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Full text of "The Cambrian journal"

GWIR YN ERBY 



THE 



mm mim 



N DER THE AUSPICES OF 



THE 



CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE, 



CAS 



VOLUME FOR 1858. 



tMAN 



L< )NDON : 

L SMITH, AND J. PETHERAM. 
TBNBY: H. MASON. 

1858. 



GWIR YN ERBYN Y BYD. 



THE 

CAMBRIAN JOURNAL; 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF 

THE 

CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE, 



CAS GWR NA CHARO 
T "WLAD A'l MACCO. 



VOLUME FOR 1858. 



LONDON : 

LONGMANS & Co., J. RUSSELL SMITH, AND J. PETHERAM. 
TENBY: R. MASON. 

1858. 




R. MASON, PRINTER, HIGH STREET, TENBY. 



PREFACE. 



WHEN we take a retrospective view of the year 1858, 
now about to expire, we cannot but congratulate the 
Members of the CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE upon the great 
success which has attended the national cause. One deep 
source of gratification is the determination of govern- 
ment to publish our historical records, the first volume 
of which, entitled Brut y Tywysogion, or Chronicle of 
the Princes, is already in the press, to be followed imme- 
diately by others of a similar nature. In addition to 
this, the numerous Eisteddfodau, or bardic meetings, 
which have been held in divers parts of the Principality, 
and more especially the grand Llangollen Congress, indi- 
cate very clearly that the Welsh people have lost none of 
their national ardour, and that there is a craving among 
them for some more permanent institution, in which their 
own language will constitute an integral element. They 
seem pointedly to suggest the question whether provincial, 
or even parochial, schools should not be established in 
Wales, under the auspices of government, in which the 
competitive principle should be introduced, and form 
one of their most prominent characteristics. The Eis- 
teddfod is a reflex of the Welsh mind, and those in high 
places ought certainly to take it into account in dealing 
with the educational condition of the Principality. 

We are given to understand that the compositions to 
which prizes were awarded at the recent national Eis- 
teddfod will be published with as little delay as possible. 
This is a step in the right direction, as it is calculated 
to remove much of the prejudice entertained against 
meetings of this description, on the part of those who 



IV PREFACE. 

fail to see any practical results attending them, and will 
be the means of augmenting the store of our native 
literature. 

It gives us infinite pleasure to discern a growing desire 
among our English neighbours to learn our language, to 
countenance our distinctive usages, and to approach our 
records and traditions with a free and unbiassed mind. 
Indeed some have in these respects gone beyond several 
of our own countrymen, who, whilst they profess to study 
the antiquities of the Cymric nation, earnestly advocate 
the abolition of the Cymraeg, blind to the truth that 

"To study tribes without their speech, 
Is to grope for what our sight should teach." 

The spread of these patriotic principles has had a visible 
effect upon the condition of the CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE 
an unprecedented number of new Members having joined 
it in the course of the past year. We feel much cheered 
by this circumstance, regarding it not only as a sign of 
a wider appreciation of British interests in general, but 
of approval in particular of the nature of the subjects 
which have been introduced into the pages of the 
CAMBRIAN JOURNAL. One of the main features of this 
Volume is the publication of MS. fragments, which, 
though highly valuable in a historical point of view, 
would in a few years no doubt have fallen a sacrifice to 
the bite of time, were they not thus rescued. We are in 
possession of a considerable store of these documents, 
which we shall from time to time bring to light. We 
may say, moreover, that several of our principal sup- 
porters have promised to contribute to our pages, in the 
ensuing year, original articles on the different subjects 
which our Journal embraces, so as to make it as com- 
plete and as varied as possible. We wish our readers 

GWYLIAU LLAWEN A BLWYDDYN NEWYDD DDA. 



THE 




A LEAN s-\\Jr } r\ 2^. EILIR. 



(VERNAL EQUINOX.) 



INTRODUCTION. 

THERE is no doubt that a much greater attention is now 
being paid to Cymric affairs than was the case some few 
years ago. Welsh nationality is more generally respected 
the literature of the country commands a wider circle 
of admirers and etymological excellences have at length 
been discovered in the Cymraeg, which will assign to it 
a high position among the various tongues of the great 
human family. The opprobrium hurled against the 
bardic school is recoiling, and the old maxim of Taliesin, 
" Myn y gwir ei le," is continually being verified. The 
allophyllian theory has been abandoned, the doctrine of 
a Gwyddelian pre-occupation finds no rest for the sole of 
its foot, and German scepticism evaporates into thin air ; 
whilst every fresh discovery in the sciences of geology, 
ethnology, philology, or whatever else may bear upon 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

the subject, is ever contributing its testimony, more or 
less, in favour of the general honesty and consistency of 
that great literary system which was reared by our 
bardo-druidic ancestors. 

Let us not be misunderstood. We do not blindly 
attach ourselves to native authorities, without a critical 
examination of their weight and value. The prejudice 
is on the other side. We proceed in our historical in- 
vestigations on the assumption that our forefathers were 
ordinarily upright men ; and whenever we find that their 
statements are not contradicted by reason, and the stronger 
testimony of extrinsic facts, we unhesitatingly accept 
their conclusions. On the other hand, the anti-national 
theorists act independently of home records, and not 
unfrequently, indeed, as if truth invariably dwelt, and 
was to be sought for, in their very opposites. 

It was not proper that the bardic school should be 
without its organ, in which papers illustrative of the 
usages of the Cymry, and explanatory of their traditions^ 
might be inserted, and in which such persons as took an 
interest in the national lore might meet to interchange 
their sentiments thereon. Such an organ is the CAMBRIAN 
JOURNAL, of which we now commence a " New Series," 
established on a firmer basis than before, and thoroughly 
removed from the reach of adverse influence. 

One great characteristic of this Series will be the pub- 
lication of manuscript memorials that will be of rare and 
valuable service to the future historian of Wales. It is 
our intention also to enrich our pages with an array of 
some hundreds of Cymric words, that have never ap- 
peared in any printed dictionary. This, it is presumed, 



INTRODUCTION. d 

will prove an interesting boon to the philologist, and 
greatly facilitate the studies of those scholars who attempt 
to explore the treasures of our ancient literature. 

Wales has long been under an eclipse; but we trust 
that by the aid of the Welsh MSS. Society, the Cambrian 
Institute, and the Eisteddvod, as well as by the literary 
efforts of private individuals, the darkness is dispersing, 
and that a brighter day is dawning upon it. We trust 
that Europe will soon be able to judge for itself that it 
will be convinced from the store of our ancient learning, 
and from the philosophical structure of our language, 
that Cymru was at one time the centre of civilization 
that it was a bright spot when the surrounding nations 
groped in intellectual and moral darkness. In itself it is 
still bright and happy land of the awen and the harp ; 
but our wish is that the film should fall off the eyes of 
our neighbours, to enable them to see all this. No pains 
on our part shall be spared to bring about so desirable a 
consummation. 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

By the Late IOLO MORGAN wo, B.B.D. 

THE language of these triads, as we have them, is of 
that period between the time wherein the Romans quitted 
Britain till about the close of the thirteenth century. It 
differs no more from that of Howel's Laws than what 
might have been expected from the difference of object 
in a new and old code ; a new order of things had taken 
place in the age of Howel widely different from the age 
of Moelmutius in these things alterations had been 
growing greater and greater for ages. In the language 
we perceive but little difference between that of 500 and 
1 ] 30 ; from this last period to the present day, English 
words and English idioms have mottled the language a 
little, especially the vulgar dialect ; but no good writer 
ever uses either one or the other of them ; the legitimate 
words and idioms are still perfectly retained, and the 
difference between the literary language of the present 
day, and that of 2300 years ago, consists entirely in the 
new compounds that have been formed to designate new 
ideas that have been excited or suggested by our suc- 
cession of knowledge, by modern discoveries and im- 
provements in philosophy, and the arts and sciences in 
general, with those figurative, metaphorical, and some- 
times catachrestical senses that are the unavoidable, and 
indeed natural, effects of such accessions of new ideas. 
The Charter of Llandaff is the oldest specimen of prose 
that we have of ascertained date ; we are sure that this 
never became liable to insensible alterations of time by 
frequent transcript. It was not a thing of common use, 
or common amusement, so as to be continually copied 
through every age, and by such means be insensibly 
altering as it was carried along through many ages ; and 
yet the language of it, divested of nothing but its antique 
orthography, is so similar to that of Howel's age as not 
to be greatly distinguished. Divest the Welsh of the 
present day of its new ideas, and adhere to etymological 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 5 

and grammatical purity, and we shall not be able to 
point any great difference between it and that of Howel, 
that of the Moelmutian Triads, or that of the Charter of 
Llandaff; so that those who might attempt to fix the 
period wherein these triads were written, from anything 
merely in the language, will find themselves on a wrong 
pursuit ; the language will correspond sufficiently with 
that of any period subsequent to the Roman empire, 
down to at least the commencement, and even an ad- 
vanced period, of the fourteenth century. 

We may fairly form other conjectures with respect to 
them than the preceding, without in the least impeaching 
their authenticity, and amongst others the following : 
The Laws of Dyfnwal are expressly said in Howel's 
Laws to have existed till that very time, and to have 
been in a considerable degree the basis of his code. It 
is not at all probable that, after he had made such use of 
them in his new laws as might have appeared proper, 
he should cause all to be destroyed and annihilated ; even 
should he have entertained such an unreasonable and 
silly wish to no useful or even gratifying purpose, it is 
not probable that he could have accomplished it in a 
country and amongst a people of some literature, who 
cultivated and wrote in their own language, as was then 
the fact in Wales. Of course MS. copies of the reputed 
Laws of Dyfnwal would be found in several hands and 
places. Many passages in Howel's Laws are, from their 
remarkable brevity, very obscure ; for instance, the laws 
respecting aliens, the mention of the teisbantyle, of the 
gwrthrifiad, of Cymry benbaladr, &c., whence it would 
soon become necessary to search for everything that could 
in any degree elucidate such passages ; and to what could 
they recur with so much propriety as to the ancient Laws 
of Dyfnwal, which, in the greatest probability, were extant 
in MS. for a considerable time after Howel. Thus would 
they be necessarily re-copied, MS. copies multiplied, and 
from the necessity, at least utility, that occasioned this, 
they would have been with the Laws of Howel as indis- 
pensable concomitants, brought down to a late period, to 



6 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

the time of Henry VIII. , in whose time Wales became 
incorporated with England, and Howel's Laws, till then 
in use and force, were abolished. Hence we find nothing 
but what is very agreeable to, and indeed little if any- 
thing less than the necessary effects of things that as 
necessarily occur in the ordinary course of nature, in the 
circumstance of the Laws of Dyfnwal Moelrnud reaching 
the present day, from the very remote period of 2600 
years ago, nearly the same in substance as when the code 
was first formed ; and though in language and expression 
altered by the insensible gradations of a very long period 
of half the age of the world yet I believe not so much 
even in that as some who are not acquainted with the 
Welsh language its roots and structure may suppose. 
Should an experiment be tried to separate the original 
text from the interwoven commentary, I will not venture 
to say that it would be successful ; but, possessed of time 
and leisure, I should myself feel but very little despair 
in entering upon such an attempt. 

This kind of commentary could not have been neces- 
sary in the time of Dyfnwal, nor indeed for ages after- 
wards. The simple original text of each Triad was for 
a long period sufficiently understood without an expla- 
nation ; it could not have been necessary till the original 
triads had, by passing through a long succession of ages, 
especially those of the Roman period, become obsolete 
and obscure. Whether this commentary was attached 
to and blended with the original text immediately on the 
Britons being left to govern themselves by the Romans, 
and the Laws of Dyfnwal were restored whether it was 
soon or not till long after whether before Howel, by 
him, or in his time, or subsequently to his time, and how 
much, cannot be ever ascertained. Nor is it, I believe, 
known whether, during the Roman period, the Britons 
were allowed their own ancient laws, or whether there 
exist any documents by Roman writers that would clear 
up this point. By the oldest Welsh writings one would 
be disposed to believe they had been, at least in some 
degree, indulged in this, especially with respect to their 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 7 

agrarian laws, or the territorial franchise, and its at- 
tendant privileges and honours. Had these laws been 
once totally laid aside, and lands appropriated on the 
principle they now are, we know not how it could have 
been possible to revive them, and bring them into general 
use. For in general use they appear to have been in the 
time of Howel, and their principles admitted into his 
code. They must in all probability have continued un- 
interruptedly down through the Roman period to the age 
of Howel, as they did for some ages afterwards; for had 
there, at any time of the period under consideration, been 
any, or at least many, great landed proprietors, we cannot 
conceive that they would easily have been prevailed upon 
to give their estates up pro bono publico to the use of 
such as they might, on their own favourite principles of 
injustice, have termed a swinish multitude. 

I have given it as my opinion that our language has 
not been greatly altered from what it was in the time of 
Dyfnwal, more than 2000 years ago, especially in its 
radicals and structure ; but, admitting that it had, we 
may still suppose that, notwithstanding such an alteration 
in language, the laws might well have continued un- 
altered in their fundamentals ; for, being of a general and 
perspective use, they would insensibly adopt the idiom of 
the time, and successively of every time, through which 
they passed along ; and, as their object insensibly varied 
with time, which introduced new objects of mental and 
corporeal sense and interest, of course new ideas, so 
comments would become dilated into a paraphrase of more 
or less amplitude, as the object of its principle would have 
become more or less varied by time, and the vicissitudes 
of nature, from what it appeared in its original state 
when first it became the occasion of a law. Such a 
paraphrase would naturally fall into the idiom of the 
time wherein it became necessary, and a law continuing 
the same in its principle with reference to its object, 
notwithstanding any alteration of words and idiom which 
expressed or declared it, would still, with the greatest 
propriety, be ascribed to him with whom it originated. 



8 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

Hence we may fairly infer that all the alterations in 
the Welsh Laws of Dyfnwal, as well as in their language, 
were less the effects of legislation than of the natural 
effects of time, and new orders of things insensibly growing 
up in the world in the political and scientifical, super- 
inducing the same in the moral world, in a considerable 
degree. No abrogation of those ancient laws seerns to 
have taken place, but as their objects also became, as we 
may say, abrogated, by the vicissitudes of time and of 
nature. 

There are several instances of the triad, in its original 
simple text, without any commentary, where no alteration 
of time, or of any other circumstance, could possibly 
have obscured the principle or its object, or have ren- 
dered an explanation requisite. Such are Nos. 152, 178, 
188, 196, 220, &c., &c. 

Howel's Laws have certainly for their basis those of 
Dyfnwal Moelmud, of which they seem to be less an 
alteration than an explanation ; and it is remarkable that 
the most prominent feature of alteration in Howel is the 
substitution of the Christian for the druidical religion. 

O 

With respect to property, there seems to have been no 
real or fundamental alteration : it was more properly 
regulated or accommodated to varied circumstances and 
orders of things ; but, fundamentally, with reference to 
landed and rnoveable property, the alteration was but 
little in the laws of the Cymry. For they had for their 
solid foundations the adamantine rocks of justice and 
equity, whereon, with respect to themselves, they might 
have stood for ever, had they not been attacked from 
without by predatory powers that surrounded them 
powers that had never been trained up under the tutelage 
of justice that never to this hour submitted to, or listened 
for a moment, to its dictates. 

All that are hitherto known of our ancient memorials 
are in triads. The Fourth Book of Howel's Laws is in 
triads ; the Laws of Dyfnwal Moelmud were most pro- 
bably in triads ; and, in our most ancient specimens of 
literature, triads are more to be confided in than any- 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 9 

thing whatever in any other form of prose. The internal 
evidence of authenticity will, I believe, be found con- 
siderable in these triads. 

In Edward Lloyd's Catalogue of Welsh MSS. in 
Hengwrt Library, we find, amongst other laws, the Laws 
of Dyfnwal Moelmud. The copy is most probably there 
still, but no access to that library can now be obtained. 

There is in the Ashmolean Museum, at Oxford, a 
large collection of Mr. Edward Lloyd's papers and cor- 
respondence, made up into four or five large volumes. 
In the index to one volume I find the Laws of Dyfnwal 
Moelmud ; but, turning to the page, I found it torn out. 

Let us not misunderstand or misrepresent what we 
contend for. It is not for a written . code of laws, of 
almost five hundred years before Christ, by Dyfnwal 
Moelmud, it is only for laws ascribed to him, that appear 
to have been actually extant in writing about the be- 
ginning of the ninth century. When they were first 
committed to writing we dare not attempt to ascertain ; 
how long they remained in only the voice of tradition 
we know not, but we may have our conjectures; and we 
caution the searcher out of historical facts to remember 
that we offer the little that we have to say only as con- 
jectures. Conjectures are fair, and have not unfrequently 
been successful in their researches: after exploring a 
great many recesses, they have, in many instances, ulti- 
mately discovered important truths. In our researches 
after truth we cannot always we cannot often discover 
the pre-supposed object of our inquiries ; but, failing in 
this, we may discover to a certainty that no such object 
ever existed but in our own misconceptions our own pre- 
conceptions possibly our own ignorance. But to dis- 
cover clearly that we have been mistaken, is to discover 
a very important truth, that may, at least should, operate 
as a powerful caution to us for the future. Thus we 
may become properly guarded against those " strong 
delusions " that induce us to " believe lies." It is an 
unpleasant circumstance for a man to discover, when too 
late, that he has rashly, if not foolishly, committed 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. C 



10 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

himself; and against such a misfortune (fora misfortune 
it is) a wise man will studiously be on his guard. It is 
fair in every man to give his conjectures ; but let them 
be professedly conjectures, and not boldly asserted facts, 
for which he cannot produce legitimate evidences. Con- 
jectures may remain for ever open to conviction ; bold 
assertions are never so. 

CURSORY OBSERVATIONS ON THE TRIADS OF DYFNWAL 
MOELMUD. 

By the Same. 

It is unanimously said by all our ancient writers, bards 
and traditions, that Dyfnwal Moelmud was the first 
regular lawgiver of the Cyrary in Britain. It is, how- 
ever, not as unanimously agreed who he was, i. e., whose 
son he was ; for some genealogists make him to be the 
son of Prydain ap Aedd Mawr, the first federal head or 
sovereign of this island, and call him sometimes Dyfnwal 
ap Aedd Mawr, at other times Dyfnfarth ap Aedd Mawr ; 
but others say that he was otherwise descended, and that 
it was in right of his wife, an only child of the preceding 
sovereign, that he succeeded to the monarchy. 

He is supposed to have lived about four hundred years 
before the Christian era. His laws were, for much more 
than a thousand years, held in the highest repute, and are 
in the Laws of Howel expressly said to have continued 
until his time ; but then, owing to the changes that must 
have taken place in so long a succession of ages, and the 
different circumstances of political society, many of them 
were become obsolete in the time of Howel, many of 
them dark and but ill understood ; and it was found 
absolutely necessary to new model the Laws, and to adapt 
them to the then existing circumstances of the nation, 
abrogating many of the old laws, amending and ex- 
plaining others, and to make others that were new. For 
this purpose a national legislative assembly was convened 
by Howel the old laws were taken into consideration ; 
and for this purpose we may fairly presume that written 
copies of them were properly prepared, most of them, 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 



doubtless, from ancient writings, others possibly from the 
practices and the traditions of the law courts, and perhaps 
of the nation at large. 

These laws had now passed through more than twelve 
centuries, and must have undergone very considerable 
alterations by insensible degrees; they must have been 
greatly affected by the Roman and Christian civilization 
and learning, and had doubtlessly been long before this 
period committed to writing. They were, however, still 
considered as the Laws of Dyfnwal Moelmud, and under 
such a title were taken into consideration ; and to prepare 
the proper documents for the senatorial assembly, Howel 
engaged Blegywryd, (Blegalredus,) Archdeacon of Llan- 
daff, the greatest scholar of his age. All or most of the 
ancient memorials of the Cymry were either in verse or 
in triads. It is highly probable that the Laws of Moel- 
mutius were in triads, at least many of them, as the 
Fourth Book of Howel's Laws is ; and in their outlines, 
or fundamental principles, might still with sufficient pro- 
priety have been termed the Laws of Dyfnwal Moelmud, 
notwithstanding the alterations, and most probably im- 
provements, that must have taken place in them during 
the lapse of so many ages. I assume, for argument's 
sake, that Blegywryd compiled those triads, and made 
out the best copies of them in his power; but a great 
number of them must have been at this time antiquated, 
obsolete, and obscure : hence it was necessary for the 
compiler to explain or comment upon them as he went 
on in forming his compilation. The triads under con- 
sideration at present have all the appearances and colours 
of such a document. The perpetually occurring com- 
ments of sef hynny, sef yw hynny, sef yw penbaladr, sef 
yw teisbantyle, gwrthrifiad, cyfallwy, ceiniog baladr, and 
numerous other instances, sufficiently authorize my ideas 
sufficiently warrant such a conjecture. Now admitting 
this to be fact, it might yet be objected what evidences 
or reasons have we to suppose that the present set of 
triads may be considered as a copy of one of the supposed 
documents ? and that any of them should have been 



12 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

preserved until our age, as they had ceased to be the 
laws of the nation ? To this we may answer that they 
still retained the original outline, which was necessary to 
be kept always in view contained the fundamental 
principles of even the new laws, and afforded lights that 
were very useful, and often indispensable, towards the 
clear understanding of the new code. To instance a few 
passages. I have often asked the ablest critics in the 
language what the terms penbaladr, teisbantyle, pedw- 
argwr, gorescynnydd, and others, meant, and I never 
could obtain an answer that was in any degree plausible. 
The ablest philologists have never been able to explain to 
me some of the most important passages in the Eighteenth 
Chapter of the Second Book of Howel's Laws. But I 
will venture to say that whoever reads Triads 69, 89, 
93, 94, also 65, 80, 214, and some others, will clearly 
understand this chapter, as clearly as they see the sun of 
a bright summer noon. 

To know what teisbantyle means, he must absolutely 
consult Triads 88, 166, 167, 170, &c. 

To understand penbaladr, let him read 63, 64, 151, 
167, 169, &c. Many other passages afford very clear 
explanations of Howel's Laws in important instances, and 
where no other explanations can on any rational idea be 
admitted. It is sufficiently obvious that, for this very 
reason, leaving aside all antiquarian reasons, it was found 
necessary to preserve the Triads of Dyfnwal Moelmud 
with their interwoven commentaries and explanations. 
For such obvious reasons were these triads retained ; and, 
with the Laws of Howel, through long ages of darkness 
and turmoil, making their way, they arrived at our own 
period. 

By the Moelmutian Laws, every aboriginal native was 
entitled to a specified portion of the national territory. 
To this franchise aliens could not be admitted, for the 
most obvious reasons ; it would have introduced a deluge 
of foreigners amongst them. To obviate this, it was 
found necessary to enact that no alien could be admitted 
to the territorial franchise till his posterity had attained 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 13 

to the nintli descent, or to the privileges of it by a stated 
successive number of regular intermarriages with free-born 
women, and that with the consent of their tribes. To this 
degree they might by such intermarriages attain in the 
fourth descent, or in the great-grandson (gorescynnydd 
or pedwarygwr; in English, the possessor, or fourth man}; 
an irregular marriage kept an alien family a degree back 
in the legal number of descent. 

Our remote ancestors appear to have liberally patronized 
such arts and sciences as were known to them, and the 
genuine principles of civilization. To effect this, every 
native that was a master of any of their sciences, was 
endowed with the allotted portion of land, exclusive of 
what, as an aboriginal native, he was entitled to. An 
alien, learned in such branches of knowledge, was entitled 
to this portion, and to all its inseparably attendant rights 
and privileges. But it was experienced that this also 
introduced an oppressive inundation of foreigners, and, 
to check this evil, a law was made that no alien could be 
admitted to this franchise ; but his son, by a constitutional 
marriage, might, with consent of the sovereign, or of a 
national convention, but not otherwise. 

The noble or privileged sciences were the bardic sciences* 
literary arts, the principal or fundamental mechanic arts 
of smiths and builders in wood and stone ; and to secure a 
sufficiency of instructors, the territorial franchise was 
extended to learned and skilful foreigners ; but inconveni- 
ences thence arising, it was found necessary, though not 
to forbid aliens the exercise of such branches of knowledge, 
yet greatly to restrict them, for the reasons already 
given. 

The CORANIAID (Coritani) are said to have been 
Asiatics a very learned and skilful people were at first 
beneficial instructors, but afterwards became very tyran- 
nical oppressors, so that the Cymry were provoked to 
rise up against them, and cut off the greatest number of 
them. May we not fairly conjecture that this was the 
real cause of the restrictive laws respecting learned and 
skilful aliens ? This, indeed, is not historically mentioned, 



14 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

but it is said that, owing to the great inconveniences 
experienced from the admission of too many aliens no 
particular nation named the restrictive laws were made, 
that require the express permission of the sovereignty of 
either the prince or the convened nation before the son of 
an alien, by a legal native mother, could be admitted in 
right of his learned or mechanic profession to the terri- 
torial franchise. Consult Triads, 29, 39, 40, 41, 47, 53, 
68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 84, &c., also Trioedd 
Bonedd. 

It may be pretty clearly inferred from the Moelmutian 
Triads that letters were hardly, if at all known, or their 
use but very little understood ; for the only methods 
adopted for the preservation of laws, the memorials of 
events, of religion, of ethics, &c., were bardic, patriarchal, 
and jurisprudential tradition, with someother things, as the 
erection of large stones on various occasions, the removal 
or destruction of which was punished with death, unless 
the consent of prince and a national legislative convention 
authorized such a proceeding. The bardic traditions were 
retained in song, and prescribed forms of aphorisms, 
chiefly triads. Patriarchal tradition was retained by the 
patriarch of the tribe (pencenedl), and his co-assisting 
seven elders, who transmitted their tradition from one to 
another. The eldership never died, for when one dropped, 
his place was supplied by another, and these elders trans- 
mitted their knowledge to the new pencenedl, if he had 
not been already one of their number, as well as to the 
new elder or seventh man (seithwr), a simple but very 
effectual institution. Jurisprudential tradition was re- 
tained by the judges, and other officers of the law courts, 
an institution that never died. Laws were their peculiar 
object. See Triads 71, 74, 97, 225, 226, &c., where these 
tradition-preserving institutions are mentioned, without 
any reference to letters, and as the only authentic and 
admissive memorials. 

Letters, and books, and also literary men are, however, 
mentioned in several of these triads. See Nos. 54, 72, 
103, 129, 192, 195, 204, 231, 235, &c. But it must be 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 15 

allowed that these legislative and jurisprudential triads 
must have received successive improvements, and we 
know not how many additions, from the progressive 
accessions of knowledge during the Roman periods, and 
owing to the introduction of Christianity, and for that 
reason we must admit the fairness of the conjecture, that 
the appearance of a knowledge of letters in these triads 
might be, amongst such additions, adapted to the several 
periods through which they passed. Indeed this may be 
plausibly enough inferred from the tenor of many of these 
triads. One circumstance, however, fairly enough admits 
of an inference that letters were known previous to the 
Roman invasion. The 103rd Triad forbids the sending 
out of the kingdom a book, gold and wheat, without the 
consent of the sovereign and his country. This is hardly 
applicable to any period subsequent to our acquisition of 
Roman literature, of the improvement of Roman agricul- 
ture, or of the opulence of the Roman period ; when it is 
highly probable that gold and wheat were, or might be, 
freely sent into foreign countries, without being under 
any restriction. We find from the 54th Triad that a 
book, a sword, and a harp, were so sacredly the property 
of a whole tribe,-^-or its jewels, as it is expressed, that 
no sentence or decree of any law court could deprive them 
of any one of them, to satisfy debts, penalties, &c. This 
does not easily apply to the Roman, or any subsequent 
period. 

Similar inferences may be also drawn from another 
triad or two. 

The memory of events, and particularly of claims to 
lands, were preserved by huge stones bearing the mark 
or symbol of the tribe, erected on various occasions. 
Such stones were considered as a species of title deeds, 
and to remove or destroy them without the public consent 
of the sovereign and the country was punishable with 
death. See Triads 94, 99, 100, &c. 

It appears from Nos. 93, 94, &c., that the original heir- 
at-law to an estate possessed a singular privilege. If his 
father, grandfather, or great-grandfather, had sold the 



16 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

estate, this heir-at-law, son, grandson, or great-grandson, 
on repaying what was originally given for it by the 
purchaser, might reclaim his patrimony, which could not 
be withheld from him. A custom of the same nature, I 
understand, prevails to this very day in Norway ; we find 
it also mentioned in the Laws of Howel. 

It was usual amongst the ancient Cymry, as amongst 
the Romans, arid other ancient nations, to adopt a son, 
when, having no other son, an heir was wished for. 
This appears from Triads 123, 247. 

Agriculture was highly respected and patronized. A 
criminal flying to a plough at work was entitled there to 
sanctuary, and to the same at a place of worship. This 
appears from Triad 173. We find this custom alluded to 
by Taliesin, in the following passage: 

" Ni nawdd arad heb heyon heb had." 

The 64th Triad is highly interesting, and gives a clear 
idea of the ancient principles of government and legisla- 
tion amongst the Cymry. These principles appear also 
in several others. 

Bygant, in Triad 135, seems to be a coin, or something 
used for a similar purpose. It is derived from the pre- 
positive by, and cant, a ring, in composition gant. Iron 
rings, we are told by ancient writers, were used as coins 
by the ancient Britons were their medium of commerce ; 
ceiniog, a penny, seems also to be derived from cant, plur. 
caint, adjective, ceiniog, and nothing has been, or still is, 
more common in the Welsh language than to use an 
adjective substantively ; mawnog, a turbary, rhedynog, a 
place overrun with fern, brwynog, a rushy place, eneiniog, 
the anointed, llwynog, a fox, ysgyfarnog, a hare, are all 
adjectives, of precisely the same kind of derivation, used 
substantively. 

By the 102nd Triad it should seem that it was at one 
time found necessary to secure to the inhabitants of a 
town, or district, the right of taking water from a spring, 
brook, or river. This may be well enough accounted for 
thus. When lands were first inclosed, and became private 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 17 

property, it was natural enough for those within whose 
inclosures springs appeared, or through which brooks or 
rivers ran, to consider these, as well as the lands, their 
peculiar property ; hence they would forbid all others to 
walk over, and by doing so injure, the grass, hay, or corn 
on the lands, to fetch water; but the general iriconveni- 
eiicy, and thence injustice, of such a conduct would soon 
appear and be felt ; hence the necessity of a law to permit 
all to fetch water, at all times, from springs, brooks, and 
rivers. 

By another law, see Triad 49, iron mines were secured 
to the public at large; every individual had an uninter- 
rupted right to dig iron ore wherever it might be found, 
as also to gather acorns wherever he might find them. 
But it appears from Triad 238 that no one could be 
permitted to cut down an oak, birch, or buckthorn, 
without the permission of the sovereign and his country. 
For not felling the oak a sufficient reason appears, for in 
the earliest ages the acorn was a principal article of food ; 
perhaps they also drew a kind of wine from the birch, 
and physic from the buckthorn, as the Welsh do to this 
very day. 

A horn, with the sovereign's mark or symbol on it, 
was the commission or warrant of the RHINGYLL, and not 
a written instrument or authority. With this horn in 
his hand he was authorized to cross over inclosed grounds, 
and to go wherever he had an occasion by the nearest 
way possible, whether public roads or paths, or not. His 
office was to alarm the country on the approach of enemies, 
to summon all to legislative assemblies, courts of justice, 
places of public worship, and to join with their barking 
dogs in the expulsion of a malefactor that had been sen- 
tenced to be banished, till he had been for sixty hours 
out of sight. See Triads 1 13, &c. ; also Trioeddy Cludau, 
No. 26. 

By many of these triads, and much more so by Trioedd 
y Cludau, it appears that at the time of enacting these 
laws, a great part of the nation were yet in the nomadic 
state. The terms carddychwel, cargychwyn, carllawedrog, 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. D 



18 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

cargoll, &c., in these triads, as well as in Howel's Laws, 
all clearly indicate that the Cymry, in the earliest ages of 
their possession of this island, lived in caravans, or move- 
able dwellings, as some Tartar hordes do at this very day. 
The Cymry, at the time of the earliest notices of them by 
Greek writers, lived very near, if not amongst the Tartars, 
and probably had many usages that were common to 
their Tartarian and Scythian neighbours, among others, 
this of living in what we may term travelling or moveable 
towns, wandering from place to place. But, however, 
many of them appear to have had more fixed habitations 
in the time of Dyfnwal ; they seem to have been about 
quitting the nomadic state, but had not generally done 
so. We find, from ancient writers, that the old Britons 
were remarkably skilful in the construction and manage- 
ment of wheel carriages ; witness their curious war 
chariots. These carriages enabled them to continue 
longer in the nomadic state than otherwise they should 
have done. 

Nid a cosp ar ynfyd A'r ynfyd a a ar y post, is a very 
ancient proverb ; it is thus found in all our ancient col- 
lections of proverbs. But who understands properly the 
meaning or drift of it ? Not one that has never seen these 
triads. Some, however, have endeavoured to torture it 
into some kind of sense, but without any success. Dr. 
Davies, in his printed collection, has it, Nid a gost ar 
ynfyd, &c. And in Dr. Myfyr's Collection, also printed, 
it is, Nid a y post ar ynfyd, &c. But both these great 
doctors failed in their attempts ; and yet in both of these 
collections we find a few lines before Nid a cosp ar 
ynfyd, without any addition. Every one readily under- 
stands this, and sees the justness of the idea; but had 
either of our doctors read the 25th, 106th, and 148th 
Triads, the proverb in its full length would have been 
very clear to them, and its origin discovered. It is 
observable that Howel's Laws frequently refer to a 
proverb, for instance, Nid rhodd ond o fodd, and others. 

Brydd, in Triads 198, 244, is a singular term, and in 
its application exhibits a singular and very just prin- 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 19 

ciple. It is here used as a substantive, and seemingly in 
a strong figurative or catachrestical sense. Brydd, in 
Monmouthshire, is used as an adjective, and signifies 
weak, feeble, impotent. Adjectives, as observed above, 
are often used substantively ; whence possibly a man of 
no landed property, as the brydd seems by Triad 224 to 
have been, was considered as an impotent and ineffective 
member of society ; and having nothing but his life or 
limbs to lose, it was not considered just to oblige him to 
take up arms in defence of the properties of others, having 
nothing to defend of his own but his own person. It 
seems to have been admitted that he had a right to defend 
that in whatever way he might think proper, and that 
nobody ought F6 oblige him to hazard his own life for 
nothing. But if from patriotic affection for his nation 
and country he engaged in their wars, or in any other 
case disinterestedly saved the life of a Cymro, he was 
properly honoured and rewarded by being admitted to a 
trwydded, that is, the assigned portion of land to which 
every free-born native was entitled. The brydd must have 
been either a free-born native, who had sold his patri- 
mony, or forfeited it ; or he was the son or descendant of 
an alien not yet arrived at the degree of gorescynnydd, or 
pedwarygwr. 

Many singular traits of ancient usages and regulations 
are to be met with in many more of these triads, of 
which much more might be said, and much more will 
occur to every philosophical reader. 

Trioedd y Cludau, or Caravan Triads, ascribed also to 
Dyfnwal Moelmud, exhibit a picture of a much earlier 
period of society. These seem to have been intended 
for the regulation of such portions of the community or 
nation as were still nomades ; but when they ceased to be 
so, their triads applied in no important instance to any 
other state of society, and were of course not objects of 
alteration or improvement. 

By these it appears that their towns or villages were 
little or nothing else but a number of caravans, or move- 
able dwellings. Yet we find amongst them agriculture, 



20 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

seemingly in open and common fields, and the joint 
concern and labour of every member of the community, 
whence the term cyfarwys, which signifies joint culti- 
vation, or joint cultivators (cyf-ar-wys) ; every member 
of the trefgordd, or clud, was a joint proprietor. We 
also find the bardic institution and regular religious 
worship we find regular arid patriarchal legislation we 
find an organized and rational jurisprudence we find 
smiths, and the use of iron, wheel carriages, implied in 
the terms carr and dud we find harpers, the cultivation 
of poetry and music amongst them, and, what is better, 
the cultivation of wisdom and morality ; and one of its 
main fundamentals, marriage, held in the highest respect. 
Besides these things we find but little of art and science. 

The heads of tribes are here termed rKiaint, that is, 
parents, or patriarchs. Rhi originally signified no more 
than a parent, whence rhieni. RHiain also seems to have 
signified originally a matron, or female parent, or one 
that was capable of becoming such ; but when in after 
ages rhi came to be used for a lord or sovereign, the 
tyrant rather than the father of his people, rhiain came 
also to be used for a lady, the wife, sister, or daughter of 
a rhi. 

Marriages in all these different sets of triads were con- 
sidered as of the greatest importance were the funda- 
mentals, as it were, of all civil and territorial rights. 
Marriage was a qualification absolutely necessary for the 
rights of exercising legislative powers. No man could 
be a pencenedl, a henuriad, a teisbantyle, &c., unless 
married, and the father of a family. It was by means 
of marriages only, and not possibly by any other, that 
the descendants of aliens could attain, by the rights of 
mamwys, to the rights, privileges, and honour of free-born 
or noble natives. Even nine descents, or nine thousands 
of bastards, could never attain to this. The bastard of 
even a free-born or noble native was absolutely an alien. 
Such maxims of political society reflect the highest 
honour on our simple, but truly sensible and wise an- 
cestors ; and such ought to prevail in all communities that 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 21 

assume to themselves the character of civilized societies. 
Wherever marriages are not held in the highest esteem, 
and violations of marriage in the highest abhorrence, 
what vices, what crimes are there that will not prevail ? 

The principles of government and legislation, exhibited 
in Triad 64, by which the nation and its territories were 
united into one, though subdivided into several indepen- 
dent states or subsovereignties, were admirable. What a 
noble institution the rhaith gwlad a chywlad was ! What 
a check upon monarchy, at the same time retaining all 
its advantages ! It is certain that much may be urged 
in favour of monarchy, strongly and effectually bridled ; 
whilst unbridled or feebly restrained monarchy is the 
superlative degree of infernality. 

Every free-born native had a right by his pencenedl, 
wherever he felt himself beyond the reach of law, to 
move the country, (cyffravv gwlad,) and demand a rhaith 
to consider and determine his cause. 

The nation in its legislative meetings and capacities 
was represented by the pencenedloedd, i. e., the elders or 
patriarchs of tribes, pointed out infallibly by nature, and 
inviolably by the national institution, arid not by tumul- 
tuous and corrupt elections ; and to this honour every 
individual of a tribe had an equally fair chance of at- 
taining. The institution of teisbantyle was a noble, most 
excellent and effectual method of collecting the wisdom 
of the nation ; he was commissioned to, or invested with, 
this office by the rhaith aflafar, or coelbren, quite and 
securely free from tumult, corruption, and party ani- 
mosities. 

Voltaire, after mentioning William Penn and his fellow 
Quakers in their settlement and government of Penn- 
sylvania with enthusiastic admiration, mournfully admits 
that such a community, actuated by such principles of 
pure morality, peace and benevolence, would soon become 
the prey of their more barbarous neighbouring govern- 
ments and nations. This appears to have been the case 
with our ancestors hence all their misfortunes ; they 
had too much of true civilization for the early periods of 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

a barbarized world, wherein their nobly rational insti- 
tutions appeared. They were not sufficiently ferocious 
or internalized to make an effectual stand against the 
incursions of brutish hordes that surrounded them, the 
Caisariaid, Gwyddyl-Ffichty, Saeson, JEingl, &c. ; and it 
was not till after they had been for ages harassed by such 
savage tribes, that they sunk into what may properly be 
called barbarism, which appears not to have been the 
case with us till after we had been plundered, and im- 
poverished, and depressed by our savage neighbours from 
the continent. The term barbarism should by no means 
be applied to the patriarchal simplicity which appears to 
have been the character of our ancestors, whose insti- 
tutions were calculated to do justice to those who were 
subject to them, to act with humanity towards aliens, and 
to patronize all the learning and arts that were known to 
them. After they had been ruined, and their fine insti- 
tutions destroyed by their invaders, it is no wonder that 
they fell into a state of barbarism, out of which they 
have but very imperfectly emerged, nor will they till a 
better order of things takes place, and prevails in the 
world. The object of true civilization is to patronize 
and enforce true morality, rational religion, truly bene- 
ficent arts and sciences, and that equality which genuine 
and properly restrained liberty demands, to distribute 
justice, to secure competency to every member of the 
community, arid to curb with an invincible bridle the 
arrogances and tyrannies of power, rank, title, and ill- 
gotten wealth, that at present enslave every part of the 
world the whole race of mankind. 

A respectable writer is of opinion, and supports it with 
very plausible reasons, that mankind were not originally 
in that state of ignorance and barbarism into which they 
afterwards fell, but that just ideas of religion, morals, 
and of all the constituents of genuine civilization pre- 
vailed amongst them. But when the falling away took 
place, commencing, as he reasonably supposes, on the 
plains of Shinar, at the tower of Babel, whence the bru- 
talized hordes became dispersed over almost the whole 



MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. '23 

world, all the ancient morality, justice and happiness 
became nearly extinct. Yet he supposes that a few tribes 
retained a good deal of it, and that it appeared in the 
institutions of the race of Abraham, of the Persian 
Guebres, of the Indian Bramins, of the Celtic Druids, 
and of a few others, wherein were retained pure notions 
of religion and morality, correct maxims of justice and 
benevolence, rational principles of government, and a 
proper sense of the great importance of peace and re- 
ciprocal good will amongst mankind, with the truly 
useful arts and sciences of an age of the world when 
nothing beyond the real necessaries and true comforts of 
life were sought after. I am warmly disposed to coincide 
with him in this opinion, and to add to it another of my 
own, which is, that ever since this grand apostacy from 
primeval rectitude took place, every little nation that re- 
tained any remains of the religion, justice, benevolence, 
and, to use a comprehensive term, civilization of the first 
ages, have always been a depressed people have been 
always harassed by the apostate nations. They never 
attained to the height and power of empire, at least for 
any length of time worth mentioning. They never had 
a permanent kingdom in this world. 

But to return to the Triads of Dyfnwal Moelmud. 
The first fifty, or thereabout, seem to be introductory, 
and only deliver abstract, ideas, or first principles. I have 
assumed that Blegywryd collected, compiled, or arranged 
them for the consideration arid use of Howel's convention. 
He appears to have been, in conjunction with Howel and 
a few more, a dictator or prompter to this convention. 
It was obviously necessary for him to lay down first 
principles. Ideas may be admitted to have occurred to 
him, but may plausibly enough be supposed to be too 
refined for the age of Dyfnwal, and possibly not requisite 
in that age of well meaning simplicity. 

Thus have I formed my conjectures, and given my 
opinion of these triads. The title which they bear might 
well startle an intelligent antiquary. The less intelligent 
would either implicitly admit them in their present form 



24 MOELMUTIAN TRIADS. 

to have been drawn up in the remote age of Dyfnwal, 
and perhaps by Dyfnwal himself, or totally reject them 
as spurious, without any farther examination or inquiry. 
Neither of these extremes can be admitted as rational. 
For my own part, I always on such occasions as this 
avoid high flights. I wish to keep sufficiently low to be 
within the regions of rationality and probability ; at the 
same time that I detest that grovelling scepticism in 
historical researches that believes nothing but what is 
actually present to its eye. 

For the laws ascribed to Dyfnwal Moelmud we need 
not we cannot safely go much higher than the age of 
Howel, in whose time, we are expressly told, they were 
in existence, and even in force, though many of them had 
become antiquated, obsolete and obscure, and ill adapted 
to the then state of society. To endeavour to trace these 
triads up much higher than the age of Howel, that is, in 
the form they now appear, would be quite unwarrantable, 
or in any considerable degree to do so. The language 
will but ill admit of it, and still less would many other 
circumstances, and perhaps amongst others, the frequent 
references to the three principalities of under names, and 
in the manner they then existed, North Wales, Powys, 
and South Wales with Morganwg. I say perhaps, for 
these and the practices of their law courts, as mentioned 
in those triads, are, by some passages in Howel's Laws, 
said to have been before his time that is, the law courts 
as described by him. But the three principalities had 
been founded long before his time, even from the time 
wherein the sons of Cunedda Wledig and their heirs were 
invested with these several sovereignties. Our historians 
that suppose Rhodri the Great to have, as it were, created 
them, are very much mistaken. The hereditary suc- 
cession to each of them had by intermarriages devolved 
on Rhodri. He had become heir to each of them, but 
held them as separate states, and never united them into 
one state never incorporated them into one sovereignty 
but left them independently separate as he found them, 
to his three sons, on the ancient principles, that the eldest 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 25 

reigning prince of whichever of the three principalities 
should, as of old, be the supreme federal head of the 
nation and their countries. Such was Howel, when he 
convened all the principalities by their heads of tribes, 
and other representatives, to form a new code of laws. 
The law courts of the several principalities are described 
in the 248th, or last Triad. The accounts of them in 
Howel's Laws perfectly coincide with this triad, and 
assert that, they had existed in their several forms and 
practices before the time of Howel. See Howel's Laws 
p. 187. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

THOMAS AP EVAN AP RHYS. 

HE was a monk in the abbey of Margam, but was ex- 
pelled thence for his Lollardism. Because of his new 
opinions, he was confined for some time in Kenffig Castle, 
and from that place he addressed a petition in verse to 
Sir Matthew Cradoc of Swansea, soliciting his interference 
for setting him at liberty ; in which he succeeded. He 
afterwards married, and lived for some time in the parish 
of Llangynoid, where he kept a small farm. How long 
he continued there is not known, but when far advanced 
in years he lived at Margam, about which time he wrote 
the following account of his age in verse : 

" Un mil chwech cant yn gywrain, 
A phedair blwydd yn gyfain, 

Calan lonor, cyfrif t6g, 
Wyf gant a deg a'r hugain." 

In English thus : 

One thousand, six hundred, correctly, 
And four years completely, 
The first of January, a fair account, 
I am a hundred and thirty years of age. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. E 



26 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

About the year 1612 he was living at Tythegston ; in 
in the year 1615 he is mentioned in a genealogical manu- 
script thus: "Thomas Evan ap Rhys, who lately lived 
at Tythegston," whence we may very fairly infer that he 
was then dead, not removed to any place but to his long 
home. Supposing that he died in 1614, he must have 
been 140 years of age. 

Oral tradition has retained a great number of his 
prophecies; some of them are found in manuscripts of 
his own times, and possibly of his own writing. He 
was a good Welsh poet, and wrote a great number of 
religious and moral songs. 

Sir Matthew Cradoc died in 1500, whence it appears 
that Thomas ap Evan ap Rhys was then twenty-six years 
of age, and that he could not have been long in Margam 
Abbey, for none could be admitted as noviciates under 
twenty-five years of age. He could not therefore have 
made the vow of celibacy, which would have confirmed 
him a monk for life. Otherwise he must have tyeen 
admitted a noviciate, been expelled, confined in Kenffig 
Castle, and thence liberated, within the year 1500, in 
which, probably towards the latter end, occurred the 
death of Sir Matthew Cradoc. 

W. 

MISS ELIZABETH PRICE. 

This young woman was a cousin of Robert Vaughan, 
the antiquary, of Hengwrt, who died A.D. 1666. She 
was a poetess, was well versed in the rules and science of 
vocal song, and copied with her own hand a great number 
of the works of the old poets from the earliest times down 
to her own era. She also wrote many brief memorials 
of them, more, perhaps, than did any one else in the 
whole of North Wales either before or after her. The 
late lolo Morganwg used to say that he had seen in the 
possession of the Rev. Mr. Davies, of Penegos, as many, 
at least, as twenty large manuscript volumes, all in Miss 
Price's hand -writing. These consisted chiefly of poetry, 
but some contained pedigrees, some short notices of 



A POEM BY ST. TEILO.- 27 

events. Wonderful, indeed, was the patriotic industry of 
this clever woman. Yet how little is known of her ! 
Not one of her relatives neither Robert Vaughan of 
Hengwrt, nor Rowland Vaughan of Caergai, has left the 
least memorial of her. They have not even mentioned 
her name. It does not appear that Mr. Edward Llwyd, 
who published a long list of our old authors, and col- 
lectors of MSS., knew anything about her, otherwise he 
would undoubtedly have recorded her name with honour. 
Thus, 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear ; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its fragrance on the desert air. " 

Can W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., M.P. for Merionethshire, 
who is so well acquainted with the history and antiqui- 
ties of his native county, produce any written or oral 
traditions about her ? 

W. 



A POEM BY ST TEILO. 

Now when so many English and foreign scholars are 
turning their attention to Cymric literature, it is highly 
desirable that we should present our early documents to 
the world in as complete a form as possible. The Myvy- 
rian Archaiology has not exhausted the poetical com- 
positions of the sixth century, and I here produce one 
poem which I do not remember ever having seen in print. 
It is said to be the work not of Aneurin, Taliesin, or 
Merddin, but of no less a personage than Teilo, who 
died Archbishop of LlandafF, in A.D. 566. That Teilo 
was a bard is mentioned in the following Triad, 

" The three blessed sage-bards of the Isle of Britain : David, 
Teilo, and Padarn." 



A POEM BY ST. TEILO. 



And Cressy has this remark relative to him, 

" St. Theliaus called by the continuators of Madeburg, Anglicus 
vates de genere Bardorum" 

The poem is said to have been written by him as he 
was sailing to the Isle of Bardsey. There is nothing 
whatever, either in the metre, language, or sentiments, 
that would militate against the supposition that it is the 
real production of one of the three " gwynwyddigion 
Beirdd Ynys Prydain." 

TEGEINGL. 

LLYMA AWDL A GANT TEILAW SANT. 



1. 

Gofynnawd ysgen 
O Gyfrin awen, 
Py dyddwg ymgen 
Nog ymgais gordden, 
Cyflewyr ym perm 
Am pwy dysgywen, 
Mywerydd arien 
Ar allawr addien, 
Caffwyf cyfystren 
A chof Ceridwen, 
Py geir un achen 
A Deon dien, 
Ys bwyf gyfawen 
A mor ab Morien, 
Ag om llyfreu lien, 
Ag om dwfn eigen 
Cyfarchwyf im Rhen 
Dofydd dwfn angen. 

2. 

Angen am dylludd 
Anghof am amcudd, 
Anghall am cyfludd 
Angau im ys bei budd, 



Pan yw Lalch breilwy rhudd, 

Mi nim daw am cyrnmudd, 

Ysgawr gwawr llafnrudd, 

Im cyrch am edludd. 

Ar warthaf mor udd 

Engir o'm ymgudd, 

Ac nim dadanhudd 

Namyn dedwydd am hudd. 

Pan yw ef Ner nudd 

Am dwg o'm cystudd. 

Ys golud byd nim lludd 

Na thir na thai na thudd. 

Ys un am cythrudd 

Ys mwy am dyhudd. 

Ys menwyd im grudd 

Am atpeir anfudd 

Dofydd panyw ef Udd 

Am ysgar drabludd. 

Dofydd pan yw ef Nudd 

Am dwg yn adfudd. 

Teilo Sant ai cant pan ydoedd 

yn myned i Ynys Enlli. 
(O Lyfr Harri Sion o Bont y 

Pwi:) 



29 



SPECIMENS OF THE MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES.' 
By W. O. PUOHE. 

THE five next specimens are from the works of Cynddelw, 
a celebrated Powysian bard, who flourished from about 
A.D. 1150 to about 1200, and who extolled the martial 
deeds of several contemporary Princes of Wales. The 
first extract is from a poem addressed to Owen Cy veiliog, 
the poet last quoted ; three others are out of poems to 
the family of Madawg, Prince of Powys ; and the last is 
to the monks of Ystrad Marchell. 

1. In the court of Owen, the munificent, his favour 
sheds a sunlike influence; firmly stand his purpose and 
assurance; where are gentleness and freedom joined; 
where there is the game of prison-bars ; where there is 
drinking too, without regret, without denial, without any 
sort of want. 0, may the prince tumultuous as the 
flowing flood obtain a refuge in the realms of bliss ! 

" Yn llys Ewain hael, huanrod ei wir, 

Hydr ei ddir a'i daered ; 
Yny mae gwaredd a gwared ; 
Yny mae gvvarae gwaradred ; 
Yny mae yved, heb neued, heb nag, 

Heb nebawd eisiwed. 
Gorpo teyrn turv llanwed 
Yn nheyrnas nev nodded ! " 

2. He has left his lance, with mourning recollections, 
and his kindred bathed in gore ; the furious one has left 
us princely sons, who in their foes have left wounds to 
flow ; who, with their leader, pushed the spear, heroic 

1 This paper forms a part of the Introduction which the eminent 
Welsh lexicographer had prepared for his edition of the Mdbinogion. 
Other portions have appeared in Numbers of the CAMBRIAN JOURNAL 
(Old Series). As, however, the subject of the present paper is 
complete in itself, we have deemed it proper to alter the heading, or 
title, into the above form, in accordance with the requirements of a 
New Series. The MS. has been kindly furnished to us by W. Owen, 
Esq., of Tan y Gyrt, grandson of the late Dr. W. O. Pughe. ED. 
CAMS. JOUH. 



oU MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

whelps ; three ruthless eagles in the rush of lances ; three 
familiar with dire conflict, and with mangled bodies; 
three concurrent with fair gifts, and with minstrels; three 
in need prepared for aid, about the gates of Saxons ; 
three decided, dauntless, great their vengeance; three 
with weapons joined to stay a panic, in the van of troops 
by generous chieftains led ; three loud of fame along the 
field of comrade hawks : they, gallant youths, were wont 
to wash their brows from battle, fellers felling of the even 
ranks. 

" Edewis ei ron, gan govion galar, 

A geleu-rudd yn ngwelyddon j 
Edewis terwyn teyrn-veibion, 
A edeu geleu yn eu galon ; 
Tri ergyr-waew gly w, glew gan'aon ; 
Tri eryr ongyr angerddolion ; 
Tri chy vrin a thrin ae a thrychion ; 
Tri chy vred a ched a cherddorion ; 
Tri eorth am borth, am byrth saeson ; 
Tri eovn diovn, dialvorion ; 
Tri chy varv rhag tarv, rhag torv haelon ; 
Tri chlodlan gwalchlan gweilch vrodorion : 
Golchyn eu deurydd, dewr wesion, o gad, 

Gwastad gymynad gymynogion." 

3. It is only known to God, and the diviners of the 
world, and persevering Druids, what our chosen band 
with wreaths of gold did number at the Rhiweirth river. 

" Nis gwyr namyn Duw, a dewinion byd, 
A diwyd dderwyddon, 
O eurdorv, o eurdorchogion, 
Ein rhiv yn Rhiwgeirth avon." 

4. I cherish in my memory the virgin paragon, of a 
cautious, meek, and comprehensive mind, fair as the 
blushing of the dawn of morn upon a desert sea. 

" cov ym canymdaith 

Gwery vanan vanwl, gwar veddwl maith, 
Gorne gwawr vore ar vor difaith." 

5. The answer of Cynddelw to a message from the 
monks of Ystrad Marchell, that they would not bury 
him in their monastery 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 31 

Since there could be no condition for being against 
me, and the blessed God thus knowing, fitter had it been 
for a monk to claim me than reject me. 

Ateb Cynddelw, gwedi anvon o vyneich Ystrad Marchell er 
ei wrthodi, ac i vynegi nas cladynt ev yn eu raynachlog. 

" Can ni bai amhod dyvod im herbyn, 
A Duw gwyn yn gwybod, 
Oedd iawnach i vynach vod 
I'm gwrthvyn nog i'm gwrthod." 

The two following compositions are selected from the 
sonnets of Howel, the son of Owen, Prince of Gwynedd, 
who fell in battle in the year 1171 : 

1. I love the bright, white fortress, on the margin of 
the spraying shore, where she, so fair and bashful, loves 
to see the sea-mew ; I should like to go, though I have 
not been loved over much, to pay a doating visit, on a 
white and slender steed, to my lightly-laughing sister, to 
declare of love, thus come to be my lot ; and so regain my 
scattered senses, by her slightest grace, by the reflected 
ray of her in lustre like the torrent wave. Reproach 
from her domain to us is come, she of the hue of snow, 
so coldly glittering on the lofty ridge, because that so I 
was of her offended in Ogyrvan's court ; there, from her 
promises arose a deep disease : she has stolen my soul 
away ; I am so weak reduced ; I truly am become, from 
passion, like tall Garwy ; from the fair I am debarred in 
Ogyrvan's court. 

" Carav gaer wenglaer, o du gwenlan, 
Man yd gar gwyldeg gweled gwylan ; 
Yd gerwni vyned, cennym cerid yn rhwy, 

Ry eiddun ovwy i ar veingan, 
I edrych vy chwaer chwerthin egwan, 
I adrawdd caru, can daeth i'm rhan j 
I edryd vy lledvryd a'i lied ovrwy, 

I edryd llywy lliw ton dylan. 
Lliwiant o'i chyvoeth a ddaeth atan, 
Lliw eiry llathr ar uchel van, 
Rhag val ym coddidi yn llys Ogyrvan ; 
Chweris o'i haddaw hi addoed cynran : 
Ethy w am heneidi ; athwyv yn wan ; 



32 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Neud athwyv, o nwy v, yn ail Garwy hir ; 
I wen ym lluddir yn llys Ogyrvan." 

2. I love the proudly formed fortress of Cyvylchi, 
wherein the towering form of mine intrudes : the re- 
nowned and the bustling into it do penetrate : the rest- 
less, noisy wave doth clamour at the chosen spot of her 
so splendid ; fair its glittering aspect, brightly rising, by 
the torrent side, above the woman that imparts a lustre 
on the present year, in the wild of Arvon in Eryri. To 
deserve the tent, to see the velvet vest, there is not one 
that loves and will defend her more than I : were she the 
prize for bardic song there would not intervene a night 
ere I should be the next to her. 

" Carav gaer valchwaith o'r Gyvylchi, 
Yny bylcha balchlun vy hun ynddi : 
Enwawg, draferthavvg a draidd iddi ; 
Anwar d6n lavar llevawr wrthi, 
Dewisle lywy loew gydteithi ; 
Claer, gloew ei dwyre, o du gweilgi, 
Ar wraig a lewych ar eleni vlwyddyn, 

Yn anial Arvon, yn Eryri. 
Nyw dirper pebyll, nyw syll pali, 
Neb a rwy garwy yn vwy noddi : 
Pei chwaerai ei budd er barddoni, 
Nebawd noswaith y byddwn nesav iddi." 

These lines are from an elegy by Seisyll upon Owen, 
Prince of Gwynedd, or North Wales, who died in the 
year 1169 : 

1. After Owen chief of Mona how devoid of hope our 
songs ! how enthralled the minstrels ! Is not un pro- 
pitious, is not paralyzed our hope ! and is not Cymmru's 
cheering language broken down ! 

" Gwedi Ewain Mon mor ddiobaith cyrdd ! 
Cerddorion m6r ynt gaith ! 
Neud avrwydd, neud evrydd gobaith ! 
Neud Cymmru cymmriw ei chyviaith ! " 

The next is an extract from an ode addressed by Einion 
ab Gwgawn to Llywelyn ab lorwerth, Prince of North 
Wales : 

1 . At Aber Teivi thickly overhead were ravens flying, 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 33 

where was seen the owner of a gallant throng of spears ; 
there thickly glared the blades, and screamed the cor- 
morants for gore, and there regaled on prostrate heaps of 
slain. 

Then may Llywelyn older be than Llywarch, 2 longer 
be his course ! 

" Yn Aber Teivi tew oedd brain uch ben, 
Yn yd oedd perchen parchus gyvrain ; 
Oedd tew peleidr, crav creuynt gigvrain, 
Celanedd gorwedd gorddyvnasain. 
Llywelyn boed hyn, boed hwy dichwain 
No Llywarch." 

The three following specimens are taken from the odes 
of Elidyr Sais. The first is from his elegy upon Rhodri, 
the son of Owen, Prince of North Wales, who was slain 
in battle, in the year 1171; and the others are out of 
odes upon moral subjects : 

1. By losing Rhodri, suitors, who respected me, a 
mead-enjoying host, with sorrow how oppressed are 
they ! By such a loss, to me affliction greatly worse 
became ; it gave a shock as on the plains of Cattraeth ! 3 

" O golli Rhodri, neud rhygaeth eirchiaid, 

A'ra parchai, Ilu meddvaeth ! 
O golled ym galled mawrwaeth ; 
Gallas drais tiredd cattraeth ! " 

2. Glowing is my bardic lay, as Merddin erst did 
sing ; a glow that from the cauldron of the muse did 
rise, avoiding ire, exalted higher than of angels. I a. 
bard will be to God, as long as I a man remain since 
thou art three and otherwise thou need not be ; since 
thou art two and one profound the thoughts ! 

" Llathraid vy marddair, wedi Merddin ; 
Llethrid a berid o bair awen, 
Bar ochel uchel uch engylion. 
Bardd vyddav i Dduw, hyd tra vwyv ddyn. 

2 This alludes to the aged prince and bard so called, from whose 
works extracts have heen already given. 

3 The battle of Cattraeth is the theme of the Oododin by Aneurin, 
already quoted. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. F 



04 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Can wyt tri nid rhaid it amgen ; 
Can wyt dau, pell goddeu, ac un ! " 

3. He made earth, before his presence came above 
from heaven to look on us : He made a sun to light a 
glorious course ; He made a moon with light pervading 
darkness; He made the ebb and flow of tides the 
universe his own, and over empires ruling. 

" Ev gwnaeth daiar, cyn dyvu ei vron 
Vry o nev ein canvu : 
Ev gwnaeth haul hwylvawr lewychu ; 
Ev gwnaeth lloer a llewych arddu ; 
Ev gwnaeth trai a llanw a llwyr veddu byd, 
A bydoedd wledychu." 

Llywarch Prydydd Moch, or Llywarch the rapid poet, 
a distinguished eulogist of several princes who were his 
contemporaries, was the author of the compositions from 
which the three next passages are selected. The first is 
upon the two surviving sons of Owen Gwynedd ; and 
the others are addressed to Lly welyn ab lorwerth : 

1. Two ardent princes, as to whom our anger died 
away : they were beloved by all on earth : one was on 
land the chief of ardent troops in conflict in Arvon 
checking violence ; and another all mildness on the bosom 
of a mighty sea, in turmoil great and strange. 4 

" Dau deyrn terwyn, dydores ein Hid : 
Liu daiar a'u hofes : 
Un ar dir ar dorvoedd rhythres, 
Yn Arvon yn arwar trachwres ; 
Ac arall mynawg yn raynwes mawrvor 
Yn mawr var anghymes." 

2. By Druids it is told of generous ones to be born 
again, of eagle offspring, in Eryri; Owen's grandsons, 
on the face of Britain dignified in London, of exalted 
qualities. 

" Dywawd derwyddon 
Dadeni haelon, 

4 This was Madawg, of whom there is a triad recording his dis- 
appearance with a fleet. The same bard, in another ode, announces 
his readiness to submit to an ordeal of hot irons, to clear himself from 
any knowledge of the fate of Madawg. 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 35 

O hil eryron, 

O Eryri ; 

" O wyron Ewain, 
Ar wyneb Prydain, 
Yn urdden Llundain, 

O Ian deithi." 

3. Bards ! woe to us altogether, that on him the earth 
is laid, and we to mourn him ! He who was our chief 
to stem the wrath of foes : then birds of prey towards 
his course did fly ; there rippled the ruddy streams from 
men made silent ; from the tumult, there lay dead the 
greatest part ; the waves with many hues did there swell 
up and wildly break in endless roar : a far-extending 
wave of brine raged on ; another overwhelming wave of 
gory red succeeded, when the leader of a gleaming host 
prevailed Llywelyn, the renowned chief of Alun : then 
of warriors were a myriad slain, a lure for screaming 
ravens, and a thousand in captivity. When we did cross 
Porthaethwy, on sea wafted steeds, 5 above the swelling 
tumult of the wave, there ashen shafts made ruthless 
waste ; there death in bloody red proceeded through a 
mazy gurgling path ; there dreadful, there relentless was 
our course; there led despair, there death took forms 
unlike before ; and there the world might doubt if there 
were left of us some few with age to die. 

" Dybryd in' veirdd byd, bod daiar arno, 

Ac arnam ei alar ! 
Ev en lly w cyn Hid gyvesgar : 
Ysgly vion ysgly vynt llwrvv bar ; 
Oedd ran veirw vwyav o'r drydar ; 
Oedd amliw tdnau hon anmhar eu naid, 

Nid oeddynt ddilavar : 
Ton heli ehelaeth trwy var; 
Ton arall guall goch gwyar, 
Pan orvu pen llu llachar Llywelyn ; 

Llyw Alun athavar : 
Myrdd bu lladd llith brain gorddyar, 
O'r milwyr, a mil yn garchar. 
Porthaethwy pan aetham i ar 
Meirch morthwy uch mawrdwrv toniar; 

5 A common term among the poets for ships 



3 ft MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Oedd ongyr oedd engir eu bar ; 
Oedd angeu gwaedrudd godrwyar; 
Oedd engyrth ein hynt, oedd angar ; 
Oedd ing, oedd angeu anghyraonar; 
Oed ammau i'r byd bod abar o honam 
O henaint lleithiar." 

The next extracts are from the odes of Davydd Ben- 
vras, to the same Prince Llywelyn. 

1. May HE who has made a splendour from the west 
to glow, the sun and pallid moon in radiant orbits ; may 
the Lord of universal light make me of high degree, 
embued with Merddin's ardent muse, to sing an eulogy, 
as erst Aneurin on the day he the Gododin sung, to cele- 
brate the happiness of the inhabitants of Venedotia. 

" Gwr & unaeth llewych o'r gorllewin, 
Haul a lloer addoer addev iesin, 
A'm gwnel rad uchel, rwyv cyvychwin, 
Cylawn awen, awydd Merddin, 
I ganu moliant, mal Aneurin gynt 

Dydd y cant Ododin, 
I voli gwyndawd Gwyndyd werin." 

2. Come is May to me ! I am disconsolate, since that 
my lord is bound beneath the sod ! for that the generous 
one is covered over, lamentation is the theme ! he is in 
earth : the ruddy spear is slackened in the ford : all see 
that God has taken our support on high and the monarch 
of the Cymmry gone, afflicting is the stroke ! True is it 
that a dreaded chief has died before the fortress of Elu- 
glyd it were better for us if we all were dead ! 

" Mai yw ym doddyw ! yn anhyvryd wyv, 
Am vyned vy rhwyv yn rhwyra gweryd ! 

Golo hael, galar yw y ddedvryd ! 

Goludd ei achludd gwaew rhudd yn rhyd : 

Golue y dug Duw ein diebryd vry : 
Am vrenin Cymmry cynimrwyn ergyd ! 

Gwir yw marw gwr garw ana gaer Eluglyd 

Goreu oedd imi ein marw i gyd ! " 

3. Llywelyn, who is affable, brave, and amiable, with 
his princely sons Griffith and David, faultless ones in 
cutting off their adversaries ; three whom God has taken 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 37 

from among mankind ; three by the marvellous fate of 
violence become mangled corpses ; three that none others 
can their qualities all match ; three gentle ones, supreme 
of chieftains ; three protecting tokens on their claims ; 
three golden stems of warriors wearing wreaths of gold ; 
three eagles, when they were men, when they were 
youths : three pangs that they are not, as erst for Cynon ; 
three whose spears were persevering, like Peryddon ; three 
locks on their country, lest there traitors came. Through 
intercession, then may Peter, chief of porters, also Mary, 
by her pure word, and her virgins, be the friends of my 
three lords ! 6 

" Llywelyn hyddyn, terwyn tirion, 
Grufudd a Davydd dywysogion, 
Rhai divai yn diva en galon : 
Tri a ddug Duw o'r dyniadon ; 
Tri eres armes trachures, trychion ; 
Tri ereill ni eill oil eu dedvon ; 
Tri arav, penav penadurion ; 
Tri arwydd hyrwydd ar en holion ; 
Tri arwr eurdwr eurdorchogion ; 
Tri eryr yn wyr ac yn weision ; 
Tri chlwy v nad ydynt, mal cynt Cynon ; 
Tri chlau eu parau, mal Peryddon ; 
Tri chlo ar eu bro rhag bradogion. 
Trwy eirioledd, Pedr, pen porthorion, a Mair, 

O'i gwyry air, a'i gweryddon, 
I'm tri arglwydd hyd boent gyveillion ! " 

This passage is from an elegy by Einion son of Gwalch- 
mai upon Nest the daughter of Howel. 

1. The time of May, the day when it is long, so free 
that is in gifts, are not the trees entangling, and of splen- 
did hue the grove ? are not the birds in song ? is not the 
torrent hushed ? is not the wind's hoarse cry subdued ? 
the arms of talents should they not be passive next ? the 
bower is silent : but to me there is no silence ! I have 
listened to a wave from an afflicted land, about the ample 
border of the sons of Beli, where pervadingly it rushed to 

6 This appears to be the earliest invocation of the saints, by the 
Welsh bards. 



38 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

overflow the strand ; boldly along the deep it bore its 
plaint, its dashing was not unseemly, lingering for in- 
quiry : and its tears were salt, engendered of the brine. 
Devoted to a gentle maid, above the heavings of the 
surge, with dragging limb, as wandering by the water- 
brink of Teivi, to fair Nest I often sung a lay, before she 
was no more : a hundred sang her praise, as to Elivri : 
now I sing with mind desponding, to her memory a song 
of mourning, in excess of woe ! 

" Amser Mai, maith dydd, neud rhydd rhoddi, 
Neud coed nad coethiw, ceinlliw celli ? 
Neud llavar adar ? neud gwar, gweilgi ? 
Neud gwaeddgreg gwaneg gwynt yn edwi ? 
Neud arvau doniau godeu gwedi ? 
Neud archel dawel : nid mau tewi ! 
Endeweisi waneg o wynovi dir, 

I am dervyn mawr meibion Beli, 
Oedd hydraidd wychr llyr yn llenwi ; 
Oedd hydr am ddylan gwynvan genthi ; 
Hyll nid oedd ei deddv, hwyrddeddv holi : 
Hallt oedd ei dagrau, dygrawn heli. 
Ar helw bun arav, uch banieri ton, 

Tynhegl y cerddeisi gorddwvr Teivi, 
Ceintum gerdd i Nest, cyn noi threngi : 
Cant cant ei moliant mal Elivri : 
Canav, can veddwl avrddwl, erddi 
Caniad ei mawrnad, mawr trueni ! " 

In an elegy upon Rhys leuanc, who died in 1222, and 
was buried at Strata Florida, he is thus pourtrayed by his 
bard Pry dydd Bychan : 

1. A man was lost, a hero armed, violent his course in 
conflict, clad in strong iron rest ; the bulwark of a host 
the slaughter host of a golden chief; a gallant sove- 
reign, foster son of mead horns. 

" Collid gwr, arwr arvawg, chwyrn yn nghad, 

Yn nghadarnwisg heyrn ; 
Mur torv aeurdov eurdeyrn ; 
Mygr benaeth, mab maeth meddgyrn." 

The following elegiac effusions are by Einion Wan, on 
Madog ab Grufudd Maelor, Prince of Powys, who died 
in the year 1236 : 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 39 

1. By losing- Madog fond reminiscences rack the 
breast ; the heart is paralyzed with deep regret ! His 
car with battered front was in the storm of conflict known, 
before the cold and sorry bed did him contain : a man 
who will be deemed, like Gwair the son of Gwestl, a 
precious relic in the fane of Egwestl. 

" O golli Madawg edgyllaeth covion ; 

Gwyw calon gan hiraeth ! 
Briwgalch ei rodawg o ryw temhestl cad, 

Cyn oer wely diddestl : 
Gwr a wnair, mal Gwair vab Gwestl, 
Gwyr wawr yn llawr llan Egwestl." 

The bard Llygad Gwr of Edeyrnion, thus addresses 
Llywelyn ab lorwerth, Prince of North Wales : 

1. The amenity of my chieftain causes hosts to rise, 
and there is not a splendid guide in the confusion of 
slaughter, a Cymmro of a mind so noble, of the line of 
Beli Hir, when proved : golden gifts of wealth he slackens 
not in giving the heroic wolf of slaughter from Eryri. 

" Cynvrodedd vy llyw lluoedd beri 
Nid oes rwyv eirioes aer dyvysgi, 
Cymmro yw waelryw, o hil Beli Hir, 

Yn herwydd ei brovi : 
Eurvudd ni oludd olud roddi 
Aervlaidd arwraidd o Eryri." 

The following is extracted from an elegy by Bleddyn 
the bard, upon the three brothers, Owen, Llywelyn, and 
David, the three last native Princes of Wales, who in 
1233 fell defending their rights : 

1. Is not this a time of winter, the torrent when most 
pale, upholding sea-birds on the raging course of brine ? 
does not the bright hoar veil Eryri at this time ? is not the 
white wave loud around the blessed land of Enlli ? Am 
I not sorrowing more and more through misery ? is not 
my aspect worn with pain, thus of my lords bereft ? yes, 
I have lost three men : three chieftains, dignified, gene- 
rous patriots of the line of Rhodri ! 

" Neud amser gauav, gwelav gweilgi, 
Gweilging moradar hwylvar heli ? 



40 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Neud arllen arien Eryri weithion ? 

Neud uchel gwendon gwyndir Enlli ? 
Neud wyv hoed vwyvwy drwy drueni ! 
Neud wyv hoen hyboen heb argiwyddi ! 
Triwyr a gollais : tri dylyedogion, 
Brodorion haelion o hil Rhodri." 

The extract next introduced is from an elegy by 
Grufudd ab yr Ynad Coch, or the son of the Red Judge, 
on the death of the last mentioned Llywelyn, who was 
slain at Buallt, in the year 1282 : and with it the 
examples of the second epoch may be appropriately 
concluded. 

1. That the Lion has been killed, many are the tears 
that trickle on the cheek ; many a gory breast trampled 
down ; many rills of blood about the feet from mutual 
piercing ; many a widow became of him left wailing ; 
many with a heavy mind laid grovelling in the mire; 
many a son without a father now ; many an old and 
gaudy mansion marked with fire ; and many a desert 
yonder made by ravage ; many a voice of misery as erst 
in Camlan. Yes, upon the eyelash many a tear comes 
after such a fall : yes, since our stay has been cut off, the 
golden handed giver; since Llywelyn has been killed, 
anxiety for man will not affect me more ! Why see you 
not the sea uprising on the land ? why see you not that 
fate is manifested now ? why see you not the sun there 
wandering through the sky ? why see you not the stars 
are falling? why believe you not in God, poor simple 
men ? why see you not the world that its course is made ? 
I groan to thee God, that over earth there may not 
come the sea ! why are we left to linger on ? no place of 
refuge is there from despair : wherein to rest there is no 
place oh, that word rest ! The true legitimate King of 
Aber Fraw, the blessed realm of heaven be it a dwelling 
place for him ! 

" O ladd Llew 

Llawer deigr hylithr yn hwylaw ar rudd ; 
Llawer ystlys rhudd a rhwydd arnaw ; 
Llawer gwaed am draed wedi ymdreidiaw ; 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 41 

Llawer gweddw a gwaedd i amdanaw ; 
Llawer meddwl trwm yn tomrwyaw ; 
Llawer mab heb dad wedi ei adavv ; 

Llawer hendrev vraith 

Gwedi llwybr godaith 

A llawer difaith 

Drwy anrhaith draw ; 

Llawer llev druan, 

Mai pan vu Gamlan 

Llawer deigr dros ran 

Wedi 'r greiniaw : 
O leas gwanas, gwanar eurllaw ; 
O laith Llywelyn, cov dyn ni'm daw ! 
Poni welwchwi'r mor yn merwinaw'r tir ? 

Poni welwchwi'r gwir yn ymgy weiriaw ? 
Poni welwchwi'r haul yn hwylaw'r awyr ? 
Poni welwchwi'r syr wedi syrthiaw ? 
Poni chredwchwi Dduw, dyniadon ynvyd 1 

Poni welwchwi'r byd wedi bydiaw ? 
Och hyd atat Dduw, na ddaw mor tros dir ! 
Pa beth ein gedir i ohiriaw ? 
Nid oes le y cyrcher rhag carchar braw : 
Nid oes le y triger och or trigaw ! 
Gwir vreiniawl vrein Aberfraw, 
Gwenwlad nev boed addev iddaw ! " 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 
By LADY MARSHALL. 

CANIAD I. 

" There is a mysteriousness about birds their movement their manners that 
makes them a medium between the real and the ideal." 

THE sun is up his opening ray 

Greets Penmaen with a rosy kiss, 
And thousand rainbows gem the spray 

That veils DOLOWEN'S dark abyss. 

Slow fades the Eagle's storm-rocked dream 

The unfathomed lenses of his eye 
Drink deeply in the gladsome beam 

That blushes o'er the kindling sky. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. G 



42 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Then with yet unimpurpled beak 
He lays his ruffled plumage sleek, 
And spreads his wing at lazy length 
Upon his talon's gnarly strength ; 
Then turning from their sunward gaze, 
His eyes undazzled pierce the haze 
Slow melting on the mountain's slope, 
And opening all their boundless scope : 

Reduced off some ignoble beast, 
Or fluttering bird to make his food, 

Was he whose sires had scorned to feast 
On meaner prey than human blood : 

For peace was o'er the country then : 
Yet not a peace whose shade benign 

And holy gives repose to men 
Beneath the fig-tree and the vine. 

There is a spectre cold and mute 

That steals the honoured name of peace, 

Weakness and terror's sickly fruit, 
That causes wars indeed to cease, 

But broods upon the trampled soil 
With deadlier blight than battle fray, 

The grave-yard chokes with human spoil, 
But cheats the eagle of his prey. 

'Twas such exhaustion-bred, that lay 
On the vexed country like a pall 

Disputed or divided sway, 

Its bane or foreign worst of all. 

Such intervals of blank collapse, 
Between alternate thunder-claps, 
And briefer gleams of brighter hope, 
Fair CYMRU, filled thy portion up ! 

Was it for this thine elder-born 
Rough sons of freedom thought it scorn 
To mingle with the heathen horde, 
And call Teutonic spoilers lord 

Was it for this in toil and blood 
The desecrator they withstood, 
And kept through havoc, sword and flame, 
The memory of thine ancient name 
To heir a step-child's bitter lot 
Was it for this ? Oh ! think it not, 
Nor deem thou better had'st concurred 
In early thraldom, than preferred 
Through centuries of chequered fate 
Thy full inheritance to wait. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 43 

Oh ! no the precious tears that drop 

To dew the soil that Freedom seeds, 
In memory's phial treasured up, 

Are Britons' proudest title-deeds ; 

And cursed be the hand would rob 

Our crown of one such priceless gem 
The manly bosom's every throb 

Is set in Freedom's diadem ! 

The sun is up he mounts above 
The feathery fringes of the grove 

That bosoms fair Garth-Celyn : 
With bow in hand, and hawk on glove, 
To seek the sport that princes love, 

Rides forth at dawn LLYWELYN. 

On the tall mount to seek the game 
Where echoes yet his honoured name 

Where thousand founts are welling 
Whose widening waters proudly claim 
To harbour most the bird of fame, 

All birds of chase excelling : 

The heron, graceful, tall and strong 
With eye so bright and legs so long 

Of such majestic stature : 
The lonely bird, who deep among 
His haunts avoids the vulgar throng, 

The type of kingly nature. 

E'en when his enemies intrude 
Within his stately solitude, 

How noble is his bearing j 
On spreading wing he slow ascends 
His haughty neck he backward bends, 
And on his airy way he wends, 

Nor dread, nor haste appearing. 

But soon his side-long glances spy 
His small but dreadful enemy 

From leash and jesses parting, 
Encouraged by her master's cry, 
With whetted beak and flashing eye, 

The falcon forth is darting. 

Then what an animating sight 
True sportsman's marvel and delight 
The pursuit, pounce, defence and fight 

The air with screams resounding : 
The falcon makes her dire attack, 
Deep in the noble quarry's back, 

Her beak and talons grounding ; 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

But now his neck's thin, supple length 

The her'n flings back with snake-like strength, 

His enemy surrounding : 
With his strong bill a two-edged blade 
A sharp diversion now is made, 

Each foe the other wounding : 

With varying chances, changing oft 
Now fluttering low now high aloft 

In air proceeds the duel, 
Till one or other deadly foe, 
Or peradventure both lie low 

A gallant fate but cruel ! 

'Tis this chivalric type which flings 
A halo round this sport of kings ; 
A mimic of the balanced strife 
That champions wage for fame and life ; 
For true though strange, to peril prone, 
Man courts her for herself alone : 
To stand upon the giddy verge 
Along the brink the steed to urge 
Where scarce a kid might safely move 
Such wanton risks the daring love ; 
And still they fascinate the more 
A soul by sorrow shaded o'er : 
The mind oppressed by care and grief 
In wild adventure seeks relief; 
And what reflections can corrode 
The patriot's heart his spirit goad 
What grief a prince's soul oppress, 
Like witnessing his country's stress ? 

'Twas this amid the blaze of courts 
The pomp of councils stir of sports, 
That often and again would throw 
Its shade across Llywelyn's brow; 
Like clouds that rolling high in air, 
Fleet o'er a mountain's bosom fair, 
And soften all, but nought impair. 
'Twas this had sobered down the fire 
That princes vent in hasty ire ; 
His spirit's burden pressed too sore 
In lighter froth to bubble o'er. 
Some fresh encroachment on the soil, 
Edged on by feint of border broil 
Revenged, but still contracting more 
At each rebound his sovereign power : 
Some pact extorted by the strain 
Of whelming odds a lengthening chain : 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 45 

His princedom's fairest appanage 
Rhuvoniog Stratclwyd Rhos in gage : 
And sharper bitterer than all 
Than serpent's tooth than adder's gall 
His nearest kinsman closest tie 
With love and favour loaded high, 
Yet ever wavering to and fro, 
And starting like a broken bow 
At foreign courts in open league 
At home involved in dark intrigue 
His brother DAVID dregs and froth 
Alien or traitor one or both ! 

Scarcely the hope that budding new 
A gleam on his horizon threw, 
And down to treaties harshly framed 
His spirit for a season tamed 
Yea, scarce the promise long denied 
To call the fair DE MONTFORT bride 
The daughter of his great ally 

Old SiMON, 1 LEICESTER'S doughty Earl, 
Whose hand the thunderbolt could hurl, 
And folly though enthroned defy ; 
Whose memory England owes a tribute high. 

All this could scantly bend his heart 
To play the princely vassal's part : 
Son of the valiant and the free 
A hundred British kings that HE 
At Norman foot should bend the knee ! 
Such the devoir and such the meed 
That bade him soon to Worcester speed : 
And yet this service even now, 

Unbaited by its sweet reward, 
He might as erewhile disavow 

When summoned to Montgomery Ford, 
Homage to pay to England's haughty lord. 

Now o'er his native hills he rade, 

Upon that sunny morn, 
Heading a sprighly cavalcade, 

With horse, and hound, and horn ; 

And many a youth of noble name, 

And followers brave and true, 
Who had in battle's sterner game 

Stood by him through and through. 
Huw PEDOL* too, his humble friend, 

His foster-father's son, 
Who for that he could horse-shoes bend 

That iron name had won. 



46 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

And YNAD* of the tuneful lip, 

With harp on saddle-bow, 
Not even on a hunting trip 

Could he his Bard forego. 

And if there came a pause or check, 

As in the chase will hap, 
He hung it deftly round his neck, 

All by a broidered strap ; 

Then o'er the strings his fingers flew, 
And forth symphonious echoes drew 

From far and near, in tones 
So wild it seemed as music grew 

Among the stocks and stones. 
Now up the narrow vale they wind, 

By wint'ry torrents reft, 
And as they journeyed soon behind 

All human trace was left ; 

Except those monitors of time, 

Whose voices now as then 
Address in silent speech sublime 

Successive sons of men : 
The lonely earn its lessons breathes, 

From 'neath its moss-grown heap 
Forgotten glory faded wreaths 

Below in silence sleep. 

So spake in like, but sterner tone 

And somewhat varied key, 
The track 4 whose verdure broke alone 

The blackness of the lea. 

It told them of a haughty race 

Who with their iron rod 
Would fain have rooted out the trace 

Of Britain's name and God. 

Llywelyn marked the spot, and bade 
Awhile to halt the cavalcade, 
To breathe them from the steep, and more, 
To hear the bardic aroen pour. 

YNAD sings. 

" Who are they galloping galloping ? 

Their heads are of iron their feet are of clay ; 
The mountains beneath them are trembl-ing 

Suns on their shoulders have they. 
Why didst thou, CONWY, not swallow them 
Wolves of the wilderness, follow them 
Cursed are they ! 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 47 

" On they are trarapl-ing trampl-ing 

Blood in their pathway and death at their heel 

Over the narrow sea, 

What shall the morrow be ? 
All fire and steel ! 

Weapons are clashing 

Forests are crashing 
Groves of the Holy the heathen defile 

Vortices swallow them ! 

Sea-monsters follow them ! 
Guard Gods of BRITAIN your Beautiful Isle ! 5 

" Ages are rolling are rolling 

The pitiless nation 

That spread devastation 
Its death-knell is tolling is tolling: 

" Mute is their polished speech 

In their halls owlets screech 
Long is the dreary night gladsome the morn 

Britons for ever young, 

In their undying tongue 
ROME the decrepid, shall laugh thee to scorn ! " 

The voice and harp are hushed, but still 

The pressure of the notes 
In warbling waves from hill to hill, 

With lengthened cadence floats. 

The wild effusion of the strain 

Did lofty thought inspire 
To every follower of the train 

Lly welyn's eye shot fire : 

" We thank thee Ynad 'tis a verse 

Of deep, prophetic sound : 
We would that such a Saxon curse 

Could on the strings be found." 

The Poet's aspect kindled high 

Aloft his harp he swung, 
A prelude swept then with a sigh, 

Upon the saddle hung. 

Llywelyn saw the sudden pang 

A shiver chilled his heart : 
But on his horse he lightly sprang, 

And sounded the Restart. 

But now a youth of noble mien 

Fell at the Prince's feet, 
And of a vision he had seen 

To sing he did entreat. 



48 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

" Oh grant " he said, " to AURDAF'S hand 
To wake the sacred crwth ; 

To me when sleep was o'er the land 
Came down the words of truth : 

" I heard an acclamation loud 

Rise from a crowded town 
1 saw a head above that crowd 

It wore a kingly crown : 
" King LLUDD S the deep foundations laid 

That based that city's towers : 
That crown was ENGLAND'S, and the head 

That wore it, Prince, was YOURS ! " 

Suspension breathless held the throng 
When lo ! a wonder new 

Llywelyn's falcon burst her thong, 
And on the harp she flew ; 

Still hooded close the air she swept 
With neither check 7 nor rake 8 

She perched, and screaming chorus kept, 
And loud her bells did shake. 

Then acclamations rent the air 

The perching of a bird 
Pronounced the omen good and fair 

Confirmed the prophet's word. 

" How, GLOSSY," quoth Llywelyn, " fie 

With all thy breeding pure 
And careful training dost thou fly, 
Thou buzzard, where there's nought to try 
Of quarry 9 or of lure ! 10 " 

He smiling chid, then to her perch 
The hawk he whistling brought, 

And looked at Ynad as to search 
The tenor of his thought. 

But Ynad seemed to gaze on space 

He echoed not the swell 
Of joyous shout, but down his face 

A silent tear-drop fell. 

The poor old man that town he knew 
Had heard its tumult's roar 

Its streetways had been hurried through 
To share a dungeon floor 

To cheer a royal captive's gloom 

In chains by treason dire 
Betrayed to waste his manhood's bloom 

Llywelyn's hapless sire! 11 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 49 

Belike the old man's thoughts might be 

On scenes of pain long gone 
A dying struggle he might see 

Might hear a dying groan. 

A scene that fate so strangely weaves 

Of hope and of despair, 
To memory's spectrum clings and leaves 

A lasting background there. 

Its form and hue pervade all space 

Are painted on the sky 
On darkness stamp their ghastly trade, 

Till being all seems eye. 

So, after we have fixed our view 

On some too dazzling light, 
A speck of its o'erpowering hue 

Obtrudes upon the sight. 

But now the " Forward " order goes 

" On on," Llywelyn said : 
The mountain sod elastic rose 

Beneath their lightsome tread. 

For every step was fraught with hope ; 

As in life's morning day 
New wishes rise new prospects ope 

While spreads the onward way. 

But as the stern life-lesson tells, 

These hopes are chequered soon, 
And oft the evening hour dispels 

The promise of the noon. 

And noon is past, and Arryg's 12 shade, 

Like some dim giant ghost, 
Has glided round, and twilight made 
Where late the sun-lit ripplets played, 

On Dulyn's 18 pebbly coast. 

But vainly through each wonted haunt 
They seek the fisher lone and gaunt 

'Neath Eigiau's l4 slaty ledges, 
And where the ribbon streamers flaunt 

Melynllyn's 13 yellow sedges: 

In rushy pool and mossy rill 
Is disappointment waiting still. 

And now declining day belies 
The gladsome promise of its rise, 
And hurtles wildly through the skies 
So late with amber mantlings warm, 
The hissing demon of the storm. 
SECOND SERIES VOL. I. H 



50 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

The clouds that floated pale and wan, 

As scattered by some passing swan, 

Now darkly piling, pack on pack, 

Drive downwards with the blinding wrack 

The tinkling rills to torrents grown, 

With mingled crags come foaming down, 

That leap in awful ricochee 
From their primeval bedments hurled, 

In which they all unconscious lay, 
While o'er them smiled the infant world. 
From rock to rock with dread rebound, 

The thunderbolt is crashing 
Along the palpitating ground 

The lurid lightning flashing 

The only light a ghastly glare 

More fitted to betray 
Than guide the footsteps, pierced the air 

Upon that midnight day ! 

And so it was that when the sky 
Smiled coyly from its azure eye, 
(As some fair scold her humour o'er, 
Its traces then would fain ignore) 
And every feature hill and plain, 
Came one by one to sight again, 
The hawking band were scattered wide, 
And none was by Llywelyn's side. 

His courser, whom to soothe in vain 
He led by hand, had burst the rein, 
And left him to his desert walk, 
Companioned only by his hawk. 

Through mounted flight and toilsome march 
That faithful bird still kept her perch, 
Scarce noted by her master till 
The wildering storm began to still ; 
And then he felt his finger pressed 
By gentle Glossy's silken breast, 
And he in turn the bird caressed, 
In fondlings such as pass, with talk, 
Between a falconer and his hawk. 
For he had trained her from the nest 
Her eyes had seeled 16 her legs had jessed 17 
Had fitted on her rufter-hood 18 
Her fierceness tamed her kindness wooed 
Right well they twain each other understood. 

And in that desert wild and wide, 
Alone he scarcely seemed to bide, 
With little Glossy by his side : 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 51 

Yet wide and wildly had he strayed : 
The rising curtain now displayed 
A wilderness around him spread, 
Which all familiar though his eye 
With chase and forest far and nigh 
With warlike post and wood-craft range, 
Presented features new and strange. 

But by the now resplendent sun, 
His homeward course was soon begun, 
When, as he turned an angle rock, 
The happy chance that seemed to mock 
His morning searches now befel 
A stately her'n was in the dell : 

With wandering weary tempest drenched, 
A sportsman's fire is never quenched, 
And while the unwary Longshanks stood 
Intent to seize his finny food, 
Left stranded by the shrinking flood, 
The Prince unstruck '9 his Glossy's hood, 
And when the heron spread his blue 
Broad wings, away the hood he drew, 
And forth the eager falcon flew. 
Sharp set by lengthened fast, out right 
She took at once her soaring flight, 
A moment o'er the quarry towered, 
Then, canceliering 20 as she lowered, 
With pounce unerring beak well coped, 21 
Down on his spacious shoulders stooped. 22 

The her'n full-fed his courage high, 
Shot lightning from his onyx eye : 
With upstretched bill he met below 
The downwise movement of the foe, 
The hawk descending to assail, 
And in her final stoop impale. 

A sportsman's ear it will not mock 
To say this little battle shock 
This crisis close of life and death, 
Might bate the near spectator's breath, 
And stimulate the pulse, as when 
We view the deadly strife of men j 
For death is grand, and life is dear, 
In e'en the lower creatures' sphere. 

As somewhat more than sportsman keen 
And true the Prince surveyed the scene 



52 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

With somewhat more he watched the end 
Than sport yet scrupled to defend 
His pupil comrade almost friend. 

But Glossy fell no whit behind 
Her fame in sylvan story : 
She did the noble quarry bind 23 
Yea in his very frame-work twined 
Her beak and talons gory. 

He woke the echoes far and near 

With outcries harsh and rending; 
Down from the heights the startled deer 

His watchful head was bending : 
Llywelyn stood past doubt past fear, 

The grand result attending ; 
But oh, what pen what tongue can tell 

What harp its pathos blending, 
The dire mischance that now befell 

Mischances all transcending ! 

The heron's cries were faint and few 
Each struggle now more feeble grew 

His slender neck was drooping : 
The battle crisis onward drew, 
When piercing the empyreal blue, 
On victim and on victor too, 

An eagle down was swooping ! 

He mantled o'er them like a pall, 

His awful claws distending 
In vain the whistle and the call, 
That falcons to the hand recall, 
Llywelyn far and wide with all 
His breath and voice was sending. 

It seemed as if the falcon felt 
The added value of the pelt, 2 * 
When in the desert lone and vast, 
Her lord was worn with toil and fast : 
Still to the sinking her'n she clings, 
With gripe convulsive quivering wings 
The eagle makes his fatal pounce, 
And trusses her'n and hawk at once ! 

By this Llywelyn's bow was bent, 
But ere his death-winged shaft was sent, 
An arrow from another bow 
Had laid the lordly eagle low, 
And bounding to secure his prize, 
Across the brook a stripling hies. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. OO 

A passing flash of something nigh 
To anger lit Llywelyn's eye, 
That other aid should supersede 
His own in faithful Glossy's need : 
And when he reached the battle spot, 
And found that aid availing not 
The succour coining all too late 
To more than 'venge the falcon's fate, 
That little favourite lying low, 
Between her victim and her foe, 
He felt as wronged because the aid 
He lately grudged had been delayed. 
A moment burned upon his cheek 
The angry glow he turned to speak 
Perchance to chide, but when his eye 
Fell on the lad, he stopped, and why 
He knew not felt his anger die 
His humour pacified in truth 
He felt attracted by the youth. 
And so he might : there was a grace 
Spread o'er the stripling's form and face, 
Not such as courts and schools impart, 
But nature's stamp that baffles art. 

He lingered not with boy conceit 

Upon his eagle-slaying feat, 

But stooping down, the hawk to raise, 

He mourned its fate in childish phrase ; 

Smoothed down its beams, 25 bedabbled o'er, 

And though its nares, 26 clogged up with gore, 

His gentle breathings tried to pour : 

(To be continued.) 

NOTES TO CANIAD I. 

1 Old Simon, Leicester's doughty Earl. Simon de Montfort, 
termed by the loving people of England Simon the Righteous, was 
Earl of Leicester in the reign of Henry III., married to Eleanor, a 
sister of that monarch. This high-spirited noble compelled the weak 
and treacherous king to confirm Magna Charta, which he attempted 
to set aside : it is true that this involved a civil war ; but such results 
could scarcely be attained on any other terms. The Earl was slain, 
with his eldest son, at the battle of Evesham. His wife and daughter 
appear to have shared his warlike spirit, having held out in their 
castle of Kenilworth for some time after his defeat, and then obtained 
good terms, when they retired into France. 

2 Hum Pedol. I have taken a liberty with this historic personage, 
who is handed down by tradition as being the foster-brother of Ed- 
ward II. 



54 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

3 Llywelyn's bard was GRUFFYBD AB YR YNAD GOGH, a eupho- 
nious and sonorous name; but, in despair of introducing it in all its 
grand integrity into any line of modern verse, I have selected one of 
its divisions, so to speak. 

* The Roman road leading from Conovium to Segontium. 

5 Mona Anglesey. 

6 His name survives in Ludgate. 

I Check in falconry, to fly at wrong game. 

8 Rake to fly beyond the mark. 

9 Quarry the game at which a hawk flies. 

10 Lure a false quarry, made of feathers, wherewith to train hawks. 

II Llywelyn's hapless sire. Gruffydd, eldest son of Llywelyn ab 
lorwerth, and father of Llywelyn the Last, was an accomplished and 
valiant prince. But placing himself, on the faith of a treaty, in the 
power of Henry III., he was carried to the tower of London, where, 
combining with other prisoners to escape, the cord of linen by which 
he was descending broke, and he was dashed to pieces in the Tower 
ditch. 

12 ARRYG the highest ridge of CARNEDD LLYWELYN. 

is 14 is DULYN EIQIAU MELYNLLYN three mountain tarns of 
Carnedd Llywelyn. 

16 To seel to sew the eye-lids of a young falcon together, a neces- 
sary preliminary to its training a very delicate operation, to be per- 
formed with very fine thread. 

J 7 To jess to bind a hawk's legs with little thongs. 

18 Rufter-hood the first hood a hawk wears, loose and open be- 
hind. 

J 9 Unstrike to loosen the strings while the game is rising, preli- 
minary to taking the hood quite off. 

20 Canceller to turn itself once or twice in the air, to recover itself 
and stoop with more effect. 

21 Coping sharpening the beak or talons of the hawk ; also an 
operation sf great skill, performed with a sharp instrument without 
penetrating to the quick. 

22 Stoop speaks for itself to come down upon the quarry. 

23 Bind to seize the quarry before trussing it. 

84 Pelt the term used in falconry for the game, after the hawk 
has killed it. 

25 Beams the long wing feathers of the hawk. 
* 6 Nares nostrils. 



55 



PHILOLOGY. THE DICTIONARY APPENDIX. 

WHOEVER examines our ancient records and poetical com- 
positions will find in them a great many words that are 
not at all noticed in our printed Dictionaries, and some, 
the meaning of which has not been correctly given. 
This fact, it is obvious, must be a great hindrance to the 
due study of Cymric literature. It shall be our endea- 
vour from time to time to supply the deficiency, and in 
this attempt, we are proud to say, we have been kindly 
promised valuable assistance from several eminent scholars, 
who have made this branch of learning their especial 
study. We shall not observe any alphabetical order, 
except indeed a very general one, but will give the words 
as they occur to us, leaving to future lexicographers the 
task of properly arranging them. 

ADLWR ADLWRW Subst. what belongs; Adj. belong- 
ing to ; Verb to belong to. Y naill yn adlwrw i'r 
Hall; the one belonging to the other. I b'un y mae 
hwn yn adlwrw ? to which does this belong ? (Blaenau 
Gwent.) Mae rhyw adlwrwaeth rhyngddynt ; they 
in some degree (or in some way) belong to each other. 

AFALLEG An orchard. 

ACHON A pedigree, from ach. Achon in Old Gallic 
means a river. Cymraeg, aches. Achon and ach, a 
pedigree, seem to be from ach, a river, a stream. 
Cludach, Mawddach, &c. 

ARCHON a chief. Gr. Apx^, q- d., aruchon, from ar-uch. 

ADLEITHAI EDLEITHAI A slayer, from llaith, death. 
Arm. adletha, a soldier. Corn, addleha. Lai. athleta. 

ANNAIG One of the names of God, from annu, or ang, 
i. e., the container, or what contains all things. 

AGNE Colour, from gne. Sax. Ajne, painted (see agnail 
in Bailey) ; agne'aw, to paint, to colour ; agneant, 
painting; agneaid, painted. 

AN AWCH Listlessness. 

" Anawch oer a nych irad." Sils ab Sion. 



56 THE DICTIONARY APPENDIX. 

ADDOS Dropping. 

" Oer oeddwn i'm caer addos, 
Och o'm ffer yn nyfnder nos." Inco Llwyd. 

ALIS The name of the daughter of Hengist, who was 
called by the Cymry Alls, and Alis Ronwen, and the 
English from her, Plant Alis. In Glamorgan they 
call the descendants of English families, Plant Alis y 
bis wail. 

ANNAW Datceiniad. Ll n Sion. " Swydd anaw yw dat- 
gan dan gais a gofyn yr hen gerddi ar hen freiniau a 
defodau a chyfan yn ol y bo gofyn o'r hen athrawiaeth 
adysgeidiaeth herwydd Barddas Beirdd YnysPrydain." 

ATHRON A circle; athronddysg, the circle of science. 

ASGALCH Mortar, or plaster. " Ag ni ellid yn hawdd 
dorri 'r castell gan gadarned yr asgalch yn ail y 
cerryg." Antoni PoweL 

ALWY Gware Alwy ; the Alveus of the Romans pro- 
bably, played with dice in the manner of backgammon. 
(Alea, a die.) 

ARLLAD A sacrifice, oblation, gift, endowment. Tir 
arllad, glebe, or land dedicated to God. " Ag efe 
(Meuryg) a roes lawer o diroedd yn arllad i Dduw a 
Theilaw yn dragywydd." 

ASTRAWD Course of nature. 

ASGEN (as-geni) Fate, destiny. 

ASPLAID Relation. 

ASCLAIN (as-clain) Gender, genera. 

ASPAILL Fine powder, such as that on plums and grapes. 

ASPWYLL A wen. 

ASTRAILL (as-traill) Condition. 

As Nature; junction. Llyfr Teilo ; Yniales. 



57 



SKETCH OF THE EARLY ORIGIN AND PRINCIPAL 
FEATURES OF CELTIC HISTORY. 

I CAN only " plead guilty " to a very moderate share of 
reading ; but, as the Celtic population of the earth has 
always been an object of special interest to me, I have, 
perhaps, been more eager in seeking information on this 
subject than some persons with a larger fund of general 
knowledge. 

The result of my inquiries in this direction, and of 
such general observations as I have been able to make on 
existing facts, will be found in the following notes, which 
were put together, in the first instance, with the single 
object of making the conclusions at which I had arrived 
more clear to my own mind. It has been well said, 
" It is better to utter one's thoughts to a statue than that 
they should pass away in a smother;" and every one's 
experience must have shown them that the only sure 
means of rendering our ideas distinct is that of giving 
them an independent existence of their own. 

This, my first object, being in some measure attained, 
I became desirous that the conclusions at which I had 
arrived should be more generally accepted. It is im- 
possible to believe any truth without longing to impart 
it ; and my anxiety to propound to others questions of 
deep interest to myself was, in this instance, the greater, 
from the fact that Celtic history and Celtic literature are 
far from obtaining the attention which is their due 
amongst cultivated Anglo-Saxons. 

I earnestly hope, therefore, that the points which in 
the following pages are merely suggested will be worked 
out at greater length by a more able and practised hand 
one capable of throwing on the subject the light gained 
from profounder research and more varied historical 
information than my own. 

It often strikes me that confusion and disagreement 
arise from our failing to go back far enough in our 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. I 



58 CELTIC HISTORY. 

inquiries. If in moral questions we have recourse to the 
fundamental principle, and in historical to the primitive 
origin, our chances of agreement will be greatly increased. 
Thus, in religion, the root love is the harmonizing 
principle ; in government, order ; in taste, harmony : and 
it is only in the light of these central principles that 
subordinate points can obtain their true value, and fall 
into their proper place. The more, therefore, we direct 
our historical inquiries to primitive origin, never losing 
sight, at the same time, of existing facts, the more like- 
lihood is there that our inferences will be sound, and our 
conclusions just. 

Contemplated from this point of view, Celtic history, 
it appears to me, offers to our notice interests of a very 
peculiar and superior order. These are found : 

1st, In its sympathy with the Bible and the early ages. 

2ndly, In the continuation, however limited, of the 
integrity of this peculiar race. 

Srdly, In the superiority of character induced by its 
origin, genius, traditions, habits and customs. 

These points, if it were necessary, might all be proved 
from competent authorities ; for, though my early con- 
victions on the subject were strong enough to satisfy my 
own mind, I have taken care to propound no opinions, 
and lay down no theories, that could not be substantiated 
by the authority of writers of repute. In this sense, and 
up to this point, these notes may be looked upon as a 
compilation, or abstract, rather than an original essay. 

Let us now briefly glance at some of the leading out- 
lines of Celtic history. It appears to me that these may 
be ranged under six heads. 

1st, That the Japetidae, that is, the Gomeritae, and 
sons of Javan, began their emigration from the East 
before the confusion of tongues. 

2ndly, The GomeritaB, Kimmeritse, or Celtae, now 
represented by the Welsh, Highlanders, Manks, Cornish, 
Armoricans, Basques, Waldenses, &c., were the very 
primitive peoplers of the British Islands. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 59 

Srdly, All the above-named tribes are Celtic, proved 
from their language, history, traditions, customs, and 
usages; identical, patriarchal and peculiar. 

4M/y, Their language was the primitive, or Noachidic, 
of which the Hebrew was a dialect; chosen, as was 
Abraham, to be peculiarly sacred. 

5thly, There remained amongst them vestiges of 
primitive belief, customs, and usages, less corrupted than 
elsewhere (excepting among the chosen race, to whom 
the special charge of revelation was given). 

6thly, They were not only superior in moral purity to 
what is supposed, but were oracles in science, which they 
did not learn in the way of progress, but which they had 
derived from their forefathers, from whom it had been 
handed down from generation to generation from the 
earliest times. 

An examination on these six points of both general 
and internal evidence is as interesting as it appears to 
me satisfactory. 

On the first head, if we look to the 9th chapter of 
Genesis, we shall see that God commanded that the 
children of Noah should replenish the earth ; accompany- 
ing this order with a promised blessing on its fulfilment. 1 

The 10th chapter gives an account of the division of 
the earth amongst Noah's sons, and the obedience of 
some of his descendants. The description of the portions 
possessed by the various families is thus related : " By 
these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their 
lands;" 2 and it was against the command, to replenish 
the earth generally, that Nimrod, the Cushites, and the 
disaffected, rebelled, in building the tower whose " top " 
was " to reach unto heaven," when they said, " Let us 
make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the 
face of the whole earth." 3 

Moses is speaking not of a compulsory separation of 
families, but of a regular division of the earth amongst 
the Noachidffi, when he says, " These are the families 

1 Genesis, ix. 1. 2 x. 5. 5 xi. 4. 



60 CELTIC HISTORY. 

of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their 
nations : and by these were the nations divided in the 
earth after the flood." 4 

The name of Peleg 5 (to cut or divide) gives occasion 
to specify the time when the land was divided, not when 
the people were scattered abroad. It must have been 
given him at his birth, as most ancient names were given, 
in commemoration. This was about one hundred years 
after the flood. 

Thus Arphaxad born 2 years after the flood. 

Arphaxad 35 when Salah was born 35 

Salah ... 30 when Eber was born 30 

Eber .... 34 when Peleg was born 34 

Total.... 101 

" It has been a popular opinion that the confederacy at Babel 
embraced the whole of mankind, excepting perhaps one family, and 
consequently that the whole earth was equally affected by the con- 
fusion of tongues; but this opinion appears to have arisen from 
considering the history of Babel as a solitary fact (Genesis, xi.), 
instead of connecting it with the account of Nimrod and his kingdom 
in the preceding chapter. 6 It appears that Moses has not only 
alluded to writings which existed before his own time, but has actually 
given us transcripts of some of the compositions of the primitive ages." 7 

The several portions of the primitive history are de- 
tached, and often recapitulated ; much attention therefore 
is necessary in order to obtain the historical light they 
are capable of throwing upon each other. 

The confederacy was not joined by Noah, or any of 
his sons, nor were these patriarchs singular in keeping 
aloof from it. Nimrod (the son of rebellion) had become 
proverbial, " Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before 
the Lord." 8 This mode of description would not have 
been used by his own associates, but by certain societies 
who had rejected his authority, and were consequently 
become the objects of his rage. Many such there were. 

4 Genesis, x. 32. 

5 Genesis, x. 25, and xi. 10-17; Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 32; 
Hawker's Commentary, p. 615. 

6 Genesis, x. 10. 7 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 55. 
8 Genesis, x. 9. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 61 

As his confederacy did not embrace the whole of man- 
kind, there can be no reason to suppose that those who 
were not concerned in it immediately lost either their 
religion or their language, or any part of the valuable 
traditions of their fathers. 9 

The traditions of almost every country presents us 
with accounts of certain giants, exiles, and wanderers 
usurpers who intruded themselves amongst the more 
regular and orderly inhabit;! nts, to whom they became 
a source of annoyance, and an object of detestation. 
" These are the people who are described as exiles and 
wanderers." Eusebius, P. E. L., i. 1 

Upon the whole, it appears most correct to conclude 
from the Mosaic history, i. e., truth and universal tradi- 
tion, that some of the descendants of each of the great 
patriarchs joined the impious confederacy, and that other 
branches rejected it, pursuing their various courses accord- 
ing to the commands of God. According to this view, 
Nimrod's subjects consisted not so much of any par- 
ticular families, as of individuals of a certain temper and 
disposition. 

" The Japetidae were on the move from the East anterior to the 
confusion of tongues ; and those concerned in the treasonable erection 
of the Tower of Babel were rebellious tribes banded together under 
Nimrod." " If Japhet as well as Shem lived 500 years after the 
flood, it seems probable that, for that space of time, he had the sole 
government of his own 14 tribes, or nations, westward of the Euphrates, 
as Ham had of those eastward thereof, and Shem of those towards 
the south, until Nimrod usurped upon the patriarchal form of govern- 
ment instituted by Providence, and founded the kingdom of Babel. 
Nor does it seem probable that the descendants of Japhet, who were 
destined by Providence to the most western parts, were all in the time 
of Peleg (the fifth generation from Noah) sojourning from the East 
towards Shinar, or present at the confusion of tongues and nations. 
The original purity of the western dialects seems to prove that they 
were not." 2 

9 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 56. l Ibid. p. GO. 

2 Philosophy of Words, by Rowland Jones (Inner Temple). 

The following extract from Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain will 
not be uninteresting, as exhibiting the views held by the bards relative 
to the derivation of the Cymric language : 

" Three languages, formed by God, were obtained and have existed 



6'2 CELTIC HISTORY. 

In the second place, we may learn from the following 
evidences, general or external, and internal or particular, 
that the Celtee first peopled the British Islands ; and that 
they are now represented truly by the Welsh, High- 
landers, Cornish, Armoricans, &c., &c. 

We have no tradition or intimation of the extermination 
of any race in Britain : let us then look for the people 
in our own day who most closely resemble the primitive 
and patriarchal type. An unprejudiced and intelligent 
person, placed amongst the primitive and patriarchal 
Highlanders and Welsh of our own day, would feel " that 
he lived amongst a people who had been there from the 
beginning." Consider the evidences in favour of this 
conclusion, such as they are. 

Moses having enumerated the sons of Javan and 
Gomer, parallel in descent to Salah, who was born 37 
years after the flood, adds as follows : " By these were 

from the beginning. One was obtained by Adam in Paradise, but he 
lost it when, through the deceit of the devil, he ate the apple, and 
was driven from Paradise to till the earth with his pal, that is, a sharp 

pointed pole The second language is the one which Moses 

obtained, and which he used whilst turning back the Red Sea, until 
its bed became dry land. That language was used by the prophets 
after him, in prophesying of Christ, for three thousand years ; and it 
is now found in Holy Scripture, and is understood by sages of learning 
and piety. The third language is the Cymraeg, which was obtained 
by Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam ; and he was the first 
man after the expulsion of Adam from Paradise that praised God 
and goodness in vocal song. The Cymraeg was preserved over the 
waters of the deluge by Japheth the son of Noah the Aged, and his 
posterity brought it to the utmost parts of the world, when the language 
of the men who built the castle of Babylon into a tower of monstrous 
size, against the will of the Holy Ghost, was corrupted. It was 
hence that failure, corruption, and degeneracy befell all the languages 
of the world, except the Cymraeg. And in memory of this fact and 
occurrence the castle and tower of Babylon is seen, a pile of monstrous 
size and form, and it cannot by any means be dissolved. Of the three 
primitive languages, the first is now spoken in heaven by God, His 
saints and angels. The second is preserved in Holy Scripture, as 
already said, in the works of the sacred prophets. The third is the 
Cymraeg, which is spoken at this dav in its perfect kind and quality 
by us, Cymry, in the Isle of Britain." pp. 29, 30. ED. CAMB. 
JOUR. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 63 

the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands ; every 
one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 
If this be not a positive declaration that a regular and 
complete division, agreeably to certain general rules, 
actually took place in the time, and under the direction, 
of the patriarchs, we know not by what words such a fact 
could be recorded. 

By those parts which he calls " the isles of the 
Gentiles," it is understood that Moses meant Europe and 
the adjacent islands." 3 These were divided by the sons 
and grandsons of Japhet, or, that is to say, by Javan 
and Gomer, and their sons. " In their lands, every one 
after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 
This division must have been regularly conducted, and 
must have taken place in the time of the patriarchs; 
for the act was theirs, and the nations retained their 
names to the time of Moses ; nay, many of them long 
afterwards, for we find them recognized by history and 
geography. 

Javan is well known as the parent of the Greeks. His 
family was not called CeltaB, or Cimmeri : we must look, 
then, for the CeltaB amongst the descendants of Gomer. 
A people named from Gomer would be Gomerim, or 
Gomeri ; arid it could be shown in a multitude of in- 
stances that C or K in the Celtic occupies the place of 
the Hebrew 3. Cymri, or Kimmeri, may be nothing 
more than Gomerim. The Hebrew word signifies to 
come, or bring to an end. It may also point out the 
abode of the posterity of this patriarch at the end of the 
earth. 

CeltaB, in the language of the Celts, means men of the 
extremity, or extreme corners or retreats, and also northern 
regions. Josephus, an able critic in Hebrew geography, 
declares that those whom the Greeks called GalataB, or 
Celtas, were descendants of Gomer. 

Of his three sons, Ashkenaz was understood to keep 
possession of the Ascanian or Euxine Sea, as well as of 

3 Davies' Celtic Researches, pp. 123, 124. 



64 CELTIC HISTORY. 

the nook which lies between that sea and the Propontis. 
This nook was never intended for the sole inheritance of 
the eldest branch of the Noachidse. It was a mere 
halting-place upon the road. 4 

In this corner of Asia we find the Heneti, or Veneti, 
which pronounced by a Celt would be Henet, Kenet, or 
Gwenet, well known tribes wherever the Celtae are 
found. The country of these Heneti, or Veneti, seems to 
have been the Henydd, the origin, source, or native land 
of the Celt. 

The family of Ashkenaz did not find in this neigh- 
bourhood that ample patrimony which they could be 
content to retain in peace, and leave to their children for 
ever. Their portion lay far to the west, and the way was 
open as yet for them to go in search of it. After they 
had reached their destined acquisitions they still retained 
their generic name, for Herodotus places the CynetaB in 
the western extremities of Europe. 

The name is acknowledged by the ancient Britons. 
Taliesin, a bard of the sixth century, in a poem which he 
addresses to Urien, Prince of Rheged, calls his country- 
men Cyn-wys, or Echen Cynwys, the nation of the Cyn 
men. Cyn, in British implying the first or foremost part, 
regularly forms Cynet for its plural, both in Welsh and 
Armorican. 5 

By these names Homer describes them as known in 
the age of the Trojan war. At the beginning of the 13th 
Iliad, Jupiter turns his eyes from the combatants before 
Troy. He views in succession Thrace, the land of the 
Hippemolgi, or milk eaters, and lastly the Abii, or those 
of the Cimmeri who dwelt beyond them. 6 

The chief part of European Scythia had been possessed 
by the Cimmeri ; but these Cimmeri, as alluded to above, 
were a devious branch of Ashkenaz, (collateral descen- 
dants, or a branch that had taken an independent position 
of its own,) and became subsequently mixed up with the 
Titans, or exiles from Babel. 

4 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 127. 5 Ibid. p. 129. 

6 Ibid. p. 139. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 65 

Respecting the origin of the Gaels, it will not be 
improper to observe that, under the character of Saturn, 
the heathens preserved the history of Noah. Saturn 
divided the world amongst his three sons. The eldest 
of these was Dis, or Pluto, and for his share he had 
Europe, the western or lower regions. Thus he became 
the parent of the first Europeans, and consequently of 
the Gauls. 

Thus far as regards external guidance, in the Mosaic 
history, the traditions of heathen mythology, and such 
historical allusions as are extant. Let us now turn to 
that which is internal ; as amongst the old Welsh manu- 
scripts we find many historical notices, upon the model 
of druidical triads, purporting to be the remains of 
druidical ages. 7 Many collections of these triads are pre- 
served at this day in old copies upon vellum. 

Speaking of the various races in North Britain, Skene 
says of the Welsh triads, " certainly the oldest and 
most unexceptionable authority upon the subject." 

Milton, as quoted by the author of The Chronicles 
of the Ancient British Church, remarks, " that oftentimes 
relations, heretofore accounted fabulous, have been after 
found to contain in them footsteps and relics of some- 
thing true, even if some men gave the triads this cha- 
racter." 

They bear the following title : " These are triads of 
the Island of Britain, and of the events which befel the 
race of the Cymry from the age of ages, that is to say, 
triads of memorial and record, and the information of 
remarkable men or things in the Island of Britain." 

Again, " These triads were taken from the Book of 
Caradoc of Nantgarvan, and from the Book of levan 
Brechva, by me, Thomas Jones of Tregaron, and these 
are all I could get of the three hundred." Dated 1601. 

Caradoc of Nantgarvan lived about the middle of the 
twelfth century. 

In another part of his considerable collection, Jones 

7 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 153. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. K 



66 CELTIC HISTORY. 

says that he copied some from a manuscript 600 years 
old in his time. 

Triad 1. " There were three names given to the Isle 
of Britain from the beginning. Before it was inhabited 
it was called ' The Sea-Girt Green Spot/ After it was 
inhabited it was called the * Honey Island,' from the 
quantity of honey found in it. After the people were 
formed into a commonwealth by Prydain, the son of 
Aedd Mawr, it was denominated the Isle of Prydain. 
And no one has any right to it but the tribe of the Cymry, 
for they first settled in it ; and before that time no persons 
lived therein, but it was full of bears, wolves, crocodiles, 
and bisons." 

Triad 2. " The three pillars of the race of the Island 
of Britain. The first was Hu Gadarn, who first brought 
the race of the Cymry into the Island of Britain ; and 
they came from the land of Hav, called Defrobani, 8 
where Constantinople now stands ; and they passed over 
Mor Tawch (the German Ocean) to the Island of Britain, 
and to Llydaw, where they remained : the second, Prydain, 
the son of Aedd Mawr, who first established regal govern- 
ment in the Island of Britain (before this there was no 
equity but what was done by gentleness, nor any law 
but that of force) : the third, Dyvnwal Moelmud, who 
first discriminated the laws and ordinances, customs and 
privileges of the land and of the nation (and for these 
reasons they were called the three pillars of the nation of 
the Cymry)." 

Triad 5. " The three benevolent tribes of the Island 
of Britain. The first were the stock of the Cymry, who 
came with Hu Gadarn into the Island of Britain, for he 
would not have lands by fighting and contention, but of 
equity and in peace : the second were the race of the 
Lloegrwys, who came from the land of Gwasgwyn, and 
were sprung from the primitive race of the Cymry : the 
third were the Brython ; they came from Llydaw, and 

8 Dr. James, on the Patriarchal Religion of Britain, (p. 14,) traces 
the route by which the Cymry came into Britain. Chronicles of the 
British Churches, p. 7. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 67 

were also sprung from the primordial line of the Cymry 
(and they are called the three peaceful tribes, because 
they came with mutual consent and permission in peace 
and tranquillity ; the three tribes descended from the 
primitive race of the Cymry, and the three were of one 
language, and of one speech)." 

Triad 6. " Three tribes came under protection into 
the Island of Britain, and by the consent and permission 
of the nation of the Cymry, without weapon, without 
assault. The first was the tribe of Caledonians in the 
north : the second was the Gwyddelian race, which are 
now in Alban (Scotland) : the third were the men of 
Galedin, who came in the naked ships (canoes) into the 
Isle of Wight when their country was drowned, and had 
land assigned them by the race of the Cymry." 

Triad 7. " Three usurping tribes came into the 
Island of Britain and never departed out of it. The first 
were the Coranied, who came from the land of the Pwyl: 
the second were the Gwyddelian Fichti, who came into 
Alban over the sea of Llychlyn 9 (Denmark) : the third 
were the Saxons. The Coranied are about the river 
Humber, and on the shore of Mor Tawch, and the 
Gwyddelian Fichti are in Alban, on the shore of the sea 
of Llychlyn. The Coranied united with the Saxons and 
deprived the Lloegrwys of their government by wrong 
and oppression ; and afterwards they deprived the Cymry 
of their crown and sovereignty. All the Lloegrwys be- 
came Saxons except those in Cornwall, the commot of 
Carnovan, Deira, and Bernicia. The primitive race of 
the Cymry have kept their land and their language ; but 
they have lost their sovereignty of the Island of Britain, 
through the treachery of the protected tribes, and the 
violence of the three usurping tribes." 

Triad 55. " The three happy controllers of the Island 
of Britain. Prydain the son of Aedd Mawr suppressing 
the dragon tyranny (or the turbulence and confusion that 
had arisen among heads of families) : Caradoc the son of 

German Ocean. 



68 CELTIC HISTORY. 

Bran checking the oppression of the Csesarians : and 
Rhitta Gawr controlling the tyranny and pillage of the 
tumultuary kings." 

Aneurin, Taliesin's cotemporary, 1 in the conclusion of 
his Gododin, distributes the Celtse of the British Islands 
into " Cynt a Gwyddyl a Phrydyn." The Cynt or 
Cynet, the Irish, and the North Britons, making the 
Cynt the first of the Celtic families. Amongst our old 
British kings we find Cyneta, or Cunedda. 

The Brython, according to the triads and the Venerable 
Bede, came from Llydaw, or Armorica. They were pro- 
bably of Pryd's retinue, for he brought his fleet and his 
Lloegrwys " O dir Gwas Gwynt," from the land of the 
Veneti. Gwas Gwynt was the country to which Britain 
sent its fleet for the assistance of the Gauls against the 
Romans. All this identifies the North Britons, or Cale- 
donians, with Prydyn or Prydain. He must, from his 
character and name, be the same as Brude, Brut, or 
Bret-eanch, the ancestor of the Caledonians, as given to 
us in the Pictish Chronicle, the Picts assuming to them- 
selves the traditions of the Caledonians, amongst whom 
they endeavoured to incorporate themselves. 

One cannot but feel satisfied that the Picts are describ- 
ing Caledonian history, assumed by themselves in this 
Pictish Chronicle, when they say filius Cinge (Cinwy), 
filius Brude (Pryd), for where otherwise were the Cale- 
donians ? The Fichti were an usurping tribe (see Triad 
4). The Caledonians were spread all along the north 
and north-west, which provinces the Pictish Chronicle 
describes. The Picts doubtless were Gaels or Celts, but 
not the aboriginal Celts of Britain, and by all accounts 
came from the continent at a comparatively late period. 

1 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 129. 
(To be continued.) 



69 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



CARADOC OF LANCARVAN. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Some three months ago a letter appeared in the columns of 
a contemporary, bearing the name of "Thomas Stephens," which, 
for several reasons ought not to pass unnoticed. It is grandiloquently 
worded displays an array of figures and is diversified with Latin 
quotations in such a degree as must impress the general reader, and 
even the moderate scholar, if he unfortunately happens to be ignorant 
of Welsh History, with an awful sense of the learning and knowledge 
of the writer. This formidable and plausible guise is fraught with 
mischief, and furnishes one reason why the letter should be unravelled. 
I will, therefore, with your permission, venture to lay hands on it, and 
see whether it is in reality that thing of substance which it professes 
to be, or whether it is not a mere puff-ball, which, as you grasp it, 
emits dust and smoke, and collnpses. 

What is the object which the writer had in view, when he penned 
the letter in question? Professedly, as we learn from his opening 
remarks, "to institute a rigid examination" of "one of the Welsh 
Chronicles, which has, since the publication of the Myvyrian Archaio- 
logy, received much praise and attention" and " to submit it to the 
test of an honest and searching, yet kindly criticism." A very praise- 
worthy object truly, and one I should have rejoiced to see carried out. 
But alas ! as I waded through its contents, I discovered an animus 
which promised no " kindly criticism ;" and when I arrived at its close 
I learned unmistakably that " the results" of the inquiry were identical 
with the object, which the writer had in view that however " searching" 
the criticism might have been, it was anything but " honest," and 
" kindly," and " becomingly fair." 

These results were : 

I. That the Book of Aberpergwm is not the Chronicle of Caradoc, 
but ought always to be cited by the former name. 

II. That it is a respectable authority for the history of Glamorgan, 
but not for the general history of Wales. 

III. That it abounds in mistakes, conjectures, and unauthorized 
additions ; that it exhibits several anachronisms, and names persons 
who lived in the years 1203, 1293, 1317, and 1328 ; and that it was 
written in or about A.D. 1555. 

IV. That it has many parallelisms with Brut leuan Brechva; 
and that several of its special statements are evidently founded upon 
that document. 

V. That both the Book of Aberpergwm, and the so-called Book 
of Caradoc, are written in an orthography comparatively recent, and 
are both documents of the sixteenth century. 



70 CORRESPONDENCE. 

His first " result" is arrived at by two arguments, which, if they 
were properly substantiated, especially the latter, would, I grant, be 
sufficient to warrant such a conclusion. In the first place he asserts 
that facts are mentioned, which Caradoc, if he were the writer of the 
Chronicle, would have known to be false. One of these is the 
marriage of lestyn ab Gwrgant with Denis, daughter of Bleddyn ab 
Cynvyn, which is stated in the Brut to have taken place A.D. 994, 
though Bleddyn himself, according to him, was not born before 1024. 
" This is a curious blunder to be made by a writer who ended his 
days in 1156." There is, no doubt, a difficulty relative to the ancestors 
of Denis, nor has it been discovered now for the first time by the 
writer of this letter. But it is allowed by all that lestin was married 
as early as the date assigned to that event in the Chronicle. It is not 
to be expected that Caradoc could have ascertained, of his own 
personal knowledge, the exact circumstances of any event that had 
occurred 160 years previously, or even 130 years. He must of 
necessity have copied the memorials of what had happened before he 
was born, and that he did not attempt to correct them according to 
his own notions or inferences only proves his strict fidelity as a com- 
piler. The " curious blunder" thus adduced for the purpose of proving 
that the Chronicle was not written by Caradoc, is of no value whatever, 
and falls powerless to the ground. 

" But there are plenty more. The whole history of South Wales, 
from 1022 to 1090, is, in this MS., a mass of confusion, arising from 
the blending of the distinct histories of the descendants of lestyn ab 
Gwrgant, and of lestyn ab Owain ab Hywel Dda." As there is 
here but a general assertion, my general denial must serve as an 
equivalent. "In or about 1110, Fitzhamon is said to have died of 
madness at Tewkesbury, whereas he was killed in Normandy, in 1107, 
at the siege of Falaise." One statement is as good as the other, and 
as likely to be true. The same may said of the storming of Cardiff 
Castle by Ifor Bach. It is thus very evident that the writer of the 
letter has not proved that facts are mentioned in the Chronicle, which 
Caradog would have known to be inaccurate. 

His other argument is, that events are recorded in the Chronicle 
which did not really occur until after Caradoc's death. This writer 
seems monomanical on the subject of the occurrence of names. No 
two persons can possibly bear the same name. Therefore, as there 
was an Archbishop of Canterbury in 1202-3 named Hubert Sais, or 
simply Hubert, Sais being merely descriptive of his nation, what is 
said in the Chronicle under the year 871 of the appointment of 
Hubert Sais (or the Saxon) to the see of Menevia must be erroneous. 
If this principle is to be admitted, what an historical structure must 
tumble to the ground ! But what is the fact ? In a list of Bishops 
of St. David's, given in the " History" which Mr. Stephens reviewed 
without a word of qualification a list purporting to be taken from 
Giraldus, whom the writer of the letter implicitly trusts on other 
subjects, between the years 944 and 999, the name of Hubert abso- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 7 1 

lately occurs ! Again, no Bishop of Menevia of the name of Martin 
could have accompanied Hywel Dda to Rome! Why? On the 
principle of the incommunicability of names. " For there was a 
Bishop of Menevia of this name, and he occupied the see from 1293 
to 1328." Surely arguments of this description deserve no serious 
answers, and I am astonished that any person, who sets himself as a 
critic, should have recourse to them. 

No ; I was wrong in saying that the writer denies the commu- 
nicability of names. He admits it in the case of Llywelyn Brenn. 
" There were two persons of this name." But no matter, though 
the Chronicle says that a party of Normans were intercepted in 
1094 by " Griffith and Cadivor, sons of Llywelyn Brenn, Lord of 
Senghenydd," the statement must be untrue, because " the Llewelyn 
Brenn was the person who headed an insurrection in 1315 or 1316;" 
and the writer is " warranted by the late Rev. H. H. Knight, who 
read a paper on this subject at the Cardiff Meeting of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association, in saying, that this was the real and 
historical Llywelyn Brenn." He here, again, falls quietly to his 
favourite theory. " This was the reed and historical Llywelyn 
Brenn ;" the other was after all but a myth, and as such could have 
no sons to intercept the Normans. 

But I must proceed to the very climax of absurd argumentation. 
In the Chronicle under 1114 it is said : 

" From him (i. e., Owain ab Cadwgan) originated ' Gwylliaid 
Mawddwy,' which are ever [still] found plundering the country far 
and near." 

Because they " assassinated Baron Owen on the llth of October, 
1555, and were exterminated soon after that event," " it requires 
but a moment's consideration to be thoroughly convinced that the 
Book of Aberpergwm was written in or about the year 1555." As 
if the assassination of Baron Owen was the only anrhaith which 
these banditti ever committed. Such is the profound reasoning of the 
" honest" and " kindly" critic ! 

As my letter has already grown to a considerable size, I must be 
brief with the other " results." 

II. " That it is a respectable authority for the history of Gla- 
morgan, but not for the general history of Wales." 

If so, then the facts relative to Glamorgan must have been upon 
the whole accurately told, which is a circumstance highly favourable 
to the supposition that the work was the compilation of " the Monk 
of Lancarvan." Unfortunately, however, the writer's criticism does 
not warrant this "kindly" conclusion, whilst it is completely upset by 
the next " result." 

III. " That it abounds in mistakes, conjectures, and unauthorized 
additions ; that it exhibits several anachronisms, and names persons 
who lived in the years 1203, 1293, 1317, and 1328 ; and that it was 
written in or about A.D. 1555." 

" It abounds ;" there is no exception made in favour of one portion 



72 CORRESPONDENCE. 

of Wales more than another. The dogmatic mode in which the 
writer specifies " unauthorized" additions is notorious. In the Annales 
Cambria, under 689, mention is made of " blood-coloured rain," 
which turned red the milk and butter. In the Book of Aberpergwm 
it is, " until the milk, butter, and cheese, went of the red colour of 
blood." " And cheese" are unauthorized. Again : 

" 720. The same year Rodri Molwynawc was made king over the 
Britons, and there was a great war between him and the Saxons, when 
the Britons triumphed honourably in two battles. The same year 
was the battle of Garthmaelawg, and another in Gwynedd, and the 
battle of Pencoed in Glamorgan, when the Britons were victorious in 
the whole three." 

Can any critic point out in this passage what is right, and what is 
wrong ? Yes. " The words in italics are manifestly erroneous," 
because, no doubt, they represent a state of things contrary to the 
wishes of this vilifier of our race. The assertion that " the Britons 
triumphed honourably in two battles" was galling to his anti-patriotic 
feelings, therefore he willed, and of course they became erroneous. I 
am warranted in saying this, for he adduces not the slightest proof in 
favour of his verdict. It is the same with the following : 

" In the same year was the battle of Mygedawc, where the Britons 
defeated the Gwyddyl Ffichti after a severe contest." 

The " kindly " critic is not pleased with the honourable testimony 
borne to the bravery of his ancestors, therefore the statement is wrong. 

All his " unauthorized" additions are detected by the same easy 
process ; I shall not therefore trouble your readers with more examples. 
They are pitiable in the extreme, as indicative of the perverted reason 
of the writer. And this man to think of upsetting the opinions of 
men of learning and discrimination ! 

IV. " That it has many parallelisms with Brut leuan Brechva ; 
and that several of its special statements are evidently founded upon 
that document." 

As Brut leuan Brechva professes to have been " drawn from the 
Books of Caradoc of Lancarvan and other old records," it is quite 
natural that there should be parallelisms of the kind. But to the 
charge that several of the special statements of the Book of Aber- 
pergwm are founded upon the Brechva Chronicle, I demur. Did it 
ever enter into this writer's mind that a work can be abridged? And 
that it is quite possible that leuan Brechva should have abridged 
many of Caradoc's paragraphs? Is it not as likely that there should 
be omissions on the part of one, as additions on the part of the other ? 
Any "kindly" critic would have judged so. Indeed, it would be 
much more natural to make omissions than to make additions, espe- 
cially where there existed no authority whence to derive the latter. 

V. " That both the Book of Aberpergwm, and the so-called Book 
of Caradoc, are written in an orthography comparatively recent, and 
are both documents of the sixteenth century." 

What does he mean by both ? Are they not one and the same ? 



< OUUESPONDENCE. 73 

And what though the orthography be recent, does that prove anything 
more than the fact that the particular copy used for the Myvyrian 
Archaiology dated no further than the sixteenth century ? I never 
heard even the warmest advocate of the genuineness of the Chronicle 
maintain that it appears in the Myvyrian Archaiology orthographi- 
cally as it was penned by Caradoc. This question of orthography, then, 
has nothing to do with the matter. The poems of Llywarch Hen, as 
edited by W. Owen, are in a different orthography from that in which 
they appear in Llyfr Paul Pantun ; still no critic, however " honest" 
and " searching," will say that they are less the compositions of the 
royal bard. Why, if this principle is to be admitted as an indis- 
pensable canon of criticism in regard to the genuineness of any work, 
then most, if not all, of our classics, as well as our early British 
documents, must go. Homer becomes a myth Virgil never wrote 
the ^Eneids Horace never existed. 

The writer pities the Rev. John Williams ab Ithel for being so 
simple-minded as to " uniformly cite this as the veritable work of the 
monk of Lancarvan, without experiencing any doubt as to its authen- 
ticity." Poor man what a state to be in "without any doubt!" 
No prospect of his ever becoming a member of the German School! 
Alas, poor man ! 

He censures Carnhuanawc for adopting the views of the editors of 
the Myvyrian Archaiology in reference to the different Chronicles 
which go under the name of Caradoc ; namely, that the same writer 
might have written different copies at various times, with varying 
fullness of narration, and have used a different phraseology. But he 
says nothing about another author, a namesake of his, who holds the 
same views. In the Literature of the Kymry, p. 324, the author 
observes : " Caradoc of Llancarvan is the Chronicler most in repute. 
He belonged to this age, as we learn from the conclusion of Geoffrey's 
History, where he is styled * my contemporary.' His Chronicle 
commences where the other leaves off, at the abdication of Cadwaladr ; 
and both writers seem to have been on intimate terms." (Poor man 
he evidently experiences no doubt of its authenticity.) He goes on 
making Mr. Malkin's words his own : " There were several copies 
preserved in the abbeys of Conway and Ystradfflur, which generally 
agreed in matter, but differed in their phraseology and the period of 
their terminations. Their apparent variance may be reconciled by 
supposing that such copies were so many different editions written by 
him, and distributed in the course of his life. In David Powell's 
time, which was that of Queen Elizabeth, there were at least one 
hundred copies dispersed over Wales ; and when we consider that all 
these agreed in everything, but in form and literal phrase, and that 
Humphrey Lloyd inserted what was defective and corrected what was 
discordant from the authorities of Matthew Paris, and Nicholas Trivet, 
we may reasonably believe that the present translation, improved as it 
is from records and authors consulted by David Powell, forms a 
SECOND SERIES VOL. I. L 



74 CORRESPONDENCE. 

sufficiently authentic compendium of Welsh antiquities." Singular 
that two writers of the same name, and living in the same town, should 
differ so much on this subject ! 

ERYRI. 



PERAMBULATIONS. 

No. I. 
To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

THE ROMAN ROAD FROM TOMMEN Y MUR (HERIRI MONS) TO 
MEIFOD (MEDIOLANUM). 

SIR, Some years ago, my attention was drawn to an old road, 
called by the common people " the Roman road," in the upper part 
of the Mowddwy Vale. After consulting my learned friend Ab Ithel 
upon the subject, he urged me to pursue my inquiries, and assisted me 
materially in tracing it, from Rhiw March to Carreg y Big, I took 
the matter up in earnest. 

Traditionary lore pointed out with graphic correctness the exact 
spot where the street once appeared in perfection ; the windings along 
the frowning side of Aran Fowddwy not exempted. Two years ago I 
traced it from Bwlch y Glascoed to Llanfihangel, a distance of fifteen 
miles, but owing to my removal from the neighbourhood, further 
explorations were suspended until last autumn. One morning in 
October last I managed to find an opportunity of trying the experiment 
of linking the Mowddwy road with the Merioneth " Watling Street." 
I commenced my journey at Penstryd, near Trawsfynydd, and traced 
the main track with ease. Having been successful at starting, I began 
to question the mountaineers, who seemed quite at home in their 
narratives of the superhuman actions of the " Queen Helen," as they, 
poor things, were wont to call her. 

The sun was powerfully hot, and even the Mervinian Hills could 
not supply me with any refreshing gales to assist the frail body to 
climb the rugged cliffs. After lounging about Cwm Tir Mynach, and 
gleaning from the shepherds enough of their innocent superstition, I 
began in spite of the scorching sun to search for the branched off path 
in earnest. The main street has been recently walked over by many 
of our antiquaries, and so I shall leave it, for the present, in their 
possession, although some more definite account is wanted, especially 
of the direction it takes from above Cymmer Abbey, until you see it 
again on the gliding side of Cadair Idris. Not far from Penstryd I 
found the branched off path, and, with little trouble and care, traced it 
to Abergeirw. From thence I was fortunate enough to have a com- 
panion. One of the farmers volunteered to assist me in the undertaking, 
and I must say that his assistance conduced greatly to the ultimate 
success of my search. In the middle of Cwm Blaen y Glynn there is 



CORRESPONDENCE. 75 

a meadow called Gwaen Elen (Elen's Meadow), and from Abergeirw 
faint remains here and there are to be met of the earn, and the path 
can be traced with care. After passing Gwaen Elen, it turns east- 
ward, and crosses the mountains along the side of Roballt Ganol. 
The inhabitants know the path well, and call it "Llwybry Rhvfeiniaid" 
constantly. Formerly, I was told, a great many horses on the 12th 
of August used to be led backwards and forwards along this path, but 
those were not Roman troopers. No ; the glory of the Roman eagle 
has been supplanted long ago by the red dragon on high, and even the 
fortifications which once towered have crumbled to atoms. Over the 
mountain I proceeded, eagerly watching the footprints of those lion- 
hearted legions who traversed these wild regions to keep the pugnacious 
Cambrians in subordination, to what end no economist has been yet 
able even to guess ! Being tired and hungry I was obliged to curtail 
my journey, and to proceed as fast as I could to Drws y Nant, to 
procure refreshments for the " inner man." After a short repose I 
found myself able again to continue my proposed walk. Little beyond 
Drws y Nant I found a. ford called Rhyd yr Alun, or Elen, i. e., Elen's 
ford, and from this proceeded a winding foot-path in the direction of 
Bwlch y Glascoed, above Cowarch, thence it takes a northward course 
to Buches Tydecho, and Rhyd y Gerwin. Here and there along 
Llaethnant the flagged path is visible, and on the top of Rhiwmarch 
a regular cut through the rock shows clearly the marks of the Roman 
chisels. I may perhaps be allowed here to throw a hint. Above 
Cowarch, there is now an old mine work, called by the people a 
Roman mine. The path in question passes by that place. The ore 
probably was lead. Will not this account for the road over such an 
awful declivity ? From Mowddwy to Meifod will make another 
short letter, when I can find lesiure to pen it. Local accounts and 
traditions would be in my opinion highly conducive to the right 
development of Cambrian lore, and unless an active body of our 
fellow-countrymen fill up the gap and that speedily we shall be 
deprived of many an interesting tradition that would materially assist 
the historian of this renowned land. Merionethshire seems to me an 
unexplored region. We have fuller accounts of every other county in 
Wales than of this ! Yet, I am given to understand that it would 
repay well any antiquary for his trouble if he could find time to explore 
this fairy land. From old Cadair's frowning brow, to the mean bar- 
rows on the flats of Ardudwy and Gwastad Meirionydd, the country 
abounds with archaic mementoes, and every nook that hides itself in 
the bosom of the fragmentary cliffs echoes some wild romance of the 
heroic past, or a touching legend of our forefathers. These ought to 
be collected, and published without delay. I remain, &c., 

O. W. J. 



76 MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, I shall feel much obliged if you, or any of your readers, will 
inform me what constitutes real Welsh linsey. I remain, &c., 

A WEAVER. 

[We believe that linsey, to be really Welsh, must consist of silk, 
linen, and woollen only. ED. CAMB. JOUR.] 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 



LITERARY PERSECUTION. 

It is a melancholy fact that there are persons in Wales at this very 
time, who profess much anxiety about the education of the people, and 
the preservation of its antiquities, and who nevertheless do all in their 
power to crush such works as the CAMBRIAN JOURNAL, the object of 
which is equally the elevation of the intellectual and moral condition 
of the Cymry. Why they do so is a mystery which sensible people 
are unable to solve ; they give no reason most probably because they 
have none to give. Threats physical threats are the weapons which 
they delight to use in their inglorious warfare. Will they deny our 
assertion ? Then why do they worry and persecute our Publisher, and 
threaten to deprive him of a portion of his daily bread, as long as he 
connects himself with the CAMBRIAN JOURNAL ? We ourselves have 
seen a letter written by one of these men, in which he called upon a 
supporter of the JOURNAL to give it up, and declared that war to the 
knife would be waged against it. Poor fanatics ! What a waste of 
energy ! Suppose, for an instant, that they succeeded in compelling 
our Publisher to abandon us, do they dream that our annihilation will 
follow? More thoroughly established than ever better supported 
and less editorially fettered than before, shall we proceed in the course 
which we have marked out for ourselves, leaving them to enjoy the 
reflection that they have injured an honest man ! Nothing more. 



WYNNSTAY MSS. Another loss ! The fine collection of Welsh 
manuscripts which was at Wynnstay has been totally destroyed by 
fire ! Will not this national calamity stimulate all who love Wales 
and its literature to come forward and aid the Welsh MSS. Society in 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 77 

its efforts to rescue from a similar fate the records that still remain 
unpublished in various parts of the country? It is of no avail to 
deplore we must work. 

SIGN MOWDDWY. John My wddwy, son of Rhys My wddwy, son 
of Gruff Mywddwy, son of Meredydd Mywddwy, son of Wilcox 
My wddwy. MS. 

Oed Crist 690, y rhoddes Run A.D. 690, Rhun the son of 

Mab Maelgwn Gwynedd Ynys Maelgwn Gwynedd gave the isle 

Fon i Frenin y Saeson dan herw of Mona to the king of the Saxons, 

trichanmuw Gwartheg duon bob subject to a tribute of three hun- 

blwyddyn, agynagalw ynysMon dred head of black cattle yearly, 

yn Anglesie yn y Saesoneg, achos Hence the isle of Mona was in 

i /^ jj i i Llychlyniaid English called Anglesey. This 
brad Gwyddelod a /, u v ., ,o , / , 

* Llychhaid ' was done because of the treachery 

Lin Daronwy a drigwys ynddi ; of the Irish and Scandinavians 
ac efe a roddes hefyd fraint coron who dwelt in it. He also bestowed 
y Deyrnas i Frenin Llundain, lie the prerogative of the crown of 
cyn no hynny Caerllion ar wysg the kingdom upon the king of 
yn Leithig Teyrnedd. MS. London, whereas previously Caer- 

leon upon Usk constituted the seat 

of government. 

LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. There is now not the least doubt but 
that this truly national festival will prove a complete success. The 
public have already liberally responded to the appeal made by the 
Secretaries in its behalf, and as there are yet six months during which 
the patriots of Wales may be canvassed, the fund will, we feel certain, 
be greatly augmented by the time the Eisteddfod is to come off. If 
any of our readers who have not already subscribed, wish thus to 
countenance the literature and music of Cambria, they are requested 
to forward their names to the Rev. J. Williams ab Ithel, Llany- 
mowddwy Rectory, Merionethshire, or to the Rev. J. Hughes, (Carn 
Ingli,) Meltham Parsonage, Huddersfield, Honorary Secretaries. 

AN EISTEDDFOD IN BRETAGNE. The Paris correspondent of the 
Globe says : " The Welsh are first cousins of the Bretons. The 
latter, from Cape Finisterre throughout the length and breadth of old 
Armorica, are stirring for a grand gathering, a sort of Eistteiffodd, 
(do I spell right ?) to be held at Quimper, where old Bretonne poesy, 
and legends, and what not, are to be the order of several days. At 
this congress the final arrangements are to be made for the erection, 
in front of the Cathedral, of an equestrian statue to the good ' King 
Gradlon,' who flourished long before Arthur or his Round Table." 



78 



REVIEWS. 



CATALOGUE OF THE ANTIQUITIES OF STONE, EARTHEN, AND 
VEGETABLE MATERIALS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ROYAL 
IRISH ACADEMY. By W. R. WILDE, M.R.I. A., Secretary of 
Foreign Correspondence to the Academy. Dublin : printed by 
M. H. Gill. 

Mr. Wilde has executed his task admirably, and has compiled a 
volume, which will not only prove useful to such persons as intend to 
pay a personal visit to the Museum, but also be of great service to 
those antiquaries who are compelled to gather all their knowledge of 
the arts and customs of the past from books alone. We have here 
not a mere classification of technical terms, but the articles enumerated 
are graphically described as to their material, form, and use; and 
many of them are moreover illustrated with wood engravings the 
illustrations being drawn according to scale, and directly on the wood. 

The study of Irish antiquities is not without its practical use in 
determining the line of demarcation between British and Roman 
remains. It too often happens that a relic of good design and work- 
manship is at once attributed to the Romans, whilst such only as are 
rude and simple are thought worthy to be called British. But what 
will be said of the urn mentioned at p. 179, " which, so far as the 
published accounts afford us information, is, the most beautiful sped' 
men of the mortuary urn, both in design and execution, that has yet 
been discovered in the British Isles?" And yet this unique article 
has been discovered in a spot where, we are sure, none of the legions 
of Rome had ever penetrated ! 

The present volume contains a description of the articles composed 
of Stone, Earthen, and Vegetable Materials. Another part is soon to 
follow, which will illustrate the articles made of Animal and Metallic 
substances. We subjoin a specimen of the work : 

" SLING-STONES That sling-stones were generally employed by early 
nations long after they had become acquainted with the use of metal, and 
had attained to great perfection both m arts and literature, we have the 
evidence afforded by the history of the combat between David and Goliath ; 
and that such weapons were used by the early Irish, we learn from some 
incidental references to them in our ancient histories. Thus, Kethlenn, the 
wife of the Dagda, killed Balor of the One Eye, with a stone thrown from a 
sling, at the battle of Moy Tuiredh, fought before the Christian era ; and 
Keating, quoting from the Bardic Records, relates the story of an Ulster 
prince named Furbuidhe, who was so expert that he could, at a great distance, 
strike an apple off a stake with a stone cast from a sling ; and eventually slew 
Meave, Queen of Connaught, by a stone slung at her across the Shannon, 
when she was bathing near Innis-Clothran. The Dinnseauchus records the 
fact of the poetress Dubh having been slain by a stone cast from a sling, when 



REVIEWS. 79 

she fell into the Linn, or dark pool of the LifFey, and hence the place was 
said to have been called from her, Dubhlinn (See also Gilbert's History of 
Dublin.) The ancient Irish warrior carried a stone in his girdle the Lia 
Miledh to cast at his adversary ; but how this was done, whether it was a 
sling-stone or a celt, we as yet know not. Finally, we read that when the 
celebrated chief, Cuchulaun, went in his chariot from Tara to the Boyne to 
fish, he brought with him a number of stones to fling at birds." pp. 17, 18. 



TALES AND TRADITIONS OF TENBY. Tenby : R. Mason. London : 
Piper, Stephenson, and Spence. 1858. 

This book, as we learn from the preface, " is intended to serve as a 
companion in country or sea-side rambles, as a medium for chasing 
ennui on those wel evenings that will sometimes surprize the visitor 
even in the generally fair and unclouded summers of the Town, and 
which is perhaps its chief intent to lie on the visitors' book-shelves 
in after years, as a memento of a visit to a watering-place in South 
Wales, which yields to none in variety of scenery, grandeur of prospect, 
and innate beauty." We think it well calculated to answer such a 
purpose, and we should like to see the plan adopted in other parts of 
the Principality. Every locality abounds more or less with Tales and 
Traditions, the publication of which would not fail to throw much 
light upon the manners and customs of the past, and thus prove a 
valuable aid to the antiquary in general. There is one " Tradition 
of Tcnby " in the manual before us, which has struck us as being 
peculiarly interesting and instructive. It is entitled " The Deaf and 
Dumb Man's Curse," and is as follows: 

" In former times Tenby was so celebrated for its fishery, both as to the 
quality and number of the finny inhabitants of its waters, that it was known 
far and near by the name of ' Fish Tenby.' Before going to sea in those days, 
the fishermen always went to St. Julian's Chapel, (built for that purpose on 
the pier,) and offered up prayers for success ; on their return, with well-laden 
craft, they did not forget to repair to the same chapel, and offer their thanks- 
givings ; nor was their gratitude confined to barren words, a tenth of their 
fish was always devoted to God's service, a portion of which was presented to 
His minister, and the remainder distributed among their poorer townsmen. 
So His blessing was upon them, and the trade of the town wonderfully increased. 
This prosperity continued until the fishermen ceased to remember Who it was 
that kept them in safety while on the deep waters, and blessed their daily 
toil ; and the inhabitants of the town brought a curse upon themselves, by 
their barbarous usage of a deaf and dumb man, who had come into the town 
begging. Now, a few years before, some pirates who had anchored in Caldy 
Roads had sent a spy to examine the town, who, being taken by the inhabi- 
tants, and examined before the mayor, pretended to be deaf and dumb ; how- 
ever, the fact of his being a spy having been proved against him, he was 
hanged by the local authorities on Garrow Tree Hill, where the remains of 
the gallows have been seen by persons still living. On the occasion to which 
our tale refers, the mayor of the town, (one Stedman Davies,) perhaps 
suspecting this deaf and dumb beggar to be also a spy, offered a reward to 
anyone who would flog him, an offer which was readily accepted by a person 



80 REVIEWS. 

known by the cognomen of ' Leekie Porridge.' This man seized the beggar, 
and earned him to the Norton end of the town, where the poor mute fell on 
his knees, and by piteous gestures implored mercy; but this was sternly 
denied him, and the cruel sentence was carried into execution. The poor man 
was so inhumanly flogged that it was with great difficulty he managed to 
crawl up to a place known as ' Slippery Back,' to a spot a little above where 
the Cemetery Chapel now stands ; there falling on his knees, and stretching 
out his hands towards Tenby, he turned his streaming eyes to heaven, and (it 
is supposed) implored of Him ' Who heareth in secret,' and ' Whose eyes are 
over the poor,' just reparation for his wrongs on the town and its inhabitants. 

" The curse at once took effect. The fish immediately forsook their 
favourite resort on the bank known as Wille's Mark, from which bank 
formerly such quantities had been taken that the town and quay had been 
first built with the produce. From this time the prosperity of Tenby ceased, 
the trade of the town declined, and the place itself dwindled away, until the 
last man died who sanctioned this cruel outrage on the deaf and dumb 
beggar ; but, ere this period arrived, the once flourishing town of Tenby had 
become little more than a mere village. After this the place once more 
recovered, and forthwith made, and has since continued to make, rapid 
progress towards regaining its ancient importance. 

" It is said that the principal actor in this barbarous tragedy did not 
escape a particular and well merited retribution ; he himself was struck dumb, 
and continued so during the rest of his life, and a mark was set upon his 
children by their being deprived of the usual ornament of manhood a 
beard ! and singular as it may appear, for ' truth is stranger than fiction,' his 
descendants, although now in the fourth generation, are devoid of either 
beard or whiskers. 

" The unfortunate victim of this cruelty died from the inhuman treatment 
he had received ; while his curse was so speedily and strikingly fulfilled, that 
its effects have been a wonder and a marvel from that time until the present 
day." 

The book concludes with a communication, which is well worthy 
of the attention of geologists, " On the Change of Level in the 
Country near Tenby/' We can highly recommend it. 



GLADYS OF HARLECH ; OR, THE SACRIFICE. A Romance of Welsh 
History. By L. M. S. 3 vols. London : C. J. Skeet. 1858. 

We are sorry that our copy of this much praised work has only 
just arrived too late to enable us to review it in the present Number 
of the Cambrian Journal. We anticipate much pleasure from a 
perusal of it ; and we have no doubt that we shall feel it our duty to 
recommend it warmly in our next to the notice of our countrymen, 
and all who admire the romantic land and history of Wales. 



LLEUCU LLWYD, YNGHYDA CHANEUON ERAILL. Gan GLASYNYS. 
Second Edition. Dolgelley : O. Rees. 1858. 

Those of our readers who are fond of Welsh poetry, will find some 
beautiful pieces in this unpretending manual. 



THE 



CAMBRIAN JOURNAL 



ALBAN 




HEVIN. 



(SUMMER SOLSTICE.) 



SKETCH OF THE EARLY ORIGIN AND PRINCIPAL 
FEATURES OF CELTIC HISTORY. 

(Continued from page 68.) 

PRYDAIN the son of Aedd the Great was a prince of the 
chief branch of the Celta3 in the west, and I must here 
add the account of Brude from the Pictish Chronicle, 
with various derivations, to corroborate the position that, 
both from character and name, he can be no other than 
Prydain, 1 the establisher of order, law, and jurisdiction 
in the island (in that term comprizing the whole). 

The account of Brude and his sons is as follows, from 
the Pictish Chronicle, he being therein described, 
" Cruithne filius Cinge.'" Cruithne, or corn eaters, was 
the generic title of the Northern Celt ; so we shall observe 
that Brude, the judge of the Celtae, had seven sons, or 

1 As the Celtic ancestor, or giver of law. 

2 Skene on the Highlands, i. p. 247. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. M 



82 CELTIC HISTORY. 

reges ; under them seven reguli, and subsequently in toto 
twenty-eight or thirty. 

Giraldus mentions a tradition that the seven provinces 
arose from a division of the territory of the Picts (Cale- 
donians) among seven brothers. These seven brothers 
are, however, manifestly the same with the seven sons 
of Cruithne, the progenitor of the Picts (Caledonians), 
mentioned in .the following passage of the Pictish 
Chronicle : " Cruidne films Cinge pater Pictorum habi- 
tantium in hoc c. annis regnavit. VII filios habuit. 
Haec sunt nomina eorum; Fiv, Fidach, Floclaid, Fortreim, 
Got, Ce, Circui." 

The same seven brothers are mentioned in an old poem 
attributed to St. Columba, and quoted in that ancient 
and singular history of the Picts (Caledonians) contained 
in the Book of Ballymote : 

" The seven great sons of Cruithne 
Divided Alban into seven parts, 
Gait, Ce, Cirighceathac, 
Fibh, Fidach, Fotla, Fortreand." 

The names of these seven brothers, however, appear 
from the Irish annalists to have been actually the Gaelic 
names of the districts in question. 

The Picts (Caledonians), however, it must be remem- 
bered, consisted of a confederacy of tribes, in number 
certainly greater than seven. 3 These tribes, then, must 
have been grouped together, as it were, into provinces ; 
and it will be necessary to ascertain their number and 
situation before we can understand the purpose of the 
latter division. After giving the first list of seven pro- 
vinces, Giraldus proceeds to say : " Inde est ut hi septem 
fratres praBdicti pro septem regibus habitantur : septem 
regulos sub se habentes. Isti septem fratres regnum 
Albania in septem regna diviserunt, et unisquisque in 
tempore suo in suo regno regnavit." There were thus, 
according to tradition, among the Picts seven reges, and 
inferior to them seven reguli ; that is to say, that as the 

3 Skene on the Highlands, pp. 249, 250. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 83 

Picts (Caledonians) were a confederacy of tribes, the heads 
of the nation consisted of fourteen chiefs, of whom seven 
were superior in rank to the rest. As we had previously 
found the existence of the seven provinces traditionally 
preserved in the shape of the seven sons of the supposed 
founder of the Pictish kingdom, so we should likewise 
expect to recognize the fourteen tribes of the nation tra- 
ditionally preserved in the same documents, and in a 
similar manner; and such is actually the case. 

The Pictish Chronicle has the following passage : 
" 15 Brude bout, a quo xxx Brude regnaverunt Hiberniam 
et Albaniam per centum T ann. eum spacium xlviii annis 
regnavit. Ide est Brude Pant, Brude Urpant, Brude 
Leo, Brude Urleo, Brude Gant, Brude Urgant, Brude 
Guith, Brude Urguith, Brude Fecir, Brude Urfecir, Brude 
Cat, Brude Urcat, Brude Cuit, Brude Urcuit, Brude Fee, 
Brude Urfec, Brude Rulim, Brude Gast, Brude Urgast, 
Brude Cinid, Brude Urcinid, Brude Jup, Uriup, Brude 
Grid, Brude Urgrid, Brude Mund, Brude Urmund." 

In the Book of Ballymote, perhaps the better authority, 
we find exactly the same list, with the exception that, 
instead of Fecir, we have Feth ; instead of Ru, we have 
Ero ; instead of Jup, we have Uip ; instead of Grid, we 
have Grith ; and instead of Mund, we have Muin. 

TABLE AS ABOVE DESCRIBED. 
Localities. Biiide's Sons. Ptolemy. 

Strathearn Pant or Phant Novantai 

Sutherland Leo or Leo Lougoi 

Moray Gant or Kant Kanteai 

Caithness Guith or Kai Kairinoi 

Argyleshire Feth or Ped Epidoi 

Athol Cal or Kal Kaledonia 

Buchan Cuil or Tuic Tuikidoloi 

Elgin, Nairn Fek or Fee Vakomogoi 

Part of Sutherland Erec or Erec Mertai 

Ross* Garts or Kar Karnones 

Ayr, Stirling Cinid or Cinid Damnionioi 

Part of Caithness Uip or Uipp Kournavioi 

Part of Ross Grith or Ku ' Koenones 

Gowrie, Angus, Kincardine Muin or Vuin Veuricones 

4 The neighbourhood of the head of the Moray Frith is the country 
of the present Urquharts, and of the old Urgarts, as seen by the 



84 CELTIC HISTORY. 

In composing these names it must be recollected that 
the Gaelic names are monosyllabic, while the Greek are 
not. But when in fourteen Greek names the first syllables 
of ten are found to be identical with the Gaelic, as well 
as the second syllables of two, and when there are but 
two which bear a doubtful or no similarity, the identity 
may be considered complete. 

Although Brude is here stated to have thirty sons, yet, 
when their names are given, it appears to be a mistake 
for twenty-eight, which is doubtless the true number, as 
the Book of Ballymote has the same. This number is 
again reduced to fourteen, as we find that every alternate 
name is merely the preceding one repeated, with the 
syllable " Ur" prefixed. 6 

The names of the different tribes of Caledonians, or 



locality of Castle Urquhart (the oldest ruin in the county). The 
Urgarts, or Gartnaid, who we see were the Karnones, are likewise 
said to have lived in the north-west of Ross-shire, and singularly 
enough we find in many modern maps a piece of Cromarty (the 
country of the Urgarts) to be placed in the north-west of Ross-shire. 
Considering that Castle Urquhart is reckoned one of the most ancient 
ruins in the county, and one of the few bearing the names of the 
present clans, it struck me that this was a sign of the antiquity of the 
clan, which was confirmed when I came to read the table of Brude's 
sons, and saw the " Ur" in those ages prefixed for the grandsons. I 
then considered the geographical situations in order to find out whether 
any Greek tribe, with the Greek name corresponding to the Gaelic 
son of Brude, inhabited the regions in which the estates and territory 
of the said clan mostly lay. These are now in Inverness and Cro- 
marty, though in old times they were in Ross-shire; but as in some 
modern maps portions of Cromarty are placed in Ross-shire, it would 
seem that the lands were formerly as now, (of the Urgarts, or Gart- 
naid, Karnones,) partly on one side of Ross-shire, and partly on the 
other. "Ur" has various significations in Gaelic; the leading ideas 
are, new, fresh, young, youthful, vigorous, beautiful, fair, flourishing. 
Gar(t) readily becomes Kar, Karnones. " Urra," pronounced " Ur," 
signifies infant child, and this, as a prefix, may be used where we use 
son, and the Jews Ben, or Bar, and the Highlanders Mac; as in 
-fl/iaedonald, Donald's son ; Benjamin, Jamin's son ; .Barnabas, 
Nabas' son. Ur prefixed may be young or son ; f/rgart, Gart's son. 

5 Tighernac mentions the Gartnaidh pronounced Kamir (Kamarty, 
Cromarty ?) 

6 Skene on the Highlands, p. 251. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 85 

Picts, as they existed A.D. 121, are preserved by Ptolemy ; 
and it is a very remarkable circumstance that in the names 
of these fourteen tribes, as given by Ptolemy, we actually 
find, with but one exception, the names of the fourteen 
sons of Brude, as given by the Pictish Chronicle. This 
will appear from the foregoing table ; and as the names 
in the one list are Gaelic, and in the other Greek, it will 
be necessary to add to the former the forms they would 
assume by pronunciation, and the use of the aspirate in 
the oblique cases, which has the effect in Gaelic, as is well 
known, of sometimes changing the form of the letter, and 
sometimes rendering it silent. 

In old Gaelic, D and T are used for each other indis- 
criminately. By the aspirate used in the oblique cases, 
B and M become V, P becomes F, and T is silent. 

In ancient MSS. it is likewise difficult to distinguish 
T from C. 

The constant use of the name Brude which readily 
becomes Brut or Brit(ons) suggests that the root of 
Brit(ain) and of Brit is in Brude. 

The name Brude denotes, it may be, office, rank, or 
dignity, as well as individuality; just as Pharaoh is not 
a proper name, but a title of dignity, like our words, 
king, chief, judge. 

" A judge in Gaelic is called Brithcamb ; his judgment, 
Brith." 7 It is strikingly curious that "judgment of 
future events" is called " brud " in Welsh; and "judg- 
ment," in its common acceptation, is " brawd" in the 
Old Welsh; even at present, "a place of judgment" is 
" brawd-le." To judge men and things with the power 
of life and death is sovereignty of the highest order ; and 
if Brude was Brethcamb, or, as Csesar calls the chief 
man among them, " Ver-gu-bret," (or man to judge,) he 
might well give name to the island, and his official name 
pass into a name proper. 8 

T Gaelic and Welsh scholars. 

8 In confirmation of what has been advanced above, (viz., that 
Prydain and Brude were identical,) the following well authorized 
extract, from a MS. of much research, is exceedingly interesting: 



86 CELTIC HISTORY. 

It would appear that the above is all borne out by the 
twenty-eighth told repetition of the word Brude, which 
would, as we see, imply jurisdiction specially over each 
tribe or portion. 

Prydain was the second chief, or head, who came to 
people the British Isles in early ages, and was, according 
to the Welsh triads, the first lawgiver. His name is, 
perhaps, derived from Pryd (time, season, due order) 
and ain (principle). Is not this also Brude ? and Prwyd's 
tribe was said to have passed into Caledonia. These 
patriarchs were not only men of renown, but of honour 
and justice ; and Brude appears to have been amongst 
mortals what conscience is among the moral faculties, 
King Rex Brude. 

The true definition of the active power implied in this 
office is the first person of the verb to govern. I govern, 
that is, I punish crime ; I set in order, whether it is 
immediately myself, or those around me, or whether the 
power is exercised in a more extended sphere ; and he is 
no true king who does not both prevent and punish 
crime. Therefore, the true king shall and can do no 
wrong, or allow it. Such, we should observe, would be 
(and is) the fulfilment of the prophecy, " We (shall be) 
kings unto God ;" 9 and towards such a state we tend, the 
more the Word and the Spirit have dominion. 

To this end the Book of Wisdom says : " For the 
very true beginning of her is the desire of discipline, and 
the care of discipline is love, and love is the keeping of 

"It is said that about the year 1100, Walter Mapes, a learned 
churchman, and distinguished poet of the times, travelling through 
that part of France which was then called Armorica, and between 
which province and the western parts of England there had always 
subsisted an intimate intercourse, met, by accident, with an ancient 
chronicle, written in the Armorican language, entitled Brut y Brith- 
camb, or the history of the Kings of Britain, which alluded to and 
justified the legend of the Trojan colony in Britain " Here " Brith- 
camb" evidently signifies king, lawgiver (as Prydain and Brude). 
The Celtae of Wales, of the Highlands, and Armorica, all looking to 
one common ancestor in Pryd-ain, Brude, and Britcamb. 
9 Rev. i. 6. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 87 

His laws ; and the giving heed unto His laws is the 
assurance of incorruption, and incorruption maketh us 
near to God. Therefore the desire of wisdom bringeth 
to a kingdom:" 1 the kingdom of Christ who has alone 
procured it for us. Loyalty is religious because kingly, 
if the true end of a king is to prevent crime to regulate. 

The Brudi, then, were judges, or patriarchal Mel- 
chizedeks among the Celts, in name, office, and reality. 2 
They were elected to office on the special ground of con- 
scientiousness, righteousness, and integrity. These were 
men of authority, derived not from might but from right, 
and less from wisdom than from conscience. In the 
original meaning of words, we have the origin of the 
laws, customs, and manners of nations ; and, looking at 
the Brude among the Celti, and their parallel Mel- 
chizedeks among the patriarchs, we see that they primi- 
tively respected equity, honoured men for their integrity, 
and instituted office for the ends of justice. Brude is a 
name of continuance among the Celts. They looked for 
justice and conscientiousness in their chief. His name 
reminded them of his office. 

It is too probable that violence prevailed in the days 
of Melchizedek ; witness the occasion which brought him 
forth to bless Abraham. Hence for the same reason that 
made it necessary to appoint a Brude among the Celtae, 
we find at first a solitary exception to the general rule 
in this man ; and when others must be called by their 
proper names, in order to be known apart, being all 
alike violent and unjust, this man is best distinguished by 
the appellation of his office, Melchizedek the righteous 
king in all the world, and hence a good type of Christ, 
the only Righteous One, and the Righteous Judge of all 
the earth. 

" Brehon Law The Breighon and a judge sitteth him 
down on a bank with those at variance around him, and 
so they proceed." 

1 Book of Wisdom, xvi. 17-20. 
8 From a Gaelic minister and scholar of the present day. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 

It is said 3 that Menw ab y Teirgwaedd, or Mun of the 
three Veds, 4 one of the masters of the mysterious or 
secret science among the Cymry, (see Triad 90,) is the 
same character and personage with Menu, author of the 
Vedas, in the mythology of the Hindoos. 

Mr. Wilford, a great authority on Indian literature, 
informs us that much intercourse once prevailed between 
the territories of India and certain countries of the west ; 
and that the old Indians were acquainted with our British 
islands, which their books describe as the sacred islands 
of the west ; calling one of them JBretashtan, or the rest 
and place of religious duty, corresponding with Prydain, 
(principle of order,) Brudu, Brut, (justice, judge,) 
Brehon law. 

Also, that one of these islands was, from the earliest 
periods, regarded as the abode of the Pitris or progenitors 
of the human race (or their immediate successors) ; and 
that in the sacred islands of the west we find the Cymry, 
who emphatically called themselves the first or oldest race. 

And this was the country of the same people to whom 
the ancient poets of Greece and Rome conducted their 
heroes, when they were to consult the manes of the dead. 

L'Ultima Thule, or the first island of the Orkneys, was 
considered by the ancients as the end of the world. 

The peopling of part of the islands is sometimes attri- 
buted to a colony of Trojans, somewhere about 1 100 B.C. ; 
but even in the narrations brought in support of this 
theory, it is said " that the island was then not destitute 
of inhabitants, who strenuously opposed the invaders." 

May not these Trojans be the usurping tribe who came 
from the land of the Pwyl ? 5 

Lastly on this head. If the Celtae are not represented 
by the Welsh and Highlanders, where are they ? If the 
Welsh and Highlanders are not Celtae, who are they ? 
These are now a distinct, primitive, and patriarchal race, 



3 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 197. 

4 Menw of the three shouts. ED. CAMS. JOUR. 

5 From Asia. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 89 

with a distinct language, customs, and manners retained 
through all known ages, and through all changes. 

We have abundant proofs on the third head, viz., that 
the Welsh, Highlanders, Cornish, Brittanese, &c., are the 
CeltaB, and are all more or less of the same primitive race. 
First, they have alone, in the midst of other languages, 
retained the old Celtic tongue ; for, though of different 
dialects, they can all understand one another. Again, 
they have wholly, or in part, retained their independence. 
Further, there is the greajt similarity of their customs, 
habits, manners, and traditions a similarity resulting not 
from recent intercourse, but from the characteristic Celtic 
feeling of loving what is ancient, what was believed, 
practised, and felt by their forefathers. 

It is remarkable that in the Book of Job, he and his 
friends ascribe their whole stock of knowledge, whether 
of religion and morality, of the works of nature, or of 
civil arts, not to the exercise of their own genius, or to 
the successful studies of any particular society which had 
recently emerged from barbarism, but purely to the 
traditions of the patriarchs of the first age after the Flood. 6 

The accounts that have been preserved of the primitive 
ages in the traditions of every ancient race relate, almost 
exclusively, to their own ancestors. A history of such 
traditions which formed the principal feature, could not, 
from its very nature, have been learned from strangers ; 
and nations possessing the same traditions must, as a 
matter of certainty, be descended from the same original 
stock. Hence community of traditions and identity of 
origin always go together; the various branches of the 
race having derived their information in direct, though 
different, lines from their common ancestors. Now, 
amongst all the various branches of the great Celtic 
family, there is a singular unanimity of tradition, and of 
feeling too. Whilst some nations have been chiefly 
desirous of acquiring renown by new inventions and 

6 Davies Celtic Researches, pp. 62, 107. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. N 



90 CELTIC HISTORY. 

improvements, the Celtse have been invariably distin- 
guished by their reverence for the institutions of their 
forefathers, and Jby their disposition to abide by what had 
borne the test of time. It is true that with some tribes 
this dislike of novelty became a fatal evil, leading to 
undue content with the present, and to a consequent 
declension towards the savage state ; but these tribes 
must be looked upon as exceptions to the general rule, 
for this character does not belong to the essential Celtic 
type. 

" Not only," says Worsaae, " were the Welsh, Scotch, 
and Irish of the same origin, but on the other side of the 
Channel, throughout Gaul, Spain, the middle and south 
of Europe, dwelt tribes of the Celtic race." 7 

They now acknowledge a fraternity which of old was 
notorious. They are, as above alluded to, more or less 
independent of their immediate neighbours. They un- 
derstand each other's language. They exhibit druidical 
monuments, and have maintained for ages the succession 
of bards so peculiar to the Celtic nations. In Armorica 
it is said, 8 that late in the eighteenth century there were 
druidical customs, traditions, and superstitions which 
repelled the eradicating efforts of the Catholic clergy, 
ably noticed in Le Voyage dans la Finisterre ; and it is 
well known what vestiges of these still exist in the 
Highlands, and especially in Wales. 

The Basques (which means unconquered) only recog- 
nize the Kings of Spain as Lords of Biscay. 9 

The Highlanders do not acknowledge ever having been 
conquered. 

The Principality of Wales is notorious in being distinct. 

The Celtic family at large may be regarded as com- 
prising a race of two different characters, though sprung 
from the same root. 

The one sort were those who took peaceable possession 
of a country ; the others were inured to arms. 

7 Worsaae on the Danes and Britons, p. 3. 

8 Davies' Celtic Researches. 
9 Walton's Revolutions in Spain, ii. p. 515. 



CELTIC H18TORY. 91 

The Welsh, Armoricans, and Cornish were of the first 
class; the Highlanders and Irish of the second. But it 
is not necessary to suppose that where the latter esta- 
blished themselves the others were extirpated, or removed. 
They seem in several parts to have amicably incorporated. 
As the various tribes became detached, they dropped the 
relative, and assumed the absolute or local name. 1 

On the fourth point, that " the Celtic language is the 
primitive language," it may be remarked that a general 
analogy has been observed and demonstrated between the 
principles of all ancient languages, the points of resem- 
blance being doubtless the remains of the one language 
of the whole earth, which was best preserved by the 
obedient families. 

The opinion most generally received is that which we 
have adopted from the Jews, namely, that the Hebrew 
language, in the state in which it is preserved in the Old 
Testament, was not only the language of Noah, but that 
of Adam. If this opinion is just, all further inquiry 
must be nugatory and vain. 

That sacredness of character which this language really 
possesses must be derived purely from the circumstance 
of its having been the vehicle of divine communication. 
Before it became the language of prophecy, and of the 
law, we can conceive of no inherent stamp of sacredness 
with which it could have been distinguished. 2 

The law was given in the Hebrew tongue. This proves 
that in the time of Moses the Hebrew was the general 
language of the Israelites, to whom the law was par- 
ticularly addressed ; but it proves nothing more. We 

1 A writer in the Cambrian Journal, ii. p. 305, mentions it to be a 
matter of astonishment that a language should continue to be spoken 
by the Welsh, which has survived the revolutions of 4000 years. 
Is it not also astonishing that, whilst so much time is given to the 
acquisition of foreign languages often of little or no use, none should 
be given to an ancient and venerable language existing in our own 
country an omission which renders us incapable of communicating 
with thousands of our own countrymen ? 

2 Davies' Celtic Researches, pp. 89, 102. 



92 CELTIC HISTORY. 

are not to gather from thence that this people had pre- 
served the use of the original language of mankind abso- 
lutely in its primitive and uncorrupted state. 

If the sacred character of the Hebrew language is 
placed upon the same footing as that of the Greek of the 
New Testament, it may remain to be considered how far 
it was the language of Noah, and what claim it has to be 
made the universal standard by which the principles of 
all other languages must be tried. 

The names of those heads of families amongst the 
Noachidae who divided the kingdoms of the earth, or 
rather the gentile names of those tribes which were 
established during the second century after the Deluge, 
are either terms of the Hebrew language, or of certain 
kindred dialects. Yet they were also the names by which 
the several nations distinguished themselves, for they are 
generally recognized by the old geographers. 

The several nations, then, originally carried with them 
dialects not greatly differing from the Hebrew. 

Hence it undeniably follows that the fundamental 
principles and general character of the patriarchal lan- 
guage of Noah must be preserved in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, and in those dialects connected with it. 3 

The Hebrew was the language of an active and enter- 
prizing people. During the nine centuries which inter- 
vened between the Deluge and the publication of the 
Pentateuch, this, as well as the sister dialects, must have 
undergone some accidental and some necessary changes, 
and a certain measure of artificial cultivation; yet the 
simplicity and comprehensiveness of its principles, the 
regularity of its structure, and, above all, the venerable 
and unrivalled antiquity of the volume in which it is 

3 There must be thousands of instances of the resemblance between 
Hebrew and Gaelic. Two interesting specimens came under my im- 
mediate observation in the names of places. " Gehannie" is the 
name of a farm on Loch Vannachar, which, in Gaelic, signifies 
hysterical weeping. " Gehannon" is the Syriac word for hell, 
(Hawker's Concordance) ; and " Hinnom" was to the Jews the valley 
or pit of woe. " Bochastle," in Gaelic, signifies mourning, lamenta- 
tion; so does " Bochim" in Hebrew. (Judges ii. 4, 5.) 



CELTIC HISTORY. 93 

preserved, seem to give it a decided superiority ; and 
though it cannot safely be pronounced to have been the 
primitive language, yet it must be received as a dialect 
of this language, and claims our superior reverence from 
its being chosen as a sacred tongue. 

The Hebrew letters must originally have been symbols 
intended to express certain sounds chosen on principles 
which are founded in nature ; and, though the original 
local sounds attached to the symbols may have been 
varied by dialects, or disregarded by philologists, yet the 
symbols were once understood to impress a tone upon the 
measuring, as well as the sound, of the words. Some 
eminent men have considered the Gaelic as a proper key to 
the knowledge of the language of the Jews ; and, if this 
is so, it may be considered as the primitive root, that is 
to say, the Hebrew is one of the dialects of the Celtic 
tongue. 4 

Lachlan Maclean, the author of Adam aad Eve, ex- 
plains, " that from the admirable rule invented by the 
Druids for the preservation of the initial letters of all 
vocables in their simple and compound form, and also 
the custom of the bards and sennachies to repeat poems 
and touching historic sketches at all the festive and social 
gatherings of the Celtic clans, the Gaelic had been pre- 
served unaltered, and in all its original purity, for thou- 
sands of years." 

Of the superior morality of the Celts of old we may 
gather evidence from many sources. Davies, from whom 
I have already quoted so largely, says, " They preserved 
an amiable medium between savage rudeness and frivo- 
lous refinement. They regarded their institutions as 

4 Walking one day on the shores of Loch Vannachar, I met an old 
woman gathering wood. I asked her if she knew me, as I was stay- 
ing at the principal house in the neighbourhood, giving it its modern 
name. She good-naturedly took me up, and said, " That's nae the 
name ; Tom-ni-re, that's the Gaelic, and they shudna let her doun. 
Gaelic is the first language, and it is the language of the Scriptures." 
So jealous was she of the antiquity and value of her native language, 
and so anxious to preserve the tradition. 



94 CELTIC HISTORY. 

relics of the past ages, and uniformly endeavoured to 
cherish and preserve them." 

The mystical doctrines were delivered to the priests, 
who kept the key of knowledge ; and, though many 
serious ill consequences arose from this circumstance, yet 
there were counter advantages, and their general forms 
and social institutions were those which they had received 
from the patriarchal ages. 

The Druids and nobles were educated with incredible 
vigilance and care for the most sacred offices. It was the 
immediate and selected province of those who were ad- 
mitted into the order to record and perpetuate the cus- 
toms, traditions, and general history of the nation, from 
the time of their first progenitors, to administer justice, 
to superintend the due execution of the laws, to encourage 
virtue, to punish vice, to inculcate moral and religious 
principles, to direct the ceremonies of piety, and enforce 
its duties. 

Their studies embraced all those elevated subjects which 
had engaged the attention of the world in its primitive 
age ; the nature of the deity of the human soul of the 
future state of the heavenly bodies of the terrestrial 
globe and its various productions. Their conceptions 
were great and sublime, their speculations comprehensive 
in their sphere, pervading most of the arts and sciences 
which had interested the earliest periods. 

The British Druids, while they worshipped in groves, 
and under the oak, did really adore the God of Abraham, 
and trust in His mercy ; they believed in one Supreme 
Being in His being the governor of the universe in 
man's moral responsibility, and in his state in this world 
being one of probation and discipline ; they had a most 
correct view of moral good and evil ; they believed in a 
state of recompense after death, and in a final coming 
judgment; they observed particular days and seasons 
for religious purposes ; marriage was held sacred amongst 
them. 5 

5 Chronicles of the Early British Church, p. 7. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 95 

" Druidism may be chronologically divided into three 
successive epochs. 1st, Its origin and purity; 2nd, 
Its corruption by the introduction of the Arkite worship ; 
and, 3rd, Its further decline by the admixture of the 
Sabian idolatry." 6 

Britain was the seat of pure druidism. Its purity had 
degenerated in Gaul, and the ancient British Druids have 
left on record a testimony " that the Gauls corrupted 
what had been taught them of British druidism, blending 
with it heterogeneous principles, by which means they 
lost its distinguishing character." 

The Druids were regarded with profound veneration 
for their knowledge, so that it became a proverb concern- 
ing anything which was accounted mysterious, " No 
one knows but God, and the holy Druids." 

Perhaps there was no order of men amongst the an- 
cients who preserved the history and opinions of mankind 
in its early state with more simplicity and with more in- 
tegrity, save the Jews. 7 

As a consequence of their principles they observed, as 
well as enjoined, the most rigid justice in their decisions, 
and in their own dealings with mankind. 

Borlase demonstrates their general analogy to the Magi 
of Persia, and their especial resemblance to them in the 
point of superior knowledge. Pliny calls the Druids the 
Magi of the Gauls and Britons ; and the Highlanders of 
the present day (in the Isle of Arran at least) call the 
wise men of the East, Druidh. 8 

At some very remote period of their history they 
revised and reformed their national institutes, at which 
time they divided the order of Druids into three classes, 
Derwydd, or superior priest and inspector ; Go-wydd, 
or Ovate, the man of science ; and Bardd, or the bard. 

Some of their secret doctrines and mysteries were the 
intercourse they held with souls after death, the judgment 
they passed upon the actions of men, and the inference 

6 Chronicles of the Early British Church, p. 8. "* Ibid. 

8 Brown on the Highland?. 



96 CELTIC HISTORY. 

they drew from their lives respecting the change they 
would undergo, and the mode of their ultimate reno- 
vation. 9 

Many were their good maxims, such as, 

" To worship the gods, 
To do no evil, and 
To exercise fortitude." 

Three things when despised are wont to draw down 
vengeance: 

" The counsel of a seer, 
The judgment of a discreet person, 
And the cry of the poor." 

It is said by their bards that what they enjoyed in 
earlier times was what they gained by gentleness and 
civility. 

Of Hu Gadarn, their great progenitor and teacher, it 
is said, that he taught the arts of peace and principles 
of justice; he adapted poetry to memorials and records. 
The names of primary bards intimate that the ostensible 
design of druidism was to enlighten the understanding, 
promote learning in society, and encourage virtue. 

The three ultimate intentions of bardism : 

" To reform the morals and customs, 
To secure peace, 
To celebrate all that is good and excellent." 

Druidism, in its pure state, was an edifice raised upon 
the basis of the patriarchal religion, for the purpose of 
superseding the necessity of having recourse to arms, and 
with a view to restraining the excesses of individuals 
without the aid of penal statutes. 1 

It governed men through their minds and imagi- 
nations, by suggesting good principles, or motives, and 
pointing to a future state of rewards and punishments. 
Though friends of peace, the Druids evinced on trying 
occasions that the peaceful sentiments did not arise from 
a defect of courage ; yet they would not exert their 

9 Davies' Celtic Researches. 1 Ibid. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 97 

courage till an enemy had gained such an advantage as 
would frustrate and baffle their utmost efforts. 

The chief features of their ethics were piety, inoffensive 
and peaceable conduct, and fortitude. 

The Druids divided existence into three circles, or 
spheres ; 1st, Cylch y Ceugant, or the circle of space, 
which none but God alone can pervade ; 2tidly, Cylch 
yr Abred, or the circle of courses, which comprehended the 
material creation, and the condition of humanity ; 3rdly, 
Cylch y Gwynfyd, the circle of happiness, which man 
would ultimately attain. 

If the passions and propensities of man were brought 
to a just balance, he passed through the gate of mortality 
into the circle of happiness, obtained that portion from 
the world which his mind had coveted, and in the end 
mercy from God ; but, if wicked, death would return 
man to the circle of courses, allotting him a punishment 
suited to his offence, and he would do penance in the form 
of some beast, or reptile. 

This doctrine of the metempsychosis, Pythagoras is 
supposed to have received from the Druids, with whom he 
communicated. 

Repeated endeavours have been made by ingenious 
men to arrive at satisfactory conclusions with regard to 
the attainments of the Celts. History and mythology, 
closely observed, will lead in some measure to a just view 
on this point, and the internal evidences to be gathered 
from the race itself will confirm it ; all tending, as they 
do, to prove that their knowledge and science was of a 
far higher class than we are apt generally to attribute 
to them, and that it was indeed referred to at times as 
oracular. Their equites, or nobility, are described even 
by the Romans as not otherwise than cultivated and 
scientific; and, as it was remarked before, Pliny called 
the Druids, the Magi of the Gauls and Britons. 

If the Celta3 were wanting in artificers capable of 
executing with elegance, they could not be wanting in 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. O 



98 CELTIC HISTORY. 

masters of design of the great and simple, as witnessed 
in their temple of Stonehenge. 2 

Gwyddon Ganhebon was said in the Welsh triads to be 
the first man in the world who composed poetry ; and 
Tydain Tad Awen the first who developed the art and 
structure of poetry, and studied the due arrangement of 
thoughts. 

So great was their knowledge of the stars, and of their 
nature and situation, that they could foretell their revo- 
lutions through future time. 

They knew the art of working in stone and lime, the 
invention of which they attributed to Morddal Gwr 
Gweilgi, the architect of Ceraint. 

Cader Idris, or chair of Idris, is said to have been the 
observatory of Idris, their great astronomer. 

Gwydion, the son of Don the Sage, the son of Genius, 
was distinguished by having the galaxy, or milky-way, 
called after him ; the Welsh giving it the appellation of 
Caer Gwydion. 

Pythagoras, whose philosophy bears a wonderful re- 
semblance to that of the Druids, is expressly stated to 
have heard the doctrines of the Gauls and Brachmins ; 
the former, it should seem, in the person of Abaris, who 
delivered his arrow to him, in other words made a cove- 
nant with him, and at the same time instructed him in 
his doctrine. 

Aristotle has owned that philosophy did not emigrate 
from Greece to Gaul, but vice versa ; and it is much more 
probable that one individual foreigner borrowed from 
this national institute, than that an order of men, who 
were always jealous of novelties, should have adopted the 
mystical speculations of a solitary individual. 

Hecatffius, and some others who treat of ancient his- 
tories and traditions, give the following interesting 
notices: " Opposite to the coast of Gallia Celtica there 
is an island in the ocean not smaller than Sicily, lying to 
the north, which is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, so 

2 Davies' Celtic Researches. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 99 

called because they dwell beyond the north wind. This 
island is of happy temperature, rich in soil, and fruitful 
in everything, yielding its produce twice in the year." 

(The druidical year began in July.) 

" In this island there is a magnificent grove, or precinct, 
of Apollo, (the sun,) and a remarkable temple of a round 
form, adorned with many consecrated gifts. There is 
also a city consecrated to the same god, most of the 
inhabitants of which are harpers, who continually play 
upon their harps in the temple, singing hymns extolling 
his actions. 

" It is also said that in this island the moon appears to 
be very near the earth ; that certain eminences of a ter- 
restrial form are plainly seen in it ; that Apollo visits the 
island once in a course of nineteen years, in which period 
the stars complete their revolution ; and that, for this 
reason, the Greeks distinguish the cycle of nineteen years 
by the name of the great year." 

This appearance of the moon seems to indicate the 
use of something like telescopes ; and whatever may have 
been intended by it, the Welsh triads mention Drych ab 
Cibddar, or Cibdawr, the speculum of the son of the 
pervading glance, or of the searcher of mystery, as one 
of the secrets of the Island of Britain. 

Until about the time of the birth of our Lord, there 
was no people north of the Alps which, in regard to 
power, agriculture, commerce, skill in the arts, and 
civilization in general, could equal, much less surpass, 
the Celtae. 

One of the first names of the British islands was Clas 
Merddin, or the garden of the Merddin. Merddin is a 
word usually applied to bards, but is originally a mytho- 
logical term. The twin sister is Gwenddydd, or the 
morning star. He must have been some luminary of the 
same character. Merddin, is dweller of the sea the 
comely one of the sea. It implies, in either sense, the 
evening star, or Hesperus, the western luminary. 

Hercules had the task of procuring the three yellow 
apples from the garden of Hesperides. These apples 



100 CELTIC HISTORY. 

were metaphorical, and pointed at science, discipline, and 
mystery. The hero was to be attended by Atlas the 
Hyperborean, out of the neighbouring garden of the 
Hesperides. 

With respect to letters, Caesar's probable reasons for a 
marked prohibition of their use forcibly argues that our 
Druids were masters of their import ; and this prohibition 
being an institute, or fundamental part of his law, shows 
that such knowledge on their part was not of recent 
acquisition. 

Strabo says of the Turditani, "the Celts of Spain," 
" These are the wisest among the Iberians. They have 
letters, and written histories of ancient transactions, and 
poems and laws in verse, which are, they assert, 6000 
years old." 3 

" And a battle was contested 
Under the root of his tongues, 
And another conflict there is 
In the recesses of his heads." 

These words of Taliesin, the old bard, in his " Battle of 
the Trees," or druidical hieroglyphics, is no insignificant 
indication of the nature of their thoughts of old. 

Davies, as the result of all his close and faithful 
observations and knowledge of the Celtic language, 
arrives at the conclusion that the CeltaB of Britain were 
not only acquainted with letters, but had also derived the 
art of writing from remotest times, in a channel more 
clear and direct than was conceived of by their more 
polished neighbours. 

We have many of their traditions, but none of their 
discoveries. All their institutions bore strong features of 
primitive ages, preserved, doubtless, from that period 
when the families of the earth were divided. 

It seems clear that the Hyperboreans were Druids who 
periodically sent sacrifices to Thrace. 

It is very probable, too, that Britain was the garden 
of the Hesperides, taken figuratively, from whence the 

3 Davies' Celtic Researches, p. 241. 



CELTIC HISTORY. 101 

apples were to be brought of science, discipline, and 
mystery ; and that the Greeks received these from the 
sacred islands of the west. 4 

It is clear that the Druids preserved their traditions by 
means of hieroglyphics, a knowledge of which they 
imparted to their disciples through the eye and ear, thus 
keeping it secret from the multitude. 

That their hieroglyphics were composed of sprigs of 
trees twined together, each sprig denoting a character, or 
letter. 

That these symbolic representations were not an in- 
vention of the Druids, but had been derived from the 
earliest ages, as we read in Holy Scripture, and in heathen 
history, forming a system of instruction which, con- 
sidered in a higher application, became very much abused 
when the symbol took the place of the thing signified. 

At the close of these observations I cannot but add the 
thoughts which naturally occur on the effect which should 
be left by the foregoing contemplation. 

ls, There is the conviction of the necessity of a 
continual succession of revelations and direct calls from 
heaven, in order to maintain primeval comparative purity 
even amongst those who retained the traditions, and obeyed 
the wholesome commands, of their fathers in a superior 
degree. " For man cannot live by bread alone, (by the 
traditions of the past, or by unassisted nature,) but by 
every word which proceedeth from the mouth of God ;" 
that is, by God's revealed will, which these people possessed 
not, as the chosen guardians of the oracles of God did. 

2ndly, That the Celts, nevertheless, possessed great 
moral advantages, arising from their obedience to the 
rules of their forefathers, and from their own respect for 
ancient tradition ; and thus while all mankind, whether 
Celt or Greek, alike call for redeeming mercy, and the 
divine teaching of the Holy Spirit, yet does the Celt, 
from standing on the good old paths, escape many of the 

* Davies' Chapter on Druidism, p. 139. 



102 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

sources of conflict which would otherwise add to the 
difficulties of a just and intelligent walk in life. 

Let not the Celt be high-minded, but fear lest he lose 
his talent in pride and self-conceit ; and, whilst he deeply 
appreciates the blessings bequeathed by his forefathers, 
and religiously maintains them in the midst of modern 
innovations, let him endeavour in charity, and meekness, 
and in Christian beauty, to preserve to Britain the cha- 
racter it obtained of old, as " the abode of religious duty." 

G. T. 

ERRATA. 

Page 83, line 17, for "Gast" and "Urgast," read "Gart" and 
Urgart." 

84, 1, for "composing," read "comparing." 

84, 12 of note, for " any," read " the." 

87, 1, for " His" and " His," read " her" and " her." 
From " Giraldus mentions," page 82, line 3, to " Muin," page 83, 

line 24, is an extract from Skene on the Highlands. 



SPECIMENS OF THE MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

By W. O. PUGHE. 
Epoch III., from A.B. 1300 to A.D. 1600. 

THIS epoch commences soon after the transfer of the 
sovereignty of Wales to the crown of England had taken 
place ; and when laws would be consequently enforced 
for checking any hostile disposition in the bards against 
the new order of things; and therefore a considerable 
change of character may now be discovered gradually 
taking place in their poetical productions. 

Many of our poets, particularly in the early part of 
this period, assumed fictitious appellations such as Cas- 
nodyn, Cnepyn, Hillyn, Sevnyn, Llygad gwr, and the like, 
so that the real names of some are not known at the present 
time ; and this, it may be reasonably supposed, was done 
with the view of avoiding the danger of becoming marked 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 103 

characters to a vigilant government. But, that there 
happened such an event as " the massacre of the bards," 
not even the slightest allusion can be found in support of 
it in all the numerous productions of the subsequent 
periods ; and there were likely opportunities for com- 
memorating such a deed, particularly to the bards who 
fanned the insurrectionary flames kindled by Sir G. 
Llwyd, in 1360, and Owen Glyndyvrdwy, in 1400; but, 
like all before and after, these were silent. 

It having been already stated that the tales of the 
Mabinogion were composed prior to the termination of 
the epoch last exemplified, there need not much to be 
advanced in illustration of this period, further than for 
showing that its prominent characteristic is that system 
of consonancy, as it is termed, in the structure of verse, 
which gradually grew out of the preceding one of allite- 
ration ; and especially as the mere forms of versification, 
even if they could be elucidated in the translated speci- 
mens would produce no great amusement to the reader ; 
and the subject of the poetry likewise, as approximating 
in character to what is now common, might not create 
such interest as would tolerate many quotations. 

In the year 1450 a congress of bards was holden at 
Caermarthen, which gave its sanction to the metrical 
system gradually maturing till then, under the appellation 
of the twenty-four metres of vocal song. But the bards 
of the ancient chair of Siluria protested at the said con- 
gress against that new code of the twenty-four metres, 
as being a vitiation of the primitive system of the twenty- 
four principles of metre, comprehending all possible 
varieties of verse ; whereas, as urged in the protest, what 
was then established was an innovation originating in 
ignorance, and nothing more than four-and-twenty mere 
forms of verse to fetter the Welsh muse through all suc- 
ceeding ages. 1 

1 The German work entitled Niebelungen has the remarkable 
coincidence of a similar system established just at the same time, to 
fetter the bards of Germany, and which they threw off about the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. 



104 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

The first example is extracted from an ode to Howel 
of Llandingad, by Trahaiarn, who flourished from A.D. 
1300 to 1360: 

1. By reason, that undeceiving safeguard from the 
great unerring Father, the beneficent, gracious Lord, 
director of light, I send, declare a tribute of esteem, a 
fair report to greet my kindred, guided by the muse, the 
song, lest falsehood should accuse. May not my loss 
accrue by wily messenger, by lack of wit, in good har- 
monious words ! for me it were to lose continued visits 
at the pots that yield the fruitful banquets of the joyous 
country of sweet serving horns. 

" O bwyll, mur didwyll mawr Dad didramgvvydd, 
Arglwydd culwydd rhwydd, rhwyv goleuad, 

Anvonav, traethav treth o gariad, 

Eur-chwedl i'm cenedl, canon brydiad 

Awen, yn llawen, rhag lliwiad celwydd. 
Nis bwyv goll gynnydd gan gall genad, 

Eisiau synwyrau mydr eiriau mad ! 

Oedd imi golli gwesti gwastad 

Peiriau frwyth wleddau fraeth wlad per heilgyrn." 

Of the following extracts the first is from an ode 
addressed to the wife of Sir Grufudd Llwyd, and the 
other from a devotional ode. Casnodyn is the name 
given as the author, who is supposed to have been the 
same as Trahaiarn. 

1. I will praise the highly gifted one, in hue like 
smoothly gliding gossamer, and like the spraying foam 
above the white pure wave. I have recorded thus the 
splendid fame of fair and bright Gwenlliant : to a thou- 
sand more her praise has been a theme. 

" Molav i iawn ei dawn, gne gwawn gwawdcheg, 
Eiliw ewynvriw gvvynwiw gwaneg : 
Eiliais hynod glod gloewdeg Wenlliant : 
Eiliawdd ei moliant mil ychwaneg." 

2. Ordainer of the perfect course of moon and sun, 
thou hast ordained and formed, with firm design, the 
means of eloquence to lips that sing the theme confessed 
by heaven, the Lord of every region. Perish who shall 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 105 

lose it by a wretched turn, who fails to laud thy praise, 
that thousands are united in ! Thou hast ordained the 
stars, the seas of agitated floods ; thou hast ordained the 
ample earth, and all thereon. Trinity most prompt and 
pure, sweet influence to splendid virtue ! by Thy grace 
benign, Thou sovereign, stability of beatitude, O grant 
me, gracious Lord, a course of unrestrained talent in the 
mansion of heaven ; righteous providence, enough the 
glory ! 

" Trevnawdr llwyr huawdr lloer a huan, 
Trevnaist a furvaist, o furv amcan, 
Trevnau ammrylau genau a gan 
Traul gyvaddev nev, Nav pob advan. 
Trengit a'i collo llwrw tro truan, 
Traethawd o'th volawd, viloedd gyman ! 
Trevnaist syr, a myr morawl dylan; 
Trevnaist ddaiar vawr, a'i chlawr achlan. 

Trindawd parawd pur, 

Naws maws moes eglur ! 

Trwy rad mad, modur, 
Mur mireinwch, 

Tro vi, Rhi rhadlawn, 

Travnidr dinidr dawn 

Trev nev Nav cyviawn, 
Digawn degwch ! " 

The next example is from an ode by G. Ddu o Arvon 
to Sir Gr. Llwyd, when a prisoner in the castle of 
Rhuddlan, in 1360, on account of his revolt. 

1. Is it not a sign that apathy doth not within my 
heart avail me ! how strange it is not broken altogether ! 
There is within me a strong impression of the stroke of 
care, for that a stop is put to one of prowess such as 
Urien in the shock. A record perfect such as that of 
Cywryd, erst the bard of Dunawd, mine is of my genial 
leader praise that must not be impure. Be mine the 
encomiastic song of Avan, humble of mind, and fruitful 
in memorials of Cadwallawn, of majestic presence. 

" Neud arwydd na'm llwydd lledvryd i'm calon 

Neud eres uad t6n hon ar ei hyd 
Mau ^nov mawrgov am ergyd goval 

Am attal arial Urien yn ngryd 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. P 



106 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Mai covain cywrain cywryd vardd Dunawd 
Mau i'm draig priawd, gwawd ni bo gwyd 

Mau gwawdgan Avan uvyddvryd frwythlawn 
O gov Cadwallawn, breninddawn bryd." 

This extract is from an address by Grufydd ab Mere- 
dydd to Gronwy ab Tudyr, an ancestor of Henry VII. 

1. Superior is ray chief the luminary of the course 
of fame, with hand for gifts, the trouble of Lloegria : 
gentle to the gentle, amiable, and loving sprightly songs ; 
rough to the rough, in conflict, ample his benevolence ; 
a hero to a hero ; as a warrior like Elivri. 

" Goreu yw vy llyw 
Gwawr clodred, llawged, Lloegr volochi : 
Gwar wrth war, hygar, hoewgerdd hofi ; 
Gwrdd wrth wrdd, ymhwrdd, ami ddaioni ; 
Gwr wrth wr; milwr inal Elivri." 

And the extract that follows is from an ode to the wife 
of the same Goronwy by Rhisserdyn. 

1. Fair Myvanwy, of the hue of trackless snow that 
veils the upland slope : she prospered the meed of praise, 
with unrestraining hand : endowed with wealth, and 
frankly mild the mate of her in aspect like the sun, 
Goronwy, in his life a hero; splendid is her fame, and 
highly gifted for the sleepless shedding of a tear, excelling 
of her sex and purely chaste, the luminary of women. 

" Myvanwy lywy 

Lliw divrisg lluwchwisg eiry llechwedd maenawl : 

Llwyddai aramod mawl, Haw ddioraedd : 
Goludawg gymhar, haelwar heulwedd, 
Goronwy Vychan, gwron vuchedd ; 
Gwymp clod, dawn, hynod dyanhunedd deigr, 

Gwiwryw, groew eigr, gwawr y gwragedd." 

The next specimen is an entire poem, selected for its 
brevity, and as being in one of our most popular metres. 
The author was Davydd ab Gwilym, who flourished 
between A.D. 1340 and 1400 ; and of whose compositions 
274 are still preserved, being generally upon amatory 
subjects. 

1. Thou fair Gull, on the unchilling flood, in colour 
like the gentle pale moon, immaculate thy beauty is, a 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 107 

sun-like disc that in the brine is laved : light on the ocean 
wave art thou, the proudly-active fish-fed bird. Thou 
that art not apt to ridicule, and fair of fame, will thou 
convey my clear epistle to one whose love is like an 
arrow ? in my breast are pangs as by a rankling arrow ! 
Near thou mightest go, close to yon anchor, close at 
hand, with me, thou lily of the sea. Glide thou once 
with glossy frame, that art a nun aloft on sea-flood 
dwelling. True the fair one's fame, who far obtains the 
praise, approach where curves her castle wall ; observe, 
my bashful gull, if thou can'st see her, of complexion 
pure, on the fair fort. Declare my summoning 'words 
me let her choose hie to the damsel : seek to please her ; 
dare to greet her ; with the wilful maid be clever ; mind, 
say thus, that I a captive youth cannot exist, unless I 
have her. I am loving her, men ! the object of high 
passion : never Merddin of right flattering lip, nor yet 
Taliesin, loved one in beauty more excelling. Bashful 
gull, if thou but see the cheek of her the fairest one in 
the believing world, know that unless I get the kindest 
greeting, the fair maid will be my death ! 

" Yr Wylan deg ar lanw dioer, 
Unlliw a'r arav wenlloer, 
Dilwch yw dy degwch di, 
Darn val haul, dyrnvol heli : 
Ysgawn ar d6n eigion wyd, 
Esgydvalch edn bysgodvwyd. 
A ddygi yn ddiogan, 
Llathr o glod vy llythyr glan 
At verch sy a'r serch yn saeth ? 
I'm dwyvron mae gloesion glewsaeth ! 
Yngo'r aeth, wrth yr angor, 
Lawlaw a mi lili mor. 
Llithr unwaith, llathr ei hanwyd, 
Lleian yn mrig llanw mor wyd. 
Cy weirglod bun, cae'r glod bell ; 
Cyrch ystym caer ei chastell ; 
Edrych a welych, wylan, 
Eigr o liw ar y gaer Ian. 
Dywed vy ngeiriau dyvun 
Dewised vi dos at vun : 



108 MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 

Boddia hon ; baidd ei hanerch ; 
Bydd vedrus wrth voddus verch ; 
A bydd, dywed na byddav, 
Vwynwas caeth, byw onis cav. 
Ei charu'r vvyv, gwbl-nwyv navvdd, 
Och wyr ! erioed ni charawdd 
Na Merddin, wenieithvin iach, 
Na Thaliesyn ei thlysach. 
Och wylan o chei weled 
Grudd y ddyn lana o gred, 
Oni chav vwynav anerch, 
Vy nienydd vydd y verch ! " 

The following passages are extracted from poems 
addressed by lolo Goch to Owen Glyndyvrdwy. In the 
first poem the bard invites his hero to a renewal of his 
contest with Henry IV. ; and, in the second, success is 
predicted to him by the comet that appeared in March, 
1402. 

1. Thou tall man, Harry loves thee not: calamity has 
gone on ! Art thou alive ? and, if thou art, quick with 
a spear of fire now come and show thy shield achieve 
nine battles in retribution : and in any way achieve no 
more. Thou team of blest Cadwaladr, come and take 
the land of thy grandfather : take the portion of thy 
kindred : take us out of our severe bonds to be free ! 

" Y gwr hir, ni'th gar Harri : 
Advyd aeth ! a wyd vy w di ? 
Ac os wyd, a gwaew o dan 
Dyred, dangos dy darian. 
Gwna naw cad yn daladwy : 
Yn un modd ac na wna mwy. 
Deigr Cadwaladr vendigaid, 
Dyred a dwg dir dy daid : 
Dyga ran dy garennydd : 
Dwg ni o'n rhwym dygn yn rhydd ! " 

2. There is much discourse about the nature of the 
stars. But, in the present year, a star portends good 
news for us : a king, profuse of wine and mead, and 
brave, we shall have from the land of Gwynedd, and 
whom God brings forth : he will console us so that 
Gwynedd shall obtain a happy end. 



MEDIEVAL POEMS OF WALES. 109 

" Mae llawer 

O son am anian y ser. 
Ond y seren eleni 
Gwiw sydd a newydd i ni : 
Brenin, hael am win a medd, 
Dewr, a gawn o dir Gwynedd, 
Duw a ddug : ve'n diddigia, 
Gwynedd i gael diwedd da." 

This sarcastic elegy was composed, about A.D. 1450, 
by leuan Gethin upon an old thatcher, who was the 
father of a celebrated contemporary poet, of the name of 
Gwilym ab leuan Hen. 

1. Woe to Gwilym ! it is of no use to weep for wanting 
of a father to lay on a thatch : his weasand nerves are 
broken ; he will not cut wood to make another bind. 
The ancient work of Owen was not thatched ; no covering 
more will be in use except of stones. The humble-bee 
no more will find her nest of old : the bards will not be 
silent : never will there more be any thatching ! Let the 
mice then go a rambling ; let the sparrows leave the 
land : for leuan of discordant squeak, with thatching 
stick and all, from off the roof is gone to heaven. We 
but weep to mourn him : to the house of God a thatching 
he is gone. Full many a hazel grove will cease com- 
plaining for this his slipping down along the sloping of 
the roof: even to the land of Lleyn, full many a grove 
of reeds will now be glad of this. 

" Gwae Wilym ! nid gwiw wylo 
Eisiau tad i osod to : 
Tores gi'au ei vreuant ; 
Ni thyr goed i wneuthur cant. 
Ni thoi'd henwaith Ewain ; 
Ni thoi'r mwy eithr & main. 
Ni cheif cacynen hennyth : 
Ni thau'r beirdd : ni thoi'r byth ! 
Aent y llygod i rodio ; 
Aent o'r tir adar y to : 
Aeth leuan ddilan ddolev, 
A'i dobren o'r nen i'r nev 
Nid wylwn ond o'i alaeth : 
I dy ei Dduw i doi'dd aeth. 



110 IRON MAKING IN GLAMORGAN. 

Llawer collwyn heb gwyno 
Llithred hwn hyd llathr y to : 
Llawer, hyd yn nhir Lleyn, 
Llwyn hesg yn llawen o hyn." 

The next and concluding quotation is from an amatory 
ode hy W. Lleyn, written about A.D. 1550; and it is 
selected as an example how, in this period, the Welsh 
bards made sense give way to sound. 

1. Thou hast founded, firmly hast thou bound together 
every anxious care ; thou hast observed, and thou hast 
kept the way of all deluding ones, observing, pointing 
with delight the brow, the sensitive, the perfect place of 
waggeries : thou art the theme of every minstrel that 
combines rightly finished song, thou golden branch whose 
stem is from the blood of nobles. 

" Seiliaist, cryv eiliaist bob cur ovalon : 
Seiliaist, a deliaist fordd yr hudolion, 
Selu, annelu yr ael yn wiwlon, 
Synwyraidd, llwyraidd lie y cell weirion ; 
Seiniad pob ceiniad canon cerdd eiliad, 
Seiliad aur ddeiliad o waed urddolion." 



IRON MAKING IN GLAMORGAN. 

ANCIENTLY the method of smelting iron was in bloom - 
eries ; the ore, charcoal, and limestone were in due 
proportion heaped together in the form of a tumulus, 
similar to what are now called charcoal pits, or the heaps 
of cord-wood as put together for being converted into 
charcoal, and, like these, well covered over with earth, or 
sods ; but for iron there was, it is said, a kind of funnel 
of iron set up in the middle, on the top of the heap thus 
formed, to give vent to the smoke. Below, on or near 
the ground, there were two, three, four or more pairs of 
large bellows, fixed or hung to posts, in a manner similar 
to that in which blacksmiths hang their bellows. When 
the blower had raised the upper part of the bellows by 



IRON MAKING IN GLAMORGAN. 1 1 I 

pressing down the arm, or handle, he stept upon it that 
it might thus be pressed down and blow with greater 
force, and more effectually blow. Such a bellows was 
termed " megin dan draed," i. e., a bellows under feet. 
At the base of the heap were formed two, three, or four 
holes, into which the noses of the bellows were inserted, 
and closely luted about them with well-tempered potter's 
clay (of the country), and thus were the fires blown, the 
smoke finding its vent at the central funnel. The fires 
were thus intensely kept up until the ore was smelted, 
and as often as the fire appeared through the covering, 
more earth, or clay, and sods were added to cover it as 
closely as possible. When the ore was smelted the heap 
(marteg) was opened, and the metal conducted into 
moulds in sand, to form it into pig iron. It was then 
cast into moulds also for boiling pots, posnets or skillets, 
&c. For the purpose of rendering the iron malleable, it 
was melted over several times, tradition says nine times ; 
it was afterwards heated for the hammer and anvil, and 
so worked until it became fit for general use ; and tra- 
dition says that was better iron than any that has ever 

since been made in a different Converting it 

into steel they passed it through the fire in a proper 
process many times, some say nine times. The fires for 
such purposes were made, in addition to charcoal, of 
horns, hoofs of horses and cattle, bones, and other animal 
substances in due proportions. After it had passed 
through the whole process it was (witness tradition) most 
excellent steel. Those old iron makers, or, if you please, 
iron masters, had, it seems, a strong predilection for the 
number nine, or at least tradition has it for them. But 
the following ancient triad indicates clearly that steel was 
passed through nine fires: 

" Tri chaled byd, y maen cellt, dur naw gwynias, a chalon 
mab y crinwas." 

In English thus, 

The three hardest things in the world : a flint-stone, the steel 
of nine fires, and the heart of the miser. 



112 IRON MAKING IN GLAMORGAN. 

The making of iron is mentioned in the Laws of Howel 
Dda about the year 925 ; and it appears that the prince's 
smith, who was one of the great officers of state, made 
his own iron : he had stated perquisites for casting boiling 
pots for the royal palace, for ploughshares and other im- 
plements of husbandry for the royal farm, weapons of 
war, various tools and household articles, of knives, axes, 
&c. In Caerphilly Castle there are two stone-built fur- 
naces for iron, one for melting iron ore, and the other, it 
is said, for converting iron into steel. 

In the time of Queen Elizabeth, Sir William Matthews 
of Radyr, in Glamorgan, had two iron furnaces at work 
in the Vale of Taff, called the higher and lower furnaces. 
Till very lately they remained almost entire, and were 
built on the same plan and principle as our present iron 
furnaces, only not so large. Considerable ruins of them 
still remain, enough to indicate clearly what their modes 
of construction were. 

Sir Toby Matthews, son of the above Sir William 
Matthews, is, by tradition, charged with having treason- 
ably furnished the great Spanish armada with great guns, 
or cannon. It is certainly true that he had given great 
offence to government ; for in a volume of state papers 
printed about the year 1700, we find a letter addressed to 
Sir Tobv Matthews by our great Lord Bacon, charging 
him with treasonable practices, (not specified indeed,) and 
severely reprimanding him. Sir Toby was soon after 
obliged to abscond, to where it was for some years un- 
known. It was, however, to Ireland, as at length dis- 
covered, where he had married the rich heiress, we are 
told, of Thomas Town, near Waterford, where his de- 
scendants still reside. The present heir and possessor is 
the Right Hon. Lord Landaff. The family still retain a 
large portion of their ancient patrimony at Landaff. 

The working of the furnaces was continued until the 
time of James II. by one of the family, who (in that 
weak king's reign) being, it is said, a Papist, assumed a 
right to put every one of his neighbours to death who 
was not of his own church, and two or three were hung 



SNOWDON. 113 

by him at a place called Cefn Crogar, near Llandaff. This 
fellow was obliged to fly for his life, and it is supposed 
to Ireland. The furnaces were laid asleep, and in that 
sleep died. Out of their ashes, however, sprung up soon 
after the furnaces of Pentyrch, Caerphilly, &c. 

Tradition says that Sir William Matthews converted 
his iron into steel, and established one of his illegitimate 
sons at Cardiff in the cutlery business, another in London, 
it is said on London Bridge. 

The late Rev. Edward Evans, of Aberdar, told me that 
Sion Powel Gwyn, or Sion ap Hywel Gwyn, who was a 
celebrated bard, and brother of Deio ap Hywel Gwyn, 
grandfather of our celebrated Thomas Llywelyn ap Deio 
ap Hywel Gwyn, erected a blast furnace on the principle 
retained in our modern furnaces, at Llwydgoed, in the 
parish of Aberdar, in the time of Henry VIII., where 
he made large quantities of iron, and became very rich. 
He and his successors built several other furnaces in, or 
on the verge of, the Vale of Aberdar, the ruins of which 
he said were still to be seen. I have not yet been informed 
when the working at those furnaces was discontinued. 

lOLO MORGANWG. 



SNOWDON. 
By JAMES KENWARD, Esq. 

" Ar oer garreg Eryri 

Mae ged vawr lie magwyd oi." Rhys Goch Eryri. 

I. 

A TREE-CROWNED, grassy, undulating hill, 

Sloped pleasantly toward the sunny weather ; 
Whence musical glides down the pebbly rill ; 

Where the brown bee exults among the heather, 

And rural lovers rest or stray together, 
And quiet cattle feed, and birds rejoice 

While the soft west wind ruffles scarce a feather ; 
Whence the fair fields and white walls of your choice 
Are seen, and heard around is cheerful Labour's voice. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. Q 



114 SNOWDON. 

II. 

Such haply dost thou know, and hath thy heart 

Grown tame and passive many sweets among, 
And rarely may'st thou feel emotions start, 

Secluded far from worldly woe and wrong ; 

Thy pulse beats calm, thy measured sleep is long, 
Thy feet glide willing in the path of right; 

Thou lovest placid mirth and gentle song, 
And leafy lawn, and terraced garden bright, 
And Beauty's mild blue eye, and warmth and ease and light. 

HI. 

But hath the spirit's harp one only chord 

One only refrain of a flute-like tone ; 
Doth Nature's mighty cabinet afford 

One tint of rose or emerald alone ? 

Hence ! let thy energies o'er life be thrown 
Oft high desire impel thy voice and hand, 

And trace the scenes where kindred signs are shown 
The wild, the stern, the beautiful, the grand, 
Where rise in ancient strength, the mountains of our land. 

IV. 

Let others rove from foreign spot to spot, 

As Fashion bids, or novelty grows old, 
And throng to gaze perchance discerning not 

On storied shows and scenes of giant mould ; 

Can such read Nature's mightiest book unrolled, 
Or e'en to thee can Alp or Andes rise 

Revealed in all its bulk ? Oh ! be consoled, 
And first, the hill-page lit by British skies, 
Interpret with deep heart, and scan with earnest eyes. 

v. 

Ben Nevis know, on whose surpassing crest 

White Winter sits defiant of the sun ; 
Helvellyn, dear to every poet's breast 

For streams of song that from its fountains run ; 

Green Cheviot, and romantic Mangerton ; 
Plinlimmon bare, and forest-girt Cairngorm; 

And Snowdon all unmatched, whose crags upon, 
The immortal Past endures, and whose great form 
Rose at the birth of Time, from Chaos and from Storm. 

VI. 

Assume the glance of that unvanquished bird 
Who made Eryri once his home of pride ; 



SNOWDON. 115 

Behold the hills when autumn rain has stirred 
The air, and Morning's fingers parted wide 
The horizon bounds from where Dubricius died 

In holy Bardsey, on to Penmaenmawr 

Far eastward planted bold against the tide 

See sweep fantastic, or sublimely tower, 
Caernarvon's mountain boast, and record-roll, and power ! 

VII. 

And midmost, Snowdon rears his triple head, 

And holds his court : around him and below, 
The subject hills yet scarce outrivalled, spread 

Their giant limbs and lift their rugged brow ; 

Llywelyn, Glyder, Hebog, Eilio 
Names memory-stamped with Man's and Nature's might; 

The elements come up to them, and lo ! 
The mingling and the lapse of day and night, 
Of worship, council, wrath, disdain, repose and fight ! 

VIII. 

But now approach him ; the dark summit crags 

Stand sharp in ether blue, and the young Day 
Darts eager glances where yet Shadow lags 

Deep in the hollow sides, and ray on ray 

Explores the stony mysteries till they 
Gleam broadly desolate and all unveiled ; 

And in the nested tarns the heavens play, 
And peaks that late the midnight storm assailed, 
Now first in tranquil rest the glowing sun have hailed. 

IX. 

Ascend where Llechog leans against the sky, 

And mark the bulk impending overhead; 
A world of cwm and crag invests the eye, 

A wilderness of ruin far outspread : 

Yet deem not Nature here decayed or dead, 
No grave is this, but solemn temple whence 

Her light beneath the shows of things is shed, 
Her voice can issue living and intense, 
And wake to worthier thought the too material sense. 

x. 

And here where still the hardy sheep maintain 
Scant life, once bounded the broad-antlered deer, 

The Cambrian goat an unapproached domain 
Possessed, the golden eagle plumed him here, 
And the dark Druid pine-trees waved austere ; 



116 SNOWDON. 

And pregnant with the changeless still the scene ; 

A wealth of metal lurks in chasms drear, 
And Flora's alpine offspring sit serene, 
And spread to nursing storms their many-tinted green. 

XI. 

Profound the silence grows, and more profound 

While slow you traverse the encumbered steep ; 
Hushed in the clear calm air, the hills around 

Seem, fancy-scanned, to listen or to sleep ; 

Not so of old when Dolwyddelan's Keep 
Saw waving spears and circling beacon flames 

To battle saw the shouting Cymry leap, 
Led by the prince whom Clio proudly claims 
Llywelyn first amid his land's heroic names ! 

XII. 

When Gwynedd's chiefs in festive triumph stood, 
Or, worn and weak, their patriot blood outpoured, 

And rock, and llyn, and waterfall, and wood, 
And bardic song, and human heart have stored 
Memorials of high sage and mighty lord. 

What else ? a dubious cairn, a toppling tower, 
Perchance a golden torque or broken sword 

Remains, interpreting old strife and power, 
Less than the battle-field's corse-nurtured fruit and flower. 

XIII. 

Such trophies leave to microscopic minds, 

Such links of rust exhumed by time or toil, 
For that unseen but perfect chain which binds ;T . 

The Past around the people and the soil ; 

This not the lapse of years can dim or spoil, 
It flashes freely to the summer sky, 

Tradition bathes it as with freshening oil, 
Nor shall it cease to be a nation's tie, 
Till Cambria's hills decay and Cambria's language die. 

XIV. 

Behold a relic truly ! piled above, 

The granite mountain stedfast evermore, 
Rare trophy for the virtuoso's love 

To teach him surer truth, sublimer lore : 

This cabinet of rock, in antique store, 
Saw darksome fern, and fish, and shell, and bone, 

Slow lapse to living forms through ages hoar, 
And slow decay through added ages grown 
Itself unwasted still, unlinked to time alone! 1 

1 These expressions are not intended to convey precise geological facts. 



SNOWDON. 1 17 



XV. 

Now press the tortuous track, see Wyddfa's ridge 

Upheaved immense on adamantine walls, 
Pass thither by the rock's aerial bridge, 8 

With guarded steps when clinging mist enthrals 

Snowdonia then he perishes who falls ; 
But sunbright now, magnificently lying 

Beneath your feet behold those mighty halls, 
Far piercing down to depths which undescrying 
The eye pursues, and whence the shepherd's song comes dying. 

XVI. 

Far sweeping round with myriad shapes indented, 

Ledge, buttress, pinnacle and chasm deep ; 
Within, the eagle winged his flight contented, 

The clouds roll midway curtaining the steep, 

And on the ever verdant floor they weep 
Their purest tears, and wizard colours glow, 

And funeral shadows throng, and lightnings leap 
Transverse, and rise the sounds of war and woe 
When the careering Winds their stormy trumpets blow. 

XVII. 

From central Wyddfa's cairn-crowned summit, part 
The mountain pyramid's deep curving lines 

Of crvms that matchless triad Snowdon's heart, 
And peaks whereon the golden morning shines 
Crib Goch, Crib Ddysgyl, bare with stony spines, 

Grey Lliwedd's side majestically sheer, 

These gleam all changeful ; but when day declines, 

Their giant images fling broad and clear, 
And shed o'er half the east their beauty grand and drear. 

XVIII. 

But who from these great crags though long beholding, 

Can tell aright the infinite display, 
One nearest zone all Venedotia folding, 

Which Loveliness and Terror both array ; 

Then myriad circles widening away 
O'er rural levels, forest, river, plain, 

And teeming city, o'er the bending bay, 
And o'er the sparkling waters, till again 
Within each kingdom's bound, they touch a mountain chain . 

XIX. 

All objects merge compressed within your ken, 
All distance now enchanted semblance knows, 

2 Clawdd Coch. 



118 SNOWDON. 

The winds have accents which the haunts of men 

Hear not, and Heaven a holier repose ; 

The sea uplifted near you, swells and glows ; 
The hills bow prominent on every side ; 

And Mona full her storied islands shows 
One gleaming fair where Menai's currents glide, 
One paled by twenty leagues in mid Saint George's tide. 

xx. 

And mark around the mountain's rifted base, 
The shining lakes in varied shapes expand; 

Now vale-embosomed lies their liquid grace, 
Now brimming high as in a giant's hand 
Sweet Gwynant here begems the vale's green band, 

Llanberis there her fairy waters holds, 

And open Cwellyn's crystal face breeze-fanned, 

And loveliest Nantllef e'en 'mid beauty's moulds, 
And winding Llydaw laid in dark Cwm Dyli's folds. 

XXI. 

Come hither from the world ! Ambrosial Spring 
Quickens the breast of Nature, and thy veins 

Throb warm and generous though no linnet sing, 
Or garden-bloom or joyance of the plains 
Invite yet here the vernal Spirit reigns 

Matchless in azure sky, reposing sea, 

And clouds the wild wind's image who remains 

On this proud peak with him, and cannot see 
A spring o'er Cymru fall, broad, beautiful and free ? 

XXII. 

The spring of truest liberty and light, 

Of victory over prejudice and wrong, 
Of high dominion what though Arthur's might 

And Rhodri's sway no more to her belong, 

Nor in her halls resounds the Prince-Bard's song ; 
Yet God protects, and who shall quite destroy ! 

Taught, chastened by the Past, more wise, more strong, 
The Future she shall fill not tool or toy, 
But Britain's Muse, and Hope, and Counsellor, and Joy ! 

XXIII. 

Come hither from the world ! Sweet Autumn brings 
Clear temperate day, and night for starry dreaming, 

And now one last and crowning beauty flings 

O'er earth, and sea, and sky ; as love late beaming 
In proud and arid hearts, the grey rocks gleaming 



SNOWDON. 119 

With purple lights incline their lofty breast ; 

Low to the vale with warmth and colour teeming, 
Darts the full stream ; fair-woven boughs invest 
And soothe with weeping charms the cataract's unrest. 

XXIV. 

Come hither when the ardent summer sun 

Springs in full strength above the Berwyn-steep ; 

His circling course from hill to hill is run, 
In many a lonely lake his splendours sleep, 
In many a streamlet flash, and broad and deep, 

Far crags and chasms touch with chequered play 
Arenig, Aran, Idris' giant keep, 

Eifl's 3 mute camp of stone, till slow away, 
In beauty blending all, they die in Arvon's bay. 

XXV. 

As when the Roman oft at vigil-time, 

Gazed from Segontium after doubtful fight 
Gazed on the crimson-bannered West, the clime 

Beyond his ken beyond his eagle's flight ; 

Where now his own imperial city's might? 
Where now the hosts that wrought at Cambria's chain ? 

The Norman eagles crown yon turrets' height, 
What strength has sunk what glory shone in vain ! 
Still bend the beaming heavens, the mountains still remain. 

XXVI. 

And ever shines the quenchless light from God 

Religion, spirit-beauty of the land ; 
This wreathed with myrtle many a tyrant's rod ; 

This joined the Saxon's with the Cymro's hand ; 

This fired the muse trimmed Learning's lamp how grand 
The conquest by the chained Caradoc won, 

Binding the Roman in a golden band ; 
For what fair Eurgain's blessed heart begun, 
Kindled the victor-cross of queenly Helen's son! 4 

XXVII. 

Star-woo'd, cloud-wrapped, the gentle moon comes gliding, 
Yet evermore the sun's pale path pursuing, 

Like Woman's love for some bright Fame, abiding 
Hopeless, untold, intense, her life's undoing ; 
Yet Dian soon her virgin pride renewing, 

3 Tre 'r Caeri. 

4 Eurgain, the daughter of Caractacus, introduced St. Hid and Christianity 
into Britain on her return from captivity in Rome. Elen, or Helena, a 
British princess, was the mother of Constantino. The narrative of the cross, 
and the " In hoc signo vinces," is well known. 



120 SNOWDON. 

Looks o'er this rock-realm like a fairy queen, 

Her magic shafts fantastically strewing, 
And mixing ebon shade with pearly sheen, 
Till kindling Fancy hails the wild and wondrous scene. 

XXVIII. 

But when the fair young Moon sweet Promise bends 

Upon heaven's verge all twilight-veiled and low, 
And timorous of those diamond halls, descends 

Throneless till majesty shall grace endow ; 

Then come the stars in faint and fervid glow 
O'er-arching midnight deepens round the Pole, 

No breath of care or passion from below, 
No earth-bred damps their influence control, 
But clear their lustre beams their harmonies deep roll. 

XXIX. 

Who hath not felt Light's sphered spirits fill 

Earth's dark gross frame, and plant a passion there 

In wood and sea a mystic life instil, 

Give meaning to these crags so dumb and bare, 
Bind good with all see Cytherea fair 

Quiver o'er Silyn, and Jove's burning car 
Roll o'er Llywelyn through the azure air, 

And know how strength joy beauty doubly are 
Linked to those glorious forms, the mountain and the star ! 

XXX. 

But would'st thou feel the mountain-glory fold thee ; 

When purblind Luxury to cities goes, 
When not a foot will trace, or eye behold thee, 

Come hither fearless in the time of snows ; 

When to a hundred peaks in white repose, 
The faint cold flushes of the dawn return, 

When Nature like a classic marble shows 
Her inmost form, until the bosom burn 
With passion that the world's poor painted toys can spurn. 

XXXI. 

And I have couched above the broad abyss, 

On the rock's jagged marge when cloud o'er cloud 

Dark-massing quenched the brightness that did kiss 
Lone Llydaw far adown : then crashing loud 
Came the wild hurricane the sky was bowed 

Upon the hills, and floods of loosened hail 

Smote the unyielding crags, while wrath-endowed, 

The winds swept seaward rending spar and sail, 
Or round my head intoned their long unearthly wail. 



SNOWDON. 121 



XXXII. 

So lapsed the night ; a sea of mist upsurging, 
Cut by the sluggish lines of chilling rain, 

Holds the sad dawn oppressed and unemerging, 
And drifting columns pass in spectral train, 
Till, as the sickly shapes that cling to Pain 

Are chased by rosy Health, the vapours glide 

Before the strengthening beam, and now the plain 

Rejoices, and the beauteous bow hangs wide, 
Arching from Aran's head to deep Cynghorion's side. 

XXXIII. 

Then come vain youth who indolently wearest 

Queen Fashion's livery ; daylight mummy rolled 
In form's strong swathings, come, for yet thou bearest 

Within, a source of joy untried, untold ; 

And come, thou poor mechanic slave of Gold, 
And bring thine own pale slaves, nor let them steep 

In lust's mud-lethe, the few hours doled 
For breathing-time come all and drink ye deep 
From wells that purge the heart and break the spirit's sleep ! 

XXXIV. 

Yet flock not hither as to city show, 

Nor herd carousing like a Bacchic band, 
Nor weakly prate of sentiment ere glow 

Inward the image of the fair and grand ; 

But on the mountains reverently stand, 
Most holy by the Briton once confest, 

And holy are they still, for hand in hand, 
The Muses yet the favoured ground invest, 
With Heaven's angel-forms that quicken themes more blest. 

XXXV. 

Alas ! for me who use a stranger tongue, 
And touch with erring hand a humble lyre, 

When Cambria's harp for Cambria should be strung, 
And vibrate to her native words of fire : 
Oh ! that the lay could like the thought aspire, 

That so my gratitude I might record, 

For hours of health, and peace, and pure desire, 

And weave a song from all my heart hath stored, 
Such song as Llywarch loved, or high Taliesin poured ! 



SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 



122 



WYNNSTAY. 

WE have been favoured with the following Catalogue 
of Welsh Manuscripts, &c., &c., supposed to have been 
destroyed in the above noble mansion, during the recent 
destructive fire : 

Sir WATKYN WILLIAMS WYNN, Bart., M.P. 

A Catalogue of the MSS. of Mr. William Morys, of Cevn y Braich, 
antiquary, taken from his own Catalogue. Mr. William Morys sold 
his valuable library to Sir William Williams, of Llanforda, Bart., for 
,70, and what remains of them are now at Wynnstay, the mansion 
of Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart. 

1. Brut y Brenhinoedd, folio, 6 inches deep. 

2. Brut y Tywysogion, folio, 6 inches. 

3. Cyfraethau Howel Dda, lib. 1, 8 inches. 

4. Arvau Cymru, folio, 6 inches. 

5. Aborigines Brittanicae, written by Mr. William Morys, large 
folio, 7 inches. 

6. Theobardicon, sef Duwiolgerdd, folio, 6 inches. 

7. Y Basilico Bardicon, sef Brenhingerdd, folio, 8 inches. 

8. Aristiobardicon, sef Boneddgerdd, folio, 8 inches. 

9. Miscellanea, sef Brithlyfr, rhan i., folio, 4 inches. 

10. Ibid. ibid. ii., folio, 4 inches. 

11. Archiobardicon, sef y Llyfr du o Gaerfyrddin, folio, 8 inches. 

12. Neobardicon, sef Diweddargerdd, folio, 8 inches. 

13. Logobardicon, sef Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Brydain, folio, 8 
inches. 

14. Proverbia, Latine et Wallice, per Dr. William Davies, folio, 6 
inches. 

15. Antiquarium Britannicum, Repertorium Britannicum, folio, 
2 dig. 

16. Gildas Nennius Eulogium, Britannicae Insulae, folio, 4 dig. 

WILLIAM MORYS' OWN. 

17. Chronica a Cadwaladro rege ad Leolinum ult., folio, 3 inches. 

18. Dau lyfr Cywyddau o law John Jones o Ysceiviog (Gelli 
lyvdy), allan o lyfrau Simmwnt Vychan, y ddau yn un, folio, 6 inches. 

19. Adversaria Historico Britannica, per William Morys, folio, 2 
inches. 

20. Lectionarium sive Spicilegium variorum Lectionum, Scriptum, 
per William Morys, folio, 4 inches. 

21 . Llyfr Gwyn o Hergest, folio, 4 inches. 

22. Cywyddau o destynau y Salmau, folio, 1 inch. 

23. Thesaurus Cornucopias, o law Mr. William Morys, folio, 1 inch. 

24. Cywyddau o waith Ed. Wrien, folio, 3 inches. 



WYNNSTAY. 123 

25. Britochronicon ar hen femrwn, quarto, 4 inches. 

26. Hen Lyfr Duwiol, un Lladin, ar hen femrwn. 

27. Cyfraith y Cymru ar femrwn, folio, 3 inches. 

28. Cymmydau Cymru, folio, 4 inches. 

29. Buchedd y Saint, yn Saesnec, ar femrwn, 4 inches. 

30. Primitives fidei, venerabilis liber, scriptum in pulchra manu, et 
initium uniuscujusque partis incipit cum aurea litera. 

31. Collectanea Latina, scripta per William Morys, folio, 5 inches. 

32. Chronological Essays, by William Morys, 1660, folio. 

33. Llyfr Cywyddau o waith amryw, o law Mr. William Morys. 

34. Index ad Codicem Hoelianum, by Mr. William Morys, folio, 1 
inch. 

35. Talin o Gyfraith y Llysoedd ar femrwn, folio, 2 inches. 

36. Anthropopathy, in English, by William Morys, folio, 9 inches. 

37. Bardorum Britannicorum Grammatica, autographo membran- 
aceo, fideliter transcript a, per Gul. Mauricum, Lansiliensem. 

38. Observations on the Scriptures in English, by Mr. William 
Morys. 

39. Llyfr Cywyddau o waith amryw Feirdd, folio, 3 inches. 

40. Chronicon Asseri Menevensis Episcopi fideliter scriptum e 
Vetusto Codice Archiepiscopi. Math. Cant. 

41. Florilegium, written in English, by William Morys, in 1641. 

42. History of Bellinus and Brennus defended, written by Mr. 
William Morys to Mr. R Vaughan, of Hengwrt 

43. Llyfr Prawf eneid, folio, 1 inch. 

44. De Britannica et primis ejus hominibus, per William Morys. 

45. Awdlau i Dwysogion Cymru, o law Dr. Powel, quarto, 2 inches. 

46. De Descriptoribus rerum Britannicarum, per William Morys, 
folio, 3 inches. 

47. The Life of St. Edmund, in verse, written by William Morys. 

48. Llyfr Cywyddau o waith T. Prys, o Bias lolyn, folio, 4 inches. 

49. Chronologia Britannica, written by William Morys. 

50. Llyfr meddiginiaeth o waith Meddygyn, quarto, 5 inches. 

51. Llyfr Phisigwriaeth, folio, 5 inches. 

52. Llyfr Achau ag Arfau, o law Simmwnt Vychan, quarto, 2 
inches. 

53. Cywyddau o waith Dd. ab Gwyllym, quarto, 4 inches. 

54. An old MS. Psalter, in vellum, 4 inches. 

55. Llyfr Clera Rhys Cain, folio, 4 inches. 

56. Another old Psalter, with great golden letters on vellum, folio, 
3 dig., William Morys. 

57. Brut y Brenhinoedd, or the History of the Kings of Britain, 
being a copy of the original which Jeffrey of Monmouth transcribed 
into Latin. 

58. Brut y Tywysogion, being a continuation of the British History, 
by Caradog of Llancarvan. A copy of the original which Humffrey 
Llwyd translated into Latin, and Dr. Powell into English. 

59. Index ad Leges Hoe'li Boni, being a summary of the heads 



1 24 WYNNSTAY. 

contained in the Welsh Laws. A chronicle beginning with tineas, 
and an old Extent of Oswestry, folio, 8 inches. 

60. Y Llyfr Du. First, it contains the most ancient poems that 
probably exist in our language, Taliesin, &c. 

Second, a large collection of ancient prophecies, Merlin, Robin 
Ddu, &c., some of which are curious, but the greater part are forgeries, 
as to the names and pretended expositions of Merlin. Prophecies 
written probably about the time of the conquest of England, and 
adapted to the hopes of Ancient Britons, from Owen Gwynedd, Owen 
Glyndwr, and Henry VII. 

Third, Computation Manuale, or Manual of Computation for the 
regulation of the Calendar, written by Dd. Nanmor. This is very 
interesting, as giving the names of the Saints in the Welsh Calendar, 
about A.D. 1450. It is drawn up in the same manner as the compu- 
tation of John De Sacro Boseo (or John of Holyrood), but the 
writer quotes a book written by Alcharbitius, some of whose works 
are supposed to be in the Bodleian library. 

Fourth, The Medical System of the Physicians, taken principally 
from Hippocrates and Pliny. 

Fifth, Dares Phrygius, a loose and incorrect translation from the 
Latin. 

61. John Salusbury, of Erbystoc's, celebrated Book of Pedigrees, 
which appears to have been commenced by Thomas Salusbury, of 
Erbystoc, about the year 1640, and to have been carried on with many 
additions from his son, John Salusbury, down to the year 1671, 
illuminated and in high preservation, folio, 2 inches deep. 

62. Welsh Pedigrees, compiled by John Salusbury, of Erbystoc, 
folio, 2 inches. 

63. Welsh Pedigrees, including those of Cheshire and Shropshire, 
old writing, folio, 4 inches. 

64. Organum Britannicum, being a Catalogue of Authors treating 
of the History of Britain, written in Welsh, Latin, and English, by 
William Morys, 1659, folio, 2 inches. 

65. Antiquarium Britannicum, written by William Morys, in 1659. 

66. Miscellanies, a thin folio, not perfect. 

67. An Account of the Mayors of Chester, and a History of England, 
by Robert Ince, Coroner of Chester, in 1639, thin folio, not perfect 
towards the end. 

68. A brief Declaration of the first inhabitants of this island's lineal 
descent from Brutus, by Olyver Mathews, in 1671 ; it ends with the 
Kings of England, English, a thin folio, perfect. 

69. An Account of Parliaments holden in Richard III.'s time, 
English, folio, 1 inch deep, not perfect. 

70. Thomas Skinner's Petition about the Shipping in 1667, English, 
a thin folio. 

71. Laws of Howel Dda. This volume contains annotations by 
Camden. A portion of the Apocalypse in Irish, with a translation on 



WYNNSTAY. 125 

part of the leaves. Transcript of MSS. by Mr. Vaughan of Hen- 
gwrt's Pedigree of Mr. David Parry, folio, 3 inches. 

72. The Pedigrees of Cwmmwd Maelor, written in the time of Sir 
Richard Trevor, of Trefalyn, folio, 4 inches. 

73. Graphiologia de Traditione Genealogica Britan, Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, &c., written in 1670, folio, 6 inches. 

74. An old copy of Brut y Brenhinoedd with clasps, interleaved 
with notes, by Mr. William Morys, quarto, 3 inches. 

75. A Latin History, and at the end a copy of a Welsh MS., given 
to Lord Carew by Mr. Owen, 1609, containing a History of the 
Marches of Wales, a few pedigrees, quarto, 3 inches. 

76. Contains the Poems of Dd. ab Edmund, Gytto'r Glynn, 
Gyttyn Owain, Howel ab Dd. ab Inn ab Rhys, lolo Goch, Lewys 
Mon, Dr. Sion Cent, Tudyr Aled, &c., finished in 1605, by John 
Jones, of Gelli ly vdy. 

77. Brut y Tywysogion, written by John Jones, of Gelli lyvdy, 
while in the Fleet Prison in 1636. 

78. Brut y Tywysogion, from 680 to 1332, written by William 
Morys, from the Hengwrt copy. 

79. Brut y Tywysogion, begins differently from the one transcribed 
by William Morys. 

80. A folio cover, full of old miscellaneous letters. 

81. Norton de Alchemia, folio, 1 inch. 

82. Miscellanies, written in 1773. This volume contains the Ystym 
Colwyn Pedigree, folio. 

83. Barddoniaeth, with a chan brith rhwng Taliesin a Myrddin, in 
the handwriting of William Morys, folio, 5 inches. 

84. Hen gerdd Llyfr, written by William Morys in 1660. 

85. Encyclopaedia Bardica, written by William Morys, folio 5 inches. 

86. Pregethau a wnaeth Maistr Latimer, ag a bregethodd gar bron 
yr Arglwyddes Catrin, Duges o Suffolk, yn oed yr Argl. 1552, 
transcribed into Welsh by Roger Pulston. 

87. A Treatise on Wales and the Marches, account of fees paid, &c., 
written in 1723, folio, 1 inch. 

88. A general Collection of all the Offices in England, with their 
fees, written in 1595, folio, 1 inch. 

89. ProfFwydoliaeth a Prydyddiaeth Merlyn, a Barddoniaeth by 
different bards, mostly Dd. Llwyd, written in Charles I.'s time, quarto, 
2 inches. 

90. A volume of Miscellanies, containing poems by Lewys Glyn 
Cothi ; Annals of Owen Glyndwr ; Account of the Lordship of 
Oswestry ; Welsh Antiquities from the Triads, &c. ; return sent to the 
Commission, sent by Henry VII. into Wales, to inquire into the 
pedigree of Owain Tydyr; Account of Wales and the Families; 
Genealogical Extracts from the Pryse MSS ; Manner of keeping the 
Parliaments, &c., quarto, 4 inches. 

91. Contains Pedwar mesur ar hugain, Henwa'r Siroedd, Cym- 



126 WYNNSTAY. 

mydau, &c., written in Henry VII. 's time ; this volume has W. Morys' 
name inside the cover, dated 1650, quarto, 4 inches. 

92. Chronicle of the Welsh Princes, of the Kings of Europe, and 
of the Popes of Rome, in Latin, octavo, 1 inch. 

93. Heraldry, mostly Welsh Arms, illuminated, and some little 
notice taken of the families entitled to bear them, the Fifteen Tribes, 
rudely executed in 1597, quarto, 3 inches. 

94. Another thin quarto of Welsh Heraldry, and Pedigrees, with 
the Arms well delineated and coloured. 

95. Reports of the House of Commons in 1673, English. 

96. A folio of English Laws. 

97. Adversaria Historica, &c., contains " Henwa'r Llyfrau Cyfrei- 
theu yr hen Fritaniet a mesur Tervyneu a gwerth crosseu, John Jones." 
The extent of the Lordship of Oswestry. A Cowydd recited at Cnock- 
yn Castle, when Syr R. Cynaston received the Order of Knighthood 
from Edward IV., King of England. 

98. A Catalogue of Hengwrt Library, written 30 years ago. The 
last catalogue finished by Mr. Robert Vaughan, in 1661, after his 
library had received many considerable additions, especially the books 
of Mr. John Jones, of Gelli lyvdy, cannot be found as yet. It was 
in the hands of Dr. Ellis, of Dolgellau, when William Morys was 
last at Hengwrt. The substance of the above is taken from a note in 
William Morys' handwriting, without date, quarto, thin. 

99. A Catalogue of Mr. William Morys' books, folio, 1 inch. 

100. Another of Mr. Williams Wynn's, taken in 1729. 

101. A small box, half a yard long, and about four inches deep, full 
of interesting miscellaneous papers, written by Edward Llwyd, Account 
of Places, and some of the Cambrian Superstitions. 

102. Scriptor Rerum Brit. Adversaria Graph. Miscell., all Welsh, 
many places marked with the year 1605 j it contains Llyfr Clera Rhys 
Cain, folio, 4 inches. 

103 Hen Farddoniaeth, copied in 1694, folio, 4 inches deep, many 
blank leaves towards the end. 

104. " Llyfr Dared Cymraeg, scrifenedig o lyfr Risiart ab Sion o 
Llanganhaval, yr hun a goppiasai yntai o lyfr Simmwnt Vychan, 
John Jones, 1605. Ag o'i un yntai a gaed scrifennydd William 
Morys, 1664." It begins with Llyma Ddysg i adnabod cerddoriaeth 
cerdd dafod, herwydd Llyfr Dd. Ddu, Athraw, folio, 4 inches. 

105. Cywyddau ymryson rhwng Edmwnd Prys, Archiagon Mei- 
rionydd, a William Cynwal, copied by William Morys in 1669, folio, 
3 inches. 

106. Barddoniaeth Bedo Brwyn, Llys Sion Wyn, Huw Arwistli, 
Sion Ceri, leuan Deulwyn, &c., old writings, quarto, thin. 

107. Miscellanies, quarto volume, thin. 

108. Dd. Nanmor's Poems, Thomas Pryse, and Simmwnt Vychan. 

109. Dosparth Edeyrn Dafod Aur, y pedwar mesur ar hugain, &c. 

110. Comments upon the Scriptures, by John Salusbury, of Erby- 
stoc, written in Welsh, in 1668, a thin quarto, not perfect. 



WYNNSTAY. 127 

111. Miscellanies, written by William Morys. This volume con- 
tains Welsh Prophecies, translated into English, folio, thin. 

112. The Legends of the Saints, in English verse, and written upon 
vellum, folio, 2 inches. 

113. Contains Judge Doddridge's cases, English. 

114. Charta 9, 10, &c., of Edward II. yn y Twr, Latin, concerning 
Wales, with occasional remarks written in Welsh, quarto, 3 inches. 

115. A copy of some papers communicated by Dr. Hudson, A.D. 
1705. Observations made by a traveller, quarto. 

116. A Memorandum Book concerning Oliver Cromwell's Rebel- 
lion in Wales, giving the Castles that capitulated, &c., written from 
1638 to 1647, English. This volume also contains catalogues, 
Chronological, Historical, Britannicorum, &c. 

117. A Catalogue of my Lord Bangor's MSS. in his study, taken 
June 1696. Cynval's Book of Pedigrees is among them, and also 
the Laws of Howel Dda, &c. Likewise six MSS. contributed by 
the Rev. Dr. Jones, Dean of Bangor, written by Mr. Williams, 
schoolmaster of Beaumaris school, about 1670, all concerning Wales. 

118. A Specification of the Charter of Howel Dda, from a copy 
taken from the White Book of Hergest, by Peter Roberts. 

119. An interesting Memorandum Book, written between the years 
1664 and 1668, by a gentleman in the Navy Office, who was a cousin 
to Mr. Andrew Thelwall, of Llanrhydd, and Mr. Thelwall, of Plas y 
Ward. 

120. Taliesin, and other Barddoniaeth, bound up with an old Latin 
MS. upon vellum, octavo, 2 inches. 

121. Prayers and Poems, on vellum, English, a few of the first 
pages lost. 

122. Llyfr Sion Watcyn, Jun., on vellum, 1 inch thick, with 
William Morys' name inside the cover, 1664. 

123. Latin Herbals, written in 1626, and another of the same size, 
containing a Dictionary of Plants, both octavo. 

124. Cywyddau allan o'r Llyfr Gwyn, o Hergest, weithian, sef hen 
femrwn, llyfr a scrivenwys (folio mawr) yn amser Edward y Ped- 
werydd, Frenhin Loegyr, omnia per amanuensem Exemplificivi Ego 
Gwil. Maur. Llansilin. 

The above Catalogue, with others, was presented by 
Miss Angharad Llwyd to the Eisteddfod held at Welsh- 
pool, in 1824. 

Truly this fire has been a national calamity ; neverthe- 
less we shall be somewhat consoled if it shall have been 
the means of inducing the gentry of Wales to provide 
for the more effectual preservation of what still remains 
of our literary store. 



128 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 
By LADY MARSHALL. 

CANIAD I. 
( Continued from page 54.) 

" I thought to save your hawk," he said 
" Poor bird I scarce believe her dead 
A peregrine right nobly bred 
'Tis true, yet rarely have I seen 
In even them such courage keen." 

In listening to his boyish talk, 
Lly welyn half forgot the hawk : 

" Methinks," he said, " you're deeply versed 
In hawking-craft perchance are nursed 
And practised to its skilful use 
In some adjacent chieftain's mews." 

" Oh, no ! not so," replied the youth, 
" No skill like that have I in sooth ; 
I've only what these deserts give, 
And the wild things 'mongst which I live : 
I practise hawks, and use the bow, 
Because I help my mother so." 

" And are we nigh to your abode ? " 
Inquired the Prince, " I've lost my road, 
In this rough tempest, and would fain, 
E'er darkness spreads, the path regain." 

" Nay, but indeed " the lad replied, 
" To-night you must with us abide : 
Already dips the sun below 
The level of yon distant brow : 
Our home is but across the moor ; 
Your's must be far away, for sure !" 

He paused and blushed, for now his eye 
Distinguished what his tongue too shy 
Left unexpressed the bearing high 
Of him whom he addressed, whereby 
'Twas certain that he could not dwell 
In narrow cot or mountain cell ; 
And well he knew for leagues around 
That scarce a cabin could be found. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 129 

, A look can thousand words outstrip, 

And that fluttered light 
Upon his young companion's lip 

Lly welyn read aright : 
" Tis even so the waning day," 
He said, " will scarce suffice my way ; 
And I accept the proffered rest 
Your mother's unexpected guest." 

" It is her pleasure," said the child ; 
" Bewildered in this trackless wild 
Oft-times the stranger seeks our door, 
And then my mother strews the floor, 
And heaps the hearth, and milks the flock, 
And best of all with harp will lock 
In sweetest sleep the weary wight : 
Oh ! 'tis her pleasure her delight ! 
And sometimes in our quiet glen 
We've sheltered pilgrims holy men ; 
And they have said they fared as well 
As in St. Curig's 1 spital cell; 
And we in turn their prayers have won 
To JULIT and her sainted son. 
But yet perhaps " and now once more 
He glanced Llywelyn's figure o'er, 
" Perhaps I rather ought to show 
You where that spital lies below : 
For they have dormitories there 
A hall for strangers better fare 
Than we but yet 'tis late to-night, 
And 'tis my mother's great delight ! " 

" And your's no less, as judging by 
The fire that lights your cheek and eye : 
This happy desert sure hath won 
A second Julit and her son ; 
And I forgive me better love 
The saints below than those above ; 
So lead the way ; I'll follow thee, 
Young guide, and this kind mother see." 

" For that," replied the boy, " indeed 
She ever wears a mourning weed, 
In others' presence ; none hath grace 
But I alone to see her face." 

" Except thy father "but the word 
Appeared to touch a tender chord. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. S 



130 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

" I never saw him," said the child, 
And heaved a sigh and sighing smiled ; 
" But mother says that when I grow 
A valiant warrior I shall know 
My father's name, whose deeds, she says, 
Are nations' pride and minstrels' praise." 

" Tis well," Llywelyn said, nor pressed 
The matter further, for he guessed 
Some painful mystery overhung 
The creature's head so fair so young.- 
" And thou wouldst fain the hope fulfil, 
And earn the guerdon," 

" Oh ! I will : 

When I have shot four eagles see 
I've two at home, and this makes three 
(Come royal sir along with me,") 
And o'er his shoulder at the word 
He lightly swung the mighty bird ; 
" When I have laid another low, 
My mother says that I may go 
And seek our Prince, and be his page ; 
Oh ! I can serve him, I'll engage ; 
For he, she says, is noble kind 
Beset with foes before behind 
But all his enemies I'll kill 
Except those he does yes, I will : 
I'll be his champion, for I burn 
About my father all to learn. 
If mothers are so kind and good, 
What must a father be ? I would 
That I could see him in my dreams 
I sometimes do ; and then he seems 
Like something I can scarcely tell 
But in the chapel at the cell 
There is a window dazzling bright 
With clouds of gold, and shapes of light 
And in the midst a warrior saint : 
And thus my dreamy visions paint 
The image of my father linked 
With glorious things, but indistinct." 

Unconscious, as he thus ran on, 
Still more and more the prattler won 
Lly welyn's heart : it were a prize 
To share such glowing sympathies 
For kings to boast, who friendship want 
The most, yet friends most sorely scant. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 131 

He pleased himself to think how soon 
The stripling's wish would be his boon. 

And now they neared the mountain cot ; 
Nooked in a little cultured spot, 
That glimmered in the shadowy lea, 
Like stars upon the midnight sea. 

With gleeful haste the youthful guide 
The slender wicket moved aside. 
And underneath the roof-tree's shade 
Its humble welcome simply made, 
While through the dwelling's silent bounds 
The gentle name of MOTHER sounds. 

" She's gone," said MADOC, " to the fount ; 
Or else to seek me on the mount ; 
Or haply to the fold, to count 

The damage of the storm : 
Till her return and better care, 
I'll spread the couch of heather where 

The blaze is bright and warm." 

Then by the hearth with ready aid 
The heath's elastic twigs he laid, 

With lamb-skins mantled o'er, 
And 'neath the power its chain that throws 
O'er toils and triumphs joys and woes, 
Llywelyn sunk in deep repose 

Upon that cottage floor. 

Sleep, thou mystery of being 
Contradicting, yet agreeing 

Gentle leveller of rank, 

Dimly crowded blank, 
Whom yet both fools and sages thank 

Welcome simile of him, 

The unwelcome tyrant grim : 
Thy saving waste, 
With lingering haste, 

Comprises ages in a span : 
Thy soft, enchanting spell 
Can ope the captive's cell : 
Thine helplessness full often 
The sternest purpose soften 
Thou deepest riddle of the riddle MAN ! 

Who can remember sucking at the breast ? 
Who knows the moment when he sunk to rest ? 

Who can define 

The viewless line 



132 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Where day to twilight fades, 
And twilight melts in midnight shades ? 
So softly Nature blends 
Her beginnings and her ends 
That each with all in one harmonious cycle blends. 

Full oft one scarcely can descry 

Th' aerial bounds of sea and sky : 

Nor with his dreams the slumberer knows 

How much of real interflows : 

A storm of thunder stream of song, 

Doth mingling thus our dreams among, 

So simulous a mirage make, 

We neither wholly sleep nor wake. 

Thus with Llywelyn's toil-bought sleep 
A strain of music mixed its deep 

And realizing power: 
Scenes seemed to move before his eye 
Whose shapes and sounds had glided by, 

E'en from his childhood's hour. 
And with the melody he heard 
What to himself each mystic word 
The popular belief referred 
Wild MERLIN'S prophecy. 

MERLIN'S Prophecy. 

" CHILD of PROMISE hidden treasure 
Giver of the rightful measure 
To the reaper as the sower 
To the higher as the lower 
To the helpful flowing o'er : 
Holding in profoundest awe, 
Without spot and without flaw 
The deep and perfect law : 
A son of man 
Whose deeds to scan 
The wicked blame the wise approve, 

And I devoutly love: 

Thy Chiefs, O GWYNEDD, shall he draw 
Yea, all the High Ones of the Lovely Land, 
The scattered band 
From every strand, 
To where they first the gladsome daylight saw/ 

" Him shall the stranger hate : 
When the Bard shall raise 
His world-wide praise 
They shall not join assist co-operate. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 133 

Concord with Saxons that unlovely pact 

He shall retract. 
I will devoutly pray : I will give thanks 

To the Chief divine 

Of the warlike ranks 
Son of the ceaseless line ! 

" Lo ! the Britons shall be blest 
Upon their crown 
His holy rest 

The GOD of HEAVEN shall shower down. 
Him the Preserver praise 

Whose glorious work is war 
'Tis joy the song to raise 

To sound it near and far : 
I will exalt his name 
To the height of bardic fame 
Red-handed Lion of the deadly game ! " 

As the fall of distant fountains 

As the perfumed breath of May 
As the film upon the mountains 

Music melts in sleep away. 

Even when Llywelyn slowly 

Raised his parting lids again 
'Twas minutes ere his pulses wholly 

Ceased to vibrate to that strain ; 
And oh ! he realized the fact with pain. 

Where was he with those thrilling numbers 
Long memories came a crowding train ; 

And to have lengthened out the slumbers 

That evoked them would he fain ; 
But oh ! 'tis past the lingering wish is vain ! 

Be what they might, the thoughts that guiling 

Fancy sprinkled o'er his eyes 
Or sad, or gay they left him smiling, 

But with his smiling there were sighs ! 

Lives there who when, as life advances, 

Dreams or musings o'er him bring 
The flooding light of earlier chances, 

Feels not the memories please and sting 

Be he conqueror, sage, or king ? 

No though seated with the highest 

Proudest of the sons of men 
Conqueror, sage, or king, thou sighest 

Child of earth thou sighest then! 



134 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Strains renewed no longer hoping 

All the bright illusion o'er 
Still the Prince his eyes re-oping, 

Lay upon that cottage floor. 

Still the boy was watching o'er him, 
With his soft and earnest gaze : 

Simple viands spread before him, 
By the chimney's cheerful blaze 

Laid as by the hand of fairy 
Brightest honey from the rock, 

Freshest products of the dairy 
And the firstling of the flock. 

Gazing on these strange surroundings 

Scarce with realizing power 
" Whence" he cried " those sweet resoundings? 

Strike the heavenly chords onoe more 
Wings of Angels seemed to fan me 

The future from the past to speak 
Spirits of the dead to man me 

Oh ! 'tis pain the spell to break ! " 

Now seeing him awake, the lad 

Approached him " You have slept I'm glad 

The music made your dreaming light." 

" Was it then mortal hand so exquisite 

With touch aerial flight so bold ? 

I know but one, and that is cold 

A voice with such a melting thrill ? 

I know but one, and that is still ! 

Say my young host, was thine the touch ? 

" Nay," said the boy, " I cannot such ; 
I'm but a pupil yet ; but these 
Sublime and skilful strains, so please 
Your Grace, my mother waked ; she came 
When sleep had wrapped your weary frame, 
And gazed on you, and bade me tend 
Upon you more than e'en a friend, 
With tender reverence ; for she said 
That there was resting on your head 
The weight of matters deep and high 
She knows things better far than I 
And then she laid out this repast 
To wait your waking ; and at last 
She took her harp and sung the song 
That made you sleep so well and long." 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 135 

" So kind so wise so gifted too," 
Exclaimed Llywelyn, glancing through 
The narrow room, " and thus to dwell 
A pearl of price in such a shell ! 
Why tarries now thy mother say 
I count the moments of delay !" 

" And so do I, in very sooth 

I count her absence," said the youth : 

" But she is called away to-night, 

To tend a couch with dying rite 

'Tis distant to the spital cell, 

And truth they like her quite as well t 

The sick and dying, by their bed 

Or better than a shaven head : 

Indeed the people came from far ; 

For she knows every herb and star; 

And medicine art, and triad lore, 

And all things that have happed of yore : 

If they are ailing, she can cure ; 

And if at fault, her wisdom's sure ; 

I pray you then your Grace I mean 

Accept my humble aids again, 

For all of night that doth remain, 

And with returning light of day, 

To guide you on your homeward way." 

(To be continued.) 
NOTE. 

1 Cyrique a saint of Tarsus in Cilicia, who was martyred with his 
mother Julit Cymrice, Curig and Hid. 



136 



THE GENEALOGY OF KING ARTHUR. 

Arthyr ap Ythyr, ap Cystenin Fendigaid, ap Cynor, 
ap Tudwal, ap Morfawr, ap Cynan, ap Eudaf, ap Caradoc, 
ap Bran, ap Ll$r Llediaith. 

Another from the Book of Bodorgan. 

Arthyr ap Eigr, ach Ammlawdd Wledig, ap Lambor, 
ap Manwel, ap Sargelos, ap Sioswe, ap Eygen, Chwaer 
Sioseb o Arimathea. 

Arthyr ap Eigr, ferch Gwenn, ferch Gynedda Wledic. 

See Genealogy in the " Brith Bach," from the Book 
of Thomas Hopcin. 

From the Book of G. O. Harri. 

Gwenn, daur. of Cynedd Wledig, was married to one 
Amlawdd Wledig, ap Lambor, ap Maenol, ap Siarklos, 
ap Josua, ap Eurgain, sister to Joseph of Arimathea. 

Mor ap Morien, ap Morfawr, ap Cynan, ap Eudaf, ap 
Caradoc, ap Bran Fendigaid, ap Llyr Llediaith. 



PHILOLOGY. THE DICTIONARY APPENDIX. 

ABANT (Blaenau). Low, hollow, depressed. Tir abant, 

land lying low and sheltered. 
AWGYR Gimblet, auger, from awg. Whence awg-rym, 

hogi, og, di-awg, an-hawg. 
ADWERYDD A widow. D. ab Gwilym. 
ANHYAR Difficult ; a metaphor taken from land difficult 

of culture an-hy-ar. 
ANAR, DIAR Uncultured, without culture. 
ADLEWINO To relume. 
ANHYDWF Stunted, ill growing. 
ARCHFEN, pi. t. au The groin. 
ADLEWYDD Autumn, winter. 
ADLEWIN Reflected light. 
ADLEFIN Springing verdure. 



THE DICTIONARY APPENDIX. 137 

ALED Even, flat. " Dyffryn aled," the flat vale. " Pan 
adawer y tir yngorffwys yn ei laswellt gwneler ef mor 
aled ac a fo achos, cans os am gen y bydd, perigl 
bywyd eidion gwan yn y gauaf, iTdd el ar ei gefn yn 
y rhych fal nas gallo gwnnu, ac yno y geill hwnnw 
farw." (Cynghor Tadi'wfab.) 

ANNIFER Not few, numberless. 

" Ponyt guan truan trymder pechadur 
Pechodeu anniver 
Na uyl dyn dyvot y araser 
Na uelyd keuilyd kallder." G. ap yr Ynad Coch. 

ADDUL (add-ul) Moist, damp. 

ADDUN (add-un) Simple, uncompounded, one, uniform. 

ADDAINT (add-gaint) Contents, what is contained in any 
thing or place. 

ALAIN (a-glain) bright. Sic Heb. 

ANSAWDD (an-sawdd) The fundamental state or con- 
dition of anything, the level of anything. Yri ei 
ansawdd, in its own level, or settled condition ; that 
state wherein it was originally, and wherein it ulti- 
mately settles. Mae ansawdd i bob peth pob peth 
yn yn ei ansawdd, everything has its level. Syrth is 
the same. Pob peth yn ei syrth, i. e. t everything will 
find its level. 

AERONI to put forth fruit. 

" Coed y fron yn aeroni, 
Yn syber yn d'amser di." 

JSedo Brwynllys to " the Summer." 

ALSAIN (al-sain) An anthem, carol, &c. (Dimet.) 
" Canu alsain mewn drain draw." 

Wm. Egwad, to " the Nightingale." 

ARMEL Sugar, according to Dr. Williams ar-mel, i. e., 
agricultural honey. This word, he says, was first used 
by John David Rhys, in a letter from Sicily, giving an 
account of sugar. In those times it was a frequent 
trial of philological skill amongst the bards, &c., to 
form compounds for exotic terms or things. Cap. 
Middleton used GWYRPEL. Would not ARFEL be 
better ? 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. T 



138 TRADITIONAL ANECDOTES. 

ADDURN A rhetorical figure in " Naw Gloes Ymadrodd." 
" Naw gloes a phedair addurn ar hugain." 

ADFEL, ADFAL, ADFELYDD, HAFAL Person, personifi- 
cation, character, simile, metaphor. Ex. Yniales. 

ACHRE Initium, origo, beginning. Ib. 

ANN A round quantity, a complete quantity, the whole 
contents of anything, the whole contained in any time 
or place. Hence the Latin annus, i. e., the whole of 
the time contained from any point in the zodiac wherein 
the sun may be, until it return at the completion of its 
revolution to the same point. 

ARMES Provision, food. Qu. from mes, acorns ? 
" Lloegr ardres armes ednaint." Llywarch Hen. 

ANHWYTHIG (a twyth), Glam. A stiff, morose, stub- 
born, unmanageable fellow, one that will not be per- 
suaded, that cannot be prevailed upon. 

ALMES (al-mes) Fruit, produce, crop. 

" Ac almes coed yn gylmau 
Hyd amledd y tiredd tau." 

Lang. Lewys to Sir W. Matthew of Adur. 

" O phrofais dalm o'r almes 
Iin min bias y gwin a ges." 

lorwerth Fynglwyd on " Margam Vineyard." 

ALMESU To gather the fruit, produce, or crop. 



TRADITIONAL ANECDOTES OF BEWPER (BEAUPRE) 
PORCH AND CHAPEL. 

(From Richard and William Roberts of Bridgend.) 

A FAMILY, whose surname was Twrch, had for many 
generations been proprietors and workers of Seaton Free- 
stone Quarries. About the time of Edward VI., two 
brothers, Richard and William Twrch, stone-cutters, or 
Freemasons, as in Glamorgan they term the trades of 
stone-mason and stone-carver, worked those quarries. 



TRADITIONAL ANECDOTES. 139 

These two brothers quarrelled on some occasion, so that 
each made a solemn vow never to speak to the other. 
By this each firmly abode, though their anger towards 
each other entirely ceased in a short time. If either 
wanted the assistance of the other to move a large piece 
of freestone, or on any other occasion, he would beckon 
to him with the hand, throw a small bit of stone at him, 
&c. Thus they went on for some time, but Richard took 
it so much to heart, and grieved so much to be on such 
unpleasant terms with his brother, that he left the quarry, 
and even the country, and went away, nobody knew 
whither. After he had been absent about fifteen or 
twenty years, he returned home, having been first in 
London, where he worked at the king's palace under an 
Italian master, with whom he after a while went into 
Italy, where he remained for many years, and acquired a 
great proficiency in the science of architecture, and the 
arts of masonry and sculpture. At last he returned to 
Glamorganshire, where he found that his brother had 

O * 

been for some time dead. He re-entered on his former 
business at Seaton Quarry, and executed his work in a 
manner so much superior to what had ever been seen 
there before, that he was much noticed, and soon came 
into ample employment. Amongst other things he built 
at Bewper, first the chapel, in the year 1586, and after- 
wards the porch, in the year 1600. This porch is in the 
three Greek orders, viz., the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, 
which are wrought with an elegance and delicacy of 
sculpture not often to be seen in structures of much later 
date, and by the most celebrated architects. Exquisite 
skill and taste are so very obvious in Bewper porch, that 
we wonder at it, when we consider the time in which it 
was done. It is remarkable enough, however, that the 
doorway arches in the porch and chapel are pointed in 
the Gothic taste ; all, except this, is in a very pure Italian 
style. I would have said Grecian style, if I was not 
doubtful whether the Greeks ever used more than one 
order in the same building, especially one above the 
other, as has been done in modern times. Some think 



140 TRADITIONAL ANECDOTES. 

Inigo Jones the first, at least the first native of Britain, 
that introduced the Ancient Greek and Roman archi- 
tecture into this island ; but from the date it is evident 
that Bewper porch was erected twenty years at least 
before Inigo Jones appeared as an architect, before he 
had acquired any knowledge of the ancient architecture, 
masonry, and sculpture. 

Richard Twrch is said to have been the first who opened 
the freestone quarries at Bridgend, the stone of which is 
equally durable and strong, and much finer than the 
Portland stone. His descendants have ever since that 
time continued to work these quarries till very lately, 
when Richard and William Roberts died about the year 
1780, and Thomas Robert, son of the said William 
Robert, died about the year 1787. These were, at least 
they so pretended, lineal descendants of Richard Twrch, 
who was also a descendant of lorwerth Fynglwyd, the 
famous Welsh bard, 1 who, as appears from his poems, was 
a mason and sculptor, and a native and inhabitant of the 
parish of St. Bride's Major, where Seaton Quarry lies. 

I have heard this traditionary account of the two 
brothers, Richard and William Twrch, from others in the 
country, not materially differing from the above; only 
some say that the quarrel between them was occasioned 
by their being rivals in love of a very beautiful young 
woman, who, hearing of their very blameable vow of 
never speaking to each other, vowed on her part that she 
would never encourage the addresses of either. 

Another variation in the tradition is, that these two 
brothers had opened Bridgend Quarry previous to their 
quarrel, and that they and their father were employed, 
where the Bridgend stone was first used, in the building 
of Oxwich Castle, in Gower, for Sir Rice Mansell. 

E. W. 

1 lorwerth Fynglwyd was a disciple of the Glamorgan Gorsedd in 
1460, and presided there in 1500. ED. CAMS. JOUR. 



141 



CURSORY OBSERVATIONS ON BRANDON HILL, 
CLIFTON HILL, &c., NEAR BRISTOL. 

BRANDON HILL derives its name from the Saxon Bren, 
to burn, whence Brent, burnt, and Dune, a hill (whence 
the modern down), and signifies Burnt Hill, or Burning 
Hill. It has, as its very name implies, evidently been a 
volcano. The mouths of several craters are still partly 
open ; the most remarkable of them are one on the south 
side, half way up the acclivity, and that on the summit, 
which is the largest, and still open at its mouth in form 
of a basin. Around the foot of the hill are large beds 
and masses of lava, the substance of which is iron, that 
has, beyond all doubt, been in a state of fusion. In it are 
seen fragments of the rock, and other substances, of which 
the hill consists. On the south side this lava appears 
naked above the surface of the ground, in vast masses, 
eight feet at least above ground, and it has not yet been 
ascertained to what depth. On the east side, to which 
the new buildings have been lately extended, places have 
been found which appear to be large cavities ; in some 
places, though surrounded on all sides with rock, they 
find nothing but a loose, red, burnt earth, and other 
volcanic substances, to an unknown depth, and are, in 
those places or cavities so filled up with volcanic matter, 
obliged to make artificial foundations, with piles, &c., 
for the buildings. The bowels of the earth hereabouts 
abound in combustible matter. Kiugswood Collieries are 
hard by, and the veins of coal run under the city of 
Bristol, Brandon Hill, where it is probably reduced to 
ashes and cinders, even eastward as far as Bath, which is, 
in a straight line, no more distant than about eight miles. 
The subterranean or volcanic fires are probably not yet 
quite extinguished, and are seemingly the causes of heat 
in the Bath and Bristol waters. And who knows but 
that those fires may increase again to a terrible height, 
and once more gather strength sufficient to burst again 
in volcanic eruptions out of their caverned recesses, and 



142 OBSERVATIONS ON BRANDON HILL. 

produce those terrible effects which they seem to have 
done once at least before. A very hot spring has lately 
and suddenly issued out of the earth a little below the 
Hot- Wells, at the foot of St. Vincent's Rock. Iron ore, 
in its natural rocky state, has of late been found in the 
adjoining hill of Clifton, but all in and about Brandon 
Hill has evidently been fused. The vein of combustible 
matter extends far westward. Twenty miles or more 
from Bristol are hills called Brent Knoll, Brent Down, a 
place called Burnham, &c., all deriving their names from 
having been burnt ; in all those places, and many more, 
the same volcanic appearances occur as in and about 
Brandon Hill ; subterranean beds of cinders, scoria of 
iron, ashes, &c., very deep under the rocks, are frequently 
dug out of the hills, for repairing roads, and other pur- 
poses. The same veins and strata of stone, coal, iron, 
&c., are continued under the Bristol Channel into Gla- 
morganshire, in Wales, and exhibit there many volcanic 
appearances, and at Taff-Well, above Llandaff, are hot 
springs, like those of Bath, to which poor people that 
cannot afford to go Bath repair. The eruption of Brandon 
Hill seems to have occasioned an earthquake formerly, 
which caused that prodigious chasm of St. Vincent's 
Rocks, or rent in the hill, separating Clifton Hill from 
Leigh Down. Through this rent, between the rocks of 
St. Vincent, the river Avon found a nearer way into the 
Severn Sea, forsaking its old course, which may still be 
traced through its ancient vale, which, going southward 
of Leigh Down, falls into the sea at Kingroad, near Por- 
to-head Point. 

On Leigh Down, of which Clifton Hill was then a 
part, was constructed a large camp, seemingly Roman, 
consisting of a triple entrenchment, whose large mounds 
were formed of stone and mortar in a rude manner, now 
almost entirely covered over with grass. When this 
convulsion of the earth occurred, the camp was rent in 
two; one part appears now on Clifton Hill, the other 
part, which is by far the largest, is directly opposite in 
Leigh Wood ; those point at each other exactly, both 



OBSERVATIONS ON BRANDON HILL. 143 

parts correspond exactly with each other. From this it 
appears that the rending of the down must have occurred 
subsequent to the formation of the camp ; but that such 
an occurrence should have happened without being noticed 
by any Roman writer whatever, that is now extant, is 
astonishingly remarkable. It is difficult to fix on any 
period when this accident, consistently with the silence of 
writers, could have happened. Among other conjectures, 
we may suppose that the Romans, having made a descent 
on this part of the island from the Bristol Channel, con- 
structed this camp; but, having been repulsed by the 
Britons, were not able afterwards, in less than half, or, 
perhaps, a whole century, to establish themselves in these 
parts, during which interval this tremendous occurrence 
took place. Yet granting that it was so, it will appear 
very wonderful that neither the traditions of the natives, 
or its singularly recent appearance, should attract the 
attention of any Roman writer, as it was not very long 
before the island, at least the south part of it, was entirely 
conquered. We will again suppose that it happened after 
the Saxon invasion. The Saxons were a rude people that 
had not the use of letters, and it was not till long after 
that they were converted to Christianity by Augustine 
the Monk, and by him first brought acquainted with 
letters. But the Britons were a learned people ; and it 
was about this time that Gildas wrote in Latin, Taliesin 
and other bards in Welsh ; but not one of them take 
notice of any such thing as the rending of St. Vincent's 
Rocks. 

The Welsh name of Bristol is Caerodor Nant Baddon, 
in English, " the City of the Chasm of the Rock in the 
Vale of Baths." This is the most literal rendering that 
can possibly be given of the Welsh name, though seem- 
ingly very periphrastical. This name occurs, I believe, 
for the first time, in Nennius, who wrote in the ninth 
century, but he has only the bare name, and mentions 
nothing of the accident from which it seems to be derived. 
Earthquakes are mentioned by Taliesin, that happened in 
the time of the infamous Vortigern, whose palace was 



144 RULES OF WELSH VERSIFICATION. 

destroyed by one of them, and which occasioned such a 
high flow of the sea, that many low and fenny places in 
Wales were destroyed, particularly a large tract of country 
called Cantre 'r Gwaelod, in Cardiganshire, but nothing 
is said particularly of Bristol. Stupid Bristol that never 
noticed the wonderful curiosities of nature which abound 
so much in every corner about it, almost, if not entirely, 
beyond what is to be met with in any part of Britain, 
and which crowdingly obtrude themselves so much on 
the half- opened eye, that one is astonished to think how 
the demon of idiotic dullness could, with Barret, pass by 
them daily without the least attention. 

E. W. 

December 19, 1791. 



RULES OF WELSH VERSIFICATION. 

(See Dosparth Cerdd Deuluaidd.) 

I. Avoid the hiatus of two separate vowels coming 
together as much as possible, or beginning a word with 
a vowel when the preceding ends with a vowel, excepting 
such vowels as strongly differ in sound from each other, 
as w, i, y, u, which may be followed by o, a, e, &c. 

II. Avoid, if possible, beginning with the same con- 
sonant wherewith the preceding word ended, or the 
beginning of a line with the letter (especially the vowel) 
which ended the preceding line. 

III. Avoid harsh collisions of many consonants. 

IV. Avoid elisions when they produce collisions of 
consonants. 

V. In beginning and ending, let a mute in one, and 
a liquid in the other, be introduced as often as possible. 

VI. Terminate rhymes with liquids as often as 
practicable. 

VII. Let a vowel or h begin every word ending in 
dr, gr, dn, gn, thr, vn, w, &c. 



145 



WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 

THE following is a list of the names by which the Welsh 
peasantry designate the several sorts of apples that are 
grown in the Principality. It will be seen that very few 
are translations of English terms ; they appear to have 
been invented by the natives themselves, according to the 
characteristics which the various kinds of apples presented 
respectively to their notice: 

Brenin y berllan, a fine large winter and cider apple. 

Glasydail, } gillyflower. 

(jrlas y Bryngwyn, ) 

Afal mawr wndy, a fine large apple in Gwent. 

Will cry 'ch, ^ Agley crab, an excellent cider 

Crych y gwin, f * ,' firgt found ^ in ^ wQod 

Mancrych i o f Gwent. 

(Jrych coed (jrwent, } 

Brith y gwin bach, red streak. 

Brith y gwin mawr, backamore. 

Cock y gwin, Glamorgan, } fox whel 

Afal gainwr, Gwent, 3 

Sieni foel haf, the Gennet moil. 

Llwyd Morganwg, the royal russet. 

Llwyd llydan mawr, Wheeler's russet. 

Llwyd llydan bach, nonpareil. 

Llwyd hannergoch, Hervey russet, or leather coat russet. 

Llwyd hir, Pile's russet. 

Llwyd crwn bach, forest russet, originally brought from 
Dean Forest. 

Llwyd Llundain, pomeroy. Margam and St. Mary 
Church. 

Llwyd mawr Gwent, a large russet, almost peculiar to 
the north-east parts of Monmouthshire, in shape like 
the Wheeler's russet, but larger, and apparently inferior 
for eating, yet an excellent baking apple. 

Llwyd ag aur, golden russet. 

Afal claw, the clove apple, spice apple. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. U 



146 WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 

Pen y Gath, cat head. 
Cochirqwrymoq y qauaf. ~) . . 

Glamorgan > wmter queening, excellent 

r> z, n-i& r> \ for cider. Mamhilad. 

Loch Ciljfeigin, Cxwent, j 

Cock gwrymog yr haf, summer queening, Glamorgan. 

Afal Ewias, query, a good cider apple ? 

Yr hen bippin bach, ~) -n/r 

Yr hen Gymro bach, ] S olden P'PP m ' **9**- 

Yr hen bippin mawr. 

Yr hen Gymro mawr, "1 , , . - n-\ 

Pippin Morqanwg, I S P ecked P 1 ?? 111 ' c ^ mmo11 n Gla ~ 

Pippin ticcog, $ mor ^ an ' an excellent 

Pippin brith mawr, query, at Sandpit ? 

Pippin brith bach, strawberry pippin. 



a fine 

Pippin mawr Llancarfan, 5 frmt ln Glamor g an - 
^4/aZ modryb Ann, John apple. 



14 /a/ -4ws qwyn, ~) 

Afal Twm apHywel, \ summer 

Anna, "> query, a fine, golden-hued, summer 
Melyn yr aur, j apple ? Glamorgan. 
Glas y gauaf, ") query, at Landough -super- Ely and 
3 



mawr, 3 Flimston ? 
Llundain, London greenling. 

/^. ^T % S Kentish pippin. 
Pippin Herbert, 3 

Pippin y brenin, ^ at Green way, Rumney, a fine, gold- 

Pippin tyllgoed, 5 coloured, large pippin. 

Pippin dulas, Dursley pippin. Ibid., the same, or much 

like Glas Llundain. 
Minwyn, geneting. 
Afal Seissyllt, query, an excellent and very delicious 

early summer apple, at Landough-Juxta-Cowbridge ? 
Hen las bach, a fine, little, green apple, Welsh greenling. 

St. A than, &c. 

Para byth, oaken pin ; it will keep three or four years. 
Coch cynhauaf, a fine early apple. 
Pryd i wr, drummer. 



WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 147 



Brith Llancarfan, ^ 
Brith Morganwg, ( 



Eurel, 

Brith y dyffryn, the pome de rambour, apparently ; a 
very fine large apple. 
~ 



Bias yg, cat > s brains; an excellent apple, 

Dugoch Morganwg, ^ Glam 

Cyjaill goreu, } 

Cock y gwenyn, pome d'api. 

Afal tingwydd, lemon apple. 

ByseddMair, | ^dy's fi 8tubbard . 

(jrwledd ijrernn, y 

Pen y melinydd, rawling, it has a fine dust, or bloom, 

like a plum, a very fine tasted baking and cider 

apple, common in Glamorgan and Gwent, but scarce 

everywhere else. 

Cawr y berllan, glory of the west. 
Afal y botten, pudding apple ; a large fine fruit, peculiar 

to Glamorgan. 

Balch y berllan, Portugal rennet. 
Brith y gwenyn, a large, sweet, flattish, red -streaked 

apple, common in Glamorgan and Devon. 
Glogfrdn, ") a large green apple that will keep all 
Bola hollt, 3 winter, Milford apple. 
Afal mawr y Dyffryn, a fine large apple ; at Canon's 

Pool. 
Afal Arthur, query, a large apple, very much like in 

shape, taste, and colour to the golden rennet, but a 

little sharper, and much larger, drummer? 
Llwyd newydd, Famagust, or large nonpareil. 
Pen tarw, ^ lincot, a large whitish apple, peculiar to 
Gwyn mawr, $ Glamorgan. 
Coch mawr, loggerhead, a large red apple. 
Twm gibwn, a red streaked, flattish, winter apple, common 

in Glamorgan, delicious in the opinion of those who 

dislike sharp, brisk-flavoured fruit. 
Afal Mair, ^ St M- 1 

Brith bach Hywel, 3 



148 WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 

Gwyn y berth, query, a very good cider apple? in 
Glamorgan often planted in hedge-rows round the 
orchard, along hedges of fields, &c., and raised from 
slips most commonly. 

Chiblyn brith, Hereford red streak, excellent for cider. 

Chwiblyn surlas, Devonshire wilding, a very good cider 
fruit. 

Afal y marchoq, 7 i j 
ff i a nz,'/- i f golden rennet. 
Afal byr Philip? 5 ' 

Pippin Caerloyw, Holland pippin. 

Pippin dulas, forest pippin, a very long keeping and 

good baking fruit ; in other respects ordinary. 
Cydodyn, called also Kedodin in Herefordshire, a fine 

cider apple. 

Cock Cwmcidi, red must, } H f 'H 
Gwyn Cwmcidi, white must, > 
Rhobin Rhydog, Hervey russet. 
Llwyd agenog, a small, fine flavoured russet. 
Gwyn y mel, a sweet apple in Glamorgan. 
Melynhir melus, a fine, long, sweet apple. 
Suwgr a mel, sugar apple. 
Bys yn y mel, long tailed sweeting. 
Y fuwch goch, red stiar. 
Y fuwch wen, white stiar. 
Pippin y gwin, orange pippin. 

AS j -*/r T> - \ query, at Ham, a fine autumn apple ? 
Ajal Mr. Price, S 

Afal Madog, summer pearmain, excellent for mild cider. 

Cyfaill hirnos, winter pearmain. 

Afal yr hen ti)r, a fine tender eating apple. 

Melus cynhauaf, a small, flattish, early sweeting, peculiar 

to Glamorgan. 

Afal Robin, summer blanchet. 
Bias y cwrw, bitter sweeting, delicious when long kept 

for eating, and will keep very long. 
Melus y gwiail, a sweet apple peculiar to Glamorgan. 

The trees that bear it grow in twigs. A fine fruit, but 

not a good bearer. 

1 Sir Phillip Basset, probably. 



WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 149 

Afal y larll, a large apple of a brisk flavour, ripe in 
September, of a pippin form. Goodwell and Westre. 

Afal basset, Bewper pearmain. 

Afal y brenin, the yellow pomeroy. 

Afal Elsbeth, an early, white, flat, summer apple. 
Northmead. 

Gwledd y fedel, a fine, very large, juicy, summer apple. 

Afal Marged, Magdalen apple. 

Tammaid yr A ngel, angel's bit. 

Afal brith Ffraingc, red calville. 

Afal gwyn Ffraingc, white calville. 

Gwyn cynhauaf, broadling, peculiar to Glamorgan and 
Caermarthen. 

Coes y dryw, woodcock, very good for cider, an excellent 
bearer. It has a very small and long stem, hence the 
Welsh and English names, the first from its smallness, 
the other from its length. 

Pippin bach llydan, Kerton pippin. 

Pippin Llandaf, a fine large pippin. 

Pippin Trefflemin, > . 

D- TJ -//j 3 at rlimston. 

Pippin LiLamiLdud, $ 

Pippin haf, summer pippin. 
Gwell na mil, go no further. 
Twyll Efa, ^ 

Afal Gwdyr, - transparent apple. 
Afal yr haul, J 

A /. 7 ; la fine, white, summer apple. 

Aral qlan y mor, f ^ , ' , T A j .i_ 

n 7 %J I? f bonmon Orchards. It is said that 

(jrwledd y <orwyn, i .. ,, . . ,, 

J it thrives best near the sea. 

Gwledd y bugail, shepherd's feast, a fine summer apple, 

very early, and has a fine acidity. 
Pippin gwyrddlydan, flat green pippin at Flimston, a 

delicious fine flavoured fruit. The tree very dwarfish. 
Pippin y meddyg, specked pippin, said to be very good in 

fevers, pleurisies, inflammations of the lungs, &c., eaten 

raw, roasted, boiled, baked, &c., or used in a posset. 
Afal Dewi, a fine, brisk flavoured, flattish and red 

streaked apple that keeps long, the tree large. Fon- 

mon Orchards. 



150 WELSH NAMES OF APPLES. 

Afal N6n. 

Afal gwraig y t$, good housewife, in some places the 

codling, in others the broadling. 
Afal y bastai, Bernard apple. 
Ifen Forgan, query ? 
Afal Robin, summer blanchet. 
Afal gwyn Hydref, autumn blanchet. 
Yr Hen Lassog, a good, green, winter apple. 
Afal Martin, query ? 
Afal yr 'Iwyddes, lady apple. 
Afal y llaeth, codling, used with milk. 
Crychyn yr haf, summer queening. 
Crychyn y gauaf, winter queening. 
Melyn Hydref, query ? 
Melyn yr JEsgob, query ? 
Melyn y gauaf, query ? 
Melvnoamawr ) Devonshire apple; a large apple 

J.rJ.CtU/tUU IIIUUUI i ' ,1 f> . i. 11 n 

M i i > with a tine acidity, excellent for 

Melvnlas mawr, i , M . , ,. J ' 

) boiling or baking. 

Cudymaith da, \ ^ , , 7-. 

7/77 jjj. f Cocks pippin. .Devon. Lady Jane. 

DoLa noLit, f s~n A n , i 

a*-- /. i Glamorgan. An excellent apple. 

Minswyn gauaf, ) 

Coeshir y gwin, woodcock. 

Coeshir y gauaf, French longstem. 

Calon garreg, stone pippin, good for nothing till a year 

old at least, 

Melus y dryw, a sweet tender apple. 
Afal y fedel, a fine, sharp, juicy, eating apple. 
Magi wen, Blanchet. 
Llingod, lincot. 
Gwledd ifrenin, furze pippin. 

Penbwla, none such in some places, cat head in others. 
Dugoch hir, cat's brain. 
Dugoch crwnn, a small deep red apple, round pippin, 

formed in the eye, a good winter eating apple. 
Bias y beren, a pear-tasted apple, small and red streaked, 

in Fonmon Nursery ; fine flavoured, will keep pretty 

long. 
Clog y milwr, scarlet queening. 



TALIESIN AND CATTWG. 



151 



Glassog hen, an old greenling. 
Cawr cock, drummer. 
Cawr glas, cat head. 
Cawr britk, Portugal. 
Brychlaw mawr, cat head. 
Cochlwyd, Hervey russet. 
Bendith Mair, query ? 

Yr Hen Gymro, Welsh, or little greenling, an excellent 
apple. 

This list was compiled with especial reference to Gla- 
morgan ; hence the local allusions. We shall be glad if 
some of our readers will furnish us with additional names, 
if any are known to exist, in other parts of the Principality. 



TALIESIN AND CATTWG. 

(From the Book of Sion Philip of Treeos.) 

Taliesin fardd yn ymgyflwyn a Taliesin the Bard, presenting 
Chattwg Ddoeth yn Llanfeithin himself before Cattwg the Wise 
ai cvfarches fal hynn. at Llanveithin, accosted him thus. 



TALIESIN. 

Fy Athraw Gwyn, dyfod attoch 
ydd wyf, gan ymolwyn arnoch fy 
iawnhau yn fy Lladin mal ai 
gwypwyf er daioni, ag ar ol 
hynny, fy iawnhau yn fy Nghym- 
raeg mal ai deallwyf o gyfiawn 
wybod er dywenydd a diddanwch 
immi, boed i'ch hynawsder ddan- 
gos a fo'n deilwng immi. 

CATTWG. 

Fy Maccwy penfelyn serchog- 
wen, yn gyntaf ymgais a'th 
Gymraeg, ag ymiawnhau ynddi 
er lies dy wlad a'th genedl, ag er 
daioni dy him a'th gyfagosiaid 
gwlad a chenedl, gan ymlenogi 
ynddi, a gwedi hynny ymbwyll 
a'th Lad in er lies a daioni a fedrod 



TALIESIN. 

My Blessed Teacher, I have 
come hither to beseech you to set 
me right as to my Latin, that I 
may know it profitably ; and after- 
wards to set me right as to my 
Welsh, that, knowing it properly, 
I may understand it for my 
pleasure and consolation. May 
your kindness teach me what is fit. 

CATTWG. 

My yellow-haired Pupil, affec- 
tionate and bland in the first 
place apply thyself to Welsh, and 
set thyself right in it for the 
benefit of thy country and nation, 
and for thy own good, and that 
of thy neighbouring country and 
nation becoming a scholar in it. 



152 



TALIESIN AND CATTWG. 



o'r Byd dros ben angeneddyl parth 
ag at dy wlad a'th genedl. Ag o 
wneuthur hyn o'm cyngor dydi a 
geffy ddy wenydd a diddanwch dy 
wala, a chofia fy ngair, nid dy- 
wenydd ond iawnder gwybodau, 
nid diddanwch ond daioni ai 
gydfodoliaid (gyfymlyniaid aZ.) 



TALIESIN. 

Fy Nhad am Athraw Gwyn. 
Gwelaf eich cyngor fed ei waelod, 
gwelaf ei holl iawnderau, ag y 
mae yn drachadarn yn ymleoci 
yn fy nghalon a'm deall, ag yn 
mynnu mal o drais fy holl ser- 
chiadau, a minnau yn eu rhoddi 
iddo ag erddo fal y dylyiai fyth i 
fab a Maccwy Dedwyddbwyll, i 
Dad ac Athraw Gwynbwyll yn 
ddiymattreg. Duw yn dal im 
Tad am Athraw Gwynn am ei 
gyngor ai addysg. 

Ag yna ydd aroses Daliesin 
nawmlynedd amisynghor Cattwg, 
ag a ddaeth yn ei ol ir byd yn 
Bendoethion ei wlad ac yn Ben 
Beirdd Ynys Prydain, ag achos 
hynny y gelwir ef hyd heddiw 
Taliesin Ben Beirdd. 



Afterwards study Latin for the 
good and benefit of thy con- 
versation in the world beyond that 
necessity which is imposed upon 
thee in respect of thy own country 
and nation. And in following 
this my advice, thou shall obtain 
pleasure and consolation in abun- 
dance. Remember also my word, 
there is no pleasure but just 
sciences, there is no consolation 
but goodness and its co-existences. 

TALIESIN. 

My blessed Father and Teacher, 
1 see your counsel thoroughly I 
see all its just bearings, and it is 
seating itself most firmly in my 
heart and understanding, and 
gaining all my affections as it were 
by force, I yielding them up to 
and for it, as it ever becometh a 
happily-discreet son and pupil to 
do to a holily-discreet Father and 
Teacher. May God be a reward 
to my blessed Father and Teacher 
for his counsel and instruction. 

Then Taliesin tarried nine years 
and a month in Cattwg's College, 
and returned to the world at the 
head of the wise men of his 
country, and chief of the Bards 
of the Isle of Britain. Where- 
fore he is called to this day 
Taliesin, chief of the Bards. 



153 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



IOLO MORGANWG'S TOMB. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Waring, in concluding his interesting Recollections and 
Anecdotes of Edward Williams, pathetically remarks : 

" Many an epitaph had the hand of Old lolo chiselled, commemo- 
rating names unknown to the roll of fame, whilst of himself, though 
acknowledged on that roll, it must now be said, 

' Beneath a rude and nameless stone he lies.' 

For the honour of Glamorgan, and in vindication of the Cymro's 
respect for native genius, let us hope this reproach will not long be a 
theme for those who, with tributary veneration, seek the tomb of lolo 
Morganwg." 

This was written in 1850. Has the reproach been allowed to 
remain ? If my memory fails not I read somewhere that Old lolo 
wrote his own epitaph ; and in turning over some MS. papers lately, 
I discovered in his own handwriting what I consider to be the identical 
epitaph alluded to. I take the liberty of sending a copy for insertion 
in your pages, being persuaded that you and your readers will agree 
with me that it is the epitaph which ought to be engraved on the 
venerable bard's tombstone. 

" Er cof am lorwerth Gwilym o'r Plwyf hwn, Maensaer ; $ pa 
un sydd yma 'n llwyr adfeiliedig. Syrthiodd y muriau ar yr . . . . 
er hynny cesglir y defnyddion etto yn eu hiawn bryd gan y Pen 
Adeiliwr, ac a'u gosodir ynghyd yn adeiliad hardd tra chywrain wedi 
ei seilio ar Graig yr oesoedd, ac nis syrthia rawy, a phyth mwy ni 
welir arno 'r adfeiliad lleiaf." 

Another Version. 

" Er cof am lorwejth Gwilym o'r Plwyf hwn, Maensaer : ty pa 
un a syrthiodd yraa 'n garnedd ar y . . . dydd o . . . . Er hynny 
cesglir etto mewn amser priodol yr holl ddefnyddion ynghyd, ac a'u 
hadgyssylltir gan y Pensaer Mawr yn adeiliad hardd, a'i waith yn 
dro chywrain, wedi ei seilio ar Graig yr oesoedd, a byth mwy ni 
syrth, a byth mwy ni welir arno 'r adfeiliad lleiaf. 

Ty newydd hardd bardd y bydd i'w godiad 

Yn gadarn a chelfydd 



* * * 



Another. 

" Cof am lorwerth ap lorwerth Gwilym, o'r Plwyf hwn, Maensaer. 
Ty pa un ar ol sefyll . . . mlynedd dan ymgyrch llawer bloeddwynt 
angerddol a syrthiodd yn garnedd ar yr . . . . dydd o . . . . Er 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. X 



154 CORRESPONDENCE. 

hynny cesglir etto yr holl ddefnyddiau ynghyd, ac au cyssylltir 
ynghyd, gan adael yr holl sothach ar ol, yn adeilad hardd a chadarn, 
yn waith tra chy wrain a gogoneddus wedi ei seilio dros fyth ar Graig 
yr oesoedd gan y Pensaer, a byth rawy ni syrth, byth mwy ni welir 
arno yr adfeiliad lleiaf. 

Adeiliad hardd bardd y bydd iw godiad 
Yn gadarn a chelfydd, 
Ton addien mewn ty newydd, 
Gorfoledd ffaw 'n rhodiaw 'n rhydd." 

On another page occurs a translation in two versions as follow : 

" In Memory of Edward Williams of this Parish, Mason, whose 
building lies here in complete ruin. Yet shall the materials be col- 
lected together again and replaced by the Great Master Builder, 
forming a structure of very superior workmanship, founded on the 
Rock of Ages, never more to fall, never more to experience the least 
decay, whatever storms or floods may beat against it." 

Another. 

" In Memory of Edward Williams of this parish, Mason, whose 
building lies here in ruins the dilapidation took place on .... yet 
shall the materials be once more collected together and re-edified by 
the Great Master Builder, forming an edifice of very superior work- 
manship, founded on the Rock of Ages, never more to fall, never 
more to experience the least decay." Yours truly, 

TEGEINGL. 



HUAN. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 478, mentions HUAN as a King of the 
Britons, who lived about 642. Many would be glad to know some- 
thing more about him. I remain, &c., 

Hu. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, I find as follows : " Celydd leuan, a house in Glamorgan, 
the inheritance of a family that is in possession of a manuscript of the 
Welsh Bible, translated by an ancestor about a hundred years before 
the printed version." Dr. O. Pugh's Dictionary, under the word 
" Celydd." Can any of your readers in Glamorganshire give any 
information as to the existence of the above MS. ? I remain, &c., 

LLALLAWQ. 



155 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 



MAURITIUS MORGANENSIS. He was a South Wales Briton, a 
master of Oxon, a schoolmaster of many scholars. He lost no time 
in study, was counted a good rhetorician and poet, wrote some 
epigrams, and much in the British tongue. Many write that this man 
had night conferences with a dead knight. He died an old man, 
anno 1210, under King John. 

GLAMORGAN BARDS. The bards in Glamorgan, so late as 1700, 
taught reading and writing in Welsh from house to house ; and some 
of them practised physic, taught archery, grafting fruit trees, &c., 
and for this they were rewarded with presents of corn, cheese, butter, 
wool, bacon, beef, fat geese, Christmas gifts of mead, bragod, &c. 

LLANDAFF EISTEDDVOD IN 1564. The following were present : 
Sir Thomas Jones, Giles ap John, William Dyfi, Thomas Brwynllys, 
Thomas Lly welyn, Meuryg Dafydd, Sion Mowddwy, Thomas Lewys, 
Meredydd ap Rhoser, Hopcin Twin Philip, Twm Sion Catti, Sir 
Sion Gruffudd of Llangrallo, Evan Gruffudd his brother, Mr. William 
Evans, the Chancellor, being the judge. Dafydd Benrvyn. 

MONUMENT TO THE 23RD ROYAL WELSH FUSILIERS. We are 
enabled to state that Colonel Lysons has decided on the open space in 
Lammas Street, near the entrance to Water Street, Caermarthen, as 
the site Jbr the monument to the Welsh Fusiliers. A contract has 
been entered into with the Messrs. Williams, masons, for the stone 
work, and the whole will be effected under the superintendence of 
Mr. Weekes. The monument was designed and executed by Edward 
Richardson, Esq., of London, an artist highly and deservedly esteemed, 
and better known among connoisseurs as " the Restorer of the Temple 
Church Monument," and numerous military and ecclesiastical works. 

SINGING TO THE HARP. Manner of North Wales. A number 
of singers, some of them poets also, others only reciters, meet at an 
appointed place, attended by a harper, and often a performer on the 
crnth, or violin. These play a variety of tunes, whilst the singers 
perform their vocal parts in a kind of chant, or recitative tone, using 
every kind of verse, or stanza, indifferently. The great art of this 
kind of singing is to introduce the verse, or stanza, in such a manner 
as to be well adapted to the movements or feet of the poetry, and 
having its intonation as much as possible in concord with the music 
played on the instrument, making thereunto a kind of bass, or second. 
To this they endeavour to add as much melody as possible. Skilful 
singers can" adapt any kind of verse, couplet, or stanza, to any tune 
whatever with ease, pausing, at proper symphonious parts of the tune. 
There is considerable difficulty in acquiring the proper manner and the 



156 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 



necessary skill in this mode of singing. Manner of South Wales. 
This is like that of most other countries in Europe ; that is, the instru- 
ment plays the appropriate tune to which any piece of lyric poetry 
has been set, and the singer performs his part by accompanying it 
with the words. In the opinion of many, this mode is more melodious 
than that of North Wales, though the latter is more difficult, more 
curious, and, it would appear, more ancient. A good opportunity of 
judging the respective merits of the two systems will be afforded at 
the Grand National Eisteddfod in September. 



THE THOUSAND MARKS. 



1153. Daliwyd RopertTywysog 
Morganwg gan wyr y Brenin 
Stephan, a gorfu ar y Cymry a 
Saeson Caerloyw wneuthur mil o 
forcau er prynu Ropert, ag o 
hynn y daeth Tal y Fil forcau 
gyntaf i'r Tywysog o Diroedd 
gwyr Morganwg. MS. 



RHYFEDDODAU YNYS PRYDAIN. 

l af Y Pec, sef twll yn y ddaear 
o ba un y daw gwynt tra chadarn 
bob amser. 2 1 Y Cor Cowri ar 
fynydd Amri gerllaw Caer Gari- 
adawc lie claddwyd tywysogion y 
brutaniaid, a laddesid drwy dwyll 
Hengist tywysog y Saeson lie 
mae main anfeidrol o faint wedi 
osod ar lun pyrth pob un ar ucha 
ei gilydd ag ni wyddis yn ysbys 
pa wedd y gosodid hwynt yno 
eithr rhai a ddywaid mae trwy 
gelfyddyd Merddin. Trydydd 
(see farther in MSS.) yw torr llyn 
llion yn y Gogiedd lie torres y 
dwr gyntaf o'r ddaear ac yr aeth 
dros yr holl fyd yn ddwr diliw 

/_ii. i. i f i. brvdiau 
ac a fyth hyd fyth ar 



A.D. 1153. Robert, Prince of 
Glamorgan, was apprehended by 
King Stephen's men, and the 
Cymry and Saxons of Gloucester 
were obliged to produce a thousand 
marks with the view of ransoming 
Robert. Hence was first derived 
the payment of a thousand marks 
to the prince in respect of the 
lands of the men of Glamorgan. 



yn cyfod yn dyrrau anfeidrol eu 
maint ag yn cwympaw ar led yn 
boddi 'r wlad o gylch. Pedwe- 



THE WONDERS OF THE ISLE OF 
BRITAIN. 

The first is the Pec, that is, a 
hole in the earth, whence issues at 
all times a very strong wind. 

The second is the Choir of 
Giants, on Mount Avebury, near 
Caer Caradog, where were interred 
the British princes who had been 
slain through the treachery of 
Hengist, Prince of the Saxons, 
where there are stones of stu- 
pendous size placed in the form 
of door-ways, one above the other, 
and it is not exactly known how 
they were placed, but some say 
that it was through the art of 
Merddin. 

The third is the bursting of the 
Lake of Waters in the North, where 
the water first burst out of the 
earth, and spread in a flood over 
all the world, and will continue to 
arise occasionally in heaps of stu- 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 



157 



rydd yw gogof y Gwyddoniaid 
He yddaethant llawer o bobl 
yddynt ac a welasant adeiliadau 
ac afonydd ag riis gellid myned 
ir eithafon o honynt. MS. 29. 
Apparently in the Welsh School 
Library. 



pendous magnitude, and then to 
fall on every side so as to drown 
the country round. 

The fourth is the cave of the 
Wise Men, whither many persons 
went, and saw there buildings and 
rivers, but they could not go to its 
furthest end. 



EDGAR'S STRATAGEM. 



Edgar Brenin Llundain a 
ddaetli a Chad ar Faes yn erbyn 
Morgan Mawr ab Ithel i For- 
ganwg ag annog ei Wyr i Gym- 
meryd gyda nhwy ei gwragedd 
au plant ar fronnau a phan y 
cyffyrddai Gad y Saeson ag un 
Morgan, peri i'r Gwragedd fwrw 
eu plant bychain ar lawr yr 
ymladdfa ger bron y Cymry, sef 
y Gwyddynt y Codai Gwyr Mor- 
gan y babanod ac ni sarnaint 
arnynt a thra gwelaint hynny 
erchi ar gad y Saeson ruthro ar 
un Morgan. Daeth dichell Edgar 
i Glyw Morgan ag efe a beris i 
gad o fynywod y Cymry ddilyn 
ei gad arfawg, a hynny a fu, a 
phan ymgyfarfu y ddwy gad 
bwriasant y Saeson eu plant ar y 
Maes. Yna Morgan ai wyr a 
giliasant ir Tu assw dan rith ffo, 
a gwragedd y Cymry a godasant 
y plant ag a maethant yna cad 
Morgan a droesant yn fyrr ar y 
Saeson ag au lladdasant gan 
mwyaf, a Morgan a beris meithrin 
babanod y Saeson yn ofalus, a 
chaid pen yr ugain mlynedd 600 
o'r bechgyn yn wyr dan arfau. 
MS. 



Edgar, King of London, brought 
an army into the field into Glamor- 
gan against Morgan the Great, son 
of Ithel, and exhorted his men to 
take with them their wives and 
sucking babes, and when the army 
of the Saxons and that of Morgan 
should meet, he told the women to 
cast their children on the battle- 
ground before the Welsh, well 
knowing that the men of Morgan 
would take up the babes, and would 
not trample upon them. And 
when they should see that, he com- 
manded the army of the Saxons 
to fall upon that of Morgan. 
Morgan was made acquainted with 
Edgar's treachery, and he bade 
the Welsh women follow his armed 
troop, which they did, and when 
the two armies met, the Saxons 
threw their children on the field. 
Then Morgan and his men re- 
treated to the left, under the pre- 
text of flight, and the Welsh 
women took up the children and 
nursed them. Whereupon Mor- 
gan's army suddenly turned upon 
the Saxons, and slew them in great 
numbers ; and Morgan gave orders 
that the Saxon babes should be 
carefully nurtured, and in twenty 
years' time 500 of the boys were 
found to be men in arms. 



158 



REVIEWS. 

GLADYS OF HARLECH ; OR, THE SACRIFICE. A Romance of Welsh 
History. By L. M. S. 3 vols. London : Ch. J. Skeet. 1858. 

Wales is peculiarly the land of romance. It is the scene of all the 
adventures recorded in the Mdbinogion those old and interesting 
tales which imparted a character to the literature of France, Germany 
and Scandinavia in the middle ages. Every hill, every dale in the 
country is a witness to some exploit which was performed in times 
gone by. Every page of our national annals exhibits marvels of 
love, of bravery, of patriotism, of treason, that appear to us at this 
distant period to partake more of the character of fiction than fact. 
Still they are facts, and the wonder is that the novelist has not more 
extensively made use of them. Until the last few years we had no 
books of fiction, illustrative of Welsh manners and customs, that a 
genuine Cymro'could for a moment tolerate; so historically incorrect 
were the main subjects introduced, so full of inaccuracies in point of 
description were all the pages, so bedaubed with orthographical 
blunders, and, worse than all, so imbued with the spirit of English 
prejudice, that to read them was a penalty of the first class. In the 
vernacular we had absolutely no books of fiction whatever. The 
stern " truth against the world," which prevented the bard from 
employing fiction in song, had seemingly taken such hold of the 
public mind, that writers were loath to give room to the imagination 
in any kind of composition. In reading a tale, the Welsh peasant 
would unsuspectingly believe every word in it, however marvellous, 
until it should be authoritatively shown to him that it was a mere 
work of imagination. In that case he would in great disdain throw 
it aside as a " lie," unfit for a Christian to read. Of late, however, 
(within the last ten years,) there has been a great reaction in this respect. 
Works of fiction are rapidly multiplying, and read with avidity by 
the Welsh population. The pharisaical rust which had well nigh 
obliterated the national character, is fast rubbing off; and our country- 
men are once more relaxing their muscles, and wearing that mirthful 
countenance for which they were once distinguished. In the English 
language, too, we are beginning to have novels of the right stamp. 
Two authors in particular have lately appeared among us, who have 
exhibited no inconsiderable amount of skill and power in the treatment 
of this species of literature the Rev. R. W. Morgan, of Tregynon, 
and L. M. S. Both have their peculiar excellencies: the former 
revels in the descriptive, and his great command of language imparts 
to his writings a majestic and classical character ; the style of the 
authoress of Gladys of Harlech is simple and chaste, and the subject 
of her tale is pleasingly worked up, and invested with that varied 
interest which prevents the attention of the reader from flagging for 
a single moment. But in the true spirit of patriotism none can be 



REVIEWS. 159 

said to yield to the other; it penetrates Raymond de Monthault 
equally with Gladys of Harlech, and gives life and vigour to both 
works, which it is refreshing to contemplate. 

The time which L. M. S. has chosen to illustrate is that of the war 
of the Roses ; her heroine being the grand-daughter of Davydd ab 
Einion, the unyielding constable of Harlech Castle, who makes a 
" sacrifice " of her own feelings on the altar of patriotism. 

One of the best characters in the book is the Lady of Gest, a 
" Dewines," or witch, very appropriately introduced into a Welsh tale. 
We consider the fair authoress to have been remarkably felicitous in 
her delineation of this personage, and of the influence which she 
possessed over the credulous minds of the peasantry. The way in 
which she has managed to weave into the tale the description of the 
Harlech meteor of 1694, and made it to serve as an illustration of 
the supernatural power supposed to be possessed by the Dewines is 
very good. 

" Stephen and Tyrrel Conyers a day or two afterwards came to Harlech in 
consternation, with tidings of the serious destruction of the property of the 
late keeper, and of their own. 

" ' I do not understand you, I am confused,' cried young Stacey, with an 
expression of perplexity. ' Do you say the Witch of Gest has been destroying 
our property in Caernarvonshire ? I thought she had taken her departure ; 
how is this, Stephen ? ' 

" ' It is true she has fled the country, but she has left a fire-spirit behind 
her. It was water the witch used against the revenue officers, she has now 
punished us with fire. She has raised a spirit of hell against us. Cottages 
have been consumed ; stacks and barns are burning even now. The Morfa is 
wasted, ruin is upon everything. The cattle, sheep, and lambs, upon your 
sheep-walk are destroyed. The fire-spirit has poisoned the grass, poisoned 
the air, all that eat herbage there die.' 

" ' The Holy Virgin protect us ! You cannot really mean fire, a spirit- 
fire!' cried Henry Stourton, with a ghastly hue passing over his features. 
4 How do you know that it was the witch ?' 

" ' It is the witch, she was seen on the night the smugglers quitted the bay, 
standing on a rock in the middle of the Morfa Bychan Sands, with a pale 
blue torch in her hand. Afterwards she was observed tracking her course in 
the direction of your lands, and setting the marsh on fire. Every night since 
then it is to be seen. This spirit-fire is like a blue flame. Where its track is 
marked out, the judgment of the Dewines is consummated. It moves some- 
times slow, sometimes quick. Tyrrel and I were there last night. We saw 
the ricks and barns flame up, as if kindled by lightning, and the grass wither 
beneath. Our curiosity was so great that we tried to catch it with our hands. 
It did not burn. Water will not quench it, yet it consumes our property. If 
you call to it very loudly it vanishes away, and then returns. You must 
come and see it, Henry, that pale, blue, flickering flame, hovering like a 
ghost over the wasted land. It shuns the sun's light, doubtless because it 
comes from the father of evil. The Witch of Gest holds a charm against the 
Saxons; several of our ricks and barns, and many of yours, are burned. 
Methinks it is a pity, Stacey, that we quarrelled with the ruler of the sea and 
land. The country people are in great trouble Many are ruined, are 
homeless, and curse the Saxons for having crossed the path of the terrible 
woman of Gest.'" pp. 220, &c. 



1 60 REVIEWS. 

We must congratulate L. M. 8. upon the national individualism 
she has been able to impart to the different characters by means of 
vernacular phraseologies, though the printer has evidently done his 
utmost to impair them. 

We have no fault to find with any portion of the work, though we 
may wish some things had been differently done. The authoress 
might have worked up the real offspring of Davydd ap Einion, 
without having recourse to the creation of fictitious names ; this course 
would have been certainly more pleasing to those, and they are many, 
who claim descent from the brave constrble of Harlech. We never 
could discover the reason why Gladys should have a Saxon mother; 
it appears to us that her sacrifice would have presented itself in a 
stronger light, if both her parents boasted of Cymric blood. Lastly, 
we wish L. M. S. had, in her description of the battle of Bosworth, 
introduced the names of more Welsh chiefs on the side of Richmond, 
with the view of exhibiting that battle, as it was in reality regarded 
by Lewis Glyn Cothi, and other contemporaries, in the light of a 
national war between the Welsh and English. 

AN ENGLISH AND WELSH DICTIONARY, adapted to the Present 
State of Science and Literature, in which the English Words are 
deduced from their Originals, and explained by their Synonyms, 
in the Welsh Language. Part XXXI. By DANIEL SILVAN 
EVANS. T. Gee, Denbigh. 1858. 

This part, which has just reached us, concludes a work on which 
our learned and patriotic countryman has bestowed the energies of 
more than eleven years. We have not yet had an opportunity of 
examining the previous parts of the work, and therefore are unable to 
pronounce an opinion as to the extent to which as a whole it must 
suffer from the "mutilation" which the compiler complains the 
present part to have been subjected to at the hands of the publisher. If 
this is not equal in point of fullness, illustration, and accuracy, to the 
portions which have gone before, all we can say is that the public will 
not rest contented until the deficiency is remedied. They have a right 
to expect general harmony and consistency in every work, but more 
particularly in such as profess to be national. We regret exceedingly 
that the good understanding and mutual confidence which existed for 
so many years between Mr. Evans and his publisher did not continue 
to the end. 



THE 

CAMBRIAN JOURNAL 




ALBAN **^WW^& ELVED. 



(AUTUMNAL EQUINOX.) 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 



By the Late IOLO MORGANWG, B.B.D. 

SCHOOLS OF WELSH POETRY. 
PRIMITIVE SCHOOL. 

IT has been usual when speaking of the fine arts, as 
painting, sculpture, music, &c., to define them, and what 
has been exhibited in them, as a certain school ; thus, in 
painting, we have the Italian school, the Flemish school, 
the English school, &c. ; and so, or similarly, of the other 
arts. 

In poetry, too, we have our several schools, the 
schools of Spencer and Milton, Dryden and Pope, of 
Thomson, &c. I cannot think of a better manner of 
treating of the poetry of the ancient Welsh bards than 
by using this kind of language ; and, in the first place, 

I. The Ancient or Primitive School, or that of the 
Druids. The great object of this school was to pro- 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. Y 



162 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

pagate useful knowledge, and to convey effectually from 
one person, place, or age, to another, such principles of 
theology, morality, jurisprudence, and whatever had a 
tendency to forward the progress of civilization, and to 
ameliorate the condition of society. 

We have good reasons for believing that the Cymry 
were acquainted with the use of letters from a very early 
period, before the arrival of the Romans in Britain ; and 
indeed the probability is considerable that they were, on 
their first coming into this island, acquainted with letters ; 
but then the manner of using them, which was by cutting 
them on wood, required so much time and labour, that 
to convey useful knowledge to the great body of the 
nation by means of letters was a thing of very great 
difficulty, and almost impossible. Paper and parchment, 
and probably the use of ink, were yet unknown, and it 
was of the utmost importance to teach the people those 
indispensable principles of civilizing arts and sciences 
without which no nation or political society can comfort- 
ably and securely subsist. 

Poetry was adopted as the most feasible mode of 
effecting this great end ; the artificial arrangements of 
language on well known principles in verse, that could 
not be but with great difficulty altered, connections of 
words, phrases, and of course ideas, that closely adhered 
together, and could not be broken without the conse- 
quent defects becoming obvious, rendered verse a very 
feasible, as well as very effectual, mode for this important 
purpose. Well constructed verse is easily remembered, 
easily learned, and that by those who have not the least 
idea of letters. Such persons as these can very correctly, 
and with speed, learn verse from others as illiterate as 
themselves, can teach it those of the same description. 
In verse knowledge may be conveyed along an unlettered 
path (if I may use such expressions) from one person to 
another, and to very great numbers ; from one place to 
another, however distant ; from one age to another, even 
to very remote futurity. To this great principle of oral 
arid traditionary instruction by means of verse, letters 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 163 

were only used as auxiliaries, poetry was the principal. 
Hence we find it an historical fact that the poetical frag- 
ments which remain of the primitive school are exactly 
of such a description as I have instanced. They contain 
religious doctrines, strongly and clearly expressed, apho- 
risms of morality in very concise, strong, and luminous 
language ; maxims of legislation and jurisprudence are 
frequently to be met with in those ancient poetical 
remains. Of these the versification is generally very 
regular in everything, the lines are always, or with very 
rare exceptions, severely restricted to a fixed or established 
number of syllables, and formed into stanzas, most fre- 
quently in triplets. Sometimes the stanzas are longer, 
of four, six, eight, and more lines, and generally all 
unirhyme, or ending in the same rhyme. There are, 
however, some exceptions ; but they are rare. Some of 
those ancient fragments are, in short, couplets rhymed, 
but the rhymes changing with the couplets ; these, how- 
ever, are rare. But it appears to have been an established 
rule that, where the lines exceeded the length of five 
syllables, or, at farthest, of six, they should be cast into 
unirhyme stanzas of from three to any greater number of 
lines. 

This most ancient kind of poetry is the most simple in 
the structure of the verse of any ; it has a stated number 
of syllables in each line, and from this rule there are but 
seldom any deviations to be seen. ' They have a simple 
kind of rhythmus that is pleasing to the ear, and which 
admits of great variety, are always in rhyme, but have 
none of those artificial embellishments that we find in the 
poetry of the later schools. 

It must be well observed that truth was on every 
occasion an indispensable requisite ; no falsehood or fiction 
in history, no conjectural theology or morality were ad- 
mitted. And it is remarkable that nothing: of that ferocious 

O 

or savage cast of sentiment, which we find in the primseval 
poetry of most other nations, and indeed in that of some 
of our own later schools, has yet been observed in what we 
may call our patriarchal poetry, of which we have no 



164 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

inconsiderable remains, and which clearly indicates a very 
early and genuine civilization. We, the Cymry, seem 
clearly to have been barbarized, rather than more highly 
civilized, by the Romans, &c. Such had been the happy 
effects of that simple poetry in which our ancient bards 
communicated their doctrines of pure theology, and 
principles of genuine morality. 

This school never became extinct. In all ages some 
of our bards have been students of it, and have attained 
to a high proficiency in its principles. Of this we have 
fine instances in many pieces of Taliesin, in what appears 
under the names of Cattwg Ddoeth, Bardd Glas o'r 
Gadair, Sippyn Cyfeiliog, Mabclaf ab Llywarch, and 
many others, down to the time of that fine moralist, 
Thomas Dafydd ap leuan ap Rhys, of Pwll y Crochan, 
Arllechwedd, in Caernarvonshire, who flourished about 
the year 1660. Since his time, however, this school has 
been very much on the decline, but has not become 
extinct. 

The triplet, consisting most commonly of three seven- 
syllabic lines in unirhyme, was the most favourite metre 
of this school in all ages. The last line always turned on 
some very important moral sentiment, some theological 
truth, or some prudential maxim ; the two first were 
illustrative of the last, and sometimes highly, and often 
beautifully, metaphorically so. Unirhyme stanzas of six 
or eight lines were also used frequently, as in " Dyhudd- 
iant Elphin," " Englynion y Misoedd," some of " Eng- 
lynion yr Eiry Mynydd," &c. 

The very beautiful stanzas of "Coronog Faban," each of 
four unirhyme lines, are purely of this school. Of these 
we have several sets, one of them attributed to the cele- 
brated Gildas Sapiens, and certainly of great antiquity ; 
others are of later ages. 

The poem entitled "Gosymdeith Llefoed Wynebglawr" 
belongs to this school, and is one of its finest productions. 
It abounds with the most beautiful moral sentiments that 
are anywhere to be found, impressively just, and many 
of them surprizingly philosophical. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 165 

" Englynion Dyad," " Englynion y Clywed," " Eng- 
lynion y Gorwynion," "Y Gnodiau," "Cain Cynwyre," 
" Marchwiail," and many others, of equally fine morality, 
are of this school. 

The excellence of the poetry of this school consists in 
the justness of its sentiments, expressed in a rich sim- 
plicity of language, very copious, but very natural ; it 
thinks deeply, but never deals in the bold tropes and 
figures of the middle age schools, nor in their often 
overstrained compounds ; yet it uses compounds with 
moderation, and a propriety, I will say, an elegance, that 
to find in such a remote age appears a little wonderful. 
It deals much in a theology that is pure ; its morality is 
rich in the perspicuity of its truths, in the powers of 
language that express them, and in the sublimity of its 
conceptions. In these things the Druid poetry submits 
to a comparison with no other yet known but that of 
David, of Isaiah, of Job, &c. This morality is generally 
connected, and that very naturally, and we may say 
neatly, with the most rational piety ; instances of this are 
numerous. I would particularly instance " Dyhuddiant 
Elphin," " Eiry Mynydd " verses, " Cain Cynwyre," 
" Arthur ac Eliwlod," &c. 

In this school we find the knowledge of the human 
heart attained to in a high degree ; the human affections 
were closely studied and livingly described, their effects 
minutely observed, and exhibited in the clearest and 
strongest lights. 

A singularity appears in the Welsh poetry which ori- 
ginated in this school, this is the practice of beginning 
every poem on important subjects with an address to the 
Deity ; thus, in Taliesin, 

" Golychaf fy Nhad, 
Fy Nuw fy neirthiad, 
A ddodes trwy 'm iad 
Enaid ym bwyllad, 
Am gorug ymgwylad 
Fy saithllafanad." 1 

1 These seven faculties were, 1. Mental perception ; 2. Corporeal 



166 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

" I adore my Father, my God, my helper, Who infused into 
my brain a soul of reason, Who created in me the perceptions of 
my seven faculties (or powers)." 

He adds, 

" Seith synwyr pwyllad ym pwyllwys fy Nhad." 

" With these seven powers of reason did my Father rationalize 
me." 

To this school belong the triads ; in this they originated. 
They were, however, retained by all the subsequent 
schools ; so were some of the other peculiarities of this 
school. The addresses to the Deity, introductory, were 
more generally retained by the school of Gruffudd ap 
Cynan than by any other. 

Everything within the circle of finite existence points 
at its origin at the cause that produced it a state of 
nature, of intellect, of society, or of something whence 
it sprung. T Our primitive school is most obviously derived 
from a state of society wherein the noblest and most 
benign of the human affections had obtained the ascen- 
dancy over all others, but wherein intellect, rather than 
anything else, had been the object of science, where mind 
rather than matter had been that on which ingenuity had 
bestowed its labours, that the Cymric nation had for the 
founder of its polity a patriarch whose principles were 
those of justice, peace, and benevolence; and such, we 
are told, was our Hu Gadarn. Had the name of our 
great patriarch never been mentioned had his existence 
never been recorded, yet our ancient institutions, our 
ancient moral principles, and our ancient conduct towards 
other nations, excepting two or three instances, and those 
by the universal consent of our own nation in after ages 
highly reprobated, would have clearly indicated the in- 
fallible existence, in some early period of such a man, of 
such a state of society. 

Edward Llwyd, and others after him, have attributed 

vision; 3. Feeling, including taste; 4. Language, or vocality; 5. 
Hearing, susceptibility; 6. Bodily exertion; 7. Mental exertion. 
These things sufficiently prove that the bardic philosophy was not 
derived from Greece, or Rome. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 167 

the " Englynion Eiry Mynydd " to the ancient Druids ; 
it is very probable that they are in the manner of our 
ancient bards and Druids. This manner has been retained 
through all ages down to nearly the present time ; but 
those who think that the aphoristically moral stanzas of 
" Eiry Mynydd," &c., are of very ancient date, are 
greatly mistaken beyond the least doubt, and show clearly 
that they are ignorant of the state of the language, and 
of the principles of versification that prevailed in different 
ages. 

" Englynion y Misoedd," attributed to Aneurin Gwawd- 
rydd, are certainly none of his, but were written by 
some bard of the fourteenth century. They have neither 
the language nor the versification of Aneurin. His in- 
ternal rhymes that everywhere occur, and his assonances 
terminating the lines instead of perfect rhymes, which 
very frequently occur, with many other peculiarities, 
never occur in " Englynion y Misoedd." 

" Englynion Eiry Mynydd " were written about the 
beginning or middle of the fourteenth century at furthest ; 
most of them are indeed attributed to Mabclaf ab Lly- 
warch, a Southwallian bard of about the year 1360. I 
have seen some of them attributed to Rhys Goch Eryri. 
Perhaps the idea of Eiry Mynydd, in the beginning of 
each stanza, originated with him. It appears from some 
passages in his " Cywyddau," that he had a cadair, or 
gorsedd, on SNOWDON, which is a literal translation of 
Eiry Mynydd. He says, 

" Mae main mawrwyrthiog i mi 
Yr avvrhon yn yr Yri." 

There are "Englynion Eiry Mynydd" attributed to 
Ystyffan Bardd Teilaw. I hardly believe that this 
Ystyftan (Stephen), Bard of Teilaw, lived in the time of 
Teilaw, Bishop of Llandaff, but that he was one of his 
devotees in a much later age. Teilaw was greatly vene- 
rated and worshipped in the diocese of LlandafF, of which 
he was the tutelary saint. 

" Englyniou March wiail " were most probably written 



168 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

by one, or partly by each, of those three brothers who 
lived at Marchwiail about the year 1360, or a little later 
perhaps ; their names were Ednyfed ap Gruffudd, Madawc 
Benfras, and Llywelyn Llogell. They were amongst the 
most celebrated bards of that age. The sentiment on 
which these englynion turn is a caution not to reveal a 
secret to any one whatever, not even to utter it, or trust 
it to the voice a sentiment very well adapted to the 
tumultuous and dangerous time of Owen Glyndwr's in- 
surrection. 

Sippyn Cyfeiliog lived about the same period. He 
wrote many pieces of aphoristical poetry ; amongst others, 
a poem, in triplets, descriptive of every part of Wales, the 
character of the inhabitants, &c. This poem has been 
with extreme ignorance attributed to Aneurin Gwawd- 
rydd, but copies of better authority attribute this piece 
to Sippyn Cyfeiliog. Robert Vaughan, of Hengwrt, and 
Dr. Davies, of Mallwyd, give " Englynion y Misoedd " 
to Sippyn Cyfeiliog, and I think very justly. The three 
bards of Marchwiail were the sons of Gruffudd ap lor- 
werth ap Einion Goch o Farchwiail ym Maelor. 

The real name of Sippyn Cyfeiliog was Dafydd Bach 
ap Madoc Wladaidd, called also Dafydd Maelienydd ; he 
also assumed the fictitious name of Cneppyn Gwerth- 
rynion. 

I have somewhere read that Mabclaf ab Llywarch, 
otherwise called Mab Clochyddyn, was the same as Cas- 
nodyn, a Southwallian bard, but. T am not clear that it is 
so. The bards of the age of Owen Glyndwr gave out 
their pieces under fictitious names, for reasons that are 
sufficiently obvious. Amongst those are, Casnodyn, 
Cneppyn Gwerthrynion, Sippyn Cyfeiliog, y Crach, y 
Cy w, Mabclochyddyn, Mabclaf ab Llywarch, Y Posned, 
and many others; the real names of those are for the 
most part unknown now. 

Many pieces of that period were fictitiously attributed 
to Taliesin, Merlin, &c., most of them prophecies, some 
of them mythological, and druidically theological ; a 
great number of pieces, such as those of " Eiry Mynydd," 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 169 

&c., consist of fine moral aphorisms in verse. All of 
those pieces under the names of Taliesin, Cattwg, &c., 
are such attempts as the bards of that period were able to 
make to imitate the manner of the ancient bards, of whose 
works we have many pieces remaining. 

I admit the probability that a bard of the name of 
Ystyffan lived in the time of Teilaw, whose bard he might 
have been ; but I greatly question whether the pieces that 
are now to be met with under his name are genuine ; 
they are so much in the manner of pieces that are well 
ascertained to be of the fourteenth century, and differ so 
widely in language, style, and versification from our 
genuine ancient poems, that no doubt can remain as to 
their being of a comparatively recent period. Edward 
Llwyd, whatever some may think, was extremely ignorant 
of the Welsh language, of Welsh versification, and of the 
ancient Welsh mythology, and so are all those who adopt 
his sentiments. Let any judicious and unprejudiced 
critic compare the language of the poems under present 
consideration, with the authentic pieces of Aneurin, 
Taliesin, Llywarch Hen, the ancient charter of Llandaff, 
which is the oldest specimen of Welsh prose extant, and 
he will be, I think, clearly convinced of the justice of my 
observations. 

(To be continued.) 



SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 



170 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

By LADY MARSHALL. 
( Continued from page 135.J 

CANIAD II. 

PEARL OF DAYS the mystic SEVEN 

Effluence of creative breath 
When the voice " Tis MORN AND EVEN " 

Broke the silence deep as death ! 

Glorious was thy first creation 

Brighter far thy second birth, 
When the AUTHOR OF SALVATION 

Burst the trammels of the earth ! 

Welcome ever be thy presence, 

Heritage of heavenly love, 
Joy and triumph are thine essence 

Foretaste of the joys above. 

If thy cycling turns are balmy, 

That return is yet more sweet 
Which commemorates the palmy 

Garlands strewed at JESUS' feet. 

If a Sunday yet more holy 

Circles in the annual round, 
It is that on which the lowly 

CONQUEROR trod the palm-strewn ground. 

Peal the organ pour the voices 
Lift the censer wave the palm 

All the world this Day rejoices 
In its holy, heavenly calm ! 

The day thus feebly hymned had set : 

Its holy usage had been met 

As duly, and its sacred rite 

As well performed and graced as might 

In troublous times debateful site 

At HAWARDEN Castle in a year 

Now past six centuries or near. 

That stronghold's noble remnants show 
Its proud pretensions long ago, 
When Kings and Chiefs of rival powers 
Attacked in turn its warlike towers. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 171 

Now from its " ivy mantled " keep 

The eye delighted takes its sweep 

O'er favoured regions bounteous soil, 

Inviting and rewarding toil. 

Above beneath, it teeming thrives, 

Alike to those industrial hives. 

The fires on Buckley heights that glow 

No more presage the mustering foe : 

The shafts that whistle from the bow 1 

Upon the smooth glacis below 

Those rampired mounds, no longer rive 

The steel-clad breasts of men who strive 

For deadly stakes, but harmless fly, 

At aim of gentle arm and eye, 

In gay encounter graceful sport 

Where now our " Marcher Lords " resort. 

Hail then united BRITAIN Hail ! 

The useful peaceful best avail 

For everything, except A TALE ! 

The day on which our story opes 

How different looked those turfy slopes, 

From whence the fair Bow-maiden's hopes 

Follow the arrow's flight: 
On them no longer must I dwell 
Inviting episode, farewell 
My sterner purpose is to tell 
At Hawarden Castle what befell 

On that Palm Sunday night ! 

The day, I said, had been observed, 

But yet a heart of stronger mould 

Than RALPH the Sexton's, dry and old, 
Might well have owned itself unnerved, 
When up the narrow winding stair, 
Within the castle chapel fair, 
He clomb to ring the bell for prayer : 
The slender turret swayed and jerked. 

Beneath the raging of the wind, 
Till Ralph believed some demon worked 

The airy engines from behind. 

It slipped the functionary's mind 
Perchance that oft with such-like shocks 
Comes on the vernal equinox. 

" Now foul befall this outland place," 
He muttered not between his teeth 
He had none but below his breath ; 
" I would St. Roque had given me grace, 
Instead of following Father BLAISE 



172 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

In foreign lands to break my neck, 

To live out all my days at BEG ! 2 

No storms in Normandy, I swear 

By St. Marcou, disturb the air 

They've got no equinoxes there ! 

Whew whew aroint ye, fiends of hell 

As surely as I pull the bell 

'Twill bring the tower about mine ears, 

Unless it haps that when he hears 

The holy tinkle in the sky, 

The bellows-blowing imp may fly : 

A Norman imp for certain would, 

But here their manners a'nt so good." 

Ding dong ding dong " Exactly so 

He hears not cares not blow, blow, blow ! 

And where's the use, I fain would know 

The country villains wont come in : 

They'd rather die in mortal sin : 

And so they may if so they please, 

But that I'd lose their burial fees, 

And that's too hard upon a man 

Who would by now be sacristan 

If right was right but right is wrong 

With Father hist who's there " Ding, dong 

"'Tis nothing but that windy fuss 

No, these wild Welsh won't come to us : 

They'd rather perish body soul 

Nor chaplain's shrift, nor Lady's dole 

Can draw the badgers from their den : 

But trust Sir ROGER and his men 

He finds their secret gatherings out, 

And puts their hedge-priests to the rout : 

He's got a couple now in hold 

He says they make their flocks o'er bold; 

He finds their cunning, burrowing hoards, 

And reaps their harvests with his swords, 

While poor Dame AGNES tries in vain 

To smooth them down against the grain. 

She is a duteous daughter too 

Of Mother Church strives through and through 

In honour of the day to make 
A long procession bearing palms, 

(What grand ones I have seen at Bee !) 
But 'spite her piety and alms, 
But one's come in from all around 
SIANCYN, or some such heathen sound 
One that they call their bards, or birds 
I can't make out their crashy words ! 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 173 

The Constable will do his best 
To follow out his lady's 'best ; 
He'll make his knights lay by their arms 
And walk with her, and cany palms ; 
I'll gage he'll wear a seemly face, 
But eh, to see that 'scape o' grace 
Sir FULKE of TRIQALD footing in 
Their train might make a sexton grin !" 

This monologue, which as appears, 
Ralph grumbled out to drown his fears, 
With touch correct though crabbed shewed 
(As portraitures in sun-type viewed) 
The state of matters as they stood 
Within that Anglo-Norman fort 
Where Clifford held his marcher court, 
To levy tribute keep in awe, 
And wield what Marcher Lords called lam : 
For Chester was not yet restored 
From trace of Walsian fire and sword, 
When Langley paid in bloody kind 
Their debt who bleeding nations grind. 

Despite the raging of the storm 

The palmy troop was brought to form : 

The inmates most had kindly will 

The Lady's wishes to fulfil ; 

And readier none than gay Sir Fulke 

He would not let a creature skulk : 

As -prompt as on the battle plain 

To 'range encourage urge restrain 

Alike of home devoirs the soul 

To plan inspire arrange control 

The troop to muster step to show, 

And when to march, and where to go 

Distribute then the leafy sprays, 

He distanced puffy Father Blaise. 

He even whispered to his chief 

To deign accord one day's relief 

To those two wretched prisoned dolts 

Who lay behind his dungeon bolts, 

The native priests, and let them share 

For once the privilege of prayer ; 

But as De Clifford only frowned, 

The " dolts " continued under ground. 

At length, when holy rites were o'er 
And evening fell, he made a floor 
Where garrison and household throng 
Might speed the dance and raise the song. 



174 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

An adept he in each pursuit 

Could swim the pavon* wake the lute, 

And act with smiles or gravity 

In pageant, masque or mystery. 

, All frolic now, he led the cheer 
As fair Dame Agnes' cavalier 
Among the groups performed with glee 
The office we should call M.C. 
Described the steps and called the airs ; 
Assigned the places made the pairs, 
And as in mimic galliard 
He tacked the Sexton to the Bard : 

'Twas not on record when a laugh 
Had rippled o'er the face of Ralph : 

" Come, come, old Cross-bones never sulk 
How neither like his better-half!" 

" Nay " interposed the Dame " Sir Fulke, 
I pray you, be not over hard 
Upon the stranger he's a Bard 
Minstrel, as we should say a race 
O'er shy in every age and place : 
Besides he does not know our tongue, 
And right to us to him seems wrong." 

" Fair Dame," replied the lively knight, 

" What you propound is ever right ; 

But credit me, their nation all 

If by that term it fits to call 

A scattering of half-clad tribes, 

Which herd or rabble best describes, 

Are scarcely raised a step above 

The level of the beasts who rove ; 

E'en those pretending higher claims, 

At all events with longer names 

Ap This Ap That it takes an hour 

To get their patronymics o'er 

In bearing are but so and so 

At least the only one I know 

Llywelyn's brother, so called Prince, 

I saw at Windsor some time since, 

A semi-savage semi-fool, 

Whom LONGSHANKS makes his butt and tool : 

" There was a chapter of St. George, 
And (think not I the tale could forge) 
This prince with gilded spur on heel 
Was to be dubbed, and, by the 'Greal, 4 
He knew not that he ought to kneel ! 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 175 

*' I was the chapter squire that day, 

And scandalized at such delay, 

I pushed him here, and pushed him there, 

Till, with a stumble and a stare, 

He let me squeeze him down to prayer. 

I saw the Sovereign, all the while 
He held aloft his wavering blade, 
And stopped, mid speech, the accolade, 

Though wrath could scarce suppress a smile : 5 

" And as for him the new-dubbed Knight, 
He scowled on me with such despite 
As that which darkens even now 
That sullen bard's oak-shaded brow : 
These Welsh, too, look so like each other, 
This bard might be that prince's brother. 

" These gathering vapours to disperse, 
We'll give a turn to song and verse 
At inspiration of his art 
This bard will clear his brow and heart 
I'll lead the way, though ut re mi 
'Tis long since I have pitched a key." 

Then tripping light, as on a stage, 

With many an antic step between, 
The vapouring Norman sought his page, 

And bade him fetch his mandoline : 
With broidered ribbon round his throat 

And mandoline across his knee, 
First warbling forth a master-note, 

Sir Fulke of Trigald thus sung he : 

SIR FULKE'S Song. 

" When GLORY the nations prepared to entwine 

With her garlands, to VALOUR she said, 
' Let Rome have her C-ESAR and France her CHARLEMAGNE, 

But give me WILL, DICKON, and NED 
They live but to conquer a blow and a word 
And Normans shall carry the PALM of the SWORD.' 

" Then spake Music and POETRY twins heaven-born, 

To GLORY and VALOUR they said, 
' The regions they vanquish they gild and adorn 

The Arts follow close on their tread ; 
Refinement and Glory and Valour belong 
To the Normans, and they bear the PALM of the SONG'' 

" Then arose gentle PIETY Maid of the skies 
A scroll brightly blazoned she bore 



176 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

' To conquer for earth is resplendent/ she cries, 

' But to conquer for HEAVEN is more ;' 
Then the roll of CRUSADERS in triumph did toss, 
And the Normans shall carry the PALM of the CROSS." 

'Twas not the finished style so much 
'Twas not alone the thrilling touch 
That made the plaudits loud and long 
It was the subject of the song 
The all-inspiring theme in story 
Of Norman worth and Norman glory. 
The line between the motives two, 
As best he liked the singer drew ; 
At least a smile that impress gave 
That glinted through the silky wave 
Of hair beneath whose auburn shade 
The ivory teeth were best displayed. 

His placid glances lingered perhaps 

Most frequent where a grove of caps, 

With towering peaks and flowing veils 

Might emulate the masts and sails 

Of mighty ships, or bannered boast 

That floats above a warlike host, 

But yet did meekly appertain 

To Lady Clifford's damsel train 

The Norman tire at which we start 

In 'lumined types of quaint Froissart: 

Which still with somewhat minished height 

Astounds the Anglo-Saxon wight, 

Or charms his archaeologic gaze, 

With glimpse of mediaeval days, 

On Sundays in the toppling street, 

Or alley'd walk where townsfolk meet, 

Of six days' toil to ease the strain, 

In old Rouen and stately Caen : 

Beneath those caps beamed smiles of pleasure, 

And grave Sir Roger beat the measure. 

While thus sensation fluttered through 
The festal hall, and forward drew 
A comment here eulogium there, 
Or murmured cadence of the air, 
The trifling incident that brought 
The singing interlude about 
The Bard's ill-blood had been forgot, 
Indeed the most part knew it not, 
And on Sir Fulke's mercurial brain 
Such impress would not long remain ; 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 177 

The floating bubbles of the hour 
Each exercised its transient power 
On him as changes in the sky 
Upon some gadding butterfly. 

So sped the hours but long before 

The hour when modern friends convene 

For festive rites, the feast was o'er 

In Hawarden fort and changed the scene, 

We follow not the gentle tread 

Of Lady Clifford do not ask 
As how her maidens from her head 

Her cap dismounted onerous task ! 

We follow not the lullabies 

Of sleep " by pure digestion bred " 6 
And light responsibilities 

That crowned each harmless female head. 

Still less we venture to inquire 

How Father Blaise his vigils kept, 
Though malice hints that by the fire 

Were sounds as if he soundly slept. 

The castle inmates all from Dame 
To drudge, in one thing did conform 

With deprecation to exclaim 
Against the ever raging storm. 

But most of all the appointed band 

By whom in regulated rote 
The castle's perilled points were manned 

The elemental strife would note. ' 

Sir Fulke was warder of the night : 

He changed his vest and mantle trim 
For steel cuirass and gorget bright 

His tasselled cap for helmet grim. 

He almost seemed to change his face 

His features turned with easy play, 
When duty stood in pleasure's place, 

To comely grave from comely gay. 

He placed the soldiers of his guard 

At every post its destined man 
In outer inner castle yard, 

On ballium, tower and barbican. 

On ordinary nights, between 

The times of his appointed rounds, 
He mostly took his mandoline, 

And wiled the hours with dulcet sounds. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 A 



178 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

But now, when Nature waked her choir, 
And whirlwinds through the gamut ran, 

How vain to tune the feeble wire 
To raise the feeble voice of man ! 

No tone the scale of sound affords 
That was not struck no semitone : 

Sometimes the wind would sweep the chords, 
Then shrilly dwell on one alone. 

The forest joined its voices hoarse, 
From whistling twig to crashing tree : 

The torrent in its maddened course 
Swelled out the awful melody. 

Sir Fulke was not a man to faint 

At straws, yet made the sign of grace, 

And whispered something to a saint 
Whose name as yet I've failed to trace. 

In such a scene at such an hour, 
The hardiest, best of woman born 

May feel imagination's power 

The mastery gain, nor think it scorn. 

At times it seemed as if the wail 
Of restless ghosts increased the gale ; 
At times the rush of steeds again 
The muffled tramp of armoured men. 

The moon behind the driving wrack 

Though near the full scarce showed her track ; 

And when a momentary gleam 

Did through the murky framing stream, 

It deepened the surrounding gloom 

Like rays that penetrate a tomb. 

Confused alike in hearing sight, 

Sir Fulke ascended to a height 

A lofty, overhanging tower, 

From whence the deadly stream to shower 

Of boiling lead or water jet, 

Through crennelled openings round it set. 

Oh, what is that that haunts the soul 
As voiceless as the clouds 

As shapeless as the wind 
Impalpable, yet past control, 
That as a mist enshrouds, 

Yet darkens not the mind" 
Mixing with everything, yet undefined 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 179 

Strange fascination, that divides 

Yet urges with mysterious sway 
As C-SISAR on the fatal ides, 

Or NELSON on Trafalgar's day, 

When those bright stars? too bright the traitor guides 
He from his dauntless breast refused to put away ! 

Why on that watch-tower's threshold stone 

Did Fulke of Trigald hesitate 
Or hesitating, why go on ? 

He knew not call it chance we fate. 

Why, when he reached the topmost ledge 

Passed all his frame a shudder o'er I- 
It might be looking o'er the edge 

The climb the storm it might be more. 

It came it went with steadied nerve, 

As if its failure to efface, 
He leaned across the crennelled curve 

That toppled over airy space : 

To disconnect the sounds intent 

That might arise from else than wind, 
The watchful warder forward bent, 

Nor saw nor heard what happed behind : 

A rushing step too quick for thought 

A blow a push no time to shrink 
With desperate gripe the ledge he caught, 

And swung suspended o'er the brink ! 

A moon-ray through the darkness streamed 

Full on a haggard face it glared 
Upon a bloody poinard gleamed 

And azure robe " My God the Sard!" 

The word was echoed with a scoff, 

And e'er pronounced the bardic wreath 
And azure robe were shaken off, 

And showed a coat of mail beneath. 

" Bard sayest thon, Norman ' butt* and ' tool' 
Thou saidst but now !" " Oh, fiend of hell 

I'll call the guard " " Nay, Norman fool 
This knife hath done its duty well 

" Lo, Norman blood it may convince 
Thy Norman pride that ' half clad tribes ' 

Are CYMRY, and that Cymric Prince 
Can vengeance take for Norman jibes ! " 



180 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

" Now, as thou art a Prince and Knight r 
Oh, aid me with a manly clasp, 

And give a chance in equal fight 
My feebling hands relax their grasp !" 

" Aha, Sir Knight, and dost thou bear 
The palm of Valour, Song, and Cross ? 

And did I stumble did I stare ? 
So died my father in a foss ! " 

The moon sent forth another ray 

It gleamed upon another face, 
And hands whose "feebling" hold gave way 

It paled, and darkness filled the space. 

Revenge is virtue in the creed 

Of unreclaimed of natural man ; 

The spring of many a vaunted deed 
By Indian Chief and Highland Clan. 

So hard it is the bounds to draw 
Of human evil human good : 

One nation's curse is others' law 
One's poison is another's food. 

Yet did not David feel alone 

The throb of an exulting foe : 
A shudder mingled with the groan 

And heavy crash he heard below ! 

But other sounds and desperate strain 
Allowed not of a moment's stay ; 

To carry out the coup de main 
He left the tower without delay. 

Down down he slid the spiral stair 
It seemed a never ending maze : 

The slaughtered guards one here one there 
He sees, but nought his progress stays? 

He hastens to a secret nook 

Which he had noted in the day, 

By which the household menials took 
Their ordinary outward way. 

It led him to the basement yard, 

And thence he gained the castle chase, 

Where his advanced but slender guard 
Had their appointed trysting-place. 

Belike the Prince had no great store 

Of illustrative types by heart, 
Although a glaze of bardic lore 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 181 

In gentle breeding formed a part, 
As classic now in Mastery of Art. 

A woful falling off, alas, 

From those score thousand lines of verse 
Which e'en his " little go " to pass 

A Druid pupil did rehearse. 

But yet a smattering might suggest 

As David hurried from the hold, 
The type his case that fitted best 

Was wolfish raid in midnight fold. 

Such were the times the men no worse 

Than we by nature, but the same, 
But bred and born beneath a curse 

Of blood and rapine sword and flame. 

And yet, so much doth habit change 

Our modes of thought that they might deem 

Worse carnage our Lancastrian range 
Than now to us their slaughters seem. 

Howbeit David's crisis pressed 

At every step at every breath 
Pursuit his progress might arrest 

Defeat and ruin shame and death. 

A hundred casts it was to one 

Some trifling chance the project marred 
The enterprise must all be won 

Between the changes of the guard. 

The endless trifles that occur 

By day and night at every hour 
A cackling goose a barking cur 

A restless babe and all was o'er. 

Then too his own his hope forlorn 

Might be prevented miss their way :< 
The castle scouts from night till morn 

Were prowling for their human prey. 

But hap what hap, he reached the glen, 

The preconcerted signal made, 
And forth the band of faithful men 

Sprang from their patient ambuscade. 

Lightly they sprang the Norman sneer 

Might well be construed into praise : 
The breast is most exempt from fear 

That native worth alone arrays. 



182 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Half-clad our British fathers were 

When Romans turned their iron backs : 8 

Half-clad they met the Saxon spear 
Half-clad the Norman battle-axe. 

Prince David's band the dauntless van 
The pioneers of larger troops, 

Had to their country's rescue ran 

From Treuddyn, Estyn and the Hopes. 

Armed as the secresy and haste 
Of such a muster would allow, 

Truth was their buckler for the breast 
Valour their helmet for the brow. 

Joyful their leader's sign they knew 
His dagger's bloody point he rang 

Against a rock, and instant through 

The glade his ambushed warriors sprang. 

His birth-lot cast in troublous days, 
Each Cymro was a soldier bred ; 

To guide the plough the spear to raise 
With equal ease their training led. 

They knew the features of the land : 
With instinct almost Indian traced 

The forest paths the vestige scanned 
Of all that in it dwelt or passed. 

With tread that scarcely crushed the leaf, 
And noiseless as a herd of deer, 

They followed now their stealthy chief 
In his all-hazarding career. 

'Twere empty boast to say that nought 
That leader felt of doubt or fear : 

Each step with deeper awe was fraught 
That brought despair or triumph near. 

Each chord of life was doubly wound 
Each did the powers of all supply 

And sound was sight and sight was sound 
'Twas weakness strength and agony ! 

A rustling leaf a creaking bough 

Seemed battle's din or blood-hounds' yell j 

And sounds he heard he knew not how, 
Like those when Fulke of Trigald fell. 

But on and on their perilled track 
They kept, and soon before and nigh 

Was reared the castle, huge arid black, 
Against the almost blacker sky. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 183 

A taper's ray a human tone 

Had told their failure and their doom : 
But there it stood unconscious lone, 

Dark, grim, and silent as the tomb. 

The secret postern soon they reach 

Through many a mazy winding glide 
The dagger's gory point for speech 

Did still their onward progress guide. 

From thence the grand plateau they wan 

The outer ballium's spacious yard, 
Where round the main defences ran 

And stood the watch-room of the guard. 

And here it seemed that just as then 

Began suspicions to transpire : 
One seemed to stir among the men 

Who might be Fulke of Trigald's squire. 

And now the crisis with a swoop, 

As flight of vultures on their prey, 
In rushed the leader and his troop 

'Twas all or nothing strike and slay. 

Spare we the details of the rest 

Its cruel valour savage charms : 
Despair and numbers had the best 

Of practised skill and polished arms. 

While some this butcher scene played out, 

Detaching from the victor band, 
David and others left the rout 

And on the ramparts took their stand. 

The drawbridge fell portcullis rose 

A note to rally not to warn 
His lurking aids Prince David blows 

Upon the mighty hirlas horn. 

'Twas long since that inspiring sound 

The memory of heroic deeds, 
Had waked the woodland echoes round 

Cornavia's oft contested meads. 

Yet where on CYMRU'S blood-stained ground 
Are prouder brighter memories found 
From Eulo's^ brake* from Gadlys' 10 mound 

With trumpet tongue they speak 
How patriot fire can weld the brand 
To strike can nerve the foot to stand 
Against invading onslaught planned 

Against the strong the weak ! 



184 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Loud o'er the tempest streamed the blast, 
And soon responses one two three : 

It seemed the knell of tyrants past, 
Proclaiming Cymru once more free ! 

As such to Cymric ears but how 

To Norman, roused from sleep, and most 

Sir Roger starting up to know 
His Ilium lost ! 

'Twould task a hundred tongues to tell 
The scenes coeval that befell 
Within that counterpart of hell, 
Where men turned into demons fell, 

Like very demons strove : 
To darken yet contrast the woe, 
Did side by side with hatred show 
The deep and agonizing throe 

Of woman's deathless love : 

The Constable despising life, 

As nought to honour, towards the strife, 

Half-armed escaping from his wife, 

Who follows clings entreats 
Through the confusion makes his way, 
Now faintly shown by dawning day, 
And clashing in the dire melee, 

The Cymric leader meets : 

" Baron of FBODSHAM," Clifford cries, 
" The closest of our king's allies, 
By gratitude and honour's ties, 
What make you in this garish rise 

Come you as foe or friend ? 
Two moons have scantly waxed and waned 
Since our chivalric monarch deigned 
Admit you with his knights entrained, 

The duteous knee to bow : 
Which being so it comes in doubt 
Whether you head this rebel rout 
Or intervene to tread it out, 
As by your feudal oath you ought 

Baron of Frodsham speak ! 
This brief abeyance may not last 
Ere many breathings more are past 

My sword shall vengeance take !" 
The " Baron ' at his very best 

Was not renowned for flow 

Of eloquence, but now, 
In that dilemma's wedges stressed 
By adverse fealtie's thus addressed, 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 185 

Before his self-collected foe, 
His powers did anything but grow^ 
His visage best told forth the tale 
Its changeful hne from red to pale 
His choking words of no avail, 

Where "Wales " and " Prince " did dimly sound- 
That broke de Clifford's speech withal 
His eyes that rising then to fall 

From side to side rolled whitely round. 

Yet was he not a coward how 
Could that accord with what e'en now 

He singly had achieved ? 
No : 'twas \\isfalsehood placed awry, 
Spite of his deeds of daring high, 
He quailed before the steady eye 
Of one who with a faulty cause 
Could better win his own applause, 
And with a title full of flaws, 

Aggressing seem aggrieved. 

Such is position but the place 
Forbids digression David's case 
Could palsy not his gallant band 
One only thought to save their land 
Their noble fire to fury fanned, 
And when they saw their chief 
At fault, although they nothing guessed 
Of all that swayed his fickle breast, 
They flew to his relief. 

Nor longer was the matter masked : 
The question that Sir Roger asked 
Was answered by a hundred swords 
That filled the place of David's words, 
And superseded thus the chance 
That even after such advance, 
At sight of Clifford's noble pride, 
The wavering prince had swerved aside, 
And some ignoble treaty tried 
Lest evil should the day betide : 
Such was his nature nothing sure, 
He checked at every fluttering lure. 

But soon the crisis passed away, 
And carried onward in the fray, 
With speedy ruin to his foes, 
Again his higher bearing rose ; 
And when the din of battle died, 

And he was lord of Hawarden fort, 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 B 



186 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

His stately carriage might have vied 
With royal Edward's princely port. 

Now in the spacious castle hall, 
When hushed were Norman voices all, 
Except the voice of woman's wail, 
Which rose above the tempest gale, 
The Prince ascended to the dais, 
And on that venerable place, 
Upon the very chair where late 
The Constable in placid state 
To view the evening pastimes sate, 
He held a sort of inquest court, 
To hear the general report 
Of wliat had happed a resume 
Of that eventful night and day. 

And first it was a piteous sight 
Came Roger Clifford gallant knight, 
Sore wounded nigh as seemed to death 
Half closed his eyes half drawn his breath, 
By Rhys ap Maelgwyn, David's aide 
And Gruffydd ap Meredydd stayed, 
And by his gentle sorrowing dame ; 
But who could think she was the same 
Free-hearted thing whose harmless mirth 
Had shed its sunshine o'er the hearth 
Ere that sad morning had its birth ? 
No more with modest matron pride 
Her towering tire did partly hide 
Her silky locks of golden glow 
Godiva-like they streamed below, 
To aid the scant that haste and woe 
Had draped withal her breast of snow ! 

What is there to the heart can speak 

With such a melting tongue 
As this to see the steadfast weak 

Support the feeble strong ? 

A chief of men his vigour broke 

Sustained upon the breast 
He wont to guard is as the oak 

Should on the lily rest : 

As up the hall with broken pace 
The sad procession made its way, 

Prince David turned aside his face 
And signing with his hand did say 
" That prisoner to the cells convey, 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 187 

Until our princely pleasure shows 
When fits his person to dispose 
Midst Arfon's fastnesses of snows. 
And for the woman damoiselle " 

And round his beetling glances stole 
And on the prostrate creature fell, 
" She shall be elsewhere cared for well " 

" Now mercy, by your mother's soul 
Your wife or some affianced maid 

By all within you having part 

Or share in woman's broken heart, 
Divide us not," she frantic said. 

" My mother 11 yes she was betrayed 

By Norman guile yet " half aside, 

" You checked that vapouring songster's pride 

What would you, lady would you share 

A common dungeon?" 

" Take me where 
My husband goes !" her further speech 

Was lost in sobs " Meseems at least " 
Said Rhys ap Maelgwyn " that a leech 

To send were kind he faints " 

"A priest!" 

Exclaimed the wife " oh, be he shriven 
Ere yet his final doom is given ! 
Go, seek our chaplain, Father Blaise !" 
The qualm is past the knight they raise, 
And Rhys humane and courteous pressed 
To do the lady's pious 'hest ; 
But back returning unsuccessed 
" In vain," he said, " I made my search, 

None can I find of all the staff 
Here representing holy Church 

But this " and up he handed Ralph. 

" This is the sexton " quoth the Prince, 
Who at the ball a few hours since 
Disdained my partnership." 

" Dread lord," 

Exclaimed the culprit, " deign accord 
Your pardon to a prostrate slave, 
Who'd grateful dig your honoured grave 
And, rather than have missed the chance 
Last night, would see your Highness dance 
On his aye, rather on his neck 
Than be the sacristan of Bee ! " 

" Peace, dotard," Rhys ap Maelgwyn saith, 
" Dost think we want a dance of death ? 



188 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

We want this Father's haunt revealed 

Or e'er his master unannealed 

Shall sink, whereof seems urgent dread." 

" Or ere he should have outward fled," 

Quoth Gruffydd, " and these tidings spread." 

At thought of Father Blaiseand flight, 

The Prince, who knew his thriving plight, 

Was less disposed to fear than smile : 

M Keep up the search," he said, "meanwhile 

Dispose this prisoner in his cell, 

And for his Dame, it likes us well 

That she should bear him company, 

And on his wounds her leech-craft try ; 

So in your charge at early day 

To Snowdon he may take his way." 

Another waving of the hand 
Gave final stamp to this command : 
The lady and the wounded knight 
Moved off the scene as best they might : 
A further rally, though but slight, 
Gave hope he might ere yet released 
Receive the blessing of the priest. 

Ah, wherefore boast yourselves, ye proud 
The brightest day may end in cloud 
The insect that the haughty spurns 
May, as the wheel of fortune turns, 
A lesson as impressive teach 
As essays point or sages preach. 

The slaughter murder which you please,. 
Was such that to obtain the keys 
That kept the castle prisons safe 
The victors had recourse to Ralph. 
All subterraneous things to him 
Congenial were ghoul gaunt and grim ! 

The wire-drawn segment that in place 

Of mouth slit through his parchment face 

Stretched out the radius of its arc 

In ratio as he neared the dark, 

With evidence of such delight 

As may in murky deeps excite 

The sprawlings of a zoophyte. 

And when the Dame, beneath her load" 

In some dark passage staggering trode 

Upon a huge and slippery toad, 

A kind of risibilious spasm 

Broke hoarsely from his pectoral chasm. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 189 

It happened that their dismal way 

Their via dolorosa lay 

Along the castle foss in part, 

And there a sight to chill their heart 

Lay Fulke of Trigald stiff and cold 

His merry eyes all ghastly rolled ; 

His cheeks' bright tints were pale and dim, 

And dislocate was every limb. 

The auburn curl that fringed his lip 

Was clotted with the gory drip 

His vital stream, which from the deep 

Of life his heart did bursting creep. 

Poor Fulke that heart was manly true ; 

And sad it was the last adieu 

His sorrowing friends could make, for scarce 

His lot was more severe than theirs. 

Their escort willing howsoe'er 

The time for parley could not spare ; 

And with a consequential screw 

Ralph said he should have " much to do," 

For corpses all the ground did strew. 

And ever and again to wane 

Seemed Clifford's life ; and still in vain 

The lady looked for priestly aid : 

" Ah, sure, he would be nigh," she said, 

" In such extreme he must be dead !" 

Ralph looked as if he thought the proof 
Fell somewhat short, but held aloof; 
And soon the lady's anxious mind 
Where least she looked did solace find: 
While through the labyrinth opaque 
Their painful way they slowly make, 
The silence that for long prevailed 

And suited well the " vast profound," 
Was softly gradually dispelled 

By swelling streams of heavenly sound : 
Whence could the holy breathings come 
" TB LAUDAMUS, DOMINUM !" 

'Twas soon explained a glimmering ray 

By which a distant vault they saw, 
Showed where two shackled prisoners lay 

Upon their scanty beds of straw. 

Their guise though sad and squalid all, 
Showed their ecclesiastic call, 
And Clifford, somewhat now restored, 
Recalled to mind the priests in ward. 



190 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Suppose the scene on either side : 
The tyrant in his fallen pride : 
His Cymric guard their joy to free 
Their captive pastors theirs to see 
The term of their captivity ! 

But no emotion was there felt 
More vivid than the Dame's she knelt 
Upon the hard and humid floor, 
And did in earnest wise implore 
Performance of the holy rite 
Absolvement of the dying knight : 
And ere their gyves were cast away, 
And ere they sought the gladsome day, 
The humble brethren bent the ear 
The low and broken strain to hear. 

Fits not to lift the sacred veil 
That shrouds the penitential veil : 
Else might we show the very hands 
That signalised their dread commands 
Death terror ruin through the lands, 
Convulsely clasped between the knees 
Late trembling at their dire decrees : 
Might hear the gaspings of the breath 
That doomed a father's brother's death 
With eagerest attention caught, 
By hearts with tender mercy fraught 
Heart of brother son bereft 
Heart of faithful shepherd left 
To mourn in chains and solitude 
The loss of all that man holds good 
Of all that binds him to the earth 
Slaughtered kindred ravaged hearth 
And to the faithful shepherd worst 
The violated fold the flock dispersed ! 

Yet did gentle Charity, 

Heaven's handmaid triumph then 

Greatest of the holy THREE 
Links uniting GOD to men ! 

(To be continued.) 

NOTES TO CANIAD II. 

1 In allusion to the meetings of the Society of the ROYAL BRITISH 
BOWMEN, sometimes held at Hawarden Castle in these our days. 

2 A celebrated Monastery in Normandy having much connection 
with ecclesiastical institutions in England, under her sovereigns of 
Norman origin. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 191 

3 A stately French dance of the chivalric ages. 

4 For particulars touching the Sangreal or 'Greal (sometimes 
written 'grayle) see Note B, Appendix to Scott's Marmion, Canto I. 

3 This incident, divested of the satirical colouring in which it is here 
dressed up by the " vapouring Norman " might have actually occurred, 
for, as Pennant mentions that Prince David during his treasonable 
sojourn at the English court had been knighted, " contrary to the 
custom of his country," and which was held to be a great degradation, 
this very circumstance of the kneeling might have given its worst 
feature to the matter, and been a part of the ceremony from which he 
recoiled the most, and for which he was the least prepared : his extreme 
gaucherie being a spicy addition of the garrulous Sir Fulke. 

6 See Paradise Lost b. v. line 4. 

* His stars of knighthood, which it is supposed identified him to 
the marksman in the enemy's ship. 

8 Territa qiuesitis ostendit terga Britannis. Lucan. 

9 At COED EULO, the flower of Henry II. 's army, detached from 
his camp at Saltney, were surprised and defeated by DAVID and 
CYNAN, two of the sons of OWEN GWYNEDD : the attack was fierce, 
the slaughter dreadful, and the pursuit carried back even to the royal 
encampment. 

10 GADLYS means Royal Head Quarters, and here is supposed to 
be the spot to which Owen retired after a subsequent victory. 

11 The Lady SENANA MORTIMER, who on the faith of a treaty with 
Henry III. confided herself and her husband to the English ; and 
with him and all their family was entrapped and sent to the Tower of 
London. See a Note to Caniad I. 



192 



CERAINT VARDD GLAS, 

OTHERWISE, Y Bardd Glas Keraint, seemingly the 
Glaskerion of Chaucer, has been supposed by some to 
be the same with Asser. The English of Y Bardd Glas 
Keraint, is Keraint the Blue Bard. Bardd glas, or blue 
bard, was a very common epithet of the chief, or pre- 
siding bard, who was always of the primitive order, in 
Welsh, prifardd ; he always wore an official robe of sky- 
blue, or azure. The Welsh heraldic writers use the word 
asur for azure ; hence, it is said, that he might have been 
bardd asur instead of bardd glas, as signifying precisely 
the same thing. In our old MS. memorials of bards, it 
is said that Bardd Glas Keraint was by Alfred invited 
to his court, where he was appointed Bardd Teliaw. 
This term never elsewhere occurs, and one knows not 
easily what to make of it. The literal English is Teli- 
avian Bard, or bard of the Order of Teleavus, Teliavus, 
Telavius, or Theliaus, &c., for the name is very variously 
written in Welsh, Teilaw, and, in some MSS., Teliaw ; 
hence it is inferred that Teleavian bard, or Bardd Teliaw, 
signifies a bishop. From this it is supposed that the Bard 
Keraint, and the Bishop Asser are one and the same. 
Bardd Teliaw, therefore, signifies a bard of the Order of 
St. Teliavus, or episcopal bard. To this may be added 
that, amongst the primitive Welsh Christians, the minister 
of religion retained the appellations, or titles, of bard and 
druid. St. Theliaus is called, by the continuators of 
Madeburg, Anglicus Vates de genere Bardorum, and 
Thelesinus Helius Vates, &c., ut supra. These are the 
considerations that afford reasons of some plausibility for 
supposing this bard to have been the same with Asserius 
the bishop. In objection to this it must be said that our 
Welsh historical and genealogical MS. accounts of Asser, 
assert him to have been the son of Tudwal, son of Roderic 
the Great, terming Asser ddoeth ap Tudwal ap Rodri 
Mawr ; Anglice, Asser the Wise, son of Tudwal, son of 
Roderic the Great ; and they as expressly assert that 
Keraint the Blue Bard was the son of Owain, Prince of 



CERAINT VARDD GLAS. 193 

Glamorgan, and brother of Morgan Hen, or Morgan 
Mwynfawr, (Morgan the Aged, or Morgan the Cour- 
teous,) prince of the same country. This being positive 
history, must, I think, take place of conjecture, how- 
ever plausible it might appear from mere etymological 
similarities, and some tolerable analogies, which after all 
may be found to have not much greater weight than 
Swift's ludicrous and satirical proofs of the antiquity of 
the English language. As for the passage from the con- 
tinuators of Madeburg, very little is to be depended upon 
it ; it obviously mistakes Taliesin for Teilaw ; or, if not 
so, it is well known that Teilaw was a bard, or poet, and 
we have some pieces in old MSS. still attributed to him. 
He was not necessarily a poet because he was a bishop, 
or a bishop because he was a bard. I see nothing un- 
reasonable in the supposition that Alfred might engage a 
respectable bard from Wales to regulate and superintend 
his minstrels, as well as a classic scholar to preside at his 
new seminary of learning, or university ; it is perfectly 
consistent with the character of that age, and of the 
Saxon nation, who, like all the other Gothic or Teutonic 
nations, had their scalds, or minstrels. 

The conjecture is not ill founded that the Glaskerion 
of Chaucer, and the Bardd Glas Keraint of Welsh bardic 
history, were one and the same person. Chaucer, speaking 
of him, says, 

"... Stoden. . . . The castell all aboutin 

Of all maner of MYNSTRALES 

And JESTOURS that tellen tales 

Both of wepyng and of game 

And of all that longeth unto fame, 

There herde I play on a harpe 

That sowned both well and sharpe, 

Hym ORPHEUS full craftily 

And on his side fast by 

Sat the Harper ORION ; 

And Eacides CHIRION, 

And other Harpers many one, 

And the BRITON GLASKERION." 

CHAUCER, TJdrd JBoke of Fame. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 C 



194 CERAINT VARDD GLAS. 

He is otherwise called GLASGERION. See a ballad of 
him in Dr. Percy's Reliques, iii. p. 43, last edition, in 
which it is said that he was a " king's son" therein coin- 
ciding with the Welsh account of BARDD GLAS CERAINT. 
K, or G, changes into G in most cases of the noun, and 
in compounds generally so, when it is radical in the last 
word forming the compound. Thus, Y Bardd Glas- 
geraint would in literal English be the Bard Keraint the 
Blue, or the Bard Blue Keraint. The English name 
Glasgerion differs not half so much from Glasgeraint as 
most Welsh names of persons and places, as generally 
written by Englishmen, do from their true orthography. 
The Welsh Bardd Glas Keraint, however, is recorded as 
the first of whom we have any memorial that compiled 
a Welsh grammar. He, it is also said, reduced the Welsh 
versification into a regular and improved system. In- 
stances of very early and very high cultivation never, 
perhaps, more conspicuously appeared than in the Welsh 
versification. The most ancient kinds of Welsh verse, 
and such as are believed to have been those used in early 
ages by our first bards and Druids, are of very simple 
construction, and some of them sufficiently rude, evincing 
a very remote antiquity, such as bardic tradition gene- 
rally assigns to them. In the fifth and sixth centuries 
we find, in the works of Taliesin and his contemporaries, 
several kinds of verse, undoubtedly derived from the 
Romans ; many new kinds appear successively for ages. 
About the end of the thirteenth century, and beginning 
of the fourteenth, the versification of the Welsh bards, 
numerous in their kinds and varieties, attained to a height 
of perfection that has not to this day been approached by 
any modern language in Europe. This will appear in- 
credible, I know, to those who have, without knowing a 
word of the language, already formed their opinions on 
they know not what data. How would they laugh at an 
Otaheitean, or a Hottentot, who, not knowing a word of 
the English language, should ex cathedra presume to 
decide on a question of this nature ; but let those who 
may doubt, to doubt is allowable, indeed rational ; let 



ANCIENT SILURIA. 195 

those, I say, endeavour to acquire a competent knowledge 
of the Welsh language, and the works of its bards, and 
judge for themselves. In the meantime they will possibly 
have the goodness to inform me how and in what the poetry 
and versification of Owhyhee differs from that of the 
Esquimaux, for of these they are certainly equally capable 
of judging as they are of the British or Welsh language 
and versification. I know that they will not believe what 
is here asserted, and I know perfectly well why ; because 
they know nothing at all of the matter. A man would 
shamefully degrade himself by complimenting such critics 
with any other kind of answer to their impertinent and 
presumptuous observations. 

E.W. 



ANCIENT SILURTA. 

THE authority of cadair, or the bardic chair, of Morgan wg, 
extended over the present Morganwg, including the corn- 
mot of Garthmathrin, or Brecon, Gwent, or Monmouth- 
shire, and Ergyng, Euas, and Ystrad Yw, partly in 
Herefordshire, and partly in Breconshire. 

All this country, says Llewelyn Sion, a celebrated bard, 
who flourished about 1580, was of old called ESSYLLWG, 
and earlier still GWENT, including the Forest of Dean. 

That it was anciently called ESSYLLWG (Siluria), is 
evident from what we find in the Roman writers, as well 
as in our own MSS. Caractacus is said to have been 
Prince of the Silurians. But that it was at that period 
also called GWENT, is likewise as clear from the Latin 
appellation, Venta Silurum, which occurs in the Roman 
writers. Both words in their etymological sense signify 
the same thing, or nearly so. 

In the formation of substantives from adjectives in 
Welsh, one rule is to affix the letter t to words which have 
n for their last consonant, as in the words gwen, (fern.) 



196 ANCIENT SILURIA. 

fair, cam, beautiful, bann, high, eurain, golden, urddain, 
noble, or having high rank or degree. If we were to add 
to these the t prepositive, we should have Gwent, the 
fair, caint, the beautiful, or beauty, bant, upland, euraint, 
gold (the colour), urddaint, nobility. 

Essyllt is derived from syllt, the look, aspect, or coun- 
tenance, enhanced by the prefix E. The termination wg 
signifies place, country or thing (res) ; and thus Essyllwg 
means the beautiful, the comely, the sightly, what is of 
pleasing aspect. Accordingly GWENT and ESSYLLWG 
appear to be synonymous, or nearly so. 

There were three GWENTS in Britain in the time of the 
Romans : our present GWENT, Venta Silurum ; VENTA 
ICENORUM, Lichfield ; and VENTA BELGARUM, Winchester ; 
which still retains in part its ancient name. 

That GWENT formerly included all Glamorgan is 
evident, not only from what Llewelyn Sion says, but 
also from many passages in ancient authors, which men- 
tion Landaff, Lancarfan, Miskin, Llandathan, Aber Barri, 
Llanffagan, &c., as in Gwent, though they are now all, 
and some of them very far, in Glamorgan. 

The western, and by far the greater part of Glamorgan, 
was called Gorwennydd, and is still a deanery of Landaff; 
in English it is corruptly written Groneath. The meaning 
of Gorwennydd is the uttermost Gwerit, or of the Gwents. 
The Cymric critic knows well that Gwennydd is the 
plural of Gwent, the t being changed in this case into an 
additional n, as it is regularly in all such words, as in 
cant, punt, braint, tant, &c., which are in their plurals 
cannoedd, punnau, breinniau, tannau, &c. When the 
particle gor, upper or utter, is prefixed to any word that 
has g for its radical, as Gwent, plural Gwennydd, this g 
is always and regularly omitted, or left out. 

There is a place in this deanery of Gorwennydd called 
Penllwyn Gwent, i. e., the chief wood or forest of Gwent ; 
it is an old manorial house. Gwenni, otherwise Y Wenni, 
an ancient and large village, with an old castle and mon- 
astery in ruins, is also in this deanery of Gorwennydd. 

The inhabitants or tribes occupying the counties of 



ANCIENT SILURIA. 197 

Glamorgan, Monmouth, Brecon, and the Welsh part of 
Herefordshire, are all called Gwennwyson, that is, men or 
tribes of Gwent, Gwent-men, or Gwentians; and their 
dialect is called Gwennwyseg, or the dialect of Gwent, 
Gwentish. 

GWENT and ESSYLLWG being synonymous, and both 
equally common at the time when this island was first 
discovered by the Romans, we cannot tell well which of 
these is the oldest ; they are probably coeval. Yet 
Llewelyn Sion says that the country was first called 
Gwent, then Essyllwg, and after that Morganwg. 
Llewelyn Sion, had access to the library at Raglan Castle, 
the best collection of old Welsh MSS. that ever existed, 
and of course had thus better opportunities of knowing 
these particulars than any one else that ever wrote on 
such subjects. His authority is consequently of great 
weight, and is greatly corroborated by the terms Gwenn- 
wyson and Gwennwyseg, which include all the ancient 
Gwent to this day. 

Since about the thirteenth century, our old writers 
apply the names Essyllwg, Tir Essyllt, Bro Essyllt, and 
Gwlad Essyllt, to Glamorgan exclusively ; including, 
however, that part of Monmouthshire bordering on 
Glamorgan, called Gwentllwg (i. e., Fenny Gwent), which 
is to this day reckoned by the vulgar of Glamorgan ; for 
in the eastern parts, which only go now by the name of 
Gwent, they say Ym Morganwg (in Glamorgan), of the 
country westward of the Usk, which is Gwentllwg. 

MORGANWG, Gwlad Forgan, or Glamorgan, included 
formerly all the countries that were more anciently known 
by the names of Gwent and Essyllwg. At the time when 
the Romans abandoned this island, the descendants of 
ancient chiefs or princes undertook to parcel it among 
themselves. Morgan ap Adras at that period, A.D. 400, 
became possessed of regal authority over Gwent or 
Essyllwg, and gave it, after his own, the name of 
Morganwg, i. e., Morgan's Country. It seems to have 
included all the ancient Gwent and Essyllwg, unless we 
except Garthfathrin, or Brecon, and continued so till the 



198 ANCIENT SILURIA. 

Norman invasion by Robert Fitzhamon, and in the 
vulgar account and acceptation, till the time of Henry 
VIII., when the present division of the Welsh counties 
took place. 

As our native writers use the names of Gwent and 
Morgan wg in their ancient acceptations, it is often 
impossible for us to tell whether many things they men- 
tion belong to the histories of those counties in their 
larger or more limited sense. What was anciently said 
of one, may at present belong to the other, for aught we 
know ; in a great number of instances it is most probably 
so, and in some instances, perhaps many, indubitably so, 
even demonstrably so. 

Wales appears to have been divided into four bardic or 
druidical provinces, in each of which was a cadair. The 
same division still remains with respect to ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, and in each province there is a eglwys 
gadeiriawl, or cathedral. Near these cathedarls also are 
the bardic chairs ; as on Eryri, near Bangor ; at Caerwys, 
near St. Asaph ; Garth pen Tyrch, near Landaff, and 
Caerllion ar Wysg ; Caerfyrddin, near St David's. This 
seems, more than has yet been noticed, to corroborate 
Galfrid's Account of the twenty-eight Temples (cadeiriau 
or gorseddau) having been converted into so many 
Christian Churches or jurisdictions, which was truly the 
fact. That is, the bards and their disciples became 
Christians, but still retaining their ancient discipline and 
institutes, their mode of worship remaining externally 
the same, only changed, or rather improved, with respect 
to their theology. MS. 



199 



THE FALL OF ROME. 

AMSER Macsen Wledig Ymherawdr Ynys Prydain Gwyr 
Rhyfein a ddygasant or Ynys hon y maint yd bara ag a 
ellaint ei gael, ac o hynny dwyn prinder a newyn ar yr 
ynys, ac o hynny marw mawr ar genedl y Cymry. Ag 
Owain ap Macsen Wledig yn gweled hynn, ac er ei 
attal, ymluyddu a gorfod ar wyr Rhufain ; yna cael o'r 
Brytteiniaid eu Braint au coron. A llawer y bu ymdrech 
gwyr Rhufain er ynnill yn ol eu goruchafiaeth ar ynys 
Prydain, ond byth nis gallasant hynny yn gwbl ; ag 
hynny ymgynghreirio ag anffyddloniaid y Cymry yn 
Lloegr a gollasant ei hiaith, a dwyn cenedl y Saeson i'r 
ynys honn er dial ar y Cymry am ei gwrthgil ragwared 
gwlad Ffrainc ag Eidal rhag eu myned yno, lie ydd 
oeddent au llawn ergyd ar fyned. Gwaith gwyr Rhufain 
yn hynn, gwaith beilchion rhyfygnerth trawsymgais yn 
ymdaeogi, ag yn adfileinio yn eu syrth, a hynny achos y 
gormes gan drawsineb a yrraint holl wledydd y byd ar 
ba rai y byddai ganddynt y gafael lleiaf ar a'r lie lleiaf, 
a fuant cylch oes oesoedd yn ymfawrhau fwy fwy yng 
ngolwg daear a nef. O'r diwed gan ymnewyd er gwaeth 
yn eu buchedd, ag o i waeth beunydd, gan ymleihau o 
fawr i fach, ag o fach hyd ddim yng ngolwg yr holl fyd, 
fal dan olau yn lleihau y cysg yn hwyhau hyd na bo'n 
y diwedd ond un nos diloer a diser dan dewlen ddu 'r 
nos, heb na lleuad nag ychwaith yn ymddangos, ag heb 
amgen yn debyg i oleuni nag ambell llewyrn i mewn ag 
i maes mewn ergyd amrant. Fal hynn y darfu dydd 
Rhufain heb adael gymmaint a chof ammriw ei henw ar 
y ddaear. Unpublished MS. 

TRANSLATION. 

In the time of Maxen Wledig (Maximus), Emperor of 
the Isle of Britain, the Romans carried away from this 
island as much bread corn as they could, and thereby 
brought scarcity and famine upon the island, and conse- 
quently there was a great mortality among the nation of 



200 THE FALL OF ROME. 

the Cymry. Owain, the son of Maxen Wledig, seeing 
this, and bent upon checking it, assembled his army, and 
conquered the Romans ; then did the Britons recover 
their privileges and crown. And much did the Romans 
strive with the view of regaining their supremacy over 
the isle of Britain, but they never could wholly succeed. 
Whereupon they entered into a confederacy with the 
infidel Cymry in Lloegr, who had lost their language, 
and brought the nation of the Saxons to this island, for 
the purpose of taking revenge upon the Cymry, for having 
kept them off from the countries of France and Italy, 
that they might not go thither, where they were fully 
bent upon going. The conduct of the Romans in this 
respect was the conduct of proud, presumptuous, and 
usurping men, becoming rude, and full of rage in their 
fall. This was because of the usurpation which they had 
frowardly brought upon all the countries of the earth 
over which they had any, the least, hold, and amongst 
which they had any room, and thus magnifying them- 
selves more and more in the sight of heaven and earth. 
At last they changed their mode of life for the worse, and 
from bad to worse continually, diminishing from great to 
small, and from small to nothing, in the sight of all the 
world. As whilst the light is diminishing, the shadows 
are increasing, until at last there be only one moonless, 
starless night, enveloped in the thick veil of nocturnal 
darkness, without moon or [stars] appearing, and with 
nothing like light, or any occasional gleam appearing and 
disappearing in an instant of time; even so ended the 
day of Rome, without leaving as much as an unimpaired 
remembrance of her name on the face of the earth. 



201 



A WELSH TALE. 

A WELSHMAN, walking over London Bridge, with a neat 
hazel staff in his hand, was accosted by an Englishman, 
who asked him whence he came. 

" I have come from my own country," answered the 
Welshman in a churlish tone. 

" Do not take it amiss, my friend," said the English- 
man ; " if you will only answer my questions, and take 
my advice, it will be of greater benefit to you than you 
imagine. That stick in your hand grew on a spot where, 
hid under it, are vast treasures of gold and silver ; and if 
you remember the place, and can conduct me to it, I will 
put you in possession of those treasures." 

The Welshman soon understood that this stranger was 
what he called a cunning man, or conjurer, and for some 
time hesitated, not willing to go with him among devils, 
from whom the magician must have derived his know- 
ledge ; but he was at length persuaded to accompany him 
into Wales, and going to Oraig y Ddinas, the Welshman 
pointed out the spot whence he had cut the stick. It 
was from the stock, or root, of a large old hazel. This 
they dug up, and under it found a large flat stone. It 
was taken up, and was found to have covered, or closed 
up, the entrance into a very large cavern, down into 
which they both went. In the middle of the passage 
hung a bell ; the conjurer earnestly cautioned the Welsh- 
man not to touch the bell. They reached the lower part 
of the cave, which was very wide, and there they saw 
many thousands of warriors lying down fast asleep in a 
large circle, their heads outwards, every one clad in 
bright armour, with their swords, shields, and other 
weapons lying by them, ready to be laid hold on in an 
instant whenever the bell rung. All the arms were so 
highly polished and bright that they enlightened the 
cavern as it were with the light of ten thousand flames of 
fire. They saw among the warriors one greatly distin- 
guished from the rest by his arms, shield, &c., and having 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 D 



202 A WELSH TALE. 

a crown of gold, and the most precious stones lying by his 
side. In the middle of this circle of warriors they saw two 
very large heaps, one of gold, the other of silver. The 
magician told the Welshman that he might take as much 
as he could carry away of either the one or the other, 
but that he was not to take from both the heaps. The 
Welshman loaded himself with gold ; the conjurer took 
none, saying that he did not want it ; that his knowledge 
was sufficient to him ; that gold was of no use but to 
those who wanted knowledge ; that it was his contempt of 
gold that had enabled him to attain to that superior 
knowledge and wisdom which he possessed. In their way 
out, he cautioned the Welshman again not to touch the 
bell ; but if, unfortunately, he should do so, it might be 
of the most fatal consequence to him, one or more of the 
sleeping warriors would awake, raise up his head, and ask 
if it were day. Should this happen, said the cunning 
man, you must without hesitation answer him, " No, do 
thou sleep on," on hearing of which he would again lie 
down and sleep. 

But in their way up the Welshman, overloaded with 
gold, was not able to pass by the bell without touching 
it, and it rung. One of the Warriors lifted up his head, 
and asked, " Is it day?" 

" No," answered the cunning man, promptly, " it is 
not, sleep thou on ! " 

They got out of the cave, laid the stone over its 
entrance, and replanted the hazel tree. And the cunning 
man, before he parted with his companion, advised him 
to be economical in the use of his treasure ; that he had 
with prudence enough for life ; but that, if by unforeseen 
accidents he might be again reduced to poverty, he might 
repair to this cave for more, repeating the caution not to 
touch the bell if possible, but if he should, to give the 
proper answer, that it was not day, as promptly as he 
could. He also told him that the distinguished person he 
had seen was Arthur, and the others his warriors, where 
they lay asleep, with their arms at hand, in readiness for 
the dawn of that day when the black eagle and the 



A WELSH TALE. 203 

golden eagle should go to war, the loud clangor of which 
would make the earth tremble so much, that the bell 
would ring loudly, all the warriors would then awake, 
take up their arms, and destroy all the enemies of the 
Cymry, who afterwards should repossess the island of 
Britain, re-establish their own kings and government at 
Caerllion, and be governed with justice, and blessed with 
peace, as long as the world lasted. 

The time came when the Welshman's treasures were 
all spent ; he repaired to the cave, and, as before, over- 
loaded himself. In his way out, he touched the bell ; it 
rang ; a warrior lifted up his head, and asked if it was 
day ; but the covetous Welshman, quite out of breath in 
labouring to carry out his heavy load of gold, and withal 
struck with terror at the question, was unable to give the 
necessary answer ; whereon some of the warriors rose up, 
and going after him, took the gold away from him, and 
beat him very much ; then afterwards threw him out, and 
drew the stone after them over the mouth of the cave. 
The Welshman never recovered from the effects of that 
beating, but remained almost a cripple as long as he 
lived, and very poor ; he often returned with some of his 
his friends to Craig y Ddinas, but they could never 
afterwards find the spot, though they dug seemingly 
every inch of the hill. He lived in this crippled and 
poor condition very long, a warning to all in future of 
the evils resulting from the want of knowledge and of 
prudence, and not to be covetous, not to neglect good 
advice, and not to trust that they can, without great 
danger, give way to their own wishes, excepting the wish 
to be good. 

There is, in Glamorgan, a hill called Craig y Ddinas, 
in the parish of Llantrisant ; another of the same name, 
in the parish of Ystrad Dyfodwg ; and a third not far 
from Caermarthen, in the Vale of Towy. In Caermar- 
thenshire the tale is related of the Glamorgan hill ; in 
Glamorgan, of that near Caermarthen. 



204 



THE PRIMITIVE PLACES OF CHRISTIAN WORSHIP 

IN WALES. 

THE first places of Christian worship in Wales seem to 
have been those of the Druids conspicuous places, and 
often circles of stones, in the open air. A great many 
passages in our old bards can never, I believe, be under- 
stood, but in such a sense. The Welsh term for a place 
of worship to this day is llan, an inclosure, or fenced 
place not a covered building. Hence the most usual 
names of parishes, as Llanilltyd, Llan Ddunwyd, Llan- 
grallo, Llanfeiddan, Llanharan, Llantrisaint, Llancarvan, 
Llan Bedr, Llan yn Mowddwy, Llan Elwy, Llansannan, 
Llan Rwst, Llan Aber, Llangollen, and many hundreds 
besides. That llan signifies merely an inclosure,. appears 
from Corphlan, Ydlan, Perllan, Gwinllan, Corlan, &c., 
a corpse inclosure, or burying-ground ; a corn inclosure, 
or stackyard ; an inclosure of fruit trees, or orchard ; an 
inclosure of vines, or vineyard ; a sheep inclosure, or 
sheepfold. Tir caeadlan signifies inclosed ground, or 
land ; so does Llandir. The Saxon, Old English, and 
Scottish kirk, whence the present English Church, is from 
the Latin circus, being an accurate description of what 
the first British places of worship were in the first ages 
of Christianity. Even the Latin fanum originally sig- 
nified only a plot of consecrated ground an area, or 
plat, set apart for sacred uses; and templum anciently 
signified an open place without a roof. That such were 
the first places of Christian worship amongst the Welsh 
appears sufficiently clear from numerous passages that 
occur in our old bards and historians; besides these, and the 
above etymological reasons, we have many topographical 
appearances that prove the same thing. Such are the 
remains of a circle of stones in a field near Llangewydd, 
in Glamorgan, which is still called Yr Hen Eglwys ; and 
tradition says that it was in this circle they worshipped, 
before the present church of Laleston, in the same parish, 



PRIMITIVE PLACES OF CHRISTIAN WORSHIP. 205 

was built, about the year 1100. The circle is still called 
Yr Hen Eglwys, i. e., the old church ; and the field, 
Cae'r Hen Eglwys, or the church field. 

In several parts of Wales we find the present churches 
built within the area of a druidical circle. In Cardigan- 
shire we find several. One of the most remarkable is 
that of Yspytty Kenwyn, near the Devil's Bridge : in the 
church-yard wall we see very large stones set up on end 
at regular distances, forming a circle, the spaces between 
them being filled up by dry walling; there are only 
some parts remaining, but fully sufficient to show what 
it originally was. The stone pillars, at the east entrance 
of the church-yard, are such as are found always at the 
eastern entrance of the druidical circle. Stones of this 
nature are seen about other church-yards in this county, 
as that of Tregaron, &c. ; and a huge stone, exactly like 
that which is always found within a druidical circle, may 
be seen in the church-yard of Llanwrthwl, in Breconshire, 
and in many other Welsh church-yards. The Roman 
Catholics seem to have substituted a cross in the usual 
room of such a stone. Where no stones for such pur- 
poses could be procured, it was usual, and a maxim with 
the Druids, to raise a mound, or tumulus, of earth ; this 
was the oratory. The monkish legends say of Dewi, or 
St. David, that whenever he preached, a mount, or 
tumulus, rose up under his feet, as it were miraculously, 
that he might be seen and more easily heard by all the 
vast congregations that attended his ministry. The 
original truth seems to be that the people were sufficiently 
numerous to raise such a hillock in a very short time. 
One instance of this is mentioned at Llanddewi Brevi. 
The sculptured cross, with a Christian inscription, in the 
circle of Carn Lechart, in Langyvelach parish, in Gla- 
morganshire, and described with a plate by Camden, (or 
his annotator and continuator,) is a remarkable instance ; 
so is Ty Illtyd, in Breconshire. The inscribed stone in a 
circle (mentioned also by Mr. Edward Llwyd) on Gelli 
Gaer mountain, in Glamorgan, is another. Llanilid 
Church is said, by our old writers, to have been the first 



206 THE BARDIC SECRET. 

place of Christian worship in this island, and that Gothic- 
style church stands at the foot of a very large tumulus, 
or druidical oratory (Gwyddfa, a conspicuous place). 

E. W. 



THE BARDIC SECRET. 

IT is a general saying among the bards, that a man 
having made the vow of secresy may so express himself 
that the whole mystery (if it must be called so) may be 
discovered by a person of sagacity and penetration. 
This very general opinion and assertion certainly limits 
the vow to no more than an injunction not to divulge the 
secret in express words. It however forbids the acknow- 
ledgment of its having been by any man discovered, 
however truly so, until he has submitted to the solemn 
vow. It is frequently discovered in the most material, 
but never in all points. The name of God must not be 
audibly pronounced. 

The Almighty, pronouncing His name, declared His 
existence, in which all nature at the same instant felt, and 
with a shout of joy declared, its existence, by the same 
co-instantaneous utterance or declaration. This utterance 
was that of the most exquisite melody that can possibly 
exist ; it was at once and in one monosyllabic sound, the 
utterance of truth, of joy, and of harmonious melody, 
expressing and giving constant existence to the most 
consummate beauty and order, which were co-instan- 
taneously exhibited in the light and beauty which 
appeared at the same instant to continue for ever and 
ever. 

Menw (the blessed) felt, expressed, and exhibited his 
existence in the utterances, derived from them as from 
parents. Einigan Gawr was the first who was taught 
the wisdom and knowledge thence derivable. 



207 



THE TWENTY-FOUR KNIGHTS OF KING ARTHUR. 

(From Mr. Cobb's Book.") 



Llyma enwau Pedwar Marchog 
ar hugain Llys Arthur Amm- 
herawdr, a godidogion o gynnedd- 
fau a geffid ar bob un o naddynt 
yn amgen nag a geffid ar un arall 
o naddynt. 

Tri aurdafodogion Llys Arthur, 

Gwalchmai ap Gwyar, 

Drudwas ap Triffin, 

Ac Eliflod ap Madog ap Uthyr. 

Ac arnynt ydd oedd nid oedd 
nac Amherawdr na Brenin na 
Thywysawc, nag ar un Enw o 
Bendefig ba bynnag ydd elei y 
rhaihynnattynt,nas gwrandewynt 
arnynt pan ydd egorynt eu gen- 
euau, gan hyfry tted eu cly wed yn 
chwedleua. 

Tri chyfiawn Farchawg Llys 
Arthur, 

Bias ap Darre Tywysawg 
Llychllyn, 

Cattwg ap Gwynlliw Filwr 
Arglwydd Llancarfan, 

A Phadrogl Baladr ddellt 
Tywysawc Cernyw. 

Cynneddfau y rhain oedd pwy 
bynnag a wnelei gam a dyn or 
Byd, a gwan ai TIawd ai Brodor 
ai Estron, a Benyw, ai gweddw, 
ai ymddifad, y bai, hwy a ymwn- 
elynt ymhlaid Cyfiawnder, ac er 
cadarned y cam ac ai gwnelai, 
hwy ai gorfyddynt, canys ym- 
rhoddi ar gyfiawnder a wnaethant 
ac oi blaid ac iddei gadw ym 
mhob lie ydd elynt herwydd y 
Tair Cyfraith, nid amgen, Bias 
gan gyfraith Fydol, Cattwc gan 



Here are the names of the 
twenty-four knights of the Em- 
peror Arthur's Court ; and each of 
them was distinguished for pro- 
perties that belonged not to an- 
other. 

The three golden-tongued ones 
of Arthur's Court, 

Gwalchmai, the son of Gwyar, 
Drudwas, the son of Triffin, 
And Eliwlod, the son of Madog 
ap Uthyr. 

Of them it was characteristic 
that there was no emperor king 
prince, nor any other person 
bearing a noble name, to whom 
they went, that did not listen to 
them whenever they opened their 
lips, so sweetly did they discourse. 

The three just knights of Ar- 
thur's Court, 

Bias, the son of Darre, prince 
of Scandinavia, 

Cattwg, the son of Gwynlliw 
the Warrior, lord of Lancarvan, 

And Padrogl with the splintered 
spear, prince of Cornwall. 

It was their characteristic that 
whoever should do wrong to any 
person, weak or poor native or 
stranger maid, or widow, or or- 
phan, they interfered in behalf of 
justice. And however strong the 
wrong or its perpetrator, they 
overpowered them ; for they had 
devoted themselves to the cause 
of justice, to defend and keep it 
wherever they went, in respect of 
the three Laws namely Bias 
according to the secular law 






208 



KNIGHTS OF KINO ARTHUR. 



gyfraith Duw ai Eglwys herwydd 
yr Ysgrythyr Ian, Padrogl gan 
Gyfraith Arfau, ac oi plaid y 
ceffid y Tri Aurdafogion. 



Tri Chynghoriaid Farchogion 
Llys Arthur, 

Cynan ap Cludno Eiddin, 

Arawn ap Cynfarch, 

Lly warch Hen ab Elidir Lydan- 
wyn. 

A'r Tri hyun oeddent Ben- 
cynghoriaid Arthur, yn Llys ac 
yn Lluest, yn Rhawd ac yn 
Rhaith, pa bynnag o ryfel neu o 
fygwth, neu o goll neu o wall, 
neu o glud neu o galedi a fai 
arnaw, hwy ai cynghorynt hyd 
nas gorfuwyd erioed lie ydd elei 
yn ei cyngor ac ef a orfyddai ar 
bawb, sef o dri pheth y cyng- 
horynt hwy ef, nid amgen. 
Gobaith Da, Defodau Da, ac 
Ymgyffred da. 

Ac o fyned gan y tripheth hynn 
efe a orfu ar ddeuddeg Cenedl ac 
a wisgawdd ddeuddeg coron am 
ei benn. Ac yn anghyngor y tri 
hynn ydd aeth ef yn y Gad 
Gamlan lie y gorfuwyd arnaw ac 
achaws hynny o anghyngor y 
colles ef ei fywyd, ac y collasant 
y Cymry ei Tir ai Coron yn 
Lloegr, sef hynn y geiriau a 
ddygynt y tri hynn yn eu harfau, 
" Nid Swyn ond cyngor da ai 
wneuthur." 



Tri Gwyryfiaid Marchogion 
Llys Arthur, 

Illdud Farchawg, 
Peredur fab Efrawg, a 



Cattwg according to the law of 
God and His Church as expressed 
in the Holy Scripture Padrogl 
according to the law of arms. 
And on their side were the three 
golden-tongued ones. 

The three counselling knights 
of Arthur's Court, 

Cynan, the son of Clydno 
Eiddin, 

Arawn, the son of Cynfarch, 

Llywarch Hen, the son of 
Elidyr Lydanwyn. 

These three were the chief coun- 
sellors of Arthur, in Court and in 
Tent on the march and in the 
forum. Whatever of war or of 
threat, of loss or of want, of 
weight or of hardship, he might 
be exposed to, they counselled him 
in such a manner that he never 
was overcome where he took their 
advice, but he himself overcame 
all. And they counselled in 
respect of three things, namely, 
good hope, good manners, and 
good perception. 

And from following these three 
things he conquered twelve na- 
tions, and wore twelve crowns on 
his head. And it was against the 
advice of these three that he went 
to the Battle of Camlan, where he 
was subdued. It was because of 
such disregard of counsel that he 
lost his life, and the Cymry lost 
their land and their crown in 
England. 

The following were the words 
which these three bore in their 
arms, - 

" There is no charm but a good 
counsel in action." 

The three virginal knights of 
Arthur's. Court, 
Illtyd, the knight, 
Peredur, the son Evrog, and 



KNIGHTS OF KING ARTHUR. 



209 



Bwrthfab Brwth BreninGwas- 
gwyn. 

A phynnag o le ydd elynt y 
rhai hynn, nid oedd na Chawr, na 
Gwyddones, na Gwagysbryd, na 
Gwrith, na neb rhyw o beth 
anysprydawl a safei lie byddynt 
gan nas gellynt eu haros, ag nid 
oedd nas darogenynt o helynt a 
tbraill eu Cenedl au Gwlad. A 
lie ydd elynt yn rhyfel ni phylai 
arf un o naddynt, ac nis gallai 
gelyn eu gorfod, na Chyfaredd 
fenu arnynt. 

Tri Marchogion Brenhinolion 
Llys Arthur, 

Morgan Mwynfawr Brenin 
Morganwg ac Ystrad ferwig yn y 
Gogledd, 

Medrawd ap Llew ap Cynfarch 
Brenin Godir Goden yn y Gog- 
ledd, a 

Hywel ap Emyr Llydaw. 

Ac nid oedd neb o Amherawdr 
neu Frenin na neb rhyw arall o 
Bendefig a ballai iddynt rhag 
eu Brei moled, au hurddas, au 
Doethed ar laferydd au tecced o 
bryd a Gwedd, au glaned o gam- 
pau a defodau, pan ydd elynt yn 
heddwch, a hefyd nid oedd na 
Milwr na Rhyswr na Gwilliad a 
allai eu haros pan ydd elynt 
mewn rhyfel ac yn nerth arfau. 
A chan fraint acuridd as y ceisynt 
eu neges ac yn gystal a hynny 
gan bwyll a syberwyd. Achaws 
hynny yi gelvvid hwynt y Tri 
Marchog Brenhinolion. 



Tri Gwrthwyneb Farchogion 
Llys Arthur, 

Sanddef Bryd Angel, 
Morfran ap Tegid, 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 



Bwrth, the son of Brwth, king 
of Gascony. 

And wherever these went, there 
was neither giant nor witch vain 
spirit nor phantom, nor any thing 
unspirituai, that would stand where 
they were, for they could not bear 
them. And there was nothing 
they would not predict in regard 
to the state and condition of their 
nation and country. And when 
they went to war the weapons of 
none of them grew blunt, nor 
could any foe subdue them, nor 
any enchantment affect them. 

The three royal knights of 
Arthur's Court, 

Morgan the Courteous, king of 
Glamorgan and Strath Berwick 
in the North, 

Medrawd the son of Llew ap 
Cynvarch, king of Godir Goden 
in the North ; and 

Hywel, the son of Emyr 
Llydaw. 

And there was neither em- 
peror, king, nor any other noble- 
man, that would fail them because 
of their royalty and dignity ; and 
because they were so wise in 
speech so comely in person, and 
so distinguished in qualities and 
manners in times of peace. Also, 
there was neither soldier, cham- 
pion, nor bandit, that could stand 
before them when they were en- 
gaged in war, and by the force of 
arms. And it was in respect of 
privilege and dignity that they 
sought their purpose, as well as dis- 
creetly and by courtesy. Where- 
fore they were called the three 
royal knights. 

The three adverse knights of 
Arthur's Court, 

Sanddev of Angel aspect, 
Morvran, the son of Tegid, 
2E 



210 



KNIGHTS OF KING ARTHUR. 



A Glewlwyd Gafael fawr. 

Ar y rhai hynn ydd oedd y 
byddai gwrthwyneb gan bawb ai 
gwelynt ballu iddynt, pa bynnag 
o neges a geisiynt. Sanddef gan 
ei decced, sef y barnai bob un ai 
gwelai mai Angel o'r Nef ydoedd, 
a phawb ai carai a serch dirfawr. 
Morfran, gan ei haccred, sef y 
tyngai bob un ai gwelai mai 
Cythraul o Uffern ydoedd, a 
phawb ai ofnai ac a roddai ei 
neges iddaw er cael gwared da o 
hanaw. Glwylwyd Gafaelfawr 
gan ei faint ai nerth ai erchylled, 
sef ai ofnid yn fawr, achaws hynny 
efe a gaffai ei neges bynnag o beth 
y bai, rhag ofn ei ddigiaw. 



Tri Chadfarchawg Llys Arthur, 

Cattwr Tywysawc Cernyw, 

Owain ap Urien Rheged, a 

Maelgwn Gwynedd. 

Cynneddfau arnynt ni chilynt 
o Gad a Gosawd er na Saeth na 
Gwayw, nac er cleddyf, nac er 
maen, ac ni bu diffyg gorfod i 
Arthur lie byddai y rhai hynny 
ynghad y gydag ef, sef y gwydd- 
ynt ac y gwnelynt fwy na neb 
arall o farchog a geffid ynghad. 
Achos hynny Tri Chadfarchawg 
Arthur au gelwid. 

Tri Marchawg Lledrithawg 
Llys Arthur, 

Menw ap Teirgwaedd, 1 
Trystan ap Tallwch, a 
Chai Hir ap Cynyr farfawc. 

Cynneddf arnynt oedd ym- 
rithiaw yn y rhith a fynnynt, er 



And Glewlwyd of the Mighty 
Grasp. 

It was peculiar to these that all 
who saw them were averse to fail 
them in any of their wishes. 
Sanddev, because of his beauty, 
for every one who saw him thought 
him an angel from heaven, and 
all loved him with great love. 
Morvran, because of his ugliness, 
for every one who saw him swore 
that he was a devil from hell, and 
all feared him and would give him 
his wish, in order to get rid of 
him. Glewlwyd of the Mighty 
Grasp, because of his stature and 
strength and hideousness, that is, 
he was greatly feared. Wherefore 
he obtained his wish whatever it 
might be from fear of offending 
him. 

The three battle knights of 
Arthur's Court, 

Cattor, prince of Cornwall, 
Owain, the son of Urien Reged, 
And Maelgwn Gwynedd. 
It was their characteristic that 
they would not retreat from battle 
and assault, in spite of arrow, 
spear, sword, or stone. And Ar- 
thur never failed of victory when- 
ever these were with him in battle, 
for they knew and accomplished 
more than any other knight in 
battle. Wherefore were they called 
the three battle knights of Arthur. 

The three illusory knights of 

Arthur's Court, 

Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, 1 
Trystan the son of Tallwch, 
And Cai the Tall, son of Cynyr 

the Bearded. 

It was their characteristic that 

they could appear in any form 



1 Menw Hir o'r Gogledd (mewn 
Llyfr arall). 



1 Menw the Tall from the 
North, according to another book. 



KNIGHTS OF KINO ARTHUR. 



211 



ymgyrch au neges, a myned lie 
byddai achaws iddynt> a phan ydd 
elei yn galed arnynt, ac am hynny 
nis gallai neb eu gorfod, na gwy- 
bod y lie byddynt, fal y gellid 
gosawd arnynt. 

Ac o nerth, a chyngor, a 
phwyll, a chynneddfau y pedwar 
ar luigain hyn o Farchogion y 
Corfu Arthur ar ei holl Elynion, 
ac o fyned gan anghyngor, y colics 
ef y Gad Gam Ian, ac y gor- 
fuwyd arnaw. 



they pleased, with the view of 
seeking their purpose, and go 
where there was occasion for them, 
and whenever it went hard with 
them. Therefore no one could 
master them, or know where they 
were that they might be attacked. 

And it was by the strength 
counsel judgment, and capacities 
of these twenty-four knights that 
Arthur overcame all his enemies ; 
whereas it was from non-com- 
pliance with their counsel that he 
lost the battle of Camlan, and was 
conquered. 



THE ARMS OF ARTHUR. 



Llyma enwau Arfau Arthur, 
nid amgen, 

Bongogoniant, ei waywffon, 
Caledfwlch, ei gleddyf, 
Carnwennan, ei ddager. 



These are the names of Arthur's 
arms, that is to say, 

Bongogoniant his lance, 
Caledvwlch his sword, 
Carnwennan his dagger. 



THE SHIPS OF ARTHUR. 



Llyma Enwau llongau a fuant 
i Arthur, 

Gwibliant, 

Caswennan, 

Gorwennan, 

Gwennan, 

Torrogan, 

Gwionan, 

Hwylwennan, 
Sef Saith oeddynt. 

Ar Llongau hynn a fuant yn 
hebrwng y Saint i Ynys Enlli y 
gan Teilaw ac Emyr Llydaw. 
Hafod MS. 



These are the names of ships 
that belonged to Arthur. 

Gwibliant, 

Caswennan, 

Gorwennan, 

Gwennan, 

Torrogan, 

Gwionan, 

Hwylwennan, 
being seven in number. 

And these ships were used by 
Teilo and Emyr Llydaw in con- 
veying the Saints to the Isle of 
Bardsey. 



212 



I*. ESSAY 

ON THE ADVANTAGES ACCRUING TO ENGLISHMEN 

FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF THE WELSH 

LANGUAGE. 

By MANCENION. 

Dedicated by invitation to the Grand Eisteddfod at Llangollen, 
September^, 1858, by their Essayist and Advocate. 

[This Essay was sent too late for competition. ED. CAMS. JOUR.] 

PREFACE. 

As an Englishman desirous of becoming acquainted with 
a knowledge of mankind, I naturally wander wherever 
there is food for thought. In my travels I have discovered 
one great fact : the language of man is the link that binds 
society in the bonds of reason ; the more that language 
becomes diversified, the further man becomes estranged 
from his fellow-man, and the greater the discord upon 
the earth. I have proved this fact/ In compiling my 
Etymologicum Anglicanum, I discovered, in my researches 
after words and etymons, there must be a language 
existing as the base to the rest. As an Englishman, I 
sought in the Scandinavian tongues. I found it not. 
I sought for it in the Celtic. I discovered a faint glimpse 
that led me to believe I was on the right track. The 
world's history at once opened to my view ; I visited the 
countries to the north of Europe, and to the south of 
Europe, investigating races and languages, and compar- 
ing them together weighing them and valuing them, in 
the estimate of truth and stability. As an Englishman, I 
blushed to find how much our historians and philologers 
had bound us up in the trammels of ignorance, even in 
the knowledge of our own country ; how much our 
statesmen and governments had kept us divided, as dis- 
tinct peoples. I saw at once what advantages would 
accrue to us as a great nation the British if our 
ancient tongue the language of the ancient world, 
was cultivated in this, our common country. 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN, ETC. 213 

On the announcement in the programme of the Eistedd- 
fod of a question put to the world upon this subject, I 
resolved to add my humble tribute to the great and 
glorious design. 

MANCENION 

September 20, 1858. 



In an essay of so much importance as this, in which a 
people are greatly interested, it is highly necessary that 
it should combine the greatest amount of truth and 
wisdom, that its facts and reasoning be of such a 
character as to do honour to the subject itself, and that 
the whole be made as clear to the common mind as it is 
possible simplicity of language and style can make it. It 
is for the eye and ear of a whole people. 

A people came direct from God a primeval race, 
preserving their language and kindred through all time. 
The laws of peace and war do not affect them, for they 
and their government are patriarchal from the earliest 
age of their existence, acknowledging no sovereignty but 
their language, manners, habits, customs, and sympathies, 
which are the true and permament conditions of the 
social compact. 

The proneness of mortality to sin may weaken the love 
God has for His people ; political vices may distract the 
happiness of primitive society, and confusion arise to 
sever asunder the natural bonds of the human family ; 
but, as " a remnant of all shall be saved," a people never 
dies. Though they be scattered over the earth like the 
seeds of vegetable nature by the rude winds which shake 
the stems that bore them, or the spray on the stormy 
ocean bounding from wave to wave as fickle as they are 
free, the seeds of human nature will take root and appear 
again, as the great tidal wave unites the waters, and the 
races of men, in distinct peoples, will again be made 
perfect. 

As the Scythian fountain of human life sent forth its 
millions of human beings, east, west, north, and south ; 



214 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 



Indo-Scythian great parent of the Indo-Hellenic ; Indo- 
Celtic Indo-Germannic, embraced every branch of the 
early peoples of the world, they are, even now, to the 
eye of the ethnologist and the philologist almost as distinct 
in race, character, language, manners, customs, and other 
features, national and distinctive, as they were when God 
scattered the workers of Babel over the face of the earth. 
The aboriginal people of Britain were Celto-Iberians, 
from the pure Scythian stock, descending through the 
Indo-Hellenic races into Cisalpine Gaul, called Iberia; 
they spoke the language of the ancient world, almost as 
pure as when Noah bade his sons to go forth, multiply, 
and replenish the earth ; l they existed as a people more 
than ten centuries in the high districts of Spain and 
Britain, before the Roman standard-bearer leaped upon 
the shores of the island ; their commercial importance 
and intercourse with foreign peoples existed long antece- 

1 " The proof of its being a primitive language is its simplicity, and 
great inflection formed by the tongue, as though the words were being 
made at the time they are spoken." Latham, Celtic Language. 
PEDIGREE OF THE FAMILY OP NOAH. Genesis x. 



NOAH=T= 



Shem=?= 
Elam 




Ham=y= 
Cush=T= 




I 
Japhet=f= 

Gomer=r= 




Ashur 




1 ' 


1 




1 


Arphaxad=p 




Mizraim 


Nimrod 


Magog 


Ashkenaz 


Lud 


Salah=j= 


Phut 
Canaan 


Saba 
Havilah 


Madal 
Javan=j= 


Ripath 
Togarmah 


Aram=f= 


Eber=j= 




Sabta 


Tubal 1 


1 1 


I 1 


j i 




Raamah =j= 


Mesech 


Elishah 


Uz 


Peleg 




Sabtecha j 


Turas 


Tarshish 



Hul 

Gother 
Mash 



Joktan= 



Shebah 
Dodar 



Kittim 
Dodanim 

Almedad 

Sheleph 

Hazarmaveth Jerah Hadoram Uzal Dikla Obal Abimael 

Sheba Ophir Havilah Jobab. 

It will be seen, whilst the descendants of Shem continued in the East 
promulgating the Hebrew language, those of Japhet went west with 
Gomer and Magog. Isidore says, " The nations which spring from 
Japhet went over Asia as far as the Taurus on the north ; the middle 
and all Europe as far as the Brit. Ocean ; and gave their names both 
to their places and the people, a great many whereof have changed, 
but many still remain." 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 215 

dent to the Christian era, during which dark and mythical 
time the Scythian language was common to each other. 
The Gael of Iberia, and the Gael of Britain, were one 
family, and will so remain to the end of time. 

It is thus necessary to trace the early history of the 
Celtic Britons, as well as their language, in order to 
establish a basis for the subject of this essay; besides, 
authorities are required to support our observations, to 
give them greater weight with those whom this essay is 
intended to benefit ; before doing so fully, it is essential 
that we should clear away the rankling weeds historians 
have cast round the roots of British history, purify the 
source, and leave it to the calm reflective mind to de- 
liberate upon our observations. 

Our writers on British history, Camden, Gibson, Rapin, 
Hume and Smollet, Goldsmith and others, have laid the 
foundation of the history of Britain upon a base unworthy 
of their own credit and good names. They would have 
their readers, and the people generally to all time, believe 
that, at the time of the invasion of the island by the 
Roman legions, the Britons were a race of barbarians 
wild savages who went naked, with their bodies painted 
to give them an appearance sufficiently hideous as to 
frighten their enemies. Deeper research into our history 
shows all this to be a mere tale founded upon prejudice, 
having its origin in the narrative of a conqueror, fol- 
lowed up by the prejudice, or ignorance, of Dio Nicaeus, 
Xiphlin, Herodian, Solinus, and Tertullian, all second or 
third-rate authors, living two centuries after the invasion ; 
and from them to other historians, until the notion found 
its way into our school books the title-pages prefixed 
with portraits of two painted savages thus making an 
impression of a false character to every rising generation, 
leading them astray in this most important part of our 
country's history ! 

Let those whose minds have been so tutored read the 
Triads of Dyvnwal Moelmud, written long antecedent to 
the invasion by the Romans, then ask if a people governed 
by such laws could be a race of painted savages ? They 



216 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

will there find the wisdom of Solomon, and the very spirit 
of the Hellenic jurisprudence, familiarized to a people 
rich in native language, simplicity of manners, and habits 
of peace ; the moral axioms therein contained made 
" household words " in every tribe, breathing a spirit of 
liberty, independence, and self-government, worthy of the 
most civilized people of that era. 

Let the sceptic in British history read the Myvyrian 
Archawlogy attentively, not prima facie, as the school- 
boy reads Esop's fables, but read, mark, learn, and in- 
wardly digest the excellent works there unfolded to 
history ! Read the ancient records of Cambria brought 
forth by that eminent scholar and antiquary, Edward 
Lhwyd, keeper of the Museum at Oxford, and he will 
find that, as early as 1300 B.C., the Britons were a people 
inhabiting the western shores of the island as workers of, 
and dealers in, tin and lead ; that those dwelling on the 
southern shores, opposite ancient Gaul, attended to their 
flocks and herds, trading in skins, honey, dogs, cattle, " of 
which," says Caesar, " they had great abundance ;" that 
these people actually covenanted with the commercial 
venturers of Phoenicia, who traded amongst them, for 
leave to work mines of tin and lead ; then let the sceptic 
reason with himself, and ask if the most intelligent and 
industrious people of Tyre and Sidon, if the great Hiram, 
and the Phoenicians, who traded to every part of the 
known world, would make covenants with " painted 
savages ! " A covenant is a result of reason, deliberation, 
mutual good will towards each other, for the purpose of 
its due performance ; is it likely a covenant could exist 
between " barbarians and painted savages," and a civilized 
people ? 

They were a people, and of some importance too, for 
Herodotus, 484 years before Christ, had heard much of 
them, and had inquired from merchants who had traded 
there, yet he could not learn exactly where they dwelt ; 
subsequent facts illustrated his inquiries, and history is 
borne out in favour of their great antiquity. 

The Ancient Britons, the learned Arthur O'Connor 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 217 

was half inclined to believe, were as old as the hills that 
they were indigenous to the island itself; but this theory 
is nowhere substantiated ; it originated in the extreme 
antiquity of the people, and the myth which hung over 
their history. 2 Perhaps, had the Alexandrine Library still 
existed, the history of every country would now have 
been known. 

Legitimate, or authentic, history may now be traced 
back to about seven hundred years before the Christian 
era. Mythical history exists above two thousand years 
anterior; out of these materials we discover the Ancient 
Britons to be a tribe, or Gael, of the great Scythian 
family of Asia Minor, and probably of Phoenician origin, 
for we find them to have been the earliest colonists every- 
where. Some writers say, and believe, they originated 
from the expatriated Trojans ; however, be that as it may, 
they would still be of the Scythian race. But let the 
inquirer ask of the ethnologist, the antiquary, and the 
philologist, what affinity there exists between the Celtic- 
Britons in formation, habits, manners, customs, and lan- 
guage, with the recorded accounts of the early Phrenician 
race? 3 The early Greek historians, Homer, Orpheus, 
Herodotus, Aristotle, Polybius, and others, agree that the 
manners, customs, character, disposition, habits, arms, im- 
plements, and language, are very similar in the historical 
records of the people of Illiurn, and the pastoral tribes of 
Syria, and those of the Ancient Britons. Philologists and 
archaBologists all agree in the great affinity between the 

2 " The general opinion among the learned is, they (Britons) were 
descended from Gomer, the grandson of Noah, and came many 
centuries before the Goths and Saxons into parts of Germany and 
Britain. Thackeray, vol. i. p. 4. 

" The Phoanicians long carried on an intercourse with these islands 
before the Carthagenians and Greeks: with the exception of the 
Hebrews, the Phoenicians were the most interesting and wonderful 
people of antiquity. Nearly fifteen hundred years before the Christian 
era they taught Europe the use of letters, as the Phoenician is said to 
have been a dialect of the ancient Hebrew language they acquired 
from the Israelites, who, at that time, had received from the Almighty, 
through Moses, the tables of the law." Thackeray, cap. i. p. 6. 

3 See Appendix. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. 1. 2 F 



218 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

Celtic- British language and the ancient Hebrew, Hellenic, 
Chaldaic, and Syriac languages, as used by the early 
tribes of the Eastern world. 4 

The learned Dr. Davies, in his analogical and com- 
parative dictionary of the Celtic-British with the Hebrew, 
Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldaic, and Samaritan languages, 
affords to the world a substantial proof of the great truth 
and natural affinity there is in the old languages with the 
Celtic- British. Englishmen must study the Welsh lan- 
guage to appreciate the great value of such a book to 
ancient British history. He proves, beyond doubt, the 
superiority and antiquity of the Welsh language to be 
greatly over that of the Scandinavian dialects spoken in 
England and elsewhere. 

The mutations of the Scythian language of Northern 
Europe, including the great branches of the Sclavonic, 
Sarmatian, Lithuanian, and Tuetonic, following the Cim- 
brian stream of the Scythian race, even to^the remote 
regions of Iceland, are clearly shown in northern archae- 
ology to be of such a serious nature that very little is 
left of the Asiatic, or Indo-Scythian language, whilst the 
modern Welsh affords abundant proofs, in words and 
roots, to justify the descent of the children of Gomer to 
the mountain homes of Cambria. 

Let the inquirer, if he be an Englishman, pursue this 
study through the Roman historians (a list of whom will 
be found annexed), 5 those who have endeavoured to show 
the progress of Roman dominion in Britain credible 
historians whose names have outlived prejudice in their 
writings much will be found to illustrate the real cha- 
racter of the Ancient Britons much to admire in the 
noble-minded British chief Caractacus the indomitable 
and eloquent Galgacus the heroic and devoted Boadicea 
the strategy and skill of Cassibellanus, virtues and offices 
not to be expected from a race of " painted savages," but 

4 See Appendix. 

5 In the MS. there was added, as a note, a table of " Early 
Alphabets from Phoenician to Roman," which we are obliged to omit 
for want of type. ED. CAMB. JOUR. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 219 

such attributes as were every way worthy of the most 
celebrated Greek and Roman leaders ; eloquence equal to 
that of the former; heroism and valour as great and 
glorious as those achievements which were celebrated and 
honoured by ovations and public games in the palmiest 
days of Roman magnificence and empire. 

The perverted minds of Englishmen must be en- 
lightened through the medium of ancient British history, 
through the Welsh language the language that will bear 
the test of criticism for its purity the language which 
the Druids taught, and in which the bards sang their 
beautiful triads and songs ; they must gather from the 
fragments, as they would judge by the sample, the quality 
of the language itself, and read in the body the character, 
quality, and dispositions of the people. 

The Druids, the ancient priests of the island, despite 
the odium of superstition cast upon them by English 
writers, and by none more unworthily than Thomas 
Hobbes, of Malmesbury, will be found to be men very 
superior to other orders of priests of that time ; their rites 
and ceremonies no less than those of the Hebrew people ; 
their creeds as wprthy of popular belief as those of any 
other heathen people; their morals, it is not too much 
to say, were very superior to those of the pagan wor- 
shippers of old Rome, for they were grounded upon the 
laws and customs, as well as upon the religion, of Judah ; 
and very many of the axioms found in the druidical code 
originated in the practice of the Druids reading and 
studying, and teaching the Greek sages. 6 Their mytho- 
logy was a mixture of the Greek and Hebrew, inclining 
very much to the Israelitish version of theology, and to 
this may be attributed the reason why the gospel of the 

6 Milton says, " The Pythagorean philosophy, and the wisdom of 
Persia, had their beginning from this island (Britain) ; the Druids of 
the Gomerians, and the Filid of the Magogians,* or Scythians, whether 
in these islands or on the Continent, were the original sages of Europe 
in all the sciences from Japhet." 

* Magogians, descendants of Magog (Magi, Magicians), one of the sons of 
Japhet. 



220 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

New Testament was grafted upon the ancient British 
language, and introduced into the island at such a very 
early period after Christ's mission had been fulfilled on 
earth. 

The Druids 7 were not merely fire worshippers after the 
manner of the Indo-Scythians of Persia ; the Zerida vesta 
of Zoroaster, also the Vedas of Bramah, and the mytho- 
logy of Jupiter, were more or less understood by them; 
but their sacrifices and fires were strongly associated with 
the pagan fire worshippers of Bible history. They were 
not merely priests in the strict sense and meaning of the 
word, they were the wise men, the councillors of the 
chiefs and the people, the teachers of the youth, the 
expounders of the law, the judges of serious criminal 
affairs, the depository of the wisdom of the whole people 
chroniclers, by oral tradition, from generation to gene- 
ration, of all the events in the history of the Celtic- 
British race the great supervisors of the entire conduct 
of every man, woman, and child in Britain. From them, 
and their traditionary history, came the triads and songs 
of the ancient bards. The illustrious names of Aneurin, 
Taliesin, Llywarch Hen, and Merddin, are associated in 
the wake of history, and hand down to posterity the 
character and actions of these extraordinary people. 

Let the traducers of ancient Britain learn the language 
of the Cymry, and chaunt the strains of the bardic 
poets, whose patriotic songs breathed in a tongue soft 
and soothing as the flowery eloquence and fascinating 
cadences of the Persian groves ; let them dwell upon the 
native simplicity of the Celtic race, and admire in song 

7 " The Druids act in all matters. They always have about them 
a large number of young men as pupils, who treat them with the 

greatest respect Their order has become numerous 

and influential, and young persons are gladly placed with them to 
learn their doctrines by their parents and relations. In their schools 
the pupils are said to learn by heart a large number of verses, and in 
this way some of their scholars pass twenty years in completing their 
(studies) education, for it is unlawful to commit their doctrines to 
writing." * Caesar's Commentaries. 

* Were they peripatetic, as the Aristotelians practised ? R. J. R. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 221 

the pure and unadorned character of the people, whose pas- 
toral habits inspired the great bards who sang their fame. 

The poetry of the early bards (rude as they have been 
represented in English history) glow with the most refined 
sentiment, and abound in wisdom, touched with an air of 
lightness that makes it pleasing to the ear, and familiar 
to the sense ; when translated into the language of Saxon 
England, it loses force and beauty it teaches that native 
enthusiasm which comes upon the ear in soft and thrilling 
tones, rich as Hebrew song, 8 appealing to the heart with 
soft expression, and to the mind with reason ; still there 
is an eloquence in the English version that shows the 
bardic song and druidical sentiment to be such as to raise 
a blush upon the cheek of the traducers, who must be 
convinced the " painted savages " of Britain were neither 
barbarous in sentiment, or ignorant in wisdom, and that 
the ancient people have been most unworthily condemned ! 

The recording spirit of truth rises from the dark abyss 
of the past, enlightening the present, and illuming, with 
bright and cheerful rays, the progress of the future. 
The shadowy folds of ignorance, that cast a sombre hue 
over the historic page of ancient Britain, have disappeared 
before the ascending genius of a highly favoured' people ; 
Britain, the land of " painted savages," still maintains 
her name, language, and people, despite the innovations 
of Roman legions, and their imperial sway ; the treache- 
rous and ungrateful Saxons, Angles, and Jutes ; the 
piratical Danes, and ambitious Normans, and their iron 
rule, the whole combined, neither by treachery, force, 
or lordly domination, have these mixed races for eighteen 
centuries past been able to wrest from the ancient people 
the name of Britain, obliterate their language, or alienate 
them from the aboriginal stock. England is but a portion 
of the island it is not Britain ; the whole maintains its 
original name, and the Gael of the Celtic race abide in 
their ancient homes ; and the language of Britain, Eri, 
and Mona, is the base of its literature. 

8 See Note, p. 224. 



222 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

In the vast republic of letters, there is a spirit of juris- 
prudence which governs the natural flow of eloquence, 
governing every sound in unison with the expression of 
thought, developing language in its purity, reason in its 
entirety, and the native genius which the Divine spirit 
breathed in man in all its fullness and glory, dignifying 
the human race above all His creatures. 

Purity of language is the richest medium of reason and 
eloquence, appealing to the mind and to the heart; it 
consists of brevity, simplicity, and harmony of expression, 
and the nearer any language approaches this standard, 
the greater will be its value, its strength, and consistency 
qualities of genuine jurisprudence, recognized in the 
republic of letters as the best guide to intellectual excel- 
lence, and social perfection : hence it is the Anglo-Saxon 
philologist prides himself in the greatness and dominion 
of his language over the literature and language of the 
civilized world : hence it is the schoolmen declare the 
simplicity and euphony of the ancient Greek render it 
the richest and most powerful of all languages spoken in 
the republic of letters since the Homeric age : hence it is 
the children of Heber patiently and silently rely upon 
the sanctus linguce which gave to the world those beautiful 
essays of Divine wisdom expressed in the Book of Job, 
the Psalms of David, and the Proverbs of Solomon : hence 
it is the learned pundits of the East the followers of 
Bramah, Siva, and Vishnu declare the Sanscrit and the 
Purani to be the ancient, unalloyed, simple language of 
the human race. 

But the philologists of Europe, dealing with the question 
of languages, all forgot the great fact that there is a 
language to be found amongst the tongues of the earth, 
however much it is disguised, that will prove to be the 
language of all the human race. It is discernible through 
all the confusion of tongues and dialects ; the stream of 
the ancient Scythian language is visible in every country, 
and in every tongue, oozing through the surface, dis- 
covering to the philologer the great truth of the fiat of 
the Almighty, " a remnant of all shall be saved ;" and it 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 223 

is for the philologer to show where the pure language of 
the ancient world is most abundant. He will find it in 
Cambria ! 

The simple Anglo-Saxon language of Alfred at an 
early period became mixed up with the Gothic, Teutonic, 
Sclavonic, Icelandic, Sarmatian, the Gael of Transalpine 
and Cisalpine Gaul, the Celto-Iberian, Cantabrian, Hel- 
lenic, and Latin languages. These also blending together 
in form and sound, became the heterogenous tongue now 
called English, which is no language whatever, nearly 
all the originality has disappeared. The Indo-Hellenic, 
the ancient Greek, in which Homer wrote, and " burning 
Sappho loved and sung," is no longer a language of the 
earth ; the corruptions of the Sarmatian, Sclavonian, 
Mongolian, Arabic, and Persian, have so disguised the 
classic language of ancient Greece, that a Bible in the 
ancient and modern Greek will not bear comparison. 
The sacred languages of India the Upangas by the 
mixture of the Persian, Zend, and Pahlavi dialects, and 
those of the Mongolian race, despite the ardour and 
enthusiasm of the priests in guarding the purity of their 
literature, Sir Wm. Jones informs us the ancient Vedas 
and Avatars are scarcely readable in the modern letters 
of the Sanscrit and Purana, whilst the common language 
of the people of India is split up into almost innumerable 
dialects; from Scinde to Cape Comorin, and from the 
Arabian Sea to Birmah, all is a confusion of tongues. 

The holy language of the Hebrews, professedly the same 
the Children of Israel spoke, has undergone the mutations 
of the great Assyrian Empire the symbolic mixture of 
the ancient Egyptian the dark and mysterious innova- 
tions of tongues and races during the Chaldean and Syrian 
wars the transition ages of the Greek republics the 
Roman conquests Moslem fanaticism, arid, lastly, the 
monkish meddling and perversion during the early ages 
of Christianity, all have rendered the language of Heber 
one of the most difficult to understand; but, by the 
perseverance of British scholars, we have been able to 
discover the real beauties of the sacred language of Holy 



224 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

Writ. 9 Where do we find the language that has enabled 
them to pursue their inquiries with such glorious effect ? 
In the Celtic of Lower Europe in the Celto- Iberian 
in the Gel tic- British in the modern Welsh, this is the 
great nerve through which runs the sympathies of the 
ancient race the main channel wherein flows the Scythian 
blood of the Gomerites. Of all the languages of the earth, 
the Celtic is the most pure and unadulterated. 

If the inquirer would pursue the chain of words, and 
follow them through the languages of Indo-Scythia 
through the Tartar tongues of the migratory tribes of the 
desert through the Sclavonian of Northern Europe as 
a Welsh linguist, he would discover the true branch of 
the race of Japhet, by a comparison of words, to be the 
Celto -Iberian, whose colonists peopled Britain and Eri, 
thousands of years ago. 1 

Can there be a doubt of the great antiquity of the 
Celtic- British people in the minds of rational men ? 
Historians point to the Pyramids of Egypt, and say, 
" here are monuments of a people existing forty centuries 
ago;" but the Celto-Britain will ask the historian, " how 
long have those mighty blocks stood on end on Salisbury 

9 As a proof of the continuity and use of the Hebrew language in 
Wales, we find, in the " Angav Cyvyndawd " of the great bard Taliesin 
the following : 

" Traethator fyngofed, 

Yn Efrai yn Efroeg. " 

My lore has been declared in Hebrew, in Hebraic. 

1 " When I considered that Leland writeth of British or Welsh 
language, namely, that the main body of it consisteth of Hebrew and 
Greek words, I begin to collect with myself, how it should come to 
pass. I concluded this could proceed from no other source or root 
but the commerce of the Phoenicians with this nation, who, using 
the same language of the Children of Israel in Canaan, even in the 
primitive times, were great traders, and skillful mariners, and sent out 
colonies through the world. Caer, says Camden, in Britain, is a city, 
as Jerusalem Caer-salem. Thus Carthage in the Punic tongue was 
called Cartheia, that is, New City ; Caer in the Syriac tongue signifies 
a city. Now seeing that the Syrians peopled the whole world with 
their colonies, it may seem probable that they left their tongue also to 
their posterity as the mother of languages." Sammes on Bochartus. 
Britannia Antiqua, 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 225 

Plain ? by what art and skill were they so raised and 
disposed in their annular form, and for what purpose?" 
Here he must pause. History is silent, and we must 
wonder on until time shall unravel and make known 
the history of these Cyclopean British wonders ! 

Philologists may lay their fingers upon the hiero- 
glyphics of the Egyptian temples, and hold them forth as 
symbols of language before the institution of letters, as 
proofs of their antiquity ; but the Ancient Briton will 
tell him the language of the ancient people of the world 
was unwritten, and consisted in certain sounds familiarized 
to the ear by association and kindred, and that such a 
practice has existed amongst all primitive peoples down 
to the present hour; oral tradition being their custom, 
song being the medium, as was the practice of the primi- 
tive Britons ; the very custom alone proves their great 
antiquity. As to the letters of the Ancient Britons, they 
would be the Scythian, as exhibited in the Phrenician, 
Hebrew, and ancient Greek. Arthur O'Connor has 
laboured much to illustrate the early letters of Britain 
and Eri ; and that super-eminent Welsh scholar, Edward 
Lhwyd, gave great credit to the antiquity of the Irish 
language, as subsequently defended by the exile of Erin. 

The true descent of the Welsh language from the 
Hebrew will establish it as a primitive language, worthy 
of the attention of the English inquirer, 2 inasmuch as it 
will endure as long as God's Book, which will be for ever, 
and be a standard of purity and simplicity by which the 
languages of the earth may be tried and compared, to the 
great advantage of truth. It is no proof of the uni- 
versality of the Anglo-Saxon language because it is 
spoken so extensively ; that is a proof of its weakness, as 
it embraces a mixture of all languages to suit all peoples. 
In it 'the Frenchman will find French; the German, 

2 See also note, p. 224. " In the mystic bards and tales, I find 
certain terms which evidently pertain to the Hebrew language, or to 
some dialect of near affinity, as Adonai, the Lord Aladwr, the 
glorious God Arawn, the Arckite, &c." Davies' Mythol. of Brit. 
Druids, p. 94, 1809. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 G 



226 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

German ; the Spaniard, Spanish ; the Italian, Italian ; 
and the Welsh, Welsh. Not so the Welsh it is Celtic 
unalloyed throughout. 

Here let it be observed, if the nomenclature of persons, 
places, -and things be any proof at all (and we must 
admit they are), we have no hesitation in saying that 
Welsh names abound in England to a very great extent. 3 
Dyer exhibits proofs of the Celtic origin of British towns, 
rivers, hills, and other places. O'Connor also illustrates 
the Celtic antiquity of the names of places in Britain. 
Camden, throughout his Britannia, gives the ancient 
British etymology of places and things common to the 
island. Surely, then, it would be of vast advantage to 
the Englishman to study the real language of his country. 

God scattered the human race over the vast fields of 
nature, and gave them the earth for a heritage. He 
endowed them with wisdom, yet He confounded their 
tongues. It was His will that some should dwell in wil- 
dernesses ; some in cities ; some in the warm and genial 
climates of the south of Europe; others in the dark 
hyperborean forests of the stormy north. It was His will 
some should enjoy the blessings that flow from civilization 
and refinement, advancing and expanding the human 
intellect to ornament the social fabric ; others should live 
a life of comparative solitude, enjoying the sweet 
blessings of content in their mountain homes, humble in 
heart, meek in spirit, soft in manners, innocent in customs, 
rich in the unadorned eloquence of their native tongue, 
pure in their religion, and sincere in their devotions to 

3 " I have plainly made out that not only Britain itself, but of most 
places therein of ancient denomination, are purely derived from the 
Phoenician tongue ; and that the language itself, for the most part, as 
well as the customs, religions, idols, offices, dignities of the Ancient 
Britons, are all clearly Phoenician, as likewise their instruments of 
war, slings, and other weapons, their scythed chariots, and their different 
names and distinctions. Out of the same tongue, I have illustrated 
several monuments of antiquity still remaining in Britain, which can 
no other waies be interpreted than in the Phoenician tongue, where 
they have a plain, easie, and undeniable signification." Sammes' 
Britannia Antiqua. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 227 

that God who decreed them a life of pastoral happiness, 
remote from the innovations of the vices and follies of a 
busier world. 

Shall we say less of the children of Cambria than we 
should of the sons of Helvetia, or the patriarchal people 
of the Caucasus, whose happiness depended so much upon 
their primitive manners and customs, language and race? 4 
Shall we, by comparison of the Indo-Scythian races, 
inhabiting the quiet retreats in the Himalaya, the Hin- 
dostani range, or the mountain districts of AfFghanistan, 
with the Scythio-Celtfle, who dwell in the alpine homes 
of Greece, Calabria, the Pyrenees, and Cambria, find the 
descendants of the ancient Cymro to be less deserving our 
especial notice? Shall we not discover in our critical 
researches the people whose ancient name gave a character 
to the island of undying fame have, like remnants of all 
great people, been abused and traduced by conquerors 
and their scribes ? Where does Cambria appear less, in 
what particular branch of social policy is she inferior, to 
any other civilized nation in the world ? What is there 
in her history less interesting to the whole human family 
than there is in the proudest empire, ancient or modern ? 

Let historians and statesmen of modern England blush 
when they reflect upon the real character of the people 
of Wales, their position in relation to genuine history and 
purity of language, in which their ancient fundamental 
laws were written. Let the scribes who wrote them down 
a conquered people, unworthy of historical notice, " hide 
their diminished heads " at the stern approach of Truth, 
unfolding to the present age, and to posterity, the virtues 
that belonged to their ancient sires, and which have been 
so long hidden from the world by the veil of English 
prejudice ! 

4 Alluding to the inhabitants of hilly countries, Diodorus, of Sicily, 
and Strabo, contemporaries of Caesar, B.C. 60, writing of the Briton, 
say, " Their towns are on the hills, on the top of which they inclose 
a large space with felled trees, and within this fence they make for 
themselves huts composed mostly of reeds and logs, and sheds for 
their cattle." Is not this the way all our old fashioned timber houses 
were builded logs and wattles, or reed, filled up with daub, or clay ? 



228 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

The history of Cambria is a history of the world ! 
Ancient Britain was the last home of the Celto-Scythians 
of Western Europe the ultima of their colonization in 
the extreme West. 5 The same spirit that animated the 
ancient patriarchal races the same reverence, the same 
love of liberty, and hatred of despotism the same fellow- 
ship and good feeling for one another, descended in the 
Celtic line, through kindred blood, faithfully and genea- 
logically brought down, now exists amongst the people 
of Cambria. Whilst the follies and vices of the world 
have been rampant in the 'cities of the plains, liberty, love 
of home, kindred, race, and language, have been ever 
found amongst those who dwell in high lands and moun- 
tain districts. 6 After the Deluge, the primitive races 
sought the high lands for dwelling-places ; there the most 
peaceable and virtuous have remained ; whilst the restless, 
ambitious, and viciously inclined of the human family, 
have gone down to the plains, and established cities and 
empires, spreading vice and folly throughout all the 
corners of the earth. 

But for the inhabitants of the mountains of Greece, the 
Hellenic language would have been swept away by the 
despotism of conquering nations; but for the mountaineers 
of Calabria, the chain of the Scythio-Celtic language 
would have been broken ; but for the pastoral people of 
Helvetia, the CeltaB might have perished in the plains of 
Italia, under the barbarous Goths ; but for the enterprizing 
tribes of the Basque Pyrenees, the language of the old 
world would never have found its way into Britain; but 
for the aboriginal Britons perpetuating the line of the 
Celtic language in their remote regions of the West, it 
might have died away ; but " a remnant of all shall be 
saved," and it was left to the Cambrian Britons to stick 
firmly to their language, despite the attempts of the 

5 Many of the Hebrew nation are said to have accompanied the 
Phcenicians in their voyages to Britain : the character of the ancient 
mining tools confirm this notion. Thackeray, History of Ancient 
Britons. 

6 See Note, p. 227. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 229 

Romans to Latinize the country the Anglo-Saxons to 
force their Scandinavian dialects upon them or the 
Normans to overwhelm them with Norman -French. 
History shows how strongly did the Romans labour to 
break the spirit and language of the people of Cambria, 
and how fiercely the Silures and Ordovices of the western 
hills defended their mountain homes, their liberty, and 
language. Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Suetonius, and Agri- 
cola, would have subdued, denationalized, and Latinized 
the people ; but the indomitable spirit of Cassibellanus, 
Caractacus, Galgacus, and other noble-minded chiefs, 
instilled into the minds of the people the necessity of 
preserving their race and language from Roman pollu- 
tion ; even when overcome by the superior strength and 
discipline of the Roman legions, they would not suffer 
their people to bear the yoke of the Roman slave willingly, 
but encouraged them to treasure up their liberty in the 
mountains of Cambria. 

This was the manner in which the Britons defended the 
Scythain race and language under the Roman sway. 
Let such bravery and spirit ever find sympathy in the 
breasts of Englishmen, for this was. the period when the 
name of Britain became patent in Roman history as a 
land of brave people as the country of freedom as a 
race devoted to their homes stubborn in their resolution 
never to become the willing slaves of a conqueror; then 
it was the Roman historians, finding the empire could 
not hold the Britons in subjection, abandoned them to 
their own rule, and eternal fame. 

Let Englishmen lay aside the early prejudices infused 
in their minds by those school historians whose narrow 
conceits and pedantic follies have poisoned the pure source 
of history, let them soar into the higher and rational 
element, and pursue legitimate arguments and facts 
connected with British history, before they venture to 
give an opinion upon the history of Cambria. No doubt 
can exist in the mind of a rational man as to the antiquity 
and purity of the Welsh people, and their language ; and, 
so deeply is their history connected with the history of 



230 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

England, that it would be criminal indeed to neglect the 
history of Wales in writing a history of our common 
country. 

History, in the early ages of any country, is at best 
mythical ; but the language, habits, manners, customs, 
and traditionary history, weighed together in the intel- 
lectual scale, is held legitimate by historians and civilians. 
Although we may descend through dark ages from the 
days of the patriarchs, it is riot essential ; but, as English- 
men, take a stand at that period of the world's history 
which shows the people of the coast of Syria of ancient 
Phrygia the bucolic people of the hills and dales of Asia 
Minor, where the primitive races of mankind lived in 
peace to be similar in character, habits, manners, 
customs, to those of the people of Cambria; that the 
language they spoke was very similar to that in which 
the heroic Caractacus addressed the Emperor Claudius at 
Rome. In investigating this subject, what immense 
advantage would it be to the historian and the philologer 
in tracing the language of ancient Troy to the roots of 
the language of ancient Britain. 

Englishmen neglect this, and they cannot know their 
own country's history. Study Welsh history and they 
become wise. "Cribbed, cabined, and confined," with 
the limits of Anglo-Saxon prejudice hemming them 
round vainly contending for superiority and dominion 
over the Principality, as they call it they will ever be 
regarded as unworthy the chair of reason ; they will be 
considered to be pursuing a blind fatuity of idea, which 
warps their judgment into the narrow channel of bigotry, 
rendering them intolerant, and even offensive, to the 
ordinary rules of common sense. 

To derive real advantages from the pure fountain of 
knowledge, Englishmen should cast aside the contracted 
and improper appellation, and call themselves Britons, as 
they sometimes do in their patriotic enthusiasm, when, in 
the lusty voice of song they exclaim, " Britons never 
shall be slaves " a phrase borrowed from the address of 
Galgacus when exhorting his contrymen to resist the 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 231 

dominion of the Romans to the death ! They should 
study and preserve the language of the Celtic- British 
people as the great medium of consolidating a people so 
much divided as they are in the British Islands; they, 
should drink deeply at the pure spring whence flowed the 
poetic fervour that animated the minds of the patriarchal 
tribes of the East, when the infant world was nourished 
by the soft simplicity of human nature in the Asiatic 
gardens, until, matured by the will of heaven, its inspired 
breathings found oracles in the patriarchs and prophets 
of the Pentateuch ; imbibe the spirit of this stream divine, 
and they will descend through the letters of Holy Writ 
to the ages when the Celtic bards caught up the inspira- 
tion, harmonizing the affairs of the world in the eloquent 
strains of poetic imagery, such as we find in the mysteries 
of the ancient Druids, and the lays of Taliesin. 

That the Welsh language, of all the Scythian dialects 
that spread over Europe during the struggles of the great 
Assyrian empire, approximates nearer the Hebrew there 
cannot be a doubt ; that it was spoken upon this island 
long anterior to our Saviour's mission upon the earth 
there is as little doubt ; and the best of our linguists and 
scholars, read in the languages of the holy period, all 
admit and declare the language of Cambria, in letters and 
idiom, power and sound, quantity and value, to be very 
similar to the ancient languages of Asia Minor. 

How much then ought Englishmen to value a people 
speaking such a language? Englishmen of the mixed 
races of Scandinavia, how much should they admire the 
constancy, patriotism, and courage of a people who have 
religiously preserved their language within the ramparts 
of Oflfa's Dyke, in spite of Roman despotism, and Anglo- 
Saxon terrorism and cruelty? 7 How much praise do 
such a people deserve, who, during eight hundred years 
of Roman and Saxon persecution, preserved all worth 
keeping, name and language, even to this very hour? 

7 There are laws on the statute-book of the Anglo-Saxon declaring 
the penalty of death for any Cambrian being found on the English 
side of the ditch, with other lesser punishments, as losing the hand, &c. 



232 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

Surely there are advantages in associating with a people 
like this ? Fellowship in kindred and tongue are natural 
ties. It is not God's law that there shall be bounds, and 
barriers, and ramparts, to divide society ; nor that war- 
ring hordes of men should prowl through forests, over- 
run plains, scour moorlands and fells, in search of human 
creatures to destroy ! 

The Goths and Vandals overran Europe, carried the 
sword of rapine across the threshold of the gates of Rome ; 
the power of these mighty ravagers subdued half Europe, 
uprooted dynasties, overturned nations, dispersed tribes 
and peoples, dislocated society everywhere, extended their 
bloody march even into Britain. The slaughter of the 
Druids of Anglesey by the Romans was imitated by the 
northern Ethelfred, in the cruel massacre of the monks 
of Bangor. Notwithstanding all these terrible shocks, 
Cambria maintained her proud position, until Cadwallader 
was gathered to his fathers. Their name and language 
still survived the ages of havoc through their traditionary 
bapdic song, and in their triads and laws ; and although the 
statesmen of conquest endeavour to mould the habits, man- 
ners, and language of the conquered to those of the con- 
querors, here they failed, as the Romans had done before 
them ; the Anglo Saxons conquered, but could not enslave; 
by cunning and force they triumphed over ancient British 
liberty, but they could not subdue their spirit, even 
when the great Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince of Cambria, 
died, and proud Edward, by a Statute de Rothelan, an- 
nexed the home of the Scythian, the CeltaB, the Ancient 
Briton, to the crown of the Angles and Saxons of northern 
Europe ; but their parent language survived all a divine 
care seemed to hover over it that it might be preserved 
for posterity to dwell upon. 

If it be asked, what advantages will accrue to English- 
men from a study of the Welsh language, we should say 
to the civilian, the jurist, the statesmen of the English 
school, who look upon Wales as a mere Principality, and 
not Britain herself her people as an isolated portion of 
the English nation, not as the aborigines of the island 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 233 

pause and think ; ask themselves how it was they came 
to be Englishmen, and to be superior in intellect to the 
proscribed of Cambria ? What code of natural and civil 
law guides their reason in making laws for the common 
country ? Truth will whisper in their ears, and awake 
their inquiring minds, to search the neglected history of 
ancient Britain, to study the language in which that 
history was written, and which the people spoke. They 
will learn that the Anglo-Saxon code, of which they so 
highly boast as the profound emanations of great minds, 
embodied by the pious and noble Alfred, was but the 
offspring of the triads of Dyvnwal Moelmud, which will 
be found in the Myvyrian Archaiology, dated many cen- 
turies before the Christian era ; or, even questioning the 
authority of date, the history of that era is more worthy 
of credence than the northern sagas and Scandinavian 
mythology, wherein they affect to trace the pedigree of 
Odin from the living God, and create heavens when the 
Myvyrians are content to create states only. But if the 
age of Menw, the first lawgiver of Britain, is too remote 
and abstruse for their attention, let them consult the public 
records of parliament, the Cyvreithiau Cymru (Welsh 
laws), embodying, in the Venedotian, Dimetian, and 
Gwentian codes, a mass of political wisdom far superior to 
the Anglo-Saxon and Norman codes, supposed for the 
time to be the perfection of legislative wisdom in Europe. 

(To be continued.) 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. We shall in our next insert a full 
and correct report of the proceedings of this national festival. 

FAIRIES. The Welsh idea of fairies is that they are the souls 
of departed men not sufficiently depraved to be punished in hell, 
neither sufficiently divested of evil so as to be admitted into heaven. 
They are thought to be benevolently disposed towards all virtuous 
men, but vice, especially lying and sluttery, they most abominably 
hate, and punish invisibly all that are addicted to such hat>its. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 H 



234 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE MUSIC OF WALES. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, I shall be glad if you will insert the following in your 
Journal : 

" The Bards of later periods introduce names of celebrity into their 
poems, with a vast deal of ignorance, not knowing who the person 
named was, when or where he lived. Thus in an old prophetic 
Cywydd, Alawn the ancient or mythological bard, and Guido Arre- 
tinus are brought in together as old Welsh prophets. 
" Alawn Fardd haeliawn a fu 
Gwido hen gwedy bynny." 

In another old MS. I have found the following passage : 

" Gwido hen oedd y cyntaf erioed a wnaeth Gerdd Bedrylef, gwr 
o'r werddon oedd ef, ac a ddaeth i Gymry ar amcan Llys Aberffraw 
blwyddyn oed Crist 1119, pan oedd Gruffudd ap Cynan yn dywysawg 
Aberffraw ym mon, ag yno y bu Gwido yn Bencerdd gorchestol, ai 
gerdd ef a elwir Pedrylef wyddel." 

It does not appear clearly whether the writer of the above con- 
sidered his Gwido as a bard or a musician. 

Cerdd bedrylef signifies literally a song of four voices. This 
Gwido was possibly Guido Arretinus. 

It is so highly probable as to amount even to a certainty, that 
Gruffudd ap Cynan introduced a new musical system or theory into 
Wales from Ireland; but in what year is not certain. Several 
accounts mention this, but differ very much as to the date ; this may 
happen possibly from the circumstance of an intercourse which sub- 
sisted between the courts of Aberffraw and Dublin. And with respect 
to the musical intercourse, many events of notoriety might have taken 
place, and those in different years, so that it may appear probable 
enough that each of the given dates is correct with respect to one or 
the other of such events. But whatever may be inferred from diffe- 
rence of dates, we find such a general unanimity in our old writers, 
attesting the circumstance that Gruffudd ap Cynan introduced from 
Ireland into North Wales an improved theory of music, that we 
cannot with any degree of reason deny it. The Irish names of tunes, 
Irish technology, &c., corroborate greatly the supposition. 

In this system, as it now appears in our MSS., the term Gamrvth, 
(Gamut) occurs Dr. of Music, &c. ; a proof, especially the last 
term, that these MSS. are comparatively of recent date. Add to 
this English words and idioms, as prinsmal, &c., which were not in 
use in the days of Gruffudd ap Cynan. As Guido had written a 
full century before the time of Gruffudd ap Cynan, it is very possible 
that his theory might have become known in Ireland about the close 
of the eleventh, or beginning of the twelfth, century, and from thence 



CORRESPONDENCE. 235 

be introduced into Britain about 1100 or 1120. The system of 
Guido, having been then introduced, might have occasioned the mere 
Welsh writer to infer that Guido himself came over into Wales, and 
that he was an Irishman. There are facts in history that are strongly 
established by the very great inconsistencies of those accounts which 
we find of them, and one of those is the above. 

In the time of Davydd ap Gwilym, more than 200 years after 
G. ap Cynan, we find the terms sol, fa, men, trebl, &c., a proof that 
the system of Guido was then very generally known in Wales. It 
is observable that he calls the catgut harp Telyn ledr, i.e., leathern 
harp. He calls it also a wild or mad Irish creature, and says that the 
ancient harp of Wales was strung with horse-hair. (Vide Cywydd 
Y Delyn ledr, Cywydd, Symlen Ben Bys, &c.) 

It is remarkable that neither the harp or any other musical instru- 
ment is ever mentioned by the bards, from G. ap Cynan down to 
the time of the last Princes of Wales, about 1280, a period of nearly 
200 years, excepting the following passage in an ode of Llywarch 
Brydydd y Moch, addressed to Prince Llywelyn ap lorwerth, 
circa 1240, 

" Can folawd a thafawd a thant," Myv. Arch. i. p. 300, 
The song of praise, of tongue (voice) and string. This string may 
very fairly imply the harp, and equally so the crwth, or crota, 
which was most peculiarly a British instrument. And yet, how have 
ignorant writers harped on the supposed harping bards of Wales. 
In the genuine pieces of all our oldest poets, Taliesin, &c., we find no 
mention of the harp, and but once of the crwth, and that in a piece 
the authenticity of which is very doubtful, occurring in a romance, 
written about the year 1350, by Hopcin ap Thomas, of Kilfai, 
(possibly the same as Casnodyn). In this romance a considerable 
number of poetical pieces are introduced by the fictitious Taliesin, in 
the simple verse indeed of the genuine Taliesin, with something of 
his mythology, and nothing of his style and idiom ; the last of 
which is so absolutely modern, that we are at some difficulty in ad- 
mitting the correctness of the account that ascribes it to Hopcin ap 
Thomas, as that seems with great probability to be too remote a 
period. That the Editors of the Archaiology should not be able to 
perceive this difference of style, idiom, &c., is most astonishing, con- 
sidering the length of time wherein they have studied, or rather 
stared at without studying, the old Welsh MSS. 

I found the above among some MSS. in my possession, but I must 
confess that the writer seems to me to be incorrect respecting the 
antiquity of music in Wales. The mention of two keys peculiar to 
the Irish, in our old books of music, as " Y Cywair Gwyddelig 
dieithr" (the strange Irish key), and 4< Lleddf Gywair Grvyddelig" 
(the flat Irish key), also of a few tunes, such as " Y Gaingc ddu o'r 
Werddon" (the black tune from Ireland), plainly demonstrate that 
the rest of the music is British. But what, in my opinion, settles the 
matter, is the following extract from a very ancient MS. " Llyma 'r 



236 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Pedwar mesur ar hugain cerdd dant, yn ol Rheol Mesur oil, fal y" 
Cyfansoddwyd mewn Eisteddfod," &c. These are the twenty-four 
measures of instrumental music, all according to rule and measure, as 
they were composed in a congress before many doctors of the science, 
of Britons and Irish, curious in that art, in the time of Gruffydd ab 
Cynan ; and were written in books by order of both parties, the British 
and Irish, principal and royal of that time, and copied from thence, &c. 

With regard to counterpoint, Giraldus Cambrensis, in the twelvetb 
century, remarks of the Welsh, "They do not sing in unison, like the 
inhabitants of many countries, but in different parts; so that in a 
company of singers, which one frequently meets with in Wales, you 
will hear as many different parts and voices as there are performers ; 
who all at length unite with organic melody (in harmony), in one 
consonance (concord), and the soft sweetness of B flat." To this he 
adds, that he had never witnessed a similar custom, except in the 
North of England, beyond the Humber ; a circumstunee which, when 
we reflect that a tribe of the Cymry anciently peopled that part of the 
kingdom, tends greatly to prove the antiquity of the practice. 

Among the old games of Wales was also "singing a song of four 
parts, with accentuation," and surely these games were indigenous. 

As to the harp, it is mentioned in connection with the bards by 
Ammianus Marcellinus. Blegwryd ab Seisyllt, King of Britain, 
about 160 years before Christ, is said to have performed on the harp. 
The ancient Welsh Laws mention the harp as one of the indispensable 
accomplishments of a gentleman ; and they enumerate three distinct 
languages, Cornish and Latin, having the same character, Roman 
kinds, viz. : " The harp of the king, the harp of a master of music, 
and the harp of a gentleman." Indeed, we may infer from several 
facts and allusions that the Britons had the harp prior to any other 
nation, except the Hebrews. 

It would gratify many of your readers if some one intimately ac- 
quainted with the musical history of Wales would furnish your pages 
with an article on the subject. I remain, &c., 

TUBAL. 

GWLAD Y PWYL. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Gwlad y Pwyl, mentioned in the Welsh Triads, is supposed 
by some to mean Poland, and by others, Holland. As the name 
occurs in the Triads, I will attempt to complete a triad of conjectures 
in reference to it. The position of this country is, I believe, nowhere 
indicated, and the supposition that it means either Poland or Holland 
rests entirely upon similarity of names. I would therefore suggest 
that Pwyl may be the Welsh modification of La Pouille, the French 
form of Apulia, in the South of Italy. The modern Italians call the 
same country Puglia. I remain, &c., 

ClAN. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 237 

WELSH POETRY PRESERVED IN MSS. 
No. III. 

TUDYR ALED. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, I now send you a list of some of the poems of Tudyr Aled. 
It is far from being complete ; but I think it best to send you a list 
of as many as I have, in the hope of additions being made to it by 
some other correspondent who has a better collection. 
I remain, &c., 

ROBERT WILLIAMS, M.A. 
Rhydycroesau, Oswestry, July 25, 1858. 

TITLES. FIRST LINES. 

Cowydd i'r Hen Robert Salsbri Mastr Robert rymus dribwrdd 

o Lanrwst 

Cowydd i Syr Roitsier Salsbri o Aer Lleweni iarll wyneb 
Leweni 

Cowdd Merch Trem ar ferch trwm a ro fi 

Awdl Sion Gray Iarll Sion gwaew union eginin 

Emprwr 

5 Cowydd i Rys Amredydd Pwy biau gwaed pibau gwin 

Cowydd Maed'enwRys am dy wyn rhudd 

Awdl foliant Syr Rys ap Thomas Syr gwn nerth dragwn nerth 

dranc 
Awdl farwnad Thomas Salsbri Gwae holl goed trymed trom- 

marchog urddol wedd 

Cowydd i Syr Thomas Salsbury Pwy yw blaenor pobl y wenol 
10 Cowydd i Syr Thomas Salsbury Ystiward Ros a dart rndd 
Cowydd moliant John Salsbury Troes un dyn at ras hendad 
Cowydd moliant Ffoulk Salsbury Dynill oedd a dwyn y Hall 

Deon Llanelwy 
Cowydd pump brodyr o Fach- Perhon tori pren tirion 

ymbyd 
Cowydd Robert Salsbury o lal . Un dyn a gwaew yn dan y gyd 

15 Cowydd Merch Cam dyn ieuanc arab 

Cowydd Syr William Gruffydd Mor llawen mae'r llu ieuainc 

marchog urddol 

Cowydd i Syr Edward Siaplen i Un prelat wynep Rolant 
Arglwydd Herbert 

Cowydd Mr. Robert ap . . Pwy a ran gwaed y pren gwin 

Cowydd John Pylston Hen . . . Pwy a dyr gwaew fal powdwr 

gwyllt 

20 Cowydd Marwnadleuanaplthel Nid un bwys ac nid iawn bod 
Fychan o Degaingl 

Cowydd y march brith Powys Iwyd pwy sy wladwr 

Cowydd marwnad Rhobert ab Y gwr uiarw a gar morwyn 
Sion o Degeingl 



238 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Cowydd Mr. Robert ab Rhys . . Ar gael undyn mae'r glendyt 
Cowydd Marwnad Dafydd ab Truan mor wan yw'r einioes 

Einion Fycl)an 
25 Awdl i Sion ap Dafydd Abat Euron ywch goron ewch i geu- 

Glyn Egwystl rydd 

Marwnad Owain ab Meirig o Arfau Duw ar Fodeon 

Fodeon yn M6n 

Marwnad Tudyr Llwyd o lal . . Mawr pwys Duw, marw post lal 
Marwnad Dafydd Llwyd ab Tros lal y treies heulwen 

Tudur o lal 
Cowydd i ofyn march i Abat Gyd ag un a geidw Gwynedd 

Aberconwy 
30 Cowydd marwnad Gruffydd ab Duw yr wyd yn di dy'r laith 

Rhys ab Madog Gloddaith 
Cowydd i ddiolch am Farch Glas Cledd daear Wynedd a'i drych 

i William Fychan o Gorsy- 

gedol 

Marwnad Dafydd ab Edmund . . Llaw Dduw a fu'n lladd Awen 
Marwnad i Hy wel ab Siancyn o Llwyn oedd yi ; mewn lie neu 

Ynys y Maengwyn ddan 

Marwnad Rhys ab Llewelyn ab Pa bryd y wympai brydain 

Hwlcyn 
35 Marwnad i Thomas Conwy .... Ba herwydd y bu hiriaith 

Cowydd Serch y roes ar chwaer essyllt 

Cowydd Medraf ampwyll madrod o'm 

pen. 



NOTES. 

(1.) Robert Salusbury was the fifth son of Thomas Salusbury Hen, 
of Lleweni, and settled at Llanrwst. 

(2.) Sir Roger Salusbury, Knt., was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Salusbury, Knt., who was the brother of Robert. 

(5.) Rhys Fawr ab Meredydd was entrusted by Henry VII. with 
the standard of England at the battle of Bosworth, 22nd August, 
1485, after the former standard-bearer, Sir Wm. Brandon, had been 
slain. He was buried in the church of Yspytty Ifan, in Denbighshire, 
where an alabaster effigy of himself and wife may be now seen. 

(7.) Sir Rhys ab Thomas, the celebrated governor of Wales, who 
died in 1527, aged 76. See Eminent Welshmen. 

(8.) Sir Thomas Salusbury, Knt., greatly distinguished himself 
at the battle of Blackheath, 23rd June, 1497, against Lord Audley 
and his Cornish followers, for which service he was knighted by 
Henry VII. He died in January, 1505. 

(11.) John Salusbury, brother of Sir Thomas and Robert, settled 
at Bachymbyd, in Denbighshire. 

(12.) Foulk Salusbury, another brother, Dean of St. Asaph from 
1511 to 1543. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 239 

(15.) The five brothers of Bachymbyd were Pierce, Foulk, Robert, 
John, and Thomas, sons of John Salusbury, No. 11. 

(16.) Sir William Gruffydd, of Penrhyn, Caernarvonshire, cham- 
berlain of North Wales. 

(23.) Robert ab Rhys was the son of Rhys Fawr ab Meredydd. 
He was cross-bearer and chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey. He was 
buried in Yspytty Ifan Church, where there is an effigy of him in 
canonical robes. 

Nos. 22, and 26 to 33, are printed in Jones' Gorchestion Beirdd 
Cymru, 4to, 1773. R. W. 



To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Mr. Gilbert Davies, in his History of Cornwall, says that 
the ancient inscription, i. <?., KYCH INRI, above the porch of St. 
Austell's Church, has never been deciphered. During one of my 
excursions in this interesting county, in the summer of 1856, I went 
to see it. I noticed that the fabulous emblem of the pelican, with its 
young sucking its blood, was carved beneath the mysterious words, 
and I naturally thought that there was some connection between the 
two, which, on further investigation, I found to be the case, and has, 
I think, led to the solution of the difficulty. No doubt the affectionate 
bird giving its blood to feed its young, in such a place, was intended 
as a type of our blessed Saviour. In the Cornish language, the word 
for flesh, cognate with the Welsh Cig, is Kych. INRI consists of 
the initials of the phrase Jesus Nazarenus, Rex Judceorum. The 
mystery arose from the fact of the inscription being involved in two 
capitals, and the initials having no dots between them was read as a 
word, which, of course, is not to be found in any language in the world. 
According to this explanation, the meaning of the inscription is simply, 
" the flesh of Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." Should you 
think this explanation worthy of a place in the Cambrian Journal, 
I shall feel obliged to you if you will kindly give it insertion. 
I remain, &c., 

J. JAMES. 

14, Frederick Place, Clifton, Bristol, 
28th June, 1858. 



THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY MADOC. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, I believe that the promoters of the Llangollen Eisteddfod 
were unanimous in their decision, that no essay on the won-discovery 
of America by Madoc, the son of Owen Gwynedd, was admissible, 
as not coming under the terms of the programme. If so, the storm 
raised by Mr. Stephens was of no use whatever, for I find it thus 
stated in one of the Eisteddfod prospectuses : 



240 REVIEWS. 



"They [the promoters] also claim to themselves the right of 
deciding on all subjects of controversy that may arise, and their 
decision, in all such cases, shall be considered final." I r< 



remain, &c., 
JUSTICE. 



REVIEWS. 



RECORDS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE; or, Papers and Notes on the 
History, Antiquities, and Architecture of the County. No. 
VIII. Buckingham : R. Chandler. Oxford and London : J. 
H. Parker. 1858. 

The contents of this Number are, " Remarks upon the former 
Abundance and the present Non-existence of Salmon in the River 
Thames;" " Biddlesden Abbey and its Lands;" "Desecrated 
Churches of Buckinghamshire (continued);" "Restoration of Cud- 
dington Church;" " Dray ton Beauchamp Manorial History (con- 
tinued);" "The Cheyne Family;" "Eton;" "Miscellaneous." 
They are well worthy the attention of the archaeologist. 



Y BRYTHON. Tremadog : R. J. Jones. 

This is a weekly Welsh paper, of greater interest to the bard and 
antiquary than any of its contemporaries, inasmuch as it contains, in 
addition to the usual amount of passing news, articles of great value 
illustrative of the history and general literature of our country. This 
promises fairly to become the organ of the literary class in Wales, and, 
as such, deserves every encouragement. 



THE 

CAMBRIAN JOURNAL. 




ALBAN >4 ARTHAN. 



(WINTER SOLSTICE.) 



ESSAY 

ON THE ADVANTAGES ACCRUING TO ENGLISHMEN 

FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF THE WELSH 

LANGUAGE. 

By MANCENION. 
( Continued from p. 233.J 

AMONGST the most remarkable essays of juridical wisdom 
are the laws of Howel Dha Howel the Good the man 

" Who loved peace and good order, and feared God," 

a code which challenges comparison with the very best 
of the Anglo-Saxon laws. The anomalous laws, and the 
fragmentary laws in the Latin language, are well worthy 
of attention ; also the Dynevor laws, incorporated with 
border rules, down to the Statute de Rothelan, when 
Cambria became denationalized, will all be found worthy 
of notice. They will be found pregnant with the highest 
order of jurisprudence, embodying the principles of the 
most celebrated laws of Greece and Rome ; what is still 
of greater advantage, they will be in the ancient British 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 I 



242 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

language of the time when they were written, affording 
a good opportunity to the inquirer to analyze the value 
of that and the Hebrew and Scythian languages. 

Formerly statesmen in England honoured the laws 
and language of Cambria, because the people themselves 
honoured and reverenced their authority and influence in 
the internal government of the people ; for long after they 
ceased to be regarded as statutory, they were acted upon, 
because they were consonant with the habits and customs 
of the people : hence we have now in England the legal 
axiom, " the custom of England is the law of England.'* 

The dawn of letters awoke in Britain the dormant 
language ; the traditions of the bards were engrafted upon 
legitimate history ; and now it is all important to English- 
men to join the Cambrians in promulgating a sound 
practical language, such as has borne the test of time, in 
order that the history of our common country may be 
cleared of its vagueness, and purified of prejudice. 

Again, if it be asked, what advantage will accrue to 
Englishmen from a knowledge of the Welsh language? 
we will say to the theologian, loving God and his people, 
communing with the creeds of the earth, divining the 
actions of mankind, and weighing them in the scale of 
spiritual truth, that they may be hereafter judged by the 
King of Kings ; if they wish to acquire more knowledge, 
cast aside the irreverent prejudice which we find existing 
in this class of philosophers, and study the Welsh lan- 
guage ; examine the sacred history of Christianity in his 
own country, even in the dark ages, when its bright 
beams broke through the mysteries of druidism, and this 
favoured land received the earliest dawn of the redeeming 
faith, long before the worshippers of Odin, or the god 
jsir, and his idolatrous satellites, polluted the soil of 
Britain with their unholy tread. Involved in much mys- 
tery as to date when Christianity first dawned in Britain, 
the discovery of Welsh manuscripts, and the researches 
of eminent scholars into the records of the early Roman 
Church, fix the first century as the time when Cambria 
became the favoured land. A knowledge of the Welsh 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 243 

language would inspirit the theologian to pursue the inte- 
resting subject of the early Christians in Britain with a 
degree of pleasure which at present none but Welsh 
divines can only feel, because the very language they use 
in expounding the Scriptures is so genial to the sense and 
idiom of the language Christ spoke when on earth as to 
harmonize with their very souls even to inspiration ! 

But the theologian may point to the ages of druidism, 
and ask us to clear away the barbarism of the ages ante- 
cedent to Christianity. Let him examine the works of 
the most learned in the ancient British language the 
most laborious and patient inquirers into the history of 
druidism 1 and he will find his early prejudices to vanish 
before the spirit of inquiry ; he will learn that the Druids, 
having become acquainted with the Hellenic language at 
a very early age, imbibed their notions of paganism from 
them ; and, in common with all the remote peoples of the 
world, the religion of pagan rites and ceremonies, shows 
and feasts, superseded the pure religion, and the simple 
adoration of the God of Israel, and so druidism became 
the religion of Britain and Gaul. But the theologian 
must know the redeeming virtues of the Druids to be in 
favour of the religion of the true God, and the coming 
of Christ ; for they were not so steeped in idolatry as were 
the Greeks and Romans of the same ages of the world. 
A spirit of Theism existed from the remotest ages amongst 
them. 2 The ancient notions of the patriarchal faith of 
the races of Judah had not died away, but mythical 
theories abounded in their faith, in which they held crude 
notions of the creation, of the Deluge, of the building of the 
Temple, and of all the striking and most prominent points 
of Bible history, all of which were grafted upon druidism. 
The language they spoke was, in a great measure, the 
language of Judah, and this was the great reason why 

1 Rev. Edward Davies' " Celtic Researches into the Mythology 
and Rites of the Ancient Druids." Amongst the ancients were Caesar, 
Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Pliny, Ammianus Marcellinus, Tacitus. 

2 The doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and of rewards and 
punishments, was not unknown amongst them. 



244 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

Bible history remained so strongly impressed upon their 
minds. 

The Druids of Caesar's Commentaries were wise men 
perhaps the wisest of the age in which they lived ; they 
were worshippers of nature, and cultivated reason ; they 
studied the sages of Greece ; the doctrines of Thales, 
Bias, Solon, the great lawgiver, Pittacus, Aristotle, the 
peripatetic philosopher of nature, were the ground-work 
of the philosophy and morals they taught their youth, 
and on which their laws were formed ; more especially 
those of the Myvyrian ages, well worthy of Solon or 
Lycurgus. The practical wisdom of the sages of Greece 
was the basis of all the great and good governments since 
their time, and it redounds to the honour of the wise men 
the Druids of Britain for the preservation in the 
ancient British laws of those principles famous in the 
British constitution. 

It must be remembered by the theologian that, during 
the dark ages of ancient druidism, religion in the western 
world had fallen very low and barbarous, amongst the 
Northmen in particular ; and, if we were to treat the 
Scandinavian history as the Anglo-Saxon writers upon 
British history have done, we should say their religion 
was very barbarous indeed. For seven centuries before 
the coming of Our Lord, true religion had almost faded 
from the earth ; but the Celtic Briton may challenge every 
people under Roman rule, boasting of civilization and 
refinement, to show where religion was practised with 
such simplicity and sacred character as it was amongst 
the ancient Druids of this island. It will be of advantage 
to the theologian to know this from the real history of 
the Druids, as pourtrayed in the Celtic Researches of the 
Rev. E. Davies a work of very learned character and 
from the antiquarian writers upon the pagan churches in 
Europe. It will be of great advantage to him and to 
truth to find how beautKully the mythology of druidism 
is toned with the events in Bible history, and borne out 
too by the very names, and important texts, written in 
Hebrew, corresponding almost to the letter in the Celtic 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 245 

of the Druids ! The flowery and figurative language of 
the prophets' poetry and style are the same in both. 
The ark and the dove of Noah, in druidism, is very 
different from the savage barbarism of the Boar Schrimmer 
of the Scandinavian creed ; whilst the one is emblematical 
of peace and rest, and symbolical of all that is sacred, the 
other breathes a savage, belligerent spirit, such as has ever 
been found in the Scandinavian people. Hence it is 
Christianity found a resting-place in Britain very long 
anterior to the time the dark ages of Saxon paganism 
vanished before the sublime faith. 

When the druidical creeds became analyzed by the 
early Christian missionaries, and were found to be perverted 
and heathenized creeds founded on the doctrines of the 
Israelitish Church, the Druids themselves became enlight- 
ened upon the subject of the coming of Christ to redeem 
mankind from the great sin of idolatry and false worship ; 
they abandoned their druidical temples of Stonehenge, 
their sacred groves, and misletoe emblems, for pure 
Christianity. Many of them, on their weary march 
towards the temples of Greece, to consult the oracles and 
priests as to the truth of the new faith, became converted 
in the plains of Italia, turned towards the rock of St. 
Peter's at Rome, and there became baptized in the Church 
of Christ. Many, while sojourning in the Peloponnesus, 
became inspired with the preachings and teachings of the 
apostles, and became converted ; whilst others, by the 
intercourse between the merchants of Phrygia, Phoanicia, 
Galatia, Thessalonica, Athens, and the Greek islands, 
where the labours of the apostles had converted the people 
who traded to these islands, imbibed the new faith ; and 
even, whilst yet the Roman altars burned with sacrifices, 
and pagan rites were celebrated in every part of Britain, 
the new Christian priests went about preaching and con- 
verting the Britons to Christianity, enduring persecution 
from the hands of their Roman masters with real fortitude. 
Even when the Anglo-Saxon invaders would have forced 
upon the Britons mythological creeds repugnant to the 
true faith, and erect altars to ^Esir in place of the true 



246 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

God when they would have forced the heathenism of 
the Voluspa, the Edda, and Valhalla upon them, instead 
of the sacred and inspired writings of the prophets, and 
the evangelists, and the apostles of peace on earth, the 
British priests and people suffered persecution rather than 
abandon the faith, retired into the woods and mountains ; 
the sacred groves of the ancient Druids resounded with 
hymns of praise in honour of the new King of Peace, and 
Christianity became established. 

The theologian from this period will find that Cambria 
alone, within Offa's Dyke, was the normal school of the 
Christian religion, where the Culdees of Caledon and Eri 
repaired to be instructed in the new faith. He will find 
that, in the heart of Cambria, the monks, for five hundred 
years, were the instructors and ordainers of youth for the 
priesthood, as the universities of England have been for 
many centuries past ; this, too, during the spread of the 
Arian and Pelagian heresies, which distracted for a con- 
siderable time the orthodox faith in Europe, during a 
time when the great struggle was going on between the 
northern idolators arid the Christian authorities of Southern 
Europe and Asia Minor for dominant power; when the 
empire of Rome was vainly contending against the Goths 
and the Ostrogoths of Northern Europe, and the Scythian 
Vandals and Huns of the East. In these troublous times 
the pious monks, secure in the mountains of Cambria, 
were the pioneers of the Christian religion in Britain, 
Caledon, and Eri ; they sent out missions to bring about 
peace and good will amongst men. The Celtic language 
they spoke was understood also in Caledonia, Hibernia, 
and Manaw, where the new faith was adopted. 

The theologian will learn also how these men were 
persecuted by the cruel Northmen, under Ethelfred, King 
of Northumberland, when his heathen hordes burst into 
the country of the Cornavii and the Ordovices, laid 
waste their territory and towns with fire and sword, 
entered their sacred temples in the midst of their worship, 
and cruelly slaughtered them, 






FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 247 

" Woe to Saxon cruelty, 3 

O miserere Domine! 
Weltering amid warriors slain, 
Spurned by steeds with bloody mane, 
Slaughtered down by heathen blade, 
Bangor's peaceful monks are slain ; " Sir W. Scott. 

thus showing how much Cambrian blood has been shed 
in defence of the true faith of Christendom. 

If the theologian will read the Welsh Chronicles of the 
doings of the Christian Church in the middle ages, he will 
find that, whilst the fires of Smithfield blackened the 
sacred cause, and bigotry and intolerance overran the 
land, alternately preponderating on one side and then on 
the other, engendering bitterness of spirit, hot blood, and 
persecution, even to the most cruel tortures and horrible 
deaths, the mountaineers of Cambria silently embraced 
the spirit of Huss, Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, and 
Zuinglius ; quietly reasoned upon the purification of the 
Roman Catholic Church according to the apostolic 
doctrines, unostentatiously laying aside the errors and 
false doctrines of the Church of Rome, and adopting the 
reformed religion as the best guide to Christian life, 
without regard to the Tudor animosities or incentives to 
embrace, in the name of party, a religion of the state. 

The purity of the reformed religion was defended by 
the Welsh divines, during the troublous times of the 
Stuarts, with zeal and affection. It has been preserved 
alike from Romanism and Puritanism. No frowns, no 
threats, no insidious intrigues of parties and sects, Jesuits 
nor presbyters, could affect the quiet demeanour of the 
disciples of the Reformed Church in Cambria. Faith 
gave the people confidence that gave them courage. 
The persecution of the bishops gave them strength, and 
the attempts to abolish the Welsh language, in the practice 

8 " Ethelfred, King of Northumberland, or Elfrid, marched against 
the Britons at the siege of Chester, in A.D. 613. The monks were 
offering up prayers for the success of the Britons, when the Saxons 
and Danes fell upon them at Bangor Monachorum, and slaughtered 
1200 of them." William of Malmesbury. 



248 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

of their religion, only convinced the intolerant bigots of 
England the Welsh people were too seriously devoted to 
the rich legacy of their ancient fathers their vernacular 
tongue to be either persuaded or forced to abandon all 
they held dear on earth the right which God gave them 
to enunciate their thoughts, and offer their devotions, in 
their natural tongue, for ever and ever. With the return 
of Protestantism, and the new constitution of 1688, no 
change was sought to be made in the language of Cambria; 
but that, and their religion, like twin sisters of truth, 
have gone hand in hand, dealing out blessings within the 
prescribed pale of Gwynedd, Deheubarth, and Powisland.* 

If the theologian would question the stability of the 
Reformed Church, and point to the spirit of dissent, we 
should take the broad ground, and ask, What progress 
has the Roman Church made in Wales ? What progress 
can it make if the Welsh language is maintained in its 
purity ? If, therefore, he be in favour of a pure church, 
and a pure language, he must encourage both ; and the 
advantages he, in common with his fellow Britons every- 
where, would derive, and the happiness which would flow 
from such an union, would be a permanent blessing to 
society. 

Even now, stand upon the lofty peaks of Cader Idris, 
Sriowdon, Plinlimmon, the Black Mountains, and the 
Capellante; look down upon the peaceful valleys that teem 
with the luxuriance of nature on every side ; remember 
the story of Rasselas and his happy vale ; and wherever 
the white smoke curls amongst the trees, imagine a people 
dwelling in the midst of content, speaking a language as 
soft and simple as their own easy state ; wherever the eye 
rests upon an " ivy-mantled tower," imagine that the 
centre of a grave-yard, where centuries of sires and sons 
moulder in their native dust ; at the foot of that tower is 
the sacred fane within which the pious pastor of the flock 
" teaches the rustic moralist to die " through the practice 
of a religion which has ever found a temple in the home 

4 The divisions of Wales by Rodericus Magnus, King of Cambria. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 249 

of the Briton ; wherever the sound of prattling children 
is heard echoing upon the mountain side, innocence and 
simplicity are breathed in their treble voices, and the 
language they speak is indigenous to their nature. Can 
the theologian think of these things, and not admire the 
people whose habits, tongue, and religion, are so har- 
moniously blended in such a state of happiness? We 
believe not. It is an advantage to dwell upon associations 
like these, and partake of the pleasures they afford. Here 
are people whose connection with the primitive races of 
the human family the theologian must become acquainted 
with through the medium of their vernacular tongue, 
and, by acquiring the true idiom of their language, become 
wise in the ancient literature and peoples of the remotest 
ages of mankind. 

If it be asked of the historian what advantage he would 
derive from a study of the Welsh language ? we should 
say for him it would open up new fields of inquiry to his 
industrial pursuits after truth ; he would be enabled, by 
such a key to Cambrian history, to purify the stream of 
British history from the foul mass of filthy prejudice cast 
into it by venal and court historians, and panderers to 
Anglo-Saxon and Norman rule of kings and barons. 

The Keltoi of Herodotus, the Cassiterides of Strabo, 
the Albion of Aristotle, the Britannae of Polybius and 
Caesar, the Britain of whom Lucretius, Diodorus Siculus, 
Virgillius, Ovid, Josephus, Tacitus, and other Greek and 
Roman writers noticed through the corrected text, aided 
by the learned in the Celtic languages of Europe, of 
which the Welsh is a fair specimen, genuine history has 
been, and is still being, developed. 

The historian would derive great advantage by studying 
the Welsh language, and going over the ground Camden 
trod ; his knowledge of the Celtic-British was limited in 
comparison to what it now is ; it has been purified and 
rendered classical by a strict and critical expurgation of 
northern words, and very materially enriched, since his 
day, by the addition of improved text in the Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew languages; the Scythian, then little re- 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 K 



250 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

garded, the Phoenician, the Samaritan, and the Samnite 
languages, have also been explored, all of which more or 
less serve to elucidate the mythical period of our history. 

The chronicles of the Myvyrian Kings of Britain, so 
long held to be fabulous, through the inquiries pursued 
amongst ancient MSS. and rolls in the Wynnstay and 
Llanvanel Collection belonging to Sir Watkin W. Wynne, 
also the Hengwrt Collection of Colonel Vaughan, are 
now becoming a part of genuine history ; and if the 
English historian, whose innate prejudices have grown 
up with his historical inquiries, is desirous of ascertaining 
the truth, will study the Welsh language before he 
essays to write a history of his own country, he will 
obtain advantages and knowledge from a legitimate 
source. He will then strip the hideous deformity that 
has so long clothed British history, under the proud title 
of the History of England, from the body of facts which 
are duly chronicled, but hidden under a bushel, until the 
time shall come when the iron yoke of English prejudice 
should wear away, and real history become illumined 
with the rays of truth from the undying language of 
the Celtae. 

The historian will find the native character of the 
Briton of Cymru aboriginally, and of the present day 
to be typified in the life of Howel Dha, PEACE ! 
whilst that of the Northmen, Angles, Saxons, Danes, 
and Jutes, to be that of the piratical Hengist, WAR ! 
Whilst the Northmen everywhere marched with desola- 
ting hand, their footprints have been tracked in the blood 
of their slaughtered victims wherever they advanced ; 
whilst the Teutones of Germania bred discord at home, 
carried a spirit of faction, and war, and persecution into 
the Lombardic states, and the Guelphs and Ghibelines 
alternately deluged the fair fields of Italia with the blood 
of her dearest and most patriotic children; whilst France, 
from the days of Clovis down to the terrible revolution 
at the close of the last century, has been one vast scene 
of riotous, luxurious, factious, tyrannical noblesse, alter- 
nating between one dominant dynasty and another, 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 251 

dungeoning, torturing, murdering and massacring the 
people at the will or caprice of the dominant faction ; 
whilst Spain, in her most beautiful provinces of Granada, 
Castile, Arragon, Andalusia, and Catalonia, has been torn 
and distracted with civil wars, and the people have 
groaned under the dominion of Moorish chiefs and venal 
grandees; whilst England even England has shared 
in foreign levies, wars domestic and civil, broils among 
kings and nobles; dynasties have risen, trembled, and 
fallen ; nobles have been created, made powerful, and 
sent to the scaffold ; York and Lancaster have divided 
the people of England in the wars of the roses ; hot- 
blooded bigots have affrighted the island with the noise 
of crackling faggots, and the cries of dying martyrs; 
the Cavaliers and Roundheads have antagonistically 
roused the people from John o' Groat's to the Isle of 
Wight, and from Lowestoft to Offa's Dyke ; whilst all 
these broils and battles have been going on, Cambria has 
been comparatively easy ; her people, since the death of 
Llewelyn, (A.D. 1232,) have suffered little of that intes- 
tinal war so common to all the countries above noticed ; 
with the exception of the ravages of Owen Glyndwr, 
and Mortimer, Earl of March, Wales has been compara- 
tively tranquil, happy in her homes and religion, speaking 
and worshipping in a language different from that of 
England, having no ambition to join in the struggles of 
the world. 

Let not the historian suppose from these facts the 
people of Cambria are less patriotic, less brave, less chi- 
valric, less honourable in a good cause than the Saxon 
of England. O no ! the bardic fire is not yet extinct ; 
the spirit of Cassibellanus, Caractacus, Galgacus, Boa- 
dicea, is not yet fled ; the fame of the British chiefs did 
not die with the nationality of Wales ; their love of 
liberty and national honour is no less than it ever was ; 
the noble spirit of Cambria still lives in the bardic song 
of the country ; the traditional heroism of the ancient 
people still exists in the fireside tale and in the chronicles 
of the land. The good deeds of noble-minded men are 



252 THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 

ever present to the rising generation, and, when sum- 
moned to defend the honour of their common country, 
the Celt and the Saxon share the dangers and honour of 
the field; Cressy and Agincourt, Ramilies and Waterloo, 
Sebastopol and India, bear witness of the fact. Why 
then should not the historian study and encourage the 
promulgation of the language of this people, who have 
given so many distinguished brave men to the list of 
heroes in defence of British honour ? 

It may be said the language, of Wales isolates the 
people from the bulk of the island, which is called Anglo- 
Saxon. What is really wanted is, that the country shall 
be enlarged by the cultivation of the Welsh language in 
the border countries of Chester, Salop, Hereford, and 
Monmouth, and gradually go on extending, until Britain 
is once more under the influence of a pure literature. 
There would be little difficulty in this: the great number 
of Welsh places of divine worship, as well as schools, in 
England ; the vast number of the population who are of 
Welsh extraction ; the great facilities of intercourse now 
afforded in travelling ; the still greater facility of corres- 
pondence with distant parts ; the spread of Welsh Bibles 
and Testaments by religious societies ; the desire of the 
government to encourage the preaching of the gospel to 
the people in Wales in the Welsh language ; the recent 
publication, by William the Fourth, of all the ancient 
records of Wales in an authentic manner; the prejudices 
of the English nation fast fading away, all tend to pave 
the way to a grand demonstration of genuine British 
nationality, and the restoration of the ancient race and 
language of God's kingdom on earth. 



As an illustration of the number of persons of Welsh 
origin in England, we will show by the following extract, 
from sixty names taken from the Registrar's Report of 
Births in the year 1838, beginning 1st July, 1837 : 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 



253 



Adams, 598. 
Allen, 886. 
Bailey, 711. 
Baker, 1033. 
Bennett, 673. 
Brown, 2366. 
Carter, 753. 
Chapman, 624. 
Clark, 1096. 
Clarke, 785. 
Cook, 910. 
Cooper, 1103. 
Davies, 2252. 
Edwards, 1040. 
Evans, 1988. 
Green, 1333. 
Griffith, 686. 
Hall, 1347. 
Harris, 1127. 
Harrison, 1072. 



W. 



Hill, 1182. 
Hughes, 1280. 
Hunt, 634. 
Jackson, 1300. 
James, 967. 
Johnson, 1476. 
Jones, 5353. 
King, 883. 
Lee, 750. 
Lewis, 1278. 
Marshall, 598. 
Martin, 942. 
Mitchell, 620. 
Moore, 837. 
Morgan, 925. 
Morris, 941. 
Parker, 824. 
Philips, 769. 
Price, 789. 
Richards, 624. 
H. W. Tithridge, Esq., 



Richardson, 742. 
Roberts, 1830. 
Robinson, 1455. 
Rogers, 618. 
Scott, 684. 
Shaw, 738. 
Smith, 5588. 
Taylor, 2647. 
Thomas, 2236. 
Thompson, 1192. 
Turner, 1217. 
Walker, 1324. 
Ward, 985. 
Watson, 792. 
White, 1249. 
Williams, 3490. 
Wilson, 1406. 
Wood, 1328. 
Wright, 1398. 

" Lower's Surnames." 



APPENDIX TO ESSAY. 

In order to rivet more closely the notion entertained 
in the foregoing pages that the Welsh language is a direct 
branch of the ancient language of the world, and conse- 
quently of great value to Englishmen as a base of the 
educational work in forming the mind of the future 
people of this island, we subjoin the following analytical 
and comparative table of words : 



Hebrew. Irish. British. 

Agam, or leagam l .... Lagam 
Ein Innis Ynys 

Beth Bwth 

Gever .... Gwr 



a pool of standing water 
an island 

a house, or cottage 
a man, or giant 



1 It must not be forgotten that in rendering the sound of Hebrew, 
Irish, Welsh, and Greek words, several of the letters have sounds which, 
though differently written, are pronounced the same, as in the Celtic- 
British B, P, M, V, F ; the Hebrew B is often sounded V; the Irish 
also pronounce M in the middle of a word as V ; the Ancient British 
sound V as F, and F as V, and V as M and B, as Abon, Avon, 
Amon, Afon ; Fael, Vael, Wael. 



254 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 



Hebrew. 
Gad 2 
Allun 
Atun 

Geven 

Gobah 

Magvor 

Mahalac 

Tor 

Dal 

Achalas 

Machaneh 

Toledouth 
Cis 
Nahal 

Bath, Greek Batos 
Phac 

Bar, Latin Far 
Keren, Latin Cornu 
Ceremlvach, or 7 
Kremlech j 

Makel 
Mar 
Nevath 
Heher 
Mohal 
Cir 
Sach 
Pinnah 
Pacha 
Ahel 
Giber 



Irish 



Toar 



British. 

Cad 

Llwvn 

Odin 

C Cefyn, or 
\ cefn 

Coppa 

Magwyr 

Male 

{Toar, or 
tefyr, or 
terfyn 
Tal 

Achles 
f Machna, 

or 

^Machain 
Tylwyth 
Cist 
Nebulo 

Phake 

Bara 

Corn 

Cromlech 

Magel 

Maer 

Nevadd 

Aber 

Moel 

Caer 

Sach 

Pinna 

Page 

Au la 

Guberno 



an army 

a grove of oaks 

a furnace, or kiln 

> a ridge, or back 

the top, or summit of a thing 
habitation, or walled dwelling 
a pathway, a balk to tread on 

> a boundary, or limit 



tall, or high 
defence, or protection 

{Places of defence in Ancient 
Montgomery, as Pen 
Machno 

generations, or families 

a chest, as cistvaen 

a churl 

a thorn 

a lentil 

bread corn 

a horn 

C a sacrificing stone. See note 
\ to Stonehenge 

a staff 

a lord 

habitation, a hall (Neuadd) 

a ford 

top of a hill 

a walled town, Syriac caer 

a sack 

a battlement 

a fountain 

a hall 

to govern 



* " Cad Fael Hydr Cad wal adr : Hy fael, or Ho wel, &c. C is 
pronounced, or sounded, as k in English, never as s; Ch never as k, 
but as ch in chief; D as d in English, but Dd as th English ; F and 
V English, but Ff as / English ; G as g English in gain, never as g 
in gentle; Gh as ff English, as laughter, thus Loughor is loiiffor ; 
L as I English, but LI is pronounced llh, a peculiar aspirate; Q as in 
English ; R is always rh English ; S as sh English ; W as w English, 
but when used as a vowel it is oo, as in loo ; B and P, C and G, F 
and M are mutable." Rowland. 

As to the original letters of the Ancient Britons they will be as in 
the Irish. 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 



255 



Hebrno. 


Irish. British. 


Cala 


. . . Caula 


Bugad 
CafFa 


.... Bwrgais 
.... Cyff 


Marios 
Corontha 


.... Mynydd 
.... Coron 


Ceyr 
Pinnah 
Halal 


.... Cawr 
.... Pinagl 
.... Haul 


Gavel 


Gafael 


Las had 


.... Glasaidd 


Caton 
Jared 


.... Cwttyn 
.... I wared 


Coresh 


.... Cors 


Aggan, Greek An- 
geion 
Bareh 


> . . . . Angeion 
.... Bara 


Gaiaph 
Auur 
Achel 


Cau 
.... Awyr 
.... Achau 


Calal 
Domen 


.... Cyllell 
.... Tomen 


Sal 


.... Sal 


Kadal 


.... Godal 


Hadar 


Katha Kadar 


Hia 


.... Yhi 


Goph 
Deraich 


.... Corph 
Raich Braich 


Laish, Greek Lis 
Dath 


.... Lis 
.... Deddf 


Dcnah 
Hissah 


.... Dyna 
.... Histaw 


Aita 
Bar 


.... Ydy w 
Bar 


Berum, Lot. Verurr 


i .... Gwir 


Goha 


.... lachau 


Boten 


Potten 


Aloth 


.... Alaeth 


Elil 


.... Ellil 


Amunath 
Ap 
Itho 


.... Amynedd 
.... Wep 
.... Iddo 


Atun 
Atha 


Odyn 
Aeth 


Ische 


.... Yssu 


Imaeth 


.... Ymmaith 


Barach 


Parch 



a sheep-fold 
a burgess 
a beam, or joist 
a mountain 
a crown, or diadem 
a giant 

a top, or pinnacle 
sun, or to shine 
tenure, or lands bounded 
blueish 

short and little 
descended 

a place full of small weed, a 
wood 

a vessel, or earthen pot 

meat, or victuals 

to shut, or inclose 

lightened air 

brethren, or kindred 

to wound, or pierce 

muck, or dung 

vile, or of no account 

to forsake, or desist from 

honour, or reverence 

she, anything feminine 

a body 

an arm 

a lion 

a law 

this, that, there it is 

be silent 

is, or are 

a son 

but, nevertheless 

to heal, or cure 

the belly 

a curse, or misfortune 

idol, or hobgoblin 

consistency, patience 

face, or countenance 

with him 

a furnace, or kiln 

went, or came 

to burn 

from him 

to esteem, or bless 



256 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 



Hebreto. Irish. 


British. 


Gedad 


Gwiwdod 


Caiaph .... 
Homa Im 


Cau 
Ymenyn 


Voc 


Gwac 


Madhevi .... 


Mydelvai 


Doroth .... 
Hilo 


Toreth 
Heulo 


Sio 


Siw 


Chorau .... 


Crau 


Kalal 


Gwael 


Noda 


Nodi 


Jadha, Greek Oida .... 
Hathorath .... 


Addef 
Athrawiae.th 


Jeh 


Eich 


Jain .... 


Gwin 


Tselem .... 


Delw 


Lua .... 
Caolath 


Llysi 
Colled 


Hounii .... 


Ennill 


Jester .... 


Ystyr 


Jadath .... 


Gwahodd 


Cafodoth .... 
Jounce . 
Hamohad .... 


Cyfoeth 
levangc 
Ammed 


Parad 


Parcad 


Kesel .... 


Kesel 


Me Ab 


Mab 


Lvung .... 
Temutha .... 
Hamule .... 


Llyngcu 
Dyfetha 
Amal 


Mah ? 


Mae? 


Mahalal 


Mawl 


Meria .... 


Mer 


Moul 


Mudo 


Meth 


Methu 


Masac .... 


Cymmyscu 


Marad .... 


Brad 


Nafe 


Nef 


Taphilu Urchor 
Humes .... 


Taflu 
Hames 


Jussal .... 


Issel 


Neoaph . ; . . 
Nadu 


Nwyf 
Nadu 


Sethar .... 


Sathru 


Nucchu .... 


Nychu 



excellency 

to shut, or inclose 

butter 

empty 

distempers and diseases 

generations, increase, fruits 

of the womb 
shining, Apollo, Sol 
resplendent 

holes, such as eyes of needles 
vile, of no account 
to make known, or note 
to know, to acknowledge 
discipline 
you, your own 
wine 
an image 

to go away, or avoid 
a loss 
gain 

consideration 
to invite 

honours, or wealth 
a suckling 

constitution, appointment 
a partition, or separation 
the arm-pit 
son, or from a father 
to swallow, or devour 
destruction 
plenty, or store 
what? where? how? 
to praise, glorify 
fat, or marrow 
to remove 
to die, or fail 
to mingle 
rebellious; Meredith is the 

same with Brit. Marad 
joyful 

to cast, or throw 
to signify, to account 
(Isselu) to throw down 
incontinence, lust 
the moan, lament 
to throw under feet 
being smitten, affected 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 



257 



Hebretc. Irish. 


British. 


.3WbYV 


Nuu 


Nhwy 


they, or those 


Naodhad .... 


Nodded 


to escape, take refuge 


Gada .... 


Gado 


to pass by 


Nived .... 


Niwed 


to spoil 


Goloth 


Golwyth 


burnt offerings 


Galas .... 


Glwys 


pleasant 


Hasem .... 


Asen 


a rib, a bone 


Garevath .... 


Gwarth 


shame 


Taphug .... 


Diffyg 


want, or defect 


Phoreth 


Ffrwyth 


fruit, or effect 


Pach 


Bach 


a crooked stick 


Phinnouth .... 


Penwaeth 


C chief, or uppermost (Pen- 






\ naeth) 


Phimah .... 


Ffynnu 


to prosper 


Path .... 


Peth 


a part, or portion 


Philegesh .... 


Ffiloges 


a concubine 


Reith, Scottish ) 
Wraith ] "" 


Rhith 


appearance 


Tireneh .... 


Trin 


to feed, to look after 


Raga .... 


Rhwygo 


to tear, or rend 


Rasah .... 


Ras, Rhad 


grace, or good will 


Semen, Latin seed .... 


Saim 


fat, or oil 


Saraph .... 


Sarph 


a serpent 


Phuk, Latin .... 


Ffug 


disguise 


Kol, Greek Kalew .... 


Galw 


to call 


/Ksh, Latin aestus .... 


Tes 


heat, hot weather 


Amam .... 


Y mam 


mother 


Coaphar .... 


Gwobor 


reward, or satisfaction 


Sarch .... 


Serch 


lustful 


Goliath 


Glwth 


a bed, a bed-chamber 


Pathen 


Puttain 


a whore 


Terag 


Drwg 


bad, evil 


Dasgar .... 


Desgil 


a dish 


Shievang .... 


Siongc 


honourable, well to pass 


Anas .... 


Annos 


to instigate, to incite 


Tarn 


Dim 


nothing 


Pherch .... 


Y ferch 


a tender branch, a daughter 


Teluva 


Edivar 


a penitent 


Casas .... 


Ceisio 


to search, or seek 


Cark 


Carchar 


( to bind, or imprison ; Latin 
\ Career, a prison 


Akam .... 


Cammu 


to bend, to make crooked 


Caffa 


Cyff 


a beam, or a joist 


Cevel 


Angyfil 


near, or in presence of 


Dumga .... 


Dammeg 


a simile, or proverb 


Turna 


Teyrn 


a prince, or potentate 


Malas 


Melys 


sweet, or sweeten 


SECOND SERIES, VOL 


. I. 


2 L 



258 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 



Hebrew. 
Palac 
Bane 
Malal 
Marac 
Cadif 
Tohvm 
Colar 
Berek 
Bagad 
Arach 
Nagash 
Ciliah 
Cec 
Kun 
Natfar 
Hedel 

Hoberi 

Gerem 

Gana 

Taff 

Aenadon 



Irish. British. 

.... Plygu 

.... Maink 

.... Malu 

.... Marc 

.... Gwadu 

Dyfn 

.... Colar 

.... Breg 

.... Bagad 

.... Arogli 

.... Yn agos 

.... Ceilliau 

.... Ceg 

.... Kwyno 

.... Dinystr 

.... Hoedel 

Obry 

{ Grymmus, 
* ' * ' ( or Grym 

.... Canu 

Diffoddi 

Anudon 



to fold, or lap up 

a bench 

to grind ; Latin Mola, a mill 

a note, or character, mark 

to tell a lie, or deny 

depth 

a neck-band 

a breach, or scissure 

a great many 

to smell 

to approach, or draw nigh 

stones, or testicles 

a mouth, or throat 

to lament 

destruction, or ruin 

life, age 

\ men over against, or on the 
[ other side 

bony, or strong 

to sing 

to extinguish 

disdaining God, perjury 



ANCIENT AUTHORITIES FOR THIS ESSAY. 



B.C. A.D. 

Orpheus 516 .. Greek 

Homer . . Greek 

Herodotus 484-408 .. Greek 

Aristotle 384-321 .. Greek 

Polybius 203-121 .. Greek 

Julius CaBsar 90-44 . . Latin 

Marcus Cicero 55 . . Latin 

Lucretius Caius 55 . . Latin 

Catullus 48 . . Latin 

Diodorus Siculus 45 . . Greek 

Strabo 54 .. Greek 

Virgilius Maro 30 . . Latin 

Quint. Horat. Flaccus 20 . . Latin 

Sex. Aurel. Propertius 10 . . Latin 

Ovid .. 17 Latin 

Valerius Maximus . . 30 Latin 

Pomponius Mela . . 45 Latin 



Claudius 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 



259 



Lucius Annaeus Seneca ; 

Dioscorides 

Flavins Josephus 

Pliny the Elder 

Cornelius Tacitus i;n 

Quintillianus 

Juvenal ;K,J 

Plutarch Tt; 

Lucius Annaeus Florius 

Caius Suetonius 

Claudius Ptolemaeus 

Dionysius Periegetes 

Tertullianus 

Dio. Cassius ) 4 

Herodianus 

Antoninus Iter Brit. . 

Eusebius to 

Athanasius il. 

Sextus Aurelius ! i 'j 

Ammianus Marcellinus ; - : . 

Justinian -.4 

Isidore Hispalienus 7.3 

Xiphinus ! al 



55 


Latin 


65 


Greek Nero 


70 


Greek 


23-7-9 


Latin Otho 


80 


Latin Vespasian 


96 


Latin 


96 


Latin 


110 


Greek 


120 


Latin 


120 


Latin 


120 


Greek 


180 


Greek 


208 


Latin 


230 


Latin 


238 


Greek 


320 


Latin 


330 


Greek 


350 


Greek 


360 


Latin 


380 


Latin Valentinian 


550 


Latin 


580 


Latin 


1120 


Greek 



AUTHORITIES OF REFERENCE FOR THIS ESSAY. 



Gildas 



Galfridus 

William of Newborough 

Mathew Paris 

Mathew Westminster 

Thomas Walsingham 

Nennius 

Floren. Wigornensis 

Roger Hoveden 

John Leyland 
Pol. Virgil 
John Bale 

Nicolas Trinet 
H. Lloyd, 1384 
Giraldus Cambrensis 
David Powell 



Gildae Sapientis 

Britonum 
Liber Landavensis 



Excidia : Historia 



General History, temp. Henry II. 



Historia Britonum 

General History of Simon Dunclmensis, 

from Bede, 589, to his time 
British Antiquities, Collectanea, Itinera. 

Scriptorum illustrium Majoris Britannia; 
Catalogus 

History of Cambria 

Tour in Wales, temp. Henry II. 

Welsh Chronicles 



'260 



THE ADVANTAGES TO ENGLISHMEN 



Rowland 
Edward Lhwyd 
Walton 

Archbishop Usher 
Fosbroke 
Camden 

Charles Edwards 
Piercy Enderbies 
Giles I. 

Thomas Hobbs 
Latham 

James Parsons 



Latham 

A. O'Connor 

Dr. Davies 

Thackeray 

Lower 

Williams 

Warren 

Pennant 

Richard of Cirencester 

Shakespere 
Hollinshed 
Public Rolls 



Bede, Venerable 

Marianus Scotus 

Ordeicus Vitalis 

Speed 

Stowe 

Asser 

Eddius 

Aldhelm 

Alain 

Florentius Bravonius 



Radolphus de Dice to 

Higden 
Brampton 

William of Malmesbury, 
12th century 



Mona Antiqua Restorata 
Archaiologia Britannica 
Leges Wallicae 
Britann. Eccles. Antiquitates 
British Monachism 

Britannia ; Remains 

Brief History of the Christian Religion 
Britannia Triumphans 
History of the Ancient Britons 
Leviathan, Civitate Deo 
Man and his Migrations 
History of the English Language 
Remains of Japhet, Historical Inquiry 

into the Origin and Affinity of the 

European Languages 
Ethnology of the British Islands 
Chronicles of Eri 
Thesaurus Lingua? Britanniae 
History of the Ancient Britons 
On English Surnames 
Lives of the Princes 
History of Wales 
Tour in Wales 
De Situ Britannise, Speculum Historiaie 

de Gestis Regum Anglia? 
Historical Plays 
Chronicles 
Published by command of His Majesty 

William IV., Laws and Institutes of 

Wales 
Saxon Chronicle 

Ecclesiastical History 

Chronicles 

Chronicles 






History of the World, from the Creation 

to 1118 A.D. 
Chronicles from 589 to 1147 ; Images of 

History to 1199 
Polychronicon 
Chronicles from 596 to beginning of 

John, 1199 
History of 700 years before his time, 

Stephen Rex 



FROM A KNOWLEDGE OF WELSH. 261 

Spelman Concilia 

Aylett Samraes Britannia Antiqua, illustrated 

Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 

Rapin de Thoyras History of England 

Borlase History of Cornwall 

Sir Samuel Meyrick History of Welsh Counties 

Sir R. C. Hoare History of Ancient Britons 

Rev. Edward Davies Celtic Researches, Mythology and Rites 

of Ancient Druids 

Rev. Price Rees Essay on Welsh Saints 

Harding Rhymney Chronicle 

Roberts Ancient Britons, Popular Antiquities, 

Vindication of the Celts 

Higgins, 1829 Celtic Druids 

Yorke, 1799 Royal Tribes of Wales 

Whittaker History of Manchester 

Probert Ancient Laws of Cambria 

Dr. Jones History of Wales 



CHRONOLOGY OF WALES TRANSITION PERIOD. 

590 Dispersion of the Britons. 

876 Division of Wales by Rhodri Mawr, or Roderic the Great. 

940 Code of Welsh Laws framed by Howel Dda. 
1091 Normans land in Wales ; conquer Glamorgan. 
1108 Colony of Flemings enter Pembrokeshire. 
1188 Crusades preached by Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

and Giraldus de Barri, Archdeacon of Brecknock. 
1282 Death of Llywelyn ap GrufFydd, the last Prince of Wales. 



262 



GORSEDD OF THE BARDS OF THE ISLE OF BRITAIN j 
THE ROYAL CHAIR OF POWYS; 

AND THE 

GRAND EISTEDDFOD HELD AT LLANGOLLEN 

ON ALBAN ELFED, 1858. 

THE National Gorsedd of British Bards, and the Royal Chair of 
Powys, accompanied by a Grand National Eisteddfod, in accordance 
with the "privileges and customs of the Bards of the Isle of Britain," 
commenced at Llangollen on Tuesday, 21st September, and extended 
over the four succeeding days, during which prizes to the amount of 
,400 or ,500 were awarded to successful candidates in the various 
departments of poetry and general literature, oratory, music, heraldry, 
arts, manufactures, &c. 

The Eisteddfod was appointed to take place on Alban Elfed, which, 
Anglicised, is the autumnal equinox, and the province selected was 
that of Powys, in which Llangollen is situate, and which claims the 
privilege of a " Royal Chair," according to the usages of bardism. 

The preparations were in every respect on a scale worthy of a 
national event, the successful issue of which must, however, be attri- 
buted to the zealous and energetic exertions of the Rev. John Williams 
Ab Ithel, M.A., rector of Llanymowddwy, and the Rev. J. Hughes 
(Carn Ingli), Meltham Parsonage, Huddersfield, the joint secretaries 
of the Eisteddfod, whose efforts were also most efficiently seconded by 
the local secretaries, Messrs. Humphreys and Hughes, of Llangollen, 
and the Rev. T. R. Lloyd (Estyn), Llanfynydd. The Llangollen 
people, too, one and all, appear to have come out with spirit on the 
occasion. A main object with the promoters has been to adhere as 
closely as possible to the orthodox rules and customs of bardism, 
which, with respect to the Gorsedd and the national congress always 
accompanying it, are defined and established, and the principal aim 
of which is the elevation of the social, moral, and religious status of 
the people of Wales, the encouragement of nationality, the perpetuation 
of the Cymraeg, and the cultivation of Welsh literature, Welsh music, 
&c. But, in carrying out this object, no narrow or bigotted course 
has been adopted, for whilst, as might be expected, full scope was 
given for Welsh competitors, the prizes were open, not merely to natives 
of the Principality, but to all the world ; and some of the compositions 
were allowed to be written in the English language, the subjects being 
connected with Wales, and intended to promote one or other of the 
laudable purposes already stated. It is worthy of notice, also, that it 
was a peremptory condition that all compositions, in order to be 
rewarded, were required not merely to be the best, but to be pronounced 
worthy of the respective prizes, a condition which amply evinces the 
intention of the committee that those compositions were meant to serve 



LLANOOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 263 

as lasting additions to the literary stores of the country, and not simply 
to contnbute to the ephemeral purposes of a holiday spectacle, and 
then to be consigned to oblivion. Such was the determination of the 
promoters of the Eisteddfod, in carrying out which they will, doubtless, 
be entitled to be considered as benefactors of their country. 

The Vale of Llangollen, so celebrated in prose and verse for its sur- 
passing loveliness, never appeared to greater advantage than on the 
opening day of the National Bardic Congress. The autumnal equinox 
commenced with a summer's day, and the face of nature was radiant 
and beautiful. Even the shattered towers of Castell Dinas Bran, 
looking down from the dizzy height, the guardian of the Vale, seemed 
not to frown, but to smile approval of the scene. And such a scene 
of activity, such a gay and numerous assemblage, was, perhaps, never 
before witnessed within the quiet and romantic town of Llangollen. 

Surely if any scene in the boundaries of the British empire might 
claim precedency as the spot most worthy to be " marked ' in future 
historic annals as the locality of a national Eisteddfod, it must be 
Llangollen. Surrounded by mountains the very outlines of which are 
poetic, situated in the very threshold of the " gate of Wales," the land 
of Glyndwr and chivalry, accessible from every portion of the United 
Kingdom in front, but in the rear supported by the territorial indepen- 
dence of a distinct nation, no position can be suggested more pictorial, 
more significant of the union between immutability and progress, than 
the pleasant village which has grown round the church of the ancient 
British saint on the banks of the Dee, with the solitary exception of 
the Menai, rising every year into importance as the aggregate of all 
the combined beauties of nature and art. The tract of land between 
the English frontier and the Valley of the Cross is perfectly matchless. 
From the Eglwyseg Rocks, crowned by the bardic centre of " Cader 
Arthur," we look down on a union of antiquity with beauty we despair 
of realizing to the senses in any region on the continent between Calais 
and Constantinople. The first thing that strikes the traveller from 
the " Plains" (Lloegr) is, that he is really entering another country, 
a country different in its physical features, as in the character of its 
inhabitants ; and this alone is, in the nineteenth century, the age of 
levelling and denationalizing, a most remarkable fact. But this 
distinctiveness, stamped by the hand of the Eternal Author of Nature, 
is perfectly reconcilable with all the improvements of civilization 
just as the national characteristics of the Cymro are preservable with 
the utmost progress of the nineteenth century for what reason can be 
assigned why an Eisteddfod should not flourish side by side, as it were, 
with a railroad, or an Atlantic telegraph? None and they do 
flourish. Wonderful has it been on this present occasion to see the 
thousands of Cymry descending, not as of yore, with brand and shield 
for war and foray, but in the habiliments of peace and festivity, to be 
present at an Eisteddfod which promised a nearer approach to the 
order of their ancient ordinance than any called or celebrated for 
centuries past. And this too is not in the heart of Wales, but on the 



264 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

very frontiers of England. The mountains have given forth their 
voice, and to its scenic and historic attractions Llangollen has added 
henceforth the memory of a remarkable national demonstration. Let 
us particularize. On the north of Llangollen, now in ruins, but in 
ruins bearing a strong similitude to the " lion " times of old, wherein 
its primal foundations were laid, soars, on a conical mount, the castle, 
as is said, of the most illustrious of the pre-Roman sovereigns of 
Britain, conqueror himself of Rome, and founder of the Cisalpine 
kingdom of Italy Bran, or Brennus, son of the British Justinian, 
Dyfnwal Moelmud. Glorious is the description given by Virgil of 
the military equipments or regimentals worn by the Cymric army of 
that remote period, 

" Golden their flowing locks, as snow their skin, 
Around each warrior's ample body closed 
The cuirass wreathed with gold around each neck 
The torque flashed brilliantly in either hand 
The steel-tipped javelin threatened instant death, 
Whilst on the shoulder fell the covering shield." 

Some of these corps we can in fancy depict, descending from Castell 
Dinas in obedience to the summons of their young prince, to join in 
the first great continental war ever undertaken by the British nation. 
Since the era of Bran, only two British commanders have led their 
armies over the Alps, and these two were of the same Cymric race as 
himself Constantine the Great, and Constantine of Armorica, both 
also educated in North Wales. We never pass these memorable 
remains without tracing, in hurried epitome, the martial career of the 
Cymry their spirit and character being yet, like their language, 
unchanged; and in Corporal Shields, of the 23rd Royal Welsh 
Fusileers, decorated, on its last day, by the Eisteddfod, with the 
ancient " blue garter " of military worth (the torque), we recognize no 
degenerate son of the conquerors of the mistress of the world. Next 
to the military must be classed the ecclesiastical relics of a past era, 
represented with equal dignity and propriety by the walls of Valle 
Crucis. Proud on its eminence of strength and defiance, like a 
warrior challenging his foe, the castell first attracts all eyes ; in its 
sweet seclusion, to be sought and searched for like all objects worth 
attaining lies the holy abbey ; wooded hills, murmuring streams ever 
vocal, vale meeting and saluting vale, then branching off into solitudes 
for meditation, is the frame-work in which it pleased religion to build 
her monastic nest and court repose for the soul. Northward from the 
abbey, with bend and hollow, winds the Vale of the Cross, so termed 
because of the granite cross that stood on the grave of one of the 
early Princes of Powys, in the vicinity of the abbey. Celebrated in 
medieval times for its hospitality, and revered by the bards for its 
literary treasure of the " Greal," that is, " the book containing the 
lives and acts of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table," 
was the Abbey of the Holy Cross. This " Greal " and we fear there 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 265 

is no copy of it, no second impression is now in the Hengwrt Library 
of Sir Robert Vaughan, and he could render no greater service to 
European literature than printing two thousand copies of it under the 
careful supervision of a Cymric scholar, in the same liberal spirit as 
Lady Guest has already edited the " Mabinogion," and thus place it 
beyond the chance of destruction by fire, or otherwise a loss which 
would be absolutely irretrievable. Let this be done, and Sir Robert 
will entitle himself to a vote of thanks from every one interested in 
the conservation of our national records, historical or poetic. Next we 
are attracted by the Pillar of Eliseg the remains of the cross alluded 
to a cof golofn of the eighth century, the inscription on which, now 
worn by the fingers of time into illegibility, may be found in Camden, 
and other illustrators of antique Britain. It was raised by Cadell, 
Prince of Powys, a descendant of Cadell Deyrnllwg, of whom St. 
Germanus declared that his seed should never cease to sit on royal 
thrones, and of whom her present Gracious Majesty, through the 
Tudors, is the lineal representative. Equalling, or in the estimation 
of the practical utilitarian mind, surpassing, castle, abbey, or memorial 
stone, are the gigantic works of art, the viaduct and the aque- 
duct, the latter modelled after the celebrated Roman aqueduct at 
Nismes, and of which its architect, Telford, felt so justly proud, that 
he adopted a representation, of it as his crest and a magnificent 
structure it is, combining scientific strength with fairy-like airiness 
and grace the queen of arches. On the left side of the canal passing 
over it runs the margin or edge along which, so many hundred feet 
above the Dee, without rail or support, walked some years ago the 
intrepid, or rather fool-hardy, collier boy. Ladies have galloped along 
the path between the canal and the iron railing for what will not 
women dare for whim, will, or love whilst most heads in peering 
down feel a dizziness, not the more pleasant because the canal is a foot 
or two behind to receive the fainting body. Under the aqueduct, and 
its sister-wonder the viaduct, winds the Dee, " the wizard Dee " of 
Milton, "the sacred Dee" of Druidism, for with its waters if not the 
purest, amongst the purest in Britain all their ablutory ceremonies, 
according to some, were performed. The old and new, history and 
science, antiquity and scenery, thus unite to confer on Llangollen the 
celebrity it has attained, to the laurel crown of which the present 
Eisteddfod will beyond question add an imperishable leaf. 

THE PAVILION. 

The spot selected for the Eisteddfod was the Bowling Green, 
adjoining the Ponsonby Arms Hotel, &c., so close to the river Dee 
as to be within hearing of the sound of the impetuous torrent as it 
sweeps over the picturesque falls near this point. Here a spacious 
pavilion was erected, and fitted up with every convenience for carrying 
on the proceedings, and for the accomodation of no fewer than 5000 
people. It measured about 180 feet long, by 144 feet broad, forming 
a parallelogram, roofed in three spans, the three front gables being 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 M 



266 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

decorated by three flags respectively of the bardic colours, blue, green, 
and white, and bearing the inscriptions " Heddwch," " Gwybodaeth," 
" Sancteiddrwydd," the attributes of the three orders. The interior 
was formed in three compartments, in the middle one of which, at the 
north end, was a raised dais or platform (constructed for 120 persons), 
for the use of the president and others taking part in the business of 
the congress. Over the president's seat was the red dragon of Wales, 
with the motto, "Y ddraig goch a ddyry gychwyn," painted on 
canvas, by Mr. Thomas Jones (Taliesin o Eifion), Llangollen. The 
figure of the dragon was no less than five or six feet long. On the 
other side of the pavilion, immediately opposite, was an elegant blue 
banner, bearing the sacred emblem, with the mottoes of the British 
Gorsedd and Powysian Chair, wrought in gold letters, very promi- 
nently set forth, " Y gwir yn erbyn y byd," " A laddo a leddir." 
The walls were hung around with the armorial bearings of the fifteen 
royal tribes of Wales, together with the five royal arms, properly so 
called, being those of the reigning princes, all of which were kindly 
lent to the committee by T. L. D. Jones Parry, Esq., Madryn, and 
amongst the other mottoes displayed, were the following : " Lie taw 
Duw, nid doeth yngan," " .Nid gwiw gwir heb ei ganlyn," " Cas gwr 
na charo y wlad a'i macco," " Nid da lie gellir gwell," " Galon wrth 
galon," "Duw a phob daioni," "Heb ddechreu ni cheir terfyn," 
" Oes y byd i'r iaith Gymraeg," " Myn y gwir ei le," " Nid da lie 
gellir gwell," &c. The roof timbers were festooned with evergreens, 
the entire decorations being in keeping with the object in view, and in 
good taste. Adjoining the pavilion was a committee room, commu- 
nicating with the platform, and large enough to accomodate 100 people, 
and close by, on the same ground, Mr. Allen, the landlord of the 
hotel, had erected three spacious first and second class refreshment 
tents, capable of dining from 300 to 400 persons. The tent was 
erected by Mr. Henry Hughes, Broughton, the amount of the contract 
being 200, the materials to be returned. The canvas was supplied 
by Mr. Oakes, Chester. 

PRELIMINARY MEETING. 

At seven o'clock on Monday, a miscellaneous meeting was held in 
the pavilion, the object being more especially to test the capability of 
the structure acoustically as regards the human voice, and also to hear 
the effect of the harp. The chair was taken by Ab Ithel, who was 
supported by a number of bards and others. 

Mr. Jerome Pym ap Ednyfed gave a brief sketch of Taliesin and 
Cattwg Ddoeth. G. H. Whalley, Esq., Plas Madoc, addressed the 
meeting on the objects of a bardic congress, after which the Welsh air 
of " Hob y deri dando " was sung by Miss Roberts, accompanied on 
the harp. The Rev. Mr. Morgan, P.C., Tregynon, next spoke, and 
specimens of pennillion singing were given by Llew Llwyfo and others. 

Carnfaldwyn, a young man from Montgomeryshire, next gave some 
curious illustrations of the Welsh cynghanedd, or consonancy, to show 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 267 

the peculiarities of the twenty-four confined metres, &c. This was 
followed by the favourite air " Clychau Aberdovey," played on the 
harp by Mr. Ellis Roberts, and sung by Miss Roberts, after which 
Llew Llwyfo delivered a Welsh address, and Ab Ithel having 
announced the programme for the morrow, the meeting dispersed. 
The attendance, although numbering some hundreds, appeared scanty. 

Before the termination of the proceedings, the Rev. Mr. Morgan 
announced that if any person had any subject affecting the national 
interests of Wales, or touching the Welsh language, which should be 
brought before the gorsedd, due notice of the same should be given 
to the committee, in order that it might be brought before that 
convention. 

The tent, which was lit up with gas, looked remarkably well, and 
it was stated that the speeches could be distinctly heard from all parts 
of it, but with respect to the harp, the sound of the instrument was 
necessarily weak in such an extensive place. 

Tuesday, 21st September. 

THE QORSEDD. 

At 10 a.m. the bards, druids, ovates, and others, assembled in the 
pavilion, and were marshalled in order of procession. The scene now 
presented was to most, if not all present, novel. Those who were 
members ofthe three privileged orders were attired in their appropriate 
habiliments, the bard in a loose habit of blue, the druid in snowy white, 
and the ovate in a green vestment. One of the ovates bore a peithynen, 
or coelbren y beirdd, the means by which poetic effusions were recorded 
in the earliest times. It consists of slender pieces of wood, fitted into 
an oblong frame, each piece having four lines of poetry cut thereon, in 
old British characters. The coelbren in question contained Gwallter 
Mechain's cywydd, "Cofiant lolo Morganwg," and comprised twenty- 
three staves, on which were inscribed ninety-two lines of poetry. They 
were ingeniously executed by Mr. Edward Lloyd, Cefn y bedd. Bard, 
druid, and ovate, also displayed on his breast three ears of ripe wheat, 
symbolical of Alban Elfed, the season of harvest. The procession 
marched through the town, and thence to the spot known as the 
Green, in the following manner : 
Standard bearer, carrying the banner of the Red Dragon of Wales. 

Brass band. 

Blue flag of the bards. 

White flag of the druids. 

Bards, druids, and ovates, bare-headed, and in costume. 
Green flag of the ovates. 

People four abreast. 

As the procession wended its way over the bridge (considered at 
one time one of the wonders of the Principality), through Chapel 
Street, Collen Terrace, and back through High Street, the number of 
people swelled immensely, until the line of march became densely 



268 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

crowded. Many of the houses were decorated with flags. On ar- 
riving at the Green, we found that a large body of people had already 
posted themselves near the bardic circle, intent upon witnessing the 
ceremonial about to take place. There were several carriages also on 
the ground. The band played " The March of the Men of Harlech," 
and other appropriate Welsh airs. After coming to a halt, the pres- 
sure towards the centre of attraction, where the bardic officials were 
congregated, was very great, and it required the unceasing efforts of 
Mr. Denman, the chief constable, and his men, to keep a clear space ; 
but never have we seen the duty more good-naturedly, and at the 
same time effectively, discharged, than on this occasion, by Mr. 
Denman. 

The Gorsedd consisted of the maen arch, or maen Hog, the chief 
stone placed in the centre, round which, in a circle of 30 feet diameter, 
are the " meini gwyngil," being twelve stones set on end, to represent 
the signs of the zodiac. The sun was considered as a type of God 
the Sun of Righteousness ; hence the construction of the druidical 
places of worship in a circular shape. Towards the east, on the out- 
side of the circle, were three other stones, at a distance of nine fathoms 
from the centre piece, and placed in such positions with respect to the 
latter, that lines drawn from it, through the three, would indicate the 
points in the heavens at which the sun rises on the solstices and 
equinoxes of the year respectively. These lines or pencils of light, as 
they are termed, form the mystic symbol known amongst the Bards 
and Druids as the Name of God the " Word" or attribute of creation 
it being held by the Bards that God created the universe by show- 
ing and pronouncing His own name. It was, we understand, the 
original intention of the committee to have the stones of such magni- 
tude, and so placed, as to be a permanent memento of the Eisteddfod, 
but the ground being a charitable bequest to the inhabitants for the 
purposes of recreation, of which the Board of Health are trustees, 
this intention could not conveniently be carried into effect. 

During the procession, Glas Ynys, a bard according to the privilege 
and usage of the Isle of Britain, carried a sheathed sword, taking hold 
of it by the point. On entering within the precincts of the circle the 
sword was slowly pushed backward out of its scabbard, and placed, 
being laid hold of by the naked point, on the gorsedd or central stone. 

Before the formal opening of the Gorsedd, Ab Ithel, who, as the 
presiding bard, stood on the central stone, whilst the others were 
ranged in position near the stones which formed the circle, delivered 
an address in Welsh on the aspect of bardism in the Isle of Britain. 
In outward appearance it might be likened to a tree "exhibiting two 
branches. The branches were the Eisteddfod and the Chair, the trunk 
from which they sprang being the Gorsedd. The Eisteddfod originated 
in the time of Owain ap Maxen Wledig, on the departure of the 
Romans, after exercising their rule here for more than 400 years. 
Its object was to encourage bardism, music, and the general literature 
of the Cymry, maintain the Welsh language and customs of the 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 269 

country, and cultivate a patriotic spirit amongst the people. The 
"chairs" were established, or rather, perhaps, resuscitated, about 
the sixth century. The chair was a kind of provincial or local con- 
vention, where disciples were trained, and bardic matters discussed, 
preparatory to the great or national Gorsedd. There were at present 
four chairs in Wales, viz., the Chair of Gwent and Morganwg, Chair 
of Dyfed, Powys Chair, and the Gwynedd Chair. That of Powys 
was termed " royal," because it had been established by three royal 
bards, Llywarch Hen, Brochwel Ysgythrog, and Gwron ab Cyn- 
farch. The chairs had their distinctive mottoes. That of Gwent and 
Morganwg was, " Duw a phob daioni." Dyfed, " Galon wrth 
galon." Powys, " A laddo a leddir." Gwynedd, " Yr lesu." 
The motto of the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain was that 
which embraced all the others, " Y gwir yn erbyn y byd." Other 
" chairs" have been in existence which are no longer in an active 
state, such as Arthur's Chair, or the Round Table, with its motto at 
first, " Da yw'r maen gyda'r efengyl;" and then, " Nid da lie 
gellir gwell." The chair of Bryngwyddon, " Coel clywed, gwir 
gweled." Beiscawen yn Nyfnaint, " Nid byth, ond bythoedd." 
Urien Rheged (of which Taliesin was principal bard), " Myn y 
gwir ei le." Raglan, " Deffro mae'n ddydd." The Gorsedd, in its 
present form, is as old as the period of Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, who 
lived about a thousand years before the Christian era. There were 
bards and bardism prior to that date, but they had no organized 
system, nor any means save song whereby to perpetuate their tradi- 
tions, nor any established law to preserve their privileges. Lest the 
old traditions should be lost, Prydain caused a Gorsedd, or national 
meeting, to be convened, for the purpose of eliciting all that had been 
retained in the memory of the people respecting the occurrences of 
ancient times ; and it was found that three of the old bards, or, as they 
were then called, the " Gwyddoniaid," i. e., men of knowledge, viz., 
Plenydd, Alawn, and Gwron, remembered and knew more than all 
the rest. These three classified the old traditions, and they divided 
the old order into three sections bards, druids, and ovates ; and this 
arrangement, having undergone the examination of succeeding Gor- 
seddau for three years, received national warranty. Such was the 
origin and commencement of the Gorsedd in its outward aspect, as it 
now appeared. But as regarded its essential requisites, it might be 
said that bardism was as old as Noah, or even Adam himself, the father 
of all mankind. The Almighty was pleased to grant to Adam, when 
created, a revelation of Himself, and of the unseen world. This 
revelation was a second time given to Noah, unless, indeed, we are to 
suppose that the first revelation had been sustained in memory. He 
again taught the whole to his children and posterity, and whilst he 
and they lived together in the East, it was not possible to fall deeply 
into religious error. When the general dispersion took place, the 
heads of families carried along with them that which they knew of the 
primary religion into their new abodes ; and, in the course of time, from 



270 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

the natural corruption of the human heart, the weakness of memory, 
and from opposing circumstances from without, the patriarchal religion 
suffered deterioration more or less. God chose one nation out of the 
whole to maintain the true religion, by means of continued revelations, 
leaving the rest by natural means to support that which had once been 
given to them. Of the nations left to themselves, the Cymry suc- 
ceeded, beyond all others, in keeping the old religion uncorrupted; 
and thus, when the Messiah came, they saw that He completely 
answered to the types they had of Him, and they received the Gospel 
as the superstructure or completion of Druidism. Their ancient system 
was clothed with Christianity. But this, rejoins some one, is all gone 
by; what benefit can result from keeping up these old customs any 
longer ? He answered much in every respect ; but, as time was 
short, he would mention only one. Their act in holding the Gorsedd 
of the Bards was a public witness that the Cymry at all times consi- 
dered and believed the unison and agreement that existed between the 
two dispensations that the one answered to, and was as the fulfilment 
of, the other that God was the same in all ages, and that He carried 
on His works gradually towards perfection. Alluding to the degene- 
rate condition of the rest of the Gentile world, the reverend gentle- 
man proceeded to explain the ceremonies observed at the Gorsedd. 
Having glanced at the symbols of the sacred circle, he explained the 
dresses of the three orders, and their emblems ; that of the bard having 
reference to the blue vault of heaven, indicating peace and tranquillity; 
that of the druid indicating purity, by its snowy whiteness, intended to 
resemble light; and that of the ovate, borrowed from the grass of the 
field, a state of growth and progression. Another ceremony was that 
of bearing the sword ; taking it by the point, instead of the hilt, and in 
that manner replacing it in the scabbard, intended to show the peaceful 
occupation of the bard, and that no arms could be borne in the Gor- 
sedd, the mode of sheathing being designed to illustrate the fact that, 
by his ofiice, the bard should turn the sword against himself before he 
did so against any other man. (His address was received with fre- 
quent marks of applause.) 

The Rev. M. Morgan (Mor Meirion) then advanced into the circle, 
and repeated the " Gorsedd Prayer" composed by Talhaiarn, a bard 
of the fifth century, as follows : 

Dyro, Dduw, dy nawdd; 

Ac yn nawdd, nerth ; 

Ac yn nerth, deall ; 

Ac yn neall, gwybod ; 

Ac yngwybod, gwybod y cyfiawn ; 

Ac yngwybod y cyfiawn, ei garu ; 

Ac o garu, caru pob hanfod ; 

Ac yn caru pob hanfod, garu Duw. 

After this the presiding bard recited the " Gwaedd uwch adwaedd," 
or proclamation, introducing it with the national motto, " Y gwir 
yn erbyn y Byd ;" and concluding with the provincial motto, " A 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 271 

iaddo a leddir." In this proclamation all candidates for bardic honours 
were invited to the Gorsedd, " where there was no naked weapon 
against them," and seek them at the hands of the graduated bards pre- 
sent. Whilst Ab Ithel pronounced the words just quoted, all the bards 
approached the central stone, and assisted in sheathing the sword. 

The following appeared as candidates for the honour and degree of 
Bard: Ceiriog, Pererin, Carnfaldwyn, and Llew Hiraethog, who 
had previously sent in testimonials of their qualifications. As each 
presented himself, the presiding bard published the " Gosteg Cadair " 
three times, thus, 

" A. B. Bardd yn hawl ac arddelw ger bron y gadair, ac os oes 
neb a wyr ac a ddengys achaws cyfiawn a phaham nas gellir, ac nas 
dylid Bardd o hono, o gradd herwydd a welir yn gyfiawn wrth fraint 
a defawd Beirdd Ynys Prydain, dangosed. 

" Llafar bid lafar." 

And as no one preferred any objection, he took each by the hand, 
and, looking eastward, addressed him solemnly, 
" Goleuni Duw rhag dy lygaid, 
Goleuni Duw yn dy gydwybod, 
Gwirionedd Duw ar dy dafawd. 

" A ymgeisi di yn dy swydd fel Bardd wellhau moes a defod, 
cynnal heddwch, a moli pob daionus a rhagor?" 

And on receiving the answer, 

" Gwnaf ar air a chydwybod," 
he made the declaration, 

" Bardd ydwyt, gair dy air ar bob un na fo bardd, ac nid un gair o 
neb un nad bardd arnat ti." 

Whereupon Mor Meirion tied a blue ribbon round his right arm, 
and he was presented with a brysyll or wand of the same colour, em- 
blematical of " privilege." 

Next, the following appeared as candidates for the degree of Ovate : 
Morddal, Madoc, Glyn Afon, Dinmael, Elfynydd, Ap Ednyfed, 
Peblig, Gwilym Tawe, Eos Llechid, Gwilym o Fon, Ivan Avan, 
Euronwy, Eiluned, and Meillionen Meirion. These were respec- 
tively presented by graduated bards, who declared " on their word and 
conscience" that they were worthy. On which the presiding bard 
proclaimed, 

" A. B. Dywed yr hwn a'i cyflwyna ar air a chydwybod y gellir 
Bardd o hono (neu honi) ; ac yna barna y Beirdd yng ngorsedd y 
dylir Bardd o hono (neu honi) yngradd Ofydd ym mraint Beirdd a 
Chadair Powys. 

" A Iaddo a leddir." 

And each was invested with a ribbon and a wand of a green colour. 

The ceremony of graduating Druids was similar, mutatis mutandis, 
but instead of these being admitted " on the word and conscience" of 
a privileged bard, they were elected by a majority of votes. The fol- 
lowing were received into the order of Druids: Ivan Avan and 
Pererin. 



272 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Glas Ynys then delivered the Traethawd, or charge, to those who 
had been initiated, exhorting them to be true to their order by the 
maintenance of peace and good will amongst themselves, and by the 
cultivation of poetry and other branches of literature in the Welsh 
language. 

Mathonwy then recited a Welsh poem, and, it having been 
announced that the Gorsedd would be open on each of the succeeding 
days, the proceedings for the present terminated with the singing of 
the Doxology, which was done with grand effect. The procession 
afterwards returned to the tent in the same order as before. 

THE EISTEDDFOD 

was arranged to commence at half past one, in the pavilion, but it 
was considerably later before the ceremonies commenced. Upon the 
platform the bards, druids, ovates, and others were congregated, the 
first-named wearing light blue dresses, the druids were habilitated 
wholly in white, while the ovates wore green. Those just graduated 
wore merely a ribbon tied round the arm, of either blue, white, or 
green, according to their degrees. There were several others, ladies 
and gentlemen, on the platform, some of whom were in full costume, 
as Dr. Price, who wore a truly patriarchal beard, and was attired in 
a green jacket suit trimmed with scarlet, and a primitive fox-skin 
cap. Miss Price, daughter of Dr. Price, also wore a fox-skin head- 
dress, and a scarlet habit. There could not have been less than 5000 
people in the pavilion, and the scene altogether was a most interesting 
one. 

The Eisteddfod opened with the sound of trumpet, when Ab Ithel 
proposed, and Carn Ingli seconded, that T. Oldfield, Esq., (Eryr 
Moelfre,) of Bettws, near Abergele, should preside. This was carried 
by acclamation, and the President made a few observations to the effect 
that he should always be happy to support Welsh nationality, and 
would do his utmost to fulfil his duties on the present occasion. 

A concert of harps then struck up with the " Rising of the Lark," 
which was admirably played by Messrs. Ellis Roberts, (harpist to 
the Prince of Wales,) Thomas Griffiths, (harpist to Lady Hall, of 
Llanover,) John Roberts, and Richard Pugh. Some Welsh englynion 
were next recited by, among others, the Rev. D. Jones, Rev. R. Ellis, 
(Cynddelw,) Thomas Edwards, of Corwen, Alaw Goch, and Idris 
Vychan. These productions were generally well received, and afforded 
much amusement. 

Mr. Owain, (Owain Alaw,) professor of music, Chester, then called 
upon the company to join in the chorus of the next song, which was a 
truly national one. Mr. Lewis, (Llew Llwyfo,) of the Liverpool 
Philharmonic Concerts, hereupon sang, in capital style, " O, let the 
kind Minstrel," in the chorus of which the audience heartily joined. 

To this succeeded the awarding of prizes to the successful candidates. 
The first in order was a prize of .10 and a medal, for the best poem 
on " The Transfiguration." The Rev. Robert Parry, (Gwalchmai,) 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 273 



read some general remarks upon the nine compositions which had 
been sent in, and left it to the committee to decide whether the prize 
should be divided between three of the candidates, whose poems were 
nearly equal, but they were very mediocre. The Rev. R. Ellis, 
(Cynddelw,) read his adjudication, in which he argued it would be 
better not to divide, but to leave the prize open. Rev. J. Williams 
ab Ithel said the committee had determined not to divide any prize, 
and therefore it would remain open for competition for twelve 
months. (Applause.) 

The prize of 3 for the best satiric poem on " The Traitor" was 
withheld for the same reason as the last, Mr. J. Hughes, (Ceiriog,) 
stating there was no composition worthy. 

Mr. Ellis Roberts, (Eos Meirion,) who was decorated with several 

fold and silver medals and silver harps, then delighted the company 
y singing, with much taste, accompanying himself on the harp, 
" Clychau Aberdyvi," (the Bells of Aberdovey). He was heartily 
encored, when he called upon some of his musical friends, including 
Mr. J. Roberts, his daughter, Miss Roberts, and Mr. Lewis, to assist, 
who sang, in a manner which excited the loudest plaudits of the 
audience, the humorous Welsh song of " Hob y deri dando," which 
was also encored. It was repeated by Mr. J. Roberts (accompanying 
himself on the Welsh harp) and his daughter, who was dressed in the 
orthodox Welsh costume. At the conclusion of this the cheers were 
again very enthusiastic, and Miss Roberts was decorated with a prize, 
gained on the previous evening, for accompanying herself on the Welsh 
harp. 

Owen Alaw then read the award for the prize of 5 for the best 
harvest anthem, in Welsh, on Joel ii. 22, 23, 24, 25. Ten composi- 
tions had been sent in, but four of these were so bad that they did not 
require a word of notice. After ably reviewing the other six, some 
of which were severely criticised, the decision was declared to be in 
favour of the composer who signed himself " Meurig Hafodunos." 
Ab Ithel called upon the successful candidate to come forward, but no 
one answered to the call. 

For the best recitation of the speech of Caractacus at Rome, 1, 
for boys under 18, four competitors appeared, viz., Walter Eaton, of 
Mold, Lewis Evans, Richard Hugh Griffiths, and John Lewis, of 
Adwy 'r clawdd, near Wrexham. The following is the English version 
of the speech which was delivered in Welsh : " If the measure of my 
success had been answerable to the greatness of my birth and fortune, 
I might have come to this city rather as a friend than a captive ; nor 
wouldest thou have disdained to receive into terms of peace one 
descended from illustrious ancestors, and ruling many nations. My 
present destiny, as it is ill-favoured to me, so it is to thee magnificent. 
I possessed horses, men, arms, wealth what wonder is it if I was 
unwilling to lose them ? Does it follow that if ye wish to govern, all 
should submit to servitude ? If I had surrendered myself instantly, 
neither my condition nor thy glory would have been remarkable. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 N 



274 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Oblivion will attend my punishment, but if thou wilt spare my life, I 
shall be a lasting instance of clemency." (Tac. Annul, lib. xii.) 
Master Eaton and Master Lewis recited excellently well, and with 
proper emphasis, and so nearly equal were they considered by the 
judges that they repeated the recitation, when the prize was awarded 
to Master Lewis, who was duly invested with the prize. In conse- 
quence of the admirable manner Master Eaton recited, (he being three 
years younger than his successful competitor,) the general committee 
presented him with a prize of half the value ; the Rev. R. W. Morgan, 
adding some words of encouragement to the young elocutionist, hoping 
he would grow up in the manly spirit and independence of Caractacus. 
(Loud cheers.) 

Prizes of .10 and 6 were offered to the brass band who should 
play in the best style a selection of Welsh airs. Three bands entered 
for the prizes the Royal Denbighshire Rifles, the Royal Denbigh- 
shire Yeomanry, and Mr. Davies' Cardiff Band. The two first bands 
played a single air, and the Cardiff Band a medley. The judges, Mr. 
Owen and Mr. Ellis Roberts, unhesitatingly gave their decision in 
favour of the last named band, which played most delightfully. Mr. 
George French Davies, the master, " kneeling at the feet of beauty," 
was invested with the prize by Miss Ellen Williams ab Ithel (Eiluned), 
who at the same time expressed her hope that all Mr. Davies' future 
triumphs would be achieved as peacefully as that he had then gained. 
After the Denbighshire bands had played over again, the second prize 
was awarded to the yeomanry band; the master, Mr. J. Davies, 
kneeling, was invested with the prize by Miss Steele. 

Mr. G. Hammond Whalley, of Plas Madoc, then stepped forward 
and addressed the Eisteddfod. He said that he would repeat the 
sentiments which he had uttered on the previous evening, which senti- 
ments had received the sanction and approval of some of the best 
authorities as to this most national institution. This was not a meeting 
merely to distribute the well earned prizes for literature, poetry, and 
music, and for other things mentioned in this programme, but also for 
any purpose whatever that the people of this country might take an 
interest in, sufficiently to induce an expression of opinion. The 
principles which the Eisteddfod and Gorsedd had always inculcated 
into the minds of the whole people, and especially in times when those 
important conventions were paramount in this country, had been the 
principles of law and order, and of obedience to authority ; and so 
effectually had this been done for some thousands of years, that the 
legislative functions had become simply of a demonstrative nature, and 
were for practical purposes a sinecure, the people being called together 
to witness the distribution of prizes on various subjects, to see the 
growing development of the human mind, instances of which they had 
had that day. (Hear.) But if in time to come the parliament should 
fail them should the councils now recognized by law fail them 
should the representative principle fail them to what court could the 
destinies of this mighty empire be confided so justly and faithfully as 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 275 

to this ancient institution the gathering together of the people in 
solemn assembly, consecrated by the remotest antiquity, recognized 
by the charters of sovereigns, and sanctioned by some of the noblest 
and best men in the country, as indeed on this occasion. (Cheers.) 
He might in regard to the Eisteddfod say, whether alluding to the 
testimony of Lord Chancellors, of Cooks, or of Fortescues, that it had 
been recognized as an indefeasible right of the people of Britain to 
assemble together whenever it was deemed the occasion required it, to 
express their judgment on all matters committed to them. Even in 
modern times had the Eisteddfod been sanctioned, recognized, and 
acknowledged, from time to time, by the presence and subscription of 
those who held the highest positions in the land. (Cheers.) These 
were the sentiments which he had expressed on the previous evening, 
and although they could not boast of having on this platform many of 
the aristocracy, yet they could pride themselves on possessing here 
that degree of merit which entitled those gentlemen who now stood 
near him to the confidence of the country in the administration of 
these solemn ceremonies of antiquity. It was intended thoroughly to 
revive the most ancient court of appeal upon all matters of importance 
which could fairly be discussed, such as was continually done in the 
large courts of the empire, and in our social congresses; for these, and 
even the political meetings, such as were held in large towns, all were 
but an exhibition of the traditional right derived from the solemnities 
of the Gorsedd the traditional right of the people of this country to 
assemble together to direct, and control, and advise in matters of 
importance. The Gorsedd would therefore be open every day until 
Saturday, inclusive, and any one might give notice to the committee if 
he had any subject to bring forward. Full scope would thus be afforded 
for the consideration of matters of general and vital public interest, 
calculated to promote the happiness of the people, not only of this 
part of the country, but, he might venture to add, of the empire of 
Britain. (Cheers.) 

The Mineral Resources of Wales. .25 were offered by the young 
men of Llangollen for the best treatise on the mineral resources of the 
Principality, with the stipulation that, should the successful composi- 
tion be in English, it must be translated into Welsh at the author's 
expense. 

David Williams, Esq., of Merthyr, one of the judges, read his 
adjudication, which was in Welsh. Two treatises had been received, 
both being very voluminous. The best was signed " Didascalos," which 
was a very excellent production. 

Professor Griffiths, of Liverpool, (who, together with Alaw Goch, 
acted as judge,) then delivered his verdict in English, which concurred 
with Mr. Williams' opinion. The professor highly applauded the 
manner in which "Didascalos" had completed his task. The production 
contained a store of most useful information, put in the most practical 
form, and its publication must be regarded as a timely and valuable 
addition to the literature of the country. (Cheers.) 



276 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

The Rev. John Jones, Baptist minister, Llangollen, (Mathetes,) 
answered to the name, and came forward amidst rounds of applause to 
receive the prize, with which he was invested by Miss Williams ab 
Ithel, (Euronwy,) who expressed the pleasure she felt in awarding it 
to one who had before received an acknowledgment of merit, and who 
was a native of Llangollen. (Cheers.) It is doubtless a matter of 
deep satisfaction to the young men of the town, four of whom, Messrs. 
Humphreys and Hughes, (local secretaries,) R. Roberts, and W. 
Jones, have been especially active in collecting subscriptions so as to 
insure a remunerative sum, to find that it has been triumphantly and 
worthily won by a fellow-townsman. 

Pennillion singing with the harp (presided over by Mr. Ellis 
Roberts) then took place. This most ancient style of singing, peculiar 
to Wales, seemed to excite no little wonder among the .purely English 
portion of the audience, and the number of English people present was 
certainly not a few. As Mr. Roberts explained, the singer does nol 
commence with the strain, but strikes in at the third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, or seventh bar, as it best suits his convenience or fancy, but, at 
whatever point he commences, he is bound, as an orthodox pennillion 
singer, to conclude his stanza with the last note of the strain itself, 
which contains eight bars of music. The ingenuity with which some 
of these pennillion singers will huddle a heap of words into a small 
compass is not less marvellous than the manner in which they change 
the accent, and otherwise contrive to fit in their stanzas to a mathe- 
matical nicety. There were six vocalists on this occasion, but there 
was no competition for prizes. Amongst them were Idris Vychan, 
Joseph Williams, a blind man, aged 76 years, and two of the harpers. 
The old man, Williams, attracted especial attention. He was intro- 
duced to the audience by Mr. Roberts, who said he remembered him 
competing at eisteddfodau when he himself was a boy, and winning 
many prizes, some of which, in the shape of silver medals, he bore on 
his breast to-day. His performances were greatly applauded, and his 
appearance, and the style in which he sang, created the liveliest interest. 

Bardism. A prize of .30, and a bardic tiara in gold, was offered 
for the fullest illustration, from original sources, of the theology, 
discipline, and usages of the bardic system of the Isle of Britain. 

Myfyr Morganwg, who was attired in his white robes, and wore 
the insignia of his order, read the adjudication of himself, Llallawg, 
and Hirlas, appointed as judges. They all concurred in the opinion 
that the only production received, signed " Plenydd," was well worthy 
of the prize. It consisted of 287 pages, beautifully written, and con- 
taining probably the most complete dissertation and compilation on 
bardism ever collected together. 

" Plenydd" being called upon, he appeared in the person of the Rev. 
John Williams ab Ithel, one of the most profound scholars and anti- 
quaries in this country. He was received with a Welsh hurrah as he 
knelt before Miss Owen, Blaenau, near Dolgelley, who placed the 
golden trophy on his brow. 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 277 

Rev. Mr. Morgan said that never was a prize more worthily 
besto'wed ; for if anybody was entitled to it from his deep knowledge 
of the subject, it was the gentleman who had received it on this 
occasion. (Applause.) 

This terminated the proceedings, and the National Anthem having 
being sung, the meeting dispersed. 

EVENING CONCERT. 

The concert attracted a large and influential audience, numbering 
about 3000. It was opened by the Cardiff Brass Band performing 
a selection of airs, arranged with excellent taste, and conducted by 
their leader, Mr. G. F. Davies. In the song which followed " Strike 
the Harp," the fine contralto voice of Mrs. Brooks, of Manchester, 
was greatly admired ; the chorus of amateurs displayed a want of 
more training. Mr. Jervis, of Manchester, introduced two songs 
during the evening, " Cartref," and the " Maid of Llangollen." He 
displayed considerable taste in his singing, but his voice was too weak 
to fill so large a space. In the glees his singing of the tenor parts 
was very satisfactory. A part song by Owen Alaw was highly 
applauded, and rapturously encored. Several other glees were sung 
by the vocalists with marked success Miss Williams, of Liverpool, 
taking the air with excellent taste and skill ; and we could also dis- 
tinguish the fine voice of Mr. Pierce, of Liverpool. Mr. Ellis 
Roberts' performance of " Llwyn Onn " on the harp was thrilling; a 
repetition being loudly called for, he substituted some pennillion, in 
which he was assisted by Llew Llwyfo, which were received by the 
numerous assemblage with the hilarity and pleasurable feeling which, 
when well sung, they seldom fail to produce. The singing of " Mae 
Robin yn swil," " The Bashful Young Gentleman," and " Hen 
Forgan a'i Wraig," by Owen Alaw, was most vociferously applauded, 
and gave the greatest pleasure to all present. The whole of the 
musical portion of this important national meeting was intrusted to 
this gentleman, and the audience on this occasion were unanimous in 
expressing their satisfaction as to his admirable arrangements. 

Wednesday, Q2nd September. 

THE EISTEDDFOD. 

If yesterday was remarkable for the fineness of the weather, to-day 
was in the opposite extreme. The rain poured down in torrents, until 
the morning was far advanced ; still at 10 o'clock, the hour announced 
for the assembly, we repaired to the tent, but here matters presented 
anything but a cheering aspect, as the water soaked though the roof of 
the pavilion, and converted the avenues between the seats into a state 
of mire. Nothing daunted a goodly number of patriotic people, a large 
proportion being ladies, trudged through rain and mud, and, true as 
the needle to the pole, were on the spot punctually. The proceedings, 
however, did not commence for full half an hour afterwards, by which 



278 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

time the rain had partially abated, and gradually the audience was 
augmented by fresh arrivals, until the numbers present nearly eqifalled 
those of the previous day. 

At the sound of trumpet Eryr Moelfre resumed the chair. 

Rev. R. Parry, (Gwalchmai,) recited the following well deserved 
complimentary englynion to the secretaries : 

Yma byth y cofir am Ab Ithel, 
Tra y bo beirddion try bawb i'w arddel, 
Enw'r diwygiwr yn dra diogel 
A red trwy oesau i achau uchel, 
Ei fwyn hynawsedd, o duedd dawel 
Aegyr rinwedd ei gywir annel 
A rhyfedd sylwedd ei sel dros ei wlad 
Am ei derchafiad o'i rhesiad isel. 

Yntau Carn Ingli mewn bri obrwyir, 
Ac ar unwaith y ddau a goronir, 
Dau o wir efeilliaid a arfollir, 
Dau o un galon dyna eu gelwir. 
Y genedl gu gydag anadl gywir 
Fola'u portread, un eiliad welir 
Ar furiau palasau y cyplysir, 
Wynebau dynion gan bawb adwaenir, 
Llyth'renau'u henwau yn hir trwy oesau 
O ddaear y lluniau a ddarllenir. 

Heddyw y Brython a ddengys haeddiant, 
Y dewr wladgarwyr, y gwyr ragorant, 
Ac ar goryn y cewri a garant 
Lwyraf, arwyddion y lawryf roddant 
Er parch, i'w cyfarch y cant ber englyn 
Chorus y delyn i'w croesaw dalant ! 

After the rapturous applause which greeted this effusion a voice 
from the assembly called for an English recitation, whereupon Mr. 
Wm. Downing Evans, of Newport, Monmouthshire, (Leon,) stepped 
forward and gave the following lines, composed by him on the previous 
evening: 

Since Plenydd first, the heaven-born bard of light, 
Those strains of praise that reached celestial height, 
Poured from the ray-stringed lyre adoring love, 
That echo still thro' all the realms above, 
To God, their Sovereign Lord, bards of all time, 
Have brought the first-fruits of the song sublime ! 

Thus we, as meet, whose light-reviving age 
Shall glory shed on history's future page, 
To Him the tribute of all learning bring, 
And, bowed with awe, adore th' Eternal King ! 



LLANQOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 279 

For lo ! on us what obligations rest, 
Above all bygone ages greatly blest, 
Assembled here the bards no longer dread 
TV assassin's steel, with friends to banquet led ; 
Pursued like fiends, o'er hill, thro' craggy dell, 
The minstrel hears no more the foeman's yell ; 
Intestine war long banished from the land, 
Here, heart to heart, in compact strong we stand ! 

Oh ! mighty people ! Gwalia keep thine own, 
Heed not the alien's sneer, thy neighbour's frown ; 
Gaze o'er the past, and search, by history's ray, 
For those who sought for universal sway ; 
Egypt, that stern that granite-hearted power, 
Greece, with her loveliness, of art the flower, 
Rome, mighty Rome ! we ne'er can love the name, 
For o'er these mountain heights her armies came, 
Her broad ways opened, and designed to make 
Each fertile vale a blood-submerging lake ; 
The minstrel's joyous harp has long resumed 
Those strains that royal hate to silence doomed. 
Fair as the earth's first carpet-sod was seen ! 
Here lives our leek to bloom for ever green ! 
Appropriate emblem, heaven ordained to give 
Of deathless energy, and power to live ! 

THESE have we still, and thus we gather-round 
The spot where all to-day intact are found ; 
Bards stand erect and to the world proclaim 
Your Nation lives, and thus attests her fame ! 

LEON. 

Risiart Ddu o Wynedd next addressed the Eisteddfod in englynion, 
followed by Cynddelw, who read the production of Absalom Fardd. 

Notwithstanding the rain, which was still merciless, poetic fire once 
kindled at an Eisteddfod could not be damped. As soon as one had 
finished, another bard would " ascend the rostrum with a skip," and 
thunder forth his lyric or didactive composition, each vying with the 
other for effect. It was truly a scene in which the enthusiastic Welsh- 
man delights. Thus it was that, next in order, Estyn, whose poetical 
genius is already familiar to our readers, advanced, and with characte- 
ristic ardour recited his admirable lyric ballad, " The Battle of Bos- 
worth Field." It was received with thunders of applause. 

Mr. O. Wynne Jones, (Glasynys,) then spoke in Welsh on a 
subject which, he said, had occupied a good deal of the public atten- 
tion in Wales during the last two years the erection of a monument 
to Lly welyn, the last Prince of Wales. Much interest appeared to be 
excited by the mention of this subject, for when the speaker, after 
dilating on the patriotism of Llywelyn, and sketching in glowing 



280 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

colours the character of the " Llyw Olaf," put the question direct, 
"Shall there or shall there not be a monument to his memory?" he 
was met with vehement cries of "yes! yes!" form all parts of the 
pavilion, followed by a tremendous Welsh cheer. Alluding to the 
success of the movement in honour of the memory of Sir William 
Wallace, of Scotland, where <40()0 had been subscribed for a like 
purpose, he urged the Cymry to take immediate steps. In conclusion, 
he indulged in a poetic idea, picturing the spirit of the patriot prince 
as visiting the scenes of his career in the body, and looking down 
on the proceedings of the Eisteddfod itself. 

He was followed by Llew Llwyfo in a Welsh speech. 

After a few words from Cynddelw, and Mr. Pym ap Ednyfed, the 
Rev. Mr. Parry, (Gwalchmai,) read the adjudication on the fol- 
lowing: 

The late Fire at Wynnstay. This was a prize of 5 5s., offered 
by the patriotic chairman, for the best Welsh ode of national sympathy 
with Sir Watkin and Lady Williams Wynn, on the recent calamitous 
fire at Wynnstay, and of sincere congratulation on the merciful pre- 
servation of lives on the occasion. The judges were, Rev. R. Parry, 
Rev. D. Silvan Evans, and Rev. Robert Ellis. The following is a 
summary of their adjudication, read by the first-named gentleman. 

The announcement of a prize for the best Welsh ode of national 
sympathy with Sir Watkin and Lady Williams Wynn, on the recent 
calamitous fire at Wynnstay, and of sincere congratulation on the 
merciful preservation of lives on the occasion, was hailed with universal 
approbation by the nation at large. The subject, at once replete in 
general interest, extensive in domestic calamity, and touching in 
national sympathy, afforded a fine field, and a most appropriate 
occasion, to call the energies of the Welsh awen into full play. It 
therefore raised anticipations, and all were confident of productions of 
the first order. On a subject so disastrous in its nature, and so 
alarming in its effect, every reader waited to receive the effusion of 
the muse with excited poetical ardour. The very terms in which it was 
announced created an anticipation of something telling, nervous, pointed; 
softened by the sweetest strains of pensive, chaste melody ; overflowing 
with the natural feelings of sympathy and condolence. It is an 
admitted fact, that unless the Welsh bard, when writing on a subject 
of national interest, surpasses the most sanguine expectation of his 
readers as much as their enthusiasm outruns their common feeelings, 
hope is sure to be followed by disappointment, and the production will 
fail to have the desired effect. While the adjudicators rejoice to find 
that this subject stimulated not less than ten candidates with hopes of 
success, they are compelled to confess their own feelings were not a 
little mortified in finding the character of the compositions much below 
the standard they contemplated, and that they are wanting in that 
elevated conception, that poetical warmth, that eloquence of diction, 
and that genuine expression of sympathy which the nature of the 
subject demanded. It would, therefore, be complimenting the authors 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 281 

at the expense of their own judgment to assert that these poems 
ranked among the higher species of poetry ; at the same time, it 
would be betraying a want of taste and feeling to insinuate that they 
are wholly destitute of merit. It seems, however, that a reserve is 
made, and that the judges, in case they thought all the rival composi- 
tions unworthy of the reward, should dismiss them altogether without 
the promised honour. Such a step no doubt may be deemed highly 
provoking to some of the competitors ; but justice, notwithstanding all 
minor considerations, compels them to state that, with a disinterested 
review, they cannot pronounce any of them of sufficient merit to deserve 
the prize. They would therefore beg leave to offer a suggestion, 
entertaining confident hopes that even the candidates themselves, after 
due deliberation with the generous and noble-minded gentleman who 
proposed the subject, will concur in a proposition to suspend the 
award, augment the prize, and re-announce the subject, whereby the 
poetic fire of the Welsh awen may be roused to its proper element, 
that the public may be presented with a composition in verse worthy 
the noble representatives of a family who from time immemorial have 
been deservedly held as the distinguished ornament of their country. 
With the adoption of this measure we entertain hopes that the inspired 
genius of Llywarch Hen's muse may again be invoked, when, in an 
elegy on Cynddylan, and in an episode on the destruction of ancient 
Pengwern, he exclaimed 

Sefwch allan, forwynion, a syllwch werydre 
Gynddylan. Llys Pengwern neud tandde ! 
Gwae'r ieuangc a eiddynt brodre. 

James Kenward, Esq., (Elfynydd,) then recited some lines of a 
" Poem of English Sympathy with Wales," but a feeling of impatience 
being manifested by the Welsh portion of the audience who did not 
understand English, Mr. Kenward felt reluctant to read the whole, and 
retired from the platform. 

Mr. Whalley (Madog) appealed to the chairman and the meeting 
if there were any question before them, to allow him, and others who 
like him did not understand the Welsh language, to be put in the same 
position as those who did. He pleaded earnestly for an opportunity 
of hearing Mr. Kenward. 

Ab Ithel begged to inform the meeting that Mr. Kenward was a 
person who pre-eminently " loved our nation," that he had been most 
indefatigable in collecting subscriptions for the Eisteddfod, and had 
in other ways promoted the object they had all in view by all the 
means in his power. This announcement was received with great 
cheers. 

Mr. Kenward was loudly called upon to proceed with his poem. 
He advanced, and read about twenty stanzas, in which he was vocife- 
rously applauded. The poem was written with considerable talent, and 
was delivered with excellent effect. It has since been published, 
together with a very graphically descriptive ode on the Gorsedd. 

Rev. W. Morgan, (Mor Meirion,) Tregynon, then proposed, in an 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 O 



282 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

enthusiastic speech, a vote of thanks to Mr. Kenward. He said the 
Welsh were determined to have their rules, but they never desired to 
be otherwise than indissolubly connected with the English and the 
British empire. (Cheers.) He was perfectly certain that there were 
millions of English hearts that contained the same sentiments as those 
which had been admirably expressed by their far-famed friend that day. 
(Cheers.) They required nothing more than justice to Cambria, and 
everlasting love to the English. (Loud cheers.) 

Mr. Whalley, (Madog,) in seconding this, said, the sentiments ex- 
pressed in the poem were valuable, not only on account of their admi- 
ration of Wales and the Welsh, but because they were written in favour 
of something more venerable and more estimable even than that. 
Loyalty, a love of justice, patriotism, and every other principle calcu- 
lated to promote the happiness of man, individually and collectively, 
existed even before the Welsh language, and it was because these had 
been well expressed by Mr. Kenward that he had much pleasure in 
seconding the proposition which had been so eloquently proposed. 
(Loud cheers.) Carried unanimously. 

Poem (Pryddest) on the Spring (Y Gwanwyn). Limited to 
young people under eighteen. A silver medal by Hen Eisteddfodwr. 
The award of the judges, read by Ab Ithel, was in favour of 
" Cymro leuangc," whose composition was the best out of ten. No 
one answered to the name, and the seal was broken, under which the 
author's proper name was found. It was Mr. H. M. Williams, Stamp 
Office, Holyhead. 

Proclamation of Denbigh Eisteddfod, 1859. Gwalchmai then 
proclaimed in due form that an Eisteddfod would be held within the 
walls of the venerable castle of Denbigh, on Alban Elfed, 1859. 

The Rev. J. Hughes, (Carn Ingli,) then addressed the meeting 
and said There is a prophecy, doubtless familiar to you, which tra- 
dition has ascribed to Taliesin, while some think that Jonas Mynwy 
is the author : it refers to the nation of the Cymry, 
" Their God they will worship, 
Their language they will preserve, 
Their land they will lose, except wild Wales." 

This prophecy embodies in it the prominent features of Welsh history: 
it is a text ample in its meaning, and like gold in the bullion, every 
sentence is weighty and important. " They will worship their God." 
The Welsh are considered a religious people, (hear, hear) and were 
so from an early period. The faith of Christ was introduced into 
Wales, as Caradoc of Llancarvan witnesses, in the year of our Lord 
55. In the Triads of the Pedigrees of the Saints 58 is mentioned j 
whereas Gildas writes (hat Christianity was introduced here before 
the victory of Boadicea over the Romans, which took place in 61. 
These dates are of great importance; and the discrepancy between 
them is not very material. Taking all things into consideration, we 
have reason to believe that the Gospel was preached in this country in 
the year 59, an eventful period, when Christ, the true Sun, appeared, 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 283 

shedding His glorious beams on this island benumbed with cold, and 
separated at a great distance from the rest of the world a period 
affecting the well-being not only of generations past and present, but 
of generations yet unborn. The lamp of the Gospel, thus kindled, 
continued to burn brightly in this our father-land when it was ex- 
tinguished by Pagan persecution, or obscured by Romish superstition, 
in other kingdoms. " The inhabitants of Wales with their Cymraeg 
allies," writes a celebrated author, "seem to be the only Christian 
people in existence who successfully resisted the Pagan Gothic inva- 
sion, and while all other provinces of the great Roman empire were 
successfully and rapidly falling under the Gothic sword, the Princi- 
pality of Wales, with the natives of Armorica, Cornwall, Cumberland, 
and the Welsh of Strathclyde, in Scotland, effectually resisted the 
invasion, and succeeded in preserving their liberty and religion." It 
is a remarkable feature in the history of the Welsh that, during the 
dark ages of Popish superstition, the bards retained the doctrinal 
truths of Christianity in their original grandeur and simplicity, and 
exposed on all occasions the depravity and absurdity of the times. 
Many proofs of this may be produced from their poetical works; 
from Taliesin in the sixth century, down to the time of the Reforma- 
tion. Their motto invariably has been " Y gwir yn erbyn y byd ;" 

" The truth against the world." 

The people of Wales in the present day are a remarkably religious 
people. (Cheers.) In what country do we find 25,000 persons 
assembling together, as at Bangor a few years ago, and that on a 
week day, in the busy time of harvest, in order to worship God, and 
that in a temple not made with hands a temple whose vaulted roof 
is the sky, and whose walls are the perpetual hills of our country, 
(applause) following, unconsciously perhaps, the example of their 
ancestors, who used to worship the God of Heaven within the druidic 
circle "Yngwy neb haul a llygad goleuni." Moreover, when this 
large assembly of 25,000 dispersed, it was remarked in the public 
journals, to the honour of Wales, and in proof of the morality of its 
inhabitants, that there was not one case of intoxication or disorderly 
conduct observed. (Cries of " bravo," and applause.) Some have 
asserted that Wales is over-religious, and much too scrupulous in its 
observance of the Sunday. If this be a fault, long may it continue. 
(Hear, hear.) A living writer of great wit and celebrity, having borne 
her testimony to the morality, simplicity, and amiability of the Welsh 
people, remarks on their pensive disposition, " Not a spark of Irish 
vivacity enlivens them, for they would no more think of cutting a joke 
than of cutting a throat. If a Welshman relaxed into a smile, the 
skin of his face would crack (laughter) with so unusual an effort ; 
and as for a hearty fit of laughing, I should like to hear the jest that 
produced it." (Great laughter.) Hume mentions, in his History 
of England, that some wit of those days received a crown piece for 
making Edward II. laugh, which must, therefore, have been rather an 
uncommon circumstance and he was born in Wales. If the fair 



284 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

author of Hill and Valley were present to witness the many smiling 
faces in the assembly, the bursts of applause, " and laughter holding 
both his sides," she would doubtless hear what the jest was which 
produced the laughter, even her own jest, (more laughter) and 
henceforth she would conclude that all the daughters of Wales were 
converted into Euphrosyries, and that all her sons were lineal descen- 
dants of Momus, the laughter-loving god. It is both amusing and in- 
structive to peruse the remarks of tourists or historians on the national 
character of the Principality ; like gregarious birds in their flight to a 
distant country, they follow in the wake of each other ; what one says 
another asserts, and a third confirms; and thus oftentimes whole nations 
are judged on the principle " ex uno discite omnes." Perhaps you 
have heard of the tourist who spent one day in Poland, where he saw 
a nobleman patting a bear ; therefore he put down in his note-book, 
" persons of consequence in Poland amuse themselves during the 
morning with bears." It is said of Cuvier that he could describe the 
size, form, and habits of any fossil animal merely by examining a 
tooth; in this manner a whole country is judged by writers who 
possess a tolerable knowledge of the roads and inns in Wales, but 
remain in profound ignorance of the language, manners, and customs 
of the Welsh people. (Hear, hear.) Again, the prophetic spirit of 
Taliesin tells us that the Cymry shall preserve their language. I 
came from Manchester with a gentleman who told me he was going 
to the Eisteddfod, but that the Welsh language was gone. [Ab Ithel 
Gone to the Eisteddfod?] (Laughter.) If that gentleman be 
present now I think he will say that the Cymraeg is not like the 
"sick man," but possesses life, energy, and vigour. (Great cheering.) 
It is a remarkable feature in the Welsh tongue that it is formed 
on its own basis, and makes use of its own intrinsic materials. It 
still remains the same as it was 1300 years ago, as the writings of 
the older bards can testify. It has been asserted that its usage was 
co-existent with the Tower of Babel. The Scotch call a building, 
separate and apart from others, a self-contained house ; so I may call 
the Welsh tongue it is a self-contained language ; it has largely con- 
tributed to the formation of other tongues, while she herself has had 
only to fall back on her own resources. In one of the triads it is stated 
that " the three indispensables of language are purity, copiousness, and 
aptness," and these three meet and harmonize in the language of 
Wales. The elements of that language, according to Sir W. Jones, 
whose extensive travels and deep researches afforded excellent oppor- 
tunities of judging, and" rendered his opinions most valuable, enter into 
the composition of every tongue in Europe, and in many of those of the 
distant regions of Asia, and is, in all probability, one of the three 
tongues into which the primitive language of the world was divided. 
From the period when the Romans left this island to the present day 
the language of our country had to encounter much opposition. 
Edward I. in the thirteenth century caused all the bards to be hung 
by martial law as " stirrers up of the people." In the fifteenth cen- 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 286 

tury national rights were not allowed to any but those only who spoke 
English, and did not know Welsh. It has been the policy of every 
government, ever since the Reformation, to induce the Welsh to neglect 
and forget their native language and learn English; so that all the in- 
habitants of Britain might be one people, and of one tongue. For this 
end there is an act of Parliament, still in existence, which requires 
English Bibles and English Prayer-Books to be set up, and remain in 
every church and chapel throughout this country. This principle has 
deprived the Cymry of the administration of justice in their own 
language ; and it was like to have prevented their ever hearing the 
laws of God, even the Gospel of Christ, as well as the laws of their 
land, in their own language. This, it is said, was solemnly debated 
at a very honourable board in Queen Elizabeth's time. From the 
issue of this debate, and from Dr. Morgan's dedication of the Bible, 
it appears that the Queen, to her honour be it spoken, nobly stood up 
in defence of the language and country of her forefathers, and com- 
manded the Bible to be translated into Welsh. (Loud cheers.) And 
had she acted on similar principles in regard to Ireland, and given 
the Word of Life to the Irish in their vernacular tongue, it is my firm 
belief that that country would not only be the " Island of Saints," as 
in days of yore, but also the abode of peace, order, and contentment. 
(Hear and cheers.) But who are they that desire the extinction of 
the Welsh tongue ? They are not the truly great and learned ; not the 
philologist and antiquary; not the patriot and divine; not our late 
Poet- Laureate Southey, for he considered it an honour to be a member 
of a Welsh society, " an honour," as he expresses it, " which is pecu- 
liarly gratifying to me, because one of the works by which I hope 
to be remembered relates mainly to Welsh tradition and Welsh 
history ;" not Sharon Turner, for he has declared " that the ancient 
British literature should be preserved, and the poetry and music of 
Wales encouraged, as objects worthy the attention and patronage of 
those who now, as their descendants, represent the most ancient in- 
habitants of our common islands. And it has given me, for some 
years, a very high gratification to see that the gentlemen of Wales 
have so zealously exerted themselves in behalf of objects so truly 
national and so laudable, because Wales possesses ancient remains of 
her old bards and writers, what cannot be convicted of later fabrication, 
and what in some respects no other country can afford a parallel ;" 
not Bishop Heber, for he spoke at the Wrexham Eisteddfod in the 
following words: " Although not a son of the Principality, Saxon 
as I am, I am most anxious lor the cultivation of the language of the 
ancient Cimbri, a people interesting to us all, for they had colonized 
every nation, and although driven out by fiercer hordes, yet, wherever 
they went, they left their language in the names of the rivers and 
mountains. If then we discourage, or degrade, or neglect the lan- 
guage of any nation soever, we neglect, or degrade, or discourage, 
we cripple and fetter, and so far as in us lies we extinguish, the native 
genius of that people ; and, feeling this so forcibly as I do, I cannot 



286 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

look back without sorrow and shame to, I will not say the cold 
neglect, but the systematic and persevering hostility of which, on the 
part of your English rulers, the Welsh language was for many years 
the object. It is needless, and it would be painful, to go back to the 
causes of that hostility, or to the manner in which it was carried on, 
but it is to the credit of your ancestors and yourselves that its efforts 
were not successful. Every person familiar with the classics knows 
how impossible it is to preserve the racy flavour of any language by 
translation. I hope the day is not distant when the language of the 
Welsh will have its universities, and its professors, as well as that of 
the Anglo-Saxons, and I am sure it must flourish under the auspices 
of him who presides this day, who, during war had been one of his 
country's best defenders, and during peace the munificent promoter of 
its welfare." Not Bishop Burgess, for he congratulated the friends 
of ancient British literature on the occurrence of an Eisteddfod over 
which he presided, and which he denominated a " Cambrian Olym- 
piad." (Cheers.) But who are they that desire the extinction of the 
Welsh tongue? They are little men of puny and contracted minds, 
narrow feelings, and petty jealousies, who envy Mordecai sitting in 
the king's gate, and devise means to deprive the inhabitants of the 
Principality of those characteristics which are essential to their exist- 
ence as a Welsh nation. (Hear, hear.) Such persons deserve not 
the honourable name of patriots, nor can we consider them the true 
friends of the Welsh people ; they are the Hamans and Samaritans of 
the land, abolitionists in principle, and oppositionists in practice, who 
aim their deadly blow at the root of a language that is venerable for 
its antiquity, ample in its materials, and replete with poetic lore. The 
Goths and the Vandals, in the plenary exercise of their devastating 
powers, never attempted, could not attempt to do more. (Cheers.) 
We live in the nineteenth century, and not in the dark ages ; and to 
extinguish the language of old Cambria would be perpetrating such 
an act of barbarism as would make the ears of all generations tingle. 
Let those who receive official appointments in Wales, whether in 
church or state, have a competent knowledge of the language and 
customs of the people, (a voice, " bishops and all ") that they may 
be able, truly and conscientiously, to perform the duties of their 
respective vocations with credit to themselves, and with advantage to 
the community at large. (Cheers.) And while we make these 
remarks, let it not be understood that we are opposed to the cultivation 
of the English language. It is our earnest desire that every man, 
woman, and child should possess a competent knowledge of that lan- 
guage. We are as strenuous on this point as any Englishman can be ; 
but we go further; we do not wish the child to forget the letter A 
while he learns the letter B. Yea, let him learn many languages, if 
he chooses, but let him not forget his own. While we open to him the 
rich stores of English literature, we are desirous that he should not 
repudiate the more ancient, though riot the more ample, stores of his 
own mother tongue. (Applause.) " Their land they will keep." 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 287 

The very circumstance of our holding an Eisteddfod at Llangollen is 
evidence of the truth of Taliesin's prophecy. We do not envy our 
English friends the fertile plains of England, their great cities, splendid 
mansions, and crystal palaces. (Cheers.) We are content to dwell 
amongst the hills and mountains of Wales, speaking the Welsh lan- 
guage, and cultivating everything that is good and excellent. (Long 
continued cheering.) 

Caradoc gave the following englyn on the Welsh language, which 
elicited extraordinary enthusiasm, and fairly " brought down the 
house." An encore was demanded : 

Tra rhed dw'r, tra rhua taran tra gwawl, 

Tra gwelir yr huan ; 
A lloer mewn mantell arian, 
Gwir Iwydd fo i'r Gymraeg Ian. 

The Peithynen. The next adjudication was on the prize of 3 for 
a peithynen, constructed after the manner of the ancient bards, with 
the Cy wydd Cofiant lolo Morganwg, by Gwalter Mechain, engraved 
thereon in bardic characters. The prize was offered by the Rev. T. 
James, (Llallawg,) Netherthong. 

Ab Ithel delivered the adjudication of himself and colleagues on 
this subject. He said that the peithynen was the wooden book of the 
bard. Two of these had been sent in for competition, and the judges 
deemed that that which he held in his hand was the best. There were 
several things looked upon as generally necessary in the construction 
of the peithynen. First, The material was to be, if possible, of the 
mountain ash, which was considered the best kind of wood for the 
purpose ; Secondly, The letters thereon must be about the size of a 
barleycorn ; Thirdly, The angles must be slightly taken off to the 
full depth of the letter, so that the letters upon one side may not 
appear on the edge of the other side ; and, lastly, the peithynen must 
be of such a size as will allow the ovate to carry it conveniently in 
his hand at the Gorsedd. All these regulations were strictly observed 
in the one, whilst they were as uniformly neglected in the other. 

On being called upon, Mr. Edward Lloyd (brother of Estyn) 
appeared as the successful candidate, and was duly invested amidst 
loud cheers. 

Mr. Lloyd's peithynen had, we understand, been on view at Llan- 
gollen some days prior to the Eisteddfod. The other shown was made 
by a cabinet-maker in the town. It was massive and well finished as 
a piece of furniture, but the artizan had evidently not studied the use 
to which the article was to be applied. 

Pennillion. For the best pennillion singer after the manner of 
North Wales. First prize, 3; second ditto, 2; third ditto, 1. 
This was an interesting competition. Five singers entered the lists. 
The harp was played successively by Mr. John Edwards, Mr. T. D. 
Morris, Bangor, and Mr. Hughes, Liverpool. The judges were, 
Eos Meirion, Taliesin o Eifion, and Llew Llwyfo. The latter read 
the award, which was as follows: 1. Idris Vy chain ; 2. Joseph 



288 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Williams, Bagillt; 3. Edward Jones, Llanrvvst. These were invested 
by Miss Davies, Llanrhaiadr, (daughter of Gwalter Mechain,) Mrs. 
Davies, Cheltenham, and another lady, whose name we could not 
learn. 

Prince Llywelyn' s Epitaph. The prize of 3 for the best epitaph 
(Hir a Thoddaid) on Llywelyn, the last sovereign Prince of Wales, 
was then announced. 

Caledfryn, in his adjudication, which was read by Ab Ithel, gave 
the prize to " Watcyn Fardd," Mr. John Jones, Hendy, Llanerfyl, 
near Cann Office. The englyn is as follows : 

Ffyddlon ymdrechodd, hoffodd amddiffyn 
lawnderau 'i ddeiliaid ; bu 'n dwr i'w ddilyn ; 
Ond ein gwladgarol, wreiddiol, ben rhiddyn, 
lechyd Gwalia fradychwyd i'w gelyn ; 
Marw yn Muallt, hallt fu hyn Cymru a'i phlant 
Hwy oil a wylant am eu Llywelyn. 

The other two judges, however, were in favour of " Llywarch's " 
composition ; and as the committee were bound to take the views of the 
majority, the prize was awarded to him, who proved to be " Islwyn," 
Pont Llanfraith, Monmouthshire. His englyn runs thus, 
Tra thyner adgof ac ail ymofyn 
Bydd llu i wylo uwch bedd Llywelyn ; 
I'n Rhyddid dirfawr mae 'n arwydd terfyn 
Dwys ; trwy y dalaeth dystawa 'r delyn ; 
Gwna Breinniau fil ei ddilyn i'w feddrod, 
Yn ei waelod cydorphwys a wnelyn'. 

Ab Ithel informed the meeting that the object which the promoters 
of the Eisteddfod had in view in offering this prize was to elicit a 
good and appropriate epitaph for the purpose of being inscribed on 
the monument which it is in contemplation to erect over his grave. 

Advantages of a Knowledge of Welsh. Estyn read the^adjudi- 
cation of the judges (himself and colleague) on the prize of 5, given 
by Mr. Whalley, for the best essay " On the advantages accruing to 
Englishmen from a knowledge of Welsh." Three compositions had 
been received, signed respectively, " Oes y byd i'r iaith Gymraeg," 
" Traveller," and " Y gwir yn erbyn y byd." The best undoubtedly 
was " Oes y byd," &c., and it was a very excellent production. There 
was another, " Y gwir," &c., a very meritorious essay, to the author of 
which Mr. Whalley had determined to give 2 10s. (Cheers.) 

Two other excellent essays on the subject were received too late for 
competition, both of which have been published in our pages. It is 
remarkable that two of these productions seem to have been written 
by English persons. 

Mr. Whalley spoke highly of the second essay, observing that 
whilst the first expatiated with extraordinary eloquence on the claims 
of the Welsh language to their sympathy, respect, and encouragement, 
the other enabled the Englishman to understand more clearly not only 
why he should learn the Welsh, but how. (Cheers.) The reason why 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 289 

was, that no man could thoroughly understand the English without a 
knowledge of Welsh, (cheers) and following the same principle, he 
ventured to state, as he had stated before, that no man could enter into 
the spirit of the British constitution, the laws, the legislation of this 
country, without understanding the principles of the ancient British 
Gorsedd and Eisteddfod, which were the basis of them all. At least 
three parts out of the four of the ordinary vernacular of the English, 
however different it might appear, was composed of the ancient British 
language, therefore there were the strongest reasons why an English- 
man should learn the Welsh before Greek and Latin, which were 
the key to the scientfic part of the English language. About three 
or four million pounds a year were, through the piety and liberality of 
our ancestors, employed for giving scholastic education to the children 
of this country in the universities and seats of learning. He would 
say that that was a total misappropriation of so much money, in so 
far as Latin and Greek were necessary for the understanding of 
the English language ; because the Latin and Greek were them- 
selves mainly derived from the Welsh. If any one doubted that, 
let him come forward and discuss the point at the Gorsedd. (Hear, 
hear, and cheers.) It was an important proposition, pregnant with 
great results to the literary, political, and social interests of the 
country. Pledging himself to do all in his power to promote and 
encourage so valuable a treasure as the W'elsh language, the speaker 
condemned the practice recognized by some institutions of endea- 
vouring to get that language into disrepute and disfavour, and forcing 
on the Welsh people the English language, "in the lump," as it 
were, whether they would or no. Mr. Whalley then proceeded to 
speak of the Gorsedd, and reiterated the sentiments he had expressed 
on the previous evening, to the effect that all national subjects should 
there be discussed, alluding in this category to the representation of 
the people. 

Colonel Tottenham here thought that Mr. Whalley was trenching 
on political ground, which occasioned a little altercation between them ; 
but all was ultimately explained to the mutual satisfaction of both 
parties. The English and anti-patriotic papers made the most of this 
" scene," but they forgot to notice that the only interruption to the 
harmony of a Welsh Eisteddfod arose from two Englishmen! 

When " Hir Oes i'r iaith Gymraeg" was called upon, Mr. 
William Morris, Stamp Office, Swansea, came forward, and was 
invested amidst loud cheers. No one claimed the second prize. 

The Chair Prize. The next proceeding was the adjudication of 
the chair prize, an awdl on "The Battle of Bosworth Field, by which 
the Cymry recovered the monarchy of the Isle of Britain," ,30, 
and a medal. 

The judges were Gwilym Hiraethog, Nicander, and Caledfryn, in 
the absence of whom Cam Ingli read a summary of the adjudication 
sent in by the two first, who coincided in opinion ; Caledfryn, how- 
ever, dissented. The view of the majority was, as a matter of course, 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 P 



290 LLA.NGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

adopted by the committee. After a few introductory remarks, in 
which the sanguinary struggle between Richard and Harry Tudor was 
contrasted with the peaceful encounter of the bards on this occasion, 
seven of whom had entered the arena, the document proceeded to 
review each awdl by itself. The fictitious names were, " Dydd 
Weithiwr," "Aneurin," "Tudur," "Tydain," "Dafyddab Edmwnd," 
" leuan Brydydd Hir," and " Rhys Pennardd," the last of whom 
was considered the successful candidate. With respect to his com- 
position, the two judges referred to remarked, that they seemed to 
breathe in a new atmosphere in the company of Rhys. His awdl 
was the shortest except that of Dydd Weithiwr. It contained rather 
above one thousand lines. After a brief address to the awen, the 
poet immediately proceeds to his subject, and it was pleasing to watch 
how he worked it out. Giving a short abridgment of the awdl at 
the commencement, the bard then allows the muse to launch into its 
native element, this being done in such a manner as not to need the 
aid of note or comment ; he took a general view of the remarkable 
features of the battle in its connection with Harry and his councillors, 
and turned to the oppressed state of Britain, the tyranny of the 
Caesars, Saxons, and Normans, the subjection of the Cymry under 
Edward, but soon returned to his text. The rhythm of the awdl was 
evidently the work of a master hand, and did not display any of the 
hackneyed alliterations resorted to by a commonplace poet. The words 
of the Welsh language, whilst they lost none of their innate power 
and effect, were under his pen as pliant as the branches of the willow. 
The following extracts are quoted as instances of what has been said : 

Y Ddraig Goch roddai'r cychwyn, 

Hyf weilch dewr fu'n fal ch o'i dwyn, 

Morwriai mal mawr arwydd, 

Neu eilun chwai lawn o chwydd, 

Siffrwd drwy ffrwd awyr ffraw, 

Drwy uchafion derch chwyfiaw ; 

Gan chwareu yn nhonnau nen 

Ei phrawf hyf drwy'r ffurfafen ; 

Dig laccio, a'i adglecian, 

Drwy sybwb mawr, dros bob man, 

Nes troi'r fro'n gyffro gwyllt 

O wrhydri rhaiadrwyllt. 

Alluding to the descent of the Royal Family from the Tudor line, 
the bard exclaims, 

O Gymro teg, mae'r gwaed da, 

Yn naturiaeth Victoria. 

The name of " Pennardd" was then repeated, and the real author re- 
quested to discover himself, so as to be installed in the most honourable 
seat which the Eisteddfod can offer. There was breathless excitement ; 
and so intense was the silence, that you might, as the saying goes, 
have heard a pin drop, when Mr. Humphreys, the local secretary, 
stepped forward to announce that he had received a letter on Tuesday 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 291 

from " Pennardd," who proved to be Mr. Ebenezer Thomas, (Eben 
Fardd,) Clynog. The announcement was received with rounds of 
cheers. Acting as the representative of the bard, Mr. Humphreys 
was then placed in the chair by Tegai and loan Madawg, and invested 
with the medal by Gwalchmai, who repeated the following couplet: 
Cadeiriwyd, urddwyd y bardd, 
Profai ei hun yn brif-fardd. 

Oratory. For the orator of any nation, in any language, who 
shall deliver the best and most effective speech on the following sub- 
ject: " That the neglect by a people of their nationality is the certain 
prelude to their debasement and extinction." First prize, a silver 
coronal ; second prize, a silver armlet. The addresses were limited to 
twenty minutes. 

The first competitor was Mr. Jerome Pym ap Ednyfed, who spoke 
in Welsh. Mr. Richard French, of the * Star of Grvent' office, 
Newport, Monmouthshire, delivered an English address most elegantly 
expressed. The other competitors were Llew Llwyfo and Glasynys, 
both of whom spoke in Welsh. 

Mr. Henry Davies, of Cheltenham, (one of the judges,) pronounced 
the award in favour of Llew Llwyfo, Mr. French being deemed 
second best. Whilst they readily acknowledged the excellence of 
Mr. French's oration, its flow of thought and polished diction, the 
judges nevertheless considered that it partook too much of the cha- 
racter of an essay, or composition acquired by heart, and was wanting 
in that impassioned eloquence which was the soul of true oratory. 
These requirements, on the other hand, were prominent in Llew's 
address. His appeals were remarkably powerful, the manner in 
which he enforced his arguments by reference to historical occurrences 
was extremely telling, and calculated to excite the people to action 
the great aim of oratory ; for, however studied a composition might 
be, however ably and beautifully expressed, if it failed to rouse the 
people to action, the spirit of oratory could not be in it. (Cheers.) 

The successful candidates were invested, the first by Mrs. Lloyd, 
Cefn y Bedd, and the second by Mrs. Davies, Cheltenham. 

The meeting was then brought to a close. 

THE EVENING CONCERT 

consisted chiefly of the music of Gwent and Morgan wg, by the 
following artistes: Vocalists Mrs. Gethin Parker, of Llanover; 
Messrs. Llew Llwyfo, and Silas Evans, of Aberdare, and Mr. D. H. 
Thomas, of Rhymney. Harpist Mr. T. D. Llewelyn, Aberdare. 
Pianist Mr. John Owen (Owain Alaw). Conductoi Llew Llwyfo. 
We highly commend Llew Llwyfo for his selection of national music, 
and regret that his indisposition and hoarseness prevented his per- 
forming all that was allotted to him in the programme. Several ladies 
and gentlemen kindly volunteered their assistance to Llwyfo, con- 
sequently the programme was but partially adhered to. " T'rewch 
t'rewch y tant," an ancient Welsh air, beautifully arranged by 



292 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Mr. Davies, of Cardiff, was admirably rendered by his brass band. 
" Clod y Fenni," was sung by the choir. " Muriau Hen Gaerphily," 
a plaintive old air, by Llew Llwyfo, was highly applauded and re- 
demanded. Mr. Davies, Cardiff, having played a solo on the harp, 
the comic duet, " Morgan a'i wraig Gwen," by Mrs. Parker and 
Llew Llwyfo, was vociferously encored. " Aderyn Pur," sung as a 
song and chorus, was very effective. Eos Llechid sang "Jenny Jones," 
the audience joining in the chorus. The effect was overwhelming, 
several thousands singing at the same time. Mrs. Parker sang various 
Welsh airs very beautifully. Owain Alaw's comic songs were nearly 
all encored. Altogether, the concert was highly satisfactory. 

MEETING OF BARDS. 

According to arrangement, a meeting of bards present at the 
Eisteddfod took place shortly after 5 o'clock, at the tent erected near 
the Cambrian Inn. From fifty to sixty attended ; Rev. R. Parry 
(Gwalchmai) in the chair. The first proceeding was to hear ex- 
planations from Myfyr Morganwg respecting certain doctrines on 
bardism held, and to some extent promulgated, by him. These 
doctrines, so far as they are understood from what transpired on this 
occasion, are not considered to be entirely in harmony with the Chris- 
tian religion, and consequently have, as might be expected, given rise 
to a painful feeling amongst an order which fraternise so extensively 
as the Welsh bards. In the conversation which took place, Mr. T. 
Stephens, Merthyr, Mr. R. J. Pryse, (Gweirydd ap Rhys,) Mr. W. 
Williams, Staleybridge, Rev. H. Hughes, (Tegai,) Rev. W. Roberts, 
Blaenau, and others, spoke in opposition to Myfyr's sentiments, which 
were supported by himself and several others. Mistrusting, however, 
the motive for which the meeting had been convened, he refused to 
enter fully into the subject. Several resolutions were put, but that 
proposed by Mr. Francis, Manchester, viz., " That in consequence of 
the want of confidence unfortunately expressed by Myfyr, the dis- 
cussion should cease," was finally adopted. 

Some practical observations and suggestions on Welsh orthography 
were offered. The most effectual mode of securing its permanent 
establishment the meeting deemed to be that of communicating with 
all publishers and printers, requesting them to adhere to fixed rules, 
but no definite resolution was come to on this question. Other topics 
were brought forward, the meeting being kept up till 12 o'clock. 

Thursday, 23rrf September. 

THE EISTEDDFOD. 

The Eisteddfod was resumed this morning at half-past 10. It was 
pretty clear that the committee had not been unmindful of the comfort of 
the audience, for amongst other things we found that the floor of the 
tent had been covered with clean sawdust, so as to absorb the moisture 
which had found its way into the interior on the previous day. The 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 293 

weather to-day was by no means encouraging, but there was an evident 
determination to brave and overcome every obstacle for the sake of the 
Eisteddfod. The audience again was numbered by thousands. 

The presidential chair was, on the motion of Ab Ithel, seconded by 
the Rev. Mr. Morgan, occupied by David Williams, Esq., (Alaw 
Goch,) coal proprietor, Aberdare. 

Cynddelw, Caradoc, Carnfaldwyn, and Rev. Daniel Jones, having 
addressed the Eisteddfod in poetical effusions, the business part of the 
convention commenced with the adjudication on 

Seren yr Orsedd. A prize of .1 had been announced on the 
opening day for the best englynion on the comet, which, from its 
appearing about the time of the Eisteddfod, received the appellation 
of Seren yr Orsedd, or Gorsedd Star. Six sets had been received, out 
of which " Sy wedydd " had been selected as the best, who appeared 
in the person of Mr. Ellis, (Cynddelw,) and was invested by Miss 
Davies (daughter of Gwallter Mechain). 

My Mother s Grave. A silver armlet was offered for the best 
poem on " My Mother's Grave," (Bedd fy Mam) restricted to female 
competitors. The judges were Glan Alun, Ceiriog, and Creuddynfab 
(Mr. Williams, Staleybridge). The last named gentleman read the 
adjudication. Out of six compositions received, that signed " Gwen- 
ddolen " was declared the best, the author being Miss Catherine 
Hughes, 18, Eaton Place, Belgrave Square, London, who was not 
present. She was represented by Miss Edwards, Rhosymedre, who 
was invested with the prize by Corporal Shields, of the Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers. 

In introducing this soldier, Mr. Morgan said that he had been recom- 
mended as the most distinguished soldier in that most thoroughly Welsh 
regiment Her Majesty's 23rd, (cheers) recommended upon the 
highest testimonials of his successive commanding officers, and with 
the cordial approbation of the Horse Guards as the successful candi- 
date for the Cambrian gold torque of valour. (Great applause.) You 
will observe, continued the reverend gentleman, that we have been ex- 
ceedingly fortunate in selecting this insignia as a torque, for there is 
scarcely room on his breast for another decoration. (Hear and ap- 
plause.) 

The second best composition was that of Miss Catherine Lloyd, 
Panteos, Llansilin, who, although no second prize had been adver- 
tised, received some token of approbation for her production, which 
was commended by the judges. The successful composition was read 
by Mr. Williams. 

Unpublished Welsh Airs. For the best collection of Welsh airs not 
hitherto published, 10 and a medal; the former prize being given by 
the Rev. Illtyd Nicholl, of Pant y Goetre, near Raglan. There 
were three competitors. "Caradoc" had collected seven tunes only; 
" Orpheus" as many as eighty ; but "Enriillwr os cyll" not fewer than 
125, very few of which were to be found in "Orpheus'" collection. 
This was a proof that a large number of tunes were floating in Wales 



294 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

not published. The judges awarded the prize to " Ennillwr," &c., but 
being strongly of opinion that both collections should be preserved, 
they suggested that " Orpheus " should be rewarded with 5. Mr. 
T. D. Llewelyn, (Llewelyn Alaw,) Aberdare, harpist, claimed the first 
prize, with which he was invested by Mrs. Williams, Birkenhead. 

The Cardiff Brass Band then performed, and Mr. Owen gave a 
Welsh song, which drew thunders of applause. 

Love Song. Gwalchmai delivered the award for the best Love 
Song (Rhiangerdd) on Myvanwy Vychan, the prize being a beautiful 
birchen wreath in silver. Amongst the competitors were undoubt- 
edly to be found some of the principal poets of the Eisteddfod, and 
the productions were a credit to the country. It had been a matter of 
difficulty to decide on the comparative merits of the rival candidates, 
all of whom displayed talent of high order. Although the judges 
were not unanimous, the majority had given the preference to 
" Tudor Trevor," but they, at the same time, strongly recommended 
" Myvenydd " to the liberality of the committee, to whom one of the 
judges had given the foremost place, and they earnestly hoped both 
compositions would be published. 

Mr. John Hughes, (Ceiriog,) Manchester, answered to the name 
of " Tudor Trevor," and was invested amidst tremendous plaudits by 
Miss Hughes, of the Tower. "Myvenydd" proved to be Mr. O. 
Wynne Jones, (Glasynys,) whose appearance was also very flatteringly 
greeted. 

The following extracts will serve to illustrate the character of Ceir- 
iog's poem : 

Myfanwy rwy'n gweled dy rudd 

Mewn meillion, mewn briall a rhos, 

Yn ngoleu dihalog y dydd, 

A llygaid serenog y nos ; 

Pan godo teg Wener ei phen 

Yn loew rhwng awyr a Hi, 

Fe'i cerir gan ddaear a nen ; 

I f 'enaid, Myfanwy, 

Goleuach O, tecach wyt ti ! 

Anwylach, perffeithiach wyt ti. 

na bawn yn awel o wynt 

Yn crwydro trwy ardd Dinas Bran, 

1 suo i'th glust ar fy hynt, 

A throelli dy wallt ar wahan. 

Mrs. Gethin Parker, Llanover, and Miss Roberts, attired in the 
picturesque costume of Wales, sang a duet, which elicited universal 
approbation. 

Painting. A prize of ,10 was offered for the best oil painting by 
a Welsh artist on any of the following subjects: 1. Marriage at 
Windsor Castle of Owen Tudor and Catherine the Fair, of Valois, 
widow of Henry V. of Monmouth ; 2. Death of Lly welyn ap Gru- 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 295 

ffydd ; 3. Hunting of the Twrch Trwyth, from the " Mabinogion ;" 4. 
Conference of the Roman Monk Augustine with Dunawd, Abbot of 
Bangor, and the Bishops of the British Church, A.D. 603; 5. The 
Bard, from Gray ; 6. Parting of Owen Glyndwyr and Sir Lawrence 
Berknolles; 7. Death of Captain Wynne, of the 23rd Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers, in storming the Russian Battery at Alma. 

There were two candidates whose productions were exhibited. Mr. 
Francis, of Manchester, who acted as judge, awarded the prize to a 
painting of " The Bard," which was undoubtedly a fine work of art, 
realizing in a vivid manner Gray's description : 
" On a rock whose haughty brow, 

Frowned o'er old Conway's foaming flood, 
Rob'd in sable garb of woe, 

With haggard eyes the poet stood. 
(Loose his beard and hoary hair, 
Streamed like a meteor to the troubled air;) 
And with a master's hand and prophet's fire, 
Struck the deep sorrows of his lyre ! " 

The representation of " the Death of Llywelyn" by Mr. Roose, was 
ranked as second best ; the same artist exhibited a painting of " the 
death-scene of Captain Wynne, at Alma," both being very superior 
artistic specimens. 

The successful candidate was Mr. William Jones, R. A., of Merthyr 
Tydvil, a native of Flintshire, who was invested by Miss Hughes, of 
the Tower. 

Estyn delivered a Welsh speech, full of humour. 

Female Harpists. For the best female singer, in costume, of any 
air with Welsh words, to accompany herself on the triple harp, a gold 
star. The only competitor was Miss Roberts, (daughter of Mr. John 
Roberts, harpist,) who played and sang " The Bells of Aberdovey." 

Mr. Ellis Roberts, in making the award, regretted that more candi- 
dates had not presented themselves. The cultivation of the harp was 
well worthy the attention of the ladies of the Principality, for there 
was none which showed off the figure to greater advantage than the 
national instrument. (Cheers.) Miss Roberts had sung well, and her 
touch was very delicate ; she was deemed worthy of the prize. 

The investiture was by Ab Ithel, the president complimenting the 
fair damsel in an englyn. 

The Oldest Bard. The next prize was a sum of 5 to the oldest 
bard present who had gained an Eisteddfodic prize ; age to exceed 
threescore years and ten. 

Cam Ingli announced that there were four competitors, viz., David 
Jones, Llangollen, aged eighty, within a few days, who had won thir- 
teen Eisteddfodic prizes and a silver cup; Absalom Fardd, (Absalom 
Roberts,) Llanrwst, aged seventy-seven, who had won four prizes; 
Daniel Jones, aged seventy-one and a half, nine prizes and one medal ; 
and Thomas Ellis, Caerwys, aged seventy, four medals and many prizes. 
David Jones was adjudged worthy of the prize. On being called upon, 



296 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

the old man, with tottering steps, ascended the platform, and was re- 
ceived with tremendous cheering. He seemed fully to appreciate the 
honourable distinction conferred upon him, and the spirit of the awen 
reanimating his aged figure, he stood forth and recited the following 
englyn, being one of a set which gained for him the prize at Ruabon 
Eisteddfod in 1807, " On the birth of the present Sir Watkin :" 
Serchog, o enwog eginyn anwyd 

O Iwynau Syr Watcyn ; 
Arosed y cu rosyn 
Yn Wynnstay am gan oes dyn. 

Miss Susan Robinson, of Clitheroe Castle, Lancashire, invested the 
octagenarian, to whom the president also addressed an englyn. 

Triple Harp Contest. A first prize of ,10, and a second of 5, 
to the best performer, male or female, on the triple harp, open to all 
the world. Judges Mr Ellis Roberts, Mr. Owen, Mr. Davies, Car- 
diff, and Rev. Mr. Edwards, Rhosymedre. There were eight com- 
petitors, viz., John Roberts, Richard Pugh, Cor\ven, T. D. Morris, 
Bangor, J. E. Davies, aged ten years, Lloyd Wynne Roberts, Owen 
Hughes, Liverpool, T. Griffiths, Llanover, and Miss Roberts. They 
all played Welsh airs. The performances, which necessarily occupied 
a considerable time, were watched with the liveliest interest. At the 
conclusion, Mr. Ellis Roberts said the prizes rested entirely between 
Mr. Morris and Mr. Griffiths, who were required by the judges to play 
a second time. 

The final award was as follows: 1. Mr. Morris; 2. Mr. Griffiths. 

Mr. Roberts took occasion to observe that a better system of fingering 
was required in teaching the Welsh harp. It was impossible to produce 
execution without due attention to this department, and he trusted they 
should as soon as possible have a grammar on the subject. 

The Harvest Anthem. Mr. Owen announced that " Meurig Hafod- 
unos," to whom the prize had been awarded yesterday, was Mr. W. A. 
Williams, (Gwilym Gwent,) Blaenati, Monmouthshire. 

Airs on the harp by Mr. Morris and Mr. Griffiths. 

At this stage of the proceedings, the scene suddenly changed. The 
sound of rain as it came first, pitter patter on the canvas roof of the 
pavilion, then like the rush of torrents along the landers, drowning the 
voices of the speakers, and deadening the sound of the harps, was the 
signal for the sudden appearance of thousands of umbrellas, and other 
means of shelter from the wet, which came pouringdown into the pavilion 
at different points, like so many waterspouts. But never, perhaps, was 
there so much good humour displayed under such trying circumstances. 
Jokes were freely circulated, and every one seemed to enjoy themselves, 
defying the fury of the elements. When the weather had partially 
cleared, an adjournment took place for refreshments. 

Ancient Style of Harp Playing. On reassembling, Mr. Roberts 
announced that Mr. Vaughan, of Penmaendovey, offered a first prize 
of 3, and a second of 2, for the best player on the triple harp, 
according to the ancient style of Mr. Parry, of Ruabon ; the two 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 297 

successful candidates in the last prize to be excluded from com- 
peting. 

The result of the trial which subsequently took place was as 
follows: 1. Mr. Hughes, Liverpool, who played " Sweet Richard;" 
2. Richard Pugh, who played " Sir Harry Ddu." 

A National Building. Mr. Whalley said he was kindly permitted 
by the chairman to give notice of a motion which would be submitted 
to the Gorsedd on the morrow " That it is expedient to erect a building 
which shall be devoted to the maintenance and promotion of the 
interests of Wales, such building to combine the several purposes fol- 
lowing : A museum and record office, for the preservation of MSS., 
books, and relics relating to Wales and the ancient British empire. 
An office for promoting the regular adminstration of the Gorsedd and 
Eisteddfod ; for preserving the productions of the Eisteddfodau past 
and to come, as also of the names of those who have been distinguished 
therein, and of all patriotic Welshmen who may be deemed worthy 
of such honours, according to the rules and regulations hereafter to 
be laid down by the authority of the Gorsedd. That such building 
be erected in a conspicuous position, and that it be dedicated to the 
memory of Lly welyn, and the other princes, heroes, and bards of Wales 
most distinguished in ancient times, as having done honour to their 
country in establishing or maintaining its immemorial renown. That 
for the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing resolutions, and 
for the purpose of securing their objects, a committee be appointed." 
His object in giving this public notice of his intention in the first place 
was the hope that it would induce many present to take such an interest 
in the project as to secure their presence whilst it was being deliberated 
upon in Gorsedd ; and, secondly, for the purpose of entirely removing, 
allaying, and thoroughly explaining, in a manner satisfactory to every 
one present, what appeared to be an unpleasant difference yesterday 
afternoon. Nothing that then occurred was calculated to affect the 
unanimity of the Eisteddfod, for he and his excellent friend Colonel 
Tottenham were, he believed, one on the subject, viz., that politics and 
religion ought not to be introduced here. (Cheers.) He was not 
aware that he had introduced either of these subjects, and if he had 
unwillingly trenched on forbidden ground, he hoped that what he had 
stated afterwards would make amends. (Cheers.) He wished now 
to give notice to his friend of this intended motion, because his object 
was not merely to afford a home, a resting-place, to the Eisteddfod, 
but also to promote it on the principles which, yesterday, he ventured 
to declare as his views on the subject ; and he still maintained, notwith- 
standing anything that Colonel Tottenham had said, that the ancient 
British Gorsedd of the Eisteddfod did still exist in its full plenary and 
constitutional power, for the purpose of discussing and resolving upon 
anything of interest to the people duly convened in such Gorsedd. 
Those who were not prepared to recognize that power had either 
better not take part in the proceedings, or had better boldly come forth 
to question and discuss it. (Cheers.) In conclusion, he begged to 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 Q 



2.98 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

state that he should not propose the resolution without offering the! 
means of carrying it out. There was, in this neighbourhood, a spot 
of ground considered eligible for the purposes referred to. He was 
willing to convey that land to trustees duly appointed, with all privi- 
leges connected and necessary thereto. (Great applause.) 

Dr. Price announced himself as the seconder of Mr. Whalley's 
proposition, and thanked that gentleman for bringing it forward. 
He also pledged himself to do all in his power to carry out the move- 
ment. 

Colonel Tottenham I have had a sort of challenge to discuss this 
matter. I entirely decline it, for I do not like that sort of thing at all. 
The celebrated diplomatist Talleyrand, many years ago, said that in 
England there were a thousand different religions, and only one sauce 
melted butter. (Laughter.) It is the same with politics, as to which 
there are a thousand different opinions. All I want is to throw them 
overboard, in order that we may freely enjoy ourselves on common 
ground. (Hear, hear, and cheers.) 

The President One word will move the whole concern. A pint of 
oil is better than a quart of vinegar. (Hear and cheers.) 

Harp Instructor. The prize of 5 for the best harp instructor, or 
manual of directions for playing the Welsh harp, was earned by Mr. 
Ellis Roberts, harpist to the Prince of Wales, who was one of three 
competitors. The judges highly approved of the composition. He 
was invested by Miss Edwards, Rhosymedre. 

Pen Pastnm. The successful competitors for the Datganiad Pen 
Pastwnwere, I.D.Thomas; 2. Thomas Jones, Brymbo; 3. Edward 
Jones, Llanrwst. The singing was in character, and produced much 
merriment. 

Owen Glyndrvr. A prize of .10 was offered for the best Lyric 
Ode, (Cerdd Arwest,) to the immortal memory of Owen Glyndwr 
(not to exceed 300 lines). The judges (Rev. D. Silvan Evans, and 
Rev. W. Rees,) recommended that the award should be suspended, 
as the compositions sent in did not possess sufficient merit. 

Mr. Morris, harpist, then received the prize which he had won at 
the hands of Miss Richards. T. Griffith was invested by Mrs. Davies. 

The President announced that Colonel Tottenham had handsomely 
presented ,1 to be given to the little boy Davies, who was the pupil 
of Mr. Morris. He was invested amidst great applause by Mrs. 
Davies, of Cheltenham. 

Pennillion Singing. The prizes of 3, 2, and .1, offered for the 
best pennillion singers according to the manner of South Wales, were 
won as follow : 1. Llew Llywfo ; 2. Isaac Benjamin j 3. Robert 
Owen. There were ten competitors. 

Welsh Costume. Prizes of 10 were offered for the most elegant 
and appropriate male and female dresses respectively, in the national 
Cymric costume, to be worn at the Eisteddfod. The costume was 
allowed to be chosen from any era in Cymric history. The " Mabi- 
nogion" abound with descriptions of costumes suited to all ranks of 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 299 

society. The following females came forward to compete, Miss 
Roberts, Mrs. Gethin Parker, Miss Edwards, Rhosymedre, Miss 
Wright, and Jane Williams, a native of Llangollen. They were 
variously dressed, and various opinions were prevalent as to the best. 
The judges very discreetly divided the prize between the candidates. 
There were no male costumes. 

Map of Wales. Mr. John Williams ab Ithel, junior, (Morddal,) 
was the only competitor for the prize of .10 oftered for a map of 
Wales, tempore Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. Mr. Morgan, barrister-at-law, 
Aberystwyth, who was the judge, highly commended the production for 
its finished execution and the accuracy of its details. Mr. Williams 
was invested, amidst great applause, by Miss Jane Owen, Blaenau, 
near Dolgelley. 

Music. Mr. Owen then read his adjudication on the forty-four 
productions received to compete for the prize of 3 offered for the 
best musical composition in the Welsh style, on the 15th metrical 
Psalm. The successful candidate was Mr. David Jones (Dewi 
Wyllt,) Ebenezer, Caernarvon, who was invested by Mrs. Williams, 
Birkcnhead. 

The Capture of Home by Brennus. For the best poem (pryddest) 
on the capture of Rome by the Cymry under Brennus, B.C. 490, 
.20, and silver medallion of Roman eagle. The adjudication was 
read by Ab Ithel. Five compositions had been received, Idwal Trevor 
being the best. This author proved to be the Rev. Morris Williams, 
(Nicander,) Amlwch. Mr. Hughes, one of the local secretaries, was 
invested on behalf of Mr. Williams. 

The Itiver Dee. 2 were offered for the best six englynion on 
the above subject. Out of eighteen compositions, that of Mr. Elias 
Jones, Hendreddu, Cerrigydruidion, was the best. He was invested 
by Miss Kelly, Abcrsychant, Monmouthshire. 

Day Labourers. To the day labourer (whose weekly wages do 
not exceed one pound) with the greatest number of children present 
at the Eisteddfod able to read and write in Welsh, .3, by Gwenynen 
Gwent. Thomas Jones, Brynmelyn, Trevor, was the only competitor. 
He was present with five children, and presented a certificate of 
the illness of the sixth. 

Several impromptu englynion were then recited, and three times 
three having been given to the chairman, the meeting terminated. 

THE DINNER. 

A public dinner took place in Mr. Allen's pavilion at 5 o'clock, 
the president of the day in the chair, supported by Basset Smith, Esq., 
Carn Ingli, Rev. Mr. Morgan, &c. 

The health of the "Queen" having been proposed, the following 
excellent englynion were given 

Benyw ydyw Banon, y gre'digaeth 
Wech, helaeth ei chalon ; 



300 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Benyw sy'n gwisgo'r goron, 

Addas yw i'r deyrnas hon. (Cheers.) 

CARN INGLI. 
Caed tarian yn Victoria, ein Banon, 

Hon beunydd a'n nertha ; 
Mur o hyd hi a'n mawrha, 
Ein hawddfyd yw a'n noddfa. 

CARADOO. 

The health of the Prince of Wales, proposed by Cam Ingli, was 
responded to by Eos Meirion, harpist to his Royal Highness. 

Mr. Henry JDavies, Cheltenham, in a very complimentary speech, 
glowing with patriotism, and full of sound judgment, proposed the 
health of Ab Ithel, who, in responding, took occasion to advert to 
the origin of this Eisteddfod, the difficulties his colleagues and he 
had to contend with, their determination, nevertheless, to proceed in 
spite of all discouragements. The crown of their efforts was the 
splendid meeting which they had all witnessed. (Cheers.) 

Other toasts were proposed, and the proceedings were prolonged 
until the opening of 

THE CONCERT, 

which took place at the usual hour. The attendance was larger than 
on any previous evening, the number present being estimated at about 
5000 persons. From the platform the sight of so many people con- 
gregated together in one room was something unusually vast. The 
pavilion was well lighted with gas, and the tout ensemble brilliant in 
the extreme. Nothing could be more potent in its effect than the 
applause of such a multitude, cheering the minstrels to greater efforts, 
and inciting the vocalists to a display of all their power in discoursing 
sweet music ; and certainly, although it might be thought, in a pa- 
vilion constructed like the Eisteddfod pavilion, music, whether vocal 
or instrumental, would be entirely lost, it was not so, however ; for the 
strains of the harp, although weakened by the distance, reached even 
the remotest corners. Owain Alaw sang " Yr hen amser gynt," 
loudly encored. Many other Welsh airs of acknowledged beauty and 
celebrity were introduced, most of which had the effect of throwing 
the audience in raptures, and Llew Llwyfo entertained the company 
with a very humorous address. Mr. Ellis Roberts played " Llwyn 
Onn," arranged by himself for the harp, most exquisitely. " The 
Merry Mountain Maid" was sung by Miss Wynne with grace and 
vivacity, and was vociferously encored. We were pleased to observe 
the improvement which has taken place since this young lady has 
been a pupil of Mrs. Scarisbrick, Liverpool. 

Friday, 24th September. 

THE GORSEDD. 

The weather this morning was everything that could be wished, 
promising a large attendance of the sons and daughters of Cambria, 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 301 

and also of their English friends from different parts of the country. 
The bards, druids, and ovates were seen walking the streets and suburbs 
of Llangollen at an early hour, and when the time for opening the 
Gorsedd arrived, (9 o'clock,) they proceeded to the druidic circle, 
accompanied by a large number of people. The ceremony was much 
the same as that on Tuesday morning : Ab Ithel stood on the Maen 
Gorsedd, assisted by Cam Ingli, Estyn, Mor Meirion, Myfyr Mor- 
gauwg, Glasynys, and others. 

The following received the degree of ovates: 

Dewi Glan Perydden, Dewi Wyllt, Carnfaldwyn, loan Ebbwy, 
Cadivor, Derfel Fach, Calon Ga'darn, Einion Ddu, Penyddinas, 
(William Henry Reece, Esq.,) Padarn Fab, Bardd Glan Aeron, 
Cyffyn, Cerddin, Humphrey o Feirion, Derwydd Fab, Dewi Callestr, 
leuan Collen, Eryr Alwen, Inkerwron, (Corporal Shields,) Taliesin o 
Eifion, Owain Alaw graduated Pencerdd, Risiart Ddu o Wynedd, 
T. ap Gwilym, Ceinydd, Mair Gwilym, Gwenddydd Meilor, (Lady 
Marshall, was represented by Mair Gwilym,) Eos Morfa, Gwen Afon 
Dyfrdwy, (Mrs. Smith,) Mair Estyn, (Mrs. Lloyd,) Mwynwen 
(Mrs. Davies, Cheltenham). 

The following were ordained Bards : Risiart Ddu o Wynedd, Mor 
Meirion, Estyn. 

The following were admitted Druids: Carnfaldwyn, Cadivor> loan 
Ebbwy. 

Mr. Whalley's motion of the previous day was next put to the 
meeting, and carried amidst enthusiastic cheering. Three cheers were 
also given for Mr. Whalley, and in reply he said he was very much 
obliged for the kind compliment they had just paid him. He also 
added that most probably there were many present from South Wales, 
who thought the mountain which he was about to present to the Welsh 
nation was unsuited for the purpose, in consequence of it being so far 
from their homes. If the committee took this view of the case, he 
should have great pleasure in purchasing any other spot which they 
would suggest as being better suited for the purpose. (Loud cheers.) 
A committee was then nominated, with power to add to their number, 
and the proceedings of the Gorsedd terminated. 

THE EISTEDDFOD. 

The assembly having met in the large tent, the Rev. J. Hughes 
(Carn Ingli) moved, and Ab Ithel seconded, that Henry Davies, Esq., 
Cheltenham, should take the chair. (Cheers.) 

The chairman stated that he felt he had no claim to the honour 
proposed to be conferred upon him, other than that which entire 
sympathy with the objects of the Eisteddfod might be supposed to 
confer. He had long been a stranger to his native land, and could 
not, from disuse, address the meeting in his native tongue with that 
fluency which was necessary in order to conduct its proceedings as they 
ought to be conducted, but he trusted he should, notwithstanding, 
receive its support (cheers) in his efforts to discharge the duties 



302 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

which might devolve upon him. Though unable to address them in 
Welsh, he assured them he should be able perfectly to understand the 
proceedings which occurred in the language, for he had not forgotten 
his mother tongue and the land that gave him birth, (cheers) 
and oftentimes, when far away, he was conscious of that " hiraeth am 
hen wlad ei enedigaeth " to which he had referred in the tent last 
evening. (Loud cheers.) 

The chairman called on Gwilym Tawe, who addressed a few 
stanzas to the Eisteddfod. 

Myfyr Morganwg was called upon, in the next place, to explain 
the nature and principles of Eisteddfodau ; many of his remarks had 
been embodied in Ab Ithel's address from the Maen Gorsedd on the 
first day of the Eisteddfod. 

Other bards addressed the assembly in poetry. 

Cynddelw spoke in Welsh, his humorous remarks calling forth 
frequent bursts of applause. 

Tegai also addressed the meeting. 

The Triple Harp. The best female performer, in costume, on the 
triple harp, 5. 

There were two who came forward as candidates for this prize, 
Miss Roberts, whose skilful performance on the harp we have already 
noticed, and Mrs. Evans, of Llangollen, who, though not appearing 
in Welsh costume, was, through the generosity of Miss Roberts, and 
the wish of the assembly, permitted to compete. 

Miss Roberts' execution on the harp was highly satisfactory, and 
elicited much applause. Mrs. Evans played " Serch Hudol" with 
much taste and feeling, but the judges considered the former entitled 
to the prize. 

The next subject for competition was 

The Impromptu Poetical Contest. Prize 2. There were no 
competitors for this prize, and in the interval Mr. Ellis Roberts 
favoured the assembly with sweet strains on the harp. 

Welsh Proverbs. For " the fullest collection of Welsh proverbs 
not published in the Myvyrian Archaiology, .10." 

On this subject six compilations were received bearing the following 
signatures: " Lliwen," " Lloffwr," " Hynafiaethydd," " Cadwg," 
" Un o'r plant," " Mountaineer." The first had 225 proverbs ; 
Hynafiaethydd, 303 ; Lloffwr, 1527 ; Cadwgan, 2032 ; Un o'r plant, 
2305; while Mountaineer had 5365. The last collection was con- 
sidered the best. On Mountaineer's name being called, Miss Williams 
ab Ithel, (Euronwy,) appeared as the successful candidate, and was 
invested amidst tremendous cheers by Corporal Shields, the Crimean 
hero. 

Choral Singing. The choir prize, ,10, was open to all Wales, 
each choir to consist of not less than twenty. Two choirs competed 
Glan yr Afon choir, (Independent chapel, Llangollen,) consisting of 
about thirty young persons, John Jones, leader; and the Wesleyau 
choir, Llangollen, numbering 38, John Pugh, leader. Each choir 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 303 

sang the Old Hundreth, Hanover, and " Can Dafydd Brophwyd." 
The Wesleyan choir won the prize, and the leader of it was crowned 
by Mrs. Owain Alaw. 

The Cambrian Gold Torque of Valour. The next prize was the 
Cambrian gold torque of valour for the best soldier in the 23rd or 41st 
Regiment most highly recommended by his officers for courage and 
conduct in the field. 

Ab Ilhel said that this was the prize of the day. The torque which 
he held in his hand was in imitation of those honourable badges worn 
by chieftains and distinguished warriors of old, to lose which on the 
field of battle was regarded much in the same light as to lose a banner 
in the present day. Hence it was the great aim of contending parties 
not only to defend their own torque, but to possess themselves of that 
of their opponents ; and " tynnu yn y dorch " became in consequence 
an established idiom among the Cymry, expressive of a struggle for 
the mastery. When the promoters of the Eisteddfod thought of re- 
storing this ancient mark of distinction, confining it to Welshmen in 
the 23rd and 41st Regiments, with the view of encouraging enlistment 
to those national regiments, they had some misgivings lest the military 
authorities should set their faces against the project, as an usurpation 
of the Queen's prerogative. But their fears on the subject were soon 
removed, for, without any application on their part, a communication 
was received from Colonel Lysons, late of the 23rd, followed by another 
from the Horse Guards, in which Corporal Shields was strongly recom- 
mended as a candidate for the gold torque of valour. (Cheers.) These 
letters he would read to the meeting, first in the language in which they 
were written, and then he would translate them for the benefit of those 
who understood only Welsh. (Cheers.) The reverend gentleman 
then read the letters, of which the following are copies : 

13, Great George Street, Westminster, 

20th July, 1858. 

Sir, I have been requested by a pensioner of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers 
to write to you regarding a prize that I understand is to be given at a meeting 
of which you are the Honorary Secretary. The man's name is Corporal 
Robert Shields ; his history is as follows : On the 8th September, 1855, he was 
in the attack on the Redan ; I observed him amongst the foremost ; he was one 
of the few who got to the ditch at the re-entering angle, and remained there 
till one of the last when our troops retired. After he had returned to the 
trenches, he heard that the Adjutant-Lieutenant Dyneley had been left out 
near the Russian works, dangerously wounded ; he took off his coat and went 
out in search of that officer ; he found him, and would have brought him in, but 
his wounds were too painful to permit of his being carried without a regular 
stretcher ; he therefore returned to the trenches and obtained the services of 
Assistant-Surgeon Sylvester, who gallantly volunteered to accompany Corporal 
Shields to the place where Lieutenant Dyneley was lying, and dress his wounds; 
they went out under a very heavy fire and accomplished their purpose ; as soon 
it was dark, Corporal Shields went out a third time, accompanied by Lieu- 
tenant, now Major Drewe, and several other men; they succeeded then in 
bringing in their wounded comrade. The Russians fired at them as they went 
out, but desisted when they returned, apparently perceiving that they were 



304 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

carrying a wounded man. Poor Lieutenant Dyneley, one of the finest officers 
in the corps, died before the morning. Corporal Shields is now one of the 
park-keepers in Regent's Park. 

I have the honour to be your most obedient Servant, 

D. LTSONS, Colonel, late 23rd R. W. Fusiliers. 

Horse Guards. 

Sir, I take the liberty of recommending Corporal Shields to your notice 
as a candidate for the gold medal about to be given for valour. The act of 
gallantry for which he obtained the Victoria cross entitles him to great con- 
sideration ; his conduct on that occasion was fine in the extreme. With very 
many others I entertain the highest esteem for him, believing him to be a most 
gallant soldier, and peculiarly respectable man. I should be pleased to see him 
obtain any reward given for courage in the field. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

FRED. SATERS, Assistant Q. M. G. 

The Rev. R. W. Morgan, (Mor Meirion,) in presenting Corporal 
Shields, said, It is, I feel, an honour to present a true soldier to any 
assemblage in the kingdom, and a truer, a more gallant one than he 
whom I now introduce to the Eisteddfod does not exist in the finest 
collection of noble spirits in the world the British army. Higher 
eulogy than this it is impossible for any man in any station of life to 
merit or aspire to, and it rests on no doubtful, no disputable grounds; 
none can question the evidence of a breast so covered with clasps and 
decorations that scarcely is there space left for an additional tribute 
from a grateful country. (Cheers.) Corporal Shields is a Cymro, 
the representative of a race that from the earliest ages has been dis- 
tinguished by two grand characteristics profound religious feeling 
and chivalry in the field. Towering above us frown the ruins of the 
castle of one of the earliest of the great conquerors of mankind 
Bran, or Brennus the captor of the Eternal City, the founder of the 
Cisalpine empire and its civilization the first general that, long ante- 
cedent to Hannibal, crossed the glaciers and snows of the Alps, and 
vanquished the opposing bulwarks of nature herself. (Loud cheers.) 
Since that remote period no century has elapsed unchronicled with the 
martial achievements of the British race; each era has been pregnant 
with heroes of the ancient British blood, the long catalogue of whom 
is crowned with the greatest and foremost of all constitutional com- 
manders, whose Cambrian mother first drew breath, and whose boyish 
years were spent a few miles from this spot, at the ancient residence of 
the Trevors Arthur, Duke of Wellington. (Loud cheers.) Born in 
an inferior station in life, but not the less, because the sphere of his 
duties has been that of obedience and not of command, a hero not 
the less entitled to recognition because he is a private and not an 
officer is the soldier to whom, on the united recommendation of his 
superiors, and with the full sanction of the authorities of the Horse 
Guards, the Eisteddfod has awarded the prize of the Cambrian Torque 
of Valour. In honouring such a character we reflect honour on our- 
selves. We desired in celebrating a national Eisteddfod on its ancient 
principles to connect it with the two regiments in Her Majesty's 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 305 

service, the 23rd and 41st, which more particularly represent the 
military spirit and traditions of the Principality. Corporal Shields 
belongs to the 23rd. When there are so many regiments, English, 
Scotch, Irish, Welsh, which have alike ennobled themselves by the 
most signal acts of valour of which disciplined daring is capable in 
every province of the British dominions, it would be impossible, as 
the attempt would be absurd and invidious, to assign the palm of 
conduct and intrepidity to one more than another. (Cheers.) They 
are all units of one fraternity in arms, bound together by the indis- 
soluble tie of a common spirit of loyalty to the throne and devotion 
to the British Empire. But if it has many equals, the regiment of 
the Royal Welsh Fusiliers has, we venture to assert, no superiors in 
the length and hardihood of its career in Her Majesty's forces, and 
it bears, I believe, upon its banners more names of victories and 
sanguinary actions in which it has been engaged than any other regi- 
ment in the service. The last battles in which Corporal Shields bore 
his part in its ranks were those of the Russian war in the Crimea, 
the clasps and medals for which now decorate his front. And very 
singular and instructive is the reflection that to the Crimea, whence 
our forefathers first, under Hu Gadarn, emigrated and colonized 
Britain, their children should from their British home return, a living 
nation and an imperishable tongue, to combat the gigantic aggressor 
of the north on his own soil, and to lay their ashes by the sides of 
the tumuli of their ancestors, in the noble cause of the rights of the 
weak against the oppression of the strong, and of liberty against an 
organized military despotism. (Cheers.) War, in a just cause, has 
been, and ever will be, as long as the human mind is sensitive to 
honour and shame, to insult and wrong, a glorious choice; and history 
enrolls no war more just than that in which the soldier who stands 
before you earned the guerdons displayed upon his person, and 
worn with a modesty which adds lustre to his valour. (Loud cheers.) 
Thousands of his comrades perished in the field, the hospital, and the 
trench ; their deaths were met in the discharge of duty lives poured 
forth in blood on the altar of their country ; but the arm of God has 
through innumerable perils in the stricken field, and the storming of 
batteries bristling with cannon, brought back our Fusilier unwounded 
and scathless. But the committee felt that reproachless conduct is as 
essential to a soldier as courage, and in bestowing the torque of valour 
they have inexpressible satisfaction in pointing, not only to the testi- 
monials of his military superiors as evidences of stainless moral de- 
meanour during actual service, but to the presence on this occasion 
of the clergyman of his parish, the Rev. Mr. Morgan, vicar of 
Beaufort, Monmouthshire, who has come expressly to bear the same 
testimony with reference to the whole private life of Corporal Shields 
as long as he has known him, that is, from his earliest years. I have 
made these observations in order that our friends from England, not 
conversant with the Cymraeg, might understand the nature and object 
of the prize in question, and as the general committee fully feel the 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 R 



306 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

gravity of their position in being called upon to adjudicate it, I beg 
to be permitted to introduce the Rev. Mr. Morgan, who will have 
the honour of reading to you the various testimonials, on the strength 
of which they considered themselves amply justified in awarding it to 
the Crimean hero who now stands before this vast assemblage of his 
countrymen. (Loud cheers.) 

The Rev. Mr. Morgan, of Beaufort, then read the various testi- 
monials from Colonel Lysons, Colonel Bunbury, Colonel Sayers, of 
the Horse Guards, and other authorities, and explained the medals, 
the Victoria cross, the Beaufort medal, the cross of the Legion of 
Honour, the four clasps for the Crimean battles which decorated 
Corporal Shields' breast. He testified in the warmest terms on long 
personal knowledge to the excellent moral character in his own home 
of the brave man about to receive this merited recognition of his worth 
from the hands of his native Cambria, and trusted the prize, so appro- 
priate to the functions of a national Eisteddfod, would have the effect 
of confirming any Welsh soldier in her Majesty's service in habits of 
obedience, order, and sobriety. He felt unmeasured satisfaction in 
being present on so memorable an occasion, to be a witness to the 
moral, as his officers had been to the military, character of their 
Cambrian countryman. (Cheers.) 

Aldershot, 20th September, 1856. 

Rev. Sh\ I beg to apologize for not sooner answering your letter of the 
16th instant, but having been absent on duty for some days, I have only now 
received it. It gives me much pleasure to be able to bear testimony to the 
gallant conduct of Corporal Robert Shields, 23rd R. W. Fusiliers, on the 8th 
September, 1 855, when, after our repulse from the Redan, he bravely offered 
to go out again to the front under a tremendous fire and bring in Lieutenant 
and Adjutant Dyneley, who was lying mortally wounded amongst some rocks 
close to the Redan. With the assistance of four gallant soldiers, who cheer- 
fully volunteered to follow him, this dangerous service was nobly and success- 
fully performed by Corporal Shields, who bore the body of his dying officer 
into camp at the imminent peril of his own life. For this most worthy action 
he was recommended for, and has since received, the cross of Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour. Brave and active before the enemy, Corporal Shields has 
also proved himself a most zealous and trustworthy non-commissioned officer 
on aU occasions, and it gives me much pleasure to learn by your letter that his 
merits and services are so fully appreciated by those of his fellow-countrymen 
to whom he is known. I feel it due to the brave men who assisted him on the 
8th September to add, for your information, a copy of a regimental order I 
published on the subject of their conduct on the 8th September, 1855. 

Copy of Regimental Order, \8th August, 1856. 

" When decorating Corporal Shields with the cross of Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, awarded to him by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of 
the French, for distinguished gallantry on the 8th September, 1855, the com- 
manding officer deems it incumbent on him to publish for general information 
the names of the four brave and devoted soldiers who volunteered on that day 
to assist Corporal Shields in bringing Lieutenant and Adjutant Dyneley, who 
lay mortally wounded close to the Redan. This voluntary duty was nobly 
and successfully performed under a very heavy fire, and Lieutenant-Colonel 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 307 

Bunbury will see that the names of Private James Tailor, 2715, Private 
Thomas Kennedy, 3909, Private John Green, 3645, and Private Michael 
Ahern, 3420, are duly transcribed on the Records of the Regiment, as bright 
examples for the future." 

HENRY W. BUNBURY, Lieutenant- Colonel. 

Maison Vernet, Rue de Beauregard, Geneva, Suisse, 
22nd October, 1856. 

Dear Sir, Having been abroad for the last two months for the recovery of 
my health, your letter dated 8th September has only this day reached me, or 
you would have received an earlier reply. I can assure you it gives me much 
pleasure to answer your questions respecting Corporal R. Shields, 23rd Royal 
Welsh Fusiliers. He is a fine and gallant fellow. We have served together 
for many days and nights in the trenches before Sebastopol, and on various 
occasions I have witnessed his gallantry. At the attack on the Redan, on the 
8th September, he was by my side I think nearly the whole time, and on the 
same day he reported to me that he thought an officer of our regiment was 
lying wounded between the Redan and our works, and he volunteered to go in 
search of him. He did so, and found our Adjutant, Lieutenant Dyneley, who 
was mortally wounded, and brought him back (with some other men who went 
with him) under fire of the enemy, and in broad daylight, into our trenches. 
This was entirely a voluntary act of his, as the regiment had gone home to 
camp by order of the general, and Corporal Shields asked leave of his 
commanding officer to remain behind for the purpose of finding out his officer 
he thought was wounded, and Corporal Shields is, I can assure you, worthy 
of the interest you have taken in him, and nobody rejoices more than I do at 
seeing his own country-people interest themselves in a man that may well be 
called, and truly so, " a Crimean Hero." 

Pray accept, my dear Sir, my sincere thanks for your warm congratulations 
on my return from the Crimea, and regretting much my absence from England 
should have delayed your receiving an earlier reply to your letter, 
I beg to remain, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

FRANK DREWE, Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st Devon Militia, 
Late 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

Rev. J. W. Morgan, Beaufort. 

Corporal Shields, According to your request I have much pleasure in being 
able to testify to your character during the ten years that we served together 
in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

From the fact of your being a countryman of mine, my attention was 
perhaps more directed to your conduct than it would otherwise have been, and 
therefore I consider I am justified in stating that your conduct and character 
have always been most creditable to yourself and country. 

You are one of the very few (not above 50 out of 900) who embarked with 
the regiment in 1854, and after going through the whole campaign returned 
with the head-quarters to England in 1856. During the whole of that time 
you performed the arduous and fatiguing duties which fell to your lot cheer- 
fully, willingly, and with a good spirit ; at the same time you managed so well 
that, if I remember rightly, you were never even on the sick list. On the 8th 
September, 1855, at the attack of the Redan, you particularly distinguished 
yourself by (after the assaulting party had been repelled) leaving the trenches 
under a tremendous fire, and proceeding over the open to render assistance to 
Lieutenant Dyneley, the Adjutant of the regiment, who lay wounded between 
the Redan and the trenches ; finding he was not able to make his way in with 
your assistance alone, you returned to the trench, procured the aid of Assistant- 



308 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

Surgeon Sylvester, and four others, and -with them at the risk of your own life, 
you again braved the fire of the enemy, and brought your officer into the trench. 
For this noble conduct you received the Legion of Honour, and that it may long 
adorn a breast so worthy, is the sincere wish of your late fellow-soldier, 

ARTHUR HERBERT, Lieutenant-Colonel, late 23rd Fusiliers, 
Acting Adjutant-General, Camp, Colchester. 

LlansaintfFraide, Raglan, September 3rd. 

Dear Sir, I have to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 30th Sep- 
tember, relative to Corporal Shields, of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and in 
reply I beg to add my testimony to the others you have received 1>f the 
worthiness of this man to receive the high honour you propose to confer upon 
him by presenting him with a testimonial commemorative of the distinguished 
part he took in the late campaign. 

As a countryman, during the ten years we served fbgether in the same 
regiment, I continually kept him in view, and therefore I can with confidence 
state that Corporal Shields is as good and brave a soldier as is to be found in 
the British army. I always felt proud of him as coming from the same county, 
and were I going to remain in these parts, nothing would have given me 
greater pleasure than to have been present to see a testimonial so well deserved 
presented by his sympathizing countrymen. 

With regard to obtaining his discharge, I fear the authorities would scarcely 
wish to encourage men of his stamp (who are so much required) retiring from 
the army, by granting pensions to those who are in the prime of life, and so 
capable of bearing arms ; however, as the army is to be reduced considerably, 
commanding officers of regiments have the power to grant a certain number 
of free discharges, and I feel assured if Colonel Bunbury can do anything to 
meet your views he will be most delighted. I have given Shields a few lines 
in which I state my opinion of his conduct on the occasion of his bringing in 
Lieutenant Dyneley at the risk of his own life. 

I have the honour to be, dear Sir, your obedient Servant, 

ARTHUR HERBERT, Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Late Adjutant-General at Colchester. 

Dover, 23rd September, 1857. 

Corporal Robert Shields, As I understand there has been some misunder- 
standing abroad regarding the service for which you received the Victoria cross, 
I send you the following statement, which may be useful to you amongst your 
friends in assuring them of the full extent of your merit. 

During the attack on the Redan, on the 8th September, 1855, I saw you 
among the foremost. You were one of the few who reached the ditch at the 
re-entering angle. After the attack was over, you went out by yourself in search 
of Lieutenant Dyneley ; having found him, you returned under fire of the 
enemy to the trenches to obtain, if possible, the assistance of a medical officer ; 
Assistant-Surgeon Sylvester volunteered to accompany you, and you conducted 
him across the fire of the Russians to the spot where Lieutenant Dyneley was 
lying ; later in the evening you went out, accompanied by Captain Drew and 
some volunteers, and brought Lieutenant Dyneley into our trenches, and took 
him home. I have been given to understand that, when you first went out, 
you endeavoured to carry Lieutenant Dyneley in on your back, but he was not 
able to bear the pain of being carried in that manner. I believe this report to 
be perfectly true. It is much to be regretted that the valuable officer and kind 
friend for whom you risked so much died of his wounds during the night, and 
had no opportunity of acknowledging your devotion to him. 

I am, your friend, and late Commanding Officer, 

D. LYSONS, Colonel. 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 309 

The chairman then gave a brief historical notice of the torque, 
stating that, among all the Celtic nations, it was the blue ribbon of 
valour, and that this form had been retained with great taste and 
propriety, as uniting the recollection of the past and present achieve- 
ments of British valour. Some of them exhumed or purchased by 
antiquaries were of exquisite workmanship and moulding, and he 
congratulated the meeting that the prize offered by the committee for 
military worth was in all respects on a par even in pecuniary value, 
for he observed the collar had the Hall mark in proof of its genuine- 
ness upon it with the highest prizes attached to literature, poetry, or 
the arts. It was obvious that in decorating the young hero on the 
platform, they would consecrate in the best spirit of patriotism the 
inotto, " Palmam qui meruit ferat." 

Corporal Shields was then presented, and invested with the torque, 
amidst deafening hurrahs, by Miss Helen Williams, (Eiluned,) the 
daughter of Ab Ithel, who addressed the kneeling hero in those simple 
but comprehensive words, "Your country is proud of you." 

Shouts, in Welsh, from the mass arose, " Is he a Welshman ?" to 
which the Corporal shouted, in return, in Welsh, "I am a true Welsh- 
man in blood and language," when the peals were again renewed. 
Silence being somewhat restored, the Corporal spoke as follows in 
Welsh and English 

Ladies and gentlemen, fellow-countrymen I am a plain soldier 
and no speaker, and have nothing to say about myself, except that I 
have always tried to do my duty as a British soldier. I feel the 
greatness of the honour done to me by my fellow-countrymen of 
Wales, but my feelings will not let me express myself as I wish 
they are too deep. I can say nothing more than that I thank you 
I thank you most sincerely, from the bottom of my heart. (Loud 
cheers.) 

Corporal Shields appeared on this occasion in a new suit of regi- 
mentals, presented to him by the authorities of the Horse Guards. 
He is a fine, manly, young fellow, with a superb beard, which, falling 
downwards, conceals, in great measure, the torque from view. It 
harmoni/es admirably with the regimental colour. The brave soldier 
was so affected when he was invested, that he was heard afterwards to 
declare that he would sootier face twenty thousand Russians any day 
than stand before such an assembly of his countrymen on an occasion 
like this. It was truly a national recognition of a hero's services. 
It is not a little to the honour of Wales that, when Corporal Shields 
received the Victoria cross at the hands of Her Majesty, in Hyde 
Park, out of the sixty so distinguished, twelve were Welshmen. 

Heroism in Saving Life. Estyn introduced Mr. Robert Williams, 
of Coed Talon, near Mold, as the successful competitor for the prize 
of heroism in saving life. They had just crowned valour in the person 
of Corporal Shields, and it was his opinion that as much bravery 
might be shown in saving, as in taking, the life of a fellow-creature 
perhaps more. On the field of battle you were obliged to kill as 



310 LLANdOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

many as you could, in order to lessen the chance of being killed your- 
self; but one who leaped into a river to save a child from drowning 
was impelled by no motives of prudence and expediency, but was 
actuated by the highest and most disinterested bravery. He was 
glad to submit to them on the present occasion an act of unparalleled 
heroism. From the testimonials which had come to hand, it appeared 
that Robert Williams had been the instrument of saving several lives, 
not only at the risk of his own, but while suffering the most dreadful 
and intense agony. "Upon the 19th January, 1857, Robert Williams 
was on duty with his engine at the colliery of the Messrs. Haworth 
and Thompson, of Tryddyn. By some accident he became entangled 
in the rope which revolved round the drum. His foot was cut off 
by it as clean as though cut off with a knife, and he thrown over the 
revolving drum into a hole eight feet deep. Immediately recollecting 
that unless he could return to stop his engine, which was winding 
waggons up the break at full speed, loss of life and destruction of 
property must inevitably follow, he succeeded in climbing this eight 
feet with his remaining foot, reached his engine, stopped it, and fainted 
in a pool of blood." Robert Williams, whose wooden leg bore 
honourable testimony to a brave heart, then presented himself upon 
the platform, and was invested, amid cheers, by Mrs. Lloyd, Cefn- 
ybedd, (Mair Estyn,) the brave soldier, Corporal Shields, advancing 
with emotion and grasping the heroic civilian's hand. 

At this stage of the proceedings the President, Dr. Games, of 
Liverpool, and Mr. Francis, of Manchester, addressed the meeting at 
some length in English. The addresses were principally on the litera- 
ture and patriotic spirit of the Welsh nation. The latter further 
observed that the present Eisteddfod had removed from his mind the 
prejudices which he felt against the attempt to keep up our distinctive 
nationality. The same observation was heard from several other 
persons. 

A 2 prize for the best composed National Song was retained, no 
composition of sufficient merit having been sent in. 

Mr. John Owen (Owain Alaw) sang an English song, accom- 
panied on the harp by Mr. Ellis Roberts, harpist to the Prince of 
Wales. Other songs were also sung by Miss Forey, Merthyr Tydfil, 
Miss Wynne, and Llew Llwyfo, all being loudly encored. 

Master Evans, of 37, Great Richmond Street, Liverpool, was 
awarded with ,3 for having returned the most correct answers (on 
paper) to twenty questions from Morgan's History of the British 
Cymry. 

A prize of 5 for the best female singer with the harp, in costume, 
was next competed for. There were two candidates, Mrs. Parker, of 
Llanover, and Miss Forey, of Merthyr Tydfil. Won by the latter. 

Welsh Heroes in the Crimea. 5 were offered as a prize for the 
best poem on this subject, written in the triplet metre (triban milwr). 
There were two candidates, " Mostyn Bach," and " Carwr Heddwch," 
but neither was deemed worthy of the prize. 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 311 

Descriptive Ode on the Landing of Brutus at Totnes, 5. 
Two competitors, " Childe Harold," and " Madog," but neither of 
them up to the standard. 

Y Gwyddionadur, or Welsh Encyclopedia, twelve englynion, Q, 
subscribed by " a Friend," and " Cymro ;" awarded to " Hy wel Dda" 
out of six competitors. 

Hell. A Cywydd, limited to young people under eighteen, \. 
Ab Tthel explained to the audience why this subject appeared in the 
programme. It was not what the promoters of the Eisteddfod them- 
selves would have chosen ; it was proposed, and the prize forwarded, 
by an unknown person, who signed himself " Hen Eisteddfodwr." 
Awarded to Morris Owen, of Pentrevoelas. 

Welsh Linsey. The prize of 5 was awarded to Mr. Robert 
Roberts, of Caernarvon. 

Discovery of America by Madoc. Prize ,20 and a silver star. 
Six compositions were received ; one by " Gwrnerth Ergydlym," not 
being on the subject, was inadmissible. No award was made with 
respect to the others. 

The chairman (Mr. Davies, of Cheltenham) stated that certain 
resolutions had been submitted to him by Mr. Whalley, of Plas 
Madoc, who requested permission to address the meeting upon them. 
(Mr. Whalley was standing on the platform with a large packet of 
papers in his hand.) 

The Rev. R. W. Morgan, P. C., Tregynon, (Mor Meirion,) after 
speaking a few words to the chairman, stepped forward, and addressing 
the audience said, Ladies and Gentlemen, The Eisteddfod is not the 
arena for the discussion or even any allusion to political or religious 
topics, both of which are by its avowed rules and principles rigidly ex- 
cluded, and for the observance of these rules the members of the 
general committee, of whom I have the honour to be one, hold them- 
selves responsible to the public. No resolutions of any description out 
of the strict order and programme of the Eisteddfod can be admitted 
or entertained from any quarter whatever. (Cheers.) And as all the 
business laid down in the programme has been dispatched, I pronounce 
the Eisteddfod now terminated. And in bringing the proceedings of 
the four days to a close, permit me, in the name of the general com- 
mittee, to tender our most cordial acknowledgments, first, to our fellow- 
countrymen the Cymry, for the zeal and sympathy with which they 
have supported us in our arduous undertaking, and the admirable order 
and sobriety which have from the first hour to the present signalized 
their conduct. They have attended in thousands, but not a single in- 
stance has occurred among them of inebriety, or turbulent demeanour. 
(Loud cheers.) They have respected themselves they have respected 
their national institution. And, secondly, I beg with equal cordiality 
to thank our friends and fellow-subjects of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, for countenancing and aiding us to perpetuate by their presence 
and approbation this peculiarly Cambrian festival of arts, poetry, and 
literature, which unites the freshness of youth with the claims of the 



312 LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 

hoariest antiquity. We have exerted ourselves to carry it out on its 
true, that is, its primitive principles ; and it is because we have done so 
that we have succeeded in achieving what this immense audience itself 
demonstrates to be a brilliant success. We threw ourselves and the 
Eisteddfod upon no party, no class, no sect, but upon its own principles, 
and upon the whole body of the nation ; and the result is before your 
eyes. May it prove the first of many similar, and may the memories 
and associations connected with its celebration in the bosoms of all 
present be unalloyed by a single pang of pain, or sentiment of regret. 
(Loud cheers.) The Eisteddfod being closed, let us all join heart and 
voice in honour of our beloved Sovereign in the finale of the National 
Anthem, " God Save the Queen." 

The assembly at once rose, the band, harps, and singers struck up 
the fine strains of the National Hymn, and the chorus, pealing from the 
collected multitude, rolled away in solemn grandeur, and with the most 
impressive effect, over the town of Llangollen, its reverberations dying 
away in the distant recesses of the vale. The assembly then poured 
out at the various exits to meet again at 7 o'clock at the evening con- 
cert. 

We think it right here to observe that the adjudications in music, 
singing, and the harp, appeared to give universal satisfaction. The 
adjudicators were the Rev. J. D. Edwards, Rhosyrnedre, whose musical 
compositions, and extraordinary power and volume of voice, are cele- 
brated through Wales, Owain Alaw, the conductor of the concerts, 
Eos Meirion, and Eos Llechid. Among the Welsh airs not yet 
published are some magnificent antique productions. 

Owain Alaw was invested by the general committee with a silver 
star, in recognition of services rendered to the general cause of Welsh 
music, and of the ability, courtesy, and success with which he had 
superintended the musical arrangements of the Llangollen Eisteddfod. 

EVENING CONCERT. 

The beauty of the weather, the happy manner in which the Eistedd- 
fod itself had been brought to a conclusion to the satisfaction of all 
parties interested in its success, and the due observance of its peaceful 
regulations, with the knowledge that this was the final evening, filled 
the tent to overcrowding. The spacious pavilion was literally crammed. 
Such an assembly was scarcely, if ever, surpassed in the Principality. 
The greatest enthusiasm reigned among the entire mass, and Llew 
Llwyfb was loudly cheered when he came forward to announce, upon 
the authority of the chief constable, that never in the whole course of 
his life had he witnessed such order, sobriety, and decorum, as had 
characterized the conduct of the thousands congregated at Llangollen 
during this Eisteddfod. The most perfect harmony prevailed in all 
parts, and amongst all classes collected within the pavilion. The 
harpers, the band, and the vocalists, vied with each other in excelling 
their former efforts, and the reiterated plaudits they received testified 
both the willingness to be pleased, and the gratification experienced, by 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. 313 

the audience. Strangers who had come from the Highlands, from 
Ireland, and the East of England, to attend the celebration, were heard 
to declare that the spectacle alone within the tent richly repaid them 
for the journey, the sea of heads rising in masses from the platform 
throughout the aisles to the furthest extremities exciting a constant 
current of remarks, whilst the thorough good humour, quick perception, 
and inexhaustable enthusiasm of the Cymry, hailing with cheers every 
Cymric air, and welcoming the Welsh costumes of Miss Wynne and 
others with peals of delight, elicited from more than one the obser- 
vation, " That they had never known the real Welsh people before, or 
understood the fire of their national character." Most of the songs were 
"ettoed," or encored, and two or three addresses in Welsh created an 
indescribable furore of applause. One feeling indeed animated the 
whole assembly, nor did a single incident occur to mar the universal 
concord of the last act in the drama of the National Llangollen Eis- 
teddfod. The entertainment at last came to an end, and after a few 
words from Mor Meirion of acknowledgment and congratulation on 
behalf of the general committee, the National Anthem was sung, and 
the thousands wended their way out in tardy streams, giving a succes- 
sion of cheers for the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the promoters and 
patrons of the Eisteddfod, and those who had chiefly contributed to its 
triumphant success in literature and music. By 12 o'clock, P.M., not 
an individual was to be found in the streets, and Llangollen had re- 
sumed its usual state of midnight silence and repose. 

Thus ended an Eisteddfod which has so far answered the most san- 
guine expectations of its originators, and which, whatever its results 
may be, must be admitted by opponents and well-wishers alike to be a 
great Cymric fact, pregnant with suggestive materials, and indicating 
a depth of national determination for the maintenance of the Welsh 
language and institutions. 

The above Report was compiled from various newspapers, but 
chiefly from the Caernarvon Herald, with the aid, also, of our own 
notes. It may be remarked, that all the newspapers that were repre- 
sented on the occasion pronounced the Eisteddfod a grand success. 



SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 S 



314 



GLAMORGAN. 

LLYMA ryw faint o Hanes gwlad Morganwg allan o Lyfr 
a fu ymherchenogaeth y Parchedig Mr. Gamais, ofFeiriad 
St. Athan, ag yn awr gan Mr. John Spencer o'r un 

plwyf. lOLO MORGANWG. 

Morganwg a gas ei henw gan Forgan Mwynfawr, 
frenin ar y wlad yma. Y wlad hynn a elwid Bro Syllwc 
yn yr hen amser, ond yr oedd Bro Syllwc yn fvvy o 
lawer nag y w Morganwg ; a Syllwc Isgordd ydoedd yr 
enw ar y rhan hynny o'r wlad y sydd rhwng y Blaeneu 
ar mor o Hafren i Dywi. Pan bu Morgan Mwynfawr 
yn frenin y wlad hynn yr oedd yn byw yn yr Adur a 
Breigan, ag yr oedd rhad penllad arno ef ai eppil o flaen 
ag ar ei ol hyd amser Owain ab Morgan Hen. Ar 
penllad hynny oedd hynn, a Chawrdaf ai dodwys ar yr 
eppil gyntaf, yr oeddyn oil yn ddiwair yn iefeingc, ac yn 
nwyfus yn hen, ag yn cael plant yn eu hen oedran, ag 

yn byw i weled eu \^^^ U ' Ar Morgan hynn, a 
roddwys ei enw ar ei wlad, oedd wr hael, a doeth, a 
gwrol, a mwyn dros benn, a thyna fu 'r achos oi alw 
Morgan Mwynfawr; a ganed iddo ei fab cyntaf pan 
oedd dri ugain a saith mlynedd oed, a'r mab hynny oedd 
Morgan Hen, a hwnnw a fu fyw nis doedd ef bed war 
ugain a saith oed, a phryd hynny y ganed ei fab Owain, 
ar y diwarnod wedi hynny y bu farw Morgan Mwynfawr 
ag ai claddwyd ym medd Teilo, ag ni wyddys yn awr 
ble mae hynny. A Morgan Hen ai Fab Owain a fu yn 
ymdynnu a Howel Dda ab Cadell, brenin Deheubarth, 
am feddiant Ystrad Yw, ag Eas, ag Ergin. A Hywel 
oedd yn camweitho ar Forgan, ag achwyn a wnaeth ef 
ai fab Owain ar Hywel wrth Edgar brenin Lloegr, ag 
Edgar a drywynwys rhyngtyn, ag a wnaeth iawn a 
heddwch iddyn, sef fe rhows dir Brychan a thir Gwyr 
isa i Hywel, a thir Yystrad Yw ag Eas, ag Ergin i 
Forgan, ag wedi iddyn' wneuthur heddwch fe ysgrifenwyd 
ef ar groen iwrch, ag ar allor Deilo y gosodwyd y croen, 
a rhoddwyd drwy Dduw a Theilo y mawr fendith ar y 



GLAMORGAN. 315 

neb a gadwai iawn a heddwch rhyng brenin Morganwg 
a brenin Deheubarth, a'r rnawr felldith ar y neb a dorrai 
iawn a heddwch rhyntyn. A Theilo a Dewi a drefnwys 
i frenin Morganwg dalu cynnhreth i frenin Llundain, ag 
ni chelai frenin Gwynedd y treth, herwydd brenin Llun- 
dain yw unben Prydain, ag iddo y perthyn o hawl ag 
iawn unbennaeth Prydain ; herwydd pan rhoddwyd un- 
bennaeth ar Ynys Prydain, y rhoddwyd i'r holl frenhin- 
oedd a thywysogion yn yr ynys dalu cynnhreth i frenin 
Llundain mal y gallai gyrmal rhyfel a phob gelynion. 
Ag o herwydd rhoddi cynnhreth Morganwg i frenin 
Llundain y daeth wedy hynny lawer o ymdynnu rhwng 
brenin Morganwg a brenin Gwynedd weithieu, ag 
weithieu a brenin Deheubarth, achos fei talwys gan bob 
brenin Ynghymru i Hywel Dda. Pan oedd Owain ab 
Morgan Hen yn ugain oed ef a feichogwys fenyw, ag 
yna torrwyd y penllad o'r eppil, ag ni bu hir Iwyddiant 
iddynt ar ol hynny. Ef a ragwedysid drwy ysbryd 
Teilo y byddai gwae ir sawl a dorrai heddwch a threfn 
Edgar, ag felly bu ; herwydd Owain ab Morgan Hen a 
ddechreuwys dalu 'r teyrndreth i frenin Gwynedd; ag 
yno y daeth Alfred i Forganwg ai filwyr, ond hwy a 
wnaethant gyttundeb i sefyll wrth yr hen ammod, ag 
felly bu. Wedi marw Owain ab Morgan fe ddaeth ei 
fab ef Ithel Ddu, gan mor ddu oedd lliw ei wallt ai 
lygaid ai farf. Wedi hynny fe fu Gwrgant ei fab yn 
deyrnasydd, yr hwn a roddes y waen fawr yn y Blaeneu 
a elwid Hirwaen y brenin i bob dyn o'r byd ai chwen- 
ychai er mwyn cadw da a defaid, a hau yd ; ag o hynny 
i maes enw 'r waen y w Hirwaen Wrgan. Ar ol Gwrgan 
fe ddaeth lestin ei fab i'r deyrnas, a brenin drwg iawn 
oedd efe, yn blino ei wlad yn fawr, ag yn gordderchu 
gwragedd yr offeiriaid a phawb arall ag yn dwyn 
eiddigedd at ei wraig am Rhys ab Tewdwr Mawr, a 
hynny, medd rhai, oedd achos dechreu y rhyfel rhyntyn, 
sef y ddau frenin, a lestin oedd y gwannaf yn yr ym- 
dorf, a danfori a wnaeth ef at Einon fab Collwyn ymhlas 
brenin Llundain i geisio help, ag fe gas hynny. Yr Einon 
hynn oedd wedi gorfod ffoi at frenin Llundain oddiwrth 



316 GLAMORGAN. 

Rhys ab Tewdwr, yr hwnn oedd wedi myned ai wlad 
oddiarno. A dig iawn oedd Einon wrth Rys ab Tewdwr 
am hynn, a hawdd oedd gantho helpu testyn. Yr oedd 
lestyn hefyd wedi addef iddo ei ferch Gwladus yn wraig, 
a goddol fawr gyda hi os efe a allai gael help iddo. Ag 
Einion a chwedleuwys ar Ffrancod, sef a Syr Rhobert 
Ffitsamon oblegid hynn, a chyttuno dywod a wnaeth 
Syr Rhobert a deuddeg marchog gydag ef a rhif fawr 
iawn o filwyr traed a meirch gyda nhwy, a chyffwrdd a 
Rhys a wnaethant ar Hirwaen Wrgan yra Morganwg, ag 
yn agos i Aberhonddi. Ag ar ol hir ymladd fe gas Rhys 
ab Tewdwr y gwaetha, a gorfu ar Rhys ffoi, ond fe dalwyd 
ef yn ebrwydd, ag a dorrwyd ei benn ef o fewn i ryw 
ychydig i Hirwaen Wrgan, a'r lie hynny a elwir y nawr 
Penn Rhys, lie gwnaethpwyd y Fonachlog fawr o'r enw 
hynny ymhlwyf Ystrad Dyfodwg, a chwunu twmpath 
arno y wnaethpwyd, a Brynn y Beddau, gerllaw yno, a 
elwir y lie. Wedi darfod yr ymladd fe aeth Einon i ofyn 
y ferch gan lestyn, ond lestyn a chwarddwys am ei benn, 
ag a yrrwys Einon i bant ai fys yn ei lygad heb gyflawnu 
yr addewyd. Ar hynny fe lidwys Einon, a myned ar ol 
Syr Rhobert ai Ffrancod a wnaeth ef ag adrodd iddynt 
ffordd y bu, ag adrodd hefyd pwy cyfrased gwlad oedd 
Morganwg, a phwy mor gyfoethog oedd o yd a da a 
defaid a phob peth da i ddj^n. A. Syr Rhobert ai wyr a 
ddaethant yn ol a cheisio ei hawl i Einon a wnaethant, 
ond fe ddywaid lestyn yn surfalch iawn ni chelai neb ei 
ferch ef eithr brenin cyfoethog. Ag er hynny y dech- 
reuwys cas eiriau rhyntyri, a'r diwedd a fu ymladd 
gwaedlyd wrth afon Taf a lladdwyd gwyr lestyn, ag ef 
ei hun a gilwys ni wyddys yn iawn i ble. A Syr Rhobert 
ar deuddeg marchog ynghyd a'r Ffrancod a gymerasan 
Bro Morganwg, yr horin yw 'r wlad oreu Ynghymru 
rhyngtyn. Fe gas Einon ab Collwyn Sainghenydd, ag 
Einon Fradwr oedd yr enw a rhowd arno ymlaeneu dir 
Morganwg o'r pryd hynny i maes. Fe ddaeth gwyr y 
Blaeneu i lawr lawer gwaith ir Fro, ag a laddason y 
Ffrancod hyd onid oeddynt wedi myned ar ddifeth agos 
oil, oddieithr y gwyr mawrion ryw faint, y rhain a gelai 



GLAMORGAN. 317 

ryw ffordd neu gilydd drwy wrym cyfoeth i ddiogelu eu 
hunain, an neseifiaid. Or diwedd fe feddylwys y larll 
Clar diweddaf ond un yr hwn oedd hefyd hefyd yn 
dywysog Morgan wg, wellhau 'r cyfreithau a rhyddhau 
'r wlad o'r caethiant a rhows y Ffrancod arnynt, a hynny 
fu ; ag efe a wnaeth ddwyfil o dai bychain ac au rhoddwys 
i dlodion y wlad ag a blaunwys berllannau fal y celent 
win a ffrwythydd per, ag efe a wnaeth y tai sy'n dwyn 
enw Tai 'r Eglwys drwy blwyfau y Fro, lie byddai 'r 
trigolion yn niferog iawri, a diben y tai hynny oedd 
hynn yr oedd y parthau daearlawr i fod yn lie i gynnal 
llys cyfraith a llys arlwydd a llys plwyf; ag hefyd fe 
ddarparwyd ynddynt farchnad bob sul yny bore ar gig 
a blawd a chaws ag emenyn a phethau eraill iddei bwytta. 
Ag yna y celid gynnal dawns a cherdd bann mynid. Y 
mwynder hynn a wnaeth Cymry gwlad Forganwg yn 
esmwyth. Pan ddaeth Owain Glyndwr fe gwnnwys gwyr 
Morganwg gydag ef i ddial cam y Cymru yngwasg a 
chaethiant dan y Saeson, ond wedi marw Owain hwy 
gawsant eu gwneutur yn ddifraint lawer iawn o honyn 
am dueddu at Owain, a thost a fu'r amser arnynt, nes 
daeth Siasber yn dywysog ar y wlad drwy ddawn Harri 
y Seithfed, ag efe a esmwythwys lawer arnynt ; fe wnaeth 
lawer o dai a pherllannau, ag a berthgaewys y tiroedd 
ag oedd yn gorwedd yn wyllt heb drinaeth er amser 
rhyfel Owain, herwydd y pryd hynny y llosgwyd y 
perthi ar yd, a'r tai, a phob peth arall a gymerai dan a 
llosg. Wedi marw Siasber fe ddaeth y brenin Harri 'r 
wythfed i Dywysogaeth Morganwg, ag ai rhows i'r 
arlwydd Wiliam Herbert, ag efe a fu ddoniol iawn ir 
wlad, ag a ddanfones dau wr o Landaf, sef Wiliam Harri 
a Rhisiart Harri, i wlad Ffraingc a Fflawndrys i gyrchu 
coedydd ffrwyth a llysiau gerddi, fel y celai wneuthur y 
maint a welai 'n eisiau o les i'r wlad, herwydd fe ddys- 
trywyd lawer o dwf gardd a pherllan yn llwyr yn amser 
Owain Glyndwr. A phan daeth y ddau wr yn ol fe 
gedwis un yn Llandaf ag a rhows iddo dir yno, ag yn y 
Dyffryn 01 wg, a'r Hall, sef Rhisiart a ddanfonwyd yn 
arddwr i'r breiiin Harri. Ag yn amser Harri y gwn- 



|8 GLAMORGAN. 

aethpwyd cyfundeb ar Gymru a Lloegr, ag ni bu ryfel 
wedi hynny. Ag yn awr y mae gwlad Gymru yn ddigon 
esmwyth a pharchedig heb eisiau dim ond mwy gras gan 
Dduw, yr hyrm a ellir ei gael yn hawdd ond ei geisio. 

Yr oedd breninoedd Morganwg yn dyfod o iawn ach 
breninoedd cynta Cymru, ag o achos hynny ni oddefyn 
gan neb o dywysogiori Cymru bennaethu arnynt, a hyuny 
a fu achos colli llawer o waed, ond clod i Dduw, y mae 
hynny o ffaig ddrwg wedi darfod. Y mae Morganwg 
yn awr, wedi gwneuthwr y ddosparth newydd ar wlad 
Gymru, wedi cael ei rhannu rhwng pedair sir, y rhan 
fwyaf ar oreu y sydd yn Sir Gaerdydd, ag yn honn 
hefyd y mae Bro Gwyr ; rhan arall o Forganwg y sydd 
yn Sir Fynwy, ag y mae rhan yn Sir Frycheiniog, a'r 
bedwerydd ran yn Sir Henffordd ; ag ymhlwyf Teilo y 
mae Morganwg ymronn i gyd heb nemawr yn un plwyf 
arall. A gwlad Morganwg y sydd yn dwyn o'i thir ai 
daear mwy na digon o ^d a gwair, a phob ffrwythau, a 
choed, a cherrig, a chalch, a glo, a haiarn, ag ynddi y 
mae digon o afonydd teg a ffynnonau, ag y mae digon o 
bysgod yn ei mor, ei hafonydd, ai nentydd, a gwartheg, 
a cheffylau, a defaid, a geifr ynddi ddigon, ag nid oes 
ami eisiau dim er bywiolaeth dyn ag anifail. 

Ag felly y terfyna. 1772. 



TRANSLATION. 



Here is a portion of the History of Glamorgan out of 
a book that was in the possession of the Rev. Mr. Gamage, 
Rector of St. Athan, but is now in that of Mr. John 
Spencer, of the same parish. 

Morganwg received its name from Morgan the Cour- 
teous, who was king of this district. This country was 
in old times called Bro Syllwg, but Bro Syllwg was 
much larger than Morganwg ; and Syllwg Isgordd was 
the name given to that part of the district which lies 
between the Blaenau (the upper part of the country) and 
the sea, from the Severn to the Ty wi. When Morgan the 
Courteous was king of the country, he resided at Adur and 



GLAMORGAN. 319 

Breigan, and lie and his race, both before and after, were 
endued with a special grace, until the time of Owain, 
son of Morgan the Aged. And the special grace which 
was obtained for the family first by Cawrdaf, consisted 
in this, that they were all chaste in their youth, but 
vigorous and had children in their old age, and lived to 
see their grandsons (al. great-grandsons). And this 
Morgan, who gave his name to the country, was a 
generous, wise, brave, and extremely courteous man, 
which was the reason why he was called Morgan the 
Courteous. His first son was born when he himself was 
sixty-seven years old ; that same son was Morgan the 
Aged, and he lived to be eighty-seven years of age, when 
his son Owain was born. It was on the day after that 
Morgan the Courteous died, and was buried in the grave 
of Teilo, but it is not known now where that is. Morgan 
the Aged, and his son Owain, contended with Howel the 
Good, son of Cadell, King of South Wales, for the pos- 
session of Ystrad Yw, Ewias, and Erging. Howel was 
dealing unjustly with Morgan, who with his son Owain 
complained of Howel to Edgar, King of England. And 
Edgar interposed, and brought them to the following just 
agreement; that is, the land of Brychan, (Brecknock,) and 
the land of Lower Gower, were given to Howel, and the 
land of Ystrad Yw, and Ewias, and Erging, was given to 
Morgan. And when peace was made between them, the 
conditions of it were written on the skin of a roebuck, and 
the skin was laid on Teilo's altar, and through God and 
Teilo was conferred a great blessing upon such as would 
maintain justice and peace between the King of Glamorgan 
and the King of South Wales, and a great curse was 
denounced against whoever should cause a violation of 
the justice and peace that subsisted between them. Teilo 
and Dewi, (St. David,) ordained that the King of Gla- 
morgan should pay tribute to the King of London, and 
that the King of North Wales should not have the tribute, 
for the King of London is the monarch of Britain, and to 
him appertains of right and justice the monarchy of 
Britain, inasmuch as when monarchy was established in 



320 GLAMORGAN. 

the isle of Britain, it was ordered that all the kings and 
princes in the island should pay tribute to the King of 
London to enable him to maintain war with all enemies. 
And because the tribute of Glamorgan was paid to the 
King of London, many disagreements frequently after- 
wards sprung up, at one time between the King of Gla- 
morgan and the King of North Wales, at another time 
between him and the King of South Wales, for every 
king in Wales paid it to Howel the Good. 

When Owain the son of Morgan the Aged was twenty 
years old, he had a child by a certain woman, and the 
special grace was removed from his posterity, nor did 
they after that meet with much success. It had been 
predicted by the spirit of Teilo, that woe would betide 
whoever should violate the peace and order of Edgar, 
and so it was ; for Owain, the son of Morgan the Aged, 
began to pay the tribute to the King of North Wales, and 
then Alfred marched with his soldiers into Glamorgan, 
but they agreed to stand by the old settlement, and so 
they did. After the death of Owain, the son Morgan, 
his son Ithel the Dark, so called from the black colour of 
his hair, eyes, and beard, succeeded. After that his son 
Gwrgant reigned, who gave the extensive plain in the 
upper part of the country, called Hirwaen y brenin (the 
king's long tract), to all who wished it for tillage and 
pasturage, and from henceforth the plain went by the 
name of Hirwaen Wrgan (Gwrgant's long tract). Gwr- 
gant was succeeded on the throne by his son lestyn, who 
was a very bad king, and harassed his country greatly, 
and debauched the wives of the priests and all others, and 
was jealous of his own wife in respect of Rhys, the son of 
Tewdwr the Great, which, according to some, was the 
cause of the breaking out of the war between the two 
kings. lestyn was inferior in force to the other, so he 
sent to Einon, the son of Collwyn, who was at the court 
of the King of London, for assistance, which he obtained. 
The said Einoii had been compelled to flee to the King 
of London from Rhys, the son of Tewdwr, who had taken 
his territories from him. And Einon was very indignant 



GLAMORGAN. 321 

with Rhys, the son of Tewdwr, because of this, and was 
easily prevailed upon to assist lestyn. lestyn had also 
promised him his daughter for a wife, with a large dowry, 
in case he could procure him aid. Einon thereupon 
applied to the French, (Normans,) namely, Sir Robert 
Fitzhamon, and Sir Robert agreed to come, accompanied 
by twelve knights, and a very large force of horse and 
foot, and they met Rhys on Hirwaen Wrgan, in Gla- 
morgan, and near Brecon. After a long contest, Rhys, 
the son of Tewdwr, was defeated, and he was compelled 
to flee, but was soon taken, and beheaded within a short 
distance of Hirwaen Wrgan, at a place now called Pen 
Rhys, (the head of Rhys,) where was erected the great 
monastery of that name, in the parish of Ystrad Dyfodwg 
a large mound was raised over him, and the spot is 
called Bryn y Beddau (the hill of graves). When the 
battle was ended, Einon applied to lestyn for his daughter, 
but lestyn laughed at him, and sent Einon away with his 
finger in his eye, without fulfilling his promise. Einon 
was thereupon greatly incensed, and going after Sir 
Robert and the Frenchmen, he informed them of the 
matter, and he also informed them what a fertile country 
Glamorgan was, and how productive of corn, and cattle, 
and sheep, and of everything that was good to man. 
And Sir Robert and his men returned, and endeavoured 
to recover for Einon his rights, but lestyn told them in a 
very churlish and haughty manner that no one should 
have his daughter but a rich king. Upon this there arose 
sharp words between them, which ended in a bloody 
battle close by the river Tav. lestyn's men were slain, 
and he himself fled, it is not well known where, whilst 
Sir Robert and the twelve knights, together with the 
Frenchmen, seized on the vale of Glamorgan, which is the 
best country in Wales, between them. Einon the son of 
Collwyn had Senghenydd, and he was henceforth called 
Einon the Traitor, in the upper parts of Glamorgan. 
The men of the hills came several times down into the 
vale, and slew the Frenchmen until they were almost 
entirely destroyed, except a few of the great men, who 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 T 



322 



GLAMORGAN. 



by dint of wealth found means somehow or other to 
secure themselves and their relatives. At length the last 
Earl of Clare but one, who was also Prince of Glamorgan, 
resolved to improve the laws, and to emancipate the 
country from the bondage which had been imposed upon 
it by the Frenchmen, and so it was. And he erected two 
thousand small houses, which he gave to the poor of the 
country, and planted orchards so that they might have 
wine and sweet fruits. He built the houses, which are 
called Tai'r Eglwys, (church houses,) in the parishes of 
the vale, where the inhabitants were very numerous. 
The purport of those houses was this, the ground apart- 
ments were to be abodes for the poor, and the upper rooms 
to be places in which to hold courts of law, the lord's 
courts, and parish courts. It was also provided that a 
market should be held in them every Sunday morning, 
for meat, meal, cheese, butter, and other eatables. Dancing 
and singing were allowed to take place in them whenever 
the people liked. 

These indulgences made the Welsh of Glamorgan easy 
in their circumstances. But when Owain Glyndwr came, 
the men of Glamorgan arose with him to revenge the 
wrongs which the Cymry had suffered from the oppression 
and bondage imposed upon them by the English. When, 
however, Owain was dead, a great many of them were 
disfranchised, on account of their having sided with 
Owain, and severe were their times, until Jasper was made 
prince over them by Henry the Seventh. He eased their 
condition much, built many houses, planted orchards, and 
inclosed the lands which had lain waste and uncultivated 
since the time of Owain's war, for at that time the hedges, 
and corn, and houses, and every other combustible thing 
were burnt. 

After the death of Jasper, King Henry the Eighth 
bestowed the principality of Glamorgan upon Lord 
William Herbert, who was a great benefactor to the 
country, and sent two men from Llandaff, namely, 
William Harry, and Richard Harry, into France and 
Flanders, to procure fruit trees and garden herbs, that he 



GLAMORGAN. 323 

might do all the good in his power to the country, for 
the growth of garden and orchard was almost wholly 
destroyed in the time of Owain Glyndwr. When the 
two men returned, he kept one of them at Llandaff, and 
gave him land there, and in Dyffryn Olwg; the other, 
Richard, he sent as a gardener to King Henry. 

In Henry's time Wales and England were united, and 
no war broke out afterwards. And now Wales is suffi- 
ciently happy and respected, wanting nothing save more 
grace from God, which is easily obtained by asking for it. 

The King of Glamorgan came from the legitimate 
lineage of the primitive kings of Wales. Wherefore they 
suffered none of the other princes of Wales to rule over 
them, which was the cause of much blood-shedding. 
But praised be God, that calamity is past, Glamorgan is 
now, since the new arrangement of Wales, divided among 
four counties ; the largest and best part is in the shire of 
Cardiff, in which also is the vale of Gower ; another part 
of Glamorgan is in Monmouthshire ; there is a part in 
Brecknockshire ; whilst the fourth is in Herefordshire. 
Glamorgan is almost entirely in the diocese of Llandaff, 
with scarcely any in another diocese. Glamorgan pro- 
duces from its land and soil more than enough of corn, 
and hay, and all kinds of fruit, and timber, and stones, 
and lime, and coal, and iron, and in it is an abundance of 
fair rivers and springs, and there is plenty of fish in its 
sea, and rivers, and streams, and it has plenty of cattle, 
and horses, and sheep, and goats, and it is deficient in 
nothing conducive to the support of man and beast. 

And thus it ends. 1772. 



324 

LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

By LADY MARSHALL. 
( Continued from page 191.J 
CANIAD III. 

GOLDEN flower enamelled sod 
Were ye soft and smiling when 

On your velvet pile they trod 
Iron heels of armoured men ? 

Mazy rivulet, thy rill 

Tinkles now in merry tune, 
As the cottage maidens fill 

From thy wave at summer noon, 
Lifting then with mutual aid, 
. Each to other's youthful head 
The well poised pitcher's sparkling load, 
Ere they take their homeward road, 

With lightsome laugh and lightsome tread. 

Did thy voices thus resound 
When thy waters ere they found 

Their passage free 

To the narrow sea, 
Were darkly trained to bound 
The base of yonder turfy mound, 
That bristled then with warrior spears 

The throbbing heart 

Whences the pulses start 
Of a nation's hopes and fears ? 
Breezes bland, the waters crisping, 

Where the mountain shadows sleep, 
Were ye thus your soft things lisping 
To the willows as they weep ? 

Could ye be thus careless breathing, 
On the day when FREEDOM writhing 
Holiest rights of men and nations 
Hung upon your next vibrations ? 
Yes : her car majestic speeding, 

NATURE holds her course sublime j 
Frowns or smiles alike unheeding 

On MAN'S glory virtue crime 

What to HER the Patriot's daring ? 
What to HER the traitor's mask ? 

Both alike her bounties sharing 
In her generous sunshine bask. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 325 

Through the veil that shrouds this "earthy" 

Vainly do we strive to see 
Who may be esteemed as worthy 

Heirs of immortality. 

Here to know is not permitted 

Who are "signed" and who are "sealed:" 
For such knowledge yet unfitted, 

We must own it unrevealed. 

Seek we not, with pride uplifted, 

Towards such wisdom to aspire : 
Each and all must first be sifted 

In the GREAT REFINER'S fire. 

As with men we daily mingle, 

On the left and on the right, 
Can the wisest surely single 

Truth from treason black from white ? 

No : from hands most fondly cherished 

Oft our bosom feels the sting, 
As the noble eagle perished 

By a feather from his wing ; 
Of such the Bard full often has to sing. 

When CYMRU'S warriors girdled round 
That now deserted, silent mound, 
In face of day and sight of sun, 
(So Britain's oral statutes run) 
Upon emergencies of weight 
To listen, ponder, and debate, 
And concert with their Chief of Chiefs 
T' avert or 'venge their country's griefs : 
When he, that Chief, in stainless vest, 
Memento of the garb that dressed 
But armoured not our sires of yore, 
Thick gathering to the Lymnian shore, 
To spare vain hope their Island Home 
From iron gripe of robber Rome 
I say when he, that Chief came forth 
Thus clad and in his native worth, 
And on that pyramid of earth 
Took up as wont his lonely stand, 
Encircled by his warrior band 
As his calm eye with princely pride 
Moved thoughtfully from side to side, 
Upon the up-turned eyes below, 
Could he for very certain know 
The smiling friend from smiling foe ? 
Ah could we thus this world were heaven below ! 



326 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

But no, he read in every eye 

A reflex of the purpose high 

That lighted up his own to die 

Or live for CYMRU'S liberty. 

That flame in such an hour and place 

Could e'en obliterate the trace 

Of deeper tenderer grief 
The sudden severance by death 
Of all that cheered his lonely path 

His wedlock sweet and brief j 
And there he stood in manly grace, 
With stedfast mien and cloudless face, 
Impersonation of his race 

Their dauntless PATRIOT CHIEF ! 

The snow-white tunic's fleecy fold 
Was gathered in with torques of gold, 
On either shoulder and the waist, 
And in the centre, on the breast 
Shone out CROES ENYCH's 1 sacred blaze, 
The heir-loom of unnumbered days. 
His lofty forehead's ample round 
With ARTHUR'S diadem was bound ; 
But, chastening all this regal show, 
And diamond's flash, and gilding's glow, 
And snowy tunic's graceful flow, 
In token sad of recent woe 
A sable tissue spread its gloom, 
Filmy as work of spider's loom 
O'er all : it told the early doom 
Of one cut off in newest bloom 
Of mated and maternal pride 
Fair ELEONORE, his royal bride ! 

Two fleeting years had strewed their flowers 
Of peace upon their nuptial bowers, 
And hope held high her shining cup, 
To fill the blissful measure up, 
And in the crowning garland twine 

The last and only wanting gem, 
Thus rivetting the links divine 

The parent's and the husband's name 
Alas, the self same mocking day 
That gave the first the second took away ! 

And now or e'er the tomb could close 
Upon his earthly hopes there rose 
A threatening crisis of the state 
That summoned him to high debate 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 327 

A gathering head and bursting o'er 
Of that for ever festering sore 
The confine question mutual source 
Of evil neighbour nations' curse. 

How such conterminal disputes 

Result when odds are twenty-fold, 
In similance of talking brutes 

The ancient fabler well hath told : 

When drinking on the river bank 

Beside his wily foe, 
What mattered that the weaker drank 

A dozen yards below ? 

The pretext of the wave alloyed 

Affords a faithful type 
Of those by human wolves employed 

To cloak their lawless gripe. 

In e'en our days of higher claim 

To right, they scruple not to fleece 
The feebler of the flock, and name 

The spoil " material guarantees." 

Such specious terms our modern tact 
Plates smoothly o'er the doubtful act : 
Nor lacked they in those rugged days 
The art to use the silvery phrase : 
Peace unity and love and laws 
Might lacquer o'er the blackest cause : 
Yea, and religion's seamless vest 
Cloak what her spirit must detest. 

With armour forged in such a name, 

Auxiliar to the oppressor came 

The Church's power, in thunder hurled 

From Rome upon a spell-bound world 

The excommunion interdict 

Oh ! surely pagan hell was picked 

Of all its arsenalled stores the worst 

To weapon Christian Rome the accurst ! 

Dread skill to turn with shadowy tools 

The brave to cowards wise to fools 

With screws unreal dislocate 

The links of order kindred state, 

And to the fiery ordeal doom 

The sacred firstlings of the womb ! 

These rites now found their Moloch foul 
Incarnate underneath the cowl 
Of that Franciscan mitred monk 
Who from no (so called) duty shrunk 



328 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

The Primate then of England all 
Whom records JOHN OF PECKHAM call ; 
One of those spirits bold and stern 
More prompt to punish than discern, 
Who to preserve externals smooth 
Will trample justice stifle truth, 
Like pedagogues who silence noise 
In school by flogging weaker boys. 

As mediator of accord 
Between Llywelyn and his lord, 
Self-constituted to that toil, 
The prelate stood on WALLIA'S soil: 
Then, when the game might thus be won, 
What oily words 'twas Father Son 
'Twas Mother Church and Father Pope, 
And Son Llywelyn, but should hope 
Of such persuasives come to null, 
His pouch contained the fiery bull, 9 
To dazzle lure confuse oh, what 
To gain her ends Rome would she not 
And crushing all they could not win, 
Were popes misnomered Man of Sin ? 

What contrast does our scene display 
Between the churchly modes and lay ? 
For " servants' servants " such the style 
That mantled many a worldly wile 
Were versed their churchly zeal to use 
As worldly grandeur's prompt excuse. 
Though they themselves were humble men 
The Church must be upheld what then ?- 
The jewelled mitre scarlet robe, 
Whose fabric traversed half the globe 
Before it gently dropped upon 
The meek Apostles' mighty son. 

Thus clad he had a retinue 

That corresponded thereunto : 

There was the Bearer of his Cross : 

Not such a cross as that which bore 
That PRICELESS LOAD whose bitter loss 

Was gain to us for evermore 
Its gilded arms blazed all the region o'er. 

There was the Bearer of his Purse, 
Who did of its contents disburse 
From time to time among the crowd, 
Along the way who kneeled and bowed. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 329 

There were the men who led by rein 
His sumpter-mules a lengthened train : 
His chaplains beadles suffragan, 
And midmost he the holy man. 

It were superfluous here to paint 

A mediaeval mitred Saint : 

A touch may be as telling quite 

As details more prae-Raphaelite : 

The pallid cheek ; the furrowed brow, 

All undisturbed except when now 

And yet again their corpse-like calm 

Is broke, as by a spasmy qualm 

Some penance prick as might be guessed, 

From iron belt or hairy vest : 

The eye that 'neath its lid downcast 

Glowed like a caverned furnace blast : 

The lips compressed, as strained to bear 

A pang, or moved in voiceless prayer. 

His goal attained, 'twas now his tact 
To seem unmindful of the fact, 
As scarce his sublimated soul 
Could mindful be of earthly goal. 
Nor, till his cavalcade had stopped, 

And with the gracious etiquette 
Demanded then, the Prince had dropped 

Upon one knee, and one had set, 
That he dismounting might be propped, 
Seemed he his inward musings to forget. 

Then he indeed with out-spread hand 

Waving aside the proffered aid, 
With uplift eyes and accents bland, 

And " SALVE FILI " gently laid 
His palm descending on the Prince's head. 

Then with a movement that but seemed 

Extension of the same he beamed 

Upon a youth who followed on 

Llywelyn's steps the only one 

So privileged " Lord Prince your son ?" 

The Prince replied with gentle stress 
" In duty more in kindred less :" 
Then, pointing how the fact revealed 
Itself" The Bearer of my Shield : 
Our code so sacred makes the charge, 
That he who holds the royal targe 
Must closely tend his lord s behest 
Whene'er he meets a foreign guest." 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 U 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Another benedictial grace 

The while the Primate's eye of fire 
Shot rapidly from face to face 

Of Prince Lly welyn and his Squire ; 
But in no other wise did he inquire. 

Some specialty there must have been 

Pertaining to that youth which caught 
At fault that practised eye and keen, 

Trained to admire but what it ought : 
A lad, some eighteen summers old, 
Whose ruddy lip the fringe of gold 
Young manhood's pride but half concealed ; 
Whose arm of scarce developed mould, 
Bore up with slight but muscly hold 
The Dragon on the bossy shield, 
The rallying sign of many a bloody field ! 

And now the stirring scene commenced ; 
And now is painfully evinced 
How meagerly the richest phrase 
An impress of such scenes conveys : 
How livelier far a painter's touch 
Though slight soe'er could render such : 
Oh ! heaven-born art to which we owe so much ! 

Can any pen, though tipped with fire 
Can any words can voice can lyre 
Depict those hills that vale that shore 

The varying tints that swifter flee 
Than eye can trace o'er Penmaenmawr 

That shade or spangle Mona's sea ? 

And if in now its loneliness 

That noble scene defies the pen 
Its truth to show, oh ! how much less 

The stage where hundred hundred men 
Are struggling in the fevered press 

Of life can words describe it then ? 

Still less what art what tool can give 
A moulding of the worlds that live 
Within those human units hid, 
Who seem to move as chances bid, 
Like ants in their mysterious hive ? 

Our readers here we claim to ask 
(If such there be) to aid the task j 
Their genius filling in where ours 
Betrays the scant of verbal powers. 

Feel then, kind reader, all the smart 
That wrung Llywelyn's patriot heart, 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 33 1 

To hear the catalogue of griefs 
Of every class of serfs of chiefs : 
Of every sort from murder through 
Wrongs of all stamps and every hue ? 

No refuge in the Altar's pale : 

Priests by the holy place who stood 
Mixed with the rite of all avail 

The unbloody sacrifice their blood ! 

No refuge at the household hearth 

Wives from its sacred precincts torn ; 
Yea, driven to give untimely birth, 

And murdered with their babes half-born ! 

To swell the dark record what need 

The minor catalogue rehearse ? 
The fruits of honest toil with greed 

Wrenched for all payment with a curse ! 

Feel it all ye each generous mind 

Where burns the spark divine, 
The anguish and the rage combined 

Within Llywelyn's soul that burned 

As each beseeching eye was turned 
On him, their only earthly aid 
Their sworded arm anointed head 

Son of their ceaseless line ! 

For in that patriarchal day 
All ranks were privileged to lay 
In person at their Prince's feet 
Their grievances his help entreat : 
The self-same simple age that saw 
The sainted Louis s meeting law 
Beneath the ever-hallowed shade 
In fair Vincennes' sylvan glade. 

But CYMRIC use permitted not 

The shade : it chose an open spot 

And elevate, where all around 

Might view the stage a sloping mound : 

Upon the apex of the cone 

Stood the PRINCE PARAMOUNT alone : 

Upon the second step and near, 

The youth promote his shield to bear : 

The slopes, arranged in graduate stage 

Held Wallia's native baronage, 

While round the basement densely massed 

The people's strength was placed, that so 
This living type was fitly cast 

The social pyramid to show. 



332 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Beyond the precincts of the space 
By natives claimed a green-sward dais 
Was parcelled off with limits fit 
Such embassages to admit 
As came from other states ; and there 
It was the Prince with stately care 
Led up the Primate to his seat 
And dignitaries of his suite ; 
Himself remounting to his own; 
The sites so distanced that the tone 
Of voice passed o'er at easy pitch, 
And view distinct from each to each j 
The Cymric nobles pressing near 
The solemn conference to hear. 

For such occasions then among 
The nations as a common tongue 
The Latin was in usance still ; 
And in its phrase a ready skill 
In training made a duty thence 
With which no noble could dispense. 

Llywelyn had a noted name 

For learning : by intruding claim 

Excluded from his rightful spheres, 

He exercised his early years, 

Retired from public strife and storm, 

In every pursuit fit to form 

His character as prince as man : 

'Twas where the Queen of Rivers ran 

Maesmynan's meads and Clwyd's stream 

Were as the bowers of Academe. 

There met the learn'd the wise the good 

The wires were struck the muses wooed : 

What while his mis-raised Uncle's heart, 

Though brave inadequate the part 

Of prince in troublous times to play, 

Was breaking down from day to day : 

DAVID in Cymru's royal list 

111 name, though on her saint-roll blest ! 

Out then the language terse and bold 
Of them who had the world in hold 
In all its massive idiom rolled : 
The initiate taking in the sound, 
And by some signs to those around 
Unskilled in classic accidence 
Communicating of the sense ; 
As in th' exotic drama now 
The simple to the tutored owe 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 333 

Their power to carry on the thread 
Of what is being done and said ; 
Assisted also less or more 
By what of oratorio power 
The speakers might display in turns 
The tone that melts, the look that burns : 
Each thrilling muscle's apt avail : 
Each gesture prompt to tell its tale ! 

These, when the turn became their Lord's 

Well nigh forestalled the need of words : 

Llywelyn had such perfect part 

In all that makes the speaker's art 

Such grace of manner charm of voice ; 

Of words such flow of types such choice : 

And more than all the cream of cream 

He had a feeling of his theme : 

No advocate with laboured quest, 

Of some poor case to make the best, 

With mouthings much to glose and spin, 

And counterpoise for truth with din : 

Not so : about Llywelyn's tongue 

All man-like god-like graces hung 

His torrent language to inspire 

All holy breathings lent their fire 

Humanity, truth, justice law, 

And Christian love and sacred awe. 

The interpreter, it needs not say 
Of despots clerical and lay 
(For such, howe'er his purpose dread 
Enamelled jargon overspread 
The Primate was) lagged not behind 
In skill to make the seeing blind : 
Mild he began in look and word 
" Dearly beloved in the Lord, 
Ye prince and people of this land, 
We will ye know that here we stand, 
Infractious of the King's command, 
With weary perils by the way 
Vigils by night and tears by day, 
All for exuberance of love 
We bear to you, and owe above," 
And at this pass his purple eyes 
Stole darkly upward to the skies, 
The while his thread-like fingers raced 
In aerial curves across his breast 
" Ne can we long to tarry spare 
From other flocks that need our care : 



334 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

But while we stay we will ye take, 

For blood of our REDEEMER'S sake." 

And here the parenthetic chain 

Of curves and mutterings o'er again 

" In such a sort your sins to heart 

And oaths, that ere we hence depart 

Our labours may your country bring 

To perfect union with our king : 

A peace to bind and to endure, 

Which if they shall not now ensure, 

The time may come when with their lives 

They'd buy the chance our medium gives ; 

For, know ye well that our Estate 

Of England is of such a weight 

And foremost favour in the eyes 

Of Rome that not in any wise 

Will she her duteous daughter see 

Enduring such indignity, 

As needs we must with prickings sore 

Admit that she hath oft-times bore 

From vicinage of such like sort 

As rather might indeed comport 

With manners, practices and use 

Of heathen, Saracens and Jews, 

Than Christian men ; for even they 

Of ransom treat or e'er they slay j 

But these your Welsh are cruel so 

Ere speech can pass they deal the blow ! 

It is not therefore to be thought 

That grievances so pressing ought 

Or can be longer borne by those 

Whose puissance daily hourly grows. 

Our king who yet would treaties make, 

And give in change where he might take 

Without ; and hath for mountains bare 

Made offer of a county fair 

In fertile England : scarce we know 

How clemency could further go ! 

Which, if it carry not with you 

Its weight of obligation due, 

Needs must refer such blunted sense 

To Satan's cursed influence," 

At which bad name down spat the Son 

Of Holy Church, and then went on ; 

" That lion who with deadly roar 

Is seeking whom he may devour : 

But aye our Holy Mother knows 

To cure such maladies as those ; 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 335 

And in her duty, howsoe'er 
It doth her tender bowels tear, 
She shrinks not even to inflict 
The ANATHEMA INTERDICT!" 

He ceased, and at the final word 
Among the Cymric Chiefs was heard 
A sound a hasty movement seen, 
As if half-drawn their swords had been ; 
But quick their Prince the stir repressed, 
And through the pang that rent his breast 
The indignant flush that dyed his cheek, 
Calm he disposed himself to speak : 

" Father in CHRIST most reverend, 
For that your Grace doth condescend, 
Adversely to your Sovereign's will 
For us to bear this weight of ill 
Fatigue and peril charges care, 
And daily thought and nightly prayer, 
We thank you in His holy name 
You tell us prompts you to the same. 
As for our sins, we own our guilt, 
And turn to HIM whose blood was spilt 
The sins of all mankind to purge. 
As touching what you nextly urge, 
Of treaties that to peace shall bind, 
We pray you well to bear in mind 
Two parties go to such an oath, 
And who first breaks it looses both. 
Where rests that blame in this our case 
Witness all these who stand in place : 
Witness how England keeps her pact, 
With every solemn sanction backed, 
Men of Strathalun, with your head, 
Ithel ab Gwysty ruin spread 
Through peaceful fields, and of their right 
Their owners spoiled to slake the spite 
Of Clifford, when by hap was found 
A stags' foot severed by a hound, 
Howbeit a special treaty's clause 
Abjures the Norman forest laws. 

" Witness ye men of Rhos and say 
How keeps his pact the Lord de Grey 
Of Edward's deputy to play 
The humbler part no more he deigns, 
But kingly independent reigns, 
Doth for the King's his cross uproar, 
And by it makes the lieges swear ; 



336 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Dispenses gifts as best he sees, 
And sets at nought the King's decrees. 
Witness Meredydd, Madoc's son, 
Who for his services had won 
A royal captainship to hold, 
But lo ! for want of tribute gold 
The feudal satrap strait way spoiled 
The meed for which the soldier toiled. 

" Let RHYS OF STATWY witness how 
Is kept far south the treaty vow : 
JOHN GIFFARD with his Norman bands 
Seizing his patrimonial lands, 
And he, against the sworn accord, 
Cited to plead at Hereford. 

" Of this sort much remains, but less 

On such like strifes we lay the stress 

The clashings of the strong with strong, 

Than on our common nature's wrong : 

Behold the husband widow reft : 

See fathers childless orphans left 

On smouldering heaps to lift the wail 

All that remains to tell the tale 

Of homes once smiling hearts once free 

Are these the works of ' clemency?' 

" And while the country groans beneath 
These forms of outrage, woe and death, 
To churchly ears transcending far 
Such matters merely secular, 
Are those that in our holy things 
The treaty-trampling iron brings, 
Though shame it were in Christian land 
To need for such a treaty band. 
Let then your Fatherhood give ear : 
Behold MENEVIA'S Bishop here, 
To witness how that favoured race, 
Who hold you say the foremost place 
In Pope's and Holy Church's grace, 
That proud pre-eminence have earned 
In that fair spot where long had burned 
The radiance of the EASTERN STAR 
While Saxons dwelt in gloom afar : 
That region where the lamp divine 
Of learning wisdom shone the shrine 
At once of two such beaming lights 
As love of saint and sage unites 
Yea, e'en beneath the sacred shade 
Where CATWQ taught and DEWI prayed 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 337 

Within that hallowed dome where first 
The hymn of CHRISTIAN BRITAIN burst 
Yea, on the altar step where knelt 
The martyr when his blood was spilt 
In witness of his SAVIOUR'S faith 
Have Normans poured the storm of death, 
And worse than death to heaven arise 
The consecrated virgin's cries ! 

" Spots that e'en Mahound's cursed sect 
In deadliest conflict would respect, 
The graves of prophets these the elect 
For riot slaughter-houses choose 
Say, who are ' Saracens ' and * Jews ? ' 

" The aged priest, whose feeble hands 

Would vainly check the ruffian bands 

Uplift in prayer to heaven on high 

With utterance smothered in the cry 

Of lawless triumph see him die 

Another martyr not to slake 

The blinded rage that zeal may wake 

In some benighted heathen's breast 

Not before pagans to attest 

The value of a heaven-born creed 

No ! 'tis to glut the brutal greed 

Of Christian men whom Rome we're told 

Doth to her inmost bosom fold ! 

" But silenced be the impious tongue 
Our Mother would so foully wrong, 
As say that she was straitened so 
As but one blessing to bestow, 
And in the gift should pass with scorn 
The claims of us, her elder-born. 

" Not so not so away the thought 
Our Holy Mother's breast is fraught 
With all compassion, and in place 
Of blame and punishment, our case 
Will move her pity, when, forlorn, 
She sees her flock not only shorn 
By butcher hands, but, living, flayed ! 
Howbeit, though reft of every aid 
Of Church propitious friend allied 
Our cause to Heaven we confide : 
GOD'S power is not shortened so 
As HE can not His pleasure show 
As easily to right the wrong 
By few as many weak as strong. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 X 



338 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

" And though our nation be the few, 
We are the loyal and the true ! 

" Vouchsafe your Reverend Grace a glance 

At yonder head-land whose advance 

Confronts the main : I ask you not 

To numerate the tents that spot 

With snowy specks the purple lea, 

Like wave-heads on the dusky sea : 

Nor estimate the heads the hands 

That animate and urge those bands : 

But this I would your Reverence learn, 

That, as that rock-wall with its stern 

Calm purpose meets the sea's unrest, 

So doth each true-born Cymric breast 

The encroaching tide of foreign foe ; 

And were I even sunk so low 

In princely pride and common wit 

As fall into the shallow pit 

By Edward dug a shire to hold 

Infertile England for the cold 

Bare wilds of SNOWDON, know you well 

Lord Primate that I durst not sell 

The heritage that BRUTUS gave, 

E'en were I prone to play the slave ; 

No feudal fiction handing o'er 

To Cymric Prince such traitor power ; 

And Snowdon's Chiefs with choral tongue, 

Denouncing all such robber wrong, 

They in their place as now they stand 

With flashing eye and lifted hand, 

And parting lip that scarce can hold 

Assent in mute respect controlled, 

Their noble testimony bear 

That I am but their mouth-piece here, 

And not in pride of princely boast, 

Aggression wild, not counting cost, 

Nor plunder-seeking confine raid 

Am here with them in arms arrayed, 

But in that sacred, solemn cause, 

Our nation's name existence laws -, 

A cause for which I freely give 

All else for which a man would live, 

And all to whom it fits apply 

The name of MAN would live or die ! " 

A minute's pause that seemed like more 
Now held the late melodious air : 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 339 

Then, like the whispering beach before 
The billow bursts upon the shore 

The nascent voice of thousands ere 
Their thunder breaks its barriers o'er 
And then those voices when their hearts out-pour. 

That rolling tide of sound 

Flooding the valley round, 
Was answered soon from Penmaen's bristling steep, 

And Mona's moorland plain 

Re-echoed to the strain, 
Startling the sea-bird from his floating sleep. 

ENGLAND, thou throne of FREEDOM land 

Of manly interchanges, 

Where thought unfettered ranges 
On wing of eagle or of butterfly 

Upon whose chainless air 

No slave-tongue mutterings dare 
To vibrate, but in dastard embryo die j 

Thou ownest no dominion 

But honest men's opinion 
But yet thou wert not always so, blest strand. 

The primal British spirit 

Which thou didst erst inherit 
Which first thy fathers from the Gorsedd 4 thundered 

In foreign whispers languished 

When by the alien vanquished 
Thy branches from the parent stem were sundered. 

Beneath the Norman heel 
Thy noble pulses feebly crept : 

Thy life-stream did congeal, 
Thy mighty soul in long abeyance slept ! 

'Twas marvel then to English ears 
The sound we now describe as cheers ; 
And when those English ears were set 
On tonsured heads, more marvel yet ; 
And though the Roman phalanx still 
Is ever trained in perfect drill, 
And when a diplomatic pose 
It takes more guarded ever grows, 
E'en John of Peckham and his train 
In listening to the impassioned strain 
Once raised their eyes, and once again. 
Not that it appertained to aught 
By seeing or by hearing taught 
To precepts heaped, or " line on line," 
Or human things, or things divine, 



340 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

To alter John of Peckhara's view, 
Or change his course he had his cue : 
To look exceeding meek and wise : 
In face of facts to generalize ; 
To blink a whole and deal with part 
This is the diplomatic art. 

John was an adept in the school : 

With patient smile and survey cool 

He waited the renewal oft 

Of patriot outburst j then in soft 

Mild tones which yet with silvery swell, 

Like long vibrations of a bell, 

Seemed not to strike the ear alone, 

But thrilled through fibre, nerve, and bone, 

An essay smooth he interwove 

Of peace, obedience, union love ; 

And in the Sovereign Pontiff's name 

A Holy War did next proclaim, 

For which who had not served yet dared 

For else to arm, the Church declared 

Beneath her solemn ban convict, 

And subject to an interdict ; 

And as the awful doom was hurled 

The parchment scroll a monk unfurled. 

We know from history the intents 
Of this and such-like instruments : 
The HILI>EBRANI>S and INNOCENTS 
Italian Bishops, hatched the scheme, 
Whose working rent the social seam : 
Suspending Christian rites it left 
The land that felt its force bereft 
Of all that in the Christian plan 
Lifts civilized from savage man : 
And, as a rider to the deed, 
A clause annexed the people freed 
From all allegiance duty vow 
Which subjects to their Sovereign owe. 
Its bearing on the present case 
Was subtily arranged to place 
The Prince in jeopardy, and bring 
His states in grasp of England's king. 
For Edward had his service paid 
Llywelyn nought in personal aid 
Afforded to the Pope's Crusade : 
So, shackled here, or fighting there, 
On either side he met a snare, 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 341 

That left his hapless land in prey, 
Whichever call he should obey. 

Prepared with this two-bladed plan 
The Primate came ; but, wily man 
And daring as he was, he yet 
Began to think he p'rhaps had set 
At scarce its proper estimate 
The spirit of this little state, 
When air and ocean dale and hill 
Re-echoed to that patriot thrill. 
He knew mayhap the common say 
Of chords o'er tightened stags at bay, 
And thought to give a little space 
For patriot froth to effervesce ; 
For best to diplomats it seems 
To gain their ends by quiet means. 
Thus while the Suffragan displayed 
The papal parchment threat, he made 
His pleasure known the dais to leave, 
The church adjourn to, and receive 
In state before the altar high 
The Prince and council's weighed reply. 

Off moved the cortege in the same 

Slow stately order as they came : 

THOMAS WALLENSIS at his side 

The Prince's courtesy did provide 

The Primate's escort fit and guide. 

Again was paid the etiquette 

The Primate on arrival met : 

Again benignly planed the air 

His filmy palms ; the while a prayer 

He breathed that Heaven would condescend 

The Prince's filial heart to bend 

In duty to the Holy See, 

And then a " Benedicite !" 

Returning from his reverend charge, 

Upon the youth who bore his targe, 

His steps attending as before, 

And now whose crimsoned visage bore 

A smile of scorn, his glances turned, 

And while his inmost bosom burned 

With sense of wrongs, he smoothed his brow, 

And in an accent calm and low 

" Madoc," he said, " tis not so much 

These brazen blasphemies that touch 

My heaving spirit not because 

Their hellish mechanism draws 



342 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

The rivets of the social frame, 

And mines it with a poison flame, 

I inly writhe : a deeper sting, 

Borne on long memories' brooding wing 

Recalls with pangs still fresh the hour 

When love and hope's expanding flower 

Was blasted by a like decree 

Breath of the same foul upas tree ! 

Of this again, when time befits ; 

For now thy ripening age admits 

What long thy duty has deserved 

A trust responding unreserved. 

Our crisis calls for thought ; for though 

This fresh enthusiastic glow 

Might soon be fanned into a blaze 

Our marcher tyrants to amaze, 

Yet not less surely must I count 

To find this deep insidious fount 

Enfiltrate like a hidden spring 

The ground we stand upon, and bring 

Its solid mass to melt and quake 

Beneath our feet, and doubtful make 

Each step we on its surface take. 

This touchstone then shall test the worth 

Of hearts, as that of inner earth." 

A look a word in nought beyond 

Was Madoc able to respond 

His Master's out-burst then ; but eyes 

And broken accents can suffice 

Where hearts are ONE, and each to each 

Is seeing, hearing, thought and speech. 

Returning to the gorsedd mound 

Young Madoc and Llywelyn found 

A chance had happed to interrupt 

Its course a messenger abrupt, 

With travel worn and breathless speed, 

On purpose of o'erpressing need, 

Did audience of the Prince entreat, 

And falling at Llywelyn's feet, 

Some space screened off from others' view, 

His light disguise he from him threw, 

And showed a face alas ! how changed, 

But still beloved, though long estranged 

His brother David 

" Prince and Lord," 
He cried, " the time will not afford 
Me space to speak contrition now 
For forfeit fealty broken vow : 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 343 

Thus late, but not too late, God grant, 

My factious errors I recant, 

And first-fruits of my zeal, on knee 

Present you Hawarden Castle key ! 

How to my hand that fortress fell 

O'er long it were the tale to tell : 

Suffice for such a time to say 

That Clifford's on his weary way 

To Snowdon's fastness, if indeed 

He lives a fastness yet to need ! 

That VENABLES hath made his just 

Amende to me, and bites the dust : 

No more my patrimonial oaks 

Shall sink beneath his felon strokes ! 

That vapouring Trigald found the fate 

Our princely Sire untimely met. 

But less of this : its bearing now 

Upon our case I rather show 

Than more narrate, for as I neared 

This spot disguised I rumours heard 

Of what was passing, and could see 

Your princely grace and courtesy ; 

And marvelled half that you could stoop 

To such a bald-head, blustering troop : 

But better 'tis, and may assist 

To work our ends : Ere now I wist 

That Rhys ab Maelgwyn's conquering arm 

Hath given old STRONGBOW'S ghost a qualm, 

If yet on Ystwith's rock-crowned height 

As dwelt his substance flits his sprite. 

This happy juncture to improve 

To our complete success, I move 

To hold me still in this disguise, 

For scarcely can they yet surmise 

My flight from England, Edward's court 

For Easter having its resort 

At far Devizes you to treat 

Of peace, and so this priest to meet 

On every point, that he reverse 

All papal censure, ban and curse ; 

And back successful from his 'best 

Returning, when he stops to rest 

At Hawarden, like as outward bound 

A lodging in its walls he found, 

St. George's banner for a while 

The Dragon veiling to beguile, 

He plumps into our simple snare 

At all events a hostage fair ! " 



344 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

The beam that lit Llywelyn's brow 
When David hailed him, and whose glow 
Still brightening rose, now faded slow 
As he his purpose oped : he pressed 
His long-lost brother to his breast, 
As his short penitence he spoke, 
And as the bright succession broke 
Of rapid wonders, one by one, 
His eyes like very lightning shone : 
But when at length the dazzling haze 
Of propositions closed, the blaze 
Of pride and pleasure paled and spread 
His features with a gathering shade. 

" Brother," he said " so gladly won 

Prince of my house my father's son, 

Happy the day that doth restore 

You to my heart, and but the more 

Deserving of approval now 

As more they merit all allow 

Who labour to retrieve a fall 

Than they who never fell at all 

And happier still the day that shows 

How genuinely the current flows 

That kindles in your veins the fires 

That burned in Rhodri and our sires, 

This day for me were all too bright 

If I could in your views unite. 

But never in the humblest cause 

Could I infringe the eternal laws 

Of truth and honour how much less 

In such a cause of sacredness ! 

To feign agreement with my tongue 

While else designing, though there hung 

A thousand issues in the scale, 

I could not stoop though all should fail. 

The scheme that is on falsehood planned 

Is like the house upon the sand. 

With war declared 'tis fair to snatch 

At all advantage, but to catch 

A messenger at unaware 

In guise of peace were not a snare 

Befitting for a prince to set : 

Float then our Dragon-banner yet 

Beneath its honoured shade we trust 

The LORD of HOSTS will aid our just 

And holy cause, but if His will 

Be other it is holy still. 



LLYWELYN THE LAST. 345 

I would in war that Hawarden's fall 

Had happed ; but that is past recall : 

The best that now we can to place 

Our noble cause on noblest base 

Is your successes to declare, 

And to the minster straight repair, 

To meet the subtle Primate there : 

These changes may his hautness tame ; 

If not, our duty's still the same 

Safe he returns as safe he came." 

Prince David frowned and shook his head : 

" These scruples are o'er fine," he said, 

" They weighed not when the English hound, 

By every solemn duty bound 

Of kingly honour Christian faith 

Drasrsred off our father to his death." 

OO 

" If wanted ought," the Prince rejoined 
To firmer make my settled mind, 
" 'Tis this that fraud of mine would plead 
In sanction of that hateful deed." 

Then turning to his squire, he signed, 

(In waiting some few steps behind) 

" Attend," he said, " Prince David's 'hest: 

And, brother, know that surer test 

I could not give of high regard 

Than set this trusted youth your guard : 

He shall for every thing arrange 

Your travel soil to promptly change 

For fitments that your princely state 

Shall suit, in scenes that now await." 

His brother's conge seemed as less 
It David's brain-pan did impress 
Than that grave cheek his mood disturbed 
With which the Prince his plans had curbed. 
He followed with a scowl of ire 
His parting step, then on the squire, 
Now proffering graciously the aid 
The Prince commanded, sharply said, 
"And what's your name my pranking Sir, 
Whose help such honour doth confer?" 
The while with sneering eye, half shut 
He measured him from head to foot. 

" Madoc," he said for all reply, 

Nor cowered his gait, nor quailed his eye. 

" Madoc that is but half a name," 
Exclaimed the Prince, " a squire of fame, 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 Y 



346 LLYWELYN THE LAST. 

Announced with flourishes like you 
Should surely have an Ab or two !" 

With form erect and tranquil eye 
Still Madoc stood, but now a dye, 
Like morning kindling in the sky, 
Flooded his young transparent skin, 
And rnild, as to his Sovereign's kin 
Behoved him speak 

" Lord Prince," he said, 
" At bidding are we born and bred. 
That asks no leave, and gives no voice 
Our birth-lot is not of our choice 
But we are fathers of our deeds, 
And mine shall be that whoso reads 
Their record when my course is run 
Shall blush not to be called my son!" 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES TO CANAID III. 

1 CROES ENYCH wa8 a fragment of the True Cross, brought to 
Wales by ST. NEOT, from the Holy Land, and held in the deepest 
veneration. This relic was found on the person of the unfortunate 
Prince David, when he was finally hunted up by order of Edward I. ; 
such being the sacredness of the ornament, that not even when refuged 
in " dens and caves of the earth " could its possessor divest himself of 
the precious charge. 

2 Bull, the designation of a papal mandate is from the bulla or 
leaden seal, appended to it. 

3 Louis IX. of France dit SAINT, died 1279. The oak under which 
he is said to have dispensed the law in the way alluded to is still shown 
in the forest of Vincennes. It is reported that the French Empress 
intends founding a chapel on the spot. 

4 Public Assembly of the States : literally, throne. 



347 



WELSH LITERATURE. 

THE term civilization seems to be generally understood 
in a very catachrestical sense ; it is taken to signify the 
ostentations and luxuries of wealth, the follies of fashion, 
the arts, most of them very iniquitous, of amassing wealth, 
the tyrannies of unjustly privileged orders, the modes of 
brow-beating and trampling upon inferiors, whether in- 
dividuals or communities, of monopolizing rather than 
generally diffusing knowledge ; and to this may be added 
a rage for false and delusive knowledge if knowledge it 
must be called arts and sciences that are utterly useless, 
with many that are pernicious, and strongly tend to anni- 
hilate genuine civilization. If by civilization we under- 
stand such things, it must be confessed that we have 
attained to it in a very high degree ; it may be truly said 
of it that it has grown so high amongst us as to have its 
head in the clouds. Let us, however, take another view 
of these things from a different and opposite point. True 
civilization, then, signifies such a system of things of 
really useful learning, arts, sciences, &c., that are of real 
utility and comfort to man, arid supply his real wants, 
above all such a system of morals; and whatever the 
advocates of the above system may think of me, I will 
say religion, as may be effectual to subdue the malignant 
and foolish passions and propensities of human nature. 
Instead of fierceness, substitute suavity and kindness of 
temper ; instead of pride, humility without servility, and 
that of which pride is only the counterfeit, as hypocrisy 
of religion ; true dignity of manners, instead of haughty 
ostentation, genuine elegance of life and conduct ; a bene- 
volent and peaceable instead of a selfish contentious dis- 
position ; a general readiness to serve our fellow -creatures, 
of whatever name or nation, as far as our powers extend ; 
temperance and moderation in all our habits of living ; 
justice uniting with benevolence in all our actions; a 
general rectitude of conduct such as leaves all at ease 



348 WELSH LITERATURE. 

about us, such as interferes with the just welfare of no 
individual within the sphere of our influence. External 
appearances enter but very little into the question no 
further than those real requisites of life, cleanliness and 
decency. There is indeed a natural elegance that should 
run through all our actions, conduct, and external ap- 
pearances ; through all things that relate to mental and 
corporeal facts, the eye of genuine civilization will always 
discern it, and act upon its principles. 

Mere literature is not civilization ; it is only the instru- 
ment in the hands of other principles that may be used 
to obviate and even destroy civilization, as well as to 
promote it. When it is made the tool of avarice, of culp- 
able ambition, the ladder to tyrannical authority and 
power, and of vain glory, the pretence for trampling upon 
those who have not been so fortunate as to attain to its 
accomplishments, the advocate of oppression, injustice, 
war, bloodshed, and the most audacious rapine, what is it 
better than the scalping-knife of the savage, the dagger 
of the assassin ? What better than these when it becomes 
the herald of immorality, the champion of infidelity, the 
diffuser of doctrines and principles that overturn those 
laws of rectitude that secure good order in society, that 
deprive man of the best hopes that he has in this world 
of troubles, that deprive the miserable of the only comforts 
that remain to them, pleading its charter of false honour 
and fictitious philosophy in opposition to the well known 
and admitted laws of pure virtue and religious morality, 
arrogating to itself, even monopolizing, what the world of 
tyranny may be pleased to admit as wisdom. 

The literature of the Welsh language, whatever defects 
it may have, is not chargeable with anything of this ; it 
opens no roads to wealth and power it has no places and 
pensions to attain to advances not a single step on the 
high road to fortune is not a thing of fashion held in 
no respect by the knaves of fortune, or the fools of fashion. 
Arid it is for this very reason that it is so effectual in 
improving the minds and morals of those to whom it 
dictates, softening their manners, and superinducing a 



WELSH LITERATURE. 349 

suavity and rectitude of disposition and conduct that 
must be obvious to every eye but that of prejudice. It 
has nothing in view but pure mental improvement has 
it not in its power to be ostentatious and arrogant has 
no means of exalting itself over the head of humble 
poverty has nothing to trample upon. It is acquired 
from no other motive than that of becoming better ac- 
quainted with the most important truths, for no purposes 
but those of morality, unsophisticated virtue, and that of 
all others the most fundamental principle of true civiliza- 
tion RELIGION. In addition to these most important 
objects, it has attained to the means of acquiring the 
knowledge of many of the most truly necessary arts of 
life, and thus of being useful to man in enabling him to 
supply his natural, without creating artificial, wants. 

English literature has hardly anything in view but 
improvement of fortune, the sordid acquisition of wealth, 
not the attainment of virtue and pure morality. Its 
objects are those of avarice, ambition, power the means 
not of instructing those who are destitute of knowledge, 
but of trampling upon them, and of more effectually 
holding them in that state of degradation, slavery, and 
mental blindness, that best suits its own superciliousness, 
arrogance, and self conceit that best answers the pur- 
poses and gratifies the wishes of avarice and pride, calling 
to its aid the numerous artifices of pedantry, self-interest, 
and vain-glory ; things of all others the most abhorrent 
of genuine civilization, and that stifle it in everything but 
outward and fallacious appearances, render it a whitened 
sepulchre, fair without, but all filthy corruption within. 
It wishes to hold all in the thraldom of ignorance, and 
consequently in every other species of slavery, of a class, 
however, that has been created by itself, never by nature, 
or the God of nature. There are no views of this nature 
open to the Welsh literature. The only view to which it 
can possibly turn its eye is that of doing real good, of 
instructing the ignorant, of improving the heart, and 
enlightening the mind. Wales will never become truly 
civilized but by the literature of its own language. 



360 WELSH LITERATURE. 

English learning may make us coxcombs, knaves, and 
fools ; but so many temptations in its hands held out to 
seduce us will never in any valuable degree truly civilize 
us. It may make us richer, prouder, and, what is the 
acme of its attainments, atheistically philosophical, and 
thus uncivilize us. But our own native literature has no 
other tendency than to make us wiser and better. 

An English writer, speaking of the Welsh language 
(Monthly Review for May, 1805, p. 45), says, " if know- 
ledge and civilization be beneficial, there can be no doubt 
that its disuse is to be desired." It appears from this, 
and many similar things in other English writers, that the 
Welsh are considered as an uncivilized people, similar 
probably to an American-Indian nation ; that their lan- 
guage is not a literary one ; but the fact is, that it is by 
far the oldest literary, and at the same time living, lan- 
guage in Europe. Whatever it may be believed to have 
been before, it certainly became a literary language in the 
time of the Roman empire. Writings in the language of 
that period are still extant. It never since ceased to be 
so. In all subsequent ages down to the present, the 
Welsh have written in their own language, and that when 
other modern tongues were still in their cradles, incapable 
of anything in literature worth preserving. Our present 
literature is far from being so contemptible as many 
suppose. We have more than a thousand printed books 
in the language, probably near two thousand. We have 
ten presses at least in Wales employed in printing Welsh 
books, besides many that are printed in London. It has 
three or four periodical publications, or magazines, 1 and 
is now equal, if not superior, to what English literature 
was in the reigns of Elizabeth and James, everything 

1 This was written about half a century ago. How the heart of 
the patriotic Cymro must be gladdened when he contemplates the vast 
strides which Welsh literature has since made, as evidenced in the 
publications which have emanated from the native presses. Our 
magazines are no longer to be counted by units, but by scores. This 
is a fact which ought to convince all persons, whose faculties are not 
deadened by prejudice, that our noble language is not yet in a declining 
state. ED. CAMB. JOUR. 



WELSH LITERATURE. 351 

considered, with much less than those ages had of a strong 
tendency to retard instead of advancing true civilization, 
and incalculably less than what the present English 
literature has. It has no loose immoral books of any 
kind, none that fuel the unruly passsions none that in- 
culcate the pernicious doctrines of infidelity none that 
lead the understanding into those labyrinths of scepticism, 
that lead never to return the public mind into the depths 
of immorality. It has no places, pensions, profitable 
trades no offices, employment, and high trusts to attain 
to that might lead it into temptation that would render 
it perfectly dead to all the true purposes of civilization, a 
thing absolutely inconsistent with that avarice, worldly 
ambition, false honour, &c., that leads learning astray, 
and that afforded Rousseau too many powerful arguments 
on that side that took off the prize question proposed by 
the Academy of Dijon. 

There can be no doubt but that the preservation and 
retention of the Welsh language will be the greatest 
blessing of all others to Wales. In this language, and 
in no other, can civilization and truly useful, free from 
baleful, knowledge be advanced and sustained amongst 
the Welsh. Compare the lower classes in England with 
those of the same order in Wales, and let impartiality 
decide. I will venture to say that the first are mere 
savages compared to the last. The modern refined English 
language has been so replenished with words and technical 
terms from ancient and modern learned languages that 
it is no longer the language of the vulgar, in whose 
dialect there are in effect no books ; and those of this 
lower order, if they attain to a tolerable knowledge of the 
learned dialect of their country, find in it such a number 
of profane, licentious, and in every sense immoral publi- 
cations, that by such knowledge they become additionally 
brutalized instead of being civilized. There is certainly 
more literary knowledge amongst the peasantry of Wales 
than amongst those of England, and, what is infinitely 
better, more true morality, more humanity of sentiment, 
more gentleness of character ; and all this derived from 



352 WELSH LITERATURE. 

the benign impressions made upon them by the literature 
of their own language, that has nothing in it to coun- 
teract such impressions. 

One circumstance is greatly favourable to Welsh lite- 
rature ; we have only to acquaint ourselves with the power 
of the alphabet, pronounce every letter, and accent on the 
penultimate syllable ; we have no quiescent letters, none 
that are used like the English C, G, S, Th, Ch, &c., to 
express very different sounds ; the general radices of the 
language are so well known that all derivatives from 
them are readily understood ; hence it is that the Welsh 
generally find it a very easy task to learn to read their 
native language a month is generally supposed to be 
sufficient to acquire this knowledge in perfection. An 
old poetical adage says, 

" Ni bu Cymro 'n dysgu darllain 
Fob Cymraeg yn ddigon cywrain, 
Ond un misgwaith beth yw hynny, 
Os bydd gwyllys gantho i ddysgu ? " 

Many learn it in less ; and we need no regular schools, 
for one neighbour gives another a few lessons two or three 
times a-week, for half an hour at a time, and the pupil is 
soon able to read his native language. 

It is a usual thing in Wales for a few young, and 
sometimes older, persons of both sexes to attend for an 
hour, twice or thrice a-week, at a place where a good- 
natured neighbour and such may always be found 
will give them some instructions in reading Welsh, and 
often in writing. A month of such instruction generally 
enables the pupil to proceed in his own strength. Reading 
parties are formed to exercise themselves, one correcting 
the other, and amongst other things Welsh songs in MS. 
are read by them ; but immoral, or in anything indecent, 
songs are never written in Wales ; and though pieces of 
harmless levity are common enough, such as have a ten- 
dency to corrupt the mind, and to violate morality, are 
seen but so rarely that they are hardly known. Religious 
and moral songs are very common read and sung the 
most. Even tlie common love songs have generally a 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 353 

moral cast ; we very seldom find any wherein some moral 
sentiment is not introduced. The authors of these are 
generally common mechanics, labourers in husbandry, 
sometimes women ; and their songs in general have more 
of pure nature in them than can be generally found in 
the productions of more learned persons. There is a 
national passion for poetry amongst the Welsh, which has 
a very good effect upon the minds and general disposition. 
It would be an easy matter to impress on them, through 
the medium of song, the best principles of morality and 
civilization. MS. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

By the Late IOLO MORGANWO, B.B.D. 

( Continued from p. 169. ) 

RHYME, ANTIQUITY OF. 1 

Ex Sharon Turner ut supra. 

" Pinkerton, in his preface to his edition of Barbour's 
Bruce, says, pp. 12, 13, ' whether rhyme originated from 
the Arabs, and, upon their conquest of Spain in the year 
712, spread first to France, and thence to the rest of 
Europe, as Salmasius and Huet think ; or whether it 
began among the monks of Italy in the eighth century, 
as some others suppose, (for these are the only two 
opinions which now divide the literati upon the subject,} 
certain it is, that this mode of versification may be re- 
garded as foreign to the genuine idiom of any European 
language, and of very late appearance in most.' 

" In the Critical Review for January, 1800, p. 23, in 

1 Ex. Archaeologia, or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, 
published by the Society of Antiquaries of London, xiv. pp. 312, &c. 
In ibidem Inquiry Respecting the Early Use of Rhyme, by Sharon 
Turner, Esq., Art. xxvi. p. 168, and Art. xxvn. p. 187. London. 
1803. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 2 Z 



354 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

an article attributed to the said Pinkerton, he asserts, with 
a small modification, that ' the only opinions which now 
divide the learned on this subject are, whether the use of 
rhyme originated from the Saracens, who took possession 
of Sicily in the year 828, or arose among the Italian 
monks in the eighth century ;' and he also declares it to 
be ' certain that it was totally unknown to the ancient 
languages of Europe.' 

" The result of a research into all the authors of the 
centuries between the third and the ninth to which I 
could gain access, is my full conviction that the opinions 
of the learned above stated are erroneous, and that rhyme 
was in use in Europe before either of the periods above 
ascribed to it. 

" We find that there are rhyming poems in the Sanscrit 
and the Chinese. Sir William Jones says of the Moha 
Mudgara, that it is composed in the regular anapaestic 
verses, according to the strictest rules of Greek prosody, 
but in rhymed couplets.' 1 

" The specimens of the venerated Bede, as given by 
Colonel Dow before his History of Hindustan, exhibit 
rhyme. 3 

" The French missionary to China, who died in 1780, 
says, ' The most ancient Chinese verses are rhymed ; 
there are some forty centuries old.' 4 

" These facts of the ancient existence of rhyme in 
Hindustan and China completely destroy the theory 
which places the origin of rhyme in Arabia, because 
no one can suppose that the Arabs introduced it into 
China, or Hindustan, in those distant eras in which these 
countries used it. 

" ' Rhyme (it is said) was totally unknown to the 
ancient languages of Europe ;' it appears to me that this 
opinion is inaccurate ; I cannot indeed produce such de- 
cisive facts on this subject as I could wish, because we 

2 Sir William Jones' Works, i. p. 207. 

3 History of Hindustan, p. 27. 

4 Memoire Concernant Hist, des Chinois, Jour. viii. p. 201. Edit. 
Paris, 1782. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 355 

have no remains of our ancient languages, except of the 
Welsh, before the eighth century. 

" The Arabian poems in the Hamasa, some of which 
were written before Mahomet's time, exhibit rhyme. (We 
find it also in Persian poetry.) If rhyme had in ancient 
time thus extensively pervaded Asia, and if the stream of 
history be not false, which exhibits the European popu- 
lation as proceeding originally from Asia, I see nothing 
improbable in the supposition that some of the ancient 
languages of Europe were acquainted with it. 

" The most important specimen of rhyme in the ancient 
languages of Europe (excepting the Welsh) is Otfrid's 
paraphrase on the Gospels in the Franco-Theotisc lan- 
guage. The author lived about A.D. 850, or 870; it 
occupies 380 folio pages, and is all in rhyme. 5 

" Otfrid, in a letter to Leuthbert, Archoishop of Mentz, 
says that he wrote the Gospels thus in rhyme, to supersede 
the obscene songs of the Laics in the vernacular Theotisc 
language, and that the Prankish nation might read the 
sacred word in their own tongue. 

" If such were the motives of Otfrid, is it not most pro- 
bable that it was written not only in the vernacular lan- 
guage but in the popular form of his nation ? If rhyme 
would have appeared as a novelty in his work, he would 
most probably have apologized for introducing it, and for 
departing from the popular style. One of his phrases in 
describing the peculiarities of the Franco-Theotisc lan- 
guage is, ' it perpetually seeks rhyme.' (See his letter 
prefixed to Schilter's edition.) 

" Hildegarius, who was cotemporary with Otfrid, wrote 
the life of St. Faron, Bishop of Meaux. He quotes in 
it a song on the successes of Chlotorius II. against the 
Saxons in 622. He says, * On this victory a public 
song (juxta rusticitalem), according to the rustic manner, 
was in every one's mouth, the women joining in the 
chorus.' He then gives an extract of the song. 

5 Schilter's Thesaurus, Ulm. 1728. 



356 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

' De Chlotario est canere rege Franconum, 
Qui ivit pugnare in gentem Saxonum, 
Quam graviter provenisset missis Saxonum, 
Si non fuisset inclytus Faro de gente Burgundionum/ 

" He says, at the end of the song, 

' Quando veniunt Missi Saxonum in terra Francorum, 

Faro ubi erat Princeps 

Instinctu Dei transeunt per urbem Meldorum, 
Ne interficiantur a rege Francorum/ 6 

" I submit that putting Franconum in the first verse 
to rhyme with Saxonum, and Francorum to agree with 
Meldorum in the last, is an undeniable proof of intended 
rhyme. 

" Hildegarius adds, ' We choose to show in rustic 
verse (rustico carmine) how famous he was deemed/ 

" These passages show that the rustic verse of the 
Franks in 622 was rhymed verse. 

" Irrimen, in the days of Otfrid, signified the act of 
poetical composition. Speaking of the Virgin Mary, he 
says, 

' 1st ira lob ish giwaht 
Thaz thin irrimen ni maht/ 

Her praise is so commemorated 
That it may not be rhymed. 

" Himen, in the Franco -Theotisc, is a verb signifying 
congruere, obvenire, contingere, to agree together, to meet ; 
this very neatly describes rhyme, in which sounds are 
made to agree together, and to meet. It is therefore 
probable that the word rhyme comes from the ancient 
languages of Europe rather than from the Latin rhythmus, 
and that the Frankish rimen shows us the rationale of its 
use. 

"Rim, in Saxon, signifies numbers; 7 riman signifies 
to number, also to sing and to chant ; as the Latin word 
numerus signifies, besides number, poetic measure. 

" If not thus derived (i. e., from ancient European lan- 
guages), how came ' rhyme ' to be so called in all the 

6 Vide Bouquet's Recueil des Historiens de la France, iii. p. 505. 
? Rhif in Welsh. ED. CAMS. JOUR. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 357 

languages of Europe, rhyme, English ; rumen, Flemish ; 
in Danish, rimer ; in German, reimen ; nay even in Polish, 
rymuie ; and in Russian, remeneh. 

" Stephanus is of opinion that the once very popular 
song in Gothland on the Lombards, which is in rhyme, was 
composed whilst Charlemagne was reigning in Germany 
and Italy. The first four lines are these, 

* Ebbe oc Aage de Hellede fro, 
Sliden de for hunger aff skaane dro, 
Da stsedis naest vorum gute Gutland 
Met gamle oc unge baade Quindum oc Mand.' 

Steph. in Sax. 181. 

" The vernacular poetry of a nation more commonly 
follows ancient rules and forms than new and difficult 
modes. In the next place it can be proved that rhyme 
did not originate amongst either the Italian monks or 
Saracens in the eighth century. 

" Boniface, the Anglo-Saxon, who devoted himself to 
convert the uncivilized Germans, and who perished about 
755, closes a letter to Nithard with twenty-eight lines 
rhymed. The first are, 

' Vale frater florentibus 
luventutis cum viribus 
Ut floreas cum Domino 
In sempiterno solio 
Qua martyres in cuneo 
Regem canunt aethereo 
Prophetse Apostolicis 
Consonabunt et laudibus 
Nicharde nunc niger rima 
Imi Cosmi contagia.' 

"Aldhelm, a West Saxon bishop, who died in 709, 
and therefore his works belong properly to the preceding 
century, in which he principally lived. His poetry 
rhymes in the middle; a poem of his is in complete 
rhyme. It attests itself to have been written by an Anglo- 
Saxon, as its author mentions his travelling through 
Devonshire and Cornwall. 

' Sicut pridem pepigeram 
Quando profectus fueram 



358 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

Usque diram Damnoniam 
Per carentem Cornubiam/ 

" Aldhelm, in his Treatise on Virginity, has the follow- 
ing lines, obvious and intentional rhymes : 

* Beata Maria, 
Virgo perpetua, 
Hortus conclusus, 
Fons signatus, 
Virgula radicis, 
Gerula floris, 
Aurora solis, 
Nurus patris.' 

" And in another passage, after some remarks in prose, 
he adds, ' ut non inconveuienter carmine rythmico dici 
queat,' (as may be expressed not unsuitably in rhymed 
verse,) and subjoins his specimen in these rhymes, 

' Christus passus patibulo 
Atque leti latibulo 
Virginem Virgo Virgini 
Commendabat tutamini.' 8 

" Whence did Aldhelm (before 700) derive his art of 
rhyming ? not from the Arabs, for they had not yet 
reached Europe ; it was rather from popular songs in his 
own language. 

" The Spanish Bishop Eugenius, who died in 657, has 
rhyme in some of his poems. His little poem on the 
invention of letters is in rhyme. 

' Primas Hebraeus Moyses exaravit literas 
Mente Phrenices sagaci condiderunt Atticas, 
Quas Latini scriptitamus edidit Nicostrata; 
Abraham Syras et idem repperit Chaldaicas, 
Isis arte non minori protulit jEgyptias 
Gulfila prompsit Getarum quas videmus Ultimas.' 

" Drepanius Florus, who lived about 650, used rhyme 
in his paraphrase on the 27th Psalm, which is in stanzas 
of four lines. 

1 Audi precantis anxia 
Pater super me murmura 

8 Wharton's Aldhelra, p. 297, 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 359 

Dum templa ad ardua 
Elata tollo brachia. 

' Hie namque virtus inclita 
Plebis beate premia 
Hie ipse Christo proflua 
Servat salutis gaudia.' 

" In 615 died Columbanus, the Irishman, who was an 
abbot in Gaul, and afterwards in Italy. He was the 
author of a few poems, one of which is in rhymed Latin 
verse. These are the first four lines, 

' Mundus iste transit et cotidie decrescitf 
Nemo vivens manebit, nullus vivus remaimZ. 
Totum humanum genus ortu utitur pari 
Et de simile vita fine cadit sequali.' 

" Gadalstus also published another short composition 
of the same author ; the following is a passage from it : 

' Quae quotidie fugis, 
Et quotidie venis, 
Quae veniendo fugis 
Et fugiendo venis, 
Dissimilis eventu 
Similis ortu 
Dissimilis luxu 
Similis fluxu.' 

*' Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitou, lived be- 
tween 500 and 600 ; 9 one of his poems is a Hymn to the 
Baptized, all in rhyme. These are the first stanzas, 

' Tibi laus perennis auctor 
Baptismatis sacrator, 
Qui sorti passionis 
Das praemium salutis. 

* Nox clara plus et alma 
Quam luna sol et astra, 
Que luminum corona, 
Reddis diem per umbram 

Tibi laus. 

' Dulcis sacrata blanda 
Electa pura pulchra 

9 He died in 600 ; wrote his poems, at least published them, in 565. 
Ititson's Common-Place Book. 



360 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

Sudans honore mella 
Rigans odore chrism a 

Tibi laus.' 

" An elegy on Leon ti us, by the same author, is in 
rhyme. The three first stanzas are, 

' Agnoscat omne seculum 
Antistitem Leontium, 
Burdegalense praemium 
Dono superno redditum. 

' Bilinguis ore callido 
Crimen fovebat invidum 
Ferens acerbum nuncium 
Hunc jam sepulchre conditum. 

' Celare se non pertulit 
Qui triste funus edidit 
Et si nocere desiit 
Insana vota prodidit.' 

" It is remarkable that the persons whom I have 
adduced as using rhyme were Anglo-Saxons, Spaniards, 
an Irishman, and Franks. If my opinion is just that 
rhyme was used in the ancient languages of Europe, the 
source is at once obvious whence these authors had it. 

" In the very century in which Fortunatus lived, the 
Welsh bards flourished who were mentioned in the Anglo- 
Saxon History, and who have been discredited by some 
because they used rhyme. But as I have proved rhyme 
to have been used in Latin poetry at the very time they 
lived, I think I have a right to produce them as instances 
of rhyme existing in one of the most ancient languages 
of Europe. The argument that they were supposititious, 
because they used rhyme, must at least be abandoned. 

" Albinus quotes a rhymed poem of Sedulius, an Irish- 
man, who lived in the middle of the fifth century. 

" There is also a rhymed poem among the works of 
Pope Damasius, who lived in the fourth century. 

" I think that all this can be only accounted for by sup- 
posing, as I have done, that rhyme existed in the popular 
poetry of the Gothic as well as Celtic nations, which indi- 
viduals occasionally and capriciously imitated in Latin. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 361 

" The great facts, however, that it never wholly super- 
seded the classical metres in Latin poetry, but yet has 
completely established itself in the vernacular languages 
of the best parts of Europe, seem to me to attest that to 
the poetry of these languages it never was unknown." 
(End of the First Inquiry.) 



Inquiry the Second, p. 187. 

" As my remarks (first inquiry) went to prove that 
rhyme was an appendage to the vernacular poetry of the 
ancient nations of Europe as well as of India, Arabia, 
and China, it seemed to me to be a matter of some 
curiosity to inquire if it was at all known to the Greeks 
and Romans. 

" The object of the former remarks was to prove that 
the authenticity of the Welsh bards had been unjustly 
objected to because they used rhyme. I traced rhyme 
from century to century into the period at which they 
lived, and it seemed to me that this series of examples 
made each more credible. I briefly hinted at two instances 
of rhyme which were earlier than the sixth century. I 
have since met with another rhymed poem, which would 
alone remove every doubt of the existence of rhyme 
before the Welsh bards wrote. 

" It is the popular Latin poem which St. Austin wrote 
against the Donatists. It is wholly in rhyme ; each verse 
begins with a letter of the alphabet as far as V, and 
contains twelve lines in each. The whole makes up 270 
lines, all ending in the same line, which is E ; perhaps no 
other poem has appeared which contains so many lines of 
one rhyme. 

" It begins with a line which, as a chorus, is repeated 
at the end of every verse. This contains a middle rhyme, 

' Omnes qui gaudetis de pace, modo verura judicate.' 
" I will only cite the first verse, which begins with A. 

' Abundantia peccatorum solet fratres conturbare 

Propter hoc dominus noster voluit nos praemonere, 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 3 A 



362 HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 

Comparans regnum cselorum reticulo misso in mare, 
Congreganti multos pisces omne genus hinc et inde 
Quos cum traxissent ad littus tune caeperunt separate 
Bonos in vassa miserunt, reliquos malos in mare. 
Quisquis recolit evangelium, recognoscat cum timore : 
Videt reticulum ecclesiam, videt hoc seculum mare 
Genus autem mixtum piscis, Justus est cum peccatore 
Seculi finis est littus, tune est tempus separare, 
Quando retia ruperunt, multum dilexunt mare, 
Vassa sunt sedes sanctorum, quo non possunt pervenere.' 1 

" Each letter of the alphabet, as far as V, introduces as 
many lines. 

" St. Austin was born in 354, and died in 430. This 
is, therefore, a specimen of rhyme not only very decisive, 
but very early. 

" But the words of St. Austin which introduce it are 
as important as the poem, in proving the antiquity of 
rhyme. He says he wrote it in this form on purpose 
that it might be popular, that it might be level to the 
capacity of the lowest vulgar, be impressed on their 
memory, and be sung by them. He adds, ' therefore I 
would write in no other manner, lest metrical necessity 
should compel me to use any words not familiar to the 
vulgar.' (Ex. lib. Retract. D. August. 20.) 

" A poem so written as ' to reach the knowledge of the 
lowest vulgar, and of those utterly unskilled and igno- 
rant, and as far as possible to fasten upon their memory/ 
which are his exact words, must of course present to us 
a real specimen of vulgar poetry, and if so, rhyme was 
an appendage to the vulgar Latin poetry of the fourth 
and fifth centuries. We may here recall to our recol- 
lection the vulgar Latin song on the victories of Chlo- 
tarius, mentioned in my former letter." 

Thus far is fully sufficient for my purpose. Mr. 
Turner proceeds to prove that rhyme was known to the 
ancient Romans and Greeks, and proves beyond the possi- 
bility of a doubt that it was well known to them proves 
that Homer frequently and intentionally made use of 

1 St. Austin's Works, vii. p. 3. Lyons, 1586. 



HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BARDS. 363 

rhyme. The whole of the speech of Jupiter, in the First 
Book of the Iliad, seems purposely rhymed ; and other 
passages rhyme in triplets. The following is given (from 
Muratori) from Ennius, and is a rhymed triplet : 

" Haec omnia vidi inflammari 
Priamo si vitam evitari 
Jovis ararn sanguine turpari." 8 

Cicero's next citation is anonymous, 

" Caelum nitescere, arbores frondescere, 
Vites letificae pampenis pubescere, 
Rami baccarum ubertate incurvescere." 

Amongst the fragments that remain of Ennius, his 
epitaph on himself is rhymed. 

" Adspicite, o cives, senis Ennii imagini formam ; 
Hie vostrum panxit maxuma facta patrum, 
Nemo me lacrumeis decoret, neque funera fletum 
Faxit: quui? Volito, vivo, per ora virum." 3 

Muratori proves that there was a rude vulgar poetry 
among the ancients which did not observe the laws of 
metre, but merely followed rhyme (rhythmus). Of this 
sort were the Fescennine and Saturnalian verses. 4 

(To be continued.) 

2 Quoted by Muratori from Cicero's Tusculum, lib. i. 

3 Merula's Ennius, p. 55. Leyden, 1595. 
4 Muratori Antiquitates Italiae Medievi, iii. p. 664. 



364 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



STEPHENS versus STEPHENS. 
To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIB, The following may be added to the List of self-contradictions 
which appeared in the Cambrian Journal for June, 1855 : 

" That Madoc left the county, is quite clear from the concurrent 
testimony of the bards, and the following triad," &c. Literature of 
the Kymry, p. 143. 

" Madoc was slain in Wales, from two to five years before his 
father's death before any disturbance arose between his brothers 
before 1170, when he is said to have sailed to the west." Herald 
Cymraeg, November 6, 1858. I remain, &c., 

GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. 



LLYFR TWROG. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, If I recollect rightly, there was an inquiry in one of the 
earlier Numbers of the Cambrian Journal, (First Series,) relative to 
a document called " Llyfr Twrog," or the Book of Twrog. On this 
subject the following information may not be uninteresting : 

Llyfr Twrog contains notices of the saints of Gwynedd, Mona, 
Bardsey, and the commot. It was compiled by Gruffudd ap Rhirid 
ap Gruffudd ap Einion, ap Gwalchmai, ap Meilor, of Llandwrog, in 
Caernarvonshire for Tudur ap Gronw, of Penmynydd, in Anglesey. 

It is the same as " Bonedd y Saint" in the Myvyrian Archaiology, 
from the Book of Havod. It mentions Cadvan of Bardsey, Elvod, 
Bishop of Bangor, Beuno, Cybi, Deiniol Wynn, Llywelyn of Welsh- 
pool, Seirioel, Tegai Glassawc, Gruffudd ap Cynan, Llywelyn ap 
Gruffudd, &c. I remain, &c. 

DUNAWD. 



To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Living in a remote county of England, I have several times 
made inquiry tor some Welsh publication, and it is only very recently 
that I have been informed by a namesake of the existence of the 
Cambrian Journal, as if sprung up to supply the very want I had 
felt. I at once joined the Institute as a Member, and shall with my 
next subscription become a Governor, an honour to which it shows 
so ready a way. 

May I encroach on your space to ask two or three questions, and 
make two or three remarks ? 



CORRESPONDENCE. 365 

I. If, as I suppose is the fact, Cambria is merely the Latin or 
Roman name of the country, why not set it aside as modern, and 
have a purely Welsh title for the Institute and its organ ? Why not 
Cymru ? 

II. So again, the " Institute ;" I should like to see that modern 
title supplanted by a more worthy equivalent ancient British one. 

III. What is the Welsh plaid; I mean, what is the pattern of it? 

IV. Is there any national Welsh costume, or dress, as that of the 
Highlanders ? 

V. What is the difference between the Welsh, the Irish, and the 
English harps, and where can the Welsh harp be procured, and at 
what price? 

VI. In the Cambrian Journal for Alban Elved, page 204, a 
writer, " E. W.," suggests that the name " church " is derived from 
the Latin " circus." This is a derivation which I never heard of 
before. I think he will find that it is supposed to have its origin from 
the Greek cwpmo;. 

VII. Seeing in the papers, in the account of the Eisteddfod, that 
an essay on Welsh nationality had been read by James Kenward, 
Esq., of Birmingham, I wrote to that gentleman, on the address 
given, to ask if it was in print, &c., but he could not be found, and the 
letter was returned to me from the Dead Letter Office. Can any of 
your readers tell me more about it, and, if it be in print, where it is to 
be procured ? 

VIII. Ab is a Latin word, and therefore modern ; ap is Welsh, 
and therefore ancient. Is it not then more proper to use ap than ab 
for the prefix to a Welsh name, as the Welsh cannot have been derived 
from the Roman, though the Roman may have been from the Welsh ? 

IX. Which is the most correct Welsh form, Morris, Morys, 
Moris, Mawrice, Maurice, or Morice ? 

X. What is the meaning of the three billets on the cover of the 
Cambrian Journal? 

XI. In the Third Volume of Cambrian Journal, (1856,) it is 
stated that further mention would be made of the Welsh national air, 
with a view to its establishment, but I see no further information about 
it in the volume for 1858, so far as I have yet received it. May I 
ask what is the result? 

XII. What is best to be done by a gentleman of Welsh descent, 
resident in England, to keep up his nationality ? What societies 
should he join, and attend what meetings, &c. ? 

XIII. In the various English histories it is asserted that the Welsh 
are the descendants of the Ancient Britons, driven into Wales by the 
Saxons when defeated in England. In the Cambrian Journal it seems 
to be said that the Welsh have always lived in Wales. Granting this 
to have been so, as to some, must there not at the time spoken of have 
been an influx of others of the Ancient Britons into Wales? 

XIV. In the Times newspaper, some seven or eight years or so 
ago, there was a paragraph showing that the number of descendants 



366 CORRESPONDENCE. 

of the ancient British was much larger than commonly supposed, as 
proved by physiognomy, and especially, I think it said, in the county 
of Northampton. Can any one direct me to the paragraph in 
question ? 

XV. What is the title or prescription to the affix one sees to some 
Welsh names in the present day, as " Cuhelyn," " Llallawg," " Cam 
Ingli," "Gwrgant," "ab Ithel," "Gwilym Maries," " Gwalchmai," 
" Gwenynen Gwent," and what their meaning? 

XVI. In an account in the papers, some months since, of a 
gathering I forget the occasion, but possibly I think it was on one 
where the Queen was to be received it was mentioned that some 
ladies appeared "in full Welsh costume." What is the " blazon" of 
such "coat of arms?" I remain, &c., 

AP MORRIS. 

In reply to some of the queries propounded by our correspondent, 
we beg to remark briefly: 1. The term "Cambrian Institute" was 
adopted in preference to a Cymric one, as being in our opinion more 
agreeable to the English ear our Journal being written in the English 
language. 2. We have no objection to the substitution of a Welsh 
title, provided it meets with the approbation of our readers. 3. The 
Welsh plaid is of various patterns, according to the locality where it 
is worn. 4. There is a national Welsh costume, and it becomes all 
who really love Wales and its usages to bring it more generally into 
vogue. It is certainly better adapted both to the climate and scenery 
of Wales than the absurd English dress of the present day. 5. We 
must request some of our musical correspondents to answer this 
question in detail. We will merely observe that the Welsh harp is 
furnished with three rows of strings, whilst the English and Irish 
harps have only one. 6. As somewhat corroborative of E. W.'s 
etymology, though we do not profess to adopt it ourselves, we may 
remark that " cyrch golychwyd " is a phrase frequently used in 
bardic records to denote a place of worship. 7. It was a poem, and 
not an essay, that was read by Mr. Kenward. It has since been 
published. Mr. K.'s address is " Smethwick, near Birmingham." 
8. Ab and ap are indiscriminately used in Welsh pedigrees ; but the 
former is more generally put before names beginning with a vowel, 
and the latter before consonants, e. g., ab Owen, ap Rhys. This is 
more clearly ascertained from the compounds, Bowen, Prys, &c. 9. 
The usual Welsh form is Moris; Morris and Morys are likewise 
written, but never the three other forms. 10. The "three billets" 
represent the name of God, the very essence of bardism. 11. We 
have reason to believe that the proposal is still entertained. The air 
is duly arranged, and we trust that the words will be soon forth- 
coming. 12. The first thing he should do is to teach his children 
the Welsh language ; let him also accustom them to Welsh music, 
costume, and usages. A prominence to these can be given at family 
parties. The " Cambrian Institute" is the most national society that 



CORRESPONDENCE. 367 

we know of. Attendance at Eisteddfodau is particularly recom- 
mended, as these meetings give a great impulse to a national feeling. 
13. It does not follow that any of the Ancient Britons were driven 
from England into Wales, though it is probable that some few were. 
Our traditionary records represent the Loegrian nation as having 
become one with the Saxons. 14. We must appeal to our readers for 
an answer to this question. 15. The names in question are honorary 
titles conferred by the Bardic College; they are chosen by the 
bearers according to their own fancy. Ab Ithel is a patronymic as 
well, borne before it was sanctioned at a Gorsedd. 16. It would 
require more space than we can afford to enter into the minutiae of 
Welsh female costume ; suffice it that the beaver hat and linsey gown 
are among its main characteristics. ED. CAMB. JOUR. 

ANCIENT WELSH BOOKS. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, Turning the other day over some recent MSS. my attention 
was attracted to the following: "The ancient tract on tropes and 
figures under the title of Naw Gloes ymadrodd, the nine tortures of 
speech, and Deunaro addurn iaith, the eighteen embellishments of 
language and expression, is a curious thing, and obviously of indigenous 
growth in the Welsh language. The first is a system of tropes, the 
second of figures, and is almost indispensably necessary to be known 
to understand properly the ancient Welsh bards," &c. Now as it is 
a matter of great importance that we should show the world that 
Wales possesses a native literature, I shall be very glad to know 
where the tract in question may be found. I am acquainted with an 
admirable Treatise on Agriculture, also on Medicine. Let us have a 
series classically edited and published. I remain, &c., 

EINION. 



DRAMATIC WORKS. 

To the Editor of the Cambrian Journal. 

SIR, About the year 1767 one Lewys Hopcin told lolo Morganwg 
that when he was young he had seen a manuscript of considerable 
size, full of Welsh plays, under the title of " Miraglau," in the 
possession of a Mr. Thomas, or Dr. Thomas, of Llwyn Twrch ; that 
they were from 200 to 300 years old at least. He mentioned further 
that they used to perform such plays in the Christmas holidays. Are 
these dramatic documents extant ? Who is the present representative 
of Mr. Thomas ? Does he know nothing of them ? I remain, &c., 

HUD A LLEDRITH. 



368 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 



LLANGOLLEN EISTEDDFOD. We shall be thankful if any of our 
readers will send us any corrections which they may think necessary 
to be made in the Report, in order that they may be attended to in 
another edition. Will the graduated Bards, Ovates, and Druids, 
kindly inform us whether they are duly reported ; also favour us 
respectively with their proper names ? 

YSTRAD YWAIN. Ystrad Owain is the place in Glamorgan where, 
from time immemorial the bards met; there is a large tumulus, and in 
an adjoining field the remains of an ancient Gorsedd. The place is 
on a plain and low so is Dyflfryn Olwg; but Gavvlog, Tyle'r Gawl, 
and Uchel Olau, are elevated places. Query whether Ysgawl 
(schola) be from Gawl, Ys-Gawl. Ty'n Tywod is the house where 
they met. 

BRITISH ARTS. The mechanical knowledge of the ancient Britons 
appears to have been very considerable, from the construction of their 
war chariots, their temples, as Stoneherige, &c., in which they obviously 
evince considerable knowledge of the mechanic powers. And this 
supposition is not contradicted by anything that can be inferred from 
the simplicity and rudeness of their houses ; for, being yet a nomadic 
people, removing frequently from place to place as best suited their 
purposes of pasturage or agriculture, fixed houses of considerable labour 
and expense of time and property were of no great use, and hardly 
desirable in any view. They also cultivated the ground, for Julius 
Cffisar reaped, thievishly, a field of their wheat. They were also 
acquainted with the arts of spinning and weaving, of painting and 
delineating objects could, in all probability, smelt and refine metals, 
for we read of the use of iron, gold, silver, &c., amongst them. E. W. 

BARDIC TUTORS. The bards were the tutors in the Welsh 
language of the gentry and others. Dwn was tutor to Dr. Richard 
Davies, who translated the New Testament into Welsh, in the time of 
Edward VI. Gruffudd Hiraethog was tutor to William Salusbury, 
who wrote a treatise on rhetoric, published after his death by Henry 
Perry. Sion Tudur was tutor to Edmund Prys, Archdeacon of 
Merioneth, who versified the Welsh Psalms. Simwnt Fychan was 
tutor to Dr. William Morgan, who translated the whole Bible, temp. 
Elizabeth. The first modern translation was by Thomas Llewelyn, a 
bard of Regoes, in Glamorgan. The bards had MS. grammars and 
vocabularies, a great many of which still remain in old libraries, and 
collections of MSS., as those by Gwilym Tew, William Llyn, Lewis 
Morganwg, Sion Philip, Llewelyn Sion, Dafydd Benwyn, Gruffudd 
Hiraethog, Morgan Powell, and many others, old copies of which are 
still to be seen, with several by anonymous writers. 

WELSH DICTIONARY. We understand that a new dictionary of 
the Welsh language, containing some thousands of words that are 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 369 

not to be found in that of Dr. Pugh, is about to he issued from Mr. 
Gee's press at Denbigh. We wish the spirited publisher every 
success. 

WELSH Music. Sir Walter Scott, in some of his notes to the Lady 
of the Lalte, says, that in the Danish songs there is added a burden, 
having a kind of meaning of its own, but not always or uniformly 
applicable to the sense of the stanza to which it is subjoined. We 
have the same sometimes in Welsh, such as " Hob y deri dando," 
" Down i'r deri down," " Ar hyd y nos," " Mentra Gwen," " Or 
brwyn dere dere 'r llwyn, ni sonnai fwy am Siantan fwyn." See also 
a song of Rhys Goch o Dir larll in the lolo MSS., p. 240, which 
has the following burden : 

" Taro tant alaw nant ael y naw twyni, 
Til dy rwm tal dy rwm canu Twm Teini." 

HEN GYRUS o IAL. This personage, to whom the compilation of 
many of our proverbs is attributed, is spoken of as being identical with 
Cattwg Ddoeth, in the MS. books of the Earl of Macclesfield, Mr. 
Davies, of Bangor, Mr. Panton, and the Book of Penegoes. 

Bos WORTH FIELD. It is very clear from contemporaneous writers 
that the Cymry regarded the battle of Bosworth Field as a national 
struggle between themselves and the Saxons, in which the former 
recovered the ancient supremacy of Britain. Lewis Glyn Cothi is full 
of this idea. The following statement, culled from unpublished MSS. 
takes also the same view of this decisive event: " The Chair of Ystrad 
Owain was instituted by Llywelyn ap Rhisiart ap Rhys Bryddain, 
called Lewis Morganwg, 1 and his cousin Gruffudd ap leuan ap Rhys, 
called Gutto the scholar, and it was held on the anniversary of the 
Battle of Bosworth, in memory of the recovery by the Cymry of their 
privilege and crown. It was afterwards ordained to be held on Queen 
Elizabeth's birth-day, in commemoration of what she did for the sake 
of God and goodness, namely, securing the Holy Scripture for all 
who loved it." 

TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS. 

Llyma fal y bu 'r drefn yn y This was the primitive order, 
dechreuad, 

Deg ty ymhob Tref, Ten houses in every town, 

Deg tref ymhob Cwmmwd, Ten towns in every comot, 

Deg cwmmwd ymhob Cantref, Ten comots in every hundred, 

Deg cantref ymhob Gwlad, Ten hundreds in every country, 

(al. ymhob Cyfoeth Arglwydd, al. in every lord's territory, that 

i. e., pob arglwyddiaeth,) is, every lordship, 

Deg cantref ymhob Arglwydd- Ten hundreds in every lordship, 

iaeth, ysef yn y bo rif y tai a'u that is, they are divided according 

rhennir. MS. to the number of houses. 

1 He flourished 1500-1540. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 3 B 



370 



REVIEWS. 



NOTES ON ANCIENT BRITAIN AND THE BRITONS. By WILLIAM 
BARNES, B.D. London : J. Russell Smith. 1858. 

We were delighted to see so many English persons present at the 
Llangollen Eisteddfod, and especially to hear them express themselves 
so much in favour with the object of the meeting the cultivation of 
the Welsh language, and the maintenance of our national usages. It 
is a cheering sign. Prophets in abundance have been predicting that 
railways would kill the Cymraeg; but it seems that they are doing 
just the very reverse they bring strangers in contact with it, who 
admire, and learn it. It is well-known how the philological antiquity 
of the Welsh language has now, for some time, recommended it to the 
notice and study of foreign scholars. Their example has at length 
been followed in England, where, it must be admitted, the soil is not 
very favourable to the study of languages, and where, hitherto, 
prejudice has been strong at work against the British tongue. Here 
and there may be seen scholars who have, by dint of assiduity, 
mastered it, so as to get free access to its treasures. Few in number 
they are, indeed, but they give us an earnest of a rich harvest to 
follow. Herbert, Appleyard, Nash, Richardson, Tregelles, and, lastly, 
Barnes, have given a proof to the world that even a Saxon may, by 
diligence and perseverance, surmount the difficulties of the Welsh 
language, and that their labour will not be in vain. 

Our new ally, Mr. Barnes, has, in the little book before us, presented 
us with a very vivid and correct picture of the religion, manners, and 
customs of our British ancestors, for which we, in the name of our 
countrymen, beg heartily to thank him. It is high time that our 
school-books should be cleared of those absurd notices about " wicker 
images," "painted savages," "wretched hovels," and the like, which 
disfigure their first pages, and that a more common-sense view of 
British affairs be introduced. Mr. Barnes is of the same opinion, and 
we doubt not that his Notes will do much towards bringing this end 
to pass. 

The following chapter on "Tattooing and Clothes, &c., of the 
Britons," is replete with interest and just notions, and told in a very 
agreeable manner. We make no apology for quoting it at length : 

" In the time of Caesar, and later writers, it seems the Britons were tattooed, 
and it is said that they dyed themselves with blue, by Glastum, or Glastun. 
Glas, is British for 6Zwe, and Glastennen is the holm, or scarlet-oak, which may 
have afforded the dye. Caesar tells us that the Britons tattooed themselves 
that they might be more frightful to their foes ; whereas Herodian says that 
the Britons painted (tattooed) their bodies with agreeable devices, drawing 
on them all kinds of figures, which was the reason why they wore no clothes, 
as their pride did not allow them to draw a veil over so much beauty. The 



REVIEWS 



371 



main theories of the end of tattooing must be, that it is, 1. for comeliness ; 2. 
for ugliness, or terror to foes ; 3. for tribe marks ; or 4. for heraldry. 

u Against the theory that it is always to terrify foes in the fight, we meet 
the fact, that the Tonga men did not tattoo the face, and in many of the South 
Sea Islands and elsewhere, the women are more or lest tattooed. The Harari 
women tattoo their bosoms with stars, and many of the women of Bidjie ' have 
the flesh of their foreheads risen in the shape of marbles, and their cheeks 
similarly cut up and deformed.' Both sexes of the Indians of Nicaragua 
tattooed their bodies with stone knives, and blackened the lines by a kind of 
coal called tile ; and Lieutenant Hooper says of the Tuski, that the faces of 
the women are tattooed on the chin, in diverging lines ; and, as we can hardly 
impute to the ladies such disaffection to Venus, as to believe they would 
wilfully make themselvs ugly, we give up the theory of tattooing only for 
terror. 

" Tattoo may become a tribe mark, as sundry tribes may tattoo themselves 
in different patterns. The Maoris may choose circular lines, the Tonga men 
straight or wavy ones, and the Tahita people stars, and other natural forms ; 
and some tribes may tattoo the face, while others may leave it clear ; but it 
does not seem that the tattoo was chosen for a tribe-mark as its end. In some 
cases we may believe that it was used as heraldry. Among the Tuski, brave 
men of great fighting or hunting deeds are marked for an act of prowess by a 
permanent mark on the face: among the Esquimaux, a brave harpooner is 
decorated with a badge of honour a blue line drawn athwart his face, over 
the bridge of his nose. The little that is done in tattooing by our sailors, 
when they line anchors, or letters, as P. for Poll, or B. S. for Black-eyed Susan, 
on their arms, with gunpowder, must be ranked under the head of tribe-marking 
or heraldry, rather than terror, as their markings are mostly under their sleeves, 
and yet are a kind of mark of the class ' Jack Tar.' Herodian's theory of 
handsomeness seems to us, therefore, more likely than Caesar's of terrific 
ugliness ; for, if any village Goody were to make herself, by patches and stripes, 
so ugly as to frighten her neighbours' children, she might frighten her own ; 
and, if it be answered, that Goody's children would know beforehand that it 
was only Goody under the lines of terror, it would only show that they would 
be lines of terror only so long as they were not understood ; and, since all tribes 
of Britons were tattooed, all of them would understand the tattooed foe to be 
a plain Briton, and would be no more fearsmitten by him than by their own 
image in water. Or if, on the other hand, Britons did terrify British foes by 
their skin-marks, then no sooner would two warring tribes have come within 
sight of each other, than both of them would have run off with terror, and they 
would never have fought ; which was not, unhappily, the case. On review of 
all cases, then, the aim of tattooing seems to have been comeliness, or orna- 
ment ; and it is said that the Tonga men deemed it unmanly and unbecoming 
not to be tattooed ; and Captain Elphinston writes that the skin-markings on 
some inhabitants of the Samoan Islands gave them the appearance of being 
clad in tight knee-breeches. 

" But Herodian, who writes at one place that the Britons were unwilling to 
conceal their skin-charms by clothes, tells us in another that they were not 
acquainted with the use of clothes, but wore iron about their necks and waists, 
and deemed it an ornament, and a token of riches. We know not on what 
travellers' tales Herodian wrote that they did not know the use of clothes, and 
that they refrained from wearing them for the sake of their tattooings, when 
Caesar tells us they wore, for the most part, the skins of beasts. Few men 
would at all times like a load of clothes, as we know from the joy of the 
leaping and laughing child, when his mother has withdrawn, at bedtime, tin: 



372 



REVIEWS. 



last piece of linen swaddling from his free limbs, and the better feeling with 
which we could cast off most of the bands and swathings of our linen and 
woollen if fashion allowed us on a summer's day. But Herodian finds 
another good of the very little incumbrance of clothes. The Britons, he says, 
often swim or wade into the bogs, up to the waist in water and mud, which 
they do not reck, as the most of their bodies are naked. Upon such statements 
as these of Herodian, that the Britons were not acquainted with clothes, and 
moreover, that they would not wear them, as they might hide their skin -lines, 
and, again, that they were almost unclad, we may believe that they made a 
difference between summer and winter, as in a line of Aneurin, who wrote in 
the sixth century, the archen (shoe) is said to be dirty in December ; and in 
another, that in May, the old man is merry without (archenad), or was 
shoeless. 

" Several kinds of foot-gear are named in writings from the sixth to the 
twelfth century, as the esgid, or light shoe, gwentas, a high shoe or half boot, or 
kitty boot, and the botas, or boot, and botasau cynnyglog, or plaited greaves. 
Caesar says the Britons of his time wore only a moustache, but in the tenth 
or twelfth century the beard was in high honour, and a wife's wishing disgrace 
on her husband's beard was one of the three causes for which he might strike 
her. In Caesar's time the Britons wore long hair, as Taliesin shows the men 
of North Wales did in the sixth century. In the twelfth century, we learn by 
Giraldus Cambrensis, the Welsh were cropped, though afterwards they left 
their hair to hang at full length. In the twelfth century the Welsh women, 
as Giraldus Cambrensis tells us, wore on their heads the comely head-gear, 
which has been well chosen by the fair daughters of some other lands, a 
square scarf, or veil, lien, the place of which has since been unworthily holden 
by the black round hat, the origin of which I know not. 

" In the time of Howel Dda, weaving was a trade, as it is enacted that, if a 
weaver woman should receive yarn, or balls, and they should be burnt, or 
otherwise consumed at her house, she should make them good. 

"By the laws of Moelmud (Molmutius), the three essentials of a genuine 
gentleman were a rug (brychan), a harp, and a cauldron ; the brychan, or rug, 
seems to have been to him what the opossum rug is to the Englishman in the 
bush of Australia. Among the poor, the brychan was spread on a straw-filled 
mattress. 

" As early as from the sixth to the tenth century, we find allusions to the 
richest of ornaments, such as golden spurs, enamelled armour, and girdles 
adorned with gold, or silver, or gems, the gold ring (modrwy), and thumb-ring 
(bodrwy), the arm-ring (breichrwy), the necklace (mwndlws), and the chain, 
and the golden torch, which was the badge of nobility. The Dorset County 
Museum contains some interesting specimens of ancient British ornaments, and 
it is markworthy how much like the ornaments of the ancient Britons are those 
of the Fellaheen, or peasants of Goomeh, in Egypt. The Fellaheen women 
are said to wear necklaces of glass beads and amulets ; and among some 
interesting contributions to the museum from the Rev. H. Moule is a necklace 
of glass beads, with amulets of Kimmeridge coal. The Fellaheen wear bracelets 
of a penannular shape, ' the flexibility of the metal sufficing to allow the ends 
to pass over the wrists and close ; ' and a similar pair of golden arm -rings 
(breichrwy), from the arms of some British lady who was buried in a barrow 
at Stafford, near Dorchester, has been placed in the museum by H. Williams, 
Esq. The Fellaheen wear a torch, or neck-circle, with the ends linked together 
by a hook, precisely like many that have been found in our barrows. Some 
of the Fellaheen bracelets represent strands of cord, entwined into various 
plaits and twists ; and the true British torch was of twisted wire, or strands, as 



REVIEWS. 373 

the word torch means the twist ; and it was, most likely, a continuance in gold, 
of an earlier badge of cord. 

" The great mark of nobility among the Britons and other Celtic tribes, 
was the torch, or golden collar. The torch was sometimes called the yorthorch, 
or high wreath ; the gordd-dorch, or neck wreath ; and the aurdorch, the golden 
wreath. Torchs were among the spoils taken to Rome with Caractacus, and 
a torch gleamed on the neck of Boadicea, and again on the nobles at the battle 
of Cattraeth, in the sixth century, where Aneurin, the noble bard, lost several 
golden torched sons. The gold torch of Fearaithach (of Ireland), A.D. 46, 
had wonderful properties. On the neck of a king sitting in judgment it shrunk, 
and compressed the neck in proportion to his wrong judgment. It would seem 
as if warriors at close quarters held one another by the torch, as there is an old 
Welsh saying, in the mouth of a man who may challenge another to a game 
or contest, 'mi dynav y dorch a thi ' (I'll pull the torch with you). Everybody 
knows the case of Titus Manlius, the Roman who slew the Gaulish leader, and 
took his torch, whence he was called Torquatus, or the torched. The arpi-Krov 
which, as Xenophon writes, was given by Cyrus to Syennesis, was clearly a 
torch, as is shown by its name. 

" Some of our school-books tell their readers that the Britons wore the skins 
of beasts, as if it were a token of great misery ; but a good skin, or fur coat, 
or robe, is no token of misery or want, either in a Russian winter palace, or in 
an English railway carriage, through a snowy day. We are not bound to 
believe that the Britons pushed their arms through the fore-leg holes of a calf- 
skin, and walked with the tail trailing behind them. It is true the ' Mabinogion ' 
speak of a herdsman with a skin coat (ruchen-o-grwyn), and the oldest 
writings speak of a fur or skin robe, ysgin, and in the Laws of Howel Dda, an 
ysgin of a freeholder is rated at 120 pennies, or about six cows, fifty or sixty 
pounds of our money. More than one kind of commodity, or their names, 
have come to us from the Celts, through the French, from whom we have 
taken them, as words of elegance, though we might have disdained them 
among the Britons, and Welsh peasantry. Thus a pelisse is the Celtic pelys, 
a skin or fur robe ; and we talk of a lady's trousseau, whereas, tries (trwsau), is 
an old British, and most likely Armonc, word for a garment or dress ; and 
cuirass is in British, curas. The Welsh flannel (gwlanen), or some such 
homespun cloth, white and unfulled, was early worn by the Cyinry, and in 
Howel's Laws a fringed mantle (rhuwch), was rated at sixty pence, or three 
cows. The Welsh have a tradition of a race of men who came to Britain before 
the Romans; and they call them the Longcoats hir eipeisiau." pp. 6-14. 

In a similar strain Mr. Barnes discusses and explains other usages 
of the ancient Britons. The length of this extract, however, will not 
allow us to make any more quotations ; let our readers buy the work 
and read it for themselves. We can assure them that they will not 
regret the purchase. We must, moreover, express a hope that Mr. 
Barnes' British studies will not end here, but that this little volume is 
but a prelude to a larger and more systematic work on kindred 
subjects. 



374 REVIEWS. 

A POEM OF ENGLISH SYMPATHY WITH WALES, written for the 
Great National Eisteddfod of 1858; and LLANGOLLEN, a Poem 
upon the same occasion. By ELFYNYDD. Birmingham : J. 
Allen and Sons. 1858. 

When our readers are made aware that these poetical effusions are 
by the author of " SNOWDON," the beautiful poem which appeared in 
our June Number, they will require no further information on our 
part. Mr. Kenward is a true poet, and we have no doubt but that, 
in time, his fame as such will stand high. Though an Englishman, 
he loves our nation dearly, and is a great admirer of our language, 
usages, and mountain sceneries, as will easily be seen from the poems 
before us. Portions of the first were recited at Llarigollen, amidst 
loud applause, and elicited for the author the special thanks of the 
meeting. The second poem was written subsequently, and is more 
particularly a description of the Gorsedd. We quote that portion of 
it which delineates the " gathering:" 

" They come from Mona's sunny isle which rocks eternal guard, 

Where lives the might of many a prince, the voice of many a bard ; 

They come from where the mountain-queen of Clwyd's broad domain 

Looks on grey tower, leafy dell, white cottage, golden grain ; 

From where Yr Eifl's crags enwrap, cold, desolate, and stern, 

The vale that nursed the fiery snakes for traitor Vortigern ; 

Where Nefyn saw the pageant pass of Edward's blood-stained sway 

How scorns and triumphs over it our peaceful one to-day 

From where the Lake of Beauty lies, and Aran's summits blend 

Their giant cones with Eve's gold shafts that in its breast descend ; 

Where yet round hoary Snowdon beats the quenchless heart of Wales 

And shall, till stedfast rock dissolves, till rushing river fails ! 

Where Vyrnwy sparkles mid the groves and meadows rich with kine, 

And spreading uplands white with sheep, and quiet homesteads shine ; 

Where Past and Present meet and mix in Cardiff's storied town ; 

Where fair Glyn Neath, from Brecon's ridge, her streams lead dancing down ; 

Where Towy glides through level meads and gardens of delight, 

And Merddin's spirit animates wood, waterfall, and height ; 

Where Usk and Wye confirm to Gwent the beauty of her name, 

And Learning holds her heritage, and Royalty his fame ; 

Where Merthyr's fires and circling smoke deform the air, yet give 

A recompence in art and wealth, and peace by which they live ; 

Where round Saint David's stormy head the deep-voiced breakers pour, 

And howl the sea-winds through the shrines where worship is no more ; 

They come from hall and cot remote from factory and farm, 

United by one common bond, led by one sacred charm ; 

And e'eu.from England's airless towns where commerce blocks the street, 

For Patriotism keeps their heart though Fortune guides their feet ; 

They come with hope and purpose high, and voices tuned to glee, 

To stand as stood their forefathers beside the holy Dee 

To rear in peace their Gorsedd-stone on basis firm and strong, 

And in their great Eisteddfod to honour Art and Song." pp. 21, 22. 



REVIEWS. 375 

Y BRYTHON; Cambro-Briton Magazine. Nos. I., II. Tremadog: 
R. J. Jones. 1858. 

In our last we had occasion to notice this periodical as a weekly 
paper; since then it has undergone a change, and has become a 
monthly magazine. We are particularly pleased with it under this 
new form, presenting, as it does, articles of a varied, instructive, and 
amusing character, such as are sure to make it popular. There is 
only one thing connected with it with which we are disposed to find 
fault its name. The Scots, or the Caledonians, would be quite as 
appropriate as Y Brython. Let it assume the significant and compre- 
hensive name Y Gwyddon or, as an easier violation of its original 
title, Prydain and unite itself to the CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE, as the 
organ of the Welsh portion of our readers. If it were to adopt this 
suggestion, we should recommend it, moreover, to alter the form of its 
folding, which at present is rather unwieldy. Subject to these qualifica- 
tions, we highly recommend it, as the best thing of the kind in the 
language. 



376 




Cambrian 



PATRONS. 

His Highness Prince Louis-LuciEN BONAPARTE 

The Right Hon. the Earl of ILCHESTER 

The Right Hon. the Earl of DUNRAVEN 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of ST. DAVID'S 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of ST. ASAPH 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of LLANDAFF 

The Right Hon. Lord TALBOT DE MALAHIDE 

The Right Hon. Lord LONDESBOROUQH 

The Comte TH. HERSART DE LA VILLEMARQUE 

COUNCIL. 

The Right Hon. Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P. 
Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, M.A., Holdenby, Northampton 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., Middle Hill, Broadway, Worcester 
Rev. John Williams ab Ithel, M.A., Rector of Llanymowddwy, 
Dinas Mowddwy, Merionethshire, Hon. Sec. and Editor. 

LONDON COMMITTEE. 

Rev. John Evans, Incumbent of the Welsh Church, Ely Place, Holborn 
Samuel Griffith, Esq., M.D., 8, Wellington Street, London Bridge 
William Jones, Esq. (Grvrgant), 20, King's Arms Yard, London 
Edward Joseph, Esq., M.D., 41, Manchester Street, Marylebone 
Osborn Morgan, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, 22, Old Square, Lincoln's 

Inn Fields 

Hugh Owen, Esq., Poor Law Board, Gwydir House 
John Evan Thomas, Esq., 7, Lower Belgrave Place 
Rev. Robert Jones, All Saints' Parsonage, Rotherhithe, Secretary 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY FOR SCOTLAND. 

W. F. Skene, Esq., 20, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

I. History. 

Rev. Jos. Hughes (Cam Inglt), Meltham Parsonage, Huddersfield 
Rev. T. James (Llallarvg), Netherthong, Huddersfield 
Thomas Jones, Esq., B.A., Chetham Library, Manchester 
T. O. Morgan, Esq., Aberystwyth 

Rev. D. James, M.A., Ph. D., F.S.A., Panteg, Monmouthshire 
Captain T. Love D. Jones Parry, F.S.A., Madryn Park, Pwllheli 
Thomas Stephens, Esq., Merthyr-Tydvil 



THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 377 

//. Geology, Botany, Zoology, tyc. 

Rev. F. O. Morris, Nunbtirnholme Rectory, Hayton, York 
Rev. A. Hume, LL.D., 9, Clarence Street, Everton, Liverpool 
William Llewellin, Esq., F.G.S., Glanwern, Pontypool 
Edward L. Richards, Esq., F.G.S., Pentreffynnon House, Holywell 
Thomas Williams, Esq., M.D. Lond. Univ., F.L.S., Physician to the 
Swansea Infirmary, Secretary 

III. Topography, Statistics, fyc. 

Griffith Griffith, Esq., Taltreuddyn, near Barmouth 

Rev. James Griffiths, Llangunnor, Caermarthen 

Rev. A. Hume, LL.D., 9, Clarence Street, Everton, Liverpool 

Waiter Lloyd, Esq., Caermarthen 

Edward L. Richards, Esq., F.G.S., Pentreffynnon House, Holywell 

W. F. Skene, Esq., 20, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh 

I V. Philology. 

Rev. Thomas Briscoe, B.D., Jesus College, Oxford 

Rev. J. Davies, M.A., Smallwood Parsonage, Lawton, Cheshire 

Rev. D. Silvan Evans, Llangian, Pwllheli, North Wales 

A. J. Johnes, Esq., Garthmyl, Shrewsbury 

V. Welsh Literature. 

Rev. Wm. Edmunds, Head Master of the Grammar School, Lampeter 

Mr. Robert John Prys, Llanrhyddlad, Anglesey 

Rev. Robert Williams, M.A., Llangadwaladr, Oswestry 

Rev. D. Silvan Evans, Llangian, Pwllheli, Secretary 

VI. Music 
Lady Hall, of Llanover 
Miss Waddington, of Llanover 
Miss Jane Williams, of Neuadd Felen, Talgarth 

LOCAL SECRETARIES. 

Anglesey, Mr. Robert John Prys, Llanrhyddlad 
Brecknockshire, J. Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 
Caernarvonshire, Rev. R. Parry ( Gwalchmai}, Glan y Don, Conway 

Rev. D. Silvan Evans, Llangian, Pwllheli 
Cardiganshire, Rev. William Edmunds, Lampeter 
Caermarthenshire, Rev. W. Davies, Ph. D., Presbyterian College, 
Caermarthen 

Mr. W. Spurrell, Bookseller, Caermarthen 

Mr. B. Morgan, Chemist, Llandeilo 
Denbighshire, Mr. William Davis, Jesus Chapel, Ruthin 

Mr. John Williams, Publisher, Denbigh 

Mr. Thomas Gee, Publisher, Denbigh 
Flintshire, A. J. Brereton, Esq., Mold 
Glamorganshire, T. Williams, Esq., M.D., Swansea 
Merionethshire, John Pugh, Esq., Penhelig, Aberdovey 

G. Griffith, Esq., Taltreuddyn, Barmouth 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. I. 3 C 



378 THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 



DONORS. 

The Right Hon. Earl Cawdor, 10 

Charles S. Greaves, Esq., 11, Blandford Square, London, 2 2s. 

LIST OF GOVERNORS. 

His Highness Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte 

*The Right Hon Earl of Ilchester, 31, Old Burlington Street, London 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, Adare, Limerick 

*Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's, Abergwili Palace 

*Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, St. Asaph 

Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Llandaff, Cardiff 

The Right Hon. Viscount Fielding, Downing, Holywell 

The Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide, Malahide Castle, Dublin 

The Right Hon. Lord Londesborough, 8, Carlton House Terrace, 

London 

Count Villemarque, 17, Rue des Beaux Arts, Paris 
The Right Hon. Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P., Llanover 
Lady Hall (Qwenynen Grvenf), Llanover 

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., Middle Hill, Broadway, Worcester 
*Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.R.S., Norton Hall, Daventry 

F. R. West, Esq., M.P., Ruthin Castle, Ruthin 
Rev. T. Briscoe, B.D., Jesus College, Oxford 
Very Rev. C. B. Clough, Dean of St. Asaph, Mold 

Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, M.A., Holdenby, Northampton 

Rev. Dr. James, F.S.A., Panteg, Monmouthshire 

Rev. T. James, Netherthong, Huddersfield 

John Johnes, Esq., Dolau Cothi, Llandeilo, Caermarthenshire 

T. Jones, Esq., B.A., Chetham Library, Manchester 

J. Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

James Kenward, Esq. (Elfynydd), Smethwick, Birmingham 

Mr. R. Mason, Tenby 

Rev. F. O. Morris, Nunburnholme Rectory, Hayton, York 

G. Ormerod, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., D.C.L., Sedbury Park, Chepstow 
*Rev. John Lewis Petit, M.A., F.S.A., 9, New Square, Lincoln's Inn 
E. L. Richards, Esq., F.G.S., Pentreffynnon House, Holywell 
Thomas Stephens, Esq., Merthyr-Tydvil 

Alfred Tennyson, Esq., Poet Laureate, Farringford, Isle of Wight 
Rev. Charles Williams, B.D., Holyhead 

Rev. John Williams, M.A., Editor of the Cambrian Journal, Llan- 
ymowddwy, near Dinas Mowddwy, Merionethshire. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Akerman, J. Y., Esq., Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, 

Somerset House, London. 

Davies, Rev. John, Smallwood Parsonage, Lawton, Cheshire 
Evans, Rev. D. Silvan, Llangian, Pwllheli 

Those marked thus [*] are Life Governors. 



THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 379 

Graves, Rev. James, Secretary to the Kilkenny and South-East of 

Ireland Archaeological Association, Kilkenny 
Jones, Charles W., Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Athenaeum, Bury 

St. Edmund's 

Jones, Rev. Robert, B.A., All Saints' Parsonage, Rotherhithe 
Newdegate, Rev. Alfred, Honorary Secretary to the Buckingham- 
shire Archaeological Society, Aylesbury 
Nicholson, Rev. H. D., Honorary Secretary to the St. Alban's 

Archaeological Society, Rectory, St. Alban's 
O'Daly, John, Esq., Treasurer to the Ossianic Society, 9, Anglesey 

Street, Dublin 

Parry, Rev. R. (Grvalchmai), Glan y Don, Con way, Caernarvonshire 
Symons, Samuel, Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Suffolk Institute 

of Archaeology, Bury St. Edmund's 

Watkins, Major F. D., 3, Conduit Street, Westbourne Terrace, London 
Webb, George Bish, Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Surrey 

Archasological Association, 6, Southampton Street, Covent 

Garden, London 
Wright, Thomas, Esq., 14, Sydney Street, Brompton, London 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Anwyl, Robert, Esq., Llugwy, Pennal, Machynlleth 

Arnott, Mr. William, Cwm Rhondda 

Brereton, A. J., Esq. (Andreas o Fori), Mold 

Bynner, Mr. David (Dewi Cadfan), National School, Cann Office, 

Montgomeryshire 

Clack, Mr. James, Pont-y-Cyssyllte, Llangollen 
Crease, Henry P. Pellew, Esq., Autron House, Helston, Cornwall 
Davies, Rev. David, Llanwnog, Caersws, Shrewsbury 
Davies, Evan, Esq., (Myfyr Morganwg), Archdruid of the Isle of 

Britain, Pont y Pridd, Glamorganshire 
Davies, Miss, Brynhyfryd, Towyn 

Davies, Rev. W., Ph. D., Tutor, Presbyterian College, Caermarthen 
Davies, Nathaniel, Esq., Solicitor, Llandeilo 
Davies, Mr. William (Gmilym Teilo), Llandeilo 
Davis, Owen, (Eos Llechid), Llanllechid, Bangor 
Davis, William, Esq., Jesus Chapel, Ruthin 
Dickonson, Miss, Caermarthen 

Edwards, David, Esq., Gilfach-glyd, Llanwynno, Glamorganshire 
Edwards, William, Esq., Pont-y-Cyssyllte, Ruabon 
Edwards, Mr. William, Pont-y-Cyssyllte, Llangollen 
Edmunds, Rev. W., Head Master of the Grammar School, Lampeter 
Evans, Evan, Esq. (leuan up leuan), Ty Mawr, Towyn 
Evans, John 8. H., Esq., 11, Montague Street, Liverpool 
Evans, Rev. John, Ely Place, Holborn, London 
Evans, John Edward, Esq., 134, New Bond Street, London 
Ffoulkes, Rev. H. P., Llandysil Rectory, Shrewsbury 
Foulkes, John, Esq., Aberdovey, Montgomeryshire 



380 THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 

Francis, John, Esq., C.E., Town Hall, Manchester 

Gardnor, Richard, Esq., Caermarthen 

Gee, Mr. Thomas, Publisher, Denbigh 

Green, Rev. A. J. M., Tenby 

Green, Francis, Esq., St. Mary Street, Caermarthen 

Griffith, Griffith, Esq., Taltreuddyn, near Barmouth, Merionethshire 

Griffith, Rev. James, Llangunnor, Caermarthenshire 

Griffith, Samuel, Esq,, M.D., 11, St. Thomas Street, Southwark 

Griffith, George Sandham, Esq., M.A., Clare College, Cambridge 

Gwynne, Daniel, Esq., Tredegar Iron-Works, Tredegar 

Hibbert, Walker, Esq., Neath 

Hinde, John Hodgson, Esq., Acton House, Felton, Northumberland 

Howell, David, Esq., Solicitor, Machynlleth 

Howell, Rev. John, Meltham, Huddersfield 

Hughes, W. E., Esq. (Corvlyd), Llanrwst 

Hughes, Rev. John, Llanengan, Pwllheli 

Hughes and Butler, Messrs., 15, St. Martin's-le-Grand, London 

Hughes, Rev. Joseph, Meltham Parsonage, Huddersfield 

Jackson, Miss, Newmarket, Rhyl 

James, Elias, Esq., Cwm Celyn Iron-Works, Blaina 

James, Rev. David, M.A., F.S.A., Panteg, Monmouthshire 

James, Mr. John Lloyd, Presbyterian College, Caermarthen 

Johnes, A. J., Esq., Garthmyl, Shrewsbury 

Jones, Joseph, Esq., Bard Street, Mold 

Jones, Rev. John, B.A., Hermon, Llandeilo 

Jones, Rev. J. LI., Penclawdd, Swansea 

Jones, J., Esq., Solicitor, Dolgelly 

Jones, J., Esq., Dinorben Fawr, St. Asaph 

Jones, Rev. L., M.A., Almondbury, Yorkshire 

Jones, Rev. Owen, 13, Berwick Street, Manchester 

Jones, William, Esq., 22, Upper Duke Street, Liverpool 

Jones, Mr. David, Bookseller, Aberdovey 

Jones, Rev. J. E., Bridgend, Glamorganshire 

Jones, Mr. R. I., Publisher, Tremadoc 

Jones, W., Esq. (Gwrgant), 20, King's Arms Yard, London 

Jones, Mr. William, Clerk to the Board of Guardians, Llanfyllin, 

Oswestry 

Jones, Mr. W. O. (Glasynys), Llanfachraith, Dolgelley 
Jones, Mr. David, Clerk, Coed Talon, Mold 
Jones, Rev. Michael, Bagillt 

Jones, Rev. John, Vicarage, Llanfihangel, Geneu'r Glyn 
Jones, Mr. William W., Draper, Towyn 
Jones, Thomas, Esq., Provincial Bank of Ireland, Ballyshannon, 

Ireland 

Jones, William, Esq., Llwyngroes, Lampeter 
Jones, Aneurin, Esq., Gellygrosse, Blackwood, Newbridge 
Lewis, John Keswick, Esq., Surgeon, Wrexham 
Llewellin, William, Esq., F.G.S.^ Glanwern, Pontypool 



THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 381 

Lloyd, John, Esq., Maentwrog, Tan y Bwlch, Merionethshire 

Lloyd, T. Lewis, Esq., Nantgwyllt, Rhayader, Radnorshire 

Lloyd, Walter, Esq., Caermarthen 

Lloyd, Rev. J. Vaughan, M.A., Hope, Mold 

Lloyd, Rev. T. R. (E*tyn), Cefn y Bedd, Wrexham 

Llwyd, Miss Angharad, Ty'n y Rhyl, Rhyl 

Lynes, Mrs., Ruabon 

Marshall, Lady, Ruabon, Denbighshire 

Morgan, Rev. Hugh, Rhyl 

Morgan, Osborn, Esq., Barrister-at-law, 22, Old Square, Lincoln's 

Inn Fields, London 
Morgan, T. O., Esq., Aberystwyth 
Morgan, Mr. B., Chemist, Llandeilo 
Morgan, Rev. B., Aberdovey, Machynlleth 

Morgan, William, Esq., Connaught Terrace, Hyde Park, London 
Morris, Joseph, Esq., St John's Hill, Shrewsbury 
Morris, Lewis, Esq., Caermarthen 

Mounsey, Captain W. H., 2, Cavendish Terrace, Stanwix, Carlisle 
Murdoch, William, Esq., M.D., 321, Rotherhithe, London 
Nash, D. W., Esq., 1, Royal Well Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Noel, Rev. D., Gellygare Rectory, Blackwood, Newport, Monmouth 
Owen, Hugh, Esq., Poor Law Board, Gwydir House, London 
Owen, William, Esq., Tan y Gyrt, Nantglyn, Denbigh 
Owen, Ellis, Esq., Cefn y Meusydd, Tremadoc 
Owens, Edward, Esq., Halkin Terrace, Belgrave Square, London 
Parry, Captain T. Love D. Jones, F.S. A., &c., Madyrn Park, Pwllheli 
Parry, Mr. Thomas, Llanerchymedd, Anglesey 
Philipps, F. L. Lloyd, Esq., Hafodneddyn, Caermarthen 
Philips, J. B. Lloyd, Esq., Pentyparch, Haverfordwest 
Phillips, Rev. George, Penmorva, Tremadoc, Caernarvon 
Phillips, Rev. Thomas, Secretary to the Hereford Bible Society, 

Hereford 

Poste, Rev. Beale, Bydews Place, Maidstone 
Price, Thomas Gwalter, Esq. (Cuhelyn), Beaufort, Breconshire 
Price, W., Esq., Llanfoist, Abergavenny 
Price, William, Esq., Glantwrch, Swansea 
Price, Rev. H. T., 1, Bath Villas, Cheltenham 
Prichard, Robert, Esq., Neuny Street, Holyhead 
Prytherch, John, Esq., Bank, Llandeilo 
Pugh, John, Esq., Penhelig, Aberdovey 

Pughe, D. W., Esq., Brondirion Villa, Clynog Vawr, Caernarvon 
Purnell, Thomas, Esq., Tenby, Pembrokeshire 
Rees, Rev. John, Bangor, Aberystwyth 
Rees, W., Esq., Tonn, Llandovery 
Rees, James, Esq., Herald Office, Caernarvon 
Rees, Mr. Thomas, Aberdovey 
Richards, John, Esq., Bron Menai, Caernarvon 
Richards, Rev. Thomas Hardy, Chwaen Wen, Bodedeyrn, Anglesey 



382 THE CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE. 

Richards, Edward, Esq., Ynys Llanerchymedd, Anglesey 

Richson, Rev. Charles, M.A., Manchester 

Roberts, Mr. Peter, 8, Duke Street, Liverpool 

Roberts, Thomas A., Esq., 4, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, London 

Robinson, Mr. Thomas, 51, High Street, Merthyr-Tydfil 

Robson, Miss, Penally, Tenby 

Rogers, J. E., Esq., Abermeurig, Lampeter, Cardigan 

Rowland, Rev. Thomas, Pennant Melangell, Oswestry 

Ruck, Lawrence, Esq., Pant y Lludwr, Machynlleth 

Salisbury, J. G. E., Esq., Glan Aber, Chester. 

Salisbury, Dr., Conway, Caernarvonshire 

Shaw, Charles H., Esq., Secretary to the Welsh School, Gray's Inn 

Lane, London 

Skene, W. F., Esq., 20, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh 
Spurrell, Mr. William, Caermarthen 
Thomas, Iltyd, Esq., Hill House, Swansea 
Thomas, John Evan, Esq., 7, Lower Belgrave Place, London 
Thomas, Rowland, Esq., Neath 
Thomas, Rev. W., Bwlch Newydd, Caermarthen 
Thomas, Mr. W. (Gnilym Maries), Presbyterian Coll., Caermarthen 
Thomas, George, Esq., Clement's Court, Wood Street, London 
Thomas, William, Esq., Inland Revenue Office, London 
Thruston, C. F., Esq., Talgarth, Machynlleth, Montgomery 
Trower, Miss G., Woodlands, Redhill, Reigate 
Valentine, Mr. John, Rhosllanerch-y-Grugog, Ruabon 
Vaughan, John, Esq., Penmaen Dovey, Machynlleth 
Vaughan, R. Chambre, Esq., B.A., Burlton Hall, Shrewsbury 
Vizard, John, Esq., Dursley, Gloucestershire 
Watts, Thomas, Esq., British Museum, London 
Whalley, G. Hammond, Esq., Plas Madoc, Ruabon, Denbighshire 
Whittaker, W. W., Esq., 32, St. Ann's Street, Manchester 
Whittington, Rev. Mr., Towyn 

Williams, Miss Jane, 9, Hans Place, Sloane Street, London 
Williams, M. D., Esq., Cwmcynfelyn, Aberystwyth 
Williams, Rev. Robert, M.A., Llangadwaladr, Oswestry. 
Williams, Rev. Rowland, B.D., Vice-Principal of St. David's College, 

Lampeter 

Williams, T., Esq., M.D., F.L.S., Physician to the Swansea Infirmary 
Williams, Rev. John Morgan, Llannor, Pwllheli 
Williams, Mr. John, Publisher, Denbigh 
Williams, W. P., Esq., Telegraph Office, Haverfordwest. 
Williams, Rev. D., Holmfrith, Huddersfield 
Williams, D., Esq., Bron Eryri, Tre Madoc, Caernarvonshire 
Williams, Rev. E. Osborne, Llanfachraith, Dolgelley 
Williams, Mr. Edward, Cefn-y-Bedd, Wrexham 
Williams, Ignatius, Esq., The Grove, Bodfari, Denbigh 
Wynne, Mrs. Ann, Garthrneilo 
Wynne, Mr. Edward, Grocer, Flint 



383 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



Advantages to Englishmen from a 

Knowledge of Welsh, 212, 241, 288. 
Agriculture, 16. 
Ancient Welsh Books, 367. 
Antiquities of Stone, &c., by Wilde, 

Review of, 78. 

Apples, Welsh Names of, 145. 
Arthur, Genealogy of King, 136. 
Arthur's Arms, 211. 
Arthur's Knights, 207. 
Arthur's Ships, 211. 
Astronomy, Early Knowledge of, 98. 
Bardic Chain, 198. 
Bardic Secret, 206. 
Bardic Tutors, 368. 

Bards, 95, 103, 155, 161, 267, 292, 353. 
Barnes' Ancient Britons, Review of, 370. 
Bewper, Anecdotes of, 138. 
Biographical Notices, 25. 
Bleddyn the Bard, 39. 
Bosworth Field, 369. 
Brandon Hill, near Bristol, 141. 
Bretagne, an Eisteddfod in, 77. 
Britain, 156. 
Brithcamb, 85. 
British Arts, 368. 

British Bards, History of, 161, 353. 
Brude, 68, 81. 
Brython, 66, 68. 
Bygant, 16. 

Caledonians, 67, 82, 246. 
Cambrian Institute, 376. 
Cambrian Journal, 1. 
Cantre 'r Gwaelod, Submerged by an 

Earthquake, 143. 
Caradoc ap Bran, 68. 
Caradoc of Lancarvan, 69. 
Caravan Triads, 12. 
Cattraeth, Battle of, 33. 
Cattwg and Taliesin, 151. 
Celtae, 81,87, 101. 
Celtic History, 4, 57, 81. 
Celtic Language, 91. 
Celtic Language Compared with the 

Hebrew, 91. 
Celtic Morality, 93. 
Ceraint Vardd Glas, 192. 
Charter of Llandaff, 4, 76. 
Christian Worship, Primitive Places of, 

204. 
Clas Merddin, 99. 



Coritani, 13. 

Correspondence, 69, 153, 234, 364. 

Craig y Ddinas, 201. 

Cruithne, 81. 

Cymry, 16, 88, 162. 

Cynddelw, 29. 

Cyvylchi, Fortress of, 32. 

Davydd ab Gwilym, 106, 235. 

Davydd Benvras, 36. 

Deaf and Dumb Man's Curse, 79. 

De Montfort, 45, 53. 

Dictionary Appendix, 55, 136. 

Dictionary, English and Welsh, 160, 
368. 

Dramatic Works, 367. 

Druidism, 90, 94, 269. 

Druids, 93, 100, 161, 219, 243. 

Dyvnwal Moelmud, 5, 66. 

Edgar's Stratagem, 157. 

Einion ap Gwalchmai, 37. 

Einion ab Gwgawn, 32. 

Einion Wan, 38. 

Eistedfodd, 155, 262. 

Elidyr Sais, 33. 

Fairies, 233. 

Gael, 65. 

Glamorgan, 314. 

Glamorgan Bards, 155. 

General Queries, 364. 

Gladys of Harlech, Review of, 158. 

Gorsedd of Bards, 262. 

Gorsedd Prayer, 270. 

Grufudd ab Meredydd, 106. 

Gruffydd ab Llywelyn, 54. 

Gruffydd ab Yr Ynad Goch, 54. 

Gwilym ab leuan H6n, 109. 

Gwlad y Pwyl, 236. 

Gwyddelians, 67. 

Gwvddon Ganhebon, 98. 

Harp, 235, 296. 

Hebrew Compared with the Celtic Lan- 
guage, 92, 223, 253. 

Hen Cyrus o lal, 369. 

Historical Fragments, 361. 

Howel ab Owen, 31. 

Howel of Llandingad, 104. 

Howel's Laws, 4, 112, 242. 

Huan, 154. 

Hu Gadarn, 66, 96, 166, 305. 

Hyperboreans, 98. 

lestyn ab Gwrgant, 70. 



384 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



leuan Gethin, 109. 

India, Intercourse with Britain, 88. 

Introduction, 1. 

Iron Making in Glamorganshire, 110. 

Iron Mines, 17, 110. 

Iron Rings nsed as Coins, 16. 

lolo Morganwg's Tomb, 153. 

Japetidse, 58, 61. 

Kych Inri, 239. 

Laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud, 5, 8, 24, 68. 

Laws of Howel Dda, 4, 112, 242. 

Letters, Early Use of, 15. 

Literary Persecution, 76. 

Llandaff Eisteddvod, 155. 

Llannollen Eisteddfodd, 76, 77, 233, 

262, 368. 
Lleyn, W., 110. 
Lloegrwys, 66. 
Llwyd, Sir Gruffudd, 104. 
Llyfr Twrog, 36.V1 
Llygad Gwr of Edeyruion, 39. 
Llywarch the Rapid Poet, 34. 
Llywelyn ab lorwerth, 32, 39. 
Llywelyn Brenn, 71. 
Llywelyn the Last, 39,40, 41, 128, 170, 

288, 324. 

Madog ab Grufudd Maelor, 38. 
Madoc, Discoverer of America, 239. 
Marriages, 20. 
Matthews, Sir Toby, 112. 
Mauritius Morgaiiensis, 155. 
Medieval Poems of Wales, 29, 102. 
Menw ab y Teirgwaedd, 88. 
Moelmutian Triads, 4. 
Music of Wales, 234. 
Names of Britain, 66. 
National Building for Wales, 297. 
Nest, Daughter of Howel, 37. 
Owain ab Cadwgan, 71. 
Owain ap Morgan the Aged, 320. 
Owen Cyveiliog, 29. 
Owen Glyndwrdwy, 108, 32-2. 
Pennillion Singing, 276, 287. 
Perambulations, No. I., 74. 
Philology, 55, 136, 212. 
Phoenician Trade with Britain, 216. 
Picts, 82. 
Poem by Lady Marshall, 41, 128, 170, 

324. 

Price, Miss Elizabeth, 26. 
Prydain ab Aedd, 66, 81, 86. 
Prydydd Bychan, 38. 
Reviews, 78, 168, 240, 370. 
Rhitta Gawr, 68. 



Rhodri ab Owen, 33. 

Rhodri Molwynawc, 72. 

Rhys leuanc, 38. 

Robert, Prince of Glamorgan, Ransom 

of, 156. 
Roman Road from Tommen y Mur to 

Meifod, 74. 
Rome, Fall of, 199. 
St. Teilo, a Poem by, 27. 
Shields, Corporal, 303. 
Siluria, Ancient, 195. 
Singing to the Harp, 155, 235. 
Sion Mowddwy, 77. 
Sling Stones, 78. 
Snowdon, a Poem on, 113. 
Stephens versus Stephens, 364. 
Surnames of Welsh Origin, 253. 
Tales and Traditions of Tenby, Review 

of, 79. 

Taliesin and Cattwg, 151. 
Territorial Divisions, 369. 
Thomas ap Evan ap Rhys, 25. 
Thousand Marks, The, 156. 
Trahaiarn, 104. 
Triads, 4, 10. 

Trojans Land in Britain, 88. 
Tudyr Aled's Poems, 237. 
Twrch, Family of, 138. 
Tudyr, Gronwy ab, 106. 
Tydain Tad Awen, 98. 
Vale of Llangollen, 263. 
Ur, 84. 

Urquhart, Family of, 83. 
Wales, English Sympathy with, 374. 
Welsh Chronology, 261. 
Welsh Dictionary, 160. 
Welsh Fusiliers, 155, 304. 
Welsh Language, 4, 62, 91, 212, 242. 
Welsh Language Compared with the 

Hebrew, 91, 223, 253. 
Welsh Linsey, 76. 
Welsh Literature, 347. 
Welsh MSS., 76, 122, 237. 
Welsh Music, 234, 369. 
Welsh Names of Apples, 145. 
Welsh Poetry in MS., 237. 
Welsh Tale, 201. 
Welsh Versification, 141. 
Wilde's Catalogue of Antiquities, Review 

of, 78. 

Wonders of Britain, 156. 
Wyunstay MSS., 76, 122, 280. 
Y Brython, 375. 
Ystrad Ywaiu, 368. 



R. MASON, PKINTEH, HIGH STREET, TENBY. 



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