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CALIFORNIA! 
FISH-GAME 

f "CONSERVATION OF WILDLIFE THROUGH EDUCATION" 



California Fish and Game is a journal devoted to the conserva- 
tion of wildlife. Its contents may be reproduced elsewhere pro- 
vided credit is given the authors and the California Department 
of Fish and Game. 

The free mailing list is limited by budgetary considerations to 
persons who can make professional use of the material and 
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viduals must state their affiliation and position when submitting 
their applications. Subscriptions must be renewed annually by 
returning the postcard enclosed with each October issue. Sub- 
scribers are asked to report changes in address without delay. 

Please direct correspondence to: 

CAROL M. FERREL, Ed/for 
Department of Fish and Game 
722 Capitol Avenue 
Sacramento 14, California 

Individuals and organizations who do not qualify for the free 
mailing list may subscribe at a rate or $2 per year or obtain indi- 
vidual issues for $0.75 per copy by placing their orders with the 
Printing Division, Documents Section, Sacramento 14, California. 
Money orders or checks should be made out to Printing Division, 
Documents Section. 



u 









VOLUME 45 



JULY, 1959 




NUMBER 3 




Published Quarterly by the 

CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME 

SACRAMENTO 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME 



EDMUND G. BROWN 
Governor 



 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

T. H. RICHARDS, JR., President 
Sacramento 

WILLIAM P. ELSER, Vice President JAMIE H. SMITH, Commissioner 

San Diego Los Angeles 

CARL F. WENTE, Commissioner HENRY CLINESCHMIDT, Commissioner 

San Francisco Redding 



WILLIAM E. WARNE 
Director of Fish and Game 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 
Editorial Staff 

CAROL M. FERREL, Editor-in-Chief __ Sacramento 

JOHN E. FITCH, Editor for Marine Fisheries Terminal Island 

ELTON D. BAILEY, Editor for Inland Fisheries Sacramento 

MERTON N. ROSEN, Editor for Game Sacramento 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

History of Kelp Harvesting in California, W. L. Scofield- __ 135 

A Revised Check List of the Freshwater and Anadromons Fishes of 
California, Leo Shapovalov, William A. Dill and Almo Cordone 159 

Changes in a River's Physical Characteristics Under Substantial 
Reductions in Flow Due to Hydroelectric Diversion, Brian Curtis 181 

Movement of the Ring-necked Pheasant in the Sutter Basin of Cali- 
fornia, Robert D. Mallette and Jack C. Bechtel 189 

A Field Study of the Relative Visibility of Various Colors, Leslie 
E. Lahr, Arthur C. Heinsen, Jr., Harold G. Anderson and Col. 
E. F. Sloan, U.S.A., Rtd __ 203 

Note 

Observation of Porpoise Predation on a School of Pacific Sardines, 
Bernard D. Fink 216 

Note 

A Southern Range Extension of the American Shad to Todos 
Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, L. G. Claussen.. . 217 

Note 

Deer Forage from Common Mistletoe, LI. H. Biswell- 218 

Resignation, Joseph H. Wales — 220 

Reviews 221 



(133) 



HISTORY OF KELP HARVESTING IN CALIFORNIA 1 

W. L. SCOFIELD 
Long Beach, California 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Algae is a general term applied to a large number of primitive 
freshwater or marine plants. On the West Coast of North America 
there are several hundred species of salt water algae ranging in size 
from minute to very large plants. Larger marine algae have been 
separated into three groups according to color : red, green, and brown, 
but some botanists recognize a fourth, the green-brown algae. Seaweed 
is an inclusive name applied to most marine plants other than the 
minute forms and kelp is usually applied to the larger seaweeds. If 
we exclude from consideration very small ocean plants and grass-like 
shallow w T ater plants with functioning true roots (eel grass for exam- 
ple), we may use the three terms: marine algae, seaweed, and kelp 
almost interchangeably. Of the many species of marine algae in Cali- 
fornia, only three or four kelps are commercially important and a half 
dozen smaller seaweeds are sometimes gathered for food or agar-agar. 

The giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), a perennial brown alga, is 
the most important species in California and has furnished most of 
the kelp material harvested during the 49-year period from 1910 to 
the present. Bull kelp (Nereocystis lutkeana) is abundant along the 
Monterey coast and northward, but has not been harvested in large 
amounts. The large northern kelp (Alaria sp.), plentiful in Alaska, 
has not been utilized in California. 

Some of the marine algae are annuals, a few are biennials, and 
several are perennials. They do not have roots. Instead, they anchor 
to the bottom by means of a clasping organ (holdfast) that grows 
around a rock or attaches to a solid surface to prevent the plant from 
being washed away. Food is not obtained from the sea bottom, but is 
taken from the surrounding water by the pigment (chlorophyll) of 
the plant in the presence of sunlight (photosynthesis). A quantity 
of carbon dioxide is necessary for such a large plant to grow and 
only small amounts are dissolved in sea water. Therefore, a constant 
change of water is required for kelp growth. This limits kelp to exposed 
positions where waves and currents are present. A rocky bottom with 
good attachments for holdfasts is another requirement limiting the 
distribution of kelp beds. Water temperature is the chief factor govern- 

1 Submitted for publication April, 1959. 

Editor's Note: The author worked for the Department of Fish and Game for 
36 years from 1919 until his retirement in 1955. During this time he was inti- 
mately associated with kelp harvesting and all of the attendant ramifications. 
This paper was prepared after his retirement to fulfill a request by the depart- 
ment to tie together into a permanent record the complex history of kelp har- 
vesting in California — information that previously was only partially available 
in printed form. 

( 135 ) 



136 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

ing the distribution of the different kelp species. During the past 40 
years an extensive literature has been published covering the life his- 
tory, growth habits, and reproduction of west coast kelps, especially 
of the giant kelp of Southern California. 

ALGAE AS HUMAN FOOD 

While the territorial area of Alta California was being explored by 
the Spanish, coastal Indians were recorded as eating marine algae 
gathered from the shore. One such record mentions the Indians of Fort 
Ross (1812) gathering seaweed for use as soup stock. 

For the past 75 years, at least, small forms of marine algae have been 
gathered at low tide for drying and shipping to centers of large popu- 
lations of Chinese and Japanese. Some shipments were made to cities 
in the eastern United States, but most of this material has gone to 
China. The species most favored for human food is a small ruffled 
plant, Porphyra perforata. For many years, Chinese buyers maintained 
small camps scattered from Fort Bragg to Santa Barbara, where sea- 
weed was dried and sacked for shipment (Bonnot, 1931). Xo records 
were kept of this harvesting, but the operation was never very large. 
What was probably a record crop was gathered in 1929, when the 
California harvest was estimated at 150 tons, dry weight. 

During the last two or three decades seaweeds have been prepared 
in various forms as health foods for human consumption. These usually 
have been in the form of pills to supplement the diet, but a kelp powder 
has been marketed for sprinkling over breakfast cereals and other foods 
to add an attractive salty flavor. Two companies have specialized in 
these products, but the amounts of kelp required for this trade are 
very small. 

AGAR-AGAR 

Certain species of marine algae may be used in producing agar-agar, 
a gelatinous substance of value chiefly as a culture medium in bac- 
teriological laboratories. Agar-agar is also used for taking dental im- 
pressions, sizing cloth, and as a stiffener in candies and jellies. In South- 
ern California, more than a dozen species of seaweed may be so used 
(Bonnot, 1931). For the past three or four decades, one agar company 
(American Agar and Chemical Company, San Diego) has processed 
both imported and local seaweed. One or two Japanese diving teams 
gathered seaweed on a small scale for many years, but this was such a 
small "fishery" that no records were kept of their operations. Most 
of the agar-agar used in the United States was imported from Japan 
because of higher production costs for California seaweed. When World 
War II suddenly cut off importation from Japan there was an im- 
mediate need for agar production in California. The United States 
War Production Board issued a freezing order on all agar. In order 
to encourage agar production, the California Fish and Game Commis- 
sion directed Paul Bonnot of the Bureau of Marine Fisheries to make 
a survey of the distribution and abundance of agar weed from Point 
Conception to the Mexican boundary. This was done by full-suit diving 
and the results were made public in a mimeographed report by Bonnot 
(January, 1942). During 1942 and 1943, 8 or 10 agar processing plants 
sprouted in the greater Los Angeles area, and nearly everyone with 



KELP HARVESTING 137 

"full-suit" commercial abalone diving experience was induced to 
gather agar weed. This sudden burst of activity was short lived for it 
was soon discovered that the poorly paid abalone divers of Baja Cali- 
fornia could gather, dry and ship weed to Los Angeles factories far 
cheaper than local weed could be prepared. All but two or three of the 
processing plants closed down and at the end of the war the local agar 
business folded up. 

GERMAN POTASH 

Great deposits of salts were discovered in the beds of ancient seas 
near Stassfurt, Germany (about 1840) and within 25 years these 
deposits were being mined in such volume that most of the world be- 
came dependent upon Germany for potash salts. The United States 
took about one-fifth of the output of these German mines. The govern- 
ment of Germany maintained strict control over the operation of the 
mines. A government-controlled agency (Kali Syndikat) determined 
the amount to be produced and marketed by each mine, the proportion 
allotted for export, the sale price, and export tax. 

In spite of these controls, United States imports increased year by 
year through 1912, but by 1913 they began to drop off. In the mean- 
time (1910), a dispute between American potash buyers and the Ger- 
man marketing syndicate became so heated, that diplomatic exchanges 
resulted between the two governments and newspapers gave it wide 
publicity. This attracted the attention of the American public to our 
dependency upon Germany for fertilizer, and Congress authorized 
investigations by federal officials to develop, if possible, a local supply 
of potash on a commercial scale. This attracted the attention of private 
enterprise and possible sources of fertilizer were examined by federal 
and private investigators. Although small deposits of potash were 
known to exist in several parts of the world, these sources were in- 
adequate for our needs. Agents of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, were most interested in developing local 
fertilizer material for American farmers. It was considered necessary 
that the United States be freed from dependency upon a foreign gov- 
ernment and a marketing syndicate, that could at any time reduce our 
allotment of potash and dictate the price charged and the tax levied. 
As evidence of the uncertain supply, the German government, in the 
early months of 1915, did prohibit further export of potash. This fol- 
lowed the mobilization of European troops and the beginning of World 
War I. After the close of the war (1918), importation of potash from 
Germany was resumed, but on a reduced scale. 

KELP POTASH 

In several countries, coastal farmers had long practiced using dried 
kelp and seaweed ash for fertilizer. In a general way, the potash con- 
tent of kelps was known. As early as 1902, the chemical composition 
was determined for our three largest west coast algae. Preliminary 
laboratory investigations (1910) disclosed that, in addition to potash, 
our kelps carried a larger number of useful byproducts than any other 
potash-bearing material. It became evident that the Pacific Coast kelp 
beds offered the most promising source of fertilizer and it was hoped 

2—97202 



138 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

that recovery of byproducts would help carry the cost of producing 
potash. The best methods of extraction, cost of harvesting and process- 
ing, the extent of the available supply, and the effect of harvesting 
upon the kelp beds were not known. These unknowns determined the 
research program adopted by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Soils, under the authorization of the United States 
Congress. 

The investigations were supervised by personnel from the United 
States Bureau of Soils. Frank K. Cameron was in charge of the chem- 
ical and physical investigations. Dr. R. P. Brandt was placed in charge 
of part of the work and headquartered at Scripps Institution of Ocean- 
ography, La Jolla. He was assisted by several staff members of Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, over a period of many years. Prominent 
among these researchers was W. C. Crandall, collaborator in kelp in- 
vestigations. Methods of extracting potash and other products from 
kelp were under the direction of J. W. Turrentine. 

Although the early interest in kelp by the United States Bureau of 
Soils emphasized potash as fertilizer, there were hints that materials 
for explosives were not being overlooked. The need for acetone for ex- 
plosives was even more critical than that for potash because it was in 
such short supply. Large ammunition contracts depended upon develop- 
ing new sources of acetone and potash. To recover acetone the Dupont 
Powder Co. had attempted fermentation of plant material in a leased 
pickle works in Maryland. At a critical time the culture failed and 
attention then centered upon west coast kelp. 

As early as 1914, Dupont was examining the possibility that kelp 
might yield the necessary acetone and potash. A sample of two wet tons 
of seaweed taken by a representative of the powder company from in 
front of the Del Monte Bathhouse (Monterey) led to the first recorded 
objection to kelp harvesting. Mr. F. E. Booth complained to the San 
Francisco Office of the State Department of Commercial Fisheries that 
his fishermen declared kelp cutting would ruin sardine fishing in 
Monterey Bay. 

In 1916, Hercules Powder Co. built the large kelp plant at San 
Diego to recover acetone as well as potash. The work was successful. 
The United States Government plant at Summerland (1917) concen- 
trated its efforts on kelp byproducts, chief of which was acetone. 

Kelp products made it possible for the United States powder com- 
panies to fill huge ammunition contracts with our allies in World War I 
as well as to supply our own armed forces. Thus seaweed played an 
important part in winning the war. 

EARLY SURVEYS OF KELP BEDS 

The program to assure this country of a supply of locally produced 
potash started in 1910. Preliminary inspections were made of some of 
the kelp beds. Samples of kelp were gathered and chemical analyses 
were made in the laboratories of the United States Bureau of Soils. 
Systematic field work commenced in 1911, with a survey of the indi- 
vidual kelp beds of the Pacific Coast of North America from the Gulf 
of California to western Alaska. The survey included mapping the 
location, extent, and ecological characteristics of the beds, plus other 



KELP HARVESTING 



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140 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME 

pertinent information as to transportation, desirable locations for proc- 
essing factories, labor supply, and especially the possible yield from 
each bed. The southern surveys were directed by W. C. Crandall in 
1911 and 1912, from Cape San Lucas and the Gulf of California to 
Puget Sound. 

Surveys of Puget Sound were conducted by George B. Rigg in 1911 
and 1912, and of western Alaska in 1913. T. C. Frye carried out the 
1913 surveys of southeast Alaska. 

These surveys resulted in U. S. Department of Agriculture Report 
No. 100 covering most of the phases of "Potash from Kelp" (Cameron, 
1915). The maps of individual beds supplementing Report No. 100 were 
published in a separate portfolio of charts in 1914. These maps are 
still used in the administration of kelp harvesting in California, al- 
though our local beds were numbered later by H. B. Nidever of the 
California Division of Fish and Game. 

It soon became evident that the beds of giant kelp of Southern Cali- 
fornia (south of Point Conception) offered the best opportunity for 
heavy cutting. Individual plants lived for several years and the surface 
leaves, when trimmed off were quickly replaced by new growth. This 
would allow harvesting as often as three or four times a year. The beds 
north of Point Conception were composed of annual seaweeds and 
could be harvested only once a season. The southern beds were larger, 
and more dense, and were almost pure stands. Northern beds were 
composed of several species, smaller in area and more scattered, making 
harvesting more costly. In addition, economic factors favored the 
southern coast where established population centers offered a labor 
supply and transportation facilities. Finally, smoother water south of 
Point Conception would permit a greater number of operational days 
at sea each year. 

EXPLOITATION PERIODS 

Harvesting giant kelp in quantity along the California coast can 
be separated into two distinct periods. The first (1911-1919), a nine- 
year feverish boom, was induced by the high cost of potash imports 
from Germany during the years leading up to and throughout World 
War I. This period chiefly supplied materials for explosives. It pro- 
duced an overabundance of processing companies, many operating only 
for a short time on a small scale. Other companies sold stock but har- 
vested no kelp. Transfers of ownership and consolidations were frequent 
among these smaller companies. As a whole, the industry was unstable, 
except that three or four well-financed companies operated on a large 
scale to fill governmental contracts for explosives. 

A second period, from the mid-1920 's to the present, has been on a 
smaller scale and characterized by a more normal peacetime develop- 
ment of byproducts. Harvesting over these 30-odd years has been 
stable, involving only three firms. Two have operated continuously 
over the three decades. 

HARVESTING METHODS 

While kelp utilization was being developed in California (1912- 
1915) almost every possible method of harvesting was tried. The most 
primitive was to gather the beach litter that washed ashore as a result 



KELP HARVESTING 



141 



FIGURE 2. Kelp spread in open field to sun dry. Roseville near San Diego. April, 1917. Pho- 
tograph by W. F. Thompson. 



"'*** - *"": -..'. 



FIGURE 3. Burning sun-dried kelp to recover ash. Roseville near San Diego, 1917. Photograph 

by W. F. Thompson. 



142 CALIFOENIA FISH AND GAME 

of storm breakage and black rot or from summer warm water sloughing 
of the plants. This litter was spread on the beach to dry in the sun and 
was then burned and the ash saved for the 8 or 10 percent of potash it 
contained. At least one firm cut seaweed from a skiff and let it drift 
ashore where it was dried and burned. Another firm cut kelp from a 
skiff, tied the fronds to a long rope, and pulled them ashore with a 
windlass. Most kelp was obtained by pulling the fronds into a skiff or 
small barge and cutting the stems as deep as possible (6 to 10 feet) by 
using a knife on a long pole. A very destructive method entailed en- 
circling a portion of a bed with a cable and power pulling the plants 
into a bundle so that the stems could be cut and the weed towed ashore. 
This destroyed many holdfasts. In some cases the cut weed was chopped 
by a machine on the barge and later sent through a revolving dryer in 
preparation for burning. These methods supplied kelp ash to the com- 
panies recovering potash. 

When some of the larger firms (about 1916) began using a fermenta- 
tion process to obtain potash and acetone, it became necessary to deliver 
fresh seaweed in much greater quantity and the mowing method was 
developed. It operated similar to and resembled the hay mowing ma- 
chines used by farmers. A 10- to 20-foot wide horizontal blade with re- 
ciprocating knives was mounted on the bow of a barge in such a manner 
that it could be lowered to about four feet beneath the water surface. 
Vertical knives, at each end of the horizontal blade, trimmed off floating 
fronds that extended past either side. An endless chain conveyor 
carried the cut kelp into the barge. Mowing eliminated injury to the 
plants — a common shortcoming in earlier harvesting methods. 

There remained to be solved, however, the problem of escapement of 
cut ends. At first, the skipper of a barge would harvest only in the 
thickest portion of a kelp bed, often zig-zagging to hit these spots. This 
permitted too much loss at the sides of the cutting blade. Cutting round 
and round a bed, like mowing a field of hay, was similarly poor. The 
larger companies sought out and developed better methods. They found 
that loss could be reduced to a minimum by cutting either "with the 
grain" (the same direction that air and water currents were causing 
the surface fronds to drift) or directly against the drift. The better 
harvesters cut the first swath near the outside of a bed so that subse- 
quent runs picked up most of the escapement. The Hercules Powder Co. 
(about 1917) ordered two or three of its barges to operate in an oblique 
formation through a bed so that each swath picked up the escapement of 
the preceding barge. In modern harvesting, kelp loss can be kept to a 
minimum if proven methods are followed. 

PROCESSING COMPANIES 

The interest taken by the U. S. Government in the kelp beds of the 
Pacific Coast attracted the attention of investment seeking capital. A 
few kelp organizations were incorporated in 1911, but the Coronado 
Chemical Co. is credited with being the first to harvest and process giant 
kelp (Cameron, 1915). This plant was located at Cardiff -by-the-Sea, 
about 20 miles north of San Diego. Other companies were incorporated 
and started building factories in 1912 and 1913, so some experimental 
harvesting was clone in 1911 and 1912. The Ocean Products Co. at Port 



KELP HARVESTING 143 

Townsend (incorporated in 1912) and the Pacific Products Co. at Ana- 
cortes, erected plants on Puget Sound in 1913. In 1914, the Western 
Algin Co. of Seattle built a plant at Port Stanley on Puget Sound. The 
North Pacific Kelp Potash Co. and the Pacific Coast Kelp Potash Co. 
were organized in 1913, but they harvested little or no kelp. 

The second harvesting firm in California was the Ocean Products Co. 
with a plant at Half Moon Bay (1913). This company and the Cor- 
onado Chemical Co. were absorbed in 1913 by the American Potash Co. 
and their equipment was moved to a factory in Long Beach. The Pacific 
Products Co. (not the Seattle firm of the same name) had a plant near 
Point Fermin, San Pedro in 1913 as did the Pacific Kelp Mulch Co. The 
latter was absorbed by the Mexican Kelp and Fertilizer Co. of San 
Diego, an outfit that harvested near Ensenada, Baja California, and 
shipped dried seaweed to San Diego and Los Angeles Harbor. The Pa- 
cific Kelp Co. had an experimental plant at Pillar Point, Half Moon 
Bay, and in 1913 the Kelp Products Co. built a factory at San Diego. 
Plants operating in the Los Angeles area in 1913 included the Cali- 
fornia Fertilizer Co. at Terminal Island and the American Potash Co. 
at Long Beach. The Terminal Island plant prepared a fertilizer made 
up of 75 percent kelp, 15 percent sardine meal, and 10 percent bone 
phosphate. The American Potash Co. (later the American Products Co.) 
dried and burned kelp. 

At midsummer of 1914 several small plants were experimentally pro- 
ducing potash for fertilizer, but some of these turned into stock selling 
schemes. 

By the end of 1914, the three California plants producing the most 
potash were American Potash, Pacific Kelp Mulch, and Pacific Prod- 
ucts. A number of small firms were experimenting with methods for 
potash extraction, but their kelp harvesting, accomplished by hand 
cutting from skiffs, was intermittent and small scale. Throughout the 
prewar period a few small firms dried and burned kelp and sold the 
ash to established processing plants. The combined California harvest 
in 1913 was estimated at 2,500 wet tons. During 1914, cost of foreign 
fertilizers more than doubled and capital sought out the kelp beds as a 
source of potash. By September, 1915 the sale price of potash had risen 
from 38 to 300 dollars per ton. A significant news note in an October, 
1914 trade journal mentioned inquiries from E. I. Dupont de Nemours 
Powder Co. This was an early hint that the potash might be needed 
more for explosives than fertilizer. 

In 1915 only a few firms were added to the growing list of West 
Coast kelp harvesters. National Potash and Iodine Co. of Bremerton, 
Washington bought out the Western Algin Co. of Port Stanley, Wash- 
ington. The Coast Reduction Co. operated a Long Beach plant but it 
burned soon after it was completed. Late in the year the Hercules 
Powder Co. hired fishermen at Monterey to gather kelp for hauling to 
San Francisco by tug. No doubt this was prompted by the German 
edict in March, 1915 prohibiting further export of potash. 

During 1916, several companies were incorporated in Washington and 
Oregon, but most of them never operated. In California there were so 
many small operations, some of which cut kelp by hand, that the estab- 
lishment of additional factories no longer attracted investment capital. 
However, a trend toward enlarging the operations of a few big plants 



144 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

did receive some financial backing. In order to prevent possible damage 
to the kelp beds from irresponsible hand cutting and to promote the 
general welfare of this new kelp industry, the larger firms organized 
the Pacific Kelp Manufacturing Association of Southern California. 
The first firms that were represented in the association were the Lorned 
Manufacturing Co. (formerly American Products Co.), Diamond Match 
Co. (Los Angeles Harbor), Sea Products Co. (Long Beach), National 
Kelp Potash Co., Pacific Products Co. (Long Beach), and Oceanic En- 
gineering Corp. 

Swift and Co. completed a large plant at San Diego in 1916 and a 
few small firms were consolidated elsewhere on the coast. The most 
significant addition to the harvesting picture that year was the con- 
struction of a large plant at Chula Vista by Hercules Powder Co. This 
firm started with two big harvester barges of 250 tons capacity each. 
The plant later was enlarged to handle 2,000 wet tons daily and soon 
1,500 men were employed in a three million dollar factory. At first 
charred kelp was leached for potash, but this was replaced by a fer- 
mentation process developed by the Hercules Co. 

During 1916, 11 kelp processing plants operated in Southern Cali- 
fornia at San Diego, Wilmington, and Long Beach, and a few small 
plants were being constructed. The operating firms employed 16 har- 
vesting barges having an average daily capacity of 200 tons each. The 
four largest firms were Hercules Powder Co., National City ; Swift and 
Co. Kelp Works, San Diego; Diamond Match Co., Wilmington; and 
American Products Co., Long Beach. The seven remaining plants were 
National Kelp Potash Co. ; Sea Products Co., Long Beach ; Pacific 
Products Co., Long Beach ; Lorned Manufacturing Co., Occidental 
Chemical Co. ; San Diego Kelp Ash Co. ; and Oceanic Engineering 
Corp. San Diego plants cut kelp beds from Point Loma to La Jolla 
and the Los Angeles Harbor area companies harvested from Point 
Fermin north to Rocky Point. 

Kelp harvesting in Mexican waters during 1916 was controlled by 
M. Kondo through Kondo Fisheries Co., San Diego. Kelp was dried 
near Ensenada, baled, and shipped by weekly steamer to San Diego 
where it was sold to extraction plants. Following this AVorld AVar I 
harvesting below the border, was a period of about four decades when 
very little exploitation of Mexican kelp took place. However, in June, 
1956, arrangements were made by a California kelp processing com- 
pany to harvest the beds groAving within approximately 100 miles of 
the border. This was to be for a trial period in which to determine 
the amounts and quality of kelp that might be available for commercial 
harvesting. Up to March, 1959, a number of trips were made under 
this agreement. 

The most significant kelp utilization event of 1917 was the construc- 
tion and operation on a commercial scale of the United States Kelp 
Experimental Plant at Summerlancl (Santa Barbara County). This 
plant not only produced potash by various methods, but concentrated 
its efforts on developing kelp byproducts. Success was achieved in 
recovering iodine and acetone. Still another company, El Capitan 
Products Co., was established during 1917 with an operating plant 
near Santa Barbara. One of 1 the partners in this enterprise was Captain 
AValter Engelke who had been skipper of harvester barges for several 



KKLP HARVESTING 145 

large kelp firms and probably had more harvesting experience than 
any other man on the roast. Later he was skipper of patrol boats for 
the California Division of Fish and Game until his retirement in 1D47. 

The 1918 peak of our war efforl saw a period of heavy kelp harvest- 
ing by a few leading firms with emphasis placed on extraction of potash 
and acetone Tor explosives. Some of the small companies were consoli- 
dated, including the California Chemical Co. of Summerland which 
was reorganized as the Occidental Chemical Co. of Oakland. Other 
small firms folded up. 

Toward the end of 1918, it was the hope of the potash companies 
that they might continue in business after World War I. Realizing 
that potash prices might drop, they tried to develop kelp byproducts 
to supplement their output. In this respect, large firms had the advan- 
tage over small outfits in that they already had been recovering some 
byproducts, but with the signing of the Armistice in November, 1918, 
the price of potash and acetone dropped so low that big as well as 
small plants were forced to close. The three million dollar Hercules 
Powder Co. plant at Chula Vista, that had been working three shifts 
of eight hours each, had to discharge practically all its employees. 
It had operated for 2| years and is said to have harvested 621,000 
wet tons of kelp. Government explosives contracts were cancelled and 
kelp harvesting practically ceased. However, the II. S. Experimental 
Plant at Summerland continued harvesting for another 2-| years while 
experimenting with the recovery of other byproducts. Several mate- 
rials, such as bleaching carbon, were developed, but these processes 
could not pay dividends in a competitive market and government ap- 
propriations were stopped. The plant closed down in the summer of 
1921. 

In spite of the general collapse of the kelp industry in the winter 
of 1918-1919 some harvesting was resumed in 1919 in an effort to 
market some of the byproducts that had been developed. The sale of 
these byproducts was sluggish and production costs were relatively 
high. Mission Chemical Co. was organized at San Diego in the summer 
of 1919, but met with little success. 

Following the 1919 and 1920 cessation of most harvesting in South- 
ern California, was a short period (1920-1926) when kelp was utilized 
very little. Three or four years later a few scattered attempts were 
made to gather seaweed, especially on Puget Sound. These operations 
were small scale efforts to recover byproducts from kelp, but sale prices 
were too low to cover production costs, and they were short-lived. In 
1931, the Ocean Products Co. of Anacortes, Washington, was using 
kelp as a basic ingredient in soap and another firm was producing a 
shampoo from kelp. In Ojai, California, a Mr. Baker was putting out 
a kelp bread that sold well for a time. One or two other firms were 
selling stock. 

In 1927 the second or post-World War I era of large-scale kelp 
harvesting began. Two new companies were organized then and have 
operated continuously ever since. One, Philip R. Park Inc., San Pedro, 
began harvesting on a commercial scale in 1928. Kelp meal and other 
ingredients were blended in this plant for use as stock and poultry 
food. 

3—97202 



146 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 




FIGURE 4. Kelp harvesting barge of the early 1 940's. Photograph courtesy of Philip R. 

Park, Inc., San Pedro, California. 







FIGURE 5. Kelp harvesting barge El Capiian built in 1941 for Kelco Co., San Diego. Pho- 
tograph 1952 courtesy of Kelco Co. 

The second was started indirectly as a result of research by the 
American Can Company for a material to control the viscosity of a 
gasket compound for sealing tin cans. Algin proved the most satis- 
factory of several materials tried so the company erected a San Diego 
plant in 1927 for recovering algin from kelp. This factory operated 
under the name "Thornley & Company" and produced algin accord- 
ing to specifications and processes prescribed by technical personnel 
of the American Can Company. The name was later changed to "Kelp 
Products Corporation" and in August, 1929, it was reorganized under 



KELP HARVESTING 147 

the name "Kelco Company." In 1941, the Kelco Company built a plant 
at Hneneme for producing dried kelp meal as a vegetable-mineral 
supplement in animal feeds. Shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack 
in December, 1941, the United States Navy took over the Port of 
Hneneme, and the Kelco Company plant, as well as the sardine can- 
neries at the port, were dismantled. In the meantime Kelco Company 
at San Diego has expanded and its research staff has developed new 
algin products for scores of uses. 

Two smaller operations also started up during this second era of 
kelp harvesting. From 1933 to 1943, the San Diego firm of J. Michael 
Walsh harvested from 8 to 35 tons of seaweed per year for use in 
health pills to supplement the human diet. 

Then in 1950 Kelp Organic Products Co. established a plant at 
Hueneme and has produced kelp meal intermittently ever since. 

HARVESTING AT MONTEREY 

A second era of kelp harvesting at Monterey was started in August, 
1930. In this area the dominant species of seaweed is bnll kelp, which 
has a single large float or head from which the leaves stream out over 
the surface of the water. This large single float has given rise to another 
common name — great bladder kelp. Incidentally, these floating heads 
offer ideal concealment for the sea otters that loll on their backs in a 
kelp bed. Only by use of a strong glass can an observer distinguish 
between the seaweed floats and otter heads bobbing in the water. The 
area between Point Pinos (Pacific Grove) and Point Sur about 20 
miles to the south was harvested from a 38-foot boat. The seaweed was 
cut 10 or 15 feet below the water surface with a sickle blade mounted 
on a long pole, and pulled into the boat by hand. It took a three-man 
crew about five hours to gather a four-ton boatload. Price to the fisher- 
man was $10 per wet ton. Loads were delivered at the Monterey dock 
and trucked to a grinding shed, one of which was located at Oak Grove 
near Monterey. As much water as possible was then squeezed out in 
a screw press and the resulting slabs of kelp were packed in barrels for 
shipment to New York. Two companies were involved in selling kelp 
at Monterey. The Sandoz Chemical Co. sold it for manufacturing dyes 
and the Sardue Chemical Co. sold it for making a soap for washing 
textiles. This hand cutting 3'ieldecl approximately 200 wet tons in 1930 
and 500 in 1931. In 1931, an influx of warm water along the California 
coast was said to have caused a scarcity of kelp at Monterey. How- 
ever, beds clown the coast from Monterey were reported to have been 
much less extensive even before kelp cutting started in 1930. This 
earlier decline of the beds was blamed upon Japanese abalone divers 
cutting the stems of bull kelp. This seems a very unlikely story because 
deterioration of beds has been reported at other times and in other 
places where there had been no abalone diving or seaweed gathering. 

KELP REGULATIONS 

Cutting of Pacific Coast kelp began in 1910, but the first California 
plant to process kelp was in 1911. In the two or three years following, 
several firms operated. At first, kelp was gathered in a variety of ways, 
usually by pulling the plants into a boat by hand and cutting the stems 



148 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

as deep under the water as possible. One or two small operators hand 
cut the plants and let them drift into the beach to be picked up. These 
were bad practices and were protested by the established processing 
firms, by the State Fish and Game Commission, and by some of the 
coastal inhabitants. In 1916, one or two counties passed ordinances 
against indiscriminate harvesting. These were of doubtful constitu- 
tionality because counties lack jurisdiction over natural resources be- 
longing to the State. 

There was no state law governing the collecting of marine algae and 
it was questionable whether or not the Federal Government had author- 
ity to regulate offshore seaweeds so an appeal was made to the United 
States Department of Agriculture. An opinion of the Solicitor of the 
Department of Agriculture (dated October 12, 1911) was in effect 
that the area inside the three-mile limit was under state jurisdiction 
and outside that limit, neither the State nor the Federal Government 
had control. The paramount right of the Federal Government to regu- 
late commerce and navigation was an exception to this general ruling. 
Since practically all kelp beds were within three miles of the coast 
there was an appeal for the State to assume regulation of kelp cutting. 
In the meantime, in 1914 the Department of Commercial Fisheries was 
established under the Fish and Game Commission and it seemed logical 
that this new department should handle kelp as a "fishery." To elimi- 
nate bad cutting methods, regulations and a boat to patrol harvesting 
areas were needed. 

In September, 1916, a meeting of interested parties was called to 
draft a bill for presentation to the California Legislature. Representa- 
tives of the kelp firms, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, and the State Fish and Game Commission 
were present at this meeting. The purpose of the bill was to fix the 
authority of the Fish and Game Commission to supervise kelp gather- 
ing and to patrol the cutting areas. More difficult was the drafting 
of regulations to govern harvesting. A stumbling block was the fact 
that the Fish and Game Commission had no discretionary power to 
make rules and to apportion beds among the several operating com- 
panies. At this meeting, it was unanimously agreed that the harvesting 
firms would be governed by a gentleman's agreement as to the allot- 
ment of beds and harvesting methods. The Fish and Game Commission 
was to monitor the harvesting practices and patrol the areas cut br- 
each company, although legal enforcement authority was lacking. In 
case of disputes, representatives of Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
and the Fish and Game Commission were to sit as arbiters. The final 
lengthy bill presented to the 1917 session of the California Legislature 
contained essentially the same points as had been in the draft worked 
out at the 1916 meeting. This bill was passed and became a law, effec- 
tive July 26, 1917. 

The 1917 law provided that aquatic plants in waters of the State 
were the property of the State. The Board of Fish and Game Com- 
missioners was empowered to carry out the provisions of the act and 
to make and enforce rules and regulations for harvesting kelp, to issue 
licenses, and to collect fees. A license was required to take aquatic 
plants for profit. The license fee was $10 per year and a 1^-eents-per- 
wet-ton privilege tax was charged for kelp harvested. Provision was 



KELP EARVESTING 149 

made for weighing the take, keeping records (open to inspection), ami 
reporting monthly the weights and tax due. II' any fisli resource or kelp 
bed was injured or the food of game fish impaired, the commission couhl 
elose the bed to cutting for a period not to exceed one year. If there was 
a violation of law or regulations the license could he cancelled. There 
was provision for hearings, witnesses, court orders, subpoenas, etc. 
After the revocation of a license, the Pish and Game Commission could 
withhold issuance of a new license for a period not to exceed one year. 
There was a penalty for harvesting without a license. 

A patrol boat was needed in Southern California, both to enforce 
the new kelp regulations and to curtail the poor harvesting methods 
employed by some of the small companies. This need was the chief 
reason for building the Fish and Game patrol boat, Albacore I, which 
was placed in service January 1918, in spite of the difficulties of con- 
struction during wartime. 

The 1917 law further provided that all fines and license fees and 
two-thirds of the privilege tax money be paid into the Fish and Game 
Preservation Fund. One-third of the privilege tax money went to the 
State University Fund for use by Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
for biological research. This allotment amounted to one-half cent per 
ton for continuing kelp studies. 

The gentleman's agreement regarding leasing of beds worked 
smoothly for five years or until 1921 when the State Legislature added 
a leasing law to the act of 1917. This authorized the Fish and Game 
Commission to lease the exclusive privilege to harvest designated kelp 
beds, not exceeding 25 square miles in area, to any one lessee. It was 
required that a formal application for a lease be made and advertized 
with a call for bids. The application fee was refunded if the bid was 
not accepted. Leases were not to exceed two years duration. Notice of 
the lease was to be filed with the county recorder. The annual fee for 
the lease was the amount bid in the application. Leasing fees were to be 
paid into the Fish and Game Preservation Fund. 

There was no essential change in the kelp laws until 1931 when the 
Legislature amended the Leasing Act of 1921. The amended act pro- 
vided a 3-cent-per-ton tax on kelp from a leased bed and a minimum 
payment of $10 per square mile leased, this to be a credit to the lessee 
from which payments of tonnage tax would be deducted. An interesting 
clause of the 1931 Leasing Law provided that the applicant for a lease 
should show he "intends actually to harvest kelp" from the bed leased 
and "that such kelp be put to a beneficial use." Subleasing was pro- 
hibited. The lease period was not to exceed 15 years. It was provided 
that all moneys from leasing should be paid into the Fish and Game 
Preservation Fund. This meant that Scripps Institution of Oceanog- 
raphy could receive a one-third share of the privilege tax only from 
open or unleased beds. Because many beds were then under lease, the 
amount of money credited to Scripps was greatly reduced. 

Prior to 1933, fish and game laws were scattered chapters of the 
Penal Code but beginning in 1933 they were assembled into a separate 
set of laws known as the Fish and Game Code. Many of the Penal 
Code sections were amended at this time. Some sections of the kelp 
laws were reworded and excessive legal phrasing reduced. The acts 
covering kelp harvesting (1917) and leasing (1921) Avere combined 



150 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME 

as Sections 580 through 596 of the Fish and Game Code. The revised 
kelp laws under the new code became effective on August 21, 1933. The 
essential provisions of former laws were retained. A further revision 
of the Fish and Game Code in 1957 resulted in renumbering Sections 
580 through 596 to read 6650 through 6706. 

By the 1933 revision a harvesting license was required. The Commis- 
sion was authorized to close beds if it felt they were being impaired 
and hearings were provided for. Licenses could be revoked for viola- 
tion of regulations. The privilege tax of 1^ cents per wet ton on kelp 
from unleased or open beds still applied, but the allotment of one-third 
of the funds from these beds to Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
was dropped. Fifteen-year leases were retained as formerly. There was 
a 3-cent-per-ton tax on kelp from leased beds and $40 per square mile 
payment for leasing. 

In 1941 the Legislature raised the privilege tax on kelp harvested 
from open beds to 5 cents per wet ton. The 3-cent tax on kelp from 
leased beds remained unchanged. Section 589.1 of the 1941 Code added 
the wording : ' ' The Commission may make such rules and regulations 
as may be necessary to insure the proper harvesting of kelp and other 
aquatic plants." In 1945, Code Section 587 provided for revoking a 
license for certain violations of the kelp laws or regulations. The pro- 
visions of these last two sections form the legal basis for the rules 
adopted by the Fish and Game Commission, commonly referred to as 
"Title 14" of the California Administrative Code. 

Title 14 regulations are in addition to specific legislative acts. Sec- 
tion 589.1 of the Fish and Game Code (new Section 6653) gives the 
Commission authority to make rules and regulations to insure proper 
harvesting of kelp and other aquatic plants and Section 587 (now 6656) 
gives the Commission additional authority to revoke licenses. The regu- 
lations adopted by the Commission have the legal authority of laws 
passed by the State Legislature. Title 14 regulations for 1956 gov- 
erned harvesting to prevent escapement of cut, drift, or loose kelp and 
to insure complete utilization of all cut seaweed. They provided for 
efficient harvesting to prevent deterioration of the beds and allow no 
cutting deeper than four feet under the water surface. 

On December 1, 1950, the Fish and Game Commission adopted a 
formal policy on kelp harvesting and the leasing of beds. Some of this 
policy had been stated in code sections and in Title 14, but there were 
several new items. One-third of the kelp beds were to remain unleased 
(open) "to avoid any form of monopoly." Beds were to be leased 
"by negotiation rather than competitive bidding to insure harvesting 
by responsible firms." Further, it was stated that "revenue is not the 
object of the fees charged." The term of the lease was set at 15 years 
and no cutting was to be permitted deeper than four feet below the 
water surface. 

At the call of the then Bureau of Marine Fisheries, meetings were 
held with harvesting firms in the summer of 1950 to explain policy 
and to work out terms of future leases. The kelp companies proposed 
that fees charged them be increased to aid administrative costs and 
research by the Fish and Game Commission. The proposal was accepted 
and the tax on kelp from leased beds was doubled to 10 cents per wet 
ton and the annual fee for leasing beds was raised from $40 to $100 



KELP HARVESTING 151 

per square mile. New 15-year leases were issued on this basis in the 
early spring of 1951. 

The above account of detailed laws might suggest that a scries of 
court battles had been necessary in administrating the kelp regulations. 
Quite the contrary, there has been very little court action. There has 
been no necessity to use the several pages of law in the code book. The 
harvesting firms, because of enlightened self interest, wish to protect 
and perpetuate the beds. They do more than co-operate, they meet the 
law enforcement agencies more than half way. This attitude was evident 
not only in the gentleman's agreement of 1916 and the 1950 offer to 
increase fees and taxes, but also in formulating protective regulations 
and in adjusting difficulties, whether large or small. 

In addition to the laws enacted by the State Legislature there were, 
at many legislative sessions, bills introduced to curtail or prohibit the 
harvesting of kelp in the State. Such bills were never approved by the 
Legislature, but they have been a recurring threat to the kelp industry 
and to the utilization of a valuable natural resource of the State. Most 
of the objections to kelp harvesting rested upon one or more of five 
assumptions : 

1. Harvesting injured or ruined the beds. 

2. Sport fishing in or near harvested beds was seriously impaired. 

3. Drifting kelp litter (escapement from harvesting) entangled sport 
fishing gear when casting from the beach. 

1. Kelp litter on the beach (due to harvesting) was detrimental to 

bathing. 
5. Beach erosion increased with the cutting of beds. 

The assumptions lacked factual backing. 

KELP RESEARCH 

The kelp beds of Southern California have been under close observa- 
tion for the past 49 years (starting in 1910). During this time there 
have been numerous studies conducted by representatives of two state 
and two federal agencies. In addition, several private investigators 
have been assigned kelp studies. Few of our resources have been sub- 
mitted to such close study over such a long period of years. This is 
remarkable when we realize that these studies have resulted in similar 
or identical conclusions reached by the many investigators through 
the years. Most of the phases of the subject have been studied re- 
peatedly. The beds themselves were examined to learn their relation- 
ships to their surroundings (ecology), their diseases and enemies. The 
life history of the plants was studied, including rate of growth and 
replacement after harvesting. Studies have covered methods of mow- 
ing, escapement, beach litter, erosion of beaches, and most important. 
the relationship of harvesting to fishing. 

In addition, there have been almost continuous investigations of the 
products that might be recovered from kelp. These investigations have 
been for the purpose of enlarging the market for kelp products. In the 
early days, the work was promoted by the Federal Government as well 
as by harvesting companies, but since about 1926 it has been chiefly in 
the hands of two processing firms. These industrial studies usually are 
not included in an account of kelp investigations. Also omitted are the 



152 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

botanist's work of determining relationships of the plants and classifi- 
cation of the species. 

Two phases of the subject have not been fully covered. It long has 
been known that there are variations in the abundance of surface 
kelp at different times of the year. This is largely the result of storms 
and water temperatures. It was noted as early as 1912, that certain 
beds diminished for a period of a few years while other beds were 
not affected. This seemed to have little or no relationship to harvesting. 
The disappearance of portions of beds has not been explained, except 
that winter storms may occasionally uproot plants by pulling up hold- 
fasts. In some cases a bacterial disease "black rot" has contributed 
to the retarding of surface growth, but this is usually for short periods 
of time. The possible effect of water pollution on density of kelp beds 
is the other subject not yet fully covered by investigations. 

In 1902 Mr. David Balch made determinations of the chemical com- 
position of the more important West Coast kelps, including the giant 
kelp of Southern California, the bull kelp of central California and the 
large northern kelp (genus Alaria). This knowledge was of great value 
a few years later when developing a new source of potash became 
a necessity. 

In 1910, under the supervision of the U. S. Bureau of Soils, pre- 
liminary examinations of the kelp beds and laboratory chemical anal- 
yses were made. During the three years 1911 to 1913 a systematic 
survey was made of all the beds from the Gulf of California to the 
coast of Alaska. The beds were mapped by agents of the Bureau of 
Soils, densities were determined and observations made as to life 
history, growth habits and relationship of beds to their surroundings. 
Harvesting methods and processing techniques were included in these 
surveys. 

With the entrance of the Hercules Powder Co. into the field of kelp 
processing in 1915 there began a period of privately financed research. 
It was directed chiefly toward the recovery of chemical products and 
methods of gathering seaweed. 

Also during 1915 observations were made of kelp harvesting and its 
relation to fisheries, by officers of the California Fish and Game Com- 
mission and agents of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

At a fisheries conference in San Diego in August, 1916, a committee 
was appointed to encourage the continuance of kelp studies by the four 
agencies then active: The California Fish and Game Commission, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, and 
the U. S. Bureau of Soils. The following month the four agencies met 
with representatives of the kelp processing companies to draft legisla- 
tive proposals for kelp management. It was agreed that until proper 
legislation could be passed regulation of the industry should be in the 
hands of the California Fish and Game Commission. The Kelp Act of 
1917 thai resulted from these meetings provided that one-third of the 
revenue from privilege taxes on harvested kelp would go to Scripps 
Instil n1 ion of Oceanography to finance the continuance of kelp studies 
already started by that organization. This one-third allotment of funds 
was in effect for only 16 years, but kelp research at Scripps has been 
conducted almost continuously since about 1910, a period of almost half 
a century. Of special interest was a co-operative stud} 7 in 1917 and 1918 



KELP HARVESTING 



i:.:: 



that was carried out at Scripps by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and 
staff members of Scripps [nstitution to determine whether or tiol kelp 
harvesting affected the fisheries of Southern California. 

The [J. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, built at 
Summerland a commercial scale kelp processing plant and research 
laboratory under the direction of lh\ J. \V. Turrentine. It operated 
with congressional appropriations. The chief object was to develop kelp 
byproducts, in addition to potash. Several products were extracted 
including iodine, but most important it perfected methods of recovering 
acetone. The Summerland plant was active from August, 1917 to May. 
1921. It was about the only firm that continued operating through 1920. 
It used two harvesting barges and made valuable contributions to better 
harvesting practices. 

The period 1920 through 1925 was almost a blank in the harvesting 
of kelp and there was a corresponding low ebb in kelp research. After 
1926 studies were made by kelp companies to develop sales of their 
products. One such project, a co-operative study, was carried out at 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, supervised by the IT. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries, and financed by the Kelco Co. of San Diego. It started on 
July 1, 1931 and was directed by Dr. H. P. Morris. Extensive experi- 



  • i : , 



;>'',' *'(■' 



I! 




FIGURE 6. Aerial photograph from 7,200-foot elevation of heavy kelp bed off Gaviota pier. 

The loop (left center of the bed) is the track left by a harvester barge. The dark vertical line 

is a boat channel through the kelp from the pier. The dark fringe of seaweed close to shore 

consists of species other than giant kelp. Photograph by Al Reese, May, 1955. 



154 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



 





\&^,, *% 



FIGURE 7. Aerial photograph of kelp west of Gaviota pier showing track of a harvester 
barge through a portion of the bed. Photograph by Al Reese, 1955. 

ments in animal feeding; were then being conducted by the Philip R, 
Park Co. at San Pedro. 

In October, 1931, the California Fish and Game Commission con- 
ducted a survey of several Southern California beds. The patrol boat 
Bluefin (Captain AYalter Engelke) was used for the fieldwork. A 
similar, but more intensive survey off the Orange County coast was 
made in August, 1949, by patrol boat under Captain Lars Weseth, as- 
sisted by Walter Engelke (retired) and staff members of the State 
Fisheries Laboratory. This survey had special reference to the sport 
fisheries of the area. 

In the early 1940 's Dr. Claude E. Zobell of Scripps Institution car- 
ried out kelp observations, contrasting mainland kelp beds with those 
around the offshore islands. He also made a six-year study of beach 
litter and shore erosion. In the period 1944 to 1947, Mr. C. K. Tseng- 
worked on kelp problems at Scripps and a half-dozen publications 
resulted. 

The most complete study of the kelp beds was conducted by Mr. Con- 
rad Limbaugh of Scripps Institution of Oceanography from September, 
1948 to March, 1954. The results of this five and one-half year study 
were published in a 158 page report dated September, 1955. It covered 
life history studies, effects of harvesting, and the fish life of the kelp 
beds. After the first year, the survey was financed b}^ a fellowship grant 
to the University of California from the Kelco Co. of San Diego. 



KKI.I' HARVESTING 155 

Soon after the completion of this study, and mainly because of re- 
curring complaints of the alleged effects of harvesting on fishing, the 

Fish and Game Commission ordered the appoint incut of a committee 
with membership made up of the different factions interested in kelp 
and fishing. This body would summarize evidence and make recommen- 
dations as to whether or not there should be changes in the policy for 
kelp harvesting-. The Kelp Study Committee was organized in 1!)55 but 
it was soon evident that additional research would be needed to supply 
the answers to several questions. In 1956, a service agreement was en- 
tered into by the Department of Fish and Game and the University of 
California (Institute of Marine Resources), which was to conduct the 
research on the effects of harvesting, the reasons for changes in abund- 
ance and ways to improve the kelp beds. 

In the meantime, during the summer of 1955 and again in 1956, per- 
sonnel of the State Department of Fish and Game conducted a survey 
of the kelp beds by means of aerial photograph}' from Point Arguello to 
the Mexican boundary. 

In late 1957 the State Water Pollution Control Board entered into a 
service agreement with the University's Institute of Marine Resources 
for an investigation of the effects of pollution on kelp. This program is 
co-ordinated closely with a companion investigation for the Department 
of Fish and Game. 

The two investigations by the Institute should solve the remaining 
questions pertinent to the kelp problem. 

USES OF KELP 

The uses to which kelp may be put have only a minor place in a his- 
tory of kelp harvesting, but the question is so frequently asked that a 
brief note on the subject is added here. In "World War I potash, acetone, 
and iodine were the chief products recovered from kelp. These chemicals 
from California kelp played little part in World AVar II. At present, 
two products are important, kelp meal as stock food and algin. The 
uses of algin would make a very long list that would bewilder a layman. 
A few of the more than 100 products of which algins are an important 
component are pharmaceuticals, dairy products, soda fountain drinks, 
cosmetics, salad dressings, candies, jellies, natural and synthetic rubber, 
textiles, paper products, insulator board, paints, sizing for printing on 
cloth and cardboard, boiler compounds, and adhesives. For those of us 
who had high school chemistry some years ago, the present day manipu- 
lation of colloids is certainly confusing. 

REFERENCES 
Bauder, C. S. 

1920. Agar-agar to be manufactured in Southern California. Calif. Fish and 
Game, vol. fi, no. 1, pp. 31-32. 

Bonnot, Paul 

1931. California seaweeds. Calif. Fish and Came, vol. IT. no. 1. pp. 40-44. 

Brandt, R. P., and J. W. Turrentine 

1923. Potash from kelp: early development and growth of the giant kelp, Mac- 
rocystis pyrifera. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull., no. 1191, 40 pp. 

P.urd, John S. 

1015. The economic value of Pacific coast kelps. Univ. Calif.. Agric. Exper. 
Sta., Bull. no. 248, pp. 183-215. 



156 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

California Fish and Game 

1918. Kelp and potash manufacture. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 4. no. 3, pp. 
149-150. 

1919. Tide conditions injure fisheries. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 
39-40. 

Cameron, Frank K. 

1915. Potash from kelp. U. S. Dept. Agric, Rept. no. 100, 122 pp., 40 plates. 

Chapman, V. J. 

1945. The kelp trade. Nature, vol. 155, no. 3944, pp. 673-674. 

1950. Seaweeds and their uses. London, Methuen and Co., Ltd., 287 pp. 

Collings, Gilbeart H. 

1941. Commercial fertilizers, their sources and use. New York, McGraw-Hill. 
617 pp. 

Crandall, W. C. 

1912. The kelps of the Southern California coast. In Fertilizer resources of the 

U. S. U. S. Senate Doc. 190, app. N, pp. 209-213. 
1915. The kelp beds from Lower California to Puget Sound. In Potash from 

kelp. U. S. Dept. Agric, Rept. no. 100, pp. 33-49. 
1918. A review of the kelp industry. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 4, no. 3. pp. 

105-107. 

Johnson. Carl 

1948. Kelp cutting. Bullets and Hooks, vol. 4. no. 12, pp. 18-19, Mar. -Apr. 

Limbaugh, Conrad 

1955. Fish life in the kelp beds and the effect of kelp harvesting. Univ. Calif.. 
Inst. Mar. Res., IMR Ref. 55-9, 158 pp. 

Norton, Thomas H. 

1915. Potash production in California and potash from kelp. U. S. Dept. Comm., 
Reprint from Comm. Repts., June 12 and 19, 13 pp. 

Pacific Fisherman 

1916. Building kelp plants in Southern California. Pac Fisher., vol. 14, no. 4, 
p. 14, April. 

Phillips, Julius B. 

1932. Giant kelp utilized at Monterev. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 18. no. 1, 
pp. 43-46. 

Porteous. Edward 

1918. The growth of kelp. Calif. Fish and Game. vol. 4. no. 3, pp. 108-112. 

Rigg, George B. 

1942. Plant resources of the sea along the northwest coast and Alaska. Calif. 
Fish and Game, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 200-209. 

Scofield, N. B. 

1916. Kelp. In Calif. Fish and Game Comm., Twenty-fourth Biennial Rept. for 

the years 1914-1916. Sacramento, State Print. Off., pp. 94-96. 

Will cutting kelp injure the fisheries? Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 2, no. 3, 

pp. 129-131. 
191 S. Kelp. In Calif. Fish and Game Comm.. Twenty-fifth Biennial Rept. for 

the years 1916-1918. Sacramento, State Print, (iff., p. 59. 
1921. Kelp potash industry. In Calif. Fish and Game Comm., Twenty-sixth 

Biennial Rept. for the years 1918-1920. Sacramento, State Print. Off 

p. 75. 

Scofield, W. L. 

1935. The harvesting of kelp in California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 21, no. 1 
pp. 61-64. 

Standard Oil Bulletin 

1918. California's kelp industry. Standard Oil Bull., pp. 3-7, 16, December. 

Tressler, Donald K., and James McW. Lemon 

1951. The brown algae — algin from kelp and fucoids. In marine products of com- 
merce. Rev. ed. New York, Reinhold Pub. Corp., pp. 94-106. 



KELP HARVESTING 157 

Tseng, Cheng Kwei 

1944. Utilization of seaweeds. Scripps Inst. Oceanog., Contrib., a. s., no. 229, 10 
pp. (Reprinted from Sci. Mon., vol. 59, pp. 37-46, July.) 

L945. Colloids from kelp. I hi<l no. 256, 4 pp. (Reprinted from Chem. and Metal 
Eng., Juno. ) 

1946a. Seaweed colloids in Hie textile industries. /'"'</ no. 27. -, >, 1 pp. (Reprinted 
from Textile Age. June.) 

1946b. Seaweed products and their uses in America. Ibid no. 27(5, 39 pp. (Re- 
printed from N. Y. Bot. Card.. .lour., vol. 47. nos. ."».".: ',-7,7,4, Jan. and Feb.) 

1947a. Algin. Ibid no. 351, 11 pp. (Reprinted from Encyclopedia Chem. Eng., vol. 
1, pp. 343-353. ) 

1947b. Seaweed resources of North America and their utilization. Ibid no. 311, 
29 pp. I Reprinted from Kcon. Bot., vol. 1. no. 1, pp. (')!l- , .)7. Jan. -Mar.) 

Turrentine, J. W. 

1915. Utilization of Pacific kelp. Pac. Fisher., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 13-14, June. 

P.tl!>. Potash from kelp: the experimental plant of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Preliminary paper. Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 11, 
no. 9, pp. S(>4-S74. 

1!>2<». Potash, a review, estimate and forecast. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., 188 pp. 

YYohnus, J. Frederick 

1942a. The development of the sporophyte of Macroci/stis pyrifera. Scripps Inst. 
Oceanog., Contrib., n. s., no. 177, 3 pp. (Reprinted from Turtox News, 
vol. 20, no. 10, Oct.) 
1942b. The kelp resources of Southern California. Calif. Fish and Came, vol. 28, 
no. 4, pp. 199-205. 

Zobell, Claude E. 

1941. Kelp cutting. Calif. Conserv.. vol. 6, no. 7. pp. 2-4. 



A REVISED CHECK LIST OF THE FRESHWATER AND 
ANADROMOUS FISHES OF CALIFORNIA 1 

LEO SHAPOVALOV, WILLIAM A. DILL, 2 and ALMO J. CORDONE 

Inland Fisheries Branch 

California Department of Fish and Game 

INTRODUCTION 

The California freshwater and anadromous fish fauna is not a stable 
entity. Since the appearance of the first edition of this list (Shapovalov 
and Dill, 1950), the nomenclatural status of certain of the fishes has 
been drastically revised. Many of the revisions are minor and relatively 
insignificant, while others are comprehensive and have contributed to a 
better understanding of the relationships among the various taxonomic 
categories. 

Revised lists frequently follow reversals of major trends in fish tax- 
onomy. In this connection, Legendre (1954) says, "For the interest 
of the systematics-minded, some remarks on the classification of our 
fishes have perhaps a place here ; for legitimate surprise may be aroused 
by some changes of nomenclature. We may mention immediately that 
the present trend is towards condensation, simplification and uni- 
formization of group names, this being the opposite of the tendency 
to ever greater diversification which prevailed in the first quarter of 
this century." 

New additions to the list include several forage and game species 
imported by the California Department of Fish and Game as one phase 
of its research-management program, plus additional euryhaline species 
collected in fresh waters. The bait minnow industry along the lower 
Colorado River is the source of many species listed in the supplementary 
list as of "uncertain occurrence". 

The total revisions, spanning nine years, were of sufficient importance 
and number to invalidate the original list and require this new edition. 
Continued introductions, collections, and taxonomic studies may require 
further revisions every 5 to 10 years. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Semifinal drafts of the manuscript were scut to Reeve M. Bailey, 
W. I. Follett, Carl L. Hubbs, Robert K. Miller, and P.oyd W. Walker. 
In addition, Shapovalov discussed a number of the controversial points 
with Drs. Bailey and Follett, We are most appreciative of the criticisms 
of all these men and have incorporated many of their suggestions in 
the final list. However, we have not been able to reconcile all differences 

1 Submitted for publication April, 1959. 

2 Now with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 

Italy. 

( 159 i 



160 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

of opinion, so it should not be considered that they are in full agree- 
ment with all names listed. 

PURPOSE 

The major objective in publishing this list remains identical with 
that stated for the original : To present an accurate list of the known 
fishes as the first step in the compilation of a detailed handbook of 
the freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. As predicted by 
the authors at the time, the compilation of this work has not been an 
easy task. Much information has accumulated in recent years on the life 
histories of important game fishes ; a key to species level has been 
completed in preliminary form (Kimsey and Fisk, 1958) ; a series of 
excellent black-and-white photographs of the more common species has 
been taken. However, there has been no opportunity to put forth the 
concerted effort necessary to bring together and integrate the material. 
It is hoped that renewed effort and progess will be stimulated and 
promoted through publication of this up-to-date list, 

A second purpose, perhaps equally important, is the promotion of 
stability and uniformity in the common and scientific names of fresh- 
water fishes. A recent and accurate list should be available for use 
by both professional workers and laymen to prevent the appearance of 
obsolete and incorrect names in the literature, records, and correspond- 
ence. The only major list of California freshwater fishes published prior 
to the first edition of this list was by Evermann and Clark (1931), and 
it has long been obsolete. 

Authors proposing to publish local, state, or nation-wide lists can 
materially advance stability in fish nomenclature by attempting to 
resolve differences through consultation with the various experts in 
the field who have authored existing lists. We have consistently done 
this, have invariably met with co-operation, and thereby have resolved 
most problems. 

SCIENTIFIC NAMES 

In scientific naming, stability is largely dependent upon the thorough- 
ness and care of the taxonomist. Any proposed revisions must be care- 
fully evaluated. For example, Schultz (1957, pp. 48-49) has stated: 

"The evaluation of generic characters and recognition of genera 
is possible only when a comprehensive study is made of a family on a 
world-wide basis and when there is established the nature of the simi- 
larities and differences among groups of species. . . . 

' ' The problem of how far to progress nomenclatorially in recognizing 
generic categories must be resolved in a practical manner so that biolo- 
gists are not presented with a confusion of ill-defined genera. Usually 
this confusion and lack of agreement among ichthyologists and fishery 
biologists results from inadequate studies of a family. Obviously, no 
dependable solution is possible on how many genera and subgenera to 
recognize in a family until the zoological relationships of all its species 
have been adequately compared morphologically, physiologically, and as 
to habits. Xo doubt, after this work lias been done, a middle of the 
road or even a conservative attitude on the number of phyletic lines 
to name would meet with general acceptance. Too often in ichthyology 
there is a tendency either to unite genera without adequate study or 



CHECK LIST OF FISHES 1()1 



to establish new genera without any attempl to review the family. 
The least confusion results if the presenl stains of each genus in a 
fainily is retained until such time as it is thoroughly studied." 

We are in accord with this opinion hut believe thai the ideas ex- 
pressed are applicable to species and subspecies as well. Subspecies 
in particular are subject to much lumping and partitioning, at times 
without secure evidence. Some ichthyologists have seriously questioned 
the existence of certain forms on our list while, on the oilier hand, 
they have proposed hitherto unknown Forms for inclusion. In every case, 
we have let the decision hinge on the appearance of substantiating data 
in the literature. The publication of new scientific names and elimina- 
t ion of familial- ones without sufficient supporting evidence accomplishes 
little and furthers confusion in fish nomenclature. 

Bailey (1956, pp. 328-329) has given considerable thought to the 
problem of subspecies: ". . . . the common taxonomic practice of 
dividing geographically variable species into named races, or sub- 
species, has been subjected to critical scrutiny. It has been noted that 
the pattern of geographic variation in some species takes the form of a 
rather gradual and progressive gradient, termed a cline. It is now 
agreed by many taxonomists that despite the high biological significance 
of this type of variation, it is undesirable to assign subspecific names 
on the basis of clinal gradients. . . . 

"Commonly the differences between geographic subspecies are slight 
and are best expressed as average conditions applying to a considerable 
fraction of individuals, but not to all. It is my revised opinion that ac- 
ceptable subspecies should evidence high uniformity over the respective 
ranges and should differ one from another with high constancy. Zones 
of intergradation should be rather narrow. If they are wide the varia- 
tion merges insensibly into a clinal gradient. . . . 

"The ichthyologist, in studying material, often perceives differences 
among populations from various parts of the geographic range of a 
species. Such discoveries may presage the definition of validly recogniz- 
able subspecies. The premature use of such information without publica- 
tion of the full data is disconcerting to other workers, who are unable 
to evaluate the basis for the action. The different stocks sometimes turn 
out to be fully distinct species. ..." 

Another excellent discussion of the subject which supplements the 
above statements was presented by Bailey, Winn, and Smith (1!»54, 
pp. 148-150). The following excerpt seems particularly pertinent: 

"Many clinal variations in the morphology of fishes may be caused 
partly or wholly by gradients of environmental factors, especially tem- 
perature. The assumption that all taxonomic characters, such as meristic 
counts, are governed solely by genetic factors is no longer tenable. . . . 
Whether the gradient is caused by heredity or the environment, we 
reject the practice of establishing subspecies on characters that show 
clinal variation. Furthermore, the insistence that a cline be a perfectly 
smooth gradient, we regard only as an academic problem. Minor ir- 
regularities are to be anticipated because of local genetic emphasis, 
sampling errors, environmental variations that impose structural 
change, and other vagaries." 

We concur in the statements above and in keeping with them have 
employed binomials instead of trinomials wherever sufficient published 

4—97202 



162 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

evidence exists to show that a eline truly exists. This lias been done 
for Notemigonus crysoleucas (Bailey, Winn, and Smith, 1954, pp. 123- 
124, 149; Hart, 1952, pp. 33-38, 77) ; and Ictalurus punctatus (Bailey, 
Winn, and Smith, 1954, p. 130, 1954). Snbspeeific partitioning' of many 
species in the main list is probably of questionable validity; however, 
Ave retain the status quo and await the publication of evidence showing 
whether or not the trinomials are justified. 

Space does not permit a description of each change in scientific names 
used in bringing this list up to date. Most of the major changes are 
discussed in appropriate text sections that follow. Recourse to the 
references will provide further details. Several of the minor revisions 
follow decisions made by the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature. Some of the more important references include Bailey 
(1956), Bailev, Winn, and Smith (1954), Hart (1952), La Rivers and 
Trelease (1952), Legendre (1954), Lindsey (1956b), Miller (1950a), 
Robins and Miller (1957), Schultz (1957), Tavlor (1954), and Walters 
(1955). 

COMMON NAMES 

Stability in common naming can best be achieved by adhering as 
closely as possible to a workable set of criteria, as outlined below. 

The selection of common names for California freshwater fishes is 
complicated by two somewhat paradoxical factors : the multiplicity 
of names which have already been applied to certain species, and — in 
the case of certain other forms — the dearth of common names. Thus, 
members of the genus Cijprinodon have been called by such varied 
names as desert minnow, desert killifish, pursy minnow, pygmy fish, 
and pupfish. Conversely, a large number of native cyprinids are so 
similar and indistinctive in appearance that the layman has never 
recognized their specific differences nor called them by any name other 
than the rather general chub or shiner. This list attempts to recon- 
cile such difficulties by assigning one official common name to each 
species and subspecies. 

The basic rules or criteria for the selection of common names remain 
identical with those presented in the original list. The principles again 
have proven of practical value in the objective establishment of the re- 
vised common names. Such guides are necessary to prevent arbitrary 
selection based on personal preference. Insofar as possible, we have 
adhered to them, as follows : 

(1) Names should agree with those in actual common use; or — 
when there is no common or vernacular use — with those in published 
literature. Strictly "book names" should be avoided. 

(2) Names should agree with those on other authoritative lists, espe- 
cially those of the American Fisheries Society (1948), the Outdoor 
Writers Association of America (1958), and Roedel (1953b). 

(3) Names should indicate relationship and not confuse it. 

(4) Names should be descriptive. 

(5) Preference should be given to names which are short, distinctive, 
interesting, catchy, romantic, or euphonious. 

Each of these qualifications has exceptions which makes it useless 
by itself. Therefore, each principle listed above should be read as though 
it were prefaced by the words, "Other considerations being equal 



CIIKCK 1. 1ST OF FISIIKS 163 

' For example, the name Sacramento perch docs no1 tueel either 
Rule 3 or 4 above, since this species (Archoplites interruptus) is rio1 
a true perch. However, since it is so commonly used i Rule 1 I and since 
it agrees fully with the name used in the two primary references cited 
in Rule 2, it would be foolish to select another name. 

Aside from such considerations, in this revision we nave attempted 
continued advancement of the twin ideals of stability for individual 
names and the designation of relationships through the selection of 
common names according to a definite plan. Such aims have long been 
recognized by ornithologists and are well exemplified by the names 
listed in "The Distribution of the Birds of California" (Grinnell and 
Miller, 1944). Thus, wherever possible tbe same basic common name 
lias been given to all members of a single genus, with prefixes added 
to that common name for each full species of that genus. In tbe case of 
subspecies, additional prefixes have been added to the specific name. For 
example, all members of the genus Siphateles have been termed chub ; 
members of the Siphateles bicolor group have been termed tui chub; 
and each subspecies of the group is further designated by an additional 
term such as Sacramento for S. h. formosus, the Sacramento tui chub. 

It should be noted that this method will permit the retention of at 
least part of the common name even if the species or subspecies under- 
goes a. revision which will change tbe scientific name. For example, 
based on studies by Miller (1950a), tbe San Gorgonio rainbow trout 
(Sal mo geiirelnerii evermanni) was transferred to the cutthroat trout 
series to become the San Gorgonio cutthroat trout (Sal ma clarkii ever- 
manni). This, in part, answers the criticism of tbe Committe on Name« 
of Fishes of tbe American Fisheries Society (Bailey, 1955), "The 
practice of applying one name to each genus, a modifying name for 
each species, and still another modifier for each subspecies, while ap- 
pealing in its simplicity, has tbe defect of inflexibility." Further, "If 
a fish is transferred from genus to genus, or shifted from species to 
subspecies or vice versa, the common name should nevertheless remain 
unaffected. It is not a primary function of common names to indicate 
relationship." 

We contend that to reveal, rather than confuse, relationships should 
be an important and vital function of common names. Some of tbe most 
deeply-rooted vernaculars are completely misleading — little can be done 
now to establish meaningful names. When a name is entered in an offi- 
cial list it should not be changed unless there are important reasons for 
it. However, changing tbe name to maintain the proper relationship of 
a form known to professional fisheries people but unfamiliar to laymen 
does not present a serious problem and to us is justifiable. In any event, 
preparation of this present revision showed that tbe system was work- 
able and had meaning, with no major difficulties encountered. 

The authors are inclined to share the opinion of Bailey (op. cit.) 
and Alden II. Miller (Grinnell and Miller, 1944) that only full species 
deserve common names. Nevertheless, we have listed common names 
for each subspecies, with full recognition that a number of them may 
not endure. One reason prompting this decision is that certain sub- 
species have been distinguished as entities almost from the beginning, 
and it would seem unfortunate to obscure (through omission I such 
names as kokanee and Piute. 



164 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

It should also be noted that a number of systematists have disagreed 
with certain of our groupings; e.g., that for the native fronts, in which 
assignment to specific or subspeeific status is, in some instances, origi- 
nal with the authors. However, a firm nomenclature has never been 
developed for some of these plastic groups. And — as we have stated 
before — even after some decided changes in scientific nomenclature, 
most of our common names can still be retained with enough recog- 
nizable parts to promote stability. 

In accordance with the criteria for the selection of common names 
promulgated by the Committee on Names of Fishes (Bailey, op. cit.) 
we have deleted capitalization of common names in text use except for 
those elements that are proper nouns. 

SCOPE 

The main list covers both native and successfully established exotic- 
species. The supplementary list includes exotic species unsuccessfully 
introduced or of uncertain occurrence. 

We have attempted to include all native forms whose occurrence 
has been reported in the literature or verified through the examination 
of collections. The existence of some of these as valid species or sub- 
species (Catostomus occidentalis lacusanserinus, for example) has 
been questioned by some workers. Our criterion for inclusion of such 
forms is very simple : We have tried to include all forms whose taxo- 
nomic identity has not yet been disproved in published literature. 

Possibly certain other records of occurrence (such as that for 
Rhinichtliys osculus carringtonii) are based on misidentification. Pos- 
sibly some of the native species are no longer a part of our fauna. 
Native forms which are now either extinct or extremely rare include 
Salmo clarkii evermanni, Sahno gairdnerii regalis, Catostomus lati- 
pinnis, Ptyehocheihis lucius, Gila crassicauda, and Plagopterus argentis- 
simus. The inclusion of Plagopterus, for example, rests upon a single 
collection made in 1890. However, it is practically impossible to prove 
or disprove such suppositions. Hence, in the case of the native species 
it has been thought best to err on the side of inclusiveness rather than 
on the side of exclusion. On the other hand, only those exotic or intro- 
duced species of which breeding populations are known to have sur- 
vived are included in our main list. 

Fishes recorded only from outside California have not been included 
even if the stream in question flows into or out of this State, e.g., the 
Klamath and Truckee rivers. However, in the case of the Colorado 
River, which is a boundary stream, fishes recorded from the Arizona 
side of the stream, and even from the mouth of its tributary, the Gila 
River, have been included. 

Hybrids have also been omitted. Both interspecific and intergeneric 
hybrids of a number of the species listed have been recorded from the 
natural waters of California (e.g., Hubbs and Miller, 19-bS). One hybrid 
game fish has been introduced on an experimental scale to determine 
its potential in high lake management. This is the splake, an eastern 
brook trout x lake trout hybrid {Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus 
namaycush). It has been planted in waters of the Lakes Basin Recrea- 
tional Area, Sierra County, as part of the Trout Management Study, 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES 165 

Dingell-Johnson Project F-S-R. The first planl was made in the sum- 
mer of 195,1. Additional plants have been made hut a final evaluation 
of the hybrid's success and role in the trout program has not been 
completed. 

Fishes Successfully Introduced Into the Salton Sea 

Most of the fishes in the check list arc strictly freshwater or anadro- 
mous. For the sake of completeness we have also listed those marine 
and brackish water species which are known to penetrate into fresh 
water. However, strictly marine species from the (lull' of California 
which have been introduced into and have successfully spawned in the 
Salton Sea, an inland body of water with salinity approaching that of 
ocean water, are omitted from the main list. They are included 
below, since they have established breeding populations in an inland 
body of water. Information about them was supplied by Dr. Boyd 
W. Walker (letter of February 8, 1957), former director of the Uni- 
versity of California Salton Sea research program financed with Wild- 
life Conservation Board funds. Further information is contained in 
an article which traces the history of the introductions (Anon.. 1958). 

Three species presented in the main list are also firmly established 
in the sea — Cyprinodon macularius, Gambusia affinis offinis, and 
Oillichthys mirabilis. Dorosoma pctciicnsc is present in the sea in large 
numbers but there is no indication of successful spawning. Mugil 
cephalus was formerly present in large numbers, but is now scarce and 
is disappearing due to lack of recruitment. The fish used to reach the 
sea through irrigation laterals but can no longer do so because of new 
dams and headgates. 



l to l 



HAEMULIDAE-grunt family 
Anisotremus davidsonii (Steindachner)— sargo 

Introduced in 1951. The first sargo known to have been spawned in 
the sea, a juvenile young-of-the-year, was taken in October, 195(5. The 
first verified catch of an adult was made on September 17. 1958. Since 
then sargo up to 12 inches in length have been taken by sport fishermen 
in considerable numbers. 

SCIAENIDAE-croaker family 

Bairdiella icistius (Jordan and Gilbert)— gulf croaker 

First introduced in October, 1950. The population of gulf croakers 
is now very large. They are firmly established and should remain until 
the salinity of the sea becomes too high to support fish Life. 

Cynoscion parvipinnis (Ayres)— shortfin corvina 

First introduced in October, 1950. Shortfin corvina are now present 
in small numbers, but are definitely reproducing in the sea. They may 
be swamped out by C. xanthulus. 

Cynoscion xanthulus (Jordan and Gilbert)— orangemouth corvina 

First introduced in October, 1950. They are now present in large 
and increasing numbers. 



166 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

Fishes New to the Main List Since 1950 

A total of 11 species 3 and seven subspecies not listed in the 1950 
check list has been added to this revised edition. They are repeated here 
with a brief explanation and documentation as evidence for their in- 
clusion. 

Although the California freshwater fish fauna has been studied for 
many years, some undiscovered species may remain. Coastal fresh 
waters are the most likely source, where collecting should uncover addi- 
tional euryhaline forms penetrating into fresh water. Tliere is a good 
possibility that boundary waters contain forms hitherto unknown to 
this State. Another possible source of additions to its fish fauna is the 
bait minnow industry along the lower Colorado Eiver in Arizona, 
Nevada, and California. Numerous exotic bait minnows are trucked to 
this area from diverse regions. The establishment of Notropis lutrensis 
in the Colorado River (Hubbs, 1954) is probably due to escapements 
from minnow farms. Miller (1952) presents a list of the various bait 
fishes used by the industry in the California portion of the river. These 
are included in the supplementary list, since there is a possibility that 
they may become established. 

The introduction of exotic game and forage fishes by the California 
Department of Fish and Game may be expected to provide a continuing 
source of new species. The fish management programs of the Inland 
Fisheries Branch, its warmwater phase in particular, includes as part 
of its long-range planning an evaluation of the various aquatic habitats 
and what might constitute the most suitable game and/or forage species, 
either native or exotic. Each potential import is thoroughly studied 
and screened to insure against detriment to existing fisheries. 

Dorosoma petenense (Gunther)— threadfin shad 

Kimsey (1951) described the original introduction of threadfin shad 
into California. In a progress report, Kimsey et al. (1957) summarized 
the history of the project : 

"As part of the tri-state program on the Colorado River, Arizona, 
California, and Nevada agreed in 1953 to introduce the threadfin shad 

* * into the Colorado River in an effort to improve a poor forage- 
fish situation. 

'In November, 1953, a broodstock of threadfin shad obtained from 
the Tennessee River at Watts Bar, Tennessee, was flown to California. 
These fish were successfully propagated in San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia, brood ponds in 1954. 

"On November 16, 1954, 520 threadfin shad about two inches long 
were planted in Lake Havasn at Havasu Boat Landing. On March 3, 
1955, another plant of 500 fish was made at the same place. These were 
the only fish planted by the California Department of Fish and Game 
in the Colorado River." 

In a striking example of population eruption, the threadfin shad at 
the end of 1955 appeared to be in every habitable part of the Colorado 
River from Davis Dam to the Mexican border and in adjacent irriga- 
tion ditches, canals, settling basins, and the Salton Sea. 

3 In addition, one form listed as a subspecies in the 1950 list {Cottus bairdii bel- 
dingii) has been elevated to full species status as Cottus beldingii. The reason for 
this change is discussed in the section on Forms Removed From the Main List 
Since 1950. 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES 167 

Sa/mo gairdnerii kamioops (Jordan)— Kamloops rainbow trout 

According to Wales (1950), "The firsl known introduction of the 
Kamloops rainbow trout into California waters was made on 

June 17, 1950. At that time l.ooo fish was Liberated in certain tribu- 
taries to Shasta Lake. Shasta County * * *' Shasta Lake lias re- 
ceived additional plants, as have Castle Lake, Siskiyou County, and 
other mountain lakes. The large numbers involved, the long-term stock- 
ing program, and the widespread distribution justify inclusion of this 
form in the revised main list. 

Deltistes luxatus (Cope)— Lost River sucker 

Chasmistes brevirosfris Cope— shortnose sucker 

Both species were collected recently in Copco Lake, a reservoir on 
the main stem of the Klamath River in Siskiyou County, by Millard 
Coots of the California Department of Fish and Came. Known from 
adjacent waters in Oregon, these two relict catostomids had been sus- 
pected of existing in adjoining waters in Siskiyou and Modoc counties, 
but verified collections had hitherto been lacking. Gilbert (1898) re- 
ported I), luxatus as apparently resident in the deeper waters of Tide 
Lake, Siskiyou County. 

Notropis lutrensis (Baird and Girard)— red shiner 

Ilubbs (1954) described the establishment of the red shiner in the 
Colorado River and connected waters of Arizona, Baja California Norte, 
and California. Lie attributes the establishment of this species to 
escapements from the Arizona Fish Farms near Pdythe, and believes 
the stock came from near Lake Buchanan, Texas. It was first collected 
from the Colorado River in 1953, and is now well established there. 

A brood stock of 368 adults was brought to Central Valleys Hatchery 
at Elk Grove, Sacramento County, in April, 1954. Some of these repro- 
duced successfully, and 600 were stocked in two private ponds near 
Lower Lake, Lake County, in 1957. 

The extent of the red shiner's establishment outside the Colorado 
River drainage is not knoAvn. 

Pimephales promelas Rafinesque — fathead minnow 

The first record of the fathead minnow in California is from a bait 
tank near the Colorado River in 1950. 

In 1953, Mr. Frank Butler, a domestic fish breeder of Turlock, im- 
ported 40,000 under permit. The Department of Fish and Game pur- 
chased 1,000 of these for propagation at Central Valleys Hatchery at 
Elk Grove, Sacramento County. Propagation was successful, and the 
resulting fish were distributed to a number of waters, to serve as forage 
for game species. Insofar as we know, no trout waters have been stocked. 
Breeding populations are now established in many waters. 

Mollienesia latipinna LeSueur — Sailfin molly 

In recent years this species has become established in canals and 
ditches tributary to the Salton Sea, in the vicinity of the Riverside- 
Imperial County line. 



168 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

Platichthys stellafus rugosus Girard— southern starry flounder 

This subspecies was overlooked in compiling the original check list. 
Dr. Carl L. Hubbs brought this oversight to our attention. 

Percina caprodes (Rafinesque)— log perch 

The presence of the log perch in California was first brought to the 
attention of the California Department of Fish and Game by Mr. Al 
Musseldine of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who took several 
specimens from artificial lakes at Beale Air Force Base early in March, 
1958. They were brought into California inadvertently by the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service with a shipment of largemouth bass, bluegill, 
and possibly black bullhead sometime in 1953. Three lakes were 
planted : Miller, Blackwelder, and Polk. All are located in Yuba County 
on Hutchinson Creek, tributary to Dry Creek and thence the Yuba 
River. 

On March 27, 1958, J. B. Kimsey, George McCammon, and J. B. 
Richard of the California Department of Fish and Game seined about 
a dozen log perch from Miller and Blackwelder lakes. They found 
breeding populations to be present. The creek was not seined, but since 
both lakes overflow regularly it is quite possible that the species now 
occurs in other parts of the drainage. 

lepomis microlophus (Giinther)— red-ear sunfish 

Breeding populations of the red-ear sunfish are now established in 
many waters scattered over the State. Its establishment in the lower 
Colorado River was described by Belaud (1953). 

In 1951, 3,960 fingerlings were imported into southern California 
from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service hatchery at Dexter, New 
Mexico, by the California Department of Fish and Game. These fish 
were distributed to many private ponds in southern California. 

In the fall of 1956, 66 adults were brought to Central Valleys Hatch- 
ery from southern California. A number of private ponds in the San 
Joaquin Valley were stocked at the same time. The fish spawned suc- 
cessfully at Central Valleys Hatchery, and the progeny were planted 
in a number of waters. We know of no instance in which an introduc- 
tion has failed. 

Aiherinops afFmis (Ayres)— topsmelt 

As an occasional invader of fresh water, the topsmelt belongs in the 
main list. Gunter (1912, 1956), Roedel (1953a), and Carpelan (1955) 
state that the topsmelt enters brackish and even fresh water. Dr. Carl L. 
Hubbs has collected (May 25, 1916) specimens in fresh running water 
of San Luis Creek near Avila, San Luis Obispo County, about one mile 
above the mouth. 

Clinocottus acuticeps (Gilbert)— sharpnose sculpin 

As an euryhaline species which occasionally enters fresh water, this 
form deserves a place in the list. 11 was collected by Dr. Carl L. Hubbs 
in fresh water rills on the beach at Crescent City, Del Xorte County 
(letter from Hubbs to Shapovalov, August 1, 1950). 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES L69 

Leptocottus armaius armatus Girard— northern staghorn sculpin 
Leptocoifus armatus australis Hubbs southern staghorn sculpin 

Both subspecies of L. armatus have been added here on the recom- 
mendation of Dr. Car] L. Hubbs. He collected (May 31, 1923) /.. a. 
armatus Prom fresh water near the mouth of Elk Creek, Del Norte 
Comity. He recorded /.. a. australis from fresh tidewater of Morro and 
Chorro creeks. San Luis Obispo County (Hubbs, 1921). The two sub 
species were separated in this publication on the basis of variational 
analysis. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus Linnaeus— northern threespine stickleback 

Gasterosteus aculeatus microcephalus Girard— west coast threespine stickle- 
back 

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni Girard— unarmored threespine stickleback 

The addition of the above subspecies is based on the recommendation 
of Dr. Carl L. Hubbs. 

Eleotris picta Kner and Steindachner— spotted sleeper 

This is another euryhaline species which occasionally penetrates into 
fresh water. The first specimen of this species to be described from Cali- 
fornia was caught by a fisherman at the canal spillway between Winter- 
haven and the Colorado River in Imperial County (Hubbs, 1953). 

Forms Removed From the Main List Since 1950 

The three species and three subspecies listed below are no longer 
included in the main list. Recent taxonomic studies, mentioned in the 
annotations, have shown that they are synonymous with other forms, 
hi addition, Salmo clarkii pleitriticus has been moved from the main 
list to the Revised Supplementary Cist, for reasons explained in that 
section. 

Salmo gairdnerii rosei Jordan and McGregor— Lake Culver rainbow trout 

The taxonomic identity of this subspecies has been disproved in the 
literature by Dill and Shapovalov (1954). Apparently this lake was 
originally barren of fish life. In addition, Drs. Carl C. Hubbs and W. I. 
Follett examined all the type material of S. gilberti and S. rosei in the 
Stanford University collections and found no differences between the 
two forms. With this information, Dill and Shapovalov concluded, "In 
view of the combined evidence presented, we can only conclude that 
Salmo rosei is a synonym of Salmo gilberti, now known as Salmo gaird- 
nerii gilberti Jordan. " 

Catostomus arenarius (Snyder)— sandbar sucker 

Hubbs and Miller (1951) have established that ('. arenarius is a 
large-scaled variant of C. tahoensis, with no other distinctions. 

Notemigonus crysoleucas auratus (Rafinesque)— western golden shiner 

Considerable evidence shows that the golden shiner exhibits strong 
clinal characteristics throughout its geographic range (Bailey, 1956; 
Hart, 1952). For further details on the problem of subspecies and dines 
see the previous section on Scientific Names. 



170 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

Ictalurus punctaius punctatus (Rafinssque)— southern channel catfish 

Deletion of this subspecies is in accord with our policy of not recog- 
nizing trinomials for forms exhibiting pronounced clinal variations. 
Bailey, Winn, and Smith (1954, p. 130) conclude, "The geographic 
variation within /. 'punctatus consists chiefly of a weak dine in anal 
fin-ray count amounting to a mean difference of about two rays at the 
extremities of the range . . . We do not believe that subspecific 
segregation is justified." 

Coitus macrops Rutter— bigeye sculpin 

A comparison of type material of C. Mamathensis and C. macrops by 
Robins and Miller (1957) and of fresh collections failed to reveal differ- 
ences judged to be of specific value. They decided to synonymize C. 
macrops with C. Mamathensis, but noted that study of additional fea- 
tures may show them worthy of subspecific rank. 

Coitus bairdii Girard — mottled sculpin 

Robins and Miller (1957) have made a detailed study of both new 
material and type specimens of seulpins of the genus Cottus in an at- 
tempt to clarify the taxonomy of what is considered one of the most 
perplexing groups of North American freshwater fishes. In reference 
to the mottled sculpin, they comment, "For the present, we feel that 
the only western forms of Cottus that should be aligned specifically with 
bairdii are C. b. semiscaber and C. b. punctidatus of the upper Columbia 
and Colorado rivers, respectively. " In following the recommendations 
of Robins and Miller we have revised our former treatment of the C. 
bairdii complex by synonymizing C. bairdii belclingii with C. beldingii 
and C. bairdii shasta with C. gutosus. 

REVISED MAIN LIST 
Native Species and Established Exotic Species 

This revised list consists of 110 full species, which may be subdivided 
as follows : 64 native freshwater and anadromous species, 14 native 
marine or euryhaline species which occasionally penetrate into fresh 
water, and 32 introduced species. The 110 species comprise 23 families 
and 63 genera. 

Species which have been introduced into California waters are de- 
noted by an asterisk (*), and marine fishes which occur only occasion- 
ally in freshwater by an " ". 

PETROMYZONTIDAE-lamprey family 

1. Entosphenus tridentatus (Richardson) — Pacific lamprey 

2. Lampetra ayresii (Giinther) — river lamprey 
'A. L(nnj)etra planeri (Bloch) — brook lamprey 

ACIPENSERIDAE— sturgeon family 

4. Acipenser transmontomis Richardson — white sturgeon 

5. Acipenser medirostris Ayres — green sturgeon 

ELOPIDAE-ladyfish family 

6. Flops affinis Regan — machete O 



CHECK LIST OF FISHES 1 i ' 

CLUPEIDAE herring family 

7. Chipea pallasii Valenciennes Pacific herring <> 

8. Alosa sapidissima (Wilson)— American shad* 

'.). Dorosoma petenense (Giinther) — threadfin shad* 

OSMERIDAE-smelt family 

10. Thaleichthgs pucificus < Richardson) — eulachon 

11. Spirinchus thaleichthys (Ayres) — Sacramento smell <> 

12. Hypomesus pretiosus (Girard) — surf smelt <> 

13. Hypomesus olidus (Pallas)- Pond smell 

COREGONIDAE-whitefish family 

14. Coregonus williamsoni Girard — mountain whitefish 

SALMONIDAE— salmon and trout family 

15. Oncorfiynchns gorbuscha (Walbaum) — pink salmon 
K). Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) — chum salmon 

17. Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) — silver salmon 

18. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) — king salmon 

1!>. Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) — - soekeye salmon (anadromous form) : ko- 
kanee salmon (freshwater form*) 

20. Salmo trutta Linnaeus — brown trout * 

21. Hitlmo clarkii Richardson— cutthroat trout 

21a. Salmo clarkii clarkii Richardson — coast cutthroal trout 

21b. Salmo clarkii henshaici <iill and .Jordan — Lahontan cutthroat trout 

21c. Salmo clarkii evermanni Jordan and Grinnell — San Gorgonio cuttthroal 

trout 
21d. Salmo clarkii seleniris Snyder — Piute cutthroat trout 

22. Salmo gairdnerii Richardson — rainbow trout 

22a. Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson — steelhead rainbow trout 
22b. Salmo gairdnerii kamloops (Jordan) — Kamloops rainbow trout * 
22c. Salmo gairdnerii stonei Jordan — Shasta rainbow trout 
22d. Salmo gairdnerii gilbert i Jordan — Kern River rainbow trout 
22e. Salmo gairdnerii aquilarum Snyder — Eagle Lake rainbow trout 
22f. Salmo gairdnerii regalis Snyder — royal silver rainbow trout 

23. Salmo aguabonita Jordan — golden trout 

23a. Salmo aguabonita aguabonita Jordan — South Fork of Kern golden trout 
23b. Salmo aguabonita whitei Evermann — Little Kern golden trout 

24. Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) — eastern brook trout * 

25. Salvelinus malm a I Walbaum) — Dolly Varden trout 

26. Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum) — lake trout* 

26a. Salvelinus namaycush namaycush (Walbaum) — common lake trout* 

CATOSTOMIDAE-sucker family 

27. Ictioous cyprinella (Valenciennes) — bigmouth buffalo* 
2S. Catostomus occidentalis Ayres — western sucker 

28a. Catostomus occidentalis occidentalis Ayres — Sacramento western sucker 
28b. Catostomus occidentalis lacusanserinus Fowler — (loose Lake western 
sucker 

29. Catostomus mniotilfus Snyder — Monterey sucker 

30. Catostomus microps Rutter — Modoc sucker 

31. Catostomus tahoensis (Jill and Jordan — Tahoe sucker 

32. Catostomus latipinnis Baird and Girard — flannelmouth sucker 

33. Catostomus rimiculus Gilbert and Snyder — Klamath smallscale sucker 

34. Catostomus snyderi Gilbert — Klamath largescale sucker 

35. Catostomus h umboldtianus Snyder — Humboldt sucker 

.■'.(I. Pantosteus santaanac Snyder Santa Ana mountain-sucker 

.">7. Pantosteus lahontan Rutter- Lahonti untain-sucker 

38. Deltistcs In.rutus (Cope) — Losi River sucker 

.'!!). Chasm istes brevirostris Cope — shortno.se sucker 

4(1. Xyrauchen texanns (Abbott)— humpback sucker 

CYPRINIDAE — carp or minnow family 

41. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus — carp * 

42. Carassius auratus (Linnaeus) — goldfish * 



172 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

43. Tinea tinea (Linnaeus) — tench* 

44. Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill) — golden shiner* 

45. Orthodon microlepidotus (Ayres) — Sacramento hlackfish 

46. Mylopharodon conocephalus (Baird and Girard) — hardhead 

47. Lavinia exilicauda Baird and Girard — hitch 

47a. Lavinia exilicauda exilicauda Baird and Girard — Sacramento hitch 
47b. Lavinia exilicauda harengus Girard — Monterey hitch 

48. Ptychocheilus grandis (Ayres) — Sacramento squawfish 

49. Ptychocheilus lucius Girard — Colorado River squawfish 

50. Gila robusta Baird and Girard — bonytail chub 

50a. Gila robusta elegans Baird and Girard — Colorado River bonytail chub 

51. Gila orcuttii (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) — arroyo chub 

52. Gila bicolor (Girard) — Klamath chub 

53. Gila crassicauda (Baird and Girard) — thicktail chub 

54. Poffonichthys macrolepidotus (Ayres) — splittail 

55. JRichardsonius egregius (Girard) — Lahontan redside 

56. Hesperoleucus symmetricus (Baird and Girard) — western roach 

56a. Hesperoleucus symmetricus symmetricus (Baird and Girard) — Sacramento 

western roach 
56b. Hesperoleucus symmetricus subditis Snyder — Monterey western roach 
~u . Hesperoleucus navarroensis Snyder — Navarro roach 

58. Hesperoleucus parvipinnis Snyder — Gualala roach 

59. Hesperoleucus venustus Snyder — Venus roach 

60. Hesperoleucus mitrulus Snyder — northern roach 

61. Siphateles bicolor (Girard) — tui chub 

61a. Siphateles bicolor bicolor (Girard) — Klamath tui chub 
61b. Siphateles bicolor obesus (Girard) — coarseraker tui chub 
61c. Siphateles bicolor pectinifer (Snyder) — fineraker tui chub 
61d. Siphateles bicolor formosus (Girard) — Sacramento tui chub 

62. Siphateles moharensis Snyder — Mohave chub 

63. Rhinichthys osculus (Girard) — speckled dace 

63a. Rhinichthys osculus robust us ( Rutter) — Lahontan speckled dace 
63b. Rhinichthys osculus carrinytonii (Cope) — Pacific speckled dace 
63c. Rhinichthys osculus llamathensis ( Evermann and Meek) — Klamath 

speckled dace 
63d. Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis Gilbert — Nevada speckled dace 

64. Notropis lutrensis (Baird and Girard) — red shiner* 

65. Pimephales promelas Rafinesque — fathead minnow * 

65a. Pimephales promelas confertus (Girard) — southwestern fathead minnow* 

66. Plagopterus argentissimus Cope — woundfin 

ICTALURIDAE-catfish family 

67. Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) — channel catfish * 

68. Ictalurus catus (Linnaeus) — white catfish * 

69. Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur) — brown bullhead * 

69a. Ictalurus nebulosus nebulosus (LeSueur) — northern brown bullhead * 

70. Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque) — black bullhead* 

70a. Ictalurus melas melas (Rafinesque) — northern black bullhead * 

71. Ictalurus natalis (LeSueur) — yellow bullhead* 

71a. Ictalurus natalis natalis (LeSueur) — northern yellow bullhead * 

CYPRINODONTIDAE-killifish family 

72. Fundulus parvipinnis Girard — California killifish 

72a. Fundulus parvipinnis parvipinnis Girard — southern California killifish 

73. Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard — desert pupfish 

74. Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann and Eigenmann — Nevada pupfish 

74a. Cyprinodon nevadensis nevadensis Eigenmann and Eigenmann — Saratoga 

Nevada pupfish 
74b. Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae Miller — Amargosa Nevada pupfish 
74c. Cyprinodon nevudensis ealidue Miller — Tecopa Nevada pupfish 
74d. Cyprinodon nevadensis shoshone Miller — Shoshone Nevada pupfish 

75. Cyprinodon salinus Miller — Salt Creek pupfish 

76. Cyprinodon radiosus Miller — Owens Valley pupfish 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES 1~ ; ! 

POECILIIDAE-topminnow family 

77. Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard) — mosquitofish * 

77a. Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird ami Girard) western mosquitofish* 

78. .1/ ollienesia latipinna LeSueur — sailfin molly * 

PLEURONECTIDAE— righteyed flounder family 

7!». Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) — starry flounder O 

70a. Platichthys stellatus rugosus Girard — southern starry flounder <> 

SERRANIDAE-bass family 

80. Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum) — striped bass* 

PERCIDAE— perch family 

81. Perca flavescens (Mitchill) — yellow perch* 

82. Percina caprodes (Rafinesque) — log perch* 

CENTRARCHIDAE sunfish family 

83. Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede — smallmouth bass * 

83a. Micropterus dolomieui dolomieui Lacepede — northern sinallmoutli bass* 

84. Micropterus punotulatus (Rafinesque) — spotted bass* 

84a. Micropterus punctulatus punctulatus I Rafinesque) — northern spotted 
bass * 

85. Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede) — largemouth bass* 

86. Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier) — wa r mouth * 

87. Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque — green sunfish * 

88. Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) — pumpkinseed * 

81). Lepomis microlophus (Giinther) — red-ear sunfish * 

90. Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque — bluegill * 

90a. Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque — common bluegill* 

91. Archoplites interruptus (Girard) — Sacramento perch 
'.in. I'omodis annularis Rafinesque — white crappie * 

It: 1 ,. Pomoxis nigromaculatus (LeSueur) — black crappie* 

ATHERINIDAE-silverside family 
!>4. Atherinops affinis (Ayres) — topsmelt <> 

MUGILIDAE-mullet family 

95. Mu fiil cephalus Linnaeus — striped mullet O 

EMBIOTOCIDAE— viviparous perch family 

96. Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons — shinner perch O 

97. Hysterocarpus traskii Gibbons — tule perch 

COTTIDAE— sculpin family 

1)8. Clinocottus acuticeps (Gilbert) — sharpnose sculpin <> 

1)1). Cottus gulosus (Girard) — riffle sculpin 

100. Cottus asperrimus Rutter — rough sculpin 

101. Cottus klamathensis Gilbert — Klamath sculpin 

102. Cottus asper Richardson — prickly sculpin 

103. Cottus beldingii Eigenniann and Eigenmann — Piute sculpin 

104. Cottus aleuticus Gilbert — Aleutian sculpin 

105. Leptocottus armatus Girard — staghorn sculpin O 

105a. Leptocottus armatus armatus Girard — northern staghorn sculpin <• 
105b. Leptocottus armatus australis Ilubbs — southern staghorn sculpin <) 

GASTEROSTEIDAE-stickleback family 

106. Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus — threespine stickleback 

106a. Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus Linnaeus — northern threespine stickle- 
back 

106b. Gasterosteus aculeatus microcephalus Girard — West Coast threespine 
stickleback 

106c. Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni Girard — unarmored threespine stickle- 
back 



174 CALIFORNIA PISH AND GAME 

ELEOTRIDAE— sleeper family 

107. Eleotris picta Kner and Steindachner — spotted sleeper O 

GOBIIDAE— goby family 

108. Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard) — tidewater goby 

109. GiUichthys mirabilis Cooper — longjaw mudsucker O 

110. Clevelandia ios (Jordan and Gilbert) — arrow goby O 

REVISED SUPPLEMENTARY LIST 
Exotic Species— Unsuccessfully Introduced or of Uncertain Occurrence 
The exotic fishes listed below fall into several groups : 

(1) Fishes known to have been introduced but which have not sur- 
vived; e.g., No. 33. 

(2) Fishes reported — possibly erroneously — to have been introduced, 
but which have not survived ; e.g., No. 7. 

(3) Fishes which have been reported from this State but whose 
identification is questioned by the authors; e.g., No. 26. 

(4) Fishes which have not been recorded from the State for many 
years; e.g., No. 25a. 

(5) Fishes reported by Miller (1952) as comprising the species of 
bait minnows that are being (or have been) utilized along the 
Colorado River, from Lake Mead to Yuma. There is no positive 
evidence at present that any of the forms here listed has become 
established. They are denoted below by a double dagger (:£). 

As will be seen bv our annotations, we know of no demonstrable 
evidence that any of them are successfully established in the fresh 
waters of California today. 

The general sources for the history and lack of success of most of 
these introductions are fairly well known. Therefore, there is little 
point in listing all the references concerning the status of these fishes. 
We have alluded to specific literature only when our opinion differs 
from that of the authors cited, or when such inclusion serves to clarify 
the exact status of the species. 

The original supplementary list (Shapovalov and Dill, 1950) con- 
tained Salmo gairdncrii kamloops, PimephaJes promelas confertus, and 
GiUichthys detrusus. The first two have been placed in the main list. 
The third, the gulf mudsucker. has been deleted entirely on the basis 
of study by Miller (1952) who concludes ". . . . there is no basis at 
this time for the inclusion of detrusus in the Californian fauna". 

CHANIDAE-milkfish family 

1. Chanos chanos (Forskal) — milkfisb 

Milkfish from tbe Hawaiian Islands were planted in a stream in Solano 
County in 1S77. There are no records of their survival there. The species is an 
ocean fish which occasionally enters fresh water. 

COREGONIDAE-whitefish family 

2. Coregonus clu pea form is (Mitchill) — lake whitefish 

2a. Coregonus clupeaformis clupeaformis (Mitchill) — Great Lakes whitefish 

All plants were made during the last century. Even the few old reports 
of recapture (circa 1880) are considered highly dubious. 



CHECK LIST OF FISHES 1 75 

THYMALLIDAE-grayling family 
.'!. Thymallus arcticus (Pallas) Arctic grayling 

3a. Thymallus arcticus signifer (Richardson) sailfin Arctic grayling 

Several attempts have been made to introduce this form, and ii appar- 
ently met with a brief success in Yosemite Xational Park following plants 
made during the 1!)2! 1-1 !».">."> period. The last authentic reporl of ils sur- 
vival there (in Grayling Lake) appears t<> have been in 1934. Its present 
occurrence is highly doubtful. 

SALMONIDAE— salmon and trout family 

4. salnio salar Linnaeus — Atlantic salmon (anadromous form) ; landlocked At- 
lantic salmon (freshwater form) 

Both forms have been planted several limes. The old i-mrls of their sur- 
vival may he dubious; there are no authentic recent records. 

5. Salmo clarkii Richardson cutthroat trout 

.~>a. Salmo clarkii lewisi (Girard) Yellowstone cutthroal trout 

Several shipments of cutthroat trout eggs have beeu brought in from 
other states, and plants made in California waters. It is probable that most 
of these were S. c. lewisi. 

5b. Salmo clarkii pleuriticus ('ope — Colorado River cutthroat trout 

This subspecies is being dropped from the main list. 1*111 ( T.I44. p. 14 ( .t| 
summarized the published reports of its occurrence in the Salton Sea 
region, noting that these records "are rather old and some may he dubious". 
The reported specimens may have been misidentified ; in any case, they 
almost certainly consisted of individuals washed into the basin from tribu- 
taries of the Colorado River many years ago. No specimens are known to 
exist in any collections. 

ESOCIDAE— pike family 
G. Eso.r masquinongy Mitchill — inuskellungr 

Ga. Eso.r masquinongy ohioensis Kirtland — Ohio muskellunge 

Introduced into Lake Merced, San Francisco County, in 1S!»:',. None 
survived. 

7. Eso.r lucius Linnaeus — northern pike 

8. Eso.r americanus Gmelin — redtin pickerel 

8a. Esox americanus vermiculatus LeSueur — grass pickerel 

E. Indus was supposedly introduced in 1S91, but one of the fish result- 
ing from this shipment was identified in 1896 as E. vermiculatus (now 
E. a. vermiculatus). Possibly both species were included. There are no 
records of capture of either species after 1896. 

CHARACIDAE-characid family 
'.). Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) — handed tetra i 

9a. Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus (Filippi) — Mexican banded tetra % 

CATOSTOMlDAE-sucker family 

In. Catostomus commersonnii i Lacepede) — white sucker % 

Ida. Catostomus commersonnii suckleyi Girard— western white sucker J 

11. Catostomus aniens Jordan and Gilbert — Utah sucker t 

12. Pantosteus delphinus ( Cope ) — bluehead mountain-sucker $ 
12a. Pantosteus delphinus delphinus (Cope) t 

12b. Pantosteus delphinus utahensis (Tanner) t 

13. Pantosteus platyrhynchus (Cope)- -Bonneville mountain-sucker J 

14. Pantosteus plebeius (Baird and Girard) — Rio Grande mountain sucker J 

15. Pantosteus sp. — dusky mountain-sucker J 

CYPRINIDAE— carp or minnow family 

It'.. Gila at r aria (Girard)— L'tah chub t 

IT. Gila nigrescens (Girard) — Rio Grande chub $ 

18. Snyderichthys aliciae (Jouy) — leatherside chub $ 

19. Richardsonius balteatus ( Richardson t — northern redside t 

19a. Richardsonius balteatus hydrophlox (Cope) — Bonneville redside t 

20. Agosia chrysogaster Girard- -longfin dace % 

21. Lepidomeda sp. — Virgin River spinedace t 

22. Lepidomeda sp. — White River spinedace % 



176 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

ICTALURIDAE-catfish family 
2.'!. Tctalurus furcatus (LeSueur) — blue catfish 

24. Ictalurus platycephalus Girard — flat bullhead 

On the basis of a survey made in 1925, Coleman (1930) records "The Great 
Blue, or Forked-Tail Cat — Ictalurus furcatus, Cuv. and Vincen.," and "The 
Brown-Spotted Cat — Ameirus (sic.) platycephalus, Girard," from Clear Lake, 
Lake County. Neither has been recorded from the lake since that time, despite 
extensive collecting. Hence. Coleman's paper is the sole evidence for the exist- 
ence of these species in California. We believe that he confused Ictalurus catus 
(which is found in Clear Lake and which is often called "forked-tail cattish" 
or "blue cat") with his "furcatus." We suspect that his record of /. platy- 
cephalus is based upon his erroneous interpretation of fishermen's reports. 

25. Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque) — black bullhead 

25a. Ictalurus melas catulus (Girard) — southern black bullhead 

A collection from the Colorado River at the mouth of the Gila River 
in 1!>()4 included this subspecies, according to Robert K. Miller. We know 
of no later records from California. 

ANGUILLIDAE— freshwater eel family 

26. Anguilla rostrata I LeSueur) — American eel 

Introduced in 1N74. 1ST!), and 1882. There are no authentic records of sur- 
vival. 

CYPRINODONTIDAE-killifish family 

27. Oryzias latipes (Temminck and Schlegel ) — medaka 

The statement by Snyder (1935), "It has been found in San Francisquito 
Creek," and Coates (1942. p. 185), ". . . . this fish has been turned loose 
in ... . parts of California, where it is reported to be thriving," are the sole 
bases for its admission to this list. In a conversation with Snyder on March 21, 
1943, he told us (W. A. D.) that some of his students had collected this form 
in San Francisquito Creek, Santa Clara County. He did not recall the date or 
other circumstances. 

28. Fundulus sebrinus Jordan and Gilbert — southwestern plains killifish % 

PERCIDAE— perch family 

29. Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill)- — walleye 

29a. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill) — yellow walleye 
Introduced in 1ST4. No records of continued survival. 

CENTRARCHIDAE-sunfish family' 

30. Micropterus coosae Hubbs and Bailey — redeye bass 

Kimsey (1954) recorded the importation of 40 specimens into California for 
use as brood stock by the Californa Department of Fish and Game. They were 
taken to Central Valleys Hatchery, Elk Grove, California. Kimsey (1957) re- 
viewed the history of this introduction and its status. He concluded, "No redeye 
bass were planted in the open waters of the State and none are now present in 
California." 

31. Lepomis macroohirus Rafinesque — bluegill 

31a. Lepomis macrochirus speciosus ( Baird and Girard) — southwestern bluegill. 

According to Miller ( l!)."i2 ) , "The southwestern bluegill ... is also 

now evidently established in the Colorado River through introduction . . . 

(fide C. L. Hubbs in letter of May 10, 1951, to R. D. Beland, and letter 

from Beland of August 23, 1951, to W. A. Dill)." 

32. Enneacaiithus gloriosus (Holbrook) — bluespot suntish 

This species is listed in the accession list for Steinhart Aquarium as having 
been collected in March, 1931, in the vicinity of Willows, California. The 
identification was made by Alvin Scale, but the specimens were not saved. We 
believe (his to he a inisident iticaliou. 



"Lepomis euryorus McKay." Seale (1930) lists "Suntish. Eupomotis euryoris" in an 
article entitled, "List of twenty fresh water fishes found in California that may 
be used in small aquariums or garden pools." The Steinhart Aquarium accession 
list for 19 31 records " Apomotis euryorus" as collected near Willows, California. 
The identification was made by Alvin Seale ; the specimens were not saved. 
Hubbs and Hubbs (1932) have proved that the nominal species "Lepomis euryo- 
rus" is a hybrid between Lepomis cyanellus and Lepomis gibbosus. Both of these 
species are known to be present in California but L. gibbosus has not yet been 
recorded from near Willows, nor do we have any records of its presence in the 
State as early as 1930 or 1931. 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES 1 i i 

33. Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque)- ruck h:iss 

33a. Ambloplites rupestris rupestris (Rafinesque) northern rock bass 

It is recorded in literature as having been introduced in 1874 and again 
in 1891, and another record of a plant of "Rock bass" in 1917 was 
furnished by E. H. Glidden. Brief statements by Wale tl!i..l, p. 12 i and 
Anon. (1934) as to its limited success in California, and its occasional 

listing in State fish rescue records up to 1939, are tl nlj liases for 

belief that this fish ever endured. The terminology used in these rescue 
records (published in the Biennial Reports of the California Division of 
Fish and Game) has often been inexact. We have been unable to find a 
single verifiable record of the occurrence of the rock bass in California. 

REFERENCES 
American Fisheries Society 

194S. A list of common and scientific names of the better known fishes of the 
United States and Canada. Amer. Fish. Sue, Spec. Puhl. no. 1. 4*5 pp. 
Anon. 

1934. The rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). Aquarium Jour., vol. 7. no. 10, 

p. 192. 
195S. The Salton Sea story. Outdoor California, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1 7. 13. 

Bailey, Reeve M. 

1951. A check list of the fishes of Iowa with keys for identification. In: Iowa 
Fish and Fishing, Iowa St. Cons. Comm., pp. 185-238. 

1952. Report of standing committee on names of fishes. Amer. Fish. Soc, Trans., 
vol. 83 (19.">1 ). pp. 324-326. 

1953. Report of standing committee on names of fishes. Amer. Fish. Soc. Trans.. 
vol. 82 (1952), pp. 326-328. 

1955. Report of standing committee on names of fishes. Amer. Fish. Soc.. Trans., 

vol. 84 (1954), pp. 368-371. 
1950. A revised list of the fishes of Iowa with keys for identification. In: Iowa 

Fish and Fishing. Third Edition, Iowa St. Cons. Comm., pp. 327-377. 

Bailey. Reeve M., and William A. Gosline 

19.")."). Variation and systematic significance of vertebral counts in the American 
fishes of the family Percidae. Univ. Mich.. .Misc. Publ. Mus. Zoo]., no. 93, 
44 pp. 

Bailey, Reeve M., Howard Elliott Winn, and C. Lavett Smith 

19.">4. Pushes from the Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, with ecologic and 
taxonomic notes. Acad. Nat. Sci. I'hila.. Proc, vol. 106, pp. 109-164. 

Belaud, R. I). 

1953. The occurrence of two additional cent ra rchids in the lower ('(dorado River. 
Calif. Fish and Came. vol. 3'.). no. 1. pp. 149-151. 

Carpelan, Lars II. 

1955. Tolerance of the San Francisco topsmelt, Atherinops affinis affinis, to con 
ditions in salt-producing ponds bordering San Francisco Bay. Calif. Fish 
and Game, vol. 41. no. 4. pp. 27'.i-2N4. 

Coates, Christopher W. 

1942. Tropical fishes for a private aquarium. Cleveland and New York, The 
World Puhl. Co.. xi + 220 pp. 

Coleman, George A. 

1930. A biological survey of Clear Lake. Lake County. Calif. Fish and Came, 
vol. 16, no. 3. pp. 221 227. 

Dill, William A. 

1944. The fishery of the lower Colorado River. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 30, 
no. :;, pp. 109-211. 

Dill, William A., and I Shapovalov 

1954. Salmo rosei, not a valid species. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. Kb no. .".. 
pp. 337-338. 

Douglas, P. A. 

1953. Survival of some fishes recently introduced into the Salton Sea. California. 
Calif. Fish and Game. vol. 39, no. 2. pp. 264-265. 



178 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

Eddy, Samuel 

1957. How to know the freshwater fishes. Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Co., 
vi + 253 pp. 

Eschmeyer. Paul H., and Reeve M. Bailey 

1955. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior. Amer. Fish. 
Soc, Trans., vol. 84 (1954), pp. 161-199. 

Evans, "Willis A., and Philip A. Douglas 

1950. Notes on fishes recently introduced into southern California. Calif. Fish 
and Game, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 435-436. 

Evermann, Barton Warren, and Howard "Walton Clark 

1931. A distributional list of the species of freshwater fishes known to occur in 
California. Calif. Div. Fish and Game, Fish Bull. 35, 67 pp. 

Foerster, R. E. 

l'.)47. Experiment to develop sea-run from laud-locked sockeye salmon ( Onco- 
rhynchus nerka kennerlyi) . Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, Jour., vol. 7, no. 2, 
pp. 88-93. 

Gerking, Shelby D. 

1955. Key to the fishes of Indiana. Invest. Ind. Lakes and Streams, vol. 4, no. 2, 
pp.' 4!)-86. 

Gilbert, Charles H. 

1898. The fishes of the Klamath Basin. U. S. Fish Comm, Bull., vol. 16 (1897), 
pp. 1-13. 

Grinnell, Joseph, and Alden H. Miller 

1!)44. The distribution of the birds of California. Cooper Ornith. Club, Pac. Coast. 
Avifauna, no. 27, 608 pp. 

Gunter, Gordon 

1942. A list of the fishes of the mainland of North and Middle America recorded 
from both fresh water and sea water. Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. 28, no. 2, 
pp. 305-326. 

1956. A revised list of euryhalin fishes of North and Middle America. Amer. 
Midi. Nat., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 345-354. 

Hart, J. S. 

1952. Geographic variations of some physiological and morphological characters 
in certain freshwater fish. Univ. Toronto Pr.. Univ. Toronto, Biol. Ser. no. 
60, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lai)., no. 72, iv + 79 pp. 

Hourston, A. S. 

1955. A study of variations in the maskinonge from the regions in Canada. Royal 
Ontario Mus. Zool. and Palaeo., Contrib., no. 40, 13 pp. 

Hubbs, Carl L. 

1921. The latitudinal variation in the number of vertical fin-rays in Leptocottus 
armatus. Univ. Mich., Occ. Pap., Mus. Zoo]., no. 94. 7 pp. 

1953. Eleotris picta added to the fish fauna of California. Calif. Fish and Game, 
vol. 39. no. 1, pp. 69-76. 

1954. Establishment of a forage fish, the red shiner (Notropis lutrensis) , in the 
lower Colorado River system. Calif. Fish and Game. vol. 40. no. 3, pp. 
287-294. 

Hubbs, Carl L., and W. I. Follett 

1953. Manuscript list of the fishes of California. Unpublished manuscript. (15 pp. 

Hubbs, Carl L., and Laura C. Hubbs 

1932. Experimental verification of natural hybridization between distinct genera 
of sunfishes. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and Let.. Pap., vol. 15, 1931. pp. 
427-437. 

Hubbs, Carl L.. and Karl F. Lagler 

1958. Fishes of the Great Lakes region. Cranbrook [nst. Sci., Bull. 26. Revised 
edition. 227 pp. 

Hubbs, Carl L., and Robert Rush Miller 

1943. Mass hybridization between two genera of cyprinid fishes in the Mohave 
Desert, California. Mich. Acad. Sci.. Arts and Let., Pap., vol. 28, 1942, 
pp. 343-378. 



CHECK LIST OF PISHES 173 

1901. Catostomus arenarius, a Greal Basin fish, synonymized wit 1 1 ('. tahoensis. 
Copeia, no. 4. pp. 299-300. 

Hubbs, Carl L.. and Orthello L. Wallis 

1948. The native fish fauna of Yosemite National Park and its preservation. 
Yosemite Nature Notes. vol. 27. no. 12, pp. 133-144. 

Illick, Helen J. 

1956. A comparative study of the cephaic lateral line system of North American 
Cyprinidae. Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. 56, no. 1. pp. 204-223. 

Kimsey, J. B. 

1954. The introduction of the redeye Mack bass and the threadfin shad into Cali- 
fornia. Calif. Fish and Came. vol. 40. no. '_'. pp. 203-204. 

1957. The status of the redeye bass in California. Calif. Fish and Came. vol. 43, 
no. 1, pp. 99-100. 

Kimsey, J. B., and Leonard Fisk 

195N. Keys to the freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. Calif. Dept. 
Fish and Came. Inland Fisheries Branch, Informational Leaflet no. 21, :'.l 
pp. ( Mimeo.) 

Kimsey, J. B„ Robert II. Hagy. and (ieorge W. McCammon 

1957. Progress report on the Mississippi threadfin shad. Dorosoma petenensis 
atchafaylae, in the Colorado River for 1956. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, 
Inland Fisheries Branch, Admin. Rept. no. 57-23, 4s pp. (Mimeo.) 

Lagler, Karl F. 

1952. Freshwater fishery biology. Dubuque, Iowa, Win. C. Brown Co., x + 

:;<>o pp. 

La Rivers. Ira. and T. J. Trelease 

1952. An annotated cheek list of the fishes of Nevada. Calif. Fish and Came, 
vol. 38, no. 1. pp. 113-123. 

Legendre, V. 

1954. The freshwater fishes. Key to game and commercial fishes of the Province 
of Quebec. Vol. 1, First English Edition, L80 pp. 

Lindsey, C. C. 

1956a. Recommended common and scientific names of British Columbia fresh- 
water fishes. Brit. Columbia Came Comm., Fish Mangt. Div., 26 pp. 
1956b. Distribution and taxonomy of fishes in the Mackensie drainage of British 
Columbia. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. Jour., vol. 1.",, no. 6, pp. 759-789. 

Miller. Robert Rush 

1950a. Notes on the cutthroat and rainbow trout with the description of a new 

species from the Cila River, New Mexico. Univ. .Mich.. < >c<-. Pap. Mus. 

Zool., no. 529, 42 pp. 
1950b. A review of the American clupeid fishes of the genus Dorosoma. U. S. 

Nat. Mus.. Proa, vol. 100, pp. 3S7-410. 
1952. Bait fishes of the lower Colorado River from Lake Mead, Nevada, to Yuma. 

Arizona, with a key for their identification. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 

38, no. 1, pp. 7-42. ' 

Morton. Wm. Markham, and Robert Rush Miller 

1954. Systematic position of the lake trout. Salvelinus namaycush. Copeia. no. 2. 
pp. 116-124. 

Neale, George 

1931. The spiny-rayed same fishes of the California inland waters. Calif. Fish 
and Game, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-17. 

Outdoor Writers Association of America 

1958. Standard check list of common names for principal American sport fishes. 
Fourth printing, 27 pp. 

Robins, C. Richard, and Robert Rush Miller 

1957. Classification, variation, and distribution of the sculpins. uemis Cottus, 
inhabiting Pacific slope waters in California and southern Oregon, with a 
key to the species. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 4.".. no. .".. pp. 213-233. 

Roedel, Phil M. 

1953a. Common ocean fishes of the California coast. Calif. Dept. Fish and Came. 
Fish Bull. 91, 1S4 pp. 



180 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

1953b. Official common names of certain marine fishes of California. Calif. Fish 
and Game, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 251-262. 

Sehultz, Leonard P. 

1957. The frogfishes of the family Antennariidae, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc. vol. 107, 
no. 3383, pp. 47-105. 

Scott, W. B. 

1958. A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Canada and Alaska. Royal Ontario 
Mus., Div. Zoology and Palaeontology, 30 pp. 

Scale, Alvin 

1930. List of twenty fresh water fishes found in California that may he used 
in small aquariums or garden pools. Aquarium Jour., vol. 3. no. 7. pp. 
38-39. 

Shapovalov, Leo, and William A. Dill 

1950. A check list of the fresh-water and anadromous fishes of California. Calif. 
Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 4. pp. 382-391. 

Snyder, J. O. 

1935. California fresh water fish. Aquarium Jour., vol. S, no. 9, p. 14('». 

Speirs, J. Murray 

1952. Nomenclature of the channel catfish and the burbot of North America. 
Copeia, no. 2, pp. 99-103. 

Stenton. J. E. 

1950. Artificial hybridization of eastern brook trout and lake trout. Canadian 
Fish Cult., no. 6. pp. 20-22. 

1952. Additional information on eastern brook trout X lake trout hybrids. Cana- 
dian Fish Cult., no. 13, pp. 15-21. 

Tarp, Fred Harold 

1952. A revision of the family Embiotocidae (the snrfperches ) . Calif. Dept. 
Fish and Game, Fish Bull. 88, 9!) pp. 

Taylor. W. R. 

1954. Records of fishes in the John N. Lowe collection from the upper peninsula 
of Michigan. Univ. Mich., Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., no. 87, 50 pp. 

Trautman, Milton B. 

1957. The fishes of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State Univ. Press, xviii -+- 
683 pp. 

Vladykov, Yadim D., and W. I. Follett 

1955. Redescription of Lampetra ayresii (Gunther) of western North America, 
a species of lamprey (Petromyzontidae) distinct from Lampetra fluviatilis 
(Linnaeus) of Europe. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. Jour., vol. 15. no. 1. 
pp. 47-77. 

AVales, J. H. 

1950. Introduction of Kamloops rainbow trout into California. Calif. Fish and 

Game, vol. 36, no. 4. p. 437. 
1957. Trout of California. Calif. Dept. Fish and Came. Pamphlet, May, 56 pp. 

Walford, Lionel A. 

1931. Handbook of common commercial and game fishes of California. Calif. Div. 
Fish and Game, Fish Bull. 28. 181 pp. 

Walters, Vladimir 

1955. Fishes of western Arctic America and eastern Arctic Siberia. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 106, art. 5, pp. 255-368. 

Winn, Howard Elliott, and Robert Rush Miller 

1954. Native postlarval fishes of the lower Colorado River basin, with a key to 
their identification. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 273-285. 



CHANGES IN A RIVER'S PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

UNDER SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTIONS IN FLOW DUE 

TO HYDROELECTRIC DIVERSION 1 

BRIAN CURTIS 

Fishery Consultant 

St. Helena, California 

INTRODUCTION 

The changes which take place in a river's depth, water velocity, and 
area of submerged bottom, as the quantity of water flowing in the 
channel changes are the subject of this paper. 

The investigation of these factors was carried <>ut as part of a 
program undertaken by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company of 
San Francisco. This company operates hydroelectric plants through- 
out Northern California. At many of these, water is diverted by a 
dam from a river into a conduit which leads to a powerhouse down- 
stream. Between the diversion dam and the powerhouse the river is 
greatly reduced in How. The question of how much water should be 
maintained for preservation of aquatic life in these sections of reduced 
flow is one which has troubled both the company and the State of 
California's Department of Fish and (iame for many years. 

In late 1952 the company, on its own initiative, proposed to under- 
take a program aimed at providing factual data to aid in solving this 
problem. The State Department of Fish and Game took an active part 
in portions of the program, but played only a consultative role in the 
work which is the subject of this paper. As far as is known, data of 
the kind presented here have never been obtained before. Such work 
can only be carried on by an organization with large resources in men 
and equipment, with sufficient interest in the problem to devote them 
to the ta.sk, and above all with the ability to control the volume of flow 
in the stream channel. 

The rivers investigated were the Pit and the Feather in Northern 
California, on both of which the company planned new power plants. 
A sport fishery for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) was involved 
in both. 

METHODS 

One of the basic factors in fish life is food supply. An important 
producer of trout food is the stream bottom. In the product ion of 
bottom food a primary factor is obviously the a.moun1 of bottom area; 

'Submitted for publication March, 1959. This paper was originally presented at tin- 
Seventh Technical Meeting of the International Union for the Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources, Athens, Greece, September 11-19, 1958, as a 
contribution to Theme I (d) : The Influence of Soil and Water Conservation on 
Natural Aquatic Resources. 

-Formerly Supervising Fisheries Biologist with Bureau of Fish Conservation, Cali- 
fornia State Division of Fish and Game. 

(181) 



182 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



the habitat of the organisms. The area of channel bottom covered by 
water varies as the volume of flow varies; a basic approach therefore 
would be to determine accurately this area at each stage of flow under 
consideration. 

The method used was to survey a sufficient number of cross sections 
of the channel to provide a sample from which a valid average could 
be derived for the part of the river under study. To assure a true 
random sample, the interval between stations was arbitrarily chosen 
in advance, based upon the total number needed and the distance to 
be covered. Experienced survey crews measured the distances exactly, 
and were instructed that each station must be set up faithfully at the 
point reached and not shifted in one direction or the other to obtain 
a more easily surveyed section. 

PIT RIVER STUDY 

The most thorough of these studies was made in 1955 on the Pit 
River, one of the principal tributaries of the Sacramento River. The 
Pit has its source in lava formations which absorb the heavy winter 
rainfall and release it gradually throughout the year. Therefore it does 
not have the extreme fluctuations of many California streams. Mean 
annual flow at a point in the stream section under study was 2,630 
c.f.s. (cubic feet per second) over a 42-year period, with a maximum 
flood of 30,200 c.f.s. in 1937, a year of extraordinarily heavy winter 
rains. Minimum natural flow in summer in normal years probably 
would be on the order of magnitude of 2,000 c.f.s., but summer volume 
most of the time ranges from 3,000 to 3,500 c.f.s. 



Pit 4 
P.H. 



Tunnel 



f: 



\t 1? 



Lve,f~ 






O 



^o 



<5> 



v-> 



Pit 4 Dam 




i 



<?> Scale in Miles 



2 



c? 



V 



c\ 



V 



FIGURE 1. Pit River study area from Pit 4 Dam to Pit 4 Powerhouse. 



RIVER CHARACTERISTICS UNDER REDUCED PLOW 



L83 





AJbrfe 



„-' p* 



FIGURE 2. 




Pit River 1,500 below Pit 4 Dam. Release of water at dam 75 c.f.s. Photograph 
by W. O. Cheney, August, 1955. 



The new Pit 4 Powerhouse is at elevation 2,080 feet, the diversion 
dam at 2,400; distance between them along the channel is about 1\ 
miles; gradient 8 feet per thousand. Most of the water is diverted out 
of the river into a 4-mile tunnel leading to the powerhouse. The study 
described here was undertaken to provide data which might be helpful 
in solving the problem of how much water should be released into the 
natural channel between dam and powerhouse for maintenance of fish 
life. 

It was considered probable by those concerned thai the required 
amount of water would not be over 250 c.f.s. Therefore this figure was 
set as the upper limit for the study, and surveys were made at releases 
of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 c.f.s. Volume was measured by a recording 
gauge below the dam, and water release was kept constant by auto- 
matically operated gates in the dam. The entire river bed from dam to 
powerhouse was surveyed by a transit traverse, and stations were laid 
out at 1,000-foot intervals as measured along the center line of the 
channel. At each station the cross section of the river bottom was care- 
fully profiled with surveyor's level, and the elevation of the water sur- 
face in relation thereto measured for each rate of How. The 40 cross 
sections thus obtained were plotted to a large scale on paper. The maxi- 
mum depth, the wetted perimeter (the distance measured along the 
bottom, including the irregularities, from the water surface on one 
side to the water surface on the other), and the area of the cross section 
were scaled from the drawing nor each volume of release. The average 
water velocity through each cross section was calculated from the area 
so measured and the known volume of flow. 



184 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



The mean values of the 40 survey sections are shown in Table 1. For 
those interested in the details the values for each section are contained 
in Table 2. 

TABLE 1 

Mean Values of 40 Survey Cross Sections at 1,000-foot Intervals, Pit 4 Dam to Pit 4 Powerhouse 





Measurements at various flows 


Values at various flows in percent 
of values at 250 c.f.s. 


Volume of release 
at Pit 4 Dam (c.f.s.) 


CD 

cu 

Eh 
C 
*^ 

CD 

<& ■.- 
£ s 

cu — 


CD 
E OJ 

a v.- 


CD 
GO 

c 

t 8 
<1 


c 

& 
~ - 

"3 S 

CD CD 


_ 

o 
-3 S 

is cd 

cd a 


- +3 

.3 a 

X CD 
3 


c3 

CD 
-5 


>> 

t- 
CD — 
■3 CD 
Ct! > 


250 

200 

150 

100 

50 


120.2 
114.9 
109.7 
104.6 
95.4 


6.16 
5.90 
5.64 
5.38 
5.10 


340.6 
317.7 
294.8 
272.0 
247.8 


0.982 
0.868 
0.738 
0.567 
0.346 


100 
96 
91 

87 
79 


100 
96 
91 
87 
83 


100 
93 
87 
80 
73 


100 
88 
75 
58 
35 



As a matter of interest, certain mean values which it was possible to 
obtain from the 40 cross sections for a volume of 3,500 c.f.s. are shown 
below : 

Volume 3,500 c.f.s. 

Width 160.1 ft. 

Maximum depth 10.2 ft. 

Area 876.0 sq. ft. 

Water velocity 4.23 ft. per sec. 

It will be noted that the tables do not give directly the values which 
were the prime objective of the study, that is, the total area of bottom 
covered by water at each rate of flow. However, the mean wetted per- 
imeter is a direct function of this area. Multiply the value of the mean 
wetted perimeter at any rate of flow by the total length under study — 
in this case 40,000 feet, Station O being at the dam — and you have the 
total submerged area ; e.g., 120.2 X 40,000 = 4,808,000 square feet of bot- 
tom covered by water at a rate of flow of 250 c.f.s. However, it is the 
relationships at various volumes of flow that are of interest rather than 
the absolute values, and since the wetted perimeter is an exact index 
of these relationships, this linear measure is used throughout as being 
easier to handle and to visualize than the large values in square feet. 

Changes in Wetted Perimeter, Depth, Area, and Velocity 

The first important information to be derived from Table 1 is the 
fact that the wetted perimeter decreases much less rapidly than the 
volume of flow. Volume at 50 c.f.s. is 20 percent of volume at 250 ; but 
wetted perimeter at 50 c.f.s. is 79 percent of what it was at 250 c.f.s. 
(Table 1). Or to take another example, when volume of 200 c.f.s. is 
reduced by 50 percent to 100 c.f.s., wetted perimeter is reduced by only 
9 percentage points. This means that the total submerged area at 100 
c.f.s. is over 90 percent of what it was at 200 c.f.s. ; that the total habitat 



KIY 



CHARACTERISTICS UNDER REDUCED PLOW 



185 



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186 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

accessible to bottom organisms is over 90 percent of what it was ; and 
that, other things being equal, the total bottom population at 100 c.f.s. 
would still be over 90 percent of what it was at 200 c.f.s. 

However, other things are not equal. Depth, which may be considered 
an index of shelter for fish, closely parallels wetted perimeter in its 
percentage reduction ; and area of cross section, an index of the total 
amount of space available for aquatic life, is probably not a limiting 
factor as volume varies over the range considered here. But mean 
velocity of the water (Table 1) shows a very much greater percentage 
reduction ; it is in this factor that really striking and significant changes 
occur. Studies have been made on the relationship between bottom- 
dwelling organisms and water velocity (Needham and Usinger, 1956), 
but a great deal is still unknown. Moreover, the figures we have here 
give at best only the average velocity through each cross section. What 
actually happens is that the water velocity changes over every single 
point of the channel bottom. About all we can say with certainty is 
that these changes undoubtedly affect the population of bottom-dwellers, 
not only quantitatively but qualitatively, and thus indirectly affect the 
fish populations. Also, in a mixed fish population such as we have here, 
including suckers (Catostomus occidentalis) , hardheads (Mylopliarodon 
conocephalus, a large cyprinid), carp {Cyprinus carjno), and other 
rough fish in addition to the rainbow trout, changes in velocity may 
affect the various species differently. Some species may be benefited, 
others may be injured — thus bringing about a redistribution of species, 
both in locality and in proportional numbers. 

Temperature 

Change in water velocity also had an effect on water temperature, 
and thus indirectly on fish. The effect of water temperature was not a 
part of this particular study, but did form an important part of the 
overall program. When this channel carries 3,500 c.f.s. the water tra- 
verses the distance from dam to powerhouse in about three hours. With 
volume at 250 c.f.s., and mean velocity at approximately 1 foot per 
second (Table 1), it takes 11 hours for the water to cover this distance, 
meaning that it is exposed to the sun during the full high-temperature 
period of each day — and this in a location where peak summer air tem- 
peratures reach 100 degrees F. in the shade. The heating potential of 
the sun thus exerts a much greater effect at 250 c.f.s. than at .'5.500 c.f.s. 

Accretion 

At this point we must mention a factor which, while it does not 
affect the overall situation as shown in the tables, must not be left out 
of the picture. This is the accretion, or inflow of water, into the channel 
between dam and powerhouse. This, by stream gauging, was found to 
be approximately 50 c.f.s. at the time of the study. The largest single 
increment was Deep Creek near Station Y-29 with six c.f.s. Since accre- 
tion remained constant at all volumes studied, its proportional effect 
differed at different volumes. 

Theoretically, it would have been possible to adjust the volume of 
release so that the flow would have been the same at each station at 
time of measurement, but practically this was not possible and, in fact, 
was not desirable. This accretion is normal in this river, and the ob- 



RIVER CHARACTERISTICS UNDER REDUCED I'l.oW 



187 



jective of tlie surveys was to show the normal changes iu this river 

below the (lain as the volumes of water released al the dam change. 

Effect of the accretion on water temperature, while again not a dired 
part of this study, is so important that it deserves mention. .Maximum 
water temperatures al the dam are close to 68 degrees F. Maximum 
temperatures of the tributary water were much below this: Deep Creek 
55 decrees F., and the springs and underground seepages which con- 
tributed much of the inflow probably less. Accretion water therefore 
had a cooling influence. And this cooling influence increased as the 
volume of flow decreased. At 200 c.f.s. release at dam. the cool inflowing 
water only added 25 percent to the volume, whereas at 50 c.f.s. the 
cool inflowing water added 100 percent. And where a much greater 
increase in water temperature on its way down the channel at 50 c.f.s. 
as contrasted to 200 c.f.s. might have been expected, the influence^ of 
the inflowing cool water was such that there was no significant differ- 
ence in temperature at the different rates of flow. Maximum water tem- 
perature between dam and powerhouse at 200 c.f.s. was 71 degrees F., 
at 100 c.f.s. 70 degrees F., at 50 c.f.s. 1()\ degrees F. 

FEATHER RIVER STUDY 

Similar surveys were carried out on the North Fork of the Feather 
River, a smaller, faster stream (gradient 12 feet per 1,000 in the sur- 
vey section). Twenty-five survey stations were established at 500-foot 
intervals, and measurements made at controlled flows of 140, 200, .'500, 
and 800 c.f.s. The figures for the means are shown in Table 3. 

TABLE 3 

Mean Values of 25 Survey Cross Sections at 500-foot Intervals, North Fork 
Feather River, Gansner Bar to Queen Lily Camp Ground 





Measurements at various flows 


Values at various flows in percent 
of values at 300 c.f.s. 


Volume of flow (c.f.s.) 


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75.1 

71.4 
67.5 


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72.4 
68.6 
65.5 


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2.8 


210.0 
138.0 
118.0 


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2 . 34 

1.86 
1.60 


100 

95 
90 


100 

95 

91 


100 
89 

78 


100 
85 
70 




300 


100 


200 . 


79 


140 


68 







The floAv of 800 c.f.s. was included in the survey because it is not far 
from the estimated normal uncontrolled summer flow. Since it is outside 
of the range used on the Pit it is not of value for comparison with that 
river, and is therefore omitted from the percentage figures, which have 
been calculated for 300, 200, and 110 c.f.s. Comparing these with Table 
1, a striking similarity is seen between the percentage figures at pro- 
portional rates of flow, and it is probable that the picture would be 



188 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

much the same for many fast-flowing mountain streams. It would, of 
course, be very different in flat, slow-moving rivers. 

SUMMARY 

This study was part of an investigation carried out by the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company in Northern California aimed at providing 
data as an aid in determining the amount of water to be released at 
hydroelectric diversion dams for maintenance of aquatic life in the 
channel below the dam. In the Pit River, surveys were made at 40 
stations at 1,000-foot intervals between Pit 4 Dam (elevation 2,400 feet) 
and Pit 4 Powerhouse (elevation 2,080 feet). At each of these stations 
a cross section of the river bottom was carefully profiled by instru- 
ments, and the elevation of the water surface in relation thereto meas- 
ured for each rate of flow. The 40 cross sections thus obtained were 
then plotted to a large scale on paper ; the maximum depth, the wetted 
perimeter (the distance measured along the bottom, including the ir- 
regularities, from the water surface on one side to the water surface 
on the other), and the areas of the cross section were scaled from the 
drawing for each volume of release ; and average water velocity through 
each cross section was calculated from the area so measured and the 
known volume of flow. From these figures the mean values of the 40 
survey sections were computed. 

It was considered probable by those concerned that the required 
amount of water would be not over 250 cubic feet per second. Surveys 
were therefore made at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 c.f.s. 

It was found that wetted perimeter decreases much less rapidly than 
volume of flow. Changes in maximum depth and area of cross section 
closely parallel wetted perimeter in percentage reduction, but mean 
velocity of water shows a very much greater percentage reduction. 

On the Feather River, a smaller stream with a steeper gradient, sur- 
veys of this kind gave very similar results. 

REFERENCE 

Needham, Paul R., and Robert L. Usinger 

1956. Variability in the macrofauna of a single riffle in Prosser Creek, California, 
as indicated by the Surber sampler. Hilgardia, vol. 24, no. 14, pp. 3S3-400. 



MOVEMENT OF THE RING-NECKED PHEASANT IN 
THE SUTTER BASIN OF CALIFORNIA' 

ROBERT D. MALLETTE and JACK C. BECHTEL 

Game Management Branch 

California Department of Fish and Game 

INTRODUCTION 

California wildlife workers have gathered life history and other in 
formation since 1946 on t he ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) 
so as to make sound recommendations for the management of this bird. 
This study covered the influence of intensive agricultural practices 
along with man's other activities on pheasants. One of the results was 
a determination of pheasant movement during the periods of summer to 
the fall hunting season and from summer to summer. 

Most of the work accomplished in the Midwest bv Leopold, Lee and 
Anderson (1938), Grondahl (1953), and Weston (1950) provides in- 
formation on winter and spring dispersal where severe winter condi- 
tions may exist. In California, where this study was conducted, winter 
conditions are mild and without snow, and should have a minimum in- 
fluence on the movement of pheasants. 

Band returns from pen-reared pheasants taken during the hunting 
season were used to determine their movements until wild trapping 
began in 1949 (Harper et al, 1951 ). Returns from pen-reared birds were 
almost entirely from hunters' kill. This does not present a complete 
picture of the movement of game farm birds and would not be repre- 
sentative of wild pheasants. 

The movement of pheasants under study was placed into four groups •. 
(1) movement of retrapped wild birds; (2) movement of banded wild 
birds taken during the hunting season; (3) movement of retrapped 
game farm birds; (4) movement of game farm birds taken during the 
hunting season. 

Movement information presented in this report was gathered from 
1952 through 1958. During this seven-year period, a total of 20,286 
pheasants was captured one or more times in the Sutter Basin. All 
were examined for bands, classified as to sex and age, bands placed on 
unhanded birds, and all birds were released in the same field of capture. 
A total of 2,674 returns either from retrapping or hunting season checks 
was analyzed for movement. Of these, 1,982 were wild pheasants and 
692 were game farm birds. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors wish to express their appreciation to Department of 
Fish and Game personnel who aided Project 22-R in gathering the 

1 Submitted for publication April. 1959. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, 
California Project 22-R, Pheasant Investigations and Management. 

( 189 ) 



190 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



information presented in this study. Special thanks are given to Proj- 
ect 30-R personnel who assisted in gathering- limiting season informa- 
tion during the past seven years; to project leader H. T. Harper who 
was in charge of the study in 1949-50 and from 1958 to date, and to 
C. M. Hart, former project leader (1951-1957). 

Study Area 

This work was done in the Sutter Basin. It is approximately 68,000 
acres of reclaimed marsh land located in the southwest portion of Sut- 
ter County in the center of the Sacramento Valley (Figure 1). 




FIGURE 1. Sutter Basin pheasant study area. Drawn by Cliffa Corson. 



RING-NECKED PHEASANT MOVEMENT 191 

The area is typical pheasanl habital in the rice-growing region of 
California. The major agriculture crops are rice, wheal, barley, milo, 
safflower, beans, and alfalfa. Based on population indices, il was calcu- 
lated that the Sutter Basin supported 30,000 to 40,000 pheasants (lur- 
ing the late summer. 

Hunting Regulations and Hunting Pressure 

During this study, hunting regulations have had major changes in 
bag limits, sexes allowed, and length of season. During 1952-54, the 
regular season was 10 days and allowed two cocks per day and 10 per 
season. In 1955, one hen was allowed in the season bag of 10; the season 
was lengthened to l(i days, and the daily bag remained the same as 
before. During 1956-57 the one hen allowed and Length of season re- 
mained the same, but the daily bag limit of cocks was raised to four 
after the first two days. In 1!>5S, the same regulations were in effect 
except the one hen allowed in the bag was terminated. 

Licensed pheasant clubs located in the study area had a season and 
bag limit different from the general statewide regulations. These clubs 
were allowed a 75-day season and a daily bag of six pheasants of either 
sex by virtue of stocking prescribed numbers of pen-reared birds. 

Hunting pressure varied in the study area from no hunting on cer- 
tain farms to light to moderate on licensed pheasant clubs and to a 
heavy concentration of one hunter per 10 acres on an intensively hunted 
state co-operative hunting area. The co-operative hunting area was ter- 
minated in 1954. Hunter pressure in the Sutter Basin was representa- 
tive of that which occurs in other parts of the Sacramento Valley. 

METHODS 

Movement data were obtained from 1952 to 1958 by two methods : 

(1) trapping and retrapping wild and pen-reared birds by the spot- 
light method (Harper et al, 1951) during the summer and fall months; 

(2) band returns of wild and pen-reared birds obtained from hunting 
season bag checks. 

Movement of retrapped birds was recorded to the nearest 0.5 mile 
between the center of the field of original capture to the center of the 
field in which the bird was again caught or killed. A movement was 
measured to the nearest 0.5 mile to reduce the recording that would 
be necessary if a smaller distance was used. Also, the workers expe- 
rienced difficulty in keeping oriented at night, making more exact re- 
cording virtually impossible. 

The pattern in which the fields were sampled was influenced by farm- 
ing conditions which limited the operation of the spotlighting truck and 
equipment. 

RESULTS 

Retrapped Wild Pheasants - 

From 1952 to 1958 inclusive, 19,240 wild birds were trapped, banded, 
and released in the field of capture in the Sutter Basin. A total of 1,505 
(7.8 percent) were recaptured the same oi- subsequent years following 
the initial banding. Of the recaptures, 1,422 (94 percent) were re- 

- A hire! retrapped once was caught twice, retrapped twice caught three times, etc 



192 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



M> 



trapped once; 79 (5.3 percent) were retrapped twice; three, three 
times; and one, four times. 

Pheasants Retrapped Once 

Average movement of tin 1 sex and age classes was placed into five 
groups of similar monthly and yearly periods occurring between the 
original banding and recapture date, as shown in Table 1. 

The average movement of pheasants in the monthly time periods is 
very limited. Adult males remained constant in their movement of 
approximately 0.3 to 0.5 mile during the summer. Juvenile males show 
movement up to 0.9 mile for the three monthly periods. Adult females 
traveled up to 0.9 mile during this time and juvenile females moved 
up to 1.2 miles. Overall the juveniles traveled up to one mile whereas 
adults moved up to 0.8 mile (Table 1). 

Birds retrapped the following summer, or approximately one year 
after the initial capture, showed an average distance traveled of 1.3 
miles. The birds that were banded as adults moved 0.7 mile in compari- 
son to 1.8 miles for those banded as juveniles. 3 Cocks and hens of sepa- 
rate age classes also showed different distances traveled (Table 1). 

The maximum distance traveled during the period for any individual 
bird was 13 miles. This was a juvenile female banded in 1954 and re- 
captured in 1955. Only 21 birds (1.7 percent) of 1,355 were recaptured 
more than five miles from the original banding site during this study. 

Pheasants Retrapped Two or More Times 

During the study, some pheasants were retrapped as many as four 
times. Movement of these was measured from the point of original cap- 
ture to points of subsequent retrapping. 

Twenty-five birds were recaptured twice the same summer over a 
two-month period. Of the 25 pheasants, 16 were first retrapped in the 
original field of banding and again eight of the 16 were taken for the 
third time in the same field. This shows that even with repeated han- 
dling during trapping the birds do not leave the immediate area. 

Twenty-two birds retrapped twice after an elapsed period of one year 
from the first banding had an average movement of 1.3 miles in radius. 

Eleven birds were retrapped twice after being in the field two and 
three years from the time of original capture. These showed an average 
of 1.7 miles movement in radius from the original banding site. 

Sixteen birds were recaptured the same year banded and averaged 
0.5 mile from the banding site. These same birds were retrapped one 
to three years later and an additional movement averaging 1.6 miles 
was recorded. 

An average movement of 0.7 mile was recorded for five pheasants 
recaught one year later and these were again recaptured in two to three 
years and moved an additional 2.0 miles. 

Three birds, all hens, were retrapped three times during the study 
and averaged 0.7 mile from the field of original banding. 

Only one bird banded as an adult hen was recaptured four times. 
This bird was recaptured twice the same year; twice the following 
year ; and was two miles from the original banding site on final capture. 

■'Juveniles have become adults by their second summer and will be referred to as 
juveniles throughout the text and tables to avoid needless complication. 



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RING-NECKED IMIKASAXT MOVEMENT 195 

Movement of Wild Pheasants Obtained From Band Returns 

Movement of wild pheasants taken during the hunting season was 
computed for the first weekend of the season and for the remaining 
S or 14 days ( depending on 1 lie length of season), to determine it' limit- 
ing pressure had an effect on movement. No difference was noted in 
the movement of birds killed the same year banded. On the first week- 
end of the season 229 returns from birds showed an average movement 
of 1.3 miles; returns from Kid birds in the remainder of the season 
showed an average of 1.3 miles (Table 2). 

From returns of birds that were in the field one to four years after 
banding, 44 killed during the first weekend of the season showed an 
average movement of 1.5 miles from the original banding area, and 40 
pheasants killed during the balance of the season moved an average 
of 1.7 miles (Table 2). 

A minor difference was recorded for movement of pheasants banded 
one month to one year before being bagged. An overall average of 
1.4 miles of movement was recorded for birds banded one to three 
months before the hunting season as compared to 0.9 mile for a similar 
period for retraps (Tables 3 and 1). 

During the Sartain-McManus study a resident juvenile wild cock 
banded 3^ months before the hunting season was taken 15 miles away; 
all other returns from 344 band returns from wild birds were from 
six miles or less from the point of banding (Harper et al, 1951). 

An average movement of 1.3 miles w T as recorded for adults and juve- 
niles banded one to six months before the hunting season and taken 
during the season. This compares with 0.5 mile for birds retrapped 
after being in the field for a similar period of time. Birds banded one 
to five years before being shot averaged 1.6 miles distance from the 
banding site; and for a similar period of time, those taken by remap- 
ping averaged 1.3 miles. 

Movement of Game Farm Pheasants Determined From Trapping 

Of several thousand pen-reared pheasants released on licensed 
pheasant clubs, 474 were trapped during the Sutter Basin study, and 
they afforded the opportunity to check the dispersal of birds raised 
artificially. The exact field of liberation w T as not obtainable for these 
releases, but since the clubs are small (500 to 1,500 acres) the move- 
ment was measured from the boundary of the club to the center of the 
field of recapture. 

An average of 0.4 mile movement for birds recaptured the same year 
as released indicated that they remained in the immediate vicinity of 
the club (Table 4). Birds trapped the year following liberation indi- 
cated a movement similar to the wild bird population. The average 
distance traveled for all ages and sexes in the field one year was 1.1 
miles. Twenty-seven birds were retrapped after being in the field two 
to four years. These showed an average movement of 1.1 miles. The 
maximum distance recorded for birds in this group was S.') miles. 

Pen-reared birds, captured the same year liberated, showed about the 
same movement that wild birds showed when retrapped the same year 
they were initially banded (Tables 1 and 4). Game farm birds re- 
captured after one or more years in the field showed a movement of 



196 



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198 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

1.1 miles from where they were liberated; wild birds traveled 1.3 miles 
(Tables 1 and 4). 

Movement of Game Farm Birds Obtained From Band Returns 

Movement of 218 game farm pheasants that were released on licensed 
pheasant clubs and killed on adjacent areas during the regular hunting 
season indicated the dispersal was not greater than that of banded 
wild pheasants. The maximum distance of a return was 12 miles from 
the point of liberation ; however, the average distance was between one 
and two miles. Table 5 presents movement of game farm birds that 
were taken on areas adjacent to licensed pheasant clubs. Since bag 
checks to obtain movement data were not conducted on these clubs, 
game farm birds killed there are not included in the table. 

DISCUSSION 

Unsuitable field conditions for spotlighting, and limited time, pro- 
hibited retrapping in some of the same fields year after year. Of the 
birds captured two or more times, 556 (41 percent) were taken from 
fields that were not reworked after the original banding ; consequently, 
these birds had to show a movement or they never would have been 
retrapped. However, 866 (59 percent) birds were retrapped that had 
a chance to show no movement because the fields were re-entered after 
the original banding. As a result, if a field had been re-entered a higher 
percentage of the birds showing no movement would be retrapped than 
those moving, because all fields could not be entered. Therefore, the 
average movement falls somewhere between the group retrapped in 
fields other than those not reworked and the group retrapped in fields 
worked two or more times. The overall movement of birds where the 
fields of original trapping were re-entered averaged 0.5 mile, whereas 
movement of birds where the fields of original capture were not re- 
entered averaged 1.5 miles (Table 6). 

It is conceivable that a bird could move one-half mile within .a 
quarter section field, and trapping records would show no movement. 
Also, it is possible a bird moving across the road into a neighboring 
field would show one-half mile traveled. However, for all practicable 
purposes the errors thus introduced are somewhat compensating and 
because of this are believed to be of minor importance. 

Calculations showed that the percentage of juveniles retrapped in 
the same field banded for the one-year elapsed time period was about 
one-third less than that of adults. This again shows juveniles move 
greater distances, probably seeking a home range. 

A greater movement of adult hens and juveniles over adult cocks 
during the summer months probably is caused by the brooding and 
caring for the young. During the search for food and adequate cover 
the hen is disturbed by farming practices that overnight can change 
the habitat from one of adequate food and cover to one of a plowed or 
burned field. 

Movement of pheasants in the Sutter Basin is probably influenced 
more by farming practices than any one other factor. In this area 
crop rotation and double cropping are practiced, which disturbs the 



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RING-NECKED PHEASANT MOVEMENT 201 

cover present during the time pheasants are hatched up to late sum- 
mer and which may cause a shift in the population. 

Weather factors probably have little influence on movement since 
winters are mild and without snow. No population shifts were re- 
corded or observed during the study which could be attributed to 
weather, indicating pheasants were not harassed by this natural factor. 

C4ame farm pheasants liberated on this study area, and surviving 
until trapped or killed, remained within 1.4 miles of the release site 
during their first year in the field. Therefore, pen-reared pheasants do 
not add much to the hunter's bag on areas except where they are 
liberated. A very limited number survive until the second year when 
some dispersal was noted. 

Although wild pheasants are disturbed during the hunting season, 
their movements apparently are rather restricted in trying to elude 
the hunters. Though harassed during this period, most surviving 
pheasants apparently return daily or remain in their home range. 

SUMMARY 

The Sutter Basin, Sutter County, consisting of approximately 68,000 
acres of agricultural land typical of the Sacramento Valley pheasant 
range was used as a study area from 1952-1958. 

Movements of 2.(i7l pheasants, of which 1,982 were wild birds and 
692 were pen-reared, were analyzed during this period. Two methods 
used to cheek the movements were, retrapping banded wild and game 
farm pheasants and hunting season band returns. 

Movement was placed into four categories: (1) retrapped wild birds 
during the summer, and from summer to summer; (2) wild birds 
obtained from hunting season returns; (3) retrapped game farm birds; 
(4) game farm pheasants obtained from hunting season returns. 

Distances were measured to the nearest 0.5 mile. Adult males traveled 
0.3 to 0.5 mile during the summer period of trapping. Juvenile males 
moved up to 0.9 mile during the same summer of trapping. Adult 
females moved up to 0.9 mile and juvenile females 1.2 miles. 

Birds banded as juveniles and retrapped the following year as adults 
moved an average of 1.8 miles, whereas adults retrapped the following 
year were 0.7 mile away. 

The maximum distance that any one bird moved this study was a 
wild juvenile female retrapped 13 miles from the original banding 
site. 

Only 1.7 percent of all wild birds sampled were five miles or more 
from point of capture. 

Of the birds retrapped two to five years later, 45 percent were caught 
in the same field in which they were banded, which is compared to 47 
percent for retraps one year later. 

An overall average of 1.3 miles was recorded for birds killed the 
same year banded. This increased to l.(i miles for birds killed one to 
four years after banding. Approximately 10 percent were bagged in 
the same field in which they were banded. 

Retrapped game farm pheasants were comparable to retrapped wild 
pheasants, in that neither group disperses to any extent. Therefore, 



202 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

planted birds provide little hunting on areas other than where they 
are released. 

No differential movement was caused by hunting pressures between 
the opening weekend and the remainder of the season. 

The movement of pheasants in the Sacramento Valley is probably 
influenced more by agricultural practices than by any other factor. 

LITERATURE CITED 
Grondahl, C. R. 

1953. Winter behavior of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, as re- 
lated to winter cover in Winnebago Co., Iowa. Iowa State College Journal 
of Science, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 447-465. 

Harper, Harold T., C. M. Hart and D. E. Shaffer 

1951. Effects of hunting pressure and game farm stocking on pheasant popula- 
tions in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1946-49. Calif. Fish and Game, 
vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 141-176. 

Leopold, A., O. S. Lee and H. G. Anderson 

1938. Wisconsin pheasant movement study, 1936-1937. Jour. Wildlife Mgt., vol. 
2, no. 1, pp. 3-12. 

Weston, H. G. 

1950. Winter behavior and spring dispersal of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus 
colchicus, in Emmett Co., Iowa. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa State 
College Library, Ames, Iowa. 



A FIELD STUDY OF THE RELATIVE VISIBILITY 
OF VARIOUS COLORS' 

LESLIE E. LAHR 

Hunter Safety Training Officer 

California Department of Fish and Game 

ARTHUR C. HEINSEN, JR., O.D. 

HAROLD G. ANDERSON, O.D. 
California Optometric Association 

COL. E. F. SLOAN, U.S.A., RTD. 

Western Representative 

National Rifle Association of America 

PREFACE 

This article represents a departure from our regular procedure of 
reporting the results of research relating to the management of game 
fish and mammals. 

Wildlife management agencies for years took the position that such 
matters as the promotion of hunter safety did not fall within the 
purview of their responsibilities. As the number of hunters increased 
a widespread reversal in the traditional attitude took place. Youth 
training programs were developed and numerous laws were passed in 
a concerted effort to make hunting a safer recreation. 

Some states have for years required by law that red ou'cergarments 
be worn when hunting, especially while pursuing deer and other big 
game. 

Laboratory findings by the California Optometric Association and 
others indicated that the traditionally recommended red garments 
might not be the most easily identifiable color that it commonly was 
believed to be. 

The following report details the results of research into the values 
of the several colors as they relate to identification of objects in the 
hunting field and thusly to hunter safety. — Seth Gordon, Former Di- 
rector, California Department of Fish and Game. 

INTRODUCTION 

There are two points of view relative to hunting apparel that is 
safest to wear in the field: first, that a person should wear camouflage, 
on the theory that "If they can't see you, they can't shoot yon"': 
second, that the hunter should wear the most readily identifiable cos- 
tume so that he can easily be seen. 

The test directors believe that the first point of view is fallacious. 
Since movement is always involved in hunting, and since movement 

1 Submitted for publication January, 1959. 

(203) 



204 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

cannot be camouflaged, any hunter is always in danger of being mis- 
taken for game when so garbed. An exception to this would be when 
hunting waterfowl, for here camouflage is of paramount importance, 
and no movement is involved. For most hunting situations, however, 
the authors believe that, since the hunter cannot become invisible while 
moving, he should wear the most readily identifiable costume. 

In September, 1955, a meeting was arranged by the California Op- 
tometric Association with representatives of the National Kifle Associa- 
tion and the California Department of Fish and Game in order to 
discuss color as a factor in hunter safety. 

The fact that eight percent of the male population is color "blind" 
indicated that the widely recommended use of red as a protective color 
for hunters should be investigated. In California approximately 50,000 
hunters are color blind and nationally about 1,360,000. Further, hunter 
casualty reports have indicated that red had not served the public well 
as a protective color. 

Dr. Gordon Walls of the School of Optometry, University of Cali- 
fornia, explained that red might appear brown, olive drab or even black 
to a red-blind person. He also pointed out that the confusion of colors 
would be equally great for the green-blind person. Since only one person 
out of 13,000 is blue-blind, this type of color blindness was not con- 
sidered important to the problem involved. 

He further stated that in poor light, fog, early morning or late eve- 
ning light, the color blind are more likely to make mistakes in color 
identification than under bright illumination. 

Dr. Walls verified the claim of the California Optometric Association 
that the only color the color blind can readily identify is a golden 
yellow. This* verification was based on laboratory experiments which 
he had conducted over a number of years. 

Mr. Lahr brought to the attention of the group the fact that oc- 
casionally persons are mistaken for black bears or other animals, and 
are shot while hunting. 

A further discussion of the way the color red is seen revealed that 
red is the only color with no achromatic interval. That is, red appears 
either as red or black to those with normal color vision, depending on 
the amount of light. Also, red is the first color to disappear with fading 
light and the last color to become visible as the light increases. 

Further discussion among the authors about the properties of color 
and its use as a protective device, revealed that there was a definite 
need for field studies to test laboratory theories. 

In a search of historical references, no research data or other reason 
was found as to why red has been used as a Avarning color for centuries. 

Colonel Sloan contacted the U. S. Bureau of Standards in Washing- 
ton, D. C, in March, 1956. Mr. Dean B. Judd of the bureau provided 
much additional information on color deficient vision and provided 
samples of color swatches showing how both red and green blind per- 
sons see various colors. 

Mr. Judd also reported that the use of yellow life rafts came about 
quite by accident, The contractor called the Navy Department to in- 
quire what color should be used on some life rafts. The person an- 
swering the call inquired, "What colors do you have?" The manufac- 



VISIBILITY OF COLORS 205 

turer mentioned yellow among others and the party at Navy head- 
quarters ordered, "Make them yellow." 

Later it was noted that those pilots forced down a1 sea, and who 
had a yellow life raft were more often rescued than those using the 
old blue or gray life rafts, [nvestigating this further, the Navy an- 
chored a number of colored buoys offshore and directed its pilots to 
fly at certain altitudes and to spot as many buoys as they could. The 
only buoys spotted were the yellow ones, although because of the alti- 
tudes involved they were seen as white. 

IJecause of the distances involved in this research, however, it was 
not felt that the results were directly applicable to visibility under 
hunting conditions. Also, at sea there is no such tiling as Light and 
shade, as prevails under hunting conditions. 

It was felt necessary to arrange a series of field tests to determine: 

1. Whether color could be a factor in the identification of man in 
the field. 

2. What color, if any, is best for warning, identification, or accident 
prevention use? 

3. Is the same color effective under all conditions of vegetation, topog- 
raphy and/or weather ? If not, what colors should be used where ? 

It was decided that the most practical application of the results of 
such tests would be : 

1. To provide factual information with which to support proper 
legislation in regard to the wearing of color while hunting. 

2. To acquaint the public generally with the value of various colors 
as a means of identification and promoting safety. 

PROCEDURE 
Colors and Panels 

Colors for the test were selected to cover the complete spectral range, 
red, orange, yellow, green and blue. In addition, fluorescent yellow, 
fluorescent red and fluorescent orange made by Day Glo were used 
in all tests. Plaid, a combination of the basic colors, was used also. 

It should be noted here that the colors white and fluorescent green 
were used in preliminary tests but eliminated from later tests because 
observation showed them to be completely unreliable. The first was 
eliminated because it was too easily confused with such things as rocks 
and patches of overcast sky as seen through tree branches ; the second 
because it seemed to merely blend into whatever background it was 
placed against. 

To know exactly what colors were being used, an evaluation of their 
spectrophotometry coefficients was made at the University of California 
under supervision of Dr. Cordon Walls of the School of Optometry. 

See Appendix T. 

Design of Test Panels 

The original design of the test panels was a rectangle 18 inches wide 
by 20 inches long — roughly the size of a man's torso the area that 
would be covered by a shirt or jacket. The panels were made of tem- 
pered masonite one-eighth inch thick. 



206 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

After cutting to size, the panels were drilled with two 5 / 16 inch holes 
for mounting on the supporting posts. The panels were then painted 
Avith a flat Avhite paint on the smooth side. After the flat coat had 
dried, two coats of the colored paint were applied. 

The fluorescent paints presented more of a problem. These panels 
were coated with flat white and. a layer of cheesecloth stretched over 
the face of the panel. The fluorescent paint was then applied with a 
"squeegee" type window cleaner. 

Tests were made with and without the cheesecloth covering. It was 
found that the panels were more visible with the cheesecloth covering 
left on until the paint dried ; they were used in this manner through- 
out the tests. 

Paints used were Sherwin-Williams Company products and are listed 
by name and number in Appendix I. 

The supporting posts were H-inch square pine, five feet long, drilled 
with two % 6 -inch holes to take the $ by 2-inch bolts; butterfly nuts 
were used to facilitate ease in mounting and dismounting the panels. 
The posts originally extended four inches above the panels so that the 
lower sharpened end could be driven into the ground without damaging 
the panels. 

The section above the panel proved to be the key by which color de- 
ficient test members in the first tests located the panels — the natural 
color of the wood was readily visible to the color blind soldiers. This 
element promptly was removed by sawing the posts off to within \ inch 
of the top of the panels and staining the posts with redwood stain, so 
that this was no longer an extraneous factor in the later tests. 

The square shape of the panels provided another clue to their loca- 
tion because nothing in nature is so regular in shape. All panels then 
were altered to eliminate straight lines so that color would be the 
only factor in their discovery and recognition. 

Test Locales 

Yellow Grass, Scrub Oak. The tests were conducted in typical Cali- 
fornia Coast deer terrain. The location was on the military base at 
Fort Ord, California. The tests were conducted in both overcast and 
sunny weather. 

Evergreen or Rain Forest. The tests were conducted at Fort Lewis, 
Washington. The weather varied from heavy rain through mist to 
sunny skies. The trees were bright green, the grass brown, and the shade 
deep. 

Snow. The tests were conducted in the Skokomish Valley of the 
Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The green of the evergreens was cam- 
ouflaged by snow; the leafless limbs of deciduous brush and dark 
patches from stumps and felled logs contrasted with the snow. The sun 
was bright at the time of the tests. 

Yellow or Autumn Forest. The preliminary tests were conducted 
at Fort Lewis in the Atkins Hill area. The main testing was conducted 
in the area of Stevens Pass near Merritt about 40 miles west of 
Wenatehee, Washington. The weather varied from sunny to overcast, 
The cover was typical of the autumn. The background color was pre- 
dominantly yellow with splashes of red. green and orange. 



VISIBILITY OF COLORS 207 

Test Personnel 

There were two teams of 1<> men al each test location. One team was 

made up of in (Mi with normal color vision. The other team had n with 

color deficient vision (4 Prolans and 1 Deutan Strong; 1 Prolan and 
2 Deutan — .Medium; and 1 Protan and 1 Deutan- Mild) as rated by 
the optometric section of the Army using the American Optical Com- 
pany's II-R-R Color Test with Standard Light. 

The color deficient team was selected so thai the degree of color de- 
ficiency represented the proportions Found in the general population 
that is color deficient. 

Captain Beason of the Fort Lewis army optometric section was 
in charge of the color testing, except at Ford Orel where it was handled 
by the local optometric section. 

Methods of Testing 

Before each test all participants were briefed as to background in- 
formation, methods to be used, and purposes of the test. 

There were three basic types of tests: (1) Time Test, in which the 
determining factor was the length of time it took to find a colored 
panel; the safest color was considered the one which was found in the 
shortest time. (2) Precedence Test in which the determining factor was 
the order of preference given different colors when viewed simul- 
taneously. Four panels were exposed at a time. The safest color was the 
one which was chosen over the others most often. (3) Field Hunting 
Test in which the determining factor was the ability to find and cor- 
rectly identify the color of panels placed along a marked trail. The saf- 
est color was the one which was found most often and most consistently 
named correctly. 

The first two tests were repeated at distances of 50, 100, 150 and 200 
yards. In the last test, the colored panels were never placed more than 
25 yards off the marked trail. Therefore, all results are applicable to 
distances usuallv involved in hunting. 

In both the Time Test and the Precedence Test the targets were pre- 
sented in the following manner : The men were called to attention with 
their backs to the target area. Upon command "Attention" they also 
closed their eyes. They were then given the command, " About Face." 
They then were given the command, "Open." In the Time Test they 
would open their eyes and start stop watches simultaneously. 

In both tests they were cautioned to preview the entire field of view 
quickly. 

In the Time Test when they found a panel they stopped their watch 
and recorded the time it took them to find it. If it took 15 seconds or 
more, they recorded 15 seconds. 

In the Precedence Test they recorded the sequence in which they 
found the first three of the four panels. Observers were on hand to 
aid the subjects in finding all four panels so that the panels could be 
identified not only by color (which was often misnamed, especially by 
those who were color deficient) but also by number counting from left 
to right. 

All tests were made as standard as possible within the limitations of 
a field test. For example, in the interest of standardization it would 



208 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

have been desirable to put each target in the same spot. In trying to 
simulate a hunting situation the targets were always placed in dif- 
ferent positions. 

Movement of targets during testing was eliminated in order to make 
color the primary determinant. Once, when a red panel was not ob- 
served by the members of the color deficient team, it fell to the 
ground. They immediately observed it. 

The nature of the field tests did not make for a study of the findings 
conducive to statistical analysis. However, results of the Time Test were 
given a very complete statistical analysis. The results of this analysis 
were esentially the same as those arrived at by the directors. Observa- 
tion by competent observers was a significant part of each test. This was 
done after a person had tried for over a minute to point out a red target 
50 yards away — in plain view — to a person with color deficient vision 
and failed; any further testing, therefore, was academic. Each of the 
observers had this experience. 

The third test simulated a hunting condition and was designated 
Field Hunting Test. It was set up along a trail some one-half mile long. 

The trail was divided into sections identified by 10-inch square white 
cardboard on which was painted, in black, a letter of the alphabet. It 
was necessary to use a system providing a positive key, as half of the 
test subjects were afflicted with color deficient vision and many of the 
normal color vision group could be expected to name the colors in- 
correctly. 

The test subjects had only to record the letter designating the area 
wherein the color was seen. If the subject recognized or thought he 
recognized the color seen, a check was made in the proper column. 

Methods of Scoring 

Time Test. The normal and color blind groups were scored sepa- 
rately. An arithmetical average of the times taken to find each color at 
each distance was found. These two averages were then weighted to 
find the final result. Ninety-two percent of the results were taken from 
the group with normal color vision and eight percent of the results 
were taken from the color deficient. Ea.ch color was then given a rat- 
ing, the highest being the color which took the least amount of time 

to find. 

Precedence Test. In each presentation of four panels a determina- 
tion was made as to which color was seen over which other color in 
each pair. For example, of a subject rated the colors seen in the order 
yellow, orange fluorescent, red. blue, they would be scored as follows : 
Yellow would score over orange fluorescent, red and blue. In this ex- 
ample, yellow would have a score of three, orange fluorescent a score of 
two, red a score of one, and blue a score of zero. Each presentation of 
the panels at all distances was scored in this way and the cumulative 
total found for each color. A weighted rating was found in which the 
easiest color seen was the one with the highest score. 

Field Hunting Tests. Every time a colored panel was identified, 
the color was given one point toward its final score. The color having 
the greatest number of points, or the one found most often, was given 
the highest rating. 



VISIBILITY OF COLORS 



209 



The results from each location were summarized by giving a rating 
for each of the three basic tests and combining these ratings to get the 



final rating. 



RESULTS 



The outstanding result of the tests was the demonstration that golden 
yellow was the most easily visible color for both normal and color de- 
ficient groups under all testing conditions, Table 1. 

TABLE 1 
Visibility Rating of Colors at the Four Testing Locations 



Fort Ord 


Fort Lewis 


Olympic Peninsula 


Stevens Pass 




Golden yellow 

Yellow fluoiescent 

Plaid 

Orange 

Orange fluorescent 

Red fluorescent-- _- 
Blue 


Golden yellow 

Yellow fluorescent 

Orange - 

Orange fluorescent 

Red fluorescent 

Green -- 

Red 


Golden yellow 




Orange fluorescent 




Red 


4. Orange 


Red fluorescent 


5. Plaid.. 


Yellow fluorescent 


6. Green 


Blue 


7. Red ----- 


Orange 


8. Red fluorescent 

9. Blue . 


Red 

Green. . - 


Blue 

Plaid 


Plaid 
Green 







TABLE 2 
Combined Color Visibility Ratings for All Test Areas Scaled From to 100 



Color Bating 

1. Golden yellow 95 

2. Yellow fluorescent 73 

3. Orange fluorescent 69 

4. Orange 54 

5. Red fluorescent 51 



Color Bating 

6. Red 35 

7. Plaid 32 

8. Blue 26 

9. Green 24 



The color ratings given in Table 1 do not report how much better 
one color was than another, only that one particular color was better or 
worse than the others. Colors in the midrange often closely outranked 
each other. Therefore their ratings can be considered unstable and 
greatly dependent upon the background. Fluorescent colors were un- 
stable primarily because of changes in the amount of light hitting their 
surfaces. They were very good, especially orange fluorescent, in direct 
sunlight, but failed to perform well in shade or at a. dawn and dusk. 
Yellow fluorescent rated high primarily because of the response of the 
color deficient group. There was less difference between the color ratings 
at the Stevens Pass area than at the other test locales because of the 
varied autumn colors present in the background. 

A combined color rating for all test areas is given in Table 2. It will 
be noted from an examination of the total that golden yellow stands 
alone as the most easily visible color. A rough grouping places yellow 
fluorescent, orange fluorescent, orange and red fluorescent as next best. 
Red, plaid, blue and green stand together as poor colors from a visibility 
standpoint. 

A photographic demonstration of the effectiveness of yellow over 
red is shown in Figure 1. 



210 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



A FIELD STUDY OF THE RELATIVE VISIBILITY OF VARIOUS COLORS 

LAHR, HEINSEN, ANDERSON and SLOAN 




50 feet 




50 yards 




100 yards 



VISIBILITY OF COLORS 



211 





200 yards 






300 yards 



FIGURE 1. A photographic portrayal of the relative visibility of yellow versus red. Pictures 

taken with Kodachrome film, l/50th second at f8 at noon on October 12, 1957, near Merrit, 

Washington. The foliage appeared more yellow than the photographs indicate. The distances 

involved were: (a) 50 feet, (b) 50 yards, (c) 100 yards, (d) 200 yards, and (e) 300 yards. 



212 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



APPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS 



These findings have been applied in a number of different ways and 
there remain many other possibilities as yet untried. 

The following changes in use of color have been noted since the 
start of field color tests: Washington State Department of Highway 
Maintenance has changed the color of warning lights on snow removal 
equipment from blue to yellow and reports fewer accidents. 

Racing strips have changed the color of the side flags used to yellow. 
Drivers report that the yellow flags are easier to see at high speeds. 

The Boeing Stratoliner 707 (Jet) has its tail assembly group painted 
yellow. It was found easier to identify at high altitudes than red and 
looms up against the clouds. Boeing officials painted the test models 
after learning the results of the Fort Lewis color tests. 

Airline terminals have changed to yellow colored paddles used in 
directing taxiing aircraft to the proper gate. Airline equipment at ter- 
minals has been painted yellow, since it was found to be easier and 
quicker for pilots to see. Landing arrows on many airstrips have been 
painted yellow. Yellow lights mixed with red lights are now used for 
night identification. 

Utility companies in the West now have their workers' helmets 
painted yellow. Better identification has resulted. Firemen have yellow 
helmets and yellow strips as well as yellow shoulder straps. They are 
much easier to see in smoke and at night. 

The highway toll roads though Indiana and Ohio have changed the 
color of the dividing strip on exits from white to yellow. Operators 
report that less "run overs" have been noticed since yellow has been 
used. 

Morris-Knutsen Construction Company, with large highway contracts 
in Nebraska, reports that it requires all its equipment to be painted 
yellow. That color makes it easier for operators to see other equipment 
in dust and during operation in bad weather. 

The Montana Fish and Game Department requires that all auto- 
motive equipment it uses be painted yellow. It reports that vehicles are 
easier to see and the change has aided in law enforcement. Other 
state agencies in the West are ordering all automotive equipment in 
yellow for added safety. 

Oil drilling companies in Montana and Wyoming have workers' hel- 
mets painted yellow. They report quicker observation of workmen by 
others in the area. 

The use of yellow in highway advertising billboards has increased 
during the past two years. A survey made between San Francisco and 
Toledo, Ohio, showed an average of one-third of the highway billboards 
had yellow predominating. 

The San Francisco Bay Area Bridge Authority reports that the yel- 
low lights used on the bridges are far superior to any other color during 
fog. 

Practically without exception sporting goods stores in the West are 
ordering yellow wearing apparel for hunters, based on popular de- 
mand. Their ready acceptance is due to the fact that hunters in the 
field can readily spot other hunters wearing yellow and are convinced 
of its higher visibility. 



VISIBILITY OF COLORS - 1  '■> 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

Field tests of the relative visibility of various colors were conducted 
at four different locations representing varied types of hunting- 
conditions. 

Golden yellow proved to be the most easily visible color under all 
conditions of testing. 

It is important that yellow was found to be readily visable to people 
with color deficient vision. 

It is recommended that for greatest safety in hunting that yellow 
clothing be worn and that enough yellow colored clothing be used to 
cover the hunter's torso. The yellow used should be saturated and not 
mixed with white (575 to 590 millimicrons). This is especially im- 
portant in big game hunting where the game is hunted with high 
powered rifles and it is necessary to identify objects at long range. 

Because yellow is readily visible to color deficient individuals there 
is no need for legislation restricting hunting by this group as a safety 
precaution. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The following listed organizations sponsored the color testing project : 

Army, Fort Lewis, Washington National Rifle Association 

Army, Fort Orel, California Oregon Optometric Association 

California Department of Fish and Oregon Game Commission 

Game Washington Game Department 

California Optometric Association Washington Optometric Association 

Massachusetts Society of Optometrists Wyoming Optometric Association 
Michigan Optometric Association 

Special recognition should be made of the complete co-operation of 
the United States Army at Fort Orel, California, and Fort Lewis, Wash- 
ington. Their contribution of men and equipment made the project 
possible. 

In addition, a special note of appreciation is extended to press, radio 
and television media for their co-operation in disseminating the results 
of the various tests to the public. In this regard the following were 
especially helpful : Mrs. Elaine Davis, Public Relations Counsel for the 
Santa Clara County Optometric Society; Tom Siatos, Western Out- 
door News, Los Angeles; William Woods, Public Relations Counsel, 
Fort Lewis, Washington; Tom Herbert, free lance writer, Seattle, and 
the Army's public information officers at Fort Ord and Fort Lewis. 

The authors also wish to acknowledge the co-operation of certain 
manufacturers who made their products available, particularly Arthur 
Kahn Company, New York, and Eddie Bauer of Seattle. 



APPENDIX I 

EVALUATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC COEFFICIENTS 

By DR. GORDON L. WALLS 
School of Optometry, University of California 

CLE. Illuminant C is a standard white light representing average 
daylight illumination, as from a slightly overcast sky. The chromaticity 
coefficients are derived from calculations based upon the spectrophoto- 
metric curve for the sample, and enable one to plot the sample as a 



214 



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 



point on the chromaticity diagram, together with a point representing 
the illuminant. The dominant wavelength and excitation purity of the 
sample are then obtainable graphically. The dominant wavelength spe- 
cifies the hue of the sample ; it is the wavelength of monochromatic 
light, the hue of which, to the eye of the usual observer, would be the 
same as the hue of the sample viewed in illuminant-C illumination. The 
excitation purity specifies the saturation (color strength) of the sample; 
if a sample has a purity of 25 percent, this means that the saturation of 
the sample is the same as that of a mixture of monochromatic light 
at the wavelength of the sample's dominant wavelength, and white 
light as emitted by Illuminant C, with the monochromatic light com- 
prising 25 percent of the monochromatic-white mixture. The white 
light reflectance of the sample indicates how light or how dark it will 
appear in Illuminant-C illumination — the higher the reflectance, the 
brighter the sample to the eye. 

Note: For the three "Sun Bonded Day Glo" samples, designated 
D30, K4, D30 E2, and D30 Y4, the Standards Laboratory of our (the 
University of California) College of Engineering obtained spectro- 
photometric curves and calculated chromaticity coefficients, but, I 
found that these samples fluoresce so strongly within the visible spec- 
trum that the spectrophotometric curves are meaningless. For instance, 
if a pigment absorbs in the green and re-emits the energy as red 
light, the spectrophotometer will register the re-emitted energy as 
though it were green light and will give a falsely high reflection factor 
for the green region of the spectrum, but when the instrument is 
scanning the red region and is sending only red light to the sample, it 
will, of course, fail to record the red light that would be coming to it 
from the sample if green light were falling on the sample. At the pre- 
sent time and with existing instruments, it is impossible to give spec- 
ifications of dominant wavelengths and purity for fluorescent samples 
— they can only be described clumsily, by difference from a non-fluor 
sample. 

TABLE A-1 

An Evaluation of the Chromaticity Coefficients of the Colors Used in the Tests 
(For the Nonfluorescent Samples Only) 





Chromaticity 
coefficients 


White fight 
reflectance 


Dominant 
wave length 


Excitation 

Purity 
(percent) 


F 65 Rl S-W Kem Lustral 


0.5014 
0.5094 
0.4672 
0.3026 
0.2152 


0.3107 
0.3687 
0.4613 
0.4186 
0.4186 


12.7 
25.8 
53.3 
16.8 
19.7 


621.4 
595.4 
578.7 
547.3 
481.0 


50.0 


F 65 El S-W Kem Lustral 


67.5 


F 65 Y2 S-W Kem Lustral 

42 line Lemon Yellow 

F 65 G6 S-W Kem Lustral 

42 line Medium Green 

F 65 L3 S-W Kem Lustral 

42 line Light Blue. - 


80.8 
26.0 
43.0 







VISIBILITY OF COLORS 215 

APPENDIX II 

SOME FACTS ABOUT RED VERSUS YELLOW 

By ARTHUR C. HEINSEN, JR., O.D. 

1. Red has a smaller visual field than yellow. Yellow can be rec- 
ognized as a color farther from a central vision point than red. 

2. Yellow is a stable color; red is not. Stable colors are those which 
do not change in hue in different parts of the visual field but become 
more unsaturated until they fade into colorless gray. 

3. One yellow can be differentiated from another yellow if as little 
as one millimicron in wavelength is present. The quality of hue dis- 
crimination is less for red than for any other color. In other words, 
one red looks much like any other red. As many as 35 millimicrons 
difference in two hues cannot be noted in the red end of the spectrum. 

4. Red has no photochromatic interval. That is, red changes directly 
from red to black. It has no gray zone. 

5. Approximately 10,000 times as much energy is necessary for red 
as yellow in order to get a threshold stimulation. 

6. Eight percent of the male population is color blind and confuse 
red with green. Clinical studies have indicated that the only color that 
can be consistently identified by the color deficient is a golden yellow. 

7. The eyes of vertebrates have much the same pattern of sensitivity 
as the simple eye of the horseshoe crab. In this eye a beam of red light 
must be made 600 times more intense than one of yellow-green light 
to elicit the same rate of nerve impulses. 

8. During early morning or late evening daylight hours when the 
eye is not light adapted, the ability to see in the shadows of trees is 
often limited to the characteristics of scotopic (night) vision. Scotopic 
vision lacks the power to discriminate between slight differences in 
light intensities, a property which in conjunction with exact localization 
forms the basis of form perception. Red appears as black in scotopic 
vision, yellow in shades of gray. The perception of form under such 
adverse conditions would be more possible if the object were yellow. 



NOTES 

OBSERVATION OF PORPOISE PREDATION ON A SCHOOL OF 

PACIFIC SARDINES 

On the morning of February 25, 1959, Joseph Balesteri and the writer 
were making a hydrographic cruise on the Hopkins Marine Station's 
vessel Tage. We had reached a spot five miles northwest of Point Pinos, 
which forms the southern limit of Monterey Bay, California, when a 
very large number of gulls was noticed circling and diving about two 
miles northwest. Twelve minutes later we arrived at the scene and, 
after stopping the vessel's engine, drifted close to one of three schools 
of Pacific sardines, Sardinops caerulea. These schools were under at- 
tack by several hundred harbor porpoises, Phocaena vomerine/,, 30 to 
50 sea lions, Zalophus calif or nianus, and several thousand gulls. They 
probably were remnants of a single school that had been disrupted and 
fragmented by the onslaught. The one we observed stayed from one-half 
to two feet below the surface of the water, and Balesteri, formerly a 
commercial fisherman with long experience, estimated it contained 10 
tons of eight- to nine-inch fish. During the one-half hour we kept it 
under observation, it appeared to remain relatively stationary. The 
presence of our 40-foot boat deterred the gulls from feeding on this 
school, and they shifted their attacks to the other two. The porpoises 
and sea lions were not deterred, however, and continued feeding on the 
observed school. 

Repeatedly, five to seven porpoises aligned themselves parallel to 
one another and about a foot apart. The outer members took positions 
somewhat in advance of the central ones, so that together they assumed 
a crescentic formation, with the points of the crescent forward. This 
group would then plunge through the greatest length of the ovoid 
school, in spite of the fact that it constantly contracted and expanded 
and varied the direction of its axis. By concentrating on an individual 
porpoise, I was often able to observe sardines being caught. Under ideal 
conditions for observation (with the axis of the school parallel and 
adjacent to the boat) I counted as few as five and as many as 
12 fish eaten by a single porpoise in its rush through the school. Im- 
mediately after an attack, the group would dive beneath the school 
and diverge, keeping the prey near the surface. In the meantime, 
other porpoises that were neither attacking the school nor keeping it 
from diving, continually circled with a great deal of splashing and 
jumping, and kept the sardines concentrated. As soon as one group had 
made its feeding attack and taken station beneath the school, another 
formation would assault the sardines. 

The sea lions generally attacked the periphery of the school, and 
although they may have been very successful, in only one instance 



(216 ) 



\oti:s 217 

did I actually sec one catch a fish. It may bo mentioned that my 
attention was focused ])rimarily on the porpoises. 

A few horned grebes, Colymbus auritus, were seen swimming below 
the surface pursuing sardines. Once a grebe set out after a particular 
fish, it continued the chase and ignored all other fish even though some 
were closer than the intended victim. They were never observed catch- 
ing any fish, but this was not surprising considering their bill size and 
the sizes of the individual sardines. I can make no statement as to the 
success of the gulls, as they were not close enough to observe critically. 

One would be hard pressed to hazard a guess as to the portion of 
the sardine school consumed by these predators. If the attack had 
continued a few more hours (there were numerous other porpoises in 
the general area) there probably would have been few survivors. 

Our observations were possible only because the water was clear and 
it was a bright, sunny day. In an adjacent area a plankton net of half- 
meter diameter was distinctly visible to a depth of 18 meters. 

Brown and Norris (1956) reported on the feeding behavior of por- 
poises, but did not observe harbor porpoises, and their descriptions of 
the habits of other species differ from those observed and described 
in this paper. 

REFERENCE 

Brown, David H., and Kenneth S. Norris. 

1956. Observations of captive and wild cetaceans. Jour. Mamm., vol. 37, no. 3, 
pp. 311-326. 

Bernard D. Fink, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California, 
February, 1959. 

A SOUTHERN RANGE EXTENSION OF THE AMERICAN SHAD TO 
TODOS SANTOS BAY, BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO 

On July 16', 1958, an adult female American shad, Alosa sapidissima 
(Wilson), was given to me by officials of the cannery Pesquera del 
Pacifico, located in El Sauzal, Baja California, Mexico. Within a week 
after preservation in formalin, the fish was 386 mm. in standard length 
and weighed 757 grams. This specimen w T as taken, together with other 
shad, in purse seine catches of sardines (Sardinops caerulea) in the 
Todos Santos Bay area (32 degrees, 50 minutes north latitude, 116 
degrees, 50 minutes west longitude). According to officials of several 
canneries in the area, a number of shad were landed with the regular 
sardine catch at this time. Shad also were taken throughout the South- 
ern California area during July, 1958. Three specimens taken in Los 
Angeles Harbor were examined by personnel of the California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game. 

The previous southernmost locality of record is in the vicinity of 
San Diego, California (Roedel, 1953," Fish Bulletin 91, California De- 
partment of Fish and Game), some 68 miles north of the present 
locality. This southern range extension is of particular interest in a 
period of warming surface temperatures and the northward extension 
of many forms. 

The specimen is now number 177948 in the collections of the U. S. 
National Museum. — L. G. Claussen, Fishery Research Biologist, Biologi- 
cal Laboratory, U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, La Jolla, Cali- 



218 



CALIFORNIA FISH AXD GAME 



fornia, February, 1959. (Published by permission of the Director, U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.) 

DEER FORAGE FROM COMMON MISTLETOE 

Common mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) is a flowering plant 
parasitic chiefly on oaks in the foothills of the Coast Ranges and Sierra 
Nevada, and south to Southern California, east to Arizona, and north 
to Oregon. The stems are woody and brittle. The leaves are fleshy and 
•J to 1-J inches long. Mistletoe occurs as bunches on tree limbs and may 
become four feet or so in diameter. At Hobergs in the North Coast 
Range, a large clump of mistletoe weighed 32 pounds when cut from 
the tree, two-thirds being stems and one-third leaves. The leaves con- 
tained 64 percent moisture. 




FIGURE 1. Large oak tree fenced for studies of mistletoe drop 

during the winter. In a three-month period nearly five pounds of 

green leaves and fine twigs were gathered beneath the tree. 

Game experts have long known that common mistletoe is a favorite 
food of deer. The plant is regularly used as bait in deer traps. At 
Hobergs, deer were observed eating fallen leaves of mistletoe picking 
them up one by one. It was thought that mistletoe might be quite an 
important food item for deer in winter when other forage in this area 



NOTES 210 

is often scarce. Accordingly, measurements were made of the amount 
of mistletoe falling during February, .March, and April. 1958. For this 
purpose a fence was erected beneath two trees, a large one supporting 
24 bunches of mistletoe, a small tree nine bunches. Oven-dry weights 
for each month were as follows : 

Large tree Small tree 
Month (drams) (Grams) 

February 202 49 

March (111 1.'._ 

April __ 529 295 

Total _ . 1,345 I7C 

The amount of leaves falling varied from week to week depending some- 
what upon winds, rain, sleet, etc. 

Chemical analyses of mistletoe have shown the leaves to contain 9.79 
percent protein and 59.79 percent starch, sugar, etc. (Calif. Sta. Rpt. 
1915, pp. 32, 33). — H. H. Biswell, University of California, Berkeley, 
April, 1959. 



RESIGNATION 

JOSEPH H. WALES 

Joseph H. Wales, dean of fisheries biologists with the Inland Fisheries 
Branch, resigned from the California Department of Fish and Game 
to accept appointment as Associate Professor in the Department of 
Fish and Game Management, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon, 
effective May 1, 1959. 

A graduate of Stanford University, Mr. Wales joined the California 
Department (then Division) of Fish and Game in 1931. At the time, 
he was the only freshwater biologist employed by the organization, 
and so has been the senior member of the present staff. 

During his more than 27 years of service, Mr. Wales has made in- 
numerable contributions to the knowledge of California's fishes and 
fisheries. His writings in the field of freshwater fisheries research and 
management, including some 35 technical articles and over 80 formal 
administrative reports, have brought him international recognition. He 
will be remembered best for his Castle Lake studies and his fish disease 
investigations. 

His popular booklet, "Trout of California", first published in 1957, 
has attracted wide interest among sportsmen and the lay public gener- 
ally. Ninety-five thousand copies have already been published and 
another printing is planned. 

In his new position, Mr. Wales will conduct research on basic trout 
stream ecology. A team of specialists will work with him. His colleagues 
and many friends wish him well in his new endeavor. — Leo Shapovalov, 
Inland Fisheries Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. 



( 220 ) 



REVIEWS 

Salmon of the Pacific Northwest— Fish vs. Dams 

By Anthony Netboy ; Binfords and Mort, Portland, Oregon, 1958; 122 pp., 

illus., $3. 

Author Netboy us a writer for t lie Booneville Power Administration had a ring- 
side seat at one of the greatest shows on earth, the fish vs. dams controversy in the 
Columbia River Basin. The book is extremely well written and packs into its small 
size a tremendous amount of factual information. However, despite his stated pur- 
pose of objectively reporting the action as he saw it, the interpretation will appear 
to many conservationists as slanted toward the power interest viewpoint. Develop- 
ment of the text centers around the following themes. 

1. The fishery ivas declining before the advent of the power dams. 

"Too much gill netting can be as injurious to a sensitive creature like the chinook 
salmon as too much concrete." There is little question that the effects of overex- 
ploitation of the fishery by commercial interests was in evidence in the late Nine- 
teenth Century. The history of all these combined land and water uses is a tale of 
spawning rivers blocked, damaged or ruined. The principle causes of the decline, 
such as logging, pollution and small dams are reviewed, indicating that between 
50-75 percent of available spawning areas have now been lost. Advantage is taken 
of the fact that assessment of damage done by any one limiting factor such as power 
dams cannot be individually isolated for analysis. 

2. The power dams are not so bad and efforts are being made to protect the fishes. 
Here emphasis is placed upon the corrective efforts, tremendous in both scope and 

cost, carried out to perpetuate these runs. At Booneville alone, $7,000,000 was ex- 
pended on fish facilities. Grand Coulee, the world's largest dam, cut off 1,140 linear 
miles of salmon spawning grounds. The limited successes of the relocation of these 
salmon and steelhead runs to tributaries below the dam are emphasized withont one 
getting the full picture of resulting losses. These efforts are described as "successful 
to a degree exceeding expectations." He does concede that "Despite all these efforts, 
the total catch of Columbia River chinook has declined due to many factors of which 
high dams is one." 

The postwar power shortages and plans for such dams as McNary, John Day and 
The Dalles and resultant politico-economic issues filled the tent with so much emo- 
tional smoke that the facts of both engineers and biologists were obscured. 

3. Power dam development will inevitably continue coupled with efforts to preserve 
the fisheries. 

The author's opinion may well be correct. Only about one-fifth of the available 
water power of the Columbia Basin has been harnessed to date. Finding strong oppo- 
sition in the upper basin, planners have cast their eyes on sites in the lower basin 
which may well spell doom for the fisheries. "How well the protective devices will 
work when the Columbia River and its major tributaries are fully dammed is any- 
body's guess." 

No attempt is made to justify the need for power development, nor are alternative 
sources of power discussed. A finale of current philosophy is expressed with the 
statement that "Civilization has usually advanced without consideration for re- 
sources which conflict with industrial progress." Conservationists will not all agree 
that such "progress" is inevitable and live in hopes that mankind will utilize our past 
history constructively through more intelligent development of our available re- 
sources including both fisheries and power. 

Despite any criticisms the author has succeeded in bringing into focus this con- 
troversial problem in probably the most informative report on the subject available. 
This is a book which should be read by every Californian interested in the future 
of the salmon and steelhead fisheries of our State. Although our problem is mainly 
one of water uses other than for power, it is nevertheless the same basic issue of 

(221) 



222 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 

fish vs. dams. Perhaps we can profit from the pages of this historical account in 
directing the future of our anadromous fish resources. — Willis A. Evans, California 
Department of Fish and Game. 

Principles of Field Biology and Ecology 

By Allen H. Benton and William E. Werner, Jr. ; McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, New York, 1958 ; vii + 341 pp., illus., $6.50. 

This is a text for an elementary college course in field biology and ecology. Chap- 
ters on American naturalists of the past, taxonomy, animal behavior, and biological 
literature, supplement those on ecology, plant succession, animal populations, and 
economic biology. 

The book is generously illustrated with good photographs. There is extensive refer- 
ence material, including a glossary and an appendix. 

Amateur naturalists, as well as college biology students, will find this book inter- 
esting and useful. — Alex Calhoun, California Department of Fish and Game. 

Poisons: Properties, Chemical Identification, Symptoms and Emergency Treatment 

By Vincent J. Brookes and Morris B. Jacobs ; D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 
Princeton, New Jersey, 1958 ; 272 pp., illus. $6.50. 

This handbook was written to provide vital information needed, to diagnose and 
treat eases of poisoning. It contains basic information on the various types of 
poisoning incurred by humans and is especially designed for use in the fields of 
criminal investigation and other police work, medicine and pharmacology, civilian 
defense and other related fields. 

There is nothing in this book pertaining to the effects of poisons on wildlife, but 
the conservationist may be interested in learning a little self-conservation to be 
used in the event of an unexpected exposure to poison. If this is the case, he will 
find ample material on the effects of and remedies for poisoning by snakes, spiders, 
plants, and food. Advice on how to protect himself from chemical warfare agents, 
radiation hazards and industrial hazards is also offered. However, most of the 
space devoted to these last three subjects pertains to what to do if you don't take 
the advice. 

The presentation of material on the multitude of poisonous substances is well 
classified and is presented in useable form. A section on emergency information for 
immediate reference gives the reader in tabular form an alphabetical list of poisons, 
their use, symptoms, and the emergency treatment to be administered before the 
doctor arrives. Included in these tables is a listing of the ingredients of familiar 
products by class that may contain toxic substances. Some examples of products so 
classified are : antifreeze, brake fluids, canned heat, detergents, hair lotions, lighter 
fluids, polishes, waxes, and many others. 

Many tips and pointers are provided for those who are short on experience but 
may be saddled with the investigation of human poisoning. They include data on 
special properties of poisons such as physical appearances, industrial and medical 
use, normal and fatal doses and their identification by chemical means. 

I believe this would be a worthwhile addition to a personal library where an 
easily understood general reference book on poisons is desired. It has many little 
extra features such as a glossary, table of weights and measures, and a well docu- 
mented first aid section that add to its usefulness. — Eldridge G. Hunt, California 
Department of Fish and Game. 



printed in California state printing office 
97202 5-59 5,200