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CONSERy/iTION OF WILD UFE THROUGH EDUCATION 




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BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 

~ CommiHlMiort apjMlntad by th« OovarnOF, by and witti tha cnnitnt of tha kanaU. 
Tanri at plaaiur* of Qov«rn«r. N« c«inp«n»atlen, 

r. U. NEWBBRT. Prtddwl 8«Rim«ito 



OARL WESTSaPBLD, EiacntlTs Oflker San FtuiciaM 

J. B. H0NTEB, AaalsUDt ExMatire OfBcW-.. 8kn Frandwo 

B. D. DUKB, Attorney > Sui Fnndoco 

A. D. FERGUSON, Fiold Ajent (on Furlonsh) - F««io 

DEPARTMCNT OF FItHCULTURC. 
W. H. SHEBLEY, in Cbargo IlabeoltaN Smi VnuciaM 

B. W. HUNT, Field 8ap«riDt«iideat Saa FranciKO 

O. H. EiAUBSON, Superintpodent Moant Sbuta lUtdKfy SIhod 

W. O. FABBBTT, SaperlDtendtut Fort Seward Hatcbery and Snow UoaoUio 

Station Aldarpolnt 

a. UcGLODD, Jb., Foreman Id Charge Mmut Whitney Hatcfaeir and Bae 

■ Lakra Station Inde[>endeuce 

O. B. WEST, ForpmoD la Charge Taboe and Tallac Hatchetiea Taltac 

El. T. CASSELL, Foreman io Chaise Almanot and DomlDgo Sprinsa 

Hatcheries Keddie 

L. PHILLIPS, Foicman In Charge Bear Lake IlatdieiT Sao Bernardino 

B. I. BASSLER, Foreman in Charge KUmath Btatlona Horobrook 

JUSTIN 8HBBLET, Foreman in Charge Dklah Hatchery Uklah 

J. B. SOLLNER, Anistant la Charge Wawona Hatdwry Wawona 

A. B, I>ONBY, Flab Ladder Sarrejor San Frandaco 

A. B. CULVER. Screen Surveyor San Frandaco 

A. M. FAIRFIELD, Inspector Water Pollatioa (on Furlough) Saa Fraadaco 

DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCIAL FISHCRIEt. 

N. B. SCOFIHLD, In Charge San Ftandac* 

H. B. NIDEVER, Aaaiatant Long Beadi 



C S. BAUDEB, Aaaiatant-- 
P. H. (3TER, Ajtlatant 



—San Frandaco 



C H. BLIOrBB, Aasiatant,. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION. PUBUCITY AND RESEARCH. 
DB. H. a BEIANT. In Oa^a B«tol« 



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California Fish and Game 



J LIFE THHOVCH EDUCATION- 



SACRAMENTO. JANUARY. 1919 



CONTENTS. 

Paok 

SHRIMP FISHERIES OF OAI,IFORNIA_ y. ti. Scofietd 1 

THE FISHES OF TIIK CROAKER PAMUA (Rdipniilip) OF CALI- 
FORNIA ^,.B, a. Starki 13 

NOTE ON THE SAND DAB ..g. C. Starlu 21 

THE STICKLEBACK : A PISH EMINKNTLl' PIITED BY NATURE AS 

A MOSQUITO DESTROYER - C. L. Hubbt 21 

EARLY STAGES OP THE SPINY IX)BSTER IF. L. Sohmiit 24 

THE COYOTE AS A DEER KILLER ___B. V. Jotter 26 

EDITORIALS 30 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST... t» 

HATCHERY NOTES -^ .17 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES _. __ 3ft 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES - . _ -12 

LIFE HISTORY NOTES-._ 42 

REPORTS— 

Fishery Products, July £o September. 1918 44 

Violations of Fish and Game Laws 46 

Seizures . 4G 

Financial Report . _. . 47 



SHRIMP FISHERIES OF OALIFOBNIA. 

By N. B. SCOFIELD. 

As the queBtiOD of removing the restrictions on the Chinese shrimp 
or bag nets periodically arises at each session of the legislature, it is 
thought best to give a brief history of the shrimp fishery in the state 
and to describe the fishery as it has existed in the past iti order that 
those who care to can learn of the great destruction to young fish and 
young shrimps by the Chinese method of fishing. 

The only account of the earliest shrimp fishing operations in the 
state is supplied by Mr. A. Paladini, the venerable fish dealer of Han 
Francisco. He came to San Francisco in 1869 and engaged in .shrimp 
fishing. There were eitrht boats on San Francisco Bay cngnired in this 



2 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

business, each boat maimed by white men. They easily caught enough 
shrimps to supply the demand, besides many flounders, sole, tomcod, 
etc for the fresh fish market. Pish and shrimps were very plentiful 
in the bay at the time. The shrimps caught were the same species as 
now, but were much larger than those eaught in later years during the 
intensive fishing by the Chinese. This later reduction of the larger and 
older shrimps as noted by llr. Paladini is good evidence that the shrimps 
were being subjected to overfishing. The early fishing of the eight 
lK>ats of Italian fishermen was carried on with small-meshed seines, sixty 
feet long and eight feet deep, with » bag at the center. They used the 
nets in the deeper water of the bay for there the euteh was freer of 
young fish and of the small unmarketable shrimps. The manuer of 
fishing was to lav out the net, then anchor the boat down the tide and 
pull the net along the bottom toward the boat by means of lines, always 
pulling with the tide. The net was pulled directly into the boat. They 
would make from three to five hauls on each tide and they eaught from 
fifty to seventy-five pounds of shrimps at a haul. This metliod of fish- 
ing was far less destructive to young fish than that employed later by 
the Chinese. They could fish in deeper water, where young fish and 
young shrimps were fewer, and unlike the Chinese nets which are set 
during the whole tide and kill practically all the young fish caught, 
they were in the water only a short time — less than one-half hour — and 
the small per cent of young fish caught were still alive and could be 
returned to the water. The shrimps thus caught were sold fresh at 
the Long "Wharf. Little thought was then taken as to whether a method 
of fishing was destructive or not and there were few laws protecting 
fish, for it was thought that the supply of fish in the bay and rivers 
was inexhaustible. The Chinese had for some years been in the fish- 
ing business and with their destructive methods of fishing had already 
begun the extermination of the Sacramento perch and with their 
fiendish sturgeon lines had inaugurated a method of fishing that has 
resulted id the commercial extinction of that valuable fish which in the 
early days was here in apparently inexhaustible numbers. 

In 1871 the Chinese began fishing for shrimps and introduced the 
destructive Chinese shrimp net. They made enormous catches with 
these fine-meshed set nets and found it profitable to supply the markets 
with shrimps at one and one-half cents per pound. The original eight 
Italian shrimp boats were driven out of business and since that time 
shrimp fishing has been almost entirely carried on by f'hineae. From 
the very start the Chinese dried the bulk of their catch for the Oriental 
export trade. The shrimp fishery ([uickly grew to large proportions 
and fishing was carried on at many places in San Francisco Bay and in 
Tomales Bay in Marin County. 

The first printed account of the shrimp fishery is contained in Vol. 
n of "History and Methods of the Fisheries" by Goode, printed in 1885 
by the T'nited States Bureau of Fisheries. A more extensive investiga- 
tion of the fishery ivas made by the author for the California Pish and 
Game Commission in 1897. A subsequent investigation was made by 
the author in 1910. Tliere lias always been serious objection to the 
Chinese method of catching shrimps, and much of the legislature's time 
has been taken up by li.stening to disen.«sions between those wh" would 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 3 

conserve the fisheries resources of San Francisco Bay and rivers, on the 
one hand, and the interested defenders of the Chinese, on the other. 
Closed seasons were finally resorted to and the drying of shrimps was 
prohibited, without greatly reducing the destruction of young fish. At 
the 1910-1911 session of the legislature fhe use of Chinese shrimp nets 
was prohibited entirely. The shrimps had been so reduced in numbers 
that it was found unprofitable to catch them by the method formerly 
employed by the Italians. It was also found to be unprofitable to 
<™ploy the shrimp trawl which was in successful use on Puget Soinid. 
In 1915 the legislature removed the restriction against the Chinese net 
in South San Francisco Bay on the gi'ound that in that part of the bay 
the destruction to young fish was much less than in the upper bay and 
for the further reason that in that part of the bay the kinds of fish 
destroyed did not include the young of herring, smelt, shad and striped 
bass as was the case in the upper bay. At the 1916-1917 session of the 



Fig. I. Chinese shrimp fishing junk on Sin FranciKo Bay. Pholograph by H. B. Nidcvtr. 

legislature a very Strang effort was made to reestablish the fishery in 
the upper bay by those who would be benefited in the way of rents, 
selling of supplies, etc., and by those who would have the picturesque 
industry for sentimental reasons. As this effoi't is sure to be resumed 
at the 1918-1919 session it is believed an intimate description of the 
industry as it existed up to the year 1910 will be of interest, especially 
as the Chinese now operating in South San Francisco Bay are using 
identically the same methods, with the single exception that they do not 
catch so many young fish in that part of the bay and the young fish 
caught are not of the more valuable species. 

Camps: The fisliing has been carried on by what has been termed 
"camps." Each of these camps is a separate unit, which has its own 
boat, wharf, boiling vat and drying ground, separate living ijuarters 
and storehouses. Although one f!liiupse company may have owned 
or eontrolh'd several camps, even sidi' by side at the water's edge, they 



4 CALIFOBNIA FlSIl AND GAME. 

tiid not w-uperatB in aay way. The camps were very similar iu ebaiac- 
tiit, consitjting of a group of amaU, nide shacks of rough, impaintcrl 
boards, placed near tlie edge of the water, witli a rough wooden wharf 
running out into the shallow water on hand-driven piling which 
answered as a landing place for the camp's junk. Very few of the 
camps could be approached at low tide, for which reason they usually 
fished the flood tide in order that they might more easily bring their 
eateh to the landing. The shacks which constituted the living quarters 
and storehouses were, in the majority of cases, crowded on a narrow 
beach between the water and the hills. The dry grounds of each camp 
covered about an acre of the slope of the hills for the want of a better 



Fig. 2. Seen** oi 



■imp iunk o: 
:. Nidevcr. 



place, and were usually floored with boards. In two or three of the 
camps the drying ground was partly on a platform built out over the 
wafer. In 1897 there were 26 camps operating on San Francisco Bay 
nnd in 1910 this number had been reduced to 19. The camps on 
Tomales Bay were abandoned some years prior to 1897. Of the 19 
camps found in 1910 three were in the cove just above South San 
Francisco, five were at Hunter's Point, four in Contra Costa County 
south of Point San Pablo in Marin County. The three camps near 
South San Francisco were controlled by one company, the Pook On 
liung Company of San Francisco. They furnished no fresh shrimps 
for the market but dried their entire catch. Their fishing ground was 
in Alameda County about three miles east of San Bmno Point. Each 



CALIFORNU FISH AND OAHE. 5 

ot tbeir three juaks used sixty Chinese shrimp nets such as are described 
under "Methods of Operating Nets." Two of the five Hunter's Point 
camps, located on the south side of the point, were owned by the Qaong 
Ivee Cbong Company of San Francisco. Each of the two boata fished 
forty nets and they dried their entire catch. Their fishing ground was 
about a mile off shore, a little west of south from the point, which 
brought them within San Francisco County. Of the three camps on the 
north side of the point, the two eampa nearest the point were controlled 
by the Pock On Lung Company, also known as the California Shrimp 
Company. The third camp on the north side of the point belonged 
to the Union Shrimp Company, a Chinese company of San Francisco. 
The three last-named camps sent part of their catch to the fresh shrimp 
market and dried the rest. They fished in Alameda County a mile south 
of the Alameda mole. The four Red Rock camps were located in a 
cove on the Contra Costa shore about two miles to the south of Point 
San Pablo. These camps belonged to the Union Shrimp Company of 
San Francisco and their four boats fished just to the north of Red Rock 
in water from four to six fathoms deep. Tliis depth is greater than 
that fished by any of the other boats and it was not passible for them, 
on account of the depth and tide, to use more than thirty nets to each 
boat. Part of their catch went to the fresh market but the main part 
was dried. Of the seven camps near Point San Pedro, Marin County, 
one was situated in the first cove to the south of the point near the rock 
quarry. It was an independent company drying most of its catch but 
selling a few to the Union Shrimp Company, for the fresh market. 
Their boat fished about one-half mile southwest of the point. The next 
camp to the north of the point belonged to the Union Shrimp Companj'. 
Its boat fished about one-half mile off shore and sometimes across the 
channel in Contra Costa County. This camp sent part of its catch to 
the fresh market but dried most of it. One-half mile further to the 
north was a Quong Lee Chong Company camp and next to it in the 
same cove a Quong Sing Lung Company camp, while just to the north 
in the next cove was a second camp of the Quong Sing Lung Company 
and next to this two other Quong Lee Chong camp.s. These last five 
outfits named, dried their entire catch and their five boats operated sixty 
nets each. They fished far out on what is known as the "PetaUnna 
Flats," the furthest boat fishing one-half mile due south of the outer 
Petaluma Creek Beacon, the other near but to the southwest. All five 
fished within the county of Marin. 

The following description of the boats, nets and fishing methods 
applies to the industry today just as it does to the industry as it 
existed twenty years ago : 

Boats. The boats used by these camps are of Chinese pattern and 
make. They vary in size, but the majority are about fifty feet long 
and twelve feet beam, with rounded bottoms without a keel, and with 
square stern.s and rather blunt bows. They have one mast which 
carries a Chinese eleated sail. About fourteen feet of the stem is 
decked in and constitutes the living (|uarters of the erew. This com- 
partment is entered through a small sliding halcli and there the fivi' 
men of the crew cook their meals, cat and sleep. Just forward of this 
in the open shrimp ioeker. al)out twelve feet square, for holding \hf 
catch, and next foi-wwrd is a IcK-ker of similar size for hiihliiiK the nets. 



6 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QiWB. 

The remaining spaco forwanl is usi-d for lines and gear. On tlie ilet'k 
between the crew's quarters and the shrimp loeker is a crude wooden 
windlass placed horizontally and with four wooden spokes projecliug 
by which it is tinned by the hands and feet of the operator. From the 
drum of this windlass a line passes forward tlirongh a notch in the 
elongated bow post of the boat. This windlass and line is used t« lift 
the series of nets from their fishing position at the bottom of the bay. 
The boats are of sufficient size to carry sixty wet nets and ten to twelve 
tons of catch. 

\cts. Each separate net is constructed in tlie .shape of a funnel. 
They are usually thirty-two feet long, with the larger opening or mouth 
about eighteen feet in diameter, from which the net tapers to the narrow 
opening a foot and one-half in diameter at the end of the sack. This 
narrow or cod end of the net is closed by a string which can be untied to 
remove the catch when the nets are pulled up. The nets are made in 
China from a very strong and durable twisted grass-like fibre. The 
net has a mesh of three and one-half inches near the mouth but the size 
I'apidly diminishes toward the small end until the sack has meshes of 
one-half inch or less. This small-mf«hed end of the net, which has to 
sustain the weight of the catch when the net is pulled from the water, 
is usually reinforced by a net of coarse twine placed around the outside. 
In making the webbing of these nets s(|uare knots are useil instead of 
the usual knot used by fishermen the world over. The nets are dried 
and tanned about once a month and with care they will last a year, 
'ITieir cost is about $25 Mexican in China. After paying freight and 
other charges and adding the hanging line around the larger opening 
they cost here about the same amount in gold. 

Method of Operating Ncls. Each junk operates a set of nets, thirty 
to sixty in number, which are set side by side at the bottom of the bay 
with their larger openings or mouths open to the current. The neta 
are held in place by a series of brails or speaders— 2x3 inch sticks of 
pine five feet long^eaeh of which is held to a short stake driven in the 
bottom of the bay by a line from either end, of sufficient length to permit 
of the brails with the nets attached being lifted to the surfaee during the 
.slack water between tides, without detaching them from the stake. Tho 
stakes to which the brails are attached arc driven twenty-four feet 
apart aeroas the cuirent in the muddy bottom of the bay in a very 
ingenious manner. For driving these stakes a very long tapering pole 
is used with a four-inch iron pipe fitted on the larger end so that a 
hollow end of the pipe pro.iects a couple of feet beyond the end of the 
pole. Selecting a stake with lines and brail attached, its head is inserted 
in the hollow end of the pipe where it fits loosely but is kept from falling 
out by holding on to the brail lines while the pole is held in the vertical 
position over the spot where it is to be driven. The pole with the stake 
in place is then lowere<l from the boat until the stake is pressed into 
the mud. The stake is then driven home by repeatedly lifting the pole 
a short distance and then lowering it forcibly. The stakes are driven 
twent,v-four feet apart across the current so that each brail when it is 
in position with nets attached will stand vertically on the bottom in 
I'acli space between the mouths of the nets. Attached in this way, the 
net mouths instead of being circular are now rectangular in shape, the 
opening being twenty-four feet across and about four and one-half feet 



CaIjIPORNIa kish and qame. 7 

deep. To remove aiiy uneven strain on the iiute anil lo prevent their 
bein^ carried away by the swift tide, a heavy nnehor or stake is placed 
about fifty feet out from each end of tlie row of wtakes and in line with 
them, from which runs a heavy line which is tie<i with a clove hiteh to ' 
the center of each of the brails. By anchoring this heavy line in line 
with the stakes and sufficiently far out, the arrangement does not inter- 
fere with lifting the brails and nets to the surface of the water when 
the catch is to be removed just before the slack water at the end of the 
tide. Besides the heavy anchor line running from brail to brail, 
there is another and lighter one, the buoy line, which facilitates in 
lifting the nets. This line, when the nets are set in fishing position, 
extends from a floating buoy at one end of the string of nets to the 
first or end brail, to which it is tied by a bight about a foot from its 
top. From thence it runs to each brail in succession until the last 
brail at the end of the string of nets is reached, from whence it extends 
-up to another buoy on the surface of the water. This buoy line is in 
place only when the nets are set. The nets are fastened to the brails 



Fig. 3. Sorting and drying young fish obiainfd from shrimp nels. Point San Pedro, 1897. 

Sbrimp fishing rndangeri ihc fisheries by dcBlroying young lish. Phatographi by 

N. B. Scofield. 

and the buoy line is attached just after the turn of the tide before the 
current has become swift. The force of the current swings the series 
of nets down onto the bottom where they are held by the brail lines 
to the row of stakes, reinforced by the heavy anchor line. Here they 
are left during the entire tide, the time varying from four to eight 
hours, with their mouths open against the tide while the current carries 
the shrimps and young fish into them. With this manner of fastening 
the nets they can be used on either a flood or ebb tide. 

When the nets are to be lifted at the end of the tide after the forei^ of 
the current has slaekene<l suflfieiently, an end of the buoy line is taken 
at one of the buoys, passed through the notch in the bow post of the 
boat and thence carried back to the windlass, where it is reeled in by 
one man, thus bringing the first brail to the surface and lifting the net 
with it. The other niembei-s of the crew detach the net and tlie buoy 
line from the brail while the man at the windlass reels up the next 
brail. Thus the nets are detached in succession, the catch being emptied 
into the shrimp loeker and the nets placed in the net locker. The 



Coot^lc 



8 i;aij>X)knia pish and uame. 

Chinese are very expert in haudliiig the nets and work rapidly, each 
man with a particular duty to perform. The time in which the nets 
have to he lifted is limited usually to about half au hour. They can 
not begin aooner for the nets can not be lifted when the current is 
strong. If they are not gotten out before the tide turns the nets begin 
to swing the other way and tliey be«ome tangled and the catch is lost. 
When tides are so strong that there is danger of carrying the nets away 
they reduce the cun'ent pressure by tying the upper edge of the nets 
farther down on the brails. If the tides are extremely swift they reduce 
the number of nets. 

Shrimp Drying. After the nets are all lifted the junk sails baek to 
the dock at its camp, where the catch is carried in baskets, Chinese 



. Shrimp bailing vat, ibowini Ekinuncr 


and nlut haog- 


on crude chimrKy. Point San Pedro. 19 


0. Phologriph by 


B. Scofield. 





style, lo the boiling vat. This vat is about four by eight feet and 
eighteen inches deep, witli wooden sides, the bottom being of sheetiron 
bent lip around the sides. It is built in with bricks and mud and to 
heat the water both wood and coal is used. Fresh water to which rock 
salt has been added is used in the vats. Tlie shrimps, together with the 
fish caught with them, are poured in. ten or twelve baskets at a time, 
and boiled from ten to fifteen minutes. They are then dipped out with 
a strainer and put into baskets to In; carried to the drying ground. 
Here the shrimps and fisli, the hitter usually small and delicate with 
the flesh boiled from the lH>ne«. aiv spread out together to dry in the nun. 
When llie weather is good Ihe shrimps will dry in about four days. 
when tli.v HI- gti1hen-d tdRefhi-r and roll.-d with cK'Hted, woodcy rollers 



L'AMl'tiKNiA Vmi AND QAMK. !) 

to lireak tlie sliells I'ram tlic mi'iitK, TIks wlnAv iim«s is then carrifd !»i 
>r shod where it is niii through a Biiialt I'aiiuiiitr mill t^) separate the loose 
shellK, fish bones ajiil i»ulveiizwl Jish flwth from the heavier Hhnmp 
meats. By screening and hand picking the shrimp meats are divided 
into two grades, the unhroken meats in one aad the broken meats in the 
other. They are then sacked, 280 pounds to the sack. The shells, fish- 
bones and fish flesh, and all fine particles and dust are saved and put 
in sacks. 310 pounds to the aaek, and sold for use as a fertilizf'r. The 
loss in drying is about 65 per cent, and for each pound of shrin)p mfals 
there are two pounds of fertilizer or "shells.'" 

Dryinff Fkh. The amount of youne fish taken in the < Chinese nets is 
always large, varying from 10 to 75 per cent of the entire catch. Koriti- 
urly large quantities of these fisli were drieti. The larger fish were 
picked out and hung on strings to dry while the very small fish, princi- 
pally the young smelt (Ogmenis thaleickikys) were dried on trays 
which had been covered with discarded net webbing. The small fish 
were separated from the shrimps by dumping a basket of the eatch in 
a small vat of cold water where the live shrimps sank to the bottom, thus 
allowing the small dead fish to be easily skimmed from the top. After 
being prosecuted for catching young fteh they ceased to dry the small 
fish and boiled them with the shrimp-s to get rid of the evidence us 
quickly as possible. They were nearly as valua})le as a fertilizer as 
they were as a food product. There has always been this incentive to 
catch the young fish and experience has shown that it is impossible to 
operate the Chinese net without catching great ((uantities of inuuaturc 
fish, thus causing great damage to the fisheries of the bay and rivers. 

Fresh Shrimps. In the camps that sent fresh shrimps to the markets 
they had a special shed at the wharf where part of the eatch was taken 
and the larger shrimps screened out by hand and all fish, seaweed and 
<iirt carefully picked out. The shrimps for the market were Ixiileil 
liefore the rest of the catch, in the same way as were those to be dried 
except that less salt was used and they were not boiled quite so long. 
After boiling, the shrimps were spread on matting on the sorting room 
floor where they could cool and the surplus moisture evaporate. They 
were then placed in baskets and eonveye<I by power launch to San 
Francisco. 

Three Species of Shrimps. Three species of shrimps are taken in San 
i'rancisco Bay. Fully 90 per cent of them are of one species, Crago 
franciscorum. The remaining 10 per cent is made up of the two species, 
('rago nigricauda and Crago iiigrimaciilata. 

The shrimps drift back and forth along the bottom o£ the Imy with the 
tides hut have the power in some measure to select their environment, 
for in the winter time when the fresh water is entering the bay in 
larger quantities they move farther down the bay. In the summer when 
the blue sea water encroaches on the flats they mov<- farther up toward 
the river mouths. They appear to go on the shallower Hats when they 
are carrying their eggs. The smaller individuals are found mostly in 
shallow water an<l in the deeper and swifter water more large ones are 
found. They have a wide range, however, for they are found in Ihi- 
deepest water as well as the shallowest and can be found in water per- 
fectly fresh as well as in pure sea water. Very little is known about 
their life history. Females nisiy ]»■ found carrying eggs attached tu 



]0 CALIFORNIA PISH AND QAiiE. 

her swimmeitits jit »\l seagons of the year. Fi-om evideiici? that hafi 
been gathered it is certHiii that the eggs are carried at least two months 
on the outside of thv \xniy before they hatch and the life of the shrimp 
from the egg through one spawning time is not less than two years. 
They feed on minute animal and plant life at the bottom. Tliey may 
at times feed near the surface for they can swim rather rapidly through 
the water, moving with the head first, 

Charactpr and Quantity of the Catch. The catch of one jnnk for one 
tide varied from ten hundi^ pounds to ten tons. An average day's 
catch for the boats using forty nets was six thousand pounds and for 
the boats using sixty nets, eight thousand pounds. The net« always 
contain young fish, the quantity varj'ing from 30 per cent to 75 per cent 
of the entire catch. The boats using sixty nets each on the shallow 
flats on the west side of San Pablo Bay caught the greatest proportion 
of young fish. The reason for this is that most of the fish which enter 
San Francisco Bay enter for the purpose of spawning. Among tliese 
fish the valuable ones are the herring, smelt, striped bass, shad and 
salmon. Besides these the young of other valuable commercial species, 
such as the crab and the sole, enter the bay for tlie purpose of feeding 
and for protection. A bay with rivers entering it is always a nursery 
for young fish. Where there is an intermingling of fresh and salt wat«r 
as in the upper San Francisco Bay there is a prodigal growth of small 
animal life, including shrimps and other species of small crustaceans. 
(Jpon this small life the young fishes feed. The young fish are there 
because the shrimps are there. A method of shrimp fishing such as 
that employed by the Chinese, which catches the young fish as readily 
as the shrimps and holds them until they are suffocated, is a serious 
menace to the whole fishing industry of the bay and its tributary rivers. 
Rven if they caught only shrimps, there is a limit to the number which 
should be caught for they are the food of our more valuable fishes, but 
when the method of lishing takes tiie young fish themselves in vast 
quantities, as did the Chinese nets in upper San Francisco Bay, it 
should not be tolerated if we value the other fisheries, or if we value the 
shrimp itself, for there is every evidence that even the shrimps were 
being overfished. To appreciate the seriousness of the situation as it 
existed in 1910, just imagine the nineteen Chinese junks with their 
combined nets numbering oue thousandj eacli one having a mouth open- 
ing of 24x4^ feet, straining the small fish and shrimps from the rushing 
water, tide after tide. The total annual catch by the Chinese junks at 
the time they were stopped from fishing in 1911 was considerably in 
excess of ten million pounds of fresh shrimps and fish combined. Of 
this amount no more than eight hundred thousand pounds of the 
shrimps were used fresh. The rest was all dried and marketed as 
dried shrimp meat and fertilizer. 

After the Chinese method of fishing was .stopped it was found that the 
Italian method as employed in the early days was not profitable, for 
the shrimps were too scarce and there were no more fiounders or tomcod. 
Neither was the shrimp beam trawl profitable for the shrimps were not 
plentiful enough for that method and the nets were torn on the Chinese 
shrimp stakes driven all over the bay. As no other method of catching 
shrimps was employed and as the market was hare of shrimps, the 



i:,at,zed By Google 



CALIFORNIA FlSn AND GAME. 11 

preseiiic of whwli had tweii for yojirs a feature of (.'alifoniia, liir linn 
was lifted from the Chinesfl nets in southern San KraneiHeo Iliiy in 
lfH.5. The nets do less danmfi^ in that part of the hay as there an' 
fewer young tinli there of vahinhht varieties for the resison tliaf thttre 
is Jittle fresh water flowing in that portion of the bay. The young of 
the herring are not found there, as they spaivii in the npper bay, nor 
are the young of the smelt, shad, striped bass or salmon found there, for 
they are hatched only in the larger rivers and as they descend to the hay 
they distribute themselves in the brackish water nursery of the upper 
or San Pablo Bay. Shrimps were not very plentiful in south San 
Francisco Bay on account of the former heavy fishing and on account of 
the gradually increasing salinity of the water. Drying of shrimps had 
also been prohibited and it was found not very profitable to fish for the 
fresh market only. During the first year after they resumed fishing 
the markets took less than 350,(XXI pounds of shrimps. They could 
have had more but there wns not the former demand. The amount of 



fresh shrimps marketed has increased each year until now the amount 
is equal to that of any former year when shrimp fishing was at its 
height. The shrimps have increased in numbers in all portions of the 
bays, as also have the number of small fish, especially the young of the 
striped bass. It has now become profitable to use the shrimp lieam 
trawl which, towed with the tide, catches the shrimp with a very small 
per cent of young fish. As illustrative of the damage done by the 
Chinese nets in former vears the following is quoted from mv note 
book of 1897: 

"The average catch per day for each boat at the San Rafael 
(Point San Pedro) fishery, during the last two weeks of July, was 
seventy baskets, each basket weighing about ninety pounds, making 
in all six thousand three hundred pounds. The average number 
of boats out each day was seven, making in all a daily catch of 
forty-four thousand one hundred pounds. For thirteen days (the 
time they were under continual ol>ser\'at,ion ) this number is swelled 



_nOO<^IC 



12 CALIFORNIA riSll AND QAUE. 

. to six liuiidi'ed aixty-oiic thousand, five himdred pouiidij. Oue-half 
of this catch consisted of small fisb, the principal species being 
smelt, California anchovy and sculpin. 

The small smelt, two and one-half to three and one-half inches 
long, were very abundant, making up over one-fourth of the entire 
catch. The estimated amount of these young smelt taken in the last 
fifteen days of July is 165,375 pounds, or about 16,537,500 small 
fish. When the nets are brought to the surface of the water, these 
small smelt are dead, so that to throw them back would do no good. ' ' 

Later, in the year 1910, we made the following notes : 

"Oct. 35, 1910: Visited two San Pedro Point Itoatj^ iis they 
lifted their nets. One had 30 per cent of young fish, mostly smelt 
and sole. They also had a good many undersized female edible 
crabs, which were alive, but they had not attempted to throw them 
back. The other boat had 20 per cent of young fiah. 

Oct. 28, 1910; Six boats out of San Pedro Point. Ming's boat 
had eighty baskets on this tide, of which 30 per cent was fish, 
mostly young smelt, young sole, and tomcod. One boat had forty 
baskets, two boats fifty baskets each, and the remaining two had 
seventy-five each. The amount of young fish was about 20 per 
cent. Ming says he uses forty nets and has averaged seventy bas- 
kets a day for September and October. The five camps above him 
use sixty nets each and their catch is much larger. 

Oct. 29, 1910: Again visited San Pedro Point boats. Five 
boats out. The catch the same as yesterday. Three boat crews 
have been arrested in the last few days for catching young fish, 
but when visited yesterday and today they made no attempt what- 
ever to throw back even the few fish that were alive. Wing had 
used a screen to get out the fish, but his catch was still 30 per cent 
fish. Their nets were all set wide open, as the tides are not 
so strong now. ' ' 

The above notes are selected to give a conservative idea of what 
the average catch consists in upper San Francisco Bay. The greatest 
damage is done on the shallow San Pablo Bay fiats. During the 
winter months large numbers of smalt striped baas are killed in the 
nets. The boats which fished below San Pablo Bay in the deeper 
water near Red Rock and the Stone Quarry caught smaller quantities 
of young fish than those above, but they caught more of the young 
striped bass than any others. The late increase in the number of 
striped bass is undoubtedly in large part due to the abolition of the 
Chinese nets in the upper bay, and if we value that fine food and game 
fish the destructive sbrimp nets should be kept out. 

The Chinese operating in South San Francisco Bay catch fewer 
young fish and the varieties caught are not of the valuable species. 
The lower bay can easily supply the fresh markets without serious 
injury to any of the other fisheries. But even there, the nets should 
be prohibited as soon as a less destructive method of shrimp fishing 
can be developed. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAfilFOKNlA f'lSIl AND GAME. 



THE FISHES OF THE OBOAKER FAHILT (SCIAENIDAE) OF 
CAUFORNIA. 

By EDWIN CHAPIN 6TARK6, Stantord University. 

The fislies of this family havi' a peculiar silvery skin timt is unlike 
the bright, hurDiuhed silver of some fishes. th« herrings for instance. 
hut suggests rather frosted silver. The head is closely covered with 
scales, more or less irregular in size and ahfipe, and the pore-bearing 
scales of the laternl line extend onto the caudal fin. The bones of the 
skull are variously excavated with tunnels and open channels (cav- 
ei-noufi), and the ehin is usually provided with large pores or barbels. 
Two dorsal fins are present; the first composed of spines and more or 
less triangular in shape. The anal fin has one or two spines, sometimes 
very small and slender or sometimes the second one is very much 
enlarged. 

The eroakers are carnivorous fishes rather distantly related to the 
baseeN. Many of them make a peculiar noise from which the common 
names of croaker, grunter, and drum have been derived. The noise is 
supposed to he made by forcing the air (or more properly, gas) from 
one part of the swim bladder to another. The species are numerous on 
sandy shores, and are most ahnndant in warm and tropic seas. At 
Panama, for instance, there are between 40 and 45 representatives of 
this family. Of the eight that occur on our coast only two are found 
in abundance as far north as San Francisco. Most of the others occa- 
sionally stray that far, but are common only on the southern coast. 
All of them are very good food fishes, and some are classed as game 
fishes. 

The tommou or popular names of these fishes are even more mixed up 
and poorly applied than usual. Cynosdon nobilis, the ".sea bass," is 
not a bass, and Seripkus, sometimes called the herring, does not even 
remotely resemble the herring. The young "sea bass' is known as "sea 
trout.'' Xo possible stretch of the imagination could make it suggest 
a trout, and having wrongly called its parent a haas, to call it a trout 
is H very good commenUiry on how loosely common names aiv used. 
(Icnijiniimiix, the fish thai is usually known as the kuigfi.sli, is some- 
times called "tomcod" cm the southern ('alifornia coast, it resenibhs 
a tomcod as little as Sn-iitlnm, the (jueenHsh, rei^emblus a herring. 
AVhen Gcnyonemus, the kingfish, is called "tomeod" the name kingfisli 
is transferred to Saii'pkits, the queenfish, or white croaker. Cynoscioii 
partnpinnis, a close relative of the "sea Iiass," is sometimes called 
"hluefish," though it has nothing whatever in common with the famous 
bluefish of the Atlantic. The names eroaker, roncador, and eorvina 
are not at all consistently applied, but are shufHed back and fortii 
between various of these fishes. 

Hence in the use of vernacular names among these or any other fishes 
the reader is again cautioned that there is no constancy nor rule for 
their application, and he can only be sure of definitely indicating a 
given feh by using its scientific name. Though such names will 
probably never he used hy people at in?^e, and certainly not by unlet- 
tered fishermen, the seieiilifie name is nevertheless the one true name 
for a specie.s, and a name that will be recognized hy scientific men in 
nil countries the world oyer. , , ; ^,v/v.-,,^ 



KEV TO THE FISHES OF THE CROAKER FAMILY IN CALIFORNIA. 
I. I.i>H('r juw iirojei'tiiig bejoud ti[) of snout, whk-Ii is sharp. 

2. Ua-M. of BtKund dorsal fin about «H|unl in length to base of anol fin. 

yiiC(.n/!W. or W h,U f loaUr S< ii/jftris /.(,(.lu» I Hire 11. 
'2-2 BusL of HPcoDd ilurbHl tin lery muLb longer tban that of anal tin. 

t Teilli at mitldlp of upper jhw little if any enlarged Pectoral fin 
morL than hiilf the length of head Its tip reaehiiifr about as far 
back as tips of itiilrata n htle Sat Bans Cgno»cioii nabiiis. 

J 3 One or t«o Ioiik (e tli pointiug batkward at the middle of upper 
jav Perioral tin less than half the length of head Its tip not 
rpaibing us far baik as tipR of venlrak (altfornia Bluefi«h. 
(. iriioscion parnptnmt FngL 1G 

1-1. Tip of snout blunt and projetling bejond tip of lower jan 

4. \ single short bailHl or npiieudage at lip of loHer ja« 

'i \ large tliitk spun at front of anal tin Tlie first spine of the 
first dorsal not longtr than iLp spines just behind it The tip of 
llie hrnt dorsal rounded \tUotrfin Croalcr T mbriiia ronca- 
dor Page 1" 

^^- 1 \o (nlarged gpine at frout of niial fin The bret dorsal spine 
loneer than the otben> making the tip of the first dorsal very sharp. 
< aliforiiia H kittaa Meattctirkut nudatatut Page 17 

4-4, No siosle barlnl ot tip of loner jaw 

b \ large thitk spine at front of anal bn 
\ loiTie blaek sjiot on front of pi 
long as head and reaching past t 
i.onca\e lnhind "^poijin Cinaker icn aitnr nt arniti. 
Page 18 

7 7 No spot at front of iiettorul but a dark spot usually preseDt 
on hind edge of gill eoier Peetoral fin muih shorter than 
head and not reaehing to tips of centrals Caudal fin not 
coneatf bcbind Iltact or Chinef CToakLr Sciaena »al- 
111 aa Page 1'' 
fj l>. No enlarged s|ini^ nt fiont of anal fin. Ktngfiih. Iiini/onctniii 
lii«<ihi». Pugn 20. 

GLOSSARY. 

xlniil fill: The liiiiglu fin on tlit; lowfi- side of tin; body towards the 
tail. 

Barbel: A small fleshy projection or appt-ndix. In these fishes it is 
on the lower jaw. 

Caudal fin : The tail fiu. 

Dorsal fin : The fin on the hack. In llu'Sf fishes it is divided into 
two fins: the first eimiposed of spines, and liciico called s])inous dorsal; 
the second composed of soft rays. 

Maxillary -. The flatf cned Iwne Imrderiiig the mouth aljovc. 

Pectoral fin -. The pair of fins, one on each side, sitnated close behind 
the (fill opening. 

PrioiifiTiiliiin : A Ixine of the firill cover that borders the eheek 
behind. It is cdii.-iideralily in front of the hind edgi' of the gill cover, 
and has a free idge. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALLFOKNIA PISII AND OAUE. 



15 



Snout : The part of the head that lies iu fi-otit of the eyes except the 
lower jaw. 

Ventral fins : The paired fins oq the lower part of the breast ; close 
\>nder the pectorals in these fishes. 

The Queenfiah, or Whits Croak«r (8«riphua politus). 
The length of the base of the second dorsal fin is about e{iual in length 
to the base of the anal fin. The tip of the snout is rather sharp and the 
tip of the lower jaw projects beyond it when the mouth is closed. The 
mouth is long and narrow, and the maxillary does not quite reach to 
vertically below the hind border of the eye. The dorsal fins are well 
separated, and the spines of the first dorsal are slender. The color is 
bluish above with the sides and belly bright silvery, the fins yellow, and 
the base of the pectoral dusky. 




fish (Scriphu, 



On the southern California coast this fish is ridiculously called her- 
ring, a name that should decidedly be discouraged, for it has nothing 
in common with the herring, is not related to it, and does not even look 
like it. It also in the same region shares with Genyonemns Uneatus, the 
name of kingfish. The latter is almost universally so known and hence 
has the best right to the name. 

This fish reaches a li'ugth of altout a foot, and is au excellent pan-fish. 
It is salted and smoked to some extent in southern California and 
marketed as herring. It is common on sandy shores of the southern 
and Lower California coasts, and has been taken as far northward as 
San Francisco. 



ThB Whits "Ssa Ban" (Cynoioion nobilis). 
The snout is sharp and the tip of the lower jaw projects beyond it 
when the mouth is closed, while the length of the base of the second 
dorsal is three or more times the length of the anal base. The length 
of the pectoral fin is more than half the length of the head, and the tip 
of the pectoral reachi-s about to opposite the tips of the ventrals. 
There are no greatly enlarged teeth pointing luiekwards at tins front 
of the upper jaw. The mouth is large and the maxillary nearly or quite 
reaches to vertically below the hind Imrder of Ilie eye. The eiiudal fin 



,Coo<^lc 



is i-oin-avc k'liiud. Very tine dark nuiiita are fverywliere dusted «v*!i- 
tlie silvery color, making it more or less dusky bluiHli. The inner sur- 
facwi of the peetoral and ventral fins are dusky. 




Though this fish is only diKtuntly related to the bass, it Is in California 
almost universally' known as the sea bass or while sea baae. On the 
Atlantic coast fishes of this group are known as weakfiahes. This 
species is one of our most valuable food fishes, reaching a weight 
of !KI or more pounds, and having finu white flesh. It is found in eon- 
siderable abundance along the California coast and southward to 
Lower California, It has been reported as far north as Puget Sound. 
The young has dusky bauds extemling down from the back onto the 
sides. Fishermen call the small ones sea Irout. 

The California "Bluefiih" (Cynoicion parvipinnii). 

As in the white sea bass the snout is sharp; the tip of the lower jaw 

projecte beyond it when the mouth is closed ; and tiie base of the second 

doi-sal fin is much longer than that of the anal fin. It may be known 

from the white sea bass by the |>ectoral fin being less than half the length 




t>f the head, and its tip not nearly reaehtng as far baek as the tips of 
the ventrals. It is also distinguished by having one or two long sharp 
teetii pointing backwards from the middle of the upper jaw. The dor- 
sal fins are close together. The color is steel blue above and silvery on 
the lower part.s and sides. 

Thi.s fi.sli elosi'ly resembles Ihe white sea liass — in fact it is not recog- 
nized iis <lifri'rent bv manv fisiiormin. Tl does not reach as large .a size, 



C.VTJFOHNIA KlSir .\NI> CiAME. 17 

probably uot exceeding a. i:oii]ili! of i'<:et in k-ugtii, and it is said to Ixt 
much inferior to it. Its flesh is soft Hiid it does not bear transportation 
well. It is found from southern Oftlifornia southward along the coast 
of Lower California, 

The name bluefish ns applied to this species probably is on account of 
its color, and not because it is thought to be the same as the famous 
bluelish of the Atlantic. Tho Inttcr is a vory different fish, not at nil 
related to this species. 

Th« Yellowfrn Croaker (Umbrina roncador). 
This fish may be known from its relatives by a short fleshy barbel, 
or appendage, that projects from the chin, and, in addition, by a large 
thick spine at the front of the anal fin. The enlarged spine is the 
Rccond anal spine, there being a very short one in front of it. It^ snout 
is blunt and projects over and above the tip of the lower jaw. The 
mouth is nearly horizontal, and llie masillary reaches to under the 
middle of the oye. The edge of the lK>ne Hint bounds the elieek !>ehind 




(preopercnium) is set with Gnc spines. The spinous dorsal is triangu- 
lar in shape but rounded at ils upper angle at the points of the first 
spines. The pectorals are rather short and do not reach as far back as 
the veutrals do. The caudal is concave behind; and the upper lobe is 
longer than the lower. Brassy and golden reflections overlie the silvery 
color. The back is bluish, and over the back and sides are many wavy 
dark lines that extend upward and backward following the rows of 
scales. The fins are mostly yellow. 

This fish reaches a length of 15 or 16 inches, and it is rather common 
on the southern California coast. Its range extends southward into the 
Gulf of California while an occasional one strays northward as far as 
San Francisco. It is a very good food fish, and is caught in considerable 
abundance by the anglers on the piers and beaches of southern Califor- 
nia. It is a very handsome fish when it is first drawn from the water, 
Imt its iridescent colors soon fade. 

The California Whiting or Corvina (Menticirrliu* undutatui). 

This is a well marked fish that may be known by a fleshy barbel, or 

appendage, that projects from the chin, the first dorsal spine longer than 



s^C 



18 



CALIFORNIA PISH , 



the othi-rs, making the fin Khiir|>ly pointfd above, and the caudal flu with 
its lower angle rounded and its upper sharp. The barbel at the chin is 
longer than in the yellowfin croaker. It may be known from that 
species at once by its lacking an enlarged apine at the front of the anal. 
The upper jaw projects considerably over the lower, the mouth ia hori- 
itontal, and the maxillary barely, or scarcely, reaches to below the front 
edge of the pupil. The edge of the preopereulum is divided into 6ne 
points which are membranous and not bony spines aa in the yellowfin 
croaker. The pectoral is rather long and readies to about the tips of 




Ihe ventrals. The color is grayiah with bright reflection.s. On the back 
and aide are many dark wavy lines that run upwards and backwards. 
The back sometimes has faint dark bars crosswise to the body. 

This fish is rather common on sandy shores of southern California, 
and is known southward into the Gulf of California, while individuals 
are sometimes taken as far northward as San FrancLseo, It is a very 
good food fish and reaches a length of 18 or 20 inches. 

Tha Spot, or Spolfin Croak«r (Ronctdor atoarnBi). 
This fish may be known at once by the large black spot at the base 
of the pectoral fin. It is not only on both sides of the pectoral, but is 
also somewhat on the body behind the pectoral base. As in most of the 



-^ 




„Gooi^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISri AND GAME. 19 

croiiki.'1'N. a liliint snout exli'tii]>; nvcr ;t linriKuntiil niuiitli. Tlio. inoiiDi 
is modontlo in sizi'. «nil thr ninxilhuy rpjuOiPs to liolow flic inidrtlf of 
the eye. The pi'f<n>i'i-eii]uiu is set with tine sliiirp spines. The tiitjl 
dorsal has stout spines and Uut second spiiio of the Hiial is enlarged, the 
first spine being, as usual, smiiU. The pectoral ia as long as the head, 
and reaches eonaiderabiy past the tips of the ventrals. The color is 
grayish silvery, lighter below. Wavj' dark lines follow the rows of 
scales extending upwards and backwards. These are less eon.spieuous 
than in the yellowfin roneador. Two dusky streaks usually run back 
from the throat to the ventrals and thence to each side of the anal. 

This fish is abundant on the southern California coast, and, like most 
of the others, has occasionally been taken as far north as San Fran- 
cisco. It is of some iriport.anee as a food fish, and reaches a weight 
of 5 or 6 pounds. 

The Black Croaker, or Chinas* Croaker (Sciaena Miturna}. 

The following combination of characters will identify this fish from 

its relatives : The snout blunt and projecting over the tip of the lower 

jaw; no barbel at the chin; the .second anal spine large and thick; no 



black spot at base of pectoral ; the pectoral shorter than the head and 
not reaching to the tips of the ventrals. The mouth is small, the lower 
jaw closes within the upper, and the maxillary reaches to below the 
middle of the eye. The scales on the head are small, rough and uneven. 
The preopereulum has a membranous edge that is divided into very fine 
points which are scarcely noticeable without the aid of a magnifier. 
The dorsal spines are rather stout, but not nearly so stoiit as the second 
anal spine. The caudal is slightly convex, or with its middle rays the 
longest. The color is dusky with reddish coppery reflections. A pale 
band usually extends downward from between the dorsals to opposite 
the tips of the ventrals. This often fades with age. The lower parts 
are silvery but dusted over and obscured by dark specks. The side of 
the head is more brilliantly coppery color than elsewhere. The ventral 
fins are dusky or hiack. A blnek spot is present at the edge of the gill 
cover just al>ove its angle. 

Joo<^lc 



20 CAl-IJ-OHNiA FISH ANB OAME. 

Tliw fish liiis uot l>irii rfi»)Hf(l iioitli of Sunta Barli-ini, Its raugi- 
extends southward aloiigi- tlic coast of Ijowci- Califoniia. It reaches a 
length of about 15 ineli«(, and is a fairly giMid food fish. 

Th* Kingfiah (Q«nyonemui lineatus). 
The eharactcra of the first sent<'ii(;e separate this fish from it« rela- 
tives. The hhint snout projecting over the tip of the lower ja\v: no 
barb*"! at the ehin; no enlarged spine at the front of the anal. The 
mouth is rather oblique. The lower jaw closes within the upper, and 
the maxillary reaches to under the middle of the eye or a trifle farther. 
The edge of the preopereulum is membranous and without fine bouy 
points. On each side of the lower jaw just behind the ehin are several 
very small barbels, so smalt that they scarcely show without the aid of 
a magnifier. The spines of the dorsal are slender. The pectoral ends 
opposite to the very slender points of the ventrals, or reaches a little 
The caudal fin is slightly concave behind. Brassy reflections 




overlie the bright silvery color. Very faint wavy lines follow the rows 
of scales upwards and baekwards. The fins arc usually yellowish, and 
there is a small dark spot just behind the base of the upper pectoral 
rays. ( i • 

This fish and the white st'a bass are the only ones of this family that 
arc found in any abundance as far north as San Francisco. It runs 
southward along the Lower Califoniia coast. It is commoner in sum- 
mer than in winter, and more abundant on the southern coast than the 
northern. It scarcely exceeds a foot in length, but its abundance makes 
it a food fish of considerable importance. When fresh it is a very good 
food fish, but its flesh is rather soft and it does not keep very well. It 
is sometimes called tonieod in southern f'alifornia. This name should 
not be used, for it in no way, shape, nor iiisnner n'semhles the toracod. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUPORMA PISH AND GAME. 21 

NOTE ON THE SAND DAB. 

By eoWIN C. 6TARKS. 

Through an oversight in the paper on fiat-fishes that appeared in the 
last number of California Fish and Game the old name of soft flounder 
was used as a common name of the fish that has in recent years been 
known as the aand dab (Citkarichtkys sordidus). This name, sand dab, 
has almost entirely supplanted the older name on our coast and for that 
reason should be used. It is. however, one of those unfortunate names 
borrowed from another fish from another part of the world. The sand 
dab of the Atlantic coast (Hippoglosaoides platessoides) baa the best 
j'ight to the name, for it was first ao called. It bears little resemblance 
to our sand dab. So in your <opy of Oalipobnia Pish .a.nd G.\me please 
write sand dab in place of soft flounder. 



THE STICKLEBACK: A ?ISH EMINENTLY FITTED BT 
NAT0BE AS A MOSQUITO DESTBOYEB. 

By CARL L. HUBBS. 

Since it has been proved that malaria, yellow fever, and other dread 
diseases are carried by mosquitoes, there has developed a wide interest 
in these little insects, which hitherto had been regarded more as a 
nuisance than as a menace. Many studies have been undertaken in 
order to determine the best methods by which mosquitoes may he 
exterminated or at least greatly reduced in numbers. 

The use of window screens, the draining of swamps, and the oiling 
of waters, as well as the spread of natural enemies, are methods of 
control that have received attention with very notable success. For 
instance, the building of the Panama Canal has been made possible 
by the destruction of mosquitoes and the consequent control of yellow 
fever. 

A word as to the main methods of mosquito control. The use of 
-screens does not eliminate the evil. The draining of swamps has been 
very auecessfully practiced in New Jersey, and is applicable to other 
regions where large, swampy tracts occur. The use of oil, which 
spreads as a film over the water, forms a sufficient control, but requires 
continued attention and expense, and can scarcely be applied to most 
ornamental ponds or reservoirs or to pools from which animals drink. 

There is thus need for other methods, and of these the spread of the 
natural enemies of the mosquitoes is by far the most important. These 
natural enemies are numerous, and the mast valuable of them all for 
the purpose are fishes, which destroy the young stages of the mosquitoes 
as well as the adults when they alight on the surface of the water. 

Among the fishes extensively used in mosquito control, the little 
killifishes or topminnows may be mentioned, but there are others which 
can be strongly recommended. This short report is written to call 
further attention to the value of the stickleback (Gasteroslcus) as a 
mosquito destroyer in California, particularly in the coastal regions. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



22 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

FACTORS RENDERING THE STICKLEBACK AN EFFICIENT MOSQUITO 
DESTROYER. 

1. The stickleback uses mosquitoes as food. This point is to be 
proved first of all. The evidence is eonviociiig. The stickleback has 
been seen snapping up adult mosquitoes thrown into the wator. Mos- 
quitoes are unable to breed in waters inhabited by sticklebacks. This 
conclusion, previou.sly arrived at in regard to the stieklebuck and the 
salt-marsh mosquito of San Francisco Bay, has been rigidly tasted out 
in many of the streams from San Francisco south to the Mexican 
border. Only a few examples from the observations can be made here. 

In San Prancistjuito Creek, near Palo Alto, pools were repeatedly 
found near one another and apparently similar except in this respect: 
in the one pool sticklebacks were plentiful, but no mas(iuito wrigglers 
could be detected, while in the other pool sticklebacks were absent, 
while mosquitoes were breeding in abxmdancc. 

The swamps, pools and streams of the coast region of San Luis 
Obispo and Santa Barbara counties appear as ideal brooding waters 
for mosquitoes, yet the people there enjoy miusual freedom from these 
pests and danger.^. A study of the region makes it almost certain that 
these people have the stickleback to thank for tlu( service thas rendered. 
But, even in these regions mosquitoes breed in nbundance in the moun- 
tain canyons into which the sticklebacks can not penetraU^ because of 
the steep descent of the bouldery stream beds. The iiicvstinitoes arc 
forced back, however, into the mountains where there are fewer people 
for them to torment. 

In Mission Valley in San Diego sticklebacks arc. for some unknown 
ri'iison, entirely absent, but mosquitoes and gnats are vi'ry troublesome 
during the summer months. From the valley the mosquitoes are blown 
up the canyons to the city on the mesa above. During the summer 
(he surface waters of the San Diego River, which flows through Mis- 
sion Valley, arc reduced to a series of pools. In these pools three 
introduced fishes, the golden bream (Notemigomus crysoleucas) , the 
bullhead (Ameiunis nehulosus), and the green sunfish (Lepomis cya- 
}iellus) arc generally abundant. It seems that the stickleback is more 
efficient in the control of mosquitoes tlian are these throe other fishes 
together. 

During an entire summer's study of this problem, T never noted a 
considerable numl>er of either mosquito wri^lcrs or sticklebacks in 
the same pool together. Wherever the stickleback can penetrate, and 
they go as far as they can, the mosquitoes are effectively destroyed. 

2. Abund^incc of other food wiU vot drier the stickhhack from feed- 
ing on the mosquito wrigglers. This conclusion is evident from field 
olwcrvations, and is confirmed by the size and strueture of the fish : its 
mouth, small even for such tiny fishes, will not permit it to feed on 
large insect larva? .such as those of dragon flics, which, by the way, 
upon emerging as the adult insect, feed upon the mosquitoes in the air. 

3. The stickleback feeds at all Icreh of the water, from bottom to 
surface. Bccau.se of this fact, mosquito wrigglers of difForont habits are 
all picked up. Statements published by Seal, and by Lntz and Cham- 
lieiN for the stickleback of the East Cojist, make it appear a bottom 
feeler. At least, such a conclusion does not apply to the stickleback of 



CALIPORNU FISH AND OAHB. 23 

California. I have tbron-n mosquitoes into a pool of the Los Angeles 
River, and scarcely would one of them drop below the surface before 
one of these little fishes would dart from some hidden comer and 
devour it. 

4. The habits of the stickleback render it destructive to mosquitoes. 
This little fish hangs at any level of the water, tail bent to one side or 
the other, passively waiting for a stimulus to move. The wriggler is 
spied, and the stickleback snaps it up with pike-like speed and voracity. 

5. The. stir.kleh/w.'k itxelf is largelv immune in the attnelm nf larger 
fishes. This is a fact of much importance, giving the little spiny and 
armored stickleback a distinct advantage in many waters over other 
mosquito-eating fishes, as the topminnows. Sticklebacks live abundantly 
with rainbow trout, as in the Ventura River; and with black bass, as in 
the San Luis Creek. In ponds and reservoirs the waters could thus be 
stocked with both game fishes and sticklebacks, whereas the topminnows 
would, under such circumstances, soon be devoured. 

6. The stickleback is a widely distributed fish. This little fish {Gas- 
terosteus aculeattis), of several varieties, is found along the shores of 
all northern regions in the brackish waters of the bays and estuaries, 
and in the coastal streams. The stickleback in the streams of Califor- 
nia extend their ranges from the estuaries as far up into the mountain 
canyons as they can penetrate. At high water they spread out and 
are trapped in many little pools from which mosquitoes arc thus 
eliminated. 

7. The stickleback lives and breeds in STnall pools. These pools iuclude 
not only those along stream sides, but also the little shallow ponds and 
reservoirs about houses, which if not stocked with fishes, become breed- 
ing grounds for mosquitoes. For this purpose the stickleback is emi- 
nently fitted by its size, structure and habits. After planting once it 
requires no further care. Observations in California have led to these 
conclusions. 

8. The rise in temperature during the summer months seems not to 
kill the sticklebacks. Where other fishes might be killed off in summer 
in shallow ponds and reservoirs, the sticklebacks seem to live on. These 
little fishes have even been found in the hot springs of Tia Juana, near 
the Mexican boundary. 

9. the abundance of sticklebacks in the streams of California pro- 
vides an ample supply of these fishes for the stocking of artificial and 
natural pools, ponds and reservoirs. A fine meshed minnow seine, or 
one made of from four to six yards of cheap cloth, can be used to 
obtain these fishes in the waters in which they live. 

10. The stickleback is a hardy little fish and will stand transportation 
from its native streams to artificial ponds, in open buckets or in cans, 
such as those used to transport fish fry for planting in streams distant 
from the hatcheries. 

PRACTICAL USE OF THE STICKLEBACK IN THE CONTROL OF 

MOSQUITOES. 

No artificial cistern, pool, pond or reservoir slinuld be left unstoeked 

with fishes, and for this purpose the stickleback is probably the most 

practical fish in California, for the reasons whi;-h have already been 

outlined. By its use the breeding of mcsqullii^ about houses would 



24 CALIFOKNIA PISH AND GAUB. 

he prevented, and a troublesome nuisaDce and a real source of dauger 
would be largely eliminated, for the mosquitoes which attack us have 
mostly been bred close by- 
There would remain, however, many isolated pools in the salt marshes, 
alouf? tiic sides of the lower courses of the streams, and in their upper 
I'liiiyons. These pools are usually without fishes, and in some of them 
<Iangerous mosquitoes breed in abundance. The stocking of these 
pools with sticklebacks would doubtless, in many cases at least, prove 
both possible and advisable. This might be done independently by 
thosp people interested in their own welfare, or perhaps better by some 
public official. It is quite probable that in the swampy lands and in 
(he ricp fields along the Sacramento River, the little topminnows would 
prove more efficient cneniieR of the malaria mos(|uitoes than the stickle- 
l>HckM. The California Fish and Game Commission is working with 
that idea in view. 

The control of mosquitoes is quite possible, in part by the use of the 
stickleback, as advocated in this article, and in part by other methods, 
such as the draining of swamps, etc. It is to be hoped that the proper 
authorities in California will increase their energy in this field, for 
the effective control of mosquitoes within its borders would make 
California an even safer and more pleasant place in which to live than 
i1 is now. 

EABLT STAGES OF THE SPINY LOBSTER TAKEN BY THE 
BOAT "ALBACOBE.'-t^ 

By WALDO L. SCHMITT, United Statei National Muteum. 

The invcsttgjftidii'^ of the Fish and Gainc ConimiNsioii l)oat, the 
"Albacore." have n-cently yielded some valuable returns, during her 
scientific investigations of the commercial fishes and fisheries of southern 
("alifornia. in the shape {)f hilherfo unknown larval stages of the Cali- 
forniH s])iny lobster {Paiuilinm iiiifrrifpttm). 

Cndcr the auspices of the Unitwl States Bureau of Fisheries and 
through the courtesy of the Scripps Institution the writer recently 
spent some months in Catifoniia x>riniarily for the |»urposc of making 
a study of the Scripps Institution's extensive series of plankton samples 
in the hopes of shedding .some light on the life history of the spiny 
lobster. Though in considerable number, only the earlier larval stages 
were represented in their collections. t 

•Mr. Waldu L. Schmltt of the United SUtts Ntkllonal Miisfimn, Iihs made a 
siH-.'l.il Btuijy of marine rruataeeii. and (iie opportunity to provide liim with material 
^•r tiie study of the early stBgea of the aplny l.ibster was a very weli:ome one to the 
PlHh utid Game CommlBHlon. His visit lo this coast rame at a time when the 
H'lenltflo work of the "Albacore" waa but fnirly nnder way, and the fact that It 
Wttt. ahlp to provide him with material which seema to be of very oonalderable value 
should be of happy portent for the future. The superintendence of the haula and of 
tlif linndliPB of the nets was very competently done by Mr. Elmer HIeglna, attached 
lo the Alliacore" as a aclentlflo assistant during her work on larval nah. 

11 will be well lo call attention to the slgnlfltance of the wide distribution of the 
larval lobsters. Those Bat, transparent organisms are founrl floallnK freely In the 
water, and ate dlstrlbulea by the currents. Although we do not know, ol course, 
what proport!-)n of the larvie are carried along the coast by the currents, nor what 
nuinbers of them Anally HUci'ecd In obtaining a suitable footing on the completion 
of their development, yet it should he fairly clear that there Is an interdependence 
iM-twcen wlcii-ly si-pnrated rcftions Inhabited by the spiny lobster.^ Will F. Thompton. 

tStibsequent to the t.iklng of the largo phyllosomes referred to below, one of like 
size WHJ" founil In the Scrlppa Institution collections. It is interesting to note In this 
comiertlon that In one of ihi Ir }t,tge aiiviarium tanka they succeeded in hatcblns- 
put the tirst phylluBOmc M.^r Hits jiaBt auinnitr from the i-ggs carried by a single 
l>crricil female. 



f,\LIf"OKNIA FISH AND OAMB. 2l> 

But on August 29, li)lS, wliile the writer was aboard the "Albacoie," 
four phyllosoiiies of large size, the largest ever taken off California, were 
secured with the vessel's small otter-trawl. These specimens average 
about an inch in length, of body proper, and were obtained about 16 
miles west of the Cororiados Islands in 75 fathoms of water. One of 
these specimens is shown in the accompanying figure (fig. 14). 

Including the above-mentioned specimens, the "Albacore" had taken, 
up to the time of the writer'H return from California, some fourteen 
lots of large and intermediate sized phyllosomes, and another rare stage 



known as tJie puenilus. Some of these lots contained nuruei-ous indi- 
viduals. The puerulus is the stage intermediate between the pyhllo- 
somc, the form in which the "lobster" is hatched from the egg, and the 
definitive form of the adult. These collections were well distributed 
through the southeni California waters ranging as far as 150 miles off 
shore and to a ma\itiiuiii depth of 75 fathoms. This is a rather sur- 
prising range for sueh a well known littoral form. 

So far as a preliminary examination of the material taken by the 
"Albacore" together with that obtained from the Scripps Institution 
goes, it appears that the early life history of the California spiny lobster 
is in a fair way of solution. A full report of the results of the summer's 
work is in prepiiratton. 

Joot^lc 



26 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAME. 

THE COYOTE AS A DEER KILUR. 

By E. V. JOTTEH. 

Although we have loug kuown tho cuyote as h predatory animal it has 
only bet-ii recently that we have obtained evidence of its destructive ness 
to big game. Heretofore known as a destroyer of ((iiail, grouse and 
doiiiestie stock sneh as piga. sheep and poultry, the coyote must now be 
olaHsifled along with the mountain lion as a deer slayer. 

In that many persons have been slow to believe that the coyote is a 
factor in our deer supply wc have attempted to gather some evidence 
lending to prove that this animal is responsible for a considerable loss 
each year in Trinity County. This evidence is presented herewith. 



Fig. IS. Miilf covotc lakcii ill trap Januaiv 31. 1118, 14 miles wntli of Douglas. 
Trmity CouiHy, CaLifornia. by C. O. Fisher. The sloniach conlaiiifcl deer hair 
ntul iTifat. Pliolograph by C. O. Fisber, 

IJert HigRins. who runs a trap line within the Trinity Game Refuge, 
reports finding along this one line during one month, the remains of 
fifteen deer killed by coyotes. Ranger Bucklew in April, 1916, saw a 
full grown doe, apparently in good condition, pulled down by one 
coyote. 

Mr. \Vm. Friend writes as follows concerning his experience with 
coyotes in the Game Refuge : 

"In regard to the dper I found killi/d by coyotes in the Game Refuge, will say 
1 commenced trappiug betwecD Little Creek and Bear Creek on February 1, 1016, 
and between Ibat date and Marcb 2, 1916, I found the remains of seveDteeu deer 
killed by coyotes. 

They were all sizes from lanic bucks to fawns, but mostly small deer. The bdow 
wns About two feet deep and the deer bad collected near the river and in gnlcbm. 
After the snow settled the coyotes could run on top, but the deer broke IbrouBh, sii 
it was an easy maUT for the coyote to catch them. In one uri'lch I came down I 
found eight deer lliat had been hilled at different times — one nf thrri liiid been killed 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND OAUE. 27 

reoently and uone of them were over ten days. Id many other slielletvii pluci* I 
found remains. In one instance about Feb. 1, T. H. Campbell and I were riding 
along the road near Pbiltp Habor'a place and saw where coyotes bad Ju«t killed a 
spike buck and were enioying a feast when we frlgbteoed them away. 1 also have 
a large pair of antlers I brought home from one of their Tictims. It is not only 
when the snow is on, but in the spring when the deer are weak, and poor, that they 
destroy a great many. I was cjoming home from my traps after the snow hiiil gone 
und not half a mile from the Van Matre place I saw two coyotes that had a large 
buck run down and wonid have killed him if I had not happened along at (bat time. 
The deer was not able to get up the bank then."' 

Ranger Gray's rt-port on the eojote is given in full: 
"I would like to emphasize the necessity for a stale-wide camjiaiKu against the 
coyote and other predatory animals, in which all the people oC the state are to a 
certain extent interested and would help to bear the eipenses of such work. It goes 
without question that a great public benefit would be derived in ridding the country 
of coyotes, cither by increased bounties or by other means that would encourage more 
trapping. It seems that an increased bounty would he the most effective means of 
encouraging trapping, and in obtaining the desired result. I have conversed with 
a great many stockmen and. local people during the season with a view to getting 
actual cases where the coyote has been observed killing game or slock. The result 
is, few people have been found that have actually seen the coyote killing either wild 
game or domestic stock ; however, they know beyond any question of a doubt that lie 
is responsible for certain large losses in both cases. There is one good reason among 
others why he is not more often deteeted in the actual work of killlug, for bis wan- 
dering and sear<'h for food is generally done in the hours of the night. In his wild 
nature he very carefully shuns roan, usually selecting the most secluded places in 
which to carry out his desli-uctive work. Karl Moore, T. Floumoy aud other men 
will) have liiTii liuudtiiig sheep for nmny years in these momitains itdvisc me Ibut 
ilii'.v uever saw a coyote ucluully kill a Hheep. However, they stiitc (hat Ihey have 
seen them driving and worryiug the ahceji aud u|iou following the trail Ihey invari- 
ably found dead sheep scattered along Ihe route, llie greatest Iokm's among this 
I'lavs of stock from the source mentioned is to small bunches separated on the range 
from the main bands, and left on the range during the night unprotecled. W. II. 
Atkeson of Hoaglin advises me that he saw a coyote kill two small pit;s near his 
ranch honse. Many others disappeared In only a few days in the same locality. 

l<'rfd Becker, who resides on Pilot Creek, states that he saw four or five coyotes 
chasing a small deer. lie did not know whether the deer was killed. Ben, B. Ilifl 
of tills place lolls me that during the past winter a blood trail was noted crossing 
the mad nenr his ranch house. The tracks of a deer were impressed in the snow 
together with small tracks that resembled those of small dogs. The (rail was 
followed and Mr. Iliff asserts that in n short distance he found the carcass of a large 
deet and upon his approach Ino coyotes scampered away. C. W. ^'niiu of this place 
cites an iustance where he saw a coyote catch and kill a quail. Mr. Vann states 
that while hunting he approached a clump of low brush (poisoo oak) and flushed a 
bunch of quail. The quail in leaving the brush were quite close (o the ground and 
he very clearly saw a coyote jump and take one o( the birds as it passed very near 
him. I have found only a few other cases similar to these already mentioned." 

Mr. W. T. Shock of Hayfork writes this letter : 

"In reading over the weekly Trinity Journal I noticed the letter from W. O. 
Friend in regard to coyotes and as the Forest requests any good evidence against 
royoles I submit the following : As 1 have trapped and hunted the coyote all my 
life. I will write a little of my experience. I find that the coyote is very destnirlive 
to many kinds of game of this county, not only deer, but all kinds of bird)'. kucIi 
as grouse and quail, the nests of which it robs. A coyote can catch plenty of deer 
when there is no snow, but it destroys more when the snow is deep. Many doer that 
nre found along Ihe rivers are killed in this way. When Ihe heavy snow comes, the 
deer gather along the rivers and low ground, as the snow is Icbr there. When 
coyotes get hungry they take after a deer, and if they catch it before it gels to the 
river they kill it. but if the deer makes into the water. Itic coyote goes after another 
one. The coyote will not go into the waller, but the deer Ihat run into tli 



■^'Ic 



28 CAI.IFOUNIA FISH AND GAME. 

SO hot nnd weuk that th«y fre«ze to death before vFnIuring out again. 1 have se^D 
coyotes aft^r deer, and running Iho royotex awaj, I have tried to make tbe deer get 
out of tbe water ami could not uDtil I lielped tbem out almost dead, and some bave 
(tied n-liile I nag taking tbem out of tlio natcr. 1 trajiped on tbe Ba;forb Creek 
above llic (ianio Rpfuge and near Mr. Dockery's place on Carr Greek last winter 
and n numlHT of d<>cr were Ralliered at Mr. IJockery's iowpr barn eating hay with his 
pnttie. Between the first day of January and Ibe twenty-seventh of February I 
found the remains of twenty deer, either killed by coyotes or run into t)te creek and 
killed, and I caught eleven coyolt^.'' 

Mr. Edward Shock, wlio livts within the Hayfork towoship 
and within a few miles of the town of Hayfork, upon his 
(iwii rancli property, called at our offiee and made t'omc state- 
tneutJi concerning tho daiiia)^' done by the coyote, for which 
he jjerKonally vouches. He states that last summer, he dot's 
not remember the exact date, wliile he was working in his garden 
lie heard a noise on the side hill adjoining the garden plot, and 
upon glancing up, s&v a fawn coming down the hill and it ran into bis 
wire fence three or four times before it managed to get through. 
('loBely pursuing the I'awn were two coyotes. .Shortly after they got in 
sight they saw Mr, Shock, stopped, then turned and went back into the 
hushes. The fawn came into the field and ()uite close to Mr. Shock, 
then saw hiiu, became frightened, turnetl and went back through the 
fence and up the hill in alwut the .same direction the coyotes had taken. 
The coyotes no doubt later caught the fawn, since they would merely 
hide away in the bushes for a little while when interrupted in a pursuit 
of this kind, then take the track and follow on. 

Another instance of Mr. Shock's olwervation was dnring thin fall 
while setting a coyote trap. He set his rifle down a few feet from him 
nnd in finding a place to drive the stakes to hold the trap he had moved 
a few feet away from the rifle. Wiiile busily engaged he heard a noise 
Hnd looking around saw a young deer without horns, presumably a doc. 
come running along closely followed hy two coyotes, one of which caught 
the deer while yet in sight of him. Mr. Shock quickly went for his rifle, 
Imt when he got it the coyotes had taken alarm and had left the deer. 
Its tongue was hanging out and it seemed to be .iust about run down, 
but it of course went on out of sight. Mr. Shock is firm in his belief, 
based on his experience, that in such instances the coyotes were merely 
internipted and would take the trail again and no doubt catch the 
deer. 

He trapped nine coyotcn within two weeks around his place and stales 
that in opening up some of them to see what the contents of the stomachs 
were lie found that they were largely composed of venison, there being 
(videnee in meat, bones and hair. He also states that the coyotes he has 
caught were all very fat. Mr. Shock says that the reason for his trap- 
ping activity was on account of the coyotes catching the chickens. He 
has found it impossible to raise pigs unless they are well penned. Mr. 
Shock is a far better trapper than the average settler and has some 
methods of trapping that seem to get better results than the ordinary 
trapper. He says, however, that tiie coyote is a very difficult animal to 
trap and that he has found that he gets him more through his curiosity 
than any actual desire for food. Mr. Shock's experiences concerning 
the coyote are not at all unusual and could be duplicated hy a great 
many of the settlers throughout the Trinity Forest. 



Tlieae are apeeific, Jiutlieuticated t'a(-ts, which eould bo repeated by 
every man who has liis eyes open. It really is not surpriaiiig that the 
attitude of mind expresaed by the following exists. "Why shouldn't I 
have a deer," the settler says, "which will be eaten anyway by the 
coyotes; especially when 1 have killed one or more coyotes myself." 
Or, as the trapper would say, "Why can't I get a deer, or three or four, 
during a year? Even if I kill only ono panther or trap onij' six coyotes. 
I have done more to protect and to increase the deer than any other 
person or oi^anization has done. ' ' 

Two important factors in the reduction of a game species are preda- 
tory animals and the hunter. We attempt to compensate for loss by 
the second factor by closing the season for a period of years to allow 
recuperation. Why could not similar results be obtained by reducing 
the toll taken by predatory animals* Although it is true that a cer- 
tain balance is established between a species of game and its enemies 
when left to nature alone, it has been frequently demonstrated that man 
can alter sucli a balance very much to the advantage of the species that 
has been preyed upon. 

Residents of Trinity County are ngroed that by far the mast pressing 
need in efficient game protection lies in the control of predatory animals. 
The lilwra] Iwunty on the monntain lion has eliminated this animnl as 
a serious menace, but the coyote still remains abundant enough to be 
an important factor in conservation. An increase in deer, quail and 
grouse can best be eflEeeted by a vigoi-ous campaign against the coyote 
and other predatory animals preying upon them. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



A publication devoUd to tb* 

tlon of wild Ula Md puMUbad 

b7 ths Calltornln State Fliti uid Oamt 
CommlBlon, 

8«nt fre« to dtlnna of the Stat* of Cali- 
fornia. Ottered In exehani* for omltbo- 
loKlcal, mammalosicikl and elmllaT p«Tlod- 



iKD Q^UB are not eopyrlsbted and may be 
reproduced In otber perlodlcala, provided 
due credit la glTon tbs CaUfomla TIah and 



Qame Commlailon. Bdltora of newapapera 
and periodical! are Invited to make uie " 
pertinent material. 

All material for publication ahould be 
aant to H. C. Bryant, Muaeum of VortO' 
brate Zoology, Barkeley, Cal. 

February 3, 1B1B. 



THE ISie-1918 BIENNIAL. 

AlthougL due lo wiir economy tlic 1910- 
18 biennial reiKirt of Hip Board of Pish 
and Game Commissioners is not sa large 
or so attractively colored as the last re- 
port, it, aevertheless, contains some inter- 
esting facts regardini; the activities, 
receipts, and disbursements of the com- 
mission during the past biennial period. 

Outstanding features of the work of 
the past two years have been the erec- 
tion of a splendid new fish hatchery in 
Inyo Counly. tbe building of a new patrol 
boat to be used In enforcing the laws in 
80iitbern ITalifornia water* and in tbe 
carrying on of fishery im-estigations, the 
enlargement of tbe activities of the com- 
mercial fishery department, including the 
ndminjHtral inn of the kelp industry, an 
extensive educational and publicity cam- 
paign and the splendid results obtained 
in enforcing fish and game laws. 

New laws enacted by the 1917 legisla- 
ture have proved valuable. Hie Supreme 
Court decisions sustaining tbe state law 
prohibiting parcel post shipments of 
game has effectively stopped a much-used 
method of evading fish and game laws. 
The spiked-buck law continues lo contrib' 
iitc much toward the conservation of deer, 
and at the same time bos reduced the 
number of bunting accidenta. Seventeen 
new game refuges created in 1917, com- 
l>rising a total of S39,1S0 acres, have 



■ill AND 0.\ME. 

Ik-vu ucll ri'i'civi'il hy th>' ],ublir and are 
serving iiK Kafc breeding places for gnnn-. 

Tile iiulput or Ihe lixii bnk-hi-ries has 
been very gnitifyiue. I'eaching a total of 
■J5.(»7,42a in 1917 and »i;,4^,89S in 1916. 
A 10 per cent increase in the number of 
trout fry reared has been attained. 

Scientific invcsii^'alions of tbe flsheriea 
have been undertaken and already thIu- 
ahle light on the habits and life history 
of the albacore have been obtained. The 
educational and publicity work of the 
coramiaaion is being well received by tbe 

The priucipal recommendation for new 
I<-gislation has reference to discretionary 
powers, i^uch legislation enabling the 
com mi Kb ion to close seasons, reduce bag 
limits, prohibit certain kinds of fishing 
apparatus, and in general take such im- 
mediate steps as will in their opinion 
afford prompt and efTeetive relief and 
save from dcHtniction by human band 
tlist pari of the wild life uhicb has snr- 
vivwl Ihe adversity of nalurc, is pointed 
out as llie greatest need. 

Only a small edition of tbe biennial 
has been printed and it will be available 
only to those sufficiently intereated to 
write In the commission for it. 



The most imimrtant piece of fish and 
game legislation which the legislature will 
bo called upon to enact this spring will 
I>ertain lo tbe granting of plenary powers 
to the Fish and Game Commisaion. The 
need for Ibis legislation has already been 
pointed out in these iwges. The commis- 
sion is not seeking more |M>«er, but simply 
n chance (o make regulations which will 
allow belter administration of the state's 
wild life resources. It should be clearly 
understood that regulations con not be 
euforeed at will by the commission, but 
only after a bearing has been held and 
the regulations signed by tbe governor. 
The proper admin islratiou of the Migra- 
tory Bird Treaty Act is dependent upon 
reeiilations issued by the Department of 
.Agriculture iiiiiler authority granted it 
by Congress. To make tbe administra- 
tion of state laws efficient, similar powers 
ahould l>e granled the commiasioD man- 
aging the fish and game resources. 



jOOi^Ic 



CALIFOKMA P'lSn . 



CALIFORNIA LAWS WILL BE MODI- 
FIED TO AGREE WITH FEDERAL 
GAME LAWS. 

CaliCuruiu v.nx uiie of the lint atalos 
to make tbe kodip lan-s conform with tboae 
enacted by the federal govern men t and 
Ihp sitnle lias iierBlfitPnlly upheli^ the Fed- 
eral Mifiratorf Bird Law. It ia to be 
eipei'liHl. therefore, that at the ncit logis- 
lature the few lawn whieh do not couform 
n-ith the new Mixratory Bird I'reaty Act 
wili be modified. The state law still 
allows hunting one hour l>efore aunrise 
and one hour after auDBet, To agree 
with ttie federal taw this section of the 



is ruuison ko tlinl this iile.i an n rule I'' 
of little arail. 

The same »ort of defuuac lias Iweii 
oflfered by a violator recently arrested in 
Tiilnrc f'oiiiit.v for having in possewinn 
the sliin of a moitnlain sheep. This de- 
fendant at firxt maintained that the sheeii 
was not a true wild aheep aud later 
claimed that he kille<l the animal in self- 
defense. It will be an easy matter to 
prove at the trial that the Kkin held iti 
IwsacsBion was that of a wild monulaiti 
shoei) and the violalor will midonhtcdly 
l>e henvily rine<l. 



ciidi- will have lo he modiiieil so as to 
lirohlbit Jill bunting exei-i/t l>et«ecn Bun- 
riKc and Hiinset of each calcudar day. 
The limit law un geese will have to be 
I'liaiiged and the dove seoKon made to be- 
gin on Seiileni1>er 1. In the few cases 
where the Cnlifoniia laws are more 
Ktringem tliiin Ihnse nf the federal govern- 
ment no iliunge will l>e made. 

VIOLATORS MAKE QUEER DEFENSE, 

.Vfter some ehronle violator of the game 
InwR huH been oiiii re bended and a quantity 
of dried venison coutiscaled the usual plea 
is that the crmfisealeil ment is bear meal 
or goat niwU. Th" lioncs enii bo identi- 



riveil ill cictllrnl cMii.liiioii. 

MONTEREY STREAMS STOCKED. 
Through tbe eflForls of Seiiadir F. S. 
Rigdon. Salmon Creek in southern Mim- 
terey (^iimty han been snciresstully 
stocked with trout. Althongh this stream 
JH by nature o splendid trout stream, a 
Int^e waterfall one mite from the moutli 
[it Ihe creek has made the upper reaches 
of Lhe stream barren of fish life. It wa.s 
itU dimcult}' that 18,000 rainbow and 
steelhead trout recently planted in Ihe 
am were trnnsiwrted from tbe rail- 
road. A tifly-mile haul with auto trucks 
from San T.nis Obispo lo Sanco Pojo 
■k and then n ten-mile transport by 
ebnek ivns necessary. The trip was 



., Cockle 



iic-i'iiiii|)lisliiil. Iiuivfvvr, witLout uiiy 
tiruc-iablo Iosh iu thu KkIi. (Jiii; variety of 
trout n'ua plac-ed in uDu brancli <il tlic 
creek aod another in tiie other braucb, 
nboiit ten miles In all being stocked. 
From nil i-ci^rts lb« fish nro doing well. 

DUCK DISEASE AGAIN APPEARS. 
Uiiriue October, duck disease appeared 
iu the Alarysville Butte section of the 
Sacramento Valley. Ilitberto, the disewe 
has been ri'stricted to the vicinity ot 
ulknline lakes in the southern part of the 
S!an Joaquin Valley. Many hunters 
hunting near Colusa and Maxwell on the 
oiieninjc day of the season threw away 
their ducks after they had discovered 
mnny sick and dying birds about some 
of liie iionils. The fivt that an fpiilemic 
of Diillimx ha<1 been prevalent in the 
nniiu' vicinity \n\ many i>ersona to believe 
Hint the ducks bad coutracled the same 
dl>«-tiHt>. This, however, seciiis very un- 
likely In tliat all binis under artilicial 
■ conditions are largely immune to the dis- 
ease. and it is uot to be expected that 
hirdx of any kind would contract the dis- 
ease uuder natural conditions. Sick birds 
secured showed every symptom of "duck 
sickness," a disease which is bow well 
known through the investigations of the 
tjniled States Biological Survey. Mr. 
Alexander Wetmore, assistant biologist, 
dpscribes the symptoms as follows (The 
l>iick Sickness in Utah. U. S. Oept. 
Agric. Hull.. 672) : 1. Paralysis of nerve 
centers controlling the muscular system 
t birds alTccteil are able to support them' 
selves in the air for abort distuuccs only 
or have the wings entirulj helpless) ; 2, 
respiration is difficult and siiasmodic; 3. 
pulse aboormnl wlii^n bird is excited and 
in severe cases is weak and irregular; 
4, nictitating membrane of eye reacts 
niowly (a test of the activity of this 
membrane is an important symplom) ; 5. 
eyes usually swollen and a discharge Is 
noticeable; fl, alimentary tract practically 
empty, inlestincM shrimkeu, firm and 
much reddened ; 7. excreta loose and 
watery, more or less greenish and voided 
at frequent Intervals : 8. birds appear 
drowsy and lethargic though alert at the 
approach of danger. 

By November 1 the ejiiileuiic bad sub- 
sided and no more sick ducks were to lie 



Nceu. The number of birds wUicli fell 
victims to the disuRsc i» .'xliiiuite^l Qt 

r..(MW. 

FEDERAL PERMITS. 
The Migratory Bird Treaty Act pro- 
vides for the isaiiancc of scicntllic collec- 
tors' permits to all those interestixt in 
collecting either speciiuens or cggH. and 
also to breeders who desire to breed 
niigratory or insectivorous birds. Permits 
to collect specimens are issued to properly 
accredited persons only and are required 
in addition to those issued under Btat« 
laws. Applications for federal permits 
can be obtained when applying for a new 
Male perniil. 

FISH COOKERY DEMONSTRATIONS. 
For the pur[<oac of stimiilaling tbc 
iLliiiitalion of lish produclH. the I'nitol 
Stuli-s Bureau of Fisheries has been con- 
ducliug a series of d<-uioiiHt rat inns in tisb 
i-iiokery. l)cmoiislrulioDH have been lield 
in Snu Francisco. Oakland, Berkeley, and 
Alameda, about 40 In all, with an average 
attendance of more than 100 women at 
each class. Mrs. Evelene Spencer and 
Mr. H. L. Kelly have been In charge. 
These demonstrations are made of prac- 
Ii<'a1 value by securing the little-OBed and 
low-|irice<l fishen, preparing aud cooking 
them In front of the claaa, explaining 
every detail, and then serving eacb one 
present with a portion to taste. Even 
minute details of the proper way to skin 
a fisli, remove tiie backbone, and slice it 
arc shown. With the class watching, it 
is prepiinM] for the oveu, cooked and 

Mrs. Spencer recommends the discard- 
ing of the frying pan, in favor of the 
hot oven method of cooking. Advantages 
are found in the eliminatiou of unpleasant 
odors, the use of less than half the amount 
of fat usually required, and greater ease 
for Imth the cook an<l the one who has 
the serving of the fiBb. Tliia is the 
method slic uses Iu doing the work her- 
self, aud alt who eat the cooked Gsb agree 
that it far excels iu flavor the same kind 
of fish fried in llie old'fashioned way. 

The making of salads, both from 

freshly steamed fish, or from left-over fish 

\|ilained as is also the making of 

les, creamed dishes and Imitation 



Gi)o^„ 



CAI.IFOKMA VKH AMI t 



UIK. 



:f:( 



choiR>. Soiijw, tthicli for Qavor are 
etinal of nny which enn tie made from 
meats or oy8t«re. itre made from the heada 
and trimminKB unlinarily considered 
being only fit for tbe eai'buB'' can. 

Thirty-four vBripties of fish, not 
<:litdlDS salmon nnd tialiliul. have been 
iised in the dcmonHtrntinns. Thus, it has 
been xhawu that ii hoiiaenifi' cnii cook 
fish an; dny in the luunth. if she nii 
nnd not have the name kind twiec. Of 
these, the most popular were small sole, 
skate. BHblefish. moekerel, kinetisti. yellow- 
tail, Hhark, abad, rock cod and ealmon mil I a. 
The |>rjr« of these fish ranges from 5 to II 
renin per pound, and many liundredK of 
women were surt'rispd to find a number of 
them they preferred lo even salmon 
halibut, which cost from 2.5 to 40 ce 
l>er pound. 

Needlexs to sny, itiese demonstrations 
have proved very iioptilar with house' 
wires, and have added materially in in- 
irenHiiiK the demand for Hounder, shark, 
skate, squid, sablefiHli and other low-priced 
iii-hery products of the California markets. 

INCREASED CONSUMPTION OF FISH 
NECESSARY. 
Increasing the consumption of fish is 
far more urgent today than during war 
times. There is now do submarine men- 
nee; tliere are more ships and there are 
200,00(>,DOO people who must be fed if 
they are to bo saved from starvation. 
Kvery ton of noniierishnble guilds possible 
nuiKi Ih^ sent to Kiir»pc. 'n.e nsc of 
frpHli lisb w.'icasi's casil.v-sliipiK'd meat 
prudiicis for ex|>orlHtii>ii. 

There is nlisolulely no limit lo Ibc 
nniDunt of fish which is now wailiug in 
the ocean, nnd more ore growing to sup- 
ply onr needs. The people of California 
have responded to every call made on them 
thus far, and we urge that (hey con- 
rinuc to show their patriotism and tiu- 
mantlarianism, by a still greater use of 
fresh fish. 

NOTES ON THE NEW GAME REFUGES. 

The following notes relative to the 
recently-formed game refuges have been 
called from forest officers' reports for 
IfllT. Apparently, tlie new refuges are 
niling tlie place for wliicli tliev were set 



.\\] refuges in Culitorniu are created 
under the districliiig net nnd so must be 
designated as a "fisb and game district." 
Each refuge is lettered with the number 
of the main game districts of the state 
in which the refuge is situated prefixed 

I''ish and Uauie District l-.V, located in 
the Klamatb National Forest, is admira' 
hly situated for the purpose for which 
it was withdrawn, being a natural breed- 
ing ground. It covers an area of nliout 
one tonnsbip and varies in elevation /rora 
about 1,700 feet at the Klamath Kiver 
to about 7,000 feet at the highest point, 
thus giving bolli winter and summer feed- 
ing ground. The general exposure of the 
entire area is southwestern, which makes 
it the very best from a climatic stand- 
point. There is also one of the largest 
salt licks known near the center of this 
refuge. 

\Vlieii rlie ri'fuBc ivss first created there 
was miicTi opposition to it, but lately the 
sentiment has been more favorable. 

Fish and tiame Districts 1-B and 1-C 
in Modoc County are ideal breeding places 
for game and there is al>BOlutcly no doubt 
ns to the wisdom of the move in having 
these areas set aside. The iieopic, as a 
whutc. arc strongly in fuvor of them. 

Fish nnd Game Districts l-I and 1-,1, 
in I he Tahoe and El Dorado Nationiil 
ForeslK. have not been in existence Ion,; 
enough to note any change in game i-ou- 
ditious. While the people most affected 
accept the establishment of the districts 
as a. matter of law. some criticism is 
voiced relative to the location. AVhy was 
it not located "somewtiere else" is the 
usual comment. This attitude will grad- 
ually disappear after a time if the dis- 
tricts receive proper administration. 

The iieople all seem to think that the 
C'himney Meadow Kefuge (B^sh and 
tiame Dixlrict l-T.) will bii of great value 
(o llie deer IIS It Is thi> wintering grounds 
fur all the deer in the Cannell Meadow 
I>istricl. tlios. Smith and jobn Johmtun 
clnim that lhc>y counted Tfi ilecr in one 
band last spriug in I»iig Valley, whicli 
is a part of this new r>-fiige. There are 
a great number of hunters from IiOn 
Angeles and the Mojnve Desert that hunt 
in this proposed refuge, and it will require 
a regular paid game warden in that vicin- 
ity to property administer the refuge. 

Fish and Uame District 2-A covers n 
fine piece of deer coimtry. having both 
summer and winter range. The estab- 
lishment of the refuge was very well 
received by the public, and it is belicvetl 
that very little hunting has l>een done 
within its boundaries. Considerable com- 
plaint was made by hunters and others, 
because the boundaries of the refuge were 
not posted. This shoul<l surely be done 
before the 0|H>nine «f Ilic next hunting 






fnvoi 



r Fish a 



I -tj-H, einjn)fi;i^oiy |(^ 



l|iir).OIM) ui-n-M witLiu the AligeW Nfltiuual 
Fiiri-Ht. I>t!cr are bM'omliiK more aud 
mure pleutjtul. If nayooH is bvnelite^I by 



□ of a 



8 tlie r 



. , and j'i?t with the poBsiblc fxcei>- 
tion o( onp uwner. a mao who has been 
ill rourt Bovcral tlmra for allpf!«l gamp 
violations, I liave yet to finii n rmort 
owner whc) is not in favor of the continu- 
nncc ot the xanip rpEnKCK. 

When Fish snd Gami> District 4-C wan 
SfHt formed the sentiment nKaiost it was 
very strong. This has chanKed and one 
liiidH very few hunters who do not favor it. 
The^eer are increnxiDi; and one sees lliein 
In reEioDB wbere there have been no deer 
for aeveral yearo. With ttic increase 
of the deer a nolieeabie inercsse in 
a sinns are bIro »>en. Kev' 

iss of B. 

of iilans to rid the rantx of this pest. 
Our erentcst tronble. liowever, is not the 
ticm. but the unHrniiiulous liimter nlio 
HiieakH ovi>r tlic boundary of (be refuse, 

A NEW CAME FARMING PROJECT. 

A beautifully illustrated prospectus cu- 
lilk'd Wiiteonain ZoolOKlcai Park, for the 
l*ri>|HiKUtion, Improvement, nnd Utiliia- 
lioii of Wild Life has recently been issued 
by a newly-formed corporation with head- 
nuarters in Chicago. The intent of the 
ortianization Is set forth hb follows; 

Food, it is Raid, will win this war, 
.Vnd it thcrefure becomes the duty of 
nveryone to ftive careful consideration to 
all plana to increaHc our food suppl.v. 

lliB American farmers. resimndinB to 
I.Vir conniry's call, are plantine every 
available foot of their land, which meanK 
rhnt we have about reacliPil our maiimum 
in fo'id |/ro'(uclion nnlesN we can dei'l'i- 
Kouiu way of nlilir.inK the undeveloped re- 
Kioiis. Naturally, our thouKhtR turn to the 
uearby cut-over timlicr lands as a |n>a3lb]e 
Miluliou of thiN problem. Wi' nil uuiter- 
Ktand the diSicultiPK lliat liiive presenteii 
an nliiiOKi iDKuriuonnlnble Imrrier (o the 
developioent of tliesi' sections anil the 
nei-esKity. on account ot the scarcity of 
lalmr. of lindiuR some use for this land 
without havinjt to clear away stumps, 
rocks nnil limlier. 

The Wis.'..nsin ZooloEJcai I'ark was 
crcalert ehielly for (he purpose of dealine 
with tbis problem. It proimses that these 
lauds be used just as tbey are. in the 
breeding and raisiuK of wild life objects 
as sfiurte of suppl.v. 

This is n cimiparalively new idea, ami 
to lie understiioil bimI ar'tireciated muitt bi- 
carefully Rludi<'d, 'Hie purpose of this 
liiHiklet is l» explain srinie of the most 
iiHjiortant features of this enterprise. 

Tlli^l comiiany pn)p"ses to demonstrate 
in u prnciicHl iiinntier tiow cut-over hnul 
i-iin Is- ipiickly iiiul protiinbly utilizeil in 
luvonlane'' with iIk' iileiis niK.ve sr-( fnnb. 



responsible for it Iiave not been actuated 
by sellisb motives. They appreciate that 

talie cliances of loss, but are confident of 
ttieir ability 1o eventually work out a 
plan whii'li can Ire followed with profit 

To the uniuitialed tlic plan is a very 
plausible one, and it will doubtless apiwal 
to niany. In view, however, ot the success 
thus far attained in Ramc farming, the 
outcome of the project as a commercial 
enterprise seems doubtful. If it will lead 
to the setting aside ot large areas aa 
hreedlue grounds for native animals, it 
will lie very much worth while, 

LOUISIANA ORIGINATES NEW DUCK. 
The l>epnrtment of Conservation of 
the stale of Ijouisiana is attempting to 
seiiire n new duck for their marshes by 
breetling. The ext)erimeuts are be Id; 
cnrrieil out on tlie assumption that if a 
i-rriss l>ettveeii the summer mallard or 
black ducl< and (he winter visitant Kreen- 
hend mallard eouid be established a race 
of nonmiKratory ducks could be produced 
for the Iiouisiana marshes. The new 
type of mallard is in the third geueratim 
and a type has lieen Kelected which ap- 
penrs to have characteriittics of both the 
mallard and the black duck. Whether the 
new diii-k will become a |j;'rmanently resi- 
di'ut hinl capable of lii'iiiR introduced 



ALASKA FISHERY PRODUCTS. 

The Fisheries Service Uulletiu states 
that although final figures showing the 
value of tbe fishery products of Alaska 
in miT are not yet obtainable, the statis- 
tics are jiractically complete so that » 

tion can now bi' made. Compitations 
indieale Hint the total value ot such pro- 
du<'ts was $.'i].4a,'>.L>f)0 in 1!>]7. Of this 
nniouut !i:i i>er cent, or $47,778,081, rep- 
resents the value of llie siilmon products 
which i-ousisi of .'.!H7.::s»! cnsea of 
canned salmon, valtinl iil i4'i.^*i,090, and 
li!Jt-li.:tlt7 iHiuuils of milil-cun.l1, pickled. 
ilry.s;iliecl. fresh aurl fnizen salmon, 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAME. 



<>ri<-s rank sn^iid with au output oE pro- 
(Incts valueil at $1,120,226. In the order 
of ;>roduction, tbc kierriog fisheries come 
nfKt, with a yield of products valued at 
?707.72y, 'ITie value ot the cod products 
«-8H *T44,97C. Whaling operationa re- 
in rued products worth $653,8r>2. I'he 
1 1 reduction ot raiscellaneous fishery pro- 
ducts including clams and other shcllfiBh 
oKgregBted f340,396 Id value. 

This unprecedented yield oE fishery pro- 
ducts in Alaska at a time when the world 
is in need of food is called an achievement 
for which the country may justly feel 
gratified. 

Tlie fur products of Alaska are also 
of considerable importance and value, as 
evidenced by the fact that in the year 
from Novcmher 16, 1916, to November 
-15. 1&17, shipments from that territory 
reached an Hggregatc value of $1,031,638, 
exclusive of fur-seal skins and fox skins 
shipped by the government from the 
I'ribilof Islands. In the calendar year 
1917 the government shipped front the 
I'ribilof Islands fur-seal skins valued at 
;f;274,2»l and foi skins valued at $35,680. 
— Hfience, June 7. 1918. 

NOVA 8COTIA U8C8 WAR METHODS 
TO CAPTURE VIOLATORS, 
llic tact that most of the illegal fishing 
in Nova Scotia has been carried on by 
unuKs of men in the darkest hours of the 
ui^ht wheu it Is impossible to discover the 
offfnclcrs without some means of artiflcial 
illiuuinnlinn has prompted authorities to 
furnish wui'dens with "Trench Ijight" 
IiikIuIs. These lights which have been 
very effective by the allied armieB and 
uuvies are contained in metallic cartridges 
and are fired from a breach loading four- 
bore pistol which throws the magnesium 
stnrB to n distance of 400 or 500 feet. The 
lights burn for five or ten seconds and 
light up the whole neighborhood so that 
everything can be distinctly seen even on 
tlie darkest night. In addition to its 
i>fficacy in illuminating, it acts as a 
weapon of selC-defense which poachers will 
learn to fear as much as the revolver. 



The "Ircucli light" has been decided upon 
only aflcr exi>erime>itK with acclyliue 
searchlights, eleftric searchlighiK, and 
magnesium Itouian candlt's. 

CALIFORNIA TRAPPERS AND THEIR 
CATCH. 

For thr ojiun season 1917-lS, nearly 4000 
trapiierH' licenses were issued. As the 
trappers' license law provides for the kill- 
ing of fur-bearers destroying poultry and 
domPKitc animals, no record can he ob- 
tained of those BO killed and the reports 
ot trapi^rs of the take for the year do 
not give the total number of animala 
taken. However, (ho reports du give a 
basis for a compulation as to the value 
of the annual take of furs. According to 
the rc|iorlH of those holding lrapi>ers' 
licenses the take for last year was as 
follows ; 



S«.L« 


i 'V.'^,:' ■ 


Im™^ 




10 4S0 




'In; ni«rt?u 


901 ' 


2SG 
590 














H««oo" - - 


a,s«» 


I 87 


Riv.T ott-r ._ 












■OVOf! _ 


1,W1 i 


S«l 










OpoMura 












Molf .__ -. 3 — 



The wolverine is apparently a very rare 
furbearcr and not a siQgle skin of this 
animal was reported. It is also interest- 
iuB to note that such well-known fur- 
bearers as the marten and fisher are so 
reduced in numbers in this state that 
only a small number were taken in 1917- 
IH. The average price indicated was ob- 
tained by averaging the amount received 
for at least 100 different pelts ot a species. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



3C rAi.lKURMA PrjiH AM) GAWK. 

FACTS OF CUBBENT INTEREST. 

A recent report from the United States Supreme Court does not 
concern the present regulations regarding migratory birds, but relatM 
to tbe regulations in effect previous to ^e signing of the trea^ with 
Canada. The present regulations are based on a treaty and will be 
in efTect for fifteen years, unless abrogated by consent of both con- 
tracting parties. Because the present regulations are based on a 
treaty they can not be reviewed by any court. 
jt jt jt 
On information furnished by deputies of the Fish and Game dun- 
mission three violators of the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act have 
been arrested and each is bein^ held under a $260.00 bond. 
jt jt jt 
Steelhead trout fishing in tiie Bussian Biver will be excellent this 
year. The bar is open and there is plenl^ of water. 
jt ji jt 
February 1 will mark the close of one of tbe best quail seasons in 
many years. 

ji j( j> 
The elimination of market hunting by federal enactment has 
reduced to a minimum violations of the laws protecting waterfowl. 
jt jt jt 
The game refuges created by the last legislature have now been 
posted and hunters will have no excuse for hunting within tfaem. 
jt jt jt 
Flans are being made to secure some moving pictures of the commer- 
cial fisheries of southern California to be usmI in educational work, 
ji j> j« 
The State Came Farm at Hayward was discontinued on November 
16, 1918. 

jt ji ji 
Deputies of the Fish and Oame Commission in the areas where there 
is waterfowl shooting have been appointed federal wardens. Twenty- 
one deputies now hold federal commissions. 
j» Jt Jt 
Federal permits allowing a rice grower to herd ducks from his fields 
put a stop to agitation relative to depredations by ducks. No appre- 
ciable damage to rice when in the shock was reported. 
ji J) ji 
Tbe epidemic of duck disease in the vicinify of the Harysville Buttes 
was of short duration and less serious than similar epidemics which 
have occurred at Tulare Lake in past years. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



UALIt'UK-MA 



HATCHERY NOTES. 

W. H. SHEBLBr, Editor. 
FiSH DISTRIBUTION, 1918, 

While the Gsb distribotioD operatioDS 
for all of the hatcheries were completed 
Iiy the forepart of October, complete re- 
imrls have not, as yet, been filed, How- 
fvur. it is possible to give an approxima- 
I ion uf the total dlatribtition from the 
ilirTereiit slatioDS for the seosoD ot 1918. 



ITNEY HATCHERY. 

aaoD has been most fftvof' 



The past 
able for operations at the Mount 
Whitney Hatchery, and the trout distrib- 
uted were some of the finest fish ever 
reared at any of our hatcheries. Some 
ot the enatern brook and Loch Lcven tront 
distributed this year were from four to 



MT. SHASTA HATCHERY. 

The approximate total number ot fish 
distributed for the season was as follows : 
13,500,000 quiQuat salmon. 
2,600,000 rainbow trout 
1.100.000 eastern brook trout. 
1,600,000 Loch I,even trout. 
2,000,000 Bteelhead trout. 
230,000 black-spotted trout. 

Two lish distribution cars were operated 
during most of the distributing season. 
The fish were alt strong and healthy, and 
nearly all applicants reported that con- 
sifinmenta were received and planted in 
the streams in good condition. Meant 
Shasta Hatchery is now being put in 
readiness for the coming season's trout 
operations and for the salmon work. 



five inches in length, wbich ia a very re- 
markable growth for one summer. Fol- 
lowing is an approximation of the number 
of fish distributed: 

1,000,000 rainbow trout. 

83,000 eostem brook trout. 

70,000 I-oeh Leveu trout. 
240,000 ateelhead trout. 
240,000 black-spotted trout. 
400.000 golden trout. 

The golden trout eggs were obtained 
from the Cottonwood Lakes Station, 
which was established for the purpose. 
Owing to the remoteness of this station 
from rsilrosd lines and the rough, almost 
Inaccessible country through which the 
eggs had to be carried by pack animal to 
the Mount Whitney Hatchery, the extent 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



^H 



rAI.II'X)RNIA FISH . 



Ill our Dpi-ratiuu!' was UMt-tBarily limited. 
Iiiit we feei tliat Ibe rpsiills ubtaioeil hovp 
justified hII tlii: hnrd work aod elp«luie. 
Altiiuii];li Ni'vcriil ulforts liave been made 
in imst years to collect the eggs of tbe 
eoIdeD trout, tbie is the fimt attempt that 
lias bePD successful. The success o[ the 
operations tbis season is due to tbe skill 
and reso II n-e fulness of Mr. George Mc- 
Cloud. Jr., who was in personal charge 
of the gulden trout egg collecting opera- 
lions at Coltcinnood Lakes and of the 
>[ount Wliitney Hatchery, at which sta- 
tion llic eggs wore hatched and Ihe fry 
reared. The golden tront are very diffi- 
cult to rear, but the results obtained in 
this delicate work far eiceeded our eipec- 

PlaniB of golden trout were made in the 
Santa Ana River, San Bernardino County, 
and in Mammoth Creek and Convict l^lm. 
Mono County. A shipment of golden 
tTont was planted in Lake Taboe, and a 
consignment sent to Monnt Shasta Hatch- 
ery to be liberated in the McCloud River 
at a later date. Practically all of the 
waters of southern California and tbe 
lower San .roaquin Valley counties were 
stocked with fish from the Mount Whit- 
ney Hatchery this season. 

Fish Distribution Car No. 01 was de- 
tached from distribution operations at 
Mount Shasta Hatchery the forepart of 
September and sent to southern California. 
to undertake the shipping of fish from the 
.\fount Whitney Hatchery. The work 
was completed in a little over a mcmth. 
After the completion of the season's fish- 
cultural operations the crew was assigned 
to make the improvements on the Mount 
Whitney Hatchery grounds, and this wort 
is now progrpRsiug nicely. 

MT. TALLAC HATCMCnV. 
The Mount Tallae Hatchery was oper- 
ated (in in past seasons, black-spot ted 
trout le^H being taken from the fish 
iiscrnding Taylor Creek to spawn. In 
addition to the 1,200,000 eggs of this 
Hpei'ies hatched at the station for distribu- 
tion in the tributary streams of Lake 
Taboe in the vicinity of Mount Tallac, 
shipments of eggs were made to Tahoe 
Hatchery. Mount Shasta Hatchery and 
thn Feather River Kxperimental Station ; 
ir^.f>00 riiinhnw and :i.Sft,000 ste^lheftd 



mf of Lake Tnboe from 



.Moi 



I TalUc llnl 



I ■■•I ben 



shiol 



>- Ibis » 



vll > 



'111.- 

u the 



wnterK i>f I^ke Tiihoi', aud th-i addition 
of this valuable species of trout to the 

other varieties in the lake will be greatly 
appreciated by the anglers of tbe slate 
who enjoy the Bshing in this region. 

TAHOE HATCHEBY. 
I'rom Tahoe Hatchery were distributed 

l."i,(,1HI niinhow and 430,000 binck-spotteil 
Initit try in Ih^ streams and lakes in the 
Tahoe Ilanin and in the vicinity of 
Tnickis'. 



FORT 8EWAHD HATCHEBV. 

'Jlie streams of Humboldt and Trinity 
counties were stocked with rainbow and 
steel head trout fry to the number of 
200,000 and 1,000,000 respectively from 
Fort Seward Hatchery this season. Had 
River, tributaries of Humboldt Bay, and 
Eel Kiver and tributaries, received most 
of the teh. 

Quiunat salmon eggs received from 
egg collecting operations on Eel River 
neur Bryan's Rest last fall were hatched 
at F'ort Seward Hatchery, together with 
shipments of eggs of tbe same species 
from Mount Sbasta Hatchery, and tbe 
resulting fry to the number of 1,000,000 
were planted in Mad River, tributaries 
of Humboldt Bay and Eel River. As egg 
collecting operations near Brytu's Beat 
were not satisfactory, a new experimental 
station was established this fall on Bull 
Creek, a tributary of VM River, near 
Djerville. Owing to tbe fact that there 
was not enough rainfall to raise the river 
sufficiently to enable the spawning fiab 
to ascend the stream, no Quinnat salmon 
eggH were taken early in tbe season, but 
later rains during the month of November 
improved condition*:. 

DOMINGO SPRINGS STATION. 

Tlie Bcason's o|n' rut ions at Domingo 
Stirings Hatcher)' were very successful. 
In addition to the raintraw trout ^gs 
sent to other haU'berivs, ^17,000 were 
batclied and tbe fry planted in lake* and 
Kirenpis in I.assen and Placer conuties. 
A shipment of 100,000 steelhead eggs was 
si'ut lo Domingo Springs, and the result- 
ing fry planted In lakes in that vicinity. 



Lu)o-v- 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME, 



UKIAH HATCHERY. 
The streams of Mendocino and Sonomn 
i-iiunti<?K rewivH their usuel portions of 
iit<^ellieaii trout trj- froiu Ukinli Hutcli- 
ery tbls wason, 420,000 tish being plaoted 
in the two couDtie«. 

ALMANOR HATCHERY. 

Egg collecting operations at Almanor 

IJatchery resulted in a take ot less than 

200,000 rainbow eggs. The resulting fry 

were ilislributed in I.ake Almanor ami 



FEATHER RIVER HATCHERY. 
OperntionB at the experimental sta 
eslabliabed near Blairsden on the Western 
Faci&c Railroad were not successtul, ae 
the water supply from Qrey Eagle Creek 
did not prove to be satisfactory for fisb- 
ctiltural operations. Rainbow and black- 
spotted eggs were shipped to the station 
to be hatched and reared, but tbey died 
in great numbers both before and after 
hatching. The station has been disman- 
tled, and the equipment will be used at 
t>uc of the other HtetioDS. 

BEAR LAKE HATCHER 

Fish distribution operations ' 
ishcd (»i September 5, and the station 
closed after completlog the most 
ful Gcasoii since the hatchery was estab- 
jished. At the egg collecting station 
North Creek, 3,500,000 rainbow eggs w 
taken. After being "eyed," they were 
shipped to Mount Shasts. Mount Whit- 
ney, Tahoc, and Bear Lake Hatchery 
Green Spot Springs; 300,000 were a 
batclied at the North Cieek Station, and 
planted in Big Bear Lake. A total of 
1,075,000 rainbow trout try were dlstrib- 
nted in streams of San Bernardino 
County, and in Big Bear I^ke, from Bear 
Lake and North Creek stations. At the 

making regmirs and improvements at Ihe 
two stations. Negotiations are now under 



la.v for the purchase of a flne power boat 
or Uhu in ^g collecting operations, trans- 
erriug materials and supplies, etc., which 
vill gr<>iitly ftirilitute the work next 

BROOKOALE HATCHERY. 
Steelhead trout fry to the number of 
rOO.OOO were distributed in (he streams 
of Santa Criui and Santa Clara counties 
from Brookdale llatcliery this season, in 
lo shipments of stcelhead egg!: 
mnile to Mount Shasta and Mount Whit- 
ney hatcheries for distribution in oilier 
of the Stat.'. 
WAWONA HATCHERY. 
completion ot the new hatchery 
at Wawona enabled us to handle the fish 
ich better advootagc this year. 
Streams in the vicinity of Wawona re- 
ceived 75.000 rainbow and 195,000 steel- 
hen d trout fry. 

CLEAR CREEK HATCHERY. 

A small hatchery has just been com- 
pleted on Clear Creek, Lassen County, 
near Wcstwood. Eggs will be shipped to 
this station from Almanor and Domingo 
Springs hatcheries next season, and the 
fry hatched for distribution in the streams 
in the vicinity ot Weslwood. 

KLAMATH RIVER STATION. 
The new Klsmath River Hatchery, 

which is being constructed by the Cali- 
fornia-Oregon Power Company, and which 
will be turned over to the California Fish 
anil tiame Commission when completed, 
iu lieu of the construction of a fish ladder 
over the Ciipco Uam, is well under way. 
As it was not possible lo complete this 
lialchery in time to trap this year's run 
of Quiunat salmon, u temporary station 
was established at Klamathon. Owing to 
(be failure of the main run of salmon (o 
reach the t>otnt at which the racks are 
located, on account of the long dry fall, 
Ibr' take is therefore mui-h bcliiw normal. 



OOMSIERGIAL FISHERY NOTES. 



N. If. Scon 
TIDE CONDtTIONS INJURE 
FISHERIES. 
The unusual conditions of water tem- 
perature and currents along the Cali- 
fornia coaiti during the pant summer 
were largely rmimnsibte for a greatly 



1.11, KilJtor. 

reduced cak-h of albacoro 'in southern 
C«lifornia and evidently coiisod the 
nppejirance of new and strange finiiea ns 
elNi'where nolnl Jn this magazine. They 
nisii affected the catch of sardines and 
salmon and seriously handicapped tMQ 



40 CAi.iHmNlA P] 

growth of kelp. Fur ntarly live nioDtlie 
Hflrdiucs were not found in auffitieiit num- 
bers in southern Calitornin to keep the 
cannerieB busy. 

Kelp. ITie kelp on tlie surface of the 
water ceased to gi** ind the Eerious 
HhortnFic of this seaweeit which occurred 
msdu it vory difficult for the kel|i potash 
•'on>|>ani<>s to secure enough to supply 
tlieir planlB. It ia feared that even the 
new shontH, which come up and take the 
place of llie long stipes on the surface 
of thr water after they have liceu cut, 
have been killed. The beat growing time 
of the ki'lp has usually been in the winter 
months. Just how the stunted Bummer 
growth will affect the growth during thi 
winter is as yet unknown. 

It is now quite certain that the cloe 
of tile war will have the effect of putting 
many of the California kelp potash < 
panies out oE businesn. Before the 
the price of potash was about ?Ki per 
ton, hut for the past year it has been 
lietwei'ii *2riO and $:150 per ton. If the 
price of iMtash decreases one-half, the 
majority of the companiea will hav 
cease oiierations. Already the demand for 
potash lo be used in the manufacture of 
munitions of war has ceased to exist. The 
immense plant of the Hercules Powder 
Company near San Diego has discontinued 
harvesting kelp and has issued noti( 
tis one thousand employees that shortly 
their services will not be required. Tbif 
uompany has done a great deal of investi 
KHtion work in developing important by 
products through the manufacture ol 
which they eipecteii to be able to con 
tiuue operations even after the close 01 
the war, but it has finally been decided 
that in view of the market prices that 
will have to l>e met shortly and the entirt 
lack at present of a market for certain 
of the by-products, it will be best tc 
reduce the operation*) of the plant to t 
very tiniall scale anil only two or Ihret 
hy-proilucta will he produced there witl 

Sahiiiin. The salmon catch at Mon- 
terey during the summer was only about 
liiilf Ihe usual amount, The Hsh almost 
entirely disappeared before the end of 
.May. The "catch for June, which 
u^<ually large, was a failure. Hut the fish 
which escaped the hooks of Ihe Rsherraen 
in Monterey Bay later madi: their appear- 
ance in San Francisco Bay and the Snc- 



> CAMK. 

ivcr on Ihclr way lo cast their 
panu in the river's headwaters. Tbeir 
ippearance in the river wbb much later 
than usual and at the time when the fish- 
and aalmon pai:ker» were impor- 
tuning the Fish and Game Commission 
and the Federal Food Administration to 
'Xlend the season the salmon put in their 
appearance in great numbers. For a 
period of two weeks the salmon kept 
imiug in such numbers that sufficient 
help coul<l not be obtained tu take care 
of the catch. The final result haa been 
■hat (he combined catch of Monterey 
Bay and the Sacramento River was the 
largest for several years. The amount 
if salmon taken up to the end of Septem- 
•er in Monterey Bay. outside of the 
iolden Gate, San Francisco Bay and thc 
Sacrainent« Hiver was 11,040.075 poundi<. 
The catch of aalmon by trolling at Fori 
Bragg was good ; the total amount of 
the catch reachioR a million and a quar- 
ter pounds. The run at Kel Iliver 
-n-as considered a failure, the amount 
taken being less than half the UBoal 
catch, inie run on the Klamath Ri^-er 
Iso shows a falling off- 

TME SAt.MON INDUSTRY MENACED. 

'I'o dam the waters of the Sacramento 
at the narrow Iron Canyon above 
Itnl Bluff and thus make an immense 
iniiHiiiniliDg reservoir for flood control and 
irrigation purposes, has for years been 
a ilreata of those who would develop the 
[-^sources of the upper Sacramento Valley 
and of those who have been interested in 
controlling the floods on the lower river. 
There have been frequent efforts to make 
this dream come true, but it is only re- 
<-ently that there have been hopes of its 
realiiation. 

It is now proposed by assessing the 
land in the area to be benefited and by 
(he aid of the state and the United States 
government to raise $20,000,000 for Uie 
construction of the dam and irrigation 
canals. The site of the dam is aeven 
miles above Red Bluff. The proposed dam 
wilt be so high that salmon ascendinE 
the river to cast their spawn will not 
be able to pass even by means of the 
best "fish ladders" which have been de- 
vised. .\a impassable dam at the Iron 
I 'itnyon will cut the salmon off from all 
1I11' upper tributaries in which they natu- 
I'iill.v spawn, with the exception of Mill 



CALIFORNIA KISU AND UAME. 



41 



Creek. H remedial measures can not be de- 
vised tiiree-fourtbs of Uie present salmon 
run will l>e lost- 
Remedies which BugESHt themselves 
to attempt ttr establish runs in ol 
streams, egpeclalty in tributaries of the 
San Joaquin and to establisb a hatcherf 
at the dam. Many difficulties present 
themgelres in any plan to catch sa 
at the dam, chief ol which is nosultable 
water temperatare. Salmon of the spring 
run will not be mature enongh to wai 
holding at the dam for epawninf purposes 
aod if eggs are collected at the dam from 
the summer and fall run, the water avail- 
able for the hatching will be too warm. 
Eren i( the eggs could be held in a batch- 
er; at the dam until they are "eyed" 
at which stage they could be shipped to 
other hatcheries more favorably located on 
the river above, there would still be the 
problem of getting the resulting fry down 
over tbe dam in their seaward migration. 
If sucb a dam is built, aad It appears 
now it will be built, the salmon industry 
is sure to suffer an irreparable loss. 

SPERM WHALE TAKEN OFF 
MONTEREY. 
On November 21. Monterey fishermen 
found a dead spenn whale off Point Pinos 
near Monterey. They towed tbe carca 
Monterey where it was sold to one of the 
local fish concerns for 9300. The lengtb 
of tbe whale was 65 feet and it produced 
ten barrels of case oil. This species of 
wbale is very scarce on this coast, and 
according to old residents of Monterey this 
is the first sperm whale that has been 
taken in that region for at least forty 



Xhe serious shortage of sardiues in 
southern California daring the past sum- 
mer has suggested tbe idea of locating 
the schools of sardines by means of 
aeroplanes. The great difficulty in i-.iteh- 
ing iBrdines is in locating the schools 
of fish. On account of light on the 
surface of the water it is <lifficnlt to 
locate a school of sanlincs nulesg the 
boat runs into Ihem, Fishiuj; is iisiially 
carried on at night, at which time Ihe 
tJiosphorescent glow caused by the sn'Im- 
ming fish is more easily sten. I.nt evun at 
□igfat This phosphoreijceul lif;hl ciiu lii' 
seen only a short distance, 1( is a well-; 
known tact that schools of fish can bel 



more easily seen ti-om an elevation wheii^ 
the observer is away from the glare of the 
reBected light at the surface o( the water. 
Prom an aeroplane schools of &sh are 
easily seen which are inviaible to a per- 
son from tbe deck of a boat. At such 
times as fishermen are unable to locate 
schools of sardines, or of albacore for 
that matter, It would be practicable to 
employ an aeroplane for the purpose. 
which adds one more argument for those 
who would commercialize the aeroplane. 

NEW WHALINQ STATION ON MON- 
TEREY BAY. 

The California Sea I'roducts Company 
has almost completed a large, modem, 
fully equipped whaling station at Moss 
Landing on Monterey Bay, which will 
employ forty men when in operation. Id 
addition to tbe whaling plant this com- 
pany expects in time to operate a sardine 
cannery and during off seasons to use 
their boats to supply fish to the fresh 
fish trade- 
There has been some objection to the 
establishment of a whaling station on 
Monterey Bay for fear that it would in- 
jure the sardine industry, uuder tbe be- 
lief that it is the whales that drive the 
sardines into the bay. This is an old 
belief which comes to ns from the Euro- 
believed whales drove the herring into the 
sheltered waters of the bays and fjords. 
Herring do not enter sheltered waters 
along the const to escape whales, but for 
purpose uf spawninj! in tbe ahallow 
trs where their eggs are attached to 
rocks and si'nweed,' There is no evidence 
that whales drive sardines into bayx. 



A new Bsh i 
tching sardines and other small tish 
known as the purse-lorn para net. This 
t is in use at Monterey and is in alt 
ipeets a lorn para net except that a 
purse line has been added to the hunt of 
net which enables the operators to 
pull the lead line in more quickly after 
le net is partly in, thus impounding the 
■h in the hunt of tbe net. With this 
't It is easier to catch sardines in the 
ly time without their Kouodlug and 
tling under tbe net when it is operateil 
deep water. By using this semipurs.-. 
Tangenient a shallower net than otliei^-|c 
ise can be used, which makes its opem- 
lu [jiiicker and n 



I FISH ANn GAME. 



OONSEftVATION IN OTHER STATES. 



CONSERVATION LESSONS FROM 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

Tlie MasaacbuiiettH Fish aad Game 
Commissioners are calliog attentioa to 
the iiced of the eonBecratioD of liah by 
means of "little lessons." One of them 
follows : 

"The advance of civiLiiation always 
decreases the natural fish and game sup- 
ply. Preaeh and practice conservation. 

"Don't take fish that are full of spawn; 
leave them to deposit th^ir eggs and tbe 
small to grow into mature fish, 

"Don't take more than yoa need. 

"Don't try for tbe Isrgest number; try 
for the largest fish. 

"Don't try to get tbe last one ; leave 
some for others. 

"Report violations to tlie Fish and 
Oamc Commissioners. 

"Bemcinbcr, tbis is your sport. No one 
is as interested in it as tbe hunters and 
fishermen, and it is np to you to make 
or ruin iV— American FieU. May 2. 
191S. 

CATS BECOME GAME IN NEW YORK. 
In New York a bill has been passed, 
permitting any person over twenty-one 
years of age who holds a bunting or 
trapping license to destroy humanely a 
cat at large found bunting or killing any 
protected bird, or with sucb a bird in its 
l>oBBession. Tbe bill makes it the duty 
of the game protectors to kill all offend- 

MINNESOTA QAME flEFUQES- 

In the State of Minnesota, state parks 
and state forest reserve lands have auto- 
matically become refuges for game. Tbe 
legislature of 1915 provided for a prac- 
tical way of establiablng game refuges 



on privately owned land. Already seveo- 
teen refuges have been established in 
this way, embracing 531,925 acres. The 
combined area of all of the Minnesota 
game refuges is 1,877313 acres. This 
metbod of protecting and restoring game 
has met with instant and hearty approval 
by tbe people of the state and In every 
instance in which a refuge has been estab- 
lished, there has been a unanimi^ of 
sentiment among tbe people interested 
in it. — Bien. Rpt., Minn. Fish and Gnnje 
Comm., 1916. 

MINNESOTA DISTRIBUTES FISH. 

Under the authority of tbe Public 
Safety Commission, tbe stale of Minne- 
sota faas been catching and distributing 
fish. From October Ifi, 1917, to Janu- 
ary 1, 101 ». the production of state* 
caught fisb amounted to 77,851 pounds. 
Great care is being exercised not to take 
fish that are desirable for angling from 
localities where people can and will use 
lakes tor that purpose. In such localities 
fishing is confined to rough fish only. As 
a contribution to the food supply the state 
fisliing has demonstrated its importance 
and has proved to be popular and suc- 
cessful. Distribution has been made 
through game wardens, representatives 
i>f tbe Bafety nomraission, meal dealers 
and other individuals. 

NEW JERSEY RESTOCKED WITH 
RABBITS. 

The game farm of the New Jersey 
State Fisb and Game Commission has 
Iwo thousand rabbits which will be dis- 
tributed throughout the state. Rabbits 
will be placed in districts where they have 
l)een bunted out. 



LIFE HISTORY MOTES. 



TREE-DUCKS SUCCESSFULLY BRED 
IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 

.V pair of fulvous tree-ducks (Dviidro- 
ciigiia bicolor) were secured from Ibe 
State Game Farm in the fall of 1910 and 
placed on my pond at Cupertino. In 
June, 1917. I had a suspicion that Ihey 
were inylnir. ns I found several ■■gga 



which I could not classify in different 
parts of llie enclosure. I have leamsd 
from experience that one can not disturb 
ducks during the laying and breeding 
season, and in the past I know that I 
have broken up several "settings" because 
of my curiotiity. In June of this year 
1 noted froin casual nhsu'rvance that only 



CALIFORNIA KISH AND GAM^. 



43 



«m: ot luy fulvous ilu'^ks was on the 
IkiikI. iiikI ri'ariug thnl (he utber had been 
luat Of ball illiil. [ Htarled an luvestfsfttjou 
and after itonic days fouiid tlm u«Kt vory 
cloec to the water's edge on a It-dge of 
rock in a rustic rockei'y coDStnicIed in the 
pond for ornamental purpoBec. This ledge 
was concealed by overtianging vines and 
it nas very difficult for me to see it. Not 
' wishing to disturb the birds, I did not 
make a close inTestigation, but as near 
aa I could tell, there were five or more 
eggs in the nest. <ThiB Inst Is somewhat 
of a gness on my part.) As the birds 
seemed to be sitting. I left the nest 
severelj alone, nod some time around the 
20th of Jane (I can not give Che exact 
date) I was rewarded in aeeing the 
mother dock bring out four young ones 
into thf pond. These little birds did not 
m>peBr to me to t>e much lai^er than 
young quail and I iiitcd my very beat 
ffforts in an attempt to segregate them, 
)>ut without avail. My present iKind in 
not constructed properly for breeding pur- 
poses, having been erected in the first 
instance purely for ornamental purposes, 
and the birds have not access to and from 
the water at all points, with the result 
that these little ducks became chilled and 
drowned, or were molested by the other 
ducks, all dying within four or five days. 
—J. V. DeLavkaga. 



RARE PISH PROM MONTEREY SAY. 

The true halibut {Ifippoglo$>tii Uppo- 
fflottu*) vita occasionally taken this last 
summer (1918) in Monterey Bay. It has 
not been reported before south of San 
Francisco. 

A specimen of a fish sometimes called 
the "blacksmith" {CHromU ptinclipinnU) 
was brot^ht to Hopkins' Marine Station 
at Paci6c Grove by Japanese fishermen 
this summer. This fish has hitherto been 
unknown north of the Santa Barbara 
Chnnnel. — E. C. Stabks. 

MARLIN-BPIKE FrSH USED AS FOOD. 
The marlin-Bpike fish (Teimptemg nuf- 
■HJturii) now being caught by anglers 
near Santa Catalina Island is finding a 
good market in Los Angeles at a retail 
price of 36 cents per pound. It is said 
to he undistlugnishable in taste from the 
nwordfinh. The writer recently enjoyed 



eiiiiug some of it, and found it one of tbe 
mn^t ilelicioun fishes he had ever tasted. 
Fn'fh tuua was served ii( the Kame time 
(or ooiuparisou. It was much eoarsei- 
fleshed and much less delicately Savored 
than the marlin-spike fish. — E. f. Stabks. 



Early in the month of November, 1917, 
a fulvous tree-duck (Dendrocygna bi- 
color) was brought to me for identifica- 
tion by Miss Ethel Emerson. It had been 
caught when but a downy bird in the 
salt marsh near Mountain View, Santa 
Clara County, and was now nearly grown. 
Several others taken at the same time 
had died, one by one In captivity, but 
the survivor, when placed in a large cage 
with a pair of bantams, soon became very 
active and contented, fjater its plaintive 
whistle might be frequently heard during 
the night, and at times it seemed to show 
irritation at close confinemenl. It re- 
mained wild and was easily fri|;htened at 
the approach of people or other animals, 
as dogs and cats. When opportunity of- 
fered It made its escape after having 
spent somewhat over a year in captivity. 

The most interesting point in all this 
is that it appears to furnish the first 
account of the breeding of the species 
in the marshes of San Francisco Bay. 
and I believe that the bird has not been 
recorded before in Santa Clara County. 
—J. O. SriTPBB, 

BANDED PINTAIL TAKEN IN 
ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

On November 13, 1918, I shot at Alva- 
rado. CftHfomin, a pintail duck {Dafila 
acuta) bearing a metal band stamped 
"U. S. Biological Survey, No. 4000." 
Upon returning this band to Washington 
the following information was obtained : 

The duck was captured while sick with 
alkali poisoning at Utah Lake, cured and 
banded October 10, 1916, after which it 
was exhibited with others at the Utah 
State Fair, and released. Its capture is 
good evidence of the permanence of the 
cure, and is of interest because ot the fact 
that over two years intervened between 
capture and the date of bnnding. — EAtii.c 

l>OWNINn. 



Goot^lc 



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p 



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CAl.IPOBNIA PlSil AND QAHE. 



/lOLATIONS OF FISH AND GAME LAW!. 
S«pternfaer 1, 1B1B. to D««ambcr 1, 1S1B. 



Hunting nlthout license 

Deer— close scaBon— killing or posHi'HRion 

Female deer, spike buckB. fawns— klllinK or poBHCHBino 

RuDning deer with dogs, elose seaBon - 

failure to retain portion of derr head bearing hornB 

Illegal deer lildea- possession 

Hear- close season— killing _ 

Quall—close Beaaon— killing or poesessiou 

Dovea— close season—killing or possession 

Duek— close season- killing or possession, excess bag limit.. 

Shooting duekB Irom power boat In motion - 

Cottontail and brush rabbits— close season— kilting or pos- 
session — - 

Rail— close season— killing or possession _..; 

Wild pigeon— close season— killing or possession 

Kongome blrds^kllllng or poBscssion 

Shore birds— close season— killing or possession 

Sight shooting _ 

Total game violations 

Futft. 

Angling without license 

Fishing (or profit without license - _ 

Fluhlng with nets in restricted district 

Stripi'd bass— underweight _ - 

" ' -Saturday and Sunduy llBhlng close season- taking 



Clams— underside— excess limit — - — S 7"i (H 

AbHlonen-underBlKe— shipping out of state....- 5 75 Ui 

Spiny lobsters— close season— talcing or possession 1 

Total flBh violations _ _ - 42 I1.7IB 91 

Grand total flsh and game vIolatlonB 188 (4.367 On 

SEIZURES— FISH, GAME AND ILLEGALLY USED FISHING APPARATUS. 
S<ptemb«r 1, 1911, to Dacember 1, 1918. 

Deer meat _ 194 pound!! 

Hides ..- - 6 

Ducks - -- - 425 

Quail - 49 

Doves - — 1 

Shore birds - 4 

Nougame birds - 10 

Rabbits - - S 

Miscellaneous game ._ 10 

Striped bass 841 pounds 

Salmon - 1,^.665 pounds 

Trout - - - — 64 pound; 

Crabs - 157 

Plsmo clams - 403 

Abalones -— -- 121 

Illesnl nets - - 3 

SeorcAei. ., 

Illegal fish Bnd game...- -.- ^-_i<-X>*^ I (i 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND QAME. 



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PATROL SERVICE. 



•AN FRANCIftCO DIVISION. 

S. Xj. Boaqul, ConmUalaner In ChaisB' Cftii WMt«rf«hl. BtzecutlT* Offlow. 

J. 8. Huntsr. AMiaUnt Ezecutlre OfBcar. B. C. Boueb«r. SpecUl AsMt 

H«ad Offle«. N«w Call Bulldiiijt, Sao FMLOClaco. 

Fbona Sutter IKK). 



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Albert Mark.. 



J. Moore 

., B. Nesbitt 

J. R, Newaoni* 



K. W. SmoUe]'.. 



Vott B»Ci 



„ ... Sutter Creek 

a. W. Bolt (EMIatad U. a NaTy)-Orti}ley 

& J. C*lTi|aDt«r Maxwell 

Qto. W. Courtrlcht Canby 

■nail OraiT ^PlacemUe 



SACRAMENTO DIVISION. 

I*. IL Nawbert, CommlialoneT la Charca. 

Gm. NMie. Aaalataat 

ForuiD Bulldlnr, 8aci*iD«Dta. 

Phone Uain 4100. 

k. C. O'Connor Onai VftI 

K. D. Rlcketta Lira C_ 

D. E. Rob^-ta_ HurphTa 

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W. J. Qt««i — 






J. Sanders .. 



C. A. Seragga.. 
R. I. Slnkey^ 



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LOS ANQELES DIVISION. 

IL J. CodacH, Cammlsaloner In CbarKe. 

B. A. MoKaa. Astlatoot. Sdwln U Heddariy, AHttant 

Union Leacua Bulldlnc. Loa Angalea. 

Fbonea: Broadva]' llSfi; noma. ?iT06. 

Santa Harlal EL H. Ober 

Ventura H. L Prttchard 

..San Lula OMapo A. J. Stout 



San BemaTdtnal 



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DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc 



ABSTRACT CALIFORNIA FISH AND CAME LAWS 




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] [SH- 

'cONSEBVAriON OF WILD UFE THROOOH EDUCATION* 




.Cooi^lc 



BOARD OF nSH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 



V. M. NHWBBBT, PiwWent Sacnmento 



— 8«B Pruiclaao 



OABL WB8TBBFBLD. BxccndT* OOmr— 
J. B. HUNTEB, AaaiBtuit Gzacntln OOlcer— 



B. D. DUKB, Attoraej — 8ui Franelaoo 

A. D. FERGUSON, Field Agent (on Fnrloucb) Freno 

DEPARTMENT OF PI8HCULTURE. 

W. H. 8HBBLBT, In Chaise Ftehcaltnn Ban Fraodbco 

B. W. HUNT, Field SnperinMndeDt Saa Fraociaoo 

a. B. LAUBSON, Saperintendent Moont Shasta HatdMrj Slaaoii 

W. O. FASSETT, SuperiotendeDt Fort Seward Hatchery, Ukiali, and Snow 

Mountain Station Alderpoint 

G. HoCLOUD. Jb., Foreman in Charge Mount WhUnef Batdwry and Rae 

Lakes StktIiHi Independcsoe 

G. B. WEST, FoKman in Charge Tahoe and Tallac Batcheries ^Tallac 

B. V. CASSBIX, Foreman in ^taise Almanor and Domingo Spring! 

Hatcheries Keddi« 

L. PHILLIPS, Foreman in Cbaree North Creeic Station San Bernardino 

L. J. BTINNETT, AsBlstant in Charge Klamath Station! Hombiook 

G. L. MORRISON, Foreman in Charge Bear Lake Station San Bernardino 

GEHD. McCLOUD, General Assistant In Charge Cottonwood Creek Station Hombtook 

GUT TABLER, AnIsUnt in Cbarge Fall Creek Hatchery Copco 

JUSTIN SHEBLEX, Foreman in Charge Brookdale Hatcher; Bcookdal« 

J. B. SOLLNEB, Aa^tant In (3)aig« Wawoaa Hatcberr Wawona 

A, K. DONEY, Fish Ladder Inspector San Francieco 

A- E. CULVER, Screen Inspector San Francisco 

A. M. FAIRFIELD, Inspector Water Polintion San Francisco 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMKRCIAL FISHERIB». 

N. B. SCOFIELD, In Charge San Prandsco 

H. B. NIDEVBR, AssiiUnt L«Mie Beach 

W. F. THOMPSON, Aaatstant : I>ons Bcacb 

EARLE IK)WNING, Assistant San Frandaeo 

. S. BAUDEE, Asrist; - . . 



P. H. OTBE, Assistant 

G. B. BLBHER, AsaisUnt.. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION, PUBLICITY AND RESEARCH. 

DR. H. a BBTANT, In Charfe 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



California Fish and Game 

PUBLISHED QUABTEBLV BV TUE CAUFOBNIA FISH A„ND OAME COMMISSION. 

Volume 5 SACRAMENTO, APRIL, 1919 Number 2 



THE CONSERVATION OF OUR FISHERIES W. F. Thvmpton 49 

TIIEBASSKS AND BASS-I.IKE FISHES— _ E. C. Slarti ua 

BEAR HUNTING WITH BOWS AND ARROWS Sa*(on I'opc fiS 

NOTES ON THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF THE SPINY 

LOBSTER . P. 8. Bornhart 70 

IS THE HERRING GL'LL INSECTIVOROUS? A. C. Burrill 71 

IN MEMORIAM '.. 75 

EDITORIALS 70 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST _ _ 91 

HATCUEUV NOTES 1)2 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES.. 03 

Notv's from the Long Beach Laboratory 94 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES 97 

LIFE HISTORY NOTES 98 

WILD LIFE IN RELATION TO AGRICULTIRE.-- 99 

REi'ORTS— 

Flshpry I'rodiiclB, October to December. 191S __ 100 

Financial Report 102 

Violfllions of Fish and Game Laws 103 

Seiznree 103 

Number or Deer Killed in Season IDIT 104 



THE CONSERVATION OF OUB FISHERIES. 

By WILL F. THOMPSON. 

Fisheries are subject to depletion because of too intense exploitation, 
as has been proved in Europe and in our own country. It is the duty 
of the government, as the one element in the situation which is concerned 
with the perpetuation o£ the fisheries, to be able to recognize depletion, 
to know how to prevent it, and how best to promote the fisheries. It 
implies knowledge, perhaps not of what we are fond of terming pure 
science, but rather of applied, although the things to be applied are 
frankly still in large part to be discovered. Men eiignRed in educational 
work are almost invariably engrossed in the more abstract branches of 
science, and the eomnierdal firms are thus far not interested in carrying 
on research save for the purpose of furthering the methods of utiliza- 
tion of the products. It is therefore left very largely to governmental 
authorities, on whom the responsibility of regulation rests, to pursue 
the subject." 



i„vGoo<^lc 



50 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND CAME. 



But what are the pn)blem3 involvi'd, and what muat hp done to recog- 
nize depletion? A fishery is. one may say, the reaping of a harvest 
whii'h has been sowed by Nature, and is subject to great natural Hiietii- 
ations and has unknown power of resistanee in the faee of eontinual 
reaping. The primitive man who went into the riei? swamps and gath- 
ered his rice, without thought of how it was sowed, cr how long it took 
to grow, was no worse than we are in our primitive attitude n-garding 
our fisheries. The failure of his yrop threatened his livelihood, ,vet he 
knew nothing regarding the causes of the failure, nor the ftuctuations 
which might occur. What were tfuse changes, were they due to his 
ecntinual reaping, were they preventable, or miglit they be foretold? 
Just yo we are asking today, what are these great tluctnationt in our 
fisheries which may mean the pnisperlty or ruin of our industry, and 
how may they be prevented or foretold* If we can nut cultivate, how 
may we preserve? They are elemental (juestions, indeed, to be asking 
en the threshold of an era of exploitation. 




Men in general do not know what they are dealing with when they 
pursue a fishery for a certain species. Thus the couception that a 
species is as inexhaustible as the ocean is large is an erroneous one. 
The fish in the sea are distributed as unevenly throughoul its parts as 
wild animals are on the land, with this (jualification. that only the bor- 
ders are inhabited by them to any extent. Thus a halibut fishery exists 
only iin particular small areas called banks, or parts nf banks, along 
the edge of the continental self in from thirty to a hundred and fift.v 
fathoni-s where the conditions are suitable. In fact, just as mountain 
sheep are limited in their ranirc, so are the halibut. 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 51 

Then what strain will a species stand 1 Some think that tho capacity 
of a apivifs is limitless, because of the great number of eprss each indi- 
vidual prcduws. The halibut lays over a million and a quarter eggs 
• every year of its breeding life, perhaps ten million in all. and the male 
produces the fertilizing sperm for the same; but this abundance <if eggs 
merely foreshadows many danprers to the younjr, for from these ten 
million need come but two mature animals to maintain the species. 
If there were constantly more than necessary to maintain the numbers 
cf the species, then the resultant increase must, however slight. 
eventually overt-rowd the waters of the sea; and if there were ever so 
small a lack every year, then the species must vanish ultimately. Man's 
inlluenee, however ('light, like weighted dice in a game, might well, iu 
the end make loss inevitable if it were not for the probability that 
many fon-ew ccme into play to favor threatened species. Are those 
forces potent enough to counterbalance man's influence? Do we know 
that they aie sufficient to avert final loss? 

But has there ever been such a loss! Have not men fished for many 
centuries in the waters of Europe without over-fishing! Why should 
depletion ociur now rather than long agnT Hut we know that this very- 
thing has happened, and that there is good reason why it should have 
happened in our day. The great plaice fisheries in the North Sea have 
been proved over-fished, and in our own waters the halibut fisheries 
and those for the salmon of the Frazer are good examples of the same. 
And the reasons are not far to seek. They may be found in the rela- 
tively recent invention of the canning process, iu the uae of steam and 
gasoline for transportation, and in the use of ice and cold storage 
methods of preserving food. Salmon from the Frazer is known in 
Africa and Jlexico nearly as well as we know it in America. Halibut 
taken by i-rteaniers anil gasoline-driven boats in the I'acilie is carried by 
express trains across the continent and across the Atlantic to England 
in a fre-sh condition. The cold-storage and the canning of fish have 
ttholishcd boundaries and "oil-seasons" in so far as many species are con- 
cerned. The net result of all this has been the recent vast enlargement 
of the market, and with that has come the equally vast enlargement of 
the fishing industry. This marvelous growth of our fisheries has not 
been apjireciated, I am sure. Our sardine fishery, totaling iu 1917 
over 1(1C.('1I(I,C00 pounds, has arisen within the last four years. The 
great halibut fishery, which reached a maximum of 7O,0l)O|(H(0 pound* 
a year, began iu 1890. and is now on the decline. What will the 
future .show to us in this regard? Well may we think seriously, and 
t()nsider our words when we feel tempted to say that the resources of 
the sea are inexhaustible. The population to he fed may double its 
numbers in the next fifty years, and transportation may heenmc twice 
as efficient. What will happen thenT 

And if the total catch continues to increase, as it has iu the past, how 
may we rt-cognize the commencement of depletion? Fir.st of all we 
must discount in our statistics the uiarvehuis growtli in appHratus and 
e(|iiipment. and discover whether a greater effort is required ca^'h year 
to gather the saiue amount of fish; in other words, ascerlain whether 
decreased abundance necessitates greater effort. This means the aban- 
donment cf the old statistical ideal <if portraying the magititiide of the 
industry, and substituting for it a more rational one of the observation 
of the real abuudance of the fish. . , 



52 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

But when a deeroase is (iiaeovered, we must know whether it is a nat- 
ural one or due to over-fiHliing, and we must know in time to take 
remedial measures, not when commercial extinetion has solved our 
doubts. For there are great fluctuations in abundance (of verj- differ-* 
ent extent in the various species) which are not the result of man's 
efforts hut of natural causes, and a decrease in numbers of fish because 
of such is. of course, not permanent, any more than the causes are. To 
know the character of such a decrease implies a study of the biology of 
the species, which provides a distinctive mark for the results of over- 
fishing in many cases, if not in all. It also implies advancement of the 
science of the subject, a greater knowledge of the laws which govern 
the matter, for what is known at present is undoubtedly ill-defined. 

The laws seem to Iw much the same as those which govern the human 
population, and the results of over-fishing what might be expected if 
"over-fishing" of human beings could he carried on in the same way. 
If the adults are removed b.v "over-fish ins" the relative numbers cf the 
adults decrease; and if the fishery continues to remove an equal number, 
the catch becomes a constantly greater proportion of the total left, thus 
heightening the rate of decrease. But if the young are not pmduced 
because of defective spawning conditions — which can not be blamed on 
the fishery — then the young are less numerous as compared to the 
undiminished numbers of adults until the latter have lived out their 
terra of life. Decreased abundance of ti.sh because of "over-fishing" 
of the older classes is therefore marked hy decreased numbers of the 
older fish as compared to the young, while the reverse is true in the case 
of a natural decrease because of the failure of the young to appear. 
The inference is obvious, a record of the relative numbers of adult and 
young must be kept in eonncction with a record of the total abundance, 
and from it can be ascertained just where the loss in abundance occurred, 
the degree to which the fi.shery k responsible being to a great extent 
obvious therefrom. 

If the failure of a spawning season cnuld be ascertained early enough, 
it would provide a knowledge of the impending chang.^>. The value of 
such knowledge may well be illustrated by the history of the herring in 
Europe. It is well known that from the dawn of history great natural 
fluctuations in its abundance have occurred, according to which a great 
industry has been built up or destroyed, carrying with it the fate of 
whole towns. Recent studies by scientists in the Norwegian fisheries 
service .seem to show that it is possible to forecast the magnitude of 





centaga of Each Ao« In 






SucccMlve Ages 





CAUPORNIA FISH AND OAME. 53 

the yield according to the sizes of fish taken. A great drop in the 
abundance of the herring was apparently preceded by the failure of 
the youngest classes to appear in adequate numbers, — in other words 
a predominance of mature existed at the same time as a decrease in 
catch. The success of the commercial fishery for herring during a 
number of years, in fact, seems to have depended on the success of 
a single year's spawning, the product of which became larger and older 
every year but which was not supplemented by young produced by 
subsequent spawnings. The result was the lack of small fish until 
another successful spawning could occur. The consequence of the grad- 
ual natural disappearance of the old fish in such a case, without another 
class of small to take their place, may be easily imagined. If fiuctua- 
tions of such magnitude as occurred in the herring fishery cuuld be 
foretold, the doing so would be n truly great accomplishment for the 
good of humanity. 

Yet such a service would not be comparable to that of .<;howing that 
a species as a whole is in danger, that man's operations are incurring 
a preventable catastrophe. Depletion from over-fishing is. obviously, 
very likely to be confused with natural decreases due to things other 
than over-fishing, or man's demand for food. The ability, then, to 
distinguish natural fiuctuations due to the spawning seasons for instance, 
should enable us to recognize the results of over-fishing with greater 
clearness. This is without doubt the most important service to be ren- 
dered by a study of the fiuctuations. 

So we most obser\'e the ela^fses of various aged fish as early as possible, 
distinguishing them with the greatest possible exactness, in order that 
the nature of a change in abundance may be known, whether caused 
by natural fluctuations or by over-fishing. How far this is from realiza- 
tion in all of our species is a strikinpr testimonial to the indifference 
of man. 

To do these things we iiiu.'st know the ages of the fish taken. We 
must be able to contrast two-year-old fish with those six years old, to 
recognize the youngest fisli, and to be able to tell in what year any 
individual or class of individuals was lioni. If we do not know the 
year of birth we can not trace back the failure of the spau'niug season 
to the occurrence of any particular phenomenon or group of phenomena. 
This means the discovery of the age of the fish, not merely of a particular 
class, but of the individual, a subject difiicult in itself. 

"We may illustrate the most obvious method of finding the age by 
comparing the fish on a given bank to an orchard planted at different 
times. There will be some variation, but trees planted in a given year 
will approach the same height, and the heights for the successive years 
will be very different. So if all the trees planted in each year were 
grouped, we might have well-defined size groups, and anyone looking 
at them would say, here is the one-year group, here the second, and 
so forth. And so it is with the fi.sh : they arrange themselves in natural 
groups, according to the age. But when they become very old, the 
growth both of the trees and of the fish slackens, so that the difference 
l>etween those born in different years becomes less than the difference 
between individuals, and Hie age can not be told. 

Hut this is a i-umbrous method. It could be ■■nri'icd out once in each 
case, to corroborate other methodN, and then alij.ii loned, as has usually 

2— < 4620 , - I 

LnOO<^IC 



54 



C.UJPOBNIA FISH AND GAME, 



H'tlidd Is til iiHt' the mnrkR h-ft on the IianI 
is piisMilili' to iiw tlic riiips li'ft in the hhhwI 



lipeu done. A prcfcriibU' 
parts of tln' fish, just «h i 
of the tree. 

The reaiiou fur theKc iiiarkti iij tlioiit;ht to <-xi;st in tlio nature of the 
growth of the fish. Its 8iirn)unding8 trovern its growth, just as its 
temperature depends entirely on tlie temperature of the water. The 
seasons modify profoundly all the I'onditions of its surroundings, and 
n-ith them the growth of the fish. During the winter mouths, growth 
and activity bet'onic much dei-reasi'd, somewhat as those of a lizard or 
snake do. The tree grows by adding' to its tnmk a thin layer of woody 
tiiwue, and the part laid down during Die eoliler months of the growing 



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an.1 Ihc dificultr of 



rngth ot each g.oup shown 



season differs radii-ally in structure from that laid down during the 
warmer. And so it is. presnnuihly, with the fish and its hard part^, 
such as the s<'ales. the otoliths or ear hones, and the bones of the body 
and head, although to he sure we cnn not attribute all the changes to 
the one condition, teiriperatnre. directly. The {jrowth is by addition, 
leaving behind the old strni-ture to tell the tale of the seasons that are 
past. Forest trees may fell of fires that have pa.ssed their way, of cold 
years, of warm years, of erowdinji by other trees, and of alt the tragedies 
of the forest. So in a measure do the scales of the fish tell of birth, of 
years of plenty and of scarcity, sometimes of .^pawning, of injury, and 



CALIPOHNIA FliSlI AND GAME. 



55 



of migration, but tlirongh it all tlicce is the tale of the seasons, tlie 
fundamental rhythm of existenee among the lower animals. 

We find that a scale is made up of many small rings, or eirculi, but 
that at certain regions these are closer together, or that there is a mark 
or break in the continuity of the pattern on the scale. These parts 
which are thus marked are those in which the gi-owth was affected, or 
even stopped. So there is a mark on the scale of the fish when it reached 
its first winter; and what was added during its second and its third 
summers, is clearly separated by other winter marks. We find that 
wJicD we read the ages by these scales, the individuals in each of the 
size groups mentioned above and compared with trees in an orchard, 
are of tbe same age. and that the first size group has one annual ring, 
the second two and so forth, showing that the reading from the scales 






corresponds with the size groups and hence must be accurate. Such 
a comparison has not been carried out in all species, hut in a sufficient 
number to place the facts on a firm basis. 

The same is true of the otolith. Tt is a calcareous formation in tlie 
ear of the fish, which grows by successive concn'tions. The ear of the 
fish is not visible from the imtsidc. but is nevertheless well developed, 
with semicircular canals much like those of men. and in one of the 
sac-like parts is deposited the otolith. The portions formed during 
the winters have much less organic matter in tlii-ni than the layers 
formed during the summers, and hence are easily distinguishable. 



56 CAI,1P()RNIA FISH AND GAME. 

Thus we may know the nge of the fish, and know when it spawn.*. 
how old it becomes before it dies, and we may know these things regard- 
ing each individual. This renders it i>oasible to know in what year 
fish belonging to an abundant year class were spawned, and under what 
conditions they were born; therefore, why they were abundant. "With- 
out a knowledge o£ this kind, which would indicate when the results 
of particular phenomena might be expected to become evident, it is 
obvious that the careful study of such phenomena is meaningless from 
the standpoint of the fisheries. The ago reading also renders it possible 
to accurately compare the numbers of fish of various ages, something we 
could not otherwise do, because if we r<'lied on size groups we would 
confuse the ten-year-old fish with those nine and eleven years, or even 
eight and twelve years old. But aside from these more important 
things, there are. niitiirally. many things upon which a knowledge of the 
age throw.s liglit. Tims it is possible to prove that fish grow faster in 
one locality tbiin in aniiliier. Tlicn' is. indeed, nmch to be worked oat, 



and much to be proved in the case of tiie individual species, and even 
in regard to the general principles governing the different species. 

In every species the light thrown by a knowledge of age, even when 
most brightly, is dependent for its imjiortanee on a knowledge of whether 
it is shown for the whole of a species or for merely a small part which 
may happen to be involved by the fi.'ihery. "W'e must know whether the 
locality is rcprcsentntivc, or whether it is isolated from the others. 
Perhaps we could cittch all the fish in erne locality and the numbers of 
fish in other localities would not diiiiinlsli. there being therefore no 
danger to the species as a whole. Similarly, the value of protection to 
a limited area is subject to the same considerations. But, it may well 
be asked, how is it possible to diseovcr this isolation, when we can not 



C<\LIFORNIA FISH AND OAHE. 57 

see below the surface of the waters to ivateh the coming and going of 
the fish T It is difficult, but possible, as m'c sliall see. 

We know that when a village of men is isolated, and the inhabitants 
interbreed for a sufficiently long time, a dialect grows up. and ultimately 
certain physical characteristics seem to mark the inhabitants. The 
formation of the dialect is a rough measure of the degree of isolation 
of the group. So it is with a school of fish, or those inhabiting a certain 
region, their separation from others leads in time to the formation of 
SBnall peculiarities of habits and structure. If the separation is simply 
lifelong, perhaps only those characters will be changed which have to 
do with the amount of food obtained, such as the length of the head 
and the rate of growth. But if isolation is complete, and has leisted for 
many thousands of years, there are deeper, more fundamental differ- 
ences, of habit and stroeture. These are indications of the degree of 
isolation. 

TABLE 2. 
Tabl« Showing Difference In 



UriUat: OolumWa- 

Polnt Gtty 

Pender Eerbor ... 
Pender Baibor ... 



Osllfomls- 
SiD PranclKo „ -- SI 60.7 

*yroin TliampHon, "A Oonlrlbutlna to the Lite HJhIoft ot th? Pai^nc Herrlne." Rfport 
Briltih Columbln Commissioner ol fisbe'ri^, IMS. 

Therefore, it has become a well-recoguized method of research, to 
take samples of fish from different regions and to compare them care- 
fully by minute measurements, such as the length of the head, the shape 
of the skull, and the number of fin rays. The results are sometimes 
astonishing, for well- recognizable groups may be made oiit in many 
species of fish. The implication is always that there is no migration 
between the groups, that each group has its home waters, to which it is 
confined, or that it has well-defined habits which keep the stocks 
separate. 

Another method used is to place on the fish silver tags, piercing the 
fins or the body for the purpose, and then to release the marked indi- 
vidual alive, with the hope of retaking it, or of having a fisherman 
return it. By keeping a record of where and when the fish was 
released, it is possible to discover how far it has traveled and at what 
rate. The trouble, nntiirally enough, is that the fish, because of the 
irritation, may travel farther and faster than it ever would naturally, 
and may perhaps leave "home" when it would not under usual con- 
ditions. 

Sometimes advantage is taken of the fact that fish from a certain 
locality may be characterized by marks left on the scales by some local 
condition. Then the dispersal of the marked group may be traced from 



.Goo'^lc 



58 CALIPUEMA PISII AND GAME. 

year to year. An attompt lias bccti mndc to use this mctlKHl in the case 
of the herring, and also in the i'ii.se of the .soi-keye salmon, where the 
scales are marked hy the eliaracter of the ^rowtli during the first year 
or two. In the latter this has h'tl to the klentifltation of the birthplaces. 

There are also other methods nseil of di.spovering the rate of movement, 
but none as valid. Tims when fish are abundant in one locality dnring 
one sea.son, and alxindant in another <lurint: the season following, migra- 
tion is naturally supi^wcd. by many peo|>h', to have occurred. In an 
extreme <'ase of the use of this metlwiil. mai-kcrcl being abundant in 
Europe while they were not in Amerietm waters, nuiny men drew the 
eonclusion that the maekerel had migrated acrosji the Atlantic. But 
there was no evidence to show that the di sap pea ranees and appearances 
were not simply the result of great Huctnations in the success of the 
spawning seasons. The dangers of such eonelusions should be obvious, 
particularly when the imperfection of any known measure of the real 
abundance of the fish, such as the returns from particular niethmls of 
fishing commercially, is known. There were also at one time theories 
that the herring of European waters lived around the North Pole, and 
that they eame down from the Arctic seas in great armies, the German 
JJetre. These armies, or schools, were supposed to move around 
England and return to the far north. Now it has been proved that the 
herring of the Baltic, of the English Channel, of Iceland, and other 
localities, are of separate stocks which intermingle hut slightly, if at 
ail, and that Ibey do not migrate in any such fnshion. The method used 
to discover the truth was that which lias just Im-cii mentioned of meas- 
uring the physical characteristics. 

On the whole the tendency is to discredit migrations of great extent, 
but there arc si'veral marvelous migrations well known. Certainly the 
eel, which lives in fresh water, goes into mid-ocean to spawn. And just 
as certainly the salmon of the Pacific cfmies in out of the sea and passes 
np rivers thoiisantla of miles long to spawn at the headwaters. But 
the quick assumption of long marine migrations, as that of the alhacore 
into Jlexiean waters, is certainly to he deprecated. It is so easy to 
ptratulate complex migrations to explain varying appearances of fish in 
different localities in different seasons that to cver.v species is ascribed 
such movements hy the fishermen, with all the certainty in the world. 
But it is better, without doubt, to suspend judgment until actual facts 
from other .sources are at hand to corroborate such theories. 

It should be evid<'nt from wliat has been said that there is much to 
learn before over-fishing may be ascertained, or its extent judged. The 
problems to be met arc large ones, yet not insuperable. The appli- 
cation of the acfpiired knowledge in order to prevent depletion is a 
considerable problem in itself. Over-fishinir may always be stopped by 
restricting the fishery in an.v way. however crude and harmful the 
restriction may be. but flic application of measures which will so dis- 
tribute the restriction as tc) do the least harm to the fisliery and the 
most good to the sjiccii's is a difTcrcnt matter. Primarily, it Ls possible 
to restrain the fishery wherever it imposes its greatest drain on the 
.su|»pl.v, with II good chance of efrcctlveness; but that might not be the 
lu'st available method. The most general principles underlying the 
subject are. as a maltiT of fact, unknown or undiscu.s.sed, despite the 
many legal measures passed liy the legislatures. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFORNIA FTSH AND GAME. 59 

"We may ask, for instauee. why the spawning season should be so 
liersistentiy an object of proVet-tion. The eggs are slowly developed 
throughout the year, indeed throughout the life of the individual, and 
the death of a female in January (-ertainly destroys as many eggs as its 
death in June, if the spawning season comes in June. The matter would 
seem to be one of securing the survival of an adequate number of indi- 
viduals throughout their normal lifetimes, so that there would be enough 
of them to produce eggs, liut that implies care that too many young 
are not taken, just as it implies care that too many adults are not taken. 
In short, the value of the individual at the various times of its life must 
be known, so that it may be used when it is of the least value to the 
species and of the most value to the tlsherraan. We are still far from 
sucb a knowledge of biology as that implies. 

The impressiim that it is sought to convey throughout this paper ia 
that in order to conserve our fisheries, there are many problems t<i be 
solved, all of them important. Among them that of the adnntion of 
statistical methods liaving for their oliject the ascertainment of the 
abundance, rather than the amount taken, easily comes first. But siich 
a substitution can not he made without a knowledge of biology to supple- 
ment and guide it. And the biological phases of fishery science are in 
themselves many and important, dealing a-t they do with the rate of 
growth and the movements of the fi.sh. Then finally, there is almost no 
adetiuate knowledge concerning the methods of conservation, or the 
prevention of depletion. AVe are at the threshold of a period of exploita- 
tion of our fisheries and wc must he sure that we begin an era of 
scientific investigation of our fisheries in time to adequately guide and 
control the exploitation. 

The dependeoue of the statistical method and biological study upon 
each other necessitates their prosecution by an agency capable of giving 
the investigation its needed scope. Adequate statistics can be gathered 
by a government only, and the same is true of the biological data 
required. The responsibility therefore rests upon the state, in whose 
hands lies the legislative control of the fisheries. 

THE BASSES AND BASS-UEE FISHES OF CAUFOBHIA. 

Families Serranidae, Haemulidae, and Eyphosidae. 

By EDWIN C. STARKS, Stanrard Unlvenity, California. 

The basses are the most fish-like fishes, so to speak, for they represent 
more than others the typical spiny rayed fishes. They have been usually 
selected as types of fishes for books of anatomy and textbooks since the 
time the great Preueh zoologist, Cnvier, so used the yellow perch early 
in the last century, 

AH of the families of ba&s-likc fishes group about the central family, 
Serranidie. They and the mackercl-likc fishes apparently were 
descended from a common ancestor. Also related to the basses arc the 
croakers, though less closely than any of the fishes here included. 

It is not at all desirable to here disi-usS the technical characters that 
define these fi.shew. It is sufficient to say that the first dorsal fin is made 
up of spines, the vcntrals arc placed hut little behind the pectorals and 
joined to the shoulder girdle internally, the antil fin is usuall.v with three 
Kpines, the ventrala with one spine and five soft rays, and the scales 



jOOt^lc 



60 CALIFORNIA FIKIl AND GAME. 

rough with littk' spimilcH on tlicir margiDs. This last may be appiv- 
ciated by passiQK the fiiij,'<'r over the wali-s in tiii' direction of the head. 
Keprpwutativi'.s of this Rnrnp oniir pverywhcre in fresh and siilt 
water, pxi^ept in t)ie Arcti(! ri'tiioiiB. They an- very nnnierouB in the 
tropies and often very brilliantly colored. Among them are some of 
the largest of bony fislies wt well as Koine of the smallest, ranging down- 
ward from the giant sea basses to the pigmy bud tishes and darters, some 
of which are fully grown at a length of between one and two inches. 

KEY TO THE BASSES AND BASS-LIKE FISHES OF CALIFORNIA. 
1. Tbe vomer with leelli. A xiiialt jiortioD of Ihp upper edge onlf of the maxillary 
hidden by the boues just above it (preorbilnl boues) when the mouth is cIobiiI. 
2. Side of body with welT-inarked leiisthwisc slripps. Striped baei. Itor- 

eut litteatui. Pnge 62. 
2-2. Side of body without wpll-innrkeil Htripe«. 

3. Spines of firnt doi'siil shorter thnn ray!) of second. The two dorsals 
not much uiiiteil. Siie very large. Black tea bait or Jewfith. 
Slereolcpii gigai. Page C2. 
3r-^. longest spines of first dorHal as long or longer than Ihc rays of 
second. The dorsals broadly united. Size not eieessively large. 
4. No small round siiots on head or body. The third dorsal 
spine not over twice as lung as tbe second and a little shorter 
than the fourth. Tbe preorbital bone at its narrowest part 
scarcely over half as wide as the diameter of the eye. flock 
Bait or Sand Bai». Faralabrax clathToiui. Page 66. 
4-4 Nuraeroiis small rouml upots scattered over the head, or head 
and body. Tbe third dornal spine at least three tiroes as long 
as the second, and longer than the fourth. Narrowest part of 
prenrbitnl aliout as wide as eye. 

f>. The small muad simls confined to the side of the head, 
and usually some are on side of tail just is front of the 
caudal fin. Johiing Vci'Jc or lirlp Haea, I'aralitbrar 
nebuli/er. Page 08. 
5-ri. The sniiill riHind wpois siatlcred over the head and 
almost the entire iMidy and tins. Spoiled Kelp Hast or 
Cahrilla. i'aralabraj: maeiilaliifetiriatut. Page G7. 
1-1. The vomer without tei'lh. A cmisidi'mUle jmrl of maxillary slijij^ng under 
iMinfs just atiove it. when mouth is cIokciI. 
(!. Pectoral (in iioiuliil and vcacliinK pntit lips of ventruls. 

7. A dark l>nnd extcncling <lownwar[l from middle of spinous dontal. 
Base of iH'Ctnral lilnck. Third anal spine shorter than sccoud. 
Sargo, AiiiiotrfmHi dai-idioiii. Page 03. 

7-7. N« dark hand downwanl a<-r<iHs lKi<1y. hut several dark 8tri|)es run- 
ning lengthwise on body. Iliird anal spine longer than si>con<l. 
Big-Eyed Baas, Xenittiut calif ornicnitit, I'age 64. 
ti-fi. Pc4'loral tin rouiidrd and not reaeliiiig iinst liin of veiitrals. 

8. No scales nn gill cover l)eliinil ]ir.>o|H>n-uluui. ICach tooth divided 
into three jMinty. IK)rsal aud anal roiindnl in outliue. fVri'cn- 
fi»k or Opal Eye, Oirella nigrica»». Page C5. 

»-S. Gill cover fully si'nlei!. Teelh single ]>oinlpd. Porsat and anal 
rising to an angle in front, straight edged or slightly coocave along 
tii>s of rays when fin is siiread. and sharp pointed behind as tip of 
last ray. Ualf-Vmm Fish, iledinhinn cnHfomienaig. Page (il!. 

GLOSSARY. 

Anal, fin: The unpaired fin aionf.- the lower .side of the body. 

Caudal fin -. The tail fin. 

Dorsal fin : The fin along tbe back. Sometimes separated into a first 
and seeond dorsal, the first part, whether separated op not. composed of 
spines in these fishes. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISn AKD GAME. 



61 



Fin rays: Tlie softer dpiiients that stiffen tlie fins. Differing from 
spines in not bciuff sharp. They are usually branched liki; those that 
make up the second dorsal in these fishes. 

Fin spines: Stiffer than rays, sharp at the tip and unliraneliod. 

Head: The head is measured from the tip of the snout along its side 
to the edge of the gill eover. 

Lateral Une : A line of pore bearing scales along the side of the body. 
In these fishes it is more or less arched upward and follows the outline 
of the back. 

Maxillary: The flattened bone just above the mouth and just above 
and behind the premaxillary. 

Opercte : The gill cover just behind the preopercle. 

Pectoral fins or pectorals : The fins just behind the gill openings, one 
on each side of the body. 

Premaxillary: The bone bordering the upper jaw that bears the 
teeth. 

Preopercle : The bone just behind the cheek that forms a ridge down- 
ward across the gill cover and turns at an angle forward. 

Preorhital: The bone just in front and below the eye. It reaches 
downward to the maxillary and its surface is covered with thin mem- 
brane. 

Snout : That part of the head in front of the eyes. 

Ventral fins or ventrals: The pair of fins on the lower side of the 
body under the pectorals. 

Vomer: A single unpaired bone that lies in the roof of the mouth 
directly behind the middle of the upper jaw. Do not mistake the 
palatines for it. They lie one at each side of the vomer parallel with 
the side of the jaw, and may or may not bear teeth. 

FAMILY SERRANIDve 

The Striped Bass (Roccus lineatua). 

This well-marked fish may be at once known by the dark horizontal 

stripes on the body, teeth on the vomer, a spine at the angle of the gill 

cover, and the pectoral fins not longer than the ventrals and not reacliing 




:. 21. Striped bai 



SO far back. There is another fish on our coast that has such stripes, 
but ]they are not so well marked and it lacks the above combination of 
characters. The eye is three or four times wider than the narrowest 

3-^4620 



i„vGoot^lc 



G2 Calipurnia fish and game. 

iwrt of tlu! prcorbital just Iwlinv it. Tlio inaxitlHry n-achcfi to helow 
till- middie of the i-yi', Tlic numtli is aniu'd with nithor fine sharp teeth. 
St-alea extend on top of the head to in front of the eyps. The edge of 
the preoperele is divide<l into many small sharp spines. The dorsal 
fina are separate from each other and about etiual in height. The second 
dorsal and anal have a sharp angle at the tips of the first rays. The 
middle caudal rays are shorter, making the outline of the fin concave. 

The color is silvery with brassy and coppery reflections, and marked 
with seven or eight blackish stripes, one of which is along the lateral line. 

The striped baas, though not a native member of our coast, is one of 
our important food lishes. It was introdiiecil from the Atlantic coast 
and has become abundant. It is caught to the limit of safety to the 
species, and being a much advertised fish it commands a high price. 
Though it is without question a very fine food fish, it is rather overrated. 
This fish reaches a weight of 80 or 90 pounds, and one was once 
reported on the Atlantic coast that weighed 112 pounds. 

Tha Black 8»> Baa* or Jewfith (Steraolepit gigat). 
This gigantic fish may usually be known by its size. The body is 
broad and robust, and covered with rather small scales. The top of the 
head between the eyes is wide and not very convex. The eyes are small, 
several times shorter than the length of the snont or the space between 
them. In small ones the edge of the preoperele is divided into spines. 
but the edge becomes nearly entire in large ones. Pine teeth are in 
broad bauds on the jaws. The dorsal fins are separate, and the first one 
is composed of short, stout spines that are shorter than the rays of the 
second dorsal. The pectorals arc rather round in outline, and reach 
past the tips of the ventrals. It is very dark brown or nearly black 
in color. 




This huge fish is rather abundant in southern California, and it is 
taken as far north as the Farallonc Islands. It reaches a length of six 
feet, or sometimes even more, and a weight of 500 or 600 imunds. 
A considerable amount of its flesh, cut in large cjiunks and salted, finds 
a ready market. Its flesh, however, is not of the best, being rather 
coarse grained. Those of small or moderate size are said to be better 
than the large ones. It is a famous fish among the anglers of big game 
fishes, and monsters of nearly 500 ponnds have been taken on tackle 
unbelievably light. Related to it is a huge jewfish of the south Pacific 
that is said to reach a length of 12 feet. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHE. 63 

The accoiiip allying drawiDg is a ('ompiisite i-ei^onstmctcd from several 
|)!iotograph8, ail of wliieli show the (islira ining l>y tlio lower jaw and 
the head imu-li distorted, Tlic piiotographs show eonsideral)te variation 
in the depth of the body as compared with the length, and a marked 
variation in the relationship of the anal fin below the soft dorsal. In 
some the two fins end evenly behind. In others the ana] projects much 
farther backwards. 

Rock Batt or Sand Bat* (ParaJabrax clathratui). 
As in the other members of this family the vomer is rough with small 
teeth, and the hind part of the upper edge of the maxillary is but little 
hidden under the preorbital bone just above it. The third dorsal spine 
is about twice as long as the second and scarcely as long as the fourth. 
The eye is twice as wide as the bony part of the preorbital space just 
below it. Small, fine spines are on the edge of the preoperele bone, 
and a flattened spine is just in front of the soft flap at the edge of the 
gill cover. It isateel-gray below with the upper part of the side mottled 
and barred with broad blotches of dark color with silvery gray between. 
The fins are all tinged with yellow. There are no small, round, dark 
spots on the head or body. Fig. 24. 



This bass is an excellent food fish. It reiiehes a length of 19 or 20 
inches and. a weight of 5 pounds. It is found from San iraneisco 
southward along the Lower California coast, and is most al in lant below 
the Santa Barbara ('hannel. This and the oth r two spec es of 
Paralabrax are all known as rock bass, kelp bass, and cabnlla without 
distinguishing between them. I have more or less arbitrarily restricted 
the use of these names in the hope that the species may be more con- 
sistently distinguished from each other by common names. 

Kalp Bats or Johnny Verde (Paralabrax nebulifar). 

This ba.^ may be known by tiic small, round, dark spots on the side 

of the head, particularly below and in front of the eye, and, usually, 

on the side of the tail just in front of the caudal fin. The teeth on the 

, , ■: ,GtX>^lc 



64 CAUFORNIA FlSn AND QAUE. 

vomer and tlic relative inverinj^ of Iho niHxillary liy tlic jireorbital i.s as 
in the rock bass. The third dorsal spine is eonsiderably more than twice 
as long as the second and is longer than the fourth. The eye is as wide 
as tlie Irony part of the j»reorbital sjmee just below it. The spines on 
the edge of the preoperele and the flat spine on the gill cover do not 
differ much from those of the roek bass. The small seales on top of 
the head extend forward to opposite the f i-oot of the eyes. The ground 
color is solid greenish to under the middle of the second dorsal, behind 
which the color of the back and side is irregularly broken with short 
wavy lines. The under parts of the body are pure white. On the front 
of the body are some traces of irregular dusky bands extending down 
and back. The first dorsal bas a large dusky spot in front, and the 
anal fin is a bright slate-blue. The cheek and region below the eye arc 
covered with small round golden or yellowish-brown spots. Pig, 25, 



Fig, 25. Johnny Vcidr or kctp bass (roraiabrox nfltuliftr). 

This bass is a very good food fish, differing little in this respect from 
the roek bass and spotted kelp bass. It is rather abundant on the coast 
of southern California, and has been occasionally taken as far north as 
Hlonterey Bay, while southward it extends its range along Lower Cali- 
fornia. It reachts a len}^th of about 18 inches. 

Spotted Kelp Bai> or Cabrilla (ParaJabrax maculatofaecFatui.) 

The spotted bass may he at once known by the small spots that every- 
where cover the head and body and extend over the second dorsal and 
caudal fins. In common with the other members of the family 
Serranidfe the vomer is rough with fine teeth and the maxillary is only 
slightly hidden by the bones above it. It resembles the kelp bass 
(P. nebuHfer) and differs from the rock bass (P. chthratus) in having 
the third dorsal spine longer than the fourth, and the eye as wide as 
the prcorbital space below it. It differs from the kelp bass in color, and 
in having the fine scales on top of the head not extending forward 
beyond the middle of the eye.s. The color is greenish-brown covered 
over with small, round, dark brown spots very close together. These 
extend onto the soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins. On the side of the 
head the spots are smaller and tinged with golden color. Six or seven 
dusky bars extend down from the back across the body. On these the 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 65 

spots are darker and more or less run together, A dusky-bluisli strea); 
extends from the eye down and back across the cheek. Fig. 26. 

This is one of the very few shore fishes found on our coast that extends 
its range southward as far as Mazatlan, Mexico. It has not been 
reported north of the Santa Barbara Channel. It reaches a length of 
18 inches and as a food fish ranks with the other two basses of the 
genus Paralabrax. 



Fig. 26. Spoiled kelp bass or cabrilla (Paralabrat marulalofascialas). 

FAMILY H/EMULID/C. 
Sargo (AnitotrBmu* davidtoni). 
The sargo is a deep bodied fish that may be at once known by the 
dark band that extends down across the body, and the dark spot on and 
above the pectoral base. The mouth is sniatlj slightly sloping from 
the horizontal, armed with fine teeth set in bands, and with thick, fleshy 
lips. When the mouth is closed the lower jaw scarcely projects beyond 
the upper. The maxillary, which is considerably covered by the hones 
above it, scarcely reaches back to under the front of the eye. The edge 
of the preopercle Ls armed with small spines. The ba.sc of the spinous 
doraal is longer than the second dorsal. The dorsals are connected, 
and the longest spines are longer than the longest rays. The base of 
the anal is short, or scarcely equal to more than half the distance from 
the anal to the base of the ventral spine. The caudal is somewhat 
forked, or deeply concave behind. The pectoral is long and pointed, 
about as long as the head and reaching well past the tips of the veatrals. 
Color grayjah-silvcry, dark above with many dark points. A black 
cross-band extends down from the middle of the spinous dorsal across the 
sido to a point on a level with the pectoral base. The base of the pectoral 
is black, with the black extending some distance upwards and touching 
the edge of the gill cover. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



C.U.1PURNIA FtSlI AND QAUE. 



This huh ranges from San Pedro Bonthward along the Lower Cali- 
fornia coast. In the Bummer time it is reported to be not uDcommon 
al>out San Diego and the Santa Barbara Islands. It reaches a length 
of somewhat over a foot. 




Thi 



Big-eysd Baa* (Xaniitiui calif orniansii). 
is not a true bass, but belongs to the related family Rtemulids. 



It has no teeth on the vomer, and a eonsiderable portion of the maxillary 
is covered by the bones just above it. It somewhat resembles the striped 
bass in the shape of the fins and in having stripu's lengthwise of the 
body, l>Ht the stripes are not nearly so conspicuous. The eye is very 
large; its diameter greater than the space between the eyes on top of 
the head, and about equal to the distanee from its front margin to the 
tip of the lower jaw when the mouth is closed. The mouth is moderate 
in size, very oblique, and with the lower jaw projecting beyond it in 
front. There is no flat spine pointing backwards at the hind angle of 
the gill cover. The maxillary reaches to opposite the front of the large 




idovGoOt^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 67 

papil. Fine spines are around the edge of the preoperele. The pec- 
toral is pointed and extends farther back than the ventral fins. 
The first dorsal is rather triangular in shape, almost separated from the 
second dorsal, and is composed of rather stiff spines. The second dorsal 
resembles the anal fin. The scales feel very rough when the finger is 
passed over them in the direction of the head. The color is bright 
silvery, bluish above. Six or seven dark orange-brown stripes run 
lengthwise of the body. 

The big-eyed bass reaches a length of about a foot, and is found from 
southern California southward along the Lower California coast. It is 
reported to be sometimes common about San Diego. 



FAMILY KVPHOSID/E. 
Gr«enfiih or Opal Ey* (Girella ni| 
The greenfish has a bluntly rounded head and 



I moderately deep 

body. Small teeth are in bands on the jaws, attached to the membrane 
only and freely movable. Examination with a magnifier will show that 
each tooth is divided into three points. The maxillary is entirely hidden 
under the bones above it, leaving only the preraaxillary in sight when 
the month is closed. The maxillary scarcely reaches to below the front 




of the eye. The edge of the preoperele is not divided into fine spines, 
and behind it the gill cover is devoid of scales. The spinous dorsal is 
much longer than the soft dorsal and broadly attached to it. The 
spines do not decrease much in length towards the last ones, and the 
longest ones are about as long as the longi'st rays. The rays of the 
anal fin are about as long as the base of that fin. The pectoral is short 
and rounded, nearly as long as the head, and scarcely reaching as far 
hack as the tips of the venlr«Is. The caudal fin is slightly concave. 
The color is olive-green, paler on lower parts, the fins dusky greenish. 
Small ones hnvi' a yellowish spot uu. the hack, and the fins have liright 
blue borders. The blue color qiiickly fades when the fish dies. The 
eye is a beautiful opal blue and green, hence the name, opal eye, that 
is sometimes applied to it. It is also called bluefish and blue-eyed perch. 



68 



CALIFOBNtA Fltil! 



The former oame should be discouraged as it is oot related to the 
famouR bluefish, and the latter is doubly unfortiiuate, for it is neither 
a perch nor related to the fishes on our coast that we wrongly call 
perches. The name was doubtless given it from a fancied resemblance 
to the false perches, but aside from the shape of the body, it has 
nothing in common with them. 

Though the greenfish is herbivorous, feeding very largely on sea 
weed, it will bite a hook baited with a bit of clam or abalone. It scarcely 
esefeds a foot in leogth, and when fresh is a food fish of very good 
quality, but its flesh is rather soft and does not keep well. It is found 
in abundance from Ran Francisco southward to the coast of Lower 
California. Small ones arc very abundant in tide pools. 

Half Moon (Medialuna californioniii). 
The half moon is a compressed deep bodied fish that may be known 
from its relatives on our coast by the complete covering of fine scales 
that extends over the anal and second dorsal fins, and to a leas extent 
over the caudal. The mouth is small, slightly oblique, and armed with 
fine c\en teeth set in broad bands. The maxillary scarcely reaches 
back to lielow the front of the eye. The lower jaw scarcely projects 




iH'yond the upper when the mouth is closed. The edge of the preopercle 
is thin, membranous, and not divided into fine sharp points. The first 
dorsal is connected with the second and is very much lower, the longest 
spines being little longer than the diameter of the eye. The anal is 
shorter than the soft dorsal but resembles it in shape, being highest in 
front, where it rises to an angle and sharp pointed behind at the tip 
of the last ray. The caudal is evenly concave behind. The pectoral is 
rounded, mnch shorter than the head, and not reaching nearly so far 
hack as the tips of the vcntral.s. The color is dark steely gray, lighter 
below, and more or less moltlcd, all of the fins are dark, and the dorsal 
and anal nearly black. 

Thi« fish is verj- hcauliful in its lines and color. It is taken in con- 
siderable abundance almut nicky places on the southern California 
loast. and is reiinrtecl In he a very •rood pan lish. It reaches a length 
of about a foot. 



CALIFORMtA FISH AKD GAME. 69 

BEAR HUNTING WITH BOWS AND ARROWS. 

By SAXTON POPE. .-——■— 

For some years back a number of lis id San Franeiaco have been 
hunting with the bow and arrow, purely for sport. A powerful bow 
is an effective weapon, but it takes months of practice to be able to 
shoot it well. Such a bow pulls 75 pounds. 

Having killed rabbits, quail, squirrels, bobcats, skunks, foxes, and 
deer, we naturally wanted to try our hand on a bear. We knew that a 
bear is a hard animal to kill even with a gun, but we also knew that 
the Indians killed him with a bow. So we wanted to find out just how 
much there was to the game. Our friends of course were very skeptical. 
They said that an arrow would hardly go through his hide. 



Fig. }I. Black 



wilh bowB and anoKS by Arthur Young and Saxlon Pop 
in Panlhffn Canyon, Humboldl County, California. 



We got in communication with Thomas Murphy of BloeksburR, Hum- 
boldt County, who hunts bear as a business. He has been at thia sort 
of thing for thirty years and never fails to get about a dozen bear 
every winter. So we packed up our strongest bows and several dozen 
broadhead arrows, and Arthur Young and I went up to Blocksburg. 

Murphy was willinR to let us shoot at a bear, but he insisted upon 
carrying a gun in case of aecidonts. He said he didn't want to lose a 
valuable dog over the affair. 

After four unsuccessful hunts, we at last treed a good-sized bear up 
a tall fir. After securing the dogs, Mr. Young and I took our stand 
about thirty yards from the base of the tree, on the sidehill, and let 
drive two arrows at one time. Both shafts struck the bear in the 
chest, going completely through, feathers and all. 

Quick as a flash the bear wheeled about and began descending the 
tree. We ran up close and shot him again as lie neared the ground, and 
bounded down the hill. Murphy turned the dogs loose, and tbey all 
went crashing through the brush together. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



70 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAUE. 

Pretty a(Min wv licanl tlu-iii Iwy him asrain. iiiid wii riislipd a quarter 
of a inilo down tin; eanymi to tiinl liiiii uittiiifr on thii limb of aiiotlier 
fir, holdiiiir on like a iiiiin. W<' sln)t again and lie dropped to thu 
ground, where the dogN hei-h'd him and went flying iiast haDt^'HR o° 
to a hind leg. The h^nv immediately mounted a nearhy oak, not over 
eight inches in diameter, and swung out on a limb. At close range, 
we shot arrow after arrow through his chest while he slipped further 
out on the bending limb, and at last fell to the {jround, rolling over 
and over down the canyon. The doj^ were on him in a second, and 
by the time we reached the ireek bed, the b<'ar was dead. 

Murphy performed the autopsy, giving the hounds the liver and 
lights. Eleven arrows had gone through the beast, seven of these 
through the chest. The lungs were collapsed and pulmonary hemor- 
rhage finished him. The first two shots would have been enough if we 
had waited. 

It was a three year old female black bear, weighing about 150 
pounds. That it was no larj^er was no fault of ours. The arrows cut 
ribs in two at several points and undoubtedly could have penetrated 
any beast with a hide less resistant than a hippo or an elephant. 



NOTES ON THE ABTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF THE SPINY 
LOBSTER. 

By P. S. BARNHART, Scrlppi ln*tAutlon for Biological Reiearch. 

Because of its possible bearing on the future artificial propagation 
of the spiny lobster, i'aiiuHnis iiitcrruiiliis, I think it might be worth 
while to make a record of the conditions under which eggs were hatched 
and the young carried through the phyllosome stage of development. 

It has alway.s been ea.sy to Bceiire berried lobsters and obtain from 
them the first stage of the young. These have always died before 
passing through further stages of development, even though kept in 
fresh running sea water, suppasedly under ideal conditions. 

B. M. Allen working under the auspices of the California Pish and 
Game Commission in Ifll, constructed elaborate batching boxes at the 
inlet to False Bay, where a plentiful supply of fresh water was con- 
stantly available and the water in the boxes kept in constant agitation 
by means of a rotating wheel. In his published notes (1916) he says; 

"There is no ditfieulty in securing the young. It is only necessary 
to impound spawn-bearing females. The young hatch very readily 
even after the spawn-bearing parent has been kept in captivity for 
weeks. Attempts to rear them, however, proved futile. Their extreme 
delicacy apd pelagic habit make tbeir culture an especially difficult 
problem. ' ' 

On May 14, 1918, a berried lobster was placed in a large concrete 
tank, 6 by 9 feet, in the research aquarium of the Scripps Institution. 
This tank contained ai»proximatcly 800 gallons of water. A small jet 
furnished about 5 gallons of water an hour. The 20th of June two 
green turtles weighing about :10 pounds each were placed in the same 
tank. Every few days after this quantifies of a green alga was thrown 
in for the turtles to feed upon. Much nf this rotted and accumulated in 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 71 

one c-onier of tlie tiiuk iiikUt and antnni] a lot of Ijirjic -stoncK wli(*r« the 
lolwtcr kept ilself hiddoii. 

The in- and outflow from (he tank w«« not cniinKh to ki-i'ii Mio watur 
I)erfe(;ti'ly fresh and it bc^ati to take on the inilkly hue indicHtivc of bad 
water. This finally hticamc so bad that Ideeided to clean thn tank out. 
On the 10th of July I started to do this, l)iit where the sun struck the 
water I noticed that there was a slight movement on the surface as of 
many small animals movinp; about. I immediately made a haul with a 
fine net and was mueh surprised to find quantities of phyllosomes. 
Many of these were put into fre.sh running water where they remained 
alive for several days, but gradually died off. Those remaining in the 
large tank kept alive about eight days when they also died. As far as 
I was able to observe these were in the small, first phyllosome stage. 

This experiment might indicate that, while bearing and hatching the 
eggs, the adult seeks comparatively quiet water where there is much 
decaying vegetation. It surely proves that fresh dean water is not 
necessary for their hatching and development to the phyllosome stage. 
Allen found that spawn-bearing females usually "seek sheltered spots 
in the lea of islands or points of land and take refuge in sheltered 
crevices of rocks alongshore." 

I hope to repeat tbis experiment this year on a much larger scale. 

IS THE HERRING GULL INSEOTIVORODS? 

By A. C. BURRILL, Idaho Station EntDmeloglat'i Office. 

Some individuals doubt that gulls naturally eat insects. They con- 
sider that the blowflies reported eaten by gulls (Dr. Dutcher, President 
of National Association of Audubon Societies), were merely gulped 
down when some gull seized a beached fish on which the flies might 
have been ovipositing. This seems probable and also that some other 
insects eaten, as the white grub's adults, the May beetle, may have 
been washed up on shore alongside fish and so included with the bigger 
mouthful, even if the young gulls were being fed by their mothers at 
the time. (By the Wayside, Feb., 1912, p. 42.) 

In The Auk (v. 19, p. 46), Doctor Dutcher saw at the No-Man 's- Land 
Gull Reservation, Maine, young gulls which, as soon as able to leave 
the rookery, went in flocks to neighboring grass and potato fields and 
ate immense numbers of grasshoppers and potato beetles. This doesn't 
look like mere beach scavenging, does it? Yet I agrco that many 
insects can be easily swallowed unintentionally by scavenging gulls. 
In the summer of 1910, 1 related in a recent note how the gulls cleaned 
up the fish driven ashore on Lake Michigan. Whitefish Bay, "Wisconsin. 
At that time there were thousands of beetles, largely ladybirds (Coc- 
eJnellids) of many kinds, along the beach, besides various other unfor- 
tunates, 80 that a gull would have great difficulty in cleaning a tish 
body of all of the smaller fry before swallowing. 

Owing to the lack of material, former Chief Henshaw says, our Fedc- 
eral Biol<^cal Survey has made very few stomach analyses of this species. 
But just lately Dr. A. S. Alexander called to my attentiiin a S;-ottish 
work (Transactions of the Highiiuid and Agricultural Soeict.y oi 
Scotland) in which in 1912 is given the analysis of 616 KcottLsh bird 



;dnyGoO(^lc 



72 caupobvia pish and game. 

sl'itii;irljM, incliiilitii! 44 lii-rritiif triilLs i On- same hs ours, fjttrmc fi,-)'ii- 
liihis <iii...|.p. TliiH x.'.'iiis to ai-<-<)r.l s.. w.-li with thf little' known h-t- 
ilmt 1 vi'iiliin; lu ([initf in the words nf thf iiitlior. Mi» I.^tirii Klorvn ■. 
<'iirii<'K'<' Scholar in tho IriiviTsity of AlMrdfeii. piibliahetl at Kiliw- 
liijr([h: "Summafy: 15 corilBiiii'd fish; 3, carrion; 13, shells; 4, refuse; 
1, lirittlr Hiar; 4, crnritncpa ; 3, insects of injurious groap ; 2. insects 
of iniiifTcrout (troiip; :(. earthHorma ; 3. p<)tatoes; 9, graia; 14. grass; 
!l, w'ciIh," At;aii], kIic HhIa the food for a single male shot at Doninouth 
in Alx-nl.-cii, Oct, 31, llllOr "Stomach about quarter full: fra^nicnls 
iind husks of grain; fragments of chitin; forceps of an ea.rvFig (Forfi- 
chiliadir) ; grass." The chitin mentioned may have been other parts 
iif the siiiiie earwig or some other insect. This work was supervise-i bv 
Ihii well-known /.iM>logistH, Professors J. Arthur Thompson and J. W, H. 
Tntil. 



litt .'•' II i; i!"!'. ...I l.....l.,it i!r..„r,.l.. No Mnris Land. Votth Carolina. 

(■l,..|..i,-,,-,|.li t,y IkTlnit A. J..b. 

_ 'I'hirly per cent of llicsc trulls, tlierefore, ate fish, but the amount of 
fisli iiiiitcria) must liavc been mnch lesa than that. Compare Mr- 
Ilciisliaw's Rtalemeiit recarding American gulls: "The herring guU 
can lio oirisidered a (ish cuter only to a very limited extent. Oceasion- 
idly, wo have found the remains of fish in the stomach contents, but 
there has always been collateral evidence that the fi.sh were eaten in 
the shape of olFal. When about harbors and inland waters, its prin- 
cipal food consists of garbage. Wc have a nnmbcr of stomachs col- 
lected in Maine by Dutcher. and these contain the remains of June 
bugs and other insects with about 10 per cent of fish garbage, showins 
that the herring gull is in some loealitics and to some extent, at lenst, 
insectivorous." 

In Leslie's Weekly, for Sept. o. 1!)!2, there is a view of the American 
battleship "Utah," near (Jalveston, Texas, surrounded by sea gulls 



CAIJFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 73 

picking up refuse. In an earlier issue, February, 1909, is another of 
gulls pieking up fish from a school of herring on the high sea. This is 
more often true of the kittiwake gull or of the stormy petrel, dias 
"Mother Carey's Chicken," well shown in Collier's Weekly for Sept. 6, 
1913 (p. 15), though Mabel Osgood Wright says the name hurrjiig 
gull was given this bird "because as they were originally fishermen by 
trade, their presence flying above the water told where schoob of 
herring were to be found. Today the schools of herring are less 
plentiful along our shores, and the value of this gull, though greater 
than ever, is due to a difiEerent source." Now gulls act as scavengers, 
becoming "the health officers of the coast" (November, 1907, The 
Herring or Harbor Gull, Edue. Leaflet No. 29. The Nat. Ass. Ami. 
Soc., N. Y. City). 

Mr. Brann (By the Wayside, January, 1912), claims gulls still dive 
for fish occasionally in Green Bay, Wisconsin, but Mr. Henshaw 
rather disputes this for the United States as a whole, and so writes 
friend W. T. Davis, a careful observer and naturalist of Staten Island, 
New York Harbor (letter, Dee. 31, 1912). One of the best refutations 
of much fish being eaten by gulls came out in the Pall Mali Gazette 
(Feb. 6, 'i912), Mr. F. G. Aflalo sayin<r: 



Fig. 33. Sea gulls flying over headlands, La Valle, CaHtornia. Pholograph by L. Hugo. 

"The public mind is constantly being misled on this subject of the 
destructiveness of gulls by journalists with a passion for statistics. 
Only the other day a morning paper published what purported to be the 
pictorial menu of a sea gull during the year. It was shown in terms 
of a great line of barrels of herrings, 146 barrels, each containing 500 
herrings, to a total not far short of 200 pounds sterling. There were 
two very obvious fallacies in this reckoning. In the first place it 
assumed that the whole of the 73,000 herrings thus consumed as fry, 
would have grown to maturity if the gull had left them alone. To put 
it mildly, this is by no means proved ; to put it frankly, it is rubbish. 



74 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

Moreover, this imposing cartoon gave no hint of the tons of oflfal and 
garbage which, to the great benefit of many a harbor, these feathered 
scavoQgers consume every year. The picture told, in fact, what was 
not true, and suppressed what was." 

Mr. C. W. Creel, in charge of the ecreal and forage insect inveti- 
gationfl laboratory of the United States Bureau of Entomology, at 
Forest (irove, Oregon, informs that often, when the farmers are plow- 
ing in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, gulls come in large floeks to work 
over the land, whether after insects or field rodents would be a very 
interesting line of inve.stigation. Likewise we have a photograph ol 
many gulls visiting plowed land in California, and suppose that this 
is the California gull. However, it will be interesting to hear from 
other olwervers, if the herring gull, which is less common there than 
in other parts of America and Europe, still shows sufficient interest in 
plowed fields in California to associate with the California gulls in 
their field patrols. 

One species of gull flies up the C'olumbia River and has been reported 
in spring as far up the Snake River Canyon as Lewiston, Idaho, per 
Adjutant (icneral Charles Moody, showing that even inland Idaho, 
though lacking large lakes, may be within the flying zone of this 
valuable species. In the Big Bend country of eastern Washington, 
sonic of the farmers who were worried by the large armies of coulee 
crickets in the spring of 1918, were discussing if there would be any 
advantage in shipping a few pairs of gulls to the desert country to 
, eat up these crickets and thus attract more gulls to fly in from the 
coast, and thus repeat the well-known tale of the Mormons and the 
ftromioii crickets of Utah, and the deliverance effected by the gulls. 
Further data is invited. 

Messrs. B. G. Thompson and M. M. Reeher, special field agents of 
Mr, Creel's office, have furnished the following details, Mr, Thompson 
was sent into the grasshopper afflicted district near Bums, Harney 
County, Oregon. May, 1918, where he met a Mr. McQee who said that for 
several years gulls had been working on grasshoppers. Messrs. Thomp- 
son and McGee went out to look for a new band of hoppers in May and 
after a long hunt saw at a distance about a thousand gulls feeding on the 
land. Mr. Mc-Gee felt sure that they would find the hoppers near there, 
and on going over to sec, found the gulls so gorged that they would 
hardly get out of tlie way. The gulls were busily picking up the young 
hoppers. Mr. Reeher was sent into Langells' Valley, near Klamath 
Falls, Oregon, early in June, 1918. His guide told him that a few 
gulls visited the tioppers the year before, .and showed him this June, 
1918, about five hundred gulls feeding on hoppers. We have no data 
as to what species of gull this wa.^, save that it was white with bluish 
slate-colored wings, which answers to at least tliree species. As the 
California and ring-billed gulls breed in colonies on Klamath Lake, it 
seems reasonable to believe that birds of these two species were 
implicated. 

These facts are given to show that gulls may be quite as well worth 
study in the West as in the East, and their i)rotection quite as necessary. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



FRANK A. SHEBLEY. 

The death of Prank 
A. Shehley, one of the 
oldest employees of the 
Kinli and Game Com- 
mission, which oc- 
curred in a hospital in 
Yreka, December 21, 
1918, eame as a pro- 
found shock to scores 
of friends. Although 
he had been uncon- 
scious for seven hours 
after the accident to 
the aiito bus in which 
he was riding hetween 
Port Jones and Yreka, 
several days before, on 
Saturday morning 
there was every indica- 
tion that he wouid get 
well, but a sudden 
change which occurred 
late in the afternoon 
ended in death. 

Prank Shebley was 
born in Nevada county 
nearly forty-seven 
years ago. He was the 

son of California's first famous fish culturist, and had succeeded 
before his death, in company with hi.s brother, William H. Shebley, 
in making a reputation as great if not greater in the same line of 
endeavor than that of the father, wlio had gone before. As a boy, he 
followed farming on his father's place, but for the past twenty-five 
years has been identified exclusively with fish culture in connection 
with the California Fish and Game Commisaion, and there are few men 
on the Pacific slope who knew as much about fish and fishing in the 
waters of the rivers and bays as Frank Shehley knew. During his 
experience with the Commission he was the superintendent of the Price 
Creek hatchery in Humboldt county, and the Brookdale hatchery in 
Santa Cruz county, and recently the new Mount Whitney hatchery in 
Inyo county. Under his management the Brookdale hatchery became 
very popular and was sought out l>y sportsmen from all over California 
as a place of great interest. Also interested in angling as a sport, he 
was a master of the fly rod and a skilled angler. In recent years he had 
given some attention to Jand invesfmeuts, as well as mining ventures, 
and with W. P. Netherton of Santa Cruz was the owner of e<msiderable 
property in Texas. 

Few employees of the Fish and Game Connnissioii have been so uni- 
versally loved as has Frank Shebley. His genial (lersouality and per- 
petual good humor won for him hosts of frienli, Ilis loss will, there- 
fore, be a personiil one to many. Mr. Shebley s ' sli i-ullural attainments 
furnish assurance that the vacancy left by his d, ;■! Ii will be hard to fill. ^ 



76 



CAIJPORNIA FISH AND QAMB. 



CALIFORNU FISH AND GAME 

A publlatlim aBvot«d to Uw con»v»«- 
»" at wEld Ufa and publlstied quarUrl]' 
■-- "-'■' — •- ""iti FUh »Dd OUD* 



br th« CkllfoniU 

Commlnlon. _ .. 

Ssnt (rM to eltlMna o[ Uia 8UI* ol C*ai- 

fomU. OITerod la exchaiiKa tor omltho- 

lOKleal. mvnmiaoKlCkl and Blnillar psrlod- 

Tho article* publlAad In C»i.lFO«Mii F»H 
ANb Oahi are not copyrlahtod and may b* 
reproduced In otber perTixllcaU. provldod 
duo credit li glvan the CalKomla Fiih and 
Qune ComnilealDn. Bdltora o( neirapapara 

and periodical* are Invited " '" ' 

pertinent matorlaL _ ^ 

All material for publication cbauld be 
■ent to H. C. Bryant, Muaeum or Verte- 
brate Zoology, Berkeley, Cal. 



April 21, 1B19. 



"Conaarvatlon daala witl 



those tnlngi 

momenta of 



OUR MAILING LIST. 

Tlie mniliOK list for CALiyoBNiA Fisii 
AND (iAUE has bi^n entirely revised. 
Those who (lid not take Ihe trouble tu 
Hign the card enclosed in Ihe October 
niimlMT liBve bi-en removed from the list 
ro<|u<-st alone nil! 



'plucr' 






There have liccn so many additions in 
onr mailinB list of iHte (lint Ihp edition 
imblished lins had to lie increased. This, 
ID connection with a marked increase in 
coet o( printing, leads us to it])eciilate as 
lo Ihe iKiKSihility ot eoDtiniiiiiK tree dis- 
tribulion. It may well be that some 
small charge will have lo be made for the 
tnnsazinc in the future. If this change 
Itecomea ni-ci'ssary, we will but lie follow- 
Ide the lend of several other states. A 
reKnlar snliseriplion list would allow a 
Brest RHvinf; in jioslace in Ihat the macn' 
lelnc eould Ihcu be mailed as second-claas 

PENDING LEGISLATION. 

1.1'HS iulportnnt bsh nud game leKislu- 
(ion has come bofiire the present legisla- 
ture than for many years past. The bills 
that have been introduced nre less radical 
in nature and notably less in number. 
Tlic few retatinK to name wiiich stand out 
as desirable are : A bill grantinn discre- 
tionary powers to the Fish nud Game 
Commission which would allow better ad- 
min is (rat ion of fish and gai 



bills makins tbe stale law* conform wilt 
the new federal TesDl'tioDS ; and OM t^ 
modeling tbe diatricting act to indodr 
two new game refugm, an area in tht 
vicinity ot Mt. Bre<*enridge. K«» 
Connt;. and an area on Mt. Bamiltea. 
Santa Clara Coonty. 

Deeirable cbangee in the law reqainai 
fishways are provided for in two tnlli. 
and it is hoped that another bill p[«hibit- 
ing fishing within two bDndred and fiftr 
feet of any fiahway or screen will b* 
passed. An important bill provides for 
the inspection of all imported fish ege> 
or fish so tbat undesirables mar be qnar- 
antioed. 

Among undesirable bills rplating tv 
game are those which provide bonntin 
on predatory birds and on predatory mam- 
mals, one opening the bear season in dis- 
trlcls 2, 2A and 10, one openiDS the 
season on rabblU in the above districts 
one providing for the repeal of Ihe bnol- 
ing license law, and one providing for tbe 
sale of ducte killed when destroying rkx. 
A bill to permit the nse of a spear in 
taking trout in certain local districts tiH 
a p<;rniciouB shrimp bill are among those 
relating lo fish which would tear down 
present protective laws. 

It si'ems reoBonsble to believe that onr 
li'gislHtoni will look with disapproval on 
Ihose bills which are adverse to the best 
interests of onr fiab and game, and will 
stand b; Ihose tending to uphold protec- 
tion and couEerration for onr wild life 



1 



FIBH AND QAME COMMISSION INAUG- 
URATES EDUCATIONAL WORK AT 
SUMMER RESORTS, 
nclieving that a better knowledge of 
wild life will bring about better conser- 
vatiriu of it. and tbat wbeu people are 
on their summer vacations they are moat 
rcs|>onsive to cdncalion on wild life re- 
sounes. the California Fiab and Game 
Commission. Imcked by the Nature Study 
r..eague. will institute this coming sam- 
mcr a smcs of lecIur«B and nature study 
field (rips designed to stimulate interest 
in the proper conservation of natural re- 
sources. The Tahoe region bas been 
selected for the work this year. The 
work will be offered at six dilferent re- 
sorts. Tbe month of July ia the thne 
set. All lectures and cUsees will be open 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAME. 



77 



to the public and no fees will be charged. 
IlluBtrated lectures on the game birds. 
Bong birds, mammals and fish will furnish 
(^venios entertatQinent, and early morning 
tripB afield will give TacationistB an intro- 
duotion to mountain wild life. 

EIveryoDe wants to recogoiie the plants 
and wild things eneountered on the Hum- 
mer racatioD. There is no better way of 
deTeloping this ability than to accompany 
one who knows the trees, birds and r 
mala. Special attention nill be given the 
identification of birds by call, song, color 
and habits. Tbe motto oE these classKs 
will be : "Learn to read a roadside ae 
reads a boot." Knowledge of wild life 
insares better conservation of it. Special 
excaraioDB tor children wilt be conducted. 
These nature study lectures and Seld 
trips which compose the vacation camp 
work of the Bnreaa of Education, Pub- 
licity, and Research of the California 
Fiah and Game Conunission are designed 
to bring abont a healthy interest in the 
out-of-doors and in wild things that 
throngh knowledge proper public aenti- 
ment and proper conaervation of our natu- 
ral resources may be brought about. In 
other words, "conservation through edu- 
cation" is the end being sought. 

PRESERVE GAME RESOURCES. 

California's natural resources in fish 
nnd game, with its incomparable climate, 
it3 26,212 miles of fishing streams, its 
862.000 acres of lakes and every stage 
of climatic conditions to be found out of 
doors, are a gigantic magnet drawing 
people from remote comers of the earth. 
California should be the mecca for the 
bnman race. Tbe remarkable develop- 
ment o( road building of the past few 
years, with the development of tbe auto- 
mobile, have brought tbe people in touch 
with this wonderful fish and game asset. 

To bunt and fish is as natural to the 
California boy and girl as to breathe. 
The fanner and land owner is i>ractlcally 
(he breeder and miser of our game and he 
is ever zealous in its protection. His 
children hunt and fish whenever the sen- 
wn and opportunity offer. Not a family 
exists in our rural districts that does not 
own. as a family heirloom, a shotgun or 
a rifle, and both sexes of the children 
Bretanght their use. They can teach 



many an expert tite fine art of angling 
in the stream that Sows by his home. 

There in the rural districts you will 
find tbe nucleus of the strong, virile gen- 
eration that Northern Europe knowa so 
well and that will come after ub, for they 
live much in tbe open, where Cbey learn 
self-reliance. Jjet us not remove from 
them tbe natural opportunity to improve 
their physical being, but rather assist 
tliem by conserving our natural resources 
in fish and game. 

Continued changing and revising the 
fish and game laws wilt do more toward 
decimating our fish and game than all 
the hunters and fishermen can possibly 
do. The State E^sh and Game Commissioa. 
is a state body directing and superviriDg 
the entire work of fish and game protec- 
tion, propagation, distribution and con- 
servation. Thus the state is administered 
as a unit and a maximum degree of pro- 
tection can be given. This could not be- 
come nn actual possibility were each ot 
tbe fifty-eight counties given full and com- 
plete control within their respective bor- 
ders. With fifty-eight separate and dis- 
tinct districts, ranging from a mere hand- 
ful of population to half a million, each 
endeavoring to handle the affairs of each 
for themselves and not one for the other, 
one can easily imagine the chaotic state 
of affairs that would result. Thus one 
can realize why experimental legislation 
would be and is more detrimental to the 
unsurpassed fish and game interests of 
California than all her hunters and fish- 
n, alien and domestic. — Editorial, 
Sacramento f7nton, Feh. 16, 1918. 



!w, if any, natural resources of a 
' are admiuistered with so slight a 
to taxpayers as is fish and game. 
Wild birds, mammals and fish yield a 
splendid annual return in food and sport, 
y nothing of their help in controlling 
I, and this wild life does not need 
food or shelter, but simply reosonable 
protection. Not one dollar is appropriated 
by the state for its maintenance. The 
small burden falls entirely upon those 
■ho make most use ot the resource. The 
hunters and anglers of this state by pay- 
1 small license fee of $1,00 furnish 



DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc 



78 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAUE. 



the [unilx unod to enforce fish and game 

]t[iin,v persons are iftnorant of these faclE 
nnd these are the ones that coDtiniiall; 
■'oni plain of Ih« high cost of fish and 
eame admiDiRt ration. 

"NOW BEGINS THE SEASON." 
"Xi>w hrgiils Ihe season of tlip year 
ivhi'ii the weary I'ity man turns hiu face 
from the familiar crunda and noises of 
tiie eity to the country plnceH : whore be 
may fisli in the trout streams; plod over 
the hills with a gun on his shoulder in 
tiic hope of shooting sompthing ; dabble in 
■ the ocean wares at the beaehes ; or sleep 
all nijfht on the bard ground, ivilh queer 
noises going on in the wooda around him, 
curious little insects walking over his 
trady and tickling him. curious tittle ani- 
mals tiptoeing around among the leaves, 
and uniinown dangers, remembered from 
his primitive days, waiting to catch him 
and gobble him up."'— San Francisco flul- 
Icitn. June 30, 1914. 

It is good for a man to wander back 
nt intervals into the domain of old Dame 
Xature. Wliat good does it do? It means 
quickened pulse, hearty Bi>petite. an inex- 
pressible tingle of exhilaration in every 
nerve, better poise, greater resiliency of 
step, augmented power of body and mind 
for the battles of the workaday world. 

W'hat element is more important in 
making insistent the call to marsh, field, 
and mountain tban that furnished by the 
wild life? Exterminnle tbe game and you 
make tiie world drearier, more monoto- 
nous, less interesting. Exterminate Cali- 
fornia's game and you turn one of the 
most attractive of the sisterhood of states 
into a desolate ■Kaete.— Western Wild Li!< 
Vail, No. 4. 



txis Banoa and other San Joaqui 
points have heretofore supplied most of 
the ducks for the market. Changed condi- 
tions have moved the activilies of market 
hunters to ColuHa, Sutler and Yuba coun- 
ties. Tbe cily of Colusa, being in the 
center of operations, became tbe rendez- 
vous of most of the market hunters. Tbe 
fact that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
prohibits the sale of alt waterfowl made 



3 difference to these n 



who shoot for 



The difficulty of detecting sale tranaac- 
Cions is evidenced by the following facts: 
One of the most notorious hunters maio- 
taincd a joint in t^tlusa where ducks were 
dispensed after the pnssword bad be«n 
given. So notorious had the place become 
for the distribution of ducks that travel- 
ing men had no difficulty in purchasing 
them at any time. It was the cuatnni of 
these men to keep a supply of dcdis on 
hand in order that they might gnaranlee 
the limit to sn-called city "sportsmen" 
whom these hunters took out at 3J much 
per day. The surplus ducks were shipped 
to Kan Francisco and Sacramento under 
fictitioi]H names to t)e distributed' by 

Ttie proprietor of this joint, with three 
other well-known market hunters, waa de- 
lected on October 15, 1918. the day pre- 
vious Co the opening of the season, with 
226 ducks and ooe snipe in his possession. 
Information waa filed against these four 
defendants, Charles Giiemsey, J. T. 
Slaley, Frank ChamlwrB, and Joe P. 
Meyers. They were indicted by the Fed- 
eral Grand Jury and were tried by jury 
on February 4. 1M9. at Sacramento, 
.Judge Van Fleet presiding. The jury re- 
turned a verdict of guilty in eleven min- 
utes, and the defendants were sentenced 
to pay $100 each or In defanlt serve 60 
days in jail. 

Much credit is due state and federal 
wardens Carpenter and Ludlum, Deputy 
United States Game Warden E. S. Cat- 
tron and Assistant United States Attor- 
ney Johnson for the manner in which tbe 
case was handled. As this was the Grat 
ease in California under the Migratory 
Bird Treaty Act, .Judge Van Fleet did 
not impose a maximum fine, but warned 
all future offenders to beware. 

Geo. Neale. 

mendocino rancher makes good 

KILL, 
Mr. Frank Williams, a aheep rancher 
of Calpella, Mendocino County, recently 
succeedeil in kiiling a black bear which 
had been killing sheep in the vicinity for 
several years. It weighed 300 pounds. 
A mountain lion was killed the aame day. 
(See Fig. 32.) I>urinB the winter of 
1!>13 seven lions were killed in this 
vicinity. 



i.„Gooi^le 



CALIPORKIA PISH AND OAHE. 



I for 



rwiit 



r of 



GAME LA' 

Persons who violate the slate rsdic law 
on uational forests now become liable lo 
proHPCution in the federal courts. A reg- 
ulation recently issued by the Secretary 
of Agriculture is as follows : 

"The eoing or beioK upon any land of 
the United Slutes, or in or on the waters 
thenH)f. within a National Forest, with 
intent to hunt, catcb. trap, wilfully dis- 
tnrb or bill any kind of game animal, 
^me or non-game bird, or liab, or to 
take tbe eggs of any such bird, in viola- 
tion of the laws of the state in which such 
land or waters are situated, is hereby 
prohibited." 

BEAVER HIDES CONFISCATED. 

Deputies Newsome and Sellmer, while 
on patrol work alons (he Taolamne River. 
dist'ovcted J4 green beaver hides in the 
eamp of a trapper. The trapper, fcarinc 
the hand of the law. had fled. If the at- 
tempts being made to locate Ibc trapper 
are successful, prosecution will follow. 



iph by Una BoyLc. 
DEPUTY ACQUITTED AT TRIAL. 
Deputy Carpenter of Maxwell, Colusa 
Count}', was recently made defendant in a 
suit to compel payment for seventy-three 
ducks which ho seized from three Colusa 
market hunters. Tbe commission's attor- 
ney, K. D. Duke, handled Che case in a 
masterly way when it came to trial by 
jury at Colusa on February 11. Attorney 
Duke contended that the justice bad no 
jurisdictioD in the case and that it should 
be tried by a federal court, but he w«b 
overruled by Justice of the Pcoce, Moore. 
XeverthelesH. the outcome was a verdict 
in Deputy Carpenter's favor. This viU' 
dicalion of the game laws by a jury in 
Colusa augurs well lor the future. 



' furnishing of proper food lo the 
Ds of fisb reared in our hatcheries 
I small problem. Until tbe cost 
it prohibitive, beef liver waa largely 



CAUFORNIA FISH AKD GAHE. 



used in the preparatioa ot fi«h food. With 
the increase of cost wholesale in San 
Francisco from 5 centa lo 12 cents per 
pound, it became necessary to seek a sub- 
stitute, lliis nsB found in refuse fish 
costing but 4 cents per pound. A product 
of a Gsh reduction plant known as crack- 
lings has been found usable, but hardly as 
satisfactory as beef liver. 



It is reported that in 1918 the principal 
nhalinjc company on the Pacific Coast, 
with stations in Washington, British Col- 
umhia and Alaska, took 909 whales, of 
which about 200 were of the set species 
{BalarnopteKi borcalit), whose meat is 
light colored and particularly good for 
canning. One right whale was captured ; 
it yielded 1.600 pounds of excellent baleen. 
Four samples of this baleen, 8 to 9 feet 
in lonsth, have been sent to the bureau 
for exhibition purposes. The short baleen 
of the common shore whales, which in 
recent years has been thrown away, now 
has a fair market value, anil large quan- 
tities of the discnnlcd materinl are being 
profilalily siilvaRed. — Fiihcrirs Service 
Biillrtin, No. 45. 

FOOD ADMINISTRATION REGULA- 
TIONS ON FISHINQ NO LONGER 
EFFECTIVE. 

All of the rulinga of the Federal Food 
Administrator record ing the commercial 
fisheries of the state, with the exception 
of that relating to the packing of sardines, 
were revoked on December 31, 1918. The 
laws of this slate are now in full force 
and effect as they were previou."! to the 
rulings of tlie Food Administrator. 

MORE BIRD TREATIES NEEDED. 

Conservation isis having successfully 
provided fur the protection ot migratory 
wild fowl which breed to the north of the 
TJuiteil States are now demanding a sim- 
ilar protection for the waterfowl and 
insectivorous birds which summer in the 
L'oitcd States, but spend the winter sea- 
son in Latin America, where Ibey are 
wantonly slaughtered. As a sample of the 
typo of destruction which goes on in 
Mciico. we quote from a letter written 
by H. S. Battie ot Hollywood, California : 



_.. , . ducks: except the egret, no other 
feathered game is shot for the market 

"As you may not have beard of tbe 
methods of shooting ducks for taarketr I 

will explain it. 

"In the table lands of Central Mexico 
nearlv all the large haciendas have ponds 
or lakes to catch water during the rainy 
season which is later uaed for irrigation. 
During the winter the ducks congregate 
in imniense numbers on such places. 

"At a convenient place on the bank a 
frame of heavy timbers is laid, and to 
these are fastened batteries of guns — any- 
thing that will shoot, in gome cases iron 
pipe being used. They sometimes have three 
tiers, fnn-shaped. one above the other, and 
perhaps a hundred or more guns, the first 
aimed at the water, the second slightly 
above, and the third slightly higher still. 
These are fired by trains of powder. 

"On the day selected the peona p) in 
boats, and also wading, gradually driving 
all the ducks on the lake into a compact 
mass in front of the battery. At a sig- 
nal the tioata back away and the peons 
duck under. The first tier is fired as the 
birds are silting and the other two a 
fraction of a second later as the birds are 
taking wing. The slaughter is dreadful. 
I would not care to say just the number, 
but an American friend who happened to 
be at an hacienda at the time, told me 
the; got two thousand that day. I had 
no reason to think he eiaggerated." 

While interest is still strong regarding 
the ]>rotectiou for migratory and insec- 
tivorous birds elTort should be made to 
give the summer visitant class of birds 
equal protection with the winter visitanls. 
Not only will the carrying one of such 
B proKram of protection be a benefit lo 
the citiiens of today, but will be a benc- 
fadinn to the coining generations. 

CONSERVATION OF FISH. 

Fonner visitors to Santa Catalina 
Island, who remember seeing tons of alba* 
core, tuna, and black sea bass spoil on 
the pier and then towed out to sea, will 
be interested in reading the report ot the 
Avalon Fish Exchange. All fish caught 
by anglers and not utilised by them be- 
comes the property of the Fish Exchange. 
This supply is augmented by market fish- 
ermen. Last season 165,000 pounds of 
iidible fish were shipped to the mainland. 
This was in addition to the large amount 
sold on the island. Included in tbe ship- 
ments to the mainland were 92 giant 
bass, fish which formerlj went to waste, 
but which now are in great demand. 
Anglers trolling in Catalina waters used 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISB AND aAMB. 



I'lOOO ByiBE fish as bait. Valuable data 
ii!i to the time of year when the different 
varieties o£ lisb are in abundance ie beine 
aecuDnilatcd by the exchange. 



Honorable George D. Pratt, Conserva- 
tion Conimisaioner of the state of New 
York, has recently called attention to the 
need foe precise aad depeodable informa- 
tion aboDt wild life resources. He points 
out that the nnderlying cause for the 
multipt icily of lawB relating to game 
offered at each session of the different 
state legislatures is inadegnate informa- 
tioD regarding game conditions. In at- 
tempting to fill this need, Mr. Pratt insti- 
tuted in 1915 a game ceosua designed to 
furnish a running check upon the condi- 
tion o£ the Etate'a wild life. By leaving 
out of considcralion unprovable asser- 
tions or estimates bnsed upon guesswork 
or the unreliable method of averaging. 
the census gives definite knowledge re- 
garding general abundance of different 
species in different sectionn and the Huc- 

)t nations in their condition from season 
to season. Each of the 140 field men have 
been required to report upon cards every 
week all of the game that they have seen 
and the conditions under which that game 
was eiisting during that week. 

On the deer card, spaces are provided 
for r<?cording the number of bucks, does, 
and fawns, damage to crops, distribution, 
physical condition and food supply. 
Other cards provide for data regarding 
game birda and waterfowl, fiirbearing 
animals, and predatory animals and birds, 
with appropriate remarks. Aa a result of 
a study of the deer cards, it has been pos- 
sible to draw definite conclusions regard- 
ing relative proportion of the sexes and 
the extent to which they are breeding. 

As a means of gathering additional 
statistics, every holder of a hunting 
license when applying tor a new lit 
will hereafter he required to give in 
dition to his name, residence, personal 
appearance, etc., the amount of game 
he killed under his old license. This will 
give an approximate measure of the 
amount of game actually killed and will 
[ give a basis for demonstrable facts. With 

' these facts at hand, wise laws ca. 

maintained on the statute books, and 



lianges will be brought about only at 
iipidly as acluHi changes in the conditioa 
•f wild life justify modificiitian of the 

When Vermont inaugurated the same 
system Jt was pointed out that the value 
of such a censna would be threefold : 

1. The warden force will be educated 
local conditions and brought into 

closer harmony with the sportsmen. 

2. A basis for wise legiBiation wilt be 
secured (or the protection and conserva- 
tion of a resource of real value iu terms 
of dollars and cents. 

'. The educational value to our people 
as increasing their interest in, and co- 
operation with, the work of the Depart- 
ment of Fisheries and Game. 

STATE QAME DISTRICT 1K. 

In connection wKh the Sequoia Park 
extension bill introduced in the present 
session of T'ongress. which proposes to ex- 
tend the present boundaries of the 
Sequoia National Park to include the 
South and Middle Fork canyons of the 
Kings, it is worth while, perhaps, to con- 
sider the effect that the passing of this 
bill would have on the game situation in 
the Sierra and Sequoia National forests, 
and particularly on the State Game 
Refuge IK t>etween the north and middle 
forks of the Kings. 

Nearly one-third of the area of Game 
District IK is within the boundaries of 
the proposed park extension, and as other 
areas suitable for the propagation of game 
are also included, and the park regulations 
do not permit hunting within the national 
parks, it is only reasonable to suppose 
that some action may be taken to try to 
have the present game district abolished, 
on (be grounds that the park will amply 
provide far all the game protection needed 
in this part of the mountains. 

The fact will still remain, however, that 
no other area is so favorably situated witb 
regard to ideal conditions for winter 
breeding grounds as the low brushy south- 
ern exposures in township 12 south, 
range 28 east afford. Because of the 
rough nature of the country and its inac- 
cessibility, there is little probability of at- 
tempted poaching, and while a park would 
provide protection and ample range during 
the summer season, I believe it would 
t>e a serious mistake if the above-men- 



s^C 



82 



CAMFORNIA FlSIt AND QAHE. 



liotiwl lownsliip nt icawt is not rclninpJ 

vcntpd al ntl seasons. 

Itmifcht lie nrgunl tliiit I lie i-luscil Nt' 
ilurins Ihe wiutcr months offem nil the pro- 
tection that is necessary ; but it woulil 
found. I believe, if tbc game preserve w< 
abolisbed, tbat a large number of hunters 
would Bar^ to this area in the open sea- 
son, oD tbe assumption tbat by this time 
the deer would be working down from 
the higher elevations where tliey had been 
protected in the paili and pns^iibly lamed 
lo some eitent. 

One other consideralion is tbe open 
bear season of November and December 
tbat offers a legitimate excuse for bnoting 
parties in the brush at that time of year, 
Tbat is the one time when poaching 
might be carried on, for only a few hunt' 
ers could resist the temptation to kill 
some of the numerous bucks tlipj would 
undoubtedly see, especially since 
chances of detection are so small wilbout 
the continuous presence of a game wardi 
in the vicinity. It would seem much safer 
to cut out every excuse for legitimate 
hunting in these breeding grounds. 

ItoT Boots E. 

IS THE f>ORCUPINE WORTH SAVINOT 
Evidence that we have not yet stand- 
ardized our game laws is apparant in the 
different viewpoints taken by the statoa of 
New Yorfc and Minnesola rpKacdiiig the 
porcupine. The New York Conseiration 
Commission classifies the porcupine as 
"vprmin" and enumerates twenty as hav- 
ing been killed during January, 1010. 
The state of Minnesota, on Ihe other 
hand, protects the porcupine on tbe 
theory that the animal furnishes an 
' easily obtainable source of food to anyone 
lost in the wilds. 



Dr. \Vm. n. Doll, of the United Sintca 
National Museum, recently pointed out 
a method that will save our cats and 
thoroughly protect the birds against their 
attacks. It Is a well-known fact that 
these animals only seize their prey 
through the itse of the claws on Ihe fore^ 
feet. These claws are, as we know, so 
organized anatomically that when at rest 
they are retracted, bnt when brought Into 



piny they are thrown forward, so that 
their sharp points may be instsutly em- 
ployed in the act of seizure. No cat ever 
ntti'Dipls to catch a wild bird in the open 
by employing its hind feet, or the claws 
upon them. No lion, tiger, leopard, or 
any of the rest of the big felines in nature 
ever do. This also holds in the case of 
pet cats who kilt the canary in its cage, 
or capture tbe fish in the globe or agnar^ 

When one comes to tbink this over, it 
f'Kin becomes clear that, were eats de- 
prived of their claws on their forefeet 
Ihcy could not catch a bird of any kind. 
h(<«ever hard they tried. The claws have 
no more feeling in them than have our 
linger- nails, to which tbey really corre- 
spond. Cat claws can be trimmed just as 
ue trim our naih, and the best tool to 
do it with is the small cutting pliers used 
by jewelers. Anyone can use such a tool, 
and with a little practice anyone own- 
ing a pet cat can readily trim all the 
claws on its forefeet. All there is to be 
done is to gently press the foot from 
above, downwards, between your thnmb 
and forefinger, when the claws will be 
thrown forward. Tbey shoold be snipped 
off a trifle bark of their middles applying 
the cutting edges of the nippers to their 
sides. A little dressing with delicate file 
afterwards will also prove advantageous. 
A cat BO operated upon can not possibly 
catch and kill a wild bird or a pet bird 
in e cage ; nor can it destroy fish in any 
receptacle in which we may keep tbem- 
Moreover a cat with its claws so trimmed 
can not climb a tree: it is np in trees 
that they catch many birds, as they like- 
wise do by running up poles topped with 
bird boxes and bird houses of every 
description. After the claws are trimmed 
the foot looks precisely as it did before 
the (rimming was performed — that is to 
say, nothing unsightly results. 

Some will say that it prevents the cat 
from catching mice. Well, what of it? 
There is not one cat in a hundred that 
catches mice for any purpose ; moreover. 
a few mousetraps of modern models will 
very quickly rid bouse, bam, and out- 
houses of all description of mice. Any of 
the "cyclone" pattern of traps will do it 
in a few weeks. Cats with trimmed 
claws can enjoy their milk and other 
food just ns well as with untrimmed 
ones, so there is no cruelty done along 



CALIPfffiNIA PISH AND GAME. 



Finnlly, wtro we to trim the cInwB in 
iTie manlier inilicBleil of nil claimwl cnis, 
nnd destroy all cats not elaimofl Uy any- 
one, we woiilil save thousands of insectiv- 
orous birds annually ; and sitrely the 
country han by this time hej-iin to realise 
what the insectivoroiiB birds mean to tlie 
farm and agricultiiriat generally. A fed- 
eral law should be enacted to enforce 
what is indicated in tbis matter, and be 
BO framed that, when passed, it would be 
ia the bigbest degree effective. — ■//(. Audu- 
bon Soc. Bull., 1918. 



After a very careful investigation of 
tba problems presented by the herds of 
ellc on (he National Forests adjacent to 
the Yellowstone National Park. Henry S. 
Cravra, chief forester, and E. W. Nel- 
son, chief of tbe Bureau of Biological 
Survey, have suggested a plan, based on 
sound biological principles, for conserving 
this valuable game animal. They pro- 
pose the maintenance of the present herds, 
estimated to niunber from 40.000 to 
45,000, and tbe use of the annual increase 
for legitimate hunting and distribution to 
build up other herds. Tbe maintenance 
of these herds is to be acromplished by 
the acquisition hy purchase or eichange 
of private land to provide needed addi- 
tional winter forage, and the setting aside 
of adjoining areas as game refuges, the 
progressive extinguishment of sheep graz- 
ing privileges to prevent any possible con- 
flict between wild life and domestic stock, 
the enlargement of the present govern- 
ment ranch in Jackson Valley to provide 
forage during severe seasons, a vigorous 
campaign against predatory animals that 
destroy elk, and state legielntion requir- 
ing hunters to report the number and 
kind of animals killed and to preserve 
and make ccoDomic use of the meat. In 
addition, it is pointed out that a special 
study of the migratory drift and winter 
and summer habits of the elk to supply 
certain facts now in doubt should be 
instltDted. 

FUR FARMING IN ALASKA. 
The United States Bureau ot Fisheries 
in a recent bolletiu (Document 847) 
^ves interesting information regardiug 
fur farming in Ahiska. Reports are 
given on the success attained by no less 



Uiaii U-l dKTerput breeders. Fur fanning 
in .\laHliu in concerned almost wholly 
ivilli Ihe lireediug and ivaring of forces, 
but some a I ten lion has been given to 
miuks and marlens, and there are rec- 
ords of mart ens having been born and 
reared in captivity in the territory. Al- 
Ihounh nkuuks and raccoons have been 
introduced into Soiitheastem Alaska, 
nothing is known as to tbe success at- 

Tlie history of fur farming in south- 
eastern Alaska is with but few exceptionsi 
a history of failures rather than suc- 
cesses. Three good reasons for the fail- 
ures can be advanced ; one, neglect due 
to irresponsible men left in charge; two, 
discouragement following failure of tbe 
industry to prove a "get-rich -quick" propo- 
sition : three, lack of experience and 
knowledge in handling fur animals. 
NeverthcteSB, the opportunilies for the fur 
farmer in Alaska are almost unlimited. 



HOW DO E 



i FrNO THEIR WAY? 



A lecturer at the California Academy 
of Sciences on January 15 discoursed on 
"How Migrating Birds Find Their Way." 
Tbis lecturer upset all my previous no- 
tions that instinct had anything to do in 
guiding birds on long journeys, and gave 
numerous instances to prove that birds 
followed previously observed currents of 
nir and water in their flight, or rose and 
depended upon sighting distant landmarks 
through their well-known powerful vision. 

As a lover of birds and a former 
breeder of homing pigeons (usually called 
carrier pigeons) my observation leads me 
to believe that tlie orienting instinct of 
birds is innate, on the same principle that, 
biologically, plant and animal life is gov- 
erned by the influences of light and heat. 
I cite a case in our late war of bird travel 
under difficulties. A T.ake County man 
began to raise homers (carriers) for the 
fJnited States Army in France. Anxious 
to try out his stock he sent a male fledg- 
ling to my borne at 112c> Bush street, San 
Francisco, in a little collar box with a 
few holes perforated in the cardboard. 
Wheat lay on tbe bottom ot ttie box, but 
the bird was cramped and did not eat it 
on the rough stage trip from the moun- 
tains. When it arrived, it had oothiag 
in its crop and it should have been nur- 
tured, but next day it was taken from 
the dark box, a quill fastened to its leg 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAHB. 



Hill. 


nte. Iiour, ruA iniu 


jte, and released 


It l>in>Jy made the fire 


wall of the Gve- 


Hiory 


apartmpnt boute n 


it dimr, and gat 


■irPlchinK utie Ipr and 


wins, then the 


nthpr 


prwQMl iu featho 


^. lifted ita bead 


toon 


■ide, then the otb 


r, roae, circled a 


row 


mes and darted north. BeioK of 


K.K-.1 


homlnff iloek, I thought we Bhonld 



hear fTom it next da;, but three weeka 
paxHcd. then came word that the bird 
had (tot home, worn, bedragfiied, wl' 
,22 bullet wound through ita breast 
.Winn, over which the blood and feathen 
had matted or bad been Btnffed in 
wounds bj the bill of the bird, 
wniindu were weeka old. 

Sow, how did the bird exist, and bow 
did it find ita waj — a younc bird, its 
IliMlit after a aoventj'-five mile trip 
dark hot, from whirh it never gleaned 
liiilil of a Inndinark to Kiiido it home 
llie 8wlli!crlHnd nt Americn it not 



)p of iuleri'sl to those cuucompd 
inHiTvation of wild life iu Cali- 
i)te that the Mate of New York 

Ranic and fur-lienrini; animals 
lilionni inf<>rmnli<^n bn to the 

Kiime' and fur-bearini; animals 
lat iKnte. The .1 mcricon FUld 
lier ly*. 181S, pase ^EW, si 



y.irk Wlale will he required to make . 
Nhilenient of Ihe game and fur-bearing 
iiNiiiifilH which they took under their 11- 
<'eiiHe for the previous year if they had 

Thin information will be tabulated ou 
the Ntubs of the licenses, which are re- 
laine<l by the town and villnRp clerks and 
will give to the Conservation ComtniBsion 
arcurnte information of the sreatest value 
resardinfc the food and game resourrea 
of the state. 

Ktateroents of their 1918 catch, which 
RDOrtsinen make when securing their 11110 
ItceaseH. will neceaaarily be from memory. 
but to aaaist them In keeping track of 
what they take during 1919 a neat little 
tally card will be aupplied when the li- 
ceuses are taken out, apoo which the 
sportsmen can keep a record during the 

Holb license and tally card will h<> 



envelope, in which he may carry tha 
in the 6cl<l '"^ ^^P tbem cleao Ihtooft 
out the year." 

It is believed that tliis sngKestioo v£ 
appeal atronglj to Califomians. As tb 
tendency toward redaction in tbe noiabeii 
□t game and fur-bearing niammala be- 
comes more noticeable, it is fortoiiate tiiti 
public opinioo is instating more and mem 
upon scientific admin istration of tbe M 
and game resources of the state- It it 
evident that a commoD eense progran of 
thia sort is dependent upon adeqDalt 
information, and it seems that tbe metbod 
suggested is one which gives promise at 
valuable results. Tbe writer has bea 
advised by Dr. T. S. Palmer that the 
method has been given a partial trUI.br 
one or two of the pcovinces of CaoaiSa and 
a similar nungber of atatee. Tbe chid 
ditliculty in regard to it is in CMinectioe 
with enforcement. Changes in residence 
and failure to appreciate the necessity 
for definiteness in the record are among 
ilic complicating factors. It is believed, 
however, that the adoption of a measure 
of this sort would be a long step in the 
right direction. In California this would 
be particularly true with reference to the 
fur-bearing mammals, concerning the nunt- 
bvrs of which taken during any one seasoa 
adequate information is not available. — 
Waltee p. Tatlor, Biological Survey, 
WflHhington, D. C 

THE GAME BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA. 
Tlie Game Birds of California {Oon- 

iributioQ from tbe University of Califor- 
nia Museum of Vertebrate Zoolt^y) by 
.loNeph Orinnell, Harold Child Bryant, 
and Tracy Irwin Storer: Uuiveraity of 
California Press, Berkeley, 1&18. Large 
Svo.. pp. i-«42. 16 colored pis., M figs. 
in test. Clolh, S6.00 net. 

The volume of the above title is the 
comprehensive book on tbe game birds 
of Culifomia that aportamen. nature lov- 
and serious students of bird-life have 
: needed. The book aims to supply 
natiiraliitt with complete information 
[late regarding the life histories of 
California birds, to give the hunter use- 
facts concerning the birds he wishes 
to shoot, to furniKli the legislator witli 
helpful BUBgestions relevant to the prepa- 
ration of game laws, and to give the 
■rvntionist information which will aid 



1 



,GlK>,,. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND DAME. 



85 



litm in bis efforts to perpetuate bird life. 
Xhe authors took into aecount all four 
of these cIbbbcs of readers and selected and 
arranged their material accordingly. 

Everj one of the 108 native game birds 
of the state is described in detail, tbese 
iucluding tbe dacks, geese, swans, ibises. 
omDes, rails, aoiiie, sandpiperB, citrlew, 
plover, quail, grouse, pigeons and doves. 
The localities in wbich each is found, and 
the times of the year whco it is found, 
ore designated and its life history and 
habits are accurately described. 

1%e extensive collections and field notes 
in the California Museum of Vertebrate 
S^oology, Bupplemcnted by previously pub- 
lished knott-ledge from the experience of 
ornithologists tbrougbout tbe West, have 
formed the basis for the volume. To this 
groundwork has been added material ob- 
taiaed from interviews with numerous 
reliable sportsmen and directly from the 
fresh field experiences of the authors 
themselves. Tbe whole is worked into 
what coDBtitutes a practically complete 
snmmary of our knowledge of each of tbe 
species down to date. The authors do not 
claim that tbe book contains everything 
that ought to be known about each of 
tbe game birds of Galifomia ; far from 
it, for more extended observations are cer- 
tain to provide multitudes of new facte. 
Tbis book should act as a stimulus for 
future observers, leading them to add to 
what is now made common knowledge 
regarding our game birds. 

The joint authorship of the book is the 
working out of the pHnciple that tbe 
highest plane of scientiGc output is likely 
to be reached only through co-operative 
effort. When one author works alone, 
mistakes are made unawares : but when 
two, or better three, are at work, one 
b able to check another's work to advan- 
tage, and an increased measure of accu- 
racy is the result. 

An underlying incentive for the publica- 
tion of the present work was found in the 
decrease of many valuable species of game 
birds and the apparent apathy of the 
public with reference to Instituting proper 
measures to conserve them. The book 
adequately treats of the means to l)e taken 
Lo conserve game and makes practical 
I rntimmenilationH suited lo each species. 

Introductory ehnplers are devoted lo 
general subji'Cls, iis follows: Decrease of 



Game and its Causes; Natural Enemies 
of Game Birds; Tbe Gun Club in Cali- 
fornia; History of Attempts to Introduce 
NoD-QStive Game Birds ; The Propaga- 
tion of Game Birds ; Iiegislation Relat- 
ing to Game Birds in California. The 
sportsinao and nature lover will End 
much of immediate utility in these gen- 
eral chapters. 

The technical matter useful to the 
special student of birds is found con- 
densed in small type at the head of each 
discussion. This makes reference to tbe- 
finer characters of each species easy, 
and at the same time segregates this for- 
mal matter from the more readable test 
following. 

The plan of treatment of each bird 
follows a regular sequence : Technical 
portion (in small type) ; Accepted com- 
mon and scientific names ; other names ; 
description : adult male, adult female, 
juvenile, downy young; marks for field 
identification ; voice ; nest ; eggs; general 
distribution; diatribution in California. 
Text (in large type) : General and local 
distribution ; migration ; field marks ; life 
history : nest, eggs, young ; habits and 
behavior; food; economic value; present 
and probable future status. 

"The Game Birds of California" Is well 
illustrated with line drawings and col- 
ored plates. Thirteen of the sixteen 
colored plates were made by tbe well- 
known artist, Louis Agassiz Fuertes, and 
the other three by Major Allan Brooks, 
now of the Canadian army. In all, 
twenty-one different game birds are fig- 
ured in color. The 94 line drawings serve 
largely to illustrate characters of plum- 
age, bill, or feci, such as are especially 
helpful in identifying the different kinds 
of game birds. 

As a sample of what may be expected 
in the treatment of each species, atten- 
tion may be called to the chapter on the 
Valley Quail, fwenty-three pages are 
utilized in describing the bird, its neat, 
eggs, distribution, field marks, habits and 
behavior. Here will be found interesting 
evidence to show that the male birds act 
ns sentinels. A compilation of data on 
time of nesting and size of clutch occu- 
pies over four pages. It is demonstrated 
Ihiit llip valley qnail lays more eggs (ban 
liny other K'inie bird, and nnder normal 
<i>inMtioiis suffers cor res ponding mortality. 



Coo<^lc 



t>6 



c.vrjpoBNiA nsu and oaub. 



Upbub of finHToWtaK tii'm moHality are 
miBl'vtPj. A dJKUMioQ of the agricul' 
liiral IwariDK. carir huoliDg foe the mar- 
kpt, and pnwiit and probable Btatui ol 
ili)> ui>land game bint conclude* tbe 

All Ihmiiitb the book espmial atteii' 
linn ig itvpD to tbo«e distiactive cbarac- 
liTi of a bird tbat help lo make it recog- 
Dliahle from other uppcieg when alive, 
at ■ dlHlanre. A uwfiil Geld manual is 
Iherobr proridpd. A dopendable key tu 
the variuim «[iiTii>fl makes possible the 
Jili-ilIiHi'BtioQ of any upeeimcn iu haod. 
'J'hi- Inilei mnlHina all the commoQ as 
well HH the M'ientifii^ nameH, tbiis makioK 
il oii»y lo loonte any bird, provided BOmi 
Miiiiii- in known, even IbonKh this nami 
In- a very Ioi'bI, [lopiilar one. 

Kvery wlioiil and library in the west 
iTii ■inli-H Bhrinld conlflin a copy of thii 
work fur ri-f.T,.iii* uae. for more am 
niiin- in the natural bistory of bird lift 
aHiiimiiiK lni|)i>rtanee as a subject of gen 
eriil impnlar nilture. Individuals inter 
I the fniti'inacinK field treated ii 



llIB 



■oj.ii' 



lid T 



1 cHplivily in tl 
nli'ns. marked il 
mer ijiijcoa. J 



II prill' iifrered for Ibe dis™ 
■■■1IK.T i.iui'on'x inhaliitcd i 



miH. liowev.T, wvi.rnl persons 
"■eiiiK pflHsenKer piK-'ons. Bay- 
oystHrmen of (Jreat South Itay 
I a few piui'oiiH sliil rniptrate 
Houlbern sbore of Long l«iand. 



M.'K 



llastni 



r ptilili 



Will 



Handfra, of Am«leriiam. New York, en 
countered n flock of imsHenccr piKenns m 
thrlober 1, li!lS, while on a binl-alud. 
Iriii ill llie vichiity of West (iiilwuy am 
»:iiiirlli>n, Nr-w Vork. One of llie bird 
liKhliil williin a few feci of Ibc [larly. uiii 
Mr. ttnstiiuKsi'n, who liaH hfi'ii .stmlyiii; 



ISibh' lloil 



1 of II 



ilifK'a 



The latent rpport is from Jobs U 
Cramptoo. 61 jraES of ag«. ttfid Saprm 
lendmt of the CooDectioat Slate Boards 
Figheriea and Game, lie describes haix: 
Been three pa.<»enjcer pijcmns ia tbe mUlr 
of May, 191^ while fisbing at GruJB 
Pond, Southineton, ConnecticoL H' 
taaiotains that be bad do difBcnltj is 
identifying them, for be has been >^ 
quainled with Ihe appearance and bibo) 
of Ihe passenger piteon since e^rlj ts;- 
hood, having be^n 13 years old when ^ 
first shot passenger pigeons, and faavia; 
had a trained passenger pigpon for a p^> 
for a long time. On Jnne 2, 191& > 
Mr. Wooster. who was told of tbe fiod. 
saw three birds, and on Jun« 9, a Mr- 
Parker saw two birds id th« stat 
vicinity. 

ENGLISH GAME BIRDS VINDICATED. 

Uecent invratigations of the food of Ibf 
Knglish iiheasant. tbe red groose and tbe 
imrt ridge of Kn gland show that tb«« 
siilendid game birds do not appreeiablj 
damage growing eropB.* Tbe stomacb ex- 
amination of ]83 slomacbs of pbeassnts 
«how that tbeir food consists largely of 
injnrioua insects and weeds. Tbis con- 
clusion is of particular interest when <t i> 
known that the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries on Febniary S, 1017, autlioriied 
tbe War .Agricultural Executive Comiaii- 
tec of each county to reduce the stock of 
pheasants on any land "where tbere is b 
risk of substantial injury therefrom to 
crops." The only possible barm occa- 
sioned by tbe pheasant for which there 
seems lo be any reliable evidence is that 
of tramping down com, and this is not of 
frequent occurrence, but happens only 
where birds are unusually abundant. 

The food of the young red grouse it 
ranilc up largely of insects, while tbat of 
ibe adult is largely browse secured from 
benlher and twenty or thirty other plants. 
So far as agriculture is concerned, tbe 
pnrtriilgc is a harmless bird. The percent- 
Is consumed is small and re- 
very short season of the year, 
rril Inrsely in stubble fields. 

that Idftpie 



I 



I l« fixe 






CALIPCTINU FISH AND QAHE. 



87 



tlie right apecies and that the wood pi^on. 
rook, certaiD species of gull and the star- 
ling have been proved guilty. If birds of 
tlie above character are destroyed whole- 
Kale the fanner is being robbed of a spe- 
cies that are beneficial . and the real 
onlpritB aa well IB the ioiurloae insects 
eaten by the game birds, are left to con- 
tinue their work of destruction of the 
country's food supply. 



Anyone interested in the life history or 
the control of the ground squirrel should 
obtain a copy of the November-December 
number of the Monthly Bulletin ol the 
State Horticultural Commission which is 
available free of charge. This bulletin 
contains thoroughly up-to-date and un- 
questionably authoritative information on 
tJiG ground squirrels of California and 
their control, compiled by leading state 
and federal investigators. In the leading 
article each of the 18 different varieties 
of ground squirrels known to inhabit the 
state are treated, and nine of these are 
figured in color. It is pointed out that 
only four of these varieties are of special 
; importance. 



THE FOOD OF MALLARD DUCKS. 
A recent bulletin (N'o. 720) of the 
United States Department of Agriculture 
treats of the food habits of the mallard 
ducks of the United States. Mr. W. L. 
McAtee, the author, devotes eight pages 
to an ennmerstioD of the different kinds 
of food taken by the mallard, the informa> 
tioD being based on the examinalion of 
172.') giszards. The enormous quantities 
of seeds taken by the mallard duck is 
evidenced by two stomachs. One con- 
teiued about 28.100 seeds of a bulrush, 
8700 of a sedge, 35,840 of primrose wil- 
low, and 2560 duck weeds, a total of more 
than 75,200. Another atomacb contained 
DO fewer than 102,400 seeds of primrose 
willow besides a number of other items 
in smaller numbers. "The seeds in this 
sloniecli if sowed one in a place and a foot 
apart eneh way would suffice for two anil 
nif-liHlf Ron's of gronnd." 
.Vhout one-tenlli .of llie foixl of the 
I nialhird is deriviil from the animal king- 
* duni niid nine-tenths from the vegolnhli'. 
A liirce proportion of Ihi? vi>gc(ab]G food 



is made up of the seeds of sedges with 
those of grasses ranking next In import- 
ance. About 2.34 per cent of the food of 
the birds examined was made up of acorns. 
The animal food consists of mollusks, in- 
sects, fishes and crustaceans in order of 
importance. 

Such a detailed report of the food uf 
one of our best game birds is not ouly 
valuable in proving the economic status of 
the bird itself, but should he of help in 
])rovtdinf' attractive food for wild birds 
and suitable food for mallards on ihe 
game farm. 

WILD SIR[>S AND LEQrSLATION. 

Apparently other countries than the 
United States have suHered from the re- 
sult of hasty and ill-considered legislation 
relative to wild birds. In a recent paper 
by Doctor Collinge, the foremost economic 
ornithologist of Great Britain, he points 
out some of the more important statutes 
pasaed by Parliament and their ultimate 
effects upon wild bird life.* The dominant 
idea throughout carl; acts of Parliament 
i^eems to have been that birds in'itt he re- 
Neri'ed and preserved for the king and hit> 
I'Ctinue, or such favored individuals to 
whom he pleased to grant licenses. 

Practically all of the acts are character- 
ized by selfishness and an utter disregard 
of the interests of agriculture or horti- 
culture. Among the curious acts are one 
making it a felony, punishable by death, 
for a person to wrongfully take the eggs 
of any "falcon, goshawk, or laser, or the 
birds of any falcon, goshawk, or laner or 
laneret." and one providing that "any 
person who shall take or attempt to take 
any wild bird by means of a hook or other 
similar instrument shall be guilty of an 
offense." 

In the summary Dr. Collinge states that 
a dispassionate and unprejudiced consid- 
eration of the facts leads to the following 

1. That in the past the question of wild 
bird protection and destruction has never 
received really serious consideration. The 
olijpclK soncht in most of the acts of 
I'arliamcnt uimn the subject have been 
largely of a scllish niiliire and not for the 
giHHl of llip iiiuillry. 



Goo(^ Ic 



88 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAlfE. 



2. Tlist Ihv majority of thtse acts bave 
been ill-conaidered and often hastily prp- 
pured : many of the» have been rpjwftleil 
and others frequently amended or 
EnodiAed. 

3. That no attempt ha« been made by 
those who advoeate the protection of wild 
birds, to understand the problem pre* 
sented by wild bird life. Blindly, and 
often strongly prejudiced, they advocate 
protection for all turds, and protection 

4. Tbat such an attitnide is callEus forth 
a deep resentment from tbose who hare 
to lire by the products of the soil, many 
of whom having waited in vain for repres- 
sive measures, have now taken to drilrojt' 
iiig ickoletale all bird life. 

!). That the itroponiibic advocacn of 
uniform protection it indirectly contriliut- 
iog more than aaf/thing cUe to the leanlon 
dcilmction of many of our mott uieful 
birds. "Some of the rery greatest friends 
that our nation has are being destroyed 
without mercy • • • a defensive force 
upon which most of our prosperity dc' 

C. That the immediate need of the prcs- 
eDt is for a wide and comprehensive act 
that will give protection to all non-injur- 
ous or ben end a I birds, and provide 
adequate repressire measures for those 
species which have become too numerous 
and destructive. 

The same conditiou seems to exist al- 
most everywhere. Itealization of the 
chaotic condition of the game laws due to 
hasty, ill-considered and conslanlly chang- 
ing legislation is not lacking, but the 
initiative to clean things up and to base 
game legislation on scientific fact rather 
Ihnn on selfish motive rarely exists. 

H. C. Bbtam. 



A recent publication of the University 
of California points out that the nestlings 
of many of our common soug-birds arc 
iDfpKted witli the larvffi of a Hy which 
suckE the blood.* The fly wliich is resjion- 
siblc ix very much like the common house- 
fly, but is of n nielallic blue color. This 
Hy hiys ils ese» in n newly-drcupied u.Kt, 
nnd fHHHi Hie hirvae which hnlHi frmii the 



•llalh, <). K.. 



eggs attach themselves to the young birds. 
Deserted Deets usually contain the pupae. 
Among the common birds whose nests and 
nestlings were found infested were : the 
Nuttall sparrow. California purple finch, 
California linnet, green-backtd goldfinch, 
willow goldGnch, and the California brows 
lowhee. The author of the paper coo- 
eludes that from Q to 10 per cent of the 
parasitized nestlings die from loss of 

This discovery doubtless helps to ex- 
plain the mortality among nestling birds 
so often noted in the bay region. 



The joint regulations governing the im- 
1>ortation of quail from Mexico, issued hy 
the Treasury Department and the Depart- 
ment of ARrieulture under date of Novem- 
ber 13, 191G, were in full force and effect 
the past season, the entry of qaait being 
permitted from February 15 to April 10, 
inclusive, and on March 8, 1918, Laredo, 
Texas, was designated as a port of entry 
in addition to Eagte Pass, Texas, and 
New York City. Co-operation was con- 
tinued with the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry in having a thorough inspection of 
the birds made during the ten days' 
qua ran tine. 

The first permit was issued February 
20. 1918, and the last, April 4. The num- 
t)er of quail for which permits were issued 
was 10.500. and the number released from 
quarantine only 5,205. as compared with 
liermits issued for 42,973, and the release 
of 32,814 in IftlT. 

The notably large decrease in the num- 
tier of quail actually imported during the 
past year is accounted for by the scarcity 
of birds in northern Mexico due to 
drought, and the refusal of large ranch 
owners to permit the trapping of quail on 
property owned and controlled by them. 
Also it is evident tbat state game offidals 
were reluctant the past year to purchase 
Mexican quail for propagation because of 
the Hevere losses of birds imported during 
the season of 1017. 

Of the [j.20fi bir<ls actually released 
from quarantiui' only IG were found dcld 
during the ten days quaranllne period, and 
mi cuse of quiil disease was discovered. 
So far ns reimrls rceeiveil hy the depart- 
Hii'ut iudicalp, (here were few losses of 
birds in sliipping. The change of dates 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAUE. 



(or tLe imiiorfation of Mi'xicau nuail — 
bc^JDDing at a lat^r porioil, February 15, 
iustead of ill the fall, as in llll(>— has 
proTcd beneficial by preveatiDg the binls 
froin reaching the iiortheru states tluriilg 
severe winter neather.— Itcport of Chief 
of Bnreau of Biological Survey, lOlS. 
p. 17. 
FEDERAL MrQRATORY BIRO LAW. 

Oning to tbe prevention of spring 
ahooCiug during the last few years, noder 
the federal migratoi? bird law, a great 
io crease in migratory wild fowl has beeu 
reported practically throughout tbe entire 
United Slates. The reports 
more birds were killed during the fait of 
1917 than in any similar BeH«>n for many 
years. With the need of tncreasing food 
resources, this increase iu game 1: 
a reault of a federal conseri-ati 
was a practical and opportune 
CantiDDed protection of our wild fowl 
during the spring will unquestionably 



the r 






sport from this source each yea 

For administrative purposes UDder the 
migratory bird law the United States is 

(divided into IS districts, under the super- 
vision of 12 inspectors, who, with the as- 
sistance of IS2 federal wardens, enforce 
the regnlati< 
During the year the commissions of 47 
federal wardens were terminated and 
4& new wardens were appointed. 

The inspectors and federal wardens 
ported 313 violations of the regulations, 
which with those of previous years make 
a total of 1,132 cases on file. All but 2» of 
these cases, which have been disposed of 
in court, have been withheld pending tbe 
decision of the United States Supreme 
Court in the case of the United State) 
Hhaaver, involving the constitutionality of 
the law. Defects in tbe law, particularly 
in that it did not make the possession of 
birds during tbe closed season unlawful, 
and did not confer on inspectors and 
wardens the power of arrest and search, 
made it possible for man; violators to 
cape. A further difficulty in enforcement 
was encountered in the limited number of 
inspectors, each with an unduly targe dis- 
trict. Reports, however, show that 
violations were more sporadic and fewer 
birds were killed unlawfully than in pre- 
1 vIouB years. 

Voluminous information has been 



others sliowiiiB Ibnt lliere is nn ever- 
niimlier of waterfowl and 
sliureliirds iu most of the states; furlher- 
', (bat wild fowl have become uu- 
lly lame in spriiij because tliej are 
not molested at that season : and tbet 
many thousands are breeding in localities 
where they had not nested for many years, 
jusensus of opinion attributes 
these greatly improved conditions to the 
general observance of tbe federal prohibi- 
tion against spring shooting which has 
been brought about through the good will 
of sportsmen and by the increased activi- 
:s of this bureau, with closer co-operation 
' state game autboriUes, 
The friendly attitude of the state game 
commissions toward the federal migratory 
bird law bas been shown in many ways, 
particularly in their initiative whereby 
and federal regulntions have l>een 
brought into harmony. Twenty-three 
states now have laws making the open 
seasons on migratory wild fowl similar to 
those under the federal regulations. 
Amendments of the regulations were pro- 
mulgated October 15, 1917, which assisted 
in unifying federal and state game laws, 
thus simplifying their administration. 

A bill to give effect to the treaty 
between the United Stales and Great 
Britain for the protection of birds which 
migrate between this country and Canada 
passed the Senate July 30, 1917. The 
Senate bill, with nmendments, passed (he 
House June ti, 1918, and was then re- 
ferred to a conference committee. The 
conference report was adopted by tbe 
House June 28, and by the Senate June 
20, and the bill was signed by the Presi- 
dent and became effective July 3, 1918. 
Nation-wide interest was manifested in 
the passage of this legislation, which was 
secured through the united efforts of 
state game commissions, sportsmen, farm- 
ers, and others interested in tbe conserva- 
tion of wild life. The new law contains 
many excellent provisions necessary for 
its effective enforcement, and it will be 
possible to obtain much more satisfactory 
results under it than have been possibla 
under the nrigiual migratory bird law. 
Canada has already passed an enabling 
act and promulgated regulations for en- 
forcing the terms of the treaty. — Report 
of Chief of Bureau of Biological Survey, 
1018, pp. 17-19. 



jOOt^lc 



90 



CALIFORNIA FISn AND QAHK. 



LONG RUN OF A TAGGED SALMON. 
Tlic United Sliilps Riirpau ot Fi»heri?K 
liaa rcrcivm] fram Jiilin I'. Bnbcot-k, of 
the FisherieR Departnicnt of British Col- 
umbiA, iword of the capture in the QDper 
Fraser River of a sockcye Balmon bearing 
OD its tail a bntton that had been ioserted 
ID marking experituentB carried od by the 
bureau oo Puget Sound. 

Tlie fish, dip-netted by an Indian at 
Soda Creek Canyon. British Columbia, on 
August IG, 1&18, bad been taken at Vil- 
lage PoioC, Lumni Island, Washington, 
on July 19, 18IS. Soda Creek ia approx- 
imately 400 milea from the moutb of the 
Fraser River, and Village Point is about 
TO milea from the same place. Therefore. 
asBuming that the fish moved by tbe most 
direct route, the average rate of travel 
was Dearly 17 miles a day. 



NIGHT HERONS GAME IN LOUISIANA. 
California was for some time noted a> 
the only stale in the Union which per- 
mitted the hunting of ibis. Ix>uiBiana 
now holds llic distincCiuu of being Um 
only Hiate nhere the night heron is con- 
sidered a game bird. According to the 
19t(i-18 Biennial Report of the Depart- 
ment of Conservation of Louisiana, tbt 
night heron ia often utilized aa food 
nnd the law provides for an open seasoa 
from November 1 to February 13 with s 
bag limit of 15 birds. Both tbe black- 
orowned night heron and the yellow- 
crowned are found in the state, and both 
are popularly known aa "Groa-becs." The 
young while in immature plumage are 
particularly sought after by buotera and 
that is why when served lautei a I'oiffnon 
it is considered a dish "fit for the gods." 



*♦»**#»»»*#*♦» 



+****»»*##**#»♦***»♦#* 



J CAUFORNIA TROUT. I 

I - \ 

f What kind of a trout did I catch last sum- ^ 
; mer? J 

^ An answer to this and like questions will be J 
t found in the July number of CALIFORNIA • 
! FISH AND GAME which will be a TROUT ! 

► ; 

£ NUMBER. The colored plates will make 4 
; identification of trout easy. Watch for the < 
' TROUT NUMBER. ! 



*♦^t^<*«*******«^'********♦******♦******* 



DiB.lizedOyGoO<^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST. 

The first case made under the Federal Migratory Bird Treat? Act 
resulted in tiie conviction of four violators and a smteuce of $100.00 
fine or 60 days imprisonment. 

J* jt Jt 
The work of the deputies in the duck country has been greatly sim- 
plified the past year. Fear of the federal law has resulted in few 
vioIatioDB. 

ji Jt Jt 
Whistling swans were ahimdant in western Stanislaus and Merced 
comities during tba lattn- part of the open season, but left about the 
first of February. Several parties who could not forego the excite- 
ment of taking a shot at these beautiful birds were apprehended by 
deputies, and severely fined. 

Jt Jt Jt 

The Sacramento Orphanage and Farm, the Sacramento Counfy Hos- 
pital, and the Registrar of Charities, have recently been the recipients 
of 631 ducks confiscated by deputies during the open season on water- 
fowl. 

Jt ji ji 
Tfae attempt of market hunters to make shipments of ducks to 
parties in Ss^ Francisco whom the shippers did not know was frus- 
trated by deputies of the commission. The old stont of shipping 
under fictitious names is not so easily worked as it once was. 
Jt Jt Jt 
Ring-necked pheasants have beccHne so numerous in Inyo Connly 
that residents are demanding an open season. 
Jt Jt ji 
Large catches of herring have been made this spring and this fish 
has been selling as low as foor cents a pound, retail. Even at this 
price tiie demand is not sufficient to prevent t<nis of herring going to 
the fertilizer works. 

Jt Jt ji 
The new hatchery on Ft^ Creek, a tributary of the Klamath River, 
has been turned over to the Fish and Oame Commission by the Cali- 
fomia-Or^on Power Company and it is now in full operation. 
Jt ji ji 
J. C. Bruce of Wawona, who was recently appointed state mountain 
licm hunter, killed three of the animals on Ms first day's hunt in 
Tuolumne County. Mr. Bruce made his record near South Fork 
Camp and was assisted by his trained varmint dogs. He will remain 
m Tuolunme County a month and then go to Shasta County to con- 
tinue the w(Hrk. 
. ji Jt Jt 

' The salmon catch in 1918 was unusually large, exceeding 12,800,000 
poimds. 

,, ,-■: ..Goo'^lc 



CAUFOBNIA PISn AND GAME. 



HATCHERY MOTES. 

W. H. SHEBLEY, Editor. 



Mount Shaita Hatchary. 

Approximately ten million qumnat aal- 
moD eggfi have been sbipprd ti> tbe Mount 
Sliasta Hatchery from the United States 
Bureau ot Fisheries station on the Sacra- 
meoto River IributarieB and from the 
Klamath River Station, which was oper- 
ated this year by the CaliFomia F^sh and 
Game Commission. The egga have all 
been hatched out and the fry will be dia- 
trihuted in tbe upper reaches of the Sac- 
rameoto and Elamath rivers as aoon as 
they are of anitable sixe, A coueiderable 
number will be held Id the three large 
salmon -rearing ponds at tlie hatchery over 
tbe summer months, and released after 
ibe fiist fall rains. 

fxich Ijeven and eastern brook trout egg 
collecting operations at the Moanl Shasta 
Hatchery were very aucceasfnl this sea- 
son. There are 1.300.000 eastern brook 
and 3.000,000 TxMrh I«ven eggs and fry 
on hand at tbe station at this date. 

The rainbow egg-collecting season is a 
little late this year, there being only 
69.000 eggs of this species on band at tbe 
hatchery on March 1. 

Mount Whitney Hatchery. 
A supply of eastern brook and Loch 
I«ven trout eggs have been shipped from 
the Uount Shasta Hatcber; to the Monnt 
Whitney Hatchery and the fry resulting 
will be reared and distributed, together 
with the other species of trout fry handled 
at this hatchery this season, in the waters 
of southern California, Tulare and Kern 

Work on tbe improvement of the 
grounds at the Mount Whitney Hatchery 
is progressing nicely, much of the pre- 
liminary grading and £lliDg-in work hav- 
ing been completed. 

Mount Tallac Hatchery. 

Arrangements are being made to open 
the Mount Tatlac Hatchery about tbe 
middle of March, and an effort will be 
made to take the usual number of blaek- 
S|io(tcd trout eega tbis season. 

Fort Seward Hatchery, 

Quinnat salmon eggs to the number of 
1,000,000 hare been shipped to the Fort 
Seward Hatchery, and the fry are being 



ired for distribution in the Eel Riier 
and tributaries. Mad River, and tribn- 
« of Humboldt Ray. The nraal 
number of steelhead trout eggs will be 
shipped to Fort Seward Hatchery this 
seatuin for distribution in streams of tbe 

Alma nor Hatchery. 

Egg collecting operations at the Almaaoi 
Hatchery were commenced the middle of 
February. Tbe run of rainboiv trout ia 
that section is late tbis seaaon, and to 
date DO eggs have been taken. 

Domingo Spring* Hatchery. 

This hatchery will be opened up tbe 
middle of March and it is expected that 
tbe usual take of rainbow trout eses will 
be obtained from tbis station. 



On February 1 a crew waa sent to 
open up tbe Snow Mountain Bgg-coUect- 
ing Station and Ukiah Batcbery, Prac- 
tically all the eggs taken this season at 
Snow Mountain will be transported by 
auto truck to Ukiah and "eyed" at that 
station, as there are better facilities for 
handling the work at the latter [dace. 
Bear Laka Hatchery. 

Arrangements are being made to open 
up the Bear T^ke Hatchery duiiog tbe 
fore part of March, and the crew is all 
ready to proceed as soon as it is possible 
to get into Big Bear Valley. 

Braokdale Hatchary. 

Egg-collocting operations were com' 
meuced at the Scott Creek Station during 
the fore part of February, and while the 
run is a little late, as in other sections 
of the state, nearly a half million ateel- 
head trout eggs have been taken to date. 
They are being immediately transported 
to the Brookdale Hatchery, where they 
are being "eyed." Tbe nsaal number of 
trout fry will be hatched at Brookdale 
Hatchery for distribution in the atreami 
of Santa Cm:: and fsnta Clara counties. 
An additional supply of trout fry will be 
retained at the Brookdale Hatchery and 
held in the rearing ponds for distribution 
during the late summer months in tbe 
streams of San Mateo and Msrin conntiei. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAUE. 



Fall Crc«k > 



Fall <'nH>k Ilntebery, which wf 
FitriK-teil liy llii- raliforuia-Orceon 
Company, niiil liicueil over to thi 
fiiniia PJNli and (iaiuc ComniiRBion 
nf tbe cnnstruclLOD of a fish ladder o 
Copco Dam, is in active operation 
present time. 

Egg- collecting o|>eralious at the 
ary stations located on Bogus Cre 
C'urap Creek were commenced diiri 
middle of February, and to dale : 
of GOO.OOO ece* liave been taken. 

A little over a millioD quinnat 
cges were shipped to tlie Fall 
Hatchery from the Mount Sliasta 
ery, and the fry resultinK from th 
uipnt will Ite reaivd and planted 



Yoiemite Exp«rimental Hatchery. 
TrouKhs and fishcultiiral parojihiT- 
lalia iiave been constructed for tlie Yo- 
' Semite Eiptrri mental Halcliery and plans 
made to operate early this spring to de- 
termine tbe suitability of the water for 
latchcry purposes on a large scale in the 
Tosemite Valley. 

Fish Distribution, 
In preparation for tbe season's hsh dis- 
ibution work. Fish Distribution Car No. 
Treek 01 has beea placed in the car shops at 
Hatch- Sacramento tor eitenaive repaire. Ar- 
ab ip- rangements are being made for a very 
jrly distribntion of trout fry this season. 



COMHEBCIAL FISHERY NOTES. 

N. B. SCdFIELD, Editor. 



Biological Stations Wart Protection. 

Much of our dependable information 
regarding marine life comes an the re- 
sult of carefully planned ex|iprimeiils at 
the various biological stntions along the 
coast. Oftentimes marine plants or ani- 
■iinls arc taken from their native habitat 
nnd planted near the station u'lierc they 
.;nn be watched .and studied. Valiinble 



eiiwriraents which have been atartcd have 
sometimes beeq made wortblesa because 
of the removal of specimens by thougbt- 
iess |>eople. To avoid recurrences ot this 
kind the various stations are asking for 
a law probibllinj? the catching or remov- 
ing of marine plants or animals within 
one mile of any marine biological station. 
In view of the facts hb stated above such 
a law seems reasonable. 



Gooi^le 



CAUP(»BNIA flSH AND GAME. 



AtlfiDiits arp iieain beine didiIp Io mu 
ify tliF prpSfDt Hbriiii|> Ian' to alliiK xlirin 
IbihiDtC 'D tbp northcni imrl of San F'ra 
ciKro Ray. Slirimp HshinK Er now limil 
to the iMiitb hnj' in onlir to iiri-vpnt t 
cImlru<-tion of Talnnblc fiHKl lisli. 
onlpr Hint tlip FtKb an<l (iamr Comiuissi. 
■nicbl \ie in iiosu'ssiim i>( Tarls to opfi 
tbp ■bnnei' ntipml haiilx of a Kliriiiip n 
bave been mail« ocnr McXi'ar'H I'uii 
Man)' joune >i<ri|>p<I liass and o(bi-r juli. 
fiRbrn were Inkcn in tlip hauls ami thf 
wilJ W prpRpn'pd in the furtn of ctiildK 



t'anncrips at Kan nip|:u, nltbiJiiKh well 
Huiiplied witb large aardinrs. have liepn 
Kliort u( a mall -a iz^ on as, nbii'b 
grpat dotnand. Tbe Fiab aaJ (ian 
mission launch "Atbat-ore" rei-eully spent 
Home (imp attemptlnK to Iwatp stbools of 
small sanliiies. The tuiinrb had Jiltlp 
liptlpr siipcess than tbe .recular fisbiue 
l>onlii. Wbore tlif small (isli are loeateil 



New Canntry Eitabllshcd at Enunida. 
Tbp Meiiran Induslrial DevplopmpDt 
t'umpany 'a ImililiDE a new rannrry at 
Knsenada. M<-iico. This i-oiii|>aDy plans 
to ran albanirc. rrawGHb. turtle, aiul 
tuna. Tbey will hIeo ship freah fisb to 
San Diefcn. 

Japanaic Trawler In Nsta of Law. 
Onp of Ihp dm arrpsts for drando; 
irawl nelii within Ihp tlirpe-milp limit that 
hns lipen maclp slnre (be food ndmioistra- 
tion's rulinRs lai/sed at Ihe Brat of the 
ypar wan repently mndp in nouthem Cali- 
fornia by Deputjr n. n. Nidever. Al- 
tboueh thp Japanpse crew alward the fisb- 
' ins boat "California'' of Snn Pedro nit 
1 away their hpI on findins ibat tbey were 
pursued, they were, nevertheless, rounded 
up. After a three and a half hour seareb 
llip s|ie<>ially-dp»i):npd aalvaKinf- near of 
' thp launch rpcovered the abandoned trawl 
net. Kvideniv of Ihe destructive feature 
of the trawl npt was apparent In rbe lanre 
iiumlier of fisb of many differeDt varieties 
found in the nel. It is becnnsp of tbe 
Inr^e baiils ikiskIMp wilb surh a net that 
lis use is proliilitii'd in sbnilow walera. 



NOTES FROM THE LONG BEACH LABORATORY. 



By V 



ILL F. ■ 



HOMPSON a 



I ELMER ^ 



HNS. 



Anioiit; the rare finh which bavi' coniej 
into Ihe lahornlory and have not beeu ; 

dMlK." in a Hiiccimen of what we may 
iPtm "wiiiarp-Iair' for lack of n common j 
name. It is sclent i5ca My known hs T'tra- \ 
O'lBHrut ciirii-ri Itlssii. The individual isl 
inountcil. fourtpen and a half iniHiPK lonz. 
and somewhat badly preserved lie<-auRp of 
frequent handling. The exact Iwality 
can not be disciiterpd. the Hsbermnn who 
owns llip finh bavins foc^otten it. but it 
wna near Catalina. This is the find 
record of the sjipcies in the North I'iicific. 
It was taken two years ago or more. 

It is characterized hy two Mban> rid^'s 
on i-acli Hide of the lull. wliicU is di-cply . 
forked. These ridgrs iiie formed by Ihr ; 
Imrd, roueh scales, and ap|>ear cniBible of 



to tear them off in Btri|)S. Tbe mouth is 
small, and tbe lins feeble in appearance. 
while Ihe teeth show plainly that tb<? 
siipcies is not caiwhle of atlncktuE lartn- 
prpy. for they are small and comb-like 
alibouRh numerous. 

Allbouzh Ihere ar.- very early n-contu 
<if its preseniv in Ihe Sledllerrauean. yet 
it is even (here a very rare fish. Il was 
prul>al))y known as early as irkVI. for 
|{on<lelel. a writer of one of the verj- 
parliest nalural bistorips. published a 
crude figure, calling it Mugil tii;7cr. which 
this species. Aldro- 



. later 



i^lletl i 



ioIp 



; injur 



iiml. 



'tifnfiViiH. Willouchby. in ll'hSlt. also de- 
scribeil it. Itiit Ihe first author giving a 
di'scripliou of wlial Is wilboul doubt this 
lish was Itisso. in l.'<10. Kimv the time 
of Ri«Hi. Ihe fish has lipcn taken seveml 
limes in (be Medilerrnnenn and npnr ihe 
Miideirn Islands. Olber sppcimpus Iiove 



1)1 ken 



Who 



Max 



'tis, and one has been tafaeu in Aus- 



CAUPOBNIA PISH AND QAHE. 



95 



tralia. The B|)eeimeD here meotiooed ia 
the firat from oiir const line, indeed the 
first from Ihe North racific. We bavp 
also a Doraber of xpeoimeoB n-hi<?h arp 
very small, up to an inch and a half in 
leagth. which we have taken in the small 
meiihed nets used by the boal "Albacote," 
and which are rcrj- prohably this species. 
If BO, the speeipg must he very abundant 
inatend of very rare, and its rnrity must 
bt asrrilied to the tact that the fishennen 
do not lake it with any of (heir gear. 

It is aaid. by the European writers who 
have chrooicleil its appearance, that it 
is at llmea very poisonous. It is Ihonebt 
to Feed on jellyGsh and such nuimals. and 
to approach the coasi in the fall in order 
(0 Bpawn. When it is taken it is oBually 
very inactive and feeble in its movements, 
probably hecsu^ it la fnr from ils own 
native linbitat. which is thought to be the 
very deep sea. — W. F.T. 

DiiriiiK Ihe work ot the "Albacore" 
there have been taken scvenit very odd 
(unus of fi»li. Notable among them is a 
fisb with alalked eyes. It seems lo be tho 
same species as one which has boon taken 
I in the Indian Ocenn. nud which lias been 
called i^tylniihihalmus paradu-ia*. The 
eye stalks arc very lone, being one and a 
c|iiarter times Ihe lr>ngth of the head. The 
eyes are set on the end of these long 
^lender slalks. and idve n very jwculiar 
appearance to the fish. One must lie at a 
loss to know the use to which such eyes 
could he put. The fish itself is but two 
and a hnlf inches Iodr and as transparent 
as a jellytisb. wtlh black dots along the 
nhole of il» iiry slender and delicate 
liody.— W. F. T. 



The fish known as Ihe "King of the 
Snimou" in textbooks dealing with fish, 
n member of the genus Trachypteriu. is 
supposedly verj' rare. But iu the explora- 
tions of the "Albacore" numerous young 
have been taken. It would seem that it 
is another of those fish which are not 
taken l)y Ihe fishermen, and nn 
in whieh it is obvious that the 
iielier thai n Ssh is rare becniixe II 

It is undouhledty true that i 
IHissiblf to oblain accurate aampli 
life in the ocean, either by 



scientific fishing, when the adult fishes 
are concerned. There are assuredly 
Bppciea which are never takeu by any 
form of gear save when they are disabled 
or when they accidentally leave their hab- 
itats. It must l>e just as tnie thai 8|>ecies 
which are abundant at times are capable 
of hiding themselves or avoiding the avail- 
able apparaliis used for fishing so com- 
pletely as to give the impression Ihat the 
s|iecie« has left the region. The acci- 
dental discovery ot such cases ahould 
reniler us very cautious In our conclusions 
regarding Ihe relative nbundnuce ot a 
species in a region, or the migrations 
which they undertake.— W, F. T. 

.\ species of snuddah hilberto supi>osed 
lo be confined to Mexican waters has been 
taken by the ".Mbacore" in considerable 
numbers a few miles south of Oceanside 
and also by fishermen in Ihe region ot ^an 
niego. This species, Citharii-hlhut raii. 
thottigma, rather closely resembles the 
sand dab of Ihe San Francisco markets, 
but is a wider, plumper fish, equal if not 
su|)erior in quality lo ils northern rela- 
tive. It ninv prove very Important com- 
mercial ly.—E. H. 

Another interesting si)ccimen laken hy 
the "Albacore" in one ot her scientific col- 
lecting trips is that of a flying fish, new 
to these waters. The specimen, of the 
species Kxonauten rondrtilii. was taken 
some l.'D miles off San Diego ; and 
although tlie npecies is ot wide range iu 
tropical seas, it baa heretofore been 
recorded on this coast only from Acapiihii, 
Mexico, 1700 miles to the south. 

Southern California ia supposed to yield 
but one species of flyiog fish — the one so 
well known lo the sportsmen-anglers of 
Catalina Island ; and whether the new 
fish ia a permanent resident hitherto uu- 
dislinguisbed from Ihe common species, 
which it closely resembles, or another 
visitant from the south is still a doubtful 
cpiestiou.^E. H. 

Ihiring February the "Allmn.rp" hiudeil 
Mr. Horace I.inton on San N'ichola.«, a 
bleak and desolate island off the soulheni 
(']ilifornia coiiKt. fur the purjiosi' of mnfa- 
iu^ mime investigations on the nbalone. 



■| Mr. 



ixty yei 



sold. 



i,vCoo<^lc 



96 



Caupornia fish and qamb. 



but he intendB to live on the island alone 
for tbree moutba and carry on his olwer- 
vRtiouB. lie expels to look (or abaloDeB 
whicb he marked and "iilsnicd" tborc six 
years ago and also to murk iDHny more, 
lie believofl that Ihe supply ciiu be in- 
creased by inCelliKfnt thioniiig out and 
transplanting, but whether or not be auc- 
ceeda in raismg the supply to an extent 
which will be of commercial value, bis 
observations may throw some light on tbe 
habits of thia moat desirable moUusk. 
E. 11. 

The noting of unuaual apecies in south- 
ern California seema lo hare impressed 
many people with the opinion that the 
year 1918 has been a very unusual year. 
It ia very probable that it Is such a year, 
but it is here desired to call attention to 
the fact that this ia the first year during 
which the I.*ng Beach laboratory of Ihe 
Fish and Game Commission has been 
actively watchioB for unuaual ajwciea, and 
that aside from the obKervatioos which 
have been contributed to "C.*i.1fob:via 
Fish and Gaub" from it. there have 
lieen very tew rare siiecies noted, from 
that vicinity. The popular saying in 
_Bouthern California that "every year is an 
nes to 

lUKt of 

^hidinj; 
unusual lliiiii 

\v. r. T. 



During tlip imst four months the "Allia- 
core'' has had Ihe opiiortunity to take 
several trips for scientific purposes. On 
November 20 and 1!7 one was made lo 
Catalina Island and return to haul for 
young fish and eggs ; November 30 to 
December 7, a trip waa made lo I'oint 
(.'oncepcioD and return lo obtain flatfish 
by bottom trawling ; December 8 to 10. 
the trip lo Catalina Island was reiieatcd; 
December 11 to 14. Ihe coast from Snti 
Pedro to San Diego waa prospected for 
H:iifiHhi February 3, 4 and -'i. n trip was 



unusual year 1 


a California 


mind in this eon 


nection, and 


n.-.-efsity be ver 


- cnutioiiB in 


that last year wu 


s any more u 


Ihe priH'PtlinB ye 


rs have Wen 



made to San Nicholas Istaud niUi Mr. 
Linton, to haul also for young Hsh and 
eggs over deep water; and February C 
and T were consumed in a trip to Newpart 
to do bottom trawling in Ihe bay. Tbi- 
next trip for scientific punioses xhonld 
begin about the lirst of March. Tbrae 
trips have been very lorirely for the pur 
poee of exploration, and beginning with 
the March trip, it is hoped to take regular 
tripe over a defioile route, in order Id 
follow Ihe development -and drift of tin 
pelagic young and the ^gs. and to observe 
carefully three chosen flatfish grounds. 

The work in the laboratory has been 
aloug lines followed for some time pasL 
The correlation between the tempera- 
ture, or weather, and tbe catch of 
albacore has been carefully analysed for 
the year 1015. and a very high degrM 
found. It will be remembered that some 
work has alao been published for Ihe year 
lOlC — for inKtance in tbe rxcinc 
FisitEHMAN fur June. 1018, and in a 
previous number of "Calk-obma Fisu 
AND Gaue." Tlie data for 1917 is , 
now undergoiuB a similar analysis. 
Tlic work on the natural historj- of 
the albacore is also steadily progcessins 
along other lines, but until the ob- 
servations to be made this summer ari' 
i-omplele, it is not likely tlint a final report 
will lie made. A pn-liminary report on 
several subjects will proliably be made 
soon. Jn regard to (ho sardine it may h.' 
meutioHcd that exHmlaalious have beea 
toade of tbe state of maturity at various 
times, and the progress observed to be tbe 
same as n-as carefully followed last year. 

Our thanks are due the Zoology Depart- 
ment of Stanford University tor the privi- 
lege of using the library and colleclion of 
fishes belonging to Chat institution, and 
more particularly to Dr. C. H. Gilbert for 
his persona] advice and assistance to Mr. 
lliggitis during his recent visit there. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH A 



oonsebVatiom in other states. 



The New York Conservation Commig- 
BioD has beeD del Ailing game protectors 
upon Eecret Bervice work io the Adiron- 
dncka. They operate under concealed 
idenlity, in the manner of detectives, in 
everj' branch ot police activity. Ttie work 
(hat thej did and the results accomplished 
are believed lo be more extensive than in 
any similar task ever before undertaken 
in the cause ot game protection. The re- 
ports turned in by these men gave the 
Conservation Commission the necessary 
knowledee and power, for the first time in 
the history of ganie protection in New- 
York State, fo deal adequately with the 
condition o( tanlessnes^ in the deer 

ILLINOIS SPORTSMEN DISSATISFIED. 

The lllinoii Rporliman. t!ie official or- 
EBU of the Illinois Sporlmen'a Leagiie, 
continues to rap the migratory biril law 
nnd accuse the Biological Siin-ey of iiii- 
fair treatment to the sportsmen of the 
Middle West. According to a recent num- 
ber of the paper the lack o[ ducks during 
the past open season is due to the worii- 
ing of the present federal law uhich does 
not allow early dprin; shooting, but does 
allow, nccording to this pa|>er, the slaugh- 
ter of a large number of birrls in Texas 
and in other states. The paper also tries 
to point out that the dismissal of the ap- 
ical Id thp I'nitod States Supreme Court 
for a decision on the constitutionality of 
the former migrator)- bini law leavcf 
Shauver cose the supreme law of the Ian4, 
and questions the immonify of the treaty 
over review in the courts. It will be re- 
membered that in the case of the t'nilcil 
^"[o(e» vs. Shaiivor. Judge Trieber held 
that migratory game when in the confines 
of a state belongs to the state and □< 
the public of the United States. 

If the sportsmen of the Middle West 
are actually receiving nnfair trcntraen 
is high time that their case is inv< 
gated : but if. on the other hand, they 
working selfiKlily for their own profit and 
overlooking the general welfare, agitation 
of this Bort should be frowneti upon by 
i-yery one interested in wild life. We are 
glad that California has so loyally de- 



fended the new law which apparently is 
doing wonders for the preBervation ot our 
waterfowl. 



The Washington Fish and Game Com- 
mission maintains a permanent exhibit in 
the city of Seattle. Aquaria containing 
many varieties ot Qsti, models of fish lad- 
ders, fish screens, preserved specimens of 
many varieties of fish and shellfish, and an 
liibit of fish products form the larger 
part of the exhibit. Some mounted elk 
and game birds display the gome re- 
of the state. The offices ot the 
in the same building, and 
he hundreds of visitors find it easy to 
lave their questions answered. 

WASHINGTON WILL OPEN THE SEA- 
SON ON ELK, 
Of the seven or eight thousand elk on 
the Olympic Peninsula in the state of 
Washington, nearly SO per cent are bullH. 
In order to reduce this number an open 
season during the month of November has 
been recommended to the legislature. 
Nonresident hiinten! will be required lo 
hire licensed guides at ¥•1.00 a day, and the 
license fee will be $25,00 or f.'XI.OO. In 
order that only a limited kill may be 
made only one auimal will be allowed each 
individnal and nil the meat must be 
uliliKod. 



.Vi-i-ording to their Inst biennial report 
tbe Department of Fisheries aad Game 
iif Vermont advocates the publication of 
a semiannual or quarterly bulletin fur 
circulation amoug the members of sports- 
men's leagues, and others interested 
throughout the state. This bulletin should 
give items of interest from tbe work of 
the department, and from the wider field 
of inlerslHte and international activities, 
in this way moulding and directing pub- 
t aloUR tlie most progressive 



A'ernionl in slarliug such a bulletin will 
■ following the lead ot California and 
her states which several years ago bc- 
inie conviuced of the desirability of such 

means of publicity and education. 



Coot^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



UTE HISTORY MOTES. 



ELK IN SHASTA COUNTY. 
Juha M. Pniuietl. a civil euniar*! ui 
Han Francisco, who b«s recsnUy retorned 
from tbe Pit River, Shania ( 'ounly. 
where he has beea in camp niih a snn-py 
l>Brt}-, reports that in tbo latter part of 
Xovembrr, 191M. a small taerd ot elk wprp 
■uvn nn the monotaiD stile on the north 
hank of tbe I'it Hiver. Thejr were olv 
su'rved by all the meniWrs of the iiarly 
ronxinline of fiie tOPn. OwioB to the 
apeetl at whit-h tbe herd wax IraTeJing. thr 
distanoe between it and the observers and 
the sleep, wooded, brushy charscter o[ the 
roontry it was impoesible to be alMolulel.v 
eertain of the number of animals, but 
I lie ooDceosuB of opinion was that the 
herd coDsigled of one bull and either four 

Some cattle men who were driviue 
stork out of that part of the ooiinlry 
Htated that durine the pa^t year or so 
they had repeatedly seen what was pre- 
HiiDiably the tianie herd. There in roo<I 
evidence that the herd ranges on 
poulherly slopes of (he Broek Moiinl 
between the summit and the Pit Itivr 
M. Haij, Mc,\ij.isteb. 



We have no tnowleiltie ot any deer hav- 
ing been killed in Mono t'ouDly durinit 
the DIIT season. The sesHou, as rhanned 
by (be rediatrietinf; of Califoruia, Rives 
the resideiits of this county very little 
ihan<'e to kill a ileer duriiiE oiieu sensou. 
The deer rance very hieh in almust inor- 
I'essible localities durius the uknnth of 
Septenilier. not working dotvn Until (he 
season closes.— W. M. Maiie, 

DEER INCREA8INQ IN TRINITY GAME 
REFUQE. 

In (he (en yeiire that I have l^en trav- 
eling at different times over the suiitbem 
and western part of tbe game refuge 
(l-D) I have never seen so many ileer. 
The numerous deer tracks rather «Hve 
the impression of a bnnil of shei'p winter- 
ing there. Hunters compfainefi Inst hunt- 
ing season that, as soon as the slioc)iinB 
eommeuced, all the deer ktiew the ri'fuge 
and ran over the line niid sinyed (here. 
I believe then- is some truth in this, from 
my own observations, hut not so much an 
tbey would have the general public be- 
lieve.— (;. O. Laws. 



Sierra grouse are found from tbe o,(XK>- 
foot contour to the 11.000 in tbe Seqaoii 
National Forest. They nest prineipally 
at the lower elevations between May 15 
and June l."). laying from 8 (o 14 cqt. 
The average brood hatched is about ]0. 
I'ntil the young are fully feathered ihej 
feei) on and in the vicinity of small 
meadows, eating principally Krass. seeds, 
grubs and herriffl. When the young are 
able (o By they usually migrate to tbe 
higher elevations and live principally in 
thiekets and lir timber. When there tbey 
feed priucifnlty on berries and fir and 
pine needles. .\ peculiar thing abont 
(hem is that (hey pt to high elevations to 
winter aud evidently lire entirely on pine 
and lir neeilles,— Fra NK P. (iJ.SMXc- 

RIVER OTTER PLAYS ON MOONLIGHT 
NIGHTS. 
Ijike I>>onanl. situated in tbe moun- 
tains of Mendocino County at an eleva- 
tion of almut two thousand feet, is a 
small natural lake with no visible outlet. 
The pas( summer on moonlight nieb(E an 
animal whs frei|iienlly heard splashing in 
this lake. Ilbwrvation between the 
bouts of 2 aud fi a.m. on December 22 
disclosed an animal swiihrning about and 
playing in (he wa(er like a sea lion, sud- 
denly iHibbiug nil. giving bnge splashes, 
playing nlniut a bit. then dissppeanog 
entirely for a time. When most boisterous 
i( iitlered a nhnrp liltle scream or mAde 
a noise that soundeil like % long-eared 
dog shaking itself on rotning oul of tbe 
>l-nter. It apiieiired larger than a large 
iliiK, anil ci)ulcl swim very rapidly. No 
slides have been noticed along the abore. 
but the animal's actions left no doubt that 
it was a Pacific river otter (/-u(ro cana 

ihillU fUliifii-a). — I'.NA BOVLE. 

VALLEY QUAIL WITH EQQ IN 
DECEMBER. 
When cleaiiius some valley quail se- 
cureil near .Tolon. Monterey County. De- 
cember 21, llll.S. I was surprised (o find 
n female conlnluing n well developed egg. 
Vnforiuuately. (he ej^ was broken in 
I'lenning, liLit its pnwence ia nevertheless 
a fact, n« c.in be substantiated by others 
lo whom it was shown. The eggshell was 
of a yellowish color, and was situated in 
the oviduct just ready to be depoaite<i.— 
Edward L. ^Bo^qiti, 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME, 



WILD UFE IN RELATION TO AQRIGULTUKE. 



BLACKBIRDS AND RICE. 

BlachbirdB are a Henoim nieoacelo rice 
culture, particularly as au ogpncy in Ihe 
disCributiOD Of water grass seeds. While 
blackbirds in large flocks frequeulty de- 
Btroy lai^e arpaa of rice iluriuR the ma- 
turing period, tliey also eonEri'sale along 
Ibc sloughs where the indigenous millels 
are found, Ihe seeds of which malure some 
weeks in advance of rice, und of which 
the blackbirds consume lar!;e quantities. 
Wbeu hluckbirdg arise rapidly from a 
slough it has been obsen-eil that they 
carry with them beads and seeds which 
arc dropped into the fields over which 
they pass. — W. O. Jacobbon. 

DUCKS DESTROY GARDEN PESTS. 

Theodore Kylka. the famous handwrit- 
ing expert of Sun I'ranciscii, has for many 
years successfully reared wild mallard 
ducka in his back yard. Finding them of 
value as destroyers of pests he has re- 
TOntly given a number of the birds to 
friends in order that they may clean the 
gardens of snails, slues, and other garden 

PHEASANTS DAMAGE CROPS IN INYO 
COUNTY. 
After much ohBervalion and many dis- 
cussions with ranchers in the Owens Val- 
ley I am of the opinion, and would earn- 
estly advocate, that either an open season 
be allowed for tlie introduced pheasant, 
or that it be left unprolecled entirely. It 



is becoming a [>est liere. and the farmers 
who raise srain or small fruits welcome 
this bin! about the same as they do the 
English sparrow and California lionec 
(two great nuisances). I quote one of 
the ranger's reports: "The pheasants are 
increasine rapidly in the valley and live 
on the farmers' crops in the summer time, 
doin? tliem mnaiderHlile dumaiie." One 
of the fvuit growers hero showed me a few 
hoses of grapes which he intended to ship, 
but the bunches had been ihinned con- 
siderably owing lo damage by birds. He 
stated that the robin and a small gray 
bird (probably the linnet) did a lot of 
damage, and that the pheasant was a very 
wicked bird, hiding under the bushes and 
eating his grapes whole. One of the 
ranchers near town tells nie that he has 
seen small patches ot corn entirely de- 
al royeil by pheasants, the birds eating out 
the grain just after the plant has 
?;prouted. — E. L. IIbrzinobb. 



MOLE EATS ANGLEWORMS. 

The stomach of a mole ISeapanui lali- 
nuinai iatimaniia) killed on September 23. 
11)16, at nayward, California, was filled 
with angleworms cut into short pieces, 
(mc-quarler lo otie-hulf inch in length. 
This evidence, combined with tlie fact that 
moles kept in captivity devour large quan- 
tities of earthworms, indicates that this 
nuimal feeds largely upon worms and in- 
.sects found beneath the surface of the 
ground. -W. N. Dibks. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FIBH AND OAIIE. 



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CAMPORNLV Fl>ll AND r.AME. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE*— V«»r 1»lt 






»ia.75S 1- *H'- 



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CALIPURNIA FISH AXD C 



Oamc. 

lliintlDK without a liprnse 

MtiklDK false statement od aiipliratioD 

Dvrr— <-l<>se season-killing or possession 

Female clifr. siilkc bucbx. fawns— killing or popspssloj 

(jiiail — close season— killing or pos^viipion 

Excess bag llmtt.- - _- 

Ttuckn — c^losc season — killing or possession 

Kxcess bag limit--.- _.. 

siiootiag ducks Irom power boat In motion 

Cottontail and brush rabbits— close season- klllins o 

OrouBP — close season— killing or possession 

Uuil — close season — killing or possession 

Swan — killing or possession - 

Nonganie birds— killing or possession 

Miorc birds— close season- killing or possession _ 

Xlght shooting 

TTCpapaing on posted griiunds 

Traiiplng without license. _ 



Total game violations.- 

FUk. 



Angling without license 

Ushlng for profit without license 

(lams — undersize 

A l> a 1 ones —close season— undersize. excess lin 
Spiny lobsters— close season— taking or possi 

Undersize, overslKc _ 

Trout — cliisp season— taking or possession, e: 
Trout— taking other than by hook and line. 

I'ynatntting dsh — _ - 

failure to produce license on demand 



Grand total dsh and game vii.lalions lai *:i,:icl 00 



T)ucks "V. 

i^hore birds ... 
Wild pheasant: 
Miscellaneous . 
Beaver skins - 
Mink skins -— 



striped bass — 

<^rabs !!"!!"I!""---1-"--!!!!'-!^'-- !"-!^ .'.'..." J 

Hismo clams }' 

Haiiiiui ..!lIJr-?--II-"I'---!!--!'--!'-" ------ --. '2,tK 

lllfgal nets -- 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFOBNLV FI>li AXD G 



BER OF DEER K 
, District No. 


ILLEO IN VARIOUS COUNTIES DURING TMC 0«>0l j 
SEASON »17. 1 

1. Distrtct No. Z. 

12 <-»in« m 

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:::::::::: » i^EE^:^:EE^ S 

,:;,:, - - - «, sir. " 


I'll — 




-- ''■ Toul 13SX 

- -■- Diatrtet No. S. 

1^' .Vlameda — 

— Contra Cosla — 

- .Montprey 1» 








;«i , San l.nis Obisr- •« 

... _ _. ir^i,Sai>Ma^.j.o 15» 




- .^^^; Sanla Orni - 6D 





■" / ;■ ;{;j,"|: Dlatrlct No- 4. 

1 Imporial -- 


"*" 


■ - ■ -- — -.Kiiersidp __ 52 

:,-:. smi nicgti — 30 

- r^ i*"n itoruardino * 









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.■l,<H2.'lV>inl f..r ynat 1017 6.J5* 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



PATROL SERVICE. 



SAN FRANCISCO DIVISION. 

B. 1a. Bosqul, Coramlnloner in Clutrss. C&rl Weaterfetd, I)z«DutlT« Offlcar. 

J. 8. Hunter. Aulatant IOxmuUtc Offlcar. B. C. Boucbar. Special Acent. 

HMd Offlce, New Call Bufldlng. San F 

Phone Sutter eiOO. 



W. H. Armatrons 


Vallejo 










{ kJ»""-^ 


baklkfid 


















pa HoMt 


Ben Rafael 

8an Jt». 







Albert Mack . 


San FrancKoo 


E. V, Moody 


Santa Cnw 







SaUnaa City 

._ •■Qulnnat," Vallajo 

Chaa. BoutocLauncb "Qulnnat," Tallajo 



SACRAMENTO DIVISION, 

P. M. Newbert, Commlsaloner In Cbarga. 

Gea Neale, Asalatant. 

Forum Building, Sacnmanto. 

Phona Main tSOO. 



r. W. Birmingham Sutter Creek 

H. W. Bolt <B)illlel«d U. a Navy).arl<)tey 

8, J. Carpenter Maxvell 

deo. W. CourtrlKbt ; Canby 

Eiuell Gray 

W. J. Oraan 



Roy Iiudium iioa Hollnoa 



R. C. OConnor 


""fSJ-SS 


D. E. Roberta 


-W2 


c a^sctobs:: — 


Tjjto. 


R. U Sinkay 









LOS ANQELE8 DIVISION. 

U. J. Connell. Commlaaloner In Charse. 

"B. A. McKae, Aailatant. E^dwln Ll. Heddarly, AjBlstant. 

Dnion Leasue Building, Loa Angelea, 

Fbones: Broadway 1166: Home, F 6J0B. 

H. J. Abela Banta Maria ( B, H, Ober Big Plna 

J. J. Bamatt Ventura H, L Pritchard Loa Anielai 

H. D, Bocker San Lula Oblipo A. J. atout Loa Annlea 

J- H. Otkw Elalnore Webb Toma Saiinago 

W. C. Ualone San Bernardino I 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



ABSTRACT CALIFORNIA FISH AND CAME LAWS 







DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc 



FTSH*™ 



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OONSERMiCriaN OF WILD UFE THROWH EDUCATION 







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TR.OUT NUMBER. 



nyGooi^le 



BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 

•nt of ttia S*naU. 
ur« of Qovamor. No compoiwatlon. 

■". H. NBWBBBT, PrMideat St enmwi te 

U. J. GONNBIX, ComiutesioDer !«• An^elM 

BL L. B08QDI, Commtodoner . . Bu B^wicfatt) 

OABL WESTBRTBU), BtncntlTO Officer San FnndKO 

3. S. HUNTER, Aaabtant BzecDtin Officer San FrauclBco 

R. D. DUEB, Attotnej , . San FrancUco 

A. D. FERGD80N, Field Asent (on Fnrloogli) ffremo 

DEPARTMENT OF FI8HCULTURE. 

W. H. SHBBLEX, in Cha^e FiahenitDre San FrandKO 

B. W. HDNT, Field Snperiotendent : San Fraadsco 

G. H. LAMBSON. Superiutendeat Meant Sbaata HatdKry Siaaon 



Q. B. WEST, Foreman in Charge Tahoe and Tallac Hatcheries Tallac 

B. V. CASSELL. Foreman in Chaige Aimanor and Domingo Springs 

Hatcheriea Eeddie 

L. PHILLIPS, Foreman in Charge North Creek Station San BemardioD 

L, J. 8TINNKTT, Aagistant in Charge Klamath Stations Hombrook 

G. L. MORRISON, Foreman in Charge Bear Late Station San Bernardino 

GEO. McCLOUD, General Assistant In Charge Cottonwood Creek Station_Hombrook 

GUT TABLER, Assistant in Charge Fall Creek Hatchery Copco 

JUSTIN SHEBLET, Foreman in Charge Braokdale Hatchery Brookdale 

J. B. SOLLNER, Assistant in Charge Wawoua Hatdiery Wawona 

A. B. DONET, Fiah Ladder Inspector San Frandsco 

A. B. CULVER, Screen Inspector San Francisco 

A. M, FAIRFIELD, Inspector Water Pollution , Ban Francisco 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL FIBHERIE8. 

»— San Fnndaeo 

Long Beacb 

W. F. THOMPSON, Assistant Long Beadi 

ELMER HIGGINS, Assistant Long Beacli 

aiARLB DOWNING, Aaaiatant San Frandsco 

a S. BADDBR, Aaaiatant Loa Angetn 

P. H. OYER, Aaaiatant Padfic Grove 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION, PUBLICITY AND REBEARCH. 

DB. H. C. BRXANT. In Chaise BeAelay 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



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California Fish and Game 



-CONSESVATION OF WILD LIFE THROUGH 



SACRAMENTO. JULY. 1919 



TIIR GOLDEN TROUT <ralorod plate) Fronlispipce 

CALIFORNIA TROUT B. W. Eccrmanit and 11. C. Bryant 105 

THE STEBLHEAD TKOUT (colored plate) Facing page 112 

THE RAINBOW TROUT (colored plate) Facing page 114 

THE EASTERN BROOK TROUT (colored plate) Facing page 130 

SUMMER ON THE CALIFORNIA TROUT STRBAMS-BoBcrt Page Lincoln 13« 
PARASITES WBICH AFFECT THE FOOD VALUE OF RABBITS.. 

E. Ralph De Ong 142 

OUT FISHIN' (a poem) .Edtcard A. Ottett 144 

EDITORIALS - 145 

PACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST 150 

HATCHERY NOTES 151 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES 154 

Notes from the State Fisheries Lalwratory 156 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES 159 

LIFE niSTORY NOTES 100 

REPORTS— 

Canned, Cured and Manufactured Elshery Products, 1918 1G2 

FiBhery products, 1918 164 

California Fishery Prod nets— January, February and March, 1019 168 



CALIFORNIA TROUT.* 

By BARTON WARREN EVERMANN and HAROLD C. BRYANT. 

INTRODUCTION. 
The trout of whatever kind all belong to the Salmonidte or salmon 
family, Besides the true trout, this family containa also the salmons, 
the chairs, the whitefish, the lake herrings, and that curious fish of 
the far north, the inconnu. The Salmonidfe arc confined to the north- 
em hemisphere and chiefly north of the fortieth parallel where they 
are nearly everywhere abundant wherever suitable waters are found. 
Some of the species, especially the larger ones, are marine and anad- 
romous, living and growing in the sea, and entering fresh waters only 
for spawning purposes; still others live in running brooks, entering 
lakes or the sea as occasion serves, hut not habitually doing so; still 

■Although containing- some new Information, this ijaper Is largely a compilation , 

ot material trom published aourcea. P 

4SU3 "^ 



106 CALIFORNIA PISH AND OAHE. 

others are lake fishes, approaching the shores or entering brooks in the 
spawning season, at other times retiring to waters of considerable 
depths. Some species are active, voracious, and gamey, while otbcn 
are comparatively defenseless and rarely or never take the hook. 

Of all the families of fishes there is none more interesting than the 
Salmonidie, from whatever point of view they may be considered. To 
the biologist the family is of surpassing interest because of the remark- 
able life histories and habits of many of the species ; to the angler, what 
fish has appealed more strongly than salmon and tront because of 
their game qualities and their beauty t to the epicure, there is none 
more delicious or more persistently sought; to the lover of the beaatiful 
as exhibited in animate forms, what appeals more strongly than the 
silvery sheen, roseate or golden hues, and the beautiful form of the 
salmon, the brook trout or the golden trout; to the fish culturist, the 
Salmonidie are of the greatest interest and importance, more species 
of this family being propagated artificially than of all other speciea 
combined ; and to the commercial fisherman, this family of fishes is the 
moat important in all the world. 

The true trout all belong to the genus Salmo and are found only in 
the northern parts of Asia, Europe and North America; in Europe 
they extend as far south as the Pyrenees, and in America to Lower 
California and Durango and eastward as far as the Black Hills and 
Colorado. 

The name "trout," a word of French origin, is in Europe applied 
only to species with black spots, while in America it is more loosely used 
and is applied not only to tJie true trout (those with black spots), but 
also to the charrs (or those with red or orange spots). In western 
North America are many species of true trout, some of them differing 
widely in size and color, while others resemble each other so closely as 
to make positive identification difficult. The Salmonidre are of com- 
paratively recent origin, none of the species occurring as fossils except 
in recent deposits, and this doubtless accounts for the instability of 
their specific characters. 

How to Oittinguith Troot from Salmon. 

1. Moat apeclea remain In fresh water, 
never golns to aea; do not die after 
once BpawnlnR. 

2. Skeleton hard. 

3. Anal fin with 12 or fewer raya. 

4. Olllrakera, 20 or fewer. 
6. Pyloric ciBca few, 40 to 65. 

6. Branch lostegals, 10 to 12. 

7. Caudal peduncle deep. 

The commercial fishcnnan distinguishes between salmon and trout 
by noting whether the fish is easily held up by the tail. Tlie constricted 
portion in front of the tail (caudal peduncle) makes it easy to hold a 
salmon by the tail, but that of a trout is so nearly the size of the tail 
fin that it is held up with difficulty. 

The native trout of western North America may be regarded as falling 
naturally into three more or less well-defined series, which are popularly 



i-d-^vGoOt^lc 



1. Live habitually In the sea, entering 
fresh water only at spawning time; 
spawn once then die. 

2. Skeleton porouB and soft. 

3. Anal fin with IS to 20 rays. 

4. Gilirakers, 30 to 40. 

5. Pyloric c»ca numerous, 76 to 180. 

6. BranchioategalB, 13 to 19 

T, Caudal peduncle constricted. 



CAUFOBNU PISH AMD OAUB. 107 

known as the Cutthroat Series, the Steelhe&d Series, and the Rainbow 
Series. 

The species of the Cutthroat Series are characterized by sniall scales, 
150 to 200 in a croes-series, a lat^ deep-red or scarlet dash oa each 
side of the throat, a large mouth, the maxillary more than half length 
of head, and small hyoid teeth. The most useful diagnostic character 
is the red dash or mark on each side of the throat between the deutary 
bones of the lower jaw. This mark is nearly always present and is 
usually quite distinct. 

There are many specie of the Cutthroat Series. They inhahit the 
streams and lakes from Humboldt County, California, northward to 
southeast Alaska and eastward through all of the northwestern states 
to the headwaters of the Missouri, the Platte, the Arkansas and the 
Rio Qrande. At least one species is found in the headwaters of the 
Colorado. They are particularly abundant in the coastal streams and 
lakes of Oregon and Washington. In California, they appear to be 
confined chiefly to the northwest counties and are nowhere abundant. 

In the Steelhead Series the scales are somewhat lai^er, the number 
in a cross-series being usually about 150, but varying from 130 to 180. 
There is no red dash on the lower jaw; the body is rather stout, mouth 
moderate, the maxillary about half length of head, hyoid teeth wanting. 
Color silvery. Size large. Sea-run species. 

In California, the steelhead is limited to coastwise streams and is 
anadromous. To the northward, it extends further inland, ascending 
the Columbia and its tributaries to Shoshone Falls in Snake River and 
to the headwaters of Salmon River in Idaho. To the northward it is 
found as far as Eodiak Island. In certain lakes of "Washington and 
British Columbia are found several local forms which have been 
described as distinct species. 

In the Rainbow Series the scales are typically still larger (except 
in the golden trouts), the number in a cross-series being normally 130, 
but varying from 115 to 180; usually no red on the throat; a red or 
rosy lateral band ; body stout ; mouth small, the maxillary short, 2 to 
2.5 in head ; no hyoid teeth. Size small. 

The rainbow forms are chiefly confined to the streams of California 
and Oregon. The typical rainbow {Salmo irideus) was originally 
described by Dr. William P. Gibbons of San Francisco in the Proceed- 
ings of the California Academy of Sciences for 1855, from specimens 
obtained in San Leaudro Creek, Alameda County, The rainbow 
occurs less abundantly in Oregon and Washington and as far north as 
Naha Stream and Elawak River, Alaska, 

Besides these three series of true trouts, we have the charrs of the 
genera Salvelinus and Cristivomer. The "Dolly Varden" is the only 
native charr in California. The introduced Eastern brook trout is a 
near relative, and is, like it, a charr. The charrs are separated from the 
true trout by the presence of red or orange-colored spots on the sides. 
The word "charr" means "red" or "blood," and since members of the 
genus Salveliniu are usually marked with red spots or are red beneath, 
the group is well named. 

In addition to the native trout, there are several species which have 
been introduced into California streams from Europe. Chief among 
these are the brown trout from central Europe and the Loch Leven 
trout from Scotland. ^ 



108 CALIPORNU FISH AND GAME. 

Cutthroat Seriet, 
The native lake trout iu the larpor lakes of the Sierras and one of 
the stream trouta of northern and northwestern California are cut- 
throats. The species now recognized arc: 

Cutthroat Trout {Salmo clarkii), in Pit River, Eel River and other 
streams in Humboldt and Del Norte counties, 

Tahoe Trout {Salmo kenskawi), in Lake Tahoe, Donner, Webber, 
and Independence lakes and tributary streams. Included under this 
name are several trout which have been described as distinct species, 

Koyal Silver Trout {Salmo regalis), in Lake Tahoe. 



Fig.' 36. Cutthr 



The Dolly Varden {SalvcUntis parkci) is the only charr native to 
California streams. Its distribution in this state is limited to the 
McC'loud River. The introduced Eastern brook trout {Sali-clhins 
foiitinalvi) and the Mackinaw Trout {Crislivomcr natnaycush) are the 
only other charrs found here. 



Moat of the native trout found in California belong to this series. 
The following eight species are here recognized as belonging to the 
Rainbow Series. 

Shasta Ilainbow (Salmo shasta), in the upper Sacramento and 

Mc Cloud rivers. 

Noflhee or Stone Trout (Salmo Hhnci), in the MeCloud River. 

Oilbert Rainbow (Salmo gilbert i), in the Kings and Kern rivers. 

South Pork of Kern Golden Trout (Salmo agua-bomia), native only 
to the South Fork of the Kern, and from Cottonwood Creek and the 
Cottonwood Lakes into which it has been introduced. 

Qolden Trout or Roosevelt Trout (Salmo roosci-tlti), native only to 
Volcano Creek. 

Soda Creek or Little Kern Trout {Salmo whilci); native to the 
Little Kern and other western tributaries of Kern River. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAHB. 109 

Son Qorgo»io Troat (Salmo evermanni), known only from the 
streams about San Gorgonio Peak, southern California. 

Nelson Trout {Salmo nelsoni), known only from the San Pedro 
Martir Mountains of Lower California. 

There is a trout, apparently of the Rainbow Series, in the Klsinath 
River which fish culturists believe to be different from any of the 
above, which haa not yet been described. There is still another in 
Bumey Creek, Shasta' County, which also remains to be described. 

Introduced Trout. 
As a result of hatchery operations the following non-native trouts 
are to be found in California streams : 

Brown Trout (Salmo fario), a native of central Europe, 

Loch Leven Trout (Salmo trutla Icvcncnsis) , a native of Scotland. 

Eastern Brodc Trout (Salvclimts fontinalis), a native of the Atlantic 
Coast streams. 

Maddnaw Trout (Cristovomcr namaycusk), a native of the larger 
lakes of the northeastern United States and Canada. 



Size seems to depend upon food supply and extent of water. Resi- 
dents of small mountain streams and pools seldom attain the size of 
individuals inhabiting lakes or rivers where there is an abundant food 
supply. 

Water appears to have some influence on the coloration of trout. 
Brackish or salt water usually gives thera a silvery color with few or 
no spots. Possibly the substrata constitute the factor most involved 
in coloration. Profusely spotted trout are generally found in clear 
rapid rivers or alpine pools; in large lakes with a peaty bottom, flsh 
often assume an almost uniform blackish coloration. 

Sexual differences are not always apparent in trout except in the 
breeding season, at which time the female is usually a deeper, heavier 
fish and the male a more slender one. However, the male is sometimes 
the brighter in color. 

Young trout are all similarly barred with the parr-marks and are 
difficult to identify. 

Troul Angling. 

The usual style of fly fishing consists in wading the stream and 
making casts downstream in likely places — at the foot of riffles, at the 
edges of stumps, logs and brush, and beneath overhanging bushes and 
hanks. On the contrary, the more refined, dry-fly angler casts up- 
stream, presenting his fly in such a manner that it will float over a 
rising fish. In order to have the flies float, they must bo dry. They 
are oiled before using, and false easts are made between real casts 
to remove the surplus moisture. 

Some fishermen drag the flies over the water at the end of each 
east, believing that the motion resembles that of an insect endeavoring 



110 CAUFCHINU PISH AND QAHE. 

to escape from the water. Sometimes flies are tied with head toward 
the hook-barb bo that, on being drawn over the water, the resistance 
of their legs and wings will cause them to flutter as it alive. 

The dry-fly angler declares that the more attractive method is to 
allow the flies to float quietly, and to enable them to remain on the 
surface. Usually local dealers can supply the best information on the 
proper flies to use. 

When streams are high, better results are obtained by the use of 
baits such as prepared salmon eggs or grasshoppeTs, earthworms and 
helgramites. In clearer water spinners may fdso be nsed with good 
effect. 



fig. 37. Tahoe Itout (Satmo knukaiDl). 

Trolling is the method usually employed by flshermeu and anglers in 
catching trout in the larger lakes. Similar equipment is used by 
anglers in taking the so-called steelhead at river mouths. But these 
methods are not practiced by the accomplished angler. 

"Along the lower courses of the rivers and on the lakes, especially 
off rocky points where the rapidly shelving bottom brings the deep 
water near shore, a crude method of bait casting is successfully 
employed in taking large trout. The large trout seldom rise to the 
artificial fly except at times in the high Sierras. The same species 
when living in the rivers and in their rapid and cool tributaries furnish 
excellent sport for the angler. Ail recommend small flies, 12 to 16, and 
not in great variety. Many of the smaller streams are so closely lined 
with dense brush as to make fly Ashing quite out of the question. 
Here the angler should provide himself with a short bait rod, use 
worms and grasshoppers." — Snyder. 

As has been pointed out in many an article, the prime rules of fly 
Ashing are: 

1. Fish in streams where trout are found. Those streams not easily 
accessible are always best, for they are not depleted. 

2. Kfove cautiously and noiselessly in order not to frighten the fish. 

3. Drop the fly on the water "as if it hated to get wet" or, in other 
words, simulate the natural dropping of an insect on the water. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA PISH AKD QAHB, 



KEY TO CALIFORNIA SPECIES OF TROUT, 
a. Species anadromouB, entering coastal streams (or spawning; purposes; color allverjr; 
aa. 8pe(^«a not anadromous: site smaller. 

slie large Staelhead <8aLno salrdnerl). Page UZ 

b. Scales typically large (except In the Golden trouts), about 130 In « cross-senes 
(varying trom ISO to ISO); IKtle or no red on throat: usually a rosy or yellow- 
ish lateral band; mouth small, mailllary Z to 2.G Id head; no hyold teeth; sisa 

n sides below lateral line. 

or allvery. specially on side; spots small 

Rainbow Trout (Salmo lrld«us). Page lit 

dd. Body rather deep. . 

«, A reddish lateral band. 

t. Black spots largely restricted to the back, tew below median line. 

g. Vomerine teeth in a aingte zig-zag sarles 

McCloud River Trout (Salmo shasta). Page 116 

gg. Vomerine teeth In two Irregular series 

Noshev Trout (Salmo atonel). Page Il« 

(f. Elntlre trady and all flna profusely black-spotted 

Karn River Trout (Salmo gllbertl). Page 118 

tU. Heavily and uniformly spotted; fawn brown on aides 

..9an Oorgonio Trout (Salmo avemianni). Page 117 



cc. Elxtenslve lemon yellow or orange on sides and belly. 

h. Back and upper two-thirds of sides covered rather closely with 
small black spots; lower third of side, except on caudal 

peduncle, without spots Qolden Trout o( the 

LIttiB Kern, or Soda Creek Trout (Salmo whitel). Page ISl 

hh. Back and upper one- third of side sparsely black spotted: lower 

two-thirds of aide, except on caudal peduncle, entirely without 

spots Golden 

Trout South Fork Of Kern (Salmo agua-bonlta). Page 123 

sntlre side, except on caudal peduncle, entirely 

■ -s on the caudal peduncle 

It Trout (Salmo rooseveltl). Page IM 

_., .__ jerlea; red marka under dentary 

a always present; mouth large, the maxillary 1.8 to 2.25 In head; hyold 
teeth present; Irregularly and profuaely scattered. 

I, Black spots encroaching somewhat on belly 

Cutthroat Trout (Salmo clarkll). Page 127 

It. Black spots sparsely scattered 

Tahoe Trout (Salmo henshawl). Page IZT 

111. 1 

bbb. Scales so small as 

]. aides with red spots. 

k. Back unspotted, strongly marbled with dark ollva or 

black 

Eastern Brook Trout (Salvellnus tontlnalls). Page 130 
kk. Back not marbled with olive or black; but spotted with 
Jolly Vardi 

d sides wit.. „.- - 

-.Mackinaw Trout (Crlstlvomer namaycush). Page 133 
bbbb. Scales very large, 113-130 In lateral series; Introduced species. 

L Adipose fln large, lis width much more than half Its 

length Brown Trout (Salrao farlo). Page 131 

11. Adipose Qn small. Its width one-halt Its length - 

Loch Leven Trout (Sulmo trutta levenensls). Page 132 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



112 OAUFOBNU FISH AND GAHE. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

Steelhead Series. 

8TEELHEAO. 
Salmo gairdneri Richardaon. 

Othar namea: Steelhead Trout; Steelhead Salmon; Salmon Trout; Hardhead. 

OsBcription: Head In length to base of tall fln 4.S to 5; depth 4,5; eye 1.5 in 
head; dorsal 11; anal 11 or 12; branchtoBtegals 11 or IS; Bcalee usually about 
ao-16l)-2S, the crosa-serlea varying from ISO to 180; pyloric ceca 42; Kill- 
rakers, 8 + 12; vertehrie 38-f-20. Body rather stout, the caudal peduncle thick; 
head rather short and slender, only about twice length of maxillary; eye small; 
teeth small, those an vomer In two lonR, alternatlnt; series which are about as 
long as the palatine series: no hyold teeth. Tall wide, atjuareiy truncate in the 
adult, emarginale in the young. Color olive-green above, silvery on sides and 
belly; head, back, and dorsal and caudal fins more or less closely covered with 
small biacit spots. During the breeding season, side with a broad rosy or 
flesh-colored lateral band, deep rosy on the cheek, this often remaining throueh 
the year; Una not red; no red on lower Jaw, 

Marks for fisid idsntlfication: t^rge size; small head; large scales; bright 
silvery color; absence of red on lower jaw. 

Distribution in California: The steelhead enters coastwise streams from 
Ventura River northward, ascending to their headwaters for spawning purposes 
and then returning to the sea. 

The steelhead is more or less anadromous in its habits, it being 
migratory like the salmon, spending much of its time in salt water, 
and ascending freshwater streams at spawning time. It enters prac- 
tically all the coastal streams of California from Ventura County on 
the south to the Oregon line; also from there to Skagway and Sitlta. 
Many of the streams on the California coast are famous for their 
steelhead; special mention may be made of Ventura River, the Santa 
Ynez, Santa Alaria, those entering Monterey Bay, and all the streams 
north of San Francisco, particularly the Russian, the Klamath, and 
the Eel. 

As a game fish the steelhead is a favorite with the anglers. Its game 
qualities, together with its large size, make this one of the fishes most 
sought after by the followers of good old Isaak Walton. When in fresh 
water it will not onlv take the troUiug spoon, but it will rise readily 
to the fly. 

The steelhead is an excellent food fish, and its large size and 
abundance make it a fish of considerable commercial value. It is an 
important fish in the fish cultural operations of California and of 
other Pacific Coast states and the federal government. It has been 
introduced into Lake Superior and is now an abundant and much 
prized game fish in that lake and its tributary streams. 

The fact that most ichthjologists and many anglers regard steelheads 
simply as sea-run individuals of rainbow trout has not escaped our 
minds, and wc ourselves are inclined to accept that view. Nevertheless 
we know that in some places, they are entirely distinct and easily 
distinguishable. At any rate, we deem it best for our present purposes 
to treat the steelhead as a distinct species. 

RAINBOW TROUT. 

Salmo iridaus Gibbons. 

Othsr name*: Mountain Trout; Speckled Trout; Brook Trout: California 

Trout. Sea-run form; Steelhead; Steelhead Salmon; Salmon Trout! Satmo 

rioularU, in part; Salmo gairdneri. In part. , . , I . 



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CAUFORMIA FISH ANB QAHB. 113 

Dwmcription: Head 3.8; depth about 4; eye 4. S3 In head, 1,4 In enout: snout S.S; 
D. 10; A. 11; scales 24-180-20, about 70 series In front oC dorsaJ, counting along 
median line, or 60 If rows along upper side are counted; b ranch ioategala 11; 
gUIrakers 8 -{-13, rather long and slender. Head pointed, mouth, rather large, 
maxillary extending' to posterior margin of eye, 1.8 in bead, with about 20 teeth; 
preorbltal very narrow, the maxillary almost touching the orbit; several large 
teeth along side of tongue; no hyoid teeth; teeth on vomer in zig-sag series; 
origin at dorsal at middle of length; origin of anal midway between that of 
dorsal and base of caudal; caudal broad, nearly truncate. Color, on the back a 
deep dark-blue ultramarine of a peculiar transparency, dotted with small round 
block spots about the size o( a pin head; side abruptly brighter, with many 
scales silvery ; lower parts white: sides, top of head, dorsal, and caudal flns 
covered with very small spots; pectorals and ventrals nearly colorless, without 
spots; adipose fln with two spots; no red on lower Jaw. 

Marks for fiald idantification: Rainbow trout usually have a great manjr 
spots, which are more or less obscured by a silvery sheen in the sea-run 
examples. Average specimens are from 4 to 12 Inches in length and weigh as 
much as 6 or T pounds, but average 3 or 4. Sea-run examples sometimes 
weigh 25 pounds. From the cutthroat trout the rainbow may be known by its 
larger scales, brighter coloration, and by tha absence of red on the throat. 
The comparatively large scales (120-150) distinguish the true rainbow from 
the species found in the McCloud and Kern rivers. 

Distribution: Native In all coastal streams and most streams of the interior,. 
especially those of. the western slope of the Sierras. Introduced in many lakes 
and streams o( the state Tormerly barren of fish life. 

The rainbow runs upstream in early spring to spawn, leaping over 
waterfalls and entering the small streams forming tlie headwaters. 
Here the e^s are deposited in the sand and the young are hatched ont. 



Fig. 38. Young ateelhead trout All young trout have block bars on the sides, ' 

By far the laii^st output of the state hatcheries is composed of 
rainbow trout, and there is good reason, for this is considered the 
hest game fish of all and it is most highly prized by anglers. The 
rainbow often leaves the water in its eagerness to take a fly. In fact, 
so readily does it take a fly that there is seldom need to resort to bait 
or other lures. 

This trout has thriven almost everywhere, having been introduced 
into New Zealand, Japan, Europe, and the eastern United States. 

The rainbow varies in coloring according to age, sex, and location.. 
Those individuals which are able to reach the sea spend part of each 
year there, returning to the freshwater stream a larger and more 
Bilvery-eolored fish commonly called steelhead. Spawning fish travel 
far up the coastal streams and spawn high up in the small tributaries. 
Their habits in this regard are more like those of the salmon than those 



114 CAUFCPUOA FISH AND GAME. 

of a trout. Unlike the salmon, however, tfae sleelhead does not as a 
rule die after once spawning. 

Specimens returning from tbe sea are usually silvery in color, but 
spotting soon appears in the freshwater stream. Because of its large 
size and excellent flavor the sea-run form is a splendid food fish. It is 
marketed in large quantities during the open season; as a game fish 
prized b; anglers who troll in the bays and river mouths along the 
northern coast. 

"In beauty of color, gracefulness of form and movement, sprigfatliness 
when in the water, reckless dash with which it springs from the water 
to meet the descending fly ere it strikes the surface, and the niad and 
repeated leaps from the water when hooked, the rainbow trout must 
ever bold a very high rank. The gamest fish we have e^'er seen was a 
16-inch rainbow taken on a fly in a small spring branch tributary of 
Williamson Ri%'er in southern Oregon. It was in a broad and deep 
pool of exceedingly clear water. As the angler from behind a clump 
of willows made the cast the trout bounded from the water and met 
the fly in the air a foot or more above the surface : missing it he dropped 
upon the water only to turn about and strike viciously a second time at 
the fly just as it touched the surface: though he again missed the fly 
the hook caught him in the lower jaw from the outside, and then begau 
a flght which would delight the heart of any angler. His first effort 
was to reach the bottom of the pool, then, doubling upon the line, he 
made three jumps from the water in quick succession, clearing the 
surface in each instance from 1 to 4 feet, and every time doing his 
utmost to free himself from the hook by shaking his head as vigorously 
as a dog shakes a rat. Then he would rush wildly about in the large 
pool, now attempting to go down over the riRIe below the pool, now 
trj'ing the opposite direction, and often striving to hide under one or 



Fl». 39. Rainbow trout taken In Manianlta Lake, near Red Bluff, Tehama 



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CAUFOBNIA FISH AND OAHB. 115 

the Other of the banks. It was easy to handle the fish when the dash 
was made up or down stream or for the opposite aide, but when he 
turned about and made a rush for the protection of the overhanging 
bank upon which the angler stood, it was not easy to keep the line 
taut. Movements such as these were frequently repeated and two 
more leaps were made. But finally he was worn out after as honest a 
fight as trout ever made. 

"The rainbow takes the fly so readily that there is ao reason for 
resorting to grasshoppers, salmon eggs, or rther bait. It is a fish whose 
gameness will satisfy the most exacting of expert anglers and whoso 
readiness to take any proper lure will please the most impatient of 
amateurs." (Evermann.) 

Spawning takes place in winter and early spring, varying with tem- 
perature and locality. The bulk of the eg^a are usually taken in 
February, March, and April, although spawning continues through 
May in the mountain districts. The average yield from each female 
is about 900 eggs. A few of the females spawn when three years old, 
but about one-half of them begin at four years. The egg is from one- 
fifth to two-ninths of an inch in diameter; it has a pink color when 
first taken, becoming darker before hatching. The rainbow feeds on 
worms, insect larvie, and salmon eggs. In streams in which the salmon 
and rainbow exist together, the rainbow is more destructive to the 
salmon eggs than any other species except the Dolly Vardpii. 

McCLOUD RIVER TROUT. 
Salmo ahatta Jordan. 
Other namaa: Shasta Trout; Shasta Rainbow. Salmo gairdncri ghaala; Salmo 
■rideti* nhaitta. 

Datcription: Head 4: depth 3.8; eye 6; D. II; A. 11; scales SO to 24-14E-20, 
about 65 before the dorsal. Body eomporatlvely abort and deep, compressed, 
varying considerably, and much more elongate In males than In females; head 
ahort, conveic, obtusely ridged above; mouib smaller than In most species o( 
trout, the rather broad maxillary scarcely reaching beyond the eye, except tn 
old males: eye large, about one-fl(th length of head; vomerine teeth in two 
Irregular series; dorsal fin moderate; caudal fin distinctly though not strongly 
lorlied, more deeply Incised than In the typical cutthroat. Color, bluish above, 
the Bides silvery; everywhere above profusely but Irregularly spotted, the 
spots extending on the sides at least to the lateral line, and covering the vertical 
fins; top of head well spotted; fins usually not red: much red or rosy on cheeks 
and opercles; belly partly red in males; side with a broad but more or leas 
interrupted red lateral band, brightest In males. (Jordan and Rvermann.) 

Marks for field identifieation: Differs from other ralnbotv trout, with the 
exception of that In the Klamath River, In Its larger size, smaller mouth and 
larger eyes. Scales are Intermediate In alze between cutthroat and sea-run 
rainbow (ateelhead), about 145 In transverse series. Caudal fln more deeply 
Incised than In typical cutthroat. 

Distribution: McCloud Blver and streams of the .Sierras from Mount Shasta 
southward at least to Calaveras County. 

This rainbow lives in water with a comparatively high temperature 
it it is plentiful and running with a strong current; but in sluggish 
Water, even when the temperature is considerably lower, no species will 
do Well. This species appears to inhabit the rapids more largely than 
the slow-moving water. The spawning season in California extends 
from early February to May. Males are good breeders at two years 
old, but the females rarely produce eggs until the third season. It may 
lack a little in the wild gaminess of the typical rainbow, but that is i 



116 CAUFORNIA FISH AND QAUB. 

made good by its larger size. It is largely an insect feeder and, there- 
fore, a favorite of the fly fisherman. 

This is the rainbow which has been most widely nsed in fish cnltural 
operations and has been more widely distributed than any other variety. 

N08HEE TROUT. 
Salmo aton*! Jordan. 
Othar namac Nlasuee Trout; Stone's Trout; NIbbuI Trout; Salmo irideut 

Description: Depth i; A. 11; eye 4.5; maxillary about 2; pectoral 1.3; Bcalea 
140 to ISS, about 82 before the dorsal, where tbey are small and embedded; 
teeth fewer and smaller than In the Shasta trout, those on the vomer In a 
single zig-zag series. Color, upper parts plain greenish; spots few and confined 
chiefly to the posterior part of body; spots small and Bparse on dorsal, adipose 
and caudal flns; a. red lateral band usually distinct; cheeks and operclea with 
red; no red on throat. (Jordan and Evermann) 

Marks for fiald idantification: Much larger than typical rainbow, reachlns a 
weight of 10 to IS pounds; teeth are fewer and smaller than those of typical 
rainbow. 

Distribution: Upper Sacramento Basin, especially In the McCloud River above 
Balrd. 

Voracious. Little is known about this trout. 



Fig. to. Trout spawning. The temale can be seen at [he left dlgglns up the 
sand priTiira'ory to depositing eggs. The male Is shown at the right. Photograph 
by J. M. Gyger, taken on Orchard Creek, Sun Bernardino Mountains, April 25, 1916. 

EAGLE LAKE TROUT. 
Salmo aquilarum Snyder. 
Other namas: Salmo clarkii, in part. 

Description: Head 4,S in length to base of caudal; depth 4.2; depth of caudal 
peduncle 9.S; eye 1.5 in head; Interorbital space 3; snout 3.5; maxillary 1.9; 
height of dorsal 6.5 In length; adipose On 12,5; length of caudal 4.8; pectoral 6.G; 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND GAME. 117 

ventral 7.5; height of anal €.9; scales in lateral series 136. Body deep; caudal 
peduncle robust; head rather pointed; maxillary broad and lonff, extending far 
beyond posterior border of eye; ed^ of opercle 3.S In head. Branch loateKals 11. 
Glllrakers IS, rather thick at base, pointed at tips, and decidedly sickle -shaped. 
Vomerine teeth In tbree series In front, the middle ones extending backward: 
teeth oC palatines, maxtllarles, and mandibles In a single series; gloBSohyal with 
teeth; basl -branchial a without teeth. Scales large and deeply embedded; pores 
In lateral line 120; series of scalea above lateral line, counting upward and for- 
ward to a point Just before dorsal, 29. Scales of nape minute and closely 
crowded as are those of throat and abdomen. Axillary scales of ventral small, 
equal In lenslh to vertical diameter of eye, sharply pointed. Dorsal rays 11, 
edge of flne concave; adipose dorsal very large, broad and thick; caudal broad 
and strong', the posterior edge slightly concave, the lower lobe a little longer 
than the upper; anal ray. 11, edge of fln somewhat concave; pectorals strong 
and rather pointed; ventrals obtusely pointed. 

Marks for flsid idsntjficatlon: Distinguished from other trouts of the Sierras 
by the robust body with a deep caudal peduncle and large and strong Una. 
conspicuous adipose fin, large scales, and the red color of cheeks and coppery 
red of under parts. The flesh Is deep red, very firm and fatty, tar superior to 
that of the Taboe Trout. 

Distribution: Eagle Lake and Its tributary. Pine Creek. 

The annual spawning migration occurs in May, whcD appar<!Dlly 
the entire trout population of the lake attempts to move up Pine 
Creek. It is said that anglers do not succeed in catching trout in Ea^le 
Lake, their failure being attributed to either a scarcity of fisli or an 
abundance of food. (Snyder.) 



SAN GORGONIO TROUT. 
Salmo svarmanni Jordan & Grinnall. 

Othsr namas: Bvermann Trout; San Bernardino Rainbow Trout. 

Description: Length of type, an adult male (as measured when first caught), 
11.63 Inches; head measured along side 2.75 Inches. Head 3.63 in length to base 
of caudal, the jaws being somewhat produced; depth of body 4.7; eye 6.6 In 
head; maxillary I.T5 in head; dorsal with 10 rays, anal with 10; 34 ecales 
between base of dorsal and lateral line. IflT oblique rows crossing lateral line, 
and 33 scales between lateral line and vent. Snout (from eye) 3,3 in head; 
anal 2 In head; ventral 2.2 In head; pectoral 1.37 In head; dorsal 1.57 tn head. 
Caudal distinctly emarglnate. or lunate. Vomerine teeth In two straight rows; 
hyold teeth present, though buried In mucus; Maxillary extending well beyond 
eye. so that the mouth la relatively large. In the female, the head Is shorter 
and the maxillary l.S in head. Coloration, very dark fawn-hrown, the spots 
unusually large and covering the whole length of the body, none of the brilliant 
hues of tialmo agiia-bonita, rooatrelti or whiici, nor even the crimson of irideai. 
Ground fawn-color along aides; varying toward seal brown dorsally; a large 
patch of same color on cheek; lower parts lighter (fresh tints unknown, but 
no red In throat region shown tn the specimens); black spotting conspicuous, 
the spots evenly distributed, very large, on sides posteriorly the size of pupil 



118 CALIFOBNU FISH AND OAHE. 

or larger, smaller on top of head; !6 on dorsal fln, mostly in four rows; caudal 
tin nearly iis dlBllnctly spotted as sides, with spots more closely seL Youngn 
imllviduala are aomewhat lighter, but yet considerably darker than iridem* at 
the Bame size, and the other characteristics seem to be constant. 

Marks for field idantification: DlfFers from the rainbow In small slse and 
bIIkIiUj* different coloration. As comiiared with Satmo iridcut. Salmo ereraissai 
Is Biontlerer, eBpecially do rso-ven trolly; the head Is longer, the snout sharper, 
and mouth larger; the scales are very much smaller and more numerous, tiot 
overlapping: the colors are dull and very dark, and the spotting is heavy. 

OiBtribution: tapper Santa Ana River in the San Bernardino Mountains of 
southern California. 

Ilabib) similar to other rainbows. It is probable that the San 
BemardiDo trout is the older species in the re^on where found, and 
owes its preservation an a distinct species, and perhaps the accentuation 
of its charRi'ters, to isotation afforded by the barrier which prevents 
the invasion of the rainbow trout from the lower stream. In the 
remote histor.v of the stream, the falls have doubtless shifted and 
bciiime more effective, so that the ancestral stock of San Gforgonio 
trout was originally able to ascend to its present remote and limited 
habitat. (Jordan and Orinnell.) 



Dascriptio 


: Hon. 


4 i 


length 


snout 4.3; mr 


xillary 


1.6; 


miindlbl 


lateral lino; 


dorsal 


fin ^ 


ith 14 


pressed, deei 


est sliKhtly 


in fron 


mouth lnr«e. 


maxlll.1 


ry lt> 


nK and 



ml (ffilmo aqailarumt. Found only in E^agle Lake and 
tributary streams, 

KERN RIVER TROUT. 
Salmo gilbert! Jordan. 
. Trout; Kern Klver Rainbow Trout; Salmo trideta 

to baae of caudal; depth 3.6; eye 5 In head; 
e T.3; preorbital £0; scales small, about IfiS In 
rays; anal 12. Body stout, moderately com- 
t of dorsal: head long, conic, snout pointed: 
narrow, i-eachlniir more than an eye's diameter 
beyond the eye; mandible slightly curved: teeth on lower jaw rather strong, 
wide-set, In a single series, those on maxillary strongest; caudal peduncle stout. 
Its least depth equal lo snout and eye. Pins all well developed; origin of dorsal 
midway between tip of Knout and base or tail, the longest ray nearly two in head, 
baae of fln slightly creater than height; caudal broad, truncate, the lobes equal, 
exceedlniE height of dorsal: base of anal equaling height of dorsal; origin of 
ventrals somewhat posterior to that of dorsal and much nearer base of caudal 
than tip of snout, longest ventral ray equal to longest dorsal ray; longest 
pectoral ray exceeding by one-fourth the height of dorMl. 

Color in life, head. body, and ftns everywhere profusely and rather uniformly 
coverM with small black sjiots, those on body stellate, those on Hns oblong, 
those on head roundish and mure sparse; Inner half of ventrals with the anterior 
rays white nl tip; iidlpiiHe dorsal olivaceous with three or four black spots; side 
broadly rich rosy red. broadest and brightest near middle, least distinct on 
caudal peduncle: lower half of side slightly pink and pale bluish; belly with 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAUB. 119 

Blight Irregular waah of old gold on dirty-white KTound color; back and upper 
part o( side olivaceous with fine yellow, orange, or lemon iipecks; cheeks and 
opercles rich rosy; little or no red on throat, no dash on membrane between 
rami of lower Jaw; few spots on aide of head; top of head olive green, well 
covered with round black spots. 

This description Is from an example (male) 18,35 inches long, weighing 3.5 
pounds, taken by the senior author July 19,, 1904, In Kern River about one-half 
mile above Kern Lake. 

Marks for field identifiMtion! Profusely and closely spotted over the entire 
body, head, and on all the (Ins, the belly not so richly colored. It is similar to 
the McCloud River trout, but has smaller scales, about leg in a transverse 
series. There is usually a distinct whitish tipping to the dorsal, ventral and 
anal fins. 

Distribution: Kem, and probably Kings, Merced and other rivers of the 
southern Sierras. This species Is abundant In Kern Lake and In the river for 
some miles below the lake, but of this we have no personal knowledge, as no 
collectlns has been done below the lake. As a rule, the Dah taken from the 
river are more deeply and brightly colored and decidedly more gamey than 
those from the lake. During the spawning season early In the spring the fish 
are found chiefly In the river, but after the spawning has been completed they 
tend to run down into the lake, where they become leas active and less highly 
colored. Large examples from the lake are. as a rule, more slender than those 
from the river, probably on account of the fact that those from the lake are all 
spent flsb. 

The Kern River trout is a beautiful fish, well built and symmetrical, 
and very rich in coloration when in prime condition. As a game iish 
it will stand easily among the best, but, aa already stated, in the river it 
Kreatly excels those of its kind in the lake. It usually takes the fly quite 
freely, and will, of course, take all sorts of live or cut bait. We have 
taken these trout "with the artificial fly, with grasshoppers (which 
they greatly preferred), and with pieces of fish or other meat. The 
large example from which the colored plate was made was first tried 
with a gray hackle, to which he rose once and theu paid no more 
attention to it. A larger, plain hook and a good-sized grasshopper 
were substituted, with better results. Scarcely had the lure touched 
the water when he rose and struck most viciously, only to miss it, then 
turn and strike more viciously than before. This time the hook caught 
inside the mouth just under the middle of maxillary, and then began 
a fight that would delight a better angler than I. lie first circled about 
in a wide curve, then jumped twice, clearing the water beautifully each 
time; circled again, went to the bottom in water ten feet deep, came to 
the surface and jumped again, after which no more leaps were made, 
but he continued dashing about until finally brought to net." (Ever- 
mann.) 

THE GOLDEN TROUT OF CALIFORNIA. 
The golden trout of California are, so far as known, found only in 
the headwaters of the Kern River, all in the vicinity of Jlount Whitney. 
To be sure, through the activities of the California Fish and Game 
Commission and other agencies, their original distribution has been 
somewhat extended by transplanting. 

Four species of trout are now recognized as native to the upper Kern 
River basin, namely: the Kern River trout or Gilbert trout (Salmo 
gilberti), the Soda Creek or White's golden trout (Salmo tvhitei), the 
South Fork of Kem golden trout (•^almo agiia-honita) , and the Roose- 
velt trout or golden trout of Volcano Creek (Salmo roosei'clti). All 
except the Gilbert trout are of the golden trout type. , ,. 



120 CAUFOBNIA FISH AND OAKS. 

All four of thc8e species belong to the Rainbow Series, the species of 
which as a whole may be distinguished, with greater or less didicalty, 
from those of the Steelhead Series or sea-run rainbows on the one 
hand by the usually brighter colors, and on the other hand, from the 
Cutthroat Series by the absence of a red or scarlet dash on the throat 
and the entire absence of hyoid teeth. 

The three Species of golden trout differ as a group from the other 
recognized species of the Rainl>ow Scries in having decidedly smaller 
scales and a very brilliant coloration. 

When the first trout came to the beautiful streams of the southern 
High Sierra no one certainly Imows ; but it must have been long, long 
ago, as men count time, when melting ice filled the Valley of Death and 
the terrible deserts of Panamint and Amargosa with sweet waters. 
Long before that time trout had found their way into the Rio Colorado 
and when the ice came it was not hard for them to push westward to 
certain headwaters of the San Joaquin. Among the first to come were 
some that took up their home in the Great Kem, a wild, strange river, 
whose sources are among the highest of California's great mountains 
and whoso course for many miles is almost meridional by the compass 
through a great canyon hundreds of feet deep and marvelous in its 
stupendous grandeur and beauty. In thU river the trout were free to 
roam about as they liked. Sometimes they would go far down the 
stream and even out into that wonderful Tulare Lake, then much larger 
and much colder than it has ever been since. Then in early spring 
they would go the other way, even entering the tributary streams and 
penetrating to the little rivulets that trickle from the flanks of the 
great mountains and the banks of snow that never melt. 

The waters in all these streams were clear and cold, and food was 
abundant. Some of the streams that came in from the east and others 
from the west already had formed considerable falls in their course 
alwve which the trout were not able to go. In some of the tributaries, 
such barriers were met with in the beginning and those streams are 
barren of fish to this day. In others, the invasion from the main 
stream began and was consummated before the falls became impassable, 
and trout are now found in them, although falls which fishes can not 
surmount have since been formed in many of them. Among tributary 
streams of this character which may be mentioned are Soda Creek, 
Coyote Creek, and the Little Kern on the west and Volcano Creek and 
South Fork of Kem River on the east. In the first three, the wearing 
down of the siream-bed and the formation of impassable falls prevented 
any subsequent invasions from the main river, isolated those colonies 
of trout which had pushed toward tlie headwaters, and prevented any 
further mixing of creek fish with river fish. But in Volcano Creek 
the conditions were exceptional and complicated. This stream derived 
its fish originally from Kem River, as did the other streams mentioned; 
impasBahle falls subsequently formed and the fish of the creek became 
shut off from those of the river. Then an unique factor was introduced, 
A period of volcanic activity ensued, during which the west half of the 
Toowa Valley was more or less filled with lava, volcanic tufa, and other 
igneous material, the lower half of Volcano Creek was for a time wiped 
out of existence, and every living thing in its waters below the tunne! 
killed. The only fishes of Volcano Creek that escaped this catastrophe 
were those individuals which had migrated well toward the headwaters 



6AUF0KNTA FI8H AKD QAHE. 121 

of the stream above the infiuenee of the lava flow. But this creek was 
permanently shut off from any further invasions of trout from the 
river; and when its waters again began to flow to the Kern, the falls 
then formed were even greater barriers than before, and the trout o£ 
Volcano Creek became more thoroughly isolated. 

The environment of Volcano Creek is very different from that of 
Kern River; it is that of a smalt stream, with clean gravelly granite 
bed in its upper and yellowish or blackish lava and yellowish tufa in its 
lower course, and with water clear, pure, cold, and turbulent. Con- 
trasted with this is Kern River, a large stream, many yards wide and 
many feet deep, with current often slu^sh and bed of fine sand or 
mild in many places. 

These different environment'! were sure in time to modify and 
differentiate the fishes of the two streams. The law of cause and 
effect applies here as elsewhere in nature, and with equal force ; differen; 
causes acting upon even the same thing will produce different results. 
But geographical isolation (riiumliche Sonderung) is the great 
primary factor in the production of new species. It is the potent 
agent which holds apart the two groups of individuals, preventiag inter- 
mingling and confining each to the influences of its own peculiar 
environment. 

In the production of new species in nature, it is not essential that the 
environments be greatly unlike, or unlike at all, if the groups of indi- 
viduals being acted upon can be kept from interbreeding. 

And thus the trout in Kern River and those in Volcano Creek went 
on developing, each group in its own way, the two becoming more and 
more unlike and acquiring structural and other characters by means 
of which the two forma may be readily distinguished. The trout of 
Volcano Creek has taken on characters not possessed by the trout of any 
other stream— very different indeed from those of the Kern River 
trout. These characters have become fixed, as is evidenced by the 
fact that they are essentially uniform among all the individuals of this 
creek. The Volcano Creek trout is therefore a different species from 
that found in Kern River. 

As a result of the formation of impassable falls in the South Pork of 
the Kern, in the Little Kern, in Coyote Creek, and perhaps still other 
tributaries of the Kern, other colonies of trout that had invaded the 
headwaters of these streams became isolated, and in time they also 
became specifically distinguishable from those of the main Kern and 
all other streams, so that we now have, as already stated, four distinct 
species in the Kern River basin. They are the three species of Golden 
Trout, and the Kern River Trout which is the parent species from 
which the various species of golden trout have been independently 
derived. 

.LITTLE KERN GOLDEN TROUT. 
Salmo whtlei Evarmann. 
Other namaa: Coyote Creek Golden Trout; Soda Creek Golden Trout; White's 
Golden Trout. 

OMcription: Head 3.22 in length; depth 3.68; eye 4.54 in head; snout 3.33; 
maxillary 1.72; mandible 1.S6; Interorbital 3.57; longest dorsal ray 2.08; longest 
anal ray Z.17: pectoral 1.86; ventral 2.17; caudal lobes 1,61. Body rather stout, 
moderately compressed; head conic: mouth large, oblique, Jaws aubequal; 
maxillary long and slender, reaching much beyond the eye; teeth on Jaws,^ 



122 CAUFORNU FISH AND OAHE. 

tongue and palatines well developed; caudal peduncle deep. Its least depth about 
equal to dlHtance from tip of snout to middle of eye. Fins well developed; origin 
of dorsal somewhat nearer tip of snout than base of caudal fln; insertion of 
ventra] about under middle of dorsal fln. Scales small, but noticeably larger 
than In the Volcano Creek trout. 

Color In life, back and upper part of side light olive; side and back profusely 
covered with small roundish black spots, these extending on top of head, vertical 
flns, and on side below lateral line; side with 10 largo roundish parr-marks and 
a broadlsh median band of light-brick or terra-cotta red; lower part of aide 
light lemon-yellow with a number of blulah-black blotches, chiefly anteriorly, 
somewhat larger than similar ones on back: belly from tip of lower Jaw at anal 
fln rich orange-red or cadmium, richest between pectoral and ventral fine, this 
band the full width of the belly; no red dash on throat; suborbital pale rosy or 
purplish; cheek brassy, with a large dark blotch; opercle rosy orange, olivaceous 
above; dorsal fln with about five rows of small round black spots and a black 
border except anteriorly, where the rays are tipped with a ilght-rosy border; 
pectoral light yellowish; ventral and anal reddish, with broad white edge; 
caudal profusely spotted with black like the dorsal fln. In spirits all the bright 
colors fade, but the black spots remain distinct These spots are largest on the 
caudal peduncle, over which they are evenly distributed. They are also pretty, 
evenly distributed over the entire side and top of bead: the space along the 
lateral line, however, has fewer spots. Those below the lateral line extend more 
than halfway to the belly and are somewhat smaller than those above. About 
14 spots show on side of head. 

There Is not much variation In color, as shown by examination of many 
examples. In all, the black spots completely cover the caudal peduncle and the 
entire length of side from median line of back to some distance below the lateral 
line; the top and sides of the head are always spotted. The middle line of the 
Bide and the belly are always richly colored, the parr-marhs always present, and 
the dorsal, anal, and ventral flns bright-edged. No conspicuous red dash was 
observed on the lower ]aw In any of the specimens from South Fork of Kaweah, 
Soda Creek, or Wet Meadow Creek, but among those from Coyote Creek were 
some showing considerable color. 

Marks for li«ld identification: The presence of small black spots on top of 
head and all but the lower one-third of the side distinguishes this golden trout 
from the two other species of golden trout. 

Oiatribution: Soda Creek; Coyote Creek; Wet Meadow Creek: Little Kern 
River, The headwaters of the South Fork of the Kaweah were originally with- 
out trout but were stocked with flsh from Soda Creek at Qulnn's Horse Camp, 
and this species may, therefore, very properly be called the Soda Creek Trout. 

This fish is known to rpa<^h a length of about ten inches. It 
takes the fly readily, and is a good fighter. Though leas brilliant in 
color than the golden trout of Volcano Creek, it is in every respect a 
beautiful and attractive fish. 

The following interesting account of the trout of the small streams 
of the High Sierras, by H, W. Henshaw, and written many years ago, 
applies chiefly to this species : 

"This is the common brook trout of the small mountain streams of 
the Pacific slope, and up to an altitude of 9,000 feet it is the rare 
exception to find a suitable stream that ia not well stocked with it. 
Upon many of them these trout are found in very great abundance, each 
pool and rapid numbering its finny denizens by the score. They may 
be taken in any sort of weather, at any hour of the day, by almost any 
kind of bait. During the heat of the day they frequent almost entirely 
the deeper pools, lying under overshadowing rocks or in the shade of 
some convenient log. In early morning or late afternoon they come 
out and run more int^) the shallows and rapids, under which circum- 
stances they bite best and afford the finest sport. Like the average 
brook trout the species rarely attains any considerable size, ranging 
from four to eight or more inches in lengtl^ The character of the 



CALIPOBNTA FISH AND QAUE. 123 

bottom and water iteelf has much to do with color and I remember to 
have fished in a small rivulet on one of the subalpine meadows not far 
from Mount Whitney, whose sluggish waters flowed over a bottom of 
dark mad, in which the color of the trout simulated very closely its 
hue; they had lost nearly all the flashing irridescent tints characterizing 
the same species caught but a few hours before in another stream, and 
had become dull and somber-hued. Accompanying this change of 
color was a correspondingly noticeable difference in the habits and 
motions, and the several dozen trout caught that evening for supper 
were taken out by the hook with the display of very little more 
gaminess than would be noticed in so many horned pout. On the 
contrary, in the clear rapid current of the mountain stream, a flash of 
sunlight is scarcely quicker than the gleam of gold and silver, seen for a 
single instant, as the whirling waters are cut by one of the trout as he 
makes a rush from his lurking place for some chance morsel which is 
being borne past him. The "Western trout are rarely as shy as their 
relatives of Eastern waters, and because of their numbers and c«nse- 
quent scarcity of food arc apt to be less fastidious ; yet even when most 
abundant due caution must be used if one wouhl be successful, and not 
every one Can catch trout even in the West. With the proper care in 
concealing one's self a pool may be almost decimated ere the alarm 
will be taken, and I have seen fifteen fair sized trout taken from a 
single small pool in quick succession." 

This beautiful trout was named in honor of Stewart Edward White 
who SQ^ested to President Roosevelt the investigation which resulted 
in its discovery. 

SOUTH FORK OF KERN GOLDEN TROUT. 
Salmo agua-bonita Jordan. 

Othar name*: Mount Whitney Golden Trout; Golden Trout; Agua-bonlta 
Golden Trout; Sttlmo irideui ag^m-bdnita. 

Oascription: Head 3.88 In length: deptli 3.85; eye 4.4 In head; anout 4.4; 
maxillary 2.09; mandible 2,00: Interorbltal 3.66; longest dorsal ray 2,09; base of 
dorsal l.S; longest anal ray 1,69: pectoral 1,63; ventral 2.00; caudal lobes 1.46; 
base of anal 2,1. Body stout, moderately elongate; head short, anout blunt; 
mouth moderate, mamillary eittendlng somewhat beyond orbit, relatively broader 
than In the Kern River trout; teeth on Jawa, maxlllarj-, palatines, and vomer 
weU developed: flns moderate; caudal peduncle compressed. Its least depth 
equal to distance from tip o( snout to posterior edge of pupil; scales relatively 

Color In life, back and upper part of side tight olivaceous; entire body above 
lateral line, including head, sparsely covered with rather large roundish black 
st>ota, those extending below lateral line on caudal peduncle; spots on side 
anterior to dorsal fln usually J!ew: usually a few spots on median line of back 
between origin of dorsal and head; anout and top of head usually with a few 
spots; 3 or 3 spots sometlmea on aide of head; middle of side with a somewhat 
distinct rosy band, plainest at middle; parr-marks oiways present; side below 
lateral line light golden yellow: belly scarlet, brightest from ventral halfway to 
Isthmus; under side of head, except Jaw, reddish orange; check light golden 
yellow anteriorly, rosy or coppery posteriorly; dorsal and anal tins profusely 
spotted, the other fins with no spots, the anal dusky: adipose fln with edge 
black, and B small block spots; anterior dorsal ray tipped with reddish orange; 
ventrals and anal red, tipped with orange white; pectoral bronze. The above 
description chiefly from a specimen 7.T5 Inches Ions'. 

An examination of numerous examples shows some alight variations In the 
colors. The parr-marks are sometimes less regular, and the exact shade of the 
bright lateral band and the color of the belly vary somewhat. These, however, 
are simply differences tn intensity rather than in pattern, ,(^ 



124 CAUKfflNIA FISH AND OAHB. 

Mark* for fiald idantification: In this apeciea the extent ot the BpotUnK on the 
body IB the beat dlntrnoBtlc character. The South Fork of Kern trout are almost 
Invariably well spotted, not only on the caudal peduncle but also along the side 
above the lateral line, at least bb far forward as the front of the dorga] fin. 
There are alio usually a few npota on the anterior part of side and along median 
line ot back between dorsal and head; snout and top of head spotted, and usually 
a few spots on side of head; but (here are no spots below the lateral line except 
on the caudal peduncle. 

Dialribution; South Fork of Kern Rtver from which It has been introduced 
into the Cottonwood Lakes and Cottonwood Creek, and doubtless other streamB. 

This species was originally described by Dr. David Starr Jordan in 
]89;f. His deseriptioD was based on three small specimens conveyed to 
him tiy Sir. W, II. Siiw-kley of SaD Francisco to whom they had been 
sent by Mr. Georne T. ilills, state fish eoiumissioner of Nevada, who 
ill turn liad received them from ilr. A. C. Harvey of Lione Pine, Inyo 
County, ('alifornia. A meinoraDdum accompanyiDg the specimens 
stated that they had been "taken by Mr. Harvey of Lone Pine, Cali- 
fornia, in a stream called by him 'Whitney Creek' (more correctly 
Volcafto Creek), on the west side of the Sierras near Mount Whitney." 
It ha.s since developed that these specimens did not come from Whitney 
(\'i)lcano) Creek, bnt from Cottonwood Creek, a stream on the east 
side of tiie mountains and tributary to Owens Lake. Cottonwood Creek 
was stocked in 1876 by Messrs. A. C. Stevens, S. V. Stevens, and 
Thomas Ccoi^e with trout obtained by them in Mulky Creek, a small 
tiilmtary of the South Fork of tlie Kern in Mulky Meadows, about 3^ 
to 4 miles from ('ottonwood Creek, It is therefore evident that the 
spccinii'iis upon wbich Dr. -Jordan based his description of Salnto agua- 
bonila were descendants of the trout from Mulky Creek transplanted 
into Cottonwood Creek in 1M76 and are therefore the same species as 
that of the South Fork of the Kern. A comparison of specimens taken 
in the latter stream in 1304 witli the type and eotype of Salmo agua- 
boiiila sliows thein to be specifically identical. 

ROOSEVELT TROUT. 
Salmo rooBavaIti Evarmann. 

Other nannea: Volcano Creek Oolden Trout; Oolden Trout of Oolden Trout 
CiPi'k; Guillen Trout; UoUien Trout of Volcano Creek. 

Daacription: Head 3,5 In length to buae of caudal An: depth 4; eye 5.6 In 
head: snout 3.4; niajtllliiry l.»; long<-8t nnal ray 1.9; pectoral 1.8; ventral 2.1; 
caudal lolies I.K; Imse of doi-sul 1.9; buse of anal 2.6; lea-it depth of caudal 
peduncle 2.6. Hody stout, moderately compressed; head conic, rather long; 
snout Ions; jaws subequal, mouth lurKe. somewhat oblique; maxillary long- and 
narrow but sLishlly curved, extendlntc much beyond orbit; teeth well developed 
mandible, maxllliu-y, pnliitines. tnmt of \-omer, and on front of tongue, the latter 
In two rows; caudal peduncle very stout. Fins all strong and well developed; 
orlKln of dorsal midway between tip of snout and base ot caudal peduncle; base 
of ventrala under middle of dorsui; cnudul broad, strong, little notched when 
fully spread; anal with Its free edse somewhat falcate. Scales exceedingly 
Broall, smaller than In any other known species of trout, n on Imbricated, and 
scarcely Bhowinft unleas dry; there are about BO in an oblique aeries from front 
of dorsal downward and backward to the baae of the ventrala; there are about 
200 scales in the lateral line. 140 to 150 of them having pores. 

Color In life, back, top of head, and upper part of side very light yellowish 
olive; middle of the side from glll-openlng to adipose fln with a broad bright 
rosy band, the greatest width of which Is about equal to greatest diameter of 
orbit; Bide below lateral line bright golden yellow, fading below into yellowish 
white; betly with a broad cadmium or deep orange-red band from throat to anal 
fln, the color deepeat between pectoral and ventral; some red on IreUy between 



CAUFORNIA FISH AND GAME. It^ 

origin of anal and base of caudal; about 10 roundish or vertically oblong parr- 
marks on middle of side, upon which apparently the rosy lateral band Is super- 
Imposed; 3 of these parr-marka are on the caudal peduncle posterior to the 
adipose tin. 2 between the adipose and dorsal tins, 2 under the dorsal, and 3 
anterior to It; between the Drat and second Inr^e parr-markx and somewhat 
below them is a small round spot of the same color, and there Is a similar one 
between the Otth and sUth spots: cheeks and operclen bright rosy, eilBed pos- 
teriorly and below with yellowish, an olivaceous blotch on upper part of cheek 
and a small black spot on upper part of opercle; region about eye olivaceous 
yellow, especially below; lower jaw rosy, with some yellowish, membrane 
between rami of lower Jaw whitish, without rosy wash, tip of lower Jaw 
olivaceous; mouth on sides and below tongue orange, whitish elsewhere; side of 
caudal peduncle with about 80 small roundish black spots, these most numerous 
on posterior half, there being only S anterior to the adipose dorsal tin; rest of 
body entirely without spots: dorsul fin with about 6 Irregular series of small 
roundish black spots, those toward the distal portion largest and blackest: 
general color of dorsal fin light olivaceous yellow, the tips of the anterior rays 
with a broad margin of whitish orange; adipose dorsal olivaceous, narrowly 
bordered with black, and with £ small round black spots: caudal fin profusely 
spotted with black, the spots arranged irregularly in about 8 or 10 vertical rows: 
those at the base blackest and roundest, those on the distal edge somewhat 
linear, those on the outer edges of the lobes extending forward onto the dorsal 
and ventral lines of the caudal peduncle; general color of caudal fln yellowish 
and olivaceous, the lower lobe somewhat rosy: pectoral red. somewhat lighter 
than lateral band: ventral reddish, the anterior rays edged with white; anal 
reddish with a little orange, the anterior half or two-thirds broadly edged wllh 
white. 

There is not much variation In color, except such as Is probably due to 
dltTerence In age: the rosy lateral band, the parr-marks, and the broad rich 
cadmium band on the belly are characteristic. The variation In the black spots 
ifl Inconsiderable. In the 39 specimens which the senior author has examined 
critically IG do not show any spots whatever anterior to the adipose tin. and 
only 2 of the remaining 14 show any spots anterior to the dorsal fln. and the^e 
are obscure and few !n number. In one lart^e specimen there ai-e but IS to H 
spots on the caudal peduncle; In another somewhat smaller example there are 
but 6 spots. Tbe dorsal, anal, and ventral fins are Invariably edged with color. 
The head In the males Is longer and more pointed; the maxillary is also longer 
than in the females. 

When well spread the caudal fln is usually slightly lunaie or slightly notched, 
but In some examples It is almost truncate or sciuare. In alcohol all of the 
bright colors soon fade, the parr-marks, black spots, and pale edges to the dorsal, 
anal, and ventral fins persisting. The general color of the body then becomes 
a dirty yellowish white or in some specimens brownish. In some cases the 
parr-marks almost wholly disappear. 

Marks fop field identification: The rich rosy lateral band showing Ihroiich 
the large distinct bluish-black parr-marks, the rich lemon-yellow of the lower 
half of the side, the Intensely rich cadmium of the belly, and the entire absence 
of black spots on the body except on the caudal peduncle, readily distinguish 
the Roosevelt trout from all other species. 

Distribution: The groiden trout Is native to Volcano Treek alone, and occurs 
throughout the entire length of that stream. It Is found at oil places from above 
the tunnel to below the lowermost of the series of falls near the mouth, and in 
all suitable places from the tunnel to the headwaters above Volcano Meadows, 
where the elevation Is more than 10,000 feet. 

Trout are abundant in Volpano Creek; every pool at the foot of a fall 
or below a cascade or rapid is sure to coutaiii a number of them, and 
they may be seen on the riffles and under the jiroteeting banks. 
Although the fish runs down Voleano Creek e^en to below the lowest 
falls, it apparently does not venture out into Kern Kiver; no e.iainplcs 
were seen there. It is a creek tish and appears to keep within the 
pecnliar environment of the small stream. They are most numerous 
above the tunnel, probably heeause fewer tourists visit that portion of 



126 CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAUB. 

the stream. The fish there, however, are usually small. The largest, 
iinest examples are found hetween the natural bridge and the lower 
falls. 

As a game fish the golden trout is one of the hest. It will rise to 
any kind of lure, including the artificial fly, and at any time of day. A 
No. 10 fly is large enough, perhaps too large; No. 12 or even smaller 
ia much better. In the raoming and again in the evening, iL will take 
the fly with a rush and make a good fight, jumping when permitted 
to do so ; during the middle of the day it rises more deliberately and 
may sometimes be tempted only with grasshoppers. It is a fish that 
does not give up soon but continues the fight. Its unusual breadth of 
fins and strength of caudal peduncle, together with the turbulent water 
in which it dwells, enable it to make a fight equalling that offered by 
many a larger trout. 

Although now abundant the golden trout can not long remain so 
unless aflforded some protection. The attractiveness of the Kern River 
region because of its scenic beauty is sure to appeal more and more to 
tourists every year. Practically the entire length of Volcano Creek 
is easily accessible from the trail from the east side of the divide. As 
a matter of fact, one can iu one day travel the entire length of the 
creek and have time to stop frequently to drop a fly into the pools 
which he passes. The trout are readily found and easily captured, as 
they are so voracious and rise to the lure so readily. 

The great beauty of the Roosevelt trout lies in the richness of its 
colors and in its trioiness of form; the brilliancy and richnes of its 
coloration is not equaled in any other known species of trout. The 
delicate golden olive of the head, back, and upper part of the side, the 
clear golden yellow along and below ttie lateral line, overlaid by a 
delicate rosy lateral band, and the marvelously rich cadmium of the 
under parts, fully entitle this to be known above all others as the 
golden trout. Except on the caudal peduncle, the body is entirely 
without the black spots characteristic of the rainbow trout series. One 
can appreciate to some extent the great beauty of this fish by examining 
the splendid painting by Hudson. 

In form it is no less beautiful; its lines are perfect, the fins large 
and well proportioned, and the caudal peduncle strong; all fitting it 
admirably for life in the turbulent waters in which it dwells. It is a 
small fish, however. It is probable that it never attains a greater 
length than 14 inches or a weight of more than a pound in Volcano 
Creek. In the Cottonwood Lakes it is said to reach a weight of five 
pounds. 

The scales are smaller than in any other known species of trout. 
They are so small, indeed, as to have caused so good an observer as 
Stewart Edward White to declare that this trout has no scales at all. 
This is an error in ol)servation that is not uncommon; even James 
Russell Lowell, excellent naturalist that he was, wrote: 
"One trout Bcale In the scales I Iny 
(If trout hud scales), and It will outweigh 
TliL' wrong aide ot the balances." 

But all trout have scales, albeit often very small and not easily seen 
except by him who knows fishes, and the golden trout scales are the 

smallest of them all. 



GAUPOBNIA FISH AND GAME. 127 

This, the most beautiful trout in all the world, was named in honor 
of Theodore Roosevelt, the naturalist, who, as President of the United 
States, ordered the investigation which resulted in its discovery as a 
new species. 



Cutthroat Series. 
CUTTHROAT TROUT. 
Salmo clarkii Riohardton. 

Other nam**: Black- spotted Trout; Columbia River Trout; Cla.rk Trout; 
Red -throated Trout 

Dawription: Head 4; depth 1; D. 10; A. 10; cteca 43: scales small, In lEO to 170 
crosB-serlea. Body elonsate, compressed; head rather ihort; mouth moderate, 
the maxillary not reachlnK far beyond the eye; vomerine teeth as usual set in an 
irregular ziK-zag series, teetb on the hyold bone normaUy present, but often 
obsolete in old exarapleB; dorsal fln rather low; caudal fln allKhtly forked (more 
so In younfc). Color, silvery olivaceous, often dark steel color; back, upper 
part of side and caudal peduncle profusely covered with rounded black spots of 
varying sizes and shapes, these spots often on the head, and somelimes 
extending on the belly; dorsal, adipose, and caudal fins covered with similar 
spots about as large as the nostril; inner edge of the mandible tcilh a deep-red 
blotck, which Is a diagnostic mark; middle of side usually with a dUTuse pale 
rosy wash, sometimes quite bright, and extending on side of head; under parts 
silvery white. The red blotches or washing on the membrane Joining the dentary 
bones of the lower Jaw are usually constant, probably always present In the 
adult, and constitute a moat important character. (Jordan and Gvermann) 

Mark* for field identification: Red marks on threat; very small scales, there 
being about 150 in a row from head to tall; back profusely spotted; teeth present 
on hyold bone at base of tongue. 

Distribution in California: Pit River and tributaries, Eel River, coastal 
streams of northwestern California, Goose Lake. 

Spawns in spring. Decidedly a deepwater fish, except during 
spawning season when it seeks shallower waters. Cutthroats do not 
rise as readily to a dy as other trout, but more often take a sunken dy ; 
nor do they seek swift water as the rainbow. As a ride, this species 
does not rank with others in its gameness. Apparently, the cutthroat 
in this state is not as prolific as the rainbow; at least this species is 
not nearly so abundant as the rainbow. The cutthroat spawns in the 
sprii^ and early summer, ascending to the headwaters of streams or 
depositing eggs in shallow water or on sand bars in the lakes. Lake 
cutthroats invariably reach a larger size than stream fish. Specimens 
in the Klamath Lakes have reached a weight of seventeen pounds. 

TAHOE TROUT. 
Salmo hanihawi Gill A Jordan. 

Other nam*a: Black-spotted Trout; Silver Trout; Red fish ; Tommy; Black 
Trout; Salmc tahoentU; Salfo purparatua kemhaai; Salmo mykiag (in part); 
BaltHO mgkist hcnihatci; Salmo clarkii henihatoi. 

DMOription: Head 3.T5; depth 4; D. 11; A. 12; scales 27 to ST-160 to lSl-27 
to 37, usually about 170 In a longitudinal series; body robust, elongate, greatest 
depth about one-fourth of total length without tali; caudal peduncle about two- 
flftha length of head; head long, conical, slender, not extending far behind eye; 
two long series oC vomerine teeth; caudal short and distinctly forked; dark 
olive-green above, covered almost entirely with large black spots; males a dark 
yellowish -olive color, with metallic reflections, the dark color being the same 



128 CAUFOHNU PISH AND QAHB. 

from the back to the ventral surface; a broad, pinkish. Indefinite stripe about ID 
scales wide on the side, each stride Included In thla stripe and also In a broad 
area above and beiow sllKhtly ed^ed with light yellow; opercle, preopercle, sub- 
operole, and a triangular spot above the axil of pectoral, scarlet or yellowish 
scarlet: under surface of lower Jaw with two parallel stripes of red; red also 
visible on the tonicue and on the shoulder -girdle: brownish -black spots distrib- 
uted over the entire body: females usually more lightly colored, and the colors 
seeming to have more metallic luster. 

Marks for field identification: The dark olive body with many bold black spots 
widely scattered almost uniformly over Its entire surface, and the red marks on 
the throat distinguish the Tahoe trout. Sometimes It has a silvery luster. 
Although plainly belonging to the cutthroat series, having the same red dashes 
under the throat, long head, small scales and teeth on the tongue, it is never- 
theless, browner or yellower In color, and has larger scattered spots which cover 
the whole fish. 

Diatribution; I^ke Tahoe and Its tributary streams and lakes, upper portions 
of the Truckee River, Donner. Weblwr. and Independence lakes; Introduced In 
lakes of Siskiyou County, and Bear Lake, San Bernardino County, and in the 
Stanislaus and the Mokelumne rivers on the western slope of the Sierras. 

Aoelors tisually poiDt out the following different kiuds of trout in 
Lake Talioe and the Truckee River; 

Taboe Trout, dark in color with large spots. 

Silver Troat, silvery in color, with small, elongate spots, body 
deep and heavy. 

Redflsh, brilliant in color, with red cheeks. 

Tommy, Binall, rolatively large spotted fish, spawning later 
than the red fish. 

Royal Silver Trout, deep blue above and silvery on sides with 
few or no spots. {xSalmo rcgalis.) 

Even though known to fishermen, these forms with the exception of 
the royal silver trout are here all classed as Tahoe trout, until further 
information is available. 

Tliere has been a great deal of speculation over the identity of the 
redfish, a larffe brightly-colored fish with a red cheek spot, which nins 
lip the Truckee Kiver early in spring, the migration ceasing in March. 
By many this In rcgardetl as entirely distinct from the Tahoe trout. 
With the conclusion of this run of fish there appears a run of smaller 
fish known to the anglers us tommies. This second migration usually 
occurs in April and is about over by Jlay 1. The tommy is a smaller 
and relatively larfre spotted fish. Whether these two forms which 
have separate spawning seasons are one and the same fish is yet to be 
determined, but at present they are given the saine name. (Snyder.) 

Frequently, a verj- light-colored silvery example of Tahoe trout is 
taken, its aides having a bright metallic luster and smaller and more 
elongate spots. This is usually known as the silver trout, and is said 
to frequent the greater depths. It attains a very large size, one 
having been caught which weighed 2it pounds. This form was described 
by Jordan and Evermann as Hahiui lahontsis and may be, as they 
thought, a distinct species. 

Dtiring a portion of the year the Tahoe trout lives in deep water, 
and can be caught, if at all, only on long lines. Early in the spring 



OALIFORmA FISH AND OAMB. 129 

and in the summer they are to be found in relatively shallow water. 
It may be that food snpply accounts for thia migration from deep to 
shallow water, as spawning minnows seem to be the attractive food 
when the trout is in shallow water. The greater number of thia species 
arc taken by trolling with a spoon. (Snyder.) 

The Tahoe trout appears to feed largely on minnows but black ants 
and other insects are taken in quantity. 

ROYAL SILVER TROUT. 
Salmo rvgatia Snyder. 

Other name*: Greenback; Grayback. 

Deacription: A fresh specimen Is characterized by a deep steel blue OR the 
dorsal surface which color extends downward on the sides to about the sixth 
row of scales above the lateral line, where it abruptly blends Into a silvery hue. 
The silver dulls ventrally. while the chin, throat, and abdomen are white. The 
cheek Is marked by a faint red or yellow spot grlowlng faintly througrh the silver, 
but this is the only red or yellow color on the fish. The dorsal and caudal tins 
are the only portions of the body marked by dark spots, but even these are 
inconepicuouB. It has about Hi to IGO lateral series of scales, 39 to 31 above 
the lateral line, 11 to 13 branch lostegals, and 19 to 21 ^llirakers. No external 
Bex differences can be observed. (Snyder) 

Marki for field idontification: The Royal Silver trout, easily confused with 
silvery srieclmens of the common Tahoe trout (Salmo AeiwAoict). dlfCers from 
the latter in Its decidedly silvery sides, blue back, shorter head, shorter and 
more rounded snout, smaller maxillary, large scales, narrow and more pointed 
llns, perfectly smooth basl- branchial a which are without teeth, and fewer 
Klllrokers. The absence ot spota is also characteriatic. 

Distribution: Known only from the Lake Tahoe basin. 

Little is known about its habits, but apparently it does not spawn in 
streams tributary to Lake Tahoe, as does the Tahoe trout. Feeds 
largely on insects, but doubtless also takes minnows, as it has been 
caught on a spinner. 



DOLLY VAROEN TROUT. 
Salvelinu* parkai (Sueklay). 

Other names: Malma; Salmon Trout (Alaska and Montana) ; Bull Trout 
■ (Idaho); Western (Jharr; Oregon Charr; Salvelinut raaiflio (in part). 

Detcription: Head 3.5 to 3.T&; depth 4.8 to 6; eye 6.6 to 7; snout 3 to 4; 
maiillary 1.7 to 3; D. 11; A. 9; scales 39-240-36; pyloric Cttca large, 15 to 50; 
glllrakers about 8 to 12. Body rather slender, the bock somewhat elevated, lens 
compressed than In Salvdinvg fontinalii; head large, snout broad, flattened 
above; mouth large, the maxillary reaching past the eye; fins short, the caudal 
slightly forked or almost truncate. General color, olivaceous, the sides with 
round red or orange spots nearly as large as the eye, the back with similar but 
smaller spots, and without reticulations, a feature of coloration which at once 
distinguishes this from all other American trout; lower fins colored much as in 
8. fontinaliii, dusky with a pale stripe In front, followed by a darker one. 
(Jordan and £ verm an n.) 

Mark* for fiald identification: Distinguinhed from true trout and from other 
charrs by the lack of reticulations or mottling in its color pattern. Large orange 
or red spots on the back as well as sides, and the lack of blackish marblinga 
on the upper fins, distinguish it from the Eastern Brook trout. It may weigh, 
'When mature, anywhere from six ounces to twelve pounds. The little ones are 
brightest in color. 

Dialributian; The only stream in California in which the Dolly Varden trout 
is known to be a native is the McCloud River. ,C 



130 CAUFOBNU FISH AND OAUB. 

The Dolly Vardeo is more voracious than tlie true trout, 
streams it devours milliODS of salmon eggs, as well as young salmoa 
and this fish is the greatest enemy the salmon breeder finds. Gamy and 
vigorous, it makes a fair game fish, taking a baited hook freely. They 
also rise readily to the artificial fly. Their food is principally minnows. 
In California, the Dolly Varden is largely nonmigratory. It lies on 
the bottom and waits for food to come to it, then grabs it like a mad 
bulldog. When caught it will often actually attempt to defend itself 
by biting. Moreover, it will live longer out of water than other trouts. 

When this fish was taken by scientists in the McCloud Kiver, the 
resemblance to a dress goods with spots called Dolly Varden and which 
was then the rage, led to its being given this name by the lady members 
of the party, and "Dolly Varden" it has been ever since. 



Inlxodnced Species. 

EASTERN BROOK TROUT. 
Smimo fontmalis (Mitohill). 

Othsr namai: Brook Trout; Speckled Trout; Fontinalls. 

Deicription: Head 4.5; D. 10: A. 9; scales 37-230-30; KUlrakers about 6-1-11; 
body oblonK, moderately compreaaed, not much elevated ; head large, but not 
very long, tbe snout bluntish, the Inlerorbltal space rather broad; mouth large, 
the maxillary reaching beyond orbit: eye large, somewhat above ails of body; 
caudal tin slightly lunate In the adult, forked In the young; adipose fin small; 
pectoral and ventral flns not especially elongate. Color, back more or less 
mottled, marbled, or barred with dark olive or black, without spots; red spots 
on side rather smaller than the pupil; dorsal and caudal line mottled with 
darker; lower flns dusky, with a pale, usually orange, band anteriorly, followed 
by a darker one; belly In the male often more or less red. (Jordan and 



Marks for ftald identification: Small imbedded scales making the flsb appear 
Ecaleless; mottled or marbled color pattern of back with no spots, and red lower 
flns fringed with white, are the beat distinguishing features. 

Distribution: Tahoe region, Sierran lakes and streams; planted in most 
streams from Siskiyou to San Diego County, with the exception of the coastal 
streams. This flsh now has tbe widest distribution, fn California, of any- 
introduced species. 

Eastern brook trout abound chiefly in cold, slow-running meadow 
brooks; but they thrive in all pure cold waters which contain sufficient 






DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUPtmHU FISH AND OAME. 131 

air, including lakes and ponds. Never, in Califomia, are they found 
in fast-rushing mountain streams. This fish is wary, and great skill 
is required in catching it. The outstanding peculiarity of its habits 
is evidenced by the fact that a person acquainted with its haunts can 
go out and catch a string of Eastern hrook in a eomparatively short 
time, while others, with better tackle and equal skill, will fish a whole 
day for them in vain. The largest brook trout are found in the deep, 
wide pools in the warmer waters; the smallest ones are found in the cold, 
narrow mountain rivulets near their source. Eastern brook trout do 
not keep well nor ship well, probably on aci^ount of the fat. They spawn 
high up in the tributary streams and so early (October to Januarj-) 
that eggs for hatchery purposes are altnoKt impos.'iible to obtain. This 
trout is a nest-builder. "Cavities are made in gravel, the nest is 
shaped with the tail. • • • After tlie eggs are deposited they are 
covered with gravel. The egg is about one-fifth of an iueh in diameter, 
and varies in color from pale lemon to orange red. The average yield 
of the female is from 400 to 600. The period of hatching will depend 
on the temperature, ranging from 165 days in water of 37 degrees to 
32 days in water of 54 degrees. The yolk sack ia absorbed in from 
30 to 80 days, and after its absorption the youiig fish begins to feed. 
The rate of growth will, of course, depend on the amount of food 
consumed. In artificial culture yearlings, according to Mr. Ains- 
worth's estimate, will average 2 ounces; fish of two years, 4 ounces; of 
three years, 8 ounces, and of four years, 1 pound." (Bean.) 

History. The California Pish Commission purchased 6,000 Eastern 
brook trout in 1872, and distributed them equally in the North Fork 
of the American River, in the headwaters of Alameda Creek, and in 
the San Andreas reservoir, near San Francisco. In 1875, a large ship- 
ment of e^B, 60,000, was received from New Hampshire and succeed- 
ing shipments in 1877, 1878, and 1879. Beginning in 1S90, large 
numbers have been hatched and distributed each year. More recently, 
eggs for the hatcheries have been secured from the Marlette-Carson 
hatchery in Nevada. 

BROWN TROUT. 
Salmo fario l.lnn«eut. 

Othnr name*: von Behr Trout; European Brown Trout. 

DMoription: D. 13-14; A. 10-11; P. 13; V. 9. Scales 25-20-30; pyloric cteca 
S8-&1; vertebrte 57-58. Body short and stout. Its greato.'it dejith belnx contained 
about lour times In the length without the caudal. The caudal peduncle is short 
and deep, Its depth equal to two-fl(ths o( the length of the heud. Length of 
head Is one-fourth of total length without caudal. Dorsal fin is nearer to tip 
of snout than to root of tail; longest ray of this fin equnls the distance from 
the eye to the end of the opercle. Ventral is under the posterior part of the 
dorsal; its length is about one-half that of the head. The adipose dorsal is 
over the end of the anal base. Pectoral nearly one-sixth iit length without the 
caudal. In the male the Jaws are produced and very old ones have a hook. 
The maxilla eitends to the hind marsfn of the eye. On head, body and dorsal 
tin are numerous red and black spots, the latter circular or X-shaped and some 
of them with a pale border; yellowish margin usually present on the front of 
the dorsal and anal and the outer part of the ventral. The dark spots are few 
in number below the lateral line. The ground color of the body Is browniah or 
brownish black, varying with food and locality. (Bean.) 

Mark* for field identification: The back and aides of this trout are decidedly . 
brown; the back ia covered with black spots and the sides with red spots. The 
belly is silvery white or brownish. This trout Is not easily confused with others. , 



132 OAUTORNU FISH AND OAUB. 

Dittribution; A pure Btraln la to be found Id the Tosemite Volley region; 
streams of northern Humboldt and Lake County. HybiidB, tbe remit of a eroea 
with the Loch Leven, are found In many other streams in the state. 

The brown trout lives in clear, cold, rapid streams and at the mouths 
of stresms tributary to lakes. It ^owb to be of lat^ size; maturing 
at about 8 inches in length. In its movements it is swift, and it leaps 
over obstructions like the salmon. It feeds usually in tbe morning and 
evening, is more active during evening and night, and often lies quietly 
in deep pools or in the shadow of overhanging bu^es and trees for hours 
at a time. Insects and their larvte, worms, moUusks, and small fishes 



a California about 1S95. 

form its food, and, like its relative, the rainbow trout, it is fond of the 
eggs of fishes. Spawning begins in October and continues to January. 
Eggs are deposited in crevices between stones, under projecting roots 
of trees, and sometimes in nests excavated by the spawning fishes. The 
parents cover the eggs to some extent with gravel, (Bean.) 

History. Several plants of brown trout were made by the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries previous to 1895, but in that year 135,000 
were reared at the Sisson hatchery. "With the exception of those held 
in the breeding ponds these fish were planted in the lakes and streams of 
the high Sierras. 

LOCH LEVEN TROUT. 
Salmo Irutta levenenti* Walker. 

Other names: Salmo Uvcncmis; Scotch Trout, 

Description: D. 13; A, 12; P. 14; V, S. Scales 24 to 28—118 to ISO— 2B-J0: 
pyloric cffica 47-90; vertebrae 56'B9. Body Blender and elongate, Ita Kreatest 
depth contained four and one-fourth to four and one-half times In total length 
without caudal. Caudiil peduncle slender. Its least depth three-eighths of the 
greatest depth of the body, and equal to length of snout and eye combined. 
Head rather short and conical, its length two-ninths to one-fltth of the total 
length without caudal. The snout Is one-fourth or slightly more than one-fourth 
as long as the head. The interorbital space is somewhat conveic. Its width 
equal to three-fifths of the length of postorbital part of head The eye Is of 
moderate size, its loni; diameter contained five and one-half to six times in 
the length of the head, and equalling about twice the greatest width of the 
maxilla. Maxilla reaches to or slightly beyond the hind margin of the eye. 
Teeth rather strong, those in the intermaxillary and mandible the largest, tri- 
angular head of vomer with two or three in a transverse series at its base. 



OALIFORNIA FISH AND OAHB. 133 

teeth on the ehaft of the vomer usually In a Blngle, partially zlK-xas, perBlstent 
series. Mandible without a hook and little produced even in breeding males. 
Dorsal origin distant from tip of anout about as far as end of dorsal base from 
ttase of caudal; the dorsal flu higher than long, Its longeet ray equal to longest 
ray of anal fln. The anal fln la much higher than long, its distance from the 
base of the ventral equaling length of the head. The ventral origin Is nearly 
under the middle of the dorsal, the fin being as long as the postorbital part of 
the head. Pectoral equals lenKth of head without the snout. Adipose fln very 
small, its width one-half Its length, which Is about equal to eye. Caudal fin 
emarglnate unless fully extended, when It becomes truncate, the outer rays 
about one-seventh of total length. Including caudal. (Been) 

Marks for field identificalion; The true Loch Leven trout is a slimmer flsh 
than the brown trout, and the adipose fin is smaller. Furthermore, It Is fully 
spotted and lacks the brown color of the brown trout. The sides are silvery 
with a varying number of X-ahaped black spots or rounded brown or black 

Distribution: Webber Lake In Sierra County has pure original stock. Com- 
mon to California streams: Feather River. Tahoe region, and Siskiyou County 
lakes and streams, but usually crossed with brown trout. 

The spawning season may begin in October and continues till 
January. According to W. H. Sliebley, the egg is slightly smaller 
(260 to a fluid ounce) than the egg of a rainbow (220 to a fluid ounce) 
but larger than that of an Eastern brook (345 and 400 to fluid ounce). 



Fig. 45. Loch Leven trout (Salmo 
Into Calllornla In 1894. and no' 
with the brown trout. 

This trout is largely nonmigratory in its native habitat. It takes 
the artificial fly readily. The food of this species includes freah-water 
mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and small fish. 

History. Twenty thousand Loch Leven trout eggs were received at 
the Sisson hatchery in 1894. Since that time plants have been made 
annually from the fry reared at this hatchery. Most of the fish in the 
breeding ponds at present are hybrids secured by crossing with the 
brown trout. Hybridization between these two species is very common. 

MACKINAW TROUT. 
Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum). 
Oth«r namet: Great I..ake8 Trout: Cristivomer; amotiK the Canadian Indians 
called the "namaycush." 

Dsseription: Head 4.2S: depth 4: eye 4,5; Br. II or 12; D. 11; A. II; scales 185 
to 206; maxillary 2; interorbltal 4. Body long: head very long, its upper surface ' 
flattened; mouth very large, the maxillary extending much beyond the eye, the 



134 CALIFORNIA FIBn AND OAME. 

head and jaws proportionately lengtheoed and pointed; caudal fln well forked; 
adipose fln small; teeth very atrong. General coloration, dark gray, sometimes 
pale, sometlmea almoat black, everywhere with rounded pale spots which are 
often reddish tinged; head usually vermlculate above; dorsal and caudal 
reticulate with darker. 

Marks for field identification: Largest of all trouts and known by its cream- 
colored or grayish apota Instead of red spots as in the true charra. The dorsal 
and caudal flna arc marked. 

Oittribution: Introduced In Lake Tahoe, Fallen Leaf and Donner lakes, where 
It Is occasionally caught. 

Omnivorous in its feeding habits; it has a ravenous appetite, greedily 
devouring all kinds of fishes possessing soft fins. It is even said that 
jaekknives, corncobs and other equally indigestible articles have been 
found in its stomach. It spawns on reefs and lives in deep water at 
other times. The spawning season begins late in September, and 
spawning continues until December. 

The Mackinaw trout reaches a much larger .>iize than a charr, speci- 
mens of from 15 to 20 pounds weight being not uncommon, while it 



occasionally attains a weight of 50 to 80 pounds in the Great Lakes. 
As a food fish it rank^ high, although it may be regarded as somewhat 
inferior to the brook trout or the whitefish. Compared with other 
salmonoids, the Great Lakes trout is a sluggish, heavy, and ravenous 
fish. "According to Ilurhert, a coarse, heavy, stiff rod, and a powerful 
oiled hempen flaxen line on a winch, with a heavy sinker; a eodhook 
baited with any kind of fle-sh, fish, or fowl — is the most successful, if 
not the most orthodox or scientific mode of capturing him. His great 
size and immense .strength alone give him the value as a fish of game; 
but when hooked he pulls strongly and fights hard, though he is a 
boring, deep fighter, and seldom if ever leaps out of the water, like the 
true salmon or brook trout." (Jordan.) 

History. First brought to California in 1894, the Alackinaw trout 
was propagated at the Sisson hatchery, and the following year 65,000 
were planted in Ijake Tahoc. In sueceeding years additional plants 
were made in the Truekee basin. This fish has not thrived as well as 
other introduced species. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNU PISH AND QAME. 135 

SIBLIOQRAPHY. 

Evermann, Barton Warren. 

1908. The golden trout of the southern Hlsh Sierras. U. H. Bur. of iilaherles 
Bull. 25. pp. S-Sl, 16 pla., 1 map. 
El^nmann, Carl H. 

1890. The food fl«lieB of the California fresh watera. Biennial Rpt. Cal. 
State Bd. of Fiah Comm. for 1888-90, pp. B3-B7. 
Jordan, David Starr. 

189Z. Salmon and trout of the PaclQc Coast. Rep. Cal. State Fish Comm,. 

1893. 14-58. 
1893. Reprinted in ibid. 

1904. PaclQc species of salmon and trout. ElKhteenth Blenn, Rpt. Cal. Fish 
and Game Comm.. for year 19D3-04, pp. 75-97. 

1905. A gxilde to the study or Hshes. (Henry Holt & Co., New York.) Vol. !. 
599 pp.. 500 fl^. In text. 

1906. The trout and salmon of the Pacific coast. Nineteenth Blenn. Rpt.. 
Cal. Fish and Game Coram, for yeare 1905-1906, pp. 77-112, many tlga. 
in text 

191S. Fishes of the Pacific coast. In Nature and Science on the PaclHc 
Coast (Paul Eider & Co., S. F.) pp. 115-123, pi. 15, 302 pp., 29 pla., 19 
RgB. In text, 14 maps. 
Jordan. David Starr and Evermann, Barton Warren. 

1896-1900. Fishes of North and Middle America, In four voiumea. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. Bull., 47. pp. ct. 3313. pis. CCcXCl. 
1905. American food and game fishes. (Doubleday, Page & Co., N. Y.) xl, 
5T2, many plates and figs. 
McCarthy. EuRene. 

1913. Familiar fish, their habits and capture. A patched book on fresh- 
water game flah. (D. Appleton A Co.. N. Y.) xil, 216, figs. In text. 
Snyder, J. O. 

1917. The fishes of the Lehontan system of Nevada and northeastern Cali- 
fornia. Bull. U. S. Bur. of Fisheries, 35 pp. 1-86, 9 Ogs, In text, 1 map. 
Stone. Livingston. 

1877. Domesticated trout. How to breed and grow them. {3d ed. Univ. 
Press; Welch, Blgelow &, Co.. Cambridge. Mass.) xiv, 367 tigurea In 

Shebiey, W. H. 

1917. History of the introduction of food and game fishes Into the waters of 
California. Cal. Fish and Oame, S, pp. 1-12, 2 figs. In text. 



Flanllng fish In the High Sierras. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



136 CALIPOEKU FKH AND GAME. 

8TTMBIER OH THE CALIFORNIA TROUT STREAMS. 

By ROBERT PAQE LINCOLN, AiMcfate Editor Of "Rod and Qun In Canada." 

Trout fishing California has in plenty, with the added attraction of 
pictiiresqueness afforded by cool valleys, and overlooked by towering 
mountains. There is a wide variety to choose from ; and that the sport 
is of the very best is annually attested by the experiences of thousands 
of the sons of Walton who hie them away for a try at the big fellows. 
They generally come back with what they went for, and some memories, 
too, that are enlivened with bright lights that are prone to linger long 
in the consciousness ; on the other hand, it is doubtful if such memories 
ever pass out of one's hoard of recollections. 

It is the pride of California to know that it has a native trout that 
has gone down to fame, and has taken up its home in practically every 
quarter of the world. Just how many of the people of the Sunny State 
are aware of this I do not know, but that brilliant clan, the California 
league of fly-rod men, are in understanding of it. The fish I have 
reference to is the rainbow trout {Salmo iridcus), the most noble finny 
fighter that ever seized an artificial fly and made a leaping, dazzling 
flight through the waters. In the Eastern section of the country men 
speak volumes almut the speckled brook tront, though each and every 
one of them end up, at some time or another, by telling of the fight 
that tlie rainbow trout puts up when captured. As an introduction 
into other waters, the native Califomian, rainbow trout, has proven 
himself well able to take care of himself and to perpetuate his kind for 
the benefit of anglers. The rainbow trout is now found in the waters 
of the British Isles, in France, Germany and Russia. Exceptionally 
good rainbow trout fishing is to be had in the many rivers of South 
Africa. Anglers have written enthusiastically of fishing for Salmo 
iridcvs in the streams of New Zealand. In our own country the rain- 
bow trout has had a wide distribution. Knee deep in the waters of 
Michigan and Wisconsin streams I have played this fighter — the pride 
of California ; reared at the foot of the snow-capped mountains, in the 
heart of the Sierras. In the rage that swept the Eastern States over 
speckled brook trout fishing, a condition has arisen where practically 
every stream has been sapped of its spotted beauties. Where to turn 
for a replenishert The rainbow trout is always the happy solution. 
There is not a properly-fitted trout stream that will not do for the 
rainbow trout. It grows fast. It fights well. * 

But it seems that only in the shadow of their beloved mountain home 
(as in the Sierras) do the rainbow trout give a befitting example of 
their sprightly da&h and pugnacioiisness. One who has tested the 
fighting leap and flight of a rainbow trout, in its own particular 
native waters, in the mountains, and has tested a fish of the same 
species in Eastern waters at once knows the difference. Still flowing, 
often quite warm, and often discolored streams (which the rainbow 
trout has been introduced into in the East) produce a ■ slow-moving 
fish with little fight in him. Such fish speedily degenerate into gluttons, 
and keep themselves in the pools. Jlany of thase hulking fellows 
finally get to hugging the bottom and rarely come to the surface to 
take a fly. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUPOBNU PISH AND GAME. 137 

How different the mouDtain rainbow ! Tlnused to warm water, like 

the brook trout, be demands the sweet, cold water. By reason of the 
swiftness of the mountain stream he has a vigorous "kick" to his tail. 
His fins are superlatively strong for breasting those crystal currents. 
"When he takes your artificial fly he does not lazily rise t« the surface 
to suck it in, but snaps it. A moment later he will turn a double or 
triple somersault and the fight is on. TVare of that light tackle ! He 
is a match for you. Back and forth he will race from one edge of the 
stream to the other. He is cunning, too, and knows every log and 
obstruction in the stream. He will (if you do not wat<;h out) snag 
your leader on a convenient boulder nnd there will be nothing left but 
the fragrant memory of what mi;:ht have been. The mountain rainbow 
is a high flyer, with the guarantee of gameness linked with his name. 
It recalls the brilliant words of Charles Frederick Holder: "How 
that rainbow came at me ; how it went repeatedly into the air ; bow I 
nearly fell overboard, are matters of personal history, and need not be 
dwelt upon ; but for the first few seconds that living rainbow, which 
went pirouetting over the little river on its tail, throwing impossible 
aerial swings and leaps, filled a space in my imagination. Again and 
again the rainbow leaped, a silvery radiance flashing in the sunlight, 
dropping back to dash about the boat, to come in with a rush, faster 
than I could reel. • • • 

"You have, perhaps, never seen a big rainbow fresh from the icy 
pools of its choice. Know, then, that this fish, thi^ seven-pounder which 
I held upon tlie scales, was a tiling of beauty, a joy forever beyond 
dispute. Its back was well sprinkled with ocelot-like black spots; the 
color a deep green, the lower surface silver, while over all seemed 
drawn a filmy gauze of old-rase fabric, of inexpressible delicacy and 
beauty, which was intensified along the median line in a band of pink 
and rose and other tints that produced all the colors of tlie rainbow, 
for truth, and gave this radiant creature rank among the birds of 
brilliant plumage." 

Holder wrote of the lai^e rainbow trout to be taken in tlic lake's and 
streams of northern California and southern Oregon. How skillful 
was this great California angling writer in telling the beauty of fislies, 
and the fascination in taking them? No one has equalled his efforts 
at word painting with black upon white. 

When one speaks of rainbow trout in California one insHnctivoly 
thinks of the Kern River, which finds its birth in the high Sierras. The 
waters from Mount Whitney pour into that beautiful stream, "a great, 
clear, green, swift stream, among the granite rocks, its waters slipping 
along like oil; a river with rippling shallows and deep, cold eddies, 
the perfect home of the trout." The Kern River is famed amoiiK 
anglers the world over. When anglers meet it is always; "Have you 
ever fished the Kem, of California?" If you have fished the Kern 
you are the center of a curious throng of interested listeners, iispeci- 
ally does the Kem River interest anglers in that some of the tributaries 
from Monnt Whitney contain a trout that is one of the gentle wonders 
of this planet. I refer to the so-called golden trout. Professor Gilbert 
brought out the first specimens of this fish for identification. David 
StatT Jordan designated the fish Salmo gilberti. That was some 
trrenty years ago. The fish was brought from Soda Springs on the 



138 CAUFtSNU nSH AND GAME. 

Bonth fork of the Kprn River. Later the isolated golden troat of 
Voleano Creek were designated as a species apart From the others, the 
Hcicatific term being piven them I'^alma agua-bonita).* This name was 
dorive<l from the waterfall that separates the Volcano Creek from the 
rest of the world — that is, as far as coming and going concerns this 
trout. There are scientifically, three species of the so-called golden 
trout in the Afount Whitney waters; overcast in gold, the fins tinted 
in the pnreat orange with a nicely bmshed-in orange colored stripe 
along the median line. The golden trout are an off-shoot of the rain- 
bow trout; merely that changed environments have wroi^ht a subtle 
transformation in their coloration, for the pigment cells of a trout are 
very sensitive to taking on a new eoloration. If a stream bottom be of 
sand and gravel, and very bright, the fish attains to a silvery coloration. 
The golden trout owe their coloration to the color of the bottom of the 
stream they live in. "The rocks over which these streams flow," says 
Jordan, "are of bright granite and qnartzitc, gray and red. It is 
supposed that the color is protective, for the fish are colored like the 
bottom. To a bird looking into the stream, the deception is perfect. 
It is supposed (though no one knows) that the colors have been attained 
through natural selection. The redder the fish, the better its chance 
to escape the fishhawk and eagle. If this is not the cause of the color, 
no one can guess any other, and to escape its enemies through resem- 
hlance to natural objects is not a trait of the fish alone, but of hundreds 
of other creatures in these and other mountains. But whatever the 
cause, nothing in nature is more beautiful or more graceful than a 
golden trout, alive in these clear, icy, sun-lit waters." 

The golden trout are trout of the high altitudes. Such trout rarely 
grow to length and breadth and weight. One rarely catches a true 
golden trout mueh over three-quarters of a pound in weight. They 
rarely go over twelve Inches in length ; a ten-inchcr may be taken as a 
large one. They attain to maturity at a length of about eight inches. 
Sadly, they arc unwise, being so far removed from man, and they take 
the fly with a dash and at the first cast that leads many a fish hog to 
catch ten times more than he should. Quieter stretches of water (as 
where it flows through the meadows) provide good fishing. The trout 
angler will find joy in taking a verj- few of these exceptional fishes and 
enjoy the thought that he is in a region that, for beauty, it is hard to 
equal. 

Cnknown to many, tlie size of the stream, the river or the lake that 
a rainbow trout is f(»und in has its effect upon the size of the fish. 
The reason of this is two-fold : first, the size of the stream ; second, the 
smaller amount of food that it produces. It is for this reason that the 
rainbow trout ofti-n mature when they are six inches in length, in the 
Ntreams of the high altitudes. They will ravenoiisly seize the artificial 
fly believing it food, for there is a scarcity of it. and therefore its 
attractiveness is instantaneous. In the slightly larger streams the 
rainbow trout attain to weights qf alH)ut two or three pounds. In still 
deeper streatns and large pools four-poundcrs are not uncommon. The 
Kern the Kings and the jrerced rivers arc representative rainbow 

■Tl'wiis liiUT l<>iim''il t1"'' t'l'' sppclmena to wlili^h Dr. Jordan Riive Ihp name Salmo 
nniin-hnnila rcnllv came from t'ottonKOod Creek, Into which they had been lntrodii'^?d 
rfnm Srnith F-ork of Kern River, and that the trout of Volcano Creek Is a very different 
!>i)"7l.-B wlilch Dr. Bvermann named Snlmo rooaereUi. See pages 1:14-125. 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND OAME. 139 

streams. In the lakes (as in Kern Lake) the rainbow trout reaches to 
a weight of eight pounds. In the Klamath Lakes rainbow trout have 
been taken as high as twenty-five pounds in weight. The ocean-running 
rainbows are large; they are aalmon-like fellows. They feed heavily in 
the ocean and thus attain often gigantic weights. In the ocean their 
beautiful fresh-water coloration fades and they become silvery in 
coloration. They generally come up to the coast rivers in the month 
of March to spawn. 

Summer on the California trout streams is one of joy unending and 
snccoBS in due measure. Nevertheless, it is strange what a falling off 
occurs in the number of anglers who visit the streams in the latter part 
of July and August. Opening days are always attended by outward 
moving delegations of anglers; and the streams are thickly peopled. 
Later on, however, they dwindle down to twos and threes — and the 
streams are left to themselves. A certain number of these sons of 
Walton know that the best fishing occurs when the heats of summer 
lower on the earth, for it is then the mountain waters yield up their 
fairest specimens. Those secluded pools are then veritable treasure- 
places and bear a careful looking into; it takes skill and the correct 
lure, but the wise angler is never wanting in fitting perfectly into the 
situation. Live bait, spinners and artificial flies are used. The live- 
bait man knows that the grasshopper is a telling lure what time the 
July sun is gilding the heavens and is never to be found near to the 
waters then without a box of them. How to use them on the hook 
without impaling themT Simply procure some of the smallest druggist 
rubber snaps. Take a sufficient number of turns of the rubber around 
the hook, bend and then insert the hopper in the loop. Helgramite are 
attached to the hook in the same manner and they will still be as alive 
as ever. The druggist rubber snap is a l>ait-saver, and no mistake. 
One may catch fifty trout (if it so be) on a hclcramite, attached to the 
hook with a snap, and at the end of the day's fishing it will be as active 
aa ever. The larva-s of the Dobson fly (which is the helgramitej are 
only too well known to the live-bait fisher. They arc those wicked- 
looking creatures one finds in the streams upon turning up stones. 
They have a series of pincers on each side, though they are more savage 
in appearance than in actual combat. It has been said that when all 
else in the line of bait fail-s, the helgramite, the grawbopper and the 
angleworm will win. 

And there is method in the skillful use of the angleworm, too. In 
fact there is an art, in itself, to "working for trout." as it is called. 
Tour chuek-and-chance-it, live-bait fisherman will hook on a great gob 
of worms; will start it at the head of a pool and will lot it tumble, 
haphazard down with the current, rolling over the bottom of the 
stream. Some rainbows may see it, and take it. no doubt, but not the 
fish you are looking for. The true sportsmanlike method of worming 
for trout consists in connecting a bare hook to a spinner — a No. 1 or 2 
spinner will do nicely. To Ibis bare hook the worm is attached so that 
it will trail in the wafer. Instead of driving the hook throughout the 
worm, it is hooked just under its skin. It retiiiires some little art to 
east this — in fact, it is not a ea.st at all, but is allowed to play out in 
the water. The spinner will whirl, throwing off a silvery ray, and the 
long, trailing worm will have a snaky, wavering motion in the water 



140 cjkUFonmA fish amd oaue. 

that proves instantly attractive. Move this into some suspieious- 
looking mountain pool and if there is & large rainbow tront there he 
will be interegteii in sampling your offering, be it feeding time or no. 
It is hard, in the finny world, to refuse an angleworm that trails so 
subtly and enticingly in the water. 

However, the safest and most certain method in using the angle- 
worm for a lure goes as follows, and has never been known to fail at 
getting the fish that strikes: A No. 10 is slipped on to a leader and is 
tied to the leader one and one-half inches from the end of it. The 
hook should not stand out from the leader; rather the hook shank should 
lie along the leader. This done, a second hook is tied on to the leader 
at the end, to be the lead hook, the front hook, so to speak. Now the 
worm is connected to this affair, the head of tiie worm being attached 
to the back hook, while the front hook is worked into the body. To all 
appearances wh*n this is moved in the water the worm is free; this is 
especially true if you are using an invisible leader, of which there is 
at least one on the market. When a fish strikes this worm he will hook 
up either to the first or the second hook on the leader, or both. There 
is hardly a chance here of nipping off the end of the worm for the 
simple reason that there is a hook in it. 

It seems strange, but nevertheless a fact : Trout will strike freely 
and well, it seems, at all times, on the fore-fin of a trout. Simply upon 
capturing a trout sever one of the fore-fins and attach it to the hook. 
Some of the largest rainbow trout in the mountains will take the fin 
viciously when even the succulent grasshopper fails. This fact may 
be known to some anglers, but it is as one in ten. The same is true of 
a little white strip cut from the belly of one of your trout, about two 
inches lung and one-half inch wide at the butt end. Attach this to the 
hook at its tip and play it to the current. If the current is strong, 
one will need to place several split-shots on the leader to sink it. Then 
let out line. Let it flow downstream. Seventy-five, one hundred, one 
hundred and fifty fet't, perhaps. Down it goes, moving in and out of 
the pools. Suddenly a large fellow beside a boulder will seize it and 
the fun begins. These methods win when the fish are weak on surface 
feeding, and arc closer to the bottom; and this often happens. Do not 
foi^et the fore-fin or the belly-fin of the trout as a lure. Many are 
not aware of it, but the artificial fiy known as the Parmachence Belle, 
was made in imitation of the belly-fin of a trout. Think of it; instead 
of imitating an insect (as many suppose it should) it is an imitation 
of the belly-fin of a trout. (!ould anything be more incongruous t Yet 
it was such a valuable hint that the inventor (a great angler) made a 
fly to represent it. The July and August angler in the mountain 
poolji should give this his careful attention. 

It has been said that there are times in July and August when the 
angler is not able to "rise" a fish; that the fish do not even seera to do 
any surface-feeding. Naturally, the best fishing goes on when the fish 
are rising to the top for insects, as when a hatch of insects is on and 
they are rising from the IwDttom of the stream. The higher one goes 
up in the mountains the fewer, it appears, become the true stream 
inse<'-ts. The angler must needs use art in collaboration with some true 
study to make some appreciable catches. Mountain trout may be uncer- 
tain fellows. Having had poor luck (if any) with a small fly, he may 



CAUFORNU FISH AND GAME. 141 

shift to a rather large fly (even a bass fly) and immediately rise a 
lar^e fellow and make the best catch of the season. The trouble with 
the ill-luck of many anglers is that they give no time to experimenta- 
tion. They place their luck with one variety or color of fly, or one 
size of fly, and remain at that, without trying anything else. There is 
another extreme to this in that mauy fly-fishermen are eoastantly 
changing flies and using one but five minutes before another shift is 
made. The result is that no fly is given a true tryout. Again there is 
a hint learned from experience: One east well-judged and well-plaeed 
is worth ten indifferent casts that have been poorly placed. The differ- 
ence is that the well-placed cast is the one that brings success ; the poor 
casts, ill-judged, are so much waste of time. Study every nook and 
cranny of the stream you are to cast over. Don't make a cast till you 
have mentally made note of where a large fellow would in all likelihood 
happen to be. For instance, beside that large boulder there is a patch 
of still water. If you can make a cast so that your fly, or flies, will 
fall on the boulder you will craftily pull them off the boulder — and in 
the most natural manner they will fall to the still patch of water. 
Deceived, believing the artificial flies true insects, that large and 
dazzling rainbow will rise and take the offering. Or here is a scmidark 
place under a sedgy bank. There is a still place there. A trout 
should be lurking in that nook. Or here is a log in the water. Try 
your bait or fly alongside of that, seeing to, always, that your liy falls 
. firat, not the line and leader first. Poor casting, I firmly believe, has 
only one result, that being : 111 luck ! 

During the fore part of the season a great number of anglers go out, 
but they are live-bait users almost entirely. The salmon-egg contingent, 
the dyed-in-the-wool fly-fisherman calls thera — and the true fly-fiahenuan 
can be counted on to eschew the streams till the inimitable July and 
Angust days arrive. Then he goes happily forth into the mountain 
stillnesses. 

There is a reason, too. The early fisherman had to contend with 
high and swift water which was mostly discolored. It was the using 
of live bait entirely, for the stream insects were not hatching, so that 
the trout could be deceived by artificial counterparts. Now, however, 
the winged life is abroad; the fly-fisherman is in his element. As the 
warmer days come on, the water in the lower reaches of the rivers 
disappears or becomes heated out, the fish gradually but surely make 
for the upper pools, and thence follow the fly-lLshermen. It is riotous 
travel at times ; the road is rough. Sometimes there are no roads and 
one makes his own paths at will. But there is a reward among the 
cools of the upper valleys and natural parks where Nature in all h<'r 
untnmmed and majestic glory contrives to make California the true 
Arcadia of the disciple of Walton, 



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142 CAUFOBKU FISH AND OAHE. 

PAKASITES WHIOH AFFECT THE FOOD VALUE OF KABBITB. 

By E. RALPH OE ONO, Unlvanity ot CatJtornU. 

A fring)' of small, loacl-polored bodies, the size of coarse shot, is fre- 
quently Bi'i'ii on the pars of the lirnsh or cottontail rabbits. These are 
yoiinji ticks, the immatnrc form of one of our common species, prob- 
ably the wood tiik {Dcrmacmlor oc-:i<hn(al\x). After hatching from 
the CKS the young tiiks wait in the grass for a passing rabbit or other 
Rnimal. attach themselves and feed for three or four days, drop to the 
gi-oiiiid and molt (shed their old skins), then await another chance to 
feed. 

The prcscTiee of these ticks lias no oflfeet on the rabbit except a slight 
loss of blood and a temporary annoyance, and as this tick has not been 



reported in Californiji ns a carrier of anj' disease it need not be con- 
sidered as of any signiticancc. 

The species of fleas eonnnonly found on rabbits in this state have not 
been reported as disease carriers so that the presence of these insects 
can also be disretrarded. 

One species of botfly (Ciiterchra sp.) attacks rabbits very commonly. 
The larvae of this fly is almost blaek in the mature stage, about three- 
fourths of an ineh long and covered with tiny spines. Brush rabbits 
taken in Sonoma County up to the last of July were commonly infested 
with this insect. After the first of August no Inrvre were found, they 
apparenily coming to maturity at this time. They then leave the host 
and bury themselves in the ground, emerging the following year as flies. 
The larviB are found just beneath the skin along the back or breast. 



CALIFOBNU PKH AND OlME. 1*3 

The only outward indication of their presence is a slight enlargement 
at the aflfected point. No injury to the muscles was noted in any 
infested specimen, the body being apparently in a normal condition. 
Wounds of this kind may, however, become infected by bacteria or 
become infested with some of the flesh feeding flies and in this way 
produce large tumorous swellings. These latter attacks, when severe, 
may produce an emaciated condition of the animal which manifestly 
impairs the value of the carcass for food. But if the larvae are 
present on the body of the rabbit, without any outward or internal aign 
of disease there would seem qo reason for discarding the same. 

Rabbits are occasionally taken in this state which show the larval 
.form of a common tapeworm (Ccenurus serialis) which, when 
eaten by the dog produces the adult tapeworm Tania serialis.' The 
infestation in the rabbit appears as a transparent, bladder-like swelling 
which may be as large as a hen's egg or larger and is of frequent 
oceurrance in jackrabbits, often spoken of by hunters as "boils," 
Scattered about on the inner surface of this bladder will bo seen white 
dots about half the size of a pinhead. These are the undeveloped heads 
of tapeworms, each one of which is capable of developing into a mature 
tapeworm if taken into the body of a carnivorous animal in a living 
condition. Hence an animal eating an uncooked rabbit infested with 
one of these bladder worms will develop a typical case of tapeworm. 
Thorough cooking will kill the larval form so that the meat can be fed 
to animals without danger. But the uncooked carcass or viscera should 
not be fed to animals. 

One specimen of brush rabbit had two infestations : one originating in 
the thigh had grown so large as to displace the muscles, the second 
formed a large swelling on the surface of the breast. Any infestation 
of this kind should be regarded with suspicion and the carcass burned 
or buried deeply so as to be out of reach of all carnivorous animals. 

Domestic rabbits and probably the wild form are subject to a disease 
called cocddiosis resulting from the attack of a sporozoa (Cocddium 
oviforme). The symptoms are snuffles, running at the nose and diar- 
rhoea. The inner walls of the intestines show reddened patches with 
more or less ulceration. The liver is enlarged and the interior has 
many small round abscesses filled with pus ; as the disea'^e progresses the 
carcass becomes emaciated. Animals affected with this disease should 
be considered as unfit for food. 

An ear mite (Otodectes cygnatis) is mentioned by Professor Herms as 
sometimes being abundant enough to cause serious disease or death to 
domestic rabbits. 

'Determination by ProfesBor W. B. Herms. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc 



CAUTORNIA FKH AND QAHS. 

OUT FISHIN'. 
By GlDWABD A. Guest. 

A feller isnt tbinldn' mean — out flshin'; 

His tbong^ts are moBt^ good and clean — out flsb 

He doesn't knock his fellow men, 

Or harbor any grudges then; 
A feller's at his finest when — out flshin*. 

The rich are comrades to the poor — out flshin' ; 

All brothers of a conmicai lore — out flshin'; 
The nrchin with the pin and string 
Can cbtun with millionaire an' king; 

Vain pride is a forgotten thing — ont flshin'. 

A feller gets a chance to dream — ont flshin' ; 

He learns the beauties of a stream — oat flshin'; 
An' he can wash bis aonl in air 
That ain't fool with selflsh care, 

And relish plain an' simple fare — oat flshin'. 

A feller has no time for hate — ont flshin' ; 

He ain't eager to be great — out flshin'; 
He ain't thinkin' thoughts of self, 
Or goods stacked high upon a shelf, 

But he's always just himself — out flshin'. 

A feller's glad to be a friend — out flshin'; 

A helping hand he'll always lend — ont flshin'; 
The brotherhood of rod an' line. 
An' sky an' stream is always flne; 

Men come real close to Ood's design — ont flshin' 

A feller isn't plottin' schemes — out flshin'; 
He's only busy with his dreams — out flshin'; 

His livery's a coat of tan; 

His creed's to do the best he can ; 
A feller's always mostly man — out flshin'. 



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CAUFOBNIA FISH AMD GAME. 



145 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



by the Calirornla State Flali 
CommlBHlon. 

Sent free to cltlzenB of the State of Cali- 
fornia. Offered In exchange for omllho. 
lOKjcal. mammoloslcal and similar perlod- 

The artlclea published In CALiroRNtA Fien 
»ND Gaub arc not copyrighted and may be 
reproduced In other perlodlials, provided 
due credit is given the California Fleh and 
uame Commission. Editors of newspaper! 
and periodicals are Invited to make UH< 
of pertinent material. 

All material for publication should b< 
sent to H. C. Bryant, Muwum of V<rta' 
brate Zcralogy. Berkalay, Cal. 

July IB, iai». 



flahing 

VINDICATION. 
Periodically, the ata'e Fish Bad Game 
ComiDiBsion is attacVed by members of the 
legislature. Any state comrDiasion which 
haa to do with tlie enforcemeDt of law is 
subject to such attacks. In 1911 an in- 
3 veatigatEoD was ordered by the asserably. 

The iDTeatigaCiot; committee, however, 
giTe a very favorable report as to the 
acUvitJes cf Ihe Commisaion. The 1919 
Msembly began an Inquiry which also 
resulted in complete vindication for the 
CommisBion. We hope to publish in the 
Mit number "he full report of the Com- 
mittee on Qovcmmental BSdency and 
Econom'y to wh'ch a resolution by Aasem- 
blyntan Eden was referred. While it 
would seem that the reaolution was 
aetuated by spile, the result has been very 
favorable to the Fish aod Game Commis- 
Bion, for it has shown the people exactly 
whete the Commission stands and has 
widely advertised the accomplishments of 
tlie past few years. 

NATURE STUOV (.IBRARIES TO BE 
FURNISHED SUMMER RESORTS. 

Compact nature study libraries will be 
placed at those Taboe resorts which are 
selected for the educat'onal work of the 
Fish and •Game Commission the coming 
nimmer. The libraries w>ll include books 
on birds, mammals, wild flowers, trees aud 
^ kindred sabjects. Donated to the state by 

llie California Nature Study T.«ague. tliey 
will be deposited with the Fish and Game I 
Comniigaion to be (bug utilized in the 



educational work. These 
libraries. will be annually loaned to Hum- 
mer resorts in the future and probably 
represent only the beginn'nf; of a worii 
whidi will eventually coverall the summer 
resorts of Califoruia. They are intended 
for use at that time when people, being 
on a vacation, are most receptive lo study- 
ing intimately (he miracles of nature. In 
ways such as this the Commissioo is 
applying the motio : "Conservation through 
education." 

THE 1SI8 CATCH OF FISH. 

Among the reports of this issue 
of Califobma Fish and Gaub is a 
complete statement of the fresh fish taken 
in California during the year 1018. In 
this statement there is included a record of 
fish taken in Mexican waters and brought 
into California through Son Uiego and 
San Pedro, but this is not included in the 
total for California. 

The total catch of all varieties of tish 
in Caiitoroia for 1918 was 250218,041 
pounds. Compared with the 201,575,9^ 
taken in 1917, this shows an Increase of 
48,rrI2,(»8 pounds, or a trifle over 21 per 
For a ready comparison of catches 
of the more important fish for 1917 and 
1918. the following table is g'ven: 



AJbacore 



191T 



19IS 



. 30.5E$.243 T.2<>:t.)i9E 
. 2,966,368 3,S«S,69I 
aS9.ti»6 2.:!64.I64 



Herring _ 



e,2RS,SS0 6.2S1,<2.1 

B.72S,<29 7,02T,Tfi7 

11.007.442 13.026,076 

aand dabs 2.631. S6Z 1.761.609 

Striped baas 1.09G,K56 1.407.)t41 



Skipjack .. 
yellow'tair. 



. S,023.R4T 

6,240.971 

2.8X7,413 ll,eGS,259 



The figure for the albncoro catch of 
1917 includes the bluefin and yellowfin 
taken. In 1^18 the slhncore ralch 
very short and as bluefin and yellow- 
una were more plentiful, a much 
larger number were taken nnd were for 
the first time separated from the albacorc 
under the name "luna." The tuna and 
albacorc catch combiued in 1918 was less 
than half the albacorc cnlch of the prc- 

The sardine catch shows a phenomenal 
Increase although southern California had 
a light run of sard'nes during the latli 



;ic 



CAUFOSNIA FISH AXD 0A1SS. 



; upper riglit. Kawoal 
rresno i.-oiin[y, iiil. ; lowt-r l.-ft, V[<->\r Ct 
Cnl. ; lower right, llomltigo SprinKH HatHie 

part of 191S. Sbad, halibut, sole and 
sand dab all show a decreased :^atch during 
1918, while bonlto. barracuda, mackerel, 
Kalraon, striped baBB, skipjack and yellow- 
tail all abow an iocreased catch. Al- 
though the catch ol salmon on Monterey 
Bay was less, much heavier catches were 
made at Drakes Bay Fort Bragg aud on 
the lower Sacramento River, which 
brought the total catch for 191S to over 
two mil'ion pounds more than that of the 
year 1917. There was no great fluctua- 
tion in the catch of other species. 

There was a decrease of 41,177 doien in 
the catch of crabs and of 41,943 pounds in 
the catch of crawfish, while the catch of 
shrimps slious no increase of 117,174 
pounds ovc the jcar 1017. The mollusks 
do not show any great changes over 
previous years. 

The Di'iiarlnient of Ciminorcial t'Uli- 
eries is making every cffoit to secure and 
complete accurate statistics oE the catches 
of all fish and it can readily be seen that 
a comparison of yearly catches for a num- 
ber oE years will aid in determining 



coming it 



Upper left. Ft. Seward Hatchery, Ft. 

Kxperlmenlal Hatchery, Kawoah Blver. 
•ek [{utchery, Weetwood. Lessen County. 
ry, Domingo Springs, Pluroos County, CaL 

fished and depleted. 



any certain species ia being over- 
nd depleted, or whether it is he- 



re BbundanL— N. B. S. 



MAINTAIN A SUPPLYI 
I not be eipected that wild life 
1, if left to themaelves, will coo- 
yield food and sport indefinitely. 
The reason, of course, is to be found in 
the encroachment of civilized man, which 
not only means increased destruction, but 
a diminution of food supply and nesting 
sites. Under the artific'sl conditions now 
fostered a constant supply can be main- 
tained only through carefully planned pro- 
tection and propagation. By looking over 
the attainments of Ihe Commission whose 
function is to perpetnate fish and game, 
we are assured that the financial outlay 
has bei'n more than justified. 

RAINBOW TROUT ACCLIMATIZED IN 
ARGENTINA. 
In 1003 at the request of the govern- 
ment of Argent'na the United States Bu- 
reau of Fisheries donated the eggs of 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND OAHE. 



147 



Beveral varieties of fish to the southeni 
ropnblic A 'etter recently received by 
the Barean states that tbousaads ot East- 
ern brook trout are now being caught 
annually, that some mev- e 19 inches, 
and have a wei^t of 10 pounds. In the 
moODtai i range of Aconqn'ia in 27° soatb 
latitude and in the Patagonian reg'on as 
far south ae 52° latitude, the rainbow 
tront is doing well. 

A COLLEOE OF FISHERIES ESTAB- 
LISHED. 
Ad event of great imiKirtance to those 
interested in the GHberies of the United 
States, and especially so to those of the 
Pacific coast, has been the recent estab- 
lishment of a College of Fisheries in con- 
oecttoD with tbe University of Washing- 
bH) at Seeltle. The need for snch a col- 



the fishery producls of this coast alone Is 
increased to over (100.000.000 ; the invest- 
ment in plants, vessels, boats, fishing gear. 
etc., on this coast amounts to about 
$95,000,000. while ove>- 75,000 persons are 
employed in fishing and preparing tbe 
above products for market. 

The production of raw fishery products 
elsewhere in the United States amounts 
annually to approximately 2.250,000,000 
pounds, valued, to tbe fishermen, at 
approximately $60,000,000. When prepared 
for market these products would probably 
be worth approximately $120,000,000. 

The College of Fisheries just estab- 
lished by tbe university enjoys tbe dis- 
tinction of being the on'y one of any 
consequence in tbe world outside ot 
Japan. In the latter country the Im- 
perial Fisheries Institute at Tokio is a 



TROUT TBY DISTRIBUTED IN STREAMS AND LAKES 
OF CAUFORNIA DURINO PAST THREE YEARS. 

ISlS ISIT ISIS TotBt 

Rainbow 3,399,920 5,223.500 5,680,500 14,! 

" ' 2,068,500 1,617,500 2,294,500 " 



Eastern brook . 

Loch Leven 1,620,000 1,468,000 1,633,000 

Black spotted — 3,835,270 3,836,000 1,059,500 



5,980,500 

■21,000 

8,730,770 



German brown. . 
Golden trout_-- 



5,213,170 6,699,420 4,483,000 16,395,590 
77,300 

384,000 



384,000 



Totak 16,214,160 18,844,420 15,534,500 50,593,0i 



lege has been felt for some time, and Dr. 
SniKalto. the able and progressive head of 
the aniversity, is to be congratulated upon 
his action in this matter. 

The commercial fisheries of the Padflc 
coast are of great importance to its wel- 
fare, how much so being plainly indicated 
when it is stated that Washington, Alaska, 
Oregon, California and Hawaii produced 
laat year approximately 1.600,000,000 
pounds of raw fishery products valued to 
the fishermen at about $2^,000.000. 
SeveD-eigbths of the wo Id's pack of 
canned salmon is made on the const, w 
tnoa, sardines, clams, crabs, shrimp, 
mackerel, abnlone, elc, an; (-iinnpcl in 
large quanlities and shipped to all quar- 
ters of the globe. Immense quantities of 
frozen, fresh, pickled, sailed and smoked 
fisherj products are also prepared and 
shipped. When »o prepared the value of 



government institution and has been in 

existence since 1897. S'uce then sub- 
sidiary schools have been established in 
various provinces of Japan. 

Seattle Is an Ideal location for such a 
college, as within its corporate limits, or 
in territory immediately adjacent, are to 
be found 'n acfve operation practically 
every style of plant used in turning the 
raw fishery products into all forms of 
manufactured articles both for food and 



tor I 









3n, halibut, cod, and berring 
fliH'la opcrnling in Alaska waters have 
lli(>ir hpfldquarlHrs mainly in th'3 city, 
oiitfillins here and hrinsnB back the 
[)rotlucls for shipment to the four comers 
of (he world. 

Tbe collcBC offers four yea- courses In 
fisheries technology and Qsh culture. The 
fisheries technology courses will train men 



148 



CALTFOBMU PISH AND OAHE. 



for various lines of work in Indattri*! 
planlH. OwiriE lo the immensity of the 
buHini'm, rs noted above, there ib always 
a demand for trained men in the salmMl 
and olhi-r oannerips cold sloraKe ptants, 
Bmokehouses, and fe'tilizer and oil plant*. 
Kvery effort will be made to make tlie 
courses aa practical as pomible, and stu- 
dents will make visits to the plants when- 
ever possible so llipy may obtain Grst- 
hand information as to the methods in 
voKUC. They will also reoeivc training in 
bacteriology and chemistry, and thus will 
be fitted for work in marinn bioloicical 
laboratories, and in chemical and bac- 
teriological laborator'es, specializlns in 
fishery products. 

The practice of fish culture 's beeoming 
a very important one, and the demand for 
trained men is bound to increase. Students 
at the college will not only have the 
benefit o( 'ts Instniclion and equipment, 
but can also obta'n an abundance of prac- 
tical experience along aJl lines of fish 
cu'ture at the mary federal and state 
batcher'es scattered Ihraiigbout the state 
of Wftsliiogton. 

Pond culture, or the farming of our 
inland waters, will some day be an im- 
portant iudualry, as there are many 
IhousandK of small lakes, ponds, streams, 
and marshy spots which wo'jid be utilized 
in this work, and acre fo-- acre produce 
(treater rclurns than a similar area of 
land devoted to agriculture. 

The Hliflllish industry of the Pacific 
coast has nOt thrived for some years, due 
largely to Canlly methods, and it is hoped 
that with more modem methods taught 
there may be a revival of this 'ndustry, 
which ought today to be one of the most 
important on the coast. 

It is hoiml 'a the near fu'ure to offer 
short courses i pract'cal fishery subjects 
during the winter months when fishing 
operations are quite generally suspended, 
these courses to be o|>en (o those now 
engaged in the fisheries and others who 
desiiT knowletlge along special lines and 
do not iiave the lime nor des're to take the 
full courses. 

As the un'rersity is a state institution, 
an eKt>ecially importent part of the work 
of the College of Fisheries will be in 
rendering assistance and advice whenever 
culled upon by Ihe state Piithoritics, and 



also to aid the commercial GsbermMi not 
only of the state tmt of the nation in 
solving the many problems wbicfa beset 
them, and to aid in the conserration and 
perpetuation of our wonderful fishery 
resource*. Research work .'ong the line* 
of utiliiatioo of hitherto neglected species, 
and of waste products, will be earned on 
and it is lioped will remit in materially 
increasing the wealth of Ihe state and 

It had originally been planned to open 
the college at the beginning of tlie fall 
term in October, but so many of our 
returning aold'ers expressed a desire to 
take up the work at once tbat burned 
preparatiooB were made and the college 
opened for the spring qaarter beginaing 
March 31, last. — Johh N. Oobb. 

MANY LIONS KILLED. 
Bounty reports for (he first th-ee 
months in 1919 show that an unusually 
large number of mountain lions have tteen 
killed in the state. Hie exact reason for 
this kill is not apparent, but doubtlese the 
hiring of a man to give all of his time to 
the deslruct'on of predatory mammals has 
had some effect in stimulat'ng the destruc- 
tion of the famous deer killer. The totals 
for the three months are as follows: 
Janvarv. 

21 malei at $30.00 f420 00 

24 fema'ea at $30.00 720 00 

$11*} 00 
Febraarv. 

10 males at $20.00 $200 00 

10 females at $30.00 480 00 

$6S0 00 

22 maW at $20.00 $440 00 

18 females at $30.00 540 00 

$080 00 

AIRPLANES TO LOCATE FISH. 

Slill another use for the airplane is to 
l)e found in the recent experiments carried 
on along tlje Attant'c coast where a duly 
qualified observer has been making flights 
to locate schools of fish. Information so 
obtained is telegraphed to the fishing 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIPOBNU FISH AND GAME. 



1*9 



PIftHERV (PRODUCTS t-ABORATORV 
ESTABLISHED. 
The inoiessed importance of the Cali- 
fornia fisheries has led the United Statea 
Bureau of FUberies to eetabliih an experi- 
mental laboratory at Sao Pedro. The 
laboratorj-- is now completed and the 
equipment installed. A corps of th-ee 
scientiatB will eiperment n melhods of 
preserving fish and otherw'ae render setr- 
ice to those engaged in cann'ng, drying or 
Raiting fiah. 

THE OWNERSHIP OF WILD LIFE. 
Willi life is the prope^y of all the 
people. No one attempts to den; this, 
and le.ist of all [he game v'olator. From 
his point of view it 's not only Ae prop- 
erty of alt the people, but it is more 
particularly the property of him who can 
tret it. The more remote the locality 
where the law is violated, the more deeply 
rooted is the idea that the game la there 
to be taken, regardteas of law, and without 
ranch feeling of more: obliqnity. The vio- 
lator has a strange feeling that some sort 
of juBtififral'on is on his s'de, thongh the 
law may be on the other. The point of 
view is that of early colonial limes, before 
the state had reason to assert its owner- 
ship — when, indeed, game was the prop- 
erty of anyone who could ahoot straight 
enough. It is the point of view of on 
eitrerae individualist 

Game is still the properly of everyone. 
Bat, whereas originally the people p'aced 
no restrlct'one upon the nse of that prop- 
erly, they have now thrown about it safe- 
guards that are vital for its continued 
exintence. Every c'lizen baa a vested 
'ntece'st in every individual bird animal 
and heh, and is defrauded if the game is 
taken In any way contrary to the estab- 
lished rules. The poipt of view of the 



man who resjiecls the law, and insisls 
upon respect for it in others, is that of 
collective ownersbip. Ilia individual riKht 
lo take game is dependen' upon conaent lo 
do so from othera. 

The feeling of eollect-ve ownership It 
still only partly developed. The tendency 
to wink at violationa still decreases as the 
sense of common ownership of wild life is 
strengthened, — The Vontercatioititl, Nov. 
1918, p. 173. 

OUR FUR RESOURCES. 

More and more we are diKcovcrinB that 
the annual take of furs in California is 
considerable and that the money received 
by the trappers amounts to b large anm. 
Most of the furs are shipped to Eastern 
markets, but rewnlly it has come lo our 
notice tbat many furs are utilized by the 
trappers themselves. The books of the 
Eberhard Tanning Companv of Santa 
Clara snowed tbat during lfll8 the follow- 
ing skins were lanned by them : II bear, 
7 liMi, 4SS deer. I2fi coyote, SG raccoon. 
12 badger, ITfl tui, iri opossum, i>5 skunk, 
121 wildcat, 420 raWiit, .13 tree squlrrpl, 
14 mole. 

A canvasB of the different tanneries 
n-ould doubtlesa furnish some valuable 
evidence as to what proportion of furs 
are unert for home consumption. — I. Ii. 

KOPPEL. 

BLACK BAS3 IS NOT A TRUE BASS. 

Some of our readers have perhaps won- 
dered why tliey did not find some mention 
of the black baBs in the article enlilled 
"Itass and Bnns-like F'slics" which 
apt>earei1 in the AprI numbe- The pri- 
mary reaiioQ is that llic b!ack buss in an 
introduced fish in our slate and further- 
more, (his fish is more closply relateil to 
the sunfisbes than to llie true Iihhhcs. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc ' 



150 CALIFOBNIA FISH AND QAWS. 

FACTS OF OUBRENT INTEBEST. 

J. C. Bruce, the state lion hunter, has been at work in and around 
the HcClond Biver Oame Befuge, District IE. In this locality he 
secured three liona. Ttiis makes a total of 16 since January 1, together 
with 6 wildcats. Hr. Bruce started operations in Monterey Conn^ 
during Hay. 

•Xr JL. JL^ 

The past year brought splendid returns to the for trapper. In 
several instaiices trappers received as hi^ as $20 for coyotes, $8 tor 
wildcats, and $2.60 for muskrats. 

■JL- JLr JL- 

The Fish and Qame Commission will iostall a permanent exhibit 
in the new building at the State Fair Qrounds in Sacramento. The 
whole north alcove will be used to display the fish and game of the 
state and the activities initiated to conserve it. 
■X- a. ^ 

Motion pictures showing the commercial fisheries of the state are 
being secured for use in educational and publicity work. 

■JL^ -X- JL^ 

Far more definite research work on fish and game is now twing 
carried on by the Commission than hae been andertaken heretofore. 
Professor J. 0. Snyder of Leland Stanford Junior Universi^ has 
been secured to undertake a scientific investigation of the quinnat 
salmon. 

jLr ^ ^ 

A study of the furbearers and the furbearing resources ot the 
irtate is being andertaken by the Commisnon. 
JLr -Jl^ -Jl- 

One haul of a brawl net made recently off the coast of sontiiem 
California netted a ton of fish of seven different varieties. 
^ ■A' O- 

Sportsmen convinced that the deer season has opened too eaiiy in 
southern California succeeded in having the law changed by the 
Legislature to provide for a September 15 opening, 16 days later tiian 
formerly. 

^ ^ ^ 

Applications have been received requesting the setting aside of 
three different areas as state game reservations. An area of 26,000 
acres, one of 30,000 and one of 20,000, are situated in Santa Barbara 
and Ventura counties. 

^ .Xr ^ 

Progress is being made on the attempt to negotiate treaties wiUi the 
Spanish-American republics for the protection of migratory birds. 
The matter has been referred to the Department of Agriculture tiiat 
appropriate conventions may be drafted. The state department has 
promised to act as soon as these drafts are received, 
a- ^ -^ 

Paladini, the wholesale fisherman of San Francisco, was recently 
arrested for trawling within the three mile limit. He deposited $260 
cash bail for his appearance before Judge De La Montanya at San 
Bafael. As Hr. ^iladini did not appear, his bail was declared for- 
feited and a bench warrant was issued and given to Constable Orans 
to serve. 



CALIPORNU FIBH AND QAUE. 



HATCHBBY NOTES. 

W. H. Shiblbt, E^[(or. 



BROOKDALE HATCHERY. 

The take ot eges at the Scott Creek 
station w'll amoant to approiimately 
1.700,000, of which 1,000,000 will be 
hatched at the Bnrakdale Eatcbery for 
distribatiOD in the Htfeame ia that section 
of the state. Shipments of eegs have 
been made to Wawona, ML Shasta and 
Mt Whitney hatcbe 'es, from which sta- 
tions tbey witl be giveD geDeral distribu- 
tion in snitahle Btreams. 

SNOW MOUNTAIN STATION, 
The take of eges at Snow Mountain 
Station, on the Eel Biver, was macb 
greater than that at Brookdale, and will 
amonnt to probably 4,500,000. Of the 
eggs hatched at Snow Mounlain 200,000 
are to be planted in the upper reaches of 
the Eel lUrer near the atation, and the 
balance oi the eggs have been shipped to 
Ukiah. Yosemite, Fort Seward, Mt. Whit- 
ney, Domingo Springs, Mt. Shasta. Ka- 
weah and San Maleo hatcheries. From 
these stations the resulting steelhead trout 
fry will be given an extensive d'stribation 
nnder the arrangements made for carrying 
on this season's operations. 



MT. TALt-AC HATCHERY. 

The Mt. Tallac Hatchery was opened 
tor operations during the latter part ot 
March, and the work is progressing very 
nicely. To date there have been nearly 
2,000,000 black-spotted trout eggs taken 
and we expect to reach the 3,000,000 mark 
before the end of the season. 

FALL CREEK HATCHERY. 

The rainbow egs-coUecting stations on 
the Klamath River were opened for opera- 
tions during the month of February. 
Radu and traps were installed in Cotton- 
wood Creek, near Horn brook, and in 
Camp, Bogus and Fall creeks: and 
1,750,000 rainbow trout eggs were taken 
at the four stations, A portion of the 
eggs were immediately shipped to Mt. 
Shasta Hatchery to be eyed, and the 
balance were placed in troughs at the new 
Fall Creek Hatchery, where they will be 
eyed for shipment to 8tation» in other 
parts of (be slate. We have also arranged 
to hatch near'y a half m-lliou rainbow 
eggs at the Fall Creek Hatchery for dis- 
tribution in the Klamath River this 
season. A million quinnat salmon eggs 



Fig. 50. Fall Creek Hatchery. 
Oreson Power Company in lieu of a 
L J. Stinnett. 



id oy Google 



152 



CALIFOBNIA FISH AMD OAIffi. 



have also been hatched at the Fall Creek 
Ilaltlier]' and the resultia- fry will be 
distributed in the Klamath Biver. Sh'p- 
nientB of rainbow eggs will be made from 
Kail Creek Ilatphery to Ft. Seward, Mt 
fhasia and Yonemite batoheries, from 
Which slalioDs they will be given the 
uaaal dtstributioD. 

BEAR LAKE HATCHERY. 
tMsli ealtural opera ton b were com- 
menced at the North Creek egg collecting 
Hiatiou during the latter part of March 
nncl racks were put in both North Creek 
and Metcalt i'reek. The season baa been 
a very favorable one, and while the run 
ia scill on, we believe that the take of 
rainbow trout egga at Ihia station will 
amount to approiimalely 4,500,000. 
Arrangements are being made to hatcb 
and distribute 750,0.;0 rainbow fry from 
the North Creek Hatcliery, and a like 
number will be sent to the Bear Lake 
Jlatchery, located at Green Spot Springs, 
fp>m which etat'on they w'll be dia- 
Iributed in Big Bear Lake and Btreama ot 
San Bernardino County later in the 
season. Arrangements are being made to 
Bliip ei-ed eggs from the North Creek 
station to Mt. Whitney, Mt. Shaata, To- 
Semite, Kaweah and Wawona hatcheries. 

ALMANOR HATCHERY. 

Alma nor Batchery was opened for 
operalioDB during the early part ot March, 
and during the tore part ot the seaarai 
there was a good run of rainbow trout. 
However, it became necessary for the 
Great Weslem Power Company to run a 
big head ot water through the Almanor 
spillway on awount of the rapidly melting 
snow, and this prevented the biggest part 
ot the run of rainbow trout from reaching 
our racks. However, we will probably 
receive between 300,000 and 400.000 egp- 
as the reault ot the season's work. 

DOMINGO SPRINGS HATCHERY. 

r>cminK0 Springs Hatchery wax oi>ened 
the latter part of March and at the pres- 
ent time the run ot raiubow trout in Rice 
Creek ia on. Very few eggi have been 
taken to date, but the season promises to 
be a very favorable one. 

CLEAR CREEK HATCHERY. 

Clear Creek Hatchery will be opened 
up during the latter part of May and 



rainbow trout egga will be shipped to this 
»taIJon from Almanor and Domingo 
Springs hatcheries. The resulting fry will 
be distributed in streams in the vicinity of 
^^"e8twood and other portions of LasBen 
and Plumas c 



MT. SHASTA HATCHERY. 

The take ot Loch Leven and German 
brown trout eggs waa very succesefni. 
More Loch J>even trout 'ry will be dis- 
tributed from Ml Sbaeta Halcheir daring 
the comiDg season than ever before. TTie 
Uerman brown trout eggs taken are from 
stock held 'n the ponds at Siason Hatchery 
resulting from eggs tieceived from the 
[tlinnesota Fish and Oame Comm<sBion 
three years ago. These will be the first 
Cerman brown trout fry distributed in 
California tor a number of years. The 
take of Eastern brook eggs was less than 
usual, and we will have only approxi- 
mately 1,000,000 try of thU species for 
distribution during tbe coming season. 
Rainbow trout eggs from the Klamath 
River stations, Domingo Springs and 
North Creek, and steel head eggs tram 
Brookdale and Snow Mountain stationa 
have been shipped to the Mt. Shasta 
Hatchery and tbe same will be hatched 
and reared tor distribution in streama, 

MT. WHITNEY HATCHERY. 
Rainbow, Tjoch Leven, Eastern brook, 
btack-spotled and steelhead eggs liave been 
shipped to Mt. Whitney Hatchery from 
different stations in the state, and the 
rf.iulliug fry will be given wide distribu- 
tion in tbe streams of southern Ca.Htomia 
during the coming season. During the 
coming month we expect to open up 
Cottonwood Lake station, and if results 
are as satisfactory as during the past 
season we should obtain a half million or 
more golden trout eggs. These would b« 
immediately transported to Mt Whitney 
Hatchery and hatched tor distribution in 
streams and lakes of the state. 



HATCHERY. 

Wawona Hatchery was opened shortly 
after the first of May and rainbow and 
steelhead eggs arc being forwarded from 
other stations. The resulting fry will be 
given tbe usual distributiiHi in that 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAUE. 



Fig. 51. Bear I«ke Hatchery, San Bernardino Courty. Ciilltomla. The output 
ol ttils hiLtchery etocka most of the streams of southern California. Photcisraph by 



EXPERIMENTAL HATCHERIES. 
A. hatchn? has been established in the 
Ytwemite Valley at a site selected for the 
erection of a permanent hatchery, if the 
results of this season's operations are 
satisfactory. Before erecting a permanent 
batchery in this section we deemed it 
adTisable to determine by practical experi- 
ments if conditions were fayorable for fish 
caltural operations. Rainbow, steelhead 
and black-spotted trout egga will be 
shipped to the station and if the eiperi- 
mentB are successful the resulting fry mill 
be distributed in streams and lalces of the 
yoaemite Valley. 

' An en>eidmmtal hatchery to determine 
tbe snitability of the waters of the 
Eaweah River for hatchery purposes has 
been established mi the Kaweah River, 
Dear the town of Hammond, Tulare 
.Goooty. Rainbow, steelhead and black- 
spotted eggs have been shipped to this 
Btatiou, and if the result' ng fry sur 
they will be distributed in the waters 
tributary to lie Kaweah Eiver, Tulare' 
County. 



NEW EXPERIMENT ON HATCHING 
6ALMON ARTIFICIALLY. 
The California Fish and Game Com- 
mission is trjiog out a series of eiperi- 
ments with trout eggs, to determine 
whether or not salmon can economically 
and scientifically be hatrli 'd and reared 
in cages placed in the be;!s of streams. 
These eiperiments will be conducted with 
eggs artificially fertilised and placed in 
the beds at different stage.'' of develop- 
ment. Later In the season when salmon 
eggs are available the experiment will be 
continued by substituting the salmon for 
trout eggs. The idea is not a new one, as 
it was suggested by Professor Cloudsley 
Rutter in 1899. An experiment was made 
by Professor Rutter at that time, but on 
account of an accident the result was nut 
conclusive. The Comrnission will now 
carry on experiments to determine 
whether any improvement in the propa^ 
gallon of salmon can be made along these 
tines. The experimcnta will be under the 
supervision of the fish experts of the 
Department of Fish Culture. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIPOBNU FISH AND (UMB. 



COHHEROIAL FISHERY NOTES. 

N. B. SccpiELD, EkIItor. 



FRESH FISH USED BY HEOUCTION 
PLANTS AT SAN PEDRO. 

During the last tonr monUiB millions of 
pounds ot trash fisb have been used in the 
manufacture of Gsh meal and lertjliier. 
The run of fish iucreased to such an 
extent in the first part of May that the 
reduction pknls could not handle alt the 
fish brousbt in. The fishenneu, however, 
continued to bring in large catches of 
sardines regardless of any idea that they 
could be disposed of or handled bj tbo 
reductioo plants. 

On April 30, the Minnie F brought in 
58,095 pounds of ba-'racuda, all of which 



be used by the reduction 

Tbe total amount ot Beb nsed to manu- 
facture Gsh meal and fertiliser during the 
mMiths of January, February, March and 
April, 191&, was as follows; 

Sardines 15,630.067 

Barracuda 58,985 

Kock cod 15,2M 

Kingfish 9,290 

Halibut 4,400 

Shark 2,712 

Total- 15,718,006 



went to n reduclion plant. On May 6 
many sardine boats arrii-pd loadHl to full 
piipacity with sardines which laler went 
to reduction plants to be made into fish 
menl. One ot these boats had 26 tons of 
sardines on board. 

All the reduction planCs comliined have 
a capacity of about 1200 tons daily. Tbo 
surplus was so great the city health 
department ordered 185 tons ot sardines 
dumped out al sea in one day. The sar- 
dines were in such a bad condition tbey 



Up (o June 1, over 32,000,000 pounds 

of sardines had been utilized by the reduc- 
tion works, — Eabl M. Nielsen. 

BETTER RECORDS OF CATCH 
NECESSARY. 

In this LsHue ot Caufobnia Fish and 
<iAUE will he found a statement of the 
canned, cured and maoufrctured fishery 
products of California for the year 191S. 
Although moat of the packers have gladly 
furnished the Commission with tbe intor- 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND aAHE. 



155 



■nation requested, coDs'dcable difflcnit; 
bae been experienced in BecuriDE the 
record of padta made by a few Brmi 
tlironghout the state. Becaose of the lack 
of co-opemlioQ on the part of the«e few 
GrmB there are, no doubt, a niunber of 
discrepancies in the flgnrea, not bo mudi 
in the quantity as in tbe size and kind of 
container. Much of tbe sa't fish ia ahown 
in barrels, althouirh mncb of it may have 
been packed ia smaller containers. T^e 
tnna pack reported by some firms includes 



individual firm and any statement or 
report made up and publ'ahed, or fur- 
nished for publication, wilt be foi tbe sole 
purpose of furthering and boosting a great 
California industry. 

FIRST TUNA RECEIVED MAY 14. 

The first yeltow-finned tuna to reach 
any of the San Pedro and Long Beach 
canneries was received by tbe Van Camp 
Sea Food Company on May 14. The 
tender Undine brought approximately 13) 




Fig. 53. Food 



their nlbacore pack, therefore the tuna 
pack shown is really more than tbe actual 
pack, while the albacore pack is short. 

It will be the aim of the Commission to 
have the necessary blanks for the 1919 
pack in the hands of p'l packers before 
thp end of the year and it is hoped that 
all packers will co-ope-ate with tbe De- 
partment of Commercial Fisheries of tbe 
Fiiih and Game Comm'ssion by filing a 
complete and accurate report of their 
operations for 1919 at the close of the 
year. This will enab'e the CommisBion to 
issue intelligent informat'on on the Cali- 
fornia industry which should l>e of great 
value to all coacemed. No information 
is given out regarding tbe pack of any 



[ght 58.000 IbB. 



tons of yellow-finned tuna ( Thunau) 
macropierai) from Lower California, 
where the above company 's operating a 
colli storage barge and floating cannery in 
conjunction with its San Pedro plant. 

NORTHERN BOATS JOIN FISHING 
Ft-EET. 

Eleven purse scjne boats have arrived 
at San Pedro harbor from Puget Sound 
points. These boots average from 60 to 
65 feet in length and are equipped with 
heavy duty engines of from 45 to 85 horse- 
power. 'ITloy were formerly engaged in 
salmon fishing, but plan to fisb for tuna 
in sout ern California waters. 



Goo(^ Ic 



156 



OALIFORNU PtSH AKD OAIOL 



FISHERMEN RECEIVE » CENTS FOR 
FIRST TUNA. 

The Brat hiiM {Tkunmu tk^tmui) to 
reach the local wbo'eaale inailets were 
brought in b; Che Peter Pao, a par e 
seine boat, on Ma; 22. The total catch 
OMuisted of 3717 ponndB and the fish 
sverased about 20 pouDdB each. Tbe 
fishermen fouD.d an active market lor 
their catcb and received 20 cents per 
pound in the round. 



North, whidi before its CMiversioD was 
a sailing vesse', p'y'ng between Honolola 
and San Fraodsco and other Padfic ooaat 
ports, was bnmed to the water's edge the 
morning of Ma; 14 oS Cape San Laca« 
on the coast of Lower California, accord- 
in£ to word brought here b; tbe Gsbing 
launch Bei. l^e John G. North was 
beached, all the rew rMchiog the shore 
safely. The loss was »0,000. Tbe 
JobD G. North was operated b; tbe Vsn 
Camp Sea ProdDCta Gompan;, which has 
plant at San Pedro. 



NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHEBIES LABORATORY.* 

By Will F. Thoupbon and Blues Hiooikb. 
QOAT FISH TAKEN IN CALIFORNIA 
Several specimens of a "are and beau' 



liful listi hitherto unlitiown in aoutbem 
California watera were taken by the 
Albacore in March, 1010. The; belong 
to the species Vpcncut denfalu*, of the 
family of surmulleia. The Gah are small, 
covered with large acaica, and brilliaatl; 
marked wilb crimaoD and yellow bands. 
A pair of long flesh; barbels extending 
backward from the point of the chin 
makes the oeme of goat Gsb" seem 
appropriate. 

The species is recorded as "rare" on 
the coast of Mexico, and has been taken 
only at Cape San Lucas. La Pai and Tres 
Marias Islanda at the far end o* Lower 
California. The specimens taken b; the 
Albacore are from BnciQitas in 21 
fathoms and from Long Bcacb in 6 
fathoms. 

This is another instance of a supposedly 
rare fish taken by new methods of fishing. 
The error in assuming that such rare fish 
are migranlB from Mexican waters, where 
they are abundant, ia apparent. — E. H. 

SPINV LOBSTER LARV:C 

An interesting addition to our knowl- 
edge of tbe life of the spiny lobster pro- 
vided by the collections of the Albacore, 
is another series of tarvfe in the pbyllo- 
Bome stage. These specimens are similar 
to the ones described and figured for the 
first time in the January number of 
CALirasNiA Fish awd Game and although 
the; were taken in February, six months 



later than the first series, the; show 
about the same degree of development. 
About two dozen were taken in surface 
nets ia the vicinity of Oshom bank, outer 
Santa Barbara passage. — E. 11. 

ATTEMPT TO REAR GRUNION. 
Following the discovery of the ransrlc- 
able spawn 'ng habits of tbe grunion or 
little smelt {Luttretthet lenvu), the story 
of which by Will F. Hiompeon has just 
been published as Fish Bulletin No. 3, an 
attempt was made in a. small way to rear 
the youDg gniuioo through the larval 
stages to the adult condition. The young 
were hatched from eggs taken from tbe 
beach and were placed in jub of se«. 
water. Ranning water was not used, but 
tbe water was changed daily and food 
was added daily from low-net collections 
taken from the end of the Long Beach 

The larvn lived thus at about room 
temperature with a maximnm range of 
10° F. for eleven days, when the last one 
died. Tbe Bsh, of course, bad not kwt 
their larval character in this time, but 
interesting and valuable observations were 
made on their early deTclopment, nnd on 
their food and feeding babits. The experi- 
ment also yielded experience which will be 
valuable in the rearing of the young of 
other food fishes — an undertaking which 
may be carried out with adequate equip- 
ment in the new laboratory.^ — E. H. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



OAUn)BNU FISH AND QAHB. 



157 



LIFE HISTORY OF FLAT-FISH. 
The inTesIigKtion of the I'fe historiea of 
various flet-fiahes of sontbem CtJifomia 
has been progreaeing BatUfartorily. Four- 
teen species of flat-fish, Pleurooee tides and 
SoleUUe, bave been taken to date bj the 
bottom nets ol tb« Albacoce and notes on 
their distribntioD and moveitents recorded. 
HaterUI for the study of the develo^nent 
of several sptdes baa also be«D taken and 
is awaiting carefa) stadj. Among this 
material is a complete ser'es in the 
deveiopment of the sand dab from the 
youngest larva scarcely 6 nun. long to the 
spanning adult. Very young atagea or 
partial aeries bave also been taken of the 
big-moutbed flounder [Bippoglottina »to- 
mata), the sharp-r'dgcd flounder or tnrbot 
{PUmTi>nichthyt verticalit), tlie loDon 
sole {Parophrvt vetulat), the long-flnned 
Bounder iXi/ttreuTfit lUAepit), two species 
of sand dab (GitharicKthyt itigmaeia and 
V. imntAof itfwui ) , the diamond flounder 
{Hysppaetta guttulataf , the tongne sole 
or San Diego sole {Sym^hanu atri- 
ODuitus) , and the California halibnt 
{Faralickthyt calif omu)ui) . 
' The study of the Cil'fomia halibut has 
proceeded further than the rest and in' 
eludes observations on the age and rate 
of growth, comparative sbtee ard nnmbers 
of the sexes, seasonal movements and 
migrations between banks, spawning 
period and egg-prodoriion, and early 
developmenL — ^B. H. 

PORPOISE CAPTURED. 

A. unique experience in shooting t>ig 
game was enjoyed by the natnralist aboard 
the Albncore when he killed a lai^ 
poqioiflie, probably of the species Lag«n- 
orhf/nchut oblig«iden», on April 19, 1019. 

A school of about a dozen individuals 
was sighted about 35 miles west of Point 
Viceuti cruising on a course diagonal to 
that of the launch but at sucb speed that 
the launch was soon overtaken. The 
porpoises poused, circled about the boat 
several times, leaping and playing, and 
then resumed their original course. A 
luckj shot from a high powered rifle, 
however, caught one of (he big fellows 
fairly iu the body aa he was leaping, and 
the rest vanished instantly. Death, which 
came after only a hundred yards or so of 
mad leaps and plunges, left the animal 



floating, bead up, when he was easily 
gaJfed and hauled on board with block 
and tackle. 

The sppc'inen was an adutt mate seven 
and one-half feet long and weighed atwnt 
four hundred pouuda. The skin was black 
on tbe back, head, and fins white on the 
sides and belly and of satin amoothness 
without signs of bristles or hair as might 
have been expected, tbe porpoise being a 
mammal and not a fish. The skin was 
uniformly underlaid w'th a layer of 
dense bard blubber fully one inch in 
thickness, as was discovered when the 
animal was butchered. 

Although the mouth Is amail and prac- 
ticaly toothless, the porpoise is evidently 
a carnivorous animal, as the cardiac 
stomach contained six recently swallowed 
sardines of unusually large size — about 
one foot in length. In addition, the 
stomach contained about a pint of par- 
tially digested material and a quantity of 
fish scales. 

The flesh of the porpoise ia very tender, 
resembling beef in texture but is very 
dark iu color. The Savor is delicate but 
quite different from any other meat. The 
body is so thick that the tenderloin sup- 
plied a great numtier H>f steaks and pot 
roasts of excellent qaal'ty except for the 
lack of streaks of fat so desirable in beef. 
The liver was large, cloaely resembling 
that of pork liver in flavor, and. the heart 
baked en catterole was indistinguishable 
from diat of beef. On the whole, the 
porpoise would be a valuable food animal 
if the public palate could be educated to 
the unusual. — E. H. 

HALIBUT EATS LARGE ROCK. 

The gray cods are famous a'l the world 
over for taking into their stomachs what 
the fishermen term "ballast," in tbe shape 
of stones of various sizes. These are con- 
sidered neccBBary to enable tbe cod to 
maintain an even keel duriug tbe storms 
which rage on the surface of tbe sea 
above them. But it ia not as generally 
known that the halibut {Hippogloitui) 
does tbe same thing. Due to the kindness 
of Dr. F. Kermode, director of the Pro- 
vincial Muaeum at Victoria, B. C, 1 am 
able to reproduce the follow .ng letter from 
a prominent Ssherman of Vancouver, 
B. C: 



D,ati;edOyGoO(^lc 



158 



CALIFORNIA nSB AKD QAUB. 



"Mr, Walter Wh'te, for maoy yean 
employed as a balibat Gsbermaa od tbe 
vessels of tbiB company, and latterly as a 
mate ou our 8. S. Klngsway, brought to 
the offlce tbls morning a rock weighiog 
about two and a half poaods. White 
slates that be penonarly took this rock 
from tbe etomacb of a halibut weighing 
■boat 60 pouDda, during August, 1918. 
Tbe S. S. Kingsway was B^ing off 
Bonilla leland at tbe time, in tbirty-Sve 
fathoms of water." 

The eiplanation of this lies in tbe fact 
that tbe halibut are famoas eatere of 
small Ibings as well as large things, and 
they pick from the ground and from the 
rocks and kelp all sorts of animala, 
Indadlug sea anemones, clam siphons, 
worms, etc., and in tbe process of doing 
80 they frequently take in things which 
were not intended to 6nd a lodging in the 
stomach of a fish. It Is dae to reckless 
eating, not to foresigbt in taking in 
■■lialiaBt."— W. F, T, 

YOUNO OF THE LADVFI8H 
DISCOVERED. 

In the April, 1910, issue of Cautobhu 
Kiaii AND Gaue note was made of the 
abundance of tbe young oF a supposedly 
rare species, the so-called "king of the 
salmon." We have another similar case 
to record here, the young o£ the ladyfish, 
Albvla vutpei. heving been taken in num- 
bers Id several hauls of a bottom net by 
our boat, the Albaoore. The adutt &sb 
is classed as a rarity in tbe ma-kets, 
though specimens are usually carefury 
saved, but the finding of many young indi- 
cates that the appearance of scarcity is 
rather a result of tbe failure of present 
modes of fishing to take tbe adults except 
OB an accident. 

The young here mentioned were taken 
three hundred yards off American avenue, 
in Long Beach, in from four to five and 
a half fathomx. They are approiimAtely 
7 centimeters (2} inches) in length, very 
transparent and dc'lieate. — W. F. T. 

CLAM INVESTIGATION. 
The Fish and Game Commission has 
been fortunate enough to secure the serv- 
ices of Professor Frank W. Weymouth of 
Stanford University tor a short period, 
beginning April 20 and ending in June. 
He will be remembered as having done 



much work on .the edible crab (Caacer 
magiiter) of the Pac'Gc coast Professor 
Weymouth will initiate work on the clams 
of tbe coast which will prove of general 
interest, it is bdieved. The laboratery at 
Long Beach will be his beadqaarters. — 
W. F. T. 

SHAD CAUGHT AT SEAL BEACH. 

On the twenty-Becood of Aiml of this 
year there was what might be termed a 
"run" of Bbad, Alo*a tapidtttima, several 
bandred pounds being brought in on that 
and succeeding days. They were taken in 
sardine nets, one of the hauls being taken 
off Seal Beach. All the fisb were of large 

The occurrence of the shad in the 
waters of sonthem California is rather 
unusual, although several times recorded 
as far sooth as San Diego. We are uuder 
obligations to Mr. Neilsen ct the San 
Pedro office of the Commisn<»i for infor- 
mation concerning the run. — W. F. T. 

ALASKA BLACK COD TAKEN NEAR 
SAN PEDRO. 

A specimen of the Alaska black cod 
lAnoplopoma fimbria), S) inches long, 
was Uken April 20, 1919, near San Pedro 
by a sardine fisherman. It has been pre- 
viously recorded from off Point Loms, 
near San Diego, by Starks and Morris. It 
was not recognized by any fisherman in 
San Pedro, and is apparently a very rare 
specipB. Mr. Neilsen of tbe San Pedro 
office obtained tbe specimen for us. — 
W. F. T. 

CANNERY RECEIVES MEXICAN FISH. 
There have been several species of 
Mexican fish brought recently to San 
Pedro by the Van Camp Sea Food Com- 
pany. They were ol>tained near Cape San 
Lucas by fishermen worlcing for the float- 
ing cannery (lately destroyed by fire) 
beloDgiug to that company, and are note- 
worthy as perhaps the first fish brought 
in a fresb coaditiou from so far south. 
They included the tollow'ng species : 

1. Caraui hippoi, the "toro," a very 
dark-meated fisb allied to the pompanoa 
and yellow ta 1b 

2. % omo n » Kp the "red snapper," a 
species closely allied to the snapper of the 
Gulf <lta 3 and h nee probably of con- 
siderable omm al alue. 



Goo<^lc 



CAUFORNU nSH AND QAME. 



3. Zetunu pmtctalui, the "cocbinito," 
Dot eenerally regarded as of nae com- 
merciaJly. 

4. NenulUtiut peetoratU, the "pez de 
KhUo," or "rooster-Gab," a large 6ah with 
long dorsal Bpines, perhaps oeareet to tiie 
yellowtail (8ertol<t) but dark meated. 

5. Ttacbinotut rAodopu*, the "pomiw- 
nito," a pompano of good eating quali- 
ties.— W. *'. T. 

THE BREEDING SEASON OF THE 
SARDINE. 

Id view of the geuerel interest in the 
habits of the sardine, the following geo- 
eral summary of work on its breeding 
seaaoD is presented ; 

During the years 1017 and 1918, care- 
ful exeminatiMis of tbe sardine were made 
at intervals to observe the state of the 
roe. As the summer approached, the 
examinations were made at owre frequent 
intervals. The net result was to prove 
that throughout January, February, 
March, and April tbe ova increased stead- 
ily in average sise, but that during May 
the fish whirb could be termed mature 
disappeared in large part. 

Later, toward the end of May, there 
appeared what seemed mature fish with 
spent and regenerating roe sacks. These 
were, however, in smalt numbers and had 
to be carefully culled from the great 
numbers of small fish brought in. The 
fair preBuropt^oD was that the mature 
sardines bad become inaccessible to the' 
fishermen, either through a seaward 



migration or a change in habit. No 
spawuing sardines were taken at any 

The discovery of what appeared to be 
spent fish in small numbers did not, how- 
ever, prove that the spawning season had 
passed, or even that it was well under 
way. That s certain proportion of most 
species spawn early, and that there is a 
period when (he spawning is at its height, 
nilli fi following decline, seems probable. 
If the sard'ne is such a species, tbe find- 
ing of spent fish merely means tbe initia- 
tion of the spawning period. That this Is 
probably true would appear from the fact 
that tbe roe in no case examined was so 
close to a spawning condition as to justify 
a belief that 't was distant less than a 
mouth. 

These tacts have been entirely corrobo- 
rated during the spring season of 1919. 
A series of samples have been collecled 
and examined dally since the early part of 
May until the date of wrlt'ng (May 26), 
and tbe same succession of changes have 
been observed. 

Tbe young of the sardine under 30 
millimeters in length have been tsken in 
the fine meshed nets of tbe Albacore dur- 
ing the winter months. Pending a careful 
examinadon of these younger forms, it is 
not attempted to decide the time of the 
spawning season. The only justiSed con- 
clusion is that spawning Gsh are not 
taken in any numbers by the fishermen.— 
W. F. T. 



OONSEEVATION IN OTHER STATES. 



REFORMS IN NOVA SCOTIA FISHERY 
SERVICE. 
Four years ago there was hardly a 
river in Cape Breton Nova Seolia, where 
trout and salmon were not illegally takeu 
with spear or net every year, and in many 
streams the fishing had been almost com- 
pletely destroyed. All of the guardians 
were political appointees ; all were poorly 
paid, and at least three-fourths were neg- 
lectful or inefficient. In July, 1914, the 
Victoria Fisheries Protective Association 
wss organized, and in the fall of that year 
its officers made an exhaustive report of 
12,000 words to the Minister of Marine 
and dsheries of the state of the rivers 
in Cape Breton Island, and tbe urgent 



need of reorgnnizalion and reform in tbe 
fishery service. In this report, which wns 
aeoompanjed by abundant proof in the 
shape of six or eight voluminous cxbibils, 
tbe association pointed out the evils of 
political control; asked for twelve special 
guardians with increased salaries ; sug- 
Kestcd that the number of fishery officers 
in Cape Breton be reduced from 2.1.T to 
TiO by the dropping of political workers 
from tbe rolls, and recommended that in 
future all guardians be liberally paid and 
he appointed for merit only, regardless 
of political influences. 

Nearly all of tbe recommendations have 
been adopted. The number of fishery 
guardians has been reduced from 219 to 



OALIFOSNU FISH IKD GAME. 



44 ; salaries have been mora tbao doubled ; 
the fiaheiy service baa been taken out of 
politics, and the appointment of all gnard- 
lana baa been eatniBted to tbe Civil Serv- 
ice CommiBBion in Ottawa. Ouardians 
hereafter will Ije selected for merit only ; 
tber will do DO political work, iDd tbej 
will devote all of their time to an effectiie 
patrol of the streams. Thus, (or tbe first 
time in more tbau a generation, the fish- 
ery service of Cape Breton Island haa 
been put on a bDEineas basis. We now 
have sixteen bead guardians with a salary 
of $74 a month each, and twenty-eight 
subordinate guardians with a monthly 
satary of f2A each. Tbe cost of tbe 
guardian service is about the aame a 
was under the old system, namely |10,40l> 
a year; but tbe government is now p 
ing that Bum to forty-eight guardii 
instead of distributing it among 219. 



STURGEON To BE PROTECTED IN 
OTHER STATES. 

Several jrears ago it was found oecea- 
sary to give tbe sturgeon tola] protection 
in California. Other states now realise 
[hat this splendid food fish is almost ex- 
terminated and are planning to enact pro- 
tective legislation. So depleted !a th« 
supply in Lake Erie and neighboring 
waters that Ohio, Pennsylvania, New 
York, and Canada all propose to protect 
lake sturgeon for a three-year period be- 
ginning in 1019. Although once so com- 
mon tbat they formed cheap food for tlie 
common people, lake sturgeon ere now ao 
scarce tbat only the wealthy can ndliae 
them. Recently sturgeon bave been sell- 
ing up to 45 cents per poand in the New 
York market. 



UFE mSTOBT NOTES. 



NESTING OF THE BAND-TAILED 
PIQEON. 

From an old data book of mine I am 

able to give the following details of the 
nesting of the band- tailed pigeon 
(CoJumbd faiciata). The record shows 
that 1 discovered a neat ft the head of 
the TjOpez Canyou, about ten miles cast of 
San Luis Obispo, in San Luis Obispo 
County, California, on March 30, 1895. 
Tbe nest, a fl'msy affair made of coarse 
sticks resembliug that of a domestic 
pigeon, but larger in size, contained but 
one egg in an advanced state of incnba- 
tion. It was placed on a live oak lin^, 
near the end of the I'mb but not among 
thick twigs. As to identification there 
WHS no doubt as I was close enough lo 
Ihe bird lo observe the cervical white half 
collar. 

From personal recollection I can supply 
other deta'la. Tbe nest was built in a 
small oak tree on a sleep hillside not over 
eight or ten feet from the ground and 
easily reached by stepping up into the 
tree. I had tieen in tbe habit of hunting 
pigeons in tbe fall and winter in the 
vicinity of Atascadero and Santa Marga- 
rita and though I used to visit Lopex 



Canyon every spring for a number of 
years never observed the birds to remain 
there in tbe spring except this one aeason- 
On this particular day I saw perhaps half 
a dozen pairs of tbe birds around diSerent 
parts of the canyon which, in those days 
at least, was protiably not visited more 
tlian once or twioe a year by anybody. I 
saw one other nest located within a hun- 
dred yatds or so of tbe one above de- 
scribed, but placed so f'r out on slender 
limbs above the head of the canyon that 
it was lotally inaccessible. — Nathan 

MOBAN. 

WILDCAT EATS BIROS. 

On March 10, 1019, I killed a female 

Calitomia wildcat {Lyna eremicvt eali- 
fornicui) near Coulterville, California, 
which had been feeding entirely on book 
birds. Tbe stomach contained the remains 
of six western robins.^DoNAm D. Mo- 

A DEATH STRUQOLE BETWEEN 
BUCKS. 

While bunting mountain lions on 
April 26, 1919, east of Squaw Creek in 
Shasta County, California, I came upon 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIirOBNIA FISH AND OAME. 



161 



Momo locked antlers (showD id the acconi' 
panying photogrepb, Fig. 54, The evi- 
dence was clear. There bad been a fight 
between two bu:ks (owners of tbese 
antlers), occurring, probably, some time 
last November. In the heat of the battle 
their horna had become interloclted so 
tightly that they fell without disentangling 
them. The arena for this buck Btrugglc 
covered an area of about twenty-five square 
feet in the comer of a meadow bordering 
on a Bmall monntain lake. The bucks in 



their fury had trampled down the graw 
and vegetation and had even in places 
plowed up the ground ,with their hoofs. 
After a desperate struggle either the ani- 
mals were overcom: by exhaustion or 
famished from hanger and thirst. Winter 
came on, and coyotes and other predatory 
animals prowling around in search of 
sametbicg to devour made a delicious meal 
on their carcasses, leaving, however, the 
locked antlers in the condition in wbicb I 
later found them.— Jat C. Bbucb. 



Fig. 61. Locked antlers o: 
Jay C. Bruce. The death of n 
antlers when flghtlng. 



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PATROL SERVICE. 



8AN FRANCISCO DIVISION. 

. X^ SoMjnl, Ooitimlwtonw In CtiArK& Cui Wwtartcid, Szeontlv* Offloer. 

r. B. Hmitar, AMtBtont Bzecutlva OtScer. BL C. Bonch«r, Bpadal As«nt 

BMd Ofllc«, New Call BulldloK. Beta TnnoUco. 

Phone Sutter tlOO. 







!SS». 'mT Ben»oii.__ 


. Fortun* 






f ^^r"^ 










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WHtiionvllli. 



I. I^ Kopp< 



































Frank Shook 


BalinaB City 



SACRAMENTO DIVISION. 
F. M. Nevrtiert, CommiMloner tn Charge. 



Fbone Ualn 4300. 



r. W. BlnnlnKbam Butter Creek 

BL W. Bolt (Snllsted U. 8. Navy) ,GHd)ey 



r C. A. ScroKES 



a. O. I-A-vrs-. 



_WeaverTllle 1 



Ro7 Ljudlom lioB litotlDOB . 



J. J. Baroett— 



LOS ANQELES DIVISION. 

It. J. Connell, CommfiilDiier ID Cb*rs«. 

BL A. ikcKee, AulHtGuiL Bidwla U EeddMlTi Awlatant 

Union League Building. Ijoa Anselea. 

Phonea: Broadway 11E&; Home, FSTOE. 

—Santa Harla i B. ] 

Ventura H. . 

1 Lula Oblaira A. . 



^W^ecD 



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[SH- 



'CONSERMVION OF WILD UFE THROOOH EDUCATION* 





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BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 



r If. NBWBEBT, Praddent_ 



H. J. OONNEIA CommlM; 
B. L. B08QDI, Con 



OABL WESTERFBLD, EnCDdn OOcet 8u) Pnodaea 

J. 8. HDNTBR, AisUtant Bieentln Offleer Bui FnneiBM 

B. IK DDKEl, Attorney SftB rmndHO 

DEPARTMENT OP FISHCULTURE. 

W. H, 8HEBLBT, in Charje Fiahcnltare Sacmnento 

B. W. HUNT, Field Superintendent Sacmaento 

Q. H. LAMB80N. Snperinlendent Monnt Sbuta Batcher; SiMtn 

W. O. FABSCTT, SuiMrintendent Fort Seward Hatchery, TTkiah, and Soow 

Moumaio Station Alderpotnt 

G. UcCLODD, Jb., Foreman Ld Cbaige Uonnt WUtney Batdier; and Bae 

Lakes Station Independeoc* 

G. E. WEST. ForemoD Id Cliarte Talioe and Tallac Batcbetlea Tallae 

B, V. CASSBLL, Foreman in Charfe Almanor and Domingo SpringB 

Hatcberiea Eeddia 

L. PHILLIPS. Foreman [n Charge North Greek Station Sao Beraardlaa 

L. J. STINNETT. Asaistant in Charge Klamath Stations HonibTDok 

0. L. MORRISON, Foreman in Charge Bear Lake StatioD Ban BeraardlDO 

GEO. McCLOL'D, General AaaiiitaDt in Charge Cottonwood Creek Station Bombrook 

GU7 TABLER, AaaJBtant in Charge ZoBemite Hatcherr Tosemita 

P. W. EDDT, Assistant in Charge Fall Creek Batcher; Copco 

JUSTIN SHEBLEX, Foreman In Charge Brookdale Hatchery Brookdala 

J. B. 80LLNER. AMiBtant Id Charge Wawoua Hatehec; —.Wairona 

A E. DONEY, Flib Ladder Inspector Sacramento 

A. E. CULVER, Screen Inspector 1 Sacramento 

M. E. SPALDING, AsBistaDt in Charge of Construction SacrameQlo 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIEe. 
8C0FIE 

B. B. 1 

W. F. THOMPSON, Aiaiataot Long Bea<A 

ELMER HIGGI.VS. Assistant Long Beach 

BARLE DOWNING, Assistant San Franciaco 

B. H. DADO, Assistant San Francisco 

C. S. BAODER, Assistant San Pedro 

P. H. OYER. Assistant Monterey 

1. H. HELWIG, Assistant San Diego 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION, PUBLICITY AND RESEARCH. 

DE. B. 0. BRYANT. In Chaise Berkeley 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



California Fish and Game 

■CONSEHVATION OF WILD UFE THROUGH EDI,■CATIO^■ 
Volume 5 SACRAMENTO, OCTOBER, 1919 Number 4 



CONTENTS. 

Paok 

SOME NOTES ON DRY-FLV FISHING R. L. M., Ca«/ornio 168 

NOTE ON THE HABITS AND TSB Ofc' THE SMALL SAND CRAB 

(EMElilTA AXALOOA) Frank »'. Weymouth 171 

GAME CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA TniRTY-FIVE 

YEARS AGO 3/, Ualt MeAlliitcr 172 

A CASE OF DESTRUCTION OF PISMO CLAMS BY OIL 

-Frank W. Wemouth 174 

ACCUSATIONS AND THE DEFENSE— 

The Eden Resolution and a Keply 17G 

EDITOUIAT^ 187 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST 195 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES 19C 

NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHERIES LABORATORY 200 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES 2W 

LIFE HISTORY NOTES.. 20C 

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE CO-OPEUATION 206 

REPORTS— 

SEizvatK -_ .- __ 207 

FlSDERY PRODrCTS, APBIL, MAY, JUKE, liHO 208 

VlOLATIONB OF FlSB AND GAME LAWS 210 

EXPSSDITIBES 211 

INDEX 213 



SOME NOTES ON DBY.PLT FISHINO. 

By R. L. M., CallfornlB. 

There is really no mystery in comieetion with dry-fly fishing; 
everybody who has fished with the wet fly must have noticed that the 
first time that a new or drj--fly is cast on the water, that it remains 
on the surface; in other words, it floats. As soon as the fly becomes 
wet it ceases to float and thus becomes a wet fly. Now, dry-fly fishing 
merely consists in keeping the fly dry, and if it should become wet, 
of drying it with as little loss of time as possible. 

Owing to more or less recent discoveries, several aids have been 
foand which greatly assist the fisherman in keeping his fly from 
becoming waterlogged. The most important of these is the "oil tip." 
The honor of this discovery belongs to the late Thomas Andrews, of 
Surrey, England, who obtained it from Colonel Hawker, a descendant 
of Colonel Peter Hawker (Diary 1S02-53; "Hints to Young 
Sportsmen"). "Odorless parafline" is the fluid generally mentioned. 
This is not always easy to obtain. However, there is another oil that 
from my own personal experience is equally efficacious. I refer to 
the well known and useful "3 in 1." The best method of applying 
"3 in 1" to a fly is to dip the fly in the oil, then lay it on a piece of 



170 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAU. 

blotting paper to draiD while breakfast is being eaten. A fly treated 
in this manner will continue to float bone dry until it is worn oat or 
the day's fishing is over. 

Another very useful thing to have at the waterside is a piece of 
amadou. This siibslance. which looks like leather, is a fungus that 
has the property of rapidly absorbing moisture. If the fly id very vet 
it can he preaswi between a folded pieee of amadou and nearly all 
the moisture is removed. 

But all said and done, most of the drying out of a fly is done by 
switching or easting the fly back and forth in the air. Anybody who 
is able to throw a fly can in a very short time learn how to do this 
without gnapping off his fly. 

The first thing to remember is that the fly should not be thrown at 
the water. Lcam how to cast the fly so that all the impetus imparted 
to the line is used up by the time the fly is still above the tmrCace of 
the water, and allow the fly to fall of its own weight on the water. 

Now, when this feat can be accomplished with ease, instead of 
letting the fly fall on the water, make a backward stroke similar to 
that which is made when picking the line and fly off the water; this 
will extend the line behind. A series of three or four of these back- 
ward and forward strokes {which are called false casts) are made 
between each true cast, and this action called "drying the fly" is the 
principal thing that differentiates between wet and dry-fly fishing. 
Of course, there are other things to be taken into aeeount, about which 
I hope to say more at sonic later date, but the whole secret consists 
of being able to throw the fly backwards and forwards in the air 
without permitting it to touch the water in front or the ground 
behind. When that enn be done the major part of the art is conquered. 

In actual practice the false casts will be made at an elevation 
corresponding roughly to the top of the rod, whether the overhead 
or horizonfal cast is being used. 

I strongly advise the beginner to commence his dry-fly fishing with 
hackle flies, for the following reason; A haekle fly, having no wings, 
is always "cocked up*'; whereas, a winged fly should float with its 
wings standing up in the air, and placing sueh a fly on the water 
properly "cocked up" does not come to one overnight. But as soon 
as Uie beginner becomes proficient in putting a hackle fly lightly on 
the water he can switch to the winged variety and note results. If 
the fly persists in floating on its side, i.e., with one or other wing 
in the water, it shows that there was too much force used in making 
the east; beeause the fly, instead of falling of its own weight onto the 
surface, was propelled thereon, with sufficient force to topple it over 
on its side. As time goes on, however, the fly will more often fall 
correctly and float lightly on the surface with an extraordinary 
resemblance to the natural insect. 

Do not become discouraged if you do not become an expert dry-fly 
fisherman in a few days. Have patience and be persevering and in a 
surprisingly short time, all things considered, you will find yourself 
accomplishing things you once considered almost impossible. The 
great test of the art is to be able to tell when a fly is dry or otherwise, 
by the feel of the line when making the false or drying casta. When 
you can do this your novitiate is in the past. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAUE. 171 

NOTE OH THE HABITS AND USE OF THE SMALL SAND CRAB 

(Emerita aoaloga).'* 

By FRANK W. WEYMOUTH, Stanford Unlveralty. 

Of the many baits used for surf and pier fishing in southern 
California, few are more popular than the "soft-shelled" sand crab, 
of which numbers may be seen for sale in the fish markets on the piers 
at Santa Monica, Yeniee, Long Beach, Coronado and other coast 
towns. Some recent observations on its habits suggested that those 
who use it as bait might be interested in its mode of life and where 
it may be caught. 

The small sand crab, as it may be called to distinguish it from a 
larger form also found in the sand, or more technically Emerita 
analoga, is found on sandy beaches exposed to the open ocean along 
the entire coast of California, but never in bays or other sheltered 
locations. The reason for this will be clear when we have considered 
its feeding habits. At the level washed by the waves it burrows in 
the sand, and is found grouped in beds which can be recognized even 
at a distance by peculiar diamond-shaped ripple marks in the water 
running off the sand after the breaking of the wave. These ripples 
are caused by the feathered "feelers," or antenna;, of the sand crab, 
which it thrusts up into the receding wave. With these it combs from 
the water the microscopic animals and plants upon which it feeds. 

If one has patience to wade into such a bed and wait quietly until 
the crabs have recovered from their first alarm, the interesting process 
of feeding may easily be watched. As the water clears of sand after 
the inrush of the wave, dozens of pairs of the plume-like antennae will 
be seen to pop out of the sand into the seaward-running water, where 
they remain until the wave drains oif, occasionally disappearing for a 
fraction of a second to be freed of their catch of tiny organisms. 
Corresponding to this habit of feeding on material too fine to be 
chewed, the jaws, which have hard-cutting edges in other crabs, are 
here small, soft, degenerate vestiges. 

If a shovel is thrust into the sand of one of these "beds" it will 
turn out scores of these crabs which "dig in" again so rapidly that 
few can be caught. If numbers are wanted the best way to catch 
them is to shovel the sand, crabs and all, into a box having wire screen 
in the sides, and let the sand be washed out by the waves as they 
sweep in and out. Another but less efficient method sometimes prac- 
ticed is to hold a screen across one of the sand gullies found in this 
part of the beach and so catch the crabs which happen to be swimming 
about in the receding wave. 

Observations recently made show that the crabs move up and down 
the beach with the tides so that the beds may always be found in the 
area washed by the waves, and here they may easily be recognized by 
the ripple marks already mentioned. 

Crabs caught by any of these methods will be noticed to differ 
much in size. In this species, unlike most of the erustacca, the males 
are much smaller than the females, and it will be found during the 
breeding season, which falls in the summer months, that only the 

•Caliromla State Fisheries Laboratory, Contribution No. 8. 



172 CALIPOENIA PISH AND QAME. 

larger spetiiinens arc carrying egg masses. The "soft-shelled" crabs 
are, of course, not a separate form, but only those that have recently 
molted or east their shells, a proeesB oecurnng yearly in most 
crustaceans, and that have not yet hardened their new sheila. Accord- 
ing to observations just made, the molting of the large females 
apparently occurs just before spawning and in advance of the molting 
of the males, and it is these "soft" females which are collected as 
bait for sorf fishing. Fish are apparently used to feeding on these 
erabs, which in their soft state have more difficulty in burrowing into 
the sand than at ordinary times and are therefore more likely to be 
found swimming about at the bottom. The fisherman, in using the 
"soft -shelled" sand crab, is therefore offering to the fish one of its 
customary dainties, and it is readilj' accepted. 



OAHE CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA THIRT7-FIVE 
YEARS AQO. 

By M. HALL MCALLISTER. 

In 1885, I spent the summer and fall in and near Colton, Riverside 
and San Bernardino, in southern California, and most of the months 
of September, October and November in riding and hunting all over 
that part of California. My companion was a rancher, V. C. Reehe, 
who was one of the best shots, deer trackers and general all-round 
hunters to be found anywhere. 

We had one week's hunt on the Santa Margarita, also known as the 
Juan Foster-Dick O'Xeill-Flood property, near Oceanside. Our party 
of four bagged fourteen deer and could have killed double the 
number, but stopped shooting beeau.se they were nearly as tame as 
sheep. 

There were then some antelope just south of Riverside, and I have 
now the horns of a buck killetl not far from San Jacinto Mountain, 
near where the town of Ilemct now stands. Mountain sheep could 
then be found in either the San Bernardino or San Jacinto ranges, 
and my hunting friend Reche had killed several. I also remember 
a miner who reported a very large grizzly as coming daily to the 
mountain side near a mine to feed on the berries. This mine was on 
the desert side of the Cajon Pass where the Santa Fe Railway comes 
down from Harstow. Moiintain lions were also plentiful all through 
these ranges. I remember a friend reporting that while riding 
through a canyon not far from his ranch he suddenly came on a 
bunch of five lions feeding on a dead calf, and as ho had no weapon 
with him he thought best to make a quiet sneak. 

On the San Jacinto plains south of Riverside were a few springs, 
and to these the quail came in countless thousands to water, and at 
nearly each one of them we found a brush hut and a V-shaped trough 
placed there by the (juail market hunters. Heche and I went around 
and burned up each and every one of these "slaughter pens" and got 
ourselves somewhat disliked when the news leaked out as to who had 
done it. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHE. 173 

When the quail season opened in September we had many splendid 
hunts, but no potting was allowed, wing ehooting only ; and with birds 
BO plentiful, we had wonderful sport. I remember one hunt where 
we slept out at one of these San Jacinto plains springs and in the 
morning saw the enormous bands of quail coming up for water. It 
made one's blood tingle with excitement. The ground for hundreds 
of yards all around was a moving mass of thousands of running birds. 
We hid in the brush and let tbem come in to water, then suddenly 
jumped up with a shout and succeeded in scattering the flock so that 
in an hour's shooting we had bagged 97 quail, all wing shots. We 
did not move more than one hundred yards from the spring, as every 
rock on the hillside had from one to a dozen quail under it. 

Mr. Reche stated that when the Sunset Route of the Southern 
Pacific started in 1880, many young men in southern California started 
himting quail for the San Francisco market, but that nearly all the 
quail rotted in the sacks before reaching San Franeisco, so that the 
business proved unprofitable. Before refrigeration could be arranged, 
the big bands of quail were all killed off. He stated that with his 
brother he started to shoot for the market, but his returns did not pay 
the express charges and the cost of powder and shot. He stated that 
by actual count he picked up 363 quail as a result of eleven pot shots 
of his old muzzle loader at the spring where we found the V-shaped 
trough. This was an average of 33 birds to each shot, and he said he 
would wait until the trough was actually covered with quail before 
he wonld shoot. 

Coming back to recollections in and around my home in San 
Francisco, I remember that in the summer of 1875 1 visited a camp of 
young men in the mountains back of Pescadero, in San Mateo County. 
This was in July and there was a game law against shooting quail, 
but these men, "just for the fun of it," were potting quail by the 
hundreds and had a large sack full ; in fact, so many that their camp 
could not eat them and we were invited to "help yourself if you will 
keep your mouth shut." 

In the California Market, San Francisco, in the seasonal months 
from September to February, the oyster cafes served "quail on toast, 
25e," and when I lunched there my daily order was this most palatable 
dish. 

Remembering the adage, "You can not eat 30 quail in 30 days," 
I tried and accomplished the feat. It was supposed the adage came 
from the idea that a person could not obtain quail on each day of 
thirty consecutive days or that you would so tire of them that you 
could not carry out your bargain. However, as stated above, I did 
obtain and did eat a quail each day for thirty consecutive days. I 
might state that the restaurant had a fine cook who understood hov? 
to prepare them with plenty of butter, and they were delicious. 

As I was working and had to keep regular office hours in San 
Francisco, most of my hunting was on Saturdays and Sundays and 
occasional holidays and vacations. I have a journal and record book 
of all ray hunts from 1877 down to the present year, 1919, just 
forty-two years. Most of the shooting has been at ducks and geese 
on the Suisun marsh, where I was a member of the Cordelia and Ibis 
shooting clubs. 

»-«i8so ^^^. 



74 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAICB. 

A CASE OF DESTRUCTION OF PISMO CLAHS BY OH. * 

By PROFESSOR FRANK WALTER WEYMOUTH, of Stinford Unlvsnlty, 



That crude oil is harmful to luariDe and fresh water animals has 
been so generally recognized that most states, including California, 
have passed laws designed to protect their waters from oil by pro- 
viding penalties for those who allow it to escape. Definite instances 
proving its destructive effect though present, for instance in the case 
of water birds, are not numerous, and for this and other reasons 
convictions are not always easy to obtain. It is claimed by the clam 
diggers at Pismo and Oceano that oil is chiefly responsible for the 
decrease in the supply of Pismo clams. It is hoped that at another 



time it will be possible to present an analysis of this claim and of 
other factors influencing the abundance of this important food 
mollusk, the data for which are not now available, but an instance o£ 
the effect of oil which recently came under the writer's notice may 
here be put on record. 

Sometimes oil reaches the beach from tanks on the shore near Avila, 
but the most important source is from the water ballast discharged by 
vessels coming to load oil at Port San Luis. This can not reach the 
beach at Morro around the projecting "Pecho" coast against the 
prevailing winds, but is blown on the beaches at Pismo and Oceano 
at times in considerable quantities as bathers at these resorts are 

•California Slate Ftaheries Laboratory, • 



, , : vCOO<^IC 



CAUPORNIA FISH AND QAHE. 175 

well aware. One such instance was observed by the writer on June 1 
of the present year, when along more than a mile of the beach just 
south of Pismo large masses of fresh oil were found scattered over 
the wet sand exposed at low tide. The appearance at two points is 
shown by the accompanying photographs, from which the size and 
abundance of the oil cakes may be judged. In fact, at this time it 
was impossible for a bather to cross the beach without getting so 
much oil on his feet as to make a gasoline footbath necessary. Many 
old cakes well mixed with sand and free of the thinner oils may be 
seen at any time high up on the beach, showing that the occurrence 
is by no means rare. On the date mentioned the lighter parts of the 
oil, churned up by the surf into an emulsion, were found sweeping 
back and forth across the sand at the tip of the advancing waves, 
and in this were large numbers of small animals either dead or so 
feeble as no longer to be able to burrow. About a quart of small 
clams, chieSy razor shells {Siiiqua), but including some thirty small 
Pismo clams (Tivela), together with a few sand crabs (Emerita) and 
some worms were picked up in a few minutes. All were smeared with 
oil; Sonne of the clams were dead and gaping, others were alive, but 
too feetle to keep up the constant burrowing necessary to maintain 
their place in the sand from which the waves had washed them. 
"Whether the oil killed them directly or, what is more probable, by 
filming over the sand cut off the supply of air, could not be deter- 
mined. But that they were killed by the oil can not be doubted, as 
examination of the beaches for two or three weeks before and after 
this date seldom showed even a single dead clam except in the 
presence of oil. 

With this clear proof of the destructive effect of the oil on such an 
important food animal as the Pismo elam, there can be no excuse for 
tolerating the escape of oil, especially as it has been proved possible 
by devices in use on many tankers not only to prevent its escape, but 
to save the oil thus usually lost. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



6 OALIFOBNIA FISH AKD OAHE. 

If you are inclined to criticise the Fish and Ctame 
Commission, read the following criticisms and the 
defense. 

If you believe in the work of the Commission, 
inform yourself more fully as to the accomplish- 
ments of the past few years. 



ACCUSATIONS AND THE DEFENSE. 

Rnolutlon by Mr. Eden, Introduced In the State 1 
referred to Committee on Governmental Effl 

WberEas, The Fish aod Game Commissioa of this state, and its several members, 
officers and assistaiitH, are, by virtue of the very large power and aiithorit; given to 
them by law, ia a position to exert great influeDce for or asaiast legielation peodiog 
before this Assembly ; and 

WUEBEAH, It is said that certain of said officers and fflembers have in fact sought 
to Indueace pending leKislation ; and 

WtiEBEAS, Said Fish and Game Commission and certain of its members, aGsialants 
and employees have been derelict in the performance of the duties imposed upon them 
by law ; now. therefore, be it 

Itcgotved, That the Committee on Efficiency and Economy of this Assembly be and 
it 18 hereby, directed to make an immediate and thorough investigation of the foUowins 
specific matters : 

1. To ascertain what, if any. fishing clubs, gun dubs and private game preserres, 
any of the said commiEglonerB, or the officers, assistants or employees of said Fish and 
Game Commission, are affiliated with ; and whether or not any of said officers, assist- 
ants or employees bave been, by reason of such affiliation, perniciously active in 
supporting or opposing any legislation now pending t>efare this Assembly ; and whether 
or not they have shown any favoritism, in any manner, towards any gun or fishing 
club members; and whether ot not they have, by reason of their said merabeiship, 
sought to set up and periietuate in this slate, against the interests and wishes of the 
common people, the European system of a monopoly in the control and use of wild 
fish and ^ame, vibich is peculiarly tbe property of all the people. 

2. Why it ia that within the past nine yeara said commission has, without any 
satisfactory explanation, dismissed three certain executive officers of said commission, 
each of whom was reputed to be a faithful and efficient public servant. 

3. How much ot the time of the present attorney of said commission is devoted 
to the duties of his state oHice. and how much of it is devoted to his own private law 
practice : the latter of which is said to be very large and lucrative. 

4. Why said commission colleeied from tbe people of the State, during the tour 
years ending June 30, 1018. tbe enormoua sum of $837,409.25, of which the sum ot 
5708,310.75 was expended ; whether or not said sum «o spent was not unwiaely and 
extravagantly used. Also recommend some legislation that will reduce the amoant 
of money collected by said commission at least $;jO,000 per annum. Also to ascertain 
if it is not advisable that tbe expenditure of such a large fund should be made by the 
Koveming body of the State, upon appropriatioos, instead of by said comcaissioD, as 
is now done, without any control of the Legislature whatever. 

5. Why it is that for tbe two years ending June 30. 1018. the police work of the 
commission fell off about 15 per cent over the preceding two yeara (see last report to 
Governor, page 88) ; notwithstanding said commission is charged with the enforcement 
of laws for the preservation of fish and game, and notwithstanding more people hunted 
and fished during said period ending June 30, 1918, than before ; and notwithstanding 
reports of [re<|uent and flagrant violations of the fish and game laws were reported 
in the press and otherwise throughout the state. 

G. Why said commission expended the enormous sum of $68,272.21 to establish and 
n large sum since for additions to a trout hatchery in Inyo County, for the purpose, 
as avowed by the said commission, of stocking the streams of southern California and 
the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevadas, when it was obvious to any person 
that said location could not be a success for the following reasons : 

a. That there were no waters nearby needing to be stocked. 

b. That it was impossible to obtain a sufficient supply of trout egga in that vicinity 
for hatching purposes. 

o. The great distance the hatchery product must be transported at heavy expense. 
d. The hatchery product must be transported through the beat of the Mojave 
desert before they reach the waters intended to be stocked. 



CAliOOKNlA FISH AND QAUB. 177 

7. To Bsoertain the cost of maiDtenance and operation of said hatcberr in Inyo 
County, and whether the said cost is not extravagantly eipensive and out of ali 
nroporlion to the beneQt derived bj the people of the state, and lilfely to be a jrowinK 
baiden and expense ; also the person from whom the ground was purchased and Ihe 
then owners of adjacent property and the price paid therefor. 

8. To ascertain wli«lher or not the commission is making any intelligent and 
BuHicient effort to obtain accurate first-luind information relative to the present status 
and coDdition of the game and fish of the slate ; and whether or not by reason of 
failure to procure such information many species of game and fish have reached the 
point of actual extinction, with others in ttte same dangerous stage of diminution, 
oeEore proper conservation measures can be proposed to this Assembly. 

9. Why said commission has permitted the Truckee Uiver, one of the most beautiful 
ftrcams in tbe world, and a famous fishing ground, to remain polluted tor years by 
tiie waste products from a paper milt located at Floristou, California, notwithstanding 

Eipular complaint and objection by the citizens, not only of our stale, but also 
y the people of our sister state, [\evnda. whose principal city obtaios its domestic 
water supply from said river: and notwithstanding said commission is required by 
Isw, and clothed nilh alt lawful authority, to prevent the pollution of streams. Why 
it is Ibat in tbe face of the law said commission has deliberately and wilfully failed 
and refused to do its plain duty, thereby constituting a clear and flagrant malfeaaance 
in office, and one that should be severely dealt with by the proper authorities. 

10. Why it is that tbe ocean waters of San Luis Obispo County and the waters of 
San Pablo and San Francisco bfljs. and other navigable fishing waters in the state, 
have been for years, and are now, being polluted with crude petroleum, oil refinery 
refuse and other substances deleterious to flsh life. In violation of law : notwithstanding 
it is tbe duty of tbe Fisb and Game Commission strictly and impartially to enforce tlie 
law against such pollution. 

11. To ascertain whether or not, throughout the state, in irrigated districts, many 
canals and irrigating ditches are diverting water from streams that contain fish, 
wiihout using screens to prevent tbe loss of fish ; and thereby millions of trout, bass 
and other valuable food and game fishes are annually killed and wasted. 

IZ To ascertain to what extent dams and other artilicial obstructions are being 
Buffered by the said commission to be maintained in the streams of the stale without 
proper fisb ladders, and whether or not by such neglect and dereliction of duty on 
Ihe part of said commission, millions of truut, and other migratory fish, are prevented 
from reaching proper "spawning beds," with a reaultnnC loss of a great quantity of 
lish spawn and fish. 

13. To ascertain if it is not true that the Fish and Game Commission has failed 
and neglected to take advantage of that provision in the law authorizing tlie creation 
of game refuges on private land holdings, resulting in game, in many sections where 
hunting is intensive, failing to receive proper and adc<iualc protection. 

14. Why said commission has discontinued a branch oflice established at the request 
of the people of the San Joaquin Valley; thus making less effective the supervision of 
police and other conservation activities in Ihat important and developing region ; and 
thereby, and through other activities, having lost to the state the services of one of 
the most efficient and conscientious fish and game conservationists in the country. 

13. To ascertain if it is not true that said commiasion has wasted large suras of 
the people's money in unscientific and impractical experiments at its game farm at 
IlajwarO, California, and has finally abandonetl said farm. 

10. To ascertain if it is not true that the distribution of fisb, as carried on by said 
commission, is unscientific, unduly expensive and results in the destruction each year 
of a large proportion of the fish so distributed. 

17. To ascertain if it is not true that because snid commission has failed to investi- 
gate and prevent enormous losses occurring among the millions of young salmon 

propagated and distributed each year after they lea- "■" '->"'— i- "- —> 

flsheriefl of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers at 

■U(i thriving condition. ... ... 

18. To ascertain to what extent, if any, said commission has, within the p.isC eight 
years, been governed by political, personal and other iusufficieut and improper motives, 
la Its acts in the following particulars : 

a. The dismissal of trained and efficient employees. 

6. The employment, promotion and othenviac rewarding of awnslanls and 
employees not deserving of such consideration. 

t. The failure to promote certain assistants deserving promotion. 

And whether it is not true that by reason of said acta the entire department la 
demoralised and functioning very ineilicietitly and at an expense out or all proportion 
to the results obtained. 

10. To ascertain it it is not true thai the force of wardens in the field, where the 
fish and game are to be found and where constructive work can only be done, is 
iuadequatc; while the "overhead" has been constantly increased by adding to it 
expensive and nnproductive clerical workers; be it further 

Rtmlvti, That said committee report to this Assembly within a short lime, the 
result of its investigation, with such recommendations as it may deem advisable; 
DC It further 



Jioo'^lc 



178 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAUE. 

RcMolvcd, That said committee b«, aad it ia, hereby authorized and empowered to 
compel the ntteudaree of witDegsfs at its several aesBioas, by subpcenas, to be serrfd 
by the clerk of Mid committer r and that the cbairman and vice chairman of said 
committee be and the; are each of them authorized to administer oaths to wituessea; 
and aoy witneB» refusing to aaawer questions is hereby declared to be in contempt, 
ai;d may be punished as for contempt. 

Said committee is empowered to employ all needed clerical and expert assislance (o 
carry on said investigatiou, and all costs and expcnsea of such investigation shall be 
paid out of Ibe Contingent Expense Fund of this Assembly, not exceeding one thousaud 
tire hundred dollars. 

Reply to the Eden Relolutlon by the Executive Offlcer o( the FUh and Qama 

Commlimlon. 

Id the preamble of Mr. Eilen'a resolution introduced in the Assembly, April 1, 
19IU. it IB Btnied that some of the members, officers and assistants of the Fiab and 
Game Commissian appear before the legislature. While this is true, tbey do bo 
merely in an advisory capacity and have not nt this or any other session of the 
Legislature, attempted to induence any legislation for persona! motives. They have 
favored the legislation which they tboueht ivaa best for the conservation of the fish 
and KOme of this state and have oppracd legislation which, in their opinion, was 
harmful or vicious. 

A general Btatement is made that certain members, assistants and employees of 
(he commission have Iteen derelict in the performance of the duties imposed upon 
(hem by law. but no specific instances have been enumerated. The statement is 
untrue. Assistants or employees found derelict in the performance of their duties 
have been promptly discharced from the service of the commission. 

The following is a brief reply to each of the nineteen [mints act up in the 
icsolution: 

1. The fact that two of the three commissioners are members of gun clubs has in 
no way influenced them in showing any favoritism towards gun clu& nor have ihey 
been perniciously active in supporting or opposing legislation pending before the 
A.ssembly. nor have Ihey sought to establish the European system of monopoly in 
the control and use of fish and game, against the interests and wishes of the common 
people. On the contrary, Ihey have always sought to perpetuate fish and game in 
this state for the benefit and use of nil Ih; people. Commissioner Boequi is not 
a member of nor in any way affiliated with any hunting or fishing club nor with any 
gnnic or fishing preserve. 

2. It is not true that within the past nine years the Fish and Game Commission 
has dismissnd Ihr^e executive officers of the commission. Charles A. Vogelsang 
severed his connection with the commission long before GommiKsioners Newbcrt and 
Boaqni were apiwiinled and several years prior to the time the present executive 
officer became connected with the commission. 

John P. Itabcock. after several conferences with Governor Iliram W. Johnson, 
rcfiiened on November 24, 11)11. 

Ernest SclineSlc voluntarily resigned on September 15, ISIG. Both resignations 
are now on file in the office of the commission. 

3. Mr. Robert D. Duke, attorney for the commission, devotes all of his time to 
the duties of his state office. 

4. During the four years ending June 30, 191S. the Fish and Game Commission 
cnllected the sum of ?y3T.-UI9.2."), because under the laws of the state, it was its 
duty to collect said sum. This money was paid into the Pish and Game Preservation 
Fund by hunters, anglers and commercial lishermen who desired that it be used for 
the purpose of cnuscrving fish and game and not that it be diverted into the general 
fund to be used for other pui^ioses. It is their wish that these funds be spent on 
patrol, enforcement of fish and game laws, erection and maintenance of hatcheries, 
distributioti of fish, installation of screens in ditches, fishways in dams and research. 

The fish canacrs and commercial fishermen, oE their own accord, asked that a 
privilege lax be imposed on the taking of fish and that the money from this source 
be turned over to the Fish and Game Commission for the purpose of conducting 
investigations of the life history of fishes in order that the commercial fisheries might 
be further developed, new methods of fishing experimented with and proper legislation 
passed in order to cousen'e the fishes of this slate. 

Accounts of its receipts and expenditures are published more frequently by this 
cotnmisMon than by any other state board or commission. "California Fish and 
Game," poblisheil by the commission quarterly, conf-^ *" ' ' -' "" 

expended by this commission each month, besides 
other activities. 

That the funds of the commission have not beei 

is proven by the results obtained. The salmon i — , __ .__ _._ 

pt^tically exterminated by mining operations, was restored by the work of the 

ncri^d-^vGoOt^lc 



CUJTO&NIA FISH AND OAHE. 179 

commission's hatchery department, so that in 1918 over twelve million pounds of 
salmoD were caught, which retailed at an average price of 25 cents per pound, making 
the total value of the calcb $3,000,000. 

Striped b&ss, catGsh. blacli baaa. shad, blue eiHi calico baas and other food Gsbes 
were introduced inio the watom of tbis state by the Fish and Game Conunission. 
Aa a result of tbis work. 1,400.000 pounds of striped bass were cnugbt in California 
in (he year 191S. The; were retailed at about 25 cents oer pound, or ISliTi.OUO. 
Daring the last three years over twelve million pounds of shad were taken in Cali- 
fornia, from thirty to siity-Gve carloads of roe-shad being shipped to the Eastern 
markets each year, retailing at not leas than 20 cents per pound, making an average 
of SSOO.OOO per year. 

Catfish are also caugbt in large numbets. In lOlS. 200,000 pounds, worth 27/ cents 
per pound, or $50,000, were sent to our markets. The annual catch of these four 
sF«cies of fish introduced or re-established by the Fisb and Game Commission ia 
Talned at $4,175,000. In fact, a total of 250.000,000 poands of fish were caught in 
California during the year 1I)1S. The Gsh packed by canners and curers. alone, were 
worth approximately $20,000,000, to say nothing of the fresh fish sent to the markets. 

Surely an industry ot such magnitude is worth protecting, and any money spent 
in investigating the life history of our food fishes can not truthfully be said to be 
extravagantly spent without achieving results, particularly when the Gsh introduced, 
propagated and protected by the commiasioo bring into the State of California, 
$4,175,000 per year — over ten tirapg the amount eijicnded hy the state in the protec- 
tion, propagation and conservation of all Gsh and gsme. 

Aa a result of the invest iga I ions by the experts of the commission, a new season 
and limit was adopted and the catch of crabs increased 40,000 dozen per year, valued 
at $100,000. 

Besides the important work of the Fiih and Game Comraission in propagating and 
conserving commercial Gahes. it has also propagated and distributed millions of trout 
and has stocked many waters whirb had been entirely barren of fish life. Bear Lake, 
an artificial take in San Bernardino County, about eight miles long, was stocked by 
the Fish and Gnme CommiSBJon. Hatcheries and egft-taking stations were built and 
maintaiued there and the supply of fish kept up so that now the fifty or sixty thou- 
sand people who visit the lake annually obtain excellent fishing. In addition to Itear 
Ldke, the commission has also planted trout and black bass in Huntington l-ake. 
Bass I«k«, Shaver Lake, Clear Lake. Juniper I..ake, Medicine Lake, Ilea Lakes, 
Sixty IiBke Basin and man; other lakes throughout the Sierra Nevada and the Casst 
Kange mountains, too numerous to mention. Ia all of these lakes excellent fishing 
is lo be had and they are annually visited by tens of thousands of anglers. 

Innumerable barren streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and elsewhere in 
this state have been stocked with trout. All of the streams in the Vosemlte 
National Park above the floor of the valley were barren of fish life before they^ were 
slocked by the Fish and Game Commission. Golden trout have been diHtributed 
from Volcano Creek throughout the Sierra Nevada Mountains, as far north aa the 
Yosemite Valiey. 

The fishing in some of our best streams is kept up solely through the work of 
the Fish snd Game Commission. When the run of black-spotted trout, the only 
trout indigenous to the Trnckee Kiver, was stopped by the dams in the river in ibe 
State of Nevada, the Fish and Game Commission planted Rainbow. Eastern Urook 
aud Loch Leven trout in tbis most excellent fishing stream, so that, now. while 
black-spotted trout are seldom, if every caught, excellent catches are made of the 
tarielies introduced by the Commission. 

The banks of the Sacramento Kiver on Sundays and holidays, in fact, nearly 
every day. are lined with anglers fishing for catfish, crappie. blue gill, calico bass and 
other exotic fish introduced into the waters of this state by the Fish and Game 
Commission. 

The work of the Fish and Game Commission in the protection ot (he game 
resources of the state has also been productive of excellent results. Deer are 
admittedly much more numerous now thsu they were ten or fifteen years bro. 
Cottontail rabbits are becoming so numerous that the residents ot Fish and Game 
District No. 2 snd Fish and Game District No. 4 have asked tliiR I/'Rislature ihnt 
the protection given cottontail and brush rabbits be removed and that they be placed 
upon the list ot predatory animals which may he taken at any time. 

As a result ot the protection given pheasants, those planted by the commission 
have become so numerous in favoroblc localities, that open seasons for the taking 
of these birds are demanded in Injo and other counties and will probably be granted 
by this session of the Legislature. 

Quail and doves are holding their own in most localities. Wild ducks and wild 
geese, under Ibe protection given them holh by the state and federal govemraent, are 
go numerous that in many localities, tbey ere considered a pest, particularly in the 
rice fields ot the Sacramento Valley and the grain fields in the lower San Joaiiuin 
Valley. In fact, there is now pending iu the Legislature a bill providing that the 
protection given duclta and geese be, to some extent, removed, in order that the 
farmers of the state may obtain relief fnim their depredations. 



i.„Gooi^le 



180 CAUrOBMlA FISH AND GAME. 

r>. The diminatioD in the nnmber of cases msde in the bienaial period lOlft^lSlS, 
\a due to the vigorouB campaign of education being carried on by thii conuniBEioii. 
'■" -.--!--, f^jg ,|,gj j( ^.g^ obtain much better resuitg by educating the peopl« 



to a proper observance of the laws for the coDtervation of our fish and Eame. tuaD 
it can by aireslB alone. Appsreiitlj the commission Is justified in this. Despite the 
tact that the patrol has been more efficient than at any other time, the number of 
arrests have decreased from 2,087 in 1914-10 to 1.797 in 191G-1S. Among the 
ac-livilics of the Depnrtmeut of Eilucattoo and Publicity which empbasite the motto, 
"Con nerval ion Ihroujrh education," are: 

a. "Caufor.ma Fish a^jd Gaue," a quarterly magazine devoted to the conaerva- 
tion of lish and game in California, publiched, contains — 

(1> Numerous artlclcfl on game species, means of identifying tbero, their past and 
present status and the means whereby they may be conserved. 
(!') Slalislics hearing on the abundance of ^me species. 
i3i lleporls of work accompliahed by commission ; activities initiated. 
(i\ Financial reporte, 

b. Publinty items in newspapers dealing nith fish and game and the activities 
of the commission. 

c. ^lagazine articles, cfl. "A New Goose for California," "Pernicious Bounty Laws." 

d. Iiectures on fish and game and its conservatitHi illustrated with stereopticon 
and with motion pictures, given to schools, churches, teachers' institutes, boy scouts, 
summer camps, etc. 

(1) Siieciai series of lectures to university students. 

<*. Exhibits showing work and activities Installed at State Fair and sportBrneo 

/. Instruction relative to fish and game and the need and value of wild life 
conservation given in schools by means of lectures and trips afield. 

<l) Teacher's bulletins issued furnishing teachers with usable information. 

('.il Similar instructions given boy scout organizations at tlieir summer camps. 

H. Record of activitiwi and accomplishments fumislied the Governor and the 
peni>ie of the state through the me<lium of a biennial report. 

ft. Information on wild life furnished in reply to letter* of inquiry. 

The decrease in the number of cases can also be accounted for by the fact thai 
at the li)17 I.egiRlature, the sate of trout was prohibited, thus eliminating the many 
arrests that had theretofore been made of fishermen who caught trout for the market 
and who continually violated the law regarding both seasons and limits. 

Furlliermore. on account of the vigorous prosecution of csecs by the commission, 
many violators have ceased to disobey the laws. For example, after Judee Murssky 
decided the case of American flame Tranifer vs. Fiih and Game CommUtton in favor 
of the commission, the merchants who had Iheretotore sold wild ducks illegally. 
practically quit doing so. and market hunters from whom they procured wild dut^ 
discontinued their unlawful shipments. 

G, At the urgent request of the anglers of southern Oalitoroia, (he commission 
decided to build a hatchery to stock the streams and lakes of southern California 
and the western and eastern slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, which 
were fished annually by thousands of people from Los Angeles and otber portions 
of southern California. It emphatically and repeatedly demanded in writing of 
the DeiMirtment of Kngineerioe and Board of Control that the building should not 
cost more than JSO.OOO. Plana and estimates were submitted by the State Architect, 
calling for a building to cost $29,500. 

At a meeting licid in the office of the Fish and Game Commission in the Milis 
Ruilding. San Francisco, attended by .lohn Francis Neylan, then President of the 
Board of Control; Mr. Lean of the State Architect's office; Frank M, Newbert, 
M. J. Connell, Carl Wesierfeld, Fish and Game Commissioners; Ernest Scliaeffle, 
Secretary of the Fish anil Game Commission, and Mr. VV. H. Shebley, Superintendent 
of Ilatcheries. the commissioners attempted to question the re pre senta tires of the 
Slate Architect on the estimates submilled and were told emphatically by Mr. Neylan 
that neither he nor the representatives of the State Architect or the Department of 
Kneiiieering or its officials, came to the commission to have their ability to estimate 
the cost of a building questioned by laymen; that tlie law provided that the araount 
set aside for the hnllding must be turned over to the Department of Engineering 
and that if the plans were satisfactory, the commission would have nothing further 
lo ssy about its construction. Furthermore, it the commission did not turn over 
$:W).000 to the Department of Engineering, as provided by law, the Board of Control 
would not approve of the expenditure of one cent and the commission could not 
build the hatchery. Thereupon, the commissioners turned over $30,000 to the 
Department of Engineering, which assumed full charge of the construction of the 
building. 

Bofore asking for plans and specifications for the hatchery to be built in Inyo 
County the Fish and Game Commission made an extended survey of all the streams 
in southern California, in order to obtain (he best site possible for a hatchery. The 
temperature of the waters o£ numerous creeks was taken ; the minimum aod maiimnm 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORNIA FISH AND (UUE. 181 

Haw determiaed ; the transportation facilities vere examiDed ; the needs of tlie sur- 
round ing country were investigated. Afier a moat eitiauelive examination, the 
preeent die on Oak Creeic was cnoaen, and the results huve fully justified Cbe choice 
made. In view of the fact that nearly ail the water in Goutbem Caiifornja was 
appropriated for irriEation, power or domestic use, the state was ifitreinely foriunate 
to obtain such valuable water rights free of cost. These alone are of much greater 
value than the cost of the hatchery. 

The fish produced at the ML Whitney Hatchery show mui-h greater and better 
developmeBt than Iboee propagated at any other in tikis stste or anywhere in the 
world. The facilities for stocking the waters of the aouthern Sierras and socthem 
California are better than those that could be obtained anywhere else in that section 
of the state and the people wuu are informed, are all of the opinion that no Detter 
site conld have been chosen. 

«. It Is not true, as stated in the resolution, that there were no waters nearby 
needing to be stocked. On the contrair, there are numerous sireama and lakes 
both on the western and eastern side of the southern Sierras, sojne of which are 
barren of fiah life, in which trout ought to be planted. The headwaters of many of 
the streams Qowing into the southern San Joaquin Valley rise in the western slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada, within easy range of the ML Whitney Hatchery. 

b. It is not true that it is impoaaible to obtain a sufficient supply of trout eggs 
in the vicinity of the hatchery. On the contrary, an ample supply of trout eggs 
can be obtained from Rae Lake and Bear Lake, besides a bountiful si:pply of gotden 
trout eggs from Ckittonwood Lake, the only place in the world where these eggs can 
be obtained. In any event, it is much cheaper and easier to transport eggs to Mt. 
Whitney Hatchery to be hatched and distributed than it is to transport trout fry 
from Ut. SisaoD Hatchery to the streams and lakes stocked from the Mt. Whitney 
Hatchery. 

c. it is not true that the batchery product must he transported a great distance 
or at a heavy expense. The lakes and streams of the southern Sierras and southern 
California can be easily reached and cheaply stocked from the Mt. Whitney Hatchery. 

d. The hatchery product is loaded on the hsh distribution cars at Oweoyo. leaves 
there about five o'clock in the evening, and parsing through the Mojave Desert at 
night, reaches Los Angeles and the southern portion of the San Joaquin Valley 
early the following morning. 

T. The cost of maintenance and operation of the Mt. Whitney Hatchery is not 
extravagantly ezpenaive nor out of all proportion to the beneSt derived by the 
people of the state. From year to year the expense, instead of growing, will 
diminish on account of better facilities and the protMible decrease in the price of food 
for Gsb. 

The ground on which the hatchery is located was not purchased by the state, 
bat was given to the state by the citizens of Inyo County. The commissioners 
are not aware who are the owners of the property adjacent to the hatchery site. 
At the time the hatchery was built, the land adjoining it immediately on the west 
was a part of the National Fores), owned by the United States. 

The Fish and Game Commission of California has made a greater effort than any 
other state in the union to obtain accurate first-hand information relative to Ibe 
present status and condition of the game and fish of the state. It has caused 
extended scientific research to be made, both as to the life histories of our game 
and our fishes. 

Under the direction of Dr. H. C. Bryant and J. S. Hunter, the following investi- 
gations have been instituted ; 

a. Researches are being carried on by H. C. Bryant, Ph.D., game expert of the 
commission, and J. S, Hunter, in close coHDperation with the University of California, 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, facilities and advice of the trained scientists o( the 
university t>Ging available and used 

b. Dr. Bryant, joint author of 'The Game Birds of Catifomia," a 600-page book, 
pnbllsbed in 1918, detailing the life history, habits and past and present status of 
each species of game bird found in the State, sums up present knowledge of each 

c. Investigations of the food habits of birds : 

(1) Roadrutuier proved an efficient destroyer of insect pests rather than an enemy 
of quail. Actnal food consumed shown by stomach analysis. 

(2) Study of food of ducks in progress. Will furnish information as to tbeir 
relation to agriculture and will give evidence aa to best food plants to attract wild 
fowl to the State. Natural foods suitable for use by the game breeder will also be 
apparent. 

d. Compilation of dependable facts regarding game and its status. File kept ; 
Information furnished by forest ofiicers cnjified ; newspaper articles authenticated. 

(1) Special report on far bearing mammals; past and present statua 

(2) Present status of beaver with nap showing known distribution. 

(3> Present status of prong-homed antelope with map showing present distribu- 
tion and census of existing herds. 

e. StatiBtloa of annual kill of game. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



182 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHB. 

(1) Deer. KsUmate made from actual report of kill made by deputies »nd forest 
office ri. 

(2) Uucks. Esiiniale made from records ahowing Hhipmenta to market 

f. Id vest iKat ions of dispase aiinckiog game. 

(1) F. O. Clarke — diseaee attacking- deer in Trinity Cotinty ; proved to be » 
bladder worm. 

<2) Dr. Bryant— disease attacking ducks in Sutter Coonty, 1918. 

g. iDveatigatiODs of birds in relation to agriculture. 

(1) Ducks versus rice. Joint iDveatigatiou by Biological Surrey and FUb and 
Game Commiuion. 

(2) BtackbirdB versus com and other crops. 

<3) English sparrow versus garden crops and beneGclal native birds. 

(4) Kelntion of meadow lark to agticnllure. 

h. Field investigations of game refuges. 

<1) Trinity County Gnmf Itef uge ; present condition; predatory mammals. 

^^IPinnacles Monument (inme Refuge; present condition; predatory mammals. 

J. Study of accliniBtizaiiim of exotic species. Success and failure In the intro- 
duction of foreign game birds and mammals. 

j. Study of methods of conserving wild life. 

k. Scientific investigations of deer and their status in California by F. C. Clarke. 

The following scientific invealieations of the commercial fisberies of the state 
have been carried on, and many of them are still in progress under the direction of 
Mr. N. B. ScoSeld, in charge uf the Department of Commercial Fisheries. 

a. Inveslii^tion of Albncore, Sardine and Herring. Mr. Will F. TbMnpMO, 
formerljr with the Department of Fisheries of British Columbia, at i)resent fishery 
expert in our laboratory at \joag Beacb, is making a scientific investigation of the 
life history of the albacore, logelher with a statistical analysis of the catch. He is 
also making a scientific study of the sardine and herring, as well as observations on a 
great many other fish. The Rri'ater part ot the lime, however, is spent with the 
albacore and sardine, in order that we may tie prepared to cope with the many 
problems arisina with the rapid devvlopmeot of these fisheries. 

Mr. Elmer lliggins, who is a graduate of the Department ot Zoology, Dolvenit/ 
ot Southern Culifornia, is assisting Mr. Thompson in ibe laboratory, collecting speci- 
mens and conducting exin'rimenlal lishing trips on the patrol lannch "Albacore." 

b. Edwin Chapen Slarks. assistant professor of zoolt^ of the Leland Stanford 
Junior University (formerly curator of the museum, and instructor at the University 
of Washington), is writing a serieK of comprehensive orticlee on the results ot his 
studies of the various fishes of this ( onst, which appear in our magazine, "Cautobru 
Fish and Game," i^.. 

The Flat FUhes ot California. 

Tlie Mackerel and Mackerel-like Fishes of California. 

The Herring and Herting-like Fishes of Calitomia. 

The Sharks of California. 

The Skates and Raja of California. 

c. Salmon. Arrange men Is have been made to complete the investigations of the 
life history uf the salmon from Montirey Bay to the northern boundary of tbe state. 
Mr. Willis Rich, a wi'll-known student in zoology, and J. O. Snyder, associate 
pmfessor of zoology, Iceland Stanford .hmiot University, formerly Assistant United 
States Fish Commissioner, naturalist U. 8. S. "Albatross" and expert ichthyolo- 
gist, will carry on the work. Mr. Rich has already completeil a great deal of work 
on the salmon and Dr. C. IT. Gilbert of Iceland Stanford Junior University has 
carried on extensive t'xpcriments for the commission in marking and planting 
salmon fry. 

rf. Crab. A study of the Pacifio Const edible crab (Cancer raagiiteT) was made 
by Frank Walter Weymouth (assisiaut professor of physiology, Leland Stanford 
Junior University, A. B. Stanford HKW, A. M. Stanford 1011. In 1&12 and IfllS, 
assistant in physiology at the Johns Hoiikins University), in the year 1611. As a 
direct result of his findings the size limit at crabs was increased by law and the 
catch of crahs in 1917 was increased .'0 per cent over that of 1916. 

e. Mollusks. In 1911 a, complete survey was made ot the California coast under 
the direction of Prof. Harold Heath, piofcssur ot zoology, Leland Stanford Junior 
University <A. B. Ofaio Wesieyan. Ph.D. Pennsylvania), covering the motlusks of 
this region. W, W. Curtner. Will F. Tborapaon and Mr. Hubbs assisted in this work. 

f. Crawfish. A crawfish investigntlon was made in 1911 by Bennett M. Allen of 
the University ot Wisconsin. IJitcr Wnldo S. Svhmidt of the United Slates National 
Museum came to this coast, and in 1!MS. with the assistance of our men and boats, 
was able to secure some specimens of young crawfish which will greatly assist him in 
his report of their life history. 

g. Abalones. Mr. W. W. (.'urtner Lns 
tbe State. Mr. Curtner is a graduate i 
University. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORNIA FISH AND OAHE. 

k. Striped Bass, Stargeou, Perch, Shrimps, etc. 

ducted a great many investigatioas of our EsheE, such a . 

snirgeoD, etc. He bas also made a stud; ot the sbrimu fishery and bat been abia U 
prevent tbe use of the destrucCiTe Chmese method of ebrimp fishiag. 

i. Kelp. During the Great War, when a BUfficient amount of poiaih vaa Dot 
obtainable even at the increased price of $300 and $400 a ton, formerly JtiS per ton, 
a study was made of the extensive kelp beds alone the coast of southern CalitomlB 
witb the assistance of Mr. W. G. Craudall of the Scripps Inatitution anii Dr. P. W. 
TurreQtine of the United States Department of Agriculture, and reguIatioDS were 
made as a result of tbia study wblcb enabled the harvesters to cut the kelp to the 
limit without unduly destroying the beds. 

9, There is less than eight miles of the Truckee Hiver in California belon 
Floriston. Shartlji before tbe present Board of Fish and Game Commissioners was 
appointed, the State of Nevada appropriated $10,000 to abate tbe nnisance caused 
by the pollntion of the Truckee River at Floriston. Nevada's chief complaint was 
not that the alleged pollution was deleterious to fish life but that it rendered the 
water snpply of tbe city of Reno unpalatabie. 

An action was commenced by the State of Nevada in tbe United States courts in 
San Francisco and much teatimony was taken. It was not proven Uiat the refi:«e 
was deleterious to fish. In fact, the testimony showed that the fish in the river 
below the point at which tbe refuse was discharged, were in good condition and fit 
for human consumption. The action commenced by the State of Nevada was thrown 
out of court. Thereafter, certain slate officials of Nevada consulted with the Fish 
and Game Commission of California, with a view to abating tbe nuisance. F. A. 
Shebley and N. B. Scofield were sent by the commission to the I'ruckee River to 
make farther experiments with tbe water affected. Numerous conferences were held 
and a committee consisting of W. H. Shebley, Superintendent of Hatcheries in Cali- 
fornia, Professor Dinsmore, Bureau of Chemistry, University of Nevada, and Mr. 
Block, representing the paper company, was appointed to go cast at tbe expense 
ot the paper company to investigate certain appliances to handle the refuse. The 
owners of^tbe paper company agreed to install these appliances providing the manu- 
facturers thereof would guarantee their efficacy. Wben the manufacturers would 
not do this, the matter was again taken up by Governor Boyle of Nevada and Mr. 
Thatcher, Attorn^ General of Nevada, with Governor Uiram W. Johnson of Cali- 
fornia, and Mr, Weaterfeld. 

As a result of this conference, a committee consisting of Hon. Arthur Arlett and 
W. H. Shebley, again investigated tbe condition of the river below Floriston and 
made ita report to Governor Johnson. Mr. Westerfeld thereafter wrote Governor 
Johnson, asking that tbe Attorney General ot the Stale of California be Instructed 
to commence proceedings under the authority of People vs. Truckee LutnbeT Company, 
lie Cal. 397, against the paper company lo abate the nuisance. At the next session 
of the Nevada Leeialature, another appropriation was granled by that state to again 
commence proceedings against the paper company. An action was thereupon insti- 
tuted and is now pending in the Supreme Court of tbe United States. 

10. Water Pollution. Practically nothing was done by previous boards of Fish 
and Game Commissioners to prevent pollution of the waters of the atate. The 
present board has, however, made great strides in this work and it is safe to say 
that California now leads any other state in the Union in preventing the pollution 
of its waters. 

In the last ten years many complaints have been filed in the coirrts against large 
corporations and individuals to stop tbe discharge of refuse matters into the waters 
of thi state and vast sums of money have been expended by them in order to remedy 
the evil. For example, as a result of complaints filed in the courts by the Fish 
and Game Commission, the following named companies have expended tbe amounts 
aet opposite their respective names to prevent pollution : 

Pacific Gaa and Electric Company $200,000 00 

Union Oil Company 18,000 00 

Shell Company of California 40,000 00 

Doheny-Pacific Petroleum Company and Associated Oil Company, 

joinUy — 20,000 00 

Mason Malt Whiskey and Distilling Company 7,000 00 

Southern Pacific Company 23.000 00 

Monarch Refining Company 5.000 00 

American Oriental Refining Company 2.000 00 

Capitol RefinioB Company 1.000 00 

Paraffine Paint Company 1.000 00 

California Petroleum Company 1,200 00 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



IM CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAHE. 

ISaaj fiaes bav* aUo been collected at a result ot proaecutioaB comtnenced b; the 



Other iBT^e cocnpaQiei nhicb have complied with our requests, or demaodi, with- 
out prosecutioQ, are sa roUowa : 

Standard Oil CompaQy. _ $900.000 00 

Southern Pacific Company 26.000 00 

NorthwCBtcru Pacific Railroad Compnny _ 5,000 00 

Coast Counliei Gas and Electric Company _ 5,000 00 

CoaM Valleys Gaa and Electric Company 3,000 00 

Pacific States Refining Company 2,000 00 

AtchiBon. Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company 2,000 00 

Western States Gas and Electric Company 5.000 00 

1548.000 00 
Brought forward 318,000 00 

Grand total *86fl,000 00 

And in addition a large number of smaller compauiea and individuals hare been 
compelled to cease pollution where such existed. In all cases where persons, firms 
or corporations hare failed to comply with our demands tbey hare been token into 

court. t ; 

Three cases are now pending in the courts of San Luis Obispo County, two 
against the Union Oil Company for pollution of San Lcia Bay, and one asainat 
the Tiber Pacific Company. 

11. Screens. Prior to 1912 no systematic effort waa made to caose the installa- 
tion of screens and ladders. At that time the present commission created a depart- 
ment of screens and ladders and detailed two men to attend to this work nndec the 
supervision of the Superintendent of Hatcheries, Since that time, despite the fact 
that the law has been found defective in some respects, 862 surveys have been made 
and notices served on the owners of ditches to install suitable screens. At this date 
518 screens have been reported as being installed and in effective working condition. 
Before May 15 of this year between fifty and sixty screens have been Installed at 
tbe expense of several thousand dollars. For instance, the screens installed by the 
Sacramento- West Side Canal Company, tbe Anderson- Cot ton wood Irrigation Com- 
pany and the Soutbera California Edison Company, cost many thousands ot dollars 

The work ot installing screens in ditches la being pushed as rapidly and as vigorooaly 
as conditions will permit. 

Under the law as amended in 1917, at the suggestion of the commission, the 
California Oregon Power Company has. at an expense of (20.000. bnilt a hatchery 
at tbe Copco dam on tbe Klamath River, and last month conveyed it to the state, 
together with dwellings, traps and other equipment necessary to operate the station. 

12. Ladders. Tbe present Fish and Game Commission in 1912 began a systemstio 
survey in order to determine where fish ladders should be Installed. As stated under 
the head of ''Sereens" (point 11), two men were detailed under the supervision of the 
Hatchery Suiierintendent to make these surveys and to draft plans to be given 
tbe owners or occupiers of tbe dam. Numerous ladders and screens were installed : 
under tbe law 47 bearings as to the neces.<:ity of the installation of screens and 
ladders were held by the commission and findings made and orders Issaed by the board 
compelling the Installation of (ishways and screens. To date a total of 209 surveys 
of dams have been made and the owners have been legally notified to install fish ladders 
In accordance wilb tbe pleus submitted. Of this nnmber 131 tisbways have been 
constructed and have been accepted as being effective. The other cases are being 
pushed vigorously and in some instances actions have been commenced to compel 
obedience to the orders of the board. 

13. At the IDIT session of the Legislature, tbe commission was instrumental In 
having siitcen large areas within national forests set aside as game refuges, aggre- 
gating 839.1S0 acres. Resides this, the commission has now established seven game 
refuges on privately owned land in sections where huntinj' Is Intensive and game needed 
such protection. Within the last six months, over 60.000 acres of private holdings 
have been set aside for this purpose. 

The commission ia now asking the Legislature that two new game refuges be 
created, one around Lick Observatory, the other in Kern County. 

14. The branch office established at Fresno was abolished because the woA done by 
that office could be more elTiciently and economically handled by the San B^ancisco 
office. The officer who had been in charge of the Fresno oRice was retained in the 
service of the commission until he voluntarily asked to be given a furlough In order 
that be could operate a mine which he owned and also attend to his agricultural 
interests which demanded his attention. 

15. Tbe game farm at Hayward, California, was e^ilablished In 1008. prior to the 
appointment of the present board, The grounds were leased for a period ot ten years. 
This commission was willing to cancel tbe lease at any time, bad it been able to make 
suitable terms with the owner. When the owner ot the land sued the commlstion to 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND OAHE. 185 

•at maide the lesse, the commission pnt id practically no defense, but Judge Morpby, 
who tried the case, neTertheless ordered the commiiaiOD to maintain a game farm OD 
the land until tbe expiration of the lease. 

16. It ia not true that the distribution of flsh aa carried on by the coniminioa in 
onicientific, unduly expensive or that It reaults in the deatructfoD in eacli year at 
a large portion of the nsb to distributed. 

Tbroueb the efforts of the commission, two Sab cars, diatributing Gab all over th« 
State ol Califomitt, ace hauled free of chance by the railroad. The greatest of care 
ia taken to see that the fiah are properly distributed and property planted in the streams 
and lakes. 

IT. It is not tme that the Fiah and Game Commiaaloa failed to investlKate the 
joaug salmon propagated and diatribntGd in the Sacramento Kirer. The Fiah aod 
Game Commission has heretofore caused such lUTegtigation to be carried on by Dr. 
C. H. Gilbert of the Stanford Uniyeraity and Mr. N. B. Scofield, fishery expert for 
the eonunission, and ia now carrying on sueh investigation in conjunction with the 
Bnreau oE Fiaheriea under tbe direction of Mr. Willis Rich and Mr. J. O. Snyder of 
the Stanford University, Mr. N. B. Scofield and Mr. W. H. Sbebley. Salmon fry 
are held longer at Mt. Shasta Hatchery and are larger whea released than thoae 
reared by any other state or county. 

18. The commission baa not at any time been governed foe political or personal or 
other ineflicieat or improper motives. 

a. It has not dismiased trained or efficient empioyeee without cause. 

6. It boa not employed or promoted or otherwise rewarded aasistanta or employees 
not deaervlag of such consMeratioo. 

c. The department ia not demoraliied or functioning inefficiently or at an expense 
ont of all proportion to the results obtained. On the contrary, the work of 
the department is now being performed more efficiently, intelligently and 
economically tban at any other time during its existence, 

19. Tbe force of wardens in (be field is as great as the funds of the commission will 
permit. If the overhead has increased, it is caused by the increase of tbe clericnl work 
connected with the commission's activitlea, and also by the rules and regulations laid 
down by the Board of Control. 

Respectfully aubmitted. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORKIA F1$H ANE GAME. 



rosemlte Tnlley deer photocTBphed In a Baowstono, Bnow wiB lallliii 
the rat! ol two IncbeB bd hour wben tbtee deer were photoiraphed br A 
FHirfleld, Hircb 8, 1819. ExposuiB 1/15 sec., 8toi», F a.II. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAIJFORNIA F18H AJ«> GAUB. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME «»«^" '>' '^' united 



A publication dSTOtad to the conwrva- 
Uon of wild Ufa mod publlabed quarterly 
by tbe CatUomla State rieh uid Qani* 
CommlsalOD. 

Stmt free to cltiMna of the State of Cali- 
fornia- OCFered In exdumxe for omllho- 
loKlcal, mammalOBlcal and almllar perLod- 
ICaU 

Tbe articles publlabad In CmroaNiA Fisii 
AXD Oahb are DOt copyrlfhtBd and may be 
raproduced In other porfodlcala, provld 
due credft Is slven the Callfomta Flah a 



pu^lnent DiatarlaL 

All inalerlal for publication abould be 
••nt to H. C. Bry*"!, Museum of Verte- 
brate Zoology, Berkeley, Cal. 



October 21, 1919. 



PERSUASION VERSUS COMPULSION 
IN FISH AND GAME CONSERVA- 
TION, 

Lefislati n U Ihe time-honored metliod 
by which [he body iKitiiic attempts (o 
attain an object. When new roada are 
desired, the legialatuie ie asked to enact 
the proper laws. When the public henllh 
is lo be safeguarded, an Bet of the lecis- 
latore is demanded. But beyond Ihe mcri' 
placing of a law on the statute bookw is 
tbe necessity of making the law effective 
by means of law enforcement. Where thp 
need for the laws is well realized there is 
little need of law enforcement; where 
they are poorly understood, time, enertry 
and money must be spent to attain the 
object Bought. 

When, in fisb and game conservatiou. 
u'c tuim to Ibis same time-honored 
method, tbe difficulties are just begun, for 
laws passed by tbe legislature must be 
enforced. Because of the failure of peace 
officers to do their duty, a lafge number 
of specially appointed game wardeos mnsi 
force people to obey tbe law. 

Is there not a better way of attaJniuR 
the same odject? More and more we liiul 
campaigns of education being instituted 
to prepare tbe way 'or proper legislation. 
A city does not think of bolding a bond 
eleclion until after Che people have been 
educated to the need for w)iicb the bond)' 
are to be issued. Successful liberty loans 
Unve been effected by proper publicity 
almost to a greater extent than by the 
nctual systematic canvass. The b 
example of accomplishment by means 
an educational method rather than 
leiislative method ia to be found in I 



lood Ad- 



How much tH'lter In hinv iiiiained the 
goal by means of inTsuusinn rather than 
pulsion ! 

t it is evident in nitaluiiig an object 
thai Ihe educational is of more worth 
than Ihe legis'nlivc mcthiid because more 
fundamental, il ko 'in« reasonable that 

tre lime oud ein'rcy sliould be devoted 

this method in attempting the conserva- 

>n of natural resource!). 



If old controversy between Ihe 
angler for sport only and the net fisher- 
for profit only, over the waten ad- 
it to Santa Catalina Island, has been 
ed recently. 

was thought that this matter bad 
been definitely settled by action of the 
r legislature in making two districts 
ind Ihe island, one in which net fisher- 
could operate and one For tbe benefit 
of tbe sportHmen only. 

le promise of the cannery interests 
net (iaheriiio:fl tbot they would not 
oijoriilp in a district dedicfted to the 
sportsmen, providi'<l a certoin part of the 
waters surrounding the island be made a 
district in which net flshiiii; should be 
permitted, would certainly seem to have 
settled Ihe malter. However, it appears 
that this gentleman's agreement was not 
considered binding by some of the eon- 
tracting parties. 

About th? middle of August, tweuly- 
two canneries operating aroimd San 
Peilro and some 340-odd alien fishermen 
who, not tieliif! able to maintain an action 
in the state court, cloaked themselves 
under tbe proteriing wing of tbe can- 
neries, obtained from (be presiding judge 
of tbe Superior Court of Los Angeles 
County an order restraining certain in- 
dividuals from interfering with their nets 
and boats, and further restraining them 
from making searches and arOsurea. Thia 
ni'der was petitioned for under the plea 
that irreparable damage would be caused 
liy tbe act-on of those certoin named de- 
feiiduuls. oporiiling without due process 
of law. 

The order was grantud wilhout pre- 
vious notice lo any of the defendants 
named in tbe petition. No mention was 
made in the petition that all of these 



CAUFORNIA PISH Ajn> QAME. 



defendants were officers of the law, av 
to enforce the law. and that the actloDa 
complained of were performed in the pur- 
suance of tbeir dutiei. 

The restraining order wai serred on 
H. B. Nidevcr, W. B. Setlmer and B. L. 
Hedderly, but no order was served at 
that time on the Fish and Game Com- 
misaioQ. The order was also serred on 
Eroest Windle, justice of Ihe peace of 
Aralon towuHhip, Bates and Sutermeir. 
resppctively deputy count; warden and 
constable of Avalon township. 

The hearing ot the petition to make 
permanent the temporary injunction 
held before Judge Valentine on August 
19. 1919. The attorneys representing the 
plaintiffs in the action attacked the 
stitutionalitj of section C36 ot the Penal 
Code, relating to nets, and also Ihe de- 
scription of District 20, as given in 
act dividing the slate into fish and game 
districts. They maintained that ainc< 
acts were Toid, the court bad the rigl 
restrain the public officers from enforcing 
the provisions of section l!36. They 
maintained Ihat the state had no j 
diction over the waters surrounding Santa 
Catolina Island, because the state 
stJLution made no mention of a tbree-mite 
limit around the island. This latter 
tentJon was shown to be so absurd that 
it has since been abandoned. 



Hie court took the stand tbat aiace a 
temporary order had been granted. It was 
up to the defendant! to tbow cause wh; 
U should not be continned and made per- 
manent. The defendants were given five 
days in which to present their opeuiDg 
briefs; the plaintiffs were given five ad- 
ditional days for reply, and the defend- 
ants were allowed five daya further for 
their closing briefs. By thia, it can be 
seen that the cannery Interests gained 
G'teen additional days In which to make 
raids on the fiebioE grounds in Dis- 
trict 20. 

Immediately after the bearing, so order 
was served on the Fish and Game Com- 
mission restra'uing it from enforring the 
law relating to net fiahing in the waters 
around Catalina Island. 

It is of mtereat to note, however, from 
the report of our deputies, that the Gsher- 
men have gained very Ititle by their tac- 
tics, as their fiabing operations have pro- 
duced very poor results. 

Judge Valentine having set aside the 
temporary res training order September 
10, 1919, the Fish and Game Commission 
has given instructions to its deputies to 
enforce the law in District ?0. For the 
time being, it would seem that thia de- 
cision in favor of the commission's con- 
tentions will effectually aettle the contio- 
versy.— E. C B. 



;dnyG00(^lc 



OAUrORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



Tbe attempt to stimulate interest in 
irild lif« by carryiog the Fisli and Game 
CommiHsion's educational campai^ iato 
the sammer resorts proved very BQCCesB- 
[q1. During the month oC July Doctor 
Birant riait«d five ot tbe Isiijest resorts 
on Lake Taboe : Brockwaj, l^hoe Tav- 
ern, Emerald Bh; Camp. Al Tahoe Inn 
and Falleo Leaf Lodge. Lectures iilas- 
trated with stereo pticon and motion 
pictures were given in the eveolDg aud 
paftles taken afieid in the da; lime. Of 



It will be of iDtereat to our readers to 
know that the Department of the loterior 

bas decided to employ in each national 
park a resident naturalist whose duty it 



terest fx 


ople 1 


a the 


ont-of-doo 


rs. 


Thus 


will the 


goven 


iment 


augment 


tbe 


work 


already 


tarted 


by the 


commiss 


on. 





The summer resort work at Taboe 
proved so popular that an expansiou of 
the work another summer will be de- 
manded. There is no surer way of 
stimulating interest in wild life conserva- 
tion than to develop interest in the out- 



ng. se. "LfsiDlng ti 



r tbe FiUi aad Oame O 
uonau out ot the summer vscstloiili 

particular interest were the groups o' 
children who roamed tbe woods an 
stream sides searching for wild things. 
It would be diScult to estimate tbe vsiui 
of these excursions when tbe public ai 
leisure came In contact with nature and 
learned the fundamentals of conservation 
first hand. 

The final report shows that thousands 
of people were reached through the 
medium o( lectures and Chat hundreds 
received instruction from a nature guide. 
Tbe nature study reference books fur- 
nished bj tbe California Nature Study 
League were in great demand and greatly 
helped in awakening interest In wild 



TAHOE PUBLIC CAMP. 

The legistalure at its last sossion set 
asidt^ tbe old hatcbery grounds at Tahoe 
City, which arc to hv abandoned for a 
better site, as a public camp for vaca- 
tionists. LFnder the direction ot the Fish 
and Game Commission the Slate Engi- 
neering Department installed a water 
supply, sewer system and other sanitary 
convenitnei'S. The camp was opened to 
the public on July 4 with Mr. .\rnold D. 
Patterson as superintendent. On the first 
day over a hundred campers were cared 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



190 



CAUrOBNIA PISH AND OAHB. 



for. The camp remained open until Sep- 
tember 5. Durine the season 1,23& per- 
ions registered, bat tbia number does not 
represent the total number accommodated. 
Farther improTemeiita are to be made in 
preparation for the crowds expected next 



nud providiDg for a bag limit of one deer. 
Governor Smith, in nXgnrng the bill. 
Elated tbat the law was in the nature of 
nil experiment and that if it proved nn- 
sBlisfactory it would be repealed. 

Laws of this character, contrary to 
recoamendationa of those moat Id te rested 



. Tfthoe Public Damp on tbe old hatcberj grouads at Tahoe Olty. Hundreds ot cempen 
STBJled themBclTei ol the comforta ot this tree camp grouad condui^tcd br tbe Tisli 
and Garne CommiFsloD. Photograph b; George Npale. 



DEER CONSERVATION IN NEW 
YORK. 

The state of New Yorli is gaining some 
valuable facts by obtaining a census of 
the deer. The reports lead to a conclu- 
sion that there are in round numbers 
about DO.OOO deer in that stiHe. In 1917, 
approximately 37,000 men hunted deer 
and the total deer killed is estimated at 
10.000. Records show that 5,888 Adiron. 
dack deer hides were received for tanning 
b; different tanning companies. 

Approximately 19,000 of the total num- 
ber of deer are bucks. With a hill of 
10,000 about 50 per cent of the bucts are 
killed each year. This is a toll alrenrly 
too great if the deer supply is to be 
maintained. 

As a result of inyeEli gat ions a Bhn''ter 
season and a bag limit of one buck in- 
stead of two was recommended, but thn 
legislature, influenced by selfish hunlcrs. 
passed a bill allowing the killing of "any 
wild deer of either sex, other than fawns," 



in game conservation and contrary to the 
best experience ot other stales, are lihely 
lo prove costly experiments. 

MIGRATORY BIRO TREATY ACT 
CONSTITUTIONAL. 

The duck shooters of the country who 
have fought federal protection for migra- 
tory birds in an effort to defeat the law 
so thnt they might continue the deatnic- 
tive practice of spring shooting of water- 
fowl, have been decisively beaten on two 
occasions lately in the United States IHs- 
trict Courts. This fact is made more 
interesting because on both occasiona 
those opposing the law felt certain they 
would win. Their array ol counsel was 
the best they could obtain. Tbey cbose 
their CBses with due regard to dedaions 
made in the past and with all respect to 
the local sentiment in the district where 
(he trial was held. In fact, they left no 
stone unturned that would aid them in 
their light to defeat the law, and still tbey 



i„vGoo<^lc 



OAUFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



191 



lost. The Bportamen of the country should 
feel highlj pleased over their rictory, for 
Barely the law is valid or the organized 
fi^t ataiDst it would have met with at 
least aome slicbt auccese. 

On June 4, 1919 United Stat«a Dia- 
trict Jadge Jacob Trieber, of the Eaatern 
DiArict of Arkanaaa, who held that the 
oripnel miErator; bird law of 1913 was 
oncoostitutionai. handed down a verj' 
sweeping decision upholding the new law. 
This was the first jolt receired by th^ 
■priDK ahooters. bnt the inockout blow 
cane later at Kansas City. Missouri, 
when Judge Arba S. Van Valkenbnrgh, 
on July 2, 191B, npbeld the taw in a de- 
c'sion so sweeping that a SttiuE com- 
parison la Dempsey's decision over Wil' 
lard a few daya later. — Bull. American 
Oame Protective Auooiation. 

WATERFOWL DIE FROM EATINO 
SHOT. 

Wild dncka and other waterfowl some- 
timee die from lead poisoning reaultios 
from swallowing etray shot which they 
pick oat of the mud about ahooting 
gronnda. Many ducks that become sick 
from lead poisoning finally recover, but 
it is probable that the effect is perma- 
nently injurious not only to the individual 
bat to Cbe spedea. It has been ascer- 
tained by experiment that lead greatly 
impairs the virility of male domestic 
fowls, Femalea mated with them lay 
many iuferttie egs, while in many of the 
eggs that are fertilised the embryo dies 
in the shell or the chick emerges weak 
and unable to withstand the hardships of 
early life. What effect lead poisoning 
haa on female wild fowl has not been 
definitely ascertained, but, as the fact is 
well known that lead produces abortion 
in female mammalB, there ia a possibility 
that it eierts a bad effect on female 
waterfowl daring the breeding season. 
Thas, the supply of waterfowl is likely 
to be decreased by lead poisoning not 
aalr by the number of birds that die 
dtrectly from it but indirectly by impair- 
ment of reprodnction. 

These facia are set forth by the United 
States Department of A^nculture Id Bul- 
letin 783, "Lead Poisoning In Water- 
fowl," about to be published as a con- 
tribution from the Bureau of Biological 
Survey. Reports of waterfowl apparently 
■ick from lead poiaonicg have been coming 



in for several years. The Biological Sar- 
rey undertook an investigation at variona 
shooting grounds to determine bow com- 
mon the taking of shot by waterfowl Is, 
and a series of experiments to ascertain 
the effect of shot swallowed. It was 
found that at places where much shooting 
is regularly done from blinds, shot at the 
bottom of the shatlow water are so 
numerous that one or more was f6und in 
practically every sieveCul of mud or silt, 
and that tbey are swallowed by waterfowl 
whenever found as a result of this habit 
of swallowing small, bard objects to 
supply grit for the giizard. 

The experiments have shown that shot 
swallowed are gradually ground away In 
the gizzani nod pass into the iutestlues, 
producing a poiaoning that results in pro- 
greaaive paralysis and. usually, death, 
Experiments with wild waterfowl cap- 
tured when young and reared In cap- 
tivity — to obviate the possibility of their 
having taken lead before the beginning 
of the eiperimenta — have shown that six 
pellets of No. 6 shot constitute an amount 
of lead that is always fatal. Two or 
three shot were sufficient to cause death 
in several instanccrs. la one experiment, 
two mallards were given one No. 6 shot 
each. One of them died in nine days and 
the other was able to throw off the poison. 

The list of species known to have been 
poisoned by eating shot consists of mal- 
lard, pintail end canvas-back ducks, the 
whistling swan, and the marbled godwit, 
but many other species, particularly of 
ducks and geese, are undoubtedly affected 
by it, according to the bulletin. 

Unfortunately, nothing can be done at 
this time to protect waterfowl from lead 
poisoning eirept to call attention to the 
malady and to make known its cause and 
symptoms. The department, however, de- 
sires statistics on the numbers and species 
of birds affected and asas that sportsmen 
and others report to the Burcan of Bio- 
logical Survey all cases that come to their 
attention. 

GOVERNMENT NEEDS DEPUTY 
CHIEF OAME WARDEN. 

The United States Department of Agri- 
culture is In need of a well-qualified man, 
not less than twenty-five nor more thai 
forty-five years of age, to fill a vacancy 
in the position of deputy chief United 
States game warden, and the United 



.Coot^lc 



192 



CAUFOBNIA nSH AND QAHX. 



Btalei Civil Serrice Comiiiiulan will five 
• miMt practical open competitive teet to 
Mcuro the r'Ebt mail. The entrance 
ular; will be between $2,500 and $3,000 
a jear. Headquarter! nill be in Waah- 
ington, D. C. 

The duties of the poeition are to asiiat 
ia admin ialering tbe law which gives 
effect to the treat? between the United 
States and Great Britain for the protec- 
tion of migrator; birds and the Bectiona 
of tbe United States Penal Code known 
as the Lace; act : in tbe anperTision o( 
United Stales game wardens end deputies 
in the gathering of evidence and the 
preparation of cases for prosecatioD of 
allied violations of tbe federal game 
tnA'K, anil in office administratioD : and 
lo par.icipale in conferences in and out 
of Waiibington with individtisls and 
ori^nizn'^ions interested in wild life con- 

fn accordance with lis practice in con- 
nection with positions of this class, the 
en by tbe Civil Service 
1 not require the appli- 
cants to appear in an examination room 
for a mental test. Those who appi; will 
receive a rating on their education and 
prnclicai eiperieuce. weighted at 80 
cent, and on a thesis on a selected g: 
conservation subject, weighted at 20 per 
cent. Those who attain a passing grade 
will later be given an oral teat to deter- 
mine their personal quatiGcations for the 
position. Failure in this oral teat will 
render the applicant ineligible for appoint- 

Applications will be received b; the 
Civil Service Commission up Co ani 
eluding Octolier 28. Full information 
and application blanks ma; be obtained 
from I ho aecretar; of the local board of 
civil service examiners at the post office 
or customhouse in an; of 3.000 citie: 
b; writing to the United States Civil 
Scn'ice Commission, Washington, D. C. 

ANGLERS, ATTENTION. 
At last we have landed the articles 
angling ;ou have been looking for. All 
□f the Gne points of angling wil' be dis- 
cussed. Read the Itrst of the series wbich 
treats of dr;-S; flabing on page 1C& of 
this issue and watch for the other articles 
in the series furolsbed b; "R. L. M. 
California," than whom there Is no better 
writer on tbe subject 



ADDITIONAL MIORATORV BIRD 
TREATIES NEEDED. 

In order to complete our program for 
the protection of migrator; birda, it is aa 
necessary for tbem to be protected in tbe 
countries in ir-hich the; sojourn dnriox 
winter months as in the territory (rberc 
they breed and spend their time in spring. 

It is therefore imperative that treaties 
be entered into with the repnblica of 
Mexico, Central and South America for 
the protection of birds that, in the coarse 
of their annual migration, pass frtun or 
through the United States and tempo- 
raril; sojourn in such countries. It is a 
startling fact that wild duck are elangh- 
tered by the millions in Mexico b; pot- 
hunters, man; of whom use masked bat- 
teries, and that they are sold in tbe 
markets for tbe pitiful snm of tbre« centa 

It is regrettable that tbe republics lying 
lo the south of the United States hare 
laws, but in tbe event those 
enter into treaties with the 
United States government for tbe pro- 
lection of migrator; birds, in order to 
csir; out the terma of such treaties, nch 
countries will be required to enact and 
to enforce laws making such treaties 
effective. 

A campaign of education should be at 
once inaugurated in tbe Latin-Ainericaa 
republics for the purpose of bringing to 
tbe attention of tbe people the economic 
value of birds and game, and the relation 
of these resonrcea to the comfort, hanii- 
ness and recreation «f man. 

The question is, can the migrator; wild 
life withstand tbe onslaugbts made upon 
it for mercenary purposes b; inesp4Mi- 
sible individuals in tbe Latin American 
republics, without being snbiected to cer- 
tain depletion and ultimate extinction? 

Should the sportsmen of the coanti; 
concur in the views brieS; set out in this 
abort paper, let tbem bestir themselves b; 
addressing communications to their mem- 
bers of congress, and urging their active 
influence and assistance in making tbe 
treaties between the United States and 
the La tin -American republics, for tlie pro- 
teclion of migrator; birds, an accomi^ished 
fact — John H. Waixacs:, CommisaioDH, 
Dept. Game and Flab, Montgomer;, AJ*- 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAlffi. 



198 



tTATC FAIR EXHIBIT. 

Tbc Fi(h u)d Game Comnuuion'i ax- 
hibit at the State Fair at SacraroeDto, 
ADKiiEt 30 to S«ptember 6, 1&19. waa tbe 
moat pretentious yet attempted and 
proved to be the biggest attraction at tbe 
fair. A capable engineer was retained to 
draw the plans and -Mr. Wm. F. Dabel- 
stein. an artist of Satt FranciBco, executed 
tbem. The nhole north end of the new 
Agrti^ultnre Building was given over to 
tbe exhibit. The main featnre of tbe ex- 
hibit WHS a Cfdorama oi tlie Sierras with 
Mounts Shasta, Lasseo and Whitney 
looming up in the backgrouad and in the 
loregroand the south end of Lake Tahoe 



wonder, lor their bright colon would at- 
tract aoycaie. The hardloeM of tbb 
varletT of treat waa evideoeed by thalt 
vigorous good health nhile in the 
aquarium. Not a Ssh was lost in transit. 
nor did one die during the ten days dura- 
tion of the fair. The publications of the 
commission were on display and wild life 
nims were shown in the moiioo picture 
Iheater twice daily. 

QAME CENSUSES. 
Uany states are inaugurflting a game 
census to dclermine tue distribution aud 
comparative abundance of dllfercnt va- 
rieties. New York requires the wardens 



at one end and a miniature of the Mount 
Whitney Hatchery at the other. Several 
miniature waterfalls tumbled down the 
rocks into an artificial lake filled with 
trout. The whole scene was made still 
more attractive by a system of lighting 
which successively showed the gray light 
of dawn, the rosy tints of sunrise and the 
light of full day. 

Arranged in front of the panorama were 
four large aquaria. Two of them showed 
common introduced fish such as black and 
striped bass, blne-gllled sunfish. crappie 
and catfish, a third showed different 
varieties of tront and a fourth was Slled 
with the famous golden trout of the 
Mount Wbitnej region. Great interest 
was shown in the golden tront, and do 



to report regularly on all eame seen and 
uW requires a report of the game taken, 
from each license holder. Minnesota has 
just inau^irated a simitar census to be 
made by wardens. Although such cen- 
suses will doubtless give a basis for esti. 
mating tbe abutidance of game, yet such 
reports are necessarily so inaecurale that 
California bas not instituted similar 
work. It may be that at some future 
date California will follow the lead of 
these other states. 

In the meantime J. S. Hunter, assist- 
ant eieculive ofilcer, is contemplating ■ 
different sort of a census — one which 
would perhaps bring in more dependable 
data with lets work. Tbe number of 
cartridges sold in the state, if It were 



_nOO<^IC 



CALIFORNIA FISH J 



FbotogTApb by E 

known, would allow an estimate ol the 
game killed. Different sorts of earlridees 
arc used tor the different kinds of game 
birds and mammals and with due allow- 
ance for game niEsed the total kill could 
l>c approximated. The scouring of data 
nloiic these lines would not be as difficult 
as the requiring of reports from wardeoa 
and hunters. 



HCRY DEPARTMENT MOVES. 

The Fislidiltural Department, lieaded by 
Mr. W. H. Sbcbley, has moved to Sacra- 
mento, where temporary offices have been 
eslabtished in the Famm Building pend- 
ing the more commodious quarters tielng 



prepared in the new Capilol Bnildins- 
Ail correspondence connected with tlw 
Hatchery Department should hereafter be 
addressed to Fisb and Game Connaissiop, 

Department of Fishcuiture, Forum Build- 
ing, Sacramento. 

COLORED PRINTS OP OOLDEN 

TROUT AVAILABLE. 
A few copies of the beantilal litho- 
graph of tbe golden trout which appeand 
as tbe frontispiece of the Trout Number 
of Caufoksia. Fish akd Ga.mb art 
available for diBtributioD. Libraries and 
schools are urged to procure copies for 
framing. Send a two-cent stamp. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND OAMB. 195 

FACTS OF OUBREMT DTTEEEST. 

A nmnber of aliens who baye purchased citizens' banting licenses 
have found that it does not pay. In each instance thejr have bad 
tfaeir license confiscated and been made to pay a $D0 fine. 



Splendid fish have been reared at the Yosemite and Eaweab 
experimental batcberies, thus demonstrating the feasibility of con- 
Btmcting permanent batcberies tJt these stations. 
T' T' T- 

State lion banter J. Brace recently succeeded in bagging four lions 
in Tnolnmne Coimty. 

T- T- T- 

Plans are under way for a State Fisheries Laboratory to be located 
near San Pedro. This will furnish working quarters for the scientific 
staff of the Department of Commercial Fisheries and will give room 
for an educational exhibit showing the work of the department. 

-r T' T' 

Nearly three-quarters of a million golden treat were sacceasfuUy 
reared at the batcberies this year. Most of them will be planted in 
the Southern Uigh Sierras, but some will be placed in the Tahoe 
region. 

T T' T' 

So great was the demand for the Trout Number of CALIFORNIA 
FISH AND GAME with its colored plates that the supply is prac- 
ticalfy exhausted. 

T" T" T 

Hundreds of campers availed themselves of the public camp on the 
hatchery grouuds near Tahoe City this past summer. It will be 
remembered that several acres of land were set aside for campers by 
the last legislature. 

-r T" T- 

Several additional wardens have been employed this past summer 
to help patrol the state game refuges. Added protection has also 
been accorded by the eight aeroplane patrols established by the 
United States Forest Service. 



Ducks are again dying from alkali poisoning in the Marysville 
Butte region of the Sacramento Valley. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND QAIII. 



COMMERCIAL nSHERY NOTES. 

N. B. SCOFIELD, Editor. 



THE SALMON OF THE SACRAMENTO 
NEED MORE PROTECTION. 
It is believed that tlie SacrameDto 
salmon are not being adeqaately pro- 
tected and that Bcrious depletion may now 
be tabing place. Witbln the last tew 
years the salmon fisheries at Monterej 
and Point Reyes, which draw upon tbe 
Sacramento aupplj, have grown enor- 
moualy. and as they have grown the catcb 
on the Sacramento haa been correapond- 
ingly less, in spite ol the fact that tbr 
number o( nela on the river has increased 
and that on accoant of the higher price 
the fishermen fish more persistent!]'. 

The present fall season on tlie Sacra- 
mento remains open at least two weeks 
too long. Several yean ago the season 
closed on September m. It 
tended by fiaherraeti and dealers that the 
■almon were niniiiDg later each year and 
thej succeeded in obtaining an open sea- 
son until September 20. Later the season 
was contiuued until September 25. Th< 
object of the closed seassu la to protect 
at least one-third of the run in order 
that Ibey may pasa up the river unhin. 
dered by nets and cast ttieir spawn in tbf 
headwaters and by ao doing insure a con- 
tinuous future suppb of salmon. With 
the present season, oDe-thltd of the run 
is not protected, for by the closing date. 
September 25. the last of the run or so 
much of it B3 is left has passed the nets 
in San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay. 
CarqiiJnez Straits and SuisuD Bay, a dis- 
tance, favorable for the use of nets, of 
nearly fifty miles. The aalmon worlc np 
the bays and river slowly and after the 
run has passed the lower Cnva tbe fisher- 
men more up and continue (o catch them 
in the lower river until the season finally 
closes. The wonder is that any escape 
The salmon which have escaped maki 
their way to the spawning grounds which 
are located mainly in the tributaries. Mil' 
Creek, Battle Creek and McCloud River 
In each of these tril>utarjes a spawn- 
tahing station is operated to collect 
salmon eges for the hatcheries. The 
number of salmon reaching these statlonn 
is becommg less each year ao that the 
nnmber of eggs that nay be taken is now 



only about one-Sftb what it was only a 
few years ago. This decrease In the nnm- 
twr of fish reaching the spawning grounds 
is a ante sign of overfishing and it is self 
evident the salmon should be protected 
from this overfishing. 

The Sacramento also has a sprine mo 
of salmon or rather what is left of a 
once large spring run. The salmoo of 
this run enter San Francisco Bay dnriog 
the winter and early spring and after 
"seaping the trollera outside they have to 
run the gauntlet of gill nets through the 
bays and the river as far np as Colusa. 
Above Colusa, as far as Vina, every place 
the river sweeps round a bend with a 
sandbar on the inside of the turn there is 
a seining outfit which periodically sweeps 
the deep hole where the salmon congre- 
gate preparatory to ascending the next 
^hallow stretch of the river. There are 
some fifteen of these outfits operating on 
the "seining bars" on tb« npper river. 
And the salmon can not escape these 
seines which sweep the holes where they 
collect except during periods of very high 
water. On the river below Colnsa and In 
(he bays, there is no closed season to pro- 
tect this spring run. On the river above 
Colusa the season closes May IS, but this 
'iate is BO late the run is all but over. 

There is no salmon stream in North 
America where nets are allowed for so 
7reBt a distance up the stream aa on the 
Sacramento. The nnmber of salmon 
taken in these seines is not great, hot 
they are the remnant of the spring run 
ind they are a thousand times more 
nluable for propagating the species than 
or food. The hatchery of the United 
states Bnreau of Fisheries at Baird on 
the McCloud River is the only hatchery 
which has collected spawn from the spring 
Salmon ran, but at thia hatchery they 
lave not attempted to take eggs from this 
'un for the past six years for the reason 
the number of salmon reaching that point 
had become so small It was deemed in- 
lufficient to warrant the expense of 
operating. 

Two things are quite obvious to anyone 
who knows the facts. Seining and gill 
netting In the upper river should be pro- 



idovGoot^lc 



OAIilFOBNU FISH AND QAHH. 



hibited and tbe foil Maion nhoiild doM 
earlier ao as to gire som* measare of 
protection to tbe larger and more im- 
IMirtaDt fall run. TroIliDg in the open 
sea poagibly should be restricted. In- 
veatigations which were began tbia year 
bj the Fish and Game Oommisalon nnder 
the direction of Dr. J. O. Snyder are 
eipected to throw light on this point. 

STRIPED BASS TAKEN IN MISSION 
BAY, SAN DIEQO COUNTY, CALI- 
FORNIA. 

Mr. A. G. Pearson of San Diego re- 
ports that on or about Jane 20, 1911), he 
took several amell striped bass ranging 
from five to eiefat ini^hes in lenetb. in 
San Diego River near lis ontlet into 
Mission Bay. 

On October 26, 1&16. eighteen hundred 
small striped bass were planted near the 
month of San Diego River by the Fish 
and Game CommisBion. and since that 
time Bmall striped bass have on several 
occasions been observed near the place of 
planting. As far as is known, only the 
one plant has been made in soutbem Cali- 
fornia and striped bass have never before 
been reported soath ot Monterey Bay. 
The fry at the time of planting were 
between two and three Inches lone, being 
fish of the year, spawned in April or May, 
1916. If these fry had grown at the rate 
they do in San Francisco Bay tbe; would 
have reached the size of Ave to eight 
Inches In 1917, during their second year. 
If the fry reported by Mr. Pearson are 
some of the fry liberated in 1916 they are 
in their fourth year and their rate of 
growth has been remarkably slow. It is 
suggested that these five- to eight-inch liah 
are the progeny of tbe Ilsh planted in 
1916, bnt tbat can hardly be as a suffi- 
cient length of time has not elapsed, for 
it is pretty certa'n that striped bass do 
not spawn earlier than their fourth year 
and tbe fish planted in 1916 would not 
complete their fourth year until the 
spring of 1920. It would seem more 
probable tlut striped bass plants bave 
been made of wblcb we have no record or 
else striped bass which are plentiful in 
Monterey Bay have strayed to the south 
and occasionally spawn as far sonth as 
San Diego. 

The striped baas is not native to the 



Pacific coast, but was introduced from 
tbe Atlantic coast in tbe early seventies 
and since that time has trecome quite 
plentiful. 

KELP HARVESTING MAY BE 
RESUMED. 
During tbe period of the war nearly 
four thousand tons of kelp were harvested 
each year in California waters. Upon tbe 
signing of the armistice practically all 
harvesting ceased as potash could not be 
extracted from the kelp economically 
enough to compete with tbe foreign potash 
which it was expected wonld be imported 
again in large quantities. In eitracting 
potash from kelp many by-products were 
obtained which had never before been 
obtained in commercial quantities. As 
yet most of these by-products have not 
found a market. Much progress was 
made in developing more economical 
methods of obtaining tbe potash from kelp 
and it was hoped that if a market could 
be found for the by-products the kelp 
plants could continue to operatp, but the 
armistice came sooner than eipected and 
the plants closed down. Sioce then 
efforts have been made to place a duty on 
foreign potash, but as yet congress has 
taken no definite action. Efforts have 
also beeo made to Bud markets (or the 
by-products and now one or more new 
companies which believe Ibey have found 
the solution expect to resume the harvest- 
ing of kelp. The future of the industry 
will depend less on the value of the potash 
extracted than on tbe other chemicals 
which should be valuable when com- 
mercial uses for Ihem can be found. 

SARDINE RUN AT MONTEREY. 

The sardioe season at Monterey has 
been earlier than that usually conaidered 
normal. Canneries were ruacing full 
capacity during July and August Dur- 
ing August the run was exceptionally 
large and the fish unusually firm and of 
good quality. This year tliere were more 
crews fishing sardines than ever before, 
forty-five crews operating, or an increase 
of seven crews over last year. The short- 
age of cans during cne fruit season 
greatly curtailed the size of the sardine 
pack, which otherwise bid fa^r to break 
all records for this locality. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



196 



CAUFOBNIA riBH AND OAHB. 



STEELHEAO. 

It ii olteD said bj apartunen tbat itael- 
bead trout do cot take tbe book in open 
salt water. Am contrary evidence a 3}- 

VoanA (cleaned weight) steelbead was 
caught Julf 23, 1919, □□ the hook in tbe 
open Monterey Baj and the local fisber- 
men cla-m that Buch a catch is no great 
rarity. Several sleelbead were also taken 
this year on the Mendocino Conntv coast 
by the same method while fialiing for 
salmon. During tbe BUtnmpr of 1930 
mBDj steel head were taken, duriue a 
period of sii weeks, by trolling off Sequel 
in Monterey Bay. Mane of the trout 
nere cangbt a mile olf shore. 

SEAWEED AS FOOD. 

The Chinese consider Bonic of our sea- 
weeds a very desirable basis (or aoups 
and several Monterey Chinamen make a 
business of catering to this demand. The 
weed is sun-dried and sacked, but beld in 
the sack for further drying before ship- 
ment. During the last five montba about 
1,450 pounds, dry weight, have been 
shipped to such eastern points as Chicago, 
Cleveland, San Antonio and Newark. 

SALMON AT MONTEREY. 
The king salmon aeason Just closed at 
Monterey resulted in one-half the normal 
E-ason catch. The early i-un was not 
caught heavily because of a fishermen's 
strike and the late season tun was light 
and ended early. The run of silver-Bide 
salmon was also light, hut elteniled over 
a longer period than is usually credited 
to this fish. Tbe silver salmon is said to 
suddenly appear in Monterey Bay, run 
heavily for a few days and suddenly dis- 
appear, but notes kept on the liH9 season 
^how them as caught in small numbers 
between May 10 and July 'IC,. with a 
heavy catch on four or five days during 
tbe period. 

DRY SALTING FISH AT MONTEREY. 

There are at present twelve firms en- 
gaged in tbe business of hard or dry 
salting fish at Monterey, representing an 
approximate investment oC $50,000. One 
firm has invested $7,000 in equipment 
since last year. In addition, there are 
eight freab-fisb dealers who do consider- 
able dry salting during otherwise slack 



periods. Several firms that operated 
last year have not yet opened np for 
business, September and October being 
tbe big months in the hard saJtiDg in- 
dustry. Tbe diief product is sardines in 
the form of salacbini pressed into round 
100, G5 and 50 ponnd tabs. Anchovies 
are usually put up in 5, 8 and 10 pound 
cans although some anchovy and sardine 
paste is made. Mackerel is salted in 200- 
pound barrels. 

As jet the trade will not take any 
great quantity of these relatively new 
products on tb's coast, but the hard aalt 
bnsiness promises to develop into a well 
established and increasingly large indua* 
try in the future. 

SQUID AT MONTEREY. 

This year for the first time in several 
years squid have been caught in quantity 
at Monterey. Three Chinese Arms bave 
dried this season about 1,772,000 pounds 
(fresh weight) of squid. Three tons of 
wet squid furnish one ton dried. Due to 
high labor cost this year the squid were 
not cleaned, merely dried on the ground, 
raked up and sacked. Fishermen wei« 
paid $10 per tan for the catch and the 
dried product sacked ready for shipment 
is valued at 6 to 7 cents per ponnd. 
Practically alt (his sacked product is 
shipped to China. 

In addition, small quantities of sciuid 
have been canned in half pound rounds. 
The appreciation of fresh squid as a table 
delicacy is slowly growing, but people 
who doli';bt in oysters and eels nsuallj 
balk at squid tentacles till they bave tried 

DO FISHERMEN GO FAR ENOUGH TO 
SEA TO GET THE FISHT 

It is the belief of seuii' of tbe cannera 
of southern California tliai such pelagic 
fisb as tbe tunas and albacorca may be 
found in large numbers farther olT shore 
than the fisliermen usually fish. As tli; 
tuna canning industry has grown tlic 
fishermen have been getting larger boats 
and arc fishing, during the latter part of 
the season, twenty to thirty milea off 
shore. Incoming ships have observed 
what they bave taken to be schools of 
long finned tuna ("albacore") some two 
hundred miles olf shore. To determine if 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFOBNU FISH AND QAHE. 



199 



these fish are abundant at tbia distance 
off shore the Fiab and Game Com m is- 
aioD'B launch "Albacote" was detailed to 
make an investigatian and succeeded in 
finding albacore in abundance near San 
Nicholas or about eighty miles off the 
mainland. If these fiah can be found in 
numbers at a greater distance off shore, 
larger fishing boats will be built and 
preparations made to Gab farther at sea 
wjien tuna are not to be found closer to 

UAROE SALMON CATCH AT FORT 
ORAQQ. 

While the salmon catcu this summer at 
Monterey was only balf the usual amount 
the catch of soimon by trolling has been 
exceptional! J large in the vidnity of 
Point lleyes in Alarin County and near 
Fort Bragg and Shelter Cove on the 
northern California coast. The data has 
not yet been compiled, but it is believed 
the catch at Point Reyes as well as the 
catch near Fort Bragg has been double 
tbat of last year. 



THE SACRAMENTO RUN OF SALMON. 

After the opening of the season on the 
Sacramento River August 1, salmon ran 
in small numbers until August 28, wb^n 
the fisbermen began to get large catches 
in their gill nets and everything indicated 
tbat what is termed the "fall run" was 
on. Th; fiiih appeared to be larger than 
average aod several very large individuals 
have been recorded. One was landed at 
the plant of the Western Fiah Company 
nt Pittsburg which exceeded seven Ij 
pounds in weight. No scales were taken 
from this salmon iu order that its age 
might be determined, hut Judging from 
otber large individuals whose age was 
determined from an exammation of their 
scales it was not tesa than acven rears old. 

Tbe appearance of the salmon being 
delivered at Pittsburg early in September 
would indicate that they would spawn 
early this year. They had more the ap- 
pearance of fish which run three weeks 
later aud it was argued by the fish dealers 
that tbe salmon run would end much 
sooner than usual. 



CAUFORNIA FISH AND OAHB. 



Fig. 83. SceD! on Noyo RlTcr il 



AND Gaue for 

4. Number 4, 

rcnrrence ot Ihe 

I tka:ard, wns 



NOTES FBOM THE STATE FISHERIES LABORATORY.* 

By Will F. Titoupso:« and Elueb ITiggiks. 

Be VCD teen til of August, and the laat od tbe 
twcuty-secoud. Other catches at earlier 
aud later dates were undoubted!; made, 
but the data hare not yet beeu obtained 
frnra tbe statistical records. Tbe average 
weight ot thpse fiah was 1.3 pounds before 
cteAuiug, and the loss of weight in clean- 
ing nnd preparing for canning was very 
high. Therefore those canneries whicli 
accepted the species at the start of tbe 
run later refused to take any except for 
fertilizer. 

It may be noted in connection with 
this specios that mention of very young 
tuna or albacore may refer to the taking 
ur observation of schools of the frigate 
mackerel. Fishermen unfamiliar with 
them, as was uGualty tbe case, were in- 
clined to promptly refer them to tbe 
young of other species of the tuna eronp, 
rrequenlly the blae-fln.— W. F. T. 



In Califob7«ia Fisn 
October, 1918 (Volome 
page 1S3), the Bret oc 
frigate mackerel. Aurt. 
noted. This was one of the remarkable 
features of the unusual summer season of 
lOlS. At that time small catches were 
made in company with cniclies of skipjack 
{Euthi/nnut), yellow-lin tuua and some 
mackerel {Scomber). Tb's year slightly 
. larger individual boat catches were made 
of tbe frigate mackerel, but as tbe ma- 
jority of the canneries refused them, thpy 
were not brought in as often. One catch 
of five tons was recorded by a single 
boat on the nineteenth of August The 
first noted by the writer came in on the 



•Callfor 



tributlon No. 12. 



a Fisheries Laboratory, 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OALIFOBNU FISH AND OAICB. 



201 



THE SPAWNING OF THE ORUNION. 

In Fish Balletin No. 3, relatinf to the 
spawn id; of Levretthei fcniiif, tbe 
KTunioD, there Is f'rea on page 14 ■ chart 
■bowing the relat'oD of the tide* to the 
tpawDing timefl. As the paper waa pab- 
liabed on Jnlf 15, before tbe ipawniiiR 
trason nas over, no apawntiiK periods 
were sliowii in Jul; and Atiguat. How- 
ever, since then, runs were observed on 
July 15, July 16 and August 14. 

Tbe runa on July 15 and 19 were small, 
but larger than that on August 14. Tbe 
full moon occurred July 13 and Atucnst 11 
(Greenwich mean civil time). Mr. Henry 
Shands, a field auiataot for the labora- 
tory, observed the run during July in the 
absence of the writer, and states that it 
was noticed by a considerable number ol 
people, who remained on the beach to 
collect tbe fish. The run during AagnBt 
was observed by the writer, but so few 
fisb were noticed that It aeemed an acd- 
dent to have taken them at all. Hence, 
altbough tbe fiah were obtained on but 
one night, this fact does not mean that 
R run ion did not run tbe usual three 
nighta. No people were observed on tbe 
beach capturing the Bah. this fact cor- 
roborating the observed small size of the 

It will be noted, from the above- 
ment'oned chart, that August 14 was the 
last date on which the gmnion miibt be 
expected to run during the year 1919.- 
W. F. T. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO CANADIAN 
BIOLOQY. 

Among additions to the library is 
series of pablicatioas from the Canadii 
Biological Stations,* being studies made 
ander the direction of the Biological 
Board of Canada, Professor E. E. Prince. 
Commissioner of Fisheries, Chairman. 
Included with them is a volume devoted 
to the Canadian Fisheries Expedition 
(Department of the Naval Service 1919) 
during which material waa gathered for 
studies of tbe Canadian herring, the eggs 
and larm of tbe eastern coast of Canada, 
the hydrography of the region, etc., by 
Dr. Johan Hj'ort, and various associates. 
The publications are noteworthy, aside 

■Contributions to Canadian Biology. 
Slupplements to the Annual Reports of 
the Department ot Marina and Flaheries, 
Fisheries Branch, Ottawa. Canada. 



from the undoubted merit of tbe con- 
tributions, in that throughout many re- 
t numbers there is an attempt to apply 
American species the techuiqne de- 
veloped during the study of European 
fisheries by the International Coundl for 
the Study of tbe Sea. 

Tbe volume published under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Johaii HJort includes in its 
ra two papers which are in good part 
general in character, dealing with the 
principles of the Norwegian work on the 
life history of the herring and of hydro- 
graphic work, the former by Einar Lea 
and the latter by J. W. Sandstrom. 
These papers will well repay the perusal 
both of tbe beginner and ot the investiga- 
tor, especially in the absence of general 
works dealing with the subjects. — 
W. F. T. 

BLUE-FIN AND YELLOW-FIN TUNA. 

The catch of blue-Sn tuna during 1&19 
was largely the work of purse seine boats. 
operating during tbe last part of the 
season in the northern waters around 
Ssnta Cruz Island. However, during tbe 
height of the run off Catalina Island, the 
schools Invaded the prohibited wat«rs of 
District 20. Tbe statistics of the catch 
obtained during the subsequent weeks do 
not, therefore, give an accurate idea of 
the abundance of the fish because of the 
attempts of the spiners to evade the law, 
and the issuance of an injunction (August 
13) against deputies seeking to enforce It. 
They are accurate, of coorse, in regard to 
tbe quantity taken. 

A potential source of more serious 
error in statistics arose during the last 
part of August in the confusion by tbe 
weighers. of yellow-fin with blue-fin tuna. 
The albacore boats began, about the 
twenty-fifth of August, to bring in num- 
bers of large yellow-fin tuna (Germo 
macroptfrut) , landing them at the can- 
neries, in company with many smaller 
tuna. A close examination of these fish 
throughout tbe period of their run, which 
was not over on September 2. proved 
these fish to be usually of the one spedes, 
the "yellow-fin'" tuna. It will be, in fact, 
a safe procedure to call nearly all tuna 
caugbt by albacore boats (other than 
combination net boats, which were not 
operating) during this period this species. 
In contradistinction to the blie-fiu timi 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OAUFORNU FISH AN1> QUtB. 



landed by the parse Bcine boats. But that 
even th's leaves a certain errc 
deniable, Dombers ol blue-Sn taoa being 
brought in. 

This is, incidentally, the flnt y 
whidi these large yellon-fin tuna have 
been taken iu this quantity in these 
waters. Last year the yellow-fin tuna 
taken were small, always under 80 pounds, 
while this year 75-pound fish (cleaned) 
were not rare, and one of them weighed 
176 pODUds cleaned, and was 66 'nches in 
length. In fact, the blue-Gn, or leaping, 
tuna did not exceed the size of these Bah. 
It was not to be wondered at that these 
large, magnificent fish were at once called 
leaping tuua, traditionally the largest of 

However, the writer has satisfied hi 
self by careful eiaminatiou of a consider- 
able aeries of fish that confusion need 
arise but very rarely between the speci 
Careful measuremeDts have been taken of 
tho body and fiu proportions and 
pared according to standard methods used 
by ichthyologists Id dlstiuguiahing species, 
but the more obvious characteristics may 
be reviewed here for the use of those who 
wish them, in view of the need for 
accuracy in statistics. 

Color. The high fius above and below 
the fish (dorsal and anal fins) are usually 
tinged with yellow in tbe yellow-fio tuna, 
while they are as a rule dark in the blue- 
fin. The small finleta behind these are 
Qsually a brighter yellow in the yellow- 
fin. 

The lower side of the body in both 
species bears characteristic markings, 
especially in the young. In the yellow-fin 
the marks tend to arrange themselves in 
alternate narrow traoH verse lines and 
rows of spots, and are smaller than those 
of the bine-fin, in which the spots are 
generally in trangveiae rows without in- 
tervening lines. Id both species these 
spots become lengthened toward the tail. 
When freshly caught the yellow-fin, the 
young especially, baa a strong lemon 
yellow tinge over most of the body, which 
is lacking in the blue-fin. 

Pectoral fin. The length of the long 
side fin is the most obvious and reliable 
character by which the species can be di»- 
tingnisbed, but very rarely a yellow-fin 
ia found with a short fin. In the yellow- 
Qn tbia side fin is almost always slightly 



shorter than the head, measured from tlie 
tip of the anont, and is not less than five- 
siilhs of its length. In the blue-fin, this 
side fin is always less than two-thirds irf 
the head length, and usually but three- 
fifths. 

Bead. The yellow-fin tuna has, as a 
rule, bat not invariably, a shorter head 
than the blue-fin has. 

Trunk of the body. The yellow-fin has 
a very noticeably shorter trunk than the 
blae-fin, if the "trunk" is considered the 
length before the two fins situated above 
and below the body. This holds only 
wben fish of a size are compared and very 
large fish are likely to be bard to distin- 
guish. The posterior part of the body 
where the finlets are ia nevertheless more 
drawn out in the yellow-fin in compariaon 
with the rest of the fish. Up to a certain 
length the fish seems to grow faster pos- 
teriorly, the young yellow-fin of 25 inches 
in length being similar in this charac- 
teristic to blue-fin of 45 inches. 

Height of fini. The height of the two 
fins, one above and one below the body 
(dorsal and anal), differ markedly In the 
two species, but only when specimenB of 
a size are compared. Yellow-fin tuna 
have higher fins (or longer, according to 
the way they areconsidereo) but a yellow- 
fin of 30 inches in length has fins about 
aa long in proportion as a blue-fin of 45 
or 50 inches, although those of a 45-inch 
yeltow-fiu exceed the length of those of 
the blue-fin by a fourth of their length. 

Tlie eve. Tbe eyes in the blue-fin tnna 
are actually nearly equal to those in 
yellow-fins of tbe same size, but because 
of the larger head in the bIne-Sn, they 
ppear much smaller. The diameter of 
the eye in the bine-fin averages 3.2 per 
■ of the length of the body, and is 
about one-ninth of the head length, 
whereas that of the yellow-fin is 3.2 per 
cent of the body length, but alKint one 
eighth of the head lengtb.— W, P. T. 

THE OCCURRENCE OF THE LOUVAR. 

On August 6, a large Gsb was brought 
into the canneries at Fish Harbor, San 
from the west end of Catalina 
Island, and excited much comment as a 
probable hybrid between a pompano and 
a yellowtail. This proved far from the 
truth, however, the specimen in reality 
being a member of the "wide-ranging" 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUTORHU nsH AND QAME. 



■peciea Duvams imjieriaii* RafiDetqa?. 
oace preclooBlr recorded from Catalioa 
Island by Jordan &. Starks Id 1906 (t 
taken by Dr. C. P. Holder). It wai ■ 
exceedingly sctiTe fish uid very difficult 
to handle, although the small mootfa end 
fine bristle-like teeth do not indicate 
predaceons habits.— W. F. T. 

THE ABSENCE OF THE DOLPHIN 
FISH. 

!□ 191S (he dolphin fish, Cotvpluma. 
was frequently taken in local waters, and 
[hia fact was then often cited as evidence 
of a bad year for the Qshingf of albacore. 
However, this year the dolphin has not 
;et been in evidence (September 15), as 
far as we are able to determine, although 
the albacore season is far from nonnal. 
Indeed, the similarity between 1918 and 
1919 is marked, the skipjacks lEuthyit- 
niM) having been running in quantity as 
they did last year, the frigat« mackerel 
having appeared again, and the year being 
remarkable as before for the predominance 
of the Innas.— W. F. T. 

TWO RARE FISHES. 

To the lists of fish, new or rap 
southern California waters, previooaly 
pabliahed may be added two species which 
came to the lahoralory in Jnne. 

Four specimenB of the pomfret, Brama 
rail (Bloch), were taken from a gill net 
Dear San Pedro by Mr. B. M. Nielson. 
The pomfret is an excellent food Gab 
found in open seas, widely distributed, 
but taken only occasionally ui our eastern 
or western coasts or in Europe. 

Several specimens of Ct>l«labi» taira 
(Brevoort) were sent to ds from San 
Diego by Mr. P. B. Clark, where they 
were taken along with a school of 
dines in a round-haul net The species is 
recorded from several localities on our 
California coast but is said to be very 
tare. This same species is occasionally 
found in large schooU :n Japan. — R. H. 

THE "DAY" AND "NIQHT" SURF- 
FISHES OF NORTHERN CALI- 
FORNIA. 

Captain A. C. Tibbetts of Eureka, 
California, writes to the undersigned as 
follows : 

" • • • state that the 'grunion' is 
tbe fiab known here as the 'night aurf- 



fisb.' There is another known as the 
'day surf-Gsb.' bolb rarietips being caught 
ia dip nets. \a the same locality, vis, 
betn«!n Trinidad and Mad River. Tbe 
catch and dry these in large 
__.B. The 'day-fish' is larger than 
ight-Sah,* has a yellowisb tinge, the 
flesh is softer, aud lo my taste ia inferior 
to the 'night-fiGh.' On the ninth instant 
(of August) I saw both kinds cm sale at 
one of the Eureka markets. Small 
coasters runnioR to the Klamatb River 
bring oci^sionally to this place what is 
termed 'candle-fish.' Theite, even when 
salted and smnlted. bum freelr it a lighted 
malcb is applied to the tail. .The Klamath 
River, as far as I know, is the only 
stream near here thai fumishea this fish. 
All [bree of the alwve fishes have tbe 
appearance of smelt." 

One of these species is Tlutteichthyt 
pacificug, the eulacbon or candle fish ; 
another ia protiably tfypomeiu* pretioiu*. 
the surf-smelt, but we are not at all sure 
Chat the third is the grunion, Leuretthri 
Icnuit. Both ilallotut iillogvt, the cape- 
tin, and f.carctthri tenuit are surf 
spawners and might pOHsibly occur, and 
aa the latter has not as yet been re- 
corded north of Long Beach, considerable 
caution sfaonld be uaed in reaching a de- 
ciaion.— W. F. T. 

THE OCCURRENCE OF THE ALBA- 
CORE NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO. 
Captain A. C. Tibbetts has also in- 
formed us that on September 22, ISM, he 
captured three albacore off the northern 
coast of California. His tetter reads in 
part SB follows : 

"While in command of the schooner 
'Volant,' 1 was coming from the west- 
ward, bound for Humboldt Bay, and in- 
stead of gettiog northerly winds aa ex- 
peclfil at this time of year, the wind 
can II' in fresh from the southward, in- 
rreasing to a strong soulheaslor as we 
approached the coast, resulting in our 
closing with the land to northward aa 
well as to leeward of our port. The wind 
after some houra nioderaleil, and changed 
to light northwest. While ronnine for 
ITumboldt Bar, at foor to five knots 
speed, somewhere between Redding Rock 
ana Trinidad Head. I no'iced fish working 
the same as they sometimes do on the 
coast of southern California, and out of 
curiosity threw a cod line with a white 
rag on the hook over the stem, and when 
the line straightened out got an albacore. 
Caught three, as fast as they could be 
unhooked and the line put out again. 
The fish appeared to be abundant, but 
those taken were dirtying things up 
around the after part of the deck, so 
fishing was stopped. 



idovGoOt^lc 



201 



OALIFOBNU nSH AND OAlfX. 



CapUin Tibbette U lam'Uar witb alba- 
core, having taken them south of San 
FrSDcisco. He belieTes the long louth- 
erly blow had reversed the usual coastal 
current and brought wanner water with 
it. Eitracta from his log-book are given 
in his letter. 



He also {October 17, 1883) record* 
the occurrence o( akipjacka {premmablT 
Eulhynimi) in considerable nnmberB 120 
miles west of Trinidad, over what be 
thought to be a small ondiarted area ot 
sboal water, but in an area not now 
traveled to any extent — W. P. T. 



OONSEBVATION IN OTHZB STATES. 



tIEW YORK OPENS NEW HATCHERY. 

The CouHervBtion Commission of New 
York announces that the new fish hatch- 
ery at Dunkirk has l>eeD opened. This la 
the largest and moat completely equipped 
of the twelve hatcheries maintaiued by 
New York and will be used largely for 
the propagation of the lake or greenback 
herring. 

QAME REFUGES IN MINNESOTA. 

Game refuges may be established with- 
out hearing in the state of Minnesota 
when all landowners concerned join in a 
petition. A public hearing is required 
otherwise. All state parks and state 
forest reserve lauds ate game refugea. 

WASHINQTON FORMS STATE 
SPORTSMAN'S ASSOCIATION. 

Washington sportsmen have formed an 
organization to further the interesta ot 
ell the sportsmen of that state. The ob- 



ject is to assist in the propagation and 
protection of game ajiimala, birds and 
fish, to influence legislation toward this 
end, and to promote sach aodal conditions 
as are incident to the sport of hunting 
and angling. Its rapid pro«Te«a voices 
itself in the slogan, "One thousand mem- 
ber* in 1919." 

QUEBEC ESTABLISHES BIRD 
REFUOES. 
Great bird colonies situated on Islands 
In the Gulf of St lawrence have been 
set aside as game refugee by the parlia- 
ment of the province of Quebec There 
are three definite areas in the county of 
Gaspe which are included. The first, 
known as Perce Rock, a breeding place 
for herring gulls and crested connorants, 
Bonaventure Island with the largest sur- 
viving colony of the gaimet, and the cele- 
brated Bird Rode, the aortheramost of the 
Magdalen Islands. Rigorous provislona of 



T,Goo<^lc 



CAUFORNIA FISH AND OAMB. 



205 



the law prohibit the moleatatioo of the 
birds' DeatB or eggs, the carrying of a gun 
or other bnoting gear within a mile of 
the refngea. An; boat ased in violation 
of the law ia liable to confiieation and 
heary penaltieB of fine or imprisonment 
are pravided. 

PENNSYLVANIA PUNISHES 
VIOLATORS. 

Severe sentences are becoming the mle. 
In the FUhitig Qaeelte vre resd that 



Clyde Wilsoocroft and Itoy Reynold* of 
Dmry'a Ran, F«DiiBy!Tatiia, were arrested 
by the state police for illegal Bihing. 
Each had sixty -fl«e treat in his p 
alon. The men were giv^n a bearint 
before Squire Griffey, of Rerono, 
Sned $600 eacb, or |10 tor each 
caught. Not being able to pa; tbe fine, 
both men must serve &50 daj> In Che 
count; jail. 



LIFE HISTORY NOTES. 



WEIGHTS OF MULE DEER. 
Extravagant Htatcmenta regarding the 
weights of mole deer are current. Most 
weights given are mere estimates. It \b 
worth while, therefore, to record the 
weights of two bucks taken in the Granite 
Monataina, Washoe Connty, Nevada. 
about September 1, lOOS. Careful 
weights tahen on steelyards showed 217 
ponndfl and 220 ponods after the entrails 
and feet had been removed. A dressed 
forked horn weighed 180 pounds. — F. P. 
Cadt. 

DEER CAPTURED IN LAKE TAHOE. 
On Jaoaary 26, 1910, Henry Ssll, the 
caretaker of tbe Hellman resort on I^ake 
Tahoe, discovered a doer swimming in 
Lake Tshoe about three-quarters of a 
mile out from land, and he immediate!; 
took after it in a boat It was in an 
exhausted condition, and showed marks 
of having been attacked by a coyote or 
other anlmala. Mr. Sail took the deer 
home and took speraat csre of it, and 
Mr. HellnaQ procured a permit from the 
Fish and Game Commission to keep it. 
After keeping the deer in captivity for a 
week carefnlty chained, it wss given ilB 
freedom, sod aioce then it has never 
strayed away from the property even 
though it has absolute freedom to roam 
over 43 acres of ground. It has adopted 
the house cat, seven setter dogs and one 
Airedale dog. The deer appeared to be 
about ei^t months otd wben captured. 
Its mate was found later by J. E. Pomiu 
of Idlewild, near the Hellman propert;, 
partly devoured by coyotes.— Jobbph H. 

SASDBBi. 



OREGON OCBARIAN FAWN A MOST 
HEALTHY LITTLE ONE. 
At Neskonin, Tillamook Count;, Ore- 
gon, during Ihe summer of 1017 deer 
bounds weve heard bach in tbe mountainR, 



Soon they appeared on the beach, having 
dr'ven out a doe. The weary doe made 
for the breakers and started for the rocks, 
then well covered with water. Later 
when the tide receded a search was made 
for the deer. She was found on the rock, 
but in an effort to reach safety her front 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



206 



CAUFOaNIA PISH AND GAME. 



leg was broken. But, sadder yet, abe was 
witb fawn. Her life waa taken and a 
Ceaarian was quickly undertaken by tbe 
rancher. Tba wee twin buck bad been 
injured and was dead, but "Fawnie" was 
soon read; to eat. It was miles to any 
hygienic nipple and tMttle, so one was 
improvised with a cork and atraw. A 
bed and warmneBS was soon prartded, bnt 
in a few days tlie little beggar preferred 



tbe bard floor — perhaps it was more like 
the sunny mountain aide. Soon she was 
weaned and drank from the cup. Dayi 
and weeks passed, and what a pet! She 
was ever free to return to tbe mountains 
at any time, but she liked ber foster 
mother too well. Later ehe was sent to 
tbe State Hospital Vann nesjr Salem, 
wiiere ahe is now well cared for. — Jane 
Fet Walbh. 



UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE 00-OPEBATION. 



Probably in no aeason since the Forest 
Service began Its active campaigns oC &re 
protection, road building, apd the survey- 
ing of summer home sites and other 
projects which lend toward making the 
summer vacations of the mountain-loving 
people of California more attractive and 



PliotOErapli by H. W. Brannna. 

beneficial, has it beeo so handicapped by 
the lack of eipcriciired men as it was 
during the summer of 1918. It whh the 
war, of cntirsp. Itul in spite of tlia fact 
tbat it wua not able to put on so many 
men as formerly during the summer, and 
in many cases one man was doing the 
work of two in ordinary years, no lack of 
interest was displayed in ita co-operation 



with the Fish and Game C 
sincere interest in tbe protection and per- 
petuation of tbe game resources of tbe 
state is evident in ail the reports from 
the Forest Supervisors, and in many in- 
stances it is (he forest rangers who 
come forward with cons true tive sugges- 
tions for the improvement of game con- 
ditions. This is due partly to the fact 
tbat all Forest Service ofliciais know thaX 
wild life is as much a natural resource 
as timber, and that it should be uaed 
wisely nnd under the proper regulations, 
and partly because they wish to asaisi the 
State Commission through its local rep- 
resentatives who are in many localities a 
part almost of the Forest Service orgsoi- 
zation, good fellowshli) nud mutual help 
being tbe rule between rangers and game 

DEER (N THE NATIONAt. FORESTS. 
In looking over the reports we find 
that 2,»13 deer were kilted in tbe 
National Forests last season. Tbis is an 
accurate record and is only what is 
actually known of tbe kill. In many 
cases the Forest Supervisors say that this 
does not represent the actual kill, whidi 
might readily be estimated at 10 or 15 
per cent higher. In most localities tbey 
are holding their own and in some a de- 
crease has been noticed. The chief factors 
wliich affect and have a direct bearing on 
the number are the ertension of the road 
system under the spur of the antoist, and 
the increasing number of people wlw 
spend part of their vocation in the moun- 
tains. The most senous factor is tbe 
apparent increase in the coyotes and 
mountain lions. Tbe campaign conducted' 
by counties, the Biological Survey and the 
state has not yet (from the reports) been 



C&LirOBNIA PISH AND GAHE. 



207 



tDteuiive enough to rid tbe moaat&iiiB of 
thMfi pests to any appreciable degree. 
UotesB it is carried on more forcefally we 
are liable to see a Hteadr, il not rapid, 
decrease in tbe deer. Wbere sheep ace 
graced in tbe mountains during the sum- 
mer months tbe coyott^s seem to prefer 
them as a more easy prey than tbe deer, 
attaclcing the latter only in the winter. 
But where few sheep are grazed tbe re- 
ports are emphatic in (he assertion tbat 
coyotes do more damage than the banters. 
In parts of the Klamath Forest it is Im- 
poaaible lo raise sheep or goals unless 
kept within a fence, and in other sheep 
nUsiDg countries tbe coyotes talcs a 
eerioos toll every year. 

placable foe of the deer than the coyote, 
and if it should become as widespread in 
its range and habilat it would mean the 
Bure and early doom of the deer. For- 
tunately, at present, tbe Klamsth, Trinity. 
Shasta, California, and Santa Barbara 
Forests are the only ones that report 
seriouB trouble, although the El Dorado, 
Steoislaus and Sierra report an increase 
in the QumbefB of lion in tbe last year. 



Here the trouble is traced to tbe Yosemitf 
National Park, which has been a breeding 
groutid for tfaem, as no hnuting or 
trapping is allowed except by Park 
Bangers or govemment hunters. Higher 
bounties and more vigorous prosecutioD 
of the work of eiterminatioD of both the 
lion and the more prevalent and destruc- 
tive coyote are vigorously recommended. 



A (isiiiog day for the Owens River 
Valley, when almost the entire population 
closes stores and homes and goes out to 
catch the Urst trout of the season, has, 
according to Supervisor Jordan, become 
an eslablisbed i 



STRANGE DEER KILLED. 
Ranger Harley of the Klamath Forest 
reports the killing of a pure white deer 
and a pure black one, and adds that he 
has seen a third and greater wonder in 
tbe deer line, one with white head, neck, 
legs and belly, and cream colored sides 
and back. 



REPORTS. 

SEIZURES— FISH, QAME AND ILLEGALLY USED FISHING APPARATUS. 
March 1, 1919, to June 30, 19ia. 

Deer meat __ 345 pounds 

Ducks _ _ S2 

Quail .1"II"I"I"I~I;11II11""II1"11"11""?^I""^I1III11"11"1'I 12 

Deer heads 2 

Aigrettes 59 

FUk. 

Smelt _ - _ 8 pounds 

Halibut 3,650 pounds 

Trout - 78 pounds 

Barracuda , 1.591 pounds 

Striped baas - , 1,971 pounds 

Black bass .— ._■ 9 pounds 

Catfish _ 178 pounds 

Salmon .„ 476 pounds 

Yellow fin croaker 23,600 pounds 

Grabs _ 1.031 

PIsmo clams 1,933 

Abaloaea — 383 pounds 

Abalones (dried) -_ _ 1,157 pounds 

Lobsters - 8 

Dried shrimps 1,200 pounds 

Set lines 3 

Illegal nets 3 

Searchet. 
Illegal fish and game ^-^ 28 i 

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OAUPOBNIA FISH AND QAUE. 



VIOLATIONS OF FISH AND QAME LA' 
March 1, 1»1S, to Jure 30, 1*19. 



Hunting without a license 7 $155 00 

Doer— close season— illllng or possession 22 460 00 

Female deer, spike buehB, fawns— killing or possession 2 50 00 

Running deer with dogs — close season ' 1 25 00 

Illegal deer hides I 25 00 

BeluHing to show license on demand 3 35 00 

Selling an eagle 1 5 00 

Nongame birds— killing or possession 5 55 00 

Cottontail BDd brush rabbits — close season— killing or pos- 
session 3 75 00 

Wild pheasant-close season-killing or possession 1 ICO 00 

Tree squirrel— close season— killing or possession 1 — 

Goose and mudhens— close season—kllliDg or possession 1 25 00 

Ducks— close season— killing or possession 1 50 00 

Golden eagle In possession 1 25 00 

IKives— close season- killing or possession 3 50 00 

Quall-eloae season- killing or possession 3 75 00 

Black sen brant— close season— killing or possession.. 1 - 

Total game violations _ 57 $1,210 00 

Angling without license 16 »430 00 

Fishing (or profit without a license 19 100 00 

ReFusIng to show license on demand I 25 00 

Olams — undersize— close season—taking or possession 9 2S0 00 

Crabs- undersize — close season— taking or possession ' 10 80 00 

Using a set line 2 

Offering trout for shipment by parcel post 2 SO 00 

Trout— close season— excess limit— taking or possession 17 410 00 

Trout— taking other than by hook and line , 2 i 50 00 

Cattish— undersize— offering (or sale 3 00 00 

Salt water eels— undersize— taking or possession 2 120 00 

Using & fish trap 1 100 OO 

Dried shrimps- possession 2 

Abaloncs— close season— undcrslze-taklng or possession 26 i 550 00 

Spring lobsters— close seoson-underslze— taking or posses- 
sion _ .„„_,. ■■ 4 I 80 00 

Sturgeon— close season— undersize— taking or possession 3 4D 00 

Black bass— close season-underslze— taking or possession— 1 20 00 

Black bass- taking other than by hook and line 1 j 50 00 

Striped bass— undersize— excess limit— taking or possession '. 

Perch- buying or selling— close season 2 1 30 00 

Selling young flsli lor bait 1 , 20 00 

Taking salmon with snag hook 1 ' 100 00 

Buying and selling salmon taken In District No. 1— close 

1 limit - - :^ 300 00 



Total flsh violations -_ 132 (2,965 00 

Grand total llsh and game violations 188 14,195 00 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OAUPOBNU FISH AND OAUE. 






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CAUPOHKIA yiSH AND GAME. 



INDEX TO VOLUME 5. 



Abalone. 45. CS, 93, 96, 101. 162, 184, 167. 

Accident. 30. 

AccoBation, and defpnse, 176-195. 

AKricailure, wild life in relxtlon to, 99. 

Airplane, to locale GbIi, 148. 

Albarore. 24, 30. 3!). 41, 44. 58, 80, M. 95 
96. 100. 145. 14T. Iu3. 162. 103. 164 
im, 182, 198. 200, 203, 208 ; opcur- 
rpDce north of San Francisco. 203. 

'Albacorf ," launch, 93. 182. 199 ; attempts 
to aid Sshermen. 94. 

Albula i-ufpci, 158. 

Alra, 70. 

Allen. B. M., 70, 182. 

Aloaa tapitlisiima, 158. 

Amadou, 170. 

Am/itiru^ «ebuto»u», 22. 

A.\fKRlCAN FIELD. 84. 

Anndroinouft. 105, 112. 

'^nchog-. 44, 100, 162, 163. 164. 166, 108. 

•^"S'JJ- iT;.^- ^^ "'■ "^T- ^- '">■ "2, 
113. 114. 115, 117. 128, 130, 178. 170, 
IS'J: versus net fishermen, 187-186: 
attention :, 1B2, 

Dry-fly. 109. 110. 137, 140. 
Abb eworm. IS). 140 : eaten by mole, 99. 
AjiBline. 42. 77. 192. 204. 
Animal. 34. ffiV. 97. 98,. 157, 158. 

rnrnivoTOUB, 143. 

Fur-bearinc. 81, 83, 84. 

Game. 79, 2M. 

Preditory, 81. 83, 161. 179. 
Antsotrfmut dacidtoni. (10, 65, 6G. 
Aaoplopoma fimbria, 158. 
Antelope. Prong-homed. 181, 
Antler. 101. 
Aquarium, 70. 82. 97. 
AuxU thazard, 200. 



Rabcock, J. P., 90, 178. 
Radger. 149. 
Rag limit, 31, 190. 
Bait. 110. 119. 122. 139. 141. 171. 
Rataenofttera borealit, 80. 
Baleen, 80. 
Rarbel. 1. 20, 156. 

Bamhart, P. S.. notes on the artificial 
propigation of the spiny lobster, 

Barracuda, 44. 100. 145. 146, 154. 1S5 

102. 1(3, 164, 166. 208. 
Bass. 44. CO. 63. 64. 177: and hass-lilte 
fishes of California. R9-6S. 
Black. 179. 193: is not true bass, 149 
BiK-eyed. CO, 66. 
f'niico. 179. 
Kelp, 00, 03, 64. 6,^. 
Spotted, 60, 64, fSo. 



Rock. 44. 00. 63, 61. 100. 164. 166, 208. 
Sand. 60, 63. 
Sea. 13. 163. 
Black, 44. 60. 62. 80, 100, 163, 164, 

IGG. 208. 
Giant, 00. 80. 

White, 14, 15, 16, 20, 44, 100, 164, 
160, 206. ■ . . 

Striped. 3, 10. 11. 12. 44. 01, 62, 94, 
101. 145. 164, 166. 170, 183. 193, 209; 
taken in Mission Bay, 197. 
Bear, 140; hunting with bows and arrows, 
60-70. 
Bhct. «9. 70, 78. 79. 
Grizsly, 172. 
Beaver, 181 ; hides confiscated, 79. 
Biennial. 1916-1918,30. 
Biology, contribulioos to Canadian. 201. 
Biological Station, want protection. 93-lM 
Bird, 32, 77. 70. 82, 83. 84, 8S. 89, 99. 
192: how do they find their wayV, 
83-84; wild, and legislation, 87-.SN: 
fly larvre suck blood ot nestling birds. 
88 ; study. 86. 
Game. 70, 81, 85, 87. SO. 90. 97, 1S2 
204; o( California. Sl-Sti. 181; Eng- 
lish, vindicated, 86-87. 
Insectivorous, 80. 83. 
Migratory, 36. 80, 8.^ 192; tne Migra- 
tory Bird Treaty Act. 



Nongame, 79. 

Predatory, 81, 
Blackbird. 182: and rice. 90 
Rlaehsmith, 43. 
Blind, 101. 
Blunfish. 17, 44. 100. 104. 100, 20.8. 

Cnlifomia. 14. 10. 
Boat, .T; northi^m join fishing ficet, l.'j.'i 

Purse-seine. 155. 156. 
Bobool. 09. 

Bocaccio. 44. 100, 104. 166. SO.**. 
Bonil^-H. 100. 145, 146, 102, 1C3, 164, 

Boothe, Ro.v, state game district tK. 81 -,82 
Bosqui, E. L„ 178: valley nunil with egg 

In December. 08. 
Botfly, 142. 
Boucher, K. C. the angler versus the net 

fisherman, 187-3.SS. 
Bounty, 27. 29, 70, 148. 1,S0, 207. 
How and arrow in hunting, (KI-70. 
Boyle, t'na, 79 : river olter plays on moon- 
light nights, OS. 

la rati. aO. 

m, olden, 22. 
Brooks. Major Allan, 85. 
Bruce. J. (;.. 91. ir^, 195 ; n death struggle 

between bueks, 100-161, 
Bryant, 11. C. 84, 181. ISO.: wild birds 

and legislation, 87; California trout 

105-135. 
Buck. 20. 81, 82. 161. 190. 200; death 

ilruggle between, 160-161, 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFOBNtA FISH AND QAME. 



Bureau of HMucation 

Bfarcb, 77, 
BurriJI. A. C in the 

ivorous?, 71-74. 



Publicity SDd Re- 



Caliritla, fiO. C4, G5. 

Cady, F. I'., weights o( male deer, 205, 

CalifoTnia Academy of Sciences, Kt. 

CA1.I*((IIXIA fISH AND GAME. 94. 
m. Uri, 154, IW. 158, 178, ISO, 182, 
im. 195. 

Calirornia Museum of Vertebrdte ZoDloEf, 
.S5, 142. 

California Nature Ftudy League. 145. IWI. 

Calif omia-Oregoo Tower Company, 91, 03, 
IS*. 

California Slate Fisheries Ldhoralory. SC. 

Camp. 3 : I,ake Tahoe I'ublic, Ifin, lao. 

Canary. 82. 

fiinrir magitirr, 158, 182. 

Caudletish, 203. 

Cann.T.v. 40, 14S. 197. 200. 202; estab- 
lished at Kn«enada. t>4 : receives Slex- 
icaa &<h. l.'iS ; floating, burns, 15G. 

Cnurastuick. 1!)1. 

Capulin. 203. 

Cataut hippot, 158. 

Carp. 41, mo. HH, 10(5. 208. 

Cari)put..r. S. J., 78, 70. 

Carrier. !I3. 

Cast. 100. 114, 141, 170. 

Car. 4.S. 83; bw-om.-s game in New Yoi*. 
42; manicure the bird-c.i telling cat, 
S2-S3. 



Cbnuibers, Frnuk. 78. 
Clinrr. lO.".. UNi. 107. 120, 1.10. 1.14. 
Cliilipepper, 44. 100. 104. ItHi. 20S. 
Vhromh piimlipcHnlt, 43. 
Vilbarirhih»» »lifimiivi, IST. 

xa„th-i»ti<im<i. 05. 
Cliira, ;rt, (W, 147, 1-58; InvcstigBtion, ISS. 

Coeltle, 45. 101, 104. 107, 20'.». 

I'isui... 45, 101. 101, 167. 200; destroyed 
li.v oil. 174-17.-.. 

Itazur. 175. 

S..fi-sl>ellHl. 4.''>. 101, 101, 1G7, 200. 
Clark. V. C, 1.82. 
{•nnifisli. 44, 10(>, V». 100. 208. 
Coiiii. .1. N.. collece of fislicries eslablished, 

147-148. 
C...1. r.. 147, 157, 203, 

Ulnck. tnk.'n nrar San P'-dro, 158. 

Cullus. 44. 100. 104, 100, ai8. 

Itnok, 1.54. 1153. 
Coc-idiowls. 143. 
Cocridium oriforme, 143. 
Cochinilo, 150. 
f'.,ri,urn* i<-rinli». 143. 
Cnllinge, W. K„ SO. 87. 
CoMahU >aira. 203. 
i'nlutnha fafrinfa, 100. 
Cjimmercial Fiahery, gM under Fishery. 
Connell, M. J„ ISO. 



Conservation, 30, 76. 77. 178, 179, 180, 
180, 102 ; lessons from Massacbneetts, 
42: of oar fisberies, 40-59; of fish. 
W>-81 ; in other states, 42, 97, 150. 
204 ; persuasion versus compulsion in 
tish and game, 1S7 ; deer in New 
York, 190. 






IS, 00. 



York. 82, »7. 204. 
Conservaliouist, 80. 177; a suggestion for 

Caiifomitt, 84. 
Corvina, 13. 17. 



t niMu 



r, 94. 



Caryphanti 

Cottontail, ire Rabbit. 

Coyote. 140. I.-.O. 1«1, 200, 207 ; as a deer 

killer, 20-20. 
Crab, 10, 4.5. 101. 14G. 147, IGl, 167, 171, 
179, 1R2, 200. 

Sand. 175 ; babils and uaes of tbi^, 
171-172. 
Crago franeiacorum, 0. 

BigrUvuic, 9. 
Cr.impton. J. M., 86. 
Crandall. W. C, 183. 
Crane, W. 
Crappic, 179, 103. 
Crnwfish, 04, 146, 182. 
Vrislovomcr, 107, 1.13. 

nantagcuih. 100, 111. 134. 
Croaker. 44, 50, lOO. Itil ; fish of, family. 
13-20. 

Black, 14, 10. 

Chinese, 14, 10. 

SpoifiD, 14, 18. 

White, 14, 15. 

Vellowfin, 14, 17. 
CruBlacean. 10, 45, 87. 101, 133, 164, 167, 

171. 209. 
CunniD^ham. F. P., grouse in the Sequoia 

National Forest, 98. 
Curlew. 85. 
Curtner, W. W., 182. 
<-uUt(bra, 142. 

Cuttlefish, 45, 101, 164. 107, 209. 
Cj/rtoiwion nobUU, 13. 14, 15, 16. 

pariipinnat, 13, 14. JO. 



Dalii-lslein, W. P., 103, 

Defita oiu(o, 43. 

Hall. W. H., 82. 

Uarler. 60. 

Pter. 30. 34, 60, 97, 148, 140, 172, 182, 

ISd. 205, 207 ; killed by coyote, 26-20 ; 

increasing in Trinity Coonty, 98 ; 

hunting poor In Mono County. 08; 

conservntion in New York. ISO : in 

the national forests, 206-207 : atranee 

ili'or killed. 207; captured in Lake 

Tahoe, 2(V.. 
Mule, weights of. 205. 
l)e Jvn-enEn. J. V.. tree-ducks successfully 

bred in Santa Clara County, 42-43. 
Dindrocvo'ia birolor, 42. 43. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFOBtnA Ptsa AKD OAUB. 



215 



De Oag, E. R., parasites whicfa alTect Ihe ' 

food value of rabbits, 142-143. 
Depredation. 179. I 

Deput}-. 91 : acquitted at trial, 79. i 

Dip-Det. 90. 

Dirka. \V. N., mole eats anxleworms, 09. 
Discrei ionaiy powers, Fisb and Game 

CommiasioD needs, 39. 
DisoasF, 1M2: again appears, 32. 
I>uck. 36. 
QuaiL Sa 
Diion. J., 142. 
Doe. 2S, 81, 206. 
Dog, 89. 

Varmint. 91. 
Dotfish. 44, 100, 164, lOfi. 208. 
Dolly Varden. »«e Trout.. 
Dolphin. 44. 100, 104 ; absence of. 203. 
Dove. 85, 179. 
Downine, Earte. banded pintail taken in 

Alameda Count;, 43. 
Dndi. 32. 43, 76. 78. HO. Xi. 97. 99, 173. 
170. ISO. 182, 191. 192, 195: Louis- 
iana oriKinalea. 34 : verana rice, 36. 
1S2; deBtroy garden pesta, 99; food 
of, 87. 
BUch. 34. 
CanTasback, 191. 
Mallard. 34. 191. 

Pintail. 101 : banded taken in Alameda 
County, 43. 
Duke. R. D.. 79, 178. 



Eagle, 13a 

Eanbwurm, 09. 

RrrevL-we, 4r>, 101. 104, J67, 209. 

Eden, Mr., resolution by, 176-179. 

EDITORIALS. 

The 1916-18 biennial, 30; Fisb and 
Gttme Commisfion needs plenary pow- 
ers, 30; California laws will be modi- 
fied to agree with federal game lawB, 
31 ; violators make queer defense, 31 : 
^[onterey streams stockod. 31 ; dnck 
disease si^in appears. 32; federal 
permits, 32 ; fish coc*ery demonstra- 
tions. 32; increased consumption o( 
fish neceesary. 33 : notfs on the game 
refuxee. 33 : a new game fanning 
project. 34 : T^uisiana origiDates new 
du<^. 34 ; Alaska fishery products, 34 ; 
Nova Scotia uses war methods to 
capture violators, 35: California 
trappers and their cntcb. 35 ; our 
mailine list, TO; pending legislation. 
70 : Fieb and Game Commission 
inaugurates educaliooal work in sum- 
mer rcBorta. 70; preserve game re- 
sources, 77 ; large profits with slight 
omiay. 77: "now beeins the season." 
78 : conviction made under federal 
migratory bird treaty act, 78: Mendo- 
cino rancher makes good kill. 78; 
game laws to be enforced in national 
forests, 70 ; beaver hides confiscated. 
70; deputy acquitted at trial. 70; 
wartime saving in cost of fish food, 
79; the Pacific coast whale industry. 
SO; food administration regutalions 
on fishingr no longer effective, 80; 



more bird treaties needed. 80; ooo- 
■ervition of fisb. 80; dependable in- 
fomation is needed. 81 ; state game 
district IK. 81 : is the porcupine 
worth saving?. 82 : m.inicore the bird- 
catching cat. 82 : a plan to cooserre 
Wyoming elk. 83; fur farming in 
Alaska. K3; how do birds find their 
way'-. 83 ; a suggpslion tor Cali- 
fornia consen-ationists. M ; the game 
birds of CBlifomia. 81; passenger 
pigeons reported in ea«tem states. 
W: English game birds vindiciied. 
86 ; the ground squirrels of Cali' 
fomia. 87; the food of mallard ducks. 
87: wild birds and legislalion. 87; 
fly larvK suck blood of nesiling birds. 
88: importation of quail from Mex- 
ico. 88; federal migratory bird law, 
K); long run of a tanged salmon, 90; 
night herons Esme in I^uisiana. !»: 
vindication. l-l.T : n:iture etudy libra- 
ries to be furnished summer resorts. 
14^; Ibe 191S catch of fish. I4.~i ; 
maintain a supply, 146; rainl.nw 
troni acclimatiznl in Argentina. 14<I: 
a college of fisheries estaliliohM. 147: 
trout fry disiribuied in lakes and 
streams of Cnlifomia during Ti»>:t 
three years, 147: many lions kill-'d, 
148; airpLines lo locate fi.h. 14S; 
fishery products lal>orati,ry estnli- 
lisbed. 149: the ownerslii|. of wild 
lite. 149; our tur nsonrc.-i. 14!l; 
black bass is not a tru" ba^^. 140; 
persuasion versus comimlsinn in fish 
and game conservation, 187 ; the 
angler versus the n''t finherrann. 1S7- 
188; educational work in summ>T 
resorts. 189 ; Tahoe public camp, ISO- 
inO: deer consenarion in New York. 
190: mierdiory bird treaty art con- 
stitutional. 1!I0-191 : waterfowl difi 
from eating slint. 101 ; government 
needs deputy chief gnme wanlen. 191- 
192; anglers, nlteulii.n!. 192; addi- 
tional migratory bird treaties neoled. 
102: Slate Fair eihibif. l!rt: game 
censuses, 193-194: hal-^her)- dejiart- 
ment moves. 194: colored prims of 
golden trout avail.ible. 194. 

Edocitional work imm:ural''d at summer 
resort-. 76-77. ISO. 

Eel, 1!»S. 20S. 

Egg. nird. 79, 85, 98. 204. 
Falcon. S7. 
Fish. 76. iX\. 132. 
Fulvous tree duck, 42. 

Otshawk. 87. 
Crunion. l.W. 

Pigeon, bnnd-lailed. IfiO. 
Salmon. 41, 92, 110. 115, 141. 151. 
Shrimp. 9. 
Spinv lobster. 24. 

Trout. .17. 3S. 39. 92. 1 !.'>. 127, 131, 133, 
151. 152, 153. 1T!1, 181. 
Egret, 80. 

Eigcnmano. 0. H., 135. 
Elk, 97 : pisn to conserve Wyoming, 83 ; 
Washington will open season on, 07; 
in Shasta County, 08. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



216 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHB. 



Emcrita, 175. 

anahga. 171. 
EmcrsoD. Ethel, 43. 
Epidemic, 36. 
KulacboD, 203. 
Kulhvnnvi, 200, 203, 204 
Evermano, B. W., 115. 119. 135. 138; 

CalitomJa trout. 1<^-135. 
Bxonautet rondeietii, f6. ' 



Facta of current intereBt, 36. 01. 150, 1^. 
Falcon. 87. 
Farm, Game, 87. 
Fat berring, 52. 

I, 100; aesarian heattliy, 205. 



FeliDt 



S2. 



_■. 10, 91, 148. 154, 163, 200. 

Finch. California Purple, 88. 

Fiah, 2, 31, 41, OO, 53. 56, 57, 59. 62. 68, 

72, 76. 77. 78, 79, SO. 82. 87, 00, 91. 
94. 95. 97, lOG. 115. 133, 135. 14C, 
147. 149, 150. 150, 172. 178. 177. 178, 
170, 180. 185. 193, 197. 201, 201 ; of 
croaker family, 13-20; cookery dem- 
onslratians. 32 ; distributed in Minne- 
sota. 42: rare from Monterey Bay. 
43; coDsprvation of. SO; proposed 
change of nhrlrap law would menace 
life of Bah, 04 ; 1018 catch of, 145 ; 
airplanes to locate. 148; better rec- 
ords necessary. l.'U-l.V); fresb. used 
hy reduction plants. l-'>4 ; flat of CbII- 
fomia, 182; do Gahermen go far 
enoueil to KCt. 198-199; dry salting 
at Kfonterey. 108 ; goat fish taken in 
Ciilifomia, 150 : two rare, 203. 

Culture. 147. 148, 152. 

CullurlBt. 106. 

I>ealer. 100. 

Food. 13, Ifi. 20. 02. 63, 64, SO, 112. 
135, im. 161, 170. 

Game, 02. 112, 135, 177. 

I>adder, sec Fish way. 

Screen, »re Screen. 
Fisli and (>ame Commission, California, 2. 
24. 30, m. 39. 40. 70, 75. 76. 84, 91. 
93. 94. 96. 119. 131. 1.5.1, 176. 178, 
17ft, 180, 181. 182. 183, ISTt. 188. 180. 
197. 100. 205; inaugurates educa- 
tional work at summer resorts, 7C-77. 

Connecticut. 80. 

Massachusetts. 42. 

MinnoKotn. 42. 152. 

New Jersey. 42, 

Vermont, 81 ; plans quarterly bullet'n, 
07, 

Wn shine (on. maintains permanent ei- 
hibir, 07. 
Fish and Game Diatriet lA. 33; IB. at; 
10, 33; 11. 33; IJ, 33; IL. ."W; 2A. 
33: 4A, 33; 4B, 33; IK, 81-.S2; 2, 
170; 4. 179: 20.188. 
risher. O. O.. 20. 
Fisherman. 13. 10. 40. 41, 42. 4.'i. 58. 50, 

73. 70. 05. 100. 100. no. 128. 147. 
154. 157. 150, 172. ISO. 106. 198. 200 ; 
do Gsbermeo go far enough to sea?. 
lOS-199: launch "Albacorc" attempts 
to aid. 94 ; receive 20 cents for first 
tuna, 156. 



Commercial, 148, 178. 

Dry-fly, 170. 

Fly, 116, 141. 
FUbery, 30, 34, 182; Alaska producU, 
34-35; commercial notes. 93-04: 
conservation of, 49-50; department 
of. 146. 155. 182. 105; prodncts 
laboratory established, 149; reforms 
in Nova Scotia service, 159-100. 

Commercial, 80, 147. 

Halibut, 34, 50. 

Herring, 35. 

Laboratory, California State, 171, 174, 
195. 

Sardine, 51. 

Shrimp, 34, 50. 18.3. 
Fishing. 147, 148, 171. 192. 204 ; Owens 
^'alley residents go, 207. 

Some notes on dry-fly, 169-170. 
Fishway. 30. 40, 76. 93, 97. 177, 178, 184. 
Flatfish, 00 ; life history of, 157. 
Flounder, 2. 10. 33. 44. 100. 164. 166. 208. 

Big-moutheil. 157. 

Diamond. 157. 

E^Dg-Gnned, 157. 

Shnrp-ridged, 157, 

Soft, 21. 
Fly. 100, 110. 112. 113, 126, 127. 130. 133. 
137. 130, 140. 141 ; tarvc sudc blood 
of nestling birds, 88. 

Dohson, 139, 

Dragon. 22, 

Dry, 169. 

Fisherman. 141, 



Flyin 



)ntin 



, 81. 



Food, .86, 112, 136: of fiah, 80; of grouse, 
OS; of mallard ducks, 87; of porpoise. 
157 ; of trout. 133 : wartime saving in 
cost of fish food. 79-80 ; of birds. 181 ; 
of ducks, ISl. 
Friend, Wm., 26. 
Frog. 209. 
Fry, 197- 

'I'rout. 30, 92, 93. 152. 
Rainbow. 152. 
Fuertps, K A.. 85. 

Fur. 35; fanning in Alaska, 83; our re- 
sources. 140. 
Bearer. 31, 81. 83, 84, 150. 181. 



Game. 27, 31, 02. 76. 77, 78. 81. 84, 97. 
112. 114, 119. 120. 130. 135. 146. 149, 
150. 170, 177. 178. 180, 181. 192. 191: 

parcel post shipments of. 30 ; birds of 
California. S4-Sfl: conditions in 
southern California thirty-five years 

Census. SlTlftS. 194, 

Fiirm. 34. 36, 42. 87. 177, IS4; new 

project. 34, 
T>nw. »cc Law, 

I' reserve, srn Preserve. 

npfuge. Arc Refuge. 
Gannet, 204. 
Oailcrosteut, 21, 

aciileatui. 23. 
Gear. 6, 05, 



,Goo<^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAMB. 



217 



tieorge, TtioiDas, 124. 

Uermo macropleiit, 201. 

Gilbert. Dr. O. H., 96, 13T, 182, 18o. 

liiictla nigricana, GO, 67, 

Uoat fish, taken in California, loO. 

Godwit, Marbled, 191. 

trQldfiQch, Ureen-bacJied, 88. 

Willow, 88. 
Oooee, ai, 37, 85, 173, 179, 180. 
(iosliawk, 87. 
Urassbopper, 74. 
(Jrovea, H. S., 83. 
<! ray back, 129. 
Greenback. 12». 
(iraenfisb. eo, 67, 88, 206. 
Urinaell, Joseph, 84. 
Uriezly. 172. 
Uros-bec, 90, 

Grouse, 26, 2», 85; in Sequoia National 
Foreat, 98. 

Red. 86. 

Sierra, 98. 
Graniou, attempt to rear, 156; the spawn- 
ing of, 201. 
Guenisey, Ch03., 78. 
Guest. B. A„ out fiahin', 144. 
Gull. 87. 

California, 74. 

Herriu;. 204 ; is 

tea. 72. 
Gun Club, 85, I7( 



t InsectiToroDB?, 71-74. 



H 



Hremulids. 50. 65, 
Ilakp, 44, 100, 104, 16C. 208. 
Malf-moon, 60, 68. 
Halibut. 33. 43. 44. DO. 56, 100, 145. 147, 
■ 154, 158, 104. 160. 208; eats large 
rook. 157-158. 

California, 157. 
Hardhead, 100, 112. 164, 166, 208. 
Han-cr, A. C., 124. 

Hatchery. 23, 30. 37, 41, 79, 91. 109, 113, 
146, 176, 178, 180, 196 t department 
notes, 92. 151 ; department moves, 
IW ; New York opens new, 204. 

Almanor, 38. 92, 152. 

Bear I-ake, 39. 92. 152. 153. 

Br«okdale, 30. 75. 02, 151, 152. 

Clear Creek. 39, 146, 152. 

Cottonwood Lakes, 37. 152. 

Domingo Springs. 38, 92, 146. 151, 152. 

Fall Creek. ^, 151. 152. 

Feather River, 38. 39. 

Fort Seward, 38. 02. 146. ir>l. 152. 

Kaweah, 14S, 1.11, 152, 153, 195. 

Klamath, 30, 152. 

Marlette-Carson, 131, 134, 151. 

Mount Sh:ista. 37, 38, 92, 93, 151, 152. 
181. ISSi. 

MoutJt Talinc, 38, 92. 

Mount Whitney, 37. 38, 75, 92, 151, 152, 
181. 193. 

Pine Creek, 74. 

Price Creek, 75. 

San Mateo. 151. 

Scott Creek. 92, 151. 

Snow Mountain, 92, 151, 152. 

Tahoe. 38. 

Uklah, 38, 92, 151. 

Wawona, 39, 151, 152- 

ToBemite, 93, 151, 152, 153, 195. I 



Ileatb, Harold, 182. 
Hedderly, E. L., 188. 
Helgramite, 139. 
Henahaw. H. W.. 122. 
Herms, Prof.. 143, 

Herring. 3. 10. 11, 13, 15, 41. 44, 53, 57, 
58. 73, 91, 100, 145, 147. 162, 164, 
160, 182, 201, 208; and herring-like 
fiahee of California, 182. 
Greenback, 204. 
Lake, 105, 204. 
Heron, Night, game in Louisiana, 90, 
Black-crowned Night, 90. 
Tel low-crowned Night, 90. 
Hensinger, E, T^. pheasants damage crops 

in Inyo County, 99. 
Higgins, Bert, 26. 

Higgins, Elmer, 95, 96, im, 182; goat 6sh 
taken in California, 156; spiny lobster 
larw, 156; attempt to rear gruniOD, 
156; life history of flalCsli, 157; por- 
poise captured, 157; two rare fishes, 
203, 
HippogloMua, 157. 
hippogioitui, 43. 
Hippoglotsiiia slomala, 157. 
Hippoghuoides platc«»oidei, 21. 
Iljort, John. 201, 
Holder. C. F., 137, 203. 
Hook, 105. 139, 198. 
Hubl)8, C, L., 182; the stickleback: a fish 

fitted as mosquito destroyer, 21-24. 
Hudson, C. B., 113, 126. 
Hunter, J. S., 193. 

Hunter, 20, 32, 34, 38. 42. 77. 78, 82, 84, 
iW, 97. 98, 172. 178, 181, 190, 194. 
Market, 30, 78, 79, 91, 180. 
Hunting, 31, 33, 36, 42, 31, 86, 172, 184, 
204. 
Accident, 30. 
License, 81. 
License law, 76. 
Market. 30. 
Hybrid, 132. 

Hupomesu) pretioaut, 203. 
Mytoputia giitlulata, 157. 



r 

Ibis, 85. 

Ichthyologiat, 112, 

Illinois sportsmen dissatisfied, 97. 

Importation, of quail from Mexico. 88-89. 

Inconnii. 105. 

Information, is needed, 81. 

Interbreed, 57, 121. 



Jack rabbit, 143. 

Blacktalled, 142. 
Jacobson, W. O., blackbirds and rice, 90. 
.Ttllylish. 95. 
Jewfish. 60, B2. 
Johnny Venle, 00, 03, 6t. 
Johnson. Hiram W.. 178. 183. 
Jordan, D. S., 124, 137. 139, 203. 
Jotter. E. v., the coyote as a deer killer, 

26-29. 
Junk, Chinese, 3, 4, 5, 10. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CAUPOBNU FISH AND QAXB. 



Kelly, n. L., 32. 

Kelp, 30, 40, 183; tarvesUns maj be 

resumed, 197, 
Key to California 8i>ecieB ot front, 111. 
KilliGBh, 21. 
KiDgGab, 13, 14. 15, 20, 33, 44, 100, 154, 

im, 103, ItiG, 208. 
Kine-of-salmoQ, t>5, 1^- 
Koppel. I. I... our fu 
Kyphosid*. 59. 6T, 
Kytka, Theodore, 99. 



LsdyGsh, jouqk discovered, 158. 

Lagenorhynchui obtujuidcni, 157. 

Larui argcntalui, 72. 

Laner, 87. 

I^neret, 87. 

I^w. 7ft 180, 187, 188, 192, 301, 204; 

propoeed change of shrimp would 

menace Gsh life, 94. 
Fiah aud came. 30. 78, 170, 178. 
Game, 30, 31, 79, 81, 8'J, S8, 89, 192; 

to tie eoforced in uatioual foreats, 79: 

will be modifled to ngreo with federal, 



192. 
Lawa, G. O., deer increaei:^ in Trinity 

Came Refuse, 98. 
LegislatioD, 2. 88, 85; pending, 7G. 
Ijeopard, 82, 
Lcpamis cyancllui, 22. 
UuTCstho fcnuM, inn, 201, 203. 
I.ite history, of flatflah, 157. 
Life history notea, 42-13, 9S-9!>, 100-101, 

204-205. 
LincolD. It. P., summer on the California 

trout streams, 13G-141. 
Line, 6. 
Linnet. 88, 99, 
Lion. Mountain. 2G, 29. 34. 78, 79, 82. 01. 

149, 1(X>, 172. 19,"). 20G; many killed, 

148. 
Sea. 98. 
LfAster, Spicy, 45, 101. 164, 107. 209; 

early alageB of, 24-25: larvs. 106. 
Louvar, the occurrence of, 202-203. 
Ludlum. R., 78, 
Lure, 140. 

Tiiiira canadcn»ii pari/lca, 08. 
Linariog imperials. 203. 
Li/nir crcmicH* californiciii. 160. 



M., E. L., California, 102 ; some notes on 

dry-fly fishing, 100-170. 
Mackerel, 33. 44. 100. 145. 146, 147, 162, 
163, 164, 106, 200, 208; and mackerel- 
like fish, 59, 182. 
Friaate. 203; recurrence of, 200. 
Maintain a supply, 146. 
Maley, J. T., 78. 
Mallard, the food of. 87. 
Mallotus filtoaaa, 203. 
Malms. 120. 
^rammal, 181, 182. 
Game, 182. 



Manicure the bird-catching cat, 82-83. 

MarliQ-spike Fish, 208; used as food, 43. 

Maule. W. M., deer hunting poor in Mono 
County. 08. 

.McAllister, M. H.. elk in Shasta County, 
08 ; ^ame conditions in southern Cali- 
fornia Ihirty-five years ago, 172-173. 

McAfee. W. L.. 87. 

McCarthy, Eugene. 135. 

McTiean, D. D., wildcat eata birds, 160. 

McCioud. George Jr., 38. 

Meadowlark. 182. 

Mrdialuna calilornicnaii, 60, 68. 

Mcnticirrhui undulatut, 14, 17, 18. 

Meyera, J. P., 78. 

Migration. 41. rA 58. 85. 95, 98, 117. 128. 
l.-iT. 1.19, 192; how do birds find their 
way?. 83-84. 

Migratory bird treaQr act, 30. 31, 32, 36; 
conviction made under, 78; conatitu- 
tionai, 100-191. 

Mills. O. T., 124. 

Milt, 33. 

Mink, 83, 

', 129. 



Mil. 



143. 



.Mole, 140 : pals angleworms. 99. 
Molliisk, 45. ,S7. 90. 101. 1^ 133, 146, 

104. 107, 182, 209. 
Moran. Nathan, nesting of the band-tailed 

pigeon, 160. 
Mosciuilo, tlie stickleback a destroyer of, 

21-24. 
Mountain Lion, ice Lion. 
Mountain Sheep, 31, 172. 
Mouse, 82. 

Mullet, 44. 100, 104, 166, 208. 
Muskrat. l.W. 

Mussel, 45. 101. 164, 167, 209. 
Namaycush. 133. 

National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties, 71. 
National forest, 83. 184; game taws to tie 
enforced in, 79; deer in. 206. 

Angeles, 34. 

California, 207. 

Kl Dorado. 33, 207. 

Klamath, 33, 207. 

Santa Barbara, 207. 

Sequoia. 81 ; grouse in, 98. 

Shasta, 207. 

Sierra, 81, 207. 

Stanislaus, 207. 

Tahoe. 33. 

Trinity, 207. 



N 

Naturalist, 189. 

Nature guide, 189. 

Nature Study League. 76, 145. 

Field excursion, 1S8. 
Neale, George, 78, 100. 
Nelson, E. W.. 83. 

pecloralii, 159. 



■, 158. 



Nest. 85, 160, 204. 
Net, 2, 5, «. 7. 10, 41, 71, 159, 196, 201 ; 
new fish. 41. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFOBNIA FISH AND OAHE. 



Pnrac-lompara, 41. 
Ronnd Haul, 203. 
SerdtDe. 158. 
Shrimp. 1, 2, 3, 7. 94. 
Tow, 150. 
Trawl. 04. 
Newbcrt. V. M., 178, 180. 
NewBome. J. E., 79. 
Nidever, H. B.. 3. 4. 94, 188. 
NielseD. E. M.. 158, 1103 : frssh fish used 

at redu(?tioD plants, 154. 
Note. OD artificial propagation of spiny 
lobster, 70-71 ; on dry-By fisbloR. 
1C9-170: on habits and use of small 
crab, 171-172. 
Commercial fishery, 3&-41, 93-94, li>4- 

IVA: 190-200. 
Hatchery, 37-39. 92-93, 1.'>1-153. 
I,ifp history. 42-43. OS. I(i0-lt(l, 'KH- 

State fisheries laboratory, 94-96, 156- 
ITtit. 200-204. 
Xolemigomai crgioleucag, 22. 



Opal Eye. GO. 67. 
Opoesnm, 140. 
0*mcriM tlialciehthi/l, 9. 
Otolilb. 55. 5fi. 
Otodccira ciignatu, 143. 
Otter. P.:cific River, 98. 
Oat fishin'. 144. 
Oyster, 43. 101, 161. 107, 1 



Pintail, banded taken in Alameda Coantj, 

4a 

Plaice, 51. 

Plath. O. E., 88. 

Plenary poners. 76: Fish aud Game Com- 

minion nei-dn. 30. 
PlevroBfctida. 157. 
I'teuronechthf tcrticalu, 157. 
PloTer, 85. 
Plumage, 90. 
Poison, 43. 95. 191. 105. 
Pollution, 177, 1S3. 
Pomfref, 203. 
Pope, Sailon, tear hunting wUh bows 

and arrows, 00-70. 
Porcupine, is it worth saving?, S2. 



Preserve, fi!2. 

Gnme. 176, no. 
PropsMtion. R.1. 204. 
Prolpoiicn. 87, 97. 
Punnett. J. M., 98. 
Purse-.'einc boat, lil. 



Quail. 26. 2T. 29. 30. («). S."i. 8.f. 172. 179; 
jmiwrtHtion from Mexico. SS-.S9. 
Valley, willi ecjt in December, 08. 
Qceenfish, i;>. 14. l."!. 



TACIFIC FISHEBIIAN, 96. 

Packer. -10, 154, im. 

Paladini. A.. 1, 150. 

Palmer, T. S., 84. 

PsmpsDO, 44. 100. 159, 104, 106, 202. 208. 

Pampanito, 159. 

Panulirut intermptul. 24, 70. 

I'aralabruT rkiikratitg. GO, 63. 

maculalofiitciaiu: 60, 64, V5. 

nebulifer, 60, 63, 04. 
Paratichlhyi californieus, 157. 
Parasite, which affect food value of rab- 
bits, 142-143. 
Parcel post, shipments of game, 30. 
Parophryt tetulut, 157. 
Parr-mark. 109, 113. 122, 123, 125. 
Partridge, 86. 
Patterson, A. D., 180. 
Pearson, A. G., 197. 
Pelt, 35. 
Perch, 44. 68, 100, 1G4, 166, 183, 208. 

Racramento, 2. 

Yellow. 59. 
Permit, federal, 32. 
Pez de Gallo, ISO. 

Pheasant, 179; damage crops in Inyo 
County, 99. 
English, 86. 87. 

Iting-necked. 91. 
PhylloBome. 24, 25. 70, 71. 156. 
Pig, 26. 28. 
Pigeon, 85. 

Rand-tailed, nesting of, 60. 

Homing, 83. 

Passenger, reported in eastern slates, S 
I'ike, ■44, 100, 104, 166, 208. 



lUbliit. 42. fill. 76, 1-12; pnrnsifa which 
affect the food value of, 142-143. 

Brush, I4'J. 143, 170. 

Cottonrail, 142. 17!'. 

.lack, black-tailed, 142. 
Bail. 85. 

Kainbow. sen Trout. 
Ranger, co-operate willi gamo wardens, 

lOO. 
Bay, 182. 
[{ecreatioii. 192. 
Rednsii, 127, 12S. 
Red Snapper. 158. 



Befi 



30. 36. 42, 70. R3, 177, l.<i2, 
iS4,' 1!M,l!)ri; nolcs on tlie new, 33; 
in Minneaota, 204; Quebec estab- 
lishes, 204. 

Id. 98. 

le. 150. 



■, 81. 



sing ii 



Report, Cnlifomia fishery produrls, 44- 
4.->. KMMOl. 162-16". 2(V'i_200. 

E-tpenditures. 47-48. 102. 211-212. 

Number of dper killed, 104. 

Violations, 40, 103, 210. 

Seizurrs. 46. VKl. 207. 
Repfile. 101, 104. 1C7. 



. 11)0. 



Rice. 76: federal i>ennit protects from 

ducks, 30: and blackbirds, 90. 
Rich. Willis. 1R2. IS.i. 
Rigdon. E, S.. 31. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CAI.IFOKNIA FISH AND GAME. 



Itock Bass, Hfc Bess. 

llwk <_kKl, «fc Cod. 

Ilwkfinh. 44, 100, 145, IW, ItiO. 208. 

Hod. fly. 75, 130. 

Hnl.-, lie. 
Itodeuc. T4. 
Hoe, 100. 
Itoncador, 13. 
Iloiicadot ttearmi, 14, 18. 
Itooseveli. Fr^iiidcat, 12!t. 
Itooaler Fiah, 159. 
Huller, Cloudslpy, J.^tS. 



;. 10;:, 163. 
Salachini. 1G3, 108. 
Siilmo, 100. 

aSiia-bonita, 108, 111, 119, 1'^. 124, 



IM. 

ooHifurum. 11. 118. 
cfaTkii, 108, 111, 116. 
fi-ermanai, 100, 111, IIT, 118. 

furio, loii. Ill, 131. laa. 

gairdncri, 111. 112. oup. 112. 
niHcrli, ioS. Ill, llS-119. 
*<'B*ftoiei. 108, 111, laO. 
iridcii$, lOT, 111, opp. 112. opp. 114, 

118, 13a 
nehonl. 100. 
Iccenentit, 132. 
TnvJ;:iM. 12T. 

purj)uraf»4 hcaihawi. 127. 
rcffo/M. ICW.^111, r.i8. 

roo"c,d*'i, opp. 105, 108, 111, 119, 124- 

1^, 130. 
sJiasIa, 108, 111, 1I5-11G. 
tto»fi. 103, 111, lie. 
lahoeHKii. Ill, 127-128. 
trutta Jcif neiMiB, 100, 111, 1.12-133. 
Kkitci. 108. in. 119, 121-122. 
Salmon, 10, 11, 33. 34, 40. 44, 51, 91, 

100, IWi, lOfi. 112, 113, 114. 115, 134, 
145, 14«. 147. 148. 153, 102, 1*13, 104, 
lOU, 177, 179, 182, 198, 208; long 
run of. 90; n«ed more protoction. 
190-197. (It Monterey. W»; Sacra- 
mento run of. 199; catcli large at 
Fort Bragg, 190. 

Kiiu!. 198. 

Qulnnat, S7, 38, 39, 93, 150. 

Silver, 198. 

Sockeye. M, 58. 90. 

Trout. 112. 
Salmonidtc. 1<K>. 106. 
Hah-clinat, 107. 

fo«ti«viU, 100, 111, 129, 130-131, opp. 
l.W. 

parkei. 129-130. 
Snud BasB, »ce Bass. 
Sand dab, 44, 95, 100, 145, HG, 157, 164, 

liM!, 208. 
Sandcn!. J. II.. deer captured in Lake 

Tahoe, Wa. 
Sandpiper. 85. 
Sanlini-. 30. 40. 41. 45, SO, 93. 04, 90. 

101, H5. 147. I.'i4, 155. 158. 159, 102, 
16.1, 104. 167. 182. 198, 203, 20S; 
note on Ihe, 21 ; locating by aero- 
plBDG, 41; breeding season of, 159; 
nm at Monterey, 107. 



»i'liaeffle, Kraoat, 178, 180. 

Schmilf, W. L., 182; early stages of the 
Hpiny lobst«r, 24-^. 

Seiaena Mvrna, 14, 19. 

Scientific collector, permit, 32, 

ScofielU, N. B., 7, 8, 11, 140, 154, 182, 
183, 185 ; sbrimp fisheries of Cali- 
fornia. 1-12 ; Ibe 1918 catch of fisb, 
145-14fi. 

Nrombcf, 200. 

Screen, 7(i. 97, 178, ISt. 

Sjcripps InstituCion for Biological Re- 
searcb, 24, 70. 183. 

>in, 12. 45, 

llass, »ef B 
... Lion. 08. 

Seal, Fur, 35. 

Seaaon, 100, 100, 173, 100: now begins, 
78. 
Closed. 3, 30, 82, 89. 
Open, 01, HV. 

Seaweed, aa food, 108. 

Seine, 2, 2:J. 155, 150, 196. 
Purse, 201- 

Sellmer, W. B., 79, 18.S. 

.SVriofo, l.'ilj. 

politut, 14, 15. 

ScrranidB, 59, 61, 64. 

Sbad. 3. 10. 11, Xi. 45, 101, 145, 140, 179, 
18:1 208. 

ShHrk, 33, 1&4 ; of Catifomia, 182. 

Sbebley, F. A., 75, 183. 

Shebley, W. H- .r>, 02, 133, 135, 151, 
ISO. 183. IS-I, 194. 

Sbeep, 20 ; ace Mountain Sheep. 

Sheepshead, 101. 164, 200. 

Shock, W. T.. 27, 28. 

Shockley, W. W., 124. 

Shooting, spring, 80, 97, 190. 

Phorgun, 77. 

Shrimp, 4.'>, 101. 147, 164. 167, 183, 209 ; 
fisberiea of Catifomia, 1-12 ; pro- 
posed change of law menaces fisb 
life, 04. 

Sliands, Henry, 201. 

Skate, ai, 4.->. 101, 164, 167, 209; and 

ra.^-a ot C«lifomia. 182. 
Skipjack, 4,\ 101. 145. 146. 162, 163, 164, 

167, 200, 203, 204, 200. 
SluE. 99. 
Smelt. 3. 9. 10, 11, 12, 44, 100, 104, 166, 

203, 200. 
Little, 156. 
Smokcliousp. 148. 
Snail, 9i). 200. 

S^, 101, 104, 166. 
Snipe, 85. 
Snvder. J. O.. 110. 116. 117, 128. 129. 

13.">, l.")0, 182. 185, 197; breeding of 

fulvoDB tree-duck in Santa Clara 

County, 43. 
Sole, 2, 10. 33, 44, 100. 145. 146. 209. 



I>pm. 



. 157. 



San Iticgo. 1.'>7. 

Toncuc, 157. 

Soleidip, 157. 
Sparrow, F.nglisli, 90. 

Xuttall, 83. 
Spawn. i'Z. 106. 115. 127, 131, 134, 139, 

177. 196, 197, 199. 
Spear. 76. 
Spinne.-. 139. 
Spiny lobster, tee Lobster. 



_nOO<^IC 



CALIFORNU FISH AND GAME. 



221 



^pliruil. l&i, 167, 20e. 

Spoon, 112. 120. 

Sporoww, 143, 

Sporf, flO. 75. 77. 146. 

Sportsman, 78. 84. 85, 88. 05. 07. 150, 
ItM. 1»1. 102 ; diaaatiBfi^. &7 : Waab- 
iozlon forms state associaliOD, 204. 

Spot. IS. 

Sqaarptail, 04. 

Squid. 45. 101, Jft4, 167, 209 ; at Monte- 
rey. 108. 

Squirrel. CO: ground of Californie, 87. 
Tree, 148. 

StariCB. E. C 158. 182. 208; fishes of the 
croaks fojuilr. 1.V20 ; note on (he 
sand dab, 21 ; rare fish from Monte- 
rey Bay. 43; marlin-spike Ssh uHed 
as food, 43 ; basses aod bass-Uke 
fishes. 59-68. 

State Fair, eihibit. 103. 

Sleelhead. ace Tronf. 

Ktereolepia gipat. 60. 

Stevens. A. C., 124. 

Stevens. 8. V.. 124. 

Sticklebacrlf, as a moaquilo destroyer, 
21-24. 

S^IiOKaree. 104, 167, 209. 

Stinnett, Jj, J., 37. 151. 

Stomach examination. S0. 

Stone, Livingstone, inri, 

Slurireon. 2. 45. 101. KA. 183; to be pro- 
tecled in other statps, 160. 



22, 

Surf-listi, 4i>. 101. 104, 166. 200; day and 

niKht of Palifomia, 203. 
Suri-smek. 203. 
Si-rmullet. 156. 
Swan, 8-5. 

Whisilins:. 91. 191. 
Swordfisli. 43. 45. 101, J«4. 208. 
'SiiinpAuni* atriravdal, 157. 



Tapeworm, 143. 

Taylor, W, P., a suggestion for California 
conservationists. 84. 

Terrapin. 101, 164, 167. 209, 

Tetranonurug cttvieri, 04. 

TFirapifnia nutankarU, 43, 

Thaleichthya pacificut. 20,3, 

'iliompson. Will F., 9.% 96. 156, l.->8. 15.0, 
1S2 : conservation of our fisberiPS, 
49 59; halibnt eats large rock, 157- 
Jiifi; young of the ladyfish diRcovered. 
irk8; clam investigation, 158: nhnd 
ranght at Scat Flench, 158: Alaska 
black cod taken near San Pedro, 158; 
cannery receives Mexican fish, 15S- 
159; the breeding season of tbe sar- 
dine, 1,T9; recurrence of the friRHte 
maekerel, 200 : spawning of the 
cmnion, 201; contributions to Cana- 
dian biology, 201 : bliie-finned and 
yellow-finned tuna. 201-202 : the 
occurrence of the louvnr. 2i.>2-203; 
absence of the dolphin fish. 20.S : day 
and night surE-G.sbes of California, 
203: occurrence of the nlbacorc north 
of San Francisco, 203-204, 



ThunHui macroplcrui, 155, 

fft*nn«, 156. 
Tibbits. A. C 203, 
Tick. wood. 142, 
Tige.-, 82. 
Tillow, J. O,, 83 ; how do birds find their 

way. 83-84. 
Tiveta, 175, 
T<rnia »erialiii. 143. 
Tomcod, 2, 10, 13, 20, 45. 101, 164. 167, 

20?, 
Tommy. 127. 128. 
Topminnow, 21, 24. 
Towhee, brown, 88. 
TrocAino(ii« curcri, 9*. 
Trat-hyptenu, 95. 
Trap. 181, 
Trapper, 79; California and their catcb. 

Pur, 150. 
TraWmK, 27, 42. 88, 207. 
Llcenso law, 35. 
License, 84. 
Trawl, beam. 11. 
Net, 94, 150. 
Otter, 25, 
Trawler, 196 ; Japanese, in nets of law, 

94, 
Trawling, 90, 198. 
Treaty, more bird, c 

needed, 192, 
Tree-diick. bred in Santa Clara County. 
42-13 ; breeding in Santa Clara 
County, 43, 
Fulvous 42. 
Troll. 114, 
Trollini;, 80, 

Spoon. 112. 120. 
Trout. 116. 133, 164. 167. 177, 179, ISO, 
103, 198, 201. 207: California, 105- 
135 : summer on the (^lifomla trout 
streams. 130-141. 
Black, 127. 
^lBck-spotte^ 

15.T, 170. 
Brook, 112, 130. 134, 137. 
Hrown, S8, 109, 111, 131, 1.12, 147, iri2, 
Hull. T - 



: additional 






. 112. 



Clark. 127. 

Columbia Itiver, 127. 

Cutthroat. lOS. Ill, 113, 11.'), 127. 

Dolly Varden. 107. 108. 111. ll.l, 130. 

Eagle I-ake. 111. 116. 118. 12!) 

Eastern brook. 37. 92. 107. 108. 100, 

m, J29, 130, opp. l.tO, 133, 147, 152, 

17?, 
Kvermann, 117. 
Oilbert, 119. 
GoWen. 37. 38. 105. 108. 111. 110. 121, 

12.3, m, 124i, 135, 137. 152. 170. 

193, 195: prints of, available, 194, 

Agua bonita. 111. 119, 123, l.m 

Coyote Creek, 121. 

Of Little Kern, 108, 121, 

Golden Tront Greek. 124, 

Mount Whitnev, IZS, 

Soda Creek, lOS. 119, 121. 

South Fork of Kern. 108. IID, 123, 
121, 

Volcano Creek, 119, 121, 122, 124. 

Roosevelt, KiR. Ill, 119. 124, 125. 

White, 119, 121. 
Great Lakes, 133, 134. 
Kern Rirer. lift, 121, 



i„vGoo<^lc 



OALIFOBNIA PISH AND QAME. 



Hake, 108. 

Loch Leven, 37. 92. 107, 109, 111, 182, 

133. 147, 152, 179. 
Mackinaw, 108, 109, 111, 133, 134. 
Mountain, 112, 140. 
Nelson, 109. 
Niasue, 116. 
Niewii, 116. 
tioebee, 108, 111. 116. 
HaiQbow, 31, 37, 38, 38, 92, 107. 111. 
112, 113, 114, opp. 114, 116, 110. 
118, 120, 127, 136, 137. 138, 139, 
140. 141, 147. 152, 179; acclima- 
tiied in Argentina, 146. 

Gilbert, 108, 118. 

Kern Kiver, 111, 118. 

McCloud River, 111, 115. 

Sbasta. 108. 
Red-throated, 127. 
Salmon, 112, 129. 
San Bemanlino, 117. 
San Gorgonio, 109, 111. 117. 118. 
Scotch, 132. 

Sea, 13. 1(1, 45, 101. 164, 167. 208. 
Shasta. 108. 
Silver, 127, 128. 
Itoyal, 108. 111. 128. 129. 
Steelhead. 31. 36. 38. 39, 4.1. 92. 101, 

IOC, 111, 112, opp. 112, 113, 114. 115, 

147. 151, 153, 164. 107, 108, 209. 
f*one, 108, llfl. 

Tahoe. 108. 111. 117, 127, 128, 129. 
Von Behr, 131. 
Trout, fry. 30, 38. 30, 93. 

Black-spotted. 92. 
Tuaa, 43, 45, 80. 94. 101. 145, 147, 155. 

102. 103. 164. 167. 108, 200, 203, 209; 

Sshcrmen receive 20 cents for first. 

Blnefin. 145. 200. 209; and yellowfin. 
201. 

Lenpine. 202. 

liong-finned, 198. 

Yellowfin. 145. l.W, 103, 200. 200. 
Tnrbot. 45, 101. 157. 104, 167, 209. 
Turtle. W. 162, 104, 107, 209. 



I, 70. 



U 



Umbrina roncador, 14, 17. 

United States Biological Riirvev, 32, 43, 

83. Si. 97, 182, 191. 207. 
United States Ruiesi-' of Fisheries. 2, 24, 

32, 83, 90. 92, 132. 140, 140. 190. 
United Slates Department of Agriculture. 
87. 88. 150. 183. 191. 
Bureau of Aninaal Industry, 88. 
United States Food Admin iat rat ion. 40. 

187. 
United Stiites Forest Service. 195, 206. 

Co-operation. 206. 207. 
United States National Museum. 82. 
United Slates Supreme Court, 36, 89, 97. 
Vpcnev* dcntatut, 150. 



Van Dyke, Henry, 145. 



Violator, makes queer defense. 31 ; Nova. 
Scotia uses nen methods to cantare, 
35; Pennsflcania pnnishes, 2(6. 

Vogelsang, C. A., 78. 

W 

Wallace. J. H., 192. 

Walsh. J. F.. 205. 

Walton. Isaak. 112. 136. 141. 

Warden, 30, 80, 177, 185. 194, 196; do 

detective wort in New York, 97; 

ni'eds deputy chief game warden, 191- 

192. 
Game. 42, 187 ; rangers co-operate witb, 

WatertoVl, 26, 78. 80, 81. 89. 91, 97; die 

from eating shot, 191. 
Weakfisb, 10. 
Westcrfeld. Carl. 180. 183. 185 ; reply to 

Eden resolution, 178, 185. 
Wetmore. Alei, 32. 
Weymouth. F. W., 158, 182; notM on the 

hahits and uses of the small sand 

crab. 171—172; destruction of pismo 

clams by oil, 174-175. 
Whale, 41 ; industry of Pacific coast, 80 ; 

sperm taken off Monterey. ... 
RiKht, 80, 
Whaling, station on Monterey Bay. 41. 
Whistling swan. 91. 
White. S. B.. 123. 126. 
Whitebait. 45. 101. 104. 167. 200. 
While Fish, 45, IOC. 134. 
Whiting, California, 14, 17. 
Wildcat. 149, 150; eats birds, 160. 
Wildfowl, 80. 181. 

Migratory. 80. 
Wild life. 30, 34. 70, 77, 78, 81, 83. 84. 

180. 182, 192 ; in relation to agricnl- 

ture, 9!>; ownership of, 140. 
Williams. Frank, 78, 79. 
Windle. Ernest. 188. 
Wolverine. 3.5. 
Wood tick. 142. 



Xenittiui catifomieiuis. 60, 06. 
Xetamt punclDliit, 158. 
Xytrcruryi Hoicph, 167, 



Vellowlall. .T3. 45. 101. 145, 146. 1G2, ] 

164, 107. 202. 209. 
Young, Arthur, CO. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



PATROL SERVICE. 



•AN FRANCISCO DIVISION. 

BL Xk SoaQoS, Commlatlonn' Id Cbarg*. CU'I WMtarfdd, BzecntH'* Offlcw. 

J. B. HuDtar, AntaUni Bzecuttre Officer. B. C Bauehar, 8p«cl*I AcMt. 

Head Office, Poatal Telasraph BuJIdloc, Ban Franclico. 

Phona autter-fllOO. 



Fortune 

Portervllle 

Du Dia p 



. 8. Clcrfe aftn Franrlacu 

I^ N. Ellis Froino 

M. V^airlleld Seui Pranctaco 



H. HIU 

, ^ aom 



Albert Mai-k 

B. H. Miller 

K, V. Moody 



Ban Francleco 

Uklah 

Saola Cru* 

N«p» 



J E. Newsome, 



E. W. SiTftlley Hantord 

H. B. Fo*l«r_Launch "Quinnal." Vallejo 
Cbaa. Boulon— L«UDcb "Qulnnat," Vallejo 



SACRAMENTO DIVISION. 

P. M. Newbert. Comralasloner In Charge. 

Geo. Neale, AulstanL 

Foniin Bulldlns. Sacramento. 

Phone Main 4300. 



Rojr I^udituD-. 



..Bacramenlo 
..WeavervlllF 
-lioa Mollnofe 





---°"B.y^3 




U urphya 






R. ll Sinkey 


"" "... .WoodlHnd 







J jr, Barnett 

H T>. Becker 

J. H. QXKf 



LOS ANGELES DtVISION. 

H. J. Connell. Commlsaloner In Charge. 

Bdwin L. Hedderty. Assistant. 

Union League Building, Loa AngeleB. 

Phonea: Broadway ll&S; Home. F 5T0G. 

Santa Maria l E. H. Ober 



"^ H. I. Piitchard 

.-e A. J. Stout 

Still Bernardino I Webb Tome 






DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc .^ 



1919 ABSTlua CAUfORNU nSH AND GAME lAWS 1920 

WHITE SQUARES INDICATE OPEN SEASON 
NUMBERS IN SQUARES ARE OPEN DATES 



HUNTINQ LICENSEB 
UHm Vht tnm lil]i I to Jn* M 
tiMtdMta, 91.00. Non-ras[danta, $10.00. Certain 
Allani, tlOjOO. Othflr Allena, moe. 

ANOLINQ LICENBEB 

Umu* Vw Im Jhm> I ti OwMiAv (I 

RMldanta, 11.00. Non-RsstdMit«, t3.0lk AIIoim, 

TRAPPING LICENSES 

Oltlmna, <1.00, Allana. tiM. 



,vGoo<^lc 






if^- 


j|^ 


i 


'7'f^' 


^ 





DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 



E. L. B08QDI, CommiBsloner San rraDciwrn 

CARL WBSTBRFBLD, Eiecntivo OfBcer Saa Pranctoco 

3. 8. HDNTBH, AasiKtuit Bsecutive Officer Ban FntDciaco 

B. D. DUKE, Attoraeir Bah rraudsco 

DEPARTMGNT OP PI8HCULTURE. 

W. H. SHEBLET, In Charge Fuhci^tnre Bactamento 

E. W. eONT, Field Soperintendent Sacramento 

G. H. LAMBSON, Baperintendeiit Motmt Shasta Hatchery _ Sisaon 

W. O. FASSETT, Soperintendent Fort Sewaid Batcher;, Uklah, and Snow 

Mountain Statiou lld«rpoint 

G. McCLOUD, Jn., Superintendent Mount Whitney Hatcher; and Rae Lakea 

« Station Independence 

G. E. WEST, Foreman in Charge Taboe and XaSlac Hatcheriea Tallac 

E. V. GASSELL, Foreman in Charge AIman<« and Dominso Siwiogs Batcheriei 

Eeddie 

L. 3. STINNEITT, Agaiitant In Charge Klamath Stations Hornbrocdc 

G. L. MORRISON, Foreman in Charge Bear Lake and North Creek Hatcheries 

San Beroardiao 

GUT TABLKR. Anaistftnt in Ciiarge yo«mite Hatchery Yosemlfe 

B. HAMMOND, Aasietant in Charge Fall Creek Hatcher; Hornbcook 

JUSTIN SHEBLEY, Foreman in Charge Brookdale Hatchery Brookdale 

J. B. SOLLNER, Araistant in Charge Wawona Hatchery Wawona. 

A E, DONEY, Fiah Ladder Inspector Sacramento 

A. B. CULVEB, Screen Inspector Sacramento 

M. K. SPALDING, AsBistant in Charge of Constniction SacranteDto 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES. 

N. B. SCOFIBLD, In Charge Ban Frandsco 

H. B. NIDEVBR, Assistant San Pedro 

W. F. THOMPSON, Aasiatant Long Beach 

PXMER HIGGINS, Asaistant Long Beach 

BARLE DOWNING, Assistant San Francisco 

S. H. DADO, AealBtant San Francisco 

C. S; BAUDER, Assistant Sanjedro 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION, PUBLICITY AND RESEARCH. 
DR. H. C. BRYANT, In Charge 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



t, California Fish and Game 



-CONSERVATION OP WILD UFE 



SACRAMENTO, JANUARY, 1920 



CONTENTS. 

NOTKS ON DKY FLY FISIIINO— No. 2. R. L. J/., CatifornUi I 

THE TOUNCf of the BI^CK REA-BASS Elmer Higgi'i- 

TUB PACIFIC EailBLE CKAB AND ITS NHVR RELATIVES 



I'UOPOSED INVESTIGATION OF THE SARDINE 

^Wili F. Tkompton 



THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE S.\GE HEN Jl. H. Obfr 

NOTRS ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE BLACK-TAILED DEER 

/. D. Coffman 

nOITORIALS — 

CALIFORNIA'S GAME SANOTTJARIES 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST J - 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES 

NOTES PROM THE STATE FISHERIES LABORATORY 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATP^ 

LIFE HISTORY NOTBS 

IcEPORTS— 

Sbizubeh 

P^siiEBY rnooucTS, Jiri.Y. Auoust, Septemheb, 181» -- 

VioLATios.s OF Fian amd Game Laws 

EXPEI^ DITCHES 



NOTES ON DBY-FLT FISHING. No. 2. 

By R. L. M.. California. 

In the first of this series of notes on dry-fly fishing I believe I was, 
lo s certain extent, sueeessful in dispelling the cloud of fog or mystery 
that surrounds the art in the mind of the average niau; but before 
going any further into the technique of tlie dry-fly school, I propose 
to trace the history of this modern method of catching fish, which is 
described by Emerson Hough as being "the most beautiful form of the 
most beautiful sport." {Extract from a lettor to the author.) 

I have already remarked that, if a new fly is dropped on the surface 
of the water, it will float as long as it keeps dry. It is quite probable 
that those Macedonian fishermen mentioned by Aelian in "De Anima- 
lium Natura" (A. D. 230) were aware of this fact. Since this writer, 
the first who desiiribes fly-fishing and a method of dressing flies, was 
not a very accurate recorder, we may take it that practically all bia 
observations on nature were made .second hand, consequently, we must 
not put too much reliance on his description of the flies used. Further- 
more, the lengths of rods and lines that he states were used, were 
entirely too short for any practical purpose. 

Scotcher {"Ply-Pisher's Legacy," 1807) makes, I believe, the first 
mention in print of the fact that a aew fly will float This fact, which 



2 CALIPORNU FISH AND GAME. 

can hardly be called a discovery, is known to every one who has ever 
fished to any extent with a wet fly. In a little book ("Anglers' Desid- 
eratum," 1839) the author, Capt. Clarke, B. N., describes a method of 
<'atching fish on hot sunshiny days, which has all the earmarks of dry- 
ily tishing with the single exception of floating the fly. 

The late Emlyn M. Gill in his book "Practical Dry-Fly Fishing" 
(New York, 1915), writes o£ Mr. G. P, R. Pulman having "explained 
(Iry.fly methods in 1851." This explanation, which appears on page 
J;)2 of Pulman's "Vade Mecum" (1851, 3d ed. — the two earlier 
editions made no mention of the dry-fly) is not of very great length. 
so 1 will include it in this brief history r 

T«t a dry By b« siibKti luted for Ihe wet one. the line awitcbed n few tiniMi 
throitKh Ihe air to thron- ntf its snperabuadaDt moisture, a judicious cast made 
just above the rising fiah, and the fl; allowed to float towards and over them, and 
the chnoces are I^d to one that it will be eeiz^d aa readil; as a living insect. 

Although the foregoing leaves very little undone to be a full des>ii;>- 
tion of dry-fly fishing, I do not think that in the light of latter-day 
■■vidcnce we can call Mr. Pulman a dry-fly man as the term is under- 
stood today. What he really did do was to emphasize the importance 
of the flrst east with a new (dry) fly. His son in a recent letter told 
me: "I rccollcut that he (my father) often told me to dry the fly liy 
flicking it about before taking a cast over a rising fish. He invarialily 
liKlied down stream with two wet flies." 

If we leave Sir. Pulman's description on one side as being doubtful, 
or of the nature of the Scotch verdict "not proven," the first real 
'iiention in print of dry-fly fishing is found in "A Book on Angling" 
(Francis Francis, 1867). Although there are over four hundred and 
fifty pages in this angling classic, only on three or four of them is 
Ihcre any slight reference to this new art of fly fi.shing. At the time 
.Mr. Francis wrote this Irook he evidently did not attach any great 
importance to dry-fly fishing, David Foster ("The Scientific Angler." 
188:1) maktfs ("■cnsioual references to dry-fly fishing and in some of the 
iiiter editions there is a colored plate of dry flies. In the "Badminton 
Lilirjiry" (I8sr>) Mr. II. S. Hall gives a short but complete treatise 
of till' art, together witii the dressings for eighteen dry flies. Both 
llalford and Fo-itcr srive Mr. Hall Ihe credit for the invention or adap- 
(ion of tiip cved liook lo flii's of small size such as are used for drv-flv 
■.*'ork. 

The litiTiitiirv ri'Ijiliiiir to the art may be said to have still been iu 
im pinl)r>-olif, if not a i-haotio. state, when in 1886 Frederick M. Halford 
publislied his first work, viz., "Floating Flies and How to Dress Them." 
iicsidfs fairly extensive contributions to periodicals devoted to sport, 
he found time in tbe following years to produce: "Dry-Ply Fishing in 
Thcdry and J'ractii-c"; "Dry-Kly Kntomology"; "Making a Fishery": 
■ An Angler's Autobiographv"; "Jlodem Development of the Dry- 
Fly"; and finally in i;il3 "The Dry-Fly Man's Handbook." This 
liust work has soiiu'what of an nuiilogy to Rudyard Kipling's "Day's 
Work." Between its covers is epitomized the knowledge and experience 
of a lifetime devoted to fishing. 

Of late years it has become the fashion among a certain class to 
'(ucstion and even to ridicule some of his theories, but it should not 
he forgotten that Mr. Halford never put a line on paper until he had 
satisfactorily demonstrated its correctness by painstaking attention to 
detail and laborious study. If I may be allowed to use a distinctively 



CAUFOKNU FISH ANtt GAME. 3 

American colloquialism: "Halford put the dry-fly od the map"; that 
same the matter ap in a single sentence. 

Among the other books devoted to the art I might mention "Fly 
Fishing," 1899, by Viscoont Grey of Fallodon, or as he was known 
then, Sir Edward Grey. 

On this Bide of the Atlantic besides Mr, Emlyn M. Gill 's book already 
mentioned, the following have appeared: "The Dry-F!y and Fast 
Water," by George M. L. La Branche (N. Y., 1914) ; "Fishing with 
Floating Flies," by S. G. Camp (N. T., 1916) ; and possibly one or two 
others. 

The use of the dry-fly in America is of quite recent occurrence. The 
uet of the matter is that, nntil lately, onr rivers and streams wen; 
swftRning with fish that seemed only too anxious to rise to any artitioial 
fiy that was presented to them ; but increasing population and better 
methods of transportation have brought many more men to the water- 
side in quest of sport than was formerly the ca«c. The trout have 
become more wary and greater finesse has to be employed in their 
capture; consequently the dry-fly has been utilized as a means of over- 
coming their increased shyness. It is only to be expected that in 
England, with its denser population, these same conditions arose earlier 
than they did over here. 

There are two rivers in the south of that country wliiili arc pn- 
pminently dry-fly streams. I refer to the Test and the Itehen. yoine- 
time during the forties or fifties of the last century the dry-fly wa« 
first used on these waters. (See "Chalk Strenm and Moorland." 
itossell, Tjondon, 1911). 

To no single individual ee.n be given the credit for the dis(!Overy. 
invention or development of the art of dry-fly fishing. I l)elieve that 
what actually did happen is that different men hit on much the same 
Ihing about the same time. Their knowledge, which in the beginning 
was purely local and personal, became in the course of time more 
general, so that by the time the late sixties arrived, the art can be 
considered to have been fairly well established on these two rivers and 
on other streams of a similar character that are found in the south of 
St^laad. 

But although dry-fly fishing was quite common, so much so as to 
be considered the sole means of catching trout by some; in fa.-l, 
Mr. Halford states that the dry-fly was used exclusivply on the "Wandlc 
tor the last half century, i.e., since 1863. (See "The l)r.v-Fly man's 
Hand Book," p. 66), it was not the universal method that it is today 
on these typical dry-fly waters, 

"The Chronicles of the Houghton Fishing Club" were printed in 
1908. This club has been in existence since 1822 and during most of 
that time leased or owned riparian rights on the Test. From the 
historical point of view there is not a great deal of information to be 
derived from a perusal of the Chronicles, which deal chiefly with fisli 
canght and other matters; but we can glean some information both 
luefal and interesting. 

In the early days when the May fly (Green Drake) was up, the cluh 
members used to catch fish by "blowing." This consisted of using 
■ the natural fly as a bait together with a long light bamboo rod and a 
rtoBs silk line. The wind was allowed to carry out (blow) the bait 
over the water, and by proper manipulation of the rod the fly was 



s^C 



4 CALIFORNIA FII^H AND OAME. 

dropped on the surface just above a feeding trout. (Information con- 
taiuMl in a letter from A. \, Gilbey, honorar}- secretary of the club, to 
the author; also see chapter XXIII, "Pishing," Vol. I, "C-ountrv- Life 
Library of Sport" (London 1905].) "Blowing" was still practiced 
as late as the early nineties. The first mention in the Club Chronicles 
of the capture of a trout on the artificial May fly is on June 6, 1888; 
but a much earlier renord of sueh a feat on the same part of this river is 
made by Col. Peter Hawker, of Longparish House, in his Diary, viz, 
June 11, 1817. 

The sixties ma.v be regarded as the transition period. During, these 
years the dry-fly was becoming more eommou and the wet-fly was fast 
<iisappearing. Mr. J. Krnest Pain, who has lived at Chilbolton on the 
Test since the early seventies, told me that an old fly book belonging 
to an uncle, which was used in 1860, contained nothing but wet flies. 

In the seventies the dry-fly was almost universal. Writing about 
the flshing on the Itchen from 1877 to 3880, Lord Grey remarks: 
"These Winchester trout taught us the necessity of using flne gut and 
small flies, and of floating the fly accurately over a rising fish." Even 
so the wet fly had not quite entirely vanished from these rivers. As 
late as 1890 a relative of mine who had owned fishings on the Test 
since 1850, told me that he never used the dry-fly and that he considered 
it a modern innovation that was quite unnecessary. As he had a num- 
oer of fine speeimen fish mounted in glass eases, his contention would 
sccin to have been fairly proved; but such is not the case at ail. My 
relative did all his fishing on his own private water where the trout 
were not harried by any one except himself and an occasional friend. 
There were weeks, nay months, when these fish never had a line cast 
over them and therefore we can readily believe that they could be taken 
on a wet-fly. The dining loom of his fishing cottage projected over 
llie river. There was a short distance on both sides of the house where 
lisbing was never permitted, but his daughter told me that when her 
father and the keepers were away she used to catch these trout, with 
bread for bait, from the window. On the other hand at Winchester 
where Lord Grey fished, there were always a number of other men 
Tishing and the trout became highly sophisticated. Earlier in his 
book Lor<l Grey speaks of the absolute lack of sport he experienced 
witii the wet-fly on these waters, and it was not until he used a dry-fly 
that he had any success at all. ("Fly-Fishing," p. 108.) I consider 
that tliese facts amply prove the contention of most dry-fly men, viz: 
That fish can he and are caught with a properly presented dry-flj, 
which would not look at, niuch less take, a wet-fly. 

Before the end of the last century certain rivers in England had 
become dry-fly waters, i.e., the use of anything but the dry-fly was 
prohibited, and it was regarded as a lieinous offense to do otherwise. 

The history of the art on this side of the Atlantic is brief; in fact 
I might almost say that it is in the making today. Dr>--fly fishing 
has been practiced for some few years on the Catskill and other streams 
in the eastern states and is occasionally met with on our western rivers ; 
but the necessity for it has not arisen except in a few localities where 
fishermen are almost as numerous as the fish, I learned the art in the 
eighties, but for years I fished almost entirely with a wet-fly, only ' 
occasionally using a dry-fly for an exceptionally cautious fish. How- 
ever, of late years 1 have found the fish much wiser and not so easy to 



CAUFOKNIA FISH AND OAMB. 'i 

<-atcli. The automobile is mainly responsible for this coiiditioD. 
Fifteen years ago I used to ver>- rarely meet others beni on fiahiriR. but 
nowadays I have frequently eountfd as many as ten nun in si^lit at onee 
lined out along the stream. Consequently I have been, for ttouie years 
past, using nothing but the dry-fly; and 1 think it is i)nl,v a i|:ii'stion of 
time when the dry-fly will be mui*h more generally used on Ameriean 
trout streflms than it is at present. 



THE TOUNQ OF THE BLACK SEA-BASS * 



One of the most picturesque fishes of Southern ('alifornia, well 
known and appreciated by sportsmen and commercial fishermen alike, 
is the giant black sea-bass or California jewfish, •:ilcreoleins giyas 
-\yre3. It is a common sight to see one of these huge fishes hung up 
oy the jaw before fish markets and on pleasure piers, surrounded by 
wondering tourists. But although over a million pounds are lande<l 
yearly in the markets, the fish caught all range in size from about 
three to six feet in length. The commercial fisiiermen never admit 
having seen a jewfish less than one and a half or two feet in length, 
and all declare them to be dull black in color and without markings, 
as are the larger ones. 

Imagine our surprise then, when we discovered that certain pretty 
little bass-like fishes from the hauls of the boat "Albacore" were the 
young of the jewfish! These resembled the huge, ugly adults neither 
m form, color, nor markings, as may be seen from figure 1. 

Several specimens of tlie young of the jewfish have been taken in 
the otter trawls of the "Albacore" in shallow water on the Southern 



1 state Fl slier [es La born tor 



i„vGoo<^lc 



b CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

California i.'oast at different dates : December, 1918, specimen 1 J inches 
long ; April, 1919, specimens 4 to 4J inches iDiig ; a^d September, 1919, 
specimens 7J to 9 inches long. The depths were from 4 to 15 fathoms. 
The most striking change in the development of the jewfiah is that 
oi color and jnarkings. The younger specimens are a rich brick-red 
iu color and marked with conspicuous dark brown or black spots 
irregularly scattered over the back and aides. There are also white 
or pale yellow splashes here and there on the body, especially on the 
throat and ventral side of the tail. The vertical fins are black with 
conspicuous transparent edges, the ventrals black, and the pectorals 
pale or transparent. As the fish grows older the body color darkens 
and the spots btxiome indistinct until the whole color is a uniform 
dark brown or dull black, except for the light patches on the throat 
und ventral surface of the tail which often persist even in the larger 
adults. At! the fins become black except the ventrals, which, though 
iilack in the young, are lighter than the pectorals in the adult, showing 
white membrane between the black fin rays. 
The c 
velopraei 
equally 
which ai 
one size, 
i-hangc 
si>»- of ti 
men to i 
the doff 
merged I 
and inde 
spines at 
the Sesh 
in the p 
and ven 
In the 
about .2 
the vent 
adult th 
and the ' 
That t 
black sea 
brightly 
when wi 
related i 
liantly r 

hasij. the striped baffi, or the 
srroupera of Florida and the West 
lndiej<, and it is indeed strange that 
liny have not been recognized be- 
fore. But the bright color and the 
different form of the body combined 
with the apparent inaccessibility, 
since they never appear in the mar- 
kets, have protected the identity of 
this giant's young from the fisher- 
man and public until the present 
time. 




CAUF(WNIA FISH AND OAHB. 7 

THB P AOIFIO EDIBLE OBAB AND ITS MEAB BEIATIVBB.* 

B7 Frark Waltek Wktuouth, Stanford TTniTenit;, CalUonla. 

The edible crab of the Pacific Coast markets is familiar to moat 
people but there are a nnmber of other species less well known and 
somewhat likely to be confused with it. It is the purpose of this note 
to prevent tbis confusion. Since there are between fifty and a htindred 
distinct species, many of small size, on the coast, it is a mistake to 
imagine that any small crab is the young of the edible form. Many 
are so widely different that even a hasty examination will show the 
most uncritical that they are not market crabs, but there are four 
closely related species which are particularly liable to confusion and 
which will be considered in more detail. 

The edible crab, Cancer magister, belongs to a genus which includes 
in the Atlantic two of the edible crabs of the eastern United States and 
Canada and the edible crab of Europe. On the Pacific coast there are 



FlQ. 3. Kdlble crab. Cancer magieler. Egg-bearlne rpmale, one-half natural slie. 
San Francisco, CnlJfornl.i. 

nine species of Cancer, but most of these are so small or so rare that 
they need not be considered. Three or four species are large enough 
to be used for food but only Cancer magisler is both large enough and 
abundant enough to be of commercial importance and is the only 
■California Stats Fisheries Laboratory, Contribution No. 14. 

i:(i,rod.iyGoO<^lc 



8 CAUFOKNIA FISH AND QAHB. 

species recognized b; the protective laws. The following descriptioiia 
and figures should serve to distinguisli these larger and more i^ose!^ 
related forms. 

CANCER MAQISTER. EDIBLE CRAB. 

Size large, sometimes reaching nine inches ii i 

back from point to point. The general color of 
not reddish and there is no red on the lower nde ; 
and side of the shell are low and saw-like, those i 

not all of the same Bize, and the two nearest th< 
more widely separated from the middle three; 
large pincer has conspicuous rows of ^ines; U 
black- ti pped ; and the last joints or "claws" of 
slightly curved, broad, thin and fringed with hai 
paddles. Seldom found between tides bat usu 
twelve fathoms on saudv bottoms. 



CANCER QRACILrS. 

Size small, seldom exceeding three inches. General color of the 
living animal and teeth on margin of shell much as in C magister; 
the "hand" is rather less spiny and the "fingers" are also not black- 
tipped; the last joints of the walking legs are long, curved, slender and 
hairless, thus differing from all tlie other species here described. In 
California not found between tides but in deeper water, usually on 
sandy bottom. 

CANCER ANTENNARIU8. ROCK CRAB. 

Size moderate, seldom exceeding five inches. General color of living 
animal reddish, lower side with small red spots not found in other 
species ; teeth on front and sides of shell heavy, projecting and curved 
forward, those between the eyes much as in C. magister; the "hand" 
is large and entirely smooth, the "fingers" are conspicuously black- 



CAUPOBNIA PISB AND OAllB. 



P». 5. Rock crab. Cancer antennariua. Male, iv 
Ba]', California. 



tipped ; the last joints of the walking legs are stout, nearly straight and 
hairy. Commonly found among rocks between tides, though also in 
deeper water. 



California. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



10 CAUFOBNIA FISH AND GAME. 

CANCER PROOUCTUe. ROCK CRAB. 

Size moderate to large, reaching seven inches. General color in life 
as in C. anteiinarius though there are no small red spots on the lower 
side ; teeth on front and sides of shell similar to those of C antennarius, 
those between the eyes of about equal siae and projecting forward in 
front of the eyes thus differing from all the other species here described ; 
the "hand" is roughened but without distinct spines; the "fingers" 
are black- tipped ; and the last joints of the walking legs are straight 
and hairy but not flattened. Found usually between tides among the 
rocks though sometimes in deeper water. 



THE PROPOSED mVESTXaATIOK OF THE SABDINE.* 

By Wnj, F. TnouPBON. 

The marvelous development of the sardine fishery in California 
warrants close attention to it and its prospects of permaneLcy. The 
sardine has indeed become the most important speeles among the many 
utilized in our great fislieries. In 1914 few were canned, but each 
year has seen steady increase in number of canneries and in the total 
packed. It is well nigh impossible that this giant industry which has 
grown up over night should continue to grow at the rate it has in the 
past, but an increase is surely still to be expected. It is a growth 
unparalleled within tlie countries bordering the Pacific, and its effects 
are consequently well worthy of attention. This attention is especially 
due from the state, which has legal jurisdiction over the fisheries and is 
responsible for their continuity. But such observation, it should be 
carefully noted, is as much for the prevention of hasty and harmful 
legislation as for conservation. 

Moreover, many of the unsolved questions of fishery science and 
many of the practical questions concerning the course of the annual 
"runs" of fish may expect at least partial answers from an energetic 
investigation of the life hiatorj', as has been previously pointed out by 
the writer in Fish Bulletin No. 2 and in California Pish and Game, 
Vol. 5, No. 2. The trend of the program of investigation, practical as 
it is, is therefore aimed at a solution of "purely scientific" questions as 
well as more "practical" and immediate ones. 

In order that this program may be formally on record and that it 
may be open to discussion by anyone, it is hereby published in the form 
of the principal questions which it seeks to answer. Su^^e^ons and 
criticism are cjimestly desired from every possible source. 

The law requiring this work is as follows : 

It shall be the duty of the fish and game com mission to gather data of the com- 
mercial tiflberieB aud lo prepare Ihe data ho an to show the real abandance of tlie 
most important commercial fishes ; to make such iavestigatioos of the biology of 
[he various species of fish as will guide io the collectioD and preparation of the 
statislical iotormatiop necessary to determine evidence of overfishing: to nuke such 
invcBtiRations aa tvill bring lo light as soon as possible Ihose evidences of overfishing 
as are shown by changes in the age groups of any variety of fish ; to determine what 
measures may be advisable to consene any fishery, or to enlarge and UBist any 
fishery where that may he done without danger to the sopply. 

•CBlitomla Bt*t« Pliherie* I*boratory. Contrtbotlon Ho. IS. ^-> . 



CAUFOBNI\ FISH AND QAHE. 11 

1. WiU depletion occur? 

To answer this we must have : 

A. The catches by each boat, their character and the artificial 
limits affecting them, in order that comparLsona may be made of 
the catches of the various years, and of the seasons. 

B. The type of each boat and the apparatus used. 

C. The method of the fishery, and the effects of such factors as the 
moonlight. 

D. A knowledge of any decided ch^ges in method or location of 
the fishery. 

E. An answer to the following question. No. 2. 

2. Are there great natnraJ flactaatioas in abundance, or qnality, other 

than those of depletion? 
An answer requires : 

A. The same data as are required to answer No. 1. 

B. The composition of the catches each year according to size or 
age, in order that we may discover whether a good catch is due 
to an exceptional spawning season. This implies a knowledge 
of the effect of selective fishing on the catch. 

C. The variation in the composition of the catches during various 
parts of the year, so that we may be sure we are comparing the 
yeare oorreoUy. 

D. The spawning season, and its relation to natural changes in 
quality or local abundanco. 

3. Is it possible to foretell fluctuations? 
This can not be done unless wc know : 

A. What changes are invariable each j'car, such as the spawning 
migration. 

B. What the success of each spawning st'ason is, as evidenced by 
the abundance of the youngest fish. It may be necessary to 
judge of this by comparing the abundance of the youngest in 
separate clarace, such as medium or large fish. 

C. What the age and rate of growth is, so that we may know how 
long it takes for the fish of a given spawning season to Income 
fit for use. 

4. Do sardines migrate from one region to another? 

This question is of importance because of the possible difference in 
food value of sardines which live in the various regions; becji-use of the 
possible depletion of one region independently of another; or becaiise 
of the possible dependence of the supply in one region upon the sar- 
dines in another. 
The data required are : 

A. Extensive measurements to discover any physical differences 
between schooLs from different regions. For example, a differ- 
ence in size of the head would indicate that the schools did not 
mingle but were independent. 



12 CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHB. 

B. The early life history, especially that of the eggs and their 
drift witi the currenta. 

C. The location of the various age classes of fish at the different 
periods of the year, so that seasonal migrations may be dis- 
cerned, and the simultaneaus character of fluctuations in 
different regions may be discovered, if existent. 

D. The accessibility of the schools under various physical ccmdi- 
tions, to explain any absence which might erroneously be 
assigned to migration. 

5. If depletion should occur, what meuures for protection should be 
adopted? 

For the proper solution of this problem, an intimate knowledge of 
the life-history is necessary, but the following will constitute the most 
practicable basiB for action : 

A. Are the sardines in different regions independentT May one 
region be depleted and another nott 

B. When are the sardines worth least as foodt When are they 
most valuable to the species as spawnerst 

C. Upon what classes of fish does the strain of the fishery fall most 
heavily I 

In answering these questions it is obvious that extensive data must 
be gathered. We are undertaking the collection of careful statistics 
regarding the boats and their catches, and are observing the sardines 
closely throughout their season. This implies the obtaining daily of 
material from the canneries and fishermen. We trust that this privi- 
lege will be cheerfully granted, and the agents of the Commission 
have been instructed to use the utmost care that no unnecessary 
inconvenience is put upon any person or firm in the pursuit of duties 
required of them by law. 



THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE SAQE HEN. 



The sage hen is the largest upland game bird found in California. 
Consequently it is not easily confused with any other bird. As a 
prominent zoologist has said, "It is not particularly necessary to 
describe the sage hen any more than the elephant, as its size and its 
extremely long and pointed tail proclaim its identity anywhere." 

The high open plateaus from six thousand to twelve thousand feet 
in elevation constitute its home, the birds seldom frequenting country 
where timber grows to any extent. As a rule, sage hens do not 
migrate from their accustomed locality, no matter what the weather 
conditions may be. When snow covers the ground they resort to high 
brush which protrudes through the snow, where it is possible for the 
birds in severe blizzards to dig or scratch down to the ground at the 
base of a hush. At such times when the snow is deep and frozen, sage 
hens fall easy prey to the marauding coyote, lynx, skunk, and various 
other varmints that follow their scent each winter. 



OAUFOKNIA nSH AND 0A3IB. 13 

Ihuring clear spells throaghout the winter sage hens keep on the go 
searching for food that has been blown over the snow. Strange as it 
may seem, at such times birds are the very wildest of any time during 
the year. 

Early spring nsnally finds the birds poor in flesh and shabby in 
plumage. The females select the sunny slopes and billgidea, near 
sprii^s or small running streams, for nesting grounds. A feeble 
attempt at building a nest is made by scratching out a shallow hole in 
the ground at the foot of a sage buah, or other shrub. Here the eggs 
are laid, the usual number being about ten. In color, they are greenish 
and speckled with brown; in size they are about that of a small 
domestic hen's egg. Old male birds never frequent the locality in 
which their mates nest and only return when the young birds have 
reached maturity. The percentage of their brood brought forth each 
year by the nesting hens is exceptionally good considering the immense 
disadvantage the birds are subjected to during their nesting period. 
By this I mean varmints of all sorts, early spring floods, trampling by 
sheep, cattle, and horses, and last but not least, the man with the gun, 
who formerly was always to be f oond following the snow back as it 
receded from the lower hills. Many young biids fall early prey to 
varmints, as the parent bird has feeble means of protecting herself or 
her young. 

While the sage hen is nesting, and for a short while after the female 
comes off with her brood, the food consists mainly of the tender buds 
and leaves of blue brash, and wild cherry brush. After the young 
birds have learned to fly, they descend along the larger streams, also 
frequenting meadowlands, where small, tender weeds and young 
grasses are added to their diet. At such places the young birds will 
gather in lai^e flocks and when approached by man, will stand and 
crane their necks and make a very faint attempt at cackling. When 
closely approached they usually run rather than fly. 

By the last of August or early September the young birds are 
usually joined by the old male birds, which come off the higher slopes 
and ridges. These old male birds stay very high up all summer long, 
quenching their thirst from the snow banks. 

The cock sage hen's performances in early spriDg are most interesting. 
He struts very much like a turkey, his long pointed pheasant-shaped 
tail spread out like a fan. The wings trail beside him, the breast 
nearly rubbing the ground. In some instances the breast does rub 
the ground, and the feathers are worn off. During the courting antics 
the male inflates bis saffron-colored air-sacs on both sides of the neck 
and makes a guttural sound, stepping much as does our turkey gobbler. 
Al l of this performance is apparently directed to attract the attention 
of the females, which gather together old and young, big and little. 

The sage hen is by nature terrestrial ; flying at best is a laborious per- 
formance and only resorted to as a last expedient. With much effort 
a bird lifts itself, but when once in the air it flies rapidly, and I have 
seen them sail for two miles or more before alighting. Sage hens 
are not suspicions birds. They generally walk or run away from an 
intruder, sometimes hiding among the sage bushes, where, owing to 
their protective coloration, it is quite diEQcult to detect them without a 
bird dog. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



14 CALIPOBNU FISH AND QkUB. 

In October, sage hens congr^ate in iai^e flix^, and feed almost 
entirely on sage and soon lose Uteir gamey Bavor brought with them 
from their higher homes. 

The principal diet of the sage ben throughout the year consists 
mainly and almost exclusively of sage and a great portion of bitter 
brash, along, however, with a certain amount of flower buds and bulbs. 
It is about the only bird known that can eat with relish, and benefit, 
the leaves of our common sage bmsh, and subsist upon that food 
indefinitely. In fact, there are variouB kinds of herbage that sage hens 
are known to pick up during certain seasons of the year aside from sage, 
. but Bach only in very small quantities. 

The sage hen is one of our grandest game birds, a bird that should 
be carefully guarded to prevent extinction. The young birds are often 
alert and riae from the ground at some little distance at the approach 
of man on foot or horseback. If the hunter marks them carefully 
when tbey alight he has no trouble in walking within easy shooting 
distance. "When dusbed, the sage hen almost always flies behind the 
hunter making a turn in the air just after leaving the ground, thus 
making it a large and easy target. Like most of our ground birds it 
does not fiy from cover at the crack of a gun. 

The writer recalls abont twenty years ago when thousands of sage 
hens made their homea in Long Valley, which is in the south end of 
Mono County and just northwest of Liyo County's north boundary 
line. At that time it was considered mere play for the cowboys to 
dash with their saddle horses into a large flock of sage hens, one thou- 
sand or more, and strike down two or three with their quirts or eow 
whips before the birds could possibly get out of the way. Conditions 
now, however, have changed. Of the thousands which a few years 
ago inhabited our plateaus, now only a few scattered hundreds remain. 
Indeed, the situation regarding the futnre welfare of the sage hen 
throughout California was most alarming until the stringent laws of 
recent years became efEective, 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFOBNU F18H AND GAHI. 



K0TB8 ON THE LIFE BISTORT OF THE BLAOK-TAILXO DEER. 

B; J. D. CorrMAn. 

Though the blacktaiied deer, OdocoUeus coluttUjianitg, is well known 
and widely hunted, yet ita habits and life hiatory are but imperfectly 
known. We therefore offer the following notes, which have been com- 
piled in connection with a report sent ttte California. Fish and Game 
ComnuBsi<»i by the Trinity National Forest, as a contribution to the 
life history of this notable game mammal. 

With the heavy snows on the higher ranges, the deer descend to the 
lower elevations and during the winter feed on such bunch grass and 
browse as is available, utilizing moss, mistletoe and branches broken 
off l^ anow where the more palatable forms of forage are unavailable. 
During this period of the year the deer travel in bands. As the snows 
mrit away they follow the snow line back to the higher ranges and 
during May and June scatter out through the mountains. During the 
spring they feed on open glades, but after the middle of June most of 
the deer ascend to the higher slopes, feeding on tender shoots and 
grasses during the early summer, and almost exclusively on browse, 
such as hazel, oak and various species of Ceauotbus (blue brush, buck 
brush, wedge-leaf (chaparral), and white-thorn), from early August 
ontil the acorns are ripe in the fall. Then mast forms a large proportion 
of their food within the oak country. In the fall, after the rains have 
come, deer will also dig for roots and ground shoots, and feed exten- 
sively on the edible fruiting bodies of certain species of fungi that 
develop abundantly in the timber at that season. During the summer 
season deer use natural mineral springs and salt licks extensively. 

It is noted after extremely cold and snowy wintere that a few deer 
appear to die from the effects of the storms, deer so dying being found 
late in the winter or in the early spring after they have commenced 
feeding on the open grass lands. For this region (the Trinity National 
Forest) the rutting seastm begins early in November and ends about 
the middle of December, depending a great real upon the altitude where 
the deer happen to be feeding, the mating beginning several weeks 
earlier in the lower elevations than at the higher altitudes. On the 
lower lands within the watershed of the north fork of tlie Eel River, 
in the southwestern portion of the Forest, the rutting season begins 
about (me month earlier than the general season stated above. 

It is a common belief among the old residents that the first heavy 
storm during November has considerable influence upon the rutting 
season. This may, however, simply l)e due to the fact that these storms 
appear usually about the time the deer start to run, and the impression 
may also be due to swne extent to the fact that the tracks are so much 
plainer in the Miow that it creates the impression the deer have been 
running more, and it is probably true that the deer would move around 
more after the advent of snow even aside from the rutting season. 

During the running season the bucks frequently fight each other, 
and many of the old ones have torn ears from their homed encounters 
with their rivals. The bucks at tliis time become thin, as a rule, and 



Jioo'^lc 



16' CHAFOKSU. FISH AND GAMS. 

the meat ia usually unfit for food even though the buck may appear to 
be in good condition. 

The young are bom during the months of May, June and July. The 
does first breed, therefore, when they are approximately eighteen montba 
old. In their first breeding season they bear but one fawn as a rule, and 
very often but one during the secoud season, but thereafter bear two 
fawns, and in rare instances three. Until such time as the fawns are 
able to follow the does, they are hidden away in a brush patch or 
sheltered nook, while the mother feeds near by, returning to them at 
intervals during the day. After the fawns are able to travel, their 
beds or hiding places are changed frequently until such time as the 
fawns are able to follow throughout the day. During the first six 
weeks the fawns are said to have no scent, the scent glands probably 
not having developed as yet. This undoubtedly protects them mate- 
rially from their predatory enemies. Even with this protection, 
probably not as many as fifty per cent of the fawns reach maturity. 
Most of the fawns have loat their spots by September and are weaned 
during the fall. The fawns usually remain with their mother until they 
are yearlings or until the next fawns are bom, and frequently stay wilik 
her even for several mouths longer. 

The bucks shed their antlers during January and February. During 
March they bave only a skin covering over ^e old scar, and the new 
antlers begin to grow in April. During the months of June, July and 
August the antlers are in the velvet and are tender, so that the bucks 
remain in the open timber or around rocky places, and do not frequent 
brush areas. During the latter part of August and the first half of 
September they rub the velvet from their horns. About November 1 
the bucks' necks iK-giu to swell, and they do considerable traveling 
around just previous to the mtting season. 

The summer coat of all the deer is of a reddish color, and the winter 
coat is of a bliii.sh-grey color and is heavier than the summer coat, the 
hair being Innj^r. The winter coat is shed during May, and the 
summer red is worn until September, when the winter coat begins to 
come in again. Occasionally a white or albino deer is seen or killed, 
and also black deer, buth being rare varieties of the common local 
species. 

During the latter part of August and the month of September most 
of the deer ranse at high elevations and lie in heavy brush thickets as 
a protection affaiait flics, and perhaps to escape hunters and their 
other enemies as well. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAlilFORNU FISH AND QAUE. 



17 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



A pabUcatlon davoted to ttw _ 

UoD ol wild Ufa and publlabed aiiKrterlT 
br tb* Calitomla State Fidi and Oanw 
Conunlaalon. 

Bmt free to dUieos of the State at Cali- 
fornia. Ottered tn eKcbaota fOr oniltlu>- 
loslea], manunaloBlcal and ttmllar perlod- 

TiM artidaa pubii Aad In Cautokku Fism 
AKD Oamb are not coprrlchted and mar "^^ 
reproduced In other perlodlcala, proTid 

due credit la dven the California Ftih a 

Oame Conunlsaloii. Bdltora of newapapen 
and DertodlcaJa are Inrtted to make uee of 
pertinent material. 

All material for publication abould be 
Mot to H. C Bryant, MuMum et Verte- 
brate Zoology , Berkelay, CaL 



Jam 



/ is, isao. 



"Game lawa are not enacted for thi 
purpose of deprlvlna any cltlien of hli 
Hghta, but rather to prevent euch depriva- 
tion by aaauring a supply." 

FIVE YEARS OLD. 

California Fish and Oaue is noii 
Gve yesiB old. If fon are not aware thai 
it has grown in size, compare the first 
issD^ with the recent trout Damber, 
phrBical growth is not everytbios- 
trust that there has been a growth ii 
so-called "general tone" of the magazine 
as wen. It is to be hoped that each i 
acts more and more as an evangel of 
servstion and that the material presented 
increasingly convinces the reader that 
California's wild life resources are worth 
somelhing aod conBequentl; need ti 
conaerved. 

Califobnia Fibh and Game 
started as a meaoB of moulding public 
opinioa, for it was believed that : "The 
etfectivenesB of game protectloo is gov- 
erned by the interest of the people and the 
spirit of those who hunt and fish." To 
judge of its effectiveneBB in this regard is 
perhaps difficult, but it is certain that 
there ba« been a growth of pabltc opinion 
favoring the protection of wild life 
resources, and we believe the magazine hos 
helped in this development. 

Ton will find in the volumes completed 
notewMthy facts concerning the status of 
fish and game in California and the means 
being taken to conserve it. The magazine 
has acted primarily in an educational and 
publicity capacity, bat It also conatitntes 
a record of activities and accomplishments 
which are of historical valne. 



In looking toward future Dombera what 
more can we do for the canae? Our maga- 
sine has not entered the Geld of the 
sporting magasiue. Articles seldom ap- 
pear In story fimn and the usual hunter's 
experiences recounted in characteristic 
fashion are omitted, and for that reason it 
may not be so readable, Tbe adherence 
to scientific fact, however, should carry 
added importance to the reading matter, 
even if popular and light reading is lack- 
ing. It ahguld be remembered that the 
function of our magaiine is quite differeut 
from that of a typical sporting magaiine. 

If Cautobnia Fise and Game is not 
living up to Its motto "Conservation 
through Education," let us immediately 
receive a set of protests from our readers. 

we MUST CAPITALIZE OUR 
RESOURCES. 

More aud more we are awaliening to 
the fact that li^ih nod game propagation 
and protcclioo is a liusioesa proposition. 
One of the most convincing argumenla 
(or the conservation of wild life ri'sourcea 
ix to be found in the allraclivcneBa of lish 
and game to sportsmen outside of the 
state, who benefit thp state by siwnding 
large sums of money in obtaining their 
sport. It is up to us to capitalize all of 
our resources — climate, mountain scenery, 
forests, fish and game. \Vhi>n capituliz-^d 
it does pay divideuda. These dividends, 
however, continue only Hheo fish and 
game are properly conserved. Had a 
sufficient breeding stock of that moxt 
valuable of all the fur-bearers, ihe sea 
otter, been maintained the stale would 
aow be obtaining a return from a spleu- 
di<t industry. The practical cxtinclion of 
this valuable fur-hearing aiiimal pre- 
chidps any return. With a little foresight 
California can so conserve its supply of 
A-ild life that it will form a permanent 
mil paying attraction to tlie pleasure 
ieeker. With a little iodilTiTence Cali- 
fornia cnn become bankrupt so far es 
invested capital in natural resources is 
concerned, with no hope of solvency. 



ace the beginning of the educational 
campaign in this state to establish a public 
sentiment favorable to fiab and game con- 
servation, we have continually pointed oat 



Jioo'^lc 



18 



CALIFOBNU PISH AND OAUB. 



tbe advaotaxes ot the educational metliod 
over that of force. The necessity of a. 
patTol force ie largely due lo the lack 
ot proper public BentimeDt. Tbe most 
tundaioaiital wa; of cutting down the 
number of violations is to let people know 
Bomething about the wild life of the state 
and its needs. 

State after state is cominK to a realisa- 
tion of jUBt these facta. New York is 
doing some splendid educational work, 
Michigan has been devoting a great deal 
of energy to an educaticoial program, and 
now we note that Winconsin has began an 
extensive program of education and has 
been employing spea iters to deliver lec- 
tures tbrougbout (he stale. The results 
have been so much worth white that an 
enlargement of the program is planned. 
According to the Wisconsin Commission 
"it is tbe one thing that will save the wild 
life of the state and the work must be 
liushcd vigorously. Until -such time as 
the people become educated to the import- 
ance of a united public sentiment for con- 
servation we must pursue tlie course ot 
warrants, courls and fines and follow the 
old method of educating with the sledge 
iommer, teach through force instead tf 
reason and tbe more rigid tbe lawB and 
the more severe the fines, the more potent 
the efTcct." 

FUR RESOURCES ENDANGERED. 

That it is high time each state turned 
its attention to giving jiidicJuos protection 
lo fur-bearing mammals is evidenced by 
tbi> following statements given in a recent 
Farmer^' Bulletin (No. 1079) of the 
United Slates Department of Agricutti 

"Itecentty the supply of peltries 
been decreasing at an alarming i 
Jtaw-fur buyers repretentlog all parts of 
tbe country place the decrease at from 2S 
to no per cent during the last ten years. 
There are no longer any virgin trapping 
grounds. Kven in Alaska tbe two most 
important fur-bearing animals, the heaver 
aDd the marten, have became bo nearly 
exterminated that tbey are now being 
protected by a close period, 

"r.awa protecting fur-bearing animals 
a.re designed to beep a steady Sow of 
lie I tries coming to market year after 
year, thereby bringing trappers a reliable 
income and giving regular employment to 
thousands of people engaged in dressing 
skins, manufacturing garments, and dis- 
tribc'ting them through the various aye- 
nuea of trade. 

"A general protest comes from raw-fur 
buyers against traffic in unprtme aT ' 



Tbe losses caused by killing fur anlnula 
when tbeir pelts are not prime are 
enormous. An educational campaisn is 
greatly needed to prevent this waste 
' to perpetuate oot fur-pndDdns 



NEW QAME FISH IMPORTED. 

On November 24, 1919, the California 
Fish and Game Commission received a. 
shipment of ayu eggs on the steamer 
Shinyo Maru from Japan wbicb were 
sent throngh the courtesy of Professor 
C. Ishikawa, College of Agricultnre at 
Komaha, near Tokyo (Tokyo Imperial 
Univeisity), Japan. 

The eggs were deposited on cocoon ut 
fiber and placed in four jars boldine 
about a gallon to a gallon end a half of . 

r each. There were also three tub« 
about thirty inches in diameter which con- 
tained approximately three to four pieces 
of fiber each, Tbe ayu eggs are very 
small, not much larger than the eggs of 
the shad. As soon as the consignntent 
arrived in San Francisco the eggs were 
hurried to the Brotdtdale Hatchery and 
were placed in the hatching troughs at 
that place, where they are at the present 
time. Upon arrival the egga were appar- 
ently all dead but since this CommiSBion 
is very anxious to give this experiment a 
thorough test every precaution was taken 
in the handling and placing of the egge in 
the batehery troughs in case any life 
should develop. 

The OmmissJon feels greatly indebted 
to Dr. David Starr Jordan of Stanford 
UniverBity, who originally corresponded 
with the Imperial University at Komaha 
near Tokyo, and it was through bis 
efforts that the shipment was received. 
Tlie ayu is a sporting fish belonging to the 
trout family and it will make an exoel- 
leut fish for the anglers. It reaches a 
length of Si inches ; none are to be found 
in this country. — B. D. 

CALIFORNIA FURNISHES STRIPED 
BASS TO HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 
On Saturday, November 15, 1919, the 
Cnlifomia Fish and (iame Commissioa 
shipped about 2500 striped bass from 2} 
to 5 inches in length to the Fish and 
Game Commisaion of the Territory of 
Hawaii to be planted in streams in the 
vicinity ot Honolulu. Captain H. E. 
Foster of the patrol launch "Quinnat" 
had chaige of the seining crew which col- 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAUB. 



19 



l«cted the fish oa the B«nicla Bats by 
mauts ot a beach seiae 270 feet long. 12 
feet deep, the bag of which was i incb 
meab and the wiaga 1) inch mpsh. It 
took about three days to make the catch. 

!%« fish were held in lire cars udUI 
snfficjent were collected to make the ship- 
ment and then were put aboajd the 
Mataon NaTigation Company's steamer 
"Maui." Here the fish were distributed 
in six large salmoQ tierMS that had been 
arranged on the main upper deck in front 
of the office of the'chief engineer, Alex- 
ander R;an, who took personal charge of 
the fish on the trip. Each tierce had sail 
water circnlation by means of a smaJI pipe 
which had been connect^] np with a pump 
in the engine room. 

In 1874 California received the first 
shipment of 190 small striped base from 
New Jersey. These fish were distributed 
in the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
rireiB. In 1882 a second shipment of 400 
striped bass were sent to this state by 
tbe United States Bureau of Fisheries. 
California has an annual catch of about 
1,500.000 pounds ol striped boss, with a 
commercial value of about 1130,000. 
Since bo &no a result was obtained with 
a small number of fish in California the 
large plant ot 2500 fish in the viciaity of 
Honolulu should assure tbe rapid estab- 
liabment of this splendid fieb In 
Hawaiian Islands.— E. U. 



tribotion is made. During September and 
October of this year large plants of golden 
trout have been made In the headwaters 
of the Kings River, thus extending the 
distribution of this fiafa over fifty miles 
to the northward. Former plants had 
already extended the distribution more 
than one hundred miles to the northward. 
Every effort is be'ug made to extend the 
range of this notable trout, care being 
taken, however, to keep a pure strain by 
planting in barren waters. As results of 
former plantings have been very success- 
ful, it is expected that golden trout will 
be available to everyone within a few 
years, and tbat the lakes and streams of 
tbe southern Sierras will be the Mecca ot 
anglers tbe world over. 



IN MEMORIAM. 

OSOAS H. SEICHUHO. 



d Game Commission, 
[•n Sunday, Novem- 



wlth the frequent flagra 
of the iawi proloctJng wild life, par- 
ticularly by the forelan elementi 
Relchling saw that unless the lawi 
were enforced that it would t»e only a 

Oame or fish. As a citizen, he did 
what he could to atop the vlolatlonsi 



Tbe angler who visits the Southern 
terras dtiriog the neit few years will be 
elated to discover the streams tcei 
with Golden Trout. Heretofore the " 
beantifnl trout in the whole world" 
limited to a few high mountain slrean 
the vicinity of Mount Whitney, sad the 
angler was forced to take a long hard 
pack trip in order to secure this trout. 
Now, owing to the operations of the Cali- 
f<wiiia Fish and Game Comiuissloo tbe 
golden trout is to be found in mountain 
streams from the southern boundary of 
the TosemltA National Fark to the trib^ 
ntaries of the Kem River. 

In the beginning Golden Trout wen 
cauglit with hoA and lioe and then trans- 
ported by mule pack train to otber streams 
which were to be Mocked. Now the Gsh 
are spawned and the eggs hatched ai 
Moant Whitney hatchery and then dis- 



mploy more regula 



As Mr. Reich 



training at a booKkeepi 
that he could bett "- 
apaelty 



_. lied In 
detailed to 



then In charge of the license and book- 
keeping department. Upon the death 
of Judge Heacock. In 1909, he wai 
again promoted. Later he wai given 
the very responsible potltion of 
cashier, the place he held at the time 

Mr. Relchling Is survived by his 
wife and mother and also by three 
brother* and sisters. He was a mem- 
ber of Excelsior Parlor, N. S. G. W., 
and It mourned by a host of friends. 



CALIFOBNU FISH AND QAMB. 



CalifoniiB todar Is one of the ftreatest 
out-of-doors itatea in tbe uoion. Its 
mountalDB, lakes, foresta, riven and 
wealth of bird life attract people from 
ever; state In the countr;. Evei7 meii, 
woman and cbild in thia atate owes 
Theodore Roosevelt something for his far- 
sightedness and for bis eCForti in aaving 
the wild birda of the state. They not 
only owe something in the wa; of a cash 
coutribiitioD to a memorial for bis far- 



Klamatb Lake reservation. Here was s 
wide, open, shallow alkaline lake ten or 
twelve miles long. For miles and miles 
around the border was a vaat tule marsh, 
white with the nesting multitudea. lie 
beanty of Lower Klamath Lake was in 
its life, the flying birds that bovered over 
the wide, treeless area, the calling flodu 
that from time Immemorial have held this 
as their own. Aronnd the wide border of 
the lake a wild swamp grass grew, nur- 
tured bj sub-irrigation, and a great itnm- 
ber ot cattle were raised bere. 



Junt 



Flo. T, Lower Klamath Lake, a federal b 

lake. An abundant tule growth on (he ei „ 

I breei31nE Kround tor waterfowl and the Islands in tha lake a . . . 

inda by cormorants, pelicans and great blue herons. Photograph by H. C. 1 

; 9. 1914. (Neg. 1269, Callt. Mus. Vert. Zool.) 



sightedness, but they owe some effort 
toward saving these greatest living and 
useful monuments which he preferred to 
any other kind. 

Although Lower Klamath Lake . 
federal wild bird reservation by special 
proclamation and wild birds are carefully 
protected by both state and federal Ie 
yet the vital defect in the whole situati 
is the present unfortunate condition whicb 
is bringing about the destruction of bird 
life on a vast scale and the annihilation 
of this great reservalion by the drying up 
of the lake. The myriads of ducks, geese, 
wading birds and other wild fowl arc at 
home in the woudcrful marsh land, but 
they can not exist on the alkali flats of 
the desert 

Picture to yourself the condition a few 
yean ago when Roosevelt created the 



Then came the land operators and 
wildcat schemers and advocated the dry- 
ing up of the lake by cutting off its water 
supply frcnu Klamath River. Tbe; said 
instead of a mardiy waste we could have 
a great farming area. A djke was bnilt 
and a change has gradnall; taken place. 
Instead of tbe waters, we now have deaert 
flats crusted with alkali. The meadowa of 
wild grass owned by stockmen about the 
lake have reverted to the desert because of 
tbe lack of water. The great tnle maiah, 
as dry as tinder, and the peat two or 
three feet below tbe surface, was set on 
fire last spring and is now a gigantic 
waste, flaming In some places and slow 
burning under tbe surface in others. Tbe 
migratory flocks that have (ed and nested 
here are flying about without homes and 
resting places. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



OALIFOBNU FISH AND OAHS. 



21 



A. P. DaTJs, director of the reclama- 
dou serriM, hu written Senator Cbam- 
berlaJD tfaat a recent iUTestigration of tbe 
mar^ lands aronnd Lower Klamath Lake 
hu failed to disclose positive evidence of 
their value for agricultaral purposes. 
According to his own words "very little 
ctmelmive evidence can be fonud ai 
the aericQltural valae of tbe lands sronnd 
Lower Klamath Lake." 

Here is the moat useless piece of de- 
struction of one of onr greatest out-of- 



rest oo mlgnttioDS? It is of the utmoat 
Importance that public waters be pre- 
served, if we ere to maintain duck ahoot- 

So says the American Game Protective 
Association with reference to the drainage 
of Big Rice Lake in Uinuesota aoder the 
pretext of land for the fanner. 

So say we all of m with reference to ttke 
Klamath Lake Bird Reservation and 
other wildcat schemes which threaten the 
extermiDatloQ of our wild lite resourcea. 



door resonrces, and nothing gained. The 
whole tbiog can be remedied if the recla- 
madon service will open the dykes and 
let the water back into Lower Klamath 
Lake. Every citizen of the etate should 
take this matter up with the reclamation 
service, our senalors and representatives 
in WaBhington, or with the Secretary of 
Agricnlturc. If immediate action is se- 
cnred Klamath Lake Reservation could be 
restored and would remain as a great 
living moDument to Theodore Roosevelt.— 
W. L, FiRLET, State Biologist, Portland, 

THB HUNTER'S LAMENT. 

"Of what earthly use is it to protect 
waterfowl from overshooting and then 
take away their nesting grounds, tbeir 
feeding waters and the places where tbey 



. FISHERIES 

In order to inform the people of the 
state aa to the wonderful Bsheriea which 
have been developed in Souihfrrn Califor- 
nia tbe past few years, the Fish and Game 
Commission has recently had a film made 
depicting the outstaudicc features of tbe 
tuna fiEhery. After spending manr days 
aboard the Ifluufh "Albacore." of the Fish 
and Oamc Commission, the camera man 
secured a very fine seriea of pici 
ing the methods of capturinj 
Visits to the canneries helped t 
the film for here the whole canning pro- 
cess was photographed. In the film, 
therefore, one ma; view the entire process 
from the capture of the fish at sen to the 
finished canned product. Outstanding 
features of the film are a scene at Smug- 






id OyGoOgIc 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND GAHB. 



gler*fl Cove showing the fiahlnK fleet at 
anchor, Recnred after a nnieli and dan- 
gerooa landing, and scenei showing a 
barge being loaded with tuna. 

HiE new Sim forma a part of the free 
film service [umighed b; the Fish and 
Game ComniiialoD. Man; splendid films 
showing wild birdi and mammals in Iheit 
own homes are available throagh tbe Fish 
and Game Commisiion'a educational and 
pnbticity department 

SEVEN QRPZZLIES FORMERLY 

EXISTED IN CALIFORNIA. 

Now that the grizzly bear is extinct in 
California careful stndies are beii^ made 
of tbe material at hand to find out how 
manr Tarietiea of grizzly bear actnall; 
existed in this state. 

Dr. C. Hart Heniam bas published a 
review of grizKlies and big brown bears of 
North America (U. 8. Dept. Agric, North 
American Fauna, No. 41, Feb. 9, 1018) 
in which It is pointed out that seven vari- 
eties of grizzly bear were formerly found 
In this state. The California coast grizzly 
formerly ranged in buQlid coast regions 
from San Francisco Bay south to San 
Luis Obispo. The Tejon rrizily was 
found in tbe dry chaparral hills of inter- 
ior coast ranges, between the San Joaquin 
Valley and Los Angeles. Tbe Sacramento 
Valley grizzly was limited to the Sacra- 
mento (and perhaps San Joaquin) Valley 
and adjacent foothills. In extreme north- 
em California, along the Klamath River, 
ranged the Klamath grizzly, while further 



■ontb in Mendocino County was to be 
found the Mendodno gritily. The largest 
one formerly occurred in the Santa Ana, 
Cuyamaca and Santa Rosa mountains ot 
southern California. Still another variety 
roamed over the southern Sierra Nevada, 
tbis one being called the Ilen^aw griazty. 
Tbe Southern California grizzly was (he 
largest of all the grizzllea, even larger 
than the great buffalo-killing grizzly found 
on tbe Kenal Peninsula in Alaska. It 
was of aucb a huge size that the weight of 
a mate is estimated at 1400 pounds. Tbe 
height at the shoulder from flat at foot of 
one specimen measured 4 feet. The jole of 
the largest foot, without daws, mesMirccI 
12 inches in leoKth and 8 in breadth. The 
length of an old female taken in Trabuco 
Canyon near Santa Ana measured 6 Icet 

Material collected by tbe United States 
uresu of Biological Survey made pos- 
sible this paper, which describes eighty-si^ 
Ifferent varieties of grissly and brown 
•are, a. large nnmber of which are newly 
described varieties. Shins and skulls in 
the California Museum of Vertebrmte 
Zoology at Berkeley were used in Qi^- 
sludles made by Dr. Herri am. 

HEN ARE OREENHEAOS MOST 
ABUNDANTt 

recent article by Aido T^eopold in 

the October number td Tkc Condor, 

titled "Differential Sex Migration of 

Mallards iu New Mexico," brings up tbe 

mooted question as to whether female 



CAUFOBNIA FIRH AND QAHB. 



CALIFORNIA'S OAMX BAN0TUAKIE8. 

Califomia is annriiiE a perpetual supply of smme bj ntttini aside 
areas where no hmitinK is allowed and where xame is allowed to breed 
unmolested. The state is responsible for the creation of most of them, 
tfie federal government for others. Certain areas known as game 
refuges have been set aside by legislative enactment. Others known 
a* state game preserves have been created by die Fish and Game 
ConuTiission after tbe owner of tiie property has ceded all hoating 

Sirivileges to the state for a period of not less than ten years. The 
ederal government has set aside five bird reservations and protects 
all of the wild life within the national parks snd national monuments. 
As a consequence game is now absolutely protected on neariy 3,000,000 
acres within die State of California, an area roughly eqidvalent to 
diree per cent of the total area of the state. 

GAME REFUQES, 



lA 


SUklyou _ 


8.980 
57.000 
47.500 
M.0OO 

ea.aoo 

47.580 
34,400 
31.000 
64.000 
57,600 
33.400 
37.600 
37.000 
3.400 
13,7fi0 
.■W.680 
125.440 
j 600,740 
76.160 
60.120 
51,840 
2S.000 


1917 
1017 


lO 

ID 

IE 




Trinity „ 


191.1 


LflBsen — 


1917 








11 :./j::'j..::..:' 


El Dorado „ 


1017 


































Santa Barbara _ 

Ventura _ 












4B I"::..::..::... 


Lob Angeles _ 

Orance 

Riverside 




^:::~-~::r 


1913 
1917 


Hount TamalpalB 


Marin 


1917 











STATE GAME PRESERVES. 








































FEDERAL BIRD RESERVATIONS. 









•22,400 
•1,600 


















Pacific Oecan. 


ncur San Francisco 








r 141 













■Approximate, 



NATIONAL PARKS AND MONUMENTS. 



Parks— 




719,822 

79.881 
2060 




Sequoia 


TUIBTO 


18B0 


Mulr Woods — 


ShuRta. I.asgcn. Plumes and Tchauis 
Marin _ _ 


1916 
1906 









In State Gume Keruge No. SB. 



..LnOO'^IC 



24 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND GAHB. 



dneka migrate aontlivranl nrlier than the 
mala. AccoHtng to the article female 
malJardi arc most abutidaiit in tlie Rio 
GrsDile Valley neat Alhuqu'rque during 
October. By November the preponderance 
ot females is diminlsbed and fay December 
first there Is a preponderance of males. 
The proportion ot malea and females is 
about equal among the mallarda wintering 
in the region. The article furthermore 
points out that a number of ducks banded 
at Great Salt I-«ke in Utali have been 
taken in New Mexico. 

It may be that iportamen in this state 
can gather evidence which will support 
or refute the statements made. 

CALIFORNIA'S FIRST GAME REFUQE. 

Splendid publicity baa recently been 
f;iven the first game refuge establiriied 
Catifornla througii the pubticaliou of 
article entitled "Wild Ducks aa Winl 
Guests in a City Park." in the National 
G««raphic MaRasine for October, 1919. 
The article is by Joseph Dixon, of the 
rnivprsity of California MoBenm of Verte- 
hrate Zoology, who made a cnreful study 
of the bird life on I^ke Slnrritt, almost 
in the heart of the city of Oakland, and 
took many splendid photographs of the 
birds. t.ake Merri 

Btoto game refuge in ]8(K>, and therefore 
hns the distinctinn of being the oldest 
rffiiKP in the state. That the refuge is 
fiiirilling its mi!isioD is evidenced by the 
groat flocks of waterfowl which freqwi 
its waters and the surrounding lawcs each 
winter. Furthermore, the nunilwr of birds 
appparing is on the increase, ehowing that 
it is being utiliued as a safety z( 
more and more birds each year, 
may in a mciisure be due to the systematic 
feeding carried on by the city of Oakland. 
No visit to Oakland in tbi 



plete without 
bird snnctunry 
the worthwhile 
where huuliug 



tigntion of this 
which BO well tcstihea to 
less of setting aside i 
s prohibited. 



PROTECT THE WOOD DUCK. 
Fortunately the duck moat nearly e: 
minated in this stale is one which ca 
readily recognized by a peculiar rolling 
Qight quite unlike the Sight ot any other 
duck, and by a long, square tail that gives 
IC B diBerent outline and appearance. 



iridescent colors and the male 
has conspicuous markings. Furthermore, 
It practically never flocks with other ducks. 
There la no excnae, therefore, for killing 
this duck, which is protected by both atate 
and federal laws looking towards its ulti- 
retention aa a member of oni fauna. 

FISHES IN RELATION TO MOSQUITO 
CONTROU 

The United States Bureau ot Fiaheriea 
in a recent publication (U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries, Document No. 874) tells o* 
investigations to determine the effectire- 
nen ot fishea in eradicating mosqoiUiea. 
Experiments were made with various 
species ot Bumll fiah, and while it WM 
found that nome varieties, such as ann 
fish and gold fish, destroyed the moaqnito 
when confined in small aquaria, they were 
ot little value in larje bodiea of water 
where other food was obtainable. 

However, by a series of eiperimenta it 
has been found thst tbn Gambutia aginU 
(Bsird and Girard), or top minnow, can 
be made ot practical value in the control 
ot the moequito pest. Inveatigatlono 
showed that this fish ia especially auitable 
for antimosguito worii because it aedta its 
food at the surface, where the mosquito 
and its larvft are found ; it is very prolific, 
giving birth to well-developed young and 
therefore requiring no special environment 
for egg culture; and it thrive* in area* 
especially suitable for the snpport o( mo*- 
larvK. But eiperiment also ahcrwed 
the top minnow must be protected 
from larger fish, bass especially, its <Aiet 
protection being the presence erf aballow 
water ; and that there are some instances 
where the top minnow can not be naed - 
against the mosquito because the mos- 
quito sometimes breeds in water ao badly 
polluted that the top minnow can not live 
therein, as in a particular instance ot 
water polluted by chemicals. 

The results ot the experiments Indicate 
that the top minnow, when planted under 
proper conditions, completely eliminate* 
mosquitoes, provided ttie waters are kept 
free from protective vegetation, audi as 
slightly submerged leaves and stems, ot 
growths which form a floating mass; and 
that even though protective vegetation 
cxista, the lop minnow greatly rednces the 
number of mosquitoes, the number of fish 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OAUFOSNIA nSH AND OAHB. 



Rqaiied for eradicadoii dependiDK Urg«1y, 
ol coane, opon the condition of the water 
with respect to protective vegetation. 

BIRO PROTECTION IN ENGLAND. 

A committee of the Rcyal Society for 
the Protection of Birds has recently inres- 
ttgBted the present English lews and bas 
Buggealed many diangn looking toward 
the iccoDBtmctioc of the Wild Bird Pro- 
tection Acts. It is pointed ont that there 
are nnmeroDB defects and obocorities in 
phtaseology which have added largely to 
the complications which hsve arisen in 
the working of the six interdependent acta. 
The law ban not been enforced in any 
general or habitual manner and baa failed 
to protect the rare birds of the country. 

Tbe report giTes fiiat of all a historical 
review at bird protection laws in Great 
Britain, a digest of the present lawa with 
tbe offenses and penalties, results of tbe 
present law, the proposed new law, and 
intematimal law. Among the recomnten- 
dations are the setting up of two schedules 
in the place of one, the general cloaed 
season to be from March 1 to Beptember I. 
Owners and occupiers are to hove power 
to kill or take birds on their land daring 
the closed season, with the exception of 
the birde listed in the schedules. Listed 
among the game birds on schr^ule A with 
an open season each year are such birds 
as the skua, black-throated diver, night 
jar, peregrine falcon, wood lark, wood- 
pecker and wryneck. On the other hand, 
among tbe birds on schedule B which are 
given total protection are SDch birds as 
the avocet, Kentish plover, golden eagle. 
osprer, spoonbill and most of the owls. 

The committee further recommends In- 
creased educational work, stating : "la 
order to protect birds both worker and 
child must know a little about them. 
Information regarding their character- 
istics and habits must be circulated. Bird 
and arbor schemes or their equivalent 
must bring light and air into the whole 
elementary school system. We should be 
glad to see B Bird Day, devoted to lectures, 
become a regular feature of tbe program 
of every school in this country." 

THE FISHING INDUSTRY IN 
CALIFORNIA. 

California in 1915 ranked second among 
the Pacific Coast states in the nnmber of 



pentos engaged. In the value of Its Invaat- 
meat, and in the amount and value of Its 
fishery products. Tbere were 4,282 per- 
sons engaged In tbe shore fisheries, &51 In 
tbe vessel fisheries, SB in vcsaels trana- 
porting, and 3,584 persons engaged on 
shore in canneries, etc., making a total o( 
8,452 persons conaecled with the fisheries, 
as compared with 5,530 in IflOi. The In- 
crease can be traced mainly to the shore 
industries. 

The total investment in tbp fisheries at 
the state amounted to $5,824,203, showing 
an increase of nearly 60 per cent since 
1904. The items making up this total 
are 73 fishing vessels valued, with their 
outfit, at S3543T5 ; 20 transporting vessels 
with a value, including their outfit, of 
172,000: 1,420 gasoline bosts valued at 
H.351,110; 1,169 other boats valued at 
$104,816; apparatus, in lUc xhore and 
vessel firfieries. valued at *C06,944 ; shore 
and accessory property with a value of 
$2,731,390 and workiug cash capital 
amounting to $448JW9. 

The products of the fisheries of Call- 
foinia in 1015 aggregated 93.338.703 
pounds, with a value to tlie fixherrnen of 
$2,506,702. This is an inprensc of abont 
44 per cent io quaotilj', but a decrease of 
about three-fifths of 1 per cent in value 
as compared with 1004. Amoug the items 
In tbe products of special importance 
may be mentioned 7.303,933 pounds of 
Chinook Bnlmon, valued at $340,049; 21.- 
024.100 pounds of albacore. or tuna, 
valued at $310.103 ; 0.023,.'M13 pounds of 
Bouaders, valued at $209,706; 373,774 
pounds or 5^,682 biJBhels. of eastern 
oysters, valued at $l(S.!5T:i; 4.932.092 
pounds of salted cod. valued at $161,095; 
1,TS4.4S8 pounds of striped bass, valued 
at $140,928; 4.344,254 pounds of rock- 
fishes, valued at $146,216 : 892,392 pounds 
of spiny lobsters, valueii at $130,119; 
1.414.155 ponnds of crabs, valued at $124,- 
STO. and 5.761,929 pounds of sole, valued 
nt $108.252 —BMrcou of FUherict, Doou- 
menl No. 875. 

A CALIFORNIA FOX FARM. 

Messrs. Lewis and Kierman, of Nevada, 
have started a fox farm near Pomin's, on 
the shores of Lake Tahoe. Six of the best 
silver black foxes obtainable have been 
purchased from Prince Edward Isle, at a 
cost of over $9,000. Four large tox pens 



i„vGoo<^lc 



26' 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAHE. 



of lein forced heavy poultry wire I 
been built, eai'h equipped with a atroog 
hmtae for shelter aod will) rimwafi to 
the grouud. Tlie niKiompnnying pictuie 
(Fig. 10) showB Ihp favorite male foi, s 
little oier two yenrs of nge, which pro- 
dii<^ foiit^een pups on his si'eoud breed- 
ing. This fox cost $2,100 and his fur is 



antmill Imporli'il from Prlnre K 1w;iril 
Island for use iit a ni'wly fHHiWlsliecl fur 
farm at Luke Talio.-. Pliotograph by J. 



except iuua I ly fiiip. MesHis. Ijeuis aud 
KiermBQ pxiii'et l<i raise furs for the mar- 
ket, and it in niuiored tliat other parties 
from Nevn'lii intend starting a fox farm 
in the Bprinjr. also to he located in the 
'rnhof rejrion.- — J. 11. Sandkks. 



erty of him who can get it. The more 
remote the localit; where the law is vio- 
lated, the more deeply rooted is the idea 
that the fame is there to be taken, regard- 
less of law. and without mnch feeling of 
moral obliquity. Thi> violator has a 
strange feetiae that some sort of justiGca- 
tion iH on his side, though the law may 
be 00 the other. The point of view is 
that ot early colonial timea, before the 
state had reason to assert its ownershi|)— 
when, indeed, game was the property ot 
any ooe who cmild shoot straight enouKb. 
It is the itoiat ot view of an extreme 
individualist- 
Game is still Ibe property of everyone. 
But, whereas originally the people placed 
no restrictions upon the use of that prop- 
ertj-. iLey have now thrown about it safe- 
guards that are vital for its continued 
exiRteaee. Kvery citiien has a vested 
interest in every individual bird, animal 
and Rxh. and is defrauded, if the game is 
la'cn in any way cMitrary to the estab- 
IiKl:pd niles. The point of view of the 
man who respects the law, and insists 
upon ri Hpect for it io others, is that of 
collective ownership. His individual right 
to take game is dependent upon consent 
to do so trcan others. 

The feeling of collective owner^ip is 
still only partly developed. The tendency 
to wink at violations still decrcaseB as the 
sense of common ownership of wild life 
is strengthened. — The iSportamen'i Re- 
ricir, Nov. Ifi, 1919. 



I'ri 



> had a 



t five 



lated that 



lillini 






the I'niled Slates, 
know claim that this ypor the total will 
be incrensed at least one million and 
positibly more. Many of the boys who 
before their experiencp in the army had 
never fired a gun, will not he satisfied 
now without their share of llie sport.^ — 
lllhwii lii,„-U,„.i». Sov. Vi, l!Hn, p. 3. 

OWNERSHIP OF WILD t-IFE, 
"Wild lifi> is the property of nil the 
people," snys the ('iinxiriali>)}}i»t. No 
one attempts to deny this, and Ii'ast of all 
ihe game violator. From his point of view 
it is not only the proiierly of all the 
people, but is more parliciilurly the prop- 



THE WARDEN OF GAME. 
"The game protectors are the people's 
appointed representatives in protecting 
what is tiie people's own property. Their 
task is a hard one, but they are doing it 
well. From year to year, the force is 
constantly developing in efficiency and 
en'e<-liveness, and its membent are respon- 
sible for the conservation of natural re- 
sources of untold value. They iwrform 
work of Ihe highest public importance 
and their efforts are deserving of the 
people's unqitaiificd support and commen- 
dation."— 7'fte CoatcTBationut, May, XWd. 

HED 

The price of furs has continued to rise 
until the lowly muskrat, which our fatheis 
siold for 10 cents a pelt, now brings about 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



$1^. It IB not BurprisiDg, tlicrcfore, that 
an enterprising man in Fort Clinton, Olilo, 
baa purchased 160 acres of marsh land 
along the river which he expects to turn 
into a muskrat fur farm. The fact that 
the bodies of the animals will bring about 
25 cents increases the possibility that the 
project will be a success. 



One of our two species of swans, a 
corlew and a crane, are in the gravest 
danger of extermination now nod other 
species will follow unless everyone helps 
to keep our promise to protect these migra- 
tory birds. Man baa eiterminnfed species 
of birds; but not in alt time can he 
replace a species. A species evolved 
through millfoos of years, with its mar- 
velous sdaptalJons to meet its Deeds, its 
wonderful beauty or power of flight, can 
be exteniiiuated b; man and disappear 
from this earth utterly and forever or it 
run be protected and live on, I'eproduce 
its kind, and be a delight and a source of 
knowledge to man, who may in some dis- 
tant, wooderEul lime unravel some of the 
mystery of its origin whicli points liack to 
the dawn of life, and to the Creator of all. 
— Depl. of lAe Interior, Ottatea, Canada. 

NEED FOR DOE PROTECTION 
OBVIOUS. 

A pitifal eight that ought to carry an 
eloquent message to every sportsman who 
has killed or who may be tempted to kill 
& doe, was met with by two hunters on 
October 4. 1919, in Bear River Canyon. 
about eight miles above Colfai, Placer 
County. The sportsmen came upon a doe 
which had the appearance of having been 
dead two, or perhaps three days, judging 
from the condition of the carcass and by 
the hoof tracks of the auimal that had 
been made previous to a light rain that 
had fallen the day before. The deer bad 
evidently traveled some distance, after 
having received a bullet in the lower 
bowels, before she fell. 

Tbc lingering death, due to poor marks- 
manship, in itself appeals to one's sym- 
pathy, aside from the fact that the law 



had been violated ; but that is the smaller 
part of the real tragedy of that lone 
mountain wood. The doe was & mother, 
and surrounding her remains were tbe 
tiny tracks of ber fawn. The doe's bog 



still contained milk, and the udders were 
pink, as though the fawn had nursed, or 
attempted to do so, up to or after the 
mother had died. 

What became of the little fawn? Like 
many others that have been orphaned 
under similar -eonditious, it perhaps re- 
mained beside its unrospousivc mother 
until it fell nn ensy prey lo coyotes; tor, 
not far away from tbe dead doe, on the 
dry sand bar at tbc edge of the rirer. 
were the unmistakable stuliby-locd dog- 
like tracks of a large coyote. 

It is to be buped that such instances 
as this will serve to carry a story hor 



that 



I of .■ 






DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



28 OAUFOKNU FISH AMD QAUB. 

r ACTS or cnRKEirF zntebest. 

8«rer^ San Pedro cannflries ore paying $166 caah par ton for 
albaeore. Five yean ago this varied of fish sold at $40 a ton. In 
1918 it waB $60 to $00 a ton. Now the fisherman receives $166 per ton. 
PreviooB to 1910 albaeore conld not be given awE^ and tons upon tons 
were carried to sea to feed the sharkB. 



Owing to the federal law prohibiting the sale of watwfowl and 
owing to the aggressive enforcement of the federal migratory bird 
law, veiy few illegal shipments of ducks have entered San Francisco 
daring the present open season. 



Striped bass fishermen report splendid fishing in tba San Avncisco 
Bay region, but the take by commercial fishermen has been bdow 
Donnal. 



The Bed Biver Lumber Company recently pleaded guilty to a 
violation of the water pollution laws and paid a fine of $200. The 
company has taken proper means to prevent farther sawdust poUnttca. 



The Fish and Game Commission has ordered a new patrol boat for 
use in patroUng Son Francisco Bay and vicinity. The boat will be 
tbirty-one-foot over all with seven-foot beam equipped with a twelve- 
horsepower engine, and will be seaworthy in every respect. 



Signs that the sardine industry is growing are evident in the reoent 
canning operations of F. E. Bo<^ and Company, at Pittsburg. Sar- 
dines caught outside the heads at Son fStmoisco are heang canned at 
the Pittsburg cannery. Although subject to some delay in reaching 
the cannery, they are said to arrive in splendid condition. 



The establishment of a fur farm at Lake Tahoe and the proposed 
establishment of another in the same vicinity forecasts the beginning 
of the fur farming industry in California. 



During the months of October and November, 1919, Deputy Ji^in 
Burke and Special Deputy Herbert Leahy made 67 arrests in San 
Hateo County, the fines totaling in all $1,210; 38 of these arrests, with 
fines amounting to $810, were made by Deputy 3oba Burke, and 19 
arrests with fines amotmtang to $400 by Special Deputy Herbert Leahy. 



i-,Goo<^lc 



CAU70RNU FISH AND GAME. 



OOWSE&OIAL FISHEKT NOTES. 



N. B. SconELD, ] 



MANV FISHINQ BOATB DESTROYED. 
Foe tbe second dme in remnt yettri 
great damage has been done to the fisbing 
fleet at Monterey because of tbe tack of 
proiWT dieller for tbe Gshjiig fleet On 
^niankagiTing Daj, 1919, ninety-two power 
boats were washed aihore at Monterey. 
Not does this include lighters, nets and 
otber gear, and damage dMie to docks and 
irliarTes. The estimated loss to the Gsh- 
ermen alone will run doM to $150,000. 
A further severe loos will be snffered by 
the canners, as sardines are plentiful at 
this time and there will be but a few 
boats to Gsh for Hiem. 

Id Bnglsnd and other European cono- 
iries the government improres small bar- 
bora purposely for the use of flaldng 
smacks. It is apparent that our own 
government in making surveys and plana 
m for tbe improvement of harbors should 
take into consideration the nei^d for refuges 
for fishing fleets. A breakwater which 



would give proper shelter for the flsbing 
fleet at Monterey la needed, and then kre 
many small bays along our coast which 
should be Improved and made Into herlKtrs 
for fisbermen's boats. 

FISHERMEN'S UNION AT 
FORT BRAOQ. 
During the spring of 1919 the Fisher- 
men's Union at Fort Bragg established 
and operated their own plant for mild 
curing the eatmon catch. Steep hillside 
property on the Noyo River was purchased 
and a 60 by 80-foot ihed erected. It was 
necessary to grade about 800 feet of 
roadway on tbe ateep hillside to connect 
the shed with the highway. The con- 
Btniction and grading work was done by 
the fishermen, most of the lahor being 
dons ted. By agreement, Smflll ft Urie 
canned the small salmon for the Union, 
the Union packing over half the total 
catch of nearly 3,000,000 pounds, so that 



Pro. 12. Monterey flahlng fleet piled on t!ie shore after a severe storm on Ihe flay 
before Thanksgiving. 1919. Photograph by Heldrlck. 



30 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAUB. 



rhe Beuoa at Fort Bragg hu been 
UBUBII7 Buc(?eBsful compflred with other 

Bdcou raged by this Beaaon'a sue 
the Union has completed plana foT next 
year at Fort Bragg whi<rli include an 
addition to the Noyo Rirer ahed to accom- 
modate a two-line cannery, ice plant and 
cold Blorage plant and the building of a 
mild curing house at Shelter Cove. The 
proposed cannery will not only handle 
the small anlmon biit also pncli sardines, 
which are [ilenllful in the Fort Bragg 
and Shelter Cove region. 

NEWPORT BAY FISHERIES BEING 
DEVELOPED. 

With work progreaaing od tbe break- 
water at Newport Bay, Newport bida fair 
to become one o( the important fish abip- 
ping points iu Southern California. Tbe 
rtwidents of Xewport and Balboa are 
uiiili-d in ac effort to develop tfaeir fish- 
eries asset lo (he utmost. Already a fish 
packing plant is under construction and 
a substantial bulkhead has been built for 
till! accommodation of boats and markets. 

NVrt-port if one of tbe principal amelt 
Hliipping points in California, a normal 
ilay'a shipinent consisting of from four 
to twelve Ions of these flsh. With the 
imptoveuicnt work now under way the 
soo[ie of the fisheries at Newport will be 
enlarged greatly. Already a number of 
fishing boats are planning on making 
Xewport Bay their home port. — C. S. B. 

FISHING VILLAGE COMPELLED 
TO MOVE. 

The Tacitic Electric Itnilway Company 
has serv(?d notices on the fiKliermen and 
other residpiilH of Port I.03 Angeles order- 



c (lin 



; thci 



before January 1, 1920, and already the 
removal of tbia pictareaqae fishing viltasc 
is under way. The abore company faa> 
also Bled a petition with the SUte Rail- 
road Commission asking pennlKion to 
abandon service to Port Los AngeleSL It 
is claimed the wharf is in a rickety con- 
dition and that traRic does not justify cod- 
tinued aerviee to this point. It is planned 
lo remove the wharf at once if pennissitMi 
is granted. 

Tbe village at Port Los Angeles was 
established in 1905 by H. Sano and Dick 
Tododie, two Sdiermen, and at one time 
contained approximately two hosdred men, 
women and children dependent npon the 
fishing buaineis. As high as ten tbousand 
pounds of fish baa been unloaded at tlie 
wharf in one day by fishing boats oper- 
ating off Port I»3 Angeles; but with the 
development of tbe fishing iodnstiy at 
Sua Pedro most of the fishing boats left 
for the latter port. As a result the 
amount of fish received over the wharf 
hoa decreased until today a normal day's 
shipment from Port Los Angeles consists 
only of approximately fifteen hundred 
pounds. There are still about sixty Jap- 
anese and Russian fishermen engaged in 
fishing at Port Los Angeles and all of 
them are planning on noviug to other 
points in the near future. 

The wharf at Port Los Angeles waa 
coDstmcted twenty-eight years ago by cer- 
tain intereata who planned on making thia 
point the port of entry to Los Angeles. 
When built it was over five thousand feet 
long, but damage by storms foar years 
ago caused the removal of about two 
thousand feet of tbe pier. It has always 
been one of the popular piers for anglera 
who still refer to it as "I»ng Wharf." 
During the runs of mackerel, corbina and 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNIA nSB AND QAUB. 



31 



poiDiMUio, >p|in>xinuit«1; four hnadred cod 
■nd reel qmrtsmen could be counted 6A- 
mt from the wharf. — C. S. B. 

SEAPLANES TO LOCATE FISH. 
It has generally been known tor many 
rears that many eea birds tre dependent 
on t^ieir e;esight to locate their food while 
fljiiig orer the water. So trhat ia : 
□atnTBt than for seaplanes to locate school* 
of Eah in the saioe manner? Needless 
sar the fish canners of San Diego, who 
faare been aomewhat alarmed at the mhi- 
tinaed absence of sardines which ban 
been appearing in large numbers elsewhere 
on the Pacific Coast, rejoiced at the sng- 
eestion of this idea. 

Definite arraagementB have now been 
oMide with Ueuteiiant TJncoln, the naval 
commandant in charge of operation 
the Naval Air Station at San Diego, 
whereby regular seaplane Higbts will be 
nodertahen by the navy aviators to look 
fi>r schorls of G^. The first Bigbt will 
take place on December 15 and tbey will 
continne Co patrol each day any certain 
portion of the sea that is desired by the 
canners. 

When a seaplane sights a scbool of fish 
it will wire back to Rockwell Field from 
where the information will be telephoned 
to the Fiah and Game Commission office 
at Saa Diego for distribnlitHi to Ibe 
etal cane pries. A submarine chaser 
always hovers in the vicinity of a B 
plane so as to be near In case ol 
accident. So it ma; be that the news 
be sent to the nearby fishermen tbe quicker 
by means of tbe wireless on these iKiats. 
While these Bights may not be of so 
mach value in winter becaase of the rough- 
ness of the weather, they will later on 
prove of much material benefit to all par- 
ties conceraed when the larger fish are 
mnniitg. They will also settle the fact 
of whether certain schools of fish are 
running in Ihoee portions of the oceea 
farther out than the present small fishing 
boats go, as the seaplanes have a four 
hundred mile radius of operation. It may 
thus tte the beginning of continued pros- 
peritj to all canners and fishermen in 
this section as well as of aid in the inves- 
tigation work of the Fish and Game Com- 
mission by showing routes, locations, and 
mifratioos of different fishes.— L. H. II. 



AQAft-AQAR TO BE MANUrACTURED 
IN BOUTHBRN CALIFORNIA. 

After two years of dilignit research, 
Mr. C. Matsuoka of Los Angeles has 
effected an improved process for convert- 
ing several species of the common marine 
atg» found on the Southern California 
coast into agar-agar, and plans are under 
way for the construction of a thirty- 
thousand dollar plant at Trt^ico, Califor- 
nia, where this product will be maonfac- 
tured on a commercial scale. When com- 
pleted Ibis plant will have a capacity of 
approximately one ton of dried seaweed 
per day, and its operation will mark the 
beginning of a new indnstry in the United 
States. Experiments which have been 
carried on by Mr. Matsuoka demonstrate 
that agar-agar of a much superior quality 
to the imported article eea be produced 
from our native seaweeds. 

There are approximately fifteen species 
ol marine algn found on the California 
coast which may be uspd in tbe manu- 
facture of agar-agar. Among the varie- 
ties found in sufficient quantities for com- 
mercial usee are: QeUdium rorncum, 
Oflcdium '■artilagineum, GraccUaria con- 
fervoidtt. Euchema irpinotium, and various 
species of Tenor and Oigarlincir. 

Praclinilly all of the world's supply of 
agar-agar is producetl in China, Japan, 
Ceylon, and Malaysia. Ihiring the year 
1010 there were two hundred and forty 
tons of asar-agar shipped to the Unitoil 
States from Japan where tlw miioiifncturc 
of this product has reached tbe propor- 
tions of an important and well eslablishcd 
industry, lo the latter country only tea 
species of seaweeds are found which are 
uaod in ils manufacture. 

It is prepared for the market in two 
»a.v«. One method consistB in drying 
and bleaching the thalliia of the algte in 
the sun. TUe other method consists in 
making a jelly of the seaweeds, allowing 
the water to freeze out and cutting the 
residue into thin strips and drying thor- 
oughly. The American Agar Company 
intends to use the latter method. 

Agar-agar is one of tbe roost useful 
products obtained from seaweeds. It Is 
used in the manufacture of vegetable isin- 
glass, cai^ulcs, candy, paints, and culture 
media for bacteriological reseacdi. During 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUTOBNIA FISH AND OAMB. 



tlie European war It was aacecMfDlIr em- 
ployed in th« treatment of war woandB. 
It ia lupplied to the drag trade commer- 
Oally Id dry, traDiparent CTTitals tbat 
are reduced to a ca«rse powder for medic- 
ioal uee. It baa ttie Dstaral property of 
abaorbiog water and retaJDing it; and In 



medicine, tbe additional property of r«- 
sistirtg the action of inteetiDal bacteria 
and of tlie digeative eniymea. It ia pre- 
pared by boiling and may be eaten witb 
milk or creanii or mixed witb any of tbe 
ordinary cereal foods with tbe addition of 
salt or sugar. — G. 8. BAinirR. 



NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHE&IES LABOBATOBT.* 

By Will P. Thokpsok and Elmer Hiooiite. 



THE INAUGURATION OF SCIENTIFIC 
WORK ON THE SAADINE. 

The past quarter baa aeen the Inaaga- 
ration of a de6nite program of investiga- 
tion of ibe sardine. This apecies liaa t»e- 
come tbe most important 
cial fisheries, and it ia neceaaar; that 
learn eomelhiog concerning its habits and 
that n~e have as detailed a fanowledge as 
possible of tbe course of the fishery. A 
resume of the program will be found in 
another part of this mnKaiine (p. 10). 

In ord«r that desired results may be 
obtained, Mr. O. K, Sette. formerly sta- 
tioned in Txmg Beach as ctdlector, has 
bi'en transferred lo Monterey, whet« t>e 
will obwrvc the sardine run throughout 
lis season, under the direction of Mr, 
Thompson. 

To date (November 2^), tbe sardine 
run in Southern California has not really 
bcfiun, only very atimll fish being in evi- 
dence, Tbe sliorlu^'e in cans has, how- 
ever, been the Only hami^eriog factor at 

SOME RECENT FISHERY PUBLICA- 
TIONS. 
A publlcnlioQ of the United Slates Na- 
tiotiol Miisi'tini has reoenlly appeared, 
di'ScribiUK Ihe guano birds of Teni. As' 
Dr. 11. K. Coker, tbe aiilbor. states, 
"I'onn'ian pimuo is indirectly but obvi- 
ously a proiiuct of tisb. The birda in this 
case fulHII a timctlon conipnrabli' to thai 
of the Amrricnn fartorii 



lisb i 



fen ill 



He I 






onantity of more than lO.OOO.iMH) ii 
high grade guano is reportrd to have been 
extracted from ihe ('hincha Islands be- | 
tween ISr.l and 1S72." The pictur 
accompanying the report are remarkable, 

•California State Fisheries Laboratory, 
Contribution No. '" 



showing tbe great numbera of birda on 
the nesting places. The paper shonld b« 
of great intereat both to those interested 
in birda and tboee intereated in fish.** 

Dr. R. E. Coker bas aim another re- 
cent publication to which attention maj 
be called, namely that mi tbe "Freali- 
water Mussels and Mussel Industries of 
the United States." These mnssela are 
used for button-making in an extenatn 
industry. Tbe bulletin deals with phaae* 
of the industry and describes the specie*, 
although It does not review the excellent 
work wbii4i has been done in recent yean 
on the strange life history of these mus- 
sels, tor the mo«t part by employees of 
tbe Burean of Fisheries.t — W. F. T. 

A SNIPE-FISH FROM CATALINA. 
-The president of ttte Tuna Club of 
Cstalina Island, Mr. J. A. Cnxe, gave tbe 
uudeisigned a very small fish, with a long 
snout, which be said bsd been picked np 
on (he beach at Avalon. This fish proved 
to be identical with the Mai^rorhamphotMM 
htticaiienti* described by Dr. C H. Gilbert 
from near Loysan Island, as taken by the 
United States Bnreau of Flshcriea steamer 
"Albatross." A figure of thia apecies may 
be seen in Volume 23, Part 2, of the 
Bulletin of the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries. According to a recent review 
of tbe apecies of the family, tbe form 
found in the Hawaiian Islands ia the 
same as n species taken in East Africa, 
Ihe Indian Ocean, China, and the Medit- 

'•Habl 



! United States, by R B. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAIilFOBNIA FISH AND OAUB. 



emDcaD, Dunely UacrorltampiuMiu ceK- 
tari* Pallas, t 

If this ia tnie, the spe^en is very widft- 
q)r«ad indwMl. Tbe writer bas not had 
the opponnnilT ot comparing Ei>edmeiu 
from these Tarious localities, faence it la 
not p<»8ibl« to elate poaitivelr tbat tbla 
■pMJeB is in reality the aomewhet co 
potitan <»e mentioited above. That from 
CMtalina was compared directly witik tbe 
tTpe of Macrorhamphom* haieaUenti*. 
This is a new and most iDterestiDg record 
for OUT Pacific Ckmat, thte form not being 
an active swimmer as most recently found 
"Tiaitorrf' are.— W. F. T. 



THE "RUNNER" FISH IN LOWER 

CALIFORNIA. 
Mr. Gilbert Van Camp of the Van 
Camp Sea Food Cotnpsny has in his 
posseSEion a mounted specimen of the 
"HnnDer" ot tropical see*. Blagatit bipin- 
nulofiu (Qnoy and Gaimard). It war 
taken at Cape San Lucas, Lower Cali 
fornia, daring the spring months ot 1919, 
while its owner was engaged in operatiog 
a cannery in Lower California. 

This is, in so far as the writer is 
aware, the sole record of this apecies from 
the western coast of North America, 
although known from the East Indies, the 
Weat India, Hawaii, India, and oc"- 
sionaily north as far as Long Island 
the eaBtem coast of the United States. 

The Bpecies may obviously be expected 
some time to put in an appearance on the 
coast ot Southern California. It is 
those species commonly supposed 
widely distribnted, although specimens 
from different regions have not been 
cloeeiy compared to make the tnct 

It is to be recognieed by the long 
dorsal and anal fins and by the presence 
behind each ot a detached finlet contolninG 
two rajs. It belongs to the same tamilj 
of fishes as does our common jeliow-tail 
iSeriolo), namely the Carangids. — 
W. V. T. 

THE OCCURRENCE OF THE 
JAPANESE HERRINQ. 

IM Cautobkia FiflH ANit Game for 
April, 1918, page 4, Professor Starks of 
Stanford University, in reviewing tbe 
herrings and herring-like fishes of Cali- 
fornia, briefly describes and gives an illus- 



tration of tbe Japanese herring, Btnt- 
m«u* mtcrops. He aays In part: "TThe 
Japanese herring is a common species In 
the Hawaiian Islands and In Japan. 
Specimens have been taken at San Diego, 
and • few years ago two speolraens w*» 
aent to Stanford University from that 
locality with the statement that it was 
not rare In certain seasons. It should be 
looked for and Its appearance and abund- 
reported to the State Fish and Game 
Commission." 

A specimen of this species was taken 
with the sardines canght November 3, 
1919, by the boat "Maru," near San 
Pedro, according to Mr. B. M. Nielsen of 
tbe San Pedro office of the Commission. 
The specimen was forwarded to the lab- 
oratory and proved to he the Japanese 
herring. It resembles the sardine closely 
enough to be difficult to dlalinguisb, and 
its appearance may be frequent despite its 
apparent rarity.— W. F. T. 



DEEP SEA "MONSTER" CAPTURED, 
Among the strange fishes taken In the 
fine-meshed nets used on tbe boat "Alba- 
' for th% collection of young fisli, 
there is none more bizarre in appearance 
than the great- mouthed ferocious lookiug 



little 



Idia 



nihuii 



statural Hfttory, ■ 



( 13, p. IT. 



Gilbert. This fish is about three incbea 
long, jet black in color, and ot slender 
worm-like form. A row of Inrainoua spots 
are placed on each side, supposedly sup- 
plying light, tor at the depth Dormally 
inhabited by this fish, there is little licht. 
The head is large, the eyes amall, and the 
mouth enormous, bristling with fang-like 
teeth of assorted sizes. 

This species has only been recorded by 
Dr. Gilbert in ISOO as taken off Catalina 
Island at a depth of 003 fathoms. Our 
specimens were taken May 6, 1916, at 
night in but 20 fathoms, one neat Cata- 
about 90 miles oE shore, 
near Cortez Bank. Other closely related 
species have been taken, one in the mid- 
Atlantic from a depth of 2750 fathoms, 
and one from off the Chilean coast from 
6T7 fathoms.— B. H. 

MEXICAN FISHES IN CALIFORNIA 
PORTS. 

One of the finest food fishes to coma 
Into Southern California ports during the 
last season was the Spanish mackerel, 



XnOOi^lc 



34 



CALIFORNIA FISH AKD OAHE. 



Spo>nberomcrii$ tierra, which was broaght 
to San Diego fiom Mexico during October 
in coDsidereble quantitj. These fiah are 
rarolf taken as far north as San Diego, 
but are said by fiBbenuen to be plentiful 
DO the Mexican coast, a considerable dia- 
Innce nortb of CerroB Is) a Del. 

Two beautiful BpecimeDS seut ub by Mr. 
Ilelwig of (he S&n Diego office ot the 
Oomiaissioo, are of interest because of 
tbc arroageuient and mimbei' of orange 
spots on tbc BJiles of the lish, wbicb arc 
more numerous tban in any description of 
the species, and are arrange<l in about 
IS or 20 diaeonal rows. 

Mr. Neitsen, statiHticnl assistant at San 
Pedro, iaforns us tbat a cargo ot these 
Gsh was also brought to tbat port during 
-K. 11. 



FIRST APPEARANCE OF THE 

"CRESTED BAND-FISH. 
On July 25. 1019, a rare and beautiful 
fish was brought to the laboratory, ot 
strange a form (hat it proved quite 
curiosity to fiBhermeo and others. T 



purplish tinta on the bead. The eye >■ 
lairge and placed low ; the mouth is email 
and armed with many amall bristle-like 
teeth ; the fins are bright red, the don&I 
extending (rom the bead to the taiL Tbe 
first ns of tbe dorsal Gn is produced, 
forming a hi^h crest about eighteen inchea 
long. Unfortunately it was broken in 
making the capture, but was said to bear 
seTeral membranous streamers which were 
red like the fins. 

This is the first speamen which has 
fallen into the hands of naturalista ia 
America. Indeed, probably not more than 
a dosen specimens have ever been takeo, 
and ita rarity makes its occurrence in 
California well worthy of note. Tbe 
species was first described by Professor 
Gioma, of the Academy of Turin, in 1803. 
Like many other pelagic Babes, it is eri- 
dently very widely distributed. It haa 
been taken at various oilier places in the 
Mediterrenean, at the Cape of Good Hope, 
and in New Zealand. Single specimens 
of the same or very closely related species 



Ciilltl 



, 1919. 



sjiecimen was found to bo a species of 
Lophoirs, probably Ij. ccp''dianvi, Gioma, 
the "crested band-fish." The fiEsb was 
found awiniuiing feebly in llie breakers at 
I^ng Iteai'h and was caught by a couple 
ot passerB'bj- who waded into tbe surl 
and seized it in tlieJr bands. It was taken 
to a photogrnpher by Sir. V. E. Pearl, 
where the accompanying photc^raph (Fig. 
14) was made, and the fish was then 

The fish is long and mueh compressed, 
being about four feet long, eight inches 
deep, and only one and three-eighths inches 
wide. The skin is smooth, without scales, 
eicept for a single row against the dorsal 
fin. and ot a bright silvery color 



have also been taken near the Madeira 
Islands and in Japan. None of the speci- 
mens have been taken in the fish's nat- 
ural habitat which is said to be moderate 
depths in the open sea, bat all have been 
cast ashore in a greatly enfeebled or 
damaged condition. 

Several Epeciea of Lophote* have been 
described but the material for study haa 
been so slight — a single specimen in moat 
case* — that it is entirely doubtful whether 
more tban one or two species exist. Our 
specimen differs in some respects from the 
current descriptions of any of the sap- 
posed specicB, but it seems likely that it 
tielongs to the first named, L. cepcdianua 
of Giorna. Nor is the relationship at the 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CjUJPORnu fish and gaue. 



35 



(amily well DnderBtood. Dr. Joidan, in 
hk "Guide to the Study of Fisbea," rc- 
mirkB, "It iE tbought that the Lophotida 
ma; be related to the ribbon Gahea, Taea- 
inomi, bat od the whole they leem Dearer 
the bigbly modified 8eombroidei, the Fter- 



acUda, for example." Thus our fish is 
placed Id the group of uackprel-lilie fiehes 
which coDlnioa luch peculiar forma aa the 
pomfret, tbc dolphin fiah, tlic luvar, and 
the aquare-tnil — all previously recorded in 
Caufobnia Fish and Game.— E. H. 



CONSEBVATION IN OTHER STATES. 



In a recent New York case a violator of 
the game law* was held in $1,000 bail and 
later paid a {500 fine. The fact that 
■willing but tbe highest commendation, 
kecauae of the amouot of tbeae sums, has 
been expreased b; tlie newapapers, is an 
mdication of the growing determination 
of the public to support tbe conservation 
laws. There was a lime when case after 
case ot this character was thrown out of 
coort, or sentence susjiended, largely, it 
vouM seem, from lack of a full comprc- 
henuon of the basic principles nnderlying 
the conservation law ; but tbe striking 
cMttrsst of recent cases dispoaed of shows 
that all over the land there is an awaken- 
ing interest in game couaervatioo and a 
determination to sea that tbe game laws 
are enforced. — The Contervalioaitt, Vol. 
2, p. M. 

PROTECTION OF 80CKEYI SALMON. 

There was aigned at Wasbington on 
September 2, J&19, a treaty between the 
United States and Greet Britain, having 
for its object the protection and rehabilita- 
tion ot the sockeye salmon in the con- 
tiguous waters o( tbe State of Washing- 
ton and the Province of British Columbia, 
The iH^tection accorded the anlmon under 
thU treaty is auch as was determined to 
be necessary by the International Fish- 
eries Conference which held hearings in 
Washington and British Columbia in 
1918. 

MtNNESOTA AUCTIONS 

CONFISCATED GEAR. 

The official bulletin of the Minnesota 
Game and Fish Department ebowa 
pbologT&ph of a part of the accumulated 
paraphernalia couGscated during the past 
Ihiee years. The picture ahons 
traps of all kinds and a row of i 
a hundred and fifty guns and rifles. The 



property was disposed of at public auction 
on August i and 2, lOlO, the net pro- 
ceeds accruing from the aale amounling 
■ J2,502.70. 



Instead of Betting aside well stocked 

eas as game refugea, the Slale of Vir- 

Dia ia planning some game preservea. 

Owners of tracts from 200 to 400 acres 

each of the 400 oild magiaterial dis- 

;tB are being sought who will bequeath 

to tbe commonwealth exclusive shooting 

privileges on such tracts: The alate will 

then past the areas and plant thereon 

ited paira of quail, which the state will 

:ure from Texas. The quail are to be 

fed for tbe first few weeks, bitt no attempt 

will be made to keep them within the 

preserve, on the theory that if they are 

bunted outside tbe preserve they will 

speedily learn tbe places where they are 

not disturbed. 

MINNESOTA BREAKS RECORD. 
During the year IfllS the Minnpsota 
Fiah and fianie (.:oiu mission reared 333,- 
792,127 fry and fingcrlings. This breaks 
all records for the stale, the output having 
been about triplecl since 1911. 

CANADA ISSUES EDUCATIONAL 
FILMS 

The Ontario goierumi-iit bas recently 
onjaniEed tbe Ontario Motion Picture 
Bureau (or the ivprc"!. pun>o9e of i^uing 
propntanda bj means of films The 
Bureau nott bas 200 films eoiering 82 
diftertnt subjicf, nhich are appeanng 
before large audiences ibrougbout Ontario 
Of imriiLular interest are two films en 
titled t fli aa Food ' and Ontario 
FisheneB More and more are fish and 
game rcsourcea being adiertised bj means 
ot films 



i,vCoo<^lc 



CAUPOBNU FISH AND GAUK 



LITE EOSTOBT NOTES. 



FORCBT FIRES DESTROY GAME. 

The (oT«Ht firea Id the Angelcf National 
Forest during tbe fall ot 1919 were ver; 
deatmctire to game of all kinds. The 
burned area coven over two bund red 
thousand acres of the forested cony mis 
and ridgee and brash covered hiHiidea 
(i*e Fig. 15). 

The carcasses of deer have been found 
by fire fighters in many places. Qrar 
squirrels and monntain quail have suffered 
severely. 

I have just made a survey of cooditioDi 
in Pacoima Canyon, and tbe Little Tu- 
junga and Big Tujunga canyons. In the 



and AfuBs. where Ihey sought shelter in 
vain, because the fire swept widely, over 
the entire brush covered bills of the aonth 
slopes of the Sierra Madre Mountains. 

It was pitiful to see dozens ot moun- 
tain quail, gathered around a Utile pool 
ot water in a canyon, their feathers 
burned and topknola gone. In dozens of 
places I came across similnr groups. 

The greatest menace to game cones 
from the deatmclion of food. At tfais 
time the seeds had all riponed. and the 
walnuts, pine nuta, acorns and mansaa- 
ita* were ready to eat. Tbese have been 
bnroed over a wide expanse, and tbe 




first two, which ere outside ot, but adjoin- 
ing the Game Eefuge, I saw numbers of 
dead rabbits, squirrels and mountain 
quail. Big Tujunga escaped total destruc- 
tion, as tbe Barnes did not cross to tbe 
east side. 

No doubt most ot the game escaped 
death by Same and smoke, but the destruc- 
tion of food will lead to wideapread 
famine later. Fanned by a high wind 
that blew from the desert side toward the 
sea, the flames in places swept away every 
bit of vegetation. The game bad no 
choice but to flee before the flames, toward 
the foothills, near the towns of San Fer- 
nando, Sunland, Monte Vista, Pasadena 



1 ot 1 



nter will make it hard 



commg 
for game t 

The recent rains in Southern California 
fell at a very opportune time, and so 
gently as not to cause any erosion. Three 
weeks After the rain the burnt over bill- 
sides were becomiug green. 

A feature of the destruction of covers 
tor game must not be forgotten. Rabbita 
aud quail, I found, are massing on patches 
of unbumed territory. Overcrowding will 
result, and huntera wilt find it easy to 
kill most of the game in sacb places. A 
rancher at the mouth of the Little Tu- 
junga told me that hunters had killed 
silly-eight rabbits in a forty-acre field 



CAUFOBNU FISH AND GAHB. 



37 



in a couple of hours on the Sunday after 
the fire, and seTenty-eight the [ollowiog 
Sunday. 

There is a bright lide to the pictui 
a great deal ot food was apared in creek 
beda. A large crop ot goail bad been 
raised and enongh will be spared for 
breediDK neit leaaon, and the earl; rains 
have already sprouted the grass and 
weeds. Tbe game vMl be restored in time, 
but nature lovers and sportsmen should 
woA toeettter to prevent a repetition of 
these fires by enlisting government, state 
and coonty aid, bailding roods and fire 
breaks and check dams in the mountains, 
and reforesting the burnt areas. — 
CsABLES G. SnvESS, U.D., Los Angeles, 
California. 

DOE WITH THREE FAWNS. 

During the latter part of August, the 
writer ran across a doe with three fai 
in tbe lava bed section of tbe Modoc 
National Forest. I was able to come i_ 
dose to the animals, which showed little 
signs of fear. I am quite poaEtive 
there were no other deer in that ii 
diate vicinity at that time, as I had been 
fighting fire chwe by and had been all 
around the place where I saw the doe 
and fawns. I thought it nnusoal to sei 
a doe with three fawns, especially as thi 
little fellows ranged themselves alongsidi 
the doe as if they were perfectly at home 
and belonged there. I stood looking at 
tbe three of them and they at me : 
distance of not more than thirty leet tor 
about a minute, the old doe stamping 
her foot at me; then they trotted ofC 
leisnrely into the hToab. — Wm, S. Bbown, 
Altnras, Califomie. 

WILD CAT EATS CHICKENS. 

I recently opened up two wild cats 
{Lvn» eremicut oalifomiout) to see what 
they had been eating. In the stomach of 
one I found the remains of two small 
Plymouth Rock chickens which must have 
been caught at least five miles from where 
the cat was killed, and Id the other the 
remains of three mountain quail. — D. W. 
Maxkt, Oorman, Oalifomia. 

FOOD OF THE BOBCAT. 

The wild cat (tjina eremicw coH/orai- 

cm) Is still found in numbers here, aa 

Indicated by the number being trapped in 



the Monterey district of the Santa Bar- 
bara National Forest Wild cats feed on 
the smaller game animals and birds. I 
watched one of these animals in his 
attempts to secure a breakfast lest sum- 
mer. He stole up on a covey ot mountain 
quail, and aa he Bushed tbem, got two. 
I have found featbera of both mountain 
and valley quail, which investigation 
proved were left from a feast by wild 
cats.— H. H. Hunt. 

SOUP-FIN SHARK EATS ABALONE. 

In July of last year I was fishing for 
sharks oS the bridge at Ocean Beach 
when the Inst shark I caught used my 
last bait (a small perch). I operated on 
the shark in an effort to retrieve my bait 
and was surprised to find an abelone out 
of the shell and apparently still slive, as 
it seemed to still have muscular action. 
Anyway I am positive it was taken out 
of the shell alive and I wondered how the 
shark accomplished it The shark In 
guestioD whs a little over six feet long, 
weighed I judged about 120 pounds, and 
hat we call sand shark or soup-fin 
shark {Qalporhiiivt zyopterat). — A. R. 
MiLLEfi, East ,San Diego, California. 



The Barrow goldfU-eye {Claagala 
itlandica) is a rare duck in California, 
there being less than a dozen records for 
(he state. Furthermore, Ihese records 

■ it to be a winter visitant which 
ra almost entirely in tbe central part 
of the state. However, this duck being a 
common breeder in the Rocky Mountain 
listrict. and having been found breeding 
.n Oregon and Waabington, it would 
leem possible that it might also breed 
around the higher Sierran lakes. Evi- 
dence that this is doubtless true was ob- 
ioed this past summer. While on a 
pack trip from Tahoe to Yoscmite, Smcd- 
bcrg IjBkf., in the northern part of ,the 
mite National Park, was visited on 
August 25. 1»19. On tbe lake were a 
pair of golden-eyes and six young. The 
adult birds were closely approached, mak- 
ing identification easy. Id that no Ibougbt 
[vas given to the possibility of these 
Eolden-eypB being of the rarer species, no 
attempt was made to ascertain the shape 
of the white spot between the eye and 



.ioo'^lc 



38 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



tbe bill. Hnw«ver, as it is Tery uolikely 
that the American Bolden-eye would be 
found in such a si I nation daring the 
summer season, it aeeniB reasonable to 
record the occurrence of the Barrov 
colden-eye at the above time and place, 
thus establishing the first ivcord ot aum- 
mer occurrencp. — H. C. Bryant, Becke- 
le;, California. 

MEAO0WLARK8 CONTROI. CRICKET 

pe«T. 

The State of WashiDglon. with the aid 

of agents of the United States Department 

of Agncultuie, has been Attempting to 



control tbe coulee cridiet, wbtcb devaa- 
tatea large areaa in tbe vicinity of AdrUn, 
Washington. According to Ur. Uaz 
Reeher, scientific asaistant in the TTnited 
States Bnrean of Elntomologr, western 
meadowlads appeared in great numben 
in the Dry Coulee last (all and began 
eating tbe newly hatdied crickets. So 
efficient were these birda in oontrolling 
tbe situation that arrangements for a 
IdlO control campaign were abandoned. 
The meadow larks were almost entirely 
responsible for the complete cleanup of 
Che area. — A. C. Bubbiix, Forest Uro^c 
Oregon. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORNIA FISH AKD OAME. 



SEIZURES— FISH, OAME AND «.t.EQALt.Y USED FISHING APPARATUS. 
July 1 to SaptamlMr 30, 1919. 































51 
















FiaK 


































Salmon 












Barracnda 












Lobsters 




127 








Clams . 
























Nets (Ulegal) 




2 



Jlleical flah and game.. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAUE. 



I 



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CAUPOBMIA FISH AND OAHB. 





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i„vGoo<^lc 



CAUFXJRNU FiSH AND QAHE. 



VIOLATIONS OF FISH AND OAME LAWS. 
July 1 to September 30, 1919. 



Huntinc without license 

RelnelDS to show license on demHod 

Making false statement on application 

Deer — excess limit— close Beason— killing- or pOBHesalon 

Female deer— spike bucks— lawns— klllinn or poBBCBeion 

literal deer hides 

Failure to retain head and horns ot deer 

Himtlng on posted grounds 

Por-bearlflK mammals— close season- killing or possession 

Nongame birds— killing or possession.. — . 

Shore birds— close season— killing or possesslc 

Cottontail and brush rabbits— close " 

Wild pigeons— close season— killing oi , . 
Doves — close season — killing or possessU 

Quail- close season- killing or possession 

Ducks — close season- killing or possession 

Tree squirrels— close season- killing or poBseseion 

Oroaee— close season— killing or posscstiion. 

Total game violations. ._ 

Fiah. 

Angliug without license 

Fishing (or profit without license 

Tront- excess limit— elose season— taking or possession 

Trout— taking other than by hook and line .- . 

Striped bass— close season— sale— underweight— excess limit 
Black bass— close season— sale— underweight— excess limit.. 

Salmon— excess limit— Sunday fishing - 

Orabs— undersized— close season— taking or possession 

Clams— undersized— close season— excess limit— taking or 

possession - - — 

Abalonea-underslzed— close season- taking or possession.. 
Lobsters— under or oversized- close season- taking or pos- 









10 00 








840 (» 


3B 




IS 


aoo 00 




42.1 OO 




175 lO 




8S00 




25 (O 








1211 OU 




225 00 


26 


SM'-i m 




155 UO 


a 


SO 00 


2,18 


*i.8io on 


13 


$2.4)10 


18 


27.-. 00 


A 


150 0(1 



Dried shrimps— possession - 

Illegal nets 

Pollution of waters 

Total flah violations .,. 

Grand total flsb and game vlolatloi 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



C.vr.lFORNlA FISH AND GAME. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES— YEAR 1 



>»...<»» 


■*"" 


luix 


A^t 


Goniral HdmiQiatratlon 


12,242 94 
334 97 
SOS 81 


«2.n4 57 
403 29 


•^S5S 






















1557 71 
^00 
1,440 00 

t,S96 30 




Mountain llim l.ountlcs 


i«66 


2noo 


LltliiiKraiihinf! anglloK ilcpnses _ 

lliiiitlne lirciiKi' cominlsplona _ 


1.S7S90 

2.066 10 

700 


756 70 


MHrk.'i flHhinK comiiiissions _„ 


M5D 


San Krundseo district _ 

SuerHdicnto district - 


16.693 72 

16,680 73 

200 00 


19,141 37 
$7,196 73 

1,069 91 


t&]a3 76 

111 












122 58 










124 M 


124 04 








ilutrhcry administration 

.Motini Shoata Hotcliery _ 


tiai75 67 

$1,215 11 

2.462 24 

500 

390 95 

1,444 29 


$16,474 18 

$1,197 91 

5^683 06 

600 

826 96 

1.760 91 

26M 

97 16 

^% 

221 72 
696 01 


$18,969 IB 
















^00 
100 00 
372 75 
250 00 
384 10 




Tuhoe Hatchery 

'luliBC Ilatphery _ _. 

Cliiro Ex|ierimentnl Station 

Fort Seward Hatehery 


aooo 

630 76 


! klah Hatchery 


31101 


496 02 
157 00 
492 30 
31 00 


IX is 


Brookilalo Hatchery _ 


388 0.5 
30 00 


442 08 


Vontiicr Rivrr Hatchery__ _ 






332 70 

473 56 
162 57 
209 03 
208 2S 
93 76 

176 S3 
112 51 

300 
635 84 


1S2S0 
1.33149 
145 64 
443 52 
31 34 

JUS 

'IS 

686 IB 




l)oin)nf!0 SprlnBs llatchery 


992 47 






North CreeV Station _ 




■ioPPinito Hulehcry __ 

Kiiwcuh Hatchery __ 


2S164 
180 54 






Spcpinl licld lnvi-BtiErition..__ 










$10,060 « 
a914 92 


$15,632 82 
4.283 53 


117,132 24 
S,0S5 3i 








$38,844 96 


$45,53190 


$40,259 73 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



> 



PATROL SERVICE, 



«AN FRANCISCO DIVISION. 

■■ I.. BoaQDl, CommlMlaDar In Chars*. Cnr) WMtarfaU, BtwntlTt OIBo*r. 

J. B. HontM, AMlatant ICiaontlTa 01Ilc«r. B, C. Boncbar, BpMlal ibvant 

Head Offlce, Postal Telesraph BulldlnK, B*n Fnuiclaco. 

PtioiM Batter UOO. 



[ 

f 



W. H. ArmrtTMUr 


VaUeJo 










r A. Bnllarfl 


Dunlap 






M. a Claik. 


San Prandaco 


A. M. FalrfleW 

J. H. Beiterd 


- — San PranolBco 


D. H.Hoen.. 


San Rafael 




SACRAMENTO DIVISION. 
V. M, Newbert, ConnnliBlODer In Charsa. 





Geo. Neale 

Forum Bullain, 

Phone Ma 


E. Sacramento, 
n *»(». 

H. C. O'Connor.. 

E. D. Bickatta 

D. BS. Roberta — 

T RdllrttiTI 


Oraaa VnBey 

Ll»a Oak 

kiupfaya 

Tnickse 


B. W. Bolt 

a J. Carpenter 


— -Qrldley 

Maxwell 

— — Canbr 


KueU Gr»r^ 




R. U einkejr 

I* J. Warren 

J. B. White — 


Woodland 

TayiorwflUe 

, OaMalla 








IM* Uollnoi 



LOS ANOELES DIVISION. 

M, J. Council, CommlaBloner In CbarKa. 

BO win L. Hedderly, Aaal stent 

Union League Building, Los Ancelea. 

Phonea: Broadvar 11S6; Home, PGT06. 



H. J. Abeta 

J. J, Bamett 

B. X). Becker 

J. B. OTser 


SanU Mart* 

Ventura 

Ban Lula Oblapo 


B. H. Ober 

H. L Pritchard 

A. J. Stout 

WebD Toms 


Bis PIna 

Loa Anselat 

Loa Angela* 

San DliBC 


) 







DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



.JiyNTINO LICEN&E8 

Alton*. «10A>. Olhtr All«n«, tSB.oa. 

ANOLINQ LICENSES 

UaMtYHTfma Ju(*iibDHM*vai 

n«ridwit>, t1.0O. Non-BealdMta. tSJMk Allans 

TRAPPING LICENSES 



i„vGoo<^lc 



10 



FISH-" 



teNSEnyATioN of wild un. through education" 




aoyGooi^le 



BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 



F. H. NBWBEBX, PnMa 

L J. CONItELL, Cod 



S. L. BOSQDI. Cwnmiwiofr Bu FEueiaeo 



OAKL WliSTHBFEILD, Bxecndn Officer San rrmndBco 

J. 8. HUNTBK, Aaiiatut Bnenth* OOmt .Bu FnndM» 

R. D. DUES, Attonej Stu Fimndaco 

DEPARTMENT OP PiaHCULTURB. 

W. H. SHBBLET, In Caiuse Fkhedton SMnmHito. 

E. W. HUNT, Field SnperiDtendent Bicnunento' 

J. H. HOERL, Chief Clerk SwMmento 

A a. DONBY, rUi Ladder Itmpeetot SKcnanta 

A. B. CULVER, Screen Inspector 8acrament» 

U. K. SPALDING, Anlitant in Charge of Conatraction Sacrameiito 

G. H. LAMB SON , Saperintendent Moant EUiaaU Hatcberj Siwon 

W. O. FASBETT, Saperinteadent Fort Seward Batd^rr, UUkb, and Snow 

Monntain 8tatu» Ukiah 

Q. McCLOUD, Jx., SuperinteDdent Mount Whitney Hatcherj and Cotton- 
wood Lakes Station Independence 

O, B. WEST, FoMDMu in Cbarge Tahoe and lallac Hatcbeilta- Tallac 

B. V, CA8SBLL, Foreman in Charge Fall Creek Hatclierr Copco 

L. J. STINNETT, Assirtant in Charge Bogus Creek Station Gop-co 

L. PHILLIPS, Foreman in Charge Bear Lake and North Creek Hatclieriea 

San Bernardino 

GUY TABLER, Awiitant Id Charg* Wawona Hati^er? Wawtma 

C. F. PIERSON, Assistant in Charge Brookdale Hatchery BrookdaJe 

J. W. RICHER, Foreman In Chatga Almanor, Domingo SpringB and Clear 

Creek Hatcheriefl Greenville 

G. MoCLOUD, Sb^ Foreman in Charge Cottonwood Creek Station Horafarook 

DKPAHTMBMT op OOMMRIICIAt. FMHSRIEft. 

N. B, SCOFIBLD, U Cfcarge San FrmciMO 

H. B. NIDBVBR, Aariatant-. 



W. F. THOUFSON, Avlatant-. 



B, H. DADO, Aaaiatant _ San 

a 8. BAUDEB, Aaaiatant 

P. H. OYER, AaaiMant ._ 

L. H. HELWIG, Aailat&at 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION, PUBLICITV AND REtKARCH. 

DR. H. 0. BEYAHT, In Charga 



DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc 



California Fish and Game 

"COKSEHVATION OF WILD UFE TtUtOUGH EDUCATION' 
Volome 6 SACRAMENTO, APRIL. 1920 Nomber 2 

CONTENTS. 

Paoe 

THE ABALONES OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA WUI F. Thomptoit 45 

SOME NOTES ON DRY FLY Fli-UING— No. 3 R. /-. M., California 50 

THE MULLET FISHERIES OF SALTON SKA 

Will F. Thompiion and Harold C. Bryant GO 

EDITORIALS , M 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST 73 

ILITCHERY NOTES _ — 74 

COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES 8ii 

NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHBRJES LABORATORY — S3 

LIFE HISTORY NOTES _. 88 

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVHTC fOOrEHATIOS S8 

KEPORTS— 

FianEBT Pboducts, October, Xovembeh, 1>ecembeb. 1010 00 

FisHEBY Products fob tke yeab 101!) 03 

Canned, cured, and MANtTArrrBED Fisiiebv PnwircTH fob tiik tear 

1910 06 

Violations of Fish and Game Laws 08 

SEIKl-BES 08 

Expenditures 00 



THE ABALONES OF NORTHEEN CALIFORNIA* 

By Wii.1. F. Thomi'PON. 

Ib northern California there an found three species of abalone: 
namely, HaUotis rufescens, Swainson, tiic red ; H. cracherodii, Leach, the 
black ; and H. wallalensts, Stearns, the northern green abalone. Earneat 
search has failed to reveal the abalone of Rritish Columbia and Alaska, 
H. gigantea, Chemnitz. Rut one of these, the first named, is found in 
numbers rendering it of importance as food. It is exceedingly difficult 
to gauge the absolute abundance of this red abalone in any place without 
the aid of diver's apparatus. For that reason it has been judged best 
to give merely a wcord of the localities in which specimens were obtained, 
and a general statement as to the abundance along the various parts of 
the coast. H. cracherodii reaches Jts greatest abundance to the south- 
ward of San Francisco, and it is present in northern Galifomia only 
occasionally. 

•CaUfomla State Pliherlea Laboratory, Contribution No, IT. ('~" ,-,.-, .^ I ,-, 

i:cii?od[iyV^iH)Ult 



CALIFOSNIA FISH AND GAME. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND QAHB. 47 

Abalones dwell solely along the outer coasts, but there they dwell 
wherever they are afforded a foothold on or beneath rocks on a coast 
free from loose sand and mud. The red abalone is found below extreme 
low tide line and occasionally a little above, the black is at a higher level 
and rarely below low tide line, while the northern green abaloQe is found 
only at about low tide level as far as known. All species agree, however, 
in requiring a rocky, surf -beaten coast, and the localities given below are 
all of this nature. 

HaUotia rufescens was found in some numbers in the followidg 
localities by others than the writer, if enclosed ini parentheses : 

(Point Saint George, rarely.) (NVwhavPn I^anding.) 

Patrick's Point, rarely. (Manchester.) 

Cape Mendocino, rarely. roint Arptin. abundnnt. 

McNntt'a Gnlch, near Cape Mendocino. Arena Cove. 

Mattole River, 1 to 1} miles nortb of Buster Beach, 123 desrees 43 minutes 

Cape Mendocino. west, 38 degrees 57 miautes north, 

(Pnnta Gorda.) abnndant. 

Spanish Flats. 124 decrees 15 minutee (Hayward's Beat^,) 

west. 40 degrees 20 minDtea north. Sauuders' Landing. 123 degrees 40 min- 

(Fraset'H Creeh, near Cape Mendocino.) otea west, 38 decrees 51 minutes north. 

Shelter Cove. abondaoL Bowen'a I,andtng. 

(Whale Gulcii to Needle Rock.) Gualala. 123 degrees 31 minutes west, 38 

Bear Landing, in moderate abundance. tlfcrees 40 minuti^s north. 

Usal, 123 degrees 50 minutes west, 40 (Del Mar to Stewarfs Point.) 

degrees north. Stewart's Point. 

(Rockport.) (Sail Point.) 

Mardie's Creek. (Fort Robs.) 

(Union Landing.) Itusfia^ River. 

Abalone Point. 123 degrees 48 tniuntes (Bodega Head.) 

west. 39 degrees 50 minutes north. (Tomales Point.) 

Brahels Point (!kIcRay's Point). Point Reyea, moderate abundance. 

(Kibeeillah Bock.) Diixbury Reef. 

iHare Creek and Beaver Point.) (Bolinas Point.) 

(Caspar, 30 degrees 11 minutes north, (Double Point.) 

123 degrees 49 minutes west.) 

From Point Saint George, the northernmost record, it was possible 
to obtain no live specimens, but Mr. Pranz of Cre-scent City contributed 
a shell which he had kept for some time as an unusual specimen. At 
Patrick's Point live specimens were taken, and they were abundant 
enough so that eight or nine might be obtained by searching diligently 
throughout a low tide. Not until Cape Mendocino was reached were 
there sufficient numbers to render the species of importance, while at 
Shelter Cove, about forty miles southward, there was an abundance. 
From that locality to Point Reyes it might be considered that there wais 
a slight increase in abundance when equally favorable situations werei, 
compared, and the effect of the relative amount of local use was con- 
sidered. At F'oint Reyes, the abalone has been obtained by divers, with 
apparatus enabling them to go to considerable depths, and it is probable 
that such metliods could be used as far north as Shelter Cove with 
success. 

Ealiotis cracherodii, the black abalone, reaches as far north as Point 
Arena, where an oeca-sional specimen is found by local men. But one 
was obtained from that loe^ity. They are also found at Dusbury 
Beef, and are reputed to be found now and then in the regions between 
Poiut Arena and San Francisco, hut no actual evidence was obtained. 
In no locality in northern California do they reach any abundance, 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAME. 



, from Point Arena, 



.Gooi^lc 



CAUFOBNU nSH AND GAHB. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



so CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAHB. 

however, whit-li wuuld justify calling them auything but rarities until 
Duxburj' Reef is reached, aud it is safe to say that they will never 
be of commercial importance. 

Haliotis walUUensts, Steams, is a small species distributed along the 
coast between Westport and the Russian River, a distance of about 
a hundred miles. Although it is often found in numbers sufficient 
to be of importance to local users, it is small and little valued save 
for the very beautiful shells. Despite the extensive use made of 
abalones, the species has, to our knowledge, only occasionally been 
found south of the Russian River, namely at Monterey, where it is 
regarded as a curiosity. 

It is here regarded as a species distinct from the green abalone of 
southern California, which it resembles in appearance. The type 
locality of the species is Qualala, where it was found by the writer in 
abundance, as aJso at Abalone Point near Westport. A single speci- 
men was obtained at the Bossian River, and one was obtained at 
Monterey from Mr. Ernest Dalder. Local inhabitants often fail to 
distinguish it from the young of the red abalone. It reaches, however, 
a length not greater than five and one-half inches, has five or six open 
holes (instead of the three or four of the red abalone), and the edges 
of these holes are not elevated. 

In conclusion, it is evident that there is but the one species of 
importance found in northern California, namely, the red abalone. 
and all the commercially valuable beds of tliat are found south of 
Shelter Cove, over slightly more than half the length of the coast 
between San Francisco and the Oregon line. 



SOME NOTES ON DBT-FLY FISHINa. No. S. 

By E. L. M., California. 

I do not believe that any one will disagree with the statement that 
it requires a little more skill to cast and deliver a dry fly properly 
than is needed to throw a wet flj-. Such being the case, what are the 
principal factors that tend to promote or assist the skill thus demanded ? 
There are several, among which the rod is one of the most important. 

It is true that Mr. G. A. B. Dewar ("The Book of the Dry Fly." 
London, 1897) is rather inclined to underrate the efficacy of first-class 
equipment. He writes: "It is not the rod so much as the hand 
which wields it that kilb the trout." There is no doubt about the 
correctness of this statement, and if we were all as skillful as the 
talented author of this book, no more would need be said on the subject 
of rods. 

But unfortunately very few of us are able to devote more than a 
much too brief period to the delights of angling, and such being the 
case it behooves us to take everj' advantage that we can and to obtain 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OAUPOEtNIA FISH AND OAHB. 



51 



everything that will enable us to meet the trout on a more even foot- 
iug. Therefore we should equip ourselves with the best that modem 
ingenuity and skill can produce. 

Casting or throwing the line out over the water is performed by 
the action of the rod which gets its initial impetus from the hand of 
the fisherman. 




Fia. 19. Dissrama iliowlng the mci^hanlcs at fly castlnK- Allhoueh the tip of the 
rod may be moving at the same spider] In a, b, and c. yet in the Aral Instance only 
would the line be properly casL 

In figure 19 "a" is a diagram meant to represent the rod at two 
instantaneous moments, viz, at the beginning and the end of the stroke 
that is made when casting. The tip of the rod, to which the line is 
connected, moves from A to B. Now if we could move the tip of the 
rod from A to B with the same speed as in "a," but at the same time 
while doing this, move the lower point of the rod an equal distance, 
we should not be able to cast (see "b," figure 19) nearly as long a line 
as in the first ca.se. And if it were possible to make a motion with the 
rod similar to that illustrated in "e" of figure 19, we should find that 
to ail intents and purposes we could not cast the line out at all. Yet 
in all these three case.s the tip of the rod (to which the line is 
attached) would be moving through the air at the same speed. From 
the foregoing we can deduce that something more than plain motion 
of the tip of the rod is required in casting, and by regarding "a" 
again we shall decide that circular, or as it is called in mechanics, an 
angular motion of the rod is necessary to propel the line. But why 
does this angular motion produce results when the others fail? The 
answer is found in "a" of figure 20. The weight of the line and 
other causes prevent the tip of the rod from moving in synchronism 
with the lower parts and by the time the end of the stroke has been 
reached the rod is bent to the fullest extent that is possible for the 



_nOO<^lc 



52 



CAUPOENIA PISH AND OAUB. 



particular weight or lengrth of line being used for that individual case. 
The position of the rod at the end of the stroke is similar to that of a 
bent spring, ready to fly back to its unstrained or natural position 
{i. e., strught). . .^ 'I 





_.. ._. ; poBltlons of the fly rod when In action, showing the "aiiap." 

It [B the recovery o( the tip similar to the action of a bent spring that furnishes the 
necessary impelus to the line. In b the action Is too slow to be very effective, due 
to the bending qualities of the pole. 

It is the recovery of this bent spring that furnishes the necessary 
impetus to the line. An absolutely stiff rod with no bend to it at 
all would cast a line, but not any length of line to speak of, and it 
would be a very tiring rod to use. On the other hand a rod with 
unlimited bending qualities would be too slow in action to be very 
effective (figure 20 "b"). 

While we have figure 20 fresh in our memories, and before going 
on to the other matters, I may remark that this illustration helps to 
demonstrate the correct manner of making a stroke with a fly rod. 
The casting stroke (whether backward or forward) should be ^rted 
slowly, the speed should be continually increased to the end, where a 
more or less abrupt stop is made. This can only be done if the rod 
is held tightly or firmly by the hand. 

When fishing with a wet fly all that we have to do is to lift the line 
off the water and cast it back again (figure 21 "a." But when using 
a dry fly, nine times out of ten we have to dry the fiy before returning 
it to the water. This means that instead of finishing off the forward 




PIO. 81. Dlai 
fly In dry-fly an 

behind the angli 

stroke as at "8," figure 21 "a," we must be able to check the line 
before it reaches the water and return it behind us again. This is 
what is known as a "false cast" and it may be necessary to make four 
or five or even more false casts before the fly is dry enough to float 
once again. Figure 21 "c" illustrates the manner in which the 
forward stroke is checked when making a false cast. 



Jioo'^lc 



CAUFOBNIA msa AND OiUB. 63 

it ia in the making of these false casts that the virtues of a dry-fly 
rod become apparent. Quite a number of people think that the only 
difference between a dry-fly rod and a wet-fly rod is that the former 
costs more than the latter. Such, however, is not the case by any 
meaos. If we want a rod capable of extending a line of any length 
backwards and forwards in the air, we must have a rod that is able to 
impart the necessary impetus to the line with the lea^t amount of 
angular motion possible. 

In flgure 22 I have shown the diiference between the actions of a 
wet and a dry-fly rod ; both are supposed to have an equal length and 
weight of line attached to them. Now it will be noticed that owing to 
the greater bending of the wet-fly rod, somewbat more vertical motion 
is imparted to the line than is the case with the dry-fly rod. In practice 
(i. e., when fishing) this extra vertical motion would mean that when 
nsing a wet-fly rod for dry-fly fishing there would be a probability that 
the fly, when being dried, would either strike the water in front, or 




F(0. S2. DIagramB Bhowlng the dlflerence In action between the wet nnd dry-fly 
rod. Owlns to the greater bending of the wet-fly rod a. more vertical motloit Is 
Imparted to the line than Is the case with the diySy rod. 

catch Up in the grass behind the angler; whereas, the same length of 
line could be easily extended in both directions without any danger of 
such mishaps if a good dry-fly rod was substituted for the wet-fly rod. 
A dry-fly rod is able to accomplish this because it has more resUienee 
or more snap to its spring than a wet-fly rod has. We may therefore 
conclude that there is something more than a mere matter of price 
between a wet and a dry-fly rod. This difference is a structural 
difference and it consists of making the lower portion of a dry-fly rod 
much stiffer, i. e., less susceptible to bending than is the case with a 
wet-fly rod. Then again the middle section should be stronger or 
stiffer, because in the dry-fly rod the effective bending portion of the 
rod has to be concentrated within a shorter length than in a wet-fly 
rod. In both these lower sections the extra or added strength can only 
be obtained by putting more material, whether cane or wood, into the 
rod ; but when we come to the uppermost portion or the tip, this must 
be delicate enough to enable us to use the very finest of leaders. It is 
a fact that a skillful dry-fly man uses finer leaders to land fish of two 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



54 CAUFOENIA FISH AND OAHB. 

pounds and over than the wet-fly man wonld eare to U8e for the 
capture of trout of a quarter of a pound or leas. 

Now when we carefully consider the necessary qaalifications 
demanded of a dry-fly rod together with the fact that the weight must 
be kept down to very small proportions, is it any wonder that all this 
refinement means a somewhat higher price for a dry-fly rod than is 
asked for the other type of rod? I do not want any one to run away 
with the idea that I am criticising wet-fly Ashing. We are all familiar, 
at least I presume all my readers are familiar, with wet-fly fishing, and 
I am using wet-fly methods solely as a basis for comparison. For 
instance, I might say "John is a very tall man." But that does not 
give any very exact information; but if I said "John is six inches 
taller than Henry" it would not necessarily mean that Henry was short 
(he might be a six-footer) ; but it would give one a very clear idea 
as to just exactly how tall John really was, provided of course that he 
was familiar with Henry, 

Each method, i. e., wet or dry, has its own particular field of action, 
and when fish can be caught with the wet fly it is a needless refinement 
to attack them with a dry fly; but when once a man has used the dry 
fly successfully, the tendency is, owing to its wonderful fascination, to 
continue the use of the dry fly whenever and wherever it is possible. 

After having thus, sueeessfully I hope, cleared my skirts of imputa- 
tion of criticism or aloofness to the wet-fly school, I will continue the 
original theme. 

The best length of rod for all-around dry-fly work will be found to be 
nine feet and six inches. If, however, most o£ one's fishing will be 
done on small streams where long casts are the exception, this length 
can be reduced by six inches. Do not expect to get a rod of the length 
first mentioned of featherweight lightness. Somewhere between five 
and six ounces will be as light a rod as it is possible to get and still 
maintain the necessary strength required. A nine-foot rod will be 
possibly one ounce lighter. Our grandsires u.sed much longer and 
heavier rods. Francis Francis ("A Book on Angling," 1867) mentions 
four rods ranging in weight from 13 ounces, 4 drams to 14 ounces, 6 
drams and in length from 11 feet, 7 inches to 12 feet, 8 inches. He, 
however, preferred a double-handed rod for his own use and he men- 
tions two favorites, viz. 14 feet, 6 inches and 15 feet, 2 inches long. 
Lord Grey remarks on the wonderful accuracy with which Mr, Francis 
cast a small fly with such a large rod (p. 113, "Fly Fishing," London, 
1899). 

The reason why we are today using such shorter rods than formerly 
is chieflv owing to the introduction of the six-piece split cane rod. 

David Foster ("The Scientific Angler," London, 1882) draws a com- 
parison between the length of rods used in Walton's time and that of 
those which we use now, Charles Cotton, who wrote the second part of 
"The Complete Angler," and which was incorporated in the fifth 
edition (1676), gives five or six yards as being the best length for a 
fly rod which should be "made of fir wood for the two or three lengths 
nearest the hand and of other wood nearer the top." What that "other 
wood" was history does not relate. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OALIPORNIA FISH AND QAHB. S5 

Richard Brookes ("The Art of Angling." 1740) says practically 
nothing about rods, but Thomas Best, who wrote another "Art of 
AngtinET'" 1787, specifies in bia quaint way. 

Ash 7 feet 

Hazel - 7 feet 

Tew 2 feet 

Whalebone 6 inches 

16 feet 6 inches 

In my copy, which is the fifth edition {1802), the same lengths and 
materials are given but not in this peculiar form, which reminds one of 
bookkeeping. 

The action of these old-time rods was what we Rhould call "very 
slow." By that I mean that when bent they were very slow in recover- 
ing to a straight position. Such being the case, it was necessary to have 
a long rod if the fiy was to be cast any distance at all to speak of. 
Pnrthermore the rods could not begin to carry lines of the weight we 
use today. Id Walton's time hair lines were used; during the early 
part of the nineteenth century a line of mixed hair and silk was the 
best that could be got, but when solid braided and dressed silk lines 
came in all the others were relegated to the scrap pile. 

In connection with these ancient rods it is extremely interesting to 
read about the importance these old-time authors placed on the direction 
r.f the wind. It was a sine qiia non with them lo have it at their back. 
Some of them assert that it is impossible to cast against the wind, but 
even when they do admit that it can be done, they say it is a very 
diflS«ult feat to accomplish successfully and warn the beginner against 
trying to do it. Everybody, however, did not use these double-handed 
rods. Colonel Hawker, in the fewest possible words, votes for a single- 
handed rod 12 feet 3 inches long; Pulman ("Vade Mecum," 1841) 
selects a "small rod about 11 feet long" and Francis Popham, who was 
a member of The Houghton Fishing Club from 1822 to 1858, was noted 
as having always fished with a single-handed rod. 

Up to the time of the introduction of the elose-grained tropical or 
subtropical woods there was no very great progress made in reducing 
the length of fly rods; but when the.se woods made their appearance, 
rod makers were not long in discovering their adaptability for light 
flv-casting rods. Oreenhart, which is the best of all wood for this 
purpose (Wells "Fly Bods and Fly Tackle," N. Y., 1885), was first 
mentioned by Stewart in his "Practical Angler" (1857), but he 
classes it with logwood as being too "brittle and heavy," from which 
we must conclude that the greenhart he had in mind was not a par- 
ticularly good specimen. 

Mr. W. A. Hunter, manager for C. Farlow & Company, St. James 
Square, London, W., writes as follows in connection with this wood : 

Greenhart is not meDtioned in the oDiciBl rerords of Che Ictematioiial Bihibilion 
in 1851, and thotiih our firm exhibited roda tbeo, the kind of wood used ia not 
raentlooed, and ne nave no clear records left of that lime. 

It would seem from the above (taken in conjunction with Stewart's 
remarks) "that greenhart was first used in the manufacture of fishing 
rods somewhere about 1850-1857." ,- 



5S CALIFOBKU rtSH AND GAME. 

I have quoted Mr. Hunter, because of the fact that Parlow & Com- 
pany have for years had a very great reputation for their greenhart 
rods. 

A really good greenhart rod is a delightful weapon with which to 
cast ordinary fishing distances, and some of the men who have used 
them for a long time can not be induced or made to believe that thrre 
is something better than greenhart. The disadvantage of greenhart 
and all wooden rods is that in our dry climate they may in time become 
brittle, and when least expected and nearly always at an inopportune 
time, they have a habit of breaking off ^ort at the junction of the 
wood and a ferrule. A well-made split cane rod will never break if 
treated as it should be. Whenever a man is seen at the waterside with 
a broken split cane rod, there are only two possible reasons for the 
fracture r one is that the rod was a worthless piece of goods to begin 
with, and the other is that the owner used it for something for ivhich 
it was never intended. 

With the modern six-strip cane rod, owing to its strength and 
resiliency, it is possible to east a heavy line, to cast it to distimces 
undreamt of by the earlier generations of anglers, and furthermore to 
cast across or right into the teeth of any wind short of a hurricane. 

The only advantage that a long rod can have over a short one is that 
more command may be had over a booked fish ; but the rod is not the 
weak link in the chain ; the weakest link is the extremity of the fine gut 
leader ; that is really the factor that decides how much force we can use, 
and not the strength or length of the rod. 

For comfort in fishing the handle or hand grasp should be made 
large enough so that no part of the hand is in contact with any metal. 
Furthermore the diameter of the handle should be such that the muscles 
of the hand do not become cramped by holding the rod. A rod handle 
that may seem comfortable enough for wet-fly fishing becomes a veritable 
torture if used for dry-fly casting owing to the fact that we have to 
cast so much more frequently. I refer to the false casts necessary to 
dry the fly. A properly shaped handle does not exactly add to the 
artistic lines of the lower extremity of the rod, but it is an infinitely 
pleasanter thing to fish with. It is a very great mistake to imagine 
that a rod can be made effectively lighter by paring down the handle. 
The balance of the rod is obtained by the weight of the reel and fre- 
quently, in fact nearly always, the reel and the line on it are not 
quite heavy enough to give a correct balance. If we take a rod into 
our hands and, without attaching the reel, we make a few strokes in the 
air with it, we at once notice that it feels top-heavy, or in other words 
there is a distinct sensation of weight felt. Now attach a reel or any 
other form of weight to the reel seat. The heavy feeling that the rod 
had has now vanished, or else it is not so noticeable. To arrive at a 
correct balance it is best to attach a moderate weight first and gradually 
increase it until the top-heavy sensation has completely disappeared. 
But note this : SufBcicnt weight must not be added so as to induce a too 
lively feel to the rod. If this is done the rod will be " over-balaneed " 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFOBKIA FISH AND GAME. 57 

and althoagh the effort required in castiDg will be reduced to a miui- 
mnm, the accuracy and control of the line will be to a great extent loat. 

The fully equipped rod should balance at a point about three to five 
inches above the upper end of the handle (or hand grasp). There is no 
rule or formula by which this point can be found. The only satisfactory 
way is by the trial of various weights as already explained. When the 
correct weight has been found, deduct the weight of the reel and line 
from this, and make up the remainder by an equal weight of soft lead 
wire, which can be wound on to the empty spool o£ the reel before the 
line is wound on. The best type of reel to use is a contracted single 
action click (adjustable) one. With such a reel the line can be wound 
in as fast as with a multiplier; the spool is short or narrow but the 
diameter is lai^. The best that have been procurable up to the present 
have been the best grade of English made reels (See "Saturday Evening 
Post," August 9, 1919; "Very Efficient" Camp in "Fishing with 
Floating PUea," 1916; Geo. P. Holden "Stream Craft," 1919, says 
they "are exquisite"), but one of the leading American reel companies 
will shortly place a first class fly reel on the market. 

Charles Zibeon Southand, in "Trout Ply-Fishing in America," 1914, 
gives a table of lengths and weights of rods and the proper weight of 
reel to balance them. He bases his table on the supposition that the 
reel should weigh half again as much as the rod. Using this table as a 
starting point a four-ounce rod would call for a six-ounce reel. A 
Scinch reel will weigh about five ounces, which gives us one ounce 
of margin for the line. If this is not enough a eJiglitly smaller reel 
weighing less could be used. However, it will frequently be found that 
the very light rods need a lot of counterweight to properly balance 
them. 

A 9i-foot, 6-ounee rod that I use a great deal for dry-fly fishing is 
perfectly balanced by a total of 9 ounces made up of reel, line and lead 
wire, 

A tapered oil-dressed silk line is the only one to consider in connection 
with this kind of fly-fishing. These lines are prepared by soaking them 
in pure boiled, or cold pressed, linseed oil. Mr. Martin E, Hosely, one 
authority, advocates the former; and a description of his method will 
be found in Halford's "Dry-Fly Man's Handbook." A copy of this 
(i. e., the line dressing) appeared in "The American Angler," Decem- 
ber, 1918, under the heading "Dr&sa Tour Own Line." Another great 
authority on this subject, viz, Mr. W. D. Ooggeshall (an American and 
past president of The Ply-Fishers Club, London), writes in a recent 
issue of ' ' The Pishing Gazette ' ' : 

Never use air pntDp; almiys put line in hot oil; heat oil bo hot that it will burn 
your finger, put line in oil, keepini; heat up until air bubbles seem to rise; take oB 
the fire and allow line to cool in oil and hans liue up to dry. Belter to ttrcich line 
first, tbougb. To g«t a perfect surface applj cold oil when line is stretched and 
dried. Be sore tbat everf coat is tkorougkty drr before second coats are applied. 
ICub down amooth and polish with soft rag and talc powder. 

Mr. Ferry D. Prazier, of Ridgewood, N. J., who is the author of one or 
two books on angling matters, manufactures oil dressed lines that com- 
pare very favorably with the best imported article. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



58 CALIPOBNIA FISH AND OAUB. 

Different methods are used for gauging these tapered lines. Some 
manufacturers call them "\o. 1, 2, 3," etc. ; others use the alphabet and 
specify "D, E, F," etc. ; consequently unless we know the treujht of the 
line it is not much use saying that such and such a rod should have an 
"P" or "E" line, as the case may be. The line should fit the rod. 
By this I mean that the line should be sufficiently heavy to fully 
develop the easting power of the rod. If the line is not of sufficient 
weight when the casting stroke is made the rod will not be bent far 
enougli to fully develop its spring (see figure 20) and it will take 
considerably more effort to east the line than would be neeessarj- if 
the proper size or weight of line was used. On the other hand, a line 
that is too heavy for the rod will in a very short time completely niin it. 

For ordinary occasions, i. e., when the wind is not too strong, a 9-foot 
tapered leader is advisable. It should be tapered from fairly heavj- 
gut at the upper end down to the "finest undrawn" at the lower 
extremity. Finest undrawn gut is approximately the same sixe as X 
drawn gut; but the undrawn gut is about 15 per cent stronger than 
drawn gut of equal diameter. These undrawn gut leaders are very 
scarce and extremely hard to get hold of ; consequently most of us will 
have to be content with leadi'rs whose fine points are made of drawn 
gut. Drawn gut is listed hb X. XX, XXX, etc., but anything less thau 
XXX is rather too fine for the sort of fish we hope to catch. I might 
mention, however, that trout of over five pounds have been caught on 
XXX leaders. 

When a strong wind is blowing the length of the leader should be 
reduced to 7i ot- even 6 feet, but do not make this reduction by cutting 
off from one or other end of the leader. Get these short leaders made 
up just the same as the longer ones, i. e., fully tapered from end to end. 
I do not believe there is any economy in buying gut in hanks and mak- 
ing up one's own leaders. To make up a good tapered leader several 
hanks of gut would be required. 

There are 100 strands in each hank and if they were all made up 
into leaders we should probably iiave about 70 or 80 leaders on hand. 
Gut does not improve with age; consequently long before we got to the 
end of our leaders we should find that they were beginning to deteriorate 
and in all probability the last few dozen would have to be thrown 
away, thus wiping out at once any paper profit that might have been 
theoretically possible. Some people will tell you that they always make 
up their own leaders and that bought leaders are no good. There is 
hut one answer to this and it is: Where did they buy these poor leadersT 
If leaders are obtained from reputable houses and a good price is paid 
for them they will be all that any one can desire and much better than 
99 per cent of us could make for ourselves. I always aim to use up 
my leaders every season and not to carrv- any over to the next; then I 
know that the leaders I am using are the best that can be got and are 
not weakened in the least by age. There are several substitutes for gut. 
They generally have queer sounding names and are not as strong as gut 
of equal diameter. They are more opaque than gut, and when they get 
wet they become so soft and limp that they do not lay the fly out over 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALBWItNIA PrSH AND OAMB. 59 

the water properly ; therefore, they are not to be thought of in connec- 
tion with dry-fly fishing. 

There are several other appliances peculiar to dry-fiy fishing and I 
will mention them briefly. The first is the "line greaser" which is a 
little folded leather pad which has several sheets or folds of cloth inside. 
These are liberally doped with some grease, such as red deer fat, 
Dmeilio, vaseline, or mutton fat. Before commencing to fish the line 
(not the leader) is rubbed down with the greaser in order that when it 
is east it will float on top of the water. Then there is the oiling device. 
This may be a small atomizer, or a little bottle with a small brush, or a 
small metal box with some felt pads well soaked with the oil used to 
assist the fly in floating. Oil is not necessary to make the fly float. 
Before it was used flies were made to float and some men still refuse to 
use it 1 but all said aud done, oil is a wonderful help. When it is used 
a fly will never become quite as wet as it will if it has not been annointed, 
and furthermore a wet fly that has been oiled can be dried much quicker 
than an unoiled fly. The dry-flies are kept in a box and not in a book, 
because they should not be crushed. There are numerous kinds of fly 
boxes on the market and I hope to give illustrations of several of them 
in one of the future series of these notes. 

A landing net is one thing that can not be dispensed with. It should 
be large and have a handle of fair length. There are a number of 
folding nets on the market. Some are too small for anything but very 
little ^sh. A span of sixteen inches across the mouth of the net is not 
too much, and the net itself should be at least twenty inches deep. It 
is much better to have a landing net of the large size than to have one 
that is too small. Imagine the feelings of a flsherman with a five-pound 
trout ready to land, and a net so small that it would be difficult to lift 
out the fish with it even if the fish were dead. The l>est thing to do in 
this case is to throw the net away and pull out a handkercliief and, 
taking this in your hand, lift out the fish; but be quite sure the fish is 
all in before you try to do so. 

And finally there is the creel or basket in which to put the fish we 
expect to catch. Get a good-sized one, one that will take a two-pound 
trout without bending the fish. Above all things get one that is not 
easily opened, for two reasons: if it open.s easily it may act without 
your knowledge and dump some of your fish on the scenery; and if it is 
easily opened some inquisite stranger may casually open it when there 
are no fish inside for the I. S. to admire and for the owner to feel 
proud of. 

Having briefly described the implements ust^'d in the art, I propose 
to give a demonstration of their use in the next issue of 0.\lifobnia 
Pish and Game, which will be before the public just about the begin- 
ning of the vacation season. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



60 CAUFORNU FISH AND QAHE. 

THE MULLET FISHERIES OF SALTON SEA. 

By Will F. Thompson and Baboio C. Bbt&nt. 

The Salton Sea is, in reality, a portioD of the Gulf of California, cut 
off by the enlargement of the delta of the Colorado River. It has been, 
consequently, evaporated to relatively high salinity during each of the 
long periods when the Colorado River emptied its waters into the gulf. 
Geologists believe, in fact, that the river has periodically emptied its 
fiood in to the Salton Sea, raising its level, and estending its area, just 
as it did during 1906. At present the Colorado is prevented from doing 
this by the dikes along its banks, built in order that the Imperial Valley 
may be safe, and that it may be irrigated, but the irrigating canals carry 
a certain amount of waste water into the sea. There are, in addition, 
fresh water springs, notably one called Fish Spring, which pour con- 
siderable amounts of fresh water into the sea. 

Little is known about the fisheries of the Salton Sea before the last 
break in the jetties of the Colorado River. In 1905 the water of the 
Colorado River poured down what are now known as the New and 
Alamo rivers in a great flood wbieh carried 160,000,000 cubic feet of 
water into the sea daily. The result was a great enlargement of the 
sea and the extensive freshening of its waters. The extension of the 
sea buried the Southern Pacific lines along its shores, covered tJie 
adjacent territory which at that time was beginning to be placed under 
cnltivation, and threatened great financial loss to the Southern Pacific 
Company, which owned alternate sections of land throughout the ter- 
ritory. In 1906 the break was closed by the Southern Pacific Company, 
after a spectacular struggle. It was through this break that the fishes 
now, or recently, present, entered the Salton Sea. 

During the earlier portion of the period sinoe 1906, considerable 
numbers of "carp," if the indenttfication of others than scientists be 
trusted, were to be found in the sea, and some eight years ago a 
promoter started a company with the idea of using these carp, and 
other fresh water fish, for oil and fertilizer. Having built the proper 
buildings, installed machinery and launched boats in the sea, the com- 
pany was unable to operate because it was unable to find sufficient fish. 
At this time, Captain Chas. Davis, who came originally from New Eng- 
land and was familiar with fidieries of all sorts from an extensive 
experience on all our coasts, went to Salton Sea to investigate the likeli- 
hood of extensive fisheries being built up. His report was adverse. 
The company for some time endeavored vainly to dispose of the equip- 
ment, but was unable to until they accepted Davis' offer of $500. The 
latter then scrapped all the machinery, turned the buildings into a 
pleasure resort for the people of the valley, and took up land in the 
vicinity when the sea had subsided sufBciently. The buildings are now 
more than a mile from the sea. 

However, five years ago, in 1915, mullet {Mugil cephalus) began to 
appear in the sea, and Davis placed weirs of wire netting along the 
shallow shores of the sea to impound them. He was able to obtain a 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



OAUFORNU nSH AND QAHB. 61 

large amount of fish at times, but could not develop a market for 
tliem at the time, even in Los Angelee and San Francisco. At- 
tempts to sell the fish in the Im- 
perial Valley were fruitless, the 
fish being named "cow-carp" and 
regarded as very poor. These at- 
tempts, however, laid the founda- 
tion for a later very good demand. 
The approach to Captain Davis' 
land being cut off by the overflow 
from irrigation ditches, he was 
prevented from pursuing the fish- 
ery until the last year, but certain 
Japanese and Greeks did catch 
considerable quantities, using much 
of the mullet for oil, and shipping 
some to market. The Greeks still 
operate. In the last year Captain 
Davis has again begun shipping 
mullet, catching them by means of 
halibut trammel nets. The catches 
during the winter months by two 
men using eight trammel nets of 
thirty fathoms length each, com- 
prise but 250 or 300 pounds daily, 
taken in the vicinity of the mouths 
of the rivers, in shallow water. 
These fish are landed and shipped 
from Niland to Los Angeles or San 
of^the saiton^sea, im- * ranciseo. Captain Davis receives 
.... .. „^-.._f3p^ ^^ cents per pound for the fish at 

the station. 

The recession of the sea has made considerable trouble so far as 
landing the catch is concerned. As the fall is only about four feet per 
mile, there are great flats covered with water only sis or eight inches 
deep, in which a boat can not easily be moved. Captain Davis has in 



Fro, 23. Captain Chac 

perial County, C 
by IL C. Bryant 



,,lc 



62 CALtFOBNIA PISH AND OAUE. 

a measure overcome the diflBciiIty by making a shallow canal, up which 
his boat can be pulled part way by means of a picket line and the 
remainder of the way can be pulled with a tow line. 

According to Captain Davis mullet are found in different loeations 
in the sea at different seasons. During part of the year they are found 
in great numbers on the west shore of the sea in grass which grows 
profusely there and upon which they feed, being vegetarians. On a 
visit to Bird Islands, on the west shore of the sea, on December 18, 
1919, there was no evidence of mullet, and yet at times large numbers 
are said to be caught in this vicinity. 

The fish are at present of very lai^e size indeed, being between two 
and two and one-half feet in length. The flesh is oily in the extreme, 
yielding fully a quart of clear oil to 
the ten pounds of fish. This oil, of 
ft delicate flavor, renders the canned 
mullet a delicacy, and samples put 
up by a Los Angeles firm were 
found to be very palatable. The 
fact that the fish is delicious should 
have been expected because of the 
very high esteem in which it has 
been held from ancient times, 
domesticated mullet being known 
in Europe since the times of the 
Romaus. The species is found all 
along our coasts, from Monterey 
scuthward, and occasional schools 
are taken in every sheltered lagoon 
or bay, as well as occasionally up 
the rivers in what is really entirely 
fresh water. Its occurrence in the 
Colorado River is not highly re- 
markable, and its transference to 
the Salton Sea would have been ex- 
pected by anyone familiar with its 
habits. 

There is also present in the Sal- 
ton Sea a species of top-minnow 
CyprinodoH macularius, which is 
found in the streams and springs of the desert throughout Southern 
California and parts of Mexico. They are said to be abundant in the 
sea at times, and specimens were obtained for us from there and from 
Pish Spring by Captain Davis. 

It is, indeed, very questionable whether the mullet will exist for any 
length of time. The carp, and other fresh-water fish in the sea, died 
gome years ago, according to Captain Davis' recollection, after a heavy 
blow which mixed the waters, drifting them ashore in great quantities. 
During the past two years there have been statements made to the effect 
that the mullet also have been found on certain shores of the lake in 
great quantity, apparently dead from poisonous waters. It is certain, 
moreover, that the sea has been steadily falling, at the rate of 4^ feet 
yearly, and as the sea is everywhere shallow (perhaps 25 or 30 feet 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAMB. 63 

deep) it is plain that it can not last long at such a rate of fall. Analysis 
of the water at a distance from river mouths shows it to be three or four 
times the salinity of ocean water. The water, moreover, is nut merely 
saline. If such were the ease, it is probable that the mullet, a salt water 
fish, would survive indefinitely. But as a matter of fact the water is 
fed from alkaline springs, and has in the past been alkaline in nature, 
so that the water must beeoiiie poisonous rather than merely salty. 
Regarding this, however, there is some question until chemists are able 
to analyze fair samples taken annually, but the probability is very great 
that the mullet will be unable to exist. 

The area near the center of the mullet fisheries should prove of great 
interest to the geologist. Mullet Island is a typical volcanic plug. At 
the edge of the island a number of hot springs boil out, leaving chemical 
deposits of several colors, similar to those of Yellowstone National Park. 
Captain Davis, by impounding the waters of thase springs, has suc- 
ceeded in obtaining' two different colored "paints," and in a third 
reser\-oir a pure deposit of rock salt Near the island are some mud 
volcanoes the cones of which are from five to eight feet in height. A 
spring in this vicinity also is geyserlike in action, boiling out with con- 
siderable velocity periodically. Ilecause of these natural phenomena 
the island is visited by lai^ numbers of people from the Imperial Val- 
ley every week. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAIJPORKIA PISH AND QAHE. 



CAUFOimiA FISH AND GAME 



A publlotlon ilaTOteil to ttut conaarrm- 
UoD et wild lUa uid publlahed quuterly 
by the Callfomta StBta Flail ftnd 0«ma 
Conunlaalon. 

8«Dt fnw to eltlMtia of ths BtaM ot Cali- 
fornia. Offered tn exchange (or omlthO' 
logical, mammaloglcal and •tmllar parlod- 
tcal* _ 

Tha artlclea publUhed In Caufobnu FUh 
AMD Qaus are not oopyrlsbted aad mar be 
raprodoeed in otber peifodlcali^ provided 
due credit la given the CalUoml* Flab and 
Qanie ComralMlon. Bdltora of newapapora 
«nd perlodicala an Invited to maka ub* ot 
pertinent malerlaL 

All nmterlal - for publication ahould be 
aent to H. C> Bryant, Muaaum of VtrU- 
brate Zoology, Berkeley, Cat. 



__ _. . hlng left 

to conMrve then we muit give up all of 
our Ideal of iport."— Emenon Hougb. 

ADDITIONAL GAME SANCTUARIES. 
Through an oversight the lUt of Cali- 
fomia'a game Eanctuariea a a given in the 
January number of California Fiau 
AND Came lacks tbe following: 



41 Los Angflps ■ 

IM I Kfrn 

3E ; Saotn Clare . 



.' N.MO 191» 



This adds a total of 107,620 > 
which Bbould have been iocluded io 
slalement, mabiug a total ia all ot 
3,107,520 acres. Sanctuary 4F was set 
aside especially lo protect the few ante- 
[oyie which may still exist in the eastern 
end of what is known as "Antelope Val- 
ley," in northern Los Angeles County. 

THE GAME WARDEN AT WORK. 

The scene is laid in one of the small 
national parks in the Southern Sierras. 
A slate game warden, on the look out for 
riolators, is camped within the park for 
the night. A shot is heard at dusk. 
The warden gets up early the next morn' 
in); and goes to the spot from which tbf 
shot was heard and there discovers blood 
upon the ground. A little search also 
discloses the entrails, head and skin of 
doe. Tbe warden hides the head and hide 
and mnkes his way to the camp of some 



woodsmen jnat ontside of the park. A 
found at the camp ia asked if he 
has any deer meat. He replies "No." 
The warden notes on the back ot the 
woodsman's hunting coat a large patch of 
blood, apparently made by carrying a deer 
camp. When questioned the woodsman 
es that he does not know what caused 
the spot ot blood. The warden asks per- 
lission to enter the cabin and make a 
search and is given this permission. On 
entering the cabin the warden discovers 
>ur sack filled vrith fresh veniwin. 
The woodsman then admita that his 
brother has killed a deer. He is then 
asked if tbe deer wu killed within tbe 
national park and la told that It waa not. 
rhe game warden then leads the woods- 
man to the spot where he had hidden tbe 
head and hide of the doe and the woods- 
man is made to admit the fact that the 
doe had t>een killed within the national 
park. The oatcome, of course, Is a heavy 
fine to the violator. 

In Calif oroia game wardens can tell 
you many such stories as the above. The 
violator ia nearly always a man ready to 
perjure himself and do anything to avoid 
a court sentence. Talk to a game war- 
den and you will soon discover that it is 
not the detective atone who mast be clever 
In sleuthing and in tbe gatbering of 
reliable evidence, for the game warden 
must not only act as police and proae- 
calor, but he must also be a clever de- 
tective, if he ia to bring violators to 



Dry years are coming to be viewed with 
grave apprehension by the angler, for he 
knows that bis sport is always curtailed 
by a lack ot water in the streams and 
lakes. Planting activities have been ctan- 
ing to naught as a result ot the lack of 
water. In many streams and lakes where 
large numbers of fish have been planted, 
and where a noticeable increase bas 
taken place, there has been a depletion In 
the abundance of fish due to drought. 
Two power reservoirs In the Southern 
Sierras, Huntington Lake and Shaver 
Lake, although heovity stocked in the 
past few years, will furnish but poor 
sngling the coming season because of the 
fact that thousands ot fish have died 



CALIFORNIA raSH AND QAHE. 



owing to tbe present low water and cod- 
Beqnent poor food suppl)'. Many streuna 
whan the; again run bank full will con- 
tain but a Bmall proportion of tbeir 
former stock of fisb. Gver; angler should 
look with favor od future storage reser- 
voir projects, for Id an increase of such 
reserTDirs lies a partial solution of tbe 
problem whicb presents itseif witb each 
dr; year and its cousequeDt low water. 

GOVERNMENT AND FISH AND 6AMK 
COMMISSION INAUGURATE FREE 
NATURE GUIDE SERVICE. 
So successful was the summer resort 
work ioaugurated by the California Fish 
and Game Commission at the Taboe re- 
sorts last summer, that it dt«w the atten- 
tion of the federal government, with the 
result that a similar nature guide service 
will be jnalalled in the Yosemite Valley 
the coming summer. The Superintendent 
of National Parks has secured the co- 
operation of the Fish and Game Commii- 
sion to the extent of the commission'c 
furnishing Dr. H. C. Bryant, who insti- 
tuted the work at the Tahoe resorts, for 
tbe work in Yosemite. Dr. Bryant will 
be assisted by Dr. Loye Holmes Miller, 
of the Southern Branch of Ihe University 
of California. 

B^veniog lectures dealing with wild life 
will be given at the various camps and 
trips afield will be conducted, including 
special trips for children. Office hours 
are to l>e arranged so that qnestioDs re- 
garding natural history can be answered. 
This sunmier resort work offers a splendid 
opportunity for the Fish and Game Com- 
mission to employ tbe educational method 
lists out of Bum- 
other way could 
In touch with so 
large a number of people in so short a 
period of time. 



mer vacationists. In n 



INHEMORZAM. 

CHESTER A. SCROGQS. 

Ws regret to announce the death af 
Deputy Chester A. Scraggs, whose 
death occurred January 29, 1S20, after 
a short lilneei at hie home In Loomla, 
Placer County. 

Deputy Scroggs was appointed 
•pedal deputy June IB, 1906, and regu- 



lar deputy Sapiember 1, 1911. He wae 
attached to the Sacramento Division, 
and for three years up to the time ol 
his death wae In charge of the launch 
patrol of the district. By hi* activity 
and thoroughness lie developed this 
arm of tht service up to Ite present 
stage of efflclency. 

Chester Scroggs was utterly fearless 
and resolute In the dlecharge of his 
duty. He believed' the flsh and game 
Uws wsre placed on the statute tracks 
to be enforced. There was no ob- 
stacle or hindronce too gre 

it. Nothing could deviate him from 
hie purpose. If he had a fault It wae 
over-ieaiousness— If that can be 
termed a fault. He had no censure 
for any but the slacker of duty. Still 
he was fair and conscientious In his 
dealings with violator* with whom he 
came in contact. They both feared 
and reapected him. 

At the time of hi* death he was 
forty years of age. He Is survived by 
a widow and two small children, a 
hoy and a girl, also a sister. He wac 
a member of the Masonic fraternity 
and the Order of Elks. 

He Is mourned by his many friend* 
In private life and hi* brother workers 
on the Fish and Game Commission. 



FOREST NESBITT. 

Deputy Fish and Game Commis- 
sioner Forest Nesbitt died of pneu- 
monia at his home in Sailnae, Friday, 
March B, 1920, after only a few days 
illness following a severe cold con- 
tracted while on patrol duty. 

Mr. Nesbitt was appointed Deputy 
Fish and Game Commissioner, Decem- 
Ler 1, 1917, after qualifying by civil 
service examination. During his time 
of service, he proved his fitness for 
the trust that was Diaced In him. 
Hit tra 



for 


many years 


gave him 


pre 


vioue 


exp 


erlcnce that 


was of the 








prosecution 


his 


fair- 




s was apparent. No one was taken 


Int 


court unless 


their guilt 








. Believing 


n the stric 


enf 




hie 


t of the law 




wild 


life. 


cpJr 


pllance witl. 


he faXTn^every 


*sec- 


tlo 


to which his 


work took 


him 





To the fatht , _. _. 

others that were near and dear to 
him, the Commiisloner* and feliow- 
empioyees extend their heartfelt sym- 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHE. 



FOREST OFFICERS' REPORTS. 

For sevpral yeara post the Forpst Serv- 
ice has, through the medium of annual 
reports from each supervisor, furnished 
valuable information as to the distribulJOD 
and past and present stains of Qsli and 
game. Durinic the cominic year forest 
officers are to furnish informatioD accord- 
inj[ to the following outline recent^- sub- 
mitti^d to them. As eau lie seen the out- 
Hue emphasizes kuowledne as to distri- 
bution and life history of the more notable 
species. 



A. Big Oame. 

Moose, elk. antelope. mouDtaln sheep, 
white-tailed deer, black-laiied deer, black 
and brown bear, silver tip or gT\z3.iy bear. 
Mating and breeding habits, number and 
care of young, food and range at various 
seasons of the year, coodltiou and abund- 
ance, diseases and eflfect of climatic 
ditions, nitting season, when young 
horn, when are horns fhed, an^ other 
aring upon Ihp jf— -"■■■■li"- 

^ or its adaDtabitil 

work. 

B. Game Birds. 

Ducts end gecEie and other waterfowl, i 
any : grouse, eive exact species found 
quail, partridge, pheasants, ptarmigan, 
etc. Anything relative to their breeding 
and nesting season and habit». When 
eggs are laid and number of young, 
abundance or scarcity. 

C. Small Qamc. 

Kabbits. tree squirrels. Their relation 
to forestry and value as game animals. 
abundnnce. or scarcity, need for protec- 

D. Tur Bearing AnImaii. 

Species found in locality, breeding 
habits, season when fur is prime and 
value. Any available information as to 
thp extent of the local trapping industry. 
Special attention to beavers. 

E. lni«ctlvorou> and Song Bird*. 

rJst various siwcies found together 
with all interestinE information at hand 
concerning life history nnd habits. 

F. Predatory Animals. 

Wolves. coyoteK, mountain lions, foxes 
(various species found t, wild cats, lynxes, 
etc. Kjiecifie eases of loss by predatory 
animals. 

Damage done by these species to game. 
.\bundoncp or scarcity. IlanGc and fooii 
Ht various seasons. Any useful informa- 
tion in exterminnliDg them not hitherto 
reiiorled. 

(Xole— Several of the siK " 
' ■* ' ' r F 



Q. Predatory Birds. 

Eagles, hawka. etd various apedes 
found. Amount of damage they do to 
eame animals and birds. Life histoir and 



Othi 



Trout — rainbow, eastern brook, native 
nd others. Bass — small and large moQtb. 
le fish — abundance or scarcity of 
q>awning season, migrstion. 
of water best adapted to each, 
of fish ladders and screens. Infonna- 
as to any successful device tor scrcen- 
headgates or ditches is especially de- 



Si" 



Streams needing stocking; number of 
tish needed for each, with specific shipping 
instructions. Cost to Forest Service, 
amount of cooperation, eta 

PISTBIBVTION. 
In submitting the above teport. infor- 
mation which will extend the known 
ranees of the following mamiDals and 
birds is very much desired. Below you 
will find a list giving you a brief sum- 
mary of the range of each spedes. If 
you locate definite records of the occur- 
rence ot any of these birds or mammals 
outside of the limits given, do not fail to 
submit evidence. The best eviilence is a 
specimen. Ship specimens direct to II. C. 
Bryant, Museum o[ Vertebrate Zoology. 
Berkeley, ('.alifomia, by express, carefully 
marked "specimens for scientific pur- 
poses." We are especially anxious to get 
Biiecimens of deer taken in San Luis 
tibispo and Santa Barbara, counties and 
throughout the Sierras to outline more 
accurately the range of various species. 
Specimens should be taken during the opeit 

Permits will tie issued on ap- 

L for protected species. 

White- tailed Deer. 

Rnnflc— Said to have formerly occurred 
1 extreme Eastern and Northeastern 
alifomia, chiefly in the Modoc region. 
"' ; by hunters, but no verified 



Colun 



1 Slack .tailed Deer. 



Ifangr — Xorthwest coast region, chiefly 

the Transition (yellow pine belt) and 

areal (Lodgepole pine belt upward) 

nes : east throughout the inner coant 

ranges to the Sacramento Valley, and at 

(he north to and including Mount Shasta 

and near vicinity; south to the north side 

of San Francisco Bay. 



Soutliei 



< Blac 



ailed Deer. 



lay also be di 



ssed under Fur Bearing 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORNIA PISH AND OAUE. 



from Stio FraDcJaco Bay I h rough the 
SantA C'nii district, at least inio Monterey 
and San Benito 



Rocky Mountain Mula Oaar. 

Range — Eastem CaliFomia, including 
main Sierra Nevada south into Kero 
(rountf and north to vtdnity of Mount 
I>as8eD. tbence northeast through the Mo- 
doc region. Western limit at extreme 
north. Mount Shasta (Kowiey, M. S.). 
Not in the desert ranges east of Owens 
Valley picept in winter. Occurs in sum- 
mer on the high Sierras up to timberliue : 
in winter most numerous in the footliil]s. 
CallfornU Mule Dttr. 

Range — Upper Sonoraa and Transition 
zones of Southern CaliforDla west of the 
desert proper, from the Meiican line 
northwest throueh the San Diegan district 
at least to ISan Luis Obispo Conoty, and 
east through the Tejon region to the 
Tehachapi Moim tains. 
Oeacrt Mute D*«r. 

Range — Imperial Valley. 
NorthwMtern Timber Woll. 

Rattgr — Xorlhem California, and south 
along the Sierra Nevada. Now rare or 
eitinct. The number of records (e. g., 
I'rice. Zoe. 4. 18IM. p. 331) and reports 
from the region specified carries convic- 
tion tbat a wolf of some form baa oc- 
curred as above indicated. But lack of 
specimens brings doubt as to tbe race 
represented. 
Sierra Nevada Wolv«rlne. 

Kiinjj*-— Boreal zone on the Sierra Ne- 
vada, frcon tbe vicinity of Mount l^hasln, 
south through I.,ake Taboe region to 
Monacbe Meadows, Tulare County. 
VeMow.halrad Pore u pin*. 

Konfff— -High Transition (yellow pine 
belt) and Boreal (Lodgepole pine belt 
i-pwardl zones along Ibe Sierra Nevada, 
from Mount Shasta to the vicinity of 
Mount Whitney. 
Sierra Orousa. 

Range — Common resident of coniferous 
limber in tbe upper TrauHilion and Can- 
adian zones of northern California from 
Mount Shasta south along tbe inner coast 
ranges at least to .Mount Sauhedrin. and 
along the Sierra Nevada south through 
the Moiinl Whitney region to llie I'iute 
Mountains. Kem County. Also on the 
Warner Mountains of Slodoc t'oiinty, on 
tbe White Mountains. Mono County, and 
on Mount I'iaos, \'entura County. 



Orlizly Bur. 

Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

Furmer range — Oeeurred formerly as 
a fairly common resident on tlie Transi- 
tion plains of the Modoc region ; Canoe 
(■reek, W miles northeast of Fort Bead- 
ing, and upper Pit River; Camp Bidwell. 



Sandhllt Crane. 

(Especially record of nesting.) 
Range — Fairly common summer visitant 
to tbe northward interiorly: nt least a 
few winter in the San Joa<iuio Valley. 
Itecorded as breeding in tbe northeastern 
comer of the state : summer records also 
from Alpine Meadows of the Northern 
Sierras (several records), and from the 
San Joa<|uin Valley south to the Tulare 
Lake region. 



With tbe view tbat certain areas within 
the national forests may be set apart as 
game sanctuaries, a iiill was introduced in 
the I'nited Statfa Senate on June 21. 
rjltf, by Senator Nelsou, looting toward 
tbe dedication of more of tlie national 
lands to conservation purposes. The 
national parks and monuments have fur 
some time bet'n set apart as game refuges, 
and the bill in question would also set 
apart sections of tbe nationui forests to 
the preservation of our wild life. This 
bill rovers practically Ibe same points as 
a bill previously introduced by Senator 
(.'bamlwrlain, hut which never came to a 
vote by tbe Senate. Tlie Nelson bill 
covers the following propositions : 

Section 1. A federal law empowering 
the secretary of agriculture to select areas 
in national forests suitable fur - - 



tbe» 



. be ( 



tablished by presidential proclamation but 
with the approval of the governor of each 
state : and to be so locatei) that (hcf shall 
not prevent the allowiug of grazins or 
other useji thereof as are in conformity 
with the laws ai)p]i('able to Qaiional 
forests. 

Sec. 2. rroliibiting the bunting or 
other destruction of game within such 
sanctuaries, except as ulberwise in the act 
provltled, and providing penalties for the 
violation of such provision. 

Sec. 3. Administration of the pro- 
visions of the B<'t to be vented in the 
'ecrelary of agriculture, with power to 



ment b.v the secretary of agriculture of 
boundaries and for postings showing the 
location thereof and warning tbe public 
of the prohibition of hunting tbcrem. 

Sec. ri. Setting forth the purposes of 
the act ; That it is expedient to establish 
a large numl>er of sanctuaries of medium 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFOBNIA FISH AND GAME. 



BJie ratber Iban a few large preserreg. the 
ideal condition to be a cbaia oC aanct- 
Darie«. witb the view ol providing breed- 
ing places for game which will spread 
over adjacent and intervening territory, 
where it will be aubject to the regnlar 
open geason provided by law. 

There ia crying need for such a law 
aa this, for millione of acres of some of 
onr national forests are utterly destitute 
of eanoe, and great opportunities to 
create a vast annual supply of big game 
are being wasted b; lade of intelligent 
and resolute action. It ia to be sincerely 
hoped that tbig measure will not, like the 
Cbamberlain bill, be allowed to slumber 
in tbe archivea of Congress, but that some 
definite step will be taken. 

SAN DIEOO TO MAKE CLEAN SWEEP 
OF THE ENGLISH SPARROW. 

The city of San Diego resolved that 
sbe would rid herself of ihe English 
sparrow. So in 1916 a city ordinance 
was passed providing for ways and m 
for the ei termination of this pest and 
appropriating the sum of $125 for such 
purpose. The task of destroying spar- 
rows Inside the city timita was delegated 
to one man, and ever since the ordinance 
became effective he has been on the job. 
From the first the campaign has been 
successful and the sparrow peat Is 
not only under control, but this apring 
San Diego expects to free herself entirely 
of tbe sparrow. Tbe city this year is al- 
lowing ten cents each for every sparrow 
killed, up to $50, and in addition 
Chamber of Commerce is also oSeriug 
ten cents each up to t3». The record for 
this year sltows 2S0 dead birds, and it 
estimated that there still remains about 
100 sparrows in the city. It is expected 
that as soon us tbe mating secxon ir 
under way and the sparrows begin 
ing that a clean sweep can be made of 
all these remaining birds. 

Other cities in the state might well fol- 
low the example set by San Di^o. Even 
in cities where sparrows are far i 
numerous the appropriation of a small 
sum of money and the appointment of 
energetic and ingenious man to carry 
the work of destruction will lead to 
near solution of the sparrow problem. 
city that can advertise itself witb the 
slogan "No houae sparrows here'' adda 
to Its reputation— Webb Toua. 



FISH PACK, 1V1B. 
In this issue is given a complete report 
of tbe canned, cured and manafactnred 
fisher; products of the state for the year 
1919 (see p. 96). Through the coopera- 
tion of the packers tbrooghout the state 
it has been possible to get out the annual 
pack more promptly as well as more ac- 
curately and in greater detail than ever 

The total case pack of canned goods in 
1919 was a triSe over 42,000 cases less 
than in 1918, while the eatimated value 
of the 1919 pack is nearly *3.O00,O0O 
greater than estimated valne of the 191S 

During 1919 the tnna, albacore and 
skipjack pack waa larger tban in the 
previous year, and while the actnal case 
pack of sardines for 1919- was less than 
for 1918, tbe pack waa of a better qnalily. 
During 1919 there were only 41,373 
round cana of sardines packed as com- 
pared to 120,905 casea of round cans for 
the year previous. 

The pack of mild cnred aalmon for 1919 
was nearly double that of the previous 
year. The production of meal and oil 
also shows a large increaae. At the close 
of 1919 we find an increase of twelve 
plants, 203 employees and over $2,000,000 
in valuation of plants, which shows tbe 
healthy growth of the fish packing indus- 
try of California. — &. H. D. 

SPORTSMEN LAND MANY BIO FISH. 

Tbe total number of blue-fin and 
yellow-fin tuna taken at Catalina Island 
during 1919 was 911, of which 36 
weighed over 100 pounds each. The total 
number of marlin awordflsh was 114. 
No broadbill swordfisb were captured, but 
a number of angleis reported unsuccess- 
ful battles witb them. The prize for tbe 
world's tuna taken on light tackle went 
to Commodore James W. Jump, tbe fish 
caught weighing 145) pounds. The usual 
awards have been made by the Tuna Club, 
prizes now being otfered for such other 
game Gsh as swordfisfa, white sea tmaa, 
tK>ntto and dolphin. 

FOREST OFFICERS TO ACT AS OAME 

WARDENS. 

By an agreement recently signed by the 

Executive Officer of the California Fish 

and Game Commission and the United 



CAUFORNtA P7SH AND OAUE. 



^atea Fonat Scrrice, forest rangera will 
act as Eah and game wardeDS and deputy 
fish and pune comminioa«Ta as forest 
firewardena. According to tbe terms of 
tbe agteement forest officers will enforce 
fisli and game laws, make arreBta. anbinit 
reports and iasne banting and flsbing 
licenses. Tbe force of game wardens 
will tberefore be greatly aozmented and 
better enforcement of the fish and game 
laws Is a certaintj. He news that for- 
est i^cets will bandle bunting and fishing 
licenses will be received with pleasure by 
sportsmen because of tbe added con- 
renience. Tbe help of tbe Forest Service 
in better posting state game rrfujies will 
be another onteome of the cooperation 
planned. In return (6c the services of the 
forestry men, the game waideni of the 
state will be depntized as forest fire- 
wardens and will help In protecting tbe 
forests and in devetopiDR the right public 
attitude toward the laws and regulations 
of tbe national forests. There is to be a 
c<H)ti nuance of tbe anooal reports on 
game conditions In the forests furnished 
by the District Forester, 

This cooperation, which bsa been care- 
fnlly worked ont between tbe United 
States Forest Service and the Fish and 
Ganie Commission, will make violation of 
the Gsh and game taws doubly difficult 
and will do much to develop a sentiment 
favoring game conservation. There fol- 
lows tbe agreement in full : 

AGBCEVGNT. 

In order to secure closer cooperation 
with tbe Fish and Game Conimi<<iiion. tho 
following informal agreement has been 
eremited ; 

Wherentt. the wild life on the national 
forests of California is a product of the 
forest and a great resourc", which ndils 
materially to enjovment of the national 
forests by the public, as well aa of (real 
economic value. Its protection snd per- 
petnstion becomps a public necessity : and 

Whereas, the Fish and Game Commis- 
sion of California Is the dnly authorized 
apent for the State of Cfllifomia for tbe 
proteiTtion and perwtnatinn of this re- 
source, snd the DiKtrlft Foretitpr of the 
Forest Service, United Rtatps Denartment 
of Aericnlture, for the Department: now, 
therefore 

In order (o coordinste the work of 
these denartments In the protection of 
rame. fisb. birds, and forests of Catifomia. 
Paul O. Redin^ton. District Forester, for 
and on behalf of the United States De- 
partment of Agricultnre, snd Carl West' 



on behalf of tbe State of California, do 
agree aa follows : 

1. That under tbe state laws no differ- 
eutiatiOQ can be made between violators 
of the law. Tbe law, therefore, should 
be enforced equally as to all violators. 

2. Tbe forest officers, because of their 
familiarity with the areas on which a 
large proportion of the wild life in the 
state exists, can and should assist, by 
their own personal actions and attitude, 
in securing tbe proper respect and en- 
forcement of the state gsme laws. All 
forest officers who, in the judgment of 
the District Forester, can. because of the 
character of their work, be of Baaistance 
in the eaforcemeut of the state fish and 
game laws, wilt b« appointed by the Fiah 
and Game Commission of California as 
deputy state game wardens. All forest 
officers so appoinled shall assume tbe fol- 
lowing prescribed duties : 

(a) Pay strict attention to tbe en- 
forcement of the stale fish and game 
laws, and by personal actions and atti- 
tude assist In creating the right public 
altitude and sentiment toward the pro- 
tection of fisb and game within the 
boundaries of national foreets ; 

(£) Report all cases of violations of 
the fish snd game laws to the officer's 
inuuediste supervisor, who will in turn 
report the violation to tbe Fish and 
Game Commission of California, San 
Francisco, California; 

:(e) Make arrests for violadons of 
the fisb and game laws committed wltb- 
in the boundaries of tbe national 

(d) Furnish all information avail- 
able which will assist officers of the 
state in apprehending or prosecuting 
violators of the Gsh and game taws, 
whether such violation was committed 
within or outside the uationsl forests; 

(e) Submit such reports as may be 
called for by the District Forester; 

(f) Report misconduct or derelic- 
tion of duty on the part of any state 
official employed in the enforcement of 
tbe slate fish and game laws : 

(g) Issue buntingr and fishing li- 
censes, receiving therefor the commis- 
sion allowed by law. 

3. The District Forester will cause an 
annual report to be submitted to tbe Fish 
and Game CommisBiou which shall con- 
tain complete information as to the pres- 
ent conditinn of wild life in the national 
forests, and plans for the protection and 
development of fish and game therein. He 
will recommend the establishment of sncb 
game refuges aa spem neccssan', the 
boundaries of which shall not be changed 
without his approval, 

4. The Fiah and Game Commission of 
California will elect a representative of 
its commisBion lo act on behalf of the 
Gomnussion with the District Forester on 
all matters pertaining to fl«h and game 
work on tbe national forests of California. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



1 reporls and requests from lh« District 
roreatet, fumiHfa apoD requisition the 
numbpr of fish plants necf^sary- to stock 
streams williiD th« naliooBl forests, pro- 
vide proper facilities for transport to 
ptaccH of deatiuatioD, and properly super- 
vise sLlpment from hB'c''erv to np"rea' 
railroad point ; aod shall issue proper 
instructiona to forest olBcers desi^sted 
to trauaport Gali from railroad point to 
streams, eivinf! at lea at two weeks' ad- 
vance notice of date of arrival. 

li. Upon. recommendutionB from the 
District Forester, deputy eame wardens 
will he appointed state fire wardens, and 
the ComiiussioD or its duly authorized 
a^ent will instruct such wardens to co- 
operate with the Forest tferviw in the 
HUppression and prevention of forest 
fires. 

7. All deputy game wardens will pay 
strict attention to the enforcpmenC of 
stale lire laws, familiarize themselvpH 
with the reeulntions icoveminf! the use of 
the national forests, and by personal ac- 
tions and attitude assist in creating the 
rieht public attitude and se ' 
toward these laws and r^ulation: 

8. Deputy stnte same wanlens will re- 
port. throUKh the State Fish and Game 
CommlBslon. any misconduct of forest of- 
ficers on the dereliction of dnfies in tlie 
enforcement of lish snd game laws. 

1). The Fish and (lame Commission will 
provide the necessary signs, labor, and 
material, for the proiter postinit and 
siiiierrision of existing state game refuses 
or those which may hereafter be estab- 
lished within or adjoining the national 

10. Necessary expenses of forest officers 
in the investigBlinn and prosecution 
fish and ^me violations will he paid 
the Fish and Game Commission u|.__ 
properly certified accounts on forms fur- 
nished by the Commission. 

11. Amendments to this agreement may 
be proposed by either party upon Kiviag 
thirty days' notice to the other. Amend' 
roents sholl become operative immeilintelv 
after they have been adopted by both 
parties. 

12. It is mutuallv understood and 
agreed that this aitreenient shall terminate 
at th" end of any fj-senl ,vear in the event 
that Coneresa ^ihall fall to make an appro- 
priation for the ensuing fiscal .vear. 

BIRD PROTECTION SOCIETIES. 

Due credit must be given associations 
of bird lovers, such as the Audubon 
societies, for initiating many of the cam- 
paigns which have brought about better 
protection for wild birds. The National 
Asaociatioa of Audubon Societies was the 
pioneer in the establishment of reaerva- 
tlons where birds are protected the year 
round. The laws protecting the sale of 



bird plumage were also initiated by tbe 
National Audubon Asaociation. 

There are at present in the State of 
California two active bird organizations 
of this type, the California Audutwn 
Society, with a large membership in 
Southern California, and the Audubon 
Association of the Pacific, with a mem- 
betsbip in tbe San Francisco Bay region. 
Tbe latter organization, which is but a 
few years old, has been doing aome splen- 
did work among juveniles by organizing 
jiiuior Audubon societies and by atimu- 
latityr Gird study among the Boy Scout 
organizations. It is also actively carry- 
ing OD an educational campaisci through 
the medium of a small monthly periodical 
known as "The Gull," which is now in its 
second volume. Besides conveying infor- 
mation regardioK the monthly meetings 
and monthly field trips, "The Gull" has 
contained a number of interesting artides 
relating to bird protection and many 
notes of the occurrence of rare s|iecies of 
birds. This latest addition to organized 
bird study, the Audubon Association of the 
Padfie, under the active leadership of its 
president. Mr. C B. TjSstreto, is carrying 
out both lines of endesvor expressed ia 
its aims — the study and protection of 

BtAME ABUNDANT IN EARLV DAYS. 
. article appearing in "The Auk," 
37, page 35, entitled "In Mem- 
lam : I.ymau Beliiing," Pr, A. K. Fisher 
says of this pioneer ornithologist, in con- 
nection with the subject of the abundance 
of game in California in early days: 

lie went to Rtockton in Mareh. ISTiG. 
and of mme seen here and in other parts 
of California he savs : "Crame whs 
abundant, including elk. antelope, deer, 
hear, otter, quail, and waterfowl. Elk 
have disanpeared from the interior val- 
leys of the state exceoting a drove on 
lite Miller and Lux Ranch of forty thou- 
sand acres in the San Joaquin Vallev, and 
these animals are being captured and 
distributed to various mirks. The elk 
of this stnte inhabited the tule marebes 
mainly, thoui'h I have seen many elk 
horns in the Mnrysville Battes, urobably 
left there hv elk which came from the 
marshes of Butte Creek, and I have aerai 
bundreds. if not thousands, of elk horns 
on the border of the tule swamna north 
of Stockton. Antelone have entirelv ilis- 
Hopeared from the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin vallevs. I saw three in the lat- 
ter valley a few miles west of Princeton 
in the summer of 1S70 and a single one in 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



Lower California about twentj-flve miles 
aoatb of Tia Juana In tlie spring of 1887. 
Deer were mostly in the mountBins, with 
a few along the rivers where there wert' 
eitensiTe tbicketa on bottom lands. Thej 
will continue to t>e common with proper 
protettion." 

SURE PUNISHMENT METED OUT TO 
VIOLATORS OF MIGRATORY BIRD 
TREATY ACT. 

There was a time when violators of the 
migratory bird treaty act dei>ODded upon 
escaping puninhinent through n trial in 
tbeir own county by a jury often com- 
posed of friends and acquaintaoccE, under 
which procedure dismissals rescfaed a 
large peicMitam of the number of arrests. 
However, this is sll dianged now ; foi 
since Jul;, 1018, the power to enforce 
this law has been vested in the Bureau 
of BiokiEical Survey, of the I'niled 
States Department of Agriculture, and 
instead of a trial in the state court in 
hia own county, the violator is brought 
into the federal court, where, removed 
from his sphere of local inliuence, he 
meels certain punishment. Here in Call' 
foniia, in the district known as tbe "duck 
country" of the Sacramento Valley, com- 
posed of the counties of Yolo, Sutter, 
Glenn. Colusa and Butte, prior to 1&18 
the number of dismissals reached shout 
sixty per cent of the number of arrests. 
But in that year the arrest and conviction 
in the federal court of four of the most 
persistent violators with a substantial 
fine of flOO each, produced a very de- 
pressing effect upon chronic violators, and 
the seDtiment has changed to such an extent 
that the violator usually begs to he 
allowed to plead guilty id the state court 
rather than he taken before the federal 
authorities. This certainty of punish- 
ment of violators, in the '-duiik country" 
alone, remiKed during the ppriod from 
October fi, 1918, to Jauunty 31, )9]!> 
(almost' four mouths), iu 20 arrests, no 
dismissals, .and fines aggregating fiO't : 
and during the period from Oclober lo. 
1919, to December «, 1919 (less than two 
months), in 23 arrpsts, no dismissalH, and 
fines aggregating $G25. At Qrst glance. 
owing to the greater number of arrests 
recorded for the latter period, it might 
seem that violations were on the increase 
durii^ 1910, but this is not necessarily 
true. When it is remembered that since 



71 

191S all United States deputy wardens 
also became state deputies, the increase 
in the number of arrests can no doubt be 
(raced to the fact that the patrol service 
has become greatly augmented and more 
violations detected. 

And It is Dot only in California that 
the migratory bird treaty act is tieing 
more striugently enforced. Five hundred 
dollars, the maximum fine, was recently 
levied by a judge in MLchigan against a 
bunler for selling thirly'Iwo ' ducks iD 
violation of tbe act. Another violator of 
the same law, in Connecticut, who had 
been iniitty of repeated offenses, was 
si-ntenced to three months in jail. This 
offender was not given the alternative of 
paying a fine. This growth in (he num- 
ber of convictious and enlargement of 
fines llirough the country shows the in- 
creasing concern with which the courts 
regard violations of this importaot statute, 
designed to protect migratorj', insectivor- 
ous and nonsame birds. 

NAVAL AIR STATION FISH PATROL 
OPENS IDLE CANNERIES. 

It will be of interest to know that the 
fish canneries of Southern California had 
been idle for four months until the in- 
auguration of the Naval Air Station Fish 
Patrol. This service was instituted dur- 
ing the latter pari of December, 1919, in 
accordance with an agreement between 
the Nnval Air Station at San Diego and 
the Fish and Game Commission, whereby 
sea pi an PS were to sight schools of Qsb, 
wire back the direct location to the naval 
station, which then would telephone the 
information to the San Diego office of the 
Fish and Game Commission, which office 
in turn would immediately notify all 
canners and fishermen. 

As a result of the first day's radio 
report locating schools of sardines, fish- 
ing fleets were able to procure large 
quantities uf sardines, and since that time 
have been canning continuously, despite 
tlie fact that canneries previously had 
been idle for four months. Everyone in- 
terested in tbe industry is aware that the 
best and finest fish are found in deep 
waters, and fishermen hesitate going to 
uncertain fields on account of loss of time- 
But now the seaplane locates the schools 
and they are no longer a prospect, but a 
certainly. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



72 



CALIPORNU FISH AKD QAHE. 



Genuine sardinea are found only 
CaUforoia waters and those of Boatheni 
Europe, and the industr; in CallforiuB 
haa made great progrem In the paat three 
feara and bids fair to hecome tbe lardine 
canniDK center of tlie world, And now 
with the tm measurable tbIub of tbe Naval 
Fiah Patrol service a proven fact, it would 
seem that Dolhin^ could stand in tbe way 
of this development. And ftlthougb the 
seaplanea have been so sncMttfol in locat- 
ins schools of sardines, it Is anticipated 
that tber will bt of still greater value in 
locating acbools of large Gsb sucb aa tuna, 
alba core, yellowtail. amberfiah, etc., 
which are found farther from abore and 
run from earl; spring to late fall. 

Reports of aome of tbe flighlB made 
have revealed to canners the fact that 
aeaplane service ia really of aa macb 
necessity to the fish and canning indoatTy 
as lisbing fleets or canning machinery, and 
it is the concensus of opinion that this 
fish patrol aerrice must be continued. 
IIi>re arc a few of the reports ; 

I. Installed in cockpit — Ufdroplane 
H. S. 2 L., as otiserver, Lieutenant E. P. 
McKellar, pilot. Third occupant, wirelesa 
operator. Took flight promptly 2 p.m. 
Followed Ipading hydroplane containing 
Lieutenant Linkina as official observer, 
.Atmosphere fairly clear — slight haze, no 
clouds, sun rays direct, fairly stiff wind. 
Judged altitude plane our flight five to 
seven hundred feet. Altitude leading 
hydroplane considerable lesa. Flew north' 
northwest to area tour, aquare aeventT' 
three, which is west by north, oft the 
coast of La Jolla about Gve miles and 
about twenty miles from 8an Diego 
direct line. In thia area of approximately 
ton miles stiuare, we covered the course 
in serpentine fashion from south to north 
and return, from east to west and return. 
Neither on our flight to this area, nor in 
this area, did either crew discover a school 
of Rsh. 

II. In this area, however, saw on four 
iieparate and distinct occasions, at inler- 
vbIs and in different locations, one single 
fish on each occasion. From our altltv-'e, 
their depth in the water could not b* 
definitely determined, nor could tbe aiie 
or species. Taking into consideration the 



effect of light uprai and throagh water, 
the magnifying effect of dear water, tbe 
ailvery scintillating sheen of fiah scales 
on a moving object in clear water on a 
bright day, subtract our elevation ; con- 
cluded these fiah to be medium aiied bajs 
or yellowtail, although tbe perspective of 
distance made ihem appear in the siie of 
a targe sardine. 

III. Tbe area thoroughly patrolled, we 
followed the leadiikg hydroplane east by 
south to the shore line above and off tbe 
coast of I..a Jolla. In the cove off La 
Jolla the leading hydroplane sighted three 
small acboola of sardines. The informa- 
tion was immediately radioed to North 
Island, and all canneries bad the benefit 
of Ibis discovery witbia ten to twenty 
minutes thereafter. 

IT. Still following tbe leading hydro- 
plane, which was flying low, we pitweeded 
east by south, following the abore line 
about one-quarter to three-quartera of a 
mile off abore : our altitnde abont 600 
feet. Here we were again forcibly fm- 
preaaed by the discovery of the Inteose 
visibility passible from thta height, to tbe 
depths under tbe surface of tbe water. 
The topography of the bottom of the 
ocean was plainly and distinctly clear to 
vision, as well aa all plant life and forma- 
tions, this being in many instances three- 
quarters of a mile off shore. The depth 
of tbe water we bad no way of estbnatlng, 
but to hazard a guess woald say it was 
anywhere from forty to ality feet tak 

V. We crosaed the channel and 
entrance to San Diego Bay, continning 
flight over a great portion of Ooronado 
Bay, where again were Impressed with 
the intense visibility throagh tbia water, 
which is not nearly aa clear at the pnre 
ocean streams and currents. R^ardleas 
of its muddy and mnrky appearance. It 
was possible to ae« the bed of that bay 
for great distances. The valoe of this 
fact should immediately Impress itself on 

le: for this bay is one of tbe largest and 
Qst favored feeding gronnda of the aar- 
ne when In season. 

VI. We proceeded, relumed to onr 
starting point at 4 p.m., elapsed time. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIPOBNTA PISH AND GAME. 73 

r ACTS or CFUKBEMT INTEREST. 

Two Italians of Tbomton, San JonoTiiii ConntT, were recentlT 
aiPMCted for tuting a gill net on the Mc^eltmme Biver, where lach 
fiAin^ ig illecrsl. These men pleaded milty in conrt on January 29 
and were flned $260 eaeb by Judge Baiber. 



During the season of 1919. 30.83(t000 fish, mostlv salmon and trout, 
were reared and distributed from the twenty-two hatcheries and egg 
collecting stations operated by the California Fiab and Oame 
Commisnon. 



State Lion Hunter Jav Bruce has been successful in reducinir the 
number of lions in the large game refuge in Santa Barbara and Ven- 
tnra eoimties. 



Beavers have become so abundant on the Merced Biver near Snelling 
that damage to agricultural interests have resulted and snecial per- 
mission ban been granted to the parties injured to reduce their number. 



Whistling Swans {Olor columhianux) have again been numerous 
in this state the past winter l'1919-20). Although frequenting the 
fresh waters of the interior vsllevs as a rule, this vear they have been 
seen in considerable numbers in Bodega and Tonmles bays and at the 
month of the Salinas Biver. 



Of the 4600 commercial fishermen in California 29 per cent are 
nfttives of Jaoan. 27 per cent are natives of the United States, and 
26 per cent of Italy. 



Despite the fact that the whale is a mammal and not a fish, the 
Board of United States General Appraisers have decided in a test 
case that canned whale meat is fish and is subject to duty. 



Althoufl-h lartre numbers of henrin<r were captured in Richardson's 
Bay last year (1919) and canned at Pittsburg, thus idx this year they 
have failed to appear. 



The American merganser has been reported in unusual numbers at 

numerous places along the Califomian coast, Specimens have been 

^ taken at San Diego, and large numbers seem to be wintering in cer- 

'^ tain localities in San Francisco Bay, as for instance, near San RafaeL 



)doyGoO(^lc 



CAI.IPORNIA FISH AND OAUE. 



HATOHERY NOTES. 

W. H. SucBLBT. Editor. 



FISH OISTRIGUTION, 191fl. 

DurJQK the sfason at X9VJ the opera- 
lione of the Depanment ot Fishculture 
were more eilenaLve Iben during any 
previous year of the Departnu'nt's activ- 
ity. The actual noini>pr of fish distributed 
was Dot as great, pprhapg, as <ltiriDE some 
of the past years, but the fO' were given 
a more eareful and a wider ilislrlbntion 
Ibnn ever before. 

The procedure of dietributton ot fish by 
the fish dJHlributiDS cars previously has 
been to deliver thp fish to the various 
applicants ot thp desiciat^ railroad 
station, Bod for the applicanlE to attend 
lo all of the work of actually planting the 
Bsh. Jo a great many in^tunces tbis 

loeetrs of filth due to the inexi.eriencc of 
those handling them. A plan was adopted 
IhiM Benson whereby a I rained assistant 
was detailed to leave the fish car at the 
IHtint of delivery and assist the applicants 
in planting Ihe liRh. Necessarily, it was 
not iiossible for a special messenger to 
aiTompany every lot of fish planted, but 
an elTort was made to send someone with 
every Inrge consignment, where the trans- 
portation and planting of the fish was at 



all dlffictilt and when the ai^licants were 
inexperienced in fish planting. 

Many of the applicants, who have been 
receiving trout fry from the OominisaJoa 
for planting in different sections ot the 
state for several yearn past, are experi- 
enced in the work and no assistance from 
this Departmenl. in the actual plaatiof; 
work, is oeceaaar;. In order to carry on 
this work it was necessary to employ 
several extra messengers for the dis- 
tribution cars, bnt it is fell that the results 
obtained fully Justify the extra expense. 
Thp acvompanying table rtows the dis- 
tribution of the different species of trout 
fry and salmon from the various hatch- 
It will be noted that Gsh were dis- 
tributed from sixteen hatcheries. In 
addition to these balcberies six egg col- 
lecting stations, from which Do distribu- 
tion of fry was made, were operated. 
Thus it will be seen that altogether dar- 
ini Ihe season of 1919 the Department of 
Fishcullure operated twenty- two hatcb- 
eriea and egg collecting stations a ad 
distributed in the waters of California 
30.t'3(i,000 fish. 



Flih Distribution, S 



Mooo ! aejaoo 











m.m 


«7«,00« 


'mm 




Mount Whitney 


i,023.(inn . 


Bsoon 


ia8,«» 












, 93,000 






SSI/MO 


"wioo* 


i3*.»X 


























; iM,H» ■ 






W,700 




















Totals 


j J,063.i00 ' 

__ _.l ■ 


.m.aeo 


a,SBi.iw 


i^mjm 


1,718,100 


mum 


sn,M]o 






















-— - 







CALIFORNIA PISH AND I 



75 



furthennore a givat dral o( < 
lioD and improTemeDt work was UDd«r 
Ukea at tbp various stations and undei 
favorable climatic conditions, ilurinx the 



and s 



a frj- 



tban bas pwr before bppn possible cnn be 
luDdted. Tbis will make il possible to 
■Bwt the ever growing dem^ud for more 
aitd more fish for stocbiaK tlie streaniK 
and lakes of tjraotically every seclioo of 
tb« state. 

MOUNT SHASTA HATCHERY. 

A total of K.162.000 trout fry nere 
distributed in Ht reams of uortbern and 
eentral L'^liforaia from Ihe Muunt Shasta 
Hatchery durin); the season by the two 
fish distributing cars. The work nf dis- 
tributing the fish was carri'il on from 
June 23, vb?n the lirst carload left the 
hatchery, nntil Octol)er 11, wiien tbi' lasl 
of the frj- were planted. 

In addition lo the propagation of trout 
at the Mount Sbasta Hatchery, tbe salmon 
cultural operations were given careful 
attention this season. Tbe tiike of 
qninnat salmon eggs at the T'nited Stales 
Itnreau of fisheries stations it Mill Creek 
and Battle (.'reek was not ns Inrge as had 
bepD Pii>ected. and theroforo as great a 
nuntber of eggs as usual was not received. 
The take of e^fs at our own Klamathon 
tfK rollecliu;: station, located on tbe 
Klamath Itiver, was also small. Especial 



atleniion was given Ihe fry reJiiliing from 
the eggs rpcvived. The &sb vftp fed aod 
held in Ihe batching boxes rm long as It 
was possible to give them the projier atten- 
tion and IUrf»3.UIX> were then planted in 
the upper reaches of the trihuiaries of 
ilty of 



Siiwon. from February 
condiliooh tor their 
favorable. 

'ITiree and one-half d 
were then transferred i 
ralmon rearing lakes 
retained throughout ih 
developed rapidly und 
conditions obtaining 



) May 18. 



r Ihro 



large 



they were liberated, dui 
of (>clol)er, IhiT were i 



Ihei 



summer. They 
r tlic favorable 

IK lliH latter part 

long journey to the 



lial.'liery A. 
Ihe main building at tbe Mount Shasta 
Hatchery, in IDin>-10. the hatchery 
Irougfas have never lieen n-ncwed. Many 
of Ihem were in very |>oor coudiliun, and 
it was deemed absolutely I'ssealinl, that 
tlie okl boxes be removinl antt new ones 
]>ut in. .Vd'ordingly the niiiL-riiits were 
onlered nnd on tbe ground by the time Ihe 
Inst of Ihe tisb were taken out ntid tbe 
consLnirlion nnd installation of the new 
rrougbs was immediately 
Tbi' crew bus been engagiil in this 
prai'tically nil winter and by tlic I 



tographed h» 



76 



CALIFOBNIA FISH AN1> OAUE. 



Ding ot tbe 1920 fiab cultaral ■< 
Dew trough! will be ready tor Uia recep- 
lioD of tbe eggs. Various other reinli 
buildiDgs sod groaods bave been made 
dariog tbe fall and winter mouths, and 
all is in readiaesB for tbe b^lnuiug of the 
B?ason'B opera tiotiB. 

KLAMATHON STATION. 

DuriDg tbe late summer of 1918 the 
Klamatbon egg collect! og btatlon 
tafcen over br the California Fish and 
Game Commission from the United Slatee 
Bureau of Fisheries and arrangements 
were made to operate tbe station that 
fall. Over one million eggs were taken 
and these were immediately shipped 
the new Fall Creek Hatchery. 

Daring the fall of 1919 this station 
was prepared to operate at full capacitf. 
Nearly five million eggs were taken despite 
the extreme drought, whiefa materially 
affected the mn of quinnat salmon 
Klamath River. Had we received the 
usual amonnt of rainfall in that section 
during the months of October and Novem- 
ber, ttie lake of egga would have been 
treatly in excess of the number obtained. 
The eggs were transferred Immediately 
aft^r spawniDg to Mount Shasta and Fall 
Creek hatcheries. 

FALL CREEK HATCHERY. 

Fall Crpek natchery was operated for 
Ihe first time during tbe season of 1919. 
The quinnat salmon eggs received from 
the Klamatbon Station were batched and 
rpflred to a suitable age, when 500,000 
were distributed in Fall Creek, a tribu- 
tary of tbe Klamath Bivpr, during the 
month of May. The balance of 850,000 
were held in tbe rearing ponds through- 
out the summer and distributed during 
the months of September and October. 
These fish, like tbe ones retained in tbe 
salmon lakes at the Mount Shasta Hatch- 
ery, were in excellent condition when 
planted. 

BOGUS CHEEK STATION. 

Air of the rainbow trout eggs taken at 
ItoguB and Camp creeks were "eyed" at 
the Fall Creek Hatchery. Seven hundred 
thousand were hatched at this station 
and reared for distribution in tributaries 
□E the Klamath River, both above and 
below the dam of the California Oregon 



Power Company, at Copco. The balaoce 
of the "eyed" eggs were shipped to tbe 
Mount Shasta Hatchery. 



COTTONWOOD CREEK C 

During the spring of 1019 the Cotton- 
wood Creek egg collectii^ station near 
Hombrook was operated and an extensive 
Burvey made of the creek with reference 
to the run of rainbow trout ascending 
tbe stream to spawn, with the idea of 
installing more suitable and permaneat 
equipment for egg collecting operations. 
The investigations snd the result of the 
season's opera tiona demonstrated the 
value of the site, and accordingly a auit- 
able lease was arranged and adequate 
facilities for Handling the spawning trout 
during the comii^ spring installed. 

MOUNT WHITNEV HATCHERY. 
The operations at Mount Whitney 
Ilalchery for the season were brought to 
a close during the latter part of October. 
On September the first, fish distribution 
No. 01, was detached fi«m fish dis- 
tributing work at tbe Mount Shasta 
Hatchery and commenced the dlstribation 
from Mount Whitney Hatchery. The 
waters of Southern California were prac- 
ically all stocked from tbe Mount Whit- 
ey Hatchery this season. Consignments 
of fish were shipped to Fresno, Inyo, 
Kern, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, 
Mono, Riverside, San Diego, San Lais 
Obispo, Santa Bari>ara, Tulare and Van- 
counties. This was tbe most ex- 
tensive distribution ever made from the 
Mount Whitney Hatchery. 

Cottonwood Lakes station was operated 

id a new record was established for 

lat station. 066,000 golden trout eggs 

'iog taken. All of the eggs were im- 

eiliately transported by pack train over 

e mountain passes to the Mount Whit- 

'y Hatchery as soon as they were 

spawned, where they were "eyed." A 

sign men t of the "eyed" eggs was 

shipped lo the Tahoe Hatchery and the 

,'ere hatched and reared for dia- 

tribution in the streams and lakes of the 

High Sierras, which were bui table for 

Two and one-half million trout fry were 
distributed from Mount Whitney 
Hatchery this season. All of the try 
planted were fine, large fish and the 



CAUFOBNIA FISB AND GAME. 



77 



ranlts of the seasoo'a plantiiiK to the 
waters of southern GalifomU ^onld be 
pradoctire of some excellent fi«hing for 
tbe sportsmeB during the L-oining ;ear. 

TAHOE HATCHERY. 
Tbe hatchery at Tahoe City received 
shipmeols of rainbonr, black- Epol ted anl 
pildea trout eggs from the varioua 
ooUecting atatioos and a total o( 
6SO,O0l> fry, of these Uitee spedet, ' 
dialribnted in the water of the Tahoe 
B«sin and other itreama of El Dorado, 
Xerada and Sierra coanties. During the 
moDth of October a coasigniuent of 25,000 
golden tront fry were shipped to tbe 
Yoseioite Valley from Tahoe Hatchery. 

MOUNT TALLAC HATCHERY. 

The egg coHecting opeiatioua at Monut 
Tallac Hatchery laat apring were Dot ■■ 
mccemful as usual, owing to advene con- 
ditions of weather at Lake Taboe during 
the early spring monlhs. The crew 
reached the spawning station during the 
middle of March, but it was April 14th 
I before the fitat ^gs were taken. Two 

^ million black-spotted trout eggs were 

y taken daring the season and Ibese were 

r "fyed" and shipments of eggs were seat to 

I Moaut Shasta, Mount Whitney, Tahoe, 

Kaweah and Yoeemite hatcheries. Nearly 
I 700,000 black-spotted c«gs were hatched 

I at tbe Mount Tallac Hatcbery and were 

I distributed logether with rainbow and 

Bteelbead trout fry in tbe waters of Al- 
pine, El Dorado and Placer counties. 

FORT SEWARD HATCHERY. 

A million quinnat salmon eggs were 
hatched at Fort Seward Hatchery during 
Ihe spring of 1016 and tbe resulting fry 
were distributed in tbe Eel Itlver and 
tributaries, Mad River and the tributaries 
of Humboldt Bay. Rainbow, eastern 
brook and steel bead trout eggs were 
shipped to the Fort Sewo'd Hatchery 
daring April and May and these were 
hatched and reared during the spring and 
early summer months. A total of 770,000 
irout try were distributed in (be streams 
of Humboldt and Trinity couatiea during 
July and August. 

Aa BOOD as tbe fry were distributed 

extensive improvement work at the sta- 

L, tion waa commeaced. Tbe site of the 

hatchery ia very isolated and great diS- 



cnlly has been experienced in keepl&c 
assistants employed at tbe station. The 
living quarters for the men have been 
very poor and it was essential that some- 
thing be done to improve conditions. If 
tbe siatiOB waa to be kept in operation. 
Accordingly arrangements were made to 
improve the superintendent's dwelling and 
two plain, but comfortable, little cottag«a 
were put up for Ihe assistaats and 
equipped with necessary furnitnre for 
housekeeping. 

UKIAH HATCHERY. 

A larger number of steelbead trout fry 
were reared at Ukiab Hatchery tor dis- 
tribution in the streams of that section 
than have been bandied duriag former 
seasoufl. A total of 600,000 tront fry 
were distributed in Mendocino and 
Sonoma couatiea during the summer. In 
the spring months practically alt of tbe 
egga taken at ?aow Mountain Station 
were "eyed" at Uklab and Ihe results 
obtained were very satisfactory. 

SNOW MOUNTAIN STATION. 

During the spring of 1319. 5,400,000 
Esleelhend trout eggs were collected at tbe 
Snow Mountain Station. Had It not been 
tor the failure of tbe water supply and 
inadequate facilities for handling spawn- 
ing trout in the holding pens in the late 
spring, when the water became very 
warm, a much greater number of eggs 
could have been taken. A quarter of a 
million steel heed eggs were hatched at 
the Snow Mountain Station and dis- 
tributed in Che tributaries of En! River. 
During the past month a crew of men 
at the Snow Mountain Station have been 
euKBged in building new holding pens and 
laking improvemeuts and repairs to the 
;alion, that will improve the handling 
of the fish duriog the coming season. 

BROOKDALE HATCHERY. 

Brookdale Hatchery was operated the 
name as usual duriag the season of 1019, 
tbe steelbead eggs received from Scott 
Creek being "eyed" for shipment to otber 
statioon, with the exception of 800.000 
fry, which were hatched and planted dur- 
tbe summer months in Monterey, 
San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cmi 
counties. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO<^lc, 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 



78 

SCOTT CREEK STATION. 
The total take of ati^lhoad trout eggs 
was only l.ToO.OOO at Scott Creek during 
th» geaaon of l!ll!l, owing to tbe drougbt, 
wtiicb seriouBly inlerfered with the extent 
of our operations in that section.. As 
»tal«d above tbe eggs were all teat to the 
Brooiidale Halchery, where they were 
"eyed" for dislrihutioD to lorious other 
hatcberies. 

ALMANOR HATCHERV. 

Two huudrei tliousnnd rainbow trout 
^g8 were taken at Hie Almnnor dam of 
the Great Western I'ower Company Inst 
season, but the water supply for the 
hatchery failed early in the season and 
it waa necessary to transfer ntl of the eggs 
as soon as they were properly "eyed" to 
the Clear Creek Hatchery near Westwood. 

OOMINQO SPRINGS HATCHERY. 

Nearly a miltioo rainbow trout e^s 
were taken at Uomiugo Siirings Station 
(luring tbe sea hod and eonsigDiDeDta of 
"eyed" eggs were sliijipe*] to Mount 
Shasta and Wawoua hatcheries. The 
rainlww and ^leelhead trout frj- reared at 
tbe Itomingo Sprinps Station were given 
a very wide distribution in streams and 
lakes of Lasseu. I'lumaa and Tebama 
counties. An auto truck was used for a 



great i>art of tbe distribution and the 
United Slates Forest Servire at Mineral 
cooiierated in the work of giving the fish 
a wide distribution. After the Gsti were 
all planted very extensive iiiiprovemeots 
were made lo the station and an auxiliary 
egg collecting station was '^sl.ibljtibed at 
the mouth of Warner Cre^k If condi- 
tions are favorable during the coming 
season for egg collecting operaiionii in that 
section, a much larger take of encs can 
be looked for than baa ever before been 
obtained. 

C1~EAR CREEK HATCHERY; 
The rainbow trout eggs received at 
('lear Creek Ilatcliery from tbe Almanor 
Hatchery were hatched and Jialn'buted in 
the streams and lakes in tbe vicinity of 
Westwood, Lassen County. It was the 
lirst season this station was operated and 
the results obtained were satisfactory in 
every respect. After the fish bad all been 
distributed many little rei>airs and im- 
provements were made and racks and trap 
were installed in the creek beside the 
hatchery. A holding pen for the spawn- 
in;: trout was also constructed and during 
tbe coming season an effort will be made 
to collect csKS from the rainliow troat 
running up Clear Creek to spawn. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND OAUE. 



79 



BEAR LAKE HATCHERY. 
Xe&rl; 5.000,000 raiabon troat 
were taken at Nortli Creek Egg Collecting 
Station during tb« season of 11)10, desi)iti 
the iDBde4[uate facilltiea to handle the 
work. It was demon bI rated tliat to take 
advantage of the wonderful possibilities 
for the collecting of rainbow trout 
at Bear Lake it was essential that 
extensive improvements be made 
order to handle the apawning flsh prop- 
erly, that suitable hatchery buildings, 
properl; equipped, be provided at both 
North Creek and Green Spot Springs, and 
most important of all, that adequate living 
accommodations be provided for the 
foremen and assistants at both places. It 
is not possible to obtain satisfactorj' 
results from a station where the egg col- 
lecting; paraphernalia Is Inadequate for 
the re<|uirenients. and poorlf conslructed ; 
where the hatching troughs are covered 
only b; canvas and where the foremen and 
assistants in charge of the work are 
compelled to live at an altitude ot 7000 
feet above sea level, in a land of deep 
snow and freezing wealher, with only 
small tents for living quarters. It ia 
neither fair to the men nor to the work 
to operate under such conditions. Ac- 
cordinel;, as soon as (he fish were dis- 
tributed, a crew of men was put to work 
on the various creeks flowing into Bear 
Lake. The beds of the streams were 
cleaned up and passageways were cut to 
enable the spawning tish to enter the 
creeks through the sand bar?. Checks 
were made, racks and traps conslrucled. 
and cabins built for watchmen and trap 

The hatcbery buildings at Xortb Creek 
ami Green Spot Springs were put in GfsI 
class shape and suitable living quancm 
wore constructed for the foremen and 
assistants. The slations arf> now in ex- 
cellent condition for the coming seanon's 
work, and if there Is sufficient suow aud 
ninfall in that section this season, the 
lake of eggn will undoubtedly break all 
1 a at recorda. 



I HATCHERY. 
To keep up wilb the demands of the 
ipplicants of Kem, Fresno and Tulare 
t fry for tbo streams of 
vas decided to establish 



an experimental batcbery to ai 
suitability of the water for hatchery pur- 
poses. A site was selected near the town 
of Hammond on lh« Kaweah River, on 
one of the main highways. Itaintraw, 
black-spotted and steelhead trout eggs 
were sbipped to Ihe hatchery and the fry 
batched were given Ihe very best atten- 
tion throughout the spring and summer 
montba, careful records being made of 
water temperatures. The fry reared 
were strong and healthy and attained a 
very good aize. Three hundred and eighty 
thousand trout were hatched, reared and 
planted in the tributaries of the Kaweah 
iliver and other streams in that section 
during the summer. All arrangements 
have been made and plans drawn for a 
good -si zed hatchery building to be con- 
structed this spring, providing that a 
satisfactory lease can be obtained for a 
hatcbery site. 

W A WON A HATCHERY, 
awona Hatchery was again operated 
during the past season . Rainbow and 
Ihead eggs were shipped in from other 
ions aud a quarter of a million fry 
e distributed in Ihe streams of Ma- 
dera and Mariposa counties during the 
' summer mouths. 



?atc<l at 

Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley was 
operated during the summei:. Kaiobow, 
blade-spotted and steelhead trout eggs 
vere shipiW in from other slations, and 
he fry resulting thi'refrom were success- 
fully reareil to a good size and were 
given an extensive distribution in the 
streams aud lakes iu Ibc Yosemile Valley, 
with the cooperation of the olGciala and 
employees of the Yosemite National Park. 
The site was demonstrated as being satis- 
factory for hatchery pnrisj.si!, but as it la 
aaHiust the policy of the slate to erect 
[H'rmanent builditigs on leased land it was 
decided at a tneetiug of the Board of Fish 
and Game ('ommissioners, held during the 
latter part of October, to abandon the 
project. All eiiuipmcnt was therefore 
removed from tlie site and transported bj 
auto trucks lo Ihe Wawona Hatcbery, 
where it has been used to eguip that 
station for more extensive operations. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND QAME. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERY NOTES. 

M. B. ScoFUXD, Editor 



INVESTIGATION OF HALIBUT FISH- 
ERIES PROPOSED. 

Id tbe proposed treaty between the 
United States and Caoada to regulate 
and coDserve I lie ball but Hsbery it is 
provided tbat inhabitants of either of the 
two countries ma; not fisb Cor halibut iu 
the North Pacific Ucean from November 
K to February Ij, both dates icclusive, 
tbia closed eeaaon to confiuue in effect 
until February 15, 1D30. It also provides 
that the two goTernmeuts sball caase to 
be made a (borough Joint investigation 
into the life liistorj' of tbe Pacific halibut. 
The InternaUoDal Fisheries Commission, 
appointed bj the two govemmeuts in lOlS) 
for the protection and rehabilitation ot 
tbe salmoD fisheries of the Fraaer Kiver 
and Fuget Sound, ia charged with the 
supervision of tbe halibut investigation. 

It was conclusively shown some aii 
years ago by Mr. W. F. Thompson, who 
made an invesUeation of the halibut 
fishery for the government of British 
Columbia, that the known halibut banks 
were being depleted at an alarming rate. 
This was clearly shown by a decided de- 
crease in tbe catch per unit of fishing 
gear and by a. marked reduclion in the 
catch of large fisb. Since that time tbe 
total catch has declined mpidl; and it 
does not need a life history investigation 
10 show that the halibut fishery of the 
North Pacific is well on ils way to com- 
mercial extermination. An investigation 
of life histories is well enough and a 
necessary part of such an investigation, 
hut it is more Important to institute a 
system of gathering accurate statistics of 
the catch. We have been sk-ii- in learn- 
ing that the basis of fisheries conservation 
work must be accurate and complete data 
of the catch. It strikes us that the two 
governments are about six years late in 
starting and that the short winter closed 
season, during the lime the catch is always 
very light, is totally inadequate. 

SLEEPER SHARK CAPTURED. 

A sleeper shark, known to ichthyologists 
as fiomnioaug microccphaloui was taken 
in one of the A. Paladini Company's trawl 
nets while fishing off Point Reyes on 



February 2li. Tbe lengtb of the fiah was 
only seven feet, which is considered small, 
as sleeper sharks reach a length of 
twenty-five feet. Tbe event was not re- 
markable in the fact that a sharii was 
taken in a trawl net, for the trawl nets 
catch large numbers of sharks, but in 
the fact that this ia tbe first sleeper shark 
that has ever been recorded from Cali- 
fornia. This adds one more species to 
tbe list of nineteen sharks found in Cali- 
fornia as given by Professor E. C. Starks 
in October, lUlT, and January, 1918, 
issues of this magazine. 

The sleeper shark may he known from 
the other sharks by the atisence ot an 
anal fin and by the ahseacc of a spine 
at tbe front of each of the two dorsal fins. 
This sluggish and clumsy looking shark 
is commonly found in the Arctic regions 
and eiteuding down the Siberian coast to 
Japan and down the west coast of North 
America to Fuget Sound. It is found 
commonly about Greenland and south to 
Cape Cod and France. On our New Eng- 
land coast it is known as the gutry 
shark from its habit o( eating fish offal. 
In Alaska it frequents the region of tbe 
salmon canneries where it eats the fish 
offal thrown away at the canneries. It 
is reported as attacking whales in a 
ferocious manner, biting chunks from 
their hides. 

MARKING SOCKEYE SALMON FRY. 

The United States Bureau of Fisheries 
is marking yearling sockeye salmon fry at 
their Bonneville Hatchery in Oregon. 
These fry, batched from eggs obtained at 
the salmon hatchery at Afognak, Alaska, 
will be liberated in the Columbia River 
and a watch kept for their return to the 
stream to spawn three years hence, A 
few years ago tbe Bureau marked and 
liberated, in the Columbia River, sock- 
eye fry which were hatched from eggs 
taken at Yes Bay, Alaska. These fry 
returned at tbe age of four years to spawn 
and it was found that they were not like 
the sockeyes which run naturally in the 
Columbia River but were like the Yes 
Itay fisb in size and quality, thus proving 
pretty conclusively that the fish from the 



CALIFORNIA FISU AND OAMB. 



81 



two places are not different on acronut of 
a difference in the feed in the two iilaces, 
bnt for tlie reason that the sockeyes of the 
two regions are distinct races and that 
siic and quality are inherited characters. 
The Bodteyes at Afognak are of still an- 
other race whose members are smaller of 
siie and of different quality when com- 
pared with either the Yes Bay or 
Columbia Ash of the same species. The 
return of the fish now beins marked will 
be eagerly awaited for the final and coq- 
clasive proof that size and quality ace 
inherited characters. 

LOW RIVERS INFLUENCE SPAWNING 
HABITS OF HEHRINQ. 

Ordinarily herring which enter San 
Francisco Harbor in January and Febru- 
ary congregate in Itlcbardaon Bay aud 
along tbe lower end of Augcl Island, at- 
taching their spawn to the rockg and sea 
weeds along the shores of Belvedere as 
well as along the shore of Ihe main land 
and Angel Island near the lower end of 
Raccoon Straits. This year, on account 
of the low water in the rivers, which per- 
mitted the salt water to move farther 
up stream than ever before recorded, the 
herring have for the first time in the 
memory of the oldest fishermen, deposited 
their spawn in the upper portion of the 
harbor known as San Pablo Bay. They 
attached their sqawn in alt suitable places 
from Point Sao Pablo to I'oint Pinole and 
the schools of herring instead of collect- 
ing in Richardson Bay near Sausalito 
and Belvedere moved on up ilirouKh Rac- 
coon Straits so that the best fishing was 
found from Southhampton Shoal to Red 
Rock. 

Very (ow herring were caught this 
season in San Frnncisco Bay for the rea- 
son that there was no good demanil for 
I hem in the markets and under tbe new 
Inw the Bshermen were not permitted to 
citch them for reduction purposes. The 
San Francisco wholesale markets w 



able t 



e of o 



r Ihre 



per day. None were salted or smoked as 
the local demand for salted and smoked 
herring ended when the saloons closed on 
July 1. The market for canned herring 
was oS so none of them were canned. 
Fishermen at the wharf frequently begged 
for buyers at Iwenty-five cents per box. 



and these delicious fish were offered at 
the fish stalls at from five to seven cents 
per pound without creating any appre- 
ciable demand among those who com- 
plain of tbe high cost of fish. Salmon 
and striped bass were scai-cc at the time 
and extremely high priced, but even that 
(lid not help the sale of the cheaper 

SALMON PACKERS FEAR SALMON 
DEPLETION. 
With the failure of the Bockeye runs 
in Puget Sound and Eraser Uiver as an 
object lesson Ihe salmon packers have be- 
come alarmed over the future of the sal- 
mon industry in Alaska. The interested 
packers met together and decided some- 
thing had to be done if the AI?.Hka salmon 
fisheries are to continue yielding them a 
profit. A committee was appointed to 
draft a comprehensive bill for the con- 
srrvation of the fisheries to be introduced 
and passed upon by the Congress of tbe 
United States. The committee was wisely 
chosen and is made up of tbe following 
members : D. W. Branch of Libby, Mc- 
Neill & Libby: Carl A. Sutter of tbe 
Fidaleo Island Packing Company ; Frank 
M. Warren of Alaska-Portland Packers' 
.■Vssociation ; Flcnry O'Malley, Pacific 
Coast Agent United States Bureau of 
Fisheries ; Dr. C. H. Gilbert of Stanford 
trnivcrsity ; John N. Cobb, Director Col- 
lege of Fisheries, University of Washing- 
ton ; John R. Beegle, of Alaska Fish 
Commission, and C. B Garfield Secre- 
tary Alaska Fish Commission 1 be 
comm ttce has worked for several months 
and ban fanally perfected a bill which Is 
hkcly to ha*e the backLug of the salmon 
packers the Alaska I^ ish Commission 
the Inited Stales Bureau of Fisheries 
and all interested m salmon conserraton 
rho main ol ject of tbe bill is (o provide 
for a largT number of salmon to reach 
the spawning bed" It also provides tor 
Ibe organization of an Alaska Fish Com 
mission corapiwed of Ave members to be 
appointed bv the Secretary of Commerce 
lud enci tbM commission ample power 
to carrj on the conservation work of such 
: IS estimated that the 
'I in the bill regulating the fishing 
and methods of fishing will reduce 
non catch about twenty per cent 



DiB.1i.edO/GoO(^lL 



82 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



KAMABOKO BEING MANUFACTURKO 
AT BAN PEDRO. 

Among Ibe additioot to the &sb packing 
industr; at San Pedro Harbor is a plant 
recently establiahed by Mr. laona for 
ma Qufac luring kamaboho. This is a 
product prepared from whUe'mealed Qab 
bj Japanese luetbods. Barracuda la 
UBuatly employed in ita manufacture bul 
halibut, sea baaa and Jewfisb are some- 
times otUiied. 

Kamaboko is |)rei)ared by Itrst remov- 
ing all bones from the flsb and scraping 
the flesh free from tbe skin. The meat is 
then placed in a large, hollow granite bowl 
where it is sronnd into a fine paste. 
Cornstarch, salt, sugar, and the juice 
made by soaking several fronds of Japa- 
nese seaweed (.irlhrolliamnuii bifldut) in 
warm water are added, and the miiture 
is thi?n moulded into forms and placed on 
thin wooden blocks about eiRht inches 
long. After being steamed for forty-flve 
minutes It is cooled and packed for ship- 
ment. For fptea and a)>ecial occasions 
the loaves, weighing about one pound, are 
tinted, red, blue, or green, and resemble 
very much pieces of pastry. Other forma 
are moulded and baked or fried in oil 
without coloring. 

The manufacture of kamaboko has 
developed into quite an industry in Japan. 
where it is one of tbe staple articles of 
food. It la palatable and nutritious and 
may he eaten as a sandwich fliling, or cut 
into small pieces and added to soups. 
chowders, or chop suey. The finished 
product will keep about one week, but 
plans are now under way to can it for 
eiport trade. 

The plant at San Pedro has a capacity 
of approximately five hundred pounds of 
fish per day. C. S. Baudeb. 



Most of those wbo complain of the 
high cost of Ssb know only tbree 
varieties — salmon, striped bass and 
halibut. 

Any official who attempts to satisfy 
the public on the price of fish has set for 
himself an impossible task. 



The wholesale value of last year's fish 
pack in California exceeded twenty-five 
million dollars. 



If California had depended only on the 
fresh fish markets its flsheri-s would now 
lie unimportant. 

The only adequate way to get tbe pub- 
lic to eat new varieties of fish is to get 
the fish in cans and give them euphonious 



One of the best food fishes we have ia 
California is the shad, which was intro- 
duced some fifty years ago from the At- 
lantic coast. These excellent fish are 
now running and are abundant and cheap. 
We will use less than ten per cent oF th« 
catch in this stale. The rest vrlll be 
shipped to Chicago, Boston or New York 
where they sell readily at three times 
their price in San Francisco, while we 
mntinue to complain of the high cost of 

fish. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHEBIES LABORATOBT.* 



By Wll 



F. TiiouPHON and Elmer IIiouins 



A SCIENTIFIC ASSISTANT EMPLOYED. 
Tfae CommiKsioa tian tiecureJ the serv- 
iits of Miss HflcQ M. KJuunls as a 
scientific assistant, coiumrncing Januan' 
15. Miae Kdwanls hax liail cuasidcrablt.' 
experience as a^aistaiit in woric of the 
character now beioK done lij the Cora- 
mission, baviog been employed while she 
was still an UDilereniduati' at Slanford 
University, by Doctoi- ('. II. Gilbert dur- 
ing bis work on the Kaltnou. In addi- 
tion, xhe bBB done soienlitit.- drawing, 
and is a capable Btcnoeraphcr. 

W. F. T. 

PROQRESS OF THE SARDINE WORK. 

Mr. Uiggins at San I'edro. and Mr. 
Sette at Monterey, ore ensnited under the 
HDpervtsion of Mr. Tlianipson, In laying 
the foundation for the future work on the 
sardine. ThiK {ireiiminary "nurvey." if 
tntch it may be called. cuusiKiH of a carc' 
fal and laborious tracing of tlie character 
of thp sardine "runx'' at different timen 
of the year and the SHCE-rlnining of the 
size elassi'K which go to niiike uji the 
catches. .The samples are obtained from 
the boatH as they unload at the canneries, 
and measurements of length and weight 
are taken, togctber with other biolosical 
obeen'ations on sex and state of malurit.v. 
This is expected to give duin upon whit'li 
age may be distinguished, to render ll 
possible to correlate fluctuations in catch 
with various conditions, to enable the 
catches of sncceiisive ycar^ 1o be com- 
pareJ more accurately from the stand- 
point of age composition and to Indicate 
the spawning season as nearly as iwssi- 
ble. The necessity tor such a "survp.v" 
and its value in future work liave already 
been amply demonstrated in a number of 
ways, upon which comment may be ex- 
pec terl in the Cutuce. 

The Commission has been Rranted the 
courtesy of accommodations nt Hopkins 
Marine Station, at I'acitic Grove, as 
headquarters for the work beini: done on 
the sardine at Monterey, and thanks are 
due the director, Doctor W. K. Fisher, 
for his many favors. The work on the 



sardine is also being carried on at San 
I'edro. and the Commission is under ob- 
ligations to the Xeilsen and Kittle Can- 
ning Comimny for i[uartera there. With- 
out Ihelr courtesy the Commission would 
be without adei|uate facilities for the in- 
vest igation. as the present laboratory at 
Long Beach is too distant from the fisher; 
centers. W, F. T. 



It often happens, cs]iecia]ly in deep sea 
halibut Hshiug. that cod or halibut tmwla 
are set over water which is too deep, and 
in such case strange silvery Gsh are 
sometimes tnkeu. These fish have snouts 
projecting in sh^irji angles beyond the 
lar«c mouth, Iheir eyes arf Inrge, their 
neale.f are very rough and silvery, and the 
body tapers hack into a long, thin, pointed 
tail bordered above and beli)w with lins, 
but larking a seiMirate tail Gn. These 
fishes are allietl to the cods, and belong 
lo the family Corypbaenoididae. One 
such specimen whs brought into -Monterey 
during January, and preserved by Mr, 
Oyer, the deputj- there. It belongs to the 
sjiecics known as Ximalonaiug acrolepit, 
one taken in numbers by the United 
States Bureau of fisheries' vessel "Al- 
batross" during her work off California, 
and found along our coasts in depths of 
.'KM) and 1.100 fathoms as fur north as 
I Bering Sea and in Japan'<Re waters. It 
I was entirely unknown to the fishermen, as 
, would l>c natural considerinc the depths 
I nt which it is usually found. W. F. T. 

INVESTIGATION OF THE 8ALTON 
SEA 

rturing tb latter part of December 
Mr ( randall of the Scnpps Institution 
and Doctor H t Bnoot nttd Mr « I 
Thom])son of the I ish and Game Com 
mission iisited *'allon lea to Iniestlgate 
(he life and the hidrogrnph'tal conditions 
of the sea Thej were the guests of Cap- 
tain Dai IS who has long be(n known to 
the (ommisHion ns engaged in shipping 
mullet from 'Walton fees During the iisit, 
large ••iiedment of mullet ntre taken by 
( nplaio DsMs fivhermen but no other 



s^C 



M 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHK. 



live flsh were obBer\-ed with Ibe exception 
of two top mi DHOWS tafceu along the 
shore. These were ot ■ form usually 
taken in desert springs nud streams, 
Cvprinodon macuUarivt. Later Captain 
Dnvis sent to Mr. Thompson samples of 
small Gsh taken rrom the Tieinity of Fisb 
SpringE at the northwestern ood of Sallon 
Sea. These proved to be of the same 

The existence of the grey mullet in 
Salton Sea is of considerable interest, as 
the species must have enteri^d during the 
inflow ot the Colorado River during 190G. 
If so the mullet must hsve lived in the 
Colorado at some distance from its mouth, 
a fact not strange when the frequent ap- 
pearance of the mullet in rivers and 
lagoons bordering our coast is remembered. 
However, it has taken somi.' time (or the 
species to become abundant in Salton Sea, 
it haviog been unrecorded preTloQS to 
1B15, according to Captain Davis. Dur- 
ing the interval It is said that carp 
appeared In great numbers and then died 
off. The carp and the mullet are both 
bottom feeding fish, consuming vegetation, 
etc.. and are not dependeut on other 
smaller fish species. But the mullet is 
also capable of existing in brackish and 
salt water — that being ita natural habi- 
tat in fact— and it is probable that this 
enabled it to flourish where the carp could 
not. The ancients used to grow mullet 
in artificial enclosures, and tbe flesh 
considered a great delicacy. 



There are also said to ■« apecies oC 
fresh water Beb found at times near tbe 
outlets of the New aud tbe Alamo rivers, 
bit nothing was seen of these. W. F. T. 

THE RECUPERATIVE POWER OF THE 
ABALONE. 
During 1011 Mr. W. F. Thompson 

carried on a survey of the shell fish of 
the norChern part of the state, and during 
its course came naluraily to handle man^ 
specimens of the red aba lone, HaUoti* 
riifcarcnt. Among these was a spedmen 
remnrkoble for the evident great recupera- 
tive powers. The viscera ot the abalone 
naturally surround the large central 
muscle in a peculiar way, as a bent cone, 
and in this case the cone had been cut off 
by some one attempting to obtain the 
abalone. The attempt failing, the aba- 
tone had evidently succeeded in covering 
the targe mass of dead cut-off parta with 
pearly layers of shell. But that the 
animal had been seriouaty injured con Id 
not be doubted, the edge of the shell show- 
ing a total cessation of growth for some 
time previous to death. The shell only 
was found, the abalone having finally died, 
possibly as a result of the injury. A 
photograph of it is presented. 

Altered shell fonnation is not at all 
infrequent, particularly amopg clams, 
where growth ia often seemingly totally 
stopped by some injury, and starts again 
well in from the former edge. Bnt 
DO instance has ever been seen by the 



,Goo<^lc 



CiLSPOSSU. PISH AND QAUZ. 



^ nuiasigned where tbe injury vas of lucb 

i-^ , tena Mtnre aa in the ease of thii 

ibaioue, and in whicb shell fonnation 

nitaeqnently proceeded for any length of 

(iBie ^- '^^ '^' 

OCCURRENCE OF THE OREEN 
ABALONE IN MONTEBEV. 

Due to the kindness ot Mt. Ernest 
[latter, who conducU a sea food watau- 
rant in Mtmterey, it U possible to record 
tbe occurrence of the oortberu "green" aba- 
kne, BmliutU leaUalentit, id tbe Bay of 
MoDterey. Jt is undoubtedly a very rare 
Inhabitant o£ our waters. Mr. Dalter 
lus in his posaession a shell oE this sup- 
posed variety of HaHotii fulfftnt 3} 
iachea long. It is hardly to be doubted 
that it ia a distinct species, not a variety 
o[ the "green" abalone, the shell much 
resembling that of tbe red abalone, never 
eiceeding 5i inches in length, and usually 
poBsessing 6 or 7 open holes. W. F. T. 

<4 NEW VORK 



STREAM POLLUTION 
STATE. 
In a recent publication by the Con- 
serratioi) Commission of the Slate of New 
Tort, 1»19, Doctor Henry B, Ward of the 
UniverEity ot lUinoiB records the results 
of his preliminary investigation of pol; 
luted streams in New York in tbeir rela- 
tion to fish life. In this paper he 
emphaaizeEi the utility of biological work, 
rather than chemical or bacteriological, 
in determining the extent ot pollution. 
Bacterial tests are made to determine the 
effect of the water when used tor drinking, I 
but these have little relation to fish life, | 
Chemical testa are of limited use because 
"we do not bj any means always know 
tbe effect upon living organisms ot a given 
chemical substance," especially in varying 
dilutions and relation to other chemicals 
preMnt. "In order to reach a more ao- 
cnrate measure of the injutious char- 
acter o( polluted watere, one would have 
to take into account the effects of the 
iirolonged influences of a waste on the 
fiah." The resistance of various apeciea 
varies widely, aa does that ot the same 
gpedes at different aeasonn- Doctor 
Ward is plainly ot the opinion that "if the 
character of the water and the bottom 
have been so modified by the introduction 
ot foreign materiali that they no longer 
afford opportunity tor the development ot 



these imallet organisms (food tor flab). 
then by the absence of such forma ot lite 
,e would demonstrate clearly and posi- 
tively the tact that water has been 
rendered un6t for fish eilstenee"— this 
method to be used, ot course. In addition 
to the obaervaliona and testa made directly 
upon Gah tbemselve*. 

Callfomlaus should be interested chiefly 
on account of the relation ot pollution to 
salmon and other anadromoua fishes, to 
whicb tbe following by Doctor Ward may 
sometime apply here: "It is hardly « 
profitable business (or the slate to raise at 
such a considerable eipense quantities 
of young fish in order to plant them out 
in waters in which tbe chances ot exist- 
ence are unfavorable." lioetor Ward 
presents a preliminary survey of the water 
polluted streams, and a series of recom- 
mendetiona. to which tbe attenlion of any 
one interesled may be caMsd. He lays 
much emphasis on the n»o'B8ity of a 
careful census, continued study, reclsma- 
llon of waslea and the education of public 
opinion to (he banishraenl of wastes from 
our streams as they hnve been banished 
trom our streets. There is enclosed with 
the paper a map showing the great num- 
ber of establiKhments in New Tork from 
.•hich pollution may be expected. 

W. F. T. 



QULL8 IN MONTEREY BAY, 

On account of the fish eating habits of 
aca gulls, their abundance is a matter of 
interest to those engaged in the study of 
flsb. At Monterey, where the sardina 
canneries are located, there are frequently 
great flocks at rest on the rocks and ad- 
jacent quiet waters, which seem lo be 
thickly spotted with the birds as far as 
the eye can reach. An exceptionally 
favorable opportunity seemed to P™"^"^ 
itself on February 17 of this year, 1020. 
because ot the unusual number of birds 
present, and an attempt was made to 
estimate the numbers of birdg within eye- 
sight of a window in the Hopkins Marine 
Station. Counting with a field glass It 
was certain that 3000 were within sight ot 
the naked eye, and it would not be amisa 
to increase thia by another thousand to 
cover those not seen or in flight. This 
I number, 4000, surely repreaented a halt of 
the total in the region comprirtng the 
I waterfronta of Monterey md New Mon- 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH ANt> QAUE. 



terey. (Later In tlie afterooon Mr. Sette 
counted 2UU0 from the mime pox it ion, 
tbus virtually corrolrarntiug tbe previous 

Aci'onliug 10 Doctor AV. K. Kisher thr 
species dominantly rcpreseoteil were the 
^laucUB- winged, the weKlPru. and the 
berriog sulls. in the order naiueil. 

Tliere can not be mucb doubt an to the 
fnet Ihal tbe birds in Moutoroy Uay were 
the majority of tbofie wilhio mauy milos, 
and many more thau are usually present, 
so that from the niugli fi(!urt-a given Home 
estimalf of the maximum amount of fish 
they might consume lain be derived. Tak- 
i itound of sardinea a day as all a 



gull 



>u]d 



sive, and considering 
them all as Seb eaters, the four thousand 
within Bight would he satisfied willi two 
tons. This would be about six-tenths of 
one per cent of what are lalien daily by 
fishennen at this point. Furthermore it 
is almoi^t certain that most of Ihe fish 
eaten by the gulls are the sardines dis- 
carded by the boats and canneries, or 
other speeit^s locally abundant. Doctor 
Fisher calls attention to tbe fact that 
gulls are diurnal in habit, auil must have 
trouble in catching live sardines during 
llie light of tbe doy, the more so as they 
are incapable of diving more than a feu- 
inches under the water surface. Natur- 
ally, regardless of the exact proportion 
the gulls in sight were of the grand total, 
the amount ealcn is not one which 
threatens to deplete the sardine. .\nd as 
a matter of fact, the presenc" of so many 
gulls should l>e rather a sharp commentary 
on Ihe wHsle durins the hnndllng of the 
tish. 

These remarkably laree flocks of gulls 
which obtain their food froui the sardine 
industry are supposed lo stiiy at night on 
some rocky islets at sonie distance from 
Ihe canneries, bill Mr. Sette who haa col- 
lected sampliw of the sardine catch 
throngltout lids season, stal's that he has 
olsi-rved gulls to tbe number of thirty or 
mori' feeding on tlie sontines lost over- 
board from liRhlers unloading about 11 :,W 
at night, hence during total darkness, on 
January 20 of this year. Whether this 
is a norjnnl or usual habit with them he 
does not knoi-. W F. T. 



OCCURRENCE OF A HARE CRAB. 
Mr. T. Tanignchi, one of Ihe Japanese 

fishery experts at one time engaged in the 
albacore fishery for tbe Fish and Game 
Commission, has forwarded three crabs 
taken from a depth of twenty-live fathoms 
on a rock cod bank about half way be- 
tween San lliego and the Coronado Is- 
lands. Thi-y prove to be vcy interesting 
spi-cimens of the same species as one 
taken by tbe l.'niled Stales vessel, tbe 
".Vlbatross." during lier deep sea work on 
this coast in 1SS9 at Station '294t>. latitude 
;i;( degrees jH minutes north and longitude 
119 degrees 'JO minutes 45 seconds west. 
and described by James E. Benedict as 
iiolallu-a califomifHtit. The correspon- 
dence between our specimens and the one 
described by him is very close, and no 
doubt exists concerning the identificatioD. 
The pn-sent specimens were taken by 
tbe boat "Julia," engaged in rock cod 
fisbiug, and were inside a silicions sponge, 
one of the open Ilexactinellid type, idiout 
three feel in diameter. They were taken 
F,-bruary .1, H>20. The largest is 50 
millimeters in length from Ihe telson to 
the tip of the roslrum. W. F. T. 

SCIENTIFIC WORK OF THE "AUBA- 
CORE" IN DECEMBER. 
Karly in December of last year, the 
"Albacore" made its final trip of the 

season for the collection of data on the 
life history of tlie halibut. Ihiring tbe 
greater part of last year, trips were made 
at regular intervals for tbe purpose of 
collecling data on the distribution of the 
eggs and young of food fishes and tbe 
lo<'alion of their spawning grounds, as 
well as tile collecting of data on the life 
history of the halibut, but owing to in- 
snOcienC equipment a part of this work 
was discontinued, and now all of it is 
lemiKtrarily stopped, due. in part, to tbe 
centering of the attention of the labora- 
tory staff on other and more pressinfc 
lirohlems. The results of the December 
trip are of siiecial interest becan-fc tbi'y 
illustrate bolh tbe practical or immediate. 
and tbe more purely scientific values of 
such work. 

In hauling for Satfish, a special otter 
Iriiwl modified from the commercial 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIPOBNIA FISH AND OAUE. 



87 



paraniella or drag net ia aaiA wltb 
ordinarr man its rap« towing warpa. 
This e«ar is simple and crude, but catches 
are made aceragiag from oOO to 1500 
ponnda of fish and invertebrate aninwla, 
includins aa higb as twenty apecies of 
Sab in one iiaul. AlUioush the work baa 
been chiefl; confined to inahore opera- 
tions, on December 9 and 10 two baula, 
wbich yielded valuable results, were made 
in water about 50 fathona deep on a good 
trawling bottom off Huntington Beach, 
Orange County. 

Besides taking a commercially snccesa- 
ful eatrb of market fish, red rock cod 
tfiebatlodrt >p.) halibut, floanders, and 
sole of various specie* — tbese hauls re- 
vealed tbe presence of several species of 
excellent food hahes not commonly taken 
in these waters and rare or unknown in 
tbe markela. One of tbeae was (be sand 
dab. t'ilhaTiekthi/t aorJidvt, so common 
in tbe San Francisco niariRts. These 
fish are not caugbt in any quantity in the 
south, and the southern markets therefore 
receive their supply from the north. 

Another species taken in considerable 
quantities in the hauls was the yellow- 
spotted sanddab. Citharicklhi/i lantkot- 
liffma. recorded for the first time from the 
r'alifomta coaxt in OALiroBRiA Fish aku 
Game fur April, 1010. This sand dab is 
a wider, plumper fish, with more meat 
for the amount of bone than the common 
dab from San Francisco and won Id lie 
mt>re valuable if the location of profitable 
banks were known and a stable supply in 
tbe marketa insured. 

Two species of "sole" were also taken 
which migbt be found in commercial 
quantities in tbe south it they were 
sought in deep enouKh water. These were 
the slippery or Chinese sole. J/>cro«lom«« 
pacifieua, and the long-finned or rex sole. 
(Hyptocrphalat zaeXim. Both are com- 
mon in the San Franciiico markets where 
they are often stmng with sand dabs in 
bunches and all sold together under one 
name, but are unknown in local catches 
in the south. 

Another apedes taken in these hauls 
was the sable fish, or Alaska black cod. 
Anoplopoma ^mhria. This fish ia com- 
mon north of Sen Francisco, but is said 
by naturalials to be rare in southem 
California and seldom seen in the mar- 



kets. It is, however, by no means un- 
common in tbe south but is so little 
appreciated that it is grossly misnamed 
"hake" by the rock cod fishermen, who 
take eonsiderable numbers on their lines, 
but reiect it from tbe calch as worthless 
t>ecBuae the flesh is rather soft The 
United SiAtes Bureau of Fisheries has 
advocated tbe exploitation of this fish in 
northern waters, and methods for its use 
have been devised. It is said to he par- 
ticularly adapted to salting and drying. 
Thus we see that several useful food 
Ush hare been added to the list of edible 
fish taken by the "Albacore" by changing 
the method of fishing and the locality 
fiahed. and it would aeem from this that 
great good could be accomplished by fur- 
I ther proapecting and experimenting in 

Of no leas importance than the results 
rei-orded above are those of greater scien- 
tific interest. Besides supplying data 
from about 300 halibut eonceminj; their 
age and rate of growth, their qtawning 
period, and fecundity, several species were 
taken which extend SMnewhat the known 
range of tbe species, adding to our knowl- 
edge of their gei^raphical distribution. 

One of the BurpriBJnR finds was the rare 
and little known smelt. .4ri7mtiRa tialit. 
Gilbert. This little fish, about three 
inches long, is our only soutbem Cali- 
fornia representative of tbe family Argen- 
tinidae, or true smelts, but is not related 
1o the "smelts" common in the south, 
which belong to a different family. About 
.TOO Hpecimens were taken and they agree 
in all essential points with the description 
of the lype specimen, which is the only 
specimen of this species known. This 
tyiie s|>pcimen was recorded and described 
by Doctor Gilbert in 1S»0 as from the 
Culf of California. Albatross Station No. 
:{01T. latitude 20 degrees o4 minutes 30 
seconds norlh. and longitude 113 degrees 
01 miuutes 00 seconds west, in r>S fath- 
oms." Our siierimena were taken De- 
cember l> and 10, 1019, in 45 fathoms 
off Huntington Beach, and this seems to 
be their second recorded occurrence. 

Two specimens of tbe peculiar little 
eel-pout. Lvrodoptii pacificug (Collet) , 
family. Zoarcidae. occurred in one of the 

■ProceedinKB V. S. National Museum, 



i„vGoo<^lc 



CALIFORNIA PISH I 



above bauls. Tbe»e were Imiiiature speci- 
mens and differed somewhat In coloration 
from curreat descriptiODS of the B[>ecieB, 
This s|)e(?ieg is recorded ss Dccurriog 
rather commonly in walcr of moderate 
depth from Saa Francieco to Puget 
Sound, so that this occurrence extends 
the known range considerably southward. 
Two other species were taken which 



are known to occur aa far south as Point 
Concepcion, and although not actually ex- 
tending their known range appreiHablj, 
may nevertheless be listed as rare here 
at their extreme southern limit. They 
are the starry skate, Raja ttetiulata, 
Jordon and Gilbert, and a flounder, 
PleuTOnichthi/t dccurrent, Jordon and 
Gilbert. E. H. 



WINTER OCCURRENCE OF THE FVl— 
VOU8 TREE DUCK IN THE CEN- 
TRAL SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY. 
In that definite winter records are few 
in number, It ia well to record the occur- 
rence of the fulvous tree duck, Den- 
drocygna bioolor. in the central San 
Joaquin Valley during the wintet 
I919-1920. As late as January 22 of 
this winter Mr. J. L. Kiunear, of 
Newman, saw a flock of Ave of these 
dncha OD the Newman Club grounds ; 
and still later, on January 31, Mr. C. C 
Hnber, also of Newman, killed two of 
Iheee ducks on the Newman Club grounds. 
One of these specimens, mounted, Mr. 
Huber presented to Mr. Otto Feudner, 
of the Peters Cartridge Company. 5S3 
Howard street, San Franci»co, where It 
is now on display. The other mounted 
specimen he still retains in his possession. 
There were also a few fulvous tree ducks 
seeu and some killed on tbe Gustine Club 
grounds during Januarj-. — J. E. Ntw- 
souE. Netcman, California. 

THE POMFRET, NEAR FORT BRAQQ. 

Two specimens of the pomfret, Bromo 
mil, were caugbt about three miles off 
the coast near Fort Brnfrg by W. G. 
July 23, 1010. They were 



LIFE HISTORY NOTES. 

taken on a salmon troll with spoon hook. 



35 fathoms of line being o 
mated angle of 30 degrees The fishe* 
measured IS} inches and were bright 
silver in color. Authors have described 
this Species as sooty gray, which appears 
to be characteristic ot preserved speci- 
mens only, where the brilliant silvery 
pigment has been destroyed. An example 
in the National Mnseum which was taken 
off ibe coast of Washington, offers every 
evidence of baring been like these speci- 
mens, as bright as a new dollar. A 
touch of the flnger will often efface the 
metallic color. — J. O. Sntdeb, Palo AUo, 
VaUforma. 

WHERE OO DEER SLEEP. 
I have many times observed that mule 
deer in the Southern Sierras always bed 
within thick cedars or other forest trees 
OD moonlight nights, whereas the same 
deer apparently sleep out in the open, as 
for instance in sn apple orchard or among 
brush, during tbe dark of tbe moon. 
Whether this is a constant babit or one 
but locally developed I can not say, hot 
it si>ems reasonable to believe that these 
\'arious locations are chosen as a means 
of protection from enemies. — O. P. 
Hbowklow. Porlerville, CaUfornia. 



UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE COOPERATION. 

FIRE AND OUR FORESTS. 

We have lately bad a sudden, energetic 



flare o( discussion all over California 
upon the ancient notions of "Piulc fores- 
try" whose deep fire-scars remain upon 
BO many of our giant landmark pines 
and sequoias. It can be made to sound 
v«ry plausible : "bum off tbe mt>bM, 
tbe dead limbs and 'stubs,' the thick 
undergrowth and chaparral ; clear the 



way for more forest, incldently get more 
Rraas, besides, all the tree-beetles which 
destroy so much standing timber." Ail 
this by light surface fires — variously ap- 
plied, kept as far as possible under con- 
trol, and aimed at producing a smooth 
forest floor. 

The Forest Service is solidly opposed 
to every sort o( "light burning" because 
they have seen it In practice many tlmeB, 



CALIFOBNIA FISH AND OAUR. 



and under all iorta ot conditioiu; so are 
the foRsten of «ll other civlliied oonn- 
tries. This does not mean, of course, 
that foresters do not desire to bum 
"stnbB" and dead trees so dangeronsl; 
apt to be struck bj lightning or bom 
the "tops" after logging whererer tbat 
can be done with safetr, in the cool 

The anderlrtne principles of all scien- 
tific forestr;, however, are these: Save 
the joung growth as well as the mature 
trees : protect the soil ; encourage re- 
production ; fill up ell possible gaps in 
the forest cover — do not make more by 
surface fires— fight all fires to a finish. 
Furthermore, as the fareater knows, the 
G re-weakened, fire-scarred tree becomes 
almost certsinlf the prey of forest insects. 
The main points in all this ate reproduc- 
tion and soil protection from loss of 
hnmna and from waahee; these last are 
so important as to deserve another little 
talk later. 

GAME IN THE CALIFORNIA NA- 
TIONAL FOREST. 
It is seneratl; conceded that the Cali- 
fornia National Forest contains a larger 
number of bl neb- tailed deer than any 
other locality of equal size, and that the 
conditions on the forest for propagation 
and protection are uneqaalled in tbe west. 
Embracing as it does large areas of heavy 
brush which provide protection from nat- 
ural enemies asd almost unlimited forage 
during Ibe entire year ; large glade areas 
which remain practically snowless during 
tbe winter months, providing an abund- 
ance of winter feed when not fed too 
closely by domestic stock ; and large areas 
of open timber, well stocked wilb snccu- 
lent weeds and grasses, it can well be 
said to be ideal as a locality adapted 
to the perpetuation of this valuable game 

The mating season for deer on this 
forest ranges from late September in (be 
footltiDs. to November at tbe higher 
altitndee. The bucks shed their horns 
from January 15 to March 15, and new 
growth is noticed by June 1. The horns 
become hard about August 1, although 
at Ihe higher elevations they are stilt 
found in the velvet dnring tbe latter part 
of August, and even up to September 10. 



Tbe fawns am)ear from June 1 to the 
end of July, and in moat cases are in 

There are a few black and brown bear 
on the forest, but they can hardly be 
tak«i seriously as a game animal. In 
fact they are osed by unscrnpulons hunt- 
ers as an excuse to go into the mountains 
with packs of hounds during the winter 
season, when there is no doubt that many 
violations of the game laws are commit- 
ted.- These beats are often very trouble- 
some to sheep permittees and settlers 
within tbe forest who raise Iiogs, aa tlie 
older ones frequently develop predatory 
tendencies. It is probable, also, that they 
are lesponsible for many of tbe kills of 
deer made by panthers, as they feed on 
the deer killed by tbe panther and dis- 
turb it in such a way tbat it is no longer 
palatable to the panther, who makes a 
new kill. 

The most important game bird on the 
forest is the mountain quail. It is found 
in all parts of the forest above tbe bm^ 
line which surrounds the forest on three 
sides, and during the peat two years 
have shown a gratifying increase. Tbts 
is attributed in part to tbe destruction of 
groond squirrels and other small egg eat- 
ing animals by the United States Biologi- 

Valley quail are common at tbe lower 
elevations, and they, also are on the 

The principal fur-bearing animals on 
ibis forest, and tbe numbers caught dur- 
ing tbe present season so far as shown 
by tbe incomplete records at band, are 
as fallonf- ; 

Skunk 4fi9 

Foi (gray) 33T 

Coyote 241 

Wild cat .. 136 

Iting-taited cat 119 

Civtt tariIIIIIII~I!!II!III"IIII 26 

Fisher 23 

Badwr 20 

Panther 6 

Bear _ s 

Kiver otter 4 

During the past two or three seasons 
there has been a large increase in tbe 
number of trappers. It is estimated that 
there are fifty trappers on tbe forest dur- 
ing the past season. 



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Sptrts tt fiib. >lu or 



AOJhoTT, MiC-d. lb. 

AntiwTT. Mll'^il. 5-]b. cans. W 






«,1M 


iitfiW 
B*S 

IS7 

no 
Eia 


M,**8 ^ 


S».174 


■Di to tut. 






Aarborr, aaltnl. U\t>. canj, e 







216 














"."■-1°.!!!!: 




81 WIS 
3,900 






Bairafudt, drifd, lbs 


OT.lOe 


::::;:::: 


:::::::::■ 


«1.1«t 














l'4»( 
























l,4uO 






»^1 

SO^OTO 


v^;^ 




B1.0S7 
S0.000 














1,302 ' 

358 j 






























4.020 
1,014 








710 
























'S0| 
-1 


















15,000 


15.iX« 






43,962 








ani lo ™«e 




4,000 










7» 






8«fdln». salttd. B-lb. »iu. M 




— ; 


fSTS 


SirdiQBg. iBltnl. 2<-lb. cans, 4 
8irdlae>. ■■1t«l, W-lb- lre«s... 










450 


- 


""'Wf^' 












iaoi 


-™» 


-- - ! 














:?,'^ 














1,B74 
2S,JB1 


14^4 

ym.m 


S.S31 

3oo,sa3 

2.218 
|6,9I»,B« 
1,M9,1S0 


481 1 
ll),340 

(ior> 

13.132.843 1 

Wfl.S25 




























' ' 


' 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUPOKXU FTSB AXD GAMS. 



SEIZURES— ^ISH AND CAME AND ILLEGALLV USED FISHING APPARATUS. 
October 1. I»1S. to Occeflibw SI. 1919. 

p.,.™,, ; -■ *r-: ■• U.» _ t.tm 

J ; ■; :;;.: „. - -; ^* ,; - — — *? 






CAUPOBNIA riSH AND O/lVE. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES YEAR 1»1». 





ls,»o w 
now 


1.910 SI 


Kawdo 
£aa2( 

11177 


!,.«..„ 


■"arnJ irtmlalttrMIoa 


11.101 «3 
















3TS3 


800 








300 Dll 












315 00 




Hmlfai IteB., conimtail™. _ 


J.«N)50 
131 50 

i<.imM> 
t,mt6 

155 ss 


1.M1W 


2.873 90 








b!8-4 1» 
8,079 82 

100 on 


7,0*5 73 
B,3M« 
S,OM «-| 

2711 .Jl 








I« AoRla DiMikt 


J.9I14) 














Asktail .ad iMlh clalmt. ^ 


i.n«EE 

lima 
tonss 


K8 42 
1.4W(1 

Who 

1.8T8«J 


1,»78 

2.9115 2* 

I.S7T at 


l.>i4 7S 












1,139 97 




TilxH Ritdnrr - 

TilUt HitchtiT 

(*(» Eipfrtm-Dtsl 8t«tlon_ 


l.tffil 10 


"'"saiio" 

soo 


""■jMii" 
mow 


40 It 

690 


■■"» 








Oltb H.lcher7 


1B18J 

aooo 


92 00 




1M«' 
31)09 








S«tt Cn«k 8t.Z-. 


SI 00 




321 20 

zos Ji 

1.119 3S 
403% 


,:ii 


500 

210 22 
1.220 «i 

'in2»7 

l.«H31> 
3,77B 18 












Bat Lmk; H.tchiTj - - 








loranil* H.tcherr 


150 Vfl 

i.ssr 87 

819 79 


»„W2 4» 

160 35 
S,SSO!ll 


41 K 


Ftoh [raueplititlPC aod distribution 


319 9S 






DT>«rtm;at of CoramsteFBl Flahstl;!.,- - 


i,M6ta 


3.2aS 78 


ToUl. - — 


t&1,<00 66 


(Hl,(r!107 


(44.848 78 


138,898 08 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND GAUB. 



OB.-. 




1 KnmbR of 


JSSS^ 


GaiTW. 




! 


•«»oo 








UkMdk f«lM affld.vlt on shlprn;iit of (l-r hWff _ 


:;: I 


2S 00 


























as 00 






« 




» 00 




1.305 00 
910 00 

4noo 










„. 


:::! fJ 










85 00 
MOO 








- i J 


























fs.eoi 00 
tsooo 


AngllDj wltbout Ikeose - 




J 






J 








i 


T6U 
























50 00 












I 


no 00 
moo 
irooo 
S80 00 


Frmsle eruba— tsklne or poSBSSsIon 

Lobal^ra-vinder and oieisiKit- pIoi-- i-ii«c™ - 


attng or pof»'>.«for.-„.. 


IS 






tl.«B0O 

e,300 0l) 


GrsDil total Osh gBd ismc vfolatloni 




SJO 



SEIZURES— FISH AND QAME AND ILLEGALLY USED FISHINQ APPARATUS. 
October 1, 1919, to DacemMr 31, 1919. 

Fiah. 



Quail - 



! Iliilllntt 
j Catfl^h'. 



Klld?er plove 
Sandpipers . 



I MlscellanMUa flih 

19 (Plamo) ^ _. 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND GAME. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES YEAR l»1B. 





-- 


j-^-; 


K.VI nn 

«.1I0G$ 


nam no 
iim 

135 








ftTriitb. pobllcmtkiQ lait fdurillon 


' B»l 38 


moB 
























son 












aw mi 


















s,«S8so 










i,BM en 


teisM 




















V.754 01 
5,854 IB 


5.3S2K 

3,0M ri 
















I.M1« 


LtDMb p>trol 




6.9M U 


t>«»fleh inBp^ctJoD .._ 




- i '^ ™ 


100 Ifl 








i,4»n 
■39.-. t» 

1,878 IB 


Sli2 81 
1,S»7S 

let: si 

23850 










I,8MI! 






""I il^S 
























I.IWOT 


















SSi ID 


158 11 

800 
















] 81 75 




i.mis 


















HT3S 










156 0! 
SftOO 












Srott Cntk StaUoB 






81 00 






; r w 


'•is 


1,239 (K 
1,559 (5 
SI! 87 

l,mt 39 

5S3H6 

10! 09 










































TofsnlU Hstcbery 




so ■a 


woo 

150 35 


<4K 


F&h iripsplantlDg sod dia 


----- - ~ 


: l^l'L 


















[)7p«Ttin;at 0( Comnisrei*] 


FUh;rl-» 


j i.m:i 


3,255 78 


Tolsla 




W.vaa 


|M.M8m 








1 





DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURB8. 
July 1, 1B1», to December 31. 1919. 






























Awlil?nt ■nil deatti cl«lmB— - - 




i,i»re 








Wl.a7M 


Commertisl Bib tulture sod cooMrTetlon; 

Buperintaodajte - - 




aajas Si 






„.-_, IS-lOO S7 
0,298 34 


























BO -MM 










FilDtlat 




l.t»78 








&s»aj 




Spsclel Held [avest[(atlO[U - ^ 




BIB 36 




Gpn?r«l pstrol {pro rale »harf>— 

S»a FrenclsK. District (40 per t-jit) - 




n.JST GE 


























laseiTHi 


Game FODserrBlloD: 

Printing _ 




tt,B»(IT 










































V8.181 5* 

a.5»n 
























■ppllcHtion to the eivciitlve oftlw of ths Pish lad Qamt Com 


will be eledl; tnnilaticd opon 
jDlBlon. e«n PraoclMO. OUllomie. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



PATROL SERVICE. 



•AN niAMCWCO DlVlftlON. 

H. It. Boaqul, ComniMtgBM' In Ctais^ Cari W«at*rreM, Bx«e»tlT* OOoar. 

J. a Hntwr, AmImtMmt ^ekbOv* OfllMr. B. G BandMr, Bpadal Astnt 

B«a4 Office, Postal Trtasrsph Bulldlns, B«ti Franctaco. 

Phon* antter tlsfl. 



a P- BrowntiM 













. Uktah 























•ACRAMEHTO EMVISrON. 

F. K. K«wb«rt, Oommlirionar In Cbvrg*. 
Om. NMla. AaslBUnt. 



2^" w 2i!ir^'^*' — 


























Lm KMtMa 




























LOa ANQELES DIVISION, 

M. I. GoTme>, CoDnDlaaloiMr In Chares. 

Edwin L. Hedderly. AsHatant 

Union Loasue BnlltUnK. Lo* AngclM. 

r lUt: HonM, PGIOS. 



_Sbb Lula OblipA 



H t M^iidL 


Big Fin* 






Wfl^^ Toma 


SuDtMC 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



1919 ABSTRAa CAUfORNIA HSH AND GAME lAWS 1920 

WHITE SQUARES INDICATE OPEN SEASON 
NUMBERS IN SQUARES ARE OPEN DATES 



HUNTING LICENSES 



A NQLINO LICEN SES , 
nwritfmt^ ILOO. Non'ReaMwrti, tSAH AHMik 

TRAPPINQ LICENSES 

U-mtYtmlnmimttHmmm 
CnizeM, 11.00. Allans •2jOQ, 



i„vGoo<^lc 



^ 



[SH-» 

'VtCMSERMVION OF WILD UFE THROUGH EDUCATION* 




BOARD OF FISH AND GAME COMMISSIONERS. 

0«mmlutMwra appolnUd hy tli« Oovamor, by and ¥rtth tli* conMnt of th« a«iMt«. 
T«rm Bt plaatur* of Oovarner. No companootlon. 

F. M. NEWBBRT, Presfdent Sacnnmita 

M. J. CONNELL, CommtKloDer Loo Augolca 

E. L. BOSQUl, CominiBsioner San rrtnctow 



CHAS. A. VOGELSANG, ExeeutiTS Offleer. 
J. S. HUNTER. AMJatatit EzMutlrc Officer.. 
It, D. DUKE, Attonief 



—Baa FnDdaca 



DEPARTMCNT OP FISHCUUTURB. 

W. H. BHBBLBT, In CluiKe FlabCDltDre ^ Sacrameot* 

H, W. HUNT, Field BaperintendeDt Bftcramento 

J. H. HOEHL. Chief Clerk Sacramento 

A B. DONET, riah LAdder Inapector Bacraineato 

A. B, CULVBE, Screen Inipector Sacrameato 

M. K. SPALDING, Asaiitant In Charge ot OMiatraetioii. Sacramento 

G. H. LAMBSON, Sn peri n ten dent Uonnt Shasta Hatcbecj SiMM 

W. 0. FASSBTT, SuperinteDdent Fort Senard Hatcherr, Ukiab, and Snow 

Uonntain Station DUah 

O. McCLOnD. JB., Snperinteudeiit Mount Wbitner Hatcher? and Cotton- 
wood Lakes Btalion Independence 

0. B. WEST, Foreman In C3iarse Tahoe and Tallac Hatcberies Tallac 

B. T. CASSELL, Foreman in Charge Fall Creek Hatcberj Oopco 

L. J. STINNETO, Assistant in Charge Bogns Creek Sutlon Copoo 

1. PHILLIPS, Foreman In Charge Bear Lake and North Creek Hatdieriea 

Sao Bernardino 

GUT TABLER, Awistant in Charge Wawona Hatchetr Wawona 

C. F. PIERSON, Assistant in Charge Brookdale Hatchery Brookdale 

J. W. RICKBR, Foreman In Charge Aimanor, Domingo Spriags and Clear 

Creek Hatcheries Gieenvitle 

a. UcCLOUD, Sb., Foreman in Charge Cottoa*ood Greek Station Hombrook 



DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCIAL PISHERIE0. 



































L. H. HELWIG, Assistant 


,. , Ran I>lag« 



DEPARTMENT OF WATER POLLUTION. 

. FAIRFIELD, In Charge 



,-San Franctaco 



BUREAU OP EDUCATION, PUBLICITY AND RESEARCH. 
DR. H. C. BRYANT, Id Charge Berkeley 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



California Fish and Game 



"CONSERVATION OF WILD UFE THROUGH 



SACRAMENTO, JULY, 1920 



CONTENTS. 



KING SALMON MARKING EXPERIMENT AT KLAMATH EIVEH, 1»I9. 

If-'. L. Scofield 101 

GAUE IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY IN 1853 Andrew J. Crayton 104 

NOTES ON DRY-FLY FISHING— No. 4 R. L. M., Calilornia 107 

EDITORIALS - 116 

FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST 127 

HATCHERY NOTES 128 

NOTES FROM THE STATE FISHERIES LABORATORY 13i) 

CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES—. 131 

UFE HISTORY NOTES 13-1 

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE COOPERATION 134 

REI-ORTS— 

C.\L[FOBSlA Fbesii Fibiiekt Pboducts lOT 

Violations op Fibh and Game Laws i.SO 

Seizures HO 

Statement of Expesditcres 140 



KINO SALMON MARKING EXPERIMENT AT KLAMATH 

RIVER, 1919. 

By W. L. Scofield. 
Sourco of Cgga. 

The Chinook or king Halmon used in this experiment were from egifs 
taken by Mr. Hurby of the United States Bureau of Fisheries at the 
substation on Mill Creek. Tehama County. California, near the town of 
Tehama about twelve miles south of Red Bluff. Mill Creek is a 
tributary of the Sacramento River. The ejigs were taken about the 
latter part of November, 1918, 

Shipping. 

The eyed eggs were shipped in one shipment of 1.153,000 eggs. 
Though originally billed to the ilonnt Shasta Hatchery, they were not 
unloaded but shipped immediately to the new Fall Creek Hafehery on 
Fall Creek near Copco, Siskiyou County, abont sixteen miles from 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



10& CALIFOBNIA FISH AND GAMS. 

Hombrook. The eggs were received at the Fall Creek Hatchery Feb- 
ruary 13, 1919. 
Hatching. 

The eggs were hatched at Fall Creek Hatchery from the middle to the 
end of February, 1919. About July 1, 1919, 25,000 of these small king 
salmon were placed in the cement-sided pond at Fall Creek Hatchery 
and the others were liberated in Fall Greet, which is a tributary of 
the Klamath River, eoteriug just below the California-Oregon Power 
Company dam at Copco. The hatchery is about a mile up Pall Creek 
from its mouth. 



The adipose and right ventral fins were removed by clipping off close 
to the body with a pair of manicurists' cuticle nippers. The marking, 
begun November 3 and completed November 15, 1919, was done by L. 
Phillips of the Department of Fish Culture and W. L. Scofield of the 
Department of Commercial Fisheries of the Fish and Game Commis- 
sion of California. 

Variation in Si». 

Although from the same brood, hatchery practice and rearing pond, 
there was great variation in the size of the yearlings at the time of 
marking, the extremes in length being from 1^ to 5 inches, measured 
from the tip of the snout to the tip of the central rays of the caudal fin. 
The small fish, roughly those under two inches in length, were not 
marked but sorted out as the marking proceeded. These small fish were 
liberated every day or two. 

Counting and 8«paralion. 

As 250,000 fish had been counted into the rearing pond, no count 
was made of unmarked fish while marking. The marked fish were care- 
fully counted each day. Mr, Phillips kept tally of his work while 
marking. Mr. Scofield counted hi,s work at the end of the half day. 
In each ease at the end of the day the fish marked by each person were 
placed in a separate trough. 

Libaratlon*. 

The first fish marked were held to the end of the fifth day in the 
trough to determine the effect of rough handling. As no injury showed 
in the fish, tlie first five days marking was liberated at the end of the 
fifth day and from then on the marked fish were liberated each day or 
two. All liberations were made in Fall Creek. November 14 the rear- 
ing pond was emptied, thus liberating all the unmarked fish of the 
250,000 except a few held in the hatchery troughs. The following day 
all remaining unmarked fish were liberated. 

Control. 

In order to determine the possible percentage of fin regeneration, a 
sample of each half day's marking was retained as a control to be held 
in the hatchery trough. The control from each person's marking was 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CAUFORNU FISH AND QAHE. 103 

held in a separate troagh. Control fish were obtained by dipping out 
a few 6sh with a net and counting out Mty or so without conscious 
selection. Great care was used in this respect so that the control would 
be exactly representative of the size classes of marked fish in order that 
the control might be need for possible future study. The control 
remained two months in the hatchery troughs from the time of marking 
oiitil the middle of January, 1920. The control fish were then bottled 
in formalin and shipped to Professor J. 0. Snyder of Stanford Univer- 
sity, being received by him January 19, 1920. Through an overaight 
■when bottling the control at the hatchery, the fish marked by Phillips 
and those marked by Seofield were not kept separate, but since the 
percentage of regeneration has been found to be almost negligible this 
attempt to determine the regeneration percentage for each person's 
marking was scarcely necessary. Roughly, 100 of the control marked 
by Seofield were shipped to Professor Snyder for his study very soon 
after the marking and received by him December 1, 1919. Of the 
25,850 fish marked 850, or roughly 3 per cent of the total were retained 
as control, thus leaving an even 26,000 marked fish to be liberated. 

Parcantagtt of Fin Raganaration. 

To determine the percentage of fins which might be expected to 
regenerate, the control was examined by W. L. Seofield in February, 
1920, with the help of Professor Snyder and Mr. Willis Rich of the 
TJnited States Bureau of Fisheries. Of the 573 specimens examined 
hut 8 or 1.4 per cent showed signs of possible regeneration and in sev- 
eral of these cases the resulting ventral fin would probably be so 
deformed as to be recognizable as a mark when found with a missing 
adipose fin. In no case had the adipose fin shown any sign of 
regenerating. 

Injury from Marking. 

But one death was noted among the marked fish soon after marking 
and none among the control from November 3 to 15, 1919. A report in 
December from the hatchery stated that the control was apparently 
perfectly normal and healthy with very few deaths. A few fish were 
stunned by the rough handling while being marked but when returned 
to the water would swim off after about one minute and show no 
further signs of discomfort. 



Of 1,153,000 king salmon eggs taken in November, 1918, from Mill 
Creek of the Sacramento, and hatched at Fall Creek Hatchery on the 
Klamath River in February, 1919, 903,000 were liberated in the Klamath 
about July 1, 1919, and 250,000 were held in a rearing pond. In 
November, 1919, the 250,000 from the rearing pond were liberated in 
the Klamath River after 25,000 of them had been marked by removing 
adipose and right ventral fins. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 





2« 










N(.v»nib;r 5 


696 


1.0M 










MO 
















KoTtmber 11 

Nov-mb^r IS 


7 1:^ 


J3» 
1.BW 












u.ni 


Totil tnarktd — 





CALIFORNIA PISH AKD OAHE. 

Control CMintMl Out from the Total. 



lBl»-No*emb°r t .. 
November 10 . 
NovilDber IS . 

NoT9iBb«r 15 .. 



Novembtr S .. 
Novemb-r 9 .. 
Novembrr 10 .. 



GABIZ IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY IN 1853.* 

A Little Journal of Incidente Whilat on a Surveying Party with Ton 
Schmidt, Deputy Surveyor under Colond Jack Hays, in the Fall 
of 18S3, on the Tulare Plains. 

B; COLOKBL Andbbw ]. Gbatbok. 

Meeting my friend von Scbinidt, a German by birth bat raised in the 
United States, and at that time deputy surveyor, one day as I was walk- 
ing down one of the streets of San Francisco, and whom I hadn't seen 
for a long time, I shook him cordially by the baud, when he told me he 
was just making preparations for a long trip to the Tulare plains and 
lakes to survey the Standard lines (government survey), and as I had 
never been in this portion of California, and having heard oft of the 
great quantities of game in this region of the country interesting to the 

•Between the years ISie and ISSS ther« lived In California a naturalist and artlat 
□( so great altaLnment that be became known as the "Audubon or the f^dOc." 
This naturalist wa« Colonel A. J. Grayson. Bom In Louisiana, on the banks of th« 
picturesque Ouachita River, hemmed In by pine forests end cane brahoa, Qrajraon 
spent most of his boyhood days rambling in the woods or along the banks of tho 

■.— ._j . ._!._. i_ .^g drawing and palntlUf 

:imately acQualnted; but 



or birds and the wild life scenes with which he T 



manifested frredt 



t vehemently discouraged by 



flnlehing colleRe young Orayaon made 
or the drudgery of tnercantUe pursnlt*. 
iture, BO he gave it up and deterDiln«a 

objects Of aCudy In nature's unazplored 



recesses might b 
And BO It was 

overland Journey to'tlie Paclflc. But as they traveled westward* some branched o 



CvLiFOBNiA Fish and game. lOS 

adveoturer, from tlie fact of its never having been but little explored 
save by the few wild Indians that live about the lakes, I at once pro- 
posed acompanyiug him on this interesting trip. Yon Hehmidt was glad 
to have me go, so I made up my mind to do so, for I hadn't bad a hunt 
for a long time. 

So on the evening of the sixteenth of September, 18r»3, we took the 
good little steamer "Sophia" from San Francisco bound for Stockton, ' 
At Stockton we secured wagon, mules and camping equipment and on 
September 18 our party started on their journey. 

At noon of the second day out we reached the Stanislaus River — at 
Heath and Emery 'a ferry — where we had our lunch, forded the river 
and took the Mariposa road. The day was intensely warm and the road 
heavy and dusty, as it wound through the low hills, sparsely covered 
with oak and brush. After a few miles we saw a large track of a grizzly 
which seemed to have just crossed the road. After tracking him through 
the woods for a while I came to the conclusion that the old Growler had 
made tracks to the river to quench his thirst and cool his hide, for the 
day was melting hot and the bills around parched. I couldnt conceive 
what brought him so far from water at that time of day — and such 
a day! 

We made an uneventful camp that night and by sunrise the next day 
(September 20) were on our way. We crossed the Tuolumne River at 
Dickinson's ferry and camped on a creek that night. On September 21 
we reached the Merced River at "Snelings," where we camped and 
caught our first fish and killed our first game— a few quail. The fish 
were full of fine bones — the same kind I have seen in all the fresh water 
streams in California — and a very poor fish to eat. 

Leaving the river about six miles farther up, we proceeded toward 
the foothills. As yet we had seen no game larger than quail, but as we 
advanced towards the wilds the country became more interesting. On 
September 26 we reached old Steams' cabin, where we camped. Here 
I shot quail and doves and one of the hoys killed a hare. On the next 
day we proceeded toward the ChowchiUa River, where von Schmidt 
received instructions from the Surveyor General and commenced his 
surveying work. Here I went out hunting in the low hills for antelope 
and came across a herd of them, but fhey were so wild I could not get 
near enough to shoot one. Ijater we camped on the Fivsno, then a dry 
bed, but with a few water holes. Here we saw a lai^e band of wild 
horses — probably fifty in number — and they went snorting and charging 

In d1fT«renC courseB. nolably the Donner purly; others fell away; and Anally 
Colonel Grayaon, with his wllu and child and onu horse, oomplfiled the Journey alone. 

Almost needless to Bay, Colonel Grayson, like almuHt every one else In those 
tarly daya of Caltfornla. went to the "dlEslnes" Knd was so far successful as to be 
considered one of the wealthy mtn of San FranplsiTo at one time. His attempts at 
mercantile pursuits, however, proved fajlures, as before. The wilds called to him and 
he determined to renounce business Bgaln and adopt the life of a trapper, which 
would afford him opportunllies for the study of ornltholoBy. One of his best known 
works Is hl9 "Birds of the Pacific Sloii-." which is profusely illustrated with 
colored drawings, the work of his own hand. Bt> line were some of these drawings 
that the State F"alr at Sacramento awarded him a special premium "for superior 
drawings of native birds of California, exhibllefl at the Fair. 18B6." 

This noted artist and naturalist, in his various wanderlnca for the purpose of 
studying wild life, accepted in 1653 an Invitation from a friend to accompany a 
mrve>ing party to the plains of Tulare County. The accompanying eitracts, slightly 
revised, are from a diary kept by Grayson which refer to the abundance of game 
prevalent in that region at the time of the trip. The handwritten Journal Is deposited 
in the Bancroft Library, of the University ot Cnlifo— '- "-■ " — 
here made of the courtesy of the Library in "" — '-" 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



106 CAUPOENIA PISH AND QAHE. 

in a circle around us, and then away over the plains. Here also I saw 
numbers of antelope, but they were too wild to approach. 

On September 30 we forded the San Joaquin at Beals' Indian Farm, 
where we caught salmon and other fish, which appeared in great quan- 
tities. Some five or sis miles up the river we saw some whooping cranes, 
a few dueks, heard a mocking bird, and saw antelope. I shot a duek and 
' a hare. 

On October 3 and 4 we passed over rolling land, running due north 
to the Fourth Standard and passing Kings River Slough. On these 
days we saw great numbers of antelope and wild horses and also a silver 
grey fox — the first one I had seen this side of the Rockies. At Kings 
River Slough we killed some bitterns, also saw ducks, black curlews and 
various other water birds. Fishing also was good. At this slough also 
we met Indians, and one of them undertook to conduct us on a hunt for 
elk. With our Indian guide we went westerly toward the Tularies, 
between Kings River Slough and Kings River, These lands were 
literally perforated by gophers, moles and other underground inhabi- 
tants, and the air was infested with mosquitoes. On this trip we saw 
great quantities of quail, also the tracks of a grizzly, but found nothing 
but the signs of elk. Our Indian guide, who was on foot, while we rode 
horseback, became tired out and we returned to camp on the slough. 

Von Schmidt continued surveying operations along the Kings, during 
which time we saw large herds of antelope. Then we proceeded to the 
main branch of the Kaweah River, to WoodviUe, the county seat o£ 
Tulare County. All branches of the Kaweah abound with fish, and wood 
ducks were plentiful. Bear signs were everywhere and we killed a cub 
while in the Kaweah country. 

Later, leaving the Kaweah country, we continued to Tula Swamp, 
where we found signs of elk, but no elk were actually seen. At Tula 
Slough Creek we found quantities of fish, and I saw for the first time 
here a roadrunner. Here we killed a few hares, the only game seen. 

On October 16 we began our journey over stretches of alkaline desert, 
under a sweltering sun, and with mirages mocking us in every direction, 
toward the great Tulare Lake. We reached this lake early in the evenii^, 
in time to kill quantities of ducks, snipe, geese and black curlew before 
dark. We also killed two antelope and a number of hare. We feasted 
that night after our desert travels. We found all kinds of waterfowl, 
antelope and hare in abundance around Tulare Lake. And it was here 
that I killed our firet elk. We had gone on a little excursion from the 
lake (exactly on the line of the Seventh Standard Parallel, about three 
miles distant), when I saw a herd of four large buck elk. My first shot 
brought one down, and the others did not seem frightened nor run, and 
I am sure we could have shot more, but we did not need the meat. 

The Indians on Tulare Lake were greatly perturbed over our visit. 
They feared that we might contemplate squatting on their land. And 
they were pleased when we told them (through a Spanish interpreter) 
that we had no such intentions. In fact, the whole country we had trav- 
eled over since we left the Four (.'reeks (Kaweah River) to Tulare Lake 
is totally unfit for any purpose and ean never be settled by anybody but 
hunters or Indians. And we assured the Indians they need not fear 
squatters, as no white man would ever want their land. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALlfOBNIA FISH AND QAUE. 107 

On October 31 oar surveying operations brought us to the main Kern 
River. Here we found any quantity of elk and waterfowl, and such a 
place for hunters I never saw ! The mallard duck abounded, but of everj' 
description of waterfowl my pen could scarcely describe the numbers, 
or the excitement they would create in the breast of a sportsman. Your 
ears are confused with the many sounds — the quacking of the mallard, 
the soft and delicate whistle of the baldpate and teal, the underground- 
like notes of the rail or marsh hen, the flute-like notes of the wild goose 
and brant, the wild ranting of the heron, not to forget the bugle-like 
notes of the whooping crane and swan and a thousand other birds 
mingling tbeir songs together — creates that indescribable sensation of 
pleasure that can only be felt by one fond of nature in its wildf^t and 
most beautiful form. 

We crossed the Kern and went on to Lake Buena Vista. We found 
the immediate vicinity of this beautiful lake on the side of our approach 
(from the west) devoid of life, save for the little ground squirrel and 
the httle desert sparrow. Iiater, however, we found great quantities of 
white geese and other waterfowl of every description on the southeast 
shores of Lake Buena Vista. In fact, so great was the number that out 
of ten shots fired one hundred and eighty-five fowl were killed. 

It was here at Lake Buena Vista that von Schmidt completed his 
surveying operations and we made a quick and uneventful trip to our 
homes in San Francisco. 



NOTES ON DBT-FLT FISHING. No. 4. 

By U. L. M., (^alitomin. 
Scene: In the hills in California. Time: Preseof. 

Dramatis personiE: 
Clbbk op the Hotel. 
Angler. 
Tourist. 

CUrk : Here comes the angler. He can tell you all about that dry- 
fly stuff they were discussing last night. Angler, let me make you 
acquainted with Tourist. He wants you to tell him all you know about 
these dry-flies. 

Angler: Well, I'll do my best. (To Tourist.) Are you going fishing 
today t 

Tourist: No, my party is going up to Pine Lake, and as I have had 
enough riding in a machine to last me a long time, I'm taking a 
day off and going to loaf round the hotel— unless something better 
turns up. 

Angler: How about coming out with me, thenV We shall have the 
whole day and you can see just how the game is played. 

Tourist: I shall be delighted to do so, and I am sure I shall know 
something about dry-fly filing when the day is over. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



108 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 

Angler: Wheu can you be ready to startT 

Tourist : I am ready now. We have only three rods in tlie party, and 
all throe are to be iised up at the lake. All I need is to get a luneh 
put up— that won 't take me long. 

Angler: Well, let's pull out. We have about half an hour's walk 
before we get to the best part of the river, but a machine will briug us 
back in the afternoon. 

Not tithing yourself, you will have a good chance to really find out 
something useful about the art. Usually, when anyone comes out with 
me, they insist on bringing their own rod. The result is, that after 
about five minutes of instruction, they want to fish themselves; as a. 
consequence they learn very little. 

Tourist : I come from Idaho. There we have very good fishing, pro- 
vided you get well away from the towns. 

While we were sitting around the fire last night, this dry-fly talk 
came up; it mystified me, for 1 had never heard of it before. Now, 
just exactly, what is dry-fly fishing? 

Angler : I dare say you have noticed that the various insects, such as 
flies, beetles, or grasshoppers, always float on the surface of the water. 
Now, the imitations of these insects, kno^vn as artificial flies, are made 
of silk, feathers, fur and other substances. In order to catch the fish, 
these materials are ballasted with a hook. Now, as long as we can 
keep our artificial fly dry, it will float on the surface and thus be in 
much the same position as the natural insect. 

Dry-fly fishing simply consists of keeping the fly dry, and if it gets 
wet, of drying it again as quickly as possible. 

Tourist : It sounds simple, but how can it be done t I know that the 
first time I cast a new fly into the water it floats, bat the second or 
third cast sinks the fly. 

Angler: First of all, we put some oil on the fly to keep the water off 
it. Then, wo grease the line, so that the line itself will float. And 
then, if the fly does get wet, which is not exactly an uncommon experi- 
ence, instead of returning the fly to the water, on the next cast, we 
check the fly before it gets there and make a series of false casts back- 
wards and forwards in the air. These false casts drive off any moisture 
that has collected on the fly and on the line ; so that when we do return 
the fly to the water, it is practically as dry as it was at first. 

Tourist: We got in yesterday and had hmeh at the hotel. A^fter- 
wards, we drove down in this direction and went fishing. I noticed 
swarm-s of gras.'^hoppers on the water. The trout were taking them, 
but they would not look at our flies. We even caught some 'hoppers 
and tried them, but it was no good; so we packed up and came back 
to the hotel. Why was it we couldn't catch any fish? 

Angler : Well, when you tried flies, you were trying to coax the fish 
away from a very tempting morsel — viz, the grasshopper— with some- 
thing that did not attract them at all. .iVnd when you used grass- 
hoppers, I dare say, you noticed that your grasshoppers always sank 
below the surface of the water, whereas an unhooked "hopper floated 
on the surface. Then again, the leaders you were using may have been 
loo heavy or thick. These trout are very wise. They are fished for 
continuously all through the season ; it is only natural to suppose that 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND ( 



they learn a little by bitter esperieoce. If you could have kept your 
'hoppers on top of the water and made them float with the stream 
in a natural manner you would, in all probability, have gotten some 



fish. 

Tourist: "We are getting near where 
that grove of pine trees, but I don't ( 
air as I did yesterday. 

Angler: It is a little early yet. In an hour's time y 
as many flying as you did yesterday. 

Well, here we are at the river. 



were yesterday. I recognize 
as many grasshoppers in the 



C 



Fio. 22. PruiH'r kuctt fur tyftiB livrKi^ fly hook lo Icailer. 

There surely aren't many 'hoppers floating down yet. But we 
needn't worry, there will be hundreds later on. In the meantime, I 
will put my rod together and get ready for the fray. 

Tourist: I notice that you have put your reel on with the handle 
pointing to the left. Are you left handed? 

Angler: No, but I hold the rod with my right hand and wind up the 
Jine with the left. It is awkward at first, but one soon gets used to it. 
and I need not point out the advantage of being able to wind up the 
line without having to change the rod to the left hand, as you will see 
so many people doing, 

Tovrist: How long is that leader? Isn't it rather too light to handle 
a good sized fisht 

Angler: The leader is 9 feet long. Although it only has a breaking 
strain of 2^ pounds, it is (|uitc .strong I'nongh for the average big fish 




hereabouts. I do not expect to get anything much over 5 pounds. 
Of course, if one got hohl of a really big fish, such as 10 or 11 pounds. 



one would have to be extra careful, Imt with ordinary luck and man- 
" 8 not impossible to land a large trout on a leader such as 



a^ement, it i 



,Coo<^lc 



110 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 

Let US sit down here and watcli up aod down stream for the first 
sign of a feeding fish. 

Tourist ; Why not begin fishing now I 

Angler: Until you see the fish feeding on top, it is not much good 
trying to get them with a fly. But in a very short time you will see 
grasshoppers floating down stream and the fish will begin to feed. 




6. 



IK small (1y hooka ti 



Tourist : What kind of a fly are you going to uset 

Angler: This one here. I call it "the floating grasshopper fly," and 
although it does not look very much like a real 'hopper when it is 
floating on the surface, it has a strong resemblance to a grasshopper in 
a similar position. 

Tourist ; How do you tie the fly on to the leaderf 

Avgler: There are several knots that can be used. This first knot is 
the best for larger flies (fig. 29) ; then, there is this one (fig 30) 
known as the "turle" knot, and finally the two jam knots (figs. 31 
and 32). These last two are used for small flies. 

Now, I will make a cast on that shallow water; you will notice how 
the fly floats and you must admit that it does look like a grasshopper. 

Tourist : Yes, the resemblance is very strong. I see your line is float- 
ing as well. 

Angler: If you remember, after I had put my rod together and 
threaded the line through the guides, I pulled off about 40 feet and 
rubbed the line down with this little pad which is anointed with deer 




ilmpte iam knot suitable for taBtenlns a. smaU fly hook to leader. 



fat. That is what makes the line float, and if the line did not float it 
would be much more difficult to either keep the fly dry or to sail the 
fly accurately down over a feeding fish. Now, I will drown the fly. 
It is quite wet now, but just watch while I dry it. I make the forward 
cast — but well up in the air — and before the fly has time to fall on 
the water I make the back stroke again. I do this several times. 
Finally, I cast the fly — you see it is dry now — and it floats. Watch it. 
Tourist : That looks eaay enough ! 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIPOBNIA FISn AND GAME. Ill 

Angler: Wonld you care to tryt But before you do, juat watch me 
again and note that I allow the line to become fairly well extended both 
in front and behind before I make the nest stroke. Then, too, I must 
caution you to make your strokes with deliberation and only to use the 
wrist and forearm when casting. Now try. 

Tourist: Well, what happened then? What made the line strike the 
water t 

Angler: You made your forward stroke too long. In other words, 
you should have cheeked the rod before it had gone very far beyond the 
vertical. Shorten the bne a bit and try again. 

Tourist : That is better. I seem to be gRtting on to it now. What was 
that splash over there, just below that willow? 

Angler: That was a fish. We will let him have a few more real 
"hoppers before we try him with an imitation one. Until the fish are 
feeding steadily, they are rather particular as to what they take, but 
as soon as they have taken a few 'hoppers without any accidents they 
are willing to look at a fly. 

Tourist : Did you see thatt He took another. 

Angler: Let's crawl up and get a little closer to him — never cast an 
inch further than you have to. Now we are in position. Watch closely 
and see just where he takes down the 'hoppers. There, he got that 
one all right ! Now, run your eye up along the surface for two or three 
feet and locate the spot where the fly should fall so that it will float 
over the spot where the fish took that last 'hopper. Well, that place 
up stream is where our fly must fall so that it will come down over 
Mr. Fish in a natural manner. 

Tourist: There, he has taken another! 

Angler: Well, here goes. We'll try for him, I make a preliminary 

east in the air just above the surface to see if my line is long enough 

or otherwise. Not quite enough, so I will pull off a little more; that 

is about right. Now watch the fly. It is getting close. Yes ! He has it ! 

Tourist : That is a good fish. See him jump ? 

Angler: Will you land the fish when I bring it in! Put the net well 
down into the water, and with one motion lift the net and scoop out 
the fish. 

Tourist : All right, give me the net. 
Angler: All ready? Here comes the fish. 

Tourist: Say, that fish mu-st weigh two pounds. Why don't you 
bring it inT 

Angler: Never try to land a fish until it is all in, because if you do, 
in its stru^les, it is very liable to catch the leader on the net and then 
it will brealc loose. 

Tourist: How can you tell when the fish is played out? 
Angler: Whenever you see a fish turn on its side, it is a sign that the 
fight is over. See that! He showed his side then. He is almost fin- 
ished. Here he comes. Take your time and don't get excited. Well 
donel You've got it all right. 

Tourist ; Why do you knock the fish on the head T 
Angler: To kill it. It not only puts an end to the fish's sufferings, 
but the fish will keep better. 

Tourist: How much docs it weigh? 
Angler: One and a half pounds. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



112 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 

Tourist: Is that alM I should have thought it was fuHy two pounds. 

Angler: You will notice now, there are many more 'hoppers on the 
water, and look, you can see fish feeding on them all up and down the 
river. See, there is a fish I want you to catch. 

Tourist : Now, tell me just what to do. Where shall I drop the fly ? 

Angler : The current is a little stronger here, so you had better drop 
the fly about three feet above the fish. To be exact, just in line with 
that little willow shoot. But, before you make your cast just east 
well off to one side, where there will be no danger of frightening the 
fish, so as to see how the line is for length. 

Tourist: The fly has sunk. Why was that! 

Angler: I expect you aimed at a spot on the surface, whereas, you 
should have tried to east your fly in tlie air so as to strike a spot about 
a foot above the surface. Then, the fly would have fallen on the water 
gently. 

Tourist : Will you dry the fly 1 

Angler: All right, but watch me closely. I throw the fly straight out 
in front, then back and keep it moving quickly. Now it is dry. Try 
again. 

Tourist : That is in the right spot. Here it comes over the fish ; no 
good. 

Angler : You made a mistake then. When your fly has passed over 
a feeding fish without any notice being taken of it, let the fly float 
well down below the fish before you lift the line off the water. 

Tourist: Shall I try again? 

Angler : No, I guess that fish is scared. We will move on and try for 
that Ml that has just made such a .splash behind that weed. But don 't 
try from above ; get below the fish and cast up stream'. 

Tourist: How is this? I think I can reach him from here. 

Angler : Take your time ; wait till the fish has taken another 'hopper ; 
then you can locate him exactly. 

Tourist : There, he got that one, so here goes the fly. 

Angler: Ah, that ought to get him. He's got it! But what did 
you dot 

Tourist: The leader broke and the fly is gone. 

Angler: I expect you struck too hard. Well, let us move down a 
bit while I tie on another fly. 

When you strike a fish do not strike as though you wanted to throw 
the fish out; just make a slight upward motion with the rod and as 
.soon as you feel any resistance cheek the motion; then, keep a tight 
line on the fish, but do not try to see how much strain the tackle will 
stand; just keep an even strain on the fish and keep the fish moving. 

Striking is really the most difficult thing to become proficient in. 
If we were using ordinary gut, which is two or three times stronger 
than what we are rising, it would he much easier to successfully hook a 
fish; but the stouter gut would he much more visible to the fish and 
in all probability we should not have many opportunities to strike at 
a rising flsh. 

Another thing to rcnii'mlicr is this, bi^' trout should not be .struck 
as quickly as you would striite smaller ibh. The movements of the 
larger fish arc. to a certain extent, delilterate. As a rule, there are no 
very near neighbors who might snatch the tempting morsel away. 



CALIFORNIA FIRH AND OAHB. 113 

"Whereas, a small fish has generally numerous relatives close by, ali of 
whom are on the lookout for anything that looks good. 

Now eorae carefully round this piece of linish and get down and 
crawl up towards the bank. 

Tourist : Well, look at that fish, you cau see the spots on him. Try 
and catch him. 

Angler: Wait a minute; let's watch him feed; maybe we can learn 
something useful by watching him. If you notice, there is a patch of 
weed that comes almost to the surface. This rwtricta the stream and 
makes a little stretch of sharp current close under the bank. The fish 
keeps hie position just at the lower end of this sharper stream and 
faces up stream watching for 'hoppers. Here comes a 'hopper. See 
the fish move a little to one side. Then see, just at the right moment 
he'll come to the surface and take it down. 

T<mnst: That certainly is a fine fish; look at him! Say, try and 
catch him. 

Angler: All right, here goes. Well, did you see thatT There was a 
real grasshopper a little nearer the fiish than my fly was and he took 
that and never even noticed the fly. 

Well, I'll try again when there are no real 'hoppers in sight to dis- 
tract his attention. 

Now is the time : watch the fly. 

Tourist: Good, he's taken it. 

Angler: Keep down; don't show yourself to the fish tit] you have to. 
You go down to that point of gravel and I'll bring the fish in. Bnt 
don't stand up till you have the fish in the net. 

Tourist: He is trying to got into those weeds. 

Angler: Yes, he knows that once there, he has a good chance of 
getting off. 

He's beginning to get tired now, but as this is a good si^ed fish I 
shall not bring him in until he is quite worn out. 

See thatf He turned on his side ; but it's not quite time yet, he has 
straightened up again. However, it won't be long now. There, put 
the net down low in the water and I will bring the fish in. 

Tourist: Say, that's some fish! See what he weighs. 

Angler: Three and a quarter pounds, and only 18.1 inches long, 

Xow, I want you to catch .something. Before we begin fishing 
again, I'll break the fly off and tie it on again. 

Tourist: Why do you do that? 

Angler: Because the gnt has necessarily become weakened jit the 
knot. Also you see how slimy and wet the fly is. It does not look 
as though it would ever be dry again. I'll just slam the fly onto the 
water and jerk it through a few times; that will wash the slime off. 
Next I'll press the fly between this little pad. It is almost dry now, 
but to complete the drying process, while we're walking down to 
the next feeding fish I'll make some false easts in the air. I am going 
to east the fly on that shallow water. What did I tell you? It's 
absolutely 'bone dry' again. 

Tourist: What is that little pad made of? 

A-ngler: It is a piece of ameulou, which is a fungus with the 
properties of absorbing moisture very rapidly. 



i„vGoo<^lc 



114 CALIFORNIA PISH AND QAME. 

Tourist : Sometliiog like blotting paper? 

Angler: Tes, oaly with greater powers of absorption than any 
blotting paper that was ever made. 

Now then, here is a fish you must get. There is just enongh stream 
to ruffle the surface a bit, but it is a steady stream bo that you can 
cast a straight line and not have any reason to expect a drag. 

Tourist: What is a 'drag'? 

Angler: A 'drag' is that which results from the line moving faster or 
slower than the lly. If a line is east in such a way as to make the 
fly draw or pull against the current and thus leave a wake behind it, 
the fly is said to 'drag.' I dare say, you have observed that real 
flies and other insects hardly ever do this. A wary trout might just 
be on the point of taking a fly, but if the fly suddenly began to move 
across the surface leaving a track behind it, the suspicions of the 
fish would be aroused and in all probability he would have none of 
your fly. However, this fish is easy of access and there is not much 
danger of drag. Make your fly fall on the water about two feet above 
the spot where he took down the last 'hopper! Above all, when he 
takes the fly strike him gently, as though you loved him. Now go to it. 

Tourist: That seems a good east but the fish is taking no notice of 
the fly. 

Angler: Wait a few moments before you east again; if you are not 
in a great hurry wait until he has taken another real 'hopper. 

Tourist: There, he took that one. I'll try him with the fly again. 

Angler: Good east. Keep your eye on the fly. Oh, he has it! Well 
done^ — you have hooked him. 

Take your time. Don't get flurried, I will land him when you bring 
him in. 

Tourist : He seems tired out, so make ready. Now, I'm going to pull 
him in toward you. 

Angler : Well, well, that is certainly a nice fish — two and a quarter 
pounds— and the first you ever caught on a dry-fly. 

Tourist : I shall have something to tell the rest of the party when 1 
meet them tonight. 

Angler: It is only two o'clock, and the machine won't show up for 
another half hour. We have caught as many flsh as the law permits, not 
large in numbers, but a full ten pounds ; so while we are waiting for 
the machine I will give you a few more pointers. 

As I have explained, the grasshopper fly, which we were using, floats 
on its side very much as the real insect does. 

Water bred flies, on which trout feed, float on the surface with their 
wings up in the air. I will now put on an olive dun; we need not 
expect any fish to look at it, because they are far too much taken up 
with the grasshoppers at present. 

Now, will you go up stream about forty feet and kneel down and 
watch the water closely? 

Tourist: How will this do? 

Angler: That is just about right. Now watch the surface; I will 
drop the fly about three feet from the bank. When yon see the fly on 
the water tell me if you notice anything at all about it. 



Coo<^lc 



OALIFOBNU FISH AND SAME. 115 

Tourist: Why, the fly is floating with its wings up in the air just 
like the real thing. How did you do thatT 

Angler: Now watch me make a cast. Instead of making the backward 
and forward strokes in a vertical plane, that is, the overhead cast which 
we used with the grasshopper fly, I make the strokes in a horizontal 
plane, which throws the line out sideways, and the Hy curves around 
and for a moment the line, leader and fly are motionless over the water ; 
then they fall gently, and the fly falling by its own weight naturally 
assumes an upright position and floats with its wings 'cocked up.' 

Tourist: Why won't the overhead cast do that as well as the hori- 
zontal east! 

Angler: Because, no matter how carefully we east, there is always the 
chance that the line will still have some slight momentum left in it 
from the cast; this motion, no matter how slight, may be enough to 
topple the fly over on its side. On the other hand, the horizontal cast 
throws the line out over the water, the line becomes extended and for 
a fraction of a moment all niiovenient ceases, then gravity begins to 
act and the fly falls very lightly on the surface, as you have seen. 
Now come and try to do as I did. 

ToMrist ; Let me see you do it again. Ail right, now let me have a 
try. . ^ , .- . I • 

Angler: Try and sec how close you can make yonr fly come to that 
little hit of rush that shows above the surface. Y<iu overshot the mark 
that time; the fly curled round too far. 

T<yunst: What made it do thatt 

Angler: You put just a trifle too much force into the ca.st. Try 
agun. 

Tourist: It was way this side of it. I guess I didn't east quite hard 
enough that time. Ah! That is better. You try again. 

Angler: This cast is much harder to do accurately than the overhead 
cast, but when you once learn it well, it is astonishing how simple it 



Tourist: Why, the fly fell within three inches of the rush; I wish I 
could do that. 

Angler: You will soon pick up the knack with practice, but watch 
this cast. This is the baek-haudcd cast. It is the same as the horizontal 
cast only is made on the left hand side. The stroke somewhat resembles 
a back-handed stroke at lawn tennis, hence its name. It looks difficult, 
but comes just as easy as the other with practice. 

Tourist: Well, here comes the machine, and I must thank you for a 
moat enjoyable and instructive day. 

Angler: I am glad you got some benefit from my teachings, and I 
hope you will become a highly proficieut dry-tiy man in the years to 
come. 

Tourist: It certainly is a great sport. It has added to the charm of 
fly-fishing in a way that I thought hardly possible. I should like you 
to meet the rest of my party. 

Angler: I will come over to the hotel after supper, about eight 
o'clock, but you had better take these fish, as there is just a chance that 
your crowd have not caught anything up at Pine Lake; even if they 
have, stream fish are always better eating than lake fish. 

Tourist : Thanks very much. I have been hungry for trout for some 
time. Well, so-long till this evening. itX>'7lc 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND OAHE. 



CALIFORNU FISH AND GAME 



A iiubllrntlon ilevoteil to the conserva- 
tion ot wl1<l life un<1 piililiBhoil quarterly 
by the California Stote Fish ami Game 
CommiaRlop. 

Sent frep to pltliens of the State of Calt- 
rornlH. Offered In pxrhnnse for omlthu- 
toKlcal, inamma.lne[cBl anil si m liar nerUiil- 
Icala. 

The articles published In Cai.fe'ornia 
Pish and Oaks are not ropyrlghted and 
may be reproduoeil In othpr pt-rlodlculs. 



All material for publication should be 
sent to H. C, Bryant, Museum of Verto. 
brate Zoology, Berkeley, Cat. 



"The man who Illegally takea gam* or 
tl(h decreaeea food reaourcee and de> 
frauds his country." " 

A NEW EXECUTIVE OFFICER 

since our last publication Mr. Charle* 
A. Vogelsang has succeeded Mr. Carl 

ComnnlMlon. Thia change Is not regret- 



anjoyed a deserved popularity for ability 
and loal In the perfoi -' ■-'- -■ -^■-- 






declarlng his position vacant. A majority 
of the Board had long been convinced 
that a continuance ot Mr. Westsrfeld's 

dlasatlstled with his salary and devoted 
time due to the State to the maintenance 
and upbulldlna of a private law practice 
and used the Commission's rooms and 
stenographer's servlcss to that end. HIa 

laxity of hi* subordinates; In view of 
which the majority of the Board came to 
feel that » change In the office of Execu- 





















the end of that period 








sign In 


g, he preferred public 


char 


gea 




net C 




and 


Co 








the 
emt 


of 


\s, 


■fg M 


mlnally responsible foi 

arSed "that* they h« 
appropriated any of 
would have been too 


prei 


oat 

no 


■■""em 


iJll 


charge was that they 
the State Treasury 






by 






fron' 


the sa 




licenses, ag the law 


depc 
whe 


1 


Id a 


com 
they 


ilete— that they hai 

actually became Stat. 
s' licenses, kelp and 
axes, sold directly by 


the 


Co 


mmlssion, 





receipt; but that hunting and angling 
licenses, retailed for the greater con- 
venience of sportsmen through a larga 

were only to be considered as State funds 
after final settlements with such agents. 

licenses returned unsold, and their com- 
missions could only be computed upon 
tnelr actual sales. In this interpretation 
of the law and of their duties, the Com- 
missioners were wholly Justified and fully 
exonerated by an opltwon of the Attorney 
General ot the State delivered In response 
to the Governor's request tor a conMruc- 

Manltestly, but one course was open to 
the Board after such a baseless attack by 






. Westerteld t 



I. J. CONNELL. 



OPTIMISM VERSUS PESSIMISM. 

Wo all admire tlie optimist, the man 
wbo believes that all is going welt in 
spite of adverse eonditiuiis, but aome- 
timra an "all's well with ihe world" 
attitude develops apalhy and a disregard 
of the tii^d of readjuKtmeut or reform. 
Thero are many aportamen wlio, in spite 
of eircumalantial evldenoe, glibly point 
out that game conditions ore of the very 
beat, Ihat Enme is eoutinually on tlip 
increase, and (hat there is no need for 
worry as to the futusr. Too mucli of 
this sfirt of optimism prevents au awah> 
cnod public sentiment which would he 
favorable to an improvement ot condi- 

Although pessimism may sometimes 
mean a reduction of income from the 
sale of hunter's and angler's licenses, 
yet pcs.iiniism 'n regard to future game 
condilions often atira the public to action. 
Certainly a study of the gnine situation 
in our state would convince anyone that 
action rather Ihon apathy is the present 
day need, in ao far as fish and eame 
I'onservation is concerned. We are in- 
clined to believe that there is greater 
danger toward fish and game 



of ■ 
; point of i 



thai 



the 



I THE VALIDITY OF THE MIGRATORY 
' BIRD TREATY SUSTAINED. 

On April nineteenth of this year the 
jl'nited Stotcs Supreme Court sustained 
the validity of the Migratory Bird Treaty, 
I ii Irraty which was made between the 
i Tiiited States and Great Britain for the 
I iiniti'riton of migratory birds in the 
I I'niied States and Canada. It also 
i declared the Migrator; Bird Trealy Act 



..Goo'^lc 



CAUPOBNU FISH AND QAMB, 



117 



coDstituUocat wbicb was approved July 
3, 1918, to carry out the provisions of 
the treaty. Those who have apprecintpd 
the need for tbis law rejoice that it 
bas finally been declared constitutional. 

As early as 1!K>4 Hod. George Shiras 
3d iotroduced a bill nhicli was defeated. 
But on March 4, J9l!J. the Weeks- 
AIoL«au bill was brought before Con- 
gtvsB through the efforts of the Inter- 
state Sportsmen's Protective Association. 
This association neceesBnl; took an im- 
portant part in the light. 

The Weeli8-Mcl«an bill provided that 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture should have the right to make 
regulations for the taking of migratory 
birds of all kinds. The principal attack 
made on this new bill was by some of 
ihe Middle Weslern States, Illinois be- 
ing one of the most prominent. Tbp 
ai^ument made against the bill, h; Illi- 
nois and other states affected, was that 
it practically eliminated tlie sport of 
dnet hnnting except for those living on 
the big rivers and lakes, unless there was 
ft great snfiiciency of water during the 
fait season, an entirely uncertain factor. 
The Weeks-Mcl^an bill was attacked iu 
the Federal Courts and was held to be 
QneoDstitulional by several of the judges 
in the United States District Courts, with 
the result that the government having 
been appealed to, from the adverse deci- 
sion in Arkansas, the case eventually 
reached the Supreme Court. While the 
act was under discussion the treaty waK 
made between the United States and 
Great Britain for the protection of minra- 
tory birds in the United States and 
Canada. This treaty was enacted by 
Congress and after the law went into 
effect the federal government dismissed 
(he appeal in the Supreme Court, as 
the old act was supplanted by the new 



Before further discussing the Migratory 
Bird Treaty, a brief summary of the 
provisions of the treaty is inserted as 
follows : 

<1) The close season on all migratory 
birds in both countries is between March 
10 and September 1. 

(2) No open season can escecd three 



□d ! 



half 1 



mths. 



(3) The season is closed the year 
round on all migratory insectivorous 



(4) It is unlawful to sell wild docks 
and other water-fowl in the markets in 
either country. 

(5) It is unlawful to rob the nests of 
the ducks, etc., in Canada. 

Returning to the Migratory BinI 
Treaty Act and the final settlement in 
the Supreme Court; on July 2, 1910, 
application was made before Judge Arba 
S. Van Valkenburgh of the United States 
District Conrt, at Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, tor a restraining order to pro- 
hibit United States game wardens from 
enforcing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
in that state. Judge Van Valkenburgh 
refused. Acting under the authorization 
of a joint resolution adopted by both 
branches of the legislature. Attorney 
General McAllister brought this case of 
the State of HUsauri, Appellant, vs. 
liay ]'. Jloltand, U^ted States game 
warden before the Supreme Court (No. 
609, October Term, 1919). It was on 
this case that the Supreme Court, sus- 
taining the decision of the lower tribuual, 
handed down the concluding sentiment 
which determined the constitutionality of 
the Migratory Bird 'i-realy Act. McAll- 
isCcr, leading the Bght acainst the act, 
maintained that it trod on the rights 
of the Elate. The opinion of the court 
BS delivered by Justice Holmes reads 
as follows: 

"The state, as we have intimated, 
founds its claim of exclusive authority 
upon sn assertion of title to migratory 
birds, an asEwrtion that is embodied in 
atntutc. No doubt it is true tlint as 
between n state and its inhabitants the 
state may rf«ulate the killing and sale of 
such birds, btit it docs not follow that 
its authority is exclusive of paramount 
powers. To put the claim of the state 
upon title is to lean upon a slender reed. 
Wild birds are not in the possi'ssion of 
anyone ; and possession is the beginning 
of ownership. The whole foundation oE 
the state's rights ia the presence within 
their jurisdiction of birds that yesterday 
had not arrived, tomorrow may be in 
another state and in a week a thousand 
miles away. IE we are to be accurate 
we cannot put the case of the Rtate 
upon higher ground than that the treaty 
deals with creatures that for the mom- 
ent are within the state borders, that it 
must be carried out by oiBcers of the 
United States within the same territor;!-. 
and that but Eor the treaty the state 
would be free to rogulatc this subject 
Itself." 

In further answer to .\ttorney General 
I McAllister'a stand, and concluding the 



Gooi^lc 



CAUPOBNIA FISH AND OAHE. 



"The treaty in question does aot con- 
trnvene any prohibitory words to be 
found ia the const itutioD. The only 
question is whether it ia forijiddea by 
aomo iDvisible radiation from the general 
terras of the Tenth Amendment. 

Here national interest of very nearly 
the first magnitude is involved. It can 
be protected only by national action in 
eoarert with that of another power. The 
subject matter ia only transitorily within 
the state and haa no permanent hahitat 
therein. But for the treaty or the 
statute, the reason miRht be no birds 
for any power to deal with. We see 
nothing in the constitution thai compels 
the Bovernment to sit hy while a food 
supply is cut off and the protectora of 
our forests and ocr crops are destroyed. 
It is not sufficient to rely upon the states. 
The reliance is vain, and were it other- 
wise, the question is whether the Dnited 
Stales is forbidden to act. We are of 
the opinion that the treaty and statute 
must be upheld." 

The decree was affirmed, Associate Jus- 
tices Van Devanter and Pitney dissenting. 

SURVEY OF THE FUR-BEARrNQ 
MAMMALS OF CALIFORNIA. 

Many readers of Califobnia Fibs aud 
Gamb who do more or less trapping 
each year will be directly interested in 
the announcement that on December 1. 
1919, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 
ot the University of California began an 
investigation of the fur-bearing mammals 
of the state. The purjioBe of (he investi' 
gation thus undertaken is to secure reli- 
able information as fully as feasible con- 
cerning the food, breeding habits and all 
other points worth knowing in the nat- 
ural history of our fur-bearers. It is 
lielieved that this information is espec- 
ially desirable at this time so as to 
determine the economic status of the 
various Epeeies, Ih's being in many cases 
in doubt to a.scertain the annual catch 
which may he safely taken without 
dangcring the present breeding stock, and 
further to furnish an adeijuatc basis for 
sound constructive legislation that will 
protect and develop the fur resources ot 
our state. The income to tbe trappers of 
California from this source now amounts 
to nearly ?400,000 annually. 

All wild mammals of California whose 
pells are commonly sold tor fur are to he 
considered as fur-bearing mammals in 
this investigation. 



Arraogemeuta have been fnlly made, 
and the work is already well under way. 
Mr, Joseph Diion, Elconomic Mammalo- 
gist ot the above named institution, has 
spent a large part ot tbe past trapping 
season visiting the trappers of the state 
and in securing first hand informatioa 
relative to fur-bearing mammals. Dia- 
grams to scale, measurements and photo- 
graphs ot breeding dens, notes on life 
history, together with photographs of the 
living animals in tbe wild have already 
been secured of several ot our most im- 
portant fur-bearers. 

Blank records have been sent to the 
most progressive trappers ot the stale 
and these men have responded benrtil.v. 
Many of them have examined the stomach 
contents of all the animals that they 
have trapped, so that we now have, in 
addition to field notes and coUectiona 
gathered during the past eleven years 
by the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
as a foundation to go on, over 350 defi- 
nite records, from theae reports of food 
found in the stomachs ot practically all 
the common fur-bearers in this stale. 
The trappers have also sent ia all avail- 
able records of females that they have 
trapped which hare contained embryos 
(unborn yonng). This affords an accu- 
rate index to tbe time and rate of breed- 
ing of these animals and has a direct 
value In determiDing the date when the 
trapping season should close in order to 
"'protect the crop" for the succeeding 
trapping season. 

An important teatare of recent field 
work has been the taking of paraffin 
casts of tracks made by live wild animala 
under natural conditions in the field. 
Rucb a cast faithfully reproduces every 
dimension and contour of the original 
track and thus affords an eicellent idea 
of one sort of "sign" which may he looked 
1 for hy trappers 

It is expected that at least three years' 
work will be reauired before the results 
of the investigation will be ready for 
publication. It is planned that this ahall 
l>e in book form. Arrangements have 
l>oen made to have this volume illustrated 
with color plates by America's foremost 
animal artists. Chapters in the book will 
be devoted to decrease of fur-hearing 
mammals, causes and control ot this 
decrease, the fur trapper in California, 
methods of trapping and curing furs. 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



119 



lecisUttion relative lo fur-beariiiK mam- 
mals, aericultural Bad game interests 
venoB fur interesti, aod federal and state 
forest reserves as penDanent producers of 
fnr-beariDg mammalB: 

A general accotiiit of each species is 
being planned for, nnder which will ap- 
pear topics Bucb aa common and scien- 
lific names, marks for field identification, 
de«crip4ion of pelage, monlt, coloration, 
pads, claws, measurements, weights, 
skulls, teeth, variation, general distribu- 
tion, tjpe locality and specimens exam- 
ined. Other topics, such aa mannerisms, 
fcait, postnre of body, instances of bebav- 
ior, timidity, voice, tracks and other sign, 
eanitatioD, breedins dens, breeding sea- 
sons and babiCa, number of youDS in 
litter, time of birtb, precocity of yonng. 
paternal care, enemies, nature of food 
(exact data), feeding and forage bablta, 
relative abundance, estimates of popula- 
tion, (Hianges within history, relation to 
agricnlture, grazing and forestry, and 
economic status, wilt be treated in detail. 
Snggesttons, information and observa- 
tions of special interest will be welcomed 
from the reader* of CAUFOsnlA Fisa akd 
Game. In order to be of most value, the 
locality, date, and name of tbe observer 
must be given. Address communications 
to 

Musenm of Vertebrate Zoology, 

University of California, 
Berlieley, California. 

ADEQUATE QAME PROTECTION. 
What will make for better game pro- 



if striven for, and earnestly adhered to, 
woald assuredly do much to not only 
solve the problem of more adequate wild 
life conservation in each state, but would 
perfect the appended syntem to the 
national department on conservation. 
They are as follows: 

Fim — The slogan in every stale should 
be, "Congervation through education." 

Herimd — Plenary powers should be 
granted the commisBiona or dpjwrtmentB 
concerned with game regulation and wild 
life resources, not with the idea of giving 
more power, but of avoiding the necessary 
delay entailed by state legislation. This 
point is aptly exemplified by again quot- 
ing from the Pine Cone: Tbe slate de- 
partment of health is a commission lo 
which the slate legislature has delegated 
extensive authority in reeulating public 
health — aueb as making rules for the aani- 
lary handling of milk, closing public meel- 
inRS in time oC epidemic, eli'. Suppose 
during the inSuenza epidemic, we had had 
to wait for a meeting of the legislature 
before closing public meetiuga. Yel that 
JB no more illogical than waiting for a 
legislative enactment lo close the season 
on a species immediatelj threatened with 
exlerminatioD." And 

7'ftirrf— Departmental duties and dis- 
cretionary powei's should be i 
tioiisly executed. Parlieularly ■ 



A'ilU 



tective neasnres throughout the Di 
States is a question which concema all 
at the people of the United States who are 
interested in the conservation of wild life. 
The Pine Gone, the official bulletin at Ihe 
New Mexico Game Protective Associa- 
tion, in the issue of March, 1920. stales 
that either the inadequate, conventional 
methods of game protection, io vogue in 
practically every stale In the Union, miisi 
go, or the game must go. This is rather 
too radical a statement, but it is generallj- 
conceded that there is a vaiit need for 
improvement in the individual state game 
protective departments of tbe IJnited 
States. There are three fundamental pre- 
cepts which are applicable lo tbe atate 
game departments in general, and which, 



nrd t 

(1) The grnuling of permits. 

(2) The practice of quantitative dis- 
tribution of licenses. 

(3) The setting aside of game sanc- 
tuaries proportionate to the requirements 
of the stale. 

In California it is worthy of note and 
omphasis that 3,107,5:20 acrps— 27 game 
refuges by legialalive enactment, 3 game 
preserves by the Fish and Game Com- 
mission, [i bird reservations, and the 
national park areas by the federal govero- 
menC — have been set aside where no 
bunting is allowed, and where game is 
allowed to breed unmolested. This is, as 
has been stated before, roughly speaking, 
about 3 per cent of the total area of the 

It is by constructive methods, there- 
fore, that the goal of adequate wild life 
It be reached. 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



120 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



A NATIONAL COMUISBION ON THE 
CONSERVATION OF WILD 
In the Review of April 17. 1020, there 
is sn editorial BugseatiDg the value of 
B oational commissioii on the 
tioD of wiid life. The Rei-Ktc makeB the 
followiDg BlatementB : 

"Good legJBlatiOD in some oarrov 
corner of tbe field results, now a.ad thea 
but permanent advances along tbe entire 
line is impoBsible, bo long as tbe matter 
is handled in a. piecemeal way." 

It is very true that greater cooperation 
in the work of conservation is needed, 
particularly in Ihe consideration of effec- 
tive methods of dealing with llie problem 
of migrator; apecies. Tbe starting point 
for this work is conservation b; 
education in tbe different states, and 
from this will develop united public senti- 
ment and greater national beneGls. 

The United States Bureau of Biological 
Survey under the United States Deiiart- 
ment of Agriculture may be considered 
t the present national organ izai 



the 



of \ 



ild life. It i 



the 



beginning of what must neceaaarily be an 
aclively growing inslitntiou. However, 
notwithstanding the unquestionable value 
of tbe United States Biological Survey, 
a commission would doubtless liat'e much 
more free<tom (linn the present United 
States Bureau has, and with a compe- 
tent, fit body of men, might be able to 
accomplish .more. 

The vital point which still remains is 
that any central commission or national 
body, no matter bow edieieut in itself, 
would be more or less ineffectual unless 
it has the support of the individual 
states. Therefore, the effort of eoch 
state should be toward education which 
would lead directly to a cooperative spirit 
and the unification of endeavor. Without 
educational methods there will be more 
chsnee for mlsjiuided legislntion, lobby- 
ing, agcressive criticism and the accom- 
panyinc lack of coordinated national 
strength. 

The conclusion is that tbe idea of a 
national commission is of paramount 
iutercst. but any national organization 
will be greatly hampered until it has 
creditable state support, 

aUNS USED BY DUCK PIRATES. 

Although few of the big guns used by 

tbe duck pirates, or night gunners, on 



Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of Mary- 
land, are in use at tbe present time, yot 
occasionally a new capture is made. The 
collection photographed is a collection 



Maryland, These are similar 
used by duck pirates In Calltomla 
previous to protective laws wlitch 
put them out of business. 



which has been assembled from time to 
time by tbe game wardens of Maryland. 
The gnus measure 10 feet and weigh 
about 11-1 pounds ; thoy are very crude 
affairx, sotne of them having been made 
by the "village blacksmith," Like guns 
were used by market hunters in Cali- 
fornia until legislation prohibited their 
use, Wm. H. Fisher, 

Bnftimore, Md. 

SALMON FISHING AT MENDOTA 
WEIR. 

Prior to the Inst twa decadef, salmon 
fishing in (he upper waters of the San 
Joaquin River was confined to the use 
of seines and spears. Following closely 



CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME. 



121 



nn tbese methods came the grabhook. 
This latter method could not be employed 
UDtil some ttarriei wae constructed wbi 
iFOuld interfere with the jwsEage of the 
leiltDOD toward their spa w did g grounil. 
Wbea such a barrier was devised (he 
Rsb congregated in large uambers and 
thus became endangered by two metbods 
of capture. Either, due to their attempts 
lo leap the obalruction, they became 
mark for the spearaman, or while magnKl 
below a weir under water they became 
the uDEeen target for the uosctupntoui' 
so-called — spoTtsmon. or avaricions fi: 
vendor, neither claas caring what method 
ibey employed of catching the fish so long 
as they got (hem. 

In about the year 1910 or lUll, the 
ieeialature of California attempted to 
I'lieck the use of grabhooka, but in fram- 
ing the law, the wording of the protective 
section baa proved to be inadeiiuate. The 
section which has been the source of 
man; hitler controversies between the 
ulBc«rs of the law and the fellow who 
wanted the Gsh reads as follows: 

"Section l>34. Every person who, ei- 
cept n-ith spear or hook and line, said 
hook and line to be used in the manner 
commonly known as angling, takes, 
catches or kills any salmon * * " is 
cniilty of a misdemeanor." 



In s 



far a 



I knc 






interpretation on this section, so the 
matter is still in dispute. 

Psssing from the illegal methods of 
taking salmon resorted to by the un- 
scrupulous lishermaa, we have the spoon 
hook and Hue method practiced by the 
many clean, true sportsmen, nome of 
whom come from distant places in the 
state* to take salmon. And not in- 
frequent i.v, the sportsman of this type 
is rcwanlpd by a big fellow (akiug the 
Rjioon in his mouth, which results in a 
fiebt that win often last for n half an 
hour or an hour. Thus the angler is 
rewarded by a sporlsmanly encounter 
which keeps him on keen edge until the 
siluon is landed. 

Why salmon strike at a spoon is not 
really known, for they apparently take 
no food after entering a freshwater 
stream, the stomach liecomiog useless so 
that food would probably not digest even 



If introduced artificially into the stomach. 
Then, we are prone to ask, "Why does 
he strike?" His known fighting qualities 
and unlKiunded determination to reach his 
recognized spanning bed may tie an ex- 
planation for his actions. One seldom 
ever hears of a salmon taking a spoon 
until after be passes the town of Fire- 
baugb, which leads to the inference that 
lie apparently does not strike a spoon, 
after leaving the sea, until be meets with 
interference on his journey to bis spawn- 
ing bed. The town of Firebangh is some 
six miles below Mendota weir, and very 
few salmon are taken on hook and line 
outside of a mile or two down the river, 
from the latter town. But at the weir, 
I have noted more than a hundred fish 
taken in twenty-four bouts, fairly caught 
in the mouth with spoon hooks. 

Those salmon which pass the weir 
travel up the river and pay little hei-d 
to lures of any kind, until they reach 
their final homes or spawning beds, in 
and near the hills. After reaching the 
cobble IwittoinB where they deposit their 
spawn, they again strike the spoon hook; 
at this time they furnish the greatest 
sport for the rod- casting enthusiast. 
Not only is the angler kept constantly on 
the alert, but he can find plenty of sal- 
mon pools wherein he can "let fly" one 
hundred and lifty feet of line and then 
some. The good fishing usually extends 
from the period prior to the time that 
they deposit tiieir eces until sometime in 
September; but individual salmon con- 
tinue striking even on through the winter 
months. 

T.'nlens further protection is extended 
to the salmon very soon, the thrill of a 
salmon strike in the San Joaquin will lie 
history. We have hoen very properly 
forced to give up the fiitt run of salmon 
to the agriculturist, and now our spring 
run is being de])lptcd very rapidly. Wc 
lose vast numbers of try in the irrignting 
ditches, as they travel down toward the 
Therefore, unless we oitteud our 
best efforts to protect these fish quickly, 
salmon of the upper San Joaquin 
r will pass into history as our elk 
antelope bnve done. 

S. T,. N. El-Lis, 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND QAHB. 



CHEAP SPORT FOR INFLUENTIAL 



There \m maoj a msn who would 
gladly pay fS for the privilege of Itilling 
a Canada gooee, provided he wag sore 
that this was the only penalty he miut 
pay and that be would not be prosecuted 
BDd branded as a man unw'lliog to play 
fair with hia brother eportBmen. Yet there 
are men in this coanti^ today who an 
enjoyinf this pririlege, or rather Bteal- 
iiig it, at the h>w rate of |2.50 per riola- 
tion. It was ODly as recently as Beptem- 
ber 23. 191&, that William F. Taubel, a 
wealthy citizen of Riverside, New Jersey, 
wu fined f 5 by a United States DlBtrict 
Court in Trenton, New Jersey, for violat- 
ing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, in 
that he decoyed to a blind sod killed 
two Canada geeae. Since that lime the 
same jndge who Imposed the fine in the 
Taubel case has fined other violators of 
the same law as low as $2.G0. 

These fines contrast rather glaringly 
with a fine of $1,000 imposed on Octo- 
ber 22 of the same year, also in Trenton. 
New Jersey, on Emilo Trowti, an alien 
resident of West Amwell. New Jersey. 
Trowti was found guilty of violating the 
New Jersey game laws, and wds surely 
deserving of bis punishment, as he was 
caught with a bag containing forty-eigbt 
song and inaeclivoroua birds. However, 
fines similar to the first ones will surely 
cheapen the federal law and make diffi- 
cult the enforcement of the Migratory 
Bird Treaty Act. 

It is gratifying to know that other 
district judges in the United States do 
not share the views of the one who im- 
posed these low fines. In Wisconsin 
three hunters were recently fined $100 
each for attempting to kill ducks after 
sunset, while in Connecticut a violator 
was sentenced to tbree months in jail tor 
a Tiolation of the Migratory Bird Treaty 
Act. It is only by stringent methods 
that the true intent and 
this act can he carried out 



WATCH FOR BANDED DUCKS. 

All waterfowl should be carefully ei- 
ainined lo ascertain whether or not they 
are banded. The Bureau of Biological 
Survey, United States ncpartmcnt of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and sev- 
eral individuals arc making a prairtire of 
banding waterfowl, 



migratory lines of flight, and it is qaite 
necessary that full reports regardiog the 
talcing ol any banded bird be made to the 
proper authorities. 

QUAIL IMMUNE TO STRVCHNINE 
POIBONINQ. 

Important evidence has been seeared 
regarding the comparative immunity of 
quail lo strychnine poisoning. E^eld 
observations and feeding eiperimenta con- 
ducted Id California showed that one 
valley quail can eat grain contaiDing 
enough strychnine to kill 12 ground squir- 
rels without showing the slightest ill 
effect from the poison. A number of 
similar 'experiments on a monntain quail 
and a bobwhite gave like results. The 
informalion thus gained wit! tend to allay 
fears in certain quarters that poisoning 
campaigns against ground squirrels result 
disastrously to these valuable game birds. 
Investigations in Saskatchewan, Canada, 
have proved that grouse are equally 
immutte to strychnine poisoning. Ann. 
Rpt. V. 8. Dept. Agrie. 

BIOLOGICAL SURVEV TAKES OVER 
WORK OF AMERICAN BIRD-BAND- 
ING ASSOCIATION. 

The Bureau of Biological Survey, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C, has taken over the work, good 
will, effects, and records of the American 
Bird Banding Association, formerly con- 
ducted from headquarters at the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History in New 
York City. In the future, therefore, 
the issue of l>andB and information rela- 
tive to the work will be from this office, 
to which all records of birds handed and 
recovered, ebould be sent. There will, 
of course, be no further dues or initia- 






In taking over tbe work of this 
association, tbe Biological Sarvcy is 
particularly desirous of retaining your 
hearty cooperation, upon which a large 
part of our success will depend. 

The work is to be advanced along two 
principal lines: first, tbe trapping and 
banding of waterfowl, especially ducki* 
and eeese on both their breedang and 
wintering grounds ; and seccoid, the sys- 
tc^matic trapping of land birds as initiateil 
by Mr. S. Prentiss Baldwin. By main- 
taining volunteer trapping stations at 



CAUFOBNIA FISH AND aAHE. 



123 



iatervals met tbe coDOti;, and 
sist«titl7 openting them Uirocgbont Uie 
;ear, a mass of valnable data lelative to 
tbe nugratioD routei, speed of travel, and 
affinity for the neet Bite of the previous 
j'ear, as well as a qaautity of life history 
iafonnatioD about the individnal will he 
acqnired. 

To do this nitb aof degree of success, 
the observer should be advantageous]; 
located with regard to bird babitats, as it 
is obvioos that traps can not be regular]; 
visited if located at any conaiderabie 
distance from the operator's usual station 
during the day, and it is imperative that 
they be risited at least two or three 
times daily to prevent the birds captured 
from injuring themselves against the 
wires. Tbe fascination of tbe work, 
bowever, will amply repay aoyone for tbe 
little time and Ironble, and for the ex- 
pense for traps and baits. 

Experiments are now under way to 
determine the most suitable types of traps 
and the best methoda of trapping; and 
arrangements are being made for a supply 
of bands. 

In the meantitne, however, the Biologi- 
cal Survey desires to invite con tinned 
cooperation and will welcome any 
inquiries or suggestions for the ad ran ce- 
ment of the work. The Bureau particu- 
larly desires to get in touch with those 
advantflgeously located for tbe establish- 
ment of trapping stations. 



Recently the Industries Committee, of 
the House of Bepresentatives of New 
Zealand, traveled throughout the Domin- 
ion to Sod out bow uew and budding 
industries migbt be assisted snd encour- 
aged. The fishing , industry Hmongst 
others was investigated and the follow- 
ing interesting recommendations were 

That the best way to bring about the 
development of tbe industry is by organ- 
ization for catching, distributing and, 
where necessary, preserving the fish. The 
only way to provide adequate supplies and 
prices within the reach of all is by 
trawling. 

It recommended that a separate fish- 
eries department of the government be 
established with a director and staff. 



That tbe government own and operate 
steam trawlers, and establish fish-cbilliDg 
and ice-making plants near the fishing 
grounds and engage generally in the 
business. 

That tbe government advances be made 
to fishermen on tbe security of their boats 
and fishing outfiL 

That the fishennen's boats be insured 
by the state office at a low rate. 

That a systematic, scientiEc and prac- 
tical survey of fisbing ground* be under- 
taken without delay, and that the govern- 
ment purchase a properly constructed 
and equipped vessel tor this work. 

That government assistance be given 
to encourage the canning, curing and 
commercial preparation of fish food, 
special attention being given to the 
canning of crayfish. 

That encouragement be given for tbe 
manufacture of fish manure and the pro- 
duction of fish oil (other than whale 

oil). 

Several recommendations were made 
for licensing and controlling the business 
of whaling, among which were (1) Chat 
the whaling company should give guar- 
anty that every portion of a whale's 
carcass will be used, and (2) that each 
company be confined to sixty miles of 
coast and each must take at least a 
certain number each year. 

KARAKUL 6HEEP INDUSTRY. 
A few yea re ago considerable pub- 
licity was given the fact that some 
karakul sheep, noted for their fur, bad 
been imported from Siberia. Added 
interest now pertains to this importation 
because of the fact that aome of the 
original imported stock has been moved 
to California from Texas. The Kerman 
Karakul Sheep Company secured 200 
animals from Texas in 1018, and the herd 
is now considerably mrger. The out- 
standing importance of this breed lies in 
the splendid fur whicn ia produced. It 
now appears also that this breed will 
do well even on scanty alkali vegetation. 
The karakul sheep will stand on its hind 
legs and browse high up, and therefore 
needs less territory as range. The lambs 
grow rapidly, sometimes attaining a 
weight of sixty pounds in two months. 
Tbe mutton has a peculiar gamey flavor, 
end the large amount of tat (about 



DiB.1izedOyGoO(^lc 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 



ly pounils to each a 


imal) is VBlv 


AccordiPB to P. 


A. Ingvason 


agpf of the ranch 


at Kerman. a 



Pm. S4. Karakul 
fur In prime condition. 
Hi ICO p Industry li:ia ai 



belter and hnnlicr sheep is obtained by 
crossliiK the karaliul with a Mexican wool 

A new fur industry is tileretore being 
developed in California. Although the 
nniraals utilized are domesticated, yet the 
increase of furs of this sort should add 
mucli to reduce the toll taken of native 
tur-bearers, and consequently this new 
project should be looked upon with favor. 



SUaOESTEO BIRD RESERVATION 
ON MONO LAKE. 

A colony of gulls is located on a large 
island in Mono Lake where it is cus- 
tomary for them to breed each year. 
Recently b. desert homestead has been 
talcen up with an entry on the lake, and 
a summer residence bas been built there. 
I understand that the homesteader pro- 
poses to stock the island with goats, 
which may he a. fad that will be short 
lived. However, it strikes me that some 
attention should be given to the preser- 
vation of this colony of gulls, which is 
somewhat unique on account of the tact 
that it ia situated so far inland, and also 
because it adds greatly to the ititerest 
taken in the Mono Lake region. This 
territory is rapidly coming to the front 
among the tourists as a recreation Eroua<3. 
and T feel that all due precaution should 
be tak