 
lions of dollars. The value of the vegetable pro 
duct ficlusivf of hay. ™ forty-eight millions 
including tho hay crop, It was sixty-sis milliuii! 
of dollars, or nearly double tho value of Ihi 



crop of wheat cannot bo hod. These U>reoonps 
managed i« thia way, with a thorough attention 
to their oultivaiion, and particularly to having 
the work of plowing, harrowing and seeding 
well done, wooia for Iho three years next auc- 
coedinc tho reclamation of the marsh land, ro- 
pey tho owner for all or nt least a largo propor- 
tion of tbo outlay occasioned by the making of 
the requisite drains. In Oases whore the COD.. 
.h,;,,,, ,,,' ,t„. -oil w.-uhl permit it. corn might ho 
mndo tbo first crop ; the labor of hoeing such a 
-,„! ih..„...;:blv. I,..ir„ver, renders tho orop an 
ovnotiaivo one Acorn, it must bo borne in 
mind that some marsh lands ere totally unfit for 
the growth of wheat, because upon thorn the 
6 traw is so liable to be blighted by rust fho 
lime would aid in curing this, but sl.ll wlu-ro 
only a vegetable muck prevails, there ^is great 
risk with a wheat crop, 
well drained. 

It is frequently the case that a crop of broom 
i>,.m i- found n very profitable one on bu oh ft 
niece of marsh land, especially where enough of 
help cad bo had at tho proper season. Potatoes 
dsn are often found profitable. OS pee tally if 
close to n market wbcro thoy can bo readily 
sold. The choice in suoh matters must bo 
guided by due consideration of all tho cireum- 
by which tho farmer is surrounded, 
at is certain, thai those who have been 
Eceasful in improving marsh land, inva- 
riably havu recoureo to oats as the crop with 
which to subdue tbo sod at tbo least expense; 
and we fiad that this practice is also tho most 
general in Scotch mid English husbandry. Lost 
year we perceive that a gold medal was awarded 
by tho Highland Society, for tho ouccessful 

reclamation of a largo piece of pent """■ ' 

oats formed tho crop which 

for three years in sucoossil 
thought fit to bo seeded for meadow. 

The question may also 
not bo more profitable to . 

rotations upon such land, rather than lo devote 
it entirely to the growth of grass. Away from 
a market for bay, tho growth of grass nnph— 
th,- f, ■ .ling of slock, and tho question will an 
whether a wheat or a oorn crop every four 
five years would not pay hotter than hny. 
laying out the plau for tho treatmont of marsh 
lauds, oil these soivi-nl omsidtTiilionsmiiBtiH 
duo weight.— [Michigan Farmer. 



9 taken from i 



nt the little town of Kowno.on the river Njemen 
Lithuania, which is eurrounded by an extcn 
„.« forest of these trees, and whore- the rearing 
occupies tho principal attention of the inhabitants. 
Tho Jews of Poland furnish a cIobo imitation oi 
this honey, by bleaching tho common kinda ia 
the open air during frosty weather. 

Tbc ceremonies of Iho Greek church, requiring 
n large consumption of was candles, grcally favor 
ibis branch of rural economy in Russia, and pre- 
fer ra it from Iho decline to which it is exposed m 
olher countries, from tho increasing use of slear- 
ino oil gas and other fluids for illuminating 
purposes. The peasants produce wax so cheaply 
that notwithstanding iho consumption ol this 
article has greatly diminished abroad, itstill con- 
tinues to forman important item ol the commerce 
of tho country ; bul tho exportation of honey has 
considerably increased in conscnucnco of the 
extended uso of potato sirup,_ which has also 
injured the honey trade in the interior. 

The rearing of bees is now almost exclusively 
dependent on tho manufacture of candles for 
relniio'i* « ■ .(-monies, and on tho consumption of 
honey during Lent, it being then used instead ol 
sucar, bv the strict observers of the fasts. Iho 
nt encourages this branch of rural 
affording to Iho peasant an extra sot 
and bos adopted various measures 
plishment of this end. With Iho i 
of diffusing the requisite knowledge among tho 
people or the public domains, bee-hives, and o. 
course of practical instruction upon the suhjcclof 
beO'Cullurc. have been established ot several » 
tho crown farms, and pupils are sent every jot 
ot the expense of the government, to tbo special 
school in Tschcrnigow, founded for tbi 
in 1828, After having finished their s 
pupils, quilling this establishment, may become 
' thoschoolsdependcntou the Ministry 



so, whether it may 



..fit. 



omoins, or carry 



, i. i 



a of leaching 



.;: „ u ..n account They enjoy a temporary 
exemption from military service ; and such of 
thein as wish to establish hives for themselves 
obtain loans for the purpose from the Department 
of Ruial Economy. By way of further encour- 
agement, the Ministry of Domains has granted 
permission Lo the peasants to establish hives in 
ihccrown forests, under tho precaution! 
to prevent tho occurrence^ of conflagrati 



uso in the United Slates 
hundred and nicely three millions o 
about three-fifiliK being put down as on 

sheep to fifteen acres. T 
product of mutton would bo hut two-thirds of 



Andn 



: His 












ni^htl" 



..-.!:. r. 



0.1 ..o 



with Fra 



i of Dn< 



is twenty feet square and seven feet deep, 
considered moeb too small, though there was 
another under his manure pile in ihe yard. The 
urine cistern is an indispensille adjunct to the 
farm ; it is found throughout all the Low Countries. 
Sometimes it is only a tub or a hogshead sunk in 
the ground upon the small farms of three Or four 
acres, while upon tlielargcroncsitisof a capacity 
for thousand a of gallons. 

Bul, leaning those old countries, whose agri- 
culture has been for centuries in advance of all 
the rest of Europe, let us turn to England and 
Fiance, and contrast the results of their different 
systems of agriculture. England has no advan- 
tages in Eioil or climate which France does not 
possess. On Ihe contrary, France can easily pro* 
dace all that Fog land docs, but has many advan- 
tages in her wine, tobacco, Indian corn, oleagim 






; Engl,,. 



Tl„" 



whuli 






(ill Islands eo ntai 

1 support ihirty-Bvemilflonsof sheep. Franco 
itains one hundred and six millions of acres, 
Is the same number. In proper * 



, if wo 



..,,1,1 , 



uilli!, 



of sheep. 

with France, tho difference 

striking. England proper, on her thirty milli 

of acres, supports thirty millions of sheep, or 

to each acre, while France devotes threo acres to 

each sheep. 

During the pist eighty yearn, Franco has done 
comparatively nothing lo improve her sheep ex- 
cept to import ihe Merino from Spain. She has 
neither improied her breeds nor developed their 
'eight. Wool has been her primary ob- 
' England on the other hand 



woolcd sheep, yielding annually one thousand 
millions of pounds of meat. (Joinp.it.il with 
England, we should havo three hundred "millions 
of sheep yi;lili"g e:ghl thousand millions of 
pounds or meat, lint wo are aware that the 
!„,, ., ,l.,,i ,1 the United Slates hears no propor- 
tion lo tho land in use, compared wilh either Fng- 
land or France; yet these very figures demon- 
strate lhat wo have va-tly more acres in uso lhan 
we can profitably cultivate, aud lhat ihi:- uuo'lii- 
iniiril l.ind is ii pfj.-iiivc luss to tlm individual and 
lo i in- nil ion. Coiiipjringall Ihe wheat product 
« ilh nil ihe acres in use. and ihe vield was one 
bushello three acre?. The whole value of the 
vegetable products, including hay and collon- 
uhich were of nearly iho tamo value— wi 

SM'i'.i 00. The value of the animal produ 

■v-sS-W'iE'.uUO. The agriculture or Ihe Dniti 

Suites produced about 5-1 to the acre, and that 

of the Stale of Now York go lo the acre. It 

tree thnt this coin parison does injustice lo portions 

Union ; bul as the object was to make tho 

it between great nations, 

nparison accordingly. The lesson taught 

is a most important one to every farmer 

or planter in the land. It is this: No farraercan 

Hjrmaneully prosperous who does not bring 

fu rni and his live stock into such a condition 

into such a relation lo each other that his 

stock shall be in proportion lo the number of 

acres, and in such a proportion that his umnul 

produce on the farm shall bo at least equal lo the 

liable in valoe. Lei every farmer ponder well 

law, and follow it, for upen its observance 

ikp-i].] his prosperity. Its careful observance is 

ih : foundation of all improvement in agriculture. 

FIrnt Crops for Improved Marsh Lancia. 

Is* the December number, llioro was published 
ii letter iiskltig fur information as to what crops 
were likely to prove most profitable on a piece 
of redeemed moreli. There are two ohji-cts !•■ 
bo kept in view ia cultivating such a piecn of 
land ; firnt, Ihe immediats growth of a profitable 
crop, and next the steady improvemeot end 
amelioration ef the land. The marsh when 

by any means fitted fot 
growth of crops of high value. It ia atil 
and very rough. Tho surfuco coil whii 
generally turned up wilh a broad thin fu, 



On Brooding. 
The choice ofa sire and dam is a point of the 
tmosl consequence in breeding horses (or, in- 
deed, any other animal), aslU-oll-pring will !■■-' 
found, in almost every instance, to inherit the 
qualities of its parents; peculiarity of form and 

'.ruction is inherent and descends from goner- 

10 generation. Hence tho necessary ntten- 
to those niceties which breeders are often 
.0 forget. Nor is il sufficient lhat one of Ihe 
parents bo good, and the other indifferent; for 
ihe perfections of tho siro may bo loM through 



should 



tersof her Bock tc 
people eighl hundred m 
The Fivrndi bheep nol 
fk.H-l,-, ,.< annually ei 



las' made meal, 

object. So successful has she been in that pai 
ticular, that her sheep avenge, in net weight t 
meat, eighty pounds each, while the French sheep 
avtrrifie hut forty pounds each. England tflauah- 
: " : --^nnually r giving bet 

ig precocious, France 
millions, giving bul 
..,.. i ,.,„i,h U .,l U ..m,.j million pounds of meat. 
Allowing tho meal to be equal ia value, though 
It is claimed lhat Iho advantage ii in favor of ih 
Eogli-h -.litcp. wo find that Iho return from 
sheep fjiui io England is six times greater Iba 
that from a French farm of equal area. 

In rc-.[Kct to cows, Franco possesses four mil. 
lions and Greii Britain three millions. The 
French worli ihtir cows aud inure them to labor, 
bo lhat they become a strong, hardy race, bullose 
their best milking properiiua, and at least one- 
half are not really nulk caws, while all the Eog- 
h "\.r"Z ,! "" i KeW double Lho milk from her 
three millions of cows lhal Franco docs from her 

d cities with which England 
Ik for four eonu 
ilk in France is 

ration o" " 
lelha French 6i, ulla 

0,000,000 as ihe product of (bor 
a, Ihe English farmers make 
.., product of thrns millions. 
urnn nriiain supports eighl million hew] oi 
cattle, of the most improved breeda-~pcrfect 
WbIh, fed and developed to as to yield the 



■r cells his i 



$80,0OO.Of 



ii-,,., nu .mo uoviup :,ojMo,iei'i iae dealest "t tin: malarial ueo-^niy i . -.:■-... 
folgbl Of botcher's meat at the earliest age, and ' healthy atraw, and without a. stout 



posited from the coarse grosses, and tho w. 
plants, which were natural to tho marsh w 
saturated with water. As yet tho surfuco i 
u peaty coudistenee, it has not been mellu 
by 1'tpriftiin'!. Besides this, tbo surface is nut 
smooth. Tho lumps and tussocks, and smull 
heaps have not yet bean leveled, fur a single 

Slowing will not permit lids to bo done. If tho 
esign is lay lho mnreli down to permanent 
meadow, it is all important that the surface 
should be made as level as possible. To effect 
this with economy, we incline to that practice 
which makes a crop of oats first to bo token 
from a piece of reclaimed marsh, and then fol- 
lowing it with com, to bo eueccded if possible 
by wheut tbo name soasou. The crop of ools 
would servo to kill off end keep under the wild 
id at tbo same timo mellow lho thin 
sod of tbo first plowing. After the 
keu off, a plowing In the fall, to tho 
depth uf seven or eight inches, should be jiivon 
to the stubble, uud if u coating of lime, of lift, id 
or twenty bushels per acre, can then bo given, 
the next year's crop will amply repay the ex- 
penditure. Liuio i« of great service in such a 
soil, ax it serves lo noutrabza tho acid with 
which the soil is apt to bo overcharged, and 
likewise acts mechunlcolly In converting tho 
vegetable muok to a soil of loamy aharactei 
This lime will also have a most eicelUut HiV. 
on the succeeding crops. The crop of coi 
bring taken off, w. t would burn the cornstalks 
In tho field, and barrow in the ashes; this would 
bo more necessary, if no linto wore applied tho 
previous year. The reason why the cornstrnw 
should bo burned, is lhat a orop of oots followed 
by one of corn, another of wheat, and then 
grass, would leavo tho soil too much o*luiustod 
of tho material necessary to grow a firm, stout. 



ihe .[, li.i-.neesof tht 

In lho selection of ostallion many things: 
i observed. The bight should depend On mo 
cupation Ihe foal is destined to fill. The legs 
should bo particularly examined, and disease 
should pervade no part of lho system. Fat, 
horses, with Ihick legs, ond coarse, uu- 
heads.sbuuldalivay.stie avoided. Horses 
should he free Tram specks on tho eye — partial or 
total blindness. Temper is on essential point, 
(or vice i^ sometimes hereditary. Stallions that 
cover loo many mares in a season, in Iho latter 
period produce weak offspring. 

An regards the mare, il is well known that the 
dam contributes moro-to the integrity of lho off- 
spring than the sire. It is es-enlial lhat she bo 
in full possession of her natural strength and 
powers; the vigor of the constitution determines 
ranch in favur of the foal. It is a greal error to 
suppose, lhal a mare that has once been good, and 
capable of great exertion, should, when old, and 
no longer filled for work, produce offspring 
equally efficient as when in her prime: the fbal 
ill certainly inhei 
io present nsturci 
Mir-, i i-liijiild never 

thoy have arrived at maturity, which lakes pli 
about tho fifih year. Marcs are bred from earli 
but it is a bad practice, for strength and beauty 
are absent; anil thus not only is the dam ren- 
dered incIUcienl fu'mer il.ni in on I' that is allowed 
to come lo maturity, but the foal can never be 
expected to bo either healthy or s'.rong in ■■on-ti- 
tiiiion. Tho period of going with foal is eleven 
months: after the sixth mouth, great care and 
gentleness should bo exercised towards them ; 
moderate exercise is essential; hard work In 
harness, over bad roads, is likely lo produce abor- 
tion ; and mares that have once aborted are very 
liable (if tho same causes are in operation) to a 
recurrence of the same. 

The ptoper lime for copulation is when there 
is a whitish fluid from the vagina. Slit neighs 
frequently, and exhibits greal desire for the horse ; 
when she has conceived, she shows no further 
desire, and Ihe discharge from Ihe vagina stops. 

Some writers recommend the mare to bo put 
to the stallion early arter foaliug: this is im- 
proper, for Ihe simple reason that tho dam has lo 
nourish Iwo, viz: the foal and Ihe embryo ; this 
is excessively weakening, and liable lo weaken 



d of the i 



t lo the stallion until 



The I 



1*1 |V 



ii of w 



, It.i-i 



5,412,000 pounds per 

the usual calculation is three pounds of honey tc 

of was, Ibis supposes a production of 10,2jG,- 

pounds of honey, lho whole being valued al 

§2,250 O00.-[D. J. B., in Palcnt Office Report 

for 1S55. 

Iho Beat Hens for Laying. 
respondent of the Country Gentleman, 
i the following statement of Ihe qualities 
il varieties of fowls, for producing eggs, 
o particularly or lho Black Spanish and 
Leghorn Breeds. He says : I have kept the two 
above named for somo time, as well as a number 
of other varieties, but find none to equal them 
qnsnlity or size of eggs, rarely evincing 
desire lo sit. in fact none of my Leghorns have 
ever shown lhat desire. Lsst spring I confined 
three hens and one cock of the following named 
varieties, each quartered in a separate inclosur 
and for soventy-twodays keptau exact account. 
their performances, which were as follows, bcgti 
ning Feb, 17. end ending April 30: 
Leghorns laid 122 eggs; no disposition to sit 
Spanish do 103 do ' 



TVb feel it duo to one who has dono 
to promote tho cause of Horticulture as hij |^ I 
Bon. M. P. Wilder, lo give his valuable octal!, I 
and counsel as expressed in his very able addrta I 
which wo now lay before our readers, acd„l 
hopo that before many years we shell havo Ftaj, I 
vals of tho same character in our State: 

There was a very large attendance at ih 8 n v| 
tional Agricultural Fair to-dav, numbering thin. I 
to forty thousand persons. The principal nlln,. I 
tion was theracingon tho course, which wwrtrtM 
spirited. The grand banquet came olfatyji 
-jwbon eighteen hundred persons, indodlmB 
'0 hundred ladies, sat down. 
Among Ihe invited guests were Bishops Pollg 
or Pennsylvania, and McCloskey of Wichim, 
who pronounced grace and returned thankstj' 
fore and after the meal. 

The tables filled an immense lent beautiftl], 
decorated, and bountifully supplied under ihtjj 
rcction of Mr. Jones of tho Exchange Ilotel. 

After the edibles hod been disposed of, Fn* 
dent Wilder mado an address, as follows: 
Fellow-ciLizens and Friends of Agriculture: 

Amidst these congregated thousands, assembfej 
from various States of our Confederacy, andfroa 
foreign lands, amidst this array of intellect ial 
learning from all ranks and profit ion.-, inJ.rj 
the presence of this ga1a*y of beauty and t*A 
my voice can bo of liitlo moment, except as Hi 
medium ol communication between you and Lhct 
I have tho honor lo represent. 

In behalf of lho United States Agrii 
Society, and of those by whoso invitation u& 
liberality wo nro here convened, 1 extend to cui 
of you a most cordial welcome. Welcome to li- 
present blessings and glorious hopes of Amciio) 
Agriculture, tho parent and conservator of Amov] 
Icon freedom. (Applause.) ( 

Eighty-one years ago, in this city of brolherif 1 
Lovo tho Fathers of our Republic planted U.^ 
co of Liberty, beneath whoso gonial shade r 
poso, and of whose fruit wo now partake. Tie> 
ission was lo proclaim political independent^ 
irs to secure to tho tillers of the soil Ibe bits ' 
ngs of that independence. Seventy-one ytan 
_,;o a noble band of those patriot sires establisbej - 
the first Agricultural Society on this continent, 
in Ibis city, endeared lo us by lho most halloaei 
associations, all of which conspire I 
most appropriate place for this great naliooi] 
jubilee. (Applause.) 

The purpose of this Society is lo carry o 
lo consummate lho designs of those vencratJs 
men — to bring together the choicest production; 
of art and science, of industry and enterprise— 
to awaken and sustain a more general interest ia 
all the departments of husbandry — and, abort 
nil, and over all, to unite by a band of commM 
fellowship and friendship, the yeomanry ol all 
sections of our beloved land. (Rapturous Ap- ' 



Black Polands 83 do do 

Gold do CG do do 

Gray Dorkings 05 do all si I tin 
Cochin Obinns 43 do do 

Another correspond! 
as follows : 

"1 am satisfied from my own experience, 
as Ihe information 1 receive from friea 
breed Leghorn fowls, that for laying Ibey 
perior to any other variety. They do -- 
so loigo a growth of body as some olh 
fowls, and for this reason may not bo e 
" Ihe table ; their eggs, however, arc 



; also adds his testimony 



desirable 



It is our happy lot to live in a period of high 

and progressive civilintion, distinguished bj 
events superior to those which make up Ihe hb> 
lory of the Pharaohs in Egypt, or tho Sclucid* 
in Syria, or the Ctc-ars in Rome— a period wno 
individual and national character forms will 
amazing rapidity, and lho work offormeroah 
turics is transacted in a few days. 

We live, too, in a country the vigorous greith 
of which readily arl-.ipU itself to this activaia 
— a counlry or stupendous proportions, exlcra- 
ing from ocean lo ocean, containing vast fields (n 
lan development :,n-i ii q.[.ino>s, embrociaj 
ly every variety of soil anil climate, nctuillj 
producing or capable of being made to prodW 

for its rapidly reduplicating millta* 

moro people than now inhabit lis 
globe; a country, i>lio.;e thriving cities, Sfrinj- 
by enchantment, suddenly surpass is 



ofa 



fiir si 






under my observation. It may possibly be 

classed with ihe Black Spanish, as il resembles 

em in many particulars, although t cm disposed 

■.'im-idi:r tlietn distinct species. 

"1 have had experience wilh most, if not all, 

varieties of ilame-tii; f..«l- ;ml luieeno hesitation 

lacing Ihe Leghorn breed before any Other, 

I think were they substituted for the present 

•ration of fowl, the egg crop would b( =_ 

creased at least fifty per cent." 



icor the other. 
Disproportiooato copulations oro also bad, as a 
largo liorso and a small marc : tho size of the 
horso should bo produced by gentle graduations, 
and this is evidently a butter way- 
beauty as well as strength. 

The best method or preserving the breed ond 
making Improve men Is, is to make selections of 
the best on both sides. Muchjudgi 
cuuispcction is necessary al all limes in crossing 
the breed ; and many errors arii-e in conseque 
vaiil ofknowledge in Ihe breeders, 
icn the period of foaling draws nigh, 
should be sepaiatad from the other lion 
Having foaled, turn her into a lino pasture, wh 
there ia a barn. The foal may ho weaned at 
months. If the foal dies, or is taken away fr 
lam, humanity would suggutl iho uromieu 
fuw weeks' rest, lo cnnhlu the animal " 
recover from the cQeclsof parturition,— [Am. V 
Journal. 



a full 



ral direct from Leghorn, 
ic of them to manifest a 
. compelled to secure Ihe 
e olher breed lo hatch 



"Strange lo say T bav 
iwl ni ■*■ ' 



Feeding Houses. — "Your remarks in rela- 
ia to tho amount of hay and gruin, which n 

borso will consume per day, have attracted my 
lion. Tin. 1 o- tmil iLiooiiut of food consumed 

by a liorso will depend upon his form and dia- 

Eosition. I have found that horsos of a compact 
inn nud quiet dit-[i'i.-iiii.ui, irvigiiing about 1200 
|i'iiiiidi>. mill exerting a forte- equivalent Ii 
moving 150 or 200 pounds ui tho rata of tw 
miles per hour, for len hours per dny, aud si: 
days in tho week, will require enoh twenty 
pounds of oats, fourteen pounds of buy, and 
seventy pounds of water, wilh a comfortable 
stable, and to keep them in good order. Th 
also much of the condition of lho horse will d 
pond on his having n driver ivho knows how 
uso him without harshness, 

"This is lho conclusion I have urrived at nf! 
thirty years' oiperii-nco, with a great number 
of horses on my hands tho mosl of tho timo, 
Tho cost of keeping horses for furtn work is ex- 
pensive, when compared wilh lho cost of keep- 
ing oxen or males. "—[Cum., in Mieh. Farmer. 



the a 






H.flC! 



giouB. atti 



u, and tho ii 



o thoUit 



the attention of all olher oatlom, 
habitants, from every part of th 
world, are assimilating and commingling into I 
;e more powerful lhan any which has preraiM 

iportanco of one cam 
tho All-wiso and Infin 
ted States of America. 

Tho lively interest manifested in this ottblB- 
lion, and lho great concourse t>( per-on. attic!- 
"' ifford ample evidence of lho highcslKB 
:h Agriculture aud the Rural Arts tw 
It will have been witnessed, should uw 
pleasant weolhor continue, by more than W 
hundred thousand people, and it has been pro- 
nounced bv competent jmlni-s, ttie in..-', intures:- 
Ing over hold on this side uf the Atlantic, (if 
plnuse.) Tho number of onirics has been raj 
large. In stock, it has embraced some of"* 
finest specimens or the dilf.-renl bro.-ls, wba- 1 ) 
this or any other counlry afford. Tho litWi 
With tho display of implements and a! the re- 
ductions of tho soil nnd ihe arts, reflect erw 
honor upon tho contiibu lions and Ihe Soci<Vi 
upon Ibis city and ihi 

For the means and i 
Iho complete success uf this exhibition, we •;■ 
indebted to Ihe municipal authorities ol this °'I 
and lo their felloe -citizens, for their prolita Ujrr 
tationand their lure- li.i;jnl:ilily— to tlie,gcnU<j 
men whose liberality provided the guaraniw K 
Ihe security of the enterprise ne;niii5t hi'" 1 ^ 
the Philadelphia Agricultural Society for uW 
encouragement and co- opera I ion— lo the supens- 

tcndenlfl, raar.->tiolt mul hieal ci niliet*, ,or ' 

energy and fidelity with which thoy l,, *J. ta . 
charged their arduous duties— to lho "M" 
tors, for the promptness wilh which I"') - ' , 
re-pomled to our call, in many instance* at P^ 
risk, expense, ami per-onnl" inrronvenienoST 

Ihe judges for Lhej eiou- ni^riiu:! in ■^'■-" ,X 

have fullilled tho ilitll noil delicate trui 1 ^ 

tided to them. C 
itcd 



which have 












The rearing .... 
lho several paiisut Em,. p.. 
in Lho central and souther 
as in the Polish and i 

Ctovinces. This in-n-t ,ic 
igh latitude, even in 
thought that tho climate ul 
nttorly unsuilablc for thi 
experiments mado at the 
present ccri lory in tbo gi 



o Culturu in Rtuisin. 






oved the 



l of '] 



Omsk, 

llhas greatly BU[fercd,h 

from the destruction of ,.,..., ,,, , 

prefers well.e,e. u ],.j c j -i -= i r i ., n .-, «hero it is nro 
lecled fromthe wind. Tho honey procured from 
{Titia aaopaa) is only ohtained 



1 Ihe linden ti 



EdvrTiav Wheat.— During 
foretold by Joseph in the luniT of Egynt,'"tho 

enrtli linmsht forth corn by hnndfnK" (C.,. n . 
a'li., 47), "seven ears on one stalk" (ibid, ver. 
22). It is not said certainly, lhat this wus 
wheat; bul its deM:riiiti.,ii evuetly correspouda 
Willi tho Trilku,,, ,;,mj>^il»m ut [.recent ealli- 
vuled in that counLiy, i,i,.l also wilh the mummy 
;■-■'" or, rli,, ,..i-,.,-,.«i i„ „ -, ll -....pK. l .Min in tho Egypt- 
ian tombs, which had probably lain tboro tor 
moro thun ;i(KHI yonts, but width when pl.mtod 
vogolated, aud has afforded us u now variety of 
that grain. I havo some eara of this now be- 
fore me, exhibiting tho somo phenomenon of 
"soven ears on tho stalk." This wheat is mado 
int., L'olne Hour, mul tho London bakers uso to 
dust the kneading boards. Thug wo bavo tho 
i-i< t .lo-line.ily l,i-,n,el>t l.eloro us, that the wheat 
ef Hint |i,.no,l i,.,-,.-., ,| ii. ia ,„,. n in common- 
allowing for tli,. ■ l„„i(o |j\ , ,..,] ]n ,liiV.. r ,. 1K ,„ H 

ot soil, character, and tuliivution— with that of 
tho present day .-[Murk Lano Expresa. 



excellence tr 



d the 



■egret is, lhat IW"2 



llch 'he,r presence o«-^ 

■ se we seek to aUraiici „ 



arded. 
Wo are also under especial oblig. 

resp dc table detegnt 

favored us — lo our honored gut 

couragement which 

though first 

following In the footsteps of 'limit 

common mother, have lent iho enchanlt 

grace and beauty to this primitive purfii" 

—a pursuit worthy of their purest de.o 

suited lo their most reHtied and culli«< 

(Applause.) 

Ladies and gentlemen r 
thrilling interest counecle 
American Agricnlion. hm 
hcirrl '- ■- 



■b" ih«r »' 

• llio 
.tforW 



e are t 1 



edl i whtel.il '^.^Ir^ 

I rfnS" hopefuT'lu^our %0J&d 



ful, salutary, ana nop m . >( uul "" r Y.ritf'S 
allude to ils tenduncy to give regut " Jjw 
heallhfulncsa lo tho pulsalions of W>*& 
hcartj lo quicken tho lido of living ^ 



i^E C^LIEHDElSriA. F^KMER. 



55SSss,f"S,«,S£= 



jtof the body poli 



and lota theso kindred ossocifc- 
K^a Stales:' to make and to keep tbr 
%asa, in interest,™ inheritance, and _ 

to, wboie example o onion and strength, of 
f lj«id Justice, of seir-rrovcrnmcnt ond 
i shall lie 'be admiration and wonder or 
I (Great Applause-) 
conclusion, permit ™ 
expressing "' 



that the ami 

.ml China m 

">iolonEod,»nd • better understanding belwi 

ind them may bo thereby brought about) 

that this reign of terror mould disappear, a 

happiness pervade th< 

f~ As regarding tho Chi 



o to offer yon n 



sentiment of the Choir. Igi" 
—Tho thirty-one farms of the 



think that it is not binding 
outward forms being different from 
sure you that the oath ' "~ 
looked upon as sacred 
tti tboy swear by tho Heaver 



-c then declared. 



atb, many pcopl* Wber horso Hod by tho side rf him, belonging 
Its natore, from ilr ' ■"■■' l! >" 



fijjwt Applause.) 
kpefohes were also made by Got. Pollock, 
Mayor Vour, Gov. Price of New Jersey, G. Tt . 
v flnstis of Virginia, Josiah Quincy Jr. of Bos- 
ton A. V Conger of New York, and Wm.W. 
Bercdlib. 
The premiums 



Cbiiieso Testimony. 
Toe following address, which has been sent to 
Qor. Johnson, is worthy tho attention of all mho 
faarc rhe good of California nt heart. Living as 
«e do under the blessings of our free institutions, 
we profcss to throw open our conn try as the asy- 
lum of the oppressed of all nations, and invito 
Idem to conic and dwell with us, promising to 
give them our protection, and asserting in tho 
Words of the great Magna Charta of haman 
liberty, that all bsvo "certain inalienable rights," 
that they shall bo protected in life, property and 
estate. We belFovc that tho courso pursued " 
relation to tho Chinese is not only in violation of 
this pledge, but the raostnnwise policy that could 
bo adopted, in relation (a a class of people that 
aecm to be sent to us providentially for tbt 
wneenicnt of oar State, and me, as a people, 
should see this and net wisely. While 
teet them in their rights, mo should encourage 
their efforts to labor and become good citizens, 
for it must bo plainly perceived that ere long mo 
Bhallbe growers of Rice, Tea, the Sugar Cane, 
the Mulberry tree, and, as n consequence, manu- 
facturers o! these products, and hence the Chinese 
are to bo the laborers in these great branches of 
California industry and California wealth. 

To this end me are rapidly hastening, and if 
Our government is wise, wo shall lay aside all 
-national prejudices, all sectional reelings, all po- 
litical differences, end, as a people, knowing no 
North, no Sooth, no East, no West, as true Crii- 
Jbmiana legislate for California, labor for Oolifor- 

(be spirit and bond of true men, to call Into life 
and being, into action and light, the vast and on- 
told wealth of our Slate, that as yet lies dormant, 
bot which by earnest, energetic, patriolio effort 
shall ere long make California, as has been pro- 
phesied, the "Glory of the Thirty-one States." 
TVcnska careful perusal of this able and trnlh- 
t ful address: 

lb BU Excellency J. Nedy Johnson, Governor 
of the Suite of California; 
Pardon the liberty I now have token In thus 
addressing you, os I make no doubt but you mill 
when 1 curiam my reason for eo doing. 

On Jan. 20th, a terrible affray took place in the 
township of Mnnlesuma. three miles distant from 
| 'here. Four American citizens and fl' 

Came into collision, in which each of the Chinese 
had his skull fractured. Ono of the Chini 
died on ihc 31st ulL; two olhersare not expected 
to live i whilst the remaining two are bo much 
disabled, auto prevent them from working Tor 

Now the causes of this adioy I mill faithfully 
describe: un the 2olh of May last, tho sold 
t'liin- ■•■ i"ir' I. i-l 'lif claim whereon they were 
working, fiom a miner named William Smith, 
who gave [hem a certificate of the same. From 

' (bat time tin.'" In. Id peaceful p-o^scssion oHt until 
it was wrested from them on tho dny of tho fray. 
When the Tour men who took from them tho 

I claim, commenced removing tho Chinamen s 
sluice*, the latter persisted peaceably (so they 
Bay) in preventing them, tboy were instantly 
pounced upon by the intruders and brutally mon- 

of il...' ■ nli. r.i.i nri'ii^J the people in the neigh- 
borhood, some or whom went to the Spot where 
lliev : v.v the Chinese with mutilated bodies ond 
f covered with blood— a shacking spectacle to 
I behold! The parties mere instantly »rrcsled t 
I sod brougb 

that township, who hud to JImuiss the case, for 
' want of evidence, on account of Chinese testimony 
I being Invilid. 

I supposo that your Excellency is mell amoic, 

[ through the accounts of the public prints, haw 

this people have been treated. The outlaws of 

the country have openly planned and perpetrated 

the most fearful outrages upon them. The law 

feldom took hold of such, or when it did, It was, 

jn general, to extort exorbitant sums of money, 

I under false pretences of rendering them justice, or 

t of irriiaiing vagabonds to commence new depreda- 

f . lions. Their lives have been destroyed, their 

I property plundered, ond all manner of exaction 

I and violence ho? been practiced upon them. To 



of China 
s. In this 

the Earth. 

of which thoy write on a piece of yet 
low paper and burn. In extreme coses, they cut 
offlhe bead ofacock, intimating from such loot 
tbny merit the same punishment should they pcr- 
luro. Gulilaff said that he "never knew the first 
instance of tho violation of that o.th." From th.s 
you can sec that tho oath in China is a sacred 
ceremony and that good ond evil do not ox 
unison there any more than in any other m 

Having become wearied of applying for redress 
from the civil authorities, after so many repeated 
times, I haro thought it best to apply to yoi- 
Excellency this time, hoping that too, n joi 
honorable position, would do soraethmg towards 
their amelioration. If their testimony wore ad- 
mitted, and left to tho discretion ol tin. ijodge MM 
jury to decide according to the circumstances 
connected with the case, it would put a check to 
tho evils they suffer so much from, ond bring 
about a better understanding between them and 
us, whilst it would odd much to their moral 
progress, and bring tranquillity to all. By such 
^Ti...-.,] folate would bo created mutual 
nded, and common sympathies ox- 
dtad between ono and all. Harmony " 
idlhodaycci 



(s by tt 



perity 



i around 



nan would find peace 

California would thereby nso to on 

jfgrandenrasforns she has sunk in 

Ibe 'scale of ncgradolion. She would become a 

hlessfng to oil Within her borders, and be blessed 

and honorable En the eyes of tho world. 

With many kind wishes, 

I remain, yours truly, 
James Han lev, Chinese Interpreter. 



BorlbbUnga by on Old CallforDlan- 

The following interesting letter from ai 
Coliforninn, published in tho Fair Haven 
buno (Conn.), wo foel wo havo e. gpod right to 
clip nnd publish for tho benefit of our numerous 
readers that will bo glnd to go back to the good 
old anya of '49 nnd '50, ond reonll tboso aeon 
tint, though wild, strange and full of ndventi 
una peril, more yet full of tho deepest inten 
nnd were surrounded by ovents of tho m 
pleasing character— tho rocollootions of whioh 
rise up now in tho maniory of old CnlifoniTuns 
like somo bright piotoro that thoy love to gnxc 
upon. There ore many Saoramentans as moll 
Son Franciscans, to whom the characters 
nod In this letter will bo lib- colling up 
friends, dear ond familiar, nnd the mention of 
iso names will bo like ownkening tho Genii 
: mo fairy atones— for mho does not remem- 
ono whole-sonled oreaturo that is nnmod 
this sketch 1 Who doos not know Jock 
Scrnnt— "n friend in need nndnfriond indeed"? 
—tho ilrrgi wore always ready, nnd many a 
heart was relieved by his generosity; but those 
days ore laid away among those things that nro 
passed — to us as the bright post — nnd to others 
too, those- days, so happily noted by tho writer, 
thoy more days wo shall "aovor look opon their 
like again."' Oh, how mell can wc_ remember 
many suoh a tramp ns that mentioned, and how 
many a timo mo have awoke in tho morning as 
Wash, did, mashed nnd dressed ns in those days. 
Wo know oar readers will bo amuBod with 
this phasing skotoh of "Wash. ;" wo Can guar- 
antee it is all cj recorded, for we know them 
-tions of nearly eight years, from 
early '40, mako these events to ua 
familiar history. Jack Soronton, me 
ow not a thousand miles from the White House, 
here oil great men are gathering; and Wash, 
u is — ho is octivo ns usual, only ho don' 
'sleep out o' nights," but within a happy 
home — is now a deniien of tho Bay city of thi 
Eureka Stole. — 

My Sint Trip to th» Minos, 
hot oultry day in August, 1950,1 storied 



ilcop. My horse, there being no etnb o or yard, 
vbb tied in freut of tho house, right upon the 
■oad, for any body to lake that p;i.-.'fl by- 
got up, went out 'and found bun all right, with 
- er horeo Hod by tho side rf him, botobgtar 
Obio man I hud passed upon tho road thi 
ty previous I told the man my trouble; nt, 

lid I need civo myself no further lullnoss, 

•I nt L was wine V cl-ee in bis bl« : tfl-' n tho 
bench in". mt,and_ would look out for them. 

..!.'-. ... ..,, -, ■■' I ■■■- i-i ' k to hod nnd 

slept ut tho rate of at least fourteen knots en 
hour Tho neit morning upon aottltng my Dill, 
I was surprised to fiud tho charge for my horse 
mas more than for myself, notenthstending ho 
had not been qonrtered ns mell. HU supper 
and breakfast cost enough to mako it up. 1 
had ordered for him barley, as much ns bo could 
eat, and the ohorgo for it wns ssvonty.fivo 
per pound, nnd thoy must novo nllomei 
than tho old rule, a pint o pound, at that. 

I passed through several milling places. Mor- 

mon Island. Salmon Falls, etc., and late in Mho 

afternoon arrived nt Duloh Dam. awful tired 

and hungry. Tho boys were just coming up 

fmm (ho river as I camo over tin- [■'■-•■ -' '!'■■ 

,d immediately grouted mo with o. shout 

Ion, but it was impossible for mo 

,,.,.„„„ Ihom from tho strangers accom| 

intr. It had hcon many a long day since tt 

d been in tho bunds of a barber, nnd th 

races would hardly havo answoo-d fur rt 

"s. I was claimed as tho guest of Hi B 

d Frank F and proporntions f-.r -;i|-!-r 

mediately coiiimt-nci'd. ivln.'li npenUiori 1 
„dtched with no little interest. Hi B— fried 
tho pork, nnd Frank bnked tho bread in an iron 
kettle, by sitting it on tho fire and heaping live 
coals over it; but dovoling too much iiii-uii-.o] 
to my news, ho lot tho bread burn to tin' c.lor 

of Cborcoal, ond I really buliove I si 1-1 Urn-; 

starved, bad not Blair and Paul havo sent us a 
Inreo pot of bonus from their camp. I thought 
it-was the best supper I over mode, i,i„l -hill 
remember the name of the cunk us long as J 

live. They called him t> nickname I ^>(>[ J 

Amity G.iry. I have aii.ee thought that in 
their liberality to as tboy must have gone sup. 
perless themselves. Wrt were now in a quan- 
dary as to what wo should givo thn horse. 
There was nothing in camp hut pome sour flour, 
and this was miied iuto a kind of duiigli nml fit 
before him; but ho snuffed and turned up his 
iiristocrntio nose ot it. What could mo do! 
thn horsn mast bo fed. At length n luoky 
thought happened to strike Frank. Ho said ho 
would mokn blm eat it, aud immediately rn.-ln-d 
off into tho moods and Camo hack driving n tuulu 
l„-i',.r.> him. TIh-h.. noimnls are not very dainty 
„,ivil,ii.i ; to lill up does with them, and as eoor 
- " iollow discovered tho pan of doug^h ho 
nose clear to the bottom of it. This ! - 



CLOTHINQr. &o. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



USTEW STORE! 
MANSFIELD & WOOD ; 

lVIlOLEaALE AMD RETAIL 

CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 



u fur tho S 



i at 



Mcssns. WYMAN & ca'S 
SUPERFINE CLOTHING, 

ISO ASD Wt MOSTOOMEKV STT1EBT, 

OpporiW UunlsonurT nl ™ fc - 

„> linvir pnt-PAnED TO OKFEn. TUB LAHGLH 

■"•■>■ "■'- '■'■.;.:, 1 .,,,-, ,-,:.!,■,>:.. 

s t o a b; 

EVER EXUIBITEU ■" CALIFOB.NIA, 
ALL THB LATEST STTLH3 



LOltlV BBOOH8' 
FTHB CALF, PATErTT LEAXHEB DfiE33 AHD 

Water-Pro ol" Boot a. 

PABTtCOLAIl ATTKNT10H GiVEH TO ALL ORDERS 

OFFICERS 8 OF THE ARMY AND NAVY, 
And all "b" i«l«h U>= Boil Qdalltj 

MADE IN THE MOST APPEOVED STYLE. 

Wra. Man.fl.KI. [VT-SOrn] T. M. Wwd. 




J. C. EDDY & CO.'S 

JS THE PLACE TO BUY VOOR 

jggej HATS, CAPS | 

J^FurniMliliig Goods, 

A. Lbcj- Lsvr: nwiunlrf fKltlric Tnr mpplTlnj orery lirlWnof 

GontlemBii's Wearinff Apporal, 



hid r. 



._■ Hi at 



sob mi t to the r 



.■)!■! ... 



t hud 



has become tho cus- 
tom of many to lake the law in their own ham" 
'■■lid disregard the statutes. Tho imbecility 
the officer* who administered tho law. was, 
many instances, ihu means of aiding, instead of 
abating the evil ; and by thai means gave fr - 
access to tlm ouilaitK, to plunder them with i 
punily. The defect* of ihe law in refusing their 
testimony has left tbeia a prey to tho wanton j 
Whilst the terrible state of alfoirs caused thereby, 
prevented res pitiable ciiiiein f,om cln.-,-l:in K il'„ 
outrage, lt-t their riislence should bo blotted oui 
by the ever bandy revolver. 

During my residence in China, and also In 
Dllifamla, I often assured tho Chinese that tho 
principle of your (jovernment was to protect all 
. peopk- « iitiin its jurisdiction, and that II had 
t-.u.Mil-i,,-... [o mankind nt heart, Fiom this, the 
dilute hiisu inferred lba», in due time, yuu 
would grant Llum prolvclion from tho rapncilj- of 
IheouMawn who mvagu Ibis Stile. Hut hoving 



hud be.- 



,uld not S' 



into a 



.nog 



IMPOBTAWT 

TO THE LADIESI 

THE imdcnlEiial hu Juir recclicJ « iplmaul uiortmi 
or HI !:iii-I. of 



* FIRST PHBMtrrM 3 

piamliar, b«" lb" I'l c - 1 ; 1 "'' ,,"'_"['.!' "! l 'i',", ! !.','' ,'.',', 
grauwlv the lar^en toA mint curaplrln ru'iirtniffnl ol 
For rA* TVflJf ef 1S5A and 1B57, 

One Hundred Tliousand Trees, 

FROM FOUR TO ELEVEH FEET IN Hid] 




mundous kick in tho side, which laid him tmr 
>u cambat, and hardk drew breath until ho had 
■bolted" nil the flour; tho nest day wo 
,.;,.|,l mil.-- [.. i ',.1. .inn, mi'l Unif-ht somo barley 
for him. After talkine; about our friends »nd 
whereabout:-, [>n.i i-iu-ii.- 'Old Folks nt 
d" over a wbulo bottle of whisky that oust 
three dollars, and wonld kill at three hundred 
viirJj. 1 inquired whore I was to sk-op. I saw 
lots of bush huts and tents seatUred nl.i.ut uml 
ti.iidu.l.'.l ..no of them wns nurs, but it sei'in.-d 
my hasts had none. I was token under a tree, 
where tho dirt, a kind of brick dust, bad been 
r..l;-.i t.",'eth.T, innl '»i 'lii- -im. pine tops w*ro 
iprenrl, and this I was told wns our bed. I hnrl 
,lept in tho open air on the deck of a ship many 
limes, but on shore novor, besides, I know that 
tin; nights in California were very cold. I in- 
quired if there- wore flows, they assured me that 
they were vory light. Wo turned in, nil stand- 
ing, with our boots for our pillows, ond ono of 
the boys eaoh side of me to keep ma warm, and 



J&XXjTTASTZ-' goods. 



give : 



... the i 



rcest 



Irenunng of "big lumps, 
., and was awakened by 
a my fnco, but found it 
' * ' i tho blanket, and 
rents. I gave my 
i them, hut round 



vory short 

"river washings," et 

the wotor splashing 

v.-iii, l. uiiing through a uoie 

tho rain pouring down in ti 

bedfellows a kick to awak 

by tbeir smothered laugh that thoy bad 

awako for sorno time. I inquired if this t 

specimen of their "slight dews." Thoy 

taken as much by surprise as myself. 

winter season had set in early, aud this was tho 

trimnry storm ; hut wo concluded to mnko the 
ost of it os wo were, for ono night, and I went 
to sloop again, and never slop' 



c.rv ■ 






Iln, 



. . unlika 
friends, bad concluded to let well 
enough alone, and stay by the burim-i; I h.id 

" ' ingaged in. At this ti irnde btiiif 'lull. 

rlnined ta gratify my curiosity, and at the 
time visit some Fair Haven boys, who 
mining at Dutch Dam, on the North Fork 
of the American river. My bono, ono of tho 
handsomest and l.e-i triJdli' li'irec* in the coun- 
try, bi-hirigt-d tn my friend, Ciiptniii S„ better 
known by his friends (nnd bo bos a legion of 
them) as "Jack Sorant," who had kindly ■■""■.■ r- 
cd him to mo for tho 



s liin ii 



nal i, 



„ fur it 



e got fairly away from you 



l. in lliu-e days; for if 



1 left Sutter's Fort hohind me, thc-rofore, with 
some ini^giviugs as to my returning, *s well 
mounted as I was going. This celebrated Fort 
was two milts out from Saornmento then, hut 
now is in tho upper part of thn city, or "up 
town." Five miles out I enmu to the Brighton 
House, quite a large and Imudsomo bote) for 
tboso days (since burned down), and was n 
grent place of resort for "fast men" in its day. 
From hero my course was fifteen or twenty 
miles over n level prairie, with hero and there a 
scrub oak. looking at a distance like apple trees. 
What a buoyancy of spirits and f.vling uf inde- 
pendence it engondcrs to bo galloping over a 
new country, with no fences, hedges or ditches 
tn your way, and right to pick your cou 

ad as much your own ns any body's e 
horse seemed to enjoy it as well, for ho 



, lliey 1 






.rod at being hold 
ill.- and other anil 

and I suppose wondered nt my not throwing tho 
Insso that was hanging at tho pommel of my 
Moiican saddlo; as he was o Moncan hor" 
and had been trained to catching wild cattle. 

The first afternoon I roclo nbnut twonly-fivo 
miles and stopped at Hitchcock's ; thia was 
quito an old bouse, the family having -.ill-. I 

I liud if fcullHT bed Li_-i.-ig.ieil me, whioh was 

this day), and after getting a good supper fur 



ihed and dnucd. 
I started Tor homo that afternoon, where I 
rivnd next day safe, vory much pleased w 
my first "prospect." I bud IFus'i'd out a "big 
lump" tho first day. I was informed a short 
timo afterwards that tho boys hnd moved to dry 
diggings and winter quarters. Wasii. 

A Cdbiods Discovery.— Mr. A. J. Bell, o 
Kentucky, recently cut from the heart of a raaph 
tree a something which had a nearly perfect 
human face, eyes, note, mouth, forehead, chin, 
checks somewhat Ehriveled now, but which, when 
and smooth. It is about the 
size of a goose egg, ond is much the rame shape, 

"-ere tho smooth surfaco is varied by the 

of the features, and nil of it, except the 
.. covered by a substance remarkably re- 
sembling hair I It is unquestionably a fungus, 
" the wander 1.1 the perfection of the race. Mr. 
, informs us that in the mouth, when found, 
a little white protuberances very like teeth, 
which wore picked out by ono of his children, 
who was or an Inquiring turn of mind. Mr. B. 
is well known to some or our most respected 
-itizons, and pledges bis veracity that the fungus, 
which is fashioned in the similitude of a face 
(there being not only a general resemblance, but 
a cavity to the mouth, and nostrils connecting 
with it, amazingly like humanity, was found In 
the heart of a free which was cut on his prem- 
ises, that was two feet In diameter, about Ibrco 
feet frnm the ground, In a small cavity, between 
which and tho air on every side there was at least 
a foot of solid wood- — [Cincinnati Commercial. 



M-A-SO-STia REGALIA. 



APRONS, SA 



D. NOKCROSS, 



Odd Fellows' Irodges and Encampments 

urnbJio] Ktlh FULL SITS, >i lower III - 



TYPE FOUNDRY 

PBINTEBS' EMFORITTM:. 



rt:;. 



UD "*£*-s 



lijfjjL-!j ,.-.it> r.rtlclu u^*Jt:d ill a Printing OEce, 

Bluchtnc and Hand 

xlxiljDDjllO. { RUGGI.E3'! 



CHASE'S DIAMOND PRESS 

vi.i.-» ■>■■■ "'e -.I-:.. ■Ir.lM.ellj),.!- " 






Briggs' Hnraery, 

Dlllca nuin Moryavlllc, on 1 



^J*** J^ 



jcl. Hi [ho propnrlor wDl 

.r.c.-.M r-. _ 1:. : '.'JierJ [a pltnt 
oJ-:Mbc i-il!™!ng Induce- 



ik. ■ 



St"- 



A. DUt-UAS,... 

GRAPE TINES 1 GRAPE VINES II 

JM TDK Pl.iprL-Mr if ill---.; .;-.1i-i|.|™ firounjl-ai 
*A>miUukri>kwu>ellir,i]l»>..:li- , .l,,V- 






on .'r"K.-ii. 






TOK 



Would Not Gd. — A young unthusii 
talking to his intended a few ovouingi 
urging upon her speedy marriage, and u 
eptnd the honeymoon in California. 

■■I toll you." said ho, his face gluwh 
enthusiasm, "Cnlifuruia is the paradise 
cnrlli. There's no use talking I" 

"No usu talking 1" exclaimed tho lady with 
J r prise. 
'•No uso talking," ho repeated. 
"Well, if thorn's no uso talking," said Hi 
idy. "what do you want of women theroJ 
uu't g.i." 
Ho left — but It is presumed ho will ho book. yyui bo 



Pacific Oil and Campttene Works. 



12-^t'o,. on hi 



" tr W»L hAILiff 4 



Hop Roots, Sons Eadinh, &c. 

T'lIU vtrj bt.,1 mrioly nnj quilllj of Hon Roots, ._ 

A- anj quantity, CJ .i | 10 foral,!,...! l.t lh nnd cm I guild 

,U:I...IM,-ll.;,-. AI,.,— Hurt o ItuJuh 'fl|B for plaBtln*. 

I'-.r -..:,-.!- I,. ...,.,.( in.Ll.in-^lnnlalllinJoribollop^-' 

O.jor. Id« luhOlL w'aIIUEN, uf ll.o "F.mai 
OrnIariKtJ I,. Wum Ill.lOV A C() , 



Or J A HOttAitT, tUq , Onldind, 



r7-3 



-I..-M.TV HI,. -, . ryvnri-iyi ii- i,r .l-i.l i: .-vol.] J spprornL 

."Ihciiuljllolspiirilcularlv linli.-J. 
APPLEl'i'EAB.PLDM, fEACIi, APIttCOT, HECTABIBE, 






San Jose Nutsery. 



FRD1T AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
110SE3,0L[1IBI::.I I'i.a:. Ij. .1 H:IieN dSKDS.ilc. 

V 1 ...l,..lli. u ri.-l!,- J ,nlll:-.l.„iil, 1 



l.-l.-.d..-., ej " MlyiffllB 

Mara', in " ver/betr. 

TThfi rollertlmi<irCr9|ic> liiclu.li-u lb. 



ao.ooti UaUwrzr Tim, 
s bnl kindi for rho fcallna ufuioSIlk Worm. Thne 
J ran (peck! tllcnUon orour dujon. giaunlly. 

ROSES 1 ROs¥Fi!. ROSESjtl 

fenalnljp'uic t"--il ci.ll ■■■ii. .-'n In ii ' 



j.^fLlnntng 



m California^ i«cwttj__ 



wo tare to~ encourage " ,cir development, out cf- 
fcr ts for lb. last d* J«™ <*«« Iif0 i " h tW " b "? 
-„ well attest i and however much the sordid, 
ignorant or Ihonghtlcss may esteem the cOoita 
nude by the laborers in the Bold where so many 
Uborersaro nwded, this wcknow, ir money can- 
not always be coined, ifclean gold Is not always 
returned for every effort put forth, Etill there is 
i rich reward always in Blow for every earnest, 
truthful workmen, far 



I tho wages that 



i the 



r belief that 



A desire for the study of nature, 
two departments of Flora and Pomona, opens 
book for tho student whoso every page is foil <■< 
golden letters, and whose every line is 
music, end the reason why so many fail in 
standing either tho goddesses Flora or P 
U, they seek thorn only lo coin money 
them, and, failing to know their alphabet o 
the music, they turn from their pursuit an 
tho wealth they desired from other sources. 
who would become Lboroughly acquainted 
knowledge oE the science of horlioullurt 
have an inherent love of labor, practical labor, 
and be willing to work oven at a sacrifice—! Aey 
must learn lo labor and to wait. 
Wo have long since declared 
California was destined to bo tbo " Garden of the 
world," and although some years since tho idea 
was ridiculed, even that wo should become an 
agricultural country, yet evidences are now so 
abundant that this shall be the greatest fruit 
growing and wine producing country, that all 
eyes are turning to oor splendid specimens of 
fruit and delicious wines. But California is not 
alone to bo the garden spot of tho earth ; portions 
of Mexico, Sonora, sections of Nicaragua, and vast 
tracts of Central America, will ere many years 
come under tho control of the Anglo Saxon ; and 
all these now wasto places of tho earth, or rather 
these yet uncultivated gardens of the earth, will 
be made to bod and blossom. Whatever may be 
the opinions of men relalWo to the Nicaragua 
question, or the caose pursued by those now con- 
tending for its possession, it cannot bo denied that 
Nicaragua is indeed one of the homes of fruits and 

By tho last steamer from thence, among the 
passengers came Gen. Fry and lady, formerly our 
most esteemed citizens of Sacramento. Gon. 
Fry, one of the best officers in the army ol 
Walker, and his amiable and accomplished 
lady.arogrcatncquisilionB to Nicaragua. Gen. 
Fry cornea up an business, and will return with 
bis lady next month. It was not our busincssto 
inquire particularly of them abont military mat- 
ters, other than tho great and general results, or 
which we speak in another column; hut it was 
our business, and our wish and interest, to know 
of the fertility of thu soil, of their fruits and flow- 
ers, and of scenes and places more in consonance 
with oar feelings, than the battle field and scenes 
of strife and desolation. From the General and 
his lady wo learned of tho fertility of the soil, of 
tho beauty of the climate, ol the luscioo 9 fruits 
and the fragrant flowers; and while wc shall 
speak of I hem 
toga there, hut to hope those delicious kinds ol 
fruits in all their iarietics,and their most beai 
ful flowers, may be transferred to California ; 



Ha visa often written upon this aubjoot, and 
presented foots auffioiont to turn public nltcn- 
' " i aubjoot, and having published im- 
portant data relative to tho various breeds of 
ihoop whioh should bo introduced into tho 
sounlry, as well as presented tho plates of such 
animals, wo are amply rewarded for theae efforts 
by seeing the publio mind awakening to ita im- 
portance 

Until within aomo two or three years, there 
sro few or no sheep except the eoarso Mexican 
breeds. Then tho American shoep enmo ncross 
the ploina, end more recently several lots of 
Saiony Merinos wero imported from 
Australia by Messrs. Whilnoy and some other 
parties ; and mow recently a higher grade of 
full blood of a peculiar kind imported by Messrs. 
Searlo & Wynn, of which wo spoko in Number 
1 of this volume. All these efforts ore but the 
beginning of a groat work, and the c< 
moot of enterprises that shall redound to tho 
credit and prospority of California. 

The Erst and most immediate results will bo 

to make California a wool- producing country. 

Hero wo have a product, easily obtained, for 

which it can bo said there is always a market - 

and tho fact is already before us, that even tbi 

coarse unwashed Mexican wool shipped hence 

commands a higher nverago prion iu Boston 

(tho great wool market of tho United States), 

than any other eoarso wool sent from tho great 

wool marts of the world. Of this wo have tho 

data; but this is only coarse wool. 

When wo would apeak of wbnt can bo done 

California, wo havo tho plain undeniable facta 

at we can produco wool cheaper than any 

bar country in tho world, for wo know tho 

Bocks will breed faster, and we can rear them 

without any other coat than to have a ranch to 



lie ring w 






Ibcm hero in all their 



In speaking of tho fruits, Mis. Fry informed 
us tbat they bad twenty-one varieties upon 
their table at one desert ; and although the flow- 
era there do not excel those of Califoruia, yet the 
varieties of fruits excel those of most other por- 
tions of Central America. Wo gathered much 
information from our Sacramento friends (for they 
will always he claimed as Sacratncnlans), of a 
very interesting character, relative to those de- 
partments, for which wo feel a deep interest, and 
wo hope to be able lo lay before our readers very 
soon, a list of the fruils and flowers of Nicaragua, 
and in thu course of a short lime lo present much 
that Is of interest Trom various portions of Cen- 
tral America. Attbia meeting of our friend*, and 
while describing tbe bcsalics and riches of tbo 
climate of Nicaragua, they said to us; "Colonel, 
wo often thought of you there, when wc had rich 
fruits and flowers upon our table, and when we 
were In the fields where thoy grew, we thought 
ofyoo sad your lovo for them, andbow delighted 
youwoold ho to behold them." In these few 
words, limn kindly expressed, we felt mote than 
Wo could utter. None but those who love and 
appreciate nature in her perfection can know bow 
rich a reward It is to be thus remembered — re- 
membered because wo worship nature. Wo had 
rather be thus remembered, than to havo been a 
victorious leader of au hundred battles. How 
truly Such kind associations prove that 
"Ii , »laninev»rdld1j,tra T 
Thu heart tail loicd her." 
Such associations In the memory of our friends 
will ever servo as a stimulant to greater e 
in tho dovclopmcnt of earth's richest, f»i 
beat. 



Tho groat and important matter now for wool 
growers to decide, ia, the kind offhtep lo keep— 
and is answered by tbe simple question, what 
breed will increase foator anil produce the most 
and best wool! Wo answer, nn hesitatingly, 
Saxony stock. This is tho stnrtinE; point, and 
from this a Utile experience will soon satisfy tho 
i Hook, if bo is what ho Bbould bo 
(acquainted with his business), tho crosses be 
should make so as to adapt tbe animal to tho 
1 food upon which thoy feed. Tho 
full blooded Saxonies havo been much experi- 
mented upon in various countries of Europe, 
end in the United States tho cross of tho Soxo- 
nios with the native American shoep, has dono 
well; but here in California, with a perfect cli- 
mate, and with seasons and locations so won- 
drously frivn ruble, we ought not only to make 
great discoveries nod advances ia sheep raising 
and wool growing, but to make it very prosper- 
t it must become so is inevitable from 
tho fact, that Wool is steadily advancing in 
every market In tbo world, and that whilu the 
demand has largely increased of loir, tlj-- j'i-il 
tity brought to market has decreased; this wl 
:o enabled to provo from carefully revised 
tables, forwarded us from tho house of Messrs. 
Bond & Co., the great wool brokers of 
tbo East— and this- house says to us, in a, i 
peaking of the imports of woolen fob: 
r table of imports shows an inoreasi 
tho first six month, uf Ibu current year Over tho 
last, but still a lurgu falling off from any pre- 
vious year; and tin- .■.(■><■ k "1 IWiii;]) wool in thu 
market, bolh hero and iu New York, on tho 1st 
inst., was much below even that of tbo 1st of 
January last." 

Ucre wc have tho facts, that the importations 
of foreign fabrics yield to home manufactures, 
this producing a greater demand for wool, and of 



and heavy fleece over the whole sheep. This ia 

tho desired aim. . 

That it will be a very prosperous business to 

osu who eogage in it in a proper manner, there 

no reason lo doubt. It is a certain thing for 

those who will give their entire lime, attention, 

and capital to it and llioso also who are disposed 

mate this business their study, so that wbllo 

they may strive to get rich by it, thoy shall at 

tho same lime advance tbo scienco or sheep ond 

wool growing, and benefit tbo State. 

Wo shall present other facts in ou r next issue. 

Silk: Culture. 
The prospect of California becoming distin- 
guished in the cultivation and growing of tho silk 
worm and manufacture or silk, is every day be- 
coming more and more apparent to us. - 

In Now England, many years ago, it was in 
progress lo a considerable extent ; but it was so 
blended with the famousmorus multicaulisspccu- 
lalion, that when tbo hubhlo burst nearly all who 
wore moderately engaged in it gave it up, on ac- 
count of the ridicule which fell upon that specu- 
lation, by which thousands were ruined. We re- 
member well tho mania for the ranlhcrry, and could 
lellsomoamusing stories about it. One or the 
roost famous men of tbat day, in the Now Eng- 
land States, was Samuel Whitmsrsh, Esq., ol 
NorLhampton, whoso cocoonery was very exten- 
sive, and who, indeed, did produce beautiful silk, 
Mr. W. afterwords established tho celebrated 
water cure establishment. These speculations 
proving unsuccessful, Mr. W. went to tbo Islands 
and tried again, and was again unfortunate. Tho 
mo fever was kept up with tho morns multi- 
caulis by the celebrated Wm. K. Prince, by whom 
probably as much, if not more, than any other 
nurseryman in tbo United States this speculation 
s owing. Mr. P. himself being largely en- 
;ed in itj and suffering heavily by its sudden 
irthrow. Had it not been for this mania, wo 
iore tho United States would bo engaged in 
i manufacture of silk lo a much greater extent 
the present day. Cocoons are still raised, 
and silk culture has not wholly been blotted out. 
Wo bolicvo tbo people of several of the New Eng- 
land Slates are yet engaged in it. Tennessce.In- 
Kentocky are growers of tho mulberry, 
and produce more or less of the raw material. 
Wo learn too, from our correspondents, that the 
ibjcct is gaining a new inlercat, and tbat in the 
Southern Stales it can bo made more profitable 
an many of the products generally raised, and 
is must call attention to it. 
We believe that of all the States of our Union, 
California stands pre-eminently tbo best, as to 
late, both for the cultivation of tho mulberry 
tho raising or Ihe worms; for ne havo no 
frosts hard enough lo injure the mulberry, and 
flourish best in a dry climate. Be- 
side this, nature seems lo point out lo us tho cer- 
tainty that they werotobon natural production, 
for we havo a variety of silk worms, found here, of 
n peculiar character, and a shrub upon which Lhcy 
feed. Upon each of these wo can improve, nnd 
wo truly believe it can and will become a very 
important branch of our manufactures in coming 
years. 

Wc can note that already thcro are large ph 
talions of the mulberry in the country. The i 
tive worms have been produced in all forms, under 
caro,andsilk has been gathered from their 
and wound. This was exhibited at the Si 
at San Jose, by Messrs. Sayd & Behrn, to whom 
a premium was awarded. L. Prevost, of San 
Jose, has nearly 30,000 mulberry trees for sale, 
and other parlies have more or less quantities. 
the foundation for our future silk factories, 
and speaks a certainty of success. 



These beautiful varieties are now among Flora s 
Gems on tho Pacific shore, which wo are most 
happy to announce. Wo esteem them as two ol 
the finest flowers over yet shown. The Wilder" 
ia of a rose color, full clear tint ; most perfectly 

ippedpctals over seon. Tbo Mrs. Ahby Wilder 
d roso white or creamy white, delicately im- 
bricated ; often a dash of carmino or rose color 
through its petals. Both flowers arc very perfect 
and beautiful, and worthy the high name and 
fame they bear. 



iing it i, 
the jiro rata amount of I lie larilf uj>on such man- 
ufactured articles. 

Wo here annex the Wool Report of this house, 
of July 1, 1850, aad In a short timo we will pre- 
sent it up lo January 1, 1857 : 
Tmportt or Wool into the Port of Boston foi 

the jirsi six months of the last four yean .- 



7,043,361 ££09,014 3,SSD.01f 



Splendid Camellias for California. 

In Ihe collection ofComollias of which we have 
made mention as having seen at the Golden Gale 
Nursery, wo are most happy lo find tbo splendid 
American seedling Camellias " Wilder! [" and 
" Mrs. Abby Wilder." Wo had imported these 
varieties as early as 1852, and when our cxhi- 
id hall were destroyed by fire, lhcy 






■o lost. Otbcn 



i- I..-1 11 



to the o 



» dark •pull, 



Whom du.it rin e fr 



l Willi, n-itfraal Do 
rBm.Tnb.nxli.oHi 



These facia show a falling off In Ibe fo 
mports nearly three millions of pounds. 
aexl report will go more into detail. 

We shall now call the attention of our readers 
igain to tbu superior breed of sheep imported by 
Messrs. Searle k Wynn, and which we believe 
will work a revolution in sheep raising and wool 
growing In California. 

These sheep were selected from the flock of J. 
D. Tatlcrson, Esq.., of Wcstficld, Chataque coun- 
ty, K. Y., and are from stock that has been ex. 
pciimcnlcd upon by crossing, first in Spain, 
France and England, and ihen in tho United 
States, and (he crossings were made for Ihe pur- 
poso of affecting theobaracler of tho wool. These 
rperimenls havo been completely successful, 60 
that this variety of sheep ia now esteemed tbo 
best breed for wool growing known. 

It is well known that the fleece varies in nuai- 
Ity, materially, on different parts of the body.and 
tho point aimed at was to have an cveni 
wool over thu entire animal, and those wh> 
to examine theie abcep of Messrs. Scr 
Wynn, will note this foci, and also tha' 
make wool down the entire legs, and eve 



garden by tho flood ; hut now we Qnd the san 
varieties in perfect health at Col. Walker's go 
den, and wero In full bloom the past week. TJ 
havo a deep interest in theso famed Camellias ar 
recogoixo them as old friends and ai!|ii,ir,i mi.:, 
for we had tho honor of introducing them in 
England in January, 1847, ond sold them at U 
guineas the pair. These Camellias were taisi 
by tbo Uon. M. P. Wilder, from seed, after 
long and careful process of hybridisation. II 
Wilderil created a great sensation among 11 
Ihrisla when it first bloomed, on account of i 
pcricctionofform and color. Scarce had it sprai 
into being when the conservatory of Mr. Wilder 
was partially burned, and this gem was burned 
down lo ibe last bud. Prom this, by careful 
nursing, il was saved, and soon became noled, 
and another new seedling was added, and their 
iwnat the Massachusetts Horticultural 
looms, and tbe highest pritte of silver 
plato awarded lo them— thoy wero named " Wll- 
" Mrs. Abby Wilder," In honor of Mr. 
Wilder and his lady : Mr. Wilder being then the 
President of tho Society. Soon afterwards, when 
' catlings had been propagated, we pur- 
chased the pair with their stocks of Mr. Wilder 
r one thousand dollars, propagated Ibem about 
year, aod Ihen visited England. 



A ahort Trip Among the Flowcra. 
We took a hasty stroll to tho alission Dolores, 
in tho early part or the week, to look at the col- 
lection of Roses under tbo eye of that skillful 
cultivator Sonlag ; and we were well repaid for it. 
Wo feel confident tbat our own experience in tbe 
growing of Boecs enables us to tell when this 
qocen of flowers has bean properly growD, and^it 
is but just to say that Sontag bos nc 
can excel him in this department Ho has, bv 
giving bis wholo time and attention to this branch 
been enabled to make a collection that ii 
passed in tbo country. Wo were kindly i 
licularly shown through all tbo houses, of which 
thcro are three, and tho plants in all stages of 
growth shown lo us and their manner of cultiva- 
tion explained. 

lfwo had doubted the pystem adopted, tbo 
Rosea in tbe fino condition in whioh wo found 
them would bavo been sufficient proof of Mr. 
Sontag-s manner of growing, for wo never saw 
-grown or more healthy plants. Wo should 
think we examined in tho three hours, six to 
thousand largo Roses, besides several thou- 
sand in thumb-pots, to bo planted in tho open 
ground ; these Roses arc now breaking finely into 
iticed tho superb Perpetual Moss, 
Moss Adelaide, and Moss Ciistata ; to these 
some Ihonsanda of Gcant dea Bataillcs, tbo most 
superb red rose known ; Soflrano, which shines 
among tho roses as Venus among tho stars ; and 
wo noticed also tho two now yellow rosea, Qloiro 
do Dijon, a French rose, and Isabella Gray, an 
American seedling— these are the two finest yel- 
low roses known, and both climbers. Mr. Son' 
tag has every new and valuable Rose, and those 
who would enjoy the growing and perfecting 
rose in their parlurs, are reminded that no 
the time lo purchase, just as tho plant is breaking 
into strong growth, and before it ia i 
Then it will become acclimated to I 
'bore It is to grow, and tho bloom will 
finer and more lasting, than if it wero purchased 
full bloom from tho conservatory or ni 
Dm and carried to tho private parlor. 
Center's Garden (John ty Hare rf Co.), 
sited this splendid garden also, and wero 
pleased with the great improvement and rapid 
ground around the conserv- 
atory, nnd with Ihe beautiful collection of RoseE 
in the newly designed parterres, and tho collec- 
tion in the houses. Messrs. O'Harc havo indeed 
been industrious the past year, to get so fine i 
winter stock. Wo saw sonio extra largo Roscf 
in tubs, that were indeed beautiful. And wo no- 
ticed also a handsome collection of other plants, 
all in most excellent order. Wc have never seen 
Roses grown so bold and strong, as several wo 
saw Irained upon tho rafters; of theso tho Cbro- 
matolla (or Cloth of Gold), and the Solfalnrc, 
bolh yellow, with tho Gen. Lamurquc, the best 
ose known— theso must look superbly 
bloom, and we advise all who love beau- 
tiful plants, lo visit both these gardens. 

Miller and Mr. Langormon, on tho Old 
i Road, have fine collections, but our time 
prevented an examination. 

,ir. James O'Donnell, at tho United-Stales 
rscry, on tbo Now Mission Road, has bolh 
li-ib and Conservatories in very line order. One 
urt of interest in this place, is: it was lormcrly 
wasle place," and has been converted into a 
beautiful garden, by unliving personal labor. .The 
brothers O'Donnell commenced this place but 
ibout two ar Ihrco years ago, and now it is a 
ittla garden of Eden. Several of tbo finest Aca- 
cia trees in the coantry are in lull vigor hero; all 
the fine varieties of pleats are in the garden, and 
tho conservatories, of which there art three, arc 
well slocked. Camellias, Rosea, Daphnes, and 
all other choice plants are in tho very best condi- 
tion, and will soon make a most attractive show. 
These grounds and houses arc now in tbo exclu- 
sive charge of Mr. J. O'Donnell, Mr. Wm. O'Don- 
nell having established a beautiful garden at Snu 
Jose, where, mogio-like, he baa made a thriving 
nnd picturesque scene in tho short space of 
year and a ball or two years. 

Ournextvititwas to the Golden- Gate Gardens, 
of Col. W. 0. Walker. Hero we And one of the 
largest collections in tho country. Mr. Walker 
has the largest and finest Conservatory in Oali 
fornia, and ho has spared no expense in import 
ing every choice plantand shrub. The collcclio 
of the Camellia Jnponica numbers hundreds, am 
includes tho best kinds known. We wore pleased 
in finding the Camellia Wilderil and Ahby Wilder, 
or which notice will be seen in a separate article 
Tho collections at Walker's Garden are vastly 
than persons can suppose exist 
" 'th . P " C ? Hc C0Ml ' nnI * ss thoy * nould "Mntao 



a then 

cal u 



As e 



tbe approving testimony of tho MasHacbusclla 
Horticultural Society ; and theso splendid Ct 
lias are now found In every valuable collection in 
Europe. They wero nolsold in the United S(ul-, 
till one year afterwards, when wo introduced tin 
at 929 per pair, at which price large sales were 
made. This was .the highest price ever paid 
Camellias in tbe history of that flower. 



for themselves. 

Tbo largo span-roof Conservatory or Colonel 
Walker is 100 feet long. Ho has a Roso Uout. 
anotbor for Australian end choice plants of oil 
kinds, several for young plants— in nil some tan 
or twelve houses, and a stock of twenty to thirty 
thousand plants-these with every variety of 
garden plant and ornamental shrub, make theso 
grunuds a place worthy a visit. 

Wo lake pleasure in calling attention tn these 
grounds, and lo each of those we havo named, 

believing thoy dr 

ing as they do ic 
tastes, and lead i 
nature and to a lovo of the"bJw u u 



Tbo Mechanic's Iria.titu.bfi of San Pranuliea 
Ws publish tho following communication o|, 
member or the above valuable Institution, ih^ 
ing tha feeling that prevails relative to it. ^ 
were present at the meeting named, and wen 
particularly pleascdand gratified at the unanimi^ 
that prevailed, and wero doubly glad to hear i> 
louncod by tho President that tbo loBtlroh 

WAS FflEE Or DEBT. 

cheering also to know that tbolr Libruj 
is largo and rapidly increasing, as will be seen bj 
the communication. Those aro facts reliable, u 
havo examined tha Library ond works thtrt 
Tbo donation of Messrs. Barry & Pollen n u , 
magnificent gift, for which wo know Ihey ■.-,;] 
receive tho grateful thanks of every member, l>-, 
it is justly due them for such nn expression tf 
interest in their welfare. 

Tbn announcement mado last w/cek, by the b> 
stitutc, of a Festival Exhibition in August, it 
will bo seen, is In earnest progress, nnd it bchMTH 
every mechanic and manufacturer to be awake ta 
Ihe great importance of Ibis exhibition. 

Let tho mechanics ond manufacturers of UU 
Slate unite, and show what they con do, and thfi> I 
ability and skillwill break upon tho Puhlie with «■ 3. 
tonishment; tboresultof which would be tochrd |f 
a largo portion of tboimportationsnow roadohoi f 
of articles which nroand can bo mado with facility 
nnd proQt. 

Wo should bo glad at all times lo render foca. 
tics to every branch of Home Industry, and evert 
fact relative lo them will be gladly and thank- 
fully received. — 

San FaanencD, Feb. 7(i, 1BSJ. 

Enixons FjMisiEn : Tho lost regular mceticj 

tho Mechanics' Institute of this city, held it 

their rooms (No, 110 California street), on 1st 

_ of thc4lh inst., wns an interesting one. 

Tho Standing Committee mado tbolr aouaal 

report, setting forth Ibe condition of the Institute, 

accordance with an Article in tho Constiloliea • 
calling for said report at tho monthly meeting ia 
February of each year. 

The Committee on Ways nnd Means reporled 
through their Chairman, Mr. William McKibbio, 
thnt the pecuniary nffnirs of tho Institulo were in 
a prosperous condition, with several hundred dol- 
lars In tho Treasury.ond no outstanding liabilities. 
The Comnvittco on Rooks and Donations re- 
ported through their Chairman, Mr. C. L. Taylor, 
that about four hundred volumes had been added 
to tho Library, during the past year, the larger 
portion of which wero very valuable works. One 
in particular received especial notice, which was 
a magnificent work On Architcclure, donated lo 
tho Institute by Messrs. Barry & Patlcn, of tbte 
city. Tho titlo of said work is the "Illustrated 
Alhambra," or "Antiquities of Grenada," and ii 
said to havo been gotten up at a cost of jive hun- 
dred dollars per copy, by a limilcd number of 
individuals in England, and after tho specified 
number of copies subscribed for bad been stricken 
off, the dies wero destroyed, thereby preventing 
the possibility of an extra edition. It is by ng 
extravagant praise to pronounce Ihis Ibe 
most magnificent work on Architecture crcuecD 
California, and a gift more highly prized by 
the members of tho Institute than any of which 
tbey havo before been tbo recipients. 

Tho Committee on Library and Reading Room 

reported, through their Chairman, Mr. G. D. 

Street, tho acts and doings of said Committee, 

during tho post year, which showed that Ihey 

o had been very efficient in tha discharge of 

cir duties, and had provided suitable accouuno- 

tions for tho Institute, at a very moderate cost 

Each of tho reports gave evidence of tho fact 

at our Institute is now in a flourishing and 

prosperous condition. Tho present Directory 

(whose term of offlco expires with this month) 

been energetic, and worked together bir- 

ously, having tho welfare of tho Institute 

A resolution was adopted, calling for a special 
moating of the Institute, on tho evening of tho 
20th inst., for tho purpose of making nominationi 

id Iho necessary arrangements for the annml 

;clion of officers, which will toko place on lie 

st Wednesday of next month. 

The following named persons wero elected hon- 
orary membars of tho Institute: F. W. MsoOn- 
dray, Esq. j Samuel Brannan, Esq. ; T. 0. I*rk>r 
Esq. ; Hons. Wm. M. Gwlu, D. 0. Brodcrick, -*■ 
W.Denver, Samuel Souls, EugeneSullivan, Bran* 
Tilford, W. J. Shaw, J. B. Weller, Jurlge Suit- 
tuck, Samuel Purdy, S. P. Webb ; W. U- F" TU i 
U. S.Districl Attorney, for Iho District of Oregoni 
Henry S. Dexter, Esq.; James Lick. Esq-I nil 
Excellency J. N. Johnson, and Col. W. J. P' ld * 
A Memubb. 

Tub I.ioncAoE p AomeuLTOaB.— Uowef" 
much complaint thero may bo about dull Ii""* 
and bard times, ono thing is very certoiii, *«• 
eountry is safe," whatever becomes of iodiviu- 
tials. Business undoubtedly is deranged, bcc1 '? 
the legitimate laws of trade have beco viol' 1 ™ 
The Statu has had more goods brought ia"" 1 
than sho can pay for, ond tbo drain of bcr pre- 
cious metals has deranged trade, and tl« a 'f* 
makes people feel it; but notwithstanding* 11 '" 
tho State iagrawingand advancing cm to p"»ff" 
ity. Do our readers ask us for proofs. Wo S" 



ii, i., H, .i 



mr oilizcna, tond- 

homes, refine our 

know k'dgu of tho laws ol 



rtco thousand pious, over and above U" 
amount over sold before in ono year, hate °*jj 
sold by the dealers in San Francisco alone: a ^ 
to this increase those of " homo nia* w * 
over tho entire State, ond tho dealers in « l 
cities, and ve venture to say thnt the " un,b ^ 
plows sold the past year will exceed that f J£ 
mer. years by flvo thousand. Add to this 
number of reapers, mowers ucd threshes of ^ 



on, theso hai 



i increased from 2W w rf 
pur cunt, over former years — loss proporti 
threshers, u thoy sustain uao longer than m° 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



trt— and here we bare facts to worrant us in 
lug the "country is Eifo." And who docs not 
rejoice 10 know this fact. We often boar an ig- 
1 irtramus say the city builds up the country ; but 
We know thai it is this prosperous tone of tho 
country that can alone inspire tho mercantile in- 
terest with any degree of hope. 



Beet Sugar. 
Tilts importunt brooch of monil facto res is 
assuming i tnugiblo shape, and wo watch with 
intense interest tlio feeling (hot is growing up 
[n oar community to furor its introduction iuto 
t the Stnto in a legitimate way. Wo have con- 
Tgned with several parties upon tho subject, 
and fee] assured that there ore grounds for tho 
■bong belief that ere another year we shall seo 
moro thna ono manufactory undnr way. 
| .•>• Gentlemen in Alameda county, in Marin, and 
^^Unt& Clam counties, nil feci nn interest in tho 
■abject, ami to-day wo hare received several 
^^Hfe™ °P°n the subject, and wo find many 
lendy to offer capital for tho work. That it 
Ann bo successfully accomplished, we hi 
I doubt, and that it will also bo profitable. We 
ftel confident, as wo remarked last week, tho 
• Sugar Beet for the feeding of stock, will pay 
#250 per acre. It has been estimated that the 
total product Tn France, from tho Beet, in sugar, 
drops, alcohol and food, amounts to nine hun- 
dred millions of francs annually; nml (hi 
can i„i -!■ in iirlv .[umlruplo the amount per aero 
in California ? Shall wo not nwnki 
r portance ? 

^r Since our lost issuo wo hove conversed with 
Eugene Delersorett, Esq., and Icon] many par- 
B, ticnlars favorable lo ils manufacture, nnd wo 
Die glad to sec tha deep interest ho is mnnifest- 
^Ling for (his gn-u( work. From his nssoeiatian» 
W nod influence wo hove no doubt he can accom- 
plish muoh, and it will redound to bis credit; 
and we soy all honor to those men who call into 
r being now produots and manufactures of any 
kind. 



chased under my claim, they could now bo the 
owners of tho land Ihey occupy, the whole county 
would hava been adorned with culture and Im- 
provements, tho treasury ample, la jos reasonable, 
and people prosperous and happy, conlldent that 
they could-repose in quiet, under llieTr own 'vino 
and fig tree,' As il is, more than one-half Iho 
county is an unoccupied waste, with inferior nnd 
sickly looking improvements— for nlni .-.iimUi- 
man is there that will buy land and improve it 
without knowing be has a title that will bo pro- 
tected by law." 



Where Is nil the Wheat 7 
I Some week or ton days since it was evident 
I that tlio quantity of Wheat was running short 
, nmong the millers; inquiry was instituted, us 

little or none was to be hod. Wheat must be 
I Scarce, was tho cry, and immediately a sudden 
I rise took place; wheat rose np from 82 50 and 

?2 05 to S3 25, S3 50; nnd oven higher offere 
I wero made for lots of best; when lo! presto 
i change ! Jin- rtouioW bags come to market in 
I one day, and the fever cooled down — and it Iras 
[ ascertained that there iroi some wheat in tho 

farmer*' bands. 

Thus a mere speculation is checked ; and we 
[ believe it will be found (hat tho great bnlk of 
1 wheat now on hand is, whero 11 ought to be, In 

(ho hands of the growers. And we rejoice to know 

they will reap thareword of their labors. Whe 
I the farmer guts good price*, the country prospers, 
f and wo say to farmers, now — act wisely, but well, 
f Better for fanners (o sell at good prices than be 



Calm 

o truly glad to sec (ha 
Stale duly appreciated, fur we believo that we 
of tho very best workmen, In every 
of industry, that can bo found in tho 
United SUies. Wo saw two beautiful and rich 
satin ■'Lolling Chairs," made to order by Messrs. 
C. Sherman 4 Co., on Montgomery street. Son 
Francisco, which were intended for presents, to 
bo sent East. They wero indeed superb— costing 
about §100 each. Thia wo likc-for we have i 
much gain. Every dollar spent heic for hon 
meb saved : aye, doubly, f 
gives life (o Homo Industry, nnd every me 
not and trader feels it beneficially. Mcssr 
it Co. can do such work as well as any 
bouse, and these rich specimens of their work 
worth looking at. We hope others will send 
presents cast, in like mi 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



PETER JOB'S 
Confectionery and Ice Cream Saloon, 

211 « uslilnurtoii ft(rect,«pinza, ail. 



Tbo Public Hotels. 

The "liossette liouso" is r.-eeiving additions 

'ory day to its numbers, now already largo. 

Tho dinner table presents a Eno "tableau;" it 

looks like somo groat festival 

re so large. The parlors, each, evening, 
ely, cheerful and gay, from the gathering 
of the several families who ore boarder* [here. 

Tho "International Hotel, 1 
opening, is becoming very fashionable. Tho 
ew parlors, and tbo nowly arranged chambers, 

Tho "What Cheer Hoase," as usual, is daily 
thronged. Truly Woodward has somo peculiar 
charm besides tho many attractions of his house, 
lso ho could not have such throngs. 

Fnoii the East.— Tho mail stenmcr John 
L. Stephens arrived this morning (Saturday) 



debt. 



General Sutter and Laud Titles, 

TuEac has been so much siid in relation 
this good old pioneer ond hisi 
tracts of land; so much that was not only harsh 

, and cruel, as well as unjust, that 

I 'ill persons interested in claims 
neclcd with tho General, will bo pleaded lo read 
the following noblo and manly sentiments uttered 
by him. They must convince them that Gen. 
Butler wishes only thai which is josl for bimsell 
and is desirous that others should be alike pros- 
perous. Mostassuredlyibcseunsotlled land titles 
arc Ihcgrcal source of hindrance to improvements, 
and everything that can bo done to quiet claims 

I and realote peace, harmony and prosperity, must 
receive the approbation of every good citizen. 

[ Wa know Irom repealed conversation I 
Qeneral Sutler that he is desirous to bring about 
thin happy result ; but wc ask every honest 
if It is not erne], if it is not wickedly unji 

Due one who was the "original pioneer, 1 

►jrho«o doors were alwayaopen to (he Strang 
the homele- and friendless ; and whose mw 

of the needy, i.hoidd now in tils old 
deprivation of thoso comfor(s he s 
and ifo richly merits. 

We hope a belter feeling will prevail towards 
him, or'd a speedy justice bo rendered hi 
be (oo late, for should the Qeu 
before his claims aro fully and justly settled, 
wrong will have been done that nothing 
wipe away. While England has given pensions, 
■nd bounties, ond honors (o (he dls 
Bold in Australia, neither (he United States, 
■Jjaiifornio, hove ever remembered, by any act, 
who has given a greater impetus (o business of 
ill kluds, and changed the affairs of tho world, 
more than any one man living— for no ono will 
neoy (hat if General Sutter's inill-roco had not 
been discoiercd as it was, and we 
possession ot a gold country, It would hare 
changed the whole destiny of Californla-the 
| world. We hope th.t eren at (his late day, 
•ffort may Iw made to tccogniio trje obligations 
which California sod the Uniled Stoles one to 
tha noble Pioneer. While speaking of him wo 
would mention that a superb rquestrinn likcnes 
the General bos just been reccl.ed by Col. An- 
drews, of Sacramento, from New York, CoL A. 
Ml been at great expense, while In New York, 
w have all no memento of the General, and he 
, N"*'™! a large number, both in frames and 
plain copies. Those who wish can see thia work, 
Which it hope will be obtained by oil who feel 
« they slmuia to this early and true friend of 



in i 



ppend (he troo sentiments of (be General 

■dtoihe cq ual(ers : 

io Scttlcis of Sacramento county had pur- 




geneeal outfitters 

1 - 1Qo b B10 eu mn „ l ,„ u u lu i. ! j leiu r 

fittUinett'jj g^uit-rM, 

Afo. 170 AtoiUgmenj Street, 

' U SAX FIUM'ISCO. 

WOOL, HIDES, TALLOW.T^ 
MEHjine. w „ M|.,ij.jit kliu:,' ,v en., 

! r.-< o, 




""■*" aaifroinGrwoGieen- 

paper, .nil »" -«™ ., (i , ^ ml 

Dow**. I.W.P»T»» a ' bori ' r '" 

towards weel, 1[ko B blriUngfr™> 



iljai 



L04llill(™" ,( 



.oniatimeacefol 



..^harTonajnadA"- 11 ' 

Wlin W years, j hiJ „,!«, «Uh » 

For iho rcnso. ™ » lonl » »™»" 

so .ho daily pinrf «"> rictorf. f •"» 

air. . , .iv u,a »fl and uoldce 

Paler grew lh» pa"". l « n, P 1 '* ° e 

Thinner «r« »«' "1° "* * >ad "' 

... ,*:\X^ » «* a ' ini " ,ren,b,eJ ' '^ 



Whore Ibo lake and to ™l» 



e.rolhudorkioo.''" 
iiion, pun ••>« °r« 



And hi 






How within a noak ^JJ^.M to nwV~i. to 

»'™'. j .wine. Iibell mil il».snt 





t,oBnn«.o»lWbl! 


■Kir..:, and the £ 


And 


.pponied. ^ 
.itLlo boat angoiaea, 10 eno u '™* 


Tnlh 


t£tt*t*-t* 


lUnied, nail ■•» b 




H night bepui to 


rfcrt tn, lia|ed ■>■ 


„„„.,!.,. f "l oDtaludfoI, iwklne on the S 




Heaven. 




October W, 1856. 





jU,^.! Ho, Glory, on! Ho. Shone 

(AM.anar.tl™ a, <• f"P u " l BolJd * 1 

Toot, lb. ««•>' »»"J. «A.il«r im-l". 

talk put- Lo"k '»>i "1™ "'• " h ™ *"''" 

«.n «* M *• 1»U carlo., beyond .be •■■"J 

.U.,. or WUi. I.-., » «* n,..-o. '«" 
o lona. Ptoi 



peopled by ruoo aou « 



.„, pl.c. . brigh... ™" <* *« "■"" 

^ubrtaehrboooo,.^—.^- 

J « .rood, .r atom X" ""'.TJ 
.bar.! T.^n.",»'b" » JI "" b " '„ d ,ea. 

.'-'»'»'•'" 'tr«™ «»"«-• 

.,,,b,J=S^,- rr b. 
rat„r.b.'.i"L^.r. i -.*--- k 

And niioolr doe. *• •"■*» "»' hm - ^ 
„™ A-L'. ,»!«" »'ld, nod vie. lb. 

h tbo n»mo of conquerors. See in* 
,,,„. p.l,l.l«m,looro»n .b.,r «*»»'" 
.bo.moi.Bl.o'o"- S " lb " °'"" '!" ",. 1. 

B .lo F ,., r.,o, i ...d .ho. oo d.,k..i oor olood 
"jSTimrtirt dm<Kt». or.oo UroUk bo, 
.1.,,, to. ™»J «■ "■•». - , '°' ""*'«" " 
F.,h..'. .b.ioe, d-ell 'mM b.ll. ol ,!»..., 
ft. dmliog eh.™ ot ,e.l.h-ror e ..r.l . 
..„i, eooo.,,'. .obiPg to"".. ™ d ™1"° E 

"Ob I mo, Ik. U». "»o "'"■ "'"" °" *"''' 
,h.ll ho .o.«..ed bj highoi, oobl.r .im. ; »b.o 
oor pUrM. .b.U bo Ira.r bo ihm cooo.ij 

fbondiltM of tiUweiM ™* ( '" d - The , n 
Anicria's sl " OUB banMr " w,1,5,,, " r 
stuidud of Libtrty , Emily Aate n* Wawb. 

^ort, or Dlo- 

Ir we cast our ejes upon . miip of lh? world. 
w .■- com, , n ihe condition of the ,nh*bitaius in 
diff^"t P por.i n,. we .ball at once perceive th. 
the solid wealth, the cntcrpnie, inldl^-in.^ :..,;] 
coromeroiBl prosperity .r. in the Icnpc^to ell- 
mules; while, on Hie olher hand, t tiosc countries 
which abound in luxuriant nnd spontaneous 

lion, or fast going lo decay, fn the New W or d, 
U,e Spaniards «ero the first to eslahlish soltlo- 
mcnlii Altracled by the hopes of nehes, they 
penetrated the country to the : Muotoumas layiug 

and erecting the C.v-lilian Unm,..-, - :i-l Lr,- bMi.l.K- 
rnalic cro4 on fertile regions of vast extcnU 
While their career was marked with btillnnt 
„,,,„],-. ami lb- ?"'" '■'' dlL ' lr v:.iuiii.=lied am 
ulnndert-d enemies swelled their coders with im 
mr-n- ■..n!ih, Ihe slow but hardy Anglo-Saxon 
nD n encountering iho np-r.- "I' » -Lint dun.M- 
nndlheflerao warfare of the savage. Ihe 
lerpriso was beset at ctery s-i 



„, „,»I. b.,0 be,. wM ■ » ""I'Sl*" 
porrecl the .teBra-onglne-lko roil ro.o , 
'T.phl .od bo» ■o.giillloe.o '" V" ™l.m' 
,'hese iovontioo. h.Te .11 onglnoled ip tho 10", 
„,„,!. olb....i .ho, «. lb. oBiprmg o IM 

lo.ni.1 ..a ph;ot.i « 1 ;' i ;>; r ™J" „- h £ lb. 

?Stsi.»'mlnJ"u Kl<ftg »*""'"* "S 
.o,lAoslo-S..oo »»«!.. .«■ bnogiog l"Jk » 
■oil .pleodid .ehioveoieoi. ol nun." .■»* « 
I,/, Turk (lreop.0 over kia pip. ol opium lui 
lodoleol Spool.rf gi>eo op hi. Wj""""' 
oraooro. ..id Iho Me^ie.n plod, on i.ilh hoi slow 
loolo, corcloss or Ibo boooliPil gilts which NatPro 

h " T.Tu'h'o'ui.pi'iSn' or ih. j-ooog -p«i;»J 

.0 Ihiae aoggeslionl Nolhlog f.'"*!^™ ot 
peranrlog »o,t-ean aeeopip «b lb. tope. « 
vooth, or fulfil lb, an.bi.ioos. '1 hero la o..'.. 
Sad ■ Iher 1. kno. Wgo ■« di ''™ n T;,,ii' '„f 
.l.hol,b.l,di,.«.«oo.P"«b«. hod. "tape 



DIOSOOREA B* TATA ?. m „ 

l,„tl,b»i.'iiW". (i « > 2, 

T^FW 1-SCIIl.SnT. ,v.r..a» .■ »> ^^.ll "= ' 



. or ibo 



. nol purcnasoiuouu'.iup^ 
or tho bodv— do prctlgo of 
opoo lb. ogo Iho oborncter or 
one must develop himself— ho 
laurels or to can not vv 
alleronliro but to " isors 





,. r- 


„Mi MUirlj ■ 








ftr ihe dUm 
















nrpTolly iBJcknl In' ii-rs*!"'" 




m'i "r , l !C 


mill.itododellM 


t-" J D 


';;,:;;;!; 


^■ssl 










HEW cmHES] 








.ii ■■■U'l'b' '"'" :1 h ' L 


bb no* c 


[..tin,..*. 





... i. fta or TABTn < ltt,>[0H''3 ; KawORAKOE 

WATKlt-JIELOH; »'K°/ H ^„ C ^f I ^ , t ' <] ; f , Si*; 

bofcundlalhcUniUrd 

.^^^"(tadodUi^maUBiicB.) prompUT ™pondea 
J. M. TUOBBUUN * CO., 




PUBLISHED UX 
rr) AOTlBTON Sc CO., 

g'o?ooSlS*"w-». '••"-■"".-»*■ 

»JS"iliS'pmL030Piiy OT ™s WMTnm, ^ 
coSSs coSiiSr? 'ot' Vofiirra eiuxosopii.. 

»5ss;V':' 'rsaa 

r,r»lA™il?,,™OT«j£&J.otpil. , =^k. 
iSvoa'BAPnra BSOVClopmlA oe srnTKOI, 



"CHINESE SUGAR CANE, 

SOBGHOSUOBE. 

pTJBB SEED. 

TSSSSSiSff'SSS 

fromR Folon, Ejo. or Ibtioitj 
pl«nl,»se 



■:".' ],'.|'|-1f 



JisiCv-iriN'r! 
IroUd with 

:,i ii-'Al 1, i i 



.,', S-10 



I'lSTET OP COMMOS LIFE. I 
B»t edition. <• «]. , .mall 6.O., rfotb^W 7£ 

M1 i,!.i-|.ri,'-i-V ";■■"-;■,, 

v in'J Qaorie... LJfiir 



Bp'EOTATOtfTli.'J AS Hill--, enrefua., r=™d. 
T iil ! E l fis™FBEKCll [ WdLDTIOH. 
Cloii-S" 



Mirchandisa for Bale by^j^MW^ft Ca 
pALiFonsrA iirf, 

(i.ijoo tn. Hew C 



M»go tribes, who souelii 

than to satisfy their bar 
tar^totoTor to throw tbe swiftest arrows I, 

thechasemen.uneirilirMand unenlightened n , r!au „„_. . 

l^we; tbe rulers of Amc.U*. S-JjJ appalling ^CmSe'thTcSon oMhe cout,- 
h! W n,mB«llers,ri=hpr.,rie S ,n, B jesl 1 ov.aterI..ll-,l 
gliding rivers, and verdant forests, thi 



, Si isi"^ ",£%"* "SBS.!* *"'6-" 


T ET emrr o 


"inl^ouV'EiB^O-uT^-Vl^'l'-.i hl'a-:-.= 

WfjM°iS aU ""aHAIISBAWftCO, 
^ c"rnVr llMlrry nail CfJII«rfiU>lreeu. 


, ii.u Morm 

U"tt"otl". 


roFFt: t:-:.. '-■.' i '■ J'"' i« f,t * ln 

;i m, lnowiJ n; i [■■.■■".■!■ -■■.■ | i" ■ ■•"■'' l ' 1 ;' 

rl id<z- pvJiSch iv-. an niunh rtilrnljinL 
"™ ' BHAD3ilAW i CO. 


/-■UICKEH FBED-S ion. brolen luce,.™ uu.mJ^I— i 
AW*" **' C " 3 ™ nU P ° r P °"° d ' BKAD3HAW i CO. 


5,000 


^« tm "t6S/ mr jjBAD5nAW>co.'a. 




QLD ESGLI8H80AP^^ D tol^bJ^HW>«™^ 


1 HOTELS, &c. 



.E^bV^.I"." 



,-Mll. .Ii 
.,„■ !;,■:■ 



Enral Pablications. 

THE C.OUN-TUV OE.-.TLEMAH-- 



;iJ [Sixi™n Lire. 
■ m. '■Wltbonlqe 



rftbtaneir western land with beauty. Bui 
»h l no (roils of wisdom clustered 'mid those wild 
bowers ; no hand of colturo was there to twine 
tbe falling Tine, a** r.o star of knowledge to shed 
iU bright ligbt opon the paths through which 
the wauderereof taeso wild woods roamed. Ann 
still again, glance npou U« »»««* ot her f" 15 
mirk the sroall and feeble band of England's sons, 
when landing upon America',, cold and onlnt iltng 
shores; view Ihetn, by nigbtand day, toiling 'm.d 
Ihe dreaded echoes of tho war-whoop, and tho | 



il us now coiiipari: Lii....::...iiiiiii. .im.ii n 
ies thus established, and we -.hall ih-tccih; uui, 
I,,].. ,|„. iiirugglca or the hardy An-1- Sm*= 

Vlll.-l 111 Li.v l -,lJll.li:.ll"l«llH "1 :"f Hi" "•■'■'■ 

rospcrous nnd enlightened of civilized nations, 

,,.,., l i..fi, 1 i--.>f llli..S|j,m,iril-.':ii]imiti.H:-. , .i Ill 

-,..il, ...^..ieir.'.s circumManeL-ei. with <m inviiing 
climate and productive soil, has refulled in a 
number of divided and petty states, subject lo 
despotic sway or the more cruel reign of anarchy ; 
■Thlle ignorance, superstition, and intolerance cist 

h,ir biiEhlinp inll'iciici: upon every department 

f socieiy. The people have not Ihe inherent 
igor cither lo acquire freedom or guard " 

In eLtrn.l vi"ilaiiee" with which atoi.a, .. ... 

■ ■ . . -a m._ : 1 rthblCSSCd 




.1. of Hi 



do Par;.« . Two 

• Bj far. ol tbo 
United Stale," 

■j-iULirtj- 



^IhVSert Praetl.™] Farmer*. P^.er, nod tbe atlort 

! ^Je%TlustUtei5'"vssual bkgbter w 

ictiea! Informaii'in, tuior-*"" '■■ 



THtnlf-l 



Pt-r ll...en 



,i ■;, l,.r. 



, „j beine; Inf. 

l l^T^Eit°TlxKEB™ ! 'sOs! Alb 
' SobMriplioi ' ' 

oFTieejoflbr 



i bi Iho enjh, Ii 
.Atbant.NJ. 



Important New Works, 

JUST PUBLISHED BY 
A-FIPI-ETOISr 3c CO, 



S E E P S 
U O V E V &■ V O., 

DEALERS IN SEEDS. 



Ilara.1, Uardon nod Flower Boi&'Pbia 
em by iho raoit ox peri once [1 cnl'"'"'™ 



COHMODOBE 
nnl rram.' 



ri Mei 



darling arrowa of their enemies, to sow the seeds "ill. 
of freedom, wbioh other adventurers, from far-off 
climes, soon carao to nurture, and which now have 
grown loheourgrealestglory. Such was Amen- 
en's past- And now gaw upon herpresent. See 
the costly structures thai stod her shores; the 
lofty spires that pierce tho sky ; the moving pal- 
aces that Deal up" n her lakes; and tho nohle 
ships that bear, far across tho sea, her proud 
banner. Or jet, look upon bor pec-P'e, snd vie* 
Uierich blessings bestowed upon thorn by thi. 
gifted hand of science and religion. Gale Into 
t bo hearls of her noble patriots, throbbing wilh 

oy, as the anthem ot freedom is homo upon the 
passing brecirJ. 

Eot heedl 'Where now is the quietude of 

yonder wooded dell? Crashed, boueath Ilfu*fl 

Bwift tide of action. Where now, IholUd man'. 

hunting cry ■" Hushed: Ibrbeoolongorroigns 

end his once wild America, as if on eagles' pin 

ions is ever soaring upward, gleaming the bright- 

"Amcrie*! with joy can wo erclaim, our 
land I OurHomel Seek ye her glory ? lU m , liesf B , ow D p. 

then to her scroll of Liberty. Read there the If we look at the history of the great 
Segments and just laws, that guard and fe-^^^.«»!f«''-J»'-'" 



,.,, , of misrule nnd degradatL.. - 

the present. Italy, loo,'' the hind, ii i.niuiy skit; 
—the thtmcof poels Hiitl lii 1'jri .lis— h ■■: 'I.-l-tii' 
rated lo imbecility and subjugation most pitiab 
" i contcmplato. 

These condilions spring fiom llie iriiiutt uril-i 

of Ihin"?. Labor— motion — aro theiini'litiiiu. ol 

crO'-vthWl |jro!=perily. Nature t-ernls forth Lhe 

-....i..,tiii a mandate—" Work, or die!" and illas- 

il in all her dcvelopnionts. A warm ol. 

and luxuriant and spontaneous growth, 

Ihe means of subsistence wilhi: 



We behold ii_ 
tion of thiol principle. The elements 
nal commotion. The planets travel tb 
rounds; the air moves in obedience.- ... 
Una .'inirol it; lhe bosom of the ocean heaves 
over with tho great emotion which God h 
planted in all things ; tbo sap of Iho treo circ 
bits through ih.- itinsii im i^nlni- Ami "In 
when man conforms lo the great law of activil 
he expands. And in tbo colder climates, whi 
we roust subdue forests and seek the means u . 
sut.Mfivisiie in an unprmluciive toil, vigor and llfo 
are infused into Bociely, nnd prospcro 



, . . : . ... 1. 1. Itiu impress of their character opon Lt; 

protect her people. Look upon her government . 1 ,, ., : .},.,L Hli.in generally lo " 

A massive piece ol mechanism, complete and 
enlira i each part acting separately, hot all moT- 
in[pn unity, as a great whole; tbe founlai 




dE MILLS ur j ..... . 

■■ Tbe Wlilo. WUe World ; 

olaritr of rbii work blJ; 

rroor work bj this ■»■-">- 



;ioTh. ei a. 

i tban eqnat 
f-3 IAPAH EKPEDlTtOH— Eieented 



"no* brlllionl tint 



■IrnlcilbysucbvBi 

A HKM0R1AL VOLUME 1 

i;. ui.tH.i.i; Tbi.tr-.-ii ^e 

lli-h-]. of NowJnnoy. ■ 

& BO. ■Bjaanr-. 

MEMORIALS OF Die T1JIE. "By Lord 



Ihoroauor a reoji ^miinic u--- 

:,. , ..i.[...li[i tJinburgh towKd- 



8.o.,wiui Portrai 

.;.| --■ ■• ■ 
rgbtowKdl 

ELEMEHTS OF MOHAL Pm'LOSOPin-- Aa»],ll«l.Sl> 

;,-Ki.T...S.a? !'- .'.I™' & 



;ivolumo preJenl 

rii|.!ii.0i.f S'lCKl! 

■ uloaeoflbal- 



pnoDiuagtvE 

Biudv of the oj-jMa^e. -. 

M-ir.ilc, A J! Jul II •" 



SEADEBi who nn *« ,T *|j 

\ fSro' D 

MAHDEVILLBS HEW SEUEa TBI! F1FT1I BE«DEB 
l.,i I'.™.. £oh.»[i. and A»rul«lnlM- UI1«'- U 

JIandavIllo, D. i). 1 vol., 1 

w.?;sL.s°"™«™'rSg 

Ih.nuf tbe 
tbe Wiinl. 



. .■ :..ti ■.,.,■ . !'■■ ...If- :- 11 .'1 HI" "" i' i "■■,, ,.f Pll- 

. I ronthiitt i-""' J ' 'T " 

1.1 fl II 11 , 

i' h > v ■ ... i. ' 

CTnreJ oipiMily r^r Ibli «urn. or ■*. "■ >"■ 
ID. A.. &: GO- , . 
Have nenrlj iwrlr. uJ will puliliib la . few n«! 
tAlUtVIKG TOO LATE. By Genre". Wood. 

r,„T-.U..Ii,„l,nr. Afiieriea- I v.il.l-ai.i 
tlLLIA DULClAi A Thouaad rietj.mil Tblnsi. 
[„.,,. N..1..I nml iii|.:rii.. I .■i>l. 12m0. 
HE CYCLODKDIA OF BEBMOBB. Bj libel 



which (low tho nparkling waters of her pros- 
pcrily and glory ; tbe Brm fouudntioll-fltono, 
upon which stands ficedomol thought, speech, 
and action. Here, no monarch, upon his gilded 
throne, demands our homage, and beneath no 
cruel eecpter plead we for tretdom and life, In 
this bright land are ever echoing lhe welcome 
tones ofliberty- Here, no kingly power points 
lo Eoligion, by one, narrow path, commandi 
to walk therein ; but the holy and vi> 
prom pling* of the buartare our guides to rigr, 



I ■III', |.i..i|.lil H1I11..JS' j../.lilll(:-~, biX .rill'. 1 ITU. IU:--.! 

ot modern pliilosoplieru. The " Mill boy of the 
SliLsiit , :: l.y his own unaided elforts, rose lo lhe 

J linclion as an orator and stalcsman 

iiti.I lain an iiiiperishahlo fame. 

_ will not enumerate oiamples. Tbo 

pages of history ore covered with the deeds of 

-vho, by their own labor, have risen 

of empi 



To bo a Man In IHU. World I 

TWO VBS T 1MP0UTANT MAXIM 
" Economy il the only mre Bosi to Wealth ;' 
''Early to Bed and early to Rise." 



,',',. 



lUnt'l'SrTlaell f.|irlii(. 









hcepier ui iiujiiie "urn Lodglc, 
iltitude. The greatest 1 1.. 1.1., 
ived have cumineuced 
ib Aslur nnd Stephen 



Look 



n hoi 



ra, adorned I 



neve, fading charms of knowledge, welcoming I '^ 
freely all her yoolh ; generously dlspensio; 

treasures; awakening pure and holy 

1; plnnling in tbi * 




HBDUOTIOH 

PRIOB OF LODGINGS! 
Woodward'!. Wlint Cheer IIouho, 

110 and 121 Sacramento street. 
87, 89 nnd 01 (now addition) LeUlesdorf 



addition) I.tiidcsdorif 

"' ^ "'"a" nun." lli",:ir.--,lii„:l.... i„lip .1! |.,.,rJ 
, t.lfltiluhiiiinii mual e.itLxlpor. tqd ibbL Uii, 1* ibo (ilue. 

■ ';'." ■ ' a ■ - ■ I ■ . I'. .1 il 

^REE BATHS. ^1 

MIIll.ll.jj cwcalu^d ,. -riM.u. .„;„,■. ,, 



A EUALL I 

fur ic od bom, bolD S n tj.iorlle Itloe wTib Iho' Cbiiioinp'o' 
Pereoni In -nal or reed will ,\„ wull lo altonil lo il to.>u 
is Ihlj li lhe only Im la market or will bo for Iho boikb, 

:.V.; I™:: .;.,£ .r.s.' -'" * '•"•' ■■* »» "• 



Heed ot tho Groat Treo. 
A FEW paelioL, <,[ tb, Seed ofihli fain.™ 
T.t' t * 1 ^ !" 'i u Stato Soolotr'n Itoouu, on F- 



freely all her youth ; ganoruusij uinpuniaius cu.st- Lho man wno ureavus me [.me air ui neaven, onu u - ".,":, oiiixia. jzj 

lie.,t treasures; awakening pure and holy emo- uses his mui-el..-,. .;m,ws Ji.il.yn ■■ireii.jLl.. ...„",: ■.',' ;;,'., ,\ ■,»;.■ ; v. ' ; v ', . ' ' . ' ', . - 1 . -V 'u' '.' '.'"" wj'^\JiT^',Z 

,eniiiiiiiU; and impressing opon their tnjndi ||? is l,b,, n i^ „ (;r | u l engine without steam. ^ utl" "" «a""M«t« vW«h, „| ^ ^J'^"^S^i™3l 

such high and noble principle... thai when, an Krtry' peal eolornriW ia lUirtesnlt Of Hbrero H „ ™ -^ . ' P™S?w, 

men, tboy come upon lho Wage of action, they 1 toil: Uow much racking of brain and straining | ^^^ *""' U c ™ dMl,)J 0B ^'"J '~p«™ 




A GIFT BOOK FOR ALL SEAS0K5. J 

FLORA'S DICTIONARY. 

— — E. W. WIRT, OF VUlGUtlA. 

a iiiiivrniii---. i 




arlnllU..riL,; | i*.;\V ll"'"^ , V.riaUj'n 

ARE nl all Umci prcj-ircl I" till " r ' , °™ ,'[a.i^'!*J 
t»in e lo or double, of WsLt's ' ""J-Vh* H*"' 
ritamiuH t!inqoi..ii Sit.- Mills, » 1 ' ,et, . t ™f. in ,hr. , . 
■ llothoi mill, in iu,.rk.:l fur ,i;..i.i.f.i.-i.'" ! "- '" '.i,b ii"" 

Al..., M..1I11H,..-.'. ■iii:..LrM..'i"-"'l 1 u. 

.Iilv,,.,,,,!,..,,,! [.urfeetly, .,.." v . I.liul. ■ I -. '■ ,,. .i„ ..'; 

.-.Il SjI1.ii;;, .Sblnsle ami Lata .-•-•"- .,„ll--_ 

ci|.,l,li. ,.f ...,h1i>.; I,l.».«i 1,ii..:!.--i- ll " ur ;'!' ,il-W 

par day. Cuii and LL.I of IMce. ueiit by ^is3«_ 



rpimKK who I' 






For Sale Low, 

I BOH CAllltlAOB 

:usv 11,111. rsu.i 

IVJI. KAl.L, 



THE CALIFOENIA F^lEMEE. 



39 




;^ tflZ J- L. POLHEHUS 

Hew Agricultural Books, 



_i' ; -l_ WAR HEN a'co! 



p.:-, ■ ;;..,.. 






n.. i » .. _, -? od ' 0,! * b Lln « 1 - 

alathe fl™!. ■ rl„|,| „„,i ; lh , t 

P '-^{'™ n Ti°. D a fb E ^v%- lc, " L '7 1 " 1 m»^«f.»u^ 
aooo tr'w T BOOKS 




MADAME C- A. TAYLOR, 

tapoi« r i>rB„JDaJ CI | 

jHaw York mid Purl. Mllllnny, 

nnj Lace Oooii, 



PRopHiETan, 
"TheBe.1, the Cheapen" 

^RAILWAY HORSE POWERS 
ling anil Crnn-Cnt Saw iHiili, 

.OttK AND SEED H-ANTEHS, 
J FmsiBg^Kill., Vegetable CnttDti, 



Carpets, Oil Cloth* and Fap er Hangings 
o. u. shecmV.nV '" 




JOHN L. OTTIGNON. 

PBEMIUK CARRIAGE PAOTOHY 

CMUUAOES o( all dorrlptluiu m*i< 



'"Mi! .' "|. I ■ ■ r I . . . . ■ T,:. !■. . 

■ '■r.-^ily ■ rl l,n„J, 




CLOVE ANODYNE 

TOOTHACHE DROPS. 

Complain no mora of Aching Teeth. 



AnoJj-nc all! pito aipMdy tolliffcjmb- 

by A, B. 4 D. BANDS, Wh 

-■■-■- .-.a-rtiwl, minor 'WniJun, Ne» ■»,., ■•■■ 

bj IL JOHNSON" £ Co..£jn FnnclKo; S. T. WATTS 4 C 
'xyMOe; It IL JfoDOHALD t Cft, BuruneMo- , D a 
rifClsU Btntnllj. „-«, .^ 

"W^HQ is IT p 

oidBitand moat oxpo Hone 

LITTLE. 

igm.t bod] b«E Medicine at Ibo LOW- 
LIT TLB. 
^rU0pm lnp Hi 0n , Mt Ph II i eiHJi . PrtKripHon,, 

LITTLE. 

\y HO .<■ aror randy to m|, r j, Ha FoorKlthout , nllrg(l] 

LITTLE 

W™ d^u P !h i i,uMi°7 0I1EN ALL * I<tBXl * 

,„ nn LITTLE. 

L I T T T T* 1 
LITTLE 

LITTLE. 



F I E S T P H ZXJ U H A O A I 
TTAS h ,? ' H ■ V ANCE, 

■ II,,. -uporW,,, r.f his DuKnerreol,™. sn d 
BAR FIWNClBCo!' 

What ia an Ambrotype ! 



Woo huh lbi> foncr, ne ub «.-:,„,, 

To cucli tnoo look, urRiikn, rurra— 
'Hi. . .tv aye ,-irl, Ibid i.. ..,-,„„,[ 
WbohMhUiiiponarl IhliwmdrOMnrt] 

lletpartl 



"^Tnotri 



LITTLE. 




DBUSIIKg, COHM, PfT.nrrjUKiires.TOn.ET «# 

mob, Uiia 0I1Ji) K!imifa Aso ra a 



OABDEM, | 



P1KLD KKKDB, 



Mail, framh al IS30, dl 

: -V""' "' ■"". KilrKHMia Eounlo Hodlc!oc» 

ipu Lu^flor :..|li ri . . |.,,.,,-..-,L. ,, r ,,| f nt , . "^^V 

.ireel, wra^STuii DmgrlE. 
auwry tumt, oppulto rio pottoSce, 



To 



llko llfo, i ._.. . 
ot Ork A inn— 



«■ H. VANCB. 



ENCINAT, TANNING CO 'S 
LEATHER L» E p OT 

v".'^"'"' 1 SAN FRANCISCO 

."EI. c * WeOtTWS, AscnL. 
IKIW AND DEAtHBH IN ALL 

i™i E ;- A -' I ' Ea::Ej:E *- 



S3!! 



,^'"- ; 







0. L, TATT.0R & 00., 

Sash, Doors and Blinds 



K»P oon.l 
1 LARUE , 



SS0UTMKUT 



Stair Hail, Boluatara and Newel 

Msts, French Windows, MmildinKi, 

Sash ond.Qlau. 

'^ ■I"'/"' U'^pho^. ,. u ,| ||„, bH ,_ 



aasa-j 




fiiU,! " ■ ^.hi«l to J. I* Ottignon, Bai 

|£J£.- !»»»*'* "»•';,"*" 

r Ki LMU«rip«o..r Ibis «« ■»»*;•" 

_ .. I. do it r.ll J.slis. i Ml " h ™ " "'' " ™ 

rtl i, .ill b. mutaMrf "»' » «1"»» U ' 

■rer,. B too b„ 11* »[.oaj « »™" " 

b.«M .od .My g.n™ •' "'« '" "f s ".„ 

U,i, i. ibo mo.rao.l .!»» >"< « 1 '"' » " '"" 
•a whistle w« ui»de bj 

ti „„ mHP hi D erv. her orn»nienlol pi.ts (otto 

r;«"t;,;,,.b.>.b«.b-.,,u ;; .b« 

i a iielydono,odorotb e sides of ibo 
S^ito "F..1.0I HUSTO" "»•*»; 
H.UU Si..." ft" .T-b „.« b«*J 
mwrntmoslMlMollj"" " F °™ K k „ 
Sprit* "ilk b.r llonl ob.pWi Sjtm»t . n-j- 
ni=sing scone; Aolumn, with her lo;ei 
„d golden erani end Win.e,, w.lb Ibe »..r 
bell, nod skn.es : il... .oiling lb. »»■"" •*»- 
„„ lto ., OS. witb lb. XI ndsk.il . b, 
uduiK, ratios Ihm «. ib.j .re, twin .» Ubm 
snd value lo our community. 
tfaebAto* that could ho ms.de, b connected 
will] this engine. The apss W be worn by In 
meraners, irho arc among the best men in ou 
city .vc saw at Mr. Ollignon's m prcparat or 
These will bo in keeping nod taste with then 
beautiful weapon of warfare, 

-This engine <md apparatus is now ■« the ware- 
house on Market street, and we k»™ '» w '" E001 
be shown at a public festival of its members (,« 
tb, lfltb, *> bolterc) ; then, or shortly after, g. 
inioils new boose. 

This magnificent Engine, Hose Carriage, So 
was a gift U> U" company, by the Hon. Samuo 
Brsnnan, of San Francisco, and surely do belle; 
sT.dcnce need ba offered by a citizen ol I 
inte.est Tor the welfare of the oily, than 
eifi in so noble a cause ; and by thi 
its mem bets, its guardians, it nil! bo bravely and 



ad Dipt 

''„ ',-.:, ,i....„.,] f,.r f.nully me, Ls »•«-'■ 
for me "I s 







KOOKESTEK 

BEDDING «VSS- 8 Sf" 



ftmn mime n U i. 
gottoBBT H*Ll— ThiB plx* of lirinMt and 
1D ,usemenl continues to dra* very good bouses. 
The representations of all the various movements 
of the people and the troops are far more accurate 
than a person would suppose could be done by 
maebinery. It la indeed an excellent representa- 
tion: the old Slate House, Boston, Copp'a H'U, 
tho troops, firing of cannon and the burning 
Oharlcstown. ore all Kc\l done, and deserve a 1 
eral patronage. Monte Crista performs wonJi 
The exhibition of his trained bitds is sitanisir 
and his ventriloquism admirable, 
Pacific MnsEUH.— Hero vre t 
03ling and valuable place to visit, for oU pers 
grown people and children, there is so mucl 
learo. Herecan every one learn lessons that 
bo of service to them. Father Adams is a woi 
of himself— ho has accomplished » mooh ; 
little time. This mnsenm is enlarging every day, 
and wo are glad to note the increasing interest 
given by our citiiens to the Natural History of 
California. 
Tub Ml nbthels.— These dull 

is near dead with the blues, wcj believe 

cur,; cm be tltV-clnd by a visit to the -'llinslrel-- | ]_jAr ';■;;■ ;'-^;r;;;:' ",i ...Vy, ,■;;,..„,;.,;, 
There is fun and liolio cnuugii lo drive away |..:.ii.^^i;'---.^; | - ] J ; ;, |;;^;'i | ; L ;^', , J;' l ;. l r ';; , 1 l . | , ' 1 ' 
every shadoof care, cure the dyspepsia, still an I .__' . n "f„".-.«.i! n .ini™iani»bi 
aching tooth, make a man forget his poverty, and 
"sleep well o' nights/' Wo bcliuvo in laughltir 
as a sovereign remedy for all kinds of aches or 
the variety vr e have named. 

Job'B Cohfortehs. — Wo havo often hoard 
follu nay, "you ore one of Job'a eomforton(,■ , 
and supposed of course it alluded to Job, tho 
most patient — nud we liavo no reason to doubt 

ftyol but wo Gud wo have a reulJobin Sao 

Francisco, and ho has n grent variety of com. 

forta to "if.-i- to his friends, sud they are real 

aamforts, too; and we don't bolii 



v.'.kliisims.^^^^ 

^^^>^^s^g^ ESS?' ' 



Pioneer Nursery. 

t THE MJe««V J> l ''T'^ a a lt Ji L Jrii 



t J tl.U l"il!l 



,n, tl.t ] 



UTly-u 



THE 

"HORTICULTURIST 



Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste. 



., [ho koowlEdeo 

■ii.llicr variolic I 

ODsbleilluas- 



:'-',; , ; L ,' l ' r '; 1 ; l '. 1 ] , 1 '.''i:'...V , ,' f . ,.'.. r n,, ... ,,,.,. ,,.,. , ,.,,.. .-.-nn,. . . 

;,,;,,, ,. : ,ly ■[., t 10 i>(<il> Iho iraeUo tho ;■'.■■ . M _. ^ ^ 1 , l ,, llic -, l!ll[ ,. vbit . b „ ^aAaMy 

'tas ass iJsffiSSffi ?=HHS:1: 

'„.-. " 
rfboisirtjiwi^ ' ".:':.'.' " : ;";,:,; .'''.".'"'a,'.' tu." ,-.ji;iv..ii..ni:( nm iitmHirui, i..itii 



,h ,n :v. 



o"lho°cdLlorauJ cent ribul nre, unvko it t'-' ;■ 



i lliinj;," 



this J"b in 
things fur 



CiVlu'ohma PsDiTiNo Pai-eq.— Wn learn 
from Messm Taylor & Post, that before many 
weeks, we shall havo tho pleasure to 
thut The newspapers of the Pacifio Coi 



workiny men. TliuB, step by siup, 

Si.il- linn i liiiii; "ii to Ibi- riink of u ^- uu .,^- 

turi n g Stale, unJ couseyuently nn iiiilt-iMiiJiiit 




' BetntioD, Intellectual FhlloMphy, Bhotorio, l 

irlhciiJ'i Lllllr SpMji"-- '.""..."." ...0 



..I,-,,,'- lui. ll.vni.,lt-iiilm«>tfiT--™ i"'."""! 

Th'/llatbeoiatlcal Work, ef ^''"S'.'J 1 "'^ 

S? ^? \'° ?2? n ! ,-„;..j sute j Milil iry At ilt-mr "i 
tlic ,-,,||,v-,:.. it, 111- l-i.ii -! -• 
of Mmlmnlitiiv, .■■■'!' "-■Iii'- 
imi>tic3,A^iilT...'i--iii-.ii- 



..luil by 



Illinii--, illl.-icmi 



'„ i'\,.m>i i\i,.ltii.t .n! :■'■' "-'■■■' '" Lb0 L" 1 
I. .Tl ,-i.l-u,..-' I'.r-ti -..ii '"■ ''■■ ■■■I ■■• : -.. 

»rt' Vll'S"«r. lVill-.ir,t'. ^1 1 lli.l - /■ 

^^Cpbl,^^ u! i™^ 3 ,u,,,i. : -, -; 



PACIFIC MUSEUM, 

INTEREiTIKG AND INSIRUCTIVE AMP5E11EST 

l-dl', rAHILli;; ; 

THIS MUSEUM hnviOB bi 

T/Iiimcrou™a5i]itS>M 



iel ^ »* ^ ^l-,r.-r.l .in.! nuniti.iu. .iJllitHn.' gS . | .j!. 

UVIN8 WILD ANIMAL 1 ^ =vtr .con on lbi. coariS 

£»Ftalwn ' isA>1SOX."lbi l..r, : ..,l l'..ii:li !»;" 

;.i:.KI,lN, mi .nwin.).! lit'issly. «li>'-e .il.-l..- . ' ■ 

!■ ; " i ."'" , ' V : r | 1 id!-',. |i\ „ 



nro^inmUol 
Th'-' irark n L-i'Ji-.l .'il Hit iir-it.T noon iiiiuilo, iii iiiiii.fi 

IV|,.,. ,-N..,lk-,l i.Ii-:-. O-l'-ll lllll.ll:iif i:-l.l|in«|.: Ii 

,;,-. ..H.I-.Uili-li.nl. a li,.[.,v...].ii... l ::iii.iiOYOnilo.bcr 
irlguul nntl h E 1 I -nice mi J upgnvinra. At the tnil i,f 



E°"™T A ureal TsrlelT.it olbur i-ibl ntHmnl,, »iukJ 
lob aio a Callfiirala Ll»n nnJ T,,, r : , I- ■ . u .,f,il rj 
Elk, De«, Aniol.^,, wo Am-Eai.r, r-.« Seirta 
,1,.,;,.,. !',:iiri.. Werf, Fdich, Muuntaio 
.lint, Ibrpu variollcl ot Eoisli'J, ic-, lo _,_ 

M...„, t. Sl'A l,l'."l"ilUl ill .. i-.i--, lin-'o,H-.iL-ly««- 
veil tu oihibilbiin in his nntlvii oU-msi.l ■H»™'"3 

uboiBoathu J1.ii il. I'.-.:, i.ln'i. '^'iti-l ■''-,;' 

nij^riatho liil^ M lalt tv ir > ^.,L:i , '"'^X 

o'wlleellnn Sf beauVKuT^.Sl'fnmerir^""" bj W» 
Brass Danil Is In niton I ■■ 



in tho country that bus ua many 



LOW, HASKELL &. CO, 

TORS OF PATENTS AMD POIiLlSHEES 
*' mrTrETSTTOH." 

PREPARE tho ntsouiry Df.tnw'anil P»ponf, a'nil 
l.r.-.jgrlllo t'l a -lire..,., 'Ml l.-.uu.itl.I.H.Mii.i... f-r l':,- 

iTuiu.ioi of s*turii7s* Ut"«i. B piiton», need net locBt Ibo 



rzkz 



Th ~* 



>n Illuilrated „ 

■ ■ ;isnn, Ibo Bngl- 



i'. .'i Trees 11 



vcTTujca *od Tp» Usv'orB soapUcd at llbonU dtftcuunt 



CONCERT HALL. {U 

THE ORAHB MOVING DIORAlQ 
BATTLE OF°'bUNKER HILL, 

rHE COJflfT-AORATIOIil OF CIIARtE* 1 *" ,' 

li <m eihlblilon EVEBV EVENING (du..d«y ««P 1 °'* 
OONCBBT H AliX- 

AliO,lhoC«l '■"," 1 M., ; i.l ..! ViillriUHlBW. 

lUontc Crlslo, ^^ ^ 

,Vho,0 perfiinilMil-w III V-ntril..r ( »l.iii .":■! '^n IbU* 
o.^or.owiU,".!,- ■'.■■■;' 

FAIBY LAKD°AHD PALACE OF THE FAlW 
Tli;*cu.50ccna; RHcir-"! *.!-, »l I f ' 1l,1 ^ r ;;.I.t'i' i 
Ujmn i-i-ui) uvniiiii; (rfu'iiiln)i j- i l- i -] n . n.^. — — 

geo. j! buooks & co, 

PAPER W42EH01HV 



T7UJR SALE — 10,000 rnam 

r ijij-i, ii.oi y.n ; 

■W ream. Pino Bonk Pi| 
(•onili; 



S, 40, « ^ 



RWnkti.r.1,, C«. ond Luller I n| tr. ..-1 ';,, „ f M' 
■ Tf.m Ink, ij'iolbiir w th ... - , r - 






-. rr- : : _ — , -■ - _ - 



^*== 



j a !., , ' !!■..■ = 



=a?= 



iiUBBiM^^iij® 




S a & i? m a a sg 



iSsScaa ®s$s®$$So. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CA1IF0BKIA, FRIDAY MORNING, . FEBRUARY 20, 1857. 



NUMBER 6: 






THE AUDUBON OP THE PACIFIC. 

* TnAT California has shown herself to Do tho 
1 nursing mother of genius, enterprise and skill, 
. and of extraordinary men, her li is lory Trill prove. 

Our purpose is to present una of the many, and 

• one wo esloom of (lie extraordinary ones,, ond in 
doiiiR this wo stin.ll give mailers of history. 

I The name of- Audubon has attained a high 
placo hi history, and most deservedly soj his 
works relied honor upon him and glory upon 
our country, uiid the nnmo which wo have 

: linked with him hue already won honor sufficient 
to showit to be worthy to bo thus associated. 
Wd givo a thrilling Bkotoh of Andubon, first, 
to show that tho name no introduce us 
"Audubon of the Paoilic," has, by his Life 
Adventures, exhibited a must striking parallel 
aaso to Audubon in his travels and explorations. 
Jnmci Anauben- 



(.c, 



BO.) 



fel 



elegont copj- of the ■ ■Birds of America," 
iceivcd by the Hoyol Academy of Sciences 
ris. Baron Cuvicr, to whom it was re- 
i, said, in his report, "It can bo described 
only by calling it the most magnificent monu- 
ment nrt bus ever raised lo ornithology." Au- 
dubun was horn of Fronoil parents, near Now 
Orleans, and is now post his 70th year. His 
father, on enthusiast for liberty, was with 
Wn-lhiri ;(■■!! iit V:.||.-y Forge ; and Iho Audubon 
funiily - 'ill no--,..-- ilif. [„.rtruirs of both, pointed 
In the camp— Hint of Wushingion being tho first 
ever (ukeii of him. At n very curly age, Au- 
dubon was sent to France, ond educated in nrt 
on J science under tho best masters, among 




liberty, the groat man who iri.-ur.d ir- in.]. |.i i,.j. 
enco is next to my lienrt;" and therefore ho 
called tho noblest of eagles after tho noblest of 
men. Othor ornithologists had pnint<"] 1 1 1 ■ i t- 
birds after they were stuffed. Audubon mni? 
accurate drawings of his in the forests, Uut'oi 
tho plumage had lost its brilliancy, or tho mu: 
■.-]■■■• Ilii'ii nnluml .:,|.li---iTn. II. ■ h;i- twliil.il, 
in pl-rficlinl) ill l-.i-lir-i »Mril>ul>'- ill" ;-■ " 1 1. ■;.-!. ■ 
painting, never before attempted, ] 1 1_> bus pit 
tured tho piLS-i.uiM nml feelings of birds, a 
tenderly Olid truly ns Clnuda Lorraine n&Inlod 
trees, flowers anil skies. And so 
;■'■ ir -. I:i- p.Tif<>!i<i was enriched 
sand iiiiishi'd dniuings. Hi-' i: ■ ■ H ,. -i 
Lit-.-lv it. -.-(r.iyi 'd' "The burning 

sjnyl 

ral nights, a 

„ '. > ,,-i [- , i. *.,,., <■ r,' 

forth to tho woods agaiu, as if nothing I. :,.| In, p. 
penod. I c.ial.l m,il.- I. lit drawings than be- 
['■■:•■ . in liirei' v.-.ii-.. ii iv j . . i r I f . . I i , , wns lillrd." 

Hitherto he ii;„l wmi'dun-d, studied and paint- 
ed, only to gijlify his lovo of nature. In ISiJ, 
Lacieu Botuipnrt" nropi.^-d In liny his drawine-s. 
Ho resolved to publish ih.-m himself. It cuulu 
not bo dune in America; he landed in England, 
a stranger. Itoscoo received tho wondrnu; 

■■' lumii wiih ,.j.in nnns. His drawings were 

• ildl.iii il in Edinburgh ; men of rank and taste 
extended to him hospitality; ho passed tho se- 
vurefl scrutiny of art and learning, and stood 
by the s-ide i-f Herscbell, Cuvierund lio,,,i...|.ii. 
as a father of science, and in art n ni^l.-r witli- 
out a rivnL With Scott, Brewster, Wilson nml 
Jeffrey, for companions, ho began tho publica- 
tion Of his magnificent work. It was connleied 

in I--11.I in i"..iirlet-n years, and his funic was 

< -i.illi-luil. Ono hundred nod seventy five 
subscribers, at 31000 each, most of then 
tainod by himself in person, and eighty 



tinder Mr. Grayson's advico and direction wc 
look for the organization of a numerous mid high- 
ly respectable expedition to Colirornia. — (St. Louis 
Itevoillo. 

We here present Col. A. J. Grayson, as tho 
leader of n band or hardy pioneers lo California, 
and as a brief introduction nf his adventures, wc 
give a letter written to his biolhcr-iii Ian, after 
bis arrival in San Francisco, in 1S-I7, giving a 
brief description of his perilous journey. Other 
letters, with various valuable memoranda, we shall 
give in future sketches of otic lo whom wo have 
given the honorable position at tho head of this 



Cat. 0. to hil Brothsr.m.Law. 



Dear Ga,hiiett: I have at length found tim» 
to write to you, which is a job t have had in view 
for a long time, but until now have not had suf- 
ficient tiroo ta perform it- My last letter was, I 
think, written from Fort Bridger, on Black's 
Fork, at (he head, of Green Hirer, and I bardly 
know whether to give you a history of our jour- 



u tho i 



t Cslifom 



bing r 



.lllgivtjo 


a graph 


t dcscrlp 


on oflb 


oi part of 


Dur journey 


which h 


as tho i 


ost difficolt and 


roublesomc 


of tho whole route 






At Fort I 


idgcr we 


met with Mr. L. 


W. Hasl- 


ngs, of Sul 


crrillo, S 


cramento 


county 


who had 


discovered a 


now ran 


a by Iho 


way of 


the great 


Salt Lake, which was 


ropreser 


ted lo b 


! a better 



tho great desert of America, tho region of perfect 
desolation. The very Earth seems to halo bi 
burnt up by Volcanoes; It has tho oppearonco of 
ono immense heap of ashes, and nothing hero 
presents ilsetr, but dry arid plains, or high moun- 
tains, thrown together in wild and confused heaps. 
And oven tho hateful sage, hero seems lo have 
; for eight hundred 



Hinted ii 
:h the aspect is all tho : 






intrymi 



l.-.l In 



undertaking. Tho lenriied societies of El 
proffered to him their honors; but he rec 
with more prido than. ail, tho crown nf tho I 
Sooioty of London. He published a - v » 
of his great work at Edinburgh ; and final) 
ilh years and covered with ho 
inline, bringing with him nil his 

M-i-irnd Or.iv.inii-.. Ii.. r.- .li-lied the mnr 

' ItbDr. Bi 



i. the 



■The Quadi 



I, began 



L.lll.T IV- 



-rtlt Ai 
inplotcd" last year, with npph 
In •■[■.liking of lln-e work?, pnrtlcul 
t, mention should bo mndo of bis 
art and 



which 






.1,-ir Intl 



r. Tin 



tboturtlu-dovori 

crayoy Ii 



-1 lb- ■-< 



lonn 



Wo t 



, . . ougb which the 
ssijipi rolls into the si-a, ho pursued his 
dies mid roomings. We can hardly give an 
in llioso iViv wi.ril-, of tin' t'orr-l noil prairii- 

' ' Holms found 



mporli i llv, in hi.-, liio [n.irid-rou 
lrailli.i|'ii;i,:;il Uinj-rnphy. Ho hn 






s of 



i, and finds it 

, the spot where b 

while, Ini has been chil 

and burned will, jn-rpi in 



, bo sees bfiyond 
rm.-o. oiuiiiuiiobJrd.swo , 
lie lniTitn for that bird ten 



nil i 



iny nights bo has 



Ho has teen tho kttifo of tho tatago 
rhotted for him— stepped on venomous ser- 
slarUd the cougar from hbisocrot loir — 
w.illen streoms, with bis gun, nnimuui- 
liwlngs and journals lashed on bis bend— 
uequutoiial nor', nlli^ol.,!.- stared ot him as 
loniji.il— in point regions, tho water turned 
* it fell fram his benumbed limbs when 
ick the hank — his tongoo bus parched 
ith lhir,l on deserts, ami he bus laid himself 
oivn fi.ini-l.iii^. I., -..- ; ,U. lil,,. l;iijjli, till l„. 1V.L, 
S by tho hirda OFhnnvon. 
This wr -, hi- hi-iory. during Iho life of n gon- 
iluoii-li iln- l,,„p, jiilgriuinge 






o.t.l n 



hoard the tramp of his ln- 
rp "f the globe, his courage 
vorenoe for God, whoso il- 
--■ -o was eirdo ring, deepened 
BdoHger bo owed. N.. r did In, lo,,. „ ri,,-..l. 
"""' "'■' '■ rl "^ I'T ..ivili.;, ,j i„ 11Tll from w (j 0ai , 
italioimbelnidoiiledlnui^ir. Ami v. I Lbi, 
I had nohlor pleasures, as well as nobler 
aihipB, thnn other men. Ho bad gone with 
'« his eons— both of whom, from boyhood, 
Is been bis forest coropnoion« and soholars— 
M'wilh other young men of Boston, ainco dis- 
gnubed, on u voyage to Labrador for now 
i would lmvD hnilt a. benuti- 
; morning Ihoy scored from 



in.;, , j 



"Tho oi 
o says, 



i' discovered ih" iiluuet tvbicb bears his 

10, could have ci]icrieneed mora rapluruus 

As Iho now world gave mo birth and 



bi. Ii appeared in Iho 
St. Louis Journal in 184G, over the name uf one 
whoso lifo and adventures arc so similar to Audo- 
bon, that wo have tbos associated tlicm, and it 
will boFcen by all how most strangely singular 
these evcnls have occurred. Wo giro also, the 
editorial notice of the St. Louis papers at tba 
lime, and similar notices appeared in many jonr- 
nalR of tho day, for Iho gentleman stood high 
among all who know him : 

Ho for California t 
At the suggestion and desire of a number of 
my fri-nd-i. "ho propose em i crating with ma lo 
— "■ nciuallym 



.Tide 



. This 



; tho ( 



Wore for going the new route, without i'.-!l-. ■ .i,,,;. 
whilst the more prudent were fur going and slick- 
ing to the old trail by Fort Hall. I, Tor one, con- 
sulted Capl. Walker." ,i ho happened lo be at Fort 
loi'Lir. iiud well ncqiininted with both ionics, 
and also a man wham I could belicvo ; so I look 
his advice and went the old trail, together with a 
respectable portion of emigrants, among whom 
wore Gov. Boggs, Boon, &c. 

On tho 20th July ire parted with a nnmbor of 
our fellow travelers who wcro going the nea 
route, and with heaving hearts rolled on our dust 
and rugged way. Alter leaving Fort Bridger, b. 
Several days bird driving over a very dusly an, 
bad road, wo succeeded in passing over Boa 



>|..u 



■ Rivi 



V.,11,- 



,1 Innl :i 



elighlful 


road lo the Soda 


Valley i 


one or tho mosl 


which W 


had passed, anil, 


!o of colt 


vation. Thosur- 




d and beautiful, 


various k 


ndsof fruit,such 



Springs. 

beautiful ones throe 

I rblnk, very suscei 

undlng mountain! 

icrcdwilh trees a 

berries, and full of game. The river is a ver 

pretty stream and abounds with the finest troul 

flows into the Great Salt Lake. I was he: 

separated from my. company ono night and tw 

days, in consequence or not being ablo lo got I 

ouor from, hunting. My wife and child wer 

th ibe train, end were most anxloos for m 

turn ; and tho company were vory-un««sy aboi 

J, for tho Indians were very numerous. IV 

w several of thu Snake tribe of Indians in tb 

valley, who wcro very friendly to us, and nil 

i wo traded some. After traveling for soi 

lays over this delightful valley, wo at lengll 

^rlved ot thoSodaSprings,a placo wo had longo, 

beautiful spot docs not exls 



Califon 



J.ilil bike I 



3 lead, whereby n 









id pledge my 
i who oro disposed 
Country. Should 



o the safe 

in us in our journey to that 
one of ibe company ho we 1 
: oltieieuL limn niy;-vlf. by a majority e 
I hoppy lo resigi 



i tills 



orld. Gro 



sofee 



tared all i 

of thu solid rock of volcanic la 

is pore soda water— besides tin 






nachV c 



nil pinoar 
ings burst 



id day and drank 



except tbosa pecaliai 
day after day in our mountainous mars 
this n in: ,i,i hly desert It seemed that ■. 
traveling in another wnrjd. 

After proceeding down Mary's river n 
tho Sink, ahcra it disappears entirely, 
with a now species ar trouble. Tho indii 
stolo a number of our cattle and shot a good 
many with arrows poisoned which they left. Our 
mpany was quits small at that time, and could 
ily muster o few lighting men. About ten ol 
i however followed (hem. Wo won =nmo-up 
with Iho main body of them nl their own village, 
'hero they numbered upwards or throe hundred 
fighting men, nnd all arrayed for bat tlo, whooping 
" yelling all .kinds of defiance. Though their 
ibers wero much stronger than ours, wo hod 
dea of hacking out; llioy hnd raised Ibo tom- 
ahawk against us, notwithstanding our kind 
treatment to them when they camo about our 
camp. Wo advanced Upon them with tho deter- 
mination to leach them a lesson. Four of our 

charged upon them ns fast as we wcro able, but 
before wo got within rrfio shot thoy all disap- 
peared behind the rocks, lino so many squirrels 
into their holes. Wo still advanced upon them 
until within a few paces of whom they were hid. 
when Ihoy charged upon us with all the fury of 
savages. Wo met them howovor, with steady 
aim, and every shot killed an Indian. They fell 
back in the rocks again, and 
their arrows at us faster lha 
clouds. Wo fought them from behind rocks all 
day, shooting them through the heart whenovei 
wo could catch ono peeping over tho rocks, unli 
wa finally routed them, after killing ii,;blecn o 
their number. We also recovered Iho most 
our cattle. Wo lost ono on oor sido-ono mar 
killed, three badly ttoundul and olhers slightly, 
Ono horso was also killed. 1 had the hoaor that 
day of leading tho company. Our voliant little 
band, many of whom I feel much attached lo, 
have been with mo in all tho California wor also! 
Next day we proceeded slowly on our journey 
uninterrupted until wo arrived at the Sink ol 
Mary's river, where wo again had nearly oil our 
tllo stolen from us. Wo followed them next 
orning, but recovered only a few, which were so 
badly shot with arrows as lo bo rendered entirely 
of no sorvieo to us. I lost half or my team, and 
soma of us wcro rendored almost helpless in the 
wny of traveling, nod the most difficult part of 
the rood was yot lo bo encountered. Tired of 
wagoning, and anxious lo complete Ibo trip, I 



ridge tho wagons have to drawn up a hight of 
300 foot by pulleys: 

At length, on tho 12th day of Oelobor. latti, 
from tho lop of tho last bill wo hailed with wild 
delight tho plains of California. Never had my 
cyo rosled upon sn beautiful a scene. . I hurried 
on lo Iho settlements: left my family with Sen. 
Gaudeloupo Vallejo, who has been General or 
California, under tho Mexican Government, and 
is one of tho richest and most refined gentlemen 
in California. Ho has always been favorable to 
ourgovernment, and a grent frlandrto Iho Ameri- 
cans, nis family is vet-y much respected by all ; 
and ho lives on tho north side or tho bay of San 
Francisco, Ho has n very splendid ranch; and 
hiVKouso is well furnished. Ho has a Inygo It- 
brary, a'nd, nmoug Other 'things which I did not 
rpect to-fiud in this country, has a fine Boston 
ma. .I left my w'ifu there, and volunlccrcd my 
" of California ogalnst tho Mcxi- 






red wi(b a 



lunfed riQemen 



In a 



,e f n 






d treaty y 



until tho Una 
parties 

of'dispatchas 



ion, from Commodore Sloek- 
n Copt. Mados's company of 



h.iik-d i. 



,ally e. 



pulled 






bring my things through tho 
, which bo did, leaving his In 
my teai - ' 
to do-it 
t their 



nidc. hotii een' the two 
.hat I was honored as 
gli Ihe enemy's co un- 
os. Onco from'Com. 
Shubrick to Capl. Mertin, onco from Onpt.Mer- 
Ciipl. Nuredon, and onco from Mervin to 
Shubrick — in which I performed all expeditiously 
and with success, and have received ample reward 
and thanks, 

Wo had ecveral skirmishes. in tho country, 
but no very hard fighting: somojdivbavo been 
kilted onbolb sides. The country is now all as 
peaceable as Louisiana, and the Stars and Stripes 
wave proudly over the land. 'She weather is now 
very Dne. Tho trees nro all pulling forth ibeir 
loaves, and thousands of Cowers cover tho plainH 
and hills. Tho farmers are all busy cultivating 



Iheii 



Tho. 



irhoj 



nild;: 



ittlo 



any other, 
After 






H of ibe 



t Hall, o 



on to lake my family v 
piito young, I sincerely hope I 
n orderly and well organized e 
who design going should be nt 
a Mi-onri fiver, by the I5lb 
that will bo thotiiuouf ourdop 
place. * 

hould ho well provided with .■„ 



s of 



id wiih any heavy and un- 

' — ilturo, but good 

nis, useful look 



serviceable In a 

" " ad in California. 

good interpreter and pilot will bo wanted for 
lT^'im! 1 ^ two. A ' J ' GilJlvs,,!l > 

(pcoition to OiLiFonnn.— Wo «ror our 

;rs to the announcement, in another column, 

proposal expedition lo California. Mr. A. 

J, Grayson, an esletined friend, will lako charge 

of the cmigralion, subject to tha p!en„,jre nf n„ 

-impauy when il shall have assembled at Inde- 

indcncOj previous lolls departure, lie is emP 

■oti.i- .|-i.ditied for such a responsible Elation, 

- ln = -^ y- - "''"' „f eiitcrpn.:,-, courage and 

.-t.-rini„,i.... 1 ,-, lllul ,l l oln L ,,io.. [,t,:n ,n-.:nMoln...t 
i the 'Oft lap i,f luxury," (ml who ' ,!ui "Iber 
0111.1.1,1,0,0 lii., youll, „,,, the eicileuieut and 

.i,.l;,:i . ,,i ui. .J lie. ;.. .1 -.-:.- 

il'l, „1 Iln; 

pilin:iJ,: 1 . J of 



aim, as bis heart is true lu ilie 



leave tho valley and 
aurso in a northwest direction lo 
vor a very dusly and rugged way. 
Wo, however, reached Fort Hall safely. Hero 
wo met wilb a Mr. ApplCgalo, just from Oregon, 
who camo Hint far lo meet tho emigration, lo con- 
duct them, through a now route which bo had 
discovered over tho Cascade Monnlains, to Ore- 
gon. This was good news to Iho cmigranti, as 
it was represented as being a nearer and better 
route of course. This caused a good many lo go 
to Oregon who wore bound for Californio, as Ibey 
thought llicy would reach there before ihoy could 
California. But from tho very nature of Ibo route 
it led me tobolievo It mast boa very difficult one 
if not impassible fur wagons (which 1 have sinco 
learned lo hnvo been the case). This route con- 
tinues on tho California trail nearly lo Ibe Cali- 
fornia .Mountains, wboro il leaves in a northwest 
direction over two lofty ranges of mountains— iho 
Cnscada and Dm qua Mountains. 

From Fort Hall wo pursued our course in 
almost a duo south direction, aiming to striko the 
head of ilary's river. Tha way becamo-vcry 
id -dusty, until wo reached 
iho bead of Mary's river, which fs do tiling but a 
dry branch, with occasionally a hole of putrid 
water. Hero the road is n more level, but diin- 
grwabij dusly and barren. Tho stream, It so it 
may ho called, runs through ono of the mosl 
barren and desololo regions on earth ; it is indeed 

* Cajil. ffnlknr iu an old raooBlalnoer In 1SJ3. 



'is ions, blankets 
ttlo Ned on lop 



orsu with tho 
Ac., and mounting 
of tho whnlo, footii 
over Iho trackless desert for California. Day 
after day wo traveled over this trackless desert, 
with nothing to reliovo tho oyo or gratify tho 

tho silliness or the eternal solitude, as' in painful 
silence wo marched on our lonely way. 

Wo at length camo in sight or Iho California 
-Mountains, which are covered wilb a dense forest 
it green trees— trees onco mora 1 Oh 1 how Ihe 
very sight of them cheered our worn out spirits. 
Asive hurried on lo get among Lhcm, how gladly 
did wo hail tho change. As we entered " 
jeslio woods Iho brealh of Iho forest was 
dig lo us. What a feeling of freshness diffused 
itself into onr- whole being as wo enjoyed lbi 
pleasures of tho pathless woods. Wo enca'mpec 
that night upon a small, clear brook, whoso wa ten 
» ere swoelcr than any wo had .drank for a long 
lima; tb6 birds wcro singing all around us, and 
thousands or squirrels were hopping from branch 
lo branch, whilst little Ned made Ibe woods rlog 
With his joyous laoghler. What a change, from 
tho wild, wide wnslcs over which wo had been 
traveling for months. Beneath tho stroller of a 
mgo plno we made our bed, and wcro soon lulled 
to sloop by the genllo sigblngs of the wind, as it 
passed through its branches, wilb thoswoel satis- 
faction lhat wo hid no moro desorU to pass, and 
these were ibo lost mountains over ivhioh we hod 
iel before reaching our resting placo. The 
California Mountains aru covered with a donso 
uf the largest timber I ever saw, and reaeh 
clear inlo the California plains. The mountains 
a very rugged, and steep ascents, and it looks I 
■FOHlbb for wagons to pais, veltbaydo.bgt 
nil Immense difficulty. At Iho main dividiu- ! 



tco nor snow, and seldom frost. I n 
lhat I have not been disappointed in tho country, 
Tt is oren bettor than I expected, and my fuluro 
prospects oro much brighter thnn they hnvo been 
for o long tiroo. My wire is delighted, and as 
cheerful as ever. She is in excellent health ; and 
Ned is as fat as he can be. I weigh moro than I 
ever did beforc-^dressed in buckskin, and feel as 
independent as a wood chopper, with a pocket full 
of cash at that ! I have just relumed from tho 
long campaign in which 1 hnvo been engaged, 
and will now proceed north of tho hay for tho 
purposoof laying my claim to a tract of land on 
the hay, which in a-few years will ho nn ittdo- 
icndont fortune itself. Tho country is all that 
aan could desire, and Ihe climate is certainly do- 
•Shtrul— no sudden changes. There aro always 

good many ships and vessels in tho bay, which 
ooscs this place to bo a very busy one. I bore 
purchased a lot in it, which I think inafow years 

ill bo vuluoblc, as Iho placo is improving rapidly, 

are about organizing a civil government, 
in. Kearny will bo governor of the territory . 

1 have span out his letter now, until I expect 
will ho a bore for you to road it, therefore I 
II bring it to .-. close, My wife wishes to write 

a fow lines in it. You con circulate it among 
thoso who would like lo hear from us. 

A. J. Grayson. 
P. S.— I forgot lo state lo you lhat a greater 
portion of tho emigrants who look Has Hog's route 
wero riot able to pass tho California Moontaina 
before tho snowfcll loo deep. You will seC'by 
tho papers I send you, their citretqo suffering. 
And also thoso who took tho now route to Oregon 
have shared the samoJato. So wo havo leardod. 
A. J. Q. 
[We givo a brief sketch of a thrilling scene 
among Ibe IndFonS, which occurred on the route, 
as nn evidence of tho pioneer's life] 

"Whilst traveling down the Humboldt river, 
about five days juurnoy from the Si ok, wo camo 
upon a company of five or sis wagons, bound for 
Oregon, encamped upon Iho banks or thai sluggish 
slrooro, thoy having bad all thoir cattle stolon, tho 
night previous, by iho Indians. This was caused, 
I havo no doubt, by their ill-treatment •& the 
poor savages, as they camo about the camp 
prompted by curiosity, or lo obtain 



had n 



if civiliKcd manufacture, many of 'whom 



obit, 



i. At o..., 

been on vory friendly [onus with these "oj'iot- 
ofikt laud," previous lo this incident ; hut 
■, alas, the war-whoop was resounding afaong 
* dreary and desolate wilds, and for tho Drat 
;in nl) our long and laborious morcb' L nor 
duos raised agaiust tho Indian, and hlsagarnst 
md (his, too, all brought on by Hie imprudence 
ortho Oregon emigrants. But, as duty prompted 
ired lo help them recover Ihcfr cattle, 
hundred Indians were guarding iliern, 
trsh upon the opposite or west side of 
yelling defiance lo us, as much ns In 
and lako them, iryou can." 
A party of about twelvq or lift™,, of us slnrled 



i Continued cc lail fagt C 






■ Shcep- 
jiddlcbtiry (Vt.) Rag- 



Vnluabls n«k of Bbeep. 

mm imftrftto pin""- 

bearing Feati.al from the Mil 
isle. E.irs, and "° P™*" 1 ' U ~ ~ 
„f a good Book ol ih«p •"' """ "' , 



TboGrslday was 



Home Manilla ctarea. 

We clip the annexed from Ihe Descrel New 

- -, may call the attention of oor r**« 

- " amed therein- 

both of 



- took plats it 



K ;ZSSr* * *Mta" Cooo.j to", l.™ 

_ =. f:j.r iiamins voooc men were cm 



the value of the two articles 

Coslor-Oil Beans and Ihe SunuV 
which grow in California profusely, "..- --■ 
turned to moat Important account. Already 
uablc experiments h»vo been made with the 
fibers of the sunflower Milk in p»|w »«»» 
and fcr this mm wocall attention to it, together 
with the Oil Bean, that o«r Ranchcra baring 
plenty of land may try the cxpcr.raent: 

THE WAY TO GET HID OF TBB SUNFI.OWEli. 
, Editor of the Dcserct News: In the absence 
large concourse ol olhp[ lrntctia l for or Soap Factory ^ u " ^ 
tho proceedings. Urgcr Bnl • -r n«i»r.0.1 S-.,t,„, , m '■■ •■•■ ■ 

Srtly^Msinc^B for the purpose 
soap making. 






building ■ 



mty. that 



Sa U oi •* *o,p «'•,«•*«''" ;'~~ 

and or.dcrtboinspKl.on of oil lb ° eur '°"- ^ g 
tl,. anrctatots. Buloa- wo giro Ibo n.imoor am. 
llK bad)- aod of .roal of aaob aboopaboro. 



1 bare examined the seed of the Sunflower, ana 
„ .. .. .. <=.:.„.!.. n -|™l«nim for ibo pUTpOSS of 

the brethren are somewhat slack in 
Obeying llio counsel, to extirpate those noxious 
S with only the prespecLiveadran age ot.m- 
proved crops to reward the labor uf so doing 
.jd work, nnd according- 
ly I enMEO to give a reasonable ,.,,„«, in >«!'. 
• J .73,0 Sunflower sceddohvered »«»»£ 
ny house, or that of br. Stainc'a, botbon Sooth 
Temple street. 

Tho seed ought to bo gathered now ,_ 
tains moro oil at thifl time, than it will do when 
His fully ripe. Yon can probably BUgg«t the 
best mode of collecting and Reparoling ".•.seed 
-the wbFcqucnt operations Tor extracting the 

°' By drawTng "tantipn to this subject, Wn will 
not only aid Ibo 



Merced Coukty and its Ao 

y advancing in valuo u) mo .... . 

„' ,n,.n,nt imprnvonronU ,™, Ibo r, obo. ana 
!b. introduction of .11 lb. .nplmnoo. 1» aaoo... 

affording, -bar. lb. ri.i.g .of prod.oc . » ■ 
patiblo. .<o.ll.nl pn.lor. f « 'S,,^,^ „„ 

fonrrd a. .l-at^l ,« °<f yjSjS "to 
tho Mercod and San Joaquin rivers. 

£ftd> », farm.,., and aoo.n, nob 
• rionlloral footlllloo, Ibooob not 00 ..I. - 
oro found ai.i.g lb" l""-'- r forlorna of t , 

it™r.^a.^.rw.''>=.'s 

ZugC lb! oounty of M™* — »"- 



nilors and other citizens of tho United Suts I 

_■.. .: n temporarily in llakodadi or SimoJ? I 

--*-- sabjoct tolhDrcstrainlatlj I 

. Jatch and Ohincse in iw ' 

,r largo portions of I Htlf, but they are to bo allowed to walk al rv 



FRO*, the position of California at the present J^,^ _ . 

„. tber . «„ bo no doubt lhat sbo is to bo tho mn(ialimeat y,k a tbo Dutch and Chinese lc 

FSven Japanese miles. According to article stn, I 
the vessels of tho_ United Slnlw are allowed jj ■ 



, rC at marts of Now York, Boston, Philadolph 

B . . .i-r... li^o^llitrilflllOilll 



&c This being the fact, it 



if moment 



should he mado acquainted with all thai 
■elates to those countries, and for thin reason wo 
give the following sketch of the Japanese, Empire 
from tho Cologna G" mUo ' and believe it will bo 
round of interest lo our readers : 

AT D looI"i'tervalsn o receive scanty intoUigonco 

from U.D singular but highly int.restmg imperial 

,ni, that lies before the eastern coast oi Asia, 

! the end of the world." Wo mentioned »• 

No. 278 of this paper that tho Siogun at Jeddo 

had called togelhef llio g'eat digiuUriCii ol ins 

._3__ a- — ii .;ik ihnin whether 



jl"..HH 3S....6TVi-l 



;...a.»..ia«, a. J 



Htlf-ilaod lYoicai e *^ J&?* I '* l F ra 'vi 13 



The a 



. Full- 



blood Ewcswj 

■"C', . r.7~.>gb. « •->; "'»"?» K 

941 iwuods ; uf fleas. 13 pouuds 7 ounces. I he 
Merige neigh I of Half-bloods was 55 pounds 15 



These fa 



on th- 
their 'breediog and 



„._poonds44 
;ts, atteated as they are by 
worth volumes of speculate 
cnmibiiaiife worth of these 
tho right sort of enterprise II 
01 Mrfliiug^m bad advertised far and wide for 

t ,, I1| .,uu. l n in Ihis Eahearing,but lou.id v. - 

petltor*. lie nwj be JusHj pberf »l the bead 
ofilH. particular irj.."rc-=t lo "Inch he has devoted 
himself, and is entitled to retain lhat portion 
nntil s-otne iiiii" cm show himscll mi uOmii...: ni 
bim. It is understood that Mr. liiiiytnnn ml. ii'l-- 
to keep up Ibis festival, and is desirous at the 
MSt year to extend to his brethren 10 this do- 
»rtment of agriculture tbo same offer lhat bo 
bade last year. It would add much to 
lercst of the Exhibition, if breeders woul' 
themselves lo be stimulated to a brisk competi- 

Iii connection with tbo smearing, Mr. Bingham 
invited all the owners of f 
tion to be present with thai 



real benefit upon ihoso who ho. 

diligenllv sought to rid the land or weeds, It 

hut whoso Isbo-s in this respect, may prove nn. 

itit,.- in c .iii^(i.Li:ric; i>i iln' n..-1'^uceol oilier 

Yours most respect fully, Wa . FnA h oc. 

CCI.T1YATI0K OF THE SUSfLOWBU.— ' Tl 

Irish Farmer's Gasctto states Unit thi> cultiv 

tion of tho flunllower us a field plant is laking_ 

plncc in many parts of Ireland, for the purpl 

producing cheap poultry food nnd tho pi 

of oil. It requires but littln caro and 1 

and tbo stalks, when burned for alkali, am ••■- 

,t. ,1 1.. yield ton [>.T cent ■.!' I'.'twh; the green, 

1T .>- ivlicn dried uml reiluceJ to powdtir and 

,i«d with bran, according to s.i... IV, i,. Ii 

riters, nro excellent food for cow.,, iuul l-h. I- 

yeonsumod by them. In Poitugal tli.-..i;'U 

re mudo into mool ami In'. '.'1. ..ml in Aui.rn.;i 

icy are roasted nnd substituted for oliY.-. 

,,,! their chief value, ill a coinmeroiiil i«'i"l <;( 

iew. is ia the great quantity of very 

bich may bo expressed from lhpm, lil 

ior to olivo. and suited for table use, 

1 lamps, and for tbo manufacture of snap. The 

m-,1- ,.re ill,., crceililr d-v.mr.-J l.y '■m-1^. ami 

ifld a ch.ni|. ti.o.1 iV.r i>.»il(ry. with tlic lurth.-r 

,lv;.iit;i».-, it i- >:ti.l. "f '■ ml. 'mi- the hens prn- 

lifio; and tbo cake produced after ,^|.iv:-ii,j i 

tbo oil is eieiU.nt f<'v cutlUi feeding. It has ; 

been found lo yield Sifiv hnslie^ of seeds per 

-- — about fifty gallons of 



been sown than in for- 
■s yeaVs, the' favornbln season hH.DC brought 
^ fmpvement n large quantity oi^ ^Innd h.^ lb- 
Z. iv!n» wasto. Tbo failure of tho crops m 



is but Httlo mining i—...-. — 
Hiitv-ithstnuding the many locations htghly IB.- 

v„ ri ,l.li. lo iIk.s.. who illicit ii.guge in it- Ai 
who hove settled upon tho river T.avo boretofon 
found it preferable to improve the land rather 
than depend upon tho unoertain 






. little ilife 



imoncration 
of mining labor, \v7le7rn "from tbo Mnriposn 
[;„.vil,.'tl,„l niiiuv of Ihe farmers upiin tho Mer- 
ced have from three hundred and fifty to four 
hundred acres of laud sown with wbeut and 
barley. Tho county is considered tho granary 
where Mariposa and Fresno must derive ,, grei.l 
portion of tho grain fur tho supply ■■! tlieir 
flouring mills, while Toolumno, with In r ■ ■■■■.- 

cnttorTnr; acres of arnblo land, will find it 
up hill" work to compote with her southern 

neighbor. 
Wo nro most glad to nolo ■ 

progress of this noble county, 

from tho Stockton Argos. 
Mining and Fabuinq in the Tolahe Couk- 

thy.— The Stockton Argus says; Importanti" 

coteries in quart! 1 

White river, which 

any bcrolofoio hi 



consultwilh them 

bio lo grant fur Llio future to foreigi 
isivo privileges than thoy had htthu- 
Msscssed. The raecling was held on the 22d r 
June of this year, and the question was so fir de- 
cided that the harbors of Nangaski and Uakodadi 
wore lo be opened to all foreigners; Lboy were 
permitted to run into these ports to re|nt their 
vessels and to establish coal depots, but nol lo 
remain longer than was indispensably necessary. 
Without special permission no foreigner can go 
into the interior. As regards tbo commercial 
ques lion— which is tho principal and most im- 
portant point— nothing was decided. Conse- 
quently, ici.ft Ms txceflion of the Dutch and 
Ckinese, all oilier natioiu are now, at btfi " 
trdtii/eii from commercial intercowie n> 



That (his exclusivcncss cannot bo mointainod 
luch longer is no more to be doubted th 
fact that tho emperor bad good causa to distrust 

Until the siiteenth ccnlury, the East Asialit 
Island Empire was open to all sea-la r .ng nations 



1 steady onward 
y tho foregoing. 



,111. e 



a) .'.s I 



, int'Xd 



, ind offered 

for Ibo best which should he 
exhibited. ' . 

A £ „,,|i[,.'lv.on the sceondday, a large number 

„[ sii. -t horses in this or any oilier country, 

-,. ; ...,„l.|. .] jm! v.vre eil.ibittd up'in llie (fie., >,■ r,r 
ii,e t.l:e ■ of -hearing. Two classes of pn 
were esUi'il'shed : one for bpecd merely, n 
oLher for all poii " 



,\ ll.iO.l.le- 



dforl 



seofG. A.Auf 



ive-l >l 



-. ltlick Hawk bor 

: for 



: best 



if Henry Tu, 



wTorki . 

• cultivation of 

. I oflen wonder that 

o the subject. t-i.'.i:illy 



Towirg so. It is the' most important as 

tie mo-l protllable wood that can bo grown, and 

f ani firmer would devote his waste land which 



uto 



■l.y to 



, ..;,, 



If put 



it !rom 



rding to tho sire of his fi 



i. lie 



tho top Of a'siidiii;.' hank. 

oouldnr"- -'■ 

ploji 



1 did 1 



than in anything 

■ iv of trees along 
side hill, which 
..i. The whole timo < 
The r 



'a Black Hawk of Henry Farrnworlh took 

thtpr-'ini oncolls, a gelding of Henry T 

look the oncon mares aod geldings; and a 
of chestnuts ufl'sac Williamson tookthe prei 
on matched horses. 

On the trial of speed, it had unfortunately nuiie 
on to ruin, so that the clay track was heavy and 

impeded somewhat thu fleCLness of the 

tort. A buueofFordj 

took the premium on fasicsi norrfs ovei 

Blaek ll«» I- burse of Henry Turrill look 

onder six and over four ; and a Black Hawk of 

Ira, Wright look tho premium on t 

matched horscfi came on to the num. it 

Eta, and trolled lo some extent, but 01 

lain, nhidi bad become heavy, the 

nece'.vai ily |,j!-i|i'uied witboot decision. 



-Black Han 



filled the bill to llio bottom with 
thrifty young Ircci. Probably I could cut oft' 
urn,, '.■■/■■■ ■my fivo to one hundred dollart,' worth 
of pOHls, and in leti years, tnoro than double that 
ijuamiiv »nd this loo upon land that otherwise 
would have been entirely unproductive. 

The cultivation is simple, and onco in tbo 
ground tho routs remain for all time. Gaihcr 
tiie |.-'1~ ibis fill or in the spring from the trees, 
and gel Ihe seeds. Prepare' ihe ground for your 
iDrv as you would fur unions or other roots, 
. when the danger of frost Is over lake your 
seeds, and put ihem inlo a vessel, and pour hot 
■ r over them. After standing f.venH -fn.ir 
i, pour off the water, and pick out all that 
swollen — perhaps one-third may he thus 
about three feet .i|iirt r 



been modi 
aiid to exceed in richness 

.south of afariposa. As 

V, eiib.it little .curbed— llie parLies 
" iting erecting eilensivo 
machinery in the Spring. Muck interest 
is taken in llie q^rli veins that are found so 
numerous in this section of tbo country, and by 
those who are lest ueq.iainUd with quartz mining, 
they are pronounced equal in extent and value lo 
any other portion of ihe Slate. Ibcro ls_ but 
little show of mining life observable on tho rivers 
or the Tulare country— Ibo miners being Tew 
and for between." 

Tho greater portion of those who have soltled 
1 the lands in Ibo vicinity of Visalia, ore largely 
,^.,j,di[i ii,..- r>^mi"l'-('.'ck.:n'.l firming. Tho 

population is rapidly increasing, by Iho "-■— 

* - Btcadf immigration from tho plain 
„., or which, influenced by a fertile son, ioy*i 
landF, good timber and healthy climate, are in- 
duced to make their homes in Tulare Valley. 1,0 
portion ol our Slate alfords a greater quantity of 
unbroken pi«turoge. or nn equal extent of soil, so 
well adapted to lure* cfips ol gruin. as llio range 
(..(■.■■.'iiiitry Ivin;,- wiilnri tin- limit- of thu Tolnro 
Valley. Alargo nomher of persons ore constantly 
engaged in pnrcluisiiig stock from various portions 
of ihe country, anti by supplying the southern 
mining country, Ibey realize [..lying prolilS. In 
connection with Ihe trade in stock, they |..uch-jse 
large quantities of hides— ol la to a very important 
■.em of esrwrl. At Millerton, everything * 
usiness nature had long since taken its eii 
tulliiug rcmointd. lint [be beaiiijlul raou 
. . iien c.bidi liiirru'ind-; it, lo render tho place 
nything moro than a rest by Ihe waysldo. The 
oads, beyond Iho Merced, aro in an excellent 
condition, 
Snow Slii 



:s by lb 
am. Th 






ir four 
ir ihoso that n 



Poun 



, and g. 



I, Ihe ■ 



process. Keep thu 



.ugh 



Mark I 



horso of Henry Turrill, of Shorel 
hor-e? wise all green and were almoi 
wjthuui training for Ihe track. 

In Lht evening ihe exercises were rounded oh" 
by a very handaoma ball at the Addison House, 

boor, and nothing « 

On the whole, the Sheep Shearing of Mr. Bing- 
ham may be regarded as eminently s.icce-sfnl, 
and its results worthy of the man and ibe inler..st 
to which he has devoted Ihe best years of bis life. 
To ihe Editor— Sir : Supposing my conncclioa 
with the Vermont State Agricultural Society 
mijlii 2iv(; -nine authority lo tho report uf bi« 
tbeannc.. Mr Bingham requested me to bo present 
and lake minutes uf the weights and examine 
into their eurreciness. The gentleman who at- 
tended to the weighing in a merchant of ibii 
place of good ..landing. I personally i-saininKi 
in the weighing of one-third or more of Hie t-bee, 
and lleece, ami cheerfully certify that 1 believi 
entire reliance can be placed on the foregoini 

Verv rrapectfully, jour ob'l servant, 
J. A. " 

Mii-i-' '-v. VI, Jun. IT, 1E66. 

The Skirrcl Is a gaiden vegelable, well epoken 
of in the Kevuo Horlleole, but little known ben 
ll belongs tu ibe family of Umbellifcrc, and is 
perennial plaiil. with bunches of fusiform, fleshy 
roots, from *ix to ten inches In length, and from 

crooked, ol a russet color externally, it 
being white. It Is one of Ihe richest alimentary 
roots i iu. Ha tor is alight, slightly resembling cf- 
ery ; ia gond fried and for soups. Iu produce 
Cmn-moiu, and etforU are making to introduce 
Instead of the potato.— Horticulturist. 



weeds, and the conne: irees will lie iii 
he nest spring. Prepare the ground 

any other crop, if possible " 

squares of a rod, and set a 1 

About the third year, run a f 

iow of trees about ten incl 

cattle out, and you will have 

will lost as long as seed grc 

An acre of locust, at twenty _ 

would yield not far from four hundred doll: 



Clu.le I 



,1 Lbe ■ 



tifl.e. 



ihe cattle, it will f.irninh very good pasluraf 
Let every firmer who has any waste places, i 
out as many yellow locusts, as he can, and i 
them in all the vacant places in his wood Ii 
By doing so, he will soon llnd that be has a II 
lot oi very valuable limber growing, lhat haaci 
comparatively nothing. 



The U 

1 hloom, Tho I 
ang in clusters 



-The Manzanilu tree is 
nihil while balls of the fh 
■ festoons of the lilac, pleasing 
nelcd in harmony with ' L - 
w t ,i,i think Ihe mi 









.rjrrflh 
r lifteel. feet 



eaulifu' 
forest. Thi 



—The Old Mounlainccr gives tho 
of a snow slido at Itotigh and 
dill, whereby loss or lift occurred: 
engaged in blasting and raising 
quarti from tho ledge, which is situated near the 
summit of the mountain, had built a cabin a short 
distance from tho ledge, and wcro there passing 
the winter. The slido occurcd on a Sunday ni-ln 

On Monday it uemi d ti.iiniii- ^o heavily lhat 

the summit Of tho mountain could not bcJfe- 
cerned from Iho creek, whero the quartz mill Is This adinoni 
situated. It shattered and carried awny tho wcl1 meant, a 
quartx housoand ulher strucluie-, conn, eled with f"Hy jualiQed. 
Ihe mill. It also swept across tho lino of the "'"" 
railroad riiniiiug froii] the ledge to the mill, and 
hiL-i iloul.il':.-.'le-.lr..ve.l the greater portion of the 
track. Oo Tuesday the neither cleared away, 
,nd persons on the creek being eiialile.l Id n-i 
be iraeli "f llie 1 lid.-, anil to ptfCeiie Ibe ah-ence 
)! llio cubin.a number of men went up, and, after 
digging and clearing away the fiioiv, during lht 
' Tuesday night, on Wednesday discovered 
unfor iu nates, dead in their cabin. The 
1 swept olf tbo roof of tho cabin and 
pat-I.e... snow nl inimv feel depth in and around 
the area foimcd by llio logs. Three have .lied in 
their bunks, apparently by fiuilocalion and witb- 
oulauy struggle. The fourth lay on the l,..,ur, 
and itemed to hnvu exerted himself with the 
.tr.-ii!;ili ol .b--|.:r;tiion in Iii.. <lj iit^ moment 1 .." 

The United Slates Agricultural Society met 
at Washington City (D. C), on tbo I4th of 

January lust. There was a larger attendance 
than over before, te,',.,,iy.,.|, ; l„ Si,,t.. null T.-rri- 
torial agricultural buurd» and State tocieli.-ci 
'-■iii!.' ri-iTi-sented. Among tho amiienoo wore 
1. — -'-ii pier,.^ nnu maay Senators and Rop. 



io3t liberal conditions; thoro thoy 
trade moro freely than in tho West Indi i i: Umi. 
or in tho American colonics, from which every 
European maritime power excluded the others ; 
tbo Japanese themselves went with Iheir trading 
vessels as far as into Ihe gull of Bengal. The 
re.-irieiiou-lif.tl.ep.,n n ben the EoropeansabmeJ 
tho right of hospitality extended to them, and 
Bllcd tho country with civil war. ■ Since, now 
almost 250 years. Japan has shut its gales, and 
only to the two above named nations has she kept 
open a narrow entering door on ono of the south 
crn islands. 

Since then she hasenjoyed uninterrupted quic 
and risen in wealth and civilisation in her owi 
peculiar way. The Japanese are among all As! 
atics of Mongolian race, by for the most gifted 
people, brave and bold, inventive, in a high degn 
iiitcllic.'.it find intlii.stnons, and by far not so fu 
ufcnceit ns the Chinese. As lhay have at a 
limes read Dutch hooks, they hove rcmaim ■! in 
certaiu connection with tho affairs and relatioi 
if the rest of tho world, nnd ll would bo on 01 
lait very assuming, to apply to llieso highly 
ulttired Asiatics the name of barbarians. 

Since the Pacilic Ocean has become Ihe high- 
ray fur European and American vessels, Japan 
ias got a new position on the globo ; it gets con- 
.tantly in contact wild foreigners, and is unable 
o keep them at distance. The Emperor has to 
oino to accommodation with t.ie.-e umv. I.oni- 
;ucsts. whclber willing or unwilling, and irhe is 
lot willing thoy resort to Torce. Since Ihe com- 
mencement of this century they have left bim no 
rest, and he has found himself compelled at least 

More than twelve vein e.-e (in Feb. 184*1), 
tho King of the Nothorlands addressed a letter to 
the Emperor, in which the danger was pointed at 
to which Japan would esp'isc lierself if she per- 
sisted in this rigid exclusivetioss ; at a lime when 
steamers were [.hivinc; the .e-nn ii could not be 
carried lltrough. The King of Holland very pro. 
pcrly observed : '■ The nation, which at Ibis period 
of general approximation and intercourse, shall 
attempt to isolate itself, will get into 
trouble with many. When old laws, by being 
igidly enforced, give ri-e in disturbances of the 
reace, then reason dictates their modi Hat ion and 
imelioralion. This, mighty Emperor, is than 
also our friendly advice: Moderate, temper, soften 
the rigor of llie law ae.iinst intercourse with for 
' 'PPy Japan may not bo laid waste 
jito your Majesty this advice with 

the best intenli Ir.e from :my sellish suite in- 

. We hope lhat tbo wisdom of llio govern- 
or Japan may lead to llie conviction that 
p-:acecaii only be pre-erveil by friendly relations, 
and llteso only be brought into existence by corn- 



exchange gold nnd silver coins and wares for of£ 
wares "under orders which tho gOYcmnunt of 
Japan will issue for that purpose." 

r - ' 'vident from tbo tenor of this treaty Uui 
-,,, , au . tho pleasure of tho government of Jap^ 
Itai=o nrohibilslhoeiport of tho precious meuij 
And according to tho eighth article, the Atattj. 
cans Obtain all they require, alone and oxch.sr.ei, 
through tho officials appointed hy the govtn,. 
ment, who hove of course to follow Iho ordtr, 
which they receive from Jeddo. J haj let n*. 
America™ hare of provision* vhal they remii^ 
S-c but take nojoreign wares but onlygal&aii 
ir Vtvr in payment, which by no means oi 
the imrime of the American,. To a right rf 
doinicil or setllemcnt the latter have no clil^ 
and all atlempto by commercial houses lo estab. 
Mah in oilherof tho two ports offices for Indt 
have failed. 

We can only give very limited fjith to the 
ports of llie Americans oboot ill treatment tvl 
they say lboy have suffered in Japan ; tbeit 
pom are always ono sided and evidently not i . 
partial. We hsvo tho express Icslum.ny of Mr. 
Lovyssohn, who was director at Dccimn of H, 
Dutch comrocrco. (Blodon over Japan, it^bj 
J. H. Lovyssohn, 1852.) He declr — 
serlions not to bo true, ond cilci 
which tho shipwrecked hod beeu treated on Ibt 
part of tho Japanese authorities with great ca> 
sidoralion. Vessels in distress bad never bat 
plundered, nor their crows murdered— they w [H j 
an Iho contrary, "most nobly treated and sap- 
plied iralnitously with all thoy stood in need of 
Just obout a year ago, theso came to Simods "- 
aficr another, twolvo American whalers, i 
llt,->/«cti-'l in thai assuming manner that ejreita 
so much opposition to the Americans. 7'heyal. 
tempted to dictate to the Japanese aut'ti<i.-itUi- 
got into collision with them— took fun-tltly ::h.,: 
wanted— paid in cash according to Ikeb 
irice curreiU,and ,hol down several Japan- 
Then thoy wont off. Under such circem- 

lances it is no wonder, and no one ran'bs 

surprised, that tho Japanese authorities -tonli 
grant no favors to American merchants. Tbt 
government put a strict construction on tbotreilj 
of Knnagawe. When Doty, a merchant Iron, e'u 
Francisco, camo (0 Siutodi in tho ship Caroliw 
Foote, in order to open a commercial home Ihfre, 
and lo keep tho necessary articles for vtsal 
ready for whaler,-, he ivn- rent ...It; and the sirot 
happened to him at Uakodadi. The niilhoritM 
referred lo the treaty. Commodore Perry hu 
expressly admitted that no American had 
right to enter any Japanese building unless t 
had previously obtained an express perniissitu 
to that effect. Theso Japanese have, therefom, 
the right on thoir side whenever they gi 
.a jjennission or withhold it. Wbotbe: _ 
laltor case, they always act wisely or prudent! 
is another question. As for the rest, Japan Ii: 
never given cause to another nation for well 
founded complaints. It is a sovereign cou till j, 
and no ono has a right lo complain if it wintl 
jibing U do with other countries. That tin 
ttherlo existing pofii 
odern world's in tore 



readily admit. But , 



-mJ ii 



ou of the King of Holland was 
has, in Ihe progress of lime, been 
Japan, through the pressure of 
ias seen herself obliged to 



■. identk commits an error 
half way. She makes herconces 
From her wholo proceeding it is 
yet alio sees in every foreigtict 
certainly Ihe conduct of Europi 



It ha: 



hight, o 
rich, 



\,X 



smooth, auburn colored bark, the lent 

deep green, very abundant and of tht 

apple; Iho fruit also rccnililes a 

(sweet), and in very utetol in curinc. 

cases, such as diarrhea, chronic or otherwise. 

Many of the lower limbs of different maniauilus 

are bent down until ihey tuu.ti Ihe ground, where 

ihe limb has iovniiahly taken root and lormed 

new tree, as in the case of ihe banyan, From 

thisfact we judge the lieu will bear transplanting. 

and ccrtaiuly could be mlttd frum tbuseeil. The 

shrubs in the mountains, and is moro beautiful 
and certainly preferable to mosi of the exotics 
ii'jk- impirted from foreign lands. — [San Andreas 

Independent, 



The I'r, 



t of I 



Ml. Wilder, road tho annual uddre 



i.-ty. 



itoiiiiug 

-'d showing th 

Society lo bo in a flourishing condition. 1 
losleil three days, during which timo a great 
il.nl uf iiilereatiiig business was transacted. '' 
tho Close a moat eloquent address was d.ilivei 
when tlio melting ndjuurned. 

Odjoih of tub Avnaitiim Cattle.— Siru, u 
of tho catllo from H.il.,leiu, P hnivn at tho yr.nt 
1'iiris A;;ricoltural Exhibition, won, riiiuink--ti 
i ;"■ A) i-liiren. to closo was tho ruaemblont 
I. iin. e.iliir, and general characteristics. .„, 
early connection of Scolland wilh Denmark 
n-cnis In 1...1.1 I., ,|„. |„.li,.f ,1,„1 tin- |ir..|;, „Jt,,rH 
i.l Hu- limn. us milking breed were ..ii-.im,[|, 
brought Irom Denmark, and that Ihe [l,,|.-T,.j,„., 
ond the Ayrabtrcs aro of tho samo stock.— [E: 



vhen she stops 
ons reluctantly, 
nanifest thnta- 
in enemy ; ant 

romovo the old 

,|i|ir. leUMons. The wicked opium war ( 
ier still in tho face. 

As for tho rest, as it appears lo us, the hopes 

vhicb ore entertained as to Iho odvantngca thai 

loilld bo gained by a free commerce niih Japan. 

.bey are greatly c.\u -.-,.: ruled. Tho people i 

peculiar in mniiner.s and mudo of living, in 

lret.e>anilc.isloins-tlicyhaveail.iine.|>uchi,bi-li 

of technical cxcellencoanddeiierity— that 

ould not he great purchasers or European 

icturcs. Tbo West wuuld have lo pay for 

•"■"lies of export exclusively in gold or 

ion from Europe lo In- 

-, .hat to Japan would bo 

three countries have no changing 

people as regards their 



.1 and l.'l.in: 



o thu abslra 



hions of dress 

hi ■, and llieir vi 

^slern nalions, and in many brancbes or indus- 
try they are greatly uur Miponori Tbin cinse- 
'- ■■i'ih eerini, limiii to Ibe sale or disposal of our 

The .'lmericiiHj irere decidedly in error when 
theij •!■ eland that tlu treaty if fcinaemna, con- 
eluded March lti, IHfil. ini. i„ reality a com- 
mercial treaty? Japan [•ranie-l the two purls ol 
Siniodi and Uakodadi a.s harbors for llio admit- 
tance of American vessels lhat they may th,,,, 
supply tliemseUes with wood, water, coal, pro 
vlsiona ond other necessaries " so far as tht 
Japanese are In possession of them." 

The Japan officials, Tor fiec inlcrcourBo with 
privaic |.er.-ons is i ii.) ii ben, excluded, hand o 
to Ibe captain ul i. -s. I, a |„j, ,. .■■irrent of the 
tick-, which Ihey cm fi,,„,.|, (or are. .villi,,', ',.,, 
r.i.insb) the payment lias to be made In gold or 
silver. Art-do Hie declares lhat shipwrecked 



ained much longer, it 
can blame tho Hiogn 

China, and which ho has now himself bad wit 
tbo Americans, he is shy, and onlv proceeds si 
by stop? When in the year 1S53, llie RusshJ 
Admiral Putiatin delivered a letter from Chaowt- 
lor Nesse! rode to the State Council of tbeprit 
empire. Rippon, he was nn-wered : '■ The inij.-vial 
government intended to open tho ports of ihe 
empire; yet it would require some tin * 
tbo necessary preparations." They were aware 
thai tho foreign nations desired lu caniiuiiiiicili 
wilh tho people of Japan, and the people of Jupin 
also on their part desired lo trade with thtn. 
Thoy had therefore dolormined lo onic 
mercial relations with all nations, and alnadj 
could such vessels as had suffered injury or stoM 
iu need of walcr and wood, enter any of : the port* 
Soon afier that, appeared the Aiiieric-in eipt- 
lition, with its ill concealed threats, and imineii- 
.tcly tho government of Jap in became again dis- 
trustful. It will evidently proceed by 1 
is it Says, to bo Kufflciently piepni 
meot tho now relations. For, hy I 
open tho empire lo the foreign commert 
state of things will spring inlo existence 
European slates are In Ibe h ibit or tarryin = ._ 
delaying a long timo before they underu.lt 
changes that effect tho whole orgMiP 
of lho"slato. no censure can (all upon an Asulk 
inpiro that for 250 years depended tu 
:lf, if it goes cautiously to work. 

mter-ti.nds her H... , 

treaties with evorybo.lv, lirsL wilh similar a" 
lions as nro contained in llie treaty v, i(b .M'--' :l 
—only wilh tho old nnd tried Dutch (ri-:«J = h: 
comes out mo.e Tranklv. Afier the America. 
came tho English. Aduural Sir .lau.e> ^'"^r 
negoliuled, in Suptcmbcr, 185+. at Nan.!ris»lT I 
nilh Ihe plcnipotcnliiincs M./.i m. Ekekf'iK""' I 
ami Ne g!1 i Kvan Ocho. anil concluded with thtf I 
14th October, tho treolv that was cntuiniJ ' I 
ratified Dtb Oct..ber : ISiS hi l,i.. li"l>- ,nl ...r I 
jesly. Awarding to it "trading of 
between the English and Japanese " 
It is stipulated thai tho two soapor 
and Uakodadi shall bo open la British 
the purposo of repairing them nnd ,slil "f £ / 
water, provisions and other supplies, lhat ="* 
solutoly necessary.. Ulher j-cipurl!. ^re.n.l.i J^ 
to hbipn reekcl vessels or to such as have 
disabled by storm and had weather. All m" 
- scls must submit to the laws of Jap» D * j 
n as the officers do not conform to ihco ' 
bors shall again ho shut, but onlv f> ' w ?i 1 . 
breaking of tho law shall ho sanction* 1 ™ 
English goveriuuen 



ej:'liM i 



oillcerH. In both oi these ! 

enjoy tho samo privileges that ore S natc ?£g/t 

most favored nalions ; yet ibe ordin ■«■"■■ a 'T ([r l 

opplv to the priviler.es ^r :d in the Dill 60 j 

the CI i.e. Ve.cls ibm Ii,- al aiiehwS 

conform to the directions ol ibe .li|»ne- ■- ■'" ^ 
'i'--; thoy aro not to shout 

must not Bend off toals n 

nor make or take sounding.-. ; ihey m" 5 ' f^ji 

crow on shore, and in 

wilh iho inhabitants. 
Working men and 
:n a tariff ouwhich tl 
li-h vessels of n 
only in cose < 
have lo inform 

Tbo treaty stipulates toil '"',, w 
gotiationM find 'li---"-^'^',^ ,H- 



yvar may outer Ihe bar »»■, 
f urgent necessity, of wn j 
and nivo evidence lo Ibe i?f(, 



..ilHrftlaud' 1 ^ 



THE OALIPOENIA IF^ItMEK. 



43 



rooghlt. Finally, a burial ground, Eurroanded 
br ■ (tone Rill, Is grinted to the British subjects 

C-nlhc Island MadsUiDC. 

It will be seen bow cireTuHr here, also, every- 
thing is fortified and guarded by clauses ; whilst 
lbs government of Japan has of lite granlcd to 
He Dutch important privileges. "According'* 
» preliminary agreement" they are not in (f 
Ihe) future confined or limited to the Island 
JJafima, but may have Tree intcrc 
town of Nangasald and its vicinity, 
pjtnougti small Island of Dccima, has been fur the 
foltlro wholly assigned to them. Now they can 
make use of the island as an entrepot, and there 
'deposit their goods without elimination or paj 
Bitot of duty oo them. The keys to the gati 
and the depot magazines are loft with and kept 
' by the Dutch commercial supervisor. Duly is 
OBly paid on the worts after they are bronght inlt 
Kaognsaki. As to (lie rest, lho commerce (foi 
the present) with the Hollanders remains on tin 
old fooling— it is accordingly not free for private 
individuals. But from now on, freo public re- 
ligions worship and burial is granted to lho 
Dotch. They aro allowed free communication 
with other vessels that arrive in tho harbor or 
leave it. Until a definite treaty, the conclusion 
of/which is in prospect, this preliminary agree- 
ment will remain in force. 

But lho govammentof Japan understands how 
and when to make distinctions. Towards the 
Americans and English it is still further coy and 
■hy. while it makes valuable concessions to its 
I Did acquaintances the Nether] and era. It begins 
■with tbcm, in order to get over the old exclusive- 
new, because it knows that it has no cause to ap- 
prehend auv infringement or injury from Holland. 
*TVe would, in concluding, draw Hie attention 
of our readers to some circumstances that are 
little known, or not yet sufficiently regarded, 
-which we consider as very significant of events, 
that the womb of timc,6ooncr or laler,may bring 

I After, on the part of the Seine danders, tho 
negotiations in respect to the preliminary agrce- 

I mont had been settled, and all matters with thn 

; government of Japan had been brought to a sotis- 
iactorv conclusion— (A; loiter requested Captain 
Pah Itgktn and Hired other iifficeri to remain 
in the country, and to give instructi 
Japanese in niatten aji/reitaining to natal af 
fain. And la Cainmamlaiit Fabiui, mho i 
turned to Europe, it gave orders amounting __ 

[ bco and a halj millions of dollars, for getting 
Up a Jajianejc fleet of scar, which it to be en- 
tirely upon a European footing. It allows to bt 

I built in private Dutch docks four steam screw 
corvettes, which it places under tho command o : 
aDutcliolh'eor.cducaludinaDutcb naval school 
who will deliver these vessels in 1857, in Japan. 
Since 1855 (l has takr- '— ■ 



ra of r 






o,oalify Japanese sailors for active set vice. Ni 
it is well known ihot of all tho Asiatic races ihi 
Japanese are by far tbo host sailors. Their 
islands are surrounded by dangerous clifls, and 
on the globe there is not a sea (hat is more visited 
by storms than the sea of Japan. But the Japan- 
ese are not only intrepid and bravo, but highly 
int'lli_>. ril li[ii1 | ■■-•:■ 1. 1 ilv capable of appropriating 
to iIiitn. sires all the improvements is European 
nautical matters, and in Our gunnery. Thoy go 
to work differently from the conceited Chinese, 
since thoy adopt that wherein the strength and 
superiority of foreigners lies. lYitb a well 
manned fleet of war steamers, they might remain 
maulers in their own boose. By ibese outfits 
and equipments they evidently understand or 
mean tho " preparations" they have lo make be- 
fore they enn throw open lho gates of their coun- 
try to foreign commerce. And we cannot but 



_. less honorable than ihoir neighbors, but 
bccausD they have given evidence of so little .sa- 
gacity, and so much recklessness that one never 
oo certain that their elected agents arc noL 
ssionol knaves. What has been done, may 
pealed. Future creditors of California can 
' bo certain that tho parlies with whom they 
contract— however high their office and largo 
their esteem In their State— aro nut violating lho 
law and defrauding their constituents and their 
creditors together. 



What Now York and the Eastern Statea 
Bay of Repudiation. 

As this question most materially affects the 
reputation and interests of all the oltHttK of tho 
State, and as the Farmers, Manufacturers and 
Mechanics form the largest elasa and the heaviest 
tax payers, we feel it a duty lo lay before tbcm 
the opinions expressed abroad relative to this 
BObject. Of course in publishing tho article be- 
low ( which is from the N . Y. Herald of tbo 21st 
Of January) wo do not by any means agree to 






.nly 1 



: publisl 



alt it 

tow how injuriously 
:t our Stale, deterring as It must, many 
d otherwise become citizens. To (hie 
timilar censure by tho leading presses 
at. Wo tho more deeply regret these 
lures lo our Stale's name and credit, for 
lope of permanent prosperity lies 
f popnli " 



; but 






i her reputation stands so low 
auro=u. uole;s wo send facta there broadcast^ to 
-counteact these reports. 

Oof. Johnson'.! letter to Drexcl, Sathor & 
Ourch, of San Francisco, relative lo the payment 
: Of Ihc interest or Ihc bonds in January last, and 
his opposition lo repudiation, were favorable, and 

But Lho liovernor's good opinion of the Treas- 
ury and lis condition lo pay tile July bonds, will 
bo only the cause for another attack upon ug 
When iM* mall carries tho news of oor officials' 
delinquencies. The article wo now copy seems 
to have prophecied more was in progress. 

9 We have often published facia, lo show thn 
lho press at the East publish articles that lend 
to binder emigration from thence, and seem glnd- 
jTlodo so;jwd rarely if ever land our Slalo. 

.■bis of course j 8 ihoir policy, but California must 
nefmd herself, and must take measures to make 
known her vast resources, so vast that by two 
three years' wise legislation and good govornmont, 
•ho can not only pay tbo repudiated debt, as she 
ought to do, but be free from Eastern good,, aol l 



fame ratified by tho people) and this, if they 
have cither prudence or honor, they will make 
haste to do. But, with nil their baste, time must 
clapso before such an act can ho passed and rati- 
fied i and meanwhile tho claims of (he creditors 
will bo exposed lo all tho contingencies or their 
precarious position. Tho people of California, 
like the people of Mississippi, may coma to think 
■t convenient to nay oil" their debt without putting 
heir hands in their pocket. New Daws may bo 
iscovered in tbo character ol the debt, and in- 
enfous lawyers may show that it may be repu- 
iated without shame. Questions may arise as 
to the disposal of the money obtained from the 
creditors, and it may bo shown that the State 
as not tho only recipient or beneficiary thereof, 
'e have seen such things before, and there is nn 
ason why tve should nol sec them again. 
If the question could be settled In half an hour 
by lho merchants of San Francisco, no doubt t' 
creditors would not suffer even in imagination I 
single day. Bat the high-minded men ov 
horn General McDougal presided are a ve 
nail item in the population of the Slate. Tin., 
iewa aro not certain to be tbuso of the poor 
farmers, and miners, and tlsherracn and vagrant 
ho will bo called upon to vote tho ratification t 
remedial act. 

In our opinion, a just Providence is punishing 
California for the faults of her people In ihe 
days of their prosperity, when human labor and 
energy commanded higher rewards than Ibcy over 
obtained before or since, the Calilornians forgot 
what they owed to themselves and to us. They 
disregarded tbo obligations of (ho citiien, and 
'eft their government in tho hands of whatever 
agabonds chose to usurp it. Like oil other faults, 
bis one is now working out its own punishment. 
The whole Stale has only been snatched from 
iral chaos and anarchy by a revolutionary 
— it, and a deliberate, though necessary 
of the law by the first men in tho coun- 
try. But this perilous experiment did not ex- 
haust tho measure of retribution. Now comes, 
—WOrso almost Iban Revolution — Repudiation ; 
ind California exhibits (o the world not only a 
people whose virtue is shown in their contempt 
of law, bat a people among whom it ij justiee 
and honor lo defraud honest creditors of Ihoir 



Wo say it is a judgment — a 
California may make what a 
pay principal and interest a' 
But sbo cannot wipe lho sta 
She cannot obliborate from > 
damning fact that her people 
ciso the duly of self-govcmm 



ighleous judgment 
lends she can. ant) 
soma future day 



Esnusn Fbbuno towards tub United 
States. — Tho more festive scones wo have, 
like the following, tho better it would be fur the 
country: 

At a dinner of the Now Euglnnd Society, in 
Now York, on Forefathers' Day, Mr. Fillmore, 
Ono of the editors of tbo London Times, madu a. 
Speech which is thus reported; 

'•Ho noticed tho cordiality of his reception, 
nnd proceeded to remark that much had been 
heard of the origin.. I *•■ til,, incut of this group of 
States. The opinion had been indulged that 
the Drew of tho Mayflower were i.-olutod among 
the people from whom thoy departed 
was sure they left bchiurd them a moss < 
mont corresponding with that whioh 
them. When wo are (old that they w 
hither by persecution, it is true ; but wl 
said that the sentiment of England Co 
in tho uot of expulsion, do not believe it. ' 
feeling thoy loft behind was one of hope — was 



ofo: 



when tboy suooeeded, 



Tho good feeling of Eugluud hod always l.:> e. 
on the side of tho Pilgrims. If you uro told, 
said, tho speaker, that England wishes to I 
you divided, discovered nnd broken, do not ! 
liovo it. Wo do not bolievo that ono star 
your constellation will ever bo torn from yt 
Hag. (Enlbusiaslioupplauso.) Tbo tiro brant 
es of tho Anglo-Saxon race nru destined to bo 
tli.- i-ivilizers nnd conquerors of tho world. 
Yoa, by your railroads, urga your- way to lho 
West; wo go to thn Indies and the East, und 
together wo shall onoirolo tho world, till J.'lm 
"Jonathan moot under tho walls of the Chi- 

. Empire." (Vociferous shearing nnd nine 

■rs for Old England and Now.) 



unlit u 



ss ihe 



they elect 
uiag.auniEs mis vioiaue uio laws, and who use 
the high and honorable name of the State, by the 
authority of the people, for the purpose of swin- 
dling the public. These are things which an.- i-u- 
lnembered. For a generation, at least, the Culi- 
foroians will lie under a stigina and reproach. 
Men will be shy of them, and cool to them. " ' 



that they b 



n then 



f Father Ma the-w. 
v, the renowned Apoaflo of Tern- 
"h of December. 






-c foil. 



lows the article from tho N. Y. Herald: 



hibiling lho 



The Judgment or the Sup 
Btate of California, declaring 

■woction of a wagonroad act 

*Ma null and void, as Doing 
tte constilutiontl provision | 

fraction of any debt over $;i .,„.„„.. 

■JP<*' to tbo people, is wo take it, only second to 

|»o establish merit of tho Vigilance Commliim,, 
m historical importance. The effect of the judg- 
ment is lo leave creditors of tbo State for an 
.;:;;;' ■■■■■,, Ji,,g S^IW.WJO absolutely without 
hlc-w^'i '■ !""'■ '" '"" ii:l °P? n 'l 16 Stale credit a 

■W" which will bo felt for years. It is of course 
fcraiY tH l ° '■'"'' .'""f 1 * ""d LcEislaturo or Oali- 
,—,,., ,e f' J,r lho tnitchicf by passine a new 
" ; "'MIal act, assuming ihnJtrt,i „VJ !.„]„». tbo 



U act, assuming the deb 



\7xiaea Mjtui 
poranco, died at Cork, on tho 
His career has ! . 

ig hit countrymen in Great Britain 

■a will long bo felt Theobald Ma- 

orn in TBomastown, Ireland, OdL 10, 

1730. Ho was left an orphan at an early ago, 

odupted hy an aunt and educated in Kilkenny 

Academy and at Mnynootb. Ho win ...ruaiii.'d 

the priesthood at Dublin, having previously 

itered upon bis philanthropic labors among the 

or. The ourso of whisky, bronght bo Tcnr- 

lly lo his notice among these wrotohed people, 

used him to unwonted enthusiasm, and ha do- 

rminod upon a ornmulo against tho demon oF 

laohol. Adopting tho principle of total absti- 

nco, ho commenced u eories of meetingH, and 

on awakooed tho latent enthusiasm of the 

ish nature to his assistance, meeting with a 

.eoess beyond tho wildest hopes. He traveled 

from town to town through all lho Kla.nl. His 

spotless fume preceded him, and his pmgr.ss 

was ono tnumphul march. Tho authorities l 

bont their dignity to do him houor, und tho pi 

plo followod and crowded arouod Uira »: 

adoration. He aduiinist.re.l the pledge to the 

sands at a time; at Neuugl. I-. iv, L „ lv tli.,u,.i[iJ 

in one day ; at Gal way a hundred tkou'iu,.! in tv.-.j 

d*yH ; bjt ween Gal way and Looghrea lo nearly 

hundred thousand. From Ireland hew ■' 

'-.nd, where even tho phlegmatic Saxott! 

1 wUlm corresponding ealhustasm. Thence 

lho United Slates, where 

handi with theAposlle orTemp"; 
his medal with a pledge of tola 
tbo highest ambitioa of every 
daughter uftheKmerald Isle. H 
and gratifying succesi in IhL 

memhered. 'ITirongh an thi. _ 

never naasied a cent for Ivmself, but wo* 
otanlly in a state of personal poverty. When he 
began hu good work his brother was the pro- 
[.r.i.ti.r ..| u | llr( ,,. diatiilcry. He support..-! I Ln. 
tiaiii until his wonderful success had ruined the 
■ii-nll-iy. r,i,,l reduced Ihc owner to bnnkrunley 

'■' ' ' ' of tho good Samaritan, Ihe 

settled on annuity of £300 
was just suOicicut to pay tbo 
juee policy btld by his credit- 
tty lor their claims. Since hU return 
10 Ireland, tho weight of yeara aod the uiertions 
or hog labor have comnelftd his partial ::hU^v,'. 

111 " I'" 1 ' 1 "- 'if", a.i.l ],,, „;■„„, 1,.,. K-n I.-, 

p.om.nuitly before lho public la personal address 
Father Mat hew was courteous, benevolent and 
winning in Ihe l.i^t,,., ,I,., ri .,, Tn0 newa of nia 
death will be received Willi profound regret by 
every true friend of man throughout the world. 
[N. Y. Trihauo. 






Skat i no.— We havo not heard of any 
lions having been formed in our vicinity 
healthful and pleasurable exercise. The Albani- 
ans having got their ice bridge, go It strong on 
sleighs, and a few of the descendants of the old 
Dutch settlers, take a little walk— they are too 
ry lo run— on tho Hudson River; but tho 
Philadelphianii appear to take lho most delight 
colli iron. Inflict, thoy be.it our 
„ . ill Wall street lo a China orange. 
So says Porter's (N. Y.) Spirit, and hear what 
they say about skating in the Philadelphia 

" Tho river is froion over lo the depth of about 
four or live inches. Its surface, for miles, is as 
smooth as glass, not a break or rough spot lo bo 
found— the only interruption being the places 
iperating, busily filling 



their houses. This i 
skaters. They have a 
sport from Fairmont 
Saturday, there were 



with the 
planted st 
deemed dr 
complete 



aterferesbut little iviih il,.. 
continuous surface for Iht 
o Columbia bridge, and, > 
;itat numbers ol persons i 
e fun. The Skaters' Club 



ffsw 



apparatus. ■ 



supply." 



A SAiLOit being nsfeed how ho liked bis bride, 

reported to have remarked— 

■'Why, d'ye see, I took her to be only half of 
o, as tho parson says, but dash me ifVhe isu'' 
ricu as much as I; I'm oaly a tor— but sho't 
a tar-tar 1" 

A laov asked her gardener why Ihe weed' 
Iways oulgrew and covered np tho flowers 
Madam," answered he, "lho soil is motl.. r ..f Llie 
weeds, bul only slep-mothor of tho Dowers.' 



ritisb Go yen 



Truk HosriTALlxy.— I proy you, oh, oicel- 
at wife, number not yourself and mo to got a 
aariuusly rich dinner for tbis man or woman 
who has alighted at our gates ; nor a bedcham- 
ber madn at too great a. oost[ those things, if 
thoy nro curious in them, they oan get For a 
few shillings in any village j but rather let tho 
Mmngor SO o, if he will, in yoar looks, accents 
ai..l I,. ■!,„„.. r . j„„ |„.„, m) J cni . nKS |u egai ,. nur 
'l'""i;lii an,l will, i.l.i,,], [ lo cunnot buy at any 
any city, and whioh bo may well travul 
tnilca, and dine sparely and sloop hard- 
bobold. Let not tho emphasis ofhospi- 
id board; but let 



tality lio in bod a 



>. and honor, and c 
3 -[Ed* 



■, How 



all thy 



PBOSPEOTDS 
VOLUME VII. 

CALIFORNIA FARMER 

THE CALIFORNIA FABMER na., ci.iiiL.li.-j I, 
Jaauary, JBS-Ii ihr sacee!9 was a 
'^lunianlycioqldwlvo. Like a ihlp 
licovory la a a=« moan, locking fir 

raem. Like Ike pioneer farmer ubi 
li^lin a new oiijiiut, uncling t) mc 

An a en eil.ee led to uicat nflh ubili 
lEcnlllef, thai l-cuM Iryuur ftronj! 

^«^^rt"^l&, 

ijk«;b™loM« f°™S* w„™J'l" B n h 




u at all the spots 



kn-,«!li|; ), 



,u,.lh ,. 



lone the ir-slnca , 
i- riiy -...ul-l ...... i, 

.'nllfcrnio; IhU h 



i n Th= ^^^^^ ,m, l imn t i " "■ ^"C iBt, " 0,t 

.■.ir,;|..:i,„ ;:..,.- !' tl . ,...!!, Lli , V| ,.l!,: ■' 
■jL' -■•II, ,.. II,.!. ■!".:.. t ■-. ill ororbonnind, 



ir Frleadi uj Pnt. 



J« b rartr° h " v ° t "' ° irl of th ° *«" eontrlbo- 



ROSES! ROSES!! ROSES t! ! 

t™ HiSsi? SkS .mi im s™s "pi™ dSccSr* - 4c " " rii 

,!:]:!:.■■ j li!l,:r,l„ p. |i|||;i,,j r 



Eural Pablicatioiu. 

TUECOUSTBY UKNTI.EMAS- 
\ eoklj-n Juurnnl f ur tha Fnrm, ths Qa: 



,-ll,„ i 



ii-li:.i 



"W,tW 



niulJolf-, 
Ito l'ana. 
,n tbo i 



yorr poltlloat, iKInrla 



— lho ueparfuienlofEdaontlon, ot Donie Inflnsn™.. 
wonrtnon^reJ irilb (ho aid u f !be bt.T („„,,|.. , 

I^^in^'^durCh'rTL"" "° "•" ei "'" ^ 

' -^'b^llfaunXtureri .Mechanl «. Artl- 

*? p™, erir, aTd b ! " BI °" ' und '" 

lt >p.,nd with u° : th , iinM^ , ;!;: : : .^:.'/ 



■&xr 



a Psmilr Jooraal, 






1™™!° "?. "F" "!" f "'" ih J 'Mr ucojiiuce' .M ini 

jouruul bot L'-.ul-.I A- .in ,\,|..-,.-ni.i|n,. •,].-. i;,,, 

|mru.,o,onj »I,LJ ibr ivmi. -=»unr H la cora- 



■'■'. '.':'i! ! ';'i, 



■ ™-lJO Wcjhlngroo unit. Sao 
wtnlr'. n-gnu. Fourth .licet, Sm- 
E^ 4 CO, EdTtom oad Pohll-htn. 



i" lb-) I'l.in- I Si .!■".."."" "•Si" Fa 

THJittftrlVAH.!,- \[. .,„:,i, .'.,,,.,.,„ ;..,,.. 

Wontj-lblrd 7>iar and tn 

.■■..": ■■ luii,., ..r,tj. Third 



h'-nii i. nil,. 

lOanuZ, 
nn.nDdlbeuKhrnmifhcd 
I (ho'ioml P,iicllcn] Fa ,..,,:...,,„: 

,'Ni: i i '.j'.'' : n,AVi \il = "\: !■:. si---Ji-j? 



. ...mlbaCaan.., „»„,, 
.tthol 5 iTnrlcoofFiri)-Cen 
:U LhL- male 11 liu di-or he 



Itl'llAL All' 

i.,.is .j.-.r. 






r in ,,, 



■■ tboas 






^f rair 



S b ^ 



Important Now Works, 

""" ,isnKD BY 
X)- APPLBTOIf «B ao., 



tho lonniir norit oy ILu lalcnled aathor. 

COMMODORE PE It Ira JAPAN ESPEDITIOK— Exoeolad 

1.1 I tig »,..*! of ll, Au,,,i f ,,„ lii.™rnni(,Bl. Writ- 
tpnouirrora llio .Inum.il.nr ilji, Cuiaun.jgre nnd hij 
Offleor, Ilv Kran^L Hawks. D I. I i,.!,,,,,,.. Sv!, 
nllh Tij.iTur.l. „f ■.'...,., I.ii lt. iv in . I'i ... ,-, . ...1, .-.' 
Xa» . SS OOi full mil-, 37 OO: full i Uot ^, S3 W) ' 

.' :,' ",''' , ,r '":'' v." ; ""'■ " ''.'"-"' "'" r """ r ' 1 "' •■•"' of °™ 



. MKHOHIAL VOLUME TO BI8B0P WABVWBIOQT. 
Contnm.nu fhlrtj-jlj Sormon. nr.d b. Jl-ru-i, . <.y :!,., 

K p «n w r * ,0, '" ' ! ' B " ' " ilb ^' Cn ^ 

IJM01UAL9 lOPiUO TIME. "By Lord Cocbbanic. I vaL, 

tfeSBSSc^n'S?^ '" ^««™^™«rf. 
BLE1IEHTS OF 

il PoTlcmphiT'' i'xt 
PBOOilESSIVE BfaHIBH HEADER; Trllh Bn Anrfrual 

atA SDEVILLE-a 1 HEW sehIes. the fifth header 



.IIqoi.od boinj Intarmiid lothnteu", 

'. "■'".' 

it OH.cm&rihc h Anil r.g and farwnrdad ,7-; jf 



* OIFT HOOK FOfl ALL SEASONS. - 

FLORA'S DICTIONARY. 
' V Itoju' W W '" T ' ° P vieig ™'a- 

au,*n™' ipU-ndUlr UlDnn'cil'cij ckin^or"! 

ij. ■ ,.!■,!:, I..;! ...■„ Ii,ii„1,,!| eii.i'u'ir,^'' 1 ,''."" ''"■' 
'lib a EmrnVr. nnd IMcrBDrnod w, .LJ'. , L1 .'. '"' 



iJlMulblndtVndnW 



""1 li.ll till ,I.Ir,. 
..... i:. Ill .,!..■, ,. ,, 



ftftr-Hifbi 






ki.l'3 man scnuot.' t 

.'(.eoinl Rnroren C o" n '(hoWnnl° nnd CaVwi«"f„r" '^ 

&K-R'sssa P &'rsfeS' 

i.nnled bj n ln, B0 ami eomj.teto Alln,. dum ,K' 
navod axpreulr r or rhti nork. hj S. S. Coraell. SI BO. 

Uito oaorli nwlr, nnd'wlll pubtUb la n low din 
MARIIVING TOO^LATE. ( By Ownj, Woffll . ^ „, 

"SSi^^tfarnr^^^ »«^ 
Till: OI'I.-ji-KDIA OF SERM3HB.Br Jnb« Bnmn. 



131 s.t WABEHODBE, 

20,000 '«™ fia. ]k„ k p' B]< ,* 2^x39, JO, « and 



■. In .ui.il balamf tan 



.jtm.;f i. ..-,., ,.-,.';: ,. .! v'nJo,™ 

hnnillialrcri S.,erani,. n .U. ] TVJ O. < Dl 

wiMW U h lB(K , llM , 1!M pJ5; [i l 1N , ',:=■'" 



Woo najLusl,,', PrlntlnE nnd JubP^a. 




s.. F»«n~. 'a«' 1 '? El i"'°°' sl " 

,1, i,. il,. l>r=t sad wisest p.rcbsse, audi™ 
i°ih- fist Brlislts in c ™ r * dcpartm"* 1 of 

trrcs nls'iilssr,. shrubs of all simls-mi knor 
„2, ,$»« tbat, !■ ihUmllT, "'"J "" '"" 
Iha cheapest. , _, „. „; 

Er.ry np"""" 1 '■""">""* E " , T, 
„ ib., . rim,, imitaiit-""™ °" ™ ° h .j 
is eared for less, and is sofloesl worn o 

-j r-s.,,, raiauioli etc. 5 are less reliable , 
more are planled upon tbe same space, on f*° 
of tbe doobl of their value; less, ea'O Etsoii to 
lb," o.ll.ia. aod llio resell w™ te-W/oOTP 
And it is ir.rsc leith trees, plants and shtubs 

Bl-.b.,.re..-«.P,'W'»'!"'Sd.t, 
,b,, ,., ,„»! lace,.; la< .«■'" » l»«V 
InlinsfcinprepoflJlHtll... «> car. rr,* 
ifler..'*. for the. r.r; reason that Ib.J cast b. 
M,-.nd .1,. re.* ...t bat nooM.dtl.es, 
„. pon'.b, and lb. effort t» obtain •» oreb.rf 
nari,^ n, a boa.lif.l bomo, i, lost, from bo 
foolisb idea of poreUslog sneh a mass of rrortr.. 
loss trasl,,ssi S t» often crowled npon our mar- 
ie! al auction, to lb. treat rajer; of tbe reBelar | 
nnMrrman, gaidener, o, Horl.l, "id to th. P- 

* \Ve ore led to theso remarks from Iho fact that 
w.sea soeh immonseqnantiUesof what wirlcrm 
lra.b,lhr.,rnnpon the market,!, be sold for 
„h.t it "ill bii»B, «« I""*.' Ibal »™ " "» 
eapeiionco Trill became purchasers at oven on> 
prieo. A lilthv reflection, and a littlo Beiinug, 
rroold sboiv then, Ibat soeh purchases cost thorn, 
upon an aeeraeo, double tho pneo of a iris, pur- 
ch.» of ■ re B "lo' numryman, at full price.. 
Koceotly a very largo lot of fruit trees teas 
t San Francisco (a part wont to Soora- 
eoeiito), 'for, do; it. » during thoo.ldost 
«.tbor of tb. s.a»" id the; .or. bad Ij 
(nana, be-sidcs being Mui.i.vi-1, "'"■• i 
they wore several weeks «P^ 1o llle Etost 
and to Iho ligt. and air, thus urying (ho best 
fibrous reels. Theso frown trees have been all 
sold (or nearly so) and scattered over tho coun- 
tty, aid must result in lots and disappointment 
to tho purohosers, and thus must result unfnvor- | 
nbly to many, for it not only Involves a loss of 
the amount paid, but nil tho cost attending tho 
transr-rUd.™ and planting-of them; and when 
thoy tail, as moat of them must, then the toss 
Cttuscs tho purchaser to bo discouraged in inch 
efforts nud-thus Ibe wbaloStatois injured— for 
these are' enterprise that nto not tor n day. 
OiSttSs a»9 vhi-yatui- uro tl-e pBronvnaat 
pjitol of_ll!0 §tato. ,_ 



fc.er.a«d. M > w, orchardsand nnrsenos. Each 
their torn drcir men from every profession ana 
■sincss. and, necessarily, muni", f«"» w° nt °- r 
,„v.-l,-,l-e %nd espcrienco, wcro mrecked. 
'^ho^exelonEtonotoaohuuBelba B h 1 
b.tehenu rep.br and Mc-ady nttcnl^u »«rt 
h»Dch of the great agri^Hural iiUerest, that ah 
eTocsses will te none away, auu all nu.te and g.ve 
l., the regular nurseryman and business mw » 
b-beraland gcorow support, for it W U1 mot as- 
JLjT he found that mostly all other purchases 

result in losses 

-■Want of 



Roe Distribution of Seei 
Courtesy. 
Tho position «o hold as a public journalist 

.„„„ c,,,l will, Iho science of agneohnre, tho 

profess to lor. «nd foster, requires thai ». J 

al.ay. ..1.1. and grand » '»» tol «'"* ™" U 
,, ,,, , b.Jeoos to injure or retard it, » far ■» our 
b.inbl. ahiliiio. "HI •»".• »"" K ' "»""" 
Motllrf npon to spuak upon a sobjeot wb.cb 
has been a tbcuie of remark aud the couso or com- 
plaint both here in California and at the East. 

I! ha, been tho custom of tho governrneol of 
tho Patent OOec «t Wushioglo. to forward to the 
tlalc Society of California liberal parcels of seed 

r ynlumos of Palenl OQioo BepnrU for 

hutiom Theso have been dialribuied by „d 
iho Society in aliberal manner, wilha request that bitn 
onie report ol tho sueeoss of tb. ««ls might be | ,„. 
, ,,. io ike society, so that a dae reloru could be 
, , I . ,.. , in 1. lb- I'stO", Office as the society do- 
' , ' | ',■ , ,. re ,.i 1 no'-t sincerely that very little 



A Voico fr.ru tl- Tlnoy-a of OuW. 
Wrrn gre.t pta",. .. lay before «■ «" 
„ ,h. annored l.tfr tout ». "°f, "'"Sj 
1B manufacturer of tho Uuitcu 
■ „ „.. of groat interest » those who 

„«.diutb. ""••"■•""< ";T"Z 

California, nnd d.mnod. of thorn . oar.l.l " 
nod ... os.min.lio. of th. opinion. «1™«1 *V 
Mr. Long.o,th. Th. hrst paragraph of tho 
Wlordina.. t. th. statumont .. m ■*""?■ 
„.b„ last (Sat. ."udod to), "» 1""?" 
b. m.k«.er. only port, of >» "".*■„ "„ 
.noko of the genorol .»,«, .tto.d.og h. 
c£.til of ■bostrewborry, ..« » -P^™ 
.f tbnt Bocoess wo did not mean to y 
tbre. nnd . b M i.=to. » ■**> •" "" »™"°" 
,i M , by .ny means, for w. »r »"' '•'■' ' 
Wo know vory w.ll if « bad ■»«> ™ »»' 
ih.ni 6, 7 and 71 iuohes, it ".old appear so m 
.dolnu. thut th«y »o"B >ldio.lo A "td I< 
,„!, „f ,,.. this .normon. si=. has besm rru.oi 
, Cubforni., and w. look fo.w.rd » tb. to, 
hou . common sls.d hen's .gg «,ll ho th. 

"t|,o history of th. str.wb.rry, or th. notion 
of tho two varieties named by Mr- Long- 
cave in . Into number, tbe M.Avoy's 
muJ th. L.. e w.,,h PrnliBo ; nnd .. rnpout 
. thoy oro indeed volooblo acMSBions to thi, 
.'..a an honor u> th. v.t.ran poinulngist 



,. 8G 50 pi 

worth in mnraoi iwc,nj-«--- ,- 
. i^t-ClyT Abu a hoWillhurn,.ear y 

corrcspo^ing value. Thus , jou . ™ 

' ofosponsonnd nsreenuluueas, iuu t 

o to tho sido of corn at prflsent l ,r ' - •»■ 

.^. think you, farmers of N-'v I'-"- 

.. . .. al ,,.-,.; I' '■'■:• 



oouid'yoa'sit'by tho onhVoning 
by a auhstanco whioh unt > 
formation of bono and 



inrgoly i 



Lt when ilir 



bodies, and the growth n ,i<l[.r ;1 l 'f 
Souh !h tho easo with which - 
grown bore unon tho P™V* 
l,„t, nnvtliine olso for fuel, hurnurs licro raic« 
I,,:,., many thou.and bushels, culuvated 
„„.,!, I.v h..r-...lah..r. ,uvo in piehmg; so hat 
vr„ ',„^,--f. a vnluo smaller to Ufl than to 
V1 „, ,!,■ \,.;,. England, where it entora largely 
'-- , the grenl bulk of breadfltuffs, 



,□ should not 
it book- wo i 
Urgon 



■ith 



very 



of tho 

vcr be content 
of scholastic ' 

Mr=«, worn as,'' 1 



o bolio 






is reque 



„v .eetird paid, however much good would have 

...■.I,.,!,.,.-* Bl ,ch reports. We would try to be- 

| itvi . thai it was from want of reflection that Una 

V.-i f-rn-rc- but when we remember that wo 

Uyo the records of three years, during which tin..! 

,o.,t, ll.-miiv,. hundred volume;, have been dintTi- 

Luted autlmore than three thoosaud parcels ol 

«d.,«U sratuilously. and yet up-to the present 

time not u down returns havo bteu made tu Lie 

ciety, wo cannot hut feel lhat it was a neglecl, 

ftie't a want of courtesy Ibal should not occur in 

eh cases. , f 

Wo would refer to another c.rcumstnnce 01 u 

rimilar character. It will be recollected by the 

rcdera of the FABWEa, lhat last spring *ve adver- 

)Hhr of Me«rs. Grten, H.atl. & 

Allen, tobacco merchants, of San V™***™ 

,de tbe offer of packets of the very fines. ,,.».l«y 

of Tirginia totacco seed, to be sent free of charge 



n fanned ih 



H of those variotics this 
,„~'oi), lhat will oven astonUh him. 
Mr ] ,,„ k -w,.rth's opimon rclailvo to our ch- 
mte for tbd enllivation of the Grape, is of groat 
■ li!(f hit .-iprrieiieo is a gf> n d guide hook, 
-ho red Framoun wo imported in '33, hut un- 
forumnrelylostit, the Grapes from _Mr. Keller. ... 

of Los Angeles, shown in Ohio, will .peak for I jnf d itia , , l( tl 
filifi»™io now and we hnvo the pr„'>J lln.t «,■ , jr,..-T:>-ys from Ll "- I l 
LiLliltinuu now. mm nu "■> ir j ■i[.i,i-i I vl ■.,! il 

«:„, heat the world in this diriment. :.- ■ ,',. 

Mi L.'s opinion ns to tho origin of o 
Grape, eo'meides with our own expressed m ' 
and '53. that it was ori e ii.»Hy iHr-.d-ir-.-d i. 
California by the early Padres, and the d.ft. 



Amorloar. Horaoa In Bn B lond-B a d Nowa. 
It i9 with deep regret that wo are ob heed ,10 
Bro ek's A neriean stable in Bnglani; Or , Tue 9 - 
STlMt, Patrick Hakv.lb. J" key. and Geo^e 
|i; rr i, ■■.l,f fiilil-r" of Lv,oi,iic, : iv.if.-'l l..,i,'in 
fhe"h% Gawlle from Liverpool, and they mforn, 
I, that Lecomte lias given W ay .., h. ; P" ;'^ ' 
SUC 1, a degree, that ho will not I bo ah £ >° £"« 
during the coming seasan on the BmIWi 1 "^ 
m ,I„„l, lhat it is eitremely dooblfo If he ui ,U 
ever bo At W make a race again, lb.- "" • ' 
bad enough, but, as if to give new ,r,l,. ,, ,, 
„1,| blliix „i. il, ;ii -imsfort-fiiv^i-.-vei come single 
i» r .,-,i-,.., i- 1,1.™ cnud ^ tiifleriiig from ttrui; 
I hall and llio only One left in true cn^nifi. ": 
Prvor who al-n Uf-ili^-hv.lintl h^no'iiuplmriir 
t-li.'.luK hi ih'-' ft-'-l 'I'll'--'' uii.f.'rliiin-ii nri.. a 
■■^aedbythojockojlotlieiactthiii.i-l.'i- 
been put in train too early alter their lot 
vojugo and nrrital in a new meridian, and, 
io opinion, that they should not have uc 
to work till near the Spring. Indeed we* 
such were Mr. Ten lirocck'.s de- 
left for Italy ; and we are furth ' 



knowledge ; juat enough to enaWi 
duct their business, tcholur:-,"! 
iavo, and IhoFe is a point in l 

which division of Iftbor .becomes 

would be impossible for a man lo become profound: 

in a half a duic'n different departments of knowl- 

edge Thus Chemistry. Astronomy, Architecture, 

&c , eachpresent a Cold wide enough to demand 
whole life's investigatf-" • '■"' " ! " 

upon such an jnvestigali 

comcsboXradcorprofc? 

that uiitil.wn arrive. at 

may ali rcce'iTetbc great 

education. Tho carpen 

lawyer, and tho physicii 

idy far life, hut'"' 



it 



, that dopartme_._». 
in j and I must believe,, 
ia,t starting point, wo 
benefit from a common 
■ (ho blacksmith, Iho^. 
each has his peeuliw 
a certain general cdu- 



ilts fro' 
reproduced from Bocd 
bly unknowingly; it would be a ma 
iloreat could we traoo tho history of th» v.. u ^w 
hack to tho nrst introduction of it. Wo shall 



bo tliunkful for 



irepor 



Tin 



t kinds of' 



,o Grape 



r, tin, 



■ v of (jri'nt 



y fact giver 



'quantity lo the Stale Society 
(ributiou. Tho aiiiooot thu, disiribQled-i™, * 
believe, nearly one thousand packages: and f< 
all 1Mb liberality, we regrel lo say, scarcely a re- 
turn was <nadc Surely this is not right. It is 
pi *>r encouragement fur anyone thus to labor. It 
was due lo llicui fur llmir Hh.rjlity that return! 
ihooia bo made. Wcsiuecrely hopefheseremurki 
will bo justly nuderstood, for it ie not oar inteu 
tion to rebuke, hul to remind those who have ueei 
I the recipients in this manner of Hew and vaiuabk 
L-edH, that such neglect hinders the progress of the 
ansc generally. Wo hope a bettor fltlention will 
ic civeu lo this subject in future- Wt tDfU'iivnrrtl 
o nuk- ev.'ry reluni whieli was made last yefli 
nch seeds, through our columns, and ehall alv 
]c liappy to do so for the general good. 



ii thanks to our venerable and hon- 
ngworth, and hope his life "ill ho 
i our country. Wo hope ho will 

aJ „ visit to tfio California vineyards 

_ p on Iho Paeifio Hailroad, and bo ono of tho 
honored guests on that £ 



ored friend 1 
ig spa: 



■All shonld receive before 

ing lhat study. This education, il is the province 

olthopnblicschooUjstemtoallord: not lo learn 

farniorsor printers, surveyors or masons their 

'trades, but to make minds capable of governing 

and directing themselves in any of tho mamlold 

.ns Of life. With this view, education 

i twofold, discipline and acquisition ; Iho 

luing preparatory to lhelatlcr,as the rules , 

of logic aro preparatory to a sound argument. , 

iiplino prepares the mental storc-houso for Iho 

iccption of knowledge, teaches how to arrango 

stores, and, finally, their disposal. Without 

ipline, knowledge ia of little value, as alt Our 

es of it aro suro lo bo misdirected, thus turn- 

, 01 lli ; u eparturo"orihe I ing our greatest blessings into the greatest curses, 

■pool, Mr. Ten Broeek bad not [ D ccd not stop to point you examples! the nis- 
'*''■"' ' tory of the world is full of tbem-overy year, 
■■ .ac-inc fa'mo" I c»«y month, overy day, presents eases of mis- , 
l PP or i" , F.. , ", 3 .^r.l:? LT:! 9 directed talent. 

It is not, Ihen, necessary, that tho teacher 
- ■-:- j should know for what trade or profession his 
have happened lo the comrade,, ^.^ ^ mlcn(!rf . neither rjC-u Id it.be proper 
:' "Li?-,.' prjor'a for him, did ho know it, to pusffciem into studies 
excellent, treating only of those subjects— for two reasons : 
" ' "'"" Firstly, thedjsorfcr which must necessarlly^nane 
from the introduction of such a number wid , 
variety of studies. This alone, isnn infurmount^ 
able objection to the idea presented by tho two 
gentlemen whom I noticed in my last letter. 
Secondly, as I have said before, discipline should 
he the aim of scholastic education 5 and by the 
term di'ciplinc, I would he understood ns mean- 
ing iho regular, even, and successive development 
of those faculties which together conslituto Iha. 
At iho ago of innturilv, development, to a 
,nd then acquisition truly 
id, though a unit, appears 
y units! which evidently, do 



ilnte, however, lhat, at the last —.. 
. t ,,-ii... ■ Ti.'ht," hie general condi..... 

ind high hopes are enwrtoi nod that ho ..... . 

,1 fit state to distinguish himself when tho b 
brings him to the score. 

The injury which has happened to Snores 
not of an irremediable nalurc. The string- 
is not deemed by us a positive unsouudl 
Fashion had it once in both leg.', and to use 

uression of an old turfman al our elbow, 

sed them alternately high enoueh to stcn 

mall yellow dug, but she 



We 1 

Cutting from Lo! Angfl-.-. [■■" 



on, to t! 



Wo 



anas 1 



:artoiiiea thiit many tho 
md-wo know of parties that were unwilling to 
Ufte. them and pay freight; HOW, these will I- 
sold itlha/ can— somebody irill buy them, be- 
OnufV they nro cheap— and as Mre. Toodlus 
-v.. "it is so handy to hnvo thei ! " 



Great Value ol ' 



ie Lato HatoB to Ponnera 



ssiblo 



Aud 



s they 1 



. . .,, as-they may nelll they w,!l Dud pur- 
chasers that would not go and givo good Nnr- 
serj-man a dollar for a. good vino, and yot sjKind 
ffl er t«,nty dollars for a lot of cuttings that- 
nro worthless, and then spond twenty and forty 
dt.llurr, to twlfKl them out— and after waiting 
two or three years dig Ihem op (i- t. if any 
Bved). and say it was a miserable enuntry and 
nothing will grow illit, whereas, I, al/ thai amouut 
expeuiltd with aSarscryman of good standing 
irouh! result ill a crop tho second year. 

By these remarks wo do not decry all ooet*— 



great good of tho country ge 
■ see showy paragraphs in Iho 1. 
it /rtaftetj, deilruelion of Wilg 



(Blwny 



i follow SBCh 



.lention to Hie following facW. Tbisisapara 
t-aph worth making: 
The present rains have eilcnded far and wide, 
iverjmjjnany counties where 1I10 heaviest crops 
f grain are planted, and il is not lob moch lo 
ly that it will iiiereaie the prcitnl year>i crap 









lo li,.-lit_,1 






The 



nr.l.-i 



will be 



f sl' :.' , l.ut WO OO ueimvu luum ui)iinH.-uvi». 

Knracryinan— 000 that has boon edueaied a< 
tho hutiness (and wo hold none others ahouh 
sndDTtaku it), will always End a ready sale fu. 
oil be con raise. It is, for tho most part, miied 
lots, Mfuto stock, or worthless stock tlr - '- 
thus thrown upon the market— eioopt in 
of " Eiccutiirs' sales," cloning up business, or 
thost: rct-uhir atues of Importi'd stocks, or Floral 
gems, smith are tho result uf a legitimate trade. 
We most heartily wish to see all regular nur- 
serymen, HArdsnien and Oorista succeed and pros- 
per In a business, the tendency of which is to 
make the coimlry mire bmitltul nnd pros[iei-o»s 
dud In f}te cTiiploymcut to llio grisiteGl post-ibh 
number; but, aHliesnme llme,wehave but tilth 
BJiBpajhj' fur those who rush into n liusintiis of 
inj kind without eiperieace, and Qno, nfier a 
lime that they can only csapo ruin by ilt-troy- 
ing the kgjliuialo trader. Tho oxperltnce ot past 
yeara shows that whatever pioiDises well tvurj-- 
hody roshes iulo, whether they have eapisrienee 
or not, niul it is ibis spirit that has materially 
injured and overdone tho agricultural interest il 
all lis departments. 

]n the Ural days of Iho plow, barley brought a 
iigh figure, and everybody raised barley. Stat, 



cbards and D - - 

ind wo could make a paragraph like this and pu 
t In capital letters : 

IMM[ ssjl BBNEK1T BY Till; FIIKSIIK1 ! 
FIVE MILLION DOLLARS GAIfS' 
For the ine 
easily oscei 
deeply rcgr 

iho industrious raccuuiii--, '■""-"-"-"-— - »—- 
we do hops tbe great general blessing which 
'iivon has sent will not lie forgotten. : 
We might add as a still more cheering fact 
that this change of season from former yean 
drought to one uf a gonial, humid atmosphi 
which gives luxuriance to the earth, brings ., 
II olso a greater degree of general health, as % 
erlty, " 




pupil I 



Tho teachor should have 

ins; geniuses thnO. 
but mental 
which after 



I4CW !■: ■■.:■:•-•- of Fuvl. 
A writer from Sum]-,: tub. lllin.ii.-i, in the Eos- 
in Cultivator, furnishes tho fallowing: 
Among the mivfl iriiui-:i':lii,ns ni lln.-, i',1-1 ,i.^-.-, 
- r -com in tho rur" for fuel. Some 
ftttmors of this vicinity uro ac- 



id more Import 



ind appree 



q thu , 



,f Iho j 



chanted to meet with G. W. Wnlter , 

gomi'ry street, and wo woroJIMea': The 

way he hud of running Ins hand ovor 

assured us ho know what It was \ofil a 

id Walter & Tompkins know how 

110. Thoy hnvo tho garment.-, rui'lv 

atorial to mako tliom. ut their fimj 

•11ms on Montgomery, near Washingtr. 

Jggcst lo nil who need njlt to call 



The pAOTFie Etrwa-s.— We huvi 
iimiiy fihligutioos of late to Iho l*U 
npany for up-river tathaug-.-.-', and 
their House in New York, Tor for 
dispatch valuable parcels, Wo ha._ — . — 
parcels come with more promptness lhan those 
the last ' 






Ihcii business known (jutckly, pleaso examine our 
columns and see the class of advertise! 
j have all No. 1 Mouses. Our joor 

1 nnmiiieiiih Uiu-r.. tin- jniislu;. 



al wUI pi 




oinorotodoinniik- 
,, they are, Mmmonlyi 

v» nl bcst-.V^ /"""'' 

short, crooked, llickering journtf. 

Where the State law does not provide a »ursi 
of study, tho board of education, or tho truslw* 
of the district, should always do so j for in addlU»° , 
to tbe disciplining advantages of a regular senM 
of study, ndnpted to tho successive devolopn.toS 
of tho mind, there is, ..■ithm.l a question, an »«* 
io which Studies sbonltl be token up to hcM'!"' 
conseqMitfy» B 
an to it WlU S"* 



i„°'r..«j 
1 hoii*S« T( 5 

^r. cblldKjl 

n natural 0* 



lolhlog iW 1 * 
.rvstrectt , 






THE OALIFOBNIA F .A-RM — R. 



45 



Kb 


mhii 


t!oj foul. 


D lbo doTI of Tore, 






[11 ,a mill 


» fart and free, 










IVh. 






« htsrt Ben Lofflful 


And 








Ian 




there m Ibnl nrdtnl 


Of 1 






oldlie«iiIdrl=lbi 


Tbi 


I ho 






Tbc 


rirli 








Ihn 


ir, Jf M i. (■ 




And 






IbTlhOBOtldliD^.' 


And 


vflat 


an:* It, tf 


tie U odea I polo 


I'.m 






Due the into, 


Of 1 








Or!? 


min 


nil Dealt 


» Jot bod Urla, 



-Befoiu Ibnj ho] lime ID lute tic bliu 
•rarollod go tho oaMUPMliDf mind 






AORICOLA. 



LFrom onr B«taD Correspondent ] 
Hecodt Publications. 
I Beit, or the Lott and; by Alice Fov 
oulislicn L>y James French & Co., Boston": 
uito an alimctivo volume, and of good mora 
Icaoy. Tfie plot is simple, somen-hat u 
a I" tin' general novnls of tho tiny, and tends 

The heroine 






a ndve 



ins life, 
i- fi.mll. 



;J 4 =< 

The //"■■ 
Wo'li.lin 
Wee 
The 



4 Lit 



i DUgitiit; liv Mrs 
K of "Courtesies r 
Snopara, Clerk & Co 



able style, urn] Lbo clioracfens well drain 
oil- idin-h- uiitiirn!, BuOwjng careful study by 
tho nutliar. trbo is rrcll known in literary life. 
The Yolomo onntnina about 500 pases, nn< 



I Doings Id Congress— RopufliaUon. 

Toe National Legislature, as well as oar own 
Stale Legislature, seem to require "committee; 
of investigation," ond these bodies hove import- 
ant nod costly committees at work nl the pres- 
ent time, at a. heavy cost to the notion, sending 
for persons nnd pnpers; and our own Stato 
Legislature, by necessity and very jastly, ar 
similarly engaged— and these causes cmnpel 
postponement of tbo work of fbut legi; " 
iv hi eh is so inueh needed lo give [ir,'-j".tity 
tho country. 

Among the important subjects of N'mionnl 
legislation, we notice a bill for n Branch Mint 
in Now York, one for a new Military Academy, 
a Railroad on ,1 Telegraph to Lid Pacific. Modi- 
fication of tlio Tariff, Grants of Loud tn Cali- 
fornia for Itnilroadfl, Jtopcnl of the Fi-hin^ 
Uotwlies. nnil various ether iuijiortiuit measures. 

Great feeling was manifested at Washington 
on receipt of tho action of our Supremo Court 
iu repudiating her debt, and threatening to with- 
hold all appropriations to our Statu till meas- 
ure taken lo pay their debts; Bud ivith this 
feeling will come action, and lbo wholo press 
East will do all they can to bring reproach and 
i upon California for this aot of the Su- 
premo Court — and lo this will bo added every- 
thing that will have a tendency lo prevent cmi 
gration from thence to California; but wo hopi 
the formation of tho Society in Now York will 

very wrong and unjust report, und to lay hefoi 
the people there a true picture of California i 
Mil Sources, of wealth, prosperity and lm[ 
i. Wo rejuioo at tho formation of thi 
Society, and hops to see a similar one formed 
on this side to co-operate with them. 

For further facts ou repudiation, and its 
foots, see citracta from Now York Herald, 
another column. 



ASSURANCE. 
Lire As mi ranee. 

IMPORTANT TO ALL. IBoeountrveonowtT wearied 
— „ ,|.lirf-jly I".|.'p1 "■■■) :■■ llii -.:■'■■) -I ■!- ■fl' , III. mi., 
-ilir.nj i--L.ll btimudlltilllialllwrillijiwtofLifll-A™--- 
»a;o tin been but Utile ib'.'Ui:hl ol-ond lbo poison nho 

llwesriil°Mi[Denti>fraehii|ir!U!liiwiB(oiiB»lTiireiiiilM(i 
, ..,„,.. ,-[ „„;;.i i -,„„.| I .,- II (<, nwrml-lhal lie nil] 
■n r.!. nit, in, r.j-raliulT.-— .=Mb JiSicumc?, indeed, of mtn. 
:ir,.| i-.-i.i .... Iiin.lj— l.iUcorlftin iiidiii-J.ml,. mo w nartt- 

undcrlako lubun-. b ■ 1 1 -. -- v i - r nii|.r.'ini-m;. r -I Mjeec»— frura 
a Tcry loroof oscfutn. ■ i.r rj.nii ...irl> li.ibiL. (if thlotlB^, 

Tli" i. rii.irli.y- ri|»li-i>r«l iliilkulli™ of no common kbit 

\c:s 




Ell V ■■/' n 



t'aluaule Works 




J.--Moeou r lbj WlBlb „ 



E^" rMiii-.i-ii. g 



Hollo'wat' 8 Tills and'Ointmekt Attn thi 
Kr\o or Sabiiima. — Ptrmi-sion was gittn ( Fiv 
...v.il liil',,;. i^iu.i) for rak- of these valuable 




In the Best Style of the Art ! 


A N A T 'ViToTeTt SATES 














iii.!!.iir"i..-!i.[i ■■-, No. SO Maiden Lane New York 




and No. 2-U Strand, London ; and bv all druc- 
gists, ot 25c, 02JC.. and £1 per box or pot. 


p rOH SALE,— 3» FONTS OK JOB Tl'PE, .1 Nrir York 


SPECIAL NOTICES 


Tho Most Successful and the Best 


£y Caliror.ilo SUun .Vnrluntlon Caioj.n,,,^ 


./Lffii^iJAHCESrS .-TAMMIIO "--LUIr< ,ir 

QH_a_v iti:u.i.K.- f ... i'„iii,.„..i,'r,..„ l ,; r i..-,i- 




Tbo SiiodirJ Fitili. or. Pint Claa Raider. 


Fell. 2S, ot 10 <r clock, Z.H., for liio imrp'.fe of aal.inmiiie. lbo 




qactcLja uf a cbioga Li llie Coii'iiiuii.^ I> £L -J jc ln- [L.. i,,,,,,. 










lliailali l.ir.l l'rim,T Illu<[ralud nilll coll 




Sn CtiiKii fur Priumrj Sclioolj. 




Br Ept> Saboc.it, oultiornf " stood wil Spciker," Its. 


ryjtab.HK,' ln.iltat._To, .ioo^i itaai^ of 


Thti folloning oro aeirlv rindr : 



GEORGE PAGE & CO., 
Patent and I'urialilc SaiF nilllH, 

Steam Engines and Boilers, Grist Mills, 

iCilROKDEtl STREET, 



iutft AEricLllera] 
Ilhuan i C.\ J 



What ladj or i 

ri'i'll'li.:.,;:,', 

o Thoccood Flm 



etUi night and moiaing, A 0/ir 



•«.nn. or told Mai. poui un laour ihrn drarncl 
_ of . ToobooJ Plo-er.," rob Iho boeM *o|] 
■till Djalio a beaoliful wfi laibor much furilliotiDg 
inlioa of eaiviae. Prloo oalj Fifty Codul 
IV. P, FBTRIDOB £ 0O„ 

t- =■ i ; i : ' .-v iniiii; itmMi 



WjMM^ «^ 2 \Tt 



ORIENTAL HOTEL, 



AgricttU— -al Implements & d. 

ot^, 1 :.!";:^,^";::: 



Garde: 



Ornamental and Forest Tree Seed, 

.1 L... ,i I.".!! l-,!,i,,' u ill, i,.,,. .,F ,-.„.., .-ij/rt.'jj 
CRVAIIT t CO, 



TKI1IA 



UhYANT i CO., 6S DH« 











A Honse and Garden Wanted. 



A Pit.ir 

, u"lii° nh 



A Gurdouer at Shares. 



V.w;.vLi'. ii'ir".;!;; 

V7-5 if 



inter lbo edrertlier 
°lh the FARMER 



\v, 






1,000 QALX0NS OF POLAR OIL I 

IK QnAMTWIEu TO SUIT PURCHASE 




"E X O U 1,8 1 O R." 
WALTER & 'I'OUl'KLVS, 

GENERAL OUTFITTERS, 

^Eiitlemcn's ^|j^ arel. 

No. 170 Montgomery Street' 

SAM e'RANOISCO. 



~-\l 



'NOELJ. BEOAR, 



WOOL, HIDES, TALLOW, fi^ 

JlE t3i'j u . 1 L.'.!; 1 ^ l '; , V'' l ^ ! -'' l ' nN a co., 

BJ0 *B«*S T- ^ «-» «-- «_- 

•5-llLl O-W-rlu, (0^ U™g NTo 



COLBY &. BELLi 



■in I 'I: |.n.-!i. 



It. c-ortbM,, Wo.iooo.io,, H.iV, ( L - °- « OEi i'S, 

Thorongh-bred Deyon and Ayrshire Bulls. 



.o_o, o- R«^oe^:^" '■::.:, ';:"',';■ . 



On. U. Q. UAVUBN, 
!"> E N T 1ST. 

,L " li;:Ml|, -'l-l> FI....-I I I .IV ..,-,.!..:! ■,-, 

NO. 118 Montgomorr "trwi 






""i-^ij"" 1 " 1 ' *" ,;c ' i ™%. 



J-'i; S. F. ELLJ ." 
Court 1 o c tt j tluj - 1 



faiits' ferment. 

IOah torts be si**«" ,r » b [&» lhal e*1 ,,W1 ' 

Muiaead rsT P»* da"™* - 
Oft » T hw> -t* l"*"* 8 ' '""/ST 




mii 1 Mrit«iW« B «Bnob»iT'.ueir, 
Let nit lluM ao«nt» Wl banhon am i 
Sb« Ii » hlouow, loo Umlor and trail 
Fir tho keen blast, the pltllM *>!•- 
Whiyper it E=atlJ 'Will «*' »« ^ r Jd ' 

Gentle "Ordl rarely a™ 1»* (n ln *" n; 

Threats and nproachoj the Flubbora may ' 

Foble ihecoaqaiataldiid bylaTO. 

Whlspor ..kindly, 'W P>T lh«o lo know 

Penltsat lui^dmns *>mi but chtiks *a" ; 

nu .bo from duty wandered nitrnT. 

Guide bef f«t fnaily-raugb Is the way. 



Sod lbs nrcrtlfnl " 



A Qood Wife, 

How mm; wives i» California-our trades- 
mtn's wives-would bo willing to pract 
mme self-denial and labor, as cheerfully - 
"Mary fcorton," lo help their husbands over the 
present crisis? And horr mucharolheso "■-'"■ 
needed at tbo present time 1 

TUB THAOEBHAk'S CRI3IS. 

"The causes of success Of failure!" no doubt 
they are legion. Any writer intending la Ural 
Wk a SnbjU in its mlloest, mum prepare for * 
col-idernb.o outlay ip the simple raw maler.als 
of n=ns ink and piper. This, wo need nol say, 
Un?Btrtof onr mlenlion-tlm smallest Supply 
of stationery will suffice- us; we have, however, 
the means at hand or illustrating just one aspect 
of tbo question, by means of a simple story- 
perhips a true ooe-of an Only daughler. 

It will be sufficient fur the waders pur[,0H-jii 
passing over the heroine's early history, we ob- 
serve that, at the period that our mmiive c,..iu- 
mences, alary Korton, the soul and Fim.ihin.-- of 
bcr paternal home, was uiierUoinr.f ; thu v,ry 
serious intention of leaving i'- Hoff u . tr fnthcr 
and mother will over bring 
- 't think!" — 






:i.-hbor 



-"(lK-r 



any happy 



story tnuBl piocecd in the words of th 

_» poor -Slaty herself felt thai 

very, very hard thing to leave tJ 

tage in which sho bad oassed 

days, and, above all, to live no luu S *. ' 
atroo roof with her psrents. But then, 
Edward Norris very mnch, and she wa: 
would bea good, kind husband; lor I 
ways been so steady, and sueh a dutiful „„ .__ 
afleelionale brother. And so hope chased the 
tear from Mary's eye, and the passing pang Irum 
her heart , , . , 

"It was the ovoof her wcdding-di 
as silting in the arbor, and talking- 



E.d L.ta. . mull .hop i" « »°»"' i"'to,i, i., 
miles fiom C . nun had commenced Oosioow 

I,„c.d of .ho >.0 bo. c.loio » J.D 
, e ,„d .Ml* tho *»jJ*SJEm3 

•; M i h ; w K,h.™ d io53; "oid«.: 

which he had hitncriu *. i re(re neh 

The only ^^''{"^Zi.^U knew how lo 

S.mcoTo.o.M.I him«ir..d M. w,fc to 

ll.no children i-ll «r, 

" fi , w B ,-oonc fi .1 lrl| n ocU-d ns hum . nun 

confinement, and he wu unwilling todi,u,-,l.,r 
•ill. tho fears that perplexed his own minu. 

' t wL^e one evening, when itarl ^a«ng 
Cosed his shop fur the nignUje j entered their 
.mail aitting-room, with a weight on "'a hew 
and a cloud on his brow, which he could nolco 
ceal from his wife's obsetvunt eve. 

'■•Yuu'ro not .veil to-night, Edward,' sh« sni 
i.. n ,|-rl.- 'von loo^ ""d nI1(1 wom-oiil. - 

' , t tired perhapsih-ll'm 'I""- ^ ■ 

he answered, endeavoring (bot ineflecloally) lo 

^We" Wry and forget business and all : i ts 
cares' said Mary, cheerfully. '1 want to UniM 
SialiUlo frock io-night; do eomo and .ead to 

^Tvitb V^ZS&Sto** -lo. Edward 
at once complied will, his wifc's r,. r -', 
takinR a book from the shelf, began L. r,.vl. 
But the words fell mechanically from his li(«., 
w hileotheranddiQ-erentLhuugVsk l| rc.o....-,.p 
inio his mind. Ho looked at ihe baoy in tbo 
e"adle by Mary's side, and he remembered I ,bo 
two other children who were a-.lc-;. "P >-i 
Here w B5 .-in inc. easing family, and, ■'■■ ■" I - "■ > 
increasing expenses; while at the sjiu- l.n'i 
appeared U. bo losing ground e.o.y day in bi» 

" \i last his wife suddenly put her baud . 

arm, and said, 'dear Edward ! what is the in. 

[ 3 ni sure something disturbs jou-du """"-"■ 

I can bear anything butter than seung jO» loot. 

so miserable, without knowing the reason. 

II, u. uiged, Edward was at last obliged lo 

reveal the cause of his abstraction. 

"Marv atlwilivelv listened till he had concluded 

nndlhen. takin; his hand, she said uirectionately, 
'Poor, dear Edw„d ! you have been brood mg 
opt v.iit troubles in .secret, nil, 1 on v.-.a.ir,: !■■ 
say, t'bings appear a great deal worso than they 
really arc. You are not in debt, you 
Pt '^iSo- thank God!' replied Edward, earnestly. 
'But Ihen, Mary, love, if we cannot mm:.-' i» 
save in mmt way, »« >'."" ^ '"'" debt! "'at is, 
onltas my busincas brings in m- >-■■-'-- ■■ ' 

" 'Then let us begin ti 
iry. energetically. „ 

'••"But in what way can we do so?' asked Ed- 
ward. 'We are not living extravagantly in any 
jspecti I don't sce.nt present, in what way we 
in reUench.' . , , 

"'Oh! I've thought of several ways a ready, 
sii.l Maw. smiling, and looking so hope o I aod 
!,,,,, „; jL (he mere ,i S ht uf her br,d,t, ani- 
J& 'countenance raised her hu-hand' -pint 
all ,| ,„ „1, him feel more sanguine than ho had 
m.utifur many days past- ■ 

■'1-hen toll^M-1 a |.„.g cnuver^atmn, earned on 
n a low voice inltr^Kr-e-d o,:c.v.]<>n:..ly witli a 
iii-h (r.-ii, Edward, followed hy an encouraging 
word from his wife, 

-Th.. next illuming Mar.' v"^', f"U of "er m 
r l.„., for , .v.,.* and t ,..i.o U ,iv.iiig. Her v-mg-l 
child was only nil weeks old, the next e-uM jn-.i 
run alone, and the eldest was four years of age. 
They made plenty of work, ns Story know very 
well'; but -he il-.-L.-riMin.-l. in ih... [.resent stale of 
their ...l.iirs, lo di-charge the girl win 



WEDDELL HOUSE, 
CLEVELAND, Onio. 

J p. ROSS. F — 
Of LonlrriUo, Kj. 

"^SPENCER HOUSE, 
CINCINNATI, Onio. 
PRATT .V MF.TCALgF,rao r nir.Tori°. 

if, Fogg. 

;nqD " BABNTJM'S 

g T . LOUIS HOTEL, 




55w^9TOEE! 
MANSFIELD & WOOD, 

WD01.E3AI.E ArlD RETAIL 

CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

SoleArjenlsferllieBelnof 

•SUPERFINE CLOTHING, 

S Zasdioi «o^^ IEB F! l* ,nBBT ' 

. ■ ii ' ' 

S T O G ^ 
EVER EXHIBITED IN OaLrFORHIA, 

ALL THB LATB3T 3T5TLBS 

- ■--, «» '^■7 3«HBt * » «» 9 
J ta3 BTO ,v.rirtjor8»p..tora-ii*r 
FUBNISHIHG GOODS. 

Water-Proof Boots. 

PARTICULAR ATTENTIOM "J^™^^^ 

OFFICERS" OF C THB B ABan! AND NAVY, 

■„,.! ..II ■■Ii'. ivi'h Hii- Bert Quality 

KADE IH THE MOST APPROVED STYLE. 



J. C. EDDY & CO.'S 

IS THE PLAGE TO BUT TOUR 

HATS, CAPS ^ 

ui nlshinc Goods, 
Gentlemen's Wearing Apparel, 

AT LOWER PRICES 
oilier EinMliJinieat In Uw Statu 
rTDdnelvM, "I tb^r &laolL>liawnt ' 



TO THE LADIES! 

rpUE ....Ifnlgiiri eaj 1^.1 r«rfrrf«ipl«"Ud OMOrBn, 



''hots and CHTXDEEK'S CLOTHLSO i 
LADIES' DKESSTIUUMINGS, GLOVES, &c, 



0. NORCB03S, 



MIMTAS-aT 300D9. 

BEQDLA-rtON 8WOKD3 ; 

BKOtTLATlOS BELTS ; 
3. B. B1MU1ATI0S 3AHIIE3 ; 

I'l'.vui.irni^, KiiBncii'Ki!ir->, ctc. 

. v*Sll 1m iold Qt redacco ori^C- 

D KOKCR0S3, 



MASOISJ-T-O REC3-AL1A. 
APRON S L , U S A sTl E S° AN^D JEWELS, 
1 b. C N0R0RO3S, 



01 hill 


avail an 


hi, , 


earalop 














nfN 


laotaba, 




brirfbt 


adL 


ugnln E -«ata 


Poaee be niih t 




Uajrtl 


11 l : . l 1 ■ 




:lhsro, 


In hi) 


ore, and 






Onlh,. 


















111 thai 


car .M i ni.-.N ., 1, t , 


Still m 


rhoarli 


mho 


an clingioi 


Still o 




mdoi 


Tln(. 


Bhoitl 


■hall v. 




tOfalher, 




jl.Ddl. 


tho 




Id Uh 




of P. 




lata 


i Jn .i -r 


,..,ir 


"Arraa. 



PETER JOB'S 
Confectionery and Ice Cream Saloon, 

ail Washington street,— Plaza, 211 

niucK bvildiho. 
rjp- speoiaiTnotiob. ^ffl 

TUE nell anown PBTER JOB^ - 

„. ill.. ] -l us iur.>l"iariirlulbolnd' 
-„ ^ntlgtnllcuiDnorSaoFtanclMon 
illy.il 



nil JLL'l..-.: !■■£ Eb^iasolvOI. 

BreaUast, Sinner and Sapper, 
■ tho " Bilhif Fare," and »1 Iho uwt reuonat 



Odd Pellows' Lodges and Encampments 

.-. -^ .ULL SETS, ., >^ £ ri™ Sa ™ _b*r. 



., . .. , . .iu miJfcJi-j^ „--■-■ - 

aLuiit ih"ir future plans and prospects. Tuej 
wetci quite nlone, too; for Mrs. Norton'.'.^ i" iht 
houii.-. l"i-ily makiue preparations for the neit 



ietermined thanaeted upon, though 
KJiWsrdrVninri-iraU-d against Si in «ry strong 
m«, telling hid Wife that bhe uas uiidcrtakiog 
tij.-' uiui;li — thai -1 1 ■_ n-u'il'l oven)., hi-rsi'lf. and Ijc 
laid up But Mary pleasantly comhaltcd all his 
I fears by telling him that nvrciac always agreed 
Edward wilh bvr - on,1 . th » l il w ?V. l . d be no hnrda,li P ,0 "" 



day, and Mr. H.. 
" 'Mory, dear,' i 



said Edward,' t'e 

to.Tn" ifteVtainij used all jour life lo this pretty, 

-i.ii-.-t'c'.ttagB. U i> tuch a hustling place, 

too, a gTcat deal mora so Hun L It will 

seem such a change.' 

• : 'Noser fear, Kdivard,' replied Mary, ' I think 
I could make myself bappy anywhere, with some 
one to love ; and, besides, l shall llnil se much lo 
do, that I shall have no time to wnste u[>ou dis- 
contented musingj.' And Mary s oyca looked so 
bncht and hopeful, that Edward's misgiving 
niaB*a away, and he thuught if lore could make 
hurbappy.it should not bo wanlin 
t-it'iiTdi-iioKd t-j lj'- d^iTTidiiii; an 
by dilncultiosibut, since " 
tfiry, ho had been Often ro 
hopeful spirit, and choere* 

"Tbo neit day they wi 
itcik wcro sollled in their 

Tnere Mary found (ns sho Uaa naiaj piemj « 
employ her time and thoughts. Edward (wbt 
hail servud his apprenticeship to a bookseller and 
stationer) was now a shopman in the establish- 
ment, and was much esteemed by the principal 
of thu concern for his uniform steadiness and at- 
tention to business. His boose was near Ihe 
■hop, so that ho always came homo tr u *- - 
and rery comfortable meals they we 
was an cacellent housewife, and, that- 
only i slender income, sho Was dote 
what thoy hud should be laid out lo 
■anUge, a 



lit upon her two ehildrcn. 
n a day or two Edunid discovered that Tom, 
lhc"sho P -hov, was of very little uii; to him, that 
during a great part of Hie 'hy he was nil.-, and, 
therefore, in misehief. He n-a.-i ;! .: l: ..i-.Jiii-ly lu- 
lled in a similar si tun lion, which Edivi.ul lm ily 
inured for him at n neighboring grocer's, and 
is two considerable items were nt onco sub- 
,cled from tho weekly oanondiluro. 
■'Mary seemed at no loss lo di^oicr ways and 



Takk llfir.o. — What iito you Inokinp down 
or! Hold up your bead ! Tho world is just 
_is wide lo you an lu iitli.i-T, Ein.l yuu nre just as 
cood ns any otto — take hold! liemwnbur tho 
" * ill set with jewels, orented thoro and 

...... urod by tho thin voporn that melon- 

elinly dreams l.i'^el. Wlmt fnolish dreams! 
Tnko hold! and wnit not for circumste.nc.ps, 
limping doorkoapen uf r.n.uvu. , -.jm . liii.r 
" i their fhvot hy slnnding still — tako hold 



is toh 









fully , 






"1 V"' 



aliforniB Butter, F 
isr Partial and Bal 



rnnlsririll b 



nolly ntl. 



OY'S PIHE OY'S. 

THE luiurj of a trot*! "Oritur" 

-anenulno '•Cu.ciVi.r;" iva. 

„ jrjourltaltlaioraor Now Yorker 1 1. 

il, .■..:!. 1 ■■! which in .I;.; ■'■■ ".■■■nil 



<kil lo bv th 
77 A 3to 



TYPE FOUNDBY 
PBINTEBS' em:jpoj3.I"0"m:- 

W. HAGAR, Jr., & Co., 
38 ODlil rtreel. New York City. 

milK,-.i'.-e,il.r.,l.-i,,-t,,i,,l,i-.Ml..'|-|i.Til. HI..; Pritr.c; 

1 ,, ; ;..,.. ; .■.:..-...M ; .Li,,rri,. : ,l...y.r-.. ! ,Tlj-. i :.'».li- p.t-j 

ijCIlCBi:' I'XiFriOVti.-JELJT 
„1.:,T, !.»..-■ ..■1|..tm„,- nn.l c..|.;i„l tar, c.mraiuid [ Mai tail 
U,er b.ve Ibcnili.™ u nef|iLilKl l^mllll-. fi.t proJiieiag 

erlor CMollraee .nd ilambUilJ. .wl for MppljlBJ au 



'w™"l.DCnl^ev"rynnlclo needed in r. Pruabig OffiM." 

Itlucnlne ami Hand ^ lnD ^ 

Wk. i PRESSES. { ssssa 

CHASE'S DIAMOND PRESS ^^ 



complain! ugl J, th 

than ever, when uu «un .u«(= 

ally bo was) to leave tho shop fo: 

Mary was always ready to take his place, and 
with pleasant manner mid active hand to wait 
npon the customers. And during a\{ ilii . turn- 
lie househt 




...rtably dressed- 

Mary was in the midst of a 



loved h 




Englh and f..t.tl.- ■■■.>.... 
. of a few months, from the effects 
and attention, Ed word's business 

'Ugglicg beginner, In; f'JMInl liilnn-lf n 

...shed tradesman. And lie felt and 

dged that this prosperous turn In bis 

is mainly attributable to the influence 

ilcad of li.iiMnl- 



l'-.-ol I 



.in an y.'ur pluvv-i. Lmik mil rm |..ri^.-r fr-.m 

... dull (:liiiiiilii : r.H of -liimberin^ goniu-, u| 

e world nl Inhor, but t" tVnth and lake, bold— 
seo bow tho busy millions work I Thoy aro 
ei,i-niii[! their doily bread and sturing away tho 
iriimbi'. If uctivo bauds con bring comfort, 
wealth and pusition, wlmt cunnot ntlive rninda 
do? If tho grosser part of man's structure con 
suBloin the vitality of tho whole, what cannot 
tho polished members of tho ionei temple 

Take hold and lot tho mind labor; hire it out 
to a il.'.-inililn object and keep it bent over its 
dnty, liko the smith over bis anvil, from thn 
dawn until tho lamps of tho firmament arc lit, 
and until indulolioo has long been upon tho 
journey of sleep. Let misfortune oomo; lot 
envy blow upon yuu its poiwmiius brontlt. and 
taint your sphere with calumny ; let age spread 
thick his wrinkles, and failuro roll ranks and 
floods into your path— heed them not, take bold 
and bold on! and though you ara forced to 
lodgo with ruiu until it makes you gray, go for- 
ward and let tho grout object of your bopo bo 
tho solo object of your lifo. 
Taku hold! tho glory of a purpose is its oc- 

■ ""l'li'l ."I- N.-i.T ,r,.jriil.-i.' Ijj. ■ rtr: L . 1 ! ■ |..r 

gold, nor honesty f„ r office, and never hesitate 
to run u race wh,.,, tin., reward is great. Obluin 
lir.-t i. v your .han>l., that which will obtain honest 
broad— then free thu mind, And always think 
and feel that yoa -— - 
whan it 



,„, bo fan ail by tbo. 
inthaSbcll. Bmllcd .! 
ean .tile, at ■■DAM'.' 
lia appetizer, bufora a 



MERCHANDISE, &C. 



V, had 'e... 



to make the Word'of | ! 

onselor, believing that th 

, her lull, lull;, and dlli . „ 10 . 
r new duties. Hcgutsted I \, a H ith 



nHVl 


.';■ t ' 


idy o^tlJove 








■ ..,ll, 11. 




f I full I An] 


a I liavo 


ovad." 





RB MOV A L. 

WM. n. BOVEE & CO., 



ChtaSmon, QIbm™' 

Clovesi CaliforalaMiatardi 

Uaes, fr.i-.li ^roond, la n-lb. glin. 

Notmegi, Caula la man, and all klndi of Sploai lo Uu 

WM. n. BOVKE & CO., 

tE-7 mFn.i.tsitcel.ci.niororOrcgao 

MerchtindiBe for Sola by Bradshaw & Co. 



SSpSS 


:k." 




I (br 


a.'auDja' ImpwloS 


Ortm'-M "liteitUB be reeeired tor riPElt. CAKDa"^ 
ItlNTER'S BTOCK, orcvorj- klai 

Bl£0TB0rrPin*O AHD STEBJEOTTPIHO 


TYPE OOPPBH 
OIJTjporcwi.nl In el 
uau,lf dcuv6Vedln.Hi 


T l 


IS, 


o OKU Ell- 



VPftrtlealar attention ]»Id lo orders from Callfomls.'.* 
Wa. Uioui, Jr., JWSL HAGAtl, Ja., av Co. ^ - 



Pfloiflo Oil and Camphene Work*. 

( ln.H'i;_-!-.i:,.,.,n 1 ,™„Ki I ..ii.omr Front, 
UAMJl -Ai .Ti.iiY— Ti, t |..r nrrHt, Narlb Bcacli. 
UltAHCU— Ni). :>l K ."lit, !-i.-r„ii.iniu. rno onftlB 

I0,IA»1 o.j|lno. Cruda Whale Oil ; . 



ithoin. Why, 
iftcrout 



own image," iho great mold was not broke 
uud Adam left the only east! No, all tho too. 
impr^.nol Hi.. Duty, mid ihu stomp of that s 
bliuio imagti makes thn man, and bios him oln 1 



. ago makes tbo man, uatl bids him eluim 
ight 01 hcinpj ealleil a Man inde ed. 
How rnuoh nnproBtnble discussion wi ' 
prevented if [lemma were to heed tho tuj 
Loelce, who said: "One " 



n would 1 

should not dispute with 

a man who, either thr.„mb Cupidity or .,l„ 1 n, l .- 
leBsness, denies plain and visible truths." 




r\lt> ENGLtail HOAI" — Kvorj t.mllj »ba .ludlw 









■pnowh „.^... 

l-> ■|"' ] ' >'-' I llr.-«-i. H.i,.,,, ).,.( ,p(,...vl-:1^.,|,u 

W;,~U TiiI.I1', IVKilllllV.T'-nT.,,,..! !■„."., .~v,-,',i 
BruiliOn, r.i'.niiu: ..;:....■.,... ^ ,,,.i . 

b.«oo n o-.I [^-31] DHAD3IL?\V i 'crJTi 









ALCOHOL AHU TIJIti'i:vlTM:-i 



aqrpan ofta, dff^ -ej-ja fc CO., Pr^S^ 



Hop Hoots, Horse Hadistt, **■_„,.» 

-piIE vorj bort varlalj and .maliij of "^''i^ 
A any nulatlly, o.o bo (ar.ii.lio.1 bl Iha uad«r! < 

,.,.1,..,,-,,'.,,,. - A , .._||.,r,, II.-I, I. I "ip fjri'l « un |,, n 
I'.r u..i.i, ..,..- ..r M.^nlosplnntallodJofthoUaP 

U to£iM$h™£. wSrRKS. cf .be ■■B>**" r 
Or oddroModlo\VOinUl-BV£CO^ i 

Or J- A. HOBjfilT! E.-4-, Oakland, ^ 
Will bo [.rum^tly anirrorod. 



THE C A. LI IF OB 1ST I A. J? A R M E K 





bvde & co. 



/rom lip annij. 

HoantuT, Oil, Jhuij IS, ISO. 

mJ f ,u , ni = J ln £"" ■>' T oor lovalmik' mcdldnc bopins I 
my l«0 en other ar.tirtonato l-lnr> lo try iu rffMU, u>. 

™S.'j™°f i'"' : t , ;i ! ' i .-"-'. 1! - : ;'.".' ■' ■■■■' r i"Jh"^iii 

1'''- ,'.!l--.'>Jt 1 null j L.ry .U-.-T.- ■■!■'.■ ,r.»i'..nrj of IL* pklc 
■.:..- :, nib In" '■:. In .: , ■ r,l :.'. , '■ ,1 -.:'. ,' U 'J ,'■;.: 

'' '■'^?jf.™\--?K'r'' : ~i''"''' ' ■";'■■■ """'■■■' 

Iv.-;.';.;-:.':'';",:'!- :'.,'■ "I",.'. ""'"" 

j. ilSEleb, Lfcot B.at 

*>M KA.11D. SANDS, minimis Bmj 
I". --. !■ ■ 3 - - .- 1 - ■■■■:: ■..,-.;■< V.|,.- ,, ;;, :, 

■ ■- -J "- '"ll.'.r":; i <-'■:■.. -it, i„s-J ■.;.■>; b. T. 

WATTS iCn, Unjlt11I»i I- II. II DOS ■■■".' On ■■■ - 



CLOVE ANODYNE 

TOOTHACHE DROPS. 

Complain no more of Aching Teeth. 




,1 I B G T F E E M t DM A Q A I H 
R. H. VANCE, 

UiS.b, IL, roy.erioritj ,.f his I>« .-ii-rn- .«-.-!■.: 

■ ■ ■■■-,[■■ ■. .■.; .111 .,--,ii,.,]_il,_.. [ I IL- I i'Ul.Mll'U 



lb„ T-ii 

■r. i si) .11, I }■ ..I 



What is on Ambrotype T 



To 


nioi or picture lb mi »oi mak<i ofui 




iBielblog more than jhadovcd »lf? 


T.. 






mo to miam, «l»t a'tn ogrMirdeccirtd' 




■« than when vi ( « oar lam in gbu.7 




i ball labj power, ws aik main, 




ooliiiouretlreuppeBrjopUlii? 




catch each look, expression, fonn- 




wrj eve vilh lore to -mini 












■nintiiko LT*,al .ingle glaocel- 






rt-14 


B. U. VANCE, 



eslunal Banning oo.'s 
Leather depot 

Corner of Batttry una Washington itreetn, 
(D.JtCunllui'Jin,-.) SAN FttANCIBCO. 

LE-A-TT-iEIt. 

l .'I '."!'"" i 'V ,','"]'', ',7! ." ','.' ,'. : ■' T, '"" i! v. 7--«ii'>"! 

"' ■* >■- -i"--^ - ■■:■■:■. £■'['.: ; --. .■;,„"-■■!;!'." ,.,.', "'.."':.':,; 
' ;'.',; V"' "' "''"" ' 



MARBLE!. MARBLE ! I 
J. W. LADD, 

I ma: a n. as' a> as 

tJAS w- In .tore and l„r ..!«, Uu, ,^o, ,,*k , 



Spice and Wormwood Bitten. 

B -"d'o Colobralod Topic, « i onit „,,) ruToroblf 



Priie Medal look Ooid p 0M . 

T *^i3Si»V: ■ ■ ' 6! , S? I h ;? tif l kP ,D " ' " " *' Is 
:■..;' - , ■ ■ .■iiipiuiit^i'rKl-w-Jw; 

larfbi ' "" '"-■" "-iHniico Et OIf p rn »i rfJU ,t«d 

Allbt m |JLv. ran if r ,. u ,,^,, liI „ r . ,,,.,, 

i: ,,■ ■■ ,,-'"' ■■'-■'o -rirr- !■■ tli.i Ii3. c 



im ft decajed Uuth, . 
ippin-nUj imud, tab Aoodju. vin edm » .p«of rourfbjnili- 
PlspiTT^ mJ *iU Vj- A. B. 4 D. BASB3, TTbolBnlll Dru(- 







t l 


,,,\: ■>,,'-' l - c s> uinnl ' ! 


















































■ 1 1, in 














bton ODga 






IOJtol E bttiiBy'i,»ri 


Holiorin 


C that life U 


m 


"taVn 


nd Ihnltooneoplo 




















B. lb * 


oir in. p*i 




■ > 


'lin.i.-Mf 



'ball l» ONE oftou bt>L If pot TnK 
lifurnU tu obtain cvorjlbin.-. KLW, 
)EmthoD,o K li DC ,i 1 „.| 1 -. lt ,i,illri<. 

oHoo.-ivo ,l C |.„t f,„ o.ory vnlunblo 
Irai nod Cb^mlc.,1 Wo Intlto r r»- 
=nd nllnblo P..1cnl Medicine, i„ ,„„,] 

Vil llre * at " > " ,Dre "= h| T P'0-rr.Mir 






ttp U|*n nil Mglid 



WHO IS XTP 

LTTTLE. 

W™" 'wtlCr-r" *° d bal 1IcJi<lLno nl *» L0W - 

... LITTLE. 

^■flO put! np tho mat Phy.lclnru- PlrKriplionil 

LITTLE. 

^rn01.«< 1 rioiidi-t onlW [ I th e Po r 1 ,i l h 00 l c i U i t a B 7 

„ rn LITTLE. 

mn „ LITTLE. 

... LITTLE. 

CBEMiisr i:;n a['ijtiis.imjiv, 



OtiLY. Tbo ntnoonu 
ncvsintandladiibit 
be future, In tbo decre 

We hire reetirod lb 



" " ■■■' ' ' ■ ■ ■ 



.■; '-vin.; ii (.:■■! l-:J l.y [.(.■ 



.H.[„i,i-.ill,.M.|„u 
10 os, wo do not four ui opposition 



LYON t CO., Empire Bravorr, 
1QG Jtjjlo itroot, San Fmnelwo. 



0-l'tS V. HAHVER A CO., 
LEATHER AND SHOE FINDINGS, 



™V^d^ct!lbr.?r^ 

W>'j™( Stun Crnaift, draniii 
. w„.m, .'■irin"c u m™ort,fr1V T ro«: 

. i.r. .il. ■. -iii'ii '■r.,c?iln.>, VVfir^cIborroWf ■ 



Agriool total WorehorjBe. 




.„...,,.! 



Wo think 



ill. nniW°E, > \\'lI,lfj^"' '* '" mi " lt 'ie iTI " ui 
t6 - 12 J. L. POLHEMTJS- 



H R I L L, 



I-4 ; - |-'"'ir'i. IV .n.j n,T„ii, u - Mi,i,i„ u ,,„rst! 
SEEBSI BEEDS!! HEEDS!! 



ra B.aorj bum, „,.,, , „.:,,. | 



(ffl 



0. L. TAYLOR & CO., 

Sash, Dours and Blinds. 



Stair Bail, Balnelm and Newel 
Pasts, French Windows, Mnirlrlin g . 
Sash and Qlass. 
i for amtibDum .od Hot B.d, 

d Dram, Sin Franelwo ) 







JOSIAH J. LECOUNT, 

iggfoFoteign "nd Domestic ^>^g 



. PRICES, 



STATIONERY, 

WHOLEflALE AHO RETAIL,' 
AT TUE LOWEST CASI 
OOins for talo to tho Ln 
"".,°ri?'iif.'!! cl i-'' r 'V l| ' k '" d '»«", «n(fc«nj Id 

n Dr'ov.inj. ,nd 1 

Eat.lopu, n»i„ 

„ , , nod Cli.ll, Lir.,.1 
Fntur 1 ! DrawiriE and other 



IMill IV, 
ri-M-.m. 
Jli iliihe.™,,,-.. 
Tmrolin E lleika; 



r i niiimif 

llll 



moor- wjjch*" " ? £"?ff "Tloof Ajricul. 



wood and Leather Wril 
Copriog and Notari 

AOOOTJNT BOO 




MADAME 0. A. TAYLOR, 




H- S. BURGESS, 

DRUGS, ^lEMCINES, 

Pdinls, Oils, I'tTfumiTv, Brushes, ecu. 
fvo. aeo j ■■n ,.,.| 

_ _ _ (OPPOHITE THE PUOLIC BCtUAllE), 

SAOEAMEUTO. 



New Agricoltural Books. 

(ffafgta Trl[ - '"II. nil,,. H.i ,,r .,-„ nodlaluihln 
eatmwork. b=» jurt Un rLeUed b " S 
T iho Ewt, »od Ihe Iloolu ear. bo b=d at crnr 
..Eot. io San Fuocuto and Sacromrol,,; 



Stato Soelotj'. It— «,-. r,„inl, -ir 
, Sneramento. | v 71i| WAI 



X"E.-« 



\ i'M.'iiji.f : ;l',;i"".' 

■ ._. li> |.-.;r,,,l • . l.i-'i.i.pt i;' 



Carpeta, Oil Cloths and Paper Han^in^ 
0. II. SHERMAN'S "" 




L. P. Jt W. F. DODGE'S 
DOUBLE ACTING PUMP. 

TI'ESEPomp, «o donblo oclW, „J comblo. bnlh 
^flhobe«bc™ra""al "' ? rilKi i' kH . ThoPiiton; ore 
^0° C j n n' I "l . vri?b rfu t Vi'Xi ™« ot churobon.ha.no 
ra'Jer°'^'»™ ,g ,h,' n0 | C f °" l "^'r ° r t™' " Bnder « J 



".Ui,r 



B-frotlT'to tho ciHudir;'"tffo7in»rtanfo. , fc 
Konemlli.. r,.e thu. overcome -v li i tho noma 



"J that Ihero.ihould fc-0 [ea 
■r m ■■ ii ir. .itlo.it each cod 






f. tiiiii.u.i. n „r . 




DPHOLSTEHINQ DON 
' ' No. ITS J^h,oo .troot |3d d«r bolov Koarnj) 

K ^T< n ™. n rdih5'"^^"^"" ' 



BOSTON TYPE FOUNDR'. 

JfiSoiu,' !,;;'' '■■''" 1 " 1, "■" 
(.''■■■'■''■''.''.''."hAj""'''- 



mnvlie.il. 
Mi. -.ii. 



i J!-'. :;..„li„r,-!i N Y, 

Or, KKLUmil i I-.Hiiii;, 



Tho Parnicr'a Drlu. 









As tbey T 



„.,... .to MM*" 

vrlth only bovr. nr,J arrows, 
, , ... u .«o sn rosy victory. Bui ru 

;:;°^I« ib.., .... .b. b.™ 

« (be desolate region OT « r which r 
.■ Our nsrtvdid not hesitate, however, anil I 

Si°; »&.«-*'>'•" 

T» . ^oi« «.»* «~"f ib. ■;•>«« 

- "Bui. ibisvrovrcro eadly diupi».l^- f °r «o 
wcre ru.l wilb such . horricno ol .rrorrs, .«o.- 

whom vms Mr, Whitcl.y, c.pl.. of "'. ur ^°" 
n ,rlT Wo now hoia i, kTUo coonill of v.r, at. 

SS rf opo.»~«»-™*=- '""• 5 ^ 
«,* tb. portior, of o.r ...» ««W «'""'" 

».,o,«,7...r i. —,,, ^•ji b ; 

toot should make a circuit around tnc iuic, 
Souly o le* hundred yards." width, 1» °rdor 
to draw off their attention in that direction 
a jurt of us to remain, cautiously ten uro 
the K116, aid lake then, by »T*»^ JT 
among this porV- Messrs. Lipp.ncott, B ou h- 
ton.andmyselfslipped iutotbe lule, som ■** 
tonce, which being too high to SCO over, Without 
Lo elevating app^.my '« ^^'T 
„— d 10 make themselves that apparatus, by 
"S upon their rfUbW. "* » ' «« <° ™£ 
Lu their backs, in order to reconuoiter. This 
Z done; and with rifle in hand, my ^ 
upon the hammer, I Piously raised my Head 

above the UIc, when, lo! there stood several 
blaek, bushy head* of the enemy, w.thiu «ent) 
or thirty yards of me, gazing "F™ <*> D V*'}* lhal 
badgonenpon the opposite side. As quick as I 
could bring my rifle lo bear npon one of h 
bu^hy heads 1 fired, and then we, in turn.gave 
the war-whoop, and charged in hb.oi.ij ibu... 
The Indians, taken by surprise, Mt suspecung 
but that tbe whole parly had gone upo" 
Site bide of tbo break, immediately lk-d 
direction to tbe nearest hill;, leaving s 
their number dead. In Ihoir flight lo 
some were enptored, hot turned looso af, 
being disarmed, Tbeyagain rnllied.almrgelting 
npon one or the nearest hills, covered with large 
boulders, among which they had a kind of rude 
fart built of rooks, and as we ascended the bill 
tbey gave ns a warm reception with their po.s 
oned arrows. Indeed tbey hero fought bravely 
killing ono of the horses dead upnn the spot, on 
wounding the rider so severely that ho died in 
few days after-a Mr. Sallcy, a most e*cello 
mam Several of onr parly wore wounded, amoi 
whom was Mr. Lippincolt, Sueh men as Ihcsa 
were a serious loss to our small parly, as they 
could be relied upon in any emergency. Wo 
here fought the Indians the balance of Iho day, 
till the sun went down, and, yet, were unable lo 
dislodge them from their stronghold. Many or 
them, however, attempted to escape, but were 
shot down as soon as they showed themselves 
above the black and barerocks among which they 
were concealed. 

Having recovered the cattle belonging lo Ihe 
Oregon company, some of which were thot with 
arrows, wo returned, with, tired limbs, to our 
wagons, where my wife, together with Iho other 
ladies of our emigration, bad for us a good suppci 
and a hearty welcome, not anticipating the least 
fears that any ono of Iho pa' 1 ? wtis nurt l out > 
oe soon as Ihe groans of tbo woonded were heard, 
caused by the intense suffering from Iho eHcclsof 
poisoned arrows, every heart was saddened, and 
every feeling was awakened to their care and 
attention. — 

■Willi theso (.ketones, wo introduce to our 
readers Col. A. J- Grayson, in tho character of 
an early pioneer to California. Col. G- was 
among tho carUeat comers, and ho was associ- 
ated with many of tho best men of tliaso times, 

uWerBdly k '"> KQ M one of tuD Eorl y ulorcllont ' 1 
of San Francisco, and was among tlio success- 
ful ones; but the usual perils of Gro aod 
tU.J [inrl oihor Culiforniu vicissitudes, induced 
him to sank a "roral life," where v 

one tbul is di'Stued lo giWe him a nai 
fame, if his life is spared, second only to that 
_onethatrJlnalionBhuunr. Col A.J.Grayson 
has already won for himself tho name of tho 
Audubon of tbo Pacific, as his works will show, 
add this, wo. without a prerious training otliur 
than thul which nature gave, him by wondering 

lu lid year 1854 his attention was given lo 
tbo Birds of Iho Pocifio, ill Ills gunning OMJOr- 
aions. and the Koad Runnor orreatod his attun- 
t^ou ; (Ms ^'"u he copturoa, and huing struck 
by lis singularity uf bubit and obutticlor ho 
iketobea it wilb Itla pencil nud then painlod it 
Thi, was his first effort; ono or two others 
wen: in like manner painuil uud hung up in his 
library, without ovor thinking ho would continue 
that pursuit — it was mere pastime. Thesu 
drawings worn aeon by a friond, and ho was 
urged to exhibit them at tho Statu Fair held ut 
Sacramento in 1855 ; ho did bo ; they woro ac- 
knowledged as works of groat merit, arid tho 
first prize of n rilwr oup was awordoirhim. 
This .'"t only surprised, hut encouraged him, and 
he gavu now effort and more oare to this pursuit, 
cii'J bis p inductions uttrnolod groat notice. The 
S million inn luaiituto ol Washington roenguiiwd 
li- works, and sought Iho aid of his pencil and 
hi csh, and thin owoko his genins. Al thu lata 



EDUCATION^ 

BBnioiB Higi School. ^ ^ 

nent nhility in 'his li" 1 '- | rpmsTnililuU™, bniwrli ■th» M g" 1 ™^,, A . M ,'l 
supported by abundant I X uod« «ha *"^J*» ipm a Sraduaie o 



..i„|... L,r.,„i„^; ,,,,.1 tl„,., .t([. I,v ^'['- '' 
.".kc. koorra W> «"i"o»> »""'? ™ ""' '"" 
1V„ ' ,....- «■,■ .b»ll b. ..pporioJ by .*»»"» I *."•,' V; 

,„ fi .o, r , „l..u .. »y >. to. i»a ■» «*i I "»»«?«««» 

lib. oop.rl.oot of Orr.ltboh>By.»™ A "* , bon 

'Tof or.y™ i. a..ti..a io »» "»«™ to" 

rill) his oifiiiiool """ ! 



DIOSCOREA BATATAS, 
sc n Cl.li.»«r P 01 "^. ,;,",'"',,! 



„, oon..omr«l.>iibhi> , „,u,o,n ■'»" » ■ [,',, ,... ..,,,„ ,.., .-■i-.:! l »:™. 1 -;.'i,SV!!i«.™ 

,° .o ™»t to >» th.t c»bf°™" " to '•" tsissss iJSS-.-T.sri 

Air.o*«:kih.tobir ( ,,of.b..r :f i- 

Ho was prepared lo leave in tho steamer I i. k , ,„,, , .,,, ,, ,n,i,is ■■ ■■ ^■^ WMt , ,... ,,»„,, ^ fllm i, h(d wil h e.,1. 

dny, but Try sodam.'^ proven ed ; h Jft2^Jffig£%R*£ 1 * l '» mV ' 1 ™^™ 

leaves ns soon as his health «.!! 1"™";. »» •«*™ lbr m *%££** 

lady accompanies him.-.md it i* but jusl.ee io n lhB „,,,,„ 

;.,;, ;„ lliB Liable )ady ho has nu md and ns- r,^^ 

*L* raroly vouchsafed to man » such an «^| ;£ g--y B 3i 

ndvcutnroui life. . li.>-,M («r *«»■■•-■ 

UUi^vv : rt |,,r^r;[ t fi .'IV,- OUT \V- 

Wo have muoh more of interest to giv< o »«™« 
waders, but want of space compels u 
till nest numb or. 



^^HrticultuhaiZ ( ^ 



Mountain View Nursery, 






TBAVELI NG. ___^ 
^^"ltaam|_Ha7igaK|in Company. 

nABRVIMO MI TED STATES M"" 
„ HEW WOULD, C.nL Bimuri etirmar • 

ASii-i.i'iT'. emit. E. 4. r™i"i 

CliM-lllKSCE. 

\vj..~.is >.,,»[ ; -: r . 




SJtnS) 




«5iS«8«3» 



SAN FMNCISCO, CAHFOBMA, FRIDAY HOMING, FEBRDAOT 27, 1857. 



Kljc California farmer 



tSD JOPIIVAL ( 



By Y7ABHEN fc O 



te^Esr 11 



S*i=it. 1- 






Agricultural Renews and Essays — No. 4 

Agricultural Societies. 

of the Califarni* Slats Agrinoltonil 

arlorly Journal ol Aerlonlture." 
■MoniiajLiofthoB^MAerioijltLrilioclDliDfEngliini 
V Mas is intended to be a social being ; to confer 
.by his individual pursuits benefits upon society ii 
general, and to receive from society bcneEls it 
relaro. There is no art or profession In which he 
cEic-iij-':, in which Uc does not minister to the com- 
mou good, as well as to his own; nor any employ- 
. tnent which tie undertakes, in which knowledge 
beyond the scope of his own observation is not of 

Kdrnits the assertion, nnd their c 
confirms it- A little considorati 
sbie any one to perceive, that in no occupali 
individual effort, unaided, and isolated from those 
who ire engaged in the same business, more likely 
[ to result iu abortive, rather than successful at- 
liemptsto promote the general interest of others, 
or of ourselves, than in Agriculture. Henea tho 
[advantages of Agricultural Sueieliea. To use the 
Boloquenl language of the President nf out Califor- 
nia Society : "It does a man good to get acquaint- 
ed with men whom he excels, and quite as much 
with men who excel him- Iu the ooo case, it 
kindles a laudable pride r in the other, it otrength- 
'.easth.it nugoauiniity which gives to others their 
dee." 

Bnl the benefits of Agricultural Societies, when 
properly conducted, do not slop here. They have 
^ been made to farniah information of a much more 
i extensive character than one can expect to derive 
from corners* tia in with his neighbors, and a mere 
acuuaiiitwe with the appliances nf Agriculture, 
within the petty limits over which local associa- 
tions exercise supervision. I consider, therefore, 
that oa the present occasion, when our Agricultural 
Society proposes to ask from the Legislature of 
this Stale increased aid to enable it to carry 
'those objects, which it ought to be assisted 
prosecute in a vigorous manner, that tho peoph 
California should also be aware of what they have 
a right to expect from a Society which they 
called upou to support, and be fully convicted of 
■the efficiency with which it is conducted, and the 
■'■manner in which the funds have hitherto been 
applied. 

To enable thorn to Form eomo conclusion in 
►tho matter, tbo Society has this year very 
properly published on official roport of its 
Trim.- ;,i ti'iru, and given an ample detail of tho 
Generally lalmri'in.-i jir.u-n-ili[i,'i r,f iha several 
co mini ii..."-, ^vlin v, r ...r-' ..-inj'l'.yed in Ihn per- 
"forrnnuee of the .liiY.i-._pil duties, which they 

were respectively called upon to discharge. 
', The first and most prominent labor under- 
takon by the Society, was to award promiumH 
for Ibe best Farms, Gardens, Vineyards, Or- 
a, &o., over tbo whulo State. 
Herculean task; nnd every oao 
obliged to admire tbo manner, in which tho 
itteo appointed to perform that onerous 
luly have discharged it. 
They commenced at the Mission Dolores. To 
cssrs. Sonntag &. Co. tlioy gave great praiso. 
lii'V iunpE-cteJ the well. arranged grounds of 
Mr. Center. They called at Mr. 
iDonnoH's. They paid a visit to Mr. Walker; 
d made a sort of general Inspection of tho 
in San Francisco. PromSanPraneisoo 
i*J r sailed in the steamer for Sacramento City; 
id they .vent on, traveling over [ho whole 
'tato, having a kind word for all, going from 
nnd from homo to housa with 
"ration, an thoy witnessed tho 
Iflcossful operations of our agriculturists and 
loners, and with an untiring devotion to tho 
• ; n which thoy had engaged. There ia 
instanco in which 1 would not feel proud 
tting-overy word which thoy have writ- 
It being inconvenient for any other 
nocra to visit I#os Angeles county, tho 
Boiding Secretary (Itov'd Eli Corwin?) no- 
— inied by Davis Divine, Esq., made a visit 
• lower country." There, thoy worn not 
out with Inking notion merely of tho farms 
i Broom, on iu duty bound, hut of a littlo 
Balance also, which thoy iotroduoo by way 
n Op'uode, which it strikes mo thoy might 
aiitlcil. -X two.ycnr old griiily having 
nugbt in tbo bailuy-fiolfl tho night pro- 



of tho 



vions to our arrival, tho natives belonging to 
the establishment amused themselves, just after 
wo oamo up, by tying tbo fore-leg of a bullook 
to the hind-log of tbo bear. After several tos- 
sings and hugging", while wo were faring sump- 
tuously at the table af tho Dnn, his hoarship, 
we were informed, took just one horn too much, 
and died from tho effect of nn eitompornry 
bowel complaint.* 1 Tbo traveler Bruoo relates 
with horror, bow tho natives of the barbarous 
country of Abyssinia, nut unlike our committee, 
iudulgo unfeelingly in their festivities, while tho 
living nnimal, on whoso flesh thoy nro feasting, 
is bellowing and bleeding to death at thi 
door. But not one word of censure is bnard 
from our reverend visitor; but a low joke I. 
tbought so good, that it must bo included in th( 
Offioinl Boport. How different «oro tho feel- 
ings and conduct of Captain Brawn, as describee 1 
by Scott in his Guy Mannoring! When the 
poor badger, which tho honest Dandio Dl 
■as hunting after bis own fashion, bad 
onsly withstood tho repented nssa 
whole peak of his "popper and mustard" tur- 
ners, the heart of Brown was so melted as tt 
make him interpose and ask bis life. It is trur 
Dandio was surprised at tho proposal, but hti 
readily cenceded tbo request. "Wo will lug- 
mark him," ho said, "and nobody will toooli 
him after that, for be will bo !;i 
Captain's brock. But Lord! ma 
caro for a brook 1" How different 
feelings of Unolo Toby ! "Do not bo afraid, I 
will not kill thee," said my Unolo Toby, as ha 
opened tho window to allow a largo fly, which 
hod been buzzing ahuut fnr soma time, to es- 
cape. "God help then ! poor fellow, I will not 
kill thee, thoro is room onough In this world for 
mound thee toot" What can tho eiviliied 
habitants of tho Atlantic States and of Europo 
think of as, when thoy read such unfeeling and 
■necessary anecdotes I 

It may be doubled, however, whether it is ab- 
solutely necessary for tho Society to sand forth 
their omissarics on such errands; or at all events, 
a accomplish the work of inspection in the way 
rbich thoy do. The two great Agricultural So- 
iotics or Great Britain seldom ondcrtako, with 
ill their wealth, such extended investigations — 
such matters being left almost invariably in the 
hands of local Branch Associations in connection 
ilh theparent Society. True, there is no reason 
by we should imitate them, or any other Socio- 
■s. But why lay on the shoulders of our Com- 



-i task, ■hich c 



i be n 



sily, and more efficiently discharged in another 
ay 7 

This is not the only alteration which I would 
propose. The whole affair looks as if all tbo 
energies of tho Society were expended in gcttiog 
State Fair. Indeed, I very much doubt 
scr tho Agricultural Essays, received by the 
Society, were looked upon by tho Committee who 
inspected them as other than a sort or model toyi 
m exhibition— to bo oxamined, and treated, as 
xereises written by tyroa for tho approbation of 
those who wore competent to judge of stylo. On 
this point the Society apparently stands in need 
of information, nnd wants reform. What conld 
o use of tho Society asking to havo such es- 
says presented by their authors, by tho first day 
of August, and then through their cominittco 
ilating that thoy bad '-only read them once in o 
iursory manner!" There can bo hut one conclu- 
iion— the essays most have been villainously 

In England, as well as in Scotland, Agricultural 
Essays are looked upon in a very different ligat- 
ion Monthly Council, No. 5, nf tho Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, Mr. ETelyn 
" ison,M. P., President, in tho Chair, Mr. 
Thomson, Ohnirman of the Journal Committee, 
reported that tha Judges of Essays had made the 
ing adjudicotinn : To Mr. Thomas P. Ja- 
n, Factor for Mr. Gordon of Ellon, Aberdeen- 
(Scotland), the prize of forty sovereigns 
I), Tor bis Essay on the Chemical results bu- 
pcrinduecd in uc.vly deepened soil by Atmospheric 
action." (Maguct of Nov. 10, 1850.] Uore, our 
itteo era not content with a simple adjudi- 
cation, but proceed to quibble about stylo; and 
gravely tell the public, that on the real subject 
which they were called upon to consider, thoy are 
impotent to decide. And tho 'general Com- 
i, probably actuated by tho spirit of Caleb 
Baldorslon, Tor the honor or their house," receive 
their report. "'jHuku ilrange, 'lira* patting 
strange. But thoy did so. And.why did thoy 7" 
omo wicked fellow. "Take Hamlet's no- 
'says another, " Thrift, thrift, Horatio!" 
There was no other way to avoid paying away too 
money, and the society had prudently ap- 
3 to their Prize List a proviso, In which 
thoy stated, " Tho Judge* appointed will in every 
ca withhold premiums on animals or arli- 
clrt, which iu their opinion are nol worthy, 
though there bo na compstition." 'So you Sec," 
continues our friend, who most be a very bad 
to speak so Irreverently of dignUiei, " thny 



had not only provided a toop-huto of escape, 
through which they might pass, and skulk » 
curdy behind the respectable Sherman Day, bi 
abroach largo enough for a coach -and -six to drii 
through, with the same worthy gentleman 
mounted on tho top of it" I confess, I feel 
ashamed to mention such thing;, especially as I 
am in some respects a party concerned. But 
people will talk. 

The Show! the Shaw! too much attention to 
the Show, and not enough to the graror duties of 
nn Agricultural Society. Even ladies must bu 
exhibited on horseback. Why is this done 7 1 
wilt answer the question myself. At the conclu- 
sion of tbe Anglo. French War, when the allied 
sovereigns of Europe paid a visit to England, out 
of respect to a people who had done so much to 
subdue tho Great Napoleon, the Emperor Alexan- 
der of Russia was one of tho most courteous, and 
most deservedly popular. lie was everywhere 
among the people; and seemed to take a delight in 
ii'itni.'.:>uic lliclr humblest exhibitions, and par- 
taking in their eve ry-day aino seine nts. On one 
occasion, ns he Was walking along tbe s tree ts, he 
observed theowner of a petty monarch' .-- Iiil.iiin.; 
his ..leplhinl.., nil'] "ili.-r r.-ihl .-mi mills, at the Inw 
price of One shilling, it struck bin! that he would 
like to see the effects of such sights on the wonder- 
loving Englishman. So bo walked up the steps, 
and paid his shilling like the other visitors. T 
exhibitor nt once recognized him, and concluded 
turn his visit to good account. So, running oi 
side, and seizing his speaking-trumpet, he i 
noanced as loud as lie could bawl : " Unusual 
opportunity I Thepricc is raised to tw.i ~hilliiign 
hot yon may now see, in adJiliou to ibe Elephants, 
the empernr of Russia — one shilling lor the wild 
beasts, aad one for the emperor. Only two sh.il- 
linu'-, l.nii.-H ami gentlemen, for seeing the elephant, 
and the other wild beasts, and the emperor o! 
Russia t Walk up, ladies and gentlemen." Our 
ladies, ou these occasions, ore used as a sort of de- 
coy-ducks, for the purpose ol drawing people to the 
m sorry that they should allow them- 
selves to bo used for such a purpose ; especially as 
tho " man wot owned the donkey " gets as high a 
premium as the best nf them. 

These objections may bo considered as of too 
trifling a nature to ho gravely entertained. 

also grave objections to bo brought 
against tho manner in which tho affairs of the 
State Agricultural Society havo been managed, 
I observe that Fiocbo, Baycrqua & Co., for the 
benefit of the Society, and to cnablo them to pay 
il premiums promptly, cashed Slate 
Scrip to the amount nf $1000; B. Davidson, of 
S.5'00; and that other respectable Bankers, 
Companies, were equally liberal and accon 
dating. Now, how did the Society make their 
premiums payable? By appointing some 

iking Houses ns their Bankers 7 and by 

taking caro that tho Corresponding Secretary 

should, immediately after tho adjudication had 

'ten place, forward certificates to the parth 

io had obtained premium*, containing an ord< 

such Sinking Hnnso (in San Francisco) Tor 

airpayment? No I Tho Society are contei 

with publishing in the OxLironnin Fxnsicn 

that "all premiums would bo promptly 
paid at sight, nn application to Dr. J. 0. Cobb, at 
Join." But who is likely to go lo San Josi 
premium of five dollars? or ten dol!ars7 oi 
fifteen dollars? or flftyl I would like to knov 
toy of tho minor premiums are still nn 
paid, and in the hands of the Trcasaror7 Tbe 
Stale has generously set apart for Iho use of Ihi 
Society an yearly sum of §5,000, on the exprtsi 
condition that tho wholaamouut shall bosnnually 
paid out in premiums, and not on any account 
used for other purposes. II tha whole amount 
any one year, been actually paid as 
tha balance does not belong to tbo 
State Agricultural Society, nor to its officers, but 
tho pcoplo of tbe State of California; whoso 
money it really is, and for the proper distribution 
of whieh, tho olBco-boarors of the Agricultural 
Society ore only trustees, 

I think it would havo bean well, for tbe satis- 
faction of tbo public, that tho Society, when they 
concluded to publish on Official Report, should 
havo prcaontcd at tho same time their accounts 
in full from its commencement; showing tho 
irholc of their real disbursements, and for what 
purposes they have been applied. Tho State 
)ught to give far more than 65,000 to the annual 
support of the Agricultural Society; for such nn 
institution properly conducted would bo the 
making of tbo State. But the people havo n 
right to get > little more insight or tho Society's 
than thoy now have, before thoy give 
single cent; and thoy should also bo 
assured that their business is ennduated, In a 
way becoming tbo character of California as an 
icnltoral Slate, and indicative of an amount 
itclligenceinfcrinrlo no portion of (he civilized 
Id. At present our Society is ralhor behind. 

AcIFlK'uLI. 



gles, Nourse, Slason & Co. 
imported Tram Scotland, tho 
flist subsoil plow over in tho 
United States. Although an 
effective implement, it was 
-- implicated, 



ic nnd costly 




the public, tha 



and tbo 

refrom made a 

1 capicily, bu' muoh 

iction, better adapted 

is price. Jt being well 






lightoi , 
lo practical 

induced to 
boon used with 



make several sizes, which h 

li -fiction in different 

The subsoil plow follows d irectly after and in 

thu channel made by the plow turning the surface 

ining and pulverizing the lower soil to 

any desirable depth, without bringing it to tho 

""'lee, Tbo subsoil plow is spec i oily valuable 

nds whore tho top soil rests upon hard-pan 

i few inches below tho surface ; and in lands 

stiif clay or other tenacious soil. Although 

at llrst thought it may seem a paradox, yet in tho 

Win 



working of such lands the useof (besiibseil plow- 
is of great advantage, both in dry nnd wet sea- 
sons. If permitted to do so, plants will, in a dry 
season, extend their roots deeply into tho earth ; 
and by use or tho subsoil plow the stiff under snil 
or bard-pan is opened and pulverized, eo as to 
promote thn ascent of moisture from below, as 
well as permit tho toots of vegetation to posh 
lower dawn, and away from tho more parching 
influence of tha sun : again, lands of a stiff com- 
pact soil, are in a wot season, naturally too cold, 
clammy and moist ; but by being deeply loosened 
and opened, the excess of moisture filters below, 
tbe surface soil thus relieved is made light, mel- 
low and warm,and tbecrops prosper accordingly. 



SnnsotL 1 
Tins plow i 






A garden that ts well kept, is kept easily. You 
must conquer weeds, or weeds will uonquVr y..u. 




steal. Its 

fects are to disintegrate 

■ ii ;-)il at considerable >lis- 

nce each side as it passes, 

ith much greater ease, and 
a bettor meaner than tho 
subsoil plows which raise 
the soil higher, as it leaves 
il better disintegrated, and 
less in lumps, admitting tho 
light and air more complete- 
ly and equally, tt is found 
'- double a sod corn crop, by passing after tbo I the unturned soil and allow tho roots to spread 






t break in 



olpr. 



-., to loosen | freely. 






Te:-:t Book on Agriculture for Schools 

We have received a copy of this invalnablo li 
tie book, " Waring's Elements of Agriculture 
from tha publishers, Messrs. Applaton & Co., of 
Now York, and wo are delighted with iL 

This book has been introduced into Iho Fubli 
Schools, of several States, by acclamation. 1 
presents to students tho science of agriculture i 
so pleasing and simple a garb, as to win their al 
tcntion and interest, and lead them, stop by step, 
to appreciate and lovo this noble science. 

This work is invaluable, and should 
every family, so thot children may bo permitted 
to learn important truths. It is a work also thi 
should bo introduced into tho Public Schools 
every State of our Union. This work is ded 
ealcd to Prof. J. J. Mapes, Esq., by tha author, 
pupil of tho Professor. Wogivaa brief introduc- 
tory address of the author to Ih 
opening of tho hook, showing tho purpose of tho 

This book Is presented to you, not as a work of 
science, nor as a dry, chemical trcatit 

" iho more simplo operations by 

ices many results, so common 

observation, that we aro thoughtless ni 

urigin. On these results depend tbo oils t- 

of man and tho lower animals. No man 

should be ignorant of their prod act ion. 

In tho early prosecution of tbe study, jou trill 
find, perhaps, coining to relieve its tediousness ; 
but, when the foundation of agricultural knowl- 
edge is laid in your mind so thoroughly that you 
know the character and uso of every stone, then 
may your thoughts build on it fabrics of such vi 

there will bu opened hi you a new „,:,.?,, 
mure wonderful and more beautiful than the ou 
ward world which exhibits Itself to the sense 
Tims may you live two lives each assisting in thu 
njojmeiit of tbe other. 
But you may ask tho practical oso of this 
Tho world is made up of littlo thing*," saith tin 
proverb. So with the productive arts. Thi 
■I'll" '-■neine c.iii.inU of many parts, each part 
km; ii-nir composed or atoms too minute lo be 
d t kci._J by our observation. The earil, il :ll in 
;ill Hi -.li.litv onci life, consists entirely of atoms 
too small to bo [icrcoivod by tho naked eye, each 
Lie p.iriiclo being nn aEgregmUnn of thousands 
tnMiiuent elements. The crop of wheal, whieh 
the In ni.r raises by his labor, and sells for money, 
is produced by a combination of particles equally 
— ill. They are not mysteriously combined nor 
igularly, but each atom is taken from its place 
of deposit, and carried to Its required location in 
tha living plant, by laws ns certain as thoso which 
regulate Ibu motion nf tho engine, or tho revolu- 
tions of the — "■ 



together 



ncss of tho practical farmer to put 

hesu materials, with tho assistance of 

o may learn her woya, assist her action, 

A i or ho may remain ignorant of her 

operations, oRon counteract her beneficial inllu- 

ences, and nltcn faiL 

A knowledge or the inner world of material 
things about us will produce pleasure tu the 
thoughtful, and profit to tho practical. 



The FAnaiEBB' PnoFprcrs.— A correspondent, 
writing from Santa Cms, 21st insl., says that they 
havo had plenty of rain oflate.and farmers 1 pros- 
pects are very fair, for good crops, tho coming 
in. We could giro an hundred Instances, all 
the Stale, where tho same feeling prevails, 
correspondents from every section write In 
amo cheering strain. The crops of the past 
hare paid well, and tho future is full or 
bright hope for the fanner. On this strong 
basis we can rest as a sure guarantee or coming 
prosperity to our State. 



The Champion of the Turf In California. — 

Sen. Taylor. 
That California has shown fino horses, and 
fast horses, no ono can doubt, for there is no 
Slit-.: in tho Union that bos recorded bettor 
races, or races showing morn bottom, than has 
our State. Tha lato two Jtucos nt the Courso 
has shown, that wo havo hero in California, 
horses, thai, for speed and endurance, cannot 
bo beaten, if thaj nan bo equaled, by any raco 
on record. The first great trial of this cham- 
pion that occurred, secured him the envy of 
every competitor. Wo givo below tho tiino of 
that raco. 

Pioneer Coarse, Friday, February Gtb, 1357. 

Mntoh for 32,000— §1,000 n side, rain or 

shina, play or pay — for ton miles. New York 

to go to wagon, andGon.Tayloras ho plenses. 

J. M. Duniols' g. s. Gen. Taylor (to sulky)....l 

G. N. Ferguson's b. g. New York (to wagon).. .2 




Ui 



s provoked another trial, 
ist without a parallel. Tho result of 
re givo below, from tbo Town Talk: 
_ _jo, Saturday, February 21st, IB57— 
Match for S4.0UU; $2,000 a side; to go in 
harness thirty miles — to rule. 

Mr. J. M. Darnels names g. s. Gen.Tuylor 1 

Mr. G. N. Ferguson names B. g. Hattlor. 2 



1st mile 3.09 
2d " 3.03 C.17 
3d " 3.17a 9.344 
4th " 3.17 12.514 
5th " 3.134 10.05 
6th " 3.13 19.23 
7th " 3.10 22.39 
8th " 3.1D 25.58 
3.234 29.214 

3.21 32.454 

3.22 30.f~" 



3.2.i 



1.32J 
43.044 
■|i;.:.l24 
50.114 



Wholol 



53.434 

• 3.42 57.254 
' 3,33 1,00.584 
' 3.354 1,04.34 

' 3,46 1,08.20 

• 3.50 1,12.10 
1 3.48 1,15.53 

' 3.4Q4 1,19.144 

1 3.554 1,23.40 

' 3.50 1,27,30 



27th ■• 3.53 1,35.35 



llllh ■ 
11th • 
12tb • 
13tb ' 
11th ' 
15th " 

This wus tho orowning aot of this victorious 
nuij noblo animal, and wo may say that Gen. 
Taylor stands before tha publio ns tho fastest 
racing stud oh tho Pacific Coast. 

lut whilo wo make thoso roaords of tho tnrf, 
oannot bat fool that such tests of tho cn- 
inco of ibis noblo animnl nppears to as a 
3ios of inhumanity— a oraol and useless trial. 
Five, eight, nr ton miles, would bo a. sure test, 
marking the time ns n greater distance ; nnd 
this would not subject tho animals thot do eo 
risk of lifo and UBofulnoss. 



Cornb.— Tho best euro for those troublesome 
tnings that wo have over tried, Is to soak the 



Hint lb 



ora booomes soft, and thon I 
s possible, nnd not anuso par 
tincture of tho Arbor Vile 



.. applications ...„ 
disappear entirely, but will u 
turn again. 



mil apply 



Its Improvement by Bawmuub- 
T« B M.™ S '»»»■« """j"'' "T- 
South Carolina AgricnHunat, mil ao *a 
,. „„, porlioa. .f Calif.™, «J» » . 

. l - _J minnrr of Cultivation lh =U 

subsoil! ng and con slant 



a H does & 
truths. Deep pi" 11 
cultivation will, r 



e soils and giro 



■njili oftimes i 



Bubttnct tho goodness of thi 
and the earth having; no depiha to oour 
[ S h Ihc 'reols or retain flu manures, tho labor and 



will i 



o half thrown away. Wc hope this \i 
ceivo more attention than it has ii 



-lii-M 



'°S.brn« 6 l,n.,» in lb. bellnm. .1 lb. P* 
Vom saucers ami which is freely dran-n up from 
;ijlooichletn iacli . O.v lhi< -1',-nl.- porrer rta,a- 
in B in disinlecralea mOeB. The. "rtinj 
iieU, is as.allj loo comparl » ■«»« «J™"» 
are nn doubt, innumerable locations an oter ., 
Slate, where Ihc eorlaee is parched ao as to pre- 
clude reectnhle produclieu, .bilst ,1- . " 

ots«^"»-™ 
of shallow p!< 
ibjecl I create 









Irt have spent flip days since we 1 
munion with our readers, m rcflecti. 
best nicki or remedying Ihc mc.easing m?™«J 
„| our .•..Ur.a'i.o. .oils. His hum haling n in- 
, permanent ffirlility eff«W bj 



n tendency to 
crust upon tho bottom of tho 

'l'"!l!«7oSb,roVthes.rf.ce-soll,, and lb. gradnal 
rposilion of their locked up incrednmtB to Ibis 
.uuence, is eatremoly beneficial. 



. 0,.p. Crop of Ohio »r » 
,pp..d WW . .U»».nl « lb» B»j" 
„p .t S. Obi. Vattay, <* lb.P»' >''"'"* 
thoeleot. of tho late cold .,.» »I™ tho ,.» 
aod IU premoaO. VT. «W .""' «« E ™ J"" 
.,d Pragroaair. Farmer, and pra»l lb » 
faetsa. of great moment lo tbesrowe-s of lb. 

vine in our Slolo. 

Wo ask alteulio. to lb. facts hero green, an 
„uk .to Ibatilah.nW b. r.m.mb.nd lb, 
e,enlnlh..ine-m.bin.co.otrlea .1 Europe crops 
fail rcry frequently, ..d «*, » "» b »' P """* 
of .be llniled State.-, frequent ,«•. c4 jcp. 
bo learned, too 



h account of Ihi 



nmnunts to S30,OD0,0OO, with a residue in UW 
Treasury of 32,000,000, altar tho payment of all 
demands. The Preside"' -«■- >»-' "'.• 



(il tinvins ■'■ 



IC Of lllO II! 






■d methods of ti 



,,.,... :witement con- 

ccrninK and a considerable application of. im- 
SVertiHxem amongst the cotton plan Mr. 
Ct. this will result in no ^^IffSK 
ol the , il. for the increased production will only 
*rW to »dl the amount of the exported mata- 
,,al, taken from oor Ueeoo- bearing helda ,» 
Ibe/prpclical operation of skinning £> so. w H 
be increased in the tamo ratio. " would S!«"I 
..-..,. rmllioiir- ...I' inns "f guano .-iH'lic'l totncconon 
iiHil-,,, the Soulh.if we coold al-.i n>- n"'- 
doc^wilhflnsapplicaflDU.awmpaiiy.nss^tems 
f deep and thorough plowing and sobfoilmg , so 
ft.* Eilst tb. stimulated owr-pToduntooT .of ^he 
Eoilwas yield.,,,: il.. M ^ '^P^ 1 ^ 

puTveW soil, upon which the Pl»to«uW r^ 
in mniir- rears This alone can bo eUcclcti by 
«Sng-»rid we say so confidently bccau, 
reason cb'ervation and experience, point Out 

Mill can b aecemplisbed. We know that we I 
nare prejudice and iguoranee, and tha sanctity 
which the tyranny of ancient customs always in- 
trude u[>on what are termed innovations, to eon- 
tend with in on, rtxommendilions.bu^nemtbe- 
less, it is our province to speak and reason in 
gdvocacy of our syslem, based as it is, upon ^tbe 
most praftical anil convincing foundation. jVnero 
has been progress in plowing on well as in rae- 
chonic,~.ind in planting operations, tho same. 
There is much to bo learned by those who con- 
Eider themselves most perfect. 

Let ns bcin bv statement of facts, and see 
what unbroken ground wo have npon which to 
predicate our subsoiling operalions. The i average 
depth of the cultivated soils in the South, is not 
(hrec incha. Below this, ™ 'h„ lower country, 



depth of earth broken up and 
uro'oc'rk' pulverized, it is unreasonable that, even 
f % wh,l i'i ler.ne.1 poor, it "ill, by allowing 
wider ' range to tho tooU of culliynled crops, 
greatlj inere. 



1 productii 
ng good -=' 



The practical 






the clays throi 
1 exposed on our railroad lines, is convinc- 
roof that depoiiUd red day itself ,~ rid. ir. 
fertility when subjected to the propor treatment. 
Clavs loo hold in solution, with so much loo- 
aeky.tbe essentials of fertilises, that it is always 
extremely profitable to deepen such soili 
Droaress of improvement by manuring, 
gallon of suhLiling is simpK and, i properly 
done, always effective ol beneticial rc = ul «: on anj 
Mil We believe it essential to all toil-, ami 
from experiments, intend to extend cur operations 
in this lino, until every foot of land we cultivate 
i, i,,!.,.,^,!; and when wo bare accomplished 
this wo will commence again, and add a low 
inches more to tho depth of our soil by repeating 
tho operation. 

Storing Tnrrdpa. 

Toe Mark Una Express has tho following on 

I storing turnips, etc., and details experiments, 

showing tho greater value of stored turnip; as 

.pared with those fed from the ground : 

a a recent trip through Hampshire and tbo 

ern portionof Sussex, we remarked thestcady 

urease io Ihu growth of mangold, and tho care 

with which, during the past month, it was storing 

" carlhcovorcd clamps. A few days 

_ redes will have also to ho thus pro- 

i-..,,..l r,...n the influence of frost. Wo well know 

that most of our readers are not unaware of IU0 

importance of tho root-storing system ; but few ol 

them have perhaps deemed it necessary toinsll 

comparatiTC trials as lo the-"'"'' 



must occur— while, so urisoi 
crop of tho grapo will not er foil 
seasons in Call for nio. 

Here hare wo presented to ui 
rtuablo evidences of the prospect before m 
tho cultivation of tho vino and for tho manr 
re of oar own viae. 

Wo ask also that particular notice sbouH 
given to tho wines of California, that nre now 
trading tho attention of tho public mind not 
here but in the East and over all Europe . _ 

The crape Crop of tho Ohio Valley during the 
r was a very small one,— probably not 

mn™ Titian an average of SO to 100 gallons 10 tin 
([ire The severe winter injured many of Ihu 
vif.Xuf.l.-.^rio.i.U-. Some of the Vines were 
killed down 10 the ground, and aboot half the 
buds in others were destroyed. Iho rot, or 
, ml ,,,„, :l „„ injured some of the vineyards very 
much But a bad season wilh the grapes, like 
,!!,,, fp,iii=, m.ivt be expected to occur occasion 
Experience thus far has proved that Itio 

T _..a n T!.kl H ^ orrrh AC Hll> linn 1'. flUO 



that this debt 

irtlVoxlinguishcd for the second liiuo, 

Z ent-irely lineidated in 1835-0 by 

ine of 18S8, and he recommends trial 

Congress 'take measures 10 prevent the injurious 

prosperity. The different cties,^ counties and 
'railroads, throtighoot tho On.oo aro » h 
BuorWiing condition, the banKi 
the Eastern States, 



also generally prosper- 
„, conseqxonw of tho prudent restrictions 
"on thei q r treusactions by tho sovera, L ? s- 



put upon 



.o directors. Th> 



. ■ . ,,= .!. .j :„ nas-i ihi! latter in loao. 



f,nner"esublished in 18S5 : the latta! I 
,ve a wide influence. The,' may be considerc. 
, flm indi^iMnsable complement of the frco bank; 
', e system. To tho salutary '-n-- ' — ,— ^ 

by theso ir 

cs 'of"othcr States, of « deposit 

secure the redemption of hank 

— prevent tbo 

lity of such 



■ surplus waler from descend- 
of flic cultivated crops from 
a the level character of this 






irbottoni land, K-hcic ihedepth 
and perracatjilily of thi 



of sand, there is i 
itbicb prerents th, 
log, and tho roots 
ptuelraling. Frot 
section, tho surple. .. 

wvlm,,-. Lot, collecting io partial indentations, 
l„, ■„, , , ,„).. ...-J.kil or sour ploccs, upon which 
nolhinp, hut unptolltable plants of aquatic habits 
flourish. Upon the more elevated portionsof the 
country, tho disastrous effects of onr su " " 
violent rains are more apparent ; for thi 
ing "trauim being of si iff and compact 
lows uo precipitation of the Borplus wai . 
not Undine a road downwards lo accommodate 
il=, la iuriir^).-eilic gravity, rurhesdown the 
clinations of the hills, aod, swelling into turn 
in ilu- v-ll'-ys, sweeps off, with each rain, a i 
portion ol the soil and its fertilizing cousliluent.s 
iu .-.liiViri never to bo returned by the ordinary 
processes of natore, and but too seldom by tho 
assisting aids of man. A soil naturally wet, as 
well us one naturally dry, is thus frifju'.iii'.y -m- 
choretd wilh an amount of waler pi.-ju<li.'i:il to 
the prodoetion of good crops, from theso causes 
nloac. The common depth of the soil, as we hare 
shown is by far too shallow lo allow the roots of 
our cultivate 1 trop, to penetrate Leloi. lilt; influ- 
ence of the droughts of summer, or hoi, dry tern- 
.... r. r n.-:. _.- A _.l. 'l"h™ *r. 

1 in ali seasons, exhibit 

o tho other classes of upland 

cultivated IkhK Eh'tws whot we should aUetnpt 
to make oil our linds, and what they could be 
made by proper operations of soiling and roanur- 

Wc have shown, in n former article, the fail 
that ammonia, the vital food of all plant-;,!-, f unl 
in large quantities in rainwater. Wo hare just 
said that a supe-rahumlauco of rain naler, when 
lm ,,, llU ,,|;, ,[, -.;„ ,!l- -le-.t 'Itirtiuetion tooorci 
tivaltd land^. by sweeping off ihu pith— the mi 
rowofoorEciih" What would be the effect if .,., 
Wore to break up the tenacious, impermeable, on- 
derleinj: stratum of clay— without turning op 
that clay ta tho surface— to tho depth of ono or 
two feol below our cultivated soil, by the practi- 
cable operatiou of the subsoil plow 7 Would not 
benefit bo derived by thus loosening the subsoil, 
so as lo allow ihu surplus surface water to de- 
scend, lo be held in reserve for the after require- 
ments of the crops, and at the same time storing 
up the precipitated ammonia and gradually en- 
riching that soil for after use? What would bo 
tho atmospheric influence on the soil 1 The fre- 
quent stirring of the soil is practical proof that 
the free admission of air ta the roots of ' ' 
of vital uso to Ihoir accelerated growth, 
fact, though not reflected on by many or those 
who industriously Stir tbo soil, is tho secret of 
the true benefits derived from frequent tillage. 
Ait rises readily through water, but il requires I 
great power to force it downwards. Tho loosen- 
ing of Ihe Biibsoil allows the penetration or tbo ' 
air ta the lowest limit to which tho operation is 
carried ; and this air there remains, until the at- 
mospheric change of temperature nhovc tbo sur- 
face, by natural laws, causes it to ascend, and It 
IB at this stage that it works its benefits upon the 
Crops, and In dry weather invigorates them by 
furnishing to their delicate spongctcts, or rootlets, 
tho proper nrnl invigorating fuod which It yields 
Wo ask a siuiplt qursii 



of the stored and unstored. Such trials, how- 
- have been recently completed by a Scotch 
,' D ,_$[ r . J, Porter, of Monymosk — and his 
,unl (which will bo found in tho present vol 
„i of tho Priie Essays and Transactions ol tho 
Highland Society) is full of sound practical 



ally. Experience thus far has proven inai ...« 
grape is about as reliable a crop as Iho npplo, and 
%',a^ m a D rer»ge crop, for a series of years, is 
found to he 25(f to 300 gallons to the acre, in well 
cultivated vineyards in the Ohio Valley The 
cost of producing this crop will nol exceed S/ot. to 
SCO per acre-even less, with properecooomy. 

This cultivation is largely on the increase all 
.-.,-,.,- il,.-. V..-I ;!iiil ;..iiili-vi-i, ivlirerer the condi- 
tions are Eunnr.=i-u io he favoroblo; nod tho con- 

-.:-- o/the v.ina is hilly t-i|U,il to tho produc- 

ia now estimated that there is in Vine- 
-t.-d culture, over -tl.UO ncre. r, Hie Jbi. HI.-;.- 
Ahont half this qui'-ntity is in the vicinity ,.i < m- 
clnnati, and probably three-fourths are now in 
hearing. In the .Missouri valley then.' an: ..i; ut 
700 to 800 ncres; and io the Upper l!i--:-i;.'ippi 
valltj SOU to tiOO acres. 

In' Ti-MiiL-^ee, Alutmrna, South Carolina and 
Georgia, aeverel vim v ir.l- uf the Cnhawbi grape 
hove lately beeo planted with flnttaring i. r ..;p'.-,.i ; :. 
thus fair ,i( jiroducin-: fir 1.,-tter crops then those 
of tho Ohio valley. -How they will hold out is yet 
to be tested. 

Growth of tna United Stales. 
following compact and interesting sketch 
of the growth of the pniled States during the 
past year wo lake from iho Washington Globe of 
ihc 10th Innt.; 
Taurine tho past year tho prosperity of tho 
ites has received an unexampled devel- 



,„_lotsof cattle, rising two yc 
old, four in each lot, were lied op on the * -th e.f 
J-.IHM.-.-. 1.-55, in t'ic same byre i >veie l-l .l.uly 
Wilh the same weight of turnips, and oat straw 
„./ Iibii\:m. Of these two lots the lirsl wer-a fed 
wilh the golden-yellow turnips produced - • 
same fleldi one, li 
other with thotui 
Iho Held. They 
put up, and again 
following results 
Thefau 
WelghltoJaaaWTK 



Height of Ihi fi 



United Stales has 

opment. The various sources or iruu 
wealth, the cultivation of new lands ; tho 
of the crops, Iho extension of manufacture-, ilie 
working of mines, tho import and exporl trade 
foreign -and home commerce, the construction and 
wurkingof railroads, the growth and embellish- 
ment of cities, have all wonderfully increased, aud 
wilt stored turnips, the by adding largely ta :bo « pita! of the country 
they were required from have given such impulse and activity to business 
einhed when thay were of all kinds; that it has far surpassed tho best 
■'"'I of Ai.nl, -vtlvii the ; result or any preceding year. Ihu growth of 
obtained- property is but partially shown by tho published 

Oblainea- ^ gta-omeuts of tl'e Senary ...f (he Treasury, inas- 

ftd on itored turnips. much as the li=cjl yuar ol the Government closes 

■ad^niagJitAiirflSl lc - |t ), t [ 1( , 30th Juno, and, while tho results of 
Ihosc statements embrace and ore largely ullecled 
by the business of the latter half of 1H55, they 
do not include that or the laller 185G. An ap- 
proiimale idea of the linoine?.; of Hie year can bo 
(urmed bv cxamiiiinj* libles uf the commerce on 
finances of Sew York in 1'V.fi. The Irr.nn. limiir 
or the -New York Cleuriug-llouso for 1850, show 
sn increase ol $1 7i.".i M"n,i H.'U, -jr thirty per cent, 
on thoso of 1355, making the total Tur the vtar 
amount to the enormous sum of 87,300,000 LOGO. 
Tho transactions of the London Ck-ariiij.--ll.ju-o 
in 1S50 amounted to §4,7 72,000,000. They 
amount now probably lo triple thai sum. If 
so, tho business of New York is equal to half that 
of London. In the Imports and exports of New 
York, there has been an Increase of thirty-three 
per conl. on those of 1655. Tho increase in rail- 
road traffic has hcen from twenty lo thirty per 



...fluenco eseieitcd 

, ,.,.,, „„ added that or Iho 

......nice, first demanded of tho banks jj.y ; Uw 

or the Now York Lcgislotui 

by the Lcgislot " 

wilh the Stale *». =*. — ■ 

notes This laller regulation most prevent tbo 
risks of paper money, and the possibility of such 
ciccssivo issues as preceded the crisis of 1S37. 
Thoinc-easing proportion of gold « i » circu ^at rjE 
medium since tho acquisition of California, tho 
system ol specie payments adopted by the Gov- 
■nment since 1840, and the safe rule Tor some 
..mo pursued by it or making no loans whatever 
for any purpose, to association--, citii ■-., contiti-.'j "i 
Slates are additional securities tar the perina- 
Df our monyod and commercial prospenty, 
forcicu commerce has grown from 
000,000 to S042,0O0,00O, an increase of thirty pel 
conl. There has been a reduction in th n""" 
debt uf §41,000,000 from §10,000,000 to 15,000,- 
OOO.at premiums of ten and flftecn per cent -have 
been paid on European claims, and §10,000 000 
for tho purchase of tho Mcsilla valley, which 
couals in cltont tho kingdom of Belgium ; our 
trade with Canada, under tho new treaty In. in- 
creased from §20 000,000 in 1853. to §50,000,000 
in 1000; our railroads, which in l»5a were 10,- 
000 miles long, aro now, as already slated over 
■J-tOOO in length: and Iho iiiim:-- »1 '. alilonin 
have supplied us with about §170,000,000 in 
cold which has paid for our foreign imports, and 
tarnished a residue sufficient for our domestic 
wants This residue is obtained by deducting 
from §170,000,000, tho amount of gold received, 
l-'.i ci.j. i.ihhi. the amount of specie exported, giv- 
ing in three yeaes an addition of 8*1,000,000 to 

liver inigincdiuin of the country. 

Meanwhile, ourtonnnge hr.H iiKieisoil I _■ hf.if.Hi 
toiif, or twenty-fivo percent.; tho cultivation of 
ii, -,v l-Mi.l-; im king by the sales ol public lands, 
covers an extent of 27,000,000 acres, equal lo tho 
Slate of Ohio, or tho kingdom ol the Two Cicilies, 
while the lotal amount or land sold and granted 
for various objects, has amounted to 81,800,000 
:„-,..•. i, lniM-t ..-i]'.;iUoNew York.Pensyh 
Ohio, or to the British Islands and Delg 



UHAl-TBIl L 

■'To that wauld have oaodlcatwl™, bonart 
Otmoadltas w™an'« kind, oOieloai Mre » 

Weli. Sir Tobin, I will acknowledge that 
re right in some respects, hut jou know 
iAmb at rules and except'*"- Hou-ever » e „„, 
look at both sides of tbo question. Iir.-;t nil-,-;,, 
you io be right, and then proving that you art, 

"BStaCSift her sunny smiles ™ 
of the preltiesl liltlu wives in the whole lo, „ 
Mountrord, and when she married George, th m 
was not a young man in the aforcsnid town bai 
envied tho happy bridegroom. 1 is true, tbit 
old Rossips shook their heads, and said that hn, 
was too quick-tampered and obstinate to Icid i 
happy lifo with one who was quick-temper..! r ] 
obstinate, loo ; hut then they loved each other; f 
so they wero married and— Bottled. , 

Two months or rose-colored Tehcity passed by, I 
and then came clouds over the sunsh.ne. 
In consequenco or tho illness of bin cmplojH 
io afternoon, George's work was brought to i 
Bland-still, and he therefore returned homo at H« I 
bour or three, instead of tho usual ono of sir, T 
Now Kata thought IbiR would bo a good oppor- 
tunity to go down town, and call on one or t. ; .) 
frionds; but George had mado up his mind lo 
spend a quiet afternoon at home. Is cither would I 
succumb to tho othor; so Kate went down totra I 
bv herself, and George remained in his iJomesb: | 
domicile lo console himf.-lf with tho t _ 
that his wife preferred other peoples Bociotjlj 
thai of her husband's. . 

■ : Oh, well," said George, firmly, I t 
why I should submit lo her caprices ; i 
™n find nleaaure elsewhere— so can I. 

married, I gave up Ibe I 



society of all my old associates lo please her ; but I 
I have no doubt they will be glad enough to set I 



ending hi! 



r/e<i wilh pulled iurniyu 



.ol ..'eight 



on the best 

arlhy o[ oe 

o fearfi 



Here no have nearly double tbo inert 

in Ibe cattle fed on stated turnips o. 

with ihe toots left exposed lo iho 

pulled as thoy were wanted. 

The observations of .Mr. Porter 

mode of storing roots, aro well w 
readers' attention, lie is evidently 
of the fillets of even a slight frost upon tlio 
swedes whilst they are storing, than of Iho ill 
results ol some degree or moisture, lie prefers, 
therefore, of pulling and storing the same day ; 
and advises Iht.-e i-iore. I; he phceil at the home- 
stead, as near tho byres as convenient, and suffi- 
ciently largo to contain six or eight weeks' cou- 

The practice in the district of our reporter is ta 
ect tbeso stores of wood, of an oblong shape, 



and about four leet high, 'llif side, ai,. in.nl, uf 



Tho Increase in the cultivation of new lands, 
ao of tha chief elements of our pros[.eiiiy, is 
iiown by tho large salos of those lands; nn.l by 
ao grants of the public domain. 



to the 



of tho best moid npon a hard, 
" theso follow, 



place three 

when crops planted on that stone required 

moisture than was famished by the filling ra 

intages of a deep subsoil, allowing tho 



old wood. Tho wood work is erected 
piecemeal as tho storing proceeds. If wood h 
6carce, oblong riiiid hei|,i jre employed, about 
scrcn or eight feet wide at the bollom, and tin 
heaps aro thatched with about 
of straw. It is hardly necessa , 
Ihc necessity, In turnip storing, of avoiding 
ting the bulb of Ihu turnip in removing the bot- 
tom and (ops, or of rejecting the Dnger and toed 

I II would seem, however, from the result of the 
most recent of observations made in Scotland and 
the north of Engl,, ml, that thi- formiilalile'diEeito 
not occur to any extent on loud which has 
recently limed. Upon tho importance of 
Ihese valuable northern observations wo need 
hardly cnl-irge, since they tend in the most prac- 

dp cropa from tliseaso,nnd from injury during 
io winter months when we have little, else to 
rely upon for tho supply of oi- 



liif-i..- 



ops to descend 

;euial temperature and proper food (n the 
incalculable ; and again, this permeability 
jt.L-.uil, |r,T mining the upward passage of 

y capillary attraction, affords a double, 

m against drought. Here the bigot may and slick. It ititt all 
lo stop mo by saying, " ieal;r ontyjuult 1 mange on any dog. 



hundred thousand acres, 
nearly Tour times tho extent or Massachusetts, or 
more than Uelgium or Holland united. Besides 

ihe-.o large appropii.ition-, (.'oii^re-d has granted 
during the year to railroads, or to Stale- tint will 
sooner.or later partially make a similar .li^.o-i- 
tlun ol them, about twenty-one million itven 
hundred thousand acres; making a lotal or sales 
and grants in a year uf thirly-nlno million thru 
lmiiilii.il tlioiiL m,l iiuo.-;, o.[.ial in i-stcnt to Vir- 
ginia, or lo almost l third of France. Notwith- 
standing tho great decrease lor so many years in 
Ihe lV.it r:.t 'toiii.nii.i.li,., jiublii: lan-1;, -.ol [,-i.i;iiiiiii,j 
, . unsold in the 1 ,.-n inni,:, -,re ..-iiual in exlenl M 
inches depth .-,,. ,„,,„,,.] ,i„„, ., J!lt Sr ,,, ,, ^ r mo „ than all 
enlarge upon | Eor0[10 „„.,,. Kl „ ; , j; , ].■,,„,,;„„ n,,,,.! in.u.jitrio.! 

f reduction has kept pace wilh other departments. 
Is approlimate value as estimated by the S...-1. - 
lny .[ill, Irtji.orv h-oui tho remains ot theccn- 
iiua of le-H) uinl ilmt of lji.ji.i, was, during the 
year 1850, about S2,G00,Ut)U,Ul]0, or triple that or 
1830. 

Tho Secretary estlinales the valuo or tho enllro 
properly of the Unllcd Slates, taxed and not 
taxed, at Sll,dl?,000.UUU exclusive or tho publi 
il-.'ioain. lie osliinatet, the population ,.l y,;.\i-\ 



IMPOBTINT SCICNTIFtO EXPLOHATIONS.— Tho 

N. X. Herald publishes some very Interesting 
particulars or several exploring and scie 
pedilions or various parts of tho world. Tho most 
important of the>e is the one recently fitted 
by the Viceroy of Egypt, lo discover tho sourc 
the White Nile. In connection with the recent 
discoveries ol Dr. Livingston, it may result in Ihe 
development ot tho wholo river and lake system 
or tho African continent. According to SI. Jo- 
mard, tho navigation or the river at tho present 
day is open to Egyptian commerce. For twelve 
years past European merchants traffic peaceably 
ivith tho natives, and collect a lurgo amount of 
ivory. Tho whole country, in effect, appears 
swarming wilh elephants; but tho rivalry of 
tiade provokes frequent disorder, without speak- 
ing of tho imprudence nf merchants, who aro 
sometimes guilty of violence towards the inhabi- 
tants. These latter are peaceable, hospitable and 
tliioUlv settled upon either bank. Disputes nnd 
quarrels having led to serious tumults, the Epypt- 
ian government has introduced a precautionary 
measure ; Egyptian posts have been established 
upon tho White Nile, and the various command- 
ants aro charged to protect commerce and tho 
natives, and, at tho samo time, to prevent tho 
abuses of rivalry. These armed posts nnd forts 
have garrisons which render them respected. Ol 
the uthor hand, the Austrian mission has an es 
t.iiili-liim.ii, at Kliartoiim, and a second ooo t 
k-h-s impurfmec at the lillli decree of north lati 
tude. The missionaries are on good terms wit 
tho natives of tho country. 

This entorpiise. which has for its object tho 
discovery of portions of tho African continent now 
uiikiio-.on.iri'-.-.imniom-iiij; under the most (avorabli 
auspices, and holds forth the happiest results to 
science, co m m ere e and civilization. Our travel- 
ers began ascending the Nile at Ihe commence- 
ment or last October, and it is believed thoy will 
return irithi n two years. 

Mercantile Phobi'ehitv. — A Now York 
paper remarks: "H i-. seldom thai a case or such 
continued prosperity can be chronicled In tho 
history or any mercantile firm as in that of the 
Messrs. llowland ,fc Aspinwall. About thirty 
years ago, the commercial firm of G. E. & S. S, 
llowland wos formed in this city. Thoy wore 
engaged principally in tho West India Trade. 
Ten years afterwords tho partners retired from 
business wealthy, leaving behind as special part- 



s sheaves. 



u, t amongst them again. 

So, rising with a determined ni 
hat, and, a roinuto ofler, was sc 
way to Iheir old rendezvous. 

When Kate returned homo, it was half-sorroB- 
fully for she felt a kind ot depression upon htr I 
spirits; but sho had not Iho least intention of ■ 
"making it op;" oh, no ! "She was not going li | 
bo tyrannized over, and ho must not expect IL ■ 
Ue,should see that Sho had t. spirit. 1 hero tan ■ 
n time when he felt proud to go out with her; | 
but now, or course, he was tired or that sort of I 

ishment, upon entering lis I 
little parlor, to find i i vacant. The lire (whidi I 
tho chill autumn day rendered quite iiccesaiir) 
bad died away, so thai he must have been nbscnt I 
some lime. Sho was a little amazed, but in- I 
stonily set lo work, relit tho Bro, and proceeded I 
to get ready tho too. , . , , I 

Eiveo'clockcame; the fire was blazing brightly, I 
and the tea kettle singing like a merry sprite, I, 
though It was tho bost-nutured tea-kettle in 
Slouulford ; the taa-pot was on the hoh, nnd the I 
plate of buttered least, all brown and crisp on 
iho fender ; whilst the little painted clock behlad 
tho door heat an accompaniment to the tea-ket- 
tle's song, wilh its unvarying "lick, tick," eJch 
vibration being n sweep of the unerring --'.tli.-vl 
tho reaper. Time ; aud each rnomor' — 
being a bright blossom hound up ir 

Six o'clock came, and Ihc toast ..™ .»■.. u 
eaten, and the lea untouched. Katie began 
I't-.-l her temper risin-; like .'l ahirlwind. 

"I shall wait no longer," she i.-.tishh e 
claimed. "It ho chooses to stay out lill this tic 
he may get his tea the best way bo can. I shall 
it iviiit far him 1" 

With this brave determination, sho sat dom, 
and proceeded with her tea; but that wholesome 
beverage mighl have been compounded ofgliifl ned 
starch— lime, for what sho could have told; led 
she felt so vexed that sho did not core wbelhtr 
she was eating buttered- toast, or a 
hogany buttered wilh turpentine. 

She sat, wilh her lips drawn up into Hie most 
iccesstal pout, and her eyes ll«d upon Iho ln- 
tray, scanning the ex.pii -ite p:nnling upon it,M 
a basket containing several bunches or distorttd 
looking grapes, and h.air-a-do.'.t-u apples ar.J 
plums, tinted with colors that "" "■■ '-"' L! - 
artist over dreamed of. 

Coini; i.atistieil nitii the appearance of lh< 
great oll'ect of art, she silently commenced b« 
autograph upon tho said leo-lray, i.siu~ fur In: 
pen and ink Ihe end ot" u. loris-pooii. pi-e-.i.i.v-ly ici- 
inersed in the milk-jus. Having atWint-1 some 
proficiency in this novel trado of chlicgnpti;, 
sho started up, and, with the :.ie-.:e.U .Jef.riiuo 
tion, coin n le need el'.-jrioj: the 'able, when a rrti 
camo at tho door of tho lilllo cottage. Kim 
opened it slowly, as the f, o.vn upon her face deep- 
ened into one of "iiiidni-hi eluuin." 

'Good evening, Mrs. Vinton. I thought 
would just call and nsk you how you K 

'"Lto looked up. It was not G corge, offer 4 
but a neighbor, uf the uamo of Miss Black", « 
unmarried lady o 

in , n e°x 

""." to"Se. 

foe'."ei'gl'it, which yomewhil >'■ 
counted lor IU extreme thinness, and ikdi t* 
liko oppearance, oliioli fravo von tlio i;lcJ '- ' 
sho hod originally been i 
Strange freak In nature, she nau mu" - 
out. Her disposition was decidedly ■ 
had sho been analyzed, the following iv 
bean the result: sulphuric acid, 41); ( 
lemons, 30; cream ol tartar, 30. 



rather in 

Sornpblna Dlackit was on tho winlry d* 
Offortv. Her s.lpli-like form lowered U| 
-■ -' five feet eight, whi 1 - " 

rtl but.'b^rj 



catllo yards. 



oil Mn 



MiNOE ti4 Swine. — I have noticed In C 
your late papers an inquiry for the care of what 
u-o " baekwooda" people call mango in pigs. 
Permit mo to assure you that I have a nccer-fail- 
iitg remedy, ta nil: Give i\ K pig „ r In.,: ntleeieil, 
(according lo age) from ten lo twenty grains of 
nn-mik twice n week for three weeks, feeding him 
plentifully during the lime,and I warrant thai he 
-' ' become perfeally moll, (at 



e the t 



•peak from experlonco, 
■in meiu u no danger ol do-...-, of ilut ,;*,_ ]-.i||. 
ing either pigs or hogs. — [Cor. of Ooun. Gent, 



At the close or 186E 
of railroad. There ar 
miles. Tbo telegraph, 
diminish the lo". of 1 

quicken business, hy oi...... , ,, 

"magnificent distancu" of our territory, ..... . 

tends in almost every ilin-cliun tliroo-:l,.,„r t|, t 
Slates. It is estimated that the aggregate lcm. th 
of our eleclrle telegraph is from forty to lifiv 
thousand miles. 



hundred anc 

teen hundred and three sail vessels,' with on ai 

gregale t(, nl n EC of W\\VM tons. Solwilhsuiiu 

Melius kit;.-,: ..MiLlon, tllO Ollieil.1 li;,lt, ,.[,„,," 

of the merehn 



, S-'XirjOOfortbi 
land and Aspinwall. A few years further on 
-id the members of this firm also retired leaving 

e simif a not, n; special partners, lo a junior 

essrs. Uuwliim) ,y As,.iuiv„H ; n nd rccenlly, 
"red, leaving 8200,000 



X 



or tho si 






f HOOII MIL1.EII, the Geolooiot. 

amer Asia, at New York, from Liv- 

rntal intelligence of tho 



By the 
orpool. wi 

death of Hugh Mill,.-,., n,,. i.-,l.-i, r ,iied Scotch „ 
ogist, who was found in his house shot dead" It 
i- Mipp.i ,--.-] tlut t |! C ^j event was accidental, 
Mr. Miller has aehie-.-ed a world-wide reputation 
as a geologist, and as a man or groat iiowera f 
ri.:,..'.ir,-|, nnd s.-|iokir:liip. Hisdealh will he uni- 
versally deplored as a great loss lo tho world of 



I.i:mi;: 



i that e 



has rights and Tecl 
peace bo rather your 
triumph as the mcai 



, however low. 



it of 1855, c 



u by a 



o careful oxomi- 1 



^JVUconMit - ;.., 

Ii.ieol lh ;t ii triumph. Vatut 
of peaco.— [Sy dney Smith. 
An omineut pointer iva., naked what ho mixed 

■ m«o., lore wilh to ...ndu^ ,,, oxtranrilniin-v 
| effect? "I mii them with brnius. sic." wri hU 



of that valuable household ottiolo,"."-- . 
and having most siu-.ik.rly tailed, sho hid i w ^ 
to tho conclusion that ihe "grapes were « ^ 
and tried, with great u.-i'./-itv, to ■ ■ : ' 
J-Oung wives that ihev .,.,|-l,n-. I-.- ■■' ro ' ;'!■■',. 

In reply to Knt.,'. invitmion, she carefoliv 
tied tho strings of her I. onuet (_vh"-h, i" ' "' .,. 
of all prevailing f.i.hioiH she- persi.-iled ™ .jj 
ing oil her head, and oliicti . uioeivlial re* j, 
an antique conl-t.Hilo, u,,i-..|le,l hersel on'^ 
hugo shawl, i„ whicli sho had been airiinw ^ 
an Egyptian mummy, and seated hersel' 
aim-chair. mnloa' 

"So you're quite alone, are you, Mrs. V»i , 
You must bo very lonesome hero. * '• .l,& 
live alone, but then I have no husband, ' f 
Heaven! K I h:,.]. I ,.l,o,,l,i ... poet bun ' ^i 
at homo a lUtle, and not roam about in thosu 

■'George has merely gono down town I* 
visit to some Mond-V' said Kata. 

"Oh, indeed! Then I must have in- 
taken when 1 fancied 1 saw him going '"" .gitli 
hllllard-room just now, laughing and Wlkies ,n 
half-a-tloion young fellows." -j, g 

Tho color fled from Katu's cheeks, « 
claimed — "No, no j 'twos not George. 

"Indeed, my dear, it was; and y° u '",. 
very blind' if you don't see that his MOf 
greatly changed slnco ho has been mM""" 



THE CALIFOENIA JT A B M E B^ 



51 



■ - ., hiiir.rrtB. qqJ leavo his Knto was seated alono in hor litllo 
n «wuwd I_o r"»r nt w"'* rUB . BDa ICBTD UB inEflausnn lf or ,bo time to pass, until tfao hour 

ffi's jilt Hl"= «« the men 1 Thaj «« tho 
„_t£t hypocrites upon the face of the earth-all 
IZr.nJbTo before marriage, and all vinegar 
IHfe mpcr after. Now, you knojr, my dear, 
S.I I sp£k only for your good ; but if too put 
^quieV-.lh such treatment, you have- loss 
Jint tbin I think )' ou ha ™- j 

Kale's eyes flashed proudly, as the answerou— 

L m , w jH „[ your own and can eltirt it ""J 
Sbould you be "compelled to lead « miserable life 

i... ,„■ .ihgal Homo by yourself, whilst 

HK'4 himself v-llb his boisterous com- 

CltmB, and wasting 
(tithe way of t: 
•jr/lys the victim, nlr 
negroes being f'a™ 5 ! 

* Hnill 'no'l "'-^ a ,Iavo of me .'" raid Kate. 
Be think* be has lodValwith 4 child, but he 
dull find out his mistake!" 

"Youarepvifc-clk right, my dear. Of course, 
I huve no motive but yen own good fur it 
cakes no JilTi-run'? io m- ; but when 1 see a 
TonD L-, tr^liue. «ife to shamefully treated, why 
Init«r»lly '"I -«> in > er = il in llcr > rc l fare i anl1 ' 
am snre, liiy dun-, yon will not attribute it to any 
Oder motive 1" 

"Oh no Miss Bluckit, certainly not. Inmsnro 
that I nm very much obliged to )— '" 
Kndncss." 

"It i : - !■■■ kiiidiiLr-sov, my psrt," aid tho disin- 
terested Blackit. -1 feel lint it is my ■"'■*- 
lto sure-as 1 said to Mrs. Mason, tho othe 
pjijal—'When men can so far forget what 15 ui 
to their wivt-ji— to Hi-.- !j-.iop!; tti'i 1 have sworn I 
Itnoand honor-to the fond, confiding crcatun 
■RdhkTe rcsi-nod hippv home;; for tboir fakes 
can so far forget what is duo to the! 



ib world. Four woman 
ays o slave I Talk of poor 
why, it's no thing compared 



reive should bring hor husband 
Thoro was an oppression of CotO upon hor fnoo, 

id her shook hod grown more pallid, but there 

is tho sumo Srmnoss depicted in every lino of 
her features. 

A ring cftiu ■■ at tho door. 

"Who 00.0 that possibly bo ?" asked Koto, as 

io proceeded to tmfnston tho door. 

"Is this tbo residence of Mr. rind Mrs. Vin- 

n 7" nskefl a femalo voioo. 

A glance of recognition paused between them, 

id in a moment they were in caob other's arms. 

"Why, my dear old schoolmate. Emma Dole. 
Oh, how pleased I am to see yoo. Cnmo in, 

id tell me where you have been all this long 

Accepting tho invitation sho entered, and 
seated herself. Laying aside, hor bonnet she 
disclosed n pretty, good-humored face, sur- 
rounded by a -wealth of durk brown hair," and 
as pretty a pair of dark blue oyos as over ght- 



call. 



with mirth, 






ord.y; 









harangue might have been 
moment the little clock with 
j rang out the hour of nine, 
liss BlacUit, '1 had no idea 

|t m, so late ; 1 must a 

Other calls to unike. I 

call ud see her little Ji 

think the poor child will 

ducking' J 

properly 

_ . rot to bn hiameu\ 
be a very happy one, for, be- 
i, her husband drinks, tho 
heard say that ho treats her 



length tbi 
extended. 
its clear, s 






.iu =u. Knty, yon are married to Qeorgo, af- 
ter all. I thought that would bo the liiiir.li ;I nil 
viiui- lii.'i.Eilifjht rumblings, and mysterious in- 
terviews. Married and happy— eh, Kate?" 

Kate seriously shook her hoad, nnd n toar 
stole op to her oyes as sho answered ; 

"J]o. Emma, I lira not happy. When wo 
wera first married, our life was like one long 
Hummer's day, a thing of flowers and sunsln 
Now, alas! 'tis bleak na winter. Etnmn, 
hove known each othor for years, over sineo 
learned our simple tasks from the somo books, 
nnd 1 con confide in you as in n sister. My 

|,„.|.-ini no longer loves me. Ho si'hl ^i.-..!:-. 

to me, and when ho does, it is with e«Hn. --. 
He l.-nvi-s mo nil tliu long evenings by mysolf, 
v,-liil-=l ho =..-<-.:*, Hi- ..ici.'tv of ethers, nod posses 
his time nt the billiard tablo. I am very wroloh- 
ed, Emma. Would to heavoa that I had uavoi 



■Hush! hush! Kate," said Emma, 
ingly. "That is wrong; and, besides that, it 



lj. i - _ ■ L Mrs. Simpson to 
who is very sick. 1 
jrorgot over it; looks 
.. t think it's taken core of 
I think it's tbo poor mother 1 * 
say that she visiUagrcatdt 



mtoasla.- 

ft With this, the ngoiu donned her antique coal- 
scuttle, robed herseirin her Egyptian mummy 
Cloth, and with sundry warnings to Kate, that 
she was not to give in to her brote of a husband, 
thf departed. 

When Kale was alone, sho finished clearing 
the Utile parlor, and !-at down before the Q 
There «as an air of comfort in that litllo apart- 
ment, with it* elo-ed winJo.vcurlains. its neat 
and simple furniture, and its brightly-blazing 
fire our] as Kate glanced round tho room, sho 

K murmured 

'■Miss Blnckit is right. I do nil io wj 

ft tomakc his home romfai table, and yet he 

C it for the hillmrd-table, wasting his hard o 



very ji-. 



tut slow step, like 
reus, and then cad 

nd ho has not ret 
d to lock him < 



; endless road, 
io ringing oat 



ut. It ! 
obel" 



lint there e .mi ■: in'sn-wtr to her qucsli . 

, the monotonous lick-lick of tho litllo clock. 

, Several limes a step approached, and then Koto 
would start, and the cjipicsslon of her Tacc grow 
more sullen, in-.n tem [/.-.- iu-juh. but tbo footsteps 



vay. .11 



issilen 



n the re 









Since 



.rhuln thought sh 

Ask yourself, Katy, how far tho fault hei 
lit Huvo yon done nil in your pot 
him to lovo his homo! Have you 

|..vinu'. (.'■ nil'-- mi'l f.rgiviugr" 



■■Wl 



Emma, by Hi 

' sproud a 

Kate," so 



! Ko, 
t mu spirit 



a that ho did, bow happy 



en mo round again, and 
a foolBtepB bounded near, 
a slightly noceloruted rate 



_ Eale rose and paced up and de 

no very enviable stale of humor. 

"Elccen o'ci ockl" 

t Etasett. Ho never stayed out so before. His 

latest hour fur returning had hitherto hcen holf- 

p past nine— Kalo's firmness was giiing way, her 

lips quiveieJ. nnd the tears wore just springing 

to her eves, when the round of a lootslep caused 

her to suppress them, and with the tamo old look 

of ileti.Tiiiinuiion ;-!..■ ndvaTi.-e'l liwnrds the door. 

The Bound -f tin- hell eauK-d her to open it, and 

with a firm step and sullen look, George en tot ed. 

lie piss-.-d her by without a word, and lighting 

B candle was about to leave the roam again in 

Stance. 

'■Where have you been all tho night, I should 
like to know. I think it's a great pity that you 
have returned at all." 

1 answered George, "where I 



iuld 11 









to. 1 



d hor friend, "you 

r pinosB forever. Allfl 

/ error, but did you ovor hoar of ono whe 
>d back to tho right path by reproach) . 
iho loved a homo where his Only weloomu was> 

"Well," admitted Kate, "perhaps you nro in 
ho right, but still, I don't seo why wonmu . 
-li.-i.it.3~ [ilwnys be a slave to man's caprices; to 
bo gay when ho is mirthful, sorrowful ..li'ii lu- 
ll* sad. But a brighter day will yet arrive, when 
woman will occupy hur true sphere, and when 
her rights will bo universally acknowledged, 

■■Tli. n she will tmvo lost her greatest charm, 
tho ono whioh idculiies her with tho sweet word 
Home, her Tight! Sho has them now; n gcntlo, 
loving woman wields as proud a sceptre as any 
of earth's mighty monarohs; whilst her law is 
sho will ever gain obedloneo from hor sub- 
jects, aud wbil-t li-r -l-iiiini '■" i- borne, sho will 
over reign with undisputed authority. But let 
her nneo quit her own realms, or seek by tho 
laws of anueiation, to appropriate the domains 
of science, she will be treated us a usurper, nnd 
from that moment her bright love-power will 
fade." 

"Well. Emma, you may bo right in tho ab- 
stract; but I do not seo how it will apply to ray 
imli-.iiluiil case. You surely would not havo 
mo ask the forgiveness of o man who I consider 
has dona ma wrong?" 

"You 'consider.' But does that prove that 
ho is wrong ? If you think it bum Hinting to nsk 
fiirgiveni't?, whe i-hould he not think, tho samo? 
You i.re still indelible. Kate, havo you over 
lln.ii^iit linw fearful a thing it is to bo a druafe- 

Kate started at tho words, and tho solemn 
inner in which thoy were spokon touched hor 
art; but. recovering herself, sho said: 
"There is no fear of that, Emma. My bus- 

bund 1 !, iv.ir-t f.mlt i- it love nf billiards, and uc 

intemperate man, and drunkenness is his aver- 

"Butwho knows," said Emma, "how loog i' 
will remain so 1 A month back, and If nny out 
boil suggested that ho should desert his homo 
for tho society of his former companions, ho 

would havo re-i.-i.-l tin- !> -inplnii nnd soornod 

the proposal. Yet see huw fmnilinr a thing it 
"- 'im; step by nlep tiny may bud 



Iflcoaldbatfeolsi 
I should ho." 

Knto r s hoart beat ol 
I sho opened tho door. 
George entered with his usual look of sullen 
obstinacy, and rat down liko n man prepared for 
tho worst. But, contrary to his finer tulions, 
Knto look up her work nnd proceeded with it, 
though sho was tho happiest of wives. Ho 
t slightly uneasy ; ho wished sho would say 
,n, iliii.u-. if it were only a reproach. He could 
havo homo that ; but to watch her sitting there 
) silently, and contrasting how weari y the 
i<*ht must havo passed with her, whilst with 
im it hod down so merrily, somewhat touched 
is heart. At least tho siloneo grow irkaomo. 
o, turning to her, ho said, calmly — 
"Well, Kate, why don't you bogiiil" 
Sl„, rui-i-.l hf-r .-yes from her work, nnd look- 
d quietly at him, then replied— 
"Begin whot, Goorgel" 
"Why, your 0*111.1 iimminl of .eoldmg. 
"I hnve done with it forever, George, nnd will 
trivo for tho future to make you lovo your 
ome by giving yon no pretoit for quitting it. 
knnw that f oaunot offer you any great in- 
ueomeut Io leave tho society of your mulo coin- 

.■ lU i..ii». but liod grant llmt tbo tiiJH' will 

i-biii vou will gnii'v weary of it- Then, Goorgp. 
you will bo my own husband onoo again." 

-.'.: i"..li ,:nlr,-i[.y at thoBO words. His 
suoo began to tell him lhat ho ini^-l.t huv- 
acted diffiTeuUy, and havo been happier. Hu 
ida great mind Io ask hor forgivaness; but 
en io sappliento to a iromon— how unnnmlr 
„jd if his male companions should hear of it 
how they would laugh at him. No, uo, ho wa 
not going to bo her slave— to stay nt home am 
go out just when sho pleased. So, without 
in:il:in;_" huv r.'piv, In - - went I" hi? chamber. 

When Rule f.unnl llit.i h'-r v.-..nt- lind proved 
of no avail, and that ho had left hor without or 
word of recoil cilia! ion, her e..uii.^e fr -l: h. 
and sho wept. But tho thought of Emma' 
words somewhat reassured her. "Even ■h..nbl 
vou fail at first, you must in tho end succeed ; 
and tho first kiss of love will amply repay you." 
Tho noit morning passed without a word, 
Kato felt tho words rise up to her lips, aud lb. 
tears start to her eves; but ,-hc reprised ili.-in, 
and sha saw him leavn the houso to attend to 
his daily duties, without a look of sorrow, o 
word of reconciliation. _ 

Evening came, and as the clock struck Bit 
be int. red fur his tea; hut ho still w,,- si].-ii 
Tli, in. il being over, ha rose nnd took up hi- hu 
Kate's fortitude was leaving her. She novt 
e-ipectcd for a moment that ho again woul 
leave horwithout a word of kindness, or proimsu 
of amendment. 

"George," sho softly said, "are you going out 
i.L-;iiii ibis evening?" 
"Yes; I promised to bo there by half-past 

Ho paused, waitiog calmly to hear n torrent 

..f re|.r-.;iel.i'-, lull he was inii-tiiken. Knto had 
ihooled herself nobly, and only said— 
■■Yen will not ptuv mil fi r,/ late. G.-orgc ?" 

Hi, science lii^i.n to troublo him, and ho 

...■iillv wished that flhe would passu.nnlvly re- 
proach him. Hor gentle words wore harder to 
r than all her bad temper. 
No, Kate, I will not," ho answered, and left 



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And without u-a 
left the 
t ohap.ber. 

aha hod a great mi 



slano^ flying from her, and 
d to sit down and cry ; but 
rUEhcd to her aid and she 
No, hi I [-..-. en. he shall not 
e. ill lot l.im ecs lhat I In -.-, a 
is his own. If ho thinks that I 
child, ha I. ell Dnd that be Id 
If he docs not repent his coti- 
. my naioc is not Kate Vinton." 
e bravo determination she retired, 
itlagc uos soon In darkness. 

OQAPTEB II. 
r a few heedless words, o single 
□ separate twu hearts which hare 



.- ._j ipeeeli will lay the foundation 
for the eternal peverance of two loving souls. 

The nuit duy biouyht hut a repetition of their 
tempers— ibe mime rt.pri.i.eb.-s. tho same obstt- 
oolo dett-roiiontiaii uot to yield. 

Tho evemoj* cume, aud Cloorgo agoln sought 
the ■*»!]■ ..I l.i- ,,!:] , L - ; ,„,nte.i, and Bpoat tho 
bour= ut tin- Inlliiii-.] Hi,, | f.u-,1 tubl,.,, then n-- 
turned to hid liome to li H teu to tho saino hitter 
vos, to utter tho same harah retorts, 
eok passed away, and no word of recon- 
n had crossed their lips, no fouling of lovo 
ang from their hearts, as n hlnda of grass in 
robed desert, and each wera determined 
" worth.— tho firil, should 



1 ho i: 



rably h 
r lot. To 



The 
a th. 



oar house, to bear tbo panga of hangar untii 
io light of your taper grows palo before that o: 

,.- il.iivniii^ .lay. Ills heart will (■r...-.- b-u--|.-i 
nd horder, until all ib own lovo will bo swept 
way, and harshness, perhnpa brutality 



the h. 

"Alone," said Kate — '"nlono i 
a long drenry evening boforo 
casting n thought 



,.,,.11, 



ivith 



Oh, I four ho will 

. lovo his homo. Tho poison has on- 

ered bin mind too deeply. Hud I but dealt 
:in,lly with l.im at the fir-t, ho might have been 
ny own husband, long ngo, ero this; but my 

■;.j.r hi-* ln.'V- hni-.l.'iiej bis heart, and his 

ovo is now lost to mo forever. Heaven help 
no, I am very wretched. 

The work fell from hor hands, and, Inymg 
her head down upon tho table, she sobbed for 
the hoars of sunny happiness that ouee shed 
their cheering rays npon her, when her step was 
light, nnd her Bang as mirthful aa the mile? of 
tho forrat birds, or the gentle murmurs of tho 



,e sho sat ther 



■-: v 



but 1 



Kato burst into tears, nnd cxolaimod- 

"Oh, Emma, for pity's saka bo silent. I 
rh'inM never livo to see him so changed; it 
would break my heart. I fool lhat I havo been 
in the wrong, and I trill try to lead him hack: 
again." 

"Do so, Kate. Even should your entreaties 
foil at first, they will at length succeed, if yor 
only thaw him llmt le- ii* Mill ih-ar to yon. Anu 
if his heart is hardened, bo patient with him, 
and rofleet that it may havo been caused by 
your reproaches." 

"Heaven ble»s yen, Eiiiiiiil." -.jl.l.o.l [vale. 
"I will try for tho futuro to make him happy, 
and bn to him a gentle, laving wife." 

"•That'll right, Kato; you may End him nt 
first rather nn unwilling pupil, but your trouble 
will bo amply renaid hy tho first foml Li--: ■>!' 
love, or the firM br.ppy evening you will spend 
together beneath this roof." 

At tills moment tho hour of ten sounded. 

"So late," said Emma, "and I promised annt 
to bo home hy nine. You must come and sea 
mo, Kato. I shall only stay hero a. short tiuio ; 
but aunt was so anxious to havo mo visit hero. 
Ij.uid-liy, for the present, and don't forget my 



aroused by tho sound of the door 
belf! Quickly drying her eyes, sho hastened to 
What was her surprise to eea 1 
; but what was her joy when eho beh 
md his baud to her, and ask hor, in ■ 
treating tonos^ — 

"Can you forgiro me, Kato 7" 
Ah, how precious wero those words. They 
spoko of regret for the past, amendment far tho 
futuro. Tears of happiness coursed down 
cheek, and, liko a timid bird, sho nestled 

lu.iu.l u] hi.-. 1. re .L-l, lllld wept. 

Yon should have seen them nn linlf-huur . 
or. How happy thoy looked. Nut tho fulsa 
and transient happiness whioh tho goddoi 
tho world's plea.'-nr- I,. -|..-..- n]...n her vota 
but tho deep, pure joy, which gushes up— liko 
n fountain springing Co ontch tho sunbeams — 
from tho dopth of two loving hearts. 

"I should nover havo thought of retui 
Kato, hut, as I passed by tho window, I noliced 
that you had ueglected to draw tho ourlahia. I 
peeped in, and there I saw you with your bead 
bowed down, and tho hitter toars flowing. Ah, 
Katie, tho greatest criminal upon tho earth noed 
not havo onvied my feelings at that moment. 
For a few minutes, there was a bitter struggle 
in my heart, but at last some of tho old love 
como baok again, and it conquered. And so, 
Ki.li", l.-r- I am, ywr ■ . -.; ji lining l.injrg.i once 
again. I havo orred, but it is repented of, and 
for tho future, Katie, your fnoo shall bo lighted 
with smiles, and never — nover more dimmed 
With tears." 

Ho kopt hi 

model husband." 



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Emma is looked upon us their guardian angel, 
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v.-.-l.. e al thoir [irelty entlago ; though it is 

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..intiiic jiuthi.rilv iaiti iH^ullarftphoro. 
THE ILLUSTRATED ANNUAL EEOISTER OF 

111 UAL AllAli;.;- An ..nnui.l vl-1u ji'j "f 111 |.|. , do-j- 
" i.n.^-illii-iratodirllbloPonEravlajr*. Nun Id.,.,!, 



i°ConU. Ko;. l' .in'.l i. i"i l;i 
Por Doioa, S2, toot pc-t paid. 



! ...» -, . I .• 1 ..., . .. .-!-■» i-..-rt,«.. - ■ I ■ 1 

LCTHEll TUl'KEU ,-. S'l.S, A 

D3- SubMriiilii-u: fur aoy of lb., .il ■■-..! ■ 

,! lli,-.i.|iiL-.:>.-ftheI-Ali!!ril :,n,l F>. r ,v .-, . ■ L 1 



FLORA'S DICTIONARY. 

BH=oi.!aliib(| wu hundred not! ihlny ju.™, cmbct- 
Flve nnndrcd Woo* Biicrn-vlns"' 
in, luunr Qtra, (ill od B i" mJ Ml (111 iU«, rvllh Erght 

ct.i. HTi.jNr.llnl^.-^ in.il foil .Hi .Ides, with Fonrtcon 
lyMo.ivto, ,-.j(r. rnlft ijill .-li;!", with Flflj--EL:bl 



I3^- Taonb 



\^t 






III ,IACuD ii'lllil-iilJKB, 

Mlnofacturor anil Dti.lorio Codi.f! 
1- Jji-b4« ■: 1 ■-■- -' ■* ■■ t 



TJPHOLaTKRIHO DONE. 
Auo— Cooilanllr cb hard, ilalr, Jl™, Wool, Pub a: 
'oathora. For ula at tho [oRut prtcos, wbulwalo a; 

° * No. 179 Jaokwa itrost (3d door bolon Kuarer), 
Scai!)-'.j>I»<llu lb'- lulnrnatEnnal Itutol 
S.D.— All ardor* praisptlT alLoadcd to, and oicoat 



JOHN L. OTTIGNON. 

PBEMIUal OABBIAQE EAOTOBY, 

— , i.MilillAUtcl „i ,.][ ,1, ,-rii.lloni undo 

r Tr ; °*"'^Jp^^ 1 T """" '" - A' 1 ' " - '' " ' ' ■ ' ■' ''■' • ' ' ''■ 

iv. n -I-,, iv ml,;, ;..,,. „ ,,, ,,||,.. „, ,. ,.,... T ,„,, , r , 

..... 'I. l.T.ll ■, Jm.,-,„, !.„,,„, !,.] [I .i..; „.. I .,..:..,„] „ ,, fL . 



Hop Boots, Horse Eadish, &c 

Pill-: -..1;, l..:,l v.iiletj ;...,J .|„,li., „|- II,,,, !!..,( ., lu 
1 ,'■'■.'■ ■ I .i-H..ll>. .-.il I.-, f.iri.i I,, J I, 11,. „,:,]. .,.i,„, ! 
l.li..rl.,,i|.:.. Al.,-11.., „ |,,.|, 1, i,,,. r,.r |.l„.ili„, : 
!■■ r_ ■;: | .i..-Lr-,[ u |\n.„l.l„^-|,| J , l i.,ii.,^uIthoE U phad 

Qraarilnll ntu OOL. WARltEN, ,.f ibo "FAnaEBi" 
OrajMnajmliuWiilfMILKVA Cu , 

--."■biy .I...-.-I, H.„, Kri.ncl...-.,; 
«:,.. L °' J - A tlOBABP, K.q,, Oakload, 
Will be pmmntlj ujanoiod. rt-3 



\V E L L S A CO., 




■^HBS CALlFOENlA_FAEMEB. 



C&e California |armtr. 

BAH FEAH^CO^I^A^_FEBHnABT_27. MM. 



„ur Wnoat 

re ilh pleasure ""> E° nlLral 
mong nil class's of busi- 



rtwirine e*^ E riccs for their E " lin ' i 

Fictitious, unnatural speculations, never resul 
in >ny good to the community j however oftc 



c large fortunes acquired by sudden 
specuialions, especially in Bread Stafejwt n 
often ire see tbem suddenly disappear— and bring 
with them a train of disasters very ruinous— 
while a gradual rise in the valuo of all agricultu- 
ral prriuce.andcspeciaUyr^in^diffusesar*^ 
prosperity among all classes in tho community. 

When speculations are rife it creates an unnat- 
ural stale of business that cannot last- Every 
wise and prudent business man sees it, and, in- 
stead of looking Tor an increased business, ho is 
looking for tho reaction that he believes must In- 
evitably fallow a baseless expansion of a staple 
commodity— and, instead of inspiring him with 
confidence in tho future, ho is Gllcd with distrust. 
This was tho case tbo last year, whon a body ol 
men attempted to raise tho value of Broad Stalls. 
The history of the past is a lesson for the future. 

Tho present year bos placed tho community in 
a totally different light Last year specolators 
hold tho groat balk of wheat— tho present year 
they do not hold quite all ! Tho farmers hold a 
littlo grain, and over oar State there are parcels 
still left that will keep the people from starving. 
The farmers have learned a lesson, by tbo experi- 
ence of the past, and they are united in tho deter- 
mination to make the most of their labor, ander 
•.lira 



growers and grain dealers, of millers, and all in- 
terested in this great staplo of our country, to look 
it with care, and so plan, labor and manage, as 
make this market not only independent of all 
other markets, but to be able to become export- 
er this great staple. That this can bo done 
havo no doubt, and we shall try to show, at an 
early day, that an opening will bo had for oor 
rheat crop nnd other great staples, in all coming 
years, ifvre act wisely and judiciously , and prevent 
those unwise and Dctitioua speculations that raise 
market above what can bo long sustained, and 
open it to oar foreign competitort. 

Wo believe, as wn have expressed before, that 

: have a sufficient snpply on hand for all the 

wants of California. We believe, too, that the 

of the present year will far exceed'that of any 

ious year, and that it will be for Bupcrior is. 

quality to any ever yet grown.and that we shall bo 

able to show that there will be a market for all we 

grow. Wo say then to farmers, to grain 

growers, bring your grain to market now, as it is 
wanted— the present price is n glorious return for 
your labors. And if you nro in deb-., sell now and 
bo relieved. We do not bcliove that the price can 
advance materially, therefore tha present prico is 
worth securing, and yonr money can be put at in- 
terest, bringing in a constantly accumulating fand. 
se fan prudent — bo cautious — and yonr sac- 






At the present lima an effort Is made, by tfai 
who hold quantities of wheat, to advance it 1 
yond its real value, and their object is personal 
pin, regardless of any fatal consequences that 
may ensue to ourpeopln generally. '' Self" is their 
motto, and self only. Every farmer, every grali 
grower, should sto this, and, forgetful of bis oitt 
mere personal gain, for the timo being, he should 
join with his brother farmers in these 
which will secure to them always a perrnn 
well-paying market. This can only bo ac 
pitched by a union of all the farmers in all 
plans which lend to the general good, 

Farmers 6hould walch, with a zealous eye, all 
efforts that tend to raise the price 
point that will induce the shipment of grain and 
floor from other countries to our own State, 
were better they should not receive quite so high 
a price for a season, on a part of their crop, 
by a fictitious value, excite compelition from 
abroad. 

It should be tbo aim of tho grain grower, rath ci 
by a system of better cultivation, to produce r 
large crop, that may keep down tho market to : 
certain paying prico, than to labor to advance i 
to such a price as would bring in foreign compoti 
lion. There must be abetter understanding among 
the grain growers of California, of their truo posi- 
tion, and of tho vast interests they have at stake. 
The present year will be one of great moment 
— already we see the signs of " events that cast 
their shadows before." Tho present copious 
rains all over the State— its influence upon all the 
products of the country — the increase it will give 
to these products, and to the yield of gold— all 
will tend to an expansion of trade, so opposite to 
its present stagnant condition as to startle people. 
The present high price of grain and flour, is, 
even now, inducing many, at this season, to in- 
crease the quanlily of their grain Gelds. All these 
circumstances induce us to the certain belief that 
fanners should reflect upon their present position, 
and bo as " wise as serpents aod 

We have always labored to secure to the farmer 
the benefit of all rise in prices of produce, believ- 
ing that it wss their just ducs,and for this purpose 
ever opposed all false speculations In the great 
staple products of California. 

Tho last year wo aimed to secure to the grain 
growers Ibis benefit, by urging them to bold on to 
their wheat until about January— and about that 
time to aell— our word then was, "sell now." 
Those (hat regarded this received the benefit, and 
many a firmer received a generous reword— and 
werejoicoat tho success that accrued to them, for 
it reliovod man; from embarrassment, and they 
are now in a very prosperous condition. The 
present year, tbo farmers, in most instances, 
have been llie managers of their crops, and they 
havo managed their own business— managed It 
wisely too— and bnvo been greatly the gainers. 

The recent riso gave evidence that lliore reai 
still heavy parcels of wheal in first hands. At 
tho first rise to any extent, five thousand bags 
camo suddenly to market, and tho speculation 
lulled. Again It goes up, and four thousand bags 
eomo to market in a day, and thus, 
eeived, that there Is stilt a/no bagi left Wa 
believe now, that ho havoamplo wheat in th 
country for our own wauls-and believo it la i 
the hands of tho farmers, to be brought to marki 
as it Is wanted. This is u it should be— (he 
market should not be crowded at ono timo. 
neither should it be permitted 
Tbo farmers, themselves, should 
govern themselves In this matter. Tbey can'havo 
all the lawful gain if they will, 
giving the miller, merchant and trader their duo 
profits in tho way of trade. It is tbo too sodden 
and repeated fluctuations thalcauso tbo ruin— and 
every merchant can also testify that it has, almost 
Id ever; Instance in California, resulted in ruin to 
those engaged in it. 
It should be the Qzed purpose of all tho grain 



Homo Manufactures. 
"Home li whore the heart is. 

When tho citizens of California shall sottlo tho 
question of Homo; when thoy shall, with one 
united voicosay, "California is my Home;" the* 
wo shall see a duo regard paid to all those embel 
lishirouts and comforts which belong to thai 
dearest of all earth's bright places— Homo. It if 
this unsettled, uneasy, wavering, vacillating 
mind of so many of the people of California that 
tends to hinder her prosperity, and to retard tho 
developments of her own homo indostry. 

No country in tbo world can present so many 
attractive features for a home as California. In 
no country can a homo be made mora beautiful 
with the materials which truly belong 
identified with tbo place, cither in natu 
science, as California; and when thebcarl settles 
down upon California, (hen wc shall sec permanent 
and beautiful homes. Already wo seo tbcm 
springing up all over our Stato; bursting opon 
our vision, in their brightness, as tho stars peep 

them to bo universal: wo want them to cover 
our wholo land as thickly as (ho stars cover tbo 
beautiful blue above us. 

We were ted to these thoughts by seeing a 
most beautiful marble maotcl-picce, rnado from 
our Own native marble, quarried at Suuun, 
wrought and finished b; Messrs. McCormick, at 
their workshops on Mission street, and now ex- 
hibited at the extensive Furniture Warehouse of 
George 0. Whitney £ Co , California street. Wo 
arc particular in naming iho place thus, that all 
may see this superb specimen of California Home 
Industry. The quarry from whence this marblo 
is taken is but a few miles from the head of 

creek, in the valley of 
peculiar variety, presenting 
sified grainings— sonic, like bird'seyc mi] 
ik, and, again, all tho Other cbso; 
found in tho richest features of agates, or Itali 
rble. It should be railed (he agate-grained 
rblc nf California. It is susceptible of the 
highest polish, and wo hope it will bo brought 
no extensively. This sample mantelpiece 
ftl, is ordered for one of the government 
i, at Mare Island, and wo are pleased to 
that this is the case. Wo believe that it is 
the duty ol every government, to labor to encour- 
age, foster and bring out the rich resources of a 
Slate, as a parent would strive to reveal tho intel- 
ligence, worth and affections of a child. 

We believe this marblo quarry will be of ines- 
timable benefit to our Stale; not only giving us 



i specified ei 



good road plow. It is all thii, 

invaluable to California, for tho 

:xpressly made for— hillside plowing. 

Although, as yet. but little attention has been 

to tho improvement of our hillsides, the 

vill soon como whon orchards, vineyards 

will occupy our beautiful 



fields 



it fertile and lux- 
ire long the Side- 



tlr. In 



a beautify 0' 






new stimulus to our workmen. 

Messrs. Fay ft Willis, wo learn, havo the con 
trol of Iho quarries, or aro acting for their exten- 
sive development. We hope those who are build- 
ing homes will prefer California manufactures in 
their embellishments; end while they admire 
this superb piece of mantel work, urge our fri.TM.l:- 
the Messrs. Whitney, who havo so largo a ware- 
house of furniture, to ecu if tlmtj cannot manvfae- 

\te furniture here, and save the large amount of 
gold that goes abroad for what should he made 

Subsoil Flowing. 

'.$ our present issue wo show tho Subsoil Plow, 

1 tho Sido-Hill Flow. Both implements are 

of great value to a California farmer, but as yet 

'iut littlo used. 

Thu Subsoil Plow is beginning to ho appro- 
liaiud by ow orcbardiate and vegetable growers, 
t'licro aro several urebnrds and p.irderis u Ii..tc, in 
brmcE years. 



d slopes, for 

ious soil is found there, and 

Hill Plow will be called into requisition, ana 
ohs now waste places be rondo fertile and beau- 
ul. Wo earnestly commend both these plowB 
Ihe consideration of those who have irscts of 

land that now lay waste and unprofitable, which 
ight ho made sources of largo income. 

Report of Commlttoe on Stato Prison Imbor. 

Su fSkI^kj, FcbniMy M, 1»J. J 

Tour Committee, appointed to toko into con- 
sideration tho subject of Stato Prison labor as 
coming in competition with honest labor of this 
Stale, and, also, to examine and report upon o 
Oircularon tho same subject, entitled "Tho Stale 
Prison System of California," beg leave lo sub- 
mit tho following report: 

Your Oommiltec, after availing (hemselvas or 
nil tho information which they could obtain on 
tho subject, ore of tho opinion that tbo present 
system of iirmingout Ibe prison labor,and allow- 
ing tbo Lessee to pursue, by the uEoofthat labor, 
all the different mechanical branches, in compeli- 
lion with honest labor, is fraught with evils of 
the most serious character, and, if continued, will 
seriously affect tho prosperity of tbo Stale, by 
preventing the immigration of (bat most useful 
class of citizens, the mecbonic and laborer, and 
be ruinous to all mechanical pursuits in tho 
Slate. 

Your Committee havo examined tbo Circular 
above alluded lo, and most heartily indorse tho 
sentiments therein contained. The writer has 
not only shown the Mil effects of the present 
system, but basgiven some excellent idcasandvol- 
uablo suggestions, by which that lobar may bo 
employed to advantage by tbo Slate, without in- 
jury to private individuals. He has more forcibly 
shown (ho evil of tho present system, by a com- 
parison with twenty-two of the Atlantic States, 
which shows that, by judicious management, tho 
prison labor may bo made a source of revenue to 
tho Stale, instead of paying the enormous sain of 
aoo hundred and twenty thousand dollars a year, 
to support a system by which the honest me- 
chanic is deprived of tho labor lo which ho is 
legitimately entitled. 

Your Committee would recommend the follow' 
ing means, by which the evUs of the present sys- 
tem may bo remedied: 

First, that the Mechanics' Institute send a Me- 
morial to the Legislature, praying for a change of 
this system. 

And secondly, that the Institute make a gen 
era! call fur a meeting, in this city, of all inter 
esled : and at such meeting make arrangement! 
for issuing a Circular calculated lo create a gen- 
oral interest throughout the State, which should 
be accompanied by petitions for signoturcs, p 
ing that the present system be abolished, 
that tho Stato havo control of tha convicts who 
shall be monaged by a Superintendent, who 
(hall direct their labor to such branches of indus- 
try as will not interfere with an; branch that can 
practically he prosecuted with honest labor. 

Your Committee, believing this subject to bo 
within Iho province of this Institute, would 
earnestly recommend that tho most active meas- 
ures be taken by which a reform may speedily 
be brought about ; and show by our acts that wa 
are truly tbo friends and defenders of tbd laboring 
class, and that the Mechanics' Institute is 
to lead the van in any reform — whose objt 
defend and protect tho Mechanic, and sustain the 
dignity of labor. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

G. D. Stheet, 
D. Van Pelt, 
Jia. A. Bankb. 

Adopted by tho Hoard of Directors, Februory 
25, 1357, and ordered published, with a request 
.11 tho Papers throughout the Slate, favor- 
able to the change recommended, copy tho same, 
request that all the Mechanics in the 
State, interested in tho subject matter, will take 
immediate action on the same. 



liraty from Agricola in his opinions nlttln lo 
« Equestrianism of Ladies." Wo approve of pub- 
lic performances by ladies, believing it conduces 
ittor slate of society, as well as health. Wo 
differ with Agricola in other of bis criticisms, jot 
wo cannot in justice refuse his communication, 
and in publishing his lotter wo offer an oppor- 
lity to those of whom ho has spokon to make 
reply, ond trust all error ond wrong may bo cor- 
ed and pass away. 

'aloadlb Donations of Books, 4o.— Wo 

under many obligations to Hon. 0. Meson, of 

tho Patent Office, for tho valuablo rcporta sent us 

To Hon. J. B. Wcller, also, for liko favors. 

To Messrs. Blacklo & Son. wo aro much in- 
debted for tho following valuable works: Engl- 
and Machinist's Assistant, Clark's Railway 
Machinery, Cabinet- Maker's Assistant, Engineer 
and Machinist's Drawing Book, Imperial Gazet- 
teer, Italy Illustrated, Burns' Complete Works, 
illustrated. If tho abovo seven works are a stylo 
of the works published or sold by this house, 
they arc ovidences of their high merit. 

Wc received recently an invoice of beautiful 
books purchased of Messrs. Blackio & Son, 

ng a selection which wo think wos hardly 
excelled. It consisted of Bhind's Vegetable 
;dom, and Goldsmith's Animated Nature, 
both illustrated with rich plates and colored en- 
gravings— tho latter hoving twenty- four hundred 
plates, largo octavo volumes. Messrs. Blackio & 
Son are a house to whom persons wanting valu- 
able works can send with confidence. 



'Eclat. Favors Received. — Among thotnany 
of kindness wo so often receivo from 
friends, wo shall ever feel truo gratitude to those 
who generously make exertions to extend tho 
:irculation of our journal. Such favors do 
i duublo good, for it cbcera us on in our labors to 
know we have many friends that apprcciat 
efforts — and it also enables us to do more 
make our paper still rooro worthy such a. 
kindness. Tho past week, many kind fare 
this kind have been registered in our heart, 
very kind friend from Mariposa has placed u 
dec many obligations for bis generous list of 
friends sent in. 



Notes for oor Prionda nt Panama ana 
jESaowhero. 

It is our intention to place copies of onr JQ nna! | 
i each trip of the steamers, in tho band3 alnui, 
able agents, al Panama, (or free diilrlbution, j*,, 
object of such n distribution will bo to rati, 
known some of tho bright featured of our p^ 
homes, so that all now comers, as well as old OiiJ. 
forniooa, Gha.ll have a copy on thair arrival ta 
greet lb cm. 

In tlioso copies wo shall give them a brk[ 
sketch of some of tho principal hotels, where thry 

find a homo when they arrive, and such other 

prominent furnishing stores and places of int*. 
rest, which will be of much -ad vantage lo tbera— 
end besides, wo wish thoy should know, however 
dark tho pictures others may give of California, 
thoro Is still a bright side, and that is, the country 

Strangers, ond all who come to our PaciBe 
shores, will find the following notices raliablc,- 
and thoy can ho sure Of finding n homo, and all 
iho necessary comforts, at cither of the following 
Hotels. 

Tbo OrlcataL 

This long kcnirn and Roll established Hotel, which his 
withstood the rasing element fo many times, standi aia 



thongh fro 
lately chaa 
Boating upon Iho Dag or. 1 
kind Ir.romcmbo rod byma: 
Esq,fbrmorljeftbB5t-Cl 
orthnAstor House, New! 
formerly of tho Tromoat F, 
ton, and tboir names will 
load (heir old friends to I 



rlolorohlp, and we Gad n 



-m, It hi 



as that 



=i tbo ■ 



Tbo 



5 Ilnoi 



MSS. Copy Received. — Wo welcome to our 
columns our spirited and happy " Clara Wild, 
wood "— sho will grace our ladies' department 
next week. Mabel wilt bo most wolcomo again. 
E. M. S. also— her subjects are always good. Eva, 
loo, our new friend, shall always bo hailed 
pleasure. Wa sea a kind providence in sending 
us two now friends. They come, as Cupid steals 
away Katie King and Jennie. But may wo nut 
hope, that though Cupid changes the names of 
our former esteemed correspondent 9, that thoy may 

FuHNlTnnE. — Wo would call e.-pcdnl attcnlion 
to the card of tho "Empire Furniture Warehouse," 
un Washington street. Tho "Empire" is one of 
the long established houses, ond has always main- 
tained a high reputation for tho very best stock 
of finished furniture. It is only necessary for us 
to point (o tho advertisement, lo insure to this 
establish moot a liberal patronage. 



amoDjr tho Hotels of the Pi 
mountain shows amone tho hillsof tho plain. Joi-rl 
Rasulte la a familiar name with tbo great Iravoling pnb- 
llo, aod tho parlor?, road ing- rooms, and halls of IhoKu- 
lotta nlllshow that eitticas of all pirls congregate thlrs. 
Ur. Rmotlo has pouod through many trials. Hii great 
Hotel nu consumed bj Ero, bot a greater odd arose from 
tho ashes. Ho has bad, liko old '49 laborors, groat trials, 
but hob able to eaduro greater, aod now we Eco that, bj 
onorgy and poncrcraDco,hohis t.- tab lis hod a Hotel thai 
is mtat favorably known the world over. 
One or tho very favorable featores cf Iho Hauotte, Is, 

aro always enlivened with the many lamlliej thai havo 
modo It tboir borne. And groat praise is duo to the cuay 
ids there 



HirroiiiKas' California Maoaetne. — Tho 
March number of this sprightly monthly comes 
lo us with still increased attractions. By the 
excellent articles and beautiful illustrations for 
which this periodical is celebrated, it has made 
itself a welcome visitor to all. 



Defebbeh Articles. — Wo regret that w 
obliged lo defer a sketch of tho extensive 
Foundry, of Peter Donahue, and a sketch of 
Smith's Pomological Gardens, Sacramento, also 
several valuable loiters received, that wo cannot 



!|.,T 



of water 


used. Th 


Subsoil Plow has 


plished n 


ore than i 


rigatlon. Orchards 


flour lib i 


g— crops 


re larger, and work 



The Tdhp.— The Liverpool Times, of January 
IOlh, says : " Mr. Boll, of the Liverpool Adelpbia 
Stables, has, during tho week, forwarded lo 
America a pure, thoroughbred Arabian maro fur 
li. Richards, Esq., a most extensive breeder in 
Louisiana. Tho maro was bred in tho Great 
Desert of Sahara, aud purchased from tho chief 
of a tribe of Arabs by E. Ttoye, Esq., tho cele- 
brated artist, so well known in America. For 
bin judicious caro and attention in shipping this 
Mr. Troyc, who has had great 



Atrrlcola'a Crlttclsnu. 

Oun readers will find a rather sharp review or 
the State Agricultural Society's Reports, or, 
rather, the doings of tho State Society by its 
government tbo past year, Tho source from 
whence this criticism emanates— a writer like 
Agricola; one of long esptrience in agricultural 
matters, and one particularly and thoroughly 
verted in tho science and practical uses of ae- 



agalto 



at leas cost. Innumerable instances can bos 
of success in this matter. Tbo columns of tho 
Firmer, during the past year, have given facts 
enough to satisfy any ono of tbo great benefit of 
aubsolllng and deep plowing, In a country like 
California, to admit of a doubt of its utility and 
Its necessity. 

Tbo cut of tbo Subsoil Plow represents its gen- 
eral features and uses. It is ono of the best pnt- 
is, and is from ono of the best agricultural 
■chouses in tbo United Slates — Messrs. Bug- 
gies, Nourso 4 Mason, of Bostoo, Mass. These 
plows can bo obtained of Messrs. Treadwoll k Co., 
of Ban Francisco, Or their branch hoUEoat Marys, 
villg, and of other houses, and every cultivator to 



■.IWn: 



lay il.UVr , 






s tbo use of oi 



itlch i 



th bim upon t 
lunilkj ;.u severely. 

It will bo remembered by our readers that tho 
Stato Agricultural Society advertised tpea'al pre- 
-'"'■mis far Essays upon given subjects. Agricola 
tbo only competitor. These essays have all 
been published in (ho FAnsiEH, and ou< reader' 
can judge of their merits. Wo feel sure thoy 
havo been spoken of in tho highest terms both 
hero and abroad. One of these essays received 
the award, tho other two were rejected. Al this 
Agricola feels aggrieved, and as ho is ono of our 
most esteemed correspondents, and highly appre- 
ciated by our readers, wo feel it a duty to give 
him an opportunity to mako, his appeal, and lo 
criticise freely tho action of any public corporation 
(bat have published their doinga throunh 
Journal. B 

If Agricola has been too severe, or unjust in 
any degreo, our jou.rn.1 i„ opon for „ nply ^ ^ 
ourselves, wo aro fro to ,,., ,;„,> u^, maiffbr cq 



luable 

transference nf horses and 

. and knows its difficulty, has written 
letter 6f thanks to Mr. Bell. 



_ Tub Amount of Tobacco om rue Globe. 
Tho present annual production of tobacco has 
liven estimated by an English u titer nt 4,000- 

,000 pounds! This is smoked, chewed and 

1-3 Suppose it all made Into cigars, one 
'"the pound, it would pic"; -100,000,- 



UOO.i.MH!. hu- 



ndred I, 



■-,;ir. 



Al 









edle 



. .0 manufac- 
itoblu form, arid iliu,,,.-^ ,,f , t 
nor. If this be ,:o, ihen ,| K . | ,„,„„„ 

•[, '■'■'"J 'J-'"- -'I sii.] null, , 

IheEretilicatione-ranaciiHir,-,! habit 
r for every man, woman and child 



ri.tluiiEly efficacious in the euro of Salt Rlioum 
:rof„Ia,and all other skin diseases; thoy wii 
feet cures when all other means fail. Sold at 
10 manufactories, No. 80 Maiden Lane, New 
iorLaml Ho^SM Strand, London ; and by all 
., and SI per pot - ' 



fi^l.-U, iit 



PAitDONED.-Tho Govornor has pardoned 
Stenecifer, convicted of tho murder of Itioh- 
ardscn, in Sacramento. Tho pardon was un- 
eonditiuua.it ,„,,;,,. ,,,.,,, ,, | , r ,. ;( ,, lt( , dthQt 
ueea was done in eulf-dofcnso. 

. Tub nso nf tbo Aeaembly Chamber has been 

*'•"" '■' th. i ■ f Sacra m.> for FriZ 

oobco party m aid of lb. p£bft Soh«I 3 



r? that 



lich tboii 



e tbo loi 



prasiDoealnnjsramlibci 
icrnja-iicGt in males nf Ibis 
inRors visiting tho Pacific, and all 
■'111 find that Mr. and Mrs Bassotte 



The International Hotel. 



ps Irons oil 1 


it comfort ani 


luxuries of a boun 


! .u.' table, 


;ood rooms 














o host and 


lostesa. W 




.ooHledeo irbcn 






on tabor nlth 


roitarollurttopl 


oia all who 


call at thU 


Hotel, thou Mr. aod Mrs. Halo 




who beloDE 


a each and or 


ry department. 






Tho What 






This over 


owtaB Hotel j 


Indeed tho rtos 




oflbotrivo 




iliibaitbeplait 


truth i-brn 




•a Li no olio 


establishment o: 


the whole 


?aeiEe ssor 


e that Is so co 






stoned as fu 




Cheer Huuso. 




Wood iianl has a poculia 


nay of keeping n 


ullhoase— 


and ho bu 


acb a home, It is like a groat me 


oum. The 


What Clee 


!• like a groat CAerta, and it 1 


a safe one, 



o notioo Is portleularl, tab 



alt. The What Cheer 

"delicacy," somo "boo 

wertb, of notice.' 
A jcnrlcmne of Tamil} 



P DmUELE FE« C ' 
oraHed^lsaalrer- 



yoarlSS6,lnel u Jlr,.- n, t r„ll H..,,,ru .if tbo Visitin* Con " 
ralltcw to tbo Farms and Vinejords Ihrongboot U>« 
State, Reports on the Exhibition, Iho Annual Aa*»- •[ 
tbn President, Address of Col. J D. Oroek.lt, JelalW 
list of tha Exhibited Artivk:., the I'rlM K*V •"** 
Potato, with olbor Important matter Is ooir Isjuod lo * 
noat Piimrhlnt f ao . m t „,„!,[„ „,,!, lllmtrtleJ- P«* 
fii.^.-i,,,,,. ,.i ,,■„,.,,„,„. ,■.,;. I „;,| , | .|.-..,. -1-.lf ■■■ V; 

roranrdedusporerdcr. J'rico Fitly Cenls. -,„,,«, 
No. lgj fWuhlJior r°trecl sTu 'i'mnciew. ^Va' 

im^i ,-.,.,. ., v, ;„,!(■:,.„■.,] r. uc.n.i';. ^ 

Franobcoi Dr. J. 0. Cobb, and J B Mouny, Son Jam- 



03-Hawar* 



or tho city of Sar 
', to one who has tho 
. A jury jirDDiiitilo 



-Wo 



THE CALIFOENIA F^ZRMER. 



53 



From the Bait 

The Nicaraguo steamer Oriaabo, Copt. J. H. 
Blcthen. arrived yesterday evening, from Pono- 
DiB.andSan Juan del Sud; bringing dales from 
NowYork t.>™lth January, Now Orlearia 28th, 
Liverpool Jan. Mlb, and from tlio city of Mex- 
ico January 29lh. 

Ifr. Buchanan has arrived nt Washington. 
The N. V. Hcriji] -:ijs he i-ititoJ tho President 
to say [hut he would take ull tho servants, oto., 
Bt (ho White House, till ho could make other 
arrangements. It is usual for the President to 
vacate the PrcsiJeuli.il Muuaion a fen days bo- 



fore tl 



Mr. Buohnr 









K™ 



a in tho houso till 
1 then remain his 



^^Ehls graceful iaritation M 

|BEb Cabinet appointments 

nailer "f e-.'nji.-elur..- ?..- ever. 

The Submarine Telegraph bill was before the 
House, and it was thought no effort would bo 
made to pass it under n suspension of tho rules. 
A sample of the cubic is on view nt the National 
Hotel, mid uttrntts u emul deal of 

■Rio amended turill bill wus reported to the 
House, en the ]7th January. The direct reduc- 
tion of tin? revenues annually, will be abjut 
J13.000.iXH), which, It is supposed, will be in- 
creased some millions by the effects of the 

those imported. 

Preston S. Brooks, of South Carolina, died in 
Washington, of the croup, on tho 27th ult. Ho 
leaves a wife and four children. 
ess ac. 

■ death of Mr.Brouks. 
Tho body was to be removed on tho 29th, to his 
hie residence in Sieitli C'uruliua, 

The estimable and venerable widow of the 
late William Wirt, died nt Annapolis, Mori' :. 
on He 2-itb. Her remains were interred by the 
£3e of those of her illustrious husband, in the 
Congrcsstounl burying gi 

The Bosloninns out a. 
permit the steamer Anierico to sail on tho 27th 
Janoory. but as sho could not turn around irith- 
L'ut i- --■[-.--=. r. T i :- i - ■ .!_- h-r rudder she did not sail. 

The United States Agricultural Society, be- 
6re its odjournment, decided to hold the noit 
aim on I fair at Louisville, Ky., in September 
next. The programme of arrangements will 



Snow was falling rapidly at Washington, on 
tho 26th ult. Tho weather was mild. 

Tho N.Y. News of tho 23th, says that all tho 
mails aro deranged. They come in floods, or 
Come not at nU. Thero aro no loss than eight 
mails due from Now Orleans. 

Travel between Nov; York and Washington, 
which had been interrupted by tho snow storms, 
was resumed on the ±id nit. 
I A bill has passed (ho Houso of Reprosenta- 
fives to increase (he pay of Army officers. 

J. W. Paber, Republican, has been elected 
Tflpeaker of the Minnesota Legislature. 

The disease known as tho "hog cholera.' 
which has been so fatal in the Woat, is said to 
bate made it oppeoronce in JIassaohusotts, and 
lO be quite fatal there. 
_Itis stated that Gen. Homey has withdrawn 
his ling of truce, and declared war against 1" 
roblida Indians, Billy Bowlegs included. 

There was n meeting in favor uf Walker, 
Kstr Orleans, on the 2<lth ult., nt which 31,700 
was subscribed to hU " 

Tho New York pa[ 



of Paris was assassinated while porfc 



■1! • H-in-.t. ,.| (Till!.. ;...;;. ,.-i.M., ,. . 

os in tho Church St. Etienne, by a 



discharged priest unined Verges- Tho nst 

stopped forward, and lifting tho prelateV ."ipo, 
plunged a Cntnlino knifo into bis heart, osotnim- 
ingi, "Down wi(h Iho Goddess!" au expression 
whioh ho afterwards oxplaiued referred to the 
doctrine of the immaculate conception. Tho 
Bishop fell to tho pavement and inptantlv ex- 
pired. Tho general opinion i~ tb.it V.r;;r< is 
deranged. Tho funeral of tho Archbishop took 
placo m the cathedral of the Notre Dnme, with 
great pomp, amidst throngs of people. Tho 
trial of (he assassin was oipeoied to lake plnoo 
abont the 25tb. 

Lord Xopier has been appointed by tho 
British 'iov, tutu. .nt Mininrer In \Vi^liiiij;|.m. It 
is stated he is a practical Hi-).!. mi ici-r. Innim- 
served in Austria, Persia, Naples a 
Tie' 1... mil. ii Times objects to the a 
of Lord Napier, on the ground lli.it. 
fiT'.iil liy liL- ilipliiniiiTic experience ( 
his counln- in the East, or at any 
nd Military Courts of Cnntiumi 
. right . 

Mexico.— Tins Mexican Eit™ 
27th, says: The evacuation of ] 
by Gen. Blancsrto and forces hi 
reports of a serious character. It was said hehnd 
prononnced at Topic for Religion y Fucros and 
for Santa Am. This is undoubtedly without 
foundation. We learn, from good authority, C ' 
Gen. Blancnrto deserted Lower Call" - 

longer without supplies. A gentleman, who 
says he has a letter from him, informs us that 
Blancarle is fully impressed with tho idea thai 
Lower California will soon fall under tho ban of 
upeditiun. He says, already 
tho Mexican population are anxious for such an 
advent. Most of the largo landed propr 
now in I'ppcr California, endeavoring to sollthci 

ire are various reports 
engagements than are noticed in oi 
of to-day, between the government troops and tho 
pro n unci ad 06. As yet nothing dcQtii to has been 

: ~cd from tho direction of San Luis. 

•umor is now current an tho streets that a 
losn is being negotiated with the United States. 
Although the business is as yet en-brouded in 
diplomatic mjslerv, we hare no doubt, when once 
developed, it will appear that Mexico will be 
placed independent of her present depressed finan- 
cial condition. There is need of it, and Tor her 
sake wo sincerely hope that something may ba 
ipeedity done. 
A Spaniard was murdered at Paducca on the 
9th January by robbers. On tho IOlh instant, 
band of robbers attacked the town of Nochist- 
on, in the Department of Tcpcscolula. They 
broke open the do-rs of lie.- |ui-,-.n mid liberated 
more than fifty criminals, and at the cries of 
'■Religion y Fucros," sacked the commercial houses 

'ml wc J.;d the sub-prefect. After two hours 

of disorder they abanduncd the town, and then 
the prelect, with some of the citizens, actively 
pursued them and managed to calch the bend 
man, Don Manuel Dolores Rodrjeuer.. The 
people of the small town of Xnaslfa,Tiavo taken 
iwcuty-fooror the same band. 

The band that was headed by tho priests, 
Amezquiln and Fucnles, have been hotly pursued 
by the troops nt Guanajuato, and ten of tho 
rebel-; hue hejn liken, j'lie priests and their 
'c pillaged the Mineral do Santa Ana. 
■eno, recently oppointed Govcrnorand 
Com man dan te- General of Tamaulipus, has left for 
Tampico. Don Ignaeio Munoz Cambunno 
companies him in tho capacity of Secreta 
Eight hundred troops have also been directed 

no destination; tho active battalion of 
forms a portion of this foi 



SPEOIAIi MOTIOE3. 



rye 


Komln Blv 


m Navigation, Compan, v- 






















>nnlix.u.in bj rnloelog iho nam- 
















roftbo uoariL 








Secrrtarr. 


cUiuiKm- Iiii 


tllntc — Tbo Anou^ Mcrtlnj cl 






















-moated. B/ 




vJ-flld 




p. a dexteh, nro. ek'j. 



ASSUR ANCE. 
fJi'e Assurance. 

IJfl'ORTAMT TO ALL. la icooDtrrMnewtT occupied 
-M(panalTf«'l'iilalc.|iL>lbtae'id<l fftnic ..rCitir-.TJ.i.i 

— IIDIOJ wtll Iw i.i: i.-in--,!ltj:i ■ -.>(.;-.-: i.ll,, .-1 „, 

iko hoi been tut litUo thouffhl of— and Iho [■cr^ra nhu 
has tho tomuritr to onior urico mch od ondsrlal log - 
Iboc.t.itili.-bioontuf.uchaiir.-vcllcolniobo-ljurCTnit-J 
a nolo of .«iMj— rmi;t laj It to anoonl-lba! ho rrl" 



■WSK 



Jlod Ihnt.tollioin. .]itiioolllc> |n- I — , j-j - . - i I : ■-■ l 

ndcrtalie laborf. bnnovor uopnunifini of hucok.-— fr 
vorjIomofnsofulncaorfninioirlrhablUorthiiikii 
rofoBwlalbn, Connmoral 

i.: I: ■.! l.ii- A., ansa en.- aalt] i ii.----Ii-.:„ii i .i t 



COMMISSION CARDS. 



A N. R 

■JV Frodnco and 



N. REYNOLDS & 00., 

Soneral Cammimien Herchanti, 
(heLCLiy ud Wubtajrton itrcelB), 



3ENTS FOR LICK'S FLOUR. J 

BIRSHFELD &■ JORDAN, 

Frodnco anl Commi'jiou Merchonti, 



f*tT\ 


RIDES. SKIrI3, 
AOKirCASnPni 


r::a 


4& MEAD * BENNETT, 1 ' 6 "'' ' 
■JsL Grain and Produce Herchants, 


# G. P. LOUCKS, 
_M_ Produce Cojhminian Herehnnt, 
^TSo. b cur tirect wiurf, oppoiito o«t mm, 






A s 



The N.-i, 




the fro=t t)mt their lives >rere in danger. 
Ulegvaphic e.,n,iiiuiii. mii.u betireen New York 
and Sandy Hook was resumed oa tho S3tb ult. 
Kansas.— The SI. Louis Republican, or th 
20th of January, published an advance copy of 
Qotcrnor Gcary'b Ml-dj; ■. II in riewfl on sqoot- 
l«r sovereignty are embodied in the following 

"When the interests of tho people shall requii 
•.Stale government, and a direct popular vole ; 
necessary to giro i( sanction and effect, will be 
U)0 proper occasion, once for ill, to decide the 
grave political question which underlies all tt oil 
ifKolatcd common wealths." 

He advises the Legislature to let slaverj alone, 
*herc the constitution places it, and forego Icgis- 

lalion In relerence to it until a Stale 

ii formed; recommends IhUcrrorso 
In the Maiule beok be corrected ; de; 
leal oath act, and rctonimeiids its repeal ; dieap- 
prove«orihe prc^nt ruode of collet Ling jiji-.r-. 
IDd recommends their clettion by lot; thinks 
gal the idoplion of the ballot plan or voting 
thonld be insisted on, and suggests the enact 
Of a law requiring a residence in the Tcrritt 
leu days, to prevent lllcgi' 

& Itl/grnj.liK ill |.-il, ' 

niry 23,t.tatohthattho'i t .. 

Lecompton, Kansas, adjouri 
MBnuary, after passing resok 

Titus nf the principles of the parly hi 

called the '.Vn. ;,.l l...n l ..,.-T,i,.:'l , arty." Both 
annehes-oftbe KansasI—" 1 - 

peili'.n ■ I" liorenior Ova 

the repeal of obnoxious t 
Pboh Euuope.— Thl 

to (bo Mil, Ji.imnry, i 



fi once put a , 

wivtd in Lngli., IU ... h 

ffihiaen the Ru^iana and Circassir 

former r,ir,M. .1, ■,„!, a |, Jsa of nearly 2,000 

mi. m.il -,v.-r--,] [.„,,,. it,, WaeV buI ^^ b 
aCire,,.,,,,., ,.-.,.,.- ..I 1 i i.r ,, ,, fc 

4lh „r", n ""' !1 "" 'T '."-I"'"''"'"-' 1 "I Malta, en the 
«fi.0F Janunry during w [ lloa M[nc ,,,; BuJ)k 

DMIIuco hundred boats wore ikabed - -* 
■gauiit (be quays. 

A late number of »t". Tnnm, 
""rultur., stales, (h 
MB last three years 
Sjtni ha. been a fal 

The French Govi 
•oandon tbo occupation of Tahiti. 
* in.rriLl,. tr„,..,ly WIU1 eoo(ltc j ; p^, on 
MJ°venuig of 3d January, whnn tbo. U,a,t.i. :..... 



Fcjr Utile Sail*'" C"" 



us ma no nwtlwr 



■:,lly',i 



Go oil Paddings. 

A good Piling is a real "Mury, and it is 

mailer of great moment thai "S<«"1 P"« ln S 

should be more common! wo there... r.- ,-.- .1 

cbaptor on Pudding*, from tho Home Slugwund . 

-l clIAFTfH ON rODOISGS. 

P P iH'> w —To two pounds of white 

,':",'' i„n''.',l -7,nl ma-lii:-! -month, end one- 
"'',""'"', i m( nnir.T- ill" veil; of eight eggs, 

1 ,| l, \..|„ .,.,-[[„....■ ..nt-ilfflll'l'i-'lllJ "f ■■=<!?"! 

'';," . |, ,„■ ,.„.,„, I'.akc in deep iliilii'S. with 
„ n,-,, ,..LtV — ■ '■ in"! rather n tl ' irl: '-' , -;' 1 . 11 -"; 



A Tribnto to Sclanoa. 

wA be pardoned if one who «"«■ lhl '!- T 
,-r, rdmosl constantly engaged m tu0 
years has oern icsliinony, 

examination o[ nature snouiu ul-> 

in> roc 50 manv ami eucl, llcliglUMl £'" r- 
"„ s tk. path at 1Kb, "M* U '"'"".l ± 

SSSasusSrS 

1 4ii vi-ifof nature rlre-a-'eu m thegarb ol 
ITcnce failed W rally back the sinking powers, 

' bavro enjoyed w ranch in studying irw 
isturc. And when 1 see so many noble- 
minded youlbs placing nil their hopes of 
ippinoss,"— ; 



MV PIPE A.TO '■ 

Siniso all alano, ibi« cold DooaotKir, 



Commercial Nursery, 

Quartan or a Mle East °f tho City 
JPglMtiBi wo r[nsT PBEMIUM 



SCHOOL BOOKS FOR THE UNION. 



-One pound <■ 
ono-cillofwine, one gill of cream, 

,L, juice and p. el ufjwo lemons, 






,l,-,l t.Ht. 



r io you 



..,„,,,,. 



in the hot strife 
umu in the possession ol wcaim, 
nd power, some in following tho lisle- 

chief source of happi- 



iQ of fashionable 
in— r^ 

..--..jriiin: 

mcntnndd^twbiehlk^t y 



.vghJly 



011M I'ivin 



.,, „„„.., shred fine. 

p, U uV,,,-, t .,r..n 1 e^,on i ,;l^ofir eo 

L f ■ ..-.j r |>m nn|.a.-ie round tin' ilihi, "' 
'l',,,'!!';",, '.',',„. L'M. S.-n-oil «-i!t, colli --u'Jl-',. 
iW^-i.' .„M'...V ; ^-15l,meh ne.li l 
.uuri'l ..ffjim.iid*. l.'unt 'lien, amoolli in n mc 
!-,,.. ..„.■ -....-.uiol vjsij water; one of crerim or 
1M ;ii., u^kvii.d with ono largo spoonful of 
,,r,i.,id.'d I'l-'-'uii; onc-linlf ]><juiiil of sugar , 
'(,■ -..:, ceea, und one nutmeg. 
' £„;(£,■' .-)l'i''«J i'Hjrfin^.— Blanch 0110 pound 
of elmomls ; beat tliem in a mortnr to 
na--.,'. Willi tliri'i' t*l>-sp.«.nst«l ,.! r 
•M l .„ B Eillof.vi, 1 o,..i,.'|....l'^y ; -' 
nilh, one egg, one spoonful 01 tli 



longej 

lament ihut they 

Many, many" 



a smooth 



™^, 1 1 /Wi/iV-— Wash half 
in three or four waters; put ■' ■■ 
milk. Boil th< 
wrefully. Sti 



■111.1 III' J'!!.''' 



.1! <10f 



... i.-^.ili.r till thick, =l„..,: 
in, wlien hot, one half poundof 
Id, odd eight eggs, benten well ; 



fl,...,iLi Bttad Pvdding.— Grate hnlf a pound 
of «iak- bread, pour over it a pbt of bnt milk^ 
and leave " 



■ ■ . . .**j fc - soak for . 

_in- tbea beat it up with tho ytlks of 
tv',, i-g«f. I 1 '" 1 i!"' wl " 3k ' '"'" a covered basin 

,..,... . - -i.-ij i. b'-ij it, wnjiib 
in I dolh and placed in boiling » 

'■' Hcii F("nr and iffii.— Knead .any qunn- 
*- - Soil, and 



lity 



le final; 



olotb; 



, t twelv. 

hoars. Vlave it InToro the fire So dry, „.,il ait- 
.■nnirdi!, t.n n-ni'H-ini; the ol-ili. -■■i-parat- u tlm: 
skin i« rind wliieli baa formed, mid Ogain dry 
the ball, 

A table-spooufnl or moro of this, grated 1 
boiled with a pint of milk, forms an oicellent 
lick of diet in convalescence, from diarrhea, 
also mokes very suitable food for young chilili 



11 tV-ir isroptr places, 
.iblts. if you wish to bo wi 



Uhrn-L Histb ToHocin 

tiil.li> "ami chair* 

Hub your own tables, if you w 

Toke the trmlesmun's receipt, though you f „ cm objects of study ii. 

pay in ready ni'.ney. tlii,,.. imtrccuts ibu pure rays of tiulh, and that 

1 Look uoi end then into your kitchen and &„£ vot - 



Ilwill 



'B know what is for dii 
Be regular in keeping your 1 

^DveT°«Btariin^i)W&>n Jnmn. for th 

will he tempU-il V.i l"Jy what yon do not 

Keup uorui.H' t-rvnuta than you con employ . 
Never pay u tradesinon'B bill till you linvo 



it up. 



If you have family, and not very idll 
,-cmember that n pin a day is n groat a ye 

If you ki-cp a di'iititnn servant, msuro . 
..i'iu-,- iianiust fir'!, und yourself u b -aiii.~t tin- 
„ n n.„r,.s nf your neigblinrs. 

■•■ rieli, I" librrnl in your .';[.>■ use.-!. 



Wiato n 
kitclici 



ofon 



"Wlii-ri 1 iu sit iloivii to n luxurious bmi'iui-t. 
coiiniJ'T bow mnny parsons there urn iu the 
world who would La. glad of the crumbs that 
fail from your tublo. 

In the 111 ') r ui 1 iv; think mi what yon nro to do 
in the day ; and at night, thiuk on what you 
hove done. 




nnd which may lend Ihem also lo 

tho bright eyes.— 
it this moment ; eyes sparkling with 
hMHhMd hope. Must an. of (b"-'' b ; , [-. -I 
l„ ib- ,nil..,na K touch i,l s,.:h.b^l1-iii"" 1 "' ' 

Ii ,r.l.„r, -^ "ill 11,'.. pbcethei, hopes " 

bappine^ in factitious and natural pursuits, hu 
in a knowledge and a love of nature, they w.il 

1 refuge amid all thi 
of life, and those eyes may be brigtit ana 
■ even amid the frosts of age. 

b™»«tlbo. roaeanco Ibc 1-aa II, , ■ .'■ ■■■ 

01 chi.rin.1 whlib KiHare I" li*r v,-i .r T yld-l- 

Tb p^ri of e«™, and imn»iu'« -1 " ■■'■ ■ 
All (hot lb» (tialnl nttl oiwnmil ("<". 

would not undervalue other sonrces of h 
ness, which are mercifully provided for us in 
I only wish to know that the pursi 
■■■-— - ! icss. hasslrnng-l 
I a*B not inter nil 
>nt; thalii is able of 
feclnally to overcome" the nppoliti 



l enj'.y 



miserable ; that it furnishes 

„lb".|.],iu-.>si Lothemaninmnl'Uelil 
f,i[ [..I l \.,li{ui fi'JU) liu;i..'--.-i -iii'l 
■laties ; Dial U1.11. unlike niOsi utbu s. 
joyroont, the relish for it grows stro 
bo lied 1 f0 iint - m advanced life, when tho con 
for half of life censes to interest, those of sc 
I sess the charm of novelty. 

I*t rne not, however, be understood to lm 
that there are not porsuilsand pleasures 01 
more noble and satisfying character than 01 
those of science. I would not bring them ii 
ciuificlilioii with the redult uf active benevolence 
and piety, liut the two pursuits are not iucon- 
■ ' t with each other ; ami he who ebou^s can | 

the pleasures of both his own. Such a 
lias r-.nJheil Hit hishtsi point of earthly hi.. 
B. For every wonder of Kimice now heT.imes 1 

r.l.ll '.lilh l.l'ai 'I'.'lli.l'.- illUTI.SH.I la/in; iKU'lli- I 

in it : If nial an exhibition of divine wisdMn. 
..■Ubtn.Y.-Jini ,lelipliii"l'.nu.:i|-Mi'.ai. crowd ujwu 
i mind ! He som learn, thai wim the veteran 
inciutcieiice can obtain but little more than a 
-liu, I ;-.<: dI nature in ibis r; or Id, and that much 
cloud and darliiie.;- rti-l ui„.n ll.e lir-;iil-. ;l j-y.-.ts-. 
I Yet he knows that the works ol the Deity w ! " 



3 round of e 



Wh?tunbl»fii°a< 
Aadllfhtia'ilinillilj'<.nii 



Keep the Moutu Shot Hi 

tiieb.— Dr. Hall advises every [vrson who goes 
But into the open air from a warm apartment, lo 
keep the lnuul.h shul ubile ualkm; or ridiujr. 
He ttaya— " lleforo you leave the room, bundle up 

wirll viur 1: 1 n v ,.-.-, ■ loak and caifurie'i ; shot your 

liiualh befure vou opun the -ll'.-et 1] '. and ki ,,|) 

il resolutely e!',dtd until you havi '.vail.'.il brialily 
' 1 minutes; then, if you keep on walk- 
reached your home, you may talk as 
a please. Notso doing,many a heart 
c happy nnd young now lies in tho church- 
ight havebeen youngand happy siill. 
If you keep your uniaili t :S» .-■■] ai<i| 



vanished. 1 
10 nil day and I 

My fate is not 

plied fortune. " T was but lately I visited 
merchant, nnd mndu him prosperous and rich. 
While I remained with him be was contented, 
but yesterday 1 turned away my face from him 

and lie li'iu^ hini -I'll, Wb;, "tj'Hi'il tlnl.e "I, 

''""' feel thy disappcarnnco less? Am 
Ironm 1" 




not I, tc 



a dream!" 



It is 



i;nr;:|.fr,.„ 



■ Hater 



lj la llin djUnikr !-,-.^,.,.|. r ,1, 

of poKor reqalic'd to irqtk laem, and the' wear of 

l-.iAi.ie-. Tli..'ciL.ii>l.:ran.| fir'. ,11,1 L.ci.n; roifi^lly .._. 
iin-l .a,.,,lli, h iMilianll)- !..,H.„v, lla.l liwro -l,-i.l.1 k- I,:-, 



honest man "cleave 
lisi. and Qing away the baser 

When two loving hearts aro torn asunder, it is 
a shade better to be tho one that is driven arc ay 
into action, than tho bereaved twin that petrifies 

Good men aro human suns! They brighten 
and warm wherever thoy pass. Fools count them 
mad lill death rc.uieli._-.-i ...|,_a (".,■. Ii ..U eyes. Thoy 
are not often sung by poets when ihey die ; hut 
the hearts thoy heal and their own are theii ' * 
reward on earth, a mi tin ir [■[:■•:■■. iabigU in he 

Good is stronger than evil. A single really 
good man in an ill place is like a little yeast in n 
gallon ol dough : il can leaven the mass. 
Treat a ma n like a dog, and yon rnn kn him ono 
GilEAT Mouac IIu.iT. — "A great mouse hunt,' 
:■■:,}■ -a llri'l:;|-,it p..,,,.., ",,■,:■ -nil v <■:.,„,.. , of 11, tl.i 
viriuiL, . ■-■'I. I.-Liii^- ,,l trco parties of forty a side 
with a lnii;..' nil nib -r 1 if .|. -!.--. v.liieii Miii-e.-d-d 11 
killine'. iluiin; aday'n spin, '.'u'.l rats, Bud 31:. 
Ian,lu:l'i i.l mil.-,., ilit cipiuins uf the Imi pauii'S 
rc,-n- do-. ..■[,!, l'k.1,-1,,., and Charles II. Hill; and 
Mr. flaeli.'i 's [,:„iy wi.u by 05 rats and 4J bush- 
els of luico." ir this story were not pretty 
,|i,m:h i"ld, we should bnidly bo disposed to 



lf,.fL-,| lIll'.lV.'ll 111 



odCouctv Fnir,'. Inclv lln Modal 
Iryilol PdncoEilill.U, .uin I.'.., y. 
*ho paworof a 'hide i.i,l.<i,i u ,,i 
,-aull, fun)!- tied (.ir family 11,0, i 
rii|, r fi..iiiai.elll«oalr-Rvafo«di 
r.lnL. i,( tidj fed fr,im n bmo-|)i|)0 



fiiri)irh,-l.vill) ,1 
11 Iho prorbo inlmoniVho 

SifT 1 ™ inaT ,aa " 

.m Mcdalj, Dlr- 
ti Diploma al the 



tlOItAL FltlLOSOI'IIVl ,AMuTj»tS I 
Phitotuphy. Ivt 

'"lADERiwei"^! 



OrjIlESSlVE 9CANI3II KKAHMH «• » -,-ui JJ 
Itudy of iho aninbh Lant-ootrc. H7 A WB, 
uorilo., A. M. and II SI. I vol, 12ue. HW 






IlKTAll. I'llICKS or 

Prize Mcdul Ionic Bold Pens. 

[WTAKI.TACII Ki:ilau,l:-..l,l Wl,.,l- . ,l„ .a, I II. 
"t- stlMl-isos ,'. I.'.., ;u v..,::!,,,,.-!.,,, :: .,<-,i ; 



A lady 1 



moninl experience 

nai.l: ■All l .,i,m, relirmjj of a cold ni^in, lu y 

.!'!,. ""'.;'.V i..^.i ,"'.""- ' i"" J°' ir,i ..a[ link- 

It wns, 'beep your 



cold hoofs off me." 



Fatr.Loodonirortbo.i 



■ •81 00 Ko.4-EB(t™alog...8l 76 

■■■-IZfi " B— Eaakl'on 2 00 

-..] W| " G-I.ovinthon 3 00 



■aob from W.,,1 
^v=..».«™. morrl'on nan-ant. 

;•■ iv ■ ■:- ,1 ^hioufaqlVror, "' 



SAUSAOB 
CaaitBDtl; 

v7-3 lm 



To Butcher:;. 
JUXs AKI) IllL'Kiiity .. 

, 't'u , i)iN;'ti : ii' , .r.; , 'V l A r |:i-:i<. 



No. 110 KernnMtB.il. 



cr.irii.rhir,.. . _ 
ll-,-,.,l U-i,T, 



? 5,?r« 



vol.,I2mo. WW 
Sb^iWsSS'o^SS I 

■VaVi-"iV,'A : ,'-)i'i. ■" b , M ':','i , i- I 



111L1 In th 

].:,:! .11 1 In ,1 l-T r.uuiorou!. i-.iih', ■>:■ Jfl bj 

ponied by a Ureo and eom,.!olo Alia* J<?™£ 

).i=vt.le 1 |..^,lvf. J ribLiiT0rl.. BrS.S.wn" 

n.-eno.rlrT^ds-.aad.rlllpDlilUl.la.f"^ 
[AILHYIKli rUI) LATH, ity O-'fi'' "' , I 

IVna-.li.-liinlilin Anierk'.i- I "■' . '^Mna. «"* I 



.dliaerir 



,..|,l>" 



:")VL'jI'1IIiIA OF BERMOKS- 
ITOIliES OP AM OLD MAID; 



GEO. J^ BROOKS & C0-, 
F A X E E W A B EH W skj.,,1, 

, SALK- 10,000 roami £\?° I'd 11 " 11 * 
!*:r:. 'Jl.li, ^vi. 1 , s!*V>i m, « irf 

!-) -''.a,- line Ilie-jlt IV, -"^ ** .rf 

p»ondii , ^,11 bile" 

Al i.a.n.i .M.aiU, all rliel, ' n ,n "" _ 

roammncbi 1 i\,oMo W rt 

Hi, ...in r.li.i^irawCrOimandWa 1 " 
.-J.;,,-.!!,,,',!'!.,,!,!,:!:..!,!' nnJ HfWWj 
.ilella.d., Can ,.a,l L.-H-H'-'I'-r, 'J. ..,.,,.,!■" 
at,:, I ISi'.v. Ink, I' .i;i-llii-t KI"' " \ J j-VH, '■ ' 

■.":i,:!;':, , .;i,':;..".;.'.'. , ;.;sfa"»'- 



.MJa""* I 



THE CALIFORNIA. FABMBE. 



55 




GRAVES & SMITH, 

COPPEESMITHS, 

PLUMBERS AND HOSE MAKERS, 

SODA WATER APPARATUS, 

Stills, Worms, Prow Kettles and Heaters, V 

WADE TO OliDER. 

» Lift and Force Pumps, Brass Work, * 




,,i^ 



No, 6 Jack* 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



F BOOK AND JOB 

PEIKTING 




AGRTCU LTUHAL. 



Hew York Agricnltoral Warehouse 

SEED [STO£tE. 




MEDICINES, &C. 



Si.rOL 




IRON WOEKS, &o. 



MEDICINES, &G. 




DONAHtTB'S 

TJHION LBON AND BBASS POUHDEY, 



MANUFACTURE STEAM I7KI1IN C J . H.1U 
Hill Hacblnery, Boiler., Quiiu Sumpc 

' jr SEDUCED PRICES, 



enabled ins to pay Ours Hundred ConL. on'lho Ball" 
Ihrnnrn All my nd^r,- ...nun.- I ..-..|j , I.-, p,,,,:^ 

led Leg] rim 



Agricultural Warehouse. 



O F F I C I A L N O T I C E ! 

POLIIEMDS 1 DRUG STORE 

SACRAMENTO, On. 

FELLOW CITIZENS: r h-.r,. lived nm ™ c ynu iin« 
Iho eicr rl.in.iu. POKTY-NINE, h-ive. .ottered rritb 
you In three tl re i and tbroo llnod*. --•' '— --' ■■• ':-- 
anion,; joq itith my family l.rrin.- [Is. 



Ihu] ' 



.... h, l!,i..,. 




Lyon & Co.'s Brewery, 

KB Jffi.to llTMt 
WTDE PEOPLE'S I'liEMIl-.M U£.^ 

rf-fr. Till! <ii. Ji.:-i, r uL-l !:.-■- |.-»vl.i muliL- -, _ 

Jgfci 'Ii >' i:, I.. [i. I :ii ,-,..- 1 ,j .ii, - ,l| .-(■ ■ 

■Sh"'i"=y ■--■I' i- -J( i - 1 :-- iii.i "r.!,,, ii,,!, ,„,« 

WlliBr in m^n tli.. ,., Ir-.r.: .H,,,,,^.,, 1 

BN Id anoite-r calnoin nlll aijilalo lb>t iro rn h 
IIOM," Had u we fan! Ihoy li« 



id that 






W.ijiV..-\i ,rroW>ia I-'r.'ir 



OILS V. .SAWYER £ CO., 
PBeather AND SHOE FINDINGS, 



_ 0. n. B G ART, 
l^irOBISBAH'B BHIOEIIK, 

Dmu, Billet Pinal*, CnUory, PiEhin B Tsekle, Eodi 
.j. Scab, BukcU, Una and Hoofau 

C ' I: V- ..■,:■■ 



■r, rvllii J. i, ii.-.-!: nr 
fii-Il, villi b.Koc.. 



" ." ■'■■' I It WcllWilMbj 

eieryiMoi «b Import cm be fcuoil ,VlJS3o ■rS 



ill n : -;ij-l Ii. 

UMmonbdiBaronco belnetn n D0CTOK and r, D1LU0- 

lil.-r ,v- It-Mi. K-.^n.i II, „.-.:,- ,.„.! , (,-:..: .,„■! 
ithcrmoro H> betnten iter- .-.li-i h.-iie |.|;l;.. I L .|i it,, 
-Jrng-EailnOH and thoionbo Wo devoted tnoir vbole 



And ill if rh... poopfo 
it pnic.iptk.ns filled 

, . I.;., i:, ,1 

Itimnlo or illoc-iiimalo, and of 

',:• roimiiii bo ONE oflliB bestir nol THE 

HI. -I !■:>., ii, ■J.nf.. n ,i:. !■■ ..L-i.ni, .-, ,-r, ■!,.-. ■ Ni W 

uim .i..i vritiNOE in ihoii,ii i tii Dii , 1 „,j ,.,,,;.., .ifj,.: 

■'•'■■•■■ '■iyi\:^T>"*V&*Cb&5' lraTnv"^™" 
injUrBcii-nroor 



EMPIRE AND KEYSTONE 




reurtr. Iil"l!L 



11,-r-; Jr ( .,- ,-.- nill do n barineit ,-n 
ONLY. The nmminls ivo bote lo-t he 
inj bo intend to dLL.ib.ile cquull)- juj- 
-thofotntC, Id the dMBjK'l |iri;o ^fou 



DtllKliC. Sptm 

ili.ii.~ijs'-' "■ 






H"o frni^rt Doclt nil . f ..,„ ;;„„). \vj lb Ink bo IcnoT- 

'■■",'" '■'» lljein. ..ml hoii l.j r ,,ll tb.ml.. , ;! ii.J, ib, 

l ,,i " 11 ' '■ '■■ l""« Mliluoltj. Al till event- cii-obji 
--II. :.:HlVi:iVll,l, TftV. ? VOnU.SiTOtUI 

'°-' 2 J. L. POJJHBHDS. 



■ JOSIA.I-I J. LECOUNT, 

j^»Foreifin and Domestic jgefm 

JBflBl' w]j 8TATIONEFlY, &t&gjp 
at t(ie lowest cash p'bicee 

i_„ ... ."."'■" f 1 "-.'"!' t" ">» L-ndn: 

uiillne; ] 



l.i.;h ii"li, 



1,'ir- 



Dd Tracing Pipe™'™' 



j™^ 1 "* Slool nnd Quill I'cnj j 




AGRICULTURAL WORKS) 

t^g>A LB AW Y. W.Y. ~~^~£ 

^^- tmw ' pboprietqh. 
"Tbc Bui, (be Clicipcil" 
RAILWAY HORSE POWERS 

- Sljlling ami Cro«-Ciil Snw iliih, 

3 COR.N A.NUSKKD PUNTERS, 
J Ftmnlog Midi, Vcgetobla Cotton, 

DOQ POTCTEHB, 
V AND STALK CUTTERS 




Tlie Farmer^ Drill. 

: i ^: ' "^.;r.'i. '.'■" _n V^-'.VV;', 1 .:;/, ' Ii'.:''. : .. , , l ^." r ."'iJ 

8™^ lonillr emrnnrond tn net 









SJE&BP 1 ' 



To the Parmere, 



1 j ; ' I ■ .. : .... 1,1 , r l,' ,,..„'.. ■ ' ' 

"i ma.Dl ud inlYtiie bj <neiy Clipper, 
r! jj j_. a. l 1m [.Men, 




ALL kind. „f I„,n Sbnilon, Vnull,., = 3 f . and rjiari 
,.-. r, .'.TV, 1 'i',""'- 1 ° W " r!: ' ^^-'"""r.SWan Bol/- 
, 111 "" '• b^ t .i.,bli,btue linllio State lb>t hat 

.ho.„i:o a lv:„,l-,-,..|„ r ,ov|,i;„.-r„. ! I',, , v,-,-. r |: vi .j 

■'■ 1^ ■■■ I ■"■ -!■ .""IT in II... All n,ti,.,-il,. ■ 

Co All .-.,..■1-: ..,,1,1 i..|l„. 1,< ,,.[ ,„,y jute, and nui! 

roinrlorto inotb m 1! ..ii.. ; m, l -j i„ ibi, ium. 
RBrERBWOES : 

V | ::: r - i;;;.,,.. ^C.b^andX,.^,, 

11 '■':'',','. .' ..:'' ; '.', 1 L . ; ' ' ''■^■'■■■'^j--"i.'^- 

Ar.l m.ny ,:i,, ,1 ,(,; [,.„;,[ bglldlDE Id SlDPrmDoUw 

:,- i. _,-,,. i,. ,..,.,.„ I i,i..t|. r T....n: tiled rtltb euro, nod 




FOR THE BHIOTAL AND PERJIANE-M EUlLB OF 

All Diseases arising from an Impure 

State of the Blood or Habit 

of the System. 

I nrenuatlen era strencl^BriHOInl^ ell lbs nioJIdna 



rrget&ula tlDpIom ; 










PHENIX W 0~R K S , 
jona. KiTrneoGE, rnniimt, 

FIHE-PKOOF DOOHS, BHuTTEBS, TAuTTS, fte. 

-7^, l "!' ,| ;' r v.'V\'V : ''' ll, 'n' : ^ l [' l '' , ''''' ,, 7T 1; '' K '^ 1 
."■Mi:---:i.i.-i.i, ii.'n.r ,'i.'.'!;'. ,',.':.'!,..!; ;:;;,-."'" ;;,.: ;;: 



Fulton Poundry and Iron Works, 

^.-■.■-I'l'iV'-' ' i'\'-'' l ' ' '"''■ : ^: ■ r i._i. '.'..! m!-' !:,''' ',".'; '?.;"," 

kkJo loonier,. .i,..l l-,i.i:. v i,i i.r.Mui..- t.i'lran wufl ivTcn 

Tunjlni In ill itylo accuteil with dbrpatch. 

',■-, 'J.iirl- JUtMr.-rv. ='.-.. r Mill „,1 ii,. 3r >„j| ,_• 
i,,Vl,„- IturiL-f, Hi, .in H.r.-, rill- II.,.-! i-.-v .■,,- 

>^'- |.3rlii:iil.,rly Id-.H- |.„[r.,|.^ [., c ,[| 

-* 111 IIINl'Ki.EV. ni-nE .t- 



fi.'l^.^.-{, tHeoiouio and lleuj Dealer In 

DRUGS, MEDICINES, 

Faints, Oils, Perfumery. Brushes &c 

Xo. SCO j Sfrcct 

""HE P0UL1C SQUARE), 
iACKAME BTTO. 




?f Eerupxrllla. 

/tam ijiE armir. 

irtiUuiij reeti .bout the Qn'l .if O.-tjinr'la i-." A i.r.-'jj 



, t P«P"<d and "Id tT A. n, A D. SANDS, V 



CLOTE ANODYNE 

TOOTHACHE DROPS. 

Complain no more of Aohing Teeth. 



remedy. 



Jli preoeed* fi 



pirad and Hid bj A. B. i D. SAKD3 

V-. I'-i Fiilien-ibiHl, comer Willliun, 

., ... lOIH.SOS A Co., Em Franclica; B.I 

KirjiTllle; IL 1L MoDONALD t Co., 6ai 

"'onrirtfl Generolljr. 



rendtrtd u oitfljl u over. WUsnlba 
lodjna =111 glvo a .pttjj relltfbr tnb- 



WHO IS IT? 

LE. 

LOTV- 



LITTLE. 



Wew AgricnltTiral Books. 
i r 1 1 . i-,ii..„i D . ii, tu r „ 

io.lt, ha, ju,! ten f«™ 



.n' r , '■!'' i" 1 , - ;, '- v : :l ,' l '';>' l '" ll>, "" l ' F ' 10 P™oel»eo| and 

. Ill- -l..|e .i,-i>- . H-. .,„.-. F-..JI-M, t,,.., 1„.,,.„ ' i 
nd h. Saeramemo. 1,7-j) ,v_,n |i,-.- ... , ,T ' 



V.. tilt-. 

T^' : :}r. ,: i: :;;:r:i'^v3T^ ; u '^""'v'|'^' 

„'■■■'" ■ "."'" ■■ ■ r, .).., j.",-"i I,,,.' ,^;- 

J- C I'ALIIEIL ""™"' 
l-'FIAItl.Ei W COOK. 

i:|.lVU-:I. .Mm.-h ' 

"■ " '."'i'n.'-r. lnfrJi" GBT " 
IVAIll! J0MK3 mil 



T"™\°M"lr£ E n'"-'"-'™'k :l B.aH u» 

Ibecometti'KMniyiaJ W«ildnelii....,„ 
nu.ri.^1 n,_ .=„ '- C PAI-MI11. 



oltn.ll ibe rlllii.af tbolam 

- ■ H.,.l.;..r II . - -I ,.j.i 



F I E B T PS E MI If M A A I H 
r T ,c t R - H " VANCE, 

[-] , by Ii- ,,|.,-ri..ril,- ... |,|. I,,;,!,.,,.,.,,,.,., r „„ 

r7i.,Me n ,^yJ 1 rh' iV ,n, ^. , '''' l 'E'^' | l i --l I'll' MUM 

recoiled -Ml ■'"' " r ' E ""' Tllli " 

«, cor. Bocrnii.cliH. oinUroiilejorutiy llKeta. 



That no nonld iroalc to U and not, 

A ■ :.v.-r -. .-, ill, oar l.i -lir. Ditare 
'TilDottheDiortnlpcirti.oiooibi 
Tbat ithleh cirea m bock look for I 



Aadwhybjthi.ii vii,,i, 
To paint otpictnnalbn,,! 

TobriDBbofore'o'nrv'ln 
SOtroatooatnro.lhnlo'o 
Mo» than irhao ire ,0001 
iThohatbthlij-yinar, noi 

ToBekooorrelvas.pponr 

Toealclieaeliluok, Blare* 
Thoverroyowiihi.,,,,,. 
lVLd h.'.h thlj |K™orl Ibl 
Tblanoirer loeiioonroou 
To paint lite lil..-, .„ -l„,-| 



doirodiolfl 
form 
ontioirdaeeiriid 

uplnlnl 
op. form- 
arm 1 
wontlmiaiirt, 

it- If. VANCB. 



EST PKICE7 ° n ' ' 

LITTLE. 

■^TITO rntlop tbn mast PbyfieLm,.' Pteicriptfan. 1 

LITTLE. 

YyllOiiororroadyto.nppIrtlioPoorivttliouIcbnrgQl 

LITTLE 

„.. LITTLE. 

^nio n .v„ tmail bowor i^,^,^^ pottonll 

L I T T T E 
u .. LITTLE. 

-<r Tr , n LITTLE. 

\\ IK' -til. the liU>l-:.ll.\l!V ANH CASTOR OfL 



W M . B . I, I T T I, E , 

CHEMIST AMI APOliiKi 'u'lV. 



BOS TON TYPE FOUNDR™"' 
I* E j , Johm sc. noDoEna t 00 

? a ' IO "| hlt f h ^ h "n^'"'" J "'°" l "° , Pi , ' , ^ , b^*. - ib 

1 ..-I l-i°-',. ,-!'i'.:.-'!;,'.iV.i-"i. i".: 1, .i'"', i r' "■■'' ■■li'i-iii-i 

■'r-vlin-r, H.wk. --""n Ul a (ruj.j,!,-.,:, ,„,,, 



MARBLE I MARBLE H 
J. IV. LADD. 

IMPORTER AND DEALER IH 
HAE^ini^.a^-,^^ ^» 

""SiiJJESiuS.. 1 ■ ■'■' i ■''■' ! ''' ;, - ;, -'""^*i.™aiiss; 

III "-II l.i,',,, I, ,';■'..: '■"'■■' l.|.'Jii!-'l..,l- (111, ,,1,1-1, 



° 'a.™ ° R R 1 L L , 

tnacoB, oiu, PAiKTB^wiSraliMioii 
II lit SUES, eojlllsi, |'i;ni UUi;jlli:.i. Tiill. 

mKMIOALS, OLA&SM-.uiC, l|. .,(!,.[ ...i.i-ll 



SEEDS! 8EEDS!! SEEDS !|J 



c. .limiit'i'i. [',',' i , ;;' ll ';,', i ; r '' ' 

.to,oooll.i,rrj.r„,,,.,,, r , l „ u ,., ili . 1| , M 



_ 0- L TAYLOR & 00., 

Sash, Doors and BllVd's, 

KoepMiaUnllyiinlund 
A LARGE ASSORTMENT 

fltair Eail Bnlnrters and Nowel 
forts, Prench Wi u dows Mouldings, 
Snsh and Glots. 



tE.t;„n L"i'. iU d ' 

C.L T.vln, , 




, it not nrofit as somewhal — - 

;;v ,",'ii J "3 ™i ...aw .1,. "»*'»* 

or Maniple, "Ibo kartioil WMtsmilU " of W«- | ^ B 
rottr can converse and mrilo in over tial s ou» 
,„ . . .i.i-trent bngonges and dUHUi »»* ™^ 
noser been suspected of nnv inordinate suppi) o 
brains— and up to the present moment— ivo tire 
unicqunintea with any tint (bat has bcon set on 

tiro bv his ceniHS. , . i. 

Philologv pursued for if oivn ** » V*£ 
hntnbag and n^^JSJ^ffiZ 

ust-1 it. far the diisciuinjn 

trulv vslunblo discoveries among all trib^ano 

nitrUlilies of men, ™?%W™ 

noblest in at 

fol (or the assistance il ww ~._ 
Whether the long and laborious 

'"rail murflm. loll hta U». Or ih. pmon.l 

™ t !M=. bni in our estimate of sucli a chancier 
I ^ ™S.a of intellectual mens 

UI ■ ', ', t U-,1 hull ; siid ii f^'ns not improbable 
thai the mind which obtained dominion over all 
forms of human malady, could easily obta.n tho 
l;iv !■! uverv Wnjrno. . . ,, , 

k Vbeihe/tb^beso.or not, cerium i -slha 
H. >,.>av has established printed journals, in all 
,],' I „„■;]] hn-'iiMiJ of tlm wor!d-j«n) u-il ■■■-.-:[ *- 
cn" ; iv Ji-Totod In the furtherance or medical truth 
an I a rro :1am at ion of Hie saving [irinL-ii^c^ cm bo- 
il it J in the uee of bis Universal Remqdies. ll» 



itiliialion,anda' 



OLD JSOtrU'J C.Hili:-'.'^.-! I"'"'; 1 - J "", ■'■ "",',:, '.;'.". 
lolvvobant-elvurnonui. , umDaHAW * C0 - 



H O T E Xj 

■ INTERNATIONAL: 
JACKSONJ3TREET, 

IIOVTCOMK' 1 ''! 



SORGHO SUOBE. 

DPTJT1E SEED. 

T n L7S?n™W. ffiff SSiSnK. '"• 



of them in different tongues, which can be seen in 
in his establishment ; and tho British M^euni. 
endowed as it has been both by the munilicenec 
,-,[ ^..ilividuali? and b.Ji^ corporate, is indebted to 
„o -iii-le individaal more than it is to Professor 
Oolloivny. 

Jt we needed a grand interpreter of humanity, 
an interpreter whose former deeds and general 
cli-niclvr would everywhere, secure- n favorable 
an Ji.'in-J for whatever new ides* he might choose 
to lay heroic tho assembled congregation of tnan- 
tii.l'it j.: to Hollowav that wc Should of necessity 
nnoiv Ho indeed, has turned philology to good 
„' ;,„l- and is reward is this— that it enables 
hira to understand the manifold ami ccai-tless 
sor.es of benediction and gratitude whit 
bin? from tho full hearts or the millions 
verbal Remedies have rescued from the very jaws 
oflhegiave. 

This indeed is the most pregnant triumph ot 
philology, and by for the most uselul purpose that 
the possession of many tongues has hitherto been 
applied to. All honor to Profes-or Holloway, 
and may he long continue to dispense tho TJm- 
ver,al Remedies to the inullirorm and many-co- 
lor .i multitude who have been taught by expe- 
ricoeu lo look to him as their medical redeemer. 
— K. Y. Nat. Police Qniettc. 




lWi»lbjI.JAY3MlTU,E 

Till* |r.,jntl,ir iiiiWicalfoB, whii 
i, - ii- iniintr.™ ibrousbout _ 
; ^,r, ■ im.li ,-. t r-- il.lo fJ tlio m-'lclu; t.-irJoojr. mo ± roil 
"lli.rU unflho ^"^^'i^^uil 1 ,'^' I l:'".'l,i 



SOUTH AUEHICA. — Dates from Valparaiso to 
the ICtb, nnd from Callao to tho 26th January, 
hove been received. 

Tho whole wheat crop of Chili promised to ho 
abundant i tho reaping season had arrived, and 
tho new grain would soon bo in markoL 

The floating dock being constructed ut Val- 
paraiso, although not finished, had been launch- 
ed i nnd the building of a dry dock, lo cost 
fill ii. i,l Mill, was in contemplation. 

Chili continues her elections to diffuse useful 
information amongst her people; durinir tho lust 
fumiinlit four new schools had been endowed- 
ono for boys and throe for girls. 

Tho Copinpo mines promidu bettor for II 
near 1S57. Tho first ndvicoe received this yr 
from that province ore satisfactory. 

In Peru tho revelation was proc res sine, 
though tho Vivanoo party had 






ainlvQlanliltCJmwponJcotourTi 
ttcQli ib» oirflri.pce of tho mm 
, in America; be fjn ri-r illu.' 
Irt naj asiocabla i.iiM« tr.io 



■"*■ ESTEAOHIIINABY aEDrjOTIOH 

PRICE OF L0DGINGS1 
■Woodward's What CUccr nooife : 



rev oven tbo ^eimnil reader lntorcHcil la caantrj 
•Ho all 1-jrs.Di llivo I.. 111-, imunvtibciit -S Ibcii 
ten-, ercbarJs. or ewmlry-Kiu- lo (cientiB! one 

... ..■:, ,| .-u['if..l,., ■ ..f 111- .■!:- I- l.iir.^v.,:..;, ;i r.J £ .in 
;,,,.,, I ,■..:. I r.,..rl,i .l.mri'l, ; "■ !■" ' "■ ■ 



.ravomenLoriL 

Tho work in lauoJ oil I 
[floef lhonorindic.il p 



, a (mbioar)coioaio 
IB57; nod it Hill b< 
. n hi;.n 0r ,bj«v*rTBj 



i;-,Jr.ilL..i. ; r II 
'.'.'M'li.!)'.'i-uV.ji : 





Btrnmento street, 


S7, S0aud91 (new addman) Lcidesdorff Htrect. 






1 - ■ :=">'■ L ;nnrf-c:--.-...ni.li' 


"■•*•■• r^' 1 -" 1 , 3C , DU . 




,'ii,f ■■ v.g l"l.-.' f-i'. '■ ll.' n il"''''- 


™° h" ^tStoaSci" n?"t"c 


i- -.1.1. pudnj 


.■;.v.v:.;v.'.v.:.v.v.Viw" Dl * 








;. .,.;■■'■ l ii -". , ;-. 1 "-"'j; 1 , , ;;; , :! 1 1 


n..\iii:;.; i;i.«j'!. ■ ' .... ;■; 








BATHS. ^1 














SnWtSSi-." u ,, .iri 


,'' '"[■'" [■':■ V'-l ■ ' ■'■Ml 












pribriplof. 


' LA " 



n O T E I 

DEALERS IN SEEDS 

A lnjr°BlT 'he bo-t . 



C O.j 



■ilfrt.-li --1-.-.-U. u 



his frioDda and patropj tWl ■ 

[','.'.- '.rVrjk.iu'l'ornr.ui.Titlil Tif -iu.il I" any la *■ 
counlrv, and fur 5unrriDr lu anj tmrolcf.)™ "Hi r-J . 

ll-n-ltistbaij in tturiOi- 111 vo:ir, fir:y..-!)Ti;[i .:i-l'' 
A P i.lM, and hivlos in LsnriDi the |.rcsBOt roar, «b« ■ 
Ihirlv-fi™ vnrietlf >.f I'-:.-!..- , ^l.,.! i- I ii-- ..n'-'.l.. , : i 
i... I, ,-,, .i..-.ini red bjcnil inn.; th-jm Willi "Ib'.T ". :;■'-•-• 
coriain'wlih conainlj whallundanriinoitbTaf iolitn, I 
:,;,.! .i.-l, . uriflicj only do wa olTcr to tbo nullio the m-| 

of Iv'aujraY S=io=at I 



PETEE. JOB'd 

Confectionery anil Ice Cream Saloon, 

Sll Washington street,— Plaza, 21 



ty BPEOIAL NOTICE. .-:L'. 
THE wolt knona PETEFt JObS^ 

i,„ . n... , i„ ,,„,,. i.,ii,f.-.n,i ibo iiiito^dBB 

and rtnlloioon of San Fr.iiKi-'M (mil «ft-; 



the hands of Castillo. 



points nov. 



iu Joh. or anv nthor placo on I 
L\,:^ .!■;,, snfomarf 10 in thi 



To Poultry BaiBOrs. 

AfiURERsmtOTforthoUuoai "" 
Calut-' - ■ 



it Hi- in t:.ir (■■-■■ju i 

cam iwioianj to S£iy [orb.. 

1 ul|.k-:ri|/.;-,ii..t IhodiMUoand 



WARJtEN fc CO- 



PACIFIC MUSEUM, 

entitle ?t is i; ami r.'-Ti'.ii tivi-: ami~i-:mi;n'i 

FUIt FAMIl,tEs! 

THIS MPsEUSI hmvlDib.— 

itatly pott J Imjnorou and 




|,.y.-.l.Lj ill :..1-.-il 



IIOBEIIT 1'EAIISAI 



LOW, HASKELL &. CO 

SOLIOITOBB OF PAXEWTS AND 

" INVENTOR 



Dytho"BillofFnro 
OYSTERS of tho l 



:d!,gril"ini'i r. ■■!>■ (:-i 

n to ob3n\" f ^«TroLblo l 'sSoJB am rcqooitod 

„,l llu.ir nrkr.. early. 

i paeid] iccnroly (or Galiftirnln or any other part 

"fnin'toBiroirnNnrrorioiavorJoiloBiiivaeolIw. 
Fruit ond OrnJinoctal Trom and Shrubj, Oram 

-■!MV.-b,rri t ... Li- .. J S. L .rri.:f, 110)0!, " ' 

it., crab ratine Ibo boil varieties In 
illcallor 



Mytr.' Kan 



hlth no offar thisoo 



certlncalo nill spuk for iUtUi ^H 
Alhteda, Julj-JJiii, i---.^ 









rjdopi 

vG-19 



JXJZ-W- 8EEDS. 
l'il'i; l'li.i's'au'IiI UAULlFLOWKtt, 



Seed Trees, &c 



tho noooiii7 Drnwlr 
i lo n (uccmjIu! Uiuh, 



,.ihl.,ll|lr.n. . I 

.-111, .,-Ii h .li- II- 1.. 



oroi»"HrtOa"»a«a bbi lift. VICTOBIA, 
mum ilroim B.ar Tho Block Hyotin BlU 

1'.- ' ■ .'1 ii-.' In \w.ii-- Ii- in Tii- li-1 Ii- -r ■. 
ftirii^ lorr-i lilm Cuba, 



ID 



]J. S: J. S. DOE, 

DOOH3, 

SASH find BLIHSS 

FRKNCII WlTIDOWa, 

jh, Doors, Lombcr, &c., 4c. 



(h'Caliroraln Bailor, i'ot 

Dinner Partlol and Bollj 
I..1 Cskoi and lb.. Eitrat 

onallj ottenaod lo b^ the 



r.lt.-. hUh 
T 7 13m 



OY'H FINE OY'S 

Tilt: Umi.y uf a i;r»,!l 'lOysKi 
-n/r.„aiue "lAvnUi-lnri" IT 

■ii-.irli 1 i.i,,.. jreur S»wYotk(i 
r> ni'.j,!bl..c ivhkb iii.il:^ .,,„.'- „, 

■■. ;,V, l-i ' Hi' 1 1 bv tliii^n ntin^in rtYih 

iiiil,. J .-i|.-,.-ll, l:..;, 



1 and QUv, 

ir, IV.,,„:i.c:j. 




Sale of the Superior Shorthorn Herd 



b.-iil ii',.,'1 ji.''ki';. i'- 



,1,,|,1,- I'.-.-.i-li. IVnr, l h 

Curr.ilil i, nil lj..i.-ic!::iri-i- ltli-n.-. , 
Gni[-... lilm^l.i.rry ni-1 lll.-cllli.irfy Vl 






rnoinWrlbor.IiMl'.i-.-.n--'-: 
-.! ,, !.:,■! l.y lin- AdDllOniv o[ Nn 
,-., ii-.ni- .1 "My*T .' !^:it- rlr-.," 

,-.y 1. 1 ,nr ^'...:.-. In f.-i-.r.t 1 'ill 
.-llli,-.', In-!, ii.i .|in.i.ili--, l-.ii.: i- 
.-, ■.„fi-ly ..I ['.■:. l-1i r'i-11 i- ■-■ l-'.v. 
" l.i-,.r;c l.n.-, !-■.-.■'■ I'lir.l. :i, 

ll-iir; l.ilt,l,(.M,(LD. 

N \V.r:.k,-,r.li..,l.|.--.:-i.n 



7o n»>k to oar frlcodi and patron, than oarlj, JU 
S u.a T bo oimrL-o.! uf n,i, ullllly to snpjdy Ihom wl 

i k-ir^ll. ,.,ric!ic..f tt.iim,and IbajinvaUj 

nblo and oiponaoof •oniinir out dC tho Montrra 
■ej : inJ iro can nasurc, Ilioin that timoand moner l? 

-ivrll.y;;ivi01.-mOCttll. 

iur'[,.d;omlir.n-i.s— dlhieajJ 



mil lii ,1 iv. n j-.i-ui - -■ 1 Sni-iiy- 






iCorTnllr ronJerrd. 
A. Il .MVEIL-, „ 

nlAlnm-il-i, ,M-.:>:--!- 1 -. 



Smitti's Fomological Gardens 

TSTTJ BS ERT. 

i mile [rom Bocranaal* 
,ro^.o U ,e E? tr.o i ol« 



■': aiI'w '";:',;;"•* 



The Great Giant Rhuliard. 

rTUlE mlcttj- OL-iiit llhub.yrb, ol Wliconiln, will 



acaa 



i,TJ lull in. J "ii-imiHinrrCuiilananm 
.liiiI v.-ry i:.-,;,:rnLlte'iri|ii,l..-l tHmllinriir 



L. O. M0B1UB. 



Thorongh-hred Devon and AyrBhire BoJla, 

tho bail Etock,wit£ a fuil 



I II.H'L f- 
'■ .-■'. ' 



idotlvorvivn (hlnb-i.iTil In K,.„ Vr.rli 

Al.i'ltlili k ii:lliivi;i,l 
it. Ilroedor and D.akr lo K.„ 10 Dbioo 
and Ajnlilrt c,iii„. 
Ttuildonco— JliDiSoK, Morrii couotT. 



Seed Rice, 

f non MANILA CADDV P.IOE, 

ik-,11. i.lil.-i, . iliomoitdoliablnkl. 

■ ii fm-.iilto ItiL'i! ivitli llm iVIiinmi, 
n-u,l v.-illdi, v.rlHi, i,.l|, ; r,,||., it ,.-, 

ol in market, or nlll ba for tho ioo* 
lor *oon, It Kill be hulloO. ana put Ii 
"j of Ittco. 

WAITB & IIATTLF^, 



In llto AinerEc 



FftUlT TREES— flno,. 

Ap (fiio'iTT. »o 

Xtaipborrla, 



line. Apricot, 

-mrj, OoomIw" 

irawnerrlH, Gr»I» 



TREES, TLQWKBIM 






d oi tho Great Tree. 

-1 i-.-i-lllli- f.UI-ll 

ilo Sooloti'uRooins, onl 



Hudson's Golden Calif brnia nlnatard, 

THE proprietor of Ibis manuf..clorv would iniilo all 
v.lin l,ol i.1, iiiL„ re ,,S lo Cdil'JH.1.1 |..„a„,-li,.[,-. tn vi-'.t 
J'-' .■:lil..b.,l,i,i,et iiu.l cimuiiiu lii- H-l-kn M,L-l.r,l 
Ibi ■ ,,til-l.i 1- muds nf California Pood of Ibo rorv nurd 
■|in Uii., ml i.ii u, i„ mi ,1 111 lh-.,.'-. II..,, t|l,. | ||, 
■ ml '., II. , i.ii [ in ,-l;,- ■ ..1" I II, ,i.,..l '•, ; i, ml ii can Lo hud 

"MJ 1'inoi ihan Ennorn i.ricM, nnd lit llm . :.ti .. liiu- 

I toh-j j.urtr nn-J better thnn tho luiparttj. 






a Sample but' 

,y fuMbcriol.M 
I-. Ill,, | ;iii,-i,,i 



■■li'ji.ii.. '■-.Mil,,. ..Ii... ,, 



call at Ihi 
e. 3.— Tho hi E boit prici 



-■'lllllli, .lily. 

L^elally Invited t 
32 Front ilraet, comer of Hno 

II. 0. hudJon. 

avi rinld forpnro A No. 



m. HybrlJ, Poruot 

I 1-THHy v.-,.oli:illiin.:.i 



rcla«o^a.Mla».:T t «.B«'* , •^ 

' M...-. i.u.l ijlliiil'liis ^'^Jfw'^ 

,, .,-..,,,,.■.. ,.n i.l lb "T*f^ 



•I' -ir r. li.lnr nml.i.tl.i.'l ;.;.iil. 



'i'-;.'- .'i.'i- : .'^uii--L.. -..,' i -,■,'.. I, ...- ■' ' | I 1 ''|""' ; '-",--'. 



ik> 



wmsma&mm 



l TD fit S iSI » S tfj (B 1 0)3 



i*ssi 



SAN HtANCISCO, CAUFOBMA, FMDAY MOKMNG, MARCH 6, 1857. 



ffje California Jitrnur 



OB" USEFUL SCEEKCES. 



Bt I718REH fe 



■I SalnrrtpUoni mn.it I 



Agricultural Itcviews anil Essays— No. 5. 

China and its Provinces. 
"Tftltzu in T.tUtT, Thibet and Cbiaa,!iy UcuulHoo.' 
"Bahov's Acmoot of Lent Moatinry'i EmbooT ll 
Cole*." 

He who wishes lo got acquainted with the 
Agricultufe of China, the singular implements 
Which its inhabitants use in eoltivnting the soil, 
and Ihe peculiar methods used by them Tor rais- 
ingwalcr for the purpose, of irriga lion, should 
red "Barrow's Account of Macartney's Em- 
bassy" lo that country. It is true Iho work is 
minute and tortious, and it was written a long 
time ago; but the littto that is known of that 
lingular people makes anything j [ho shnpa of 
information interesting ; and besides, as the arts 
With them are stationary, and improvement at a 
perfect stand, those circumstances which woold 
be serious objections in almost any other ease in 
(bis instance ara scarcely to bo- looked upon as 
Objections at all. 

■Bier since Sir William Chambers introduced 
U the public notice, in the Royal Gardens at 
Ketr, an entirely new system of landscape gar- 
dening from that conntry, which uilb various 
modifications is now universally recogniicd and 
adopted, the attention of Ihe world has been di- 
reeled lo the natural mode of laying out plcasun 
pounds in China, which has there prevailed fron 
time immemorial. But the minuteness of theii 
tjcttni of Agriculture, not even surpassed by the 
prdco-srslem of Belgium, is also deserving of 
better in. ^ligation; and nothing would have kept 
gbo civilized nations of Boropo and Ai 
Epoch in Hie dark regarding it as they are, hot 
tie extreme jealousy of the Chinese government, 
which throws every nbslacie in the way of travel- 
R through the interior of the country. 

It is with no ordinary feeling ofinleresl,lbqrc- 
lbr«, that tho reader peruses thengrccahli 
of tho jourr.eyings of two French Missionaries 
(Gsbot nnd Hock), who recently traveled through 
• portion or thai empire, of which very little was 
previously known. Although, owing lo thoirob- 
ject being entirely of a religious character, there 
fk little in their journal of interest to the farmer 
Mloch, yet at the present time, when the exist- 
ing difficulties with ourselves and the English at 
Canton, under proper management may lead to 
Objects of great national importance, and moro 
particularly (in consequence of our proximity) lo 
lb* people of the State of California I believe the 
»«ders or the Fabmcu will excuse mo if on this 
occasion 1 introduce i 
fztneral title which I hi 
finder other clrcumstat 



in Tarlary were for a long limo weakened by the I chequer, wo came to tho resolution, that it would 
dispersion oflhoir northern countrymen i but they bo better to purchase what wo required at some 
recovered by insensible degrees, nnd towards tho second-hand shop. In China, and Tartury, no 
close of the twelfth conlury, under the famous i one has thn smallest repugnance to wear other 
Tcheo-Kis-Khan, tho power of the Tartcrs, long pcoplo's clothes. People who buy clothes buy 
confined within tho desert steppes of Mongolia, them indifferently, new or second-hand. Tho 
broke at length its bounds, and carried pillage question of prico is alone taken intoconsiderntion: 



and death even lo the mosl remote regions. Chit 
India, I'cma, Syria, Muscovy, Poland, Hungary, 
Austria— all felt the Icrriblo blows of the victori- 
ous Tartar. But tho conquests of Tchen-Kis- 
Klian and his successors, and in laler times those 
of Tamerlane (or Timour), who transferred tho 
seat of the Mongol empire to Samareand, con- 
tributed to renew tho intercourse of Europe with 
Iho East, and favored discoveries wji ieh have been 
so useful in the arts and sciences. The irruption 
of tho Mongols, by throwing everything into 
agitation, neutralized distances, and brought na- 
tions together. By this shock of nations, tho 
darkness of tho middle ages was dispersed. Ca- 
lamities, which at first aspect seemed only des- 
tined lo afflict mankind, served to arouse them 
from tho lethargy in which they bad remained 
for ages ; and the subversion of empires was the 
at which Providence accorded to Europe 
the light of modem civilization 1 
The manners of a people of such historical 
iporlonce givo an interest to tho journal of 
obscure missionaries, which otherwise it w( 
ot deserve. They tell us that thosoTarlars who 
lcceedcd in conquering China, and establishing 
Tartar dynasty on tho throne, at tho present 
ly, ore mere tributaries of that country ; whoso 
ivcrcigns now treat this land of their ancestors 
ore as if it had been conqaered, than as deserv- 
ig of especial filial respect on their part for being 
the cradle of tbo conquerors. 
In consequence of this subjugation, if wo may 
call it, or tho Tartars, hut little of the former 
spirit of those mountaineers, in that portion of 
Tartory which approaches Pekin,boloDgs lo them 
now. "The occupations of the men, 1 ' says Mon- 
sieur Hue, "are of a very limiled range j and con- 
sist wholly in conducting the Hocks and herds lo 
pasture. This, for men nccuslomcd from infancy 
lo horseback, is rather an amusement than a 
labor. In point of fact, the nearest approach lo 
ratiguo they over incur is when some of their 
cattle escape. Thoy then dash off at full gal! 
in pursuit, up hill and down dale, until thoy hi 
found the missing animals, and brought them 
-'■-the herd. The Tartars 



delicacy felt about pulling 
on another man's hat or trowsers, than there 
about living in a hoaso that some ono else has 
occupied before you. Wo went out, therefore, in 
search of a second-hand clothes shop, of which in 
every town there is a greater or less number, for 
the most part in conneclion with pawn-shops. 
-Wo were shown magnificent garments, handsome 
garments, fair garments, endurable garments i hut 
the consideration of expense was in each instance 
mpracticobie stumbling. block. After going 
t tho whole day, nllcr making the acqi 
of alt tho rag-merchants in tho Blue ' 
after turning over and over all their old clothes, 
fain lo return to tho second-hand dealer 
whom wo hod first visited, and to mako tho best 
bargain we could with him. Wo purchased from 
n, at lost, two ancient robes of sheepskin, 
ered with some material, the nature of which 
vas impossible to identify, but tho original 
color of which wo sospected lo have been yellow. 
We proceeded to try llicm on, and it was at onco 
evident that tho tailor, in inoking them, had by 
no means bad us in his oyo. M. Qabet's was loo 
short, and M. Hoe's loo long; but a friendly 
exchange was impracticable, the difference in 
bight between tho two miss 
gether disproportion! 
cutting the excess from the 
up thcdcaciency or ibe other 
have had to ci 
would bays involved anotbi 



Wo at first thought of 



■d of a 



i in oi 



but it 



MlW. 



calcb, than frut 



t ibey 



fa assumed for this Scries, 
as might bo looked upoi 
nilDpposi lions. 

Monsieur line, in company with his ossociat. 
Babel, traveled westwards from Pckin 
much in ll.e direction of,uitd along the lb 
firoat Chinese Wall, which formed the b 
Of the ancient Empire— sometimes On 
aide among tho Mongol Tartars, and so 
among (he Chinese (proper). He isasimploand 
ntber weak minded man; and with Hit 

lily of such people keeps talking away about 









d looks c 
importance, 






I ENr 



lo giro tho reader only 
sea, and apparently without it 
of objects of more general li 



rodotu 



ItreiL 

Tbo Tartars, omung whom he principally trav- 
«W, are descended from Iho ancient Scythians, 
»"d preserve to this day the dexterity or their 
Weeators in archery and horsemanship. Their 
■'■ ror seems lo be the Madyes of Ho- 
rn, with bis Scythian hordes, carried 
sua arms into Syria ; „,,.„ rtacncd CVPn l(lc con , 
anas of Egypt. Towards the year -18 or our era 
tt« Tartar empire «as divided Into nurtborn and 
•oatbern. Under Iho dynaitj- of Han, tho norlh- 
•ni Huns were completely defeated by the Chin- 
«* armies. Obliged lo abandon the regions 
•herein they had setlleJ.lhey proceeded in largo 
Mmbe. a towards the west, to Ihe bordem of the 
Wplan Sa; and spread themselves over tho 
Wastries ^u.^ Lj . lbt . y^ nnd OIound ^ 
alas MiMii,. |„ 371J thtJ , commEoct ^ dl0M 
>Mia!d.LI, irruptions upon the Roman empire, so 
■MlMlly uWlbad by Gibbon; and in Ihe bc- 
<"""■* "' 'I"-' fiflh century drove before them 
*"">"' lh c Colhs, the Gcpidin and Iho Van- 
, with whom they advanced to ravage Ger- 
r™7- ibe southern Uuna who had <—" 



they derive 

from the exercise. With tho exception of their 

cquestrion exercises, tho Mongol Tartars pass 

their time in absolute far niente; sleeping all 

night and squalling all day in their tents, doting, 

drinking tea, or smoking." 

On Ibe borders of Thibet thoy are less sub- 

rvient to their imperial masters, and oihibil 

ore of their original boldness of character; nnd 

>r author adduces several instances, tending to 

low Iho feeble tenure or the Chinese oulhorilies, 

or the indomitable mountain tribes residing in 

at distant region. 

To qualify themselves for their journey, our 
avelers assumed a dress which they thuught 
would bo more indieaiivo of their real character 
than tho Chinese garb which thoy had worn at 
Pckin. "Wo announced lo Ibe christians of the 
inn that wo were resolved no longer to look like 
Chinese merchants; that wo were about to cil 
offour long tails, and to shave. our beads. Thi 
Intimation created great agitation ; some of ou 
disciples oven wept; all sought by their eloquence 
to divert us from o resolution which seemed 
them fraught wilh danger; but their patht 
remonstrances wore of no avail. Wo put or, 
long yellow robo fastened at tho right side w; 
fire gilt buttons, and round the waist by a long 
red sash; over this wosa red jacket wilbucollnr 
of purple velvet ; and a yellow cap, surmounted 
by arcd (uncompleted our now costume. Break- 
fast followed this decisive operation, but it wai 
silent and sad. When tho Controller of the 
Chest brought in some glasses, oud an in when 
smoked the hot wjno drunk by Iho Chinese, ' 
told him, that having changed our habit or dress, 
— should change also our habit of living. Take 
away,' said we, 'that wine, and thai chaffing- 
dish j henceforth we renounce drinking and 
smoking- *ou know,' added wo looghtng, 'that 
good Lamas abstain from wine and tobacco.' 
The Chinese christians who surrounded us did 
the laugh ; they looked at us without 
speaking, and wilh deep commisseration, folly 
persuaded that wo should die of privation and 
misery in tho deserts of Tarlary." 

The reader [a ready to admit, that in their new 
■ig they must haro been a pair of perfect mis- 
sionary dandies ; and no doubt they believed, with 
in general, lhal their dress was calculated lo 
o an Impression on all beholders. Such how- 
does not appear to hare been the case. So 
aext suit thoy got, wbtn tho approach of win- 
nade it necessary for them to buy warmer 
clothing, wasofa very different character, "Upon 
mcagcrncsa ol our cx- 






COnsidcratiun of I 



nake 

should 

ir, and thi 

decided tho 
question, and we determined to wear the clothes 
thoy were— M. Hue adopting tho osectlent 
icdient of holding up, by means of a girdle, tho 
surplus of his robe, and M. Gabet resigning him- 
self to tho exposure lo the public gazo or a portion 
" gs. Provided wilh our sheepskin coals 
asked thodealer loshow ushiscollcclian 
r hols. We examined several of these, 
and at last selected two caps of fox-skin. These 
ipleted, each of us put under his 
arm bis packet of old clothes, and returned to 
tbo Hotel of tho Threo Perfections." 

What o transformation I Whata descent from 
thosublimo to tho ridiculous! Instead of their 
former "rainbow-robes, 1 'half- worn dresses of dirty 
sheepskin, and rough greasy caps made from the 
[linking fox 1 Truly, when thus equip- 
ped, tbey must have looked 

more like coyi Unio iwelli 1" 
than "tbo dog returning 
vomit"— it was like the butterfly re-assuming tho 

ling form of tho grub, or the humai 
turning from heaven, to re-animal 
house" from which it had escaped 

Our travelers seem perfectly oblivions of the 
propriety of giving the latitudes and longitudes or 
thodifferent places which they visited; and though 
they hove appended to their book an old map of 
China, on which they have bcon at tho trouble of 
haviuga dark lino drawn, indicating Iheir route, it 
dth difficulty that wo ascertain their di lie rent 
ireabouts, nswry fev places which they de- 
scribe aro marked upon it. The farmer too foels 
annoyed that they give him no deflnitc descrip- 
tion of their modes of agriculture. We aro there- 
fore left lo presumo that Ihoy resernblo pretty 
much in that respect the Chinese, as described 
by Barrow. But after oil, it was a pastoral, and 
not an agricultural country throogb which Ihoy 
passcd-consisting in some places of sandy 
stoppes, in others of vast grassy prairies; and 
now of mountainous districts, wilh broken and 
varied scenery. In this latter portion thei 
nbundanoo of metals, including gold and si I 
Now and then, however, wu do hear a littlo or 
their Agriculture. "The Mongol Tartars of West- 
-m Taumel do not lead the pastoral and nomadic 
ibj but cultivate tholr lands and apply thorn- 
solves lo the arts ot civilized nations. As may 
well bo imagined, thoy bavo completely lost Iho 
stamp of ihoir original Mongol character nnd hc- 
□ more or less Ohinesc. Many of them do 
oven speak a word of tho Mongol language. 
Indeed thoy ore perfectly right In preferring the 
occupation of Iho agriculturist to that of shep- 
herd; for thoy have magnificent plains, well wo- 
lorcd, and favorable to the production of all kinds 
if groin crops. Everything about Western Tuu- 
aat bears tho impress or affluence; and all tbo 
'illages and roads are beautified with ktouds and 
arenuw of Una trees." *>»■■"■ 

Somo of tho animals or Thibet seem peculiar 
that oannlry, but of all their animals tho 
JBt wonderfal is tbo Unicorn— not however 
o unicorn of tho Scriptures, whioh was evi- 
dently Hi.' nno-horucd rhinoceros, nor tho fnbu- 
is animal on tbo roynl oxme of England, but 
ipnghlly animal of tho gaznllo kind; although 
of their unicorn thoy also havo fables in tho 
troth of whioh thoy firmly bctiavo. "Tho Uni- 



com of Thibet is called in tho language of tho 
country ttrtm, in Mongol Ictrc, and in Chinosn 
tau-kio-chcoa whioh moans tho ono-homed ani- 
mal, orl-fo-fouan which moans tho straight-horn. 
Tho Chineso, Mahometan, nnd Mongol histor- 
iuns nrgoo in tho following tradition : Tolling- 
gis-khan having subdued Enedkok (India), at 
he wne ascending Mount Djadnnoring, ho per- 
ceived n wild boost approaching him of tho 
spocies called sorou, which has but 

top of his bead. Tin- boost knolt thrico 
before tho monnroh, ns if to show him respect. 
Every ono being astonished at this event, tho 
lb oiolnimed, ' Tho Empire of Hindos- 
tliey say, tho birthplace of tho mqjestio 
BuddhiLi apd tbo Budd bis lavas, and nlso of tho 
powerful Bogdns or princes of antiquity. Whnt 
then can bo tho means of this animal saluting 
mo liko a human being V Having thus spnko, 
ho raturnod to his country. But Mr. Hodgson, 
an English resident in Nopaal, has at length 
achieved tho possession of a unicorn, and pat 
boyoud doubt tho question of tho existence of 
Ibis species of ontolopn. Its form is graceful liko 
that of nil tho other animals of tho nntolopo tribo, 
nuil it has likewise tho incomparable eyes of iho 
nnimnls of that spocies. Its color ia roddisl 
liko that of tho fawn in tho upper parts, nnd 
white below. Its distinctive fcatares aro Bret a 
blaok horn, long nnd pointed, with threo slight 
curvatures, and circular annulations towards 
tho base. Tboso annotations aro mora promi- 
beforo than behind. There aro two tufts 
of hair which project from tho exterior of oaoh 
nostril, nnd muah down round tbo noso nnd 
;th, which gives tbo animal's head a heavy 
appearance. Tho hair is rough, nnd socms not 
low, liko thnt of all animals north of tho Himn- 
laya, whioh Mr. Hodgson had tho opportunity 
of examining. The hair is about two inches 
long, and so thick that it seems to tho touch a 
solid mess. Beneath tho hair its body is cov- 
ered with a very lino and dclicato down, ns aro 
almost all the quadrupeds that inhabit tho lofty 
regions of tho Himalaya mountains, pnrtioulilrly 
tho fumouB Cashmere goats." 

But tho great object of our misstonnrios was j 
not to acquire a knowledge of tho agrioultura 
of tho country, not lo become acquainted P* 
zoology. Thoy wont for tho purpi 
urning tho religion of Buddha, e 
oslahlishing that of Christ; and, as might 
havo been expected, with very little 
In fact, they found a system prevailing in thoso 
untries which was supported by arguments, 
much akin to thoso whioh they intended to 
a in favor of Christianity, that those simple 
in considered it could only bo nttributod to o 
fipeeial contrivance of tho Dovil. The relii-ion 
,.r if, i.i.ii, ,. »,.- A i. rt - *i._ l_,' i- . . ,. 

groat di- 



irisbmont to 
a good orep in a dry 



Irrigation vs. Deep Flowing. 
1 We havo a vory interesting letter before us, 
from tho Merced river country, relative to Irri- 
gation, nnd making inquiries about tho beat 
method of Irrigating lands, tho uses of tho hy- 
draulic ram, its power, cost, oto. 

In answer to our correspondent, wo wonUl 
say, that tbo hydraulic ram can bo had in tho 
city of San Franoisco, of various sisos and 
powers suitable for conveying water for orna- 
mental purposes, or for irrigation to somo littlo 
extent ; but wo ha