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v.-"s~''*l-'/r^'I 



THE CAMBRIDGE A^X4ENT HISTORY 

EDITORS 

Volumes i-vi Volumes vii, viii 

J. B. BURY, M.A., F.B.A. S. A. COOK, LITT.D. 

S. A. COOK, LITT.D. F. E. AD COCK, M.A. 

F. E. AD COCK, M.A. M. P. C H A RLES WO RTH, M.A. 



THIRD VOLUME OF PLATES 



Cambridije University Press 
Fetter Lane, London 

Neiv York 
Bomhcuj, Calcutta, Madras 

Toronto 

Macniillan 

Tohtjo 
Maruzcn Company. Ltd 



All riy-lits reserved 



T H E 

CAMBRIDGE 
ANCIENT IIISTOIIY 

EDITED BY 

S. A. COOK, LiTT. D. 

F.E. ADC()CK,M.A. 

M. P. CHARLE8W0UTH, M.A. 



VOLUME OF PLATES III 
PREPARED BY 

C. T. 8ELTMAN, M.A. 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1930 



<h^^ 



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OCT 2 4m6 



PRINTED IX GREAT BRITAIN 



PREFACE 

The illustrations collected in this volume contrast in many respects 
with those of its predecessor. The latter was devoted almost entirely 
to Greek art; here will be found objects ranging from Britain to 
India, from Spain to Central Asia. This altered aspect is due to the 
fact that the volume provides illustrations for volumes vii and viii 
of the Cambridge Ancient History, which are concerned with that 
greatly extended horizon of which men became aware through the 
conquests of Alexander and the westward expansion of Rome. Yet 
the Mediterranean holds the centre of interest; hence the products 
of the Hellenistic Age, sculpture, painting, architecture and the 
minor arts, occupy the chief place. But, in addition to the plates 
illustrating such subjects, there will be found illustrations of Celtic, 
Iberian, Thracian, Bosporan and Carthaginian products, and of 
numerous coins which have been mentioned in the text of the 
History. If Italy and Rome appear to have received scant notice 
this is because the discussion of their art is reserved for volume ix 
and for the plates which will illustrate it. 

For the selection of the subjects illustrated and for the com- 
mentaries on them the volume is indebted to the writers of the 
several chapters concerned. Mr de Navarro has dealt with the 
Celtic products, Professor Schulten with the Iberian, Professor 
Kazarow with the art of the Thracians. Professor Rostovtzeff has 
described the plates illustrating his chapters on the Bosporan 
kingdom, Pergamum, Rhodes, Delos and Hellenistic commerce. 
The commentary on Hellenistic sculpture, painting and architec- 
ture is the work of Professor Ashmole ; Mr Charlesworth has selected 
the illustrations of Carthaginian handicraft. For the descriptions 
of the coins the compiler of the volume is responsible. 

The main purpose of this book will be achieved if it proves helpful 
to readers of volumes vii and viii. Yet it may have an interest of 
its own. The first volume of plates, it was suggested, might indicate 
many of the influences which contributed to the formation of Greek 
art; the second showed the growth of that art to full maturity; 
the third depicts the civilized world and its barbarian fringes eagerly 
borrowing, selecting, modifying the artistic ideas of the Greeks. 



PREFACE 

Acknowledgments are gratelullN- made to Professor Ashmole, 
Dr A. B. Cook, Professor Ebert, Monsieur Gourv, Professor Kazarow, 
Professor Rostovtzeff and Professor Schultcn for the use of photo- 
graphs in tlu-ir possession, and to the Directors of the British 
Museum and of the Austrian Archaeological Institute for permission 
to reproduce numerous pictures. The Directors of the Museums in 
Berlin, Cologne, Copenhagen, Munich, Oxford, Paris and Rhodes 
have either generously supplied photographs or sanctioned the 
reproduction of antiquities under their care. To Dr G. F. Ilill, 
Keeper of Coins and ^Icdals in the British IMuseum, to Professor K. 
Regling and Monsieur J. Babelon of the Cabinets of Coins in Berlin 
and Paris, as well as to Monsieur R. Jameson and Mr E. T, Newell, 
thanks are due for the provision of plaster casts and photographs 
of coins. 

Professor Ashmole desires to thank Mr E. S. G. Robinson of the 
British Museum for selecting the coins illustrating portraiture on 
p. 164; Mr de Navarro thanks Professor and Mrs Chadwick for 
assistance on various points. The volume is, in particular, indebted 
to Professor Rostovtzeff for the use of eight of his pictures of 
Hellenistic terracottas. Messrs F. Bruckmann of Mimich have 
generously supplied a photograph (p. 178 [b]) which is due to appear 
in a forthcoming publication (Hermann, Denkindler der Malerei des 
Altertums). 

Reproduction from the books specified has been sanctioned by 
the following publishers: 

C, A. Beck, Munich (Furtwangler, Kleine Schriften). 

E. de Boccard, Paris {Bulletin de Correspondance Ilellcnique, 1884). 

F. Bruckmann A.G., Munich (Brunn, Denkmdler; Pfuhl, Malerei luid 

Zeichnung der Griechen; Schulten, Numantia). 

The Clarendon Press, Oxford (Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks in South 
Russia; ib. History of the Ancient World). 

W. de Gruyter and Co., Berlin (Ebcrt, Ueallexikon der Vorgeschichte; 
Iliunann, Magnesia am Maeander; Knackfuss, Das Rathaus von 
Milet; Wiegaud and Sclirader, Priene). 

Propylaen-Verlag, Berlin (Rodenwaldt, Die Kunst der Antike, Hellas 
und Rom). 

Sccmann and Co.. Leipzig {Zeitschrift fiir Bildende Kunst, 1003). 

Societc fran9aise d'Editions d'Art, Paris (Pergame). 

vi 



PREFACE 

The Staff of the University Press again deserve grateful acknow- 
ledgment for their accurate care. 

Upon the outside cover is a design representing a bronze statuette 
in Berlin. It is of the third century B.C. and represents a Gallic 
slinger with a horned helmet and wearing a torque and a belt. 

C.T.S. 

October 19.30 



VU 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

COINS PAGE 

of the Achaean League, Sinope, Byzaiitiuni. AntigonusGoiiatas, 
Abdera, Areus of Sparta, Cleomenes III of S})avta 2 

of Bactria, Pergamum, Arsinoe II, Agathocles of Syracuse 4 

of Rome 6 

of Rome, Beneventum, Locri, 'Romano-Campanian' issue 8 

of Rome, Flamininus, Philip V, Xabis, Orophernes, Spain, 
Syracuse, Emporium, Gades 10 

of Macedonian Regiones, Phihp Andriscus, Juventius Thahia, 

the ]:)aby Antioclius, Antiochns IV P^pijjhanes 12 

of Timarchus, Antiochns VI Dionysus. Tryjjhon. Simon ]Mac- 
cabaeus. John Ilyrcanus, Pergamum, Ephesus. Rliodes 14 

of Phocaea. Massiha. Southern, Eastern and Xorthern Gaul, 
Britain (Kent and South-western region), Paimonia, Dacia, 
Moesia, the Boii, Rhode, Emporium 16 

of Sparadocus, Seuthes I, Amatocus I, Teres 11, Eminacus, 
Saratocus, Bergaeus, Hebryzelmis, Cotys L Cerso)3lej)tes, 
Cetriporis, Scostoces, Seuthes III. Lysimachus, Cax'arus, 
Mostis, Sadalas 18 

of Samos, Panticapaeum, Apollonia, the Sindians, Carthage 20 

THE CELTS 

Contents of a Rhenish chieftain's grave 22 

Marne Chariot-])urial 24 

Objects from the La Tcne A Eastern Area; swords, fibulae, 
armlets, tores, pottery 26 

Objects from North of the Alps, La Tcnc B; swords, libulae, 
armlets, foot-rings, tores, figurines, rings, girdle-hooks, rattle 28 

Objects from the Bavarian Danube ^■alley. La Tene C; swords, 
chains, spear-heads, shield-boss, shears, tweezer, fibulae, armlets, 
tore, girdles, pottery 30 

Examples of La Tcne A ornamentation 32 

Bronze flagon from Lorraine 34 

Objects from Waldalgesheim; llagon, ])ucket, tore, rings 36 

Pottery; chip-carved and Ilarpstedt types 38 

Pottery from the Lower Rhine and the Marne 40 

ix 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

COINS PAGE 

of the Achaean League, Sinope, Byzantium, Antigonus Gonatas, 
Abdera, Areus of Sparta, Cleomenes III of Sparta 2 

of Bactria, Pergamum, Arsinoe II, Agathocles of Syracuse 4 

of Rome 6 

of Rome, Beneventum, Locri, ' Romano-Campanian ' issue 8 

of Rome, Flamininus, Phihp V, Nabis, Orophernes, Spain, 
Syracuse, Emporium, Gades 10 

of Macedonian Regiones, Phihp Andriscus, Juventius Thahia, 

the baby Antiochus, Antiochus IV Epiphanes 12 

of Timarchus, Antiochus VI Dionysus, Tryphon, Simon Mac- 
cabaeus, John Hyrcanus, Pergamum, Ephesus, Rhodes 14 

of Phocaea, Massiha, Southern, Eastern and Northern Gaul, 
Britain (Kent and South-western region), Pannonia, Dacia, 
Moesia, the Boii, Rhode, Emporium 16 

of Sparadocus, Seuthes I, Amatocus I, Teres II, Eminacus, 
Saratocus, Bergaeus, Hebryzehiiis, Cotys I, Cersobleptes, 
Cetriporis, Scostoces, Seuthes III, Lysimachus, Cavarus, 
Mostis, Sadalas 18 

of Samos, Panticapaeum, Apollonia, the Sindians, Carthage 20 

THE CELTS 

Contents of a Rhenish chieftain's grave 22 

Marne Chariot-burial 24 

Olijects from the La Tene A Eastern Area; swords, fibulae, 
armlets, tores, pottery 26 

Objects from North of the Alps, La Tene B; swords, fibulae, 
armlets, foot-rings, tores, figurines, rings, girdle-hooks, rattle 28 

Objects from the Bavarian Danube valley. La Tene C; swords, 
chains, spear-heads, shieid-boss, shears, tweezer, fibulae, armlets, 
tore, girdles, pottery 30 

Examples of La Tene A ornamentation 32 

Bronze flagon from Lorraine 34 

Objects from Waldalgesheim ; flagon, bucket, tore, rings 36 

Pottery; chip-carved and Harpstedt types 38 

Pottery from the Lower Rhine and the IMarne 40 

ix 



CONTENTS 



SI' \ I \ 

Ihciiaii I'oltfiy 

Ibcriim NVcapons; Pilion. Falcnla, Gladius II ispdiiiensis 

Iberian Terracotta heads 

The Hoiuaii C'irfimn aHation ol" Xumantia 
Headquarters of Seipio near Numaiitia 

1 TALV 

House of the Faun, Pompeii 

TIIUAC E 

Thracians on Attic vases 

Reliefs depicting Thracian costume 

Ilchiiets and a sword 

Objects in siher; chain and vases from Bukyo\ tsi 

Silver Fibulae 

Funeral urn from Pashakoi 

Objects in gold and silver; rings, armlet, pendant, amphora 

Objects in gold; tore, pair of fish 

Objects in silver, jug, phalera 
Ornaments of Scythian type 

Silver ornaments ; phalerae and plate from Panagyurishte 

Objects of Greek and Scythian tyj^e; silver bowl, bronze bucket 

La Tcne objects from Thrace; spear-heads, sheath, sword, bit, 
fibulae 

Objects from Kran; earrings, ornament, jug 

Siher-gilt ])halerae from Galice 

BOSPORUS 

Siher mirror, Greek workmanslii]:) 

Gold cii]) from Kelernies 

Gold lish from ^'ettersfelde 

Gold jeweller}^; earrings, necklace 

Swords and a sheath 

P^xamples of the Central Asiatic Animal Style 

l?ron/e pole-tops and placjues 

Types of (iraeco-Persian Art; rhyton, armlet, plaques, engraved 
gem 

Greek Bronzes; patera, stag, mirror 
Scythian gold plaques 



PAGE 

42 
44 
4G 

48 
50 

52 

54 
56 

58 

60 
62 
64 

66 
68 
70 

72 
74 
76 

78 

80 
82 
84 
86 
88 

90 

92 



X 



CONTENTS 

BOSPORUS (roNt(l) vm.k 

The 'Royal' Barrow near Kertch Ot 

Greek vases i'roin Pliauagoreia; A])hro(lite. S])hiiix !)G 

Aryballiis of Xcnophantus !)8 

Greek \'ase from Panticapaeuiu 

Scene from Greek Amphora 1 00 

Frieze of a silver Ami)hora depicting Scytliians and liorscs 102 

Gold Patera and siher bowl from Solokha loi- 

Gold plaques originally sewn on garments 100 

Gold ornaments for saddles 

Figures of winged goddess 108 

Gold ]ilaques, Indo-IIcllcnic workmanship (?) 110 

Gold |)laquc. Graeco-Persian 

Gold 'stags from Hungary 112 

PERGAMUM 

Marble Portrait-head 111 

RHODES 

Rhodian marble panoply 

Ship's stern at Lindus 116 

HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 

Head of Ariadne 

Bust of IMcnandcr 

Themis 

Selene 1 1 S 

Dionysus 

Demosthenes 

Nile 120 

Female heads in Taranto. Rome. Dresden 122 

Figures of Tyche in Florence, Budapest, Rome 12-4 

Victory from Samothrace 126 

Laocoon 

Dirce 128 

Draped female figures, from Hcrculaneum. Pricnc, Magnesia 130 

Male figures, Hermes, boy praying, boy taking thorn from his 

foot ' . . . . < ^^^^ 

Head of Dying Persian 

The Ludo\'isi Gaul 1 .'3 1 

]Marsyas and Scythian Slave l.'3G 

xi 



CONTENTS 

HELLENTSTir S( T'T.PTURE {conUf) page 

(i a Ills 
.Mc'iiolaus carrying the body of Patroclus 138 

Satyrs 

Head of Hermaphrodite 

Head of ■ Xiijht ' from the Great Altar of Pergamum 1 +0 

Satyrs from Pompeii and Rome 

Pt)lyhynuua 14-2 

A])hrodite crouching 

Old Woman 

Boy and Goose 144 

Sleeping ligures, Eros, Hermaphrodite 146 

Part of the Main Frieze of the Great Altar of Pergamum 148 
Part of the Internal Frieze of the Great Altar of Pergamum 

Relief from Corinth 150 

Head of Chiron 

Pan and Olympus 152 

Female heads from Pergamimi, Melos, Rome, Athens 154 

Female figure from Pergamum 

A]ihrodite from Cajiua 

Ai)lu()dite from Melos 156 

^Varrior 

Boxer 158 

Reliefs 

Boy. by Stephanus 

Group, by Menelaus 160 

Head of Epicurus 

Head of a poet 

Head of Cn. Pompeius Magnus 162 

Portraits of Hellenistic rulers on coins 164 

IlKLLEXISTIC PAINTING 

Achilles in Seyros 166 

Paintings from Boscoreale 168 

Heracles and Omphale 170 

Heracles finding Telephus 172 

Painting in the Villa Item 174 

Copies of ))aintings by Timomaehus 176 
Mosaic by Dioscurides 

Still Life' 178 

Landscapes from the Odyssey 180 

xii 



CONTENTS 

HELLENISTIC ARCHITECTURE page 

Entablature from ^Magnesia 
'Hallof the Bulls,' Delos 
Miletus; Bouleuterion 182 

Pergamum, the Acropolis 184 

Perganium, the Acropolis, restored plan 186 

Restoration of the Great Altar of Pergamum 

The liorologion of Andronicus Cyrrhestes 188 

HELLENISTIC TERRACOTTAS 

A Lamplighter, a Pedagogue, a Gentleman, a Slave-boy 190 

An Actor, a Fisherman, a Nurse and Child, a School-girl 192 

CARTHAGE 

Teri*acotta masks 194 

Representations of Tanit 196 

A Priestess of Tanit 198 



xiu 



C AH S III 



COINAGE OF HELLENISTIC GREECE 

\a], [b] silver, aiul [c\ bronze coins of thv Acliacdn Lcagnc, 280-146 B.C. 
\a] Federal mint; head of Zeus. Rev. monogram AX in wreath. 
\b] Corinthian mint; types as last, but Pcfjasiis over the monogram. 
[c] Argive mint, Zeus Amarios. Rev. AXAIHN APrEIHN; Dcmeter 
Panachaia seated, Brit. Mus. Cat. Peloponnesus, p. 2, 2, Wt. 2-59 g. ; 
p. 3, 28, Wt, 2-43 g.; p, 13, 155, (vii, 73G.) 

\d], \e] Regal eoins of cities on the Black Sea after about 290 B.C. 
|V/] Si nope, tetradraehm with Alexander types (of. Vol. of Plates, ii, 
8 [»]), in the field Zi and aplustre. Newell Coll. [e] Byzaniimn, gold 
stater witli I,ysimachus types (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 8[/]); below 
Athena a trident. Naville Catal. xiii, 676. (vii, 90.) 

[f] Antigonus Gonatas. Tetradraehm struck to commemorate his 
naval victory over the Egyptian fleet off Cos in 258 B.C. Head of 
Corinthian Poseidon. Rev. Apollo seated on the prow of the 
"Isthmia," the king's flagship, which was dedicated at Delos; on 
the prow BAZIAGnS ANTITONOY. Formerly Pozzi Coll. Wt. 
16-75 g. (vii, 714.) 

[g] Antigonus Gonatas. Tetradraehm issued after his defeat of the 
Gauls at Lysimacheia in 277 B.C. Macedonian shield on which head 
of Pan and pedum. Rev. inscription as last; Athena Alkis, in field 
Macedonian helmet. Formerly Poszi CoU. Wt. 17 g. (vii, 107, 201.) 

|/?] Abdera, l)ronze coin. Portrait of Ptolemy III, diademed and 
with aegis at neck. Rev. ABAHPITIIN; griffin of Abdera. Struck 
probably after 239 b.c, when Ptolemy's general occupied Abdera. 
Formerly Imhoof-Blumer CoU. (vii, 719.) 

[i] Areas of Sparta, 310-266 b.c. Tetradraehm with Alexander 
types (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 8 [«]). Rev. inscription BA5IAE05 {sic) 
APE05. The earliest known Spartan coinage. Lambros, Peloponnese, 
PI. lA', 6. (vii. 99.) 

[_/] Cleomenes III of Sparta, aiiout 228 b.c. Tetradraehm, Portrait 
with diadem. Rev, AA; agalma of helmeted Apollo of Amyclae, 
beside him a goat, in field wreath. B.M.C. Peloponnesus, p. 121, 1. 
Wt. 16-56 g, (vii, 719,) 



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COINAGE OF BACTRIA, PERGAMUM, 
EGYPT AND SYRACUSE 



[a], [b] Bactria and Sogdiana under Diodotus, about 250 B.C. Tetra- 
drachms. A portrait of the same ruler appears on both coins. Rev. 
Zeus luirhng a thunderbolt, eagle bel'ore him. [a] BAHIAEfiZ 
ANTIOXOY. [h] BAZIAEIiZ AIOAOTOY. BMX. Scleucid 
Kings, p. 15, 18. W't. 16-05 g. B.M.C. India, Greek and Scythic 
Kings, p. S,S. Wt. 16-66 g. (vii, 719.) 

[c] Philetaerus, ruler of Pergamum and vassal of the Seleucid House, 
284-263 B.C. Tetradrachm. Portrait of Seleucus I. Rev. <1>IAETAI- 
POY; Athena seated. B.M.C. Mijsia, p. 114, 28. Wt. 16-82 g. 
(vii, 709; viii, 590, 601, 612.) 

[d] Eumenes I, king of Pergamum, 263-241 B.C. Tetradrachm. 
Portrait of his uncle Philetaerus. Rev. as last coin. Ibid. p. 115, 31. 
Wt. 16-99 g. (vii, 709; viii, 591.) 

[e] Arsinoe II. Silver tetradrachm. Before 270 B.C. Head of the 
queen wearing diadem, stephane and veil. Rev. APZINOHS 
<l>IAAAEA<t)OY; eagle on thunderbolt. B.M.C. Ptolemies, p. 43, 7. 
Wt. 13-97 g. (vii, 97, 703.) 

[/] Syracuse under Agathocles as strategos autokrator, 316-304 B.C. 
Tetradrachm with old Syracusan types. Head of goddess sur- 
rounded by dolphins. Rev. §YPAKO§II2N: four-horse chariot, 
triskeles above. Bibl. Nat. Paris. Wt. 17-2 g. (vii, 621.) 

[g] Syracuse under Agathocles as king, 304-289 b.c. Tetradrachm. 
KOPAS, head of Kore. Rev. AfAOOKAEIOI; Nike erecting 
trophy, triskeles in field. Bibl. Nat. Paris. _ Wt. 17 g. (vii, 634.) , 



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ROMAN COINAGE 



Borne, cast bronze libral af>, about end of fourth century, or first 
half of third century b.c. Head of bearded Janus. Rev. prow of 
ship, above, [ (sign of value). Brit. Miis. The average weight of the 
Roman hbral as is 327-45 g. (vii, -1.33. 007, 608, 662, 663.) 



6 





-*#*;».;• -« 



ITALIAN COINAGE 



[a], \b] Koine, cast bronze libral semis and uncia, part of the same 
series as the as (p. 6). [a] Head of Jupiter, S (= semis) below. Rev, 
prow, S above, [b] Head of Bcllona. Rev. • under prow. Brit. Mus. 
(vii, 6C2.) 

\c] Beneventum, bronze coin struck after 268 B.C. BENEVENTOD, 
head of Apollo. PROPOM, h<jrse and pentagram. B.M.C. 
Italy, p. 68, 1. (vii, 608.) 

[d] Silver didraehm, *" Bowaun-Campaiiian,'' having the same types 
as [c], but on the obv. ROMANO, and on rev. star instead of penta- 
gram. Brit. Mus. Wt. 6-84 g. (vii, 608.) 

\e] ^ Bomano-Campania)!^ didraehm. Head of Heracles. Rev. 
ROMANO; she-wolf suckling twins. Brit. Mus. Wt. 7-06 g. (vii, 
367, 608.) 

[/] ^ Bomano-Campaniaii'' didraehm. Bearded head in crested 
Corinthian helmet. Rev. ROMANO: bust of horse, behind ear of 
corn. The head and ear of corn are Metapontine types; the horse's 
bust Carthaginian (cf. below, p. 20 [/]). Brit. Mus. Wt. 7-45 g. 
(vii, 608, 649.) 

[g\, [}i\, [i] Bornan silver usually ascribed to 268 B.C. Denarius, 
quinarius and sestertius with marks of value X, V and HS behind 
the head of Roma. Rev. ROMA; Castor and Pollux on horseback, 
stars above them. Brit. Mus. Wts. 4-32; 2-24; 1-07 g. (vii, 489, 608, 
663.) 

[j] Locri as ally of Borne, about 275 B.C. Didraehm. Head of Zeus 
resembling that on coins of Pyrrhus. Rev. AOKPflN: Locri as 
niSTIZ placing a wreath upon the head of the seated PXIMA. 
B.M.C. Italy, p. 365, 15. Wt. 7-08 g. (vii, 654.) 

[/v] Borne, struck bronze as reduced to uncial standard after 217 B.C. 
Types like those of the libral as (p. 6), but over the proAv S AR, the 
beginning of the mint-official's name. Brit. Mus. (vii, 433; viii, 
112.) 



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COIXACiE OF c;REECE, ASIA MINOR AND SPAIN 

[a] Ronum denarius, issued about (35 B.C. bya descendant of M. Aemi- 
lius Lepidus, to commemorate his legendary guardiansliip over 
Ptolemy V in 201 h.c. ALEXSAN DREA: head of Tyche of Alexandria 
wearing turreted crown. Rev. M ■ LEPIDVS TVTOR REG • 
rONTF • MAX • S • C: M. Aemilius placing a wreath on the head 
of the boy-king \\li(> holds a sceptre. Brit. Mus. (viii, 16G.) 
[h] (iold stater, minted perhaps in Corinth, with the portrait of 
Flamimiuis. Rev. T • QVINCTI; Nike crowning the name. She 
resembles closely the hgure on the gold staters of Alexander (ef. 
Vol. of Plates, ii, 8 [m], [o]). Berlin Mus. Wt. 8-55 g. (viii, 193.) 

[c] Philip T^)f :Maeedon. 220 170 v,.c. Tetradraehm. His head dia- 
demed. Rev. BASIAEHX <l>IAinnOY; Athena Alkis (cf. coin of 
Antigonus, p. 2 [g]). Brit. Mus. Wt. lG-78 g. (viii, 141.) 

[d] Nabis, king of Sparta, 207-192 b.c. Tetradraehm. His portrait, 
with beard and shaven upper lip, wreathed and diademed. Rev. 
BAIAEOZ (sic) NABIOZ: Heracles seated. Brit. Mus. Wt. 
17-04 g. (viii, 189.) 

[e] Orophernes, pretender to the throne of Cappadocia, 158-157 b.c. 
Tetradraehm minted in Pm/?€. Diademed head. Rev. BAZIAEHZ 
OPO0EPNOY NlKH<l>OPOY; Nike crowning the name (cf. Vol. 
of Plates, ii, 8, \o\): in lield, owl on base (mint-mark of Priene). 
B.M.C. Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, p. 34, 1. Wt. 10-4 g. Found at 
Priene. (viii, 281.) 

[/] Spanish silver coin of the weight of a denarius. Iberian legends. 
Male head. Rev. horseman. Brit. Mus. (viii, 309.) The types are 
derived from [o\ below. 

[g] Bronze coin of Hiero II of Syracuse, 274-215 b.c. His portrait 
diademed. Rev. I EPX2NOZ; horseman. Bibl. Nat. Paris, (viii, 281.) 
[h] Bronze coin, 'sextans,' of Emporium. Bust of Roma, with two 
dots as the mark of value on her helmet. Rev. EM FORI; Pegasus. 
Naville Catal. xii. (viii, 281.) 

\i] Silver drachma oi Emporium. Female head and dolphins copied 
from Syracusan coinage (cf. p. 4 [/]). Rev. EMPOPITON; 
Pegasus copied from coins of Corinth (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 8 [e]). 
Jameson Coll. Wt. 4-56 g. (viii, 311.) 

\j] Cades, silver coin. Head of Heracles. Rev. Phoenician legend; 
fish. Matheif CoU. Wt. 2-93 g. (viii, 311.) 

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COINAGE OF MACK DON AND SVHIA 



\(i], \b], [c] Macedon after division into four licgioues, coins issued 
158-140 B.C. [a], [b] Tetradrachms of the first and of the second 
division. Macedonian shield (cf. p. 2 [^]). on Avliieh liead of 
Artemis. Rev. club in oak-wreath: MAKEAONUN nPIlTHZ. <ir 
AEYTEPAS. |r] Bron/x' coin of tlie fourth division. Head of Zeus. 
Rev. as hist, but TETAPTHZ. No coins of the third division have 
been found. \a] Du Chaste! Coll. \b] AUatini Coll. \r\ Berlin Mus. 
Wts. 17 g.; 16-75 g. (viii, 277.) 

[d] 'Philip'' Andriscus, Macedonian Pretender, 149-148 b.c. Tetra- 
drachni. Macedonian shield on which his head in the helmet of the 
hero Perseus. Rev. types as last coins; BAZIAEflZ 4>IAinnOY. 
Formerly Pozzi Coll. Wt. 17-17 g. (viii, 270.) 

[e] Juventius Thcdna, in Macedon. Tetradrachm, 149 b.c. Types as 
[a] but rev. legend MAKEAONIIN. LEG(atus pro quaestore), 
above hand holding branch, OaXXo'i, probably the signet of Thalna. 
Formerly Imhoof-Blmner Coll. Wt. 16-94 g. (viii, 276.) 

[/]-[/] Tetradrachms isHuedhy Antiochus I V Epiphane.'i : [f] with the 
portrait of his nephew, the baby Antiochus; [g] with his own por- 
trait. Both have the same reverse legend and type — 'of king An- 
ti(jchus,' Apollo seated on omphalos, a small tripod in the field, about 
175-170B.C. (viii, 498, 713^5-.): \h]. f/] about 167 b.c, or later, have on 
the reverse Zeus Olympios Nikephoros: \h] has a portrait of the king; 
|/] of the king as Zeus laureate and disguised with a beard. The last 
bears the long inscription BAZIAEHZ ANTIOXOY 0EOY EHI- 
1>ANOYZ MKH<I)OPOY. (viii, 508.) The heads on all four coins 
are surrounded by fillet-borders. B.M.C. Seleiicid Kings; p. 24, 
.•3, Wt. 17-03 g.; p. 34, 4, Wt. 17-02 g.; p. 35, 15, Wt. 16-82 g.; p. 36, 
22, Wt. 16-83g. 



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COINAGE OF BABYLON, SYRIA, JUDAEA 
AND ASIA MINOR 

\fi] Timarchus, satrap of Baljvlon, as Great King in Babylonia and 
Media. Tctradrachin. ca. 102 n.c. Ilis portrait in Macedonian hel- 
met. Rev. BAXIAEXIZ MEfAAOY TIMAPXOY; the Dioscuri on 
horseback. The types are copied from those of Eucratides, Great 
KingofBactria. VormerW E. F. Weber Coll. \Vt.l5-8g. (viii, 518.) 

[b] Antiochus \'I Dioni/sus. Tetradrachm, 1 15 112 t..c. Head of the 
boy-king radiate and diademed. Rev. BAZIAEI22: ANTIOXOY 
Eni4>ANOY2: AIONYSOY; Dioscm-i on horseback, in liekl TPY 
(for Tryphon). 

[c] Tryphon as Basileus Aufokrator. Tetradrachm. 142 138 b.c. 
Diademed head. Rev. BAZIAEX2Z TPY<l>I^NOZ AYTOKPA- 
TOPOZ; Macedonian helmet and ibex-horn. B.M.C. Seleucid 
Kings, p. 63, 3, Wt. 16-53 g.; p. 68, 2, Wt. 15-99 g. (viii, 52T.) 

[d] The first Jezvish coinage under Simon Maccabaeus. Bronze half- 
shekel of the year 136/5 b.c. Citron (ethrog) between two bundles of 
twigs (hdab), around 'In the fourth year — one-half.' Rev. palm- 
tree between two baskets, around 'The redemption of Zion.' B.M.C. 
Palestine, p. 184, 2. Wt. 15-07 g. (viii, 529.) 

[e] John Hyrcanus. Bronze, 135-104 B.C. Crested helmet. Rev. 
double cornucopiae, around 'Jehohanan the High Priest and the 
Commonwealth of the Jews.' B.M.C. Palestine, p. 188, 1. (viii, 531.) 

[/], [h] Cistophoric tetradrachms, ca. 200 i?.c. onwards. Cista My- 
stica, with half-open lid, from which a serpent issues, ivy-wreath. 
Rev. bow-case betAveen two coiled serpents. [/] Minted in Pergamum, 
has monogram FIEPF and small torch. \h\ From Ephesus, has 
E<t>E and a bee in wreath upon the reverse. B.M.C. Mysia, p. 123, 
90. Wt. 12-47 g. B.M.C. Ionia, p. 64, 152. Wt. 12-72 g. (viii, 612.) 

\g\ Rhodes. Tetradrachm, ca. 300-166 b.c. Radiate head of Helios 
facing. Rev. rose with bud between PO; above TEIZYAOS 
(magistrate), in field statue of a goddess. B.M.C. Caria and Islands, 
p. 242, 128. Wt. 13-22 g. (viii, 633.) 



14 




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GREEK AND CELTIC COINS 

[a] Silver obol ol' Phocaea in Ionia, sixth century B.C. Found at 
Saint-Rein II de Provence. Head of a seal, a little seal beneath it (of. 
Vol. of Plates, i, ;3()2 [b]). Wt. 00 g. 

[b\, [c], [d\ A di()l)ol and two obols from the Hoard of Auriol near 
Marseilles': the tyj)e a rani's liead. The hrst like \a\ may be of Ionian 
mintage, the seeond perluips made by a Massiliote Greek, the third is 
a barbarous imitation struck by the pre-Celtic inhabitants of 
southern France. Bibl. Nat. Paris. Wts. 1-15 g.; 0-6 g.; 0-6 g. 
(vii, 40.) See de Navarro, Antiquity ii, 1928, p. 431. 

[g]-[ j] The gold stater of Philip of Macedon and its Celtic derivatives. 
[e\ Minted ))y Philip in Macedon (ef. Vol. of Plates, ii, [o]). [/] An 
intelligent Celtic imitation. [g\ Attributed to the Raurici (district 
around Bale); \li\ to the Aulerici Diablintes (Normandy), [i] A type 
characteristic of Kent (but found occasionally on the opposite 
French coast); the head of the god with elaborately stylized hair. 
[j] A broken-down version of the last, hair and lines on the obverse; 
the horse on the reverse reduced to lines and pellets. Occurs hi 
S.W. England (Oxfordshire, Sussex, Cornwall). [e\ Seltman Coll. 
Wt. 8-58 g. \f] Brit. Mus. Wt. 8-55 g. [g] Desseivffij Coll. Wt. 7-43 g. 
[k], [i] Brit. Mus. Wts. 0-07 g.; 7-08 g. [/] Dessezvffi/ Coll. Wt. g. 
(vii, 40, 47.) 

[It], \l], [m] Coins of the Eastern Celts imitated from silver tetra- 
drachms of Philip of Macedon (ef. Vol. of Plates, ii, \p]). [k] From 
Pan)\onia. Head of Zeus. Rev. horseman and indeterminate letters. 
[/] From Dacia. The head stylized into curves, spirals and alphabetic 
signs; the rider is bird-like. \m] From Moesia. A bearded Janiform 
head doubtless influenced by the Roman as (above, p. 0) and there- 
fore to be dated in the seeond centurv B.C. Rev. horseman. All in 
the Dessezvffu Coll. Wts. 13-45 g.; 11-10 g.; 13-52 g. (vii, 46.) 

\)i] (»old Regenbogenschusselchen of the type attributed to the Boii. 
Bird's head, torque and pellets. Rev. concave, a 'rainbow^' and six 
pellets. Formerly Pozzi Coll. Wt. 7-48 g. (vii, 47.) 

\o^Massilia. Drachma, fourth century B.C. Head of Artemis. Rev. 
MA§§A lion. Brit. Mus. Wt. 3-7 g. 

[p] Celtic imitation of the last coin. Dessezvffu Coll. Wt. 2-19 g. (vii, 
46.) 

\q] Rhode. Drachma; female head. Rev. open rose. Brit. Mus. 

[r] Emporium. Drachma; female head, dolphin. Rev. Pegasus (ef. 
p. 10 [i] for a slightly later coin). Brit. Miis. Celtic imitations of 
these types are frequent, (vii, 46.) 

16 




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THRACIAN COINS 

[a] Spnradocus. Tctradraohin. about 150-424 B.C. Cloaked horseman 
Avitli two spears. Rev. SPAPAAOKO; ea<ile tearing serpent. Bihl. 
Nat. Paris. Wt. 16-98 g. (On these coins [«]-[r] see viii, 556.) 

[b], [c] Seuthesl. Silver, 4.24-410 B.C. Cloaked Thraeian horseman. 

Rev. [/;] SEYOA APTVPION. |r] SEVOA KOMMA. BihJ. Nat. 

Paris. Wt. 8-48 g. B.M.C. Thrace, p. 201, 1. Wt. 8-50 g. 

\d], [e] Maronea. Bronze eoins struck in tlie name of Thraeian kings. 

[f/j ,iwr//of//.v /. about 405-396 B.C. Double-axe; AMATOKO. Rev. 

vine; EPI KAEANT05 (magistrate). \e] Teres II (about 400 B.C.). 

Same types, THPEH. Rev. EnijKEANAPiO. Sofia Mus. and 

Vienna Mus. 

\f] Eminacus. Silver, lifth century b.c. EMINAKO; Heracles in 

lion-skin stringing his bow. Rev. wlieel and four dolphins. Brit. 

Mus. 

[g\ Saratocus. Silver, about 400 b.c. Probably minted in Thasos. 

Silen kneeling holding kantharos. Rev. 5APATO; amphora. 

Brit. Mus. AVt. 11 1 g. 

[//] Bcrgaeus. Silver, a])Out 400-350 B.C. Perliaps minted in Thasos. 

Silen and nymph. Rev. BEPfAIOY. Berlin Mus. Wt. 3-29 g. 

[i], [j], [k] Cypsela. Bronze coins struck for dynasts. [/] Hebryzelmis, 

386-384 B.c". Head of city goddess. Rev. EBPY. a vase {Kypsele). 

[j] Cotijs I, 384-360 b.c' Horseman. Rev. KOTYOI. a Ki/psele. 

[k] Cersohleptes, 360-341 b.c. Female head. Re\ . KEP, a Kypsele. 

[f], [j] Brit. Mus. [k] Sofia Mus. 

[I] Cetriporis. Bronze, about 356 b.c, probablv minted in Thasos. 

Head of Dionysus. Rev. KETPIPOPIOS. kantharos and thyrsus. 

Bibl. Nat. Paris. 

[m], [n] Bronze coins with types copied from those of Philip of 

Macedon (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 6 [p]). jw] Scostoces, about 350 b.c 

Head of Apollo laureate. Rev. 5KOITOKOY; horseman. \n] 

Seuthes III, about 338-313 b.c Head of Zeus. Rev. ZEYOOY, as 

last. Sofia Mus. 

[o] lAisimachus, 323-281 b.c Tetradraehm. Portrait of Alexander 

with horn of Amnion. Rev. BAZIAEHZ AYSIMAXOY; Athena 

Kikephoros (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 8 [/]). Sofia Mus. Wt. 17 g. 

\p'] Cavarus. Bronze, about 219-200 B.C. Head of Apollo. Rev. 

BAZI AEHZ KAYAPOY : Nike crowning his name as on Alexander's 

gold coins (ef. 1 o/. of Plates, ii, 8 [o]). Sofia Mus. 

[r/] Mosiis. about 200 B.C. Tetradraehm. Portrait of king. Re\-. 

BAZIAEUE MOZTIAOZ EPI ZAAAAOY (magistrate) IT (date 

year 13). Berlin Mus. Wt. 16-58 g. 

[;■] .SV/r/r//r/.v, about 42 B.C. Bronze. Head of king. Rev. BAZIAEHS 

ZAAAAOY ; eagle. Sofia Mus. 

18 




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COINS OF BOSPORUS AND CARTHAGE 



[a] Sanios. Tetrobol, sixth century b.c. Lion's scalp facing. Rev. 
rough quartered incuse square. B.M.C. Ionia, p. 350, 1. Wt. 202 g. 
[6], [c] Bosporan coins imitating the Saniian type. Both Avitli facing 
lion's scalp. Revs. [/>] PANT in the four raised quarters of an 
incuse square; [c] APOA in a quartered incuse square; the first 
o^ Paniicapaeum, second o( ApoUonia. Naville Catal. v. Wt. 1-0 g. 
Formerly Pozzi Coll. Wt. 1-42 g. (viii, 562, 586.) 

[d] The Sindians. Silver, fifth century b.c. Eagle-headed griffin 
with curled wing, ear of corn. Rev. IINAHN; head of horse. 
Jameson Coll. Wt. l-26g. (viii. 505.) 

[d]-[j] Coins of Panticapaeum. [e], [/] Gold staters, fourth century 
B.C. Heads of bearded Silens with pointed ears (cf. the heads of the 
Scythians on gold and silver objects. Vol. of Plates, i, 252, 262). 
Rev. PAN; lion-headed horned griffin, with curled Aving, biting a 
spear, ear of corn below. Jameson Coll. Wts. l)-09g. ; 9-09 g. [/?]-[ j] 
Silver, [h] Head as on [e]. Rev. PAN; bull's head, [i] Facing 
head of beardless satyr. Rev. lion biting a spear. [ ;'] Head of satyr. 
Rev. lion's head. Formerly E. F. Weber Coll. Wts. Soog.: 2-45 g.; 
2-29 g. [g] Bronze. Head of satyr. Rev. lion's head, beneath it a 
sturgeon, (viii, 569, 586.) 

[k], [I] Coins of Carthage, fovn-th to third centuries b.c. |V/] Gold 
stater. Head of goddess copied from Syraeusan coinage (cf. }). 4 |./]). 
Rev. horse. Naville Catal. xiii. Wt. 9-38 g. [b] Bronze, similar head. 
Rev. horse's bust, (vii, 608; viii, 488.) 



20 









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THE CELTS 

chieftain's grave, Weissliirchcu, Rheinprovinz, Barrow 2 La 
Tene A (see vii, 4S sq.). {Bonner Jahrbiicho; xliii, 1867, PI. VII; 
Dechclctte, Manuel (1014), ii, 3, fig. 430; Jacobsthal and Langsdorff, 
Die Bronzeschnabelkanne (= J. and L.). 1020. p. 28, PL 36 « and h.) 

[a] Bronze stamnos or vessel for mixing wine (height 40 cm.). Note 
beaded lip with two catches for lost lid. This vessel was found to con- 
tain white pitch. Pliny tells us that the Greeks mixed pitch, resin 
and other substances with their wines to give them briskness {H.N. 
XIV, 124). See de Navarro, Antiquitij, 1028, p. 435. 

[b] Handle with Silenus mask from same. Cf. Dcehclette, La Collec- 
tion Millon (1013), fig. 18, 3. 

[c], [d] Bronze beaked flagon {Schnubelkanne). Height 42-5 cm. 
Jacobsthal {op. cit.) makes out a strong case for these flagons being 
of Etruscan, not Greek origin. They date for the most part from the 
opening decades of the fifth century B.C. 

[e] Handle to same. Jacobsthal type 5 (see J. and L. pp. 45 f.). 
Associations of stamnoi with beaked flagons occur also on the 
following sites north of the Alps: Diirkheim, Rhenish Palatinate; 
Klein Aspergle, Wurtemberg; Weisskirchen, Barrow 2 ; Bouzonville, 
Lorraine (see p. 34). Another stamnos was found in the tumulus of 
La Motte St Valentin, Hte. Marne. 

[/] Gold band, possibly an armlet. Diameter 4-7 cm. Zone of winged 
sphinxes in repousse, above and below which a zone of lattice 
patterns between two beaded lines. Reinecke {Mainzer Festschrift, 
1002, p. 74) considers that both in form and workmanship the 
sphinxes are faithful and competent copies of Greek models but 
that the barbaric origin of the object is betrayed by the mechanical 
repetition of the sphinxes and the ornamentation of the two zones 
framing them (vii, 48). 

[g] Lower part of an iron dagger with remains of bronze sheath 
ending in a trefoil chape; note the gold foil rosettes. Length 
7 cm. 



22 








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CONTENTS OF A KTIENISH CHIEFTAIN's GRAVE 



THE CELTS 

("II AHioT-Bi^Ki A I., Sotnme Biounc, Manic. La Tene A (see vii, 43), 
(/?/•//. Mas. Guide, Iron Age Antiquities'-, PI. HI; Morel, Champagne 
Sotiterraine, PI. \1I sqq. and text, pp. 2S sqq.; also Ebert, Reallex. 
der Vorgeschichte (= R.L.V.), s.v. Wagengrab.) 

The grave in question is a flat grave, surrounded by a circular ditch. 
The following are among tiie more important objects found (unless 
otherwise stated they are of bronze): a long iron Early La Tene 
sword in a bronze and iron scabbard ending in an enamelled trefoil 
chape {B.M. Guide, fig. 54); iron spits (Dcchelette, Collection Millon 
(1913), p. 231): an embossed gold band; a gold finger-ring; a girdle 
clasp, confronted griffons type {B.M. Guide, PI. IV right); a beaked 
flagon (?■&. fig. 53, cf. above, PL II c). Apart from two iron tires 
and other parts of the chariot, the following horse-trappings: 
forked objects with trefoil terminals, pierced circular and semi- 
circular objects {B.M. Guide, PI. IV); two iron bits with bronze 
rings. Pottery: a local pedestal urn {B.M. Guide, cf. fig. 64); a 
red-figure Attic kylix (J. and L. PI. 34 a). In Jacobsthal's opinion 
this vase cannot date from before 450 B.C. {ibid. p. 62). In view of 
this, the Somme Bionne chieftain was probably laid in earth between 
440 and 420 B.C., possibly a generation later than the chieftain in the 
second Weisskirchen barrow. 

Apart from relatively numerous burials in France, chariots have 
been found in the La Tene A Rhenish Chieftains' Graves (see also 
Mannus, xxii (1930), pp. 103 f.). For S.W. Bohemia (La Tene A), 
see Schranil, Vorgesch. Bdhmens-Mdhrens, p. 212. Those from York- 
shire and most of those from Hungary {B.M. Guide, pp. 119 sqq. 
and R.L.V. xiv, p. 29) date from phase C. The Yorkshire chariot- 
interments differ from those of the continent in that the skeletons 
were contracted (buried seated in the chariot?) and that horses 
were found: in continental chariot-burials horses are exceptional. 
Hallstatt chariot-graves occur from S.W. Bohemia to the Marne 
(.logasses grave 16) and even further west. Unlike those of the La 
Tene period, many of these earlier vehicles have four wheels. 

There is an allusion to chariot-burial in the 'Destruction of Dind 
Rig,' an Irisli prose epic referring to a period prior to that of the 
Ulster cycle {Zeitschrift filr Celtische Philohgie, iii, p. 9). 



24 




.•i.'.';«;i 



MARNE CHARIOT-BURIAL 



THE CELTS 

LA TENE A, EASTEKX A K E A (scc vii, 43 .sg.). (This and the fol- 
lowing two plates are taken, respectively, from Lindensclunidt's 
Altertumer unserer heidnischen Vorzeit (= AuhV.), v, Pis. 50, 57, 51, 
which illustrate Reinecke's three papers, ib. pp. 281 sqq., 3.30 sqq., 
288 sqq., on which this text, pp. 2() 30, is based. See Bibliography 
to Vol. VII, ch, 2, s.v. Lindensehniidt.) 

Metal. (Unless otherwise stated the objects are bronze.) 

Trou sxvords and scabbards with bronze chapes: [a-c] respective 
lengths 72 cm.; 20 cm. (length only of part ilhistrated); 72 cm. 
Carved iron knife ('Hicbmesser').* [/] length, 31 cm. 

Fibulae: [o\-\q] variants of the Certosa type; \zv] mask-fibula; [m] 
bird-head libulae; [,vj stylized development of last-named type Avith 
knee bow. Lengths: 7 cm.; 7-2 cm.; 7-5 cm.; 9 cm.; 3 cm.; 4-8 cm. 
Armlets: [d\, [e], [u] types with three or four groups of knobs: [d] 
open and hollow cast, [e] and [u] closed; [/] open wire type with 
ring catch. Diameters: 7-5 cm.; 7-5 cm.; 7 cm.; 6-5 cm. 

Tores: [i] thin, open type, single group of knobs; [k] thin, angular in 
section, hook-and-eye catch; [j] thicker, cast, cast spiral ornament, 
and pin catch. Diameters: 14-5 cm.; 14 cm. and 15-5 cm.; 15-5 cm. 

Pottery. (Monochrome; mostly dark in colour; 
the finer vessels in bucchero technique.) 

Lenticular flasks: \r] (with zoomorphic frieze, cf. R.L.V. vii, PI. 
193 d) found with [o]-[g']; [y] and [z] with geometric ornamentation. 
Heights: 24 cm.; 20-5 cm.; 19 cm. 

Bottle-shaped vessel: [h] rounded shoulders, broad flat base. Height : 
19-5 cm. 

Pail-shaped vessel: [g] 'form perhaps influenced by archaic Greek 
vase types (such as archaic hydria and amphora forms).' Horizontal 
grooves and are motifs on ueck. Height: 25 cm. 

Fragment of omphalos dish: [n] the inner side decorated with curvi- 
linear motifs. Diameter: 16-5 cm. 

}'essels zvith everted necks and broad, elliptical bodies, on the shoulders 
of which are curvilinear motifs: [a^], |<"2]- Heights: 16 cm.; 10 cm. 

Vessels with everted lips and broad, more or less carinated bodies, the 
shoulders decorated with moiddings and geometric motifs: [t'], [f], {x\, 
[/a,]. All save [ftg] made on the wheel. Note the dragonesque motifs 
on [t.,]- Heights: 12-5 cm.; 12 cm.; 14-5 cm.; 17 cm. 

The following have om])halos bases: [//], \r\ [/]. [r], [//], [~], [«2]-[^2]- 
For the sites on Avhich the above objects were found see AuhV. v, 
pp. 281 sqq. 

26 




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THE CELTS 

LA TEXE B IX THE in:(;iox TO xoRTir OF THE ALPS (sec 
vii, 44 6-q.). 

(Unless otherwise stated tlie ohjeets arc l^roiize.) 

Iron s:cnrds: [a], \f] the hitter with franineiits of iron slieath, and 
ehajie with eoral inhiv. Respective kMigths: 75 cm. and 70 em. 
Broken iron spear liead: [h]. Lengtli: 22-5 cm. 

Fibulae: [d\ foot and bow with inhiy-dises; [^^J iron, I'ragmentary; 
\i] with knee bow, end of foot lacking; \j] typical La Tene B form: 
bent-back foot tonching bow; [A] bow with five Ijorings; [/] 
band-shaped bow, foot lacking; [//?] iron, foot with knobs; \ic] red 
coral disc on foot. Respective lengths: 5-5 cm.; 6 cm.; 9-5 cm.; 
7-5 cm. ; 8 cm. ; 9 cm. ; 8-5 cm. ; 6 cm. 

Armlets: [o] two band-shaped, seal-top terminals with sunk beds for 
inlay; [?•] knobbed, with small buffer terminals; [.s] small, open, 
seal-top terminals; [n] fragment of large knobbed arm-ring, with 
5-niotifs; [z\ undulated wire type. (Greatest diameters: 6-4 cm.; 
7-3 cm.; 5-8 cm.; 10 cm. (length); nearly 6 cm. 

Foot-rings: [r] foot- or arm-ring with saddle-shaped bend, four knobs 
and plug catch; [x\ open, knobbed, seal-top terminals; [69] open, 
knobbed. Greatest diameters: 7 cm.; 10-5 cm.; 9-3 cm. 

Tores: [c] open, plain, seal-top terminals; [A] open, buffer terminals, 
coral ring-discs, etc.; [n'\ in two parts, buffer type, knobs, etc., with 
plastic decoration, plug catch; [g] closed, buffer type, plastic de- 
coration on knobs etc., discs for inlay; [^] twisted wire, angular in 
section, hook-and-eye catch, glass rings on small wire rings; [cg] 
plain, seal-top terminals, figurine on ring. Greatest diameters: 
almost 13 cm.; 15-5 cm.; 16-2 em.; 18 em.; 13 cm.; 13-5 cm. 

Fi^wn/ie^ (anthropomorphic).' [ij], [do], see also [cg]. Heights: 4 cm.; 
3 cm.; almost 5 cm. 

Smaller rings: [e] closed, four knobs; [e.^] triannular wire object. 
Diameters: 3-5 cm.; about 1 cm. 

Girdle-hooks: [jj] hook with bronze sheet mount for end of girdle, 
repousse and punched decoration; [«.,] l)ronze hook with rivet-holes 
and 'terret' for end of leather girdle. Breadths: 4 cm.; 2-8 cm. 

Rattle: [f^] clay, double conic with stamped geometric motifs. 
Diameter: 4-5 cm. 

[a]-[g], [h], [i], [w]-[y]h'om Rhenish Palatinate; [/], [g] Alsace; [u] (?), 
\v] Rhenish Hesse; \q]-[t], fc.,] Starkenburg; \z\-\b^] Upper Hesse; 
\n\-\p] Hesse Nassau; {d.^], \e.2\ Wurtemberg; \j]-[m] Bohemia. For 
Sites, see AuhV. v, pp. 330 sqq. 



28 




OBJECTS FROM NORTH OF THE ALPS, LA TENE B 



THE CELTS 

LA TENE C IN THE BAVARIAN DANUBE Y ALLEY (seC vii, 45 ."fg-.). 

Metal. (Unless otherwise stated the objects are bronze.) 
Iron .vu'o/y/.v; \a]. \c] (with iron sheaths): \b]. Note survival of earlier 
(H) forms in [a] and [b]; for typieal La Tene C form, ef, [c], Uespec- 
tive lengths: 74 cm.; 68 cm.: 80 cm. (sheath 74 cm.). 
Tivisied iron sword-chain and end-piece to same: \r]. Lengths: about 
48 cm.; 15 cm. 

Three holloiv iron szvord-strai) rin<i.s: [d\. Diameter: 4-5 cm. 
Iron spear-heads : broad-bladed: |/] with two iron spear-butts; and 
[h]; narrow-bladed: |^']; [i]. Lengths: 55 cm. (length of butts: 9 cm.; 
11 cm.): 30 em.; 33 em.; 43 em. 

Iron shield boss: [j] 'trigger-guard' form and two iron 'shield- 
bindings.' Lengths: 33 cm.; 19 cm.; 17-5 cm. 
Iro7i shears: [x]. Length: 23 cm. 
Tcveezer: [//]. Length: 5-7 cm. 

Fibulae: \u], [r] (both iron), typical La Tene C forms (foot clasping 
bow); [iv], [i.^] pseudo-La Tene 13 fibulae. Lengths: ll-2cm.; 17cm.; 
7-9 cm.; 16 cm. 

.'Irmlets: [n] closed deep blue glass outer side with three rows of 
points; [o] hollow bossed type {Nussarmrin^) with hinge (arm- 
or foot-ring); [/j] ditto, but larger bosses (arm-ring); [q] spiral 
wire, with two blue glass beads with orange yellow spirals, and 
zigzags; [;•] closed, fluted, three rectangular plaques; |.s] closed, 
threegroupsof pronounced triple knobbing; [/] open, 'cast torsion'; 
[^2] closed, lignite. Greatest diameters: 9 em.; about 12 cm.; 
9-5 cm.; 6 cm.; 9 cm.; 8-3 cm.; 6-3 cm.; 7 cm. 

Tore: \k\ iron, 'omega' tore, button terminals, (ireatcst diameter: 
17 cm. 

Girdles, etc: [/I clasp- and suspension-hooks with pendants from big 
girdle-chain of ring, rod and cruciform members, red enamel on 
last-named and clasp-hook. Hooks with zoomorphic heads (cf. 
AuhV. V, p. 288, fig. 1); [?/?] end-pieces (zoomorphic clasp-hook and 
pendants) of a doubled girdle-chain (cf. //>.); [^2] P^i't^ "f a girdle- 
chain (on zoomorj)hic clasp-hook and end-piece, red enamel inlay). 
Total lengths of chains: about 154 cm.; 172 cm.; 123 cm. 

Pottery. (Asterisk denotes wheel-made.) 
Monochrome grey to grey-black zvare: \z] bowl, incurving lip (dia- 
meter about 18 cm.); *[«•>] pedestal vase (height 20-5 cm.); *[/a2] 
pail-shaped vessel, curved profile, moulding on shoulder (height 
26-5 cm.); *[c2] pail-shaped vessel, strongly curved profile, moulding 
on shoulder (height 16-5 cm.); *\do] brown pedestal vase, curved pro- 
file (height 23 cm.); \e.,] pot, channelled walls, convex profile (height 
16-5 cm.): I/2] flat, sharp-angled dish (height 4-6 em.): [/o| ])ail- 
shaped, bieonic vessel, channelled Avails, stamped concentric circles 
on shoulder (height 12-5 cm.); [7i-2] bieonic vessel, foot-ring, moulding 
and grooves on shoulder (height 20 cm.). 
[a] from Straubing; [^]-[/2j Manching; [^2]"[/'2] Aislingen. 

30 




w 

< 
-1 

>^ 

-! 



D 

Q 



pq 



p5 

O 
H 

a 

►-5 



THE CELTS 

EXAMPLES OF LA TENE A ORNAMENTATION FROM THE 
MIDDLE RHINE AND MARNE A RE AS (sCC vii, 47 S^'.). 

[a] Gold pierced mounting, possibly for a cup, from a Chieftain's 
Grave at Schwarzcnbach (Barrow 1), Birkenfeld (= Bonner JaJir- 
biicher, xxiii, PI. IV, 3; cf. Baldes-Bchrens, Katalog Birkenfeld, 
PI. 5). The top frieze, framed by zones of beading, is mainly composed 
of 'Celtic' (three-leaved) and disintegrated palmettes. The middle, 
of stylized palmettes, the multifoliatc articulation of their two 
lower side leaves contributing to the formation of the palmette 
derivatives with which they alternate. The lowest and narrowest 
frieze is composed of bud motifs, the neck of each bud being separated 
by a moulding from the crest of the undidated line on which it 
stands (cf. Dechelettc, Manuel, fig. 664); two zones of beading. 

[b] Engraved ornamentation on the bronze helmet from Bcrru, 
Marne (= Rev. Archeologique, 1875, i, PI. X; cf, Dechelettc, op. cit. 
figs. 656 and 490.2). (See vii, 48.) Top left hand corner: inter- 
locking 5-motifs with foliate 'insets.' Top right hand corner and 
middle: derivatives from the enclosed palmette alternately in- 
verted and connected by curved almond-shaped motifs; on the 
projecting parts, palmette derivatives and palmettes. Lowest: 
degenerate derivatives of the enclosed palmette; similar connecting 
motifs. The engravings on this helmet (with which cf. Dechelettc, 
op. cit. fig. 655) reveal a tendency towards a treatment of design 
fundamentally at variance with classical tradition: the abolition of 
the distinction between the pattern and its background, brought 
about by the covering of a given ornamental field with primary 
and complementary motifs. Not only did this practice open a whole 
range of fantastic curvilinear patterns. l)ut it contributed very 
largely to the abstract, geometric treatment of ultimately natural- 
istic motifs. The origin of this innovation is perhaps to be sought in 
pierced metalwork (cf. [a]), or possibly in such inlay work as that on 
the throats of tiie Bouzonville flagons (cf. p. 35). On the helmet 
from Bcrru the contrast is heightened by the complementary motifs 
being carried out in pointille. For an example of developed primary 
and complementary ornamentation, see the bronze mirror from 
Desborough {B.M. Iron Age Guide, fig. 133). 

32 




[«] 




[b] 

EXAMPLES OF LA TENE A ORNAMENTATION 



c A H s in 



THE CELTS 

BRONZE BEAKED FLAG o X of Celtic workiiiansliip from Bouzon- 
ville, near Metz. La Tene A. In the British Museum. (R. A. Smith, 
Celtic Bronzes from Lorraine, in Arch a eologi a, Lxxrx, pp. 1 sqq.; Illus- 
trated London Nezcs, March 2;3rd and 30th, 1929; The British Museinn 
Quarterly, iv, No. 3, p. 66; J. and L. p. 99.) One of a pair of 
bronze flagons (oinochoai) ornamented with coral and red enamel, 
found with two bronze stamnoi (cf. above, p. 23 [a]). Greatest height : 
about 39-4 cm. Patina, a dark lustrous green. For a full description 
of this remarkable flagon see Smith, op. cit. pp. 3 sqq. (cf. ib. fig. 4). 
The flagons from Houzonville differ in many features from the usual 
type of oinochoe (cf. above, p. 23 [c], [d]): the bodies of the former 
are tall and high-shouldered and only paralleled by the clay Schnahel- 
kanne from Hallstatt (J. and L. p. 99, PI. 27, No. 138) ; the beaks and 
the tops of the Bouzonville vessels are covered in (the wine was 
poured in through a narrow hole, closed with an enamelled bronze 
stopper, and out through a narrow tube, the point of egress lying 
below the duck on the spout). They also differ in being embellished 
with coral and red enamel, and in certain of their zoomorphic fea- 
tures: the duck on the covered spout, the ear- and thigh-spirals on 
the beasts. The latter features have been attributed to Scythian in- 
fluence (but see J. and L. p. 59 for thigh-spirals). Should this view 
prove correct, the occurrence of such spirals on the Bouzonville 
flagons — which also bear very early Celtic enamel work — would 
lend colour to the view that the art of enamelling reached the Celtic 
area from the Black Sea region. Owing to the dearth of connecting 
links, it is not easy to determine the routes by which Scythian in- 
fluence reached the Celtic area during La Tene A: although there is 
undeniable evidence for the presence of Scythian raiders in Silesia 
during the fifth century (see Schlesiens Vorzeit, N.F. ix, pp. 11 sqq.), 
the Celtic invasion of that region did not occur until phase B 
of the La Tene period. Ear-spirals are foreign to Greek and 
Etruscan art ; but, in comparing resemblances between the Scythian 
and Celtic styles, one should not forget that they were both to a 
great extent parallel but independent barbaric developments of a 
common classical influence (vii, 48). Although this important new 
find may reveal the existence of Scythian influence upon Celtic Art 
as early as La Tene A, there is no reason to believe that influence 
to have been of other than secondary importance. 

34 





PS 
o 

O 



2; 

o 

H 

o 




THE CELTS 

OBJECTS from the double burial near Waldalge.sheim, Huns- 
ruck. LaTene B (vii, 45) {^R.L.V. xiv, 1*1. 55-6; E. aus'm Weerth, 
Der Grdbfund von \V., Bonner }\'inckelniannspro<>ra)nni, 1870; Fiihrer 
(lurch (las Provinziahnuseum, Bonn (11)15), p. 25, PL U (1, 2), PL 10; 
Belircns, Katalog Bingcn (1!)1S), pp. 25 sqq.). The lower of the two 
graves contained the remains of a man with his horse, chariot, 
table service \(i\, [b], etc.; the upper (jne that of his wife or con- 
cubine witli rich objects of adornment (see [c]-[/]). (C'f. vii. 73.) 

[a] The l)r()nze flagon is a Celtic derivation from the earlier Etruscan 
Schnabellcdnne. Instead of a beak it is furnished with a tubular 
spout, and differs still further from the usual beaked flagon in the 
shape of its body and its foot (cf. 23 [c]). The small horse surmount- 
ing the vessel in the photograph is thought to belong to the lid. 
Note the bearded flgure with Inmian ears and long pointed ears 
(horns?) at the foot of the handle, proljably derived from the 
Aehelous mask. For the ornamentation on the body of the vessel, 
not visible on this plate, see B.M. Iron Age Guide, fig. 11, p. 20 (cf. 
Mainzer Festschr. 1902, p. 82; J. and L. p. 44). Further examples of 
this type of flagon occur in France (2) and the Rhenish Palatinate (1), 
while a number of imitations in pottery came to light in the South 
Swiss (Ticino) cemeteries (cf. Behrens, op. cit. p. 28 sq.; Dechelette, 
op. cit. II, 3, fig. 654, p. 145455-.). 

[b] The bronze bucket is one of the only Greek works of art 
found in the transalpine Celtic area in a La Tene B context (cf. 
vii, 45). Outside of that area, apart from the example cited on vii, 45, 
one of these buckets was found at Kjeldby (Denmark). Cf. Deche- 
lette, op. cit. pp. 1440-2. The free flower-tendrils {frei bewegte 
Bli'ithenranJxen) at the base of the drooping palmette on the Waldal- 
gesheim bucket show that this vessel cannot be dated earlier than 
the closing vears of the fifth centurv b.c. (cf. Mainzer Festschr. 1902, 
p. 81). 

[c] Gold tore with buffer terminals. The ornamentation (forked 
flower-tendrils) is directly derived from the decoration on the bucket 
[b\. For full analysis of the ornamentation, see B.M. Iron Age Guide, 
pp. 19 sqq. 

[d], [e] Two gold ])uffer-cnded wristlets decorated with human 
masks, palmette decorations, free tendril motifs, etc. 

[/] Closed, twisted gold ring for the upper arm. 

The chief new- classical contribution towards La Tene B art is the 
free tendril motif. 



36 





[a\ 



[bV 







OBJECTS FROM W ALD ALG ESHEI M 



THE CELTS 

Types of BRONZE AGE CHIP-CARVED POTTERY, Kcrhschtlitt- 

keramik {= RLV. viii, pi. 78). (vii, 55.) [a]-[6] From Bavaria, [c]- 
[g] From Wurtemberg. [h]-[i] From Hesse. Respective heights: 
12-5 cm.; 8 cm.; 6 cm.; 5 cm.; 10-5 cm.; 12 cm.; 5-7 cm.; 8-5 cm.; 
13-8 cm. Apart from the Lower Rhenish area chip-carved pottery 
practically disappears in Hallstatt A to re-emerge in Hallstatt C 
(see vii, 55 on recrudescence of the Bronze Age population in South 
Germany). Also cf. forms of funnel-neck globular-bodied vessels of 
Hallstatt B {AiihV. v, Nos. 1002, 1007) with fig. [/] and Behrens, 
Bronzezeit Siiddeutschlands, PI. XV). See Behrens, op. cit. for sites. 

iiARPSTEDT POTTERY (= Mannus, XVII (1926), p. 293). (See vii, 
67, 56.) 

The cradle of the Harpstedt style lay in the region between the Ems 
and the Weser, whence it spread [i] through the Lippe valley to 
the Lower Rhenish area, [ii] through Brunswick to East Havclland 
and parts of Saxony. The vessels, which vary in colour (light yellow, 
reddish, dark brown), are more or less pail-shaped with frilled lips 
and rough walls; the roughened appearance is obtained by smearing, 
or combing. According to Stampfuss' revised chronology (cf . Man- 
nus, Ergiinzungsband v (1927), pp. 50 sqq. with Mannus, xvii, 1926, 
pp. 287 sqq.), the vessels date from Northern Bronze Age V to 
Hallstatt C. Rhenish variants [i]-[w], often with finger-tip orna- 
mentation, occur in the Middle Rhenish zone (cf. Rittershausen, 
Nass.Annalen, 1926, PL IX, 12, 13, and the Coblentz region, Mannus, 
xxii, 1930, p. 109 sq.), where they overlap with the Mehrcn (Hall- 
statt C/D) and La Tene A cultures. The people who brought these 
vessels with them to the Lower Rhine area are held to be the first 
Teutonic invaders to settle in those parts. 

Type I, [j]-[A;], does not survive the Bronze Age; type II, [/]-[w], 
is more frequently found in the Bronze Age; types III, IV, V, [;?]- 
{o\ [p\~~\^\ [A~{^\ ^^t^ from Hallstatt C, although a few examples 
of type III occur in Bronze Age V. Certain vessels of true Hallstatt 
C/D forms found in the Lower Rhenish area reveal in the roughening 
of their walls Harpstedt influence. (See Stampfuss, the two papers 
referred to above, and literature there cited; Kendrick, The 
Druids, p. SQ sq., for occurrence in England; cf. Childe, The Danube, 
p. 364 .s'^.) 

38 







V»>»""""''/'."t ■ 





o 
o_ 

in 



o. 



o. 

00 



o 

CN" 



o. 



TYPES OF POTTERY 



THE CELTS 

POTTERY FROM THE LOWER KlIIXE AND THE MARNE. 

[a], [b] Fail-shaped nrns (Einicrurnen) -aith 'finger-nail'' ornamenta- 
tion, [a] from Hirzenberg near Siegburg, Rhine Province; HallstattD 
{= R.L.V. VIII, PI. 161c). [b] from Marson, Marne; La Tene I 
(= B.M. Iron Age Guide, PL v 8). Ilcitrlit: IG cm. 

[c], [d] Broad paunched urns ivith tall incurving necks, [c] witli 
triangular motifs on paunch, from Hirzenberg near Siegburg; Hall- 
statt D (- R.L.V. VIII, PI. 161/). Also found in Mehrcn (Hallstatt 
C/D) contexts (vii, 69). [d] slightly carinated variant of same, with 
decoration in white, from Haidzij, Marne, grave 78; beginning of the 
La Tcnc period (= Gourv, UEnceinte dllaulzy. . .PI. IV). Height: 
22-5 cm. Further examples of this type occur at Etrcchy, Marne 
(Morel, op. cit. PI. 19. 9 and 12). Cf.'also Baldes-Behrens', Katalog 
Birkenfeld, PI. XII 9, and the more angular La Tene I variants 
from the Treves region (Dechelette, op. cit. fig. 669). [«], [c] 
Cologne Museum, [b] Brit. Miis., [d] Nancy INIuseum. 

The distribution of these types of pottery supports E. Rademacher's 
view of a migration of part of the Lower Rhenish 'Tumulus 
peoples' into tlie Marne and Middle Rhine areas at the end of Hall- 
statt D (R.L.V. V, s.v. Haulzy, and viii, p. 497); (see also vii, 67 sq.). 
Haulzy was cited (vii, 60) as an isolated link between the Lower 
Rhenish Tumulus peoples and the Late Hallstatt Celtic invaders of 
Spain. Since the publication of vol. vii, other sites of the Haulzy 
type have been excavated by Chenet in the east Marne district. 
Apart from these, Hallstatt influences reached the Marne [Rev. 
Arch. 1927, Jogasses) presumably from the Swiss plateaux. What 
is probably an earlier type of the Siegburg-Haulzy urn was found 
at Can Missert (Terassa), Catalonia (Anuari de I Jnstitut d'Estudis 
Catalans, vi, p. 584, fig. 335; still closer parallels are to be seen in 
the Barcelona museum). Kraft and Bosch Gimpera {Mannus, Ergbd. 
VI (1928), pp. 258 sqq.) and Kraft (Stellung der Schiveiz. . . in Anzeiger 
f. Schweiz. Altertumskunde, 1927/8, and Antiquitij, 1929, pp. S3 sqq.) 
show that there is reason to believe that the Celts invaded coastal 
Catalonia as early as the Urnfield Period (vii, 55). These papers, 
which only came into the writer's hands after vol. vii, chap, ii, was 
in the Press, are important. Nevertheless, the location of the early 
home of the Celts in the Rhone area is not borne out by the testi- 
mony of river-names [vii, 54]. Fm-ther, 1100 b.c. seems too early a 
date for this invasion: in spite of the occurrence of cylinder-neck 
urns, other types of pottery from Can Missert and similar sites 
point to the event in question not taking place prior to Hallstatt B, 
circ. 900-800 B.C., and ])ossibly being connected with Hallstatt 
pressure on the Swiss lake-dwelling ])opulation. The finds from 
Peralada show that Catalonia was also al'feeted by the Late Hallstatt 
Celtic invasions [Anuari, vi, p. 590 sq.; cf, vii, 59 sq.). 

40 









[c] 



[a] 






il 



:M^ 



sg5i*;rs' ■ 



i 




K 







;'irii 'im^0gmmmmmgmifgf^ 




[d] 



[b] 



POTTERY FROM THE LOWER RHINE AND THE MARXE 



SPAIN 



IBERIA X POTTERY froiii Soutli-eastern Spain, Aragon. 

[a\, [6] Bowls from Sani Antoni near Calaceite: [a\ diameter: 21 cm.; 
[6] diameter: 26 cm. 

[c]-[/] Goblets and bowls from Azdila in Saragossa: [c\ height: 
20 cm.; [d] height: 22-5 cm.; [e] diameter: 25 cm.; [/] diameter: 
24 cm. 

This pottery owes much to Greek influences, (vii, 785.) 

[M. Ebert, Reallexikon der J'orgaschichie, x] 



42 





[c] 




[d\ 





[e] 



[/J 



IBERIAN POTTERY 



SPAIN 



IBERIAN WEAPONS 



[a] An iron PUum, 70 cm. long. [b\ An iron sword, Falcata, 57-4 cm. 
long, [c] Sword, La Tene C type. Gladius Hispaniensis, 68-6 cm. 
long. All from the cemetery at Cabrera de Mataro, Province of 
Barcelona, (vii, 784; viii, 86.) 

[M. Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschicfiie, x] 



44 



[a] 



m 



[c] 



IBERIAN WEAPONS 



SPAIN 



HEADS OF IBERIAN TERRACOTTA FIGURINES 

Two of the women wear large ornaments which cover the ears (cf. 
the head from Elche near Alicante, Vol. of Plates, i, 294 [b]), all 
three wear the mantilla. From the Iberian site Serreta near Alcoy 
(Province of Alicante), (vii, 785.) 

[Photograph Prof. SchuUen] 



46 





■J) 

Q 
-»« 

W 



-m\ 







» 

a 



SPAIN 



[a] Part of the roman circumvallation of Numaniia. In 
the foreground, marked by an arrow, appears part of Scipio's 
vallum, (viii, 321.) 

[b] HEADQUARTERS OF scipio OH CastUlcjo to thc north-west of 
Numantia. The picture shows a room with six column-bases in the 
praeinrium of Marcellus. (viii, 321.) 

[A. SchuUen, Numantia, iii, PI. 3, 1 ; PI. 14, 2] 



48 




[a] A PART OF THE CI RC U M V ALL ATI O N OF NUMANTIA 




[b] HEADQUARTERS OF SCIPIO 



C AH SIII 



ITALY 



Two views of the house of the faux at Pompeii. Second 
century B.C. 

[a] The large atrium. 

[b] The two Corinthian columns of the tablinum in which was found 
the Alexander mosaic (cf. Vol. of Plates, ii, 110). The 'incrustation' 
type of mural decoration appears on either side of the tahUmim. 
(viii, 347.) 



50 




^ 



[a] 




ai.£jesi3ta^fe:*^^S[SiSiiVKftl7^^^ 



U^] 



HOUSE OF THE FAUX, POMPEII 



4-2 



THRACE 



[a] From an Attic red-figure column-crater by the Orpheus painter, 
foimd at Gela, now in Berlin, Orpheus singing to the accompaniment 
of his lyre, surrounded by Thracians; they wear long embroidered 
cloaks and fox-skin caps. Two lances are carried by each Thracian. 
(viii, 543, 544.) 

[A. Furtwangler, Kleine Schriften, ii, PI. 50.] 

[b] Fragment of an Attic white-ground kylix by the Pistoxenos 
painter, found on the Acropolis in Athens. A Thracian woman ; an 
animal appears tattooed on her arm. (viii, 543.) 

[E. Pfiihl, Malerei und Zeichming der Griechen, iii, 416. F. Bruckmann A. G., Munich.] 



52 





THRACIANS ON ATTIC VASES 



THRACE 



[a] Relief of the fourth century b.c. Rendis, wearing a long-sleeved 
shortened ehiton, covered by an animal's skin [nehris) slung over 
the left shoulder. A long cloak {zeira) falls behind, on her head a 
Thracian cap and on her feet high boots with tops turned over. 
Her right hand holds a patera, her left a spear. Facing her are two 
bearded men in chitons, the leader carrying a torch in his lowered 
right hand. They are followed by eight naked epheboi. In the British 
Museum, (viii, 549.) 

[U\ Relief from Shapla-dcre (Mesembria on the coast of the Aegean). 
A four-wheeled cart drawn by a pair of mules or horses. The driver, 
wearing a sleeved chiton and cloak, sits on the box. In the cart be- 
hind is a passenger wearing a cloak clasped in front. An outrider, 
wearing short chiton and cloak, precedes the cart. About 450 B.C. 
Height 1-02 m. Sofia Natio7ial Museum, (viii, 555.) 

[c] A funeral stele from Ahdera. A horseman wearing chiton, 
chlamys and baggy trousers riding to right ; on his right hip, hung 
from a belt, is a sword, and his right hand once brandished a spear. 
His left arm raises an oval shield. Rehind him (much mutilated) 
stands the figure of a soldier carrying two spears. Second to first 
century B.C. Height 1-23 m. Sofia National Museum, (viii, 543.) 



54 









a 



O 

o 






li * 




M 



THRACE 



[a] BRONZE HELMET, Tliraciau shape, with cheek-pieces, from a 
grave near Kovatshovitsa (district of Nevrokop in northern Mace- 
donia). Fourth century b.c. Height 39 cm. Sofia Nat. Mus. (viii, 
5t6.) 

[6]tiiracian bronze helmet found near Karaagach (district 
of Philippopolis). Fourth century B.C. (?). Sofia Nat. Mas. (viii, 
546.) 

[c] IRON CURVED SWORD found near Vinograd (district oiGorna- 
Orechovitza, northern Bulgaria); La Tene type. Length 40cm. 
Sofia Nat. Mus. (viii, 545.) 



56 




[a] 





\c\ 



ARMS AND ARMOUR 



THRACE 



[a] SILVER CHAIN froiii Bukijovt.si (district of Orechovo in northern 
Bulgaria). Attached to tlie chain are five (originally six) fibulae, 
each 8-5 cm. long. The chains depend from rosettes with heads 
(perhaps of Apollo) beneath them. From the shorter chains hang 
pellets shaped like poppy-heads. 

[b] DECORATED SILVER VASE of oiiioclioc type, With tall foot 
and wide lip. Height 15 cm. 

[c] SMALL SILVER VASE witliout dccoratiou. Height 6-4 cm. 
All in Sofia Nat. Mus. (viii, 557.) 



58 






[b] 



OBJECTS IN SILVER 



[c] 



THRACE 



[a] On the left a silver fibula, length 5-9 cm., engraved, from 
the district of Vratsa in northern Bulgaria: on the right another, 
length 4-5 cm,, from a tumulus near Tsareva-Livada (district of 
Gabrovo in northern Bulgaria). La Tene A. 

[b] POTTERY FUNERAL URN with four handles from Pashakoi 
(district of Kizilagaih in southern Bulgaria). On it are incised four 
stylized animals, the one illustrated having upon its flank a design 
resembling the fibulae above [a]. La Tene. Height 29 cm. 

All in Sofia Nat. Miis. (viii, 557.) 



60 





[<^/J SILVER FIBULA 




'"iHl 




m 



[b] FUNERAL URN 



THRACE 



[a] MASSIVE GOLD RING Avith swivclliiig bezel bearing an en- 
graved Thracian inscription in (ireek characters: 

POAISTENEA^N EPENEATIA TEANH5KOA 
PAIEAAOM EANTIAEIY njAMIHE PAI HATA 

From a tumulus near Ezerovo (district of Borusovgrad, southern 
Bulgaria). Fifth century B.C. Weight 31-3 grammes; the bezel 
20 X 17 mm. Sofia Nat. Mus. (viii, 554.) 

[/>] TWO GOLD RINGS (diam. 2-3 cm.) with oval bezels. The one on 
the left is engraved with the design of a cock : the other was probably 
once enamelled, the ends of the hoop terminating in serpents' heads. 
Weights 16-2; 15-4-5 g. 

\c\ MASSIVE GOLD ARMLET ending in serpents' heads. Diam. 
9 cm. Wt. 298-25 g. 

{d\ GOLD PENDANT, the Central portion of a necklace. 

[e\ siLVERAMPHORA originally covered in gold-leaf; the lower por- 
tion fluted, around the shoulder a double zone of lotus-leaves linked 
together by volute-like stalks. The handles are winged Persian lion- 
griffins (cf. the Persian silver-gilt handle. Vol. of Plates, i, 324 [d]). 
The vase is perhaps of Ionian workmanship. Height 27 cm. 

[b\-{e\ from the tumulus near Duvanli in southern Bulgaria 
(cf. p. 64). Fifth century B.C. Sofia Nat. Mus. (viii, 557.) 



62 








[«] 





[b] 




[c] 




[d] 




[e] 



OBJECTS IN GOLD AND SILVER 



THRACE 



\a] GOLD TORC of stout twistcd wire, diam. 12-8 cm.; wt. 349 g.; 
hollow gold pyramidal pendant, height 2-5 cm. ; and gold earring, 
diam. 2-5 cm., the thicker portion hollow. 

[b] A pair of fish of thin gold plate. Length 31-5, 28-2 cm. Wts. 
45, 50 g. Philippopolis Nat. Mus. (viii, 557.) 

All from the tumulus near Diwanli (cf. p. 62). 



64 




[a] GOLD TORQUE 




[b] GOLD FISH 



C A HS in 



THRACE 



[a] SILVER JUG with handle and curved lip; round the slioulder 
runs an engraved band of vertical lines. Height 9 cm. 

[6] SILVER PHALERA in rcpousse work; Heracles strangling the 
Nemean lion. Diam. 8-8 cm. 

[c] On the left, two horse-trappixgs of silver heavily alloyed 
with copper. The upper specimen (length 6-5 cm.) consists of two 
lion's liind-legs (cf. 70 [a]), the paws ending in birds' heads, while 
the flank has a griffin's head upon it, the whole being framed in a 
cable border. The lower specimen (length 6-1 cm.) is shaped like a 
pair of fantastic monsters. On the right, a convex bronze orna- 
ment of spirals and a palmette, probably from the base of 
the handle of a bronze jug. Height 5-3 cm. 

All from the tumulus near Panagyurishte (cf. p. 68). Sofia Nat. 
Mus. (viii, 558, 573.) 



06 





[a] 



[b] 



OBJECTS IX SILVER 






[c] 



ORNAMENTS OF SCYTHIAN TYPE 



5-2 



THRACE 



[a] Three silver phalerae in repousse work; on the first a 
rosette consisting of five lotus-buds (diam. 8-6 cm.); the others 
(diam. 8 cm.) engraved with a pair of symmetrically grouped 
animals (perhaps pigs); behind them is a bird and before them a 
palmette springing from a dotted volute. 

[b] THIN SILVER PLATE shaped like a double-axe (probably a 
horse's frontlet): in the centre is a large rosette, above is Heracles, 
in barbarian garb, holding a club in his right hand and leading with 
his left an animal (the Nemean lion or Cerberus?) ; beneath him and 
under the rosette are two winged griffin-like monsters; at the bot- 
tom appears a siren with a lyre. Length 32 cm. 

All from the tumulus near PanagyuHshte (cf. p. 66). Sofia Nat. Mus. 
(viii, 558.) 



68 



^.^ 



u 




^'^■^J'*^ • • - \*'*. ' ' 












*.j:yx^s 1 



,</. 



• * ■-.■ 









J, .- 






\ 


1^^_ 


l( 



[a] 



[^] 



SILVER ORNAMENTS 



THRACE 



[a] Above, a pair of silver ornaments, length 7-2 cm., in the 
form of styhzed hon's hind-legs grown together (cf. 66 c). Below, 
a pair of griffin's heads, lengths 4-5, 4-8 cm. From the tumulus near 
Brezovo. Fourth to third century B.C. 

[h] SILVER BOWL with central boss, diam. 10 cm., and a silver 
ORNAMENT, similar to those described above, length 6-5 cm. 
From Radyuvene, fourth to third century B.C. 

[c] BRONZE BUCKET witli ring-base and double-handle; an egg- 
and-tongue moulding runs round under the rim; the attachments 
for the handles are decorated with palmettes. From Brezovo. 
Height 22 cm. 

[d], [e] Two SILVER ornaments worked a jour, [d] A design of 
interlinking spirals and circles round a central boss. Height 6-3 cm. 
[e] A long-necked stylized animal (horse or reindeer). 5 cm. across. 
From Brezovo. 

All in Sofia Nat. Mvs. (viii, 558, 573.) 



: LIBRARY j 





[«] 



.^Mii 



,«#'!; 




[b] 






[c] 



[d] 




[e] 



OBJECTS OF GREEK AND SCYTHIAN TYPE 



THRACE 



[a] Two IRON SPEAR-IIEADS aiicl the SHEATH of a CURVED 

SWORD from Vinograd. Lengths 40-5 cm.; 37 cm.; 17-5 cm. La 
Tene (cf. p. 28 [b]). 

\h] The upper part of a long iron sword, length 38 cm., and 
the fragment of a sheath from a grave near Popitsa (district of 
Bela-Slatina in northern Bulgaria) (cf. p. 30 \c\). 

[c] IRON BIT from Vinograd. Length 23 cm. La Tene. 

[d\ BRONZE FIBULA, length 8-6 cm., from the district of Tirnovo 
in northern Bulgaria. La Tene. 

[e] IRON spur, width 9-6 cm., from Vinograd. 

[/] IRON FIBULA, length 11-7 cm., found near Pleven in northern 
Bulgaria. La Tene C (cf. p. 30 \u\, [v\). 

All in Sofia Nat. Mas. (viii, 560.) 



72 





u 

< 





o 

H 
u 

O 



4. 

1^ 



^'- 



iiiiwii III nmmrn 




THRACE 



[a] A pair of gold earrings terminating in lions' heads. 

[b] ORNAMENT of twistcd silver wire, the ends decorated with lyre- 
shaped plates. Length 23 cm. 

[c], [d] A BRONZE JUG, height 11 cm., and detail of its handle. 

All from a grave near Kran in the district of Kazanlik in southern 
Bulgaria. In Sofia Nat. Mas. (viii, 560.) La Tene B. 

[After drawings by R. Popov] 



74 




[a] 





[c] 



OBJECTS FROM KRAN 



THRACE 



A set of three silver-gilt piialerae in high rehef; each has a 
triple frame consisting of a coarse leaf border, a striped border and 
a raised cable border. 

[a] A horseman wearing trousers, top-boots and a stiff cloak, round 
his neck a collar of five spirals. He raises his right hand in a gesture 
of adoration (cf. Vol. of Plates, i, 264.). Diam. 15'5 cm. 

[b] Female bust facing. Two plaits of her thick hair hang down in 
front of her shoulders; round her neck is a collar of eight spirals and 
she wears armlets, each of five spirals, with triangular ornaments 
above and below each armlet; she is clad in a sleeveless woollen 
tunic with embroidered border, a plait (perhaps a gold ornament?) 
hangs between the breasts. Over each shoulder appears a bird 
(dove?). Diam. 18-3 cm. 

[c] Elaborate rosette with central sunflower ornament. Diam. 
12-5 cm. [cf. Rostovtzeff, Reciieil Kondakoff, Pis. XXIII, XXIV; 
and p. 110 below]. 

All from Galice (district of Orechovo in northern Bulgaria). Sofia 
Nat. Mus. (viii, 560.) Second to first century b.c. 



76 





[b] 




SILVER-GILT PHALERAE 



BOSPORUS 



ENGRAVED aiid GILT SILVER MIRROR, probablv imported from 
Aeolian Asia Minor. Greek workmanship. Found in a Scythian harrow- 
grave near Kelermes in the Kuban region. Adorned with various 
figures of gods and animals, the most prominent being the winged 
figure of the Great Goddess, mistress of animals, the irorvia Oripoiv, 
and opposite it a group of two Silens (forest-spirits) fighting a 
grifiin. Sixth century B.C. In the Hermitage, (viii, 571.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iratiians and Greeks, PI. VI; Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgenchic.hte. vi. 
p. 279, PI. 81 aj 



78 







^^1 >x., ... ilo>;v>:^''"^'^-"Y^ 










'«*'-•..■ X-'.;<;fe.>. 41(^4 










^ .' i .1: i^^ 




I 




SILVER MIRROR 



BOSrORUS 



[a] GOLD CUP of Assyro-Phoenician or early Persian workmanship. 
Found in a Scythian barrow-grave near Kelermes in the Kuban 
region. Decorated with three rows of animals in repousse work: a row 
of running ostriches, another of dogs chasing gazelles or antelopes, 
and a third with figures of male and female ibexes. The style of the 
last row recalls the Scythian animal-style. Sixth century B.C. 
Hermitage, (viii, 571.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. VII, 1 ; Ebert, lieall. d. Vorg. vi, PI. 81 b] 

[b] GOLD FISH, probably a horse-trapping or armour plate, of 
Ionian workmanship. Found in Germany in Brandenburg near 
Vettersfelde and forming part of a treasure which belonged originally 
to a Scythian chieftain or part of the furniture of a Scythian grave. 
The body of the fish is decorated with two rows of figures : lions 
attacking hoofed animals and fishes, headed by a Triton; the tail 
bears a figure of an eagle ; all in repousse work. The extremities of 
the tail end in ram-heads. Early fifth century B.C. Antiquarium, 
Berlin, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[A. Furtwangler, Der Goldfund von Vettersfelde, im 73 Berliner Winckelmanns-programm 
1883 (reprinted in Furtwangler, Kleine Schriften, ii (1912); Ebert, Reall. der Vorg. 
XIV, pp. 150 sqq., PI. 44] 



80 




[a] 

GOLD CUP 




GOLD FISH 



c A H s in 



BOSPORUS 



[a] GOLD EARRINGS of Greek workmanship. Found in a grave of 
the neeropoHs of Theodosia in the Crimea. Fourth century B.C. 
Hermitage, (viii, 585.) 

[Minns, Scijtfiians and Greeks, p. 401, fisj. 294, 3; Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, 
PI. XVIII," IJ 

[6] GOLD NECKLACE of Greek workmanship. Found in a grave of 
the necropoHs of Nymphaeum (El-Tegen) in the Crimea. Fifth 
century B.C. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, (viii, 585.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. XVI, 4] 



82 





u<] 




[h] 



GOLD JEWELLERY 



BOSPORUS 



[a], [b] HANDLE and sheath of a short scythian sword 
{(ikinakes). Plated with gold, made by an Ionian artist for a Scy- 
tliian customer or by a Scythian artisan trained by an Ionian. 
Found in a Scythian barrow-grave near the farm Shiimeiko, Romny, 
Poltava, The liandle is adorned with geometric ornaments in 
granulate work, like Ionian works of the same kind, and the sheath 
with figures of animals treated both in the Near Eastern and in the 
Scythian manner. The two heraldic ibexes above are orientalizing; 
the vertical row of seven cat-like creatures is Scythian in style. 
Sixth century B.C. In the Museum, Kiev, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rosto\i:zeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. VIII, .3; W. Ginters, Das Scfnvert der Skythen 
and der Sarmaien, PI. 3 c and G9 6 (reconstruction of this and contemporary and 
related Scythian swords), cf. Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xiv, pp. 156 sqq., PI. 15J 

[c] SHORT SCYTHIAN BRONZE SWORD {akbiakes), probably of 
local Scythian workmanship. Found in a Scythian barrow near 
Poltava. The handle is adorned with cast figures of animals treated 
in the manner of the Scythian animal style (two feline and two 
hoofed animals, probably female elks or reindeer). Sixth century 
B.C. Museum, Poltava. Unpublished, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[d\ GOLD-PLATED SHEATH of a SCYTHIAN SWORD, probably of 

Panticapaean workmanship. Adorned with a running design in the 
Ionian animal style. The work is repousse (lions and heads of a 
stag or reindeer), with the exception of the chape which bears the 
figure of a stylized mask or Medusa-head. Found in the side-grave 
of the barrow of Solokha (left side of the lower Dnieper). Fourth 
century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[W. Ginters, Das Schwert der Skythen und der Sarmaten, PI. 22 b; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. 
XII, pp. 294 sqq., PI. 81 b] 



84 




^>^-s 



t-^'i/ 



,T<!jr: 



- [Oj 




[^/l 



SWORDS AND A SHEATH 



BOSPORUS 



[a] Gold figure of a wii-d beast (lioness?). Probably a decora- 
tion for armour. Scythian or Central Asiatic workmanship. Note in 
it traits which link this peculiar treatment of metal by the artist 
(the so-called Schrdgschnitt or a peculiar kind of chip-carving) with 
the typical treatment of wood or bone; cp. 112 \b], [c]. Found in a 
barrow-grave near Kelermes in the Kuban region (cp. 78 and 80 [a]). 
The ears of the beast are inlaid with amber, the eye and the nostrils 
with enamel in proto-cloisonne technique. The paws of the animal, 
rendered in repousse work, are shaped as cats curled up. The tail 
consists of six such medallions likewise in repousse work. This 
treatment of extremities is one of the peculiarities of the Central 
Asiatic beast-style. Sixth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rosto^^:zeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. IX, 1 ; idem. The Animal Style in S. Russia and 
China, PI. V, 2; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xiii, PI. 27 A (c); Borovkca, Scythian Art, PI. 12] 

[b] Figure of an animal of feline species. Cast bronze, plated 
with gold. Scythian workmanship. Fovmd in the grave of the 
Zolotoj Kurgan (Golden Barrow) near Simferopol in the Crimea. 
The gold sheath which covers the centre of the body of the beast 
is adorned with almond-shaped wire frames originally filled with 
enamel. Sixth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xiii, PI. 31 A (c); Borovka, Scythian Art, PI. 13] 

[c] Figure of an animal of feline species. Cast bronze, plated 
with gold. Scythian workmanship. Place of origin unknown. The 
shoulder of the beast is adorned with a stylized eagle, or eagle- 
griffin, head, which is a peculiarity of the Central Asiatic animal 
style (cp. 112 [b]). Sixth to fifth century B.C. Louvre, Department 
of Far Eastern Art. Unpublished. 



86 




[a\ 




m 




[c\ 



FANTASTIC ANIMALS 



BOSPORUS 



[a] BRONZE POLE -TO P. Cast bronze. Scythian workmanship. 
Found in a Scythian barrow-grave near the Ulski Aid in the Kuban 
region. The pole-top shows the shape of an eagle-head reduced to a 
stylized beak (spiral) and an equally stylized eye (formed as a 
human eye). The eagle-head is adorned with other stylized eagle- 
heads reduced to beaks and eyes of varying sizes. Below, a figure 
of a crouched ibex. The pole-top is a typical product of the Central 
Asiatic animal-style. Sixth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

fRostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. X a; idem. Animal Style, PI. VI, 1,2; Borovka, 
Scylhian Art, Pis. 24 and 2;j; Ebert, Reoll. d. Vorg. PI. VI, 1, 2. Cf. Rostowzew, 
Skythien und der Bosporus, p. 264] 

[6] BRONZE POLE-TOP. Cast bronzc. Scythian workmanship. Place 
of origin unknown. Shape of a mule-head. Sixth to fifth century 
B.C. Louvre, Paris. Cp. Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. X c; 
Borovka, Scythian Art, PI. 26 (almost identical pole-top from 
Kelermes, Kuban region), (viii, 571, 587.) 

[c] BRONZE PLAQUE from horsc-trappiugs. Cast bronze. Scythian 
workmanship. Found in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers 
Barrows in the Kuban region. Stylized female elk-head. Fifth 
century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, p. 196, fig. 22 c: Animal Style, PI. X, 7; similar 
plaques, Borovka, Scythian Art, PI. 5] 

[d] BRONZE PLAQUE from horse-trappings. Cast bronze. Scythian 
workmanship. Found in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers 
Barrows. Stylized boar's head. Fifth century b.c. Hermitage. 

[Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 214, fig. 115; Rostovtzeff, Animal Style, PI. X, 8; 
Borovka, Scythian Art, PI. 170] 



88 




[a] 



[b] 



POLE-TOPS 









PLAQUES 



BOSPORUS 

[a] SILVER RHYTON. Pcrsiaii or Gracco-Persian workmanship. 

Found in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers Barrows in the 

Kuban region. The end of the rhyton is shaped as the forepart of a 

winged ibex (an animal typieal of Persian art). Fifth century B.C. 

Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 211, i'lg. 110; Hustovtzeli, Iranians and Greeks, PI. 
XII A; Ebert, lieall. d. Vorg. xii, pp. Sisqq., PI. 18 A] 

[b] GOLD ARMLET. Greek or Graeco-Persian workmanship. Found 
in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers Barrows. The body of 
the armlet consists of two fine flexible chains; the ends terminate 
in snakes' heads. Fifth to fourtli century e.c. Hermitage, (viii, 
571, 587.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. XV, 1] 

[c], [d] GOLD PLAQUES of Toughlv triangular form. Originally 
probably nailed to the rim of a wooden or horn rhyton. Persian, or 
Graeco-Persian, workmanship. Found in one of the graves of the 
Seven Brothers Barrows. One of the plaques is adorned with a figure of 
a winged panther or tiger killing an ibex, the other with that of an 
eagle killing a kid. Fifth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 211, fig. 112; Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PL 
XIII; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xii, p. 87, PL 19] 

[e] GOLD PLAQUE, probably nailed originally to the rim of a wooden 
or horn rhyton, produced in one of the Greek cities of the Black Sea. 
Found probably in a Scythian barrow near Maikop in the Kuban 
region. Sea-eagle carrying a sturgeon. Cp. the coins of Sinope and 
Olbia. Fifth century B.C. Antiqimrium, Berlin. Unpublished, 
(viii, 587.) 

[Cf. Rostowzew, Skythien und dcr Ji(jsj)orus, p. 81G] 

[f] ENGRAVED GEM, enlarged. Persian or Graeco-Persian work- 
manship. Found in a barrow of the necropolis of Nymphaeum, 
(El-Tegen) near Panticapaeum. Horned Persian lion-griffin. Fifth 
century B.C. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PL XVI, 1] 

90 






. — — 






"^ 






'mm^sf^^ 


^ 


^•m.. 






<! 

Pi 

Pi 

o 
o 
w 
<: 



BOSPORUS 



[a] BRONZE PATERA HANDLE of Greek workmanship. Found in 
one of the graves of the Seven Brothers Barrows in the Kuban region. 
A Hermes Kriophoros of ornamental character. Sixth to fifth cen- 
tury B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 563.) 
[Compte-rendu de la Comm. Arch. 1877, Atlas, i, 9 ; Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 378J 

[6], [c] GOLD PLAQUES, originally sewn on to garments, of Panti- 
capaean workmanship made for Scythian customers. Probably part 
of the same find to which belongs the plaque 90 [e]. Some plaques 
have the shape of stags with stylized horns, the extremities of which 
end in eagle-heads, some that of eagle-griffins. Fifth century B.C. 
Metropolitan Museum, New York, (viii, 587.) 
[Rostovtzeff, Animal Style, PI. IX, 1] 

[d] BRONZE STAG. Handle of a Scytliiau kettle. Greek workman- 
ship. Found in a barrow of the Ulski Aul in the Kuban region. 
Sixth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 563.) 

[Borovka, Bulletin of the Academy of the History of Material Civilization, ii, 1922, 
pp. 193 sqq., PI. II; Ebert, Reall. d. T'org. xiv, p. 2, PI. 1 CJ 

[e] BRONZE MIRROR with woodcu handle. Greek workmanship. 
Found in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers Barrows. The 
lower part of the surface of the mirror is adorned with an engraved 
palmette. Another engraved design, added probably later by a 
Scythian artisan, shows two wild beasts attacking a deer, (viii, 563.) 

[Rostowzew, Skythien und der Bosporus, p. 301] 



92 









«* 



W 
P 
& 
< 

111 

Q 
hJ 
O 
O 



o 

05 

Q 

03 

N 

^; 
o 

a 

O 



--^^;;,' 




BOSPORUS 



Two views of the tsarski kurgan(' Royal' Barrow) near Kerch. 
First half of fourth century b.c. 

[a] The interior, seen through the doorway. The courses up to the 
one numbered 7 are perpendicular, above that corbelled. 

[h] The twelve courses of the vaults, corbelled out one above the 

other, (viii, 585). 

[Reproduced from Jalireshefte des oesterreichischen archaeologischen Instituts, x, 1907, 
p. 236 sq. See Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 194] 



94 



■m\ '^Ad^Vi/i 






i 






[a] 



[b] 



THE 'royal' barrow 



BOSPORUS 



[a], [b] PAINTED CLAY VASES of Greek, probably Athenian, work- 
manship ; found in a Greek grave of the necropoHs of Phanagoreia. 
[a] Birth of Aphrodite; [6] winged Sphinx. Late fifth century B.C. 
Hermitage, (viii, 585.) 

[Minns, Sci/lfiians and Greeks, p. 345, fig. 251; p. Sii, fig. 250; Rostovtzeff, Iranians 
and Greeks, 1*1. XVII, 1; Fridik, Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 18, pp. 172 sqq.; Phar- 
inakowski. Three polychrome vases in the form of statuettes found in Phanagoreia, 
Memoirs of the Academy of the History of Mat. Civ. i, 1921 ; Rostowzew, Skythien und 
der Bosporus, p. 225. Often discussed and reproduced in works on tlie Fiistory of 
Greek art. Bibhography in M. H. Swindler, Ancient Painting, p. 462] 



96 



[a] 




.-^ ^\ 



.,-^^ \ 




[b] 




^, 




-* 






t 




m 



GREEK VASES 



C A H S lit 



BOSPORUS 



ARYBALLUS OF XENOPHAXTUS. Work of ail Athenian artist, 
perhaps resident at Panticapaeum. Found in a Greek grave at Pan- 
ticapaeum. The body of the vase is adorned with figures in relief and 
painting. The figures in rehef are coloured white, red and blue, with 
gilt accessories; the end-figures are flat in red-figure technique. The 
scene represents Persians on a hunting expedition, their names being 
inscribed beside the figures. The animals hunted are partly real, 
partly fantastic. The vase bears the inscription: ZENO0ANTOZ 
EPdlHZEN AOHN. Shortly before 400 b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 585.) 

[Compte-rendu de la Comm. Arch. 1866. Atlas, PI. iv ; Antiquiles da Bosphore Cimmerien, 
V\. XLV (here reproduced); Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. .343, fig. 249. Often dis- 
cussed and reproduced. Bibliography in Pfuhl. Malerci and Zeichnung der Griechen, 
II, jjp. 591 and 600; .M. II. Swindler, Ancient Painting, p. 297] 



98 





u 

< 

X 

o 
o 

CO 

>A 
I-) 
<1 

PS 



7-2 



BOSPORUS 



[a] CLAY VASE painted with various colours ill the distemper tech- 
nique. Panticapaean workmansliip. Found in a rock-cut grave of 
the necropoHs of Panticapaeum. A Greek fighting an Amazon. 
Third century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 585.) 

[Compte-renda de la Comrn. Arch. 1878-9, Atlas, PI. I, 5; .Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 
p. 348, fig. 2.53; M. H. Swindler, Ancient Painting, tig. 565] 

[b] CLAY AMPHORA with painted and plastic ornaments painted in 
various colours. Greek workmanship. Found at Olbia. Third cen- 
tury B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 585.) 

Trevor, Materials for the Archaeology of S. Russia, xxxv, 1918] 



100 





CO 




BOSPORUS 



Frieze of a LARGE silver amphora. Panticapaean workmanship. 
Found in one of the graves of the Chertomlyk Barrow on the right 
bank of the lower Dnieper. Scythians in the prairies of S. Russia 
lassoing and saddling horses on the eve of a military expedition. 
Fourth century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Reproduced from Antike Denkmiiler, iv, PI. 4(i. (F. Bruckmann, A.G.) To the biblio- 
graphy given there by Waldliauer add P. 3vLc6bii\hii\,0rnamentik griechischer Vasen, 
Pis. 142, 143] 



102 




o 

w 

Ph 

< 

> 

I— I 

03 



O 

w 
w 

I— ( 



BOSPORUS 



[a] GOLD PATERA. Panticapaeaii workmanship. Found in the side- 
g-rave of the Solokha Barrow on the left side of the lower Dnieper. 
The patera is adorned with figures in repousse work: three rows 
of grouped animals showing wild beasts killing various creatures. 
Two Greek inscriptions probably give the name of the artist and 
that of the owner. Fourth century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. XX, 12; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. iv, PI. 85; xii, 
p. 298, § 10] 

[b\ SILVER BOWL. Panticapacan Workmanship. Found in the side- 
grave of the Solokha Barrow. Young Scythians on horseback 
hunting lions. Between them appear two lions playing with each 
other, and, on the opposite side, a group of two Molossian dogs. 
Fourth century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rostov-tzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. XX, 12; Ebert, lieaU. d. Vorg. xii, PI. 83] 



104 




GOLD PATERA 







SILVER BOWL 



BOSPORUS 



[a] GOLD PLAQUE scwn Originally Oil to a belt. Local workmanship; 
found in a Scythian grave in a barrow near Axjutinzy, Romny, 
Poltava. A Scythian king, or chieftain, seated holding a battle-axe in 
his left hand and a drinking cup in his right. A bow-and-arrow case 
(gorytos) hangs on his right side. Repousse work. Third century B.C. 
Historical Museum, Moscow, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 182, fig. 75 bis; Rostovtzeff, Bull, de la Comm. Arch. 
49 (lOia), p. 8, fig. 3; Ebert, liecdl. d. Vorg. xiii, p. 95, PI. 39 F («)] 

[/^]-[/rj GOLD PLAQUES Originally sewii Oil garments. Panticapaean 
workmanship. Repousse work. Found in various Scythian barrows 
of the steppes of S. Russia. [6]-[rfl show ritual scenes: [6] 'sacra- 
mental draught' of a Scythian prince administered by the Great 
Goddess of the Scythians; [c] the Great Goddess and her sacred 
animals (dog and raven); [d\ ritual wrestling. Plaques [g\ and [j] 
recall contemporary Greek coin-types. The rest are purely orna- 
mental. Some of the plaques belong to the fifth century B.C., the 
majority to the fourth, some to the third. Hermitage and Museum, 
Kiev, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Rostovtzeff, Bi///. de In Comm. Arch. 49 (1913); Iranians and Greeks, PI. XXIII; 
Minns, Scythians and Greeks, passim, esp. p. 208] 



106 




GOLD PLAQUES 



BOSPORUS 



[fl]-[c?] GOLD OR X a:\ie NTS in open work. Probably ornaments for 
saddles. Scythian, or Graeco-Scythian, workmanship. Found partly 
in the earth, partly in the graves of the Alexandropol Barrow (Lugo- 
vaja Mogila) on right side of the lower Dnieper. Degenerate and 
geometricized Ionian and Scythian animal figures both single and 
in groups. Third century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 587.) 

[Recueil cTantiquiUs de la Scythie, PI. XV; INIinns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 155, 
fig. 42; Ebert, Beall. d. forg. xiii, pp. 87 sqq., Pis. 36 A and 36 C] 

\e] BRONZE POLE -TO P. Scythian workmanship in cast bronze. 
Found in the earth of the Alexandropol Barroiv. Winged figure of the 
Great Goddess of the Scythians, Third century B.C. Hermitage. 
(viii, 584.) 

\ Recueil crautiquites de la Scythie, PL I, 8; Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 154, 
fig. 40; Ebert, lieall. d. Vorg. xiii, PI. 35 D (c)] 

[/] IRON OPEN-WORK FIGURE, nailed originally on to a funeral 
chariot or on to a funeral canopy, plated with gold. Found in the earth 
of the Alexandropol Barrow. Figure of the winged Great Goddess of 
the Scythians, the irorvia drjpayr, holding two stags. Third century 
B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 584.) 

[Recueil d' antiquites de la Scythie, PI. I, 3, 4; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xiii, PL 35 D (g)] 



108 





GOLD ORNAMENTS 




FIGURES OF THE WINGED GODDESS 



BOSPORUS 



Eight GOLD CIRCULAR PL A Q UE s (phalerac) froni horsc-trappings. 
Repousse work. Indo-Hellenic workmanship (?). Found in a horse's 
grave of the Alexandropol Barroiv on the lower Dnieper. [a\ Single 
figures of animals (eagle, winged horse, bull and lion): \b\ bulls' 
heads forming a solar wheel around a human face in front view, 
four boars' heads forming a solar wheel around a rosette, and a 
rosette of eight leaves; all probably symbols of a solar religion 
(cf. p. 76 above). Third century B.C. Hermitage, (viii, 588.) 

i [Recueil d' antiquites de la Scijthie, PI. VII, 1, 3. 7, G; Rostovtzeflf, Recueil Kondakoff, 

\ PI. XXII : El)ert, lieall. d. Vorg. xiii, PI. 36 C (t)-(A-)] 

I 



110 




[«] 




[b] 



GOLD PLAQUES 



BOSPORUS 



[a] GOLD PLAQUE iiailcd originally to the rim of a wooden or horn 
rhyton. Persian, or Graeeo-Persian, workmanship. Repousse work. 
Foimd in one of the graves of the Seven Brothers Barrows. Figure of 
a wolf-headed dragon with Asiatic wings and a tail ending in the 
head of a goose. Fifth century b.c. Hermitage, (viii, 571, 587.) 

[Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 211, fig. Ill; Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks, PI. 
XIII D; Ebert, Reall. d. Vorg. xiii, PI. 19 D; Borovka, Scythian Art, PI. 20 A] 

[b] GOLD STAG, probablv a decoration for armour, or a horse-trap- 
ping, and gold chain adorned with gold cylinders surmounted by 
figurines of lions. Scythian or Central-Asiatic workmanship. The 
stag in repousse work has the eye and ear inlaid with enamel. 
Under the stylized horns is an eagle's head. Found in Hungary near 
Zoldhalompiiszta in a cremation grave. Sixth century b.c. (viii, 
571, 573.) 

[N. Fettieh, La Trouvaille scythe de Zoldhalompuszta pres de Miskolc, Ilongrie, in Arch- 
aeologia Ilungarica, iii, 1928, pp. 37 sqq.; G. Childe, The Danube in Prehistory, 1929, 
pp. 394 s(/(i.\ 

[c] GOLD STAG, probably a decorationforamiouror a horsc-trappiiig. 
Scythian or Central -Asiatic workmanship. Repousse work. The eye 
and ear originally inlaid with enamel. Found in Hungary near 
Tdpios-Szent-Marten in a cremation grave, (viii, 571, 573.) 

[N. Fettieh, op. cit.; G. Wilke, in Ebert, Reall. d. I'org. xii, PI. (id a; Rostovtzeff, 
Animal Style, I'l. V. 1] 



112 




[«] 




m 




[c] 



GOLD ORNAMENTS 



C A H S 11 1 



PERGAMl'M 



MARBLE PORTRAIT HEAD, life size, perhaj)s of a Pergamene 
prince from Pergamum. Now in Berlin. (\iii, 600.) 

[Altertiimer von Pergamoii , vii, PI. XXIVJ 



114 




D 

< 

o 

1^ 




Eh 

o 



8-2 



RHODES 



(a) MARBLE PANOPLY fouiid ill lihodcs; in the Museum of Rhodes. 
(viii, 637.) 

[Clara Rhodos, i, 1928] 

(b) A ROCK-CARVixG at Lindus in Rhodes representing the stern 
of a Rhodian ship. One of the rudders is lashed to the side; the 
hehiisnian's seat is upon the deck under the curved aphlaston. 
(viii, 638.) 

[Bulletin de rAcddemie royale des Sciences et des Lcttres (Copenhagen), 1907, p. 31] 



116 




[a] RIIODIAX MAKBl.E PANOPLY 



/ 



C-::"^ 






\ 




[b] ship's stekx at lixdus 



EARLY HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] ARIADNE, from the southern slopes of the Acropolis at Athens; 
National Museum, Athens. About 300 b.c. (viii, 670.) 

[PJwl. English Photographic Co.] 

[b] MENANDER, terminal bust from neighbourhood of Naples; in 
Boston. Roman copy probably of an original by the sons of Praxi- 
teles, set up in the theatre of Dionysus at Athens in the early third 
century b.c. (viii, 671.) 

[Delbruck, Antihe Port rats, PI. 20] 

[c] THEMIS by Chaerestratus, from Rhamnus; National Museum, 
Athens. Late fourth or early third century b.c. (viii, 670.) 

[Phot. English Photographic Co.] 

[d] SELENE descending to Endymion. Found in Rome; in the 
Vatican. Roman copy from a Greek original of the early third 
century B.C. The arms, right foot and other patches are modern, 
(viii, 670.) 

[Phot. Brogi] 



118 





[a] ARIADNE 



[/>] MENANDER 





[c] THEMIS 



[d] SELENE 



EARLY HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] DIONYSUS, from the choragic monuments of Thrasyllus and 
Thrasycles, southern slope of Acropohs, Athens; in the British 
Museum. 320 or 271 B.C. (viii, 670.) 

[Pfiot. Prof. B. Ashmole] 

[Z>]demosthenes, probably from the neighbourhood of Tusculum ; 
in the Vatican: Roman copy in marble from a bronze original by 
Polyeuctus, 280 B.C. The most serious restorations are the forearms, 
and the hands, which in the original were clasped, (viii, 671.) 
[Phot. Brogi] 

[c] NILE, from a temple of Isis in Rome; in the Vatican. Copy of 
the first century a.d. from an original of the third century B.C. 
Many details restored, especially parts of the children, (viii, 671.) 

[Phot. Brogi] 



120 





[a] DIONYSUS 



\h] UEMOSTIIENES 




[c] NILE 



HELLENISTIC SCILPTURE 



[a] Head of a girl, Tar auto. Roman copy from an Athenian original 
of the early third century B.C. (viii, 671.) 

\_Phot. Prof. B. Ashnwle] 

[b] Head of a muse; in the Lateran Museum, Rome. Roman copy 
from an original of the third century B.C. (viii, 677.) 

[Pilot. Alinari] 

[c] Head of polyhymxia; in Dresden. Roman copy from an 
original of the third century B.C. (See p. 142 [c].) (viii, 677.) 

[Phot. Dresden Museiini] 

\d\ Head of a statue of tyche. (See p. 124 [d\.) (viii, 124.) 

[Phot. Faraglia] 



122 





[a] 



[b] 




[c] 







■ 




J*^ 

/9^ 

'^^ 


] 




^jH9 


h^^H 


B^ * 




fc ^^^^^^^B 


^^^^K 

H.^ 




1 






m^ 




r 


/^ 


^^^^^^B .' ^^^ffl^^ 







[^J 



FEMALE HEADS 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a], [b] Small bronzes of tyche in Florence and in the de Clercq 
Colleetion. The swimming river-god, Orontes, appears beside the 
second, but is missing from the first. 

[c] TYCHE of Antioch. Roman copy in marble from the bronze 
original by Eutychides. From Rome: in Budapest. 

[Photographs F. Bruckmann A.G., Munich] 

[d] YOUNG TYCHE. Roman copy in marble after a bronze original 
by Eutychides, early third century B.C. From the Esquiline; 
Palazzo dei Conservator i, Rome. (Cf. p. 122 \d\.) (viii, 674, 675.) 
[Phot. Alinari] 



124 




- r,J I J ■; 




i«J 




TTi >■ 




[6] 




[^] 



['/J 



FIGURES OF TYCIIE 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



The statue of victory from Samothrace; in the Louvre. 

By a Rhodian sculptor, set up to commemorate the battle of 
Cos, c. 258 B.C. It recalls an earUer (lost) statue dedicated by Deme- 
trius Poliorcetes, as a memorial of the battle of Salamis in Cyprus, 
which is reproduced on certain of his coins. (Cf. Vol, of Plates, ii, 
10 [A:].) (vii, 714 sq.; viii, 675.) 
\Phot. Giraudon] 



126 




VICTORY FROM SAMOTHRACE 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] LAO coo X and his sons attacked by serpents. From the Palace 
of Titus, Rome; in the Vatican. By Agesander, Polydorus and 
Athenodorus of Rhodes, early first century B.C. Photograph from 
a cast in which one of the boys and other parts have been removed, 
(viii, 678.) 
[Phot. University of Berlin] 

[h] The punishment of dirce by Zethus and Amphion. From the 
Baths of Caracal! a, Rome; in Naples. Roman version in marble of 
the bronze by Apollonius and Tauriscus of Tralles. The men's heads, 
legs and arms, the woman's head and torso, and many other parts, 
are modern, (viii, 678.) 
[Phot. F. liruckmann A.G., Munich] 



128 




y 




o 
o 



C A H S III 



HELLENISTIC SCILPTURE 



\a], \b] Roman copies in marble from bronze originals of the late 
fourth century B.C. probablv" by Lysippus or his school. From 
Herculaneum', in Dresden, (viii, 677.) 

[Phot. Dresden Museum] 

[c] Figure from the balustrade of the altar of Athena Polias, Priene; 
in Berlin. Late fourth century B.C. (viii, 677.) 

[Phot. Berlin Museum] 

[(l\ Statue from Magnesia; in Constantinople. About 200 B.C. (viii, 

677.) 

[Phot. Sebah (Dili Jofiillicr] 



i:3() 





■Jl 



^ ^ 



K 






a, 

Pi 




HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] HERMES resting while on a journey. Roman version in bronze 
of a bronze original of the third century B.C. Lysippic school. 
From Hcrculaneum', in Naples, (viii, 675.) 

[Phot. Anderson] 

[b] Boy praying. Bronze copy of a bronze original by Boedas, a 
pupil of Lysippus; early third century B.C. From Italy; in Berlin. 
(viii, 673.) 

[Phot. Berlin Museinn] 

[c] Boy taking a thorn from his foot. Roman fountain-figure, a copy 
in marble after a bronze original of the third century b.c. From 
Rome; in the British Museum, (viii, 675.) 

[Phot. British Miiseian] 



132 







r. 



^% 



-^ T 




^ -J 



THE FIRST PERGAMENE SCHOOL 



[a] Head of a dying oriental — probably a Persian killed in a battle 
against Athenians. Copy, in marble of Asia Minor, from a bronze 
original of the dedieation of Attains I, third quarter of the third 
century B.C. From the Palatine; Terme Museum, Rome, (viii, 679.) 

[Phot. Anderson] 

[b] A Gaul stabbing himself to avoid capture, after killing his wife: 
the 'Ludovisi Gaul.' Copy, in marble of Asia !Minor, from a bronze 
group forming part of the dedication of Attains I at Pergamum, 
third quarter of the third century B.C. Terme Museum, Rome. 
The most serious restoration is the right arm of the man, the hand 
of which should be held with the thumb upward, so lowering the 
elbow, (viii, 679.) 

\Pliot. Brogi] 



134 




[a] DYING PERSIAN 




[b] THE LUDOVISI GAUL 



THE FIRST PERGAMENE SCHOOL 



[//] MARSYAS tied to a tree to be flayed. Copy of an original of the 
first Pergamene Scliool. From Tarsus; in Constantinople. 

[Phut. Scbali and Joaillicr] 

[b] Scythian slave sharpening his knife before flaying ]Marsyas. Copy 
of an original of the first Pergamene school. Iffizi, Florence. The 
statue has suffered from patching and repolishing. (viii. G80.) 



136 





■SI 






D 



THE FIRST PERGAMEXE SCHOOL 



[a] A fighting Gaul, from Delos; National Museum, Athens. An 
original of the end of the third century b.c. (viii, G81.) 

[Pfiol. Alinari] 

[b] A dead barbarian. Copy in marble from a bronze original set 
up on the Acropolis at Athens at the end of the third century b.c. 
by Attains T. Palace of the Doges, Venice, (viii, 681.) 

[Phot. Giraudon] 

\c] ME NE LA us Carrying the body of patroclus. Copy from an 
original of the late third century b.c. Loggia de' Lanzi, Florence. 
The head, arms, and upper part of the body of Menelaus, and the 
arms of Patroclus, as well as other parts, are modern, (viii, 682.) 

[Phol. Seemann, Leipzig] 



138 




M 



y 





n 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a], [c] Young satyr fighting a snake-legged giant. From Rome; 
Palazzo dei Conscrvatori. Co])y of a Pergamene original of the late 
third century B.C. (viii, C83.) 

[Stuart .Jones, Conservatori Calal. PI. 28] 

[6] Head of a young satyr repulsed by a nymph. From Tivoli ; in the 
British Mnseut7i. Copy of an original of the early second century 
B.C. (viii, 683.) 

[d] Head of an hermaphrodite escaping from an old satyr. From the 
neighboiH'hood of Rome; Ince Blundell Hall, Lancashire. Copy of an 
original of the early second century B.C. (viii, 683.) 

[e] Head of the goddess night from the Great Altar of Per^rtmwm; 
Berlin. From a cast. First half of second century B.C. (viii, 687.) 

\Phols. Prof. B. Ashmole] 



140 




[a] 



m 




[c] 




SATYRS 




[d] 
HERMAPHRODITE 




[e] 
'night' 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[<i\ Bronze statuette of a satyr, from Pompeii; in the Naples 
Museum. Copy from an original of the late third century B.C. 
(viii, 682.) 

[Phot. Anderson] 

[b] Satyr turning to look at his tail. From Rome; Terme Museum. 
Copy from a bronze original of the late third century b.c. Parts of 
the legs are modern: the head is a cast from another replica, 
(viii, 677.) 

yPhot. Anderson] 

\c\ Statue of polyhymnia, the muse of lyric po3try. Copy from 
an original of the late third century b.c. (See also p. 122 [c].) 
Photograph from a cast combining a body in Berlin with a head in 
Dresden, (viii, 677.) 

[Rodenwaldt, Die Kanst dcr Antikc, p. -452] 



142 




y 





HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE: SECOND AND 
FIRST CENTURIES 



[a] APHRODITE at the bath. From Mcnne; in the Louvre. Roman 
copy from an original by Doedalsas of Bithynia, about 200 B.C. 
(viii, 684.) 

[Phot. Alinari] 

[b] An old woman with an empty wine-jar. Copy in marble from a 
bronze original by Myron of Thebes set up at Smyrna about 200 B.C. 
From Italy; in Munich; Glyptothek. The nose, right arm, left shoulder 
and breast, left foot and other patches are modern, (viii, 685.) 

[Phot. Munich Glyptothek] 

[c] Boy struggling with a goose. Copy in marble from a bronze 
original by Boethus of Chaleedon, early second century b.c. From 
Rome; in Munich; Glyptoihek. Some small patches on the child's 
face, and the head of the goose, are modern. Photograph from a 
cast, (viii, 684.) 



144 




w 

«} 



o 



A 




y. 



O 




c A n s III 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE: SECOND AND 
FIRST CENTURIES 



[a], [b] EROS sleeping. From Rome; Palazzo dei Conservatori. Copy 
from an original perhaps by Polycles of Athens, about 200 B.C. 
(viii, 684.) 

[Phots, [a] Prof. B. Ashmok, [b] FaragUa] 

[c]. [rf] Hermaphrodite sleeping. From Rome; Te?'?ne Museum. Copy 
from a bronze, perhaps by Polycles of Athens, about 200 B.C. 
(viii, 684.) 

[Phot. Brogi] 



146 





^mm-- ^w 





n 



y. 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE: SECOND 
PERGAMENE SCHOOL 



ATHENA, crowned by Victory, tears Alcyoneiis from the earth to 
destroy him. Ge rises to beg mercy for her sons. From the frieze 
of the Great Altar of Pcrgamiim: in Berlin. Early second century 
B.C. (See p. 188 [a].) (viii, 686.) 
[Phot. Giraiiiloii. from a cast] 



148 




o 



< 



o 

a 

N 






HELLENISTIC SCT'LPTURE 



[a] The legend of Telephus: the building of the boat for Auge. 
From the internal frieze of the Great Altar at Pergamum; in Berlin. 
Second quarter of the second century B.C. (viii, 687.) 

\Phot. Berlin Museum] 

[b] Worshippers approaching a god and goddess. Said to have come 
from Corinth', in Munich; GUjptothek. Athenian work of the third 
century u.c. (viii, 688.) 

[Phot. Munich Ghjptuthck\ 



150 




[^'J 




RELIEFS 



hellp:xistic sculpture: second 

PElUiAMENE SCHOOL 



[a], [b] Head of chirox the centaur, j)art of a group showing the 
musical education of Achilles. From the Esquiline, Rome; Palazzo 
del Conservatori. Most of the nose is modern. Copy from an original 
of the first half of the second century B.C. (viii, 685.) 
[P//0/.S. [a] Prof. B. Ashmole, [b] Alinari] 

[r] PAX teaching olympus or daphnis to play the pipe; Naples 
Museum. Copy of the second century a.d. from an original of the 
first half of the second century B.C. The hands, and other patches, 
are modern, (viii, G85.) 
[Phot. Alinari] 



152 





[a] 



[f^\ 



CHIRON 




[c\ PAN AND OLYMPUS 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE: SECOND 
CENTURY B.C. 



[a] Head of a woman, from Pergamiun ; in lirrlin. Second Pcrgamene 
School, (viii, 687.) 
[Phot. Berlin Museum] 

[h] Head of the statue of aphrodite from Melos; in the Louvre. 
(See p. 156 [c].) (viii, 691.) 

[c] Colossal head of a goddess, by Damophon of INIessene; in the 
Capitolint' Museum, Rome. Mid second century b.c. (viii, 690.) 
[Phot. Alinari] 

{d\ Head of athena by Eubulides of Athens; National Museum, 
Athens. Second half of second century e.c. (viii, 692.) 
[Phot. English Photographic Co.] 



154 





[«] 



[/>] 





[c] 



[d] 



FEMALE HEADS 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] Statue from Pergamum; in Berlin. Second Pergamene School, 
first half of second century B.C. (viii, (587.) 

[PergamoH, Plates, VII, PI. XIV] 

[6] APHRODITE from Capua; in Naples. Roman copy in marble 
after a bronze original of the later fourth century B.C. 

(Note: Against the view stated in the text (viii, 091) that this is a copy of the statue of 
Aphrodite on tiie AcropoUs of Corinth, see O. Broneer in Univ. of California Publica- 
tions in Archaeology, i, no. 2, pp. G5 sqi/.) 

[c] APHRODITE from Melos; in the Louvre. By . . .andros, of 
Antioch on the Maeander, mid second century B.C. (Cf. p. 154 [b].) 
(viii, 691.) 



156 





[«] 



[^J 



FIGURE FROM PERGAMUM APHRODITE FROM CAPUA 





[c] APHRODITE FROM MELOS 



HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



\a\ Warrior, by Agasias of Ephesus, end of the second century B.C. 
From Anzio; in the Louvre, (viii, 691.) 
[Phot. University of Berlin, from a cast] 

[b] Boxer resting. Bronze statue signed on the left glove by Apol- 
lonius son of Nestor, an Athenian, first century B.C. From the 
Tiber; in the Terme Museum. The rock is modern, (viii, 693.) 

[Phot. Alinari] 



158 




y. 




HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 



[a] Satyr and nymphs. Archaistic relief, first century a.d. In Rome, 
Palazzo del Conservatori. (viii, 692.) 

[Phot. Alinari] 

[b\ Relief on one side of a four-sided marble basis or altar from Capri ; 
in the British Museum. Early first century a.d. (viii, C92.) 

[Phot. BritisJi Museion] 

[c] Boy, by Stephanus, pupil of Pasiteles; from Rome, in the Villa 
Albani. End of the first century B.C. The right arm, half of the left 
forearm with the hand, and other parts are modern, (viii, 693.) 

[d] Group, perhaps Electra recognizing Orestes; by ]Menclaus, pupil 
of Stephanus, in the Terme Museum, Rome. First half of the first 
century a.d. (viii, 694.) 



160 




< 



o 
o 




D 

» 
Eh 

02 

m 
o 





C A H S III 



II 



HELLENISTIC PORTRAITS 



[rtj EPICURUS. Roman copy in marble from an original of the 
first half of the third century b.c. In the Capitoline Museum, Rome. 

[Pliol. Oxford University Press\ 

[h] A Greek poet, perhaps Epicharmus or Philemon. Roman copy 
in bronze from an original of the second century b.c. From Her- 
culaneum; in Naples. 
[Phot. Anderson] 

[c], [d] CN. POMPEius MAGNUS. Third quarter of first century 
B.C. Glypiotek Ny Carlsherg, Copenhagen, (viii, 694.) 

{Phot. Nij Carlsberg Glyptotek] 



162 





[a] EPICURUS 



[b] A POET 



^^^^^^jl^ ' Jt^ ^^^^1 








[c] [d] 

[c], [d] CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS 



II-2 



HELLENISTIC 'PORTRAITS OX COINS 



[a] Head of Alexander the Great, diademed and with the rani's horn 
of Amnion in his hair, from a coin of Lysimachus. 323-281 B.C. 

[b] Demetrius PoUorcetes, diademed and with a bull's horn in his 
hair. 300-283 B.C. 

[c] Antiochus I, diademed. 293-261 B.C. 

[d] Philetaerus (284-263 b.c), wreathed and diademed on a coin of 
Eumenes II of Pergamum. 197-159 B.C. 

[e] Berenice II, wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, a gold oetodrachm minted 
in Ephesus. The queen with diademed and veiled head. 258-222 b.c. 

[/] Antiochus III the Great. 223-187 b.c. 

[g] Mithridates II, King of Pontus. c. 255-220 B.C. 

[h] Euthijdemus I, King of Bactria. c. 222-187 b.c. 

[i] Euthydemus II, King of Bactria, probably grandson of the last. 

[j] Antimachus I, King of Bactria. Second century B.C. 

[k] Orophernes, pretender to the throne of Cappadocia, a coin minted 
at Priene. 158-157 b.c. 

[I] Mithridates VI, the Great, King of Pontus. 120-63 b.c. 

[m] Cleopatra VII, 51-30 b.c. 

All, except [e] gold, and [m] bronze, are silver tetradrachms, and all 
are slightly enlarged. The coins are in the British Museum. (viii,694.) 



164, 




..*•""'»►_ 




PORTRAITS OX COINS 



HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



ACHILLES, hidden among the daughters of Lycomedes, is dis- 
covered by Odysseus and Diomed. Copy of the first century a.d., 
from a painting of the third century B.C. From Pompeii; in Naples. 
(viii, 695.) 
[PfiGt. F. Bruckmann A.G., Munich] 



166 




ACHILLES IN SCYROS 



HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



^Vall painting of the first century B.C. after an original of the late 
third century B.C. from Boscoreale, 7iear Pompeii, in the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York, [a] A Macedonian king and a sibyl (?). [b] A 
king and his queen (?). (viii, 696.) 

[Barnabei, ]'illa di P. Fannio Sinistore, Pis. VI, VIII] 



168 





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HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



HERACLES in bondage to omphale in Lydia. Copy, of the first 
century B.C. or a.d., from a picture by an artist of Asia Minor of 
the third century B.C. From Pompeii; in Naples, (viii, 69G.) 

[Phot. Sommer] 



170 




HEEACLES AND OMPHALE 



HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



HERACLES finds his son telephus in Arcadia. Copy, of the first 
century a.d., from a Pergamene painting of the second century B.C. 
From Herculaneum; in Naples, (viii, C97.) 



172 




HERACLES FINDING TELEPHUS 



HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



The initiation of a bride in Dionysiac ritual; after a painting of the 
second century b.c. Villa Item, Pompeii, (v^iii, 697.) 

[Phot. Alinari] 



174 







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HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



[a] MEDEA contemplating the murder of her children. A copy of 
the first century a.d., probably after Timomachus of Byzantium, 
early first century b.c. From Hercidaneum; in Naples, (viii, 698). 

[Phol. Alinari] 

[b] ORESTES and pylades before the temple of Artemis in Tauris. 
A copy, of the first century a.d., probably after Timomachus. From 
Pompeii; in Naples, (viii, 699.) 

[Phot. Sommer] ^ 



176 




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HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



[a] Visit to a wise woman. Mosaic by Dioscurides of Samos after a 
picture of the second century B.C. From Pompeii; in Naples. 
(viii, 699.) 

[Phot. Alinnri] 

[b] Still life. Graeco-Roman painting of the first century B.C. 
From Pompeii; in Naples, (viii, 700.) 

[Phot. F. Bruckmann A.G., Munich] 



178 




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HELLENISTIC PAINTING 



Landscapes from the Odyssey, found on the Esquiline; in the Vatican. 
[a] The Laestrygones destroying the ships of Odysseus. [6] Circe's 
island. From a Graeco-Roman frieze of the first century B.C. (viii, 
700.) 

[Phot. F. Bmckmann A.G., Munich] 



180 




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HELLENISTIC ARCHITECTURE 



[a] Magnesian entablature. In Berlin, (viii, 701.) 
[Magnesia, Blatt V] 

[b] 'Hall of the Bulls.' In Delos. Detail and section, (viii, 702.) 
[Bulletin de Correspondance Ilellenique, viii, 1884J 

[c] Miletus; elevation of the Bouleutcrion, restored, (viii, 703.) 

[Milet, I, 2, PI. VI] 



182 



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[a] MAGNESIA 



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[c] MILETUS 



HELLENISTIC TOWN-PLANNING 



Perspective view of the Acropolis ol" Perganium, actual state, (viii, 
705.) 

[Collignon, Pergame, VI. III| 



184 




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HELLENISTIC TOWN-PLANNING 



Restored plan of Pergamum. (viii, 705.) 
[CoUignon, Pergame, PI. XI] 



186 




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HELLENISTIC ARCHITECTURE 

[a] Restoration ui'the Great Altar oH Pergamiim. (See p. liS above.) 
In Berlin, (viii, 686, 705.) 
[Pergamon, Vol. of Plates 111, I'l. XIV] 

[h], [c] The horologion of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, the so-called ' Tower 
of the Winds,' in Athens. Elevation and plan, (viii, 702.) 

[Stewart and Revett, Antiquities of Attica, i, ch. 3, Pis. II, III] 




188 




[a] p E R G A M u :si 




[b] THE HOROLOGION 



HELLENISTIC TERRACOTTAS 



[a] A lamp-lighter, cloaked and hooded, carrying a lantern in his 
right and a ladder in his left hand. Lamp-lighters in the temples of 
Serapis are mentioned in the papyri. From Alexandria; in the 
Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris. 

[b] A pedagogue carrying the bag of knucklebones for his charge. 

[c] A gentleman wearing a chlamys, perhaps a young Greek de- 
livering his first ])ublic address. The cloak is, however, rather long 
for a chlamys and may be intended for a toga, in which case a 
Roman would be represented. 

\d\ A boy in slave-garb, perhaps a herald, or 'Town-Crier.' 

[6]-[rf] In the Louvre, (viii, 656.) 



190 





[a] 



[b] 



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ty 





[c] 




[d] 



TERRACOTTA FIGURINES 



HELLENISTIC TERRACOTTAS 



[a] An old actor. 

[b] A fisherman. 

[c] A nurse and child. 

[d] A school-girl. 

All in the Louvre, (viii, 656.) 



192 






[c] 




TERRACOTTA FIGURINES 



C A H S HI 



13 



CARTHAGE 



[a], [h] Terracotta masks from Carthage, perhaps apotropaic; but, 
though caricatures, probably representing typical Carthaginian 
features. 

[Catal. du Mus6e Alaoui, Pis. 72, 1 ; 74, 5] 



194 




[a\ 




[h] 



MASKS FROM CARTHAGE 



CARTHAGE 



[a] Large votive stele from Carthage of Greek style; the arehitec- 
tural decoration, as well as the figure representing Tanit (or Kore), 
is in the Greek manner. The animal in the pediment is, however, 
Carthaginian in style. 

[Corpus Inscriptionum Semii. i, PI. 41] 

[b] Terracotta figure of Tanit, the great Punic goddess, found at 
Carthage. While head-dress and fan suggest Egyptian influence, the 
figure seems purely Carthaginian. Third century b.c. Bardo Museum, 
Tunis. 

[Catal. du Musie Alaoui, PI. 76, 1] 



196 







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REPRESENTATIONS OF TANIT 



CARTHAGE 



Graeco-oriental figure in painted marble from Carthage. This figure 
forms the hd of a sarcophagus and represents a priestess of Tanit 
in ceremonial Egyptian garb with wings folded over the skirt. She 
holds the implements of sacrifice. The Greek element predominates. 
Fourth to third century B.C. In the Musee St Louis, Carthage. 

[M. Rostovtzeff, A History of the Ancient World, ii, PI. XIV, 2] 



198 




A PRIESTESS OF TANIT 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY 

W. LEWIS, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



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