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NEATH Abbey. ,w/«?rsfc, , ..;■. 



(Succeuon In Mr. Bt-AUlfti) 

II, Stsahsj and at their Warehoufe, 159, LbadsmballStrsbt. 


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I AS'.>R, L^r.OX AND 
' Tl 0£.N f-OUNDATlO.<«. 



• • • • 

• •• 

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• •. 

• • ••• • • 

• « • • •-•• J^ • 

1 J. J a I ^ ' J f. / • .- a / ^ 1 

\ !t : 

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,<Or"- ,• 


■ i J 


jt Siiich §/ the iiisTOKY tftie BRitONSi €Win»M. 

£?ochL Ckap.VIL 


vy F the ancient divifioAi of Britftitii anA |he naines of the 
various tribes, by whom it was inhabited 1 

Geoficy of Monmmth^s biftory in Wf Ub» wHb ^^ t|at«B«ti9Bb 
continued , , ,.,„...«—«• S3 

A hiftory of Pembrokefliire, by George Owen, £{q. of 
Henllys, Lord of Kernes } widi additions and obfervattonSt 
by John Lewis^ ISS^ of Manaroawao, in XXVIII Chap- 
ten .......i. » * ffS 


Some account of Mn Lewis Morris ^ 44.... 231 

A Iketch of the life of William Jones, of Langadvan 237 

The life of Francis Manfel, D. D. Principal of Jefus Col- 
lege, in Oxford 259 

Mecpoirsofthelife of Henry Maurice, D. Pi.., «• 263 


Objedions againft Rice Griffith, in his indi^ment, with 

the anfwers thereunto 270 

a Religious 





Religious Houses.— A lift of thofe in Wales ^ 278 

Some account of Neath Abbey 281 

Mft Caley*s account of KytmRcr Abbey: /.... 483 

Monafteries, Abbeys, and Chapels, demolifhed in Anglefey.... 286 

A lift of Cromlechsniy ordniidk:al akars, in Angtefey ..- 288 

The names of the lligh Sheriffs of Caemarvonflure, from 

their firft appointment 289 

An old Oxford anecdote, with an Englifh ode upon the occa- 

fion, written in the Welfh orthography. 299 

£xtra<% from Meddygon Myddtai, or the book of the 

Myddvia Doaors, Wclfli and Englifli 304 

The privileges of the men of Arvon, WeUh and Englifti 308 

A chronological table, from the red book of Herg^« Wel(h 

andkrtglifli.... ; 312 

The romantic tales of the Mabinogiotif Welfti and £ngli(h, 

continued %«...;..« .-. 322 



The laws of Hywel the Good, Welfli and Englifli, con- 
finned , 328 


Statiftical account of the pariflies of Llanervul, Llangadvan, 

and Garth-Beibio, in Montgomery(hire 366 

Some account of the parifti of Caron, in Cardiganftiire 386 


Of Anglefey, with a fpeclmen of tlic Extent^ taken in the 

* time of Edward III 390 

A catalogue of the natural and faditious produflions of An- 
glefey 416 






Ofrhc (hipping of Wales ^ - 418 


Curfory remarks on Wel(h. totrn 421 

Remarks on (he biftoxy of Monmouthfhire, by David Wil- 
liams 455 


Dr. Davies to Sir John Wynn, of Gwydir 470 

The fame to the fame 471 

The fame to the fame 471 

The fame to Mr. Owen Wynn, of Gwydir 472 

Mr. Robert Vaoghan to Archbifliop Ufher 473 

The fame to the fame 475 

Mr. E, Brownker to the fame 478 

Mr. Lewis Morns to Mr. Carte 47^ 

The fame to the feme ; 485 

The feme to Mr. Ambrofe Phillips « 487 

The fame to Mr. David Lewis 488 

The fame to his brother William Morris •, 490 

The fame to Mr. Vayghan, of Nannau 496 

The fame to the fame 500 

The Rev. George Owen to Mr. Lewis Morris 502 

The fame to Mr. Richard Morris 507 

The Rev. W. Wynn, on Britiih etymology, and annals 511 

The fame to Mr Lewis Morris 533 

Mr. John Morgan to the Rev. Mofes Williams..... 536 

Mr. Lewis Morris to Mr. Edward Richards ^ 541 

Mr. Edward Richards's reply 543 

Mr. Lewis Morris to Mr. Edward Richards 546 

Mr. Edvirard Richards's reply , 548 

Mr. Lewis Morris to Mr. Edward Richards 550 






Annes Prydain, WeMh and Engliih „ «„... 552 

Fanny Blooming Fair, a tranfladon of a celebrated Welih 
Song. „... 564 


INDEX. 673 




1 1 » 






(Continued from Vol. I: /. 25.^ 



THE thiiee grand diviilons of 
Loegyr^ CymrujVLtAAlban^ 
or England, Wales, and Scot- 
land, properly fo called, did not 
exifi before the Roman conqueft, 
for to that event the caufe of 
their origin muft be attiibuted, 
but which was not fully developed 
before the Saxon period. Ori- 
jginally the different people were 
cpntent to have the i^atural bar- 
riers of the country, the courfes 
i)f rivpTSy mountains, and fo- 


Tt{{s for the limits of thel;- re- 
fpedljve territories ; and perhaps 
in no inftance did feveral of the 
Britifh tribes unite upder pne 
government for any confiderable 
length of lime, or were com- 
prehended under a common 
name. T^o each diftrifl its in- 
habitants g&ve fome appellation 
that was chara£teriftic of its 
appearance j however, influ- 
enced by the prevailing partiality 
for a native fpot, it generally 



conveyed an idea of what was 
fair, pleafant,' or beautiful. 

The whole number of tribes, 
or mdependent dates was about 
forty-five, at the coming of the 
Romans into the ifland, whofe 
names, a little difguifed by a 
foreign orthography, were the 


. Ottadini 


































The fituation of the different 
tribes^, and the meaning of 
their names. 

I. The Cantii inhabited 
die prefent county of Kent, 
being bounded by the Thames 
op the north and the Lemanus 
or Rother on the weft, and their 
capital town was Durovemum^ 
Cantiopolis or Canterbury. 

They callsd their country 
Cainty an aggregate noun from 
Gzm, fair, opeii, or being de- 
fcriptive of its general appear- 
ance, confifting of fair or open 
vallies and flopes, and the ap- 
pellation is common in Wales 
for regions that are like it ; and 
this derivation is corroborated by 
the Welfli calling Canterbury 
<he city of Caint. They might 
have called themfelves Ceinti, 
Ceinfiaid, Ceintioitf Ceintwyr^ 
Ciintwys, CeintwyfaUy and Gwyr 
Caini; or they could change 
Caint into Ceintwgf and Ceintog^ 
and named themfelves Ceintygi^ 
Ceintygiaidy Ceintygiony Ceintyg'^ 
wyr^ Ceintygwys, Gwyr Ceini" 
wgy or Ceiniagif Ceintogiaidp 
Ceintogion^ and Ceintogwys ; fo 
flexible is the Britifli language^ 
and at the fame time fo regular { 

* This fcfls moftly upon Ihie accuracy of Mr. Whilakcr/ 

11. The 




II. The Regni refided in 
£urry and Suilex ; and RegnufAy 
Rigeniium^ or Chichefter ap- 
pears, from its name, to have 
been ^ their metropolis* This 
peojde inhabited a. region very 
fimilar id appearance to Kent, 
and the name was the fame with 
the difcriminating prefix Rhy^ 
implying the foremoft, or farther 
Cantii ; for tlius would the name 
be formed, Rhygeinni, Rhy- 
geinniaid^ Rhygeinnim^ Rhy^ 
geinnwySf and Gwyr Rhygaint; 
or without the mutation of the 
laft letter, — Rhygainti, Rhy- 
geintiaidy Rhygeiniion^ Rhy^ 
geintwySf and Gwyr Rhygaint \ 
alfo thus, from Rhygainnwg, 
Rhygeinnog, Rhygeintwgf and 
Rhyg£int9gy Rhygeinnygi, Rhy^ 
geinnygiaidy Rhygeinnygiotiy Rhyr- 
gelnnygwysy Gwyr Rhygeinnwgy 
Rhygeintygif Rhygeintygiaid, 
Rbygeintygion, Rhygeinfygwys, 
Gwyr Rhygiiniwgj or Rhy^ 
geintogiy Rhygeintogiaid, Rhy^ 
geinfogian, Rhygeintogwysj and 
Gwyr Rhygeini9g. 

Ill .TheBiBRocES or Rhemiy 
.occupied the fouth-eaftem parts 
of Berkfiiire, from the Lodden 
on the weft to the Thames on 
the eaft, and had, Biiroicuni, 
JBibraSff, or Pray for tlieii* ca- 

This people inhabited a dif- 
trift covered with tufts of wood. 

brakes or thickets, as tlie name 
would imply, if derived from 
Paa a region, or country, and 
BrSg^ a brake or thicket, that' 
ts Pau Brig9 thicket country ; 
or compounded, — Peuvrog^ 
braky region ; T Beuvrog^ the 
braky region; thence the in- 
habitants would be deno- 
minated Y Beuvrogwys, 
Peuvrogif Peuvrogiaid, Pea-- 
vrogwyry and Gwyr Pau BrSg* 
I am the more inclined to fup- 
pofe diat the above derivation is 
right, as the other name of 
Rhemiy implies nearly the fame 

IV. The Attrebates oc- 
cupied nearly all the weftern 
parts of Berkfiiire, were boun- 
ded by the Lodden on the fouth- 
eaft, the curving bank of the 
Thames on the north-weft and 
weft, and the hills of Eaft-Ufley, 
Lamboume, and Afhbury, on 
the fouth; and had Calkva or 
Wallingford for their chief city* 

Their name is thus to be ac- 
counted for : AitreVy and Attrev^ 
ady defcribe a habitation bor- 
dering upon any range of hills, 
woods, or a river, which was 
the cafe with fefped to this peo- 
ple. Their country being fo de- 
nominated^ they would call them- 
felvcs, krrtK'Ef jLiiyAtireviatdf 
Aftrevigion, AUrekrwySy At^ 
B 2 irevatiaidf 


trevatiaid^* Aitrtvatwys^ Attrev^ 
iaJon, and Gtvyr Attrev. 

V. The S£GONTiAciy in- 
habited a little of the fouth of 
Berkfliire, weft of the Lodden, 
about tlie banks of the Kennet, 
and the adjoining north of Hamp- 
ihire; and their principal town 
was Findomis^ Findonuniy or 
Silchefter. It feems that their 
country was called IJgwent^ If- 
gwentwgi or Ifgwentog^ that is the 
lower FenUf the G being not 
mtitablein this form of conftruc- 
tion, therefore the Romans pre- 
ferved it in this name ; for had 
the /r, lower, been not prefixed, 
but had been pronounced fepa- 
rately-p-/* wentogt\ then we 
ihould hare had the name writ- 
ten Seventiaci, The people cal- 
led themfelves Ifgrventi^ Ifgwent' 
iaidf I/gWittiiotif Ifgwentwyr^ 
IfgwentwySf Gwyr IJgwent^ 
Gwyr Gwint if ceo y or Gwyr y 
went ifqvy and Ifgwentygi^ If- 
gwenfygiaidy Ifgwentygion^ If- 
gwentygwySy Ifgwentwyfon^ If- 
gwennwyfonj Gwyr Ifgwentwg^ 
and alfo Ifgwentogij Ifgwent^ 
ogiaidy Ifgwentogionj Ifgwent- 
ogwys, Ifgwennwys, Ifgwennwyf- 
CHf Ifgwennwyfiady and Is- 
GWENTiooi, all implying the 
Lower GwentiOfiSy diftinguiflied 
from the proper country of 
Gwenty which was occupied by 
the B^lgas. 

VI. The Belca had all 
Hampdiire, except the nordiem 
part, occupied by the Segontiaciy 
and all Wiltfiiire, fave a fmall 
diftri£k on the north weft ; and 
hzAVeftta Belgarumy CaerJVenU 
or Wincheftcr for their capital ; 
and their country was the proper 
Gwenty or Y fVeniy a name 
dcfcriptive of the open downs 
with which it abounded. 

This people being recently 
come over to Britain, and differ- 
ing confiderably, in their man- 
ners and language, from the 
other tribes, the Romans diflin- 
guiftied all die inhabitants of the 
ifland under the two diviilons of 
Aborigines and Belga, The for- 
mer had migrated from the con- 
tinent at various times in the firft 
ages of the population of Europe, 
and were the unmixed Cymbri- 
ans. The Belga began to come 
over nearly three centuries be- 
fore Caefar*s invafion, and were 
likcwife of Cymbric origin, but 
had necefTarily been neighbours 
for a long time to the Teutonic 
nations; and muft have con- 
fecjuently undergone a confider- 
able degree of intermixture ; as 
was the cafe in fimilar inftances 
wiih the continental Cymbrians 
in general, and the efFeft is An- 
gularly evident amongft theCelr 
tic people of Greece and Italy ia 


Tlie Belga were driven over 
into Britain, probably, by the 
preflure of the German tribes 
on their borders. Their pro- 
grefs in the ifland may be plainly 
marked oXit along its fouthem 
coaft to Devonfhire, and thence 
onward over into Ireland. That 
ifland was then but tliinly peo* 
pled, and the few inhabitants, 
which were there, muft have 
come from different points of 
die oppofite coaft of Britain, in 
confequence of too great a po- 
pulation : and this bifk. is exadUy 
corroborated by hiftorical do* 
cuments, and by many ancient 
traditions in Wales. 

The Bflga had not long been 
fettled in Ireland, before they 
became the moft powerful peo- 
ple there, from the greater union 
and energy of their political 
economy ; and the original tribes, 
who lived in the woods, by 
hunting and tending of their 
flocks, and who were generally 
caMtAGwddylj Tsgotly Ysgotiaid^ 
and Ysgodogion^ or woodlanders, 
became in a great meafure ab- the mafs of new co- 
mers. The original chara6ler- 
iftic of the dialeft, till then 
purely Cfltrc, gave way to that 
of the Belgic'j and under tliis 
form the colonies who came 
over to Scotland planted it there, 
where it ftill remains, whilft the 
original language of that coun* 

try is become gradually loft, 
partly in the IriQi-Belgic, but 
more extenilvely in the Saxon 

A regular inveftigation and 
comparifon of different languages 
ftrongly confirm what is above 
adduced ; and it is very obferva- 
ble that all the names of men 
and places of the Beigic Britons^ 
which are preferved, are accord- 
ing to t^e Injb idiom and prin- 
ciples of orthography, and not 
of the fVelJb. For example, in 
fome manufcripts tlie Ifle of 
Shepey is called Ennis Vliocht^ 
or the Ifle of Milk, which in 
Welfh would be written Tnys 
Vlitb\ yortig^rn would be fo 
written in Iriih, or with letters 
which would give the fame 
found, but the name in Welfh 
is Gortheynij and all the old 
manufcripts have it fo ; ForiJmer 
is alfo written Gorthevyr^ in the 
Welfh, and other inftances might 
be produced in fupport of this 
point. Farther, the Irijh difco- 
vers a nearer affinity to the Latin 
than the Ifeljb^ notwithftanding 
the Romans being fettled in Bri- 
tain for fo long a period; the 
Latin and Irifh have alfo fevrral 
letters in common, which I deem 
of 7^«/6«iV origin, differing from 
the corrcfponding founds in the 
PFelJb ; the chief of whicli arc 
Sf Vf and ^ in the former lan- 
guages, for bf gy and th in the 
B 3 latter. 


latter, as might be proved by 
many hundred words* 

The meaning of the name of 
Belga feems to be prefcrved in 
the Wolfh: Belg^ implies that 
which breaks out, makes imip* 
Cion, or ravages; fo Belgau^ 
Belgiaid^ Belgwyr^ Belgwysy and 
Cwyr Belgj might be rendered 
irruptors, depredators, ravagersy 
or warriors* 

VII The DuRoTRiGEs, or 
Moriniy lived in Dorfetfliire , 
and had Durhtum, Durnovaria^ 
or Dorcheft^r for their capital. 

Both thcfe names are purely 
Welfti, and of tbe fame nicau-, 
ing nearly ; as the former im- 
plies dwellers on the water, tliat 
is, Dwrodrigwys, from dwr^ 
water, and trigo, to abide or 
dwell ; and the other was Mo^ 
rini\ the maritime people ; from 
Morifij maritime, and the com- 
mon plural termination for peo- 
ple ; or the name might be alfo 
formed Mdriniaid^ Marinioriy 
Merinwyr^ Mmnwys^ Merini^ 
Merinhidy Merinion, Merino 
wys. They might be likewife 
called Dwrinty Dwriniaid^ 
Dwrinion. Dwrinwys : and 
dieir capital might be named 
Caer Dwrin, Din Dwrin^ and 
Vwrin^fvwr, which would ac- 
count for the two appellations 
of Dtirinum and Duniruaria, 

Tbe Morini are mentioned in 
a poem by Talk/in, called his 
Primary Gratulaiion^ in tfaefe 
words : 

** Dytocnt guMthTor 
** Guytveircli dyarvor 
^ Eingyl yn cyngkor : 
** Guelator aruytion 
^ Guynraeth ar Saefoa. 
** O ruyvanttfion 
^ Bytood pen feiron, 
** Rag Ficbti Icuod, 
•* Moriai Brython.' 


** Upon the fea there woiiU 
be coming the wooden waftero 
full of the tumult of the Angles 
in counfel : iigns are feen, bo- 
ding tbe rage of the Saxons* 
Of thofe that are wont to lead,- 
let Seiron be the head, againft 
the lion Pi(5b, of the Morini 

VIII. The HiEDUi had all 
Somerfetfhirc to the Eftuary 
Uxella^ Bridgewatcr Bay, or the, 
river Ivel on the fouth ; the 
fouth-weft of Glouccflcrfliire, 
to the hills of Wotton-Under- 
Edge; and the north-weft of 
Wilt/hire to the Avon and 

Tlie WeUh call the country 
of this people now Gwlad yr 
HaVf or tlie country of the 
fummer ; and Havwy s, Heivi- 
aid^ Heivioriy and Gwyr Gwlad 
yr HaVf would be the name of 
the people, wliich is, probably 
the original of Hadui; unlefs 



their country was noted for its 
honey and mead, for thed the 
people might be named He id* 
WYSy Heidiaidy Heidwyoftf and 
HeidicmvySf from Haidy a 
fwarm, and generally appropri- 
ated for a fwarm of bees. 

IX. The Damnonii, had 
the litde of Somerfetfhire eaft 
of the Thone, and the parts ly- 
ing fouth and weft of the Ivel 
and Bridgewater Bay; all De- 
vonfliire ; and the north part of 
Cornwall to the Tamar river*. 


The original name of Devon- 
fhire is Dyvnatnt, and is very 
frequently mentioned i& tlie old 
writings of Wales ; it implies 
the Deeps or Hollows^ which is 
very defcriptive of die country. 
Tlie people would then be called 
Dyvnetnnty Dyvneinniaid^ Dyv» 
neinniorif Dyvneinrtwyr^ Dyv^ 
neinnwySy or Dyvne'tntiy Dyvn^ 
eintiaidj Dyvneintien^ Dyvnein^ 
twySy and Gwyr Dyvnaint ; ov 
they might' be called Dyvni, 
Dyvniaidy Dyvnoki, Dyvnon- 
wyr, Dyvnonwysy and DyvnwySy 

all implying the inhabitants of 
the glensj or deep vallies, and 
which laft clafs of words is the: 
origin of the appellation of 
Damniiy fy nonymous with D^rm- 


X. The Carnabii poffefled 
all Cornwall^ except a fmaU 
pan to the north of the Tamar. 

The name for Cornwall is 
CernyWy and it implies a pro- 
je<Sing ridge, or flope, and alfo 
a promontory, and in the laft 
fenfe it became the name of this 
country. The inhabitants were 
called Cernywi, Cemywiaidy 
Cernywioriy Ceniywyr, Cernyw^ 
wySf Cernywwyfon, and Gwyr 
CernyWy or the picfl of the pro- 

The above ten nations inha- 
bited the Britannia Prima of the 
Romans, being that part of the 
ifland lying fouth of the Thames 
and the Severn, and a line drawn 
from Creeklade on the former to 
Berkley on tlie other. 

* Mr. Whitalcer attempts to trace out the fituation of a poople called the CimBrf, 
in that part of Somerfetihire lying fouth of the Ivel and Bridgewater Bay, and ^ong 
the north of Cornwall, (omitting, perhaps from overilghti the intermediate north 
coaft of Devonshire) as far as the river Cambala^ Caxnei, or Padftow Harbour. From 
the name given to this tribe being the patronymic one common to all the Britons, and 
from the confufion refpeding this diflrid in the old geographers^ I am Induced to 
confider that there were no people here who went peculiarly under the appellation of 
Cimhriy but that the Damnomi aad CarHahii bordered upon each other about tht 
place traced out abov«. 

B 4f I. The 


I. ITic? SiluHes inliabitcd Gwentwyfon^ Gtuyr Bro WeMf 

die counties of Hereford, Rad- 
nor, Monmouth, and Glamor- 
gan*, to the river Neath on the 
iveft, and the fmall portion of 
Gloucefter/hire, which is to the 
weft of the Severn, having Venta 
Silurum, or Caer Went, in 
Monmoutliftiirc, for tlieir me- 

The Britons called tlic country 
of this pco()le by two names, 
which are as nearly as can be 
fynonymous, EJyllwgTsxA Gwent. 
For Ejyllwgy EJyUyr^ Bro Efyllti 
Gwlad EJylltf Syllwgy and Syllyr^ 
were inditfercntly ufed, all im- 
plying an open country of downs, 
abounding with profpcdts. But 
the appellations of Ga'r///,6W«- 
iwgj Broff^entf and GwtadfFfHt^ 
were themoft generally ufed, or 
at leaft have been fo lately. The 
names of the people were Gwyr 
Efyllwgy Gwyr Efyllyr^ Gwyr 
Bro Efyllt, Gwyr Gwlad Efylli, 
Gwyr Syllwgy Gwyr Syllyr, Ef- 
yllygh EJyllyglaid^ EJyllygion^ 
EJyllygwyr^ EfyllygwySy EfyHyg^ 
wyforiy Efyllyriy Efyllyriaidy 
E/yllyrhn, E/yliyrwyr, Efyllyr- 
wys, E/yllyrwyfortf Syllygi, 
Syllygtaid, Syilyglon, Syllygwyr, 
Syllygwysy Syllygvoyjon^ Syllyriy 
Syllyriaidy Syllyrion^ Syllyrwyr, 
Syllyrwys, and Syllyrwyfon; 
or Gwentiy Gwentiald^ Gwent^ 
Gwentwyff Gweniwys, 


Gtuyr Gwlad ff^entj Gwenbi^ 
Gwenhiaidy Gwetihiony Gwen^ 
hwyry Gwenhwys, and Gwem^ 

Their language, or the Gwen^' 
bwyfcgy was one of the three 
principal dialeSs of Wales, in 
which arc written many of our 
old books, and fome of diem 
are very valuable. 

11. The DiM£.T,£ inhabtiod 
Pembroke(hire, Penvro Dyved^ 
or die proper Dimetia ; Gower, 
now a part of Glamorganshire ; 
and the whole of the coundes of 
Cacrmarthan, Brecon, and Car- 
digan; and Muridinutttf Caer» 
vyrdditty or Caermarthen, wa9 
their capital. 

The Welfli name for the 
country comprehended in the 
above-mendoned limits is jD/- 
heubarthy or Southemland; and 
Dyved or Dimetia is ufed in a 
more contra£i:ed fenfe, being ge* 
nerally applied to Pembroke- 
fhire alone. The language of 
diis diftrid, or the Deheuharth^ 
egy is one of the three chief 
dialeds of die Welfli. 

The name of Dyved im- 
plies a region abounding with 
waters or ftreams ; and it is very 
applicable, as the country ex- 

* Omitted by Mr. Wlut«ker. 



tends into the feas, and Milford 
Haven likewife divides it nearly 
tlirough the middle. The peo* 
pie may be called Dyvedi, 
Dyvediaid^ Dyvedhny Dyved* 
wyr^ Dyvedwys^ Dyvedwyjon^ 
and Gwyr Dyved; or, by in- 
ikiflion, Dyveidi^ Dyveidiaid^ 
Dyveidiortj Dyveidwyr^ Dy^ 
vcidwys, woA Dyvetdwyfon, 

Tlie Ordo VICES was the 

name by which the inhabitants 
of all the prefent North Wales 
was known to the Romans ; and 
alfo as much of Sbropfliire as 
lay on that ilde of the Severn ; 
and as a part of Che(hire isfaid 
to have once belonged to them, it 
is probable that the Dee was their 
ongit&al boundary on that fide. 

I apprehend that the Ordo^ 
vices were fo denominated . in 
alluiioa to tlieir mountainous 
fituation ; as from the primitive 
words, OR and ar, are formed 
GoKt Gerih^ Gwar, Gwarthy 
Goribo, Gwarthav, Gorthav, 
Gorihevigf Gorihevin^ Gwartb* 
evig, and Gwarthevin; and 
from GoR and Tav, are de- 
rived GORBEvio, and Gorde^ 
vini and from Ar and Tav 
come Jrdevigf Ardevog^ and 
Ardtvin: and all thefe words are 
defcriptive of a high or upper 
region. Out of thefe I feledl 
Gordtoig as moft analagous to 
OrdmCi for the iniiial of Jt is 

dropt onder feveral fornis of 
conftru£tion; as Br$ Ordevig^ 
a high extending country ; and 
thence the people would be 
called Gsrdevigt\, GorJtvig" 
iaidf G%rdevigion^ Gordevtgwyr^ 
GoROEVlGWYS, Gordevigwys^ 
en, and Gwyr Bro Ordevig^ 
the men of the Higher Count ry^ or 
Highlanders* The &llowin( 
phrafe will fliew the nam« with- 
out the initial: 

Vyma Ordeviqwyi. 
here are Or do vices. 


The Ordovices was a terip for 
the mountaineers of North Wale« 
in general, and not of any par* 
ticular tribe ; for moft certainly 
tlie inhabitants were, at leaft, as 
much divided into fmall commu- 
nities at the time when the Ro- 
mans came amongft them, as 
they were in fucceeding periods^ 
when the names of feveral tdbes 
appear in hiftory. The two moft 
comprchenftve diviiions of this 
country were Gwynedd and 
Powysy and each of thefe was 
parcelled out into feveral pcay 
ftates, acknowledging in latter 
ages, however, the princes of 
Gwynedd and Powys as their 
refpedlive lords paramount. 

The people of Gwynedd were 

called Gwyndydy Gwyndodwytc, 

. Gwyndodwysfiwyneddiaidy Gw" 

yneddioHf Gwyneddwyr^ Gwyn^ 

eddwyi^ Gwyneddigiaidf Gwyn* 




eddigion^ and Gwyr Gwynedd: 
thofe of Powys were denomi- 
noted, Powjfi^ Powyjiaid, Pwv^ 
yjofiy Powyfiofty Powyfwyr^ and 
Gwyr Powys^ 

The Gwyndodfgfthe language 
of the Fenedocif or die men of 
Gwynedd J was the third pre- 
vailing dialcft amongft the 

Ill The three nations above 
fpecified were comprized in the 
Britannia Secunda of the Ro- 

I. The Trikovantes re- 
fided in the counties of Middlefex 
and Eflcx ; and Londinium^ Tre 
Lundain^ Caer Lundain^ Lun»- 
dain^ Caer Ludd^ or London 
was their chief town. 

'Hie Trtnovanfes were fo de- 
nominated from their fituation 
on the great expanfc of water, 
or lake, formed by the Thames , 
as were the Ncvantes in Scotland, 
from their dwelling in die penin- 
fitla and headland of Galloway. 
With refpeft to the Trtnovanfes 
I am dubious whether the prefix 
ihouldbe Trey a town, or Tr^, 
ultra or beyond: the laft, per- 
haps, is die beft; that is, the 
inhabitants of the region beyond 
the water : as they muft have a 
denomination anterior to the 
period when their town became 

of note ; and if that dilKculty 
were formounted, another would 
arife, for that town had a name, 
and that name was Tre Lundain, 
or Caer Lundain. 

The Britons would have called 
the country beyond the fiream 
Trantuvant ; and the inhabitants 
would have the names of Tra- 
novanti, Tranovantiaid^ Tra- 
novanfioH, Tranovantwyr ^Tka^ 
NovANTWvs, Tranovantwys- 
on J and Givyr Tranovant; or 
elfe, bv the inflexion of the 
word, Tranovanhif Tranwau-' 
hiaidy Tranovanhon^ Tranovan- 
hwyry Tranovanhwysy andTVa- 

II. The IcEN^l, Cenimagniy Gf- 
nomeSf Cenomanni, or Ceniman- 
nij inhabited the counties of Cam- 
bridge, Suffolk, Norfolk, and 
Huntingdon, perhaps the north 
of Bedfordfhire to the Oufe, and 
the fouth of Northampt(m(hir& 
to the Nen; and f^enfa Ceno^ 
mannoruniy Fenta leenorunif or 
CaAer near Norwich, was their 
chief town. 

The firft name Icem\ is derived 
from Cyn, that is firft, a-head, 
forward, before, or foremoft, 
having Y or the article the pre- 
fixed ; thence the people would 
be called Cyni, Cyniad, Cynion, 
Cynwyry CynwfSy and Cynwys^ 
ony ©r, with the article, Y Cyni^ 



&c. that k, the firft or forward 
mcti, or Who are placed favtheft, 
or in the extrcnafty. The other 
name of Cenmagnif or, more 
properly, Cgmmanni, and Ceno^ 
manni^ is compounded of the 
Cyn above explained, and mdrty 
a place, fpot, or region; and 
with fuch addition the names, 
in Britifh, would be Cyn*y^mam\ 
Cyn-y-mdniaidy and Cyn-y-man^^ 
wys; but more corredHy oom- 
pounded, as Cynvant\ Cynvaft^ 
iai/fy Cynvaniotty Cynvanwyr^, 
CynvanivySy CynvamOyforiy and 
Gwyr y Cynvanau ; and Cenomes 
impll^ the fame, being derived 
from Cyn^ and Ma^ another word 
fbr a place or fpot ; tliat is Gyn-- 
y^maftvys^ Cynmawys, or Cyrt" 
vawys, and Gwyr Cyn Ma, the 
people of the headmoft or for-*' 
ward regions. 

III. TheCoRiTANi,C?i>flw/, 
and Coriij ihould more properly 
have been called Corani^ as we 
find a city belonging to them 
called RatiS'Con'otty which fup- 
ports the probability of their 
being die fame with die people 
' called Coraniaid^ in the Hiftori- 
cal Tfiades. That curious record, 
wherein they are mentioned, is 
as follows : 










a daethant yma yn oes Lut 
mab Beli, ac nid aeth yr un 
onatynt drachevyn; ail^ gor- 
mes y Cwytyl Fichci, ac nid 
aeth yr undrachevyn ; trydet, 
gores y Saefon, ac nid aeth-- 

ant drachevyn*'* 


*^ Three moleftations came 
into this ifland, and not one 
of them went away again: 
the nation of the Coranians, 
who came here in the dmeof 
Lutb, fon of Beli, of whicli 
none went away again; fe- 
condly, the invafion of the 
GwydlieKan Pifts, of which 
none went away; thirdly, 
the invaAon of the Saxons, 
and tliey did not go away 

Anoilier ancient memorial 
mentions die Coranians amongft 
feven invaders of Britain . diefe 
were Draig Prydahj y Draig 
Efiraun^ y Guyr Ledrithiaug^ 
y Coraniaids y Cefariaid, y 
Gwydyl FichtU «V Saefon; or, 
the Procreant of Britain, the 
foreign Procreant*, die Half- 
appearing Menf, the Coranians, 
the Cefarians, the Gwydhelian 
Pidts and die Saxons. 

"TairGormetad«ethiVynys Out of feveral words in the 
'* hon, ac nid aedi yr undrach- Britifh tongue fimilar in found 

^ The word Draig, in the original, is here rendered according to its abf!rad or 
^mary import. See the word in Owf/i'i DiSfionary. 

f The word Ledritkiaiug is literally rendered above; its genera^ meaning is 
abounding with illalioD, iliuiive^ deceiving; or magical* 



to the names of the above-men- 
tioned tribe, I am rather at a 
lofs which to fix upon as the 
moft applicable: the name of 
Cawri means mighty men, 
worthies, princes, giants; hence 
CoRYDOK, Cerydiaid^ Coryd-^ 
wyr^ Corydwys: Corodon^ Cor-- 
odiaidf Corodwyr^ Corodwys ; 
or CoRANi, Coraniaidy Cor- 
aniotiy Coranwyr^ Coramvys ; and 
Coreinif Coreiniaid^ Corein^ 
hfty Coreinwyry and CoreW" 
wysy appellations denoting men 
that are liberal, generous, or 

IV. The Cassii, poffcffed 
all Hertfordfliire, and Bedford- 
fliire up to the Nen on the north, 
and the adjoining parts of Buck- 

We find the Caffii likewife 
called Cattieuchlani : both the 
appellations are nearly of the 
fame import, except that the 
lail has an addition, denoting 
that they lived in coverts or 
woods. The firft would be writ- 
ten in the Britifh language C asi, 
Cajiatdy Cajxoriy Cafwyr ; or 
Cafeiaidy Cafeion and Cafeiwysy 
that is, men in hoftility, or men 
addifted to hoftility; the other 
would be Cati-y-gwyllon, 
Catau-y'-'gwyUony Catwylloni Cad- 
wylhniaidf Cadwyllonwysy Cat- 
wylloni, Catwylloniaidy and Cat- 
tvyllonwySf the battlers or war- 

riors of the coverts ; and, lea* 
ving out the word Gwjllj a 
covert, they would be called 
Cat I, Catiaidy Caiwyr^ Cat- 
wysj Catwyfon; or Cateiaidy 
Ctifehfif CaUiwys^ and Cedwyr; 
which laft word is ufed for men 
of battle, or warriors, in a ge- 
neral acceptation. GwyUon^ is 
frequently ufed for Satyrs, fpi' 
rits of the woods ^ or fpiriis of the 
gJoom ; and fome of the old poets 
have the fine epithet Cadwylion^ 
or gloomy powers of tattle, 

V. The DoBUNi had that 
part of Gloucefterfhire, which 
lies north of the hill of Wotton- 
Under-Edge, and eaft of the 
hills, which bound the eaftem fide 
of the vale of the Severn, and the 
low vallics of Oxfordfliire on the 
north fide of the Thames, down 
to the confluence of the Tame, 
and the country about that laft 
river up to its fources in Buck- 
inghamfhire; their north-wef- 
tem and northern boundaries 
being the fummit of the chain of 
hills on thofe fides of the two 
laft mentioned counties; and 
their eaftem limit were the hill^ 
which extend at fome diftance 
along the fame fide of the Tame 
through its whole courfe. 

The fame word is the origin 
of the names of diis people, and 
of the rivers Thames and Tame : 
tliat word is Tdv, or the fpitad, 




and it is the appellation of many 
riversy which, like thefe two, 
run along level vallies, and 
whofe waters fpread out much. 
The people inhabiting fuch low 
regions might be indifferently 
called, Taveini, Taveiniaid^ 
Tavelniorif Taveinwyry Tavein- 
tvySf TaveinwyfoTiy and Gwyr y 
Tavasn; or Teivini, Teiviniaidy 
Teivinionj Teivinwyrj Teivifi'^ 
wysy Tetvimvyfony and Gwyr 
Teivty ox the men of the fpreads 
or Dales. Panicular forms of 
conftru£Uon would change the 
initials, and then the names 
would be more like Dobuni ; as 
Dyma Dayeini, here are Do- 

VI. TheHtficcii,or3^a5g'^- 
tesy had Gloucefterfhire from the 
borders of the Dobuni north- 
wards, and the whole of the 
county of Warwick, and nearly 
die whole of Worceiler. 

Thefe names are only different 
forms of the fame word, and 
mean men of gallantry, or brave 
ones ; and they fhould be cor- 
reftly written thus, Gwychu 
Gwychiaidy Gwychiou^ Gwycb" 
tuyry Gwychweisy Gwychwelf-^ 
iofiy Gwyr GwychioHy and Gweis 
Gwychi$n\ or thus, Gwych^ 
iniy Gwychfiniaidy Gwycheiniony 
Ci/UycheinwyTy GwycheinwysySLud 
GwyrGtuychaiff; andalib Gywchr 
§inti^ Gwychelntiatd^ Gwjch^ 

intiony Gwycbeintwyry Gwych- 
EiNTWYs, and Gwyr Gwych^' 
aint. From the fame word 
are alfo formed Gwychyriaid^ 
yriainty Gwycbyrogiony Gwych^ 
yrolion^ and Gwyr Gwychyr, 
In certain forms of conftru<^ion 
the initials of all thefe words are 
dropt, which ihews the affinity 
dofer; as 

Dyna Wychi ; 
There are Huiccii i 
Dyma Wychexntwys, 
Here are JuoANTES. 

VII. The Ancalites had 
the eaftern parts of the cotaties 
of Oxford and Buckingham, and 
bordered upon the Huiccii to the 

The origin of this name, very 
probably, is Uchelitwys, or 
the inhabitants of the h\A 
grounds, for that was their litu- 
atibn, and were fo diftinguifhed 
from their neighbours, the Tav^ 
einiy or the people of the dales. 
They might be alfo called Uchel-^ 
iaidy Uchehvyr, Uchelwys, and 
Gwyr yr Uchelion. 

VIII. The CoRNAvn, Car- 
nab 1 1, or Corinaviiy inhabited 
^11 Cheihire, and all Shropfliire 
pn the north and eaft of the Se*- 
vem, and all Staffordfhire, with 
fome of the adjacent borders of 
Warwick(hire and Leiccfter- 

flxire ; 



ihrrc ; and Uricomum or Wrox- godunum^ Coc^ium^ or nackrode 
jcter was their chief city. for their chief town. 

The fmall headland between 
the rivers Dec and Merfey b 
too inconfiderable, I think, to 
hare given name to this exten- 
five nation, as Mr. Wbitaker 
/would have it. Not wifliing to 
lake great liberty in altering the 
word, I am fomewhat dubious 
from what original to trace it, 
except it may be from Corain^ 
circling or winding,, and aiv^ 
flreams ; if fo, the people would 
be called CoREiNEivi, Corein^ 
fiviaidf Coreineiviony Coreineiv^ 
wyKf and Coreineivwysj or the 
inhabitants of tlie banks of 
winding rivers, names very ap- 
plicable with refpeft to the two 
great rivers, the Severn and the 
I>ee, on which tlieir country 
chiefly lay. 

The eight nations above fpe- 
ciiied inhabited the Roman divi- 
fion of the ifland called Flavia, 
Cffifarienfis, and Flavia Caefari- 
cniis, having the Thames and 
the hills of Wotton-under-Edge 
for its foutliem limit, the Severn 
on the weft, and the Merfey, 
Don and Humber, on the north, 

I. Tlie Setantii, Sistun- 
Tii, or Sijiantiiy inhabited Lan- 
cafliire, aird the fouthem parts 
of Weftraorcland, having Rhi* 

The name of tliis tribe and of 
the Voluntii^ probably, have re- 
ference to each other; for it 
would feem that one occupied a 
fruitful foH, and chiefly followed, 
agriculture, whilft the latter 
tended their flocks in the more 
hilly country. Agreeably to fuch 
a fuppofition I make SyddynU 
an agricultural ferm or tene- 
ment, to be the original of the 
appellation of the Setantii \ fW)m 
which word the people would 
be called Syddynti, Syddynt^ 
iaidy SyddyntioHy Syddyntwyr^ 
Syddyniivys ; or Syddymi^ Syddyn- 
iaidy Syddyttwyr^ and Syddyn^ 
wySf from Syddyn^ the primary 
form of the word ; the import 
of whicli is the dwellers in 
farms, or thofe who cultivate 
the land. 

II. The VoLANTii, or ^a- 
luntiij poflefled the northern 
parts of Weftmoreland, and all 
Cumberland, to the wall of Ha* 
drian on the north, having l^c- 
lanty^ or Elenborough, in the 
latter, for their capital. 

In contradiiHn&ion to the Se^ 
iantiiy the Volantii were the 
people of the forefts, deriving 
their name from Gwyllaint^ a 
region abounding with coverts 




or wilds ; and hence they would 
ElNTl, GwylUintiaidf GwylJ^ 
eintiony GwyUeintwyr^ GuylU 
eintwys^ and Gwyry Gwyllaint^ 
or the Woodlanders, As the 
name has a mutable initial, it 
approaches nearer to yolantii 
under fome forms of conflruc- 
tion, as 

Gweli WYLLEINTX_y«0, 

Thou wilt fee Volantii t]ier«, 

III. The Brigantes pof- 
fefled Yorklbire to the Don and 
Humber on the fouth» ^I Dur- 
ham, and little of Northiimber* 
land lying fouth of the wall of 

Brigant^y from Brigy implies 
in the Britiih, a fununit, or up^ 
per fituadon \ from which may 
.^ formed Brigantij Bngant- 
iaiJ, Brigantiotiy Brigantwyry 
Bricantwys, Briganlwyfon^ 
BrigantweiSf Brigantweijionj 
Gwyry Brigant ; and alfo J?ri- 
geintiy Brigeintiaidy Brigiiniion, 
Brigeintwyr, Brigeintwysy and 
BrigemtwyfoTiy the people of thq 
fummitSy or of the upper re- 

There is a vqry curious war 
dance, ftill preferved in Wales, 
called Gwan Bnganfy the Play 

of tlie Brigant, or Bngantiaa 

The three foregoing nations 
were comprized in the Roman 
province of Maxima, or Maxi- 
ma Caefarienfis. 

I. TheOTTADiKi poQefled 
all Northumberland, except a 
ImaU part to the fouth of th^ 
wall of Hadrian, all Lothian 
and Mers, and the half of 

One of the moft celebrated 
bards of the fixth century was 
Aneuririy a chieftain of the Oto^ 
dinu He wrote an elegy on 
account of a fignal defeat fuf- 
tained by his countrymen, in 
the battle of Cattraethy wherein 
he bore a confpicuous part him- 
felf. This piece, which is ftill 
extant, bears the title of Godo^ 
dirty and confifts of 363 ftanzas, 
being the number of the Otodi- 
nian chiefs in that battle; of 
whom, fays he, 

'* There efcaped but three by 
** feat of arms ; two dogs of 
'* war from Aeron, Cynon 
" fierce, and I my hallowed 
** mufe did fave from fpilling of 
M my blood." 


* By alterivg th« word to Bryganty tbe name vould be iynonyroous with the deiUu- 
•tjoxi ^vcii of tUe Bil^rocesf that is^^ tUe people of ihfi brakes a|id tlu(;kets.^ 




After the event above recorded 
the Saxon power prevailed in 
Ot^lnia^ and Aneurin retired to 
tlw monafterv of St. Iltutus in 
South Wales, where he paflcd 
tlie remainder of his days. 

From Gododin and Manau 
God^difij the names of the coun- 
try, which imply regions bor- 
dering on tlie coverts, the people 
were called Gododini, Godo^ 
Sn tardy Gudodrn'ton , Gododinwyr^ 
znd G^dodinwys. From the initial 
being mutable it may be proper 
to fhe^v the appellation nnder a 
form affedcd by It, as — 

•* Gwyrz acth Ododin, chwerthm 

'* Heroes travcrfed Otodikxa. a 
joyooi courfc." Aneurin, 

II. The Gadeni had the 
little of Cumberland lying north 
of the wall of Hadrian, Tivi- 
otdale, Tweedale up to the 
Tweed, and Cluydifdale to La- 
nerk on the north weft. 

Very probably this nation in- 
habited a country which is called 
Gcdd^Uy or the Groves, in our 
old nianufcripts ; for, by a dif- 
ferent termination, the name 
will found like Garden! ^ as Godd^ 
ain, abounding with groves, 
and from hence the people would 
have the appellations of Godd-. 
EINI, Goddeintaidf Goddfiniorit 
GoddeinwyKj GoddeinwySy Godd-^ 
einwyfon^ Qodddnweis^ Qoddein^ 

weijionj Goddeinogtf Goddein* 
opaidy Goddeinogion^ Goddeinig-' 
ioffy and Guyr Goddau. 

III. The Seloov^ inhabi- 
ted Anandale, Nithisdale, and 
Galloway to the Dee ; and per- 
haps the fouth eaft of Kyle, and 
fouth weft of Cluydifdale, 

The name of this people is 
dcfcriptive of their position in a 
country upon the dividing water ; 
and it is the original from which 
So/way is to be traced. It is 
a compound from Sali, that 
branches out, feparates or di- 
vides, and Gwy^ a ftream. 
Thefe t>;^o radical words un- 
compounded, would preferve the 
mutable initial of the latter, 
tlius. Sail Gwy ; but otherwifc 
it would be written Salkuy; the 
firft form accounts for th^ g In 
Selgova^ and the odier (hews 
why it is not m Solway. There 
is another radical word, which 
is moy a place, very frequently 
affixed to others in fonning 
names, and then it changes into 
va. With this addition Sail 
Gwy would then be Salt-GwyOa^ 
or Sallwyva^ the region upon 
the dividing ftream, which fip- 
proaches ftill nearer to Selgoy. 
Hence the people would he 
named Sall-Gwyvai, o^/Ai 
wyvaaid, Sallwyvaony Salltuyva^ 
royr^ Sallwyvatvys^ Gwyr SalU 
wyvoj Gwyr ar Sallwy^ and 
Qwyr ar Salf-Gzpy. 




IV. The NovANTEs poC- 
feiled the whole of Galloway 
lying weft of the Dee. 

The appeQation of Novant 
Cgnifies a fituation abounding 
with ftreams, or in the water» 
and which i^ defcriptive of the 
country of this people ; and they 
themfelves were called Novantif 
Novantiaidf Novaniion, Novant^ 
wyr^ NovANTwys, Novant* 
wyfon^ Novaniweisj Novant- 
weifiony Novanttgion, and Gzuyr 
Novant J or the men of the re- 
gion bordering upon the wattn 

The country of the Novantes 
IS mentioned by Aneiirhi, when 
he enumerates the forces in Cat" 
traethy in thefe words,--* 

'* Tri Wwry Kovantf 
" Pymmwnti a pameaafy 
f' Tri chwn a thrichant; 
" Tri chve chad varcfaawg 
'* Eidyn eunichavg ^ 
" Tri Utt llurygawg; 
" Tri ei]r*d«ym torcbawg; 
" Tri marchavg dy waJ^ 
'' Tri chant gj'haval ; 
" Tri chyvnaid cyfnar 
<* Chwcrryfgyntefgar:-, 
*5 Tri thcyrn maon 
f* A dyvu o Vij'thon," 

** Three from Novant ; five 
myriad and five hundred ; three 
chiefs and three hundred ; three 
times fix ivoo^ of horfemen of 
Eidyn arrayed in gold; three 
Joricatcd hofts; three princes 

wearing golden torques; three 
furious knights, equalled by three 
hundred more; three heroes 
leaping together onward who 
bitterly mixed with the foes:*-* 
three fovereign kings there came 
of Britons." 

V, The Damn II bordered 
on the north of the Novantes^ 
Selgova^ and Gadeniy being fe* 
parated from tlxem by a range 
of mountains; and diey inha-> 
bited all Carrick, Cunningham, 
and Renfrew ; and, probably the 
nortli and weftem parts of Kyle, 
«nd die north eaft of Cluydif- 
dale ; and the wall of Antoninus 
was their northern ))arrierf 

The name of this people Im^ 
plies that they inhabited the deep 
vales or glens between moun* 
tains ; for I imagine thait it is to 
be identified in the Britifli wordis 
Dyvni, Dyvniaidy Dyvnwyr^ 
DyvnwySy Dyvnwyfony and Gwyr 
y Dyvnauy or the men of the 
deeps. The row of thefe names 
is Dyvyny from which, in ano- 
ther formj is alfo derived the 
appellation of the Damnoniiy pr 
the nien of Devonihire. 

Thefe five nations above 
mentioned were included in die 
Roman province of Valentia. 

I. The HoRESTii inhabited 

Strathern, and the receflesof the 

' neigh- 



neighbouring mountains of Perth 
1 jing fouth of the Tay. 

TTiis people, probably, re- 
ceived their name ' from the 
ftrong pofition of their country, 
being the mod inacceffible part 
of the Grampian mountains; 
for the word Hyrwyji^ from 
which J derive it, figni£es that 
eafily or aptly hinders, that is 
eafily defended, or an impreg«> 
nable barrier; whence Hy- 
KWYSTI, and Hyrv^Jiiaidy the 
inhabitants of fuch a place. 

IL The VzcTURONEs pofi». 
fefled all Penh, except the little 
portion lying fouth of the Tay ; 
the whole of Gawry, Angus, 
and Mems ; and the narrow 
jegion of Mar fouth of the Dee-. 

There are f(f vcral words in the 
Britifh language, which bear 
affinity to this name ; as Gwychr 
yrou^y brave ones ; Gwythyron^ 
men of wrath ; Peiihyronff rtien 
of the open, ot out, country ; 
and Uchderortj the inhabitants of 
the heights. I am induced to 
reje£t. thefe appellations, m fa* 
vour of a country mentioned 

feveral timek by Aneurifiy in the 
Gododin: and efpecially fo, as 
that name is to be identified in 
the river Erne, and Strathem. 
The name, which I mean* is 
Aerwy the original name of the 
river Erne, and of feveral other 
rapid foaming ftreams. The 
original fituation of the VeQu'- 
roms was above, beyond, or 
north of that river; whence, 
accordingly, they would be 
called UcHitfERONWYS, Uch- 
4iercnij Uchaermiaid^ Uchaeron^ 
tuyrj and Gwyr^Uchaeron^ or the 
men of the region above Atrwu 

III. TheTAixALi inhabited 
all of Mar on the north of the 
I^ce, and Buchaxi. 

This nation had their appel- 
lation, probably, from Tachialy 
the terminating fair, or open, 
country ; a name nearly equi- 
valent to the fair headland; 
whence the inhabitants would 
be called Tachiali, TaehiaU 
iaidy Taehiahn^ Tachialwyrj 
and Tachialwys^ 

IV. The Vacomagi hadall 
BamfF, Murray, ^nd Iiivemefs 

« Tbis is the original fh)m which Mr. WhltAker aterirci the natoe. 

•f- JFeitfyrortf having a mutable iniHal| approaches nearer to Feifuronts under fome 
forms of conArnaion; as, Djtmu Biitfyron, here are VtBunmeu The root of this 
vord is faitky what is clear, open, or out : And, hence the name TiQiy or feiil^ 
the men of the open, or out, country' % fOf perhaps^ with refpe^ to the bounds of 
the Roman empire. 




to the town of that name ; nearly 
all Badenoch and Argyle; and 
the fmall part of Braidalbin ly- 
ing north of the Tay« 

By looking at a map of Scot-« 
l^ndy it would appear that thefe 
people inhabited a chain of deep 
glensy extending acrofs the ifland. 
juch being their fituation» it 
would be appropriate enough to. 
call them V ajjcymogi jPaucym", 
cgiaidy Paucymoghn^ Paucymog" 
wyr^ Paucyn^gl^ys^ and Gwyr 
y Bau Gymogi or the men of 
the country abounding with, 

V. TheAi^'BANi, orZ)tfw«;7 
jHhani were fituated fouth of 
the Vacomagi in tlie parts of 
Athol and Braidalbin lying fouth 
of the Tay, the north of Stra-r 
chern and of Manteich, 

The word Alhan means the 
greateft, utmoft, or fuperior 
height J hence Alb an i, Alhan^ 
iaidy Alhanion^ Albanwyry AU 
banwySy Alhanwyforiy Alhanweisy 
AlhaHweifioriy Albanigmidy AU 
baniglonj Albanogiy Albanogialdy 
AlbanogiftUy Gwyr Alban^ and 
Gwyr Albanauy the men of the 
ppper mountains. 

By the name Alban the Welflx 
now mean Scotland in gene- 

VL The Attacotti inha* 
bited about the extent of the prt- 
fent diftrid of Lenox. 


This nation^ probably, dwelt 
on one of the extremities of 
C&edCelyddoriy or the Caledonian^ 
forefl ; at leaft the name fecms- 
to countenance fuch a fuppofi- 
tionjforEiTHA-CQETi, Eilha-^ 
coet iaidy and Ei/ha^coefxvys, jtri", 
ply the men of the extremity of 
the wood. 

The fix nations above fpeci- 
fied were comprehended in the 
Soman province of Vefpafiana. 

I. The Caledoni inhabite4 
the interior parts of Invernefs, 
the weftem of Badenoch and of 
Braidalban, the eaftern of Loch-p 
abcr. and the north eaft of Lorn. 

Thefe people were fo called , 
on account of their dwelling in 
the coverts of the foreft. The 
Wel/li name for that kind of a 
region, is Celyddoriy which means 
literally feclufions, or coverts. 
The appellation occurs very often 
in old manufcripts, and fom'e- 
times with the addition to it of 
Coedy Wood. The people are 
generally called Gwyr Celyddon^ 
the men of the coverts, or 
woodmen; they might be alfo 
namedCELYDDONj, Celyddon-- 

C 2 iaid^ 



iaidy and Celyddonwys^ or Cale- 

'< Avallea beren benv d hMron 

^ A dyv yn argel yn argoel Celyddoa." 

« Sveet appletrcey whofe fruit ii moft 
tt delicioutj grovs in a fltelter in the Ikirt 
<< oftJiewoodofCdyddon." 


II. The Cant-^ inhabited 
the eaftern parts of Rofs. 

The names of this people, and 
of the Cantos of Kent, are of the 
fame origin, which is Caint^ a 
word defcriptive of their refpec- 
live countries. That part of the 
county of Rofs, where the 
Canta refided, compared with 
the furrounding regions, is tole* 
rably open, and free from high 
mountains and rocks. The name 
of the inhabitants would be, in 
the Britifh Tongue, Ceinti ; 
or othcrwife Ceintlaidy Ceintion^ 
and (o forth, as under the name 
of Cantli, 


III. The LoGi extended along 
tTie fea coaft of Sutherland, to 
the Ale or Ua in Cathnefs. 

The appellation, in the Bri- 
tifh, neareft in found to the 
name of this tribe, is Lygi, 
the inhabitants of the fenny dif- 
tnfkj or morafs. 

IV.TheCARNABii inhabited 
all Cathnefs north of the Ale. 

Thefc people were called 
Cernywi, like the inhabitants 
of Cornwall, and for the fame 
reafon; which was, that they 
were both feated on promon- 
tories. See a farther illuftration 
in the account of the Camahii 
of Cornwall. 

V.The Cat IN I were fituated 
along the fea ftiore of Strathna- 
vern. ^ 

Some of the Britons "^ere 
armed with a flmple weapon, 
diough a fonnidablc one in th6 
manner it was ufed, which was 
a club of about a yard long, 
with a heavy end worked ii^o 
four (harp points ; to the thin 
end, or handle, a cord was 
fixed, 'which enabled a perfon, 
weU trained, to throw it with 
great force and exadnefs, and 
dien by a jerk to bring it back 
to his hand, either to renew his 
throw, or to keep it in his hand, 
for clofe adion. This weapon 
was called Cat^ and Cat at ; the 
relative adjeftiye to this word 
would be Catln ; and the men 
who ufed it were called C atini, 
Catiniaid^ Catinion^ Catinwyr^ 
and Catinwys^ but more gene- 
rally Cateion. Probably, the 
^ people now fpoken of were 
club-men, and noted for being 
armed in the manner above de- 


VI, The 



VI. The Mert^ inbaUted 
the interior parts of Strathna- 
Yem and Sutherland. 

If the principal occupation of 
thefe people was tending their 
cattle, which, from their Htua- 
tion, was very likely the cafe, 
they might have been appropri* 
ately called Meirydi, Metric 
. MeiriaiJy Meirioni^ Meirion' 
iaidy Miirtottwyr^ Miiriontuys, 
McirwyTy and Meirwys^ or the 

VII. The Carnonac-« in- 
habited the fhore of Rofs from 
Loch AiTynt to Loch Breyo. 

If the country affigned to 
thefe people abounds with heaps 
of loofe ftonesy or cams. Cam- 
einwg^ and Cameinog would 
be proper epithets for it ; whence 
the inhabitants would be called 
Carneinogi, Cameinogiaid^ 
Cameinogion, Cameinogwyr, 
CarneinogwySf and Gwyr Cam-- 
etnogj or the men of die ftony 

But, by confulting the gene- 
ral form of the country, I am 
induced to believe that it was 
called Cerneinog^ or the region 
abounding with points, or jqt- 
tings : for the whole coafl ihoots 
out in points into the fea. From 
a country bearing fuch a name, 
the inhabitants would be called 

CerkeinocI} and Cemeinog' 

VIII. The Cerones extend* 
ed from Loch Affynt to the ri- 
ver Itys, or Sheyl, in the coun«* 
ty of Invernds* 

The original appellation of 
diis tribe might have been 
Cawron^ orCAWRONWYS, the 
mighty ones« 

IX. The CREotfEs had the 
river Itys or Sheyl, for their 
northern boundary; and exr 
tended to the Longus, or. Loch 
Long on the foudi. ' 

Perhaps thefe people were 
called Crion^ and Creonwys, 
or the (houtcrs, from their being 
more remarkable than others for 
fliouting in battle: or, on ac^ 
count of their fiercenefs, their 
name might have been Creuon, 
or Creuomwys, the men of 

X. The Epidii inhabited 
Cantire and Knapdale. 

Thefe people were fo called, 
from a word, which probably 
was the name of their countVy, 
defcriptive of its fingular projec- 
tion into the fea. The word 
which I allude to is Ebyd^ im- 
plying, abffra<Sledly, a gging 
from, apaf&ngojBF; andufedas 

C 3 the 



the name of a country, wotiW 
imply a place running out, or 
darringfrom: and, according to 
the idioms of fomc of the Britifli 
dialers, EbydvifOxM be changed 
to Epyd; cfpecially fo, with the 
acceffion of another fyllablc. 
From thence, the inhabitants of 
the Ebyd^ or pcninfula, would 
be called Ebvdi, Ebydiaidy Ei- 
ydiofgy Eiydwyn Ebydwys ; or 
EpydijEpydiaidy Epydloriy Epyd-- 
wyr^ and Epydwys, 

This completes the catalogue 
of the fevcral principal tribes, 
'vMo originally inhabited Britain, 
according to the beft informa- 
tion, which the Romans were 
able to procure. It was by co- 
4onie$, from fome of thefe na- 
tions, that Ireland became pro- 
greflively peopled; and chiefly 
•from fuch as occupied the wef- 
tern fhorcs ; and who, in gene- 
lal, preferved their original ap- 
pellations, or other names of 
the fame import. In Ireland, 
it is worthy to obferve, the 
•Belgae, who arrived there in 
fubfequent periods, formed a dif- 
tin6l body of people from the 
•lirft colonifts, until they fubdued 
them ; and then thcfe two lead- 

ing diftinflions graduafty ccafcd 
to cxift ; and the peculiarities, 
which formed the Belgic dialeft 
of the Cymbric knguage, be- 
came prevalent amongft all the 
inhabitants of die ifland*. 

Thofe writers who treat of 
the period in Briti/h hlftory, 
which I am now difcufling, 
generally run into two extremes^ 
equally injurious to the fubje£^. 
One party depends too implicitly 
upon the fidelity of ancient 
chronicles and traditions; the 
other rejcfts every thing, as a 
filly fable, but what is tranf- • 
micted from the claffic pen of 
a Grecian or a Roman author. 

•Guided by a fpirit of difcri- 
mination, much intercfiing hif- 
tory might be produced, by in* 
veftigating all the old chronicles 
and traditionary memorials ; and 
by comparing them with the 
laws and cuftoms of the ancient 

Tlius, It might be made to 
appear, that the Cytnhrians^ Or, 
lefs properly, the Celts^ agree- 
ably to the tenets of the bardic 
religion, adliered moft ftriftly 

* We have fuflltcimf documctit», in Britiflr hiftorj', to fhcw what were the leading 
.ditTcrcnces between the Bclgie and the dialects of the original Britons: and, thofe 
documentfl Ihew the identity of the Belgic aad the prcfent Irift language. The fol- 
lowing inftance will ferre to ilJuftratc the point: the name oi Vorii^m would be 
written Fearttgtar/i^ by the Irilh j but he is always called Gort/iejrn, or GijurtJ:eyrn, bjr 




to (lie principles of the liberty of 
individuals, even to the preju* 
dice of general fecority; and 
that they were fo jealous of this 
maxifliy as never to delegate 
great power to a fupreme chief, 
but in times of imminent danger, 
as an invafion by a foreign 
enemy, and the like; and tliat 
they fnuft confequently have 
been always divided into fmall 
ftates ; and therefore, according 
to their conftirution, that they 
never could have united in an 
fcxtenfive and efficient empire. 

By purfuing the inquiry, in 
the way above mentioned, the 
difputed point, whedier writing 
was known to the Britons, prior 
to the arrival of the Romans in 
the ifland, may be fully efta- 
bliflied in the affirmative*. It 
muft confequently follow that 
they applied this art to fome 
ufes ; but, before thofe ace par- 
ticularized, it may be proper to 
notice, that it was not applied 
to preferve any of the bardic in- 
ilitutes, either political or reli- 
gious, on account of the ftri<£l 
regulation, which required every 
member of the order to be able 
to recite the whole from me- 
mory ; and . which was done 
with all poffible publicity ^the 
ftated meetings: And, this i%y 

gular fyllem of oral tradition 
was fo ftriAly followed, that it 
was confidered as a more cer- 
tain means of guarding againft 
lapfes and innovations than even 
could be eftablifhed from the 
iJfe of letteFS, according to' the 
then confined (late of written 

The principal ufe, therefore, 
which would be made of wri* 
ting, would be to note remark* 
able events, next to the record* 
ing of ibme particular proofs, 
enjoined by the laws, fome of 
which it may be proper here to 
mention. The law of Gavel- 
kind, or equal diftribution of 
property, amongft corelatives, 
had an univerfal operation ; and 
many ufages were founded upoa 
this law, which required a direft 
proof of kindred pedigree for 
feveral generations; and to at- 
tain this, with facility, refort 
would be had to writing. For 
inftance, it was incumbent on a 
man to produce a clear record 
of his pedigree for nine gene- 
rations, to entitle him to the 
rank of a freeman ; and confe- 
quently to his allotment of pro- 
perty, in his community. His 
pedigree was then in faft his 
title deed to whatever was pof- 
feffed by him; therefore thofe 

* See the matter diTcuiTedi ia treating .of the Ronald period| being the next 
£poch of this Sketch. 

C 4 records 



records were not the vague lift 
of names, which writers, unac- 
quainted with the laws of the 
Britons, have generally conii- 
dered thenu 

Anotlier inftance of lawnfage, 
requiring a clear proof, was that 
fyflem of fine and compenfation 
for crimes, by which the family 
of a guilty individual was af- 
fe&ed, to the ninth degree of 
confanguinity, with refpe£l to 
the contribution to be levied ; as 
alfo was the family of the per- 
fon fuffering die injury, in par- 
taking of each his refpedltve'fhare 
of the compenfation made by 
the other party ; and which was 
done on both iides in ratios, ac- 
cording to the degree of rela- 

Such precautions being requi- 
red, as are above mentioned, in 
preferving proofs of kindred^ 
anfiongft private perfons ) it mufl 
neceflkrily follow, that the &i- 
tifli chieftains were not lefs jea- 
lous of having a clear title to 
the fupremacy, which they ex- 
ercifed over their refpefiive 
tribes ; for, it was only by be- 
ing regularly the heads of the 
moft ancient families that they 
could afpire to their fituations. 

Some of thofe pedigrees having 
efcaped the ravages of time ;'and 
being preferved under the be- 
fore-mentioned neceifiry of be- 
ing correal, we cannot do lefs 
than coniider them as curious 
and valuable. 

To he continued. 

( 2$ ) 



Continued from Vol. I. page 48. 

AC yna yrannwyt yr yny$ 
yn dcir ran rwg ytri bro- 
def) nyd amgen, nogydylocrin- 
us canys hynav oed aganav 
oh^n deuawd gwyr groec ylle 
penavy fev oed hyhny lloygyr 
mal ydycho yteruynev o vor hu- 
myr hyt yn havren, ac oy henw 
cv ehun ydodcs ar yran lloygyr. 
Acy Albana£t y doeth o hu- 
iByr hwnt, ac ydodes ynteu oy 
henw ehun ar y ran cv or ynys 
yr alban. Ac y Camber ydoeth 
or tu arall y havren, ac ydodes 
yntea ar y ran kymre oy henw 
ehun. Agwedy ev bot velly 
ydagnauedus yn hir, ydoeth hu«* 
myr brenhin hunawt allynghea 
ganthaw hyt yr alban yr tir, 
gwedy yryuot kyn no hynny yn 
anreidiiaw germania. Agwedy 
gwybot hynny o albana£t ef 
adoeth abychydic nyuer gyt ac 
cv ygeifiaw y wrthlad or tir. 
Ac yna ybu kyvrang kalet aliad- 
ua uawr, ac yno yUas alba- 
na<ft ac adien^s oy lu afoas 
hyt ar locrin'. Agwedy gwy- 
bot o locrin' hynny» anvon 


THE iflahd was diefenpon 
divided into three ihares 
amongft the three brothers ; that 
is to fay, to Locrinus, as he was 
the eldefty and according to an 
ancient cuftom of the Greeks, 
the principal place, which was^ 
Loegyr, as it was bounded by the 
H umber fea and by the Severn ; 
and from his own name he 
called his part Loegyr. And, 
to Albana(^us was alloted all 
beyond the Humber; and he 
alfo, from his own name, called 
his (hare of the ifland Alban. 
Andy to Camber was alloted the 
other (ide of the Severn ; and he 
likewife called his part Cymru, 
from his own name. After 
they had continued thus peace- 
ably for a long fpace, Humyr, 
king of Hynod came with a 
fleet to Alban, where he landed, 
after having been theretofore 
> laying wafte Germany. Being 
made acquainted with this, Ai- 
banadtus came, accompanied by 
a few troops, to endeavour to 
drive him from the country , and 




aoruc ar camber yvrawt yuenegi 
hynny idaw. Ac yna o gyt 
kynghor kynnullaw llu aonigont 
adyuot yr alban, ac yn er her- 
byn wynthcu ydocth humyr ay 
lu, ac yna ybu yxnlat kadarn ac 
aerua vaur oboptu, ac or diwed 
yfoas humyr ygeifiaw ylogheu 
ac ny atpwyt idaw onyd gymcU 
yr avon y ymvodi, ac ohynny 
allan ydodet y henw ev ar yr 
avon humyr ual yddei cov yr 
genedil adcley racllaw ykyvrang 

Agwedy cafel o locrin a- 
chamber yvrawt y uudogoliaeth, 
wynt adoethant lie yd oed Hon* 
gheu hum% ac yny llongheu 
ycaullant teir morwyn anryued 
ev tegwcby ar benaf or Heir oed 
effilit verch brcnhin germania 
adugaflei humyr gandiaw pan 
vuaflfei yn anrheithiaw ywlat 
hoiino, ac yna y kymyrth loc^* 
rin* eflillt yn wreic gwely idaw. 
Agwedy gwybot o corine' hyn- 
ny Uidiaw acM'uCy am ry adaw 
olocrin kyn no hynny kymryt 
gwendoleu y verch yn wreic 
bwys idawy ac anvon attaw 


upon a fevere conflid took 
place, and a great flaughter, 
when Albanadus was kiUed, 
and his army fled to Locrinus*. 
Upon knowing that, Locrinus 
{ent to Camber, bis brother, to 
inform him thereof; and then, 
from mutual confultation, they 
aflembled an army, and came to 
the Alban; and againft them 
Humyr came with his hofl, and 
thereupon a mighty battle took 
place, with great daughter on 
each fide ; and, at length, Hu- 
myr fled, to attempt to gain his 
(hips ; and this he was not fuf- 
fered to do, but tvas driven into 
the river to be drowned; and 
thence forward his name was 
given to the river Humber, fo 
that the generation afterwards to 
cotne fhould have that tranf- 
a^ion in remembrance. 

After Locrinus, and Camber 
his brother, had obtained die 
vi(ftory, they came to the. place 
where Ac fliips of Humyr by : ^ 
and, in the fhips they found 
dicee virgins of extraordinary 
beauty ; and the principal of the 
three was Efiyllt, the daughter 
of the king of Germany, whom 
Humyr had carried away with 
him, when he had been rava^ 
^ing that country. Upon this, 
Locrinus took Eflyllt to be hk 
bed companion. When Con- 
iieus was informed of it he be- 
came enraged, becaufe Locri- 



aortic ac ctchi Jdaw ydiftwng 
ymeith hi or wlat, agwcdy nas 
dfllynghei kynullaw llu aoruc 
icorine* ydynot am ben locrin ac 
ygymcH y dchol or \^at. Ag- 
wcdy gwybot olocrin hynny peri 
aoruc gwneithur daear dy yn 
He dirgeledic adodi eflillt yndi 
lieb wybot y neb, ac yna anvon 
ar corine* y venegi rydaruot 
idaw dehol effillt or ynys, a gyf- 
fot oet dyd cariat ryngthunt. 
Agwedy ev dyubt y oet ydyJ 
ydoeth corine* adan droi bwy- 
alldeuvinyawc yny law ady wed- 
ud yn llidiawcvr thaw, ay tydy 
Vabyn drythyll, am tremygei, vi 
am merch gvvedy geniver gwcli 
ageueis yn ennill kyuoeth ytti ac 
yth tat kyn no thi, ac yn my- 
naffu ygyrchu ar vwyall, ac 
yna ydaefh kedymeithion ryng- 
thunt ac eu tagnefuedu. Ac 
yna y kyrayrth locrin' gwen- 
doleu verch corine*, yn wreic 
bwys ydaw ac yn vrenhines, ac 
agauas mab ohoney a. madauc 
oed y henw- Ac yn yr un am- 
fer hwnnw yganet merch y ef- 
filt ac y dodet henw amey hav- 
ren. Ac val hynny ybu locrin* 
yn hir, ac yn rith mynct y ab- 
erthu yr dwyweu iday ef ar ef- 
fill pan ^lei, ac adrigei yno ay 
dwy nos ay teir heb wybot dim 
ywrtliaw yny delei chun drach- 
evyn. Agwedy marw corine' 
y gwrdiladawt ef gwendolcu 
ywrthaw, ac ydyrchauaud ' ef 
dTyllt ya vrenhines. Ac yna 


nus, previoufly to that, had pro- 
mifed to take Gwendolau hn 
daughter, to be his lawful wife ; 
and he fent to him, demanding 
that he flioutd let her depart 
out of the country; and fince 
he did not chufe to let her go, 
Corineus aflembled ^n army, 
and came againd Locrinus, to 
compel him to fend her out of 
the country. Upon hearing 
that, Locrinus caufed a fubter- 
raneous houfe to be made in a 
fecret place, and he put Eflyllt 
in it, without the knowledge of 
any one; and then he fent to 
Corineus, to declare that he had 
fent Effyllt out of the ifland, 
and appointed a day of accom- 
modation between them. And, 
when they were come to the 
day of appointment, Corineus 
made his appearance, brandiih- 
ing a two-edged battleax in his 
hand, and faying angrily to 
him, — " Doft thou, heedlels 
" ftripling, dare to contema 
" me and my daughter, after 
" the many wounds I received 
" in gaining dominion for thee 
" and thy father before thee !" 
And then -taking a tlireatening 
pofture to affault him wltlx 
the battleax, whereupon fomc 
friends came betwixt tliem, and 
made peace. Then Locrinus 
took Gwendolauv the daughter 
of Corineus, to be his wedded 
-wife and queen ; and he had a 
fon by her, and Madoc was his 




ydacth gwendoleu ynghwyn hyt 
yngkemyw ar ycbenedyl y vcn- 
cgi yr amharch awnaetheiHt 
ydi. Ac yna ycafsant yn ev 
kytighor kynullaw liu ydial ar 
locrin' amharch ev cares. Ag- 
wedy gwybot hynny olocrin' 
kynullaw llu aoruc ynteu yn ev 
herbyn wyntheu. Agwedy dy- 
not y deu lu ygyd hyt ar Ian 
avon fturham oed y henw ym- 
laethu a orugant yn gadam, ac 
o ergyt faedi y Has locrinus. 
Anaw mlyned ygwledychailci 
kyn no hynny. 

Agwedy cafcl ogwendolen y 
nudugoliaeth hi agymyrth llyw- 
odraeth ydeymas yny 11a wy hun, 
ac aberys kymrit cflyll ay merch 
AC ev bodi mewn avon aoed yn 


name. Atthatfametimeadaug^« 
ter was bom to Eflyllt, and tlie 
name of Havren was given to her. 
In that manner Locrinus long 
condudled himfelf ; and, under 
the pretence of going to facrifice 
to the godsy he would repair to 
Eflyllt» and would remain there 
two or three nights, without any 
thing being known of him, until 
he came back again himfelf. 
And, after the death of Cori- 
neus, he put away Gwendolau 
from him, and he raifed E^yllt 
to be queen. Then Gwendolau 
came, with her complaint, to 
Cornwall, amongft her kindred, 
to declare the difhonour that 
had been done to her; and 
thereupon it was agreed in their 
confultation, toafiembleanarmy 
to revenge upon IxKrrinus the 
difgrace of their relation- And, 
upon being informed of it, Lo- 
crinus likewife raifed an army 
to oppofe them. Wlien the two 
armies were come togedier, on 
the banks of a river called Stur- 
ham, they /hot feverely againfl 
each other, and from the dif- 
charge of an arrow Locrinus 
wasflain: and, nine years had 
he reigned before that event. 

After Gwendolau had ob« 
tained the viftory, flie took the 
government of the kingdom into 
her own hands ; and fhe caufed 
Eilyllt, and her daughter, to be 




tcniyn rwng kymrc a lloygyr, 
adodi henw ymerch ar yr avon, 
ydwyn ar gov yr genedyl adelei 
rac llaw ygwcithrcdocd hynny. 
Ac yna ydodct havrcn ar yr 
avon yr hyimy Byt hediw, Ag- 
wedy gwledychu owendoleu pc- 
deir blynyd ardec gwedy locrin*, 
hi arodes llywodraeth ydeymas 
y vadawc y mab. A hxtfaeu agy- 
myrth kymyw yn oflymdelth 
ydy hi tra vei vcw, Ac yn yr 
amfer hwimw yd oyd daniel 
pphwyt yn gwledychu yn wlat 
iudea, a nai eneas yn yr eida), 
ac omir yn traechu oy vardon<» 

Agwcdy rndaw madawc yn 
vrenhin gwreicha aoruc, adeu 
vab auu ydaw ohonei, fev oed 
ev henw, mymbyry a mael. Ar 
madawc hwmiw awledychawt 
ybedwch dagnaued' chwech bly- 
ned arugeint ac yna ybu varw, 
fev ocd hynny o vlwydynet 
gwedy diln. M.CC.LXXI1IL 

Agwedy madawc y kyuodes 
tcruyfc rwng y veybion mymbyr 
a mad am rannu yr kyvoedi, 
agwedy. my nhu ymlad onadunt» 
ydoeth gwyrda ryngdiunt a gyf- 
fot oyd dyd y dagneued ryng- 
^unt. Agwedy ev dyuot y oyd 
ydy4 y doetb mymbyr odiOyuyt 
€Teuion4cr ^ llgit mael y vrawt» 


drowned in a river, which wa« 
a boundary between Cymru and 
Loegyr, and the name of her 
daughter was given to the river, 
to be a memorial, to the gene- 
ration that fhould come in fu« 
ture, of thofc tranfadlions ; and 
diereupon that river has been 
called Havren to this day. And, 
after Gwendolau had reigned 
for founeen years after Locrinus, 
fhe refighed the government of 
the khigdom to Madoc her fon ; 
and fhe took Cornwall, as a 
provifion for herfelf whilft fiie 
lived. At that period Danid 
the prophet governed in the 
country of Judea, and the nephew 
of Eneas in Italy, and Homer 
was reciting his poetry. 

After Madoc had been crown- 
ed king, he took a wife, and lie 
had two fons by her, whofe 
names were Mymbyr and Mael. 
And this Madoc reigned in tran- 
quil peace for fix and twenty 
years, and then he died: this 
was after the deluge M.CC. 
LXXIIII. years. 

. After Madoc, there arofe a 
commotion between his fons, 
Mymbyr and Mael, about divi- 
ding the kingdom ; and after 
they had fought for a while, 
fome good men interpofed, and 
appointed a day of pacification 
between them : and, when they 
were met together, Mymbyr, in a 





ac yna ykymyrth y kyiiocth yn 
ckliaw ehan achlan, ac agyro- 
yrth creulonder yndaw yny lad- 
awt dclcdogyon yr ynys kcn- 
cawyav, ac adaw y wreic bwys 
yr hon yga&es mab ydaw ohonei 
aclwyd yn cfrawc, ac ydymrodes 
y bechawd fcxloma yr hon aoed 
pi$ gan duw. Ac ua) yd ocd 
diwyrnawdgwedy y vynct ybcly 
mcwQ forcft ef a ymgollea ay 
wyr ac adoeth hyt mewn glyn 
coedawc ac ydoeth bleidieu idaw 
acy Uadaffant ef. Scv oed hyn- 
ny gwedy diliw. M.CCC. o* 
f Iwydynct. Sev y gwledychawt* 
XXVI. o vlwydyned. Ac yn 
yr amfer liwnnw yd ocd faul ya 
vrenliyn yn yr ifrael, ac euriftie- 
vs yn lacedemonia. 

Agwcdy mymbyr y kymyrth 
efrawc y vab y deyrnas, ac ay 
gwledychawt pedeir blyned ar- 
bymthec arugeint, acliyntav 
gwr gwedy bratu^ aaethallyog- 
bes y ymlad ar freinc uu ef, 
ac ef agauas y uudugoliaeth ac 
ay daristyngawt idaw. Ac yn 
yr amfer hwnnw yd ocd dauid 
brofwyd yn vrenhyn yngaeruf- 
ialem» alUui* latin* yn yr eidal. 
A gad a nathan ac afiav yn 
, brofwidi yn yr ifrael^ Ac yna 
ygwnaeth ybrenhin caer efrauc, 
Achaer alklut, A chaftell my- 
nyd agnet yr hwn aelwir yr 

fudden fit of cruelty, came and 
flew his brother Macl ; and he 
then took the authority entirdy 
into hit own hands ; and he be- 
came filled widi cruelty, fo that 
he put to death moft of the no- 
bility of the ifland ; and he for* 
fook his wedded wife, of whom 
he had bom a fon, who was 
galled Efroc, and he gave faim* 
felf up to the Gn of Sodom, 
that was odious to God* And, 
as he was on a certain day gone 
to hunt in a foreft, he loft him* 
(elf from his men, and came 
into a wt>ody valley, and wolves 
came upon liim, and he was 
killed by them. That was after 
the deluge M.CCC. years. He 
reigned XXVI. years : and, at 
that time, Saul was king in If* 
rael, and Eurifteus in Lacede-* 

And after Mymbyr, his foa 
Efroc took the kingdom, and 
governed it during nine and thirty 
years ; and he was the firft man 
after Brutus, who went out with 
a fieet, to fight againft France ; 
and he obtained the vidtory, and 
he fubduedit to himfelf : and in 
diat period, David, the prophet, 
was king in Jenifalem : and Sil- 
vius Latinus in Italy ; and Gad, 
Nathan, and AfTau were pro* 
phets in Ifrael. It was then the 
king built the city of Efroc, 
and the city of Alclud, and 
the pa^ftle of Mount Angned^ 




awrhon caftelly morwynyon ar 
mynyd dolurus. Ac ef auu id- 
aw vgein mcib o vgein wraget 
aoedidaw, adeng mcrchet arug- 
eint. Henwew y vebion oed 
Brut' darean las, Maredud, Seis*- 
filly RySy Morudy Bleidud, la- 
go, Bodao, Kyngar« Spaden, 
Guau), Dardan, Eidol^ luor, 
Hcftor, Kyngu, Gereint, Run, 
Afler^ HoweL Enweuyuerch- 
ct oedynty Gloywgein, Ignogr 
en, Eudaus, Gwenlliant, Gwau«» 
ixlyd, Angharat, Gwendolen, 
Tangoyftyl, Gorgon, Median, 
Mechael, Ofrar, Maelure, Cain- 
reda, Regan, Guael, Ecub, Neft, 
Kcin, Stadud, Efren, Blaengein, 
AualIach,Angaes,Galaes, athec- 
haf morwyn oed honno or 
awelat yn ynys brydein yn un oes 
ahi, Gueiruyl, Perweur, Eur- 
dree, Edra, Anor, St^dyaid, 
£gron. Ahynny oil o vcrchet 
a anuones Efrauc hyt ar Silui' 
ygar brenhin yr eidal, y ev rodi 
yr gwyr dyledockaf orahanoed* 
ynt ogenedyl tro. Ar nieibion 
oil onyd yr hynaf onadunt a 
anuonet allynghes ganthunt hyt 
yr eidal ac afler ev brawt yn 
dywyflaw caVnadunt, Ac ody^ 
na yd aethant hyt yn germania, 
ac oganorthwy filui* wynt aor- 
efgynnaflant ywlat honno ac ay 
gwledychaflant hi ohynny allan. 
Brut' darean las a drigawd gyt 
^y dad yn yny« brydciny ny der- 
u^nawd buchet ydat. Sef oed 


which 18 called at prefent thp 
Maidens' Caftle, and the Moun^ 
tain of Lamentation. And he 
had twenty fons, by twenty 
wives that he had, befides 
thirty daughters : the names 
of his. fons were, Brutus with • 
the blue fhidd, Maredudd, 
Seifyll, Rhys, Morudd, Bleidct 
ud, lago, Bodlan, Cyngar^ 
Spaden, Gwawl, Dardan, Etdol, 
Ivor, He6lor, Cyngu, Geraint, 
Rhun, Afer, Howel : his daugh- 
ters were called, Gloewgaio, 
Ignogen, Eudaus, Gwenlliant^ 
Gwawrdyddi Angharad, Gwen- 
ddolen, Tangwyfty, Gorgon* 
Median, Mechael, Ofrar, Mael- 
vre, Cainreda, Rhegan, Gwael, 
Ecub, Neft, Cain, Stadud, 
Evren, Blaengain, Avallach, 
Angaes, Galaes, and fhe was 
the faireft maid of her time in 
the ille of Britain, Gweirvyl, 
Perwevr, Eurdrcc, Edra, Anor, 
Stadiaid, Egron ; and all thofe 
daughters were fent by Efroc to 
his relation Silvius, king of Italy, 
to be given to the noblefl men 
that were defcended from the 
nation of Troy; and all the 
fons, except the eldeft of them, 
were fent with a fleet of (hips, 
to Italy, with Afcr, their bro- 
ther, for tlieir leader. And, 
from thence they went to Ger- 
many; and, through the aflift- 
ance of Silvius, they conquered 
that country, and they governed 





hynny gwcdy diHw. M.CCC. 
XXXIX. o vhvynydcd. 

Agwcdy efrawc ykymyrt 
brut' darean las yuab ynthcu 
•ydeymasy ac ay gwlcdychawt 
yn hedwch dagnauedus deudeng- 
iDlyned gwcdy ydad, ac cf a- 
garei gwirioned achyuyander, ac 
^n mab a oed ydaw oy wreic 
hfistvri alleon oed y henw. Ac 
ynaybuvarwbrut.' M-GCCLJ. 
ana', gwody diliw* 

Agwcdi brut* y kymyrth lle- 
<m y vab llywodnieth yr ynys 
ac ay gwledychawt yn hir oam- 
fcroed yn hedwch dagnauedus, 
ac cf awnaeth <Jinas yngogled 
yr ynys, ac ay gelwys oy enw 
ehun caer lleoii, ar henw hwn- 
nw adrigawd ar ydinas )T hynny 
hyt hcdiw. Agwedy Uithraw 
talym o amfer yflyrthawt gorth- 
rwm heint arnaw hyt na allei na 
marchogaeth na cherdet, ac yna 
y kyuodes kiwdaudawl deruyfc 
yny deyrnas oy lefged cf hyt yn 
diwct y oes. Ac yn yr amfer 
h"wnnw yd oed Selyf vab dauid 
yn adeiHat temyl crift yngaeruf- 
falem, ac ydoeth fibilla bren- 
hines faba yvvarandaw ardoeth- 
ineb fclyf. Agwedy gwled- 


it from that time forward. Bru- 
tus Bhie-fhield continued with 
his father, in the ifle of Britain, 
until the end of his father*s life. 
That wat M.CCC.XXXIX. 
years after the deluge. 

After Efroc, his fpn Brutus 
Blue-fliield poffeffed the king- 
dom ; and he governed it in 
peace and tranquillity for twelve 
years after his fadier; and he 
loved truth and juftice; and 
there was one fon to him by his 
wedded wife, and his name was 
Leon: and, then Brutus died 
M.CCCLI. years after the de- 

And after Brutus, his fon 
Leon took the government of 
the ifland ; and he ruled it for a 
length of time in peace and 
tranquillity ; and he built a city 
m the north of the ifland, and 
he called it by bis own name, 
Caer Leon, and that name con- 
tinued on the city from that 
period to the prefent day. And 
when a confiderable time had 
elapfed, he became opprcfled 
with a diforder, fo that he could 
neither ride nor walk ; and then 
a civil commotion was raifed in 
the kingdom, owing to his in- 
firmity, which raged to the end 
of his life. At that time, Selyv 
the fon of David, was building 
the temple of Chrift in Jerufa- 




ychu o Icon pymp mlynet ar- 
ugeint y bu varw, fcf oed hynny, 
M.CCC.LXXVI, ann'. gwcdy 

Agwedy Ucon ygwledychawt 
Sun baladyr bras y vab, un vU 
\vydyn eillieu o deugeint, a 
hwnnw aduc y bobyl ardagneued. 
Acaa.deiliws caer geint, achaer 
vrynty achaftell mynyd paladyr, 
yr hMmn a elwir yn fayfi^ec 
lefityiburie, ac yna tra uuwyd 
yn deiliat y gaerhonno ybu yr 
eryr yn proffwydaw ac yn dy- 
wedot daroganeu ynys brydein 
ar ymadrodion yny mod hwn* 

lem ; and Sibylla^ the queen of 
Saba, came to hear the wifdom 
of Sclyv. And, after Leon had 
reigned for five and twenty years 
he died; that was M.CCC. 
LXXVI, yipar? after the de- 

After Leon» his fon Rhun 
Thick-fpear reigned one ihort 
of forty years , and he conducted 
the people peaceably: and he 
built the city of Caint*, and the 
city of Gwyntf, and the caftle 
of Shaft Mount, which is called 
in Englifh Shaftefbury: And 
then, whilfl they were buildmg 
that city, there was the Eagle 
prophecying and uttering the 
oracles of the Ifle of Britain, ii^ 
words after this manner* 

Propbywdoliaetb yr Erir. The Prophecy of the Eagle, 

Megis y gwnhlat ywen ydreic 
coch, vpUy ybrwrw y dywyll 
ywen. Dreic aruthyr waethaf 
athecca ac ochwythat y geneu 
oflamawl dan alyfc yr holl ynys 
gan y Uyuu. O arenijev h^nqw 
ydaa n^ah^ren man ygi^v, adi- 
wyllya 4yrnQ(lieu ygyrn yny 
dwyiein. Odyna ydaa yftlum 
ewenwynic y olwp ac ar y ed- 
rychiat ydcchryn fyd achreuyc]. 
Odena ydaa Ile\y apefs^o yr yft- 
lum Uuchyadenawc, ac £|dan 
ylywodraeth yllygryr fychct 
gwirioned. Crang or mor ady- 


As the white oppofes the re4 
dragon, fo the dark will over- 
throw the white. A dragon the 
worft and the faireft, the breath 
of whofe mouth, of flaming 
fire, from her licking, will 
hum all the ifland. From the 
reins of that will proceed a ram 
of fine fleece, the buttings of 
whofe horns will darken in the 
e^ft. From thence will proceed 
a bat of noxious afpc6^, and by 
his looks faith and religion will 
be made to tremble. Then a 
lion will proce^i tbat'fliall be 

I) brought 

# Canterbury^ 

f Winchf flcv. 



nefla yr Hew ac adan y vediant 
ydivlanna rydit o rydit gwcdy 
y troflbr y keibieu yn waywyr. 
Baed danhedawc anejOfa yr crang 
ac awalbaa yay mieri tew ac 
alymhaa y danned yngkcdernyt 
ydcymas. Ochwant y bacd y 
kynnyd kenev er hwn a ryd am 
agheu ydad raegis am anghcu ki. 
Gwaet ytat^ agynyd y meibion 
ar kyntaf onadunt aefgyn yor- 
iichelder • ydcyrnas yn defynyd 
h^gen vegis blodeuyn gwaenwyn 
kyn noc frwyth y gwywa. O^ 
bechawt yr hen ypeclia ymeibion 
vrrth eu tat, ar caret cyntaf a 
vyd devnyd yr rei ol. Meibion 
agyuoJant yn erbyn eu tat ac 
amdial pechawt, emyfgaroed a 
gyfFroant yn crbyn y grotli. 
Gwaet agyuyt yn erbyn eu gwaet 
yny danio yr alban wylaw penyt 
yperheryn ac anobeithus boen 
avyd. Yna ydaw kynhwrf ka- 
dam owynt dwyrein, ac ani- 
thra yr gorllewin ac adiwreida 
lioll gedernyt iwerdon. Rac 
bron hwnnw ygoftwng twyfog- 
lon agwedy y kyngreiricr tag- 
ncucd yd ymgarant. Dolur adrof- 
fir yn Uewenyd, pan drychont 
y tat yngkalJon y vam . Ef ancffa 
luir adifgynno ohat yllew ae 
lymder adylla kedernyt h^eara- 
awl ac un clcchawl. ymynediat 
hwnnw ygedeu normandi ydwy 
ynys. ac odiruawr vod fymuded- 
igaeth ygwehenir ykledyf y>Tth 
ygoron. Oachaws anvhvndep 
V brodyr ygwledycha vn adelei 


brought near by the fire-gleam- 
ing bat, and under his govern* 
meat the thirft for truth (hall be 
polluted. A crah out of the fea 
fhall come next to the lion ; and 
under his authority liberty of 
liberty will vaniih: Afterwards 
the mattocks (hall be turned into 
fpears. A tufky boar (hall draw 
near to the crab, and ihaU mad- 
den in the thick brambles ; and 
he ihall (harpen his teedi in the 
(Irength of the kingdom. From 
the lufl: of the boar a cub (hidl 
grow up, wliich (hall feek the 
death of his father as much as 
die death of a dog. The blood 
of the parent (hall nouri(h the 
fons ; and the firft of them (hall 
afcend to the fummit of the king- 
dom as a prote&or ; but like the 
flower of the fpring, before its 
fru<filiication, it (haU fade away. 
From the fm of the old, the fons 
win (In againft their father, and 
the firft excefs will be the origin 
of thofe who (hall be laft. Sons 
(hall rife up againft their father ; 
and 'for the vengeance of fin, 
the bowels (hall be agitated 
againft the womb. Blood (hall 
rife againft dieir blood until 
Alban (hall mourn the affli£(ion 
of the pilgrim, and there (hall 
be hopelefs pain; then (hall 
come a mighty tumult of an 
eaft wind, and (hall ru(h towards 
the weft, and (hall eradicate all 
the ftrength <rf Ireland. Before 
that princes (hall bow ; and af- 
'" ' ter 



dfearall. ICerbyt ypytnct adrcig- 
lir yr pctweryd agwedy y dyr- 
chauer ylhmeu priawt yfan;Bt 
aetiaug afatbyr yteyrnaflbed, yn 
dydycv cfiwethaf ydrcic wen 
ygwefgerir yhetivet yn deir ran, 
ran adyn yr pwyl odwyrciniawl 
fwllt ykyuoethogir, ran adifgiii 
y iwerdon, o orllewiniawl ar- 
dymyr ydigrifhcir, ydryded rati 
adric yn ywlat dJelw agorwac 
ykeffir, Tanawl beleu adifgiQ 
ordwyrein allydaw yny kylch 
ogylch alynga. Wrth ylluver 
yd ehetta adar yr ynys, arrci 
mwyaf onadunt wedy yd ainyn- 
ncr eu hefgyO adigwydant yn 
dalyedigacth. Or tan hwnnw 
ygenirgwreichionen; ac oe chy- 
nwrf y dechrynant yr ynyffed, 
yngwyd yrei mwiaf ygwelir yr 
abfent; ar eil mynedyat avyd 
gwaeth nor kyntaf. Gwedy bo 
marw llew ywirioned, ykyvyt 
ybrenhyn gwyn bonhedic yn 
ynys brydem yn gyntaf yn ehe- 
dec, odena yn niarchogaeth^ 
odena yn difgynnu, ac yny dif- 
gynyat hwnnw ykeir ef yny 
glnd. Odena ydygir a/c adang- 
offir abys ac ydywedir mae 
ybrenhin gwyn bonhedic. Yna 
y kynullir y vydin ev agwyftyl 
droftaw agynierir, ac yna ybyd 
porthmanyaeth ydynyon megys 
am ei£on neu am dauat, ac 
ymendaat hynny ageiCr ac ny 
byd yr un j onyt pen dros peii. 
Ac yna y kynytygwyn ac ydaa yr 
J|c ykyuyt yf hcul, ar lie digwyd 


ter peace (hall be agreed upon, 
they fhall become friendly to 
each other. Grief Ihall be turned 
to gladnefs, when they ihall 
wound the father in the womb 
of his mothen ' There fhall 
come next a timid one that fhali 
defcend from the ieed of the 
lion; and his fharpnefs (hall 
pierce through iron powers with 
that which is we^k^ In the 
going forth of that Normandy 
will leave the two Jflands ^ and 
from the extraordinary manner 
-of the movement the fword (haU 
be feparated from the crown. 
On account of the jdi Mention of 
the borders there (hall reign one 
that comes frpm another place. 
The chariot of the fifth (hall be 
turned to the fourth , and after 
the appropriate pid^urcs (hall be 
raifed up for infult, a Wu{Vercr 
fhall trample the kingdoms. Iq 
the laft days of the white dragon^ 
her progeny (hall be divided into 
three parts: a part (liall draw 
towards Poland ; with orientaji 
wealth it (liall be enriched; a 
part (hall defcepd into Ireland j 
with weftern temperature it 
fhall be rendered happy; the 
third part (hall dwell in the coun- 
try that (hall be found unpro- 
fitable and empty. Fiery ball^ 
fhall fall from the eaft; and 
Brittany round about (hall be 
fwallowed up. By their Hglit 
birds (liall fly into the ifland ; and 
the largeft of them, when their 



hcul arrall, yna ydywcdir yn 
ynys brydein brenhin na vrcnhin. 
Gwcdy hynny ydyrchcif ybcn ac 
ydengis yuot yn vrcnhin ar lawer 
o weicbredoed dybryt, ac nyd 
arun elwedic. Gwcdy torrer 
llawer ny byd atkyweirdeb, yna 
ybyd byt ybarcuttanot ; adycko 
pawb ydreis avyd eidaw ehun 
ahynny al)cry fcith mlyned. Ac 
yna ybyd treis agordineu gwaet, 
ar fyracv agyfflybir yr eglwifeu» 
ar hyn aheo un arall ay met, ac 
ar yuucheddruan ygoruyd ang- 
heu ac yn ychydic odynyon 
ybyd kariat kyuan, Ar hyn 
agyngreirer ar ofter ybore y- 
Uygrir. Odena ydaw or deheu 
ar veirch prcn ar cwyn mor kyw 
eryr ac ymordwya ac ydaw y 
ynys brydein yr tir, ac yny He 
cf afaetha y dy yr eryr, ac ay- 
gorefgyn, ac yna ybyd ryuel yn 
ynys brydein blwydyn ahanner, 
ac yna ny thai dym dwyn kyfne- 
wit, n^myn paub abrydera pa 
furyf ykattwo y r eidiaw chun ac 
ykeifio da arall. Qdena ydaa 
ybrenhin gwyn bonhedic tu ar- 
gorllewyn ay vydin yny gylch 
yr henn lie gar Haw ydwfyr re- 
degaucy ac yna yda y clynion 
yny erbjoi, ac y Uuniethir pawb 
yny le yny gylch ef. Allu y 
elynlon afurf heir ar bon taryan. 
Yna yd yn^ledir oc eu taleu ap 
eu hyftlyiTeu, ac yna y Uithyr 
ybrenhin gwyn bonhedic yr awel. 
Odena y nytha kyw yr,erir yn- 
goruchel4er kreigcu hoU ynys 


wings ihall be kindled, will fall 
and be caught. From that fire 
a fpark ihall be produced ; and 
by its tumult the iflands will be 
made to tremble. In the pre- 
fence of the greateft ones will be 
feen the abfent ; and the fecond 
going (hall be worft than the firft. 
After the death of the lion of 
righteoufnefsy there fhall arife 
the white illuftrious king in 
the ifle of Britain, firft flying, 
then riding, then coming down ; 
and from that defcent he will 
be caught in the fhare. Then 
he will be brought, and will 
be pointed at with the fin- 
ger, and it will be faid, be- 
hold the wliite illuftrious king. 
Then his army will be aflem- 
bled, and hoftage will be taken 
for him ; and then there will be 
dealing for men, as if for a bul- 
lock or for a il^eep ; and redrefs 
for that will be tried for, and 
there will be none, but every 
thing in confufion. And then 
the white one will afcend, and 
will go to where the fun rifes, 
and where the fun again goes 
down ; then it will be faid in 
the iile of Britain, a king or no 
king. Afterwards he will raife 
up bis head, and will fhew that 
he is king over many tremendous 
works, and not over any tran* 
fient one. After the breaking 
down of much there (hall be no 
reparatipn; then fhall be the 
world of the vultures; what 




brydein, ny digwid yn ieuang, 
ny daw ynteu ar heneint^ yna 
gogonyanus fynniant ny odef 
amreint na farhaet idaw. agwedy 
ytagnauetter ydeyrnas ydigwyd^ 

every one fliall take by force will 
be his own property; and that 
fhall laft for feven years. And 
then there (hall be violence and 
fpilling of blood ; and the fiir* 
naces fhall be compared to the 
churches ; and what one fhall 
fow another will reap ; and over 
that wretched flate death fhall 
prevail ; and amongfl few men 
will there be true friendfhip ; and 
what fhall be covenanted at 
night will be tranfgrefTed in the 
morning. Then fhall come from 
the fouth, on wooden wafters 
over the foam of the fea, the 
chick of an eagle, and he fhall 
fieer his courfe, and fhall land 
in the ifland of Britain ; and on 
the fpot he fhall fhoot towards 
die houfe of the eagle, and fhall 
overcome him ; and then there 
fhall be war in the ifle of Bri-^ 
tain for a year and a half; and 
then it will be ufelefs to carry on 
exchange, but every one will b^ 
contriving by what means he 
may keep his own^ and may ob-* 
tain the property of another. 
Tlicn the white illuflrious king 
fhall go towards the weft, with 
his hofl about him, to the old 
place contiguous to fome run- 
ning water ; and there his ene-* 
mies will go againfl him; and 
every one will be difpofed in his 
place round him. The army 
of his enemies will be formed on 
the bafe of a hill. Then there 
will be fighting, as well in their 
D 3 froAts 



Ac ynyr amfcrhwnnw yd oed 
capis Clui' yn vrenliin yn yr 
eidial, ac aggeus ac amos ahieu> 
aioel azacharias yn brofwydi yn 
yr ifrael, a fclyv ab dd. yn 
gaerufialeni. acynaytcruynawd 
buchet Run* fcv ocd hynny 
gwcdy diliw. M. CCCC. XV. 

Agwcdy Run ydocth Bleidud 
J uab ynteu ac y bu yn vrcnhin 
vgeint mlyned. Ahwnnw aad- 
eilws caer vadon ac aoruc yndi 
yr enneint twy my n y r mcdcgj^nn- 
laeth ac ardymhyr yr rei marw- 
aul. Ar gwcithret hwnnw a 
aberthws t{ yr dwywes adwic 
minenia. Ac adan yr enneint 
hwnnw ygyflbdcs ef tan andif- 
odedic byth nac yn wreichion 
nac yn llndui fiamyn pan 
dechreuo difodi yna ydechreu y 
enni onewyd yn bellenev kerric 
tanvydaul. Ac yn yr amfer 
hwimw ygwediws hehas brof- 


fronts as in llieir fhnk^ afi^ 
then the white illuftriou8 king 
will glide into the air. After- 
wards the chick of the eagle 
fhall neftle in the fumrnits of the' 
rocks of all the ifland of Britain : 
he (haU not fall when young, 
neither fliall he attam to okl age. 
Then glorious profperity fhall 
hot ^rmit nor difgrace nor in- 
fult to him : and, after the king- 
dom ihall be tranquillized he 
ihall faU.' 

And at that time wefe Capis 
Silvius king in Italy, and Ag-* 
geus, and Amos, and Hieu, and 
Joel, and Zacharjas, prophets 
in Ifrael, and Selyv fon of 
David in Jerufalem. And then 
the life of Rhun concluded: 
that was after the deluge. 
M. CCCC. XY. years. 

And after Rhun came Biciddud 
his fon, and he was king during 
twenty years. And that perfon 
built the city of Badon; and 
procured in it the warm undlion, 
for the cure and relief of thofe 
tliat were mortal. And that 
adlion he confecrated to the 
goddefs who was called Minerva. 
Under that undlion he placed a 
fire, never extinguifhing in fparks 
or in aflies ; but when it fhouM 
begin to go out, then its force 
would be again renewed in fiery 
balls of (lone. And, at tliat 
period Hehas tlic prophet prayed, 




wid hyt na W law yn gwlad 
gaeruflalemi ab y bu hep dyuot 
glaw chweiRis atheir blyned ar 
vn tu> odial enwired ar y bob3. 
Ac ydaeth pawb ydorweftu ac 
yprofeflio ac ywediaw yny 
gauflant ardytnhyr afrwichlonder 
yr daear me^s ygnotae gynt. 
Ac ethcelith vu ybleidud hwnnW 
yngkeluydyt nigromans, ac yn 
llawer ogelnydodeu ereill, ac ny 
orfwifiei byth odechmygu am- 
mriuailion keloydodea achyw- 
fcinrwyt, yny wnaeth cfgyll 
ac adaned idaw ehun ybroui 
ehedec. Agwedy kymryt y 
ehedua yar ben twr uchel yn 
llundeinef afyrthiawd ar depmyl 
apollo yny vu yn yffic oil, ac 
yn Uundein yclatpwyt ef yn 
enrededas. Sev oed hynny gwedy 
dwfyrdiKw. M.CCCC. XXXV. 

Agwedy bleidud ydaedi llyr 
y uab cv yn vrenhin ac ygwled- 
ychawt yn hedwch tagnaued' 
pymp tnlyned arugeint, ac ev a 
wnaeth dinas ar avon Soram ac 
ay gelwis yn gaer llyr, ac o 
ieith arall leir ceftyr. Ac nybu 
un mab idaw namyn teir mer- 
chet, fcf oed henw y merchct, 
GoroniUa, Regau, Cordeilla, 
adiruawr gariad oed gan ev tad 
arnadnut, ac eifywys; mwy y 
carci cf y verch icuav nor dwy 


diat diere (hould be no rain in the 
country of Jerufalcm ; and there 
was no rain for the fpacc of three 
years and fix months, as a pu- 
nifliment for the iniquity of the 
people; fo that every one at 
length came to fad, to profefs, 
and to pray, until they obtained 
temperature and fruicfulnefs, as 
was ufually theretofore. And. 
that fame Bleiddud had a know- 
ledge in the art of necromancy, 
and in many other arts ; and he 
was never at reft from devifing 
various kinds of inventions and 
works of ingenuity, until lie had 
formed wings for himfelf for the 
purpofe' of flying. And after 
he had taken his flight from a 
high tower in London, he fell 
upon the temple of Apollo, fo 
that he was bruifed all to pieces ; 
and he was honourably bu:!. ! 
in London. That event > i^ 
after the deluge. M.CCC J. 
XXXV. years. 

After Bleiddud came L\r 
his fon to be king, and he ; ^ 
vemed in peace and tranquillity 
for five and twenty years : and 
he built a city upon the river 
Soram ; and he called it Caer 
Lyr, and in another language 
Leir Ceftyr. And he had not 
one fon, but three daughters: 
the names of the daughters were 
Goronilla, Regaw, and Cor- 
deilla ; and their father had ex- 
ccflive fondnefs^ for them; and 

D 4 yet. 



crcill. Ac yna mcdyliaw aoruc 
pa furf y galley cf adaw ygyu- 
oeth yw verdict gwedy cf. Sef 
aoruc proui pwy mwiaf oy ver- 
chct ay carci cf yn wahanredawl^ 
val ygallci yntev rodi yhonno y 
ran orcu or ynys. Agalw attaw 
aoruc Goronilla y verch yr 
hynaf agouyn idi pa veint y * 
carci hi ythad. tynghu aoruc 
hithcu yr ncv ac yr daear, bod 
yn vwy ycarei hi ythad ; noc 
ycarci yhencit yhun. Achredu 
aoruc yhteu bod hytiny yn wir^ 
kc adaw idi traean yr ynys ar 
gwr adewifei o ynys brydein, yii 
wra idi. Agwcdi hynny ygcl* 
wys attaw kagau y verch yr eil 
hynaf agouyn idi pa veint y carei 
hi ythat, athyngu a oruc hitheu 
y gyuoetheu nev adaear hyt na 
allei ar y thauot leuerici menegi 
ineynt y carei hi ythat. achredu 
aoruc yiiteu hynny yn wir, ac 
adaw idi traean ynys brydein gyd 
ar gwr adewifei or ynys yn wra 
idi. Ac odcna ygelwys attaw 
Cordeilla y verch yr ieuaf ar 
vwyaf agafei ynteu onadunt, 
agouyn idi pa veiht y carei hi 
ythat. Ny thybygaf vi bod 
merch agaro ythat yn vwy noc 
y dylyOi amivi atlikcreis di cr- 
moyt mcgys tat ac ath caraf 
ettwa. Ac arglwyd o mynne 
gwibot pa vcint yth kerir : fef 
yw hynny y meint yw dygyu- 
oeth, ath yechyt^ ath dewred* 
Achyffroi aoruc ynieu ar lid 
ady wedud, canys kemeiiit alienne 


yety he loved' the youngeft 
daughter more than the other 
two. And thereupoa confideredi 
in what manner he might, leave 
his dominion amongft his daugh-* 
ters after him. Wherefore he 
defigned to prove which of his 
daughters loved him the moft in 
particular^ fo that he might give 
to that one the bed part of the 
ifland. And, he called to hita 
Goronilla, his eldeft daugh(er^ 
and a(ked her how much fhe 
loved her fatlier^ Whereupon 
fhe fwore to heaven and to the 
earthy that {\\<i loved her father 
dearer than ihc loved her owti 
foul. And he believed then- 
that that was true; and be- 
queathed the third part of tlie 
ifland, and the man flie fhoukl 
choofe through all the ifle of 
Britain to be her hufband. Af- 
ter tliat, he called to him Rcgaw, 
his fecond eldeft daughter ; and 
afked hfer> how much flie loved 
her father. And fhe fworc to 
the powers of heaven dnd cafth, 
that fhe could not by the ex- 
preflion of her tongue declare 
how much (he loved her father* 
And he then believed that to be 
the truth ; and he bequeathed 
her the third of the ifle of Bri- 
tain ; and the man flie fhould 
chpofe in the ifland for a huf- 
band. And then he called to 
him Cordeilla, his youngcft 
daughter, and whom he loved 
the moft of all ; and he afl^ed 




ytfeiAygeJft ti vyheneint vac' 
liacharut ti vi megis dy chwioryd i 
mynneu ath diuahiafdiyndiran 
o ynys brydein. Ac yna ya 
diohir yrodes cf y dwy verchet 
hyna^ydeu.dywylTslwc nytam* 
gen tywyilawc kemyw ar hwnn 
yr alban. ahanner ykyuoeth 
ganthunt hyt tra vci vyw yr 
brenhin. Agwcdy ynteu yr 
ynys yn deu hanner ryngthunt. 
Agwcdy mynct ychwedyl honno 
dros wyneb y tcymafibcd y kig- 
leu aganipus brenhin freinp 
docthineb cordcilia ay pliryt ay 
thegwch. anvon aoruc kennadeu 
hyt yn ynys brydein yeruynicit 
yr brenhin cordeilla y verch yn 
wreicka idaw. ac ynteu ae hedr 
ewis, ac a venegis yr kennadeu 
na chafiei ef na thir na daear 
na da arall o ynys brydein 
genthi. Ac aganip' adyuat nad 
ocd reit idaw ef wrth ydir na 
ydaear na yda onyt y verch 
vbnhedio dyledawc y planta o 
honei eduedion deduawl. Ac 
ny bu golud ynygymyrth aganip' 
y vorwyn ybriawt. ac ni wela» 
neb yn yr oes honno morwyn 
kyn decged na cliyn docthet ahi. 

her how ixiiic\i flie loved her 
father. — I do not imagine that 
there is a daughter who loves 
her father more than fhe ought ; 
and I have loved the^ through 
my life as a &thef , and will love 
thee yet. An^, Sir, if thou 
muft learn how much thou art 
loved, know then that that ie 
according to the extent of thy 
power, and thy profperity, and 
thy prowefs. And thereat he 
was moved with anger, and 
faid, fince it is thus that thou 
haft dcfpifed my old age, fo that 
thou fhouldeft not love me 
equally with thy fifters, I tbea 
will adjudge thee to have no 
ihare of the iHe of Britain. 
Thereupon, without delay, lie 
gave to his two eldeft daughters 
die two princes, namely the 
prince of Cornwall, and that of 
Scodand, and half the kingdom 
with them, whilft the king lived ; 
and after his deceafe the iiland 
in two parts between them* 
And, after the report of that 
was fpread over the face of the 
countries, Aganipus king of 
France, being ftruck with the 
wiifdom of Cordcilia, and her 
form and her beauty, fent am- 
bafladors to the ifle of Britain, 
to demand of the king, Cor- 
dcilia his daughter, to be his 
wife. And he promifed her; 
and declared to the ambafladors^ 
diat he ihould not have any ter- 
ritory, or other wealth with 




ber, from the iile of Britaitt» 
And, Agaiiipus faid that he had 
no oocafion for his torritory, 
nor his riches, but his noUe and 
iUoftrious daughter, to beget of 
her honourable heirs. And no^ 
diing intervened before Aganlpus 
took the maid in marriage: 
and, no body in that age beheld 
a maid fo fair and fo wife as 

Agwedy lithraw tatym o am- 
fcr adcchrcu o lyr Icfgu ohen- 
eint, ydocth y dowion gan ydwy 
▼erchet ac y gorefgynaflant yr 
ynys or mor pwy gilid, ac y 
rannaflknt yr ynys ar Uywod- 
raeth tygthunt yll deu. Sef oed 
hynny gwcdy diliw. M.CCCC. 
LX. mlyned* Ac yna ykym- 
yrth Maglaun tywyfiawc yr al- 
ban ybrenhin attaw adeugeint 
marchauc gyd ac ef y eu got 
meithaw ar y oflymeith ef, Ac 
ny doeth pen ydwy vlyned kw- 
byl yny lidiawd Goronilla rac 
meint niveroed ythat, adyuot 
aonic attaw ac erchi idaw ell- 
wng y niveroed hynny ymeich 
olldieithyrugein marchauc, ady- 
wedud bod yn digawn hynny 
y wr ny bei ryuelocd amaw na 
chyfrangheu. Ac yna llidiaw 
aoruc Uyr with y verch am 
ydremygu yn gymeint a hynny, 
Ac adaw llys Maglaun a oruc, 
achyrchu llys Henwyn tywyf- 
fawc kemyw odybygu cafFcl 
kynnal y vreint ay anryded 


After a length of time had 
elapfed, and Llyr beginning to 
be feeble from age, his fons-in* 
law came with his two daugh- 
terS) andfubdued the iilandfronv 
one fea to the other ; and they 
divided the ifland, and the go- 
vernment between them two. 
That was after the deluge 
M.CCCC.LX. years. There- 
upon Maglon, prince of Scot- 
land, took the king to him, 
with forty knights in his train, 
to be maintained at his own 
coft. But the conclufion of two 
years had fcarcely come before 
Goronilla grew difpleafed, on 
account of the retinue of her 
father; and (he came to him, 
and defired that he would fend 
the whole of fuch retinue away, 
except twenty knights ; obferv- 
ing that that was fufficient for a 
perfon, who had no wars nor 
weighty affairs to be engaged 
in. Thereupon Llyr became 
angry with his daughter, for 
flighting him to fuch a degree ; 




gandiaw yria yn well nogyt yn 
llys Magi awn. AUawen vu 
henwyn wrfhaw ay dreitbu yn 
enrededus mat ydylyei. Ny 
doeth hagen pen y rais ablwyd-* 
yn, yny lidiawd Ragau y verch 
wrtfaaw rac meint y niuer, ac 
orchi idaw ellung y holl niuer^ 
ymeith eithyr pymp marchawc, 
athyghu na chynaliei hi onyd 
hynny wrth y ofgord cf adigon 
oed genthi hynny^ Agwedy 
goruod arnaw ellting y uarcK- 
ogion ymeich doluriaw a oruc 
am yhen dcilygdawd, ac ym- 
chwelud eilweich ar y vefch er 
hy naf odcbygu ytrugarhac wrth* 
aw achynnal ydeilyngdawt 
gatnthaw« Ac yna y tyngliawd 
hitheu ygyuoytheu nef adaear na- 
chynhalieu hi onyd un march^ 
awe gyd ac ef, ahynny oed 
digon genthii gyd a bod march-* 
ogion y hargiwyd hitheu wrth 
y orchymyn ef. Agwedi na 
chafiei ef dim oy adoiwyn, ell* 
wng aonic yuarchogion ymeith 
oil dieithyr un marchauc adlig^ 
awd gyd ac ef« Ac yna gwedy 
medyliaw am yhen deylyngdaud 
ry goUaflet ay digrifwch ay 
gedemyd goueilieint agymyrch 
yndaw athridau hyt ar angheu« 
Ac yna ydoeth cof idaw geirieu 
y verchet ac ev hedewid. Ac 
yna y gwybu vod yn wir ady-, 
wedaflei Cordeilla y verch 
wrthaw. mae val y bei y iechic 
ay gcdemyt ay gyuoeth y kerid 
ef. Ac yna medyliaw aonic 


and he quitted the court of 
Maglon^ and repaired to the 
court of Henwyn, prince of 
ComwaUy expeAing to have 
his dignity ani honour better 
fupported there, than in the 
court of Maglon. And Hen^ 
wyn received him joyfully, and 
treated him honourably, as it 
was his duty fo to do ; but a 
year and a month had not quite 
elapfed, before Regaw, has 
daughter^ grew angry at hira, 
on account of the greatnefs of 
his train; and defired him to 
fend away the whole of Iris 
train, except five knights; and 
alfo declared that (he would 
maintain only fo many in his 
retinue, and which ihe deemed 
fufScient. After he had beea 
obliged to fend his knights a way, 
he became grieved fbr the iofs 
of his former dignity i and be 
returned a fecond time to his 
elded daughter, expediing that 
fhe would have compaifion on 
him, and would pteferve him 
his dignity ; and thereupon fhe 
fwore by the powers of heaven 
and earth, that flie would main* 
tain • only one knight with him, 
and that was enough for her to 
do, as the knights of her lord 
were at his command* And, 
fince he could obtain nothing 
by his intreaties, he fent all his 
knights away, except one knight, 
who continued with him. Then, 
after meditating upon his for* 




gouoyaw Cordeilla y vcith y 

crvynneic ythrugared, ac y ed- 

rych ochafFei ef amdiffin yny 

byd genthi y geifiaw ennyll y 

gyuoeth dracheuyn. Agwedy 

kychwyn yr mor ohonaw ar y 

dryded gan doluriaw y been ay 

anghyfnerth yny wed hon adan 

wylaw agriduan. Och awyr 

pan ym ardyrchauaflauch ar 

oruchelder enryded canys mwy 

poen coffau enryded gwedi coll- 

er, nogyd diodef achanotit heb 

ordyfneit pryduerthwch. Oy 

advviweu nev adacar a daw am- 

fer ettwa y gallwif yi talu chwyl 

yr gwyr aoruc ymynhcu bod 

yn yr achanoctit hwn. Och 

Cordeilla vyg caredic verch mor 

wir adywedeift wrthyf, pan yw 

val ybei vyngallu am mediant 

am kyuoeth ym kerit, ac am 

dy wedut ohonot yforrcis wrthit. 

Och vy caredic verch pa furyf 

y gallaf vi rac kywilid kyrchu 

attat ti weithion, gwedy yth ell- 

ynghwn mor diran o ynys bryd- 

ein ac y gwneithym. Ac adan 

doluriaw yboen ay aghyfnerth 

yny wed honno cf adoeth hyt 

ymharisy yr dinas yd oed y 

verch yndaw. Ac anvon ken- 

nat a oruc attei y venegi y uod 

ef yn dyuot yn wr tlawd gwan 

gouudus ygeiffiau ythrugared ac 

y ymwelet a hi. Aphan gigieu 

hi hynny wylaw aoruc agouyn 

pa fawl marchauc aoed gyt ac 

ef. Adywedud or gennat nad 

oed onyd un yfgwier. Ac yna 


mer dignity^ which he had toft; 
and his happlnefs, and his power, 
he became opprefied with cares, 
and forrowful almoft unto death. 
Tlien the words of his daugh- 
ters, and their promifes, came 
into his mind ; and thereupon 
he knew, that what was faid to 
him by Cordeilla, his daughter, 
was true ; that according to his 
profperity, his power, and his 
wealth, would he be beloved. 
On this, he bethought him that 
he would vifit Cordeilla, his 
daughter, to implore her mercy, 
and to fee if he could obtain 
any kind of affiftance from her, 
towards regaining his dominion. 
And, after he had gone off to 
fea with three attendants, be- 
moaning his affliftion and 
wretchednefs, he exclaimed, 
with weeping and groaning, 
after this manner : — Oh ! hea- 
vens, why did ye exalt me to 
the fnmmit of honour ; fince it 
is more painful to remember 
honour after it is loft, than to 
fufier want, without the expe* 
rience of profperity ! Gods of 
heaven and earth, let the time 
yet come, when I may be able 
to retaliate upon the perfons 
who have reduced me to this 
diftrefsl Ah I Cordeilla, my 
beloved daughter, how truly 
didft thou fpeak to me : as my 
power, my pofteffion, and my 
wealth might be, fo ftioyld I be 
refpe£ted: and, for thy {peak- 



drychyrutrth yn doftacb no 
chynt aonic, ac anvon eur ac 
arean idaw, ac erchi idaw vyned 
yn dirgelcdic hyt yn Amiad', 
nev y dinas arall He mynheu, y 
gymryd ardyhereu ac enneint ac 
ireidieu gwyrtbuawr, afymuda^ 
yanfawd ay omeu ay dillat, a 
chymryt attaw deugeim march- 
auc yn un wifg ac ef ehun, 
aphan vythynt yn gy weir ac yn 
barawt, anvon kennat ar Agan- 
ipus brenhin freinc y ven^gi 
idaw y vot ef yn dyuot gwedy 
ry dehol oy deu douyon ef, yij 
amharchus o ynys brydein, ac 
y eruynneit y neitb ef y orefgyn 
y gyuoeth dracheuyn. Ahynny 
oil aonic Uyr megis yd archafiei 
Cordeilla y verch idaw. Aphan 
doeth ygennat y venegi yr bren- 
hin bod Uyr yn dyuot y ym- 
welet ac ef, llawcn^vu ganthaw 
ac ef adoeth yny erbyn a niv?r 
tec advwyn gyt ac ef hyt ymp^ 
hell odieithyr ^ydinas yny gyu- 
aruu llyr ac e£ Ac yna difgynu 
aorugant amynet dwilaw myn- 
wgyl yn garedic amynet ygy4 
hyt ympharis. Ac yna ytrigaf*- 
fant ygyt hir amferoed yn hyr 
vryt lawen. Agwedy menegi 
y Aganip' amharch Uyr yn ynys 
brydein gorthrwm y kymyrth 
amaw. Ac yna y cafsant yn 
ev kyghpr Ihihudaw freinc agor- 
cfgyn yr ynys dracheuyn. Ac 
yna y rodes.aganip' Uywodraeth 
freinc y lyr tra vythei ynteu yn 
lluhud^iy eitliauiQcd £reioc. Ai- 


ingy I became offended with 
thee ! Oh ! my beloved daugh- 
ter, in what way ihall I be 
able, for fhame, to approach 
thee. now, after having fuiFered 
^ee to go away from the ifle 
of Britain, fo deftitute as I have 
done ! Continuing to lament 
his pain and wetchednefs in this 
manner, he caaie near to Paris, 
the city whprfsin his daughter 
was; and he fent a meflenger 
to her, to announce that he was 
coming, ^ poor, weak, afflided 
man, to feek her mercy, and 
to fee her. When fhe heard 
^at, (he wept, and aiked how 
many knights there were with 
him. The meflenger declared 
there was but one fquire; {he 
then wept more bitterly than 
before ; and flie fent him gold 
^nd filver ; and defired that he 
ihould go privately as far as 
Amjad, or to fome other city, 
diat he might think proper, to 
take perfumes, and baths, and 
precious ointments; and to 
change his condition, his oma- 
ptients, and his garments; and 
to take to him forty knights, in 
the fame drefs as himfelf ; and 
whea they fhould be complete 
ai^d ready, to fend a meffenger 
to Aganipus, king of France, 
to announce to him his coming, 
after being driven away, by his 
two fons-in-law, difgracefuUy 
frpm the Ifle of Britain ; and to 
implore l^s aid to get poiTeflion 




gvnii )x>d ev Uu yn baraud ac 
€v kyureidleu, yn cu kyghor 
jcaofiant ellwng Cprdeilla gyt 
a Hyr rac na bythei yfrcinc vfy4 
J lyr, A gorchymyn aoruc ag- 
anip' yr freinc ar eu heneit ac 
cv hanreith eu bod kyn vfyded 
y lyr ac yw verch ac y bytbynt 
idaw cf ehun. Agwedy ky«n- 
ryt ev^ kannyat kychwyn aor- 
iig?nt tu ac ynys brydein. Ac 
yn ev herbyn wynt ydoeth 
Maglawn tywyffawc yr alban» 
a henwyn tywyffawc kcmyw 
ac ev holl allu, ac ymlad yn 
wychyr calct ac v^rynt, Arac 
Bnoffogct y fremc ny thygiawt 
ydant, namyn eu gymi ar fo ac 
CT hymlk a llad Uuoffogrwkl 
cmadBnt. Agorefgyn yr ynys 
aonic Uyr ay verch crbyn pen 
y vhvydyn or mor pwy gilyd, 
adehol y dcu dowion ymejth or 

again of his dominion* AH 
that did Llyr do» as Cordeilla, 
his daughter had defired him. 
And, when the meflenger came 
to announce to the king, diat 
Llyr wa« coming to have aa 
interview with him^ he was re- 
joiced; and he came to meet 
him with a fair and fplendid 
retinue, to a great diftance 
from the city, proceeding tiB 
Llyr met him; and thereupon 
they ah'ghted, and went with 
their arms round each others 
neck aflfe£^ionate]y ; and they 
proceeded to Paris. And, there 
they dwelt together for a long 
time happily and joyfully. When 
it was toM to Aganipus of the 
difgrace of Llyr in the Ifle of 
Britain, he was greatly afFeded: 
and thereupon it was agreed in 
their council, to aflemble the 
armies of France, and fubdue 
the ifland again. And then 
Aganipus gave the government 
of France to Llyr, whilft he 
fhould be affembling the extrcr 
mities of France. And when 
their army and their neceffariei 
were ready, it was agreed ii^ 
their council to fend Cordeilla 
yrith Llyr, left the Frencl| 
Aiould not be obediipnt to Llyr* 
And Aganipus commanded die 
French, as they valued their 
ibuls, and at tl^eir peril, to be 
as obedient to Uyr, and to his 
daughter, as they would be to 
^(imfelft When they had ukea« 




' Agw^^dy gorefgyn o lyr ynys 
brydeiii ydoeth kcnnat ofreinc y 
venep y cordeilla ry varw 
^ganip' brenhyn freinc, Agor* 
dirwm y kymyith arael hynny. 
ac ohyony allan y bu gweU 
genthi trigaw ya ynys brydein 
gyd ay that^ nogyd myned y 
freinc ar y thraean* Ac yna 
gwcdy yftwng yr ynys ydunt, 
wynt ay gwledychafiant by yn 
hpr amferoed yn hedwch dag- 
pauedus; yny vu varw Uyr. 
agwedy yvarw y clathpwyt cf 
yn enrededus mewn temmyi 
9wnaethoed ef ehun yn gaer Ilyr 
adan avon foram yr enryded y 
lyw duw aelwit bifrontis iani'* 
Aphan <felei gwiltia y demphyl 
honno, y deuweinthoUcreftwyr 
ydinas yw hanrydedu, ac yna 
ydechreuweint pob gweith or 


kave, they fat ofF towards the 
Ifle of Britain. And, againft 
them came Maglon, prince of. 
Scotland, and Henwyn, prince 
of Cornwall, with all their 
power, and fought bravely and 
feverely with them ; but from 
the French being fo numerous; 
it did not avail theia, for they 
were put to flight, apd they 
were purfiied, and a multitucb 
of them were flain. And Llyr 
and his daughter fubdued the 
ifland before the end of the 
year, from one fea to the other^ 
and chafed his two fons->in-law 
^way out of the ifland« 

And after the ifle of Britain 
had been fubdued by |Jyr, a 
meilenger came from France %o 
inform Cordeilla of the death of 
Aganipus king of France. And 
ihe took that very heavily to 
heart ; and from thenceforth ihe 
preferred to dwell in the ifle of 
Britain, widx her father, than to 
go to France upon lier dowry, 
Whcreupoi^, after they had re-; 
duced the ifland to them, they 
governed it for a long time in 
peace and quietnefs, until Llyr 
diedt And after his death, hcf 
was honourably buried in a 
temple, which he had himfelf 
built in Caer Uyr, under the 
river Soram, to the honour of 
fome god, who was called Janus 
Bifrons. And upon the feftival 
of that temple, all the craftfmen 




siiccfarcuwyd hyt ymphen j 
vlwydyn, . 

Agwcdy marw Dyr ykymyrth 
CordeiUa Uywodrapth ynys bry- 
dein, ac ae gwledychws pymp 
mlyned yn hcdwch dagneuedus, 
ac yn y chwcchet vlwydyn y 
kyuodes y deu neint meibion y 
cbivioryd yn w^ifTyon ieueing 
clotuawr» nyt amgen margan 
nab maglann tywyflauc yr alban, 
achuneda vab henwyn tywyiTauc 
kerny w, achyniiUaw llu attadunt 
a ryuelu ar Cordeilla. Agwedy 
mynych kyfrangbeu jygthunt, 
y gorefgynaflant wy yr ynys, 
ac ydalyaifans bitheu ac y 
dodaflant yn^iarchar. Agwedy 
medyllaw plioney am y h^n 
deilyngdawd ry goUaflei, ac nad 
oed obeith idi y matkyuot ohynny, 
odiruawr dolur hynny ygwnaeth 
hy bun y lieith, nyt atngen 
nogyd y brathu hy bun achilleU 
adan ybron yny golias ybeneid, 
ac yna ybarqwyd mae dybrytta 
agbeu ydyn yllad ehun. Sef 
oed hynny mil, a banner 9 
vlwynyded gwedy diliw. 

Ac yna ykymyrth, Cuneda 4 
ft^argan ac y rannafTant yr ynys 

y rjngthunt, 

of the city ufed to come to 
honour it ; and then they would 
begin every work tliat was to 
be taken in hand to the conclu^ 
iion of the yea|r. 

And after the deceafe of Uyr, 
Cordeilla took the government 
of the ifle qf Britain ; and ihe 
managed it for five years in 
peace and tranquillity; and ii^ 
the fixth year rofe her two 
qepbews, the fons of ber'fifters» 
who were young men of great 
fame ; namely Margan, the foi| 
of Maglon prince of Scodandt 
and Cunedda, the fon of Hen* 
wyn prince of Cornwall ; and 
they affembled an ^rmy to thim, 
and made war upon Cordeilla. 
And after frequent confli£ls be-- 
tween them, they fubdued the 
ifland, and they took her, and 
confined her in prifon. And 
when (lie thought of her former 
grandeur, which A^e had loft*, 
and that there remained no hopes 
that Hie Should again be reftored 
from that, out of extreme an-r 
guifh ihe killed herfclf, which 
was done by ftabbing herfelf 
with ^ knife under her breaft ; 
fo that ihe loft her foul; and 
t}iereupon it was judged that it 
\Kas the fouleft death of any for 
^ perfon to kUl hipnlelf* This 
was a thoufand years and a half 
lifter the dduge. 

And, thereupon Cunedda an^ 
Margan took and divided the 


.6(*T I 



* I » 

%dim f ihibfUjfiM^* ^ Ac y guikla 

IfoHiMd: jAg^f eU bed n#^ 
yti hedWch ^oM^blyiied^nMA 
16^)^' 'XViyY iidrwc< Tyngthibif^ 
adywedud* ^^fM>^ ^urgtoi: bait*^^ 
gywilid ydaw kynnal ydagnefued 

if |tfihfiidMlQ^,(i«<f Tmtt ^\ab 

^'^venb )l9iiaf:^ryl^^i.ib ^ 

«dy If faoA^i «fioiidjy gcitidil 

-cirjnjelo agnKiiiinfaifi^ gcuyorfM*^ 

kanedarn^ lvi>'\Ad ynai ]fUl 
ymlad giiad creulawni':ai:"giia||i' 
goreu afyithiaflanc yn gyntaf, 
«x7^yWr dis(i^nrau%an'SiB siy Ara£r 
ffiicnsi'iliiv' <^Qp ■ en bnxiljddo 
Ufadaia ayifafiowlit iWkn ijgyvi 
ny fo ' •imf'ga^ .yny iknthtyr 
Jitticff mfanf y ng^oSircy ybti Mi 
2SiuftB>^^*Mii{ii'>)uig wi jiLgwyi^ 
biQgyd%nQ^7wt.irbnDr ^ yaannidi^ 
tfii8ys.xi«ib*aed>tt .y fo peliaok 
lijaiQyi.i Aoiyihai yiacbvidnl 
^oriieif tedrjckt* ar raet^ li: 
^j^ni ^'Wjof&ws kalet, ao^emi 
rvatiri{»il6pt<i^Ac ya y iyffranc 
hwtxm ybUakiMto-gaQ; Ac yt 
^ynnyrhyt Wjrw y gphvir yUr 
hwnnw macs luargan. ac yni9 
ydadpwyt cf yn He mac maq- 
jMsWop^ nwm^ yr awhon, Sef 
.ocd hjnrnys mU« .a haaaer^^pbyfli 
»ilyn?4e*^e4yditiw/ -^ 

ifland between ihexn : and to Mar* 
gan came the part beyond the 
Humber and the north under its 
boundaries : and to Cunedda 
the hither part of England, and 
WaleSy and Cornwall, for from 
thence was his origiup And 
after they had continued fo in 

peace four yearsr fo°^c i^^^* 
lefs men came between th^m, 

ii^yir»s,ar.(h4mQ,l((f fejin >tp^|>^^ 

#fi4if^e beii^ ^ foQtr.t^i^rt^ 
fMifil' ,daii|^r /^ \^y^inmA 
4H4<^iD£ thp^^^ fligre of ^ 
^gdomi ^' ;^ fMiJi fwh^ll he IM 
JMii^AIM ivifci^g^r by ^ofe 
words, he aflembled an\ftno|[» 
and made w^r upon Cunedda, 
J^ ^SArffn, uh«)4ba^ a^jUnft *im 
Alfor caitacC4if»eiU2hAwitb.?bis 
Ji0fts todi'iberovpWM^ &trGB 
AsiA oitiel coitfii^lffook pkustfH 
Imlithe cheicfsft mftfi ftdl;^^tiB 
Arft ;,«iid Maf;e|n wai obHf^i» 
Ay ^tdx bi4 £sft9f red ^rm^ Mn|^ 
j|>ucf«0^/(by. (^ufied^ft' aai^Jm 
i&eb .friom. MUfitly. IP ixmmry* 
sAodflfter Maif^b bad^cmtlhlicd 
htt.>fligkl Wa Jie camn tathc 
Gr»at Plaio,. in . Walcs^' 'he 
thou^ it.. prefiBOible to die 'by 
the power of men« than to bo 
driven into tbe fea to be drowned, 
as there was no opportunity for 
I'elreflkting bstiagi than d^at -, and 
diereupon he tumett back, axld 
^pcft, battle, ^hen a fevei^ com- 
4i£k took place, with great 
£ flaught^ 




*! ' flaoghter 6a l»9rb..A^ : aiidiB 


iiukt confliA Margin was flaja: 


.' '.: . ami, from.that4i^yiotbJ8, diat 

-. » 

. place has be^ calM the Plajya 


r - .-; v( Margan; and thfixfi h? was 

'« . 

V ) : . , • " ^gAiied, where ibo;iipnafteiy rf 

1 * 

. :i; ^ .V. • 'i Afai!gan w>^ ftMdc^ . That xyas 


.:>- i:.. . ' arthouiaQd five ibuiyked and fif» 



*^,.- *• 

.'.v: A •) n./j . 'i ;>•)..!.. ' .i./jiW...i" "i .'• * 

• 'Ac yna f liJjr^rfli CuiieA 
•j^^ynys yii Isiiiaw eliun, a6'ay 
•gWtedychaW* (cif blybed atd^c 
'«ki^inU^ Afe yw yr aihfet 
4i¥^nnw-yd *ded yiUias ac'ofee 
•yk jjrophwidi-'yn ^wUd garuC- 
'Mm. ' Ac yd Mehwyt'Ruudyk 
'ygan * ydeu '^r^r-' Remuit a 

Jtodililus. ilrr:*". ; 


« " 

q;*' 1 v/ : 

i ' Agtvedy ©Ofieda f^kjmyrtk 
JRtwaiia^n U)h»^db6tll yr yny6 
y vab ytiteu; :ao^*gwledych«M 
;deudQng >itily)ied>' yn hed^tfth 
'digfikuedus*: Aci-yny amfer^f 
<y)diieth g^w i • gwacc . teir ik% 
;adiri dseu, a tyw bryiidd' vid 
aedn<k: tn«y. yrbglaw fc\%bMyvot;j(|i 
^jynr vaU gyr^fay»ivy,'aGaladafil 
kmUawvho dy^yoh. Ac yita 
tybu'j iaffw< r^Riwaiia\m • deng 
^mly^ed adeugeint a phyrap caslt 
^ •mil. gwcdy daarfyr. dili w,' . J 

..; .' ' 

;...Ac yna y kymyrtb* Gor^rfl 
'y vab ymeu llywadracdi y 
dcyraa9) ac .ay ^ gwledychawd 
feirh iplyned yn hedwch dag- 


•1" *i ' . 

I * • ,• • !■»* 


c/ Aibd aftertbat^Onocdda took 
die iflat)d - intkil^ flWD po(- 
Jeffidn ; and Ji(E4 goimned it fi^r 
Ihirty^three ycaxte t Aod at t^ 
liine Ifatih and Hoffilweverpmi- 
phefyifigrin thcoDunaf^ of JiBni** 
IdccD'; aodTRomdiwaifibniltJ/y 
ti» twQ bA)theiB; I^emii^ 

-In And after Gonedda^ die'go«- 
Tehkment of iheiflaiKliiirasialDi;^ 
4xyijRiwaIkm:hia )fiih^ abi ht 
-gOYismd it twekeyeaio in'jpetfce 
IhiA itmnqiBiiiiy,2^i/Aiid in hit 
^ine-theTe/irnpdh Uc^idbriiq; 
jbiBcinghtsjnilthioe^dayai and 
i(mtiv£t&iB iflc^^atarcanieiia 
JcdibtBqbence jaf7tba^ra]]i;^*aiiC 
jsefides'- diau: a; kiii3)aaf ^lague'^ 
and by 'therii:ii anil&fdde«f men 
were kil^d;* :^AnA^c|fa(in died 
fiiMdion, aididufiiiidyfiveihua^ 
dred^and 6ity^yeHis^\9!((^r the 
<dttluge; •''• '"— -T ''^'•' »' *^ 


■♦ ••? 

' And then Gbruft Ms fon took 
«h^ government oJF the kingdoiio ^ 
and he governed it feven yeai^ 
in peace and tran<}uiUity. 




X m. 


: Ac yoy ol ynttju y gwlcd- 
y^wd fei$U uab porwfti, 
chw«ch'blyncd-- - > ' .-. 

, Agwedy ynthea y gwledyqh-^ 
svivd lago -pei y gorwft fcidij 


. I 

Ac yny ol j^eu :y.:gyl«i- . 
y/fjiawd kyniipirch^ Tab feUElly 

1 1 » " 


Ac yn neffaf y hwniiw y 
gwledychawt Gwruyw digu vab 
kynuarch. Ac y hwnnw ybu 
deu vab, nyd amgen no feraex 
aphorrex, agwcdy fyrthiaw eu 
tat yn heneint, ykyuodes teruyfc 
rwng y meibion am y kyupcth, 
Ac y kcifiaud porrex Had feruex 
y vraud. Agwedy gwybod o 
feruex hynny ef afoes« hyt ar 
fiward breiihin freinc y geifiaw 
yborth ay nerth y orcfgyn ynys 
brydein iar y vraud. Agwedy 
caffel ohonaw hynny gan 
brenhin freinc, ef adoeth ay lu 
hyt yn ynys brydein. Ac yny 
crbyn ynteu y doeth porrex ay 
lu. Ac yna ybu kyfranp kalet 
ac aerua vawr oboptu. Ac yno 
y Uas feruex ay lu. Agwedy 
gwybot o indon eu mam ry lad 
o porrex feruex y vrau4« Sef 
aoruc hitheu medyliaw llad 
ymab bew yn dial y mab rharw. 
Ac val ydoed porrex yn kyfgu 
yn y yftauell diwyrnawd gwcdy 
y vwyd, ef adoeth y vam yr 
yftavell ay llau vorynnyon gyd 

a hy 

An4 if fier liim SeiiEIlfon of 
Go^u^ goyerned for ilx years* . . 

»*<»>' »', - 

. / 


^nd a^i^ l^im lago the ne« 
phew of ;;(3fiarPft governed for 

' 1 ft V 

. ? D 

And after him governed Cynr 
varch, fon of SeiffiU, nine years. 

And next to him governed 
Gorvyw Lack-love, the fon of 
Cynvarch. And, to him there 
werq two fons, namely Fcrwex 
and Porrex: and ^ when the fa* 
tber was grown old th^re arofe 
a difpute between the fops re^ 
fpe£ling the dominions: and 
Porrex attempted to kill Ferwex 
his brother; and when Ferwex 
became acquainted with that, 
be fled to Siward king of France, 
to feek his afllftance and power, 
to conquer the ifl? of Britain 
from his brother. When he; 
had obtained that from the king 
of France, he came with his 
army to the ifle of Britain : and, 
to oppofe him came Porrex with 
his army ; and thereupon there 
was a fevere conflict ; and a 
great flaughter on each fide \ and 
then Ferwex and his army were 
cut off. When Indon, dacir 
mother, heard that Fcrwex was 
killed by Porrex his brother, flic 
formed the defign of killing her 
fon that was living, to avenge 

E Z her 



a hy ay fuftiaw yny gwfg yny 
vu ya diyJlicu man. Ac odena 
drwy Uawcr o amferocd y bu 
kywdaudaul dcniyfc ympKth 
ybobil, ar dcymas adan pyrtip 
brenhyn yn ranncdici Ac 
wynteu yn ryudu pob ito Onad- 
iint ar y gilid. 

her dead fon ; and as Fbrrex was 
afleep in his chamber after his 
meal on a certain day, his mo* 
ther came into the chamber, ac- 
companied by her h^nd-maids ; 
and they beat bim all to pieces 
in his fleep. * And, afterwards, ' 
for a long time, there was a 
dril conorndtion amongft the 
people; and the kingdom was 
divided, under five kings; and 
they were each of them warring 
againft the other. 

T4 h continued. 

( 53 ) 





Of the Situation^ Forme j and ^antltte of Penhroljhtre^ with the 
tongitude and Latitude of the fame^ and of the Ayre of the Coun^ 

trey, and ^alitie of the Soyie. 

PENBROKSHIRE is feated Yorke it ftaodetfa fotlth tiroft 

in the Birtheft parte of South and by weft, diftaat ffom it 

Wales, and moft wefteilie cor« 187 miles ; and froon the greaie 

ner thereof, neerlie op{K)rite to towne of Barwieke fo^h foudi 

the townes of Wate^d and weft, diftant from it 254 mil^; 

Wafhford, in Ireland. The from the Ifle of Wight dw-ce 

city of St. David's (ftanding in potntes of the compdOe of the 

die wefteme promontory of die weft, which is north weft' aiMl 

(hire) and d^ city of London, by weft, and diftant from it 

fiand weft and by nordi, and 151 miles; and fron!^ die kfides 

eaft and by fouth, eache of ende of England B<xrth north 

odiers ; and ftx>m the city of eaft, diftant from k 10Q» wane* 

* As the van aah of fapplmefttiry matter eoUe^M by my inccfior; m neTf r 
sicant to meet the public eye in tbe flate I foami it, having andergone rery littje 
Arrangement, and as it was very richly interlarded with perfonal inve^ve and privatd 
anecdotes of ftmilies, which, from refped to thdrdefcend^nts, men of high hoivdtt 
and charoder, I could not with any degree of delicacy fuffsr to go abroad, I hfva 
been able to make nft of bnt a tery iiinall portion of l|is coUcdion^ .which,^r I 
bare leifiire thorooghly to garble and methodiae, may ferve not only to elucidate the 
hidory of Pembrokeibire in particular, but to enrich the general itock of antlquarhtix 
knowledge. i 

f See Gibfoa's Camdeoi ^K edition, pa|e 758 and 759, roLU, 

£3 iflg 



ing 5 miles ; and from the Ifle 
of Lundye weft and by north, 
diftant from it 42 miles. 

The center, or midlc of the 
fame ihire, whicl^ I lymyt to 
he about Heythok Moore, is in 
longitude 17 degrees and 20 
riiintites^ weft of the Canarian 
lilslndsj and hath the north pole 
elevated above our horizon 52 
degrees, vhich is .40 miuuts 
higher then that of the citye of 
London, after the account of 
thofe that calculat 51 degrees 
and 20 minuts from London; 
foe that our longeft days Hiould, 
by that account, exceedc thofc 
at London by 1 3 minuts,' and 
theareby our longeft fommers 
day tnuft be of 17 houres and 
43 mynutes long, and^the fliorteft 
night 6 houres and 17 minutes 
long. (Tliis much touchinge 
the fituation of Penbrokfliire^ 
iball breefly fuffice.) 

As touchinge the forme and 
'faftiion thereof, by the topogra- 
phical defcription, it is neidier 
perfe£t fquare, long, nor round, 
but fliaped with divers corners^ 
fome (liarpe, fome obrufe, in 
-fome places concave, in fome 
convex, but in moft places con- 
cave and bending inwarde, as 
doeth the moone in her dccreaf- 
ing, as where the fea thrufteth 
jtfelf in betwgcne Milfonl an^^ 
S{. David's Head, making a 

great and large bay; and againe 
towards the landward, from 
Kilrhedyn to Cronweare, be- 
twcene the two which places 
Cannarthenfhirc hath thruft it- 
felf in allmoft to the. heartc of 
this fliire; where at Egcrmont 
it Cometh within a mile of Lan- 
hadden, being accompted a place 
neere the middf ft of Penbrok- 
fliirci were it not for the in- 
croai^hmente by Carmarthen- 
(hire in that place. Soe hath 
the fame divers other inbowing 
places, as betwecne Ludfop and 
St. Goven's Point, where the 
fea occupieth a great inlelt, and 
in other parts round about the 
ihire, where? the fea doth the 
like, dealing foe unkindly with 
the poore countrey, as that it 
doth not in any where feeme to 
yeald to the land in any parte, 
but in CA'erie comer thereof 
eateth up parte of tjie tnaine. 
By thefe concavities in tlie 
rountrey's circutnforence, it 
muft confequently follow, that 
the {hire muft be but little, much 
lefle than other fliires, which 
fceme lefle in viewe, and which 
have their extreame partes ex- 
tended outward, without any 
fuch ftrairnings or partes worne 
thereof by the fea, and en- 
croached by lands. 

This much I have fayd, for 
that 1 have heard Pcnbrokfliire 
accompted of thofc that kn'ew 



it^noc, to be a greats zich^ audi 
i^ToUhy countrey, as thofqgh k 
vkxe large and well peDpkii«'I 
wbich ioddede ris cleane contna*' 
rie, 'for tbafrit caimat be eytheri 
ftored with wealtE^' being 'but 
fmalle, having in it naturally 
ipudi barren land, except it. bej 
forced ta profit, and one of flie 
leaft fhires'in Wales; neyther 
tan it/be well peopled for manf' 
caufes, as ihali be declared here-^- 
after. Thnr report. of the fliine^ 
fgrofinded I know^ not upon; 
ivhat uncertain- foundation) hath 
of late yeareS'benn the occaflon 
(as it IB thought) to overburden 
the fame towardes her n^jeftie'i^ 
fervice^ for that it hath bene 
charged with greater numbers of 
men, then fome other {hires m 
Wales, of farre more largenefs 
and better peopled. And heip 
I doe diinke good this occasion 
being offered here to fpeake of 
die quantity of the fhire, to 
mention of one other caufe, 
^hich hath been thought to 
fcave ben conducive to the over- 
charging of this {hire, towardes 
thefe and other of her majeflie's 
fervices, which is the printed 
inapps of the (hires, made and 
puUiihed by Mr. Chriftopher 
Saxton, which mapps are ufuall 
with all noblemen and gentle- 
men, and dayly perufed by 
Aem for their better inftru£tion 
of the ffaite of this realme ; by 
which mappes, if they be viewed' 

dy fupetficiklif^whhout havnc 
ing any otiiec;ngardv Penbrok:^ 
{hire feemethto be one of . the- 
biggeft {birei^'<of Waks,' hs^V'* 
inge the roome and place of a 
wholk (heeie' oft paper idlowed; 
to itfelfe, as 'though it were MKiu 
large to be^^yaed^ to anbtiiq^i 
fhire.; whereat all the reftxrf^ 
&e tvfelvfe 4bims are jristoed toU 
at the lea{l,( ubi ibmtyflaiesidur^ 
together^i ecb 06 them ' havingr 
their iiri^r'ieales of 19 n»iMt^ 
wbich may bei tl)e trew cauife 
of the error of atl > for he faiy-' 
inge couched together in* ooe 
mapp, or (Ueeie of paper^ '^thc 
flieeres of Glatirtorgan, Carl 
marthen, Brekhocke, and R^^ 
nor ; and giyen thefe four ibireff 
noe more rpome then to Pen4 
broldhire alone, it may f^eine 
to fuch as are not fkillfiiil ji^ 
cofmographie, but judge oaeiyv 
of evry fheeres bigijieiTe as cher 
fame appearerh to the view^ 
thalt Penbrokfliire is equall in 
bignes to any two of the \atk 
recited foure ; \^ercas in deeder 
and truth it is, and I will, ifi 
occafion be given, prove and 
make it manifed, that cyther of 
three of thefe four {hires, is 
largier, and contayneth mpret 
ground then Penbrokfhire doeth.^ 
Therefore, to unfold the hiddca 
error hereof, and to the enJ^ 
that thofe diat will may examin' 
and finde my fiiyings to be true,' 
I will (as well to ckare Mr. 
£ 4 Saxton 



SaiMloafivim 9/17 fault cither m 
anft or. tmanuag hcKa) as alfpo 
to in$ke Ponbcbkeftuse appo&n^ 
in hi$ Que. iqpiatiitjrt «rave par* 
dpn of the gf^Btfo. reader to open 
itstfo Uol ihe iteanoi to kiuiw 
andfeftthc (omd^ which ia* iU*r 
UgebtUe to* mack, ^e difference 
tf the feaki o£ botb mapps ; for 
]iiBb.SajD(oo beginning his payn<p« 
full aail ccmmtiotieiAfs labour of 
!^ dcftriplion o£ ibis r^akne of 
]^iigland> and foe coflpmiQg 
dtfow Wales* pafled iirfl: tbe 
upbmd ihires» .aad therein hav- 
ing joyned togethj^r the Hiirea 
of MIfiDOoith and Mbntgopfiqry^ 
ADg>ef(^y and Caroarvon, £)eoii 
biglM and Flint, in three feyeraik 
inapp^9. Qomtning.&irtfa^i;, ho 
joyiicd tn. one inapp and (lieetQ 
of paper, the great ihire^ of 
Garma£(hen» Cardigan, finek-i 
nockr and Radnor, by reaiioA 
iKhercof he was forced tc^ vfung 
them foe neene logether, thtioftn 
ing one to.wn-redd upon aflo« 
ther, that he was forced to 
make the fcale. fhprter, ahnoft 
by halfe,. of th^t of Penbrok**. 
fliim. But when he came to 
fenbrokflure^ bebg next the 
&a, and finding non otlier (heero 
to. joyni; with it, he wsas forced 
to mak« a mapp .for that iheero 
eloBfi ; and thea he g^ve a brge 
%)ace to that fluie, and placed 
overy towji-redd far of from the 
qdm is . diftance* as. may ap- 
pease by thj; mappe.theirof^. foa 

that \fi made d^ inapp in, now 

aa laige as that^f the other kft/ 

fcuir fliirea. Now, if you ifiUr 

judge rig^idy, to knoiw ^lb» 

qoanttry of ifaefe flures, you' 

may not doe, it by looling ooely 

upon bodi mapps^ but by cqi»»' 

paring, the two icales togedicr, 

and thereby you,flttU find that 

die icale of ten mylea.of Car**l 

luarthenihlre, ma^etb but feaveor 

and about a. quaiter of di^ fcalc' 

of Penbrokfhke ; feeihat by. 

this you may prove and fisde^ 

out, by the trow tciall of tbe 

fcale» thai tuh. of tbefe four 

ihijEes contaynetji nvme bod of 

length aad bredth, d»e myka 

betng multiplied bogethety aad 

xoduced into ptenaiiMUrie» (the 

onlie meajoes to know the con*. 


tent of any thing) tbei> Pen«> 
brokfhire doth, and diat by & 
great quantity ; and yet in view 
hy both mapps^ Prnhrokihiw 
doth Ai0we much largier thaa 
^ny of thenb And tf this, be m 
caufe that hath a»y way induced 
our fuperioura fee to jnd^ oi 
Penhrokflvr^ I could hnrtilb 
wiih dietr hon^urA would be 
more throwly eofomed there.-. 
t>f^ both in tbkf and all odie> 
binges fitt to be known to theiir 
lordfhipps, for their better ii^*- 
ducemei^ in diefe atfa.yQ6s. 

. The length of this fliircy fiiom 
t)ie furtheft pointes thaii can be 
iinagliQcd «>' be m^fu&xL for 



' '/ .• 


Ifi^ k (tarn Kome& )»mU: 

St. Goven's poynt in the fouth, 
^itiyi^4 M4i9 bredth, fr^tn 
t^ fiver CMdtf at £geniu«i(, 
ifi Car9iifirtl)^(hire« on thie 
eayft iI4e of the ihire, to St. 
pjividfi jieadi l^ing a iharp and 
i^ffoiipr b^dla^di ftjfetched far 
cjiii^ into ^ flea (wherein I doe 
iHy cojMO^y wrong, if ^ w^re 
i^ to .t^alp? it appeaare, that 
hwg.^wcd/to be one of tbc 
leaA 4¥s«s of Wales) is .17 
mfles S j^uar^s* It is fetve- 
red from Cagrdiganfhire, iyipg. 
iHMt^ of it by the river Teivy, 
and irom C^in&aitlienlhire, by 
thie river Ky<:h, which enters. 
the Teivy at Blaii^ikeach, abovet 
Kilrkiedy o, CarBianfaenihiiCy tfa^t 
^y (hqqtiQg itfelf on the north 
eafti Sowing laod meares from 
K^itiedy^ afore&id to Crooweie 
%tter at f^t^w^tt, ia which 
courier i9 (0i»9 nooks Peii*^ 
brok^OMi!^ i<e84^eth to the river 
Tav^ aod then Carma^en- 
(hire r^^vytii^gf it reaqheth to 
^e river 'Cle44e, but in all d^ia 
mSt, between t^ fhiresj Carl 
martbendui^ hadi encioched 
upon Fenbrokie(hire, makii^ 
icfelf larger, and diniii?iihiDg ita. 
aeighbouf • TM reft of Pen-^ 
bmkeflkire it coinpafed with tho 
fea* frocatbe fboudi eaft,* and by 
foiitb to. iMiidi^ it being aa It 
were hanging to the land bf,qw 
quarter. The fituation of this 

cott«^treyy a| ijt yMtpildeih eoipKremk 
^KCy being pkoed qn tb» fsa: 
co^ft for t^ ei^^m anduttiow 
anf of the €Qi;witrey's prodifpi;, 
t^ water, as allfoe by die rdbit 
of fonaine ibi{ying, hcHiiev^asd 
and outward boiind, for Fra^npe, 
Ireland, the Straitesi or ^nj 
other fouth or weft voyages, 
being forced by the (oudi aaul 
\ffifi wifides, fencing fay^iem 
commendations to tlie filfle and 
filing hariH>ure of Mylfod $ by 
which nneansi thie genUeroen, 
of the Gountrey are often tvett 
ftrved of many forraigne com** 
modtttes tor their provifiofi, W 
VMifh wynes, faigar, oyles, tj^ioc^ 
ira9, linen, ebth^ &c. Soe oa 
tbe othei! fidn, the lemotenesi 
hereof for land journeys, as ta 
the citie of London, and the 
towoe of Ludtowe^ and other 
Kke,, are veVy tedioufii and trodbl'* 
ibme, whereby one gatle is 
l^ound of the tfoubleibmeft iSarc., 
vexing the quieiiei:, by prooee 
from Londctt». and. the coUo- 
eeil ^ the marcbes, occafioned 
Vy Prqmoters, newly named Re-» 
btors, a generation hated both 
of the good and bad, who often-^ 
tym^S urge the poorer fort, more 
f^K their eafe then theire offen^. 
ces, to yeeM th^m comppikic^ 
^ couries of. juftice beii^ fri 

Xttpoit frpm this pUkCe) 

Tlmayre ofrbiiKsowt^^'^ ie 
fsgrAof An&ger^^dwt lefq^.tbie 



CAMBRIAN HEOIffraR, 1796. 

thcr from the Mai^d - partes of- 
England, td 4je i^ry cold and' 
percing, butftimd' to be very- 
helthy t6 the ctontrey inhabi'^ 
tknts; feldoin fubjcd to infirmi- 
ties, whereby the people live long, 
and contkiywc very pcrfe<Jl of 
health and memorie : for expc-^ 
rience whereof, my deareft an- 
ceftorathis death was accounted 
to have ly^ed 105 yeares, and' 
was at his latter dayes luilie of 
body, and always in health, well^ 
able to tnivell, <anU dayly ufcd to' 
walke a good fwift pafe, 4, 5, 
or 6 myles a morning for his 
pleafure; and:lellfethenfix yeares 
before his death, he, taking his 
journey from the tow»e of Pen-^ 
hvektf towards his hotife in the- 
country, began his journey a 
foote, willing his man to bring 
his horfe after him^ for that his 
horfe was not then taken, (and 
indeede was not that dkye) he 
having began his journey a foote, 
Was forced foe to ende the fame, 
and come to his hpnfe by one of 
the clocke^ being 20 myles : he 
carried all his teethe with him to 
the grave, and a fewe years be- 
fore his death, woulde eate a 
handfuU of nuttes, fhells and all : 
he was die yongeft of his ancef- 
toursv that died the two ^ft def- 
4€^n^ before him* My mother 
alfoe, yet- living (God grant it 
long) and two other gcntlewomert 
oif fhe fame parifli, all three in 
petfedk memory) ^calk tvckon 

betweenthcfm at leif ft 266 yeares, - 
foe hehhfal is the diyre and foyle. 

' The coantrey is inore fubjed; * 
to (bowers then to^fnow or froft,* 
die reifon whereof, as I gadier, 
is theneemes of the fea, com- 
paffing itf whofe watrie vapoures 
afcending by the heate of the 
funne, is in the midle region of 
ayn? turned to rayne, which, if 
it excoede not; iKtrrineth ncft the 
foyle, being naturally more en- 
dined ' to drynes th'fen moyfture, 
foe that it is a faying among the 
hulbilndmen, that in the fum-' 
mer, ** rayne every day is to 
'* much, and every fecond day 
•* to Ktde,** Snowe is not foe 
frequent, and continuedi not in" 
any parte neere the fea, whofe 
heate (asfome fay) butl think^- 
rather the moyfture; foe diat' 
you (haU feldome fee any parte- 
oJF the toaft continue Covered 
with fnowe one 'whole day, but 
die hutbandinen may daVlie goe 
plow and harrow neere the fea, 
when thofe more inward dwel- 
lers, have theire land faft knitt* 
witd froft. This is the nature* 
of aH fea coadbs, being a nftatter 
of noe fmale benefit to the' in^ 
habitants ; yett Aiall you fee the^ 
topps of the few high mountains 
in this countrey tipped, with' 
fnowe, when all the.connjRy 
about diem hav^'Aifted off-itat 
whiOf clodiing. ^ - 



> r 


' The foutti ftnd ftniUi weft 
-wind are vety fharp itiid tcm- 
peftncmfc; abdve all others to 
this foyle; and the tffees ev^ry 
where dppear behding and fhorne 
with tlibfe winded, foe that a 
ftranger may 'difcover what 
pointe of .tlie compafle his jouN 
ney lycth by the bending of the 
trees* -j 

Gerard Mercator commcn- 
<lcth the helthy ayre of thiscoun<- 
rrey faying, it is piirificd by die 
Iriih ayre, Uowne acrofie the 
channell into this pane of the 
land, accounting the climat of 
Ireland to be foe pure, and foe 
rarelie endued from nature, as 
to be free from all venomous 
creatures, and flierefore to beget 
ayre lefs pefUferous, than that 
of any other countrey not fo 

5r My author appeareth to be 
ncerer the mark', when he places 
the centre of the fliire at Hay- 
thog Mobr, then the furveyors 
employed by Sir John Barlowe 
ofSlcbege, Bart, who fixed the 
fame at a place about & ^iles 
more to the fouth eaft, thence 
called Midd-County. 

At this diftance of tknc, it 
may be difficult to account for 
his haviii]^ fin nly opinio))) over- 
labour'd the- topography of this 
county, With fuch tedious j>l^o^ 

Ibeity. The ar^mi^t he diawv 
fit>m Saxton^ mappe^ proreth 
but little, and would har% car^ 
ry convi6lion to a fchool boy» 
{who knows that the fcale of 
every m^P' is proportioned to iis 
contents) mtich ]efs to the miaU 
fters^nd cotinfellor's of fo wife a 
princefs as Elizabeth, on wbofe 
Ki attention he wifhes to hammer 
it. It is probable that he, in 
common witli the whol^.£kh'e> 
was at the time he wrote tiag<- 
ling from the {mart of fomc 
frefh fubfidy. 

That the trees of Pembrok- 
/hire do manifed a fingular ia-^ 
clination to cower from -Ac 
' tyrant blaftis of the- Atlantickj ttf 
an obfervation, that there ii no 
one who has traverfed die coun- 
try but muft fubfcribe riie tnith 
of; yet, with as mudh juftfce 
it may be remarked, that it \s 
the only maritime expofuns im-' 
favourable to the growth " 6f 
wood here, arid which the 
thriving groves round my own 
houfe furnilh a moft ftriking 
proof of, where plantations of ^ 
my own rearing, open to the 
Irifli Channel, only fheltered 
from the (hearing -winds abov^- 
mentioned, have (hot up with ^ 
fapidity hardfy to be exceeded 

in any (ituation. 

f - • • . .J 

Here Metcatbr, with all de^- 
fer^nc^ t^ tlnii ^at- Cofrnd- 




graptier^ tiiUu like ati old wqk 
man, ftnd ivttK a bigotry iin« 
wofthy o£ :a true philofopher; 
That Ireland is fo bleft as to 
number vcnemous <;reatoie$ 
amongft itf want9^ may ftiU re-» 
quire confirmation, aed ieeraB a 
popular error engendered, by 

pious fraud, and propd^tted 
wicbotit exauiiaatioii ; onlefs, as 
I heard a ivitty lady obferve of 

that ifUiaiiy it would be over-* 


charging it with die ills of Pan* 
dora's box to give it any other 
noxious animals than its inha^^* 
bitants of the human fpecies« 


Oftke ancient Names af the C^untrejy and that the fame In ancient 
Tyme war a Kingdome^ and jhortly after the Conqveft created an 
Earldom^ and then rat fed to the Degree of a Marquefd^m^ and what 
Kings, EarleSf and Marqueffes -have beene of the famCy and why it 

is called little England beyond fFaUs. 


HE mod ancient name of 
tl]ke countrcy of Pembroke-, 
ibire that we find in any au^ 
tborsy is Demetia, a Latine 
word coyncd out of the auncien^ 
Britiih name thereof; Dyvet, 
(or foe was the ancient name 
thereof, which then did conr- 
taine a farre larger territory then 
now it doeth, but the certaintie 
of that extent, as yet^ I have not 
learned. And diat it was a 
kingdome in ancient tyme, it 
appeareth by the kings thereof, 
which we read of in manie hif- 
tories, of whom thefe that fol- 
low are fome. It appeareth in 
Ponticus Virunnius, an auncienC 
and well reputed writer, that ia 
the time of Julias Caafar it was 
a kingdome; for, fayth he, 
Kq3£ Caffibelaa had^with h^m, 
ia the baxtqU fgf^nj^ Caefar,r 

three kings, being his fubjefh ; 
Ccrdionus, king of Albania, 
Gwitbaet, king of Venedotia, 
andBroghmael, kingpf Demetia, 
in which battell he put C^far to 
flight. Alfoe, Dodor Powell 
in his annotations upon Giral- 
dus, maketh mention of an 
auntient author that iayth that 
Morgan, king of Demetia» widj 
others, were in tl;ie ayde of 
Brougbmael, king of Powis, 
againft Ethelfi-ed, king of Nor- 
thumberland. And John Bale, 
in his hooke of die Learned Men 
of BriroQs, fayth, that in the 
tyme of Alfred, king of the 
Weft Saxons, there lived a 
learned man nattied Aflerus 
Menev^fifis, being chancellor of 
St. Davids, who was cruelly 
perfccut^ed of Hemed^us, king* 
Q^tkdf, provan<^ fo that he was 




foyced to fotfako his place, and brok and Cattearthehfliirefc, fbt 

vnat to king Alfircrf. AUbe, f6e lAtjeh doe I fiftd to be ciBcfl* 

the Auatfeftt Britifli Hiftiory^: Dyvet, fythence the conqueft;' 

nanQatedbjrDwaorPowolliBta- fi»- fayth'*e WelAi Hiftonc, 

Engiifh, faydi, that m die yAne? latdy rrtiirflatei hf Dodor 

of Chrift aOD, died Run, kii^: 
of Dyvet. ^' Alfoe, iayth the fay^' 
hlftory, that Ethelwolf, )dng of; 
England, fobdoed the kingdom> 
of Dyvetior South Wales. J>'u ' 
vers other kings of. Dcmetia' 
we find often reherfed in the 
bookes of the ancient Geneak>- 
gies of Wafes, as Aylan, king 
of Dyvet ; "Matinsi whom, i!i^ 
the ancient' Britifli tongue, wef 
callc Meyfik, king of Tyyyet^ 
and many edieins, from whom' 
many ^ntlemen of the conntrey 
doe yet }to this day derive their 
defcent from fether to child down 
to themfehm,* all witkh maiii*- 
ftftly pro«yeth dxar Demetia or 
Dyvet was, ii| times pait, a 
kingdom* , 

But how farre foever the 
kingdom of Demetia extended 
in ancient tyme, it is very pro- 
bable, that the boundes thereof 
were much broken and incroehej 
by the Saxons in theire warf^, 
foe that it cieane loft the dignitie 
of a kingdom, and held onely 
the name of a county pr pro- 
vince fo called, and as it feemeth 
in the end^ it was fo wome, 
that about the conqueft tyme 
noe more was left under the 
name of Pyvet, faying PenT* 

PoweU'iftto «:ngHfh, Griffith' 
the fonne of Rees ap Tewdwr 
being betrayed hf Griffith a^' 
CynaUj priiice of North Wales,* 
was fonki^d Ki6 to Dyvet, andf 
diere at Yftrad Tywi leavied -a 
power ct frieni which Yfttad 
Tywi ' is Ae* ph>per ' naih^' of 
Carmbrtbenftife, foe thkt Adtt 
being about the tyine of Hen. L 
Carmarth^hfbire was part oF 
Dyvet or Dtttnl^a ; but fhortif 
after it ibd ' de^yM that noe» 
more was tak^n to be parcell 6( 
Dyvet,. faviiig PeniM*okfhire im^ 
ly, and fo is it accounted at tikii* 

The name oi Fcnbfokfliire 
began firft about the tyme when 
Earle Strongbowe fubdued the 
countrey, and buiMed the towne 
and caftell of Penbroke, and 
thereof called all the countrey 
tfaereabom ; and fithence the 
nam6 of Penbrok hath foe 
wome out the ancient name of 
Dyvet in the fame countrey, 
that few or non of the countrey 
themfelves knt^ that ever their 
countrey was called by that 
name , and one onely {rface as 
yet retaineth a memoriall there-* 
of, that is the church and parifh 
of Llandiililip, which, for dif^ 




(crrnce bctwepnc that, and the 

otiief pand^cs of U^at namcr in 
iuodrie partes of W^^, is com- 
inoi^Iy called, o{, the ipbabitanu 
adjoyaing Lkin^UfiUo ia Dyvejt; 
Y" whence arofe- a inerry jeft/ 
jjcc* And at.du« day the name- 
pf . Dyvet is ooely foAind in an-« 
cient writers, as (he n^nes AU 
^n and Bri^aia ar^ pf England* 

Ir wafl caDed Penbrokihire* 

• . -» • 

from the towne of that name, 
Vfhiigh towne was foe iKamed of> 
the.Cantred or ComoK wherein 
the iayd towne W48 fir-ft builded;. 
for fo^ do I find that Cantred^ 
called in the ancient divifioa of 
Wales, and why the; fayd Ciu>* 
tied was foe' called, it plainly^ 
^ppt^aretb by the etymologie of 
the word, to all thofe that un* 
deriland the ancient Britifli or 
Welih tongue; and efpeciajlie 
tlie foyle iifclf flieweth the fame 
to be foe, to all that doe knowe 
the fertiiitie and batfulnefs there" 
of ; for this is; the very fame 
place which \s fo gre«it^e com- 
mended of Giraldus CaQibrenfiSy 
in his defcription of Wales : foa 
that of the fertility it firft took 
the name of Pcnbro, for this 
word, Pen, ip Welih^ fignifieth 
the be^d, principally or cheefe 
part of any thing ; and Bro figni^ 
fieth a vale, or any playne foyle, 

fcrtHe, and fit for. cornc, . and 
for tliat this place of ill Wales 
is the cheefeft vale ; therefore it 
was, and not unworthily, called 
Penbro, or Penvro,. by' the cu- 
pbronipof thefpeeth; andhere^ 
by. is to be noted thatthey mide 
and erre, who write the word 
Pembrok with an M^ Soc die 
true orthographic is; Penbrok,. 
with, an N. 

. And, touching the.ftimologie 
of Penbro, I mud di^^cint froni 
Oiraldus, Vi\y^ faith, Unde it > 
Pfnbrechiu €aput nwriUtJ^uwi Jq^ 
niU'f hereby I gath^r^that Gi- 
raldus although h^ bare thp 
firname of Cam.brenii8, .yet lie 
altogether was jgnorant of the 
Britiih or WelQi tongue, for» 
between^ thole two wotdes there 
is no kinde of analog^e^ as unto 
aU thofe who uoderfland both 
fpeeches, it is apparent^ 

. TjiefaydcounjyofPenbroke- 
ibeeie is ufuaDy called Litde 
England beyond Wales, and 
the^fore \ think good to fhew 
my opinion why the fayd name 
was given it; and that notable 
antiquarian, Camden, calleth it 
Anglia tranfwallina. The rea- 
fpns why it took that may weU 

§ Here comes in rather awkwardly, a brief defcription of the earldom of Pembroke, 
and a catalogue of the earls, which are retrenchcdi for the reafons aifigncd in the 
obfer\'ations at the end of cap. 2\* 



be conjedufed, for die malt 
parte of the country fpeaketh 
£ngiiih,:and in it noe uie of 
the Wei (he. The names of the 
people are meare Englifh, each 
family following the Engli(h 
iaAipn io ijunames* .Theiie 

jieds and villages, andnbt id 
feverall* andJoiie^houfes/ Their 
idyeu is asi tbe • Englifli people 
u(e» as the ^ominpn fqod, beefi 
•mjuttoi]^ :Pigg« goofe, lambe> 
veal^, &n4 kydy which' ufii^Qy 
the pooreft hulbandmen doth 
dayly feede on« whensas thtf 
Wdfhm^ doe' more ufually 
feede 'Qnmilki buttefi cheefei 
and fiu^.Iike. The pames of 
the country places are altogether 
Englifli^.as Wi(lofi, FiiStpa* 
Hafioi|lftQn« JWbertfton, Johi^ 
jlon» WtlliamftoD, Nortoof 
WeftojQ^ Sduth)iill, Southhocke, 
^c. &c* Soe ithat a ftr^oger 
travelling froixi ^England, and 
having rklden four-fcore myles 
and more in Wales, having 
heard noo EagUih, norEngIKh 
jiamea of people, or of- pbcet^ 
andcomic^ hither to Penbroke^ 
ihire, where he ihall heace no^ 
thing but' EngSlh, and feeing 
ttus reft before agreeable to Engf 
land, would think that Wales 
were environned with England, 
HHd wovld .ioifiagine^he had tra«- 
velled through Wales, and came 
into England againe. Thefe rea- 
sons, and alfoc fgr that the moil 

of iSttt ancient guidemen * came 
diitfaer outofEngland, asis before 
declaredi ihight very iitly procure 
it the name of Li tds En^nd he* 
ypod Walesy but one' thing more 
ere 1 give over hcfe,; wliich per* 
fuadeth me much to thinks that 
it was in ;ancient tyme in judg- 
ment of theiawcs of England, 
helde aa» pane 'b( England, for 
whereas ^yale5 was in the eyk 
of the M-w^s of England, held 
fd be a kiiSgdoi» of itfdfe, Imd 
lioe parte df the kingdom of 
Engla^, and themfore die iawe 
eiyuvtes'^df Wcftwinftcr would 
not,' nor eouM we»t direft prbees 
to the ^fioers of Wales ; for that 
thefa cdustes did not hold Wdles 
'^thin, or fubjeft to theire jti- 
lifdiftion, and- thereupon is 
grounded the maxime, quod 
Bre^e D^mM Regesndn currit 
in ff^alifarfh^yett h it manifeft, 
that the king's wfitt in at^cient 
tyme did runne into'Penl>roke-i 
iheere,' for it a^peareth by the 
new booke 6f Entryes, folio 
229, that a plea of Dower,- -de- 
pending in the countie oourt of 
Penbrok, amioS'*. Hen: 6. was 
remov'd to tlie court of common 
pleas at Weftminfter, by awritt 
dired^ to the earle of Penbrok^ 
to remove the caufe, Humfrey, 
duke of Glocefter, being then 
earle of Benbrok: whereupon, 
as it appeareth, die fayd record 
was removed. Alfoe, it is ap- 
parent, that tempore Edw: 3^ 




imcs were loncQ m toe cofiMnon 
jie^ at Wdhninllcr« of luxb 
in Paabrokdhir& A:nd in the 
lajd Dcwti book of Entryes^ 
ibl:.74w tit: Affife in Oi&ce, 
tint in anno S^ Ucnx 6* it ftlibe 
appeatethy that an afllfe wat 
brought before die juilicet at 
Weftmififter, for the OflBce of 
oonftiibkihip of the caAle a[ 
U^whtdeH} as aKA/bjr maDy 
otb^r cinciem fniucrs of records 
it eppearethy that contrary to 
the former maximei the king*« 
writt did ronno ill aneieht tym^ 
into Walesi a«:th6ogh the la we 
didtlien account Penbrofce(hipe 
as parte of England^ and not 
anf parte of Wales, and fae 
might aUb the ratb^ be tcrlijed 
{Jttell England. . . 

* % It is oioft likelyi sUid I atn 
ape to fuppofe, that GiraUus 
Cambrenfis was not ikiUed in 
the Brkiili tofiguep y<st for his 
dti(i>iti9n of fenbro^ I tliink 
my author b^ars too hard npon 
bitn. For Pen .certainly fignifies 
bcad^ and bro^ in-m^ny parti 
of South Wtile^t fignifies a niaf 
ritime fkitation; but why may 
vc not feek out another ety* 
mology for Feobrock, which 
very probably was the original 
word, which is the head of the 
foam ; a charader that belongs 
pecvUarly to the eftoary of Pem« 

Urake, etery tidb brk^ti^ whft 
it a great foam or froth, aa 
riiing fuddenly and IbreeB 
throu^ a naitow got* 

% There ato fome triio havt 
mide a divifion^ Aeprinci*- 
pality into Nordi,vSotRh> and 
WeA: Wales, which lMt«r por<. 
tion only th^y atlow^ to be what 

was antiemly ■ dtJkA Dyfed in 

its fuUeft extent, Utid of chlit 
opinion, itiy friend Mr. Edwltrd 
Llhwydi with Wlioiii I kteijr 
Mooted l!hat pointy endeaVduring 
tb tofivitice him tfiat heliad not 
given the,ft]b^<5l dtie eoft^ra^ 
tion, ds ffom evi^entfe^ ttf g^ld^ 
atitl^nity it clearty a^ftrefh^ 
(hat Dyf«d tiGin{)i«heAdeld ivliat 
19 now called South Wales* s(t 
leaft, however^ it is n«Kt ihrank 
dp into Pttnbrokeihi^ aliVn^. 
Sir John Pryfe, wh6 Was n6t 
meanly {killed in the antiquiti^ 
of his eounbyy Calts hjM 
** DtmitUa Jirgu qua nttnt 
AuftralU ff^altia;' and the Liitt 
Landavenfu mig^ be ciied iH 
many phoes by way of eoo&L 
matfon, but one extrad fh>m 
ihat.amient and curiotis tcff^^ 
^fitory, which I have it in m^ 
power to refer to may fuf* 
fice to put the matter beyon4 
difpute* At the head of any 
family card (which was At 
joint labour of two of the greateft 

♦ Tkefc marked tbui { are the additloai aad ;eiM|Ju of Jo|i& I«wi8| £Ai* 




heralds bf their day, Thomas 
Jones of Fountain Gate, and 
Robert Vaughan of Hcngwrt) 
thefe is taken from the took of 
Landaff an account of Arcnl 
Law HiTy a prince of Dyfed, 
from whom I trace my defcent, 
fiodowing the Church of Landaff; 

with certain parts 6f his territo* 
ries ill ^ Glamorganfhire and 
BreckRocklhircy whi^h at once 
oveifets Mn Lhwyd's notion' 
that Dyfed included only Car- 
diganfliire, Penbrokefliire,' ^nd 
Carmarthenfliire, which he calls 
Weft WaIe6^ 

CAP. .IHt 

tyhat Nations and People inhabited this' Country in ancient Tyme^f^ 

and from whence the notff Inhabitants are ancjentfy de/cended» amf 

from what Countreys anrf Places^ and when qnd how they came 


WHAT people hath b^n the dcfcription of the iheere, as 

fent into Penbrokefhire of the Normans and Flemings 

to inhabit the f^me, will be qfteQ that were brought thither by 

touched upon in divers partes of Amolph Montgomery, Eiirle 

. * Whctber Dyftd and DemeHa vere ever eoismenAiratei or vhaC wa« the cei^eia 
extent of it, may be perhaps 4iii€ttlt to afcertaia, yet the boek of Laadaf, above • 
referred to, cJearly prores that it contained more than what wu tinderAoed by Weft 
Walf^s; alloviog of fuch a diviiion, and there is ample eTidence that, ho veyer, Dyfed 
might hare eompriaed all South Wales, the Reguli of that petty kingdom had aliraya 
t^eir rojnil refidene^ ia Pepibrokeihire ; for in that antknt eoJte^oa of WeUb «d« 
xnances, entitled Af^ir«jgi«ir, Pwyil^ prii|ce ^f Dyfed, is |atd to ))^ve once fet out ^ 
httnting tq the yaJe of Cuch from his palace of Narbert)i ; and Gwynfardd| prince of 
B^'fed (improperly called Gvynfavr in the lift of Hovel Da's aiBilants in compiling 
his lavs) had a hafttiag feat at Ty &&jyn on Taf, then in Pembrokefliisc, whkh h^ 
ipode choipe of t^ hold hia parliampnt at, on the ibiemn Of cal|on of fsttliog his <{odo of 
lavs— As t)ie pjUivH of )>oth Pvyll and Gvynfardd occqr In the pedi|^ of my an-r. 
ceftors above cited, now in my poflelfion, Ibrpung links in the family chain, which, 
rtins up ^m the time of William the 3(1. to that of Julius Cc&r, for the gratification 
of Ibch at mi^t .vilh to ice a Ijpedmen of unb>oken Welib genealogy, I ihalt 
here «xtci|d out a part of i^ \iy goiiit> ^P ^ Pvy]l| and hla lo^mediate a|icfitoi% 
t^os : Johii |L.fwis, £f<|. of Mana^mawaa, a^ John, ap George| ap J«ewis, ap J9-i^.h« 
ard, ap James, ap Jenldn, ap Howel, ap Jenkin, ap Rhys, ap Rhotpert, ^p Owen, ap 
Hobert, ap Gwrwared, ^p GviUm, ap Gvrvared, ap G«iiim> ap Gwrwitred o^ 
Kemeya, ap %9he$V^ V»rddj ap GwiQ^rd4 Jh^^p >P PwyU P^ndeiSff DyM^ epT 
JjCeurugr kingoC Pyfe<|9 &p Arcol law hi^, ap P^r^ y dwgrain, ap U^yr heq. | cdiU4 
go farther, placing one end of the chain in Pembrokefliire, and faftening tM other to 
Mount Ararat, but that I am fearful of incurring a fufpicion of giving in too much tq 
thai Cadwal^derJifasiai vjiich poifeiQdoar fotmer Heralda |o rather avioleat extrepe, 

F StrQPgbow, 



Strpp^^ 9a4 Aft ¥)mJ>igs 
fent by King Hen: I'*, rititlier, 
su^ l)y. Kiiag Stpfibem JPot CO 
<)ifccH)ffe. fpfoe ^h^t' mors pitr- 
ti^ul^r fhetreol' lA ^13 pU^f it 
V^y reqjutre to. go further back 
^ tHCit 4 lictcU of fdl Wales. 
For till the coming of WiU)9iil 
the Conqueror into England, 
the fame was quietly poflefled 
by the Britaines, (the WcMh- 
men, foe now called, \i^o were 
the iirft mhabitantcs, and of 
whom there arc to this tyme 
many ancient gentlemen, which 
can, by good authorities trace 
their defcent f^om div^rfe fa<r 
moufe and illuflrioufe £simiUefi, 
that did poflefle great patriipo* 
i}ies, as (hall appear in the par- 
ticular places, whereof I (hall 
have .oocafioQ to ^peak dien 
when I come to treat of their 
proper habitations and l^oufes. 
TMe anci^t iphabitantfi had 
for dieir (ommigns^ prince^ of 
Wales being in thofe daycs, to 
lylioin they yielded their whole 
obedkacp^ not. owniag another 
fcperior oir ea^, ^ntHl iiK»t>y 
after rite cponqucft, the. Normans 
^yiPg^(uhd^ed and (uiipla];it9d, 
dieJSij^eiiJaAgs.aod noUcs out 
•f Eftglant!^ thirffe* likewMe, 
for ftp Vight arid countrey of 
^^^ ,W4& prit^gs^ and .b^gw 
lo tfiadce watTD» upon them aHb, 
and (feily intrudied then* borders, 
givpg fuch pajtes'of th^ coiioh/ 
t]9^it(^ the. lodes of Eogbnd aa . 

iboj w^tild or cookl wynh and 
keepe from the Weininien» 
whereby iirttb Eogiiih bides 
WOOD from die prt«oe$ of Wales 
and their fubje6b, whole coua- 
tryes inWales,andbuildedcaftlcs, 
towncs^ and ftrong boldea, and 
peopled the fame, with Englifli. 
garrifons to keepe the fame ; by 
this meanes FitKhamon wonn 
the Countrey of Glamorgan, 
Bernard, Newmarch, Breck- 
nock, Hamdin de Baladon, the 
iordfhip of Abergavenny ,Londre, 
the countrey of Kidwelly, 
Lacies, carles of Lincoln, the 
lot4ihip of Denbigh* Gsa^, the 
lordflxip of Ruthin, ^ford^lelS, 
Bromfield, and Ya)e» Brewifc, 
t}ie iQrdihips of ,Gower and 
Buellt, Martin, l^owres, the 
loidfliip of Knaetf, and to con- 
clude, by this means came Ar« 
nolph Montgomery, and Gilbert 
$croqgb(Hy to Dyvct or Pen^ 
brokefliire, and Aibdmng it, 
planted there his Norman gen- 
tlemjeo and others he brought 
with biiiiy ivhofift ifluM eaifOf 
divers lordAips and manors, 
theti given to them by thofe 
theirc hordes to (l^s day ; hut as 
£br 4^e FfeflQiflg», tkere k no 
ftiewo of any Ttmriant of ihem 
left, for, if any of tl>cir jijogeoie 

rie> thereof with dleir hrngBag^ 
;^ufte forgotten; butl^tn per- 
fp^dedi. that divers of tiio CO«v^' 

lOxoiL.pcppH fwa^pacB^ aod b^ 


i i 






fcotirert bf flyfe countriy, art? 
Ajlbcnaei 6f tHdfe'hemihgs, fol; 
fdiiie rdtfohs'that iftduce ttie foe 
to think, Hvli:ic>i :l '^\l^ m riihiei 
dpi places^ aecldfi^ hefeiifteh 
That ^YAOi ptrfuadfeth itte t<y 
diittltfc ilhat Afe 'moftpart of tW 
gerWemth bf the 'ihi'tt notv* 
KVb^urfe t^Htei- liofmanstH'arf 
ailV olHer natibA li,- thcSe 
hame^ H^iCh moft commonly 
tn ^c tiguttiihg Was co^yd 
^1* ihefe frtr^h articles fJ^ /4 
bt Di F!h, Mhi hich lite, ^hith 
36^ 'mattffeft Aeit^ ttefc^nts to be 
bf the f Tenth ; yet, nbtwith- 
Jtahdiiig ftiAity of them, If not 
Major pArts ^ere Savons, ' foi^ 
wherwife the Engliih tongiii 
had nbt fceh fteire comiirbil 
and mother fpeech as it Was, 
for the conqueror brought with 
him, for the moft pane, moere 
Frenchmen, and purpofi^* to 
have unrooted the Saxon or 
CfS^iftitt^^dwif Enjgtend, 

f^ll Afey wrife feach ^o other iri 
Engfifh, ^n^TiBt rh tfie'fpeech^ 
fhey Tlftiaily talke. ' The rfea- 
t6Ti is "itit xkt &ey have tb wnte 
ixi the one, *and hot ufing' to 
^rite in the other, and foe was 
tTl'^ Ehglifilf grt)^^e" out of 
fafbion for the fpace of a lOO 
or 200 yeares after the conqueft, 
and uTed bnel^ among the'bafeft 
iortk <rf pefople, the nobles anc! 
gcntlfemfeh bfing one!yth(^Ffeh<5H 
tdn^ue, arid 6i tHofe fetters y 
^r6n(5h 1 c^n yet Jhew fpWitJ 
very ancient tvHtteri betwec1[i 
(hoft, that in rfll Kkelihobd anil 
prefumpticrn, did libt xindeHtaridf 
the language, bb^ only <hat th^ 
cietlcs; tvho wiW thofe tetiersj 
we^6as unapt tti \Vrtr'einEngli'fh: 
as thfe Welrtimen, at this day, m 
theire owite langtiV^6 ; ahtf by 
this theire Englifh fpeeche her^ 
in Penbrokefhire, I gather that 
the greatcft parte of thofe people 
diat came imo Benbrokefliirey 
with thefe earies, Were Saxonn 

as may K4? pferieftred among imd Engliftnnen; JInditisvefy 
many oth^r Aiiigs, by his turii* IWce that the con^erof having 

ingof tfieirratvesihtoflie French, 
and foe, long^fter the conqueft, 
the Engllfli fonjgui was had in 
fuch contempt, that the better 
forte rcfufed to fpcake it, and thofe 
that lAieS to talk in Englifh werQ 
yef ufed to write to each other 
mlihe r/encK*t*ohgue, as it li 
now iifed among tbe Welrtimen, 
who, altnouph tliey ufually 
Jpealcc' the' WeT/h touguej yet 

mm * ^ • * 

a pvriK^e to fuppkait the Eng^ 
li(h . nation out of England, 
would rathfer imploye them ftnd 
the Flemings in the w^rres 
againft the "Ct^elrfimcn then the 
Frenchmen he brought with 
iihn, faving fuch, as were of ac- 
count» and which he meant to 
prefer by the fejvice. 1 have 
fought^ dicrefore, toconfirme my 
aflemon herein, by gathering 
F ? to^etlicf 



together the French names^ 
which I finde to be of ancient 
tymc, men of fort in Penbrokc- 
ihire, a few of which follow, 
and for the reft, I rcfcne you 
to ihcm in their place, when I 
come to treat of theire habita- 

^ Here occurs one of the 
many biatufes whicli wc have 
to regret in this work, which 
^e author, no doubt, had in 
contemplation to fill up, but 
which, though I have made all 
the enquiries, and have been 
put in pofieflion, moft liberally, 
of every thing fuppofcd to have 
been coUcAed by him, I can 
find no document wherewith to 
fupply; and I muft confefs, that 
however frcfli they might have 

been in his time, the traces are 
now fo faint, of there having 
been many French names, be- 
ginning with De la and Fitz^ 
d)tt I cannot cite one to juftify 
a fuppofition of a f'rench de- 
fcent : but that thore are many 
of Flemiih extra^on, the names 
frequent and common in the 
country, do clearly prove; the 
manners, cuftoms, and a certain 
jargon of language of the inha* 
bitants of Roos and Caftlemar- 
tin Hundreds, being fo diffimi- 
lar from what we meet dfe- 
where in Wales, unle& it be in 
Gower ; and, as I learn, a kin 
in many refpefts, to the cha- 
raftcr of die low countries, 
i^t^ thence undoubtedly they 
have derived their origin. 


Thai the Countrye is how inhabited by three feveraU Nations ; asy 
tFelfbmen^ the remnant ef the ancient BrttenSj and firfi Inhabitants 
»f the Countrij ; Englijhmen^ brought thither at the Conqueji there- 
rf; and by Irijhmen^ which d^e doyly ferric over thyther out of 
Ireland: and of the languages fpoien by thefe three Jcwrall Nations. 

THIS flieerc is taken to be 
divided into two partes, 
the Engliflierie apd Welflierie, 
as fliall be more largely declared 
hereafter in the particular chap- 
ter thereof. The upper part of 
the (hire, which I call the 
WeKhery, is inhabited by Welfli- 
men, the firft knowii owners of 

the countrey,' and are fuch as 
were never removed by anycon- 
queft or ftranger that wonn the 
country: thefe are the people 
of the hundreds of Kernes, CiU 
gerran, and Dewifland, iuid parte 
of Narberth, in which hundred]^ 
there are divers ancient gentle-^ 
men, that to this day doc bould 



and keepe theire ancient hoiifes 
and defcents from dieir anncef-^ 
tors, for 400, 500^ 600 yeeres,- 
and more; for, notwidkftan^ng 
ihatKemrBs was con^erod fay 
Mardn Toivres, yet for that 
die people of the cdnntrey 4U 
tiot hould but till tbe uttermofl:, 
Ime yeelded after one battell, he> 
gave divers of diem dieire an- 
cient landes to hold of himy and 
did not utterly uliroote them, as 
was done with the inhabitants 
of Roofe N^berdi, Caftle Mar* 
tin, and parte of Dougledy were, 
and Englifliemen placed in their 
roomes; and theiefore die in- 
habitaiits of Kernes, doe vaunt 
ef dieire 'g;rea€ antiquitie, much 
before any otfaeta. of the fhire^ 
accounting! diemfelses more an- 
cient gendcviicii in^die oonntrey^- 
then any of < diofe that came 
diidier wkh Stson^xiw ; and 
diefe gcodemea ^ve .yet many^ 
ancient faouKeS in &t countrey, 
which prefenec . their defcents to 
diis day, and well knowne by 
goode proofe of ancient writings 
and recordeflS,' that theire ancrf- 
tors have benn owners of thofe 
]and» they now enjoy,' many 
yeapes before the coming o£ 
Strongbow intp this country, 
which was in die tyme df Hen: 
1*. — Alfoe it feemeth that ano- 
ther caufe moved him to fuflR:r 
die ancient iidiabiters of Kemes 
to enjoy their patrimonies, and 
made die WeUhmen the more 

willing to ^Id their obedience 
to him, is the agreement which 
was made betweene his fonne, 
Sif WiUtam Martyn, when he 
ihatried die Lord Rees his daugh- 
ter, then Lord of Keilies; foe 
diat it fhotdd feeme, that die 
ftiyd William came to quiet pof-' 
fcffion of die (ame, as well by> 
his oym matche, as by the con-' 
queft of the fame: and of this 
Ghaldus Cambreniis f{ieakedt,* 
of die injurious dealiti^ of the* 
fiiyd Lord Rees widi Sir WiUiam^ 
Martyn, when he purpofed to 
hf«ake with him for die Caftle 
of Nevame; but howfoever it- 
fell out, certain it is, that the 
ancient men of Ketnes weie 
not utteriy deftrdyed, as we 
finde, that to this day, notwitb* * 
ftanding die countiiey was fub-' 
dued by an invader, ftiil the firft 
inhabiters remain there, and this^ 
is the caufe diat they yet re- 
taine dieir inheritance, and tbeir 
ancient language, theWeldu ^ 

. Dewi's land being long before 
given to the bifhopps of St. 
Davids, by die ancient princes 
of the country, the men of warre 
c£ that age, aqcompted it a pro-: 
phane and impious ofience, to 
attempt any thing againft the 
pofleifons of die church, and 
dierefore they remayned in quiett, 
a^d the countrey, never harra- 
fed ; wherefore this hundred re- 
tayneth and'ufeth tbe ancient 
F 3 language^ 


CAMBRIA^* )|J§©I$1BER, 1796. 

s^ ^Q. Ij^ip^' wasi nQPm kf 

M^tio, ^u\»ttfti% and mpft.ofi 
tXHigkdy Hhu)^! th^ bUhop'^i 
Ipr^ipf «xc9pf€4 v^t»; N«holy 
pvl^ to fire . wi, itVQr4 by tbM 

thpfepf^ ani fl^QRte* tte ctfpfH 

rem^yne there til} tki^ d^yi M 
may appe^Ff?. bjr thflirn»m«<l» 
in^imfi;, axMl'languago^ fp^^kJQg; 
ait<3g?thQr thc.tlipgltfli, a^ difr? 
faring in mivii^^s, 4i^» hWi^i 
ding and tiHiiij^itf the U^^. iro0)i 
tltt Vfj^rfm^h an^ ^Ithouglk 
this bee now iwer^ liOQi y^arfife 
pAft,. yet doe. tlifife.Cwo. QSiti<M) 
kfic^.ccH ffom.dcaJiiig mth.tll«i 
other, as mocte {txiangersy fo^i 
that the tneaner foitc^ vf p^oj^ 
^iviUrnoti Qor doth mot ^i&KJl}t 
joyne together in manage, al- 
though they be in.onehpodrid, 
aod fomotytiies in the facnQpfltr. 
ttih» noE comerce oc biiy, bttH 
m open faircs foe that you ihaU> 
finde in. one pariih» 9, pathevHa|r. 
parting tlie Engliih from the, 
Welih, and the one fide fpeake 
aU-EngliOi, the other all WeUh> 
and di^ring in tilling and mea« 
furii^ of the land, and divers 
other matters. And now tins, 
diveriltie of fpeechea breedeth. 

catimtf:. Miad9ifi§g4 .^ Plhfli 
urotylsk 4n4r yet wtf^ tke^i ^g^, 

«|K>tV th^ «m^9 <>f 4liP P^^tt^ b^ 

£Mn0.ttprO(|QflCi $>¥€«T>ft f«V;<nfjtt 
of die rt ft ojEith^ ?ftnpft . tj^e 4^ 
W«r« Brtg1i(h« the o^^f^ wH 
^Qderft^diog)^^ w^ofEgis 
gU(h, hftve faflRd^qinthwe da^ef^ 
tijjPIl thfl roatfliTv th?. 9Vfi n% 
v^Wfi to fpeal^.tQ ^.Ojtl>€r. 

•fi • 

. As; £br the InlhiiMii, they .ma 
fi>fi powdtid .Among the. Iiibiiliif' 
tools of.ftou^jandioafteU hiafi^ 
tynv thaiL in> oKer^.vHiage' yoiri 
ihidl )fin^^ 4bt 8V'4^.. oc 5^. 
h^nfthoUer aoi kiilnhan ; and 
QfltRjof'.laie lihfiy? (^npc mace 
diftn in tyoafea-pafty Hy 9ea£na'o£ 
thde late >wairds mihaSiaaA ; and 
if iribe «onimiio fer !dic tyme- toi 
GoiBiiy inikorttymfftiiley arelike 
to^'inatchfi die otbdriinbalntants 
ili:ncimbcr: thefhjffir tfae-moft 
parte ipcak and ufe * here th^ 
KnglsALtonguCf yet iAfo«hfoite» 
a^ that aV nu?amay difoeme them 
tp be that countrey people* ay 
s^lfoe* by the rudones of tlieic 
maiMr% for the fcnraata. wiUr 
ufually thau his mafteri and 
thinkedk it noe offisnce ; as maay. 
as come out of tbft cowtie o6 
Wesfprd, iay they underftand 
im Ifi&^ wilbcr 4oth^any wcU 





litideHlahd EngHdi. Th^ ai^ 
Sot iAtiftBOii; thae fhefe ftM 
"Whole parifhcM^ itAalrite^ by the 
Irith, havihg tkot one td^ifh, 
tri^ WeMir, bti t the ParWri of Ac 
parHhe. AM thotk Itifti ()eo^ 
Jile herty doe litft theire countryd 
trt^i m hiding of J^M ^ftH 
In-^eat abniidance ^hfch they 
carie to be folcf aBt'oadbthe c^tm^ 
trey, da horfebacke and otHef- 
^^rtfe ; fo that wcekcly ycW may 
be (ut>6 to have 'Aqtia Vitifctd be 
fold at ybuf dooire, And by rteani 
th^eof, it U grert^ne to be an 
itftiaft dArik httibfkmcti^ Hptifes, 
iftfteade of wine, (6^^t of them 
making e:^ good, and 
fbuld better chesiye theti m any 
ptfrtc'olf England or Irelsffid, for 
] have dranke as gOod as fome 
[RofaSQlis rijad^ by tfiem, and 
ihi^ Ibald tfually for 16^ a quart, 
but commonlie you ihall have 
very good for l(y. or 12\ the 
quarte, i;vhich is better cl^eftpe 
then ever I could buy the like 

i I 

% I cannot agree widi *ii^ 
author, in fuppofing it was ow- 

•ift^ to • «i€? faihtiiefs of theif ref- 
«8Br!l^e;*'the.itidi of Kehies had 

•Bc«»r ttffths- iiotti the invaBefs ; 

'^ oh iteottht of their ff^Jriti^d 
opfofitSdtf ittd ttitrtiSfeblfetiefs, 
i^ith rtatfe* die comjiWnilfe 

•ItetWeeti ftfttf'airf Ae.itfcicHt 
poiTefibrs of thi eOuiltrey^ ne- 

cefiary, and indi^ced him ^ to 
Ih^lnir *h^ S461fchce uh^f a 
hiatch Witb'Aftgharad^ xiarord 
daughter ol Rhy^, prince 6F 
Sbtith Wales, cOitlrtidhiy eaHed 

tf Av^hojU Rhys, which 'ft^ 
aldn^ could hate pievdiled 'Apoii 
tlren* to hkve accepted of ain^^ 
tehti^, howeVer liberal, at tM 
fa^ds (A to^ufinper : but tfift 
ittatriage vrAt a faJvo fUr thrift 
conceffiott*, Which Wctt toatte; 
not to the clefcdridasit o( "xAk eh^ 
crouching Normacn, btit t6 kh6 
Mood rofal of thrfr hercftlifat^ 

• * 

That iCjlgerrari, the irAabiy 
tajits of which and Kernes, may 
]be cpniuTered as one family,, or 
clan, defcende^ from the fame 
Pencenedlf fhould boaft of re- 
taining ns original , language^ 
people, and temires, notwicH- 
(landing die titular conqueft of 
; WilKam Marfliall, is not at all 
to be wondered at, as we may 
fcj^fe di^ oM%l not f(iibv> 
•have eatight ^6 l^W-fpfHt ftrit 
l^ari animated their kindred neigh- 
bours, and, would fcpra|QJisu:g 
fubnlitted to baler coiifUjIns 
f$an they Tiacf done. 
happenctH, that in thdie two 
diftri£!s ipdy^bc iffaced more of 
the naiiyc manners,' cuftoms, 
and character of the ancient 
Britons, ihiAji in aiof{ parts of 


I have 



1 have noted, that tb^re is not 
a better criterion^ by vfhich to 
fix the line of the Norman and 
Flemiih fettlers in this county^ 
than their building, particularly 
the, churches^ whidi, in the 
parts they took pofiei&on oft 
uniformly are fccn widi towen, 
orfpires; whereas, in tlie other 
parts of the county, the true 
old Welfli churches are of very 
mean fabric, having no exter- 
nal or internal decorations, nei- 
ther (leeple without, normonu^ 
ments within* 

We have caufe to congratu* 
late ouffclve^, tliat the lapfe of 
a century hath rid us of the 
Hibernian fwarm that had lived 
here, though not before they 
had introduced the pernicious 
tafle for ftrong dillilled liquors, 

which certaiidy hare made the 
gout among us more freqlieatf 
suid hid £ur to bring into difufe 
the only beverage calculated foi 
a Britifli confUtution, ale, in all 
its various forms of brcwage, 
either iimple, or incorporated 
with fpice and honey into Brag- 
awd. I venerate the true phi« 
lofophy of the French phyfl-. 
cian, mentioned in Mailer James 
Howel s Letters* which, fupe- 
rior to prejudices of birth and 
education, when tlie difcourfe 
happened to turn on the liquors 
of difierent countries, notwith- 
Handing his palate had been ha* 
bituated to tlie grape of Bur- 
gundy, induced him to pay com- 
pliment to Howel, and his 
country (Wales) by faying, it 
produced ^* the nobleft liquor a 
" man could put into his guts.** 

CAP. V* 

Of, the CoH/lituihn nf the Bpdm of the People ^ and of the Inelma^- 
ihn and Nature rf the Inhahit^ntSy as well by ancient writers as 


WHAT I (hall here fpeake 
touching the conftitu-^ 
tion of the bodies of the people, 
is confyned to the general! and 
' common forte, being the greateft 
^nomber. As for gentlemen, or 
townefmcn, of thofe I will af- 
'terwardes fpeake in particular. 
This^nde then are very meane 

and fmiple, ihort of growthe, 
broad^ and ihrubby, unaccepta- 
ble in fight for die moft parte, 
howfoever they prove in a^on, 
when they are put to it. So^e 
that of all the countries of Wales 
I am bold to pronounce^ (and 
I fpeake by exp^ience,} Pen- 
brokeihlre to be worft of man* 




t^ aisd haideft to fuide propor 
ferriceable men ; fo that the 
lieutenants and comniiffioi;ie.i^ 
for mufter^^ are* more toyl^din 
feeking SOperfonable men, then 
tbeire neighbour iheeres are to 
finde 100. And when they 
have iifed dieir utmoft induftrie 
therein, in the ende they are 
fopced to iett fuith many, to 
theire onne diilike. The caufe 
of this difabilitie of perTons is 
eaiily to be diibemedy if a man 
huA looke into, the (late of the 
countrie, and education of the 
meaner forte of people : for this 
countrie of Penbrokefhire, be- 
ing all^oft environed with fea, 
hare chcunpion, and naked of 
woode and (heker, is more fub* 
je£t to extremitie of ftormes, 
fodaine tempeftes, and fea flawes 
of winde and haile, then other 
the inland countries are, an0 
therefore tl^ere are fewe hedges 
orinclofures to be fbunde; by 
rea£on whereof the hufbandmen 
atfi foiced to keepe herdes for 
dieir cat^ell,. a|nd that ia peater 
nombers then other countries in 
England doe, or that they them* 
ielves neede, as I ihall hereafter 
touohe moi^e largetie, when I 
comeio fpeake of the inconve- 
niencies of this countrie ; for, 'I 
have by good accompt, nombred 
three thoufand young people, to 
be brought up continually in 
herding of o^ttle, within this 
ihire^ y^hoare put to this idle 

educadon, when th^y firil come ^ 
to be ten. or twelve yeaies of 
age; and turned do the fieldes ca ^ 
f ollowe theim cattcll, where tbe]fr 
lupe fofced to, endure the heat; .of 
the fun, in bi$ gFenteft eytnla^ 
mitie, to parche and bum theim 
faces, haacbi and leggs, feet0» 
and breafies, in fuch forte, as 
they feeme more like tawny- 
moores, then people of this 
land ; and then with the cokt* 
froft, -fnowe, haile» raine, and 
winde, tbey are fo tormented, 
having the (kin of dieire itgg^ 
hands, face, and feete, alt in 
chinks and' chappes, (like die 
chinks of an elephant's fkin, 
wherewith he is. wont to take 
the flies that com thither to fuck 
his blood) that, poore fouies, 
they may well hould opinion 
with the Papifts, tliat theire is a 
purgatone ; . and being thufl taa^ 
ncd with be?ifie of the fun, and 
dried up with the heat and cold, 
as the fifl^ermeadoe theire ftock 
fiflx in the ft:oft ; andpoorjohm 
with the .fummer*8 heat, Coe 
many of- /them as are of that • 
name, may well neere be reck- 
oned with thefe latter forte, dif- 
fering as much from other peo- 
ple that are brought up in warme 
houfes, by good fires in winter, 
and fheltered by houfe or (hade 
in fummer, as the ftock-fi(h or 
poor Johns doe from the largie 
organ ling ; and when they re- 
deemed theire Ubertie out of tliis 



CAMBRIAN !ffiei$¥t;R, 1196. 

parg&tone, t»y atfaidifig to ^ 
or 24^ yeatet 6f age, theft sm 
fbey heM tn fueh coatiauall k- 
krar, in tilling 'Of Ae hmd^ 
Vvmiiig of lyitie^ digging <)f 
eotoy aododierOavemsaiideie^ 
treame toiies-, a» while they Kre 
tbey novet eome in ^fmpe, favour 
OF oiKlni^y to be accoiuptcd 
among the nomher of perlbnable 
men; an<l yetv i^erTiance, his 
dfifonnity^ notwithftafMling, as 
fefviceaMe in pioofev ^s he that 
iookodk with a fairer oourite^ 
nance. This is one chiefe catife, 
att I take it, why Ais countrye 
eometh fo iarre behind the reft 
of Wales, for manred) and abte 
i^erfons as it is found to doe ; 
befide this, the country, efpe- 
ciaHy of late yearcs, is faHen 
much to trade to fea, and a 
greate parte of the coimtrie 
people are feamen and mariners^ 
wKichniay not be taken up fot* 
landierviceSy and many of them 
continually abreadb at fta, and 
fetdom to- be-fDcmd' at home; 
which is a* fpeciall matter th^ 
ihould be regarded in laying 
nombers of men for foreine fer^ 
▼ices upon this fhire. Befide 
this the c6untrie noriflieth, net*- 
iher willingly harboureth, any 
idle people, which alwaies are 
found to be- Ae moft perfonaH 
men; but everie man applieth 
dSigentlie to his- owne bofmefa, 
that he liveth by ; and, in this 
refpe6^, I am- induced- to tbinkc, 

ftat fiiefe mcsoer iOtf6 or * peo-* 
^e, sMidogh they hare ioft 
their language^ are the remnant 
and o£spiing of thole FTeniings/ 
that were fent hifli^ to Pfcn- 
brokeflrire by HeiK l*** andkin^ 
Stephen, and placed about Pen-^ 
broke and Haveifordweft, if w^ 
may be allowed to judge, from 
the deannefs of their houfes» 
and earefuU plying tliefrelabonrs 
they hate in hand, and fot 
theife true and phiine deaEng^ 
in which thcv much refemHe 
Afe Goisens, the low cotmtrye-* 
men; who, ibr' the qualities 
above exprcfledi carie the phitfe 
of all other nations. In one 
thiirg indeetk they have Itranges- 
Iv altered their flomach from 
the reft over the (ea, fOr in that 
exccfs with wliich diey are taxed 
for drinking, artf • thcfc thcire 
kinfmen^ for exccfliVe eating, for 
of ciiftome they will have 6rt 
meals a day, arid* If yov wiB 
Defrow uie' ilxth on* theiit, Aey 
will' accept it very kindfy, and 
if Aey be but ifttleliitx'eirerf, 
they wiH beftoW hibpur on tiie 
fcvcmh mcale. But of ' dib I 
wffl more largely Q)eake hete^ 
after, amoi^ th^ inconvenienced 
pertainyng to diis countrey. 

Generally for tfie indination 
of the people, as well gentlemen 
yeomen, riche and poore, they 
all embrace peace, quietmefi^ 
and neighbourly lovt^ hating 



• # I 

I ' 


«Bd£iAfei«iai rasTD beat. tb pat, 
up with an injury, tbfioito im< 
venge a wtong ; eafily intreated 
after aH' efinee received^ suid 
if thto&be anb or two 08 con**' 
tfsmfr di^fiuoiis to to lomd 
aaoong osi,; they: apre not to be- 
mchomA off: but my %«ec)Be is. 
oSxt^Q moil peite o£ the pq9pk». 
aot icgRr4ing ^. finvi i£ any be*>»cJ«dr in fewetwordba^. 
vffly obedioQk to th^ magiAratot 
of the iCPQntsyc, undertaking 
wiVixi^f U$ ithcir power, any 
faurdea or' chardgo layd. upon 
th^Bl. for the pripces. ftrvice, or 
dHiir& ^i^itries good,, wkhout 
^epiwig tberrait; provided that- 
ih^r^ b^/Qoe oppmfli&n, or. pac^ 
Qililtity qffered which gDeaveth. 
dievn mfw tbeathi^bufdien, and. 
iriU: quidily aftpve (ban. to com-* 

. Th« gendcinen, fcwingmen^ 
^^'the'tonvncfiaea of this coun- 
try*. «re not foe un&rviceable -^ 
hm reiiy pieiiofiaible, cQmdy:,. 
vd tall iQtfiB^ which confirmfith. 
«y fociQcto siflertion* that th& 
h9^4 l^bour^ paicbiag of the fun». 
and ftarving with cold, . ia a< 
cheefe caufe of the unfeemlines 
of the common people of tlie 
countrey; feing the gentlemen, 
ferving men, and thofe brought 
ep in townes, Which are not tor- 
qiented. with thefe extremities of 

heaie qivt 'oM, flor tired widb 
tpyle, doe prose moie perfoiia* 
hie; aod of the ooainionipeoplB 
of thia countrey,; the WeUhneOn 
whom the left call the mommni 
men^ aire loved to be the mer^ 
perfonabk^ as people not ti» 
cloyed widi labour, a» tft<rfiii 
who live by tShgoej yetiK^^ 
^idiftandiog the tiofeemiii^ o^ 
t^^.nttn^ i have heank divetfe^ 
captens, that have had the Ioa~ 
ding and tr^yiaog of this eoun^ 
trey men^ in fpiefh partes,^i&«^ 
mend them for theire fervices, 
aa people dociUe, and a^ te ic* 
eeavse inftrut$tioA' ia martial di--^ 
^line, and able ta emluae tra^ 
vdl and hard: lodging; aifd it 
flnould fbUow, t&at thofe which 
arc foe acquaiolsd.with the&K:^ 
of heat and cdd^ nxbft pfove Icffe 
daintie theteo^ than tfaoiii due 
have not tafied of it before^ lo 
was a fpccial cootaunckaon gi- 
ven to the Bomaa coqurator, 
CaityJin, thathe ^kza patterns frig'" 
oris ^ in€idia» Wheneip if 4»ur 
countrey oiay^ receive prayiefbr 
&e one, it isrJike diey. wiU much, 
repine at the ether, if Aeir fio** 
daackesbe no>niore4:old sdjroaife 
then at home* 

% My friend, the* Rev. Dr. 
Gibfon, was much pleafed with 
the curious reafoning concerning 
the growth, look, and conftitu- 
tion of the common people of 

* The editor of Camden, aad biihop of London. 




this clMintry^ as ktfolthqr from 
the exercife of an acute mind, 
and which I doubt not» were 
fcrk&lj juft ; but the country 
BOW, though diere be too much 
champaign ftill left, is fo much 
altered by indofores that it is 
sot liable to the fame cenfure, as 
it mi^ have merited in Queen 
Elizabeth's, days; there being 
sot a more fightLy people any 
-where, take them promifcuouf- 
Iy« Our women, particularly 
for beauty and wit, yield to none. 

I cannot find, that in a gene* 
lal way of fpeaking, the people 
of diis country have fuch cor- 
morant appetites at this day, as 
to entitle them to the cenfure of 
my author, whatever might have 
been the cafe in his time ; though 
indecci, if we may judge of the 
capacity of the ftomachs of his 
particular houihold, by tliat of 
the oven at Heullys, his family 
manilon, which, formed on a 
truly gigantick fcale, is now in 
being, but rarely nfed ; we may 
jnftly infer, that there was fome^ 
thing more than common un» 
der his roof, to have induced 
fuch out of the way dimeniions,: 

and {bftcieDt to juflify his re- 
proach, as far as it rebtcd 10 Us 

That die inhabitants of Ftai« 
brokeflure, arecompofedof lefs 
turbulent elements, dian thofe 
of the odier part of the priod- 
paltty, a Uttle acquaintance with 
them, will incline die moft pre- 
judiced to acknowledge, not being 
of fuch a gunpowder ^pality as 
to blow up» before it can be dit> 
covered, thatfcarcety die match 
is put to, which I pardcularly 
noted to be too much the cafe 
in north Wales, when I had oc- 
caiion to accompany my ho- 
noured friend, Sir Hugh Owen, 
to Anglefey, when he went to 
make overtures of marriage to 
the heirefs of Bodowen; the 
befl bred men there being of a 
much more combuftible nature. 
than ours, all touch wood and 
tinder: nay the ladies feemcd 
addi<3ed to catch rather quicker. 
And this difierence of tempe- 
rature, fo obfervable in Pem-^ 
brokefhire, may be owing to a 
confidcrable crofs in die breed- it 
hath experienced for fome cen- 


( 77 ) 


OftheJQsvifien effhe/ayde CQuntrey in antteni Tyme,, int9 Cantredi 
and CoJnottes,,bo%v noya it is divided into theEngfiflHrigandtbe 
Wiljherii^ as aljo how tbejamfi is lajily divided into /even Hundreds^ 

BEFORE I declare unto you 
how the fame was in an* 
cient tyxne divided into cantreds 
and coniottesy it were ncceflarie 
to (hewe what the fame names 
doe ilgnifie, and when the fame 
partition was made; .and firil as 
touching when the fame wias foe 
parted, it is of that antic^uity, 
that there is not extant any mat* 
ter of creditt to ground any cer- 
tainty thereof upon : but mani- 
feft it is that all Wales was in 
the tymes of the Britains di- 
vided into comotts and cantreds« 
each of diem knowne by theirc 
proper names and boundes, many 
of which namQs as yet rctpayne, 
and the places well knowne by 
the fame, whilft fome (though 
not many) are buried in obli- 
vion, yet to be found out by 
fome memoriall of thefe names. 
Rodri tnawr, prince, or rather 
king of all Wales, about the 
yeare of phrift 843, had three 
ibnnes, among which he divided 
all Wales, confiding of ^3 
cantreds, whereof he gave unto 
Cadell, his eldeft, all the coun- 
trey of ^OMtii Wales to his 
parte and portipn, which in* 
thjs pi»v}ncc of Pen? 

broke, and of which onely I 
will fpeake in this place, con- 
taim'ng 7 cantreds, each can* 
tred being divided into 3 cpmotts, 
whofe names, as I finde them 
written of ancient tyme, I have 
thought good to infert here, 
that is to fay-r- 

Emlyn cantred, contayning 3 

comotts, (viz.) Uwch Keach, 

Is Keach, Levethir. 
Doyglethe cantred, 3 comotts^ 

(viz.) Amgoed, Pennant, 

Arberth cantred, 3 comotts, 

(viz.) Penrinarclais, Efkyr 

olef, Talacham. 
Pcnvro cantred, 3 comotts, (viz.) 

Roofe cantred, 3 comotts, (viz.) 

Hwlfordd, CaftcU Gwalch- 

mai, Y Garn. 
Pebidiog cantred, 3. comotts, 

(viz.) Minyw, Pcncacr, Pe- 
Kernes cantred, 3 ,comotts, 

(viz.) Ywch Nyfcr, Is Nyfcr, 


The name of Centre is an 
ancient Britlih .word, and well 
ynderftopd of tli$ Welfhmcn by 




flie etyinologie thereof ; for tref^ 
(ignifieth a town or village^ and 
canty is a hundred, from the 
Latin ^^ii*ir fo that canCred 
iignifieth a 100 townreds, or 
villages, and eoli towared con- 
fided of a certain nomber of 

• * r 

lucres cf land, foe that for the 
moft pafte, eache'Caiili ed feem- 
fth to be nfecre of cqtiall quantity. 
The word Cotmit, fignifiech a 
iieighbouriiood, or concourft of 
^ople, and may very well be 
expounded by the Latih word 
iifed by the clerks of the common 
lawe, in theire writts of Venire 
faciasy yithetumi for as thtf 
Latm word Vitlnus fignifieth a 
neighbour, foe doth the tVelflj 
"Woxi Cmifdoj^y Cgnifie tli6 fame; 
txA as the WOid yicinetum is 
^ken in the eye of the Uwe fof 
the htindred, i6 was eche of thofe 
comots ancient hundreds, and 
had hundred coottes k^pt in 
them. Thus much of the co- 
motts and cantreds of Penbroke- 
i!hire the mofl ancient diviilon 
of the fame. N6w will. I fpeake 
of the fecond divifion thereof^ 
as it now ftandeth divided be* 
|W6ei)e the Bnglidimen and the 
WeKhmen of the fhire; but 
firft, as I before have declared, 
(he fame being iii ancient tyme 
inhabited wholy by Welihmen, 
a greate parte thereof was wonn 
ftoxti them hf the l^nglifli, under 
die cbridudl of fcirle Sff ongbo w 
and divers othei^; tvA the fame 

planted with his followers whofe 

|>Mc#itie enjoy it to this day, 

and keep their language among 

tliemielvet, withotk ticeivirtg 

the Welih rpte:hcs » leahifng 

»ny parte thereof, and hSIA thenr- 

felves fo clofe to the fame, as to 

(his day they wofider kt ti 

Welfhman comitig ahittngtlftm, 

the one neighbour faying to the 

other, look there goeth a Welfli- 

inah. The (hire is wfcll tiecre 

cqujllly dWdcd Into t\VO partes, 

between the EngHfh fp^eclie and 

the Welfbe, for the hdndredfe of 

Caltle Martin, llowfe, and all 

Nafbefth, ekceptiilg the parifliei 

of Landewi and Lanpeter, and 

all t)ouglcdy, excepting the pa« 

fiihe^ of Lanvaheg, Langain, 

LandyflUio, Lanykeved, and 

Crynow, doe fpeake fhe Eng- 

H/he, and then the huhdreck of 

]Cemes,Kilgerran and Dewifland/ 

fpeake all the Welfhe fOngu^, 

fo^ that about 74 pariflies are 

inhabited by the I^ngTifhmcn, 

and 64 pariHles more by the 

Welrtie, and the reft being 

about 6, fpeake both languages, 

being as it were tli( marches be-? 

tweene both thefe nations. The 

l^anlker that patteth the two 

languages, beginneth at Cron- 

were, by Carmardieh/liire, and 

to6 pafleth up to Ldnhaden, 

where both languages are* fpoa^ 

ken, and from thence, be^weene 

Bletherflon ahd Lai^ykeven, to 

New Kfote, ana loe" bdwieii 




Cftftle, Bytheaod Aobleftont 
foe betweene Tre%atne aal 
Sc DogweUsy and over the hiiis^' 
betweene Hayfc CaiUe, and dua 
turning down Newgall Modre, 
as the fame rirer kadeth lo the 
fea, betwoene Roche Gaftle and 
bridge, the ibnther parte of 
which Lanfl^er ^>eaketh all £n^ 
gUdiy and the notther fide 
Welflie, well neeve, as I fayed 
before, parting the ihire in two 
equall halfes betweene them, 

Laftiy, as touching die dm- 
fions dxreof into hundreds, the 
fame confifieth of feven, as of 
qM; four oL which fayd hun- 
dreds bdng die firft thac follow, 
doe agree eche of them in qiian* 
titie, with the ancient cantreds 
before exprefled, and the diree 
hft are altered in name, though 
tfaQ two firft of the thrte containe 
the fame qnantity under other 

1« Kemes. 2. Doygledy. $• 
Rowfe. 4. Natberth. 5. Dew* 
ifland 6. Caftle Martin. 7 Kil- 

Dewifland is that which b^ 
ancient tymes was called Cantrd 
Vebidiog, ^d ifbe is it espied of 
WMnxncn to this day ; it took 
tbd name of Devrlflsmdr among 
tbe finglifittnen, fordiat it ^asr 
givtn c» the bUhop's* &e of St.' 
|9^vids^ a( t^ firft tyme^tt w^ 

■ I 

made 9 fitmdrad^ which 'au 
Davids was oalkd in WtUhe 

CaiHe ;Maftin hundred^ >M 
that which was called the Gantry 
of Penmno, but it oontaineth but< 
two of the three ancient c^ 
mottB tbei^of (m.) Maner-Pyr 
and Penfm ; die other Comott j 
c^ed Coediiuf, or radierCoiod-: 
traeth, as I finde it written, is 
now put to the hmidred of Nar>« 
berth, to make it oompleat, for 
a greate parte thereof thai wa^ 
taken away from it, and an<« 
nexed to Carmarthen/hire. Kit** 
garran hundred is paite of the 
cantred of Emlytt, and con* 
fifteth ondy of die S*^ pane of 
the fayd cantred at anciently 
divided (viz.) likeach, and to 
this day die fifiyd hundred ia 
called of the inhafailaBts, by die 
name of Emfin Ylkeach, the 
odier parte Ywchkeach, being 
taken from Penbrokeflim, and 
added to Carmarthenflnre, and 
is that parte wherein die tawne 
of NewcaflcH ftandeth. 

I have many other matters 
fit to be ipokenof eaohe of diefe 
httodreds^ which I here omitf» 


far in that in my fetoadb hdokd 
of the defcripdoA of the ihire^ 
when I mean to httnAe each 
hundred, and every pariiht ii^ 
tho iame in^mcular, oiieiy 
this ooe thing I thought good to^ 




glift note off Aat at fucfa tymc 
as tbe'fliires of Wales w«re <£• 
vided into hundreds, that the 
fame was don by allotting cer- 
lid idanora and lordOiips to make 
Vp every hundred, and not by 
allotting pari(hes tog^Uer to 
make the fame, neither had they 
any refped of rivers, hills, 
mountains, or fuch like notable 
markes, which might well have 
ferved for good bounds or li- 
snitts for every hundred. This 
is plaintie to be perceivied, for 
lliat you ihall finde in divers 
places, one pari(h divided into 
two hundreds, and fome tymes 
into two fhires, as for example, 
die pariih of Brydell in Kil- 
gerran hundred, parte of which 
is in Kemes hundred, the like 
for Llanvair, the pariihe being 
paite in Kernes and parte in 
Dewifiand, ahd the parishes of 
Kilrhedyn,L1andiiIilio, Uangain, 
and Caftell Dyram, are parte in 
Penbrokefhire and parte in Car* 
marthenihire, each as they 
were parted before betweene tlie 
lordihippes that were allotted to 
echc (hire or hundred, neither 
did they foUow any ftraight 
way, path, river, or marke, to 
i;nake the hundreds of good 
ibrme, but tooke the Lanfkers 
as they found them to ferve 
thofe manors which tbey allot** 
ted to every hundred, whereas 
die rivers of Taf or Cletbe had 
been -very good s^nd. appjgrcat 

markes to Iiave- parted Carmar- 
dien and Penbrokeihires ; yet 
doe both thefo fhires reche over 
thefe rivers, fometymes Pen-> 
brokeihire ftreching clofe to and 
over. Taf to Carmardicn/hire ; 
and againe^ Carmanheniliire 
reching clofe to Clete, making 
betweene both rivers divers un- 
even and crooked lanfkers, fuch 
as parted the lordfhipps of both 
fhires before the divifion of 

% My author muft have been 
a bold man to have afierted that 
Cadell was Rodri mawr's eldefl 
£bn, in oppbfition to every 
Venter and opinion on that fub* 
je<5^, and yet one would think 
that a man of very univerfal 
learning as be certainly was, 
and no mean antiquary, would 
have hardly hazarded fuch an 
aflertion unfupported by any 
documents ; whether he had pub- 
lifhed his fentiments, touching 
this point more folly and (oun£ly 
than he has done in diis jdace^ 
I have not been able to learn ; 
but it is moft probable he did, 
as certainly he roufed all the 
fUcklers of North Wales in fa- 
vour of Anarawd*s reputed pri-i 
mogeniturcy and in Robert 
YaughaoL of Hengwrt alone, a 
whole lioft againft him, who 
wrote a very elaborate treatife 
to oyerfet die do&ine here ad- 

iranredy vrliich» by meiuis of 




my friend Mr. Yiiicent Corbet 
of YnyCymangwiiiy Lwas fe- 
vourM once with a jQght of, b^t 
which, my author having been 
dead before it was written, hath 
hitherto remained unanfwered, 
and perhaps may be unanfwer- 


'' The fecond book of the de- 
fcription here referred to as pro- 
pofed to be written, I have 
jeafon to believe was never 
compleated, a coUe£lion of ma- 
terials for die work only having 
been made, which fomehow 
came into the hands of my wor- 
thy friend * Mr. Lloyd of Vair- 

dref in Cardigapfliire, who 
kindly permitted me to make 
fucb ufe of it as would anfwer 
my purpoie towards throwing a 
li^t on this firft part. Some 
few cxtradts I found worth 
making, and but few, which may 
occafioixally be adverfcd to as I 
go on. However, it is to be 
regretted, that the defign, as 
originally planned^ was never 
accompUflied, as my author, 
from his fortune, his coonea^- 
ions, and his learning, and I 
may fay, his induftry in anti- 
quarian refearclies, \vas enabled 
to illuftrate the hiftory of this 
refpeftable county more fully 

♦ In an original letter of Mr. Robert Vaughan lately fhewn me, I find a reference 
'to the above manuscript, which, as it fcrv» to (hew the odora vis of antiquarians, I 
ihaU bef icvre to tnnfcribe. 

*' Honotired Coufln, 

In my late vagary to South Wales, I lay a nfght with Mr. Lloyd of 
** Vairdre, ftho Ihewed me many old and new manolcriptsy whereof fome were lodfe 
*' leaves and ihects, almoft rotten with ill keeping, and he promlfed me the loan of 
<' them, but fioce I heare he is dead. I prefunte you may be acquHinted with hia 
** eldeft fonne, whom I dcCre you to treate with for the loane of them before they be 
^ Mattered and haply loff. Yon may, peradventure/ meet him in feflions/ and if 
^ foe, be pleafed to acquaint him with thi«-I write unito you ; and if h^ will zQViAt* 
*' fcend to lend them, I promife to do my endearoor to place the leaves and iheetea 
^ aright, and withall will returne them fafcly, newly bound and covered, whereby 
^ they may laft an age or two longer, and more handfomely adorn his dudy, and fiiall 
^ ttd heartily thankfull unto him. There is one late manufcrtpt, treating of the lord- 
" ihip of Kernes in Pembrokeihire^ written by George Owen, late lord thereoCi /*! 
<< ihould be moll glad if he did lend it, for I have one at my hand that will copy it 
^ for me. Thus, being very troublelbme upto you, I reft your coufm, to ferve you 
*€ in any thing be eaan. Kobert Vaughan.*' 

** Addrefi'd to my cou£n R<>. Hei^rt of Llwyn lorwerth.*' 

? .* * 
This volume of collodions is now in the pofTcffion of my friend Col: Lloyd of 

Bronwydd, towhofe politenefs in indulging me with more than a hurried penifal of 

it, I own that I have It in my power t&iay, .that it is tlie fame which my anceftbr 

«Uudcd to aad had made tUr^&^ ham, and which Kobert V«ii|ehsi had b&tn ia 

Huifuit oU 

G ^o 


CAMBRIAN REGlStEft, lldd. 

than moft of his comempioraries ; 
he referved his whole force, for 
his feccmd part; in this, he is 
boc ikin deep in the bufinefs, 

in that he profefies his intentiofi 
of going into the marrow of a»^ 


Of the Manner of Hufiandrie and Tilling of the Land; and nf the 
natural helpe and niendments, the Soyle itfelfe yeldeth fir bettering 
and mending of the Lande^ as Lyme^ 2 iindes of Marie ^ Sandci 

and PToze or fVoade of the Sea, 

THiScountrcy hath of whi- 
ter wheat onely two fortes, 
tlut is, bended and notted 
wheat, as the hufbands terme 
it, the firil having a beard along 
the eare, the other having none, 
but is bald and (mothe. This 
notted wheat is accompted the heft 
and fineft of both, and is mofte 
ufed in the hundreds of Ca(Ue-< 
martin, Narberth, and partly 
itf Rowfe. There is a thind 
kinde of wheat, not weU knowoe 
in other countreys, which k 
called holy wheat or fomer 
wheat, this is ufed id the Welihe 
partes of this (hire, as alfoe in 
Cardigan/hire, and is fowcdin 
the later ende of March and be- 
ginning of April, and is a dain- 
fSe graine like the barlie, and 
cannot endure to be pinched 
with cold, it is a very profitable 
grain, and yealdeth more in- 
creafe thei^ the winter wheat, it 
beareth a great care and ftalke ^ 
the ground that this gtainc muft 

have muft be weU dttngied and 
handled, or elfe it will not prof- 
pcr; the onely difcommoditia 
of this com is, it is long a ripen- 
ing, foe that if the harveft be 
not very timely, and the wea- 
ther warme, it will hardly be 
faved, the bread of this wheat 
is fayd to be fomewhat mor» 
browiTe in colour then the win- 
ter wheate, but m all other 
things e^aleth the beft forte; 
and I have very faier and white 
manchet made of this kinde of 
wheat, fo as noe difference was 
to be fdund betweene it and the 
beft wimer wheate. This kind 
of wheat is alfoe fowed in fold 
land, which I ihall defcribe unto 
you hereafter, and diriveth therm 
very well with once plowix^ 
and fowing it kk the great* 

That parte of the (hire, inha* 
Uted by the Welihmen, as bo^ 
fore is fay^ following their 




fere&tliert husbandry, tegard 
more of oaies then of die former 
graines; bat yet| in many 
places, they ufe to fowe barlie 
in greate plende. The'caiifei 
why the mountenly partes doe 
ufe this tilling of ores, whereas 
dieire land is good and apt 
enough to bears wheat are di^ 
vers, die one and not the lead 
is the life thereof in ancient 
tyme, and being brought up 
dierein are lothe to alter theire 
cuftome, aldiough it be for the 
better; fuch force hath cuf« 
tome in man's nature, one is 
die ufe of gavel kinde among 
moft of thrfe Welflimen, to 
parte all the fadier's patrimony 
equally among the fonnes, foe 
that in procefle of tyme, the 
whole countrey was brought 
into imall peeces of ground, foe 
as in every 5 en: 6 acres you 
fliall have ten or twelve peeces 
in the countrey to remaine 
champion; and widiout inclo- 
fures or hedging, and winter 
come, if any fowne among 
diem, would be grafed all the 
winter, and eaten by fheepe and 
>other cattell, which could not 
be avoided ; for all the winter 
long the fheepe and other cat- 
tell, as are not in houfes, range 
the fields without reftraint over 
all the country ; and there this 
wheat and rye bemg eaten and 
troden of cattell all the winter 
liUmidd March (would be half 

fpoyld) when die weather wax^ 
cth warme, and mghts fliort { 
when the cattell are put intc^ 
folds all night, and kept b^ra 
herdes all the day. This, in 
my opinion, was one cheefit 
caufe they refrayned from fow* 
ing wimer come; but as now 
fithence the ufe of gavel kinde 
is aboliOied thefe threefcore 
yeares paft, in many partes, die 
ground is brought togetho* by 
purchafe and exchanges, and 
hedging, and inclofures, nmch 
increafed, and now they falle to 
the tilling of diis winter come 
in greater abundance dian be*- 
fore. Anodier caufe was and 
yet is, moft of die countrey 
wanteth hay, and in thefe 
Welfh partes there are greater 
breedes of cattell then die Eng- 
liHie partes can have by reafon 
of the mountens and commons 
which they have not fo greate 
extent of; and therefore the 
oten ftrawe, which is the fineft 
fodder for cattell, was the more 
defired for the ufe of theire cat-* 
tell in winter tyme. Thofc be 
the reafons, as I can gather, 
why the Welflimen doe more 
incline to dlling otes then other 
graine ; but now to their order 
of tillage, they feldom ufe to 
carry manure to theire ground, 
but ufe, for the moft parte, 
running folde of hutdells dF 
cloven oake, having the two 
fide poftes iharpened at the 
G 2 lower 



lower ends ; with an iron barrd 
they make boles in the earth» 
and with a fledge they fett thefe 
hurdles fdft in die ground in 
fuch fort as they are able to 
kecpe each other up ; and thefe 
folds they will put upon fome 
piece of grouml where they 
tneane to till, in which tliey 
ihut up their cattell every n^ht, 
£xim midd March to mydd No- 
vember; this fold they remove 
cvcrie 3 of 4 nights till the 
whole peecc be thoroughly 
.mucked: after this manner a 
peece of ground is prepared 
every yeare ; and in March they 
'fow otes in it, crops of which 
for 7, 8, or 10 years it is doomed 
to bear, till the land becomes 
foe weake and barren that it 
will not yeeldc the feede, then 
let they the lande lye for 8 or 
10 years in pafture for theire 
cattell, which long following 
the land with otes foe wCakneth 
the land that it becometh veiy 
barren ; for good hufbands know 
that one crop of otes puUeth 
downe the pride of good ground 
very low, and thei-efore muft 
this kind of tillage much hamie 
the ground, yet cannot thefe 
doting huibands be drawne to 
forgoe their father's folly. Nei- 
ther doe 1 commend this kinde 
of folding, although it be a very 
good way to mend the lande, 
for in this forte 200 (hcepe and 
20 other beailes will muck nigh 

two acres of a ground in a whote 
fomer fealbn ; whereas, if they 
were kept in folds and yards 
upon ftrawe or other beddings 
they would well fuch mendmenfii 
as would fuffice for fix acres of 
wheat and rye land ; but in this 
they account favtd the caredge 
of this muck to die land in<« 
tended to be fowne, and the 
twife or thrife plowing and har«^ 
rowing of the fame; but the 
hu(bandman that fparedi pauie^ 
fparcth dirifte. The WeHh- 
men plowe commonly with two 
oxen and two horfes before 
them, theire land being (hallowe 
and light by reafon of this ill 
kind of tillage ufed among them« 
Among the EngUfli divers have 
plowGs of horfes alonoi and oxen 
alfoe, but commonly fix beaftes 
ill dicire plow. They ufe alfoe 
/n this countrey much betting 
and burning the land» wherein 
diey fow moft commonly rye 
and fomedmes barley, which 
kind of ullage is alfoe in two 
fortes, either clene bettland or 
pied bedand, the clene bettland 
is dug up widi the bottax dene, 
leaving no parte of the turf un* 
cutt, and in this they fowe rye 
and fometimes wheat, as it re* 
quireth ; this they doe in May, 
June, and July^ and letting it 
lye with the graflc fide down- 
ward till it becoine dry by fun 
and winde, and fitt and apt to 
take fire; then they pile them 




m heapes and give it fire on the 
winde fide till it confumcs into 
aflies, which they fpread in 
OSoberand November; when 
they fow theire rye, which is 
fayd to be a great impayring of 
the grotind; for after the rye 
and one bad crop of otes, no com 
is to be had thereof for twenty 
or twenty-four yeares after, and 
for a yeare or two fcarfe any 
paflure. In the moll mounte- 
noTis parte of this fhire, which 
is nothing but heath andf fmall 
forfe, and fhallow withall, this 
kinde of ill hufbandry may be 
borne, but huftandmen who 
life this kinde of betting in land, 
which otherwife would havp 
been tilled to better advantage, 
are much to be blamed for doing 
themfejves, the land, and the 
countrye harme. The pied 
bettland is that which is but half 
digged with the. bottax, leaving 
halt* the turf whole and uncutt, 
which is burned as bpforc i$ 
feyd ; and in March the hepes 
of aflies being fpread abroad, 
the huibandmen fows his cprn^. 
which it beareth to great profit ; 
this pied betland Js found to 
endure larger in ftrength, and 
to yeald moT^ than the other 
dene tetted land, for this will 
continue to beare otes well five, 
or fix yeares, whereais the other 
hath fpent all hJs ftrength in two 
yeares. Some landlords having' 
{tore of' this barren land, found 

it more commodious to keepe it 
in theire owne hands, then to 
rent It out at twelvepence an 
acre, whicli is the ufuall rent 
thereof; for in twenty yeares he 
hath but twenty fhillings ; 
whereas, if he kept it void, and 
at twenty yeares ende till the 
fame, moft commonly the acre 
will yeld him /^4. de claro above 
all charges the firft yeare, be- 
fides the pafture of the ground 
all that fpace it lyeth >yithout 


Now that I have brecfly 
over-run the tilling of the land, 
I will fpeake fomcwhat of the 
natural helpes, which is in the 
countrey, to better the lande, 
and to make it more frutful, and 
apt to beare corn and grafle. 
The cheefeft therefore I reckon 
the lyme, foj* t}iat it is moft 
commonlie ufed, and found to 
be leflfe charge then the marie, 
which I take to be the beft 
klndcs of thefe naturall helpes, 
yeelded by the foile itfelf ; and 
firft you fhall undcrftfind, that 
the lympftone is a vayne of 
ftones rynninghis courfe for the 
moft parte right eaft and weft, 
although fometymes the fame is 
found to approache to the north 
and fouth ; yet is tlie mayne 
courfe thereof, as I take it ^11* 
other vaynes of this realme are, 
alfoc foubd from eaft to weft. 
Of this lymeftone tl^ei-e is foupd 

G3 ^f 



of ancient, twoveynes, the one 
(mall and of noe great account, 
which is firft feen in the difies 
at Galtop, indie pari(h of Tal* 
benny, and lying there very 
deep, 18 not dug till it com to 
Johnfton Ground^ which lyetb 
eaft of Galtop. At Johnfton 
ibme is dug up, but it fcarce 
requiteth the charge, and diere* 
fore there is litde uie m^de of 
it: from Johnfton it runneth 
further eaftward» and fheweth 
itfelfe in the cliffe at Harofton, 
fomwhat fouth of the old church 
there; and foe crofledi over 
there the firft branch of Myl- 
ford to Boulfton Ground, where 
It is found againe, and burned, 
and goeth on to Pidon Land 
and Slebech, and thence crofleth 
the other branch of Milford, and 
holding eaftward, appeareth at 
Mon£ton by the wood, and foe 
eaftward to Ludchurch, and 
thence to the fea, pai&ng out 
of Penbrokefliire. This veyne 
is not of bredth above a butt 
length, or ftone's caft, and 
therefore, whofoever feeketh 
fouthward or northward over 
the bredth, mifteth it ; but eaft- 
ward and weftward, it is found 
to continue although not in 
every place, appearing by rea- 
fon of his deepe lying in the 
ground in ibme places. And 
although it be fomewhat from 
my purpofe to treat of matters 

out of Penbrokefliire, yet be- 
caufe I luve fayd that this veyne 
of limeftone naturally takethhis 
courfe from weft to eaft:, I will 
follow on the courfe of this 
vayne foe farre as 1 have feene 
and learned the fame. This 
vayne, continuing his courfe 
eaftward, at Cromwtare entredi 
into the lea, paffing fouth of 
Ereweare, ftieweth againe at 
CafteU Hobly and Pendine, in 
Carmartfaenihife ; and then paf- 
fing onder Laugham Blarihy 
appeareth againe at the wood in 
Laughame, and holding ftill 
eaftvrard, iheweth at Lanfteph- 
an; from thence it entreth in 
betweene the two rivers of 
Gwendraeth inCarmarthenfliire, 
and is found at the Glyn. Be* 
tweene the fayd two rivers of 
Gwendraeth there arifeth a 
great hill, c|lled Mynith Kyvor, 
which nmneth eaftward, and is 
all lymeftone ; which pafleth on 
in the fame courfe to CafteU 
Kyrig Kynon, and all along 
the topp of the black moun- 
taines fouth of Capel Gvmfay, 
by Blaen Cumgarw, betweene 
the rivers Clydach and Aman, 
and foe by Uwyn y Conftable, 
and betweene the riftngs of die 
rivers Neath and Uibe, to Blaea 
Cray, and to the great biU of 
Blaen Cwm CoUwyn, and (oa 
to Uanygrwyne, croffing tbq 
Vike to Tavara y Maith fyn 



Further then wUch I have not 
learned the courfe of the fayd 

The other vayne of Lynie<^ 
fione, and chieftft of the two, 
heginneth at the mouth of Milr 
ford Haven, weft of the Nan- 
gle Pile, where the one fide of 
Ae Pile you iball perceive the 
lymeftone, and the other a red 
ftone, which for the moft part 
^ocompanyeth this vdne «knoft 
diroweouc, being in coUour aqd 
Aihflance like a ftone burned 
widi fire* Thiftveiae of )yme- 
ftone is very broad, for fouth« 
ward as it goeth, it reacheth to 
the fea, both in Penbrokefliir^, 
GUmorganflure, and Mon- 
mouthfhires and dierefore will 
I follow the norther lymitt 
thereof, and foe follow on eaft- 
ward, as his general courfe 
runneth* This vayne is about 
feven royles diftant from the 
former, more (buthetiy then it, 
wA toe or neare thisy pontinue 
together as ft>aU be declatipd. 
But now to\ my purpofe c the 
northern lymitt of this veyne 
pafieth as the former did, right 
eaftwaid, and goeth to Peter 
Chuicfa, and to WilUamfton, 
by Carew, and fo eaftward to 
St. Floiens, and to the norther 
ilde of the towne of Tenby, 
wheie, betweeoe it and the 
windmills, it aHiae goeth to die 
||a I fnd ftiil coi^miing a4 

eafterly couffe^ dieie it taketh 
water, and paffing under the fea 
there, as reafon and the pourle 
thereof leadeth us to think, 
(heweth itfelf right eaft of Ten* 
by, in the chffes at Llandridion 
in Gower, being, as we majf 
judge, about twenty miles fi-om 
Tenby ; all under the fa)t wat^r 
fi-om Llandridion, it paiTeth right 
eft throw Gower, to the Mqmr 
bles by Oyftermouth, leving all 
the countrey betweene it and 
the fea, all of lymeftone; but 
more northerly it is not to b# 
found. At the MomU^ the fea 
Cometh more northerly then the 
veyne, therefore at the Mombles 
it goeth againe under the fait 
water, and continuing right eft^ 
is found againe at the fea fide, 
9t Kynfig Water, a little above 
Margam ; and from thence pafr 
feth all the fweete and fruitful! 
vale of Glamorgan, al along 
under the mountens to Keven 
Mably, where, pai&ng over the 
river Rumney, it entreth Mon- 
mouth/hire, and is fouiid at or 
neare Tombarlon Hill; andfron^ 
thence, with an eft^^rd courfe^ 
throw Monmouthftiire, direfUy 
towards Chepftow tpwne, there 
erofleth the river Wey, intend- 
ing itfdfe into the forreft of 
Deane, to the bepon above 
Wolcaftoni firom thence it paf* 
feditoAuft, and there croffingy 
goeth towards Sudbury : but 
where the nonher lan^r there 





is, I know not as yet, but I find 
it Briftoward at Wcftburie, and 
foe to Briftow all the efiward, 
till you come to the hill» right 
over againft that cittye; and 
theere, 1 take it, it tumeth into 
a kind of freeftme, which alfoe 
in that place is burned into 

This digreffion concerning 
thefe two vaynes of limeftone, 
taking their original here in 
Penbrokfliirc, I have thought 
good to infert in this place ; for, 
at the requeft of a deare friend 
of myne, and famous for his 
learning, I took fome paynes 
about it, and finding the natu- 
^11 courfe thereof to be as be- 
fore, a thing perchance not fo 
well noted as fitt to be knowne, 
and being noted and knowne, 
jc may be a guide to fome par- 
ties to fecke the lymeftone, 
whereas yett it lyeth hidd, and 
may fave labour to others in 
feeking it, where there is noe 
poilibility to finde it. 

For the veyne of coales which 
is found betweene thofe two 
vaynes of lymcftones, as a be* 
nefit of nature; without th& 
il(^hich the profitt of the lyme- 
ftone were neere loft, though 
in fome places they bum it with 
wood, I will defer to fpeake of 
till hereafter, where I meone 
of the (eYe<:aU fortes of fucU ia 

Penbrokefhire ; onely this I 
thinke fit to fay in this place, 
that betweene the fayd two 
vaynes, from the beginning to 
the ending, there is a vayne (if 
not fevenUl vaynes of coles) 
that foUo weth thofe ot the lyme- 
ftone, and ferveth for a princi- 
pal fuel in moft countries where 
it is found, and carried into fo- 
reign partes alfoe, if the com- 
modioufnes of the fca do foe 
permit* This vayne of cde in 
fome partes joyneth dofe Co the 
firft lymeftone vayne, as in Pen- 
brokfture, and Carmarthenihire; 
and in fome partes it is found, 
clofe by the other vayne of 
lymeftone, as in Glamorgan, 
Monmouth, and Somerfetflures. 
Tlierefore whether I ftiall fay 
there are two vaynes of coles 
to be found betweene thefe two 
vaynes of limeftone, or to ima«» 
gine that the cole fhould wreathe 
or tume itfelf in fome place to 
one, and in other places to the 
other ; or to thinke that ail die 
land betweene thefe two vaynes 
ftiould be ftored with coles ; I 
leave to the judgment of the 
fkilfuU minerti or thofe which 
with deep knowledge, have eh- 
trid into thefe Iiidden fecrettes. 

There is alfoe a third veyne 
of lymeftone fcnnd in Penbh>ke- 
flieere, mow northeriy then die 
other two, difcovered more of 
Iftte then in tymes. paft, and 




fouod in places >x^here it was. 
not knowne to be, aiidy as I 
judge, to be in places where it. 
yett lyetli hidden* It hadb been 
lately fpund neere Clarbefton 
and BuUhook, and is a browner, 
fione, andburpeth into browner, 
lyme then the former, as profit** 
able for the land an4 building as 
any of the reft, but i)ot foe fair 
in coUor fpr plaifter. Thisftone 
is fofter, aiid not foe gray and, 
l^rde as die former quanies,; 
and is but ffi^alle and narrow,, 
for as not much above three or 
fpur foote broade, aQd it hath 
been ufed in tymes paft for 
marie, as (hall be declared here-* 
after. This Tayne feemeth to 
hould tlie fame courfe as bis 
former fellows, that is, e^ft and 
"vjreft i but. for that this place 
already named, is the fartheft. 
parte wefierlie that it hath been* 
yet fought for in, I will a little 
tpuch the eaflerty courfe there^ 
of, eaft of Bullhooke and Clar- 
l^efton tluee miles, at the fpring 
of thp river Marlais, above 
Uwyngwathan, in a piece of 
the Churchland, where it hath 
bpen lately fought for and found ; 
and from thence, as I giiefs, it. 
gpeth toLlanbeder towne, where, 
it hath been anciently fouml,. 
and digged in great abundance ; 
and then it hideth itfelfe, cv, at 
leaft, is npt fQVght for, till it 
come to Clog y Yiane, in Llan-*. 
fi^nyn pariib> in Caqnarthen* 

fheere, which is five miles from' 
Llanbeder, where it has been^ 
rayfed for many years paft, and 
is found to • be the felf fame 
ftone, both in foiallnefs of the 
vayne, and brownes of coUour. 
From Qlog y Vranc eaftward, 
I heare not of this vayne any 
more untill I came- to Droflywn 
Caftle Langathen, where it is* 
found a growing in quantity and 
qualitie, as 1 fayd before; and 
in another place I am much de* 
ceived if I did not fee this vaine 
of ftone lefte dian a mile out of 
Brecknock towne, neare a fiirm 
houfe, called Trafiyng, belong- 
iug (as I goefs) to the priory of 
Brecknock. Now if this lyme- 
ftone vayne. flxould followe 'hi& 
courfe wefteriie, as the other 
two doe, and as by the nature 
thereof, and all probabilitie k' 
doth, dien might the neighbours 
which dwell direfUy weft of 
Blethenfton and Bullhooke, be 
fomewhat animated to feeke out ^ 
this good relation of theirs, 
which would be a joyfuU thing 
unto them, and therefore it were 
not amyfle to try which way 
this vayne fhould'be found wef- 
teriy, which is in die grounds 
about Walton and ; Spittell, and 
betweenc Camrof8*6n to Brow-* 
dey ground, and to Ewefton, or 
Owerfton, in Dewifland, .for 
here there are cole pits, where 
cole hath been digged, which is 
a great argument that the lyme 




vajme is not &it off from the 
one, is moft commonly foimd 
to acooaquuiy die other* But 
tUs vajme is now hardly hit 
upon and foond^ yot fhonld not 
the induftrious huiband defpaire 
or oegled^ hoping that God 
would Uefs his good endeavours. 
Now, after my long digreffion 
out of Penbrokeflure, it beho- 
▼eth me to returne to my former 
purpofe, and to ihew how the 
huibandmen of the countrey 
make their benefit of this, in 
bettering the land therewith. 
This lymeftone beii^ digged in 
the quarrie in great flones, is 
hewen kfler, to die hignefs of a 
man's fill and kfle, to the end 
fl^ey might the fooner bume 
throw ; and being hewid fmalle, 
the fame is put into a kill, made 
of wall, fix foote high, four or 
five foote tvoad at the briinme, 
but growing narrower to the 
bottom, having two lope boles 
a| die bottom, which they call 
ihfi kill eyes. In this kill firft 
is made a fire of coles, or ra« 
ther colme, which is but thti 
dvft of poles, whjch is layd in 
the bottoip of the kill v^ 
fome fewe ftickes of woo^ to 
jcindle a fire; dien is die kiU 
fiUed widi thefe fmalle hewed 

4 • 

pceces of lymeftones, and th^m 
fier being given, the famp bc|T« 
iieth for the fpace of 

and maketh die lyme* 
ftones to liecome meere jt^ 

fiery coles ; which being done,' 
and the fier quenched, the lyme 
fo burned is fufierod to coole in 
the kill, and then is drawen 
furth throw tbefe kill eyes; and 
in this fort is carried to die land, 
where it is layd in heapes, die 
next flioure of rayne making it 
to molter, and falle imo duft ; 
whkh diey fpread on the land, 
and (be fowe wheat pr barley 
therein, as the tyme of the yeere 
requireth : . but in die lower parts 
of the (hire, where the lyme ia 
moft ufed, and dieire land very 
dry of itfe!(^, they are (breed to 
muck theire land the firft yeare 
with the lyme ; die reafon of 
which, as I gueiTe, is the ex- 
trsame heat of the fame lyme, 
being in full ftrength, wheare 
the land being dric of itfdfe, 
becomedi foe hott, that it re-> 
quireth fome moifture to feafon 
it, or otherwife the growdi and 
profperitie of the com wouU be 
hindered, which is beft nou« 
riihed by a temperate difpofition 
of heate and moifture. But in 
the very mountaines, where die 
ground is rather too cold, the 
lyme being caft thereon, tho 
fame bringeth forth (aire com^, 
without any muck at all th^ 
firft yeare, and thus amended, 
beareth great abondaqce of comp 
for fix or feven yeares. This 
trade of lyming hath been morn 
ufed widiin tbefe thirty or forty 
yqires pa^t ^ U d^royeth 



die fuKe» feam» heath, a&d 
ad)er like fhrubbes, growing oa 
the land, producing a fine fweete 
grafict and quite cbaog^th the 
hue and face of the ground, to 
the great enrichment of thofe 
who have ufed it : but in thofe 
partes where it hath been moft 
ufed in tymes paft, it is now 
changed for a kinde of hufban** 
drie, (as they take it,) latdy 
found out, which is, fandii^ 
theire ground, as ihall be de- 
clared hereafte^:. 

The ne3(t, and cheefeft kinde^ 
of mending of the land, is the 
clay marie, fo called for di& 
ference betweene it and the fen 
marie ; this kinde of clay marie 
15 digged out of the eaithe, 
where it is found in great quan* 
titie, and thought to be in rounde 
greate heapes and lumpes of 
earth, and is of nature fat, 
tough and clammy, and muft 
be caft and fett in the ground 
very thick, in fmale pieces, dofe 
one by another, foe thick that 
it muft cover all die ground. 
The opinion of the contrey peo- 
ple where this marie is found is, 
that it is the fatnes of the earth 
gathered togedier at Noah's flood, 
when &e eardi was covered 
with the fayd flood a whole 
year, and widi the furging an4 
toffing oi the fayd flood, the fat- 
i)Cfs ojf the mud being clamy and 
^y pf fiatu^-e, di4 gather to^ 

gedier, and by rowling up<»i the 
earth became round in forme, 
and when the flood departed from 
the face of (he earth the fame 
was left drye in fondry partes^ 
which is now this marL How 
the common people came to this 
opinion I know not, but it is 
very like to be true, for where* 
foever the fame appeares, it is 
lappid and covered with fande, 
gravell and round pebble ftones, 
fuch as you ftiall finde at the fea 
fide, St very plainly appearing 
that die ftones have been wome 
by the fea, or fome fwift river ; 
alfoe in the hearte of the marie 
is formed divers forts of flieUs of 
fl(h, as cockle ihells, muflLell 
{hells, andiuch like, fome al^ 
togedier rotted, and fome yet 
unrotted) as alfoe we fliall 
therein finde pieces of tymber 
diat have beeoe hewen with edge 
tooles and fine brands, the one 
end burned, and divers other 
thinges which have been before 
tyme ufed, and diis twenty foot 
and more deep in the earth, in 
places that have been digged 
before, and over the which 
great okes are now growing; 
and this feven or eight myles 
from the fea, fo diat it is very 
probable that die fame came 
unto thofe places at the great and 
grenerall, flood. They ufe the 
fnarl dius : it is digged and caft 
up out of the pitt, carried to the 
land^ and there caft eidier upon 




the fallow or lay ground un- 
plowed, and thus in the fomer- 
fyme, in the months of May, 
June, July and Auguft, or after 
barveft, and at all tymes of the 
year fit for calling of it, if thtf 
weather be fine, where it lyeth 
foe on the land all the fummer 
and winter, the rain making it 
to melt, and run like molten ledd 
over all the face of the erth ; 
and if it be caft on fallow, it 
beareth barlie the next May; 
and if it be caft on lay ground, 
the fame is fowed with otes, and 
every yeare after with barlie, 
for tweWe or fourteen yeares to- 
gether, without giving any other 
mendraent; and yeaMeth come 
very pure, clene, and of much 
yealding, exxseeding the little 
lunde of come, being odierwife 
tilled both on the land, thebame 
floor, and in the mill. It vnll 
carie barlie, wheat, and peafe 
continually for twenty yeares, 
without dong, and holdeth for 
many years after in bearing of 
come ; being donged once every 
three yeares, it will not feeke to 
have any reft or pawfing. tyme 
to recover harte. If the land 
before bore either furfe, feme 
he^hy brome, or any other 
kinde of fltmbbes, the marie 
ilt^erlie deftroyeth it, and caufeth 
the ground, he ii never foe il} 
conditioned and baren before, to- 
bring furth fine graffe, full of 
the he^rbe called trifMumi or 

three leaved grade, and of the 
countrie people honey fuckles, 
both white and redd, foe that in 
the fomer tyme the lands will be 
covered with thefe flowers, and 
looke with a claret coUor, ming- 
led with white and red, and will 
yeld a moft pleafant and fragrant 
odor and fmell, proceeding fromr 
thefe fweete flowers. I count 
this kinde of mendment, the bed 
of all other found in this parte of 
Wales. This marl is of coller 
with us moft commonly blewe^ 
and in fome places redd. Plynye, 
who writeth feveral chapters of 
this marie in his naturall hiftory, 
fayth it is to be found in Fiiance 
and Brittaine, and is of fondrie 
coUors, as alba^ rufa^ colomUnaj 
argiUacea^ harrtnacea \ he alfoo 
defcribing the fubftance thereof, 
calleth it adeps terra ac velut 
glandls in arbore denjante fc 
pinguetudinis nuclei. 

This marie being fat and 
damy, is of nature fertile and 
binding, and therefore is to be 
caft on barren land; firft, if 
^e lande be moift, the lyme 
rathier ferveth than this ; ferny 
ground is found to be much a-* 
mended with marie, for it being 
loofe and drie, is made faft and 
moift by it, and is brought to a 
good foil for come and grafie ; 
yet it "is very hard to digg, by 
reafon of the toughnes, much 
like to wax, for the fpade oi^ 




mattodc being ftroken into yt^ 
is hardly drawne outagaine, foe 
fall is it holden ; it is a hdavy 
fabftance, and therefore hard to 
be casrried, Specially up the hill, 
(b that it is chargeable ; but all 
things being ooniideredy it pay- 
etlr in coHimoditie die charge 
every yeare after :. diis I fpeake 
by myne owne experience. 
Marie long fithcnce was miich 
ufed about a hundred, or a 
hundred and Axty years paft, as 
appeareth by land marled, and 
many ancient marie pitts yet 
extant ; but it was wholly neg* 
le<^ed till about twenty-four 
yeares ago, that divers poore 
people begun to iinde commo- 
ditie thereby* It is found, by 
proofe, to continue good to 
bring corne and grafle for a 
hundred and a hundred and iixty 
yeiars together; for there are 
many piocea of land knowne to 
have been marled above a hun- 
dred yeares pad, and yet con- 
tifliueth under come to this day, 
and found to be good. This 
marie is found in Kernes, and 

both Emiyns, from Dinas up to 
Penboyr, in Catn^ailhenihite; 
being dbout twenty miles in 
length, and about four in breddi) 
in moft phoes to the fea fide ; 
and out of the compafie, I can- 
not heare diat the fame is found, 
I thinke n^ore for want of in- 
duftrie than odicrwife; for if 
this kinde of*marlc bedie-fat- 
ncs of the eardi gathered toge- 
dier by the deluge., as it is very 
probable, then feeing the fklugc 
viras over all the face of the 
earth, I fee noe reafon but that 
the fame Ihould be alfoe found 
in moft countries ; and who fo 
lift to learn more of this mark, 
let him perufe a pamphlet which 
I have written thereof*, where- 
in I have declared the nature of 
the marie, how toknoweit and 
finde it, and the order at large 
of digging, and laying it on die 
lande, the feverall forts thereof^ 
for what it is good, and for 
what ill; and foe for brevide 
fake, I cefte here to report any 
more thereof. ^ 

* The Treatife on Marl here alluded to, I obferved smongft the colkdions hi 
the MSS. TOlume, I have alrewdy acknowledged myf«lf indebted to Col: Lloyd, of 
Bronvydd, for tkc fight of; whereof it is faid— << There is an antlent memorial, by 
i*' continuance of report, that the itfe of marl in Kemeys, waa firft foand oat by one 
.'< Caie, a Frenchman, Who was faid to have come into this country with Martin de 
'' La Tours, the conqueror of Kemeys \ who gave unto this Cole, being one of Ma 
'< company, the land called Llwjngwair, (now the beautiful feat of Geo: Bowen, 
^ Efq.) where this Cole firll found out the marl, and th^re did caft it firft on the 
^ laod. What truth this report cairieth with it, I r^fec \o the judgment oA the 
<< reader; but true it is t^at Uwangwalr continued in the name of Coleft for many 
<< generations \ and oa that laud there vk Aore of Qkari ^imd} and leverai antieat 
« marl pitts/* 

^ • The 



The third kinde of ztntoA^ 
meDtt for die htnde that thii 
conntry yeeldeth, is the ftone 
marie, bring a kind of ftone 
digged out of a quarrey, and 
being laid on the land, cafteth 
yearly a fiefe of land, which in 
procefle of tyme docfa foe mend 
ground, that neither die lyme, 
nor the cby marie goeth beyond 
it, and carieth come and grafle 
in great abundance : thefeftones 
may not be removed from the 
land, for then the ground de» 
cayeth. The difcommodity of 
this marie is, that the land will 
be long before it cometh to 
yeelde crops ; for, that the next 
twelve yeares after the mending 
of it, it yeeldeth fraalle or noe 
profit) becaufe the ftones have 
notcaft fufficient on the foik, 
and dierefore this kinde of mar- 
ling is negledied for thefe many 
years ; for I know not of any 
now living that hadi feene land 
amended widi this ftone marie, 
but there are extant many goodr 
ly feeldes full to this day, that 
have been mended widi this 
ftone, before the memorie of 
any man living : this was much 
v£td about Pidlon, Slebech^ 
Wifton, Clarbefton, U awhaden, 
and in many places adjoining, 
where the beft land is of this 
forte, and the ftones found in 
great plenrie yet in the land. 
The quarries of this kinde of 

marie are found at Slebech, and 
die partes ai^acent; and it is 
iayd, that it will be 'burned into 
lyme, and that it is a foft kinds 
of lymeftone, but in fubftanoe 
very gravelly: this is, of all 
others, accompted the moft du- 
rable, though long ere it come 
to die prooffe. 

The fourth kinde of amend- 
ment that this countrey yeldedi 
is the fea fande, which is found 
in many places, but not in aU 
partes of the fea coaft. What 
is found in Newport, Dinas, 
and about thefe fliores, is rec- 
konM the beft, and the people 
knowing this, doe ufe upon 
fpringtydes or after great rigs of 
the fea, at which time the fea 
will caft the fame in more abon- 
dance together into greateheapes, 
and lay it out of the full fea 
mark, and therdience fetch it 
in fackes on horfebackes, and 
carie the fame three, four, or 
five myles, and' caft it on the 
land, >^ich doth very much 
better die ground for come and 
grafs, but this dureth not paft 
fix or eight ycare$. This alfoe 
is much ufed in Cardigan^ 
Mount Verwick, and JUan- 
goedmorin Cardiganftiire, where 
It bringeth forth the beft barley^ 
the moft deane, and in greater 
abondance, greatly enriching 
die huftnmdmen there. 

I have 



1 hav6 fcene of late yccrw at 
Frefh-water Eaft in Caftle 
Martin hundred, where they 
have digged fand out of the 
coney burrowes, which is not 
at any tyme ovcrflowne with 
the fea, and have caft the ikme 
to cheire lande; and I have 
heard from many an honeft an4 
good huf^ndman, that they 
finde this Ickide of huibandrie 
moK profitable then the Jyme 
which they ufed as manure oa 
dieire huid, in fo much that they 
Ipve ]yming> which they have 
fllwayes pra^zed^ and have 
taken to calling of this kinde of 
^ry faade, fo that by their ex- 
perience it ihouid feeme to exceU 
both lyme and fea fand for 
froAifieing of the earth; this 
praAide in Caftlemartin hath 
not binu ufed paft fix or feven 
yeares, but widi good f uccefle. 

It 18 iayd by fome writers, 
that the ofe or ilyme of the fea 
carried and layed on the land 
proveth provitable, but this hath 
not been ufed by any of this 
countrie that I could heare ofF, 
yet doth the fea yield plentie o£ 
it in creeks and havens* 

The iea ore (as fome call it) 
which is verie weedes growing 
under water in the fea, which 
are tome up by tempeftes and 
rigges of tlie fea, and caft aihore 
with the wind and tyde, and 
under low water marke, may 
be gatherid and cut off die 
ftones. The fame is ufed of 
•many rather as muck or dong« 
(ferving for one yeare onely) 
then to be accompted amoi^ 
the former durable kindes of 
amendment* This kinde of ore 
they gather and lay it in great 
heapesy where it hetcth and rot- 
feth, and will have a ftrong and 
loathfome fmell, which being 
foe rotten, they caft on the 
land, as they doe their muck» 
and thereof fpringeth good com, 
efpeciaUy barley. 

It is a faying among the 
countrymen of the continuance 
of thefe fore(ayd amendments^ 
that a man doth (and for him* 
lelfe, lyme for his fonne, and 
marie for his grandchild, there* 
by defcribing and comparing 
the durability of eche kinde 


( 06 ) 


Of the maner and order of BullMngesy Both of Toivnes, CaftteSj 

Churches y and HowfeSj ufed in this Countries and of the ^arreys 

of Stones that are found Jitt and ferving for that purpofe. 

TOUCHINGE the build- 
• ings of this codncrey, the 
fame is altogether of ftone and 
not of tymber, which 1 thinke 
•was in former tymes more for 
the commodioufncs of the abon- 
dance of fondrie and feveral forts 
of ftones fit for building, then 
want of tymber ; for that I finde 
in olde tyme there was in many 
places of the countrie, fufficient 
wood wherewith to have framed 
faire buildings^ but now and 
henceforward they muft con- 
tinue the former manner of 
building with ftone, for want 
of wood, and fhall have much 
a doe to finde tymber for other 
tifes. The buildings of the an- 
cient caftles were of lyme and 
ftone, foe verie ftrong that none 
of the mafons of this age can 
doe the like, for although all or 
moft of them have endured for 
diverfe hundred yeares paft, yet 
arc they in fuch wife knitt to- 
gether, as if the lyme and ftone 
did incorporate the one the other, 
and it were eafier to dig ftones 
out of the mayne rock, then 
pull down an old wall and to 
take ftone out of the fame; 
whereas, if you break a \^^lU 
but twenty or tliirty yeares paft, 

you rtiay take with eafe and 
pull out the ftones thereof, 
whereby it appeareth that woifc- 
men of this age, are not foe 
fkilfuU, or at leaft fob carefrill 
as thofe of the former ages, 
Vhereln is verified an adage or 
very ufual proverbe in the Bri- 
tifli or WeHh tongue, Gwaeth- 
gwaeth maen Sder^ well -well 
pren Saer, which is, that the 
mafons fhall grow worfe ani 
worfe, and the carpenters better 
and better till the world's end. 
The mafons were foe ikiUful in 
okl tyme in thefe conntreys, 
that moft caftells and houfes of 
any accompt were bdilded with 
vaults, very ftrongly and fub- 
ftantially wrought, continuing 
in good eftate, and you ftiall 
finde many houfes of good ac- 
compt that had few or noc 
loftes, but all vaults, efpecialtie 
for the kitchen, fellers, larders, 
brew-houfes, and other houfes 
of office ; whereas, now in all 
new buildings titefe vaults are 
altogether negle£^ed, and in 
ancient tyme you ftiall finde 
tliat the rooftes of divers churches 
and chappells were all vaulted 
over, and that of a great height^ 
whereof many be yet ftanding^ 




as Worran &• Daniers ChapeB 
by Penbroke, Flimfton, and 
ffae chapell of Uaiyhaddeti^ 
trtdi many other of thofe kinds 
of IniilfiiigB with vawtes, which 
were mod common in the partes 
neere Benbroke, the hundred of 
Narbeith» and in places where 
lyme was at hande, and where 
diey built all with lyme ; but in 
Kernes, Ogarran, and Dewis- 
land, where lyme wanteth, thofe 
kindes of ftrong building are 
not foe commonly to be feene, 
fer in thefe partes where there is 
no lime, diey ufe morter of 
clay or earthe, to make theire 
ftone walles, and herein it 
feemeth diat nature has provided 
for the neede of all thofe partes ; 
for in thofe partes where lyme 
is to be had for morter, there 
the ftones are round and 
fmooth, and as if lyme were 
not, as it were, to ^ew them 
together, there could noe build- 
ing be (ubftantiall ; and the con- 
trarie in Kernes and other partes, 
where lyme wanteth, diere hath 
nature afforded a difierent kind 
of ftone, being thick flate ,and 
very broad, which ferveth, with 
the morter of clay oncly, to build 
a wall more harder to breake 
then that with lyme, and the 
fmall fquare ftones. You may 
get thefe ilate ftones of four or 
fivd foote long, and three or 
four foote brode, and of what 
thicknes you pleafe to ckavc the 

fame, which kind t>t ftone moft 
commonly being ftraight and 
imothe, as though die fame had 
1)een by a workman hewen and 
planid, and being of that length 
and breddi, maketh the walle 
very ftrong and firme, fo that 
ft is a thing impoffible to take 
thofe ftones out of the middeft 
of any walle. Of thefe two 
fortes of walles are all the builds 
ings in this country, but that 
with lyme is moft ftrong and 
moft durable, yet it is accom- 
panied with a flirewde difcom- 
moditfe, which is, that the wall 
made of lyme of this countre^ 
continuedi for ever moift in it- 
felve, and thereby maketh aH 
the roomes damp and apt to 
corrupt with roft, and rotting 
any rfiing that is kept in the 
romc, efpeciaOy if it be iron, 
writings, or the Hke; whereby 
is found one great inconvenience 
in this prefent age, that armour 
will not indure in this cotmtrie 
halfe die tyme it wifi doe in the 
inland countries of England; 
for let die armour be cleaned 
ever foe well, and put in any 
roome of this building, in one 
weeke it will grow ruftie. 
What fliould be the caufe thereof 
I cannot judge, but a naturall 
inftind engrafted in the ftones 
or lyme ; for iri thefe buildings, 
you ftiall finde the very ftones 
in the wall againft wett weather 
to fweat witli great drops of 
H water. 



water, and all the walles in the 
houfe to be weeping and covered 
with ftreams of water runoing 
down; and this perfuadeth me 
to be one of the caufet why in 
old buildings are found fo many 
vautes and foe few loftes, for 
that in thefe watrie walles the 
beames in (hort tyme doc rott 
and foe the lofts decay. But in 
the other partes of the countrie 
where the buildings are made of 
ftone and clay tnorter, the walles 
are not' of that nature but con- 
tinue drie, and yet not foe drye, 
but that fometymes before wet 
weather thcv will ihew fomc 
fignes of moiftnefs, and thefe 
lad walles are for the moft parte 
accompted wholefomerdwellings 
then the former, or lefle fubjcdt 
to corruption^ Now as con- 
cerning the feverall foites of 
ftones that, are found fitt for 
building, and ferving for divers 
purpofes, I reckon firft the lyme- 
ilon^, which is noer lefTe fit for 
walling then to burn for mortar, 
and will not onely endure to be 
hewen with tooles, but will be 
brought to iliine with a faier 
glafTe like the marble, and is 
inlaid with grey fparkes, wliicb 
much beautify die fame ; next 
unto this lymeftone for building 
is the Nolton ftone, being a 
kinde of freeftone, but in col- 
lour a dark grey, which doth 
make good giindilones, as alfoe 
muilard milles^ this flone is 

eafily hewen to make windDwe9» 
doores, chtmneyes, aidies, go* 
meftors, and water berges, or 
any other hewen worke, and 
the collor excepted, ingoodnefs 
and ftreogth, againft the force 
and fretting of the fea winde 
padeth the Hartleberg ^uarrey 
of Somerfetihire, for this ftonc 
endureth all forces of the fea 
without fretting or wearing ; but 
the ftones of Someifetfhii^ being 
farr fett and deere bought, is 
fo found to be eaten with the 
fea winde into fmalle pittes^ ai 
fhayles doe eat fruit under trees, 
and in the endc are confumed to 
nought, and tl>erefore are found 
by experience unferviceaUe for 
thi&countrey, faving for mantell 
trees for chimneys, or other 
worke within doores. This 
ftone I call by the name of Nor- 
ton ftone, for that it is found 
there, . and thereof taketh the 
name, but the fame is found in 
moft of tlie fea. cliiFcs round 
about the fheere, efpecially neere 
Newport, where there is great 
ftone, and differing in coUour, 
fome vaines white, fome yd- 
lowc, and moft grcye ; moft of 
the ancient caftles have much 
of this kinde of ftone, which 
continucth perfe£l to thefe dayes, 
a good prooffe of long during. 
It hath befides a fpeciall pro- 
pcrtie to endure the force of fier ; 
for of thefe I have feene a glailc^ 
maker make his fumes, which 



. / 


^id beare the eiOretiie heat of lib 
occnpationy - 'which ■ noe ocher. 
ftones of thiar coantiey cduU 
abide. . There k alfe found in the 
clifies aboiit 6c» Davids, another 
kinde cS hewing ftone^ profil* 
able IB cootinuiiif;, which it 
digged in very great andlarge 
blockes, as fome four, footie 
fquarei of this the catfaedrall 
church of St. Davids, the bi- 
fhop^s pallace, and divers of the 
canons houfes, are builded^-it 
is browne of cdlor, and fome 
pf it darko rsddi much like the 
ftone of the colledge at Wor- 
cefter, and is eafily hewen to 
any forme. Next diefc there is 
a Aone found in the mounctn 
above Newport, and in Coed 
Cadw in Nevem parifli, lardge 
and tufl^, yet eaile in hewing, 
and moft commonly fiill of little 
holes. As thefe ftones rife in 
vaft raafies, iot thereof you 
may make large mantells. for 
chymnies of one ftone, and of 
three ftones the whole frame of 
a dome, (vix.) one piUer for 
every fide, and one other to 
cover die faipe, either archr 
wife or fquare, as you. pleafe. 
This ftone ferveth for coyne 
ftones, windowes, and gates, 
and is very ftrong and profita^e 
in building ; but above all thinges, 
it ferveth beft for ftayres, as a 
ftone whereon a man may 
bokDy tread, widiout flyding by 
leafoQ of the roughnes thereof, 

which will not be wohie fmoqAe 
and ilippry as the lymcftone and 
moft other ftones will. 

. There is aiiothtr kiade of 
fireeftone, which for faymefle 
and coUor pafleth all yet fpoken 
of^ which is a bludd redd ftone^ 
and will be hewen very well and 
make fine workei this is very 
petfe& redd mixed with fome 
browne, and will ferve to make 
faiie and laidge windowes, 
mantell trees, and all odier hewen 
worke, bodi within and without 
the houfe, and againft weather 
is moft durable. This, in my 
fimple opinion, for the builiUngs 
of this countrey were m^ pro- 
fitable and beaucifull ; for as in 
En^and, where the buildings 
are moftly of bricke, and in 
coUor redd, diere is defired the 
white freeftone for windowes 
anddoores, becaufe of the beautie 
thereof, in making varietie of 
coUors to driyte lookers on : foe 
hi this countrey where all our 
walles are v^te by reafon of 
the lyme ; dooies and windowes 
of this ftone would make the 
like varietie and mufter to the 
eye, and would be very deliteful 
to behold. This ftone is not foe 
received of as it deferveth ; it is 
found in Modgrove in die come 
fields, there lying loofe in the 
plaine ground and not in any 
quarries, and rifedi fometimes 
very large ; it is alfge found in 
H2 the 



die feadiflb there, an^ in many 
<ither places if k it wefv feught 
for, for I 6ido it in many plaoce 
in the mines of the abbey of St. 
Dogmellsy and therefore of lyke- 
lihood not farre of to be found. 
Of odier wdling flfones there Is 
fitch abondance, and of fueh 
fevetaU fotti^ differing from dcAe 
Other, aknoi in evef^ {mriflit 
that to Ipeake paiticidafly 
dtereof, it were botfi fupeN 
fluous^ infinite, and uflneceflaiyi 
yet doe they fenre to many pur* 
pofes, as wailing, hedging, and 
fucb like. 

Now having defcribed the 
chcfeft fortes of ftones ferving 
for buiidiag, it cometh in teurle 
to fpeake of flates and tyling 
fiones, which abound in divers 
places of this cotmtrie, and are 
cfdivetfe qualities, but generally 
««ry jdainc, ftnoothe, and faire, 
bkcke and blew in tollor, no- 
diing inferior to thofe fett from 
tpeyond the fees, which are layd 
on the Royal Exdiange, as 
alfoe on feverall houfes in tiie 
thj of London. T^is ftone is 
fofoni about Newport and t>i- 
nas, in Kernes, in the fca, aro 
Ihere quarried and carried by 
water to Haverft>rd, Penbroke, 
and Tenby, and to divers partes 
of Ireland, foioetymes fell deere 
and fometyines cheape, as tlie 
plentie and feadkie in thofe 
townes doe require. But the 

bcsft forte of tfade 'ftones are 
ibnnd abont two myles ftom th« 
liea fide, at Coed Cadw, is die 
pariih of Neveniy which excel 
Ade of Newpoct in aU die 
faimer qualities : and osie riling 
is to be noiedf that mi theb 
ftosies there is found lumpes of 
BEiettall ihitting like perfeA 
eopper, and to vywe nothing 
diiering from meken mettaB, 
and in weight maffie and heavy, 
but brittell; well beaten into 
powder, to what perfeAioa 
this might be brought hadi not 
yet been tried. 

Next to the bbcke and blew 
tiie is the redd tile, being of a 
light redd ccrflor, in ufe y«y 
durable and hard, in all refpedea 
equall with the former, diftring 
only in coUor, of which aUbe 
rtiere is great plentie, and fent 
to the great townes as the for* 

The third is a ruflet ftone, 
more large and rougher then 
the other two^ but more profit- 
able to the owner, foe his houfe 
be tyniberid thereafter, and the 


lathes and nayles agreeable ; this 
ftone is di^ed very large, three 
foote, and fome four fbote long, 
which layd on of that bignrs, 
, eleveth more faft then the reft, 
and therefore the lyme taking^ 
better hold then between the. 
fimooth ftoneS) duveth the longer 




DnthehotTe; thefe ftoties bdirig 
well layd on by a good woric*> 
man* and of a good bonde, en- 
imttth vt^l &uy yeares and 
Bioi€{ for these are feme houilBS 
covered with thelb fiaiss, drat 
fcaTpe any perfon lyving hatb 
ftene a ^ler oa their vooSE^ 
Widi ffaefa the great Fratry at 
St* DogweU's is coveitd, snaay 
yeares fithence. The beft flones 
of thitf kind ^re found at Pant y 
gwenufidy, Coom Dogwell, 
Llaotood HenUis^ and allmoft in 
every ^n^y hMveene tfie ri« 
ver of Nevam and the fea* This 
kind of ftone fenreth alfoe/or 
waUing in Keoos and Kilgerran 
hundreds, for in the quarrey it 
is found to lie in great flakes, 
alwaies leaning to the foutht 
foe that you muft begin the 
qqarrie firom the north, foef fh^U 
you havp the backe of the 
quarrey towards you, and dig 
it with cafe ; for if is found by 
€stpetien£€f that all the quarries 
of this bfode kind of ftoap asf 
CSL& fouchwaid, fo^ that alwaies 
you beg^ it froni the norths 
and follow foutbward, and thpa 
ihaUyou 6nd« the quarrey loofe 
befose you* This, is thougjbt 
to be doit by the Tidence of th^ 
generall floo^ wbii:b at the des- 
parting thereof iell ibuthwaxd, 
9pd tare Urn easdv in pieces, and 
leparatpd tho iitands from the 
coodntplr aa4 made the faiUs 
iknd va|Ije$ m wc now 6nde 

them, and tufnid the couries of 
the fprings and rivers, which 
was thought to be in another 
fbrme at the firft pr^tion thei^e-^ 

Thefe in effie^ 4m the kindea 
of iloqe worth the aotingi which 
eicperieos hath broii^t to lights 
but Mr. HoUingihed fpeaketh, 
lipoii what certs^ntie I knowe 
not, that an St. David's, in 
Wales, there ia marUe and ala* 
blafier to be found; but I cold 


nevef heare of any found by 
any man: but ufN)n the moua«' 
taine <^ Percely thene are many 
loofe ftones found, which aro 
very hard and fmoodie of gritty 
and hath, in divers of then^f 
many white fparkes and veynes; 
but of thefe ftones were never 
yet &ny hewn, neyther is it 
knowne to what perfc(%on the 
fame might be brought, if ikilful 
workmen had the handling there- 
of ; for, if they mght bp hewan 
with tooles, doubtlefs for a^y 
qualitieelfe, they would be little 
inferior to the marble. 

Alfoe at the toppe of MoeL- 
trigarn^ in Whitchurch, being 
a very high mounfen, I found 
there great ftore of looii^ ftones, 
which were very white of coj- 
lor, and would be cutt with a 
knife, and therefor mig^t be 
eaiilyhewen^vith todes. Whe- 
ther the wholly rock be of this 

H 3 ftone, 



ftone, or to what it might be 
turnid, it hath not yet been 
proved by any. And now to 
tlofe up, I will cndc with fpcak- 
ing of a ftrange kind of ftone 
found in a brooke in Percely, 
which is cole black in collor 
and foft, and his property is to 
collor upon any thing that it is 
rubbed on, much like black 
ledd ; but that which is moft 
ftrange, it fervcth to marke 
fheepe; for countrey people 
taking two of thefe ftones, rubbe 
theme againft the other, being 
wett, and with the fame rubbe 
their white fheepe, marking 
them with an azure blew fDollor, 
which, without any other thing, 
wiU ren^aii^e all the winter very 

plaine to be feene on the wootte; 
which €rgueth that this (lone 
hath fome clammy fubftance in 
it, which makelh it fo fticke to 
the wooU, that all the ftonnes 
and (howers of winter cannot 
waflie the fame away. To give 
a coUour there wpt many thinges, 
but to caufe this to fticke on 
againft the force of weadicr, 
diere moft be fome fhange pro- 
pertie in it, befide the colloring. 
This kind of ftone is fimnd in a 
little rille of water, defcending 
from Percelly hilb, intheparifh 
of Meliney, and dK countrey 
people call it nSd gl&s^ which 
in Englifb is Uewe radc&e, or 
blewp marking ftone. 


Of the Cajldh^ ForteSj and Strong Moulds^ in this Sheere^ and 

of the Cities and Totunes thereof. 

CONCERNING the firft 
building of the caftles and 
townes of this countrey, I had 
once determined to have written 
thereof a parte by itfelfe, but 
afterwards looking unto the ende 
of my worke, I faw, if I foe 
did, I fhould be forced to write 
twice of eche of them, and foe 
to iterate my vjrords, which were 
labour loft, ahd tedious to the 
reader, and therefore I have de- 
ferrM to fpeake thereof, till I 
come to intreate of each parti* 

cular parifh and places of note 
within the fame ; whereof I will 
deliver my knowledge of eche 
towne and caftell, and what 
memorialls I have feene or redd, 
touching diem, as to a place 
more fitt and apt to intreat 
thereof then here. Onelyonc 
generall note I diinke good to 
give in this place, diat all the 
caftles and tovtrnesof this coun- 
trey, for die moft parte^ were 
built by our* conqueror;' 'Erie 
Strongbowe, and'his knights to 




iKrhom he gave the lande, and 
10 theire pofteritie, as places in 
which to defende thcmfdves 
againft the incurfions of the 
princes of Wales: foe thatfuch 
townes and caftles as were built 
here before the coming of the 
fayd Erie Strongbow, were foe 
alterid and transformed, by his 
coming, as thatt the former 
ftate thereof is utteriy forgotten, 
only fome antient names, and 
nothing elfe remaining. Nei- 
ther is it knowne perfefUy what 
townes or caftells were here be- 
fore their coming, nor in what 
ftate of abilitie or ftrength they 
were ; for untill the coming of 
Strongbow hither, thiscountrie 
of Dyvett was never conquered, 

J eyther by Romans, Saxons, 
Danes, or Normans; but the 

. antient inhabitants ftill continued 
^eirepofleffions, although divers 

tymes interrupted, by fodaine 
Ikirmages by lande, and fpoilcrs 
from fea. Onely the cittie of 
St. David's, and the territories 
thereabouts, even after Strong* 
bowe's coming, continued under 
the fame mafters as before, for 
that the conquerors proteftid the 
fame as holy land, confecrated 
to the fervants of God, and 
therefore it was counted among 
thefe bloody men an impietie to 
ofier violence to any land or 
people being in the pofleffion of 
the church; though in thefe 
days of peace, our fered con- 
fciences will not blufhe to take 
it, and to fnatche away parte 
of the churche livings, yea and 
the churche itfelfe, if we fee it 
but hang loofe: foe are the 
mindes of men, altering with 
tyme, untiU tyme turn men intp 

CAP. X. 

Of the feveral Sortes of Fuell that the Countrej yiejdeth. 

THE fcvcrall kjndc of fuell 
that fervetb tlie inhabitants 
of this ihire is, wood, fea cole, 
turfe, furfe, both Frenche and 
tame, brqom^ fi^me, and heath, 
all- which are u(id in feverall 
partes of the flieere, and for fe- 
veral purpofea: and firft for 
wpode p .this, couotrpy grpn^th 
^ith the generall complainte of 

other countries, of the decrea^ 
iing of wood, for I finde, by 
matters of recorde, that divers 
gl^ate come fields were in tymes 
paft great foreils and woods. 
The beft ftanding woods at this 
prefent in Pcnbrokeftiire, where^ 
with the .cQuntrie is fervid for 
.buildings, and other aecelTaries 
are thefe tliat foUowe : Narberth 
H 4 Forcft, 



Fared, Kilgamn, Coedttaelbt 
Canefton^ Mynwer, ♦ PenceUy, 
fiiilreth, Hooke Wood, UptOD. 
Woods of divers gentlemen fuf- 
&:ient to ferve theire houfes of 
fuell, and foine for buildings, 
ve— PiOon, Bulfton, Wifton, 
Cpqd Kanles, XJannerch, KiU- 
kythedy Dyffrin Gweyn, An- 
goed» Henllys, and Wcnalkf 
Bemon, Throftwood, Llwyn* 
gwair, Fearoeibuih, Perlkilyi 
Upper Talch, Nether Talch, 
CrefwelU Mote, Walton, Wood- 
(lock, WcftemTrcfgam, Eftem 
Trefgam, Uognygorres, Drim, 
Naflie, Langwm. 

Woodes and fore Aes in tymes 
pad, and now deAroyed, and 
arable lands were Llydiarth Fo- 
* reft, Ry wgran, Modgrove, Coed 
Cadw, Coed Llonk, Mounton 
Park, the wood by Newgall 
Cron Lloyii. With diefe woods 
and others of the meaner forte, 
which I cannot remember, moft 

of die gendemen of die flieere 
are well fervid with wood for 
dieim fuell; but, for die moft 
parte, thofe that dwell neere 
the cole, or that may have it 
caried by water wkh cafe, ufe 
moft cole fiers in theire kiteh-* 
ings, and fome in theire haUes, 
becaufe it is a ready fiere, and 
very good and fwoete to roft 
and boyle meate, and voyd of 
iinoake, where yllchymnies aret 
and doth not require a roan'a 
labour to cleve wood and fieede 
the fiere continually, Nextunio 
the wood, or radier to be fte* 
ferred before it for fuell, is colo 
fiere, for the generalitie of it, 
as that vdiich ferveth moft peo* 
pic, and efpecially the cheefe 
townes. This cole may be nom- 
brid as one of the cheefie com* 
modities of this countiry, and is 
foe ncceiTarie, as without it the 
countrey would be in great dif- 
trcfs. It is called ftone cole, for 
the hardnes diereof, and is bur- 

* From t maottfcript beloogiaK to my worthy friend, Col: Lloyd, of Konvy4d,tlift 
ufe of which I baTC already gratefully acknowlHged, I am enabled to give tn ac- 
count of this foreil, as it exlfted tdien George Owea wrote this hiftory of Pembroke* 
Siirc«^*M The Lord of Kernes hath a wood in the manor of Eglwyfurw, called Pen- 
« Jielly, eontainJiif, of tho sfual meafurc of that country, abont 500 aeMs of wood, 
<' enctofed with qoicltrett and paie, in compafs 900 perches, eaeh pevch being £i fM 
'< in length, which make about 4 miles 3 quarters. It is ail grown with great oaks, 
^ o{ SCO and more, and fome young wood of $0 years growth ; and moft part of it 
'f woD grown wiHi under wood, ns orle, hasel, thorn, and willow; the herbage 
« wbflMof will fiimmer 30 breeding mares, uA winter 300 lieep aod fiOO cattle, well 
*' and fufficientiy, befides Mne, which may be ktpt there. AU6 there is in laid 
it wood 13 cock fliots, wherein is great ftore of woodcocks taken yearly, which cock 
<' ihotV are the Lord's own, to do with them what he pleafes. He has alfo pannage 
*' of liogs and wiM honey, ThQve alio breedeth in (aid wood IJ^hnwki, which ai« 
'« the Lord's own," 




Bed Hi ehimneies and grates of 
iron; and being once kindled^ 
giveih a greafier heate then light, 
and deliteth to bunie in darke 
places: itfeirethalfoeforfoiithea 
tp worke widi, though not foe 
well as the other kiade of cole, 
called the running cole, for that, 
when it firil kindleth, it mdfietk 
and mnnedi as waac, andgrow^ 
eth into ooeclodd ; whereas this 
ftone cole bumeth a parte, and 
aever clfi^eth tc^gether. Tbia 
kiode of cole is not noyfome 
ibr the finoke, nor nothing foe 
lothfome fov the faell, as the 
ling cole is, wiioie imoake an- 
ndyeth all diisges neere it, as 
fine lynen, mens hands that 
warm diemfelvesby it; but this 
ftone cole yeeldeth in a manner 
noe fmoke after it is kindled^ 
and is foe pure, that fine came- 
rick or lawne is ufuaUy dried 
by it, without any (hiine or Ue- 
aiihe, and is a mod proved 
good dryer^of mault, therein 
pafling wood, fern, or flrawe. 
This cole, for the rare proper^ 
ties thereof, was caried out of 
this countrcy, to the cittie of 
LfOndon, to the kite lord treafu^ 
Xer^ Burley, by a gentleman of 
experience, to (hewe how Sure 
^ fame excelled that of New>i 
eaftel, wheravith the citie of 
l/»odon is fenrid ; and I diinke, 
if the pai&ge were not fo tedi- 
ous, th<;re would be greate ufe 
^adp Qf it. Aod aoiir that | 

am come to entreate of ibis our 
Gountiey coles, I muft xemem- 
ber my promife made bcfoiey 
where 1 fpake of die feyaea of 
lymeftone, which, I fayd, was 
found to accompany die treynes 
of coks. And therefoic I wiU^ 
in as fewe wordes as I ean^ 
ihewe- you the natufaU oourfo 
of this cole, and how the fame 
doth accompany the lymeftone 
veyne. I fa]^ that I found our 
two veynes of lymeftones, t0 
have theire originaU here iff 
Penbrokihiie, and that thefMf 
courfe holdeth eaftward, as be-* 
fore I have declared at large* 
Betweene both which veynes of 
lymeftone the cote is found to 
foHowe, diough but not foe 
open as the lymeAone in ever^ 
place with the lymeftone; but 
in many places where the ftone 
fheweth, the ccAe hideth him- 
felfe; and where the cole is 
found, fometimes the lymeftone 
hirkech under ground; but ill 
many places they are found 
neere together. And firft,' our 
coles have been found neere 
Talberye, and foe followeth on 
to Johnfton; and there founds 
then at Frcftrope greate fto^, 
and fee at Pi^on; \i is alfod 
founde by the foudier yeynf of 
lymeftone at Jefirefton, and from 
ikence to Begeliy. This firft 
veyne of cole followeth the firfl 
veyne of lymeftone, keeping 
on thfi fo^th fide of it, to the 




water, and {be to die mouth of 
Towye, over the barre of Car- 
maitben, where the very veine 
of cole is found in the barre, 
by founding, and foe throw all 
CartnarthenAiire and Breknock* 
fheere, on to Moniaouthfheere, 
as I have before declared the 
courfe of that lymeftonc veyne* 

The other veyne of cole, 
^bich I fpake of at Jeffreftone, 
accompanyeth the fecond veyne 
of lymeftone, on the north fide 
thereof, within halfe a mile of 
the lymeftone, and pafl*eth eft 
to Sander Foote, and diere with 
the lymeftone into the fea ; and 
iheweth againe neare Llanydian 
^nd Loughor, as I fayd before, 
and foe throw Gower, to the 
Mombles, and under the fea over . 
to Kynfig Water, and throw all 
Glamorgan and Monmouth- 
fheeres, over Auft, and to Brif- 
tow ; the cole alwaies accom* 
ponying the lymeftone a myle 
on the north of it : but in this 
eourfe of both of the vcynes of 
lymeftone and cole,* one thing 
is to be noted, that the further 
eft the veyncs runne, the fofter 
groweth both the cole and lyme- 
ftone, and the eailer to be dig* 

The dtggin of this cole is of 
ancient tymes ufed in Penbrok- 
ftsire, but not in fuch extent and 
ftbilfull forte as now it is; for 

in former tyme they ufed not 
ei^ns for lifting up of the 
coles out of die pitt, but made 
theire entrance flope, foe as die 
people carried the coales uppon 
theire backes along ftayers, 
which they called landwayes; 
whereas nowe they finke theire 
pittes downe right foure fquare, 
about fix or feaven foote fquare, 
and with a wyndles tumid by> 
foure men, they drawe upp die 
coles a barrell full at once by a 
rope; this they calki a down- 
right dore. The lords of the 
land have eyther rent, or the 
third barrel, after all charges of 
the worke dcdu£ked. 

The cole is firft found by a 
fmall appearance thereof, which 
they call edge, which being 
found, they fearch which wscy 
die vejrne leaneth, and on the 
contrarie fide they begin to finke, 
for the cole is found to lye flope 
in die ground, and (Xldom down 
right ; the cole being found, the 
workmen follow the veyne every 
way, untill it ende, or be letted 
by water or rocke, the veyne 
will not be for the moft parte 
paffing five or fix foote deepe, 
foe that the cole is caried ftoop- 
ing ; for diey commonly leave 
a foote of cole in the bottome 
undigged, to ferve for a ftrong 
foundation, except they findo 
the rocke under foote, which 
they caUe ibtD$9n Jlonl, which 




if they fiiukt then they dig. 
cleane all this cole, and further: 
tiiea that ftone they looke f^ 
noe cole; and over head they 
zxe driven to tymber theire 
W9rke» to, k^pe ^ earth frofn 
falling, which is chargeable ^ bu( 
in fome grounds they have a 
locke above, and thei^ they fave 
much labour and coft in fparing 
of tymber. 


In diefe workes the water 
fprings are troblefom, which 
they avoid by finking a great 
pitt right imder the dore» to 
which air the water will run, 
and from thence draw it up with 
a wyndles, by barrells or els, 
by making a leveU (as they call 
it) which is by a waye digged 
under ground, fomewhat lower ^ 
then the worke, to bring a paf- 
fage for the water; this is very 
chargeable, and may poft fome* 
times £20^ and oftentimes more. 
They now moft commonly 
finke down right twelve, fix* 
teen, or twenty fathom, before 
they come -to the cole, whereas 
in old tymes four fethom was 
cpunted a great labor; when 
they finde it, they worke fon« 
drie holes, one for every digger, 
fome. two, fomc three, or four, 
as the Qomber of diggers are t 
edie otaa working by candle«> 
l^ght, and fitting while he 
3vprkcth ; then have they bearer$# 
.wliich arp boyes^ d^at be^e tj^ 

cole» in.fitt ba&etts on theire 
backes, going alwayes (looping, 
by reafon of the lownes of the 
pitt; each bearer carieth thi% 
bailkett fix fathome, where upofi 
a benche of ftone he layeth it; 
where meeteth him another boy 
with an empty balket, which hfi 
giveth him, and . taketh that 
which is full of coles, and car- 
rieth it as farre ; where anpdier 
meeteth him, and foe till they 
come under the doore, where it 
is lifted up^ In one pitt there 
will be fixteen perfons, whereof 
there will be duee pickaxes dig« 
ging, feaven borers, one filler, 
four winders, twoe ridleis, wha 
ridle the coles when it is. a lande, 
firft to draw thefmall oHe from 
the bigg, by one kinde of ry- 
ddil, then die., fecond rydling 
with a fmaller rydell, with which 
they drawe fmaller coles for the 
fmythes from die colme, which 
is indeede but very duft, whidi 
ferveth for lyme burning. Thefe 
perfons. will lande about eighty 
or a hundred bacrells of cole in 
a day. There tooles about this 
worke are pickaxes with a round 
pole, wedges and fledges to bat- 
ter the i^ockee that crofl^ theire 

• » 

* All tymes of the ycare^ is in- 
dH&rent for workii^, but the 
bott weather "wortt^ by reaiba 
o( fodaine dampes that happen, 
vf hich ofteqlj^nes caufe . the 




lurorktaen to fetitid, and will 
not (bllisr die candeUft to buroe, 
but die flame waxing Mew of 
coDof , will of diemfetves go out. 
They worke from fix a clock 
to fix a dock, and refte an hour 
at ikxme, and eate their allow- 
tnoe at Aej tenne it, which 
Ji 6d. in bred to every man, and 
4d. in drinke amonge a dozen : 
fhii n of cnftome on the charge 
of the pitt, although they worke 
on theire owne clarge. AU 
fheire worke is by canJeil^light 
Ihroweout the yeare* 

The cole thcj finde is eyther 
OB ore cole, a ftring, or a ilatche, 
as I have leamid dKir termes* 
The ore is the beft, and is a 
greate veyne fppeding every way, 
and endurecfa longeft *, the firing 
is a fmall narrow vayne, fome* 
tym^s twoy three, or foure foote 
in bignesy and runneth down 
right, and is alwaies found be* 
twccne two rocks; a fiatche 
ihey caH ^ piece of coie by 
itfetfe, found kn the earth, and 
is quickly digged about, and 
no more to be found of that 
pf ece. The firft of thofe three 
fmes if the beft, then the next, 
and the laft countid wcvft of 

The dangers in digging theft 
coles, is the 6dKng of the eaith, 
fHid filing the poore people, 
W ftopjring of tl» way forth, 

and foe dye by famine, or ek 
die fodain imiptfon of (landing^ 
waters in old works* The 
workmen of this Uacke labour 
obferve all abotifhed holy dftyes/ 
and eaimoe be'wayned frdoi dnt 

About three yeares paft there 
was a generail and new imp<^* 
tion or cuftom rayfed upon the 
coles, throwout the realroe, 
which was that for every chau- 
dron tranfported, her inajeftie 
fhall have of cuftome at the rate 
of 4d. for every barrell, where- 
as the pryce of the barrel is but 
fid. foe that tlie cuftome is neare 
as much as the price of the 
cole ; and the hke cuftome wai 
demanded for die coknCj which 
was fold but for one penny the 
barrel ^ for which the Irifiiroen 
who are fervid from diis country 
and the fearoen greatly com-* 
playned, alledging tlteire trad^ 
impayred, and < that it would 
tvme to the decaye of (litppingj 
but the countrcy peo|)ite weil 
liked of it, as that which might 
he the meanes to ftay the tranfr 
porting, which hath gready en- 
haunfed the price, and is feared 
tlHU: in tyn^e vritt wholy wer^ 
out the cole, and foe leave the 
countrey deftitutt of fiieUi bm 
tipon compbunt of her majeftiea 
fnbje£^s of Irebndi ito impofi^ 
tion is remitted for die IriOimeUt 

AM ^cp9r I bwf among the 




coleptiS) I w91 fpeake of a 
ftrange event that happened ^ in 
a colepia* at Jeffivflon lately. 


Nexc rnito the cole, the chee^ 
eft foell is die peate, called com* 
nttmly turfe^ 'which is a kinde 
of bbck Yotien ^rth, and * is 
feimd ia low moores where 
fianding water annoyeth die 
ground, aad in die topp of the 
high and wett mounten of Per« 
celly, where h is digged in greate 
plentie. Moft of the people ad^ 
joyning to this mounten ufe this 
kinde of fueli, which being well 
nfkif is fingiilar good ; but if the 
fame be dthcr ill feafoned, or 
ill placed to burne in the houic, 
ae out of chymntes, the fmell 
thereof is loathfom, which is 
the onely difcommo^ty of this 
fudl^ for otherwife it is little in- 
feriour to the cole. There is 
greate di£Perence of thefe turffes 
according to the place where it 
groweth, fome being very good, 
jelding a better heate, and 
fweete without iM fitvoure, other 
worfe in burnings and having 
a lothfom ftneil; the bed of 
which levetH fmaUe or noe afhes 
behinde it, and thofe white of 
^ollor; the other diat Icveth 
great quantitie of afhes, and 
that gravelly and reddifti, black 
and browne in collor, is ac- 

compted of' a worfer kiqde.-** 
Thefe turffisB are digged with an 
iron for the purpofe, and ate in 
ferme fquare, two yncbes, like 
banes of iron about a foot long. 
When they are il^;ged they am 
carried out of the pitt, an^ 
being halfe dry, piled upon end 
every 5 or 6 log^her to drye» 
and being thus dryed throwly 
they are ledd home and layd then 
up in cky roomes So vie at 
neede. There have been great 
proffers made by men of expe- 
rience to brii^ this kinde of 
fuell to be very commo£oufe 
fer the realme ; and, as I have 
heard, fome have optained a 
monopoly of the fame as to turn 
it to chark cole, to make it burn 
without anoyance, but what 
fuccefs it taketh, I have not 
learned, yet I am perfuaded (hat 
it might be brought to farre bet« 
ter perfe£^ion than it is as the 
common people now ufe it ; for 
I have heard that, in fome paites 
of this realme, it ferveth for 
iron workes ; and in Canligan- 
ihire, it is fayd, that the fmithetf 
worke with them ; but if by the 
induih-ie of fome good and well 
pradlized man, it might be 
brought to any good perfe&ion, 
doubtleile it would prove very 
beneficiall to the whole com- 
mons, of this country ; for that 
tlic mounteos doc vcald thereof 

# A hUok WM k0 ifi iht origiiul M$5. for this ilrapge eTent, but ncv^r filled up. 




fuch plentkf as wonid ever fetre 
and continue. Guidierdyn, in 
his defiMprion of Holiand, com- 
mendedi diis as a priocipall and 
die fecond cheefie coinmoditie 
of that province ; that the cuf- 
tome thereof payd in one towne 
onely amonnteth in the yeare to 
3000 ducau to the king of 

The fourth principall and 
tnoft nfual fbeil is ftiife, called 
in fome partes gorfe, which 
every parte of the fheere yeald- 
eth in great abondance as a 
ihrubbe, whereunto the foyle is 
naturally inclined^ foe that 
where die fame once groweth, 
the land will hardly be rid of 
them, but eyther by liming or 
marling of the foyle. This fuell 
ferveth efpecially for baking and 
brewing; but in fome partes 
growne to that greatnes that the 
tymber of them ferve as a prin* 
cipall wood for fires in halles, 
chambers, and kitchinnes, for 
it is very ufuall to have the 
ftalkes of a foote compas, and 
eight or nine foote highe ; and 
of late, for tryall of a wager, 
diere was a fuife ftalke meafured 
to be a yarde wanting three 
inches in compos. The fier 
made of the wood of the ftalkes 
of thcfe furfe is very fweete, and 
yecldcth greater heat and clearer 
fier then any other wood. Thefe 
^•rfe keepe grecnc all the win- 

ter, and the toppes of them are 
good for die caltdl, which being 
generally aUowed of, makes me 
not a little to marvel! diat the 
witt of man hath not devifed 
fome machine to breake diem 
(be diat they may be fervid to 
die cattdl with greater lafety, 
when the weapons they are 
armed widiaU are bated, fiefide 
when they growe to any great* 
nes it is the bed flielter the 
cattell have, and giveth them 
warme lodging in the winter 
feafon. And the land that bear* 
edi this kinde of furfe is ac* 
compted good corne land. The 
onely nieane to procure dias 
flirubbie to fpring up, being 
once decayed, is to plowe the 
lande, and till it for three or 
foure yeeres, then let it lie, and 
prefendy the fiirfe will rife againe, 
as the fenix^ is fayd to doe out 
of the a(hes of her anceftour. 

Another kinde of furfe there 
is, called fmalle or tame furres, 
of fome Welfli furfe which is 
a finall fliort fhrubbe growing 
on bad ground, which never 
reacheth to any great height, 
yet ferveth to bake and brue 
with, and the lande that beareth 
this is compted barren and (hal- 
low. This laft kinde bloflbmedi 
with the heathe in the btter 
ende of harveft againft winter ; 
whereas the former accompa- 
nyeth the broome and bloweth* 




in May againft die fummer. 
The fonner kinde boartdi his 
feede in (maUe coddes like peafe 
codds» and being fowen will 

Fisnie 18 but a weake fuell and 
ferveth for brueing, and other- 
wife for (he pooreft fort of peo- 
ple that cannot better provide 

The heath groweth in the 
mountaines in this country of a 
great hi^t, and is pulled up by 
the rootes by poor people and 
ferveth for .fier, as well as for 
meate for cattell, when the 
hye mountens are coveryd with 
fnow and nothing open but the 
topps of this heathy whereon the 
cattell in this extreniitie will 
feede and fave themfelves till the 
ground be uncovered; but I 
have heard that this kinde of 
heath being cut in fommer and 
made* in ricks, is the cheefeft 
and fweeteft fuell for drying of 
mault, therein paf&ng both wood 
and ftrawe* I would I might 
fee the experience hereof, 
which, as yet, was never tried 
in this countrey. 

% If there was fuch caufe to 
complain of the decreafing ftate 
of timber in this county in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, how is that 
caufe increafed in the coufe of 
another century, for in my me* 

mory moft of the gre&t ihanfion 
houfes have been ftripped of dieir 
fhelter, a principal objeA widi 
our anceftors, when they made 
choice of dieir |^e of refidence« 
and fome few new raifed oa 
eminences, whilft in vindication 
of their rage for deftroyii^ dieir 
woods, and dietr negled of pro«> 
viding a^future fupply, the pof«- 
fefTurs of the new nufed bleak 
dwellings would contend, that 
thick graves generated dampne6, 
and that an open iituatidn was 
more favourable t6 health, 
whereas the clear contifiuy is * 
the truth: for as one Clermoat^ 
a foreign phyfician, who refided 
fomedme in Pembrokeihire, told 
me trees feed on foul air, and 
are known to thrive beft where 
it is fouleft ; therefore when we 
bare our houfes too mnch we 
get rid of our beft fritods*-^ 
I remember when my neigh« 
hour Sir W"*. Wogan of Latw 
ftinan, was pondering where he 
fhould ertSt a new 'maniion 'm* 
ftead of the old, grown ruinous^ 
and was on the point of fhift-* 
ing the old iite, which was low, 
near v^ter, and iheltery, to 
die fummit of a hill that would 
give him a view of the fea ; I 
urged the above philofophical 
remark, and was the means of 
prevailing with him to^lace it 
where it now ftands, a few feet 
only elevated from the andeiK 
habitadon, for which perfua* 




£011, the current of fiifliion ra* 
ther fetting i^ainft roe, I wat 
jBoch reflcAed upon« 

It would be well for the 
country if die gendemeny parti- 
cularly who have jtf^opeity ia 
coal mines, would dive a litde 
more into their fubtenaneous 
ttcafme, and diat mining was 
more ftudied, new veins of coal 
85 well as lytne might then pro* 
bahly be difcoveied, and fmall 
Ju£ls kadis^ froiti die prefent 
great arteries be found to extend 
even to the upper part of the 
couittry, and this great bleffing 
be more equaUy diftributed over 

The furze of this country, 
fimnerly left unmolefted, viras 
knovime to grow to an uncom« 
nonly large fize, and I have 
lode a hunting, mounted not on 
a very low horfe, through ave- 
nues of furze, much higher 
than my heac^ near Newgall and 
cUMd^ere; nor do I hear Aal 
Aey attain to that fize in any 
c«her county of Wales, which 
inclines me to ^ink there be 
fbmedimg pecuKar in the foil, 
to forward the grovrth of that 

The aflies of fern in North 
Wald^ is begtnniag to be aft 
article of profit, vriiieh, when I 
was in that country, I obferved 
great quantities of in many 
places ; it is ufed in the compo- 
iition of foap. But in Pem* 
brokeihire we are very flow to 
adopt fchemes of advantage, 
and of this conunodity we mdce 
nothing of in general ; indeed of 
late I ufe nothing but thefinoke 
of fern in a red-herring work I 
own at Fiihguard, which 1 find 
to be fuperior to any odier in 
curing the fifli, as on that ac- 
count they have the preference 
at market. 

Ever Unce I read what my 
author advances refpedii^ the 
heath, 1 have employed it for 
the purpofe he recommends, and* 
am afiured that he dodi not 
fpeak of it in higher terms than 
it deferveth, as the ale brewed 
from malt dius dryed has a co« 
bur and flavour peculiarly fine, 
and imbibes from Ae fiitne a 
fubtle qiiaKty, which caufes the 
liquor to be miKh more diu- 
retic than that which is produced 
from malt made in the ordinary 
way, and highly efficacious in 
gravel complaints, 

Probatum efl. 


( lis ) 


• • 


Of the chiej^ Rivers 5/ this Shire y that lave theirt Cfurfe thratv* 
dki the fsme, $r th^a have ihetrw Rifings in the fame, asut Endings 

'in tther Countreys* 

X this place where I purpofe of BrJttaihc, and fecond chaptet" 

(for yt is contraric to myne 
owne knowledge) as alfoe front 
Mr. Saxton^s mapps, who hath 
as I perceive, followid the fayd 
defcriptlon of Mr. Holingfhed 
for moft ry%'crs. And firft, 
whereas both Mt*. HoHngfhcd 
and Mr, Saxton in his mapp, 
fhewcth that the fayd ryver 
Cledde rifeth out of Vrennyvawt 
Hill ; it is not fo(J, for it fpring- 
eth in Blaen y gon, in Manag- 
logddu, and ninning weft, re* 
ccaveth into it a rill from the 
north, called KewgiU, rifing at 
Bwlch Ungwr, and paffing fur- 
ther, receaveth from by eft t 
rill, that rifeth above CapcH 
Cawey, called Bray, and is 3rt 
that place the lanfkcr betweene 
Pcnbrok and Carmarthenflieeres; 
from thence the fayd Clethc 
runneth as a lanfkar between<* 
the fayd flxeeres and Managlog- 
ddu Church, where It receavet^i 
the ryver Clydaghe, from the 
north, fpringing out of Coom- 
kcrwyu Hill, aqd from thence 
coiitinueth lanfker betweene 
both fheeres, and cometh tcj 
Llangolman, where it receaveth 
from the north a rill called 
Llony» and running betweene 
the parjfhes of Llandiflilio and 
I I^lanykevcn, 

to intreate gf cheefe rivers iq 
generally I have determined to 
ipeake of none but fuch cheeffe 
rivers and brookcs as keepe 
theirc courfe and name untill 
they falle into the fea, and runn 
at the leaft two myles ; brecffly 
mentioning fuch rills and brookcs 
as they reccave in the ire way ; 
for tlie reft that falle into thofe 
rivers, and foe ende before they 
come to the fea, although fome 
be bigger ftreames, than fome 
other that continue theire name 
to the fea, yet have I determined 
to forbeare them in this place, 
and will entrcatc of them in the 
particular hundreds, where they 
rife and fpring. And of thefe 
principall rivers I will firft en- 
treate of th^ both Ckddyes, 
whofe joynt falle. makcth the 
famous porte or haven of Mil- 
ford, and in the Britifli tongue 
taketh name of thefe two rivers, 
Wid is called Aberdoyglethe, 
that is, the mouth or fall of 
toth Clethes. And in defcribing 
of them* X muil vary a little 
fpom hipi that ^ve inAruftions 
to Mr. tlolin|^{hed of the rifing 
Au4 courfes of all or mofl of 
the rivers of Englands in his fe- 
pood boolye of the defcriptlon 



Llanykeven, dill parteth both 
iheeres, untill a rill nuuring^ 
from Ryd y Miler fall into it, 
which at that place parteth both 
the (hecres; and then cometh 
Penbrokefliire over the ryver 
againe at Llandiflilio, which 
contiauing his courfe, receaveth 
into it the river Breynan ddu, 
whofe fpring is from Cam 
yr avar, and ninneth weft of 
Lloydarthe ; and further down 
at Tregindeg it receaveth Breyn- 
an wen, whofe fpring is in 
Blacknocke Moore, and ninneth 
betweene the parifhes of Man^ 
clochog and Moate, by Merlan; 
and then the faid river Clethe 
^pai&ng by Egermont, leaving it 
in Carmarthenfhire, although by 
Mr. Saxton's mapps in Pen- 
brpkefl^re, beneath £germont, 
receaveth ^ rill called Cryning, 
which there parteth Penbroke 
and Carmarthenfheeres againe ; 
Pembroke againe ftretchiqg it- 
felf over the fame, and beneath 
Sgermont rec^vetb into it the 
irivcr Syvynvey, being well necre 
as big as itfelfe, which cometh 
by Longridge from Walton. 
Clethy running forward under 
Llawhaden Bridge, receaveth 
fron^ the eft the River Marlais, 
coming from Longfoord, and 
before ib cometh to Carefion 
Bridge, it receaveth into it a 
rill called Gloyn, running throw 
Narberth Foreftj and from 
thence it runneth by Talch^ 

Wood to Slebeche, and between 
Pidon and Mynweare, at Hofe 
Caflell Poinr, meeteth with die 
other Cleddy, that cometh froai 
Harfoc49 and there joyning, 
where Aberdaugledde beginneth. 

The other Clethe, called 
Clethe wen, riieth at Uygad 
Clethe, which in Englifh is 
called Clethe*s Eye, in the pa- 
rifh of Uanfair Nant y gof, 
andgoeth by Kelli 'r moch, where 
it partetli the lordfhip of Kemes 
and Dewifland, and there falktfa 
into a great moore, called Lan- 
flinan Moore ; paf&ng by Lan- 
ftinan Church to Lanftinan 
Bridge, where a little beneath 
it receaveth in a rill from the 
north, that rifed\ fliort of" Tre- 
brithen, in the parifh of Man- 
arpawan, and foe holding on 
her courfe weftward, a little 
above Uwypgwaran Bridge, it 
receaveth from the Eft the Kyll- 
eth, which rifeth above Trc- 
coon, at Carn Diao Moore, 
and running together under 
Llwyngwaran Bridge, before it 
cometh to Pont melin Moris, it 
receaveth the Marlais, that ri- 
feth neere Caftell Kynles, and 
pafTeth by Caftell Moris, and 
foe to Perfkely ; and then under 
Stone Hall, in St. Lawrence pa- 
rifli, on to Wolfe's Caflell, 
where from the eft it receavedi 
a namelefs river, diat com-* 
eth froqa Pontchardfton ; from 




whence U turnech towards Trew- 
game» but firft receaveth in a rill 
from Brimeftoiiy which parteth 
the hundred of Dewyiland from 
Jlowfe; and foe. running be- 
twctfne both Trcwgamea^ yt 
diere receaveth from th^ eft a 
forked rill, that rifeth neere 
Amblefton, from whence for- 
iV^fd it continueth the lanlker 
betweene the hundreds of Rowfe 
. and Dongkddy ; and foe con- 
tinuing weft^Vard beneath Ru- 
baxton, " it receaveth a forked 
brooke from the eft» the one 
branch whereof rifeth in New 
Townc Moore, the other cometh 
from Poifton ; from thence it 
runneth for>yard towards Haver- 
fordwefty but before it cometh 
to Elliott's Hill, receaveth the 
brook that pafieth under Pelcam 
Bridge and Camros, and a little 
lower receaveth another rill 
that cometh from Lamfton, and 
foe pafleth to Prendergaft, and 
under Haverferd Bridge, beneadi 
whkh it receaveth another ryver 
at Carllod, which rifeth neere 
Walton Bridge, and then be- 
neath Haroldfton 4t receaveth a 
brook from the weft, which ri- 
feth in the moore eaft of Haref- 
ton Weft Becon, and runneth 
by St. Margrett's Chappel, and 
foe to Denant, and on under 
.the Mawdlens and Harefton 
JBridge, difeharging itfelfe into 
the fayd Cledde ; where Cledde 
))qng now tumpd f^t, continur 

eth on bending fomewhat fouth- 
eafl, runneth between Hooke- 
wood and Boulfton, and foe 
with joy meeteth her other fiftcr 
of like name, and lovingly 

joyneth to' make die fair haven 

. of Mylford ; the both thus wed- 
ded, become a fait fea of a mile 
broade, and Kixteen myles longer 
before they forfake theire native 
countrey, for whofe good they 
fend furth many faier branches 
on eytfier fide, ferving divers 
townes, villages, and gentle- 
men's houfce, with eafie tranf- 
porting and cariadge of necefla^ 

-ries, and commodious fifbings ; 
and at the Dale tumeth right 
fouth, making a goodly porte or 
entrance of two miles brode; 
and then by courfe of nature 
yeald themfelves to die fea, the 
ending of all ryvers, where, 
not forgetting the fiaturall love 
of native country, twice every 

•day retume, as it wer<:, w^th a 
loving care to fee and iadute 
theire antient offspring, and not 
(oe content with daily travel}^ 
every fortnight force themfelves 
to preilb further up, making a 
greater tyde, which we for dif^ 
ierence of fhe other calle fpring 

The next river that cometh 
now in courfe to be fpoken of 
in this place, is the river that 
falleth into the fea at Newgall, 
and parteth the hundred of 

I 2 J^owfe 



Sowfe and Dewyfland, which 
ahhough it be but a linalle 
brocdte, yet for that I finde it to 
snake a falle into the fea, and 
is of chat length diat my pur- 
pofe admittetfa to fpeake of, the 
name tboeof, as of all other 
fmaUe brookes that are among 
theEngliAi inhabitaats, isdeane 
forgotteOf although die fmalleft 
brookes and riUs to this day re- 
taioe their ancient names among 
the Welibmen. This water ri- 
ietb in the moore neere Treth- 
yog» a village in St. Edrufs 
l>ari(h» and pafleth from thetxie 
by CafteU Vilia, Tankardfton, 
and £wefton; and before it 
come to Roch Mill it ceceavedi 
into it a rill from the eaft, which 
parteth Roch from Hayfcafteil 
pariihy between Newgall and 
the wood falling into the fea 
under Newgall Bridge, in the 
)argc and great bay called Bride's 
Bay. Altt^ough this he a brooke 
of Jbme note, and for many 
$:aufes to have been Tefpe(9:edy 
yet did Mr. Saxton, in his mapp 
of Penbrokeihire omitt die fame, 
by what meanes or caufe I can- 
not judge, having taken payncs 
with thofe of lefie quandty and 

Then ibtlowedi next at hand 
jSalxagbe Water to be fpoken of, 
whofc fpring is out of G wem y 
harry, and running by Uanri^ 
tbao, at Lochmeilir receaveth a 

rill coming from lianddoy, 9md 
foe pafHng by Kcibyt and Cacr- 
voriag, and then tunring foudi- 
•crly her courfe, -diidia^edi it- 
fdfe at Solvaghe Haven, where 
it mak«di a poitlett for imall 
Shipping, and fafe upon many 

Then next comedi the Brooke 
Alan, whidi rifmg noere Lhn- 
digige vach in St. David's parifliy 
runnedi by Trcdo Hendre Ey- 
non, and under Gwryd Bridge 
to Ymledi, and«to the clofe <^ 
St. David^s throw die vaUcy, 
paffing betweene the cathedrall 
church and the bifliop's palace, 
whem remayne St. David's 
trowtes, for bignes exceeding 
any in diefe partes, and for 
tannenefs againft nature, that 
diey were not aleard at the 
light of many people looking 
on them, and approaching al- 
moft to mens hands, to receave 
any thing that ihould be caft 
into the brooke for foode ; from 
whence a mile belowe it takedi 
the iea at Port Clais. 

The next that comedi of 
courfe to be (poken of is thfe 
Ryver Owayn, whofe fpring is 
out of Percdy Hill, in the 
north fide of Wayndyvet, an( 
taketh her courfe wefterly, haf<« 
tening downe die hill to Pen- 
celly vor^ and there falling head- 
)oog into the valky, which ihe 




chriftiKOtb of her ovihit uoBscy 
cattsd Dyffritt Owayn, avaUey 
xvetttvoodfd of ech fide thoiigb 
Danow; [ireCsiitl]!! tirniettLfoiith- 
DrsA^ aod firft receav^ in the 
Logoil vnnnuRg fiFom tlie fomb^ 
ef{» ami at Uanvasehan it re- 
ceiiretb in a rill hom the north* 
weft called Nant Mafcba»y and 
a\ litde lower reoeavedi ifi^ die 
Kead»cofnii^froin the fouth^aft, 
afld rifing at Cwmkead; then 
tlHming more weileify» il joa- 
neth. under Pentvaen, ivheie a 
litde beaeaiix it reeeavedi into it 
s^rill called Wala» vrbkli rifedi 
ooC of Gwem y Wala; and 
fae nmningf by lianjrchlloydok 
Church aiad Llaoerchaethy re<- 
ccBveth by the way divexi rilb 
from the north, and foe to Pont« 
ilewyddly neere wfaich it reoea- 
vcth fsorn the feutib a riQf co- 
ming fr^mCroallwyn ; and there 
turning more nordberly^ it rcM 
oeaieth a riH Hmt rifeth neere. 
Kynfaydre^ £ilHnj^ under Fi&f 
g^ard Bridga itit^ the fea, mo^ 
bing a faier btssren aad gdod. 
harfootin for barkes an4 ihippes 
of iinaHe bturden, much haunted 
(m ftore of hefringa taken tliere 

From Fifhguacd. the next 
ii^er is Nevaro, that &Ueth into 
i&e &a at Newport town, whofb 
fpiing is oat of the monnten of 
Vrenny vawr, and is about nine 
or fen miles ia lengdi i her foil 

doarfe is' weAerIf , add ont of - 
the foifth it recdverii a nil called 
Naat y Saefon^ and ikortly 
fkom by fonth it recerretb an-« 
other tribnte.froni tfaerill^ called, 
Cvymaiych; rifing at Coom 
cryiaychy and there turning 
nordihweft nntiU it receaTeth 
from the northheaft the brooke 
cafled yr Aiielh, ^ofe fpring 
]» above St Meigans> whence 
it runneth ri^t weft and neere 
Nantgwyn Chaptpei, receaveth 
the ckere riUeCt^ called Nant- 
gWyn; then kaftening towards 
Jordan's millr ffaom tfaef ondi-eaft, 
receareth; the hroake called Ne^ 
vam Fbrva, alias Banon^ whofer 
rife is at Btaea Banon ; and foe 
cofitMuing her courfe from die. 
fottth, receaveth the river Bry.-. 
deHaehy and pafing under Pont 
Gynon- Bridge^ tometh a Ikth 
novtherly, and haflientng tfasoir 
a sodey vaSey towordi Pont y 
Coom, under Pont rywveleni 
receaveth ouc of Ae foedi the 
river Eaftem Clydagh^ whcfe* 
fpvkig is neere Bwidiy Peanvit^ 
doi fMtrwfaence ; turning againe: 
itorthkweft, liiraw fochs arni^ 
flones and fome bendiogs ; ruii^ 
neth to We»aUty and under 
Henllys, at P^nt y Bald9m» 
receaveth into it Ae fwerte 
river Deyad; commg front 
Penkely Foreft, and foe paffin^ 
to Melyndre Mardiog, receaveth 
tlie RiQ Gloyn (called morct 
properly Gloywen) runniuff 
I 3 vi^eftward 



wcftwird by Owcrh j Gwy thcl 
and to Ncvam Church, where 
it rrceaveth Kaman from the 
north; then crooking itfclfe 
about Llywngwayr, receavcth 
from the north two rills, the 
one called Nant lyd berw* rifing 
neere Tredriffcy, the otlicr called 
Keney, confining the Bury; 
then turning from Llwyngwayr 
towards Newport Bridge, re« 
ceaveth from the fouth another 
Clydagh, which rifeth above 
Kilgwyn Church ; thus united^ 
thcyrunn both together direS 
weft^ and under the towne of 
Newport take fea, making there 
a fair lardge porte and haven 
to the view, but in prooffc very 
perilbus, being altogether barrid 
by reafon of a great banke of 
fande rayfedby the fea, croffing 
aU the entrance of the baven^ 
being a mile broade, which 
maketh. tlie porte unprofitable. 

From Ncwi>ort*' traveriiog 
the north coaft of the county, 
I omytt the brooke Kybwr» for 
that although it fall into die fqji 
without lofing its name, yetdoQ 
I here paffe over the fame for 
the fmallncfs thereof, ;as fitter to 
be fpoken of in the fame parifh 
where ic fpringeth. The noKt 
porte therefore I come unto is the 
fall of the fair river of Teyvyj 
which partetli Penbrokcfliceie 
from Cardigan*. This rjvcr, 
although it be (lie uttermoil 

bound or lymitt of die Iheeret 
yet I thinke fitt to fpeake fome«« 
what thereof in this place^- 
This is a fair goodly deepe 
river, which hath its rife above 
the abbey of Strata Florida, in 
Cardiganfhirr, out of the freih 
poole or lock, called Llyn Tivy ) 
from whence it hafieth to the 
abbey aforefayd, and paffing by 
I'regaron Llandewy brefi to 
Kelian, wheie it receavcth cfae 
brooke called Nathame; and 
ffom thence downe, paxtkig 
Cardigan and Cannarihen- 
{heeros, runneth by Llanbeder 
p4>nt Stephen to Newcaftle, 
Emlyn, and Konarth^ where a 
little below it receaveth the river 
Keach, which there partcth Car- 
marthen and Penbrokeflieeres 
afunder ^ at Aberkeach the fayd 
three fliires meeting where there 
is (mall fande- or ihnde, not 
knowne to which (heere it be* 
longeth^ From Aber Keach 
forward* the fayd river Ty vy is*, 
the Lanikar betweene Penbroke 
and Cardigan (heefes, a mea- 
dowe neere M'ancrdcivi Church 
excepted ; and foe- paffing dowa 
imder Lechryd Bridge, a litde 
beneath, receaveth a brooke 
from the fouth called Morgeney, 
and therelicnce approaching to 
Kilgarran between great, deepe^ 
and narrowc hilles, over which 
is framed the Wcarc of Kilgar- 
ran, flrongly built of Aonc and 
tymber worke, where abondance 




of moft exodleot atid fwifete 
fidmons are taken ; a litde far- 
ther downe it roceaveth, from 
the foutfa-weft, a rillet, called 
Plifcoge; andtfaerehence it pro- 
ceedeth downwasds by the foreft 
of Kilgarran, .dalled property 
Keraii Drlin ; at the lower panr 
whereof it receaveth the brooke 
Breyan, coming from Dyflfrin 
Breyan, which Ihere paneth the 
hundreds o£ Kemes and K3-' 
gairan; and {be nmniog by 
CarAj^n .CaAic and under the 
bridge, faluteth St. Dogmelh as 
it pafieth to the fea, whens alfoe 
it receaveth a rill, and a little 
J)elow, befoK it cometh to the 
bwTy another at Myniawmoore, 
and foe to the fea, where a ridge 
of fiuida maketh a Afcommo^ 
dioufe axiddfti^erous barr, hind- 
nng much die trade of (hipping 
to thefe partes of the countrey. 

if The rivers and brooks of 
this country are fo numerous, 
and of fo beautiful a chara^er, 

that they conftitute oA6 of the 
principal attradions of it ; for I 
may venture to affirm^ without 
being charged of prejudice, that 
no fpot in the kingdom of the 
fame dimenfions is fo well ftir« 
nifhed with Water, a fmall por- 
tion onlyexcepted the weftem ex- 
tremity of Caftlemartin : fainted 
wells every where odcur, to the 
waters of whidh rare virtues are 
afcribed, and in many of which 
certainly very rare and falutary 
qualities are found inherent. 
The princif^l rivers are above 
enumerated, but in all directions 
many pretty rills crofs the way 
at the diftance of every half 
mile, richly deferving a name ; 
which, though they be loft in 
the fea, or tmite their waters 
with thofe of a larger ftream 
within a mile or two of their 
fource, yet abound with trout, 
and narrow and fhallow as they 
be, are penetrated by falmon 
and fewin in fpawning time. 

CAP. xii. 

. Of chief Hills and Mountains of this Sheen* 

THE cheefeft and principall 
mountaine of this flieere is 
Percellcy, which is a k)ng ridge 
er ranck of mountaines running, 
eaft and weft, beginning above 
Pencellyvor, where the firft 

< 4 

mount of high land thereof U 
called Moel Eryr ', and foe pair- 
ing eaftward to Cwmkerwyn, 
being the hij^eft parte of it, 
runneth eaft to Moekrigarn and 
to Llanvimach. This mountaine 
14 it 



IS abottt 6x OF fevca miks long 
and two iniles broade; it hath 
in it m/inj biUs rifiog io tbe 
high motmteii fihick are to be 
i^fcenied tweiHyr thkty» nay 
forty miles off 9ff)d more» and 
from this hffl may be feene all 
Peobrokelhirey and fome parte 
of nine other iheereti (vi%«) 
Cardigan, Glamorgan, Breck* 
nock, MoQtgonaeiyt Merionidi» 
a^d Carnarvonfhires i Devon^- 
ihire and SomerfetiLire ; the 
ilaad of LoodaVt and the rcalme 
of Ireland, llie commodities 
of this mountaine is great, for 
it yealdetli plenty of good grade, 
and is full of fwcete fpjings of 
water i it yeaUedi aUbe Aore of 
fuell for the inhabitants adyoin^ 
iug, for mod of tbemountaine 
fumiihctb good peate and turfie, 
as well the lower parte and 
playne thereof, as the toppe of 
thf mountaine« Alfoe, out of 
this mountaine have many fine 
rivers their orig^nall and be- 
ginnings, namely, Navarne, 
Taf, Clydagh, Clethe, Syvyn- 
vey, Gwayn, Clydach againc, 
and the third Clydagh, whfch 
water moft parte of the coun- 
trye. This mountaine is fo high 
and farre mounted into the ayre, 
that when the cotintrey about is 
fairc and clcere, the toppe thereof 
will be hidden in a clbude, which 
of the inhabitants is taken a fure 
figne of rame to follow fhortly ;• 
whereof grewe this provcrbc,^ 

<< fyirn PtrciUf mmFeth m iaif. 
aJi Ptnirohifbirt fimU wnte ^. 
/Ac/." The gvealeft parte of 
tUs mountaine is. a. eomaon to 
the free tfoanti andinbatntantm 
of Kemes, ivithia .which loniU 
flup it ilanded), yet m divem 
partes theirof clayqacd to be die 
landes of iiven paiticQlar per* 
fons, and thia name of PerceUey^ 
is a genus, asGottfwald is ii^ 
Glouceftcrftiire ; diirers psnii*. 
cular placet therein faftving fpe- 
ciaU and proper aaai^. Cwm- 
kerwyn is the llighfsft pointe or 
peake of this moiintaioe, and is 
the firft and cbeefeft land marke 
that mariners doe onake at fea, 
comii^g froin tbt fouth. or foutbi* 
weft, and is tbeire fore marke 
wbefeby jthey xoAkefor Milford» 
and k appeapeth iM»to. diem, at 
the iirft fight a rou«d bbck hiU ; 
fayiipg twelve of fixteen honres. 
after they firft make this land, 
before tlioy con^^o die £(ghtof 
any otjpfr land, by reafoa the> 
the fea ihoree is £o Iqwc; and, 

• • • • 

therefore the name of Percelley 
is as well knowne at fea as on 
laqde. , I £nde in an ancient and 
fairc deede, that in tyme long 
fince, one Nicholaslr^ the fon of 
Martin, lord of Kernes, granteth 
to the heyres of Gwnvired, #ie 
fon of Cuhylin,' and to the 
heyres of Lewhclin, another fon 
ofthcfoydCuhylin, the lord of 
Percelly aforefaidy und rfameth. 
the Lahdfkarrcs dicrttrif to hoi J" 




to dicm mAto diehe beires for 
ever. Thig deede vn^ beftvs 
tlift iifei>f dste, yet this notwithf 
flandittg, die free tenaiics and 
inhabitttits doe to this day aw 
joy it'os common appurt»ilafite 
to dieir freehould^ and doe iup^' 
pofe th^t iim deede (liould be a 
diMtcT w graunte to tbem of 
this common. Along die (ayd 
bilk t^ppe ol Percelley, from* 
the beginning to the ende, there 
is feene tlie tnt&. of an ancient 
i»2tj now citafre out of ufe ; yet 
fuch hath been the trade . of old 
thai way, that to this day marlces 
of it atte appzkrently difcemed, 
and this way 19 ufually called 
yet die Flemings way; and m 
die fayd ancient charter of Sir 
Nicholas Martin it is fo named' 
*^ Sicut via Flandrenfica ducii'^ 
per fummitcttm montis a loco 
vocatOy tifr.' which doth greatly 
confirme the opinion touching 
the coming of the Flemings hSere 
to Penbrokefliirey and well they' 
might make this ufuall way for 
theire paffa^e^ for that thus paff^' 
ing along the toppe of the high- 
eft hill they might the betcer 
defcrye the ptivie ambuflies of 
the conntrey pe^le which might 
in flraites and woods annoy 

t J 

The next mountaine of note 
and btgnes ts the high ibarp 
rocfce over Newpott, called 
Cttrn Erfgtffi {kpp&kd to take 

the name d£ a giant of that* 
name* This * is a very high^ 
Aetpe, and flony fnountaine, 
having the toppe thereof of 
iharpe and ail^ rocks^ fliewiag 
from the eaft and by Donhia 
forme like the upper parte of 
the greeke letter n« The pas- 
ture of this mountaine was given 
in common by the fore named 
Nicolas, the fon of Manyi^ 
then lord of Kernes, to his bur^* 
geiles of his town of Newport, 
whkh they enjoy to this day^ 
with divers other freedomes and 
liberties to >tliem granted, by 
divera charters, yet extant and 
fay re fealed with his feale of the 
armes of the fayd Lordffaip i^^ 
Kernes, all the deedes of that 
antiquity being fan» date^ This 
mountain rs large, five or fsx 
miles in circuit, and furmountefh 
afU other for good fheepepafture^ 
both for fatting and foundnes, 
smd efpeciatly commodioufe id 
thisi that noe fnawe (kyeth on 
it, by reafon of the neernes of' 
the fea. This mountaine is well 
watered with fitie and cleere 
fprings, and isof the ftme veyne 
as tlie* fetmer Wlk of Percelly, 
faving tllat it is cut from k with. 
a deepe and na^oWe valley. 

The laft and* thirds monrH- 
taine of nonfe in this fliire,^ is 
that which is pkiced at the eaft 
ende of Perctlv. bills, called^ 
Vitnny vofwr, -bat more aptty, 




tbe Viyn vawr^ which in En- 
glifh is the great hill. This hill 
is round and Made in fights by 
reafon it is overgrowen with 
heathy yt hath noe rock or ftone 
op it, but for the moil parte is 
arable land, and headiie; it is 
fecne from far, efpecially from 
the eaft partes of the countrye, 
and ferveth as a mark to guide 
tbe way to ficangcrs that have 
occafion to vilit thefe partes. 
Tills hill is the lande of particu- 
lar men, and fome parte of it 
hath borne come* This Vrenny 
vawr and the laft Carn Engly, 
fland as captaine and lieutenant^ 
the one leading tbe vauntgarde,: 
and tbe other following the rere- 
warde, having Percelley hill 
ranged in ranke betweene them 
both, among whom CwmKer- 
wyn before mentioned, being, 
neere midway betweene them 
both, may well, for his high 
ftatiu^, overlooking the reft, 
clayme the place of enlign 

Thefe, in cSc&, are the 
cbeefeft bills to be fpoken of in 
generall, although there be di- 
ners others worthie of note, as 
Mynith Dwygrig aboye Ponte-. 
hardfton, Caftlebigh hill, My- 
nith Tytch in Man»chlogddy, 
and Crigic Du, all which I 
reckon as fcoutes, attending 
upon Percelly,- and .fecme as 
members thereof.,. There .aj9 

aUb in ibme hmdreds 
partes, feeming as mountainesy 
inidped of the ^ynes adjwi* 
ing; foch is tbe vayne begin- 
nin^ribothof Tvewent, andpaf- 
iing to St. Petiack's, Su Twy- 
nell% and betweene Cailell 
Martin and the moore, and foe 
tothefea: the like is that which 
paiieth by Cofieton above Lan- 
fey, and foe to HoUoway and 
Penaley, being a high hill run- 
ning betweene two fiur valleys. 
The like is another paffing from 
the windmills of Tenby to Jef- 
fryfton croffifyf and (be to Mil- 
ford; but thefe are reckoned 
hills more in refpefk of lowe 
vales on each fide of them, then 
for any propcrtie of mountaines 
in themfelves, for although the 
fame be bankes of high lands, 
yet are diey inclofed, tilled, and 
well inhabited. 

There is alfoe a waft and 
barren veyne pf land beginning 
neere Coed Kynles, and ruimeth 
eaft of Tcmpleton, Ludchurch, 
Cronwere, and Amroth, and 
foe to the fea ; which, althouj^ 
it be barren and a waft above, 
groimd, yet hath it treafures in 
its bowels, fuch as plenty of 
limeftone, which enricheth the 
countrye on both fides ^ but this 
is a flat, and noe rifing* There 
iBi alfoq. a ,mountaine pafling 
fi*om Trewgam to Plumftone 
Rpck, an4 foe to Roche Caftle, 





whbfe courfe is fdmewbat caft. 
erly by thefe laft vey»cs of hii^ • 
and vmftcs, which have theke 
courfe eaft and weft, or n^ve^i 
and ield^nifi north and foudi«:8«^ 
I have fa^d before of ^he voyoea 
of lyrteftone and cole. It is a'. 
thing of noc fmallc moment to 
confider of the nature of ^bofc 
mattei-s which have theire courfe 
in the bowcte of the earth. 

; J 

The reft of the <h*BC, the* 
forementioned places excepted^* 
is plaine and champion,: yet hath 
it divers perfpieuoiis places to be- 
fcenefrom moft open [Jaocs of 
the (hire, which I tfiought good 
to note in departing from the* 
hilles and raountaines, diverfe of 
which pkces for dieir open ayre, 
holfome and pleafant feates, and 
delightful! cxtenfive profpeSs, 
aford long and pleafant lyveing 
to the gentlemen and others 
dwellers there : the chicfeft of 
them are thefe that follow. 

Gentlemens Houfes^ Flllag^Sy anS^ 
Townesy on high Places. 

Wifton, Llawhaden, Roche 
Cattle, St. Thomas in Haver- 
fordweft, Trewgarn Owen, St. 
Pen-okes, St. Twyiiells, Wo- 
ram, Teaby Town and Church, 
Stainton, J ohnfton Church, Bul- 
tpn Hill, Mathryc, Jcftreyfton, 


Places net* Maboedf as High . 
Rockes^ Tnmpfs^ md Sieefles. 

Creigie,'. Kernes, four little 
tiimpes of earth, and yet to be 
feene forty myles off (viz.) from 
Pcnplymon, Cafl:leManin,neere 
Ludchurch, Tenby Windmilles, 
St. David*s Chapel, neare Pen- 
broke, Ugarfton Wyndmill,^ 
Marias Becon, Ifeamfcaftle, aft 
old fort or trench, St. Anne's 
Chapell, neeirc the entrance of 
Mylford, Benton Becon, St.' 
Leonard's Rathe, an old fort on 
high ground. 


Gam VaXvr in Dinas, Curn 
Pcnbyry, Cam Llydy, Ramfey 
Hand', which laft three are neerc 
St. Davld*s, Pcncaere, Burton 


Nowhaving occafion to fpeakc 
of the moft high and open 
places, I thinkefitt here to fpeakc 
a little of places of a contrarie, 
fituatlon, as thofe which arc 
built indeepe, lowe, and cloCp; 
places, environed with hilles^ 
and not to he feene moft way^s, 
untill you come into the very 
townes or places themfelves, fuch 
was the difference of mens mindcs 
in choofing of their feates, fomc 
preferring health and open ayje, 
thought thefe the beft and moft 



CAMBRIAI^ AEOf^r&R, 1796. 

pleafant places; other likeing 
better dofe,' wame md lowe 
placet, pefcfaftnoB theite cem&lk 
tutions of body not being atfe 
to endure the parchii^ ayres, 
framed theiie cfweOings there; 
after which arc theib— St. Dog- 

mclftf Abbe^^, PyD Priory, SL 
David'tChunrh, ClofeaadCan- 
nM'« Hoofes, aded tbe Valley, 
SiMkpDie Elidrr, Dale Towne, 
Lhuuieidi Y Blyd» Ho«rfe, 
Nevsme Towne^ Melindie 


FROM themanufcript boolc^ 
which I mentioned before 
to have had the infpeflion andv 
iifc of, by favour of a worthy 
gentleman of Cardiganfliire, 
Mr. Lloyd, of Vairdi'ef, mofl 
part of it undoubtedly of my 
author's own c^lletiting, I have 
extra^ed fome accpunt of ^fi- 
colas Martin, lord of Kernes, 
mentioned in this chapter, to* 
gether with the deed» at large 
there glanced at, refpeSing Per- 
cely Mountain, and tlie other 
to the burgefles of Newport. 







** Nicholas Martin, the fourth 
of the name of Martins, was 
lord of Kernes, he lived in 
the reign of Henry the third, 
king of England, untill about 
the 12th year of Edward,' 
Warren de Mbnchenfey, 
Warren de Monchenfey his 
fon, and William de Vallance, 
being earles oF Pembroke. 
This Nicholas was lord of 
Kernes about 40 yeares ; he 
in liis life time having brought 
die country of Kernes to ac-* 

** knowltdigt hittk to be their 
** lord, endeavoured to obtain 
*^ the loi^e of the people, and 
*« for e)(preiRon thereof, granteJ^ 
** unt%> hi6 lenanis of Kernes, 
^* the mountatti or comiaoa of 
** Perfely, by bis deed under the 
** feal of arms, the tenorwhere- 
^ of foUoweth in thefe words. 

*' Sciant prefeates & futari 
** quod ego NicokUasfiUus Mar- 
** tini de Kemeys, dedi & con- 
** ceffi & hac prefenti Carta 
** mea confinnavi haeredbus 
<f Gwrwared filii Kuhylin, & 
** hsredibus liewheliiii filii, 
♦* totam terram meam in Pre/" 
^ Jelwy ad incrementun tcoe^ 
** mentorura fuorum infra divi- 
«* fas fubfcriptas (viz.) ficut Via 
" Flandrenfica ducit per fummi- 
" tatem Montis, a loco qui drci- 
" tur fVyndy pete indirede ver- 
" fus Orientem ufq; ad Blaen* 
" vanon, Et fie defcendendo ufq; 
« ad tenementa eorundem (viz.J 
•* ufq; ad EccleCam Albam, Me*^ 
lineTrcfthey, Pcrketh, JCthrew 
& Kiigwyn tcnend & habend 

« fibi 





/* libl & hi^redibus tam^ me 
** PC haejiedibus loeis libere 
*' qiiiete & pacifice integso 
*^ jure heixdirarioiapcrpetuuin. 
** £t ego vero Nicus J>au« de 
*' Kemeis, & ba&redes mei pre* 
^* nominalis hasredibus Gwr- 
*< wared & Llewhelin filiorum 
** Kuhylin ic haBivdibus. eonim 
** totam pYtnommatam terrain 
** cum peninendas contra ora« 
^* net homines & foeminas 
** wanramizase teoemum. £ttit 
*< hsc mea donatio coooefio ic 
*^ chaitae meae confinnatio et 
** warrantiorataet iflcoQcuflain 
^* peipemum prefenredir hanc 
<* prefentemCaitammeamiigiUi 
** mei impofiitiooe corroborans 

*^ his teftibus. Dno Galfridoi 
^< de Rupe, Roberto de VaUa, 

<^ miiitiliMfl Jordano de Cao* 
** liagUiQy Jordano Hode How-*- 
" ck> ap Tmhaeani, Cadivorap 
<' Giifftbf Griffith ap Howd, 
** David BttjraiU* Laurentio 
<< CappeUaoo, qui hanc Car- 
'^ tarn fcoipilt dvplicaCam* 

This Nicholus likewife 
granted to thq burgefies of 
Newport, la Kemes, certain 
libertiea and priviteges, as by 
his deed or charter appeareA^ 
the teoor wberepf foUowelh 
in thefe words* 

<< Sciaat prrfentes tc futari 

'^ quod Ego Nicus Martin ^9 
<< filius WUhehni £lii Martini 
*< DnusdeKeineySydediconceffi 
*' &hacprelentinieaCaftaeonT 

♦ Thit deed ^v^ kk Pedigree mere &cc«retely than the iormtr, thengh SiU dif- 
ftring from the genealogical accounts of (bat faqpiy which h«TC fajlen undcf j^^ 
flbfervittioD^ for they run thu9.-« 

Martinus Turoneniis or de la Tour 

Coaqaeror ef KeineS| came from 

Sir Robert Martini Kpt. X*orf| 
of Kexnes. 

Sir WnHam Martin married A«gharad Dau^, 
«f the JUid Heei, Fri»e« oC So: Wales. 



Wjq. Martin died in iSang John's tii&«« 


Jticholas Martin (the perfon nained in the above deed) inarr^e^ 
Maadj dangbter of Guy de Brian. Lord of LaugharnCt 

<< fir. 






** firmavi Bargeitfibus meis de 
" NovoBurgoomnc8libcrtatcs& 
•* confuctudines fubfcriptasquus 
** WilhelmuB fiUus Martini 
** pater meus eidem conceflit & 
*' dcdit per Chartam fuam ici- 
*' licet quod habeant comroo* 
*' nem parturam in terra mea 
** 6c comfnunem in sfqua & 
'* paflato qui claudit VDlam 
** verfus Oricntem ufq; ad Mare 
** & aifiamentum de Bofco ad 
*^ domus dc edificia fua & ad 
Ignem per Vifuni Forreftarii. 
Item (1 Burgcnfis moritur, de 
quacumq; morte moriatur 
•* nifi indi6tatus de fellonia, vi- 
*< tarn fuam amittat. Ego ni- 
^ htl habebo de Catallo fuo ntfi 
♦* Selevium fuum fcilicet 12d. 
*^ Item fi Bargenfis tmdic alicui 
** viva averia fua, & illc de fel- 
♦* Ionia vel latrocinio indifta- 
** tus, vitam vel cataliam fuam 
amittat, Burgcnfis per bonos 
& probos homines probet a* 
♦' veria fua & habeat. Item fi 
'^ Burgeniis locavit tenum de 
'* aliquo libero homine, & ille 
" liber homo conventionem ei 
infringere voluerit. Ego de- 
beo ilium didringcre, ad con- 
*' ventionem illam tenendam, 
'* Eadem modo debeo diftrin- 
** gere Debitores Burgenfium 
<* unde habent taliam & teftes 







quodeis reddantdcbituni fuum# 
Item fi Borgenfis rr/iat de 
*' aliquo forinfeco replcgiatur 
** vicinis fuis. ' Item debenr ha- 
" bcrc Prepofitum & Catchpo- 
♦• lum per commune conftlium 
♦• mcum & fuum. Item nullus 
" Mercator forcnfis cmet vd 
•< vendat extra V illam meam de 
*« Novo Burgo. Item" Burgen- 
" fis Indidlatus de fdlonia 'vel 
" latrocinio ft dicit. Ego de- 
" fendo Felloniam vel Latroci- 
nium 6c quicquid fupcr me di- 
cis, bonam fecit defenfioncm. 
Item Burgenfes non veniant 
" in Exercitum nifi ficut Bur- 
genfes de Penbrok facient. 
Item cum prediftis libertatibus 
*' cohcoffi eis omnes libertates 
*' & bonas confuetudincs de 
*• Pembrok. Omnes iftas con- 
" ceffi & confirmavi eis & has- 
** redibus fuis tcneqd de me & 
** bseredibus meis libere & intc- 
'' gre & pacifice, £t quod ifia 
** mea donatio ic conceffio & 
** confinnatio rata & ftabilis 
" inperpetuum permaneat, huic 
" charts & confirmation! figil- 
*^ lum meum appofui hiis tefti* 
" bus Dno Johanne de Arunde^ 
** Jordano de Contintpn, Robto 
** filio Oweni, Henrico Goec, 
" Howello ap Evan, ap Mere- 
*' dith, multis aliis,'' 







( 1!27 ) 



Of Salt IJlandes feperated by the Sea frum Penbrokcjhire^ and yet 

Parte thereof \ and of divers Rocks and Stones neere the Sea Shore^ 

yeelding Fowle or other Commoditie ; and of two Peninfulas* 

OF fault iflandes adjoyning 
neere the ni^ine of Pen- 
brokefhire, I finde fome greater, 
fome fmaller, and fome yeiy 
rockes, having noe grafle. Of 
thefe there are foufe of cheefeft 
account, for they exceed the reft 
in greatnes, whofe names are 
Caldey, Stockhcrfmey Scalmej, 
and Ramfey; of thefe, and of 
the ilettes, or fmalle iflandes ad* 
joining to eche of them, 1 will 
fp^ke firft, and then to the 

Cahleyisaniland, aslftiould 
judge, a myle long, and halfe 
as broade, it ftandcth twoe miles 
from the mayne, featedoppoilte 
to the towne of Tenby, it is 
called by Giraldus by the old 
Britifti name Ynys Pyrr, (that 
is the Ifland of Pyrus.) There 
was in it in tymes paft, a pri« 
ory, called, as fayeth Leiand, 
Lilley a parifh church* aqd a 

chapel, dedicated to §t. — i 

It did belong to tlie Abbfty of 
St. Dogwells, and was pur- 
chafed by Mr. Roger Bnidftiaw, 
father to the laft Mr. John Brad- 
ihawe, grandfather to Mr*. John 
pradftiawe that now is, who 

about four yeares paft fould the 
fame to Mr. Walter Philipfin of 
Tenby, whofe inheritance now 
it is. The iland is very fertille, 
and yee)deth plenty of corna; 
all their plowes goe with horfes, 
for oxen the inhabitants dare not 
keepe, fearing the purveyors of 
die pin^es, as they themfelves 
told me, whoe often make theme 
provifions there, by theire owne 
commiffion, and moft com- 
monly to the good contentment 
of the inhabitants, when con- 
fiderable thieves arive there. 
The iland is of eight or ten houf- 
houlds, and fome parte of the 
demaynos annexed to the ruines 
of the priory, the lord keepeth 
in his hands. It is nOw growen 
a queftion in what hundred of 
Penbrokeftiirethia ifland fliould 
be, whether in Kemes, as par- 
cell of St. Dogwells, to which 
it appertayned ; or parte of the 
next hundred of the Maine, and 
untill this doubt be decided, the 
inhabitants are content to i*eft 
exempt from any payments or 
taxations to any hundred. 

There is adjoyning to the 
north fide of this ifland^ a good 




and fafe rode for ihipping, from 
twelve to fix fathoms deepe^ in 
good owfe, fecure from ail 
windeSf thofb of the eaft pointet 
jcxccpted. It may reorave be^ 
tweene it and tlie rode of Tenby 
200 (hippesy as hath been cer<- 
ttfied upon a lale furveye, all ia 
fafe ridingt and good anchor 

There is alfo adjoyoing to 
this great Caldey, a Analie ilaod 
placed betweene it and tfae landt 
called Little Caldcy. It beereth 
good graflc for iheepe and con* 
nycs, and (lore of gulls, and ir 
the Queen's Majefiy's lande, 
parcdl of her mannour of Man- 
lerbyr and Pcnalley. 

• The ncKt great iland diat 
comctli in courfe to be fpoaken 
of, IS Stockhokne, neers the 
mouth of Milford Haven and 
next to it Scalmey, being both 
great and large ilands, though 
not inhabited, but ferving onely 
for feeding of (heepe, kyne. 

oxen, horfes, mares, and great 
ftore ^f connyes. Thefe ilands 
are hot foe good lande as the 
firft, by reaibn, I thinke, than 
it is fufiered to lye waile and not 

Thefe are now her Majefties, 
being ibmtymes the inheritance 
of Sir John Perrott, Knight ; and 
of ancient tyme were parcdl of 
the Lorddiip of Haverfordweft, 
afs- appeareth by recordes, at 
which tyme the pafture of tho 
iayd ilands wa^ valued to fifty 
five ibiUtngs, and the conyes to 
fourteen pounds five (hillings, 
by vdiich it ihould feeme that 
they -were gready repleoathed 
with conies in tbofe day<^s. 

J find adjoyning to thefe two 
ilands, the one adjoyning to 
Scalmey, called in Mr. Saxton's 
maps. Midland Iland, but in 
ancient record, Midholme; the 
odier betweene Stockhoime and 
die Maine clofe to it, called in 
Mr. Saacton's maps, Gatholm^ 

* Amongft many other Irreparable loiTes by ^re la tii« Cottoaian Library, w haT« 
to lament that of a manafeript account of th«fe iflaiiidi, btutg enumerated iA the JiA 
of f«cb article* ai petiOied on that oocafioa, vhich no doubt inToived fome curiouf 
particuUrs, and probably mi^ht hare ferved to throw light on an aJmoft CTanefcent 
traditioui that the large bay, called Bride*i Bay, which the above iflands contribute 
to forme, was once a traA of low land, knows by tlio name of St Martin'* Hundred. 
Tile creek, apprbprtate ai it Were to thcib iilaqd» where their produce is landedi i< (O 
fhis day named Martin'* Haven, end I aip informed they pay tithe to tbe parifb of St, 
Martin'* in Haverfordwcft. Tradition, if coolly and judicioufly inveftigated, may 
aid hiAory more than we imagine; and certain I am that it may be overlooked and 
rejeaed as much too fafiidiou0y^ ai It vfitu is adopted with too mucli kafte and cre^ 
dulity. F.. 




fa»h wUch are fotalfe patchai, 
^t bearing graflJBy and ferviog 
for iheepe pafture; both thefe 
Analle ilands are aiccompted as 
a4>endaocs to the two larger. 

Far ofF in the fea fiandetb the 
^knd GnetboliMy foe caUed of 
Mr. Saxton, bnt >of the neigh* 
boursy Walleyes, eight miles 
ftom thennainey and for the re- 
motenes thereof, and fmaUe 
pnofit k yeddethy foldom bcf 

. Tiheioeiat'laft and g^ieateft of 
jdtefe four iflands, is called Ram* 
fey, of Ptolemeus Lyouai^ and 
is placed at St, David's head 
Jande, in foime iriaogle, mnpti 
iike the Ifle of Cyprus. This 
ifland alfoo as wafie^ and not 
inhabited; but hath in it two 
jdecayed chappdis, and ftore of 
irefh water, as all the former 
^ve ; one of die fayd chappells 
dedicated to St. Davids, the. 
other to Devanok, in fln^ih* 
-Pevaniis, who, ivith Faganus, 
was fent by Biibop Eleutl^erius 
to the Brittaines, to preach the 
word of life, in die year i8€^ 
after the afention of our Saviour 
Tefus Chrift, Lucius then being 
^ng of Brittaine, This jland 
|)eloi^th to 'the Bilhop of 
i^t. Davids } it feedetti iheepe, 
bodes, heefes, and conies. 
The fhoqpe q£ iki$ as of the 
pther ifla^i^, yeel4 not foe much 

profit, as thofe of die maine, 
theire woolle being courfer, and 
much impugned with th.e fak 
waiter ; the mslke and the mucke 
of thefe fheepe are loft alfoe. 
Being brou^^t a land, fhey are 
foe atnased at die fight of the 
peofde, that diey ranne, be^ 
come wlkie, and will not be 
taken more then will deer, and 
theire woolle yeelds not fuck 
price as that of the maine dotfav 
neither is foe ccunmodioufe ia 

On the eafi fide of diis ifland, 
and towards the lande, are two 
ilands, or mthcr rocks, the one 
called Ynis y pyry; the other> 
the Chaunter's Rocke, bqt yeeld 
fmalle profitt, faving fomc 

A fea borde this iland Ram- 
fey rangeth in order the bifliop 
and his clerkes, being feayen in 
number, alwaies {t^mo at low 
water, who are not without 
fame fml^le quirifters, whp 
fhewe not themfelves but ^t 
fpring tydes and palme feas^ 

The cheefeft of thefe, is called 
of the inliabitants, the B>fliop's 
Ro(:ke, and another parreg yr 
Roflan; die diird Divych^ th^ 
fourth Emflcyr ; but of the reft, 
as yet, I have not learned the 
namps if they have any. Thefe 
rockes dfe accpmpt64 a great 

I^ danger 



danger to thcfe that feeke Mil- 
ford, coining from the fouth- 
wefl feas, and arc to this head- 
land of St. Davids, as the Scr- 
linges commonly cleped Silly to 
the lands ende of England. And 
if the better (kill guide not the 
pafTengers, the proverbe may be 
fulfilled, " Ineid'it in Sciilam," 
&c. The bifhop, and thde his 
clerkes, preached, deadly doc- 
trines to dieire winter audience, 
and are commendable in no- 
thing but theire good rejidencey 
which it were much to be wifhed 
that every other Biihop and his 
clerkes would imitate. Thefe 
all yeeld ftore of guUes in the 
tymc of the ycare. 

Having now brefely come 
over thefe foure gieat ilands, 
with their fequell, I will now 
returne and fpcakc of the leffer 
forte of ilands, being for the 
mod parte rockes, yeelding fmall 
profitts, faving wilde foul that 
breede thereon, wherein 1 note, 
that although thefe fitialle ilands 
or rockes, be feparated from the 
maine by fome arme of the fea, 
yet doth the propertic of thcfe 
remainc to the owners of the 
next adjoyning lande. In fpeak- 
ing of thefe, I will returne backe 
to Milford Haven, where treat- 
ing of the great, I overpaffed 
two fmalle in the mouth of Mil- 
ford, the outmoft called Sheepe 
Hand, being necre the eaft fide 

of Milford, at the entraiioe with- 
out the blockhoufe, which is 
but a fmall tumpfod^ called, be- 
caufe, as I guefie, Sheepe have 
onely acccfie thereunto, for at 
low water it is drie, and, diere- 
fdtCy fcarfe deferveth the name 
of an iland, and hath nothing 
in it worth the noting. 

Further within the mouth of 
the Haven, on the (ame fide, is 
the iland called Rutt Hand, but 
of the inhabitants, more com- 
monly (galled Thome Iland; this 
is a prettie iland, but very little, 
full of deepe grafs, a muiket 
ihot from the maine, this and 
the preceding belong to Walter 
Rees, £fq. Within Milford- 
Haven lyeth the Stacke, a rocke 
without grafle, and not worth 
many wordes to be fpoaken for 
the purpofe I have now in hand; 
but heretofore by fpeciall direc- 
tions from her Majeftie, and the 
Lords of the Counfell, touching 
a defcription to be made of Mil- 
ford-Haven, I have more ex- 
aftiy handled the two laft as 
places iitt for fortification, the 
particulars wherefore are nocfitt 
here to be difclofed. 

For rock and fton<fi * adjoyn- 
ing to the maine, yerely yelding 
guiles, and fuch like fea fowle, 
there is one adjoyning to the 
iland of Barrey, and parcell 
thereof, one at Abermawr, one 




at Dinasy Carrcg y trynuir, one 
neere Voelgoch, and two at 
Moelgrove, all belonging to the 
next parte of the maine, all 
which, more or Icfs, according 
to theire quantities, yeelde ftore 
<^fea fowles to theire owners. 

The two peninfuias, or halfe 
ilands, which I purpofe to 
(peake of, are called Ilands, for 
that in tfk& they are ilands, 
faving that eche of them hath a 
fmalle valley, or bogg, bctwecne 
it and the land, which the fea 
pofefieth not, but are fuch* as 
with induftrie might be cutt, 
being bogg, and with fmalle 
charge the fea drawne about 
them ; the one is called the Hand 
of Dinas, the other, the Hand of 

_ m 

Barry e, in theparifli of lianrian, 
both of late ycares being the in- 
heritances of Thomas Bowen, 
of Pentre Evan, Efq. after 
whofe deceafe thefe ilands were 
fhared betweene his two daugh- 
ters, ech taking one; this iland 
of DinaSf is very good come 
land, efpecially for wheat, which 
it is fayd to beare without muck 
or other mendment, and for all 
other kinde of graine very fruit- 
fuUe, as alfoe well nourifliing 
^eepe. It hath been in ancient 

tyme parted in two, with a ftone 
hedge, for that, the one fide 
being tilled, the cattell might 
grafe the other widiout damage. 
It is a mile one way, and neere 
as much the other. I finde the 
name thereof in ancient writings 
to be Ynys bach llyffan gawr, 
and that it was in old tyme the 
inheritance of divcrfe perfons; 
and by purchafe brought to one 
hand, and hath for all the tyme 
of man*s memorie, been occu- 
pied with the houfe of Pentre 
Jevan, as a grange for the maia- 
tenance of hofpitalities. 

The other Hand, called the 
iland of Barry, is the demaync 
and parcell of the manor of 
Lianrian, in Dewis!and, which 
m&nor and Iland fell to the parte 
of the youngeft daughter of the 
fayd Thomas Bowen, being 
fometymes the patrimony of the 
Wogans, of Wifton, and fold 
by the laft John Wogan to the 
fayd Thomas Bowen. This 
iland is more fertile then the 
other, efpecially for barley, and 
is well ftorcd with hay, a com- 
moditie wanting to the other, 
and for bignes, I judge it little 
inferiour to the former^ 

K 2 


< m 1 


0/ ihifeverell Sories tf Fifit taken in this Shire ^ as well in the 
Frejb Rivers as the Sea Ceajlsy and of the great Plenty theretf. 

HAVING fpoken of die 
fait ilaii4s of this countrey 
environoed by the fea, it fol- 
kyweth aptiie in this place, to 
fpeake of the filh which is 
yearely taken in the maine fea, 
the creekes aod armes thereof, 
pAA the freih ryvers that pafle 
ihrow the countiey* For pond 
fifli there are none, wherein I 
cannot butcondemne our whole 
covnlrey of careleflhes and floth, 
for that wan^ for of all the 
countries that I ever travelled, 
this foile yeeldeth moft conve- 
nient places for fiih^ponds, and 
to be builded with lead coft and 
paine ; for in all, or raoft partes 
of the (hire, there are fine and 
fweete fprings, running in fmalle 
little valleys, as it were worne 
by theire courfe not deep^ but 
broade and fhallowe^ not lieadr 
long or fteepe, but allmoft one 
pkine ground, the fprings not 
(oo great, whereby the violence 
might breake (he damme liedde, 
but fufficieot to majntaine a 
ponde, where there needeth no- 
thing but the ere(Siing of a 
hedde, or were for (lopping of 
the water, and the pond would 
be readie, Toe that in many a 
bundfed places of this couatrcy, 

lefle diaa five pounds charge 
wouM make a large fi(he pond, 
which, befides the commoditie 
of the fi(h, would prove com- 
modioufe for watring of, aad 
ftanding of caltell in paschis^ 
feafons; and alfoe a nurfBrie for 
fwans, a fowle, that of aUotfaer, 
the countxey bath lead fioie of; 
whereas, I fee in other coon- 
treys a hundred pound, and 
move, confumed in rayfuig ^ 
fifh pood, and yet thinke the 
chaige well beftowed; I roeanc 
not onely the want of ponds of 
fi:eih fiffae, but alfoe thofe of 
fault water, upon the fea coaftes 
and creekes, which the ingeni- 
ous xnyndes of^vers gentlemen, 
in other countries, have lately 
and rarely invented, whereby 
intruding upon maritime juri£- 
didion, fifh in fait water, and 
bring the fame f ubje£l to theire 
command, and connuodide, and 
in fuch fort as that they have 
ready at theire call, tlie baife, 
millett, flookes, and plajfes^ 
fole, whiteing^, fea fmelt^ 
crabbs, ihrimps, and divers other 
fortes of falt-water fi(h, as it 
were in a parke. To tliefe fait 
pondes there are infinit, apt and 
fitt places, efpecially op all, or 




Moft of die creekes^ ^red out 
011 every fide of KfiUbrd Haven* 

Bat oaiitting (bat whieh we 
might have and hafve not, k( 
me ifieake of that which we 
Iiave and want not» the fi(hing 
of Penbrokefhtre, whith, as I 
have Ikyd before in the Seventh 
Chafter, is one of the cheepeft 
tvorUly commodities where*- 
withaft God hath ble(&d this 
cotintreyv which Mfmg are of 
divers Ibrtes^ followed at divers 
lymes of the yeerc, and that at 
divers places. The names of 
ibme fortes moft commonly 
taken on this coaft, are thefe, 
Aat 1 fliall fpeake of, which 
I will divide into four fortes, 
that is, river fiihe, frs fiflie, (hell 
fiihe, and the S ftrange nature 

And firft in diis pkice I will 
fpeake of the river fi{he, where- 
of die falmon (hall have the 
irft place, partely for the plen* 
tie and ftore thereof, taken in 
many partes and places of the 
countrey, bur checfly for the 
excellencie and daintienes there^ 
of, whei*ein it exceedeth thofef 
of odier coantrieys -, the princi- 
pal! place for taking thereof is 
in the river Tivy, and there 
chiefly at Kilgarran, where the 
greateft weare of all Wales is 
to be feeney chargeably built <^ 
ftrong tymber frames^ and arti- 

ficially wrought therein with 
ft<M)e8, croffing the whole ryver 
fitHn fide to fide, having fix 
flaughter places^ wherein the 
fi(h' entring, remaine enclofed) 
and are therem killed with an 
iron crooke prc^)er for that ufe^ 
where there have been oftern 
tymes taken a hundred^ or a 
htmdred and forty, more or lefle^ 
in fome days; the fifh being 
moft excellent, and for fatnefle 
and fweetnefie exceeding thofe 
of other ry vers* There is alfoe 
great ftofe of this fifli, as alfoe 
of fueingcs, mullets, and botch- 
ers, being all neare of kinne to 
the famon, taken in the fayd 
river, necre St. Dbgwels, in a 
fayne nett, drawne after every 
tyde; as alfoe in the river of 
Nevarne at Newport, where 
they take them in a draught nett 
fometyines by the fcores at a 
bawle ; as alfo in famon weares, 
of which there be two or three 
upon that ryver. There is alfoe 
ftore of falmons taken at Filh^ 
guard, in the rivet Gweyne^ 
and in both Clethes, the one 
coming up to Haverfordweft, the 
other to Siebech and Canafton ^ 
and in eehe of thefe places ftore 
of fueinges, famon, trouts, mul-' 
lets^ and botchers, taken in the 
fpring, whieh is tbeire Teafon. 
One efpeciaHthkig is to be noted 
of the famous of Tivy, that at 
all tymes in die yeere there aiv 
found fome in feafcMi^ yea even 
K 3 in 



in winter; when in mod places 
they are found kipper^ leane, 
and unwholfome, there they are 
found newe, frefh, fatt, and 
ruddie, between All Saints and 
Chriilma$« This fifli cometh 
from the fea upp the ryvers, 
and in tlie fandy places both the 
male and female are founde in 
the .night labouring to make 
bedds with tlieir fnouts, by heap- 
ing grave)! and fand for theire 
fpawning places ; and in this 
theire bufynes they are in the 
nif^t time watched, and with 
liglits of fire drawne to wonder 
ihereat, whiles the fi/hers from 
the land with Neptune's wea- 
pon, the fambn fp^eare, bereafe 
them of their life, being then 
for the moft parte unwholfome 
and Icane ; yet it is fayd, that 
this fifh and the goofeling, con- 
curre in growth, meaning there- 
by, that in one yeare they come 
to theire full bignefs. Giraldus 
fayth, this fifh is called Salmo, 
a faliendoy becaufe, faieth he, 
taking his tayle in the mouth, 
becoming in forme like a ring, 
witlu his ftrength at the loofe, 
mounteth foe high that he will 
cail himfelf up a great bancke 
or rocke, and doth inftance of a 
great fteepe rock at Kilgarran ; 
wherein he was dcceaved, for 
the fame is indeedeac Kennarth, 
three miles above Kilgarran, 
where the river fallcth over a 

perpendicular and fteepe rock, 
of ten or twdve foote high, at 
which place the famons are 
imagined to afcend, for that they 
are found many myles in diat 
river above the fayd place, which 
is called therefrom the Samoa's 
Lepp. This fiftie is heft in fea- 
fon at his firft coming from the 
fea,, where he goeth to wafti 
himfelf, and retumeth into the 
freih ryver moft bright and 
fliining, fat and dclicat, and the 
longer he travelleth up the ry* 
ver, beating himfelfe againft the 
bankes, rocks,- and ftielves, tlm 
leaner he goeth. They are 
cheefly in feafon in the fpring, 
and all the fomer. This fifti 
the fooner he be boykd after his 
taking, the more fweete and de- 
licat he proveth in eating, 
whereas long keeping or car- 
rege before boyling, decayeth 
his fweetnes, and therefore is 
fayd to be beft when be is caft 
alive into the panne (the water 
being hott and boyling) where 
prefently it crompeth and turn- 
eth up the corners and ildes, 
waxing redd in coUour, mter- 
larding the redd with white 
cruddy fatt, that yeckleth meate 
very fweete in tafte. A merye 
writer, likening the panes of 
this fiih to a faire woman, fayth, 
that about the jawes, the eyes, 
and the belly, arc the fweetcft 
partes of the famon. 




Tlie fueinge^ botcher, mvllett, 
famon peale, or famon trout, 
are fynonymous and all one, 
but difieriog in name onely, are 
in forme, tafte, and taking, all 
one widi the famon, but leiTer 
and fhorter in eating than the 
famon. Some thinke diey are 
the famon indeede, but want in 
growth ; but the beft fi{hernien 
are of opinion, that they are of 
feverall kindes, and will never 
become a famon. Thefe, if tjiey 
be of feverall kindes, yet are 
never foimd to come upp the 
river to fpawne, or to make 
fpav(ning pitts, as the famons 
doe. Plynie fheweth in his na- 
turall hiftory, that the old famon 
is knowne per duritiem fjuama"' 
runiy foe the fmaller, the brighter 
and thinner the fcales of the 
famon are, the younger you 
may judge the fifh to be. 

The troutcfl of this countrey 
are nothing foe good as thofe 
I have eaten in other countreyes, 
being wiiite in coUoure, fmalle, 
and drier in eating, wanting 
fatnes and growth,- yet are there 
great (lore taken in every fmall 
brooke and rille, as alfoe in the 
greater rivers. They come in, 
and are bed in feafon in Marche 
and A prill, and continue good 
all the fomcr. They are caught 
with the angle, wherein the 
ikillful fiiher taketb great plea- 

fure, finding it a pleafant heal- 
thy exercife; asalfoe inwheelei 
at certaine flopped places, and 
at tayles of mills, where diey 
are flaughtered in greate plenty. 
The trout alfo is taken with di- 
vers kinde of netts, as with 
trammell and fork netts, but 
mofl of all the drag nett, vvhich 
fweepeth away great and fmalle, 
for want of which the poorer 
forte of people fowe divers win- 
nowing fheetes and raw woollen 
clothes together, and with force 
of nxen drawe fondrie pooles in 
rivers where the fi(he moil fre- 
quentj wliere all flzes are taken 
without refpet^, and.fomtymes 
if a famon hitt in, they never 
ufe to cafl him to the ryver 
a^aine. The ryvers of this 
fhire differ, fome having more, 
and fome lelTe ftorc of this kind/^ 
of filhe,. and fome excelling 
others in goodnefs and growth. 

Eeles and lampreys are found 
in every river, and the more 
niuddie the river, the better the 
eeles ; alfoe in olde marie pitu 
have been found eeles very 
large, fome 3 or 4 fpote in 
length, and the bignes anfwer- 
able to the fanoe ; but the chcefe 
flore is found and taken yeerely 
in the river Cleddy, neere Llan- 
flinan, where the great moore 
or bog being of three miles 
long, ferveth for the nurferie 
of tliis ilipperie fiih, the taking 

K 4 Of 



of tirhicli is in Auguft, theire 
mturt being then to move and 
brcake afuMkr ont of theive 
bedds in die muddie moore> and 
being fturred, the fiude after 
gt^at fliowers, carr^' them to the 
ryver ninniiig throw the bogf 
and at cenatne flopped paflTages, 
called weares. they are in the 
night tyme taking in wattkd 
t^eeles and nettes, pirdied of 
purpofe, where in the mornings 
tfheyare taken np by the bi»(heH 
and falted ; they are alfoe takeii 
Jn the ryvers by clotting, which 
k a ctewe of yame all covered 
with angle touch wormcs, and 
caft into the ryver or pooIe, 
whereat biting, they are faftned 
by theire crooked tecthj a*id foe 
landed. Plynte wrieeth that the 
cele liveth eight yeares, and 
witt live drie fcven dayes, foe the 
north windir blow, but not focf 
long with the fotith windc. 

The lampreys are in the frc(h 
^vers wirti the eeles, where be 
feme of reafdnable bignefs, 
which 1 have often feene taken, 
but feidom dreflfed, (>ecanfe there 
is aconceaved donbt of a vayne 
or gutt in fome parte of the 
ii(he, which miift be drawne 
fiirth, which gutt, if it breake, 
poyfoneth the fi(h : a donbt that 
prefcrvcth the Kfe of the filh 
in moft places trfiere they 

The rv«c9r. oaufl^ls are not 
for meale, being gre$i aadbng^ 
of 7 or 8 inehe% aB4 io^ lancke 
of taAe as on that; account to be 
reje<Skd» being of the coimtrejr 
people termed for theire bt^es 
hori(9* iBttflLd}& They are checf- 
ly taken, for tbe pearlss that are 
foimd in ibeti)> in moft of which 
are mett with from o«e to fourc 
pearies, orient, but b^ com-» 
monly comeryd auddarke^which 
maketh them of lefifs account* 
The chief rivers for this kinde ol 
fi/he are Taf md NevamCr wber« 
they be in noc great plenty. 

Of fea fi(h there is great ftor^ 
Vakisn in every part round tha 
coafty and as the iisveraU places 
where tliey are take^ s|re many, 
fee ai*e there. divers kindes et 
6(be ; among tbe which I wiH 
firft bqgiiv with tiia herring, 
which, for the great ufe it fup- 
pliethy and for the abondance 
thaioof taken, above all other 
forts^ is caliod the king of fi(he* 
This £(he is taken more com- 
mon aboute diis reabne then in 
any other countrey of the 
world ; for, as fayeth the hiftory 
of Lewis Guichardine, berringes 
arc onely bred in the feptentrio* 
nale, or northern feas, but not 
in the fouthem feas, or any ry- 
vers, nor yet in the Spaniil> 
ieas :: and fayctb^ chat they come 




pm of the esttreameO! parte of 
(he Qorthenii (ieas^ and with, the 
firft eddy in gpestt nombers, to 
avoyd the mgDur of the {>ok< 
and that theire courfe is to com^' 
pafle once the ile of Brittaine^ 
aaid toe \o the ocean* It is iayd 
they fwim in great fcooles to» 
getber^ a|>proachixig neere the 
fliore, didighdsarg to fee fiersy oe 
atvy humane ceeatures^ and are 
guided by kingSi as the bees ani^ 
who going jSbnnofty are followed 
by the multitiide ; and that the 
hsightQes of theire eyes ihine in 
the water like lightning, by 
which marke they are difcemed 
from the lande ; and it is written 
diat theire kings are marked on 
theire heads like a crowne, and 
are mddte of colloure. This 
fiih, contrary to the nature of 
att other, are faid to feede and 
Kve only by water, and as foone 
as he i» brought into the ayer, 
pre&ntlydieili. Rondeletius wri* 
ting of the herring. Lib. 7. de 
ptfcibus xapi 1^. iayrh, Grega^ 
Us tfl fiJeeSf & tarn magni funi 
Herring^rum grsges ut capi non 
f^ffint^ fed fofi nutumni Equi-* 
mo£Ham^ in a^es fe dividunt\ 
htaq\ mutant J li gregailm p<r 
oceanum vaga^ur, quo //, ut 
multi Jimul eapiantur. This 
kinde of fi(h is |aken on the 
Aorcs of this countrey in great 
abondance, efpecially for the 
eight yeares pafV, more then in 
former yeare$ : the places of 

dieire talting) in:, isM (hire moA 
ufuallywere, Fifliguard, New-c 
port, aqd Dinas, where for 
many yeares^ and even fsom 
the beginniog^ there hath fbaid 
quantity ben y«arely taken ; biMt 
of latter yeares diey have ro^ 
forted to Broadehaye% Galto^pe 
Rode in Brides Bay, Mar^ Ha« 
ven, Hopgaine, and St. Brides, 
and have been plentifully ta&ea 
to the great conunoditie of tlie 
country ; nay of late they have 
been taken in Milford Haven, 
and in the kodes of Tenby and 
Caldey, and neare St. t)avid*s, 
and generally from the faH of 
the Tivy to Ereweare ; foe thafi 
it ieemed they had Iayd feege 
by fea about the county:— foe 
greatly has God beftowed hie 
bleffings that way upon thif 
poore countfrey. The Lord 
make us thankful! therefore. 

This fiihing is cheefly from 
Auguft till neere Chriftmas, 
but the middle or firft fiihing 
b counted beft< as that which 
is fuHefl and fattefl ; the oider 
of takii^ them is: with dit>ver» 
and fhooting of netts in knownc 
places, choofisn efpecially for 
tl!ie faimes of the ground, which 
netts are fhott in the even- 
ing, the later the better, and 
drawn up with fuch ilore of 
fi(h as pleafeth God to fend, 
from tenn to forty mefes in a 
boate, each mefe contayning' 




tbitty-one fcore, or 520 her- 

The pilchers, which now of 
late ycercs are not foe rife as be- 
fore, and the makrell are taken 
with thein; but of thrfe two 
fortes nothing in refped to the . 

Other kinde of fea fifhe this 
countrey yeeideth in great plen- 
tie at feafons, which for that 
they are of foe many feverall 
fortes, it would require a parti- 
cular volume to write of every 
forte feparate, and the order of 
taking of them, wherefore I 
will onely name foe many fortes 
of filh as nly memoric will fuf- 
fer me that this (liire yeeideth, 
which are as folluwe— turbut, 
hylibut, byrte, fcle, playfe, 
flooke, flounder, ling, codd, 
hake, mullett of both kindes, 
gurnett, grey and t^d whiting, 
haddok, fea fmelt, the fprat or 
fand e^le, the earle, whofe fins 
grow forward, contrarie to the 
nature of all fi(h ; rough and 
fmooth hounds, thomback, and 
ray, with many others which I 
cannot remember, which make 
the markets and gentlemens 
houfes to be plentifully ferved, 
befide the greate releefe for the 
poore neare the fea coades. 
The chcefe places of fifliing in 
this (hire, thovgh every place 

yeld foroe, are Milford Havaiy 
Broade Haven, St. Biides, Stak- 
poole, the Rodes of Tenby and 
Caldey, where for the moft 
there is noe hyle. 

Now for flieU ii(h— this fea 
is alfoe noe niggard, bodi for 
plentye and feverall ktodes, 
among which, before aB, I will 
give place to the oyfter, which 
Milford haven yeeideth moft 
delicate, of feverall fones and 
in great abondance, being a 
commoditie much vented in 
many ihires, for by water they 
are tranfported to Briftow, and 
to the foreft of Deane ; finom 
whence by land they are fent to 
Somcrfctfhire, Gloucefterihiie, 
and fome parte of Wiitfliire, 
and oftentymes up the river as 
far as Worcefter and Salop; 
they are alfoe carried by lande 
to the counties of Cardigan^ 
Carmarthen, Brecknock, Rad- 
nor, Monmouth, Hereford, 
Montgomery, and foe to Lud- 
lowe, and other partes of Shrop- 
fhire. The cheefcft places of 
taking thefe oyfters is at Law- 
renny, the Pill, and the Crowe ^ 
the firft of which is accounted 
the fatteft, whiteft, and fweet- 
eft ; the Pill oyfter, for that he 
is leflc wafhed with frefli water, 
tafteth more fault, and therefore 
more pleafmg to fome, and is 
larger growen ; and the Crowe 




oyfler ftriveth with the both for 

The oyfters are taken by 
dredge within Mitford Haven, 
which is done with a kinde of 
yron, made with barres, having 
a peece of horfe or buUocke's 
ikinne fowed to it like a bag, 
in fuch forte as that it being 
fiiftned to a rope's ende, is caft 
into the bottome of Mllford at 
8 or 10 fathomes deepe, and is 
dragged at a boates ende by two 
rowers who rowe up and downe 
the channel, and foe the bagg 
of leather being made apt to 
fcrape up all manner of things 
lying in the bottome, gathereth 
up the oyfters that breede there 
over cenain knowne places, 
which bag being filled they 
drawe up and emptie the oyfters 
in theire boate, applicing theire 
laboure foe all the day, and 
when they have done, they 
rowe to fome appointed places 
neere the ftiore at full fea, and 
there caft out the oyfters in a 
great heape, which they call 
bedds, where every tide over- 
floweth them; and foe are kept 
for lading of boates to Briftowe 
and other places. 

Were it not that the Wal- 
fleete and Gravefend oyfters are 
better frinded in court then this 
poore country oyfter of Milfonl 
isi noe queftion but he would 

and well might challenge to 
have the cheefe prayfe before 
them both; and I prefume if. 
the Poet Horrace had tafted of 
this Milford oyfter, he would 
not have preferred tlie oyfter of 
Circsei; which, in a towne ia 
Campanie before this, where 
he commendeth divers fifties for 
the countrey's breedes, faying. 
Satyr: lib: 4.— 

Lubrica oafcentes iinplent conchilU laiucy 
Marice Baiano melior Lucrina Pelorii. 
Pedintbus patulU jadtut fe roolle Taren- 

Sed non omne mare eft gcnerofie fiertild 

Odrea Circaes, Mifcro oriuntur Echini. 

Thus Engliftied. 

The xnoone'a encreafc doth fallermach 

the flippry cockles make 
The Baian welk, but henfiih beA are ia 

Lucriiia lake. 
For goodly fcallopi hove the reft doth fair 

Tarentum boft, 
In every fea ye ihall not ilore of dainty 

Ibell-fifli take. 
The Ctrcen oyfter, lympyns breed abowt. 

Mifcro'i coft* 

A pleafant minded man ima- 
gening the worft that might be 
fpoken of the oyfter, faied it is 
an uncleane meate, an uprofit- 
able meate, and • an ungodly 
meate ; uncleane for fowling of 
hands in opening of them, foe 
that al wales you muft have 
water to cleene the hands after 
them ; unprofitable, for let a 
man eate never fo good a meale 




at oyfters,. prefendf he fittsth. to 
dinner and eateth aa eameftly 
as if he had not eaten any thing 
before; ungodly^ becaufe it is. 
never ufed to fay gvace before 
oyfters as before other meate. 

Befide this Mylford oyfter, 
there is a greate kinde of oyfter 
gathered at Caidcy and Stack* 
pole, which being eaten rawe^ 
feeme too ftrong a meate for 
ir^eake ftomakes, and muft be 
parted in two, three, or foure 
pceces before he may be eaten, 
by reafon of his exceeding big* 
nes, and are not counted foe 
plcafmg as the former, and 
therefore are ufed^n pies, ftue- 
ings, broths, fried, and boyled, 
wherein he is found moft deli- 
cate. The oyfter in ancient 
tyrae were accounted feafonable 
in tliofe monethes onely that had 
R in them ; but experience now 
teacheth, that in May, June, 
July, and Auguft, there are 
fome found to be very fweetc 
and holfome, though fome be 
uidiolfome, which are eafily 
difcerned, for being opened, they 
are filled with a cruddie matter, 
like creame, about the fifhe, 
Avhich Plynie fpeakedi of, Lib. 
9. cap. 51. and as Petrus Gil- 
lius faycth, the oyfter is ef- 
trangely engendered of this 
milke, by cafting it on any ftack 
or rocke that is overflowen ; but 
we finde by experience that the 

oyfters bnode tfaeire yoQnjg av 
the beggars doe, by bearing tliem. 
on theirc backes ; yet tbofe that 
are foood widbout this miUoe are 
as good and fweete bt thofe R« 
lefltt monethes as at any .other 
time: of the yearc. 

Lapfters and cra&bes are alfoe 
found ia the fea cliffea and other 
places, are very fweete ddicat 
meate, and plentiiiiUy taken. 
The hpfter, fayth Dariortt fetr 
whole on the table hath three 
fpeciall qnalities , for, fayth he,, 
he yieldeth exercifc, fuilenance, 
and contemplation ; exercife in 
cracking his legges and clawes, 
foftenance, by eating the meate 
thereof, and contemplation, by 
beholding the curious worke of 
his complete armour, both in 
hue and workmanihip, by be- 
holding of his tafiSf vauntbraees, 
pouldrons, cuilhes, gauntletts, 
and gorgetts, curioufly contrived 
and foiged by the moft admirall 
workman of the world.. The 
crabbe doth fenfibly feele the 
conrfe of the moone, filling and 
empt}'ing itfeUc with the in- 
CFeafe and decreafe thereof, and 
tlierefore is fayd to be beft at 
the full of the moone. 

The flirimpe is alfoe an in- 
habitant, and taken upon every 
fpring, from the beginning of 
May till harveft, which are moft 
delicat and fweete meate ; they 




are chccfly taken about Teinby, 
in pitts In the fande, after the 
ebbe. Muikells^ lympins, ere- 
vicesy (hetliy or huft fifli, cockles, 
flemlnges, hens, and divers odier 
ibell fiflie, are taken abondant* 
l^e in fundrie and moik ^Mes 
of the fhire. 

Laftly, I will ende my fiik 
meiTe with the three ftrange im- 
ture fifhes, that is the feale, or 
fea calfy the rporpoife» and the 
tbompole; I call tbera ftrange 
of nature^ for where as all other 
fiflie that breede doe, but thefe 
doe ii^nder after the nature of 
beaftsy'a^d the female doth grow 
great and brU^ forth youog* 

The feale is covered with hair 
like a calfe, and hath foure 
fliort legs» and broad pawed, 
like the noale, this fifh cometh 
to land to reft» and fleepe, and 
lye togetlier in beards as fwine^ 
one upon another ; and at birth 
tyme, as Plynie fayeth, conicth 
a lande, and is delivered, and 
giveth fucke to the young till he 
be able to fwimoie, which he 
fayeth will be in twelve dayes, 
and never bringeth above two 
at a tyme ; the faune at tlie firft 
is white, and .is more delicate 
nieate then his anceftor, bei^g 
ftroi^g and fuUbnie to the taftc, 
yet ic is accounted a daintie and 
rare diflie of ^lany men. This 
^^ftie is yery^ fatte, as bacon, aqd 

the fkione &rvedi to ^any -ufes» 
being drefied, efpecially in tymes 
paft, for covering of tents, be- 
caufc it rcceaveth noe hurt by 
'lighloings, as faieth Plinie, and 
alfoe Rondeletius after him. 
The haire of the feale ftafeth 
at the Couthwindes, and goeth 
imothe with the northwinde; — 
hut certen it i^ diat it doeth fipe 
at the flood ^tnd ebbe, ftarli^ 
with the one, and fmoothis^ 
with the other. 

The porpofe is in forme like 
a makerell, long and round, but 
much more huge, foroe being 
of twelve or iixteen feet long, 
and his ikin i§ fmothe, without 
haire, or icale, like to the eele» 
or lamprey. This fiilie is 
ramilh, fatt, and ftrong for z 
weake ftpmack to digeft ; tliere 
is of this iiihe, and of the thorn- 
pole, made ftore of oyle, though 
very ftrong, and of evill fmell. 

The tbompole is of like forme, 
bignes, and tafte, and in aU 
Other things to the porpiiTe^dif* 
fering onely in having a great 
rounde hole in the pole of thq 
lieade, throw the which he 
4]feth to fpout out'water in great 
Arcames, receaved in throwc 
the mouth. 

Thefe three kindes of fifties 
being ravenous by nature, follow 
th$ (culls of herrings, feeding 




on thenii and devouring them ; taken oftentymes wrapped in the 
and foe» in herring fifliing, are herring netts. 


Of Abondance of Fowle that the Country yeeldeth; and of the 

feveraU Sortes thereof 

HAVING fpoken fome- 
what of the fiftie taken in 
the countrey, one cheeflfe com- 
moditie of the fame, it ftandeth 
in couri'e next, to fpeake of the 
fowle which yeercly breed in, 
and haunt the lande and fea 
coaft, which are not foe diverfe 
in kinde, as abondant in multi- 
tude and plentie, which is al- 
moft incredible to be reported, 
together with the cheapnes of 
them, at fome tymes and fea- 
fons, whereof fome are found 
alwaics infeafon, as thegrowfe, 
the heathcock, and wood quail ; 
the crane, the heronnfhaw, the 
gull, kept and fedd; the cur- 
lewe, &c. Some others are but 
at feafons, as the woodcock, 
the wild goofe, wild duck, bit- 
tern, wild fwan, &c. 

But of all fowle we of Pen- 
brokefhire clayme interefl in 
two fortes cheefly, that is the 
gull and the woodcock, for the 
great plenty we aflure oiirfelves 
of yeerelyv the firft being our 
owne natural! and native coun- 
trey fowl^, bred among us ) and 

for his good ftomack, much of 
difpofition with the bafer forte of 
laboring people, of fome partes 
of the countrey, that are truely 
flandered with eating five meales 
a day, and in fuch abondance, 
that in their fcafon, the townes 
and countrey about, are very 
plentifully ferved therewith. 
The chief nurfcric of this fowle 
is in fmall iflands, in the fea, 
and ncerc the mainc landc, 
whereof \ have made mention 
before, in the 13th Chapter, 
where 1 intreat of fait Hands, 
where, in May and June, they 
are foundc to brecdc in fuch 
plentie, that you can hardly 
walk on the lande of fome fmall 
ilands without treading on the 
eggs in the nefts upon the 
ground. Thcfe fowles brcede 
alfoe in the fea cliefFs, in great 
ftore, and are ripe about Mid- 
fummer, at which time they 
become flufhe, and are taken, 
being ready to forfake their nefts, 
and fuch as are fluftie, are fol- 
lowed with boates, and taken 
fwimming, not being able to 
flie, are brought a land, and arc 




▼ery daintie meate, prefently as 
foon as they are caught, and 
will be fedd and kept as a readie 
di{he all the yeare over. Be- 
fide the provifion which the 
gentlemen and others of the 
ihire doe make to ferve their 
houfes, there is ■ a great ftore 
fould into England, and fought 
and fent for out of the inland 
ihires, a hundred miles and 

The woodcocke, although he 
be not oure countreyman borne, 
yet we muft needcs thinke him 
to be of fome affinity to many 
of our countrcy people, by rca- 
fon of the love and kindnes he 
{heweth in reforting thither, 
firft of all before other partes of 
Wales or England, and in more 
abondance then elfewhere, and 
ftaying longer with us then in 
any other place ; and if I may in 
fporte fuppofe a caufe thereof, 
let it be for that tiie people in 
generall of this countrey are 
found to be of more plaine 
meaning, ftmple, harmles, and 
furtheft from Machiavelldevifes, 
or bearing high and pryeing 
fpiritts. I'his fowie being noted 
likewife for his fimpiiciiie, (of 
fome called foolery) it may be 
guefied he maketh choice rather 
to' the conveife among thefe 
people, being neereft to his ino- 
cent, plainer and Ample humomr, 
according to t|ie old adage, Sir 

miles Jimilim Jib iquarit^ but 
whatfoever the caufe be, we are 
rooft beholding to him of all 
other fowle; and firft, for his 
tymely vifiting us ; if any eaft- 
erly winde be aloft, we ftiall be 
fure to have him aformight, and 
fometymes three weeks before 
Michaelmas, and for plentie it 
is almoft incredible, for when 
the cheefe tyme of haunte is, 
we have more plenty of that 
kinde of fowle onely, then of all 
other fortes layed together : the 
cheefeft plentie is betweene 
Michaelmas and Chriftmas, and 
in thefe three moneths, he vifit- 
eth rooft houfes; theire cheefe 
taking is in cock rodes in woods* 
with netts ere£led up betweene 
two trees, where in cock ihute 
tyme (as it is termed, which is 
the twilight, a little after the 
breaking of the day^ and before 
the clofing of the night) they are 
taken fomtymes two, three, or 
foure, at a falle. I have my* 
felfe oftentymes taken fix at one 
falle; and in one mode, at an 
evening taken, eighteen ; and it 
isnoe ft range thing to take an 
hundred, or a hundred and 
twenty, in one woode, in 24 
hours, if the haunt be good, 
and much more have been 
taken, though not ufually. It 
is ftrange to thinke from whence 
thefe fowles ihould come in 
fuch fodainc forte, as they are 
fQund to do, for if there be not 




one feeii€, or to be found in the 
coontiey, if at any tynae the eft, 
fouth eft, or north ch winde 
iilowe cold and ifaarpc, this 
covotrey i^iU be full within 
twelve hovrs; and yet in the 
conmreyes which lye eail of 
this, not one to be {bene, or 
fomid in a moneth after. I^en, 
againe, the nature of the fowie 
is not to flee in the day tytnc, 
nor in the night, •but refteth all 
day in the wood, and aU night 
abrpade in the fiddcs feeding ; 
aod only fleeth one flight every 
evening, out of the woode into 
the fieUsi, and every raoroiog 
letumeth agaja into the wood, 
wad foe re&th all day and aU 
flight ; foe that it is to be loarf- 
velcd from whence they come, 
or whence fSbcy hreede, for if 
they Should come irosn out of 
the eaAern countries, yet were 
ycry likely they fhould be fecne 
to flee by day or night, wiiich, 
as I fayd before, is againft.thdre 
fiature; alfoe they fhould be 
found in tbofe oouatries which 
lye cfierly of diis ihieere, as are 
the countries of Carmarthen, 
Ipardigan, Brecknock, Radnor, 
f nd Salop, in wiiich countries 
you ihall hardly finde any three 
weckes or ^ moneth after this 
oountrey is filled with them ; 
futidier, diey .come not one by 
one, or few, but at fodainc, al( 
partes are rejJeniftied with them, 
foe that fomc men of judgment 

are of opinion, diat tbey asv 
to he norobred inter aaimaUa 
impeife«5la, and that they aw 
engendered and rayfed by the 
meere efterly winde of fome 
fubftance here in die couotcey^ 
the like whereof you may reade 
oonceming (fivers oliier fowles 
and worms in Plynie. The 
pleotie of this and cither kindc 
of fowle, hath been &ch« in a 
hard winter, as I have heard a 
gentleman of good forte and 
credit reporte, that lie hath 
faooght in St. Davids, two wood<^ 
oocksy tfatce fnipes, and certen 
teles and blackbinds, for a pcnye, 
and fiffcly it will not be bdpeved 
111 odicr plaoes, what peny^ 
wortbes are had of fowle ia this 
countrey yeerely, 

Befide thefe two kiiades of 
fbwle^ which we account among 
hottfliokl fare, the countrcy 
ycakleth great ftore of otlier 
fortes, as the mouncaines foder 
the growfc and heathcock, which 
are diwaies in ieafon, and the 
plover, both grey and niflett; 
the fea cliffes harbour the wild 
pigions, the dofe houfe tl)e 
tame ; in the boggs breedeth die 
crane, the bytter, the wild duck, 
tele, and divers otha:s of tbalT 
Icinde ^ CfU hjgh tree^ die heron^f 
iheweSf die flioveller, and the 
woodpiles. Tfae hcfonihewes 
^e aUbe found in many placea 
of die fea cliffes, bat pheefiy on 




hig;h and (tatelie trees^ to which 
phces they are foone alliued, by 
placing of horfehed bones upon 
branches of trees, which will 
provoke tbem to like of the 
places ; where they brcede they 
come in companies, foe as yon 
ihall have in fome places twelve 
or fixteen nefles upon a tree« 
They breede three tymcs in die 
yeafe, if the young be taken 
away, otherwife bat once ; they 
hatche firft about Aprill and 
May, and cominpnly bring forth 
at the firft fitting foure, the 
fecofld three, and laftie two 

La die fidd l»-eedeth the par^ 
tridge> quatle, raile, lapwing, 
andlarke, and many odier fortes 
of fmaUe birds ; and in flmibs, 
groves, atjd hedges, bteedeth 
the pheafiiot, dioogh rardy in 
this conntrey. 

The corlfew continaeth aU 
wayes in this countrey, yet nc-? 
ver found to breede, and they 
flee in fmalle herds together. 

The countrey yealdetb alfoe 
divers other fowles, as wild 
geefe, whyneards, the puett, 
the curlew knave, the gwylim, 
flieldrake, both fortes of divers 
or dippers, the pilwatcr, tl>e 
wigion, and the coote which 
sdfoe keepe in companies, fea- 
pies, and diverfe others. And 

as I ended itiy lall chapter of 
fifhe with three ftmnge natufed 
fifties, foe lett me ftiutt up thi^ 
chapter of fowles with the like^ 
of which I find two, the one 
ftrange in account, the- other in 
nature. The firft of thefe i» 
the puffin, a birde in all refpeAs, 
bred of binles of his kinde, 
by laying eggs, feathered, and 
fiyeing with other birdes in the 
ayre ; and yet is reputed to be 
fifti : the reafon I cannot leam^ 
But if I were fo ceremonious as 
to refraine fiefti at feafons, I 
ftiould hardly adventure to eatef 
this fowle for fiftie j yet is a 
water fowle lefferthen theduck, 
and larger then the teale, footed 
and beaked like unto them, and 
breedeth in the iland of St. Da- 
vid's, and other like placed. 

The fccond is the barnacle^ 
a goodly bird in all refpedks, * 
like the wilde ducke, but much 
larger, having a head and foote 
like to the duck, and is in eat- 
ing like it aHbe. This feather- 
lefle bird is bred of noc parent, 
but engendered by fecret nature, 
out of fome piece of tyinier, 
remayning long in the fea, and 
at ftiips fides, having continued 
long in the fait water, out of 
which upon long firings or ropes 
fliall be feene, ten, twentie, or 
thiitie of thefe birds, growing 
out of two fliells, like mufkell 
fliells, where you ftiall finde 

L fome 



fome beginning to pocp out of 
the fhells, having the perfeA 
fonne of a fowle, fome more 
ripe, readie to fall off^ having 
wings, leggs, and buddes of 
feathers hanging onely by the 
bill. Of thefe I have fecne 
many, and as the people reporte, 
and veryly are perfuaded, thefe 
be the barnacles^ for other 
breeding there is not found of 

% Eidiertherebenodifputing 
about tafte, or the tafte of the 
country be. (Irangely altered fmce 
my author's time ; for we would 
as foon think of eating kites or 
cormorants as gulls now a days. 
If taken young, and cooped up^ 
by a change of food, they may 
be brought to eat differently and 
lefs fi(hy, than thofe in a ftate 
of nature ; but I fhould be apt 
to think, that ** what is bred in 
*' the bone, will never be out 
•' of tlie flefh ;'* yet how are 
we to take tills gentleman's re- 
commendation, who, I am in- 
formed, was himfelf Epicuri de 
gregt? ts he ferious, or does 
he mean to gull us* 

How fiu: die analogy between 
the woodcock and the Pem-* 
brokefliire men may hold out^ 
let every man fpeak as he find- 
eth; but I fear the greateft 
likenefs between them will be 
found in the length of the btlli 
our tradeGnen taking wonder^ 
fully after the bird in this parti- 
cular — ^A compliment too much 
flrained^ proves only a feverer 

The cock fliots my author 
talks of were very numerous in 
Pembrokefhire in his time, no 
gentleman's manfion being with- 
out one or two ; but he, as loid 
of Kernes, liad a great number, 
particularly in his foreft of Per- 
kcUy, which were an article of 
fome profit to him, for in the 
Vairdre book, in an account of 
the various rents incident to the 
barony of Kemes, under the 
article Redditus Gladarum^ I 
find this memorandum — ^^ Grif* 
** finus JVtUmus Powell^ tenet 
^' unum Gladum diSium a Cock 
" Jhoote ex parte Auftral! Bojci 
" de Perkelly £2f reddit Domino 
" per annum ad fefium natalis 
" Domini quinque SolidosJ" 


( 1*7 ) 


Oftht ufuall Meafure of Land in Penirolejbire, and how the /ami 

diffenth in thejondrit Partes thereof. 

THE ufuaQ meafure of land 
ufed in this fhire, much 
differeth from the ftatute acre, 
for it difiereth altogetlier in fum- 
ming up, as Stlfoe In the land 
pole, being the originall of all 
the meafures of ground; for 
whereas the ftatute de terris 
menfurandis appointeth the pole 
to be fixteene foote and halfe, 
and that foure of thefe poles in 
bredth and forty in length make 
die acre, which being fummed 
fhewcth the acre to containe of 
planometry, one hundred and 
fixty of thefe poles in length 
and bredth. In Penteokefliire 
the poledifferedi ahnoft in every 
hundred of the (hire from other, 
for in fome places the pole is 
but nine foote, and in other 
twelve foote, and foe differing 
betweene both as fhall appeare ; 
and this feemeth to be firft foe 
devifed according to the good- 
nes of the ground, for in the 
beft foyle is ufed the leaft mea- 
fure, and foe of the contrary. 
The pole being knowne, they 
diffbr altogether in fumming the 
acre from that of the ftatute, 
but doe agree therein among 
diemfelves, which is as follow- 
edk Eight poles .in bredth and 

twenty in length, of four lit 
bredth and forty in length, make 
die ftang, which is juft in ac- 
count (though not in meafure) 
with the ftatute acre, and the 
difference is onely in the length 
of the land pole; and foure of 
thofe ftangs make the Pcnbroke- 
fhire acre, foe that in accompt 
the Penbrokefhire acre is foure 
Englifb acres; but by reafon 
the pole of Penbrokefhire is lefle 
then that by ftatute, the acre of 
Penbrokefhire is foe much lefle 
then four Englifh acres. And 
this muft be proportioned ac- 
cording to the difference of tlie 
pole, for where the pole is found 
to be twelve foote long, there 
the Penbrokefliire acre is fome- 
what lefTe then three Englifh 
acres, (viz.) by fo much as the 
halfe foote in the ftatute pole 
doth yeeld in furplufage ; for if 
the Englifh pole were fixtecn 
foote, then fhould the acre of 
twelve foote to the pole have 
been juft three ftatute acres. 
And for the true knowledge of 
the length of the land poles 
throweout all Penbrokefhire, 
I have reduced the fame breeflv 
into a table here following, 
where is fhewed how the pole 
L 2 differeth 


CAMBRIAN RE6lS?rER, 1796. 

difiereth in every parte of every 
hundred throwe the fhire by 
every halfe foote, from nine 
foote, the (horteft, untill twcfve 
footei being the longpft land 
pole; wherein if I fhall feeme 

to mifTe in fome particular ham* 
Jetibr townred, which perhance 
of late hath been altered, yet 
for the generally the fame is the 
neereft to the ^uall meafures 
obferved throwout the (hiro 

The landc batt or 
pole of Pcnbrokc- 
ihire is in 

Kanes - - - 

Kilgarran - -' 

Dewifland •* - 

iRowfe - - - 

12 foot' 

( Anglicana 10 
Caftlc Martyn - *• 9 

^in length* 

Of the acres are made ox laiidcsy 
of ox landes plow landes, of 
plow landes knights fees, and 
knights fees, in fome parte 
of the fhire, are made into ba- 
ronyes, which is the uttermoft 
and greateft portion of lande 

meafure that this cont^trye 
yeekiethy which for the better 
vywe and eafe to the reader I 
have reduced in tabtewife aa 
followeth, (hewing aUbe ho\ir 
many acres eche contaiaeth of 
the countrey meafure. 

8 acres maketh an oxland. 

8 oxlands maketh a plowland, being 64 acrcs^ 
10 plowlands maketh a knight's fee, being 640 acres* 
20 knight's fees, hoklen of the king, ^ 12800 acres. 

5 holden of the earledom of Penbroke, V 

maketh a barony, . . .. • ) S200 acres: 

There is alfoe a quantity of land 
meafure, called a yarde of knde, 
in Latine, Virgata terra; the 
knowledge whereof Virgata 
tcrrae rather fervcth to under- 
ftand the ancient writings, then 
for any thing els to our prefent 
puipofe ; and this yarde of land 
contayneth foure poles of land^ 

and this much fhall fuiEce for 
the land meafure of Penbroke- 
fliire in this place, onely adding 
this, that I finde by experience, 
that about four and tw^itie of 
thefe knights fees doe make an 
aincient cantred in Wales, which 
roofl commonly contayneth three 
comotts or 100 townreds. 

1[ Finding 



f Finding m .the Fakxire . The plowland in Penbrokc- 

Book already mentioned, a pa- ihire now doth, and of antient 

per in the hand-writing of George tyme hath confided of 64 acres 

Ow^, which, in all acolihood, of that country meafurc, (viz.) 

)ie ndjcaot to have incorporated 
with this chapter ; and, wl)idi» 
^s it lets us into die ftate of bui^ 
bandry at that time in this coun- 
try, I have , trapfcribcd for this 

** A giteis what reafons the 
antients had to make a plow- 
land in Fenbrokefhire, and 
how m^icb o£ the iame ipay 


8 o^flands, each ox|and 8 acres, 
which quantity of land was fuf^ 
ficient and a fit portion for ^ 
plough's lyork or labour in the 
yeare, and to be fufficicnt cm- 
jdoyment for a houfliold of peor 
pie, and to keep fuch conve- 
:ilient number of cattle as (hould 
be n^ceffary to- beftow their 
labour about, the manuring 
thereof, a(Kl to .have thereby 
yearly be fowed with corn by . fufficlent maintenance qf meat, 
the continual labour of one drink, apd apparel for them by 

the fame, whi<lb, as k feemeth^ 
they grounded upon the reafons 
following. — Firft, thpy allowed 
for ploughing feaibn feven months 
and a half, beginning at MichaeU 
mas, when wheat ibwing comes 
in, and end at Mid-May, whelf 
barley fowing endeth, in al| 
which time there are . numbred 
827 days, 

plough, and how much may 
be employed for com, paf- 
ture, and for fheep yearly j 
what quantity of Corn he may 
yearly fow, and how much 
he is like to reap thereby; 
what number of people he 
ntoy maintain ypon.the fame, 
and what nkimber of kine, 
iheep, and other cattle, he 
^f may keep on the land.'* 

Whereof they did 
allow thefc days to 
be deduced for the' 
plough to reft. 

'3wQeksferChriftmasandEafter 21 days. 

Sundays iA that fpace <> • 24 

Hdlydays in that fpace of alH 
forts that plowmen obfcrve in v 16 
thcfe parts ----- % 

|Days of hindrance by weather, ^ 
a day a week, 34» if more / 
be, let him reckon it by fet- f "^^ 
ting 2 ploughs for fome fpace J 


93 Total. 


Which being dedo£led out of 227, there \ lo^ 
remain of ploughing days in the feafon, / 

For which, if you account a 
ftang for every day*8 ploughing, 
which a plough may do with 
eafe, it amounteth to S3 acres 
of land. And yet will a plough 
after Candlemas, plough every 
day half an acre, but tlie over- 

plus of this had need be allowed 
for the lett and hindrance of the 
plough, which 132 days of 
ploughing, let them be thus di- 
vided for the fevcr^l fortes of 
graine fowM in that country, 

For wheat 4 acres, which is - - 
Barley, 4 acres, which muft be 3 times 

ploughed, - - - 

Oats, 15 acres, - • - 

Peas, "\ 

Pulfe, >2 acresy ••^ 

Tumcps, J 

16 yokings. 

48 do. 
60 do. 

8 do. 


So, that by this account, he is 
allowed to fow yearly 25 acres 
of land, wherein he /hall fpend 
his 132 yokings, or ]doughing 
days, fo remaineth towards feed- 
ing of his milch kine, (heep, 
horfes, oxen, and other cattle, 
39 acres, which will feed of 
cattle as follows: A plowland 
of middling, or indifferent ground 
of that countrey, would main- 
tain 10 milch cows, and 100 
iheepe, which are neceffary to 
muck and dung the land yearly, 
and to keep the hou(hold ; and 
that an acre of the middling 
ground would fummer* a cow, 
fo that 10 acres would funmie|: 

10 kine ; but if it be good and 
principal ground, lefs will per- 
form it ; if a very bad, more is 
requifite. And the reGdue, be* 
ing 27 acres, would feed the 
100 flieep, and yield cattle. — 
Of which 100 iheep, allow 5 
milch ewes for every cow, (viz.) 
50, and the 10 kine, with their 
offspring, (viz.) about 15 young 
beads, 4 oxen, and 4 horfes, 
(viz.) into 33 beads in all, 
would be fufiicient upon the 
land to find the people labour all 
tlic year, with fufScieut meat, 
drink, and apparel, and make 
fufficient amendment for the 




Of corn may be fown on thp quantity of the land aforefaid, 
Wheat, 4bu(hels 

Barley, IQ do. J^^f Cardigan meafure, 

Oats, 18 do. 
Peas, 1 1 do. 

And may be reaped, communibus annis, between the third and 
fourth fold of increafe. 

Thereof allow } part for feed 

To fpend in the houfe lulf the 
com J (vfe.) of ^ - 

Twheat, 6 buihels, 
I barley, 15 do. 
< pilcom, 9 do. 
I Which will maintain 
L 10 or 12 people. 

4 11- Ml • r *L 1. r r wheat, 2 hufliels, 

And fo will r«nam for the hul- I , ' - , 

- ,, .' / • V *< barley, 5 do. 

bandman tq fell ^ part, (viz.) \^^^^l^^ 3 j^. 

Befide he may fell fomp 







L 4 


( 152 ) 


Of Weighti and Mtafures ufed in Penbroiejhire, as well Drje^ 

as Liquid* 

FOR weights and meafures 
this countrey, although in 
many kindes it doth differ from 
that which is the common and 
ufuall meafure obferved throw- 
out the realme, yet doth it 
agree, in ynch, fbote, and yaide, 
in the quarte, gallon^ and pound 
weighty faveing dmt in fuch 
places as I fhall hereafter fhewe 
the difierencc; But for the 
(lone;, bufhell, gallon, and in 
divers other, they ufe difference* 
as well from the ufuall meafure 
of the realme, as in divers partes 
among tfaemfelves within the 



And firfl to begin with the 
come meafure; the fame in the 
three market townes is accounted 
and ought to be fixteen gallons, 
or double Winchefler, though 
fome townes feeme to encroche 
upon it, and, on that account, I 
have feene and heard much ex- 
clamation, but hereof litde re- 
formation. This kinde of corne 
meafure is ufed in all partes of 
the (hire that frequent thefe three 
market townes, and in Dew- 
ifland, or St. Davids, the bufhell 
is accounted to be fomewhat 

more; but the higher Kernes, 
and the hundred of Kilganan, 
for that Cardigan towne is theire 
common market, ufe the mea- 
fure of that towne, which is 
double Haverford meafure, or 
neere about a barrell of Briftowe 
bande, and In all thefe bufhelU, 
oates, and oaten mault, is prefled 
or wrung downe in the pecke, 
and then filled by heape, when 
other graine is ftricken. To 
fell come by the quarter Is not 
ufuall in this countrey, neither 
are the cranoke, or way mea- 
fures, ufed in felling diereof, 
but by the bufhell onely, and 
foe making up theire higher ac- 
count thereof, by the fcores and 

The flone of woll is in thofe 
partes of the countrey that haunt 
the fhire markets aforefaydy ac- 
compted 17lb. but there is no 
wool fold ufually in thefe three 
marketts, within the fhire, as 
fhall be fhewed hereafter. 

By the todd there is non fold, 
except it be to an Englifh buyer, 
that Cometh a purpofe, and 
maketh bis bargaine by the todd, 




as a weight beft known to him- 

For liquid, or wett meafure, 
as I fayd before, we ufe here, 
the ufual pinte, by which we 
proceede to make all other mea- 
fures of greater accompt, as 
qiiartes, gallons, bufliells, &c. 
which is the cuftome in moft of 
this ihire, £iving upper Kernes, 
and Kilgarran, where two wine 
quartes make a Cardigan quarte, 
and eight twine quartes to the 
Cardigan gallon, by which they 
fell butter and honye ; but in 
Cardigan and thofe partes that 
ufe that large meafure, they 
have taken up the former fmall 
quarte to fell wine, ale, and 
beere by, and fo contented ufe 
potts and Cannes of farre fmaller 
meafure to deceive the people, 
although they well know how 
to enhanfe the price, which is 
one of the greateft abufes that is 
borne withal in thefe partes, a 
matter that doth not a little im- 
poverifh the commons, being 
the mod: vendable marchandize 
diat unthrifty people feek after. 

Silver, gold, plate, andpeade, 
are bought and fold by. troy 
weight, as is ufed in other 
partes, and all fpice, iron, rofen, 
pitch, and other drugs, uttered 
by the mercers, are fold by the 
baverdepoies pound. 

Iron is ^fold by the (lone, which 
confifteth of fixteene poimds 
haberdepoies, of which ftones 
eight make the hundred of irony 
and twentie hundred make the 

Coles are fold by the barrel!, 
which is of Briftowe bande, or 
neere about four Winchcflcr 
bufhells, and not by the chaud- 
ron, as is ufed in other partes of 
the realme. 

Lyme is. fold by the bufhell, 
and foe by the hundred, and not 
bythefeame, orhorfeloade, as 
in other places. This lyme 
bufhell is a very imalie meafure, 
the trueqoantitie whereof I have 
not yet learned. The hundred 
of lyme is liow ufually fould be- 
tweene four and five (hillings, be- 
ing finely fifted for pbftring,and 
fuch like worke, but for land, *at 
three (hillings and fourpence. 

Herrings are fold fre(h by the . 
mefe, which is SOO, eche bund- 
'red contayning fix fcorc, over 
which there is by a cuftom ufed 
among tliefe kindcs of fi(h- 
mongers, to have fifteen of 
warpe, that is, three with every 
hundred, and five of tale, that 
is one caft by after every hund- 
red, to keepe tale and true 
reckoning, .how many hundreds 
are told out, foe that being ac- 




compted together, the mefe con- 
fifteth of SI (core of heirings. 

Oyfters are alfoe fold by tale, 
as by the hundred and thoufand, 
and not by die bufhell^ as is ufed 
in London; the thoufand of 
oyfters, at the water fide, is 
ufually fold for ten pence or a 
ihilling, if it be not esdianfed of 
late yeares. 

Salt is fold to the countrey 
people by the fait buiheU, which 
is a meafure by itfelfe, fmalle 
in lefpedl of the come bufliell, 
it coniiftedi of - gallons, 

but the merchants bargaines are 
commonly by the b^rrell, and 
oftentjrmes by die tonne ; but in 
bargaining by the tonn, it re- 
quireth that it be exprefled what 
number of barrells die tunn 
/hall jXf for of late yeares it is 
much altered, and tunqe tight, 
iVhich commonly is ufed in bar- 
gaines of freight, difiereth from 
the tunne by meafure, both of 
come and fait. 

% It hadi ever been a queftion^ 
and yet never fatis&Aorily an- 
fwered, how, when weights and 
meafures were once fixed by the 
laws of the land,die minds of men 
could diflfer about fudi a pointy 
and wi/h to entail endlefs confo- 
fion and uncertainty on their 
pofterit}\ Statute amended by 
ftatute, hath been tried to cor- 
TC&. this abufe, but in vain ; it 
is rooted prejudice, which no- 
thing can reach ; but for the 
general convenience of the 
realme, a reformation, in this 
particular, were much to be 
wifhed ; yet, from the flender 
attempts to bring fuch a refor- 
mation about in this country, 
which, as a Juftice of the Peace, 
I had a hand in, I difcovered, 
that by oppofmg fuch inveterate 
habits, we were likely * to pro- 
duce greater evils, than thofQ 
we meant to remedy. 

* Montefijaieu, in hit Spirit of Lawf, fayt, thai '* it it the mark rf a link wtind n 
attempt regulations of thit kind" a fcntiineiit worthy only of the French Convention, 
whofe objec) it to fubvert and confound. Can it be a mark of a little mind to wiib to 
produce order and conformity? But there ever will be a crooked kind of philofophy 
in the a-orld, vbicb never will admit of exce^encc ia any fyflcm, but what ii com* 
}K>fcd like Pan'i Pipe, imparib^t Calamity 


( 155 ) 


Of Fatres and Markets yearly ufed in Penlrolejhl 

I HAVE before declared, that 
there are three markctt 
townes in Penbrokefliire, (viz.) 
Pcnbrok, Haverfordweft, and 
Tenby, the fecond whereof 
being feated in the middefl of 
the flieere, and moft convenient 
for trade, is greatly frequented 
of die countrey people, and 
therefore is the grcateft and 
-plentifulleft market of the fhire, 
and IS kept once every weeke, 
on the Saturday, wherein me 
thinketh the townc is very back- 
"ward in thcire owne profitt in 
not fuing for another market 
in the middle of the weeke, 
which would be to the gieat good 
both of the town and countrey ; 
alfoe they have but one faire in 
the yeare, whereas if there were 
more purchafed from her ma- 
jefty, it might be beneficiall both 
for towne aqd countrey. This 
market of Haverfordweft is 
thought to be one of the greateft 
and plentifulleft marketts (all 
things compared) that is within 
the marches of Wales, ef- 
pecially for the plentic and good- 
nefs of viftuall, as namely, for 
T)eeiFe, mutton, porke, bacon, 
vcle, goofe, capon, lambe, co- 
nic, turkie, and all forts of wild 
fowle in there feafon ; that it is 


a marvailc to many where tlic 
•vi6hjalls that are there to be 
feene at noone, fhoiild be fliif- 
ted away ere night, and for firti 
It paflfcth all others in Wales, 
without any comparifon, both 
for plentie and var}ctie. 

Penbrok market is alfoe on 
the Saturday, and Tenby on 
Saturday, and on Wcdnefdayfor 

Thefc two townes for theirc 
markets are much inferior for 
plentie of vidualls and come 
to that of Haverfordweft, by 
reafon thofe to^vnes are feated, 
the one very neare the lower 
partes of the fhire, and much 
hindered by reafon of a ferrie on 
the one fide ; and Tenby feem- 
eth as it were a towne, rumiing 
out of the country, and ftayed 
on the fea clifie, by redbn 
whereof they ftand not foe com- 
modious for rcforte of people, 
which maketh lefTe trade, and 
utterance in theirc marketts ; 
but both thefe townes being 
feated in a more fruitfuU foile 
than Haveifordweft is, for good- 
nes of viftuall are nothing infe- 
rior, if not better then, and foe 
for goodneis of come and for 




fifhy efpecially Tenby, where 
is a dayly market thereof, that 
pafleth either of the other, and 
therefore it i$ called in Welfli 
Dynbych y Pi/cot^ that is the 
fiflie Tenby, for difference be- 
tweene it and Denbigh in North 
Wales. But as thefe naarkctts 
are highlie to be commended 
for plcntie and goodnes of vie- 
tualls, foe hath eche of them a 
great mayme, of a good mar» 
kett, which being reformed, as 
eafily it might be, would greatly 
tunie to die good of the markett, 
and the markett men ; that is, 
there is noe ufe of fale of livp 
cattell in any of thefe marketts, 
which is the chiefeft commoditie 
and commendation of many 
great markets in England ; for 
in the markets of this Hiire there 
are neither horfes, oxen, kine, 
calves, iheepe, lambs, fwine, 
nor any other kinde of living 
cattell, brought or offered to be 
fold, foe that the poore man 
wanting money, and having 
cattell to fpare, cannot have mo- 
ney for the fame till fummer 
faires come, which begin not 
before the 16th of June, and 
cnde in November, whereby it 
Cometh to paffe that whatfoever 
the hufbandman buycth in the 
fix mbneths of December, Ja- 
nuary, February, March, Aprill, 
and May, he buyeth all to be 
payd for at the fair dayes, when 
he may have money for his cat* 

tel ; and by this means the riche 
man eateth up the wealth of the 
poore man, foe as in this ref- 
pci5t, it may be fayd of the 
poore man of this countrey, as 
the poete iayth g£ the oxen, 
ihoepe, and l)ees, &c. ** Sic 
vos non voiis^" &c# This is ^ 
mightie inconvenience in the 
commonwealth, of this poore 
countrey, and with a little ioi* 
duftrie of the better forte of 
people, might be redrefled ; for 
if they did but begin the ufe of 
bringing cattell to the marketts, 
the poore man that wanted 
money, fhould knowe wherp 
to have it to ferve his ufe ; and 
alfoe, thofe that want either 
oxe, cowe, fhcepe, or hogg, 
know not where to fupplie theirc 
-wants, for want of this ufuag0 
which I have long wiflied I 
might fee fome good men would 
enterprife to induce, and noe 
doubt God would profper the 
a6liop, and all good common- 
wealth men would commend and 

There are alfoe marketts of 
vi£lualls ufed in St. Davids and 
Newport, not worth the fpeak- 
ing of, partly for that they be 
foe fmale and bad, but fpecially 
for the abufe, for that the fame 
is ufed every Sunday before fer^ 
vice, even c^bout funn riling. 

'JTicrc havp been in tymes 




paft, dhrerfe markctts ' ufcd m 
diverfe other places, and by rea- 
fon of the povertic of the towncs 
and unaptnes of them, altoge- 
ther decayed, as at Kilgarran, 
St, bogmels, Fifligard, Rofe, 
Market Wifton, and Llawha- 
den, where, by reporte of an- 
cient men, marketts heretofore 
have been kept. 

Alfoe it appeareth there hath 
ben a great markctt at New- 
porte every Thurfday, as well 
by telle received from the fame, 
as may be feene by ancient ac- 
compts, as alfoe by a fater deede 

to be fold at the market of New- 
potte, and thcrcf t6 pay toll for 
the fame, but now there ^ is noc 
ufe of this, nor any regular 
market there, which among 
other things, 1 fuppofe to have 
been the cheefeft caiife of die 
decay of the towne. 

Having now fpoaken thus 
much of the conveniencie and 
inconveniencie of the marketts 
of this fhcere^ I will fpeake 
fomewhat of the faires now in 
ufe in this countrey, wherein, 
for brevitie*sfake, I will obferve 
and lay down what faires are 

yet extant, which paffcd be-* kept within the flieere, and not 

tweene the Lord of the Manor 
and ail his tenants, and free- 
holders of Kernes, in Edward 
tlie firft's tyme, whereby they 
binde them and their. hcires and 
tmuiti not . to fell any thing 
witiioat iirft oflering the iame 

obferve the ufuaB order annexed 
to the prognoftications in placing 
the faieres of every morieth to- 
gether, for that there are not 
faires within this fliire for every 


Faires in Penbnljheen. 

Havcrfordweft— T"* July, St J 

Thomas day, a greate faire 
Penbtok— *St, Peters, a fniall 

Mtindon jincta Pcnbrok— both 

Holy Roode dayes 
Tenby •*- St. Margaret^s day, 

2&»' July, 8»^ Sep^ Nat. Man 
Newport— I ©»^ June, St. Ki* 

rick*s day, a great faier 
JEglwyfefow in Kernes— Afcen- 

tion day, Corp. Chrifti, the 

Monday after St. Martin*5> a 
.. |;reate faire 

Llawhaden— IS*" Oftober, St. 
Luke's, a great faire 

Narbeth— St. Andrew's day 

Wifton— 28^'' Oao^ St. Simon 
and Jude, a great faire 

Kilgarran— icy** Aug'. St. Lau- 
rence, noe cattell 

Marthry — Michaelmas day 

Trevyne—Sr.Martins, ll**'Nov'. 
a fmall fair 

Stackpole — St. James's day, a 
fmall fair of ftnall ware. 

Jamefton — in Mancrbyr Parifli, 
St. James, a fmalle fair. 




Thefe faires 1 findc granted 
by charter from the king among 
the records of the towne, but 
not ufed or kept. 

At Dale, a markett on Wed- 
nefday, a faire in vigillia fedo 
& craftino Exakationis fanflae 
Crucisy which is 14'*" Sep^ 

Ac RedwalleSy a market on 
Monday, a faire in Vigilia fef- 
to & craftino S'' Edmundi Regis, 
which is 20* of June. 

At Henllys, a market on 
Thurfday, a faire in Vigilia fef- 
to & craftino Apoftolorum Petri 
& Pauli. 

^ In the Vairdre colIe£lion 
I have been fortunate enough 
to meet with the very deed, 
eftabliihing a market at New- 
port, which my author refers to, 
which runs thus.— 

Sciant prefentes&futuri quod 
Anno Regni Regis Edwardi fex- 
to o£lavo Decimo Calend. Maii 
Ita convent: inter Dnum Nicum 
filium Martini Dne de Kemeys 
ex una parte & omnes liberos 
hofpites fuos de Kemes ex altera 
parte Videlicet quod predi6li 
Hofpites concefterunt pro fe & 
hsrcdibus fuis & afBgnatis Dno 
Nico predi£to & haeredibus fuis 

& aflignatis in perpctuum quod 
hofpites eonim fcilicet Gabularil 
cum rebus fuis quas habent 
vendendas illa» vidt de quibus 
tokietum debet dari fcilicet de 
equo & aqua bove & Vacca 
Ovibus & porcis coriis & pelli* 
bus Lana & aliis de quibus tol- 
netum debet dari & auteadari 
folebat debent venire ad mcrca-^ 
turn de Novo Burgo per unum 
diem in Hebdomada fcilicet per 
diem * Jovis qui eft dies Mer- 
cati in qualibet Hebdomada per 
Annum & ibi exponant res pro- 
ditas & vendant G, poi&nt. 

Si autem vendere non poiBnt 
ibidem eodem die infra Meri- 
diem vel Nonam tum poteiint 
recedere & vendere res illas 
ubkunq; voluerunt* 

£t de omnibus rebus vendidy 
apud Novum Burgum quacunq; 
hor adare debent tolnetum fi talis 
fit res de qua tohietum dari de- 

Nee de rebus illis quas poftea 
vendiderint alibi dabunt tolne- 
tum Dno de Kemes. 

Et fi fufpicio oriatur quodal^* 
quis gabularius aliquum nem 
vendiderit extra mercatum de 
qua tolnetum dari debeat ante- 
quam eam in Mercaco de Nova 
Burgo venditioni expofuericat 

* Friday at pr^fcfit is the market day at I^evport* 




pfredi^lum eft poterit fe ipfmn 
pnrgare fola manu fua propria 
fl voluerit> & fi non poflit fd 
purgare dabit Dno de Kemeys 
feptem folidos pro ratfericordia 
Conceffit edam di&ns Nicus 
pro fe & hsredibus fuis '& affig« 
nads didles Iiberis hofpidbus & 
eorum hasredibus & afligoads 
quod poITent emere & vendere 
viciffim inter fs & gabularios 
fuos extra Mercatum fine Tol- 

Non licebit alicui Gabulario 
vendere vxdtuaiia aliqua extra 
Liinites de Kernes antequam ea 
duxerit at Mercatum dc Novo 
Burgo, fed fi ibidem vendare 
non potent, vendat poft modum 
ubicunq; voluerit, licebit tamen 
vendare Vi<5h]alia infra limites de 
Kemeis ubicunq; placurit quan« 
do prius ad meicattun predidhun 
non ducantur. 

Item cooceflenint predi&i li- 
beri hofpites de Kemeys pro fe 
& hseredibus fuis & Aflignads 
per totum terram de Kemeys 

quodhabeant eandem menfuram, 
qus habetur in Novo Burgo, in 
modio inpetra, in Ulna, in 
Gallone & quod non ematur^ 
nee vendatur per aliquam aliam 
menfuram infra limites de 

£t quod libertates Nundina^ 
mm in omnibus^ obferventur non 
obftante aliqua convendone in 
hoc fcripto natata de Mercato* 
Omnes vero prefcriptos ardcutos 
firmiter^ & fideliter obfervandos 
in perpetuum permific prcdi£lus 
Dnus Nicus per £acramentum 
corporaliter preditum pro fe ic 
hsredibus fuis &c affignads k 
omnes liberi homines de Kemeys 
ex parte fua fimiliter nee non 
& Gabulariis. Et ad majorem 
firmitatem obfervadonis per- 
petuas predi£his Dnus Nicus 
uniparti prefends Chirograph! 
figillum fuum appofuit & 
quam plurimi liberi hofpites de 
Kemeys de divifis feodis fub- 
fcripti figilia fva'pro tata CommU" 
nia terrae de Kemeys alteri pard 
apponi fecerunty &c. occ. 


Of the fFanis and Defers that the Countie of Penbroh naturally 
hathf and of divers Inconventencies in the State of the Countrey. 

HAVING before fpokcn of 
fuch commodides as the 
countrey yeldeth, it might there- 
by be guefled what wants arc 

alfoe in the countrey ; but 1 will 
here brefly touch fome defcdls 
and wants which the countrey 
naturally hath ; as alfoe remem- 



ber fome incoDunodides and an* 
noyances found in the countreyi' 
which, by the good indoftrie cf 
4^ people, might be redrefled ; 
which inconvcnieiices pradized 
in the country are noe lefie 
noyfom then the natural! want^ 
of divers things wliich the foyle 
yeeldeth not. 

The greateft want that this 
countrey accounteth itfelfe to 
have is fruite, as apples, peares, 
warders, plums, apricocks, wall*- 
nutts, and fuch like, whereof 
there is {mall ftore or none at 
all, which want, although k 
may be thought partely to pro^ 
ceede of the nature of the foile, 
not being naturally apt to nou^ 
riih wood, yet ceftes k is as 
much by negUgciKe of the in-' 
habitants, in not planting, pre* 
ferving, and cheridiing of fruite 
trees ; for it is found by expe«^ 
rience, that in ^verfe places 
there are found good orchards, 
well thrivmg and proving ; for 
although die countrey be much 
bordering on die fea, and fub- 
je£k to the vehement dowes 
thereof in winter feafon, which 
nippe and make die naked buflies 
to ftoope, yet are there fewe <^r 
noe villages but the fame is 
iheltered from the winds, by 
fome hilly land, and in fuch 
valleys the fruite tymber are 

found to be very frukfbll*$ and 
efpccially in old tyme aboat re- 
ligions houfes^ as alfoe gentle- 
mens houfes, and by divers good 
hufbandmens houfes, not onely 
orchards flored with all kinde of 
fruite tymber, but alfoe about 
moft houfes of account, and 
conntrie villages, pretie groves 
of wood^ as the aihe, maple, 
elme, and fuch like, and divers 
rare tymber, as the ♦ pine-apple 
tree, the fprufe and firre trees, 
the mulberry tree, and others ; 
which tax our countrey people 
of great negligence in this point. 
But akhough Penbrokefhire 
wantedi fruites of the countrie 
breede, yet may k iay of fruit, 
as England may of wines, that 
there is noe greate want thereof, 
but that ftore of apples, peares, 
warders, and wallnutcs, is yeare«* 
ly brought hither by fea, out of 
die foreft of Deane, and from 
Somerfetfhire, m fuch plentie, 
as you fhall in every market be 
ferved as good cheape th^vwith, 
as you fhall be in the cheefeft 
fruk countries, efpedally from 
Michaelmas till Eafter, during 
which tyme botes come conti* 
nually with fruit to be fold, 
which mofl commonly return 
laden with oyfVers: but you will 
fay, this draweth a great flore 
of money out of the countrey, 
which, by good care ai^d induf;^ 

« I fuppoie ke mcmu thv pi&eailrr, which btan large cone^in ihapc likx a pineappler 




trie, might be referved here ; where I fpeake of the iH man- 
which cannot be denied. red of this countrejr. 

Another want diat pincheth 
ihitf countiy, is fcarcitie of tim- 
ber and woody for the foile being 
naturally unapt for wood, there 
are but few places to be found 
ilored therewith, and that not 
in generally as in the woodland 
countries it is to be feene; where 
everie man hath fomewhat, were 
it but his hedge rowes : but 
where wood is in this countrey, 
it groweth together in one fo- 
reft, wlych is of late yeares, by 
ill management, much impaired, 
and almoft in mens memorie 
living utterly decayed ; whereof 
I have fpoken more before, 
cap. 10. where I difcourfed of 
the feverall fortes of fuelL 

A third want is want of en- 
clofures, whereby a multitude 
of towardly' young witts are 
fpoyled, by imploying them to 
be herdes, fpoyling in that idle 
trade, both outwardly theire 
fhape of body, and inwardly the 
giftes of the mynde, of which 
forte I finde by juft account, 
that there are SOOO and more 
young people imployed in this 
idle education, which is not the 
leaft inconvenience of Penbrok- 
fliire, and which defcrveth more 
fpeech thereof, then I now pur- 
pofe to aBFoord in this place, for 
that I have touched it before, 

Another thing is the want of 
good fchooles, for the bringing 
up of youth in the knowledge 
of God and good artes, being 
Ae cheefeft ornament of the 
minde, without die which, as 
Cato hath fayd, " Homo eft 
" quaji Mortis imago y In this 
I have not found our anceflors 
fo provident as zealoufe, in their 
conceipt towards the religious 
houfes ; for of abbies, priories, 
and nunneries, there were div^ 
ere£ked and founded by particu- 
lar men, yett never one free- 
fchoole or coUedge, for the 
bringing up of ypilith, hath ever 
yet by any been provided, and 
if any were the fame is now 
otherwife imployed, to the bur- 
den of their foules that mifem- 
ploy the fame. But I account 
one cheefe impediment, of not 
having good fchoolemafters in 
the countrey, to proceede from 
the lafl: inconvenience which 1 
named, that is, that moft of the 
youth of the hufbandmen are 
employed in herding of cattell, 
when theire age requireth to be 
inftrufted in learning, or in fonie 
manuall or mechanicall arte ; 
foe that if ftore of fchoole-maf- 
teis were procured out of the 
univeriities, yet could not the 
parents fpare theire children 
from bringing thfm up among 
M their 



their Bieffiy as they calle theniy 
to attend for good inftruflions ; 
ajid although confidering the 
championefle of the countrey, 
this inconvenience might hardly 
be rcdrefled, yet if every man 
would joyne to redrefle the 
faiiie^ as much as his power 
woiifd yceld, the fame might be 
rendered to a farre lefle number, 
if every village would maintaine 
one or two cofnmon herdes for 
the towiireddy as in mofl places 
of England is ufed, and not 
every houfeholder of the townc 
to employ two or tlxree young 
peo])Ie herein ; and to take order 
that he vs^ho was brought in his 
youth therein, fliould continue 
in the fanie all his lyfc tyme, 
and hot employ him that hath 
been a herde a dozen or fixteen 
ycares, to fmother as vile an 
occupation, and in his ft cede to 
traine up another youth therein, 
and foe by confequence to bring 
them up all among beaftes, to 
oe beafUie people: — but this 
ivill be remedied when it pleafe 

A fift inconvenience. Is the 
not . bringinji: of live cattell to 
the weekly markets, the incon- 
venience whereof I have already 
fpoken of in the chapter of 
faires and markets, and foe doe 
onely remember it in this place 
for order fake* 

The Want of fi(h pondes fs 
another greate want, whereof 
alfoe I ipake before more at 
large ; to which aHbe may be 
added the want of hopp gar- 

Another want arid' fnconvcffti- 
ence is the not working of Otirtr 
own countrey wool by our owY» 
people, but fell the fime tfn- 
wrought to other coudtreyes, k 
being onfc of the greateft com- 
moditits thfet this countrey yeeld- 
eth, and was able to itt &1I th6 
idle peoJ)le of o^ur cotinifey, and 
many more a worlce. It is la- 
mentable to fee and remember 
how the trade of cloathing ufe4 
in tymes paft in this coi/ntrey is 
now utterly negleftcd, whereby 
thoufands were maintained. 
Which how live eithdr idle, or 
tipon other trades j and yet by 
edimdtion, I judge, that there 
is now twice as mtich woll 
ihome in Penbrokefliire as was 
forty yeares paft, and then all 
occupied and wrought within 
^e (hire, and fold in frifes, and 
now alfoe fold unwrought. I 
know not how this blindnes 
hath dymed our eyes, not to 
look into this maladie foe eafie 
to be cured, but to fay that it is 
the predefiinate will of God, to 
whom I leave it to be reformed. 




The kft vrautt tbsit I will 
here recite, although I over-flip 
^ftny, ihaU be a breede for 
honfes, whereof the coiintrey 
yeeUeth few or none, which i$ 
more by negligence, then {or 
aqy urgent caufe ; although the 
want of foreftesy parkes, and 
OEidofures, may feeme to be a 
great caufe^ yet aoe there fofoe 
gendeinent if they were foe in^ 
clined, dutt might well keep 
two or three breeding mared 
i^ratn their demeynes; which^ 
case being taken for the well 
covering of them, might well 
fiornifh dieire ftables with fufi* 
cient; and furely for three or 
foure mares to be well kept for 
die ftuddy I know it, by expe<» 
rience, yeeldeth more profit then 
any other cattell of that number 
and like charge. 

I have fpoken of eight wants 
that I cheeflyinote in this coun- 
trey, of which the firft foure, 
although they cannot be re- 
payred and altogedier redrefied 
by man's induftrie, the nature 
of the countcey foile being a^ 
gainft it ; yet the fourlafi might 
widi care and diligence of the 
peofJe, be wholly reformed; 
and what good thereby would 
enfue to this poore country, let 
the difcreete reader judge. 

Having now Ipoaken of tin 

wants that breede difcommoditie, 
and decay of profit, which is 
grievous for me to write, and to 
all well^wifhers of our countrey 
good to reade, I will trouble the 
reader with a want or two of 
our pleafure; which is the 
nightengall and phefant, where* 
of our countrey hath few or 
none. Of the firil there are 
certenly none to be founde, nor 
ever any heard in any age 
whereof we read or heare; 
which fome judge to proceed of 
the coolnes of the countrey, or 
for want of plefant groves, but 
that is not likely ; for although 
generally the countrey be cham- 
pion, yet there are in the fame 
fome partes many fweete an4 
pleafant groves apd valleys ; and 
I have heard the nightengall in 
.countries and places in Wales, 
as fubjec^ to cold, more thea 
many partes of Penbrakelhire 
is ; neither doe I confent with 
the fable fathered upon St. Da- 
vid, who, as the tale goedi, 
beiqg ferious occupied in the 
night tyme in his divine orifons, 
was foe difturbed with the 
fweete tunings of the nighten- 
gall, as that be copld not fallen 
his minde upon heavenly cogi-^ 
tations as at other tymes, being 
letted by the melodic gf the 
bird, prayed unto the Almighty, 
Ma ibat 



that from that tvme forward 
tterc might never a nightengall 
Cng within his diocefe : and this, 
fay our women, was the caufe 
of confining of the bird out of 
this countrcy. — Thus much to 
tecrcat tlic readers fpirits. 

As for the phefant, in my 
memory there were none bredd 

• within the (hire, untill about 
fixtecn yeares part, S'. I'homas 
Perrott, Kn'. procured certain 
hens and cockes to be tranfported 
out of Ireland, which he pur- 
pofing to cndemife in a pleafant 
gn>ve of his own planting, ad- 
joyning to his houfe of Harold- 
fton, gave them libertie there, 
where they partly flayed and 
bredd there, and neere at hand ; 
btit afterwards chofe other land- 
lords in other places, and, as I 
heare, of no great multiplying: 
foe are thev hot altogether de- 
ftroied, but fome fewe are yett 
to be found in fome places of 

• the fliecre, diough but thinne. 

Having mingled together the 
wants of the cOuntrey with 
the inconveniencies of the 
fame, I cannot overpafle a 

.great and enoripoufe inconve- 
nience, which I had alm'oft 
forgotten, which is the mul- 
tiplicitie of fheepe marks ufed 
and kept by one ownej\ in 
one cott or fold ; which prima 

facie may fceme as a thing of 

noe importance, but being tfao^ 
roughly weyed, is of noe* lihall 
moment; for by this meanest 
the rich overreacheth the poorer 
that thofe (lawfully as they 
think) (leal from the true man i 
the mightie man opprefleth the 
meanej and all this is and may 
be done without danger of lawe» 
and without redrefie of the 
wrong; and therefore let me 
crave patience to fpeake a little 
thereof a^ breefiie as I may^ 
The ufe of the country is to 
turne flxeepe to go at libertie 
iiU the winter,, without guiding 
or herding of diem, for that all 
the neighbours fheepe are mnw 
gled together; in which fort 
they continue till Aprill or Aiay» 
'wl&en every man gatliereth to- 
gether foe many of his flieepe 
as he can finde, and bringeth 
them to his fold, which then he 
fetteth forth. The evill minded 
tnan will have in his cott 8, 10, 
or 12, or more markes, under 
collour of which he will fend 
his people immediately after St. 
David's day, to look for his 
iheepe up and downe the coun- 
try, 6 or 8 miles round about 
him, and looke how many 
fheepe he findeth with any of 
his mailers 12 markes, he bring- 
eth them home, whofefoever 
they be it forceth not, foe they 
be thus noted ; nay, kt tliem 
fome what differ from all his 
markes, yet arc they his owne, 




and he will collor that by faie- 
ing it was a (hecpe lie bought 
in the faire, and could not get 
Ills full marke upon the fame ; 
and if he be taken with this, 
why fayeth he it is noe fcllonie, 
for he tooke it to be his flieepe, 
and verily believed foe ; and if 
the true owner have any to 
prove the flieepe to be his, let 
him take it ; and foe if the 
owner follow^ not his iheepe 
very fpcedilie, and be not onely 
emeft, but eager in demanding 
It, his flieepe is loft, and foe 
Si/py, /port. Si non fpy^ tunc 
Jiele. It is not a fewe hundreds 
of flieepe that are ycerely ftoUen 
in this country by this coUor of 
earc markes, infoemuch the e- 
normitie growing foe great, that 
upon complaint made to the 
counfaile of Marches in An**. 
Reginae Elizabethae 35. very 
profitable orders were dcvifed 
for redrefle of this , mifchiefe, 
and for furprizing of other fel-. 
lonies in Wales, and fent in- 
clofcd to the flierifFe and juftices 
of thp peace of this flieere, to 
be put in execution, which at 
firft being hotly and hecdfully 
looked intOi did much good \ 
but as all good inventions in 
procefs of tyme, receive either 
corruption, or growe faftidious, 
foe thefc good orders are now 
almoft forgotten, but utterly 

Thus having been too tedi- 
oufe in this chapter, yet not foe 
tedioufe as the enormities them- 
felves are to oure poore coun- 
trey, I will onely recount and 
clofe up this fpeache, with the 
onely nameing of one more, 
which is the diverfity of weights 
and meafures ufed in this one 
fliire, as of the acre of lande, 
the buftiell, the gallon, the ftone, 
and fuch like; which brcedeth 
noe finall inconveniences in tlie 
commonwealth, the which is 
already fufficiently provided by 
good lawes,lf our evill cuftome 
would futfijr us to conforme 
ourfclves thereunto, 

^ I am perfuaded, by exper 
riehce, that the lack of fruit 
trees, as well as all kinds of 
timber, is more owing to the 
negledt of planting than any 
conflitutional unaptnefs in the 
foil of this country ; for I have 
lived to fee extenfive groves and 
orchards of my own raifing, 
and from the produce of the 
latter, have for fome years p^ft 
made a conflderable ftore of cy- 
der annually, although my fitii- 
ation is open to the fea, and not 
remarkably flielteredj. and ( 
wifli I could influence the prac- 
tice of others, and beget a more 
general cultivation of orchanis 
and hop-gardens, as 1 find the 

M 3 lioj)^ 



hops I raife no way inferior to 
thofe of Kent or Worcefter- 

With regard to fchools we 
are not much mended (ince my 
author wrote. 'Tit true we 
have two or three free-fchools» 
and not meanly endowed ; but 
from fome mifmanagement, or 
ihameful inattention in the per- 
fons who have the nomination 
of the mafters, of late our 
Schools have feUen into great 
4ifrepute, the original inftitu- 
tions being fcandaloully abufed, 
not only in the appointment of 
Ae mailer, but the free fcholars, 
and party governing every fort 
of ele£tion. In the upper part 
of this county we have nothing 
that deferves the name of a 
fchool ; but I truft that mcH'e of 
thofe whom heaven hath made 
ftewards over much, will follow 

the example of that right vir- 
tuous and good * lady, Mrs. 
Mary Lucy, of Trecoon, lately 
dcccafed, who hath left by will 
j^iO. per annum, for the main- 
tenance of a ichool free to the 
poor children of the pariihes of 
Llanfair and Letterftoo. 

The ear marks in (beep form 
a fort of paftoral heraldry, and 
are now fo well underftood and 
diftin&ly defined, that every 
family hath its hereditary mark, 
which is duly regiftered in the 
Leet, as coats of arms are in 
tlie Herald's College ; and though 
the terms creating diftin&ion be 
but few, yet fo many changes 
are rung on them, that fcarce 
any confiifion arifes in the bla- 
zonry ; and it is fo far reduced 
to invariable rules, that there 
may be as bad heraldry in ear 
marks, as in aimorial bearings. 

* Mri. Mary hucy, by will dated March 11th, 1690, deTifet a perpetual annuity 
or rent charge of jf 10. oot of the tenement of Trehale, in the parifli of St. Edrin, 
for the purpofe abovementioned j a bequell which, on account of fome informality 
not provided aj^ainft, was never carried into execntion. Mrt. Lucy died at Trecoon, 
and was buried in the church of Llanfair, one of the pariihes ihe wi&ed to have be« 
•Actttted, where a neat tablet is inlbribed to her memory, i 


( 167 ) 


Of the Admimjlration of Lawe and yufltce^ within the Countie of 
Penbrokj as well by Commone Lawe of thjs Realme^ as a Lawe 
for Caufes Maritime y and apertelnlng to the Admiraltle of Eng- 
land; together with Government i Civil and Eccleftajllcally prac^ 
tlzed and ufed by Lowes Civil and CanoUj by the Archbljh'op and 
Bljhop of the Dlocesy and how and where this Sheer e doth parti- 
clpate therein^ with other Countreys of the Realme^ In generally 
and wherey In particular y within ltfelfe\ and lajilyy of thg 
Government Martlall and Military therey under the Lgrd 

IN fpeaking of tbe govern^ 
merit and adipiniftration of 
juJlice now ufedi I will h^fe 
foraewhat touche how the corn- 
mon lawes of this realme were 
many yearcs pradHzcd and ufed 
wholcly in tliis countrey, in 
more large and full forte then 
flow it is by force of theftatutes, 
made for the ordinances of 
Wales, in the 27 and 34 yeeres 
of Henry the 8th, for, whereas, 
it was the meaning of king apd 
parliament to reduce aU the 
countrey of WaJes to one uni- 
forme government, and to Se 
governed by one gencrall l^we, 
and tliat as neere as might be 
to the lawes then ufed within the 
realme of England* yet is it not 
the comn^on lawe pradized in 
foe fr^ncke and free ^ courfe in 
Pcnbrojce, as the fame was be- 
fore the fajd ft^tutes, for that 
for many filings we arc in gc- 

flerall wordes included with 
other partes of Wales, which 
before that tyme was not flieere 
ground, ai>d referred for ori- 
ginall writs, procefle, pleadings, 
and fome other matters to the 
•, forme ufed in the three fheeres 
of North Wales, whicli parte 
of Wales was reduced into 
/heeres the 12th yeare of king 
Edward the 111, who, In tJi^ 
eleventh yeare of his raigne, 
flewe Llewhelyn ap Griflith, the 
laft Prince of Wales, of the 
Britilh lyne, and tooke the prih- 
cipallties of Wales into his pof- 
feffion, and in the I2th yeare of 
his raigne, made the flatutcs of 
Ruthlan, called Statuta Wallise, 
whereby he dividech that parte 
of Wales, which was in the 
poflcflion of the fayd Lly whelin 
at his death, into (heeres after 
the manner oj^ England, and 
ordayned officers ^herein, as in 
M 4 ihecries 

168 . 


jheeres of England, as fheriffes, 
bailiflFes, coroners, &c. and 
ordayned the common lawe 
of England to be pradlifcd there, 
in fuch forte as is layd down by 
the faid ftatute, which could 
|iot then be induced in foe full 
manerc as it was ufed throwe- 
out the realme, but was forced 
to conforme his ordinances, ap- 
pliable to the then ftate of the 
countrey, and as the nature and 
condition of the people might 
beft endure it, and fo it con- 
tinued untill the 27di of Henry 
8th. But long before the time 
of the fayd king Edward the 1ft, 
'Penbrokefliire had been fubdued 
by Strongbowe, our firft Earle 
(viz.) in the tyme of king 
Henry the firft, fumamed Beau- 
clerke, and by him made a 
countie, and the lawes of Eng- 
land fully and abfolutelie brought 
by him, and foe pmflifed and 
ufed there without any altera- 
tion or diminution thereof; and 
foe it continued untill the fayd 
27 Hen. 8th, when all the reft 
of Wales was made ftiire ground, 
where in many things, we of 
Penbrokefliire, for conformitie 
to be had in government throwe- 

out Wales, were refeiTed in 

• • • 

.many pointes to the ufe and 
cuftomes of the three ftieeres of 
North Wales -, foe that to bring 
pur neighbour fheeres more 
Englifti, we were forced to be- 
come more Welfti ; and truly, 

this hath bredd, and ftill doth 
fofter inconveniences to' us of 
Penbrokefliire, in the admini- 
ftration of lawes fitter to be 
concealed then opened in this 

But to come to my purpofe, 
we have now the felfsame prac* 
tifed in Penbrokftieere as ufedii^ 
the 12 fliecres of Wales, by the 
fayd ftatutes of Hen. 8tli, which 
in etk€t are the common lawes 
of England, faving, in fome 
few pointes where it differeth as 
well by the fayd referment to 
the cuftomes of North Wales, 
as in fome alterations by the 
fayd two ftatutes of king Henry 
the 8th. 

And firft, in general!, we 
tafte, with the reft of England, 
of the rule and government of 
the high court of parliament; 
and have, by the faid ftatutes of 
Heri. the 8th, place and voice 
in parliament as other ftieeres of 
England, difiering onely in this, 
that we fend but one knight for 
every fliire, and one burgeflc 
for all the boroughes of the 
ftieere; whereas, every flieere 
in England have two knights, 
and every ancient borough, two 
burgefles; and the ftate and 
povertie of our foure cities in 
Wales, being then well ^nowne 
to the king and counfell, they 
fend noe citizens to die parlia- 



nient This freedome we now 
have, which was QOt permitted 
to Welflimen before, neither 
were we fubjeft to the ftatutes 
of England* 

We are alfoe fjrthens^ the 
(ayd ftatutes and ordinances for 
Wales growne fubje£t to the 
authority of the Courtes of 
Starre Chamber, Cancerie, and 
Courte of Requeftes, at Weft- 
ininfter, by what means I knowe 
noty quia non fult Jic abinitioy 
neither are there any wordes in 
thofe ftatutes to that etfed. We 
are alfoe forced to be fubje£l to 
the Courtes of Excliequer, at 
Weftminfter, wherein it is 
diought of fome, that the fub* 
jeftes of Wales are much 
wronged, and the Prince no- 
thing furthered, but rather hin- 
dered J for, by thofe ftatutes, 
there is an Exchequer eref^ed in 
every three ftieeres of Wales, 
and officers appointed for the 
king's receipts, and adwarding 
furth of procefle againft all 
fanners, accomptants, and deb- 
tors of the king's to appeare 
before them in theire Exchequer, 
where the king's debts out of 
Wales are better payed then at 
Weftminfter; and yet is there 
yearly proces fent down from 
Weftminfter into every fheere in 
Wales, foe that the Exchequers 
^ere eredted, for the eafe of the 

fubjedls of Wales,are places onely 
fo named, but not pra6lifed. 

Alfoe the Court of Wardes 
and Liveries at Weftminfter, 
doth alfoe callc all wardes in 
Wales to fue furth theire liveries 
thereof, to fue furth commjf-r 
fions, pojl mqntem^ and all in- 
quifttions are returned into the 
Chancery at Weftminfter ; 
whereas, Jn all kings tymes be- 
fore the fayd ftatute, and long 
after, we of Penbrokefliire did 
all thefe things at home in the 
Exchequer of Penbroke, which, 
if it were yet foe ufed, w^re 
more eafe for tl)e fubje£le, and 
would prove farr morp bepefi- 
cial for the Prince, as I can 
make evident by playne proofe, 
and yet there are noe words In 
the fayd ftatutes to force ys to 
this matter, onely ufe is that 
hath induced this. 

We are alfoe fubjeft to the 
Courtes of King's Bench, and 
Common Pleas, in fome efpe- 
ciall matter of debt, and for 
ftatutes and recognizances, but 
not in any other matters. 

We are alfoe governed by the 
Lord Piefident and Couucell of 
the Marches, as all the 13 
ftiires of Wales are, and the 
four ftieeres of the Marches, 
which Lord Prudent and Coun- 
pel), have the authoritie of the 




Scarre Qhamher and Chancery ; 
which court, in fome things, 
yeeldeth great ea(e ^nd benefit 
|o the fubjed of Wales, al* 
though y in fome other things, 
they feele grief. 

But to come heere home, all 
pleas of the crown, as apeles, 
indictments of murder, rape, 
felonies, and trefpafles, &c. 
Pleas reall and mixt for lands 
are, and muft be fued at home 
in the ihire^ neither have the 
courts at Weftminfter any auto- 
litie in any of thefe matters ; but 
oil muft be begun, pleaded, and 
tried witliin the ftiire, (errors 
onely excepted) which in real 
and mixt caufes, the King's 
Benche ; in pcrfonall, the Coun- 
fell of the Marches have to de- 
termine* But aU other actions, 
perfonall and mixt, are, and 
muft be fued at home, in the 
great feffions, and there to be 
tryed without apele, or remov- 
ing to any higher court, which 
is the greateft benefit .that we of 
Wales enjoy above all other the 
fubje6ts of the realme ; whereas 
niany other partes of this realme 
have it as the proverb is, 'f farre 
fett and deere bought." 

We have alfoe - Sherlftei 
ycerely of our owne country- 
men, who execute all the ju4g* 
ments and precepts of the lawe, 
which ftierifFe is ordayned and 
ere^edby the fayd ftatutes of 
King Hen. the 8tb, to be yeerely 
charged and chofen by the king 
himfclfe, and hi^ connfell; 
whereas, before it was ftieei« 
ground, we had a ftieriffe whidi 
ufed the oflace by patent for 
terme of life, and for the better 
memorial of fuch gentlemen as 
have borne that office fithence 
it came to be (hire gjound, I 
will here infcrt a * catalogue of 
the names of all thofe that have 
been flieriiFes in Penbrokeftieere 
fithence the fayd ftatute of fhire 
ground, and place them in or- 
der as diey fucceeded. * * 

We have alfoe by the faid 
ftatutcs of Hen. the 8ih, juftices 
of the peace, of gentlemen of 
the fliire, which are appointed 
by the Lord Chancelor, or Lord 
Keeper, by the advice of the 
Lord Prefident, and Councell, 
and Juftices of Affizes of Wales, 
and they have their commiffions 

* My aoceftor having left behind )>im a lift of the Sheriffs of the 3 counties of Pen- 
brolce, Oarnnarthen, and Cardigan, to hit time, interfperfed with feveral carious 
biogragbic^l anecdotff, which I have been at fome paini to coiitinue, on the Dune 
plan, to the prefeut Ume ; I, therefore, purpofe by omiting, in this place, the names 
of fuch as had ferved the office of Sheriff for Pcml^rokefbire, from its commencement 
to the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the above hiftory was com- 
piled, propofing foon to give my coUedions on that fiibje^ to the publick, having 
found ail appropriate vehicle ia the Cambrian Re^ifter« 

I undei? 



tinder the great feale of England. 
Of thcfe were none in Wales, 
before the ftatutes of Hen. the 
Sthy but are onely ordayned and 
erefled by the fame ; for before 
that tyme, fecuritie of the peace 
was had before the ftewardes of 
lordfhippes royall, either by 
precept, or by writt to the 
iherifie. Thefe jufiices keepe 
feffionsof the peace quarterly, 
and doe appoint con(lab|e8 of 
hundreds, as is ufed in England, 
and in all things exercife theire 

office as juftices of die peacp 
doe in Ei^land. The number 
of thefe juftices of the peace are 
more or Irfs, as pleafeth the 
Lord Keeper, or Lord Chan« 
cellor, to alter or appointe ; but 
the number now inhabiting 
within the fliire are 19, befidef 
the 9 firft, who are cheefFe of- 
ficers of ftate, or els of the 
counfell of the Marches, and of 
courfe, put in every oxnmiffion 
whofe names I have thought 
good to infert here. 


q. I. Thomas Egerton Miles, Cuftos M. S. Anglise. 

q. 2. Thomas D^. Buckhurft, JThes. Angliae. 

q. 3. Edward Dnus Zouch, Dnus Prefidens Wallise. 

q. 4. Anthonius Epus Menevenfis. 

q. 5. Richardtts Lewkener Miles, Juftic. Ceftriac. 

q. 6. Ricardus Atkins, 

q. 7. WilHdmus Oldifworth, 

q. 8. WiUus Lcighton, An 

q. 9. Henry Townfend, Ar. 

JJuftic. Magnae Sefs. Cotnitat 

L Georgius Owen, Ar. 

2. Jacobus Perrot, Ar. Cuftos. Rot, 

3. Johannes Wogan, Ar. 

4. Willus Wogan, Ar. 

5. Johcs Philipps, Ar. 

6. Alban Hepneth, Ar. 

7. Willus Bradfhaw, Ar. 

8. Thos. Lloyd, Ar. 

9. Thos. Jones, de Armefton, Ar, 
10. Henricus Adams, Ar. 

IL Edmundus Winftanley, Ar. 
■g. 12. Hugo Butler, Ar. 

13. Johes Owen Philipps, An 

14. Willus Warren, 4^* 



q. 15. 


^.15 Thos. Canon, Ar.- 

16. Henricus White, Ar. 

17. Dcverciix Barrett, Ar. 

18. Nicolaus Adams, Ar. 

19. Thomas ap Rice, Ar, 

The Sheriffc hath alfoe a 
countie court erefted, to be 
kept monethly, for matters de- 
terminable in the fame. 

There are alfoe two coroners 
in this as in every other ftieere 
in Wales, chofen by the com- 
mons of the fliire, by the king's 
writt obtayncd furth under the 
great feale ; and alfoe an efchetor 
yerely chofen, whofe patent is 
alfoe under the great feale $ tbefe 
two laft officers were alfoe here 
in Penbrokeflieere before it be- 
came iheere ground ; but then 
they held theire offices for life, 
as I fayd before of the flieriffe. 
Pettie conftables are alfoe in eve- 
rie parifhe or lymite, as the 
fame is knowne by ancient cuf- 
tome, which is an ancieqt ofr 
ficer from the beginning, and 
not erefted nor fpoken of in the 
new ftatutes of Hen: the 8*\ 

The fliire is alfoe divided into 
divers lordfliipps or feignories, 
fome large, fome lefTer, in 
which are court barons holden 
de quindenn in qulndenam fox 
triall of fmall matters; and a 
leete courte twifc eyery yeare 

For punifliment of common 

The townes alfoe, being cor- 
porations, have refpeftively 
courtes of recorde for tryall of 
perfonall a£tions of what fumme 
focver. Before the cheefFe officers 
there, and out of all thefe courtes 
in the countrey before named, 
all matters are removeable to 
the fayd greatc fcffions, and not 
elfwhere, by writt of Corpus cum 
caujoy certiorari^ recordare, 
falfe judgment or error, as the 
cafe requireth, and this in effe6l 
is the fubftance of all the tern- 
porall government, as the fame 
is i4cd in Penbrokefliire at this 

Next unto the temporal! go- 
vernment aforefayd, for the prcr 
ferving of the life, )ands, and 
goods of the people, cometh j^ 
courfe to fpeake of the lawe 
maptime and civil, ufed within 
the fayd county, which caufes 
civill and marytime, coi!fi{l of 
two kindes, that is, of caufes 
criminall and civill; of caufes 
criminall, as treafons, fellonies, 
robberies, * murders, confede- 




racies, fpoiles, piracies, coofpi- 
raciesy and all other offences 
don or. committed within die 
jurifdi£tion of the King's Admi- 
ralty of England ; that is, of all 
thofe and the like offences don 
in or upon the mayne fea, or in 
any creke, arme, or branch of 
tlie fame ; or within the full fea 
marke, and beneath or be- 
twcene the firft bridge and the 
fea i and for tlie hearing and de- 
termining all thefe and the like 
offences ; as alfoe, for any of- 
fence don againft moft of the 
penall ftatutes of this realmej 
and for the'obfervation of the 
peace within the admiraU'sju- 
rifdi£tion aforelayd; there are 
fpeciall juftices of Oyer and 
Terminer, made by commiffion 
under the great feale of England, 
who, by force thereof, keepe 

feflions of Oyir and. Terminer^ 
and of goale delivery, and there 
are all the fayd offences heard, 
tried, and ac^udged, according 
to the courfe of the common 
lawes of this realme, and of the 
lawes civill and maritime, and 
according to the lawes of die Ad- 
miraltie of England, and for the 
fpeedy triall of prifoners and de- 
livery of the gaole; for thefe 
offences a commiffion always is 
extant in the countrey ; and a» 
before I have done for (heriffes 
and judices of the peace, I will 
lay down the names of juftices 
of Oyer and Terminer, for 
maryne caufes within the coun* 
ties of Penbrok, Carmarthen, 
and Cardigan, by commiffion, 
dated 27 Maii. An<*. Reg: Regi- 
nae, Eliz: &c. 40. 

q. Charles, Earle of Nottingham, Lord High Admirall of England. 
q. Henry, Earle of Penbrok, Lord Prefident of Wales, and 

Vice Admiral in So: Wales. 
q. Julius Caefar, Do£lor of Lawes, Judge of the High Court of 

the Admiralty of England, 
q. Sir Thomas Jones, Kn^ 
q. Sir Jn«. Wogan, Kn*. 
q. David Williams, Serjeant at Lawe. 
q. Francis Burton, D'. of Lawes, Judge of the Admiralty in the 

Countie of Penbroke. 
Geo: Owen, Efq^ Deputy Vice Admirall in the fayd Counties, 
q, Philip Jones, Batchelor of Lawes. 
Jones Philipps, Efq^ 

Francis Meyrick, Efq'. 
Thomas Revell, Efq^. 




Albdn Stcptiethy Efq"*. 
James Rydderch, Efi|^ 

The Maior of the Town of Tenby for the rime being. 
Hugh BuneTy Eft}'. 
Nicholas Adams, Efq'. 
q, Richard Grafton, Efq'. 
John ap Rees, Efq'. 
James Reade, Efq'. 
Dcvercux Barrett, Efif . 

For cafnfes civill there is a vice 
admirall appointed over all South 
Wales, who hatfi deputies under 
him, who have commrffion to 
dealc in all caufes of the Admi- 
raltic, and to determine all 
caufes civill arifing between par- 
tie and partic, and to keepe 
courtes for tryall thereof; as 
alfoe of enquirie of caufes cri- 
minally and for that thcfe caufes 
marityme are detcrmrnaWc by 
the lawes civill; there is alfoe 
afligned a judge of the Admi- 
takie, leafned in the civill lawes, 
in thefe partes of Wales, who 
alfoe keepeth courts for triall of 
catlfes; and befides there is a 
rcgifter and ferjeant of the Ad- 
miralty fubftituted for the fcrv- 
ing of thefe courtes and officers, 
which court of the Admiralty 
hath to determine all caufes 
concerning the fraighting of 
Aitpps and vefiels, all contra£is, 
debts, accompts, flrifes, and 
trefpailes, arifing or made within 
the full fea marke, or bargaines, 
and contradiles, made or to be 
performed beyond the feas ; and 

to the Lord Admirall belongerh 
all traytours and felons goodes, 
or felons of themfelves, and 
deodands, WKck, fiottfan, jett- 
fon, and lagan, fhackfeyes, and 
treafure trove, had or found 
within the admirall jurifdiAion ; 
alfoe, he is to enquire of an- 
chorage, laftage, and balaft ; 
and laftiy, the admirall and bis 
deputies, is coroner widitn his 
authoritie, and to take inquifi- 
tion/uper vtfum corporis of per- 
fons drowned, killed, or other* 
wife dying within tlie fayd ju* 
rifdi6tion. But for that fewe 
or noe matters arife in this 
countie concerning the fame, 
there are fiswe or noe dealings 
pra<^ifed in that behalf in the 
countrey, and the officers little 
or nodiing occupied therein. 

Laftly, as concerning eccle- 
fiafticall government and jurif- 
diAion: this countie of Pjen* 
broke is within the £oces of 
St. Davids, and province of 
Canterbury, who execute the 
authoritie eceleflafticaQ over the 




fiibjeftcs of this coirntie. The 
archbifliop hath his primer vi- 
fitation the firft yeare of his 
confecradon» and during that 
yeare, rcceavcth all civill catrfes 
to be determined before him, and 
hath procurations of rhe clergie, 
ahdhadi the like upon the death of 
every bifhop within his province. 
The bilhop alfoe hath under 
him officialls or commiffioners, 
to execute the law, civill and 
canon, at home, among the 
people in each archdeaconrie, 
who heareth and determineth 
caufes of tythe, matrimonies 
and teftamentarie, and of like 
nature, as alfoe crimiftaBy to 
(mnifh incrift, adultery, forni- 
cations, herefies, fimony,ufurye, 
peijurye, and fuch like offences 
againft the lawes, civill and 
canon ; they alfoe rcceave pro- 
bats of teAaments, and grant 
Ires of adminiftration and colli» 
gend: thecountie of Penbroke, 
IS, for the moft part, within 
die archdeacotirie of St. Davids» 
which is fubdi vided into deanryes, 
which, in tymes paft, had cchc 
of them denes rurall, who exe- 
cuted the authoritie fpirituall 
within their feverall deaneries, 
by commlflion from the bifhop 
of the dioces, as I do finde, by 
divers letters of adminiflration 
and probations of teftaments in 
old tyme; but this hath been 
reduced and given to one com- 
mifi^ry wholly, who dealedi 

With one, and fome tymes tw6 
ait:hdeconryes. The names of 
the deanryes in the countie of 
Penbrok and ardidecbnry of 
St. Davids, are thefe that fol- 

Deanery of Pebidiawke, dean- 
cry of Dongleddy, denrey of 
Rowfe, denercy of Penbroke, 
and fome few pariflies of the 
archdeaconry of Carmarthen, 
are in Penbrokefhire. Alfoe 
the denry of Kemes, a(nd hdf 
the denry of Enilyn, (viz.) If- 
keach, are in Penbrokefliire, and 
in the ardcaconrie of Cardigan. 

And now as concerning the 
government militaire, the fame 
in former tymes was for arming, 
fhuftering, and levying of men, 
done as in the reft of the (hires 
of England and Wales, either 
by commiffion or letters to the 
/hiref and juftices of the peace 
of the countie direded from 
the higher powers, untill the 
29*^ yeare of Queene Elizabedi, 
that all Wales and the Marches 
was committed to the govern- 
ment of a lord lieutenant, and 
when as Henry late Earle of 
Penbrok, then lord prefident, 
was made alfoe lord lieutenant 
by her majeftic's letters patents, 
who for that he could not attend 
the execution of foe great a 
charge in his owne perfon, in 
foe many (hires, it pleafed her 




msLJedy, by her letters, to au- 
thorife the faid Earlc of Pen- 
brok, to make choice of certaine 
principall gentlemen in every 
countie, to be his deputies, to 
cxercife the fayd office of licu- 
tenancie in his abfence, where- 
upon the faid Earle, by com- 
miffion, under his lordfhip^s feale 
of armes, dated the 9'** of Aprill, 
An*** Eliz. 29"**, did nominate 
and apointe Sir Thomas Perrott, 
Kn*. and George Owen, Efq% 
to be his deputies, within the 
countieof Penbrok, and all pri- 
viledged places within tlie fame 
countie, joyning with them the 
mayor of the towne and countie 
of Haverfordwcft, for the tyme 
being, whom he alfoe made Jxis. 
deputie with them, iii the faydc 
towne and county of Haverford- 
wcft onely, and gave them, his 
fayddejputies, his abfolute power 
to execute all things in his ab- 
fens, who, thereupon, according 
to inftrudionsfrom her majeftie, 
viewed the forces and people of 
the countrey, and reduced the 
number of 5(X) into trayned 
bands, under feven captaines, 
which were trayned and inftruc- 
ted in feats of warre, and ufe of 
theire weapons for the defence 
of the realme, by a mufier- 
mafler chofen for his Ikill, for * 
that purpofc ; which number of 
500 trayned men, although the 
fame exceeded the abilitie of the 
(hire, being but (mallei poore. 

and weak of manrcd^ yet were 
they forced foe to doe for theire' 
owne defence, being a county 
moil fubjed^ to invafion, by 
reafon of Milford Haven, for in 
the year foUowii^, being 1688, 
the Spaniards then having vo- 
mited their malice, to the view 
of all men, the country men 
of themfelves entering into con- 
fideration of the imminent perill 
they were fubjedl unto, were 
forced to their great charge, and 
impoveriOiment, to augment the 
number of their trayned bands. 
And for that afterwards, queftion 
arofe, whether her majefties 
letters, under her £gnett, were 
fufficient warrant to the fayd 
Earls of Penbroke to appointe 
deputies, it pleafed her majeftie 
by advife of her councell, to re- 
newe the fayd Earles comiflion 
of lieutenancy, under die great 
feal of England, dated 2^ De- 
cembris, An^. regni fui 30, and 
therein to give him audJioritie 
to name thofe gendemcn by 
name, whom he before bad ap- 
pointed, and foe the fayd Sir 
Thomas Perrott, and George 
Owei^ were by her majefties 
letters patents aforefayd, ap- 
pointed deputy lieutenantes of 
the fayd countie of Penbrok, 
which deputie lieutenants con- 
tinued theire place till the troubles 
of Sir John Perrott, when, by 
meanes of Sir Chriftopher Hat- 
ton, An\ Eliz. 32, 1590, Sir 




Edward Stradling, Sir William 
Herbert, Kn". Thomas Man- 
fell, and Richard Baflett, Efq". 
of Glamorganfhire, were ap« 
pointed deputie lieutenants of 
this countie, who foe continued 
untill the 25^** of Oaober, An*. 
Regni Reginae Eliz. 37®, that 
Sir John Wogan, Kn*. George 
Owen, Thos. Revell, and Fran*- 
cis Meyrick, Efq". were ap-^ 
pointed deputie lieutenants, un* 
der the great feale, within the 
fayd countie,. under the iayd 
Earle, who fo continued untill 
the 19* day of January, 1600, 
that the fayd Earle of Penbrok 
died, by whofe death theire 
au£toritie8 ceafed; after whofe 
death Edward Lord Zouche was 
made lord preildent of thexoun- 
fell of the Marches, and had 
commiilion to be lord lieuten* 
ant of Wales, dated 20 •* Julii, 
An*. Reginas Eliz. 44". and then 
were appointed deputy lieuten- 
ants of this countie, William 
Wogan, George Owen, and 
Alban Stepneth, Efq'*. Unto 
tliefe deputies was the care and 
charge of all matters maniall 
and militarie committed.; who 
according to the uttermoft abilitie 
of the co^ntrey and people* tooke 
care therein; having alfoc a 
well pradtifcd gentleman ap- 
pointed for raufter-mafter of the 
iame countie, to in(lru6t the 
trayned bands in marihall dif« 
cipline, who hath bis pay of 

^.30 per annum, of the coun^ 
trey.. There ?u:e alfoe twp5X)m* 
mon iloire^ houfes of armour, 
powder, and ihoi, ca];efMlly 
looked untp; and attended by 
two feverall ftipendiarie ar-< 
mourers, ^payd alfoe by the 
countrey, all which, as one 
united bodie, joyne in care and 
readinefs for defence of their 
coi^ntrey and fervice, when oc- 
cafion ihall require, to die utter*, 
moft, 4nd fomewhat beypnde 
theire power and abilities,.. being 
more forward in heart, then, able 
in purfe, wiQiing , that .theic 
neighbours, by whom in perill 
they muft be fcconded, would 
example themfelves herein, by 
this poore. and little flicere. 

^ The confequence of MiIt 
ford Haven to the realm, doth 
not feem to have been fu^cientr 
ly confidered, .otherwife moro 
would be done for its deifence 
and improvement; for I have 
been informed by ^ an. experi- 
enced officer, grown grey, in the 
fervice of Iiis country, that m 
jcafe of Ireland being ever in- 
vadcd and difmepibefed, it 
would be irapoffible for the enemy 
long to hold it witliout fccuring 
Milford, wliiph would be dieir 
great aim, fo that it .behoves 
government to take e\Qxy .ftep 
to prevent its falling into their 
hands in fuch event; and it 
likewife was his opinion, if they 

N ever 



ever (hotiM attempt it» die^ 
^i^^oM begin by a defcenc on die 
coaft about Carfigan, or New* 
porty to throw the country into 
alarniy that fo the Haren might 
be left defeflcelefs, and an cafier 
prey.— My author, to his praife 
be it ipoken^ hi his time, la- 
boured dits point moft indefatig- 
ably, as it appears by fereral 
original papers and letters, now 
in my hands, which pafled be-> 
tween hini and the minifters of 
tlie queen, where he difcovers 
great love of his country, and 
much knowledge of the bufi- 
nefs he Interefled himfelf in y and 
k were to be wiihcd, that the 
feme fpirit of patriotifm would 
move our members of pailia-- 
ment to revive a fnbjed): which 
fo nearly concerns diem, as well 
as the kingdom at large. Our 
^ great poet Shakfpear, puts m 
the mouth of one of his charac- 
ters, thefe words. ^* How came 
fVales to be bleft witb Juch a 
Haven C* but if it be not foon 
propeily attended to, this boafted 
Haven may prove other than a 
blef&ng to poor Wales. And 
here it may not be amifs to in- 
fert a remonftrance touching 
tiie defencelefs ftate of thefaid 
hari)our, one of the documents 
above mentioned, and which 
may be faid to have paved die 
way for aS die odiers. 

** Right honourable and Mr 
iingubr good tords ; die b onndenr 
duty we owe to her majefty, die 
confciehce we have for the fafe- 
guard of the whole Feahne, and 
the care that in nature, and rca- 
fon, we carry of this our eoon« 
tty, have emboldened us tooffisr 
diis difcourfe unto your honour, 
concerning the fafcty of diem, 
and us all^ 

•• It becomedi us not to fear, 
neither do wc doubt of the wife 
and good cohlideration, diat you 
and the reft of the lords of her 
majefty's moft honourable privy 
council have had, and {hall have 
for the ptrfcrvation of her ma* 
jefty and the realm; but, yet, 
fearing your want of due in* 
formation toudiing the eftate of 
Mflford Haven, and the adjoin- 
ing partes, it may plcafe you to 
underiland, that the Haven it- 
felf, being neither barred to 
hmder entry, nor to be embayed 
to lett iflue forth, is a fuficient 
barborow for an infinite number 
of ihips, which haven being 
once gotten by die enemy, may 
draw on fuch fortification at 
Pembroke town and caftle, 
ftanding upon a main rock, and 
upon a creek of the haveii, and 
die town and caftle of Tenby, 
with other places near unto 
them, as infinite nuAibers of 
men, and great expence of trea- 




fttre^ triQ (iaidy,m a loagdme, 
remore the enemy, during which 
time her majefty ihall lofe a fer^ 

*< AUb^ itisio be fememlbeiedy 
that* die fo3 near die iayd haveo 
yiddath com ip Aich abandaiice 
as would firfBoe to maimain a 
gfeat army ; and die iea coaft 
aear aVaut it, yieUedi great 
plenty of fiih: the haven aifoe 
ftandedi very coromodioiifly to 
Deceive n&iudk from France^ 
firittafiy» or Spaine; all whkb 
diings may be an oocaGon to 
move die enemy to affed diat 
place before others. 

^^ And alfoe, there aie inPeii. 
bnikeihirey eighteen caftles ; of 
which, dkough diere be but two 
or three in leparadon, yet are 
die reft plaoes of great ftiength, 
andeafiiy to be foitified by die 
enemy, fame of whidi are fo 
feated naturatty lor ftreogdi, as 
diey feem impregnable > alfo, 
diere are, in that fliifie, to be 
&en, in fandry parts diereof, 
divers iconfes or forts of cardi,' 
raifed in great Iieight, with great 
tampkes and ditclhes to •the 
number of 26 or 27, which, in 
times paft, have been places of 
ftren^ in time of wars; all 
which caftles and fortes would 
yeeld great advantage to the 

enemies, to ftrengdien diem- 
ielvesin fiich fort diat it would 
be an infinite charge to nsmove 
them from thence* 

** Again, the fame is fituated 
' widim7 hours failing to Water* 
fdrif and Wexfbid, in Ireland^ 
fo that (he'^demy having inten** 
titMd CO invade Ireland, (and by 
report we have heardp he hath^ 
this harborowe, in this haven» 
may ferve him to great pur« 

'* Furthermore, beiag lord fas 
it were) of thefe feasy by pof* 
feffinjg the Maven^ what fpo3 
he may make along Severrr, on 
both (ides, even to Briftol, may 
be eafiiy conje6hired« And if 
he (which God fort>id) fhould 
• eiqoy Brittany withall, our Eng*' 
Udi merchants can have noer 
trade, which will decreafe her 
faighnefiPs cuftoms, and decay 
die navy. 

** If it be thought that he m^y 
be kept from landing, neither 
the force of men, nor furniture 
here, will ferve the turn, con- 
iidering here be many places 
where he may eafily land, and 
he may come upon us wtthia 
half a day's failing, we having 
no (hips at fea to defcry him. 
And how thefe our fiaiall force» 

N 2 may 



mav be in readinefs to with(buid 
him^ we refer to your honour's 

« Or, if it be thought that her 
majefty's navy rofal be able to 
conquer theiDi being ornce in 
this Haven, (^nd that by them 
fortified) it woukl be found very 
bard, by reafon^ that upon 
every littly ftorm, for want of 
other harboro^T, or bay, to 
abide in, they Hiould be in great 
danger of wrack, and no land 
forces are able to expel them ; 
whereupon, we humbly .pray 
your lordChips to confider^ whe* 
tber it be not expedient for the 
witliflanding of the enemy, that; 
he obtain not this harborotvct 
to have a convenient number of 
Ihips of war, and fortifications^, 
to defend the fame, , which pre- 
paration if the enemy might 
perceive, we believe verily it 
would alter his mind from ad* 
venturing his navy upon this 

" And, whereas, of late Mr. 
Paul Ivy, wasfenthitliertofur- 
vey the Haven, and to confider 
of fit places for fortifications. 

what 'report be Kadi, iliade of 
his opinion j wekoownot; faut 
fure we are, thai his abode 
about that fervice, was very 
fhoit, and his furvey very fpeed- 
ilydii|>3tchod; fe, that becaufe 
none of us were pKvy to h^ 
intent or conoeipt,' we do yet 
retain fome hopey that if fome 
other men of faEperiencc wer© 
fcnt^down hither, to cdAder of 
all die faid circumftances, fome 
fuch lieport would haply be made 
unio your lionofiiri, and the reft, 
as fome better event might en* 
fue, foKthc fcifety of diis poor 
country, and the whole reahn ; 
then (as for. ought wc know) 
hath been determined upon, 
efpecially, if the partyihaU have 
infl:ru£):iotts to view. the town 
and caillc of Tenby, being a 
. place which may be eafily made 
of exceeding ftrength,. ^nd was 
noK fcen by Mr. lyy * nearer 
than two miles diftance, for 
ought'we can leam«. 

Thus haVit^, we hope, dif- 
(;Jbafged the duties of true and 
faithful fubjeAsj we humbly 
comnik your good lord{hip, and 
zdil.your grave counfels, to the* 

* At a place, as fbme pretend to ftiyj on ^-liat authority T know hbt, called from 
him hy Tower f now the rcfidcnce of William Williams, Efqr. where it was believed* 
the voluptuous furveyor found a magnet of nitre powerful attradtiOn than either Mil- 
fotd or Tenby, 



Wcflcd proteftion and dire<&i6n marthen, the 8* of November, 
of Almightjr God, from Car- 1595. 

Suhjcrihed thus* 

Your Lordfliip's moft humble at Command, 

♦ Anth. Menev. 
John Wogan, 
George Owen, 
Francis Meyrick, 
Alban Sicpncthe'* s; 

Four fcvcral Letters, verb^im, were fent tq 

The Lord, Keeper, 
The Lord Ti«afurer, 
The Earl of Effcx, 
The Lord Buckhurft* 

And a copy thereof cndofed in ceiver of South Wales, to be 
a letter to my Lord of Pembroke, delivered to their lordfbips. 
fent by Robert Davy, Efq. Re- 


Of the Ufiy Ordir^ and Forme {f Conveyances of Lands and Tene^ 
mentSf u/ed in ancient Time within the Countie of Peniroi, and of 
divers ancient Words and Phrafesjifed in old Tjme^ now grown 
out of nfcf and ftot underfiood; and how the Conveyance differs ai 
■ ibif Day from th^t of ancient Tyme, 

HAVING ben occaf^oned fcr^nce in the forjne and man-c 

to viewe and perufe many ner of conveyance in this age, 

ancient decdes, writings, and from that ufed in ancient tyme^ 

recordes, concerning landes and which now is grpwen ftrange, 

tenements in jPenbrokfheere, I and unknown to many people 

^nde ill many thinges much M^ at this day, and tlierefore I 

* Antbony Rudd wm at th»r time Biihop of St. D&vid's, he lived 4 AbergUfiiey, 
1^ C^onarthepfbiri*, and vaa buried in the church of Llan^iitheA. 

N 3 thought 


dioQght fitt to ipeake fomewhat all tfadre land aoemdbg to die 

thereof in this treatife, td the ceremonies of die hwes of Eng- 

ende that the memorie thereof lan4 (viz-) by fines and reco- 

might not decay, at alfoe for ' veries, feoflinentSy and livery of 

die better underftandiog of fome feifin ((avtng in few lorddiips 

ftrange and unufuall termes and 
phrafes not known to every 
clerke of this age; about the 
^hich you ihall underftand, 
that as this countrey was called 
Liit/e England beyond fFlales^ 
foe had it in ancient tyme re- 
ceaved the ordinarie meaoes of 
conveyances of lands then ufed 
in England. For whereas the 
counties of Carmarthen and 
Cardigan being the next (hires 
adjoining, and foe the moft 
parte of Wales before die fta- 
tutes of 27 and 34 of Hen: frK 
(whereby Wales was made Ihire 
ground) all lands and tenements 
pafled by furrender in the lord's 
court, according to the laws of 
Howel Da; foe that in thefe 
Conntreyes you fhall finde noe 
deedesy releafes, fines, or reco* 
verics of any lands, before the 
27* of Hen: ff*. except in cer- 
tain boroughes and Englifh 
townes, where die fame was 
ufed of the Englifh people ; yet 
ever fithence the coming hither 
of Earle Strongbowc into Penr 
brokefhire, which, as I fayd 
before, was in Henry the firft 
his tyme, vAim he brought with 
him and his fp|IowerB the ufe of 
die EngKfh hwes, and he and 
bis people uied hence topafie 

where the ufe of copiehold was 
induced, and foe continued 
where die tenants keepe their 
old cuftoms to this day, and doe 
pafle all lands by furrender in 
courte, as in many lordfhips is 
ulled in England). But nowe to 
ihewe in what couites, by what 
order, and with what tennes 
and phrafes diefe convayances 
pafled, is worth the knowbg 
for many purpoles, without the 
knowledge whereof you may 
perufe many deedes, and not 
underftand the meaning of 

And firft you ftiall know that 
fines and recoveries for the moft 
parte palled in the countie court 
of Penbroke, holden before the 
fteward of Penbroke, the ftie- 
rifie, and certaine futers of the 
fayde courte, which countie 
court was a conn of recorde, 

holding all manner of pleas of 
the crowne, reall, perfonall, 
and mixed ; but this court, upon 
the bringing in of (heere ground, 
as before is (hewed, -^SrvA holden 
to be diflolved, and hath ever 
fidience difcontibued, and in 
lue thereof^ 4 new county court 
creftcd by the fayd ftatute, hol- 
d^ now by the iherific alone, 




not any thing approacbiog to 
that old diifolved one in prero- 
gative and magnificence. In 
this ancient countie courte were 
^ fines leavied (faving in cer-* 
taine lordihips of Penbrokeihir^ 
that had peculiar junidi^ioi^ 
within themfelves) and tbefe 
fines were profecuted upon writts 
of covenant* and x>thcr writts 
as was ufcd in the common plees 
at Weftminfter ; and recoveries 
were alfoe pafied upon writts of 
entrie, in Li Foft and other 
writtSt as before is fayd, ^ and 
nied in the iame fipgle and do»* 
ble vouchers very formally : as 
to fttch lands as were paflM by 
feotfamenty the fame feoffii^ 
ments were made in Latin or 
French ; and of thefe there werp 
deedes and livery of {eifin and 
attumment upon the fame, and 
afterwards to have releaf(es to 
extinguiih further right, and 
fomtymes letter^ of attumey in 
the deedes to execute livery. of 

The diffeiT»oe diat I fiadeia 
dioie ancient conveyances from 
thefe of our tyme, \ will briefn 
flie run over, with as few word^ 
Its I may, 

In fines in o)d tyme, if there 
were divers tenements in feve* 
fall townieds, the iife was to 
^xprefie Jiow many mefluages, 
%lA what ^ua^titie of lands, 

and of the {everall forte of land 
was in every townred ; and tlius 
if a man pafied by fine S mefics: 
and a mill in the townreds 
of A and B, the fine fhall b<i 
thus: de vqo mefiTuagio, uno 
molendino aquatico granatico 
duabus acris terras, duabus acris 
prati, duabus acqs pafturs H 
duabus acris bosci cum petti* 
nent: in A duobus mefliiagiis 
duobus gardinis duabus acris 
tenWf tribui acris prati, duabus 
acris paftiiroB & duabtis acris 
bo(ci cum pertinent: in 9.^So 
diat thcoreby would be apparent, 
how many mefTuages, and what 
quantitie of land fhould be in 
ech townied, and in whiph 
townred the mille lay ; whereas 
now adayes the ufe is to huddle 
the feverall parceils of many 
townreds together, and now the 
fine aforefayd fliould be tl|us 
leavied (vi^.) detribus meflua^ 
giis, ui>o mokndina aquat: gra* 
nat: uno tofto, 3 gaidinos, &c. 
&c. &C, cum pertinent; in A 
ic B«*— it appearing by the 
fonner how many meiuages, 
and what quantitie of land were 
in eche townred, which by ^ 
latter is bbficured. 

It was atfoe^ufuall upon alt 
fines, wherein any reverfions 
were to pa&, to enter ii| the 
fine the attumments of the te- 
nants, which was and is a thing 
very materia]!, and a good 

N 4 courfe 



courfe, diough now a dayct 
wholly negle<5^e(l; and for the 
better underflanding thereof, I 
will here lay downe the copie of 
an ancient fine ieavyed in tymes 
paft, wherein is entered the iayd 

7he Conflat %f fomi ancient 

Finfs havied in the Countie of 


Haoc eft finalis concordia fada 
in curia * Dna: Elizabeths de 
Burgo dnae: de Clare Cuft: Com: 
Penbrok ex concefTione Dni: 
Regis durante minora aetate 
Lavrentii de Haftings apud Pen- 
broke die Martis proxima poft 
feftura S''. Petri at Vincula; 
Anno Regis Edwardi 3^ poft 
conqueftum o£^avo, coram Ste- 
pho Jacob tenente locum Tho- 
ma de Chedworth, Sen: Pen- 
broc: ipfo Stephano Vic: Gui- 
done de Brian Rico dc Barrcy, 
Roberto de Rupe, Waltero de 
Malefantf Johannc Woghan & 
aliis diiSae duae: Eliz: fidelibus 
tunc ibidem prefentibus inter 
, Willm: fil: Thomse de Rupe 
militis patenteniy & Walterum 
Alex: Cleam: de forciantcm de 
nno MeiTuagio & quinq; bova- 
tis terrae cum pertinent: in Aylle- 

worfton, &c. &c, unde plitm: 
conventionis fum fuit inter eos 
in eadem Curia fcilt. quod pre- 
didus Willmus: rccognavit ten- 
ta: predidhi cum pen: efle ejus 
predii^i Walter! & heraedum 
feuorfum in perpetuum. Et 
pro ifta final i Concordia & Junis 
magnicionem predi<%is Walte- 
rus conceffit quod tenta predifla 
cum pertinent: quse Ricus: Sy- 
moi)d Miles & Alienora uxor 
ejus tcnent at Vitam eorum, 
& qu2 poft decefium eorum 
ad predi6tum Walterum reverti 
deberent, remaneant predido 
Willmo: hasred: fuis & fuis 
Afttgnatis in perpetuum. Ha- 
bend & tenend: de Capitalibus 
Dnis: feodi iilias per Servicia 
quse ad tenta. ilia pertinent in 
pertetuum. Et predidhis Wal- 
terus & Heredes fui tencntae: 
praedi^acum pertinent: predifio 
Willot heredibus fuis & fuis 
ailignatis contra omnes homines 
warrantizari tenent in perpe- 
tuum. Et ifte fuis ingrx)flata 
fuit & recitata prefent: predidli 
Rico: Simond & Alienora Uxore 
ejus qui tenta prsedi^ cum 
pertin: ad terminum Vitae eorum 
tenent & qui fe inde Willo: 
attornaverunt & ei inde fidelita- 
tem fecerunt. 

♦ This lady'« name was Ifabel de Burgo, and not Elizabeth, to nhom the wardihip 
of Lawrence HaAings, the fon of John Haftings, by Ifabel, the eldeft fifter of Aymer 
dc Vuleace. Whilft fhc vaf cuftos of. the carldoin of Pembroke^ he coafiimed the 
charter and liberties of Tenby with an angmeatation. 




Hcec eft finalis -Coocondia 
fada in Caria Dni: Adomari de 
Volenda Dni: Haverford die 
Mercurii in fefto Marci Evang: 
Anno Regis Edwifil: Regis Edw: 
duodecimo Coram Hugo de 
Pantoo tunc Senefc: Haverford, 
Johc: Joice, Wiilo: Arnold, 
Johe: Gerard, Edmundo Wad- 
ding & aliis fidelibus tunc ibidem 
prefent: inter Thomam de Rupe 
fil: Thorns de Rupe querent: & 
Johem: Cole, de fore: deduobus 
Mefiuagiis & una Carucata ter- 
ne cum pertinent: in ZeinJbaUef 
undjs pkum: fuum fuit inter cos 
in eadem Curia per breve de 
Cdnventione (viz.) quod didlus 
Johes: recognovit predi(Sa Mef- 
fuagia & terram predidam cum 
pertinent: efTe jus ipfius Thomse 
ut illud quod idem Thomas het: 
ex 4quo & copceilione ejufdem 
Johis; Habend & tenend: pre- 
di6k: MeiTuag: & terram pre^ 
di£iam cum pertuient: eidem 
Thorns & hcred: fuis & Aifig- 
natis de Capitelibus Dnis; feod; 
per redditum & fiervicia inde 
debita & confueta. £t .prdus; 
Johes: & hersedes fui prda: Mef- 
fuagia & terram predi£iam cum 
pert: predifi: Thomse & haered: 
fuis & Aflignatis contra omnes 
mortales in perpetuum warrant 
^izabunt. £t pro hac conven- 
tione warrantia fine & Concor- 
dia predi^ius Thomas concedit 
predo: Johi: ad terminum Vitx 

di£ti Johls: umim mefSb^gmn; 
& dimid Carrucat; terras de pxe^ 
dida terra. £t fciendum ed 
quod Margetia quae iuik Uxor 
Johis: Cole venit & recognovit 
fe teoere imum meffi & dimid: 
Carucat: terrx de pdta: terra ad 
terminnm Vitae difiae Margerias 
& gratis di6^o Thomae fe attur- 
Davit & fidditatem fecit. 

For recoveries they palTed in 
antient tyme, as they now doe, 
with fmgle and double voucher, 
as the cafe required, only thus 
diffi'ing; m tymcs paft, all or 
moft common recoveries pafied 
uponwritts of Entryc in Xtf /^, 
but now lately it is doubted whe- 
ther tte lame be warrantable by 
the ftatute of Rutland, before 
mentioned, to which the ftatutes 
of 27 and 34 Hen. »\ referrett 
us now as before is layd, and 
therefore, of late years, another 
courfe hath been devifed and 

Tlie feoffments were all by 
deed, living, and atturament, 
and releafes fealed, madeufually 
in Latyn, and fometymes in 
French, as the ufe then was. 
Of thcfe feoffments there are 
infinite numbers yet extant of 
great antiquitie, fealed with fun- 
dry faire* feales of annes of 
divers gentlemen, curioufly en- 
, graven, fome before the ufe of 
ija^e, an4 fomp dated in th^ 




tyme of King Jdui, Henry SV 
and th« three Edward^ and (be 
downward; and iherd>y I linde 
the coatdc of doedes and wrip- 
tingt oMerved in very antient 
lymet to be witfaoor date^ and 
wkhin the body of the deede ki 
the latter ende, to have the 
names of the wttnefles written, 
and not to hare them indorfed, 
as now it* is ufed; wherein I 
^Ube take nore, that in mofl of 
thefe ancient deedes I finde the 
principall officer and men of 
every countreyi as yett wcU 
known to be named as witnefles^ 
and mod commonly equall in 
•degree, or neere to fhe panics 
to the deede; as, if the deede 
wjtre made by of tx> a lordi 
lords were commonly the wit-* 
nefies; if betweene kniglitsi 
then knights, fic. whereby it is at 
this day poojedured^ that all deeds 
were don widi folemnitie, and 
feakd in fome great aflemblies as 
^tfeilionscountip orleetecoortes, 
pr fuch like meetings, or els it 
is thought that £oe many cheefe 
perfdns could not be I^roi^t 
together foe ufually to fealii)g of 
deedes, as we find them named 
almoft in every deede of that 
fige. And although the deedes 
of tfaofe tymes here noe date, 
yet by mnfon of fuch principal 
0ien, as are commonly found tp 
}» witnefibs in diofe deedes, 
who are men knowen and noted 
If) memqrjr to dii* our a|c, d)^ 

tyme may be guefled when the 
&me was written, for that moft 
commonly thefe wttnefles are in 
die countrey, men knowne 
when they Uved, and where 
they dwelled, as John de Gaii^» 
Humfrey, Duke of Gloacefter^ 

and Ridiard Nevell, Earie of 


Warwicke, and fudi like are iii 
England; wherelbre for the 
bett^ knowledge hereof I have 
coUeftod Cogcdier the notes and 
Witnefles of divers ancient deedca 
of Penbroke(heere, reduced into 
a perfed and eafie fonne to be 
vywed, amounting to the nnm* 
ber of about 1800 names of men 
of note that lived in Penbroke- 

In thefe ancient deedes I finde 
divers formes which now would 
feeme very ftrange to the derkes 
and fprivetiers of our tyme, 
whereas now they nfe to tak^ 
ftatutes and obligations for per^ 
formance of covenants in inden-> 
tures ; the life, iii old tyme, was 
to fweare the patties for per* 
formance of the covenants an 
ihall appeare |»y die copies of 
ancient wridngs, which I wOl, 
in the ende of this chapter, inr 
fcrt for the bct^cf ux^lfrftap^in^ 
of the rpader, 

Anodier ufe was to have $, 
^ufe in deedes, that if the fel^ 
ler or his heire^ fhould fue, mo^ 
|eft| or trouble fhe buyeri or 



bis faeires for the bxnc lasnif or 
brcftke any covenant, that then 
the land In whofe lordfhip the 
ftHer or hit hetres fbould be 
fbood, ihould deftfkyne htm 
and his heiree by aH hh lands 
and goods, nntill he ihould en* 
joy the land quiet, and untill he 
poform^ the covenants, and a 
fiimme of money or butt of 
wine given to the lord and to 
the officer that fliould foe dif- 
trayne him, for his paynes in 
caldng the diftrefie. 

And in fome deedes the feller 
9Xid his heires would, by his 
layd deede, fubmitt himfdfe to 
the biihop and to the eccleii* 
afticall jurifdidlion, to excom- 
muqicate the panic till he ihould 
performe the covenants, or fuf- 
fer the.partie to enjoy the lands 
quietly.*-*This uncothe and 
ftrangc manner of conveyances 
ufed in Old tyme, I thought 
good to give a tafte of to the 
reader in this place, whereof I 
have, in my tyme, feeoe a mul* 
titude, and have prefently many 
in my cuilody, yet now is it a 
courfe ioc ftrange us that divers 
men wonder even to here of it. 

The ufc of fubicribing wit- 
nefies in the bodyes of the deedes 
began in diis countrye, as fanre 
as I have obferved^by perufing 
of thofe ancient wiidags about 
^e tyme of Edward the I" and 

2',^ in whoCe raignes I finde dt 
both fortes, fome having vt^' 
nefles and fome not ; and It 
feemeth to have continued here 
in Penbrokeiheere till the tymo 
of King Henry the &\ and 
Edw'* 4. and then, and about 
the beginning of King Henry 
the 7*. deedes were fealed with- 
out eydier wytnefles names in 
die body of the deede, or any 
indorfment thereof on the back ; 
and about the middeft of the 
raigne of Hen: the 8* the ufe 
began to indorfe the witnefles 
names on the back of the deede ; 
and this to be don by the wit- 
nefles themfelves, if they were 
litterat, otherwife by fome clerke 
or other for them; about the 
tyme aUb of Hen. the 8***. began 
the ufe of fubfcribing of the parf- 
ties name under the deede neerc 
the feale, which, at this day, ig 
growne to be a matter efteoned 
foe neceflarie, as many thinke 
the deede very weake without 
it, although our lawes require 
noe fuch ceremonie.-— They dif» 
fered alfoe in ancient tyme from 
the prefent yfe. in the daufe of 
vi^rrantie, thus*^^' £t ego vert^ 
" predidhis A: B: tenta predjAa 
*^ cum pertinent: contra omncf 
" homines ^ftminat warrant!. 
•* 2am tcncmur. Belike H^mt^ 
was the mafculine gender in 
thofe daycs, or at leail Femin^^ 
not fo well knowne to be of the 
common gender as many are in 




this age. Alfoe, I have fecne 
warranties " contra omne»Chrif- 
** tianos & contra oinncs Mor- 
*^ tales." And among all others 
a claufe of warrautie, I thought 
worth the noting for the rarenes 
thereof, wliich 1 finde in a deede 
by G^lfrjdus de Rupe to the 
Monks of Whiteland of Lands 
ifi Parvpy, wJjofe words arc 
thefe '< £c hnnc eis donationem 
*^ contra omnes homines Jufli- 
** ciabile* Francigcros Flan- 
*' drenfcs Anglicos & WaU 
" lenfes warran{izal)o 6c here- 
** des mei." This deede is 
without a date, whereby alfoe 
IS gathered one profFe, diat 
Flemings, as alfoe Frenchmen, 
vac theq in Penbrokeffaire* 

In the quantitie of lande men-> 
tioned in fines, recoveries, and 
deedes, there was difference alfo 
from the prefent ufe, ufually, 
the number of acres or lelye is 
layd downc, whereas inancient 
tyme, they ufcd to exprefle the 
fatne by the names of a knight's 
fee, plow landes, ox landes, 
acres, ftangs, and yard lande. 
And ii) divere ancient decdes I 
have feene expreffed what plow- 
land, and what Jcnight's fee, in 
what baronie and countrey the 
lande lay, whereof alfoe I will 
hereafter lay downe the copies 
of fome djjfdcs to that eiFeit. 

Yoo ihall alfoe finde certea 
termes ufed in ancient tyme in 
deedes, which now arc fcarfe 
underftoode of clerkes of oure 
coantrey, as the words in Rod^ 
vallo or in Rodvallis, and fome- 
tymes written Rudvall. I have 
found thefe termes in many an- 
cient deedes, and for a great 
tyme I took the fame to be the 
proper name of fome townred 
or parcdl of land, undU by con- 
ference of many deedes I fouiul 
the fame properly applied to 
landes lying fcattered in many 
peeces in fome field or townred, 
and this word Rudvall is uiicd 
of die common people of this 
countrey at this day for any 
land that is taken as a common 
among the neighbours at cer- 
ten tymes in the yeare, as ap- 
pearcth by a deede of Lle^helin 
IVjnnfadit Hovuello filh yohanm 
fit's Caniington de tir: arabil: 
jaceni: in Rodivall infra Carucat 
t€rr: de Trfgunwr$n infeodo de 
Bayvill in Baroni a de Kernes 
dat; die Lunae. in craflino S\ 
Hcllarii Anno Regis Edwardi 
tertti poft Conqueflum 43*. 
Alfoe the deede of Howel ap 

Plulip YfcoUaig dat forori- 

bus fuis omnia MefTuagia & te^n- 
t^totumterramfuum, totumpra* 
turn fuum,totumbofcumfuum & 
totnm jus fuum apud Henllys 
Tregiuwran, Crugion Pont y 




fuis de nie & heredibos meis &^ 
afligiatw tankliu prcdiftum teft-' 
turn: de BayuiU fit in itiariu 
meai & heredum tneoruiiii Hiis* 
teftibiis Llewbelino Goch t\fnc 
Conflabulario de Kernes Eynon 
ap Gwilim^ Llewheltno- teft'ore 
cte Bay will, Willo: ap Riccard'/ 
Llewbelino Vychan ap Bwa 
Gadarae cum multis aliis Ante 

Alfoe I finde in many ancicnf 
deedes this word tenemenfo^'^ 
which iignt&s^ {bme tymes the' 
manor or lordfhip^.fome tymes^ 
the pariAi llburtiei or towiired^t 
wherein the land lyetli, as ap^ 
peareth^ by a fine betweet^. 
Richard Symon, pic: and' 
William Benegcr*, of Pl»i 
" broke, dcforc: de wno Mdf- 
fuagio, fexaginta Acris terrae 
cum perten: in AyKvard(h)i^> 
'* in Tenemmio Pcnbrofc," and' 
this Aylewardfton, now coiti*^' 
monly called Alefton, was a^ 
townred within the liberties of 
Peobroke, eaft of the towne 
half a mik. Alfoe in a fine, 
" inter tWiHum: tie Bolvill, mi- 
^^ litem* 6c Thomam de Rupe, 
'^ aqno £d: Regis fecundi,'' is 
** mentioned lands in Weft- 
field, in tenemento de Burton,' 
which Weftfield wasa townred 
in the parifh of Rofemarket, 

* This Beneger was of Bencgcrftown, (improperly now called Bangepn) the feat 
of the late John Campbell Hook, Efq. Lion King at Arms for S<^otland. 

f Sir William de Bolvill had his l-cfidencc at a place on the banks of Milford Haven, 
ftov called Ball well. 


groeft &'£glofmere in feodo de* 
Bugvilk com perdnent: & liber- 
tatibus quifaufcunq; habend: Jc 
tenend: predi& Mefiuagia txsrest^ 
toxita:* piatarii, totum jua pre-** 
didum ut jacet iA Rod wall per 
fuas certas notos &.Bundas9 &c. 
biis teftibos Philippo de Hon- 
kertoh Condabuiariode Kernes, 
Owen ap Howell, David. Pev&- 
rell, GriflSno ap Philip Vychan, 
Philippo Llwyd & GrifF: ap 
Llewhelin ap Philip dat: apud 
lienliys die Jovii proximo poft 
fbftum, Pei^tepofles An:*o Regis 
Edwardji (ei^tii poft Conqueftum 
23% and yqt |s il^ere noe place 
oeere any of ^efe called Red- 
\valles, faving that the land 
named in the deede lyeth feat- 
tered in fundrie peeces in the 
places aforefayd, and not entire. 

Alfoe it appca^eth by a deedc, 
of Nicholas, fon oP Martin,. 
Lord of Keme% that Red wall. 
wa$ foe underftood as by the 
copie following may appeare*: 
Nicholaus filius Martini dus:. 
de Kemes dat Philippo Vychan 
61io Philippi ap Riccard unam 
bovatam tcrrsB cum pertinent:, 
quam levan Goch quondam 
tcnuit in tenemento de Baybill 
& hoc in Rudivallisjuxtaterram 
predi(2i Phih'ppi parvi tenend: 
& habend: dbi & heredibus 









but widiin the manor of Btiitoii» 
tofi that f^tMemnium ^Sba^ it 
taken for the nutnor, whereof 
the lands are hoUen, AUbe I 
have Ibme deedef* '^ de imo 
** niefluagio vocat: Cwcaeog 
itt tenemeato de BayviU, where 
Baywell is the manor wherein 
<» Cwmeog Oandeth." 

You fliall alfoe finde in divers 
ancient deedes, this word GahiU 
hiffif or in Gabellof and fom- 
tymes G^ialam. Now this 
word Gabellwn^ which I never 
iaw or read in any writings or 
fprveyes (iavii^thofe concern* 
ing lands in Penbrokeiheere) 
ji^ficth the ftate of the tenant 
that h^deth the land to be ey- 
tber at willy for yeares, or for 
Itfey paytog rent for die fame, 
and not of land holden in fee 
itm{de» or fee taile, for in many 
deedes you Ihall finde, ** Qoam 
quidem terram Johes: Philip, 
tenet in Gabeilo,** that is aa 
much as to lay, that John Phi- 
lip is tenant in the lande, and 
diat he holdeth the iame at will, 
fisr yeares, or life, paying rent ; 
and you fhaH aHbe finde in 
many ancient rent rolls, and fur- 
veys, this difiereoce in the rents, 
as Redditus liberorum tenent: 
and, redditus gabulariorum ten* 
4^ the one being cheefe rent. 

ai it ii nfually caDedy p^yi iff 
the freeholders, or diofe di^ 
have ftate of inherkuice; die 
odKT is ment of rent of aH ten^ 
ants that hold of At manor at 
will, or by kafe for life, or 
yearei; and this, among the 
common people of this countrey» 
is yet ttfually caUed Gad Aent^ 
and f uch tenants. Gad Ten- 

Alfoe, I have found in many 
ancient court roHes, the heddhig 
of tlie r^Ue to be Curia ftcnta 
de AT. This was always the 
Iccte court of the manor ; be* 
caufe at diefe leetes, it was u(e4 
to call all people to departe when 
the jurie gave up dicire prefent- 

The ufe was alfoe among the 
derks of the age, in old tyme, 
upon moftgaging of lands to 
make abfolute eftates by feoffa- 
ment, without any condition of 
redemption in the deedes, and 
to have befides a paire of in- 
dentures, mentioning the mort-^ 
gage, or moft commonlie an. 
obligation from tlie mortgagee 
to the mortgager, for the re« 
demption of die landes, which 
ofrentymes bred much lawe and 
difcord, and arefted the mean- 
ing of the parties to wrongs 

* Gad Tenantty in fhortf was a turn appticftUe to «li matiner ^f Tcnaiiti, who had not 
an eflato of iaheiitaace. 




thH^fore, at ihls day, (he &me 
18 almoft forgone, and a better 
courfe broffght in |Jace» td 
make the deeds of* mortgage 

The copies cf oerten ancient 
deedes and writings, verbatim^ 
as the fame atte to be feenej 
ptKiting the matteiB before al* 

In Carta inter Dmim: Nicho^ 
lanm filium Martini Dni: de 
Kemesy & omnes Iiberos ho* 
mines Aionde Ketnes, tarn Ang^ 
Uos quam Wallefos fie Infcri- 
bitur. " Omnes vero prefcriptos 
articuios firmiter Jciidefiter, ob«> 
fervandos in perpetunm premi- 
fet di£his Dnus: N. per faena* 
mentum corporaliter preditum 
pro fe &: heredibus futs & 
aflignatis 8c omnes liberi homi« 
nes de Kernes exparte Aia fimi* 
liter pro fe & hered: fuis & 
afCgnatis nee non & gabolariis, 

Omnibus ad quos prefentes 
Lr«: peruencript Johes: Stack- 
poIIy CappeHanis falutem in 
Duo. Noveritis me pro me & 
heredibus executoribus & affig. 
natis meis de difla k conceffi^ 
Willmo: filio Thomae de Rupe 
milicis hered: & affignatis fuis 
quatuor centum Libras Seer* 
lingorum annm redditus exeun* 
tis Si percipiend; annuatim 

prediAo Wfllmoc heredibus 8i 
affignatis fuis de maneries meit 
At Bttnm,& dttOggeftoii» & 4e 
omniblis aliis terns- Jeeedeoietitii 
meis cum omttibus eonim par<i» 
tineft: in Cokn: PenJbrok, a<l 
d«os anm terminoS) (vi£.) al 
Pafeha le adfeftMir. Miehais^ 
Ks sequis perpiiiiihus« £c H 
<mitifigat pre^SiMn Wltlmom: 
hered: ti affignatis fnos de pre*- 
iKAis quatuor Cenltum libris 
SterGiigrum: aneui rod(fitus vA 
de aKqua parte eorandem ter« 
mimim ad prediAum noti fof^ 
(lerfriut: vo}o dc eoncedo pto 
me k heredibus 'Difetmtoribos ft 
affignatis meis qutid liceat pre^* 
diAo Willmo: hemd: k affig* 
natis fuis m oouiibus prMiAis 
manerns ^rris k tenementik 
omnibus eonnn peitinetit: & 
inqnalibet pbrte eonmdem Afi 
tnngere oc futtncrione tetnnefe^ 
k abdttcere ubiconq; volueriiit 
quiq; eidem WBimo: hered: k 
affignatis ftiis depredidlfs qua* 
tuor centum libris SterlingnmK 
annul redfitos plenarie fuerint 
fatisfad: Et II contingat pre^ 
di6tum Wfflnram: hered: & af*^ 
(ignatos fuos diftriftiones fuffi- 
cient: in predi Ais Maneriis ter- 
ris & tenementis cum omnibus 
eorum pertinent; ad fdutionem 
predifti quatuor centum Libri 
Sterlingrum: annui redditus ter« 
minis predidis non inuenine 
volo & concedo pro me he- 
red: executor: 6c affignatis fuis 




meis quod elctanc Itceatpredi^Q 
Willino: hered: & aflignatis fiiia 
omnia pclca:Maoeffia& tenemenui 
cum omnibus corum pertinent : 
fine aliqua contnadiAiono raei 
hered: Executor: '& affignato- 
him meorum & ea jure heredi^ 
tar: libere quiete bene & in pace 
obtinere in perpetuum* £c in-> 
fuper fi contii^at me predi^tum 
Johnes: hered. Executor: £( 
aiBgnatos meos in folutionam 
predi6binim quatuor centum 
librarum fterling: annui redditua 
terminispredidlisdeficere, vcjtare 
aut elongare vel diftri<9J,onem 
fufficientem non habere aut in<^ 
greflum in predi6iis Manerii$ 
terris & tenemenfU cum omni- 
bus eorum pertinent: predi£lo 
Willmo: hercd: & aflignatis fuis 
negare aut aliqui modo impe-- 
dire, vel predidium Wilhnum: 
hered. & aflignatos fuos de prc* 
di&is Maneriis terris Sc tene* 
mentis cum omnibus eorum 
pertinent, vel de aliqua parte 
eorundem implacitare aut altquo 
modo contra tenorem prefenti* 
um ut fcriptum eft venire quod 
abfit volo & concedo pro me 
hered. executoribus Sc afligna- 
tis meis quod teneamur pre- 
di6lo Willmo: hered: & afligna- 
tis fuis in quinq; mille libris ar- 
genti bona:, & legalis Moneta, 
pro daninis & expeniis fuis no- 
mine puri debiti ad quemlibet 
demonftrationem hujus litteras 
& quod^ Dni: vel eorum Ballivi 

in quorum Ballivls iaventf fue- 
rimu$ vel bona noftra inventa 
fqerint deftringant non p^r om- 
nia bona noftra mobilia, & im- 
mobilia terrae redditus, & pof- 
fefliones de die in diem quoufq; 
pfedi£lo Willmo. hetsd & affig- 
patis fuis de predi&is quinq; 
mille libris argenti pknarie fatis 
fecerimus, priucipall; conven- 
tionc in fuo Robore nihilo minus 
firmiter permanent: Et qui 
diftridtionem fuerint habeunt 
d^ bonis noftris viginti librae 
argenti prodiftri&ione, quotiens 
ncccfle fuerit faciend: Inucujus 
rei teftimonlum prefcnt. flgiU 
lum meum appofui dat: apud 
Qggefton o<^a>^o die Meniiis 
Marti Anno Regis Edwardi tertii 
ppft Conqueftam decimo. 

Univerils Chrifti fidelibus hac 
literas vifuris vel auditaris .Gal- 
fridus Hafcard falutem in Dna: 
Ncuerit univerfitas veftra quod 
cum David de Rupe feofafiec 
me & heredcs meos de dimid; 
marea annui redditus in Villa 
Johis: in Roos cum Dno: rc- 
levio & maritagio Johes: de 
Lehard decadem Villa Johis: & 
in orto Marcis argenti prae ma- 
ribus felveflct pro quarta parte 
anius carucat. terrs in Le 
Winkhill, quam Willmus: de 
Midlehill recuparevit de in Com: 
Pemb: Et ego predidus Gal- 
fi'idus vocavied warrantium 
hered: Robcrti de Valle qui ne- 




» f 

uerenint & waMhdtoverunt pte^ 
diAani teiram in prediAo Co- 
mitatus me pata & fpontaneft 
Toluntate mea recepifle de pre^ 
tdicto David pTedkfliiin rcdditunl 
cumpredi(Sis Dno.rdevio wardo 
paritagio & pecunia pro extenc 
predi6be qoartae partis ten% 
conringentis dido Davidi pro- 
portione fua. Undc volo & con- 
ccdo pro me & hered: meis 
quod fi contingat me vel here- 
des meos cetera aliquod Jus. — 
clam vel aliquod aliud de pre- 
di(^o Davide vel hered: fuis 
extenta pradi£ts quarts partis 
terrae predi6las exigere quod 
abfit vel claniare, quod ego, & 
hcredes mei teneamur predi£to 
Davidi & heredibus fuis in vi- 
ginti Libris argenti nomine puri 
debit! fubjiciens me & heredes 
meos di(lri(^ioni quorumcunq; 
Dominorum & ballivorum Tub- 
quorum poteftate Sc dominio 
iacenmus invent: quod ipfl pof- 
iint diftringare nos per omnia 
bona mea mobilia & immobHia 
ubicunq; fuerint inventa ad fol- 
vend: prediSas viginti Libras 
predi(5to Davidi & heredibus 
fuis fine placito Judicio & con- 
tradidlione, fi contra prefcript: 
yenerimusw Et qui diftriftio- 
nem fecerint habeat de bonis 
noAris dua dolea vini pro diftric- 
tione finecefle fucrit faciend. In 
cujus rei teftimoniumhuic fcripto 
figillnm meum appofui Dat* 
japvd Harford die Mercurii prox. 

poft diem S^. Mariae Magdalen^ 
A. D, 1303. 

Univerfis Chrifti fidclibus 
Walterus iiStus Gwrda falutem 
in Dno. fempitemo, notum fit 
univerfitati Veftrae, me de bene 
facere Se(5tam curix & in exer^ 
citum fine & omne fervicium 
fiicere quod quandocunq; faci- 
end erit pro tota terra de Villa 
Tonen cum pertinent: tamex- 
parte orientali quam exparte 
occidentali quam tenet Ma- 
gifter Tancredus de Rupe, 
ic ego nee Se£tam curise, nee 
exercitum, nee aliquid fervi- 
cium de difla terra five pre- 
di£la terra potero aliquo mode 
vendicare nee homines predi£lam 
teiTam habltantes namiare five 
aliquo modo defiringere mihi 
ficut vicinus vicinum fuum all* 
quid dampnum vel injuriam ali- 
quo modo noh inferre falves 
mihi duntaxat homagio wardo 
& relevis cum accidere pote- 
rint de predi(^ terra & ab omne 
five totum fervicium ut predic- 
tum eft, de di£ta terra five pre- 
dida terra quod poterit de Jure 
vendicare faciend: obligo me & 
heredes meos Magro: Tancredo 
Sc heredibus fuis five aifignatist 
£t totatm meam terram de Vill^ 
Kehnge atq; totam hcreditaten^ 
meam quod fi contra prefcrip- 
tum fuperius in aliquo venero 
vel pro defe£tu alicujus fervicii 
cujufcunq; habitatores totius 

O prefe6l3e 



prefe^a terras dampoum poffi 
fuerint de fatisfaciendo ipfis dc 
dampno induplum & de dando 
duo: Coniiti de Glouceftris vel 
neredibus fuis decern Marcas 
nomine pense. £t decern mar- 
cas D"**. Willmo it Valenda, 
vel heredibus fuis nomine fimi- 
llter penae Et decern Marcas 
Dno: Menevenenfi Efpifc: ^qui 
pro tempore fuerit confendens 
quod fi in aliqub contra prefcrip- 
tum vencro & in premifSs om- 
nibus vel fingulis fidem a me 
corporaiiter proflitam non ob- 
fetvand: quod di£tus Dnus: £- 
pifc: Mcnev: qui pro tempore 
fuerit vel Archidiaconus Menev: 
Vel Decanas de Roos me feu 
heredes meos excommunicat 
& ad obfervationem omnium 
prefcrlptorum per fententiani 
excommunicationis compellat 
omni appellatione ac impetiti- 
one ccflandbus. In cujus rei 
teflimonium litteris prefentibus 
ligillum meum appofui. Hiis 
teftibus Galfrido de Hufcarde 
iRico: de Hufcarde Rico de S'*. 
brigida, Gilbert© de Muflel- 
wicke Rico: de Mannos. Oweyn 
de Filbache, Willmo: de Fll- 
ibache & aliis. 

tJniverfis Chrifti fidelibus 6il- 
bertus filius Thomae de Villa 
Thoner falutem in t)no: eter- 
pum Noverit univerfltati veftrs 

me & heredes meos de bene fol-' 
vetie iingulis Annis Mro: Tan- 
credo de Riq>e vel fuis heredibus 
feu aflignatis fuis (res Marcas & 
quinq; foUdos ad duos terminen$ 
Anni (viz.) medidbtem pre- 
il&at quardtads ad Nadvltatem 
Dni: & aliam mediflatem ad 
feftum S'^< Johcs: Bapddas pro 
duabus Carrucads terras quas 
teneo de prefato Mro: in Villa 
Thonere quae jacent inter Vil- 
1am Thonere occidentalem & 
Villarti de Pelcara & terram de 
Stridehoc & acquietare tenemus 
ipfum heredefqj fuos feu affig- 
natoS de orani fervicio forinfeco 
quod de di£ta terrae exigi vel 
ab aliquo poterit aliqu: & feq: 
molend & cariura prefad Mri: 
de ♦ Villa Lamberri tenemur. 
Et ego & heredes mei folverd 
prefato ^agiQra vel heredibus 
fuis feu afEgnatis feptem Mar-» 
cas Sterlingorum fi per Judicium 
Comitatus vel Curise cujufcunq; 
Hugo de Villa Thonere vel al- 
quis de filiis feii heredibus fuis 
aliquam partem terras quam ab 
ipfo teneo evincerit, lilia quin 
hon tenabantur inihi vel here- 
dibus meis excantiuni facere de 
terra evi£la« Item concefli pro 
me & heredibus meis feu aflig- 
natis qiiod membratus Magifler 
libere & fine contmdi£tione pof- 
fit fudere &: habere turbas ic 
glebas ad fufficiendam ufibu$ 

* Now called Lamljhn^ thefcsit of WiUltm Bowei^ £fq. 




iuis & domas fua ubi voluerit 
more quae funt. in dida terra 
dum vicerit Conceffi & Confenfi 
pro me & heredibus meis & 
aflignatis mek quod fi oeflavera 
in aliquo tenninorum predido- 
mm folvere quod fuerit in ter* 
mino folvend: ficuc fcripnun eft 
quod magifter memoratus libere 
& heredes meos de tota terra 
quam per Cartam de ipfo teneo 
fine judicio alicujus curiae & fine 
aliqua impetradone authoritate 
propria excludat & di£tas car* 
meatus terras cum terra de Stride 
hoc ficut fuas proprius in per- 
petuum tarn ipfe quam hercdes 
ipfius vel af&gnati libere pad- 
fice ic quiete poiBdent. Et con- 
fehfi pro me Ic heredibus meis 
vel afligQa:tis quod ii contra 
prefcriptts Cpnceflipnes meas 
quas jure jur^n^ corporaliter 
pieflito firmavi • obfervaturas 
alicui venero vel conquerendo 
vel aliquo modo impetrando quod 
di£lus Epus: Menev: vel Arch- 
diaconus loci vel Decanus me 
^vel hzredes meos excommuni- 
9ant ufq; ad dcbitam fatis&£ti« 
onem. Hiis teftibus Dno: Gil- 
berto de Valie, Galfirido de Rupe^ 
Mauricio fiUo Simonis, Willo: 
Gowrda Johanne Allan) Symon 
Innen, Hay Calvo Adan de 
Villa Thoner . Henrico Fulco^ 
Rico; HufcardeWaltero Gwrda 
Oilbert jQlerico; & multis alii$» 
In cujjus rei teftimonium pre* 

fent'Irris duxi apponend teilea 

Omnibus prefens fcriptum vi- 
furis vel audituris Ifabella ux<^ 
Rogeri SciQbris etemam in Dno: 
ialutem. Noverit quod fi con- 
tingat me vel hseredes meos ter- 
ram quondam meam aptbd No- 
vum Caflrum in Kernes Dno: 
Roberto de Valle venditum & 
quiete clamatum de eodem Dno: 
Robto: vel hseredibus fuis ean«- 
dem terram petere obligo me & 
(isredes meos ad folutionem 
centum Librarum argenti pre- 
fato Dno: Robto: vel hsredibus 
fuis plenaric faciend nomine 
pari debiti, fubjiciens me & h»- 
redes meos coercioni Dna: M&« 
nevenGEpifcppi qui pro tempore 
fuerit, quod me fx. hxredes meos 
compellat per fententiam excom** 
munjcationis & interdid de die 
in diem faciend: ad didae pecu- 
niae folutionem prefato Dno: 
j^obto:. vel haeredibus fuis ple- 
narie faciend: fine contradidione 
aliqua. Et quod idem £pu% 
habeat de bonis nolbris fexagiaia 
libras Argenti pro diftridiione 
f^ienda, vola & concedo wa 
pendente petitione mea, terras 
memoratae efle excommunicat: 
^ ab omnibus tanquam excpm«-> 
QMinicat evitariy ita quod audio- 
ritate apoftolica oec alterius pre- 
lati inferioris poiero.abfolvi do^*. 
nee de HiSkz, specunia memoi^ta 
Dno; Ro))erto debit; fatis&cera 

2 & 



& de petitiooe teme predifise 
ceffavero rcnuncians omni esf- 
ceptioni cavillaciont rcgi^ pro- 
hibicioni k omni juris remedk> 
tarn Canooico qoam civ8i, qood 
ftiihi foper his appetare pofllit* 
In cojui rei teftrtnonium pre- 
fefiti fcripto figilltiin roetun ap^ 
pofui hiis tefHbus Dno: Gal^do 
de RufiCy Stmone Tanke, Fhf- 
Uppo Warlaghc, David War- 
laghe, Waltcfo Lcwell, Johc: 
Ryn & aliis. 

IT Although well affected to 
his country, and very confer- 
fant with its antiquhies, yet my 
author in more than ofie m-* 
ftance betrays an ignorance of 
the depth of his native language^ 
leeming to have but a ihallow 
knowledge of it. If he had been 
better read in it, he might have 
found a fohition of the term 

RuSwalli or Rudolf 

iny vioknt ftrakiiiig of ttyano* 

When lands weiH grtfnt^ to 
be heU m RmdkfalUf they were 
lands unconfiiied^ to he enjoyed 
m common whh oth«rrs which 
were depaftnred by cattle, with-' 
out a htrd, in a wandering 
ilate^ - Now Rhfidfal fignifieo 
to tuandeTj oot of whkh derks 
coined a law Latin tenny tofnit 
their purpofe, and fafficie^tly 
defcriptive of that fort of temu^ 
k wa» applied to^ The name 
of Redwall attached to many 
places where lan^ had been fo 
held, long after the cnftora 
ceafed, and being confidered as 
to English word in its oommoii 
acceptation, was Ikeralty tranf- 
latcd Vagwr gtch* 

Cap. xxn. 

Pf divers general! and particular Giftomes vfed and alhrwed of within 
the County of Penbrok^ as welt Temporatt as Etclefiafiicall. 

FOR that there are fomc 
cuAonies received and al.. 
lowd in generall throw all or 
moil' parte of the (heere, it 
were not unfitt to fpeake of 
them, letting the' learned judge 
of theire validitid as the law 
will- And firft I wiH begin 
with the tenantes^ of die cbun^ 

trey, wherem I l^ke in gene- 
rall, incbiding therein the great- 
eft number, whkfh in tymes paft 
were tenantes at will, and few 
fought leafes, for moft com- 
monly the landlord made rafter 
fuitc for a good tenant to tak^ 
his land, then the the 
landlord ; fuch was the fcarcitie 




of good tenantes in thofe day6s 
ibtiec to be found, that glad waA 
ihe laadtoid to hitt upon a good 
^thriftie and hnlbandKe tenant: 
find as for fynes to be paid, it 
was not a thing known amodg 
jthem a lOO'yeares paft, faving 
onely an eameft peny at the 
bargaine making, which the 
pmiae men caBed a God*s Pen- 
nies And within this 60 yeares 
the poore tenantes w;ere wont 
to {ay, that the paying of fines 
was an iU ciiftome rayfed among 
them of late. And furely the 
ktting of lands was of foe fmaU 
commodit4e, jthat I knowe lands 
in Cajer Cynerg belweeoe heires, 
where the next to the land hath 
had the fecting and letting there- 
of thde fiO yeares and more, 
the other contenting himfelfe 
with bis parte of the rent, not 
efteeming what might be made 
by fines thereof^ But this an* 
jcient good cuftome within this 
40 yeares paft is fore fhaken, 
and almoft banifhed the coun- 
trey ; for now the poore tenant, 
that lived well in that golden 
world, is taught tofing unto his 
lord a new fong, and the land* 
lords have learned the text of 
the damned ' difciple, ** ^id 
*^ vuhis mihi dare tf ego vobis 
** ilium tradamJ^* And now 
the world 16 foe altered with the 
poore' tenant, that he ftandedi 
^ in bodily feare of his greedy 
pcighbonry (hat two or ihri?c 

yeares ere his leafe cndc, he 
muft bowe to his lord for a 
new lefe, and muft p&che it 
out many yeares before, to 
heape money together: foe that 
in this age it is as eaile for a 
poore tenant to marie two of 
bis daughters to his neighbom 
foBoes, as to match hunfeife to 
a good farme from his landlord 

This ufe of tenants at will 
was foe common, that there 
were many other cuftomes 
grounded upon the fame, for 
they were not teoants at will 9t 
the common law, to be put out 
at the lord's will at any time c£ 
the yeare; bi^t they were to^ 
names at will according to the 
cuftome of the coontrey, and 
were not removable without two 
lawful warnings to be given at 
ufuall feaftes, that is, the one 
on our Ladie Eve in Marche, 
the other at May Eve ; and 
then was the old tenant at Mid^ 
fufnmer to remove out of the 
Hall houfc, and to leave it tp 
the new tenante, and the paf- 
ture to be common betweene 
them till Michaelmas, and then 
the old tenant to departe cum 
pannisy and to leave it wholy 
to the new comer ; and divers 
other orders there are duly ob- 
ferved as yet among theft tc* 
nantes, which for brevitie faket 
I her^ over jpaflTe* 





Thefe kinde of tenants by 
Ac cnftom of die countrey, 
^ere to pay heriots s(t theire 
death, (viz.) theire beft beaft, 
and alfo were chargeable to the 
repaire of theire houfes, hedges, 
&c. And there is obferved an 
order worth the noting, and for 
the iame hath ben about 12 
yeares paft found and prefented 
before myfdfe, and other com- 
miffionerSy upon a furvey for 
the queen's majeftie, the laft 
was within this countie, which 
I think worth the remembrance, 
in this place, that is as follow- 
eth. If the tenant fufier his 
houfes, hedges, or buildings, to 
growe ruinous, the landlord 
ufeth to fummon a jurie of fix of 
•his tenants of the like tenure and 
cuftome, whofe tumes may be 
next to tail of tlie like fawfe, to 
vywe the decay, who muft and 
aught, accordingly, upon theire 
oathes, prefent the fame indif- 
frently, betweene the lord and 
tenant; which done, the land- 
lord by his kaylife, or reeve, 
ufeth to areil foe much of the 
tenants goods upon the landes 
found upon decay, and the fame 
to keep, if the tenant will not 
give furetjes to anfwer the 
goods, or to make the repaire ; 
die& goods muft be prifed by the 
fayd jury, or two of them, or 
two other honcft men, and then 
a reafonable day is given to the 

tenant for making of the repairei, 
which, if he doe not perfbrme 
by the day, then may the land^- 
iord take foe much of the ten<> 
ant's goods as the jury hath 
found, and fell, or keepe the 
fame, as him pleafeth. 

And if the fayd jury fo fum- 
moned doe find lefle then thedecay 
{s in favour of the tenant, then may 
the landlord fweare a new juiie 
of 6 other like tenants, to enquire 
as well of the repaire as of the 
concealment of the firfi jury, 
and if the fecond jury finde more 
repaire and decay, then the firft 
jury did, then muft (he land- 
lord levey foe much money of 
the tenants goods as ' the firft 
jury found, and deliver the fame 
to the iayd jury, and then is the 
firft jury to make the refidue of 
the reparations upon theire owne 
charge, and the lord by tfae fay4 
cuftome, hath like remedie and 
meane to come by the repaire 
againft the fayd firft jury, as he 
had before againft the tenant. 

Alfoe the lord, by cuftome, 
ufed tyme out of mind in this 
countrey, may have his adlion 
of debt againft the tenant and 
his executors for the fayd re^ 
paires, wherein I have feelie 
divers recover in my time, and 
the defendant, in fuch a£Hon, 
ftiall not wage his lawe for foe 
much repaire as is fqund by the 




jury. This cuftomeof repair 
held onely for thatched houfes, 
but for flate houfes, the land- 
lords were to repaire them, ex- 
cept it were by fpeciall covenant. 
This much have I been bold to 
infert in this place, becauie I 
have been prefent where feverall 
juries have feverally founde the 
cuftomcs aforefaydy in every 
pointe upon theire . oath, and 
die fame certified up to the Ex- 
chequer at Weftminfter, of 
which jurors being in the whole 
the number of 34 perfons, divers 
of whom were gentlemen and 
freeholders of good difcretion 
and living. 

There is alfoe a cuftome ufcd 
in the courts at the common 
lawe, in this fheere, which I 
doe not heare is ufed in other 
higher courtes, that is, that a 
plantiflb, tn an a6lion of debt, 
upon any i^ialtie, or other 
contra(^, if the defendant lofe 
by default, orconfsffion in forte, 
then muft the plantiiF fweare 
his debt before he fhall have 
judgment, tliis is not ufed onely 
in the meaner courts but aUbe ia 
the hieher. 

In ancient tyme, I alfoe finde 
a cuftome ufed in moft bafe 
courtes within the flieere, that 
for matttTB prefentaUe and in* 
quireable, either in court baron, 
or court leetCi that the common 

amercment was 7 fhillings, ht 
the trefpafs be great or fmall^ or 
the default of necefiitie or wil- 
ftiU, which 1* have feene ufed 
and allowed in my tyme ; but 
this is much altered of late 
jreares, and, as I judge, upon 
good reafon, in anfwering every 
man, ficundum ^uantita$em di-^ 

Alfoe, by a general! cuftome 
of Penbrokeihire, all courtes 
baron were holden and kept, de 
quindena in quindenam, and 
not from three weekes to three 
weeks, as by the lawes of £ng«> 
land is allowed* 

There was In tymcs paft, in 
fome parte of this fheere, cfpe- 
cially -whtv^ gavel kinde was, 
a cuftome ufed called Redwall 
cuftome, which wa& that noe 
aiftion of trefpafs ky for pafhire 
in open fields out of inclofures, 
which cuftomel myfelf remember 
to heare much fpoken of, though 
mightily cracked^ in my young 
yeares. This cuftome feemed 
fomewhat reafonable among the 
gaveiekind men, for that at 
every defcent, the lands were 
fhared, and foe the whole land 
of the countrey grewe into 
fmalle peeces, that of neceffitie 
the owners muft graife in com- 
mon, and, therefore, fome rea-^ 
fon there was at the firft for in- 
ducing the fame ; as alfoe xx\ 

O 4 , townrcds. 



lownretls, whofe lands lay parted 
in common fields, but this cuf- 
tomc, In rood partes, as the 
lands grow now to be entire 
foyles^ is foe almoft wome 
away, although among fome 
Iroublefome people, it were good 
ihe fayd cuftome were'reftored 
to lyfe, but for the general!, 
otherwife, and this cuftome, al« 
though it be almoft aboliihed, 
yet remaineth in name and 
terme thereof very ufual among 
the common people, for the 
tyme of the yeare after harveft, 
when all the neighbours cattell 
runn together, in the common 
iields, they call Ridwall tyme, 
but of this term Redwally I have 
fpoken more before in the laft 
chapter, as may appeare. 

There goeth alfoe a reporte of 
a cuftome for women to have 
the thirds of all theire huft)and's 
goods and leafes, and many 
|iave it without denial ; but this 
puftome hath beene of late fore 
il)akcn ; and yet languifheth 
very weake, hardly like to re- 
cover, except the women of our 
countrey \yould ere£t an inp of 
court, and ftudie the law to de- 
fend their common caufe, where«- 
in I lyould thinke they were 
like to profit, for that diere are 
pf them many ripe witts and all 
readie rongues* 

Although there be many par* 
ticular cuftomes ufed in fuodrie 
places for paying of ty thes, with 
which it is not my purpofe to 
deale, yet is it not impertinent 
to fpeake of fome generally ufed 
throwout the whole fhcere,. and 
liked and allowed of all hands.*— • 
Such is die paying of tithe 
cheefe, by paying only 9 cheeies 
for all ihp yeare, (viz.) 3 for 
every moneth of May, June, 
and July, for all tyth of milk, 
butter, and cheefe, for all the 
yeere, and doe not pay decinuu 
de la0e^ as by lawe is due« 

They alfoe pay noe tithe 
calves, or coltes, but ob: for 
buUock, heiffer, or filly, at a 
yeare old, and a peny for every 
horfe colt of that age* Alfoe, 
one tithing pig for every farrow 
after the firft, be there piggs 
fewe (M* many, and one goofe, 
and one kidd of every owner, if 
he have two or upwards. But 
pf thefe ecclefiaftical cuftomes, 
I might write a whole volume, 
but this ihall fuffice for this 

9 As my author affi^s to 
treat of particular as well af 
general cuftoms, he might hav« 
enumerated ii^eral nv>re, and 
fome within bisown{jordihipof 
I(!.emes, fuch as Arian Artdif^ 
pr Phugh moneys which was 44* 



fffid by every Gael Tenant ^ in 
the manor of Eglwyfwrw, for 
ploughing, and ws^ continued 
and paid by that nan^e in hia 
tinie-^Ukewife Jrian y Vidir^ 
paid only in the faid mahor, by 
divers hoqfes for having a way 
^ough the lord's land, which 
liow the houfcs that pay for thq 
fame, have enclofed, and uf^ it 
for pafture, or otherwi^, at 
their pleafure, coiUMMng the 
antient rent for fuch eafement^ 
There were befides, in his time, 
(and, I believe, fubiifting to thi$ 
day) 2 cuftoms incident to th$ 

barony of Kernes at large, pecu^ 
liar to that only, the one caUed 
Tmadoj or Farg fret^ which 
was 5s. paid by every tenant 
vrho departed without warning 
given him by die lord, fof 
which he migl^t diftiajn, oi 
bring his aAion of debt at his 
e)e£kion; the other, called il/tf/t9 
Dywarchin^ which was Is. 4d» 
paid by the lord's gael tenant, 
for any perfon dying in their 
bonics, being so hou(hold fer- 
vant, orchildof thehoufholdefs 
aqd having no cattjd of his owi| 
on the h^ndf 


Of divers fam$us and Uarmd Men^ thai havi lived or betn bom 
in the Ciuniie of Peuirok, in former Tynusy wh^fe IVorks are left 

and be extmit ta Po/ieritie* 

THIS little ihire of Pen- 
broke being but (maU in 
prcuit, yeeUedi but a finalie 
number of learned men to be 
fpoken of, that have left any of 
tfaeire works behinde them, yet 
for that I finde fome mentioned 
in former writers, I thought 
good for the better memory of 
thefe wojfthy and profitably 
members, not to fuiler them 
paremembered in this my de« 
fcription of their countrey, moft 
of them being naturally couur 
IJ-ey men bom, the veft being 
^e ibwfr ^omberi fof that 

theire native foile was uncer* 
taine ; yet for diat I finde and 
knowe by certaine meanes that 
they were Penbrokeihire men, 
by habitation and long abode, I 
thought good rather, then to 
omitt any worthy of remem- 
brance, to infert them here, 
wherein as I have been chiefly 
ayded herein by the painfull 
works of Mr. John Bale, wh^ 
hath wiitten among many other 
good workes of his, a particular 
^volume, De Scrip^ribus Britan-r 
fiia. Soe I finde fome alfoe men- 
tjoned by other good autliors, and 




Ibmr of the later .age of myneown 
knowledge and memorie, adding 
altogcthsr to make up a fmalle 
number of this my countrey 
ivrkcrs ; wherein I for fome re- 
fpeSts omitf die now Kving wri- 
ters, recommending theire names 
to be regiftered by theire ov^mt 
workes, till further occafion be 
miniftered to catalogue theire 
names with thefe that follow. 

• Beginning firft with the raoft 
ancient, I finde Patric, called 
Patricius Magnus, who, as fay- 
cth Humffrey Lloyd, was born 
in Roofe, whom in this point I 
take for my author: he lived 
about the yeare of Cbrift 482, 
as faieth Bale ; he was brought 
tp in great learning withhis unkle 
Martin, biftiop of Towres, a 
man famous in his time, he in- 
ftrufted the Scotts and Iriflimen 
In the Chriftian religion, and 
died in Ireland Anno Salutis 491, 
in the I22'» yeare of his age. 
This St. Patrick founded a mo- 
nafterie at St. David's, out of 
which was afterwards founded 
the cathedral church there, as 
fliall be flicwed after. He lyeth 
buried in Down in Ireland, to- 
gether with St. Bridgett and 
Columba, as appeareth by thefe 

Hi tr<» in Duno tumalo tumuUntur in ano 
Brij^itU Patricius atcjj CuJumba pius. 

He wrote thefe books :-«- — Ad 
CereticumTirannum Epift. 1'— - 
Ad Avalonias Incolas Epiftola 
una— Ad Hibemenfes Ecclefias 
Epiftolx plurimae — ^Ad fuos Bri- 
tannos Epiftolae plurinue. 

Dubricius Gwaynianus, bom 
neare the river Gwayn, and 
thereof took his furname, a 
matter very ufuall for the learned 
forte am«ngthe ancient Britons, 
as Ow^nKyveilcog, David Dda 
Hiraethog, David Nantmor, 
Lewis Morgannwc A0erius 
Meneveniis, &c. and is ufed 
at this day of our chiefe Bards 
now living. This river Gwayne 
is that which goeth to Fifliguard, 
and runneth throw the valley 
called DifirJn Gwayn j neither 
doe I know any river in Wales 
or England of that name, but 
this river ondy, foe that of 
neceflity this muft be the river, 
whereof he took his name, and 
the foile wherein he was bom 
and dwelled, and therefore there 
is noe likelyhoode that he /houkl 
take his name of the river Wey, 
called in Welfli Gwy, for fayth 
John Bale writing of this Du- 
bricius, a Soh apud Demetas 
jic diifus^ foe that It is plaync 
he was a Penbrokefliire man 
borne, which people onely arc 
the Demetae, for the river Wey 
approacheth not neere any parte 
of Penbrokeflieere, neither is 
there any other river or brooke 



in aU the Ihire, caUed Gweyn» 
lave this onely that rqnneth hj 
Fifhguard, bdide he is rememr 
bered yet in ancient writings in 
the WcMh tongue, by the anr 
cient Baxdsy by the name of 
Dubric Langweyn^ founding 
tlie B in that place after the 
Greeke Beta, as is ufually don 
in that language. This Dubri- 
ciuSy faith Mr. Bale, in his youth 
ivas famous for ti^ lingular 
learning, faying, fifaxtmus apud 
Britannos yir erat ; infoemuch 
that not onely out of his owne 
countrey, bpt of the regions 
rou^d about, there reforted 
great flocks of (cholprs to be by 
him inftruf^ed In learning, foe 
that he kept famous fchooles 
upon the river fide of Gwayne. 
He was a mighty overthrow to 
the Pelagian herefy, which in 
bis tyme had corrupted the 
whole church of Britaine, and 
for .bis excellent learning he was 
made Archbiibop pf Caerlegton, 
and Metropolitan of Wales, by 
Aurelius Ambroiius, King of 
Britaine ; he being Archbiihop, 
crowned Urther Pendragon, and 
after him die worthie King Ar- 
thur, in whofe tyme be died the 
J 3th day of November, in die 
yeare of our Lord 522, as faith 
myne author. His fame foe 
flourifhed. after his lyfe, that 
J59S yeares after his deatit, his 
body was removed from his firft 
buriall to the church of Landaf, 

by the meanes of Urban, biffaop 
of that fee. The works left 
behind him were, as fayth Mr. 
Bale, the f e 

Declamationes cniditse— Viri 
Chriftiana profeffione, &c. — la 
Arthuri Coronatione Oratio. 

David, commonly called S« 
David, bom in the citie of St; 
David, called then Menewe, or 
Mynyw, in the Britifli tongue^ 
and iithence of him called St 
David's. This David was a 
man of great parentage, and 
neere of kinne to the worthie 
Arthur, King of England, by 
whom he was preferred to be 
Archbiihop of Caerlegion, the 
Metropolitan See of Wales, and 
Primat of the fame, being in 
the tyme of King Artliur one of 
the cheefe flourifhing cities of 
all Britaine, as is yet<0 be feene 
by the ruines thereof, found a 
mile out of the now decayed 
tow^e, incomefieldes and other 
places, ^here vautes, fheetes, 
and other buildings are found, 
by ploughing and digging. Mr* 
Bale faith, . this Pavid over and 
befide his fame for learning and 
knowledge, was comely, fayer, 
and beautiful, and 4 cubits of 
hight ; he buylded, faith he, 12 
monafteries, and by his uncef- 
fant labours utterly confuted and 
purged the church of the Pela^ 
gian ];ierefye, being thought be- 



(oitt his tyme iFrecoverable ; he 
was foe inward with King Ar* 
thuTy that he obtayfied of the 
King to transferre the archbi*- 
/hop's fee from Qaerleon to his 
owne lowne of St. David^ where 
(o xhjs day it remayoeth, aL- 
^ougli without arch dignitie, 
which long fince hath been fur* 
repted, as in my (econd bookc, 
treating of that place, I will 
declare. He lived in the tyme 
of King Arthur (viz.) in the 
yeare 542, and in the 147'\ 
yeare of his age, therein agree- 
ing with the age of the patriarch 
Jacob at the tyme of his'death,^ 
and was archbifhop 65 yeares, 
and was buried in St. David's, 
In a monafterie which St. Patrick 
had founded there. He wrote 

the following bookes Contra 

Pelagios Liber nnus-f^Homelius 
Evangeliorurn Lib: 1, 

Merlin, the great prophet 
(and chiefe bard of his tyme, as 
faith Mr. Bayle, Mras borne in 
Demetia. This Mcrlyn is fa- 
mous yet among the people of 
this age, for the great learning 
he (hewed. Bale fpeaketh of 
two Merlins, the one living in 
the tyme of King Arthur, the 
other in the tyme of Aure}ius 

Sampfon Demeta is onely rcr 
mcmbercd of N?r. Bale, ia th^ 

addition annexed to the endc of 
his book, who'Uved abontthe 
yeare of Chrifl 560, and foe 
paled him over ; and fde aUbe 
moft I, making oneiy laentioa 
of his name, for wsqt of fur* 
ther inforn^ation, 

Johannes Patricius, alias EnV 
gena, a man bom in St. Davids 
in Penbrokcfliire, was a ftudent 
at Adieus, and was expert in 
the Greeke, Chaldean, and A«- 
rabian tongues, and viGted all 
the fchooles of philofophie of 
his tyme; he having travelled 
Italy and France, and tliere re^ 
ceivii^g great intcrtainment erf 
Carolus Calvus and Ludouicus 
Bulbus; tranflated the workes 
of Dionijius Ariopagita into the 
Latin tongue ; being fent thi^ 
ther from Conftantinople Anno 
Chrifti 858, and then returning 
to his countrey, purpofed to live 
privately at St. David's ; but his 
fame not fufFering it, he was 
fent for by Alfred, King of 
England, to inftru£b bodi him 
and his children; which King 
Alfred being by meases' of his 
good indruftor, inflamed with 
the defire of learning, by his 
good perfuafion firft founded the 
univerfity of Oxford, and ap- 
pointed this his fchoole maflcr, 
to be the firft teacher and reader 
of liberall artcs in the fame 
univeriitiCj but in his later 




yeares he ^thdrew himte\fe to he was flaine Aimo Cfhrifti 884 
the abbey of Mallnfburie, where —of his wotks diefe are extant. 

De mdcuktis Afinifteties - - 

. Libi 1. 

0e fidd contra BaiiittiM - . - 

- Lib: 1. 

DeCorpore & fangaineDno: > 

- yb: I. 

Ift Hiebrchiam Commeniarios - 

. lib: 4. 

Itt Hieologiain Myfticam - - 

- Lib: 1. 

IVo inftituendis NobBium Filiis - 

. - Lib: 1. 

Verfiolies Dionnifii -..«<. 

- yb: 1. 

Moralia Ariflotdas . . . - 

- Tib: 9. 

I^rapKralVicoa ThoiBU > > •> 

- Lib: 11 

Epiftoks ad diverfaa - - - - - 

- Lib: I, 

Dogmata Phiiofophorum - - 

- Lib: 1. 

Afierius'Meneveafisy a- fi^ 
mous hidographer of his tyrne^ 
a maa bom in St. Davids, ahd; 
was chancellor there till by die 
tyranny of the King of Deme- 
ria, he was forced to forfake 
his countrey^ who afterwards 
fbr his learning was by Xing 
Alfred made Biihop of Salifbu^ 
rie. He wrote— The Britifli 
Hiftory, and The Life of King 

Giraldus Cambrenfis> our dear 
and loving countreyman, to 
whom above all other,' our 
countrcy is moll beholding, was 
bom in Manor Byr Parilh, bf 
honourable difcent and parent- 
age, was mafter of the EngKfli 
fchooles, in the Univcrfitic of 
Paris, and moderator of divinity 
there; afterwards, for his learn- 
ing, required to come to £og* 
land, was fecretary to King 

-Henry tb&2^. ani had the edu« 
cation of King John in his youth, 
and was with him in Irriand, 
whcare he wrote the defcriptioit 
and 4>riginan hiftory of that 
couBtrey.-He travelled with ditf 
Archbifliop du-owotst Waleo» 
and wrot^ the dcfcripcion of that 
countrey alfoe, and then-ac* 
compsmied the atrhbifliop to the 
Holy I.and, and returning home 
he followed the caufe for the 
<:hurch of St Datvids at Rome^ 
againft the prerogative of Can* 
terbury, then firft pretended 
over St. Davids. He was arch* 
deacon of St. Davids and Bredc* 
nock where he dwelled, he was 
70 yeares of age, and lyeth bu« 
ried at St. Davids; he was a 
great writer in his time, and a 
diligent fearcher of antiquities, 
among lAlhy of his workes, 
chefe following came to light.—* 




Togogtaphiym Hibentia: ,« - - 

- lib^ h 

PaftiniflionuQi ejufdem « • • 

- Lib; 3- 

Itinerarium Cambrise - - - ' - 

- T.ib: 1. 

T^pog^iphium Caunbriae -^ - 

. lib: I. 

£|)itofTifcn ejufdem Rliy^Mnke • 

- lib: I. 

yitam Henrici Sccundi - « . 

- libc 1« 

Inftkt^tiones Eriodpis • * • 

- Lib: L 

$pecalani Eccleiiafticum - - 

. Lib: 1. 

Ada Regis Johis: • - -r - 

- Lib: I. 

De mundLmirabilibus . . - . 

. Lib: L 

I>e Machmeti requities . • • 

- Tib: 1, 

J>e Vifi Saxonum Regibus - - 

. Lib: I. 

An^oinimCronicon - • . . 

- Lib: L 

Pro Gttidone Warwioenfi - - 

. lib: 1- 

Prerogativorum Corpotum - - 

. Lib: L 

Dialogonun quoque - r - • 

^ Tib: L 

He aUbe in his painfull tra-- 
veils and journeys to Rome, in 
defens of the prerogative metro* 
politate of S*. Davids againft the 
archbi/hop of Canterbury, wrote 
a book intituled De Sudoribus 
circajfedem Menevenfem, whichi 
as it appeareth, came to the 
hands of Sir John Price, KnS a 

Epigrammata quaedam 
In patrio fermone -^ 

. Adam Hattoq, bom at Caer 
Voriok, in Dewifland, de- 
fcended of a worfhipful paren- 
tage, and for his learning pre- 
ferred to the fee of St. Davids, 
was Lord Chancellor of £ng- 

painful and affedioos gende- 
mim to his countrey. 

' Mauricius Morganenils, faith 
M^ Bale, bom in Penbroke- 
ihire^ lived about the yearc 
1210, he was a femons poet in 
his tyme, and learned, and 

- . - Lib: 1. 

-. - - Libriplures. ,. 


land'tp King Richard the 2^. he 
was founder of and builded S^ 
Marie's College in S'. Davids, 
in the tyme of Edward the 3*. 
He wrote * Statuta Ecclefiae 

* Thu curioaswork sow exifts in the archives of the cathedral church of St. 
David's; a copy of vbich is to be found in tHe Britiih Mufcum, amoDgil the Harleiao.^ 
Bianufcrlptt, beiog pitrt of Mr. Hugh Thomas'i coUedioa* 




' Henry Chichelfey was made and 100 aloiHioufes for the 

tifhop of S^ Datids in the ycara poor, and ^^20000. a ycare to 

.of Chrift 1409, was afterwank the king, and ihold have been 

tranflated from thence to Can-: fcifed into the king's hands, and 

terbury ; he was founder of AU preferved the faxne from a migh« 

Soules Co)Iedgc in Oxford, and tiedownfaU, which fore terri- 

gave the churchy of S*. Clares fied the hearts of the clergie of 

and Llangenni^ in. Carmarw that age, but by. this good bi^ 

thenfhire, to tlie maintenance /hop, was quaihcd, and never 

thereof; he was of fingular witt after remembeted till the tyme 

and flowing eloquence, and was of King Henry the 8"^. 
one of the three that were fent 

to the generall Counfel of Pife, Tliomas Rodburne, bifliop 

Anno 1 409. He, alfoe, in the of S*. Davidst iired m the tyme 

parliament of Leicefter, in thq of Henry the; 4^* and, .Anno 

fecond yeare of King Henry the 1412, wrot a Chiionicle .of 

5*N by his witt, learning, and England, 
eloquence, uttered in an ora- ..... * 

tion, did defend the temporal! Stephen Patrington, bifhop 

livings of the bifliops, abbotts, of S^, Davids, although a nor- 

and clergie of England, which thern man home, yet ingrdfFed 

then, in the fayd parliament, by his place, in this foUe, was 

was valfied to be able to fuf- confeflbr to Henrie the b\ and 

taine to the .king's honour and wrot thefe volumeS) obiit Lqi> 

ftrength of the realme^ 15 eries, dini 1470. 
1500 knights, 6200 eiquiers, 

Commentarias Sententiarum - - • lib: 4. 

Repertorium Argumentarum - - Lib: L 

De facerdotali fun£iipne LeS: • - Lib: J* 

Contra Wickleviftas Lib: 1. 

Sermonum 72 De tempore - -• - Lib: 1. 

Contra Nicolaum Herford - - - Lib: 1. > 

SennonumdeSan<Slis - - - . - Lib: L 

In Eglocas Theodofii - - - - - Lib: 1. 

In Efopi Fabulas ---•-. Lib: 1. 

Queftionum Ordinationes . « - Lib; L 

j£piftolarum ad diveifos - . . . Lib: L 




John a Rtfit, a fknoous doc«* 
Cor of divinity, as appeareth by 
his divine works, which will 
not be forgotten till the world^s 
endc; he was a learned poet^ 
wherein he had a favour of na^ 
ture, and therefore hath, in the 
Welfti tongue, left many nota- 
ble workes ; he lived in the tyme 
of King Richanj the 3"^. as^n 
Hollinflied noceth \ he was borne 
in the lordfliip of Kilgerran in 
Penbrokeihire, as is manifeft 
by fome of his own workes. I 
Ande another John of Kent that 
lyved in the tyroc of Henry the 
3**. but what countryman he was 
I know not* 

King Henry the feaventh,King 
of England, was borne in the 
caftle of Penbroke, and there- 
fore may properly be fayd to be 
. ft Penbrokeflihe man. 

Reynold Pecocke, a learned 
man, born in Loughame, then 
being parte of Penbrokefliire, 
tliough fythence wrongfully 
wrefled away. 

Sir Thomas Eliot, kn'. 'anci- 
ently defcended of Penbroke- 
fhire, where his chiefe houfe, 
name, and family is well kno wne, 
a man whofe fame as alfoe his 
workes, are fuflSciently knowne 
at this prefent, and myfelfefarre 
too meane to commend this 
!crf; .befides the good fcrvicc of 

his perfon in the comfhMW^alth 
while he lived, imployed hit 
kbours for his cbuntteys good, 
aAer his death, and left to po&> 
teritie very worthy workes, aS 
a Di^tionarie in Laten and Eng<* 
Ikh. The Caftell of Health, 
4 bookes.— The Floures of 
Wytt. — • — The Govemour, a 
work both rare and excellent for 
die inftruiftion of gentlemen. 

William Owen, Efq. borne 
in Penbrokefhire, as alfoe that 
countrey man by ancient defcent 
and progt^nie, was fellow (lodent 
and neare cofen to the laft re- 
cited Sir Thomas Eliot, and of 
familiar convetfation together; 
he was alfoe chamber fellow 
with the reverend judge Sir An- 
thonies Fitzherbert, and ftodied 
the lawcs together. He wrot 
out the large volume of his 
chamber - fellowes Abridgment 
of the LaT^Ts of this Realme» 
being the firft worke of abridg- 
ing the lawcs tJiat was done, 
which travell in writing foe 
huge a volume, was no lefle 
tedious to his bodv, tlien it was 
profitable to his ftudie, whereby 
he imprinted in his mynde as 
much knowledge of the lawe, 
as by many yeares ftudie he had 
gained (as I often heard him- 
felfe confette). He 'profited by 
the ftudie of the lawe, but not 
greatly by the praftife thereof, 
which he gave over long ere 




!iis death, he was the firft 
(among odier worker of Us) 
diat- abridged the Sdttutes of 
England, and rednciedthem Ott* 
der common tides, to die great 
<afe of the readers, which he 
&i In the fyme of Hen. 8^. ii^ 
foe fittall a vdume, as the price 
thereof waes but 112^. whereof 
feme are yet to be feene printed 
bf Richard Pynfon, A. D**- 
lte8» Qtlder his name and tide* 
He nUbe wrece other ^mrices; 
yet, lit^t^tbftandlng his hard 
Atdie ill Hic^yotirfi, aftd COOK 
tinuall toyle and trayell, all hi 
tyme, he carried to his graye fo 
htany y^titsUg that he fiiwe in 
tipe ye^ifcii the fifth iflHtfe^ ttnH 
by difceni of tho body of hk . 
godfether^ aiid ^M^H prerent. at 
thb ct)roiia^iotii dtKf firotfamadoA 
of thiftccw kings and queeris of 
Ehglahd,' and lived mide^ die 14^ 

One king anj ode queen were 
never married ; he alfoe fawe 9 
biihops in St David's ; and all 
his life tyme, rwas nkjier fide tut 
/6nce,and at his, whichi 
was- on the 29^^ March, 1574y 
"firanted not one tooth. ' 

Robert , Recoid, dodor . o6 
phiiick, a Tenby man'boniey 
in his tyme was a man as much 
renowned fckhis leatming^ sl^he 
wsls 9fti^w«ltdi honoured for hiv 
work^d^ ti^ich for coflnognti 
t>hle, aridimetiitk, and geoihe-^ 
trie, aiie the rudimenb beil 
efteeiifed, alo^e any otheti 
before or fince his tyme. 
Much is our EngXlh xiodbn be« 
holdmg to the audior, neither cai( 
ilk prayfe be fufficientUe bhzed 
for the good he left hin^ hi 
compikd • ' 

The Gf ound if Artes, 
The Wheftorie of Wyft. 
The 6aften of Ifno^vledge, 
The Padi Waly. 
the UrinaU of Hiifick. 

He died ft tfie raigne of QuettHf 

Thoofu^. ?baer, .dqSbov oL 
phifick; 9. inaki koncnfedibf bis 
fcahlfhfe coifnmertded kit hW 
governmeni,, and^bctoved^fbr his 
picafant natural conceipts, he 
chofe fenbrokefhire for his 

e^rr^fy ^Iati$, Where he live4 
worihip^Uy,' and ^ded his d^i 
to the greeffe of all good men at 
the Fprcft of -Kilgarran, beipg 
his chofeii!- feat; he tranlkned 
the Btiisydea? erf Virgil, twwkd 
none wortliny commend, tfiouijii 
. oowpdcn^ c^ jmoft, ih^iRg 
in the author, his great ikiU, 
P learning, 



kamtng, and aptnes of na* 

Harry Morgan, doAor of 
lawes, for his learning preferred 
to be bi(hop of St. Davidi, in 
Queene Mary's tyme, was 
borne in Dewifland, as worthy 
in place, as he was generouily 

Thomas Yong, dodorindi- 
vinitie, fucceeded the (ayd bi- 
ihop Morgan, in St Davids, 
and there hence advanced to die 
fee of Yorke, he was borne in 
Haggefton, near Lamphei. 

Richard Davies, bifhop of 
St. Davids, a man noe leile in 
his tyme much reverenced for 
his rare vertues and excellencies 
in learning, agreeable to his 
place and calling, then honour- 
ed for his publique hofpltalide 
and liberality in his life tyme, 
though fufteining many troubles 
and great crofles, yet fo bearing 
himfelfe, as he was inwardly 
affiled of the good, and never 
detraded but of die bad. He, 
for the advancement of God's 
glory, tranilated into WeUh 

The New Tcftamcnt— The 
Common Prayer Book — Many 
Notable Sermons. He died 7*. 
Novembris, 1381. 

Thomas Huett, Chaumor of 
St. Davids, a man that all his 
life bare himfelf alwayes in good 
accompt and eftimation, tooke 
alfoe much paynes widi the 
fayd bifliop, in tranflating the 
former bookes, as may appeare 
by die Epiftles of diem: He 
died 19*. Die Augufti^ A. D. 

Robert Loug^er, a doAor of 
lawes, a Welihman, borne at 
Tenby, was, for his learning, 
of great eftimation, and held the 
chyer in Oxford for many 
ycares, befide odier cheeffe 
places in the Univerfities tail 
worthilv he was advanced to be 
Chancellor of Yorke, holding 
which place, he died the Sd of 
June, 1585, where he was 

% \si fome degree to confirm 
what is related above diDuhri^ 
Cius, there is a ♦ fpot belong- 

* This feqtiefiered fpot, nov my propertjri eschiUtt % fitnation moft happily adapted 
to tbe life of a pious rcdafe; vhichy thoufh not veiyTenuitt fnm the haants of man, 
ii carioufly ihut out from the world, aad environed vith cfbjediof the moft avfnl kind, 
and beft calculated to infpire deTOtion.-^ubricias's Cave ftill eufts, but the ^ames 
have been fome time difieontinued, which, it ii£Ud| were celebrated on the day dedt* 
Cited to that Saint in the RomUhCakadar. ' 




ing to me on the Banks of the 
Gwayn, called Pwll Dyfrig^ 
probably the fcene of his reli^- 
ous retirement, amidft tremen- 
jdoiis rocks and wjlds, where 
there are many caverns, fuch as 
hermits ufed to occupy ; be- 
low the principal of whicli, 
(here are, to this day, annual 
games folemnized by the coun- 
try people, and ale and bragawd 
expofed to fale in the cave, as it 
were commemorative of fome. 
circumftance, to which they at- 
tached peculiar veneration. 

As my a«dior did not think 
it foreign to his purpofe to in- 
troduce into this catalogue of 
famous men, the names of fuch 
who had no other relation to 
Ae county of Pembroke^ than 
that, by long refidence, they 
had been, as it were, natura- 
lized to it, as many of the bi- 
ihops and dignitaries of St. 
David's ; i ratlier marvel that he 
4id not find room for Robert 
Ferran, the martyr, whofe chil- 
dren matching with very re- 

fpcflablc famiHee in this county^ 
became pcrfedt WeKh people ; 
a man whofe life and death en- 
title him to honourable men- 
tion, notwithdanding malice 
hatli endeavoured to fully his 
fame, an^ even to obfcure, if 
pofliblp, the blaze of his iparr 

Mr. Edward Uwyd, of Ox- 
ford, to whom I diewed thi$ 
work, and comn^unieated my 
intention of coUefting material^ 
to fill up the author's original 
defign, feeing that I had got 
together many very rare docu- 
ments relative to Pembrokefliire 
as a county palatine, and to the 
Earls thereof, recommended it 
to me to finifh that apart; there- 
fore, in deference to his judg- 
ment, I have taken the fub- 
ftance of Cap. 23, which treated 
of this county in its palatine 
capacity, meaning to make it 
the ground work to raife all my 
collec^on on that fubjef^ upon, 
and aflign this as the reafon why 
it is here fupprefled.* 

* Being in ppO'eifion of the materi;»]s here alloded to, and SaCteriiig nyfelf, that bjr 
applying them to the purpofe for which they were originally inteadefi, a TCry intef^ 
efting treatife might be producedi and having it in contemplation to fill up my an* 
oeftor's OQtlinef, I have not reAored Cap. 25 to ks place, bat referve it to form the 
^aSs os^the work, agKcablc to tbe Orifiiai de^gp. 



T 212 y 


Of divers fFonders and CurlofitUs of Penbrokejhire. 

IN fpeakiDg of wonders, leaft 
the reader (hould wonder top 
much, I think it fitt firft to 
defend thefe thip^^ which I 
will here caU winders; aodj^ 
^(frefore, I will call wondprs 
^ef9 things that for the rarepies^ 
t^ereQf will draw people t;o m^r-. 
^ell tliereat, an4 yet noe un- 
ns^tui;all caufi^, pr matter to b& 
fouodj for if it fwarve fron^ 
Xiature, it is ojiore properly (if 
ijt; come by the handie work of 
God) 9 miracle ; if by t;he ojpe* 
ratios of nature, then more 
aptly called a monfter then a. 
wonder, for xna^y natural^ 
things for thp rar^neiTe th^rep^ 
will drawe people to wpndex: at, 
it. Of thefq fu(;h fcfWQ, as \ 
havQ noted, to^nd in Pen- 
l^rokefhire, I will brieffly note,; 
which 1 compci£s lender the^ 
number of nine. 

The firft whereof Aall be 

the ihaking. ftone, neei;e within, 
{lalf; a mi}e of Sf, T>m>^ to- 
wards the fea clifie, where th«ce 
is to be feen a huge ftone, fo 
maffie, as by eftimation, pafleth 
tb^ d^ught of 100 oxen, vd^ich 
ftone is in forme cornered di« 

verfly, and fomewhat ro^]^ 
^d bn>%d| being a ftone as 
hard as oiarble, ijmpoliihed cc 
hewed by any arte or labour i 
t(iis. ftone is mountf4 ^F^^ ^ 
yers other ftones, aboujt a y^i4 
high front the grotuid^ and io^ 
equally poifed, as that with 0119 
finger a man may foe fhake it 
aa that you n^y fe^fiUy. (eft it 
oiov^ } aa4 i^ tyro ex three men^ 
OS more, fit.qr ftaod pn U,t y^ 
9^y you ^ mow i^ tha^t the 
iQ^n on ijt may ien^Uy ijee an4 
feelp tbsmCeives raovQd tbeceby* 
This is reckoned for a ftrango 
and ^W tbing, apd is vifiti^. qf 
m^ny th^t haye (;aufe to refo^^ 
to St. Davids ; it is reported q( 
Ais ftoi^e, thjat yoi> mjiy ipo.w 
i^with. one finger,, a:^ if yoa 
put the whole ftre^i^ pf yoiut 
bodyx it ^U not ftixj:^ ; tho 
caufe whereof is, for that the 
motion of the ftone is but very 
little, and, therefore, it is not 
foe well to l^ perceived^ if yo^ 
gut both yeW' hands^ or yoofi 
fhoukter to move it, as when 
you put but one hande, or one 
or two of your fingures. A 
learned and worthie man feeing 




dinqualhte of the wbiik^, M- 
feribeth it dm : - 

Centoiit hnih levts mollis qaeal noti 

noTet ttUusy 
Cumq; minus moyeas^ tunc movet 

ecce Ini^. 

ft k a llnAg ftrange to fe'e hdW 
ecpiipoiid6roiiis this ftofad fil" 
placed ii{>on ttto ftohes, ul^r . 
{topping ity that Toe fmall^ 
flrehgth (hobkl be ^It to mdtre 
(be maffie a body, and k is the 
iBorc rare, for that it fhould 
fefeme that the placing was not 
doh by arte of man, bttt by na- 
turall meanes, or chance, as 
we call iu The likte ftone hare 
I found myfelfe in the Haven of 
Caidd lifland by chand^, go- 
ing over ftones there, undei* the 
fnU fea itiarke, and over flowtie 
evety tyde, but much lefle in 
quantitie then this of Sr. Da- 

The fecond wonder that I 
finde worthy notlhg, is sr weB' 
luring Oft the top of a* hi^ 
tocke, neare St. Davids^ afore- 
fcyd, half a liiile and more from 
the fea, the water bfeing frcfll* 
and fweete, that keepeth courfe 
with the fta in ebbing and flow- 
ing twife every 24 hours, and 
be fuU at full fea, and very 
lowe at the ebbe. The little' 
childrefl that hdrd cattell neere 
flje plate, are foe acq[traitTted 
with thi» wtU, ttot tliey will rc- 

fertcf to tke wdl oh purfnfe to 
know how &e tyde gcx&i^ and 
will dedare the ftate of the ^bb 
and fltid prefendy by infpedbm 
of the weH. 

There is not fahe from the 
fhakiiig ftone, at a |^e caBed 
Perdimawr> ovt of a chamber^ 
a paflage linder gMuiid, a quar- 
ter of a mt)e> kkfihg tathe fea* 
I h«ve not niirfelf feene tiiis paf^ 
fage, and,-'4faerefbre, I cannoc 
foe largeff titat of it ats I wiihe, 
but it is a thinge wortfaie of 
place ambbg things rate and* 
ftnmge, as I am informed by 
them that 'Zte Acquainted with 
the fame. 

Another matter I #iU note 
here as a flbmg^ and rare things' 
that is, fheHs of fifties, a^ oyftei- 
fliells, muikdll (hells, cockles^ 
lympitts, and other (helb of fea 
fifli, are found in digging of 
i&aile^ and this upon high hills. 
Where the marie is found S or 4? 
ifiiks from thb fea, ahd thid> 
twemie foot deep^ Uddfer dltt 
earth, foe that of liefcefliri* thefe 
(hells muft have refhayucd fliefe' 
fince the fludd of No»6, brfftg 
liow 99iD&'yeares fincfe. Thef«f 
(hells are very comraorfy fouiid' 
m the marie pitt^ very deepe 
under the earthy and are frdh» 
of coll6ur, btil moft <rf them 
putriiied and rotten! ; yet fome 
I have f(^ne fofinde and ftrong, 

P 3 without 



wUhont any kinde of {nitrifica- 
tion. There is alfoe fewid in the 
fiKyd marie pitts all manner of 
ftones of the fea £bore, wome 
round and fmooth by the fea ; 
and all fortes of fea fand, as 
aifbe pieces of tymber unrotteh, 
with the apparent iignes of cut> 
ting with edge tooles^ and fire* 
brands with black coles on the 
One ende ; all which confirmeth 
the opinion of. the common 
people, that the narle is the 
fatnes and clamy fubftance of 
the earthy by the boating and 
waihing of the fludd, and foe 
^gathered togedicr, including 
within it whatfbever touched 
the clamy fubftance, and foe 
lc!ft in great lumpes at the de* 
parting of the Audit This kind 
of marie was found onely ^n 
the upper parte of Kemes^ and 
ill the hundred of Kilgarraii) of 
all this ihire. 

Another rare and ftrange 
thing is to be remembered of 
certen rootes of tymber, which 
about 12 or 18 yeares paft were 
feene on the fandes at Newgal^ 
by reafon^ as it feemetli, that 
the violence of the fea, or fome 
^xtreame . frefh of die rivers in 
the winter, waflied away the 
fiindes (which dayly is and was 
over iiowen with the tyde foe 
lowe) that there appeared in 
the fandes infinit number of butts 
of trees, ^ in the places where 

they had been ^owiiig, ttd 
now every tyde, and there a{M 
peared the very ftroi^kes of die 
hatchett at the fdling of thofe 
tymber. The fandes being 
waflied away in the winter, the 
butts remayned to be feene all die 
fommer fidk>wing, but the next 
yeare the fame was coveied a- 
gaine with fands, by which it 
appeareth, diat the fea in diat 
place hath intruded upon the 
land) and neeie the frface in 
Rowfe fjde, there is a townred^ 
called as yet the Wood, aldiough 
there be not any other figne of 
wood upon the land thereof at 
this day* This thing Girald. 
Cambrenfis, who wrote his de^^ 
fcription of Wales, in the tyme 
of Harry the 2K noteth ; for in 
his tyme alfoe, theie butts of 
tymber were feenei and layeth 
it as a flranjge memoriall to pof- 
teride. It bath been told me by 
the neighbours of Coedtrueth, 
neere Tenby, that the like hath 
been feene diere upon the fandes ; 
and Mr. HoUingflied reporteth 
th6 like to be found betweene 
Penfance and St. Michael's 
Mount in Cornwall, Fol: 14. 

There is alfoe a pitt in the 
earth in Boiherfton parifh, which 
is called Boiher^s Meere, where- 
of there are ftrange things re- 
ported, as that at certaine tymes 
there are ugly and terrible noyfes 
and founds heard to proceede' 




from the fiime pitt» and dutt a 
fiime or (moake (to mens ap- 
pearance) oftentymes feene ri* 
fiing and moondng out of the 
fame pitt, as out of a burning 
fumes, and alfoe great flakes of 
boyling froth caft up out of the 
hole ; and vfhkh is more ftrange, 
if fheepe, or other like cattell, 
be grazing neere the pitt, ofttimes 
tliey are forcibly and violendy 
drawne, and carried into die 
pitt; and if a cloke, or odier 
garment be caft on the ground, 
neere the pitt at certaine feafons, 
you fliall ftand afarre of, and 
fee it fodainly fnatched, drawne, 
andfwallowed up into the pitt, 
and never feene againe: all 
which I heare to be true, by 
creditable reporte of the neigh* 
hours ; and of purpofe I went 
to fee die place, and I doe ve- 
ryly believe die reportes, and 
therefore I may wdl place it 
here as a ftrange and rare mat- 
ter. The caufe is, as I guefle, 
for that the pitt is round and 
narrow, and is within two or 
three butts lengdi to die fea clift, 
the land being all lymeftone 
rock, foe bare and barren, that 
fcarce any grafle groweth on 
the ground, although it be 
plaine. Looking downe into 
the hole, I finde it very deepe 
and broad downwards, and from 
die bottom there is a greate 
breech to the fea, foe ^at it 
ihould feeme all the ground be« 

twcene it and die fea to be hoi* 
low underneath ; and when the 
fea is tempeftiousi the fuige» 
enter the concavide with great 
ftirie, and the place being hol- 
low, yealdedi ftrange and loath- 
fome noyfes, as were all dyfies 
are heard, the found whereof 
aicendeth through the hoUowes 
of the earth, and is heard neaie 
the hole mouth in ftrange forte ; 
and when the waves are forcibly 
driven into the ftraitnes, the 
fprayes are forced up throwe 
the hole, as they doe in break- 
ing againft the cliflF, which 
fhewedi afarre off as (moake, 
ifiuing out of a chimney, and 
cafteth up pieces of white foame, 
that fwimmeth on die water; 
and this is die fmoake diat die 
people reporteth to fee: and 
when the cave is violendy filled 
with the fea furges, foe that 
noe ayre is left in the concavitie 
of the earth, the fea returning 
foddenlie, the ayer being fodden- 
lie alfoe drawne downe throwe 
the narrow hole» is foe attraor 
dve, as if any fheepe, or. what 
thing foever be founde neere the * 
brinke of the pitt, the fame is 
violently by the ayer drawen 
into the gulfe, and this is the 
reafon of this wonder. 

Another rare thing there is^ 
and ftrange indeed, if it be true, 
as I am perfuaded it is, for diat 
the ^ace is within the lonUhip of 

P 4 mynei 


CAMBkliN B8@0irER, 179^. 

niyde^. and witbib hro talks pC 
my dweUiog^ oaI aUtfa(^ ioha- 
bitents, both young and old* 
doth affirme and confinae die 
fame ; wbich is^ that b die pa« 
nflic of Whitecburi^ ia Kemes,. 
being a pari(h of 90 or SO. 
hott(bokle3t and brige in quai>* 
my, having in it both playne 
^diind* hi&r ami rocktf there 
'\ya$ never fecne any adder aliiret 
aJthotigh in the pariihes tound 
about they are found continue* 
ally, aa in other placet of the 
countjrey. This being trae# as 
I am perfuadcd it is» is a thing 
tp be maivelled at indeede, and 
what affimtie this partfh onely, 
a^ none other, fhould have 
\vidi the hod of Ireland, or 
¥ritli the countrey of Buchynan^ 
in Scotland, whkht as Boetius 
MTiheth, breedetfa noe ratts, nci<^ 
ther will they live broug^ tht* 
ther firom elfewherei 

^ Anptfaer tiung wcvth the 
noting is the fione called Maen 
y Gnmlubf npgn Pentre Jevan 
Lande* It is a huge and mafie 
*ftone, monntect on high, and 
fet on the topps of 3 other high 
ftones, pitched, ftanding upright 
in die gnnmd, which far pafleth 

&F b%ite». stwi bigbtf Axdmr^^ 
Stofi^,. in the ft^y betwcmr 
IJ^re^PTil amid the ifeye, or Lstif 
yr^Jif ne^^c Biam Piucdi, is 
Cardtgaofiiire ? or ajty odicr 
,d)at ^er I iawe, f^ing (om^ 
in S^on^jbenge, upon SbUibum 
Pla}fi€» called Cfjt^rca Gigantum^ 
beiqg oa^of the chit^c wondem 
of BnglaikL The ikniei where- 
on this i$ layd are foe high,- 
that a i^an on horfeba^ may* 
well ryde ufHler It without 
(jbowping. The ftoae that m 
thus mounted is 1& fboie loi^, 
4od 9foQte bK>de,..and.S footer 
tjiicke at one end, but thinner 
at the other; and from it, as it 
SI apparent fincehis pfecmg. 
there^ is broken a piece of fr 
foote brode, and lO foote long, 
Heing yet in the place, -mortf 
than 20 oxen would draw^ 
t)oubtle&tim, ikae was moBD« 
ted long tyme &dc^ in ine<* 
Bterie of fdme great vt&ory, or 
the buriall of fome notaUe per<^ 
fisAj which was^the ancient riee, 
for that it hath pitched ftones 
ftaadii^ one againft the other 
nnind about and clofe to the 
huge ftone, -wbkh is mounted 
high to be feene afarr off, much- 
like to that which is written, 

^ This aecovntj Mr. Edifafird Liwyd/ of thft Aflunolean Muftmm, acknowledges t»- 
lucve receiwd from my anceAor^ Joba Lewis,, ££i^ of ManamaTOD, wljcb ke hM ia« 
trodttced into his addition^ to Camdefi'a Account of Walesj as published by Gibion; 
bui by a xnargiaal memorandum of Mr. Lewis's, prior to bis having recciyed any 
infofmatioD reijiedtlng thofe aocient-inoniimeati from a gentleman of Clamorganlbire, 
tkikt ibwed to inawact bit opiaioa eonccmiDg Ibeir odfiii. . 




lA^ V^, linAahi 69p. 18. ofi 
the bumU of the patriarch Ja*<^ 
Qol^ (£t edificttvtt Simoa Cuper 
fiipUkhnim p»tris fui & framim 
foonun cdifidam akiua' vifii^ 
Li|iide polilo retro Sc ante^ As 
ibisik.feptea Piiamidci unain 
contra unain, patri & ^m^ri ic 
qnotuor fratribus Ac hies cir^ 
^^uropofint Colummis magnas 
& &iper Columnas anna ad 
memoriam^ aterottm & juxta- 
arma navel fcalptas qoMvide*- 
isntiir abhominibus naviganti^ 
bufi mare) or fiich notable things 
but thercifi noe lepoiae orme* 
inorie^ or • other matter to be** 
found, of the caufe of the ensl^ 
ing q£ tbis tisphca* Tl^e/.Gali 
lhe(h>neG>4PiR/«rA; butlthinko 
the tmeeejrmolqpe is GrymUch^ 
die ftoBB. of ftrengthy for thafc 
gfeat ftrength: was ufed in tiie 
fottioEg of it, to 1]^ in fofte aa it 
doth. Thece axe . otfier ftonet 
itt S or 4 otiiei places in the 
coUntrey adjoyaing, as Lub f 
trUeddf neexe Riocacdftonev and 
one in Newport^ ^ neere the 
bridge; anottier beneath the 
towne> but not comparable to 
this, either in bignes, or in 
fiandii^ foe; high*. 

And bccaufe I have read of 
wonders of divers countries, 
which mt)ft commonly I have 
found to be 9 in number jf let 
aa make up the like numberi 
with a ftmge event that haf«^ 

lied ia thia countfey, in the be^* 
ginning of June, in tlie .yeare 
of oure Lofd God 1601, wfaidi 
vraa this^-There hapned that 
fpddenUe» as if the fiune had 
biixn by a fltower out of th^ 
ayre, a great peece of grduod, 
tpv the quantity of dOO £nglt<h 
acres, was ootrefced in a manner 
with a kinds of caterpiUers, or 
greefte wormes, having matiy 
leggs, and baoe wkhooc hatre ; 
they were found in fuch abun^ 
dance, tiiat a anan treading on 
the ground ihould treade upon 
20 or 30 of them.; and in this 
forte they continued for the 
fpacc of 3 weekes or more, 
noe man 'knowing how they 
carotf nor were any of the like 
forte ever feene in the countrey 
befene or (ince: and being 
kiUed and opened, there was 
noe gutt or any thing els within 
them, but onely graffe whieh 
they had devoured: the place 
was oQ'ahiO, in the pariHi of 
Maendocfaog, above Fytmon 
Dewy ; thry. wei« found as it 
wepe wkhone accord to goe 
osie wa^ (viz) upp the hill^ 
and went over the hill a quarter 
of a nayle and more; and as 
tbeywent^ diddevoure and con- 
fume the graflfe, that the ground 
appeared bare and redd, like 
fallewe; and after they had 
continued there three weekes, 
Acre reforted thither an iafinica:' 
mnaberof fea mewes andcrowes, 




as if sdl of many conntreys had 
been fummoned to the fpot, who 
in a few dayes confumed them 
ally after they had confumed 
all the grafle of the mountaine; 
alfoe fwine feddupon the woimes 
eagerly, and waxed very fatt. 
This, for the rare evenuhereoi^ 
I thought good to fpeake of 
among the wonders, although 
it be one permanent, yet more 
ftrange then any of the other. 

I could have noted fome 
other things in this country, 
which for their raritie might 
have claymed roome in this 
place, but for that I tyed my- 
ielfe to the number of 9 ; and 
leaft I might become too won- 
derfull, I will reft here, and 
fpeake fomewhat of them in my 
fecondbooke^ when I (hall have 
occaiion to fpeake of the places 
the fame are in. 

% I was long of that belief, 
tliat the Gromlecb my author 
gives an account of, with all of 
the fame defcripdon, had been 
creif^cd in memory of vi£lorieSy 

or burial of ancient cbieftaias ; 
but having had ocoafion a feiv 
yeares back, to go to die feffions 
of G^amorganfliirey and £dlii^ 
into a« acquaintance with * Sir 
Richard Baflet, who difcover* 
ing in me a paflion for invcfti* 
gating the antiquities of my 
native country, Ihewed me 
fome curious writings refpeding 
the ancient baids^ which have, 
tptally changed my opinion of 
fqch moanments.. I told him 
of the ftones fo much talked of 
in Nevem parifli, which he 
was certain was the place where 
die chief bard prefided at the 
Goifedd, which was held in a 
hi^ open fitiiation« as is the 
cafe here; die whole fpace 
round confifting of overturned 
monuments of the fame fort: 
but when fome time iince he 
paid me a viiit, and was led to 
view the fpot, he pronounced it 
to be one of the principal G^r- 
feddau in all Wales, f Befides, 
to confirm me in my opinion, 
that it is as he faid, die moun- 
tain that overhangs the fpot that 
is called Cam Engljn^ on the 

* We are taught to expfdl a Very euriouf publication foon from the ha&4 ofUie in- 
gcaioua Mr. Edward WilUanu, of Glamorgabfliire, 09 the fubjed of fiardUin, vhick 
vill involve all the leariiing that can be brought forward to elucidate itj aud I am 
id formed, from coUedlioni chiefly made under the patronage of the above gentleman. 

f There is aaotber ^tiy firikiag proof of this region having been devoted to thf 
Bards and their inflitution^ In a MS. treatife, de Dignitatibut Bmrcm* de KemU'^ 
in enumerating them, the 16th peculiar honour annexed Co it occurs in tliefe words— 
Ct'tiane argtmte^ dijp^fiih adifimm ptrttMt Umrwlim ^umfi ad manfimtm Trincijih jv^ In 
^JjffUi^ JPomini Sit Mofutfierium ftatm (de St, Qtgwel'iJ eu/tdienda tr^dUv. 




ocho: fid(s of which, nearer 
Fiibguaidy there is a fpring, . 
called Fynnon Ofydd^ (t^Ofydd 
being an infinior order of the 
liards; and it is remarkable^ . 
that in this parte of the couo* . 

trf^ were, fettled the ancient 
princes of Dyfedy my anceftors, 
who had many^ of them the 
diftindion of Fardd, fuch as, 
GwinfarJd Uyfedt and Kibjlin 


Of the fyorthynes of Penbrohijhirf^ and the PeOfie thereof in ancient 
Tymef and what Benefit that Count rey hath yelded to the Realme of 
England: bow Ireland and thi cheefeji Partes of Wales wasfirji and 
cheefly fubdued by it to the Crowne of England 

IN fpeaking in prayfe and^ 
worthines of the people and 
this countie, if I (hall feeme fer- 
went therein, yet I fliould there- 
fore partly deferve pardon, (the 
love and atfe&ion of my coun-> 
trie egging me thereunto) and 
in the fame I fliall, in fome 
things, iterat that which I have 
alreadie fpoken before in the 5'\ 
chap: where I fpeake of the con* 
ftitution of the people. 

Yet feeing this countrey among 
other of Wales, hath been fa- 
mous for theire love, loyalty, 
and fervice to the kings of this 
realme, and foe a£Fe<5ted of the 
kings and people of England for 
the fame, that they have termed 
it a fecond or little England ; let 
not therefore the fame be burie J 
in oblivion, and rather I had 
herein be taxed with the fault of 
tautologiaf in too often repeating 

one thing, then obfcurely to ufe 
the figure Synecdoche in laying 
downe pars pro toto^ although 
when I have done all, I may, I 
mud (zy inuti lis feruns fumf in 
not being able to fay herein as 
much as it defervech. 

And firft, as touching tlie 
worthines of the countrey in an- 
cient tyme, I have before de- 
clared how it was a kingdom; 
and fui^her, to cyte here the 
words of Giraldus, which fayth, 
that by the people of this coun- 
trey, the fea coaftes of Wales 
have been kept in obedience to 
tlie crown of England, and 
overcome and conquered the 
realme of Ireland; has wordes 
alfoe in another place, in com- 
mendation of Penbrokefhire men, 
are thefe. — Erat autem gens hxc 
originem a Flandria ducens, ab 
Anglorum RegQ Hen: I"'', ad 



CAMBRUN lt£&tSrER, 1790. 

bos fiiMs haVitandum tnutfiniflk* 
getu fottis tc robufta, cond«- 
duoq; bcllis eotSi&v^^ gen» 
Catnbrctifibas hiimicifflona gem 
(inquam) htisficies gens incrci- 
monies ufitatil&iia quocunq; 
labore Ave periculo terra muriq; 
lucrum querere gens'pervalida, 
viciifim loco & tempore nunc 
adaratrum, nunc ad Arma gens 
promptifima utiq; felix & fortis 
fl vel Regibus ut dectret Cam- 
bria condt fuiflety vel preftitutis 
faltem & prefedis injuriarmn 
dedecus animo vindice difpli- 
cuiflety that is to fay — ^This na- 
tion, meaning the Engliflierie 
of Penbrokefliirc, derive theire 
d^fcent from Flanders, as men 
fent thither to people thefc portes 
by King Hen. 1*. They arc 
a valiant ftrong people, in con- 
tinuall conflid of battell ; a na- 
tion moft hateful! to the Welfli- 
men ; a people addided to clothe 
ifiaking and merchandize ; (par- 
ing noc payne, nor fearing any 
perHl by lande or fea, to in- 
creafe theire wealth ; valiant in 
i^rre, and as tymes and place 
require, indtilerctlt for the full 
or the fword; a nation both 
ftout and happy ; if Wales were 
(as it fhould be) pleafing to* the 
kirtg, or that the rulers thereof 
\^6uld redreflfe oppreffion and 
pcmifh ofienders. This was the* 
opinion of Giraldus Cambrenfis 
of thefe countrymen in the tyme 
pf HeQ; 2^, at whtdi tyme be 

v9Ti^ his defcriliticiii c( WdKS ; 
add wheitas Waks ^ti noc 
fvUy fiibjea to the kingt of 
England, as ydo may well ga« 
ther by fm wcirdes, onely this 
cotrntiey then held for the kings 
of England, and had continuall 
confli&es with the then princes 
of Wales; and who foe will 
carefully looke into the nature 
of the remnant of thefe people^ 
fhall fihde them not much to 
diiftr fihom GtraMils his wordes 
to this day, and confirme his 
wordes therein; certaine it is 
that the fubduiiig of the coantrey 
of Glamorgan to the crowne erf* 
England, proceeded from hence, 
for Einion; the fon of Cadivor 
ap CoUwyn, who fii4 procured 
and brou^t Robert Fitz Hamon 
and his knights to come to Glft«> 
morgan, was the fonne of the 
Prince of Dyved, that is Pen- 
brokefhire, and was with his- 
Peftbrochians partakers of the 
conqueft of Glamorgan, who* 
had the land of Sangennith in 
Glamorganihire given him and 
bis heires ; and this was one of 
the firft countreys of Wales that 
iVas fubdued to die crown of 
England, procured by means of 
a Penbrokefliire man. And af- 
terwardes the manfullnefs of 
Earle Strongbow in conquering 
this countrey, and in preferving^ 
and keeping of it againft tbfif 
princes of Wal^^, and conti- 
nuing meere Engltfh tn name, 




UoQd, tod hoguage, and de* 
fended k to hdd of the kings 
of Englandy never fuffering the 
ancient inhabitants to retume to 
the fanae againe, as many partck 
of Wales did, bebg once fub* 
dued by the Engtiflimen, but 
fooneloftagaioe, (naraelvy^Car* 
digan, Cannartbenfhire, An* 
glefey, and divers other partes 
of Wales) a thing worthy of 
note and remembrance. Alfoe, 
die fttbdttlng ^f Ireland, behig a 
whole realme, by 'Strongbowe, 
^aile of tkis oOBntry, and his 
people, an4 biinging it in obe- 
dience and ful^eflion to the 
kings of this land, as beforie I 
have more largely declared. 

. And out of this coimtrey are 
dcfcended fome of the cbeefs 
^tnd pfincipaB men of Ireland^ 
as. the Giraldipeij of vihometbe 
£11^ ofDefioiondand Kildare( 
drawe dicir pateraal difqeut, dio 
yiibonat BaUnghfie, tht Losd 
Roche, the- Lotxi Baney^ the 
Flbmii^s^ Baxon of Slaas, Fita 
Morice, ^af oa of Kerry^ Mak 
Jordan, Bason of Defisres, the 
Wogana of Greene Caftb, a 
goeat and mighde people there 
la tymqs pail, and many other 
gentiemen^ who£s names yet 
Adwo them to be descended from 
hence, ^ndietb thdre originatt 
hon&9i ace yes knowne by^ and 
ifier tbpioe ovm> namesy and ia 

" • • • ' 

the pofleffion of theire kinred i^ 
this countrey. 

If Penbrokefliire people then 

were the meanes of fubdui^g 

Ireland and Wales to the kings 

of England, the one being a 

kingdome, die other a princi- 

palitie; what glory can be. 

greater, and what praife more 

wordiy, and what other coua«- 

treys iii lius land mity vaunt 

themfeWei of fiich valiant at^- 

tempts aiid happy fuccefle ? and 

therefore no marvell that this 

couQtrey was magnified above 

bU the reft of Wales to be a 

county palatine ; and well might 

the kings of' Enghnd caU this 

dieir liitle England beyond 

Wales. Befide die worthyncs 

of the people of this co^inirey in 

generally I«may ^ake fixne*^ 

what of the wonhines. and efti* 

tnation of om ancient earles and 

pther fiimous men that have 

lyved there in tymes paft, fin- the 

whidi I referre to the catalogue 

of earles in the beginning of the 

book, where you iball finde 

ifcat many of the Earles of ]hn« 

broke have ken the chieffe 

peeres and pillars of this- npi^hpey 

aa William MsirHiall, who tew, 

in one battel), 9000 of Prince 

LlewheKn's men^ and who alTo^ 

obtayned the greac diartar of 

the liberties^ to ail the tiobles ani 

commons of thisreahae, ^ 




Alfoe it appeajvth* chat 19 
Anno 4'^. Edw: 2*. Annoq; 
Chrifti 131 !• when the king 
gave coaimiffion to the lords and 
baroni of this b^ide^ to chofe 
and klcQ, certiine of tbeinfclves 
to make bwes to govern the 
realme and king; when, as of 
mU the baronage fpirituall and 
lemporall, there were chofea 
J^t 21 pcdbns to make tl^ofe 
lawes, whereof there were 7 
iMfliops, 8 earles, and 7 barpnSy 
3 of them were of Penbroke- 
iheere, namely, the biihop of 
3'- Davids, the earje of Pen*, 
broke, and Sir William Martine, 
lord of Kernes, then baron of 
the parliament by tliat name*— « 
William de Valei^ce was alfoe 
a noble peere of the )and ; John, 
Duke .of Bedford, who, ix^ 
Anno quinto Henrice quinii, was 
made regent of England, and 
afterwards regent of France; 
and Humfirey, the good Duke 
of Gloucefter, and maay other 
famous and valiant men have 
l}een Earles of this county and 
poore countrey, who with their 
men fervants and tenaotes have 
done fiimous and worthy exploit^ 
iniervice of the king and realme* 

What /hall I fay of the peo^ 
pie feeing the lande and foyle 
iirlfe, and all the actions at- 
tempted therein have fatallie, 
from age to age, prognQiticatc4 

joy, .pcacCf love, Suid tranquil- 
litie, to the whole realme, ai 
namely, that here was borne 
the prince of peace. King Hen- 
ry the 7"^, who knitt the knott 
of peace by uniting the redd 
r<^ 9ind the whi^, out of which 
knott, hath fpnmg the quiet of 
this, land, after foe many bloodjr 
bfoyles ^nd fhedding of i^e blood 
royall of .^ Unperiall crowne» 
in which domefticall fedidon» 
80 peeres of the bhid rioyall (and 
that in 36 ye^res, as faith Bo* 
dio, out of Philip de Coinmines) 
have been killed by untymely 
death, beddes multitudes of other 
nobilide, and commons fans 

Here was the layd King Hen* 
ry beiieged in the caiUe of PezN 
broke in his great weakaes, 
with his unkle Jafper, where he 
wanted noe relieve, but was, by 
his people, here defended and 
fafely icnt to fea to fave his life ; 
at Tenby towne he was fpce* 
dily conveyed away, which the 
good prince not forgetting, at 
his coming to the crowne, re- 
warded Mr. — White, aot^ 
ccftor to Mr, Harry White of 
Henllan, now living, then 
maior of Tenby, for his good 
fervices, with leafe of all the 
king^s lands about the fayd towne 
of Tenby ; a good recoinpenoe 
4one to one man for a good 
deede to the whole realme. 




Here againc in Penbroke- 
fliire hapned his landing and 
firil footing, when he came to 
(Cnjoy the crowne, and to con- 
found the panicid and bluddy 
tyrant Richard the 3'. here 
found he the faeartes and hands 
firft of all this land readie to 
ayde and affift him^ and ire* 
quently after breathing of this 
his native countries ayre began 
his forces to increafe. 

The good king feemed to 
acknowledge this foyle fatal and 
happy to him, for in the place, 
where he firft touched land in 
Mylford Haven, he builded a 
chappelly as though he wi(bed 
to have the luckie place haU 
lowed to God's fervice. Of the 
body of this Penbrokefhire 
prince have fprung and budded 
out fuch joyes as make the 

heartes of all gooj fubje£te to 
leapp for joye, as firft, in cx- 
tinguiihing our home and do« 
mefticall fedition ; as alfoe in 
thinking upon the iflue out of 
his loynes, namely, the famous 
King Henry die 8*, in his tymc, 
moft famous in the world ; King 
Edward, Queene Mary, and * 
laftly, our moft gracious fov- 
raign lady, Queen Elizabcthi 
whofe long and peaceably go- 
vernment may be a myrror, or 
rather an admiration to all 
princes ; and herein I muft not 
omytt how King Henry the 8*. 
when he refolved to marry her 
majefty^s mother, Queen Anne 
BuUen, among all the honour- 
able tytles which he had to 
beftowe on his bcft beloved, 
choofe to create her Marchio^ 
nefs of Penbroke, as a tide fa- 
tall to the mother of fcc gra- 
cious and peaceble a princes. 


Of Paftimis and Recreaiianes, fitt for Gentlenunp which Pen^ 
' bniejbire yealdethf and tf Feates and Extrcifes of A&iviti^ 
wherein the Play called Knappan is defcrihed.. 

IN treating of paftimes for re- 
creation of gentlemen, this 
countrey is not deftitute of fuch 
Solaces, but of itfelfe yeddeth 
aptpes for the fame, though bjr 
induftrie of gentlemen, other 
pouQti^ doe Un fuimopnt fof 



preferved game: firft, there- 
fore, among thofe I wjU place 
and fpeak of hunting, which the 
countrey being for the moft 
champion and plaioe, is for th^ 
fame very pleafai^t and deUt^ 
f|Ulj tlfotighfcarfeoffon^^flore 




fif guaci but herein I muft 
cv4ve pardon of g«ademeti» and' 
expert herdmen, if I {halloffeivl 
io my tennes in fpeaking about 
ibis matter, (or therein I muft 
eooScSk myfelfe un(kilfull| a* 
bou( which I muft give to note 
that there neither is^ nor (to my 
I^nowkdge) ever was (bred or 
chafe in this countrey, I meane 
jsny parte or territorie of ground 
privUedged for beaftes or fowle 
of foreft chafe, and warren, or 
being endowed with the Uwes, 
privileges,, immunities, or courts 
•f lawc, or officers belonging, 
and proper to a foreft, although 
there are divers woods, an4 
odher places, called and termed 
by the name of forefts, yet ar^ 
jboy neytber forreft, chafe, or 
varren, indeed., Neverthekfle, 
there are in this ^ountrey, fome 
beaftes of forreft j though fewe 
partes of $)ogland have all. the 
fones, for, as I remember, the 
beaftes of the foreft are thele, 
that are caUed Fera fylvejiresy 
and differ from thofe of the 
chafe, which zst caUed cam* 
pcftves* Beaftes cf the foreft, 
or beaftes of venerie, caUei 
Sylveftres, are 5 in number. 
1* Thehatte. {»». Thehinde. 
8^ The bore. 4^\ The woIfe. 
y*. The hare. — As for hartol 
wi hindes, alth6<^(i (he{<e b^ 
a fewe, not worth landing any 
fp^ek upon*, yet fome tKeW 
tire, afl4 thof^ h>e widttHi# fane* 

tuarie or privilege of foreft, free 
{6t tiHrf min t6 diafe and 
hii0t, at bis pleafure. Aft 
for the wild bore the iiime is foe 
rare, apd I heare little or none 
0f that kinde of venyfon in Eng** 
bind, .but fiire I am, there is 
none in this countrey, although 
I hare fcene wyld fwine kept* 
yet' n^rer preserved for die game, 
4i1d, therefore, as they and tho 
wolves are bamflied dK lande# 
foe I will expdl them out of 
this treatife, although it feem« 
eth Atj were plleikie in fonher 
tjrmes, feeing dur foreft hvUes 
and tb^ tteatifes of ancient 
waoditiead of Engtond, number 
them anDOQg Fene Sylveftres, 
foe d>at for me to fpeake of in 
this placci there is onely die 
£lly hare 1^ of vi^ch kind$ 
of beaftes | think no countrey ift 
Eaglaad yeekieth mo^e (Jentie ; 
yea, iu fuch uuuiber, seere ^Or 
to woods and courts, that the 
neighbours come is by them^ 
gteaitly endamaged, and I havQ 
knowne, in my tyme, a huf- 
bandman that roifeofien a flights 
out of kis bed, to ^tefo aC#ay 
die hares from his cbtne^ foe 
much harme he found by theire 
fiMdiHg. And aUiiough the 
traeiiig of hares On the ftowe, 
(dtH otkdee forbidden' b^ par Ea^ 
mcnt) be not lo^Jcerf* unta or 
SM^etelypumftied iiv thfeit: ^e$^ 
Mi that tracing is tifec^ordhith 
rily, foe that fomc o*e- mai 




imong many others, hath beene 
knowne to flanghter, in a fore- 
none, 16 or 18 hares to his 
parte ; yet is there increafe fuch 
as no man feeleth greefFe, or 
perceaveth wante. Therefore, 
this beafte afFordeth fufficient 
paftime to hunt with hounds, 
and chafe with greyhounds; 
many places of this (hire being 
Kttle or nothing inferior for 
plentie to the fpecial warrens of 
bares preferved.-in many partes 
of England for the pleafure of 
the nobilitie and gentlemen, and 
this paftime of hunting the hare 
is tli^ greateft and moft ufed in 
this countrey of all other. 

Beaftes of chafe, as the book 
of the Antiquities of Britaine, 
^nd Sir Triftram, in his Treatife 
of Hunting, fayeth, are alfoe 
five in number, that is to fay— 
The bucke, the doe, the fox, 
the marten, and the roe. 

The beaftes of chafe are not 
in eftimation foe rayale as the 
former, and differ in this, that 
thofe of Venerie, or of the 
foreft, live in woods and coverts 
all day,>nd goe to feede abroade 
in the night, to the meadowes, 
paflures, and fieldes, as the 
kingly. Prophet, fpeaking to the 
Lord, defcribeth them — <* Quum 
tpnebras indacis fit nox, in qua 
pnfinps fcrjp filveftiTBs prodpunt, 

nbi Solertus eft^ fe rec^Iunt io 
in cubilia fua cubitum eunt." 

The beaftcs of the foreft dif- 
fer alfoe from thofe of the chafe 
in this ; the trefpaffe of the one' 
is punifhaMe by the foreft lawes,* 
and the latter by the lawes of 
the reahne onely, and not other- 

Thb buck and doe are, in 
this countrey, very fcarce, pre- 
ferved in two fmalle parkes 
onely, and not in any foreft or 
chafe, and the number very 

For the third, I meane Mr. 
Fox, his neighbourhood among 
us, is more common then com- 
mendable, and if, for pleafure, 
he be defired of fome for his 
conditions, he is hated of moft.' 
This grave gentleman, for his 
furres, feemeth to be a townif-* 
man; for his witt and invention 
in ftratagems, an engineer ; for 
keeping his caftle male pardus, a 
Spaniard; he is beloved in gene- 
rail, as the executioner of ty- 
bume, and as profitable in th^ 
commonwealth as a Kelator. 

The marten Is the fourth 
beaft of chafe, who, although 
he be more innocent then the 
laft, as preying onely upon bees, 
hath many tymes with hisfweete 
meate fouro fawce ; yet, in one 

9 ^Hing 


thing diey cancorre, that they 
are defired onelj for the ttvo 

lad fillables of theire carcafes : 
of diis kinde of beaAes there is 
good ftore, and much hunting 
of diem, wherein divers gentle- 
men are often folaced. 

For roes the country yeeldeth 
not any, neither did I ever heare 
of any by reporte of the ancient 
men, to have been «fual in this 

Thi^ having fpoaken of the 
5 fortes of beaftcs of the foreft, 
which alfoe are called beaftes of 
vencrie, as alfoe the 5 fortes of 
the beafts of chafe, all which 
lenn fortes are couipreliended 
under the name of venyfon: 
next coraeth m courfe to fpeake 
of beaftes and fowles of warren, 
which are in number 4^>(viz.) 
The hare — ^The coney — The 
phefant<^The partridge. Who- 
foever hatfa libertie of fence 
warren, may have his fpeciall 
adlion of trefpaife at the com- 
mon lawe, ag&inft any that 
{\xk\\ hunt or chafe therein ; and 
as I have faid before of parkes 
and chafes, foe of free virarren. 
I knowe fewe or none that 
have the libertie, though divers 
gentlemen have good warrens of 
coniesy yet all unpriviledged. 
The phefant^md partridge, 1 1'e** 
ferre them to my words, where 
I have fpoaken of wild fowle. 

The reft of the game that dhe 
countrey ycddeth for chafe of 
huntfitieii) are rather Termytiy 
thca beaftet of game ; f udi iu 
the wikie catt, the brock, and 
foch like, whereof there is more 
ftore then neceOarie, creating 
good fporttt to the huntfman. 

I have alfoe feea good te 
hunting and killing the wiU 
bull, wild ox, and wiU calfe, 
by horfemen and footmen; 
whereof there is yet fome ftore 
reared upon the mountains, 
tfaou^ lefle then heretofore, the 
owner finding more profit by 
the tame, then ^eafure in the 

For hawking, the countrey, 
both for playnes of the foile, 
plende of game, both for die 
fieki and ryver ycoildedi ftore, 
which I referre to my fomier 
fpeeches, treating of wilde fowle, 
and In this place will onely 
fpeake of the aptnes of the conn- 
trey, which for plaine downes, 
hig^ moontalnes, pleidiuit 
brookes and rjrvers, there need- 
edi not to be wifhed more dien 
there is. 

Next unto thofe eKercifes of 
pleafore, fifhing is to be pre- 
ferred, whereof the conntrey 
yeeldedi plentie, either for the 
angle, nett, whede, hooke, or 
otherwife, as well in the frefh 




rivers* as in the mayoe les^j as 
before I have declared in the I4d:^ 
Chapter, wb^e I treate of dm 
ibrtes of fiihe, which Aihing, 
^thou^ I (pake of ir, in that 
place, as a matter of profitt an4 
commoditie of the ihire, yet, 
for that many fortes of fifhing 
are alfoe ufed more for recrea- 
tion and exercifey then for pro- 
fitt, I will aiFord it a place here 
Among the pleafuies of the fliire. 

Fowling alfoe claymeth a 
place with pleafures of this 
conn(rey, which for th^ I can- 
Xiot juftly denie it, it iliall gang 
among themt ^ttd truly not un- 
worthily, confxdering the great 
ghoqdance of fowle that yearely 
haunt the co\mtrey, whether 
^e fame be taken with line, 
netti crofsbowe, longbowe, and 
bolt, ftone bowe, tranke, or 
dog; the particulars thereof 
would require a whole treatife, 
certes the fame is accompanied 
with as much pleafure and de* 
lite as profitt and commoditie, 
for the better upderftanding 
whereof, I neferre to the 15th 
Chapter, wherein you may fe>^ 
the feverall fortes of fowle 
yearly haunting the countrey; 
^nd thereby Imagine the fundrie 
fcindes of taking of them> and 

what variety of pleafur^e may bo 
found thereby. 

As for gammg at ca,rd3 and 
dice, I knowe noe countrey 
ufing lefle, and archerie the 
fairefl game of England, as in 
other partes; the fame is yet 
talked of, but rarely pra£tifed, 
foe farre are the modern mindes 
alienated from their forefathers ; 
but bowles and tenys play, be- 
ing both games and exercifes, 
are much frequented ; and al- 
though they be prphibited, yet, 
in my fimple opinion, they are 
not nmla in Jcy and being mo- 
derately ufed of perfons, and in 
feafons fitt, they ^re the games 
that yeeld more exercife to man's 
body then any other. 

Tl^e youthes ^Ifo pra£^ife 
wraflling, throwing the flone, 
barre, and fledge, therein to 
fhewe theire abilities, as aUbp 
in running and leapping*. 

% My author here cloftth the 
firftpart of the work — profef- 
fing to be the general defcription 
ofPemhroke]bire^2iSidi that he had 
an intention of writing a fecond 
part is evident from his own 
declarations in many places of 
this firfl part , but which, I am 

* Th« moft iotereAiog part of this Chapter, vh{ch treated roofl minutely of the 
g^^e called Kna^an^ having already appeared in the firil yoIuiaq of the Cambrian 
ft^gfit^ri it V9« thou^t unQecclpuy to repeat it here. 





juflified in thinking, he never 
lived to compleat, as I have 
been at no imall pains to retrieve 
any papers rcfpefting fuch de- 
fign of his, if they haply were 
in being. — Yet all my fearch 

and enquiry, for that pHrpofc, 
have produced nodiing more 
fatisfaAory than the fc^owing, 
in his hand writing, giving a: 
fketch of his plan in the profe* 
cution of his work. 


After which general defcription of the whole (hcere, 
*• I mean to defcribe particularly every hundred by 
•* itfelf, and therein to treat of every particular parifh, 
** townred, manor, lordfhip, caftle, houfe, under- 
•* wood, foreft, park, chace, abbey, priory, and 
** other things of name, which I ihall think worthy 
«• to be fpoken of, towards the which particular de- 
«' fcription of each hundred, I am to crave furtherance 
" of fome gentlemen, in each part of the fhire, and 
*' for their better rememberance, I have drawn fome 
** fpeciall notes, whereof they may enquire, and to 
" note down in writing, fuch things as they fhall 
** learn, and think fitt, as well upon the former point 
** of the general defcription of the fhire, and upon the 
«« particular defcription of the hundred, with all 
other matters that they fhall think fit for fuch a pur- 
pofc." ' • 


1. Imprimis. — ^The meers and 
lapdlkars of each hundred 
to be perfe6ily laid down, 
and the moft notable things 
of name upon the land- 
fkars, as rivers, tumps of 
earth, heaps of ftones, 
rockS; paths, or ways, or 
whatfoever tiling elfe carri* 
eth name. 

) I 

8. How many manors or lord- 
fliips are iii eapH hundred, 
their names, who were 
owners thereof in times paft, 

who are now, and how 
they came to be the owners, 
whether by inhertance, or 
by purchafe, or from 

3. The names of all the villages 
and townreds in every 
parifh, and whence they 
took firft their name, if 
known, and whofc the 
fame were of old, and are 
now, and whether the 
fame be yet ftapding or de^ 

4. Of 


\4f» Of all parishes and townreds 
that are inhabited with Iri(h 
people, when they came 
firfl to inhabit, what trade 

J of life they are, whether 
they and their children 
continue Irifh like in fpeech, 
&c. or are become £ng-/ 

, liih- 

.5. Of all calUe^y and gentle- 
mens houfes decayed, or 
now remaining, and who 
were owners tliereof in old 
time, and at prefent, with 
pedigree and arms of the 

6. Of all arms and tombs that 


are to be found in every 
parifh church and chapel, 
as well in the windows, as 
elfe where, and whofe arms 
and tombs they are. 

7. Of every paiifli, whether 

inpropriate, or not, and to 
what religious houfe it did 
belong, in whofe gift, what 
faint patron, and which 
day votive to him. 

8. Of all chapells of eafe, in 

every parifh, and other 
chapels, if decayed or not. 

9. Of all abbeys, monaflerieS} 

friarries, priorries, hofpi- 
talsy mawdlins^ alm9 houfes, 


in every hundred or parifh, 
and what may be learned of 
them, and of the founders. 

10. Of all other chapeU and 

crofles, and what report of 

11. Of all other places of pil^ 

grimage, or fuperditioQ, in 
times pafl, as wells, flones, 
ihrines of Saints, where 
they (land, what called, at 
what times refort to them 
was, and what difeafe or 
end they ferved. 

12. Ofall places of name where- 

of remains any memory, 
any wonders, any field 
fought, any hold or caftle, 
in times pad, what tump of 
earth or ftones ere(5ted. 

13. Of all rivers and brookes, 

how called, whence they 
fpring, by what places of 
note they run, where they 
fall into thefea, or other 
great rivers. 

14. Of pooles and famous bogs. 

15. Of all great fifheries in times 

pafl, where they lay, of 
what fifh, whether decayed 
or ufedj of the feafou of the 

Q 3 

16. Of 



16. Of all boroughs and towns 

incorporate tliat now arc, 
or were, and their conlli* 

17. Of all antient deer parks, 

forefts, chaccs, how large, 
and whofe they were jQid 
are, how long difparked or 
decayed, how enclofed, and 
to what caftle or manor 
houfc tlicy belonged. 

18. Of all frefli wells that ebb 

and flow as tlie fca doth. 

19. Of the ufual meafurcs <5f 

lands, in every hundred, 
manor, or parifh, and how 
they differ. 

20. Of all iflands inthefea,how 

the fame are called, of what 
fize, ><rhat places of note 
in thofe iflands, of all fmall 
rocks or (tones in tlie fea 
on the coaft, and of what 

21. Alfo to enquire of all other 

notable things or matters, 
that you (hall find or tfaifik 
fit for fuch purpofe, be it of 
any matter that you fliall 
fee or perceive with the 
eye, or any hiftdry, or adt 
done, or report of old time, 
or lately, and fit to be re- 
membered, and briefly to 
note the fertie in witittg. 


( 231 ) ■ 


THERE Is reafon to appre- 
t^end that our materials 
are likely to turn out more 
icaaty wkb rcfpciSt to biography, 
than as to mofl other branches 
of iofotjiKitiQiif whicb wc have 

promifed to lay before the pub^ 
lie ; for tlie Wclfli have been 
exceedingly negleflfui of the 
memorials of fuch charaders, 
as have been eminent amongft 
them, aod wlio have cvanribu- 
;Q4 ted 



ted to the honour of their coun- 
try, by giving it fome rank in 
the hiftory of the world. But, 
we will not defpair of being 
able to bring forward the names 
and adlions of fome diftinguifhed 
men, who otherwife might have 
remained unknown; and per- 
haps, what is thus endeavoured, 
may alfo be the means of fti* 
mulating others^ to purfue this 
pleafing topic of inveftigation, 
with a greater degree of atten- 
tion th'ati has been done hereto- 
fore, ^by the people of Wales. 

Of Mr* Lewis Morris, the 
fubjedi of this fhort memoir, 
feveral particulars may be ga- 
thered from his owm letters, 
which have appeared in the pre- 
ceding volume of the Cambrian 

: Regijler^ and efpecially the one 

wto Mr. PeggCy in page 367; but 

ftill it may be neceffary, for the 

*. fake of connexion and of order, to 
giVe room for what is here col- 
le£ied togetlier, ' with regard to 
th(f periods, and the leading oc- 
currences, of the life of a man, 
to wliofe memoiy a tribute of 
refpedl is due from his fellow 
countrymen, upon account of 
^ his indefatigable exertions in the 
caufe of ancient Britifh hiftory 
'and Uterature. 

His lather, Morris PritcharJ 
Morris^ originally a cooper by- 
trade, but who afterwards became 
a corn-dealer, and lived at P^n- 
trev £irianeiif a village in the 
parifli of Penr OS Llugwy^ in the 
iflc of Angkfey^ bad four fons, 
fFiiliamf Richard, Johttf and 
Lewis ; and a daughter of the 
name of Margaret* 

Lewis Morris, the youngeft 
of tlie five children of M. P* . 
Morris and Margaret his wife,* 
was born on the firft day of 
March, 1702. 

It does not appear that the 
father was enabled to give 
to Lewis, and his other children, 
any education, except what^the 
village fchool furniflied, of the 
firft rudiments of reading and 
writing, with that little fmat- 
tering of the Englifh language, 
which is cuftomary in the fe^ 
eluded parts of the principality. 
But, what is remarkable and 
highly to their credit, all the 
brothers became, through , felf- 
cducaiion^ eminent diara£brs 
in various branches of know- 
ledge and fcience. 

John died mate of the Tor- 
bay man of war, in the expedi- 
tion of 1740, agaioft Cartha- 

* She died on ifae lOtli of September/ 17512,' in the 82d yctt of hex age. 




gcna, aged S* years. He is 
ikid to have beea the moft pro'- 
miiijig geuios of all the hro- 
ihers ; bat of die three, who 
enjoyed the comhaon duration of 
Jife, Ltwis had the credit of 
being the moft vigorous cha*- 
raiSer. . 

fFilltamj befides being a to- 
lerable Welfli fcholar and a col- 
ledtor of ancient manufcrtpts, 
.was difttnguifhed for his know- 
ledge in botany. Through the 
influence of the younger bro- 
ther, he filled the office of 
comptroller of the cuftomsi and 
colle£lor of the fait duty at 
Holyhead; and he refided alto- 
.gether in Wales, and died there 
in January, 1764. 


Richard was very indefatiga- 
ble, corredl, and methodical in 
every thing that he executed; 
he was therefore a proper perfon 
to fuperintend the printing of 
die two editions of the fVelJb 
Bible^ of die years 1746 and 
1752, which were intruded to 
his care. In the early period 
. of his life he wrote a good deal 
of .poetry in his mother tongue, 
.of which there is a manufcript 
.collcftion in the Wclfh fchool 
; in London. . The intereft of liis 
. brother Zr^wii, procmied him the 

fituadon of firft clerk in the 
Navy Office, which ^ he filkd 
for many years ; but fome dme 
before his death, which took 
place in 1779, he was put upon 
the fuperannuated lift, in ord6r 
to make room for the political 
accommodations of the day^. 

Margarety the fifter of Mr. 
Lewis Morris, is ftill hving, i» 
Anglefey. " 

Lewis Morriiy ivas originally 
brought up to die bufinefs cff 
land furvcyirtg, which he fol- 
lowed occafionally 2 however, 
moft of his time was taken up 
by being employed in different 
offices under goverhm«it. The 
firft poft which he {Procured, 
was that of colleftor of the cuf- 
toras, and the fait duties, at 
Holyhead. In the year 1737, 
the admiralty appointed him to 
furvey the coaft of Wales, which 
he fatisfadlorily ^accompliihed ; 
and the work was made public 
in 1748. In the fame period 
we find that he had the appoint- 
ment of the furveyorfliip of the 
crown lands in Wales , and in 
the year 1750, he had the addi- 
tional offices of agent and fuper* 
intendant of the king's mines in 
the principality. He drew up 
an hiftorical defcription of the 

,^ # There are three of his chUdren now Hung: a fon of the name of Richard, who 
>•!■ ♦ couaU/ mcfchaiit in India ; and two daoshters, who rtfide in io&doo. ^ 

1^ mineralogy 



mineralogy within the ^here of 
his jurifdiAion, but the work 
was never publilbed. 

It mufl appear obvious, from 
the multiplicity of Mr. Morris's 
icmploymcnts, that he was too 
much imroerfed in the buftle of 
buGnefSy to give full fcope to 
literary purfuits. However, at 
every opportunity of leifure 
time, he feduloufly applied him- 
felf to the ftudy of the higher 
branches of fcience, without 
being able to fix his mind upon 
any one in particular; but he 
was coniidered eminent for his 
knowledge in mineralogy ; and 
Aill more fo for his fldll in me- 
chadifm. He beftowed much 
attention upon mufic, and was 
a good performer upon feveral 
inftruments, as the harp, violin, 
£ute, and horn. It was Lewis 
Morris^ who firft put the harp 
into the hands of blind Parry ; 
and he gave the rudiments, 
which taught that fon of har- 
mony to delight the world. 

' Mr. L. Morris was a good 
poet in his native language; and 
there are feveral of his compofi- 
tions printed in the coUetSion, by 
David Jones, of Trevriw, called 
.Diddcnwch Teuluaidd^ wfaetdn 
it is to be difcovered, thait liis 

chief excellence lay in {atir« and 
humour. Bat, with refpefl to 
Mr. Mofris*s liteiary acquire* 
ments, we revere him the moft 
as a critic, and far his know- 
ledge in ancient Britifli hiftory; 
yet, in thefe two brandies, he 
left nothing behind^ him in a 
ftate prepared for the prefs. He 
wrote a vaft variety of notes 
upon the different authora, and 
the obfcure points of the more 
early account of thefe iflands. 
He alfo planned a valuaUe woiic, 
entitled CMc RemainSf in two 
volumes, of the nature of an 
hiftorical, topographical, and 
etymological di£tianary, into 
which was entered, by way of 
common place, every article, 
which occurred in the coorfe of 
his reading, diat appeared ap* 
propriate for the defign*. 

It ouglit not to be forgotten, 
that it was the foftering hand of 
Lewis MorriSf which brought 
forward Goromvy Owen, c'ne of 
the firft Weifli poets of modem 
times. This truly fine genius, 
who received his education, and 
who was afterwards maintained 
at die iiniveiiky of Oxford, by 
the munificence of Mr. Morris^ 
buoyed himfeif up, for fixne 
years, with the hopes that his 
talents would be t]te nMans of 

, ♦ ThUnittna(hriptuint)ie2ftftnds«ftlieIUv.^«lterJ3bt;^ \ttibti JeAit^oHese, 
Oxford, and nov of MdvAd, MoatjgaHMiyllikc j vhotjt |V<|UBiBSitiar j aM i w i f i S , 

vitKauiaeroai additioi^ aadimprovexBCAtf. 




bringing him to a fmall prefer- 
ment In the church ; but at 
length he ddfpaired of finding a 
patron of fufficicnt influence, 
and in confeqaence he removed 
^th his family to America; and 
he finally fettfed as profeflbr of 
humanity^ the college of Wil- 
liamfburg, in Virginia, where 
he diedp as it is fuppofed^ about 
the year 17701 

Mr. Lewis Morris pafied the 
latter part of his life at Penbryn, 
in Cardigan/Iiire, a fmall man- 
fion of his own, which devolved 
to him by his fecond marriage. 
As he had, amongft his various 
purfuits, beftowed fome atten- 
tion upon phyfic and furgery, 
he was of great benefit in ad- 
miniftering relief to the afBi£ted 
poor of his neighbourhood. 

Towards the clofe of his 
days, Mr. Morris fufiered fe- 
vcrely in his health, from the 
ague, the dropfy, and the afth- 
ma; and, in confequence of a 
complication of thofe and other 
diforders, he died on the eleventh 
day of April, 1765, in the fixty- 
third year of his age, and was 
iSuried at £!lanbadarn Vawr, in 

Mr. Lewis. Morris f was firft 
married on tlie 29th of March^ 
1729, to Elizabeth Griffiths^ 

heirefs of Ty Wrdyn^ near Ho^ 
lyhead. Of Ais marriage he 
had ififue, Lewis^ the firft fon, 
who was bom die 29th of De- 
cember (his' mother beingiixteen 
years atid five days old) and who 
died young ; Margaret y who wail 
bomtheSOdi of January, 173 U 
and died on the 31ft of March, 
1761 ;. and Eleanor^ bom on 
the 30th of January, 1732, and 
who is no¥r livii^ ia Aagle» 

His fecond wife was Ann 
Lloydy heirefs of Penbryn , whom 
he married on tlie 20ch of Oc- 
tober, 1749; and die died on 
the lah of March, 1786. There 
were nine children by this mar- 
riage, that is to fay, 

Lewis f who died in 1779, at 
Kingfton, Jamaica, aged 29 

Johfif who died at Penbryn, 
aged 14. 

Elizabethf now living. 

Jane^ who died nine months 

yaney the fecond, now living. 

fVHiiam^ now living in Car- 
diganfhire. He is engaged in 
re-publifhing his father's Survey 
of the Coaft of Wales, with 
additions; and is alfo bringing 
out his own Map of Anglefey, 
which will be a valuable acqui«» 
fidon, as it will be upon a 





icale large enough to admit the 
infeition of every houfe and 
cottage in the iiland. 

Richard^ who died young. 

Mary^ who is now living. 

Pryje^ who died in Septem- 
ber, 1797.* 

Tlie portrait at the head of 
this account, is taken from a 
mezzotinto print, of about the 
fame Hze, after a drawing done 
by Mr. Morris of himfelf; and 
it is faid to be a very corre<3 
likenefs of his perfon. 

* At the tune of bis death he wai mate of the ihip Thomas, of Liverpool, the 
>rhole crew of which vere murdered by the ila\esy on the mid-f»afla^ from Afiic* 
■lo the Weil ladiea, excvptiog tvo perfoni, vho are fiace arrived at LiverpooL 


( 237 ) 


Cammunicaltd iy W^. j 

TO depi(Surc die characters 
of perfons deceafed in 
their natural colours, to draw 
their features from life, is an 
employment' that cannot foil of 
being intercfling to fociecy. The 
biographer (bould, like the fta- 

, with Netet. 

ttiaiy, place his fubjeA in the 
moft favourable light; but he 
fhould cover no blemifli with 
the drapery of omiflion. Men 
at they are, fliould be the motto 
in the title-page of a biographi- 
cal dictionary. It is necefTary, 



that every quality which may 
be ranked in the ckifs of vinues, 
fliould be held to public view, as 
objei^s of imitadon : it is equally 
juft that every vice, and even 
foible, fliould be impartially 
expofedi in order to excite in the 
fpedtators its confequent fcnfa- 
tion, whether of pity, difguft, 
or abhorrence^ Were nacn thus 
critically to infpecSl into the caufes 
of exaltation and deprefllon, of 
profperity and mifery, c^ every 
thing that is amiable or difagree- 
able, in others, as they p^fs in 
proceffion before them* over the 
dieatre of life ; and judicioufly 
to apply thefe caufes as fprings 
of allien, of attra6lion and re- 
puliion, in their own condu£i ; 
it might be expeded, that the 
precipitancy of the depravity of 
manners, national as well as 
individual, of which moraliils 
ib loudly and juftly complain, 
would be ftemm'd, rendered fta- 
'• tionary, become retrograde, and 
why not return to primaeval 
perfeSion. The fatalifts, and 
abettors of the pecefllty of evil, 
may laugh at this dream of be- 
nevolence ; but the fuggefior 
thereof is willing to give up the 
ijpheme as impradicable* Bio- 
graphy however muft have a 
tendency to promote (hat de- 
£rable end. As a liqk in the 
chain, the writer of thefe pages 
begs leave to introduce the cha- 
ra^er of a perfon, who merits 

public notice. It is not that of 
a warrior, the fcourge of heaven 
to plague mankind, who leads 
his fquadrons to dtpopulate^ 
neither is it that of the accom- 
pliflied courrier, who, in die 
intoxication of refinement, de- 
fpifes and de&rts that frank iin- 
cerity which adorns humanity* 
to ape the geftures of the brute 
creation; — but it is that of a 
man, who, in fpite of fituation, 
poverty, and want of education, 
arofe triumphant over every ob^ 
ftacle, and fecured to himfelf 
the celebrity of being at once 
a fchoiar, a poet, and philofo* 
pherl This is the man, a fketch 
of whofe life is here intended ; 
and the writer flatteii himfelf 
diat he has not been unhappy in 
the choice of his fubje£t. Pop^ 
had a much worthier chara<^er 
to celebrate in the Man of Roju 
than Quintus Curtius had, in the 
conqueror of the world: and 
Monf. Hirzel dignified human 
nature more in bringing to light 
the domeftic virtues of Kliyogt 
a Swifs farmer, than Voltaire 
did, with all his pai-ade of ftile 
and eloquence, in enumerating 
the vi(Slories of Charles the 
twelfth, of Louis le grand, or 
even of Peter the great, 

WiUiam Joms^ the perfon 
above alluded to, was bom in 
the parifli of Llangadvan, in 
Montgomeryibire,' about the 




year 1729. It does not appear 
chat he ever redded a fortnight 
out of his native place, from the 
day of his birth unto tlie day of 
his death) which happened in 
Auguft 1795. The education 
he acquired at (chooly was but 
"wrhat diat country in general 
affords; a little broken Eng- 
lUh, and an ability of writinjg 
his name. He got his liveli- 
hood in die beginning of life by 
farming a few acres. Indolence 
18 an endemic among the nifties 
of thefe paitSy to which they 
facrifice about two-thirds of dieir 
time. But the days, in which 
fonti negle^ed the cultivation 
of his farm, were not entirely 
loft, for he fpent them in die 
unprovement of his mind. In 
die fifter-arts of mufic and poe- 
try, he foon became an accom* 

plifhed proficient. In Wdfh 
fyntax and profody, he ranked 
among the profoundeft critics 
that Wales ever produced. Of 
his acquiiidon in the Engiiih 
language, his account oJF the 
three pari{hes,in this volume,may 
ferve as a fpecimen. But al* 
though he could write , Englifh 
tolerable well, yet in convcrfa- 
don he was fo deficient that he 
was frequendy reduced to a 
nonplus, and forced to fini/h 
the fentence in his own vema« 
cular tongue. His diirft after 
knowledge prompted him to 
attempt to learn the Latin lan« 
guage, and he fucceeded fo far 
as to be able to tranflate fome 
of the odes of Horace, and 
Ovid's Metamorphofes* into ex- 
cellent Wdfh vcrfe. Some may 
be prone to infinuate diat he 

^ The ibUovins may ferve aa e fpecimen of his tnaflitioiu from Orid* 

^ M£odkmim ^f irritammtm wudarum^* tsSu 

Kwt e gaed i yrra gwrnlt, 
Ac arian, prnidd dnrg aiall; 
Nid Uai fydd ol ea dolor 
Ka faaearn, neu ddam o dduri 
Gyda*r ddau diau y daeth 
Galaiiai a |elyniaeth; 
Pvylav giymi diluw o gran, 
A thvrf ac ymgnith arfau : 
3iyd y byd; trais, brad a bafj 
Yn lie tegw^h lleteugar. 
Ki cbarai «ii ei ckvaer acb^ 
Ni feithrin ei gy£«Uirach; 
Brad y Hall ac nl phallai 
Birriad naUi briod a vnaa; 
I«lytfam a wnai gam mcwn g^a 
Ag einioM plant a |wenwyt|| 





tranilated the odes, ice, from an 
Engliih vcrfion ; but his know- 
ledge of Latin was othcrwifc 
obviouSy from his fkiU and fa- 
cility in decyphering old Latin 
manufcripts, and deeds, of the 
lO^ or 12*" cent, which were 
full of abbreviations and diffi- 
cultiesy fuch indeed as would 
puzzle the brains of many of 
our black-lettered lawyers. 

No man ever cxpreflcd greater 
. inward fatisfadlion than he did, 
when he had an opportunity of 
inftrudling fuch young men of 
his acquaintance, as had a pro- 
peniity to learn, Indeed he had 
not enough of patience to throw 
away his time upon others. 
When he was once explaining 
the heathen mythology of Pan- 
dora's box, his pupils aiked 
him what thofe evUs were, which 
were let loofe fo upon mankind ? 
He anfwered with bis ufual 
' fneering fmile,— \Vhy, George 
f Whitfield, John Wefley, Tom 

* Vernon, Fr. Chambre*, all 

* the quack-doftors, petty-fog- 

* ging attorneys, and others.' 

By folitude, and retirement 
from fociety, he had imbibed a 
kind of cynic difpofition ; and 
mifanthropy at {jmes appeared 
to be the moft prominent fcatu\'e 

of his mind. A flow of fatixe 
feemed to be interwoven widi 
his very conftitution ; and its 
poignancy has been fevercly felt 
by as many as fell under the 
laHi of bis difpleafure. Scorn- 
ing, as it were, to be a citizen 
of the world at large, he wa» 
bigotted to the frozen regions of 
Nifni yreira. Being what they 
call a redrhot Welfhman, he as 
cordially hated the £ngli(h as 
our anceilors did the Saxons, 
about eleven hundred years ago. 
This will appear by an extrad 
from his preface to a book of 
pedigrees, which he left.bel)in4 
bim in manufcript. 






* « # << I fee no reafon to 
be fo fervilely compliant to 
the numerous fcoffings of 
our good neighbours the En^ 
glifli, as to fufFer them to 
brow-beat us out of tliis ufe- 
ful amufement. It may be 
prefumcd, that the pretended 
inutility or infignificancy of 
the fcience, is not the true 
motive of their fe^ming con- 
tempt o( it \ but an invidious 
difpofition and peevifhnefs, 
ariflng from a fenfe of inabi^ 
lity to produce any fuch 
vouchei-s of their own defcent 
and gentility, as we are pof- 
(effe^ of. The iox, in tho 

♦ Thcfe two were agents tp Sir Wit^U WUlUms Wya», «Qd wt^ laid to ^ aOiro 

in diftrel&ng bis tenants. • < 




t' orchard betog aiked, why Ytfi 
^ did not eat fnik? leplied, 
i* thai it was t^ /cur, Tli« 
^ Epglifli are as ambitious of 
^ gpntility and titles of honour, 
M as any nation whatfoever. 
** Their mean mechanics have 
f* (forfooth) a feat of arms; 
f * and many of their mufliroom 
^ gentry, who ojn fcarcely teJJ 
<• who their grandfathers were, 
^* become humble fuppliants at 
if the heraldry office, and foot 
^* of the throne, to buy or 
** borrow a quality they had 
I* not derived kom their pfOf- 
<f geniioiSf 

. ' ii IVrbaps our books of pe- 
N^ digcees may be an eye-fore 
*^ to our neighbours in apother 
ff point of view. It is well 
<$ knowi^ that many lonlfhips 
*i- and good eftates in Wajes, 
♦* are at this time in the pof- 
i! &fton of Engli{h families, 
f^ which were in former times 
. t^. weeded from our anceftors, 
ff the lawful ownets, by bafe 

V treachery, and the moft flar 
if grant a^ of ii^uftice; whofe 
f^ right h^irs w« are able by 

V fuch our records to trace eveQ 
f ? t« this very day. . 

^^ No lover of literatpre can 

f f hpip lamenting the unthink- 

• I' Wg ncgleA of the psefent ge« 

f^ ner^tioA, and t(ie confequ^nt 

If W^Aj? mi deftrui£iion {u%re4 

<^ to be made of oiir nbanu- 
f* fcripts, as well hiftorical and 
f > poetical as genealogical ; not 
H only by that general devourer 
** time, but by the execrable 
" hands of villams, who, ac» 
^* tuated by fraud, or the rood 
<< ftupid ignorance, have fre- 
M quently called in the affiftance 
«* of the two devouring elements 
« of fire and water, to accom^ 
«« plifh their wicked defigns. 
M The raoft part of fuch as re^ 
^< maio, are penned up in U- 
** braries, where few can have 
" accefs to them; or carried 
*« out of the couptry, where 
<< they will be left in the hands 
<* of ftrangers to the nation and 
language, atid loft for ever.** 


In one of his letters to a cor- 
refpondent, he writes concern-? 
ing this fame book of pedigrees, 
thus, " My dcAgn refpefting 
«« genealogies, is to draw a ge«* 
" n^ral chart of the ancient 
<« and moft worthy families of 
" Wales, and bring them down 
^< to the 16th centuiy ; whjch 
** I think may be comprifcd in 
*« a thin folio vo]umc. Sucl^ 
** an uncjertaking wdl require 
?^ fome carp to collate majiu- 
<* fcripts, in orjlcr to avoid the 
*^ errors that havp crept in by 
<* the careleffnefs or wilfulnefi} 
** of tranfcribers. I fhall no| 
** take any notice of ^Inglifl^ 
♦• pedigrees -fhil hgrs ladron fj 
R " left 



*^ left I fhould trace their mufh- 
<* room nob. and gen. to fome 
** baftards, arrant thieves and 
^* murderers, whether Saxon 
" or Norman.*^ 

What oppofite qualities ap- 
pear in this eccentric characSler \ 
What greatnefsy what meanefs 
of mind! Here is evidently 
die want of education,, and of a 
more extenfive commerce with 
the world, to foften his manners, 
ai>d to i^il tl)e principles of 
liberality into his foul. His good 
fenfe and great abilities ought to 
have fet him above making fuch 
invidious national diftin&ions, 
and blowing afre(h the almoft 
felf-extinguiflied embers of ani* 
mofity, which fhould be left to 
reft, i;i eternal oblivion* The 
caufe of fuch party-feuds is now 
entirely ren^oved ; for, as Judge 
Blackftonc obferved, " We are 
** now infenfj>ly put upon the 
*^ fame footing, and Roman- 
**' like, made fellow-citi^i)^ 
f* with our conquerors." 

It mpft b^ owned, and it 
ought to be here premifed, that 
befides this, he had feveral other 
foibles which were highly rer 
prehenfible, as will appear by 
tlie fequel of (his Iketch. The 
writer hereof may be blamed, 
by fhort-fighted perfons, for 
having any connexions with a 
p^an of his principles; but his 

apology is, that (like Paracelfus) 
provided he received valuable 
information upon any fubjed, 
he did not care from what quar- 
ter it came, whether from pro- 
feflbrs in fcience, or from ftrol- 
ling gypfies. The bee lights 
upon the flower, to extrad its 
honey, not its noxious qualities : 
gold, is ftill gold, in whatever 
matrix it may be found imbeds 
ded : And who would not ftoop 
to pick up gems, even from a 
dunghill ? But to return:— 

yoneSf as if he were at times 
tired in thinking upon die van* 
ous properties of this particle 
of matter, which we live upon, 
would he carried in mind by 
bis eagle-winged genius to die 
fpheres of the planets, upon 
which he farmed many whimfi'^ 
cal hypothefes* Such as tfaefe. 

" Wliedier there is any ma* 
<^ terial difierence in the heat 
*« received from the fun, in the 
" feveral primary orbs which 
** furround him ? And whedier 
" may not Herfchell's new pla- 
♦* net be as temperate, and even 
f* as warm, as Mercury? Be- 
" caufe their wanqtfa muft be 
" calculated not only from a 
f* compound ratio of th^ir dif- 
" tances, but alfo from their 
various refpeftive quantities 
of refledling furfecc. A given 
f* quantity of die furfece of Jui 

" piter. 









•* piter, will refleA more heat 
than an equal quantity of 
the furfece of Mercury : the 
*' latter being more convex, con- 
^« fequently the' rays being re- 
♦* ceived obliquely, will not re- 
4* gurgitate on the body of the 
^* planet. I am better adapted 
^ to explain my notions, in 
** kitchen language, than m the 
technical jargon of the learned. 
When my mother dreffed a 
^' goofe, flic ufually placed her 
^ large hnk pan behind it. I 
** wa€ her tufii«-fpit, and being 
*• of an inqDifitive turn of mind^ 
** when I found her in good 
<* humour, I afked her the rea- 
*• fon of her placing the pan iri 
^< that (ituation? She faid it 
** was to catch the heat of thd 
*-* fire that was flying off, and 
** return it upon the goofe. 1 
" afked her, why did not the 
'* iiitU pan fcrve as well ? She 
<« anfwered, that the larger the 
** pan was, the more heat wa^ 
•' refledted upon the goofe. 
•* And r remember, that when 
«« the fire was rather too vehe- 
^* ment, I was ordered to turn 
'* the fpit fafler; by which I 
ff took the whim, that had not 
** Jupiter's velocity prevented 
*< it, he might be fcorchcd." 

But after endeavouring to ftp- 
port that planets of various dif- 
tances from the fun, might ne- 
V^Ftbel^fs enjoy ap e^ual degree 

of warmth, owing to their differ- 
ence in convexity of furface, in 
denfity or tenuity of atmofphere, 
&c. he feems to have fhifted 
fides, by faying in a fubfcquent 
letter, " Though the light and 
** warmth of Saturn be far in-/ 
** ferior to ours, yet this needs 
** not make the inhabitants of 
" that remote globe to be more 
" miferable than we are* For 
" the author of nature may 
" have formed thofe beings of 
" fuch materials as are adapted 
" to their fituation. The half- 
" frozen Greenlander would 
" think himfelf in hell, were 
** he tranfported to the burning 
" plains of Africa. The vul- 
." tures of the Andes immedi- 
" ately die when they are brought 
« to the lower regionsof Lima." 


* *' I noted from WhJUon, 
" fays he, about 50 years ago, 
«* the times when the fuppofed 
" known comets were to re- 
" appear; and being deceived 
" in my expeftation, I con- 
" eluded, that thofe which re-* 
" fembled other former comets 
** were not the fame, and that 
« comets ' never return. Th6 
" curve which they appear to 
*• defcribe in their approxima- 
" tion to the fun, is caufed by 
« his attraftion: and when they 
** get clear of his influence, 
*• they proceed in a direft line 
«* until they cgme within th« 

R 2 •* fphero 



*' fphene of ^trafUon of ano- 
'' ther orb; and fo on^ eter- 
'' nally travcrilog the iofinky 
•< of fpacc,^ 

He was much afflided, in his 
youth| with an inveterate ibro- 
ptiula ; which to remove, baf- 
fed all the effoi;^ of the faculty. 
The raalady confirmed its claim 
to the appellation of opprobrium 
midiforum. This was a £au(b 
more than fuficient to turn the 
yerfatility of h^ genius to the 
ftudy of the art of healing. 
And his firft attcynpt, upon 
himi/elf^ fucceeded in a complete 
cure* He foon came to be coi>« 
dde/'ed by .the vu^r as the 
Boerhasve of the day. fiut thole 
^ho thought themfclves of the 
better fort, defpiied his mean 
appearance, his broken Englifh, 
his want of pteteniioas to im- 
poffibilities ; and as he had 
l^er learnt to diiTemblei lie was 
Fd^olly deftitute of tlie trumpe- 
ries and impoftures of empiri- 
cifm^ When ftrangeis, by his 
uncouth appearance, feemed to 
4out>t his ability of healing the 
fcro)phw, he ufed to ihew 
to them what he cal]ed his 
($rtifi(at€ : thefe were the fcais 
tt&, by the evil upon his own 


With Dr. Girtanner, he con. 
demned the hodge-podge pre- 
Ccdptions of phyficians j alledg- 

ing, that all difeafoi ori^nated 
from fimple caufes, which Should 
be reefiovcd or alleviated by 
fimple laedicJQes. He ihoii^t, 
that two fimp)e drugs, the one 
to increafe, the other tQ disBoifli 
initability, wo^ld be Aifficient, 
inftead of nun^Mrlots gaUipots, 
the thoufamd engines of death, 
which crowd the apodiecaries' 

*^ Our country apothecaries^ 
(fays he, in a letter dated 
Oa. 2% 1794} " thittk ifattD- 
** felves in the ne plus ultrm of 
*^ medical fcience; and plume 
'< themfelves on their dipiity of 
<^ being Ikeafed, of having been 
<< at fea, aod bearing ledtufts ! 
<* As for my part* 1 6nxk tho 
'^ art ftill in its in&ncy : there 
'^ remains yet aaaoy ahfuFd ao* 
<< tioos in die pca^iQe, and no 
*' great progrof&has been mads 
*' in-die prevention and cure of 
<' contagious and chronic &* 
*' feafes. What ravages are 
f< made at fea by the fcurvy) 
♦* Forty . day^ are required to 
*f form quarantine: but this 
*' might be pedbnoed in fe 
'f many minutes, were the real 
^ cauie or conta^ous prindple 
<< of dilisafes wq1| undexftood/' 

^^ But as a costraft to our 
S* pxefent ignorance in the an 
!* of h^lingy we can hardly 
^ form an idea of the ultimate 

^.* perfe^oQ 



<* peffedioi> 10 which it may 
** arrive, at fome ftiniro period. 
^* Itwa«fofne time back thought 
** a wonderful difcoveryt that 
^^ pexibns drownedy anc^ afpp»- 
** rently dead, fhoold be after*- 
<< wards reftored to life. But 
« could I, by fome hw$ of 
'^ tranfmigration, return into 
« this world, at a thoufand 
^^ years henoe, I fhouM not be 
^* furpriied to hear, that the 
*< travellers, and the foldiers of 
** the cruel Almagro, who, on 
*< their paflage from Peru to 
'' Chili, attempted to afcend 
^' the Andes, but were con^ 
*' verted, both men and horfes, 
^< by the iotenfity of the cold, 
*' into mummies of ice ; where 
^* they now remain in an ia« 
** dined pofture, the horfes, as 
-<< it were, in the attitude of, 
^ pacing, and the men in that 
** of whipping or fpurring;-^ 
*< I ihould not be furprifed, I 
'^ fay, to hear that thofe ani- 
'* mals, both mea and brutes^ 
** had been reftored to life. Pa- 
'* radoxical as this may appear, 
** I am far from thinking it im«- 
*^ poffible. A drowned perfon^ 
*' before his recovery, has for 
<* die time his functions of life 
^ fufpended : the men and horiisB 
<* on the Aades are but in the 
'* £une predicament " ! I 

It is wdl kliown that froft ii 
an exceUeatt preferver of ftliimai 

folids; but whether it is the 
fame in regard' to die fluids^ and 
efpecially the nervoui^ the pri- 
mum mobile of aaimfttian,' Mn 
Jones wQuU have aded wifely 
to reflefiy before his broaching 
fCich a flighty notion. 

Eariy in life, he happened fd 
read the writings of Voltaire; 
was fo unfortunatcf a» to admire 
them; and they left indelible 
impreffioiks upon his miiid.--** 
Mons. Hirzd gives KKyog, bis 
&vourite Swifs fanner, the ap^ 
pellation of the Rural Socrates / 
fo might Joneii^ with equal pro* 
priety, be caUed the Rural f^oU 
taire. Vokaire was his favourite 
tutor, both in politics and i>elfi> 
l^d. If the writer hereof msf 
guefs from the portraits he has 
feen of Voltaire, the features of 
the body, as weU as of the 
mind, in both, were very fimi^ 
lar to each other. Owing td 
tfaefe prtnciples, his pradkse )h 
phyfic declined apace in his lat^ 
tei" years. Churchmen couU 
not think of employing a man 
whom they deemed a republi- 
can; nor could the diflfentet^ 
expe£l the bleffing of heaveti 
iq>on the endeavours of an inftdd 
to heaL In a letter dated the 
8th of 0£hiber, 1793, he conMu 
plains of being perfecoted by 
both paztiesi in diefe wchJb;* 


« # ♦ <« Cbtri 



« * tf Chwi fyddj Ac aveoydd gmin, 
<<• Tn Uavnder bawddfyd Llandains 
*< Miniiftq yn annymanol, 
M Llithro vdaf i'r Uethr yn 6U 

" To be fliort, there cxifts 
** not a more pitiable biped than 
<< I am, upon earth. Not a 
•♦ whit, not a tittle of comfort 
** left, for this world, nor the 
f< next. You too well know 
<* that I have offended the e\cSt 
** in diefe parts, fome time ago ; 
** and upon that accotint I am 
*« excluded for ever from the 
^* lift of faints, which are fo re- 
«* gularly kept here, that the 
** book of life is to be but as 
^* h were a tranfcript of the 
«« methodtftical regifters. lam 
<* pcrfecuted alfo by church- 
•* men: our reverend reftor, 
** (whofe name I forgot to men- 
** tion in my diftrefs concern* 
** ing my poor foul), in his ex- 
•* ccfs of charity, and tender- 
** neis of feelings, for his poor 
*^ curate, whom he was going 
.«* to. turn adrift, with a wife 
•* and five or fix children, took 
** it into liis head that I had a 
•' hand in forwarding a petition 
** to the bifliop to continue our 
•* minifter in his cure. The 
.** rcftor has not fcrupled fince, 
*• publicly to declare me not 
^' pnly.a rank republican, but 
" a leveller, and that I wifhed 
*' to equalize him with a poor 

" infignificant curate ! As {(ft 
*^ my principles and belief, it i» 
*' quite an indifferent matter to 
«* me, whether Mr. B*-k-c or 
•« P-ne, will be die falfe pro- 
" phet; I believe they are both 
*« infpired, and I believe they 
«« are both liars.'* 

The aft which paffed in the 
25th of Geo. III. prohibiting 
certain praSitioners ftom vend- 
ing medicines without taking 
out annual licences, gave an ad- 
ditional check to his praiKce ; for 
though he vrzs reckoned to be of 
•a levelling principle himfelf, yet 
he could not brook the indignity 
of being thus put upon a levifl 
with every ignorant quack ; anS 
confequendy he never took oul 
a licence. * I intended,* {fayfe 
he, in a letter) " to digcft and 

* reduce into order my "crude 

* ideas upon difierent fubjcSs, 

* and publifli them : but the late 
medicine ad has cut me (hort, 
fo that I muft eidier labour, 
beg, ftarve, emigrate, or fub- 
mit to the meannefe of prac- 
tifing under a quack-licence ; 
but then I may, like others, 
kill as nnany as I pleafe cu^h 
privilegio regis* Oneof thefe 
licenfed quacks, whofe ig- 
norance is too intolerable to 
permit me to enter my nam6 
in the fame lift, lives at* * * 

* * *, and on being aikcd his 
opinion lately, refpeSing a 

« confumptive 



^ confumprtve patient, anfweredy 
*^ His luags are like a fieve, 
-^* and his liver all rotten to 
'^ pieces; but I fliall reftore 
" diem anew!" * Healfode- 

* feats the deilgns of the miniftry 
' of profiting by ftaxnps, by 
^ ufing his own prepared medi- 

* cinesy infufions, and decoc- 

* tions of herbs, &c. ; afuitable 
^ hog-wafli for the fwinifh mul- 

* titude, by whom he is gene- 

* rally refpe£ted as a wonderful 

* prodigy !" 











had an ulcerated leg, which 
had been deemed incurable 
but by amputation, by the 
united opinion of three regu- 
lar^bred furgecMis, who charg- 
ed half a guinea each for this 
their good-will to the /nr;i- 
carpeniirs : but by following 
my diredions, he is now per- 
fedly recovered* But owing 
to my not being legally qua- 
lified to fee myfelf adequately 
recompenfed, I was under the 
neceffity of referring it to the 
father's generofity; and he 
very liberally prefented me 
with the fiull fum of fivejhil- 
iings. Thus am I frequently 
ufed ; and this I owe to our 
fo much extolled conftitution : 
the Magna Dhna Eph^^ 



The motive of Jones's con* 
du£t in this inftance, whidi 
ftamps a degree of bafenefs up- 
on his character that is inex- 
cufable, could not have been 
the payment of five ihillings a 
year for a licence ; for fuch a 
trifling fum is no objedi, even to 
a day-labourer ; but it mbft be 
that latent principle of difcon* 
tent, which he had long cbe* 
rifhed, and which had now 
grown too refra<Sory to permk 
hitn to fubmit to the laws of his 

*' Emigration to America now 
engrofied all his thoughts. And 
though his body bore fome 
marks of decay, yet his mind, 
ieemed daily to become more 
vigorous. - He ^as now above 
three-fcore years old, and there 
is no doubt but that he fondly 
cheriflied the expedVation of 
living another tbree-fcore ia 

In O£tober 1792, he wrote 
to Sir William Pulteney, one .of 
.the members for Shrewfbury, 
upon the ful»e<S of emigration ; 
'the following fragment only of 
the letter has been preferved:*— 

« Sin, 

The hardihips which the in- 
habitants of this barren country 
/il^r by the in£uiablQ,avarice of 

R 4 - the 



the landowners, have aflfc£^ed 
tnj feelings (o much that I had 
determined to ivrite to London 
to get intelligence of fome pro-> 
^rieror of uncultivated lands in 
America, in order to oSM mj 
ferrice in concenirtg a plan far 
removing fuch of my country- 
ttken ts have fpirit enough to 
leave thfefe ^Egyptian Talk- 
mafters, who would fain coni- 
pel us to make brick without 
Hther ttrtiw Of moiter, afid try 
their fortunes on the other fide 
of the Atlantic— And being itf- 
forroed that you had foihe fuch 
fcheme in contemplation, I pre- 
Turned to take this eirtJeft op-* 
poTtunfty,to reprefent that • ♦ ♦, 
&c. *♦***, fee. ike. 

To which, the patriotic and 
worthy baronet, confiftertt with 
Tiis general charadVer and con- 
duft, returned a fuitaWe ahfwer 
t6 the following purport, on thfc 
Kth of November, 1792: 

That he applauded his hu- 
tnanity in wKhiiig to do ferVice 
to the tenants of his part of the 
cbutttry ; but he Would willkig- 
ly ho]>e, that there was no oc- 
ctifion to carry them ottt of thb 
"kingtlom. He <Afervcd ferther, 
that it was true that the rents of 
lands had been advatfecd in moft 
plrts of the kingdom, but on 
thfc other ban*, the ^ces df 
every ]fhin^, ^Mlneh the f^vm^ 

had to fell, had atfo been ist-* 
creafed ; and, befides, there had 
been great improvements madk 
in the methbd of cukivating 
land, fo diatinduftrioas faimet) 
could better afford to jmj thfe 
advanced rents, if they trerb 
willing to cultivate properly, 
than they couM aSbtdto pay tte 
former rents^ — ^At die fame thnb 
h was natural enou^ for diem 
to be difiatisfied, at firft, with 
the idea of paying more rakj or 
to be put out of their old bad 
methods of managing their 
'farms.—- And ^hat tfaeife did 
not exift a better country in Ah 
world than Great Britain, and 
that it was then duiving ib i 
-moft cxtraordiiiary manner; fb 
that a f«w years of peare wbuH 
make an incnedifale change^ ana 
-woald enable government to 
lake oiF all the bardcnfonfe 
ta)ces. Sir William, thensfbrlr, 
tiecommendedtotio man to ieav^ 
Great Britain. The escpence df 
going to America, being coir- 
iBderabie, and the harMiips and 
difficulties when they got thei^, 
were many and great ; it would 
be long before they 'ivoald be- 
come comfortable. The wor- 
thy baronet wtftied, therefore, 
that his good fehfe knd humanity 
'might be employed, nofaer tb 
-M|rfajn to die {K^opie, howttiey 
might go on well and conifo^- 
ably at home, than to induce 
them to go abroad and leave 




-^ flburifluiig Idand.— And hb 
.idfo laidf that his earncft tvifh 
tras to be of as much fervicb lis 
he could to dvery Brktfh fufajed, 
whethei' int home or abroad^ 
But tis thbugHt ihat he could* 
ferte them beft by rec o mn Hfad- 
uig tt> thtem not to a£k from 
^que^ or paffion-^ or hafty dif-« 
content; .but to confider- well 
the great advantages of remain* 
iftg in a cdtotry, whieh'fVovi* 
-dMice TeemM to have bieft in a 
l^re&t^r degree than dftiy bthet 
Country ihft) eter exifted upon 
-the Adt of the earth. 

This gobd ftiilb bo^ilained ih 
this advioe^ does not apf^ear to 
have had much efie£l towatds 
the converiion of Jones y for 
fife hfts V^ritt^vi upon the comer 
of the barort^s tetter,^*^^*-^ 
« Thus Aey *abute Ae f«». 
*^ plicity of fhe ignomnty and 
'< infult the fenfes of people of 
" un'darftandiiig.^* Being not 
In thfe kaft difcouraged at this 
firil defeat, he loft no time ; fdr 
in Decefti^ber 1792, he opens a 
comfmilknicBtion with Mr. Pinck- 
fiey, Ae American ambaiTador 
'iki Loaddh^ i^-o^fidg to mate 
-A lift (^ as rAtmy cf hi^ t^un^ 
-frymeil as W0rfe annjdua for 
emigrating, and to prevail upon 
each of them, to depoUt a fiipu- 
JUted fwm m a oowmofi iiug^ 
towards defiraying the expences 
of their voyage^ and to bind 

them to thetr ^hgagemenCs. His 
expe£tatiohs were noW very 
fai^ihe, dnd his imagination 
teemed With Utopian fcliemes of 
governfttent. In a iketch of a 
letter^ dated 6 Feb. 1794» but 
without, either addrefs or fig^a<- 
hjn^y ftili hatping upon his now 
iavoorke ftring-f he feys;- ■■■ 
-** there is plenty of .land to be 
.*^ purchaied at difieredt prkes, 
^* according to quality and GttN 
** tioi(k, in all the united States. 
^* In Kehtdckyi land is fold sft 
^' the foHowing prices per acn^^ 
*• with fome Improvements frorti 
** 12 to 15 fhilKngs : plantaition^ 
^* with orchanb, and odier inir- 
'** provemems^ from 21 to 25 
^^ (hillrftgs: good land withoiit 
'* impfotement, may bt puj-- 
*« ciMfM from fs. i6d. to gsi ah 
** acre. Dr. Edvrardft, wHb 
" was laft vcar in Wales, has 
« feveml thotffond of acres in 
" Fayette Comty, FenfyWahia, 
^ which he mU fell for dif- 
•• fertnt prices from 4 pence, 
** to i ^meas an acre. Thetb 
'* atT5 120^000 acres in Penfyl- 
<* vania^ and fo many in Ken* 
•* tucky, to be leafed in lots rtf 
^* difFettm fixes, from 200 to 
SOO acmt, with a liberty df 
puvchafe. Bot I diink kortt 
'* of the firft confideratlons for 
*' us, that we chufe a country 
'< and .divuue of a temperatw^ 
** as fimilar as poffible 4o <ihtt 
" of Wales. And I think Ken- 

** tucky 










tucky» is the place that comes 
under that defcription, which 
is alfo one of the cheapeft 
parts to purchafe hnd, and 
altogether a moft delightful 
country. However, it would 
be moft prudent, not to fix 
upoii any place, without firft 
fending fome of the party, 
properly qualified, before 
hand, to make obfervations. 
The land to be purchafed 
(hould be in one lot, for the 
fake of the party's being to<- 
gether, forming a Welfli 
community. But as to all 
necefiary internal regulations, 
I fliall not enter upon them 
here ; whatever they may be, 
the principles upon whicli 
they depend muft be drawn 
up in the firft inftance^ and 
agreed to. 

** When once the party is 
*^ fettled, there would doubtlefs 
*^ afterwards be a continual in*- 
** creafe to the number, by 
<' others following fyom Wales, 
<^ inconfequenceof thewayb&> 
** ing once laid open. Who 
*< knows but the colony would 
" become fo numerous ia a 
** (hort time as to give it a 
«< claim to be confidered as a 







feparate ftate by itfelf, en- 
joying its own legiflature, 
(fubjedi, nevertheleis, tocom- 
mon law), and that admt* 
niftered in the Welih lan- 
guage ! Ond nid ywhyn yn 
beth i'w ddifgwyl cyn i rai o'r 
henaviaid a fyddont yn arwain 
y Uu cyntav gael gorwedd yn 
nhawelwch angau." 

However, Jones's emigrating 
fpirtt experienced a fecond de- 
feat : but whether it was owing 
to want of encouragement fi-om 
Mr. Pinckney, or to the back- 
wardnefs of his own country- 
men, in depofiting their money 
in his propofed fund^ does not 

His tianiatlandc fcheme thus 
ending in dlfappointm^nt, was 
more than hisfpirits could bear ; 
he fqnk| and died*. 

Upon a review of the whole 
of his life, it appears, how men 
are led into error by falfe and 
partial conceptions of tilings; 
by an obftinate attachment to 
one fide of the queflion, with- 
out having prudence or candour, 
either to give ear to, or exa- 
mine the apologies and argu- 

* Some days previons to His death He expreffed hii earneft defire of having the Ci* 
eminent adminiftertd unto hlfti| vhkh ht received with »U the fymptom of fiacera 




ments of the bppoiite party. 
Had Jones, after admiring the 
iniinuating ftile and fpecious 
reafonings of Voltaire, read the 
works of the Archbifhop of An- 
neci, Mr. FindUy, M. Clement, 
atid othcf*, who have deteiSbed 
the harpy under an angelic garb, 
'* his admiration of the writer, 
" muft have been loft in his 
*' deteftation of the man ;" he 
would have found in them a 
fufficieilt antidote dgaidft the 
venom he had inhaled from tlie 
.writings of that arch-mifanthro- 
pift, and illiberal bigot to infi- 
delity : Had he, after calculat*- 
ing the pofliblc advantages to be 
enjoyed after emigrating to 
America, reckoned as well the 
contra fide of the page, that is, 
the certain difficulties and dan- 

gers attending it ; h^d he cre- 
dited, what is recorded as a 
matter of fa£i, that out of tw9 
thou/and perfons, who went 
ft-om Liverpool, and its vici- 
nity, to America, from the ytar 
1790 to 1794 indufive, with 
the fame quixotic ideas— ^^f» 
hundred have fince thanked 
heaven for an opportunity of re- 
turning to their native country ; 
in fine, had he taken Sir W. 
Pulteney's friendly advice,-^be 
would have lived, and probably 
he might have been ftill living 
—an ufeful member of fociety — 
an oracle to "his neighbourhood 
-^an inftance of the powers of 
felf-tuition— and, as indeed, iu 
many refpedls he really was^ 
an ornament to human uature. 


( fiM ) 



Principal of Jefus College in Oxfords 

fon of S^ Francis Manfel^ 
of Muddlefcomb, in the county 
of Caermarthen) baronet; was 
bom at Muddlefcomb-Plas, and 
chriftened oh Palm-Sunday, 
A. D. 1588. Me was bred up 
in the free fchool at Hereford, 
and thence tranfplanted to Jefos- 
CoIIege in Oxford, and took his 
degrees of batchelor and mailer 
of arts, while commoner of this 

In the year 1613, he ftood to 
be fellow of All-Souls,' as foun- 
der's kinlman ; but that preten- 
fion being little welcome there, 
he was forced to wave it, and 
came in the following eledlion ; 
and thence, upon the death of 
M^ Griffin Powel, principal of 
Jefus College; he was, in the 
the year 1620, eleded to fuc- 
ceedhimintheheadfhip. Within 
his year of grace at AU-Souls 
alfo, he refigned in order to 
make way for Sir Eubule Thel- 

wall, knight, one of die maf- 
ters of chancery, atid mi^er of 
the Alienation Office; who, 
fucceeding ik the faeaddkip, be- 
came an evet-memoraUe great 
benefa£lor to the colle|^. 

The ^eal of M'. Msmfeli f<»- 
he did not take his degree of 
do<5tor in diviiuty till the year 
1624, did appear eminently for 
the good of the college in this 
jun£lure ; for as he did not enter 
upon this charge, but to the 
prejudice of his preferment in 
the world, his fellowfliip being 
of greater emolument, and of 
lefs expcnce, than the headihip 
was; fo he moft readily ac- 
quitted it, when Sir Eubule 
Thelwall appeared willing to 
accept it, in contemplation of 
his greater abilities to enlarge 
the buildings, and to encreaie 
the revenue of the college. 

How iucce(sful he was in die 
difcipline of the college appears 




by the (&>ice ho inade of foun^ 
4Htiop mes ; fuch as were M% 
Phil. Flower, B. D. afterwards 
denn of Kilfnurrey in Ireland ; 
I>. WHUam Thomas, dean of 
Worcefter ; 1>. Daniel Brevint, 
pi-ebeodary of Durham; D^ 
Thomas Powel, M'. Burch, 
M'. Daniel Evans, M'. Henry 
Yaughao, M'. Thomas Ellis; 
the memory of v^ofe refpe<%ve 
abilities is a o-edit to the college, 
and their merit of very good note 
in the world. 

But the maturity of diefe, and 
die hopes of otherst ^cre quickly 
blafted by the late war, which 
overtook our principal within 
ten y^rs after his comings on 
tjie place. Yet that chearful- 
nels, wherewith the generality 
of the ib«Hidation«flQen, and die 
ireft of the ftudents too, engaged 
tor die king; fufficicyidy evi- 
dences die right principles in 
which diey waie fared up at die 
coikge: for of fixteen fellows 
and fiscteen fcholars, there it^ 
mained but one fellow, anA 
one icholar, AaC was not oufted 
at the vifiwion of die two 
houfes, in 1647. 

The buildings of the college 
were enlarged within the fame 
fpaoe of time beyond all hopes ; 
for dicugh our principal had no 
fimd, but that of his own zeal, 
^ focb an undertaking, he b^r 

gan the (econd quadrangle ; and 
pulling down a ruinous library, 
diat joined the upper end of the 
hall, he built the north and 
fouth pieces as the firfthalf of 
the two fquarcf of jthis nevr 
quadrangle, by the coxitribu«> 
(ions of his friends, and his owa 
money: and fuch waa the in-r 
tereft which his relatioi^ in blood 
tp fo many noble £unilies, and, 
which was niore prevailing, his 
publick fpirit had procured him, 
diat he had contribudons f)Li£r 
ficient in view to finifli ^ni per-* 
k&, his new quadraoglc. Sir 
Gf0rge Vaugban^ of Foulkflon^ 
in fFiUJbire, having declared 
thathimfelf wouMbe St the wholio 
diarge of the wdft end, which 
was deiigned to be the library. 
But all tfaofe pious .defi^ ani 
contribudons weoe }oft by the 
difperiions and ruin tha^t by die 
war befell thofe, who intjiendfid 
to he oar beno&doxs. 

The revenues he got awgT 
mented very coniiidenibly ; hjSVr 
iag prevailed with !>. Morgan 
Owen, late Bi&op of I^mdaff ; 
Sir Lewis Manfel, ibe 5^<ef of 
his family} ISr Ni^lyilas Kpt 
meys, knight and 4>aronetf fincQ 
murthered in cojki blood whe.i| 
taken at Cfaepftow CaiUe; 
whi(^ he had fcsi^^d for th^ 
king in 164g; D'. Thomaa 
Gwyn, chancellor of the diocefQ 
9f Landaff ; and jTeyerai odier^ 




• to t)ccome exhibitors to fuch of 
the foundation men as had not 
ptaces endowed; though that 
charity fuffered by the fame in- 
terruption of tlic war, fo that 
none of thefe bcnefa£lors lived 
to fettle what they intended for 
perpetuity upon the college. 
Bifhop Owen having declared, 
ftat he defigned the redbories 
impropriate of Neveni in Pern" 
iroke/hirej Sf, Ifmatrs in Caer- 
marthenihire, and other good 
and certain inheritances to the 
ralue of ;f 200. a year to the 
coHegs. Sir Lewis Matifel £bO. 
a year, Sir Nicholas Kemeys 
jf20. a year; which they two 
paid for fcveral years to the col- 
kge : the firft defigning to charge 
k, together with fix fcore pounds 
a year more, for the better fup» 
ply of the cure of Margam Pa- 
ri(h ; and thirty pounds a year 
for a grammar fchool in the faid 
pariih upon the lordfhip of Mar- 
gam; in lieu of the tythes, 
which that noble and confcien- 
tious gentleman was not fatis- 
fied to take to himfelf, without 
diis confidcrable proviiioa foi^ 
corapenfation to the church. 
The other intended to make 
over the impropriate tythes of 
Uaniflan and Llys-vaen, out of 
which his exhibition had been 
yearly paid to the college, but 
lived not to do it. Only Dr. 
Gwyn*s next coufln and heir, 
^iiQma^ Gwyn of l^atteobaii^i 

in Norfolk, Etq. and Sir Jufti* 
nian Lewyn, knight, one' of the 
mafters of chancery, being con- 
fcious of Dp Gwyn's pious in- 
tentions to the college, dkl, af- 
ter the do<ftor*s d6ath, fettle the 
reftory of Holyhead in Angle- 
fey, the one moiety to the col- 
lege, the other for the cures and 
the po(M'» upon the folicitation 
of our principal at the voy time 
he had been turned out by the 

The war being now come on, 
and tlie college difiaantled into 
a part of a garrifon ; our prin- 
cipal being in the country, foH- 
citing the fettling of the beae- 
feAions above-mentioned, his 
return to Oxford was delayed ; 
the paflage being unfafe, rill the 
depth of winter, 1642. Only 
he had the folace of a good com^ 
pany during this his exile; for 
fo he efteemed it, though in his 
own country. For Dr. Frcwyn, 
Lord Archbiihop of York, and 
Dr. Sheldon, afterwards the 
moil Honoured Lord Archbi- 
iliop of Canterbury, being forced 
to. leave Oxford by the ap^ 
proaches of the enemy, were 
retreated into Glamorganfliire, 
and fojourned for feveral months 
at Sir Anthony Manfel's, the 
dodlor*s brotlier's houfe ; where 
their prefence among the gentry 
^ad^ie happy ioflueoce of conr 



finning them in tbeir duty to the 
Icingy and averfion to the rebels. 

But thefe three perfons long- 
ing to return to their refpe&ive 
colleges, now under the king's 
prote^ion, did run a conflder- 
able rifk of being taken in their 
journey, though it was from 
Worcefter to Oxford in the rear 
of the king's army, 

' Our principal having difpofed 
of his college, (though with 
fome difficulty, by reafon of 
orders from die court for the 
reception of (,ord Herbert, Qnpe 
Marqpis of Worcefter, and otlier 
perfons of quality that were come 
out of Wsdes upon the king's 
fervi(:e;) was arretted in Sep* 
tember, 1643, with the fad 
news of his brother Sir Antho- 
ny's ^eceafe ; whp fell with all 
die cicqgmftanjces of iignal 
piety and valour in the firft 
Newbury 6ght, where he com* 
manded as field officer under 
the Lord Herbert of Ragland* - 
This calamity fo deeply affeifted 
our principal, that he fell into 
fttch a fit of ficknefs, that his 
life was for fome time defpaired 
of. But God Almighty referv- 
}ng him for the five orphans, 
that Sir Anthony Manfel left 
|)ehind him, he was forced to 
take a journey into Glamor- 
gapihire in order to fettle his 
brother's a^airs ; where to ftxew 

his zeal for, and faith in the 
goodnefs of the king's caufe, ho 
lent all the ready money, which 
was above j^lOCXX that his bro« 
ther left beliind him, to the 
commiffioners of array for the 
king's affiiirs: which- indeed 
proved that his zeal for the 
king's caufe over-ruled that for 
the orphans, the money being 
never paid, but buried in tha 
ruins of the king's afiairs. Up* 
on this he topk occafion to con* 
finn the gentry, that were moft 
of them his relations, againft the 
infinuations of the parliament 
party, then vifiUy^ though not 
fatally prevailing till' after Nafe- 
by fight : he watchfully laying 
hold of all opportunities, by 
his counfels, correfpondences, 
and ilngular example, to pro- 
mote the king's fervice in that 

And as d)e county of Gla« 
morgan happened to be one of 
the laft that bdtSme fubje£t to 
the rebels, fo it was the refoge 
of many perfons of quality that 
came for (belter to their perfons 
and confciences there, when 
the parliament armies had driven 
diem out of their own home. 
And, twas prodigious to obferve, 
how careful he was for the ac- 
commodation and fupply of fuch 
perfons: fmce it may be truly 
averred, that there was no 
firanger of quality, military, or 




civil, clergy, or lay, cither in 
that or the neighbouring coun- 
ties of Monmouth or Caerniar- 
then; who did not receive a 
&pp]y of ready money at his 
hands, or «lfe an aifisdionate 
fendsr of fuch fupply, or of any 
odier fervice. 

The garrifon of Oxford being 
forrendered in 1646| and the 
vi|itation upon the univerfity 
coming on in July, 1647, he 
haftened away from Wales to 
bis ftation dierei ai^d though 
the Earl of Pembrake, who 
was chief in that action, o^^^ned 
our principal ^ his ne^r kinf- 
man, apd had a fiwour to the 
college, as the natural viiltor 
iheieof by charters and (hdugh 
|he earl's t)vo younger fons', 
adio had Uved fpf feveial years 
commoners in the college under 
our priacipaPs charge, offered 
him their fervice with al| affec- 
tion poifiblc •, yet neither tb^ 
proponiions of die ear), nor the 
kind o£Eices of his fons, couid 
bring our principal to frame 
himficlf to any tbclcaft evaiion^ 
mttoh le& CO the AsdSt owning 
of that power. But when his 
^rn caoie, h/e pubbfljed his 
ponfubmiflion with that e^elr 
ient mixture of m.odicfty and 
fourage, as made his visitors 
afh9nxed of their reformation, 
{uyl .ppenly to jbeo&9an tjjk di£<* 

^yilty of ti]^e times, that ^5M:a4 

them to turn out a perfon not 

only in his life and cendu<fi pn- 

blameable even to the rigour 

and partiality, his adhering to 

die king, which was his only 

crime, accepted ; but fo highly 

ufeful to the college he related 

to ; that they feemed in their 

confeflion to take from it the 

only ftay and pillar, that was 

likely, as the times flien went, 

by his prudence, intcreft, and 

xeal, to preferve it fix)in utter 

ruin and defolation. 

While the rcfbmiers were 
buiy in turning htm out, and his 
ibciety, he was as aAive, as if 
no fuch thing had been, in fct-r 
tJing the poflfeff ons, and afcer- 
taining the jfuture revenues of 
Uie college, with a)l the appti« 
cation imaginable; nay, in or- 
dering new acceflions from him* 
fdf ^nd others to the ibcceeding 
intruders. For it was in that 
jundure that he procured diat 
noUe legacy of boc^, which 
die right honourable and mod 
learned Lord Herbert ^ of Cher-- 
iury, gave to the fcdlege: it 
was then that he obtaioed from 
the heir of Dr. Thomas G^yn, 
to iistde the re^ory impropriate 
of Holyhead, in Anglefey, in 
perpetuity upon the college : it 
was then that hip conveyed, as 
far as in him lay, the Qorpfes of 
his two prebends, Llangamarch> 
in^f Pavid's^ s^^the treafurer? 



ihip of Llandafft which he af- 
terwards lived to fettle efFe£tu* 
ally, upon the College. It was 
then alfo that he, by a rare ex- 
ample, being cafl: out of his 
beloved coU^e^ l^ft behind him 
in it his own library; which 
i^as a very compleat one, and 
fuitable to his great and univer'* 
fal knowledge, whether we con* 
iider the choice or the Qun^ber 
of the books ; (here , being in it 
nothing but what was fitting 
for a great theologift to ]be fDr- 
oifhed with, either in prder to 
ancient learning, or modem con«»' 
troverfy, but efpecially to pnu> 
tical divinity : he being eminent 
in all thofe acquiiltions that ac- 
coipplifh a ureat divine, as well 
as a good chriflian. 

BetDg.ejedled out of the .head- 
ihip, which was not ai^ually done 
by orderof the viiitors till the 21ft 
of May, 1,648 ; be applied him- 
felf to ftate all accounts betweeu 
him and the college : and having 
delivered the muniments, and 
goods that belong to it, into the 
hands of the intruders, he with- 
^ drpw into Wales, and took up 
his relidence at Llantrythyd, a 
houfe of his kinfman. Sir John 
Aubrey, Kt. and Bart, .which 
houfe, fequeftration having made 
defolate, while Sir John was in 
prifon for his adherence to the 
king, afforded him the conve- 
niency of a more private retire* 

meat, and of having feveral 
young gentlemen of quality^ 
bis kindred, under his eye ; while 
tliey were taught and bred up 
by a young maa qi his college, 
that he had chofen for the em- 

But tliis retirement, which he 
was very well pleafed with, 
lafted not. long undifturbed by 
the rebel-foldiery, that quartered 
upon the country under Major- 
general Butler, as men then 
called him : for the doSor's very 
grave and pious afpe£t, which 
ihodd have been a proteftion 
to him among favages, was no 
other than a temptation to thofe, 
who reputed themfelves faints, 
to zSt their infolencies upon 
him. Once meeting him in his 
walk, they took him for an old 
prieft, as they called him, and 
fearched his. pocket for letters. 
Aaother time they came to 
Uantrytbyd-houfe, and a bar- 
barous crew of them not con- 
tented to deride him openly to 
his face for his canonical habit, 
which he conftantly wore, and 
for his ufing the liturgie in pub- 
lick twice a day, which he 
never omitted among the young 
fcholars in the houfe: they 
fell to fearching for common 
^ayer-books ; and finding about 
a dozen of them in the parlour, 
where he ufed to officiate, they 
pleafi^d themfelves hugely with 

S makbg 


CAMBRIAN ttEtilSttR, Ild6, 


making one blaze of fire with 
fo many books. But which 
wa< yet more barbarouSf they 
laid hands on his perfoa: and 
one CiemintSt a farrier by trade^ 
but a preacher, by profeffion^ 
ript and tore his canonical caf* 
fock about him^ that k dangled 
from his giidk downwards in fo 
many (hreds or thongs^ as made 
them great fport. The pioua 
old roan, with eyes and handa 
Kfted up to heaven, faying qo 
other, '« But that his bfeffed^ 
'< Saviour had fufered 6»r him, 
** and that his martyred fove-* 
*< reign had flifiered by them, 
** infinitely more than he was 
♦• able to fuiier, or they to in- 
*« fliift upon hit poor pcrfon.'- 
And having fatiated tbemfelves 
with infolencies, in defacing the 
king*s irms, not only in feverat 
windows^ but in chihiney-pieces, 
and other curious pieces of art 
and ornament about the houfe, 
diev ended that fcene of mirth 
upon the common prajer^b^h 
and apocrypha, which they tore 
out of the great biUe in the 
neighbouring church ; and car- 
ried away the young man pri- 
foner, for the better difperfing 
of his fcholars, which was a 
reformation they t>rincipaily 
aimed at in this affront upon 
the dodor : and die young man 
being foon aftec endi^led at die 
quarter feffions, ** For a ferai- 
** nary of rebellion and fe& 

" tion,'* — thofe were the wor^ 
— he v^s forced lo forego his 
country: for die endidment 
was not to be traverfed without 
filrft owning tfa« nAilped powers^ 
and then denying that which as 
an honeft man he ought not t» 
do ; and by die dodkor^s direc^* 
tion, removed ^th his khx^vB 
to Oxford, where he fttded at 
Mr. White's, afterwards Sn^ 
SampfoB WhiteS houfe. 

This was . in May, 1651 ; 

and our principal followed 8ep^ 
tember after; pattiy out of a 
longing to be neat his beloved 
cotiege, and pardy out of a re« 
gard to the young feholars now 
fetded at Mr* W)(ite's. For 
one of them was Sir Francis 
Manfell, the heir of his father's 
houfe« Sir Edward and Arthur 
his brother, Sir Anthony Man- 
fers two fonS) Sir J<^n Aw- 
brey^ foil and heir, Stepney 
and Vaughan, two other of his 
Qe^iews, Sir Sackvile Crow's 
fon and heir, and Sir Robert 
Moyle, of Blackwell, in Kent^ 
Mr. Walter Thomas, of Swan- 
fey, who lived retiredly in that 
houfe under his eye, without 
mixing with thofe of die nni* 

When ojur princt{>al came 
firft to town, he took up at 
Mr. Newman's, a baker, in 
Holywell ; but the good c^ke^ 




he daily rendered to the coUege, 
difpofed the then fociety fo far 
to ccnnply with his inclinations^ 
which had been always to Hve 
and die in the cdlege» as to in- 
vite him to accept of one cham- 
ber for accommodating himfelf ; 
where he built feveral fiur ones 
for the benefit of the college. 
This motion was accepted, and 
lie lived in the college, near the 
fiony ftairs by the gate eight 
yean, where he had leifure to 
obfcfve many changes and re* 
vdutions, within thofe waUs as 
without them, till that happy 
one of his majefty's reftaura^* 
tion, by God's infinite mercy, 
to the college as well, as to the 
nation, happily came on. 

It were a hard talk to give a 
jnft hmt of our principal's retire- 
ment here, lb much did ha hu- 
mility labour to Conceal his weU- 
doittg and gaHant fufieringin 
all thefe ie(^)ed^. His excrcife 
within doors was prayer, with- 
out doors charity. He did not 
go to any of the public aflen>- 
blies, for die moft orderly among 
them wanted the facrifice of the 
the hoi); Liturgy appointed by 
authority: he dierefore either 
went to his little fiock at Mk*. 
White's, where himfelf folemn- 
ly officiated on Sundays and 
holydays with frequent commu- 
nions ; or elfe to that loyal af- 
fcxnbly, which met not only on 

Sundays, but week days too, at 
Dr. Wallis's houfe, under the 
condu& of the incomparable 
Dr. jFf//, of Chrift Churchy 
where the church may befald 
to have retired to that vtetfiw 
diere, with fuch circumftances 
of primitive devodon and fo- 
lemnity, as was hardly to be 
paralleled elfcwhere during die 
ftorm of that perfecudon* 

Nor was his bounty to the 
king's friends dried up together 
with his comings in ; for befide 
his contribudons to private fup* 
plies for his majefty beyond fea, 
he had always a colledlion of 
his own going on for the relief 
of our exiled clergy, efpecially 
diofe about the king: whidi, 
diough it happened to be a little 
too public, by reafon of a me- 
morial written with his ovm 
hand, which dropped from him 
by inadvertency, as he was in 
bis walks abroad, neither dif- 
couraged him nor odiers, but 
that large fupplies were made to 
them ; as afterwards ^appeared 
by the ample acknowledgment 
of Lord Bifhop of Denry, fince. 
Lord Primate of Ireland, the 
Lords Bifliops Morley, and 
Earies, and feveral others.. And 
his zeal for this coUe^lion, and 
other charities did appear emi- 
nently by that frugality, or ra- 
ther aufterity, which he prac- 
tifed upon himfelf: for it was 

S2 bis 



his conftant obfervation both at 
his otyn table, and that of his 
friends, that it became all good 
men to confidcr fcrioufly how 
many efiiinent perfons for rank 
and merit, and once for wade 
fortunes too, were then about 
the king j whofe beft meals, we 
might be well aflured, were not 
as plentyful as the moft fparing 
of ours ; and which was very 
fad to confider, were very often 
to fcek where to find the next 
meal : and that it was fad Co 
obferve, that many men, who 
.had very good affections, dif- 
,ablcd thcmfclves from doing that 
good which they could not 
choofc but wifh done to die 
king, and his fufferers, becauCe 
they would not allow them- 
felvcs to retrench thofe exceffes, 
that mi<xht have fome excufc 
in time of peace and plenty; 
but could pretend to none, while 
, fuch as are infinitely our betters 
were und«r fuch calamities and 


Tliofe that were friends to 
tlic ufurpation then reigping, 
did not at all like of his com- 
pany here in the univerfity; 
bccaufe it was obfcrved that fc- 
veral perfons of quality did re- 
fort and hearken to him, and 
were confirmed in his principles ;. 
and therefore they refolved to 
. exterminate his little flock at 
Mr. White's, by a banition out 

of town: whidhrefolution beings 
difcovcrcd, it was thought more 
.advifeablc by Dr. Sheldon^ and 
by Dn Hammond, to diflblve 
that knot voluntarily, which 
was done, the chief of them 
going beyond the fcas in June, 
1655, rather than come to a 
.difperfioa by the ufurpen^ 

However, his zeal in promo- 
ting thefe private coUedions, 
and all other charities, was not 
abated as long as there v^as need 
of them ; which was. more and 
more preffing, as he was mom 
zealous, till his majefty's happy 
rcoming in. 

Upon his majefty*$ approaches 
he was extremely diiTatisfied to 
fee how over-freffing fome men 
•were to be reftored to their 
•rights and places, nay to be 
preferred too, before the ailaiFS 
of the church and kingdom re- 
ceived the wiflied-for eftablifh- 
ment. Therefore he never pref- 
fed by petition, or otherwUe, to 
the vifitors to fettle the uni- 
verfity, to be reftored to his be- 
loved college, till their leifure 
gave them leave to fend for him. 
When he came, which was the 
1ft of Auguft, 11660, he Wd 
before them an expedient^ as it 
is called in their journal, for 
Jefus College; which all per- 
fons concerned thought fit to 
fubmit to, and his majefty*5 




c mmiilioners to' approve and 
ratify, lb fealbnablc was it found 
to be, without any the leaft op- 
pofition or alteration. 

Being rieftored to his headfliip 
now the third time, his only 
care was, the decays of age, 
efpecially dimnefs of fight pref- 
fing hard upon him, to fettle 
all that he had in the world 
upon the college ; and to trans- 
fer the headihip upon fome 
other, that would ftudy the in- 
tereft of the college with the 
fame concern that he had done. 
He therefore, by two new leafes, 
fettled the two feveral corpfes of 
his prebends, viz. the treafurer- 
Ihip in the church of DandafF, 
and the prebend of Llangamarch 
in the collegiate church of Bre- 
con and Diocefe of St. David's, 
upon the college for twenty-one 
years; which was the utmoft 
term he, as a prebendary, could 
give, and fuch whereby a capa- 
city of renewing with the pre- 
bendary for the time being is 
perpetuated to the college, Af- 
terwards by his will he gave all 
he had to the college, appoint- 
ing his fuccefibr in the headship 
la be his executor in truft for 
that purpofe. And though his 
(lock before the king came in 
could not be any thing at all fo 
great, with his charities to thofe 
in diftrefe, and his income fince 
l^is majefty's rcftauration was 

no other than from thofe two 
prebends: yet his perfonal eftate, 
fuch was his frugality, amounted 
to fo much as reached, with 
fome addition, to purchafe the 
land which the college is now 
poflefled of in Glamorganshire : 
fo tliat the college hath at this 
time of his benefa£tion about 
£1600. in buildings ereded at 
his time, ^^40. a year in free- 
hold, improveable to fourfcore, 
£65. a year in leafe under the 
prebends that fucccedcd him, 
befides feveral other benefac- 
tions which came to the college 
by his folicitation, and in his 

The headfliip he would fain 
have placed on William Baflet, 
LL,D. fellow of All-Souls, and 
fometimc commoner of our col- 
lege, and fmce one of his ma-r 
jefty *s juftices of the peace, and 
deputy lieutenants in Glamor- 
ganfliire : who would have added 
to the reputation of the college, 
by his government, and to tlie 
revenue of it in all probability, 
by his generous mind and ample 
fortune. But Dr. Baflfett's want 
of health not allowing him to 
accept of the burthen, it was by 
the unanimous confcnt of all 
the fellows at a free ele(Slion, 
the 1ft of March, 1660, de- 
volved upon Dr. Jenkyns, 





This being done, he had no 
Other thoughts but for heaven, 
nor leifure but for prayer ; and 
k was prodigious to obferve, 
how great his agonies were in 
prayer, the cStSt of a deep 
ipeditation, and a near commu- 
nion with God : and thofe me* 
ditations founded upon fome 
portion of holy fcripture in the 
new teftament, wliich he had 
read to him in very great por« 
tions every day. The offices of 
the church he attended con- 
ftantly thrice a day in the col- 
lege chapel, and never failed 
for feveral years to have the 
office of the church /or the Jick 

read to him twice a day in \m 
chamber. Befides, be had fre- 
quent communications, reckoo* 
ing every one his laft visiUumt 
with preparations fuitable. He 
came by degrees to be confined 
to his chamberi and at laft to 
his bed : which as it was the laft 
fcene, fo it was the moft exem* 
plary and admirable ; though it 
had nothing in it extnordmary 
but an extraordinary piety in aU 
the arts and exercifes of reli« 
gion, and efpedally of Aat per- 
fe&ive one of defirtng to ie Jif* 
fohoidy and to he with Cbriftm 
And upon the firft day of Moff 
1665, he changed this life for a 
better of blifs and immortality. 


( 28J ) 




was the fon of Thomas 
Maurice, rector of Llatigrift<- 
jlolis, in the Ifle of Anglefey, 
North Wales. His hopeful 
parts and wonderful daily imr 
{xrovement) giving his parents 
punple encottragenient to under?- 
go the expence of Keeping him 
at fchool, aiid aifo of fending 
him to the m^lYerfity of Oxfoid^ 
where he was admitted member 
of Jefus College, at the age of 
16, A. D. 1664. Sir Leoline 
Jenkins^ being then principal 
of that houfe, A governor fo 
fagadous in diftinguilhing of 
merit, and fd impartial jn re- 
warding it, was not long bcfonfe 
htf obibrved in Mr. Mauricei an 
uncommon genius, and, there* 
^re, fooa had him ele£^ 
liJioIar of. that houfe ; and upon 
die nesct vacancy, advanced hjm 
|0 a fellowfhip. He continued 
id that ftation wi& great efteem 
in the cqlkge, until Sir LeoIin6 
Jenkitls li^s fent ambaflador t6 
Cologen^ ahd ^flehpvards Nimi- 
goen, wh^n Mr, Maurice might 
foe mftfter ^A arts of about four 
years ftandidg. SJr Leoline 
muft be foppofed to confuh the 
credit of Ms embafiV, as he al- 
^9 jrs di4 the reputatip^ pf bU 

college, when he made choice 
jof Mr* Maurice to be his chap*- 
lain abroad, well judging he had 
parts and endowments (o i^ake 
a confiderable figure among 
foreign divines. Mr. Maurice 
^tteoded the ambaflador all the 
time of his ufeful and aSiv<s 
frrvice in that ftation^ In which 
he en^braced the opportunity of 
making an expellent, though 
not large, colledion of very 
valuable books, which wipre af- 
ter his deceafe placed in Jefus 
College library, together with 
JSir Iweofine*8 own pollcdiion, 
which he bequeathed to* that 
college. Mr. Maurice wae 
much refpe&ed by the ambaf- 
fador, and extremely beloved by 
a)| the family, his free and en- 
tertaining converfadon» and dir 
llgent ^ttendaiK^ on his 4uty9 
endearing hin| to them alU For 
I have heard him fay, he per* 
formed our Englifli fervice, and 
preach^ in the ambaflador^s 
chapel every Sunday, But I 
believe it was a fecret to diem 
a^U with t^iat eafe he performed 
that duty ; fuch was th^ fniitr 
fulnefs of his invention, and 
ftrength of his memory, that he 
aflured me, no fobjedi he took 
to difcoqrfe upon, coft liitn siny 
S 4 morp 



more trouble but upon the Sun- 
day morning an hour to medi- 
tate and form his thoughts, 
which he could deliver from 
the pulpit almod in the fame 
words he had conceived them in 
his chamber. . This prodigious 
art and talent of preaching he 
ufed ever after, infomuch that 
he told me he had never writ a 
fermon, but one he preached be- 
fore the king, on the 30th of 
January,' which was ordered to 
be printed. No marvel then 
that there could not be found, 
after hi& dcatli, one MS. fer- 
mon among his papers. After 
Sir Lcoline had happily finiihed 
his embafly, he returned to 
England, and his chaplain with 
him. He had opportunities to 
prefer fome others of his domef- 
ticks at Do6lors Commons, 
where he was judge both of 
the Prerogative and Admiralty 
Courts ; but he was no patron 
himfelf in Mr. Maurice's pro- 
feiiion, and had too much mo- 
defty to apply to fuch as were ; 
fo.that his worthy chaplain had 
no other profpecSl but to return 
to his fellowihip, until Provi*- 
dence provided for him : when 
coming into an accidental ac- 
* quaintance with Dr. Lloyd, then 
vicar of St. Martin!s, and after- 
wards fucceffively Biftiop of St. 
Afaph, Litchfield, and Wor- 
cefter ; diat learned and reverend 
-^elute fopn difcovercd Mr. 

Maurice's worth, and thought 
it no imall reproach to the go* 
vernment to fuffer a perfon who 
had ferved fo many years abroad 
in fo public a ftation, to be un- 
provided for, and to be forced 
to make his retreat to a college^ 
went to Archbifhop Sandcroft, 
who had a vacancy among his 
chaplains, and propofed Mr. 
Maurice to his grace, as a proper 
and worthy perfon to fill it, and 
to ferve him in that capacity 
with fidelity and credit. The 
extraordinary and deferving cha- 
ra£ler Dr. Lloyd gave of Mr. 
Maurice, prevailed with the 
good archbifhop to take him 
immediately into his family, as 
one of his chaplains. The next 
a£^ after he had that pofl, he 
took the degree of Dodlor in 
. Divinity at Oxford. The figure 
he made anoong them, the re* 
putation he acquired among the 
Londoq clergy, and others, who 
fitquented Lambeth ; the books . 
he publifbed againit Clarkfon, 
while he ferved the archbifhop, 
are fuch eminent and public 
tranfa£tions of his life, that they 
cannot be forgotten ; apd were 
better known to the worthy- 
divines of London of thofe days, 
tlian to myfirlf, who had not 
the happinefs and benefit of bis 
acquaintahce ^until he came to 

Newington, upon the death of 
Dr. Stradling. His fbition at 
X^ambeth was the mo& public, 




and bed known fcene of his 
Ike. As often as Dr. Maurice 
came from Lambeth to reftde 
at'Newington, I ufed to be with 
him for weeks together, and 
had 'frequent opportunities to 
eonverfe with him alone with 
familiarity. It was in the late 
king James's reign, when I be- 
gan to make any viGts to him, 
and being alone without any 
other company, our difcourfe 
was about popery, and the books 
publiflied pro^ and con. on thofe 
fubjedls, which were the com- 
mon topicks of converfation in 
thofe days. Among the reft of 
excellent obfervations on thofe 
fubjeds, for he was a ftrenuous 
aflertor of proteftant principles, 
and of the church of England 
in particular, I thought he fpoke 
extremely Well on the point of 
infallibility, which made me 
take the liberty to deiire him to 
put his thoughts, upon that fub- 
jjcA, into writing, that diey 
might be publiihed, and might 
be of public fervice. He ex- 
jcufed it, and as I guefTed, chiefly 
to fave the drudgery of writing 
fo much, whicli was a piece of 
indolence he was too much ad- 
di£ted to, and I verily believe 
was the lois of many ufefiil 
pieces of learning. Upon this, 
I knowing how readily he could 
di£bite, offered myfelf to be his 
amanuenfis, which he complied 
with, and the pamphlet was 

printed without any name, under 
the title of " Doubts concerning 
" the Roman Infallibility:*' and 
fince reprinted among other 
tra6h againft popery, in Ae 
Prefervative. When that col- 
lefiion was made, there was no 
certainty that Dr. Maurice was* 
the author ; fo I was enquired 
of about it, and gave this ac- 
count of his being undoubtedly 
the author. I had only the 
honour of being the midwife to 
bring that beautiful offspring 
into the world. He often com- 
plained of the fatigue he under- 
went in writing his anfwers to 
Clarkfon: the ignorance and 
falfhoods of that author he could 
eafily dete£i, and he ufed to fay, 
that only with the help of his 
Geographia Sacra, he foon dif- 
covered with little labour, be- 
fides writing, the fallacies of 
that author, whofe chief argu- 
ments confided in a defigned or 
miftaken account of the feats of 
the primitive bifhops, taking vil- 
lages for cities of the fame'' 
name ; perhaps tliis may be no 
unufefiil hmt, if any of Clark- 
fon's ftamp fliould hereafter at- 
tempt the like tindertaking a- 
gainft Epifcopacy. Dr. Mau- 
rice's preferments were but in- 
confiderable in confideration to 
his merit, viz. the Re&ory of 
Newington, a Prebend of Chi- 
chefter, and a fmecure in the 
diocefe of St. Afaph, owing no 




doubt to die <ieprivatlon of hk 
moft rovercnd patron. How- 
Over, he had oeither avarice nor 
ambition to court more, and 
fliewed the probity of his prin* 
ciplesy by being always fimily 
attached to what he thought 
the true intereft of the Church 
0f England both in convocation, 
where he mad^ a confldefabk 
figure, afMl elfewhere. 

The univerfiCy of Oifford did 
indeed, mani&ft their great 
icfteem of him, by etching him 
their Margaret Prpfeflbr. — Hia 
fnend. Dr. Edwards, principal 
Hf Jefus College, then Vice 
Chmcellor, firft fet him up in 
])is abfence, being then at Chi- 
<ih0fter, but unfortunately not 
faefbrt a forttilght after another 
dodidate hid the ftatt in canvaf- 
Sag for votes; whiph made the 
contefl ibmethii^ doubcful, but 
k was diought that after Dr. 
Maurice w^ puUipkly known 
to be a competitor, he had every 
vote which had not been pre* 
^ngaj^; fo he carried the eke- 
ticBi but by a majority of (ix 
voices* I remember a Flintr 
ibire barmiet made a fevere re^ 
mark upon that eledlon, being 
then at Oxford ; '' That Dr. 
^,( Maurice's books for Qioce&n 
♦* Epifcopacy were fcarce dry 
f' from (he prefs, and yet two 
i* bifliopa ihould VQte againft 
!• him." 

He was a pexfon of excelleat 
ftrong .natural pattsi improved 
by ftudy, and the moft tieg^nt 
converiation to be met among 
the moft eminent of his profef« 
iion, for they all courtnd his 
frietidihip : which made his ac-* 
tjuaintapce very ejtteufive, no 
mati being more free and com- 
municative in his conver&tion. 
Bifliop Hooper and he y^txp likf^ 
brothers. I being often with 
biro, had the opportunity and 
pleafure to attend him in many 
repipTocal viflts made between 
bim and fome of tlie moft emi^ 
nent divines in the Hmverftty, 
and parts adjacem, fuch as Dr« 
Jane, Dr, Aldripb, and Dr. 
Edwards, with many Others^ 
}n their converibtion, which al-* 
ways ran upon fome points of 
learning, I obierved they p«id 
great deference to his difcouHis 
and opinion ; for he fpoke with 
that cleamefs of expreflion, an^ 
with that qukkneb apd ftreiigtli 
. of judgment, that he feemed td 
want no deliberation* having 
all his notions fo ready and at 
command, that It appeared as if 
be had acquired his treafure of 
learning more by intuition dian 
ftudy, being never at a lofs to 
give a fpeedy and fatiafii&Qry 
foltidon to any propoiltion which 
was ftartcd* 





I was wont to conjedure, 
diat theie wonderful- talents 
broQght fo many vifitants to 
Newington : diough he was as 
generous and hofpitable as any 
prudent clergyman could be, 
and took great delight in good 
company, for he fpared nothing 
of his yearly income: and to 
prove diat parfimony and heap- 
ing of wealth was beneath his 
notice and concern, he delivered 
to me 200 guineas to lodge in 
Jefus College Burfary, for fecu- 
rity, faying, that was die whole 
fum he ever defiled to be mafter 
of, and to have by him at his 
death. I was informed that 
Vfbcn he died he had that wifhi 
and no mere. 

He was in his perfon of a 
middle fiee, ftrongly put toge- 
ther, and formed by nature to 
live to a great age ; had not the 
gout, or radier liis own remedy 
againft it, jtaken him off moft 
furprifingly ; for he depended 
ib much upon the ftrength of 
his conftitutSon, that he could 
conquer it by violent exercife^ 
fe upon every approach of it, 
his method was to ride 40 or 50 
miles, purely to fubdue that 
humour, which he attributed to 
die cold and moid fituadon of 
his apartment at Lambeth, jufl 
at the fide of the Thames. Be^ 
ing to preach as he didj die 

Sunday before he died, before 
the univerfity, in his cOurfe as 
Ma^rgaret Profeflbr, he was 
juft returned from fuch a jour«> 
ney upon fome apprehenfions 
he had of the gout feizing him ; 
but that violent modon had fo 
irritated the gouty humour and 
difperfed it about his body, 
which was obferved that Sunday 
by a Dodor of Phyfick, who 
dined with him, by an extra<- 
ordinary fwelling of his veins^ 
and advifed him to take care of 
himfelf, fo that trufling too 
much to the ftrength of naturci 
he died fuddenly one day that 
week at Newington, without 
any other alarm to his family^ 
befides the noife made by his 
fall from his chair in his cham« 
her. He might be then about 
die 45th year of his age. Such a 
fudden and unexpeAed calaflrp^ 
phe was very furprifing to every 
body, but I believe to none 
more fhocking than to myfelf t 
for he was prepared and ready 
to take a journey the day fol- 
lowing for Woiceiler, whete I 
was by appointment to meet 
him to fjpend feme time at his 
ptebendal houfe: whereto damp 
my full cxpeAation of finding 
my mudi efleemed friendt Dr* 
Maurice, I had die mofi fur-- 
prifing mordficanon to hear of 
his death. I fhall never for^ 
the forrowful journey I had tA 
Oxford upon dut melancholy 




difappoiDtmenty and the only 
alleviation of my grief, was, 
that I could congratulate with 
the focicty of Jcfus College 
(whereof 1 was then an unwor- 
thy member) that we had to 
lx>aft our having fnch a prodigy 
of parts and learning brought 
lip upon our foundation. And 
I ufed to fuggeft to them how 
moch beholding we were to the 
Honourable Sir Leoline Jenkins 
(among his other moft munifi- 
cient devifes) for giving fuch a 
rare and glorbus ornament to 
that college ; for had it not been 
for Sir Leoline's early obferva- 
tion of his promiiing parts, his 
fate mufl likely have been, to 
be tlirown into fome obfcure 
comer of his own ^ country, 
where the bifliops fhort rcfi- 
dence at their fees fcarce give 
them opportunity to know their 
clergy, more than their names 
in the lifts for the payment of 
procurations, annuals, or lacr 

After he was made Margaret 
Profeflbr, and feemed neither to 
cxpe£b nor deiire .any further 
advancement, he refolved to 
take a houfe and fpcnd fome 
part of his time at Oxford, be^ 
ing but fix miles diftant from 
Newington; and not only for 
the fake of attending the duty 
of his profeiTorihip, but alfo to 
^Qjoy a more liberal oonverfatioo 

among the learned, and to have 
a better opportunity to compofe 
and publiih his tenures as he 
intended. He had thought of 
another defign of making his 
converfation at Oxford edifying 
and his company ufeful, tl^ 
was by engagii^ me to recom- 
mend and introduce to his ac- 
quaintance, ten or a dozen Fel- 
lows of Colleges of reputable 
parts, with whom he purpofed 
to contraft a familiarity, which, 
might tend to their improve- 
ment. There was no man a« 
live more capable of conveying 
inftru£^ion over a moderate bot- 
tle than Dr. Maurice; for he had 
an agreeable and wonderful 
mixture of the grave and ferious 
with tlie gay and facetious, and 
was the only perfon 1 ever 
knew, befiJes Bi{hop Hooper, 
who could adapt himfejf (o well 
to all forts of cQnverfatioa, 

This plan of his future life ho 
revealed to me, when I attended 
him to Worcefter to take pof- 
fefllon of his Prebend, fome few 
days after he was elected Pro- 
feflbr: and he fully defigned to 
carry it into execution the nex( 

It is fomething remarkable, 
that when Dr. Maurice began 
to flourifh, upon his admifHon 
to his poft at Lambeth, there 
yfcvt about tl^e fa^ie time ^ con- 



fiderable number of eminent 
men of the Principality of Wales 
preferred to fill the great offices 
■in Church and State, mod of 
them bred up at Jefus College, 
infomucli that I well remember 
•it to be bbferved, it could be 
faid then, that the laft Arch- 
bifliop, Dr. Dolben, of York ; 
the laft Bi(hop, Dr. Lloyd, of 
St. Afaph ; the laft Dean, Dr. 
Humphreys, of Bangor ; the laft 
Archbiihop's Chaplain, Dr. 
Maurice ; the laft Lord Clian- 
cellor of England, Sir George 
Jcfircys ; the laft Secretary of 
State, Sir Leoiine Jenkins; the 
laft Lord Chief Juftice, Sir 
Thomas Jones -, the laft Mafter 

of the Rolls, Sir John Trevor; 
and the laft Speaker of the Houfe 
of Commons, Sir Wm, Wil- 
liams, that had been made, wer^ 
Welflimen. Which demon- 
ftrates tliat Wales can produce 
geniufes not inferior to the other 
parts of the ^king's dominion* 
The other great men are to be 
met with and prefented in our 
annals. But Dr. Maurice, 
though in his fphere he caft as 
great a luftre as any of tliem, 
his worth and memory had been 
by this time almoft forgotten, 
bad not the pious care of liis 
friends ere6)^ him a monument, 
which is placed in Jefus College 
Chapet. '. 



( «0 ) 


OBjzcriotis again/l Rice Griffith* in bis IndiSmentj wib 

the Answers thereunto* 

JL FITH lying at If- 
lingtOD, in the countie of 
Middlefexy did there plott 
and confpire with Edward 
Floyd,anl WilliamHughes, 
two of his fenrantSy for the 
depofing of Henry the 8'^. 
and putting his crowne 
upon the head of James 
the 5^. king of Scotland. 

Q*. . . That there was att that 
tyme in Wales, a prophe- 
cie which gave encourage- 
ment to this their praAice, 
(viz*.) yames of Scotland 
with the red handf and 
the ravenj (being Rice his 
creail) ihould conquer 

S'*. . . That Rice Griffith did 
divers tymes imploy Ed- 
ward Floyd, his clerk, to 
one James ap Griffith, pri- 
foner at the Tower. There 
perfuading him to come 

into this conffHracie, and 
that he woukl receive the 
facrament of the cucharift 
in token of a fecore and 
faithful! covenant be twc c u 
them for dio perfonnanoe 
of the premifes. 

4^ • . That the laid Rice to 
convey htmfelf fecretUe 
into Scotland* did morq;age 
his lordfliips of Carewc 
and Narbethf to one Ro» 
bert White, citizen and 
clotliier of London, for 
two thousand pounds. 

S*N . . That the faid Rice tooke 
upon him a new name, 
(viz^) Rice ap Griffith 
Fitzurian, to the intent 
that under this faire pre- 
tence, and title, he mi{^it 
more worthily obteyne the 
principallitie of Wales, 
which was tlie marke he 
affigned at after the con- 

The Anfweare to the Firft. 

Rice Griffith ftood 
charged with thefe objec- 

tions in die year I53I» 
being about die 19^. df 

* The grandfoa of Sir Rice ap ThomM, See th« Cmkrian Ktgifitr^ twA 1. pmgi 138. 




James the 5*. and the 23*'. 
of Henry the 8*. at which 
tyme. (and fo for the fpace 
qf 5 or 6 years before) 
dicre was a moft £rme 
league of amity and friend^ 
ihippe betwixt thefe two 
kings. Infomuch that Hen- 
ry the 8*. to regaiae Ws 
nephew's good opinion, and 
to remore all former un- 
kindnefles chiefiie occa- 
fioned by the Duke of Al- 
baniein the time of his go- 
vermnent, did then abfo« 
lutelie refbfe to breake the 
peace with Scotland in fa- 
vor of the Earl of Angus^ 
though the fame Earl ear- 
oeftUe bboured for tliat pur- 
pofe. This James the 5'\ 
took fo well at Henry the 
S'K his handea, that prefently 
after he fent his ambaila- 
dours into Elngland to treate 
for the contynuance of a 
peace betweene them, du- 
rit^ their natiuall lives, 
which in the yeare follow- 
ing was concluded to the 
great contentment of both 
ni^tiens. So that theife 
kings ftandipg uj^n fuch 
faire tern)$ the one with 
the other, Rice Griffith had 
no gTQund in that kindc to 
buil4 ^ confpiracie upon, 
and fo cpniequentlie. muft 
needes be innocent of theife 
accufations laid to his 

charge^ for James the V\ 
was known to have a heart 
fo full of honor, that he 
would fcorn to enterteyne 
fuch a motion, as might 
tend the deftrudion of his 
uncle, under the colour of 

Iff James the 5*, who 
was for his years a moft 
valiant wUe prince^ had 
aym'd at a bufinefs of that 
high nature, as the con* 
queft of this kingdom, with- 
out queftion hee would 
have been well advifed in 
his undertakinges :-^Firft» 
by examining his own 
ftrength at home, and 
making preparations there- 
after; fecondiie, by labour- 
ing a partie in England, 
and trying the afieftions 
there, of men more emi- 
nent and powerful! then 
Rice Griffith was (but at 
that time having newlie 
taken the government of 
his kingdome upon him- 
felfe) he found his ftrength 
fo devided, and his power 
fo weakened with civil 
broils, happening amongft 
his peeres during his mi- 
noritie, that he was wholie 
taken upp in quietting and 
appeazing thofe home-bred 
difcontents, having no lea- 
fure to looktt abroade for 




the enlarging of his domi- 
nioQs« Bc^fides there was 
noe Englifhman of note 
knowne orfufpoSkcd at that 
time to favor the Scottifh 
caufc, or likclic to have 
lided with them in fuch an 
attempt. It could never be 
prooved that Rice Griffith 
did ever fpeake, fend, or 
write unto James die 5^ 
to offer him his fervice and 
affiftance, for the depofing 
of Henry the 8\ or that 
James the fifth did employ 
any minifter of his to cor- 
rupt and withdraw Rice 
Griffith from his allegi- 

As for Rice Griffith him- 
felf he was verie young, 
being not above three and 
twentie yeares of age when 
he loft his head, and there- 
fore not likelie to appre- 
hend fo gieat an enter- 

He was wholie given to 

liis booke, and retired in 
tlie courfe of his life, nei- 
ther ambitioiis of honor, 
nor bunting after wordlie 
preferment. Hec lived in 
a plentiefull fortune, and 
in grace and favor with the 
king, fo that \^c had no 
reafon to bee cither difcon- 
tented or difloyal. 

Sir Rice ^Thomas (this 
Rice his gnmdfather) re- 
ceived Henry the 7*^. at 
Milford Haven, and at- 
tended him with fourthou- 
fand men, never leaving 
him till Richard the third 
was flaine in the fielde, 
for which fervice he had 
tlie fpoile of king Richard's 
tent. Hee was made diiefe 
governor of all Wales, af- 
terwanls advanced to the 
order of the garter, and 
laftlie, for the good fervice 
be did againftthofe of the 
Comifti Rebellion, he was 
made km'ght banneret att 
Blackheadi. His fon, Sir 
Griffith Rice, (this Rice's 
father) received likewife a 
marke of this king's favor, 
for he was made knight of 
the Bath to Prince Ardiure; 
and this Rice himfelf was 
offered the earldome of 
Effex by Henry the 8**. 
but he houkling himfelfe 
unworthie of fo high a 
title, humblie refufed the 
fame. Theife graces and 
favours fumm'd upp toge- 
ther, fure it cannot be Aat 
Rice Griffith fliould be fo 
degenerate or unthankfiJl, 
as to entertayn any ignoble 
or dilloyal thought againft 
that lynej which alwaies 




faoled npon him, and his, 
with the.^e of favoar. 

As coAccrtungRice Giif.* 
fidi*s tying at HIington 
(making that place as his 
adTerfaridl would icforccy 
dfe firealie of his diflo^altie) 
It tv&s weH knowB he had 
neither been theit» tior a- 
bout London, ait dsac time, 
but yi|i6d ^anruBiuid: for 
the king' had theik fcntfor 
.him toiliake ahfwm* toucbt- 
ihg; ceitatokffi^ies between 
the Lord FeiTan» and the 
Lady Katfaerine Howard, 
the {did Bioe . his wife, 
^exem (Rice being abfent) 
there ilrere flain 5 or 6 of 
the Lord Ferrars hii fer- 
yiult8» and thitee or four 

of the faid Riee his fer- 

Thfere are named in this 
obje^ioil to 1>e of confpi« 
racie yiith Rice Griffith, 
but two of his fervants, a 
po>6r council, God wot, 
and a weak ftrength to un- 
dergoe fo great a defigne ; 
whereof the one falflie an* 
fwering him» was (as 
L (hall hereafter prove) 
bod) pardoned and reward- 
ed: the other acquitting 
him was condt^tnned and 
executed. So that here ap- 
pears (and we have juft 
caufe to believe it) a trea- 
fon rSiiher purpoied and in- 
tended by a fervant againft 
his mafter, than by a fub- 
jeft cowards his Ibvereign^ 

. I 

The Anfwer to thi feemi\ 

* - « 

Then ^was no ftich pro- 
^hecyd lci)owne in Wales, 
iiatiU about the time Rice 
%a^ <|i3tftloii6d, and ther&- 
foni 'tis iikelye h{s adver* 
lanes did thert invent it, to 
gJve a bifttter colour to their 
imftAievou^ ^iigtis» . 

' T cahndt finde m ante 
ISkxittifli Mtto/tfei norJeame 
fMm any rf Ihflt tKition, 
m^ ykm 1t^ S^ h^d any 
^h iaipiA^ ^Aiarke about 

him, as that one of hi) 
hands upp to the wrift 
^ould be as rnU, as iff it 
had been ^ip'd in blood : 
but admitt we ittwere (b — 
Sure I am we have no 
Warraht to iepok dny con- 
fidence in fuch piediAions, 
die moft of diem ever vain 
and failing, and therefore 
not to be regarded* 

' It was a bomnioii. thing 
fit ieems) in Henrie the 8''' 

T hi» 



his tymCy to make prophe* 
cies upon the bodyes and 
cognizances of nobiemea 
and others, and to divine 
the good or ill that (hould 
befall them, by the letters 
of their names, to the 
utter niyne and deftru6lion 
of many noble houfes and 
worthie families in this 
kiogdome. To prevent 
which inconveniencies in 
future tymes, die high 
court of parliament, held 
in the 33*^ of the faid 
king's reigne, made it fe- 
lony for any man to print, 
write, fpeak, fing, or de« 
dare any fuch prophecie : 
fo that if Rice Griffith had 
lived to have been tryed in 
that feffions, (having no 
greater matter laid to his 
charge then a bare pro- 
phecy, as more he had not ; 
his adverfaries making that 
the very bafia, and foun- 
dation of their przGdce) 
no queftion he had been 
quitted, by a& of parlia-r 

When Rice Griffith had 
declined the Earldom of 
Eflex (diough it were with 
an humble acknowledge 
ment of his owne unwor- 
thinefs) yet .his adverfaries 
made other oonflru£tioQ 
thereof to ^e king, by 

poffirffing hSm widi an opi* 
nion that Rice his high af- 
piring thoughts could not 
be (aJdffdf there being at 
diat tyme in Wales a pro* 
phcde, which gave his 
hopes far £uxer promifes; 
hereupon ceitaine fparcles 
of jeloofie were kindled in 
Ae king's heart, which not 
long after (and that upon a 
mere trifle) burfl out into 
a flame. Hie king one 
daie at Wandfwortfa hawk- 
ing at the farooke, his faul- 
conbeingfeized of a fowle, 
there came by accident a 
raven, that pot his faulcon 
from the quarrey, whereat 
the king chafed exceeding- 
lie. One (landing by (as 
malice is ever watchful to 
do mifchief ) ftepps to the 
king, and whifpered him in 
the eare, faying, Sir, you 
fee how preremptorie this 
raven is growoe, aod there- 
fore it is high tyme to pull 
him down, thereby to fe* 
cure your majeftie, and to 
prevent his infolencies. 
Thefe words (the king's 
be^rt alreadie fuU . of fuf- 
pition) amazed honflrai^t 
as a prefage of his own 
fortune : fo that from that 
time forward he was never 
att peace, ^ hf[ hsul re* 
moved (as he thought) the 
difturber^bjuipea^; and 


this b a ftorie of the Earl 
of Noctinghame's, tho only 
man of note now living, 
who came neareft thofd 
times ; which may ierve to 

ANTIQUrriES. 278 

Aiewe how maliciouflie 
Rice Griffith was profc- 
cutcd . by his advcrfaries to 
his undderved delfaiu&ion* 

The Anjwtr t^ the third. 

Of this Edward Floyd, 
the Ladie Katherine How- 
ard did take much pains to 
be trulic informed; who, 
knowing in her own heart 
her hufband^s innocencie, 
and fearing the ruyne of 
he;rfe;)f and children, left 
©o ftone unmoved whereby 
this pradice might be dif- 
coveied. Att length (by 
the help of her friends, and 
pod's dircdiion) ihee found 
out^ that this man was 
corrupted with a reward of 
five hundred marks, to be- 
traye his maifter^ and this 
z]io wa3 prooved by divers 
pthiers ; fpe that I hope no 
credit fhall be g^ven to him 
in this cafe. 

James ap GdQth (to 
whom ^6 Floyd did often 
p( himfelf repajre, noj fent 
by Rice, ^s is fugg^ed) 
was apprehended by the 
(aid Rice, for counterfeat-- 
jng the great fcal, and by 
him fent up to the lofds of 
the councell, and fo com- 
fpjttpd tp the Tower i fp 

that it had been meere mad- 
nes in Rice to put his life 
into that man*s hands, 
whofe life at that tirtie by 
his means was quedioned. 

James ap Griffith, and 
Edward Floyd, (the one'y 
heart full ojf revenge:, the 
other of corruption, and 
treachery) did oftentymes 
meet and confult by what 
means they might lay mat- 
ter of treafon to Rice his . 
charge, and (as fitting for 
their purpofe at that time) 
they called to mind an un- 
fortunate blank of Rice's, 
which had long layne in 
the hands of James ap 
Griffith, and was gotten 
upon this occafioiv James 
apGri^th, aniianofpean 
eftatj?, having his chiefeft 
ftay of living from the faid 
Jlice, and being on a tyme 
veric famillier together, de- 
fired the faid Rice his let« 
. jer to a gentleman in North 
Wales, for a fanPi which 
was then to be lett, which 
the fia^id Rige granted him ; 

T8 bv^ 



hmt never m cherk t)eing 
f>rcfeift 10 wtitt the letter, 
the faid James periiiaded 
Rice td fnWcribe to a 
blanck, and that Edward 
Floyd, his clerk, ihould 
indite the letter according 
to his meaning. In this 
blanck by them was fet 
downe matter enough for 
the indictment, and they 
two onlie gave in evidence 

i^iAft Rice, bekkg both of 
tbboi condftened with hiiriy 
but aftervmnb • fardbned, 
and bee with W^. Hn^es^ 
tme of bn tshasiber,. exe- 
cuted; who took it upon 
their deathes they were 
botli innocent of the trea- 
fens laid Co their charge, 
which no doubt deferveth 
due conddenition. 

Tie. Anjwear tci the fourths 

Rjce Griffith had fo great 
Sin etlace att ihat tyme, that 
he niiglttliaveconftmatinded 
greater Turns 6f money 
ii)ppon his cfeiit, tv?thout 
mortgaging of Iknds: for 
the inventory of Tiis goods, 
jewels, and plrfte, upon his 
attainer, amourted to thir- 
tie thoufand poundi, be- 
fides an eftate of a tliou- 
fand pound bnd a yeare 
old fent of a^iz<s. 

If TRice OrifiTdi ^ould 
have gone for Scotland, it 
is likelife he would have 
made better preparations for 
Ills jcmriiey, flien is fett 
^own in this dbjeSion : for 
he miglit well affure Wm- 
'felf, that whatfoever he 
left behind him (upon no- 
tice given to the (late of 

his flight) would hav6 been 
ieized tippon far the king. 

If James tbfe 5^ had in- 
teffided to invade this king- 
dom. Rice Criffith" could 
have do'ni^ him bettetfer- 
vice id hi$ XiWtL xroHntrie 
6f Wales, whetfe he had 
bo^di a gredt fortune, and 
Ynkny poivetfd IHWids to 
affift him, dian \ij ^oing 
over into Scotltod, to oflfer 
his particufetfervicfc, ^here 
he could be of no ufe, 
more than a pirtvatefoldier, 
bringing with him \ieither 
mtn^ monty, txoflr muni- 
tion, atid fo no way Capa- 
ble of that greJit rtWards, 
which his adverfaries Would 
perftiade die woild kc look- 
ed after. 





It Qei»^ IV? Qiewn^m^ 
th«jt U of » ttiooifapd X^^ 

ft^pdjingy and fo lc4ig thU 

naipQ hftth coQtuxi^ed Hi 

believe either la^exaUrie* 
tradition, or thofe who are 
well read in antiqiuM^ ; fo 
that his ^^er6«M ^nec^ 
driven to a VQiy i>)ifiiow 
ftraight, ta find matter of 
treafon againft hii^, wh^ 
tq owne his owne name, 

Mf^ laid to his iiwg^ as a 

Vrian Rheged, whofe 
pofteritie was^ called h^ th^ 
name of Fitzvriao, aq4 
from whome Rice QriffitH 
lyneallie defcended, Hv^ 
about eleaven hundred 
years ago, in Klnge Ar* 
thure's tyme, and was mar- 
ried to his half-fifter. Mar-. 
garet le Fay, daughter and 
heire to Gorolus, Puke of 
Cornwall : this Vrian was, 
asfome fay, King of Scot-i 
land; others will have him 
to bee but a prince of ^ 
place, called Rheged, in 
Scotland ; and fome do afn 
firme he was a great lord 
in Wales, and a knight o? 
King Arthurc's t^ble. Thus 
our writers dp varie ; but 

bcf h^^ wbat h?? will (for 
of timg9 iq far diftant, we 
b^ve litt}^ tnHb or ^ertain^ 
tie) fure I am> t^t this 
giQC Griffith QoiJd not be 
fp, blifd ip. hi^ vnd^rftand- 
ing, as to think he could 
thi^PQ 4afivi^ tg^ hiimfelfe 
any manner of clayme to 
theprincipaKtio of Wales j 
fo that I am perfnaded, no 
anfwere is fo poore, but 
will eafilie fettsfie this, and 
the reft of theife obje<9:ion§. 

Queene Elizabeth, whom 
it mpft concerned (for if 
any fuch treafon, had been 
intended again(\ her focher^ 
her expectation of a crown 
had been fruftrated) wiy| 
witl\ theife reafops fo well 
fatisfied of tl|^ extreame 
and hard mes^ura ofi^reiji 
to Rice Qriffith, that ihe 
never looked upon any of 
his children, but as uj^on 
fpe£tacles of infinite fuflfer-? 
ance: infomuch that fhe 
would often fi^y, ihe wa^ 
indebted both to juftice and 
her father's hpnor^ till flii^ 
had repaired them. Bt( 
my giandfather, an.d father 
after him, met with here^ 
ditari^ eoemi^ at court, 
and thus ftands our cafe. 

T 3 






A good Accouni of fbe various Serfs of ReKgtouf HomfeSp 
within the Principality of fVales^ would he a defiraHe Acquis 
Jit ion for enriching the Cambrian Regijler; it may therefore 
be ujeful^ tolvards obtaining fome Information upon that Sui» 
je^f to give Room to the following Li/i of fuch Places^ rar- 
traBedfrom Tanner's Nodtia Monaftka. 



Baffelech, or Baflele. 
Benediaine Cell 

Bergavennjf or Abergavenny. 
BenediAine Priory. 

Caerleon^ orCaeniike. 


Ciftertian Abbey. 

* Goldcliff. 
Alien Priory. 

Grace Dieu^ Dc Gratia Dci, 
Trody, Stow, or Newham. 
tiftertian Abbey. 

St.Kinmercy^ or St. Kynemark. 

Llanhodenei^ Lantony, or Lan- 
tonia Prima. 
Auftin Canons. 

Llangkywanj or Uangwin. 
Alien Priory. 

Ciflertian Abbey. 

Cluniac Cell. 

Beuedidline Priory. 

. Newport. 
«y/r<?^w//,Strigulc,or Chepdow. 

* lien Priory. 

Ciftertian Abbey. 

UJki or Cainiik* 
Benedidine Nuns. 


Klonaftery deftroyed. 

Benedictine Priory. 
Black Friers. 
Grey Friers. 
WTiite Friers. 

Monaftcry dcftroycd. 


Alien Priory. 

MonaAcry deftroyed. 

Ciftertian Abbey. 

Cidcrtian Abbey. 

Sweinfey^ or Swanfey 

IVenny^ G wenny, or Ewenny. 
Benediaine CeU. 





Jhrgwify, or Aberguilly. 

Albalanda^ Wbiteland, or 
Blancland, ' Wallice, Tj 
GwynarTaf; or, the White 
Houfe on the river Taf. 
Ciftertlan Abbey. 

Monaftery deftroyed. 

Benedifline Priory. 

Auftiti Canons. 
Grey Friers. 

St. Clare 
Alien Priory. 

LancadauCf or Langadoc. 

Tallaghj TaIlaghan,or Talley. 
Premonfiraten£an Abbey. 


Tyrone Cell. 

Si. David* s, orMenevia. 

St, Dogmaeh 
Tirone Abbey. 

Auflin Canons- 
Black Friers. 



Niwppri. ' 
Aiiftih Friers. 

Pemhrohf or Monketon, in 
the fubutbs of Pembroke. 
Benedidine Cell. 

PiV/tf, orPillc. 
Benedi£tine Priory. 

Knights Hofpitalers. 

Teniighy or Tenbye. 
St. Mary Magdalene Hofpital. 
St. John's Hofpital. 

Vallis Rojina. 
Monaftery deftroyed. 

Monaftery deftroyed. 


Benedi£line Priory. 
Black Friers^ 


Benedid^ine Cell. 

Llanbadam Faur. 
Monaftery deftroyed. 


Llanleir^ orLUnclere. 
Ciftertian Nuns* 


Abbey and Nunnery. 

Strata Florida^ Stratflur, 
Stratflour, or Iftratfleer. 
Ciftertian Abbey. 



390 CANfBRIAN ltEQI8T«R, 1796. 

Radnokshirb. BMncornaium 

Cumhyn^ Comebere, or Com- 
Ciftertian Abbey. 

Ciftertian Nunnery, 

Yjirat Marchell^ Strata Marl BlackFriers. 
cclla, All)a Domua de Stra^* 
margel, ValL Crucis^ of 
Ciftcrtian Abbey. 


Banc^nahurghi BaimIk^ or 
Bangor Ifkocd, or Mona- 
Monaftery deft^yed^ 

Ciftertian Abbey* 



Mer ConiVtiy* 
Ciftertlan Abbey. 
Banchory or Bangor^ 
Kinner^ Kinmer, or Kemmer. Bifhoprick. 
Ciftcrtian Abbey. 


Clwyd Valtif* 
Monaftery deftroyed. 

White Friei-s* 

Black Friers. 
BardJey^X^^lxJivXi San(florpffi,' 
De Iiifula Henly, al'ui^s 
Ynis Enlly-i The Ifle of 
Birds, or Aberdaron. 

Bfthhlert, or De VaUe S. Ma- 
riflB in Snaiidoniti^. 

Maynan^ Maencn* orAbercon- Auft in Canons. 

Clynnock Faur. 

Ciftcrtian Abbey. 

College. I 

White Friers. 

De Valle Crucis, Llan-Eg- 
wifte, or Llanegwaft. 
Ciftertiam Abbey. 

IVitheriaCy or Goitherine. 


5/. AJaph^ 



Glannach^ Prleftholme, St* 
Cyriol,Praeftol, orPenmon 
Benediftine Priory. 

Holy Heady or Caer Quby, 
Monaftery deftroyed, and Col- 
Z//?;zt;^z/V,Lhan-vac$, or Llain* 
aufy, near Beaumaris. 
Grey Friers. 





THE ruin of this place, of 
xvhich the vignette in thi 
titte page' of* this ' volume is a 
Vicw^ is one of the pldhirefqu^ 
objects, which enrich the vale 
of Ncatii, ift Qlamorg^riihire^ 
It (lands. aboTit half a mil^ 
weft of thq tov^n of the fame 
name, nlcaf the road leading 
to Swanfey. At the dtftance it 
ftaods from the r^ad, ^he garb 
cf a&dqoity, which it wears, is 
too attraftfve, not to entice the 
traveller to a clofcr examination 
of its beatitfes ; but he no fooner 
approaches, than he meets with 
a moft'ofifetifive repulfe, in the 
mifciy 6f its prefent inmates, 
the ragged and dirty families of 
the workmen employed at the 
neighbounng copper fmeking 
houfes. ' 

The Welfli call this abbey, 
4iatty^ C^yn NeMf or the Ab- 
bacy d[ the vale of Neath ; and 
Nedd is properly the name of 
the river running through it» 
being defcriptive of the gentle 
courfe of its ftream, compared 
with mod of the neighbouring 


Tl^ia nHift hare been a cte^ 
lightfiil fituation in former times : 

I allude to its paft beauties \ fqk 
now they are tamiflied by th^ 
fmolce of fires continually bum^ 
ing round it on every fide, (9 
that a traveller, who ffK)ul4 ap- 
proach this vale at night, nuglj^ 
wi^n imagine he was entering 
the dominions of PIuto« 

The inexhauflible ftorc qf 
coals, wherewith the neighbQur* 
hood abounds, has been thecaufc 
of eredVing large works for iro;^ 
here, the ore of which i^ brou^ 
from dac Upper part of the vale; 
and alfo of ereAing very extea* 
five fmeltJng houfes for the cop-» 
per ore, brought from Paris 
Mountain in Anglefey. 

With refpeft to the hiftory 
of the foundation of the Abbey 
of Neath, and its endowment, 
no additional account can b9 
offered, at prefent, to what is 
^OXKaified in Tanmr^s Noiifia 
'Monajiica^ which is here pre- 
linited to the reader, fbr his fa- 
tisfa£li<m, and aa an mducement 
to fuch as fl»ay have it in their 
power, to fulAiih ibme addi- 
tional parricfiimra, either as to 
that, or any other refiglous 
houfe'in Wales* 





Richard de Graiaville' and 
CooAance his wife, gave their 
chapel in the cafHe at Neth, the 
tithes belonging to it, a large 
trad of wade land, and other 
poflellions, temp. Hen. I. to 
the abbat and convent of Sa- 
vigny, hear Lions, in France, 
that they might build an abbey 
here. And a very fair' abbey 
(dedicated to the Holy Trinity^) 
vras built accordingly, on die 
weft* fide of the river, a little 
below the town, for monks of 
the order of Savigny*,* or Fratres 
Grifei*, who foon afterwards 
became Ciftertians^ 

Notwithftanding the original 
donation to Savigny", I do not 
find that this houfe was ever 

fubjefl to that foreign abbey, or 
accounted as alien* There were 
eight ' monks in it ^bout die 
time of the diflbludon, when 
it was found to be endowed with 
jf 132. 7x. Id* ob. per ann. as 
Dugdale, and jf 150. is. 9d. as 
Speedy and was granted, S3 Hen* 
8. to Sir Richard Williams^ 
alias Crumwell, in exchange. 

fide in Mon. A^gl. torn. L 
p. 719. cartam Ricardi Grain- 
ville et Conftantiae uxoris ejus : 
Cartam 9 Joan. m. 7. b. 76. 
confirm, donationes di<^orum 
Ricai-di et Conftantiae : Cart. 9 
Joan. m. 4 n. SO. confimn 
prsdidas donationes, et dona- 
tiones Roberti com. Glouceftriae» 
Willielmi filii ejus, et aliorum* 

' One of Fitz Haimon*s knighti, wYio came about A. D.IOOO, to al&ft £tiuo& ind 
Jeftin, agaiaft Rhyi, prince of South Wales. 

» Lcland. Itin. vol. v. p. 14. fpeaks of Neth as the " faireft abbey of all Walw jT 
but in hit Coiled voL ii. p. 92. be feenu to give Margan the prcftreace of all the 
Cifterlan boofes in thcfe parts. 

s St. Mary, at Ant. Wood. Fafiij Toti. col. 19. 

■ ^ Lcland. Itin* toI. it* p. 50. 

•. s Mon. Angl. toI. i. p. 7 19.. 

. * Leland. Itin. voL Wii* p* €6. 

7 In the ancient catalogue of religious boufesi published in Stevens' SapptemauC^ 
T9I. i. p. 3&} « Abbalia de Neath la dioc. Landaff, Monachi Aibi." 

- * Being an abbey^ it could not be a cell, as' Stevens, vol. iL py 257. Perhaps it 
might be a daughter houfe to it only. Mon. AngL vol. i. p. 700. 

9 As Bennet College MS. Leland, Col lea. vol. i. p. 105, faith, this abbey had 
the privilege of fanduaryi bot was not of note on that account. 




Dugdale's Warwickfhire^ p. 
379f edit. 1730. of Roger, carl 
fof Warwick's giving certain 
lands and Efhing in Gouherland 
to this abbey. ' 

. Lelandi coIle£l. vol. 1. p. 40. 
104. ejqfdem Icin. vol. iv. p. 
50. vol. V. p. 14. 

. In perambulatione foreftarum 
regiarum in com. Somerfet. apud 
Adamum de Domerham, p. 193. 
recenfentur quaedam poiTeiiiones 

hujus abbatiae infira bondas fo- 

In Dr. Archer's Account of 
Religious Houfes, printed at the ' 
end of Mr. Heam^*s Heming- 
fordy p. 638. of iii. marks, x s. 
yearly from the manor of Ex- 

Regiftrum penes Ed. StradUng 
mil. Analefta ex regiftro MS. 
Aftimole, 844. et MS. in bibU 
Harleiana, 227S. f. 154. Cart. 
10. Hen. 3. n. 42. 



1 HE fFork yon have undertaken is highly deferuing of Encourage* 
mentj and I hope you will perfevere in ity efpecially in the Topogram 
phical Department : if you think the inchfed Accotfnt of the only 
Mhey in the County of Merioneth^ part of which t drew up after 
vifiting the Spot^ . in company with my Friends mid brother Anti* 
quarieSy Meffrs. Moore and Lambert, in the Year 1191 ^ worth 
infertion^ it is at your Service. 

I amy i^c» (fc. 
orayV inn, JOHN CALEY. 

JANUARY 29, 1798. 


Notitia Monailica of 
Bifliop Tanner, was a Ciftercian 
abbey, dedicated* to St 'Mary, 

and was founded by Leweline, 
the fon of Gervafe, about A. IX 
1200, but a note adds, '«fo 
(fays) Mr. Speed ; but though 



he iccinv to hare been a bcne^ 
hStoTf and as Prince of NorA 
Wales^ to have confirmed the 
donations of othen, as well as 
his own, there doth not appear 
any great reafon to think him 
fbnndeTy nor is the time of the 
foundation clear, but it fecms to 
have been in a flouri{hing con-* 
ditbninA. D. 1231, when in 
the wars of King Henrjr the 
Third with die Wel/h, the Eng- 
liih would have burnt it, but 
the httcr gave diem three hun- 
dred marks to fpare it. This 
Leweline became Prince of 
North Wales 1199, and died in 

In the year 1291, as appears 
(kooit aa ancient roU in the Aug-* 
mentation Office, the abbey had 
in yearly revenues, 1 1/. 14*. 1 1 J. 
the whole fum ariGng from 
Granyes paftures, and other 
temporal pofTeifions, ^xc^pt ii.x* 
ty {hillings for the profits ac- 
cruing from fixty cows, ap^ fi^ 
fKiliiiQgs and three pence from 
twenty- five iheep, which then 
formed the live ftock of the 

No valtiation or fbrvey of die 
abbey bar been difcorered be« 
twecn this period and the 2dA 
year of king Henry the Ei^idK^ 
when it was returned, by die 
commiffioners, to be worth an- 
nnalty, in fpiritualiries and tem- 
poraKtiet, 51/. 13/. 4^* 

Not long after this furvey had 
been taken, Kymmer was dif- 
folved in purfuance of the ftatme 
27 Hen. 8. and the receiver 
of the erown then a ufwct e d for 
the rents and profits. 

Thefe accompts of thecrown's 
miniilers, or receivers, are de* 
pofited in the Augmentation 
OjEce, and &om 4%e 31(^ 
year of Henry the figfatb^ il^ 
appears that the fcite of the 
mouaftery, with lands, tene^ 
meats, and mills, £2. 15x. Mw 
The re^lory of Llaneltid, £^n 
13x. 4^. The rcdloi^ of Lla^OHB^ 
<Tyn, ;^13. 13/. 4^. Tlie rec- 
tory ofLlanacreih, jfQ; 18f»4^ 
and twenty-four cranocks, aii4 
two hoppetts of wheat, ^10. 6/. 
6d* were all then upon leafe to 
John Pewis. The other poflef- 
fjons there defcribed as lately 
beioi par<;Ql of the abbey, were 

Town of Redcrowe, lands and tenements, 
Town of Llaneltid, divers tenements, &c 
Town of Dollogeltby, divers tenements, &c. 


3 5 4> 

10 15 2 

i3 8 4 



Town of Cumkadeiiii tenements and miH, 
Town of Tranfbryn, divprs tenements, 
TWa of Ltanechtthe, tenemetits and reata. 
Chapel of Kydis^ . « . 

Fmes and Perquiiitetf of Courts, ^ 

So that the whole fum of the yeadf lAGbiUb 0f the ^0^0^: in 
r%ht of the Abbey, wasthett ^^65. 15x. lO/. 

£' J. 


3 2 






The faxt remaned in the 
Crown for feveral fucceffive 
idghs, notlieii^ granted a'ltay 
till Queen Elizabeth beftowed 
it upon Robeit^Earlof Leicefler, 
about die tw^iHrth year of her 
reign* How it has fincc de- 
leendid, or who is the prafent 
pofieflbr, 18 tot knowck 

A view 6f the mini df Kytn- 
mer is engraved in }Au Moore's 
Monaftic Remains, page 109» 
and thfe accoubt cannot, per- 
haps, be better conckded than 
by the defcription there given. 

The abbey, a mile diftant 
frdm Dolgdiy, is ae^ to Ibe 
banks of the tiver Mowthy ; the 
walls of the church yet remain, 
of a length difproportionate to 
the breiidth, betfig ^haoft forty 

paces long; and not above eight 
broad, the eaft end has thrca 
lancet windows, fcarcely vifible 
froin the duftering ivy Which 
funounds them ; on the fouth 
iide are tfiree vety neatly orna- 
mented arches, and an aperturt^ 
in the wall, in which was pro- 
bably kef^t the holy waiter ; in 
this part of the building likcwiie^ 
was a femicircular door, oppo- 
$te jto two fmall arches, and 
near them a mutilated ftone^ 
reprefenting th0 head of a human 

This view has been particu- 
brly deferibed^ on actount of 
the obikutity of its fiauatioiii it 
being fcarcely known by di8 
inhabitants of the neighbouring 
town of Dolgell^, whjjbh is 
feated in die meXk fettik fpot oC 
the rocky county of Merioneth. 






FAES 12. Tegcryn, by Tryfglwyn, 


2. Monachdy in Llanfair yn 

Nghornwy. 13. ElaethChapel in Amlwch. 

3. Prionly in Pcinnon. 14. LlanUeianauChapd,iViu- 


4. Abatty Ordderch (Ry* 

dderch) Llanfadwrn. 15- NawfaintChapd, q. 

5. Seiriol's Chapel, in Pricft- 16. Gwcn hira Gwen hoyw 
^<^^^^ Chapel, in BeCtws Llan Badrig, 

6. Mcugant Chapel, near 17. Anhiinedd y Pran, now 
Beaumaris, a cow-houfe, by Clcgyrog. 

7- Pugan Chapel, in Llan- 18. Deinri>el Chapel, by Bod 
ddona. Deinioel, Llanfechell. 

8. Tobias Chapel, near Tal 19. Cadwaladr Chapel, by 
J Uyn Uanfihangd Trcf y Rodlcw, near Llanddaniel. 

20. Prif Ghapd, by, Dyll, 

9. Lidach Cliapel, near Tre- ffordd, in Bodynolwyn, IJantri. 
wynn, in dw above pariih. fojm^ 

10. Llugwy Chapel, m Llan* ?1. Pygwel Chapel, yanfe- 
fihangel Penrhos. chell. 

. 11. Euddog Chaj)cl, by pu- 22. Y Gadair Chapel, Llan- 
hs, fair yn Nghornwy* 

?3. Y B^r 


23. Y B^r Eos Chapel, in 36, Cwyrt Chapd, Llan 
ditto. Geinwen. ^ 

1 t 

24. Machwla Chapel, hy 87. EitKa Chapel, in Llan- 
Txe'r gwdidyth. fihangel Yfgeifiog. 

25. UanlUbio. 38, IloChapel, ditto. ' - 

26. Llur Chapel, by Sybyll- 39.MynwentyllwynChapclt 
dir, Bodedeynu Llan Griftiolis. 

27. G^vyngcnaw Chapel, in 40. Carnedd lilaes EHdyr 
Crecrift, Holyhead. Chapel. Part of the houfe of 

Tr^arnedd, in Llan Gefni. 

28. St. Fftaid Chapel, in ditto. 

^ < 4L Mair, or Saint Mary's 

29. Y GoUesChapcl, in ditto. Chapel, by T^ 'n y Coed, Llan 



SO. Eglwys y Bedd, or Llan 
y Gwyddel, ditto. 42. Elett^yi Chapel, Uan^ 


. / 

3L Cybi Chapel, by Ty- 
croes, near Bryn Gwallan, in 43. Maethlu Chapel, near 
the pariih of Rhodwydd Ceid- Plas u^ha^ Llaofaffhlu. 
ia • 

44. Netti Chapel, Llanfwrog* 

32. In die pedigree of Saiqt 

Sirig, there is mention of. Saint . 45. Cwmftryd Chapel, LIan« 
£/«0^, a Saint of Holyhead. , ^ ddeufiunt 

. - - . • 

33. Lochwyd Chapel, inHo- 46. Llanddwyn. 
lyhead Mountain, in lengthy 19 

yards, breaddi 4| yards. . 47. Bronwen Chapel, .near 

^ Yr JrWf Llanyng^edL 

34. Benno Chapel, now the . 

fiee-fchool, at Aberffraw* ^ 48. Heilyn Chapel, near Tre- 

£;41wyn, Llan Gofni. ' 

35. Dindryfal Chapel, io ' 

Abcrffraw. .49. Gyfa 

^ CAMBRtAN RSQISnR, 1796. 

, 0. Gyfc Hil%*y% in Tp^ t W- IlioChapcl,UlI*|*yl»d. 

Trcwcn, ^ 

The above is taken from a 

. 6ai^gowCI»p4»l>tBhyd- ^S ,©f the late H^gh'IJu|hes, 

boiit. o^ Liwydiarth..E%Dbt (alite f 

Bardd Coch.) 
51. I^ad^iriM* . '- O.T, 

If II ,'l JJ ,' I .BBSS 

A List 

O F. 


' ' . IN-. 

A N G L E S B y. !. 

•: Wf* Ptriih- 

1. 2 Cromlechs at Plas nevyyMi * Lkh Edwen. 

-: H. l.atBdiio^yri ^ • - ^ ' UanUan^ 

3. 1 at Trefor, • ♦ - * ^ Lhidadwhi; 

4. 2 at Rhos fawr, - • Llanfair Mathafani. 

5. 1 at Uogwy (juft hif the roftd) % ' tVtrhe^ Llugwy^ 

6. 1 atParkiau, near Fedw ibf,- ^ Dkfo. 

1 f • /S imBodafett Mounbin, « • IJ«lfihfti^el> T. B, 

9. 2 at B04. Deibi<Md> • • - Llan Babe, 

9. . 1 at Cromlech, . .^ 4r ' ^ . Llitefechell, 

10. { liear HenfelU^ - %- {.fan Griftiolis: 

11. 1 on Ty new^dd lan^y * - -> Llanfaelog^ 

12. 1 partly demolilhed, onM^ydjy.Cswc| . Dittb. 

i }S. ?: fmall Altars near Cryghyll River, * Lfenfedog- 

14, I near 

14. 1 near Tywyn Trewen, UaofihSstng^l yti I^eu6wlL 

15. 1 near Uanallgo^ ^ . . hhnaS^o. 

16. 1 atCremlyn* • . ? •* Llaoiddbhar 

17. 1 at Marian Pant y Saer/ - Uanfair Mathafarn. 

18. i at Llech tal Moo, now demoUflied. * 

19. 1 at Myiyriah, - « « Llanidau. 
90. 1 Altar at fiodlew* 

21. 1 Altar at RhSs y Ceryg. 

22. 1 artificial Mount at Bryn Cdli, ai^ a ton^xCendect ca- 

vern beneath it. 

23. 1 artificial Mount in the Ikirts of Plas newydd wood, cpm- 

monly cstUed Bryn yr hen Bobl; fuppofed tp have 
been a druidical fcpulchral ground. D. T« 

Total 30 . , 






From the firft Appointment rf them for North f^dteSy sy IBng 

HenrV ihe »», in 1540. 

• • • 


32 T^ DMUND LLOYB, of Giynn Llivwl,* T540 

•*-^ who dying'befbre hii year wasexj^in^ wa« 

fucceeded by 
Grifiith ap Robert Yaughati, of Plas Heb. 
S3 WiKaxn Wiiliaim, of CochT^lIto. 
34 Richard Bulkley, of Beaumaris^ k^giifi 

U 35 Joh» 



. S5 John Pukftoiiy of Carnarvon. ^ • 1510 

. 36 John Wynne ap Meredith, of Gwydir. 
37 Hugh Peak> of Conway. 

King Edward the Sixth. 


1 William Williams, of CochwUlan, - - 1546 

2 Griffith ap William Madog> of Llwyndyms. 

3 John ap Robert ap Llywelyn Ithel^ of Caftell- 


4 Richard Bulkeley, of Beaumaris, knight. 

5 John Wynne ap Hugh, of Bodvel. 

6 Hugh Pcake, of Cbnway. 

7 William Williams, of Cochwillan. 

Queen Mary. 


1 Griffith ap William Madog, of Llwyndyms. 1533 

2 Maurice Wynne, of Gwydir, 

3 Griffith Davies, of Caeroanroii, 

4 John Wynne ap Meredith, of Gwydir. 

5 Richard Bulkeley, of Beaumaris, knight. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1 Ellis Price, Plas lolyn, do6lor of law. - 1558 

2 John Wynne ap Hugh, of Bodvel. 

8 Robert Pugh, of Creuddin. 

4 William Glynn, of Glynn LJivon. 

5 William Griffith, of Carnarvon. 

6 Griffith Glynne, of Pwllheli. 

7 Griffith Davies, of Carnarvon. 

8 William Herbert, ofSwanfea, knight. 

9 Rice Griffith, of Penrhyn, knight. 

10 William Moftyn, ofMoftyn. 

11 Thomas Owens, of Plas Du, (the celebrated 

Epigramatift's anccftorj. 

12 Maurice 



12 Maurice W.ynnc^ of Gwydr. -' - 1569 

13 Edward Williams ; alias Edward Wynne ap 

Williams, of Maes y Caftell. 

14 Richard Moftyn» of Bod Yfcallen. 

15 Griffith Daviesy of Caernarvon* 

16 Rice Thomas, of Carnarvon. 

17 Rowland Pulefton, of Carnarvon. 

18 Richard Peake, of Conway. 

19 Edward Conway, of Bryn Eiryn, - - 1576 

20 Maurice Wynne, of Gwydcr, - - 1577 
91 Richard Vaughan, of Uwyndyrus. 

22 Maurice Kyffin, of Maenan. 

23 William Tiiomas, of Carnarvon 

24 William Maurice, of Clenenney. 

25 John Griffith, of Carnarvon. 

26 Thomas Moftyn, of Moftyn, knight. 

27 John Wynne ap Hugh ap Ricliard, of Bodwrda. 

28 John Vaughan, of Penmachno, (the Queen's 


29 Thomas Madryn, ofMadryn. 

30 John Wynne, of Gwyder. 

31 Hugh Gwynne Bodvel, ofBodvel. 

32 Griffith ap John Griffith, of Ll^n. 
' 33 Robert Wynne, of Conway. 

34 William Williams, of Cocbwillan* 

35 Richard Pulefton, of Carnarvon. 

36 Richard Gwynne, of Carnarvon. 

37 Robert Wyq;ie, of Brynkir. 

38 WiUiam Maurice, of Clepenney. 

39 Hugh Gwynne, ofBodvel. 

40> Thomas Vaughan, of Pant Glis. 

41 Williaqi Williams, of Vaenol. 

42 Hugh Gwyime, of Penaridi. . 

43 Ridiard Vaughan, of Plas Hen. 

44 Maurice Lewis, of Feftiniog. 


V 2 Kixa 


KiM-G James t»% Fmsr, 


1 John Wynne, ofGwydcr. * • 1608 

2 John Griffiai, of Llyn. 

3 Robert Madryn, of Midtyn* 

4 Hugh Bodurda, of Bodurda. 

5 William Williams, of Vacnol. 

6 William Thomas, of Carnarvon* 
Y Thomas Bodvet^ of BodVel. 

8 Robert Prichard, of Conway^ who dyings was 

fucceeded by 
William Glynn, of Glynn Llivon« 

9 William Glynn, of'Penllechog, 

10 William Humphreys,^ of Pant Dii, 

11 William Vaughan, ofPlasHfin. 

12 Humphrey Meredith, ofClynog. 

13 Griffith' Hughes, of Ccfh LlanVair* 

14 William Griffith, of Carnarvon* 

15 Simon William, ofWeeg* 

16 John Griffithi junior, of Llyn» 

17 John Wynne, of Ptnliech. 

18 Robert Wynne^ of Glafcced: ^ ' 

19 Robert Owen, of Yftuni CtgiA 

20 Thomas Glyh, of^lyn Llivon* 

21 John Bodvel, of BodVel. 

22 Ellis Brynkir, of Bryrikih v ' 

23 Richard Evans, of Elemion^ / • '^ . * 1624 

King ChaR-Les the First. 

1 Richard Evans, ofElffnion/ • ' • 162S 

2 Thomas Williams, of Vaenol. 

3 Thomas Glyn, ofNkntlli 

4 Jolm Vaughan, of Pantglfts. 

5 Henry Humphreys, of Pwllheli. 

r...{ L ; 6 Joho 



6 JohnBodurda, ofBodurda. • • 1630 

7 John Owen, of Clcnenney, 

6 • William Vaughan, of Cors y GedoL 

9 Griffith M idryn, of Madryn* 

10 Wiliam Glyn, of Elernion^ 

1 1 John Wynne, of Conway* 

12 Evan Wynne, of Saethon^ 

13 William Lewis Anwyl. « •• » l^SfT 

14 William Thomas, of Aber^ 

15 William Williams, ofVaenol, baronec, 

16 William Hookes, of Conway^ 

17 James Biynkir, of Brynkir. 

18 Thomas Cheadle, of Beaamaris* 

19 Thomas M^dryn, of Madryn 

90 Robert Jones, of CafteUniarch« 

91 John Owen, ofQknenney, knight* 
}22 The fame Sir John Owen. 

23 Thomas WilHstms, of DInas. v 

{24 William Lloyd, of Plas Hen, who dying, wat 
fucceeded by 
Thomas M^dryn, of M^dryn, 

Carolq Secundo, cxpulfo et rcnim p6tiente 
Parliamento et poftea Prote£h>re. 

I Thomas Madryp, of Madryn* i^ ^ 1619 

{2 John Carter, of Cyn Mael. 

S Griffith Williams, of Penrhyn. 

4 Henry WiUian^s, Maes y Caftell, 

5 Owen Wynne, of Gwyder, baronet^ 

6 William Williams, of Vaenol, baronet, 

7 . Edward Williams, of Weeg. * r 

8 William Vaughan, of Pkis Hem 

9 Richard Anwyl, ofHavodWryd, . 
10 Richard Wynne, of Gwyder. 

1 1 ' John Willian^s, of Meillionydd, 

U-3 Reduce 


Reduce et rrilaurato Carolo Secundo. 


12 JohnWiUiams, ofMeiUionydd. 1660 

13 William Griffith, of Uyn. 

14 Griffith Williams, of Penrhyn. 

15 Richard Kyffin, ofMaenan* 

.16 Griffith Jones, of Caftellmarcb. - - 1664 

17 Richard Glynne, ofEIernion. 

18 Thomas Madryn, of Madryn. 

19 Roger Moftyn, of Moftyn. 

20 William Uoyd, of Bodvan. 

21 John Glynn, of Glynlltvon- 

22 Robert Williams, of Penrhyn. 

23 Evan Lloyd, of Havod Lwyddog. 

24 William Wynne, of Glanyr Afon. 

25 William Wynne, of Llanwnda. 

26 William Griffith, of Madryn IfTa. 

27 John Wynne Watftay. 

28 Owen Wynne, of Yftum Cegid. 

29 Richard Wynne, of Glas Infry. 

30 Griffith Williams, of Cora y Gedol. 

3 1 Thomas Wynne, of Glafcoed. 

32 William Lloyd, of Havod Lwyfog. 

33 Edward Williams, of Meillionydd. 


34 William Arthur, of Vaenol Bangor. 

35 George Twifllcton, of Lleiar. 

36 Robert Coytmor, of Ty Mawr. 

King James the Second 

1 Love Parry, of Cefn Llanfair. - - 1685 

2 William Wynne, of Wcm. 

3 Hugh Bodwrda, of Bodwrda. 

4 Thomas Bulltlejy of Dinas. 



King William and Qoeen Mary. 

AKk(» REGNI. A.D« 

• 1 Owen Wynne, of Peny Bryn. - •• 1689 

2 Samuel Hanfon, of Bodve]. 

S Hugh Lewis, of Pont Newydd, 

4 John Rowland, of Nanr. 

5 John Thomas, of Abcr, 

6 Richard Madryn, ofLlanerch. 

King William, 

7 James Brynkir, of Brjrnkir. 

6 Richard Edwards, of Nan' Horon. 

9 David Parry, of Llwyn Ynn. 

10 Henry Vaughan, of Pant Glas. 

11 Richard Vaughan, ofPlasHen, 

12 Pierce Lloyd, of Llan Idan. 

13 Edward Holland, of Conway. 

Queen Anne. 

1 Arthur Williams, Meillionvddt t - 1702 

2 Simon Foulkes, Bodvel, 

3 Lloyd Bodvel, of Bodyan. 

f Thomas Roberts, of Bryn y Neuodd. 

5 Richard Oweii, of Pehiarth, 

6 Sir WilUam Williams, pfLlanvorda 

7 Sir Griffith Williams, of Marl. 

8 George Coytmore, of Coytmore, 

9 John Griffith, of Aber. 

10 IJogcr Price, of Rhiwlas. 

1 1 Thomas Wynne, of Glynllivon. 
1{2 Hugh Davies, of Caer Rliun^ 

J 3 Thomas EUb, of Wem. 

V 4 Kino 

^ CAMBRIAN KEGISrp, 1796. 

JCiNp Q^oRGf TH? First. 

ANVp REGNI. 4. A» .' 

1 TimQthy Edwards, of N^oborop. *- - 1714 

2 Lewis Owen, of Peniartb. 
8 John Wynne, of Abbey. 

4 William Wynne, of Werp* 

5 William Bodvel, of Madiyp* 

6 Edward Baily, of Plas N^wy^<]. 

7 Hugh Lewis, of Bont Newj'dd. 

8 Love Parry, of Wern Fawr. 

9 Thomas Rowland, of Nam. 

10 William Wynne, of Llanwnda* 

1 1 William Brynkir, of Treborth. 

12 Hugh Wynne, of Cromkcb* 

King George the Siicond. 

1 Humphrey Roberts, of Bryn y Netiodd. . 1727 

2 William Wynne, of Llanvair. 

3 Zacheus Hughes, of .Trevan. 

4 , Maurice Wynne, of Pen y Bryn* 

5 William Butler, of Llyfvan. 
>6 William Price, of Rhiwias. 

7 John Wynne, of Glynn Lliyon* 

8 John Griffith, of Carnarvon. i# » 1734 

9 William Wynne, of Wern. 

10 Humprey Owen, of Bo^ Idda. 

1 1 George Devercux, of Saethon. 

12 Humphrey Meredith, of Pengwem* 

13 John Lloyd, of Tyddyn Bychan. 

14 Rice Williams, of Glan yr Afofi^ (the Councellor's 


1 5 John Owen, of Caftellmal. 

16 Hugh Williams, ofPentir. • - 1742 

17 Edward Philipp Pugh- 

19 William 


l» William Brynkir, of Jifyufek, - - 

19 John Hoare, iffOs^if^Jx 

aO William Thomas, .«f Cl¥^ Hf^ 

21 Robert Pany, of MftiltteH^ 

23 ghriftopher JiB4«^ fifUfiHt^ 
'23 Chttlts Alkx^a^ ^fVMoek 

24 Owen Holland, olConyfVf^ 

25 Charles ^vans, oi . 

26 John Uoyd, <)f 

27 Owen Hughes, of Tt<6mk 
Hugh Davies, of Caer RhtlO* 






William Stodart, of Dega^wy. 
Oweq Wynne, of . 
Hobert Wynne, pf IMnqKih. » 

Zacbeus Jones, of Qryintiriian. 
William Smith, <tfVae(U>L 
Richard Lloyd, . of Ty N*wy^ 

King Geoi^ge jus T^l^,^ 

















Robert Wynne, ofLlanerch. - - 

Hugh Hughes, of Bodvacn. 

LovcParryi ofPenarth 

JohriGrifEth, ofTrygan 

John Griffith, of Cefn Amwich. 

Hugh WiUiams, of Pentir. 

EdwaTd Lloyd, of Pengwem, Denbighfliire. 

Robert Howel Vaughan, of Mcillioriydd. 

Robert Godolphin Owen, of Cleneney « 

William Archer,' of Conway. 

Price Thomas, of Coed Helen* 

Richard Parry, of Meillionen. 

Ralph Griffitfi, ofCaerhyn, 

Thomas ^flieton Smith, of Vacnol, dying, the 

year was completed by 
Hugh Ellis, ^fq. Attorney at Law, Deputy 


15 Hugh 




15 Hugh Stodarc; ofDeganwy. • • 1776 

16 James Coytmore Pugh, of Coytmon ' 

17 Hugh Griffith, of Bryn Nodol. ' 

18 John Rowlands, of Bod Aedan. 

19 Terrence Pendigraft Williams, ofMarL 
220 Robert I Joyd, of Tregaiab & Gwnus. 

21 Edward Carreg, of Carreg. 

22 Richard Pennant, of Penrhjm. 

23 Thomas Afheton Smith, of Yaenol* 

24 Robert Wynne, of Uaiierch* 

25 John JoneSf' of Bryohin 

26 John Griffith, of Tryfan. 

27 John Lloyd, of Gefaii Gyfarch* ' -' 
0S WiUiainPeacocke, ofTyn*yCao. « . 178C 
29 William Hughes, ofNuitcylL 

SO Robert Lloyd, -of Ceffail Gyfarch* 

31 Thomas Lloyd, of Hendre Feinws, 

32 Edward Lloyd, ofTyMawr. 

33 William Owen, of Pencraig. 

^^ Richard Lloyd, of Bod Jtho (of Hendre Faig), 

35 William Jones, of Tyddyn Bychan, (of Bodflfordd) 1795 

36 William John Lenthal, of Maenan, (Burford, 

OxfordOiire) - • . . 1796 



A. HE readers of the Cambrian Regijler may he amufed^ by 
reading the following tranjlation of an Oxford anecdote^ the original 
ef which is in the note beloWy and copied from volume /. of the 
Weljb School manufcripts. The piece of Englijh poetry coming 
erfler iV, and of which it was the occajion^ is curious^ and in fome 
refpeStSy valuable^ as it isy very likely ^ the heft record exiJHng of 
the pronunciation of the Englijh^ at the period when it was comppfed^ 
which was the middle of the fifteenth century^ on account of its 
being chiefly written in the fVeljh orthography ^ whi^h was fettled 
then as it is at the prefent time. 


4 * 

_ I 

IT happened once upon a wantoffcholarfhip; adding alfo 

time, at Oxford, that the that there was not one Wcl/h- 

Engli/h derided the Welfh, and man, who was a good fcholar, 

upbraided then) greatly for their and that it was not 'pollible to 

* pkwedjfi Rytfyrkain, Damveiniodd ar amfer yn Rhydychain I'r Saefon ogaav 
y Cymryp a'a anghanmawl hwynt yn . favr am eu haayfj^olttdod, $aa ddy wedyd nad 
oedd aa yfgoJaig da o GymrO| ac ni ellid gwneuthur o Gymro 3'fgolaic cyiladly mor 
ddyfgedlgy ac mor ddoeth^ a chyiladl mydrwr ac 1 gellid o Sail; ac nad oeddy Cymry 
i'w cyftadla a'r Sacfop am yTgoleidod. 

Yna i eododd Cymro ardderchawc ac a fafodd ar ei draed, ac a ddywedodd mal 
hyiky ** Did wyf i ond yfgolaic difaa herwydd fy yl^kidodf nam i'm cyffelybu i 
lawero yfgoJeigion dyfgedig arddcrchogiono-Gymray y rhai nid ydwyf i adda« i ar* 
waiu eu ^yfrau yo eu hoi; etto er hyn i gyd ilefc fyddai gennyf na allai yfgolaig 
gwacl diiaf o Gymro ymgyAadla a'r Sale goreu ei yfgoleidod am wneuthur mydyr, ac 
iun Uver o bynciau ereill. Ond nid yw ein hyfgoleigion gorea ni cyo^maint eu 
inalireddy ac mor ofer amroi eQ'pcnaa a' a meddvl am ymryfoDy ac ymgomio a'r 
9i|^fon bocli&chos : Eithyr mi a attebaf y gofyniad h vnw i chwi fai hyn. Gwnaed y 
Sail goreu ei ddyfgeidiaeth o honoch fydyr yn Lladia^ oni wnaf i fydyr cyftadlag 
ynten, barned ar y Cymry : Gwnaed fydyr yn Saefoneg^ neu yn Gymraeg ; oni 
chyAadIa i efo, gogenvchy Cymry : Gwnaed fydyr yn y iaith a fyno ar a fetrwyf i j 
ac oni wnaf i an eyiladl ag efoy cabledy Cymry, ac nag arbeded. 

Minnau a wnaf fydyr yn Saefonegy yn eich iaith eich hunaln , ac oa boll Saefom 
Lloegyr a wna y fath fydyr, neu ai cyftadla, gogenwcb y Cymry ; onia gcBwbh chwi 
irnenthur, gadewch y Cymry y braint a roddea Duw, iddynt: A gw>'byddwcb 
ehwithau nad ydych chwi i jrmgyftadlu a'r Cymry. 

Am hynny i gwnaeth ef yr Awdyl Siefoneg hon ar groes gynghaijedd j yr hyn ni 
ftidyr $aii moi gwncuthuff 




make of a Welfliman fo good 
a fcholar^ fo learned, fo pro* 
found, and fo fkilfiil a metrical 
compofer, as might be formed of 
an &igli(bman^ and that the 
Weiih were not to be put in 
competitioii >vith fjnglKhmpny 
with refped to literature. 

Upon this an SluftriousWeUh* 
ipan roiic upon his feet, and be 
fpoke thus I ^* I am of no ac- 
count with regard to my learn- 
ing, nor to be compared with 
many learned and exalted fcho-* 
brs amor^gil the Welfl), the 
which I am not worthy to carry 
their books after them, yet for 
all this, I (liou)d be forry if a 
poor and fimple fcholar of a 
Welfhman fhould not be able to 
prove himfelf eqtial yfkh the 
|)cft Englifliman for kammg, 
with refpeft to the conftru6tion 
of metre, and as to many other 
poiats. But our beft fpholars 
aie not fo vain and foiUly, as iq 
froubte their heads and their 
tfioughts with ^fputing and d!f- 
pourCni^ with the boaftful Eng- 
UflHttcn; Neverkfaeleli^ I will 
anfwer thit queftion to you m 
^is maiiner : Let the firft Eng- 

lishman for leaming'amongft yoa 
compofe a metrical piece in 
Latin; and if 1 do not niake 
another equal to it, kthim <:oii- 
demn the Wel(b: Let bim 
psake. one in Eagltfl), or ii| 
WeUh I and if I do not equal 
it, do you deride tbf Wel£b : 
Let him compofe ono in any 
other language he likes, that J 
am acquainted with; and if I do 
OOC. Oiake oqe as good as hiS| 
let him abufe the Welfli, and 
fpare them pot, 

I then will compofe a piece 
in Englifh, in your own lan- 
guage; and, if all the Engllfb- 
men of E^ngland (hall make one 
like it, or that fliall be equal to 
it, deride ye the Welfh, If yoq 
flial) not be able to A> <bt, let 
the WeMh enjoy the honour, 
which God has given them: And 
know ye alio^ ibn^ you are not 
to put yourfelves in con\petitipa 
with the Welflu" 

In confequcnce* of that hs 
compo^d this l^ngliih 0de, up- 
on thft cr$/j coftf&nmcyt ^ 
which metie an EngliAimaD has 
no idea of its ^ru€hjre: 


michti' kdtowr kding to haf 

At hevnowr abeidii:^ 
Unto thei fieaft everlaftio^ 

1 fet a braimcs w» tw bring. 

. I Tliis vord fhffv& thai the jfatUnX ck, or fh|. was thpn-.^ui^drii ^y ^^ EnglUk ** 
Oxford, u it is now in the ScoUiih dialect. 


Vw wann this wyth bly§s ddc Udfing of God 

Ffor ywr good aberiflg 
H wicr y w bynn tfor ywt ymmang 
Syns kwin and your fen ys king. . 

Our foreiathers father oWr feeding our pej^ 

On your paps had fwking 
Yn he&i blyfs i had this tkmg 
Attendance without endings 

Wee iing dde bright kwia widi iswnnutg ^nd Wft 

The boflbm ffruwt bcring. 
Ei would as old as I ilng 
Wynn ywr love on ywr laving. 

Kwin od oS our God owr gf idiiig mwddor \ 

Maeden notwithftanding 
Hw w(d fits with a rits ring' 
As God wad ddys. good weding, 

Help ws pray &t ws prefierin|^our fowb* 

Aflbil was at ending. 
Make all that wee fa wl to ffing ' 
Your fon*s Iov.0.0119 (pBilsfleviagf, 

As we mae the dae of oar deiyiag r^iff 

Owr Safiov^ yn hpwfiing 
As he may tak ws ' wal^nn 
Tw him in his ini^ti wiog^ 

Mighty he took mi oght to tell 
All fowls of hel to foels of hight 
We afsk with bwk we'wifh wyth Bel' 
Tw hefh flFwl wel* to haf on flight. 

■ The orthofrapby of this Ilae hasexadly theiaioe paweivM if it ircic th«f;-— » 
Qf/itn •dd^fmr GoJ^ cur gmiMfig pntktr^ 

« This feems to be the root vhcnce tbe word 'fi&ger if dcrired/ 
S Reid, r«U m. 4 Rt sd. To lnrnHnfuU veU. 


■ % 



Awl <]eds wel dwo 
Ta byd Deo bwa 
A God mad trwn 

A gwd Diecwrighl 
And fe fo fwn 
An4 nonh and nwn 
And fyn and nwn < 

And fo nott might 

As fwn as prcid ys now fyprcft " 
Hys fell is bcft, his fowl is pigbt- 

£i tel CO yo 

As fym do fliio 

As now ei tro 

We uws not right* 

A boy with bo 

His loks is fo 

How mae yw kno 

Him ffrom a knight* 

Ddc truwth ys kyt ^t ycrth is kaft ' 
Dde ends hi laft dde hands bilight 
O God fet it gwd as yt was 
Dde niwl doth pais dde wrld hath pight. 

A pretti thing wi pray to theft 
Ddat gwd biheft that God behight 
And he was ffing unto his ffeft 
That ever fhali left with deverfe light. 

* Resd, And fun and 

* Re«dy AiJoMOipridtiitnwJvffr^,. 
s Read, IttUny^u^ 

Aifimt dojktw^ 
Ai novi I truWf 

Wt mfe not right, 

4 Rtad, Tht truth is ait that earth is cajt* 


ANTIQUrnES. $cs 

The word away ys donn as day 
Yt yi no nay it is net nig^t 
As owld I fay 
Ei was ya Sky 
Eild a good may 

Wld God I might 
Away vn would 
Dde finstfaeyfowld 
And be not howld 

In a bant hight 
And ywng and owld 
With him thei howld 
Dde Ddfiwsfa&f fold 

That Ddfiefws hight* 

O tryti Crift 4^t werft a krown' 
£r we dei down a redi dight 

Tw thank to ddi 


Then went all wi 

Ddein own tw Eght 

Tw grawnt agri 

Amen wyth mi 

Ddat I mae (l 

JDdi to mv fight. 

Owr Iwc owr king our lock our kaf 
Mei God ei pray mi geid upright 
Ei fik I fing, I fiak I fay 
Ei wer away a wiri wighc 

* ^ps4» Jlndymng and old f 

mtk him they hOdt 
Thi Jews have/M 

• Ready treaty f Chrijf, theit nuem^ft m «mim» 

'# |tfsdi r» thdnk to thn 
At th$ reiU tree. 

Againft ei go 

Mei ffrynds my fio 

£i ffound a ffb 

£i (ing alfo 
Yn welth khi vtd 
£i can no mo 

For kwih of migiit* 

lEU^N A£ hyWsl sWrdwal^ I450. 

P i f i M'^ i f I ^"^ f^ 

# • 

JlLXTRACTS from the ff^eljli 0oolco/^ of l^Ej^iy gov My dd^ 

▼Aij orihePra^ici ofPhjftc of ttje^i^Si^s^x Dolors ; a manufcriptf 

which by its orthography^ appears to tdve hceri written about the 

year 1300. Dr. DavieSi in his [diSIiondryy quofes this booh fre^ 

quently; and he gives fome acco'ufit of tne'dutho?^ under the word 

Mydd&i; where he alfo, qtnftes Da v. ab Gwilym, a poet of the 

fourteenth century^ who mentions^ tioft'dif^lir/. Mr. E. Llwyd, 

in his Arch. Britann. under the ca^dhgie if B^hijh fFriters^ tells 

usy that there is a copy of the fame bohlf iii tAYtf^Coch o Hcrgcft, 

in Jefus College Ubrary. He' fdyr alfo ihdt there was a copy on 

parchment f borrowed by Dr. Davis, in 16349 of Mr. Manfell, of 

Margam^ in Glamorganfifire* 'fhere are fiiftfat fH^ir doph) of it, 

fame imperfe^^ and fome to which- are addat' thi worJ^f of others. 

Mr. Lewis Morris heard it faid in Souih fVakr^- ^df tSls very 

family of furgeons has praGifed ai Mydivai everfinu^s fut that 

the fon^ then living in his time, being the la/i Meddyg Myddvai, 

thought it beneath him, or perhaps had been brought up otherwife% 

GAN borth duv gonichel 'Ij'Tf the help of God, fove« 

bendeuic yma ydangofet iD itiga oter all, here are 

y medeginaetheu goreii ac yn fet forth the beft and the princi- 

benaf or yflyd wrth gorf dyn pal things in the art pf -h^ing^ 

fef aberis eu hyfcriuymi Ri- with rcfp^& to tb^hunoan body, 

wallavn which 



\ivaHa^v« vedic ay veibon nyt 
jUDg^y Cadngon a Grui^Fut ac 
£ynoi»9 canys y rei hym^y aoyd- 
ynt oneu a pkenaf or medygcm, 
.ye y hamfirr^ ac yn amfer Rys 
.^ryc ea bavglvyd ac arglvyd 
Dinofvr yna y gvr agatvet eu 
ftareint vy yn benaf mal ydyreit 
wrdiyiil. Sef aohav^ y pens ef 
eu hyfctiucai^ rac na bei aVypei 
gyftal ac a vy^ya wy. 

whiich have been commttifeed to 
wri^ng by ftiwalkfif die phy^ 
fkian, and his (oaSy namely^ 
Qiifogan, Grufuddy aqd Etnon ; 
thoie being the bed and moft 
emiDent dgdlors of their time; 
and of the time of Rhys Gryg^ 
their lord, and then the lord of 
Dinevor* ; being the perfon 
who chiefly maintained their 
privilege. The reafon that thofe 
things were commanded to be 
written, was kft there fiiould 
be none pofleiTed of f^ amiCh 
knowledge as they were found 
to have. 

Ac dr pedi pehaf ydychretir 
a&nt fef yw hynny or pea 
kanys yndav y mae pump fydwyr 
y C(Nrf. 

Tri lie hagen y megyr cleu- 
ydeUf ^ yv ton : Eil yw yn y 
gresan. IVydyt yw yn y gry- 

. O waet a Ilofcen y gvafedir 
y ton; o agori hyt y grytian 
ygvaredir y gryuan ; o agori a| 
ben hyd y gryadur y gwaedir y 

And they began with refpedl 
to the primary {vMyeSt^ that if 
to fay the head^ for v^ it ar? 
the five fenfes of the body. 

TTie Aree places therein 
where difeafes are prodix^ed: 
one is the pericraniuin ; the f&- 
cond is in the cranium; thjt 
ifaird is v^ the dura mater. 

By blooding and blifter will 
d>e per^raniiim be relieved ; by 
opefuag (o the cranium will the 
cranium be relieved ; by opening 
upon the "head to the dura mater 
will the dura mater be relieved. 

Kymryt y deuparth or ^an- 
hogen ar trayan or grinlys ac 
cmenyn hallt ac eu maudu ygyt 

Taking two parts of the be- 
tony, the third of the violet, 
with fait butter, and beating 

X thent 

^f^yt Co'g VM lord or prince of Dineuor, :adUs depcBdcDciesy from U37 to 1196^ 



ay dodi wrthav a hynny ay 
dlwenvyna or kyuyt llit a gven- 
vyn yndi or pan agorer araav 
hyt yn pen navuetdyd y byd y 
wife ar yr afcvrn ac o pen y 
pyinheCtyd y gilid y uedir yr 
. afcvrn hyny diotter oil. 

Sef y gwneir vclly o hen 
gleuyt pen 

them together, and applying 
them, that will do away the 
venonii if there fhall arife any 
inflammation therein. From die 
time when it (hall be laid opcn» 
until the end of the ninth day» 
{hall the covering be upon .the 
bone i and from the end of one 
fifth day to anotlier, the bone 
ihall be gathered, then it ihaU 
be all taken away. • - 

It is to be obfervcd, that this 
is done with refpe6l to an eld 
hurt of the head. 

Dymavt newyd neu vrath 
ncwyd.goreu bo gyntaf y diotter 
rac dygvydav gvact ac yffic 
abervi yno. 

In a recent blow, or a recent 
perfdration, the fooner tiie bet- 
ter it is tak^n ay/ay, left the 
fettling of bloody or a contiifion^ 
ihould caufe an inflammation 

Or pan diotter yr afcvrn oH 
y ar y gryadur. k. ymenyn 
gvyry ar grinlys ac eu imauda 
ygyt : ac ony cheflBt y grinlys* 
k. gvyn wi allin ay dodi vithav 
hynny tonnenher ac yna gvocu- 
thur eli trvy lyfeu ac ymenyn 
agver ay dodi vrthav hynny vo 

. iPunt a hannei; yv breint y 
medic or gveith hvnnv yn y 
drugared heb y ymborth ; neu 
ftauugeint ay ymborth. 


After all die bone is taken 
away oflF the dufa mater, take 
frefh butter and the violet,, and 
beat them together : And, if the 
violet is not to be procured, 
tdke the white of egg with lint, 
and apply that until there fliall 
grow a membrane ; and then 
make a falve with herbs, butteti 
and fuet, and apply it until the 
place fhall be well. 

A pound and a half is the 
right of the do£lor on . account 
of that operation, in his mercy, 
without his vidiuals; or nine 
fcore pence with his vi6tuals. 





Rac gvayv Uygat coch gvlyb- 
oravcy dodi mftgyl dan y dvyea, 
a Uofc yny wegil : a byiuiy rac 
gvlybvr y pen. 

Againft the inflammation of a 
red eye full of humor, (iut an 
iflue under the chin, and a blif- 
ter behind the head : And that 
too for the humor of the head* 


Maen calet mal hyn y gvar- 
edir Ue dister. kymryt fon ae 
dodi ymblyc y. arreu ac odyna 
dodi yddvy vreich omyvn yarreu 
ac ev plygu yuynyd am y fon a 
rvymav faleidi am y ddeu ar- 
ddvm ac am y war ay ddodi ay 
dor yuynyd afeth uchel dan y 
ddvydun ac or parth afleu yr 
dywyfen diot y maen, ac odyna 
J dodi mywn ennein dvfyr y dyt 
hvnnv a thrannoeth y myvn 
ennein dvfyr yn gyntaf a gvedy 
hynny myvn ennein gyffeitb, ac 
oddyna y ddodi myvn y wely 
ay dor yuynyd a fychu y weli 
a dodi llin ac emenyn balk 
vrthav ay gynnal yn yr ardym* 
mer hvnnv yny vyper addiagho 
ayadelnofveith a dydgveith kyn 
gvneutbur y weith heb vuyt ac 
heb lyn ae dodi myvn ennein* 


A hard ftone, in this yirkf 
Ihall relief be given, when it is 
extradied. Take a flick and 
place it in the bend of the pa- 
tient's hams; and then place 
his two arms within his hams» 
and turn them upwards round 
the (Uck, and tye a bandage 
round his two wrifts, and over 
his neck, and place him with 
his belly upward, with ibme« 
thing high under his hips ; and 
from the left fide of the privi<^ 
ties extnuft the ilone ; and a& 
terwards put the patient in a 
water bath tliat day, and the 
next morning in a water bath 
firfl, and after that in a con«fc 
fedure bath ; and from that lay 
him in his bed with his belly 
upward, and clean his wound, 
and apply lint witli fait butta* 
to it ; and keep him in that 
ftate until it (hall be known 
whether he will efcape. He 
is to be left for a night and a 
day before performing thb ope- 
ration without meat and with* 
out drink, and to be put into a 






towards tht elofe rf the Jixth ceniuryy Rhun, the fon of Maelgon 
Gwyncdd, king of the Briionsy made a certain grants called 
BREiNNiAtJ GwYR Arvon, cr, The Privilege of the Men of 
Arvon. Thofe Privileges^ with a curious piece of introduSiorj 
Htftory^ explainhq; ike occd^on of their htrng £mferrrdy eoft in* 
ferted in page 32 (f tSe Welfb School c^of th$ Lsmn rf UoUfii^ 

in the fMowmg taoreb : 

EMAN yllas elydyr fifryii* 
vaur ^r or gogled. ftg>/^ 
edy ylad ydoedi gwyr y gpglcd 
yma yti dyal^ Sew gv^r a 
^oetbant yn ty wyfogyon tdooc* 
clydiio eydyn^ a nud hael uab 
fenylky a mordaw hael «ak 
feruan^ aryderch baei liab tiid> 
awal totclyd. Ac adoythait 
anion* Ac urth lad elydyr ya 
aber mewedus y\\ anion y Uof* 
gafant aroofi yn ragoir dyak 
Ac odyna y Uuydiiavs miittab 
macylgynagwyr gvytted gauthaft 
ac y doetbant hyt yglan gweryt 
yny gogled. Ac yna y buant 
yn hyr yn amryfon pvy adylyey 
tnynet yny Uaen dniy aUon 
wcryt. Ac yna yd ellygbys 
Tvngennat hyt ygvy^cd y vybot 
fAefey. y blaen. rey adywck 
f>aiiyv maeklaw hynaw pen*- 
•dtuyc penard. ay bamvs y wyr 
•anion. lonierd uab madaoc 
dniy andurdaut y kyuarUydyt 
ay cadaniaa pany v ydno hen y 
>vyr y pyft pcndu- Ac jiia yd 


IN a oeitiMt period wM flanv 
Elidyr the courteoua^ a per- 
ibn from the north: and after 
be was kiUed^ the meit of ifac 
north came here to tevciq^ 
bkn. Tliat ia te (ay^ the mea 
wiio came aA leaders for tbem 
were Clydtfio Eidyn^ aed Nadd 
ibe geseroiifi) fbn of SenyMty 
and Mordav the generous, foa 
of Servant and . Rliyddercb the 
g<enerous» fon of Tudawad 
Tudglydi and they came to 
Arvon. And, as Elidyr was 
flain at Abet Mewedus in Arvon, 
Acy burnt AiTon in excefs of 
Tcvenge. Tlieretipon Rhun, the 
fon Maelgon^ prepared for war« 
and the men of Gwynedd with 
him ; and they came to die fide 
of G weryd in the nonh ; and 
there they were long difputing 
who ought to go in the van 
through the river Gweryd. 
Upon which Rhun difpatched a 
meflenger as far as Gwynedd, to 
know who bad a right to the 




aydiant gwyr anion yny blacn 
acy bnaot da j^dp. Acy cant 

Ky^ea ufth wrn ca llawaea 
.Gan run yn mdher bydyaeu 
Cvyr truon rudyon ya ry^Uieii. 

▲c TfWL rac hyt y 'trigalant 
fnj Uuyd y .ay%¥8 eu fwraged 
gan eu gweifyon caeth. Ac am 
bynny y rodhes runydynt pedivar 
bitint ardec. 

Kyntaw yu ragor rac gwreic. 
Sew yu ragor y meyrch ay voch 
ay >y«lsu* A^har adeu yolien 
aoyono ^r j matihoc, a Uonrit 
y car or doodryuyn a uynno. 

Yr cil yv blaen gvyned -yn 

'Tiydyd yvma'ChalyuoAyueiL 

lead. Some declared, from 
Maeldav ibe elder, .chieftain of 
Beoarddy aod adjudged it to the 
menofArvon; Iorwerth,thefon 
of Madog, by the authority of 
t^ftory, maintains it, from Idno 
the old, to the men with the 
black-pointed (hafts \ and there- 
upon the men of Arvoo went 
in the van, and they t)d;kaved 
well there ; and lb Taliefln 

MkpM, by4hfe d^at^f dwirbUde^ 
%V'ith RhuD amid the tumult of armici, 
Tiie men of Arvon red with bloody 
and panting out of bicath. 


And then, from the length of 
time that they tarried in the 
warfare, their wives llept with 
their bond-fervants ;. and there- 
fore Rhun gave tliem fourteen 


The firft, priority over a wife : 
that is, priority in the choice of 
the horfcs, aod.his.fwine, and 
his geefe ; and a car, with two 
oxen that he likes of his cattle ; 
wid .the carioll df the furni- 
ture th?t.he may.itke. 

The fecond is, to have the 
lead of Gwynedd in warfares* 
i - "', ... 

' }Tl|e tdiiid is, sAxBt he .ihi^ 
not pay the damage of his ani- 

Pet 2f 3 




Pctweryd yu teniynu ar y The fourth is, to fix the 
gwladoed agyuarfoent ar aruon. boundaries of the diftri£b that 

ihall join to Arvon. 

Pymhet yu o byd aroryfon 
yrvg dvy uaynaul or nau mayn- 
aul y fyd yn aruon eu diamry- 
fony or fcyth y dvy hep neb o 
le aralL 

Tlie £fth is, if there (hould 
be a difpute between two town- 
fliips, out of die nine townihips 
that are in Arvon, the feven 
ihall end the difpute of the two, 
without the interference of any 
from elfewhere. 

Chwechetnabydryghillyndy. The (ixth, that there ihall be 

no feijeant therein. 

Seythue hot yn ryd pyfgota 
ary teir auon y fyd yndy yn 


The feventh, that there be 
liberty of fiihing in common in 
the three rivers which are there; 

The eighth. 

Nauuet nabont ureyan by The ninth, that they ihall 
echug. not be obliged to ufe the neaieft 


Decuet nat yuoynt Qetcaut. The tenth, that diey (hall 

not drink half-fennented liquor* 

Vnuet ardec nat oes daly ar 
y eu cyghanfed hyt y trydygeyr. 

The eleventh, that there i$ 
no advantage to be taken of 
their pleadings before the third 
word of error. 

Deudccuet na thalher meirch 
gwefteyon na gwyi kr gylch. 

> ; 

The twelfth, there iliall be 
no payment towards the horfes 
of guefls, or of perfons on cir- 






Trydyd ardec na dylyantuynet 
ylety arall or ncuad. 

Petweryd ardec puybynnac a 
ciftedo yndy un dyd a blvydyn 
e b^ gwr anlloydauc y uot yn 
«n uxeynt a gvr or wlat. 

Ac o byd a amheuo un or 
breynnyeu hynny clas bangor a 
rcy bcuno ay. keydv. 

Tlie thirteenth, that they fliall 
not be obliged to go to anotlier 
lodging out of the hall. 

The fourteenth, whoever (hall 
be fettled therein for a year and 
a day. If he fhould be an undo- 
miciliated perfon, he (hall have 
the fame rights as a perfon of 
the country. 

And if there (hall be any one 
who (hall call in queftion any 
of thefe privileges, the bro*- 
therhood of Bangor, and thofe 
of Beuno, (b^U maintain them. 






Compiled ^bout the latter end of king John's Rei^gp^ 

and preferved in the 256th page of the Red Bode of 

•Herokst, in Jefos College^ Oxford. 

THt foUowing'anctent do- 
cument has fome radical 
dcfe<9:s. No account is takdn of 
the odd mofiths, in the compu- 
tation of years, between moft 
oC the events it records, and 
thofe events are not dated by 
one common xra. It has alfo 
been mutilated by the tran- 
fcriber's overlooking one of the 
notices. The death of GrufFudd, 
which is dated 1055, evidently 
refers to Grufiiidd ap Rhydderch. 
After this date fhould have fol- 
lowed fomething to this effedL 
O'r flwyddyn honno oni 1^ 
GrufFudd mab Llywclyn chwe 
blynedd. '* From that year to 
'* the death of GrufFudd, fon of 
•' Lywelyn, (Prince of North 
^* Wales) 6 years:" and then 
5 years more to the arrival of 
William the Baftard. This re- 
ftoration of the text would re- 
move the error in the date of 
that memorable event, which 

cannot be imputed to the orTgihal 
aufhor. For if we dedud from 
his fccond date of TiSS, the SI 
years of the firft William's reign, 
thelSofRufus, 23 to the death 
of Caradoc, and 8 to the death 
of Maredudd, we (hall find that 
he was acquainted with the true 
sera of the Norman conqueft. 

above mentioned, as it appears 
that the compiler of this little 
table had acce& to authorities 
which are now loft, it has been 
deemed that the publication of it 
may be of ufe towards afcertain- 
ing the relative diftances between 
feveral incidents in the Britif^ 

The dates in the margin are 
obtained by adding or dedu&ing 
the fums of the given intervals 
from the Norman Conqueft, 




Rbifedi l&iynyd^dd'. 

OOes Gwrtheyrn Owrth^ 
enau hyd waitii Badwn yr 
ymbddawdd Arthur a'i hynaif 
a*r Saefon, ac y gorfu Arthur 
ai hynaif, wyth mlynedd ar 
bujpint a chant, 


O waith B&dWhyd^^nd^i 
dwy flypcdd ^t^htigaint* 

O Gamlan hyd feny Maelgwp, 

O farw Maclgwn hyd inraith 
Aiderydd pari las Gwrgi *a Thfer- 
^ur, faith mlyno^. 

O'r pan las'Gwrgl'a Yhetedur 
hyd waith Caerllcon, nalv toly- 

O waidi CaefHeon hyfl t^aSth 
Feigen, pcdair biyncdd ar difeg. 


« • 



FROM the age 
of Vortigern 
to the battle of Ba- 
3ou, ^hich Arthur 
an3 his elders (no- 
bles) fought with 
the SaxonSy when 
Arthur and his ik>- 
bles were vi&ori- 
ous^ 128 years* 


lii Ui 

From the battle 
of Badon to that of 
Camlan, 22 years. 22 576 

From (the -battle 
of) Camlan to the 
death of Maelgun, 
10 yearSf 

ID "505 

. From the death 
of Maelgun to the 
battle of Arderydd, 
when Gorgi and 
Peredur were llain, 
7. years. 

Ti-om the dea'di 
of Gorgi and Per- 
edur, to the batde pf 
Chefter, 9 years, 

^roln the blttlts 
0f Chefter to tte 
battle of Meigen, 
H years, 

7 593 

9 603 

}4 ,616 



O waith Feigen oni acth Cad* From the battle of 
waladyrFendigaid i Rufiiili^wyth Meigen to the tiiae 
mlynedd a deugaint. when Cadwalader 

A. D. 

the Blefled weot to 

Rome, 48 years. 48 664 

O Gad waladyr hyd (farw) Ofia From Cad wal- 
frenhin, wyth mlynedd ar hu- ader to (the death 
gaint a chant. of) King 0£Fa, 128 

years. 128 792 

O O'fFa oni lofges tan or nef From Oflato the 
Deganwy yh ocs Owain fab time when Tegan- 
Maredudd, ugain mlynedd, wy was burnt by 

lightning, in (he 
age of Owen the 
fon of Maredudd, 
20 years. 20 812 

OV pan lofges Deganwy hyd From the bumJngr 
ferw Merfyn Frych, tair bly- of Teganwy to the 
ncddarddeg'arhugaint death of Mervyn 

Vrych, 33 ye^rs. 33 845 

O Ferfyn hyd pan las Rodri fro,,! Mervyn to 
ci fab, faith mlynedd |r hugaint, die time when his 

fon Rodri was flain, 

27 years. 27 87? 

O Rodri hyd oni ddialawdd From Rodri to 
Anarawd ci fab tf, tair blynedd. the tioje whenAnar- 

od his fon re- 
venged his death, 3 
years. 3 8T5 

O waith Goijwy oni las Mer- Froxipi the battle 
fyn hb Rhojiij iyry flype^d ^ of ponwy till Mer- 
bynitheg. , vynthe fon of Rodri 

was flajn, 17 years. 17 89^ 

Ofarw From 



A. D« 

O farw Merfyn hyd farw 
C^dell abRhodri, deng mlynedd. 

O farw Cadell hyd £airw 
Anaiawd, chwe blynedd. 

O Anarawd hyd oni aech 
Hywd ab Cadell i Rufaio, tm 
blynedd ar bymdieg. 

OV pan aedi Hyw^l i Rufein 
oni fu farw> un flwyddyn eiiiao 
o ngain. 

' O hrw Hywel hyd wditb 
Carao^ faidi ndyaedd. * 

Frofh the deadi 
of M^rvyn to the 

death of Cadell the 

fon of Rodri, 10 

O Gamo hyd waith Meibion From Carno to 
Idwal, un flwyddyn. the battle of the fons 

of Idwal, I year. 

O waith Mdbion Idwal oni fn 
farw Owain' ab Hywel Dda^ 
pedair blynedd ar hngatnt* 

From the battle 
of the fons of Id- 
wal to the death of 
Owen, the fon of 
Howd Dda, 24 

10 902 

From the death ; 
of Cadell to the 
death of Anarod, 
6 yeajrs. 6 

From Anatod 
to Howel the fon 
of Cadell's pilgri- 
mage to Rome^ 18 

From Howers 
pilgrimage to his 
death, 19 years. 19 

From the death 
of Howel to the 
battle of Carno, 7 


18 926 


7 952 

1 953 

24 977 






O farw Ovmmam wiedyeh- 
awdd Cnud &b *Ow«kiy biik 
inlyncdd ar hugatnt. 

O Gnud frenhin hyd wafith 
Machawy, pan ^orfu KtiAjdd 
ab Llewelyn^ ac y Oas Efgob y 
^SkeSoiiy "Awy flynedd a deogaint. 

^ vrtikh Machawy oni las 
Gniffiidd, naw mlyneddt 

Or pan 'ddaeth Crift yn 
y cnawdhyd y llwyddyn honno, 
pymtheng mlyoedd a deugaim a 

Or pan las Gniffadd oni 
ddaeth Gwilitn Fafdardd i*r yriys 
bon, pum mlynedd:' SC ilii 
fiilynedd ar hugaiilt y gwledych- 


StooBt fto JeaHi 
cf «Pwan CO the 
reign of Cnud, the 
fon of Owen, 27 
years. 27 

fiom Cmi t^ 
the battle «f Jif a<4i«. 
awy, when Gruf- 
fudd, the fon of 
Llywelyn, was vic- 
•ori^usy «nd riie bi«. 
Ibep^ dielEngliii 
was (lain, 42-yesvs.. 

From the battle 
of Machawy to the 
death oif GntfiiM 
(ap JMiyddeicb) 

of Chrift m die: 
flefli to that year, 
1055 years. 

(From jdnt yoar 
to the doath '9£ 
Gruffudd, fon of 
Lywclyn, 6 years.) 

- • f . . - ^ 


t iEtomGrtiiFiifiU's 
death .to tlie aniv&l 
of William the baf- 
tard in this ifland, 
5 years: and he 
reigned 21 years. 


« Mtf6 

9 i|OM 

6 1061 

5 1066 

O Wilim 




A. D. 

O Wilim Fafdardd Mii but 
Bleddyn ap .Cynfytt) fiikb mly'r 
netld. ' 

O Fleddyn hyd waith mynydd 
Cam, chwe blynedd^ Gmftiidd 
ap Cynan a khys ap Tcwdwr a 
orfuant yna ar Drat^iaro ap 


baftard till Bleddyn, 
the fon of Convyn, 
was flain, 7 years. 

From Bleddyn to 
the batik of tbe 
Mountain of Car% 
6 yearf. There 
Gruflfudd, • the fon 
of Conan, and 
Rhys, the fbo 
of Teudor, coii'* 
quered Trahaiarn, 
the fon of Carad- 

7 107S 

6 1079 

* I 

O waith mynydd Carn oni 
las Rhys ap Tewdwr, tatr bly- 
nedd ar ddeg. 

Or pan las Rhys hyd pan las 
Gwilym frenhin Coch, faith 
mlynedd : a thair ar ddeg y 

Or brenhin Coch hyd farw 
Caradawc fynach, pum mly- 
nedd ar hugaint. 

O Garadawg hyd ferw Cad- 
wailawn ap GruiFudd, ac y bu 


From the battle 
of the mountain of 
Carn to the time 
when Rhys, the fon 
of Teudor, was 
llain. 13 vears. 

From the death 
of Rhys to that of 
William the Red 
King, 7 years : He 
reigned 13 years. 

From the Red 
King to the death 
of Caradoc, the 
monk, 25 years. 

From Caradop 
to the dwith of 

13 1092 

7 1099 

23 1 124 




A. D. 

farw Maredudd ap Bleddyn, 
wyth mlynedd* 

Or pan ddaeth Crift ynghn- 
awd hyd y flwyddyn hoono, tair 
tlynedd ar ddeg ar hugain a 
chant a mil. 

Or pan las Cadwallawn hyd 
pan dorres Owain a Chadwal- 
adyr Aberteifi, chwe blynedd. 

Or pan dorred Abcrteifi oni 
bs y Ffrainc yn Nhal Moelfre^ 
vgain mlynedd. 

O ymladd Tal Moelfre hyd 
pan ddaliwyd y gwyftlon yng- 
hoed Cciriawg wyth mlynedd. 

O ymladd Coed Ceiriawg oni 
dorres Owain a Chadwaladyr 
Ruddlan, dwy flynedd. 


Cadwallon, the fon 
of Gruffiidd, and 
the death of Mare- 
dudd, the fon of 
Bleddyn, 8 years. 

From the coming 
to that year, 1133 

From the death of 
Cadwallon to th& 
time when Owen 
and Cadwaladerde- 
ftroyed Aberteivi, 
6 years. 

From thedeftroy- 
ing of Aberteivi to 
the flaughter of the 
French inTalMocl- 
vre, 20 years.^ 

From the fight of 
Tal Moelvre to the 
taking of the hof-» 
tages in tlie wood 

From the battle 
of the wood of Ceir- 
iog to the fack* 
ing of Ruddlan, by 
O^n and Cadwal- 
ader, 2 years. 

8 •1132 


6 1139 

20 1159 

8 1167 

2 1169 

* A year is loft from one of tbe intervaU bef ween the acceffion of the conqueror 
and the death of Rufus^ confequently there it an error of one year in thiiy and the 
tvo preceding dates. 



A. JO. 

Or pan dofres Ruddb^ oni 
fu &rw Ywain, pum rolynedd.; 

O wyl Clemens hyd yn nos 
ynyd, gyd a blwyddyn, y bu 
farw Cadwaladyr wedi Owain* 

Or pan tn farw Ywain dni 
aned Llywdyn ap lorwerth* 

dwy flynedd ^ banner* 

Or pan aned Llywelyn oni las 
Ywain ap Madawg ar ymladd 
Gwern y FinogI, p^dair blynedd 
ar ddeg. 

Or pan las Ywain ap Madawg 
hyd haf y Gwyddyl, faith mly- 

Y flwyddyA rhagwyneb y bu 
frwydr y CoM&nau : y drydedd 
flwyddyn y bu farw Rhodri fab 

From the facking 
of Ruddlan to the 
death of Owen, 5 


Cadwalader died 
after Owen one year 
befides from Cle- 
ment's Eve to 
Shrovetide. . 

From the deadi 
of Owen to the 
birth of LywelyUy 
thefon of lorwerth, 
two years and a half 

From the birth 
of Lywclyn to the 
time when Owen 
the fon of Madog 
was ilain, in the 
battle of Gwern y 
VinogI, 14 years. 

From the death 
of Owen, the fon 
of Madog, to the 
fummer of the Ihfh 
7 years. 

The preceding 
year happened the 
battle of the Coet- 
anau. The third 
year died Rodri the 
fon of OweUf 

O haf y Gwyddyl hyd Gaftell From the fummer 
Psien, pum mlynedd : ar gauaf of the Iriih to 


5 1174 

2 1176 

14 1190 

7 1197 



CAMBRIAN ftBGBTfcR, 1796* 

riiagwyneb y torrcs Llyweljrn 

Dwy flynedfi woii Caftctt 
Pacn y^bu fcrw Gruffiidi af 


Y flwyddyii wodia»i-w Gtuf- 
fudd ap Cynaa y bo farvr DafyM 
ap Owain. 

Or pan fli fkrw iDafydd ap 
Ywain oni waharddwyd offer* 
cnnau dros Loegyr a Chymry, o 
annyundeb leuan frenhin ac 
Yftyfn archefgob Caint, fun\ 

Ar gwahardd hwnnw a f^ 
faith inlynedd dros Loegyr a 
phump ^os Gymry. 


preceding year Ly- 

wclyn dcftroycd 


Yn y flwyddyn nefaf it 
gyfiefin flwyddyi\ y gwahardd* 


From the dqath.. 
of David the fon of 
Owen, to the inter- 
diction of mafs over 
England and Wales, 
in confequence of 
the difagrecment of 
King John and Stc* 
phen Archbiihopof 
Canterbury, 5 years 

And that inter- 
diction continued 7 
years over £ng)ft|id» 
and 5 years over 

The year next 
fucceeding the firft 

A. D. 

5 1202 

TwoyM^ afttr 

tkt tokiag ef f^kn^ 

apConan*. 2 

The nexfr jtd» 
after the death of 
GruiFudd ap Cenaft 
died David the fon 
of Owetu 


1 1205 

5 1210 


^ Thi« GrnffiK^d, I Imftgine, wis the ton of Cynan, the fon of Owen Owynedd* 
Tilt great GrulTudd ap Conan, prince of North Wales, died in the year 1 137. 



wyd oflerennatt dros Loegr a 
Chymry, ydd aeth Llywelyn 
ap lorwertba Howcl ap Gruff- 
udd gyd ag leuan fienhin 
Lloegr i Ruiaia, i ddaroftwng 
y Brenhio i leuan (renhin 

Nos wyl Simon a Judasr yn y 
flwyddyn honno y daetb yftiw- 
art llys brenhin Llychlyn, Her- 
alt Pig oedd ei enw, a chwech 
herwlong gantaw, hyd yn Llan- 
Taes« ac yfpeiliaw y dref ai 
llofgiy ac y lias Heralt Pig ai 

year of the inter- 
di£lion of the mafs 
over England a^id 
Wales, Lywclyn, 
the fon of lorwenb, 
and Howely the fon 
of Gniffuddy went 
to Rome with John 
King of-Englandy 
that the king might 
do homage to John 
King of England. 

On die eve of St. 
Simon and Jude that 
year, the King of 
Lochlyn's fteward 
of the palace, Heralt 
by <name, came to 
Llanvaes, with fix 
pirate (hips, and 
pillaged and burned 
the town, and He* 
rait Pig and his pr in* 
cipal officers were 

A. D. 


Y flwydJyn rhagwyneb ydd 
aeth leuan frenhin i Iwerddon, 
ac y daeth Rondwlff iarll Caer 
i Deganwy yn erbyn leuan 

The fanie year 
King John went 
to - Irelana, and 
Randulph, earl of 
Chefter, went u> 
Teganwy, againd 
King John. 







Continued frQtn volume L page 187- 

Mabikoci L 

Pwyll yn Arbcrth, privlys 
kaw^ a gwlet darparedig itaw, 
ac 1 nivcTot mawr o wyr y 
gydac cv; a gwcdy y bwyta 
cyntavy cyvodi i orymdaith a 
oruc Pwyll j a cliyrchu pen 
gorfet a oet uwchlaw y llys^ a 
dwid Gorfet Arttferth. — ^Arg- 
Iwyt ! hcb un o'r Uys, €ynnetyy 
yr orfet yw, pa dylyedawc by- 
nac a etfteto ami, nid a otiyno 
heb un oV deu belli ai cymmri\y 
ai archoUeu, neu yntcu a wclej 

Juvenile Amusement L 

UPON a certain day Pwyll 
was at Arberthy a princi- 
pal palace beloi^ng to Jym, 
where he had a banket pne^- 
pared for hmifelf, and ' for a 
great number of men in hU le* 
tinue ; and after the firft repaft, 
Pwyll rofc up to take a walk ; 
and he repaired to die'tbp'of a 
mote-hill * that was above the 
palace, wliich was called the 
Prefidency of Arbcrth. — Sr ! 
faid one of tlie court, the nature 
of this fupreme feat is fuch, that 
whatfoever AoUeman ihall fit 
upon it, he (hall not go from 
thence, without either of the 
two things, a hurt df wooiub, 
or elfe he fhaU fee a miracle. - 

Nyd oes arnavi ovyn cacl 
eymmriw neu archolleu yn plith 
hyn o niver ; ryretawd hagcu 
da oet genyv pei as gwelwu. 
Mi a av i'r orfet i eiuet. Eidet 


I am not afraid of receiving 
a hurt or wound, amongft fuch 
a retinue as this^ as to a miracte 
I fliould be glad if I were to fee 
one. I will go in and fit on 


^ Gorfet (gorfethr] is the word in the original, which literally meant a fupreme ftct. 
The term wai applied to the fittings of a court of judicature, at well at to the con- 
yen tient %i the Warda, both'^ wlilch ufed to be upon eminences, in the open air. 



a ymieth ar yr orfin : Ac val j 
4:iytaac yn eiftet hwyat a welyfll 
vraig ^r varch canv/elw maw|: 
•f^fupbelj a gwifc euraid U^thnijd 
goul^^i, yn dyvp4 af hyd y 
biivfo^ a gertei o'r orfet. Cerr 
Ifd s^mv gwaft^d Oft g>n y 
mar^h, ^r vryd y ocb a*i gwel^i, 
sic yn ,dy vod jn ogfyuyfch aV 

Hft wyrJ bcbyPviTrll, a pe# 
.0 boq^ch chwi a adnapiQ y 
Va|rcl^Qge9 rl^acoj Nag oe^ 
firglwytf h^ hwynt. Ae4 un, 
lieb yoteuy yn ei herbyn i wybo^ 
f\^ vo. jUn a gyvodes i vynyt: 
A Saa (}a^ yn ei berbyn iV 
foity neud athoet hi beibiaw; 
jU bymlid a wnaeth, val y gallei 

gyn^v o pQiieftng ; apbdvwy* 
ftv yci ci vry^ cv, peilav .yytci 
J^tb^y yyrrtb^w cv, A pban 
a«ela^ c^a tbygifi^ itaw ei bymlid 
)rfnGhwe}yd a pruc at Fwyil, a 
4ywedyd wrtbaw, arglwyt, heb 
iw, i^ tbycia i bedcftyr yn y 
kji ei bymlid bi. le, beb 
y ncfu ; dQ9 iV Uys a cbymer y 
pi^rch cyntt^y ^ wc^ycb, a doa 

Ymarqh a eymerthy acrbag* 
^aw y ^etb \ f^ 9Eifdlir gwaftad 

a gay- 

fbi3 ekvatud fatf. If e did ii^ 
upon tbe fea^ of prefidency: 
And ^ tbey were fitting, tiwf 
beheld a woman upon a palf 
hprffi great and yery jai^, 
having on |ier a garment glit- 
tering with, gpldy who waf 
coming alp^g the main rosidi 
which led from the mo$i^'iu^. 
A flow and even pace; tbe bor^ 
appeared to have, in tbe opinion 
of thofe who faw him, and 
coming in ijac diiejftioa pf the 


Ah myfriefi^l (aid Pwy9» 
is there Qne of yoy d|at kn^wip 
who this lady n^y ^ ? TtirVS 
is not, fir, rppjif d t^y. Jj^t 
one go thcii, ff^d he, tp meflt 
her, and le2m whp d^ is. Qqp 
rofe up : as»d pp fwnpT M bf 
come oppofitc <Q tif^ ii> i^ip r<^ 
but {he pajled i^y; he pm'ffi^ 
her as fsJk ^ ^ was ^ble o|i 
foot; ;md thf fpore might t^ 
his haAe, (he f^tfther wpujd Af 
gppe^r frpm bim, J^ whw 
Ke law it wpuld. W^ ^ayaj} hw 
{o follow laier, bp rf;tu|rnfid b^c^ 
to Pwy)l, ^ foyire tq hiip. 
Sir, it will be ufelefs fqr ^ny 
perfon in the world on foot to 
purfue her. Aye ? faid he then: 
Go to the palace, and take the 
firft hdrfe that thou (halt fee^ 
and gp thy yay ^jftar l)ff^ a 

... '. . ■ ' 

The borfe hl^ tpQk^ 9||4 f<NFf 

w^ird Ije weot J Vi4 'hi /9 W4. f 

Y 2 level 


CAMBRIA^ RfiGiSteR, 179& 

a g^fi%i ac tr a dangofcs yr 
•yfbarduneo Pr march; a ph^i 
Twjrav y llatci ev y inarch, 
pcUav vytci liithcu ywrthaw cv. 
.Yr un gcrted a dechrcuafei hi- 
thcu yt oet amaw ; ei varch ew 
a ballwys ; a phan wybu ev ar 
^ varch pallu ei bcdeftrig, 
•ymchwelyd hyd y lie yt oet 
Pwyll a wnaedu 

Arglwyt, heb ev, ni diycia i 
neb ymlul yr unbenes r!iaco1 
Ni wytwn i varch gynt yn y 
'tyvoeth no hwn ; ac ni thycia 
} mi ei hymlid hi. le, heb y 
•'Ftvyll ; mae yno ryw yftyr hud: 
Awn parth aV llys. IV llys y 
doethant; a dieruliatv y dyt 
hwnwawnaethant; athreuliaw 
liyny oV dyt nefiiv/ yn i oet 
%mfer myned i vwyta. A gwcdi 
•*y bwyta cyntar— le, heb yntcn 
Pwyll, ni awn yr tin nivcr y 
buam doe i ben yr orfet: a 
'fhydi, heb ev, wrth un o'i 
^acwyeid, dwg genyt y march 
^eyntav a wypych yn y maes. A 
hyny a wnaeth y macwy: yr 
orfet a gyrchafanti aV march 

Ac val y bytynt yn ciftctj 
bwynt a welynt y wraic ar yr 
m march, a- r un wife amdanei, 
yil dyvod yr un fort. Llyma, 


level open ground ; and he pat 
the fpurs to the horfe ; and die 
more he cut the horfe, the (kr- 
ther would (he dien be from 
him. The fame pace, which 
ihe began with« {he ftill con* 
dnued: His horfe failed^ and 
when he difcovered of his horft 
that he failed in his feet, he re> 
turned back to the place where 
Pwyll was* 

Sir, faid he, it will not avail 
any one to purfue yonder lady ! 
I know no fwifter horfe than 
this in the kingdom ; and it is 
of no ufe for me to purfue hen 
Aye? faid Pwyll; there muft be 
fome kind of illufion in it : let 
us go towards the jialace* To 
the palace they came ; and they 
pafled away that day; and to 
the time of going to eat was 
4pent of the next day. And, 
after die firft repaft— Come 
then, faid Pwyll, we will go 
the fame number that we were 
yefterday to the top of the mote- 
hill: and do thou, faid he to 
one of his pages, bring with 
thee the fleeteft horfe that dion 
knoweft in the field. And the 
page did fo ; the mote-hill they 
approached) having the horfe 
with them. 

And as they were fitting, they 
perceived the woman upon the 
fame horfe, drefled in the fame 
garment, and coming the fame 




hcb f Pwyll, f virchogcs doc 1- 
Byt barosC was, faeb ev, i wybod* 
pwy yvhi* Arglwyt, bcbcv,- 
mi a.wnav hyf^y yn llawen: 
At h3rny yt.v^^ogi^sy doetb.. 

. I • 

/S«v a oniQiiy inacwy yfla 
tafcyna lur ei March *; a chyn, 
4Mnrod iJtaw yingyweiriaw yn ei' * 
gyvrwy, oeiir ty^qit hi beib- 
iaw; a ch^nnuU y rhy9gtym,{ 
amgen yrys c^ed oid oec gemi; 
hi noV dyt )gyiit« fV'^QU' a gy- 
n^eith rygig y gan.ei varch( ac 
ey a debygei cr afayed y certei 
ei varch yr ymortjiivetei a hi ; 
a hyijiy nl thyqiaii itaw{ ellwng 
ei varch a orBC wrrh a vynei. • 
IVid O0( ev ne^ iti'yua no chyn . 
hfii'^T gan( i ,a phci vwyav y 
^^^ ev ei vardi pellav a vytei 
Jiitheu. ywnhaw ev ; a'i cherted 
hitheu nid oct vwy no chynt. 
Cany ^elal cv tygiaw itaw ei 
hymlid, ymckwely a virpaeth 
byd y He yt oet Pwyll, 

Arglwyty heb ev, nid oca 
^llu gan y march amgen noc y 
velei(l a Mi a weleis, heb 
ynteu ; ni thycia i neb ei h^rli^ 
hi ; ac, y rhov i a Duw ! heb 
ev, yt oec neges iti wrth rai 
qV macs hwn; peigatei wr;h 


way. Beh<iild, faid Pwylt/ th^ 
female chevalier of yefterdayl 
Be prepared, ydnng man, iaid» 
he, to learn Tvho fhe is. Sir, 
replied he, I will chearfully do 
that : thereupon die female che^ 
vfilier came oppofitc to them. . 

. ' Immediately on this the yoting ; 
ntan mounted hisrhorfe; todt 
bpfore he had quite placed him- 
f^lf rightly on liis fadiUe, lo (he 
waspaflingby; andio'idrawingi 
tpwafdfi them (he app^^uied only • 
ta go on die 6me walking pace, 
at on the former day. He alfo. 
gothia-borfe to amble; and he- 
imagined, though his borfe went.* 
fo flDwly, that he (hould come 
up with her; but in this he 
could not fucceed; he then gave 
full fcope to his horfe. He was 
not the hearer to her than when 
going Aep by ftep; and the 
more he cut his horfe, the far* 
ther would fhe be from him ; 
yet her pace \yas not quicker^ 
than before. Since he if^w it. 
did not profper for him to purr 
fuc her, he returned to the place 
M^bcre Pwyll remaioed. 

Sir, fa^ he, the horfe has iiq 
power Qtherwife than wha|; thou 
hafl f<?en. I have perceived it^ 
faid the pther \ \t will be of no 
ufe for any one to follow her ;, 
and, between me and God ! faid 
he, fhe' had bpfinefs to cpmmu* 

y S nicatf 



Pwyll iri ki <iywedyd! Ani 
dwn parth i*T llys: i*r Uys y 
doethant; a thi^uKsw y nok 
honno a wnaetbtnt drwy gertm 
a chyvetadi^ vsl y bti lonyt 
gantynt ; a tfaiaiioeth dyvyru y 
dyt a wna^thant yni oet amfor 
myned i vwyta ; a phan darvu 
itynt y bwyd» Pwyll a dywaivd, 
tktttfr niv^r y bbam tii doe ac 
echdoe ymhen yr orfet ? Llyma^ 
afglwyt, heb wyntcu. Awh, 
hieb evy i'r drfer i eillet : a thi- 
ttieu, heb ttf with was ei vaitli, 
cyvrwya vy rrtardi yti da, a 
^bue ac ev iV fbtt) a dwg ^y 
yfbarduhaii genyt: y gwas a 
vhiaeth hynny. 

byvod ih orfet a orugant i 
eifiet: Ni biiant haiach o encyt 
yno oni w^lynt y varchogcs yn 
dyvod yr lifa fort, ac yn iin 
ahfawt, ac yn un gerted. Ha, 
was ! heb y Pwyll, mi a welav 
y varchoges yu dyvod: Moes 
vy march. Ac nyt cynt y dif- 
cyn cv ar ei varch, noc yt a 
hitheu hcbdaw ev. Tori yn ei 
hoi a oruc ev, a gadel ei varch 
Aythyll Uamfachus I gcrtcd ; ac 
cv a debygei ar yr ail cam neiiV 
try dyt y gordiwetci: nyd oet 


nScate to fomebbdjr iii ^^9 fi^ : 
nimijld (he biii kt it be ^oelared 
to Pwyll r WuS, we Will go 
towatds the ptthtek : to ihe pa- 
laM they came ; aiullb^{Hifldd 
away that night ki fdbgB and 
feftivity in the way that was 
moft agreeable to them ; and 
When the tnomii^ waa conSey 
they fpent the day mA it war 
time to go to eat( and when 
they had Ibilflied tha i^ft, 
Pwyll iiiidi wfaet« is the nttm- 
b& of us, who vmte ydletdayi 
and die day befbft^, oh the tbp 
cf the mcXe-hdl i Behold they 
ate here, fir, rt^plied they. Let 
113 gd( (aid he, to Ae feat ojf 
prefideAcy to' fit: And tilOii, 
faid he to ih^ |Mige who took 
care of his bc^ ftddle my 
horfe well, and lead him into 
the road, and brihg thy fj^en 
with thee: tfa6 |>dge did fo. 

They came t» die fca» of 
pl-efidency to fit: (hey Were 
fcarcely a moment there, . biR 
they beheld the female chevalier 
coming the fame way, and in 
the fame guife, and with the 
fame pace. Hie, boy! faid 
Pvvyll, I fee the woman comihg: 
give me my horfe. And no 
fooner l^ad he mounted on his 
horfe, but fhe^was paffing by 
him. He cut after her, and 
gave his vigorous and prancing 
Heed his courfe; and he ima- 




lies hagen itl no chynL £i 
varch a gyinhellawt o^r certed 
mwyav i^.oft^afilbaw^ a gwti^ 
ed a wnaeth na thyciai itaw 
ei hymlid; yna y dywawd 

gined diat, oa the fecond pace 
or the third, he fliould overtake 
her^ he waa 00% the nearar ne-> 
verthefels thaa before. His 
horfe he put upon^ the greateft 
fpced ID hii» power ; and he per- 
ceived that it would be of no 
u£b for him to follow her ; then 
Pwyll faid, 

Ths tnanufcript from whence Jo. mueh 9/ ihi Story is taken^ has 
not gQ$ the remiynder: Perhaps Jome correfpondeni may have a 
Cfimplete copy of it ; and who, as a weH-wiJher to the Cambrian 
Rig^ier^ wiU pasje /he goadnefs to fend the C0nclufi$n for thf next 

) , 

1 • ^» • . 

Y 4 





Continuidfrm Vol. I. Page 238. 

7 he Order of the Laws of the Courts given in the preceding Volume 
of the Regijier^ agrees pretty nearly with the ClaJJtfication^ obferV'- 
able in the Code publtjhed by ff^otton<i and in the ff^eljh School Afanu-^ 
fcript ; but the copy^ from which this text is made^ ceafes to have 
that good arrangement in the fubfequent parts ofityfo that a regular 
collation with thofe copies is not prafficable any farther^ ; however^ 
comparifns between particular paffages art given, wherever any 
necejfty appears for Jo doing, without interfering with the plan of 
fublijhing other copies of the JVelfh Laws, in future volumes of the 


PUNT yw gwerth Uetuegin 
brenhines. Punt yw gwerth 
peir brenhin, Pcdeir arhugeint 
yw gwerth ygigwcin. Tnigein 
atal callaur breuhyr IIII•^ kein- 
yawc yglgwein. Dec arhugeint 
gwerth callawr taeauc. |i. k, 
atal y^ikwein 

Yny bwynt ygyd, Eflfeiryad 
tculv, ar diftein, ar ygnad Ilys, 


A POUND is the value of 
tlie favourite animal of 
the queen. A pound is the va« 
lue of the king's cauldron. 
Twenty-four-pence is the price 
of his fiefh fork. Three-fcore 
pence is the value of a baron's 
kettle ; four-pence his fleih fork. 
Thirty-pence is the price of a 
boor's kettle; 2d. is tlie value of 
bis flefli fork. 

Where there are together, the 
domeftic chaplain, and the Ilew- 


* Tbii abridgement of the laws has much of the appearance of baTingbcen a common 
place coliedioDi made by fomcf old Welih lawyer, for his own ufe ; as it is not eafilj 
accounted for other vife, why the dlvifions into books and chapters^ and the regaUr 
arrangement of the dUferent artidci ihould have been omitted. 



Breim: Uys avyd yno^ yn abfea ard of the boufehold, and the 
y breohiiL • judge of the palace, there the au« 

* thority of the court fhaU be, ia 
iixt abfeuce of the king. 

Pan vyfiho, ybrenbin kerd^ 
caned ypoikeid^u gaxtv^ yn or 
dttw ac araU or penoactbev* 

When the king lias a defiro 
for poetry, let the chief of fong 
liBg two fongs: one addreiTed to 
God, and the other to the chief* 


Pan vyidioyvrenhines kerd yn 
yr yftauell, caned ybard teulv 
teirawdyl Ugandan yn diflbn rac 
tenrylc ar teulv. 

Kener geBgi brcnhin tra vo 
caead ylygeid, pedeir arhngeint 
4al. Yny gtnlltift, unarbymthec 
arhugelnt ataL Ynofer hely, 
hanner punt atal. P^n yo 
kyfrwyspuntatai; Milgibrenhin 
kanner punt atal. Vnwerth gellgi 
brchyr amilgi brenhm yw ba- 
rywbynnac vo; Kenev tayawc 
or dechrev hyd diwed, nil.' 
keinyauc cotta atal. Coftauc 
kyd hoed ybrenhin bieufo nythal 
namyn, liii. keinyauc cotta. 
Obyd bttgeil kt hagen eidyon 
kyhyd ygom ae yfcyvam atal. 
Odamheuiryvodvelly, tynghed 
yperchennauc achymydauc vch 
drws, ac airall is drws yyyned 
ymlaen yr yfgrybyl ybore, a- 
chadw yr olyeid ynos, Ki call- 
awed oUedir pcllach no nawcam 

y with yty ny thclir. Pan dalher 


When the queen wifhes for 
poetry, in the chamber, let the 
domeftic bard (ing three verfes 
concerning Camlan, in a low 
voice, left the family (hould be 

A king's buck-hound whelp,* 
his value is twenty-four-pence,' 
whilft his eyes are fhut; in his- 
kennel thhty- fix-pence is tho 
value; whilft he vaguely hunts 
half a pound is his value; when 
he is well-trained his value is 
a pound. A king's grey-hound, 
his value is half a pound. Of 
the fame value is a baron's buck- 
hound as a king's grey-hound, 
of whatever kind he may be^ A 
whelp belonging to a boor, from 
the beginning to the end, is worth 
4 Ihort pence. A cur, though 
it fhould belong to the king, is 
wordi no more than 4 fliort 
pence. Sliould he, never- 
thelefs, be a (hepherd's dog, he 
is worth a beaft, whofe horn 
and ear are of the fame length. 

Should it be doubted whether he 




hagen, xin*". tfnigtiiit yw yw. 

lycrth. Nyd oet gjwerthkjriVehh 
a^ vitheiad, Ypetb ay bo gwenh 
kyfreithiawl arnaw damdvng. 
ageffir obonaw* 

Encb alado kylheic brenhin 
tsfiicA tribiihin caodwrw geff- 
cvjn adelir aindanaw. Deudec 


golwyth brenliiaawl ageffir 
yxidaw« Tavawd^ tri golwyth 
ypwnwgyly ICymhyber, CaUoiis 
DeulwvD^ Yaihyd, Tumoo^ 
camlwrw adelir dros bop va or 
gelwythyoQ hynny. Deudeg 
mvwadeliirdfoskylleic brenhiq, 
11001301 owyl gkic byd wyl kalan 
gayaf. • Odyna ny byd golwyd^ 
kyfureith yodaw^ 

Olledir carw brenhin yn dref 
brcyr ybore- Cadwcd cf ycarw 


ia (b» Ut hitowikr^anA.l xinjgM' 
bour of die door abovejad aoOf 
ther of the door bdowt fwear 
that he has gone before the cat* 
tie in the morning, and to have 
gftaT^d die 6)hdilM(ft oMs^at 
dl^lKi A dog ^tf'tf itivj^g M^ 
poficioA^ fliMltf hi^b^ lS&§i tke^ 
paces from the houfe fhall not 
be paid for. Wh^, on the con- 
trary, he is to b^ paid for, twen* 
tf ^bitr-'peftid iabtafffkek Tifire 
is bo price m Ihw s^od a beagle r 
wfaal baa up kivAl pdos upon 
it» a fpecial oatb :^U be had 
rcfpe£iing it. 

Whoever kills a klng*s deer 
lA fqafon» let hjiaf^y thf aektle : 
as a common conipeMAtied Btm 
(hall be paid 4Qf i^ Twefarii 
royal pieces fhall be had ihamr 
from I the tongue, tbr«e piecct 
9f the neck) l^e cotrailt» thg 
heart, the two )oip&% the ihevldeij 
th^ haunch, ^ breaft, ^a ftrajf 
guti and tt^ Ever.. /Tbiree kina 
of compenfaticpci fine ihall. bii 
paid for eacb of tbofe pieca^^ 
Xwelve kine is pftid finr di« 
ivbolc of the king's deer in fea? 
fon, There is no kiag^s deer in' 
(eafpn but from this feftiyal of 
Ciric to i\ys fcftival of the firft 
of November: afterwards there 
(hall not be any lawfrd pieccji 

Ifa king's ftagChaU be kilM 
in tlie gropnds of a baron in tlie 


AiKamt LAwa. 


bytf'hcmMr dlM/- At toy d^tot 
yleyttjdjroU '^^ rafted ybrttyf 
ykk: tidfyr lUthyaiir ybwft, ar 
chwarthali^l ol at etx^cn ar ^wn 
ganthaw adref. Ac ony doaUt 
yky&ydyM'ynos honab) kym- 
cred ef ykk M* AW4 ycroen yr 
k3rnydyon. Os amheuher dyd 
yUodir, x^dwed ef y car^ hyd 
yiios. ac ony doant ykynydypn 
yna gwnaed mal am yr vn gynt* 
Os gan ynos ylledir tanhed 
ybreyr yvent^llaTnaw hydybore, 
ac yna gwnaed malamyrelgynt. 
Obydbelygellgwnybrcyr arhoed 
ef hyd pan ellyngho kynydyon 
ybrenhin teir gweith, ac odyna 
ellynghed yntev. Pwybynnac 
alado hyd. Roded.chwarthaur 
dr eithyr hyd tHrenhia. Kany 
byd chwarthawr tir yhyd ybren- 
hin. Qgwyl dyn gwyftvil, yar 
yford ymewn foreft. Byryed 
ef ac 0$ bradi ymlided ef yllwdyn . 
hyd pan el ydan yoiwc> ac yn^ . 
pded ef yhuoaji. 

flftomhlg, let hirti ke^ th« lUg 
until mid-day; and if the hisffif-* 
men fliall not cottie by that time, 
tet die bartm 6if'tJk thii fleA^ 
elced^tfig wktA goei t(» allaie 
the dogSy and the hind quaitev 
and the ikin, which he ihall 
take home with the dogs ; and if 
the huhtfinen fhall not coSic' 
that ni^t, kt him talce diet 
whole of the fle/h; and let tfae 
ikin be for the huntfmen. If 
the day ^hen he was killed {h|li 
be doubted, let him keep the (lag 
ufitil nigfit; and' if the huntf- 
men /houl'd hot come then; let * 
him do as with refped tb th%' 
former one. If he (hbuld b6 * 
kined at evening-tide, let th^b^* 
ron fpread his cloak bver him 
until the morhihg, aikl then let 
him a£t as with refped to the ' 
former ones, If there ihduld 
be hunting with a baron's buck* 
houndsy let him ftay until thfc 
king's huntfmen ihall have let 
loofe three times, and then let 
him alfo let loofe. Whoever 
kills a deer, let him give a quar- 
ter diftance, except to the king's 
deer, for there ihall be noquaf- 
tef diftance tb the deer of the 
king. If a man ftjall fire a wiH 
bfcaft,.let hjm caft^; and if 
hfe fhili wound it, let him put-- 
foe the animkl, utltil he {halt 
bring it tinder his fight, and thei^ 
let him leave }t alone. 





' Fob/ peokerj ddjly caffad 
tdyQ ygan ybrthin. Fob dif« 
gybyl adyly yeniU ae benkerd y* 
Icpeyanv. Apban el ydifgybyl 
ymnthBLW ypeokerd adyly rodi 

^ Pwybyiiii2ic abrynho dim y- 
M&xcbnad. Ny dyty gdfiyaw 
gwanuit idaw* 

Every chirf iqlUkiftQ is 
titled to a harp from 4ie king. 
Every difciple is eotklsd to hia 
gfkmSf hi* prtncftpsd baying a 
third: and wh^ th^djfcipleihaU 
leave him» the chief n^Ician ia 
obliged to give bim a ha^. 

Whoever buys any thing in a 
market, he ought ndt to procuro 
it warranted. 

' ,* * 
. Ywcn fant pvnt.aial t)erwen 

chvvQugeint atal. Ynep ae tyllo 

diTf yJi tri vgeint, a^ai. Kein^ 

vchelvar. trug?ii>t gdal. Dec 

aj^ugeintadal ppb keing arbenic 

yt^ yderwen, Trugein adal a- 

uallen ber. Dec anigeint adal 

ayallen fur. Pymtlicc adal ywcn 

cped. , Scith adimei adal dracnen 

i^ii. keinyavic adal pob pren 

wcdy hynny. 

' A confecrated yew, its vatutt - 
is a pound. An oak, its'yalue is ' 
fix fcore pence : whoever boret 
i^ through (hall pay three fcore' 
pence. A miflletoe branch, its 
value is three fcore pence. Thir- 
ty-pence is the vahic of every ' 
principal branch in thf' oak, 
Three-fcorc-poice is die value 
of a ftvect apple-tfce, Ttiirt)'- 
pence is the value of a four apr 
pie-tree. Fifteen-pence is the 
value ' of a wood yew-tree, 
^ven-pence halfpenny is the 
value of a thorn-tree. Four* 
pence is the value of every tree 
after that, 

Enep alado pren dcrwen ar 
ford ybrenhin talhed tri buli^n 
camlwrw yr brenhin, agworth 
yderwen, ac arlpflfed yford yr 
brenhin. Apban del ybrenhin 
heibiaw, cvdyed von ypren a-i 
brethyn vnlliw, Odigwyd prei^ 
ar draws avon athynv magleu 
nev rwyd^v ar ypren, perghen- 


Whoever cuts down an oak 
tree in the king^s highway, let 
him pay three kine, as a com- 
penfation fine, to tl^e king, and 
the value of the oak; and let 
him dear the way for tlie king; 
And, when th^ king comes by, 
let him cover the ftump of the 
tree witl:^ oo^ cployr^ cloth, 




awe bon ypren ydyvod py da 
bynilac ybyrhyo.yr avon ypren* 

If a tree (hould fall acrofs a river, 
and if hitches, or nets, be drawn 
over the tree, the owner of this 
Hump of the tree owxls it, oa 
whichever fide of the river fhall 
caft the tree. 

• Ckdyf auQ cur nen aryant ar, pedeir *' arhugeint adaL 
Ciedyfiuiil^ Xij;adaL Taryan 
lafiar. xxlili,ataL Taiyanliw 
ypien* xil. Gwaew. iiu. 
Bwyall eniUec, lu Kylle^ii. 
7\lgeU achrev xnoch afialt . x xt. 
adal pdb va oniidunt. Meia 
kodio, xxiiit/ Breuan, iiii. 
Telyiipenkierdchweugeint, ydiy 
5Kretrgora xii. Telyn brenhin 
M hryccai) ay tawlbord haner 
pvnt adll pob vnohonunt. Telyn 
bityr ay vryccan ay dawlbotd 
trngtin.ageif pob vn ohonunt 
6obennyd tyle vgeini atal. 
Tawlbord oafgvnm morvi] tru- 
gcintataL Tawlbord oafgwm 
91^1, XXX. Tawlbord ovan* 
Eyd, xxiiiK Tawlbord agom 
eidyon, x 1 1, atal. Tawlbord 
6brcB, nil"'- Bwyall lydan, 
lui^. Bwyall gynnvd, xi. 
LlawvwyalU i. Taradyr mawr, 
ii. Pcrued daradyr, i. £biU 
daradyr dimei. Rafgyl dimcL 
&rr, o. KwUdyr,iiu«'. Swch, 
II- KWyf, I. . Gylif, i^ Keib^ 
zi. Pal, I. Kymanyi. .Qwellevi 
I. Crib, I. Cabolvaen, dimei. 
pwdyf, 1. BiHuc, i. Paeolyw, 
liix. Facol hellycy I. Paeol 


A fword, vrhich has gold, or 
fihrcr, on its hilt^ its valoc is 
twei^tyofour-pence. Another 
fwofdi its. value is 12J. A painti 
ed ibield, its value is 24J'« A 
jQueU of the colour of the wood^ 
a2</. Afpear, 4^. Abattkax^ 
2(f. A knife, Id. A penthoufe, 
a pigftye, and a foli^ SOJ. is the 
value of each <^ them. A -mil^ 
ftone, Q4d. A quern, 4d. The 
harp of a chief mufician, fix?- 
fcor^^pence; its tuning key, 
12//. A king's harp, and his 
gown, and his backgammon- 
table, half a pound is the value of 
each of them. Aharon's harp, and 
his gown, and his backgammon- 
table, three-fcore-pence ihallbe 
allowed for each of them. A 
bolder of a houfe (lead, its value 
is twenty-pence. A backgam- 
mon-table of a whale-bone, its 
value is three-fcore -pence: a 
backgammon- table of other bone^ 
3(X/. a backgammon-tabk of a 
hart's horn, 24^. A backgam- 
mon table of the horn of an ox, 
12^. is its value ; a backgammon- 
table of wood, 4d. A broad axe, 
4J. A felling hatcha, 2d. 
A haad-hatcfaet. Id. A, great 



CAM9IUAN l4E(H9r$)9, 1796. 

gwyn paangjchawCt !• Paeol 
lielyc brin, i. Hefgin yw, ii. 
Hefgin hclic, i.cota. B.udei 
ft y llaud, 1 1 1 1*'. Budei wern, 1 1, 
Kloe, ini'^« Clawr pobi a* 
dyfgyl lydan, achicdyfgyl» a- 
ch wman, i, adal pob vn ohonunt. 
Fiol lyn, mi*. Kelwra a- 
menei, i, pob vn obonunr. Padell 
troedawc, lui^. Nidikn, uiv^. 
Uodfied, fyrdUng. Tumen fynt 
lig. Hwygo fyrdlig. Gogfyr 
A Ridilly k«yiiyawG pob vn 
ohonaQC. Keubal, x xiiii.Rwyd 
fihc^id, X V i^ R wyd benll W3^ 
ydd, viii. Ballocrwyd, luu 
CoFwCy VIII. Pwybynnac adot'i' 
to rwyd ymewn aiion» ardir 
anill heb ganlii^ trayan ypjfg- 
awd ageif y rwyd afdeupai^ 
ypercbenauc ytir, ar afvoD' 

augur, 2J, 
a halfpenny! 
coulter, 4iL 
fword, IJ. 

A ©mWet %iigur, 
A flicer, ? 
A fickle, a A 
A ihare* 2d. A 
A pinceiB, Id. 
A mattock, 2d. A ipade. Id. 
A reaping hook. Id.. Shears, Id. 
A comb, Id. A polifhingftone, 
M halfpenny. A crow, 1^. A 
billhook. Id. A yev pool, id. 
A willow pail. Id. A white 
imall-hooped pail. Id. A fcanty 
willow pail. Id. A yew aog* 
gi9i 2d. A willow noggin, id. 
Akon. A ftave chum, 4d. An 
alder chum, 2d. A lock, 4^. A 
kneading' boaid, and a hmd 
difli, and a meat 4iflir anda tvay, 
4me penny it the value of each 
of 4hein. A drinking cup, 4d. 
A tub, and a trough. Id. eack 
of them« A pan with feet, 4^ 
A winnowing iheet, 4d. Ala« 
die, a farthing. A turning hdi» 
a ferthing. A cbiflel, a fitr- 
thing. A fieve, and a riddle, | 
penny each of them. A cobble, 
aUn A falmon net, 16^. A 
Aet for the gray-hoads, id. A 
wear net, id. A conacle, 8d. 
Whoever il^all pur a net in t 
river upon the land of anochcr 
peifon, without his leave, Ae 
diitd of the fifh fliall the n«t 
have; and the two pails Aalll^ 
for Ae-owner of the land aal 
die river. 

Eneb atowho aradyr ar tir dyti ^ Whoever breaks a pSoagh o^ 
all, taled kla^ aradyr oewyd, anodier perron's land, let tirn 

ac give 


* I 


tc araduy naw diwyrnawd. 
GiBieitli aradjt vtmfdf' ii« 
Owwth aradwy <rxfl» dyd ii« 
Jylal hyh jd^ yBoigbeir dyugdl. 
Udc yr am^fldi yngyntaf, 9ag^ 
•wt^f hymgri 'Hoc jiwdi^ ac 
gveiljriiyiiny.Iloc y«vlityr. Ac 
toiymaJioo jwtjtk goreu,ac odyoa 
Doc ycathreq^fiac gvMdj'iiyiuiy 
yt ychen oorev yorev raghdunt. 


)• • . I 

. I . 

. ^ >girf%l idigvy4 yivpen 
.yWff^t. .^ fiidiyr y»ri kffi. 

:IKiid« ' iNy 4igwy4aiit byth kyd 
jrfgtyyiUaE. iwd vft dyd ^Wwjs 
jjy«f yfj4 y pur >a« Uyfrweu 

7«)yyftkrf ' Jtm^m cglwye nyh 

dylyir ev gwyiUaw« 9c)xj/A 
gwyftlcr ny diwygant. 

1 1 

» I 

: Kyft^tfa;hcnffic yn^r. ydyiiod 
jnal vjmddor. ( Y hd) arodo 
J>QiL$e kypMrod .tyfty4)n nor 
«<«ryftyl ar iy boaffic, tac myndd 

yny' oii»yp«; r Odeir yny crbyn 

talher yn deudyblyc. 

give a new plough^ and nine 
days plati|^)i«g^ iajiJDepiiratfon. 
Thfi valttQ of ^ fieir pioi^ 84^* 
the value of.tgvM days plough- 
aagi 2d. lo.Am way ih«JB cbe 
vagMcomei tiMi hufcandinaaii 

wages ^rft ; and after 4u^ ftflfi 
hire of the plonghfliare; and 
after that, the hire for the coul- 
ter ; and then the hire of the 
bfftiiMuaa} and ^en thr llit>^ of 
j^diiverf and tt^^n of the ox^^ 
fhxn \xi^ to Imf^ ifgulfuly 
thro^g^'Che wi^4f^ 

. Every cofVimqa pledge ibsP 
beooo^e . fQi:^i(^ ^t tbe end ^f 
jl)9 ninfh.^,; e^fpapti^g th^fc 
three, a'couljfr, a If^tde^ a^ ^ 
felling hatchet/ which never 
fally^ though they ihould be 
pledged. There is the term of 
a year and a day for gold^ and 
books, and corflets, and veflels 
gilt with gold, when they are 
^pied^ed. Chucclb arim ought 
,h9t to be pledged; and flVOBid 
Aey be pledged^ they fli^l hq^ 
ibe tedeemed. 


fhc la.w of borrowing is^ 
that it be returned in the finite it 
was given. He that grants a 
loan, let him take witnefles, or 
a pledge upon the loan, left 
there fhould be proceeding a- 
^i]i(t iiioi 3 &(>u)d ifiere be 
|)rocecding agaioil him, let 
dicM be paid doiible. 

L :• 





Enep adakko da ydyn andl, 
'kyfiorrith yw dwyn gawad yda 
hwnnw onydiwad* Ac ogodi- 
wedir ariiaw annudon ay da, 
talhed tiibuhfai camlwrw yr 

Cleis adricko trinawuedyd, 
vndiwyn ac vn diwad vyd agw- 
aed. 0» ar diwad ybyd. Rodded 
llw arydrydyd owyr vn vreint 
ac ef. Ynnawuedid kyntaf. Os 
devnaw ytric, Rodet Iw ar 
ybcdwcryd owyr vn vreint ac 
cf. Os ytrinawuctyd ytric ylw 
ar ybymhed adyry. 

Un annivel aa a iiii. keio* 
jzv^ hyd ympunt yn vn dyd^ 
gellgiy OS pieuvyd tacawc ybore, 
III I. keinyawc atal* Ac orodir 
yvreyr hanher pvnt atal, os 
brenhin bieuvyd kyn nos pvnt 

Up dyn adieing oledrad kyn<- 
adef kic achroen, anghanawc 
diadlam ac alltud, ayo teimos 
adiridiwymawd bebweftva aheb 


Whoever fhall take away 
.another perfonVcattte, the law 
.is, to lay hold on fiich cattle^ 
except he denies ; and if there 
Ihouki be found upon him per- 
jury, orthecatde, let him pay 
.three kine of commotatioQ for 
wrong, to the king* 

« ft 

A bmife that jfhall continue 
thrice the ninth day, the iame 
fatisfa^on, and the fame denial 
fhall be as for blood. If it fhall 
be upon a plea of denial, let the 
party give hitf tripple ^oatfi by 
men of the fame rank as him- 
felf, in the firft nbth day. 
Should it continue twice the 
ninth, let him give an oadi by 
four men of his own rank. 
Should it continue thrice the 
ninth day, an oath by five fhall 
he give* 

There is one animal, whidi 
may advance from four-pence 
to a pound in the fame day : a 
buckhound, (hould he be owned 


by a boor, in the morning, his 
value is four-pence ; and fliould 
he be given to a baron, his 
value is half 6f a pound ; if a 
king fhould ovm him before 
nighty his value is a pound. 

There is one man, whofhall 
efcape from a convi<3ed theft of 
fle(handikin: aneceffitousone 
without the right of returning 




gardawd, achrwydraw ohonaw 
trir tref anawtei ymhob tref, 
EC yna yrwng newyn gwneuthor 
Iledrad ohonaw, Ryd vyd ogyf* 

and exiled, who fhall be three 
nights and three days without 
lodging and widioutalms, after 
having pafied three townihips, 
and nine houfes in each town- 
(hip ; and then, impelled by 
hanger, if he commits theft^ he 
fhall be free from the law. 

Un dyn ny byd marwty yty 
kyd hoed marw heb gymva 
yngnad Uys. 

One perfon, whofe houfe 
(hall not be an' efchear, though 
he ihould die without the &- 
cranient: A judge of die pa- 

* Ocrgwymp galanas yw, ollad 
gwr arall athalv yr alanas or 
genedyl, eithyr ranny llourvd 
ae lad yntev ogenedyl arall heb 
dylyV dinl idaw, yran ef adyly 
ygenedyl ydalv. Ar gyfureith 
honno aelwir yn oergwymp 
galanas, Rac trymhed coUi ygwr 
athaltt ran or alanas. 

Ynep adalho galanas obyd ei 
genedyl oil yn vn wlad ac of, 
kwbyl dalu a dyly erbyn 
penypytheunos or alanas obyd 
eigenodyl yntev ynwafgarauc 
ygwladoed ereill llawer oed 
pythefnos ygkyfueir pob gwlad 

Tlie fevcre inftance of fatis- 
&6lion for murder is, when a 
man kills another, and the kin- 
dred pays the coinpenfation, ex- 
cept the (hare of the murderer, 
and he is killed by another fe* 
fflily, owing him nothing; his 
jfhare his kindred ought to pay: 
And, that law is called the fe* 
vere inftance of fatisfa<%on for 
murder, on account of the hard- 
{hip of lofmg the perfon, and 
of paying a part of the coin- 

He who makes fatisfadlion 
for murder, if his kindred be in 
the fame country with himfelf, 
he muft pay the whole compen- 
fation before the end of a fort- 
night : If his kindred fhould be 
fcattered in feveral other coun* 
tries, the term of a fortnight 
fhall be had for every country. 





MaHiyn yteUr gwafgar aknas. 
-.PvAt.yw ran brawd* Cbwcii- 
pint yw ran keuyndcnv. Tri- 
wguat yr kyfvyrda-w« Doc 
arhvgei]ttywniani*iyeint meH- 
ion kyiiyrderw* Pymthccyrtr 
ran gorchyfniekit. Scith adimei 
yw ran kifhieinhon. Nyd ocs 
priawd ran na phriawd tm^ ar 
Ach pellach ao hynny* 

Ran tad o alanas. y vab kein* 
yawc. vn kyfreith yw yny 
kyinerer kerenhyd, ac yny di* 
wtlter. rac kolli kerenoyd ktin* 
yanc baladyr atdir. Nychal 
ntp ogenedyl ygylyd ferhaed 
gyd adyn tra vo da ar yhelw ef« 
Odific hagen yda ef yawti yw 
tasnv gwerth yfarhaed ar yt»ir 
aoh nefaf idaw. 

Am Kaw afTcith galanas^i 
anaw aiFeitli lledrad, anaw 


In Am noanner flifjl a dividij 
qompcnfation for murder to 
paid ; a pound i^ ihe (kair erf* a 
brother ; fix fcore pence is dif 
ihare of a coufin ; three fcore 
pence is the ihare of a fecood 
coufin; thirty-pence IS the ihare 
of nephews fons of fecond cou- 
fiiwr fiftee»-0ente is the ihare 
of thofe o£ the fifdi .degree of 
affinity; feren-pence half-penny 
is the ihare of thofe of the fixth 
degree : There is neither an ap- 
propriate iliare, nor an appro- 
|>ria(e name for rekitionihip be«> 
yond that. 

A father's ihare of the oiur* 
der compenfation of his fon is a 
penny* The fame law has re* 
{ptA to the claiming of kiiH 
4red> as to the denial of it. For 
guarding agaiaft loiing kiadredy 
a ilock penny ihall be paid« 
No other one of a family Ihall 
join, to pay a fine for infuk, 
with a perfon, whilft he has 
any goods in his poileilion ; yet, 
on account of the infuiBciency 
6f ^his goods, it is right to di- 
vide the auioiuit of in&ih fine 
to be letied «poo the thre< 
degrees of kin neareft to hitn* 

Concerning the nine abet* 
meats of murder, and che nine 


# It it a carious circumAance, that this term is adopted into the Scoto*Saxon lavi, 
and in the fame feofe as it is afed here* See the word Gaints^ in the Scotilh lav 



afleith tan. Kyntaf yw naw 
afieith galanaa. Yn ohonunfc 
yw tafuawdnidyaeth dangot 
ynep alader. Eil y w kydfynn- 
yaw. Trydyd yw rodt kyngbor. 
Pcdweiyd yw difgwyl. > Fjat^ 
hed yw canhymdeith. Chwe« 
obed yw kyrdiv y tref am . ben 
ydyn akdIikL Seidwed yW 
yardwyaw. Wythved yw bod 
ynbortbordwy daly ydyn fra 
kdier. Nfiwued yw gwded 
)4ad gany odsf. 

Drosbob vs or tri kyntaf ytdir 
nawrgeia, allw canhwr y^wad 
gwaed. Dios bop vn or rei ereiM 
ytelir di^vnawvgein allw oanwr 
ydiwadgwafld. Drds bopvn ot 
tri diwaediaif ytdir crinawvgeiii 
Mttm ouinwr ydlwad gwaed 

Enep adtwatt<» coed amaes, 
Jtodttt llw dimgwyr adeugeiA 
heb gaeth heb dltad adiri oho»- 
unt yndiofredawc ovarchogaeth 
dlitfia agwrsic. 


abetments to theft, and the nine 
abetments to arfon. The firft 
are, the nine abetments to raur-^ 
der ; one of them is a reddening 
of the tongue, or die &ewing 
the one who is to be killed ; tht 
fecond is a confendng; the third 
is the giving advice ; die fonrtk 
is the being on die look ont; 
the fifth is a bearing company^ 
the fixth is the repairing to the 
place where die perfon is, who 
(hall be killed; the feventh is 
the drawing him into the way ; 
the eighdi is being aiding vio- 
lence, or holding the perfoa 
^ilft he is flain ; the nkith is 
the feeing him killed, and ftt^ 
ferang it to be dofte. 

For each of die three firft {hall 
be paid Aineicoi^(p0nce),and (he 
oath of a bnndred men^ todifowtl 
Uood; for each of the dditej: 
<three) fliall be paid twiee nit^ 
ibore> tand the oadi of a hnn^ 
dred men, to difown bkKHi ; fyc 
every one of the three laft fliall 
be paid thrice nine fcore, and 
the oath of an hundred men, to 
deny blood. 

He that fhall deny wood an4 
field*, let him give the oath 
of fifty men, without a Have, 
without an exile, and three of 
them under a vpw of abftain^ 

Z 2 iw 

f Or that fliail ^loveM alibi. 



ing from riding on horfc* 
back, from linen, and from 


Ynep aathevo Uofrudyaeth 
talhed oU yr alanas* Traean yr 
alanas adaw ar y llofrud, ar 
deupardi arenhir y ntri thrayan. 
Dwy ran atal kenedyl ytad, ar 
.tiyded ar genedyl yvam. 

Naw dffeith tan.kyfttaf yw 
Jkyghori myned y lofgi. Kil 
ywduhunawamyllofc. Tryded 
yw myned ylofgi. Pcdwerj'd 
yw dydwyn yrwyll. Pymhed 
yw Had ytan. Chwechwed yw 
ydiluiw. Scithved yw ych^Tthv 
•ytan ynyenynho. Wythucd 
-yw 'Cnnynhv ypcth alofger. 
j^^awued yw cdrych ar yUofc 
gan odefi 

Enep adiwatto vn ohonunt 
.irodef Iw degwyr adeogeint hcb 
•gaeth heb allduu 

O Jiaw affeith. lledrad kyntaf 
yw. Syllu twyll. acheis ked- 
ymdeidi. Eilyw dvhunaw amy 
llcdrad. Trydyd yw roddi bwyd 


. Whoever fhall acknowledge 
a murder, let him pay the whole 
of the fa(isfa£tion for blood. 
The third of the fatisfadion 
ihall come upon the murderer; 
and the two parts (hall be di- 
vided into dixte thirds 4 two 
ihares iltall be paid by the 
family of the father, and the 
third by the family of the mo- 

The nine abetments of arfon: 
the firft is, the advifing to go to 
bum; the fecond is, agreeing 
for the burning; the third is, 
the going to bum ; the fourth 
is, the bringing of combuftible; 
the fifdi is, ftriking the fire; 
thefixth is, putting the match 
to it ; the feventh is, the blow- 
ing the 6i'e until it kindles ; the 
eighth iSf the kindlti^ what 
fhall be bumt ; the ninth h, the 
looking at the burning and dif- 
fering it. 

He that would deny any oae 
of. them, let him giVetheirfadi 
of fifty men, without a flave, 
.without an exile. 

, Of the nine abetments of 
theft : the firft is, the beholding 
of fraud, and endeavouring 
to join b company J the fecond 



Iwryf, Pedw«ryd y^ yipdwyp 
ybwyd yny gydymejjthas. PymT 
hcd y w rwygaw ybuarth ncy 
torri ty. Chwechcd yw can* 
hymdeitb ylledrad did nev nos. 
Wythvcd y\v kyfranv ylledrad 
;irlladrop. Nawued yw gwelc4 
ylledrad ay gclv yr gobyr, N?|i 
yjbrynv yr gwerth, 

Enep adiwatto vo or naw 
afieith hyn. Roded llw degwyr 
adcugeinwyr aheb gaeth ahcb 

is, the agreeing refpeding the 
thefts the third is, the giving 
of refre(hments i the fourth is, 
the carrying the vi6hial8 in 
company; the fifth is, pulling 
dowi> a^ enclofune, or breaking 
a houfe ; the (ixth is, the going 
with the theft by day or night ; 
the eighth is, the fharing of the 
theft with the tl)ieves -, the njlnth 
is, the feeing the theft ai)d con- 
cealing it for a Reward, or the 
buying of it for a price. 

Whoever would deny one of 
thefe nine abetments, let him 
give the oath of fifty men, and 
without a flave, and without a^ 

Nawnyn adygan ev tyflyol- 
.aeth ar ev gelr pob vn ar wahan. 
yVrglwyd rwg ydeuwr. Abad 
rwng ydcu vanach ar ydrws 
ygor. Tad yrwng ydeuvap. 
Srawdwr aty varn avamaflei 
gynt, obyd pedrus. Mach amy 
vechnieth. Effeiryad yrwng 
ydeuwr blwyf, Morwyn amy 
morwyndawd. Bugcil trefgord 
amy vugeilyaeth, ollad llwdyn 
yllall ynygadw. Lleidyr dio- 
Dejth ar ygydleidyr pan dyker 
yi" groc, kanys gwir y eir yna. 
' ' Eflcf 

Nine perfons, who fliall giv^ 
their teftimony upon their word, 
eachof them feparatcly*: a lord, 
between his twomen§; an abbot^ 
between his two monks, at th6 
door of his choir ; a father, be- 
tween his two fons; a judge, 
with refpedl to his fentence, 
which he migfit have formerly 
pafied, if it (hould be dubious ; 
a furety, with refpe<5l to his 
fufetyfhip; a clergyman, be- 
t\yeen two men of his parifhj ; 
a virgin, refpcding her virgil 

Z 3 nity; 

. ♦ |n p^bef copies, thcfp arc palled, I{aw (avqJiawg^ or, \he niiie tongued one*. 
$ Trmyna^iveyHgyvrnnawgf in cafe that he does not participate. Other M.S.S. 

t In othrr M.S.S. Rhoddiad er €J| rodd^ or a giver, with refpeA to bis gil^ 



nity; a fliepheixl of n cotnmoil 
townfliip, refpediBg his (hep- 
herd's calling, tvfaen one bead 
kills another, in his cuftody ; a 
thief without hope, as to his fel- 
low thief, when he is brought 
to the gallows; for then his 
word is true. 

Effef ymeinl Galanas. Macr 
nev kyghellawr naw mvw 
anawvgcint mvw gan dyrch- 
avael. Sarhaed pob vn onadunt, 
naw maw anawvgcint aryant. 
Pvnt yw abcdi w maer nev kyng- 
hellawr. Pvnt yw gobyr ev 
nierched. Teir pvnt y nev cowyll. 
Sexthpvnt yn eu hagwedi. Oda yn 
llathrud merch maer nev gyng- 
hellawr nev penkenedyl. nev 
vn or arbenigyon Uys heb rod 
keneJyl, naw eidyon kyhyd eu 
corn ac eu hyfgyuam, yw eu 
hegwedi. Ny byd penkenedyl 
na maer na chynghellawr byth. 

Galanas penkenedyl yw. Tri 
naw mvw athri naw vgein 
;nuw Gan dri dyrchavael. Eny 
farhaed ytelir, Tri naw muw 
athri nawugcint aryant. Gal- 
artas vn oalodev ypenkenyl, nyd 
amgen noe gar, Nawmvw 
anawvgeiamuw gan dri dyr- 


This is the amodnt of the 
murder f^tisfa<Sion of a mayor, 
or chancellor, nine fcore and 
nine kine, with advancement. 
The infult fine for each of them 
is, nine kIne, and nine fcore of 
money. A pound is the heriot 
of a mayor, or a chancellor. 
A pound is the maiden fee of 
their daughters; three pounds 
in their fettlement ; feven pounds 
in their portion. If the daughter 
of a mayor, or a chancellor, or 
the chief of a family, or one of 
the fuperiors of the court, (hould 
be debauched, without the con- 
fent of the family, nine oxen» 
with their horns and ears of 
equal length, jOball be h^ por- 
tion. Nor mayor, nor chancel- 
lor, ihall ever be a cliief of a 

The murder fatlsfadion o( t 
chief of a family is, thiice nine 
and thrice nine fcore kine, with 
three advancements. For his 
infult fine fhall be paid, thrice 
nine cows and thrice nine fcoie 
of money. The murder fiuis- 
fa(5lion of one of the members 

* of 



cbauael. Yny f^rhaed ykeiff, 
^awjni|w aBfiwugeuat ary^n^. 
j^rhaed breyr 4i^wy d, ch'^ebu^ 
iichweygfuit 9<yaat. Yn ei 
jUaaas yt^lir cbwebf w achwd<- 
iU^nq^uw ^n dri dyrchavad. 
jGa}ati90 bonhedic IfLanhwyiiawl 
|0ir bi}w atbri vgeinmvw gan 
^ dy^r^i)9el. £07 (aijbea^ 
yielir teir bpw athrugein ^ryaya. 

. Kymro va«n dad ^y^ ))pnhedi€ 
i:9idiwyi^wl heb ledach yudaw. 
/Os gwr l)reyr wyd bonbedic 
jcaobivypai^l pan lader, chi^e- 
t>uw ageitf y breyr ygan yllofrudf 

of a chief pf a family, that i% 
bis near of kio^ is, nine and 
nine icore kine^ with thi^ee adr 
vancements. For his infult finp 
he ihall have aiae cow^ anil 
nine fcore of money. The inr 
fult fine of 'a btron not holding 
^n office isy G^ kia^ and Gf 
fcore qf money. For his mur- 
der fatisfaf^ion (hall be paid fix 
and fix fcore kine, 'with three 
advancements. The murder 
fatisfa£lion of a free native gen- 
tleman isy three and three fcore 
kine, with three advancement^, 
^or his infult fine {hall be paid 
threc-fcore ki^e, and thrce-fcorf 
of money. 

A Welflinjan by father and 
mother, having no debafed 
blood in him, is a free na« 
tive gentleman t If a free 
native gentleman fhall bp 4 
baron's attendant v^hen he is 
killed, the baron Aiall have- fix 
kine from the murderer. 

Obop^apas ydaw yr brenhiijt 
^ny^n, iranys .ef biev kyineH 
yll^ ny aiyb kepedyl kyoiellr 
^c agaffo or pryd y gilyd yr 
Jk^rud ar yor ybr^ohU bi^. 

Galanas taeyawc brenhiUf 
Teir buw athrugein muw gan 
dri dyrchauacl atelir. Yny far- 


Out of every murder fatisfeflioii 
a third fhall come to the king » 
for to him belongs to profepnte^ 
where a family is not able to 
profecute : And, wh^t flud) be 
gotten, from time to time, by 
Uie n^urderer, upon the l8in4» 
^e kii^g ihaU.£jajin it. 

The murder fatisfadllon of 
^ Mng's villain is, three and 
three fcore kinej with three ad- 

Z 4 vancement$ 



haed ytcfir teir buw athrugcint 
oaryant. Galanas alldot bren* 
liin teirbuw athriageinmuw heb 
dyrchauael. Galanas alltud 
Weyr, hancrawc vyd yalltud 
ybrenhin obop pcth. Galanas 
alldut tayawc hanherawc vyd 
yalltud breyr ac obop pcth. 

Punt ahannerateliryngalanas 
caeth telediw. Obyd anauvs 
nev ry hen neu ry ycuvanc, neu 
ohenvyd ortu draw yvor, pvnt 
atalant pob vn ohonunt. Ohen- 
vyd or tuhwn pvnt adal canys 
cf yhvnan alygrws yvreint 
myncd yngaeth oe vod yngyf- 

Othcrev dyn ryd dyn caeth, 
taled, deudeckeinyawc idaw, 
chwech dros teir kyvelin oure- 
thyn gwyn talpentan wrth 
lad eithin idaw, Nyd amgen 
iio defnyd peis idaw. Teir drot 
lawdyr, vn dros gvaranev adirt** 
wolew, vn dros gwdyf nev 
vwall OS coedwr vyd vn dros raff 
dcudcc kyuelinyawc. 

* Othcrcu 

vancements (hall it be pakt 
For his infult fine (hull be paid 
diree kine, and three fcore of 
money. Tlie murder fatisfac* 
don of a king's alien is, three 
and three fcore kine, without 
advancement. Hie aiurderfa- 
tis&dion of a baron's alien: he 
ihall be half, with refped to 
the king's alien, in every thing. 
The murder fatisfadion of a 
villain's alien: he ihall be 
half, with refped to a baion's 
alien, in every thing. 

A pound and a half (hall be paid 
in the murder iatisfaftion of a 
compleat bodied Have. If he 
(hall be maimed, or too old,or too 
young, or if he comes from be- 
yond (ea, a pound is the value for 
each of them ; if he comes from 
this (ide, a pound is his value, 
fDr it is himfelf who has debafed 
his right, in going into bondage, 
by being a hireling. 

If a free man (hall (Irike a 
man that is a flave, he (hall paj 
him twclve*pence ; fix for three 
cubits of cloth of the fire-place 
wliitc* for him in cutting fur^t 
that is, to, make l^m a coat; 
three for breeches; one for 
buikins and gloves ; one for a 
bill or hatchet, if he is a wood- 
man; one for a rope twelve 
cubits lone. 

^ If 

* Thii iioplicf^ of the natural cclovr of the vooU 



OAereu cacth dyn ryd pwn 
yw trychv ylaw dehev. Ncu 
talcd yar glwyd faihaed ydyfl 
hcrwyd yurcint. 

"Ynep agyttyo agwrcic caeth 
hcb ganhyad yharglwyd talhed 
deudec keinyawc idaw. Ac 
nachydyed odyna ahi byth. 
Ac OS beichyocca rodet arall yny 
Ilcy hyd pan angho. Ac yna 
ma^ed ef ymab. Ac yna doed 
ycaeth dracheuyn. Obyd maryir 
yar mab tafed yncb ae beichyoc- 
co ywcrth kyureithyawl yr 

If a flave fhall flrike a free 
man, it is juft to cut off his rig^t 
hand ; of his lord muft pay the 
infult fine of the perfon, ac- 
cording to his mnk. • 

Whoever fh^U have connect 
tion with a bond-womaQ, with^^ 
out the confentof herlord, aiuft 
pay him twelve-pence; and let 
him never after be connede^ 
with her. If (he /hbtild be* 
come pregnant, (ei him give an- 
other in her place, until fhc is 
delivered; and then let him 
bring up the child ; and after 
that let the flave return back. 
if ihe ihould die with child, let 
him who makes her pregnant 
pay her lawful value to the 

Encp awncl kynllwyn, taled 
yn deudyblyc galanas, deuden- 
gmvw yn deudyblyc atelir yr 
brenhin* Ac odyna yr alanas. 

Enep adiwattakynllwyn. nea 
mudwrn, neu gyrcli kyhoedawc, 
rodet Uw dengwyr adeugein heb 
caeth lieb alltud, 

Ny ellir kyrcb ^yhoedawc 
Uci no nawyr. 

Llys bieu tcruynv am din Ac 
gwedy Uys Uan.. Ac gwedy 


Whoever makes an ambufti, 
let him pay doubly the murder 
fatisfadlion : twelve kine fhatl be 
doubly paid to the king; and after- 
wards the murder fatisfa£tion. 

Whoever fhall deny an am- 
bufh, or a private murder, or 
a public affault, let him give 
the oadi of fifty men, ymtHiut 
a flave,. without an ex^e. 

A public aiTault cannot be by 
lefs tlian nine men, 


To the court belongs to de- 
termine about land; and after 






Ilan breint. Kygwarchadw ar 

Othyf kyiibfs> rwfif dwy 
ciref Yn vreintam tervyn. Gwyr 
d» ybfenhia biev ceri^yov bwomw 
cngirybydnQt^ Obyd |3ejbrMs ba^ 
gea, dyledogyon ytir bkovyiK 
tynghv ohawb ytemyia, A^ 
ip^na ran^Dt yn 4Quba]pi^|- 
ynvng ydwy trq& Kyjcr^yw 
tittf ar yllaU, fiy dyly duryn mi« 

Hanner pvntAtbw yrbiwbia 
fan tenjyner tir, apheiieivaxbvf 

ipat yr ivawd vr. 

Uys bie V tcruynv obkid ybren- 
bin ariiawb. Ac oytberoyna 

Ban dyooo kyfireith dr ynepf* 
baner pmtSLgtiffykaomhjn dbcb 
randir pan yhyftynno. 

Enep abplo yp 9a>^veUi(i rafvyr 
\azwi ageiff ohoaaw ikyo naw* 


the court the church ; and after 
the cb^i privilege. Th^ is^n- 
iiervancy of wafte laod* ;si houTe^ 
»od 9' kiln» and a banu 

Should a difpute arife between 
two townOiips of equal privi- 
)cge» idpcfUog a boiindary^ to 
d)o good men of the king be- 
longs Xlie deterniiaioj; of lbat| 
if th^y know it ; if, otherwiie, it 
iball be dubioys ; the land pro- 
prietor fhall have to fwear eacb 
to his boundary;- aod tlien let 
Itbein divide into two e<|ual po^- 
tion$ betweea ifho two towo- 

■ ' - • * 

When a townihip terminates 
upon another, it ought not to 
take a ibare land from it. 

Half of a pound (ball come to 
the Jcifi^ when the boModbrf of 
land {ball be siade put* ^ 
tweoty^four^Ace tp tbe j»ig^ 
Tq the <jourt beloAgs tpdeterr 
mine on the part of the king 
againft every body ; and no one 
Aall ^tmnioe vgw ^ ^uit 

When the la^ f|ffig?is M ^9 
any one, the king fliall have 
half of a pound out of every 
ihave^lan^ when he ihaif i^' 
tend it, 

' He'tbM ffefer« 9. claim on 
d)€ ninth day of {}ecembt^'# 




tiettid mei. Ac onyclieifF yna 
vrawd holed yn nawuettyd mei. 
Ac odyna cgored vyd gwir idaw 
beuDyd ban vynho ybrenhio. 

Tri dadanbvd tir yfyd. Carr, 
abeich, ac eredlc. Ac os dad- 
anbvd carr auernir idaw. Pymb 
nicu aphymb nos. Gorfowys 
ageiff yn didawl. Os dadanbvd 
beich aucmir idaw tri dicv athcir- 
nos. Gorfowys ageiff yn di- 
dawL Os dadanhud eredic 
auernir idaw. Gorfowys ageiff 
yndihawl ynymchwclho ygeuyn 
arydas. Ny dyly dyn dadanbvd 
namyn or tir avo yn llaw ydat 
yn vy w ag yn vary^. 

(hall have judgement upon it 
before the ninth day of May; 
and fhonld he dien not have 


judgement, let him profccnte on 
the ninth day of May; and 
thereafter the law is open to 
him daily at the pleafure of the 

The tliree recoveries of land : 
a drag, and a hurden, and 
ploughing. If a recovery by 
adragfhall be adjudged to the 
peribn, -Ecvt days and five nightl 
he muft have of reft without 
interruption ; if a recovery by a 
burden fhall be adjudged to him, 
&ree days and thxtt m'ghts he 
!fliaU have of reft without in* 
terruption; if a recovery by 
ploughing fhall be adjudged to 
him, he fhall reft without iq- 
terruption, until he turns hii 
back upon the rick. A perfon 
ought not to have a recovery 
but of the land that (hall be in 
the hand of his father sdive and 

Maer . achynghellawr biev 
cadw dififcith brenhin yny wnd 
'ef yuod ohonaw. 

A mayor and a chancellor 
have the keeping of the king's 
wafte, until he fhall do his plea- 
fure with It. 

Ogwneir eglwys ar tir ytae- 
ogey gan ganyadybrenhin ae bod 
yu ornaQ, aq efferennev yndj, 
ryd vyd ytref honno. 


If a church fhall be built upr 
on the land of the villains,^ with 
the king's peiTniiTion, and it 
Ihall be a cemetery, and there 
be maffes in it> that townlhip 
fhall be frpe. 




Okymer taeawc mab breyr ar 
vaeth gan ganbyad arglwyd, 
kyurannawc uyd ymab hwnnw 
^r dreftad ytacawc val vn oc 
yeibion ehpiun. 

Teirgweith yrcnnir geflcfin 
rwg brodoryon. Odyna rwg 
Jceuyndyrw, artrydedweithyrwg 
kyfurderw, Qwcdy hynny ny 
byd ran ar dir,. Ban ranho bro- 
dyr trefev tadyrygchimt, ybrawd 
ieuafbicv yr cflydy^ arbennic, 
ar trcfncv oil, ar gallawr, ar 
ywyall gynnvd, ar cwlldyn Gan 
gyfureicb ny cill tad kymynv 
yrei byn» nae rodi yncb, painya 
yr mph yeuaf. Achyd gwyftlcr 
py digwydant bytli, Gwedy 
hynny kyipercd bob brawd 
phynaf ygilydybrayvd ieuaf aran^ 

Qgomed dyn teirgweith gwy$ 
obleid ybrenliin am dlr, onyd 
mawr yanghcn ae Hvd, ytir 
arodir yr neb ae holho. Odaw 
wrth yr cilgwys, n^u wrth ytry- 
3ed gwys gwrthcbcd obyd yawn 
Jdaw amy tir. Athalcd tri buhin 
camlwry yr brenhm am gomed 


If a villain fliall take the foa 
of a baron to be foftcred, with 
the jord's confent, that child 
(hall be a patticipator in the in- ' 
heritance of the villain, like one 
of his own children* 

Three times iliall a general 
divi/lon be mad^ : between bro- 
thers, afterwards bctwpen cou- 
fins, and the third time, between 
fecond coufins. After that there 
ihall be no diviflon of land. 
When brothers (hall divide their 
father's property amongft them, 
the youngeft fon fliall have the 
choice tenement, with all the 
appurtenances, and the kettle, 
and the felling hatchet, and the 
coulter. In law, a father can- 
not bequeath thefe, nor give 
them to any one, but to the 
youngeft fon ; and though Aey 
fliould be pawned, theyfliall pcver 
become forfeited, After that, 
let every brother take by fenjo- 
rity: The yoiingeft brodier 
^xall divide* 

If a perfon {hall three times 
difobey a fummons, on the part 
of the king, with refpeft* to 
land, except great neccflity pre- 
vents him, the . land fhalU ^ 
given to him that claims it. ]^ 
he comes at the fecond fu^" 
mons; or at the third, let hitn 
reply, if he has a right fo to do 
fefpeding the land: And, kt 

' ANCltil^LAW&" • 



' Encj> arodo gobyr yr btertliltTj 
pan cftytiher tff ida:w^, nythal 
dim yn ebediw. 

Pwy bynnac agynhalyo tir teJr 
oes y vn wladadyledogyon tir,heb 
Vn odri arllud tir ganthunt amy tir, 
hawl yn dadku, nev dor aradyrj 
neb lofgi ty ar y tir. Ny wrth- 
cbir udunt amy tir hwnnw gan 
cacvis kyfreith yryngliunt. 

him pay three kine^ to the king^ 
z% a fatisfa^ofi for Vfttxig^ ' in 
Aifobeyiog fumm^hs^ *' 

Whoever gWds t rcr^ard tx> 
the king, when land is extended 
to hkn, (hiill pay lidthing as a 
hcriot. • 

Whofoevet (hall maintain 
poflTeflion of land for three 
ages in th^ fame' couijfiy, fend 
the land proprietors wrthoiil 
nfing any one of Ae thterf 
means of difttn-bing poflefli^; 
refpeSing the land; the ppofis^ 
cution in pleadings, or the 

« ■ ■ * * 

breaking of s(' plough, or the 
burning of a. hoiife uponf the 
land; no replication fhall be 
made to them for that land, for 
the law has clofed between 

Ocheis dyn ran odir gan genedy 1 
|;we^y hir alltudeil. Roddet 
chwevgeint yr genedyl. Nyd 
amgen no gobyr gwarchadw. 
Ochanhadan ran idaw. Y tJr 
arodo brenhin gan yawn. Nys 
att^c ynep ae gwlcdycho gwedy 
if. • ' 

Ny daw na maer nachyng- 
hellawr na rah na dofiireth, ar 

If a perfon (hall feek for 
a (har^ of land from his kin- 
dred, after a long exile, let him 
give iix-fcorc-pence to the fa- 
mily ; that is to fay, as a reward 
of guardianfliip, if they fhall 
permit him to have a fhare. 

There fhall not come to a 
mayor, or a chancellor, nor 
rate, nor right of entertain- 
ment* from a freeifnan. 



* An oUigafioti to give entertainment, tolodgej or to proTlde qoartera. 



. Va wwh ynjr vtwjr4yii yg* 

weda ybawp onyoe^ yngor^M 
ynlluyd gan ybrenhia os myn. 
Ac yfBA ydyly .yvrcnbuics riein- 
glych» £f hag^a adyly cafia/el 
Suyd yg^n .ygwyr^pao ymynoo 
ynywlad ehunaiu 

Ykynydyon ar hebogydyoa 
U gwa(lTodyon> agafFant kylch 
VDWeith bob .blwydyo, ardae* 
oge? ybircnhuty pab rei ar wa-* 

Naw tei adyly ybreolun y<« 
wneiitbur ortaqogfuU^w. Neu^ 
ady ac yilavell. acbegio, capeli 
ac yfgubawr, ac odyndy. Peir-r 
im, ae yft^byl* achiaordi. 

Ygan ytaeogev y4aw pyn<- 
tt^irch ybrenhia yu lluyd. Ac 
obop ta9au£trev yd geiff gwr 
aiQarchy abwyatt ywaemhiur 
{luefteu ybrtnhin* Ac ar t)^ 
ybrenhia ygwaeir. 

Tri phedi tiywenb taeawc 
bd> g^oliyad yarglwyd. Marchy 
aixioch, amttL Ofgwrtbyd yr 


Once in the year it behooTei 
eiKery body to go out of die 
country, in tlie army widi the 
king» if be cominanda it : and, 
then the queeD has a right to 
tlie female circuit^. He bai 
alfo a right to have his men 
aflembled in arms when he likes^ 
in his own coontrjr* 

The huntimeni; and the &1< 
coners, and the, grooms, ibalt 
have a circuit, once in the year, 
upon the king's villains, e^cb 
clafs feparately. 

Nine houfes the king claims 
to have built for him, by the 
villains : a hall, and a chiunber, 
and a kitchen, a chapel, and a 
bam, and a kilnhoufe, a necef- 
fary, and a ftable, and adog- 

The villains fliall fiimi& the 
king's baggage horfes for the 
army ; and out of every y' Mxi r 
baintet be ihall have a man aod 
borfe, and a hatchet lo mukc tb^ 
king's camps; and at the ea&> 
pence of the king ihall that be 

Three tbii^, iii4ikh a viUM 
ifhall not fell, without the p^*- 
miflion of his lord: a 6orfe, 

f Tbf drcoit of iht Udxt ^ ^c oirpnU of the s^«c«^ 


•rglwyd. Gwcrthcd yr ncp 
ymyidu». • ' 

Teir kcluydyt ny dyfc tacawcJ 
tvap heb ganhyad yargfwyd., 
Yicolheidlod, abardoni, agou^ 
^anaeth« Oftiodcf arglwyd ha- 
gcn yny .rod«r corun yr yfcoU 
heic. Neu yny cl yn got yny 
efueil. Ar bard yny cnillo 
gadeir. Ryd uyd pob vn ohon- 

and fwine, and honey« If the 
)ord (hould ref ufe bo have l^qai» 
let Idov fell (o whom he likcv . 

Three feicuccs^ Which ^ ylt 
Iain {hall aot Hach to iiis lbn|^ 
^thout the confent of hh lor3: 
{cholarihipy and bardirm^ . an4 
foauhcrafL*. Should the lord^ 
ptherwiley permit it» until a 
tonfuie ihall be given to the 
fcholar; Qr„ until the fmith 
ihall enter his fmithery; or^ 
until the baijd Ihall gain a chair, 
each of them fhall then be free* 

If a man fhall kill a bifhop, 
or aa* abbot,' upon the king's 
laa4 .their £&e ihall come to 
the king. 

. The perfcm that ihall plougl^ 
land, againd the confent of the 
lord, let him pay four-pence to 
the proprietor of the land ; for 
be has opened the earth with 
violence ; ajsd four-pence wfaea 
be takes the plough out of the 
earth; and a penny for every 
furrow, Avbich^ fhall be tume4 
up by the plough ; let the king 
take the oxen, and the fhare, 
and the coulter, and the plough, 
and the value of the right foot 
of the ploughman; and the 
, value of the right hand of the 


: The term had a more comprehenfiye fenA 
thux vc fire ta it at thu timeifL and the artfii muft have united in his own mind dif* 
ferent branches of knowledge, which are now pradifed fepantd/ j fuch a« the raifing 
tf tKe ore, and con verting H into metal. 

Od ymlad gwr efgob nev 
abad ar tir ybrtahio, eu dhrwy 
iriavf yv breiihin* 

, Enap aasdo tir dros lud arg- 
layd. Taled pedeir keyimyawo 
yr percbcnoawe ytir« Cai^ys 
egores daear gan dreis. Aphedeir 
kcyayawc pan diouo yr aradyr 
^ daear* Acbcianyawc obop 
cwya cffiamckwelho yr aradyr. 
Kymerad ybrenhkiyr ychen, ar 
fwcbi ar cv^Udyr, ar aradyr, ar 
gwartb ytroedr dehor yr araaeth» 
agwaiA yUaw ^hav yr pilwad. 


♦ Thi« VM on* of tlie libttiri 


CAMifelAN^ fiEGISTER, 1796. 

* Od ard dyn dir djm arall 

yctidyaw dim yndaw, perchen- 
nawc ytir ageiff ygudua, aphe- 
deir IceynnyawC kyfureith ain- 
igori' ydaear. Onyd eurgrawn 
vyd. Kanys ybrenhin bieu pob 
eurgrawn. Yneb awnel ac ae 
dado ymewn tir dyn. taled iiii. 
keynnyawc kyfreith yberchcn- 
nawc ytir, athaled tri buhin 
camlwrw yr brcnhin. 

Ocledir pwU odyn ar dir dyn 
arall, heb ganhyad, iiii. key- 
nyawc kyfureith ataliryberchen- 
nawc ytir ygan ynep ac clatho, 
athri buhin camlwrw yr brcn- 

' Encbaadeilhotyhebganhpd 
ar dir dyn arall, talhedtri buhin 
camlwrw yr brenhin, ar ty 
ageiff perchennawc ytir, aphc- 
deir keynnyawc kyfureith o 
agori dacar. Os ar ytir yllctir 
yr adcilwyd. Onyd ar ytir 
ylledir, tj'^ghcd ary drydyd owyr 
vn ureint ac ef, athored yty yar 
ytir yn gyfuvch ar daear adyged 
kyn pen ynawvettyd ymeith. 
ac onyfdwc perchennawc ytir 


If a man fhall plough die 
land of another man, for the 
purpofe of hiding, any thing in 
it, the owner of the land (hall 
have the hoard ; and four-pence 
in law, for opening the earth ; 
except it fliall be a ^old hoard ; 
for the king is the own^r of 
every hoard of gold. He that 
fhall do fo, and bury it in a 
perfon*s land, let him pay four- 
pence in law to the owner of 
the land ; and let him pay three 
cows, as a trefpafi fine, to the 

. If a kiln pit fliall be dug 
upon another man's landf 
without leave, four-pence in 
law (hall be paid to the owner 
of the land, by the perfon who 
fhall dig it ; and three cows, as 
a trefpafs fine, to the king. 

• Whoever builds a houfe,with- 
out leave, upon another pcrfon's 
land, let him pay three cows, as 
a trefpafs fine to the king ; and 
the houfe fliall be taken by the 
owner of the land ; and four- 
pence in law, for opening the 
earth, if built upon the land 
where the materials were cut ; 
if not upon the land where cut, 
let him fwear by the oath of 
three men, of the fame, rank 
with himfelf, and let him break 
the houfe off the land, even 
with the ground, and let him 




Yneb aholho tir eglwyffic nyd 
erhy x>awuettyd, namwyn egori 
gwir idaw pan ygpfuynho. 

bear it away, before the ccfd of 
the math day; and if isie does not 
carry it away, tbe owner of th» 
land takes it* 

He that lays claim to church 
land, (hall not wait until the 
ninth day, but juftice ihall bo 
opened for him whea he ihatt 
demand it. 

Nycheiff nep obarth mam 
eiflydyn arbennic, Obyd aedyU 
yo oharth tad. Yawn yw 
hagea obarth mam kaffael ran 
o dir* 

Gwrcic aymrodo yhvnan ywr 
heb ganhyad ychenedyl ynllwyn 
ac ymberth. NycheiiF yflant 
ran odir gan genedyl mam, 
kany dyly mab Uwyn aphertfa 
ran odir. 

Yaep adiotto coed heb gan- 
byad yperchennawc. Pym- 
bjiynedydyly ef, achweched yr 
perchennawc yn ryd. 

Enep aganeilho telrblyned 
ydyly ef, ar bedwared.yr per- 
cheanawc yn ryd. 


f Abaftardt 

No one, in right of his mo- 
ther, fhall obtain a choice tene- 
ment» if there fhall be one 
claiming it on the part of the 
father. It is right neverthelels, 
on the pan of the mother, to 
have a (hsire of land. 

A woman, who {hall give 
herfclf up to a man, without. 
the confent of her kindred, ia 
grove and in brake, her chil- 
dren fhall not obtain a portion- 
of land, from the mother's. kiiTi> 
dred; for a child of grove afi4' 
brakef, ought not to hai^ % 
fhare of land. 

Whoever dears awaydmbcTy. 
without the .confent of tbo^ 
owner, for five years fliall h^ 
have a right*; and the fixth.. 
fhall be free to the owner. 


Whoever fhall lay on manur^y 
for three ye?irs has he a ri^ht,. . 
and the fourth to the owner 

A a Who- 

• To the Uad, which he dean. 



Enep ateilho abuartlfeil dwy 
▼lyned ydyly cf, ar dryded yr 
pcrchennawc yn ryd. 

Encp adoro gwyd Jwy vlyncd 
ydyly ef, ar dryded yr perchen- 
Bawt yn ryd. Yn rad ykeiff cf 
yvlwydyn gyntaf^ ar eil ar ykyd 

Gwerth Ho bychan or pan an- 
her, chwerhemhawc, hyd galan 
racvyr. Odyna hyd galan chwc- 
ftjtawf wyth geynnyawc, hyd 
galan mei dec keinyawc. Hyd 
awftyXii,keinyhawc. Hyd galan 
racvyr, xiiii. Hyd galan chwe- 
furawr vnarbymthcc, Kalan mei 
devnaw. Awft, xx. Trannoeeth 
dwy geinybawc or tymon A- 
jAedeir keinyawc oechyflodawd 
adjrrcheif amei. Ac ynachwcch- 
arugeint yw ygwcrth hyd 
^lan gayaf Odyna hyd wyl 
veir, wythamgeint, kalan mei, 
XXX. Nawucttyd mei ydyly 
bod ynteithyaw. byuod llaeth 
ymphob teth idi. Ac yny teith 
oe llo naw cam ynyhol. Ac 
ony byd yuclly hi, vnarbymthcc 
yw ytheithi. Dwy geinyawc 
agymer oi thymor. Ac yna 
wyth adeugein hyd awft. Ody- 
na hyd galun racvyr, dec adcu- 


Whoever manures by folding 
of cattle, for two years he has 
a right, and tlie third to the 
owner free. 

Whoever cuts up a wildf, 
for two years be ought to have 
it, and the third to the owner 
free. He has it for nothing the 
firft year, and the fecond he 
participates equally. 

The value of a little calf, 
from the time it is ca ft till tiie 
fiift of December, is fix-pence ; 
from thence till the firft of Feb- 
ruary, eight-pence ; till the firft 
of May, ten-pence; till Auguft, 
twelve pence ; till the firft of 
December, fourteen-pence ; till 
the firft of February, fixteen; 
the firft of May, eighteen; 
Auguft, twenty ; the next morn- 
ing two-pence for the feafon ; 
and four-pence fi'om her being 
with calf, with advance upon 
her ; and then twenty- fix-pence 
is her value until the firft of 
November; from thence until 
Lady-day, twenty-eight-pence; 
the firft of May, thirty-pcnce. 
The ninth day of May ftje 
ought to become perfedl: the 
milk coming in every teat ; and 
her calf able to go nine paces 
after her. And, if fhe (hotild 


t New land. 



geint. Gwylveir, deudecadeu- 
gein. Trannoeth ykymer, dwy 
geinhyawc ortymor. Aphedeir 
keinhyawc kyfureith or eil ky£- 
lodawd. Ac yna trugein ataK 
Gwerth com buwcb ae llygad, 
ae llofgwrn ae chluft, iiii. 
keinyhawc kyfureith adal pob 
vn ohonunt. Ot^ir mod ytelir 
teithi buwch vawr, nyd amgea, 
odec arhugein aryant. Neu 
vuwch gyhydychom achyfgyu- 
arn. Neu oblawd, meflur 
Ueftyr llaeth y uuwch teir mod- 
ued yn lied ygwaelawd, teir 
modved yn lied ygencv, anaw- 
modued yny dyfiied, ar gver or 
cleis eidiaf yr emyl neflaf. 
Lloneid meflur ylleftyr hwmi 
ovlawd keirch hyd wyl giryk 
ynggyueir pob godroyr vuwch, 
Odyna hyd awft ylenwi oblawd 
heid. Oawft hyd galan gaeaf 
ovlawd gwenith yn yr vn mef* 

not be fo, fixteen-pence is the 
value' of her maturity; two- 
pence fhall be allowed upon her 
for the feafon ; and then forty- 
eight-pence until Auguft ; from 
thence to the firft of December, 
fifty-pence ; Lady-day, fifty- 
two-pence; the next morning 
fhall be reckoned upon her two 
pence for the feafon, and four- 
pence in law for the fecond 
calving; and then three-fcore- 
pence is her value. The value 
of a cow*8 horn, and her eye^ 
and her tail, and her ear, is four- 
pence in law for each of them. 
In three ways may the maturity 
of a full-grown cow be paid for ; 
namely, with thirty pieces of 
illver; or, with a cow with 
horn and car of equal length ; 
or, with meal, meafured in the 
veffel holding the cow's milk, 
three inches broad at the bot- 
tom, three inches».broad at the 
top, and nine inches in its depth, 
ftraightly from the extreme 
groove to the next edge. That 
veffel fall (hall be meafured of 
oatmeal, for every milking of 
the cow, until the fcftival of 
Cine ; from thence until Auguft 
It fhall be filled with barley 
meal ; from Auguft till the firft 
of November, of the meal of 
wheat in the fame meafure. 

Gwerth llo gwryforpanancr 
hyd galan lacuyr, V I. chcinyawc. 


The value of a male calf, 

from the time he is caft till the 

A a 2 fir^t 



Odyna hyd wyl vcir, viii. 
geinyawc, kalan mei, x. Awft, 
XII. Gwyl yr hoMeint, pedeir 
ar dec. Gwyl vctr, xri, Kal- 
an met, dcunaw. A wft vgeint« 
Gwyl yrholfeint, xxii. Gwyl 
reir, xxiiii. Trannoeth yd* 
irgwed arnaw, aphedeir kem- 
yawc cotta adyrchcif arywerth.. 
Yn nawvettyd chwefutawr od- 
ymeiH ac eredtc, gwerth ytehbf 
adyrchcif amaw, nyd amgen^ 
HOC vn arbyrathcc. Dwy gem- 
yawc or tytnhor. Ac yna yta) 
chwech adeugein, kalan racvyr, 
dec adeugein kalan chwefrawr, 
deudec adeugein»Tnnnoeth dwy 
geinyawc or tymher agyn^her. 
Ac yna ydodir gwed arnaw. Ac 
yna ydyrchcif pedeir keinyawc 
kyfurekh arnaw, hyd pan voy 
trugeinhowl^ yteUy. 

Tcithi ych y wercdic yng rych 
acyg gwellt, acynhallt^acyng- 
wasred, ahynny yn ditonrrwxc 
dirrwyffic, ac ny byd teithiawt 
onybyd vcUy. 

Or ban anher ebawl, imi 
keinnyawc k. yw ywerth hyd 
awfi, kalan racvyr, xii. kalan 


firft of December^ fix^penee^ 
from thence untS Lady-day, 
eighr-penee; the firft of May, 
ten; Augeft twelve; Alf-Samts- 
day, fourteen; Lady^day, fix- 
teen*, firft of May, eighteen} 
Auguft, twenty; All-Satnts-day, 
twenty-two; Lady-day, twemy- 
fonr J the next morning « yoke 
fhatl be pnt upon hhn ; and four 
curtailed pence fliaH be advanced 
oh hia price- Oh the ninth 
day of February, if able to 
plough, the valu* of his maturi- 
ty ihaU be advanced npon him; 
namely, fixteen-penee ; two- 
pence for the feafonj and then 
he t« worth fotty-fix- pence } the 
firft ofDeccmbcr,fifty-pence;firft 
of February, fifty-txw^-pence;' 
the next morning, two-pcnec 
for the fcTEifott (haH be aHowed 
nponhtm; andthcnayokcfliaH 
be put upon him; and there- 
upon four-pence in law fhall-b^ 
advanced upon him in that man* 
ner, until it amounts to three- 

The mature qualities of an 
ox is, to plough in the far- 
row, and upon the grafs, up and 
down hill; and that without 
ftubbomnefs, and without flatt- 
ing; and he is not of mattjrc 
qualities except he IhaU be fo. 

From the thne that a foal i» 
caft, four-pence is itt value uAtH 
Auguft ; the firft of December, 




cliwefariiwr,3eupaw,ka]an lacty 
xxiiii. Awft dec arhvgein, 
Jcalaa lacvyr, xvi. orhvgdnt, 
kalan ch^^tfisrawr dwy ac deu- 
^eiii^ kalan meifW^thadeugein, 
-awft, trugfaeia ataL Odyna y- 
4iyrcheif anuwydeodec ioeinyawc 
pob tymxvt hfi galan mei, ac 
yna teirblwyd vyd, Yfev atal 
yna raarbymthsc aphedwar 
jv^oioy ydyd ydalher, kx. ady&- 
<clieif "OixnBWp fivi frwyncTy 
^iii^. an yueQy baoner punt 
atal, Ohyd amw8 ae ' befgi, 
chwech wy thnosi punt atal^ 

Pedeir arhugenit yn gwerth rar 

vmin^wsothyrir wrthygoloren» 

Ofihorir ygdoren hagen, gwerth 
yramws oU, aidtif, adilis vyd yr 
M^y^ yytb yr i^ep ae Hypw«. 
JJyg^d aaivrs aegluft, xxiiii, 
;»ta) pob vQ cbamot 

Chweugeint y w gwqrth rwmfi. 
Rawn rwmii) ncv gluft, nev y- 
]ygad, deudec keinyawc adal pob 
.VB obonuqt^ledir. Oiledirygol- 
oren|;weitb JSiarch oU, atelir, ar 
piarch yr nep ;fe llypro. Ac 
yeljy am bop n^archr. Ac velly 


twelve; the firft of February, 
eighteen; the firft of May« 

twenty-foiu:; Auguft, thirty ; 
firft of December, fix-and-tbirty ; 
firft of February, two-and-forty ; 
firft of May, wght-and forty ; 
in Auguft, three-fcore is its va-* 
lue. From thence, twelve- 
pence ftiallbe advanced upon it, 
every ieafoa, until the firft of 
May, and dico it will be three 
yeais oU. It is then worth 
four^fcore and fixteen-pence; 
the day, on which it is caught 
twenty ftiall be advanced upon 
hi whe^ bridled, four; and fo 
it will be worth half of a pound. 
If it ihould be a ftaliion, and 
jSutened for fiii: we^l^, it is 
worth a pound, 

Twenty-four-pence is the 
value of the hair of a ftal- 
Uon, if cut clofe to the tail ; 
if the tail is alfo cut, the full va- 
lue of the ftallioQ (hall be paid ; 
ar)d the ftaliion (Iiall be ever 
after fecured to him, who ftiall 
have disfigured him. A ftial* 
lion's eye, and his ear, twenty 
four-pence is the value of ?acb 

Six-fcorct-pence is the va^ 
lue of a gelding. The tail 
hair of a gelding, or his ear, or 
his eye, twelve-pence is the va- 
lue of each of them, if either 
. ftiall be cut ; if the tail ftiall be 
cut oft^, the iull value of thp 
A a 3 borfo 



gwerth pdfre. March torn 
nev gafcc torn, vn werth ac vn 
dyrchavael vyd ac cidoiij eithyr 
eu tcithi 

Teithi march torn ncv gafcc 
torn yw,dwy n pwu allufga w can 
yn allt agwaered yn dirrwyiic. 

Eneb agymerho march aven- 
ffic, ac oUwgyr ygcuyn, yndi- 
gwydoyblcw yn hagyr, taled, 
II II. keinyawckyfreith ybercb- 
enawc ymarch. Ohuuyas hagen 
oadlo henllwgyr athori yton hyd 
y kic, wyth keiny wac kyfureith 
atal. Othyr hagen yton ar cic 
hyd yrafgwniy talhed vnarbym- 

Ynepawertho march llwygyr 
heb arganuod yllwyc aduered 
trayan ygwerth dracheuyn. 

Yneb adifferho march rac 
Uadron, i>cdcir kcinnyawc kyf- 
ureith ageiff ygkyueir pob 
buwch adalho ymarch ygan 
bcrchennawc ymarch. Pwy- 
bynnac adiffero bvwch nev ych 


horfe (hall be paid, and the horie 
to the perfon that fhall disfigure 
him; and fo for every horfe; 
and fo the value of a palfirey. A 
drudge horfe and a drudge mare, 
the fame value and die fame ad- 
vance (hall be as on kine, ex- 
cept in their mature qualities* 

The mature qualities of a 
drudge horfe, or drudge niare, 
are, carrying a load, and draw- 
ing a drag up hill, and down hill, 
widiout beii^ reftive. 

Whoever fhall take a horfe 
upon loan, and fhould he hurt 
hi8 back, fo diat the hair fhall 
fall off very much, let him pay 
four-pence in law, to the owner 
of the horfe. If there fhould 
be a peeling off, alfo, from the 
gathering anew of an old fore, 
and the fkin break through to the 
fiefh, eight-j^nce in law fhall 
he pay. Alfo, fhould the fkin 
and the fleih be cut to the bone, 
let him pay fixteen-pence. 

Whoever fhall fell an unfound 
horfe, without difcovering the 
blemifli, let him reflore back 
tlie third of the price. 

He that (hall refcue a horfe 
from thieves, four-pence in 
law fhall he have for every 
cow which the horfe may lie 
worth, from the owner of die 
horfe. Whoever fhall fave a 




rac n^cIroDy yn vnwiad ar perch- 
ennawCy iiii. k, ageif. Os 
y ngorwland ydiiFcrir, wyth gein- 
yawc agei£ 

cow, or an ox, from thieves, in 
the country where the b wner re- 
fides, fhall have four-pence; if 
Jjt fhall be fecured, out of the ii« 
mit of the country, he (hall have 

Yof p aweitho eidyon rodet 
diogelrwyd tii diev, atheir nos 
cac ydcryj athri mis rac yr yfg- 
yueint, ablwydya rac ypellenev* 

He that fhall fell a beaft, let 
him give fecurity for three days 
and three nights, againft tlie 
flaggers; and three months 
againfl the difordered liver ; and 
a year^ againft the glanders. 

Yneb awertho moch bid ydan 
tri heint, y vynyglawc, ar hval- 
awc, ac nad yflbn ev perchyll. 

Whoever fells fvrine let him 
be anfwerable for three difor- 
.ders; the fwelling of the neck, 
and weak legs, and that they 
fliall not devour their pigs. 

Yneb awertho deveid bid 
ydan tri heint, yllederw, ar 
durrud, achlafuyri. Os gwedy 
Icalan gayaf ygwcrth bid hyd 
pan gafFoent eti teir gwala or 
tauawl newyd ygwanhwyn^ 

Whoever (hall fell fheep, let 
him be anfwerable for three dif- 
orders; the liver difeafe, and the 
rot, and the feab. If he fells 
after the firft of November, let 
him anfwer until they fhall 
get their fill three times of the 
new docks, in thefpring. 

Ynep awertho Hoy nev ^ne- 
wyd, bid -ydan gjafyri hyd wyl 

Whoever fhall fell calves, or 
fleers, let him be anfwerable 
againfl the fcab, until the fefti- 
val of Patrick. 

Yneb awertho yfgrybyl rode 
Iw.ary trydyd owyr yn vreint 
ac ef, nas dodes ymewn ty 
ybci glafri yndaw feitb mlyned 
kyn no hynny. 


Whoever fliall fell a beafV, 
let him give the oath of thre» 
men of the fame rank with 
himfelf, that he has not put 
it in a houfe, wherein there 
A a 4 miglu 



might have been a diftemper for 
feven years before that. 

Ollad modi dyn, talhed cv 
pcrchcnnawc galanas ydyn. 

Yneb alado cath awarchatto 
ty ac yfgubawr ybrcnhin, yphen 
aofodir yr daear ae Hofgwm 
yvyny ar lawr gwaftad, ac 
odyna bwrw grawn gwenith, 
amyphen hyd ban gudyei vlaen 
yllofgwrn. Cath arall, iiii. 
keinnyawc kyfuretdi. Teithi 
caih y w y bod yugyfgliA, gy^yg- 
ad, kyfyewin, gyflofgwm, 
dtvanu otan allad llygod, ac nad 
yflb ychanawon, ac na adieric 
ar bop llocr. Ygwcrth yw 

Nybyddirwy ani ji, kyddycer 
yn lledrad, aachamlwrw, IJw 
vn dyn fyd ydiwad ki. Ochyrch 
ki dyn yr keifyaw yvrathv, kyd 
Iladei ydyn yki, ac aryv oe law, 
nythal dim amdanaw. Obrath 
ki neb dyn ynedel ygwaed, taled 
yarglwyd gwaed ydyn, ac ollad 
ydyn yki, kyn fymud or lie, 
nycheiff namyn, jnarbymthec 


If fwine ihaU kill a perfon, 
let the owner pay the deadi fa- 
tisfadlion of the perfon. 

Whoever ihaB kiU a cat, 
which guatxk the honfe and the 
bam of die king, her head fliaO 
be put towards the earth, and 
her tail upwards, upon an even 
floor, and then he ihall pour 
wheat com about her, until the 
tip of her tail is covered over. 
Another cat is w<Hth four-peoce 
in law. The required qualities of 
a cat are, to be peifed eared, per- 
fcA eyed, perfe^ nailed, perfeiSt 
tailed, unmarked by fire, and 
killing mice, and that fhe de- 
vours not her kittens, and diat 
flie does not mt upon every 
moon. Her value are her re- 
guired qualities. 

There fhall be no fine for a 
dog, though he fhould be taken 
away by (lealth ; neither a tref- 
pafs fatisfa&ion. The oath of 
one man is a full denial reipe^l- 
ing a dog. If a dog fhaU fet 
upon a perfon, to attempt to 
bite him, though the perfon 
might kill the dpg, with a wea- 
pon from his hand, he fhall pay 
nothing for him. If a dog fhall 
bite any perfon, until the blood 
comes, let his mafter pay the 
perfon's blood ; but if the perfon 




KI kyneuodic arwyco dynyon 
teirgweith onys llad yarglwyd, 
ogyfurekh y rwymir with droet 
yarglwyd, dwy rychwant y wrth- 
aw, ac yuelly ylledir. Ac 
odyoa tribuhin cainlwry yr 

Ny diwygtr awnel ]a cla( 
4)drwc kany ellir medyaat araaw. 

Ny byd dJrwy nachamlwrw 
am ,nep edcinyawc, kyd dycer 
ynUedrad. Ywcrth kyfureith- 
yawl atelir bagen onycjiieffir ef« 

Mordrydaf gweoynen, pedeir 
arhugeint adal. Egynteid vnar- 
bymdiec adal. Yr eilheid dec 
-kemyawc,adal. Kynteid ygynt- 
eid, wyth geinyawc adal. Mor- 
drydaf gwedy el kynteid ohonei, 
vgein atal. Gwedy cl yr eilheid 
ohonei, vnarbymthec adal. Gwe- 
dy el ytrydedy dcudec adal. 
Nythal neb heid natnyn, pedeir 
keinnyawc, kyn no yboed cri 
diev kyn awft, vn ygeifyaw yllc, 
ar eil ywndau, ar irydit yor- 
ffiiwys. Yn nawuettyd kyn 


kills the dog» before he moves 
from the place, he ihall have 
only ilxteen pieces of filver. 

A dog, accuftoroed to bite, that 
iliall tear people three times, if 
his mafter does not kill him, by 
law he (hall be* tied to the foot of 
his mailer, two fpan-lengths 
diftant, and in that manner he 
(hall be killed ; and then three 
kine in facis&£tion for wrong to 
th£ king. 

No amends ihall be made for 
what a difordered dog may do 
of mifchief, for no pofleflioa 
can be kept of him. 

There fha)l be neither a fine, 
nor fatisfaSiion of ¥rrong, for 
any winged creature, though it 
ihall be ftollen; but the lawful 
value of it (hall be paid, if it can- 
not be recovered. 

The hive of a bee, its value 
is twenty-four-pence; the firfl: 
fwann, its value is iixteen- 
pence; the fecond fwarm, its 
value is ten-pence; 'the firft 
fwarm of the firft fwarm, eight- 
pence. A beehive, after the 
firft fwarm is gone out of it, 
its value is twenty-pence ; after 
the fecond fwarm is gope out It, 
fixteen-pehce is its value; after 
the third is gone, twelve-pence 
is its value. No fort of fwarm 
is y^oV^ more than four-pence, 




aw(l« peilelr arhtigeint adal pop if it (hould not come three days 

Iwid canys breint modrydaf 
agymcr ywa. 

Ynep agaflTo held ar gaghen, 
ardirdyn arall, iin. k. aget£F 
Ygan berchcnnawc ytir omyn 
yntev yr heid. Ynep agafFo 
bydaf ar dir dyn arall keinyawc 
kyfureith ageiiF, neu ycwyr ar 
dcwispercheaawc ytlr. 

Or pan dotcr yr hyd yny 
dacar yny el yny yfgvb, aryant 
tal adaw amdanaw. Ac odyna 
yfgvb yach am yglaf. Obop 
march avo hual arnaw nev 
lafFothelr kcynyawc ydyd adwy 
ynos. Obyd difgyfurith diniei 
ydyd, acheinyawc ynos, athaled 
rribuhin. Obyd hagpn am 
yneilltroed idaw velly nychyll 
dim. Obop eidyon buarth 
dimei ydyd, acheinyawc ynos. 
Or cadw kyfureith Or mocli yr 
hwch adevvifo elthyr tri Uwdyn 
arbcnnic. Dalyed yr hwch 
avynho yny dillyngher oe chyf- 
ureith. Odyna ef adyly yadia 
or pryd bwy gilyd, ac yna 
ychynnyc yr pcrchennawc onys 
goUwng ar ygyfureith, gwna^ 


before Auguft: one to feek for 
a place, the fecond to form it- 
feif, and the third to reft. On 
the ninth day before Aoguft, 
twenty-four-pence is the value 
of any fwarm, for then it take) 
the privilege of the hive. 

Whoever ftiill find a fwarm 
onabough,upon another perfon*s 
land, (hall have four-pence from 
the proprietor of the land, if he 
fliould claim the fwarm Who- 
ever dtall find a neft of bees, 
upon another peifon's land, fhaii 
have a penny in law, or the 
wax, as the propri^or pf the 
land may choofe* 

From the time when corn is 
•put io the ground, until it goes 
into its flicaf, payment in money 
(hall come for it, and after- 
wards a found /heaf for a da-^ 
maged one. On account of 
every horfe, on which there 
{hall be a fetter, or a clog, a 
penny for the day, and two the 
night. If he fhould be mifchiv- 
vous, a half-penny the day, and 
a penny the night ; and let three 
heads of cattle be paid; but 
ihould he be fo with a faften- 
ing on every other foot, nothing 
ihall be loft upon him. On ac- 
count of every folded beaft^ a 
.halfpenny th&day, and a penny 
the night. Out of die lawful 
herd of fw ine, the fow, which may 






cf ydefnyd or hwch, ahynny 
ygwyd • tyftyoD. Yflcf yw 
ycadw kyiiireith or moch, deu- 
dec llwdyn, abaed. Or cadw 
kyforeidi or deueit dauady ac o 
bym llwdyn^ fiyrdling adeliir 
pob vn i^nunt. Yfief yw 
ycadw or deueid. Dec llwdyn 
arhugein ahwrd. Or cadw kyf- 
iireich or. wyn, oen, ac obob 
oen, wy yar adeliir. Or geifuyr 
ac or mynhevy £Fyrlling adeliir 
am bob vn ohonunt. Ynep 
agafb gwydeu ary yd. Tored 
£Ecm aTO kyfayd ac oben yelin 
hyd yndaen yhirvys, yngyu- 
vrafed ac ymynho. Lladed 
ygwydev ar y hyd, ac alado 
odieithr yr yd, taled. Gwydev 
SI gaffer yn llygru yd drwy 
yfgvbawr ncv ydlan. Gwafged 
wialenar ev mwnygwl agaded 
yno yny vo maiw. Yaepagaffb 
yar yny yfgvbawr nev yny ard 
lin. Dalyed yny diUyngho 
yperchenawcy o wy. Ncu 
odeily ykeillyawc tored ewin 
idaw gan bob daly agoUynghed, 
neu o wy ob yar or avo adanaw. 
Ynep adalyo cath yny ard lin, 
talhed yllwgyr. Ynep adalyo 
lloe yny yd attalyed or pryd bwy 
gilyd heb laeth ev mam. Ac 
yna goUynghed yn ryd. 


be chofen; accept three feled 
ones ; let the fow fixed upon be 
caught hold of until ihe .{hall be 
liberated by law. Afterwards 
the perfon ought to lay hold of 
her from time to time, and there- 
upon to offer her to the owner» 
who, if he does not fet her at 
large by the law, let the other 
taker the fow to his own ufe, and 
that in the prefence of witnefles. 
A lawful herd of fwine confiftf 
of twelve animals and a boar. 
Out of a lawful flock of fheep, 
a iheep, and for every five ani- 
mals, a farthing (hall be paid 
for each of them. A lawful 
flock of fheep confids of thirty 
animals and a ram. Out of a 
lawful flock of lambs, a lamb, 
and for every lamb a hen egg 
fhall be paid. On account of 
die goats, and the kids, a far- 
thing (hall be paid for each of 
them*. Whoever fhall find 
geefe upon his com, let him cut 
a iHck, which fhall be as long 
as from his elbow to his middle 
finger, and as thick as he 
pleafes; let him kill the geefe at 
its length ; but as many as he 
fhall kill out of the com, let 
him pay for. Geefe, which 
fliall be found damaging com 
through a barn or rick fence, 
let him tighten a rod round their 


* The fcrenl payment* on account of the different animaU, above fpeci&ed, are for 
the daaage done by them to the coq^ 


OUygnr yd yneb dyn yn mnyl 
.trofgord, ac nachaffo diily vi^ 
Jlwdya am^w, kyimrcd ycreir 
adoed yr tref, Ac othyaghant 
Iw dknabod* Talfaeot yr yd, yr 
rywlwdyn. Argyforeithhonno 
aelwir, telhitor gwcdy ha|awg- 

Odcily dyn yfgrybyl ar yd 
abod ymryfon, yrwng ydeil- 
hyad aphcrchcnnawc yr yfgryb- 
yl, ydeilhyad yr yfgrybyl bicv 


msk$9 and let him kave 4h< 
there, tiU they an dead. Wfao- 
enor finds a hen in his bam, or 
in his flax gaiden, let him 
catch hold df ker unui die owiuar 
ihaH fet her at large, by ginog 
an egg; or, if he diall hiy hdd 
of the cock, let him art 4iQe of 
his clavB, and let him 4o fo 
every timc^ and then let him 
ioofe; or by having aa egg front 
every hen that he fliail tread. 
Whoever (hall catch a cat In hit 
flax garden, let him be paid die 
damage. Whoever fliall And 
xalvts in bis com, lot him coar 
fine them, from time to time, 
widioot their motfaei's milk^ 
and then let hin^ fet them at 

If damagp fliaU be done 
to the com of any perfoa;, 
bordering upon a common 
townfliip, and he not having 
been able to lay hold of one 
beaft upon it, let him Cake the 
relick, and let him come into 
the town; and if the people 
there fliall fwear an oath of 
ignorance, let them make good 
the com on account of (uch 
beaft: And, that law is caUed, 
paying after a porrupt oadi. 

If a perfon (hall catch a beaft 
in the corn, and there fhould be 
a difpute, between the captor and 
the owner pf tl^e feo^ift, the 


tynghv cafiael olyeid ableinyeid 
yr yfgrybyl ar yr yd. 

Odeily dyn.yfgrybyl angkynev- 
in*dr yd, nev ar y gwcir ac ymlad 
or yfgrybyl yny gwarchae a Had 
o vn yllall, perclicnawc yllwdyn 

alado yllall ae tal. Ar deilyad 
auyd ryd. 

OUad ' ytgrybyl trefgord 
llwdyn, ac na wypcr pwy 
ae Uado, kymered perchennawc 
yllwiiyn ykrciryev achymercd 
Iw yganbavvp dymabod. Odyna 
talent yryw eidyon. Ac obyd 
eidyon moel ran dev eidyon aa 
amaw. Ar gyfureith honno 
aelwir llwyr tal gwedy Uwyr 
twng. Obyd adef Had oeidyon 
vllall talhed vn diohir. 

captor of the beaft mnft fwear 
of his finding^ followers and 
leaders to die beaft, in the 

If a pcrfon (hall capture 
a ftrange beaft in the ^s^my 
or in the hay, and the beaft 
fliould fight with others in 
the inclofb^e, and one kill the 
other, the owner of the beaft 
that kUls the other pays, and the 
captor (ball be free. 

If an animal helang;rng to a* 
cominoiY townfhip kills a beaft, 
and it ihonld not be known by 
what one it was killed, let the 
owner of the beaft take the rdicks, 
and let him procure an oath of 
ignorance from every body there, 
and then let them pay for fuch 
a kine; ai^d if it (hould be a 
kine without horns, the value 
of two kine fhaH be cotinfieJ 
upon it : And that law is called, 
complete payment after com- 
plete fwearfng. If there fhoukl 
be an acknowledgement of one 
beaft killing another, let pay- 
ment be made without delay; 

Tq be continued* 










fFrittm in the year 1792, by thf late fFiiliam Jones, Communi' 

cated by IV. D. with Notes. 


THESE three pariihes may 
be computed in length, 
from Pont y Llogel which joins 
diem to Llanmihangel, to Pen- 
tre'r Lludw on the borders of 
Llanbrynmair, feven miles ; and 
from Drum- wen, which divides 
them from Llanvair-Caereinion, 
to Drum-ddu, on th^ confines of 
Llanvamwddwv, five miles. 

Here is but a fmall quantity of 
level ground, being but narrow 

flips along the fidc^ of the rivers. 
The foil on the riung ground is 
but thin, lying chiefly on a ftitf 
clay, or a brittle flate ; andmoft 
commonly fo poor as not to be 
capable of producing any^an* 
ner of corn, and without pah^g, 
burning, or being well manuredr^v 
About one-third part of the 
country is an uncultivated wafle, 
which is likely to continue in 
that fVate, a great pan thereof 
being moorifh or boggy*, and 


* Tbit U t very good reafon why they Ihoald be indofed, efpecially fuch parcels as 
are capable of being effeciaally drained. It ic a public lof« that the value of peat 
foils is opt at all JcAOwa aa Wales, except for fuel. What an acquifitien vould it be 




not worth the cxpence of divid- 
ing and inclofing. All the diy 
fpots are claimed hy the adjoin-^ 
ing farmers for {beep-walks^ by 
prefcription.- The wool in ge^ 
neral is coarfe, and the raore fo 
on the higheft hills, among the 
heath and turbaries, which con- 
tain theharded breed of fliecp in 
Wales, and with good reafoii, 
becaufe no other can live or 
thrive upon them. 


The rocks, in quarries, and. 
where they tliruft out their crag- * 
gy tops above the fummits of 
the lv!Is, are ranged from fouth- 

weft to north-eaft, and dip to 
the weft, making an angle with 
the horizon of about 70 degrees : 
and though they may in fome 
places feem to lie in a confufed 
manner, yet their anomaly is 
but of a fliort continuance, and 
they foon refume their original 

No minerals have been found 
in thefe parishes, except a few 
fpecimens of copper ore, which 
were dug up in the townibip of 
Coed-Talog, on the land of 
Robert Lloyd, Efq; of Ofwcf- 

thonght by an English farmer, to hare a picc«; of turbary upon liis farm, to manure his 
other foils with. A top-dreffiug of peat-dud (called by tTie WelOi, mw/wg ma^ny 
would be a great promoter of fertility upon meadow-landi conAfting of different foila^ 
fiicb as clay, gravel, fand, &c. It ir a matter of regret, that lime lies at a great diftanee 
from many places in Wales, efpccially the parts in cjueftion. ' It were to be vlflied^ 

< that farmers iu general undcrAood the principle, nn which //W acts upon ykra/. It 
'af'ls, by deflroying the organic firudure ofthofr parts of vegetables, which arc Info* 

< luble in water; by which new compoumds are fonned, which accelerate vegetatioiu 
' Hot lime In too great a quantity, will carbonate (char.) the peat, and dillipate its 
« good qualities by gazes (airs). The heat generated by the flaking of the iifl^e, and 

< the humidity of the peat, (hould be moderate. The proportion of lime to peat in 

< mixture (hould be one-fi\th. The gazes tho« generated will be inflammable alr^ 
' . and phlogifiic air, forming volatile alkali. And in tbe-conrfe of the procefs, t folubi« 

* faline matter procured, confining of phofphat and oxalat of ammoniac, whofe bene- 

* ficial effetfhi on vegetation are well Icnown to chemical farmers. The proportion of 
' the lime to the peat, here given, flioutd be mcU attended to, and mixed under cover, 
' from rain, tec, and too mack expofure to tiie air will prevent a due aeUon of the 

* lime apon the peat. Dung and urine are preferable to lime to be mixed with peaty 

< becaufe of their containmg more alkaline fait. To peat foils, lime unmixed is the 
' be A manure, and that in its moA cauAlc Aate. Peat in its natural ftate, mixed with 

* too fmall a quantity of dang, is a common manure In Scotland, and a crop of forrcl 

* is the confequence, owing to the oxygenation of the peat.' Hence the fcites of 
ptat flacks (dafau mawn) upon the Weiih hills are generally covered with forrel. 

Lord Dundonald's Chemical Achicultcke, p. liO 

+ A company of adventurers have now, in the Spring o^ 1797, begun to fink for 
eoal at Govylchao, near Llanervul ; but apparently with little profped of Aiccefs. 




Otfiheconitnoa cACraigygi^ 
being the north fide of the fame 
hiU, may be feea traces of mb- 
ing ; and at the foot of that de- 
clivity^ £icihg Uamnihangel, 
diere is a cave called Ogov 

Ihkmog^ b«t fo naiTOw d«t a 
man cann6t go far into it^ 
which is the cafe in • moft old 
Roman mine^works, whereof 
I gue£s this to be one. 



The principal river is the 
Sanwy ; but called Marchwy by 
Llywarch Hin^ in the 6th cen- 
tury. It rifes on the Drum^ddu: 
divides Garth-beibio from Llan- 
gadvan; and joins the Twrch 
a little below the parifh diurch 
ofGarth-Bcibio. 7ti;rrAalfohas 
Its fource in the Drum-ddu, and 
is the mere between the faid 
parifhes on die odier ikle. The 
Banwy receives the Verniew (as 
it is called by late writers) near 
the church of Llangadvan. 
This laft mentioned river is 
known to the people on its 
banks by the name of Tr avon 
gantj or theraeandring ftream. 
Its fource is within the parrfh of 
Llan-bryn-mair; after receiving 
three (mall rivulets within the 
townihip of Cevn^Uys^ucbaVy it 
is joined by tlie Qedan which 
rifeth at Cors yr ebolion ; a little 
below, it meets with a fmall ri- 
vulet called Nsdwyddj and then 

joins the Banwy. The conflux 
of the Banwy and Vymwy (pro- 
perly fo called) or Avon Llamv^ 
ddyriy is at Mathraval near Mei- 

The fiih are eek, trout, and 
famlet ; the latter leaye ns with 
the autumn floods. Salmon come 
up to fpawn about Michaelmas. 
There is a noted water-fall on 
the Vyrnwy near Dol-anog, 
where the falmon are fometimes 
caught by dirowing harping- 
irons feftened to corck at diem, 
when they fpring up. 

On the Drum, in the pariih 
of Llanervnl, are three pook; 
one is called Llyn y grin- 
wydden^ the pool of the withered 
tree. This is fiiid to be an un- 
fathomable abyfs, about 70 yards 
ovef, containing no fifli but 
eels; (bme of a huge fize are 
iaid to crawl out of k on thun- 



der-ftorms. It is fituate on a 
rocky hill, probably they are 
frightened by the cremor they 
feel where they lurk in the cre- 
vices of the rocks *. 

The 2(1 IS Llyn btr^ or the 

others of the fame fpecles : but 
they are in no great plenty. 

The theorift may here finrl a 
fubjedl to fpeculate upon. On 
ffoing, in a dry fummcr, foii)C 
years ago, to copy the infcription 

long pool ; which may be abouX of the above defcribed-(lone, I 
300 yards in length, and abcnit found that a great part of the pool 

half as much in breath. The 
upper part of it is as it were (kin- 
ned over by the flough that is 
brought down by the floods 
from the turbaries above it, in- 
fomuch that fheep and men can 
walk upon it like a quagmire. 
But although it lofes in one end. 
It gains in the other, by the 
beating of the waves, which are 
forcibly driven by the weft wind 
againft the banks, which confift 
moftly of peat foil. On the 
north fide of it, on dry feafons, 
is to be feen a flat fione, where- 
on is cut this infcription, 

M ETJL 1430. This ftone 
lies but about feven from the 
bank, whereby it appears that 
the water encroached no more 
than feven feet in 360 years. 

The trout of this pool are ac- 
counted a delicacy on the table 
of the epicurean ; their flefli is 
much more red than that of 

was dried up, and obfcrved that 
the bottom was overfpread with 
ftunips and roots of trees. I 
took notice in particular of an 
oak-ftump juft at the water's 
brink, rooted in a ftifF clayey 
foil ; a broken bank of peat foil of 
about feven feet deep, wafhed by 
th? wayes of the pool, was with- 
in fix feet of it. I obferved that 
the pool in a calm, when left to 
itfelf in its natural ftate, without 
being dammed up, or drained oiF 
for the ufe of a neighbouring 
mill, flood on a level with the 
bafis of the faid peat foil. Hence 
it fcems that a fubfidency muft 
have takeix place in forae very 
diftant period, bccaufe the peat 
foil on the brink of the pool is 
about feven feet thick, and muft 
have grown fince the fmking. 
Grown I fay, for it is evident 
that peat mofles are but vege- 
table fibres preferved by perpe- 
tual humidity. Admitting this 

* DeoTer bodies propagate vibratioB or found better than rarer ooet ; hence water li 
a better condudor of f^und than air, in proportion to its fnper-denfity. « If twx) aone« 
be ftruck together under water, they may be heard a mile or two by any pcrfon whof* 
head U immerlQd at that diftauce/' Djl. Fhankli n. 





accumulation to make no more 
progrefs than an inch in fifty 
years, which by-the^bye I think 
may be very near the truth, it 
may with good reafon be fup* 
pcfed that the above-mentioned 
accident happened at the time of 
the general deluge. The fub- 
fidency of the pool has not been 
parallel to the horizon, but ob- 
lique ; the (lumps of trees being 
much fanher from the furface of 
the water in the middle, than 
nearer the ildes. Such as have 
fwam acrofs, fay, that they coul J 
(land upon roots of trees far 
within it. 

The third is Lyn-y-hugailj 
the (hepherJ'spool; which has 
nothing in it remarkable, favc 
that it breeds nothing but eels. 

On the borders of Llanlrynr 
Mair^ within theparifliofLlan- 
ervul, flands the pool oi Llyn 
Qvjyddtor^ or more properly (I 
fuppofe) Llyn Cadivor^ a Briti(h 
proper name, probably fome- 
dme of a perfon who was pro- 
prietor thereof. This is a clear 
pool, with a gravelly bottom, 
which formerly contained a great 
plenty of trout j but of late years, 

one Hopky^ a. game^keqMsr, of; 
rather a game-deftroy^er, of Sir 
Watkin's, out of a fplenetiG 
pique to the neighbouring fiiher^ 
men, placed there a colony oC 
pike, which voracious new- 
cpmers entirely dcftroyed the 
former peaceful inhabitants. 
The pool b of a rhomboidal^ 
form, and about a mile in cir- 
cumference. By the dde of it 
there was fhewn unto me a 
(lone, about half a hundred? 
weight, moved many yards by 
the wind. Credat Jtul^tus Apel^ 
lay the reader may fay, mn ega: 
But the pool is fituate on an* 
eminence that runs from noith to 
fouth; to the weft of this ridge 
are vei*y deep hollows, fome* 
what open to the fouth«>weft and 
nonh-weft, in which the weft 
wind being coUcdlcd, it burfts in 
violent gufts through an opening 
in the ridge, which being in a. 
line witli the fide of the pool, 
drives the water where it is but 
/hallow, like a rapid torrent 
along the fide of the bank; and, 
the ftone in queftion being of 
fomewhat a cylindrical form, 
was rolled by the medium of 






. L Lkmervui\ contaiils fik 
townfliipi.-- l.Llyfyn; %QxxAl 
Talog; S. Cydniwyll; 4. Cran; 
5* Cevn-llys-ucha ; 6. Cevii- 

It is probable, that the Inha- 
bitants of Cevn^Uys^ucha had no 
feats in tlie church of Llanervul 
before the'^ Herberts of Llyfyn 
repaired tK^ infide thereof, and 
fixed pews in the chancel; and 
that the faid townfhip being* 
abbey*landy belonged to the 
chapel at -Z)^/t<;rft, now in ruins; 

The church of Llanfcf^ul, is 
dedicated to Urvul SanfrSf 
whole feaft or wake is kept on 
the Sunday next following 
the 6th of July. Who in 
particular this Urvul was, is not 
known. The name is truly 
Briti(h, being compounded from 
urdd^ honour or renown, and 
muly ferious or grave. She is 
eorriiptly called Iff^i' iii fbbc 
Wdfli almanacks*. Guftd cV 
Gfyn^ a poet of the 15th cen* 
tiiry; in his elegy to the membryi 
Of Gwervil hail of Blodvod,* 

* Urful najht & Comi(h moalding of berW«Uh name TJrdd-val, orTJifalj nori» 
it too t'ar-fctched to fuppofc, that the church' at Llanervul was dedicated to the'me- 
iiiory of thkc canonized heroine, daughter to'the dnke of Corniral, wh# ia'the4(h 
century led 1 1000 of her countryiromeii to be fhfpirreclced on the coaft of Franee* Thciff 
aim was to land in Armorica, and to be married to the remaina of Maximua'a armjrn 
after their defeat by Theodofius. It is the idiom of the Cornifh dialedt to chang4^ 
fereral letters in words, as Urc;ttl into Ur/ul. So do the Iri(h change F into S in th«' 
wbrds ffiirrn,an'Oven, vhich they calf fom; flVifl, aflail, which they call fuyft; ffVwyn^ 
a'bridle, whieh they call frlayiu When this daughter of the Duke of Cornwal cam«. 
to be admitted into the calendar of faints, the feminine termination a was tackt to her 
Corniih name Urful, and fo was formed Urfula, To fuppofc that Urfula, a woman's 
mihe; has ho other dcrlvatibn than the dfrninUtlveof the latin Urfa, is ridiculous; for 
who WdKi nam\B hia infant child,' « liittt fiii'liar f Onto might with greater proprietjr 
eaft hKtaUtiUfie-momkrfm To have Lionels, Wolfes, and Arthurs among the names of 
warriors 'is proper, and expreffive of mafcnline prowefs : but the names of femaiea 
among the Britons were always apropos to the chara^eriHics of the moft lovely and 
attradive of the fair-fex; as for infiance, Tangiyyfil^ the pledge of harmony j 
GxtmwrJdyJJf tht dawn of the morn j Gweruu/, the bluih of modcfty, &c. The Bra-, 
mini of India wei« oftbif 'fame opinion, upon this fubjed, with' their bretbreik tha 
iymti§:^-!J''T\kthdi/Hs tf-^vmiM ibould be agreeable, foft, clear, captivating the futejf 
^ atti^l^b,'eddldg 2u long ToiTels, refemtlliig worda of benevolisnce/' iMfittmttt ^ 
Hindu LtWt^ 

Bb 2 malm 


makes honourable mention of 
her thus in his comparifons. 

w Gwenel o ymyl GwnTuay 
Gnervil ddoeUii ac Urvut dda." 

Gvcnvil of Gwarz, aod Ervil the good, 
««rvil of Blodvoel a third in rank ftood. 

It is fuppofed by feme that 
the ftone monument in Llancr- 
vul church-yard was credcd to 
her memory ; but the infcrip* 
tion does by no means fuit fuch 
fuppofidon, which, as wcQ as 
I can remember runs thus: 

CIT Rr.*.-.-STE 

In the pedigrees of Britiih 
Saints, I find the namcof Padam 
ap Pefrwm ap Emyr Llydaw, 
being coufin-german to Cadvan; 
probably he had a daughter in- 
terred here^. 

A lady defcendcfd from the 
Herberts rf Uyfyn, left a legacy 
towards endowing afrce-fchool, 
to inftruft the children of the 
parifliioners; and lands were pur- 
cafed, at a convenient diftance, to 
produce the fchool matter's fala- 
ry ; which may be lett for about 
30/. a year. The fchooUmaftcr 
IS to be appointed by the redor 
and churchwardens for the time 
being. But the wardens being but 
officers annually diofen, never 

diink It worth their while to in- 
terfere in that affair, fo that the 
choice is left wholly to the incum- 
bents, who, (being A-equently 
n^ore mindful to promote their 
own intereft than the benefit of 
tJie parifhioners, agreeably to die 
will of the donor), conftitute their 
curate, clerk, or other dependants, 
fchool-mallers, who perform die 
office generally focarelefsly, that 
few of the parifliioners, except 
fuch as live near the village, think 
it worth the expence of their « 
maintenance to fend their child* 
ren thither. Upon the whole, 
it is but juftice to obferve, that 
this charity is moft frequently 
fhamefuUy mifappliedf. 

* But the fatfaer't name on the'Aone is Pateminus, not Patemua. 

f Had the author of the above refledien been now aiivc, and feen with vhat »tte&« 
tion and propriety the fchool .it now conduced by the Rev. J. JUoyd, the prefeot 
irorthy curate, he would have changed his opinion. 

il. Llan- 



11. Llangadvan^ has tliefc 
feven townfhips, — 1 . TreVllan ; 
2. Moelfeliarth (formerly TJlym- 
xvnnanj; 3. Bryn-gaeddan ; 4. 
Blawtly; 5. CyiEn*; 6. Caw- 
nydd; 7. Maes-llemyften. 

The patron faint of Llangad- 
van is Cadvan^ fon of Eneas- 
lledwyr, of Armorica; his mo- 
ther was Gwen-teirbron, daugh- 
ter of Emyr-Uydaw. Gwyndav 
hen, of Litde Britain, was his 
chaplain in the monaft^ry of 
Bardfey, where he came to be 
tutor, or as fome like to call 
him, abbot, after the maflacre 
of the (Indents^ and deftrudlion 
of the univerfity of Bangor, by 
the Saxons, at the inftlgation of 
Auguftine, and tlie Roman 
wolves, as our bard Talieiln, 
very properly ftiles them. 

St. Cadvan lies buried at 
Tywyn Metrionydd^ where his 
tomb-ftone and infcripticn is ftill 
to be fcenf: the church of 
which place alfo is dedicated to 
his memory, as is evident by his 
feaft being kept pn the fame 
day, both at Llangadvan^ and 
Tywyriy namely, on the 1ft of 
November. Tudur Aled, a 
bard of the 15th century, alludes 
to this, in his poem to tlie then 

Ciwrat Dav o fewn c6r Tyuayn^ 
Cadw ef yn iacb, Cadvan wyn{. 

The redory, or glebe-houfc, 
was burnt down by the rebel s» 
when Vavafor Powel came to. 
fequefter the benefices of the 
clergy in Montgomeryftiire, a- 
bout the year 1643 ; and which 
has never fince been rebuilt. 

* About the beginning of the 14th century, Ma^oc, jnfantfon of MaJoc Gockf ot 
the tribe of Einion Evell^ was put out to nurfe in this townfliip ^ from which place, 
to difUnguiih him from his father Madoc Goch, he was called Madoc of Kyftin, which 
ty^T after became the fumame of all hit pofterity. In the age of ariflocratic feuds, 
the Kyffins were the only clan that were powerful enough to cope with the Trevon j 
and for that reafon were alwayi at variance. The houfei of each tribe were as faac- 
to^es to fcfeen the thieves and murderers of the other pjirty from public juAice. 

f If it is to be feen, it mnfl be by the light of torches and tapers ; for a gentleman 
of that neighbourhood, fiimulated by a mofl eccentric taAe, facrilegiouUy removed the 
tomb-fione from the church yatd, with the confent of the vicar, to decorate his owa 
grotto, which is as dark as Erebus, and fituate in an almoil impenetrable wildemcfs. 
The Aone in its removal was broken j but the infcription, as well as it can be col- 
leaed from the fragments, will be publiihed in K^t Cymhric Remains^ wh^c|i 9ie aow 
ready for the preft. 

\ « Canwyll Cadvan lann o len bali ' 

ff CfMtnMd y Xynhyald ger Dijynhi. Cynddelwyn^arwniii NeA verch Hywel,' 

B b 8 There 



Thprt has lueen a (vo^W al^bey 
in the town(hip of Cyfiin, Iq 
^is parlfli : but whether it was 
independent, qt tliat the abbot 
was a fufFragan to the ciftertian 
abbey of S.rata Marcellse, I 
coul 1 nuvcr learn. The town- 
^lipof Cevn-!lys-uch inljaner- 
y ul, and Tir-y-myncicha in Llan- 
bryn-m^ir, belonged to it ; and 
after its d.ffolution, they be- 
came the property of the 
Vauglians, of Llwydiarth, by 
a marriage with one of the Pur- 
cells, of Nantcruba. It flood 
at a place fince called Cae'r 
Afyneich; but its fcite is not at 
prefcnt to be difccrned. Pro- 
bably the building was all of 
timber, and burnt in the ra<rc of 
the reformation. A ford below 
it, on the river Yyrnwy, is cdlled 
Rhyd y byde ; but whether it is 
Rhyd-abadau, the ford of the 
abbots, or Rhyd y badau, the 
the ford of boats, from an ad- 
joining pool, where their plca- 
fure-boa^ts might have floated, 
I ihall not pretend to deter- 
mine. It in likely, that th^ 
townfhips of Cyffin, Cawnydd, 
aiod Maes-Ue^lyflen, hadfome 

* In country church-yards, the rebtions Qf the dcc^^i^d crowd tkOD i&to that 
part which is fouth of the church ; the north fide, in thci^ oiioioo, beinfi anhallovod 
ground, fit only to be the dormitory of fiUi-born ij^f^^ 9»d fttkahfes. For an ex- 
ample to his neighbours, and as well to e(cape the bf^boriUes of the fCKtaiu, the 
•wilier of the above account ordered himfelf to be baried on the north fide of the 
church-yard. But as he was accounted an infidel when alive, hu neighbours coold 
not think it creditable to aflbciate with him. vfaea d^ad. Bia dafl, thevelbre* » 
likely to pafs a folltary retireneut, and ^r ages to reoMiA uadiih^iyQfl l^ the hands 
of mea« ' • • - • . . 


chapels of cafe, or mafs-houles, 
which were fcrved by die monks 
from the abbey; howcvcj*, it 9 
evident, as handed down by ^r 
dition, that the inhabitants of 
thefe tov^ufbips formerly had no 
feats in Llang;advan chitfch, but 
acquired them fince the reforma- 
tion, either by cQcroachmeitf or 
connivance. The fmaUnefs of 
the churcli feem? to favour thi^ 
opinion: and the chifrch-yaxd 
is fo froaU, apd of (o ib^low a 
foil, that the inhabitant^ ane 
much diftrcfjTed for burying- 
ground. The babarities com* 
mitted by the fcxtons, fiiock 

III. Garth'beibio, confifts but 
of one townfliip; is included 
between the rivers Twrcb and 
Bamvy ; and contains about 4^ 
families. The pari(^ formerly, 
as we have it from tradition, 
contained only eight princip^ 

The firftregiftcr was extant fo 
kte as about 50 years ^q, but 
^egle£te4, aivi Alice d^^yed by 
the knights of the thimble. 


that Tydecho's Feaft was fixed 

The church is dedicated to fo be held oa the 17th of De- 

St. Tydechoj ab Annyn 'Ddu^ ab cember. Hie faint's miracles, 

Emyr Llydaw. His feaft is Isept &Jc. are fet forth by Dafydd 

here on Eafter Monday, as, is Ltwyd ab Dywdjm ab GrufFr 

that of Mallwyd, (or Mien* udd, the ancfeftor of the Pughs, 

Ilwyd) a neighbouring pariAi: of Matbavam, as foUowedi,— 
but I find in old Welfh calendars 

Mae gwr Ilwyd yxhma get-llawt 
Mawl a wedd yn ami iddaw; 
Crefyddwr cryt b Fawddwy, 
Ceidwad ar eu hoU wlad hwy; 
Tydecho Iwys, tad uwch-law, 
Un o filwyV ncf aelaw. 
Llymma He bu*r gwyrda gynt 
Llandudoch lie nid ydynt, 
Dogwel heb gel y galwant 

_ * 

laith groyw fwm a Thegfan fant 

Abaci haei yn bittelu 
A'i fagl fawr, difwgwl fu; 
Car o wacd cywir ydoedd 
Arthur' bennadur ban oedd, 
Ni charai pan dreiglai draw 
Y mor Ilwyd wyr Emyr Llydawi 
Ymma madawdd o Fawddwy, 
Rhag dygyfor ar mor rtiwy; 
Teml a wnaeth ynte ymma 
Tad oedd b berchen ty da. 
Crefyddwr Uafurwt* fu, 
Cryf ci wedd yn crefyddu; 
Un ai wely, a^wylwas, 
Ar gwrr y glynn ar graig las. 
Diledach, duwiol ydoedd, 
A phais rawni conffefwr oedd. 
Gyrrodd, nid er ©i garu, 
Maelgwn feirch, amlwg iawn fa; 

B b 4 Ivr 


Iw poithia gweddi V gwr, 

Ar y barth i*r aberthwr; 

Yna eu rhoddes yn rhyddion 

A'u gyrru fry i gwrr y fron; 

Siommed hwy oil, fymmud Uiw 

Meirch gwynnion, marchog anwiw; 

O bu ocrwyn a bamig 

Yn dewion gryfioil oV gnig; 

Yr ocdd pan gyrchwyd o'r allt 

Gwrferiaid gryfau eurwaHt. 

Dug Maelgwn^ (wedi digiaw) 

Ychen y gwr lien ger-Haw; 

Yr ail dydd bu arial dig 

Yr ydoedd geirw *n aredig 

Blaidd Uwyd heb luddj lledwar. 

At ol oedd yn- Uyfnu *r ar. 

Daedi Maclgwn a'i gwn gwynion 

Ir graig hwnt ar garreg hon; 

Eiftcddoddy bu weft addas, 

Uwch y lann ar y Uech las. 

Pan godai nid ai ei din^ 

Ci ar garreg, ior gerwin!^ 

Gwnaeth Maelgwn, od gwn dig oedd, 

lawn iddo am a wnaddoedd; 

Danfoned trwy godded trp, 

Dodi ychen i Dydecho; 

Rhoes gan-oes, nid rhwyfg anwir, 

Nawdd Dnw-dad, nodded i*w dir, 

Slwmai ae drwy fwm o wydd 

Meilir o'i randir undydd, 

Nid rhydd ddim nid rhwydd ymma 

Dwyn ei dir, dynion na da, 

O daw dyn a da i'w dir, 

A chebyftr yr achubir; 

Tiroedd ami nid rhwydd ymladd 

Na phro'fi Uofcl na Iladd; 

Na farhau un o'r sir hon 

Oni wneir iawn yn wirion. 



Gwnaetb ddynion efiyddion fiy 
I rodio pob tir wedy; 
A*r. dall a'r Ijyddar ^'allan 
1 weled a cUywed ach Ian.' 
Mwy oedd y gobrwy hcb gel, 
I Dydecho dad uchel, 

Y noflau golau gilwg 
Golll trem y gwylliaid drwg. 
Pan ddygwyd Te^cdd meddyot 
Dirafa* gwalth o drais gyot, 
Yn lawn rhoes Cynon a*i wyr 
Iddo Arth^heihio yn bybyr, 

' A*i chwaer deg, bu chwerw ei dwyn» 

drm fawr adre *n.forwyn« 
Nid ammod bod obediw 

Yn nhir y gwr, anrehg yw: 

Nac arddel cam na gorddwy 

Na gobr merch, ai gwiw bwrw mwy ? 

Barwniaid bybyr einioes, 

Pab Rhufain a'r rhaih au rhoes; 

Hywel a'i cadamhaodd, 

Mab Cadell rhybell fu 'r rhodd. 

Pan fu ar ei dir luoedd, 

Amcan tynn ar bumcant oedd, 

Trech fu wyrthiau Tydechq' 

A*u tarfoddy ni ffynnodd fib| 

Daliwyd, dileuwyd heb ladd 

Liu ami heb allu ymladd, 

Y modd y delis meddynt 

. Y brodyr bregothwyr gynt: 
Gwan borth a gafib gorthrcch 
Gwynfyd rhai gan a fo trech: 
£led bawby o'r wlad y bo, 

1 duchan at Dydecho* 

Near Llanymawddwy, where brook called LlaelhnanU being 
they fay Tydecho reHd^d, 13 a . thefource of the river Dyfi and 



us tradition will have«C> it wat by 
the faint converted into milk for 
die ufe of the poor ; which is 

ooduntetiuMt^ -b^ tiie following 

" Tyfleche df&d di-ducbaii 

i" Al tVBvethTnrtMthatyllas.** 



The buiUiBg ftnd repairin|; ef 
bridges is very txpaofym ia' 
this pan of the country, becanib 
of the number of ftrea^ii^ which 
though but fmall are neverthe* 
lefs very rapid, and after fi^ddea 
downfalls of rain they fweep all 
before them. There is but two- 
ftone bridges in the whole of 
this diflrid. Off^ laifed at. the 
cxpence of the tw6 tovsmfhips, 
over the river Ckdan ;-r. 

DeoQair cant cofiant cyfao, 
Ond torriy un tair ar dd«g aUaii| 
1£ foed clw}'d ar ryd Ctedan 
Hvylyt rhwog CevH'/fys a'r Uan. 

The d/*Wj 6Wr the Twreh^ ae 
4ie expetico <)f tli^ public, oa 
th^ turnpike road^ «0rhk:h renders 
thcbridge on tbe old road, tbougli 
but lately built vKfh ftone, a), 
tnoft iifdefff 

. The tumpikc-fT>ad leading 
from Dolgelleu to Shrewfbury, 
&ۥ and tl^ poil^foad from Pool 
.to Machyi^leth, leads through 

Uvcle parifhes. 

.1.1 I 

Thd Roman caufeway called 
Ssirtt-Sws* or Sarti-Swfen,which 
leads froth the old ^Oman ftation 


* Caer-Swi unow an inconfidefalile haMIM, tUtftMon (he Stf^m ^rt New-tov« 
fn Montgomeryfliire. TraditioD Oy that « fiwrmet ly eiiitended^froia Abcr-havefp t^ 
Yfirad-Vaclawg. Whatever iU fize may have Been, it bears evident marks of having 
once been a place of confidtf abl6 not*. The feitc of the Rottlri elncampmcnt U at 
(his day difcernible, being a qu^|«ln|^Iar ratapart abottt 150 yaftis f<|uare. In the 
fonth-weft angle of ity was dug, up, about twenty years ago, fome Rfman brick and 
nortar, whifh were ufed in building the chinmfcy of a public houfe hard by« One 

biickihad the fotloving isfipflptiDii in ^Ito rtHtvtfi 

fOHM haif« read €aiu» Jkfhn €atfar Imjietattr ; 1»h^e1l dm IntriHt >^ true, dx^pt it nay 
t»r«rgedUi»tthe briokmaher made ufcof the iame mark undcxthe fuccecdio^ reigns. 




Caer^Swtj to Chefter, or from 
Cder'Uiorh^r-wjifc to Caer- 
lleon-ar-ddyfrdwyy enters the 
pariih of Llanervttloa die hills 
of the Drum ; — goes through a 
bog called Chrs y Vijog^ at this 
time impaiTable for men or 
beads, by the accumulation of 
flough brought down from the 
turbaries ; from tlience it crolles 
Ae moors (gweunydd) inadi- 
redi line to Bwlch y Druniy and 
having gone down Cynniwyll, 
it croffes the Bantvy below 
Neuaddwifiy and dien up Craig 
y gOf it enters the pariili of Llan- 
mihangel at a place now called 
Rhyd font yjtyllpd. Though it 
is covered with coarfe grafi 
(crawcwellt) on the mooriflx 
grounds of the Drum, it may 
eafily be difcovered at feme dif- 
tance, in the form of a ridge in 
lands that have been formerly 
plowed ; and the pavement may 
be found fomewhat below the 
furface. The quarries where 
die ftones have been raifed from, 
and the fcite of the workmen's 
huts, are ftitt dlfcemible. Maes 

CynniwylU which adjoins this 
caufcy, where it croffes the 
Banwy, is the firft fpot of low 
and good land to be met with, 
from Caer-Sws to this place. It 
is probable th^t the Romans had 
an hofpitium here, where they 
raifed com ; and the name of 
the place fignifies as much, be- 
ing compounded, of cyn, i. e. 
firft, primary, and diwylU >• e. 
tillage ; as much as to fay it 
was the firft tilled ground in this 
part of the country. Tliere arc 
no traces of buildings to be fcen 
at prefcnt, the river from lime to 
time having ranged over the 
level meadows ; but I have beea 
informed that pieces of free- 
ftone, which is not natural to 
thefe parts, have been found 
thereabout. I am the more 
confirmed in this fuggeftion, be- 
caufe the Roman road from Uri- 
conium to Sagontium, muft have 
croffed the Sam about this place. 
There was a bridge over the 
river on this fpot, as appears by 
the name Pont yftyllod^ i- c» a 
timber bridge. 


If it hat once been a Roman town of any fizc, the baildingi mnft have been of timber, 
for there are no ftone ruins, although there are plenty to be had in the n^ghboaring 
billf. There ate remain* of fonr cncampoienti in its vicinity, at RAos^ddiayM, Gwyf^ 
/yMjdJ^ Ygmr-ffckaUf and Kevn'-canitdd, 

The name Cae^Svi ia ftippofed by Ibnie to be derived from Hejmi a Roman lien- 
tenaAtf ^chid^ wm turoooi^ic^ by tfaie Bcitont Om^itfin, tad by contra^oa Cmt^^ 





These remains of the an- 
cient Britons are here very nu- 
inerous ; and of divers forms, 
fucli as cumuli, earns, and fmall 
hillocks. The moft noted tu- 
mulus is at Can-OiHce, being 
about 70 yards in circumference, 
meafuring along the bottom of 
the moat, with which it is fur- 
rounded. There is another 
fmaller, near Llyfyn, Some 
people are of opinion that thefe 
hillocks were ralfed for places of 
defence, others fay thay were in- 
tended for beacons. But if they 
were ever applied to thofe pur- 
pofes, they were but fccondary 
ox occaGonally fo ; the level area 
on their fummits being fo ver)' 
fmall, and the ground where 
fome of them are fituated, fo very 
low, that in both thefe cafes diey 
trould have been of no ufe« 

Near Pont y llogel are two 
cams, or CarneddaUy of different 
dimendons : the largeft is at leaft 
60 feet in diameter, and in the 
middle about 7 feet deep. Some 
years ago, when a great part of 
this cam was carried oiF to build 
IJwydiarth park-wall, the work- 
men came to a ftonc cheft, placed 
in the center of the heap, and 
covered with a very large ftone, 

which for fome time diey could 
not remove, and when they had 
opened one end of it, a perfoa 
there prefent efpied a vcffel with- 
in it, and ftruggled hard to get 
the firft hold of it, but to his 
great difappointment found no« 
thing in it but a few pieces of 
burnt bones and a{hes« 3^A<]e 
this urn, the cheft contained two 
fkelctons, tlie head of the one 
laid widi the feet of the other. 
Near Garthbeibioywhon the new 
road and bridge were in making 
a (lone chefl was likewife founds 
but die curioHty of former ages 
had robbed it of its contents; 
the lid was thrown adde, and 
the cheft filled with loofe ftones* 
About a dozen more earns, from 
30 to 60 yards in circumference, 
are to be met with in thefe pa^ 
ri(hes, beiides a greater number 
of fmaller ones. The chcfts or 
(lone coffins ar^ placed ^n th^. 
center, where the cam is always 
more protuberant. A circular 
range of large ftones are generally 
pitched on end on the outiide of 
the heap ; and the ftones con- 
tained within, are piled loofely 
in circles about the tomb, and 
the interfHces are filled up with 
lejQTer ftones. Some of the earns 
are covered with earth, fucli as 




diat at Nant-biini and another 
by Ty gwyn, in LUncrvul. 
Some are . almoft conical, and 
approach near to the form of a 
tumulus, fuch as that on the 
fummit of yfiwlcb y fedwen. 
The ftones.bear marks of igni- 
tion, and river flints^ may be 
found acDODg them, that are 
reddened an4 made brittle by 
the a£lion of fire. A very large 
ftone is placed endwife Avithin 
ten, twenty, or fifty yards of 
each cam, and fuch as want 
them at prefent, may be fup- 
pofed to be deprived of them 
fince their firft erection, by per- 
fons who converted them to 
other ufes. The tumuli and 
cams were probably the funeral 
monuments of the ancient chiefs 
and their immediate dependants. 
The fepulchres of the com- 
monality are found on the hills ; 
where there is a declivity, a 
fmall hollow is to be feen, and 
the earth heaped below like- a 
fmall hillocH, of an oblong 
form. Whei^ thcfe are opened, . 
a ftratum of a^s, blackifli, or 
red-burnt earth, is difcovered. 
Thefe hollows are to be feen in 
great number on a hill called 
Pen-coed> in Llangadvan. The . 
vulgar tradition is, that they are 
(aw-pits, and that the timber for 

building the church came {r<Mn 
thence. But on digging in fome 
of the hollows, I immediately 
found by the native hard gravelly 
foil, that they had never been 
deep enough for that ufe. 
I then imagined that the right 
aame of the hill was Pen^cad^ 
or Hill of Battle^ that all thefe 
hollows were graves, and diat 
their manner of burial was this: 
The dead body was laid on the 
barefward, plaiftered over with 
day, and covered with dry turf; 
a fire was then made over it 
with furze, wood, &c. until the 
corps was reduced to aihes, or 
fo that the flefh was confumed 
and the bones nearly burnt: 
then the charcoal and aflics were 
covered with earth, and fome- 
times flones were laid upon it. 
The cams in general bear evi- 
dent marks of fire; the heat ^ 
had been fo vehement in a fmall 
one which I opened, that the 
ftonin were in a great meafure 

At prefent I fcarcely ever 
travel over a barren hill witKout 
perceiving a gwyddfa. Bedd 
was not the Celtic word for a 
grave, but gwyddfa, from the 
radical monpfyllable cwyddy a 
lapfe, a fall, ice. We have 

* B^ river flintt the vriter mail mean nodulet of quarts ; m this part of the country 
aifordt no other fptc|ci of the fiUceoui genus. 



CAMBRtAN RmtSmVi, l1^ 

borrowed the term 6edd^ and 
probably the Saxons their Ber>, 
from the canaanitifll word ieth, 
a dweDing, a place of retire^ 
ment tec* 

What Briton but mud fmile 
^ea he hears wrong-headed- 
En^ifli writers infiding, that 
tfaefk tumuli^ cams, and huge' 
ftone monuments^ to have been 
die febrication either of the 
Romans, or of their own tot* 
ing anceftors, the S^xons^ or' 
Danes i Were- the Saxons or* 

Danes ever pofleffitf of tAofe 
part§ of Wales,, where fuch 
monuments are fo nun^erons? 
What a ridiculous comeft hat 
been about a certbin barrow, 
whether it was raifid over a 
Roman general, or ft' Saxon 
depredator? But if thej had 
fuppofed it to have been raifed a 
thoufand years before any Ro- 
man or Saxon inv^d^r ever ar- 
rived here, they wbiild have 
bcenmore happy in their coo* 




OBT-tbe top of Moelddolweui 
iffthe pariih of^Uanervul, is a^ 
fortified camp, of an oblong' 
form, above 100 yards in length. 
The emrance is on the weft, 
where the afcene is eafieft^ it is' 
alfo guarded with an advanced 
work of about' twenty yard9 
over. The- camp does not oc>»- 
ccpy the whole that is' mode^- 
raiely levd of • the hill, but cafe 
has been taken to cut the fofs 
dc^oT' on' the* moA accefflbte'' 
iiiks, and the earth is thrown^' 
up to ferve as a breaft-work. 

On*a«hiH netir Llanervtrl isV 
(brtified etninenlice^ called Ga^d^ 
defti a diminutive of Gtfr/Ai i. e. 
a» promontory, an enriiteticc, a* 
fort*, a word of eaftcrh origin. 
If is a-circuldr rampart; encloO 
ing an area of about 7D ytu^ 
dameter. It is obferviUe that 
the entrance into bofh- theft' 
ilrong-holds isbroo^,' ahd left* 
open on the moft accefiible part 
of'the f(»f, feefn!A]gly'f<y coil- 
trived ^* to let' in tKfe fcySicd* 



another ftnall gardden oft Moel-i 
feliarth. In Maes*llemyften> 
lownihipt is a, fmall encamp^ 
ment on the top of a precipice,. 
cnclo£ed on the accefliblc fide 
with, a high ditch: ovec againft. 
this, on the fummit of Mopait^ 

is a ditch full as large as OlFa'sy 
%\it asroik the bill*, as a. defence 
from, the inpurfionsiof theenemf 
from the mountains above it^ 
Another fimilar ditch is to bo 
feen croffihg the vtale of tbtt 
Banwyt near Rhgs y*galk in thft 
pariih.of Uanervul. 



Thc moft ancient manfion- 
l|QUf(^ in thefe parts is Ntuadd- 
wen J in the.pariihof UanwvuU* 
This was the feat of Meredith 
aJbKypao, brother of Gruffudd 
ab Kynan, prince of Nx>rth^ 
Walesy who fervcd the princes ; 
of: Powis, and was termed lord 
qS RbiW'hirietb, Coed'^tahgf and* 
Jjkmdd Witt* Some gepealo^ 
gifti.fay, tbat he was Mere^ijthi 
ab Kynvjn, and brother to 
Bicddyn ab Kynvyn, Prince of 
Bowis. ^ But his coat bears a : 
greater refemhlance . to the arms 

of North Wal^s, viz* quarterly i 
A* and G* four lions paflant 
counter-changed of the field* 
The eftate of Neuadd uvn was 
divided and fub*divided, accoid^' 
ing to the cuftom of gavel-kind^, 
until therime of Evan ab Owen^ 
the laft of the male line of Mere-^ 
dith ab Kynan, whofe two 
daughters and cdieirefles were 
married^ the one to the Llwyd^* 
iartfa family, the other to thati 
of New-town HalL 

♦ We cannot well- scconnt for the cntfmncet into thefe entrenchlncnts bdagf alway t 
•D.the Aoft acceffible fidei, in any other way, than that they were primarily con- 
tl^ided each as a kind of rendeavoua for the Britiih war^cbariots. Had they been 
contrived\s placet of retreat for infantry, or ercn cavalry, ading on the dcfenfive^ 
the nioft acceffible parts would of courfe have been firft and moft effeAually faeured 
with^offes and rampartai and the entrances would, on the contrary, have been oa^ 
the moft unapproachable fidei, where the befie^ed ]ni$ht^ with the greatcft facility 
and tsecntioBK r^p«^ the tt)iexa^ 




In a heap of rubbiih, at the 
back of the prefcnt farm^houfe 
^ of Neuadd wen, were found 
pieces of free-ftone, with mould* 
ings; which appeared to be the 
ruins -of an arched window. 
The building feemed to be. 
Gochicy according to the tafte 
of the 11th andl2ch century. 
It is probable that the name 
NeuaM wen was given to the 
new ftruSurey for there is a 
traditioil that its former appelta . 
tion was Llys ffgan*". Many 
lioufcs have been called Neuadd^ 
i. e. a hall, (Hebrew naofh^ build- 
ings) fuch as Neuadd ddu, 
Neuadd goch, Neuadd Iwyd, 
Neuadd las, and Neuadd vraith. 
tieuaddau jftyllod were but late- 
ly come into faffaion, as we 
lead that Howel dda's palace ac 
Ty gwyn was made ^ virgis 

Below Neuadd wen, on the 
iide of the road, once ftood a 
ftone, whereon was cut a cro/s 
fieury^ but it was of late broken 
down by a foolifh wretch, who 
was in fearch of treafure. 

Adjoining to Neuadd wen 
lies the capital farm of Llyfyn, 
fometime the eftate of leuan ah 
Bcdo Gwyn, dcfcendant of a 
cadet brancli of the family of 

Neuadd wen, and whofe name 
I find among die bards. Tliis 
eftate, and other knds in its 
vicinity, were purchafed by die 
Herberts, and made the refi- 
dence of fome branches of diat 
fiimily, anceftois to die prefent 
£ari of Powis. The name 
Llijyn fecms to be a contradion 
of Llys-dyddyn, i. e. court- 
farm. Probably the princes of 
Powis had a court of judicature 
hereabout, (inde Zr/y/-Wgan, 
and Cevn-//yj) previous to their 
granting thefe lands to Meredith 
ab Kynan. The Herberts, 
when they fettled here, formed 
a park, which they enclofed 
with a palifade, and which has 
of late been difparked. 

The manfion-houfe of Dil y 
maen^ in Garth-beib^o, has been 
the reiidence of fome of the 
Llwydianh family. There was 
lately to be feen over an old 
parlour door, an infcription of 
the 16di century, — I D V 15'* 

Thefe three churches Iiave 
refpe&ively a well near adjoin- 
ing them, which bears the name 
of the titular faint. Ffynnon- 
Ervul is arched over, and a 
channel id formed to convey die 
water to a fpout, where the 
votaries performed their devo- 
tions, and counted their beads. 

* The rivulet that runa hard by is alfo ctlled Hattt Wgii* 




virtue is afcribed to It in curing 

Near Ffynnon Gadvan was rheumatifms. Of hte years, 

lately to be feen a \KC^f of JvigP , pins in gr93l number, were td 

Aonesi fuppofed to be the ruins be feeQ on its bottom, which 

of a building over it. 

.F/jfuftfn lijfdechb iscqpiftruA*- 
kd for a cold bathj and fomp 

were given there as offerings i 
and it was accounted facrilege 
CO take fhcmsway. 

• « 







or TBS 



In the Uffer Pari of fbe County of CARDIGAN. 

Mr. EditoRi 

HaVIN.G read 
the Cambrian Rcgiftcr for 1795, 
with the grcateft plcafurc, I 
think It my duty to fay, as my 
heart dilates, that it is a book 
which was very much wanted, 
to give the public fome account 
of a nation the fuoft ancient 
on earth, and of a language heft 
in originality, beauty, and ex- 
prcffion. As the Regiftcr con- 
fifts partly of ^^/j^/Va/ accounts 
of parifhes — perhaps the few 
Iiints I can give, refpe£ting my 
native pariih, may not com- 
mand the pen of an abler writer ; 
but if they will, I beg mine to 
give place to fuch. 

l^he pariih of Cdren is fituat- 
ed about 15 miles fouth-eaft of 
Aberyftwyth, in Cardiganfhire: 
it is about nine miles long, and 
four broad. The church (lands 
upon an ekyated focky foot. 

near the center of die town of 
Tregaron, i. e. Tr^ Garon^ 
near the fouth-eaft end of the 
pariih. On the north fide dofe 
to the church, waa a fquare 
walled place, open to the Iky^ 
to lay bones dug up from old 
graves— 4)ut, I believe, this is 
now no more^ at leaft, no 
bones are depofited in it. There 
is a market here every Tuefday, 
and one j&ir yearly on the I5di, 
16th, and 17th of March, for 
hofe, pedlary ware, home-fpun 
cloth, ho^es, pigs, &c.— There 
are no manfipns of note in the 
pariih, favie Monachlogy by die 
chapel of Strata Florida^ of 
which i (hall prefendy give a 
litde account. — On the road 
from Tregaron nprthward, about 
a mile from the town, I find 
two paved places in ibrm of 
graves, fuppofedtobedieiepuU 
chr^ of two perfons that merited 
interment on a pnA road. A 
litde further, clofe by die road* 




m a beandfiil lake called Llyn y 
Maesy or the lake of the Fields 
where old tradition fays, former- 
ly ftood the town of Tregaron : 
it is about a mile in circumfe- 
rence, radier of oblong form, 
producing no fifh of any great 
value. At the middle way be- 
tween the tiown and this lake, 
on the weft fide, is a fenny, 
marfliy bog, reaching to the 
river Tihif which produces the 
beft fort of peat that I ever faw, 
to fupply the neighbourhood 
widi firing. They- dig them 
very large, the larger the better; 
when dried ready for the grate, 
or hearth, they make exceeding 
good fire, leaving very few 
afhes, and thofe as white as 
chalk, and light as feathers. 
The odicr fide, on the brow of 
a range of hills, is a fine cop- 
pice of various forts of trees, 
where formerly many goats fed. 
lo this coppice axe an uncommon 
fight of rafpberries growing 
naturally. Not fiir ofiv in a 
meadow below, is Ffynnon £/- 
v;adf formerly of great note for 
curing fore breafts. At the 
north^eaft extremity of thefe 
bills is an afcendency almoft 
circular, and very fteep on the 
weft fide, where grew formerly 
a fine grove of timber wood. 
This bill is called Banau Brony 
Mtvyn^ from the mine work 
which ufed to be carried on 
)ierCf Tfa^rp are j^ow to be 

feen feveral deep fliafts, and 
are level on the eaft fide of the 
hill, in a place called Cwm j 
Graig Goch0 — ^The afcent from 
diis Cwm to the top of the hill, 
is alfo very fteep — almoft per- 
pendicular. It is faid, that filver* 
as well as lead ore, is lodged in 
the bowels of this rocky hiU ; 
but no attempt to diflodge it has 
been made for many years. At 
the north end of the parifh is a 
village of no great repute, where- 
in dw6ll not many honeft la- 
bourers — but . robuft athletic 
miners*— of no religion, though 
I- hope, refonnation is begaq^ 
among them, as there is. now 
of late a chapel built, for die 
ufe of a well qualified extempore 
preacher. The village, partly 
in the parHh of OwnnwSi ^nd 
partly in this, is called Rhyd- 
fendigatd^ i. e. the Blefted Ford, 
fi-om the river Teivi being ford- 
able there, over which is a very 
old bridge of ftone. It is to be 
hoped now, the inhabitants will 
not long contradif^ the name of 
the place, by their manner of 
living.— >A mile eaftward of this 
lies Strata Florida^ commonly 
called Menaehhgy where for-^ 
merly ftood a very large abbeyi 
fome of whofe ruinous wall^ 
are now to be feen. The old 
church-prd, as it is called, is a^ 
very large plot of ground, fur- 
rounded with a ftone wall : 
but the prefent one b abonttwo 
C c 2 ^cres, 



acres, near the center of iKrhich 
ftands a decent chapd, very 
4)car the vifiblc remains of the 
abbey. On the north fide of 
the chapel are feveral grave and 
tomb flones, well executed and 
laid. In the chancel is the 
following monument againft tlie 



'* This humble (lone was 
placed here, in memory of 
Dame Anne Lloyd, daughter 
** ofWm. Powell, late of N ant- 
'^ eos, £(q. and Averimer hit 
*^ wife. She was firft married 
** to Richard Stedman, of Stra- 
** ta Florida, Efq. by whom 
*' (he had two daughters, who 
« died young, and were with 
** their father buried in this 
'^ chapel: (he, was afterwards 
" relia of Sir Herbert Uoyd, 
<* of PeterwcU, Bart.— (he de- 
** parted this life the 2d of Au- 
" guft, 1778, in the 76th year 
•' of her age, and was interred 
*^ near this place, in well found-' 
*' ed hopes of a joyful refur- 
*• re6Uon. Her virtues were 
•* eminent— her piety was with- 
" out oftentation, hypocrify, 
*^.or fupcrftition; her humanity, 
^< and benevolence were gene-*, 
** ral^and confpicuous,;r 
V charity appeared by jtbejieart-. 
^f felt lamentations of the poor 
** apd needy. To the above 
** truth may be. added, that her. 
** tendernels and warm afiec- 

<< tion for her Tclations, vrill 
** everbe remembered with gca- 
^* titude and reverence.'* 

It feems (be was a defcendant 
of Edwin, one of the fifteen 
tribes of North Wales. The 
abbey houfe was formeiiy a 
grand manfion, but now is at 
common farm-houfe ; the pro- 
perty belongs to Thomas Powell^ 
Efq. of Nantcas, and he pre- 
fents to the chapel the ptefcnt 
minifter, the Rev. Thomas 
Davies, a man well refpeded, 
and well attended in his chapd. 
The foil is in general gravelly, 
and moft friendly to tillage. 
The moft ufnal cakareous 
manure is lime, brought from 
the fea-(ide, about twdve miles 
off.^— The crops are rjx, badey, 
and oats; fometime a field of 
wheat, but not very common. 
Many (heep and black catde 
are bred in the pariih ; but diey 
are in general of the fmall fort. 
The (heep walks are very ex- 
tenfive, on a coarfe, rough, and 
high ridge of heathy grounds, 
called Mynydd. Moft of the 
inhabitants card, fpin, and ma- 
nmfa^^ure their own apparel, 
and feixl large quantity of wol- 
lens to marker, efpocially flock* 
iqgSr«**It is knowa that fome 
hands here can knit a fbocking 
large enough £or a man, in the 
time that a goofe is roafting, or 
a pot boiling for a good hot fup- 




per. It was an old cuftom in 
the parifh for girls to meet to- 
gether at one aixicher's houfes 
after fupper, to knit what they 
ufually called Gurid, for no 
other wager than honour— their 
way was for each to let loofe 
from bottoms equal length of 
yam tied together, and the firft 
that would knit up to the knot, 
was the conqueror, and deferv- 
ing of the greateft praife. As 
the parifh is large, and the 
houfes are fcattered, it is diffi- 
cult to afcertain the number of 
inhabitants; but the ftate ofpo^ 
pulation appears to be on the ia* 
creafe.— The number of the 
poor is very fmaU*-»No houfe 
of induflry, but all eager to 
earn their bread in an honeft 
way. No fchool of any great 
ufe, as the parifh lies very near 
to • YJlradmeirtg. The inha- 
bitants are of the eftablifhed 
church, or methodifts, who 
have a chapel at Tregaron. 

Tlie river Teivi, which a- 
bounds with falmon and trout, 
runs from its fource north- 
weft of the whole pariih) and is 

its boundary— on both fides of 
which are fine fields of meadow 
hay, or ofefnl fens. Here are 
plenty of game, of different 
forts, and wild fowl in abund- 
ance. Below Tregaron a little 
way, is a fpring, where fwains 
and maids formerly ufed to re- 
fort to, on Eafterday or Lo^ 
Sunday,to treat one another with 
a penny loaf of Bdra-Can^ and 
drink of the fine mother of aQ 
liquors, produced by this fpring. 
As there are no documents to 
guide any man, in fearch after 
antiquities, in this parifh, I de«- 
cline offering an etymology of 
die names of places, and I do 
not recolle£t that there are any 
veftige left worthy the trouble 
to attempt, de^ refearches, Cave 
at Strata Flmda.. 

. If this hafly feroll will be df 
any fervice, probably I may give 
you a {ketch of another parifh 
Qt two wherein I have refided t. 
few yeacs before I left Cambriaii 
land. Wifhing you muchfucceft 
in the undertaking, arduous and 
difficult as it may be, I remain 
ftncerely, yours, &c. 

. • At thliplac« U the priBcipal Gmnmar School of the county, which has bwn 
Cftabliihed above a century, mad remalbj at tfab time in high tcpute.— A commodioiw 
mtwfckool room, we underftand, is about to be built by the activity of the prefent wo|r- 
iby nafter, and the public f^itii of the traftees, aod the gentlemen of the county. ' 

C c 3 







THE prefent name of this 
iiland, amongft the peo^ 
pk of Wales, is MSn^ and they 
have moft certainly called it fo 
for upwards of two tlioofand 
yean* for it is the appeHadon 
by which it became firfl known 
to the Romans ; and the inhabi- 
tants are called MomvjSi M^n- 
wjfiaidj MonwjfUnj and Gwyr 

Tlie import of the naime is, 
Mihat is fole^ by itfilf^ tnjulatedy 
ox detached: what is a whole j a 
fefarate bodj^ or an individual. 

Hie ifland is about twenty 
miles long, and about fixteen 
miles broad; and is fitnated on 
the north fide of the main land 

of Caemarvonfliire, being fepa- 
rated from it by a narrow finutp 
of from three miles to about half 
a mile in breadth, called Min^ 

From the moft remote periods 
it has been generally divided in- 
to feven diftri£^s, called Cpnjd* 
au, or communities, being the 
ufual fubdivifions of the QsntreVf 
or hundred; and from which 
the term of Comot has been often 
ufed, by Englilh writers, in tl^eat- 
ing of Welflihiftory : And, it is 
probable, the expreffion of Saith 
AehoydMin^ or the feven hearths 
of Anglefey, has reference to 
thofe divifions of the iiland. 
But the Extent of Edward HI* 
makes only fix comots; and 


^ The txirut of North Wales m a cnrioot and valoahle ntewd : there it a copy of 
it in the Britidi Mufeum. Mr. Jones, of London, has, in his Talnable colleAion, » 
▼cry good copy o/ that part of tC, which relates to Anglefey, froni vhlch I have in- 
trodaced feveral particulars into the following topography; and the tiUe of which 
runt thus:— EstbntA Com. KnQVuz\fmBap€r Johawnkm obDslbubs A/moSGi 
Rfgit Edwabdi t€rtii pt^ ttnqmefmm Attglie^ Ammfi DmiUni 1352. 

The purpoft of making this Extent was, for afccrtalning different rents, ferriccs, aa^ 
euftotns, claimed by the native princes of Wales, in order that a commutatten (bould 
be made, by payini; the value of thofe claims, in money, into the Englilh Exchequer. 
And, the Information was obtained by fwearing a jury of twelve men, the names of 

whom are entered at the head of the report for each of the comots. 

^ The 



CemmuiSf whidi is the fevendiy 
agreeably to the common ac« 
county 18 there called a manor* 
tartly lying in Talybolion^ and. 
pardy in Twrcelyn. In the fol- 
lowing enumeration of the names 
of places, the divifions accord- 
ing to the Extent are followed* 
as it fiimifhes the means of af- 
£gning to many places their 
. proper diftri As, which could not 
have been otherwife done, for 
want of a local knowledge of thct 

The comots were parcelled 
out into townfliips, which, we^ 
fubdivided into hamlets, contain- 
ing feveral tenements; but, as it 

would feem, not *aay fpecific 
number; and tHefe were gene- 
rally denominated 7m;, Bod^ 
and Gwifyf or Tyddyn* The 
common acceptation of Tuv is 
a town; although it frequendy 
implies ^ habitation, or man- 
fion; and alfo a townflup, on 
account of fuch a diftri& being 
an appendage to the manfion of 
a land proprietor of the firft 
clais, or a baron. The Bod^ 
though literally it means being* 
is a dwelling, or habitation; ai^ 
is generally, if not always, ap- 
plied like TreVy to the principal 
houfes. The Gwely^ or the 
IVile in the Extent, means a 
bed; but here it ftands for a free 


The foilowing article u (elefted as a fpedmen of the Extent :«« 


Extent, einidem Comoti fkAa apnd Coedtne die Venerif in feflo Mathei apU; 
Anno fupradid9 cofSDn pfat: locti: ten: p: flRrnm et eKaminacionem cuitHlibet ten. 
ckifdem Comot. tarn tiforontm quta natironu et poftea cxaminat. per facrnap^ nR: 
libroro. dttmeni Comet. Tid. 

Dd. Vychan ap Dd. ap 
Mredd. ap Dd. 
Dd. ap Icr. ap T}d» 
Hoell ap MteyriiolM 
Gruffyth ap Lin. 
£i^ ap Edea« 



ler. Lloyd 
Dd. Hackney. 
Dd. ap Meyricice 
Meyriclce Goyk 
leu. ap Mredd. et 
GwUiim ap Tadcr. 


L I9 eadem tIU. funt tres wefe vid. wele Orono ap Eden, wele leu. ap Eden. «t 
vele Pilth ap Eden. Et font hedes: pe: wele de trele Grono ap Edco. Dd« 
Hackney Ieu.'ap Mredd. ap Edeii. et redd, inde qlt: termo. ilij^ terniaoraia fap. 
deoriu e t I I ■ iiij<. id. 

Sunmo: p. Aaan;^ 


'STifft uy^ 


S92 CAMBRIAN 1EGI99TR, 1796. 

tenant's or a im-hoidcr's habi- J^^ ttoalinaa^ 4idicr.|mt of 

tatioo, with the land appertak- .Waks* * * \ ' 

ing tkeretD; aadyinambreloofe , ^ 

acceptation, it is afod in the iame J^nglcfcy conjainsUtprefen^, 

fenfe as Tyidyn,% iumx^ or tene- feTcnty-fput parifbes'^ in fonner 

tnent* times there were probably more; 

there were certainly more 

The followtng lift fliewsi that cburchesy as appears from thofe, 

Trtv and Bo4 are more univer- which are now foiu^d in ruins, 

felly retained for the appellations hi different parts of the ifland. 

of the principal hoofeain Angit- * , >;|, 


• • I 

Q, £t fttot k«d^: p«: wcU dc veJ« Ic». ap Eden. teu. ap MrcJd. ap Hovai Iciu 
Knap et alii et redd, inde qlt: ter. iis. xid, ob. * 

Sttrnim: p. Annun ■»■ i x y. ^(t 

9. Et fust bedet: pec: wele d« Pflth ap £4«li. Ita. »p H«ira Ibltta et raid, aide 
qlt: teme: IHj^ tcfm. ti«. iifiilL . > 

■ » 

Summu: p. Annn; ■ » txi. titttiL 

Etoei: lAoni: triu: wele deb. fedl. ad com. et hundred et fol. rel. gobr et amob r ■ 
Xi. qu. ace. Et hent: .molead. ppriu. too melin Rhod;;eiUiO| et fac. muros et cooptur: 
Aule cande et Capelle manerii de Kenimeys et fol. kj Ich flalony et fol. de qalt. bra- 
ciiia ceruiiae p. ipos: fa^. vkiL U !■>*« If f^*^ atruifie Ragk \9t p. tempore fuerat. 

TlM fbiltfwuag is a fataaary of diiSoiCBt particular^ fcportcd in t|ie ^tcnt ; 

TOWnfllipt •• ^mm •-• / .m^ 87 

Hainkta m^ -» ^ ^, 44 

Mills ^ — ~ rr . ^ 

Free tenants named ^ ^ — . 1163 

From the abore datas the number of inhabitants in the iflandy at the time of nak« 
ing the Extent, may be pretty well afcertaiined thus : 

To 153 parties, in thtf ennmenition Af tenants, the word aiul otktn is jaiiledp to«Kk 
of which may be allowed att aveiagt of thfee; this gives in additioii to (hn naadMr of 
tenants ^ — •*- — . ••« 459 

The number of the faailllet of ▼illilM nay be rated at about 1 000. UXX) 

For the manfions, mills, 4cc. may be allowed — ]7S 

Families rcfiding in towns and viUtges, holding no land ^ 500 

Tbol^ ire numbers five a total of Cunitfea — » 33U> 

which muIUpUed by 5i gives — — — 15150 

To thai Aombrr add the clargy — .— ^ 1850 

Total number of inlnMtnts «•• flOfXX) 

If is prcfumed that the number of inhabitants is noW fotfeewhat greateri bat ao cc« 
tarns have been made, by which that migl^ be proved* 

topog*AphV/ i- -» 

, \'\ X'. 


i^dwZan^/has taken great pains ' 
to ptbvci tkAt Min \ras Ac <*iA' tJiint Bacli, the Httle rtf/»/, or 
Ifeat of ^rtikffin, itt fiemote ami- down. ^ ^ 

quity. What is moft remark- 
able in It at the prefent time is ^Uaftell Bykhwyil, t^rhite pafk 

"thcgre^t'iopper mini of Parts 
Mountain, which is ileemcd^the 
richeft of any that is known f. 



caftle ; in the E:ctent ranked 
as a townfliip. 

Caftellor, the daftle boumk; 
ranked a townfliip in the^.r- 

"Baroti. Hill, a modern Englifli Caftr. Bell. Marifcum, or Beau- 
* ilame. maris,. is thought to be the 

' ancient ;^ir/)5r^^;fr, which 

according to the hiftoi4cal 
Triades, was oi^e of the; three 
• principal ports of Britain^ ana 
iituat^ in Anglefey.' It is 
mentioned in the Extent, 

5pdenvew, .the dwelling of Ea- 
vew; ranked a townf^ip in 
the Extent. . . 

Bodordderch, th/: dwelling .of 
the concubine; ranked a ham- 
let in the Extent. 

Braint, that limits or bounds, a 
' fmall river fo called. 

•• » 

» 4 . 

* • * . • 1 « . < 

Bryn y Gov Ifev, the ■ lo^'er 
fmith's hill. 

Bryn y Gov Uchav, the upper 
fmith's hill. 

Caint) the down. It gives name 
to a fmall village, and to a 

Cevn Coch, red ridge ; ranked a 
hamlet in the Extent. 

Ceya y Llan* the church ridge. 

Ceryg Cnythyll, die lump ftones; 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex^ 

Ceryg Tegvan, the ftones of 
T^van> a faint fo called. 

Gremlin, the pool chat is cruft- 
ed over, or become a bog. It 

* It is not nccefllirj to enter at large into the defcription of the ifland, as very 
complete information -will be had in the Report of the prefent Jiate of'^oB.TH Wales, 
drawn up for the Board of Agriculture, by the Rer. fValter Davits^ curate of Meivod, 
Itt Motttgomeryfliire. 




gives name to a place by it, 
which if lanked a townlhipia 
the Extent. 

I, the gny garth; 
ranked a hamlet in the £«w 
Diofylwy» die esqdoratory fort; 
ranked a townfliip in the Ex^ Marian Pant y Saer, Wright's 
tent. glen hokne. 

Dyfryn Ifar, the lower ralley. 

Edriniog, the feduded fpot; 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex^ 

JLlandegvaxiy the church of Teg- 

Llandyiilio) the church of Ty- 

Mathavam EithaVi the farther 
hofpital ; ranked a townfhip 
in the Extent. 

Mathavam Wion, the hof^ 
tal of Gwion ; ranked a 
townihip in the Extent. 

Melin Caftell Bylchwyn, ByU 
ch^yn caitie mill ; mention- 
ed in the Extent. 

Landdyvnan, the church of Dyv- 
nan; ranked a townihip in the 

Melin Cevn Coch, red ridge 
mill; mentioned in die Ex^ 

Llan vaes, the church of the plain ; 
it is mentioned in the Extent ; 
and there was a priory here 
in former times. 

Llanvair, the church of Mary, 
or St. Mary's 

Uanfinan, the diurch of Finan. 

Uanidan, die church of Idan. 

> I 

Llanfadwrn, die chuxth of Sa- 

Melin Colva, die mill of the 
ftrait ; mendoned in the Ex-' 



Melin Gerynt, the brook miE; 
mendoned in the Extents 

Melin Menych, the mill of die 
monks ; mendoned in the £jr- 

Melin Trev Caftell, caftle town 
mill; mentioned in the Ex-- 



McUq Wyrkm Madog, the mill Font y Yorryd, fta-ford bridge* 

of die gtaodfons of Madog ; 

mentioned in the Extent* Porthaethwy, the port ofTaeth- 

wy, one of the ferrying jdaces 
Meltn y Gwlaw, rain mill; into Anglefey ; itis ranked a 

mentioned in the Extent. townfhip in the Extent. 

Pandy, the fulling houfe. Sam Braint, the canfeway of 

the Braint. 
Pant y Saer» the Wright's dingle. 

Tai yn y Coed^ the houfes in the 
Pen Hefgyn» the barrel head. wood. 

Pen y Caint, die head of the Tan y Graig, under the rock. 

Trev CaftcU, cafHe-town ;' rank* 
Pcnmynydd, the roountaiff top j cd a townChip in the Extent. 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex» 

tent. Tliis old manfion was Trcvraint, Braint town ; ranked 
the refidence of the anceftors a townihip in the Extent • 
of the Tudor femily. 

Treffo«» dyke*ville»or dyke town« 
Pentraeth, the head of the fand ; 

ranked a tiwnfhip b the Ex^ ^ Treror Bwll, die Mor-town by 

^'^'^ the pool; ranked a townfhip 

in the Extent. 

Penwynllys, wliite court head ( 

ranked a townfhip in the £*-, Xwr Garw, the rugged heap ; 
^'^^* ranked a townfhip m the Ex- 

Percyr» that clofes up, or termi- 
nates in a point; a place Ty Gwyn, white houfe. 
ranked as a hamlet in the jS;r- 

''"'• Ty Gwyn, white houfe. 

Plas Gwyn, white hajl Ty'n y Coed, the houfe in the 

Plas Llandegvan, Llandegvan 





TyndaetHwy, the plat of the fer^ 
tilizing water* 

Tyddyn^ the tenement. 

Y Doith Gockf the red loaf. 

Y Vrooy the flope* 


Y Wcm, the mead. 

Ynys Seiroel, the ifle of St. Seir- 
oel, called by the Englifli 

Yr Evail Goch, the red fmithy. 

Yr Yfgol, the fchooi. 


Amlwch, the bending or wind^ 
ing loch. It gives name to 
a place, whkh is ttinked a 
hamlet in the ExUnt: and 
-which is now become a place 
of fome note, from its being 
the port where the copper 
ore of Paris Mountain is 

Bodavon, river ville \ ranked a 
townfliip in the Extent, 

Bodavon, river-ville. 

Bodavon, river ville. 
Bodeilio, the manfion of Eilio. 

Bodewryd, thtf manfion at die 
rippling ford^'; ranked a town- 
fliip in the Extent • 

Bodgyndddw, the mafifion oF 
Cyndddw ; tanked a hamlet 
in the Extent* 

Bod Neval, the dwelling of Nc- 
vai; ranked a townfliip in 
the Extent. 

Bodrugan, the manflon of the 
heathy diflrid, or heath-viilew 

Bodtwnog, the dwelling upon 
*• the broken ground ; ranked X 
townfliip in the Extent* . 

Bryn Gwydded, fdic hili of pre- 
fence; probably it was a place 
of judicature, or where the 

, bards held meetings. 

Bwlth y Davam, thepafs of the 

Camedd Maes Elidyr, die cam 
of the field' of Elidyr. 

Clorach, the place abounding 
with eardi-nut$; ranked a 
townfliip in the Extent. 

Deri, die oaks; mentioned in 
the Extent. 

Garthur, the bencCng ridge; 
mentioned in the Extent. 




Glan yr Aran, the river fide. 

Gla%rug, the green knoll; it 
19 mentioned' in die Exthtt. 

Gwenvro, the white diftriS. 

Hendrev Hytrel, HywePs old-p 

Llanallgo, the church of Ga)lgo. 

Llys Dulls, the couit orDulas f 
Uanbedyr Gocb, St.}^eter^s red^ ranked a townihip in the Ex* 

church. tent. 

IJechogv the place aboiindaig 
with cliflFs ; ranked a; toMAi- 

fhip in the Extent. 

Llugwy, the gloomy water. 
Llwydiarcht the gray garth* 

IJwydiaith E%ob, the biifaop*< 

gray garth. 

(Jandyvrydogi the church of 

IJaneigrad,. the phurch of the 

X^lanelian, tlie church of Elian; 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex-- 

Llanerch y Medd, the plait of 
the metheglin, a market towa 
fo called* 

Llanvair, the church of Mary, 
or St. Mary's. 

Llanvihangel Tre'r Beirdd, St. 
Michael's in bard^s town.' ' 

. t 

Llangevni, the church of Cevni. 

Uangwyllo, the dmrch of 

Maes Elidyr, the t>kiin of Elidyr. 

Maes Phylip, the field of PhiUip. 

Melin Adda, Adam*s mill^ men** 
tioned in the Extent. 

Melin Bodavon, the mill of Bod- 
avon ; mentioned in the Ex- 

Melin Bryn GwyddecJ, the mill 
of Bryn Gwydded \ mention- 
ed in the Extent. 

Melin Danellan, nettle mill; 
mentioned in the Extent. 

Melin Ifav, the lower mill; 
mentioned in the Extent* 

- I J 

Melin Llys Dulas, the mill of 
Llys Dulas ; men^oned in tlie' 



Mdin Newydd« the new mill ; Pentrev EirianeU, the vSlage of 
. iPCatioQed in the ExUnt, Belvidcrc. 

Melin Peoarth, the mill of Pen- Plas Llandyvrydog, the hall of 
artlu Llandyvrydog. 

Mochrre, the bare hilL - Plas Llanddyvoan, the haU of 

M ysydd BodavDn, the mountain 

of Bodavon. Plas Llanvair, die hallofUan- 

Nant Mawr, the great luvine ; 
ranked a lownihip in the £jr« Plat Tregaian, die hall of Tre« 
tent. gaian. 

Nant Bychan, die litde ravine ; Plasy Biaiik,thehaQof tbeciows. 

ranked a tows(hip in the Ex- 

tentn Pont Rhyd Femoly the bric^ of 

Rhyd Femol, 
Pant J Saer, the wpght's 4ingl^. 

Pont Rhyd Owain, the bridge of 
Pen y Voel, the fummit of the Owen's ford, 

Porth DulaSy . the port of Dulas ; 
Penarth, the top of the garth, ranked a townflup in die Ex- 

Peqcraigy the top of the rock. 
Penllech, (he top of the cliff. 


Pordi Llongdy, fhip-houfepoit. 

I^hoJwrthgyr, the courfe of re- 
Pepros, the head or end of the pulfc ; mcndoned in the Ex- 
marih ; ranked a townfiiip in tent. 
the Extent » 

Rhos Llngwy» the marih of 
Penryri, the promontory ; mcp- Dugwy. 
tioned in the Extent. 

Rhos Manach, monk*s marih \ 
Pepryn Moelvrc, the promon- ranked a towttfhip in die Ex^ 
tory of Moclvje. //;//, 



Rhyd Femolv the brd of ihi Ty Twn, the anclced boufe. 

Ty'nyrOhen, tt^ehopleindie 
Ta^wyn, the white fraat, aih. 

TanyGraig, below the rock. Y Caftell, thecaftle, 

Traeth Bach» the litde laad. Y Davam Newydd, &e new 

TraediCoch, thexcd{aiuL ' 

Y Vorllwyd, the gray tump. 
Traedi Llugwy, the (and of 

Llugwy. Y Giaig Ddu, the Uack rock* 

Tregaian, the town of Qaiani Y Gribin> the comb, or ridge, 
or Caian-ville. 

Y Pare, the park, 
Trevgamedd, the houfe of the 

Cam. Ynys Moelvre, the ifle of Mod-^ 


Trevgewy, the town of Cewy i 

mentioned in the Extent. Yftellog, the phce of boanb ; 

ranked a hamlet in the Etttiut. 
Treworllwyd, th^ town of the . 

gray tump ; ranked a hamlet 

in the Extent. MENAIV. 

Trevwaredog, die town of the Abermenaiv, the eflux of the 

redemption; ranked a town- Menaiv, die water between 

fhip in the Extent* Anglefey and Arvoo. 

Tryfglwyn, die entangledgroye; Qerw, the ebullition, a fball 

ranked a tpwnfliip in die Ex- (Iream fo called, whigh gives 

tent. name to Pentrev y BerWf a 

village on its banks. 

Twrcelyn, d^e holly dnmp. 

TyMawr, grea^houfe^ 

ISodelwyddan, Elwyddan-ville. 

Podlcwt the babil^tion of Uew, 




Bodbvryr; GowyiwislVn . . 

Bbdwrida, the hablttdoa'/df 
Gwrida; ranked a townflxip 
in die ExUnt. 

or of Dwynwen, a& ihe is 
alfo called. Dwynwen was 
a feoule iai^, Msbpm fofcs 
ufed to invoke. 

Brainty the limit, or boundary, 
-' a fmall river fo called^ 

lianedwen, the church of Ed- 

Bryn y Gelli ddu, black grove Uamrair Yacht XttleSt^-Maiy*!; 


• t 

, r 

BrynyGeUweOt white grbve 

♦. . . f 

Caman, the place of the cam, 
or I^eap of .ftoqet; rankoda 
townfii\p in the Extent. 

I . »■ , t 

Ceryg Dewi, the ftones of Deiyi, 
or St. David ; ranked a town- 

$ •• 

pinam, that J6 without a fpot, 
or fair; ranked a townihip in 
die Extent <, 

pihavj the fortrtfs, ordiecaaiit* 

Glan yr Atod^ the rhrer fide. 

Hirdrev Vtfg, thd faftnefs^loo^i 
town; ninked a> townihip in 
- the Bxtfeni. - 1 • 

< > • 

Irwaen uchav, the upper luxu^ 
riant rtieadowi • 

LYan Ddmiel, ^church of 

j^a^vi))angel, . d^ chuxcb of 

• * 

)«)ang^o, die church of Ca&. 


Llangeinwen, the church of 

.. pekiwf©, . . 

Llwynogan, the places of tbo 
. grovc^. 


Melin Hirdrev Vaig, the mill of 
/ HirdreT Vaig meotioned io 
. tbtExtna.. 

Melin Newydd, die new mill; 

ia the Mjcitmi. 

Melin Rhofyr, the mill of 
Rhofy r j mcndoncd in the Exr 
I text, 

Menaiv, the ftrait current* the 
name of the channel, which 
diirides . MSm; Or ^Ax^kScji 
from Arvon. 

Mod y don^ the hill of the 



wave, one of the ferrying ranked a townihip in the Ex^ 
places into Anglefey; it is Unt» 
mentioned in the Extent, 

Rhofyr, the marihyphcei it is 

Myfoglen, the mofly fpot ; in ranked a townfhip and manor 

. the Extent it is ranked a to wn« in the Extern. The modeiti 

ihipi £ngli(h name of this town is 

Newborough ; and from 

Newborough, die Englifli name which the Wynnes of Glyn- 

of Rhofyr. llivon take the title of Lonl 

Penryn Uanddwyn^ Llanddwyn 

poiot. Tany Voel, below the hiD* 

Pentrev y Berv^, &e village of Tir Morgan^ Morgan's Iand« 

Traeth Melynogi die yellow 
Plas Cochy red hall* fand. 

Plas Gwyn, white hall. T^rev Arthan^ Ardian-ville ; 

ranked a townfliip In the Ex^ 
Plas lianedwen, Llanedwenhall. tent. 

Plas Llanelidan, Llanelidan hall. TrevAfedi^Afedi-villes ranked 

a townihip in the Exttnt. ' 

Plas Llangafoy Llangafo hall. 

T^v Vcrwydd, Merwydd-ville ; 
Plas Newydd, new hall* ranked a townfhip in the Ex* 


Pont y Gnig, heath bridge. 

Trev Vojlwyn, Mollwyn-ville; 

Porthamcl, die port of die wind- ^^^^ » townfliip in die £^ 

ing ftream. 


Rhandir Gadog, die fliareland Trev Gamedd, die town of die 

of Cadog; it is ranked a ^a^y o^ ftone-heap town; 

.. townfliip in the £jr/<;i/. ranked a townfliip in the £;r. 


Rhofgolyn, the marfli of Colyn^ 

or of the projefting poijQt; 

D d Trev 



TrcvGarwcd, Cardwcd'stown ; Y Vron, die flope* 
ranked a townfliip in the £x^ 
tent. Y Vron Deg, the fair Hope. 

Trev Gewy, Cewy*s town; 
ranked a harnkt in the Ex- 

Trev Qwy drjm , glaft-town ; 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex^ 

Trev Mcibion Pyllt, the town of 
die fons of Pyllt ; ranked a 
townfliip in the Extent. 

Trevnant, brook-^town, or 

>TwB(aiydd» the &nd*hilb. 

Ty Coch, the red honfe. 

TyVi y Coed, Ae houfe in the 

Y Gaer Wen, die white fbn ; 

ranked a hamlet in the BmUnt. 

Y Groeftxmt, the droff bri^. 

Y G wningaer, the rabbit bunow. 
Ynys Adar, Bird's iiland. 
Yfgeiviog, dke htmtinj; ground. 


Aberfraw, the efflux of the riv^ 
Fraw into the fea. It is now 
a fmall vfUage ; ^t in ztt- 
cient times it had the honour 
of being die place of refr 
dence of feveral oftheWcllh 

Tyddyn Ad&y Adam^s tcne- Blaen Llyn y Ooron, the point 
tr ent. of the crown lake. 

Tyddyn Adda, Adam's tene- Bodeon, Eon-viUe; mentioned 
ment. in the Extent. 

Tyddyn Ifav, die lower tene- Bodfordd, Road ville; ranked* 
iT^cnt. ' townfliip in die Extent. 

1r Berdi, the bufli, or the brake; Bodhenwyt^^ Hejiwy&.rillc ; 

ranked a hamlet in the Extent. 
Y Vclin Wen, die white mill, 




fiodwrgan, Gurrgan-vilte, or 
the maniion of GorgafU 

"Boiaw^iBi Owain-ville, or . 
Owen's (hi^Bl^. 

Bodryn, the dwelling on the 

Bodwynau, die town of the 
wolds; ranked a hamlet in 
the Exiifii. 

Bryndewin, the hill of the di- 
viner; ranked a townfliip 
in the Extent. 

Careg Cavell, die cove ftone ; 
ranked a hanlet in the £x* 

Careg y Gwyddcl, the ftone of 
the Gwyddely or the Iri(hman. 


Careg y Tmi, the ftone of <he 


Cafeg Malltraeth, the mare of 
Malhraeth, a rock fo caHed, 
at the entrance of flie cftuary 
of Malltraeth. 

Ccvtt Gwyn, the white ridge 

C6^n* LTahgrifiioIus, the ridge Llanvcirian, the church of Mcir* 
of St. Criftiolus. ian. 

fcevn Trevfraw, Fraw-town Llangadwaladyr, the church of 
ridge. Cadwalader; ranked a town- 

Dd2 &* 

Dinas, Aefoitrcfs,ot die camp. 

Dindryval, the triangular fort; 
ranked a townfhip in the Ex^ 

Dinllwydan, 'gray place fort; 
ranked a hamlet in the £*- 

Dyrodwydd, the place of pa^ 
rading, or theconrfe; raiiiked 
a hamlet in the Extent* 

Eglwyfell, the church land, 
otherwife called Llangadwal- 
adyr; ranked a townfhip ni 
the Extent, 

Fraw, diat ia full of agitation^ 
the name of a river, the efflnit 
of which is called Aberfraw. 

6lan y TracA, fend fide. 

Gorddygor, tJie place of the re- 
tinue; ranked a hamlet in 
the Extent. 

Henblasy old hall. 

Hcneglwys, 6M diurch ; ranked 
a townihip in the Extetit. 



(hip in the Extent f wherein Melin Gwynao, the mill of the 
it is alfo caUed E^wyfcU, or wolds; meottoned in the £x- 

the church diflridl. /eai. 

LkngnftioluSy the church of 

Llanlledwsgany the diurch of 
Lledwigan; ranked a town- 
fliip in the Extent. 

Uyn Bodwynau, tlie lake of 

Llyn y Goron, the lake of the 
• crown* 

Melin Trevwakhmaiy the mS 
pf Gwalchmai-ville ; men* 
tloned in the Extent. 

Melin y Gareg Lwyd, gray 
ftone mill ; mentioned in die 

Melin y Traeth, the mill of the 
fand : mentioned in dicExUnr. 

Paradwys, paradife. 

Llys Uedwigan, Lledwigan Pen y Bont, bridge end. 
court ; ranked a townfliip in 

the Extent* Penbryni the hill top. 

Malltraethy the Cnkbg fand» or Rhos yr Heneglwys, old church 

the quick land. marfh. 

Melin Ceryg Cei^wen, the mill Rhofmor, the fea marfli ; ranked 

of Ccryg Cein wen ; mention- a townfliip in the Extent. 
ed in the Extent, 

Tir y Bcili, the bailiff's land, 
^eltn Bach, little mill; men- 
tioned in the Extent. Trev Bervedd, the middle town ; 

ranked a hamlet in the Extent. 

Melin Dindryval, Dindryval 

• mill; mentioned in the £x« Trev Cornor, the comet's town ; 

fenf^ ranked a hamlet in the Extent* 

melin Dyrodwydd, Dyrodwydd Trev Davydd Ifav, lower Di- 
■ mill; mentioned in the Ex^ ^^^'^ t^^^"- 


Trev Davydd Uchav, upper 

David's town. 




Trev Dyftcinfcud, the town of 
the houfe ftewards ; ranked a 
townfhip in the Extent. 

Trevdniethyfand-town; ranked 
a hamlet in the Extent. 

Trcvveilyr, Meilyr-viUe, or die 
town of Meilyr. 

Xrevvry, high town ; ranked a 
hamlet'm the Extent. 

Trcvfraw, Fraw^viHe, or the 
- town on the river Fraw; 
mentioned in the Extent. 

Trev Iddon, Iddon-ville ; ranked 
a hamlet in the Extent. 

Trevwalchmaiy Gwalchmai- 
ville ; ranked ahamiet in the 

Trevwaftrodion, the town of the 
grooms ; ranked a hamlet in 
the Extent. 

Trev y Gov, fmitb's town. 

Y Gerddi, the gardens; men- 
tioned in the Extent, ' 

Yrlfbardi, the lower diftri^ 


Avon Crigell, Ac river of Cng- 

Bodedeym» Edeym-ville ; cffllcd 

a hamlet in the Extent. 

» » 

Bodvarthan, Marthan-ville ; in 
the Extent a hamlet. 

•Bodorvach, the abode of Got- 
vach; in the Extent a hamlet. 


Bodwrog, Gorog-ville; ranked' 
a townihip in the Extent. 

Bodynolwyn, the dwelling In 
* the circle; mentioned i^ the 

Bodynolwyn Hir, the long 
dwelling in the circle. 

Trwyn y Pare, the point of the " Bryn Gwallan, the hilj of the 
park. precipice, 

Ty Hir, the long houfe, 

Careg Dewi, th^ ilon^of St. 

Ty MawT, the great houfe, 

Carnauy the carns^ or Hone 

V Vaerdrev, the dairy-ville ; heaps, 

faoked a himlet in the Extent^ 

D d 3 Ccvr^ 


Cevn Cjoujiwditheric^ofihe Gavrogwy^ the jGtream of tho 
comot. goat region* 

Ceryg y ' MiooaCp field edge Glan y GoiSi the bog iide. 

Gwaredogvryp, the hiU of the 
Clegyr Mawr, the gntatinfulated redemption, 

Gwaredog Chapel, ^e cha^iel 
Conifiog, ranked ^, townibip in of the redemption* ' 
the BxUnL 

Gwyndyi white houie. 
Crigell, diat abounds with little 

coves, a finall river fo called. HeDdxeV|tbepldhafaitatioii,ortfa9 

manTiop, a tenn fear the hoiffe 
Crigell, a village b called on of general reildence, oppoijed 
the banks of the river of that to the Havod^ or thefummer-- 
name ; ranked a hamlet in the ville. 

Henllysyawr, great old-court. 
Cymmyran, the p)avce of fJyp 
confluences. Henllys Wen, white old court. 

Dcubwll, the two pools, fo caHed Llanbeulan, the church of Peu- 

from its being fituated b^e- Ian. 
tween two inlets of the fc^i ; 

it is ranked as a hamlet in the Uandrygan, the church of Tiy- 

Extent* gan. 

Dyllfordd, the gloomy road. Llanvadog, the church of Mael- 


Eiriancll, the belvidere ; ranked 
a hamlet in the Extent. Llanvair yn Neubwil, St. Ma- 

ry's between the two pools. 

Eirianell Goch; the red btfri- 

^^^^- Llanvihangel, ~ the chiuck of 

Fynnon y Mab, the well of the 

/^"' . IJaagwyven, 



Ltangwyvesn, the ehurch of 

Llanllibio, the chuiyrh af Uibio ; 
nrnkf^ a townfliip in the Ex^ 

Llantrifanty the chuich* of the 
three faints. 

Llanynghenedyly the ehurch in 
the danflilp. 

Llanyftrydan, the church of the 
• pftvemwit 

lleeh^hvarwy, the dtff 6f 
Cynvarwy; ranlbed a hamlet 
in the Extent. 

Llechylched, the furrounding 
eti^; ranked a hamlet in the 

Llivon, ,the flooding flream, the 
river which gives name to the 

Llynmaelogi the pool of Maelog* 

Maes Gwyn^ the ^ite plain. 

Maes y Uai), the ehuixrh fiekL 

Melin Cacrgybf, the miB of 
Caergybi; mentioned in the 


Melin Cymynod, themin of the 
falls; mentiooed m the £x- 

Melin Eingan, the mill of Ein- 
gan; mentioned in the Ex* 

Melin Gavrogwy, die miH of 
Gavrogwy ; mentioned in the 

Melin Hirgy&aethi the mill of 
the long fepatatiod; Aentioni- 
ed in the Extent. 

Melih Hywel, the mill of Hy- 
wel, mentioned ia the Ex- 

Melin Owain^ the mill ofOwain; 
mentioned in the Extmi. 

Melin Rhodgeidio, tlie mill of 
Rhodgeidio ; mendaoed id 
the Extent. 

Jifdin Tyndir, the mill of the 
broken land; mentioned in 
the Extent. 

Melin y Bont, bridge mill \ men»> 
tioned in the Extent* 

Mod Nainnol, the peak of 
ravines; mentioned in the i?;v* 

Dd 4 



Mynydd y Gw, the iinidi*8 Prefaddved, the ripe bmfliwood. 


RhodgeidiOyOr Rhodwydd Ceid- 
Nant-tanogy tbe fpreading io> the courfe of Ceidio; 

brook. ranked a hamlet in die Extent. 

Neuadd, the haU. Rhos Padrig, the marih of Pa« 

Neuadd, diel^all. 

SybylldiTi the plalhy land* 
Neuadd Coed Aneu, ^ hall of 
Coed Aneu. Tavam y Grib, the tavern of 

the ridge. 
Fen y 3ryn, the hill top. 

Tal y Llyuithe head of the lake. 
Pen y Caledig» the fummit of 
the hardened fpot. Talcen Dail, the gable end co.- 

f etipd with leaves. 
Pen y Gored, the head Qf the 

wear. To wyn^ the (Irandi or land hills. 

Pendwar, the head of the gentle Traeth Cy mmyran* the fiipd of 
ftream. the place of confluences. 

Pentir Henllys, pld court head- T>^aphwll, beyond the pooL 

Trev Bodlew. the town of Bod- 
Pen-tiriop, the pleafant fummit. lew; ranked a townfhip in 

the Extent, 
Pentrev Eirianell, the village of 
Eirianell. Trev Bodymlv^n^ the town of 

Body nolwyn ; ranked a town- 
Plas Bach, little hall. fliip in tbp Mxtettf. 

PlasLlanvaelog^Llanvaeloghall Trev Cleviog^u, the town of 

the lazarettos ; .mentioned in 
Plas Llanvair^ Llanvair hall. the £xunf. 

Plas Newydd, new hall. Trcvverwydd, Mcrwydd-ville. 



Trey Ga^od, Cadrod-viDe ; T]r*n y Polion^ the houfe in iho 
ranked a hamlet in the Extent. poles. 

Trcv Grifn» Grifn's town; TyddynGwyn, the white tene- 
called a hamlet in the ExUnt. ment. 

Trev lorwerth, Edwaid^s town. Tyddyn Ty Hen, old houfe te* 

Titv Meihion Meiryg, the 

town of the fons of Meiryg; ^ Chwaen Bach, the little tmn 

in the Extent laid down as a off, or ftan. 


'Y Chwaen Pdu, the black 

Trcv Owain, Owain's town; turn off, 

called a townihip in the Ex^^ 

tint. Y Chwaen Goch, the red tum 



Trevor, Mor-town, 'or Mor- 

yjlj^ Y Chwaen Wen, die white turn 


Trev y Chwaen, the town of 
the tum off; in the Extent Y VdJnWcn, the white ipilL 

called a townihip. 

Y Gors Goch, the red bog. 

Trey y Ddol, dale town, or 
holme town. ^^ A"^ Uchdrcd, the rouj^ 

high padi. 


Tiewen, white-town, or white 

Ty Coch, red houfe. 

Aberalaw, the effluif of iixp 

Ty Mawr, great houfe. ^^^^ -^^• 

Ty'n y Coed, die houfe in'the ^^"^^ ^^ melodious flow, a 

' /wood. ^^^^^^ river fo called. 

Ty*n y Maes, die houfe h| die Alaw Bcirdd, die Alaw of ^he 

plain, baif^s, a townfliip mentioned 



in the Extent to be held of 
' St. Beuoo. 

Berwaen, die fhort meadow. 

CtargyH thfc foft of Cybi, the 
. WeUh name of the towm of 

Holyhead; it is ranked a 

hamlet in the Extent* 

Podvarthan, Marthan - viMe ; 

ranked a townfhip in the Ex* Caeriau^ the forts. 

Careg y Vran, the crow ftone. 

Outteddawr, die place aiboviid- 
kig MFiih heap* «f ftones ; it 
is ranked a townfliip m fhe 

Gaiog Cam, die bendliig nirtne. 
jlMtan» the dwellisg of 4i6 

fpread ; ranked a townfhip in Cawnen, a gr^t hollow body. 

Bodiar, lar-ville, or the habita- 
' tioaoflftf. 

Bodronyn, the dwelling on the 
' ftilienrangleof ahili; ranked 
a townfhip in the Extent. 

the Extent J 

t . 

Bodwigan, Gwigap-ville^ the 
dwcHiiig in the cove, or an- 
*g1e ; it is ranked a hamlet in 
the Extent. 

flue er p^( ^ great ftraw 
veilel for holding com ; the 
pit ; it is ranked a hamlet in 
the Exteikt. 

Cevn Cochy ted tidge. 

farm fo called. 

Bron Heulog, funning-hill, % Cemtyti) <be crooked poof( 

ranked a townfhip in tbe Bx^m 

CemmaeSy the fummit of the 
plain : it is ranked as a manor 
and a townfhip in the Extent \ 
but, according to fome acv 
pount9, it ha» beei^ reckoned ^ 
comot of itfelf. 

Ceryg y Bleiddiau, the flones of 
the wolves. 

Brwynog, the rufhy fpot, 

Bryn Du, black hill, 

Bryn y Pilyn, the faddle hill. 

Cac Mawr, the great field. 

♦ • 

Cacr Dcgog, the fort of Tegog j 
ranked a townfhip in the £x* 





CfttygyGwyTydieftoiisspfcbe Dulas, tbatis of a fabckifliblue 

colour, a river (b caUod, which 
falls into Dulas bay. It gives 
name to a place, which is 
raiiked a town(hip in the Ex-^ 

Clegyrog, the place abounding 
with maflcs of rock ; ranked 
a townfhip id the Bxtent^ 

Clwt y Dwndwr, the tattling 

the frad^ured mafs of rock ; 
ranked a hamlet in the Ex^ 
tent. It is now a farm houfe. 

Coed Aneuy the fpontaneous 
wood y ranked a l^ainlet ia 
die Extent. 

Coefau Gwynioq, white ihank^. 

Comwy, the projecting water, 
or gulf. 

Cors y Ccryg tin, theljogofthc 
fire ftones. 

Craig Glafwenwyn, the rock of 
the blue venom. 

Glan Afekw, the bank of Alaw. 

Clan yr Avon, the river fide. 

Ghfiirer, groen-viQe, 

Gronant, pebble hrook. 

Havodog Vrech, tbe fpotted 
fummering place. 

Llanbabo, the church of Pabo. 

LUnbadrig, the church of Pk« 


Uandeufa^ty the church of the 
two faints. 

Llandogwal, ^e church of bog« 
wal i ranked a'hamlet in the 

Paronwy,thethunderingftream, Uanelian, the church of Elian. 

wliich gives name to a place 

that was ranked a townfhip in Llanvacbracth, the diurph m the 

the ^tent. 


Deri Ifav, the lower oaks. 
Deri Uchav, the upper oaks. 

Ltanvaethle, the churtA oP^ 
Maethlc, or of the nurfing i 
place ; ranked a townfhip ii^ ' 
^e I^xtent. 




IJanvair yn N^ornwy^ St. 
Mary'< in Corawy, 

IJanvechcIU the church of Mc- 
chell, or St. Macutys ; rank* 
ed a town(hip in the Extent. 

Llanflewyoi die chuxch of Fie w- 


Uanvoll, the church of Moll ; 
ranked a (ownihip in the ^x^ 

Llanvor, the church of Mor. 

Llanvwrog, the church of Mwr- 

Llanvygel, the church of the 
/bepbefd; rapked ^ towpfhip 
in the Extent. 

Uyn y Bwcb» the buck's pooL 

Llyn y Goib Ddu, the black bog 

Llynon, the aih pooL 

Llyidulusy Dulas court; men- 
tioned in the Extent. 

Maen y Bygel, (hepherdftone* 
a rocky iflot, called Weft 
Moufe, by the £ngli/K mari- 

M aen y March, the horie ftone. 

Maes y Groes, the plain of the 

Marian, the holme; a fiurm 
(loufe fo called, 

IJanrbwydrysy tlUr cbwph of (h^ Melin Adda, Adam's mill ; men* 
net throw. poned in the ^xtent^ 

Llaqrhyddlid, the chufcb of 
free grapp. 

Llech Tal Mon, the cliflF of the 
front of ^{ona. 

Llechog, the ilaty fpot, or thp 
date quarry. 

Llechog Jfav, the lower flate 

J-lyn Cors Ccryg Tan, the ppol 
of the bog of fire Hones. 

Melin Bodronyn, the mill of 
Bodronyn; mentioned p the 

Nf elin Bodtan, the mill of Bod« 
tan; mentioned m the J?x/rif/. 

Melin Cemraaes, the qiill of 
Cemmaes; mentioned in th^ 

Melin Cornwy, the mill qf 
Comwy; mentioned in the 


Melin Daronwy, the ntiUof Neaadd, the hall. 
Darpnwy ; mendoned in the 
Extent. Neuadd, the hall. 

JMelin Gwrtheym ; the mill of Pant y Golan, the hollow of the 

Gwrtheym ; mentioned in the light. 


Pen Caergybiy the point of 
Melin glanalawy the mill of Caergybi, vulgarly called 

Alaw bank ; mentioned in Holyhead, by the Engli/h. 

the Extent* 

Pen Padrig, Patrick's point. 
Melin Hywcl, the mill of Hy- 

wel. Pen Ucheldrev» high town point. 

Melin Llanvygel, ihe mill of Pen y Bol, the fummit of the 
Llanvygel ; mentioned in the round hill. 
* Extent. 

Pen yr allt, the clifFtop. 
MeKn Lleion, the mill of the 

lees ; a windmill fo called. Penros Brydwen, Piydwea 

Melin Trev Meibion Maelog; 

the mill of the hamlet of the Penros Vawr, Great marfh- 
fons of Maelog i mentioned end. 
in the Extent. 

Penros Veilw>Meil w mar{h*end. 
Mynachdy, the monk houfe. 

Penryn Cemlyn, the headland 
Mynydd Adda, Adam's mount ; of Cemlyn 
a &rm houfe fo called. 

Penryn Comwy, the headland 
Mynydd Paris> Paris mountain. of Cornwy. 

Mynydd y Twr, the mountain Penry £lian> St. Elian's point. 

of the heap. 

Penryn yr Wylan, the GuU't 
Myriogan, the place abounding point. 

widi ants ; ranked a hamlet 

. in the Extent. p. 


Flas Bodewryn, Bodewryn hiXL RhofbeirialI,the rmrfh of Poriafl; 

ranked a ttywnihip in the £4:- 
Plas Dulas, Dolai haB. tent. 

Plas Rhofgolyn, Rhofgolyn half. R hos Veilw, the Dutch myrtle 

Plas Uchav» the upper hall. 

Plas y Bonty bridge hall. 
Plas y Glyn» dale hall. 

Rhyd Goch, red ford. 

Rhyd y Bofit» the bridge ford. 

Rhyd y Vuddai, the.chum ford. 
Pont Havren, the bridge of 

Havrcn. Havren means one Rhyd y Groes, the ford of the 
that (Iretches out, or takes a crofs. 
fweeping courfe : it Is applied 

to an untidy woman, or a Tai Croefion, the crofs houfcs. 
flattem; and die river Severn 

is fo called, Talybolion, th^ front of die pro* 


Pont YlgynyJd, the mounter's 
bridge. Tan yr allt, below die diff. 

Pordi Hdygen, the willow port! Tan yr allt, below die cBff. 

Forth Uechog, the flaty port. Traeth Dulas, Dulas fand. 

Porth Maen y March, the hoife Trev Ednyved, Edny ved-viHe ; 
ftone port. ranked a townfhip in the Ex* 


Pordi ^ Velin, the port of the 

tnill. Trevadog, Madoc-ville; rank* 

cd a townfliip in die Extent. 
Rliiw yr Wylva Wen, the 

white beacon afccnt. Trcvgynwrig, the manilon of 

Rhoftreirio, the marlfli of Pelrio. 



Trevlywarch, the manfion of Ucheldrev Uchav, the upper 

Lly warch ; ranked a town- ' high-town. 

{hip in the Extent. 

Y BortHe«ren| the White port. 

Trey Moelgoch Vawr, Great 

red hill town ; a farm. Y Borthwen, the white port. 

Trev Moelgoch Vach, lictle red Y Borthwen^ the white port. 

hill town ; a farm houfe. 

^ Y Ciibaii,the cabbiq,. 

Trev y^Gov, the fmith*s town ; 

ranked a hamlet in the Ex- Y Vadel Voel, the place that is 
tent* roaped bare.* 

Triftlwyn, the grove of grief. ' Y VeKh Wyht, the windmill. 
Trwyn Melyn, the yellow vmU ^ ^^5 .I>d"» *« Wack flopc. 

Trwyn yr Wylva, the point of Y Gareg Lwyd, die gray ftone. 

• the exploratory. 

Y Cromlech, die inclining at 

TyCoch,redhouf«. fto°e. 

Ty Newydd, new hoofe. Ynys Gybl, die ifle of Cybi. 


Ty'n y Coed, the houfe m the Ynys Gadam, the ftrong ifland. 


Ynys Wellt, ftraw Mand. 

Ty'n yr Orfedd, the houfe on 
the mote-hill. Ynys y Carcharorion, the ifle of 

the prifoners* 

Ty Wfdyn, Gordyn hemie. 

Yr Wylva, the e3q)loratory. 

Ucheldrev Gocd, the woodhig^ 






or T MB 



From a Manufcript. Pities^ D. T. 

N. B. K Ikandi for Nfttunly F for Faaitloof. 


1. Alabaster, 

2r Alluni. 

3. Afbeftos, 

4> Arfenxc, * 


5. Brimftone, 


6. Cimmolian Clay, 


Llangwyfan, N* 

Amlwch, F. 

Monachdy and Skerries, N. 

Amlwch, . F. 



- N. 

7. Fuller's Clay, white and yellow,HoIyhead Mountain, N. 

8. Copper, - - Amlwch, N. and F. 
9* Copperas, - Ditto, N. and F. 

10. Chert,China Stone,PetroSilex, Llan Badrig, K. 

11. Ditto, - - Llandegfan&LlanGriftiolis, N. 

iLlanfihangel Yfgeifiog, 

13. Culm, - * . Pen y Crug, Uan Griftiblis, N. 

14. Earths 





14. Earth8,argiUaceous and fllicious, Amlwch. 

Trefdraeth, and Uanddwyn. 
Sbos Fawr. 
Llanfair-ynghornwy . 


15. Grit StonCy 

16. Grinding Stone9» 

17. Gypfum, 


18. Hones, 


H^. Lead) — Dulas, 

20. Lapis Toraatusy 

21. Lime Stones throughout the Ifland. 

: M. ' 

22. Mafblcy Mack and grey, Moelfte, Llanallgo, &c. 

23.. Marie, white, grey, &c* Llanddyfiian & Llanffinan, N. 
24. Mill Stones, - - Rhosfawr and Penmon. 

23. Ochre, Paris Mountain, N. and F. — and Llan Badrig, &a N. 

P. * 


Llanfihangfl Ymhenrhos, 


26. Paving Stones, 

27. Porphyry, 


28. Quarts, 


29. Shale, * « 
SO. Slates, - - 
31. Sulphur, vide Brimftone. 

on the Banks of the Meaai. 

Paris Mountain. 


Ditto, and Uan Badrig. 




32. Verdigreafe, 

33. Vitriol, 

Paris Mountain, N. and F. 
Ditto, N. and F. 






A State of the Number of Ships ^ with their Tonnage^ which belonged 
to the following Ports^ during the Year 1796. 


I Shi^, I 


a5 Briftol, . 

W /' Chepftow, 
;^t Cardiff, - 

^ \Swanfea, 
j:) J Pembroke, 
C [ Cardigan, 
^ ^ Aberjrftwithi 

j^ . r Beaumaris^ 
p 2 I Conway, 
Pi »J < Caernarvon, 
O ^ I Pullheli, 
'^ !^ L Holyhead, 























Upon enquiring, at the cuf- 
tom houfe, for the reafon of 
no returns being made from the 
harbours of Conway, Caemarr 
von, Pullheli, and Holyhead, 
the anfwer was, that Conway, 
Caernarvon, and Pullheli, were 
creeks of Beaumaris , and Holyr 
head a creek of Chefter ; and 
confequendy the fhips belonging 
to them, bad been regiftered at 

their refpeftive ports. It was 
farther explained, that fome, if 
not all of thofo places, had been 
fet out as ports, (in the reign of 
George I. as it was thought) 
but tlie izGt was, that they were 
not fo confidered in pradice; 
nor was any buiinefs done at 
them, except what all cheeks 
were competent to do. 




There arc places, not includ- 
'cA in the above table, which, 
with refpefl: to themfelves, have 
the conveniences of regular ports, 
whatever may be the arrange- 
ment, by which their accounts 
are tranfmitted to the cuftdm 
houfe; fuch, for inilance, is 
Barmouth, where there; is a re- 
gular eftablifhment of officers, 
who clear out veflels, and tian- 
fa£t the other ufual concerns of 
the cuiloms. 

The returns of the ports of 
Briftol, Chefter. and Liverpool 
are inferted, on account of their 
vicinity to, and connexion with 
the principality. 

As an appendix to the above 
table, it maybe ufeful to give the 
following Lift of all the Creeks, 
where there are any veffels be* 
longing to them: 



Newport upon U(k. 


Aberddaw, or Aberddawon* 

Ogmore, or Ogwyr. 

Aber Avan. 


Loughor, orLlychwr. 






Laugharn, or Llacham. 



Tenby, or Dinbych, 




Fi(hgard, or Abergwaen. 

Newport, or Trevdraeth* 


New Quay. 


Aberdyvi, or Dyvi. 
Aberdyfyni, or Dyfyni. 
Barmouth, or Abermaw. 
Traeth Bach. 
Traeth Mawr. 

E e 3 















Traeth Coch. 






( 421 ) 


O M 


Mr. Editor, 

THE narratives of travellers, 
and their delineations of 
foreign climes and cuftoms, 
have, for a long time, ofiered 
to the public much rational in* 
ftra(%on as well as amufement. 
But it was not till within the 
prefent century, (with, perhaps, 
a few exceptions) that Englifh- 
men feem to have difcovered, 
that their own country poflefles 
many variegated fcenes and beau- 
ties, which are well worthy the 
attention of the admirer of na- 
ture, and of the pencil of the 
landfcape painter: and that the 
important ftudy of mankind may 
be eflentially promoted by an 
obfervation of the chara£ters 
and genius of the inhabitants of 
the different parts of our own 

Of late, however, thewildeft 
and mod uncultivated extremi- 
ties of this kingdom, the high- 
lands of Scotland, and the moun- 
tains of Wales, have frequently 
attradied the notice of the tourift 
or traveller*. That thofe who 
have made thefe domeftic tours 
or travels (call them which you 
will) have themfelves been amply 
gratified, and repaid for their 
curiofity, few of them will de- 
ny: that the public have been 
much delighted or inftruded bv 
their defcriptions, I much doubt; 
notwithftanding the many op- 
portunities their tours muft ne- 
ceffarily nave afforded for obfer- 
vation and refledion. 

In defcribing thofe fcenes that 
charm fo much in nature, the 
efforts of the pen alone, how- 

* I confefs I do not perfedly comprehend the difference between thefe termi : Hn- 
leCi the one may be coniidered u the man o pleafure^ and the other| the man of 


£ e S 




ever brilliant, is feldom found 
fufficient to keep alive our at- 
tention ; and, to convey a toler^ 
able idea of the fpot intended to 
be reprefented, the aid of the 
pencil 18 frequendy, if not air- 
ways neccflary. But It is not 
fo in the defcription of men and 
manners. The cuftoms and 
peculiarities of mankind, when 
the traveller has fu£Bcient pene- 
tration to difcem, and fufficient 
accuracy to delineate them, are 
fubjeSs highly attra£llve of the 
contemplation of the philofo- 
pher, and highly worthy the ob- 
fervation of the gentleman* In 
this ftudy, however, as far as 
the refult is before the world, I 
fear that, in moft of thofe who 
have honoured Wales with a 
viiit, will be found a lamentable 
deficiency. Whether it be from 
the want of knowledge of the 
language, or from too tranfient 
an acquaintance with the in- 
habitants, it is remarkable, that, 
among all the tours into this 
country, which have met the 
public eye, (Mr. Pennant's only 
excepted, diftinguiihcd no lefs 
by local than by general know- 
ledge) we have nothing like a 
refemblance of the men and 
manners of Wales: a circum- 
(lance the more fmgular, as 
there are fcveral traits in both, 
which are equally (Iriking ; and 
which, one would conceive, 
(ould not have efcaped the notice 

of any attentive obferver. It 
is, probably, to this defeA that 
we are to afcribe the errors of 
travellers, when they impute to 
this country vices and foibles, by 
which it is not generally dlf- 
graced; and virtues, by which 
it is not peculiarly diftinguifhed. 
Thus, for inftance, a niftic 
bafhfulnefs, timidity, or a re- 
fped^ful referve, has been foroe- 
times miftaken for fuUennefs, or 
even bnitiflmefs: and more par- 
ticularly, a rapidity of expref- 
fion, or a tone of voice to 
which a ftranger is not accui^ 
tomed, in a language not under^ 
Jiood^ has been conftrued into 
paffion. I am not now con- 
tending againft the common 
idea of the irafcibility of Welih- 
men: an idea; fo long and fo 
generally received, it would ap- 
pear hardy to ^St& to doubt : 
at the fame time, if any perfon 
were fceptic enough to deny the 
pofition, in the extent generally 
admitted, or as peculiarly ap- 
plicable to Wales, he might 
very properly proteft againft the 
evidence of fuch travellers, bring- 
ing with them all this previous 
prejudice, and extremely liable, 
for reafons juft fpecified, to be 
deceived in what they might 
deem appearances of paffion, as 
very fallacious, and very in- 
competent to decide upon the 




Methinks I already perceive 
my Engltfli rea^der fmile at the 
pi&ure, which his own imagi- 
nation has drawn, of a red-hot 
WeUhman, exafperated at cer- 
tain injuries fuppofed to be done 
to his country, or his country- 
men; fwearing — G — t fplutter 
hur nails (a Welih oath manu- 
fafkured in England) that he 
will be revenged, &c. I would 
not interrupt him : but when he 
had finiihed the portrait, and 
amufed himfelf with my ideal 
likenefs, would introduce my- 
felf, by afliuing him, that my 
intention, in thus employing a 
few hours of leifure, arifes, not 
fo much from a defire of ex- 
pofing the mifreprefentation of 
touriils (which is more properly 
perhaps the province of the critic 
by profeiSon, a chara&er to 
which I have not the prefump- 
tion to afpire) as the gratifica- 
tion of an earned wifh, tliat by 
a corredion of the errors of 
others, whether wilful or neg- 
ligent, fome light may be thrown 
upon the cuftoms and manners 
of that country, which has 
been the fiibje£t of their obferva« 

Having premifed thus much, I 
proceed, without further preface, 
to accompany one of die mod 
refpeftable of the Welfli travel- 
lers : a gentleman who has af-i 

fumed the fmgular, not to fay 
the unmeaning and affeded 
appellation of the Oleander \ a 
name of which he feems fo 
fond, and with which he is fo 
plcafed and delighted, that, while 
we travel with him, he is con- 
tinually in the flraw. What 
the produce of his (heaves will 
be, when bound, and tfarefhed, 
remains to be examined. 

He begins with a quotation 
from fome friend— or, perhaps, 
from himfelf, that *' travelling 
*' makes authors;*' a poiition, 
which I am inclined neither to 
difcourage nor controvert : yet, 
if thefe fame travelling authon 
facrifice truth to novelty, or. 
imagine that fuperficial obferva- 
tions virill fupply the want of an 
intimate, or even of a moderate 
knowledge of the genius orcha- 
rader of the inhabitants of the 
countries they attempt to de- 
fcribe, however we may ad<- 
mire them as writers, they will 
have few, if any claims upon 
the moreferious, attention or 
gratitude of the public. The 
Gleaner feems to be aware of 
this ; and he has very properly, 
and very truly, remarked on the 
pod-hade obfervations of thofe 
who have gone before him ; I 
wifli they may not be equally 
applicable to thofe who follow 
him. His defcription of modem 
tourids (at lead of nineteen out 

£ e 4 of 



of twenty) IS fo perfedlly cor- 
re^, that I cannot refrain from 
quoting it. 

^* If they are under a necef- 
fity to (lay a night at any of 
thefe [intermediate ftages] the 
moft inquifitive of them ftroli 
through the ftreets, or faunter 
tjonnd the ramparts, while the 
fupper is preparing* The reft 
throw themfelves on chairs and 
fophasy till aroufed by the re- 
tiim of their companions ; who 
generally come back diffatisfied 
with their ramble; and, ifthey^ 
write at all) fit down, between 
ileeping and waking, and infert 
in the meagre journal of the day 
a drowfy, yet fplenetic account 
of what they met with in their 
walk, depending on die fexton, 
as the hiftorian of the building ; 
and on feme chance pafienger, 
as the intelligencer of the in- 
habitants, environs, police, &c. 
At day-break the next morning 
they are off, fcarcdy allowing 
time for fwallowing a comfort- 
lefs di(h of cofiee, fquabbling 
with their hoft for extonion, 
curfing the country they are 
under the immediate protedion 
of, and difgracing the manners 
of their own." 

Ah ! little think the lazy, 
credulous, book-worm tribe, 
whom travels, tours, and ma«' 
gazines furround, how true*^ 

how corre£k a defcription this is 
of the refource from whence is 
commonly delved fo much 
amufement, and, as it is ima^ 
gined, fo much knowledge of 
mankind, and of the manners 
of different- nations and pro- 
vinces ! 

Through South Wales this 
writer darts with the rapidity of 
lightning. A compliment, in* 
deed, (envolant) is paid to its 
beauties; but its defcription, if 
fuch it may be called, is com- 
prifed in the table of contents^ 
** Beautiful landfcapes for the 
*♦ pencil and the pen." " Abcr- 
♦• gavenny"— *• Brecknock"— 
" Carmarthen"— ♦« Sea-pieces" 
<« Rock-work"-*." New and 
" old Paffage" [the dafli re- 
trograde] " Laughame" 
** Kidwelly — Llanelly— -Swan- 
** fea." Now, from tliis pro- 
fpedus, the reader might be led 
to expe£t, to hear fomething 
about thefe places ; ■■ Not a 
word. Even their names are 
never introduced or mentioned 
through the whole chapter. As 
to the remaining towns in South 
Wales, we muft reft fatis- 
fied with being told, that they 
zxtfweet places. Then, hark 
for Machynlled), (or, as the 
WeUh people in the nei^kbour- 
hood call it, MachyntUaith)— in 
North Wales ! By sH the Jack 
q' lanthorns—if he takes fuch 




rapid ftridesy there is no follow- 
ing this fellow ! The man in 
the feven league boots was a 
fiiail to him. Fat, however, as 
I am, and though I vpnfF and 
Mow in the purfuit, I muft en- 
deavour to overtake him. And 
if he (houM chance to amplify, 
or bounce, or embdlifli, (fyno- 
nyms of tlie prefent day) and I 
fliould abrupdy or unwarily pull 
him by the coat, or tread upon 
his toe, he may be alTured that 
I have no intention whatever to 
hurt or offend him ; and I have 
that opinion of his benevolence 
and good humour, that I would 
confidendy rely on his forgive- 

In the firft place, then, loth 
as I am to rob the principality 
of any tnerit which this traveller 
rs inclined to afcribe to it, a 
more intimate knowledge of it, 
and a love of accuracy, oblige 
me to deny the univerfality of 
that hofpitality which he aflerts 
to belong to it. There arc 
formers, and I am inclined to 
allow they are a large majority, 
who will welcome the ftranger 
to their humble roof and homely 
fare : but let him not be too con- 
fident of meeting this cordiality 
every where, or his occafional 
difappointment will be the more 

That any of the nobility or 
gentry of Wales retain either 
their hawker, or their domedic 
bard, Is another gleaning of error 
here carefully collected. Some 
of the nobility and gentry of 
North Wales have their harpers; 
but I do not believe that any of 
them has a hawker. A dome/tic 
bard may here and there cad 
himfelf an appurtenant to the 
family: but now, as Edward 
Richard has it, 

Ni weUr «r wylimu 
Y Bardd wrth eu byrddau 
, Wrth dryfau ecf inau cet gaau. 

No more the Bard adorns the feafi ; 
Degraded now-— the kitchen gueft. 

' Find me fuch a familv at 
Barmouth, as the Gleaner has 
gathered together, and fuch an 
anithor to defcribe them, and I 
will thank the coUedor, or tra« 
veiler, without infmuating a 
doubt of the verity of the tale, 
or queftiontng any of the fa6ls 
which he (hall affert with fo 
much pleafantry. But when 
the gaping, and admiring reader, 
who is well acquainted with the 
fpot, which is the feene of ac- 
tion, has given a good natured 
currency to the well-told hiftory 
of the breeches and the petti- 
coat—the net makers-i-and the 
barber (not that I mean to deny 
the exiftence of female barbers) 




he 18 to be provided with ftill 
larger powers of deglucitioo for 
tl c talc at Abcraeron— (by mif- 
take written Aberavon — though 
feveral places occur of this 
name in the principality.) To 
underftand a part, at leaft, of 
this tale, it is neceflary to (late 
that the author talks of going 
into a cabin in Cardiganihire, 
where a fifherman, the mafter 
of it, upon taking a good haul 
of herrings, cries, " look, what 
a fize they are of !— how they 
fhine— 'they feemed plaguily 
afraid of the hurricane; and 
came in (hoals to the nets, as if 
they took fhelter in them. I 
.am deuced hungry--«what fay 
you, my heart of oak,'* clap- 
ping me upon the fhoulder, 
*' take a drop of this dear crea- 
ture; which will make a dead 
fifh fpeak like an orator." Tlien 
follows a love tale—about a 
ihipwreck—- or fomething like 
ic^-^nd the efcape of a newly 
married couple, which is fo 
well related, that if we were not 
taught to expedl real, and not 
imaginary adventures, it would 
be wrong to fcepticize.. But, 

'< Says neighbourly, 
« While flaoding by, 
" L'd, how the world is giv'o to< 


Independent of other impro- 
babilities, this language, and 
thefe manners, in fa(^, no more 

refemble thofe of a Cardigan- 
fhire failor, than an Otahcitean. 
The lower dais of inhabitants 
of Cardiganfliire, when they 
can conveife at all in Engliih, 
do it with a very remarkable 
provincial brogue, interlarded 
with Wel(h, and a ftrong pro- 
penfity to confound the fexes. 
Speaking of a man, chey will 
fay ^^Jhe*' (not hur^ an expref* 
don no WeKhman ever ufes) 
" did fould roe fo." They have 
a natural referve, or (hynefs of 
addreffing ftrangers, which is 
the reverfe of familiarity. This 
fhyne{s, as I have before ob- 
ferved, has, at firft, the fern- 
blance of fullennefs : but let the 
traveller bear with it a few 
minutes, and convince them that 
he feeks their afliftance, and 
does not pride himfelf upon his 
fuperiority as to external ap- 
pearance, which they are too 
apt to think all ftrangers do, 
and he will foon experience the 
warmth of diiinterefted, tliough 
awkward and ruftic, friexid* 

Indeed, from the perufal of 
this author, I am almoft per- 
fuadcd that he has adopted die 
too fafliionable mode of intro- 
ducing the novelift into the com- 
pany of the traveller. To this 
I fliould have the lefs objeftion, 
if, by fome previous hint, a nod 
or a wink, we were, in the 




firft place, apprized of the en« 
tre of the former: the charac- 
ters which ought never to be 
confounded, might thus be kept 
feparate and diftin£t. But when 
a 'writer, who feems to think 
himfelf entitled to credit, (and, 
in general, perhaps, not with* 
out reafon) in relating his real 
adventures^ condefcends toem- 
bellifli his account with fiction, 
however I ofkay admire his abi- 
lities, I cannot help reprobatbg' 
his pra£tice. 

In adverting to the ufages and 
cuftoms of the country, our au- 
thor fays, it \%\h^ fettled uf age of 
the principality, " for the trad- 
ing part of the people (to ufe 
his^own phrafe) to over-reach 
ftrangers, in their little market- 
ings and bargains with them: 
that is, they will afk him a three- 
pence more tlian they would a 
countryman. As a general po- 
rtion, this again is not corredi. 
I believe there is little or no dif- 
ference, excepting in language, 
between the tradefmen of Wales, 
and thofe of any other part of 
this ifland. When a ftranger 
comes to market, whether in 
England or Wales, and he is 
known to be a fli-anger to the 
prices of that market, I am 
^ afraid he will frequently be im- 
pofed upon : but the refpe3able 
part of tradefmen, here, as well 
as elfewhere, may be equally 

depended upon. And if a com- 
parifon mu(l be made between 
the extortion of a Welfli water- 
ing place, and fome of the moft 
faihionable in England, taking 
into the account, in the former, 
the almoft total defertion of 
ftrangers,' and the confequent 
ftagnation of all buiinefs, dur- 
ing the winter, and the perfon 
who has made, or wifhes to 
make, the experiment, will fee 
theinjuftice of the chargeagainft 

I am forry tp obferve, that 
every article of provifion, men- 
tioned by this author, is much 
dearer than he has ftated them 
to be in the town of Carmar- 
then. I mean that he under- 
rated them (from incorreft in- 
formation .1 make no doubt) 
even at the time vi^hen he travel- 
led in Wales. At prefent they 
are infinitely dearer. How- 
ever, as it majT not be entirely 
ufelefs to know the prefent prices 
of provifions in South Wales, F 
have taken the trouble of afcer- 
taining them at the different 
towns, and will now exhibit 
them at one view, in a fmall 
table ; marking, in the firfl co- 
lumn, what die aforefaid tra- 
veller has ilated them. 




'y ' - "8?- S -5 

» • • • ■ & 

• III H 


- \ 




1 1 

00>0»OiOiOiOOOO>g 0>00i^ 




o>oo©oco«-o*-** o^o? 



-JOOOOOO*-©^" ooo? 













. O 




. 1.J 







Tbefe were the prices (of all 
the articles then in feafon) in the 
latter end of May, 1797- Houfe- 
rent, likewife, is low in 
the (Hincipality as this writer 
lepiefents. In the moft retired 
and unfrequented comers, it is 
probable that a tolerable houfe, 
9nd a few acres of land, may 
be had for /25. per annum. 
But in the populous counties, in 
the vicinage of towns, a gentle- 
man's houfe, with a dozen acres 
of land, cannot be rented under 
;f 40. or ;f 50* per annum. 

To be obliged continually to 
contr^didl the too precipitate 
aflertions of travellers, is truly 
a painful taik: but when the 
truth of tlietr aflertions is ftated 


to have been confirmed by the 
atteftation of their own eyes, it 
becomes a more delicate bufinefs 


to controvert them. But I 
muft, notwithftanding, aver, 
that '' courtihip in bed," does 
not forni one of the general 
ufages or cuftoms of the lower 
clailes of people in Wales. 
Among folks of this defcription 
clandeftine viiits, under the 
fhade of night, is a general 
pra£^ice; but their affignationa 
of this kind are, I believe, much 
the fame as what takes place in 
England. Indeed, the wit of 
Mifs's ftealing out by moon- 
Ugbt to Pappa's garden, may 

apply equally wdl to'die moun« 
tains of Wales, as to the pur«> 
lieus of London : with tjbis dif«^ 
ference, thjat a bam, or an out^ 
houfe, generally flidters the 
Cambrian wooers, inftead of 
the gay arbour, or a ginger** 
bread alcove, in the neighbour^ 
hood of the metropolis. That a 
' favoured WeMh lover has not 
occafionally-^or even frequent-* 
ly^-had accels to the bed-fide of 
his mi(lre(s;^>i"that he has fre* 
qvently faid foft things to her 
upon that bed, and that nothing 
improper has followed that per- 
miflion, cannot be denied: but 
that it is a general cuftom to 
fettle the preliminaries ofa more 
lading conne£Hon in bed, is fo 
didant from the fad, that it 
fcarcely requires a ferious re* 
fiitation; and I muft, therefore* 
prefume that the author, not-» 
own eyes, in one inftance, could 
have but very flender authority 
to vouch for the univerfality of 
the cuftom. I am happy, how^ 
ever, in confiiming the account 
of the ftrewing flowers upon the 
grave ; a pradice frequently 
obferved in feme of tlie country 
ehurch-yards! and has truly the 
becoming •''appearaiiie of vene« 
ration for the dead, at the fame 
time that it produces a fei^timent 
of pleafing melancholy in the 
living. Yet, in thi^, our plca- 
fant traveller cannot help em- 




bellifliiog and adorning his tale, 
when he informs us, that the 
woman with whom he was in 
convcrfation, told htm, ** that 
if a nettle. or a weed was to be 
feen to-morrow, (meaning on a 
Sunday) in the church.yard, 
the living party to whom // (die 
grave> I prefume, on which it 
grew) hAoa^A^ would hi ho9tid 
afier divine fervice by the whole 
congregation' r* Sad jade«-<o 
impofe. thus upon a ftranger. 
** Hooting !"-*hoot awa mon, 
it's nae ilc a thing« 

The Welfli weddings are 
pretty much as defcribed by this 
author; notfy, riotous, andde* 
dicated by the guefts to drinking 
and fiuging. He might have 
added, that they are frequently 
preceded, on the evening before 
the marriage, by prefentsof pro- 
vifions, and articles of houfliold 
furniture, to the bride and bride- 
groom: on the wedding day, as 
many as can be coUefled toge- 
ther, accompany them to the 
church, and from thence home ; 
where a colle6lion is made in 
money from each of the guefts, 
according to their inclination or 
ability; which fometimes fup- 
plies a confs^erable aid in efta- 
blifhing the newly married 
couple, and in enabling them to 
1' begin the world," as they 
call it, with more comfort: 
but it is, at (he fam^ time, con- 

fidered as a debt to be repaid 
hereafter, if called upon, at any 
future wedding of the contri* 
butors, or of their friends, or 
their children, in iimilar cir- 
cumftances.«*Some time previ- 
ous to thefe weddings, where 
they mean to receive contribu- 
tions, a herald with a crook or 
waiid, adorned with ribbons, 
makes the circuit of the neigh- 
bourhood, and makes his ** bid- 
** ding,'' or invitation, in a 
prefcribed form. The knight 
dmmt cavalcade on hotfeback— 
the carrying off the bride^-the 
refcu c -' the wordy war in 
riiythm between the parties, &c. 
which fonnerly formed a fingu- 
lar fpedacle of mock conteft zt 
the celebration of nuptials, I be- 
lieve to be now almoft, if not 
altogether, laid afide every 
where through tlie principality. 

It cannot be denied diat the 
Welfh have much fuperftition 
amongft them, though it is 
wearing off very faft. But the 
inftance adduced here, that of 
their prediAing a ftorm by the 
roaring of the fea, is a curious 
kind of proof of their fuperfti- 
tion. Their predi^ions, if they 
may be fo called, are common- 
ly juftified by the event; and 
may, I apprehend, be account- 
ed for from caufes as natural as 
the forebodings 6f (hepherds ; 
fpr which thgy have rules aq4 




data, as well known to them- 
felves, and, perhaps, as little 
liable to error, as any of thofe 
eftablifhed by the more en- 
lightened philofophers of the 
prefentday. That, among the 
lower dafs of people, there is a 
general belief in tlieexiftence of 
apparitions, is unqueftionable : 
but as to the lighted candle, 
ipringing up upon the enand of 
Ipve, I beliere that no peifon 
in Wales has ever before 
beard of it. The traveller has 
probably confoonded it with a 
very commonly received opi* 
nion, that, wiihin the dUa/e (kf 
St. David* Si a fhort fpace be- 
fore death, a light is feen pro- 
ceeding from the houfe, and 
{bmetimes, as has been aflerted, 
from the very bed, where the 
fick perfon Hes; and purfues its 
way to the church, where he 
or fhe is to be interred, precifely 
in the fame track in which the 
funeral is afterwards to follow. 
This light is called canwyll 
Morph^ or the corpfeH:andle* 

The extravagant ravings of 
methodifm, which the author 
very truly and very properly re- 
prdfents as exceeding every thing 
which can be feen or beard in any 
civilized country, are certainly a 
reproach to the good fenfe and 
underftanding of the inhabitants. 
Between 30 and 40 years ago, 
^ branch of the kOi of Mff 

Whitfield's perfuafion, began to 
exhibit certain enthufiaftic ex- 
travagancies, from which they 
are fomctimes denominated 
Jumpers, Perfuading them- 
felves that they are involuntarily 
a&uated by a divine impulfe^ 
they become intoxicated with 
this imagined infpiration, and 
utter their rapture and their 
triumph with fuch wildnefs and 
incoherence-**with fuch gefti- 
culation and vociferation, as fct ' 
all reafon and decorum at de- 
fiance. This prefumption, feiz- 
ing chiefly the young and fan- 
guine, and, as it feems, like 
hyfteric adFe<SUons, partly fpread- 
ing through the crowd by fym- 
pathy ; its operation and eStGt% 
extremely varying according to 
the different degrees of confti- 
tntional temperament, mock 
all defcription. Among their 
preachers, who are alfo very 
various in their charader, (illi- 
terate and conceited«-»or well 
meaning and feniiblc— or, too 
frequently, I fear, crafty and 
hypocritical,) fome are more 
diftinguilhed by their fuccefs 
in exciting thck Jiravaganzas, 
One of thefe, after beginning, 
perhaps, in a lower voice, in 
more broken and detached fen- 
tences, rjfes by degrees to a 
greater vehemence of tone and 
geflure, which often fwells into 
a bellowing, as grating to the 
car-^a$ thQ attendant diftort]on« 




are difguitiog to the (ight-**of a 
rational man. In the early part 
he is accompanied only by lighsy 
and occaiional moans, with 
here and there a note of appro* 
bation; which, a while after, 
arefucceeded by whinings and 
exclamations:' till, at length, 
one among the crowd, wrought 
up to a pitch of ecftacy, which 
it is fuppofed will permit no 
longer to be fuppfefled, ftarts 
and commences the jumping ; 
ufmg, at intervals, fome ex< 
preiBons of praife, or of triumph. 
The word moft generally adopt«> 
ed is ** gogoniattt !** [glory!] 
Between thefe exdamatidns, 
while labouring widi the fubje6t, 
is emitted from the throat a 
harfli, undubting found, which 
by the profane, has been com- 
pared to a ftone cutter's faw. 
The conclufion, which I am 
almoft afhamed to defcribe, has 
more the appearance of heathen 
orgies, than of the rational 
fervour of chriftian devotion.-— 
The phrenfy fpreads among 
the multitude;— for, in fad, a 
kind of religious phrenfy ap<» 
pears to fcize them. To any 
obfervations made to them they 
feem infenfible. Men and wo- 
men, indifcriminately, cry and 
laugh, jump and fmg, with the 
wildeft extravagance. That 
their drefs becomes deranged, or 
the hair diihevclled, is no longer 
an obje^ft of attention,^— And 

their raptures continue, ttU, (peit 
with fatigue of mind and body, 
the women are frequently cairied 
out in a (bite of apparent inien* 
iibiiity. In thefe fcenes, indeed^ 
the youthful part of the coc^re- 
gation are principally concerned; 
the more elderly generally coii* 
tenting themfdves with adomv 
ing, with devout gratitude, 
what they deem the operations 
ofthefpirit. This phenomenooyi 
fit)m thefe few leading traits^ 
iiiggefl many in^ortant reflec* 
tions, whfcli, however, come 
not properiy within the provioce 
of thefe curfory remarks. 

The Gleaner nextprefents u« 
with what he very properly 
calls his bonm bouche^ Wiie- 
tfaer, to the racinefs of its fla<* 
vour, it added the recommend- 
ation of eaUnefs of digeflion^ 
tliofe who fwallow it muft de^ 
termine. He tells us (and he 
tells it with the appearance of 
gravity) that, in Wales, the 
belief of Fairies ii general I .Ii* 
Glamorganfliire, in particular, 
we have an extraordinary tale 
of a parfon who had written % 
book upon tliem, and was their 
intimate friend ; and of a gen- * 
tleman, who accompanied him 
to this fame fairy-loving parfon, 
the faid gentleman alfo firmly 
believing in their exifteoce, 
Now, whether the traveller 

himfelf ex|>erience4 on this ocr 




^caTion, a litde pkafant humbug 
of this fairy land, or is only dit- 
pofed to amufe bimfelf a little at 
dif expence of his reader, I 
know not; but if there had been 
fuch a clergyman as he defcribes* 
either iaGlamorganfhire, or in 
the neighbourhood of Ponty- 
pool, he certainly would liave 
done right to have confuUed his 
credit in concealing his names 
and, at prefent, it is as com«> 
pleatly unknown as his book ; 
which one may venture to fay 
the little folks have never yet 
permitted him to publifli. That 
diere are (illy, weak people in 
all countries, «very man who 
has travelled muft be convinced : 
and that there may be n^any of 
the lower kind of people in 
Wales, as well as in England, 
who believe in ghofts, goblins, 
and fairies, I know fiill well: 
but that there is a greater pro- 
portion of the credulous in the 
former than in the latter, (though 
I have feen a great deal of the 
manners of all ranks in both,) 
I luve found no reafon to af- 
firm. The vale of Feftiniog, 
Indeed, as a part of the princi- 
pality, with which I am at pre- 
fent unacquainted, I mufl give 
tip to the traveller ; and, mufl, 
therefore, leave him in the un- 
difturbed pofleffion of his fairy 
inn and landlady there. And, 
to give him all the advantage of 
WclQj (iredulity, I ao) ilptcr* 

mined to believe— as much as L 
can, of that flory, as I will 
likewife of the Montgomeryfhire 
Amelia's tale: fo well told, and 
fo like every thing— —except 
the common occurrences of life, 
that I feel little intere(kd« whe- 
ther it be truth or fi^ion. 

I wifii we could admiti as a 
fa£t, that there is a harper in 
every village, and a bard to 
every mountain in Wales, The 
truth is, fome of the villages of 
North Wales have their harpers : 
in South Wales there are veiy 
few. As to the bards, alas! 
they may be {aid to be no more^ 
The Ajven^'^iht Welfh vis poi^ 
ticay feems nearly extinguifhed; 
and though fome few fcintillar 
tioqs may dill fparkle in two or 
three of the bards of >fort}> 
Wales, I am much afi^id that, 
like the faint and tranfieqt blazo 
of a nearly-wafled candle, they 
only forbode its approaching exr 
tindlion. It is, however, not a 
little extraordioary, that an au- 
thor, not verfed in the language 
of this country (as from feveral 
paflages it is obvious he is not) 
fbould take upon himfelf to 
pronounce upon the merits of 
Welfli poetry; a fubjed, oa 
which to conftitute a judge, re-, 
quiring a long and intimate ac- 
quaintance with the language; 
and on which few, who pofTefs 
even that ^dvs^nUge, are com- 

F f pctcnt 

43 ( 


pctcnt to decide. It is, there- 
fore, fcarccly neccflar)' for me 
to add, that what he has by in- 
ference aflened, *< that the 
poetry was not cqiial to the ve- 
hemence with which it was 
uttered," however it may de- 
clare his modcfty, cannot, in 
fuch circumdances, be admitted 
to come with any of that weight 
or authority, which may entitle 
a man to advance any pofition 
to the public. His hlftory of 
the bards, as he calls it, is too 
fupcrficial to have much claim 
on the attention of the reader ; 
and has, indeed, little to re- 
commend it, but its brevity. 
The curiofity of the Welfh- 
man, on meeting a ftranger, is 
defcribed with no Icfs truth than 
livelincfs. Wc have no reafon 
to infer, however, that it is any 
thing peculiar to this country. 
In all wild and unfrequented 
countries, and it is only in fuch 
parts of Wales that this curiofity 
is moft obfervable, the fame 
remark has been made. Dr. 
Franklin has told us that it pre- 
vails fo much in America, that, 
when he travellp'^ there, in only 
aiking the road, he found it ex- 
pedient—to fave time — to pre- 
face his queftion with " my 
*' name is Benjamin Franklin— 
** by trade a printer— am come 
*' from fuch a place— and go- 
** ing to fuch a place ; and now 
•* — which is the road?" A 

curiofity, indeed, in all cour« 
tries thinly inhabited— or where 
there is little thoroughfare, or 
intercourfe with ftrangers, fo 
cafily accounted for, and ex- 
hibiting fo little inconfiftency of 
the human charafter, that I am 
furprifed our traveller, with all 
his knowledge of human nature, 
fhould deem it extraordinary. 
Let him go to the Highlands of 
Scotland, or to Orkney Iflands, 
though I have never vifitcd ci- 
ther, yet, I will anfwer for it, 
that he will be received in much 
the fame manner ; and if it be 
true, asTrinculo fays, that, "in 
** ^England any monfter or 
" ftrange beaft makes a man,** 
(and fuch may appear the fpruce 
and flippant ftranger to the rag- 
ged and untutored inhabitant of 
the mountain) the fame curio- 
fity, (though varioufly modi- 
fied) will be found to prevail 
throughout all parts of this na* 

Upon the whole, this author 
has himfelf exhibited too many 
inftances of the fame poft-hafte 
faults, which he has fo pro- 
perly reprobated in others. 
Though I do not charge him 
with any wilful mifreprefenta- 
tion of the men and jnanncrs of 
the country; yet, from his 
frequent inaccuracies upon that 
fubjefl, partly arifing, probably, 
from his ignorance of the lan- 



guage, (an infurmountable ob- 
flacle to the inqulfitive traveller) 
his book is of littk value, in elu- 
cidating or promoting that (ludy, 
ipvhich I conceive ou^ht to be 
die chief objeA of the traveller's 
attention* That lie is an agree- 
able writer, and, particularly, 
that he has a happy knack of 
telling a ftory, his Bannouth 
barber— his Cardiganfhire fai- 
lor— >his Montgomeryfliire Ame- 
lia, and her father— >and his laft, 
diough not leaft entertaining, 
adventure, at the inn at Shrewf- 
bury, will fufficiently atteft. 

Having freely, yet without 
prejudice, ftated my thoughts 
on this part of his work, I fliall 
now take my leave, by wifhing 
him, in the next vifit he fhall 
pay to South Wales, a better 

The next tourift that claims 
our attention, is< a lady of the 
name of Morgan. Her pubK^ 
cation is called *' a Tour to Mil- 
ford Haven ;'* though it might 
more properly be entitled ** a 
defcriptiop of the town of Ha- 
vevfordweft, and of the neigh- 
bouring country," to which, 
as £ir as relates to Wales, it is 
alndoft exclufively confined. 
This journey, it feems, was 
taken in the year 1791 . During 
the early part, that refpe6^ and 
politepefs, ever due to the fex, 

claim our filent acquiefcence ; 
and while (he remains on En- 
glifli ground, induce us to take 
for granted that the h&s re* 
lated are true, and the obfer- 
v.ations upon them juft: no 
fooner however does the fair 


traveller crofs the Severn, than, 
from being complaifant hearers, 
we are called upon to remark 
and to teftify: no fooner does 
fhe fet foot on Cambrian ground, 
than the fpirit of embellifhment, 
peculiar, I hope, to the Welfh 
traveller, inilantly feizes her. 
One would imagine there was 
fome inchantment in this re-* 
gion ; or fomething In the cli- 
mate, that, in all Tobrifts, the 
moment they breathe in it, oc- 
cafioned a lamentable defedl of 
vifion. Some it feems to blind 
entirely: to fome objedis ap- 
pear multiplied: to others re- 
vcrfed or diftorted. Soon after 
her arrival in Brecknockfhire, 
this lady difcovers that the men 
of this country have a terrible 
way of mending their roads, 
*< Huge ftones, as diey came 
from the quarry, of the ilze of 
a man's head, and many of 
them four times as big, are 
fpread over the road in heaps, 
perhaps a mile diftant from eacli 
other; and you mud either 
drive over them, or wait till 
the people break them with 
large hammers." No wonder 
that her horfe ihoul4 addreft 
F f 3 h^r. 



her, or at leaft fcem to addrefs 
her, with •♦ why haft thou 
brought me into thefe difficul- 
ties?" Feeling it fo fevcrely, 
if he had not been in a lady's 
company, he would probably 
have muttered half a curfe or 
fo, and, borrowing the thought 
from his miftrefs, might have 
added «< thefe Wehhmen have 
a d-*d odd manner of mending 
their ways !" Whether the lady 
and her horfe, like the prophet 
and his a(s of old, met with 
any fuper-natiiral obftruAion^ 
is not for me to fay : it is my 
part to give the ftate of the 
roads, as it appears to vulgar 
eyes: and the reader will be 
furprized when he is aflured, 
that eight or nine years ago, a 
few years before the dalfe of this 
tour, the commiffioners of the 
turnpikes took immenfe pains to 
remove the very inconvenience 
which the lady and her horfe 
complain of: and that the faid 
commiffioners, with that diffi* 
culty indeed, which generally 
exifts in removing ancient pre- 
judices, did prevail upon the 
labourers on this very road, 
iuAead of layifig huge flones 
upon or " over it," by which 
Ihe, the furveyor, had before been 
frequently deceived, (as they 
covered it with a layer of earth 
before they were properly bro* 
ken) to lay them ki heaps upon 
its Jides ; by which means it 

has ever fince been feen, that 
they break them fufficiently fmall* 
before they are laid over the 
road. So that, in the lady's 
account of the matter, there 
appears at leaft an odd kind oi 
anachroniim : . whether intro* 
duced for a poetkal — or for 
what other purpof^— the Writer 
herfelf alone can determine. 

After paffing thefe hugeheaps, 
and after a difmal tale of a dif- 
mal (hower — ^a diftnal dell— «nd 
the difmal clinking of chains 
one mile from Trecaftle, not 
as ftie tells us a peafant informed 
her " tree mtlft ^ (a fpecimcn 
of imitation, by the bye, which 
can only excite a fmiks, as com* 
ing from a lady, though we 
could not otherwife avoid ob» 
ferving, tliat it is much more 
like the dialed of Duke'& Place, 
than that of the mountains of 
Wales) this lame unft>rturuite 
defe6i of vifion, to which I 
have juft afluded, becomes again 
obfervable, and difcovers itfelf 
in a fingalar manner, when we 
are informed, diat edl the cot- 
tages in Waks are perfedly 
white and (hear diis, ye un» 
confcious and aftomftxed inlia* 
bttaots) LUMINOUS 1 the roof 
being covered with white flate, 
rcfcmbling— — ^what dnak you ? 
a wall? — a white apron?— a 
fheet ? — die infide of an oyftet 
/hell ? No, no ! Gueis again. 




However, not to fiitigue the 
R»der with conjedores, or puz- 
zle him to find a fimile which 
it is ten to one he can ever 
reach, be it known to all men 
by thefe prefents, that they are 
like— the moon bursting 
FROM A CLOUD ! When the 
reader is informed of the hSty 
that forty*nine out of fifty of 
&e Welfh cottages are covered 
with brown thatch, he may 
perhaps be apprehenflve that the 
defcription may be occafioned 
by fomething of a moon-blind- 
nefe: though, after all, it may 
probably be intended only as a 
dafh of poetical brilliancy ;«~too 
brilliant indeed fbf the owliih 
profaic reader to appreciate. 

A few more obfervatlons oc- 
cur upon cfear ftreams, high 
txx:ks. Merlin's cave, with an 
occafional anecdote or two, and 
we are carried to Haverford* 
weft, the deftination of the 
journey. With refpe£l to the 
local cuftomrt of the Principal' 
lity, iittte is ftid ; though that 
little is in general juft. But 
her defcriptions being confined 
^o the ooiHitry near Haverford- 
weil, flier obfervatioM equally 
limited, apply only to that place 
and its vicinity. She does not^ 
indeed, feem to recoiled her 
own bbfervation to her huAxind 
in their journey dovm: — that 
*• l^rfe people are not Welftt : '* 

and, confequently, that Ihe can- 
liot, from their pra£tices, de« 
duce the general manners or 
eufloiAs of Wales. In that 
part of the country, howeveTj 
where fhe had leifure and op« 
portuniiy to make her remarks, 
I again fubfcribe with pleafure 
to their general corrednefs; 
though even thefe I cannot ac- 
quit in fom^ cafes of exaggera- 
tion, and in others of error. 
To point out a few inflances. — 
The door of a hut of a mine^ 
is faid to be fo low, as to oblige 
him to creep in on all fours, and 
be b faid to fit in it, as an Indian, 
upon his hams. From this de* 
fcription one might be led to fup* 
pofe, that this is the habitual 
pofture of diis body of men, as 
is faid to be that of the Indiana. 
The hSt warrants no fuch fup- 
pofition. Ill wias only the acci- 
dental pofition in which ih6 
happened to fee sr poor fellow 
under a few turfs, piled up to 
^rotcft him from a ftorm or 
ftowerof rain, the apcrtiii^e into 
which, though low, permits a 
tall man^ on his ftooping to en- 
ter. — ^The whole of this, how- 
ever, hardly dcferved notice; 
there being nothing in thefe 
temporary eredlions peculiar to 
the principality. 

The ftory of thcf culm-balls, 
burnt in Pembrokeihirc and 
Carmarthenfhirc, having been 
V f 3 midakca 



midaketi for potatoes roaAing, 
(by-the-bye they mud have been 
of a tolerable fize) only reminds 
us of a Hybernicifm related 
there upon this fubjc£t: a plea* 
faotry, indeed^ which may be 
amufing to ftrangers* though 
worn out among the inhabit 

The dialcft of Havcrfordweft 
does not confiil of a mixture of 
Welfh and Englifli, nor has it 
any thing of the ufual Wclflt 
accent. Little or no Welfh is 
fpoken there, even by the lower 
claflfes of people; and their dia- 
led, though of a peculiar nature, 
and not eafily defcribed, has no 
refcmblance whatever to that of 
Breconfhire, or Glamorgan/hire, 
where the Wclftx language is 
moft fpoken* On this fubjed 
of the variation of languages, 
there is a very extraordinary 
circumftance in Pembrokeftiire, 


which has not attradlcd the no- 
tice of curfory travellers. A 
brook divides the hundreds of 
Rous and Dangleddy, on one 
fide of which the inhabitants 
converfe entirely in Englifh, on 
the other as entirely in WeUh ; 
and this has continued fo for 
ages. The fame thing may be 
obferved of the inhabitants of 
Gower^ in Glamorganihire, 
though here the line is more 
idea1> and not fo eafily afccruih- 


ed. But when a man of Gower' 
is aiked the refideoce of one in 
Llangevelach, whidi is on the 
WeUh fide of die iine,^ it is a 
conunon reply, '^Idonnaknawy 
a lives fomewhere in the wel« 
fiiery;*' as if he bad fpoken of 
a piggory, ot rookery, or any 
thing of that khxl. The Flem- 
ings in Gower as well as in 
Pembrokelhire (for they fettled 
in both) certainly aScSt to hokt 
the Welfh, and particularly this 
language, very cheapo no won-- 
der, therefore, diat Mrs. M. 
ihould be anfwered in a (harp 
tone and indignant look, when 
ihe prefumed to fuppofe they 
could gobble our gutterals, or 
converfe in what they efteem a 
barbarous language. 

It is with furpriTO I find this 
lady affirming that diere are few 
if any beggars in South Wales^ 
Here again I prefume /lie is on- 
ly defcribing Haverfordweft^ 
where I underdaiiid they are le&t 
numerous. But, to the difgrace 
of the police of Soudi Wales in 
general,the towns through which 
travellers pafs, and particularly 
the doors and windows of inos» 
are infefted with miferable look- 
ing objects, as filthy and difgtift- 
ing, as they are (for of many I 
can fpcak from pcrfonal Jknow^ 
ledge) idle and undeferving. If 
the abilities and integrity of the 
magiftrates of the principaUty 




(m&i as I have the honour of 
.being acquainted with them, 
.and that acqiiaint^nce, I have 
Xbfi pleafure to fay, is not very 
confined) could derive any ad- 
ditional luftre from my humble 
tribute of applaufe, I fhould feel 
my felf bound to beftovjr it, where 
it is fo richly deferved : but, up- 
on this very important branch 
of their duty, coUedlively and 
individually, as well as munici- 
pally, I muft ftill declare there 
is a moft fharoeful and unpar- 
donable want of ^tention. The 
humanity of the traveller aflifls 
ip continuing, though I hope 
not in pcrpptuating, the reproach. 
1 trufj, when! fay this, that I 
ai?jL not arrefting the arm of 
jbieneyolence : and at the fame 
time that it is my cameft prayer 
that pp one dcfcrving or diftref- 
fcd objc£t may ever regret that 
I have fo far interfered, 1 muft 
be permitted to hint, that if the 
xnagiftrate would prevent thefe 
fj^es of the really poor — thefe 
cirones and caterpillars of fociety, 
from fnatching the raorfel in- 
tended for the relief oi more de^. 
fcrving obje£b, for which pre- 
vention the laws are fully com- 
petent ; and, at the fau\e time, 
aflbrd opj)ortunit>cs to the hu- 
mane and aiBuent, while travel- 
ling on bufmeis or pleafure, to 
difpofe their bleffings in affilling 
their indigent fellow-creatures, 
it would be attended with great 

advantage to 4^e community; 
would add honoju^ to their own 
charaftei:^ and thu^ convey the 
v^U-intended benevolence of the 
charitable, now fo fadly diverted 
and mifapplied^. into its proper 
channel. To encourage this,,! 
would propofe,; that a poor-box placed at the entry of 
every principal inn, in each 
town-rthc key to be kept by 
the magiftratc or parifh-officcr— 
jSbfi contents to be applied, under 
proper infped^ion,! to the relief 
of the really neceflitous. If* I 
were not afraid of bringing about 
my ears a very jeffamy fett of 
gentry, I would take the liberty 
of pufliing the thought farther, 
by fubmitting, that if the odd 
halfpence in bills at, inns were 
added to the contribution at the 
door, the box naight probably 
produce fo very cpnfidcrable a 
fond at the end of the year, as 
n^ateriaHy to relieve the chilling 
diftrefs of winlter, and aflift the 
poor rates, • 

When this lady affcrts that 
the lower, kind of people in 
Wales do not live poorly, I fear 
iUe only cxpofes her want of 
knowledge of their general fi- 
tuatioiji. Gfcat part, of the in- 
habitants, particularly. the froall 
farmers among the hills, live in 
a manner that moft people would 
call wretched. Their fare is 
infinitely more coarfe than that of 
F f 4 pa^ifl^ 



parifh paupers in other parts of 
the ifland. What in Enghind 
areoafled neeeflariesof life, are, 
with tfaeniy in many cafes, 
luxuries. Their ufual food con- 
fifts of coarfe barley lyread, black 
nearly as a beaver hat, fuch as 
my lord's hound would loatfa|«8*» 
a dry, fourifli cheefe,— oaten 
bread, which, Aough relifhed 
by fome, has little nourifhment, 
and is I fear nnwholefome for a 
continuance, — ^flilmmery, — and, 
now and then, fparingly, milk. 
Their drink— water. Meat, 
generally deemed necefflary, ap- 
pears not on their board perhaps 
once a fortnight. Their only 
luxury feems to be a few pots of 
ale, on the market day, in which 
they 4leep all their cares: but 
very fiiequently, after a cold wet 
ride, they have to tumble into 
a bed, into a firclefs houfe, 
fcantily covered with thatch-, 
through which the rain pene- 
trates, and drops upon that very 
bed during the whole of the 
night. To this the fituation of 
Xh6 >^ndering country beggar 
U in many refpefts fuperior; 
Independently of his exemption 
From labour, from rent— and 
B'prti taxes, to the former, 
fources of perpetual anxiety and 
trouble, the humanity df his 
neighbours enables him to live 
in more comparative comfort. 
For the reformation of thefe 
Vagrants, indeed, as well as tliat 

of town beggars, regulations ntt 
much wanted: and I may here- 
after take the liberty of fuggeft^ 
ing to the public what may oc- 
cur to fne upon this topic. It 
is a momentous, aninterefting 
fubjedl; and every perfonwh6 
thinks he can point out any 
thing on this or any other fob- 
jcft, which may be of forvice, 
ihould not timidly hefitate— t 
when public duty caUt upon 
him— todifclofe it. 

Mrs. M. ftill forgetting per- 
haps that flie is at Havcrford- 
weft, obferves a peculiarity in 
the countenance of Wclflimen. 
The fame obfervation, though I 
own it has never ftruck me, has 
been madebyfeveral others, and 
therefore, is probably true. The 
fize and general height of die 
labouring inhabitants of CardK» 
gan(hire feem to have fomething 
peculiar. They are mofUy 
thick fet, {hort men, ftt>m five 
feet two to five feet fix, muiinK^ 
lar, bony, brave, detennined, 
and refolute; (as the French 
defperadoes who lately landed 
on their coaft can atteft (who 
alfo found in their neighbours of 
Pcmbrokefhire the fame ener* 
getic qualities)«-dieir drefs^ 
which may be almoft called their 
uniform, is a light blue, fhort 
coat, with a waiftcoat and 
breeches of tlie fame colour. 
The W6m(fti's whittles (a kind 




•f fliort cloak>*-or piece of 
iianQel^«<-»pbaed or tied round 
tiietr fliouldeis) one of die fame 
make as ddbribedb^ Mn. M.; 
iave that ihote in Cardiganihi» 
Bte ttd» and -a long deep fringe: 
how much the colour and tbe 
garment contributed, on the oc-# 
cafioojuft alluded, to, to ftrike 
the enemy with conftemation, 
is* loo well known to be men* 

In taking leave of this tour, 
I muft obferve that in general, 
this authorefii makes a proper 
return for the . civilities paid her 
in the country. In one inftance^ 
indeed, fhe feeinsto have failed* 
Anxious perhaps to avoid ef-> 
fending ^a particular companyi 
in which (he either danced, or 
faw a dance, fhe ftates, fo as to 
give it the air and manner of a 
general imputation^ '^ that the 
young people crowd to the fop ; 
and happy ace tbey wh^^aii get 
the uppermoft places, and ftran- 
gers» and thdb who are toa po- 
lite> are thruft to the bottom.'' 
t Ml foiry thak Mn. M. fliouU 
have been famtxloced to io gid-* 
dy aidfaTi|de a&tt: but if this 
fpecimen be intended as valid in 
a general defcription, or to con- 
vey a geaeml impotationt^ I 
believe few ftrangers, who have 
vifited the WetBi towns, will be 
found to confinn it. Before I 
^conclude, I cannot help obferv* 

ing, that the WelJIhnames arc tit 
general more properly fpelt du|& 
coukl have been expeAed from 
an Englifli writer. In produo* 
tions of this kind, indeed, I 
would ky BO great ftteis ^m the 
ftrid orthography of the Wdfli 
language, fo uncouth to an En«* 
gUih ear: it- is more efienttal^ 
however, that tranflations, if 
travellers oScv them, be ren<» 
dered corredly^ ht this rs* 
fpe£k, I have only to niote a.fligfac 
error in her etymology of I>ine« 
fitwr, which is,! not y the caftkt 
of the great man/' . but *^ ^ 
great city." 

, The next Traveller, whofd 
pea>-grecn fliies and yeUbw ochred 
mountdns cannot fail attra&ing 
tbe eye at leaft, fcems at all 
events determined to furprize 
end aftomih us; and, in the 
marvdluus, leaves £ir behind 
himall his follow-tourifts. Whe^ 
tfaer, on his approach to the 
WeUh coaft, he may have ilnilf^ 
fed in the floating .miafinatau 
that may {produce this epidemic 
diforder, fo prevalent among 
WdHii Tourifts, I know not ; 
but he feems deeply iQfe<5i;0d» 
even before he has trod in the 
Welih foil. It immediately dif* 
covers icfeif on the paifage of 
the Sevcra; which is, confe- 
qitendy, defcribcd, as full of 
clangers; which nfiv«: esdfted, 
W in his*«^orfx>iue.othcre^ual« 



ly difordered imagination; and 
at continnalijr liable Co acci* 
jents,— ^whick half a century 
has icarcely wkntfled! Not 
Aat it is here idtendod to deny» 
or call into queftioD^ the ftory 
of lofing the hat ; but if paflen- 
gers were to be deterred, by 
this tale, from oroifing this 
water, they might, as. well be 
frightened from walking in a 
ftreet; becaufe, once in fifty 
years, a tile may have dropped 
upon the head of fome unfortu* 
nate perfon, and occafioned the 
loft Of life. 

To review this publication, 
!n Older to arrive at the truth, 
it would be necefTary to nega« 
dve, in fome refpeA or other, 
almoft every account that has 
been advanced in it. In faying 
this, however, I wifh to pre* 
mife, that, without any perfonal 
knowledge of die writer, I am 
inclined to afcribe his miftakes 
more to hafte and want of in- 
formation, than to any wilful 
mifreprefentation. But as merely 
to deny any given ftatement 
may appear abrupt; and, after 
all, in the prefent inftance, 
would only intimate what Wales 
is not, and not what it really 
is, I (hall take leave to join the 
Traveller at Newport in Mon- 
mouthfliire; and, to re&ify a 
few of his inadvertencies as he 
proceeds. At Newport, then, 

I have to acquaint him, diat k 
is n$t celebrated for iewin, but 
for ialmon, wluch is there equal 
in flavour to any caught on die 
coafls of ttiis kingdom; — that 
the fewin is fcldom feen there^ 
but found chiefly in Carmar- 
thenihire, and in fome rivets 
of Glamorganfhite ;-«-that the 
Welfh are no/ proud of it ; on 
the contrary, that it . is with 
them of inferior eflimation and 
price ;«— that it is not like a 
trout, but. has a greater refem- 
blance to a faknon ;*^diat it 
very rarely eicceeds ten or twelve 
pounds in weight, and generally 
not half fo much. 1 have not 
read Daniel de Foe upon diis 
fubjed : but if he ftates it to be 
the pride of thb part of the 
country, I prefume he may have 
read it in fome. other traveUer, 
who had read it in fome former 
traveller— marvel or ^blunder- 
maker, who had heard it from — 
the L d knows whom* 

Bat what Englifh Author in- 
formed our Traveller, that Ro- 
bert of Normandy was confined 
by his brother Hen. I. and his 
eyes afterwards put out by 
William II ? 

. Advancing to Caerflyli, the 
tourifl indulges himfelf un-* 
boundedly, at the expcnce of 
thefe poor Hottentots (as he calls 
them) and their huts. That 




^e arrival of a poft-chaife in 
aiiy country to\vn in England, 
(not a thoroughfare) occafiooay' 
at the door ^ the inn wber^ it 
ftopSy a concourfe of people, 
larger or fmaller in proportion 
to the frequency of fuch cai>< 
riages, feiv will deny ; and that 
carriages are feldom feen at 
C;ierfFyU, muft be admitted: 
but that,, when they do arrivey 
they occasion conftemation, or 
that the gutturals of the inhabi- 
tants 2\re employed to inquire 
whether the«Pope or the French 
are coming, is a tale — too ab« 
furd for ferious notice. The 
acquaintance of the inhabitants 
of Caerffyli with the Pope, or 
their care s^bout him, even, if 
he were again in tlie plenitude 
of power, is equally {lender; 
and the writer may be aflured* 
that they have as little dread of 
the French as their countrymen 
of Pembrokefliire or Cardigan- 
ihire ; and will probably receive 
them, if they think proper to 
pay them a vifit, with as little 
conflemation. This place is by 
no means ^^ an irregular af- 
femblage of huts :" it has. fe vera! 
good houfes; and at prefent a 
well-built inn, probably not 
ereSed when this Traveller 
viiited it; though it muft then 
.have more tlian die folitary ale- 
houfc he mentions: whether 
.the number be indeed an advan- 
tage, may well be doubted* 

To prove- that a< Welflulaa 
does not know A' c6tn from dirt^ 
he produces ah infiance. of his 
guide having -one in hist pof*^^ 
ieflion,««-a sefufing.ta pait with 
it. There Twe have an attoapt 
to imitate the WeUh. brogues 
with no better fucccfe thanMcsi 
Morgan • with her " vnA&Jl 
*« What i hur think"~« Got 
ble£s hur." I have already pb^ 
ferved, that no Wei{hman, >ao 
cuftomed to fpeak most often 
in WeUh than in Rnglifli, . &ui 
makes ufe of this pronoim nof 
minatively«**as the agent of the 
verb;, and feldom, if ever, ac- 
cufatively — as Ae obje^b of' the 
verb. ' They frequently indeed 
(as it' hai^ been likewife already 
mentioned) confound fexes ^nd 
gend^s.: and, whether taking 
of a man, or of a ftick or ftone^ 
(having no neuter) are.^pt to 
fay " flie did fall down/* &c* 
But the phrafe of " Got blefs 
bur" is n^ver hoard : their man* 
ner of e2q;>reiru)g the idea would 
knore' probably be conveyed to 
an Englifti ear by " Goat blefs 
M^." Another phrafe, attri* 
buted to thie Welfti, though 
never, ufed by them, is '^ look 
you." ,It is .remarkable diac 
Shakefpeare has never put Either 
.of thefe phrafes into the mouth, 
eidier of Floelin^ oc of Sir Hugh 
Evans. At the iame timei thefe 
have bficnj fc; Jong-r-^fo com^ 
monly— fo generally applied, 




kxh on and off the ftage, at 
defcriptive of Wdflunen, diat 
I defpair of convincing my Eo- 
gliih reader by any other means, 
than by a reference (when he 
eomes among us) to his own 
obTervadons. This reference, 
however, I would have excr- 
dfed among thofe only who 
coQvcrfe chiefly in the Welfh 
^goage ; and do not extend it 
either to the borders of Radnor-- 
fhire, or to the Englifh part of 
Pembrokeihire : the former of 
whom have exchanged their 
native tongue for a barbarous 
jargon— neither Welrti nor En* 
gtifli; where indeed we may 
hear fuch founds as « hur 
wonna come home** — " hur 
did tould ma** — «• I dinna like/* 
tec. &c. and the latter, in the 
converfation of the lower clafs, 
have many vulgarifms, intelii« 
gible only to themfelves. At 
Caerfl[yli, however, where this 
writer fays the Engliih language 
is as little known as among the 
mountains of Merioneth, and 
where he afletts he couM find 
only one perfon who could 
fpeak it, I will venture to aver, 
without being acquainted with 
one third of the niliabitants, 
that I know twenty there, who 
fpeak It (moft certainly widi an 
accent, not cafily dcfcribed) 
more gnuamaticaily than in moft 
country places in t.h» kingdom* 

After having himiislf commit-' 
ted fuch miftakes (to give them 
DO hariher name) of which we 
are prefendy to give further 
inftanoes, what are we to diink 
of the iame man, going out of 
his way, for the puipofe' of 
groffly and fcorriloufly abuiing 
another traveller, (in the opi- 
nion of many, already iU-tiealed 
by the generality of his readers) 
wantonly ftigroatizing him with 
die appellation of a //or, with* 
out any apparent call or pn>- 
vocation ? • 

In the defcription 6f the cir- 
cular bafon, whofe trout, young 
falmon, and filver ells frolic 
together like chinefe fifh— the 
platform againft the banks of 
the river— the falmon coUeAing 
in large bodies~and the fiflier- 
man eyeing the whole and fe* 
leaing the largeft ; Acre is fo 
much obvious exaggerationj 
that it dimifliihes the neceffity 
and the pain of contradi^ng it. 
It is pmper, however, that the 
future traveller fhbuld be in- 
fonncd what he will really find 
—that tliis bafon, though it ap- 
proaches to a circular form, 
hath nothing fingular in it,— . 
that the bottom i^ not even, but 
of- an unequal depdi :-*that he 
muft not expedl to fee trout, 
falmon, and filver eels frolic 
<here together; that, in fa^, 




Vbch fiflifcs are not very fond of 
each other's company ; and that 
the eel is feldom if ever feen 
upon a fmooth bottom:^ that 
tiie Rage$y which he talks of, 
are, in general, nothing more 
than the ftumps of trees, which 
overhang fome narrow goliyt 
dirough which the fifli, attra^^- 
ed by the light, inuft pais; 
widi now and tlien a thick board 
€h: bench attached to them, fo 
as to extend the projedion : but, 
that fo far from coming in bo* 
dies, (as his phrafe is) and 
gamboling below, on purpofe, 
as one would fuppofe, to be 
caught, orto givethefiflierman 
time to fdtSt the fineft, he is 
fadsfied if, in difierent places, 
be can catch two or three ih the 
courfe of the night : and thefe,. 
when taken, -are of little value, 
much outof feafon, and deemed 
icarcely eataUe. 

From thefe fidieries^ after 
obferving a very ** curious*' cir- 
cumftance at a cafcade, — that a 
ftick thrown in is precipitated to 
the bottom, and rifes at a dif* 
tance, fl {hould have thought 
it more curiaus had it not fo 
happened) we are led to Cow- 
bridge, and from tbence to Mar- 
gam, the feat not of Lord Tal- 
bot, as he caBs it, hut of Mr. 
Talbot, defceaded to him frosa 
Aft Manfek: a miftake the more 
tmccSktj to be reAified, as 

Lord Talbot has a feat in die 
county. And when ho. hat 
thus elevated a commoner into 
a peer, a few pages afterwards, 
he reduces a peer into a com- 
moner, when he informs us that 
Briton Fery (which belongs to 
Lord Vernon) is the feat of a 
Mr. Vernon. But, if the cir« 
cumftance of the ftick and the 
cafcade, juft now mentioned, 
has nothing very curious in it, 
amends are very foon made by 
an extraordinary piece of in- 
formation :—that both coal and 
lime abound in fuch vaft quan- 
tities in Wales, that the fanners 
ufe // to manure their lands: 
which of the two articles is here 
meant, is not fufficiently ex- 
plained : if the former, it is, in- 
deed, a^curious h€t ; not known 
to the generality of the inha- 
bitants : if die latter only, die 
ftatement is unexceptionable ; 
diough, I apprehend, there is 
little peculiar to the country in 
this ufe of it. 

The pottery at Swanfea is in 
an improving ftate, and deferves 
encouragement: but to com- 
pare the manu&&(xy with the 
moft exquifite produ^ions of 
China, remmds us of the gap;iboIs 
of the faUnon we have juft 
heard of. All diis^ however, 
is caft fttr 1>ehind in the ftiade by 
the next tale ; which the Gleaner 
would gall a \Kmac bguche. It 




is a WcWh funeral :— *« women 
icreaBiing<^cbildren crying—* 
men fwearing^-^dogs barking*' 
«-(the brutes, I -fuppofe, are 
trained to join in die chorus, 
and always form part of the* 
proceffion)^-odd enough this ! 
«»But this is nothing : the par- 
fon and the corpfe vanifli : and 
the author, who attended, could 
sever difcover what became of 
them ! I will, then, beg leave 
to inform him from my own 
knowledge i the corps was de* 
cently interred ; and the clergy- 
man walked in and walked out, 
in the fame manner, and with 
the iame deliberation, as is 
vfually feen in England— >wtth 
^ the exception, perhaps, of her 
metropolis, where half the bu- 
sial fervice is frequently omitted, 
unlefs the corpfe once was— 
rich or noble. The funeral, 
to which this author alludes, 
being that of a man of family, 
and, I believe, refpeded in the 
place, brought togedier a great 
crowd ; and the noife and bufrle 
were no more than is ufually 
heard and feen, where a num^: 
her of idle people are gathered 
together from curiofity. 

After a fcvere and very far-*- 
caftic defcription of thealehoufes 
at Carmarthen, which may have 
every thing to hoail of but wit 
and truth, (for, in fad, the 
inns here are not very dif&reqt 

from tHofe in Engknd— but oif 
die great roads :—quaedam bo* 
na— >multa mala— plurima me* 
diveria) and after a pompous 
difpiay of learning, in which 
be propofes to detedt dit fai/e^ 
ho9ds of all his predeceflbrs, 
from Giraldus Cambrenfis, down 
to hiraCblf, (whom I thiqk h& 
has un&irly excluded) he in-* 
forms us, that he does not be* 
Ueve the Carmarthen people ta 
be the moft polite in the world; 
•-wthat it is (not an uncommon, 
but) a common market town ;«^ 
that the reader, if he ihouU 
vifit it, muft not be furprifed to 
be gratified with a piclurtfque 
difpiay (Oh the wit ! ) of one en* 
tire ftrect, formed by manfions 
of mud ;— that dogs are iiniver* 
fally tifed in this part of the 
woildas turnfpits;— Aat fewin 
weighing SOlb* are found there ; 
that the drefs of Welshmen is 
univerially the fame ;~>that the 
common people defpife the nfe 
of fhoes and (lockings;— dial- 
the men are diftinguiihed by 
broad hats and bare feet ; and 
that, if it were not for die cri- 
terion of the breeches, the dif- 
ference of fex would hardly bo 
perceived ; and that their igno- 
rance is amazing^ On tbefe fe- i 
veral aflertions it would be wafle * 
of time to make any animadvei^ 
frons: to thofe who ape ac- 
quainted with the country, the •' 
bare mendon of moft of them 




'carries with it, in a great mea- 
fure, their refutation. What 
isonlyof occafional occurrence, 
this writer calls the cuftom of 
the country ; and where his fai&s 
are true, in part, they are &r 
from being fo univerfal as he 
vrouldreprefentthem. AWelfh- 
man may here and there be feen 
at a milk- pail: (by-the-bye I am 
not fatisfied«— for reafons which 
I cannot explain here— that the 
employ is not more appropriate 
to men than to women) and a 
man-milliner is now and then 
met with in London ; yet, if a 
foreigner from thence aiTerted, 
that caps and bonnets, in Lon- 
don, were cuftomarily made by 
men, an Englifhman would 
think pretty conteraptuoufly 
both of his accuracy and his 
liberality. The fimilitude ob- 
ferved between the complexion 
and appearance of the Welfli 
and their puppy tuitifpits is fo 
fagacioufly happy, that it would 
be cruel to hint a doubt of its 

I do not know who this gen- 
deman may be,— (for, from his 
travelling in chaifes, I muft pre- 
fume he is a gentleman) but no- 
thing can be more inconiiftent 
with that chara£ter, than his 
refle6tions on the inhabitants of 
Haverfordweft ; a place by no 
means notorious for inhofpitality 
or incivility/ or even the want 

of accommodation at the inn* 
But, as if the climate commu- 
nicated to him likewife the iraf* 
cibility afcribed to the inhabit 
tants^ he falb-fbul upon the poor 
driver ; who, with noore huma- 
nity dian is generally fhewn by 
that defcription of men, remon- 
ftrates with him on his intentions 
of going 30 miles with a pair 
ofhorfes, on a road, fome of 
vriiioh is as bad, and moft of It 
as uneven, as any in this king- 
dom. The landlord at Cardi- 
gan too, whofe loquacity and 
addrefs I do not admire, fares no 
better, except in elcaping the 
epithet of fcoundrel,-^ (which 
it is always moft fafe to apply to 
a poft-boy) becatife he aflerts^ 
in language unpolifhed, indeed, 
but not lefs true, that it was ne* 
ceflary the traveller (hould flop 
the night there ;— <-that they muft 
travel with Ibur horfes— diat 
they mujl travel forty miles, if 
they intended to reach Aberyft- 
widi next day : all which they 
1912^,— and were at laft obliged 
to do 3 and had this gentleman 
been indulged in his freak of 
going by fea, the prevention of 
which, without any proof ad- 
duced, he attributes to the threats 
or die bribery of the landlord, 
he would, in all probability, havo 
felt, both in pocket and in per- 
fon, the imprudence of facrifi- 
cing the contents of the one— 




sifid the eafeof tbe other^tothe 
raibnds of his identment. 

After a difgufting ddcripdon 
4>f the filth of Ireland, which I 
hope b exaggeiated, towards die 
condufion of this tour in Wales, 
is prefented a fpecimen of what 
may be called blackball and 
wbitOi-wafli. After dwelling 
repeatedly on the want of clean- 
linefs in ^e Welflit and on the 
mnher/aHty of the cuftom of 
gCMng without (hoes and ftock- 
togs, he introduces a plaifier for 
the fore; compofed, however, 
of materials fo heterogeneous, 
that, if the patient be of asini* 
table halnr, I doubt of its cfB- 
cacy, in curing even thefe Ikin* 
deep wounds which in fucfa ha* 
hits, be may have infli<Sed. 

But what is moft likely to dif- 
guft that fame genus irritabile 
Cambrorum, is the abominable 
affection of the knowledge of 
the Welih language, which this 
author difplays. He is extreme- 
ly fapetioiis, at Mr. Qilpin's ex-* 
pence^ upon his modeof fpelUng 
two words— the ** Funaqh,** 
and the " Rhydol:'* in either 
inftance ] doubt much the pro* 
priety of the critic's corredion a 
the firft, I rather think the river 
Should be Mynach, and not 
Monach; and, in the other, 
Mr. Gilpin has properly written 
Rhydol, and not Rhy^dol. Thi? 

author has atfo prefaced hii 
book with an attempt to explain 
feveral Corni/h and Welih 
words with no better fuccefe. 
For inftance, Truro, he iays, is 
derived from two Comifh wonJa 
Tru ro : and dierc are no fuck 
words, diat I can difcover, im 
the Comini language. It may 
probably be derived from tre 
'riiiw, the town on an aicent; 
or, perhaps, tri rhiwj^ three at 
cents or fteep hills. Pcnriiyo, 
according to him, is a curled < 
bead, inftead of a promontory: 
Jew inComiih inftead of Jaw; 
Penzance, Penfaads inftead of 
Penfanft: Caeidiff, a city on 
Taff, inftead of a fortified city 
on Taaf :<— Pont Aberglaflya, 
the devil's bridge^ inftead of the 
bridge on the blue lake ! — Ban^ 
gor, the beautiful quire, inftead 
of the beautiful choir. ** Mael 
Guidon and Mael Haphook"— « 
the firft is to me unintelligible ; 
the latter, properly written^ 
*' Moel yr hebog, means die 
hawk's neft, or hawk's hiU:— 
Llanidloes, inftead of Llandiloy 
in Carmarthenfliire. In ftiort, 
almoft all the names of places in 
Wales, mentioned in the book, 
arp improperly fpelt: which, for 
reafo^ before ftated, I flxoidd 
hardly have noticed, had not 
the author ailip^ied (b much 
learning, and made fuch preteq- 
fions to an intimate acquaiiv 
tapce with the language. To- 

. ward* 



wards the conclufion he bc<» 
comes very profound indeed { 
though ftiU rather unfortunate 
in his ehicidation of .words* 
*' The Welfh word for fun is 
the Greek word for /r^"— .faith 
he : not precifely fo, my good 
fir : the modern word haul (the 
fun) may perhaps be derived 
froni the Orcek word, of the 
fame import, helios; but the 
old word grian, now obfolete, 
\t is obvious can claim no fucb 
defcent^ *^ Water is called 
i^f only pronounced with the 
afpirate*'* Here I am not io 
fortunate as to comprehend his 
meaning: xviiboui the afpirate 
(while the Greek, v^, is writ^ 
ten with it) thei'e would in hSi 
jbe the nearer reiemblance: for 
thus, with die Welfh ardcle 
{irefixed, y dwr (the water) 
form^ a very f&milar found. 
But though the modem Welfh 
word for water is dwfr, the 
ancient word wy, feen)s to have 
leis affinity with the Greek: 
yet here perhaps, {bme kindred 
found, fuch as im, (to rain) 
may be challenged by an etymo- 
logift. Ap, in Welfh, he fup^ 
pofes, with others before him, 
to be from the Greek »«»: 
though both certainly exprefs 
origin and derivation, yet ap in 
W4Ai I conceive is more ux^ 

mediately an abbreviation of 
mab, (the fon) : as Dafydd ap 
Morgan, David, the fon of 
Morgan. But it is high time 
to take le^ve of dus hafty an4 
incorrcA perfomiance. 

After thefe fdlow two travet 
lers or tourifts, or whatever 
they pleafe to call tbemfelves: 
the one, a French emigrant^ 
whole modves for becoming an 
author may pr(d>ably entitle 
him to more compai&on than 
approbation, commences qnd 
cqmpleats his tour in 1796, and 
publiflies in 1797. His de- 
fcriptions are of tQwns and 
caAle^-^and woods--*and rivers 
&c. ^c» n^oft miferably fpelt: 
and they are adorned with plates* 
mofl of which want fomething 
more than an afterifk to remind 
us of the places they are iu- 
tendfid (as Quince fays) tp 
" prefpnt or disfigure."* All 
of them, indeed, except two of 
Caerffyli cafUe, and one or two 
about Pont ar Pridd, might 
have had their delip* et fculp' 
vel fcalp* in London ; and then, 
ihaken in a bag, miglit have 
been called Llandilo war, or 
Morgam, or CafUe cogh, or 
any other mifcatled place, in- 
difcriminately, 4S thpy happei) 
to come out. 

f Midi. N. nream, A^ III, Sc I, 





The other tour, which has 
b^en fomctime begun, but what 
ftill wants finijbing^ has the 
merit of fomc few tolerable 
platest and the demerit of a 
great deal of bombaft, nonfenfe, 
and an affeftation of (kill in 
the Welfli language, apparently 
without an acquaintance with 
three words of it. At the fame 
time that we may lay claim to 
fomething like charity, in fup- 
'porting an indigent adventurer, 
who has little pretentions to 
literature, in what he calls a 
fecond edition, it is nevcrthe- 
le(s a fatire upon the folly and 
credulity of the country, upon 
which he is permitted to im- 

Thefe are again fucceeded by- 
more travellers, of the names 
of Skn'ne, fVarner^ and Aikin / 
all publifhed in 1798. The 
firft [to whofe private chara6ler 
and real worth all who have 
the happinefe of knowing him 
will feel proud to bear tefti- 
mony] certainly does not excel 
as a tourift, or writer of travels : 
his ftyle abounds in metaphors, 
and epithets, Angularly and af- 
fectedly applied, and frequently 
extravagantly conceived and odd- 
ly expreffed : he talks of inter- 
vals in a mountainous ridge in 
Monmouthihire, forming a fuc- 
ceffion of valliesj lih the cells 

of a honeycomb: buildings at 
Llantrifant, cluttered like a 
fwarm of bees, burfts of view, 
fweeps, ftrlpes of vegetation, 
chains of meadows, hills jloat^ 
ing with water, and feathering 
woods. The fpacteus planta- 
tions of Buckland in Brecknock- 
fhire are fung, though it can 
only boaft of a few fhrubs, 
planted in a lawn, which are 
{aid to break upon the fight at 
the fame moment that the charm- 
ing demefne of Paterftonc fteah 
upon the view. Though every 
traveller upon that road muft 
know that there is no one point 
of view between Crickhowell 
and Brecon, from whence thofc 
feats can be feen at the fame 
time. Sometimes his language 
refcmbles profe run mad; for 
inftance, we are tdd that to- 
wards the fouth of Brecknock, 
the hill of Canthriffy cloathed 
from the fummit to its bafc, 
with wood, oppofes a barrier 
finely impending over the river, 
and fronting the bold and bar- 
ren eminence of the Craigi^— 
Unfortunately there is no fuch 
impending hill as Canthriff, [or 
CantrefF, for that is the name 
of an adjacent parifh]. There 
is a hill or rifing ground, which 
flielves rather abruptly from the 
river U(k, cloathed with a wood 
called Clos-y-coed ; and which 
fronts not Craig, or rather Crig, 
but a little eminence neither 




brfd or barren, called Slwch, 
which is fo fur from being a 
diftiagulfliing feature in the 
landfcape, that it is degraded 
by the inhabitants by the dimu- 
nitive appellation oiSlwch Tump. 
This writer is alfo feized with 
the mania, which ufually af- 
feds Welfh travellers of at* 
tempting to explain Welfh 
words and names, without ^ 
Cufficient knowledge of the Ian* 
guage. Bwlch is faid property 
to iignify a rent in a mountain ; 
whereas it may as properly, 
diough it does not as com- 
monly, mean a rent in a gar- 
ment; and it is in continual 
vfe for a gap in a hedge~-/)<f/'- 
^uilfay [a combination of let- 
ters peculiarly difgufting to a 
Britifli eye] meaning Difgwylfa, 
is faid to be a profpe£l, though 
it is generally applied to a mi- 
litary ftation of a centinel, com- 
manding an extenGve profpp(Sl-<n> 
Several or fimilar errors ocpur 
in the ^ourf<? of the work ; wq 
now and thet^ meet with fuch a 
pbrafe as " too critic an eye'*, 
which, admitting tl)at it can be 
juftified from good authority, 
is cenainly afiedled, Johnfon*s 
quotation from Pope hardly fupr 
ports it as an adjeftive* The 
miftakes in fpelling vvholt names 
^re almoft top numerous to 
niention — Pont ar dillas, for 
Pont ar ddulas, [of which tlie 
d^fcriptioQ if nqt iinintelligibl^, 

is not corre£i] — LlanfpuAldid 
for'Llalifpyddid-Calda for Cal- 
dy— -Ruflland caftle for Dryf- 
I wyn caftle— Caerphilli for Caerii- 
phili, [the difference is very 
great in Welfh pronunciation] 
— Wenye for Wenny or Ewenay 
— Pembray for Pembrey—iGlcn 
hier for Glyn hir'-Caraig Cen- 
nin for Carreg Cynan— Cwra» 
tythen forCwmtoiddwr->Luch- 
yntyaen for Llwyncyntefin, &c* 

The next traveller is a cler* 
gyman of the name of Warner^ 
who made his tour on foot!!! 
Here it is impofUble to avoid 
faying two or three words upon 
this filly and ridiculous whim 
of converting pleafure into toil. 
It is, indeed, ftrange it fhould 
be necefTary to make an obfer- 
vation upon the fubje£^, to any 
man who can afford himfelf a 
horfe, and a pair of faddle bags ; 
but iblly, and the inexperience 
of youth, firfl introduced this 
laborious mode of travelling, 
and fafhion and caprice have 
exerted their influence to keep 
it alive. The inconveniences 
that attend it, independent of 
the fatigues it occaflons, which 
is no inconfiderable objedliony 
are many ; the advantages few» 
and die expences faved by it 
trifling. The treatment the p&r 
deftrian is likely to meet with 
^t mofl inns [whatever this 

G g 8 cur^t^ 



curate may fay to the contrary] 
is raatcrially dilFerent firpm'tiiat 
which the eq^ueftrian receives; 
and there are few places* indeed* 
to which the traveller on horfe* 
back cannot have accefs: if 
fuch (hould occur, it is eafy to 
make any occadonal deviations 
on foot i and we fhall be ready, 
after having gratified our curio«- 
iity by thefe flight excurfions, 
to acknowledge, with double 
fatisfa£lion, the obligations wc 
owe to our ufeful and fubmif&ve 
companion, who always lightens 
our fatigue, fhortens, appa- 
rently, our journey, relieves us 
often from the neceffity of au> 
veiling by nigl^, and frequently 
preferves us from the unwhole- 
feme confequences of a found 

This author writes in a plea* 
fant manner; but bis book is 
plentifully fprinkled with quo- 
tations. He too has the happy 
knack of embeliiftiing his tour 
a la Pratt, with an anecdote 
here and there; and, like the 
Cardiganfliire failor, and Bar- 
mouth/ Barber, formerly men- 
tioned, we have here an in- 
trodudbion to a fentimentsil tan- 
ner, who reads a long extrad 
from Percy's ancient poetry, 
which compofes part of his li- 
brary in a cottage ! ! ! Oh 
reader, if perchance thou know- 
eft this contrite moralizing fcrap 

quoting tanner, thou wilt per* 
haps be tempted involuntarily 
td exclaim with Sofia ^* Lord^ 
Lord, friend, one of us two is 
damnably given to ■ , but 

I do not fay which, to avoid 
difputes/' RefpcA for the 
friends of this theologift eccen* 
trie character, whom he is iaid 
fo groffly to abufe, will not 
permit me to explain why it is 
impofftble that either the wonb 
or the fentiments here faid to be 
related by him, can be corred, 
as to the truth of his tale, the 
author has nothing to do widi 
it. The HidalgOy to whom 
the traveller alludes [for be 
it remembered, this nickname 
is here his manufii^hire] is re* 
markaUe for being a plain un- 
afluming country gentleman, 
who, perliaps, has lefs family 
pride, and aflbciates more with 
the middling and lower ranks in 
life, than is ufual with perfons 
of his property ; and his motives 
for c^ypcrflng die connexion hers 
mentioned [if the world had 
any thing to do with diem] 
could be fliewn to be very dif- 
ferent from what this ftory 
would induce us to believe, and 
the imposition pradtifed upon 
the tourift, is really an impeach- 
ment of his undcrftanding. He 
like the reft of his Wethren, 
tranflates Welih into Englifli, 
and fucceeds equally well with 
the majority of them«-»»Pont 




ar Diawl is faid to be the 
Devil's Bridge— if it were fo 
written or fo called in the coun- 
try, it would be the Bridge up-* 
on Devil, as Pont ar Mynach, 
is juft before tranilated the 
Bridge upon the Mynadh [the 
river] but the name is Pent y 
DiawL Lyn Mullin [unintelli- 
gible]. The Lake of the three 
Grains, Lyn Gausu*, Goat's 
Pool, and ieveral other faults 
and miftakes of the fame kind 
will be obferved by the Britifli 
reader. Falfe fpellings out of 
number aMb occur in the courfe 
•of die work. Diflas, the name 
of a river, inftead of Dulas: 
Wu, inftead of Aw, Wy, or 
Gwy. ■" The obfolete Welfli 
word for water— Brocmail yf- 
kihoc, inftead of Brochmael, 
or according to others, Broch- 
wel yfcethrog, and many others 
which it abfolutely tires me to 
recapitulate, as it probably 
would the reader to be informed 
of; it is but juftice, however, 
to fay, that his brief defcription 
of the Wclfli charafter, has 
great merit, and that this reflec- 
tion upon the general belief in 
apparitions in the principality, 
though comprehended in a few 
lines, are admirable.— I cannot 
rcfift the temptation of quoting 
them. ** Tliefe notions are pro- 
bably unfounded, but they are 
not uninterefting, nor do we 
feci ourfclves inclined to repro- 

bate the miid JuperfiitUfiy in 
which diey originate.'i-vit is a 
principle that arifcs £rom the 
feelings and affefibons of nature, 
and i«, at all events, more ami- 
able than the cold pbilcfophifm 
of the prefent day, wlliich dif*- 
beiieves every thing which con- 
trades and petrifies the heart, 
deadens the afted^ion, and de^ 
ftroys all the finer feniibilities of 
the foul." 

The laft of thefe three tourifh 
is a fcicntific traveller, hisjour^ 
ney was profefiedly, and prin- 
4:ipally, if not wholly,* made 
with a view to improvement, 
or, at leaft, amufement in mi- 
neralogy— -upon this fubje(^, [as 
far as I am a judge] he writes 
with confiderable abilities, and, 
it is to be obferved, that the 
Welfli names are more proper- 
ly fpelt than by moft other tra- 
vellers, though he does not 
a£Fe£l a profound knowledge of 
the language, or frequently at- 
tempts to explain it. — Little is 
faid as to the cuftoms and man- 
ners of the country ; but he has 
faid much to the purpofe in his 
preface, in which he very truly 
acknowledges, that the requi- 
fite knowledge of a fufRcient 
number of circumftances from 
whicli to deduce national cha- 
racter, is not to be acquired with- 
out a long refidence, and much 
intercourfe with the inhabitants. 

G g 3 -It 



«-It is not to be gleaned in a 
hafty excurdon through a coun- 
try, where its language, and 
the general ihynefs and fufpi- 
cion which the natives difcover 
towards the EngUih, or, to ufe 
dieir own words, the Saxons, 
oppofe obftacles which only 
time and perfevcrancc can over- 

Since the above was written, 
a publication has appeared, in 
which the Editor, conceiving 
fcveral tours into Wales to be 
fcarce and valuable, has ha{hed 
and fricafeed them into what lie 
calls a coUedion, with a garni (h 
of two or three ftained prints, 
or views badly chofen :— a fpe- 
cies of book-making very much 

adopted ibme years ago, undrr 
the title of " Beauties of Stcmc'* 
— *♦ Beauties of Joe Miller,"— 
*♦ Beauties of Johnfon,**^ &c. 
&c. and, lately, in two volumes 
8vo, the " Beauties of Burke." 
This is, doubtlefs, a very in* 
genious contrivance ; though 
now, as Trinculo fays, ** a kind 
*< of a— —not of the neweft.'* 
The work before ns, however, 
chiefly relating to Morth Wales, 
a country with which I am lit- 
tle acquainted, I am, therefore, 
no judge of its merits, or of the 
merits of thofe tours, from 
which it is borrowed or cut 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 



( 455 ) 





IT was not in our original 
plan to write, or to admit 
criticifms on modern books.— 
But the attention of the public 
being much diredled to Wales; 
and thofe who periodically af- 
fume the authority of literary 
judges, not appearing to us to 
have the neccffary qualifications 
for their ofiipes, wc think it a 
duty occafionally to notice fuch 
publications I as either coincide 
with, or obftruft our defign, to 
remove the rubbifli that lies at 
the foundation of the Britifh 

Throughout the whole of the 
hiftory. of Monmouthftiire, the 
author feems deeply impreiled 
with tlie importance of thefe 
views; and, on the firft appear- 
ance of our propofals^ he was 
early and warm in his approba- 

tion, and he is among our beft 
gratuitous friends. But this will 
not influence our judgement re- 
fpedting the produ£kions of a 
writer, who refts not his repu-> 
tation on it, who feems fully 
fenfible of the errors to which 
he was liable, and who is too 
high minded to value unmean-^ 
ing and indifcriminate commen- 

The Monthly RevieWj \vith 
cautious prudence, contented it* 
felf with general obfervations oa 
the qualifications of a topogra- 
phical hiftorian, as if writing a 
parody on Cicero's Qualifica- 
tions of an Orator: and fpeci- 
fied an ailemblage never feen in 
one man. The reader is left* 
according to his temper, to ap«- 
ply the obfervations either ad- 
vantageoufly, or difadvantage- 

G g 4 oufly. 



ouflr, to the hiftorian of Men- 
inouthfliire: for the Reviewer, 
very prudently^ avoids the atr 
tempt of pointing out the num- 
ber of thofe qualifications which 
Mr. Williams poOefled; and he 
only affigns him profundity of 
obfervation, elegance of ftyle, 
and other circumftances, which 
he might apply to any writing 
of the fame author, without be- 
traying his own ignorance of the 
peculiar charader of die work 
under confideration. 

The Britijh Critic^ which, 
from its profefled princi^des, is 
likely to conlider every produce 
tion of Mr. Williams with cau* 
tion, if not fufpicion, is, how- 
ever, forced, by the various 
merits of the work, into ocoa- 
fional commendations; yet the 
Reviewer tacks it to the meagre 
volumes of Valentine Green^ and 
the endlefs fterilities of John 
Nichols. The claffic tafte of 

N , however, fuMued 

his prejudices occafionally, and 
the corrcft, yet glowing and 
mafterly defcription oiPersfield^ 
^animated hts feelings into an 
dnguarded and warm eutogium* 

The CritUal Review over- 
looked it, perhaps, defignedly; 
.or noticed it fo curforily as to 
•fcape otu* obfervtttion* 

The Analytical Review^ and 
the Monthly Magazine have 
meant well, but being deter* 
mined to be civil to the Mon- 
mouthfhire hiftorian, and not 
comprehending the real objedl 
and chara£ler of the hiftory, 
they hav6 picked up only the 
flowers on the furface, which 
the author has fcattered only to 
{hew that he could play with 
fine words, and turn fonorous 
periods, as well as thofe who 
do nothing elfe; and that he 
could make a fentence pregnant 
with ideas, as elegant as thofe 
touriils who encumber them 
with none. 

Tlie views of the writer 
in this hiftory, and the degree 
of penetration* and Ikill he has 
Ihcwti in thfe execution), liavc 
totally efcaped all thcfe Re- 
viewers; atid we are not to 
wonder they have pronounced 
no judgement on them. 

It requires a knowledge of 
the earlieft Brittfh antiquities, 
and of the Britifli language; it 
requires a particular acquain- 
tance with the fltt&uating con- 
dition of the Marches of South 
Wales, of which the prrfent 
Monmouthfhire is a very fmaH 
part, to perceive that Mr. Wil- 
liams had two great objeSsin 

I. To 



1. To fhew the poffibility of 
reducing into order, ^hat is 
thought the chaos of Britifh an- 

The difficulty of executing 
diis talk was peculiar in the cafe 
of Monmouthfhire, which is 
never a fixed and definite ob- 
ject. In the revolutions of the 
Marches, and under the name 
of Gwent, it is fometimes an 
appendage of Glamorganfhire ; 
fometimes includes it, and fome- 
times means the whole of the 
Marches of South Wales. 

Mr. Williams has extricated 
himfclf • from thefe difficulties, 
with confummate (kill Men* 
mottthfhire is always the central 
and interefting* objed^, but he 
has conftandy furrounded it 
wich a -clear and lively fketch of 
the hiftory of the Marches of 
South Wales. 

That this method has its in*- 
conveniences, and puts it in the 
power of mccr antiqtiaries to re- 
proach it with faults, is true. 

The hiftory of Monmouth- 
jhire, does not contain the his- 
tories of pariihes, the infcrip^^ 
tions on tomb^ftones, the me^ 
rnoirs of corporations^ &c. the 
tifual materials of the hiftoriel 
of couBtiet. 

We may fuppofe, from Mr. 
Williams^s koown chara^r^ 
that he might reIu<Santly col- 
lect fuch materials, where, from 
the extreme poverty of tfaa 
church, and from the infigifi* 
cance of the corporations, they 
muft be very uninterefting.— • 
But to purfue the common plans 
of topography, if it had ac- 
corded with his tafte, was al- 
moft impra£):icable in his iitua- 

If, in the common manner 
of antiquaries, he had recorded 
all die little churches, widi 
all the croflfes and tomh^ 
ftones, in all the Marches of 
South Wales, of which he ne- 
ceffiirily gives the hiftory, he 
would have extended his work to 
twenty, inftead of two volumes, 
and, perhaps, only added to thft 
lumber, with which the librae 
ries of antiquaries are filled. 


Wliere remains of amiquity 
are really deferving notice, he 
has defcribed them; and we 
really think, that his epiibde oa 
the hiftory of Arthur^ and his 
defcription of the antiquities of 
CatrUon^ furpafs any thing in 
the works of our beft antiquaries 
tn the art of difcrimination, m 
feund and clear judgment, and 
in variety, force, and elegance 

of di^on. 




The other view of Mr. Wil- 
liams fcems to be, 

II. To trace and mark the 
gradual amelioration of the con- 
dition of the people iu the 
Marches, from the gradual di- 
viflon, fubdivifion, and extinc- 
tion of the litde tyrannies, which 
firft fubdued and afterwards 
governed them* 

On this rock we expc6led the 
man whom the wary old Franks 
lift coaxed and amufed for his 
fervices, by calling him /he 
Englijh RouJJ'eau^ would have 
broken his neck. 

Defpotifm, prieftcraft, and 
oppreflion ! the very founds, 
we thought, would have dif- 
ordered his imagination, and 
led him into revolutionary re- 

The tendency of the whole 
biftory is of a contrary nature. 

The events are conned^ed to 
th«ir caufes with philofophic 
precifion; too accurately and 
phiiofophically, perhaps, for the 
general readers of topography. 
The caufes, when arbitrary or 
ilefpotic, are marked with glow- 
ing indignation and abhorrence ; 
but no remedy is hinted at, or 
defcribcd, but v^ liat the hiflory 

itfclf developes from tlie gradual 
difcemment of reciprocal inter- 
efts, and the gradual effe(5ls of 

So far we fail before the gak 
of approbation— >and as adven- 
turers in a fjmilar enterprife, we 
hail the hift'orian of Monmouth- 
(hire, as the harbinger of our 
hopes offuccefs; as the Her- 
cules who has fuccefsfuUy put 
his fpade into the Augean ftable; 
and if in preparing for public 
view, the contents of thofe 
mufty chambers and caverns, 
which contain the remains of 
Britifh antiquities, we can pro- 
ceed with his penetration, his 
judgement, his tafte, and his 
elegance, we (liall be content 
with the imputation of his errors 
and faults.— >But, however, er- 
rors and faults there are in his 
otherwife mafterly work. 

This author, whofe abilities 
moft of thofe who have read his 
works will highly refpe<5^, fets 
out in his preface, with calling 
the province of controverfy the 
Billingfgate of literature. This 
obfervation, the offspring of 
hafte or negligence, if not in- 
tended as a facrifice to Angula- 
rity, hardly deferves notice, did 
it not occur in the writings of « 
man whofe ftyle is generally fo 
poliflied, and whofe fentiments, 
however we may differ from 




him m opinion, daiin our at- 
jtention at leaft, though they 
may not always comnotand our 
approbation ; but can it be ne- 
ceflary to remind Mr. Wil- 
liams, that the pen of contro- 
verfy has often, and may again, 
be ufefuUy and honourably em- 
ployed in the caufe of religion, 
of fcience, or of letters; that 
when it is conducted by a Wat- 
fon with the zeal of a divine, 
though with the moderation of 
a philofopher, in expofing the 
artful and plauiible, but fallaci- 
ous arguments of a Payne, it 
claims refpedt, eflentially con- 
tributes to the happindis and 
welfare of mankind, and is more 
likely to produce convi£tion, 
and deferve applaufe, in propor- 
tion as it rcfembles the angry 
inveftives and fcurrility of a gar- 
reteer of Grub Street, or the infu- 
riated execrations of a poifiarde 
of BiUingfgate; he has himfelf, 
in a few pages afterwards, con- 
vinced his readers of the necefli- 
ty of occaiionally entering into 
it; and he has very properly re- 
probated the abfurdity of an an- 
tiquary who has attempted, to 
ufe his own phrafe, " tq blow 
into the air" a Cambrian (lation 
with materials which he knew 
not how. to apply. -^Pen certainly 
does not exclufively mean a 
promontory, but a head, the ex- 
treme, or upper end, or an ele- 
vated fituation; therefore let 


Pcngwem, or Shrewsbury, re- 
main the capital of Powis, in 
fpite of the labours of the Saxon 
antiquary to undennine it, or 
blot it out With ink. 

The hiftorian or moralift, or 
whatever other title be may 
4:hoofe to aflume, or at feem- 
eth good in his eye to adopt, is 
much miftaken when he afierts 
that to lead men into labyrinths 
is the favourite {M'ovince of 
lawyers; their province is to 
extricate thofe whom their own 
dulnefs, or the knavery of others, 
have brought into labyrinths; 
and though intereft as well as 
nccefSty may compel them 
fometime to puzzle and flounder 
in the intricacies created by one 
or both of rhefe caufes, this part 
of the bufmefs is by no means 
the favourite province of the 
majority of the profeffion. This 
piece of waggery, however en 
pafiant at the expence of the 
Forenfic tribe, whom it is fa- 
ihionableto abufe, and whom it 
is almoft audt^city to defend,' is 
excufable. The hand of the 
lawyer is fuppofed to be againft 
every man, and of courfe he 
muft expe^ that &,e hand of 
every man will be lifted up 
againft him. Perhaps hereaf- 
ter a Cumberland or a Morton 
may rife, who may .charitably 
think him as much entitled to 
protei^on as a jew or a tayl^, 




iNit tiH dieti he muft be coiuent- 
«d to bear the gibes and jokes of 
wits and witlii^» and die blows 
and kicks of every animal in- 
clined to infult hinu 

EfyUwg or Syllwg^ faid in the 
firft page of the hiftoiy to be 
« country abounding in beauti- 
liil viewsy perhaps upon the aiK 
diority, and at the fuggeftion of 
£• WiDiams, and to have been 
the origin of die Latin appellar- 
ck>n Siiureff is more fanciful dian 
caaeA ; not that it is here in» 
tended to deny that the country 
was formerly called EfyUwg^ 
but that the Welih is not the 
radix of the Latin wonl. Si- 
lures was in all probabiUty, as 
Camden and other aodiors ob- 
ftrve^ derived from Sylva (this 
country in early ages abound^- 
ing with wood) and compre^ 
hended not only Glamorganr- 
Aire, Monmouthihirey Here- 
foTdlbire, and pan of Glon« 
cefterihire, but aUb Brecknock- 
ftire and Radnorfhire ; the two 
latter counties diis author has 
for fome reafons (which it is 
difficult to guefs at, much leiii 
explain) omitted. The veih 
lyllu^ from which efyllwg is 
certainly derived, means to look 
«t, and the fobftantive (if fuch 
fcan be juftified fix>m good au- 
AcMky) a pbce to be looked at 
or feen,'confeqnentlytheflow«*y 
addition of a ^* country abound- 

ing in beautiful views," Is only 
a flourifli of the etymologift. 
Williams's etymology of Owent, 
however, though there are ob- 
je6Uons to it, yet as no better 
can be found out, muft remain, 
efpecially as Lcland's conjedure 
adopted by Camden, has been 
ilown into the atr^ and Hotted 
^ut witt> ink. 

The author is cautions enough 
not to pretend to an intimate or 
/r^«ff</kno\vledge of the Welfh 
language, it wouM therefore ap^ 
pear harfh to annex any con- 
fiderable degree of blame to him 
for fuch flight errors or inaccu-> 
nicies as may occur in his at- 
tempts to explain it,*— we have 
«n inftance in the fecond page 
of this work. Monmouth is 
here called Tre-von-wye from 
the jun<5tion of the river M6n 
and Wye; Wy was formerly 
die Welih word for water, 
though the derivative from the 
Oreek vlw^ has long ago univer- 
fally fuperfeded it — here it is the 
name of a river, but the fheam 
from the influx of which into 
the Wye the town took its 
antient WcHh name of Abcr- 
tnynwy, fince Trcfynwe, and 
the Englifli name of Monnow 
or Munnow-mouth, or (Eu- 
phonix Gratia) Monmouth, is 
-Monnow or Mynwy, and is pro- 
hably a corruption of Mawn- 
wy, water running over, or 




fromturf» or peat, an appella« 
tion which thofe who know 
the courfe of the liver, particu^ 
larly near its. fource, will ac- 
knowledge to be peculiarly ap- 

It is impoffible to admit the 
poiition that all men employ 
their faculties to deceive, and that 
he who would deny the charge 
refpe^ng himfelf would only 
add the atrocity of a deliberate 
crime to a more venial or habi- 
tual fault; however common 
this fault may be, it can only be 
Gonfideredas venial, when we 
fuppofe this afiertion, though 
introduced in an apparently feri- 
ous manner is only meant as an 
artful and viraggifh proof of the 
truth of his own nuudm-^vile as 
human nature is, if he is in ear- 
nefl, this is a vile caricature of 
it— the affimilation of truth to 
perpetual motion induces us to 
conclude, that the obfcrvation, 
as well as the queflion arifing 
from it, were only fuggefled with 
a Ipdicrous view ; for die ho- 
nour of the author, and for the 
honour of mankind let it be fo 
admitted. The rcflediions which 
follow, upon the utility of &ble 
as'conne£^ed withhifk)ry, the 
value fet by nations upon the 
merit of their anceflors, the 
probable caufe of the pretenfions 

of the Britons to a defcent from 
£neas, and upon the learning 
and inflitutions of the Druidsi 
are the refult of good fenfe and 
found learning; one phrafe in- 
deed, ^' focieties called favage,*' 
the meaning of which, when 
ufed by writers of a certain po- 
litical way of thinking, is per-*- 
fedUy und(^Aood, may be oh* 
j^dked to, as may fome iniinua- 
tions againft the religions of all 
ages, which he, it is prefumed, 
confidered as jufl as unavoida- 

It is very much to be doubted^ 
whether, as afTerted in page 2(X 
die druids afTumed or retained 
the appellation of Gawr ch- Cavnr ; 
a letter of Lewis Morris* (who^ 
notwithftanding what is faid ia 
the appendix, was one of thd 
ablefl and mofl learned men that 
Wales ever produced) feems to 
explain the word gawr, or radier 
caur, as meaning princes, an4 
men of great or high rank ex- 
clufively, to ferve an hypotheiis 
he has certainly too narrowly 
confined it, perhaps this happen* 
ed from inatcendon, for the wor4 
meant men of great ftaturp, a^ 
well as of great power an4 
abilities; no proof, howeveri 
can be produced to (hew it was 
a religious appeUaty>n. The 
choir gawr, chorea gigantuov 

« Stc CambrtM Rtf titer fbr Wh, p^ge 35Q a^d 931^ 




or ftone-hengc, may have been 
a dniidical choir, but in that 
cafe the perfom who fat there 
were called gawr, cawr, or cawri, 
from their being rulers and legi- 
llators as well as priefts, charac- 
ters which were fometimes unit- 
ed in former ages ; and this vene- 
rable nwnument of antiquity 
may in all probability have been 
fucceffively applied for the pur^ 
pofcs of the temple, the fenate, 
^d the forum* 


In page 49 Brynbiga is faid to 
be now denominated Ufk, from 
this an Englifhman would con- 
clude that the former name is 
abfolute, but it is not fo. 
Brynbiga is ftill the only name 
by which a Welfliman knows 
tiiis town ;— in like manner 
Crickhowell is in Welrti now 
called Cerrig-howell, and De- 
vynnock in Breconfhire, faid to 
be three miles, is near fix miles 
fiom Gaer. 

It is difficult pofitively to af*.* 
certain the writer's meaning 
when he treats upon Britifh 
gardens, and whether the 
flowers which he fays were 
deemed natives of Gwent or 
Glamorganshire were tranfplantr 
ed by the Roman legions from 
Italy into this country, or vice 
verfa, dges not fufficiently or 
clearly appear, . it is no proof 
ihattliofc hq ipeatioi^s are i^pt 

indigenous in this country ; 
that the names by which they 
are now known rcfemble the 
Englifh, as it is not impro- 
bable that when the Romans or 
EngliOi difcovered a flower or 
an herb peculiar to Wales, they 
adopted or continued the appella- 
tion given it by the inhabitants, 
only altering the termination, 
to fuit the idiom of their Ian* 
guagcs; tliyme, mint, melon, 
peas, beet, fennel, may therefore, 
{if we had no further informal 
tion upon the fubje6J than an 
inference from a fimilarity of 
found) as well be fuppofed to 
be alterations or corruptions of 
the Welfli words teim, mintysj 
melwn, pyfen, betyfcn, fleidgl^ 
as the Welfh of die Engliih, 
but it is not true that there are 
no names in the original Bricifli 
for feveral others here mention- 
ed. The names now ufed in 
common converfation certainly 
refemble the Engliih, but they 
have claffical and radical Welih 
words for moft of them, as the 
violet y Crinllys, y meddygyu, 
and, from its three leaves, 
llyfiau'r drindod, the lily yr 
allaw yr eleftr, the cucumber 
y chwerwddwr, the lettuce y 
golaeth or gwylaeth, the raddiih 
rhuddigl or hnddigl, and the 
bean y fFaen; and though we 
may be compelled to give ' up 
the poplar and the box, it is not 
fp cl^ar that tlig qames of thf) 



elm and beech are not pure 
Britifh. The words llwyfen or 
Uywyfanen, and flawdden, by 
"which thofe trees are called, be- 
ing of very early ufe in Wales. 

Morgan may as well be fup- 
pofed to be derived from Mawr- 
gan, of high or illuftrious birth, 
as Morgan, bom at fea. In the 
Gallic language, which is of the 
fame origin, and indeed one and 
the fame with the Welfti mawr, 
great or illuftrious, is pronounc- 
ed mor. There is no fuch 
Welfli word as Penraith, in the 
fcnfe here fuppofed; Penrhaith 
is indeed ufed in Howell Dda's 
laws for a defendant who cleared 
himfelf by compurgation, but 
cannot be tranflated either 
by fupreme king of the ifland, 
or a king, or prince of a dif- 

In page 3, cymru, which has 
in two or three tnftances in the 
beginning of this work, bee^ 
fpelt Cumru, is by miftake or 
inadvertency, faid to be the ap- 
pellation of the nation, whereas 
the nation is called y cymry, 
and the country, cymi*u. The 
Morgans of Tredegar, Machen, 
and Llantarnam, are defccnded 
from Cadifor fawr, of Blan- 
cych. Lord of Dyfed, who 
died ad William Rufus, and not 
from Jeftin ap Gwrgan. The 
pedigree of this antient family, 
from a MS. believed to be au- 

thentic, will be found at tho 
end of thefe remarks ; this error 
the hi dorian of Monmouthfliirc 
will^confideras trifling and of no 
importance, but when he re» 
colledls to whom and of whom 
he writes, he muft be told that 
upon fuch a fubjeft, though the 
fault may be habitual, it is 
hardly venial, and that to triflo 
with the feelings of the defcen- 
dants of Caradoc upon fo tender 
a topic is a kind of lezedignite ; 
a crime of which it is but fair 
and candid and confonant to thd 
Praftice and Mercy of tho 
Welfli college of arms to cau- 
tion him, that he is in eminent 
danger of being convi&ed upoii 
his own confeiTion. 

The order for the maflacre of 
the barJs by Edward the firft, 
which tliis author, as well as fe-i 
veral others, afferts with fo 
much confidence, begins to be 
no more tlian an hiAorical doubt; 
certain it is no writer of authen- 
ticity has fully eftablifhed it^ 
The tradition in Wales is eafily 
accounted for from the venera- 
tion entertained for them in 
that country in their two-fold 
capacities of prieft and poet, the 
former of which chara£lers they 
in a great meafure retained for- 
fometime after the introduction 
of chriftianity, king Edward the 
firft, probably knowing the ef-' 
fe6^s of thefe admonitions and 
fongs upon their countryirien 



ID theTc ages ** calUd favage^^* 
and feeling no mcN^ refped for 
them than the ettiighUffed repub* 
lican of France of the prefent 
day do for a trumpeter^ a drum- 
mer, or a fifcr, might have en- 
conraged his foldiers to mix their 
carcafes with ihe vulgar to pre- 
vent their inciting them to what 
he called rebellion ; an enormity 
which the Britifh confidered as 
(acrilege, which they of courfe 
faw with horror, and have endea- 
voured to perpetuate with in- 
famy ; but it remains to be fa- 
tbfadiorily proved that he had 
any particular diflike to this 
order, further than was ab* 
foltttely necelTary for the main- 
tenance and prefervation of his 
government over a conquered 
country, or further than he 
conceived their principles and 
precepts were incompatible with 

the faiety of his perfon and 
power, as does likewife the 
Hiftorian'saflertion in page 206^ 
that by an effort* of iiroilar 
barbarity, in the reign of Henrj 
V. tlie order narrowly efcaped 
extermination, in as much as 
no fuch effort appears to have 
been made; and he will do well 
hereafter to quote the ftatute of 
that king refer