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THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 

EonDon: FETTER LANE, E.C 

CFDinburg!): loo PRINCES STREET 




SriB gotfe : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

Smnbag, Calrutta anB iWalraa: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

arotonto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd. 

Cokjo: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



All rights resenied 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

A GOLIARD'S SONG BOOK OF THE 
XIth century 



EDITED 
FROM THE UNIQUE MANUSCRIPT IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

BY 

KARL BREUL 

Hon. M.A., Litt.D., Ph.D. 

SCHRODER PROFESSOR OF GERMAN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



Cambridge: -^v 



\ 



at the University Press j^ ^l^ (I'l 



Cambntgc: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PR 

nib 



IN MEMORIAM HENRICI BRADSHAW 

ET IN HONOREM FRANCISCI JENKINSON 

HOC OPVSCVLVM DEDICATVM EST 



PREFACE 

THE remarkable collection of Medieval Latin poems that is known by the name 
of ' The Cambridge Songs ' has interested me for more than thirty years. 
My first article ' Zu den Cambridger Liedern ' was written in the spring of 1885 
and published in Volume xxx of Haupt's Zeitschrift filr deutsches Altertkum. The 
more attention I paid to the songs and the more I corresponded with scholars about 
some of them, the stronger became my conviction of the importance of having the 
ten folios of this unique manuscript photographed and of thereby rendering this 
fascinating collection in its every aspect readily accessible to the students of 
Medieval literature. It is in truth necessary to invite the co-operation of all such 
students, whether their subject be Medieval theology, philology, philosophy or music, 
in the interesting task of elucidating the more difficult poems of what may be 
regarded as the song book or commonplace book of some early Goliard. Poems such 
as Rachel, De Musica, De tribus symphoniis et de littera Pithagore, and others must 
of necessity be dealt with by specialists. For years I have wished to take this work 
in hand, but till quite recently it proved impossible to find the necessary leisure for 
the execution, however inadequate, of the task. Now, in the very saddest year of 
my life, when so much for which I have lived and worked is crumbling to pieces, 
I have at last carried out my old plan as best I could under the present anxious 
conditions. Sad too is the thought that so many of the eminent scholars who would 
have welcomed the publication of a compact edition of the ' Cambridge Songs ' have 
passed away from among us, notably Henry Bradshaw, Wilhelm Scherer, Ludwig 
Traube, and Paul von Winterfeld. 

The purpose of the present edition is first and foremost to place this remarkable 
collection within easy reach of British and foreign scholars ; to provide, together 
with the photographic reproduction of all the folios, a trustworthy transliteration 



viii PREFACE 

and a serviceable text of the songs, methodically arranged and properly indexed ; 
and to give, in the introductory chapters and in the notes, a survey of the critical 
literature that has so far appeared, in England and abroad, on each of the 47 
pieces, with some additional elucidation of either the text or the subject-matter. 

In the transliteration (Chapter I) all abbreviations have been written out in full, 
but the letters substituted for the abbreviation marks have been printed in italics. 
Piper's reproduction of the abbreviation marks is not invariably accurate, as a com- 
parison of his text with the photographs will show. In Chapter V the spelling has in 
a few cases been slightly standardized (e.g. the more usual letters e and i have been 
substituted for the occasional ae, (, oe and y). The actual spelling of the manuscript 
can easily be ascertained on pages 3-22, and certain inconsistencies are all the more 
easily explained if we are justified in assuming that there were several copyists of 
the songs whose habits of writing were not quite the same. This assumption is, 
however, not absolutely necessary, for it is not likely that even • the same scribe 
would be entirely consistent in his manner of writing. 

In the introductory chapters, and also in the notes, the titles of books and 
periodicals are quoted in full, because these references are intended not only for 
advanced students of Old German literature, but also for students of Medieval history, 
theology, philosophy and music, as well as for students of Medieval literature 
generally in English-speaking countries, all of whom are naturally less familiar with 
the abbreviated forms in which these periodicals and the older discussions are usually 
quoted in German books. As the chief aim of the Introduction and Notes is to 
indicate as clearly as possible the 'literature' to be consulted on the subject, I have 
preferred to give such references in too explicit rather than in too concise a form. 
The very valuable notes contained in the third edition (by E. Steinmeyer, 1892) of 
Miillenhoff and Scherer's Denkmaler have purposely not been reproduced here. This 
scholarly work is still indispensable, and as it is easily accessible students should 
make a point of consulting it; but attention is called in the notes to all later 
publications in which the commentary of the Denkmaler is either supplemented or 
corrected. The notes vary considerably in length. While in the case of some very 
small, fragmentary and unimportant pieces, little could be said with any profit, and 
while, in the case of several poems of considerable importance, a reference to the 
third edition of the Denkmaler, followed by a short indication of the latest contributions 
to the subject, was all that seemed to be needed, in other instances much fresh 



PREFACE ix 

material has been supplied that had not been used for the elucidation of the 
poems. Specimens of English and German translations have been given, wherever 
possible, in the hope that they may tempt and show the way to future translators. 
There is still much fruitful work to be done for the 'Cambridge Songs,' more 
especially at the hands of English translators, who have so far almost entirely ignored 
them and whose attention may be particularly invited to Nos. 22-32. 

The Essay on ' De Heinrico* (Chapter VII) has been reprinted, with additions 
and corrections, from 'The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature' {1898), 
where it was, perhaps, not very generally accessible. 

The General Index has been made as full and as useful as possible. There 
is also an alphabetical table of the first words of all the pieces, together with full 
references to the works in which the individual poems have already been printed. 

I desire gratefully to acknowledge my indebtedness to several friends and 
colleagues who have very kindly helped me with references and suggestions. These 
are Dr James (Provost of King's College and in the present year Vice-Chancellor of 
the University), Professor Burkitt, Professor Priebsch, Professor Reid, Professor 
Rippmann, Dr Ezard, Dr Latimer Jackson, Dr Naylor, Dr Nicholson, Dr Rootham, 
Dr Charles Wood, the Rev. W. A. Cox, Mr A. B. Cook, Mr G. G. Coulton, 
Mr N. M'^Lean, Mr A. Rogers, and, above all, our Public Orator, Sir John Sandys. 

The photographs were taken by Mr W. F. Dunn of the University Library 
with his usual care and success. They are in size and, as far as possible, in other 
respects, exact reproductions of the manuscripts. 

I am dedicating this book to Henry Bradshaw (of unforgettable memory) and 
Francis Jenkinson, those two learned custodians of the treasures of our University 
Library in recent years, to whom no student, young or old, British or foreign, has 
ever applied without finding the most ready and generous help. They have taken 
the most lively interest in all research upon our Cambridge manuscripts and early 
printed books, notably in that upon our priceless Codex Gg. 5. 35, and have on 
several occasions rendered me valuable assistance in my own work upon the 
' Cambridge Songs.' 

In conclusion, if it is inevitable that the sad and anxious months during 
which this edition has been prepared should have left their trace upon its 
pages, yet my work upon this book of all others has truly sustained and consoled me 
during the present crisis. For the ' Cambridge Songs ' are one of the very earliest 



X PREFACE 

instances o^ genuine interest taken by Englishmen in the Hterature of Germany. 
The work hitherto devoted to our manuscript has been marked again and again by 
a whole-hearted, generous and fruitful co-operation on the part of eminent English, 
French, and American scholars with the most distinguished scholars of Germany 
in the elucidation of these attractive, and often unique, poems. May we not hope 
that, when the clash of arms is hushed and men again turn their thoughts to the 
pursuits of peace, scholars on both sides of the North Sea will once more join 
in the common search, as of old, for the good, the beautiful and the true ? 



K. B. 



lo, Cranmer Road, 
Cambridge, 

July 10, 1915. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGES 

Preface vii — x 

I. Manuscript and Transliteration i — »» 

II. Description of the Cambridge Manuscript with special reference to the 

'Songs' '$—'9 

III. The work' hitherto done ON THE 'Cambridge Songs' (1720— 1914) 29— 34 

A. Editions and Discussions 29 — 34 

B. Photographic Reproductions 34 

C. Translations 34 

IV. Medieval Latin Lyrics in Germany and the 'Cambridge Songs'. 35—38 

V. The Goliard's Song Book 38 — 69 

A. General Discussion 38 — 41 

B. Carmina in Codice Cantabrigiensi scripta 4» — 69 

VI. Notes 70—101 

VII. A contested passage in ' De Heinrico ' 102 — 1 1 1 

Indexes "2 — '*o 

A. Alphabetical Index of the First Words of all the Songs . . 112— 113 

B. Synopsis of the Contents of the Goliard's Song Book . . 114— 115 

C. General Index 116— 120 



CHAPTER I 

THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

MANUSCRIPT AND TRANSLITERATION 







CO' 



I 



-n<* • C*»creT- crt.n e ■ C«virre carte fW* |»*r»TJTitiT>i. 

con f pira kflrnle. l) mtkc yvmArw ^ryrv^fixcui" cu^rtx rnojv^ 
)t\xi\ itit»c-n ronciTni.ttrrrfffMnr flegpre fibi d^f»r<(lrrm *^pt«aTi.Tror*- 

Acnonef (oltMmMl^ariem cjinTifir f ort- e m orrxtonorKmrum . 

rfmrrDbomuTT adecmetic/fi/tinii '»»kJ«(«^V^^ "rvi»<^iu»cj-. yrrcrr j^f 
1 ;TT>n('coe?nn uevtfJ pquo» cunnsv .xSc AjW»C cj iticiu**rti <trcj» |»t«^illait 

mtrsi cuiMf bontTVCWr «Ki: dono (xiu A. ff*- ^un<- fmriA tiHutl Aatryn^ ci cfenfti 

ortfUiJcfll' bUTTiATie cunr<«m«r cjui ■nT»*rrru (uAfjed Aft**""'' orn\\i 

Q ».<■ ^t^^cS.r^h^ niiimn irK^^ceUSf dedm urar latT- rrfin-i JiiTr.,lu»»i ..rr^ 

-x>e-nao coTicot'tL\reyT?cru^rwo«'-''*' ■L' ^^^rf^ '***S>' f^^^*^ pam n.*^) pr»en — 

mA-n • Qo CU1 (iU rnAneir iT-»ipitT 
honor* ^'p<7rT^<Af ciue"«ngta3j Iau<«<' , 

fciU Aire. 7/ -t\%\ d*ctmi . 



- 1 

a 






ti»i5nnu<cMniHil' <rvCTnplo mel^ C tin cr*l- di 



POT 

I* 



^vnt 



li.U 



T ire foror/CflrfcLf p^l^f pluref 

»nt»TKit l.ilxsreTflwtnqtMn-titn 7 

1UUA»T^po(|tbiUT.tT 



XC^' 



\nr J»iv4 TTiTmt- tvBTvT 



<x<»«''.-' ■• Ao nunc f I .i<^L\ncL> 



tj 



mc fnrn«L«.ri«f prp^nf .a«tr{JMw(' 

(tiAfrr ciTr«A|va"tT»iincJ«-re- pom-i-" 
<f 140 nof' otriif be^l ■mat*THt<^ (n J ■ i 
▼nufcln-^ fri<J«apf^tma^)-ii5 . 
.i«»5f» |e<i (ue- eonao{e^f^\' \\ ■ i» 

tmjrr hue putT ftoificoe^ 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 433 r 



Lrratuletur om«is caro. chm/o nato 

domino, qui pwculpa protoplast! 

carnem nosfram induit. ut sal 

uaret quod plasmauit dn sapien- 
5 tia. Caute cane, caute cane 

conspire karole. 
^lelos cuncti concinnantes gra/zaruw 

actiones soluimus aciem qui nostrt 

mentis roborauit adcemendum summi 
10 patris coet«mu»i uerbuw pcrquod cuncta 

restaurantur et reguntur elemifwta 

mira cuius bonitate atq»« done salu 

-tem haurimus. 
XJoces laudis humane curis carneis 
15 rauce nondvamt maiestati tantu^w 

sufficiunt. 
Que AngeWc&m sibi militiam inexcelsis 

psallere sa/ic/ain iussit simphoniam. 
Nee nan uariam mundi discordiam semo- 
20 -uendo concordare fecit amioniaw. 
Qui xm^ermm ce^wfirniando romanum 

sues agnos fonte lotos a luporum 

morsibus pia pace custodiuit. 
Hos cuonradus pius unctus Aotnim 
25 iam defendit imp^rando. 

Quem pr»uidentia d« p^rclara prwlesti 

nauit et elegit regere gentes 

strennue dauidis exemplo messie- 

-que triumpho. 
30 Ortus auoruw ste/«mate regu/w pmunio- 

ris gradus etatis proficiebat regiis 

moribus et factis ut probauit euentus. 
Tiro fortis et fidelis passus plures 

mundi labores propinquorum 
35 causas et amicorum baud secus 

ergo suas desiderauit cunctis uiribw 

iuuare propossibilitate. 
Pater ut suuw nutrit natuw nunc 

adolando nunc flagellando 
40 tewpestates mundi p^ruarias chrw/ws 



10 



»S 



30 



hunc prc>bauit ut didicisset pr<7na pie- 

tatis scala ct^ndescendere reis. ([^catholicofwm. 
Post heinrici mortew omi deflendaM gregi 
Hunc rex regum fiduw ecclesiarum iussit 

fore patronum. 
Hunc romani principatus cuncti mox 

elegere sibi defensorem et prqjugnatorew 

fortem orthodoxorum. 
Gaudent omnA circumquaqiM gentes gra/ms 

chru/o dantes qui uiduarum Hque pupillorwm 

audit uoces suorum. 
Age gaude roma urbiuwt domna cum c^^nsensu 

cleri deuoto te cuonradi pr«cepto subdi 

qui n<7fftantum suas sed affectiue omnium 

subditorw/w querit utilitates. 
Adhaec publicaruw principi reru/» et pnuate 

dediti uite iure tenti familiari uitam 

et salutem imp^ratori nostro poscite 

cuonrado chn'sto d« electo. 
Laus sit regi seculorum patri nato pneu- 

mati. sancto cui soli manet imp^rium 

honor */ potestas quem ang^Iorwm laudes 

ho»»i«UOT 'et uoces laudant rite per euum. 
(j rates usiae soluimus 

subremoir cui nihil accedit neqii« rece- 

dit om»ia coHtintnU non conitente inuisi 

bili domino. Q-nis decimi. 

Cuncta qui i«itio creauit exnihilo 

suajn et hominem formauit adimaginem 

uice dampnatoru/n angtrlorum sui ordi- 
Hinc stimulatus serpens antiquus 

suasit amarum mandere pomum 

quo nos om«« heu mortales subiace 

mus dire mortis imperio. 
Factor sed sue condolens facture 

misit hue filiuw sibi coet<miu»« tectu 

forma subseruili rem mendatii. 
Uirgo maria maris stella feta decelo 

pneumate sanc/o edidit salo tempestuoso 

luccfw sempit^maw saluatorew christttm dcminum ^ c 

3 A2 



«5 



30 



35 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 432 V 



Postquaw innumera fecit signa tollerat 
sputa alapas flagella crucis inhonestaw 
patitur mortem ponitwr insepulchruw adit 
infemum frangit mortis impmum. 
5 Tertia die surgit amorte trahens mi 

crocosmuOT adsemet ipsuw scandit omnes 
super celos n««c adextris sedet patris altithroni. 
Inde uenturus potens est deus oues saluare hedos 
dampnare has i« cel/> gauisuras hos in penis 
10 luituros pwmeritis. C'"ri''*''S fideliuw;. 

Nonlongo post cum discip;/lis ina>«claui congregntis 
spin'ttts 
etherea imbuit aula pectora beatorum indiuidue 
Qui p<rrgentes p«dicabant pat<?r nat7« sanctus spiritus fim- 
-plex usia pasonis distincta un»; est hie di!»s 
15 tewporis expers surn^ns tantre pnhcipiuw. 
Unu»» baptisma fides et una deus et hominuw? 
pat(?r canciorum q«i sup^r omnes est potentes ex 
altatus et benedict»i ins^cula. 
Hinc uos omn«s pr*cor fideles mecum et^muw 
20 psallite Aeum sono tantum nc'nchordarum 
sed canoro iubilo. Cpo'otia. 
Quo nos om«« se laudantes semp<rr saluet 
et conseruet adhonorew sui nominis incliti '' 
hie et inet^ma maiestatis triumphali 
25 Nunc osummi ciues celi nee non sancii uos pro 
phete et bisseni principales apostoli marti 
res o'^fessores uirgines om»^ adiuuate 
nos precihus -pneuroati sanc/o nunc et in- 
Sit pr«potenti laus creatori patri filio- 
30 -etirmuw sempiterna creature letitia. 
nclito celoruw 

laus sit digna deo. ^suasione uermis. 
Qui celos scandens soli regna uisitauit 
redempturus hominem maligni seductuw 
35 Quem quis qualis quantus quid sit ratio 
ne gestiens rimari inmensum quem 
scias benignuOT potentem. 
Patris uerbuw caro factual mundi lum^« tene 

bras sup^z-ans puellaw regales matrtm fecit mariaw. 
40 Castam intrans camem sumpsit qui 



peccati macular nonnouh ut unus regnaret 

factus homo d^as. 
loseph iustus quew accepit anglico doctus 

uerbo regem regum agnou/V maximuw ang^lws 

pastorum monstrat gregi deum. 5 

Celum torq«^ns astra regens inuolutz/y 

pannis plorans rusticorum tecmina 

pannoruw p^ulit qui cuncta potesta- 

te pwtulit. Qiunc magi munere querehant. 
Quem herodes rex regno tim^«s seductore/« se 10 

suadente i«strume«tis hellorum qwffiiuit p^rdenduw 
Stella duxit quos dux fidelw sic doctorew 

t««c iubente donee puer erat ubi 

c<7«tulit intrantes dederunt munera 

supplices. ^buere domini 15 

Monstrant auro rege»« esse p«sule»/ designant 

thure. mirra signu/« tumulo tri- 
Tunc herodes iussit cunctos iugu- 

lari masculos quos natara pn>duxit 

binis quoq«« annis. 30 

Hunc ioha««<fs baptitauit unda pulchri 

iordanis et uox patr'is natum 

iussit exaudiri populis. 
Hie clara naXusque matte dedit signa 

celorum demonstrans se fore 25 

deum aqua sua.m gaudens mutat natwraw 

et c<7«uiuis unda mitis uersa in 

uinum placuit. 
Lazarum t^n-e tenebris conclusum amissu 

sumere pr«;epit ut q«i seua cowmit- 30 

tat piacula dum laborat em^«dan 

-do mortis surgit tumulo. 
Iuuene/« que/« reliqwt uite flam^w 

du»« t«rba urbe portat luetuosa 

surgere iubet mortis uicta lege quo 35 

loquele det i«iuste hoc exemplum uenie. 
Puellaw uite luraine pHuataw in domo 

uite restauit uerbo cogitando qui 

peccauit animo discat di?o confiteri 

tecta m^«te erimina. .q 



I 



rfrrtm f-iMr>^ nwrnf ,m^ium. »tM» i-^j-e^u .t^noxTm.y"'"" ^uvj+t 






4l<r r>» 



fMnntf pi^rnnr m/iirtui rrrmm, 
ptnnoru pailir- cfm cuncnv oavefhk.-- 

Q iif hfroaei'rtx \tQrio-nrh\' OAucztjfi-ii- 
(uddrtTTT- TflnirTmf' fc'^Ka;!; ^fiuit- pbcnbu 



I tidruoTTururpffnenf *d^<'**«<"(rtU*»T K^ftof 
UitTiuTDf" onicrinf|Jfrri»ins«nrfideLu. 

Q III pymrt pWfrrtktnr- pAr^nar'fcTfpffi'm- rr ttitenmr daner f mo' CTHfulu 

^ f*ir cu»vm^4^"P'""rt forwTDeT^ -rliure-mtrrvi ffgniTTmrmto rni - 





i^nxcAiiTc- uT«dA pi 



uUtvi * 



f 

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I 

1 



1 tn^K^Lnrir TrriuTTipkay I^c cUnv rucr^: mrV Jedrr tvgiA>.^ fc^ i 



1.' ^ 



1« v««»vw|Lifrii<-i iv^i ^«.«* 

•vC t^*"' b " T — fir**'' 



n (ci uof^proj ctiirp. devnimfira^f a (r fi»r^ 



\»nco(urni cii^ cell ncr 

'p4.1rr AptV rn<im ^*^ '^'J fiuL^^jptuaenr trurcaz n«tv 

->^ otfff AcltMu<»tp- 4?cutv*tf~Mnd<vTr»trtrueT»Ci in 

•pCpcib-.T^ —fr^rriAxi (io ne&fnr- . utnu plocuj-r: 

S rr '^Jpcra^n Litifcrertron prt fnUo- i- Axa.r-i7 fV-«- -teneonf^cplufiT'*-'^'!^' 
•1 rf»>tT ?r»T»p'frwrTi<v crearcxirp-lettnft: funxfrr p ^*ptir ux <} ^A ctfintt" 



mcUto .•eu>r^ 



/*■ 



'"rrff^A. beo-jJUuvlione uetmtf ^ 

i^^TeAndmf (oil vtotia wtfixsiuTT- I iiufn*" que vtlupc utTP-pUtm 







iLnrni fy^ 



^•I'pnirnr hot* ttiaLi^i IMumi 
/ ^vMrquAUrqurtrtruT qdfrirnra* 



dtJ -rbrt urtr pot"r:tt- U««a*afX' 
fargprr it»Wr moircif uxct» l*5»"q 

pecc/vurr AnxfTio <*»(i'<.t.-c" aF ctrrt 



f^' 



te' 



.^) ■ 



itay nee oLtctnuf' ^loyuUecziufA^^ 
f»uj%>e A moo coctf UAieC TrvuiLo u rn<)d 



i-pgu rrrifnirr' inpfr^t fonfrrorrr 
urrrttn AUtgixncvJ VYincxcB- 

tlcenamno rUt-onu teti^r ^f^"'^"'*^ di(}id?f.quAfi auo utvuf e&trr mom 

^ ''Yonrc icif ccroriArtAif • n\\y\ (vrnvLeC' 

miirr i-wnfoUn bil'fenofqiw lm<^itf dm mtV)i Vitf vegzile incutntn: fcn— 

laqtimao »ioD cjcrmb: frnrmSi^iia-lja ^^^^ a, {y^ cx.^r\cic>'. utfendo 5iaJ»aC 

llH^pllCAlt7^r<^ue-u^^ftltp11ere^» "nemor- rnetm, uJm ulxra mAi*e 

atJciit i»p|ie-aetM>(h*, grrmu »*ecIqnio t idee mf lrtnc|r<i««( inq-c «tce- opne 

fht pow.r igfiFyiontil jTjc iTitfctff-com rv»i- <Ji*Tr mc Atofq; wf^tf ntc o^ffzv^ 

^ c^tlcMitir firiF neictr (crprrii — , tscfl" ur-ni dm hicxr tri«<:w utcr^-e 

mundu tm pUnr F't'Tin* F^'^ «*" ye*\cle^-iV cxmoti fic<^: ^gcnrrf Urotu 

-nnenfy r»urT-»r^pf>l<car fArrv al trvft-r ftJbto 

^j mtf fonuf carmlrtie- mfkn* frr-- (ooaU .horror fr^ iTAenf i-cdeit ui[en _ 
jy ,, UiLAtxr fuiuT ronw^Tcii foriMfVon -do *" uti:««^ comner virtu memo 

~-ihvr pulfu flnrcro mAnuq. ucflifl n^l*' fn fin fuci<»f"- 
t difct-fpAiTart, oa«« HAnTcJiorcLiru l-/ oaorem qu<um-nbi (oUm ucncitCcj-fiq 



^eneribuf. 

vir Ttniarum ea.no tmp t'CcifKmt^ 
,fL»rur pfkiLiru lie funr &»fcr<T>ii 

KTuCTTCem Tnulofotiiimr 






to rUrcnti 



iiTnpl^in nihil liefmtTi^< 

tir liber- p^ «-». ne^c/icir'a. fprncmrn 



»fF' 



l<Vt*:1TI^ du. 



ere- 



ferw inequbf- 






cnprchiruAtr- cobtof-v fjae ■nrni' 



AnitTian- 

^ cofcbontfq; pnCKJiU ]-tfrnazV- ■ . „ 

' •♦ ^^ "«rtiir dxnif tnaru genenx plun*- *t\,x- c»bbo colUfu tjv«>ri n.T*j*r. 
'j'!^UTC nfuTiT <^(r prlArauTT lurrencuJ muLrer enlwvDcr V 

H"*?.^ 1oa<;(liu <| oomunrr e^rtnE»^ Anwr 4, derltf-K ?iiurcu A«Trr 



dexiecixf Yr^ fr^ ne-fi.xr f>cq-- i 
ccx^endo -poft jlltiin i-imttri* 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 433 r 



Hie incruce pendens qwos creauit princeps 
regUOT redemit inferni confregit 
uectem alligando principew. 
Rex resurgens morte uictor fulget 
5 ascendendo thronum tenet quo coronas 
imponit sanciis coronandis. 
Spiritum dnm sacruw sibi coet^muw nuntios trans 
misit consolari bis senos quo linguis 
loquendo nob/x gentib»x n£>/itimidi uerba 
10 uitae p«dicarent que iudea sp^meret. 
Agmina celort/m gaudeant quod incola 
quern gignebat uirgo pr«idens i«celo 
tincta ueste de bosra gentiu« redewptio 
terra. polu/« ignew pontu/n rex inpace com 
15 ponit. C'Splendet nobile celo sedens 
Regnuw cuius finew nescit sceptruw — 
mundum implens factor facta con 
-tinens., 
Oni«is sonus cantilene trifariawi fit. 
20 Nzm aut fidiu»i concentu sonus con 
-Stat pulsu plectro ma.a\ique ut su«/ 
discrepantia uocum uari/s chordarum 
generibus. 
Aut tibiarum canorus redditur 
25 flatus fistularum ut sunt discrimi 

-na queque follew uentris orisqw* tu- 
-midi flatu p^rstrepentia pulchre 
mentem mulcisonant 
Aut multi modis gutture canoro 
30 idew sonus redditur plurimaruw 

faucium homi»um uolucrum animan- 
tiumq«« sicq«# inpulsu gutt«req«« agitwr. 
His modis canamus caxorum soixorumque 
actus qnorum honorem pr/rtitulat«r 
35 pr<7hemiu»» hocce pulchre lantfridi 
cobbonisqw^ pifmobili stewmate. 
Quawuis amicitiaruw? genera plura 
legantwr n^nsunt adeo pr^clara ut 
\%\.orum sodalium qui communes extiterun/ 
40 intantum ut neuter horum 



suapte quid possideret gazarum nee ser 

uorum nee alicuius suppellectilis aXierorum 

quicquid ueilet ab altero ratu/// foret 

more ambo coequales innuUo umqua/n 

dissides. quasi duo unus exxent inom 5 

nib»x similes. 
Porro prior orsus cobbo dix/V fra/ri sotio 

diu mihi hie regale incumbit ser- 

uitium quod hatres aflinesqu« uisendo rum adeam 

inmemor meor»M ideo ultra mare 10 

reuertar unde hue adueni iWorum 

affeetui ueniendo adillos ibi satisfaciam. 
Tedet me lantfridus inqutt uite pr<;prie 

tam dire ut absq^ te scis hie degam 

nam arripiens c<7niugem tecu/» pergam exul 15 

tecum ut tu diu factwx mecum uieem re 

pendens amori sicqf/^ pergentes litora 

maris applicar»«/ parit^r turn infit cobbo 

sodali. honor fra/er redeas redeam uisen- 

-do en uita comite unum memo ao 

riale (rater fra/ri facias. 
Uxorem quam tibi solam uendieasti 

pn^priam miAi dedas ut licent^r fruar eius 

amplexui nihil hesitando manum 

manui ei«x tribuens hilarem fruere 85 

ut libet. (ra/er ea ne dicat«r quod semotim 

fisus sim quid possidere. classe tune 

apparata dueit secum inequor. 
Stans lantfridus sup«- litus cantib«x 

chordarum ait. cobbo (ra/er fidem tene 30 

haeten»s ut feceras. nam indeeens est 

affectum seq«rtido uoti honorem p^rdere 

dedecus (ra/er fra/ri ne fiat deque diu 

canendo post ilium intuitus 

longius eum n<»/»cemens fregit rup 35 

timpanum. 
At cobbo coUisum fra/rem aon ferens mox 

uertendo mulcet en habes pifrduleis 

amor quod dedisti intaetum ante amo 

ris experimetttxim iam non est quod exp<?riat«r ultra 4c 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 433 V 



ceptu« iter relinqua/// alicubi preterm it taw 

absque me. 
Qui principiuw constas reruw faue nw/tis 

piis ceptis a,tque mifwtis plectrum rege 
5 precamur rex regum. C^ate. 
Pat^ nate spiriius sanc/e te laudamus ore 

corde. uite siti fragili 

Inmortales celi clues pia prcce nos 

mortales iaw conciues uesiros commen 
10 date redemptori. Pat^r. 
Fibris cordis caute tentis melos 

concinamus partim tristes par 

tim letas causas pwclamantes 

de pastore pio ac patrono 
1 5 heriberto. Pat^. 

Quew etate iuuenili deus pr<relegit 

sibi seruum ualde fiduw bona 

super pauca supra multa tande/// 

ministruw a?«stituendu/«. VaAer. 
20 Mane etatis puer bone indolis 

sarculo uerbi uinea christ'x libens 

studuit sciens sibi tandem 

denarii pyemia dari scolis sub 

latus fit cancellarius 
a 5 imptfratoris om«iuw raorum 

speculum honorum placuit clero 

simul et popwlo mitis sXque pius 

omni egenti largus census sui 

tiro fortis chwri pollens om«i 
30 karitate scandit dextra»« note 

uiaw phitagorace. Pater 
Post non magnu»« temporis curri 

culum suwmo pontifice largi 

ente miles domini sublimari 
35 meruit i«sede»; pontificalewi tw«c 
. sibi subditus clerus et popwlt/s 

uiuere patronum optant pium 

cui c\iristo ta\tm auxit honorew 

ouis et ouilis sibi cowmissi belli 
40 tempore longo non pate^tur pene 



damna reruw nee ullu« exscidiuwj 

sed suwmi pastoris subquiete con 

gaudentes uoce»« sanc/am nudxtrunt. Pater 
CircuOTquaq7/(? ministrauit ecclwiis 

magno suwjptu tewpestate bellicosa t««c 5 

tewp^ris deuastatis seueritatew facie 

tristem monstrans letu»z toto corde 

spreuit munduw pectore pio iugew 

cowpassionew gerit om«i mala mundi 

patienti. Pater. j© 

Aduentantes longe pjures conso 

latur peregrinos incensanter alime«ta 

pauperibwi' erogauit fouit i«firmos 

atq«e uestiuit nudos munia diuina 

complens rite cuncta tantuw uaca».r 15 

uitae c(7«te/«platiuae sanxit cunctis se 

uirtutuw ornamewtis. Pater. 
Augens demuw cumuluw/ bonor?/»» suwma 

sawc/itatis rex/V templuw sancte dei genitrici 

speciosuw rehni littore situw i«quo 20 

defunctam carnis sue sancta.m iussit 

cofidere gleba»z uti resurrectionis 

diem magnu/« actremewduw hie secure 

expectaret. Pater. 
Postquam mundus fuerat indignus 25 

tantuw cernere domrmm chn'stus plura 

loco sue sepulture fecerat signa tat) 

sui ad honorem nominis sancti. et 

ut magis sawc/iim c<?«iirmaret fide»2 

premia daturuw se incelis prt^pter 

eum hie i«terris laboranti. Pater. 
O eunctipotens mundum regens 

finis reru;« creatarum omnem 

finem r\ostutva fac finiri inte 

soluw. Pater. 
Nunc corda pange melos deuote 

filio sancte uirginis marie honor 

et uita salus et letitia pax in 

remota altitudo inclita lux 

permansura laus indificua sancto sit ^^o 



30 



35 



f 



CtVCU TC 



rc^n- 



cp. 



< Al 



lifiibi m 



vtcrvnnca 



(eci fumi OA^Tomy lulfcfUterT' can 



. /"^ii fnnctptu confine >erti fkM*nnf _ gauidfrtre/' uoe* fft:m ^tu^tef^, p^ 






(prrurr munml prcruiT' P'* "«5^ 
c5jx«<|«me girnr ortfi nialtf. mun>i 



i 



ocnrtte-r".-. utrr- frn Byi^(< 

-«not-Tivlet* lA conriuer upbf coVn 
r ittnf c(»rJ«f ca«rr- trrmf'm^lor A JtA«Tns»rrtT-f Longp-oln»-ef confS 
T»m t«Ritr ca.ufkf jycUurwinrcf^ pawptt: r»TJ<riiwtT fiuTTr"tfT.t*tn*r 

'Kbi terxtntw .*iAlcUr f dvT batii.^ "'rTxrm otm^fltnf. P.«f^ 






«jvpecr>tirer=- P<«?. 



iwprfTwn^f omtu majr^-P of^^ani munduf fUrrzit- »r»i^uf 



|p«e-uW hantry- pLicu«i!r cwrtJ 

f>rr»tiL <Sr J»pt) mrraf copqp /pt»->r 

ptvt^ tf^TTPc* ItLrguf'ecrifuifut 



Li*m' 



loco («e lepuLowre feopTitr %n.v @ 
twt <aclhonorrtTi xwnwnxffci . A.' 




cMfti^ r*\tlcr cttTi fubutruun ,. ^r»em T\ftn fvvc fintn tirtae- 

» B • {^.W niaujf dbmuf A' poptr T^J"*^c cortLf pA»>5»^ -mol^f detune- 
*'*^**^ P<«n»m« ofnrAmr ptii I ^fiUo fc» mr^mrmArte kmo*^ 



cuticTjA- ■uxex^ort p(Hi)L^ n<*«^<rtmAjie- wif^iTnf 'w^C'' 

VejiTOinfuum honor fmiccwnftu. p:tm coez-tmtirtiiuijrA'uer-uf pncu 
1 tbi nunc cananP mo*u Lemun- wtaxf aJ tco j-et^iAf" mccto Utufl^u 

diOT^-lir' cc*-rioT^ q TXKi*-' tioo "W" ut^ nc ^S'lneutl' 

I b ccr bcmeatcr^oft? cchurq-cer I tnpanjtnr hcinfiici tctrnouc* m4Mc?i 

rntlrcib: <*riniomr.£xyc. Sc. U "« lien p^tuctf iinntf f^-rr- JMiria^ J 

mtfc^e {«ctr «t*n..Datr>i|,em ZJ ctenrmtfotitr) tutif t wj cunouf J 

p {""^ur x:«ofH4m a.u<Anxf fer- *-/ tilirn cLut'Ornoni-iT^uiirtrajniifcletTnw'. f 

woj*^ autmePTuam ,rnpuj C Urilptfn Ppoffe-^ l^xificAtif? Imp. J 

uicxi»><- inMtCTlfl^trj e- . S utuennr pupiUtf cLeifrif' AJutVuif-lmp,- } 

_5**ie- <imoneT-»r«o tifwerr-nor f) wnrT ctttjUf ftn*eTvnuei."tTnwvicj»n J 

fwrcr tie fX^r^Krido rHlt*-^^rt- {tU^ uxctxr noti<^A^t^. Impur^. i 

nuc cle-pru*^ m* irr ^ircor /"f • tvnf?l- ^WD^t pirte-irUA-. 1 

iS?trrrTCcffor' ficfuf^miu"atcK» M. undt iraiitf -rnljutr (t c ccUA^ I 

tiupc trtA^yhncrw cuvn-mltTi -nifimpmeT^ucxr. ■- Imp^^. '^» ) 

< a<fcu(To^ rj&c ertcabfconftjm. Tl fu ororrwt cxT icuUa fvu«rtr- twufiii' j 

r> trru<viei^n&uf'(pr«t|5rFp.ini jjujitrcu decuf pcltdeta-f- 

unJu^-. qiinnocumcl.ir»fum^(entir ur*m cCamnu xiuLLi cftAxr m 

meuurr«. l) Oc ttnffoTcA,- PorrTrOTtA .vp^ ' 

*" — rAr<»£uencn*nattrrMnrTuf in mundi pofcrtT oervTl 






I 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 434 r 



cuncta uictori p«rscla. 
Aue recolende uictor et amande 

semper ineuum honor sanctensiuw. 
Tibi nunc canons modulemur 
5 chordis certior q»o tua nobis 

sit gra^'a sis et intercessor fortis 

et adiutor tutela fidelis. 
Sit benedict«j pater etemus q«i te 

insortem sublimauit pr<7priaOT 
10 militib»^ adhibitis. triginXA.. trtcentii. 

teq«« ductorew txute«> ac principew 

Tci\sericor{S.tm fecit atq^e humilem 

prices ut tuorum audias ser 

uorum quoties tuam itnpio 
15 rent clemewtiam hie et ubiq«e 

uictor inuictissime. 
Sitq»e colendus summi Ae\ filius 

missus apa/re incarnatus uir 

gine qwi moriendo uiuere nos 
20 fecit ac resurgendo resurgere 

precepit. et te longinqwa misit 

hue de pa/ria xiostex ut fautor sis. 

et intercessor fidus et iniudicio 

dux indistricto cum nil in 
25 discussuw nee erit absconsum. 
Sit uenerandus spiritus iugiter para 

clitus cuius iam uigore florent 

undiqwe quiteeum dira sumpseruw^ 

tormenta trinitatis munere 
30 et luce scientie quiinetemo heatorum 

regno uirginis agnum laudent 

ineuum. 
Uictor adleta dei diuinawi gtatiim iugiter 

pronohis ora miseris una quo dei- 
35 -tas ac ueneranda trinitas in 

corde orescat nostio et floreat 

et ut ualeamus sub presens 

curriculum cernere chr«V/»m interra 

uiuentium. 
40 Mundi redemptor spes et pr<7teetor 



nate marie uirginis alme. 
Sit tibi summa angelorum gloria qui 

patri coetemus uiuus et iierus pneu 

mate cum sanc/o regnas incelo laus secu 

lorum nunc et ineuum. 
Judex summe mediae rationis et infimae. 
Magne rector eeli pie redemptor seculi. 
Imperatoris heinrici catholici magni 

ac pacifici beatifica animam christt. 
Qui heu paucis annis rexit summa 

imperii, ^mediocris. Imperatoris. 
Sciens modum juris rebux eunctis 
Uultu elaro monstrauit cordis clementiam. 
Clerum popuXum pro posse semper letifieans. 
Summo nisu catholicas auxit eccle^as. 
Subuenit pupillis cleme»s et uiduis. Imper. 
Gentes suo plurimas sepius imperio 

subdit barbarieas. 
Hostes ciuiles streanue animi eon 

silio uicit nongladio. Imperat^^r. 
luuit domnum summa iuuit et de 

missa regni potentia. 
Mundi gazas tribuit sic eeli diui 

tiis uti pr<7meruit. Imperat«»r. 
Heu o roma cum italia caput mundi 

quantum decus perdideras. 
Heu o franci heu bauuarii. 

uestium damnum nuUi e^Mstat in 

eognitum. 
Mons bauonis nimis felix serua 

christo regi pignus intrepidum. 
Hoc angelica poseit ghrta. ap<'j/'<'lieus 

poscit ordo prelucidus. 
Hoc etema uirgo maria finem 

mundi poseit beari 
Dieant omnes precor fideles. regem 

regum nunc deprecantes. Imper. fthos. 
Audi mentis melos utrogamv.f athana 
Sic te uocis nostre Ci'fflaudabunt simpho 

niae. Impera. 



10 



Iniper. 



»5 



ao 



»S 



30 



35 



40 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 434 V 



A urea p^rsonet lira clara modula 
Simplex corda sit QminiL 

extensa uoce quindenaria. fypodorica. 
Primum sonum mese reddat lege 
5 Philomele demus laudes inuoce 
organica. C™usica. 
Duke melos decantantes sicut decet 
Sine cuius arte uera nulla ualent 
cantica. ftur cantica. 
10 Cum telluris uere noua pwducun 
Nemorosa circum circa frondescunt 

et brachia ^gra.mim. 
Flagrat odor quam suauis. florida per 
Hilarescit philomela dulcis uocis conscia 
1$ Et extendens modulando gutturis 
spiramina. ^otia. 
Reddit uoces adestiui temporis ad 
Instat nocti <r/ diei uoce subdulcisona 
Sofjoratis dans quietew cantus per 
3o discrimina. ^solatia. 

Nee non pulchra uiatori laboris 
Uocis eius pulchritude clarior quaw 

cithara. C"ulas. 

Uincit omrtes cantitando uolucruw cater 
25 Implens siluans ntque cunctis raodulis 
arbuscula C™'"^ 
Uolitando scandit alta arboruw cacu 
Gloriosa ualde facta ueris pro 
letitia. ^carmina. 
30 Ac festiua satis gliscit sibilare 
Felix tempus cui resultat talis con 

sonantia. 
Utinaw pirduodena mensiuw curricula. 
Dulcis philomela daret sue uocis 
35 Sonos tuos uox nonua. Corgana 

let imitari lirica. C'sona. 

Quibw nescit consentire fistula cla 
Mira quia modularis melorum tripudia 
O tu parua numquam cessa canere 
40 auicula. 



8 



-musica. 
Tuaw decet symphoniaw monocordi- 
Que tuas 

uoce diatonica. 
Nolo nolo ut quiescas tewporis adotia. 
Sed ut letos det concentus 

tua uolo ligula. 
Cuius laudem memoreris 

in regum palatia ^u»?bracula. 
Cedit auceps ad frondosa resonans 
Cedit cignus ei suauis ipsius nielodia. 
Cedit tiii timpanista ef sonora tibia 
Quamuis enim uidearis cor- 

pore pre modica. 
Tamen te cuncti auscultant 

nemo dat iuuamina. ^omwia. 
Nisi solus rex celestis qui gubernat 
lam pr^clara Ul>i satis dedimus 
obsequia. C^^rbis rithmica. 
Que inuoce sunt iocunda et in 
Ad scolares e/ ad ludos digne 

congruentia. ^uox armonica. 
Tempus adest ut soluatur nostra. 
Nefatigat plectrum lingue cantio 

-num tedia Jadcrusmata. 
Ne pigrescat auris pwmpta fidiuw 
Trinus deus in psrsonis unus i«essentia. 
Nos gubernat et conseruet sua 

sub dementia. 
Regnareq«e nos concedat cum ipso 

ingloria., ., 
Magnus cesar otio quern hie modus 
refert inno»«i«e otdinc dictus 
quadam nocte somno membra 
dum collocat palatiuw? casu subito 
inflammatur. 
Stant ministri regis timent 

dormientem attingere et corda- 
rum pulsu factum excitatum 
saluificant. et domini nomen car 
mini inponebant. 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



j\ tirf'^' t>ft>i^^^ I'I'i* cuvfA- maSuUx, | n^r Jeceo (^inphoni^^ monocortt- 
■'' Mccmfv. iKx-e c|mnderui.r»a,^il'o^onr:.i- uocectirfzrunicsa . 
p fn«"«»" \or%um rnjt\t rraciAt" Uc^. l I ala r\olo u7-<:^inrfcafTCjp<»r«fAiflnA. 
p WfmeLr clrmisr Uu Jcl' iTiuocfr W eJi \rcWvoC dez conc**Truf 
. argtnitv. jL^ rnufic^ . I -ciut tuko Uo^itn . 
D wUr^ melor cttauTrArTtef ft«ir"bec*c * wtuf" Liucimi TVienrxJr^rtr 
S 'nc cxnufarrr turrit nvjcLt vuiI«ttc- •nfty^'n wLm-v]^/ i't>rnruuv' 

17 »uvrrjctD vnilomelA/ ciulcif woofcfnei, ^ ^trieh xe- curtc-ri ^wfculrntw 
vJ T ^jccendenf moo ul«*nq o g4n«ttr nemo cicizr luwivmirui -J f o mu\, . 

jL lacttc- Mooef cujefcnji cemtsorir <a'ai I e&n yTclA rva ^ frtCTf deJimwr 
I nfl-tr nocra d^dm uocc-fiiWuIcifon^,' oofeqMi.A-jV/^ -uertif" rrcT7»nici»--. 

S *poranr OAnf 'quitey e^rr cuC pei* U u* trtuoofr futnr xocxxryaa^ Si\n 

f7 « »»*'n puLonm uv<n>i*i Ltborir «?ongruetTrm >^^ f^ ^y <M"mortiCA/ . 

V; oc«rei«r puldirmtbo cLrtritfr* t^u^ T »mpur<uU>fV urfoUKCtnir «^m< 
erc4iAri*. Xt mwU»I' • H Cfltog^tr- pl frty O Unffue canna 

M MttTT otfTf CMirmruJ^ iu>l«crvr Ccvrer -inu -cediA , n •Aacrufmrttu. . 
1 miJ^nt' fduAnf cira; ouncwf rnoduUf Kj er-|3tg«efec«r AunTpm^rtJi, fnbiiT 

arbufcuLt. r// ntttVA. T r^■nu^cI«u^lt>of3ntflitlu^Tlrtf»t^A■ 

Gloriofit italae fuccn/ timfprD fub clemenru^. 

wcttaa^ • JJ tarmtna,- ix. e^TAt'^t:}; r^oCoowcedAr' cu i«(S 

i^AtrtiA.' irfrr-L vnTroTe- t^btnc durxjup 

MirtT pduodcn<v menjiu cMtnncuL* <^tutcl.wn no<rce- pmn» »^eml»r7l. 

- .v^an^jem^re f^ft-iUwI^ c<.rm,e.n:^ ^n^ ...U^- 
I . "^ '*^>*n«»rrtr.«4^ Kior«»n cay* 



•^m^ 

M) 



mr "<**Ti -nine naT 



vietTTutnir '•<**Ti -nine f-4TTj«.. 



(rv,-ruU(l(f-. 

urtrf ".ig^" uilLif uAftiUTr 

v-tx» n\<rcret" I^Httt ^■•Uof^ 
- Tiui p<cx»W' uT\aic|\ <j-c\*lAn 
\) er cjuif eaT5 citjc ttAT- '^td uti^ 

*noneo Jrufn'a <^u too cUtrujrot^ 

rumptiT- <^p<n*Tl7i«r mccum 
oouurtrw 

fttrrutr aI-P mtUTiruiutz' ^rjrtr 1 
<ft«Tn bof TrrrfctT oetLMtn . <*rma. 
tnclutz *r■tnt(^tnft<^rtr hofhtfiofe 
egn ft^ipjt* fffuoevto wr»t«»»r 

n 'Cmten(* onLi (TMnutrr "t^rw 
potcuntr lx)f«r UAcatvT (icta. (e- 
quutnxui^ OATtcuf vubtf ciamov^ 
pdlftm opn:u|^ A'Tntub- conC 
. xttnantf ititrnfeerrTur- . 

(V^nruf mfi<nr prtrrbuf /ugir-. 
uulguC ^^na^it urtdifobyhar- 

Ucwf njoenf f^inAnne- cLmuDt^ 
1 J- L ^ _n t I 



I fTr-<: 



tor |TTrnrff^tX'«^tl'-rt.*-»TiA (^uof^tiumaUA" 
miucu cLiTTiumwrr fitniA nonnnirwnr 

TAttienmtnr iTrrxmum^nutn. DciE 
ewrem. {em^ (uof f Avv^cf refpt^cenjn 

culoo^ tarrooif uM'tutcTubntquvci^uiier 

A T «e fltcor oTTM \xcwir <^y ^'^^^^^ h>r- 
fV mrtEOf, tnunbt fftoWm (ubpcrcttn 

p0uuTn . ' ' ' ?^-' 

feccsT ■aA.mftz rjoo uuam , 

fTr^<jiu>r (uln»Uf' p&ctifn tr^f cL^Mtc- 

pimX TTOir pefra *ufi»rOiir |rb>tuf*[i(f . 

f^UjruvC ^rienr pimdcy*. rvinec|tio 



4 



^1 _. (pUnHa 1fk^l^rt^^••«*^P»-l'»'• 
i que v\erx.^ayTTtor\\X. fofiA\Tr c^^g- 
(encertrvt iemf poxetif fouiurtrV" ^-., - 



;«»>ouenf lucrum natnenreg^u 

pbcwrmiumr* 
A- **»l*(oBnC fwft nune ottc imp/tutr 

pmr ***ivn> Tnoda acHirc nayn 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



foL 435' 



Excitatus spes suis surrexit 

timor magnus aduersis mox 

uenturus nam tunc fama 

uolitat ungarios signa ineum 

5 extulisse. 

luxta litus sedebant armati 

urbes agros uillas uastant 

late matres plorant filios e( 

filii patres undiqwe' exulari. 

10 Hec quis ego dixerat otto uide 

or partis diu milites tardus 

moneo frustra duw ego demoror 

crescit clades semper, ergo moras 

ruropite et parthicis mecum 

15 obuiate. 

Dux cuonrad intrepidus quo non 

fortior alt^r miles inquit p^reat 

quem hoc terreat bellum. arma 

induit armis instant hostes ipse 

20 ego signifer effudero primus 

sanguinew inimicum. 

His incensi bella fremunt arma 

poscunt hostes uacant signa se 

quuntur cantus tubis clamor 

25 passim oritur et milibw^ centum 

teutones inmiscentur. 

Pauci cedunt plures cadunt 

francus instat parthus fiigit. 

uulgus exangue undis obstat. 

30 litus rubens sanguine danubio 

cladew parthicam ostendebat. 

Parua manu cesis parthis ante ei 

post sepe uictor commnntm cunctis 

raouens luctum nomen regnuw 

35 optimos hereditans. mores filio 

obdormiunt. 

Adolescens post hunc otto imp^rauit 

multis annis cesar iustis clem^«s 

fortis unum modo defuit nam 

40 inclitis raro preliis triumpha 

[bat. 



Eius autem clara prt^les otto decus iuuentutis 

ut fortis felix erat. arma quos numquam 

militum domuerant fama nominis satis 
Bello fortis pace potens inutroq»« [uicit 

tamen mitis int^r triumphum bello 5 

pacem. semper suos paup^res respexerat 

inde pat<rr paup^nim fertur. 
Y'mtm demus modo ne forte notemur ingenii 

culpa tanXarum uirtutes ultra quicquam deter 

rere. quas deniqM miro inclitus uix 10 

equaret. 
V ite dator om»i factor d*Ks nature for 

mator. mundi globum sub potenti 

claudens uolubilem palmo in 

factura sua splendet magnificus 15 

pereuum. 
Ipse multos ueritatew ueteres nee du»i 

sequentes uestigando per sophie de 

uia iusserat ire impr<7babilis errori 

rectam pararet nohis uiam. ao 

Inter quos subtilis peracume« mentis claruit 

pitagoras metapsicosis quem iuxta 

famam troie pereptam euforbium secwlo rurstis 

reddit. obscurosqwe reru»i rite denuo 

uiuum. donat intellectus perspicaci per 35 

scrutari sensu animi. 
Ergo uir hie prudens die quadam ferri 

fabricam pretiens pondere nonequo 

sonoque diuerso pulsare malleolos 

senserat sicq»e tonorum quamlibet in 30 

formem uim latere noscens forma 

additi perartem pulchram primus edi 
Adhanc simphonias tres sub [dit 

splendam istas fecit diatesseron dia 

pente diapason infra quatemarium 35 

que pleniter armonia/n sonant que 

sententia senis ponens solidum rith 

mxcajn inse normulaw mensurarumqve 

utileni notitiam et siderum motus 

iussit coj)tinere matente traden 40 

3 B 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 435 V 



traden et nomine suo uocauit. 
Y greca idem om«is continentew sed fissa 
summotenus inramosas hinas partes 
uite humane inuenit adsimili 
5 tudinew congruaw. est na/« sincera 
et simplex pueritia que r^on facile 
noscit«/r utrum uitiis an uirtuti 
animum subicere uelit donee tan 
dem iuuentutis etas illud offerret 
10 nobis biuium. 

Hie qui paret uiciis uirtuti nob« 
auferat contrariis illam latam ille 
Umt. ipseqwf semitamq«e postre- 
mo plena poenis grauibwj se pro 
15 sequentib«f portas inleri apent 
seuissimas ubi fremitus dentium 
et perpetui fletus sunt meren 
tium prtTcriminis facto cita ubi 
semper mors optatur frustra pro 
20 dolor atqi«r queritur. 

Sed uirtutum gradibu; ille nitit^r qui 
prouidus p^rangustam uadit ille se 
voSxzm que infine locuples letitie 
suis queque -precibus pandit etema. dulcis 
25 uite gaudia ubi honorum anime 
claro iugiter illustrant»r lumine 
p^rpetui solis ubi d^'tatis se conspec 
tu»» semper cernere se gaudent beati. 
Uite dator om«ifactor deus nature 
30 formator ilium aufer istum con 
fer tuis fidelib«f callem ut post 
obitu»2 talis uite participes fiant. 
\J psiter optime 
sancto regnans pneumate cunc- 
35 tos plectro tibimet laudes dul- 
ce eanentes serua semper. 
Qui incruce latrone/w exaudisti 
pendente^ atf«^ spondens luci 
daw sedis amoenitatem ut 
40 acciperet. 



Spolia mundi qui maledicti 

liberasti apoenis aX^ue ferocew uin . 

clo leone;« colligasti manib«« ne 

subfraude p^nieret quod formauit 

dext^ra. adaw euaw. deniqwi? plebe/w 

locasti orto lucido. 
Tertia die surrexisti maiesta 

tis tumulo teqwif iubente cor 

pora multa surrexere baratro 

ut tua facta proderent noncre 

denti popz/lo ex hoe signo trepi 

dans ualde miser pilatus se 

planctu cruciat. 
Post hec mundu»» illuxisti 

duces gentes apposuisti ascen 

disti unde uenisti dextera 

patris orex residens. 
Pena mal« ecce parata fiamma. 

picis indeficiens accernentes 

mala tenentes id sine fine 

post hec retinent. 
Uitawmundi accipientes py^flucen- 

tes inparadiso spe gaudentes 

bona tenenentes semper in euum 

laudant dominum. 
Regnanti gloria, christo laus persecula. 

qui cordaruOT sonitu pangit?/r 

deus p^Miennis rector mundi. 
Aduertite om«es 

populi ridiculu« et audite 

quomodo sueuum mulier et 

ipse illam defraudarat. 
Constantie ciuis sueuulus 

trans equora gazam portans 

nauib«J domi coniugem lasciuuaw 

nimis relinquebat. 
Uix remige tristi secat mare 
ecce subito orta tewpestate furit 
pelagus certant flamina 
toUuntur fluctus post mul 



IS 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



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0-«i 



V ^rtc iHem cmMf ..'rninemf^ feci ff^. libprrtfxt APomif.Trtij ft*i'«""? «iin 
^ ftTmUT^ntjf '-nn^nwrrtf tMM/tf'pATnft' Ao\.eonF ayi^c^h mA*Mbi ne- 
i.rrr- Vmrhrt-nC 'miT-nn" drt^imiU Cu\afr^vuA*- f^irr*^ cu w^rvnAurc 

Tna\r\^ conQ^iX' fit: nX i^rtctr-A t^cwgv*^. aa<CeMA'.(1fT\iqv ^u«Je=^ 

dfOnitJiev PticrtTiA' que npruril*' locvjf^ orto l«cido. 

no|ftr iTTintm utmj «*n i«i mm • 'T otia aiir futT*?<^(ri ^rvti n^ni 

iintTiiu |»«bice»^ iifinr c<onecxs*Ti nf" rxt-nxMLo -BBe|: tubMrrr pot 

dew tvuirTrrtinU©cnr^U«& oj^ftrf^et. potsi mt»LrjC' ^u^y^-r ^c ^rt^ t'H'arm 

i noDtf" Ptuium. uo-vuA. purru i3<W*ntr ■nflrvcr?- 

ic cjut ortrrt- inc^xf UMTctxa r\cB derm poplo ^Koc fi^gno -rrqji 

-crrr- ipfecj: (emrrAracj: ■pofir^ jjIatictsa. crucxxC' 

mo i»len**^ -poentl^ m"8u«Jo? [e^isro P ofj? Iwc tT»-titTri**' iU*voiR» *■/ 

iKiifjirnA-f vjbi fV^^irxjf 'bt*rau cjtffet urulf- ttern fK He^jorrrzc' 

(Sm^ mor-f cycAXTur- fruflj^ec pro pcifm<4e|ici mrAccer^^emtrr 
S et^ tAif^rcu ^raiib; tUe-tirrtr- qt4» pof-r nee T^ecinetTc-- 

(tnf d(><. ©rib'. p<*jicftr" efriA^ duvets OoriA ■Eenen^mErf^metieiiut-n 
utrf ttaudiA. iibi bo-nov Anime* UiucLtnTr at^rn • 

f rlrtrp tiiyF *U u|-tmrrr Unmitie K. egnattn st^-jcpo l<itif P/rtv 

^ poi-TTut (obf uVi dfrrroriV con^|)ec <^ut cord (SlttT fan rru patn^x 

tal (^^ ceTmer-fr (e-^vudevTrDerm- "Jr^nenntf r^onjj-TnunVi • 

^q7t^v»£ttiDr- ilUtin AU-rcfr- »Hnf>i c«»n popuM ricucuLu ^AAidtrt- 

■^^ ^W tjutf fioielw: caLlem vrrfwfc qtiomoao (ufttxitn rniiLr»»' A 

^\^xr ovumt- O anfWrm.**- cttitr f"^«»uir 

rA^^^i^ter tirsgriA'nr pneum<ajp^ co«c- -trnaTTfecjuarvi a^rA«n porranf 
!*»r|»lecrrp -cibitn«'-c l/J.itaefiiJr tiaxub: dx^miconiMg**** l<t(ctti«C 

j • ''^^%eTnnef fSfH«A:-^mpe»" ■ nfmiPr^«»^ue4ji«r-. 

• i'»'»ct>x*ce- LtrrotilF ^iTtAudtfti Lf ye f»tniCf t»*i p* ieCiTr't»uMre- 

J.r («{if Arr»o^T>mvT«^^ mt" pei^Mjuf cerxrvrn- pLimfniV 



4.. i 






Ti«|: eqiAon* ua^^m/l 



contwtvt mtmn tXciertxTTC tuue». 



Ctf n^ fequuTTWr-'rnTnenxjr utn "rorijumir-^rrtlLe TuuPn/l-tuf"La1J^«•-- 

nocrS-^AHtri/V' janegpnartf film 51pm detufenur fic fratif p^ 



■uicera-r n^m gitetn ff&nurr nyo 
OP time fSC tujrtieftictc-. 

•pueniUr c5TTr-crcr*t»n d^bo . quomo^fl 
••ngetrrs&m 'ftrzt UtemUf^ol'ec^rA. 




O lAo b ; t«oluxi(^ A-nwif q^cuh birr 

tupo jKiiT TrBLrtttif' jauertxuJr aoj 

■v^ofeuUf rrLa^rrcuCvlii aequo 

mquvr p«erutn tjiwTr* hixhe(»f 

die OUT g i cct ' ei t lA- •p^tcier^r' . -, 

uer(2ixf tTwrnuL- TntTKLTiaern t»on<v c^vler•et\'ba~vr^ > 

pto: ttxue ftetmp Q?c»ntvct (min inflate fkllcn<)p au.tn c^^nr 9*^ 

<Je-quoego ^*uicl^ ij-nTpue- falh\pc ^<itcw tftiucktzr^U^,,^ 

rurn OArnnof* ■fpCctt .•li«n4 Q^ uo rtwcttcxj fuottuf^ niL tnoTVvrv»r 

qnirvTrt»n-i . itiqurr tapr^r Ar^tTMf eg0,%e-"<Eiu 

1>1 A«w LuwucnT Amore "cuo confur- fotu-f lye-m Upufculuf vj^rq^^tJi^n 

i-Kjrn ci«uicule ^V"C^iq: peaef xeu? TactcuT'OccabetazTyTnapc.efilv 

inAf^xa. r*TnA.oav~ rnerfha. fifing cute crucl<f 

uerrciuoUu' ucLv- cer-ner-ew <iAnr G utwcj; cefu-m rrvAtvu le^iAf-e^pur^ 

frtmrem tiawiP confpicerem. mpur Lef2».Af.it^ effw^u^nxrur^ 

A' nTii pofi-tiec qutTic|i-rnfietmrTr tnetUprno^ti cemcr-rvt |t»ci<xa», ^.unr 



Aur- pluf^mertwcoi^UicgAO'n 
n^aniTn atvetr" ffctwm « 



VACT^iX- XDXT. i 



aCT (ec^rcu-r cfvptmne fxwrvtnf*." 



etvuLi 



Ab' ha.r'vS^ r 



■wuwn-^-M 



Xitt^rtre 



> 



canihlctre- c£»nton>3 canfot^re fpUtr vrveoivtn-t. t^ci^t^i-*/" ^npwf-; 



■i'Crt^'v, na*3rTuum adi^f cjue- 






THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 436 r 



20 



toque equora uagum littore 
longinquo nothus exponebat. 
Nam intmm domi uacaret 
coniunx mimi aderant iuue- 
5 nes sequuntur q«os et inmemor uiri 
exulis excepit gaudens atq«^ 
nocte p/vxima pregnans filuiOT 
iniustuw. fudit isto die. 
Dnohus uolutis annis exul dictui- 

10 reuertitur occurrit infida con 
iux secuw trahens pueruluw da 
tis osculis maritus ilii dequo 
inquit puerum istum habeas 
die aut extrema patieris. 

15 Atilla maritum timens dolos 
uersat inomwia mitandem 
mi co«iux ait una uice inal 
piba^f niue sitiens extinxi sitim 
de quo ego grauida istuw pue 
rum damnoso foetu heu 
gignebam. 
Nam languens amore tuo consur 
rexi diluculo ■perrtxique pedes 
nuda p<;miues et frigora aXque 
maria rimabar mesta si forte 
uentiuola uela cernerem aut 
frontem nauis conspicerem. 
Anni post hec quinqw« transierunt 
aut plus et mercator uagus in 

30 staurauit remos ratim q»assa 
reficit uela colligit et niuis 
natum duxit secum. 
Transfretato mare pr«3ucebat 
natum et pwarra bone merca 

35 tori tradens centum libras 
accipit atqwe uendito infante 
diues reuertitur. 
Ingressusqw domuw/ aduxorew ait 
consolare coniunx consolare 

40 cara natuw tuum p^rdidi quew 



25 



-xisti 



nonipsa tu me magis quidem dile- 

Tempestate orta nos uentosus 
furor inuadosas sirtes nimis 
fessos eger et nos omn^s sol grauit^r 
torquens at ille tuus natus lique- 

Sic p^dus sueuus coniu [-fecit, 
gem deluserat sic fraus fraudem 
uicerat nam quern genuit nix 
recte hunc sol liquefecit. 

JVlendosam quam cantilenaw ago. 
puerulis co/wmrt»tatam dabo. quomodo 
dulos pifrm^/jdaces risum auditoribw 
ingentem fera liberalis et decora 
cuidam regi erat nata. 

Quam sublege huiusmodi pn>cis ob 
ponit querendam. 

Siquis mtfwtiendi gnarus usqw ad^o 
instet fallendo dum cesaris ore 
fallax pr«dicit»r is ducat filiam. 

Quo audito sueuus nil moratus 
inquit raptis armis ego cu»» uenatu 
solus irem lepusculus int^r feras 
telo tactus occuwbebat. mox effu 
sis intestinis caput auiilsum cum 
cute cruda. 

Cumqtt* cesum manu leuaretur 
caput lesa aura effunduntur 
mellis modii centeni sotiaq«if auris 
tacta totidew pisaruw fudit q«ib«j- 
intra pellew strictis lepus ipse 
dum secatur crepidine summa 
caude kartam regiam latentem 

Que seruumte firmat er^e [cepi 
meum. ra^wtitur clamat rex 
karta et tu. 

Sic rege deluso sueuus falsa 
gener regius est arte factus. 

\J rex regum qui 

solus ineuum regnas incelis 

heinricuOT nobis serua interris ab 
[inimicis. 



10 



15 



25 



30 



35 



40 



II 



B 2 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 436 V 



Quem uoluisti tibi benedici et co 

ronari adaquas graui manu pili 

grimi presulis archi. Orex. 
Quem romani aXque fidi franci clerwj- 
5 et Y>opu\us chris/o dicatus post cuonraduw 

adoptant dotnnum. Orex. 
Die italia die pia gallia cum ger 

mania d^o deuota uiuat cuon 

radus atq»« heinricus. Orex. 
10 Agni ut sponsa pace quieta seruare 

suo ualeat sponso d^o etemo uiuo 

e/ uero. O rex. 
Gaudent om«es christi fideles senes 

rf iuuenes matres infantes reg- 
15 nat cuonradus atq»^ heinricus. or<rAr. 
Die qua surrexit qui munduw re 

demit regni monarchiam acce- 

pit sanciam pius cuonradus gaudeat 

mundus. Orex. 
20 Postunius anni recursu/w acce 

pit sanc/a.m regni coronam puer 

heinricus chrisfo electus. 
Die p«dicto a piligrimo archiep«fo/>o 

sibi deuotissimo gaudente clero 
25 simul ei populo. Orex. 
Doleat antiquus gentis ini 

micus sancidiS ecdesias pacificatas 

uiuo c»»onradQ atq»« heinrico. Orifx. 
MatifT christi cum ciuihus celi. cunctisqt^tr 
30 sanciis rectores orbii iuua cuonraduw 

Atque heinricum. Orex. 
Ut ecclf«arum causas sanctorum et pu 

pillor«»» ac uiduarum ualeant 

iusto tractare iudicio. Or«. 
35 Laus creatori angelorum regi cuius 

imperium manet ineuum p«nn 

finita seculorum secula. Orex. 
i-.am<«temur nostra, socii 

peccata lamentemwr quare tacemM.r. 
40 Proiniquitate corruimus late 



sciraus celi hinc offensuw 

regem inmensuni. 
Heinrico requiem rex chn'ste dona 

perhennem. 
Non fuimus digni munere in 

signi. munus siue donuni diue 

heinricum bonum qui exiu 

uentute magne fuit uite. procreatus 

regum stirpe rexsit et ipse. Heinrico. 
Orbis erat pignus regno fuit dignw 

imperatOT romanorum rector 

{rancontm imp^rabat sueuis. saxonibwi 

cunctis. baunaro. truces sola uos 

fecit pacatos. Heinrico. 
Passumus mirari de domino tali res 

tractando laicatus. sit litteratus 

prudens insermone. prouidus inopere 

uiduarum. tutor bonus orphanis 

pius. Heinrico. 
Heinricus secufidus plangat illuw 

mundus fines seruans Christianas. 

pellit paganos. strauit aduer 

santes pacew p^rsequentes uo 

luntati contradixit sobrie uixit. Heinrieo. 
Quis cesar tam largus fuit pau 

perib»j qws tamloca sublimauit. 

atque dicauit. atria sanctorum, ubere 

honorum expwpriis fecit magnauit 

episcopatUOT. Heinr/c^. 
Ploret hunc europa iam decapita 

ta aduocatuw roma ploret. christunx 

exoret. ut sibi fidelem prestet 

seniorem se cognoscat graue 

dampnum ecclesiarum. Heinrw. 
Dicamus heinrico dominx amico 

utquiescat post obitum semper 

ineuuOT. dicat om«is clerus anirae 

illius pace christi quiescat gaudia 

noscat. Heinrico. 

udax es uir iuuenis dum feruet. 



10 



IS 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



12 



yimi prT-(MUra|xf)i. Ofepc. O emj^Jico tTKjUtcrm tTtnt^P** cIonA, 

anotiiiclTr cwmnu . O**^-. ft^t • muttur fiue cJonutn cLu*- 

l^iufaxq: lirrn^picuT. Ot^- *-,rfrv^^"^ R'>T'' »"e?cfrr (Ctpl^ Hfinr 
flu Krtleecr fj^mifo dff[ erno lAiwo • '»*iptrTJi^ vorr>Ari<»nir»-» reccot~* 
Aurteitc- amT PCfJ ficirUf (cn^ cuoctjO IjAunAJT? -nruceT (oU. uof. 

nxe ciu>n|tu).Mf artjv heinri-cup flfi r AlTuTTTuf mtfawn cJeJtii> caU-Vef * 

D te- quA. (urfE^tT? quimAitioiTre- xtacojwtJjo Li.tc-*ct4r. (rr urmrartif' 

pre fcXm r^nt corontx*^ puer- mwnbuf^ ^*^^ ft*''^n(/ti»i.*ru»f"- 

D« pcticro dJ3tUffm'OV> Ajwiepi (^rrtBf p'l^e^jUcquenrPT uo 

fioi aeiuraf|ttna ^jua«vrcer aero . Uinxst^si camrri'bv^txr fottiPui.YWvb. 
fe"! fTmTiLje popuLj- VTJjc - ^ K; "«r ceCtr xa-m. UuTjuf puur pm 

» ALVtiF^pi cu citilb: ccla .cuncnfq:- «pif«»pctru. H«m»% 

^ '- -rrtA.niTy) CAuQjf ^Coy * pu fr^^rer-UT (it» f»^«4eTn pr»f2prr 

y'kcaxe-widwiO'Or^. ■ aAtnpn.MWi ffvciWioLrum. Kurvir* 

Fttmn rtrt^*^i"U"m reg^ cur Jj tca.wur lieinf uiw an* Atnurc 

.^^-*-j.r^ rocit .a««r p,c^^, ^,^,^ ^^^,^^ 



\ 




,-. I. 'm ! ^>. ...1 



n 



rv«cTier f-racuraf jE'iuiU euro ^i^W- 

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A/ arpndf> '^'W'o <j«»i<i, «,MU4tf e^<& tjuoci iLU qui ciaulctrA ra; lA0taxhu(^fub 

n TTii^iT^p'V •««"«««( «»n(7df>a 4 * erfkLu«n>re ^ uennr niay>«, r«wmpno 
tnor«fT"'r- ucni2rc|t cneT uLnmi^ «r an-iif tjoonirtac? penttcrrni" ioi^mrae; 

&'t>e»ttrf'flofpf ofmrnaf- Adzcnae- Q^ u^ve nu^f1uuex^tfr(iltmA^drm*fO^^(^ae 
Ubidin^tti. A-ikeuae. ^ ivt.-t»-<omgWf rtrro^^finif ueni.tr. A<lir. 

-t'ectfi matim-i csmltbuim ^oflcn itxrhaAiutuxxr jmxt Yditi i\ec hUuf anri^' - 

, difei ntTT»t.t4trk autA tT»tifccur>i ^ ^.|e»n4(f tuucruf ,-?"««* c«ro Ttt-fif-furtf^ 

(fftirur^r .unorrm LUteltnt^ ur- rtmre ef Lm»n^ fecuruf fif Jftm 

6 tkm ouenPirvpOPuLj ^^ £,|Oay% yr mtrtg- Axtrende-. [J wt-ntuttv- 
Lwai- r*umajnAr<\ iv^(- J^ ' 'a<r AccjKor oTWUjc. pet::c«ra- cU.«x- <i«nia. 

eonfpiCTT. Atunvi'' -^ elum baber otrrrfnum cjimV^t* ■ 

f^a» <icci^ ieJmd^r pocTW- -**i»tu.tT m^prruturvA-cir. i 

(ci^tciir cuitnAwr* o-MirupAVr unc dlmnf t-benj eutt «Q«ro }1 

mtuJicio tilw Tujmialer- «emr»? mf^ oxdo --ctt^TJ tin|a.|iv^ Wvi.'* | 

n or^ (Van^atr £«piVmf necce- ke^f^p r^i^^i^- ]p i-fc^? iU» ^tii ;?'. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 437 r 



caro mobilis audacter agis perpenm 
tua membra coinquinas. 
Adtende homo quia puluis es et 
5 in puluerem r^uerteris. 
Breue est tempus iuuenis considera quod 
morieris. uenitqw^ dies ultimus 
et perdes Acres optimos. Adtende. 
Cami tue consentiens animam 
10 tuam decipis dura flecUris ad 
libidinem. Adtende. 
Dentes tul frendidant labia tua 
exasp^rant lingua mala general, 
uita tua trepidat. Adtende. 
15 Eleuas tuos oculos ut uanitatem 
uideas flectitur mens misera 
membra ad malum erigis. Adtende. 
Fecisti malum consilium «/offen 
disti nimium quia multum 
20 secutus es amorem libidinis. 
Gbn'am queris inpopulo ^Adtende 
]a.udem humanam diligis. pla 
cere d«) noncuras q«ite decelo 
conspicit. Adtende. 
25 Honorem transitorium presum 
psisti accip<fre sedmagis poena 
sequitur cui maior creditur Adtende 
In ten&m sewp^r aspicis %tmper det^rra cogitas 
sed hie relinquis om«ia unde sup«r 
30 -bus ambulas. Adtende. 

Karo te traxif infoueam uide ne male 
moriaris festina te corrigere 
antequam tempus ueniat. Adt*«^ 
Luge modo du»» tempus est ne gemas 
35 in iudicio ubi nonualet gemit».f 
nee ulla intercessio. Adtende. 
Modo labora fortit<fr dam es i« isto 
tempore emenda tuum uitiu/w 
ne gemas inp<rrpetuum. Adtende. 
40 Nonte frangat cupiditas necte 



flectaet fragilitas et noli cum diabo- 

lo participare amplius. Adtende. 
O si corde intellegis que prrt:epta legis sunt 

quod illi qui adulterant lapidibus sub 

iaceant. Adtende. CAdtende. 5 

Per saluatorem igitur uenit magna redemptio 

ut om«is q»i comitatwr penitentiaw dormitet. 
Quare n<>«uis iuuenis reuerti ad domtnum rogans eius cle 

mentiam ut donet indulgentiam. Adtende. 
Rumpe iam cordis duritiam mentis tue malitiam festi- 10 

na te corrigere anteqwaw finis ueniat. Adt^«^*. 
Suscepit christus ueniam ut donet indulgentiam allu 

dant ueraw animaw qu/camem sua/n macerant. Adtende 
Terribilis christus ueniet adiudicanduw secu\um 

tunc reddit ille singulis secundum sua 15 

op^ra. Adtende. C-<i*t patrem. 
Uenit dies iudicii et erit magna districtio 

ut n^wadiuuat pat^r filium nee Alius defen- 
Xristo seruis iuuenis adeum cito recurreris 

ut ante eius limina securus sis decri to 

mine. Adtende. fueniunt. 
Fides acq»irit omnia peccata delet nimia 

humilitas et caritas adpatrem ccli 
Zelum habet optimum qui deum 

amat et pn^ximum Ietabit»r in secuXum 25 

et uiuat in pwpetuum. Adtende. 
unc almus thero euuigero 
ailis thiernun filius benignus fau- 

tor mihi thaz igiz cosan muozi 

dequodam duce themo heron xo 

heinriche qui cum dignitate 

thero beiaro riche beuuarode 
Intrans nerape nuntius then 

keisar namoda her thus cur sedes 

infit otdo. ther unsar keisar ^e 

guodo. hie adest heinrich bn.g 

her hera kuniglich dignum tibi 

fore thir selue moze sine. 
Tunc surrexit otdo ther unsar 

keisar guodo. pentxit illi obuiam. ^^ 



13 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 437 V 



inde uilo manig man' et excepit 
ilium mid mihilon eron. 
Primitus quoqwir dixit uuillicumo 
heinrich ambo uos equiuoci be- 
5 thiu goda endi mi. nee non et 
sotii uuillicumo sidigimi. 
Dato response fane heinriche sosco 
ne coniunxere manus her leida 
ina inthaz godes hus petier»»/ ambo 
lo thero godes genatheno. 
Oramine facto intsiegina auer 

otdo ducx// inconciliuw mit miche- 
lon eron. et amisit illi so uuaz 
so her Jjar hafode preter quod regale 
15 thes thir heinrih nigerade. 
Tunc stetit althiu sprakha sub 
firmo heinricho quicquid otdo 
fee// algeriediz heinrih q«;cquid ac 
amisit ouch geriediz heinrihc. 
20 Hie non fuit ullus thes hafon ig 

guoda fuUeist nobilis ac lib^ris. thaz 
tid allaz uuar is cui nt^nfecisset 
heinrich allero reh to gilich. 
Estunus locus homburh 
25 dictus i«quo pascebat asinaw alue 
rad uiribus fortis aXque fidelis. 
Que dnm in amplum exiret campuw 
uidit currentem lupuw uoraeem 
caput abseondit. cauda ostendit. 
30 Lupus acurrit caudaw momordit 

asina bina leuauit crura, fect'tque 
longum cum lupo bellum. 
Cum defecisset uires sensisset protn- 
lit magnam plangendo uocem 
35 .ocansq«< suaw moriendo domnaw. 
..diens grander asine uoce/« aluerad 
.currit. sororibw dixit cito uenite 
me adiuuate. 
Asinam caram misi aderba»/ illiw^ 
40 magnuw audio planctu spero cum seuo 

ut pugnet lupo. 



Clapior fororum uenit in 
claustrum turbe uiroruw ac 
mulierum assunt cruentum 
ut captent lupum. fhostew. 

Adela namq«^ soror aluerade 
rikilaw querit agatham inuenit 
ibant ut fortem sternerent 

Atille ruptis asine costis sangui 
nis undam czmemque totam simul 
uorauit silua;« intrauit. 

Illud uidentes cuncte sorores 
crines scindebant pectus tunde 
bant flentes insonte;» asine mortew. 

Deniq«if paruum portabat puWum 
ilium plorabat maxime al- 
uerad sperans exinde prolem 
creuisse. 

Adela mitis fritherunqw dulcis 
uenerunt ambe ut adaleithe 
cor c^J/zfirmarent atque sanarent. 

Delinq«(f mestas soror querelas 
lupus amarum noncurat 
fletum dominus aliam dabit tibi 
asinam. 

Diapente et diatesseron 
fimphonia. et intensa et re 
missa pariter consonantia 
diapason modulatione consona 
reddunt. 

Salue festa dies toto uenera 
bilis euo qua deus infernum uicit 
et astra tenet. 

Ecce renascentis testatur gratia 
mundi. Om«ia cum domino dona 
redisse suo. Salue. 

Namqw triumphanti post 

tristia tartara christo. Undiq?/« 
fronde nemus gramina flore 
fauent. 

Legihus infemi oppressis super 



10 



IS 



25 



30 



35 



40 



14 



r" 



\ 



\ 



P tTmTr*«r cfuac^: ^^vtr- MtiiUictivnO 

f(mt wtijllirtirno fiJJiyrtit. 
P .^a> r«^jJonfd fa«ip neanjitrnf- fofco 



A 



Irtmor (o^iortim ■urntr irr 
rlnuftriiTn Txirtr utrpi^ <i«^ 

xjr tttprrrrr UipoTn. |l/7 "^fr- 

iPATTT rrc fprtrm f^tt~n^^"cr -^ 

ni("unb'ir»i cam«j-.TT»t»rfi'mut 
.^ I lUiH u Jrmff «?v*tAcrr- foror^ 

Ion ej~or). <5(:a.»nifrTr illi fo tni^x oa»Trn.^TtrH"«nf5'T^^"^ niortt- 

xMtf TT»tt^ ncinnih ,n\^»zC2)r. tLunn Piorvibar Tn^^^m*'«U/ — 

1^ unc ftorrn rtltrlnu fppAKbrt-ftit \vtj\txb "ihixnC fyC^rAe /P^f*"*^ 

prrwo hetntircho ox\\c-t]utb acdtJ cveuif^ 

fee rti-gepjeitr riMntun jj^cqui^Ar ix clel^ TnTC4p/7''C""e|«v«nq: iiilcff 

Atntf*^ cruf+» ^r^Y^ekt^ ncintiinc* uentr-iirrt txmoe iftr^2>*ten»n#- 

"H iG tionfurr uLlvf rney hA«»or» ■»»• cor cfivrrj^yrrTTr <«tri'. (A*lAT*Tir ^ 

Uetnnic47 AllejuinWi tP5«Ucl7, f-lcnv^ dnf ^a cLxCTPnpt 

^^ hujrufrciiio tJafccktr- rtftnX nlue- ¥ "IS i«aperrcp- tftcit^rcWllcinwi ^- 



tvuitrrctin't'tmrtTi liu^ uoiXcem 












.n. 



irmutn ptlT^^rIs^^loL^ T«3«»*»W^ *^*"*i* (^^♦'"»'^.' -^»*v dno dona. 



*rqr 



.'.(.it«4 



"JV 







ntiV namttf rrarnt-na. j-Hore- 



Bo 



etri": 



igS"* 



•prrf?7r% .^B 




K 




4leu.-t, U\v |Jpl«-i(^ «i^»u<i. f^i»xv«' I otif ^rtp^^^'^• f»"rtr~ WnroiTV inx' •. 

L^ ui crucif^vtife»>rr dVecce pe»^ pc(.v*-t po<r«l'^ t^im pof^TrTctr- ouii rn/ 

artful- ^t^'uxr^j^rrm: rve.iTPr* itocumf (ctf- 

efhburrr^ (liue ttrte-nx tuavu aotxje-tifvxxyc^i-ruLm.cfrn u^nxtx\^ 

uir^ilT-^*- flit rr>n«nAr^ ^oitnf" nonbttrr-umciu^m . 

rAtimtr dpce4fi"f fecUbufjM.UtffA^end.ix' pIvLrifVu per»nT JictfiUiu* 
cat-tiiiTi^i cunenp ma^m-iitri fcf ca ccr^ eii- cjixx.x. 

h u- riirxur d^^Tnrr tT^in^tr- litr iMmmi xAnrrot^ c*Aj. 

rxxrzixif js.xnjjT- "^c YrifcxifmAa^') onortrqrijilt re- of c«t HADurr 
(oniif aet(??i- tier mcenf iM'j-^prnf' tot uht JecItfK .uoUl Ln7TnArp^<' 

>ir unK^jcfjucfrr fi brit^ ft^i^vi^ pulmonil jaitvituiv^ codt liorw.iti 
UMem^ne^ mxluu^rffriuXactj- ' ducatai ^trt^ •. yfceffi • 

A r -ifir-' ««.'n) .uJiitl^^riAefjf ligan fcopifcj: c«ti • |etT»-»o ne bufo 

M »xunA Cdii rr -mocj u h ('.;y^0ui rr our* c AtTmerxJo • 
drfui-juin xifLri^/di^tr^t^ ^ tc^ Adnlum mtirrrr-pa|fxit7i 

|Mna;rr cwfnj,v • g'='*^^P^ ^JTrrt ipfc . ponjo" fpcnfTi k-infTimo (e- tptAm 
-Mief'ftc ouwcoi|\^ftr.jrrr . ^^-^ incontu^o A.t-nbo(?j: aiu uturtip-^ 
p{-lioT»ti> iinim<|iMr^Ti'<rii. . V ^fi cel4 iTulmen cape-. , 

Kj ■utt«iitite'4Jiitrf«tiiiUf'en' A01 cp«-p>|.e- (pCT-n^rquonftrn ^wylif-ftT 
zdlfil^rt^ txinttn CA(rTr:tn|ii«j?'' • -evirr»en VfAttUf fu^fitm f« T«e- 
n\iit'M. mir^vprn pot'Tvtunr'lIui^^ utdevij^ttr ptjrtlam metmeaf^ 
mtticUaxM.. .,Ll,e«t viecvi Km*- q, pu^ (if nHHo»rA 

efvtr^ ux-^^< > n<A^^aQyUiC)4iMMi-''^i^1'^ ^ tzcritr. a.^fut'^^am 

111 d^tnfrrnu'((N^txftr>^vHt^KL *3 "nc perruf -ce- Vtuc imi 



h 



\ 






V) 



iTTr)eTnpiAr 







I 







,7 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 438 r 



astra meantem. Laudant rite 

deum lux polus arua fretuw 
Qui crucifixus erat deus ecce per 

omnia regnat. Dantqu; creatori 
S cuncta creata precem. 
Vestibunt silue tenera merorww 

uirgulta suis onerata pomis 

canunt decelsis sedibus palumbes 

carmina cunctis. 
10 Hie turtur gemit resonat hie 

turdus pangit hie priseus melorum 

sonus passer nee taeens arripens 

garrito alta subulmis. 
Hinc leta eanit philomela fron 
15 dis longas effudit sibiluw p^raura 

sollempne miluus tremulatq««* 

uoee aethera pulset. 
At astra uolans aquila inaeris 

alauda canit modulis resoluit 
20 desursum uergit dissimili 

modo dum tenam tangit. 
Uelox impulit rugitus hirundo 

pangit eotwmix. graeellaris ultit 

aues sic cunetis celebrant 
25 estiuum undiqwd carmen. 

Nulla int^r auis similis est apt que 

talew gerit tipum castitatis nisi 

maria que chm/«m portauit aluo 

inuiolata. 
30 rleriger urbis maguntiacensis 

antistes quendaw uidit prophetim 

qui adinfernuw se dixit raptum. 
Inde cuznmultas referret cau 

sas. subiunxit totum esse infernum 
35 accinctum densis. undiqz<« siluis. 
Herigers illi ridens respondit meam 

subulcum illuc ad pastuni nolo 

cum macris. mittere porcis. 
Uir ait falsus. fuit translatwx 
40 intempluOT celi. chrisfumque uidi. 



latum sedentem. e/ comedentem. 
lohannes baptista. erat pincerna. atqw 

prrt:lari pocula uini porrexit cunctis 

uocatis sanc/is. 
Heriger ait prudently egit chr«/«s iohannem 

ponens pincernam. quortiam uinum 

nonbibit umquam. 
Mendax pwbaris cuw petruw dicis illuc 

magistrum esse cocorum est quia 

summi ianitor celi. 
Honore quali te deus celi habuit 

ibi ubi sedisti. uolo ut narres 

quid manducasses. 
Respondit homo angulo uno partem 

pulmonis furabar cocis hoc man 

ducaui aXque recessi. 
Heriger ilium, iussit adpalum. loris 

ligari scopisqM^ cedi. sermone duro 

hunc arguendo. 
Site adsuum inuitet pastum 

chris/us ut secum capias cibum. caue 

ne furtum facias, 
oponso sponsa karissimo se ipsam 

inconiugio ambosqv^ diu uiuere 

post celi culmen cupere. 
Nee spemas quod sim fragilis. sum 

taraen habilis rugosam si me 

uideas ut puellam me teneas. 
Ueni ueni karissitae quod fusca sum nonAe&pice 

dilapsa ue\ \zxaibus. assurgam 

tuis uiribw. ^maAertxus ueni o^ncutit 
Hinc petrus te hue inuitat et eu 

charius uritat ualerius te exig 
Cummaximini predhtts se coniungit 

agricius orans ut felix uenias et me 

fracta»» restituas. Cciutn 

Me quidem si restituis. t«mta»»qtt* reddideris 

paulini adiutorium habeb/x et nice 
Hi et complures alii iubent roe 

restitui simeon tuus maxime man 
[dat murum iam 
[ponere. 



10 



»5 



30 



»5 



30 



35 



40 



15 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 438 V 



quam felix tu fueras quod hunc uiruM 

adduxeras qui me fuscam illumi 

nat e/me fractaw resolidat. 
Quam lil>ens hie te suscipit quaw 
5 sanum esse pr«:ipit felice»» om«i tempore 

quod semper constet stabile. 
U«/t«m SLmhorum mentis it^rum ero 

treueris twrrita in lat^ribw ef firma 

cunctis partib»;. C"^ s«;«la &men. 
10 Adhoc te diras pwnuniat. ef semper te custo 

diat. cuw corp)ore ac anima i«sempit«r 
Emicat o quanta 

pietate cecilia sancfn inter odoriferas christus 

quas pr<«picit herbas. Cg^""^ iesum. 
15 Despiciens mundum meruit sibi iun 
Gaudia sic thalami c^nculcans ualeriani. 
Hec sibi uirgineas qwathra uirtute choreas 
Funcit elegit qwas hie sapientia eowpsit 
Luce ehoruw clara docilw hunc pr^nit^/ uuoda. 
20 Hancq»£ meginb^rgis seq«it«r ualitudine fortis 
Hoc uiret incirco mereHiet cum Acre deeoro. 
Nomine diflScili sophie sed spe iuuenili. 
Hinc tenet una locuw mitis coUega 

prior«»;., 
25 \_&m dul s amica qua/» sic cor 

meum d cam 



secreta 
a q 



Ibi sunt sedilia st 
nata flor 



atque uelis domus 
herbeqwtf 

30 appos sis eibis ho 

musta ibi clarum uinum habundat. e/ 
quicquid cara delectat. 

pi cith ilia 

melos cum lira pangit. portantqw 
35 ministri pateras plenas 

Ibi sonant dulces simphonie in 
flantur e/ altius tibie ibi puer 
et docta puella canunt cantica 
pulchra. 
40 Ego ftii sola i«silua e/ dilexi loca 



U 

Non 
qu 





is 


turbam 

/ilen- 

mul 


uuiuium 

olloquiuw?. 

tas clara 



clara pupille 

ruonu fert 

tempus adest 
gruonot gras in 



15 



ra 






Quid u s 


iaw 


s go thu mir 


iur 




hortaris unicam 


ma 




mel 
coro miner min 


nc 




ndes silue nu 


sing..t 


ela 


wualde 




cano 


philomela kristes 

a cui me deuoui 







a sagic thir 
sede a me 

minno 
radan 


c 




nunna choro miner 




dabo tibi super hoc uuerelt 


hoc 


omne 


also uuolcan in 


th 


umele 


; solum christi regnum 


th 


fecjt ineuum 


Quod ips 


regnat 


credo inhumele. 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



16 



'^^^ 



qti-^rn tn^ tuftiPvafa, nunciitnT 
Aac^*vCt!V\f au\ me fufwtJ" \\iurc\\ 

Q^xtAtn l,brnf hie rr fufctpit"<^ua 
fantim fe- nciprr ff4«c? ornx tepof^ 

V7 »*T>i ambo^ mfrtnr»i:Mm ey^j 

cui^cnrparnp; y^tia fcCi ^m ■ 

dtarctFcorporr ac aniTna'Tfem^Jif 
> ' m«C2rroqiuuT6*„ 

qMTfpJptCTT htfi>af {f~^*^ *m . 
LJ ef^tcicnf^rnunjiii mervitrfibt lun 
v> <auc1u\ f^c -rtiALa.n^r. %uU&T\riuiLenani. 

f unctr tlemr Ijffhtc Qiotencn. cS^ptir 

nancxj: m^jirffe^f fei^udlrruJiiiefiirrj^ 
Pocutrrr inctiroo mereMicr eu BonrCrJ 
H oie- Ax fliaU (opbte (^ (pe tuueruU . 



f 









.it 



.» 






■' ' ' f , ■Art'-M. 

^."" . I T^HAa curttitrr (Vtrncc* 

i- CtJ fill fol4*^'t(i 









In rj^-. 



-'.J 



( fT"^. i'l. fT-tif-nif-twT 






.mi .i 

f 
,1 



•|*»-.; - 



1 



«. o 



Mp'.pili^. 





\< 




COM 



dwte QM-ie- (ixiuor care cLxre cf pt>TTrcr 
icannuU- cornpcr corde^ cvrperrr.coti 
annannam carf^^^^^ ^"^''^^'^^ 
conmiliefcon\h-ue c^xfu^ cALcetn coy 

cane cortJ^ cA.nt' cord if cane- can 
pr TiuUf cr&rrnrem - ^ t i ' ' 

. — , . — ,..„-,- Q u\(quV dolof^Anciqm cnrcuuetTTur 

1 A J1 1 r* ^ o f^ i/ 1- II I J ' r ' 1' ' '— ' ' • 

uimma ^leriTC /vdbdbaj .vrgiA ija.ud,ibi inimici .Ph>*idiTiC?^a^^ 

-Tnt/ifogB- Tnoenio: inauc A'pnbf mcawruf mcuf-f-pinr pecc<;tzr>y hue 
ofhriher hir^ Si -mtzvuu*^de (trmen^ cornonrruf^-amiplo ^frr 

f^ire-tjuc/o hoc pne-ceUiinf ^iuf^hdno l©erj*ri fofpff'^'^ 

^gj^pi utcnrndf-nl)) mcrF.'^btrcl* plertKALffe n-imtPumc<im JiAbuir- 

TAfeTmiDi uicTuf ff uni D»cH)4^ ^pnuPin<^ui?^iti«nf^(cruulur ttiU 

^uo xefiiif rcreti..sfutJ icejrcrtx, ctaC ir>\-L<£rr\a.-xr -i- arc/or id;, cut ufutti 

^H^Q^t ^iffc^f/*^ brtief ^^^ do coniu^i (e- nonpoHe- cernenPiunm 

fbccTf rwrirttif^i-naulA-OiCTT AtpiljtjT ^^efl^re^rn^ilrfici • ^ 

Lono^ur nonop.hic ixxAiutQu A.' 9U0 ^raut^ fufce^A. fceduLV nunc'u 

KeJiu^mefiua: fo^u'-lpl^ t^rf^ 
^nr ral? nc re caTn|3li'Xrt. xmerv 
^WciDfne^ habec' fupi-aj^ttut^vr-fDr 

rrwKi (2d qwantu oW^^en^ff uulr? C m itiuifi d^^nf canrmfrrcii UcTfi. . 
^trru ^7oc fis cjuA p^T-TT- pcor ^"^ milfTf'trp fii cAup. oduerjr^ 

%l^ec- lU^ nefa.Tii'J>ur«p»*d'«t>t^ ^pofrrjf ^monfc|-. furitf^i^"^'r 

^^r -S" igrvfy^ed nee cr flXmi nurm^rcwmf inanufcvnpru ^«iv 

n»ji(q-.frver4^^Tyirene^tU'R^l): —oolo cLtrrunr- tuf^ tmfere mtf&i*--' 
«fhuq:Tu© ^muLoa. fe-pulAiro. nj- p^:? fil*e- '-nori^i*- m. p^ 

Uut^ttr- dcferra. fuJeTrefiifa: 5>J<^ rno^o f^fT lun^JM- -nil* pt<erc ruix 
^ «?eT~rtr pa»^oq: -rkorxi paL n»c^ P*^ ^""'^'^ '^"'^ TW.ix^T- Jc powt^ 

I Poucto . 



Icr CM nocc& 



defeirendcv dcmbm lufTrr _ 



^4Tim PArutcdemenurn 



Sievcf fib I 4gT» 

Aufltnf dam or^V-. in^Tplicif ' 

pnncipe fiirc^f 



• 'cii' «•^/-'^MJ-- 
•■. intrtcctf fecjjiLLq 






J 




J^ 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 439 r 



s scono 
az gil 
homi 



mis t dare 
uuare 
uu^ipir 
mi 



5 ndig ne. 

aus t,]^^z er sibi 

ker also 

sa ger sal 

rl adtolle genas defectaqw^ 

10 lumina uenit Adhebas argia 

tuas age moenibw indue ef pa//-ios 
ostende lares et mutua redde 
hospitia heu quid ago? proiectus 
cespite nude hoc pafrie telluris 

15 habes que iurgia certe Imp^riu»« 

non {rater habet nullasne taorum. Mo 
uisti lacrimas. ubi matfr? ubi i«cli 
ta fama Antigone? mihi ne»ipe 
iaces mihi uictus es uni Dicebaw 

20 quo tendis iter, quid sceptra 
negata poscis? Habes argos. 
soceri regnabis inaula. Hie Xiln 
longus honor, hie indiuisa 
potestas. Quid queror ipsa dedi 

25 belluw mestnmque rogaui. Ipsa pa/rem 
ut talew nunc te complexa tenerew 
Sed bene habet superi. gratum est for 
tuna p^racta est. spes longinqua 
uie. totos inuenimus artus. Ei 

30 mihi sed quanto deseendit uulnwj 
hiatu hoc {rater qua parte pr^eor 
iacet ille nefandus. predator 
uincaw uolucres sit adire potestas 
Exeludawqwtf feras an habet fune 

35 stus et ignes? Sed nee te flawmis 

inopew tua t^rra uidebit. Ardeb« lacri 
m&sque feres q«as ferre negatuw. Regib«.f 
etemnmque tuo famulata sepulchro. 
Durabit deserta fides testisqw^ dolor«w 

40 Nat/« erit paruoq«tf thoruw polinice 

Cfouebo. 



L^aute cane cantor care clare c^«spirent 

cannule compte corde crepent. con 

cinnantiam carpe callew commoda 

conualles construe caput calcem cor 5 

coniunge calles eallens corporales 

cane corda cane cordis cane can 

nulis creatorem. 
Quisquis dolosos antiqui circu»« uentus 

fraudib*^ inimici. prtTfunditatem m&gnorum 10 

incautus ineurrerit peccatorww hoc 

sequenti co»»monitus exemplo sit 

merens nedesp*/«t penitus sed con 

fisus in domino liberari posse speret 

ue/ mortuuw si penitet exinfemo. 15 

Cesarie urbis eiuis proterius locu 

pies ualde nimis uaieam habuit 

gnatam sacro uelamini destinatam 

pr(;prius inqua/w seruulus inlieitis inli 

eitis infla»»matus est ardoribwj. cuius uin 20 

clo eoniugii se nonposse cemens iungi 

auxilium agressus est malefici. 
A quo praui suscepta scedula nuncii 

deferenda demoni iussit eu»i noete 

ceca supragentile»» reeitare tumbaw. 25 

iuuenis statim puiruit demonum 

et ecce sibi Sigmen apparuit qui 

auditis clamorib//J infelicis secum ilium 

adduxerat adprincipem prauitatis. 
Cui inuisi datis commercii Uteris ama 30 

leiieo missis, item sui causa aduentuj 

expositis amorisqw^ furiis. protinus 

fit discussio defide christi ae baptis- 

mi repudio iubeturq»^ desingulis abre 

nuntiationis manuscriptum efficere %e 

Continuo tacta adia- ^quod effecit 

-bolo clamat uirgo misere misere- 
re pater filie moriar mi pater 

modo sinott iungar tali puero noli 

pater kare noli tardare dam potes 40 



17 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 439 V 



me saluare si moraris natam tuam non 
habebis. sed indie iudicii quasi propertm 
tain poenas ef tormenta tu subibis 
supplicii. 
5 Ast flebilis contra p&ter inquit nata 

heu quis te necauit. nata q/zis te fasci 
nauit. ego te chn's/o dedicaui. nonte mecho 
destinaui paXere mifilia sine me modo 
p^rficere quod uolo si consentis mihi 
lo tempus adueniet quando multuw 

letaberis prauaw quod no/moluntatew? 
p^rfeceris male sana qu&m nunc geris. 
Ilia uero abnuente atq«* pene defici 
-ante pat^r uictus amicoruf/i c(?«siliis co«sen- 
15 sit inuitus accitoqw? puero substantias 
totum ei suaw una cum puella tradidit. 
dicens sue filiole uere iaw misera 
olim multuw dolitura pa/rem qwia nones 
modo auditura., ; nupta 

20 Nee multo post ; uiri comperta. iwfidelitate 
se confestim in lame«tis affecerat in 
moderate luctusqw^ nuUus finis e^^e 
quiuit. donee amarito tandew ex 
plorato cuncte sue causa p^rfidie 
25 abeato basilio penitential p^«uasit. 
proerrore percipere grauissimo. 
Quern sanc/us includens sacro ptribulo 
incumbens pweo precihus sedulo nunc 
pwillo orans sepe ei ieiunans donee 
30 ad«) reo impetraret ueniaw dari pro 
crimine ta»? graui. dumqz/^ sibi peni 
tenti ostensus est sanctus prost decertare 
atq«<« deantiq«o hoste magnifice 
uictoriam deportare. 
35 Indicta transacta \&m penitudine eductw 

ct?«ciliandus ecck«'e ecce repente sancio se 
ducente tact«j abhoste sacro pellit?/r 
poste donee antistes et populus assis 
tens prfcibus pulsantes deum fugatus est 
40 demon damans ac minitans hoc 



basili manu scriptuw coram deo restitues 

mihi meMm. 
Nee mora sancto orante manusq«« cuw populo 

eleuante cartula desup<?r lapsa 

manib^^j- basilii est ingesta a puero 

quam cognita»/ sanctus statim partes 

dissipauit inniinutas eundemqa^ 

uiuificis restitutuw sacramwtuw inces 

santf/- reddidit deo imnizantem. 
\J mihi deserte 

natoruOT dulcis imago. 
Arche more orerum ei pa trie 

solamen adempte. ^sontes. 
Seruitiiq//^ decus quite mea gaudia 
Extinxere dei modo quem 

digressa reliqui. 
Lasciuuw et prono uexantew gra 

mina cursu. pigatis. 
Heu ubi siderei uultus ubi uerba 
Imperfecta sonis risusq/ze et raurmura 

soli, pemnon et argos. 
Intellecta mihi quoties tibi 
Sueta loqui et longa somnum suadere 

querelas. 

uc adtoUe genas defectaqwe 

lumina. uenit pnduc. 

Athebas argia tua eia menib«x 
Et pa/rios ostende lares et mutua 
Hospicia heu quid agam. Jredde. 

pwiectus cespite nudo. C^erte? 
Hoc partrie telluris babes, que iurgia 
Imp^riuw non (rater habet nuUusue tuorum. 
Mouisti lacrimas ubi ma.Ur? ub 

inclita fama 
Antigone? mihi nempe iaces 

mihi uictus es uni. 
Dicebaw quo tendis iter, quid 

sceptra negata ^i^^aula. 

Poscis? habes argos soceri regnabis 
Hie tibi longus honos. hie iwdiuisa 

potestas. 



IS 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



18 




-lc(^Tirt'«i piTTiP Tnifil(A ("ifrnif nwio uitufi'cif reftnaJcu fJUmmril irt€eC 

TfmoxjC MiuerttCz: auAtKio rriul-r-u £ | mtfri dffer'rB' 

fn»rerir'T'<J^fanrtq 005^1 r. A^ rclie moi-v- or^nMjm * pinta- 

il.* urro rtOritwrmp- «trq*. pM%*- a«Tirt foUxtncn Aaempt^.^T^ \oiiuf. 

ftc^invMTurAccTa>£j:pueT-o fubfrnitUtt. p^x-ntpcrre- an Tnoclo cju«r) 
-oavSi CT fu^ un<t rtrpueUA-cra"5i>n:-. dtffv-rfT^ fe«cjut • 



moficrto*" Lartur<j: nuUuf fimre*- i rrreUenw. mi4n cjiionfrr-nbt 
ciuiurxr. 



alm'xeo cuncrr- fii^ caufk' ppdi*' <^uBTthxf. 

xneumlienf f>eo pcfbt fevltiltf nunc C -c- ^afof-fcenbt"- Larfr<?mimi4, 

^ill« 01-anf ■frtje- i&'tnun<«nr^n' O o(ptci*v n<at c|ui£j<v^Atti^^|^- 

IMTT3 o/?eTi/uO. fcf^fe decerrnre- 1 m^m r\on^ Wiher^nuduCue'Tuoy 





■i 
1 



/ 



't^f^iM-^'^^ 



I 




^ DufTii»-e be-ill qeneWTq: p 



_ ——-IF 

conturpc aqcnrtJi Lj \(itfAiie^ m«ni i<*rfft)fc}*. efrwriiere- 

f-letwf J[>Apran»r t>'<C'r i*rq moo's .v 
^Irxf: cTUtnro- P"U<eT-e pq: pedef i^ 



AJ^-*' 



icrati 



•emi 



t.LL,h 



Qe 



JiUn.t' de 






WM-eirr ret 



M"'L^- ,,. 



fribili Jsquo doler: ornif homo ffPrenrq"^ "*'^"*"P^r>'Ti^v> rrtuYvf 
rortnitcur^ irtdomo (tifpirtrtr A. ccoprp pmf- ultrof l^tiTTf^ MtdcbAr 
p<'pw^rci<*mtiu utmUmbo ^^ C omprtLif^ uifnT *tne+t-^f ^j^mere^ 

rrnfer*rc. y-^W?**'^' l'"'™'~'*^^^'r tjcaercjaxnwnif. 

^ nno cjupq! tTi\lie{^mo none € ^mb; l«^ur«Tt'»*^t«^<»-*"'"iLa»nr 

t'ltei- TtoMtvaf jxirc- [JcBtrrurv e)cttera nonficTrcurn • 

plui'Tr futTimiciccuburirirn^. cJoar g»nc»c - « utae-o^trr AmA«rp«'u^i^ 
\^ odfuero ■eemt>ov*t> ocCix(viffuizT ^ ctcutuf^xiUe- fhuAtu. Ortx^ pat*'"i5' 

Gatintii j«e«ttA- he-u <^w A cru fJXioay. ^^hanjc (iiuul.\. • 

<M*f d.ntmf corr^ - ^nSU- ^f t rnmuenzrC nuxfit^-ii .pcxnf fiitn^ 

hfntr\AurmffUuf- mi ^n*ruJ.*rn:r mipAref r^pAnt-. • 

^*rmcif au/c nm^f in npictf <3f pAreOsc'rnpA»^t:. '^ 

n<*. AC fre-tju^tTrion|-rfmon* -^icuUm • tr- ne- p«riscr fco/ib; -S.^ 

uiu.a:r uir incjouf" fconc- uiurc- « "*" ^'^^c^ fmii>i&:.» • 



^'^'^"^^-no cJ^trtT camoJfl niL-mai 






narr^ i.i 






r 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 440 r 



Nunc ego te coniunx addebi 

ta regna perfectuw. 
Ductorew belli generuwqw^ poten 
tis adrasti. 
5 Aspicio talisq«* tuis occurro 
triumphis. 
vjui habet uocern serenam 
banc proferat cantilenaw de 
anno lamifwtabili et damno inef 

10 fabili pr(7quo dolet oniwis homo 
forinsecus et indomo suspirat 
populus damnuw uigilando et 
p^rsomnum. 
Rex d^tts uiuos tuere et defunctis 

1 5 miserere. 

Anno quoq«e millessimo nono 
atqK^ tricessimo dechm/i natiui 
tate nobilitas ruit late ruit 
cesar caput mundi et cum illo 

20 plures summi occubuit imp^ra 

tor kuonradus leguw dator. Rex. 
Ecdew uero tempore occasus fuit 
gbr»e ruit Stella matutina 
Gunnild regina heu quam cm 

25 delis annus corruerat 
herimannus filius im 
p^ratricis dux timif«dus inimicis 
ruit kuono dux iTuncorum et 
magna pars ingenuor««. Rex. 

30 Imp^ratoris gkin'a sit nobw i«memo- 
ria ac frequentione miwtione 
uiuat uir indolis bone uuat 
d«)/«mator pn^bus et frequenti 
carmine nouus et pf«:lara fama 

35 post mortew uite prsstet hunc 
consortem. Rex d^«s. 
1 empus erat quo prima quies 
mortalib«i egris incipit et donum 
diuuni gratissima serpit insomnis 

40 est ante oculos mestissimus hector. 



Uisus ade.(je mihi largosqu^ eflfundere 

fletus. Raptatus bigis utquondam 

3\ur^iu cruento. Puluere perque pedes tra 

iectus lora tum/ntes Ei mihi qualis 

erat quantum mutatus abillo Hectore 5 

qui redit exuuias indutus achillis. 
Uel danaum frigios iaculatus puppib«5 

ignes. Squalent^M barbam et o^ncretos 

sanguine crines. Uulneraq»<r ilia 

gerens que circumplurima muros 10 

Accepit patios, ultroflens ipse uidehar 
Compellare uiru»» et mestas expwmere 

uoces. Olux dardanie spes ofidissima 

teucruw Que tante tenuerc more 

quibwj hector aboris Expectate uenis. 15 

\2mhus ludus est animo. et iocularis 

cantio. hoc aduertant ridiculum 

exuero nonfictitum. 
Sacerdos iam ruricola. aetate sub 

decrepita. uiuebat amans pecudis. 20 

hie enim mos est nisticis. 
Adcuius tale studiuw. Om«e pattf«t 

cowmoduw. nisi foret tam pwxima. 

luporum altrix siluula. 
Himinuentes numerum perreius summam 35 

geneniw. dant impares exparibux. 

et pares eximparib»^. 
Qui dolens sui fieri. det«m<f«tu»» peculii. 

q»ia diffidit uiribM^. uindicta/n querit artibMf. 
Fossam cauat non modicam. intus ponens 30 

agnicularo. Et ne p&teret hostibw^. Supi- 
ne tegit frondibw. 
Humano datum commodo nil maius 

est ingenio. lupus dum nocte cir- 
cuit, spem prede captus incidit. 3S 
Accurrit mane presbiter. gaudet 

uicisse talit^. intus pr<7tento baculo 

lupi minatvr oculo. 
Iam inquit fera pessima. tibi 

rependa/// debita. aut hie frangetur 40 



19 



Ca 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 440 V 



baculus. Aut hie crepabit oculus. 
Hoc dicto simul impulit. Uerbo sed 

factoOT defuit. Naw lupus seruans oculuw. 

morsu retentat baculuw. 
5 Atille miser uetulus. dum sese trahit 

firmius. Ripa cedente comiit. et 

lupo comes incidit. 
Hinc Stat lupus hinc pnrsbiter. tim^-wt 

sed disparilit<'r. Na»? ut fident^r arbitror 
10 lupus stabat securior. 

Sacerdos secuw musitat. septemq«« psal- 

mos ruminat. sed reuoluit (lequentius 

miserere mei deus. 
Hoc inquit infortunii. Dant m//4i uota 
15 populi. Quorum neglexi animas. Qaorum 

comedi uictimas. 
Pro defunctor«w merito. cantat place- 

-bo domino, et pnmotis uiuentiuw. totum 

cantat psalterium. 
20 Post completuw? psaltmuw. cowmune 

pr«tat cowmoduw. Sacerdotis timidi- 

tas. zXque lupi calliditas. 
Nawciuw accliuis presbit^r. p^rfiniret 

pat^ nostn. Atque clamaret dommo. Sed 
35 libera nos a malo. 

Hie dorsum eius insilit. et saltu lib»- 

efifugit. et cuius arte captus est. 

illo pr<7scala usus est. 
Ast ille letus nimium. cantat lau 
30 ^late dominum. et promisit propopulo, 

se oraturuOT amodo. 
Hinc auicinis querit«r. et inuentus 

extrahitur. Sed nonnumquam deuo- 

tius. orauit nee fidelius. 
35 1 emplum chm/i uirgo casta felix 

mat^r omaria cuius clausam 

uentris portam noui uite ianua 

pa/ri sanct'xque spiritus gratia, petimus uali 

da prece nos expia abomni 
40 macula facinorosa. 



Tu regina celi suwma castitatis 

tenet sceptra angeloruw satis 

digna congaudet frequentia 

quihus nos exoramus socia qui 

uiuis cum patre spirituque sancto pereterna. s^^wla. 5 
Admensa;« philosophic sitientes 

currite et saporis tripertiti septew 

riuos bibite uno fonte proceden- 

-tes noneodem tramite. 
Hinc fluit gra»/ma prima hinc 10 

poetica ydra lanx hinc satiricorww 

plausus hinc comicoru;« letificat 

conuiuia mantuana fistula. 
Oalue uite norma pr^clare 

flos sinagoge. Aue pie diu 15 

optate tue oliue. Nisibus om«i 

genis gratulor modulando 

camenis 

here forma poli serena sol 

a.tque luna. Uale hora certe 20 

iocunda reddens cristalla. 
Presulis eximii ualeat uirtute 

sepulchri. 



25 



V 




flQ 




a 


nna 




f 




g et 


sic 








ad et. 


Nosti flores 






fert 


pukhra. 


tex 


omi 




ad 




r 










Sic 






plic alb 


njdis 


u 








bus ut 


non 



















mihi 
tus 


n 










Post 








postquaw 
studiuw. 



Nam 



bus 



30 



35 



cum 



cor 



40 



20 



farro dM^t-cuUx lupuf /ejli«\| •cuUt- 












J. Icy 




.U.pu( aU,^ fecur^r-. h .n. FUnr^X^^ p^^ I,,,, 



^v*tmtn.*i-.fedfTuo[utT- fre^n^ p^Mtfuf bine c<imici>ru Unficir 

*- nfculrt. . 



tnof 

^\i3)cr comod<I •SAt^irAcmf-n.-mtbi- xocuoAa^ **«^^*^^ ^nflrAlL^c 

pi»e »irAxtj: iLitn-ire^ i>n<jC«4r% 7^ , f 

b «c dorfu auf^m(?ltr-<Xjf^JUuUt^ fir ^^ 






C,u 



not 



«c _ . ,-. , , , 

A-tH ille- l««up ntrntii .C*».nrrt.r- Luu 
— . cL*c«r ^nm - &^mtffr ^popal*. 

i;itr-fl*'iu*i-ntiec hieUu/^ 






.T^«» 



JL 



>i.)«f 







« 




-■•^-^>-:~.-l>. /:■ 



i 



"■ r- 

r 



euifeocfirgrcr -rc|j{nn4f.K(at I netirr* opctrncj*. nob o|»uf ffnw^t^ 
'^crtTt? Tcpibur i*m^m. T r^ »Txr«n5 Tiniw •^T^'^^^^ee- p^ " 

P 'i^ purf un*ru ^ipcutc om<rcur A l\vc\ cdi flai-ef wumi t«- cuthtiv 
luortn^titr-. at/pgrtrSra-pU- C uncxibont Uirofix c^i^*"'Ji'^^<3U«^ 
rlb:«M^<a, (tUiarufrorJjtb:. xirm apzu- *" /J\ mfccria'. 

S li^«rrr lufrm au^ibnuper- ^ arcjulctf AJque cutcnf fcclA bmuT 

iror Ugfid. plorenrot a^< fu a. cle- /^. on .-t cboo^ cnft f^xcAf clenco^ dfvi« 
c^JfTTiUTr^ oTUjbtA • C onfol^m tnbtictru ««r<^ml c?-i«nna.' 

cUtA-cAnxifinPlorfufpinif. D Tgui n nulla femp fi-andrr fu^ 

uoLuenr a<illeo . (? fort*' ca.- I rTgefJirwriTn ue?us_^'»2r l^i >i^ic ulxi 
pucl (utUi^o • Tiec Au^to nee #. 5«emi>toT.atn liaBiUna, uobbtc5n-t4imu:t. 

(S/ccmftder^.|Hborvcierf^lo»TrV ^'^ a'cetjttcmu^rBifccm-e-irc'an.rtfr 
<^5T:^a«iiniJl' TiATTi meia- "« '' ^ejie^ nee cido fmi q Utoorer^rn^- 

- C^%*"^^ P"^^ '^'^^^ T^^ I^^^'«>"c-pmd5»u.|rcfrce-pi(je-^ucii, f. | 

^l^rntna.. Quorum pfallrr S eprF^ner^TutTTtneotJiTc liw dumriutuLs.* j 

I ncolomif^ufen^tcr^x: ^xu 1 ofer /^f ^cTife^r.-rTi. J^- no«g roL r/ ' 
moinjij falt-rr^ . . / &pc'iK>LuT^ar«':'C-f'?incAffTr penir*' 

n e-mtrenr>>f luf^fSLut K. e|iciLnr'anD.CTanTr<Q:7Tr*W 
WIOt4>i uiriCU Ia- fimc rAfWUubrAcKi.fr-EEpc 



tL Mp gmi^l^mA^^ 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 441 r 



l^euis exsurgit zephirus. et sol 
pr«»cedit tepidus. iam Xertz. 
sinus apmt. dulcore suo difluit. 
Uer purpuratuw exuit. ornatus 
5 suos induit. asp^rgit Urxz. flo- 
rlb«J. ligna siluaruw frondihj^i. 
Struunt lustra quadrupe- 

des. et dulces nidos uolucres. 
int^r ligna florentia. sua de 
10 cantant gaudia. 

Quod oculis dum uideo. et au 

rib«f duw audio, heu protantis gau 
diis. tantis inflor suspiriis. 
Cuw mihi sola sedeo. et hec re 
15 uoluens palleo. si forte ca- 
pud subleuo. nee audio nee 
uideo. 
Tu saltim uelis gratia, exaudi 
et considera. fronde flores 
30 et gramina. nam mea 
languet anima. 
(jaudet polus ridet tellus 

iocundantur omnia. Angelorum 
sacra canunt ine.xcelsis 
25 agmina. Quorum psallit 
imitatrix int^rris ecckrta. 
Mundus plaudit et resultat 

letus dete regiria. 
Ac aut minus gratulatur 
30 pulchra. uernaruw turma. 
Que sub tuis alis fulta digna 

tali domina. 
Incolomis gube'matrix quod tu 
morbo soluta. 
35 Et uirtutuOT flore compta 
restauraris inaula. 
Ne mireris deus iussit solui 

morbi uincula. 
Nexus mortis et ligare ne 
40 fuisset dampnosa. 



Tue uite optatiqwir nobw opus seruata. 
Te reginaw nostram maris esse fauet 

factura. C*^reatura. 

Astra celi flores hurai te cuncta 
Cuncti boni larga culminis es que 5 

tam ap<rrta. finscena. 

Mat^r dulcis et que cunctis seek huius 
Blandim^fftis no«terrore sistis p^rmitissima. 
Monachon<w ensis extas clericon<»» difmina. 
Consolamirn uiduaruw uirginuw a>«stantia. 10 

Laicor»/» blandimir;ita clipeus et galea. 
Quare posco qao te crebro co«seruet te seculn. 
Deus qui nt^nnulla semper scandit sup^r 

sidera..., 
Ingestis p«/rum uet*ru»i. quoddsim legi ridiculum 15 

exemplo tam^n habile quod aohis dicam rithmice. 
lohatines abba paruulus. statura non uirtutibvf. 

ita maiori socio. q»icum erat i/theremo. 
Uolo dicebat uiuere. secure sic»/ zngelus. 

nee ueste nee cibo frui q«i laboretur "i^'pnibiij '° 

Maior dicebat moneo. ne sis incepti propema. 

{ratei quod dico tiii postmodum. sic n<?ncepisse saucius. 
At minor q«i n(7«diraicat. noncadit neque sup^rat. 

ait et nudus heremuwi inferiorew penetrat. 
Septem dies gramineo. uix ibi durat pabulo. 25 

octaua fames imp^rat. ut ad sodalem redeat 
Qui sero clausus ianua. tutus sedet i/icellula 

cum minor uoce debib'. (rater apellat aperi. 
lohannes hospes i»digus. notis assistit fonhus 

nee sp^nat tua pietas. quem redigit necessit ■ 30 
Resp<7«dit ille dei«t«j. iohannes fuctus angrfws mirat»r 

celi cardines. ultra n^ncurat howiwes. 
lohannes foras excubat. malawqw^ noctew tole t 

et preter uoluntariam. banc agit penitent 
Facto mane recipit«r. satisqw* uerbis uritu 35 

sed caniemptus adcrustulam fert patient/rr o 
Refocilatwj domino, grates egit et socio de 

hinc rastelluw brachiis. tewptat "lOuc^Cfianguidis 
Castigatuj angustia. deleuitate nimia 

cum ang^lis n<7ffpotuit. uir bonus esse didicit 40 



21 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



fol. 441 V 



v^ordas tange melos pange cum lira 
sonabili. tu magist^r earn liraw fac sonare 
dulciter. ei tu cantor insublime uocem 
tua»» erige umbo simul adunati canti- 
5 lene mistice. O uuillelme decus pulchruw 

aspectu ornabili qui taw clarus p^/-mansisti. cam 
tuis assidue. oqwis potent iam esse tam potens inopere 
Tpreter reges quos unxer««/ antistites chrismate. 
p«sules aut plures rniror antistituw culmine 
10 utriusq«« sexus namque uiri atque femine tam 
nobili creature se cupibant flect^ne. omnis 
chorus ang<;lon<///. zabulon subtrahite magne 
martir iuliane pmllo intercede. 
JHLec est clara dies clarariiw clara dieruw. 
15 hec est sawcta dies sanctarum sancta dieruw. 
Nobile nobilium rutilans diadema dierum 
Quid est hoc tam dure, quod vnnestrxy manet pectore. 
Amaru/«q//i? ducitis animuw de \esn nobis est dure 
manet i«nos morseius et ipsa mors est i«cogni 
20 'Hostre quedaw abiere sepultaraw i«uisere. celi \- 
ciues illu»? uiuum dicunt ia»» regnare. 
Salue festa dies, salue resurrectio %ancta. salue 

semper aue lux hodierna uale. 
J\.ota modos arte p^rsonemus musica. quibwf 
25 ut his c<»«stans gratuletwr anima ut afa 
bris clarus didicit pithagoras malleis 
cum qwattuor depr^ndit. consonantias. septew? 
planetaruw fecit interstitia quaru»2 fit ce 
lestis musica nwmexorum normula fert 
30 ut arithmetica. cunctis dans principia. rex 
mirande panto kraton nos reget per%ecu\a. 
JVliseraru/w est nee amori dare luduw neq«<f dulci 
mala uino lauere. aut exanimali metuen- 
tis patrue uerbera lingue. ^nitar ebri. 

35 Tibi squalu»j cithareae puer ales tibi telas opera seqa^ 
minerue studium aufert. ne obule liparei 
Simul unctos tibmnis humeros lauit i«undis 
eques ipse melior belloro fonte neq«e pugno 
neque seni uictus pede. 
40 plus ide« p^rap^rtuw fugientes agitato grege 



ceruos iaculare. eel ere alto, latitantew 

frugi. tectum excip^re. aprum. 
r ulsat astra planctu magno rachel 

plorans pignora queriturqwf conso 

lari quos necauit impri^ba. dolet. plangit 5 

crines scindit obsororis crimina uxor 

sine macula casta seruans uiscera. 
Felix uirgo deo cara et dilecta femina 

circuw circa uolitando filior?//« pascua. 

querit lustrat p^«crutator p^rdiuersa 10 

climata ansit ouis p^rdita digna 

spondens pr«mia. 
Splendor eius splendor solis mane 

dantis lumina sic lunaris candor 

ide;« foret inter sidera. 15 

\J admirabile ueneris idoliiw. cuius 

matene nihil est friuolu///. arcos te 

pr(?tegat. qui Stellas et poluw fecit et 

maria condidit et solum furis in 

genio. n(?«sentias dolu»?. cloto te 20 

diligat. que baiolat colum. 
Saluto pueruw nonp^ripotesim. sed 

firmo pectore depri?cor lachesim. 

sororis atropos necuret heresim 

neptunum comitem habeas et tetim. 25 

cnm uectus fueris p^rfluuiu/« tesim. quo 

fugis amabo cu;« te dilexerim. miser 

quid faciara cnmte n(?«uiderim. 
Dura mat(?nes exmatris ossib«5. creauit 

ho;«i«es iactis lapidibz«. exq?/ib«5 unus est iste 30 

puerulus. qui lacrimabiles noncmat 

gemitus cum tristis fuero gaude- 

bit emulus. ut cerua rugio cuwfugit 

hinnulus. 
Ven g aw me 35 

uisere et a et o in languore perio 

o et 
Ueni es 

ro 
Si cam claue uen intrare 40 

et a et o. 



22 



eeruc(~i*<n4Are . cAfrr- AjLcw • L«t 



qyJol'rvtn^P^ miLf ^an^ cuLrA 

dulxiT •&'''^v CAtrcvr- in f u tUme- ua$im 
J«A^ fn^ doo (tmul oAuryan CArrtt- 
\^rt^ trttjiice.OuuiLieltne^ clff'ouieUru 

Tjitf .t((idt4e oijfpa-wr ui t? ram Pffcfnf'ioo*- j 

ffT^l*^' .^wT-f»/«rrr mtroTrtnnPiJxi cuLnm^ ctnC ewe* uoUr.m^ hL»v f*(ci|-t 

tnrtuf^: ^wif'n.tq-. uin -vrq-. fem^ne- -m jjuenT- luftrnr pfftnrr.tTt»~p«l«nM"i«.' 






cniTMnA \t\-ar 



inenvwui 



L*. calti l^fu.tn|"' ittictrn. 



h 



ecj- cL^iH "itrr" <i-»^rvf^ cLx.rA. "bicrum. ' "liAmir LutrnrM. \xc lun.\nf f-in'i^r' 



«(«• 



bee*!?! dicTfcAni Ca>»«xim. >^^f forrv,irytt-ilAerx- . f ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Q "ta^lvjt ra durT■.a.«nMro•mAn^r pecrore-. ^-^ tn.tS* tnihiL * fnuJu -»»r™( rr- 

11 re- ou«IX AJ>K^ntfc>uliirruiKT«--ceU ' — - ^Fnid* T-»(eTmA| dolu . cL<«-o re- 
e4uef~ilLu u«uw difUnr tXfWri^U^* . aiU^tr.aue domUct eaLum . 

*S *lu* ft/i* Jier\A^'"*^ff"n'*cao |d5,.(ALut Z3 aUcCT pwetnl "on^toorr^m./rcl - 

(etnp A«e \jujc- KodicrnA/uaLe-. nyrrva p«>Tor«- otyjcaf- ljMie<ri^ 

"^BJ OTA maelof *»*t» gionetnuf nWicA.cjuiD; loronrAiropof) "^«irw UnW"" 

cum ^pi»or depniit-'a»n(SnatiTi^(fc|n£ fu^f^iriAto' cure cJJI^pcrinm tnifj 
' nwiT t*"^ '"^^^"^^ S"**^** ^ "" tJuiinictAW cue* nutoftntrt. 

J .• . rv *• nee A*>vn cL»re- l**u vex^. ">uU> 

•11 vnircuTy*^ - ; 



ore- efntiLuf^ t<r certx^i fuffio cCfVicrtc" 




•5*5*- 



\\1. 



\ 



CHAPTER II 

A. Description of the Cambridge Manuscript with special 
Reference to the ' Songs '" 

The 'Cambridge Songs,' which are written on ten leaves (folios 432-41) towards the 
end of the manuscript Gg. 5. 35, form only a small, although perhaps the most important, 
part of this interesting collection. It is impossible to say if they were written down in 
England or on the Continent. It seems probable that they were copied, in the monastery 
of St Augustine at Canterbury (in the library of which the manuscript was preserved for 
many centuries), from a song book that may have formed the repertoire of an early goliard 
and that was perhaps either acquired or copied by an Englishman who travelled, about the 
middle of the eleventh century, in the district of the Middle and Lower Rhine. The 
subject-matter of some of the poems and the portions of the songs that are written in 
German (North Rheno-Franconian dialect) alike point to the country about Treves and Cologne 
and Xanten as the district in which the collection was in all probability originally made and 
used. This song book of a clericus vagabundus, of which the ten leaves of our manuscript 
are apparently a copy", is no longer in existence. It may have perished as early as 1168 
when a fire destroyed part of the valuable library of the Augustinians at Canterbur>'. Some 
of the songs preserved in our Cambridge Manuscript are unique, others exist in only one 
other codex (see p. 36, note i and the notes to the individual numbers, pp. 71 and following), 
while some of the classical excerpts among them have come down to us in numerous and 
better manuscripts than the Codex Cantabrigiensis. 

The parchment, which has a yellow tint, is on the whole very smooth and in good 
condition ; only in some places are the edges rubbed and worn' to such an extent that the 

' See the Catalogue of Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge, VoL ill (1858), 
201-5. Here the contents of the whole manuscript are enumerated and fully described. The manuscript 
is a quarto, written on parchment, and now contains 454 leaves. It is for the most part well preserved, 
and the handwriting, neat and clear throughout, is not earlier than the time of the Conquest. The portion 
(No. 42) containing the Songs is thus described (on p. 205) : Lyrics in honour of the Emperors of Germany 
during the first half of the Xlth century, and it is said to be ' highly probable ' that the date of the compilation 
of the collection was the reign of the Emperor Henry III (1039-55). See also Robert Priebsch, Deutsche 
Handschriften in England, Erlangen, Vol. I (1896), 20-27. I" this important publication special attention has 
been paid to the portion of the manuscript that contains ' the Cambridge Songs,' and several valuable contributions 
to their study are made. The manuscript seems to have come to Cambridge during the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century. It was not in the University Library in 1670, but was purchased soon after that date 
out of Kishop Racket's bequest. See pages 30 and 105, note 2. 

"• The copy was sometimes made without proper understanding, e.g. fol. 435", 1. 30 litus (for licus, i.e. the 
river Lech); fol. 435''', 1. 10 miro (for maro); fol. 438", 1. 21 mereHict (for merehilt}) ; foL 437", I. u intsie^ina 
(for intfieg ina), etc. 

' Usually the final word or words of the last lines of the second column (recto) are damaged in this way. 
On fol. 438 the parchment is very brittle at the bottom. 



24 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

letters on these parts are no longer legible. This is especially to be regretted in the case of 
fol. 437'■^ 1. 36. Most of the poems are, however, in perfect preservation and are written in 
extremely clear and neat characters. Only in the case of some erotic poems (fol. 438', fol. 439", 
fol. 440"", fol. 441''') has the reading been rendered difficult or impossible by means of erasures or 
by a very effective blacking of the text. The pages are 21^ cm. high and 15 cm. wide (the text 
usually 18^ X 13^); the lines were ruled with a sharp instrument, 40 to the page, about 5 mm. 
apart. On the left side, and also in the middle (leaving a space of some 7 mm.), perpendicular 
lines divide the writing-space from the margin and separate the two columns. At the head 
of and between these lines large and small capitals were inserted, the former in red to mark 
the beginning of a poem. Each manuscript page contains as a rule 80 lines, and thus the 
whole collection, as we now have it, consists roughly speaking of 1600 lines. It is, however, 
possible, even probable (see R. Priebsch, I.e. page 23), that one leaf is now missing between the 
present folios 440 and 441. The stanzas of the last poem on fol. 440^'' consist of 3 lines each, 
with the exception of the sixth and last stanza on this page, which has only 2 lines, and 
consequently it seems probable that the poem (whether the sixth was its last stanza or not) was 
continued on the now lost folio (*440*). The present folio 441 begins with a new song, and 
it is therefore quite conceivable that one or more poems were written on the now lost folio 
440* after the poem that was continued from fol. 440. This would involve the loss of 
160 lines. Towards the end of the collection several (though not all) of the love-poems were 
erased or blacked, and fol. 441 begins with a very charming song of this nature. It therefore 
seems probable that the lost fol. 440* contained others of the same kind, to which the monks of 
St Augustine objected, and on account of which they made away with fol. 440*, just as they 
erased and obliterated similar songs on other leaves^ Assuming, from the usual length of 
the poems written on other leaves, that at least three poems have been lost to us in this way, 
the number of the pieces making up the collection would be raised to no less than half 
a hundred, of which at present only 47 remain and 43 are legible. The poems are numbered 
in pencil — up to 49 — by a late hand, which has, however, not put a number to every poem. 
He counts fol. 432™, 11. 1-13 as two pieces and also counts the doublet-extract twice. 

The large coloured initials, by means of which the beginnings of new songs are indicated, 
were probably not written by the scribe or scribes of the songs, but were added afterwards 
by some other monk. The initials are written alternately (but not always consistently) in 
bright and dark red. In many cases (e.g. fol. 43S'^ 1. 29; 437'^ 1. 25 and 1. 30; 439'■^ 1. i; 
440'^ 1. 16) a small letter in the margin served to indicate the place where they were to be 
inserted. See also fol. 441''''. In a few cases even this was forgotten, viz. on fol. 432'*, 1. 31 ndito 
for Inclito; fol. 436''', 1. 40 udax for Audax; fol. 437'■^ 1. 27 iinc for Nunc; fol. 439'^ 1. 25 
uc for Hue. On fol. 437" the first line is erased, with the exception of the initial A. This 
line was a repetition of the last line of the preceding page (fol. 436'^ 1. 40 : Audax es, vir 
iuuenis); it was consequently obliterated, and the bright red capital A, which was by mistake 
omitted on fol. 436''^ 1, 40, stands now on fol. 437™, 1. i isolated and completely detached. 
It would have been better if 1. 40 on fol. 436^^ which is now underlined in bright red to mark 

' On the inside cover J. M. K(emble) has added a few notes about the manuscript and the Songs. He 
briefly discusses the date of the manuscript and adds : The remainder of this volume is filled with scraps of Latin, 
and there has been some more Ohd. which a barbarian has destroyed by using the infusion of galls....Uc calls it 
one of the most curious manuscripts in England. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT, 25 

that it belongs to the solitary capital A, had been erased and the first line of fol. 437" had 
been kept. 

The careful handwriting, of the middle of the eleventh century, shows a mixture of 
continental and Old English (Anglo-Saxon) characters. Priebsch, and before him Jafle and 
Pertz, have called attention to the distinctly Anglo-Saxon form of some letters, especially in the 
case of t, r and g. The Anglo-Saxon letters t and r are especially frequent and are met with 
on almost every page of the manuscript, the r (JX) occurring with special frequency in the spelling 
of proper names. But, apart from these, there are found isolated instances of other Anglo- 
Saxon letters on two consecutive leaves of our songs — and on these leaves (folios 436 and 
437) only. These letters are the Anglo-Saxon p (fol. 437", 1. 14 hafode, 1. 20 hafon, 1. 21 fulleist, 
all in the same poem) ; \ (fol. 437™, 1. 14 \ar, just before hafode) ; and p (fol. 436™, 1. 28 
c^onrado = cuuonrado). It is also worthy of note that the Anglo-Saxon g's are only frequent 
on fol. 437 in the song on Henry of Bavaria, in which alone the Anglo-Saxon letters f and \ 
occur. On some pages no Anglo-Saxon letters at all are used, but only their continental 
equivalents. Certain differences in the manner of abbreviating words and of indicating or not 
indicating divisions of words may also be noticed on different folios. All these considerations 
make it seem likely that, in spite of the general similarity of the writing, the songs 
were copied by more than one scribe. Some letters of the same value occur in two forms 
throughout the manuscript and are used indifferently even in the same word. Such are especially 
d and d, a and \, the before-mentioned Anglo-Saxon ]l and the continental r. and, to a less 
extent, the (rarer) Anglo-Saxon 5 and the (more frequently used) continental g. See kuniglich 
dignuni, fol. 437'^ 1. 37. Of capital letters H and b may be mentioned (see on the same fol. 432", 
1. 24 Hos and fol. 432'^ 1. 31 Hinc, but h 11. 4 and 6 ; again H fol. 436^^ 1. 20, I) fol. 436"", 1. 3). 

In the writing of words, prepositions are usually run together with the following word, 
and the same is the case with the negation (usually abbreviated fi). There is no definite 
principle noticeable in the use of the common abbreviations. The longer forms are often used when 
there was room for them, while the abbreviated forms occur when there was little room. On 
some leaves the abbreviations are much more numerous and the lines much more closely 
packed than on others, which may well be due to the different habits of different copyists. 
One scribe was obviously anxious to pack his lines as close as possible (e.g. fol. 432", 
1. 11), while on other pages nothing of the kind is noticeable and the monk occasionally 
appears even wasteful of his parchment. Not infrequently some word belonging to the end 
of one stanza, where there was no room for it, was inserted a few lines before (rarely after) 
its proper place, wherever there was a blank space available. Such words are usually preceded 
by some symbol or other (see fol. 434™), for which in the transliteration only one kind of 
symbol (C) has been used. See fol. 437'■^ 1. 18, continued 1. 16; ibid. 1. 23, contin. 1. 21; or 
fol. 432™, 1. 12, contin. 1. 10; fol. 433™, 1. 24, contin. 1. 21; ibid. 1. 34, contin. 1. 32, etc. On 
a few leaves the breaking of a line is marked by an accent ('), e.g. fol. 435" •• 13 postre'-mo; 
sometimes the break is marked by a hyphen or hyphens, but in the large majority of cases 
it is not marked at all. The spelling is not always consistent, the same sound being rendered 
by different symbols, e.g. \ and th (fol. 437™, 1. 14 ()') and 1. 15 (th)); |J (once) and u in the 
spelling of the name cponrad, cuonrad (fol. 436™, 1. 28, and ibid. \. 5; cp. also kuonradus 
fol. 440", 1. 21)'; or h, ch, he in the spelling of the name heinrih (437", 11. 15, 18), heinrich 
' The usual spelling of the name is cuonrad{us). Cp. also kuono dux francorum (fol. 440", 1. 28). 

B. D 



26 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

{ibid. 1. 4), heinrihc {ibid. 1. 19). Capital letters in the middle of lines occur on fol. 437^** in 
the song Salve, festa dies (fol. 437*''), in part of the tale Sacerdos et lupus (fol. 440™), and also in 
the extracts from Statius and Virgil, when they denote the beginning of a new hexameter 
verse or of a new sentence ; they are not used in the writing of proper names'. 

The conclusion of a poem is sometimes marked by ., ., (fol. 434"'', 1. 30), or by ... , 
(fol. 44I'^ 1. 14), or merely by ., (fol. 433", 1. 18 and 438''*, 1. 24). Otherwise there is no 
punctuation except full stops, which are usually put to denote the end, or one half, of the 
metrical line. In some cases full stops are omitted or misplaced. Marks of interrogation 
occur only in the extracts from Statius (fol. 439'''' and 439^''), but not at the end of the 
extract from Virgil (fol. 440''^ 1. 15). 

In a very few cases a neumatic notation has been given to stanzas or words, e.g. fol. 439'■^ 
11. 9 sqq. and 23 sqq. ; fol. 44I^^ 11. 16 sqq. This has not been indicated in the transcript, but 
can easily be studied in the photographic reproduction of the manuscript. In the notes to the 
individual pieces attention is called to the neum-accents. 

Specimens of especially well- written pages may be found in fol. 435 and fol. 436'. 
The worst page is fol. 438". Occasional holes in the parchment (e.g. fol. 440") existed before 
the songs were written down and have in no case spoilt the text. 

Obvious misspellings have not been corrected in the transcript. In all cases of doubt the 
reading of the manuscript (on the opposite page) can easily be ascertained. Only such letters 
have been transcribed as can be recognised, however faintly, on the leaves of the manuscript, 
without considering the readings of previous editors. In some cases a few more letters can 
be dimly recognised in the manuscript than appear in the photographic reproduction I This 
is especially the case where the other side of the leaf has been blacked by the use of tinctura 
gallica. My transcript must in these cases be taken to represent what can still be read on 
the folios of the manuscript itself with the help of a good magnifying glass. 

B. Tabulated Survey of the ' Cambridge Songs ' 

The following table affords an easy survey of the ' Cambridge Songs ' as they now stand 
in the manuscript. The exact place of each on the folios is indicated, the poems are counted 
(including No. 31, the doublet of No. 28), and references are added in parallel columns to 
the most important books and periodicals in which the songs have already been printed. 
With regard to the dates and the full titles of the publications of Eccard, Frohner, du 
M^ril, JaflT^ Piper, and J/.5.Z>. = Mullenhoff and Scherer's Detikmdler, see Chapters III and VI. 

' Differences of spelling may in some cases also be accounted for by assuming that the Goliard copied his 
pieces from different manuscripts in which the same words were spelt differently, e.g. moenibns (fol. 437'", 1. 11) and 
menibus (fol. 439"''. '• 2?) in the corresponding passage. The MS. has nearly always oe in the ^oxA. poena (fol. 435"', 
1- 14 ; 435''^ 1- 2 ; 437", 1- 26 ; 439™, 1. 3), but on fol. 435"', 1. 18 it has pena. On fol. 436", 1. 20 we read foetit, but 
foL 432"", 1. 38 feta. The Latin ae is usually represented by e throughout the manuscript, but in a few cases either 
rt* or (T are written, e.g. infimae (fol. 434'^ 1. 6), but subrem^ (fol. 432'^ 1. 25) ; simphoniae (fol. 434'^ I. 40), but uite 
(fol. 433", 1. 10); aetate (fol. 44o'^ 1. 19), etatis (fol. 432", 1. 31) ; the Greek y is usually rendered by i, see lira 
(fol. 441"', 1. I), rithmica (fol. 44I'^ 1. 16), mistice (fol. 441''', 1. ^\ frigios (fol. 440"', 1. j), pi/hagoras {{o\. 441'% 1. 26), 
etc., but symphoniam (fol. 434''^ 1. i) occurs by the side of simphonia (fol. 437''', 1. 26). Initial c is often spelt k : 
karitate (fol. 433", 1. 30), karissimo (fol. 438'^ 11. 23 and 29), karta (fol. 436'", 11. 32 and 35), karo (fol. 437-^, 1. 31). 

' For instance, sedes and tibi (fol. 437'^ 11. 34 and 37) are a little more distinct in the manuscript than in the 
photographic reproduction, and Dieterich's statement in Haupt's Zeitschrift 47, 434-5 should be corrected. On fol. 440"', 
1. 40 the abbreviation mark over the / can just be recognised in the MS., and on fol. 441'^ 1. 38 languidis can be read. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT 



27 




Da 



28 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

C. Survey of Contents and Metrical Forms 

No principle of arrangement whatever is discernible in the order of the songs as they 
follow each other in the manuscript. The songs of the original song book seem to have been 
written down as they were collected by the goliard, and his song book was apparently copied 
out without any change being made in the sequence of the pieces which it contained. Paul 
Piper (in 1897) contented himself with a mere reprint of the poems in the order in which 
they appear in the manuscript, even reproducing all the marks of abbreviation. He counts two 
passages as separate items which belong to longer pieces preceding them and thus has 50 numbers. 

Philipp Jaffe (who, in 1869, printed 35 of the 47 pieces, omitting only the extracts from 
the well-known Latin classics and some poems that had been well edited elsewhere, especially 
in MiillenhofiF and Scherer's Denkmdler) departed from the order in which the poems appear 
in the Codex and arranged the collection (see Zeitschrift fiir deuisclies Alterthum, XIV. 455) 
as follows : he assigned the first place to the historical songs, which he arranged chrono- 
logically (l-ix) ; after these he gave those on novelistic (x-XIV), religious (XV-XXll), and 
didactic subjects (xxill-xxvi); finally he printed some poems on spring and love (XXVII- 
XXXIll), the last three of which are almost entirely erased and obliterated in the manuscript. 
He provided the songs, which in the manuscript are left without any headings, with suitable 
Latin titles, partly taken by him from previous editions and partly coined by himself 

In the present edition all the 47 pieces are printed. First a transliteration is given of 
every poem occurring in the manuscript (pp. 3-22). In this the abbreviations are written 
out in full, the supplied letters being printed in italics. These transliterations face the 
photographic reproductions of the pages of the manuscript. In Chapter v (pp. 42 sqq.) an attempt 
has been made to give the goliard's song book with the songs arranged in seven subdivisions 
and presented, as far as possible, in emended texts. The titles are mostly those given by 
Jaffi6, different or new titles have been provided only in a few cases. 

With regard to METRE and STYLE, it is clear that the ' Cambridge Songs ' fall into three 
main groups. There are 

(i) Poems composed in the form of Sequences. These had been developed in the 
monastery of St Gallen in connexion with the services of the Church, but had been sub- 
sequently utilized by the clerici vagabimdi for the effective treatment of historical and even 
novelistic subjects. The sequences became of the very greatest importance for the elegant 
secular poetry of the eleventh and following centuries, in Latin and in the vernacular 
languages'. As instances of the various subjects treated in the form of sequences, the following 

' See Paul von Winterfeld, Die Dichterschule St Gallens und der Reichenau unier den Karolingern und Ottonen 
(reprinted in his Deutsche Dichter des lateinischen Mittelalters, Miinchen, 1913, especially 413-22. See also Hermann 
Reich in his introduction to Winterfeld's book, pp. 94-96) ; W. P. Ker, The Dark Ages^ London and Edinburgh, 
'igii, pp. 220-1; Wilhelm Meyer, Fragmenta Burana, Berlin, 1901, pp. 171-4 ; Rudolf Kogel and Wilhelm 
Bruckner, in Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, H\. I (1901), pp. 133 sqq., and R. Kogel, Geschichte 
der deutschen Litteratur bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters, I. 2, 244-5, Strassburg, 1897. On the large number 
of such sequences that have come down to our times see Wilhelm Wilmanns in the Zeitschrift fiir deutsches 
Alterthum, xv (1872), 267 sqq. The importance of the sequences must, however, not be overestimated. A note of 
warning has justly been sounded by Philip Schuyler Allen in his article Mediaeval Latin Lyrics published in 'Modern 
Philology,' Vol. v. No. 3 (January 1908), pp. 427-9 and 457-8. Not a few of the Latin poems of the xth and Xlth 
centuries were not written in the elaborate form of sequences but were composed in light and popular stanzas. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT 29 

poems may be mentioned : the Modus qui et Carelmanninc (religious, No. 2), the Modus Ottinc 
(political, No. 12), the Modus Liebinc (novelistic, No. 22), and the Modus Florttm (novelistic, 
No. 25)'. What a difference between the subject-matter of the first and the last modus\ 

(2) Poems composed in popular metres, mostly rimed, counterparts of which are of 
frequent occurrence in the later German lyrics written either in Latin or in the vernacular. 
Instances of this style' are the amusing songs of Herigir (No. 26), Alfrdd (No. 29), or, in 
the popular iambic metre of eight syllables, the humorous Johannes presbiter (No. 27), Sacerdos 
et lupus (No. 28), or the truly beautiful poem Verna femine suspiria (No. 32). There are 
also poems written in a popular manner in long trochaic lines of 15 syllables (with a break 
after the eighth), such, as the graceful song to the nightingale (No. 31), or the song of 
joy composed by a lady at court on the recovery of her queen from an illness (No. 18), 
or again, though slightly modified in every fourth line, the lamentation of Rachel (No. 8). 

(3) Poems written in dactylic hexameters (the extracts from Vii^il and Statius, Nos. 
43-45, and the poem in praise of Sancta Cecilia, No. 9) ; a processional hymn in distichs 
(No. 4), and two poems in the form of odes, one an interesting spring-song (No. 30), and the 
other a bad copy of a well-known Horatian ode (No. 38). 

There is throughout the Cambridge collection an astonishing variety of subjects and metrical 
forms. It fully merits the attention that students of early medieval literature have paid it in 
an ever-increasing degree, and not merely for the sake of the historical and political songs 
which first attracted scholars. 

CHAPTER III 

The Work hitherto done on the 'Cambridge Songs' (1720-1914) 

A. Editions and Discussions 

For nearly 200 years our Cambridge collection has aroused the interest of scholars, and 
during the last century its more important songs have been studied with great care. In particular 
about fifteen poems, mainly historical and novelistic, some of which are only preserved in the 
Cambridge manuscript, have been investigated with unflagging zeal ; and, above all, the oldest, or one 
of the oldest, of the historical songs, the fascinating and unique macaronic poem of uncertain date 
on Henry of Bavaria, has received attention. This has been included among the early German 
poems printed in nearly all the more important selections of Old German texts '. 

' On the term 'Modus' see Rudolf Kogel, Geschichte der dtutschen LitUratur bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters, 
I. 2, pp. 244-5, Strassburg, 1897 ; the same and Wilhelm Bruckner in Paul's Grundriss d. germ. Phil. »ii. i (1901-9), 
p. 133; Wilhelm Hertz, Spielmannsbuch, 3rd ed., Stuttgart and Berlin, 1905, pp. 46-47; Philip Schuyler Allen, I.e. 
p. 458. The four Modi are given in Mullenhoff und Scherer's Denkmdler, Nos. Xix-xxii, and in this edition 
as Nos. 2, 12, 22, 25. On the metre and style of part of these poems see the full discussion by Karl Bartsch in his 
book on Die lateinischen Sequemen des Mittelalters, Rostock, 1868 (before the publication of JafK's article), pp. 145-169. 

' See Jac. Grimm in his lutteiniscke Gedichte des x. und xi. Jahrhuruierts. Gottingen, 1838. Introd. pp. xliv sqq. 

' See Wilhelm Wackernagel, Altdeutsches Lesebuch, Basel, *i86i, pp. 109-12 ; Oscar Schade, Altdtutsches 
Lesebuch, Halle, 1862, pp. 60-61; Karl Goedeke, Deutsche Dichtung im Mittelalter, Dresden, '1871, p. 39; Karl 
Mullenhoff und Wilhelm Scherer, Denkmdler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem viii.-xii. Jahrhunderi, Berlin, '1864, 
'1873, '1892 (ed. Elias Steinmeyer), No. XVIII ; Paul Piper, Lesebuch des Althochdeutschen und Altsdchsischen, 
Paderbom, 1880, p. 189; Wilhelm BrSiUne, AlthocAdeu/sches Lesebuch, Halle, '1875, '191 1 (with useful bibliographical 



30 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

English, American and French scholars have co-operated with the Germans in many fruitful 
efforts in the way of publishing and elucidating the Cambridge poems, and in this praiseworthy 
emulation all alike have done excellent work. Among the large number of German scholars thus 
engaged we meet with the names of nearly all those learned men who during the last century 
did so much to start and develop a scientific study of the older German language and literature. 
Among- them we find Jacob Grimm, Pertz, Lachmann, Haupt, Wackernagel, Uhland, Schade, 
Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Frohner, Miillenhoff, Scherer, Jaff(6, Bartsch, and, at a later time, 
Kogel and von Winterfeld, not to mention the large array of scholars of repute who are still with 
us. To these must be added the names of Wright, Kemble, and du Meril, whose contributions 
will be mentioned, each in its proper place, in the following pages. 

While the majority of the scholars who edited and discussed certain numbers of the 
Cambridge collection were mainly interested in the historical and novelistic poems, and in the 
intricate metrical structure of those of them that were written in the form of Sequences, some 
paid special attention to certain remarkable erotic songs (viz. Levis exsurgit Zephirus — larn, dulcis 
arnica, venito ! — admirabile Veneris idoliim — and the extensively erased macaronic dialogue 
between a monk and a nun). These are in some cases but imperfectly preserved in our ' Canterbury 
Book ' and the text must be reconstructed, or at least improved, by comparison with some other 
early manuscripts containing the poem in a less mutilated form. 

The first editor, who published nine important historical songs from the Codex Cantabrigiensis, 
was Johann Georg Eccard. They had been sent to him from Cambridge, but unfortunately he 
omits to say from whom they were received. Eccard ', the author of a number of important 
antiquarian and historical works, who took a special interest in the history of the Salic 
emperors, published his Veterum Monumentorufti Quaternio at Leipzig, in 1720. In this book he 
printed (under Nos. 3 and 4) nine historical songs, most of which related to some old German 
(Saxon or Franconian) emperors. This early edition, in spite of many imperfections, is nevertheless 
a work of considerable importance, as by means of it the attention of the learned world was first 
drawn to the interesting collection of songs that had been sung long ago upon the banks of the 
Lower and Middle Rhine and the unique copy of which had ultimately found a place of honour 
on the shelves of the Library of the University of Cambridge. 

More than a hundred years, however, elapsed before the study of the ' Cambridge Songs ' 
was taken up in earnest. In 1827 G. H. Pertz came to Cambridge" and examined, among 

references). See also Hoffmann von Fallersleben's collection of macaronic poems under the title ' In dulci 
jubilo,' Hannover, ''1861, where it is printed after the text given by O. Schade in i860. It is given the first place as 
being the earliest poem of this kind in German literature that has come down to our times. See In dulci 
iubilo, pp. 3 sqq., 27-29, and O. Schade, Veterum monumentorum theotiscorum decas, Vimariae [i860], pp. 5-8. 

' On Eccard see the Allgetneine deutsche Biographie, Vol. v. 627-31, especially p. 630; and also Rudolf von 
Raumer, in his Geschichte der germanischen Philologie, Miinchen, 1870, pp. 168-73, especially p. 172. Johann 
Georg Eckhart used to spell his name Eccard before he was ennobled, after which time he printed it Johann 
Georg von Eckhart (1674-1730). His chief work is his Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis et episcopatus 
IVirceburgensis, 2 Vols, 1729. It only goes down to the time of King Konrad I and Bishop Dietho of Wiirzburg. 
Eccard died before he was able to complete it. He was specially interested in the poems 11-17. 

' Pertz's own account of his visit to Cambridge was printed in the Archiv fiir iilterc deutsche Geschichtskunde, 
Vol. vil (1839), pp. 1002-3 and makes interesting reading. In the introductory pages 16-17 Pertz says that he 
(together with Mr Richard Price) was in Cambridge in 1827 and, on the kind invitation of Mr Thomas Shelford, tutor 
of Corpus Christi College, stayed at Corpus from June 26 till July 13, during which time he examined the manuscripts 
of the University Library, Corpus Christi College, Trinity College, Caius College, Jesus College and Clare Hall. 



THE WORK DONE UPON THE CAMBRU^GE SONGS 31 

many other manuscripts, the bulky Codex Gg. 5. 35, which contains the songs. He noted down 
the beginnings of all the songs and also copied a number of them in full, which last he 
indicated in his list by printing their beginnings in italics. These were intended by him for 
later use in editing the Monumenta Germaniae historica, for which great work Pertz was then 
engaged in collecting material in many German and foreign libraries. The account of his 
extensive travels (including his visit to Cambridge) was not published until 1839, and no poems 
from the Cambridge collection were ever printed by Pertz himself But he seems to have allowed 
other scholars to see and make use of the copies of Cambridge poems made by him ; at least 
in 1829 Lachmann' printed the 'Modus Liebinc' and the 'Modus Ottinc' in a masterly recon- 
struction of their original form, for which a copy of the manuscript other than Eccard's had 
been made use of In 1830 Wackernagel gave a much improved form of the poem ' De 
HeinricoV in which, however, the division of the song into stanzas of four and three long lines 
each still remained unnoticed. This shortcoming of Wackernagel's text was subsequently (in 1833) 
set right by Lachmann, who also recognised that the song was a Leich '. Soon afterwards two 
more poems were published from the Cambridge manuscript, viz. the humorous pieces ' Alfrftd ' 
(No. 29 of the present edition) and ' Sacerdos et Lupus' (No. 28)*, which raised the number of 
the pieces that were easily accessible for study in 1838 from nine to eleven. 

In the forties of the last century fourteen of the poems were published and annotated 
by du M^ril in two of his valuable anthologies of Early Medieval Latin poetry", and in 
1859 Frohner reprinted and fully discussed six of them (all of which had previously been 
published) in an interesting essay contributed to Haupt's Zeitschrift filr deutsches Alterthum*. 
Eight, mostly merry tales of a novelistic character, but not a single love-song, were edited, 
in 1864, in critical texts and with very valuable notes (by Wilhelm Scherer) in the first issue 

' Karl Lachmann, Uber die Leiche tier deutschen Dichter des zu-olften und dreizehnten JahrhutuUrts, in the 
' Rheinisches Museum,' edited by Niebuhr and Brandis, Vol. ill (1829), pp. 430-3. Reprinted in Lachmann's 
Kleinere Schriften zur deutschen Philologie (ed. Karl Miillenhoff), Berlin, I (1876), 335-9. 

' Wilhelm Wackernagel's reconstruction first appeared in Heinrich Hoffmann's Fundgruben fiir Geschichle 
deutscher Sprache mid Lttteratur, l (Breslau, 1830), 340-1, and afterwards (1861) in his Old German Reader. 

' Karl Lachmann, ' Ober Singen und Sagen,' a paper read in the Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften on Nov. 26, 
1833. First printed, in the Abhandlungen der Berlinei Akademie fiir das Jahr 1833, in 1835. Reprinted in the Kltiture 
Schriften, on pp. 461 sqq. See it. p. 464. Lachmann's reconstruction of the poem was printed in R. A. K6pke's 
JahrbUcher des deutschen Reiches unter der Herrschaft Kiinig Ottos I, Berlin, 1838, on p. 97. 

* In 1836 by Moriz Haupt, in his Altdeutsche Bldtter, Leipzig, 1836, pp. 390-4, who was able to use a copy 
of two poems ('Heriger' and ' Alverad ') that had been sent to him by Thomas Wright; and in 1838 by Jacob 
Grimm, in the Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Jahrhunderts (edited jointly by Jacob Grimm and Andreas 
Schmeller, Gottingen, 1838), who had received fresh copies of four of the Cambridge poems from his devoted 
pupil and friend J. M. Kemble. See p. 343 of Grimm's book, in which the poems are printed on pp. 333-42, with 
the addition of some notes on pp. 343-5. The poems were : 'In obitum Heinrici II,' 'Heriger,' 'Alveradac asina,' 
' Sacerdos et Lupus.' Grimm's introduction to this edition is still worth reading. 

' Eddlestand du M^ril, Podsies populaires latines antMeures au douziime siicle, Paris, 1843, and, subsequently, 
Pohies populaires latines du moyen-dge, Paris, 1847; in the former du M^ril also published, from another source, two 
poems (our Nos. 27, 31) that are likewise found \n the Cambridge collection. See the lists given on p. 27. 

' Christian W. Frohner, 'Zur mittellateinischen Hofdichtung,' in Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum, 
XI (1859), 1-24. The poems given by him are: 'Modus qui et Carelmanninc,' 'Modus Florum,' 'In Heribertum,' 
'In obitum Heinrici II,' 'In Conradum Salicum,' 'In coronationem Heinrici III.' Seep. 27. Frohner emended 
Eccard's text in many cases and called special attention to the frequent use of alliteration in these poems. 



32 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

of Miillenhoff and Scherer's remarkable collection of all the minor Early German literary 
documents '. 

The collection was not made known to the learned world in its entirety until the year 1869, 
when Philipp Jaffe, who had visited Cambridge and had made fresh copies of all the poems, 
published his most valuable article on 'Die Cambridger Lieder' in Volume XIV of Haupt's 
Zeitschriff^. In this article all the poems of the Cambridge manuscript that had so far not been 
printed were given in critical and mainly trustworthy texts. Many faulty readings of the Codex 
were corrected by Jaff(f (the manuscript readings being in nearly all cases indicated in foot-notes), 
and as much of the partially erased pieces was printed as he had been able to decipher in 
September 1868. Jaffif gave 35 numbers, viz. 30 poems entire, two small pieces printed in his 
preliminary enumeration of the contents of the manuscript, and finally the fragments of the 
three partially erased poems. He omitted the poems that had already been well edited in 
the Denkmdler, and also the four extracts from the ancient Latin classics, but corrected a 
few erroneous readings in the former, and these corrections were soon afterwards (in 1873) 
utilized by Scherer in the second edition of the Denkmdler. 

When, in the autumn of 1884, I came to reside at Cambridge, my attention was soon given to 
two treasures of our University Library, the ' Cambridge Songs,' and the equally unique ' Culemann 
fragments' of the Middle Netherlandish Remaert, which early print was the immediate source 
of the Middle Low German Reinke de Vos'. With regard to the Songs I was anxious to 
learn whether, by prolonged effort, it might not be possible to make out in some cases more 
than Jaff6 had been able to do in 1868, and to suggest any further corrections in the texts 
as printed by this most careful scholar. It was my wish in this way to make a useful contri- 
bution to the third edition of the Denkmd/er, the earliest preparations for which were then 
just being made. Thus, in the spring of 1885, the songs were partly collated with Jaffa's 
text and partly copied afresh. Henry Bradshaw, whose memory will always live in my heart, 
took the kindliest interest in my work*, but would not consent to my use of a chemical reagent 
which I hoped might enable me to read some of the obliterated passages. All the collations, 
copies and tracings were, in May 1885, sent by me to Wilhelm Scherer, who, finding himself 
unable to undertake the editing of the new edition of the Denkmdler, passed them on to 

» Karl MuUenhoff und Wilhelm Scherer, Denkmdler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem viii.-xii. Jahrhundert 
(abbreviated M.S.D. or Denkm.), Berlin, 1864, 21873, ^1892- See p. 27. The eight poems were ' De Heinrico,' ' Modus 
qui et Carelmanninc,' ' Modus Florum,' ' Modus Liebinc,' ' Modus Ottinc,' ' Alfrad,' ' Heriger,' and ' Sacerdos et Lupus.' 
The last of these was omitted from the two later editions, as being a tale probably not of German but of French 
origin. It was replaced by the poem 'De Lantfrido et Cobbone.' Karl Bartsch, Lc, based his valuable observations 
on the texts of the first edition of the Denkmdler and of Frohner. 

' Ph. Jaff^, 'Die Cambridger Lieder,' in Haupt's Zeitsckrift /. d. Alterthum xiv (1869), 449-95 and 560. 

' See Friedrich Prien, in Paul and Braune's Beitrdge zur Geschichte der deutschen Spniclie und Literaiur, 
Vol. VUI (1880), 8 sqq., his edition of Reinke de Vos, Halle, 1887, Introd. pp. xii-xiii and pp. 267-73, and my article 
'Zu den Cambridger Reinaertfragmenten ' in Paul and Braune's Beitrdge, Vol. xiv (1886), 377-8. 

* JafK had already dedicated the offprints of his article to Henry Bradshaw, and I feel a special pleasure 
in gratefully dedicating this book to the two kind and ever helpful Librarians of our University Library who have 
mvariably and most generously placed their time and knowledge at the disposal of all scholars working at the 
valuable manuscripts under their charge, and who have taken a special interest in the ' Canterbury Book,' as our 
Codex Gg. 5. 35 is sometimes called. On Bradshaw see Englische Sdtdien, x (1887), 211-14 and xiii (1889), 162-3. 



THE WORK DONE UPON THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 33 

Elias Steinmeyer', while the main results of my modest gleanings after ]&ff€s rich harvest were 
published by me in Volume XXX of Haupt's Zeitschrift*. 

In 1896 Robert Priebsch gave a fresh account of the manuscript (with special reference 
to the portion containing the songs) in the first volume of his excellent work on Deutsche Hand- 
schriften in England^. Priebsch had spent some time at Cambridge early in 1894. 

The last contribution to the study of the Cambridge collection as a whole was made in 
the following year (1897), when Paul Piper, in his Nachtrdge zur dlteren deutschen Literalur, 
printed a literal transcript of all the poems without any omission and in the exact order in 
which they are given on folios 432-41 of the manuscript*. 

Only a very few of the scholars who have written about the Cambridge collection, or about 
individual songs, or passages from the songs, contained in it, have themselves set eyes on 
the manuscript. In the case of most of the poems this matters little, and JaflTif's and Piper's 
reprints are generally sufficient for purposes of ordinary study. With regard, however, to some 
of the partially erased poems and to certain lines that have become illegible by the efface- 
ment of important letters, reference to the manuscript itself, side by side with an absolutely 
trustworthy transcript, becomes of the very greatest importance. This remark applies with special 
force to the two macaronic poems of the collection, the oldest of their kind in German literature, 
both of which have come down to us only in the Codex Cantabrigiensis. Here the correct 
reading of certain obliterated lines and letters and accurate information about the space once 
occupied by certain words and letters is most important. In the case of the contested 
passage in ' De Heinrico' ' it is a curious fact that the reading bruother hera kunigluh, as 
first printed by Eccard in 1720, was never doubted (either by Pertz, or even by Jaffid) until 
1885, when I informed Scherer by letter, enclosing a tracing, that only bn was legible at 
the end of one line (fol. 437'^ 1. 36). This information was passed on by him to Steinmeyer, 
who was the first to propose the reading bringit her instead of bruother. See Denkmdler 
II, 106. Nearly all the scholars who since that time have discussed this important passage and 
suggested emendations of it, have done so without consulting the manuscript. 

The only English scholars who have copied songs from this part of the manuscript are the 
unknown transmitter to Eccard of the nine historical songs', and also Wright and Kemble'. So far 

• They were fully utilized by Steinmeyer for the third edition of the DenkmaUr (Berlin, 1892). See his notes 
to the individual songs in Volume 11. 

" Karl Breul, 'Zu den Cambridger Liedem,' in Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deulsckes Alterthum, Vol. XXX (1886), 
186-92. See also my note on I. 7 of ' De Heinrico' in the Anzeiger fur deutsches Alterthum., xxiv (1898), 59, 
and the article originally published by me, in March 1898, in The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature^ 
I. I, which is now reprinted, with various alterations and additions, on pp. 102-11 of this book. 

' See Chapter 11 p. 21. To his careful description Priebsch added a few illuminating pages on the contested 
passage in 'De Heinrico' (see also his note in the Anzeiger f. d. Alterthum XX (1894), 207 before the publication of his 
book). The many speculations and special investigations concerning the poem between 1885 and 1914 cannot be 
enumerated in this pl&ce, but the necessary bibliographical references are given in full in Chapter vii. 

* Piper's reprints of the 'Cambridge Songs' (in Vol. 162 of Kurschner's Deutsche National- Literatur) are not 
always trustworthy, as unfortunately his very short stay at Cambridge obliged him to do his work in a very limited 
time (Dec. 25 and 26, 1895). Wherever my transcript differs from his, reference to the photographic facsimile 
will show the reason of the discrepancy. For Piper's reprint of the Wolfenbiittel MS. see p. 36, note I. 

^ About this passage see Chapter vii pp. 102 sqq. • See pp. 30 and 105, note 2. 

' See p. 31, note 4. In the Altdeutsche Blatter 1 (1836), 394 Haupt says: 'Wir verdanken die Mitteilung 
dieser Lieder der zuvorkommenden Gvite des Herrn Thomas Wright in London, der sie aus einer Handschrift 

B. E 



34 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

as I know, the only German scholars, who have closely examined the part of the manuscript that 
contains the songs, are Pertz (in 1827), Jaff^ (1868), Breul (1885- ), Priebsch (1894), and Piper(i895). 

B. Photographic Reproductions 

If autopsy of the manuscript is impossible, good photographic reproductions may render 
the greatest assistance. Only a few poems, or passages from poems, have so far been made 
generally accessible by means of photographic reproductions, and these are all poems or passages 
the reading of which presents no difficulty. They are merely specimens of the neat and clear 
handwriting that is characteristic of the whole collection". 

C. Translations 

Apart from the renderings, in prose, of a few songs or passages from the songs, in critical 
articles or in histories of literature, and apart from translations of the extracts culled from 
the ancient Latin classics, only a few verse translations of certain poems have so far been 
made in spite of the undoubted literary merit of at least a dozen of them. They do not 
seem to be sufficiently well known outside of the small circle of specialists. Renderings have 
been made by Symonds, Allen, Heyne, Traube, Miiller-Fraureuth, von Winterfeld, Schubiger, 
Pfliiger, Simrock'. It is hoped that the present edition of this earliest Latin Song book, made 
up from various sources by a versatile Rhenish goliard, may tempt some congenial spirit, after 
the lapse of nearly 900 years, to render con amore in one of the modern vernaculars all such 
of the old Cambridge songs as are of undoubted literary value and of abiding human interest. 

der oflfentlichen Bibliothek zu Cambridge abgeschrieben hat.' John Mitchell Kemble, 'the recognised exponent 
of the investigations of Jacob Grimm' (see the Dictionary of National Biography, XXX, 371), copied the poems in 
the University Library and entered a few observations, signed J. M. K., in a clear hand. See p. 24, note i. 

1 Ludwig Traube reproduced the Cambridge (and the Vatican) manuscript of ' O admirabile Veneris idolum ' 
(No. 34 ; see the note to this poem on p. 92). Friedrich Vogt (in the illustrated Geschichte der deutschen Literatur 
von den dltesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, written by him and Max Koch, Leipzig) gives on p. 56 of the first 
volume ('1910) the latter half of 'De Heinrico' (fol. 437'*, 11. 1-23, our No. 11), thus omitting the more interesting 
first portion containing the contested lines. Anselm Salzer, in his Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Literatur 
von den dltesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, Miinchen, no date [1912], Vol. I. loo-ioi, gives specimens of two 
poems (our Nos. 31 and 39), which are all easy reading. Photographic facsimiles of the important beginning 
of ' De Heinrico,' including the contested passage, were sent by me privately, at the end of 1902, as Christmas 
cards to a number of Germanisten, whom I knew to be interested in the poem. I also sent (in 1895), at his request, 
several photographs of fol. 437' to H. Meyer at Gottingen. See Niederd. Jahrbuch, xxill, 74 and HZ. 47, 434. 
Reproductions (with neumes) of two manuscripts of Invitatio amice (No. 33) and of the beginning of the Modus 
Ottinc (No. 12) were given by E. de Coussemaker, Histoire de Vharmonie au moyen-dge. See p. 92. 

' John Addington Symonds, Wine, Women and Song. Mediaval Latin Students' Songs, now first translated 
into English verse, with an essay, by J. A. S., London, 1884, ^1907. Reprinted, as No. 35, in the series 'The King's 
Classics,' London, 1907. Has only one Cambridge poem (No. 33). Mostly translations from the CVjr;«/«a .5/<ra«a. Philip 
Schuyler Allen gives a few renderings in his articles in Modern Philology, in. v. Moritz Heyne, Altdeutsch-lateinische 
Spielmannsgedichte des 10. Jahrhunderts. Filr Liebhaber des deutschen Altcrtums iibertragen, Gottingen, 1900. Ludwig 
Traube translated 'O admirabile Veneris idolum' in his fine article which bears the title 'O Roma nobilis,' 'Philolo- 
gische Untersuchungen aus dem Mittelalter.' Munchen, 1891. See p. 92. Carl Muller-Fraureuth, Die deutsc/ten 
Liigendichtungen bis auf Munchhausen, Halle, 1881. Paul von Winterfeld, Deutsche Dichter des lateinischen Mittel- 
alters in deutschen Versen, Munchen, 1913. P. Anselm Schubiger, Die Sdngerschule St Gallens vom achten bis zum 
swolfUn Jahrhundert, Einsiedeln und New York, 1858. W. Pfluger, Wipo. Das' Leben Kaiser Konrad II, Leipzig, 
="1888. Karl Simrock, Lauda Sion, Stuttgart, ^1868. 



MEDIEVAL LATIN LYRICS IN GERMANY 35 

CHAPTER IV 
Medieval Latin Lyrics in Germany and the 'Cambridge Songs' 

During five centuries of the Middle Ages, Latin poetry claims a place in German 
literature'. From the ninth to the thirteenth century a considerable body of such poetry, epic, 
lyric, and dramatic, was produced by Germans on German soil ; much also was imported by them 
from France and Italy, and ministered to the enjoyment of courts and monasteries beside works 
of native growth. Among the examples of this poetry the Collection which is now preserved 
at Cambridge holds a place of honour. 

In the great ma-ss of Latin literature produced in Germany during these centuries four 
periods may roughly be distinguished, of which the second is best represented by the 'Cambridge 
Songs '. The earliest is mainly represented by the Carolingian Court Poetry, which flourished at the 
end of the eighth and during part of the ninth century. The Latin productions of the scholars 
and literary men who grouped themselves round the great Charles are mainly learned in character 
and, on the whole, of little originality. No real popular lyrics in the German tongue have come 
down to our times from this period, although there is little doubt that such lyrics must have 
been in existence. The Latin lyrics, of which a considerable number have been preserved and 
published', are on the whole imitations of ancient classical poetry, the playful productions of 
learned men who skilfully, but somewhat coldly, made use of the traditional classical forms 
and whose work was of but little national interest Certainly the verses of these courtiers and 
scholars are less important for the development of German literature than the productions of 
some gifted writers in the next period. 

The second period is the time in which the new Medieval Renaissance in Germany reached 
its climax. It was at its height under the Ottos in the second half of the tenth', and extended 
into the first third of the eleventh, century, when, with the death of the first Salic emperor 
(Konrad II, -f- 1039), Latin ceased to be generally understood in good society and at the courts 
of Germany, and when, at least for a time, the Latin songs of the gifted but often very 
disorderly members of the familia Goliae, the ' Goliards ' or clerici vagabundi, found more re- 
stricted and less favourably disposed audiences*. While, during the period of the Saxon 

' The Latin literature of modern times, beginning with the xvith century, the productions of men like Hutten, 
Hessus, Frischlin, Naogeorg, Balde, and others, does not come within the compass of this discussion. They belong 
to the modem Renaissance Movement in Germany. The purpose of the present chapter is merely to assign, very 
briefly, to the 'Cambridge Songs' their proper place within the large number of lyrics that were written in Germany 
up to the middle of the Xlllth century. For a full discussion of medieval Latin literature to looo A.I)., sec Adolf Ebert, 
Allgcmeine Geschichte der Liter atur cUs Mittelalters im Abendlande, Leipzig, 3 vols., 'l, 1889; II, 1880; MI, 1887. 

^ .See Poetae aevi Carolini, Vols. i-iv. i, 1880-1899, edited most ably by Ernst Dummler, Ludwig Traube, 
and Paul von Winterfeld. See also A. Ebert, l.c. Vol. 11 (1880). Some poems of this early time have been well 
translated by Paul von Winterfeld. See also Philip Schuyler Allen in Modem Philology, v. 3 (January, 1901), 463 sqq. 

' See F. A. Specht, Geschichte des Unterrichtswesens in Deuischland, Stuttgart, 1885, and W. Wattenbach, 
Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelaltcr bis zur Mitte des xiii. Jahrhunderts, 2 vols., Berlin, •1893-4. 

♦ .^bout the goliards and goliardic poetry, see W. Giesebrecht, 'Die Vaganten oder Goliarden und ihre Lieder' 
(an article published in the Allgemeine Monatschrift fur Wissenschaft und Litteratur, Braunschweig, 1853). With 
regard to this fundamental article see Ph. Schuyler Allen, in Modem Philology, V (1908), 444 sqq.; also ibid, VI 
(1909), 400 sqq. See also O. Hubatsch, Die lateinischen Vagantenlieder des Mittelalters, Gdrlitz, 1870; Ludwig 
Laistner, Golias, Studentenlieder des Mittelalters, Stuttgart, 1879 (Introduction, and pp. 97-99); Wilhelm Hertz, 

£ 3 



36 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

Ottos, we do not yet meet upon German soil with any true lyrics written in the vernacular, 
yet many Latin poems are obviously full of the true German spirit; and in the earliest 
macaronic poems, which were probably composed in the second half of the tenth century, 
the vernacular is mixed with the Latin. Instead of the quantitative and rimeless metres of 
the ancient classical writers of Rome and their Carolingian imitators we now find rhythmical 
and often rimed lyrics of great beauty, and the Cambridge Collection, which almost alone has 
preserved these early poems for us, represents the springtime of modern accentual lyric poetry 
in Germany'. The poems, although written in easy and polished Latin, are original, natural, 
and not infrequently remind the reader of the heartfelt strains of true popular poetry. Several 
indeed of the ' Cambridge Songs ' may be considered as direct forerunners of the early 
Minnesong'. The importance of the new literary type of the sequences for the poetry of this 
period is very great. The peculiar style of the sequence made for originality of form and 
expression ; it broke away from all recognised patterns of classical antiquity, and before long 
this form of poetry, that had been invented and studiously developed within the Church and for 
poetry connected with its services, was successfully adapted by the clerici vagabundi for the artistic 
treatment of every kind of secular subject'. This is clearly seen in the ' Cambridge Songs *.' 
During this period not only did lyrics written in Latin abound in Germany, but epic poetry 
also, represented by the Waltharius, the Ruodlieb, and the Ecbasis cuiusdani captivi, flourished 
by their side, while somewhat earlier the nun Hrotsvith of Gandersheim, a relative of the 

Spielmannsbuch, Stuttgart-Berlin, ^1905, pp. 4-5 ; Anton Schonbach, ' Fahrende Kleriker' (in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener 
Akademie, Philos.-Histor. Kl., XLll. 84-89) ; Wilhelm Gundlach, Barbarossa-Lieder, Innsbruck, 1899, pp. 770 sqq. The 
goliards should be distinguished from the mimes. On the mimes see Ph. Schuyler Allen in Modern Philology, vii (1910), 
329-44 and vill (1910), 1-60. The best explanation of the term ' goliard ' is that given by Gaston Paris in the Bibliothiqite 
de r^cole des Chartes, Vol. L (1889), 258-60 ; see also John M. Manly, ' Familia Goliae ' in Modern Philology, V (1907), 
201-9. That goliards were found as early as the tenth century is clear from a sentence of condemnation passed on 
certain French clerici ribaldi maxime qui vulgo dicuntur de familia Goliae (Labbe's Concilia, ix. 578, quoted in 
Thomas Wright's Introduction to the Latin Poems commonly ascribed to Walter Mapes, London, 1841, p. xiii. note). 

' The songs are mainly preserved in two manuscripts, one at Wolfenbiittel and the other at Cambridge. 
The Wolfenbuttel manuscript (W), which may be slightly older than the Codex Cantabrigiensis (C), contains 
nothing that is not also found in C. It only gives 4 poems, and the names of their interesting melodies, as against 
the 47 pieces of the Cambridge Collection. Even after the 4 extracts from the ancient classical writers have been 
deducted, C still contains more than 40 specimens of early medieval Latin poetry. As to their subjects see Chapter v. 
The poems from the Wolfenbuttel manuscript were first made known by Friedrich Adolf Ebert (in the Uber- 
iieferungen zur Geschichte, Literatur und Kunst der Vor- und Mitwelt, I. i, pp. 72-82, Dresden, 1826) under the title 
'Alte lateinische Volkslieder der Deutschen.' These were the 'Modus qui et Carelmanninc' (pp. 77-79); '.Modus 
Florum' (pp. 79-80) ; 'Modus Liebinc' (pp. 80-81); 'Modus Ottinc' (pp. 81-82). They were printed by Ebert as prose 
'in diplomatisch treuer Abschrift und mit der Interpunktion des Originals.' The poems are without any musical 
notation except the first 3 lines of the 'Modus Ottinc' The four 'Modi' were reprinted, from a copy taken by himself 
and another collation by Alfred Holder, by Paul Piper, on pp. 234-7 of his Nachtrdge zur dlteren deutschen Litteratur. 
A few other poems of the Cambridge collection are met with (sometimes in a better state of preservation) in 
one other early manuscript, while some of the most important are not found anywhere else. See Chapter vi. 

* See Chapter v pp. 40 and 63-4. 

» See W. Meyer, Fragmenta liurana, p. 174. But Meyer somewhat overstates his case and fails to attach sufficient 
importance to another kind of lyrics in our Collection, which is altogether free from any influence of the sequence but 
is simple and popular, obviously inspired by popular poetry in the vernacular which is now lost to us. See also 
PauW. Winterfeld, I.e. p. 489, and Ph. Schuyler Allen in Modern Philology, v, 429 and vi, 403. 

See Nos. 2, 12, 22, and 25 of our Collection, in which No. 2 represents the original type of the sequence, 
and No. 25 shows to what an extent the new form was used for the treatment of amusing secular subjects. 



MEDIEVAL LATIN LYRICS IN GERMANY 37 

Emperor Otto I, wrote for the edification of her contemporaries her short and effective Latin 
dramas '. These are, however, earlier than most of the Cambridge Songs. 

The third period of early Latin lyrics in Germany produced at least one singer of true 
genius, of whose real name we are ignorant, but who called himself, and was called by his con- 
temporaries, the ' Arch-poet,' Archipoeta'. He wsis a cleriats vagabundus and wrote, among other 
brilliant pieces, the famous ' Confession of a Goliard,' which he addressed to his jovial and 
indulgent patron, Reginald of Dassel, Barbarossa's great chancellor, subsequently Archbishop of 
Cologne. The Archipoeta sang many of his spirited songs on Italian soil in the presence of 
the Chancellor, and at least one before Frederic the Redbeard*. His poems were written about 
the same time at which there burst forth from every corner of South and Middle Germany the 
graceful songs of the early Minnesinger (second half of the twelfth century), and it is worthy 
of note that the great Staufer Frederic not only listened readily to the Latin songs of this goliard, 
but also lent a willing ear to the German lays composed by a noble singer of the Rhine district, 
Friderich von HOsen. Hfisen was not only a Minnesinger of repute, but a gallant knight, and, 
moreover, a personal friend of the emperor. He took part in the Crusade of 11 89 and went 
with Barbarossa's host to the Holy Land, where he was killed on May 6, 1190, only a few weeks 
before the aged emperor himself perished in the icy currents of the river Saleph*. 

The fourth and last period represents the rich summer and full bloom of Medieval Latin 
lyric poetry in Germany, which is illustrated by the important collection of the Carmina Burana, 
compiled in Bavaria about 1225. Parallel with it runs the splendid development of the German 
Minnesong, the greatest representative of which, Walther von der Vogelweide, probably died at 
or near VVurzburg, about 1228. After the first third of the thirteenth century there is a 
decline in both kinds of lyric poetry in Germany. Like the 'Cambridge Songs,' the Carmina 

' See Paul von Winterfeld, I.e. pp. 103 sqq. He also edited her dramas (Berlin, 1902). For a full bibliography 
see Max Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, Vol. I. § 107, pp. 619-32, Miinchen, 191 1. 

" See Jacob Grimm, 'Gedichte des Mittelalters auf Konig Friedrich I, den Staufer, und aus seiner sowie der 
nachstfolgenden Zeit' (Address read to the Berlin Academy in 1843, and reprinted, not without many mistakes in the 
text of the poems, in J. Grimm's KUinere Schriften, Vol. ill pp. 13-35, 49-73)- See also L. Laistner, Golias, Introd. 
pp. xiii-xiv, and pp. 10 sqq.; 103 sqq., where an excellent rendering of the spirited 'Confessio Goliae' is given, 
P. V. Winterfeld, I.e. pp. 29, 120, 124 sqq., the literary references given by Ph. Schuyler Allen in Modern Philology, 
V (1908), p. 446, n. 3, and now especially B. Schmeidler's article 'Zum Archipoeta' in Hislorische Vierteljahrschrift, 
XIV (191 1), 367-95, in which the latest literature on the subject is given and where mistakes of previous writers are 
corrected. See also B. Schmeidler, Die Gedichte des Archipoeta ubersetst und erldutert. Leipzig, 191 1 ; capital 
renderings of the nine principal poems (written between 1161-64), with good introduction and notes. The excellent 
article by W. Meyer on the somewhat older famous French goliard ' Die Oxforder Gedichte des Primas (des 
Magister Hugo von Orleans)' in the Nachrichten von der Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gbttingen, \cyyj, pp. 75-'75. also 
contains good notes on the German Archipoeta (on pp. 88, 170-2). See also W. Gundlach, l.c. pp. 773-*9- At this 
same time the poetry of the Troubadours flourished in the valleys of Provence. The authorship of the lyrics 
ascribed to Walter Map (a bom Welshman) is exceedingly doubtful. See Th. Wright, Latin Poems commonly 
ascribed to Walter Afapes, London, 1841, and Sir John Sandys, in the Cambridge History of English Literature, 
I (1907), 189 and 191. The famous lines 'Meum est propositum in tabema mori,' sometimes ascribed to Map, 
belong to the 'Archipoeta,' who wrote the 'Confessio Goliae' at Pavia, of which remarkable poem they form part 

' See J. Grimm, Kl. Schri/ten, III. 66-70; P. v. Winterfeld, l.c. pp. 126-8; and Schmeidler's transl. pp. 38 sqq. 

« See the references given in Kari Lachmann and Moriz Haupt, Des Minnesangs Friihling {M.F.) (last 
edition, largely re-written, 1911, by Friedrich Vogt), No. IX pp. 42-58 ; 322-32. In Af.F. all the poetry of Hfisen that 
has come down to our times is printed in critically edited texts. A few of his poems have been translated by Frank 
Nicholson, Old German Love Songs, London, 1907, pp. 17-21 ; and by J. Bithell, The Minnesingers, London, 1909. PP- 27-30- 



;i8 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

Burana^ are an international collection in which are contained Latin songs composed by French 
and Italian goliards as well as a considerable number evidently written in Germany by German 
vagrant clerks. It is by far the largest and most varied collection of Medieval Latin lyrics made 
on German soil'. Many of the poems contained in it go back to the twelfth century or to even 
earlier timesl One piece is in part found among the 'Cambridge Songs*.' In this interesting 
manuscript, the contents of which are written by more than six different scribes, many early 
German lyrics stand side by side on the same folio with Latin songs ; and, as in the Cambridge 
Codex, there are several macaronic songs, usually of a loose and erotic character. In wit and 
elegance of diction these gifted, learned and light-hearted goliards are worthy rivals of the 
knightly Troubadours and Minnesingers, and many of their spirited songs, .so full of the exuberant 
joy of life, are to-day as fresh and as irresistibly charming as they were when they were first 
sung, seven hundred years ago, on the high-roads and in green meadows, at banquets in the 
monasteries and before large gatherings at the courts of bishops and princes. 

The large Beuern Collection is a systematic compilation, drawn from many sources, like the 
great Minnesinger manuscripts that were compiled in South Germany or Switzerland at a some- 
what later date. After the compilation of the manuscript of the Carmina Burana there was an 
end to the general vogue of this kind of poetry, although Latin songs and macaronic ditties 
were never quite absent from German literature, even in its later periods. 

CHAPTER V 

The Goliard's Song Book 

In the following pages an attempt is made to group the pieces of the Codex Cantabrigiensis 
in a systematic way and thus to make of the older and shorter Cambridge collection a similarly 
well-arranged song book to that so carefully made by the compilers of the Carmina Burana. 
In order to represent the whole of the repertoire of our goliard', the few short and well- 
known extracts from Horace, Virgil and Statius which figure in it have not been rejected 
(as they were by Jaff"(^), but will be found inserted in their proper places among the later 
pieces. The poems are printed in this chapter in improved texts for which, first and foremost, 

' They were first edited (at Jacob Grimm's suggestion) by J. A. Schmeller (from the celebrated manuscript that was 
originally the property of the Benedictine Monastery of Beuern (Benediktbeuern) in the Bavarian highlands, now 
preserved in the Royal Library at Munich) under the title Carmina Burana, Breslau, 1847, ^1883, ^1904. Some 
lost portions of this cdlection, on 7 scattered and mutilated leaves, were subsequently discovered and published by 
Wilhelm Meyer as Fragmetita Burana, Berlin, 1901 (with 15 plates). Meyer added to this important publication 
a valuable introduction, partly reprinted in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur mitteUaieinischen Rythmik, I (1905), 
1-58. Many poems from the Carmina Burana were well translated into English by John Addington Symonds in 
Wine, Women and Song, 1884 (see p. 34, note 2), and into German by Ludwig Laistner in his Golias, Stuttgart, 1879. 
See also Bernhard Lundius, 'Deutsche Vagantenlieder in den C. B.' in Zs. f. d. Phil., Vol. 39 (1907), 330-493. 

* The Zurich MS. (ed. by Jakob Werner, Beitrdge zur lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters. Aarau, ^1905) 
cannot be called a German collection as it was compiled in France, and the Herdringen MS. (published by A. Bomer 
in Haupt's Zs. f. d. A., Vol. 49 (1908), 161-238), written at Lifege, is also largely drawn from French sources. 

^ See Wilhelm Meyer, Fragmenta Burana, p. 17. 

* See the note to No. 41 ('De mensa Philosophic') of the 'Cambridge Songs,' p. 97. 

' It cannot be proved beyond doubt, but it seems very probable that the collection really was a song book and 
a commonplace book compiled by a clericus vagaiundus. 



THE GOLIARD'S SONG BOOK 39 

JafK's excellent article in Haupt's Zeitschrift has been used throughout. The third edition 
of Miillenhoff and Scherer's Denkmdler, and various publications by du M^ril, Meyer, Traube, 
V. Winterfeld, Schroder, Dreves, and others, have also been laid under contribution. The actual 
readings of the manuscript can in all cases be ascertained by referring to pages 3-22. Fuller 
information will be found in each case in the bibliographical references of the next chapter. 

The principle according to which the pieces have been grouped in the present chapter is as 
follows. The 47 pieces fall into seven sub-divisions containing {a) religious (10) ; {b) historical 
and personal (u); {c) novelistic and humorous poems (8); {d) poems on spring and love (9, four 
of which are partly erased); {e) didactic (5); (/) classical (3, and one put under Move'); 
{g) some unconnected lines that appear to be nothing but metrical experiments. 

It is clear that in the ten folios of the Codex Cantabrigiensis we possess a unique collection 
of early medieval poems, nearly all written in Latin, which language at that time was equally 
well known at the courts and in the monasteries. It comprises many different specimens of 
the smaller literary genres, whether of German or foreign origin, that would be of interest 
whether to laity or clergy living on the banks of the middle and lower Rhine in the first 
half of the eleventh century. Men and women, old and young, scholars and politicians, 
soldiers and hunters, the grave and the frivolous — all were sure to find in this collection some 
pieces to interest them, and the versatile goliard would at all times know how to select from 
his rich and varied stock just the songs that would appeal most to the tastes of his very 
heterogeneous audiences. These he would find at the courts of the Emperors and of the 
princes and prelates of the Rhineland, in large and in humble religious foundations, at banquets 
and social gatherings where the wandering minstrel, the bringer of interesting news and the 
singer of stirring and of facetious songs, was always sure of a welcome. 

The collection includes songs on religious subjects, such as praises of Christ and Mary, 
praises of patron saints and pious inmates of religious houses, and songs hailing the approach 
of some great festival day of the Church. There are not a few historical and personal poems 
referring to memorable events that had occurred during the second half of the tenth and the 
first half of the eleventh century, the principal figures being Saxon and Franconian Emperors 
and several Rhenish Archbishops ; there is also a simple and heartfelt poem of rejoicing at 
the recovery of a beloved queen, probably composed by a lettered lady at court. These 
are all poems of genuine German growth, and the date or place of their original composition 
is in most cases clearly traceable; in one case (No. 17) we even know the name of the 
author'. There is a considerable number of poems in which novelistic and humorous themes are 
treated, the subjects of some of which were foreign in origin and of greater antiquity than 
the songs of the previous class. Several well-known novelistic subjects are met with for 
the first time in German literature among the Latin songs of our Cambridge collection, although 
some of them may claim either Italy or France as the land of their origin. The story of the 
snow-child, the tale of the two devoted friends, the legend of the luckless youth who made 
a compact with the devil in order to win the hand of the girl he loved, and who never- 
theless was ultimately saved from the clutches of the evil one, the amusing account of good 
Bishop Heriger's close examination of an impudent braggart who asserted that he had visited 
heaven and hell, the jesting tale of a cunning Swabian arch-liar, some amusing anecdotes of 
priests, hermits and nuns, the humorous story of a parish priest and a wolf — such songs were 
at all times certain to delight large audiences, and were, moreover, probably set to attractive 
• We also know the names of the authors of the poems No. 4, 7, 27 and 31. 






40 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

melodies'. Some contemplative and didactic poems for the older and more sedate are not wanting 
in th% collection. These include poems on music and philosophy. Some very pathetic extracts 
from 'the epics of Virgil and Statius show what kinds of passages from the ancient classical 
writers of Rome appealed most' to the taste of the courtiers and noble ladies during the 
height of the new Medieval Renaissance movement in Germany. Finally, there are not wanting 
songs dealing with the charms of spring, the sweet voice of the nightingale, the love-longing 
of a lonely maiden, the tempting invitation of a lover to his mistress to come to a feast at 
his well-appointed house, and other erotic songs, some of which, however, were subsequently 
blacked with an infusion of galls and partly erased by the austere brotherhood who owned 
the manuscript and evidently felt strong objections to such wanton and frivolous songs. 

These Latin love- poems, in rhythmical and rimed stanzas of simple and musical 
structure, are a clear proof that in the early eleventh century poems existed and were sung 
along the banks of the Rhine which in style and spirit are the forerunners of those which 
about 200 years later are met with in the Carmina Bnrana, and to some extent also in the 
German songs of Minnesangs Friihling\ In two cases the text is provided with neum-accents. 
Two poems are written in macaronic style — half Latin and half German, these being the 
oldest specimens of this remarkable style in German literature^. Along with them must be 
grouped the much-discussed short love-greeting from Ruodlieb*. One of the two macaronic 
poems of our collection is a political ballad in the form of a ' leich ' ; the other, almost entirely 
erased and most effectively blacked, is nothing less than a dialogue between a cleric and a 
nun who, however, apparently rejected the amorous pleadings of the monk. Of the poems 
written in Latin only, some have the conventional and polished form of the ancient classical 
metres (hexameters, elegiacs, Horatian odes) ; others, the subject-matter of which varies very 
considerably, exhibit the elaborate metrical system of sequences ; while others again are composed 
in popular accentual metres with the modern embellishment of rime. See pages 28-9. 

Our clericus vagabundus, during his wanderings from place to place in the pleasant country 
round the Rhine and the Moselle, may have drawn on his storehouse of songs and poems 
somewhat in the following way : 

• See the interesting account given by the satiric poet Sextus Amarcius who wrote about 1046, probably at 
Speier on the Rhine. Amarcius mentions the subjects of four poems that were sung by a mime before a Rhenish 
audience, and no less than three of these songs (Nos. 22, 31, 41) are actually found among the songs of the 
Cambridge Collection. Cp. Sexti Amarcii Galli Piosistrati Sermonum libri IV, ed. Max. Manitius, Leipzig, 1888. The 
interesting description of the arrival of the mime {mimus, 1. 428 ; locator, 1. 424) and the delivery of his songs is 
given in Book I especially in 11. 424-43; Wilhelm Scherer, Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung im xi. und xii. 
Jahrhundert, Strassburg, 1875, P- 16; Paul v. Winterfeld, Deutsche Dichter des lateinischen Mittelalters, Miinchen, 

•9' 3. PP- 490-'; Ludwig Traube in the Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum, xv (1889), 200. 

' See p. 36 and the able articles of Ph. Schuyler Allen in Vols. Ill and v of Modern Philology. 

' On the macaronic poetry in German literature see Hoffmann von Fallersleben, In dulci jubilo, Hannover, ^1861, 
the valuable supplementary article by Johannes Bolte, also called 'In dulci jubilo,' and contributed by him to the 
Festgabe an Karl Weinhold, Leipzig, 1896, pp. 91 sqq., and Emil Henrici, Sprachmischung in dlterer Dichtung 
Deutschlands, Berlin, 1913. See also the general remarks made on this kind of poetry by Eddlestand du Mdril, 
Po/sies populaires latines ant^rieurcs au douziime siicle, Paris, 1843, pp. 100-2. 

♦ The love-greeting of a noble lady is given in Miillenhoff and Scherer's Denkmdler as No. xxvill. Cp. the 
notes in Vol. 11 of the third edition (1892). See also the discussion of it in H. Paul's Grundriss der germanischen 
Philologie, hi. i, 138 (by R. Kogel); R. K6gc\,Altdeuische Literatur, i. 2, 139 and 398. K. Liersch, in Haupt's Zeitschrift 

fur deutsches Alterthum, Vol. 36 (1892), 1 54 sqq. ; see the well-considered remarks, directed against him, of Ph. Schuyler 
Allen in Modern Philology, v. 3 (Jan. 1908), 435-6. A photographic facsimile of the love-greeting may be found in 
E. Petzet and O. Glauning, Deutsche Schrifttafeln des ix. bis xvi. Jahrhunderts, II Abteilung, Munchen, 191 1, Tafel 16, a. 



THE GOLIARD'S SONG BOOK 41 

Arriving at the court of a great prince the goliard would either judiciously select, according 
to circumstances, some joyous song such as the one on the coronation of a new emperor (No. 15): 
Melos cttncti concinnantes; or would impart or repeat the sad news of the premature death of the 
same well-beloved emperor by reciting some stanzas of Wipo's doleful nenia (No. 17): Qui habet 
vocem serenam ; or, finding himself among friends and adherents of the late Duke Henry of 
Bavaria, he would extol his merits and the great honour shown him by the emperor himself by 
reciting the old macaronic ballad on the meeting of Henry and the emperor (No. ii): Nunc 
almus assis filius tfuro etiuigero thiemun ! At a certain religious foundation of nuns, the patron- 
saint of which was Saint Cecilia, he would sing (No. 9): Emicat quanta pietate Cecilia sancta! 
while, before a bishop, he might choose the fine sequence on the life of our Lord which was 
set to the popular melody called the 'Modus qui et Carelmanninc ' (No. 2): Inclito celorum laus sit 
digna deo ! Among the jovial brotherhood of a monastery he would in a spirited manner recite 
after dinner some amusing tale such as the story of the snow-child, the famous 'Modus Liebinc' 
(No. 22): Advertite, omnes populi, ridiculum! or the humorous tale of the silly young monk who 
wished to become an angel (No. 27) : In vitis patrum veterum, or of the priest and the wolf 
(No. 28) : Quibtis ludiis est in animo, or of Sister Alfrad and her she-ass (No. 29) : Est unus locus 
Hoinburh dictus. Leaving the monastery and proceeding once more to a great court, the goliard 
would entertain a large audience of lords and ladies with the marvellous story of the two staunch 
friends, Lantfrid and Cobbo (No. 24) : Oninis sonus cantilene, or of the love-sick youth who 
in despair promised his soul to the foul fiend in order to win the fair daughter of Proterius 
(No. 23) : Caute cane, cantor care. He would make a party of hunters' roar over the excellent 
'Modus Florum' (No. 25): Mendosam quam cantilenam ago, while some of the grave scholars 
who heard him would be entertained by his praise of Dame Musica (No. 40) : Rota tnodos arte 
personetnus musica, or of the generous hostess. Philosophy (No. 41): Ad mensam Philosophie 
sitientes currite ! or would nod approval to his alphabetical song of admonition to the light-hearted 
and careless youth (No. 39) : Audax es, vir juvenis. Finding himself surrounded by a crowd of 
miscellaneous listeners, he would select the generally acceptable story of good Bishop Heriger of 
Mayence and the tramp who said that he had visited heaven and hell (No. 26): Herigir, urbis 
Maguntiensis antistes. At the approach of spring he was sure to delight his youthful audiences 
with songs on the charms of re-awakening nature, such as (No. 30) : Vestiunt silve tenera 
nurorent, or on the sweet note of the nightingale (No. 31): Aurea personet lira clara modulamina. 
He would thrill the maidens' hearts with the recital of the song of passionate vernal longing 
(No. 32): Levis exsurgit Zephirus, in which some inmates of nunneries might well find their own 
feelings forcibly expressed ; and he would please young men and women alike by the graceful 
delivery of the tempting invitation to a dinner d deux sent by a wealthy youth to his beloved 
mistress (No. 33): lam, dulcis arnica, venito ! These and many other songs would be sung by 
the versatile goliard, each at the proper time and in the proper place; and that he did not forget 
to make the necessary appeal to the generosity of his noble listeners is shown by the conclusion of 
the 'Modus Ottinc' (No. 12): Magnus cesar Otto quern hie modus refert in nomine (lines 61-62). 

What a wealth of themes and what a variety of metrical and musical forms are contained 
in this unique Song book of an early goliard which stands so full of promise at the threshold of 
Medieval German lyric poetry ! 

' Probably originally composed for the amusement of the youthful pupils of a monastery school. See page 85. 



42 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



CARMINA IN CODICE CANTABRIGIENSI SCRIPTA 

I. CARMEN CHRISTO DICTUM 

1 O pater optime, sancto regnans pneumate, cunctos plectro tibimet laudes dulce canentes serva semper. 

2 Qui in cruce latronem exaudisti pendentem atque spondens, lucide sedis amenitatem ut acciperet. 

3 Spolia mundi qui maledicti liberasti a penis; atque ferocem vinclo leonem colligasti manibus, ne sub 

fraude perderet quod formavit dextera, Adam Evam, denique plebem locasti orto lucido. 

4 Tertia die resurrexisti maiestate tumulo, teque iubente corpora multa surrexere baratro, ut tua facta 

proderent non credenti populo; ex hoc signo trepidans valde miser Pilatus se planctu crucial. 

5 Post hec mundum illuxisti, duces genti apposuisti ; ascendisti, unde venisti, dextera patris, o rex, residens. 

6 Pena malis ecce parata, flamma picis indeficiens ; ac cernentes, mala tenentes, id sine fine post hec 

retinent. 

7 Vitam mundi accipientes, prelucentes in paradiso, spe gaudentes, bona tenentes, semper in evum laudant 

dominum. 

8 Regnanti gloria Christo, laus per secula, qui chordarum sonitu pangitur, deus perhennis, rector mundi. 



2. MODUS QUI ET CARELMANNINC 

Inclito celorum laus sit digna deo. 

Qui, celo scandens, soli regna 

visitavit; redempturus hominem, 

maligni seductum suasione vermis. 

Quern, quis qualis quantus quid sit, S 

ratione gestiens rimari 

inmensum quem scias, benignum, potentem. 

Patris verbum caro factum, 

mundi lumen tenebras superans, 

puellam regalem matrem fecit Mariam. lo 

Castam intrans, carnem sumpsit, 

qui peccati maculam non novit ; 

ut unus regnaret, factus homo, deus. 

Joseph iustus quem accepit, 

angelico doctus verbo, 15 

regem regum agnovit maximum. 

angelus pastorum monstrat gregi deum. 

Celum torquens, astra regens, 

involutus pannis, plorans 

rusticorum tecmina pannorum 20 

pertulit, qui cuncta potestate protulit. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 43 

Quern Herodes, regno timens, 

instrumentis bellorum quesivit 

perdendum, hunc magi munere querebant. 

Stella duxit quos fidelis, 35 

donee puer erat ubi contulit. 

intrantes dederunt munera supplices. 

Monstrant auro regem esse, 

presulem designant thure, 

mirram signum tumuli tribuere domino. 30 

Hunc lohannes baptizavit 

unda pulchri lordanis, 

et vox patris natum iussit exaudiri populis. 

Hie elara natus matri dedit signa, 

eelorum demonstrat se fore deum. 35 

aqua suam gaudens mutat naturam, 

et eonvivis unda mitis versa vinum placuit 

Lazarum terra tenebris eonelusum 

amissum sumere preeepit flatum, 

ut qui seva eommittat piacula, 40 

dum laborat emendando, mortis suigat tumulo. 

luvenem, quern reliquit vite flaraen, 

dum turba urbe portat luctuosa, 

surgere iubet, mortis vieta lege; 

quo loquele det iniuste hoc exemplum venie. 45 

Puellam vite lumine privatam 

in domo vite restauravit verbo : 

eogitando qui peecavit animo, 

discat deo confiteri tecta mente crimina. 

Hie in cruce pendens, 50 

quos creavit princeps regum, redemit. 

infemi confregit veetem, alligando principem. 

Rex resurgens morte 

victor fulget aseendendo, thronum 

tenet, quo coronas Sanctis coronandis imftonit. 55 

Spiritum tune sacrum, sibi coetemum 

nuncios transmisit consolari bis senos, , 

quo Unguis loquendo gentibus non timidi 

verba vite predicarent, que ludea spemeret. 

Agmina eelorum gaudeant, quod incola, 60 

quem gignebat virgo, presidet in celo, 

tineta veste de Bosra, gentium redemptio, 

terram polum ignem pontum rex in pace componens, 

Regnum cuius finem nescit, sceptrum splendet nobile, 

celo sedens, mundum implens, factor facta continens. 65 

Fa 



44 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



3. LAUDES CHRISTO ACTE 



10 



IS 



Grates usie 
solvimus supreme, 
cui nihil accedit 
neque recedit, 
omnia continent! 
non contento 
invisibili domino. 

Cuncta qui initio 

creavit ex nihilo, 

suam et hominem 

formavit ad imaginera 

vice dampnatorum 

angelorum 

sui ordinis decimi. 

Hinc stimulatus, 

serpens antiquus 

suasit amarum 

mandere pomura, 

quo nos omnes 

heu mortales 20 

subiacemus dire mortis imperio. 

Factor sed sue 
condolens facture, 
misit hue filiura 
sibi coetemum 
tectum forma sub servili. 

Virgo Maria 
maris Stella, 
feta de celo 
pneumate sancto, 
edidit salo 
tempestuoso 
lucem sempiternam, 
salvatorem Christum, 
dominum sanctissimum. 

Postquam innumera 
fecit signa, 
tolerat sputa, 
alapas, flagella, 
crucis inhonestam 
patitur mortem, 
ponitur in sepulchrum, 
adit infemum, 
frangit mortis imperium. 



25 



30 



35 



40 



Tertia die 
surgit a morte, 
trahens microcosmum 
ad semet ipsum, 
scandit omnes 
super celos. 
nunc a dextris 
sedet patris 
altithroni. 

Inde venturus, 
potens est deus, 
eves salvare, 
hedos dampnare, 
has in celis 
gavisuras, 
hos in penis 
luituros 
pro meritis. 



45 



50 



55 



60 



Non longo post cum discipulis, 

in conclavi congregatis, 

spiritus etherea 65 

imbuit aula 

pectora beatorum 

individue trinitatis fidelium. 

Qui pergentes predicabant : 

pater, natus, 70 

sanctus spiritus, 

simplex usia 

personis distincta 

est unus 

hie deus, 75 

temporis expers, 

non sumens 

matre principium. 

Unum baptisma, 

fides et una, 80 

deus et hominum 

pater cunctorum, 

qui super omnes 

est potentes 

exaltatus 85 

et benedictus 

in secula. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



45 



Hinc vos omnes 

precor fideles : 

mecum eternum 90 

psallite deum, 

sono tantum 

non chordarum, 

sed canoro 

iubilo. 95 

Quo nos omnes 

se laudantes 

semper salvet 

et conservet 

ad honorem sui 100 

nominis incliti 

hie et in eterna 

maiestatis triumphali potentia. 



Nunc o summi 

cives celi 105 

nee non sancti 

vos prophete et bis seni 

principales apostoli, 

martires, confessores, 

virgines omnes, no 

adiuvate nos precibus. 

Sit prepotenti 

laus creatori, 

patri, filio, 

pneumati sancto 115 

nunc et in eteraum, 

sempitema 

creature letitia. 



4. HYMNUS PASCHALIS 

Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis evo, 
Qua Deus infemum vicit et astra tenet. 
Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis evo. 
Ecce, renascentis testatur gratia mundi 
Omnia cum domino dona redisse suo. 
Qua Deus infernum vicit et astra tenet. 
Namque triumphanti post tristia tartara Christo 
Undique fronde nemus, gramina flore favent. 
Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis evo. 
Legibus inferni oppressis super astra meantem 
Laudant rite Deum lux, polus, arva, fretum. 
Qua Deus infemum vicit et astra tenet. 
Qui crucifixus erat, Deus, ecce, per omnia regnat 
Dantque creatori cuncta creata precem. 
Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis evo. 



5. RESURRECTIO 

Hec est clara dies, clararum clara dierura ; 

hec est sancta dies, sanctarum sancta dierum ; 

nobile nobilium rutilans diadema dierum. 
Quid est hoc tam dure, quod in vestro manet pectore, amarumque ducitis animum ? 
'De lesu nobis est dure, manet in nos mors eius, et ipsa mors est incognita. 
Nostre quedam abiere sepulturam invisere. celi cives ilium vivum dicunt iam regnare.' 

Salve, festa dies, salve resurrectio sancta, 

Salve semper, ave ; lux hodiema vale ! 



46 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



6. AD MARIAM 

1 Templum Christi, virgo casta, felix mater o Maria, cuius clausa ventris porta nove vite ianuaj 

ftatris sanctique spiritus gratia petimus, valida prece nos expia ab omni macula facinorosa. 

2 Tu regina celi summa, castitatis tenes sceptra; angelorum satis digna congaudet frequentia. 

quibus nos, exoramus, socia, qui vivis cum patre spirituque sancto per eterna secula. 

7. DE EPIPHANIA 

Gratuletur omnis caro 

Christo nato domino, 
Qui pro culpa protoplasti 

Carnem nostram induit, 
Ut salvaret, quod plasmavit 

Dei sapientia. 

8. RACHEL 

1 Pulsat astra planctu magno Rachel, plorans pignora, 
queriturque consolari, quos necavit improba; 
dolet, plangit, crines scindit ob sororis crimina. 

uxor sine macula, casta servans viscera. 

2 Felix virgo, deo cara et dilecta femina, 
circumcirca volitando filiorum pascua 

querit, lustrat, perscrutatur per diversa climata, 
an sit ovis perdita digna spondens premia. 

3 Splendor eius splendor solis mane dantis lumina, 
sic lunaris candor idem foret inter sidera 



9. DE DOMO S. CECILIE COLONIENSI 



Emicat o quanta pietate Cecilia sancta 

inter odoriferas, Christus quas prospicit, herbas. 

despiciens mundum, meruit sibi iungere lesum, 

gaudia sic thalami conculcans Valeriani. 

hec sibi virgineas quathra virtute choreas 5 

fultas elegit, quas hie sapientia compsit. 

luce chorum clara docilis hunc prenitet Uuoda ; 

banc Meginbergis sequitur, vaHtudine fortis; 

hoc viret in circo Merehilt cum flore decoro, 

nomine diflficili, sophie sed spe iuvenili 10 

hinc tenet Una locum mitis coUega priorum. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



47 



10. DE S. VICTORE CARMEN XANTENSE 



Nunc chorda pange 

melos devote 

filio sancte 

virginis Marie. 

honor at vita, 5 

salus et letitia, 

pax inremota, 

altitudo inclita, 

lux p>ermansura, 

laus indeficua to 

sancto sit cuncta 

Victori per secula. 

Ave, recolende 

Victor et amande, 

semper in evum 15 

honor Sanctensium. 

Tibi nunc canoris 

modulemur chordis, 

certior quo tua 

nobis sit gratia, 20 

sis et intercessor 

fortis et adiutor, 

tutela fidelis. 

Sit benedictus 

pater eternus, 25 

qui te in sortem 

sublimavit propriam, 

militibus adhibitis 

triginta trecentis, 

teque ductorem 30 

mitem ac principem 

misericordem 

fecit atque humilem, 

preces ut tuorum 

audias servorum, 35 

quoties tuam 

implorent cleraentiam, 

hie et ubique 

Victor invictissime. 



Sitque colendus 40 

summi dei filius, 

missus a patre 

incamatus virgtne; 

qui moriendo 

vivere nos fecit 45 

ac resurgendo 

resurgere precepit, 

et te longinqua 

misit hue de patria, 

noster ut fautor 50 

sis et intercessor, 

fidus et in iudicio 

dux in districto, 

cum nil indiscussum 

nee erit absconsum. 55 

Sit venerandus spiritus 

iugiter paraclitus, 

cuius iam vigore 

florent undique, 

qui tecum dira 60 

sumpserunt tormenta 

trinitatis munere 

et luce scientic; 

qui in eterno 

beatorum regno 65 

virginis agnum 

laudent in evum. 

Victor, athleta 

dei, divinam 

iugiter gratiam 70 

pro nobis ora 

miseris, una quo deitas 

ac veneranda trinitas 

in corde crescat 

nostro et floreat 75 

et ut valeamus 

sub presens curriculum 

cernere Christum 

in terra viventium. 



48 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



Mundi redemptor, 
spes et protector, 
nate Marie 
virginis alme ! 

Sit tibi summa 
angelorum gloria, 



80 



85 



qui patn coeternus 
vivus et verus 
pneumate cum sancto 
regnas in celo, 
laus seculorum 
nunc et in evum. 



90 



II. DE HEINRICO 



1 Nunc almus assis filius 
benignus fautor mihi, 
de quodam duce, 

qui cum dignitate 

2 Intrans nempe nuntius, 
'cur sedes,' infit, 'Otdo, 
hie adest Heinrich, 
dignum tibi 

3 Tunc surrexit Otdo, 
perrexit illi obviam 
et excepit ilium 

4 Primitus quoque dixit : 
ambo vos equivoci, 
nee non et sotii, 

5 Dato response 
coniunxere manus. 
petierunt ambo 

6 Oramine facto 
duxit in concilium 
et commisit illi 
preter quod regale, 



thero euuigero thiernun 
thaz ig iz c6san muozi 
themo heron Heinriche, 
thero Beiaro riche beuuarode. 

then keisar manoda her thus: 
ther unsar keisar guodo? 
bringit her hera kunigllch, 
fore thir selvemo ze sine.' 

ther unsar keisar guodo, 
inde vilo manig man 
mid mihilon eron. 

'uuillicumo Heinrich, 
bethiu goda endi ml: 
uuillicumo sid gi mi.' 

fane Heinriche s6 scono 

her leida ina in thaz godes hfls ; 

thero godes genitheno. 

intfieg ina aver Otdo, 
mit michelon eron 
s6 uuaz s6 her thar hafode, 
thes thir Heinrih ni gerade. 



10 



IS 



7 Tunc stetit al thiu sprakha sub firmo Heinriche: 

quicquid Otdo fecit, al geried iz Heinrih : 

quicquid ac omisit, ouch geried iz Heinrihc. 



8 Hie non fuit uUus 
nobilibus ac liberis, 
cui non fecisset Heinrich 



(thes hafon ig guoda fulleist 
thaz thid allaz uuar is), 
allero rehto gilich. 



20 



25 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



49 



12. MODUS OTTINC 



Magnus cesar Otto, 

quern hie modus refert in nomine, 

Ottinc dictus, quadam nocte 

membra sua dum collocat, 

palatium casu subito inflammatur. 

Stant ministri, tremunt, 

tiraent dormientem attingere, 

et chordarum pulsu facto 

excitatum salvificant, 

et domini nomen carmini inponebant. 

Excitatus spes suis surrexit, 
timor magnus adversis mox venturus: 
nam turn fama volitat 
Ungarios signa in eum extulisse. 
luxta litus sedebant araiati, 
urbes agros villas vastant late: 
matres plorant filios 
et filii matres undique exulari. 

'Ecquis ego,' dixerat 

Otto, 'videor Parthis? 

diu diu milites 

tardos moneo frustra. 

dum ego demoror, crescit clades semper: 

ergo moras rumpite 

et Parthicis mecum hostibus obviate.' 

Dux CuonrAt intrepidus, 

quo non fortior alter, 

'miles,' inquit, 'pereat 

quem hoc terreat bellum. 

arma induite : armis instant hostes. 

ipse ego signifer 

effudero primus sanguinem inimicum.' 

His incensi bella fremunt, 
arma poscunt, hostes vocant, 



15 



30 



25 



30 



45 



50 



signa secuntur, tubis canunt: 35 

clamor passim oritur, 

et milibus centum Teutones inmiscentur. 

Pauci cedunt, plures cadunt : 

Francus instat, Parthus fugit : 

vulgus exangue undis obstat: 40 

Licus rubens sanguine 

Danubio cladem Parthicam ostendebat. 

Parva manu cesis Parthis, 
ante et post sepe victor, 
conmunem cunctis movens luctum, 
nomen, regnum, optimos 
hereditans mores filio obdormivit. 

Adolescens post hunc Otto 
imperabat annis multis, 
Cesar iustus clemens fortis. 
unum modo defuit: 
nam inclitis raro preliis triumphabat 

Eius autem clara proles. 
Otto decus iuventutis 
ut fortis ita felix erat: 
arma quos nunquam militum 
domuerant, fama nominis satis viciL 

Bello fortis, pace potens, 
in utroque tamen mitis, 
inter triumphos, bella, pacem 
semper suos pauperes 
respexerat : inde pauperum pater ftatur. 

Finem modo demus, 

ne forte notemur 

ingenii culpa 6- 

tantorum virtutes 

ultra quicquam deterere, 

quas denique Maro inclitus vix equaret 



55 



60 



50 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

13. NENIA DE MORTUO HEINRICO II IMPERATORE 

1 Lamentemur nostra, socii, peccata ; 
lamentemur et ploremus; quare tacemus? 
Pro iniquitate corruimus late; 

scimus cell hinc offensum regem inmensum. 

Heinrico requiem, rex Christe, dona perhennem! 5 

2 Non fuimus digni munere insigni. 

Munus dico sive donum Heinricum bonura, 

qui ex iuventute magne fuit vite. 

Procreatus regum stirpe rexit et ipse. 

Heinrico 

3 Orbis erat pignus, regno fuit dignus ; 10 
imperator Romanorum, rector Francorum, 

imperabat Suevis, Saxonibus cunctis, 

Bauvaro truces Sclavos fecit pacatos. 

Heinrico 

4 Possumus mirari de domino tali : 

res tractando laicatus fit litteratus, 15 

prudens in sermone, providus opere, 

viduarum tutor bonus, orphanis pius. 

Heinrico 



Heinricus secundus — plangat ilium mundus — 

fines servans christianos pellit paganos ; 

stravit adversantes pacem persequentes ; 20 

voluptati contradixit, sobrie vixit. 



Heinrico. 



Quis cesar tarn largus fuit pauperibus? 

quis tarn laute sublimavit atque ditavit 

atria sanctorum ubere bonorum? 

Ex propriis fecit magnum episcopatum. 25 

Heinrico 

Ploret hunc Europa iam decapitata. 

Advocatum Roma ploret; Christum exoret, 

ut sibi fidelem prestet seniorem ; 

recognoscat grave dampnum ecclesiarum. 

Heinrico 

Dicamus Heinrico, domini amico : 30 

ut quiescat post obitum semper in evum. 

Dicat omnis clerus anime illius : 

'In pace Christi quiescat; gaudia noscat.' 

Heinrico requiem, rex Christe, dona perhennem ! 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 51 

14. NENIA IN FUNEBREM POMPAM HEINRICI II IMPERATORIS 

1 ludex summe, medie rationis et infime, 
magne rector celi, pie redemptor seculi ! 

Imperatoris Heinrici catholici niagni ac pacifici 

beatifica aniniam, Christe ! 

2 Qui, heu, paucis annis rexit summa imperii, 5 
sciens modum iuris rebus cunctis mediocris ; 

Imperatoris 

3 Vultu claro monstravit cordis clementiam, 
clerum, populum pro posse semper letificans; 

Imperatoris 

4 Summo nisu catholicas auxit ecclesias, 

subvenit pupillis clemens et viduis. lo 

Imperatoris 

5 Gentes suo plurimas sepius imperio subdit barbaricas; 
hostes civiles strennue animi consilio vicit, non gladio. 

Imperatoris 

6 luvit domnum summa, iuvit et demissa regni potentia. 
mundi gazas tribuit; sic celi divitiis uti promeruit. 

Imperatoris 

7 Heu o Roma cum Italia, caput mundi, quantum decus perdideras; 15 
Heu o Franci, heu Bauuarii, vestrum damnum nuUi constat incognitum ! 
Mons Bavonis nimis felix, serva Christo regi pignus intrepidum. 

Hoc angelica poscit gloria, apostolicus poscit ordo prelucidus, 
hoc eterna virgo Maria ad finem mundi poscit beari. 

Dicant omnes, precor, fideles, regem regum nunc deprecantes : 20 

Imperatoris 

8 Audi mentis melos, ut rogamus, Athanatos; 
sic te vocis nostre conlaudabunt simphonie. 

Imperatoris 

15. CANTILENA IN CONRADUM II FACTUM IMPERATOREM 

1 Melos cuncti concinentes, gratiarum actiones solvimus illi, aciem qui nostre mentis roboravit ad 

cemendum summi patris coeternum verbum; per quod cuncu resUurantur et reguntur elementa, 
mira cuius bonitate atque dono salutem haurimus. 

2 Voces laudis humane, curis carneis rauce, non divine maiestati tantum suflSciunt; 

3 Que angelicam sibi militiam in excelsis psallere sanctam iussit simphoniam; 

4 Nee non variam mundi discordiam semovendo concordare fecit armoniam ; 

5 Que imperium confirmando Romanum suos agnos fonte lotos a luporum morsibus pia pace custodivit. 

Ga 



52 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



6 Hos Cuonradus plus, unctus domini, iam defendit imperando ; 

7 Quem providentia dei preclara predestinavit et elegit regere gentes strennue Davidis exemplo Messieque 

triumpho. 

8 Ortus avorum stemmate regum per iunioris gradus etatis proficiebat regiis moribus et factis, ut probavit 

eventus. 

9 Tiro fortis et fidelis, passus plures mundi labores, propinquorum causas et amicorum baud secus quam 

suas desideravit cunctis viribus iuvare pro possibilitate. 

Pater ut suum nutrit natum, nunc adolando nunc flagellando, tempestates mundi per varias Christus 
hunc probavit, ut didicisset prona pietatis scala condescendere reis. 

Post Heinrici mortem omni deflendam gregi catholicorum 
Hunc rex regum fidum ecclesiarum iussit fore patronum. 

Hunc Romani principatus cuncti mox elegere sibi defensorem et propugnatorem fortem orthodoxorum. 

13 Gaudent omnes circumquaque gentes, gratias Christo dantes, qui viduarum atque pupillorum audit voces 

suorum. 

14 Age, gaude Roma, urbium domna, cum consensu cleri devoto te Cuonradi precepto subdi ; qui non 

tantum suas sed affective omnium subditorum querit utilitates. 

15 Ad haec publicarum principes rerum et private dediti vite, iure tenti familiari, vitam et salutem 

imperatori nostro poscite Cuonrado, christo dei electo. 

16 Laus sit regi seculorum, patri, nato, pneumati sancto, cui soli manet imperium, honor et potestas, quem 

angelorum laudes hominum et voces laudant rite per evum. 



10 



II 



12 



16. CANTILENA IN HEINRICUM III ANNO 1028 REGEM CORONATUM 



O rex regum, 
regnas in cells, 
serva in terris 

quem voluisti 
et coronari 
manu Piligrimi 
O rex 

quem Romani 
clerus et populus 
post Cuonradum 
O rex 



qui solus in evum 
Heinricum nobis 
ab inimicis, 

tibi benedici 
ad Aquasgrani 
presulis archi; 

atque fidi Franci, 
Christo dicatus 
adoptant domnum. 



Die Italia, die pia Gallia 

cum Germania deo devota : 

" Vivat Cuonradus atque Heinricus ! " 

O rex 



5 agni ut sponsa 
servari suo 
Deo eterno 

O rex 

6 Gaudent omnes 
senes et iuvenes, 
regnat Cuonradus 

O rex 

7 ' Die, qua surrexit, 

regni monarchiam 
pius Cuonradus ; 
O rex 



pace quieta 
valeat sponso, 
vivo et vero. 15 

Christ! fideles, 
matres, infantes : 
atque Heinricus. 

qui mundum redemit, 
accepit sanctam 20 

gaudeat mundus. 



10 8 Post unius anni recursus 

accepit sanctam regni coronam 



puer Heinricus 
O rex 



Christo electus. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



53 



II 



Die predicto 
archiepiscopo 
gaudente clero 
O rex 

Doleat antiquus 
sanctas ecclesias 
vivo Cuonrado 
O rex 

Mater Christi 
cunctisque Sanctis 
iuva Cuonradum 
O rex 



a Piligrimo 35 

sibi devotissimo, 
simul et populo. 



gentis inimicus 
pacificatas 
atque Heinrico. 30 



cum civibus celi 
rectores orbis 
atque Heinricutn, 



13 



13 



ut ecclesiarum 
et pupillorum 
valeant iusto 
O rex 

Laus creatori, 
cuius imperium 
per infinita 
O rex 



causas sanctarutn 
ac viduarum 
tractare iudicio. 



angetorum regi, 
manet in evum 
seculoruni secula. 



35 



17. NENIA DE MORTUO CONRADO II IMPERATORE 



Qui habet vocem serenam banc proferat cantilenam 

de anno lamentabili et damno ineflabili, 

pro quo dolet omnis homo forinsecus et in domo, 

suspirat populus domnum vigilando et per somnura : 

Rex deus, vivos tuere et defunctis miserere! 



Anno quoque millesimo 
de Christi nativitate 
ruit Cesar caput mundi, 
occubuit imperator 
Rex deus 



nono atque trigesimo 
nobiiitas ruit late, 

et cum illo plures summi, 
Kuonradus legum dator. 



Eodem vero tempore occasus fuit glorie, 10 

ruit Stella matutina Gunnild regina, 

[Heu quam crudelis annus corruerat Herimannus] 

(et) filius imperatricis dux timendus inimicis, 

ruit Kuono dux Francorum, et pars magna ingenuorum. 

Rex deus 

Imperatoris gloria sit nobis in memoria, 

ac frequenti mentione vivat vir indolis bone, 15 

vivat dominator probus et frequenti carmine novus, 

et preclara fama post mortem vite prestet hunc consortem. 

Rex deus 



54 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



i8. GRATULATIO REGINE A MORBO RECREATE 

Gaudet polus, ridet tellus, iocundantur omnia ; 

angelorum sacra canunt in excelsis agmina, 

quorum psallit imitatrix in terris ecclesia ; 

mundus plaudit et resultat letus de te, regina. 

Ac haul minus gratulatur pulchra vernarum turma, 5 

que, sub tuis alis fulta, digna tali domina : 

incolumis gubernatrix quod tu, morbo soluta 

et virtutum flore compta, restauraris in aula. 

Ne mireris ; deus iussit solvi morbi vincula 

nexus mortis et ligare, ne fuisset dampnosa 10 

tue vita optate, que nobis opus servata. 

Te reginam nostram maris esse favet factura, 

astra celi, flores humi, te cuncta creatura, 

cuncti boni larga culminis es que tarn aperta 

mater dulcis, et que cunctis secli huius in scena 15 

blandimentis non terrore sistis permitissima. 

Monachorum ensis extas, clericorum domina, 

consolamen viduarum, virginum constantia, 

laicorum blandimenta clipeus et galea. 

Quare posco, quo te crebra conservet per secula so 

deus, qui nonnuUa semper scandit super sidera. 



19. CANTILENA IN HERIBERTUM ARCHIEPISCOPUM COLONIENSEM 

1 Qui principium constas rerum, fave nostris piis ceptis atque mentis plectrum rege, precamur, rex 

regum. 
Pater, nate, spiritus sancte, te laudamus ore corde in huius vite siti fragilitate. 

2 Inmortales celi cives, pia prece nos mortales, iam concives vestros, conmendate redemptori. 

Pater 

.3 Fidis chordis caute tentis, melos concinamus ; partim tristes partim letas causas proclamantes de 
pastore pio ac patrono Heriberto. Pater 

4 Quem etate iuvenili deus preelegit sibi, servum valde fidum bona super pauca, supra multa tandem 
mmi'strum coiistituendum. Pater 

^ 5 Mane etatis puer bone indolis sarculo verbi vinea Christi libens studuit ; sciens sibi tandem denarii 
premia dari. scolis sublatus, fit cancellarius tertii Ottonis imperatoris. omnium morum speculum 
bonorum, placuit clero simul et populo, mitis atque pius, omni egenti largus census sui, tiro fortis 
Christi, pollens omni karitate, scandit dextram note viam Pithagorice. Pater 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 55 

6 Post non magnum temporis curriculum, summo pontifice largiente, miles domini sublimari meruit in 

sedem pontificalem. tunc sibi subditus clerus et populus vivere patronum optant pium. cui 
Christus talem auxit honorem, ovis ut ovilis sibi conmissi — belli tempore longo — non pateretur 
pene damna rerum nee ullum excidium ; sed summi pastoris, sub quiete congaudentes, vocem 
sanctam audierunt. Pater 

7 Circumquaque ministravit ecclesiis magno sumptu, tempestate bellicosa tunc temporis devastatis. 

severitatem facie tristem monstrans, letum toto corde sprevit mundum. pectore pio iugem com- 
passionem gent omni mala mundi patienti Pater 

8 Adventantes longe plures consolatur peregrinos, incessanter alimenta pauperibus erogavit, fovit infirmos 

atque vestivit nudos. munia divina complens rite cuncta, tantum vacans vite contemplative, sanxit 
cunctis se virtutum ornamentis. Pater 

9 Augens demum cumulum bonorum summa sanctitatis, erexit templum sancte dei genitrici speciosum, 

Rehni littore situm. in quo defunctam carnis sue sanctam iussit condere glebam, ut resurrectionis 
diem magnum ac tremendum hie secure expectaret. Pater 

10 Postquam mundus fuerat indignus tantum cernere domnum, Christus plura loco sue sepulture fecit 

signa, sui ad honorem nominis saneti, et ut magis sanctam confirmaret fidem : premia daturum se 
in eelis propter eum hie in terris laboranti. Pater 

11 O cunctipotens mundum regens, finis rerum creatarum, omnem finem nostrum fac finiri in te solum ! 

Pater 

20. ECCLESIE TREVIRENSIS NOMINE SCRIPTI AD POPPONEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM 

VERSUS 

Sponso sponsa karissimo se ipsam in coniugio, 

ambosque diu vivere, post celi culmen capere. 

Ne spernas, quod sim fragilis; sum tamen satis habilis: 

rugosam si me videas, ut puellam me teneas. 

Veni, veni, karissime ! Quod fusca sum, non despice, 5 

dilapsa vel lateribus; assurgam tuis viribus. 

Hinc Petrus te hue invitat et Eucharius uritat, 

Valerius te exigit, Maternus 'veni' coneutit. 

Cum Maximini precibus se eoniungit Agricius 

orans, ut felix venias et me fractam restituas. lo 

Me quidem si restituis turritamque reddideris, 

Paulini adiutorium habebis et Nieecium. 

Hi et eomplures alii nunc iubent me restitui ; 

Simeon tuus maxime mandat murum iam ponere. — 

O quam felix tu fueras, quod hunc virum adduxeras, 15 

qui me fuscam illuminat et me fractam resolidat 

Quam libens hie te suscipit, quam sanum esse precipit, 

felicem omni tempore ; quod semper constet stabile. — 

Vestrum amborum meritis iterura ero Treveris 

turrita in lateribus et firma cunctis partibus. 30 

Ad hoc te Deus muniat et semper te custodiat 

cum corpore ac anima in sempiterna secula. Amen. 



56 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

21. DE WILLELMO 

Chordas tange, nielos pange cum lira sonabili ; 
tu magister earn liram fac sonare dulciter, 
et tu cantor in sublime vocem tuam erige, 
ambo simul adunati cantilene mistice. 
O Uuillelme, decus pulchrum aspectu ornabili, 
qui tarn clarus permansisti cum tuis assidue. 
O quis poterit iam esse tam potens in opere 
preter reges, quos unxerunt antistites chrismate. 

presules aut plures miror antistitum culmine. 
Utriusque sexus namque viri atque femine 
tam nobili creature se cupibant flectere. 
Omnis chorus angelorum, zabulon subtrahite; 
magne martir luliane, pro illo intercede ! 



lO 



22. MODUS LIEBINC 



la Advertite, omnes populi, ridiculum 
et audita, quomodo 

Suevum rnulier et ipse illam defraudaret : 
b Constantie civis Suevulus trans equora 

gazam portans navibus s 

domi coniugem lascivam nimis relinquebat. 

II a Vix remige triste secat mare, 
ecce subito orta tempestate 
furit pelagus, certant flamina, toUuntur fluctus : 
post multaque exulem lo 

vagum litore longinquo Nothus exponebat. 
b Nee interim domi vacat coniux. 
mimi aderant, iuvenes secuntur : 
quos et inmemor viri exulis excepit gaudens, 



atque nocte proxima 

pregnans iilium iniustum fudit iusto die. 

Ill a Duobus volutis annis 
exul dictus revertitur. 
occurrit infida coniux 
secum trahens puerulum. 
datis osculis maritus illi : 
'de quo,' inquit, 'puerum 
istum habeas, die, aut extrema patieris.' 
b At ilia maritum timens 
dolos versat in omnia, 
'mi,' tandem, 'mi coniux,' inquit, 
'una vice in alpibus 
nive sitiens extinxi sitim : 



'5 



20 



25 



unde ego gravida 

istum puerum damnoso fetu, heu, gignebam.' 30 

c [' Nam languens amore tuo, 
consurrexi diluculo 
perrexique pedes nuda 
per nives et (per) frigora, 
atque maria rimabar mesta, 
si forte ventivola 
vela cemerem aut frontem navis conspicerem.'] 

IV a Anni post hec quinque transierunt aut plus, 

et mercator vagus instauravit remos, 

ratim quassam reficit : 

vela alligat et nivis natum duxit secum. 
b Transfretato mare producebat natum, 35 

et pro arrabone mercatori tradens 

centum libras accipit, 

atque vendito infanti dives revertitur. 
c Ingressusque domum ad uxorem ait : 

'consolare coniux, consolare cara: 40 

natum tuum perdidi, 

quem non ipsa tu me magis quidem dilexistL 
d Tempestate orta nos ventosus furor 

in vadosas sirtes nimis fessos egit 

et nos omnes graviter 45 

sol torret : at ille nivis natus liquescebat.' 

Sic perfidam Suevus coniugem deluserat. 

sic fraus fraudem vicerat : 

nam quem genuit nix, recte hunc sol liquefecit. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 57 

23. DE PROTERII FILIA 

I Caute cane, cantor care, clare conspirent cannule, compte chorde crepent concinentiam. carpe callein 
commodam, convalles construe, caput calccm cor coniunge, calles callens corporales. cane chorda, 
cane chordis, cane cannulis creatorem ! 

3 Quisquis dolosis antiqui circumventus fraudibus inimici, profunditatem magnorum incautus 

incurrerit peccatorum, hoc sequent! conmonitus exemplo sit, merens ne desperet 

penitus ; sed confisus in domino, liberari [x>sse spteret vel mortuum, si penitet, ex inferno. 

3 Cesarie urbis civis Proterius, locuples valde nimis, unicam habuit gnatam, sacro 

velamini destinatam, proprius in quam servulus inlicitis inflammatus est ardoribus. 

cuius vinclo coniugii se non posse cernens iungi, auxiliutn agressus est malefici. 

4 A quo pravi suscepta scedula nuncii, deferenda demoni, iussit eum nocte ceca supra 

gentilem recitare tumbam. iuvenis statim paruit ; demonum et ecce sibi agmen apparuit 

qui, auditis clamoribus infelicis, secum ilium adduxerunt ad principem pravitads. 

5 Cui invisi datis commercii Uteris a malefico missis, item sui causa adventus expositis 

amorisque furiis, protinus fit discussio de fidei Christi ac baptismi repudia iubeturque 
de singulis abrenuntiationis manu scriptum efficere. quod efifecit. 

6 Continue tacta a diabolo, clamat virgo misere : ' miserere pater filie ; moriar, mi 

pater; modo si non iungar tali puero. noli, pater kare, noli tardare, dum 

potes me salvare. si moraris, natam tuam non habebis. sed in die iudicii 

quasi pro perempta poenas et tormenta tu subibis supplicii' 

7 Ast flebilis contra pater inquit : ' nata, heu, quis te cecavit ? nata, quis te fascinavit ? ego 

te Christo dedicavi, non te mecho destinavi. patere, mi filia, sine me modo perficere 

quod volo. si consentis mihi, tempus adveniet, quando multum letaberis, pravam quod 

non voluntatem perfeceris, male sana quam nunc geris.' 

8 Ilia vero abnuente atque pene deficiente, pater, victus amicorum consiliis, consensit 

invitus. accitoque puero substantiam totam ei suam una cum puella tradidit; dicens 

sue filiole: 'vere iam misera, olim multum dolitura, patrem quia non es modo auditura.' 

9 Nee multo post nupta, viri comperta infidelitate, se confestim in lamentis affecerat 

inmoderate. luctusque nuUus finis esse quivit, donee a marito tandem explorata cuncte sue causa 
{>erfidie, a beato Basilio penitentiam persuasit pro errore percipere gravissimo. 

10 Quem sanctus includens sacro peribulo, incumbit pro eo precibus sedulo, nunc pro illo 

orans, sepe et ieiunans ; donee a deo reo impetraret veniam dari pro 

crimine tarn gravi, dumque sibi penitenti ostensus est sanctus pro se decertare atque 

de antiquo hoste magnifice victoriam reportare. 

11 Indicta transacta iam penitudine, eductus conciliandus ecclesie; ecce 

repente, sancto se ducente, tactus ab hoste, sacro pellitur poste; donee antistite 

et populo assistente precibus pulsantibus deum, fiigatus est demon, clamans 

ac minitans : ' hoc, Basili, manu scriptum coram deo restitues mihi meum.' 

1 2 Nee mora, sancto orante manusque cum populo elevante, cartula, desuper lapsa, manibus 

• Basilii est ingesta. a puero quam cognitam sanctus statim partes dissipavit 

in minutas ; eundemque, vivificis restitutum sacramentis, incessanter reddidit 
deo imnizantem. 

B. H 



58 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



24. DE LANTFRIDO ET COBBONE 

I Omnis sonus cantilene trifariam fit. nam aut fidium concentu sonus constat : pulsu, plectro 

manuquej ut sunt discrepantia vocum variis chordarum generibus. 

3 Aut tibiarum canorus redditur flatus, fistularum ut sunt discrimina queque folle ventris 

orisque tumidi flatu perstrepentia pulchre mentem mulcisonant. 

3 Aut multimodis gutture canoro idem sonus redditur plurimarum faucium, hominum 

volucrum animantiumque. sicque inpulsu 

4 His modis canamus carorum sotiorumque actus, 

Lantfridi Cobbonisque 



pretitulatur 



prohemium hocce pulchre 

Quamvis amicitiarum 
genera plura legantur, 
non sunt adeo preclara 
ut istorum sodalium. 
qui conmunes extiterunt 
in tantum, ut neuter horum 
suapte quid possideret 
gazarum nee servorum 
nee alicuius suppellectilis. 
alter horum quicquid vellet, 
ab altero ratum foret. 
more ambo coequales, 
in nullo umquam dissides; 
quasi duo unus essent, 
in omnibus similes. 

Porro prior orsus Cobbo 
dixit fratri sotio : 
'diu mihi hie regale 
incumbit servitium, 
quod fratres affinesque 
visendo non adeam, 
inmemor meorum. 
ideo ultra mare revertar, 
unde hue adveni. 
illorum affectui, 
veniendo ad illos, 
ibi satisfaciam.' 

'Tedet me,' Lantfridus inquit, 

'vite proprie tarn dire, 

ut absque te tescis hie degam. 

iam arripiens coniugem mecum, 

pergam exul tecum, 

ut tu diu, factus mecum, 

vicem rependas amori.' 

sicque pergentes litora maris 

applicarunt pariter. 



15 



20 



25 



3° 



35 



guttureque agitur. 

quorum in honorem 
pernobili stemmate. 

tum infit Cobbo sodali : 
' hortor, frater, redeas ; 
redeam, visendo te, 
en vita comite. 
unum memoriale, 
frater, fratri facias. 

Uxorem, quam tibi solam 
vendicasti, propriam 
mihi dedas, ut licenter 
fruar eius amplexu.' 
nihil hesitando, manum 
manui eius tribuens hilare : 
'fruere ut libet, frater, ea ; 
ne dicatur, quod semotim 
fisus sim quid possidere.' 
classe tunc apparata 
ducit secum in equor. 

Stans Lantfridus super litus, 
cantibus chordarum ait : 
'Cobbo frater, fidem tene, 
hactenus ut feceras ; 
nam indecens est, affectum 
sequendo voti, honorem perdere; 
dedecus frater fratri ne fiat.' 
sicque diu canendo 
post ilium intuitus, 
longius eum non cernens 
fregit rupe timpanum. 

At Cobbo, coUisum 

fratrem non ferens, 

mox vertendo, mulcet : 

'en habes, perdulcis amor, 

quod dedisti, intactum 

ante amoris experimentum. 

iam non est, quod experiatur ultra. 

ceptum iter relinquam.' 



40 



45 



5° 



55 



60 



65 



70 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



59 



35. MODUS FLORUM 



Mendosam quam cantilenam ago 
puerulis commentatam dabo, 
quo modulos p>er mendaces risum 
auditoribus ingentem ferant. 

Liberalis et decora 
cuidam regi erat nata, 
quam sub lege huius modi 
procis obponit querendam : 



telo tactus occumbebat. 

mox, efTusis intestinis, 

caput avulsum cum cute cedo. 30 

Cumque cesum manu 

levaretur caput 

aure leva efTunduntur 

mellis modii centeni, 

sotiaque auris tacta S5 

totidem pisarum fudit. 



•Si quis mentiendi gnarus 




quibus 


intra pellem strictis, 




usque adeo instet fallendo, 


10 


lepus 


ipse dum secatur, 




dum cesaris ore fallax 




crepid) 
kartanr 


ine summe caude 




predicitur, is ducat filiam.' 




1 regiam latentem cepi, 


30 


Quo audito Suevus 




6 Que servum te firniat esse meum 


1 


nil moratus inquit: 




'Mentitur,' rex clamat, 'karta et 


tu!' 


'raptis armis ego 


IS 








cum venatum solus irem, 




7 Sic rege deluso Suevus 




lepusculus inter feras 




arte regius est gener factus. 






26. 


HERIGfeR 






I Heriger, urbis 




4 


Vir ait falsus: 




Maguntiensis 






Tui translatus 


ao 


antistes, quendam 






in templum celi 




vidit prophetam 






Christumque vidi 




qui ad infernum 


5 




letum sedentem 




se dixit raptum. 






et comedentem. 








5 


loannes baptista 


»5 


2 Inde cum multas 






erat pincema 




referret causas, 






atque preclari 




subiunxit totum 






pocula vini 




esse infernum 


10 




porrexit cunctis 




accinctum densis 






vocatis Sanctis. 


30 


undique silvis. 




6 


• « • 




3 Heriger illi 




7 


Herigfir ait: 




ridens respondit : 






'prudenter egit 




'meum subulcuni 


IS 




Christus lohannem 




illuc ad pastum 






ponens pincemam, 




volo cum macris 






quoniam vinum 


35 


mittere porcis.' 






non bibit umquam. 


H 2 



6o 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



Mendax probaris 

cum Petrum dicis 

illic magistrum 

esse cocorum, 40 

est quia summi 

ianitor celi. 

Honore quali 

te deus celi 

habuit ibi? 45 

ubi sedisti? 

volo ut narres 

quid tnanducasses.' 

Respondit homo : 

'angulo uno 50 

partem pulmonis 



furabar cocis : 
hoc manducavi 
atque recessi.' 

11 Heriger ilium 55 
iussit ad palum 

loris ligari 

scopisque cedi, 

sermone duro 

hunc arguendo : 60 

12 'Si te ad suum 
invitet pastum 
Christus, ut secum 
capias cibum, 

cave ne furtum 63 

facias (spurcum).' 



27. DE lOHANNE ABBATE 



In vitis patrum veterum 
quiddam legi ridiculum, 
exemplo tamen habile ; 
quod vobis dico rithmice. 

Johannes abba, parvulus 
statura, non virtutibus, 
ita maiori socio, 
quicum erat in heremo : 

' Volo,' dicebat, ' vivere 
secure sicut angelus, 
nee veste nee cibo frui, 
qui laboretur manibus.' 

Respondit frater : ' Moneo, 
ne sis incepti properus, 
frater, quod tibi postmodum 
sit non cepisse satius.' 

At ille : ' Qui non dimicat, 
non cadit neque superat.' 
ait, et nudus heremum 
inferiorem penetrat. 

Septem dies gramineo 
vix ibi durat pabulo ; 
octava fames imperat, 
ut ad sodalem redeat. 

Qui sero, clausa ianua, 
tutus sedet in cellula, 



IS 



20 



12 



13 



25 



cum minor voce debili 
appellat : ' Frater, aperi : 

Johannes opis indigus 

notis assistit foribus ; 30 

nee spernat tua pietas, 

quern redigit necessitas.' 

Respondit ille deintus : 
' Johannes, factus angelus, 
miratur celi cardines ; 35 

ultra non curat homines.' 

Foris Johannes excubat 

malamque noctem tolerat, 

et preter voluntariam 

banc agit penitentiam. 40 

Facto mane recipitur 
satisque verbis uritur; 
sed intentus ad crustula 
fert patienter omnia. 

Refocillatus domino 45 

grates agit et socio ; 
Dehinc rastellum brachiis 
temptat movere languidis. 

Castigatus angustia 

de levitate nimia, 50 

cum angelus non potuit, 

vir bonus esse didicit. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



6i 



28. SACERDOS ET LUPUS 



10 



Quibus ludus est animo 
et iocularis cantio, 
hoc advertant ridiculum; 
narrabo non ficticiuin. 

Sacerdos iam ruricola 5 

etate sub decrepita 
vivebat amans pecudis ; 
hie enim mos est rusticis. 

Ad cuius tale studium 

otnne pateret commodum, 10 

nisi foret tarn proxima 

luporum altrix silvula. 

Hi minuentes numerum 

per eius summam generum 

dant impares ex paribus 15 

et pares ex imparibus. 

Qui dolens sibi fieri 
detrimentum peculii, 
quia diffidit viribus, 
vindictam querit artibus. 20 

Fossam cavat non modicam 
intus ponens agniculam 
et, ne pateret hostibus, 
superne tegit frondibus. 

Humano datura commode 25 

nil maius est ingenio: 
lupus dum nocte circuit, 
spe prede captus incidit 

Accurrit mane presbiter, 

gaudet vicisse taliter. 30 

intus protento baculo 

lupi ininatur oculo. 

'Iam,' inquit, ' fera pessima, 

tibi rependam debita : 

aut hie frangetur baculus 35 

aut hie crepabit oculus.' 

Hoc dicto simul impulil, 

verbo sed factum defuit; 

nam lupus servans oculum 

morsu retentat baculum. 40 



11 At ille miser vetulus, 
dum sese trahit iirmius, 
ripa cedente corruit 

et lupo comes incidit 

12 Hinc Stat lupus, hinc presbiter, 45 
timent sed dispariliter ; 

nam ut fidenter arbitror 
lupus stabat securior. 

13 Sacerdos secum mussitat 

et septem psalmos ruminat, 50 

sed revolvit frequentius 
' miserere mei, deus.' 

14 'Hoc,' inquit, 'infortunii 
dant mihi vota populi, 

quorum neglexi animas, 55 

quorum comedi victimas.' 

15 Pro defunctorum merito 
cantat 'placebo domino,' 
et pro votis viventium 

totum cantat psalterium. 60 

16 Post completum psalterium 
commune prestat commodum 
sacerdotis timiditas 

atque lupi calliditas. 

17 Nam cum acclivis presbiter 65 
perfiniret ' pater noster ' 

atque clamaret domino 
' sed libera nos a malo ! ' 

18 Hie dorsum eius insilit 

et saltu liber efTugit ; 70 

et cuius arte captus est, 
illo pro scala usus est 

19 At ille letus nimium 
cantat ' laudate dominum ' 

et promisit pro populo 75 

se oraturum a modo. 

20 Hinc a vicinis queritur 
et inventus extrahitur, 
sed non unquam devotius 

oravit nee fidelius. 80 



62 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



29. alfrAd 



IS 



1 Est unus locus, 
Hdinburh dictus, 
in quo pascebat 
asinatn Alfrad 

viribus fortem e 

atque fidelem. 

2 Que dum in amplum 
exiret campum, 
vidit currentem 

lupum voracem, i© 

caput abscondit, 
caudatn ostendit. 

3 Lupus accurrit : 
caudam momordit, 
asina bina 
levavit crura 
fecitque longum 
cum lupo bellum. 

4 Cum defecisse 

vires sensisset, 20 

protulit magnam 
plangendo vocem 
vocansque suam 
moritur domnam. 

5 Audiens grandem 
asine vocem 
Alfrad cucurrit, 
'sorores,' dixit, 
' cite venite, 
me adiuvate 1 

6 Asinam caram 
misi ad erbam. 
illius magnum 
audio planctum, 

spero cum sevo • 35 

ut pugnet lupo.' 

7 Clamor sororum 
venit in claustrum, 
turbe virorum 



25 



30 



ac mulierum 
assunt, cruentum 
ut.'captent lupum. 

8 Adela namque 
soror Alfrade, 
Rikilam querit, 
Agatham invenit, 
ibant ut fortem 
sternerent hostem. 

9 At ille ruptis 
asine costis 
sanguinis undam 
camemque totam 
simul voravit, 
silvam intravit. 

10 Illud videntes 
cuncte sorores 
crines scindebant, 
pectus tundebant, 
flentes insontem 
asine mortem. 

11 Denique parvum 
portabat pullum; 
ilium plorabat 
maxime Alfrad, 
sperans exinde 
prolem crevisse. 

12 Adela mitis 
Fritherdnque dulcis 
venerunt ambe, 

ut Alveride 
cor confirmarent 
atque sanarent. 

13 'Delinque mestas, 
soror, querelas ! 
lupus amarum 
non curat fletum : 
dominus aliam 
dabit tibi asinam.' 



40 



45 



5° 



SS 



60 



65 



70 



75 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



63 



30. CARMEN ESTIVUM 



Vestiunt silve tenera merorem 
virgulta, suis onerata pomis ; 
canunt de celsis sedibus palumbes 
carmina cunctis. 

Hie turtur gemit, resonat hie turdus, 
pangit hie priscos merula sonores ; 
passer nee tacet, arridens garritu 
alta sub ulmo. 

Hie leta canit philomela frondis, 
longas efTundit sibilum per auras 
sollempne; milvus tremulaque voce 
ethera pulsat. 



4 Ad astra volat aquila; in auris 
alauda canit, modules resolvit, 
de sursum vergit dissimili modo, 

dum terram tangit 

5 Velox impellit rugitus hirundo, 
clangit coturnix, graculus fringultit ; 
aves sic cuncte celebrant estivum 

undique cannen. 

6 Nulla inter aves similis est api, 
que talem tipum gerit castitatis 
nisi que Christum baiulavit alvo 

inviolata. 



'S 



30 



31. DE LUSCINIA 



Aurea personet lira clara modulamina ! 
simplex chorda sit extensa voce quindenaria ; 
primum sonum mese reddat lege ipodorica. 
philomele demus laudes in voce organica, 
dulce melos decantantes, sicut docet musica, 
sine cuius arte vera nulla valent cantica. 

Cum telluris vere nova producuntur germina 
nemorosa circumcirca frondescunt et brachia, 
flagrat odor quam suavis ilorida p)er gramina, 
bilarescit philomela, dulcis vocis conscia ; 
et extendens modulando gutturis spiramina, 
reddit voces, ac estivi temporis ad otia 
instat nocti et diei voce sub dulcisona ; 
soporatis dans quietem cantus per discrimina, 
nee non pulchra viatori laboris solatia, 
vocis eius pulchritudo, clarior quam cithara, 
vincit omnes cantitando volucrum eatervulas, 
implens silvas atque cunctis modulis arbustula. 
volitando seandit alta arborum caeumina, 
gloriosa valde facta — veris pro letitia — 
ac festiva satis gliscit sibilare carmina. 

Felix tempus, cui resultat talis consonantia ! 
utinam per duodena mensium curricula 
dulcis philomela daret sue vocis organa ! 



IS 



20 



Sonos tuos vox non valet imitari lirica, 25 

quibus nescit consentire fistula clarisona : 
roira quia modularis melorum tripudia. 
o tu parva, numquam cessa canere, avicula ! 
tuam decet simphoniam monocordi musica, 
que tuas remittit voces voce diatonica. 30 

Nolo, nolo, ut quiescas temporis ad otia, 
sed ut letos det concentus tua volo ligula, 
cuius laudem memoreris in regum palatia. 

Cedit auceps ad frondosa resonans umbracula, 
eedit eignus et suavis ipsius melodia, 35 

cedit tibi timpanista et sonora tibia, 
quamvis enim videaris corpore premodica, 
tamen cuncti te auscultant. nemo dat iuvamina 
nisi solus rex celestis, qui gubemat omnia. 

lam preclara tibi satis dedimus obsequia, 40 

que in voce sunt iucunda et in verbis rithmica, 
ad scolares et ad ludos digne eongruentia. 

Tempus adest, ut solvatur nostra vox armonica, 
ne fatigent plectrum lingue eantionum tedia, 
ne pigrescat auris prompta fidiura ad crusmata. 45 

Trinus deus in personis, unus in essentia, 
nos gubernet et conservet sua sub dementia 
regnareque nos concedat cum ipso in gloria. 



64 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



32. VERNA FEMINE SUSPIRIA 



Levis exsurgit Zephirus 
et sol procedit tepidus ; 
iam terra sinus aperit, 
dulcore suo diffluit. 

Ver purpuratum exiit, 
ornatus suos induit ; 
aspergit terram floribus, 
ligna silvarum frondibus. 

Stniunt lustra quadrupedes 
et dulces nidos volucres ; 
inter ligna florentia 
sua decantant gaudia. 



Quod oculis dum video 
et auribus dum audio, 
heii, pro tantis gaudiis 
tantis inflor suspiriis. 

Cum niihi sola sedeo 
et hec revolvens palleo, 
sic forte caput sublevo, 
nee audio nee video. 

Tu saltim, Veris gratia, 
exaudi et considera 
frondes, flores et gramina; 
nam mea languet anima. 



IS 



33. INVITATIO AMICE 



lam, dulcis amica, venito, 

quam sicut cor meum diligo ; 

Intra in cubiculum meum, 

ornamentis cunctis onustum. 

Ibi sunt sedilia strata 5 

et domus velis ornata, 

Floresque in domo sparguntur 

herbeque fragrantes miscentur. 

Est ibi mensa apposita 

universis cibis onusta ; 10 

Ibi clarum vinum abundat 

et quidquid te, cara, delectat. 

Ibi sonant dulces simphonie, 

inflantur et altius tibie; 

Ibi puer et docta puella 15 

pangunt tibi carmina bella : 

Hie cum plectro citharam tangit, 

ilia melos cum lira pangit ; 

Portantque ministri pateras 

pigmentatis poculis plenas. 20 



10 



Non me iuvat tantum convivium 
quantum post dulce colloquium, 
Nee rerum tantarum ubertas 
ut dilecta familiaritas. 

Jam nunc veni, soror electa 25 

et pre cunctis mihi dilecta. 

Lux mee clara pupille 

parsque maior anime mee. 

Ego fui sola in silva 

et dilexi loca secreta; 30 

Frequenter effugi tumultum 

et vitavi populum multum. 

(Karissima, noli tardarej 

studeamus nos nunc amare, 

Sine te non potero vivere : 35 

iam decet amorem perficere. 

Quid iuvat deferre, electa, 

que sunt tamen post facienda? 

Fac cita quod eris factura, 

in me non est aliqua mora.) 40 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 65 

34. MAGISTER PUERO 

1 O admirabile Veneris idolum, 
cuius materie nihil est frivolum : 
Archos te protegat, qui Stellas et polum 
fecit et maria condidit et solum. 

Funs ingenio non sentias dolum : 5 

Cloto te diligat, que baiulat colum. 

2 Saluto puerum non per ipotesim, 

sed firmo pectore deprecor Lachesim, 

sororem Atropos, ne curet heresim. 

Neptunum comitem habeas et Thetim, lo 

cum vectus fueris per fluvium Tesim. 

quo fugis, amabo, cum te dilexerim ? 

miser quid faciam, cum te non viderim ? 

3 Dura materies ex matris ossibus 

creavit homines iactis lapidibus. »5 

Ex quibus unus est iste puerulus, 
qui lacrimabiles non curat gemitus. 
cum tristis fuero, gaudebit emulus : 
ut cerva nigio, cum fugit hinnulus. 

35. CLERICUS ET NONNA 
S 

36. 'IN LANGUORE PERIO' 
Ven 

37- 
V 

38. LAMENTATIO NEOBULE 

Miserarum est neque anion dare ludum neque dulci 

mala vino lavere aut exanimari metuentis 

patrue verbera lingue. 

Tibi qualum Citheree puer ales, tibi telas 

operoseque Minerve studium aufert, Neobule, S 

Liparei nitor Ebri, 

Simul unctos Tiberinis humeros lavit in undis, 

eques ipso melior Bellerofonte, neque pugno 

neque segni pede victus, 

Catus idem per apertum fugientis agitato 

grege cervos iaculari et celer arto latitanteni 

fruticeto excipere apnim. 



66 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



39. ADMONITIO lUVENUM 



Audax es, vir iuvenis, 
dum fervet caro mobilis; 
audenter agis perperam, 
tua membra coinquinas. 

Atiende homo, quod pulvis es 

et in pulverem reverteris. 

IDreve est tempus, iuvenis, 5 

perpende, quod morieris, 
venietque dies ultimus 
et perdes floras optimos. Attende... 

L^arni tue consenties, 
animam tuam decipis, 10 

libidine dum flecteris 
male deceptus permanes. Attende... 

Uentes tui fremidant, 
labia tua exasperant, 

lingua mala generat, 15 

vita tua trepidat. Attende... 

'Jileves tuos oculos, 
ut vanitatem videas ; 
flectetur mens misera, 
ad malum erigis membra. Attende... 20 

Fecisti malum consilium 
et offendisti nimium, 
quia multum secutus es 
amorem et libidines. Attende... 

vjloriam populi queris, 
laudem humanam diligis, 
non cupis placere deo, 
qui conspicit te de celo. Attende... 

rlonorem transitorie 
presumpsisti accipere; »© 

sed maior pena sequitur 
cui maior honor creditur. Attende... 

In terram semper aspicis, 
semper de terra cogitas, 
sed omnia hie reliquis, 35 

unde superbus ambulas? Attende... 



25 



10 rvaro te traxit in foveam, 
vide, ne malus moriaris ; 
festina te corrigere, 
antequam finis veniet. Attende... 40 

n JLuge modo, dum est tempus, 
ne genias in iudicio, 
ubi non valet gemitus, 
nee ulla intercessio. Atiende... 

12 Modo labora fortiter, 45 

dum es in isto corpore, 

emenda tuum vitium, 

ne gemas in perpetuum. Attende... 

13 JNon te frangat cupiditas, 

nee te flectat fragilitas, 50 

et noli cum diabulo 
participare amplius. Attende... 

14 ^ si corde intellegis, 

que sunt precepta legis, 

sed illi, qui adulterant, 55 

lapidibus subiaceant. Attende... 

15 1 er sal valorem denuo 

venit magna redemptio, 

qua cuncta, que committuntur, 

penitendo remittuntur. Attende... 60 

16 (juare recurrere non vis 

ad dominum, vir iuvenis? 

roga eius clementiam, 

ut donet indulgentiam. Attende... 

17 Kumpe cordis duritiam, 65 

mentis tue malitiam, 

te corrigere festina, 

antequam tempus pereat. Attende... 

18 buscipit Christus veniam, 

ut donet indulgentiam 70 

ad illam veram animam 

que macerat carnem suam. Attende... 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



67 



'9 



20 



1 erribilis Christus veniet 
ad iudicanda secula, 

tunc ille singulis reddet 75 

secundum sua opera. AtUttde... 

Veniet Christus iudicio, 
erit fortis districtio, 
ut pater filium non iuvet 
nee filius patrem defendat. Aittnde... 80 

Xristo servias, iuvenis, 
ad eum mox recurreris, 



23 



ut ante eius limina 

securus sis de crimine. Atiende. 

Y , dei quere gratiam, 
delet f)eccati maculam 
humilitas, et carilas 
ducit ad cell patriam. Attende... 

Zelum habet optimum, 
qui deum amat et proximum, 
letabitur in seculum 
et vivet in perpetuum. Attende. 



90 



40. DE MUSICA 

Rota modos arte personemus musica, 
quibus uti constans gratuletur anima; 
ut a fabris clarus didicit Pithagoras, 
malleis cum quattuor deprendit consonantias. 
Septem planetarum fecit interstitia, 
quanim fit celestis numerorum normula. 
fert ut arithmetica, cunctis dans principia. 
rex pantokrator nos reget per secula. 



41. DE MENSA PHILOSOPHIE 

Ad mensam Philosophie sitientes currite 
et saporis tripertiti septem rivos bibite, 
uno fonte procedentes, non eodem tramite. 

Hinc fluit gramma prima, hinc poetica ydra, 
lanx hinc satiricorum, plausus hinc comicorum, 
letificat convivia Mantuana fistula. 



42. DE SIMPHONIIS ET DE LITTERA PITHAGORE 

1 Vite dator, omnifactor deus, nature formator, mundi globum sub potenti cUudens volubilem palmo. 
in factura sua splendet magnificus per evum. 

2 Ipse multos Veritatem veteres necdum sequentes vestigando per sophie devia iusserat ire, improbabili 
errore parare nobis viam. 

3 Inter quos subtilis per acumen mentis claruit Pitagoras ; metapsicosis quern iuxta famam Troie 
peremptum Euforbium seculo rursus reddit, obscurosque rerum rite denuo vivum donat mtellectus per- 
spicaci perscrutari sensu animi. 



68 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

4. Ergo vir hie prudens, die quodam ferri fabricam preteriens, pondere non equo sonoque diverse 
pulsare malleolos senserat, sicque tonorum quamlibet informem vim latere noscens, fortnam addidit, per 
artem pulchram primus edidit. 

5 Ad banc simpbonias tres subplendam istas fecit : diatesseron diapente diapason, infra quaternarium, 
que pleniter armoniam sonant ; que sententia senis ponens solidum, ritbmicam in se normulani mensu- 
rarumque utilem notitiam et siderum motus iussit continere, ma ten tetraden et nomine suo vocavit. 

6 Y grecam, I de imis continentem sed fissam summotenus in ramosas binas partes, vite bumane 
invenit ad similitudinem congruam. est nam sincera et simplex pueritia, que non facile noscitur, utrum 
vitiis an virtuti animum subicere velit, donee tandepi iuventutis etas illud offerret nobis bivium. 

7 Hie qui paret viciis, virtuti — nobis auferat — contrariis, illam latam ille terit ipseque semitam, que 
postremo, plena penis gravibus, se prosequentibus portas inferi aperit sevissimas, ubi fremitus dentium et 
perpetui fJetus sunt merentium pro criminis facto; cita ubi semper mors optatur, frustra pro dolor atque 
queritur. 

8 Sed virtutum gradibus ille nititur, qui providus per angustam vadit illam semitam, que in fine 
locuples letitie suis queque precibus pandit etema dulcis vite gaudia ; ubi bonorum anime claro iugiter 
illustrantur lumine perpetui solis, ubi deitatis se conspectum semper cernere se gaudent beati. 

9 Vite dator, omnifactor deus, nature formator, ilium aufer, istum confer tuis fidelibus callem, ut post 
obitum talis vite participes fiant. 



43- DIAPENTE ET DIATESSERON 

Diapente et diatesseron simphonia et intensa et remissa pariter consonantia diapason modulatione 
consona reddunt. 



44- UMBRAM HECTORIS VIDET ENEAS 

Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus egris 

indpit, et dono divum gratissima serpit. 

in somnis, ecce, ante oculos mestissimus Hector 

visus adesse mihi, largosque effundere fletus, 

raptatus bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento 5 

pulvere, perque pedes traiectus lora tumentes. 

Ei mihi, qualis erat ! quantum mutatus ab illo 

Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli, 

vel Danaum Frigios iaculatus puppibus ignes ! 

squalentem barbam, et concretes sanguine crines, 10 

vulneraque ilia gerens, que circum plurima muros 

accepit patrios. Ultro flens ipse videbar 

compellare virum, et mestas expromere voces: 

'O lux Dardanie, spes o fidissima Teucrum, 

que tante tenuere more ? quibus Hector ab oris 15 

exspectate venis?' 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 69 

45. HIPSIPILE ARCHEMORUM PUERUM A SERPENTE NECATUM PLORAT 

O mihi deserte natonim dulcis imago, 

Archemore, o rerum et patrie solanien adempte 

servitiique decus, qui te, mea gaudia, sontes 

extinxere dei, modo quern digressa reliqui 

lascivum et prono vexantem gramina cursu? S 

heu ubi siderei vultus? ubi verba ligatis 

imperfecta sonis risusque et murmura soli 

intellecta mihi? quotiens tibi Lemnon et Argo 

sueta loqui et longa somnum suadere querella ! 

46. ARGIE LAMENT ATIO MARITUM POLINICEM A FRATRE 
INTERFECTUM INVENIENTIS 

• Hunc ego te, coniunx, ad debita regna profectum 

ductorem belli generumque potentis Adrasti 

aspicio, talisque tuis occurro triumphis? 

hue adtoUe genas defectaque lumina: venit 

ad Thebas Argia tua : age, menibus indue S 

et patrios ostende lares et mutua redde 

hospitia, heu quid ago? proiectus cespite nudo 

hoc patrie telluris habes ? que iurgia ? certe 

imperium non frater habet ! nuUasne tuorum 

movisti lacrimas? ubi mater? ubi inclita fama lo 

Antigone? mihi nempe iaces, mihi victus es uni ! 

dicebam : ' Quo tendis iter ? quid sceptra negata 

poscis? habes Argos, soceri regnabis in aula; 

hie tibi longus honos, hie indivisa potestas.' 

quid queror? ipsa dedi bellum mestumque rogavi 1$ 

ipsa patrem, ut talem nunc te complexa tenerem. 

sed bene habet, superi; gratuni est, Fortuna; peracta 

spes longinqua vie: totos invenimus artus. 

ei mihi, sed quanto descendit vulnus hiatu ! 

hoc frater? qua parte, precor, iacet ille nefandus 20 

predator? vincam volucres (sit adire potestas) 

excludamque feras; an habet funestus et ignes? 

sed nee te flammis inopem tua terra videbit: 

ardebis lacrimasque feres, quas ferre negatum 

regibus eternumque tuo faniulata sepulchre 25 

durabit deserta fides, testisque dolorum 

natus erit, parvoque torum Polinice fovebo.' 

47. NISUS OMNIGENI 

Salve, vite norma, preclare flos sinagoge. 

Ave pie diu optate tue olive. 

Nisibus omnigenis gratulor modulando Camenis. 

here forma poli serena, sol atque luna. 
Vale, hora certe iocunda, reddens cristalla. 5 

PresuUs eximii valeat virtute sepulchri. 



CHAPTER VI 
Notes 

The following abbreviations will be used: 

Allen, Mod. Phil. = Philip Schuyler Allen, in various volumes of Modern Philology. Especially Vol. in, 4 

(April, 1906); Vol. V, 3 (Jan. 1908); Vol. vi, 1-3 (July, 1908— Jan. 1909). University of Chicago Press. 
Bartsch, Lat. Seg. ^- Karl Bartsch, Die lateinischen Seqiienzen des Mittelalters in musikalischer und rhythmischer 

Beziehung dargestellt. Rostock. 1868. 
Breul, H.Z. = Karl Breul, Zu den Cambridger Liedern in ' Haupt's Zeitschrift fur deutsches Alterthum.' 

Vol. XXX (1886) 186-92. Berlin. 
DU M^RiL , and J = Edelestand du Mdril, (i) Pohies populaires latines antirieures au douziime siicle. Paris. 

1843. (2) Poesies latines du moyen-Age. Paris. 1847. 
EccARD = Johann Georg Eccard, Veterum monumentorum Quatemio. Leipzig. 1720. 
Frohner, H.Z. = Christian VV. Frohner, Zur miitellateinischen Hofdichtung, in ' Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deutsches 

Alterthum.' Vol. xi (1859) 1-24. Berlin. 
Grimm = Jacob Grimm und Andreas Schmeller, Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Jahrhunderts. Gottingen. 

1838. 
Haupt , and 2 = Moriz Haupt, (i) Altdeutsche Blatter. Leipzig. 1836. (2) Exempla poesis latinae mtdii ami. 

Vindobonae. 1834. (pp. 29-30 'Invitatio amicae.') 
Heyne = Moritz Heyne, Altdeutsch-lateinische Spielmannsgedichte des x. Jahrhunderts. Fiir Liebhaber des 

deutschen Altertums ubertragen. Gottingen. 1900. 
jAFFi, H.Z = Philipp Jaffi^, Die Cambridger Lieder, in ' Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum.' Vol. xiv 

(1869), 449-95 and 560. Berlin. 
Kelle = Johann Kelle, Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur von der dltesten Zeit bis zur Mitte des el/ten 

Jahrhunderts. Vol. I. Berlin. 1892. 
Kogel , and I = Rudolf Kogel, (i) Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters. Vol. I, 2 : 

Strassburg. 1897. (2) in Paul's 'Grundriss der germanischen Philologie,' 11, i (second edition. Strassburg, 

1901. The Old High German and Old Low German Literature was revised after Kogel's death by 

Wilhelm Bruckner). 
Meyer, i^.ff. = Wilhelm Meyer, Fragmenta Burana. Berlin. 1901. (Pages 145-86 of the valuable Intro- 
duction, containing the observations on the ' Cambridge Songs,' were reprinted in Meyer's ' Gesammelte 

Abhandlungen zur mittellateinischen Rythmik.' Berlin. 1905. i, 1-58.) 
MS. = the Manuscript (Codex Cantabrigiensis Gg. 5. 35) containing the 'Cambridge Songs' and the trans- 
literation of folios 432-41 given on pages 3-22 of the present book. 
M.S.D. = Karl Miillenhoff und Wilhelm Scherer, Denkmdler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem viii.-xii. 

Jahrhundert. Berlin. 1864. '1873. '1892 (edited by Elias Steinmeyer, in 2 vols. Vol. 1 : Texts. 

Vol. II : Notes). Only the third edition is referred to unless otherwise stated. 
Piper = Paul Piper, Nachtrdge zur dlteren deutschen Literatur, in Kiirschner's ' Deutsche National-Literatur.' 

Vol. 162. Stuttgart. No Year. [1897.] 
Schmeller, C.B.--J. A. Schmeller, Carmina Burana. Lateinische und deutsche Lieder und Gedichte einer 

Handschrift des xiii. Jahrhunderts aus Benediktbeuern. Breslau. 1847. ''1883. '1904. 



NOTES 71 

Traube = Ludwig Traube, O Roma nohilis. Philohgische Untersuchungen aus dem Mitte/alter, in ' Abhand- 

lungen der Philosophisch-Philologischen Klasse der Kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchea' 

Vol. XIX, Part II. 1891, especially pp. 304 sqq. 
W = The Wolfenbiittel Manuscript, as printed by Piper in his 'Nachtrage zur alteren deutschen Litteratur,' 

pages 234-7. See p. 36, note i. 
WiNTERFELD = Paul von Winterfeld, Deutsche DUhter des lateinischen Mittelalters in deutschen Venen [edited, 

with an introduction, by Hermann Reich]. Miinchen. 1913. 

I. Carmen Christo Dictum. 

MS. fol. 435™ 1. 33-435"'' 1- 28. — pp. 27 (sub 12) and 42. — Jaffe 479-80. The first five portions of this 
sequence are also found in two manuscripts of Benevento the oldest of which goes back to the eleventh 
century. See Clemens Blume, AnaUcta Hymnica Medii Aevi. Vol. Liii : Die Seguenzen des Thesaurus 
Jiymnologicus H. A. Daniels und anderer Sequenzenausgaben. Part I. Leipzig. 191 1. Pages 105—6. 
Blume says : ' In MS. B ist die liturgische Bestimmung fiir Dominica II post Octavas Paschae.' ' Diese bisher 
unedierten Sequenzen aus Benevent bieten einen poetisch minderwertigen, aber historisch sehr bedeutungsvoUen 
Beitrag zur Sequenzendichtung.' Stanza 3 of the Cambridge Manuscript {Spolia mundi...) follows in the 
Benevento Manuscripts after Stanza 4 {Tertia die...). 

The text of the present edition follows on the whole the Cambridge Manuscript which is fuller and at least 
as good as the Italian texts from which, however, two readings have been adopted, viz. in Stanza 2 : lucidae for 
lucidam, and in Stanza 4 resurrexisti maiestate for surrexisti maiestatis. Perhaps it will be better to transpose 
the last words of Stanza 5 and to read with the Italian manuscripts : dextra patris residens, o rex. 

In Stanza 3 orto (lucido) stands for horto {lucido). An initial h is frequently omitted in the Songs, 
e.g. erbam (29, 6, 2), imnizantem (23, 12), armoniam (15, 4), armonica (31, 43), ipodorica (31, 3), Ebri 
(38, 2, 3). On the other hand we fmd^ perhennem {13, i), prohemium (24, 4), honusta (33, 10), habundat (33, 11). 

2. Modus Qui et Carelmanninc. 

MS. fol. 432" 1. 31-433™ 1. 18. — pp. 27 (sub 4) and 42-43- Preserved in two Manuscripts, C and W. For 
W see Piper pp. 234-5. The text given on pp. 42-43 follows on the whole the critical text given in M.S.D. 
I, 40 sqq. which is largely based on VV. The readings of C can easily be ascertained from pp. 2-3 of the 
present edition. The very meagre punctuation of M.S.D. has, however, not been adopted. 

The sequence was obviously intended for use at the service in church and will hardly have been sung 
outside of religious houses. It is the only one among the poems in this form preserved in C which is still 
purely religious. 'Modus qui et Carelmanninc' means 'the tune to which also the song on Karlmann 
is being sung.' This was perhaps a German song. 

See M.S.D. i, 40-42 (critical text and various readings) and 11, 107-112 (notes and discussion where the 
older literature is mentioned). See also Bartsch, Lat. Seq. pp. 157 sqq., and compare the critical remarks of 
W. Wilmanns in his review oi M.S.D. in Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1893, pages 534-5. 

After 1. 30 there follows another stanza of 3 lines in C which has been omitted in the present edition. 
See the note in M.S.D.' 

3. Laudes Christo acte. 

MS. fol. 432''> I. 24-432" I. 30.— pp. 27 (sub 3) and 44-45.— Jaffd, pp. 476-9 (on which the text here 
given is based). 

For lines 79 and following compare St Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians iv. 5-6. With regard to the metre, 
see the notes to Poems 10 and 26. 



72 



NOTES 

4. Hymnus Paschalis. 



MS. fol. 437"''' 1. 30-438" 1. 5. — pp. 27 (sub 21) and 45.— These lines are part (11. 31-40) of a much 
longer elegiac poem of no lines by Venantius Fortunatus (530-609), Bishop of Poitiers, called De Resurrectione 
Domini. See Guido Maria Dreves Hymnographi Latini. Lateinische Hymnendichter des Mittelalters. Zweite 
Folge. Leipzig. 1907 (in Anakcta Hymnica Medii Aevi, herausgegeben von Clemens Blume und Guido M. 
Dreves. Vol. l, pages 76 sqq.). On p. 79 Dreves says 'Zahllos ist die Zahl der Handschriften, die Bruchstiicke 
des Ganzen als osterlichen Prozessionshymnus bieten, und uniibersehbar bunt die Auswahl, die getroffen wird. 
Viel haufiger ist eine andre Auswahl, die nach dem Rundreime mit V. 31 einsetzt. Diese Auswahl hat aus dem 
durchaus nicht liturgischen Original einen liturgischen Hymnus weitester Verbreitung herausgeschalt.' In 
H. A. Daniel's Thesaurus hymnologicus i (Halle, 1841) pp. 169-70 the five stanzas of the Cambridge MS. 
are found which are followed by nine additional stanzas, enclosed in brackets. On pp. 17 1-2 Daniel adds 
an interesting note. He quotes from Mon. Salisb. : 'zw osterleicher czeit das frewden ge.sangk "Salve, festa 
dies" daz wirt gesungen all suntag so man vmb dy kirchen mit der proces get....' German beginnings are 
given as ' Griiest seyst heyliger tag ' and ' Sey gegriist du heiliger tag.' See also K. S. Meister, Das katholische 
deutsche Kirchenlied in seinen Singweisen, Vol. i (Freiburg, 1862), pp. 364-8 : ' Sey gegriist, du hoher Festag ! ' ; 
and Philipp Wackernagel, Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der ditesten Zeit bis zum Anfang des xvii. Jahrhunderis, 
Vol. I (Leipzig, 1864), pp. 66-7. The refrain 'Salve festa dies...astra tenet' is really 11. 39-40 of the versus ' De 
Resurrectione Domini ' the beginning of which is : Tempora florigero. Stanzas 2 to 5 of the present ' Hymnus 
Paschalis' represent 11. 31-38 of the poem on the Resurrection. From the same poem processional hymns 
were extracted for Ascension Day and for Whitsuntide. The opening line is very similar to Sedulius : Haec est 
alma dies, sanctorum sancta dierum, but the rest is different. The text of the present edition is based on Dreves. 

The hymn is printed, with refrain, in the Rev. R. M. Moorsom's Historical Companion to Hymns Ancient 
and Modern, London, "1903, pp. 63-64; also in Hymnarium, Bliithen lateinischer Kirchenpoesie, Halle, -1868, 
p. 96, No. 59, under the title : In festo Paschali. The hymn was translated into English by the Rev. John 
EUerton {Hymns, No. 497) beginning: ^Welcome, happy morning!' age to age shall say. It was translated into 
German, in the metre of the original, by Karl Simrock in his Lauda Sion, Stuttgart, '1868. This translation begins: 

Heil dir, festlicher Tag, ehrwiirdig den kommenden Zeiten, 
Wo die Holle bezwang Gott und zum Himmel sich hob ! 

5. Resurrectio. 
MS. fol. 441''^ 1. 14-23. — pp. 27 (sub 43) and 45. — Jaffe, p. 480 (on whom the present edition is based). 

6. Ad Mariam. 

MS. fol. 440"* 1. 35-440'"'' 1. 5. — pp. 27 (sub 35) and 46. — Jaffe, pp. 480-1 (on whom the text of the 
present edition is based). 

7. De Epiphania. 

MS. fol. 432" 11. 1-6. — pp. 27 (sub i) and 46. 

This is only the opening stanza of a much longer poem that was first printed by P. Gall Morel in his 
Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters, gro/Stenteils aus Handschriften schweizerischer Klbster, Einsiedeln, New 
York and Cincinnati, 1868, p. 12, No. 21. In Dreves und Blume's Analeda Hymnica medii aevi. Vol. l 
(Leipzig, 1907), 195-6, the poem has 14 stanzas and is given under the title ' De Nativitate Domini.' Its 
author is the famous prelate Magnentius Hrabanus Maurus, Abbot of Fulda (822-42) and Archbishop of Mayence 
(847-56). On him see E. Diimmler's article in the Allgetneine Deutsche Biographic, Vol. xxvii (1888), 66-74. 



NOTES . 73 

In 1. 5 : Ut salvaret quod plasmavit the AnaUcta Hymnica print quos plasmaint, adding, however, a note to the 
effect (p. 196) that many manuscripts have quod. Consequently quod has been retained. The refrain: cauie 
cane etc. of the Cambridge Manuscript does not belong to this poem and has for this reason been omitted on 
p. 46. See also Jaffi^, p. 461, note. The words conspira karole do not make any sense and should be emended 
from the beginning of No. 23 (p. 57) : (clare) conspirtnt cannule. 



8. Rachel. 

MS. fol. 441'''' 11. 3-14.— pp. 27 (sub 46) and 46. — Jaffe, p. 481. 

A fragment of only 2\ stanzas. It breaks off abruptly in the MS. without any indication of anything being 
omitted, and is immediately followed by O admirabile Veneris idolum. 

The complaint of Rachel is based on the well-known passage in Matthew iL 16-18 : 'tunc Herodes... mittens 
occidit omnes pueros...tunc impletum fuit quod ait Dominus per leremiam prophetam dicentem : "Vox in 
Rhama audita est, lamentatio, et fletus, et ejulatus multus : Rachel plorans filios suos, et noluit consolationem 
admittere, de eo quod non sint.'" Similarly in other Latin texts. See Jaffd, p. 481 n. The {)assage from 
Jeremiah (xxxi. 15) runs thus in the text of the Vulgate: ' Haec dicit Dominus: Vox in excelso audita est 
lamentationis, luctus et fletus Rachel plorantis filios suos et nolentis consolari su[)er eis quia non sunt.' 

The metrical form of the poem is interesting. The first three lines of each stanza are the well-known long 
trochaic lines of 15 syllables, with a break after the eighth, as they occur in poems No. 18, 21, and 31. The 
fourth line, the concluding line of each stanza, shows a slight reduction of the first three in so far as each half 
has only seven syllables, and the caesura rimes with the end. The effect is very pleasant, but I have not come 
across this particular stanza in any other religious poem. The reduced line stands in a relation to the longer 
ones similar to that in which the pentameter stands to the hexameter. With regard to the pleasant effect of the 
long lines see also R. Atkinson's remarks on the Hymns of S. Colman MacMurchon and Cuchuimne in the 
Irish Liber Bymnorum (Henry Bradshaw Society Publications), Vol. xiv, London, 1898, pp. xiv-xvi. 

A similar beginning is found in several hymns of different metrical structure, eg. Pulset astra vox 
sublimis, sublimari digna nimis, or Pulset coelum laus amoena, laus cunclorum fidelium. See U. Chevalier, 
Repertoriutn Hymnologicum, 11 (Louvain, 1897), 371. 

The Goliard's collection includes complaints of various kinds; see also Nos. 32, 38, 45, 46. 

As the ten lines are only a fragment, perhaps only a small fragment, and possibly not even the opening 
lines of the poem, a satisfactory interpretation of them is hardly possible. The 'soror' is probably Leah, and 
Rachel and Leah seem to stand here for the Gospel (the Church) and the Law (Synagogue). Once Rachel was 
taken as representing the Gospel as distinguished from Law, as the Church in contrast with the Synagogue, she 
would naturally be represented as 'virgo' and 'sine macula,' the bride of Christ (see Ephesians v. 27-29); 
'pignora,' 'dear children,' would be a natural expression for the martyrs, and the Church would be taken as the 
' mother ' of the faithful ones. The evil sister, ' improba,' seems to refer to the Synagogue, although it never had 
the power of putting Christians to death except by stirring up the heathen authorities against them. As the 
festivals of the Church brought back the memory of the deaths of the martyrs, the hymn-writer wished to give 
voice to the compassion of the Church to their sufferings. If ' improba ' is not taken to refer to Leah (the Jews), 
one might be inclined to assume that it refers to Babylon (the heathen world). A short Latin Lamentatio Rachel 
(9 lines), followed by some consoling lines ('Noli, Rachel, deflere pignora!') spoken by an Angel, with the 
refrain 'Ergo gaude!,' seems to belong to an old Mystery-play on the massacre of the Innocents. See 
E. de Coussemaker, Histoire de r harmonic au moyen-^e, Paris, 1852, p. 128. 



74 NOTES 



9. De Domo S. Cecilie Cohniensi. 

MS. fol. 438" 11. 12-24.— pp. 27 (sub 25) and 46.— Jaffe, p. 484 (on whom the text is mainly based), and 
Edward Schroder, in the Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum, 23 (1897), 202-3 and 401, whose valuable emenda- 
tions have been utilised. 

The poem, in leonine hexameters, refers to a religious foundation the patron-saint of which was 
Saint Cecilia. In the 8th, 9th and loth century there existed in the town of Cologne a 'conventus Sanctae 
Caeciliae.' A church of St Caecilia, dating from 930-41, stood near the Neumarkt, in the centre of Cologne. 

Uuoda (1. 7) probably stands for Uoda just as on fol. 438^'' 1. 25 uuualde is written for uualde. On the 
name see E. Forstemann, Altdeutsches Namenbuch, h (1900), p. 1629 (Wuoda) and p. 1176 (Uoda). On 
Oda = Uote as a typical name for mothers of great kings and warriors, see Jacob Grimm, Haupt's Zeitschrift 
fUr deutsches Alterthum, Vol. I, 21 (reprinted in Grimm's Kkinere Schriften, vii, 68 sqq.). 

Mere Hict was obviously another mistake (see p. 23, note 2) of the Anglo-Saxon scribe of the ' Canterbury 
Book ' who did not understand the name. Several instances of the name Merihilt, Merehild are found in 
E. Forstemann's Altdeutsches Namenbuch, 'i (1900), p. 1104. On Una as a name see Anzeiger f.d.A. 23, 401. 

The beginning of the poem is typical in Medieval Latin Church poetry, see : Emicat virtutibus \ confessor 
Eligius in U. Chevalier, Repertorium Hymnologicum, Vol. iv (Louvain, 1912), p. 119, No. 37048; or Emicat hie 
pater haelisio \ sanctus Eparchius astrigero, ibid, iii, 194, No. 26070. Emicat is used especially frequently with 
regard to festival days, e.g. emicat alma dies, emicat ecce dies lucida, etc., ibid, i, 321 ; in, 194. 



10. De S. Victore Carmen Xantense. 

MS. fol. 433''' 1. 36 — fol. 434'''' 1. 5. — pp. 27 (sub 7) and 47-48. — Jaff^, pp. 481-4 (on whom the text of the 
present edition is mainly based). 

On Saint Victor in Xanten see the Annates Xantenses, 864, Monumenta Germaniae, SS. 11, 231; also 
Rettberg, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, I, 102 sqq.; Rektor Moders in his Fiihrer durch Xanten (Xanten, 
'1912), says: Der heilige Victor wurde nach der Legende i.J. i86 nach Christo mit 330 Soldaten der thebixischen 
Legion auf Befehl des Kaisers Maximian bei Xanten {=-ad sanctos martyres) ermordet. Die heilige Helena, Mutter 
Konstantins des Gro^en, liefi die Gebeine der Mdrtyrer sammeln, in Steinsdrge legen, vor dem Sudtore der Colonia 
Trajana begraben, und Uber dem grofien Grabe eine Kirche bauen (327). 451 zerstorte ein Schwarm Huniun auf 
dem Wege nach Gallien die Kirche. Den zweiten Dom vernichteten 864 die Normanneti, wie die ' Annates 
Xantenses' erzahlen. Ein drittes Gotteshaus wurde 1109 durch Feuer zerstort. Ein vierter (romanischer) Dom 
wurde 1213 eingeweiht. Der jetzige prdchtige gotische Dom wurde 1263 begonnen (der Grundstein zum Kolner 
Dom wurde 1248 gelegt) und 1525 vollendet. In the Nibelungenlied 'the far-famed town ze Santen' is the 
birthplace of valiant Siegfried and the residence of his father Siegmund, king of the district of the Lower 
Rhine. 

For the metre of this poem see the notes to Heriger (No. 26) and to poem No. 16. 

In lines 68-69 St Victor is called athleta dei. Adam of St Victor, who in the ' prose ' beginning ' Ecce 
dies triumphalis ' (see L^on Gautier, Oeuvres poitiques dAdam de S. Victor, Paris, 1859, 11, 88) calls St Victor 
Christi miles indefessus, actually addresses him as athleta in another prose, ibid. p. 95. The designation athleta 
is most frequently given to Saint George, e.g. O athleta, victor, laeta \ Georgi fulgens laurea, in Guido Maria 
Dreves, Analecta Hymnica medii aevi. Vol. xix (Leipzig, 1895), p. 143, No. 239. In Chevalier, Repertorium 
Hymnologicum, Vol. a (1897), pp. 175-6, several hymns to saints are quoted which begin O athleta (gloriose). 



NOTES 75 

1 1 . De Heinrico. 

MS. fol. 437''' 1. 27-437" 1. 23.— pp. 27 (sub 18) and 48. See also Chapter VII, pp. 102-11. 

This poem is possibly the oldest of the political poems (Nos. 11-17) contained in the Goliard's Song 
Book. It seems to refer to events of the year 948, although it may have been written at a considerably later 
date. But see the note to De WilUlmo (No. 21) which probably falls before 968. The last political poem 
(No. 17) of the Cambridge Collection laments the death of Emperor Conrad II (June 4, 1039). 

The only otlier macaronic poem of our Collection, Clericus et Nontia, is half erased and very badly blacked. 
See fol. 438"'' 1. 16-439"' 1- 8. There are many specimens of 'mixed prose,' i.e. prose half I>atin and half 
German, among the Old High German writings of Notker and Williram. 

The text of the present edition follows mainly W. Braune's Althochdtulsches Lesebuch. In 1. 7 it admits 
the reading bringit (see pp. 33 and 104 sqq.), but in 1. 5 it adheres to the old emendation manoda for namoda. 

12. Modus Ottinc. 

MS. fol. 434"'' 1. 31-435''' 1. II. — pp. 27 (sub 10) and 49. 

Like the other modi (Nos. 2, 22, and 25) the Modus Ottinc has come down to us in the two manuscripts, C 
and W. The text given on p. 49 of the present edition follows on the whole the critical text of M.S.D. '1, 46-48, 
which was mainly made by K. Lachmann. A photographic reproduction of the neumes of W. is contained in 
E. de Coussemaker's Histoire de Vharmonie au moyen-dge, Paris, 1852, planche viii. 

The older literature, up to 1892, has been partly mentioned and utilized in M.S.D. '11, 1 17-21. See also 
Ludwig Uhland, Schrijten zur Geschichie der Dichlung und Sage, i, 475-7 (Stuttgart, 1865) ; Wilhelm Wattenbach, 
Deutschlands Geschichtsquelkn im Mittelaltcr bis zur Mitte des xiii. Jahrhunderts, *i (Berlin, 1893), 327, note 2 ; 
Meyer, F. B., pp. 176-7; and especially the valuable observations of Joseph Seemiiller, Studien zu den Ur- 
spriingen der altdeutschen Historiographie, Halle, 1898, pp. 72-74. 

' Modus Ottinc ' (see 11. 2-3) means ' the Otto melody,' i.e. the tune which the court minstrels were playing 
when they desired to rouse by means of their music the Emperor from his sleep and thus to save him from the 
fire that had broken out in his palace (11. 3-16). The tune probably was the melody of a popular German song. 
See Uhland, I.e. p. 476. The present poem was to be sung to the melody of this well-known song. 

The 'Modus,' which deals with the Saxon Emperors, Otto I (936-73), Otto II (973-83), and Otto III 
(983-1002), is really a poem in praise of the last-mentioned Emperor, who is celebrated for his own sake as well 
as for the sake of his illustrious ancestors. It was probably written between the years 992 and 996. It shows 
the double influence of the German popular historical songs, which are as such (in their German form) lost to us, 
and of the Renaissance poetry of the learned clerics. It is not only written in the very skilfully composed 
metrical form of a sequence (one of the most artistic specimens of this kind) but it abounds with reminiscences 
from the ancient classical writers, of whom Virgil is even mentioned in L 68 immediately after a quotation from 
Horace (11. 65-67 are clearly reminiscences from Horace, 'Carmina,' i, 6, 11-12, laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 
culpa deterere ingeni). There are frequent reminiscences of Virgil. With moras rumpite (1. 24) cp. Virgil, 
Georg. in, 43; Aen. iv, 569 and ix, 13. With sanguinem inimicum (1. 32) cp. Aen. xi, 720. With bella 
fremunt (1. 33) cp. arma fremunt in Aen. vii, 460 and xi, 453. The expression fremere bellum actually occurs 
in a fragment of an early Latin dramatist ; but the author of the ' Modus ' could of course hardly have met with 
it then (Dr Reid). For 1. 55 cp. Cicero ' Pro Murena,' §38 : cum fortis .. .turn etiam/elix. 

The earlier portion of the 'Modus' (11. 11-42) gives the desc.iption of the famous battle of the plains 
around the Lech {licus, 1. 41) in which Otto I routed the Hungarian raiders. Wattenbach, I.e. *i, 327, speaks of this 
poem as ' den Ereignissen schon so fern stehend, dafi wir hinter ihm uns eine Fiille deutscher Lieder zu denken 
haben, von jenen Mimi gesungen, deren Widukind gedenkt.' Dux CuonrAt intrepidus (1. 26) is Duke Cuonrit 

K2 



76 



NOTES 



of Franconia, whose bravery in this battle was also praised by the contemporaneous historians. He was killed 
during the battle by an arrow when he lifted his helmet to get some fresh air. 

The poem has been well translated into modern German verse by Winterfeld, on pp. 202-4, under the 
heading 'Die Ottonen.' He made some useful remarks on the poem on pp. 442-3 and 489, as did H. Reich, 
in editing Winterfeld's book, on pp. 84-85. The opening lines of VVinterfeld's translation runs thus : 

Otto war's der GroBe, 

Dessen diese Weise 

Den Namen triigt 'Otten Weise.' 

Nachtens hatt' er ermiidet sich hingestreckt, 

Da lichterloh 

Stund die Konigsburg jah in Flammen. 

13. Nenia de Mortuo Heinrico II Imperatore. 

MS. fol. 436'* 1. 38-436"'' 1. 39-— PP- 27 (sub 16) and 50.— Grimm, pp. 333-5, 343. Introd. xliv.— JafTe, 
pp. 458-9 (who utilized many emendations proposed by Grimm and on whom the text of the present edition 
is based). Du Meril, pp. 285-6, has some useful notes. 

This song of lamentation, which expresses the universal mourning of the clergy at the death of Henry H, 
the last emperor of the Saxon family, was composed in the summer of 1024, between the death of Henry 
(July 13) and, as is shown by Stanza 7, 1. 3, the election of his successor Conrad H (September 8). This poem 
and the next (No. 14), both of which have been preserved only in the Cambridge Manuscript, refer to the same 
event and may have been composed by Wipo. See the note to No. 17. 

The structure of the stanzas is simple and popular, the rhythm regular, the caesurae riming with the end 
of each line. The refrain at the end of each stanza of this song is a leonine hexameter. 

Line 25: magnum episcopatum refers to the see of Bamberg (Mons Bavonis, Poem No. 14, 1. 17) which 
Henry founded, munificently endowed, and where he was buried. From his many pious benefactions and his 
deep interest in the welfare of the Church he was given the surname ' der Heilige.' 

Line 27 : Advocatum Roma ploret. A common designation of the head of the Holy Roman Empire was 
' Protector {advocatus) of Rome.' In a famous poem of Walther von der Vogelweide, addressed, nearly 200 years 
later, to Frederic H (Lachmann's ed. 28, i), the poet calls the Emperor: Von Rome vogt, von Pillle kiinec 
(King of Apulia). 

14. Nenia in funebrem pompam Heinrici II Imperatoris. 

MS. fol. 434'''' U. 6-40. — pp. 27 (sub 8) and 51.— Jaffe, pp. 460-1 (on whom the text of the present 
edition is based). Du M^ril, pp. 286-7, has some useful notes. See the notes to the preceding poem 
(No. 13). The poem has been preserved only in the Cambridge Manuscript. 

Line 17 proves that the poem was written for the funeral of the Emperor at Bamberg. The cathedral, 
founded by Henry, and dearly loved by him, is asked faithfully to preserve his body. See Siegfried Hirsch 
( — Harry Bresslau), Jahrbiicher des deutscheti Reiches unter Heinrich II, Vol. in (1875), 300. As to the author 
see the note to No. 17. The long and solemn refrain of this song should be specially noticed. 

15. Cantilena in Conradum II factum Imperatorem. 

MS. fol. 432" 1. 7-432^'' 1. 23. — pp. 27 (sub 2) and 51-52. — Jaff^ (who has some good notes and used some 
emendations proposed by Frohner in H. Z. xi, 12. The present text is based on that of Jaffe), pp. 361-2. 



NOTES 77 

The date of this poem, which, like Nos. 13, 14, 16, is preserved only in the Cambridge MS., is March 26, 
1027. The author of it may well be Wipo, although it cannot be proved with certainty. See Wilhelm Arndt, 
Die Wahl Conrad II, Gottingen, 1861. On pp. 46-52 there is an Excurs III Ubtr den sogenannten KronungsUich 
in Conradum Salicum (based on Frohner, H. Z. xi, 12 sqq., as Jaffa's edition was not yet available). Arndt 
leaves it undecided if the poem was composed, by a clergyman, before or after the coronation. He makes it 
very probable that Wipo was the author of this song and fitly refers to Pertz's essay on Wipo published in the 
Abhandlungen der Kgl. Akad. d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 185 1, p. 222. JafTe, p. 462, is sceptical as to 
Wipo's authorship, while Wattenbach, Geschichtsquelkn, '11, 13 accepts it. On Conrad's election cp. the fine 
passage, spoken by Werner, in the second act of Uhland's tragedy Ernst, Hertog tfon Schtvaben. 

The first stanza {Melos cuncti...) probably belongs to some other poem. The Manuscript has in Stanza 
2 {Voces laudis humane...) a new big coloured initial such as is only used by the scribe to denote the 
beginning of a new song. Stanza 11 refers to July 13, 1024; Stanza 12 to Sept 8, 1024; and Stanza 14 
to March 26, 1027. 

i6. Cantilena in Heinriaim III anno 1028 regent coronatum. 

MS. fol. 436''* 1. 38-436^* 1. 37. — pp. 27 (sub 15) and 52-53. — Du M^ril, pp. 289-90, has some useful notes. — 
Jaff^ (who made use of some emendations by Frohner, and on whom the present text is based), pp. 462-4. The 
poem was also printed by F. L. v. Soltau, Einhundert deutsche historische Volkslieder, Leipzig, 1836, p. 31. See 
the account of the Coronation given in Wipo's Vita Cuonradi Salici in Pertz, Monumenta Germaniae, xi (1854), 
pp. 267-8. It runs thus: 'Anno Domini Mxxviii, indictione xi, imperator Chuonradus filium suum Heinricum, 
magni ingenii et bonae indolis puerum, aetate xi annorum, principibus regni cum tota multitudine populi id 
probantibus, a Pilegrino, archiepiscopo Coloniensi, in regalem apicem apud Aquisgrani palatium sublimari fecerat. 
Tunc in principali dominica paschae consecratus et coronatus, paschalem laetitiam triplicavit.' 

The poem occurs only in the Cambridge Manuscript. It is a song, possibly written by Wipo himself, for the 
coronation of the Emperor Conrad's promising eleven-year-old son Henry, as King of Burgundy; in 1039 he 
succeeded his imperial father as Henry III. The coronation took place, amid much pomp and ceremony, 
at Aix-la-Chapelle (ad Aquasgrani, line 5) on April 14, 1028, where the prince was crowned by the Archbishop 
Piligrim of Cologne (lines 25-26). The ' Kronungshymnus ' may well have been sung during the celebrations 
at Aachen. See Harry Bresslau, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reiches unter Konrad II, Vol. I (Leipzig, 1879), 
240-2. Bresslau printed the Coronation Song in his school edition of iViponis Opera, p. 80. See also 
W. Arndt, Die Wahl Conrad II, p. 51, and W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter, *\\ 
(Berlin, 1894), 13, who both consider it likely that Wipo was the author. 

The whole of the first stanza serves as a refrain that was repeated after each stanza, probably by a chorus 
of singers, different from the one singer or the chorus that sang Stanzas 2 to 13. The short and popular metre 
is similar to that used in Heriger (No. 26), Al/rdd (No. 29) and St Victor of Xanten (No. 10). 

Line 13: agni sponsa is the Church. 1. 19 refers to Easter Sunday, March 26, 1027. 1. 22 refers to the 
Coronation day, April 14, 1028. 1. 25, die predicto (see 1. 19), refers to Easter Sunday, 1028. 

17. Nenia de Mortuo Conrado II Imperatore. 

MS. fol. 440" 11. 7-36. — pp. 27 (sub 32) and 53.— Du M^ril, pp. 290-2, gives some useful notes. 

The four stanzas of the Cambridge Manuscript are only the beginning of a longer poem, by Wipo, on 
the death of Conrad II, who died on June 4, 1039, at Utrecht. The whole poem is printed, in a critical 
edition, at the end of Wipo's Life of the Emperor, in the Monumenta Germaniae, VoL xi (1854), pp. 274-5. 
The text of the present edition follows the text of the Monumenta (' Versus pro obitu Chuonradi imperatoris '). 



78 NOTES 

The poem has been twice translated into German. The first translator was P. Anselm Schubiger in his 
book Die Sdngerschuk St Gal/ens vom aehten bii zum zwolften Jahrhundert, Einsiedeln und New- York, 1858, 
pp. 91-92. After a short introduction Schubiger translates the whole poem, printing the nine stanzas, Latin 
and German, side by side. The first lines run thus : 

War laut vermag zu singen, der singe dieses Lied 

Vom jammervoUen Jahre, das Schmerz und Weh beschied. 

Es klagt das Volk im Freien, es klagt in jedem Haus, 

Spricht wachend durch die Nachte zu Gott den Seufzer aus : 

Herr, wer da lebt, bewahre ; der Toten dich erbarme ! 

The second translator was VV. Pfliiger, who translated Wipo's Life of the Emperor Conrad, from the Monumenta 
Germaniae, in the Collection Die Geschichtschreiher der deuischen Vorzeit, Berlin, 1877. Second ed. Leipzig, 
1888. Vol. 41, pp. 83-84. The first stanza of Pfiiiger's translation runs thus: 

Wen ziert der Stimme Klang, der singe diesen Sang 
Vom Jahr, da klaget manche Brust, vom unaussprechlichen Verlust, 
Uni den ein jeder wird verzehrt im Schmerze drauBen wie am Herd. 
Das Volk um seinen Herren klagt zur Nachtzeit, wie wann's wieder tagt. 
Schiitze, die leben, o Herre Gott ! Habe Erbarmen mit denen, die tot ! 

On the Burgundian Wipo, who was a confidential Chaplain and the biographer of Conrad II, see 
Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter, '11, 10-16, also the essay by Pertz quoted among 
the notes to No. 15, and Wattenbach's article in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. xliii (1898), 514. 
There is no doubt that this deeply-felt lament on the death of a beloved Emperor was composed by Wipo 
himself, although, at the end of Chapter 37 of his Vita Chuonradi imperatoris ('Monumenta Germaniae,' 
XI, 274), he only modestly says pro quo quidam de nostris cantilenam lamentationum fecerat, quam postea 
filio sua Heinrico regi in Constantia civitate praesentavit. Wipo more than once speaks of himself as quidam 
de nostris; he presented his lament to Henry III at Konstanz in April 1048. Wipo wrote a number of Latin 
poems which have come down to our times. He is also the author of the famous Easter sequence Vidimae 
paschali laudes, which is still sung in German churches. Cp. K. S. Meister, Das katholische deutsche 
Kirchenlied, I, No. 179, pp. 347-53, and K. Simrock, Lauda Sion, Stuttgart, 1868, p. 182. 

Line 1 1 : Gunnild regina, or Chunehildis, Chunhilda, was the daughter-in-law of the Emperor, the young 
wife of his son King Henry, and daughter of Cnut the Dane. Conrad's wife was the Empress Gisela. 

Line 1 2 : Herimannus (in a spurious line) is Duke Heriman of Swabia, the step-brother of King Henry, 
the son of the Empress Gisela by her first marriage to the Duke of Swabia. He was a gallant youth of 
whom great hopes were entertained at the Imperial Court. 

With regard to the contents of the second and third stanzas Chapter 37 of the Vita Chuonradi imperatoris 
(Mon. Germ, xi, 273) should be compared, where Wipo writes of the pestilence that decimated the German 
army in Italy in July 1038: 'Eo tempore propter nimium calorem nimia contagio pestilentiae exercitum 
invasit, neque aetatibus neque personis pepercit. Ibi regina Chunehildis, coniux Heinrici regis, 156 Kalendas 
Augusti quasi in limine vitae, ingressu mortis occubuit, relinquens tantummodo solam filiolam de rege, quam 
postea pater Christo desponsans, in abbatissam consecrari fecit. Filius imperatricis Herimannus dux 
Alamannorum, mvenis bonae indolis et in rebus bellicis strennuus, eadem peste gravatus inter manus peritissi- 
morum medicorum 5. Kalendas Augusti non sine magno detrimento imperii obiit. Eodem mense atque 
sequenti maxima multitudo exercitus morbo contacta periit. Corpus reginae tenerum et delicatum, aromatibus 
conditum cum rege et imperatrice ductum ad Germaniam, in praepositura Lintburg sepultum est. De duce 
sututum fuerat, ut in Constantiam civitatem Alamanniae duceretur; sed calore nimio obstante, in Tridento 
sepelitur.' See also Harry Bresslau, Konrad II, Vol. 11, 318, notes i and 2. 



NOTES 79 

With regard to the authorship of the poems Nos. 13 to 17, it is clear that Wipo must be considered to 
be the author of at least the last one. He was very probably also the writer of No. 16. About the other 
three poems all that can be said is that it is possible that they were written by him, but that no direct evidence 
of his authorship can be adduced. This was stated as early as 1851 by I'ertz in his paper published by 
the Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften in 1852, pp. 215 sqq. 



18. Gratulatio reginae a morbo rtcreatae. 

MS. fol. 441" 1. 22-441''' 1. 14.— pp. 27 (sub 40) and 54. — Jaflte, p. 465 (on whom the text of the 
present edition is based). 

With regard to the charming trochaic metre of fifteen syllables in which this poem is composed compare 
Nos. 21, 31, the note to No- 8, and also Grimm, Lat. Ged. Introd. xlvii-xlix. It is to be noted that all the 
lines have the same ending, viz. -a (as also in No. 31). The same easy metre of fifteen syllables, with a 
break after the eighth, but without rime, occurs in earlier Latin literature, e.g. in the ' Pervigilium Veneris ' 
{Cras amet qui nunquam amavit, quique amavit eras ame/), and in the delightful poem by Tiberianus 
(Amnis ibat inter arva valle fusus frigida). See Emil Baehrens, Unedirte lateinische Gediehte, Leipzig, 1877, 
pp. 34 sqq. 

This poem, which is found only in the Cambridge Manuscript, seems to be the composition of a literary 
lady at the Imperial court The exact occasion for which it was written is unknown. 

1. 21. nonnulla...sidera. Should the reading not be deus, nulla non qui semper scandit super sidera 1 nulla 
non...sidera meaning 'all the stars'? The non was perhaps omitted in the original manuscript and subsequently 
put above nulla from where the Canterbury copyist placed it by mistake in front of nulla instead of after it. 

19. Cantilena in Heribertvm Archiepiscopum Coloniensem. 

MS. fol. 433" 1. 3-433*'' I. 35-— PP- 27 (sub 9) and 54-55— JaAe, pp. 456-8 (on whom the text of the 
present edition is based. He made several emendations of the text and added some useful notes). 

The poem occurs only in the Cambridge Manuscript. It is composed in the form of a sequence and is 
a song of praise in honour of Heribert, who was Archbishop of Cologne from 999 to 1021. It is provided with 
a refrain. The song seems to have been composed soon after his death on March 16, 102 1. Heribert was 
a distinguished priest and politician under Otto III (whose Chancellor he became in 998) and Henry II. 

See Lantberti Vita Heriberti, in the ' Monumenta Germaniae,' SS. iv ; Frohner, H. Z. xi, 22 note ; 
W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquelkn im Mittelalter, 'i (1893), 327 note 3, and 'ii (1894) 136-7; 
and the article in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, xii (1880), i lo-i I, at the end of which the present poem 
is mentioned. Heribert founded the Benedictine Monastery at Deutz on the right bank of the Rhine opposite 
Cologne. He was buried at Deutz in the Church of St Mary (see Stanza 9), and the present Katholische 
Pfarrkirche possesses a tuinba of St Heribert dating from the year 1147. In poem No. 9 another religious 
foundation at Cologne is referred to; poem No. 10 refers to Xanten, No. 20 to Treves (Archbishop Poppo), 
and No. 21 probably to Mayence (Archbishop Willem)— all persons and places of importance on the Middle and 
Lower Rhine, where the collection of songs was originally made. See pp. 23, 30, 40. 

With regard to the metre see FrOhner, H.Z. 20, and Bartsch, Lat. Seq. pp. 30 sqq. The repetition of the 
refrain Pater, nate, spiritus sancte, etc. after each stanza proves that the poem was destined to be sung. 

The words in huius in the refrain were added by Jaffe, as there is a blank in the Manuscript between corde 
and vite in which another hand put the word plus. See note to SUnza 5. 

Stanza 4 contains an allusion to Matthew xxv. 21. 



8o NOTES 

Stanza 5. See Matthew xx. i, 2, 9. — The words tertii Ottonis were added by Jaffe'. A space was left in 
the Manuscript by the monk who copied the original and who was perhaps unable to read the words which he 
omitted. In fol. 433'''' 1- 27 he had vixxXX^n fecerat, which in the margin he corrected to fecit. This refers to the 
events of the year 998. For scandit dextram note viam Pithagorice, see on page 100 the note to Poem No. 42, 
Stanzas 6-8, and also du Meril, p. 279 note 3. 

Stanza 6. Post non magnum temporis curriculum, viz. on July 9, 999; the summus pontifex was Pope 
Silvester II. 

Stanza 7. gerit. Should it be ^««V? 

Stanza 8. consolatur. 'Sii\ov\A\t\}& consolatus (est)} 

Stanza 9. See the previous page, also Frohner, H.Z. xi, 22 note, and Lantberti, Vita Iferiberti {' 'iAonum. 
Germ.' SS. iv, 746), 'iubens in Divitensi castro monasterium exstrui,' and p. 753, 'translatum est autem corpus 
eius et illatum sanctae dei genetricis, quod ipse fundavit, coenobio.' Castrum Divitense, or Tuitiense, is the 
present town of Deutz. Heribert died on March 16, 1021. 

Stanza 10. fecit. Jaffe, and also Piper, ■pnat fecerat, but the cit in the margin shows thaX fecerat which 
the scribe had first written should be altered into fecit. 



20. Ecclesie Trevirensis nomine scripti ad Popponem Archiepiscopum versus. 

MS. fol. 438'''» 1. 23-438^" 1. II. — pp. 27 (sub 24) and 55. — Jaffe, pp. 464-5 (on whom the text of the 
present edition is based. He added a number of useful notes. For the sake of the metre I have added 
nunc before iubent (1. 13) and have written muniat instead oi premuniat (1. 21)). 

The poem of welcome, addressed on behalf of the Church of Treves {sponsa) to her new Archbishop Poppo 
(sponsus), is only preserved in the Cambridge Manuscript. Poppo, the son of Leopold I, Margrave of Austria, who 
was first Provost of Bamberg Cathedral, and subsequently made Archbishop of Treves by the Emperor Henry II 
at a time when conditions at the see of Treves were specially difficult, was a learned and energetic man who 
fully justified the Emperor's confidence. He was Archbishop from 1016-47. See Harry Bressla.u, fa/triucAer 
des deutschen Reiches unter Heinrich II, Vol. in (1875), 27-32 ; the Atlgemeine Deutsche Biographic, xxvi (1888) 
431-4; and especially Friedrich Lesser, Erzbischof Poppo von Trier (1016-47), Leipzig, 1888, pp. 22 sqq., 
where the conditions are discussed under which Poppo came to Treves, the work he did there, and throughout 
which this poem is referred to. 

The poem was probably written between 1028-35 (see the note to 11. 24-26). The metre is the 
same as that of the poems No. 27 (De lohanne abbate) and No. 28 {Sacerdos et lupus). The caesurae and the end 
rime, each half-line has eight syllables, the rhythm is iambic. In this popular metre many medieval Latin 
hymns were written. See M.S.D.^ (1864), p. 317, and Grimm, Lat. Ged. Introd. pp. xliv sqq. Grimm calls 
attention to the great popularity of this metre in early Medieval Latin poetry, giving instances, and adds 
' Die Weise scheint besonders in Deutschland und namentlich in lothringischem, niederlandischem Gebiet, 
lange Zeiten hindurch, beliebt. Docen {Misc. 11, 191) fiihrt aus Trierischer Gegend folgenden Anfang eines 
Liedes, vermutlich des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts an : 

Sol solis in stellifero 
.Stellas excedit radio, 
Sed unica quam diligo 
Mihi placet et populo. 

Hierher gehort nun auch das merkwiirdige neulich von Leo entdeckte Berliner Bruchstuck des lateinischen 
Gregorius....' The same metre is also found in the capital story Unibos (Grimm, Lat. Ged. pp. 354-80), 
translated by Heyne (pp. 1-44) in the metre of the original under the tide 'Gevatter Einochs.' 



NOTES 8i 

1. 5. ifuod fusca sim. Cp. Cantic. i, 5: Nolite me considerarc, quod fusca sim. See also 1. 16: qui me 
fuscam illtiminat. 

\. 6. For the facts referred to in these lines see Jaffe, I.e., who quotes parallel passages from the Gesta 
Treverorum ('Monum. Germ.' SS. vin, 171 sqq.). The Cathedral is a very old building, one of the oldest 
churches of Germany. It had several times been partially destroyed, especially by the Normans, and it was 
renovated and enlarged by Poppo and his successors. 

1. 7. uritat. Should it be guaeritat} (Sir John Sandys). 

I. 14. Simeon luus refers to a Greek monk Simeon, whom Poppo had brought with him from the Holy 
Land and who lived for seven years in the Eastern tower of the fine old Roman gate {the Porta Nigra) between 
1028 and 1035. The Porta Nigra, or Romertor, is for this reason also called Simeonstor. 

From 1. 1 6 it follows that the poem was written during Simeon's lifetime, hence between 1028 
and 1035. 

21. De Willdmo. 

MS. fol. 44I''-* 11. 1-13- — pp. 27 (sub 42) and 56. — Jaff^, p. 466 (on whom the text of the present 
edition is based). 

The poem is fragmentary, as after 1. 8 one or more lines must be missing although there is no gap in the 
manuscript. It is uncertain who the Willem praised in this song is. In Songs No«. 19 and 20 the Archbishops 
of* Cologne and Treves are celebrated, and it seems very probable that this poem refers to the great 
Archbishop of Mayence (954-68), the highly-gifted natural son of the Emperor Otto I, who during his father's 
reign played a very important part in the spiritual and political life of Germany. He was elected Archbishop 
on Dec. 17, 954, and died on March 2, 968. See the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, Vol. 43 (1898), 11 5- 17. 
There is no other Willem to whom this poem can be taken to refer with equal probability. If it does refer 
to him it is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of the historical poems included in the Goliard's Song book. 
See the note to No. 11 {De Heinrico). 

The poem was intended to be sung by a singer {cantor, 1. 3) to the accompaniment of a lyre played 
by another musician {magister, 1. 2). 

With regard to the metre of this poem, see the note to Poem No. 18. All the lines end in -e (except 
II. I, 5, and 2). 

II. 7-8. In 964 the Archbishop Wilhelm of Mayence was appointed by the Emperor Otto head 
of the Imperial Chancery, and during his father's absence in Italy Wilhelm governed the German lands 
with a firm hand. 

L 12. zabulon suhtrahite. zahulon stands for diabolum. The substitution of z for di in zahulus 
= dialwius is very frequent in Medieval Latin manuscripts. Many instances are given in Hermann Ronsch, 
JtcUia und Vulgata, Marburg, *i875, p. 457. Similariy zacones is written for diaeones, ubus for diebus, etc. 



22. Modus Liebinc. 

MS. fol. 435'*' 1. 29-436''' 1. 9.— pp. 27 (sub 13) and 56.— Jaffe, pp. 472-4.— it/l^-i?. *i (1892), 44-45 and 
'II, H4-17. Meyer, F.B. pp. 175-6 (critical text). The sequence has come down to us in three MSS., W, C, 
and a Vatican Codex utilized by W. Meyer. The text here given is mainly based on that in the latest edition of 
M.S.D. (which is critical and generally follows the readings of W), but occasionally the text as given by Meyer 
in F.B. (in II. 8 and 13) has been adopted. The readings of C can easily be ascertained from the transcript. 
On the sparing use made of rime in the Modus Liebinc and Modus Ottinc, see Bartsch, Lat. Seq. p. 163. 

H L 



82 NOTES 

Du Meril,, pp. 275-6, prints the song under the mistaken heading 'Chanson sur I'air de I'amour' and adds 
a few useful notes. The title Modus Lielnnc, which is given to this facetious poem in W, means ' Poem sung to 
the air of the Song on Liebo.' On Liebo see the note to M.S.D. '11, 116-17. On the term ' Modus ' cp. p. 29, 
note I, of this book. These Latin songs were often written to well-known and popular tunes. 

For discussions of the sequence later than M.S.D. \\ see J. Kelle, i, 204, 206, 381.— Kogelj, 254-5, and 
Kogelj, p. 134. Philip Schuyler Allen, in Modern Philology, v, 3 (Jan. 1908), 429. — Reinhold Kohler, Kleine 
Schriften, Berlin, 1900, n, 564. — See also Dunlop-Liebrecht, Geschichte der Prosadichlungen, Berlin, 185 1, pp. 41, 
499 (note 374"), 522, 542; H. Kurz, note to Burkhard Waldis's Esopiis, iv, 71; and Willi Splettstosser, Der 
heimkehrende Gatte und sein Weil) in der Weltlitteratur, 1898. W. P. Ker, The Dark Ages, London and 
Edinburgh, ^1911, p. 227, says : 'In the Middle Ages, Germany is ahead of France in a kind which is reckoned 
peculiarly French; the earliest Fabliaux are in German Latin, with Swabians for comic heroes.' 

The poem has been translated into rimeless verse by Heyne, Spielmantisgedichte, pp. 59-63, under the title 
' Der Sang von Liebo ' ; and in rimed verse, with some imitation of the metrical structure of the sequence, by 
Winterfeld, pp. 213-15 (discussion p. 441), under the more appropriate title 'Das Schneekind.' August von 
Platen treated the subject in capital stanzas at the end of the second act of Der romantische Odipus. 

Heyne's rendering begins thus : 

Hfirt an, ihr Leute, einen lacherlichen Schwank, 

Und vemehmet, welcher Art 

Einst ein Schwabenweib den Mann betrog und er's ihr heimgab. 

Ein Schwablein war von Konstanz und ging iibers Meer, 

Schatzbeladen war sein Schiff; 

Seine nur zu geile Frau lieB er daheim im Hause. 

The same lines are rendered by Winterfeld in the following way : 

Hort zu und merkt 

Treulich alias Volk den tollen Schwank, 
Wie's des Schwaben Fran gelang, 

Triigen ihren Mann, 

Und wie er Gleiches ihr getan. 

Von Konstanz fuhr 

Einst ein Schwable hin wohl iibers Meer, 
Waren tauschen hin und her ; 

Derweil schuf sein Weib 

Daheim sich guten Zeitvertreib. 

Meyer, F.B. p. 176, rightly observes: 'Dies Gedicht hat mit dem Modus Ottinc (our No. 12) so groBe 
Ahnlichkeit der Formen, da5 beide Gedichte von demselben Verfasser um das Jahr 1000 geschrieben oder 
richtiger gesungen sein miissen. Denn die Formen dieser Gedichte sind so krystallklar und so klangschon, da6 
sie von einem Meister geschaffen sein miissen, der des Gesanges und des Harfenspiels mindestens so kundig war 
als der schonen Rede. Die Melodic ist uns leider nicht erhalten : aber schon der gleiche rythmische Bau aller 
Strophenschliisse.-.bezeugt, daB die so verschiedenartigen Strophen alle in dieselbe SchluBmelodie ausliefen. ..." 

The story of the ' snow-child ' or ' ice-child,' which is very widely spread over the literatures of Europe (see 
the references given above and in M.S.D. hi, 115) may possibly be of Indian origin. See Felix Liebrecht, Zur 
Volkskunde, Heilbronn, 1879, p. loi. The story was early sung in Germany by mimes; it was one of the 
subjects sung by a mime before a rich lord as told by Sextus Amarcius. See p. 40, note i, also Winterfeld, 
p. 490. Four other Latin versions (2 long and 2 short) are given by W. Wattenbach, under the heading ' Das 
Schneekind,' in Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deuisches Alterthum, xix (1876), 119 sqq., 240 and 498. The shortest 
version, an epigram of but one distich, was printed by Gaston Paris in the Romania, v (1876), 232. For 



NOTES 83 

a recent free treatment of the old subject in German verse by Johannes Ninck see the Zurich periodical 
Wissen und Leben, viii (August 1915), 736-7. 

W. P. Ker, /. c. p. 227, rightly remarks: 'The malice of the Snow-Child is something different from 
anything in vernacular literature till the time of Boccaccio and Chaucer; the learned language and the 
rather difficult verse perhaps helping to refine the mischief of the story. It is self<onscious, amused at its 
own craft : a different thing from the ingenuous simplicity of the French " merry tales," not to speak of the 
churlish heaviness of the worst among them.' 

The seven lines printed in brackets after line 30 (Stanza iii, C) are not found in MSS. V(aticanus) and W ; 
they were added in C and are justly called by Meyer ' diese gereimle und doch ungereimte Strophe.' 

1. 47. Sic perfidam Suevus coniugem deluserat is the original reading of the poem as given in the MSS. V 
and W, while in C the bad reputation of the Swabians with the neighbouring tribes is reflected in the altered 
reading Sic perfidus Suevus coniugem deluserat. See M.S.D. '11, 115, and Kelle, 204. A wily Swabian is also the 
hero of the Modus Florum (our No. 25), which in the Cambridge Manuscript follows immediately (foL 436''' 10) 
after the Modus Liebinc. See L. Uhland, Schrifien zur Geschichte der Dichtung und Sage, m, 223. 

23. De Proterii filia. 

MS. fol. 439'*' 1. 1-439*'' •• 9- — PP- *7 (sub *9) ^md 57-— Jaffe, pp. 467-9 (who made several emendations 
in the text of the manuscript and on whom the text of the present edition is based). In one or two cases Jaffa's 
reading of the manuscript must be corrected. 

The poem is only found in the Cambridge Manuscript and it differs in form essentially from the other 
sequences. It was intended to be sung. See Stanza i. Stanzas 2 and 4 are provided with neum-accent notation. 
There are rimes in each stanza occurring at irregular intervals. 

Sunzas I and 2 are merely introductory, the real story begins with Stanza 3. 

This poem is a very old, but not absolutely the oldest, instance of a man's compact with the Devil in 
German literature. See Kogeli, 247 note. 

The origin of this story is very probably not German. See Kogel,, p. 260, and Koge),, p. 135, § m. 

In the first stanza every word begins with a c. Such playing with words, especially with words beginning 
with a c, is not unusual in Medieval Latin literature. Compare fol. 432" lines 5-6, which are obviously 
corrupted (see the note on Poem vii on p. 73). The most amusing instance is perhaps a poem addressed by 
the monk Hugbald to the Emperor Charles the Bald, and called Ecloga de laudibus calvitii, which consists of 
141 hexameter verses in which every word begins with a c. The first and the last lines of this whimsical 

production run thus: 

Carmina, clarisonae, calvis cantate, camaenae 

Completur claris carmen cantabile calvis. 

This poem is preserved in another portion of the Cambridge MS. G^. 5. 35 and is printed in the publication 
by the Rev. Dr John Allen Giles, Anecdota Bedae, Lanfrand et aliorum, London, 1851, pp. 71-76, and 
also, with some critical notes, in Migne's Fairologia, Vol. 132 (1853), pp. 1041-7. 

24. De Lantfrido et Cobbone. 

MS. fol. 433" 1. 19-433"' 1. ».— PP- 27 (sub 5) and 58.— Jaff6, pp. i^^a-\.— M.S.D. \ 48-50 (on which 
the text of the present edition is based), and '11, 12 1-7 (with a valuable discussion, by Scherer, of the various 
kinds of ' Freundschaftssagen '). The poem is only found in the Cambridge Manuscript, but a Latin metrical 
treatment of the same subject, the text of. which is in a corrupt state, was first published by Gaston Paris in Le 
Moyen Age, Vol. 1 (1888), pp. 179-84, and subsequently printed, with emendations by himself and others, by 

L 2 



84 NOTES 

Steinmeyer in M.S.D. 'ii, 124-5- See also H. Patzig's reconstruction and discussion in Romanische Forschun- 
gen. Vol. VI (1891), 424. 

Of later literature see Kelle, i, 203, and especially Kogel,, 255-60 (who treats the subject-matter very fully 
and gives many bibliographical references), and Kogelj, p. 134, sub 3. See also M. Landau, Die Quellen des 
Decamerone, Stuttgart, ''1884, pp. 267 sqq. 

The relation of the Parisian metrical version of this often treated motif of true friendship (' Freundschafts- 
sage') to the rhythmical version of C has not yet been clearly established if it ever can be determined with any 
degree of certainty. The matter has been carefully discussed in the notes to M.S.D. and by Kogel. Steinmeyer 
considers the rhythmical version to be the older, while Kogel thought that there must have been a common 
source for C and P. The source to which all the different versions may ultimately be traced back was probably 
Greek and not Oriental. See Wilhelm Grimm, Introd. to his Athis and Prop kilias, pp. 52 sqq. 

With the beginning of this piece compare the very similar passage in Isidore, Origims, Book in, Chapter xviii, 
p. 116: De triformi musicae divisione : ' i. Ad omnem autem sonum, qui materies cantilenarum est, triformem 
esse constat naturam. Prima est harmonica, quae ex vocum cantibus constat. Secunda organica, quae ex 
flatu constitit. Tertia rhythmica, quae pulsu digitorum numeros recipit. 2. Nam aut voce editur sonus, sicut 
per fauces ; aut flatu, sicut per tubam vel tibiam ; aut pulsu, sicut per citharam, aut per quodlibet aliud, quod 
percutiendo canorum [sonorum vulg.^ est.' After this Chapter xix deals with ' De prima divisione musicae 
quae harmonica dicitur'; Chapter xx ' De secunda divisione quae organica dicitur'; Chapter xxi 'De 
tertia... quae rhythmica nuncupatur.' In this chapter on the string instruments the ' rota ' is not yet mentioned. 
See the note on p. 96. 

For the words alicubi pretennittam absque me after 1. 72 (fol. 433™ 11. 1-2) see M.S.D. \ 50 (note). Does 
it mean in the Latin of the scribe ' the rest I will pass over ' ? 

25. Modus jFlorum. 

MS. fol. 436''' 11. 10-37.— pp. 27 (sub 14) and 59.— Jaflfe, pp. aTi-2-— M.S.D. 'i, 42-43 (on which the text 
of the present edition is mainly based), and '11, 112— 14. 

The poem is found in two manuscripts, W and C. In C it follows immediately after the story of the 
'snow-child.' Both are stories of clever Swabians, but in both cases C has altered the original text in order to 
introduce an uncomplimentary remark to the Swabians. In 1. 34 C reads falsa gener regius est arte foetus. See 
the note to the ' Modus Liebinc ' on p. 83. 

See also Kelle, i, 204-5, 207. Kogelj, 252-4, and KogeU, p. 133, § 119 (i). Meyer, F.B. p. 177. Carl 
Miiller-Fraureuth, Die deutschen Lilgendichtungen bis auf Munchhausen, Halle, 1 881, pp. 3 sqq. and 86. 

The poem has been translated twice into German verse. The first rendering is by Miiller-Fraureuth, 
pp. 3-4, and the beginning runs thus : 

Ein Liigenlied will ich euch singen. 
Das soil euch wohl zum Lachen bringen. 
Es war ein Konig, der sain Tochterlein, 
So kiindet' er, dem Manne wollte frei'n, 
Der also Mel star war" im Liigen, 
DaB sich der Konig ihm miifit' fiigen. 

The other version is written in very humorous and colloquial German by Winterfeld (pp. 220-1) under the 
title ' Vom Konig, der alles glaubte,' and the corresponding lines are rendered in the following manner : 

Ich waifi ain Schelmenliedchen fain, 
Das lib' ich gleich den Kindern ein, 
DaS alles sie zum Lachen bringen, 
Wenn sie die Schelmenverse singen. 



NOTES 85 

Ein Kfinig eine Tochter halt', 
War wohlgestalt und zier unci nett ; 
Der macht* in seinem ganzen Land 
Ein feierlich Gebot bekannt, 
Wer die Prinzessin freien wollte, 
DaB der ein Ding erfiillen soUte : 
' Kommt vor mein Angesicht ein Mann, 
Der also grausam schwindeln kann, 
Dafi ich ihn selber strafe Liigen, 
Dann soil er meine Tochter kriegen.' 

The ' mendosa cantilena ' was fitly to be recited ' modulos per mendaces ' and, as appears from the opening lines, 
was probably originally composed for the youthful pupils of a monk in the Monastery School. Kelle says 
(p. 205) ' Wahrscheinlich wurden die " Liigenweisen " an einem Schulfeste, bei denen es damals namentlich in 
den Domschulen mitunter schon recht lustig herging, wirklich vorgetragen....Und wie die Geschichte von dem 
wundersamen Hasen mag manche andre, die im Volke umlief, fiir die Klosterschiiler, zum Teil von den Kloster- 
schiilern, in lateinische Verse gebracht worden sein. Wahrscheinlich sind in den Klostem solche Ltigen- 
marchen...auch erfunden worden.' W. P. Ker, I.e. p. 227, calls it How the Swabian made the King say ' TAafs 
a story.' 

The story of the Wonderful Hare, sung in the ' Melody of the Flowers,' is the oldest German ' Liigen- 
marchen ' that has come down to our times. With it may be compared the fragments of another hunter's story, 
in a St Gallen Manuscript of the eleventh century, the lines on the terrible wild boar (see M.S.D. \ 56 and 
•li, 131, and J. Baechtold, Geschichte d. deutschen Lit. in d. Schweiz, p. 15), in which capital use has been made 
of the form of poetic hyperbola. Similar amusing poems of the same or a somewhat earlier time are Tres 
htvenes fratres (Diimmler, Poetae, 11, 474; translated by Winterfeld, pp. 172-4, under the title 'Der Wunschbock') 
and the capital Unibos (Grimm, Lot. Ged. pp. 354-80; transl. by Heyne, Lat. Spielmannsgedichte, pp. 1-44, 
under the title 'Gevatter Einochs'), Herigir (our No. 26), and others. 

With regard to the style of the ' mendosa cantilena ' which, on account of its being devoid of rime, must not 
be later than the very beginning of the eleventh century, W. Meyer says: 'Das Gedicht ist sicher eine Sequenz, 
allein vergeblich miiht man sich, die Form klar zu erkennen. Man mufi sich mit der Eingangsstrophe zufrieden 
geben : 

Mendosam, quam cantilenam ago puerulis commendatam dabo : 
quo modulos per mendaces risum auditoribus ingentem ferant, 

d. h. das Schelmenstiick wird auch in Schelmenversen dargestellt....Die Sequenzenform ist bereits vollig die 
Form der weltlichen feinen Lyrik geworden.' {Fragm. Bur. p. 177. Reprint i, 45-46.) 

1. 26. totidem pisarum 'as many peas.' Uhland, S.G.D.S. iii, 223, and Miiller-Fraureuth, p. 3, translate 
pisarum by ' Goldstiicke,' 'Goldfiichse'; but Du Cange in his Glossarium Med. et Inf. Lat. vi (1886), p. 333, 
shows that pisa was sometimes used instead of pisum. He quotes several instances to which the present may 
be added. 



26. Herigir. 

MS. fol. 438" 1. 30-438'''' 1. 22. — pp. 27 (sub 23) and 59-60. — Du M^ril,, pp. 298-302 ('Chanson sur les 
fausses visions,' with numerous notes). — Jafft', pp. 455-6. — M.S.D. 'i, 53-55 and '11, 128-9 (on which the text 
of the present edition is based). The poem has only been preserved in the Cambridge Manuscript. 

Herigfir was Archbishop of Mayence from 913-27, but the humorous and satirical story with which his 
name is connected in this poem was probably coupled with it at a much later date than the early tenth 



86 NOTES 

century. It seems very likely, as was pointed out by Grimm, Lat. Ged. pp. 373-4, that our poem is a retelling 
in Latin Adonic riming couplets of a favourite subject that was originally treated in vernacular German popular 
song. In it the old merry tale of the cunning Swabian who stole and ate the liver was combined with the story 
of an impostor who was punished by Archbishop Heriger. See also Allen, Mod. Phil, v, 3 (Jan. 1908), 
pp. 429-30; Kogel,, pp. 263-4, and Kogelj, p. 135 (sub 2). A similar metre is found in Poems Nos. 3 and 10, 
and the same occurs in No. 29. For the metre and style see Bartsch, Lat. Seq. (in various places), M.S.D. \\, 
127, and note W. Wackernagel's observation {Geschichte d. deutschen Litteratur (ed. E. Martin), ^i (Basel, 1879), 
p. 94) with regard to this ' schwankhafte Erzahlung ' : ' es wird eine Riickwirkung der deutschen Dichtkunst sein, 
daB diese Form nun auch der lateinischen zur Darstellung unkirchlicher Stoffe dient.' 

With regard to the treatment of the subject-matter see Grimm, I.e. pp. 343-4; Scherer in M.S.D. \ 129, 
and in his Geschuhte der deutschen Dichtung im el/ten und zwolften Jahrhundert, Strassburg, 1879, p. 7, where 
he very fitly compares our poem with the sixteenth-century ' Schwanke ' of Hans Sachs. He says : ' Auch vor 
komischer Behandlung des Heiligen schrickt man nicht zuriick, wie Rosviths Dulcitius und das Lied vom 
Erzbischof Heriger beweisen, welches letztere sich unmittelbar mit Hans Sachsischen Legenden vergleicht.' 
Gustav Grober, in his Grundri^ der romanischen Philologie, Vol. 11, i (1902), p. 179, rightly says with regard to 
Nos. 22, 25, and 26: 'Allen diesen Schwanken eignet ein wirksamer sachlicher Witz und eine seine Wirkung 
befordernde schlichte Darstellung.' 

The poem was translated into popular German metre by Heyne, pp. 50-53, the first stanza of which runs : 

Heriger, der da hat 
Bischofssitz in der Stadt 
Mainz, gab einmal Gehor 
Einem, der sprach, er war" 
Einst in die H611' entriickt, 
Hatt' sich drin umgeblickt. 

Stanza 6 is not given in the Cambridge Manuscript, and there is no indication that anything is missing. 

Thomas Wright was the first to point out this omission by writing ' there appears to be here a verse wanting, in 

which Peter was mentioned as magister cocorum.' See p. 33. 

Lines ^^-^6. Jaff^ refers to Luke i. 13-15: ' Et vocabis nomen eius Ioannes...et vinum etsiceram nonbibet.' 
1. 66. The manuscript ends with cave ne furtum facias. Jaff^ added esum, Grimm tetrum. The addition 

of spurcum was fitly suggested by Max Rodiger in Haupt's Zeitschrift f. deutsches Alterthum, 33, 417. 



27. De lohanne abbate. 

MS. fol. 44i'-'>ll. 15-40.— pp. 27 (sub 41) and 60.— Du M^ril,, pp. 189-90 (under the heading 'Ldgende 
par saint Fulbert' with some notes). —Jaffg, pp. 469 and 560.— Winterfeld (on whom the present edition is based) 
gave a critical text, pp. 430—1. 

This humorous poem has been preserved in two manuscripts the readings of which are in some cases 
widely different. Apart from C it has come down to us in a Parisian Codex (P), printed in C. de Villiers' 
edition of Fulberti Camotensis opera varia, Paris, 1608, page 183. See Winterfeld, p. 430. Winterfeld based 
his critical edition mainly on P. The readings of C can easily be ascertained on fol. 441. 

With regard to the popular metre see the note to Poem 20; also du Meril,, p. 190. Winterfeld calls the 
verses 'etwas freigebaut'; instead of riming couplets the rimes are occasionally intermittent. 

The author of this merry tale was Saint Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres, who died in 1029, but who probably 
wrote the poem as a young ' clerk ' long before he was elevated to the see of Chartres. Hence the poem may 
have been composed in the opening years of the eleventh century. 



NOTES 87 

The ' hiibsche Erzahlung eines franzosischen Spielmanns ' (Winterfeld, p. 430) was translated, from his own 
emended text, by Winterfeld (p. 211) under the title ' Der Einsiedel.' The first lines run thus: 

Es war einmal ein Mbnch Johann, 
Der hoher Tugend Ruhm gewann, 
Ob zwar er klein nur an Gestalt ; 
Der lebt' selbzweit im wiisten Wald. 

Er sprach : ' Den lieben Englein gleich 
Will leben ich im Himmelreich, 
Nicht Speise kennen noch Gewand, 
So zubereitet Menschenhand.' 

The beginning of the ditty was thus rendered in English by Ph. Schuyler Allen, Mod. Phil, v, 3, p. 468: 

A monk named John, of stature small, 
But in the virtues straight and tall. 
Thus to the older brother spoke. 
Who dwelt with him mid hermit-folk : 

' I fain would live like those above,' 
He said, 'secure in Heaven's love. 
No raiment wear, no viands take. 
Such as the hands of men do make.' 

1. 5. Johannes abba. Winterfeld (p. 431) remarks, 'Das bedeutet aber hier nicht den Abt, sondern, weil 
es sich um Heilige der agyptischen Wiiste handelt, die selbzweit zusammen hausen, so ist abda nur als der 
ihnen vom Volke willig zugestandene Ehrentitel zu nehmen, wie der Monch pater genannt wird.' In C lohannes 
is called minor and the older hermit maior. 

1. 14. incepti. Would it be preferable to read ineptit 

1. 43. intentus ad crustula. See Winterfeld, p. 431. John is so famished that the simple hermit's food 
seems delicious to him and he munches it with the keenest pleasure regardless of all the mockery of his * maior.' 



28. Sacerdos et Lupus. 

MS. fol. 440''' 1. 16-440"* 1. 34. — pp. 27 (sub 34) and 61. — Grimm, iM. Ged. pp. 340-2 (from a copy sent 
by J. M. Kemble) and 345. — Du M^ril,, pp. 302-q (with numerous notes). — Af.S.D. First ed. (1864), pp. 37-40 
and 317-8 (with useful notes; the poem was omitted from the later editions because most probably it is of 
French origin. The text of the present edition is based on M.S.D.). 

The poem has come down to us in two manuscripts, C, and a manuscript of Fulda (F) made known by 
E. Diimmler in Haupt's Zeitschrift fur deuisches Allerthum, xv (1872), 452. Diimmler merely gave the various 
readings of F as compared with the text of C (reproduced in M.S.D.). 

The poem is called at the beginning a ' iocularis cantio.' It was evidently intended to be sung, and the 
metre is the same as that in which it was customary to compose popular church-hymns, viz. stanzas of four 
short lines, each of which consisted of eight syllables. See the note to Poem No. 20, The present poem is a 
merry tale, a 'Schwank,' but not a true animal fable. The same story (of 'un prestre dant Martin ') is told in 
the short eighteenth 'branche' of the Roman de Renart (E. Martin's ed. Vol. 11 (1885), pp. 243-7), where it is 
obviously based on the present Latin poem which, in 1. 103, is referred to as an 'escripture.' (See Grimm, 
Reinhart Fuchs (Berlin, 1834), Introd. cxxiv, 12 and Grober's Grundrifi, 11, i (1902), § 275, p. 410.) On the 
French origin of the story see also Ernst Martin, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, Vol. :6o, 571, and Observations 
sur le Roman de Renart, Strasbourg, 1887, pp. 91-92 J Kogel,, pp. 264-7, and Kogel,, p. 135, § 121. 



88 NOTES 

The poem was translated by Heyne^ pp. 45-49. who rendered the beginning in the following way : 

War seinen Sinn auf Possen kehrt 
Und Schnurren gem erzahlen hort, 
Der bore die Geschichte an, 
Die ich als wahr verbiirgen kann. 

Auf einem Dorf ein Pfarrer war, 

Schon schwach von manchem Lebensjahr ; 

Er lebte, seiner Herde froh : 

Das ist ja auf dem Dorfe so. 

Die Miihe, die er um sie trug, 
Die hatte sich belohnt genug, 
War' gier'ger Wolfe Aufenthalt 
Gewesen nicht im nahen Wald. 

29. Alfrad. 

MS. foL 437™ 1. 24-437"'' 1. 24. — pp. 27 (sub 19) and 62. — Grimm, Lat. Ged. pp. 337—40 {Alveradae asina), 
and 344-5. — M.S.D. h, 51-53, and '11, 127-8 (on which the text of the present edition is based). The poem is 
only preserved in the Cambridge Manuscript. 

The riming couplets of short lines of five syllables are the same as occur in Heriger, and the poem was 
certainly intended to be sung to the tune of a popular melody. See the note on No. 26. 

It is a satirical poem on the old maid's affection for her pet she-ass. It may well be based on some actual 
occurrence. M. Haupt perhaps overstates its importance when he says {Altdeutsche Blatter, p. 395), ' Es sieht 
fast wie ein allegorisches Spottgedicht aus.' See also Kogel,, p. 261-3, ^n^ K.6gelj, pp. 134-5, § 120, sub(i). 
The scene of action is laid in Thuringia ; the nunnery referred to is Homburg on the Unstrut, near the town 
of Langensalza. 

This humorous tale was translated by Heyne, pp. 54-58. The first two stanzas of his rendering run 
thus: 

Einen Ort kenne ich, 
Hohenburg nennt er sich : 
Weidend erging sich drin 
Alfrades Eselin, 
Kraftvoll und klug dabei, 
Und ihrer Herrin treu. 

Wie sie von dort aus 
Streift in das Feld hinaus, 
Sieht sie, da5 voller Gier 
Her lauft ein Wolf zu ihr, 
Und sie verkreucht sich, 
Nur ihr Schwanz zeigt sich. 

30. Carmen Estivum. 

MS. fol. 438" 11. 6-29. — pp. 27 (sub 22) and 63. — Jaffe, pp. 491-2 (who utilized several emendations 
proposed by M. Haupt, added some of his own, and on whom the text of the present edition is mainly based). 
The song seems to occur only in the Cambridge Manuscript. 

The poem is written in the form of a Sapphic ode. This metre was very much used by medieval poets, 
even for hymns (see CI. Blume, Anakcta Hymnica tnedii aevi. Vol. n (1908), 61 sqq., loi sqq. (also rime), 106, 



NOTES 89 

112 sqq., 115 sqq., 134 sqq., 135 sqq. (rime and assonance), 137 sqq., 143 sqq., 153 sqq., 167 sqq., 171 sqq., 
188 sqq. (rime), etc.). A counterpart to this poem is found in an early medieval Sapphic ode (seventh 
century) by Eugenius, a Benedictine monk, who subsequently became Bishop of Toledo, on the excessive 
heat of a summer. It was printed by du Mdril,, p. 241, note i, who rightly observes, 'Si la forme en est 
antique, I'esprit descriptif et pittoresque est enti^rement moderne.' For the voices of birds in I^tin see 
du M^ril,, p. 213, n. 2, and E. Baehrens, Poetae Latini Minores, v, 364 sqq. (poems LXi and Lxii). 

Stanza 6. que talem tiputn gerit, the MS. reads que talem gerit tipum. On bees and birds see A. B. Cook's 
interesting paper The Bee in Greek Mythology in the 'Journal of Hellenic Studies,' Vol. xv (1895), pp. i sqq., 
and on bees as birds, ibid. p. 9, note 65. The idea that the bee is a type of chastity was probably derived 
from the fact that 'apium... coitus visus est numquam' (Pliny, N.H. xi, 16). See Walter Robert-Tomow, De 
apium mellisque apud veteres significatione et symholica et tnythologica, Berlin, 1893, pp. 12 sqq., who also refers 
to Petronius, p. 878; Quintilian, Decl. xui, 16; and to Virgil, Georg. iv, 11. 197 sqq., where we read: 

Ilium adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem, 
quod neque concubitu indulgent nee corpora segnes 
in Venerem solvunt aut foetus nixibus edunt ; 
verum ipsae e foliis natos, e suavibus herbis 
ore legunt... 

See also A. B. Cook, I.e. p. 13, note 102. Du Cange, Gloisarium, 1 (1884), 312, says: 'apis significat formam 
virginitatis sive sapientiam, in malo, invasorem,' and he quotes, 'Cecilia, famula tua, Domine, quasi apis tibi 
argumentosa deservit.' In medieval divinity the bee is not infrequently mentioned as the symbol of chastity and 
in this way connected with the Virgin. Thus in Aldhelm's treatise De laudibus virginitatis (Migne's Patrologia 
Lxxxix, Chapter v, pp. 106-7) *^ read: 'Apis, inquam, propter peculiaris castimoniae privilegium pudicissimae 
virginitatis typum et ecclesiae portendere speciem indubitata scripturarum auctoritate astipulatur. Quae florentes 
saltuum cespites ineffabili praeda depopulans, dulcia natorum pignora, nesciens conjugii, illecebrosa consortia 
fetosa quadam suavissimi succi concretione producit.' In the Defensorium inviolatae virginitatis, first printed 
at Saragossa, in 1470 (reprinted, with a valuable introduction, Weimar, 1910), those who refuse to believe 
in the immaculate conception and the virgin-birth are blamed because they must admit and do admit just 
as wonderful miracles in the animal world :...' quod concedere non verentur de avium et aliorum animalium 
communi natura. Qualiter inter apes sine patribus fetus matrum Untummodo crescunt' In the old Easter 
services, at the blessing of the Easter candle, made of beeswax, a curious praise of the bee was inserted partly 
based on the above-quoted passage from Virgil, which is, however, no longer in use in the present service of the 
Roman Catholic Church. The bee was praised as being chaste and fecund like the Holy Virgin and as offering 
in its mode of generation a symbol of the origin of the Word from the mouth of the Father. See L. Duchesne, 
Origines du Culte Chretien, j&tude sur la liturgie latine avant Charlemagne, Paris, '1898, pp. 242-5. He says: 
'Voici ce passage dans la formule "Deus mundi conditor" du sacramentaire gelasien : "Apes vero sunt frugales in 
sumptibus, in procreatione castissimae.... Partus non edunt, sed ore legentes concepti foetus reddunt examina, 
sicut exemplo mirabili Christus ore paterno processit. Fecunda est in his sine partu virginitas....Apis caeteris 
quae subiecta sunt homini animantibus antecellit....[245] O vere beata et mirabilis apis! Cuius nee sexum 
masculi violant, foetus non quassant, nee filii destruunt castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria : virgo 
peperit et virgo permansit." ' A much fuller discussion of the same topic is found in the remarkable book on the 
bees, with theological explanations, called Bonum universale de apibus, by Thomas Cantipratanus (printed Duaci, 
1597, Book 11, Chapters 29-31); there is also an interesting paragraph in Petrus Berchorius, Reductorium morale 
de rerum proprietatibus (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1730, Vol. u. Book x. Chapter 6, § 6). 

In medieval poetry and folk-lore there is likewise a connexion between the bee and the Virgin Mary. 
In 1. 3 of the Old High German bee-charm (' Lorscher Bienensegen,' M.S.D., No. xvi), we read : 

siii, sizi, bina : inbdt dir sanae Maria, 

B. M 



90 NOTES 

and in a note to this passage, M.S.D. 'ii, 92, an old Latin bee-charm is quoted in which the bees are addressed 
vos estis ancilU domini, vos faciatis opera domini, and among other popular literature a sixteenth-century ' Spruch,' 
the beginning of which is : Maria stand auf eim sehr koken berg, sie sack ein swarm bienen kommen phliegen. 
sie hub auf ihre gebenedeite hand, sie verbot ihm da zuhand 

The sixth stanza, which praises the chaste bees after five stanzas have celebrated the delights of the birds 
in the summer, imparts to the poem a kind of moral conclusion. 

1. 23. nisi que Christum baiulavit alvo. This emendation was suggested to me by Dr James, Provost of 
King's College. In the original text, which was copied at Canterbury, Maria was probably put over que, and 
portavit over baiulavit ; the copyist put Maria before que into the line and replaced the original baiulavit by the 
commonplace portavit. Compare the hymn De beata virgine in Karl Simrock, Lauda Sion, Stuttgart, '^1868, p. 244 ; 

Quem terra, pontus, sidera 
Colunt, adorant, praedicant, 
Trinam regentem machinam 
Claustrum Mariae baiulat. 

31. De Lusdnia. 

MS. fol. 434™ 11. 1-434"'' 1. 30.— pp. 27 (sub 9) and 63.— Du Meril,, pp. 278-9 (with some notes).— Jaflte, 
pp. 490-1 and 560 (on whom the text of the present edition is mainly based). 

This charming song has been preserved in two manuscripts, viz. in C and in a French Manuscript (F) ; 
reprinted in the Opera varia by St Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres (ed. Ch. de Villiers, Paris, 1608, p. 181). See 
the note to Poem 27 (De lohanne abbate). Apart from a number of minor discrepancies between the two 
manuscripts, the lines 22-33, which occur in C, are absent in F, which thus has only 28 lines. 

J. A. Symonds (in Wine, Women and Song, p. 16) refers to this fine 'specimen of thoroughly secular 
poetry ' and says, ' such are the sapphics of the spring, which, though they date from the seventh century, have 
a truly modern sentiment of Nature.' This poem is perhaps identical with that panegyric of the nightingale 
which, according to Sextus Amarcius, was sung by a mime before a German nobleman, together with three other 
songs, the subjects of which are mentioned by him. Of these four poems, three seem to have been preserved 
in C (Nos. 22, 31, 42). The lines in Amarcius [Sexti Amarcii Galli Piosistrati Sermonum Libri IV (ed. 
M. Manitius, Leipzig, 1888), Liber i, lines 438-43), following after the description of the arrival and the artistic 
preparations of the mime, run thus : 

Ille fides aptans crebro diapente canoras, 

Straverit ut grandem pastoris funda Goliath, 

Ut simili argutus uxorem Suevulus arte 

Luserit utque sagax nudaverat octo tenores 

Cantus Pythagoras et quam mera vox Philomel^ 

Perstrepit.... 
See also W. Scherer, Gesch. d. deutschen Dichtung im 11-12 Jahrhunderi, p. 16; Winterfeld, p. 490; and 
L. Traube in the Anzeiger fur deutsches Alterthum, xv (1889), pp. 195 sqq., especially p. 200. See No. 42, note. 
It is an interesting fact that in an earlier portion of the same Cambridge MS. (on fol. 369) is found another 
poem on the nightingale, written in elegiac metre and consisting of 14 distichs, which begins: 

Sum noctis socia, sum cantus dulcis arnica ; 
Nomen ab ambiguo sic philomela gero.,.. 

This poem must have been very popular. It was first published, from the Cambridge Manuscript, by the 
Rev. Dr J. A. Giles in Anecdota Bedae, Lanfranci et aliorum, London, 1851, pp. 69-70, and E. Baehrens printed 
the poem from six other manuscripts in his Poetae Latini Minores, Vol. v (Leipzig, 1883), 368-70. 



NOTES 91 

There was also a poem in praise of the cuckoo ('versus de laude cuculi ') on the now lost fol. 450 of 
the Cambridge Manuscript. See R. Priebsch, Deutsche Handschriften in England, i, ji. In the earlier I^tin 
poetry of the Carolingian period there are verses De cuado attributed to Alcuin, and the Carmen philomelaicum 
of Paulus Albarus. See on these Allen, Mod. Phil, v, 3, 464. 

On the metrical form see the note to No. 18 and No. 22. All lines except L 17 {catervulas) end in -a. 

A facsimile and German translation of part of this poem (11. 29-42) are given in Anselm Salzer's lllustrierte 
Geschichte der deutschtn Literatur von den dltesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, VoL i (1912?), p. 100. 

32. Vema femine sitspiria. 

MS. fol. 441" 11. 1-21. — pp. 27 (sub 39) and 64. — ]aSi, pp. 492-3. An emended text of this touching song 
was given by Winterfeld, p. 446, who discussed it on pp. 445-7, and gave a metrical German rendering of it, 
under the title 'Friihling,' on p. 219, The text of the present edition is based on Winterfeld. The poem has 
been preserved only in C, the text of which is not free from corruptions. 

Is this song a ' planctus monialis ' written by a woman ? For nuns' complaints in medieval poetry and in 
folk-songs of the xvth and with centuries, see Allen in Modern Philology, v, 432-5, and on ' Frauenstrophen ' in 
Old German lyrics, ibid, vi, 395. The question whether this poem was composed by a girl or by a goliard for a girl 
cannot be decided ; but it is quite possible that a love-sick or disappointed maid herself wrote these heart-stirring 
lines which we may call 'Des Madchens Klage.' W. Scherer, in his Gesch. d. deuUchen Dichtung im xi. und xii./hd., 
p. 8, says: ' Naturgefiihl und Liebesgefiihl gehen Hand in Hand... und besonders die schonen Friihlingsklagen 
einer Frau atmen tiefes Gefiihl. Ihnen reiht sich der volkstumliche LiebesgruB im Ruodlieb wiirdig an.' On 
this latter see p. 40 of this book. This ' Complaint of a Maid ' is a true forerunner of the finest poems of the 
eariy German Minnesong. G. Grober, in his Grundri^ d. roman. Phil. 11, i, p. 417, calls it 'das liebliche 
alteste Frauenlied.' Winterfeld's view, 'Die Heimat des Liedes ist wohl Frankreich' (p. 527), is not sup- 
ported by any convincing arguments ; it may just as well have been composed on the banks of the Rhine. 
He added, with more justice it would seem: 'Das Naturgefiihl, das sich in dem Gedicht ausspricht, mutet ganz 
modem an,' an opinion which Ph. Schuyler Allen, who translated the poem into English prose, took pains 
to contradict (see Mod. Philology, v, 431). Another important early medieval love-poem in Latin stanzas is 
given by Allen in Mod. Philology, ix, pp. 428-9 ; it was translated into German by Gertrud Stockmayer, Uber 
Naturgefiihl in Deutschland im x. und xi. Jahrhundert, Leipzig und Berlin, 1910, p. 18. 

The first two and the last two stanzas in Winterfeld's rendering run as follows : 

Mit lindem Hauch der Westwind weht. 
Die Sonne warm am Himmel steht, 
Und ob dem Feld in blauer Luft 
Der Ackerkrume wurz'ger Duft. 

Es kam der Lenz in Herrlichkeit, 
Er tragi sein festlich buntes Kleid, 
Nun spriefien neu das Laub im Wald, 
Der Wiese Blumen mannigfalt... 

Ich Armste sitz" in Einsamkeit 
Versonnen da mit meinem Leid, 
Und hebe ich das Aug" empor, 
Ist blind mein Auge, uub das Ohr. 
Erhoret Ihr das Flehen mein, 
Herr Mai, in Gnaden seht darein ; 
Die ganze Welt in Bliiten steht, 
Indes mein darbend Herz vergeht. 

M 2' 



92 NOTES 

33. Invitatio amice. 

MS. fol. 438™ 1. 25-438*''' 1. 15. — pp. 27 (sub 26) and 64. — The poem has been largely erased in C, as the 
monks of St Augustine obviously objected to it, although they did not destroy it quite as effectively as the 
following poem which they not only erased but blacked with a tincture of galls. Jaffd does not print it, but 
refers to M. Haupt, who published the song (from a better text, in a Viennese MS. (V) of the tenth century) 
in his Exempla poesis latinae medii aevi, Vindobonae, 1834, pp. 29-30. Du Merila, p. 196, reproduced Haupt's 
text, adding a few useful notes and emendations. A third MS. is P, a Parisian Codex of the tenth century, 
which was published, in 1852, by E. de Coussemaker, Histoire. de rhannonie, pp. 108—9. He gave photographic 
reproductions of the MSS. V and P in both of which the text is provided with neum-accent notation. The 
present edition is mainly based on V, which offers, on the whole, the best text. The three MSS. differ a good 
deal, more especially at the end. The readings of C agree more frequently with P than with V. C is shorter 
than either V or P ; it has only 32 lines, as the last two stanzas of V are missing (11. 33-40) ; they are also 
missing in P which adds a stanza that occurs neither in V nor in C. It runs : ' lam nix glaciesque liquescit ; | 
Folium et herba virescit ; | Philomela iam cantat in alto ; j Ardet amor cordis in antro.' The order of the lines 
is not exactly the same in the three manuscripts. The text of C, as far as it can be read, is inferior to that of 
V, e.g. 1. 16 spoils the rime {puella :) bella by putting /«/<f/4ra (P does the same), and also by omitting tibi 
(P has ibi) which makes the line too short. In line 20, instead of pigmentatis (a conjecture proposed by 
du Meril) V has pinguitatis, P has universis, and in C the corresponding word is missing. 

The poem may have been composed originally in France ; du/cis arnica is the same as the common French 
appellation ma douce amie, while in German the equivalent would be min (vil) liebez Hep. In several medieval 
poems the nightingale is addressed as dukis arnica. See E. Baehrens, Poetae Latini Minores, Vol. v, 363 : 
' Dulcis arnica veni, noctis solatia praestans.' See also p. 90: 'Sum cantus dulcis arnica.' 
The poem has been discussed by Allen in Mod. Philology, in, 4, 424-5 and v, 3, 473. 
The dainty amorous song has been well translated into English by John Addington Symonds in his charming 
collection Wine, Women aW &«^ (reprinted in 'The King's Classics,' No. 35, London, 1907), on pages 14-15. 
The opening stanzas are rendered by him in the following manner : 

Come therefore now, my gentle fere, 

Whom as my heart I hold full dear: 

Enter my little room, which is 

Adorned with quaintest rarities: 

There are the seats with cushions spread. 

The roof with curtains overhead ; 

The house with flowers of sweetest scent 

And scattered herbs is redolent... 
Symonds calls it ' a curious secular piece of the tenth century ' which ' shows how wine, woman and song, 
even in an age which is supposed to have trembled for the coming destruction of the world, still formed the 
attraction of some natures. What is more, there is a certain modern, as distinguished from classical, tone of 
tenderness in the sentiment' (I.e. p. 14). 

34. Magister puero. 

MS. fol. 441"'' 11. 16-34. — pp. 27 (sub 47) and 65. — Jaffe, pp. 493-4. The poem has come down to us in 
two manuscripts, in C and in V, a Vatican Manuscript in Longobardic script of the late eleventh century, which 
was originally published by G. B. Niebuhr in the 'Rheinisches Museum,' in (1829), i sqq. A critical edition of 
this curious and much discussed poem was given by Ludwig Traube in 1891, in his fine essay on this and another 
poem of similar structure from which he took the title O Roma nobilis. This essay was published in the 
' Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Klasse der kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchen, 



NOTES 93 

Band xix, Abteilung ii, 1891, pp. 299-309; pp. 304 sqq. refer to O admirabiU Veneris idolum. In his essay 
Traube gave a translation of the poem into German prose and added photographic reproductions of both 
manuscripts. This was all the more welcome as the neumatic notations that are found in both manuscripts had 
not been reproduced by Niebuhr, du Mdril, and Jaffd. Two of the three stanzas are provided with neum-accents 
in the Cambridge Manuscript, while in V only the first stanza has a musical notation. The text of the present 
edition is mainly based on Traube's edition but, for the sake of uniformity, the usual spelling of C has been 
adhered to. The poem is also printed in Alexander Riese's Anthologia Latino, Vol. 11, p. xl, Leipzig, 1870, and 
in the popular collection of medieval secular I^tin lyrics called Gaudeamus. Carmina imgorum selecta in usum 
laetitiae, Leipzig, 1879, pp. 96-97. An English rendering, based upon the restoration of Traube, was given by 
Allen, Modem Philology, v, 3 (Jan. 1908), pp. 471-2, who discussed this passionate appeal to a runaway boy by a 
Veronese schoolmaster in the same paper on pp. 431, 456 and 471. 

The nature of the poem has often been misunderstood. It is neither the expression of artistic enthusiasm 
on the part of an old Roman who had dug up a beautiful statue of Venus which he was obliged to give up 
(Niebuhr) nor the fervent plea of a girl to a boy (Jaffe gave it the title ' Feminae araantis gemitus '). Allen, I.e. 
p. 471, calls this poem 'the first medieval example of any worth of the pederastic verse so popular in the Middle 
Ages,' and Traube concludes his essay with the words : ' Wenn dies Gedicht heidnisch ist [Niebuhr had called 
it ' heidnisch '], dann gibt es gar viele heidnische Gedichte aus christlicher Zeit Ich finde in ihra nur die 
gespreizte Gelehrsamkeit des Schulmeisters, der seine Glossare und Handbiicher nicht nur kannte, sondem auch 
verwerten wollte. Da es ihm aber an wahrer Empfindung doch nicht ganz gebrach und seine Zeit ein oflfnes 
Ohr gerade fiir den hier angeschlagenen Ton hatte (vgl. die Stellc aus Ivo von Chartres bei Diimmler, 'Zeitschrift 
f. d. Alterthum,' xxii, 258), so wird man sich nicht wundern, neben andern beliebten und gem gehorten Stiicken 
auch unser Lied in dem Textbuch jenes altesten Goliarden wiederzufinden, das uns die Cambridger Lieder- 
handschrift iiberliefert' (p. 307). See also A. F. Ozanam, Documents in/dits pour servir h V histoire littiraire de 
ritalie depuis le viii' slide jusqu'au xiii', avec des recherches sur le moyen-Age italien, Paris, 1850, pages 18-19. 
The vice to which this poem refers is very frequently discussed or alluded to in Medieval European literature. 
It is sometimes represented by the figure of Ganymede, and a classical example of a literary treatment of this 
unsavoury subject is afforded by the rhythmus Altercatio Ganymedis el Helenae (67 stanzas of 4 lines, all having 
but one rime), that was apparently specially addressed to the clergy. This rhythmus was printed by W. Wattenbach 
in the 'Zeitschrift f. d. Alterthum,' xviii (1875), 124-36. In the same volume of the same periodical (pp. 457- 
60) the rhythmus lupiter et Danae (27 stanzas, by the author of Ganymede and Helena?), in which the same vice 
is alluded to in stanza 15, was published by Wattenbach. See also E. Diimmler's essay Zur Sittengeschichte des 
Mittelalters in Haupt's 'Zeitschrift f. d. A.' xxii (1878), pp. 256-8; Traube, O Roma nobilis, p. 308, (2); Allen, 
Mod. Philology, v, 3, p. 456, note i. The poem must be looked upon as an early Italian wotSocov that was 
written by a schoolmaster at Verona some time between the ninth and the eleventh century. Traube (p. 306) 
says 'Zweisilbige Assonanz mit dem Streben, sich zum reinen Reim durchzuarbeiten, ist fiir das zehnte Jahr- 
hundert passend. Verona ist in der Zeit vor und nach Bischof Ratherius eine Hauptstatte geistigen Lebens und 
Strebens in Italien.' 

1. 3. Archos ' the Lord.' Traube remarks : ' Archos ist mittelgriechisch haufig,' and refers to Poetae aevi 
Carolini, 11, 397 L. 

1. 6. quae baiulat colum. This was taken, according to Traube, from the well-known verse on the Parcae : 
Clotho colum baiulat, Lachesis trahit, Atropos occat." See E. Baehrens, Poetae Latini Minores, v, 388. 

1. 7. Saluto. Traube conjectures Saluato, and renders the line ' Erhaite dem Knaben das Lebent' fleh' ich 
nicht im Scherzspiel. 

1. II. fluvium Tesim 'the river Adige.' Niebuhr suggested the alteration of Tesim into Athesim which 
Traube adopted. But both manuscripts have only the shorter form, viz. Thesim, V, Tesim, C, which seems to 
be a popular form of the name of the river. I'he substitution of the learned Athesim makes the line too long by 



94 NOTES 

one syllable ; fluvium must be read as a trisyllabic word, as is clearly shown by the neum-accents. Traube 
makes the note: ' Die Veroneser kannten folgende Etymologie von Athesis : "Athesis fluvius interpretatur"... 
"sine positione," i.e. "instabilis," nam "a" privativa dictio est, "thesis" dicitur "positio"; est autem "rapidis- 
simus amnis." Commentar der Gesia Berengarii ad Vers 148 ed. Diimmler S. 89.' 

Our rhythmus (as well as the religious poem Roma nobilis which is found together with it in the Vatican 
MS. and which may have been written in imitation of it, as it has the same metrical form) consists of three 
stanzas, two of which have six lines. Each line has twelve syllables, and the lines of the same stanza are kept 
together by the same assonance of the last two syllables. The neum-accent notation of the second stanza is a 
variation of that of the first, and the additional line gives this middle stanza a character of its own. The third 
stanza has no neumes put over the words which means that the melody of the first stanza was to be repeated. 

The first stanza is rendered thus by Traube (p. 307) : 

O wunderbares Abbild der Liebesgottheit, 

An dessen Leib auch nicht der kleinste Makel ist, 

So moge der Herr dich schiitzen, der Sterne und Himmel 

Schuf und Meer und Festland gestaltete. 

Nicht durch die List des Lebens-Diebes soUst du tuckisches Leid erfahren ; 

Nein, liebend schonen moge dich Clothe, die den Rocken dinset ! 

The second stanza is rendered by Allen (I.e. p. 471) in the following way : 
Preserve the boy, I pray not in jest 
To Lachesis, but with my whole heart. 
To the sister of Atropos, lest she abandon thee. 
Ma/st thou have as guides Neptune and Thetis 
When thou farest across the river Adige. 
Why doest thou flee, pray, when I love thee ? 
Unhappy what shall I do when I see thee not ? 

35. Clericus et Nonna. 

MS. fol. 438"'' 1. 16-439'* !• 8. The poem, which unfortunately has only come down to us in the 
Cambridge Manuscript, has been most effectively obliterated and blacked by the use of tinctura gallica. See my 
transliteration on pp. 16-17 and in Haupt's ' Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum,' xxx (1886), 190-1. A little 
more can be read in the manuscript than appears on the photographic reproduction. The transliteration gives in 
such cases everything fhat can be made out, and dots have been placed under the letters the reading of which 
is specially uncertain. The photographs will show how much space is available for supplying missing words. 

There is some discussion of this interesting fragment in M.S.D. H\, 106 (Steinmeyer combating Scherer's 
views). See also Kogelj, p. 136 sqq., and Kogela, p. 128, § 112 ; Wolfgang Golther, Die deutsche Dichtung im 
Mittelalter, Stuttgart, 1912, p. 71; Hans Naumann, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (in the 'Sammlung Goeschen,' 
No. 734), 1914, pp. 127-8; and Philip Schuyler Allen, Mod. Phil, v, 3 (Jan. 1908), 433-4. Some of Kogel's 
ingenious conjectures cannot be upheld in view of the space available in the manuscript. 

Scherer supposed the poem to be a hymn to the Virgin, but there can be little doubt that it is an erotic 
poem in the form of a dialogue between a monk and a nun, and that on account of its amorous nature it was 
destroyed by the monks of St Augustine although apparently the carissima nonna unhesitatingly rejected all the 
fervent pleadings of the enamoured monk. This poem is the oldest document of German love-poetry in which 
German words occur and at the same time the earliest specimen of macaronic love-poetry. See also Gertrud 
Stockmayer, IJber Naturgefuhl in Deutschland im x. und xi. Jahrhundert, Leipzig und Berlin, 1910, p. 29. The 
love-greeting in Ruodlieb should also be compared. See p. 40 of this book. Many macaronic poems of an erotic 
kind are found in the Carmina Burana and in later German literature. See H. Hoffmann von Fallersleben's 
anthology In dulci jubilo, and Emil Henrici, Sprachmischung in der alteren Dichtung Deutschlands, Berlin, 191 3. 



NOTES 95 

36. '/« languore perio.' 

MS. fol. 441"'' 11. 35-40- See my transliteration on p. 22 and in Haupt's 'Zeitschrift f. deutsches Alterthum,' 
Vol. XXX (1886), 191, and cp. ibid. 189. 

The poem is a fragment, and we cannot say how much may be missing. It is not macaronic. It was 
obviously a poem of passionate longing, such as Nos. 32, 33, 34, and the leading motif was probably 'Come 
{Ueni) my love... I am consumed with longing.' The title has been made up by me from the only line 
that is fairly legible. 



37- 



MS. fol. 440*'' 11. 24-40. See my notes in Haupt's 'Zeitschrift f. d. A.' VoL xxx (1886), 189 and 191. 

This is a fragment of a poem and again, as in the case of Na 36, it is impossible to say how much may 
be missing. It contained at least six stanzas of three lines each, vi, 3 is missing, and possibly more. See 
p. 24 of this book, and Robert Priebsch's very plausible remarks which are quoted on that page. 

38. Lamentatio Neobuk. 
MS. fol. 441"* 1. 32-442"'' 1. 2. 

The manuscript offers a somewhat corrupt te.xt of the well-known Horatian ode. See Q. Horati Flacci 
Carmina, in, 12. The mistakes of C have been corrected, but the spelling of the MS. (Ebri for Hebri, etc.) has 
been left. See the note on orto = horto, Poem i, Stanza 3, p. 71. This is another poem of lamentation. See p. 73. 

39. Admonitio iuvenum. 

MS. fol. 436"'' 1. 40-437''' 1. 26. — pp. 37 (sub 17) and 66-67. See also pp. 24-25. — Jafff, pp. 484-7 (on 
whom the text here given is mainly based, although it seems doubtful if his numerous transpositions of words 
are all really necessary). 

These 'versus de contemptu mundi' have come down to us in two manuscripts beside C. One is a Viennese 
MS. (V), referred to, but not published, by Denis in his Catal. Codd. theol. i, 3, p. 2932. He did not think 
much of the poem. The other is a manuscript from the beginning of the ninth century, written by an Anglo- 
Saxon scribe, which originally was the property of the Chapter of Cologne Cathedral. In 1794, when a 
French invasion of Germany was feared, the Cologne manuscripts were sent for safety further south-east, and 
this manuscript, together with others, was for a long time kept at Darmstadt Consequently in earlier editions 
it is always called the Darmstadt Manuscript (D). In 1867 the manuscripts were returned from Hessia to 
Cologne and, in 1874, they were indexed and described by Jaff<5 and Wattenbach, in their publication EccUsiae 
Metropolitanae Coloniensis Manuscripti, Berolini, 1874. On p. 43, sub cvi (= Darmstadt, Na 2106) of this 
publication the manuscript is dealt with and described in the following way: ' Membranaceus saec. ix, forma 
maxima, foliorum 74, quem variae manus exaraverunt, in his etiam manus Anglo-saxonicae. fol. 17-17": Versus 
de contemptu mundi : Audax es vir iuvenis.' D was first printed (with the addition of numerous notes) by 
F. J. Mone in his Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters, Vol. i (Freiburg, 1853), under No. 288, on pp. 395-7. 
This text was reprinted by H. A. Daniel in the TTusaurus Hymttologiats, Vol. iv (1855), pp. 132-3, who, referring 
to Mone, also repeated some of his predecessor's notes. D offers frequently a better text than C. 

This didactic poem is a so-called Hymnus alphaheticus, in which each stanza begins with a different letter 
of the alphabet, running through all the letters from a Xa z. Each stanza has four short lines with riming 
couplets. Each stanza is followed by the same refrain of two slightly longer lines from which it appears that 
the poem was intended to he sung on Ash-Wednesday (see Daniel, iv, 134). Another alphabetical hymn 
is printed in du Meril,, pp. 297-300, and another by E. de Coussemaker, I.e. pp. 1 16-18. 



96 NOTES 

The metre is not always well observed in either C or D. The writer of C wrote the poem as prose in the 
prose order of words. Some lines are one syllable short, others too long by one syllable (e.g. 19, i ; 20, 3), 
most lines contain eight syllables, but not a few have only seven syllables, the first unaccented syllable of 
the line being suppressed. Each line has four accents. The rimes are often at best mere assonance (lines 3-4, 
7_8, 17-18, 67-68, 87-88), and sometimes they are not put in couplets but are intermittent (stanzas 9, 11, 19); 
sometimes the rimes are altogether corrupt. 

A facsimile, transcription and translation of part of the poem are given in Anselm Salzer's lUustrierte 
Geschichte der deutschen Literafvr, Vol. i (no date, 19 12?), p. 10 1. See note to No. 31. 

An Old High German poem of the eleventh century, which is very similar in tendency and attacks the 
' vil ubeler mundus,' is caW^A Memento inori and printed in M.S.D. \ No. xxx'', and in Braune's Althochdeutsches 
Lesebuch, under No. xxxxii. There are also Latin poems de contemptu mundi written in the eleventh 
century by Anselm of Canterbury {Opera, ed. Gerberon, 1, 277). See Mone, I.e. p. 396. For notes on the text 
of our poem Mone should be consulted. 

Stanza 18. Mone (p. 397) explains venia to mean 'remission of sins' {Siindenvergebung), and indulgentia 
'indulgence,' 'remission of temporal punishment' {Nachla^ der zeitlichen Strqfen, Abla^). 

Stanza 22. The Manuscript D reads Ydei. There is naturally a great difficulty in beginning a Latin 
stanza with the unusual letter Y. May we take Ydei to stand for Y dei, i.e. K (= / ' go '), Dei quaere graiiam ? 
C has substituted Fides and differs altogether. 

40. De Musica. 

MS. fol. 441™ 11. 24—31. — pp. 27 (sub 44) and 67. — Jaffe', p. 489. See also the note in M.S.D. '11, 
121. The poem has been preserved only in the Cambridge Manuscript, the text of which is disfigured by 
several corruptions. 

The rhythm of the lines is as follows : 

Rota m6dos artfe | p^rsondmus miisicd 

and the poem is thus in structure very similar to two stanzas of four long lines as they occur in certain 
hymns. 

I. I. rota. The rota is a musical instrument of the violin class, which stands half-way between a harp 
and a fiddle. The instrument is several times mentioned in Old High German literature and is called rota, 
rotta, hrota (in later German rotte, rote). As early as in the second half of the ninth century Otfrid von 
Weissenburg mentions the rotta by the side of the harpha, 'harp.' In describing the wonderful music that is 
made in the heavenly kingdom he mentions the instruments used (v, 23, 197 sqq.), and says: 

Sih thar ouh 41 ruarit, thaz 6rgana fuarit, 

Ifra joh ffdula joh mdnagfaitu sudgala, 
Hdrpha joh rotta, joh thaz io giiates dohta. 

The original form of rota in German was probably hrotta, which is an early Germanic adaptation of the word 
recorded in the sixth century, by Venantius Fortunatus, as the Breton chrotta {chrotta hritanna placet, Corin. 
liber vii). The instrument was of Celtic origin and was called crwth. See the full discussion by Ferdinand 
Wolf, Vber die Lais, Sequenzen und Leiche, Heidelberg, 1841, pp. 244-8. Karl Weinhold, Die deutschen Frauen 
in dem Mittelalter, \ (Wien, 1882), 156; Alwin Schultz, Das hofische Leben znr Zeit der Minnesinger, H (Leipzig, 
1889), 554 ; E. G. Graff, Althochdeutsclier Sprachschatz, 11, 487-8 ; Benecke, Miiller and Zarncke, Mittelhochdeutsches 
Wdrterbueh, 11, 773'', 12 sqq. (where much literature is given); M. Lexer, MittelhocMeutscIus Worterbuch, 11, 
509; New English Dictionary, under rote. Vol. vni (1910), 807''; The Century Dictionary, Vol. v (1890), 5237"=, 
under rote; La Curne de 'SaxaX^-VjsXs.^tt, Dictionnaire Historique de Tancien langage Francois, Vol. ix(i88i), p. 269''. 



NOTES 97 

See also the very interesting chapter, ' Rote and Harp,' in Francis W. Galpin, Old English instruments of music, 
their history and character, London (1910), pp. 1-19 (with illustrations). From this it appears that the rota 
was a bowed stringed instrument, not round in shape, but a long oblong, with rounded comers. It took 
the place of the harp when the art of the old minstrels passed into the hands of the joculatores, mimi 
and goliardi and when the use of the harp became less common. See W. Wackemagel (-E. Martin), Geschichte 
der deutschen Litteratur, h (Basel, 1879), p. 99. 

modus is 'melody,' 'lay.' See p. 29, note i. 

11. 3 and 4. See No. 42, Stanzas 4 and 5, and the notes to them. 

1. 6. The manuscript has quorum fit celestis musica numerorum normula. musica, which can be inferred 
from celestis, was probably added by the scribe, normula occurs again in Stanza 5 of No. 42. 

1. 8. This line runs in the manuscript : rex mirandus pantokrator nos reget per secula, which makes the 
line longer than all the others. In omitting mirandus the rhythm of the first half line would be rix pdntokrdtbr, 
i.e. the Latin line would have to be read in the German way, in which an unaccented syllable between the 
first and the second stressed syllable (Hebung) could be omitted, pantokrator {TravTOKpartap) is not uncommon 
in Biblical Greek. See Wilke-Grimm's Clavis Nofi Testamenti, translated, revised and enlarged by Joseph 
Henry Thayer under the title A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Edinburgh, 1886, p. 476. There 
occur some other Greek terms in the Cambridge Songs, e.g. pneuma (No. i. i), athanatos (No. 14. 31), melos 
(Na 31. 5), Sophie (No. 42. 2), etc. 

41. De Mensa Philosophic. 

MS. fol. 440*'' 11. 6-13.— pp. 27 (sub 36) and 67.— Jaflf^, p. 489. 

The last three lines of this piece differ in their metrical structure from the first and their contents do not 
correspond well with the opening lines. It seems very doubtful that they belong to the beginning. The 
idea of a richly spread table of Philosophy, or of an invigorating well of Philosophy, occurs in other Medieval 
Latin poems. The most interesting instance is the insertion of a song on ' the well of Philosophy ' into an old 
Christmas-play {Ludus scenicus de Nativitate Domini) in the Carmina Burana (ed. Schmeller, No. ecu, p. 92, 
II. 47 sqq.). The beginning of it (with the exception of the reading fontem instead of mensam) is exactly the 
same as in C. The poem, as it appears in this early thirteenth-century collection, has six more lines of 
fifteen syllables than the Cambridge Manuscript (Schmeller prints twelve half lines), three of which are in 
each case bound together by the same rime. They continue the x^ea, fontem Philosophie and run thus:. 

quern Pythagoras rimatus excitavit physic?, 
inde Socrates et Plato honestarunt ethicg, 
Aristoteles loquaci desponsavit logic?, 
ab his sect? multiformes Athenis materiam 
nact? hoc liquore totam irriganint Greciam, 
qui redundans infinite fluxit in Hcsperiam. 

This song is sung in the Christmas-play by the followers of the King of Egypt. In a work of the twelfth 
century by Alanus ab Insulis (Alain de Lille), Anticlaudianus (ed. Thomas Wright in his ' Minor Anglo-Latin 
Satirists and Epigrammatists of the i2th Century,' London, 1872, Vol. 11, p. 320), we read the line: 

'mensam Pythagorae, quae menti pabula donaL' 

The idea of a large table spread first for the few, then for the many, and ultimately for all, has been worked 
out in a splendid poem called AUe ('Es sprach der Geist : "Sieh auf!" Es war im Traurae') by Conrad 
Ferdinand Meyer, in his Gedichte, Leipzig, "'1902, p. 256. 

With regard to the metre of the first half of this poem, see the notes on Nos. 18, 21 and 31. 

B. N 



98 NOTES 

1. 4. gramma stands (or grammatica. See Du Cange, Glossarium, iv (1885), 96. gramma prima would 
mean ' the rudiments of grammar.' 

poetica ydra does not make any sense, and {h)ydra seems to be a mistake of the scribe. R. A. Nicholson 
suggests the emendation rima, which, if spelt rhyma, would make good sense and explain to some extent the 
mistake of the copyist. 

1. 6. Mantuana fistula denotes bucolics after the manner of Virgil. Perhaps lines 4-6 were originally 
a sestet of short and rugged lines somewhat of the following shape : 

Hinc fluit gramma prima, 
Hinc poetica rhyma, 
lanx hinc satiricorum, 
plausus hinc comicorum, 
letificat convivia 
Mantuana fistula. 



42. De simphonits et de litter a Pithagore. 

MS. fol. 435'''' 11. 12-32. — pp. 27 (sub 11) and 67-68. — Jaffe, pp. 488-9 (who gives an emended text and 
some useful notes and on whom the present edition is mainly based). See also the note in M.S.D. \\, 121. 

This poem consists of two main portions (Stanzas 4-5 and 6-8) which are preceded by an introduction 
(Stanzas 1-3) and followed by a partial repetition and adaptation of the opening stanza (Stanza 9). Jaffe's title 
De littera Pythagore, viz. the letter Y, refers only to Stanzas 6-9. This poem setting forth, among other things, 
in what way the wise Pythagoras had found the Octave was perhaps one of those which, according to Sextus 
Amarcius (i, 441-2), were sung by a 'mimus' to a 'luxuriosus' (Book i, Ch. 5 deals with ' De diversis luxuriae 
illecebris '). See the notes to Nos. 22 (p. 82) and 31 (p. 88); also Winterfeld, p. 490. 

Stanza 2. Veritatem, viz. Christum. 

Stanza 3. metapsicosis for metempsychosis. 

Euforbium for Euphorbum. Euphorbus, the son of Panthus, was a brave Trojan whose soul Pythagoras 
asserted had descended to himself through the process of transmigration. See Ovid, Metamorphos. xv, 
11. 161 sqq. 

Stanza 4. The story of the ingenious way in which Pythagoras first found out the proportion and concord 
of sounds one to another, i.e. the Octave, the Perfect Fifth, and the Perfect Fourth, observing how they were 
produced by the different-sized hammers in a blacksmith's forge, is told, with more or less detail, by many 
ancient writers. See the accounts of Macrobius, Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis, 11, i, 8-25 (pp. 572-6 in 
the Teubner edition) ; Boethius, De institutione musica, i, Chapter 10 (p. 197 in the Teubner edition, and 
pp. 1176-8 in J. P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus computus. Vol. 63, Paris, 1847); Nicomachus, Harmonices manuale 
(ed. Meibom), Book i, pp. 10-14; lamblichus, in Nicom. 171 sqq.; and others. See also No. 40, 1. 3. The 
chapter in Thomas Stanley's History of Philosophy, 2nd ed., London, 1687, Part ix. Section 11, Chapter vi, 
PP- 53* sqq., is mainly based on Nicomachus, but see on this chapter the useful corrections of E. W. Naylor in 
his paper Music and Shakespeare contributed to 'The Musical Antiquary,' April 1910, pages 144-6. With 
regard to the whole question of the finding of the Octave by Pythagoras see now Eduard Zeller, Die 
Philosophic der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, h (Leipzig, 1892), pp. 401 sqq. (in the English 
translation, by S. F. AUeyne, A history of Greek Philosophy, London, 1881, Vol. i, pp. 431-2). 

Stanza 5. This stanza offers many difficulties. For the elucidation of it Jaffe rightly refers to Martianus 
Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, Book 11, § 107 (page 29 in F. Eyssenhardt's edition, Leipzig, 1866). 
See below. 



NOTES 99 

With regard to the terms used in this stanza it should be noted that 

simphonias are 'concords,' i.e. perfect intervals, such as the unison, the octave, the fourth and the fifth. 
Cp. Vitruvius, De Architectura (ed. H. Miiller-Striibing, Leipzig, 1867), Book v. Chapter 4, p. 113: 'Concentus 
quos natura hominis modulari potest, graeceque irvn<i»oviai dicuntur....' In Poem No. 40, 1. 4 the writer 
mentions quattuor consonantias, 'the four concords' or 'the four harmonies.' In the old musical system, which 
knew only a single octave, the three simphoniae called diatessaron, diapente and diapason were especially 
important. They were recognised as 'perfect' by the medieval harmonists. See E. W. Naylor, I.e. p. 146- See 
also No. 43 and the note on it. 

diatesseron = & fourth musical interval, a perfect fourth, 'quarta.' The term is short for ij 8ia T«<r<rop«v 
\ophmv arun<lxovCa and is consequently as a rule written diatessaron ; but the form diatesseron is sometimes found 
instead of it (always in the Cambridge Manuscript, and also in Notker. See p. 97), and, at the end of a hexa- 
meter verse, even diatesron. See Du Cange, Glossarium, in (1884), p. 99. 

diapente = a fifth musical interval, a perfect fifth, ' quinta.' 

diapason = the whole octave (j; Sia iraamv xopSuf (rvn<t>imia.), a consonance through all the tones of the 
diatonic scale, the concord of the first and the last notes, the interval of an octave. 

On simphonias tres cp. Martianus Capella, I.e. Book ix, § 934 : ' Ex sonis qui et singulis et omnibus tropis 
rite conveniunt, symphoniae tres, quarum est prima Sia Tco-o-apoiv, quae Latine : ex quatuor ; alia symphonia 
quinaria est et dicitur 8ia irivrt, atque constat sonis quinque : tertia 8ia inuxiav, quae ex omnibus octo sonos 
recipit.' In the passage quoted above Vitruvius, writing at a time when the musical system had extended to 
two octaves, says: 'Concentus. ..sunt sex: diatessaron, diapente, diapason, et disdiatessaron et disdiapente 
et disdiapason....' 

quaiernarium = quaternarium numerum. The expression seems in this case to denote the number 10, and 
to be a Latin equivalent of the Greek TtrpanTvi, the number comprising in it the first four numbers. See the 
extract from Martianus Capella quoted below. 

armoniam, harmonia (dp/iocio) is a name for the octave. See Eduard Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griecfun..., 
p. 358, note 2, who quotes Nicomachus, Harmonic., Introd. 1, 16: 'oJ iraXau>TOToi...ap/M)»'iai' i^iv icaXowTcs nji' 

iratriav. 

ma ten tetrotten, ' by the tetrad ! ' which has here the meaning of swearing by the quaternary number (viz. 
the sum of the first four numbers, i.e. the number \o\ This number (made up from 1+2 + 3 + 4) was 
considered by Pythagoras and his followers to be the most perfect number, the root and founuin of the eternal 
nature. It was introduced by the Pythagoreans into their most solemn oath, the oath by the t«tpoktu«, in 
which, out of respect for their master, and forbearing to mention his name, they swore by the name of the 
p>erson who communicated the TerpoKrvs to them. 

Tirpah-qv Stands here, as it sometimes does, for tctpoktv'k. For the literature on this oath in which 
Pythagoras was celebrated as the revealer of the T«T/)a<cTus, see E. Zeller, I.e. p. 398, note 5 (Engl, transl. 
p. 428, note 3), and Thomas Stanley, I.e. pp. 526-7. The Cambridge Manuscript has, instead of ma Un 
tetraden the words matenle traden traden. The second traden (fol. 435™ 1. i) was by roisUke repeated by the 
scribe from the last line of the preceding page (fol. 435''' 1. 4=). and he wrote matente traden as he obviously did 
not understand the meaning of the Greek words fia rriv T€Tpa.hrfv. 

The passage from Martianus Capella (Liber 11, § 107) to which Jaffe rightly refers as the probable source of 
this part of the poem runs thus : ' An aliud ilia senis deieratio, qui no. ttjv rtrpdSa non Ucuit, confitetur nisi 
perfectae rationis numerum? quippe intra se unum secundum triademque ipsumque bis binum tenet, quis 
collationibus symphoniae peraguntur. nam tres ad quattuor epitritus vocitatur arithmetica ratione ac diatessaron 
perhibetur in musicis. item intra eum iacent tres ad duo, quae hemiolios forma est symphoniamque secundam, 
quae diapente dicitur, reddunt. tertia symphonia diapason in melicis perhibetur diplasioque conficitur hoc est 
uno duobus collato. igitur quaternarius numerus omnes symphonias suis partibus perfectus absolvit omniaque 

N2 



loo NOTES 

mela harmonicorum distributione conquirit'.... In this important passage the Pythagorean oath is called /xa ■nji' 
TcTpoSa, but in Book vii, § 734 (ed. Eyssenhardt, p. 259) Martianus Capella has : Quid tetradem dicam ? Hence 
it is probable that the compiler of the song book and commonplace book which is preserved for us in C used 
a manuscript of M. Capella which in § 107 read fe/raden. 

Stanzas 6-9. See Poem 19, Stanza 5 (end). Jaff^ refers to Lactantii Institut. vi, c. 3, 6 opp., ed. 
Biinemann, p. 708, note n. Compare also Isidori Hispalensi episcopi Etymologiarum libri XX, ed. 
F. Lindemann, Leipzig, 1833. In Book i, Chapter 3 ('De Uteris communibus') a paragraph (§ 7) is devoted 
to the Pythagorean letter, Y. It runs thus : ' Y literam Pythagoras Samius ad exemplum humanae vitae primus 
formavit ; cuius virgula subterior primam aetatem significat, incertam quippe et quae adhuc se nee vitiis 
nee virtutibus dedit. Bivium autem, quod superest, ab adolescentia incipit : cuius dextera pars ardua est, 
sed ad beatam vitam tendens : sinistra facilior, sed ad labem interitumque deducens. De qua Persius [Sat. 

Ill, 56] sic ait: 

Et tibi quae Samios diduxit littera ramos, 
Surgentem dextro monstravit limite callem.' 

Apparently the idea of the Pythagorean Y was that on the right-hand side the stroke went straight up in 
direct continuation of the lower part of the letter, while the left arm which branched off was longer 
and less steep ("^). In Stanzas 7 and 8, however, the Christian idea of the narrow and the wide gate and 
the straitened and the broad way has supplanted the original idea of Pythagoras of the steep and the easy 
way. Cp. St Matthew vii. 13-14: 'Introite per angustam portam : quoniam lata est porta, et spatiosa via, 
quae abducit in exitium, multique sunt qui introeunt per earn. Quia angusta est porta, et stricta via, 
quae ducit ad vitam ; et pauci sunt qui inveniant earn,' and St Matthew viii. 12:' filios vero regni ejectum 
in in tenebras illas extimas : illic erit fletus, et stridor dentium.' See also John Connington in his edition 
of the Satires of Persius (Oxford, '1896), p. 61 (note on in, 56-57). 

43. Diapente et Diatesseron. 

MS. fol. 437"'' IL25-29. — pp. 27 (sub 20) and 68. — JafT^, p. 451. 

For these detached lines on the concords of the Perfect Fifth and the Perfect Fourth see the note to 
Stanza 5 of the preceding piece. 

intensa et remissa. Cp. lamblichus (ed. Sam. Tennulius), p. 1 7 1 : ' Narrant vero chordarum intensiones 
et remissiones, quae sunt secundum dictas rationes, primum Pythagoram inter se conamensurasse.' intensa et 
remissa. ..consonantia apparently refers to the tightening and slacking of the strings, and the former seems to denote 
the higher pitch of the concord of the fifth (diapente), and remissa the lower concord of the fourth {diatesseron). 
Cp. Christian August Brandis, Geschichte der Entwickelungen der griechischen Philosophic und ihrer Nachwirkungen 
im rimischen Reiche, Part i, Berlin, 1862. On p. 171 he says: 'Der Harmonic soUte die Oktave ent- 
sprechen und diese in Quarte und Quinte zerfallen, als deren Unterschied der Ton betrachtet wird.' 
The same view that the octave is made up by adding up a fourth and a fifth was held by Philolaos, a 
Pythagorean philosopher. See August Boeckh, Philolaos des Pythagoreers Lehren, nebst BruchstUcken seines 
Werkes, Berlin, 1819, pp. 68 sqq. Boeckh says on p. 68: 'Des Philolaos Angaben griinden sich auf das 
alte hellenische System von einer Oktave.... Die GroBe der Harmonic, sagt Philolaos, ist crv\Xo/3a und 
84' o^ciaf. SvXXa/3^ ist nemlich der alte Name der Quarte (8ta rto-o-apaiv), weil sie die erste Zusammen- 
fassung konsonierender Tone ist (7rp<onj trvAAiji/frt <j>06yyiav (tv/xi/xdVoh') ; SC 6$fLwv aber ist die Quinte (Sia 
TrivTf), weil sie der Quarte nach dam Hohen zu folgt {iirl to ofi> Trpoxi^pova-a). So lehrt Nikomachos.... 
Da nun eine Quarte und eine Quinte die Oktave umfassen..., so sagt Philolaos o-uXXaySa und St' 
oitiuiv sei die GroBe der Harmonic.' This is worked out in full by Boeckh. 

The same idea is found at the end of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh century in the 



NOTES loi 

writings of Notker of St Gallen and his pupils. See Paul Piper, 'Die Schriften Notkers und seiner Schule,' 
Vol. HI (Freiburg, 1882), pp. 854-6 (from an Appendix, De Musica). On p. 854, 23-27 we read: *Tiu 
driu alphabeta sint tinne ndte so gelih . daz an togelichemo si diapason . linde dirdna diatesseron . 
unde diapente . linde an diatesseron sfn dr! linderliza tonus tonus semitonium . linde dn diapente fiere . tonus 
tonus semitonium tonus.' On p. 855, 21 sqq. : 'An dien octo modis . (h m^ino ypodorio . ypofrigio . ypolidio . 
dorio . frigio . lidio . mixolidio . ypermixolidio . sfnt ilns keduget octo species . diapason simphoni^ . an 
dien uufr ffnd^n ftfsttgendo f6ne demo niderosten ze demo 6berdsten dise stben lindarsk^ita . tonum . 
tonum semitonium tonum tonum semitonium tonum . Pe diu Hutet tfu 6berdsta uuarba . duplum gagen 
dero nfderostun....' 

44. Utnbram Hectoris videt Eneas. 

MS. fol. 440" 1. 37-440''' 1. 15. — pp. 27 (sub 33) and 68. 

These lines are an extract from Virgil's /Eneid, 11, 11. 268-83. 

This extract, as well as the two following ones, shows clearly what kinds of passages from the ancient 
poets the goliard considered to be of principal interest to his hearers. He selected invariably pathetic 
addresses, outpourings of sorrow and of passionate tenderness. See also Nos. 8, 32, 38. 

45. Hipsipile Arckemorum puertim a serpente necatum plorat. 

MS. fol. 439"'' 11. 10-24. — PP- 27 (sub 30) and 69. 

These lines are an extract from a very pathetic episode of the Thebaid (P. Papini Stati Thebaidos, 
Liber v, 11. 608-16). Will. Lillington Lewis, who translated the Thebaid of Stati us into English verse 
(Oxford, 1767, 2 vols.), says with regard to this passage (i, 232): 'Upon the whole, we may conclude this 
oration to be a masterpiece in the pathetic way. That of Eurialus his mother in the ninth book of the 
Mne\d, and of Andromache in the twenty-second of the Iliad, are the only ones that can stand in com- 
petition with it.' 

The text here given is taken from Postgate's Corpus, iv, 336''. The English rendering of Hypsipyle's 
lament by Lewis is given I.e. Vol. i, p. 231, 11. 863-76. 

46. Argie lamentalio maritum Polinieem a fratre interfectum invenientis. 

MS. fol. 439" 11. 9-40. — pp. 27 (sub 28) and 69. Another extract containing almost entirely the same 
passage occurs on the same leaf, fol. 439*'' U. 25-440" 1. 6. — pp. 27 (sub 31) and 69. 

These most pathetic lines are another extract taken from (the twelfth book of) the Thebaid. The former 
comprises lines 325-48 and the latter lines 322-35. In the present edition (the text of which is taken 
from Postgate's Corpus, iv, 381) the two extracts are given in one combined text beginning with Hune ego 
te, coniunx (1. 322). The three opening lines are in the second extract put right at the end (fol. 440" 
11. 1-6) after the longer extract beginning with Hue adtolle genas (fol. 439" 1. 9 and 439*'' L 25). 

The English rendering, by Will. Lillington Lewis, is found in Vol. 11, page 589, lines 470-508. 

47. Nisus omnigeni. 

MS. fol. 440"'' 11. 14-23. — pp. 27 (sub 37) and 69. — Jaffif, p. 453- 

Most of these six unconnected lines are more or less well-built dactylic hexameters. They are isolated 
lines, and some do not make any sense. They seem to be mere metrical experiments, and the title has 
been made from 1. 3. Jaffe rightly calls the whole an unverstdndliches SiUek. 



CHAPTER VII 
A Contested Passage in ' De Heinrico'' 

Among the scanty fragments of shorter Old High German poems which have come down to 
our times few surpass the political ballad De Heinrico in interest and difficulty. Its peculiar 
North Middle Franconian dialect', its metre and style, at once popular and learned, especially the 
mixture of Latin and German which we meet here for the first time in Old German poetry', are 
no less interesting than the investigation of the historical circumstances to which the poem refers 
and in which it was written in the second half of the tenth century. This important ' leich ' has 
not been preserved in any other manuscript. 

Up to fairly recent times it was considered to refer to one of the several reconciliations of the 
German Emperor Otto I, the Great (936-73), with his rebellious brother Henry I, Duke of Bavaria. 
About the time and place of the particular reconciliation different scholars held different views, but 
all agreed that a friendly meeting of the brothers was celebrated by a learned poet whose sympathies 
were with Henry, who was anxious to praise the Duke's wise rule and his love of justice, and to make 
as little as possible of the very serious offences of which he had been guilty, in his earlier years, 
towards his brother and the Empire*. In regard to the different views that have been advanced 
concerning the time and place of this meeting of the brothers, as to which no agreement has so far 
been arrived at, the chronological bibliography at the end of this chapter will give full information. 

All conjectures as to the historical background of our poem were until recently based on the 

• Part of the present chapter was first published in The Modem Quarterly of Language and Literature, 1, I 
(March 1898), 42-46. In a few cases the repetition of facts mentioned in previous chapters could not be altogether 
avoided. See page 29, note 2, pages 31 and 33 of the present book. 

' There is still a difference of opinion as to the dialect in which the ' Song of Henry ' was originally composed. 
See Wilhelm Seelmann in Xh^ Jahrbuch des Vereins fiir Niederdeutsche Sprachforschung, xil (1886), 75 sqq. and 
XXHI (1897), 99 sqq.; H. Meyer, ib. XXIU (1897), 81 sqq. ; Rudolf Kogel, Geschichte d. deutschen Litt. bis zum Ausgange 
des Mittelalters, i, 2 (1897), 127 sqq.; P. Habermann, Die Metrik der kleineren althochdeutschen Reimgedichte, Halle, 
1909, pp. 72 sqq. 

' For the only other specimens of this kind of macaronic poetry in Old High German literature {Clericus et Nonna, 
and the love-greeting from Ruodlieb), see page 40. 

♦ See Rudolf Kopke and Ernst Diimmler, Kaiser Otto der Grosse, Leipzig, 1876, p. 120: ' Unter dem Eindruck 
der her\'orragenden Stellung, die Heinrich in spaterer Zeit einnahm, trat die Erinnerung an die verbrecherischen 
Plane seiner friiheren Jahre in den Hintergrund. Schon bei der hofischen Dichterin Hrotsvith erscheint seine 
Schuld sehr abgeschwacht und es wird vorziiglich die Riihrung des Lesers fiir die reuige Unterwerfung des Bussenden 
erweckt ; in einem halb deutschen, halb lateinischen Leich endlich ist dieser Bussakt fast in einen Triumphzug 
verwandelt, und ehrenvoll steht Heinrich neben dem Kdnige.' 



A CONTESTED PASSAGE IN ' DE HEINRICO" 103 

three lines which follow immediately on the introductory stanza of four lines, in which the learned 
poet implores the help of Christ for the composition of a song in praise of 'a certain Duke, Lord 
Henry, who had gloriously protected (i.e. ruled over) the realm of the Bavarians.' From this it 
appears that the hero of the ' leich ' was no longer alive when it was composed. The following three 
lines run thus in all the editions of our poem previous to 1 892 : 

Intrans nempe nuntius, then keisar manoda her thus : 
' Cur sedes,' infit, ' Otdo ther unsar keisar guodo ? 
hie adest Heinrich, bruother hera kunigltch. 

If the reading of the last line should prove to be doubtful or incorrect, of course all speculations 
as to the historical events referred to must be carefully reconsidered. Grave doubts as to the correct- 
ness of the reading bruother kunigltch '(thy) royal brother,' i.e. Henry, have ari.sen of late, and 
consequently it is of the greatest importance to have this question definitely settled, if possible, before 
the historical investigation can be proceeded with. 

The writing of by far the greater portion of the poem is very clear and does not admit of the 
slightest doubt ; the dark ink still shines in most places as if it had been used but yesterday, instead 
of nearly 900 years ago. Unfortunately, however, the very words that are of paramount importance 
for the historical explanation of the whole are now partly gone'. The most important line is the 
fifth from the bottom of the page, the third of those given above, and examination of the manuscript 
shows that the ending of each of the last lines on this folio has become either dimmed or quite 
obliterated, probably through the action of the fingers in turning over the leaf. In these places the 
parchment is now almost completely worn off, and its former yellowish tint has become whitish-grey*. 

As a basis for the following observations the last eight lines in the second column of fol. 437'' 
are here printed exactly as they stand, so far as they are now distinctly legible, in the manuscript : 

Intranf nempe nuntiuf then 

keifar namoda her thuf cur fed^x 

infit otdo. ther unfar keifar 

guodo. hie adeft heinrich bn 

her hera kuniglich. dignum ixbi 

fore thir felue moze fine. 
Tunc furrexit otdo ther unfar 

keifar guodo. prex illi obuiS. 

Thus it appears that the all-important word bruother does not really stand in the MS. if, indeed, 
it ever stood there'. 

When, in 1885, I collated* and transcribed from the Cambridge MS. all the poems which had 

' In the case of four other poems the text cannot be determined, or is at best most doubtful, because at a very 
early date the lines were intentionally erased or blacked out by the use of chemicals. The effacement of the particular 
words in De Heinrico was, however, not intentional. Mistakes of the scribe, which are not infrequent in other poems, 
are by no means absent from De Heinrico and must be considered quite possible here. The last editions of the 
Denkmaler (1892) and of Braune's Althochdeutsches Lesebuch C1911) give in every case trustworthy information as to 
the emendations that have been proposed. 

* See pages 23-24, and the photographic facsimile of the passage in question on fol. 437* '!• 33-38- 

' The final es in sedes is almost completely rubbed out, and the final U in tibi is nearly gone. But both are just 
legible, being, though faint, more distinct than anything that followed after brt. See p. 26, note 2. 

* See pages 32-33. 



I04 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

been printed in the Denktndler, I did not fail to call Scherer's attention to the very doubtful reading 
of the manuscript in this important passage. When, after Scherer's premature death, Steinmeyer 
brought out (in 1892) his excellent new edition of the Denkmdler, he had been for some time in 
possession of all my collations and transcripts. In the notes to the text (Vol. II, 106) Steinmeyer 
consequently made an ingenious conjecture, proposing the substitution of br{jngif)her for the 
traditional bt\uoi)lur. I turned at once to the manuscript again to ascertain whether this conjecture 
was confirmed by any faint traces of letters ; but in spite of repeated efforts I was unable to come to 
any definite conclusion as to the true reading of the obliterated word. 

In 1894 Robert Priebsch, who was at that time collecting in Cambridge materials for his 
admirable book Deutsche Handschriften in England (Part I, Eriangen, 1896), naturally bestowed 
a great deal of time and attention upon our manuscript, especially upon the leaves on which the 
songs are written ; and one day, with the help of a chemical reagent, he read quite clearly, not indeed 
bringit, but bringt, the / being joined to the preceding ^ by a ligature'. He hereupon inserted a 
preliminary notice of his discovery in the Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum, xx (1894), 207, and 
subsequently discussed the passage at greater length and with much critical acumen in regard to its 
now altered political significance in his Deutsche Handschriften in England, I, 25 sqq. When a few 
days after Priebsch's discovery, of which he had immediately informed me, I examined the manuscript 
once more, the passage seemed as illegible as ever, if not more so ; and, when I was anxious to repeat 
the application of a chemical, the Librarian, Mr Francis Jenkinson, shrank from allowing a second 
use of the reagent. It was, however, applied two years later, in 1896, in the presence of the Librarian 
and Sir E. M. Thompson, the widely experienced Keeper of the Manuscripts of the British Museum. 
Neither Sir E. M. Thompson nor I could on that day see anything distinct after brt, but Mr Jenkinson 
thought he could detect part of the tail of an Old English j followed by a very faint t. 

In the mean time, partly owing to the publication of Steinmeyer's conjecture and Priebsch's 
confirmation of it, partly owing to the preparation, for the Monumenta Germaniae, of a comprehensive 
edition of the minor Old German historical poems', German scholars had begun to investigate the 
poem afresh. Wilhelm Braune adopted the new reading bringit in the fourth edition of his 
widely used Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (Halle, 1897), while Rudolf Kogel took pains to defend the 
older reading bruother in his learned and suggestive Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur bis zum 
Ausgange des Mittelalters (I, 2, 132 sqq., Strassburg, 1897). During the twelve years between 1897 
and 1909 a number of articles have been published, partly dealing with the reconstruction of the text, 
with the dialect and the metre, and partly with the historical bearings of the poem. No general 
agreement having been reached so far on any of these points, it may be useful to examine once more, 
with the help of the photographic reproduction of fol. 437, what conjectures may or may not be based 
on the actual reading of the manuscript. 

Most of the writers who have so far discussed the passage, and have often materially contributed 
to the emendation and the proper understanding of the text, have not been able to consult the 
manuscript for themselves. 

' There occur indeed a few ligatures after n in the case of nt and ns {e.g. fol. 432''' 1. 9 quereba«/, fol. 433" 1. 2 1 
su«/, fol. 434" 1. 28 sumpseru«/, fol. 433''' 1. 15 uacawj-), but in no place have I come across a t joined in this way to 
a preceding g\ in fact the writing of zomwngit (on fol. 438''' 1. 34) seems rather to speak in favour of reading hrwgit for 
which longer form the available space would just suffice. 

* The very desirable publication of these poems, originally undertaken, but subsequently abandoned, by H. Meyer, 
had not yet been carried out in July 1914, as far as I am aware. 



A CONTESTED PASSAGE IN ' DE HEINRICO' 105 

Johann Georg Eccard, who, in 1720, edited De Heinrico for the first time', had no access to the 
manuscript itself. He published the poem in his Veterum Monumentorum Quatemio (pp. 49-52) 
with a few additional remarks under the title ' Poema in Henricum Palatinum Rheni,' adding ' ab 
anonymo Lotharingo.' On p. 51 Eccard informs the reader that the poem had been sent to him 
{ex codice membranaceo Cantabrigiensi transmissum). Unfortunately he does not mention when and 
from whom he received it, or when the transcript was made". Eccard's text is most untrustworthy 
and unfortunately contains no statement as to any doubt or difficulty in the reading of the 
manuscript. He prints simply (without any regard to the true division of the lines) : 

Intrans nempe nuntius 
Then Kaisar namoda, 
Herthas, cur sedis, infit, Otdo 
Ther unsar Kaisar guodo 

Hie adest Heinrich 

Bruother, hera Kuniglich 
Dignum tibi fore 
Thit selve more. 

On this most unsatisfactory text the editors of the poem who succeeded Eccard had for a long 
time to base their discussions and emendations. One's first thoughts would be to suspect that 
before 1720 the letters making up the word bruotjher could still be pretty plainly read in the 
manuscript, for it would seem rather unlikely that an Englishman unacquainted with Old German, 
as the rest of the transcript proves him to have been, would have imagined this word. Or are we 
to suppose that it was Eccard himself who pieced together the brt... and her of the copy sent to 
him in order to obtain the word bruother which seemed to make such good sense, and that he did 
not call attention to the real reading of the manuscript'? 

Wackernagel, Lachmann and Schade, who did so much for the improvement and explanation 
of the text*, had not themselves inspected the manuscript ; neither did Hoffmann von Fallersleben, 
who printed Wackernagel's improved version {Fundgruben, I, 340-1), nor did Jacob Grimm, who 
intended to publish the 'leichV endeavour to obtain a new collation. At the end of the sixties 

' See page 30. 

* It is difficult to guess who may have transcribed it for him, together with the eight purely Latin poems which 
Eccard published from the same manuscript. See the table on p. 27. The influence of George Hickes and his friends 
seems to be noticeable. Hickes himself, it is true, had died in 171 5. but one might think of Humphrey Wanley, 
Christopher Rawlinson, and especially of John Smith who published at Cambridge, in 1722, his edition of the Old 
English Bede. The University Librarians were : 1712-18 P. Brooke, B.D., of St John's College, and 1718-21 T. Macro, 
M.A., of Gonville and Caius College. The valuable manuscript had not been long at Cambridge when the poems were 
copied from it for the use of Eccard. It was acquired for the Library, probably soon after 1670, out of Bishop Hacket's 
bequest. See University Library MS. Oo. 7. 52, p. 83, where it is mentioned under No. 213. John Leland, who Just 
before the middle of the sixteenth century made his great antiquarian tour through England, saw it still at St Augustine's 
Abbey, Canterbury, and enumerated some of its contents. See Leland, Collectanea, London, 1770, iv, 7. How much 
longer it remained at Canterbury we do not know ; many of the manuscripts were dispersed during Leiand's lifetime. 

3 Eccard does not inform us on this important point. With regard to the line which he prints ' Hie... adest 
Heinrich,' he says : ' Suppleo : Hie nam adest,' while he has no note on the reading ' Bruother' with which he begins 
the next line. As a matter of fact there is no space whatever between 'hie ' and • adest ' and the next line does not begin 
with ' Bruother' but with 'her.' See p. 13 (fol- 437'^ lines 36-37). 

* See page 31. 

» See Jae. Grimm und Andr. Sehmeller, Lateimsche Gedichte des x. und xi. JahrhunderU, Gottingen, 1838, p. 343- 



io6 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

Jaffe came to Cambridge, went carefully through the part of the manuscript containing the songs, 
and published the result of his labours in a most valuable article in the Zeitschrift fiir deutsches 
Altertkjim\ But, strangely enough, he has not (on p. 451) a single word of doubt as to the correct- 
ness of the reading bruotjher, although he sets right several trifling mistakes that he noticed in 
the first edition of the Denkmdler (1864). This looks as if Jaffd accepted the reading briiotj/ier, 
the importance of which he certainly realised. After him Braune {Althochd. Lesebucli) and Piper 
{Die dlteste deutsche Litteratur bis um das Jahr 1050) printed the text, without apparently having 
had recourse to the original or to a fresh collation of the text. 

When, in the spring of 1885, I went over the same ground again, and could not find any 
distinct trace of letters after the bn, I asked my late friend, Henry Bradshaw, then University 
Librarian and one of the greatest authorities in all matters concerning medieval manuscripts, to 
look with me at the passage. We repeated our readings several times on the brightest days of 
May and June, but neither he nor I could decipher any more. Certainly briwther could not be 
read ; but when I asked Bradshaw to allow me the use of a reagent he felt unable to do so, as he 
was afraid of the damage it might do to the manuscript^. In 1894, as stated before, Robert Priebsch, 
with the permission of the new Librarian, Francis Jenkinson, applied a reagent and was thus 
able to decipher bringt her, while Paul Piper, in 1895, still accepted the old reading bruotker, in 
spite of a tracing of the passage which I had placed at his disposal and in spite of Priebsch's article 
in the Anzeiger filr deutsches Alterthum (XX (1894), 207). In order to enable scholars in Germany 
to judge from autopsy, I twice sent good photographic reproductions of the passage in question to 
several Germanisten (in 1895 and 1902)*. 

To sum up, several scholars who, in former years, were able to consult the manuscript, read 
bruotjher. Priebsch, however, has no doubt that, with the help of the reagent, then applied for 
the first time, he actually saw bringt*. At present only bn can be read for certain, even with the 
help of a fresh reagent and a good magnifying glass. It is scarcely to be hoped that, after the 
repeated treatment with chemicals, the manuscript will ever disclose to our eyes the few strokes 
on which so much depends for the interpretation of the poem. 

In the circumstances, it is difficult to arrive at a satisfactory decision. It cannot be denied 
that the fact that bruotjher, a form not likely to be guessed by an Englishman transcribing the 
poem in the early eighteenth century, was the earliest published reading, and was not challenged 
by scholars so careful as Pertz (1827) and TafK (1868), would seem to speak in favour of adhering 
to the old reading. Again, in spite of Priebsch's able arguments, it seems very doubtful whether 
we ought to admit in so early a poem the form bringt instead of bringif". Braune consequently 
prints bringit in the later editions of his Althochdeutsches Lesebuch. It cannot be doubted that the 
available space would well allow the room required for the longer form bringit ; it will be seen, 
too, from an inspection of the photographic reproduction that some words {sedes, tibi, and others) are 

' See page 32. 

' When I informed Scherer of my unsuccessful attempts he wrote on May 21, 1885, 'Wie schade, dass kein 
Reagens angewandt werden darf. Eine kiinftige Zeit wird es gewiss tun und dann wissen, was da verborgen liegt.' 

' See page 34, note i. 

* Elias Steinmeyer, in Richard Bethge's Ergebnisse und Fortschritfe der Germanistischen Wissenschaft im letzten 
Vierteljahrhundert, Leipzig, 1902, p. 230, claims as 'ein sicheres Ergebnis' that 'die Handschrift (Zeile 7) nicht 
bruothcr, sondern bringt liest.' But see the following observations. 

' Priebsch has now for many years considered bringt to be a mere clerical error instead of bringit. 



A CONTESTED PASSAGE IN 'DE HEINRICO' 107 

more than once put close to the margin, and the same would be possible in the case of bringit. A 
very much greater difficulty, as far as space goes, is caused by the impossibility of allowing a 
complete n to have found room before the ^'. The r in bri is clearly an Old English p, not the 
continental p, and consequently the second smaller stroke which still belongs to the p must not be 
mistaken for an / which would then allow the present ; to be taken for the first part of an n. \\ and 
Yo look very different in heinfiche (1. 31) and thero beiapo piche (1. 32) in the preceding line, 
while the p in heinpich (1. 36) and hep (1. 37) is the same as the p in bpi which stands between 
them. On the other hand, a very faint Old English 5, which I do not remember having seen in 
1885, is now very dimly recognisable in the manuscript and also in the photographic reproduction 
of the passage. But even if one reads an Old English 5 immediately before the /, the difficulty 
still remains that it is hardly possible to find sufficient room for an n before the spread out j. 
After the brt there is clearly only room for one more stroke before the 5 begins. It would be 
amply sufficient to make bru-o, but wou!d not quite suffice for brin-g, even if the « was put quite 
close to the 5I This is quite clearly seen if one looks at the space required for nig in kuniglich 
(1. 37) ; nig would occupy the same space as ing. 

But if most of these points are nearly as much in favour of the reading bruotjher as of bring{i)t 
her, another point, not mentioned by Priebsch, seems to tell against bruotlur and strongly supports 
the reading bringit. If we look at the way in which the words are divided in our manuscript, we 
find in De Heinrico alone the following : faujtor, bejthiu, scojne, tnichejlon, and in the purely Latin 
pieces for instance athanajihos (fol. 434^'* 1. 38), ritklmicam (fol. 435'''' 1. 37), simphojnie (fol. 434'''' 1. 39), 
projphete (fol. 432'"» 1. 25), from which it appears that the division of words is carried out intelligently 
and that the letters in th and ph are never separated. Everywhere in the manuscript a proper 
division of the words, German or Latin, is made by the scribe or scribes. The most instructive 
instance is belthiu, 'both,' which proves that the two letters {th) which denote but one sound were 
not separated by the scribe who himself spoke the voiced spirant sound which once, in 1. 20, he 
rendered by the proper Old English Runic letter y. If he had wished to divide the word bruother, 
he would in all probability have written bruojther. This fact, taken together with Priebsch's 
deliberate statement, seems to me a very strong argument for abandoning the reading bruother, 
and consequently I have printed bringit in the text on page 48 (No. 11, line 7). 

' Attention was first called to this fact in my note printed in the Amtiger fiir deutsckes Alterthum XXiv (1898), 
59 which had been sent to the editors as early as January 1896. 

' The omission of one stroke of the n may, however, well be a scribe's misuke. Compare on fol. 441* L 40 atgilis 
instead of angelus. 

' It has often been pointed out that in the part of the Cambridge Manuscript which contains the 'Cambridge 
Songs' many letters occur indiscriminately, now in the English and now in the continenul form. It is worthy of 
notice that nowhere in the ten folios 432-41 is this more the case than on fol. 437 which contains the 'leich' 
De Heinrico. Again, while there are throughout the folios double forms of a and d and of the capital H, and while the 
Old English /is commonly used, and the Old English r at least is met with on many of the folios, the other Old English 
symbols are exceedingly rare and only occur once in the case of )> and p, and three times in the case of f (in the same 
poem), and nearly ail on the same folio (fol. 437"). The Old English 3 is also of very rare occurrence throughout the 
manuscript except on the very folio (437) on which the other Old English letters occur. This seems to point to the 
fact that this part of the songs was written by a scribe whose habits were different from those of the writer or writers 
of other folios. There are many pages on which no Old English 3 occurs (on others neither an Old English 3 nor 
even an Old English n), while on fol. 437'" 1. 36 guodo is spelt with a continental g, and 1. 40 guodo with the Old 
English 3 ; in 1. 37 kuniglich dignum show the two ^'s, and L 32 riche beuuarode the two r's side by side. See also 
p. 25. 

O2 



io8 THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 

But if from the reading of the manuscript it is no longer necessary to assume that the 'leich' 
De Heinrico dealt with the meeting of two brothers, and that consequently the Duke Henry of 
Bavaria must be Henry I, the rebellious brother of the Emperor Otto I, it does not follow that our 
poem may not for all that celebrate the famous final reconciliation' of the brothers and the solemn 
investment of Duke Henry with great authority at the hands of the Emperor himself On the other 
hand, there is no longer any reason why scholars should not search in the German history of the 
second half of the tenth century for some other important state function at which an Emperor Otto 
showed great honour to a Duke Henry of Bavaria. If the poem does not refer to Otto I and 
Henry I, it can only be taken to refer to Otto IH and Henry IP. Again, it may or may not have 
been composed immediately after the meeting of the princes. Even if it was written much later 
than the events to which it refers, it may still celebrate Henry I, the brother of the Emperor Otto I, 
and may have been composed with a special political purpose'. The views of scholars on these 
points are still widely different, as it is most difficult and precarious to build any theory on the few 
and elusive lines of our poem, especially as this contains several expressions that have not as yet 
been elucidated beyond all doubt*. After careful consideration of the various arguments that have 
been set forth with much ingenuity, though their propounders are sometimes, no doubt, erecting 
imposing edifices on exceedingly unsafe foundations, I do not feel able to propose a new and better 
or a definite solution of the many difficulties that stand in the way of assigning to this fascinating 
poem a date that would be free from all objections. 

On the whole I am inclined to believe, with Meyer and Seemiiller, that the persons whose 
meeting is so graphically described in the 'leich' are the Emperor Otto I and his brother Henry I, 
and that the event referred to is Otto's handing over of the Duchy of Bavaria to Henry in 948 
as a fief to be held under the Emperor. The poem, however, seems to have been written at 
a considerably later date, probably just before the diet of Frankfurt, at the beginning of 985, 
when Henry II, the son of Henry I, definitely made his peace with the young Emperor Otto III, 
and by doing so secured for himself the Duchy of Bavaria. The situation was very similar' to that 
which had existed in 948, and the poem, in which the honour shown and the well-rewarded confidence 
given to Henry I by the great Otto was celebrated in emphatic terms, was perhaps composed by 



* Lachmann's assumption that the 'leich' referred to Otto's meeting with his brother Henry I at Christmas 941 
has now probably been given up by the majority of scholars. It was apparently maintained for the last time by 
W. Wilmanns in the Gottinger Gelehrte Ameigen of 1893, p. 434. 

* See Elias Steinmeyer in the third edition of the Denkmaler, 11 (1892), 106, and R. Priebsch, Deutsche 
Handschriften in England, I (1896), 26-27. Both assume it to refer to the expedition of Henry II to Brandenburg, 
in 992, in order to reinforce the Emperor Otto III. In that case the poem would have been composed at the end 
of the tenth century by someone at the court of Henry III. 

' See the articles by Heinrich Meyer and Joseph Seemiiller enumerated in the Bibliography under the years 1897 
and 1898, also the one by Eugen Joseph (1898) the conclusions of which are, however, less plausible. Seemiiller and 
Meyer (the latter with certain qualifications) are of opinion that the 'leich' celebrates the reconciliation of Otto I with his 
brother Henry and the bestowal upon him of the Duchy of Bavaria as a fief from the Emperor, but that it was not 
written until 984 or 985, and was, perhaps, intended by its author to be sung at the diet of Frankfurt. 

* Such as hera kuniglich (1. 7) and ambo vos equivoci (1. 13). 

' Already Ludwig Uhland remarked : ' Ereignisse und Situationen, die sich so, selbst unter gleichen Namen, 
von Generation zu Generation in der deutschen Kaisergeschichte erneuerten konnten auch in der Sage fortwahrend 
denselben Typus anfrischen).' See his Schriften sur Geschichte der Dichtung und Sage, VII, 581. 



A CONTESTED PASSAGE IN ' DE HEINRICO' 109 

some learned goliard in the service of the Imperial party with the intention to influence Henry 11, 
the son of Henry I, in favour of coming to terms with the Emperor'. 

If we may thus still hold that the political events described in De Heinrico refer to the 
reconciliation of the Emperor Otto I with his ambitious brother Henry, however much the real 
facts may have been disguised by the learned and strongly biassed author of the macaronic ' leich,' 
it is an interesting fact that the historical self-humiliation of Henry and the magnanimity of Otto 
have formed the subject of two modern German ballads. The famous Christmas service of 941, 
at which Henry, escaping from prison, threw himself, in a penitent's garb, at his brother's feet 
and implored his forgiveness, has inspired, nearly 900 years after the De Heinrico, two ballads that 
are very different in style and in the treatment of their subject'. One was written by H. von Miihler, 
who subsequently became Prussian Minister of Education ; this ballad proceeds slowly, in the stately 
metre of the later Nibelungen stanza. The first stanza runs thus : 

Zu Quedlinburg im Dome ertontt Glockenklang, 

Der Orgel Stimmen brausen sum emsten Chorgesang, 

Es sitzt der kaiser drinnen mit seiner Ritter Macht, 

Voll Andackt zu beginnen die keil'ge iVeiketuichl. 

The other poem is one of the finest ballads of the great Swiss writer, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. 
It is called Der gleitende Purpur and is highly dramatic. Its opening stanzas are : 

^Eia Weihnacht! Eta IVeihnacht / ' 
Schallt im Munsterchor der Psalm der Knaben. 

Kaiser Otto lauscht der Mette, 
Diener hinter sick mit Spend' und Gaben. 

Eia Weihnacht! Eia Weihnacht! 
Heute, da die Himmel niederschweben, 

Wird dem Elend und der Bliifie 
Mantel er und warme Rocke geben. 

Hundert Settler stehn erwartend— 
Finer halt des Kaisers Knie umfangen 

Mit den wundgeriebnen Armen, 
Dran zerri^ner Fesseln Enden hangen.,.. 

' It is true that in this case the term hera kumglich causes considerable difficulty, but it seems to me to be less 
great than the difficulties that arise if the meeting between Otto and Henry is taken to refer to the Brandenburg 
expedition of 992. 

» Both are easily accessible in the valuable collection of German ballads by H. Benzmann, Die deutscMe Ballade, 
Leipzig, 1913, 2 volumes. Heinrich von Mahler's Otto 1 und Heinrich is given in Vol. II, 188 ; Conrad Ferdinand 
Meyer's Der gleitende Purpur in Vol. II, 89. The original version of Meyer's ballad did not include the present stanza 
8 {Wehe mir, da du dich krontest, Hat des Neides Natter mich gebissen, Mit dem Lugengeist im Bunde Habf ich 
dieses deutsche Reich zerrissen!) that is so full of meaning. See Gedichte von C. F. Meyer, Leipzig, Haessel, 1882, 
pp. 259-61. In its final form the poem appears in Meyer's Gedichte, 60th ed., Leipzig, 1912, pp. 3"2-'4, and «n 
Benzmann, I.e., and in other anthologies. 



CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1720. J. G. EccARD, Veterum monumentorum quaternio. Leipzig, 1720. No. in, pp. 49 sqq. 

1819. Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, i, p. Ix (reprinted in the 'Kleinere Schriften,' viii, 76). (Directed 
against Eccard's ' unbegreiflichen Missgriff' in dating the poem as late as 1209.) 

1823. B. J. DocEN, in Hormayr's 'Archiv fiir Geschichte, Kunst und Litteratur,' p. 532. (Also contro- 
verting Eccard's dating of the poem.) 

1829. Karl Lachmann, Uber die Leiche der deutschen Dichter des zwolften und dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, 

in the ' Rheinisches Museum,' in, pp. 430-3. Reprinted in his ' Kleinere Schriften zur deutschen 
Philologie,' i, 335-9. See p. 31, note i of the present book. 

1830. WiLHELM VVackernagel gave the first critical text of the poem in H. Hoffmann's ' Fundgruben fiir 

Geschichte deutscher Sprache und Litteratur,' i, 340-1. 
1830-1. LuDWiG Uhland, now in 'Schriften zur Geschichte der Dichtung und Sage,' i, 382, 473-5 and 

vn, 578-81 (differed from Lachmann with regard to the explanation of the historical allusions). 
1833. Karl Lachmann, Uber Singen und Sagen. Paper read in the Berlin Academy on Nov. 26, 1833. 

Reprinted in his 'Kleinere Schriften,' i, 464 sqq. 

1837. F. J. MoNE, in the 'Anzeiger fiir Kunde des deutschen Mittelalters,' Vol. vi, 317. 

1838. Karl Lachmann, critical text in L. Ranke's 'Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reiches,' i, 2, p. 97, with an 

examination of the historical facts referred to by R. A. Kopke. See p. 31, n. 3 of the present book. 

1860. Oscar Schade, Veterum monumentorum decas. Weimar. No. n, pp. 5-8. Reprinted in Heinrich 

Hoffmann's 'In dulci jubilo,' pp. 3 sqq. and 27-29. 

1861. Wilhelm Wackernagel, text in his 'Altdeutsches Lesebuch.' 4th ed. Basel, pp. 109-12. 

1862. Oscar Schade, ' Altdeutsches Lesebuch.' Halle, pp. 60-61. 

1864. Wilhelm Scherer, in the 'Denkmaler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem viii-xii Jahrhundert.' 

Berlin. No. xvni, pp. 25-26 (text), 304-7 (notes). 
1869. Philipp Jaff£, in the 'Zeitschrift fur deutsches Alterthum,' xiv, 451 sqq. 

1872. R. Winter, Heinrich von Bayern. Inaugural-Dissertation. Jena. pp. 76-78. 

1873. Wilhelm Scherer, in MSD*, No. xviii, pp. 27-28 and 324-8. 

1875. Wilhelm Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch. Halle, p. 144. 

1876. Ernst DiJMMLER, Kaiser Otto der GroBe. Leipzig, 1876. p. 120. 

1880. Paul Piper, Lesebuch des Althochdeutschen und Altsachsischen. Paderborn. p. 189. 

1885. Karl Breul, in the 'Zeitschrift fur deutsches Alterthum,' xxx, 187-92. See also MSD', 11, 100 and 160. 

1886. Wilhelm Seelmann, in the 'Jahrbuch des Vereins fiir niederdeutsche Sprachforschung,' xii, 75-89. 

(See also under 1897; and see Joh. Kelle, Geschichte d. d. Lit. (1892), i, 376-7.) 

1887. Adolf Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlande. Leipzig. Vol. in, 

347-8- 

1892. Elias Steinmever, in MSD», No. xviii, i, 39-40 and 11, 99-106 (Scherer's edition revised and enlarged). 

See pp. 32-33 of the present book. 
JOHANN Kelle, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur von den altesten Zeiten bis zur Mitte des xi 
Jahrhunderts. BerUn. i, 194 sqq. and 376-7. 

1893. Wilhelm Wilmanns, in the ' Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen,' p. 434 (in favour of Lachmann's dating and 

against Steinmeyer). 



CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY in 

1894. Robert Priebsch, in the ' Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum,' xx, 207. 

1896. Robert Priebsch, Deutsche Handschriften in England. Erlangen. i, 25-37. 

1897. Rudolf K6gel, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters, i, 2, 126-36 and 

360. 
H. Meyer und Wilhelm Seelmann, in the ' Jahrbuch fur ndd. Sprachforschung,' xxiii, 70-102. 

1898. Karl Breui, in the 'Anzeiger fur deutsches Alterthum,' xxiv, 59 (written at the end of 1895 and 

sent in January 1896). 
Karl Breul, A contested passage in the Old High German poem De Heinrico, in 'The Modem 

Quarterly for Language and Literature,' i, i (March), 42-46. 
Ernst Martin, in the 'Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum,' xxiv, 58 (supporting Stcinmeycr against 

Kegel). 
Joseph Seemuller, Studien zu den Urspriingen der altdeutschen Historiographie. Halle, pp. 61 sqq. 
Et;GEN Joseph, in the 'Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum,' xlii, 197 sqq. 
Paul Piper, Nachtrage zur alteren deutschen Litteratur (Vol. 162 of Kiirschner's 'Deutsche National- 

Literatur,' pp. 221-2). 

1899. EnAS Steinmeyer, in 'Jahresberichte fur germanische Philologie' (for 1898), pp. 73 sqq. (deahng with 

the views of Joseph, Seemiiller, Meyer, Seelmann, Piper). 
E. Mayer, Das bairische Herzogtum im Leich De Heinrico, in the 'Historische Vierteljahrschrift,' 
Vol. II, 517 sqq. 

1900. Elias Steinmeyer, in 'Jahresberichte f. g. Phil' (for 1899), p. 66 (on E. Mayer, and a few references). 

1901. Rudolf KOgel, in Paul's 'Grundriss der Gerraanischen Philologie,' Vol. 11, §§ iio-ii, pp. 126 sqq. 
W. Uhl, in the 'Zeitschrift fiir deutsche Philologie,' xxxiii, 247. 

1902. Elias Steinmeyer, in R. Bethge, Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der germanistischen Wissenschaft im 

letzten Vierteljahrhundert. Leipzig, p. 230. 
Friedrich Holthausen, in the 'Zeitschrift fiir deutsche Philologie,' xxxv, 89 (see E. Steinmeyer in 
the ' Jahresbericht ' for 1902, pp. 63-64). 

1903. G. Ehrismann, in ' Paul und Braune's Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur,' 

XXIX, 118-26 (see E. Steinmeyer in the 'Jahresberichte' for 1903, p. 86). 

1904. Friedrich Holthausen, in the 'Zs. f. d. Philologie,' xxxvi, 483 (see E. Steinmeyer in the 

'Jahresbericht' for 1905, p. 86). 

1905. J. R. Dieterich, in the 'Zs. f. d. Alterthum,' xlvii, 431-46 (see E. Steinmeyer in the 'Jahresbericht' 

for 1905, pp. 85-86). 
1909. Paul Habermann, Die Metrilc der kleineren althochdeutschen Reimgedichte. Halle, pp. 65-77. 

1911. Wilhelm Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, 7th ed., pp. 152-3 and 195-6. 

1912. Wolfgang Golther, Die deutsche Dichtung im Mittelalter. Stuttgart, pp. 70-71. 



112 



A. ALPHABETICAL INDEX* OF 





Manuscript 
Folio 


First words (Chapter V) 


Order 

in the 

MS. 


Pages in JaflK 


Numbers 
in JafK 


Pages in 
Piper 


Numbers 
in this 
edition 


1 

Pages 
in this 
edition 




44ovb 


Ad mensam Philosophic 


36 


489-90 


xxvi 


231 


41 


67 


/*t 


435"" 


Advertite, omnes popuh' 


13 


472-74 


xiv 


217 


22 


56 


K 


436vb 


Audax es, vir iuvenis 


17 


484-87 


xxiii 


220 


39 


66-7 


hi 


434" 


Aurea personet lira 


9 


490-91 


xxvii 


213 


31 


63 




439^'' 


Caute cane, cantor care 


29 


467-69 


X 


226 


23 


57 




441" 


Chordas tange, melos pange ... 


42 


466-67 


ix 


233 


21 


56 


aj 


437'''' 


Diapente et diatesseron 


20 


451 


— 


223 


43 


68 


vfe 


438^^ 


Emicat quanta pietate 


25 


484 


xxii 


225 


9 


46 


^fc 


437™ 


Est unus locus 


19 


a few notes 1451 


— 


222 


29 


62 




44i« 


Gaudet polus, ridet tellus 


40 


465-66 


viii 


232 


18 


54 


t*.. 


432rb 


Grates usie solvimus supreme 


3 


476-79 


xvi 


207 


3 


44-5 


I. 


432" 


Gratuletur omnis caro 


I 


note on p. 461 


not numbered 


206 


7 


46 




441" 


Hec est clara dies 


43 


480 


xviii 


233 


5 


45 


2^ 


438" 


Herig^r, urbis Maguntiensis ... 


23 


455-56 


i 


223 


26 


59-60 




439" and"'' 


Hue attolle genas 


28,31 




— 


226; 228 


46 Y- 


69 


O.? 


438™ 


lam, dulcis arnica, venito 


26 


note on p. 494 


xxxi 


225 


33 


64 


3 


432" 


Inclito celorum 


4 


474-76 


XV 


208 


2 


42-3 




441"' 


In vitis patrum veterum 


41 


469 


xi 


232 


27 


60 


9 


434'" 


ludex summe 


8 


460-61 


iv 


213 


14 


SI 


// 


436" 


Lamentemur nostra, socii, peccata 


16 


458-59 


iii 


219 


13 


50 




44i« 


Levis exsurgit Zephirus 


39 


492-93 


xxix 


231 


32 


64 


II 


434"" 


Magnus cesar Otto 


10 


a few corn 45 1 


— 


214 


12 


49 


•l 


432" 


Melos cuncti concinentes 


a 


461-62 


V 


206 


15 


51-2 


n 


436'!' 


Mendosam quam cantilenam ago 


14 


471-72 


xiii 


218 


25 


59 



* A very useful alphabetical Index of secular Latin Lyrics after the end of the xith century was published, as early as 1872, by 
Wilhelm Wattenbach in Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Allerthum, XV, 469-506 under the title 'Die Anfange lateinischer profaner Rythmen 
des Mittelalters.' Wattenbach excluded from his list all the poems written before 1 100 (thus excluding the ' Cambridge Songs '), also all the 
hymns proper (for which he referred to Mone) and the many learned imitations of classical Latin poetry in hexameters and elegiacs. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SONGS 



H3 



Manuscript 
Folio 


First words (Chapter V) 


Order 
in the 
MS. 


Pages in JafK 


Numbers 
in Jam 


Pases in 
Kper 


Numbers 
in this 
edition 


Paees 
in this 
edition 


441" 


Miserarum est 


45 




— 


233 


38 


65 


437"' 


Nunc almus assis filius 


18 


a fewcorr. 451 


— 


331 


II 


48 


433"*' 


Nunc chorda pange 


7 


481-84 


XX i 


312 


10 


47-8 


44 ri- 


admirabile Veneris idolum ... 


47 


493-94 


XXX 


«34 


34 


65 


439"'' 


mihi deserte 


30 




— 


328 


45 


69 


433™ 


Omnis sonus cantilene 


5 


470-71 


xii 


209 


24 


58 


435"* 


pater optime 


13 


479-80 


xvii 


217 


I 


42 


436"' 


rex regum 


15 


462-64 


vi 


219 


16 


52-3 


441''' 


Pulsat astra planctu magno Rachel 


46 


481 


XX 


233 


8 


46 


440''> 


Quibus ludus est animo 


34 


a few corr. 45 a 


— 


229 


28 


61 


440" 


Qui habet vocem serenam 


3« 


p. 452 note 


— 


329 


17 


53 


433"* 


Qui principium constas renim 


6 


456-58 


ii 


210 


19 


54-5 


441™ 


Rota modos arte 


44 


489 


XXV 


«33 


40 


67 


438vb 


S 


27 


494-95 


xxxii 


235 


35 


65 


437"'' 


Salve, festa dies 


21 




— 


233 


4 


45 


44ovb 


Salve, vite norma 


37 


45»-53 


— 


231 


47 


69 


438''' 


Sponso sponsa karissimo 


24 


464-65 


vii 


334 


20 


55 


440« 


Templum Christi, virgo casta ... 


35 


480-81 


xix 


330 


6 


46 


440™ 


Tempus erat, quo prima quies 


33 




— 


339 


44 


68 


440"'' 


V 


38 


note on p. 453 


— 


331 


37 


65 


441"'' 


Ven 


48 


495 


xxxiii 


234 


36 


65 


438" 


Vestiunt silve 


22 


491-92 


xxviii 


323 


30 


63 


435''' 


Vite dator, omnifactor deus ... 


II 


488-89 


xxiv 


2>S 


42 


67-8 



Four poems are almost entirely erased (Nos. 33, 35, 36, 37 in this edition). 
Otherwise every Latin poem known to him between 1100 and ijoo (roughly speaking) is mentioned in the alphabetical list of first lines 
together with brief indications of the place where it may be found. For the order in which the ' Cambridge Songs ' are written in the 
manuscript, and for the enumeration of the most important older works in which some of them are printed, see the table on page 17. 

B. P 



114 



B. SYNOPSIS OF THE CONTENTS OF 



No. 


Titles 


Transliteration 


Text 


Notes 


I 


Carmen Christo dictum [0 pater optime\ 


Io», 33 


42 


71 


2 


Modus qui et Carelmanninc [Inclito celoruni] 


4^3I 


42-3 


71 


3 


Laudes Christo acte [^Grates uste] 


3^ 24 


44-S 


71 


4 


Hymnus Paschalis [Sa/ve, /esfa dies] 


I4^ 30 


45 


72 


5 


Resurrectio [Ifec est dara dies] 


2 2», 14 


45 


72 


6 


Ad Mariam \Templum Christ i, virgo casta] 


20% 35 


46 


72 


7 


De Epiphania \Gratuletur omnis caro] 


3%' 


46 


72-3 


8 


Rachel \Pulsat astra planctu magnd] 


2 2^ 3 


46 


73 


9 


De dome S. Cecilia Coloniensi \Emicat quanta] 


16*, 12 


46 


74 


lO 


De S. Victore Carmen Xantense \^Nunc chorda pange] 


6^,36 


47-8 


74 


II 


De Heinrico \^Nunc almus assis filius] 


I3^ 27 


48 


75. 102-11 


12 


Modus Ottinc [Magnus cesar Otto] 


8^3I 


49 


75-6 


13 


Nenia de mortuo Heinrico II imperatore [Lamentemur] 


12% 38 


50 


76 


14 


Nenia in funebrem pompam Heinrici II [Judex summe] 


^\t 


SI 


76 


15 


Cantilena in Conradum II factum imperatorem [Me/os cuncti] 


3% 7 


51-2 


76-7 


16 


Cantilena in Heinricum III regem coronatum [0 rex regum] 


lib, 38 


52-3 


77 


17 


Nenia de mortuo Conrado II imperatore [Qui habet vocem serenam] 


19% 7 


53 


77-9 


18 


Gratulatio regine a morbo recreate [Gaudet polus] 


21", 22 


54 


79 


19 


Cantilena in Heribertum [Qui principium constas rerum] 


6% 3 


54-5 


79-80 


20 


Versus ad Popponem [Sponso spotisa karissimo] 


I5^ 23 


55 


80-1 


21 


De Willelrao [Chordas tange, melos pange] 


22», I 


56 


81 


22 


Modus Liebinc [Advertite, omnes popu/i, ridiculum] 


lo'', 29 


56 


81-3 


*3 


De Proterii filia [Caute cane, cantor care] 


17^ I 


57 


83 


24 


De Lantfrido et Cobbone [Omnis soniis cantilene] 


5% 19 


58 


83-4 



THE GOLIARDS SONG BOOK 



"5 



No. 


Titles ■ 


Transliteration 


Text 


Notes 


25 


Modus Florum \Mendosam quant cantiUnam agd\ 


II^ 10 


59 


84-5 


26 


Heriggr [Heriglr, urbis Maguntiensis antistes\ 


15*. 30 


59-60 


85-6 


27 


De lohanne abbate [/« vitis patrutn veterum] 


2I^ IS 


60 


86-7 


28 


Sacerdos et lupus [Quibiis Indus est in animo] 


19b, 16 


61 


87-8 


29 


Alfrid [£si unus /ocus] 


«4*i *♦ 


63 


88 


30 


Carmen estivum [yiesfiun/ si/ve] 


IS*. 6 


63 


88-90 


31 


De luscinia [A urea personet lira] 


8», , 


63 


90-1 


32 


Verna femine suspiria [Levis exsurgit ZepAirus] 


2I», I 


64 


91 


33 


Invitatio amice [/am, dulcis arnica, veni/o] 


i6«, 25 


64 


93 


34 


Magister puero [0 admirabik Veneris idolum] 


22^ 16 


65 


92-4 


35 


Clericus et Nonna (largely erased) 


I6^ 16 


65 


94 


36 


In languore perio (largely erased) 


^2^ 35 


65 


95 


37 


v.... (erased) 


2o^ 24 


65 


95 


38 


Lamentatio Neobule [Miserarum est] 


22», 32 


65 


95 


39 


Admonitio iuvenura [Audax es, vir iuvem's] 


I2^ 40 


66-7 


95-6 


40 


De musica [Aota modos arte personemus musicd\ 


22», 24 


67 


96-7 


41 


De mensa Philosophie [Ad mensam Fhilosophie] 


2o^ 6 


67 


97-8 


42 


De simphoniis et de littera Pithagore [Vite dator] 


9^ »» 


67-8 


98-100 


43 


Diapente et Diatesseron [Diapente et Diatesseron\ 


mN 25 


68 


lOO-IOI 


44 


Umbram Hectoris videt Eneas [Tempus erat] 


«9'. 37 


68 


lOI 


45 


Hipsipile Archemorum plorat [0 miki deserte\ 


1 8b, 10 


69 


lOI 


46 


Argie lamentatio [Hunc ego te, coniunx] 


I9•,I;I8^2s;I7^9 


69 


lOI 


47 


Nisus omnigeni [Sa/ve, vite norma] 


20'', 14 


69 


lOI 



Pa 



C. GENERAL INDEX 



abba, in : lohannes abba 87 

abbreviations 25 

accentual lyric poetry in Germany 36 

admonitio iuvenum 66, 95 

advocatus Romae 76 

agni sponsa 77 

Alanus ab Insulis 97 

Albarus, Paulus 91 

Alcuin 91 

Alfrid 29, 31, 62, 88 

Allen, Ph. Schuyler 28, 34-7, 40, often in the Notes, 

87, 91, 94 
Alleyne, S. F. 98 

alliteration in the Cambridge Songs 31 
alphabetical poem 66, 95 
Araarcius, Sextus 40, 82, 90, 98 
Anglo-Saxon letters in the Manuscript 25 
Anselm of Canterbury 96 
Archipoeta 37 
Archos 93 

Argie lamentatio 69, 101 
armonia, harmonia 99 
Amdt, Wilhelm 77 
Ash Wednesday, poem for 66, 95 
Athesis fluvius 93 
athleta dei, epithet of saints 74 
Atkinson, Robert 73 
authors, names of authors of C. S. known 39, 72, 76, 

77, 86, 90 

Baechtold, Jakob 85 

Baehrens, Emil 79, 89, 90, 92 

baiulare 90; colum b. 93 

baldness, Hugbald's poem in praise of 83 

Bamberg and Henry II 76 

Bartsch, Karl 29, 32, 71, 81, 86 

Bavonis mons 76 

bee, its chastity 89-90 ; bee and Virgin Mary 89-90 ; 

bees and birds 89 ; bee-charm of Lorsch 89 
Benediktbeuern, collection of songs 38 



Benevento, sequences from B. 71 
Benzmann, H. 109 
Berchorius, Petrus 89 

birds, voices of birds 89 ; bees and birds 89 
Bithell, Jethro 37 
Blume, Clemens 71, 72 
Boeckh, August 100 
Bomer, A. 38 
Boethius 98 
Bolte, Johannes 40 
Bradshaw, Henry 32, 106 
Brandis, Christian August 100 
Braune, Wilhelm 29, 75, 96, 103-4, 106, iio-i 
Bresslau, Harry 77, 78, 80 
Breul, Karl 27, 32, 33, 103 sqq., iio-i 
Burana, Carmina B. 37-8, 40, 97 ; Fragmenta B. 28, 
38 

c, stanzas in which every word begins with a c 83 
Caecilia, de domo S. Cecilie Coloniensi 46, 74 
calvus, de laude calvorum 83 
Cambridge Collection of songs : where originally made 

23> 30, 40, 79 ; its importance 36, 39, 40 ; names 

of authors 39, 72, 76, 77, 86, 90 j variety of subjects 

and metrical forms 41 
Canterbury Book 23, 30, 32 
Cantipratanus, Thomas 89 
Capella, Martianus 98, 99 
Carelmanninc, Modus qui et C. 29, 42-3, 71 
Carmina Burana 37-8, 40, 97 
Carolingian Court poetry 35 
Chevalier, U. 73, 74 
Christ, poems on Christ 42 sqq., 71 sqq. 
Christmas play (in the Carmina Burana) 97 
Classical authors, extracts from C. A. in the Cambridge 

Collection 39, 40, 65, 68-9, 95, 101 
clerici vagabandi 35-7 
clericus et nonna 65, 75, 94, 102 
Cobbo, Lantfrid et Cobbo 58, 83-4 
Cologne 74> 79 



GENERAL INDEX 



«'7 



confessio Goliae 37 

Conrad II : made Emperor 51, 76 ; song on his death 

S3. 77 
consonantia 99 : intensa et remissa 100 
contemptus mundi, versus de contemptu mundi 66, 95 
contents of the Cambridge Collection, survey 27-9, 

110-5 
Cook, A. B. 89 
Coussemaker, E. de 75, 92, 95 
cuckoo, Latin poems on the cuckoo 91 

Daniel, H. A. 72, 95 

Deutz, Archbishop Heribert buried at D. 79, 80 
Devil, compact with, see Proterii Alia 57, 83 
dialect of the German portions of the Cambridge 

Songs 23 
diapason 99, 100 
diapente et diatesseron 68, 99, 100 
didactic poems of the Collection 40, 66-8, 95-101 
Dieterich, J. R. 26, in 
Docen, B. J. no 
Dreves, G. M. 72, 74 
Du Cange 85, 89, 98 
Diimmler, Ernst 35, 72, 87, 93, 102, no 
dulcis arnica 92 
Du M^ril, Edelestand 27, 31, 40, and often in the 

Notes 
Dunlop-Liebrecht, ' Prosadichtungen ' 82 

Easter hymn 45, 72 

Ebert, Adolf 35-6, no 

ecbasis cuiusdara captivi 36 

Eccard 27, 30, 105, no 

Ehrismann, G. in 

EUerton, John 72 

emicat, at the beginning of songs 74 

Eneas videt Hectoris umbram 68, loi 

Epiphany hymn 46, 72 

erased pieces in the Cambridge Collection 27, 39, 

65. 94-5. I '3 
estivum carmen 63, 88-90 
Euforbius, Euphorbus 98 
Eugenius, Bishop of Toledo 89 . 

Florum, Modus Florum 29, 59, 83-5 
fons Philosophiae, merisa Phil. 97 
Forstemann, E. 74 



Frauenlyrik 91 

Frederic (I) Barbarossa 37 

Friendship legends, Lantfrid and Cobbo 58, 83-4 

Frohner, Chr. W. 27, 31, and often in the Notes 

Fulbert, Saint F., Bishop of Chartres 86, 90 

Galpin, F. W. 97 

Ganymedes et Helena 93 

Gautier, Leon 74 

George, S. George (athleta dei) 74 

Giesebrecht, W. 35 

Giles, J. A. 83, 90 

Glauning, Otto 40 

Goedeke, Karl 29 

Goliard 35-9 ; familia Goliae 35 ; the Goliard's 

Song book 38-41 
Golther, Wolfgang 94, in 
Graff, E. G. 96 
gramma for grammatica 98 
Greek terms in the Cambridge Songs 97 
Grober, Gustav 86-7, 91 
Gundlach, W. 36-7 
Gunnild regina 78 

h, initial h frequently omitted in the Manuscript 71, 

95 
Habermann, P. 102, in 
Hacket, Bishop Racket's bequest 23, 105 
Hec est clara dies 45, 72 
handwriting of the Manuscript 25 
Haupt, Moriz 31, 37, 88, 92 
Hectoris umbram videt Eneas 68, loi 
Heinrichsleich, De Heinrico 31, 33-4, 48, 75. io» sqq. 
Henrici, Emil 40, 94 
Henry II, songs on the death of the Emperor 50-1, 

76 
Henry III crowned king 52, 77 
Herdringen Manuscript of Latin lyrics 38 
Heribert, Archbishop of Cologne 55, 79, 80 
Heriger 29, 31, 59, 85-6 
Herimannus 78 
Hertz, Wilhelm 29, 35 
Heyne, Moritz 34, and often in the Notes 
Hickes, George 105 
Hipsipile Archemorum plorat 69, loi 
historical poems in the Cambridge Collection 39, 

48-56, 75-8' 



ii8 



GENERAL INDEX 



Hoffmann, Heinrich H. (von Fallersleben) 30-1, 40, 

94, 105 
Holthausen, Friedrich iii 
Homburg on the Unstrut (Thuringia) 88 
Horace, Ode of Horace 65, 95 
Hrabanus Maurus 72 
Hrotsvith of Gandersheim 36-7 
Hubatsch, O. 35 

Hugbald, ecloga de laudibus calvitii 83 
Hugo of Orleans 37 
humorous poems in the Cambridge Collection 39, 

56-62, 81-8 
HOsen, Friderich von HOsen 37 
hymnus: alphabeticus 66-7, 95; h. paschalis 45, 72 

lamblichus 98, 100 

Index: alphabetical index of the Songs of the Cambridge 

Collection 1 1 2-3 ; index of songs as they follow each 

other in the Manuscript 27 
indulgentia 96 
In languore perio 95 
Invitatio amice 64, 92 
lohannes presbyter, I. abba 29, 60, 86; Christi 

pincema 59, 86 
Irish hymns 73 
Isidore 84, 100 
Jupiter et Danae 93 

Jaff^, Philipp 27-8, 32, 39, often in the Notes, 105-6, 

no 
James, M. R. 90 
Jenkinson, Francis 104, 106 
Joseph, Eugen 108, in 

Kelle, J. 70, 82, 84-5, no 

Kemble, J. M. 24, 33, 34 

Ker, W. P. 82-3, 85 

Kogel, Rudolf 28-9, 40, often in the Notes, 94, 102, 

104, in 
Kronungsleich Konrads 77 

Lachmann, Kari 30-1, 37, 105, 108, no 

La Cume de Sainte-Palaye 96 

Laistner, Ludwig 35, 37-8 

lamentations : 1. of a maiden 64, 91 ; 1. of Neobule 

65> 95 ; '• of Rachel 46, 73 ; lamentations of women 

in the Goliard's collection 73 



Landau, M. 84 
Lantfrid et Cobbo 58, 83-4 
Latin lyrics (Medieval) in Germany 35-8 
Leland, John 105 
Lesser, Friedrich 80 
Ixwis, W. L. 10 1 
Lexer, Matthias 96 
Liebinc, Modus Liebinc 29, 56, 81-3 
Liebrecht, Felix 82 
Liersch, K. 40 

ligatures in the Manuscript 104 
littera Pithagore 98 
Lorsch, bee-charm of Lorsch 89 
love-greeting in Ruodlieb 40, 94 
love-songs 39, 40, 64-5, 91-5 ; earliest specimen of 
a German love-song in which German words occur 

94 
Liigenlied, Liigenweise 84-5 
Lundius, Bernhard 38 
luscinia, carmen de luscinia 29, 63, 90 

macaronic poems 36, 38, 40, 75, 94, 102 

Macro, T. 105 

Macrobius 98 

magister puero 65, 92-3 

Manitius, Max 37, 40 

Manuscript : description 23 sqq. ; transcript 26 ; pro- 
bably more than one copyist 25 ; order of songs in 
the Manuscript 27; relaUon to Wolfenbiittel MS. 

36 

Mapes, Walter 36-7 

Martin, Ernst 87, in 

Mary, hymn to the Virgin 46, 72 ; Mary and the bee 

89 
ma ten tetraden 99 
Mayer, E. in 

Medieval I^tin lyrics in Germany 35 sqq. 
Medieval Renaissance in Germany 35 
Meister, Karl Severin 72, 78 
memento mori. Old High German poem 96 
mendosa cantilena 85 
mensa Philosophic 38, 67, 97 
Merihilt 74 
metre of songs 28 sqq., 40; 8 syllables 80; 12 syllables 

94; 15 syllables 73, 79 
Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand 97, 109 
Meyer, H. 34, 102, 104, 108, in 



GENERAL INDEX 



"9 



Meyer, Wilhelm 28, 36-8, and often in the Notes 

mimes 36, 40, 75, 82 

Minnesang: Minnesangs Fhihling 37, 40; some poems 

in the Cambridge Collection are forerunners of the 

German Minnesong 40, 91 
mixed prose 75 
modus 29, 36, 97 ; M. qui et Carelmanninc 29, 42-3, 

71 ; M. Florum 29, 59, 83, 84-5 ; M. I.iebinc 29, 

31, 56, 81-3; M. Ottinc 29, 31, 49, 75, 81-2 
Mone, F. J. 95-6, 1 10 
mons Bavonis 76 
Moorsom, R. M. 72 
Morel, Gall 72 
Miihler, H. von 106 

Miillenhoff und Scherer 27, 29, often in the Notes, 104 
Muller-Fraureuth, Carl 34, 84-5 
mundus, versus de conteraptu mundi 66-7, 95-6 
music : its threefold division 84 
musica : carmen de musica 67, 96 

Naumann, Hans 94 

Naylor, E. W. 98, 99 

Neobule lamentatio 65, 95 

neum-accents, neumatic notation 26, 83, 93-4 

Nicholson, Frank 37 

Nicholson, R. A. 98 

Nicomachus 98-9 

nightingale 29, 63, 90 

Ninck, Johannes 83 

notes to the Goliard's Song book 39, 70-101 ; ab- 
breviations used in the notes 70-1 

Notker 75, 99, loi 

novelistic poems in the Cambridge Collection 39, 
56-62, 81-8 

O admirabile Veneris idolum 65, 92-4 

O Roma nobilis 92-4 

Otfrid of Weissenburg 96 

Ottinc, Modus Ottinc 29, 31, 49, 75, 81-2 

Ottos, Latin literature under the Ottos 35 

pantokrator 97 
Paris, Gaston 36, 82-3 
Paschaiis hymnus 45, 72 
Patzig, Hermann 83 

piersonal poems (poems addressed to important persons) 
39, 48-56, 75-8 1 



Pertz, G. H. 30, 79, 106 

Petrus magister cocorum 86 

Petzet, E. 40 

Pfluger, W. 34, 78 

Philolaos 100 

photographic reproductions of the Songs 34 

Piper, Paul 27, 29, 33, 106, iio-i 

pisa for pisum 85 

Pithagoras : de simphoniis et littera P. 67, 98 sqq. ; 

dextera via note Pithagorice 80, 100 
Platen, August von 82 
poems intended to be sung 73, 79, 81, 83, 87, 88, 

95 
poetae aevi Carolini 35 

Poppo, Archbishop of Treves 55, 80- 1 

popular metres 29 

Postgate, J. P. 101 

Priebsch, Robert 23, 33, 91, 95, 104, 106, 108, iii 

Prien, Friedrich 32 

Primas (Hugo of Orleans) 37 

Proterii filia 57, 83 

punctuation 26 

Pythagoras, see Pithagoras 

Pythagorean ; letter (Y) 100 ; solemn oath 99-100 

quatemarium 99 

queen restored from illness 54, 79 

Rachel, her lament 46, 73; her 'soror improba' 73 

Kawlinson, Chr. 105 

refrain 72, 76, 77, 79, 95 

Reginald of Dassel 37 

Reich, Hermann 28, 71, 76 

Reinaert, the Cambridge Reinaert fragments 32 

religious poems in the Cambridge Collection 39, 

42-8, 71-4 
Renart, roman de Renart 87 
resurrection, hymn on the resurrection 45, 72 
Robert-Tomow, Walter 89 
Rodiger, Max 86 
Ronsch, Hermann 81 
Roman de Renart 87 
rota 84, 96-7 
Ruodlieb 36, 40, 102 

Sacerdos et lupus 29, 31-2, 61, 87 
Sachs, style of Hans Sachs 86 



I20 



salve, festa dies 45, 72 

Salzer, Anselm 34, 91, 96 

Sandys, Sir John 37, 81 

Sapphic ode 88 

Schade, Oscar 29, 30, 105, no 

Schehnenlied, Schelmenstiick 84-5 

Scherer, Wilhelm 29, 31-2, 40, 83, 104, 106, 

no 
Schmeidler, B. 37 
Schmeller, J. Andreas 38, 105 
Schonbach, Anton 36 
Schroder, Edward 74 
Schubiger, Anselm 34, 78 
Schwank 86, 87 

scribe or scribes of the Manuscript 25 
Sedulius 72 

Seelmann, Wilhelm 102, iio-i 
Seemiiller, Joseph 75, 108, in 
sequences 28, 36, often in Notes, 85 
Simeon of Treves 81 
simphonia 99 
Simrock, Karl 72, 90 
Smith, John 105 
snow-child 81-3 
Soltau, F. L. von 77 
Specht, F. A. 35 
spelling, inconsistencies 25-6, 107 
Splettstosser, W. 82 

spring and love, poems on these 39, 63-5, 88-95 
Stanley, Thomas 98—9 

Statius, extracts from the 'Thebaid' 69, loi 
Steinmeyer, Elias 29, 33, often in the Notes, 84, 

104, 106, 108, no-i 
Stockmayer, Gertrud 91, 94 
Survey, tabulated s. of the Songs 27, 114-5 
Swabians : bad reputation 83 ; wiliness 83-4, 86 
Symonds, John Addington 34, 38, 90, 92 

'Thebaid,' extracts from it 69, loi 

Thesis, Tesis fluvius 94 

Thompson, Sir E. M. 104 

transcript of the Manuscript 3-22, 26 

translations of the ' Cambridge Songs ' 34 

Traube, Ludwig 34-5, 40, 92 

Treves, Trier 80 



GENERAL INDEX 

Troubadours 37 



Uhland, Ludwig 75, 77, 83, 108, no 
Una 74 
Unibos 80, 85 
Uoda, Uuoda 74 

Venantius Fortunatus 72, 96 

venia 96 

verna femine suspiria 29, 64, 91 

Verona, poetry and intellectual life at V. 93 

via dextra note Pithagorice 80, 100 

Victor, S. Victor of Xanten 47, 74 

Virgil, extracts from the '^neid ' 69, loi ; expressions 

borrowed from V. 75 
Vitruvius 99 
Vogt, Friedrich 34 

Wackernagel, Philipp 72 

Wackernagel, Wilhelm 29, 31, 86, 105, no 

Waltharius (manu fortis) 36 

Walther von der Vogelweide 37, 76 

Wanley, H. 105 

Wattenbach, Wilhelm 35, 77, 78, 93, 95 

Weinhold, Karl 96 

Werner, Jakob 38 

Willem, Archbishop of Mayence 56, 75, 81 

Williram 75 

Wilmanns, Wilhelm 28, 71, 108, no 

Winter, R. no 

Winterfeld, Paul von W. 28, 34-7, 40, often in the 

Notes 
Wipo 77-9 
Wolf, Ferdinand 96 
Wolfenbiittel Manuscript 36 
Wright, Thomas 31, 33, 36-7, 86 
Wunschbock 85 

Xanten, S. Victor of Xanten, 47, 74 

Y, the Pythagorean letter 100 

zabulon for diabulon, diabolum 81 

Zeller, Eduard 98, 99 

Zurich Manuscript of Latin lyrical poems 38 



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