fORY OF THE UNITED
SEED OF THE RIGHTEOUS
A STORY OF THE UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS
WITH GENEALOGICAL TABLES
REV. W. BOWMAN TUCKER, M.A., Pn.D,
Author of " Sunday School Outlines'' li Springs from
the Pisgah Hills," "Our Ebenezers," etc.
" I have been young and now am old, yet have I not seen the righteous
forsaken nor his seed begging bread." Ps. xxxvii. 2&
JOHN LOVELL & SON, LIMITED, PUBLISHERS.
Entered according to Act of Parliament in the year one thousand nine hundred
and eight by Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, M.A., Ph.D., in the office
of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics at Ottawa.
OF THOSE WHO FOR CONSCIENCE SAKE
HAVE SUFFERED, AND WHO BY
PATIENCE AND CONTINUANCE
IN WELL DOING HAVE
IT is scarcely necessary to offer an apology Sor intrud-
ing upon public notice the contents of the following pages.
Whoever rescues from the ruin of years the primaries of
his country does his nation a perpetual service.
The things herein written have been the products of
enthusiasm the offspring of delight. The romance of
the things has become more and more real as the com-
pilation has proceeded, until the writer has become seized
of the conviction that other people should be afforded the
privilege of sharing in a delight which they could not
but appreciate. There has been no desire to parade either
a person or a family, but the conviction has grown that
through the agency of a family, and in its scattered heir-
looms, there were conserved invaluable germs of national
life, and that matters of more than common importance
ought to be put into some tangible form, capable of pre-
servation for the benefit of future historians.
At 'times, during the writing of Canadian history and
biography, some individual characters have been given
special prominence without much detail regarding their
environment; the effect may be the perpetuation in the
national consciousness of a name and the celebration of
the virtues of a person, without giving sufficient credit
to those who were the special creators of opportunities
for such persons. And the consequences to our own times
mav be disastrous, as the result is, on the one hand to
create an unhealthy desire to be a hero, or on the other
to so minimize the value of common people and ordinary
events as to impress young minds with the idea that these
count for nothing. All of this is to be earnestly deprecated
and faithfully avoided. There is, too, an uplifting charm
in observing how the course of widely separated circum-
stances and far removed times and persons fit into an
apparently designed order of procedure, for which one can
give no adequate explanation except by the recognition
of an intelligent Providence ; and the charm of providen-
tial direction has been so apparent and transcendent in
the story which is now submitted, that the writer could not
be clear, in the light of conscience, and withhold it from
May it not be that heroes are to be found in the ordin-
ary ranks of life? And perhaps it may require a century or
more to show how real and magnificent was their heroism.
Is it wrong to worship heroes? It was to the chagrin of
a party, but was it a sin or a crime that the world was
gone after Chist? He attempted the thing that He knew
ought to be done. He did it though it cost His life; indeed
He did it only by the cost of His life. And He is to-day
the world's greatest hero ; and the world most honors
itself and uplifts itself by recognizing in His divine pur-
poses the highest expression of human nobleness and by
worshipping Him. Should not a nation honor itself by
enbalming the names of its worthies who have humbly
imitated the Christ virtues? To pass on their bright ex-
amples is a kindness which each age may demand of its
people, as the supreme purpose of ages, as of individuals,
must ever be to attain to the best of which human nature
is capable; and the display of human virtues constitutes
a step in the upward process.
In relation to the history of Canada, too, it may be
that the following story has been written none too soon.
Indeed it may be regretted by some that it was not writ-
ten sooner. The old types of pioneer are rapidly vanish-
ing. In place of the people who cleared the forest because
they would live under the Union Jack, there are coming
masses of people who are breaking up the prairie that
they may add to their material gains. Once it was con-
science ; now it is convenience. Once it was duty ; now
it is gain. The ijew population, like newer strata of rock
at the foot of the Laurentians, is already overlapping
the old, and threatening to hide in oblivion its toilsome and
The ambition of the writer has been to place in popu-
lar form a family story that may illustrate and emphasize
the facts already contained in histories, but unfortun-
ately too often limited to reference libraries. Limitation
of space, of course, forbids anything like an exhaustive
treatment of the theme in hand; but the desire has been
to set forth the ideals of life which gave enduring value
to the efforts of the Canadian pioneers of more than a cen-
tury ago, and which are worthy of the most loyal acceptance
by their descendants. Purity of personal charact r, in-
dustry, economy, humility, integrity, faithfulness and gen-
erosity, the fear of God and an abiding appreciation of
righteousness such were the foundation stones on which
rests the Canadian superstructure ; and such elements com-
bined to give contentment, peace, happiness and long life
to those patriarchs of our country who so universally em-
bodied them in their personalties. Looking at all the
circumstances one might very well say "go thou and do
The materials from which the accompanying story has
been drawn are in part found in many volumes already
published, but by far the larger part of the matter has
been gathered from family archives and reminiscences sec-
ured from a very numerous company of correspondents
residing in widely separated sections of Canada and the
United States and even in Ireland. In acknowledging his
obligations to the correspondents who. have aided him, the
writer wishes to make grateful mention of William Miller,
Cork, Ireland; Mrs. W. E. Stu-mph, of Mountville, Vir-
ginia; Mrs. Gallagher, of Alburg Springs i Vermont; Miss
Agnes Bradley, of St. Armand, Que; Mr- J. R. Creed, of
Halifax, N.S: ; Louis S. Miller, of West La Have, N.S. ; E.
R. Miller, of Switzerville, Ont ; Adam Miller, of Huntingdon,
Que; Jno. S. Miller, of Manitou, and Robert Miller, of Snow
Flake, Man. ; Mrs. Dr. Jno. Moore, of Shannonville-, Ont. ;
and Prof. A. D. Smith, LL.D., of Mount Allison Univer-
.sity, Sackville N.B-
The illustrations are intended to be taken as types
showing the influence of environment, while continuing
through generations certain physical similarities.
In securing and compiling 'the genealogical records
the writer does not know that anything so complete has
been attempted in Canada, and he is prone to think that
in time this will 'be regarded as the most valuable part oi
the book as it has been the most laborious part of the work.
St. Johns, One
An Agent in scattering the Seed I
Where the Seed grew 5
Harvesting without Storing. 16
Bearing Another's Burdens 25
The Kighteous Man 33
Carrying the Seed to America. 40
The Seed. -49
Settlement in Nova Scotia. 60
Peter Miller His Descendants and their Influence. 77
In the Land of the Napanee Garrett Miller, U.E.L. . 95
Pioneering . IO 7
Cousins far removed. 142
New Starting Points Old Principles 155
Generations I-III. . 164
Generation IV. 166
Generation V. 169
Generation VI. 177
Generation VII 192
Generation VIII. 207
Generation IX 215
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Portrait of Author .Frontispiece
Philip Embury. 43
Catherine Embury Fisher. 43
Vrews of Bridgewater N.S
Little Dutch Church, Halifax 63
St. Peter's, West La Have 7O
"Glen Allan" . - 73
J-ean R. Miller. 74
Methodist Church, Philipsburg 89
George and Nicholas Miller. ........ 9 2
A. Dunham Citizen. 93
First Methodist Church in Canada 99
Horseless Carriages. 107
"Maple Lawn". . 116
Switzervillt: Chapel. 118
Three Generations. 124
Calvin Woo'Ster Miller 126
Father and Daughter. . 127
Cephas Hurlbert Miller 126
Oldest Types. 130
Missisquoi (Brothers. 132
A Face from Texas- . 133
A Parsonage Group 140
Improved Architecture. 149
East and West 1-55
Department of Agriculture, Canada,
Ottawa, Oct. isth, 1907.
Rev- Bowman Tucker.
St. Johns P.Q.
Dear Mr. Tucker,
Replying to yours of the 8th, I have been very busy so that I
could not work out the answer to all the questions. I took them
to my sister-in-law. Mrs Roswell Fisher, who has taken a great
interest in the family connections, and asked her to make out a
reply to them. She is working it out, getting some of the imme-
diate connections in Montreal to aid her. I think in a very short
time she will have answers to most of your questions and will
send them to you. I will also send her this letter so that she can
add the information you refer to.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) SYDNEY FISHER.
Dictated on train to Montreal, transcribed at Ottawa.
Rev. Dr. Tucker,
St. Johns. P.Q.
Dear Doctor Tucker.
In reply to your circular of August 26th, offering for sale copies
of your book on the History of the Palatines, I would be very
glad to .put my name down for two copies. As soon as they are
ready you can forward them to my address with the bill, when I
will be glad to remit.
With best regards.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) SYDNEY FISHER.
Office of the Minister of Justice, Canada,
Ottawa, Aug. 3oth, 1907.
I recently received your circular as to the publication of your
researches into the History of the Palatines and 1 of -the Miller gen-
ealogy, and as I should certainly like to have a oojpy of the book,
I s-cnd herewith a postal note for $2.50 as my subscription.
I am very glad to hear that you are .preparing the family history
you speak of, and in this work, as in every other in which you
may be engaged, I wish you heartily all possible success.
(Signed) A. B. ALYESWORTH.
Oct. 25th, 1907.
Rev. W. Bowman Tucker,
Sometime ago I received a card from you calling attention to
the book, "The Seed of the Righteous." Absence from home has
delayed my reply I can assure you of my interest in
this addition to our Canadian literature- As the Missisquoi His-
torical Society has ordered a copy of the work, I shall read it with
great interest. The sketches that you have already contributed to
the "News" have won the admiration and gratitude of the public.
But alas! "Bystander" says, "Genius is always in debt or used to
be." However wishing you good courage and prosperity-
(Signed) S. A. C. MORGAN.
West La Have
Oct. 25th, 1907.
Dear Mr. Tucker,
Enclosed please find postal note for $2.50 our subscription for
your book which we are most anxious to see.
Believe us, yours sincerely,
(Signed) LOUIS & JENNIE MILLER.
John W. Saxe, Attorney and Counselor at Law.
75 Devonshire Building, 16 State Street,
Boston, Oct. i8th, 1907.
My Dear Dr. Tucker.
Find herewith my subscription to your proposed book, which
1 trust -you will be able to publish.
For some years I have been studying the history of the Ger-
mans in America- Mr. Noyes' article, "The Germans of Missisquoi"
interested me, as my great grandfather John Sachse (Sax) followed
the Dutchess county, N. Y., migration to Canada. The family also
became ardent Methodists and has among its members four or five
Methodist preachers and also one Catholic priest of St Romuald
The title of pour book is a good one for a romantic novel. May
I say that for a historical work it is somewhat misleading in that
it gives no expression of the scope for real subject of what I am
sure will be an interesting, historical contribution. "The Germans
of Canada and their Colonization," would express the scope would
I have a correspondent in J. F- Sachse, of Philadelphia, who is
a leading authority on early German history and whose works are
scholarly and historically valuable. I hope you have seen them.
With personal regards.
(Signed) JOHN W. SAKE-
Oct. 2nd. 1007.
Rev. Dr. Tucker.
We take great pleasure in becoming a subscriber for your n r ew
publication, "The Seed of the Rightous," for the benefit of the
Missisquoi County Historical Society. The original .poems 1 en-
closed in volume returned have read with great interest.
(Sign-d) CHAS- P. MOORE.
In furnishing valuable information regarding the descendants
of Catherine Embury Fisher, Mrs. Roswell C. Fisher, of 660 Sher-
brooke Street, West, Montreal, appends the following certificate
which shows how carefully, in some families at least, family records
have been kept.
"Copied from two manuscripts in Father's handwriting, Mont-
real, ist. Feb., 1821.
"(Signed) JOHN FISHER.
"Son of Duncan Fisher."
"The above is a copy of a list made by and sent from Mr. John
"(Signed) JOHN MACKENZIE.
"Montreal, Jan., 1835."
"The above copied by Mary Field Fisher, ne Ritchk. grand-
daughter of John Fisher.
"Montreal, Oct.. 1907. "
The records thus copied are to be found in the genealogical por-
tion of this book.
THE CAMDEN COLONY
AN AGENT IN SCATTERING THE SEED
"Surely the wrath of men shall praise thee. Ps. Ixxvi. 10
WHEN Louis XIV. was seeking to dominate Europe he
little thought how much he was doing for North America,
and for Canada in particular. It was no more possible for
him to foresee how his vain purposes would serve the
substantial good of millions than for Pilate and his
associates to anticipate through the crucifixion of Christ
the rise and splendid triumph of Christianity.
Of Louis, whose reign extended from 1643 to 171 5
a period of seventy-two years, it has been said that he
was the illumining sun of all the courts of Europe m
his day. Such a testimony gives some small indication
of his social position. Of his character it is said that
without exception he was the most egoistic and unscru-
pulous, the most ambitious and vain, of his day. The
smallness of the man was shown m the pompousness of
his manners and dress. To appear higher than others,
and to ibe able to look upon them with disdain gave him
much satisfaction, and for this purpose he wore shoes
with extraordinary high heels. He clothed himself in
laces and velvets, in diamonds and gold, that he might
gain the flattery of the weak, or might overawe by a
seemingly majestic deportment, which was only of the
shop-window sort. To his nation he brought the mis-
2 THE CAMDEN COLONY
fortune of an example which was selfish and irreligious,
extravagant and pompous, resulting in national im-
poverishment through superficial living and costly man-
ners. He has been called "Great," but his greatness
appears to have been only of the materialistic and sen-
suous sort. He has been designated "a bigoted, narrow-
minded, common-place man," and the course of his history
appears to bear out the judgment; for, breadth of view,
noble judgments, humane enterprises, generous plans for
the ennoblement of mankind, he appears to have been
utterly unacquainted with.
In his day Louis appears to have stood as the fore-
most royal exponent of Roman Catholicism. Yet one
searches in vain to find that this was from conscientious
conviction, and not rather from a purely selfish desire to
gain power by the use of any promising supports which
he might gather about him.
Until the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661 Louis
was merely a secondary person, but thereafter for fifty-
fcur years Louis XIV. was the "most absolute ruler in
Christendom. ' And the Church of Rome knew how to
use him. Voltaire once intimated that Mazarin held in
his chests two-thirds of the coin of the nation. To furnish
himself with this, and to enrich his friends with money,
rubies, emeralds and diamonds, he laid his hold upon the
king with a grip which he never relaxed until death com-
After the death of the Cardinal, Louis served the
church; but he served the church in serving himself. His
ambition gratified itself in this self-service. He was
a Roman Catholic. But first of all he was Louis
the King. At the Cardinal's death Louis was twenty-
three years of age, and had been king for eighteen years
years in which the Cardinal had been his tutor and
master, cnly, however, to develop religiousness out of
existence, and to establish in the young king's nature a
great greed of power.
Ax A<;KXT ix SCATTERING THE SEED 3
Two ministers came into the councils of Louis
Colbert, Minister of Finance, and Louvois, Minister of
War; one seeking diligently to reduce the national extra-
vagances and increase the revenue, the other counselling
useless wars which kept the treasury drained. Rut Louis
was fond of war. He attacked Spain in 1665, startling
Europe by his success. In 1672 he sought to subdue the
Dutch. After six years of war, in which Louis failed,
a treaty was formed at Nimwegen in 1678.
Eight years of peace followed, during which the
States of Europe gradually arrived at a conviction of the
necessity of mutual organization in the interests of self-
defence against the aggressive Louis. Accordingly, in
1686, the Augsburg League was formed, consisting of
the princes of Austria together with Spain, Holland.,
Denmark, Sweden, Savoy and England. The election of
William, Prince of Orange, to the throne of England as
William III. in 1688 put him in the forefront as the leader
of the forces standing in opposition to the pretensions and
ambitions of Louis.
The war which represented the antagonism of the
Protestant and Catholic forces of Europe began in 1688,
and after nine years was concluded by the Treaty of
Ryswick, in which Louis was obliged to recognize William
as the lawful King of England.
Three years elapsed, and again Europe was disturbed
by premonitions of war, of the effect of which the present
story will have more to say. This war afforded another
instance of the covetous ambition of Louis. Forty-two-
years earlier, that is in 1659, Louis had entered into the
Treaty of the Pyrenees, between France and Spam, by
which among other things it was agreed that Louis should
marry Maria Theresa of Spam, but that h-e should
renounce all claims to the Spanish throne which might
arise in consequence of his marriage. In 1700, however,
on the death of Charles II. of Spain, Louis put forward
a claim to the Spanish throne on behalf of his grandson,
4 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Philip, Duke of Anjou. Against this claim there appeared
that of the Archduke Charles of Austria, second son of
the emperor. The States of Europe, alarmed lest France,
gaining possession of Spain, should secure predominant
power in Europe, organized with the co-operation of Eng-
land in the Grand Alliance. There ensued the War of
the Spanish Succession, lasting for twelve years. It is at
this point particularly thait Louis XIV. is connected with
the heroes of our story, and we must now turn to consider
their location and character.
WHERE THE SEED GREW
"Where the holiest of memories pilgrim-like throng "
WHEN the Treaty of Utrecht was drawn up in 1713, it
stipulated that the Rhine should be the eastern boundary
of France. This in part seems to have been a recognition
by the treaty making- powers of the importance of the
country on the east bank of the Rhine, and its right to
some sort of treaty protection. Louis XIV. fully recog-
nized the strategic importance of the Rhine as a water
way between nations, and especially that of the fortress
of Strasburg on the Rhine, which he captured and retained.
To the banks of the Rhine one must come for the
story of the German Palatinate, which fcr a time embraced
the country on both banks of the river, but was finally
restricted to the eastern side. To the Lower Rhine pro-
vince, bounded on the south by Switzerland, on the west
and north by France, and on the east and north-east by
the Upper Rhine and Germany, belonged the home of the
unpretentious, modest, but illustrious people, whom Louis,
unable to appreciate, exiled, to be in the providence of
God established as bone and sinew in the upbuilding of
The cities of the locality are enumerated as including
Strasburg, Mannheim, Oppenheim, Ladenburgh, Wein-
heim, Heppenheim, Durlach, Bruchsal, Rastadt, Germ-
sheim, Baden, Bretten and Heidleberg; the latter, famous
fcr its university, was its capital. Worms and Spires, of
historic celebrity, were at the eastern boundary ; at trie
junction of the Neckar and the Rhine was Phillipsburg.
The political history of the locality dates back to
6 THE CAMDEN COLONY
the thirteenth century. In 1294 it became detached from
Bavaria, to which it had long 'been allied, and received
its status as an 'electorate," which it exercised until, at
the beginning of the nineteenth century, it again became
a part of Bavaria, next to Prussia, the most powerful of
the German States.
Originally the G erman States were governed by
Dukes, and these in turn came together to elect one of
their number as chief or king; whence arose the elective
character of the old German Empire. The powerful Dukes
formed the College of Electors, and so important was
that office considered, that the title of "Elector" superseded
that of duke in such well-known cases as the Elector of
Saxony, the Elector of Bavaria, and, in later times, the
Elector Palatine, and the Elector of Hanover.
In an interesting volume by an English writer, and
published in 1836, it is said, "Nothing can exceed the
beauty of the country from Darmstadt to Heidleberg;
we pass along the Berg-Strass (via Montana), which takes
its name from winding at the base of a chain t}f hills, the
road itself being one of the most level imaginable. The
mountains of the Odenwald, occasionally crowned by
some mouldering ruin, and crowned with orchards, vine-
yards, forests and fertile fields, rich in every species of
agricultural production, are spread out for the amusement
of the traveller; and few scenes will live in his recollection
more vividly than the valley of the Neckar."
At an early period in the history of Europe this hill
country, now smiling under the hand of modern industry,
had been occupied in its primeval condition, first -by the
Celt and then by the Teuton. Coming from the far east,
the Celt, as his name implies, was in search of pleasant
fields and low-lands; the Teuton on the other hand loved
the hills, the mountains, the strong-holds, he was at home
with difficult things. The Teuton grew strong by hard-
ship. He sought conflict and conquest. The Celt moved
on and the Teuton remained. "Physical circumstances
WHERE THE SEED GREW 7
reach far in their effects, not alone upon the organs of
speech, but upon characters as well. It is not too much
to assert that the profound differences which are manifest
between Geman races on the one side, heavy, bent on
fighting, prone to drunkenness and gluttony, and the
Greek and Latin races on the other, ready, flexible, in-
quisitive, artistic, loving conversations and tales of
adventure arise chiefly from the difference between the
countries in which they are settled. Religion to the
Greek is an epic; to the Teuton, a tragedy." This reflec-
tion of a modern writer, as regards the effect cf environ-
ment may in part be true. Observation and ex[x?nence
confirm the opinion that environment tends to perpetuate
certain aptitudes. On the other hand the fact cannot
be denied that some aptitudes refuse certain environments,
drift away from them, and seek until they find those
which are more congenial. The Teuton comes in where
the Celt moves out. Allowance must be made fcr the
exercise of the human potentiality, which recogni/.es the
difficulties of an environment, adopts and improves upon
"In dress, government, occupation and religion the
Teuton and Celt presented a strong contrast to each other.
The Teuton garb was a loose, rude tunic, pinned round
the neck with a them. In youth he wore an iron collar
which was thrown aside when he achieved the distinction
of killing a man. Then, too, the young men c f some of
the fiercest tribes the Batavians of the Rhine for ex-
ample cut their hair and shaved their heads for the first
time. The Gaul or Celt on the other hand loved bright
and many colored clothes, and hung gold chains on his
brawny a(rms or around his neck. The Teutonic govern-
ment was democratic the chief power resting with the
great assembly of the people, which was convoked at the
time of full moon; the government of the Celt was essen-
tially aristocratic, clanship being its leading feature.
War was the trade of the Teutons; tillage and pasturing
THE CAMDEN COLONY
were the favorite employments cf the Celt. And while
the Celts clung long to Druidism, the Teutons, acknow-
ledging one supreme God, were easily prepared to receive
From such a picture from such primitive conditions,
the materials have been drawn, out of which to construct
modern kingdoms, build up modern armies, promote
modern civilization and. commerce and propagate modern
Christianity. And from such primitive Teutonic begin-
nings came the children of the Rhine. Warriors they
were, but they fought not alone with men ; they subdued
the hillsides, learned agriculture, and in time became the
toiling, tax-paying, Protestants of the Rhenish Palatinate.
From the beginning they were inured to hardship.
Leaders became masters ; the more adventurous became
predominant. The prince that drew power to the castle,
laid the burdening hand upon the peasant. Taxes were
levied. In their political relationships the princes were
frequently .at war with each other, or sought the increase
of their power by conquests achieved in foreign states.
And while the princes fought the peasants suffered. If
the common people were called upon to take up arms only
in times of general and extensive warfare, they neverthe-
less endured burdens at all times and were kept poor by
the ruling class. These small farmers of the hillsides,
enjoying it might be more personal freedom than those
of eastern Bavaria similarly situated, were nevertheless
ground to the dust with taxes and dues of all kinds.
They loved their freedom; their independence was a
priceless possession. With the exactions of state oppres-
sing them, they yet knew no servile spirit, but increasing
in the courage of a plain but sturdy manhood, they un-
complainingly endured the burdens which in the end
appeared to minister to their own political liberties."
Since early feudal times it had been the custom for the
peasant to pay his rent in grain, flax, fruit, cattle, poultry
or eggs. He also gave, in accordance with a practise
WHERE THE SEED GREW 9
caillcd soccage-service, his own labor and that of his
horses to his lord at stated times. Every change in the
peasant's family birth, marriage, or death every season
of the year, every part of his dwelling, or his little farm,
had its own tax, and all must be paid ; so bitterly was
the German boor oppressed." Yet under all this the
Teuton was .a staple factor in the country. Through the
generations his love of the Fatherland knew no dimin-
ishing ; rather it increased. Living under these conditions,
so surely conducing to poverty and so certainly exacting
from the toiler his best efforts, the German peasant
found it possible to pride himself on little else than his
self reliance. The love of life was strong. The Teutonic
will became well pronounced.
The strenuous life-struggle produced its effect ; the
heart sought its consolation in other than the things of
earth. It had its speech and would be heard. Com-
munion of spirit becomes more precious amid the dis-
couragements of this world ; and this communion is
brought about, it may be, by the hymn and religious
exercise, or perhaps by songs, proverbs and jests. In those
days it was by the latter means that the embittered heart
of the peasant spoke out. Ultimately the nobler instincts
of the soul awakened to their exercise, and the religion
of Jesus Christ alone seemed the strong thing to fit in
and harmonize with the demands of a consciousness that
takes life seriously. The great undertakings of life
reveal to the soul its own great relationship and bring it
into closer communion with God.
Thus it was that a hundred and twenty-five years
before Louis was born German Protestantism, arising in
the neighborhood of the Palatinate, found amcng the
peasant folk a hearty and prolonged response To a
people with personality well developed by the struggle,
of life a religion of freedom appealed effectively and
found ready acceptance. Where the conditions of life
demanded self -effort, a religion of direct access to God
io THE CAMDEX COLONY
without priestly intervention found fruitful soil. A
religion affording a personal experience met the require-
ments most readily of a people whose self-consciousness
was well pronounced. And because of the strenuous life
they lived the peasants would readily appreciate a
religion which brought consolation into personal ex-
perience, and ministered strength for the arduous engage-
ments of each day. Here it was that the seed of the
Reformation found a favorable and fertile soil. If not
a literary people, these Palatines were a reflective and,
in a sense, a solitary people, who were capable of keeping
things in their hearts, and were more likely to prove
loyal to their convictions than the more cultivated and
society loving princes, who too often were politic and
time serving. Amcng the farmers of Galilee rather than
the Pharisees of Jerusalem Jesus most effectively planted
the seeds of His Kingdom !
"Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters." Isa- xxxii. "O.
LIKE the plash, plash at the sea shore, repeated almost
monotonously, yet announcing the coming of the heavy
swell, so did reformatory movements in Europe precede
and anticipate the times of Martin Luther.
Thus, more than three hundred and twenty-live years
before Luther's work became prominent, Europe felt the
first dim intimations of a coming revival ; tins was
through the life and teachings of the Waldenses. The
movement originated in southern Europe, in Lyons, from
whence, as if the waters of the Mediterannean were pro-
phetic in their northward sweep, it too surged among the
hills of the north. A wealthy and distinguished citizen
of Lyons was Waldensis, who, living in the latter part
of the twelfth century, became particularly /.ealou.s in
his search after and propagation cf Biblical truth. By
a simple and natural process he rapidly approached a
consciousness of diviner life than had been commonly
exhibited, at least in common life. First he secured a
translation of the Bible into the language of Ins people,
Then finding the value and usefulness of guides in help-
ing him to understand the Scriptures, he secured and
circulated extracts from the Fathers. His readings were
followed by increasing spiritual yearnings after the divine
life, and the fuller imitation of Christ. Tins was follow-
ed by voluntary poverty and street preaching. Alarmed
by this new movement, the Church at length forbade it.
The Waldenses refused obedience and were expelled irorn
12 THE CAMDEN COLONY
the city. Thereafter, taking their wives and children
with them, and dressed as laymen following various
trades, they penetrated Europe as far as Austria, into
northern Italy, Switzerland, and by the banks of the
Rhine, being everywhere gladly received as the poor
Waldenses of Lyons. Their object being a mission car-
ried on by open air preaching, and their humble ways of
livmg comporting well with their teaching, their influence
on the peasant life was considerable and lasting.
Nearly one hundred and fifty years after the rise
of the Waldenses, John Wycliffe, called the Morning Star
of the Reformation, was born in North Yorkshire in Eng-
land As a preacher possessed of liberal culture, he
exercised great influence and became the dread of the
church councils. In his preaching he used the Bible;
indeed it was his treasure house from whence he drew
his materials in abundance. Using his pen, he wrote
many short and simple English tracts by which His
doctrines were spread all over England. Here again the
right and potency of truth to spread became apparent.
The Church feared Wycliffe and condemned him and his
writings. But no man stops the wind by forbidding it
to blow ; "the wind bloweth where it listeth." And
Wycliffe s doctrines tock root on the continent. Like the
teachings of the Waldenses, the teachings of Wycliffe
also crossed the Rhine, gave evidence of their vigor, and
reached in time Bohemia.
A third person concerned in the laying of religious
foundations in Europe was John Hus, born in Bohemia,
not far from Bavaria, in 1369. For fifteen years he was
a contemporary of Wycliffe, and for thirty-one years after
Wycliffe's death he would seem to have carried forward
in eastern Europe work that Wycliffe began in the west.
Wycliffe has been pronounced the first important person-
ality among the Reformers. John Huss was at least a
worthy second. The influence of Wycliffe's teaching
upon him was recognized by his age and acknowledged
SEED SOWING 13
by Hus, although he denied holding some of the English
Reformer's views. Hus "was not an original, creative
mind. As a thinker he had neither speculative talent nor
constructive faculh'." "Nor was he by nature a strong
character, twice hardened and keen as steel. Rather he
was a fee/ble and tender spirit, more sensitive thain
designed for heroic deed. But with his tenderness there
was combined moral tenacity, indomitable constancy and
inflexible firmness." "Seldom have the power of con-
science and the imperial strength of a faith rooted in
Christ asserted themselves in so commanding and heroic
a manner." It is remarkable that when in 1519, a hun-
dred years after the death of Hus, the Bohemian Utra-
quists sent an encouraging message U> Martin Luther,
accompanying the message with the works of Hus, the
German Reformer was surprised, to find that his own
doctrines were taught therein. So potent was the in-
fluence of Hus in his day that the Church considered him
exceedingly dangerous. One of the great crimes winch
history occasionally records is that committed by the
Church at the Council of Constance in 1415, when it
executed its own order and burned John Hus at the stake
a martyr for the truth of Jesus Christ. His ashes were
thrown into the Rhine and carried forward to the ocean
type of the course of the truth which he preached. His
friendship for Wycliffe had been freely avowed; and the
same Council which condemned him to the stake ordered
that the bones of Wvcliffe should be taken up and cast
far out of consecrated ground. In 1428 this order was
obeyed. The bones were burnt, the ashes were cast into
the Swift, the Swift carried them into the Avon and
thence out to sea. So does truth spread.
Thus by the Waldenses.and the combined labors and
teachings of Wycliffe and Hus Europe was from time
to time evangelized. The reformation doctrines became
matters of common notoriety. The partyism that arose
became most pronounced. From 1420 to 1425 Catholic
14 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Germany issued in large forces in opposition to the Hus-
sit-e movement in Bohemia.
Truth never dies. At times it disappears from view,
is apparently buried in rums like the book of Moses in
the temple of Josiah's day, but only at length to recover
its former ascendancy with increased prestige.
Thus a hundred years of truce in which the doctrines
of the Bible seemed silenced under the arrogance a,nd
domination of the Church and then in the providence of
God .arose Martin Luther. Then it was that the fires of
Biblical truth that had been bursting out first to the far
south, then to the west, and later in the east, came now
to close quarters, and actually became the possession of
the Palatines of the Rhine. Their characters solitary,
like the mountains, reflective, self-contained, strong and
resolute, were fitted to receive and retain the doctrines of
liberty, even as the free and full consolations of the
Reformation faith were adapted for just such life.
Luther gave them the Bible in their own tongue an in-
valuable treasure. He taught them to sing hymns instead
of ballads. Their conversations became tinged with
religious interests. They accepted the truths of the Re-
formation not as matters of controversy, but as questions
of conviction, and retained no doubt as to the validity
of the Lutheran positions, or the falseness of the attitude
of the Church of Rome. Tne seed which had been ger-
minating for centuries among these Teutons was brought
to ripening conditions through the nearness of Spires
and Worms. The Palatines of the Lower Rhine became
It has been sometimes said that these German prin-
cipalities were successively Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinistic
and Lutheran. In part this is accounted for by the early
doctrine of the state arising from conditions of feudalism
.-"the religion of the prince is the religion of the subject"
a condition from which the people emerged by virtue of
their sturdy character and the spread of Biblical know-
SEED SOWING -15
ledge. And in the final stages, the presence of the
evangelical spirit, and the ultimate assertion of the
national spirit account for the acceptance of Calvinism
on the one hand, and the return to Lutheranism on the
other. Herein also lies the guarantee of an attachment
for one hundred and eighty years to Lutheran principles
and doctrines preceding the age of Louis. In all of this
no human mind was planning: but God was there. Often,
undoubtedly the seed fell by the wayside; but some fell
on good ground, and brought forth righteousness. The
Bible in English, in the vernacular of France, of Bohemia
and of Germany was the good seed, received gladly by
multitudes of the common people; and it brought to them
the light that did not easily disappear.
HARVESTING WITHOUT STORING
"He that goeth forth and weepeth." Ps- cxxvi. 6
THAT persecution for conscience sake was the lot of the
Waldenses, of John Wycliffe and his disciples, of John
Hus and those who followed him has a ] ready been sug-
gested. The same might be said of Martin Luther and
those who identified themselves with him. And regret-
fully, it may even have to be added in fairness that the
reformers themselves were not always free from the charge
themselves of being persecutors, so much was persecution
the spirit of those years.
Did the peasants of the Palatinate ever suffer perse-
cution ? The literature that might afford an answer to
the question which has of late been raised in historical
society meetings does not appear to be very abundant. It
is unfortunate for the Palatines that they were not a
literary people themselves; nor did they appeal to the
imagination and enthusiasm of the literary people of
their age. The times were probably too sombre. The
questions for a century and a half were so largely religion
or war war was carried on as a matter of religion, and
religion was propagated in the spirit of war that a lite-
rature giving prominence to the humble peasant life of
the hills and the black forest scracely found an occasion
That it was an ardent age must be admitted, in view
of the personality of Martin Luther. "Whoever imprints
apparently, a new character on an age, is himself a
creature of that age. Formed first by circumstances, he
HARVEST WITHOUT STORING 17
reacts upon them, paying with interest what society has
given." There would have been a Reformation, though
probably later, without the assistance of Martin Luther.
That an ardent people, in an age of intense devotion to
opinion, coulcl have escaped tne persecutions of the age
is c? friori out of belief.
With little or no documentary evidence coming t<> us
directly from the Palatines themselves, it is fortunate
that for two hundred years past, tradition has per-
sisted in its assertions; and this tradition being in the
hands of descendants of the Palatines, separated by the
wide stretches of the ocean, unknown to each other, and
without lines of communication, it must be agreed should
be credible. This tradition found on both sides of the
Atlantic refuses to us any other explanation for the exile
and wandering of the Palatines than that they were
persecuted because of their Protestant principles. "Our
fathers," say the traditions, "were Palatines of the Rhine
driven out by persecution from Catholic rulers." True,
one of the traditions claims the fathers as Huguenots;
against which there is altogether tco much evidence to
permit of entertaining the supposition of French origin :
but it leaves intact and even strengthens the basal supposi-
tion of religious persecution. It is unfortunate that no
old German Bibles belonging to these Palatines are to be
found; but Bibles belonging to families of two hundred
years ago would be a rare treasure under any circumstance,
and particularly so in the case of people wno had to flee
for their life. A writer of a century ago explains the dis-
appearance of the Bibles by describing the habit of bury-
ing them in the graves of the old people as in time they
passed away from their earthly troubles. In some in-
stances, it is also said, they presented them as keepsakes to
German soldiers whom they chanced to know.
But when and where was the persecution? And this
question we consider has to be answered cumulatively.
First of all the acceptance of Protestant principles
is THE CAMDEX COLONY
brought the Palatine peasants into conflict with the poli-
tical principle by which for years the German States had
been governed. If the religion of the prince is the religion
of the people, it wculd readily appear that when the prince
was a warm exponent of the Catholic faith the attitude
of the Protestants towards the Church would be construed
into disloyalty and insubordination to the prince. Hence
the reprisals of the ruling classes, which have so indelibly
impressed themselves en the tradition already quoted as
"persecution from Catholic rulers.' 1
When, under the fostering care of Rome, the Jesuits
arose as the society that would recover for the Church
the ground which had been lost through the work of
Martin Luther and his co-laborers, Europe came to pre-
sent the spectacle of people attempting to promote religion
by means of warfare.
Fairness to the truth forbids that one should char-
acterize the first Jesuits as always bad/ History, which
credits Lutheranism with promoting much learning, has
recorded that "among the European Jesuits were many
fervent spirits actuated by the purest zeal ; many simple
and poetical minds unstained by hypocrisy; many deeply
learned men, sincere lovers of truth."
Yet, for want of that experience of saving grace which-
has become at once the characteristic of modern revivals
of religion and the precious possession of the individual,
justifying him in his professions, and encouraging and
directing him in his search after Christian "perfection,"
zeal, poetry and learning became perverted to the base
uses of duplicity and earthly ambition. The lust for
power became predominant. The instrumentality which
would bring about the possession of power was sought
after and, when found, eagerly utilized. The prince and
his politics became an arm of the Church. In the end
"the ruling spirit and the political effect of the order were
Even Lutheranism does not appear to have been free
HARVEST WITHOUT STORING 19
from the charge of political tendencies, any more than
was Jesuitism on. the continent or the so-called Reforma-
tion in England. The religious question became a poli-
tical question. The headship of the Church had to do
with the question of the headship o^f the nation, and the
tendency to get back to the old Roman identification of
the Emperor with the gods became apparent. In this
movement the common people must be supposed to have
been deeply interested and kept well instructed by their
pastors, who were for them the depositories of knowledge.
The historian records how that from the beginning of the
Reformation the religious question affected politics in all
principal countries of Europe. The controversial spirit
luxuriated, and it was fanned by the zeal which claimed
for itself the sanction of religion. And because of the
brutalisms of the age the acrimonious controversies of pen
and platform took on at length the bloodier proportions
of the sword and the battle field.
When the Thirty Years' War began in 1618 the Pro-
testants of the Palatinate became directly involved, and
were called upon to take up arms and suffer for their
religious convictions. The Elector Palatine was Frederic,
a leader among the Protestants of Germany and son-in-
law of King James I. of England. The war, which was
closed by the Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648, which
during its progress involved in succession the States of
Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden and France, and which was
in the first two instances religious and in the last political,
began in a contest for the throne of Bohemia. Ferdinand,
appointed by the Emperor Matthias, was a bitter enemy
of Protestantism and, by the people of Bohemia who were
ardent lovers of John Hus and his doctrines, was regard-
ed with alarm and dislike. In the person of Ferdinand,
Jesuitism found a willing and crafty agent, and he rested
not until he had repressed the Protestant services of the
Bohemian towns. In revolt against this the Protestants
of Bohemia took up arms and engaged in a war which
20 THE CAMDEN COLONY
spread far beyond their own national boundaries. Re-
jecting Ferdinand, the people, with prayers and tears,
elected Frederic of the Palatinate to be their king. Fer-
dinand, succeeding Matthias as Emperor of Germany, and
Frederic, chosen by the people of Bohemia, thus became
principals in a religious war. Europe was already mar-
shalled into great camps known as the Protestant Union
and the Catholic League.
To the honor of the Palatinate it thus appears that
the people were completely identified with Protestantism,
and in their earnest support of the cause of Frederic they
had the warm co-operation of the Protestant princes ol
Germany, of the Dutch Republic and of England. But
in Bohemia the Elector suffered defeat and was forced
to flee to Holland, twenty-seven of the leading Protestants
were executed and thousands were driven into exile. Ihe
powers of the League, like greedy vultures, swept down
upon their defeated victims. Should it be thought in-
credible that the recollection of the persecution which fol-
lowed should pass down in tradition as "persecution from
Catholic rulers ?"
Of those days it has been written that the defence of
Protestant principles so often suffered because of division
and treachery which sprang up among the German princes
themselves. And who shall say that Jesuitism had not a
strong hand in the matter ? "Never has a great period
produced baser characters : never has a sacred cause found
more unworthy champions. The projects harbored by the
Pope, the Emperor, by Spain and France for the complete
suppression of the Reformation were well known, and
could, alone be frustrated by a prompt and firm coalition
on the part of the Protestant princes." "Heidleberg,
Mannheim and the Frankenthal were defended by the
troops of Frederic Henry of Orange, who was abandoned
by the rest of the united princes." The Catholics were
acting with increasing vigor.
To the credit of the Jesuits there is laid a long list
HARVEST WITHOUT STORING
of heartrending- details of cruelty and intolerance.
Leaders were betrayed and delivered to the headsman,
who delighted his cruel lust bv cutting cff first a right
hand and then the head of his victim. Beheading and
hanging were favorite means of disposing of opponents.
The dead were disinterred and burned. Property was
confiscated. Nobles and citizens were driven to emigrate
and live in exile. In Bohemia, heretical works, particularly
these of the Hussites, were burned; and this was not
a surprising feature of the crusade. So long- ago as 1579'
thirty-nine years before the outbreak of the Thirty Years'
War and thirty-three years after the death of Martin
Luther, the Jesuits had caused 12,000 German Bibles and
other Lutheran books to be burned at Graetz. It was but
following out the old spirit therefore. In Bohemia the
Hussite churches were re-consecrated for Jesuit services,
And the Emperor declared himself bound in conscience to
exterminate all heretics. In some instances the people set
fire to their own homes and then fled into Germany. Such
scenes were repeated in Germany. Heidleberg was storm-
ed by savage soldiery, and the pecple were treated with
cruelty. Valuable literary works were sent to Rome.
Mannheim was burned to the ground. Strasburg escaped
by reason of its fortifications, but the inhabitants of neigh-
boring localities were forced to emigrate. And the
Palatines of the Rhine were in the highway of war's de-
structive fire. Why should not the peasants remember
and tell to their children following the bitter story of
those sad days, or in grateful love recite their remem-
brance of the precious teaching of Holy Scripture?
What a spectacle dees history thus afford ! Religion
seeking its ends by means of the sword ! In that fell
struggle Germany is estimated to have lost from one -half
to two-thirds of her entire population. In Saxony 900,000
men fell in two years. At the close of the war Augsburg,
instead of eighty thousand, had eighteen thousand in-
habitants. The country was impoverished. The working
22 THE CAMDEX COLONY
class had largely disappeared. Provinces once flourishing
and populous were left waste and almost uninhabited, and
were only by slow degrees repeopled. Political liberty
almost vanished "The nobility were compelled by
necessity to enter the service of the princes; the citizens
were impoverished and powerless; the peasantry had been
utterly demoralized by military rule and were reduced
to servitude Germany had lost all save her hopes
for the future." One may be excused for thinking that
the writer of these words has given a slightly overdrawn
and emotional picture of the prevailing conditions; never-
theless, from all accounts it must be conceded that the
conditions were deplorable. Defeat in the arena of war-
fare did not, however, destroy the germs of sturdy Pro-
testantism; and the banks of the Rhine and the hills of
the Palatinate reverberated with the German hymn-sing-
ing, the expressions of grateful hearts rich in the con-
ciousness of possessing religious liberty. Thereafter, foi
forty years, the Lutheran pastors went among their flocks
establishing them in the faith; while by the glow of the
winter firelight the fathers told to their children the recol-
lections of religious persecution.
Politics, identified with religion, and drawing the States
of Europe into two hostile camps, gave suggestion as to
the grouping of the forces for the War of the Spanish
Succession which devastated Europe from 1702 to 1713.
And whereas in the opening of the Thirty Years' War the
leaders were Catholic Ferdinand of Bohemia and Pro-
testant Frederic, Elector Palatine, the War of the Spanish
Succession saw the two leaders in the persons of Catholic
Louis XIV. of France and Protestant William III. of
England. The death of William and the accession of
Queen Anne found the allied Protestant forces under the
command of the Duke of Marlborough, who prosecuted
the war on the continent. Under these circumstances
Louis, having become possessed of Strasburg, the key to
Germany, and of the country on the west bank of the
HARVEST WITHOUT STORING 23
Rhine, conceived it to be essential for the success of his
military operations that Germany should, if possible, be
prevented from co-operating with the British forces and
invading French territory. A barrier should be created
on the east bank of the Rhine. Fire, pillage and murder
should be allowed to \vork their fearful carnage. The
Palatines should receive no quarter. Thus his soldiers
were turned upon the innocent people. Thirty of their
towns were destroyed. One hundred thousand of their in-
habitants were rendered homeless. Then it was that many
of them fled to the lines of Maryborough and to Holland
for protection. Surely their trials were manifold. Un-
doubtedly they wrought to produce the fine gold of a
sturdy Protestant character.
And in this last scene of his life Louis XIY. had but
completed that exhibition of bigotry and heartlessness
which on preceding occasions had characterized his reign.
It was of a piece, for instance, with his action in the
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, by which the
Protestant Huguenots of France who had become the
"marrow of the land" were deprived of the civil rights and
protection which by the law of France had been guaranteed
to them an act of his by which France lost eight hundred
thousand people who emigrated to England, Holland,
Brandenburg and Berlin.
And to his record of heartlessness must be added his
treatment of the Palatinate in 1688. He had espoused
the cause of the Roman Catholic King James II. of Eng-
land. He saw how the powers of Europe including Hol-
land, Denmark, Sweden, Savoy, Spain and England were
leagueing themselves, and- he prepared himself for war.
Under his general, Louvois, the Palatinate was overrun
by French soldiers, and "the fertile state was turned into
a silent, black, blood-stained desert." One writer states
that "four hundred villages were reduced to heaps of
ruins." De Luxemburg "pillaged the country so sys-
tematically that not a single head of cattle remained in
24 THE CAMDEX COLONY
the territory within his reach." The great Protestant
Cathedral cf Strasburg was taken over by the Catholic
Bishop who restricted the free exercise of religion.
Lutheran officials were removed from the city; the clergy
emigrated. The chief magistrate, Dcminicus Dietrich, fell
a victim to private enmity. The Protestants emigrated in
crowds. Rotcnburg made a gallant defence though sur-
rounded by seventeen burning villages. Brigand bands
displayed a list of twelve hundred villages that were
d com eel to be burned. In Prague secret agents of France
prompted the burning of four hundred houses.
Thus by a variety of pretexts and on several occasions
did Louis add to the miseries of the humble Germans who
could net do ether than lore their Bibles and the traditions
of their fathers, and who would not be other than Protes-
Is it remarkable then that when driven to Marl-
borough's lines these people carried with them a tradition
that has lived until the present time, treasured alike in an
Irish city home and in a distant Canadian farm house
"Cur fathers were Palatines who suffered persecution from
their Catholic rulers" ?
The fields had. been reaped by cruel hands. The
harvest was not yet to be gathered in. It was thoroughly
threshed in the fields and the seed was scattered by the
strong winds of persecution. It at once began to grow.
BEARING ANOTHER'S BURDENS
''A transport glows in all he looks and speaks,
And the first thankful tears bedew his cheeks,"
IT is scmewhat to the glory of England mat while her
soldiers under Marlborough fought in defence of Pro-
te=tant rights and the welfare of Europe, the statesmen
at home considered the responsibility thus thrust upon
them to humanely assist those Palatines who through
war were rendered homeless. In 1709, while war was still
raging, the ships of Queen Anne ("good Queen Anne" she
was called) were sent to Rotterdam, and from thence they
brought away a numerous company of people.
There is a story that a party of Mohawk Indians
being on a visit to England at the time, and hearing of
the mi&fcrtunes of the refugees, offered a tract of land
for their settlement in America. This land was on the
Schoharie or Mohawk river, and being, by those who did
not knew, deemed desirable for settlement, it was readily
As showing the generosity of Indians this was good;
and it would appear to the credit of England that her
government was also touched with like feelings. A fleet
of British ships was provisioned and sent to Holland
where, at Rotterdam, many thousands of the refugee Pala-
tines were received aboard, and were given free passage to
America. One ship and her precious cargo , was lost by
the way. Those were days before the advent of o-cean
steamships, and all the disadvantages of ship's quarters,
slow travel and rough seas had to be endured. So late
26 THE CAMDEN COLONY
as 1820 one descendant of the Palatines who had decided
to leave Europe for America tells us in a letter still extant,
how the voyage occupied three months. In these days of
rapid trans-Atlantic passage it is hard to conceive of a
voyage so drawn out as to cover twelve Sundays. And
there were in those times no lengthy promenade decks !
What did they do with themselves? We are fortunately
in possession of more than one description, which goes to
show that travellers at such times were not averse to
living for personal improvement, and that hymn singing
and gospel preaching were very far from being unpopular.
Some fifteen thousand of the refugees are reported
to have been brought to America at that time. Among
them were such names as Frantz Lucas, Dietrich Klein,
Conrad, Friedrich, Ludwig, Henrich Newkirk, Reiser, John
Martin, Casper Hartwig, Christopher Warner, Hermannus
Hoffman, Rudolph, Neff, Schmidt, Schumacher, Lenhard,
John Peterzenger, Philip Muller, Schaffer, Peter Wagner,
Straub, Henrich Man, Eberhard, Kremer, Franke, Ross,
Peter Becker, Christian Mayer, Godfrey Fidler, Weller,
George Mathias, Christo Hagedorn, Finck, John William
Dill, Bernhardt, Conradt, Bellinger. It may not be diffi-
cult in these more modern times to trace many of those
names through their American-Anglicized forms.
The destination of these German emigrants wa^ the
country of the Schoharie. A tract of land was obtained
on the east side of the Hudson river in what is now
Duchess County. Governor Robert Hunter, of New York,
was active in promoting the emigration to that particular
locality. It was thought that the country abounded in
pine, and that a people familiar with the Black Forest of
Germany would do well in extracting pine pitch, at that
time so greatly in demand for the use of the British fleet
then in New York harbor. When, however, the new
colonizers arrived at their destination, the discovery was
made that the pine tree was conspicuous by its absence,
in consequence of which the people became dissatisfied
BEARING ANOTHER'S BURDEN 27
The contracts under winch they were bound seemed framed
altogether in the interest of the wealthier party. Ulti-
mately it was decided to secure a better location in the
State of Pennsylvania and better terms were granted.
Thither by the aid of the local government the settlers
were removed, and from thence their vigorous and thrifty
living, coupled with sturdy, moral character, has flowed
out as a healthful stream to bless a nation and a continent.
While matters were thus going for some, there were
others of the Palatines who were cared for by British ships,
but who did not at that time brave the dangers of the
Atlantic. They chose to become British subjects in Europe,
and, like the Huguenot families of France who in 15/2
escaped the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day and fled to
England thereby greatly enriching its commerce by their
skill, they too gre'atly added to the thrift and prosperity of
England. England received them hospitably. Public
measures, which, owing to the large number of new comers,
proved inadequate, were taken to afford them relief.
Naturalization laws made it possible for them to become
British subjects off-hand. They were distributed on Black-
well Common and other parts of England to the number
of fifteen thousand and more, seven thousand of whom
arrived at London in the spring of 1709.
All of this looks as if the soul of England had been
overflowing with generousness. And undoubtedly there
was the touch of pity, the presence of the spirit of real
kindness, and at the same time the recognition of the bond
of the Protestant faith. It was within a generation of
the time of Wesley, and Wesley with his Christian heart
and "consecrated pcetic gifts, still caught the sound of
that general sympathy which pervaded the common heart
of England, when he wrote:
''Help us to help each other. Lord,
Each other's cross to bear-,
Let each his friendly aid afford.
And feel his brother's care."
28 THE CAMDEX COLONY
Not the scorching sun of prosperity, but the storm-
days that bring tears to the eye and draw blood to the
heart these are the times that draw out the best that is
in human nature and afford the strong an opportunity to
show their effective sympathy with the weak ones.
But was it only sympathy that prompted Queen Anne
and her government to act so benevolently ? Might there
not be a business side to the issue ? Compared with the
forty or a hundred-fold that may be reaped, the death
of one seed is a small matter and its seeming self-abnega-
tion is crowned with the glory of enlarged prosperity.
After all do we not most help ourselves by helping others ?
And in 1709 England was just in a position to appropriate
new industrial life, true, for the good of that life, but to
her own advantage also. She had lands in abundance at
home and abroad, and she needed population to turn her
resources into commercial prosperity, and thereby give to
her commercial ascendancy. The large sums of money
voted by Parliament for transportation and colonization
purposes would return in increased national power and
development. So it has been. To a large extent the
foundations of Canada's present greatness are the result
cf that wise national policy quickly formulated in Lon-
don in 1709, and so generously and ably executed.
Ireland, as well as England, received a portion of
that thrifty and long-tried German population. There
were estates in Ireland, largely unoccupied. There were
land owners who were only too glad to find the product-
ivity cf their property increased.
In that section of Ireland, Limerick on the banks of
the Shannon, the stronghold of James II., and where he
made his last stand against William of Orange, the Par-
liament of Queen Anne decided to try the experiment of
planting a colony of these unyielding German Protestants,
toughened by persecution and tenacious of their convic-
tions. In a sense it must have been with malice afore-
thought that this plan was formed! A regiment of Ger-
BEARING ANOTHER'S BURDEN 29
man soldiers was quartered there, and each German settler
was allowed a gun; and between guns and Protestant
Bibles, no doubt that parliament hoped to correct the
Catholicism which had so ardently espoused the cause of
ex-King James. It was one way of accomplishing con-
Lord Southwell's estate was available. To him the
British government paid the rent for twenty years for such
of these German people as accepted the opportunity oi
location there. Of the exact number of those who were
thus settled it is difficult to write accurately, as the
accounts vary considerably, that is from a few hundreds
to several thousands. It docs appear that the colonization
scheme was not confined to one estate, nor even one county.
Out of the parliamentary vote a grant of eight acres
of ground was made to each man, woman and child. The
reader who is accustomed to Canadian free grants of one
hundred and sixty acres and to farming operations on
much larger proportions will smile at the idea of a family
maintaining itself on such a small basis. Yet this arrange-
ment evidently had an advantageous effect as the gen-
ealogy of large families so suggestively shows.
Of those who were thus placed in Limerick a list has
been preserved which must be of interest to an increasing
number of Canadians. This list, sometimes represeating
more than one family of the same name, includes the fol-
lowing : Baker, Bowman, Bovinizer, Brethower, Barhman,
Barrabier, Benner, Bethel, Bowen, Cole, Coach, Cornell,
Cronsberry, Dobe, Dulmage, Embury, Fizzle, Grunse,
Guier, Heck, Hoffman, Hifle, Lleavener, Glozier, Lawrence,
Lowes, Ledwich, Long, Miller, Mich, Modlen Neizer
Piper, Rhineheart, Rose, Rodenbucher, Ruckle, Switzer,
Sparling, Stack, St. John, St. Ledger, Strangle, Sleeper,
Shoemaker, Shier, Smeltzer, Shoultice, Shanewise, Tesley,
Tettler, Urshelbaugh, Williams and Young.
From Nova Scotia to Ontario, if not even farther west,
Canadians will find little difficulty in recognizing many
30 THE CAMDEN COLONY
of these names as now belonging to the citizenship of the
country. It may be necessary at times to discriminate as
between those that were imported into Canada from Ire-
land and the similar names which have travelled north-
ward from Pennsylvania and New York without having
ever been in Ireland ; for there is in Canadian history a
special significance attached to those German-Irish char-
On the estate of Lord Southwell there arose villages
of a distinctive order. Ballygarene, Killiheen, Rathkeale,
Court-Mattrass, and Pallas became notable for their Pala-
tine character. Some cf the Germans were also located
in Killnnnen and Limerick town. The industry, thrift and
general cleanliness of these people scon attracted the
attention of observers, and brought to them the usual
accompaniment of prosperity. In twenty years they had
improved their conditions to a remarkable degree and were
gratefully enjoying prosperity. Seeing this the land-
owners, imitating the ancient Egyptians, increased the
burdens. Rents as high as three guineas per acre were
exacted ; the result was the impoverishment of the people.
Thus it was that at the end of thirty years of rent rule
their attention was drawn to the advantages of life in the
Regarding their mode cf life and general character
a traveller of 17/9, writing regarding those who still
remained in Ireland, says that at that time they had several
villages in the county and had intermarried with the
natives. This was written twenty years after the general
exodus had begun, of which we shall have occasion to
write later on. "They are not cottiers," he writes, "to any
farmer. The labor of the natives is commonly balanced
with rent the Palatines are paid for their work in money.
Their customs differ from the Irish ; they sometimes have
their feeding land in common ; they sow their potatoes with
a plough in drills and plough them out. They plough
without a driver: a boy has been known to drive four
BEARING ANOTHER'S BURDEN 31
horses ; and some ploughs have a hopper which sows the
land. Their course of crops is I, potatoes; 2, wheat; 3,
wheat; 4, oats; I, potatoes; 2, barley; 3, wheat; 4, oats."
All of which makes ?t appear that they were intelligent and
The above extract from "Young's Travels' affords
such a glimpse of agricultural life .as one might expect
from a people whose ancestors had for generations been
the peasant folk of the German hills. There are, how-
ever, sidelights showing that there were aptitudes tor
mechanical pursuits. Some also were enrolled in the
militia and were known as the "German Fusiliers" or "True
In the village organization they appear to have had
their o-wn municipal arrangements, of which the head was
a burgomaster, as also their own school and church life.
Philip Guier appears to have been both schoolmaster and
Writing in 1786 Ferrar describes the situation as fol-
lows : "The Palatines preserve their language, but it is
declining; they sleep between two beds; they appoint a
burgomaster, to whom they appeal in all disputes
They are better fed and clothed than the generality of
the Irish peasants. Besides, their mode of husbandry
and crops are better than these of their neighbors. They
keep their cows housed in winter and feed them with hay
and oaten straw; their houses are remarkably clean, to
which they have stable, cowhcuse and lodge for their
plough, and neat kitchen gardens. The women are very
industrious and perform many things which the Irish
women could never be pervailed on to do. Besides their
domestic employments and the care of their children they
reap the corn, plough the ground,, and assist the men in
everything. In short, the Palatines have benefitted the
country by increasing tillage, and are a laborious, in-
dependent people who are mostly employed en their :wn
THE CAMDEN COLONY
Other contemporary writers are Mr. and Mrs. Hall,
who say of the Palatines : "Even now they are very
different in character and distinct in habits from the people
of the country Huge flitches of bacon hung
from the rafters; the chairs were in several instances com-
posed of walnut-tree and oak; massive and heavy,
although rudely carved chests, contained as we were told,
the house linen and woollen, and the wardrobes of the in-
habitants. The elders of the family preserve, in a great
degree, the language, customs and religion of their old
country, but the younger mingle and marry with their
"The men are tall, fine stout fellows; but there is a
calm and stern severity and reserve in their aspect that is
anything but cheering to a traveller to meet
In their dealings they are considered upright and honorable
Their superstitions savour strongly of the
Rhine; but they are careful in communicating them, which
may proceed from their natural reserve."
Such are the indications afforded, which go to show
that when, in 1709, England attempted to bear the burden
of the Palatines, she did not misjudge their capability to
help themselves if given a little encouragement, and pre-
sently we shall try to show that England did not mis-
judge her opportunity to help herself. Appreciation and
self-sacrifice in their behalf will furnish evidence that Eng-
land saw in these people human nature of the very best
build. These Teutons of Germany, dwelling for a season
on the banks of the Shannon, were in after days among
England'? most loyal children of the west.
THE RIGHTEOUS MAN
"Contemporaries all surpassed, see one;
Short his career indeed but ably run."
IT has been stated by a certain writer that 'as the Pala-
tines had brought no German minister with them, and
for many years after their settlement in Ireland under-
stood little or no English, they lost the habit of attending
on public worship." This statement was published one
hundred and fifty-seven years after the advent of the
Palatines in Ireland. It has been widely circulated and
perhaps believed. We think there is at least presumptive
evidence to the contrary.
To the above statement we may add that of another
writer, published in 1864, and which is as follows: "For
full forty years those Protestant families remained
destitute of religious ordinances and Christian pastors;
protesting loudly against the dogmas of Rome, and yet
removed far away from the true life and power of god-
liness, destitute of means and privileges, it is not to be
wondered at if the second generation indulged m in-
difference or a contempt for all religion." The writer
evidently forgot that Wesley was born before the advent
of these people in Ireland, and that with godly Lutheran
parentage at one end of their life and Wesley and his
workers touching their settlements within forty years of
arrival in the country it was scarcely possible for those
of the second generation to travel long in the wrong way.
Moreover, it seems inconceivable that in a land which was
Christian, in name at least, these people should have been
left for forty years without a minister. We shall present-
34 THE CAMDEX COLONY
ly show that they did have a Lutheran minister a vital
factor in our story. Like those Palatines who, coming to
America, maintained their Lutheran form of worship, so
did those of Limerick.
It is quite within probability that both of the writers
already quoted drew their inspiration from the following
observation found in Mr. Wesley's Journal under date of
June i/th, 1/58: "Having no minister, they were become
eminent for drunkenness, cursing, swearing, and an utter
neglect of religion." A hard picture surely ! How could
Mr. Wesley write these words in view of two previous
entries in his journal? On Wednesday, April 2Oth, 1/48,
he wrote, "I spent an agreeable hour with Mr. Miller, the
Lutheran Minister. Frcm him I learned that the earnest
religion which I found in many parts of Germany is but
of late date, having taken its rise from one man, August
Herman Franke ! So can God, if it pleaseth Him, enable
one man to revive His work throughout a whole nation."
That was ten years before he wrote that dreadfully con-
demnatory passage ! That is when the people had been
less than forty years in the land. Moreover, Mr. Miller
was a man with whom Mr. Wesley could spend a pleasant
hour ; a man who was at home in the subject of spiritual
revivals in Germany and interested in the work of August
Herman Franke; a man who was spiritually minded,
evidently regarded by Wesley as a safe and competent
pastor for the German villages. And it is significant that
Mr. Wesley wrote of the "Lutheran Minister' as the only
one, and one that would be well known.
Again on July iSth, 1749, he wrote : "Mr. Miller, the
Lutheran Minister, informed me that in a collection of
tracts, published at Ending, Count Z's (ZinzendorfV;
brethren had printed several passages of my journal and
whatever else they could glean up, which tended to pre-
judice the Lutherans against the Methodists." From these
words it would appear that Mr. Miller was even largely
in sympathy with Wesley in his work. L T nder these cir-
THE RIGHTEOUS MAN 35
cumstances it is only reasonable to suppose that Mr. Miller
would labor faithfully for his flock, and would not be an
idle shepherd. It remains to give to Mr. Wesley's words
the most generous possible interpretation, and believe that
he allowed himself to be unduly impressed by those self-
depreciatcry expressions which usually characterize deeply
religious and grateful souls.
In support of the position we have taken there are
seme corroborative testimonies. From the Rev. George
Miller, Methodist minister in Xova Scotia and Xew Bruns-
wick, 1817-1869, himself bom in Ireland in 1788 of Pala-
tine descent, there is given us this testimony: "They
came to the country possessed of some of the best theolo-
gical works written by their reformed divines. Often
have I heard an aged grandfather read, in the spirit of
ardent devotion, some of those books. To the juvenile
hearer, it appeared, he felt what he read, though not under-
stood by the child as the reading was in German. They
also seemed divested of the perplexities of thought
occasioned by the theological controversies which prevailed
among Calvinists, Anabaptists, Socinians, and others in
the country. Aware of the unprovoked sufferings of the
past, in the theatre of Papal tyranny, violence and blood-
shed, they ever seemed fixed in their views respecting Pro-
testantism and Popery as unalterably antagonistic."
Surely a much brighter picture than that presented
by the words we have been considering ! If perchance
there were those among the younger men who showed a
disposition to sin fulness, there were at least also present
in the communities those who pondered great religious
And the notable personage of Philip Guier is not to
be overlooked surely. He was another honorable excep-
tion to the supposed degeneracy, and a man of strong
character and wide influence. Guier was burgomaster of
Ballygarene and schoolmaster. As the first Methodist
class leader among the Palatines he is of special interest
36 THE CAMDEN COLONY
to the student of Methodist history. Among the Metho-
dists of Limerick he enjoyed an honorable reputation and
exercised a large influence. Such a character is not the
product of a day.
Indeed, many names that have become famous in the
history of American and Canadian Methodism are afford-
ing lasting evidence that when Methodism came to the
Palatines it found good material to work upon.
Mr. Wesley's references to his work among the Pala-
tines are both interesting and instructive as affording some
inside views concerning their life and conditions.
Robert Swindells was the first Methodist preacher to
hold service in the locality of the Palatines. This service
was held in Limerick on St. Patrick's Day, 1749.
Wesley himself entered the county in 1750. Under
date of June 4th, he writes : "I rode to Newmarket, a vil-
lage near the Shannon, eight miles, as they call it, from
Limerick. I found the spirit of the people while I was
preaching, but much more in examining the society."
Writing under date of 1760 he says that "Newmarket was
another German settlement.' The year 1750 seems to
mark the time when the labors of Mr. Miller as the Luth-
eran Minister ended and Mr. Wesley's properly began
among this interesting people. And the transition appears
to have been accomplished without any of those con-
troversial bitternesses so often attending proselytism. It
would appear on the surface as though Mr. Miller must
have been in sympathy with Mr. Wesley's entrance among
the Germans; indeed it looks as though he encouraged it
and even prepared the way. Certainly the minister and
the evangelist were on intimate terms, and when Wesley
came to the people he found no opposition to overcome.
If we ask, where did Wesley preach when he came to these
villages, there are two answers ready. Garrett Miller, to
whom we shall more particularly refer later, used to
delight in telling of Mr. Wesley's frequent visits to his
father's neighborhood and home. He often heard Mr.
THE RIGHTEOUS MAN 37
Wesley preach. William Miller, an aged citizen of Cork,
Ireland, still living at the time of writing, says, "Mr.
Wesley used to preach in my grandfather's home." It
was on one of those occasions that the house was particu-
larly crowded, and the little son Adam found a place
for himself under the table. The text for the evening was
"Adam where art thou?" Promptly the boy answered
"Here I am, under the table!" As the said Adam long
ago played his part in Canadian life, and this story is
one of our most recent importations from Ireland, one
that has survived the departure of Adam which took place
eighty-seven years ago, we may well believe it to be
founded on fact. And thus there springs into view a
picture of close intimacy, friendly hospitality, and en-
couraging co-operation between Mr. Wesley and the
Millers. In the remembrance already quoted of the Rev.
George Miller regarding the aged grandfather who de-
votionally read the old German theological works, we
think we get the last glimpse of Mr. Miller, the Lutheran
Minister the man who cared faithfully for his German
flock, and was unselfish enough to encourage Mr. Wesley's
work among the younger people who were learning Eng-
lish and were capable of understanding him. We wish to
embalm the memory of this righteous German.
From the various entries in Wesley's Journal from
1750 to 1784 many particulars are to be gathered concern-
ing the Palatines. He found them settled at Court-
Mattrass, Killiheen, Ballygarene, Pallas, Limerick and
Newmarket. Each family had a few acres of ground on
which they built as many little houses (that is as many
houses as families). The number of families was decreas-
ing by removals, but the size of the household was increas-
ing. Court-Mattrass was built in the form of a square
in the centre of which was erected a place for public wor-
ship. Though its proportions were large Wesley found
it would not hold half of the congregation which had
gathered to hear him, and he promptly adjourned the
38 THE CAMDEN COLONY
service to the open air. That was in 1758. The effect of
the gospel was shown in greatly improved living. "An
oath was rarely heard among them, nor a drunkard seen
in their streets." Such towns with an utter absence of
swearing, cursing, Sabbath breaking, drunkenness and the
ale-house, he says, were scarcely to be found in all Eng-
land and Ireland. In appearance he describes them as
having "quite a different look from the natives of the
country, as well as a different temper. They are a serious
thinking people. And their diligence turns all their land
into a garden. In Ballygarene, "a town of Palatines who
came over in Queen Anne's time," they retained "much of
the temper and manners of their own country, having no
resemblance of those among whom they live." "The whole
town came together in the evening and praised God for
the consolation. Many of those who are not outwardly
joined with us walk in the light of Gods countenance;
yea, and have divided themselves into classes, in imitation
of our brethren, with whom they live in perfect harmony."
'In examining the society I was obliged to pause several
times. The words of the plain, honest people came with
so much weight as frequently to stop me for a while and
raise a general cry among the hearers."
In 1778 he wrote, "I preached once more to the loving,
earnest, simple-hearted people of Newmarket. Two
months ago (March), good Philip Guier fell asleep, one
of the Palatines that came over and settled in Ireland
between sixty and seventy years ago. He was a father
both to this and the other German societies, loving and
cherishing them as his own children."
There came a day when Wesley's hopes for the con-
version of Ireland through the agency of the Methodist
Palatines appeared to be doomed to disappointment. The
exactions of the landlords and the attractions of the west
were decreasing the population and unsettling the Metho-
dist societies. "The poor settlers," writes Wesley, "with
all their diligence and frugality could not procure even
THE RIGHTEOUS MAN 39
the coarsest food to eat and the meanest raiment to put
on." "I stand amazed," he cries. "Have landlords no
common sense that they will suffer such tenants as these
to be starved away from them?" In 1789 he wrote:
"About eleven (Wednesday) I preached at Pallas, about
twelve miles from Limerick. All the remains of the Pala-
tine families came hither from Ballygarene, Court-Mat-
trass and Rathkeale; in all which places an uncommon
flame has lately broken out, such as was never seen before.
Many in every place have been deeply convinced, many con-
verted to God and some perfected in love."
This was Wesley's last entry concerning these people.
We are disposed to think that if hitherto biographers
have failed to detect the glory of that mo<dest character,
"Mr. Miller, the Lutheran Minister," that none the less
he must be enrolled among the great and faithful ones of
heaven as one whose influence came as a strong river to
carry with its course all the streams and traffic of life that
came in its way. How easily might he have given to
Methodist work among these people a different character !
That he did not, but enabled it to achieve the best possible
results, with such a beneficent consequence to America, as
we shall presently notice, forms a standing exhortation to
all of his descendants to continue to place their influence
on the side of the greatest possible good.
CARRYING THE SEED TO AMERICA
"But, if authority grow wanton, woe
To him that treads upon his fret-born toe;
One step beyond the boundary of the laws
Fires him at once in Freedom's glorious cause."
IT cannot be truly said that the Palatines of Ireland ever
sought notoriety; yet the history of the United States and
of Canada could not be faithfully written without giving
a place of prominence to this clement in the formation of
the nation's religious and political life.
The movements of emigration from the banks of the
Shannon to America were strong and general in the yea s
1760 and 1765. Individual families preceded and fol-
lowed those dates. In going to the Western Continent the
Irish Palatines knew tihat affinities of language and
national origin awaited them. On arriving at their
destination they naturally sought out localities that might
be easily accessible and were already associated with the
German character. In this way groups or colonies were
formed which have had some significance in the develop-
ment of the country.
Among these who left Ireland at the times mentioned
were Philip Embury and his wife, Mary Switzer, Paul and
Barbara Heck, John Lawrence, the Ruckles, Dulmages
and Detlors, anrl about the same time Peter Switzer. In
1760 N. Switzer was in America and able to sell to a
William Knox, secretary of New York province and
planter of Georgia, 250 acres and M. Miller was able to
sell to the same 50 acres. Our information, nowever, con-
cerning this Switzer and Miller is very meagre, and those
CARRYING THE SEED TO AMERICA 41
of the same names and with whom we shall have more to
do arrived in the west from about 1765 and onwards.
The Methodist work in Ireland had affected these
people most significantly. Philip Embury had been con-
verted in 1752 according to one authority under the
preaching of Wesley in Limerick in the month of August,
but according to another, and probably more accurate
writer, under the preaching of Swindells at Ballygarene
on Christmas Day. It is said that he was a timid man,
yet he manifested much force of character and became very
influential among his neighbors and relatives. After his
arrival in America and while living on the farm, one of a
group forming a German colony in New York province, he
was chosen by his neighbors to fill the office of burgomaster.
Teutonic nature with the added traditions of national
tribulations and impoverishment, together with the gift of
the Holy Spirit in a Christian experience, formed for them
the strongest of social bonds.
In Ireland the gifts of Embury were soon recognized.
By trade a carpenter, he supported himself by his calling,
by such produce as he gathered from a small farm. It is
said that the first Methodist church built at Court-
Mattrass was largely the product of his exertions, and that
probably the principal part of the wood-work was wrought
by his hands. In New York, in 1/66, he accomplished a
similar work in the building of the first Methodist church
in America, of which it is said it exhibited the unarchitec-
tural device of bemgr adorned with a chimney in order that
it might satisfy the requirements of law and not be classi-
fied as a church.
Shortly after conversion he had been appointed first
a class leader and then a local preacher. And although
of a reticent disposition he narrowly escaped becoming a
confirmed itinerant, for at the conference in Limerick in
1758 one of the two names recommended for the itinerancy
was that of Philip Embury, and the British conference in
August of the same year confirmed the recommendation
42 THE CAMDLX COLONY
and placed his name in a list of ten. However, lie was
put on the list of reserve instead of being appointed to a
circuit, and before he could be again called out Cupid had
claimed him. In November, 1758, he married Mary
Switzcr. Thereafter he resolved to seek usefulness as a
local preacher, and in that capacity he had come to
The name of Embury will ever be held in honored
connection with the foundation of American Methodism.
Commencing the work by holding a service in his own
house in 1765, at the request of Barbara Heck, he there-
after superintended the construction of the church on
John Street, New York, of which he acted as pastor until
he was relieved by the arrival, in 1769, of the preacners
Boarclman and Pilmour, whom Wesley had sent to
Thereafter Philip Embury retired from the city to
Charlotte County, New York State, to the locality known
as Camden District. There was an extensive tract of land
known as the "Wilson Patent," and consisting of some
thousands of acres, which were being leased in parcels of
one hundred or more acres as tenant farms. Many similar
farms were also to be found in the province and were
largely occupied either by Germans direct from Germany
or their descendants. Here it was' that Embury took up
farming and formed a Methodist Society. Of those in
the district there are given such names as Valentine Detlor
who reached America in 1756 and now had a lease of 312
acres, John Embury who had 125 acres, Edward Carscallen
with 350 acres, John Dulmage with 200 acres, Paul Heck
with 250 acres, Peter Switzer with 200 acreis; John Law-
rence whose first holding is not seated but who later
occupied Philip Embury's farm. Lawrence arrived in
1770. In 1770 Peter Miller was added to the community
with 100 acres in Camden and 210 acres in Albany County;
and soon after 1772 came Garrett Miller who instead of
leasing purchased 188 acres. In the community was the
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CARRYING THE SEED TO AMERICA -3
Rev. Abraham Bininger, a Moravian minister. The
Methodist Society, however, flourished, and from this
locality the good seed was ultimately carried into Canada.
Philip Embury died in 1/73. Of his five children
only two grew up ; these were Samuel and Catherine.
Samuel became the first Canadian Methodist class leader
in the old province of Canada, having taken charge of
the class which was formed at Augusta, Out., about 17/8-
1785. Catherine married Duncan Fisher, of Montreal,
who came to America in 1775. She became the ancestor
of a large and influential Canadian connect ?ion, one of
her great grandchildren being the Hon. Sydney Fisher,
of Knowlton, Cue., who for many years has ably filled
the position of Minister of Agriculture an trie Dominion
Government, and has, been closely identified with the cause
of temperance. Another of her descendants is John
Torrance, Esq., of Montreal, who for very many years has
been prominently identified with Montreal Methodism and
an ardent supporter of St. James' Methodist Church.
Philip Embury's widow, Mary Swlitzer, married John
Lawrence in 1775. Their descendants have also been pro-
minently identified with Canadian Methodism.
Other persons, whose names afterwards figured among
useful and honorable Canadian citizens and who lived in
the neighborhood O'f Embury, were John German, Charles
Bush, Levi Warner, Barnabas I lough, Robert Perry and
Such were some of the faiithful company who brought
the seed of life into the common places of a continent !
Honorable people, of fixed and upright purposes, as their
careers show, and who bequeathed to their descendants
an inheritance of straightforward, conscientious and self-
By the unfortunate and revolutionary events of 1776-
1783 these people were disturbed in their homes, reduced
once more to poverty and driven out to be wanderers.
Suffering and warfare seemed to be for them at least a
44 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Of those days many conflicting opinions have been
placed on record. Regarding the causes of the war it has
been said by Sabme in his "American Loyalists," published
in 1847, that while England angered and oppressed the
Colo-nies by inter feneince with the trade in the West Indies,
perhaps also excited some jealousy by creating a Can-
adian province, and assailed local rights by placing upon
the people taxes in the expenditure of \\thich they had no
voice, nevertheless, the real source of estrangement was
interference with labor. "There were no less than twenty-
nine laws which restricted and bound down colonial
industry They forbad the use of waterfalls,
the erection of machinery, of looms and spindles, the
working of wood and iron; set the King's arrow upon trees
that rotted in the forest ; shut out markets for boards and
fish, and seized sugar and molasses, and the vessels m
which these articles were carried." Certainly the causes
of the revolutionary war have been fruitful subjects for
discussion by historians.
Speaking of the attitude of the colonials it has been
said that at the outbreak of the war the majority of the
people were loyalists, but were without duly qualified
leaders. The "Declaration of Independence was the act
of a Congress without legal authority.''
Where did the Palatines stand ? The names which
we have already recorded in connection with Lord South-
well's estate eire so familiar in, the local history of central
Ontario that the conclusions is easily arrived at regarding
the origin of such Ontario families. And as we have
already seen those years preceding the revolution from
1756 onward were marked by what Mr. Wesley regarded
as the almost universal emigration of the Palatine families.
Tliey were in America at the time of the outbreak of war,
and by 1790 their presence in Canada is quite demon-
strable. The question remains, Were they United Empire
Loyalists in the highest sense?
Like many other important issues in history of which
' CARRYING THE SEED TO AMERICA 45
the first actors were unconscious of their importance, so
these were passed by a people who failed to mark many
events, the waymarks of which we may now well wish
had been left for our instruction. Had the pioneers of
our country anticipated the questions of modern historians
undoubtedly they would have placed their movements on
record in a way to avoid all uncertainty. In the confusion
ot the times some have succeeded to the title of United
Empire Loyalists who but very partially, or not at all, were
entitled to it.
Lorenzo Sabine says : "Men, who like the loyalists,
separate themselves from their fnends and kindred, who
are driven from their homes, who surrender the hopes and
expectations of life, who become outlaws, wanderers and
exiles, such men leave few behind them. Th>e n '.r papers are
scattered and lost, and their very names pass from human
recollections." This American! writer has thus candidly
furnished the reason which the most sympathetic Canadian
descendant of a loyalist has to present. The loyalist had
no papers with which to prove anything, because those
who called him "Tory" and "Traitor," scattered them.
Loyalists have been grouped in six classes: (i)
Those who rendered service to Great Britain; (2) Those
who bore arms for Great Britain; (3) Those who were
uniform loyalists; (4) Loyal British subjects resident in
Great Britain; (5) Loyalists who had taken oaths of alle-
giance to the American State and afterwards joined the
British ; (6) Loyalists who had borne arms for the Ameri-
can State and aftewards joined the British forces.
It is readily conceivable that with such a classification
there might be constructed an extensive list of loyalists.
From the thirteen colonies, that is from Virginia, New
York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Dela-
ware, Connecticut, Maryland, Rhode Island, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Georgia,
there were enrolled, according to estimate, 25,000 of loyal-
ist troops; and of these together with their families, it
46 THE CAMDEN COLONY
has been said that the emigration into Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick and the Canadas, amounted to near 50,000 per-
It was in 1783, when the British parliament met, that
in the speech from the throne, the King said, "That a due
and generous attention ought to be shown to those who
have relinquished their properties or possessions from
motives of loyalty to me or attachment to the mother
J. P. Noyes, a discriminating writer of attractive
ability and well advanced in his professional duties as
a prothonotary, insists that there were three classes of
individuals claiming attention for themselves as loyalists.
First there were those who, being English officials or non-
combatants, left the rebelling colonies at the beginning of
the war. The second class consisted of loyalist soldiers
who with their families came to Canada at the close ot the
war. These were enrolled in the army prior to the Treaty
of Peace in 1783. The third class left after the Treaty
of Peace had been signed, being driven out by persecution.
That is there were loyalists, supposedly, of the official
sort, who were tempted to make gain of their opportunities;
of the ruilitary class and of the refugee class. To the
military class the title most properly belongs.
"To distinguish them from the Refugee Loyalists,
for all time to come, the government on the gth of Nov-
ember, 1789, by a minute of council ordered, that: 'All
Loyalists who joined the standard before the Treaty of
Peace in 1783, and all children and descendants of either
sex, are to be distinguished by the letters U. E. affixed
to their names, alluding to the great principle of the un'ity
of Empire.' It was further ordered, at the same time,
that a register should be kept so that their posterity might
be distinguished from future settlers.''
In this roll, so honorable and important, are to be
found very many of the Palatine names. Attention h?s
been drawn to the fact that the Dutch settlers and their
CARRYING THE SEED TO AMERICA 47
children in the colonies were generally moved by opinions
of independence, their political training in the home land
no doubt leading that way; while the Palatines, remem-
bering gratefully what England had done for their
ancestors in the days of extreme need were ranged on the
side of loyalty, so much so that it has been said, "the atti-
tude of the people towards England often determined
whether they were Dutch or German."
A U. E. loyalist is one who was enrolled as a
Colonial soldier in the army during the war, or he was a
descendant of such soldier. The Palatines meet this test
well. There were U. E. loyalists who were not Palatines,
but there were few, if any, Palatines who were not U. E.
loyalists. And among them were the seed of that good
man who bequeathed more than ordinary gifts to his
posterity "Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister." Heredity,
religion and nationality united in them .as a company
strong in service for the purpose of earnestly planting the
seed of godliness in the social life O'f America. Strong
in their attachment to that Methodist form of religion
which brought to them consolation m the hour of need,
they were equally strong even to the point of being martyrs
in their political attachments and convictions. The seed
was planted on American soil. In the midst of war and
extreme hardship it found a rooting place for itself. Could
it ;gro\v ?
Let us remind ourselves, again that in 1709 England
served herself by helping the Palatines. What she did
for them then came back to her with good interest in 17/6
and her beneficiaries became to the extent of their powers
her benefactors. And Methodism, the work of God, fos-
tered loyalty to the earthly prince as well as to God it be-
came the right hand upholder of British institutions.
The highways into Canada in those days were mainly
by water. The Richelieu River and Onondago Lake and
the Oswegotchie invited the refugees to the use of their
rudely constructed boats. By these routes they passed
43 THE CAMDEN COLONY
from the forests of New York and reached the St. Law-
rence, where for some time they were cared for in the
neighborhood of Quebec, Sorel and Montreal. In 1783
the country for one hundred .and fifty miles west of Mont-
real was practically unoccupied except by Indians. A few
huts were then to be found at the present site of Kingston.
Beyond that locality again stretched the wilderness until
the Niagara frontier was reached. In 1784 surveys were
made and lands allotted. The country west of Montreal
was divided 'into districts and named Lunenburg, Meck-
lenburg, Nassau and Hesse. Lunenburg included the
country from Lancaster to the Gananoque River; Mecklen-
burg from Gananoque River to the river Trent ; Nassau
from the Trent to Long Point on Lake Erie, and Hesse
the remainder of the west. In what is now Quebec pro-
vince the divisions included the districts of Montreal,
Quebec and Gaspe Gaspe embracing all south of the St.
Lawrence. In Lower Canada portions of the land were
laid out into parishes, and later, when companies were
formed to colonize large sections these were surveyed into
townships. In Upper Canada the townships were surveyed
and numbered. In the Mecklenburg district the numbers
began with Kingston. Number two, afterwards known as
Krnestown, was settled with disbanded soldiers. This
township was opened by survey in 1784. The base line
was run along the shore from east to west and then the
lots were numbered from west to east.
Speaking of the settlers who thus took up land in
Ontario, Dr. Canniff Haight says that they were of three
classes, "Those who were forced away from the States,
disbanded soldiers, and those who were unwilling to live
under American rule a noble class." In the list of early
settlers will be found such of our Palatine names from
Ireland as Embury, Hoffmjan, Lawrence, Detlor, Miller.
Dulmage, Bowman, Heck and Switzer. The evidence of
their attachment will come presently.
"For consciousness is king, and all creation waits
Attendant on man's will, as steps to higher states;
Nor does man crown himself, nor is he crowned of God,
Till, leaving self's low plane, the hills of truth arc trod."
FAMILY genealogies were of sufficient interest in the
formative years of the world's early history to draw-
attention to their careful keeping, and that, too, when
literary conditions were not as favorable as now. Yet the
modern spirit has often made for an almost inexplainable
neglect. Possibly the struggle for existence and the
demand on personal enterprise in some measure accounts
for it. While communities remain identical in character,
succeeding generations may with little difficulty perpetuate
family traditions; it is the inrush of the stranger that
threatens to wash away the shore line of the little society
and to confuse the records. At the present time Canada
is at the stage where new European deposits may soon
tend to obliterate some or all of the valuable family tra-
ditions that have given strength and romance to the young
nation for the last century and a quarter, and it behoves
especially the families who are dispersing over the wide
reaches, of the west to at least follow the example of
French Canadian fellow citizens of the east, who by
genealogical encyclopedias are perpetuating the records of
It is unfortunate that the earlier records have not
perpetuated the Christian name of that righteous man,
"Mr. Miller, the Lutheran Minister," to whom Mr. Wesley
was so pleasantly drawn. Everyone seems to have known
5 o THE CAMDEN COLONY
who was the Lutheran Minister. Even some of his readers
at a distance, Mr. Wesley assumed, would know about
the Lutheran minister. Yet we wish he had given us his
name and we think it would have been no ordinary
name. Could any record be found, we think his name
therein would be "Garrett." Perhaps it was on his invita-
tion, and partly because he was aging, and partly because
he believed in the good work of Wesley that the great
evangelist began his work among the Palatines. Certainly
there was a most favourable reception awaiting him, and
such as seems capable of explanation only on the ground
of predisposition by some favorable influence, and we think
that influence was Mr. Miller.
It is pleasant to again recall that homelike scene from
the pen of the Rev. George Miller, w^herein he depicts the
grandfather in the eveningtime of life devoutly pondering
his favorite German books. The memory of a good man
is blessed ! We propose now to show how through this
man God has been "showing mercy unto thousands of them
that love Him and keep His commandments."
Of the Miller family we have reliable evidence of the
presence in America at the outbreak of the war of at least
five of the family, and these by marriage so connected with
the Emburys, Lawrences and Switzers that in tracing tfieir
history we are really tracing large chapters of Canadian
annals. The names of the Millers were Jacob who married
(probably) Elizabeth Bently ; Peter who married Agnes
Benor, widow of Peter Lawrence who had died young;
Garrett, whose first wife having died in Ireland, married in
America Elizabeth Switzer, daughter of Peter Switzer and
niece of Mary Switzer, who married, first, Philip Embury,
and two years after his death, John Lawrence; an elder
Garrett Abller also appears in the dim light of sca^it
records, who died two years before the war began, who
had come from Ireland, and had engaged in lumbering
business among the settlers of Orange County, New
York State, and owned two mills (Miller's Mills is still
THE SEED 51
marked on the map). The fifth one whom we have to
notice was his daughter Elizabeth, who inherited the in-
terest in the mills by will of her father, and who married
Philip Roblin, a U. E. loyalist, and who settled in the
Bay of Quinte country. This lady became the grand-
mother of John P. Roblin, Ex-M.P.P., of Picton, Ont., and
indeed the ancestor of .a numerous connection of Roblins,
including the present premier of the province of Manitoba.
Her daughter Nancy married William Ketcheson, of
Hastings County, Ont., and thus became the ancester of
that numerous and highly respected branch of Canadian
citizens. In 1792 Elizabeth Roblin was a widow. For her
second husband she married John Can iff who founded
CanifftO'ii a short distance from Belleville, Ont. She was
buried in the family burying ground on the hill in the little
village. Her daughter Nancy was born during the days
of hardship connected with the war in 1781. Her children
Were these people U. E. loyalists ? For answer let
us gather up the materials which, quite recently, have
i. JACOB MILLER. Here is a copy of a document, still
extant, and in the archives of his descendants: "I do
hereby certify that Jacob Miller, of the Militia of the City
of New York, has, in my presence, voluntarily taken an
Oath to bear Faith and true Allegiance to His Majesty
King George the Third, and to defend to the utmost of
his power, His sacred Person, Crown and Government,
against all persons whatsoever.
"Given under my hand at New York, this 23rd Day
of January in the Seventeenth Year of His Majesty's Reign.
Anno Dom. 1777."
(Signed.) "WM. T.RYON."
Jacob Miller had six children the records of whose
birth we have been able to trace by examining different
cemetery and church records in Hal 1 ' fax, N.S., and these
date from 1770 onwards, three, probably four, having been
born in New York.
52 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Jacob was probably the first of the connection to land
in America, arriving prior to 17/0, and at the outbreak
of the war he had attained to the position of a wealthy
merchant in New York city. In those days they had ways
by which they seemed to have coined wealth much more
rapidly than seems possible nowadays, and their capacity
for suffering the loss of all things and making rapid
recuperation is one of the striking characteristics of the
Palatines generally. In New York the rebels rapidly rose
in the ascendancy, and Jacob and his family, leaving the
bulk of their property behind, were forced to fly for life.
Antiquities now preserved by various descendants and
bearing the earmark of previous centuries in their style and
material, show that some household possessions \vt:re
rescued. In after days Mrs. Jacob Miller loved to recite
to her children how when hurrying through New York the
bullets were falling about her and she protected her young-
est child by covering her head with a frying pan. There-
after, the family took up their residence in Halifax, and
Jacob became a foremost merchant of that city.
2. PETER MILLER. The lengthy document constituting
the military commission of Peter Miller and issued by
General Johnson is still in possession of his descendants,
and may be seen at the old homestead at St. Armand,
Cue., where his great great granddaughter, Miss Agnes
Bradley, most gladly exhibits it.
Some modest account of his service, given in brief, as
consistent with a court report, is to be found in "Ontario
Archives, 1904." This volume by the way is a gratifying
resurrection of buried treasures. The statement given also
furnishes some idea of losses sustained by the war, and
adds from Peter himself the interesting chronological
matter concerning his arrival in America. The extract is
as follows : "He is a native of Ireland. He came to
America in 1/70. He soon after settled in Cambridge
district, Albany Co., and lived there in 1775. Says that
he never joined the Americans and came to Canada with
THE SEED 53
Captain Sherwood. Alter he came in he served with Col.
Peter's corps and with Maj. Leake. He now lives at
Missisquoi Bay. Property (before the war) 100 acres of
land in Camden on a lease forever from Mr. DeVaynes, of
New York. He had cleared 16 acres, with a house, etc.;
210 acres in Quasencooke, County of Albany. Produces
lease forever from Ryn Schormorhorn to Peter Miller in
consideration of 7 N.Y. cur. per an. Conveys 200 acres
of land as described I4th of March, 1774. Says he built
a house and improvements for which he paid ^39- After
the purchase he fenced it and cleared many acres. Thinks
it cost him 250 York. His family were turned from this
farm. It is in possession of the landlord. Lost 2 mares,
2 colts, 6 cows, 2 oxen, a steer, some sheep and hogs, farm-
ing utensils and hay. His wife saved the furniture."
The reader will wonder how she saved it, and what
she did with it. And neither history nor family pos-
sessions afford any answer. One does not readily see how,
amid the disturbed conditions of the time, endangered as
the loyalists and their possessions were by the bitterness
of their opponents, and subjected to the difficulties of a
journey to the St. Lawrence, furniture could possibly be
retained and included in the limited amount of baggage
the travellers could carry.
As to the agreement with Ryn Schormorhorn above
mentioned, the legal document is still in existence, with
the exception that the document specifies 220 acres instead
of 210. There is also to be seen at "Miller Homestead"
the copy of the inventory above given and presented before
the U. E. Loyalist Land Commission in Montreal, February
I5th, 1788; it bears the signature of Peter Miller.
The reader will be impressed with the industry, thrift
and executive ability which enabled an arrival from Ire-
land, probably no better off than multitudes of later day
arrivals, inside of five years, from 1770 to 1775, to sur-
round himself with as many possessions as indicated in
the above statements.
54 THE CAMDEN COLONY
In addition to his step-children his family consisted
of two children born in Ireland and one born, two years
after his arrival in America, and who was, therefore, some
four years old at the outbreak of war. After escaping to
the Canadian side these reached Sorel where they resided
3. GARRETT MILLER, brother of the preceding. Little
or nothing of his earthly possessions previous to 1706 sur-
vived that date his life was too full of vicissitudes.
In a volume, published in Toronto on the occasion of
the U. E. Loyalist Centennial in 1884, there is contained
a list of the U. E. loyalists who were enrolled after the
war. Through the kindness of Colonel Geo. T. Denison, of
Heydon Villa, Toronto, we have secured the following
extract from this rare volume :
Soldier of N. Co. with Burgoyne. Came
to Canada in 1777. O.C. 20th July, '79."
In his note Colonel Denison says, "Lord Dorchester in
1787 ordered that a Roll of Honor should be kept of the
U. E. loyalists so that they might be distinguished from
future settlers. This roll is in the Crown Lands Depart-
ment, Toronto, and was printed in full in the United
Empire Loyalists 'Centennial Celebration' of 1884. One
thousand copies of the book were printed and copies were
sent to all the principal public Libraries. Many were sold
to the descendants of the U. E. loyalists. The book is
now out of print The above is a copy of
the entry. 'M. District,' I think, means Midland District.'
'O. C., 2Oth July, 1797,' I think, means that his name was
put on the list on that date by an Order in Council."
In "Ontario Archives, 1904," the following entry made
at the sittmg of the Loyalist Commission in Quebec, 1787,
occurs: "He is a native of Ireland. He came to America
in 1772. Went first to Virginia, afterwards settled in
Camden in 1775. Joined the King's army at Crown Point.
Was taken prisoner in 1777. Served under Col. Peters.
Was a prisoner for two years. Made his escape and came
into this province (Quebec). Lives at Sorel. Says he
bought a lot of one Peter Sparling in Camden in 1774.
It consisted of 188 acres. Was to pay 110 York money.
Had paid between 30 and ,"40. Produces a Bond from
Peter Sparling dated 3ist December, 1774, in the sum of
200 on condition to convey to claimant his right and
interest in the township of Camden on or before 1st Nov-
ember, 1776, on payment of 110. Robert Sparling never
made the Deed because the money was not paid. Says
he gave his bond to Sparling for the money. Cleared 12
or 13 acres. Could have sold the land at I2s. 6d. per acre.
Lost I cow, I steer, I heifer, i calf, hogs, tools, etc.,
wheat in the ground. Things were destroyed. His wife
was driven away by the Americans.''
The marks of military engagements were earned by
Garrett to his grave, but with pride rather than otherwise.
Of his family of ten children, two were born in
Ireland, two m America before the war, and six at Sorcl,
One., to which place the refugees fled, and where they
continued to reside until 1706.
While residing in Sorel, "man's inhumanity to man"
was in some measure illustrated. It was in 1795 that Peter
Sparling, still holding possession of a bond, and finding
that the thrifty Garrett was recovering his losses and gather-
ing comforts about him, like a bird on the wing swooped
down, secured an order from the court, and sold his victim
out. That may have been good law; one cannot avoid
questioning the equity. Sparling as a loyalist would have
lost his property anyway. The money he had been paid
on it ought to have represented some real gain. In Garrett
Miller's case it was complete loss, and the only sense in
which he was to blame if Sparling suffered loss was by
his loyalist principles. And when we think of it, it was,
to put it mildly, hardship for a professed loyalist and a
Canadian Court to put a man to suffering because he had
dared to be loyal. We do not think that Peter Sparling's
56 THE CAMDEX COLONY
unfeeling prceeeclure ever brought him additional pros-
perity. "The quality of mercy is twice blessed."
4. We must include the Roblms in the present survey
as loyalists. Our interest is especially connected with
Philip Roblin who married Elizabeth Miller. In Albany
County there were two brothers, Owen and Philip. Owen
Roblin was at Sorel in 1/83. He was a native of America
and before the war had prospered and acquired much as
a farmer. It is notable that his operations were on such
a scale that he had a partner. On the outbreak of war
land, horses, cattle, hav. grain all were lost. As a
prisoner of war he suffered greatly was imprisoned and
kept in irons for thirteen weeks.
PHILIP ROBLIX, the brother, was also born in
America. lie joined the British at New York in 17/9. He
had always acted as a friend of the British government,
and in consequence he was confined and tried by the rebels.
The list of his possessions is interesting. He had fifteen
acres of land with one-tenth (of an acre) in a grist mill and
saw mill in Smith's Cove in Orange County. They came
to his wife on the death of her father GARRETT MILLER,
being left by will. Claimant had been in possession two
years. The lands, plough and meadow, were worth $
York per acre. He had a share in the products of the
mill. But as an enterprising and thrifty citizen of that
day his interests were much larger that those of the mill
property. He had 150 acres of lease land which was for
six years, and for which he paid 6 per annum rent. He
paid also for improvements, and made others such as
fencing and building. Had over one hundred acres
cleared, ten of which were in orchard. He had a house
and two lots of land in New York taken in 1779, he him-
self building the house. Had four horses, one yoke of
oxen, six cows, fifteen sheep, thirty-five bee hives, wheat,
furniture and utensils. Everything was left at Smith's
Elihu Murven, commissioner of sequestration, gave
THE SEED 57
a certificate that he seized this property for the use of the
Before the Commissioners in Montreal in I? 88 an
affidavit was presented, sworn before Peter Van Alstme
at the Bay of Oumte by Nicholas Wessels, to claimant's
property; and also from George Galloway, sworn before
W. R. Crawford at Cataraqui.
These names- are of interest as ancestors of some of
the present citizens of Kingston and the Bay country.
We think that the above Garrett Miller who died two
years before the outbreak of war was the father of Jacob,
Peter and Garrett the Loyalists. It is probable that he
journeyed to America with his son Peter, and thereafter
settled near him, where his investment in mill property
was advantageous both to himself and his neighbors; Here
it was that he died and was buried. Here, too, his
daughter Elizabeth met and married Philip Roblin. Some
twenty years afterwards she appears on the subscription
list of the first Methodist Church built in the then province
of Canada as a widow. She knew full well the trials and
los-cs of a loyalist.
From the records we have thus been able to gather
we think that the claim of these Millers, and, therefore, of
their descendants, to the honorable distinction of genuine
U. E. loyalists is cloudlessly established.
And before we pass on, we may note in the same con-
nection the Switzers and Emburys. Peter Switzer, though
having a large family and carrying on farming operations
before the war, and suffering imprisonment as a loyalist
soldier with his son-in-law, Garrett Miller, yet appears to
have presented no claims before the commissioners. There
were many others like him, who either because they did
not know of the legal requirements in presenting a petition
or because of their inability to exactly tabulate their losses,
accompanied also with a doubt as to the utility of the
proceeding, failed to make themselves heard. Some times
they were too far from the seat of the Commissioners and
could not afford the expense of the journey.
58 THE CAMUEN COLONY
Peter Switzcr with his family settled in the neighbor-
hood of Varty Lake, north of Kingston, Ont. After this
family was also named the locality, famous in many
respects, and known as Switzerville.
Mary Embury, too, sister of Peter Switzer and widow
of Philip Embury, knew the troubles, of a loyalist. The
death of Philip left her with two children in possession
of a farm of 188 acres, leased forever from Lawyer
Uuayne. Ller second husband, John Lawrence, described
as a "good man," whom she married in I//5, had also one
hundred acres leased in Albany County. The usual farm
stock was also possessed. But with the outbreak of war
all this was lost; and these peoiple, obliged to leave the
States in possession of the grave containing the remains of
him who had introduced to America that mighty and
beneficent system of religion known as Methodism a
loyalist whom America has never cast out, were obliged to
flee to the St. Lawrence to face the struggle for life in the
uninviting prospect of the Canadian woods.
It is unnecessary, for our purpose, to unduly exalt the
military genius or the martyr spirit of the little group thus
passed in review, and who at that time represented some
thirty persons. Thev suffered in common with many
others. We think we can show that they suffered with a
religious fortitude. Our purpose is served in showing that
these, representative of many Irish Palatines, did not
forget what the British government had done for their
forefathers, and were lastingly grateful. They suffered
and lost all for the sake of their king, and they courage-
ously braved the dangers and hardships of the wilds where
they might found a new British dominion in a land which
less than fifteen years before had been conquered and taken
from France. They were loyalists neither of the official
type, who might wish to exploit new opportunities, nor yet
of an honorable class who passed through the war without
fighting but were afterwards driven from their homes by
persecution ; THEY WERE LOYALISTS WHO DID WHAT THEY
THE SEED 59
COULD IN THE SOLDIER RANKS, SUFFERED WOUNDS AND IM-
PRISONMENT, WHILE THE MOTHERS AND CHILDREN WERE
DEPRIVED OF HOME AND POSSESSIONS AND FORCED TO FLEE
FOR SAFETY TO SUCH PLACES AND IN SUCH WAYS AS THEY
MIGHT. Such was the character of the seed prepared by
the Protestant principles of Germany, cared for and
cultured in Ireland by Methodism providentially raised
up, and now transplanted to Canadian soil. Such was one
of God's many gifts to Canada. Such was the inheritance
transmitted to posterity.
SETTLEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA HALIFAX AND LUNENBURG
Hills that arise in grandeur.
Hills that are ages old,
Where nature's strength lies latent
Housing the treasured gold;
Pine-clad, the banks of the old days,
Scarce seen the mark of wave,
Where once flowed broadly seaward
This lesser stream La Have.
Mem'ries of days long buried.
Days when our fathers fought,
Days when to woods primeval
Courageous hearts they brought,
Flow in like the rising sea-tide
And waken new -my song,
And make these pine hills vibrate
With men, true, brave and strong,
Bridgewater's ways are rising
Like one concerted plan
Based on the good divinest.
The highest good of man:
Harmonious thought prevailing
And unity of heart.
Let man with man combining
Each play a god-like part!
Sailors these waters travel,
Commerce increases gain,
Fast move the feet of toilers.
Active the heart and brain;
But up from the valley's lowland
Move 'mid the hiltops air
Culture and grace God-given,
Poet and artist fair.
THE CAMDEN COLONY 61
Broad be the life and deepest.
Pure be the air I breathe.
Heights be by habitations
To which my heart shall cleave;
Thus Heaven my goal and portion,
And Christ my highest good.
I look to heights above me
And dwell where God has stood,
Out on the hilltop, sleeping,
Lie patriarchs of old:
Plans that they formed and cherished
Dropped as their hands grew cold,
But God lives on, on these hill sides,
And speaks by men asleep
"Grow up from lowland visions
'To broadest life and deep.''
Then from the hilltop highest
Gain I the vision clear.
Vistas of life far reaching.
Treasures of gold and dear,
Bidding me seek the richest.
Lay hold of perfect love,
And dwell where streams unfailing
Through God's blest city move.
WHEN Jacob Miller arrived in Halifax, it was a town of
twenty-seven years' growth. Of its future, Colonel
Dundas, one of the loyalist commissioners, was not very
sanguine, but said that the people were .able to support
themselves by reason of the dockyards, the military life
and fishing-. In his opinion, New Brunswick, beyond a
narrow strip near to the water, was a barren region of
almost perpetual snow ,and rocks.
At the foot of Morris Street (named after Charles
Morris, a native of New England, and member of the first
legislative council of Nova Scotia) Jacob Miller exhibited
his enterprising spirit by purchasing land and building
at the water's edge a wharf still in use, and which soon
became known as "Miller's Wharf." On the four corners
formed by the intersection of Morris and Water Streets he
built four houses. Three of these are still in use. One
62 THE CAMDEN COLONY
of these houses, a frame, clapboarded building, large and
two stories hign and counted "grand" in those days, was
for many years the family residence. Here it was that,
after the death of their parents, his five daughters lived
a retired, dignified and unmarried life, entertaining their
own select list of friends in their own quaint way. Jacob
also acquired a large tract of land at the eastern end of
the city, some of which still remains in the possession of
In Halifax the business circumstances of Jacob Miller
rapidly improved. He established a most lucrative trade
with the West Indies, and engaged especially in exporting
lumber. During the time that the Duke of Kent was in
charge of the British forces at Halifax (1794-1799),
society, which during the French and Revolutionary wars
had taken on a very aristocratic and conservative tone,
enjoyed the generous hospitality which he dispensed.
Jacob Miller and his son Garrett, then a young man of
twenty-four, were particularly intimate with the Duke.
The stage road from Halifax crossed the property belong-
ing to Garrett on the La Have River, and there the Duke's
carriage found its final resting place and ended its days,
some relics of it being still shown in Bridgewater. While
the democratic tendencies of the Duke drew the people to
him and to the British institutions which he represented,
the business of furnishing supplies for the military forces,
which fell to the lot of Jacob Miller, also had a tendency
to produce a more than ordinary intimacy.
That Jacob Miller was a man of generous disposition
and religious character, becoming in one whose ancestry
was such as we have shown, and whose brothers were
immediately connected with the founding of Methodism
in America, we think it may not be difficult to show. In
America, however, he never identified himself with
Methodism, neither did his descendants, a fact which
suggests the seriousness of influence, example and training.
It is well known to the student of American Methodism
LITTLE DUTCH; CHURCH
SETTLEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA 63
that, on arriving in America, Philip Embury and those of
his associates in Ireland, finding no Methodist Society,
identified themselves with the Lutheran church, thus
reverting to the church of their ancestors. And while
there is no evidence in support, it is only reasonable to
suppose that while residing in New York Jacob Miller did
likewise, although he would not be under the same necessity
as was Philip Embury, inasmuch as a Methodist Churcli
was now engaged in successful work. On coming to
Halifax Mr. Miller identified himself with a Lutheran
church known as the "Little Dutch Church,'' a view of
which we herewith present.
This church, built in 1754 or 1755, was consecrated by
Dr. Breynton, first rector of St. Paul's (Episcopalian"
Church, in 1760, and in 1801 was succeeded by the pre-
sent "St. George's'' on Brunswick Street the "Round" or
'Umbrella" church. The Dutch Church still stands on
Barrington Street, with its windows boarded up and its
door locked, as are also the gates into the adjacent
cemetery, where lie many of the early German settlers,
whose graves are marked by slabs of the native ironstone.
After a brief association with this church, the family
cast in its lot with the much more convenient, and no doubt
aristocratic, St. Paul's Church, built by commission of the
King in 1750. This church is still active in Christian
enterprise, evangelical in its spirit and methods, and, as
one of the vital forces of Halifax, doing a splendid work.
Its hall for evangelistic meetings, gymnasium, Sunday-
school, young people's work, etc., costing $60,000.00, an,'
always open, is a model institution.
But Jacob Miller was not bigotted nor forgetful of
what Methodism had done for him. From good authority
Professor A. D. Smith, L.L.D., of Mount Allison Univer-
sity, Sackville, N.B.), we learn that when George Miller,
a nephew of Jacob, came from Ireland in 1817 as a local
preacher, and was received on trial for the ministry of
the Methodist Church in Nova Scotia, it was the uncle
64 THE C'AiMDEx COLONY
who both urged him to come and then donated to him a
horse and outfit with which to begin his work !
Nor is this the only evidence of his kindness. Know-
ing that his brother Garrett in the west had faced many
hardships and had six sons, while himself had but one,
he proposed that the oldest boy, Martin, should be sent
to him and adopted by him. This was a,greed to. But
Martin missed his opportunity and gave no end of trouble
to his uncle; joined the military forces, three times
deserted, was as often pardoned through his interceding
uncle who paid fines for him, but finally exhausted patience
and kindness and left for the States.
In St. Paul's churchyard in Halifax there is a tomb-
stone, in the family burial lot of Jacob Miller, "Sacred
to the memory of Ann Miller, wife of William Miller, who
died in 1818, aged 31 years." This must be taken as an-
other instance of Jacob's kindness. As we shall see later on
this. William Miller was a cousin of Jacob's, and the same
sort of encouragement that brought George from Ireland
evidently brought William and his family. The wife
dying, Jacob expressed his great sympathy by having her
burial place fixed within his own lot ! Surely such deeds
deserve to be commemorated, and in this age of wanton
greed we do well to place the emphasis here. The com-
mand to you, my reader, is to cultivate this spirit of real
neighborliness. "Go thou and do likewise."
On May 3ist, 1825, Jacob Miller, having died at the
good age of 83 years, was buried in St. Paul's Cemetery.
In 'the same plot lie the remains of his wife Elizabeth, who
died February loth, 1817, aged 72 years. The antiquary
also finds four other tombstones bearing inscriptions as
follows : "To Mary Miller, daughter of Jacob Miller,
who died 1833"; "To Abigail Miller, daughter of Jacob
Miller, who died 1834"; "To Mary Robinson, wife of
William Robinson, late of Stockton, England, who
departed this life June 3Oth, 1781, aged 35 years"; and
"To Mrs. Mary Bentley, late from Stockton." From the
SETTLEMENT ix NOVA SCOTIA. 65
proximity of the graves, and the fact that the oldest stone
is that of Mrs. Bentley, we think that Mary Robinson was
Alary Bentley, sister of Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Miller,
that Mrs. Bentley was the mother, and that Mary Miller
had been named in remembrance of her aunt.
After a persevering search in the summer of 1907 the
graves and records were found of three others of Jacob's
daughters, in Camphill Cemetery, in another, part of
Halifax. The entries in the book of records are as fol-
lows. : "Elizabeth Miller, May 2Qth, 1857, aged 83, born
in New York"; ''Ann Miller, May 28th, 1859, aged 88, born
in New York"; "Margaret Miller, February 26th, 1864, aged
81, born in United States."
Jacob Miller was succeeded by his son Garrett, who
proved himself able and worthy to bear the name. Busi-
ness flourished. A splendid education, such as Halifax
at that early date afforded, had been granted to the son,
and he proved himself possessed of good sense and large
power of acquisition. He rose to prominence in the com-
mercial world. The following copy of a Note of Ex-
change, now in our possession, gives some idea of the kind
of business he transacted :
"Exchange 3% P.O. discount, No. 1335, 1000 os. od.,
stg., Halifax, 2nd March, 1815.
"Thirty days after sight, be pleased to pay this my
First Exchange, the Second and Third of the same Tenor
and Date not being part, to the Order of Mr. Garrett
Miller -the sum of
ONE THOUSAND POUNDS, STG.
and place the same to Account, with or without Advice from
"Your Most Obedient Servant,
"Dy. Commissary General.
"To the Right Flonorable,
"The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury,
66 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
Endorsement on the back :
"Pay to the order of William Danson, Esq.,
"GARRETT MILLER. 1 '
This signature is in a good hand.
This would appear to have been a business transaction
in connection with military supplies.
During the war of 1812-1815 the Millers of Halifax
were also active in England's interests. Garrett Miller was
appointed prize commissioner over the privateers which
in the service of the King preyed upon the enemy. On one
occasion the captured vessel had on board a pianoforte,
the property of the daughter of United States President
Madison, and had been shipped from New York, where
the young lady had been attending school. This notable
article the prize commissioner bought in and presented
it to his daughter, being still retained in the family of her
descendants, the Hon. Jason Mack, of Liverpool, N.S.
Cupid laid his hand upon Garrett Miller also. Clias.
Morris, Esq., who occupied his own house, which is still
standing on the corner of Morris and Hollis Streets, had
married a Miss Pernette, daughter of Colonel Pernette,
at one time in the military service of Germany in Alsace,
later a colonel of France, and finally made a British
subject by act of the British parliament a Huguenot. To
this colonel the Crown made a grant of 22,400 acres of
land stretching along the La Have River for eleven miles
in the neighborhood of the present town of Bridgewater.
In Ins business capacity Garrett Miller had occasion to call
at the home of Mr. Morris, and there it was that he met
Miss Catherine Pernette, sister of the lad) of the house.
The esteem was mutual, and the visits were repeated,
culminating in the marriage ceremony which was per-
formed in the same mansion. "The Avonmore" is the
present name of the place, and it is a well kept boarding
house. Without knowing the previous history, this house
furnished our lodging during a most enjoyable holiday,
and the discovery of the romance followed.
SETTLEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA. 67
To the newly married Garrett the La Have became
especially attractive, and receiving a portion of the Pernette
domain he added to it by making extensive purchases and
creating a large establishment for himself on the opposite
side of the river.
This locality has been aptly called "The Rhinelancl
of Canada." Its charms are indescribable. No wonder
that the German colony, formed along this river by direct
emigration from Germany in 1/53, has contentedly
remained. The little white houses, homes of German
fishermen, stretching for miles along the shore like a con-
tinuous village, with a repetition of church spires that
suggest both liberality and an abundance of gospel
privileges, together with the pine covered hills, the deep,
winding river broadening as it moves seaward, and dotted
with the masts of freight vessels, combine to produce a
scene the charm of which the traveller cannot easily forget.
A drive of ten miles along .this river, through the kindness
of Captain Geo. W. Godard and wife, has furnished one
of those pleasing recollections that will never grow dim.
Canadians scarcely know how great is the wealth of natural
beauty with which this noble land has been endowed. It
is not limited to one locality either. Ours is a favored land
wh'ere, if nature's lessons were heeded, culture of taste
would everywhere abound.
Identifying himself with the County of Lunenburjg,
Garrett Miller presently sought the honor of representing
it in parliament. Here is a copy of his electoral card.
' To the Freeholders of the County of Lunenburg :
"The dissolution of the House of Assembly affording
you the opportunity of exercising your Elective Franchise
as to a future representation therein; At the instance of
very many of your respectable body I am induced to offer
myself a candidate at the ensuing Election for your County,
in which I have long resided, and much longer have had
intercourse. Should you by your suffrages deem me worthy
68 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
of such trust, I beg to assure you, I shall make myself
acquainted with the localities and wants of your County
(by visiting every part thereof), the interest of which
particularly, with that of the province in general, it will
be my study to promote, and for which purpose my best
exertions shall be used.
"I have the honor to remain gentlemen,
"Your most humble servant,
'Halifax, ;th November, 1836."
It is a small card. Who could surpass it for its con-
ciseness and suggestiveness of statement ? The author
was indeed a man of mental ability and good scholarship.
He did his own legal work largely. There is extant a
sketch and statements prepared for court pleading in which
he defended his rights on the La Have against a trespasser
who was removing his timber, and the document would
do credit to a modern surveyor and lawyer in one. He
was duly elected and sat in parliament from 1837-1841.
Colonel Jos. Pernette (his father-in-law) had filled the same
position for two terms from 1761-1770.
For a specimen of the sort of literature that Jacob
Miller and his family enjoyed we are indebted to Mr. and
Mrs. G. W. Godard, of Bridgewater. It is a leather
bound volume written by Samuel Johnson and entitled
"Julian's Arts to undermine and extirpate Christianity,
Together with answers to Constantius the Apostate, and
to Jovian; By Samuel Johnson. Licensed and entered
according to Order, London. Printed by J. D. for the
author, and are to be sold by Richard Chiswell at the Rose
and Crown, and Jonathan Robinson, at the Golden Lion
in St. Paul's Churchyard, MDCLXXXIX."
This volume is interesting in many ways. On the
previous page it is said "The present impression of this
book was made in the year 1683, and has ever since lain
buried under the Rumes of all those English Rights which
it endeavored to Defend; but by the Auspicious and Happy.
SETTLEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA. 69
Arrival of the Prince of Orange, both They and It have
obtained a Resurrection." Glorious Prince indeed ! And
this book like the Palatine is a testimony to his zeal and
Within the volume we have found a sprig of shamrock
evidently brought from the Emerald "Isle ! Doubtless
in New York the volume was read again during the con-
tentious years preceding the Revolution and the bit of
shamrock was left to mark this suggestive pasage : 'The
Scripture does not meddle with the secular government of
this world, so as to alter it; for to alter Government is
to overthrow the just Compacts and Agreements which
have been made amongst Men ; to which they have mutually
bound themselves by Coronation-Oaths and Oaths of
Allegiance; whereby the duties of Governors and Subjects
are become the moral Duties of Honesty, Justice and
righteous dealing; which no man will say, it is the work
of the Gospel to destroy or abolish." Such a passage
indicates the way the loyalist thought was working. THis
highly prized souvenir, with the present writer's name
inscribed was "Presented by Geo. W. Godard, husband of
Elizabeth M. M. Miller, igreat granddaughter of the first
Jacob Miller, of Halifax, N.S., as a souvenir of the family.
Bridgewater, N.S., July I5th, 1907."
The first generation of Canadian Palatine loyalists
seems to have made rapid strides in acquiring general
culture, social standing, business prosperity, home com-
forts, and Christian fellowship. The- testimony of con-
temporaries in the days when conscience governed men
bears out the impression that these people were among the
worthy and strong of the land.
Garrett Miller, of Halifax, who always kept up his
business and real estate interests in that city, even though
he had a splendid estate at La Have, has left us a little
note of some social interest. It has been (preserved by
Daniel Miller Owen, K.C., of Halifax, and is a fine
specimen of handwriting. It is a wedding invitation
7 o THE CAMDEN COLONY.
addressed from "New Dublin," N.S., has the signature of
Garrett Miller on the lower left hand corner of the address,
and was sealed with wax envelopes were not yet in vogue.
It is as follows :
"Mr. and Mrs. Garrett Miller's best respects, and
request the favor of Mr. Peter Kaulback's company on
Tuesday next, at 12 o'clock at noon, to be present at the
nuptials of their daughter Elizabeth and Mr. Daniel Owen,
New Dublin, November i8th, 1837.
"N.B. Should Tuesday be stormy or rainy will take
place on next day at same hour."
( It is probable that the difficulties which clergymen
encountered in their travels in those days rendered this
"N.B." especially necessary.
In his ecclesiastical preferences, following the example
of his father, Garrett Miller connected himself with the
Episcopalian Church, and he became largely instrumental,
if not altogether responsible, for the erection of a church
on his estate at La Have the first in that section of coun-
try. From a small hand painting we have secured the
interesting cut shown opposite.
It was situated on a high bluff, back some distance
from the shore line and crowned the hill. It was of ample
proportions as the existing foundations indicate with a
large tower in the front. Towards its erection Garrett
Miller contributed the land, much of the material and
200 in money. As marking the special respect of the
community both himself and wife were buried under the
chancel. A little cemetery adjoins the church site in which
lie the remains of many unnamed pioneers. The church
has been demolished, and a new one erected of more
modern architecture in another part of the parish. It will
be seen that the lines of architecture were very similar to
the general conceptions of early ecclesiastical architecture
The descendants of Jacob Miller have numbered four
score persons in their five generations and include in their
SETTLEMENT ix NOVA SCOTIA. ;/
associations two ministers, a doctor, five lawyers "two of
whom are members of the Legislative Council of Nova
Scotia one being the leader of the government side,, and
the third one being a judge), one other is customs col
lector, and another representing the military genius is
prominently identified with municipal matters; one in
Glasgow, Scotland, has become no-ted as an inventor. The
general trend of life has been in mercantile rather than
agricultural pursuits. Surely good seed fell on ,good soil
in Nova Scotia, and has added something to the general
welfare of the communities!
G. T. N. MILLER, 1805-1897. FRANCES MILLER, 1807-1885.
Children of Garrett Miller.
From the provincial literature we gather the following
Garrett Trafalgar Nelson Miller was born in 1805 in
the memorable month of Nelson's victory hence the name.
He lived to be nearly ninety-two years of age. He resided
on the Miller homestead at La Have, and is said to have
been one of the handsomest of men, tall and stately, and
to the last soldierly in bearing, his very stride as he
walked provoking the admiration of his fellow citizens.
Somewhat of an aristocrat, he preferred at election times
?2 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
to journey -seventy miles to Halifax to vote rather than do
so at the ordinary country seat. Perhaps he was not the
only one of his connection to manifest some little
idiosyncrasy. He married Miss Maria Morris, famed as an
artist. Of her the "Halifax Herald" has said, "Mrs. Maria
Morris Miller was a lady of great intellectual culture. As
an amateur artist her paintings survive to attest a wonder-
ful skill. Many of these were even given to the world
in the serial publication known as the 'Wild Flowers of
Nova Scotia,' the first of which with colored plates skil-
fully executed were issued under the auspices of Sir
Peregrine Maitland, while administering the government
of the province of Nova Scotia, and while Mrs. Miller was
still unmarried. The admirable works of the then Miss
Morris instantly won the approbation of tasteful people
in the mother country as well as in America ; and indeed
the Queen herself for her Majesty is no mean artist
not only extended her royal patronage to the Canadian
lady, but added substantial marks of her personal appre-
ciation. At a later date the livraisons of the ' Wild Flowers
of Nova Scotia^ were widely sought for at home and
abroad ; so that it was mainly by the power of her magic
pencil that the wealth of the northern forest flora became
known to the world ; yet it is to be feared that the superb
works of this skilful artist the Audabon of Nova Scotian
Field Flowers returned to her more renown and admira-
tion than substantial rewards." These perfect paintings,
once on exhibition in England and later in the Provincial
Parliament Building, Halifax, numbering some one
hundred beautiful specimens are now sacredly guarded
in a Haligonian vault. They constitute a thirty years'
work. Through the kindness of the present owner, Mr.
Reginald Grant, grandson of G. T. N. Miller, these works
of art were brought from a twelve years' seclusion in the
vault, and our eyes were permitted to feast upon these
faultless and ideal representations of Canadian flowers.
Joseph Pernette Miller built one of the first houses in
SETTLEMENT IN XOVA SCOTIA.
the neighborhood of Bndegwatcr, Nova Scotia. It still
stands though unoccupied and rapidly falling into decay,
and we give herewith a cut of it. He died at Bridgewater
in 1 88 1, aged 73, having resided there for nearly fifty
years. He saw the growth of Bridgewater from the time
when its main street, and indeed the whole town was a
mere collection of straggling houses with a road not much
wider than a cow path winding between them along the
edge of the river, when the only road to Liverpool was
by the ri\erside to Pernettc's ferry on the old Miller home-
GLEN ALLAN Oldest house in Bridgewater, N.S.
stead, thence by Petite Riviere along the shore to Mill
Village. Hotels, railroads and steamers were unknown
here. Mrs. Miller was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland,
in which city .she held landed property. Her father, the
late Dr. Colin Allan, came to Halifax attached to H. M.
forces as staff surgeon where he resided until he retired
and removed to Fredericton, N.B., where his remains lie
deposited in the Cathedral cemetery. Kind, loving, and
affable to all, ever ready to assist the poor and needy, Mrs.
Miller was beloved by all who knew her. To a large
degree she possessed the artist's gift, and in this she is
THE CAMDEX COLONY.
succeeded by her daughters, Mrs. G. W. Godard and Mrs.
W. D. Hall, of Bridgewater.
John Miller, who died at Bridgewater in 1898, was
the last of a family of seven, esteemed by many for rns
old-time, polite manners; a well informed and constant
reader, taking great interest in the affairs of the day.
Of the descendants of Jacob Miller in Halifax, are
MRS. CREED, married to John R. Creed most excellent
Christian people, of the Baptist Church fine, old-time
types of home culture, Christian reverence, broad intellec-
JEAN R. MILLER, Brierbank Cottage, La Haue, N.S. Born 1900 ,
tuality and substantial social tastes. Their children
faithfully follow them. Mr. Creed traces his ancestry to
the hymn writer Isaac Watts. D. M. OWEX, who married
Miss Mary Ruggles Green, of Worcester, Mass. Her
parents were for years engaged in missionary work in
Ceylon, and her own spirit has been touched by the same
sweet Christian graces that made beautiful the parental
home. ' Armbrae," on Oxford Street, will long be remem-
bered for the genial Christian hospitality and high social
culture of lawyer and Mrs. Owen.
DR. JOSHUA NEWTON MACK who married Miss Gordon,
closely related to the principal of Queen's University.
SETTLEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA. 75
Dr. M. is among the best read of his profession in Halifax.
His delight in nature studies carried on on a portion of
the Miller estate, which he inherits, is unbounded. Only
for fear of surprising a delightful modesty we would
write many and larger things of this excellent household.
The family is numbered in St. Matthew's Presbyterian
"Brierbank" is the home of Louis S. Miller, situated
on the old estate at West La Have. Mrs. Miller was the
daughter of Rev. Ed. Roberts of Aylesbury, Buckingham-
shire, England. They have five children, the youngest,
Jean R. Miller, is the youngest Nova Scotian descendant
of Jacob Miller.
CAPTAIN GEORGE W. GODARD is the indefatigable man
of all work of Bridgewater president of the Electric
Light Company, secretary of the Board of Trade, church
warden and treasurer, general broker and insurance agent,
etc. He comes of a military family and prizes his family
treasures, including coat of arms.
HON. W. H. OWEN, also of Bridgewater and conduct-
ing an extensive law practise, for many years a member
of the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia, is also the local
representative of the American Consulate.
The descendants of Jacob Miller have developed
amonig them some with poetic genius as shown in Mrs.
Godard, Lawyer D. M. Owen and the Hon. Jason Miller
Mack, leader in the upper chamber of the Nova Scotian
government. We shall conclude our review of this branch
of the family by quoting in full a poem produced by Mr.
Mack at seventeen years of age, and which won the prize
offered by the University for the best poem of the year
written on the death of a fellow student.
"Oh tyrant death! what earthly charms shall save
When thy stern edicts sentence to the grave?
What kingly bribe may force thee to relent.
Or for a space fort-go thy fell intent?
76 THE CAMDEX COLONY.
Where field.-, of ice spread broad beneath the pole,
And the cold waves on colder glaciers roll
Where sunny islands gem the tropic seas
And lend their perfume to the fanning breeze-
In every various clime thy power is known,
Zenith and Nadar tremble at thy tone;
Nor blazing honors gained in martial strife
May buy from thee an hour of Meeting life.
Nor prouder glories gleaned from learning's field,
Against thy dart be found efficient shield,
Even Virtue's guard before thine arm is weak,
E'en Courage meets thce with a paling cheek
And Alma Mater mourns a cherished son
Snatched from the honors he had won;
E'en as his hand was reached the prize to clasp,
Envious thou saw'st and caught'st it. from his grasp.
But vain the deed, for He who conquered thee.
Claiming His own, shall set the prisoner free;
And as some stream that first pursues its way,
Reflecting from its waves the sun's bright ray
Then sinking darkly in the deserts' womb,
Creeps on its course in mystery and gloom,
Till once more rising to the 'cheerful' light
It rushes on more joyous and more bright-
So his life's river in Time's thirsty sand
Lost for a space shall in a happier land
Mingle its waters in the crystal tide
That rolls along, the Tree of Life beside."
PETER MILLER His DESCENDANTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE.
Let me rear a graveless tribute
To the memory of the past.
Where thy ceaseless flow of waters
Deep or shallow travels fast,
Glad to join the broad St Lawrence,
Hastening toward the ocean deep,
Gaining greatness by communion
Where the broad skies vigils keep.
Could we summon up the old days,
What a tragic tale they'd tell
Of the elemental warfares
Or the mystic Nature spell!
How the wrath of heaven o'erwhelmed thee
And the lightnings smote thy main,
Or the love of all that liveth
With the sunshine woke again.
And there came to thee the morning
When the age-long silence broke,
And from out the unknown somewhere
Heart and brain of man awoke.
And the red man's bark o'erspread thee,
And his battle-axe was rife
When his wild-voice summoned war braves
To the tribal love of strife.
Like a vision of the morning
W r hen the storm-cloud clears the air
Red man's rule and strife have vanished
And the white man's laws are here;
Names like old Missisquoi furnish
Traces of the Savage age,
Bits of stone, the Indian's war plant.
Show the impotence of rage.
78 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
But this morn my pencil sketches
Forts and barriers, modern things,
(Which the larger rule of white man
To thy settled landscape brings ;
French and English in succession,
Guarding jealously the gates
Where thy waters hold strategic
Highways to Canadian states.
And I see no more the birch bark,
But the white man's toiling boat,
Where the streams of loyal patriots
Homeless, on thy bosom float,
And with marks of war upon them
Wounded men and women brave,
Seek the honor of the old flag,
British prestige still would save*
Till within thy shores' stout forest
Rung the loyal axe and song,
Rose the farm house and the church spire,
Sprang up truth to right the wrong:
And the fundamentals dearest
To our free and civil state
-Found their birth and confirmation,
British foes to reprobate.
They have vanished from our vision,
Empire makers of the past,
And their monuments are living
Forms of nation life, that last;
Not to graveyards, decorations
May our grateful hearts propose;
On our Nation's Roll of Honor
Words of gratitude compose.
And the Richelieu, the tireless,
Washing out the stains of blood,
Marks the memory of the brave ones
By the commerce and the good
Of two nations, interchanging,
Aiding each the other's mart;
Thus the blood of .loyal freemen
Plays in modern life a 'part.
PETER MILLER. 79
ROWING and portaging along the Richelieu (first known
as the Iroquois) River, the women and children of loyalist
soldiers were at length able to reach Sorel. Here a con-
siderable settlement of the refugees was formed, for the
government kept them here until land could be surveyed
and opened up to the new arrivals. Moreover the disposi-
tion of the authorities was to keep the people away from
the frontier, and for this reason efforts were; made tu
induce the people to locate on the north shore of the St.
Lawrence. With St. Johns, however, as an important
point, and Isle au Xoix an even more strategic one, it was
soon evident that settlement must grow this way.
Thus Peter Miller cast in his lot with St. Armand on
Missisquoi Bay. Paul and Barbara Heck, John and Mary
Lawrence, the Detlors, Switzers, Dulmages and others
decided on going further west. The Hecks are said to
have settled at Augusta, Ont, on the banks of the St. Law-
rence, in 1778. As to this date historians disagree, Dr.
John Carroll holding that it was in 1785. We think the
earlier date very much more probable. Without any
pastor, these people held a class meeting among themselves,
and Samuel Embury, son of Philip, and then of full age,
was the class leader. To this class has been given the
honor of being first in Ontario. On this point there has been
some difference of opinion, and it has been shown that as
there were as yet no regularly appointed Methodist
preachers in the country and class meetings could only be
organized by pastors, that, therefore, the place of priority
in organization must be given to the Adolphustown class
formed by Wm. Losce who was the first Methodist preacher
appointed in (old) Canada, receiving his appointment in
1791. It was in 1790 that a class was formed at Stamford
in the Niagara region by a local preacher named Neal,
who made Christian Warner, converted under his preach-
ing, its leader, a position he held until his death in 1833.
But a local preacher was without authority to organize a
class. Here were two classes existing before the advent
So THE CAMDEX COLONY.
of the circuit preacher all the more worthy of honorable
mention as spontaneous expressions of religious experience;
and from the authority of Playter, Carroll and others it
seems that the first place must be given to the Augusta
class, and the position of first Canadian class leader to
Samuel Embury. Later on he seems to have removed to
St. Armand, Oue. We know that he married Catherine
Miller, daughter of Peter Miller, February I3th, 1790,
and that he died at St. Armand in 1853. His family of
twelve children has become widely scattered; some
descendants are living at St. Armand East, and some in
the neighborhood of Oliver, Cue., while others are
distributed through the United States. It is altogether
probable that in the erection of the Methodist Church at
Philipsburg, Oue., in 1819, he took a prominent part,
perhaps doing carpenter work, as his father had done in
the celebrated John Street Church, New York. On the
St. Armand circuit he also fulfilled the duties of a local
preacher. When the church at Philipsburg was renovated
and received memorial windows during the ministry of
Rev. Dr. G. H. Porter (1898-1902) there was one window
inserted inscribed to the memory of Philip and Samuel
St. Armand was laid out as a parish, and in 1784 the
name of Peter Miller occurs among those of the first
settlers, nineteen in number, whose names are given by
Cyrus' Thomas in his "History of some of the Eastern
Townships" published in 1866. These settlers, he says,
came to the shores of Missisquoi Bay in the Fall of 1/84.
One of the company was Garrett Sixby who married Mary
Miller, Peter's daughter according to the above quoted
historian they were married in Montreal and removed
to St. Armand, where he located a farm alongside of that
of his father-in-law. The house which he built in that
year, 1784, is still standing and is occupied by his grand-
son, Horatio Sixby. It is of large size and built of brick
marvellous bricks to last so long and one cannot avoid
PETER MILLER 8r
wondering how and where bricks were to be obtained at
that time. Commendable enterprise laudable ambition,
that at that early date would live in a brick house !
Unlike his brother in the east, Peter Miller had chosen
for himself and as it proved, for the larger part of his
descendants, the pastoral life; and from 1784 to iSig he
achieved considerable success in clearing the new land and
developing its resources, and in a measure recouping him-
self for the losses sustained by the revolution. Although
a man of forty-four when he thus set out to begin life
anew a time when many modern men are inclined to think
life's best chances are over he accepted his task with
vigor and courage.
In some respects we shall not wonder at his choice of
land. St. Armand is one of the favored localities of
Quebec. A modern view of the country we have given
in another connection and now quote ourselves : Leaving
St. Johns by the Central Vermont an hour's ride brings us
to St. Armand Station. A fine stretch of level farming
country, that strangely enough had no .attraction for the
pioneer United Empire loyalist, has been left behind, and
we have entered the land of bluffs and hills and water-
courses and sugar bushes that give< miles and miles of
picturesqueness to the Eastern Townships.
Talk about romantic scenery. With streets and roads
winding about in fantastic fashions, over ridges that give
far prospects, with maple crowned hills or glimmering
waters, and in the interval prosperous farms and ancient
houses, who would not exchange care for communion in
Nature's theatre 5 Rocks break out from the hillsides and
rise in terraces ledge on ledge (foundations of untold
wealth) in a way that suggests a home for the fox or the
wild goat (if ever Canada had such); but the day of such
habitation is gone, for the hard hand of human industry
has come and the cold calculation of man's far-seeing brain
is shaping the course for the development of a great
industrial future. It is coming to Philipsburg.
82 THE CAMDEN COLONY
But climbing roadways, with roofs and broad veran-
dahs peeping at you over the hillsides, quiet valleys where
you hide from all the world, and the surprises of nature's
landscape gardening which man's ingenuity has not spoiled
it is all poetic, and one wonders why, in St. Armand,
a great Canadian poet has not arisen.
Into such a locality Peter Miller found his way, and
no wonder he decided to remain. About a mile from the
present railway station he secured his location. There on
the summit of a hill he reared his Canadian home, and
from that lofty eminence serenely surveyed all the lands
and people beneath him. At 'the foot of the hill the
moden railway train thunders past awakening the echoes
in the valley, and from his car window the alert observer
may easily descry the white metal roofs of ample farm
house and modern barn which mark /"where this pioneer
began his last life's work. The residence of to-day-
spacious and substantial modernized by wide verandaii
and internal wood finishings, was built in 1806 by Charles
Miller, Peter's son, and is of stone. Its century of
existence with a modern redressing seems only to have
toughened it to the conditions of life and prepared it for
a yet long future. As one looks about the wide hall and
into roomy parlors with old-time fireplaces one can easily
think that "Miller Homestead," was once the abode of a
knight knightly at least in character. What an enter-
prise at that early date to erect a home that even now
puts to shame many a pretentious residence erected amid
modern conveniences ! In such large calculations there
was an air of hospitality a spirit which still delights to
dwell therein as we can testify from recent experiences.
AniO'ng the many guests who in early days enjoyed the
hospitality of this house, the most welcome were the
pioneer Methodist preachers. In the ample rooms many a
preaching service and prayer meeting was conducted for
the benefit of the settlers who always felt themselves
welcome in "the house on the hilltop," and here, too, the
PETER MILLER. 83
business meetings of a Methodist circuit were conducted.
Considering, therefore, what has been evolved from the
efforts of the past, this stone house is a sacred place, pro-
tected by white-winged angels and consecrated by gen-
Like his brothers, east and west, Peter Miller was
unobtrusive, contenting himself with doing such things as
were for the good of his neighbors; beyond that quietly
minding his own ways. He seems to have left as little on
record in writing as his brothers, except that we have his
signature, which cannot be said of them. His descendants
have, with other documents, .a legal instrument by which
he made over his property to his son Charles, which bears
date of 1812, and his handwriting is interesting.
In his excellent brochure on "Canadian Loyalists," Mr.
|. P. Noyes quotes in full a petition dated February 7th,
1785, in which the petitioners somewhat hysterically protest
their loyalty to the British Crown, and their objection to
being struck off the list of beneficiaries of government
provisions. It seems that "a few stubborn men pitched
their tents in the seigniories when and where there were
no owners on the spot to warm them off, and from thence
importuned the government for permission to settle therein,
on and about Missisquoi Bay. This was firmly and at
times angrily refused, the government offering them lands
elsewhere, where the Crown owned the lands; and on
refusal they were officially warned that their provisional
allowances would be cut off." This was done ; "the
Governor General ordered their houses to be destroyed,
and the settlers sent for location to St. Johns." Yet it
seems they persisted, in the face of threatenings, to occupy
the ground and had the courage to send in this petition
for the granting of supplies. The document, the Dominion
Archivist, Dr. Brymner, says is the only one relating to
Missisquoi Bay of that period which contains a list of
names. We are not sure that the conclusion has been
correctly drawn that all settlers in the localitv would likely
84 THE CAMDEN COLONY
sign such a document. There was room for a difference
of opinion as to the merits of the case, and there is a
presumption in favor of some refusing to sign who rnay
not have recognized the grievance. We do not know how
far Cyrus Thomas is justified in saying that the first
settlers came into Missisquoi in 1784; but there is a
difference between the list of settlers which he quotes and
the petitioners whose names are furnished by Dr. Brymner,
there being seven names in the petition to government not
quoted by Thomas, and twelve of those settlers of 1784 who
are not on the petition of 1785. We take it that the latter
twelve, .among whom were Peter Miller and Garrett Sixby,
were well content with their own position, and probably
saw how the others had provoked the government to harsh
measures. Peter Miller must have received his grant of
land as reward for military service; and it is on record
among the archives of the western branch that while his
brother Garrett was granted twelve hundred acres Peter
was given nine hundred. By 1820, as we learn from a
letter written by a visitor at that time, the combined estate
of Peter and his son Charles amounted to thirteen hundred
acres; whence we conclude that Peter Miller did not settle
as a trespasser at Missisquoi Bay, and, therefore, his con-
science prevented him from signing that particular petition.
That the early settlers experienced great hardships
the histories of the time afford ample evidence. There
were times of famine. Families lived for days on the
drink made from boiled beech leaves or slippery elm bark
and the wild leek. Purchasing points were far distant,
the means of conveyance often on the settler's back, and
the only purchasing commodity was the potash made by
burning the vast quantities of wood to ashes; in this way
land was cleared of the forest, and a subsistence secured
lor the time being.
Peter Miller and his descendants maintained with
justifiable pricle the U. E. loyalist and military traditions.
In addition to his own military commission, for which as
PETER MILLER. 85
we have seen, he received recognition in the form of a land
giant, his son Charles also attained the rank of captain,
his son-in-law, Garrett Sixby, the rank of colonel, and
the latter title i's also applied to Garrett's grandson Horatio
fitting most eminently such a name.
We naturally look around the locality in this year
1907 for the large estate of thirteen hundred acres. Where
is it ? The present farm consists of two hundred acres
only. Not many rods south of the house is the American
boundary line. How, we ask, could there have been so
large an estate with a national boundary line so near ?
Some three or four miles away is a beautiful natural park,
Highgate, in Vermont State, a favorite summer resort, and
the popular rendezvous for the Sunday School excursion-
ists of Montreal and other places. This was once a
part of the estate and was sold about 1853 after the death
of Captain Charles Miller. A writer of 1820, after enjoy-
ing the hospitality of Captain Charles, in dwelling with
delighted recollection upon his visit, states that the estate
consisted of thirteen hundred acres, a part of which was
in Vermont; from which we gather that the property
extended from the present two hundred acres to Highgate,
what was regarded as being in Vermont having been pur-
chased and secured in harmony with the laws of that
State. The student of Canadian history will be familiar
witli the troubles that arose between the English and
American governments in 1837 over the disputes concern-
ing the Maine and New Brunswick boundaries, resulting
in the Ashburton Treaty of 1842, by which the Imperial
Government evidently yielded the claims of the colonists
for the sake of peace with the States. The treaty, fixing
the boundary line at the forty-fifth parallel of latitude,
resulted in the loss of much Canadian territory; and thus
the Canadian portion of "Miller Homestead" became
reduced to its present proportions.
The "line-house" has become a fruitful source of local
excitement and social discord through the existence of
86 THE CAMDEN COLONY
this "im?giiicuV' boundary line. The line ought to be
made several feel wide, and be held as Crown domain upon
which no one could lawfully build, for as it is houses are
built contiguous to public highways, and extending into
both countries, being used for mercantile purposes, more
especially illegal liquor selling. When the officers of the
law appear at the "line-house," the occupant always con-
trives to have his goods on the other side of the line.
Amusing and exciting have been the scenes witnessed at
the raidings. Double partitions, false floors, trap doors
and other ingenious devices have all been invented,
especially for the purpose of circumventing the liquor law^.
of the different nations and distressing quiet and law-
abiding citizens. When the law bailiffs of both countries
agree on an attack and join in concerted surprises confisca-
tions and arrests follow, but even this method has been
known to fail, by giving the "tip" beforehand. Such line-
houses as those below Abercorn and near Mansonville in
Quebec have witnessed many stirring occasions.
Running over the hill and in front of the house which
Charles Miller built is the public highway leading from
Canada into Vermont, and as it crosses the boundary line
one observes on the opposite side of the road one of these
peculiarly constructed line -houses, the main part of the
house being on the Canadian side and built up to the
boundary line, while a box-like addition about large
enough for a parlor protrudes out of the architectural line
into American territory.
It is this peculiar house, so adroitly situated, which
has made it possible for us to trace the recognition of
family relationship between the families of Peter and
Jacob Miller, for there is a remembrance in Bridgewater,
N.S., of what "Uncle John Miller" (1811-1898) used to
tell of a visit which he made long ago to his cousins in
this locality, and the impression which this line-house made
upon his mind.
Removed from the noise of city life and the excite-
PETER MILLER. 87
ments of large social attractions, Peter Miller and his
descendants gave themselves to the development of pastoral
life and the promotion of religious interests; their farming
operations added to the wealth of the country, but it was
their religious devotion that we particularly wish to
emphasize, as the encouragement which they afforded made
for the general higher quality of citizenship, wherein lies
the real wealth of a country.
The pioneer settlers waited long for Christian minis-
trations. From the time of Peter Miller's location in St.
Arinand in 1/84 to the advent of a Methodist minister in
the new settlements about Missisquoi Bay was at least
fifteen years ! Lorenzo Dew, an erratic character, greatly
perplexing the conference, was appointed in i/QQ to the
Essex circuit, which was only on paper. Undertaking the
work, he labored during August, September and October
of that year, taking in settlements in Sutton, Dunham and
the border country of Vermont. This was the first con-
ference appointment in the province of Quebec. At the
next conference Essex circuit was reported with a member-
ship of 2/4; we doubt not. that our hero, Peter Miller, was
one of the number. Fletcher, in Vermont, was included
in the circuit. In 1806 Fletcher was separated from the
Canadian part of the work, and an official resolution was
passed which is still to be seen in the circuit book pre-
served in the Alethodist parsonage at Philipsburg, ordering
that the name of Peter Aliller should have the same plac^
in the book connected with the Canadian work that it had
before Fletcher was taken off. For a number of years a
stone building, which still stands on the hill going from
St. Armand Station to Philipsburg which is situated on
the shore of Missisquoi Bay, served the purposes of school
house and preaching place. Peter lived long enough to
witness the near realization of a church erected for the
worship of God according to the Methodist faith. He
d;cd in 1819. An Episcopalian Church was already in
existence at St. Armand. But in 1819 the ground was
88 THE CAM DEN COLONY
secured at Philipsburg and the erection of the Methodist
Church begun the first church in that locality. Mrs.
Miller survived her husband thirteen years, being at her
death one hundred and one years of age. Really, pioneer-
hardships seemed to make for longevity perhaps after
all, were preferable to our modern nerve-exhausting rush.
To the east of the present St. Armand Station a few rods,
and on a rising ground, a little hedge-surrounded cemetery-
affords the last resting place of these Methodist pioneers,
together with many of their descendants to the third and
Captain Charles Miller, hospitable and generous, con-
tinued the agricultural life to the day of his death, content
with performing the duties of private citizenship, but
greatly beloved b^ his neighbors and family circle. The
war of 1812 and the rebellion of 1837 found him active
and loyal in defending British interests. Many of his
children, of whom there were eleven, removed from the
neighborhood. His first child, Peter, died young; three
remained unmarried. One daughter, Agnes, who married
John Cooper, retained an interest in the old home, which
is still occupied by her daughter and grandchildren. Her
brother, Thomas Cooper, born near Stanst-ead, Que., in
1833, died in Boston in 1896, having persevered against
great oclcls, and choosing a sea-faring life made himself
notable as a captain, pilot and ship owner. He was an
example of fearlessness, honesty, rapid decision and
action, aggressiveness, and a passion for work. A son of
Charles Miller, Nicholas, removed to Campbellford, Ont,
where his descendants are to be found connected with the
Methodist Church. A daughter, Margaret (1807-1899),
married the Rev. Matthew Lang, and with him travelled
Stanstead, Odelltown, Quebec, St. Armand, Belleville,
Kingston, Montreal, Dunham, St. Johns and Cham-
bly circuits. The Rev. Matthew Lang was book steward
in Toronto 1835 and 1836, and chairman Bay of
Quinte District in 1840, and of St. Johns in 1849. While
stationed in St. Johns, he went one Sunday afternoon
(February 2ist, 1850) to conduct a class meeting in the
soldiers' barracks, was taken ill suddenly and died before
returning to the parsonage. His family consisted of nine
children, nearly all of whom settled in the United States
in Toledo, Alburg Springs, St. Albans, Boston.
A daughter given to the Methodist ministry and gen-
erous gifts for the building of a Methodist Church, of
which he was one of the first Board of Trustees, represent
PHILIPSBURG METHODIST CHURCH, BUILT 1819.
something of the relationship of Charles Miller to Metho-
dism and his helpfulness to his race.
It is fitting that we should conclude this chapter by
the following outline history of Philipsburg Methodist
Church, and the accompanying cut of the church as we
saw it on a visit in the spring of 1907 .
Philipsburg Methodist Church, solidly built of the
native marble, undressed, but still as white as ever, neatly
painted within, and furnished with modern circular seat-
ing, with the accompaniment also of memorial art windows,
is probably the oldest Methodist Church in the provinces
90 THE CAMDEN COLONY
of Canada which has been in continuous use. It is to the
honor of Missisquoi county that it has dealt with kindly
hands and has preserved in excellent condition this land-
mark of Canadian life.
The St. Armancl and Philipsburg circuit dates from
1806. Previous to this date the pioneer preachers were on
the ground, however, and following up the new settlers
with the ordinances of religion. On the fly leaf of the
stewards' book that came into existence in 1 806 there is this
entry "Whereas Fletcher's circuit has been divided, the
former records may be found in the stewards' book for that
circuit." Quoting from information from the present
pastor, Rev. Wm. Adams, we may say that the first official
entry in the stewards' book is dated 1819. Previous busi-
ness has been lost to history. The historian may not be
surprised to find that in the first fourteen or fifteen years
with everything in a formative condition, and the people
not fully impressed with the historical value of their pro-
ceedings, confusion and irregularity might characterize
them, and their records kept in temporary form may have
easily been lost. In the entry of 1819 the ink has become
faded but the one steward's name which can be deciphered
is that of Abraham V. V. Hogle.
At the date of September 25th, 1806, the Methodist
classes in connection with the Dunham and St. Armand
circuit were as follows :
Missisquoi North arid South.
Stanbridge West and East.
St. Armand North and South.
Dunham North and South.
Sutton North and South.
Huntsburgh East and West.
According to Cornish encyclopedia the ministers in
charge from 1806-1813 were 1806 Henry Eames and Reuben
Harris, 1807 Gerhsom Pearse, 1808 Oliver Sykes, 1809
PETER MILLER. 91
Lansford Whiting, 1810 Heman Gartick and Timothy
Minor, 1811 Stephen Sornberger, 1812-1813 John T. Adams
and William Ross.
At the time of the war of 1812 a break occurs in the
records. After the war St. Armand starts out separated
from Dunham, evidently not the least weakened by war.
The ministers were 1818 Richard Pope, 1819 Richard
Williams, 1821 Daniel Hillier, 1822 James Booth, 1824
John de Putron, 1825 Matthew Lang, 1827 William Squire,
1829 James Knowlan, 1831 Thomas Turner, 1832 Inghrani
Sutcliffe, 1833 Matthew Lang, 1835 John Tomkins and
John Borland, 1836 James Booth and Richard Garrett, 1837
William Squire and Thomas Campbell, 1839 William
Squire and Malcolm McDonald, 1840 R. Hutchmson and
M. McDonald, 1842 R. Hutchinson and H. Montgomery,
1843 H. Montgomery and R. A. Flanders, 1844 W. M.
Harvard and R. A. Flanders, 1845 J. B. Selley and R. A.
Flanders, 1846 J. B. Selley, W. E. Shenstone and C. Sil-
vester. The long list of successors of these pioneers
includes Wm. Scott, Edmund S. Ingalls, Gifforcl Dorey,
James Norris, Francis Hunt. John Davies, John Armstrong,
T. W. Constable, T. Kelly, Allan Patterson, Charles R.
Flanders, Robert Laiclly, James E. Richardson, R.
Robinson, S. Teeson. Hiram Fowler, Isaac Wheatley,
William Williamson, E. S. Howard, George H. Porter,
William Rilance, William Adams. Surely it has been no
vain thing to have such a roll of godly mea shedding the
light of their Christian life upon the community, and
living to make themselves respected that they might, also
win respect and honor for their charge and people !
It was during the ministry of Rev. Richard Williams
that the Methodist Church was built at Philipsburg. The
deed of land was passed on the 7th day of October, 1819,
by Philip Ruiter and James Taylor. Ruiter is both a
U. E. loyalist and Palatine name. The deed was made
to a Trustee Board consisting of Rev. Rd. Williams, and
Messrs. Garrett Sixby, A. V. V. Hogle, Charles Miller.
THE CAMDEN COLONY
James Blair, James Abbott, Jacob Gaylor, Artemas Turner
and Alanson Kilborn. The Parsonage was built in 1825.
Under the ministry of Revs. G. II. Porter and William
Adams the church has been completely renovated and is
now in a progressive condition. Painted walls, modern
circular seating and beautiful memorial windows
combine to make it a house where one may gladly
and reverently draw near to God. The memorial windows
from St. Armand.
Son of Charles
born at St. Arniand, Que. April 7, 1797,
lived and died in Florida U.S.A.
May 14, 1878.
Son of Charles
born at St. Armand, Que. Feb. 8, 1801,
lived and died in Campbellford, Ont.,
June 24, 1884.
contain the following names of former pastors : R. A.
Flanders, Francis Hunt, C. M. Hitchcock, Barnabas
Hitchcock, Hugh Montgomery, William Scott, and of the
following congregation : Margaret and Charles Miller,
Alexander B. Struthcrs, Samuel and Philip Embury, Annie
A. Pharaoh, James and Jessie Symington, John K. Montle,
Jane R. Montle, Hiram and Huldah Fleming, Mary Brown,
Hollis and Robert Hastings, Robert and Henry Crothers,
Sarah S. J. and George Hastings, Augustus F. and Eunice
Hogle, Abram and Miriam Hogle, Rodney and Carleton
Reynolds, William and Mary Jordan, Bertha Mary and
Mary E. Morgan, Edward Jordan, Morgan and Mary
Hastings Morgan, C\.>1. Garrett Sixby and Bertha, wife of
All of which suggests that an honorable, chnstian
inheritance has been transmitted to the young people of
to-day. Original centres of influence have changed from
Eden and Ararat, from Egypt and Jerusalem, from
Athens, Rome and Worms; even the banks of the Shannon
may forget that the Methodist Palatines ever lived there'
J. NILES GALER
of Dunham. Que.
Great-grandson of Peter Mil'er, U.E.L.
and while the Province of Quebec may find itself reshaping
its working forces and restating its claims to commercial
attention, there may appear in places a seeming decadence
of spiritual Christianity in this province, yet it may be only
that truth, life and religious freedom may appear on a
larger scale elsewhere. The changing of the soil is the
saving of the seed. But Philipsburg may still fulfil ;
mission .as a nursery for the nurture of strong, Christian
Among the descendants of Peter Miller are to be
found Mrs, Dr. Yates of Dunham, One.; the late Mrs. Dr.
F. R. England, of Montreal; Mrs. Dr. Bradley, of t.
94 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Armand; Dr. Garrett Galer; Mrs. Dr. Savage, of West
Brome; Mrs. E. E. Spencer, Ex-M.P., of Frelighsburg.
Those who have long known Dunham Methodism remember
appreciatively J. Niles Galer "the backbone of Dunham
We conclude this chapter, also, with the assurance that
pious ancestry has been a benediction, and that the answer
to holy wishes arid the fruit of godly example continues
through successive generations. The patriarchal blessing
is a morning shower and a midday sun, transformed into
flowers and fruitfulness. The "wicked are like the chaff
which the wind driveth away," but of the righteous it is
said, "his seed shall be blessed in the earth." Goodness
and conscientiousness, brain power and alertness, industry
and exalted idealism are capable of reproduction, and
herein lies our hope of the betterment of the race, as
through education we co-operate with the graces of the
IN THE LAND OF THE NAPANEE GARRETT MILLER, U. E. L
On thy waters enticing, afloat and alone,
Mid thy banks Napanee, let me find Nature's home,
Where in quietest pose, there is freedom from strife,
And thy rapturous calm is suggestive of life.
Here the tributes are score, which attend on thy grace,
To make valley and hills an enamoring place;
For the woodbine abounds, and the tansy is near.
And the wild flax and lily, to banish my fear.
While the skies all aglow, soft and blue overhead.,
Witness generousness true, sho\v that love is not dead;
And the swaying white elder, and modest blue mint,
\Vith the buttercups wealth, of true love are a hint.
And the ambitious basswood for freedom aspires,
While the bittersweet climbs about till it tires.
And the wild daisy smiles, taking time to think on,
While the treasures of moments are gliding along.
Through the popple's white leaf and the poplar's tall head
Come the lessons of patience and courage ne'er dead;
While the feathered folk sing all unconscious of grief,
And the lessons and song bring my tired heart relief,
To thy broad, branching elms that of dignity speak,
Joins the kindly old oak, arm of strength for the weak.
While thy terraced banks rising, now rolling away,
Enfold thee, defend thee, or asleep on thee lay.
Mid thy calmness I drift with the flow of thy stream,
In my reverie lost as a man in a dream,
Or I rouse me to find thy resources are full,
Toward Tomorrow, they flow as life grows from the school.
There are curves in thy course and the banks head the way,
As the Allwise and Kind drops the veil o'er today,
Sometimes hidden and deep, like retired lives unknown,
Then outspreading to view, in the glare of renown.
9$ THE CAMDEN COLONY.
And thy waters keep time as they travel along,
In -their secrets a dirge, or they hear a love song,
For an outstanding world of humanity dwells
'Long thy banks, with its woes and in need of thy spells.
Let me mark not the cloud, nor the death that may come
When the winter lies on thee- thy summer is run;
Little shadows are lost and forgotten through bliss
To the toilers among us thy lesson is this.
If a rock in the way creates trouble and noise.
There are glad compensations by manifold joys;
For the whirl of the strife is a tonic for fear.
Till we laugh and grow strong when the rapids are near.
Let the strength of thy stream draw me gently along
So that God, thy great Source, fill my heart with a song,
And I rest on my way where, the Life river broad
Yields its fragrance and joy to the city of God.
THE land of the Napanee River is a well favored,
prosperous and beautiful locality, justly provoking the
pride and patriotism of its citizens. Emptying as it does
into the far-famed Bay of Ouinte about one hundred and
eighty miles west of Montreal, it includes on its banks thr
townships of Camden and Richmond, with the town of
Xapanee at its outlet, and the prettily situated villages
of Strathcona (until recently called Napanee Mills), New-
burgh and Camden East marking its course. Geologically,
it is but a remnant of its former .greatness, and is but a
shallow and miniature stream in comparison with the
breadth and depth and expanding bays that once marked
its course. Its banks are limestone and, taking the water-
mark of former ages, very high ; the receding river having
become narrower the limestone ledges are jutting out a>
if nature had been intent on creating stairways for the
convenience of coming men. In some places the soil is
lacking depth, but the decomposing limestone adds
fertility, so that verdure abounds to make the land beauti-
ful. The drive from Napanee by the Newburgrh road
reveals prosperous agricultural conditions, handsome
IN THE LAND OF THE NAPANEE 97
residences and grounds and the presence everywhere of a
cultured and happy type of human life. It is a country
of church spires, and one is impressed with the repose and
ease of the outlook, suggesting freedom' and generous
social relationships. The roadway largely follows the
hillsides, thereby giving to one the opportunity to observe
in the distance the outlines of the river's former greatness,
or to look down on the roofs of the present-day village life.
In this locality have lived and studied some of Ontario's
foremost men. The time was when Newburgh Academy
was far-famed and foremost among the schools of the
province, and its halls were filled with students, even from
the far east. The beauty, culture and comfort of the pre-
sent day is in striking contrast with the pioneer conditions
of eleven decades ago.
To us who are endeavoring to pry into the early his-
tory, it seems like a strange coincidence that the Palatines
should always locate on the hills by the water courses; as
if the sounds of old Germany were still ringing in their
ears and hearts. Of course, the pioneer kept by the water-
way as the highway for his limited commerce; but he was
not obliged to take to the hills, especially not the highest
hills always. Yet here are the children of the Rhine
dwelling for a season by the Shannon, then finding their
home in America by the Hudson, and later in the persons
of the Miller brothers choosing the suggestive hills and
waters of thres- widely separated Canadian localities. All
the level, fertile land was passed over, and they chose the
rougher land of the hills, yet including in their prospect
the waterways. The Napanee in Ontario, and the La Have
in Nova Scotia, like the picturesque shores of Missisquoi
Bay, afforded splendid opportunity for the play of this
dominant mountaineering spirit. There has been given to
these localities a choice of foliage the maple groves are
the pride of Missisquoi, the luxuriant pine gives its ever-
lasting color to the La Have, while along the Napanee
abound the stately elms.
8 THE CAMDEN COLONY
In 1796 or thereabouts Garrett Miller, the loyalist,
removed from Sorel and located in Ernestown. What a
strange name was his ! One wonders at its origin, and we
cannot help thinking that an ancestor, probably a grand-
father, had made it specially attractive by his personality.
Otherwise, why should it be found in each of the pro-
vincial branches of this remarkable family. And for three
generations it was continued in the Ernestown Miller
families, having been specially endeared to them by the
loyalist, familiarly known as "Grandfather Miller." For
the last two generations no child has received his name-
sad that even the good should be forgotten !
This pioneer, at once a soldier and a Christian,
brought to the Ernestown community a directly connecting
link with John Wesley and his work. In the revival meet-
ing of 1752, at which Philip Embury was converted,
Garrett Miller, then a boy of fourteen, sought and found
the Saviour and remained faithful to his Christian pro-
fessions through the long period of seventy-one years.
Writing in 1864, from information gathered about New-
burgh, the Rev. W. H. Poole said: -"The eye of the
venerable man, who was at once a soldier and a Christian,
used to brighten and his tongue become eloquent as he
told of Mr. Wesley's frequent visits to his father's house
and neighborhood. He often heard Mr. Wesley preach."
The religious and reverential spirit which in Camden, New
York, led him to say, when he expected his residence there
would be permanent, "For now the Lord hath made room
for us," appears to have characterized him to the end of
How came it to pass that he located in Ernestown ?
The writer just quoted says his reason for 'going west was
"not liking the religious atmosphere" of Sorel. How
different the history of his descendants might have been
had he remained east ! Still, we are not satisfied that
objection to the religious conditions of Quebec took him
to Ernestown. Why did he not pitch his tent with his old
IN THE LAND OF THE NAPANEE 99
friends at Augusta ? It may be said in reply that he
received grants of twelve hundred acres of land further
west as reward for military services. And this is true; but
the land was located in the townships of Darlington,
Percy, Loughboro' and Leeds, and, for some reason
unknown, none of it was ever taken up by the grantee.
Instead he took up a large block of land in the sixth and
seventh concessions of Ernestown on the ordinary terms
of settlement. It was located by what is now known as
the "Switzerville road," and is at present occupied in part
by his great grandson, Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, of
"Maple-lawn," Switzerville. Tne estate was ultimately
extended northward to include land in Camden township,
so that for years there was a large "Miller block" on which
were the farms of Garrett and his sons Peter, John,
William and Garrett an old-time Methodist constituency.
We think that the reasons for location at this point
were social and religious. The first Methodist Church in
the Canadian provinces, of which we herewith present a
view taken on June 22nd, 1892, had been built, and
undoubtedly the word had passed down the river that the
cause of evangelical religion, dear to the heart of every
admirer of John Wesley, doubly dear to those who had
known his face and form and had felt the force of his
words, had taken root in Canadian soil as a tree of the
Lord's planting. There was rejoicing in every Wesleyan
heart. Every Wesleyan shanty heard a prayer of thanks-
giving at the time of the evening meal, when the word
had come that the enterprise had started ! Little could
those pioneers have foreseen what that little beginning
would mean for Canadian patriotism and the national
Christian consciousness. It is not difficult to see how
Canada was under obligation to this forward movement
of 1792, when at the time of the attempted rebellion among
the Northwest Indians in 1885, it was repeatedly said that
not one Methodist Indian was found disloyal to the gov-
ernment. Methodism, which has repeatedly sent its
ioo THE CAMDEN COLONY
greetings to our British Royalty and honored the Sovereign
by honoring the Representative of the Throne in Canada,
has by its work among white men and red men made it
easier for Britain to rule in North America. When we
remember that Methodism is the largest Protestant Church
in this Dominion, it is no small item of the National assets
that we are emphasizing. The Hay Bay Church with its
first clerically organized class meeting represented the
beginning of all that gracious spiritual influence, making
for Scriptural holiness which has since touched the social
and religious life of Canada. How strategically that
church was located on the back concession line where the
waters of the Bay of Qumte, through Hay Bay, dash
against the shore ! It was almost no particular locality ;
the church could not be localized and forgotten; it could
not be limited to the religious requirements of one small
community. The location was suggestive of the cosmo-
politan character of modern Canadian Mfethodism, and it
drew to the ministrations of the church from a far extended
constituency on either side of the Bay. How the hearts
of the boatmen must have thrilled with sacred emotion as
they rowed toward the great camp meetings of those early
days, and the notes of Methodist hymns and the shouts of
a praying people were wafted to them from the shore line !
Thus Garrett Miller was drawn to where
"All harmonious human tongues
Their Saviour's praises speak."
What quarterly meetings were those which convened on
Friday and lasted Saturday and Sunday, and represented
the whole circuit !
And was not Elizabeth Miller Roblin already living
on the middle concession line of Adolphustown, where the
old homestead is still occupied by Roblins? Her husband
had died in 1788 four years after settlement began. The
subscription list for the building of the church in 1792,
and which is preserved among the Allisons, is said to have
been as follows :
IN THE LAND OF THE NAPANEE 101
s. d. s. d.
Paul Huff 10 o o Peter Ruttan ...... 4 o o
Peter Frederick ... 4 o o Joseph Clapp 5 o O
Elizabeth Roblin .12 o o John Bininger i o o
William Casey ... 7 o o Conrad Vandusen..i5 o o
Daniel Steel 3 10 o Heney Hover 8 10 o
Joseph Allison ... 5 o o Casper Vandusen... 200
William Green ... i o o Arra Ferguson 3 o o
William Ruttan ...10 o o Daniel Dafoe 2 o o
Solomon Huff 2 o o Andrew Embury... 200
Stophel Carman... 200 Henry Davis 4 o o
John Green 3 o o William Ketcheson. 200
The second largest subscription represented the
widow's. mite. Playter pronounces it "liberal," and adds,
"the Roblins of the Bay of Quinte have always been hos-
pitable and liberal minded people."
The subscribers included old friends and neighbors
of Garrett, and such considerations, together with a desire
to be in the locality near to his widowed sister, decided
him to locate where he might also have fellowship with
kindred spirits in religious, exercises.
This old church, still to be seen where the waters lash
the shore, exposed now to the sacrilegious uses of owls
and farm conveniences, neglected by those who might.
"Have treasured it long as a sainted prize."
but who parted with it for a trifle, was the scene of the
first winter court of the Midland Division, which was held
in January, 1/95. Methodism has forsaken this early
house of prayer because her churches, more convenient and
splendid, have multiplied in every direction. Localizing
the cause resulted in shifting the centre of influence in
Adolphustown, and in 1784, the centennial of the landing
of the first U. E. loyalists, the centennial church, a beau-
tiful and commodious modern church, was built on the
middle concession line where it is attended by a large and
devotional congregation largely representing the pioneers
who built the first church.
102 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Hay Bay church was four years old when Garrett
Miller moved into the wilderness of Ernestown. With that
church for the remainder of his life he identified himself
it was only twenty-five miles from his shanty home,
perhaps more by the bush roads or the river courses and
he became a sympathetic outpost for the extension of
Methodist influence into other communities, as they arose
through the settlement of the country.
In his work on "Case and his Contemporaries,'' vol. I,
page 327, the late Dr. John Carroll refers to the "German-
Irish Garrett Miller of Ernestown, a Palatine, and the
grandfather of Rev. Aaron Miller." He had become
known as a loyal Methodist and centre of religious
influence. Fifty-eight years of age he was when he started
to carve out a home in the forest, and in the good pro-
vidence of God lived to enjoy his work and fulfil the
mission of his life for another twenty-seven years. Let
the youthful reader, who probably has never looked on
the struggles of the modern settler in trie Canadian back-
woods, try to conceive, if he can, what it meant to a man
of fifty-eight with a wife and ten children, the youngest
four years of age, to undertake the hardships of bush life.
What powers of physical endurance he must have possessed
to endure the poverty, the travel, the hardship of war, and
the fatigues of pioneer life, and be able to give twenty-
live years of service to land clearing ! And what religious
contentment and perfect confidence in God must have
pervaded his life that he persevered so courageously, and
with such masterly strength of purpose, example and
achievement to the end ! In the end he was the righteous
seed grown to the ripened and well developed corn in the
ear, whose fruitfulness continues through succeeding gen-
Of his neighbors in Ernestown one might, if space and
time permitted, write volumes concerning their origin, early
achievements, and social, municipal and religious in-
fluences; that, however, does not come within our purview.
L\ THE LAND OF THE NAPAXEE 103
Of one, however, we will speak briefly inasmuch as in the
genealogical histories the name is more frequently
associated than is that of any other one family This was
John Shibley who, before the Revolutionary war, had
married Ellen Godinicr, and who, at the close of the war,
either could not, or would not, live under other than the
British flag. The Shibleys were of Swiss and Dutch
origin with Lutheran training. John Shibley the elder
married in America Ann Wergman, and of their family
of nine children only the eldest one, Jo-hn, with his wife,
came to Canada. Their destination \vas at a point west
of Bath long known as "Shibley's Point," but now better
known as "Finkle's Point," and once famous for its ship-
building enterprise. Airs. Shibley was a woman of sterling
character, masterful in purpose and inspiring in her energy.
It is related erf her that as the beat in which she and her
husband were paddling along the shore reached shallow
water at trie point for whicn they had been looking, sne
grasped an axe, sprang from the boat, made her way to
shore and cutting a tree exclaimed, "I have cut the first
tree on our farm!' From the old homestead in the front
of Ernestown the family later removed to the township
of Portland, from whence it has extended its influence
and prestige in the counties of Frontenac, Addington and
Lennox. It is to be noted that whereas th- religious ten-
dencies of this family were towards Lutheranisin and
Anglicanism, it was by those Methodist influences which
Garrett Miller represented that the spiritual and social
advancements have most largely accrued, and in the
avenues of Methodism many of the descendants of John
Shibley have been most actively engaged.
When William Loscc came to Adolphustown in i/Oi
he was the first Methodist preacher appointed in Canada,
and so far as can be learned but little effort had been made
to preach the Gospel in that locality. The soldier Neal.
a local preacher, had been doing work in the Niagara
country, and a class had been formed there; another
104 THE CAMDEN COLONY
soldier, Tuffy, had been preaching at Quebec; at Augusta
shortly after 1778 the first Canadian class meeting had
been held; but in Adolphustown there appears to have been
no attempt made towards religious advancement until
1788 when Lyons, an exhorter in the Methodist Episcopal
church, came to teach school and on Sabbath days held
services among the people. At the end of Losce's year the
Kingston circuit, as it was called, reported a membership
of 165. In addition to the Adolphustown church, he had
on its completion built another in the front of Ernestown
about three and a half miles east of Bath, on a high bank
of the Bay shore, and with a beautiful prospect looking
southward. This was the locality known as Parrot's Bay.
The principal contributors toward the enterprise were,
according to Playter, James Parrot, John Luke, Robert
Clarke and Jacob Miller. This Jacob Miller, Dr. Carroll
describes as a "pure Dutchman" direct from the old land.
A distinction has always been made between his descen-
dants and those of our hero, in the sense that they were
unrelated, the one 'being Dutch and the other German-Irish.
Jacob's descendants have been loyal to Methodism through
all their history, and Thomas Miller is an enthusiastic
official of Beulah church on the Bath circuit. The Lakes
and the Clarkes married into the families descended from
The circuit known at first as Kingston was called
Cataraqui from 1792-1795, Bay of Quinte 1795-1840. In
1841 Bath and Napanee circuits were formed out of it* and
in 1851 Newburg circuit was created Kingston circuit had
been made also in 1822. The Kingston, Napanee, Picton
and Belleville districts now represent the country that was
at first touched by the Kingston circuit.
What militant and triumphant preachers Garrett and
his neighbors listened to! From 1796 on there were Elijah
Woolsey and Sylvanus Keeler, Samuel Coate, attractive
and popular, Hezekiah Calvin Wooster, who spread "wild-
fire" and was instrumental in great revivals (one of the
IN THE LAND OF THE XAPANEE 105
younger Millers was named in remembrance of him),
Darius Dunham and the erratic but devoted Lorenzo Dow,
William Anson and Daniel Pickett, who wa.s one of the
first to preach about Belleville, J. Sawyer, Peter Vannest
and Nathan Bays, the accomplished and fearless, T.
Madden and the notables Henry Ryan and William Case,
Luther Bishop, Elias Pattee, Ninian Holmes, Cephus
Hulhert (after whom was named another grandson),
Chandley Lambert, Joseph Lockwood, Thomas White-
head, P. Covenhoven, Edward Cooper, Isaac B. Smith,
John Reynolds, David Culp, Ezra Adams, John Rhodes,
Nathaniel Reeder (during whose ministry, in company with
Thomas Madden, a marvellous revival spread through
Fredericksburg, Adolphustown and Ernestown and lasted
for fourteen months, during which time three hundred per-
sons were converted), Isaac Puffer, James Wilson, James
Booth, Robert Jeffers, D. C. Spoke, C. N. Flint, F. Medcalf,
J. G. Peal, Wyatt Charberlain, and no doubt others who at
times interchanged or assisted in such special events as
quarterly meetings and camp meetings. The Methodists
of those days certainly had the advantage of variety over
those of our days. Short terms and large circuits had the
effect of making the Methodist preacher the most interest-
ing personality that could visit the new settlement. His
message, conceived not in view of the danger of repeating
himself to a reading and well informed congregation, but
in the light of his observations made among the people
was always sympathetic, sometimes sternly so, and the
people accepted his word as from God. The soldier,
trained to obedience, rejoiced in such an aspect of the
Garrett Miller's humble home near the "Gore" was a
lodging place for the preacher as he wended his way from
one settlement to another, or sought out homes where fiis
visit might result in good; it was open also, as his father's
in Ireland had been, for the preaching of the Gospel, hence
it became instrumental in the creation of a new "appoint-
io6 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Similarly the widow Roblin's house, which was larger
than the ordinary, and consisted of two log houses built
together making thus two or more good sized rooms, was
the preacher's headquarters his lodging and washing
being a contribution to the work.
Before the death of Garrett "Switzervillc" had become
a preaching place duly recognized. Peter Switzer with his
sons Philip, Christopher and John, and his daughters
Mary, who married an Empey, and Margaret, who married
a Neville, some of whose descendants are still to be found
in that section of Ontario-, made up such a considerable
portion of the community as to readily give it a name.
Christopher Switzer's was the preacher's occasional stop-
Hard by the Switzerville chapel on the road leading
directly southward from the village of Newburgh and
about three miles distant there was created the usual
accompaniment of a cemetery. In what year this took
place there are no records to enable us'to say with accuracy.
There is evidence of the existence of the appointment in
1822. And as every one in the locality seems to have
always taken it for granted that their friends should be
buried in the church cemetery it is more than probable
that the old U. E. loyalist, Garrett Miller, who died m
1823, was buried in the same plot. Years afterwards an
attempt was made to under drain the ground and in the
confusion which resulted the markings of the old graves
were lost. Of that matter the resurrection morning will
take care. It is the spirit that quickeneth ; the flesh pro-
fiteth nothing; and the spirit of that pioneer, in every way
worthy, and who amid many hardships maintained
Christian constancy, lives on in his numerous and widely
scattered descendants. "The righteous shall be had in
everlasting remembrance;" "his seed shall be mighty upon
earth;" "by their fruits ye shall know them."
CHAPTER XI [
My arms they are strong, and my strides they are long;
While my vision is keen to see:
And my intellect's elear, while no hardships I fear
In this land of the brave and free.
I'll level the wood, I'll break up the sod.
..My litlc shack T will uprean
Where hunters once trod, an altar to God
I will raise for my evening prayer;
And my acres shall grow, till from pine-bush and snow
Golden fields my barns overflow;
Until under free skies my broad gables arise.
And home with love's light is aglow
OUR illustration represents two sorts of horseless carriages
to be found in the same locality in a certain part of Nova
Scotia; it is a suggestion of ancient struggle and modern
The first settlers in the Bay of Ouinte country in 1784
IDS THE CAMDEN COLONY
had no cattle. The first cows were given to the pioneers
by the government. The first cattle were brought up
country from Montreal and represented the advent of
prosperity. When they came, oxen and the slow toiling
carts (at first "jumper" a sort of rudely constructed sleigh
that slid along on the mud), were as much appreciated
then as the horses and wagons are now. When roads were
passable it was with great satisfaction that the heads oi
families rode to the "meeting house" while the young
people, after the labor of the week, found it refreshing to
walk five miles or more to the same service. Look at one
of the best outfits of those conditions two oxen under
the double yoke swinging and bending their heads lazily ;
the wagon consisting of two wheels with the tongue
attached to the yoke, the bolster on the axle, and on the
bolster without the superfluous and unknown luxury of
springs was built a box-like affair a board across it did
for a seat, a bit of patchwork quilt for a cushion, some
straw or evergreens for a foot rug, lap rug there was none,
and a calico sun-bonnet far surpassed parasols. Yes !
Such a carriage took our ancestors to church ; and they
went regularly. If the young folks were wee folks, and
they with the wife filled up the ox-cart, then the good
husband patiently walked bv the side of his cattle,
occasionally disturbing their dreams by reason of a whip
made from a new cut sappling. Red handkerchiefs,
shirt sleeves and sunbonnets added variety enough to the
appearance of a congregation where the preacher counted
himself happy if he got a new suit of homespun once a
year, and where the soul of the people expressed itself in
luxurious and uncritical singing of those old-time theolo-
gical and experiential hymns. Ox-carts were good things
for even church work; electric cars and steam-cars go so
fast that now-a-days people fly away from the churches
And the churches and the services connected there-
with were simple in the extreme. Of ten-times the church
was merely a closed in frame set on a rudely built founda-
tion of stone, or on no foundation but a few posts. I he
windows were square topped, and with small panes of
glass, and window sash, doors and frames all made by
hand as were also the nails that were used. The boards,
too, were sawn by hand, the saw pit being used when two
men could labor with the same saw. The pulpit was a
rudely constructed table, set on a slightly raised, and
usually responsive platform of single boards not very
substantially stayed. Seats at first consisted of boards
laid on blocks of wood. It was not difficult to bring the
people to such places to hear the Gospel preached and no
modern city preacher addresses more appreciative congre-
But churches and even ox-carts were rather an after
thought. The first step in pioneer life was to find a way
through the forest. This was done by "blazing" the trees,
that is cutting a chip with an axe from the trees so as to
mark the course one had taken. Once a. correct course had
been thus marked out the woodsman proceeded to widen
his pathway by clearing out the underbrush and trees that;
were in his way. The trees were cut into lengths and
thrown crosswise into swamp holes so as to make firm
footing. Streams were sometimes crossed on loot by
walking on trees felled from opposite banks. In the
absence of bridges the cattle, and even horses when
introduced, had to ford or swim the streams. The first
bridges were far removed from the plank and iron struc-
tures of the present day, and for the most part consisted
of stringers supported by abutments made of sticks of
timber built up in quadralaterals, and across which were
laid numerous pieces of split cedar. "Corduroy" road,
made of logs of trees laid crosswise of the road and placed
closely together, was the regulation type wherever there
were special difficulties in roadmaking such as unduly
steep hills or wet and boggy hollows.
In entering upon his work of clearing a farm the
settler's most important tools were an axe, a cross-cut saw
no THE CAMDEN COLONY
and an auger. With these he built his first shanty, which
was usually a hut twelve feet by eighteen feet, one storey
high and roof sloping one way. The walls were made of
logs, piled one above the other, the ends being notched
into each other and fastened down by wooden pins driven
into auger holes. The roof at first was made of logs, first
split and then hollowed out like troughs; these were laid
backs down, with others reversed over the upturned edges.
The floors were made of handsawn boards. The cracks
between the logs were "chinked," with chips driven in and
covered over with mud plastered even with the inside sur-
face of the logs.
The furniture was also hand-made. The table, a
handy cross legged one, or a more elaborate one with four
strong corner posts stayed with stringers, had a top made
of home-sawn boards. For chairs, there were at first
stools made of slabbed pine blocks into which were inserted
legs made from the limbs of trees. The bedsteads were
made in the corners of the rooms, by inserting pieces of
timber into the logs of the walls, and supporting them
with an upright at the corner. An auger and an axe were
equal to almost any requirement. The first mattresses
were abundant supplies of green pine boughs. No wonder
the pioneers were healthy.
When the circumstances of the pioneer improved he
gathered his neighbors for a "bee," had a "raising," and
put up for himself a log house, which might be twenty-four
feet by thirty-six feet and twelve feet high, with logs
hewn to flat surfaces, and a roof made of boards and
shingles, the house being set against the broad side of the
shanty, which then became a commodious kitchen.
The first summer the settlers were in Kingston to-wn-
ship they lived and slept under the shelter of trees until
they could build something in which to spend winter. The
first crop those settlers had was secured by every man
taking a handful of turnip seed out of the quantity which
the government supplied to the settlers freely and scatter-
ing" it upon the ground where he could. It proved to be
good seed on good soil.
The clearances on the farms, were made mostly in
winter time by felling the trees, cutting them into lengths
and piling the brush. In summer, when dried they were
burned. Out of the ashes the pioneers made potash which
was readily an article of commerce and secured the neces-
saries of life.
The government supplied ploughs and seed to the
settlers, who with their oxen roughly broke up the land,
then scattered the seed and harrowed it by means of heavy
branches of trees which were drawn over the ground by
the oxen until the seed was covered.
Under such circumstances the people were not dis-
couraged but rapidly improved. When Bishop Asbury
crossed the St. Lawrence and visited the Canadian Metho-
dist societies along the St. Lawrence as far west as Kings-
ton he said : "Our ride has brought us through one of
the finest countries I have ever seen. The timber is o<f a
noble size; the cattle are well-shaped and well looking;
the crops are abundant on a most fruitful soil."
Undoubtedly the pioneer had to resort to contrivance
and ingenuity to maintain a living. His industry and
thrift, his sobriety and godliness rewarded him. Taverns
and "stopping" places were soon in the land, and in
instances half a dozen of them scattered along roads to
waylay the thirsty traveller, where happily there are now
none. They did their disastrous work, and those of the
early settlers who patronized them soon lagged behind
in the march of progress and prosperity. The good sense
of the sober and prosperous citizens wisely drove the evil
traffic at length from many places where it had wrought
its mischievous work. Would it were driven from all this
fair land !
Hunting, trapping and fishing were providential
sources of "income." One has told how on one occasion
he subscribed two dollars at the Methodist missionary
ii2 THE CAMDEN COLONY
meeting, and knew not where the money was to come from.
The next day he set his traps. The day following he
found he had a beaver, whose skin he sold for four dollars.
The subscription in that case as in many others appeared
to be a good investment. Another has told how the wolf
once trapped becomes a coward, and ceases to fight wolf
The German-Irish farmers were as shrewd, practical
and sagacious in their methods of living as the modern
German. Of the latter it has been said, he will thrive on
Canadian land where other people will starve. The earlier
pioneers came to grow rye extensively, and they discovered
that the strength of rye straw in cattle feeding surpassed
that of any other straw. But the cattle also were wise.
Rye straw was coarse and the cattle would only eat it
when starved to it. The farmer, therefore, kept all other
straw out of the way. It was rye straw or nothing. And
his cattle flourished. Then he made contracts to feed his
neighbor's cattle for the winter and bring them out to
spring in :good condition. And in time a profitable export
trade of cattle sprang up, which added to the material
resources of the community.
The first means of warming and lighting the homes
was through massive fire-places on the one hand and pine
knots on the other. Enterprising pioneers built themselves
large stone chimneys at one end of their house, and this
was prepared for the fire-place with stone floor and on
which were laid large lengths of blazing pine and hard-
wood. What little literature was available at that day
was read in the light of the fire glow. Pine torches also
lighted the settler through the wood? when caught out at
night, and served to keep off the wolf, whose howl was a
frequent attendant of the forest wilds. Candles were later
luxuries in the home life and represented an improvement
on the "tallow dip."
As for clothing, there were many contrivances and
economies. In summer very little was required, and the
PIONEERING. 1 13
feet of boys and girls alike grew tough as they ran bare-
footed among the stumps of the clearances. For winter
foot-wear, the men learned to tan the skins of deer which
they shot in the woods, and of tnese they made moccasins,
or with coarser skins an article which came to be known
as "shoepacks. '' Mittens for the hands were also made
from the deer skins, or were presently knitted from yarn
by the mothers and daughters, who all learned the use
of knitting needles. A weaver's loom found its way
among the settlers, and the processes of taking the wool
from the sheep's back, carding, spinning and weaving it:
into cloth for home wear became familiar scenes in the
The first man that noticed so much sap issuing in
spring time from a maple tree, which he had chanced to
wound, and touching it to his lips found it was sweet,
must have been as great a wonder to his neighbors as the
man of earlier days who found out how to create fire.
Thereafter experiments resulted in producing maple
syrup and sugar, and the families of the pioneers came
to look on the "sugar bush" as an important asset in their
When the first wheat was grown it created the pro-
blem of manufacturing it into flour. At first a log was
hollowed out, or the stump) of a tree was made hollow,
and in this the settlers pounded their wheat to a condition
in which it could be cooked ; the same treatment was
given to Indian corn and it was called "samp" or "sap-
pawn." The first mill the Ernestown settlers had was
eastward down the St. Lawrence i 50 miles ; a bag of flour
was precious in those days. Later, the government built
a stone mill at Kingston Mills for the accommodation
of the settlers, and it is said that the pioneers came with
their grist distances of seventy miles in every direction,
in many instances carrying their loads on their backs.
When mills were built at Napanee and Gananoque the
Kingston mill lost its patronage. It was built by Robert
ii4 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
Clarke, one of the U. E. loyalist settlers of Ern^stown,
a gentleman who also gave character to Methodism and
conducted the building of the pioneer Methodist churches.
His descendants are in Ernestown and about Odessa and
Kingston. After over a century of existence the mill
tumbled down on Saturday, August i/th, in this year,
The things which the settlers bought usually cost
according to the character of those days. The late T.
W. Casey, of Napanee, descendant of U. E. loyalists, and
in his day a notable character, historically inclined,
unearthed a number of interesting account books which
reveal the luxurious prices which the pioneers paid. It is
true they paid largely in kind from the produce of the
forest or the farm and this helped them. The story of
the Missisquoi settler who walked through the woo-ds into
Vermont and paid $14.00 for a barrel of pork, taking two
days for his journey, is not in the leat extravagant, and
it is to be surmised that the barrel was small, inasmuch as
he was able to carry it home. In the settlement about
Perth, Ont, in 1817, when prices had beeu reduced one-
half, they still revealed an altitude quite undesirable in
our favored days. Flour was then $14.00 per barrel,
potatoes $2.00 per bushel, wheat $4.00 per bushel, Indian
corn $2.00 per bushel, beef or mutton i8c. per lb., and
pork 2oc. per lb. Meat, we might say, was about the only
reasonably priced article. From the letter of an 1820
arrival in Montreal we learn that "good port wine was
4s. to 55. per gal., Jamaica rum the same, good Souchong
tea 5s. to 6s. per lb., lump sugar lod. per lb., fresh butter
Sd. per lb., Jamaica sugar Sd. per lb., Hyson, Stecn or
good breakfast tea, green 43, gd. to 5s per lb." At that
time "three comfortable rooms" were rented in Montreal
for $9.00 per mo-nth. 'Of course prices differed with
localities, and when farm produce increased prices were
reduced a fact which dees no-t always follow in these
modern days, owing largely to the increasing influx of
population. The writer whom we have last quoted was
a Methodist local preacher, and we cannot avoid smiling
at his interest in "good port wine" and "Jamaica rum."
Unfortunately, drink was too often the curse of the
new settlements. The liquor seller and the pioneer
preacher were combatants, and the row r dies created by the
former often interrupted the work of the latter. And such
were the social customs and ideals of those days that it
was thought a thing impossible, and even ungenerous, to
attempt a social function without a liberal supply of
intoxicants. In correcting these customs the strong and
independent minded settlers, assisted by their ministers,
played a prominent part.
And the "bee" had not a little to do towards stimulat-
ing a love for drink. The "bee/' was simply .a general
gathering of neighbors for some lar : ge piece of work.
When money was a rare thing and everybody had about
as much of everything else as his neighbors had, paid
employees could scarcely be found. The only alternative
was to turn in and work together in common, and thus
go in groups from place to place assisting each other in
common. Thus the frames of churches were raised-
massive timbers (whose proportions have often astonished
modern builders) requiring united effort to put them in
place. Houses and barns would have their walls put up
in a day by such means. Acres of woods would be
chopped down, or a great "logging bee" would pile up
the logs that remained after the burning, by the same
united goodwill and neighborly help. And, of course,
there were always some then, as now, who wanted "a good
time," and regarded their neighbor as of an uncanny kind
if he did not supply liberal drinks. Happily there came
a change and an end to all that, and largely, be it said
to their credit, through the agency of the Methodist
preachers. The "bee" is still a living institution in our
tie we r localities, but without the old time excesses.
As for amusement and recreation, some was found,
THE CAMDEN COLONY.
more especially in the winter evenings. We may suppose
that the precursor of the hand-sleigh was a slab of wood
with the bark taken off. This was followed by a sawn
board which slid down the snowy hills, and on which the
young people stood. Later came the hand-sleigh, whose
runners were fashioned out of crooked tree roots; and the
hand-sleigh afforded delightful outdoor sports for older
ones than children. As for indoor sports the great
amusement was dancing, and it was a trouble to the
preachers. It is said it "was the fashionable frivolity of
"MAPLE-LAWN," SWITZERVILLE, ONT.
Home of Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, great grandson of Garrett Miller,
and located on a part of the lot which was taken up in 1796.
the times, and the youth met weekly in each other's houses
for the purpose."
John Roblm, who was a son of the widow Roblin, at
whose home William Losce, the pioneer Methodist preacher
in Canada, made his headauarters, was regarded as leader
of this amusement in Adolphustown. The preacher
reproved him, and the next Sabbath in the spirit of repen-
tance he attended the meeting and went home rejoicing
in God. He knelt and prayed with his. mother and sisters,
and then went to a neighbor's where he also had prayer,
and this resulted in the conversion of that neighbor, who
afterwards became a class leader. John, like many others
since, found more joy in prayer than he had in dancing.
The winter time "protracted meeting" changed the social
aspect of many a community. After all the greatest
social factor then, as now, was the religious service, and
the minister of the Gospel, as the friend of every one,
received without revealing every onejs confidence, and
stood as a link of communication between persons and
communities his personality maintaining a social bond.
When the school was added to the list of possessions, the
community was rich and contented. And why not ?
Along with the sense of independence there was provision
for the physical, social, intellectual and religious life, for
adult and youth, for the life present and the life to come;
and all within the peace loving land of liberty-fair "Can-
ada of ours."
"The Men of Faith the Men of Fear,
These are the gradings of our day;
One-sixth against five-sixths, makes clear
That triumph falls to faith alway."
AT a time when the Bay of Quinte circuit consisted of
forty-seven appointments, with three preachers in charge,
and engaged the preachers six weeks to cover the ground,
"Switzerville" was an important and central point. The
circuit had a membership of nine hundred and sixty-six!
No wonder the superintendent felt the burden of
administering discipline. At what date the "chapel" was
built it is difficult to determine as accounts differ. Cer-
tainly it was in existence in 1822. It was in that year
that the first death in the ranks of the Canadian Methodist
itinerancy occurred, and in connection with Switzerville.
J. G. Peale, the indefatigable, soldierly, persevering and
attractive superintending preacher of the circuit, had
reached Adolphustown on Saturday affected somewhat
with a cold, but took his appointment on Sunday morn-
ing at Hay Bay church. During the night the bay had
frozen over, and the water had become glare ice, too
smooth to walk on, and still dangerously thin for a horse.
Resolved to fulfil his engagements the preacher walked
across the ice with only stockings on his feet, and then
proceeded on his way, a journey that must have meant
twenty miles or more. Getting overheated in church and
chilled on the ice, he was not well when he reached Switzer-
ville chapel ; yet he conducted the service. At the close he
importuned a local brother to lead the class, but through
modesty because of the minister's presence he declined;
so that the minister did this work also. Afterwards he
.went to Christopher Switzer's, his usual resting place,
where he was taken worse, became delirious and died. In
his delirium he said "Father Switzer might have led the
class." The reference would be to Peter Switzer. By this
circumstance the existence of Switzer's chapel at that date
The church has been made famous by the conference
.held in it in 1828. Other conferences had been held before,
notably Elizabethtown near Brockville (1817), Niagara
(1820), Hallowell (1824), Hamilton to-wnship fi826),
and in Hamilton village (1827), but those were under the
supervision of the Methodist Episcopal church in the
United States. But the conference in Switzerville marked
the beginning of the history of Canadian Methodism as
an independent church. Bishop Hedding was present, and
it was the last time that an American bishop presided.
The first Canadian Methodist Ordination service was held
in connection with this conference, and the Rev. William
Case was elected the first general superintendent of Can-
adian Methodism. What a humble beginning was this
first "conference churca" as compared with its successors
all over the land ! And how highly honored were those
people of Switzerville and environs ! The memory of
Wesley was there with those humble farmers, and there
was the kinship of Philip Embury. Surely the circum-
stances were appropriate for a glorious, spiritual apostolic
No doubt the church received improvements as the
years advanced. We knew it as having a gallery across
the front end an arrangement that characterized most
of the earliest churches, east and west. Its pews were
boxed with doors at the ends, and the pulpit was on the
landing at the head of a short flight of steps,
The latter circumstance was made memorable by the
loss of a sermon book. The young preacher, fresh from
college (it was in the latter days of the church), fearful
120 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
lest he might forget something from a diligently prepared
sermon, had carried his manuscript book with him con-
taining also his list of hymns and reading lessons. The
pulpit was supplied with an ancient sofa, backless, with
a turned rail for support. On laying the book on this sofa
the preacher found to his dismay that it vanished through
a wide crack in the floor of that high platform. For once
the congregation had an extemporaneous service; and
at the close some officials, learning of the minister's
dilemma, easily removed by means of a fence rail what
proved to be a portable platform a convenience for that
occasion at least.
The people that worshipped in that church were
intelligent and loyal Methodists. It was evident on one
occasion that the preacher of the occasion had recently
been delving in "Evidences of Christianity." His subject
was Paul's address to the Athenians. He labored to pro-
duce facts in support of the Christian doctrine of the
resurrection. In the class meeting that followed, it was
Miss Switzer who said, "I always find encouragement for
the Christian life in Christian apologetics."
On another occasion there was a financial matter to
present to the congregation. There was a deficiency in
ministerial salary, and the superintendent of the circuit
had said it must be attended to next Sabbath. So the
lessons had been read ; then came the announcements.
Perhaps in tones which contained some suggestion of con-
demnation the preacher dwelt upon the importance of the
local society's standing in relation to the circuit, and then
upon that of each member in relation to the honor and
good name of the society, and closed with the earnestly
expressed hope that the deficiency would be fully covered
at the appointed time. The hymn that preceeded the
sermon was being sung by the congregation, when the
door of a near-by pew swung open, and Switzer, the
steward, mounting the stairs expressed to the preacher his
desire to address the congregation. Turning himself to
the people he said : "Before we close I want to say a few
words. Our minister has just announced for an adjourned
meeting. That simply means that we are behind and
considerably behind. But I am glad our appointment is
not as much behind to-day as he has stated. Since the last
meeting I have received several contributions which have
reduced our obligation to six dollars. And now, as the
stewards have forgotten to take up the collection this
morning I now propose that they pass around the con-
tribution boxes and that we make up the six dollars. The
stewards will now take up the collection." The long
handled contribution boxes were accordingly passed, amid
the smiles of the congregation, and the amount was
secured. But oh that an artist might have been present
to portray the countenance of that brother when he dis-
covered that he had only had a nap and the sermon had
not yet been delivered !
Switzerville church came to an end as a church in 1892,
when it was removed bodily from its long standing
foundation and carried to the village of Newburgh, where,
encased in iron sheeting, it is serving commercial purposes
by the railway station a seemingly sacrilegious ending.
It was replaced in the same year by a brick structure built
on the lines of modern architecture.
During its history the conditions of the country had
wonderfully changed for the better. Canada in 1892 was
undreamed of by the men who built our first churches.
"Canada with one thousand miles of frontier line," says
our earliest Methodist historian ! The broad expanse from
Atlantic to Pacific strapped together by continuous lines
of steel ; the hum of industries and the mightier hum of
inrushing people; the immense resources of fields, forests,
mines and rivers; the military, political, commercial,
educational and religious achievements; the advanced
state of civilization and general comfort all this and
much more, it was impossible for the people of the first
quarter of the nineteenth century to dream of. And the
'22 THE CAMDEN COLONY
ecclesiastical achievements have been just as astonishing;
strifes came and divisions, and then undreamed of unions,
followed by far reaching and grander enterprises in Chris-
tian achievements. And the local circumstances of
Switzerville changed correspondingly. The increased
abilities of the people together with the augmented list of
preachers tended to reduce the size of circuits, until dis-
tricts now represent what once were circuits, and circuits
have almost grown out of what was an appointment, with
accompanying changes in tne centres of influence. For
.some years Switzerville has been one of five appointments
constituting the Newburgh circuit, with sister churches,
each built of stone, at Camden East, Newburgh, Wesley
and Napanee Mills a notable circuit in many respects.
While the Millers and Switzers were diligently
employed upon clearances on the high lands of Ernestown,
settlement began down in the valley of the Napanee m
the township of Camden. David Perry was the first white
man to build a house in Camden, and this became the
beginning of Newburgh. His location was on the hillside
in the north end of the village on the west side of the
present Main Street and opposite to the present Aylesworth
homestead. He was a local preacher. On his farm was
built the first Methodist church in Newburgh a plain
wooden building of the customary type of the times
about forty feet by fifty feet with square top windows,
four on a side. During the pastorate of the Rev. Charles
Fish, 1854-1856, a movement was instituted to replace this
church by the beautiful and commodious church now
standing near the centre of the village. Unfortunately
for the local historian, a disastrous fire destroyed the
business portion of the village in 1886, and with the busi-
ness and home of Miles Caton, who was then recording
steward of the circuit, were destroyed all the old records
of the circuit. Two miles down the river is another Gothic
.church with spire placed on a commanding rise of ground,
and in the peaceful, strictly-prohibition village of Stratn-
cona. These three points Switzerville, Newburgh and
Strathcona constitute the background on which must
develope the remainder of our story concerning Garrett
Miller the elder.
His family consisted of ten children of whom nine
married. The eldest MARTIN went to Halifax, where he
lived for a time with his uncle Jacob; when 'an old man
he returned to Ernestown and lived in the neighborhood
of Ebenezer camp ground. Some of his descendants are
in the United States, one son, Robert, having settled in
Pennsylvania in 1837: other descendants are in the county
of Hastings, another branch in the neighborhood of
Consecon, Ont, still another is to be found in Michigan,
and others in Manitoba and at Aurora, Ont. Robert
Miller, of Snowflake, Man., is grandson of Martin.
When young he was licensed as a local preacher. He then
travelled for three years in the itinerancy. From this he
desisted because as he says he "took a childish notion that
the ministry meant much work and little pay!" 'He settled
to farming and continued his work as a local preacher.
He is now seventy-eight years of age, and is designated
by a neighbor, "a splendid old gentleman much respected."
His wife, who was Maria Rundle, of Columbus, Ont., died
in 1898, aged sixty- four years 'a beautiful, kind,
industrious lady." "Gone to a better land." Of three
living children Edgar lives at Snowflake, and Mrs. John
Wesley Rundle at La Riviere, Man., while Hesron Robert
Miller lives at Aurora, Ont.
The following item which appeared in the Montreal
"Daily Witness' of March nth, will be read with regret:
"Snowflake, Man., March 10, 1908. The splendid farm
house and out-buildings of Robert Miller, was burned
yesterday afternoon with entire contents. The family
were absent from home at the time of the fire."
2. MICHAEL MILLER settled in the neighborhood of
Centreville, Ont. He married a Miss Empey. There were
five sons Thomas, Averal, Fletcher, John and George-
124 THE CAMDEN COLONY
and two daughters Ann and Elizabeth. The descendants
are to be found in Napanee, Morven, Centreville, Tarn-
worth and Lyn, Ont., and Manitou, Man. This branch,
as far as we know, has given no preacher to the church,
although from the honored name of Fletcher in the list
we might have expected one; but it has served the country
well in another honorable capacity in the person of John
S. Miller, now of Manitou, Man., and for a number of
years an efficient member of parliament, representing the
county of Addington, Ont.
3. REBECCA, daughter of Garrett Miller and Elizabeth
Switzer, was born in 1774, and died in 1869, living to the
MR. & MRS. HENRY WILSON OF NAPANEE, ONT.
Their son, W. A., and his wife with their children, of Strasburg, Sask.
patriarchal age of ninety-five years, notwithstanding war
and pioneer work. She rests in the Switzerville cemetery.
Her husband was Charles Bush, also a loyalist. Their
children numbered six. three of whom have descendants
-William, whose children settled in Philadelphia; Mary
A., who married Wilson of Selby; and Julia A., who
married Benjamin Clarke, son of Robert Clarke, the church
and mill builder of Ernestown. One photograph is at our
disposal in this connection and it represents three genera-
tions from Mary A. Wilson.
The story of Methodism in the neighborhood of SeJby
could not be accurately written without giving to the
Wilson family a large share in the success which it has
achieved. The younger men are all actively identified
with the Sunday schools, young people's societies and
official work of the Methodist church in thier respective
The descendants of Julia Ann Clarke form a numer-
ous list, as the genealogical table will show, and are to
be found from Montreal to Hamilton and to the sixth
generation from their U. E. loyalist ancestor. The con-
nection has maintained a close and loyal identity with the
church. Henry Huffman, for instance, was for fifty years
a member of the quarterly official board on the Bath
circuit. Others have been helpers in Sunday schools and
class meetings. Nelson Clarke entered the ministry in the
United States. Three Methodist ministers have been
introduced into this connection as REV. W. H. ROWSOM,
B.A., graduate of Victoria University, whose stations were
Matilda, Morrisburg, Quebec, Hatley and Cassville.
Granby, then removed to the United States and was sta-
tioned in charge of Trinity Methodist Episcopalian church,
Albany, N.Y. His widow, granddaughter of Julia Ann
Clarke, lives at Burlington, Out. REV. S. J. HUGHES, who
married Julia Ann Perry, daughter of Bowen A. Perry
and granddaughter of Julia Ann Clarke, entered the
ministry in 1871, and has been stationed at Ainleyville,
Mitchell, Wilton, College. Hemmingford, Franklin Centre,
Beebe Plain, Danville, Arnprior, Gananoque, Prescott,
Ottawa, Perth, Winchester, Athens. He has been financial
secretary of the districts of Stanstead, Perth, Kingston,
Brockville, Matilda, and chairman of Brockville district,
also secretary of conference, in all of which positions Mrs.
Hughes has been an appreciative and able supporter, being
enthusiastic in the woman's missionary work. REV. JOHN
A. WILLIAMS, D.D., who married Rebecca Clarke, grand-
daughter of Rebecca Miller Bush, was a most outstanding
THE CAMDEN COLONY
character, in splendid physique, high mental attainments,
deep spirituality, profound and beloved as a preacher,
persevering and toilsome as a worker. He was honored
with the responsibilities of the office of general superin-
tendent of the Methodist church. He died December i/th,
1889, aged seventy-two years. He began his work at
Hallowell in 1846, and here he resolvel to read the Greek
Testament, and for that reason used to drive early to his
appointments that he might get a little time for study
before the people arrived. His charges included Napanee,
Sheffield, Consecon, Wilton, Cookstown, London, Owen
Sound, Milton, Toronto, Port Hope, Brockville, Simcoe,
CALVIN WOOSTER MILLER
of Switzerville, 1803 - 1872.
CEPHUS HURLBURT MILLER
of Newburgh, Ont.
St. Thomas, Stratford, Goderich, St. Catherines. The
highest honors of the church were bestowed upon him. His
widow died in 1905. "If all the Millers were as good as
my mother" (stepmother), writes Mrs., Ross, of Hamilton,
Ont., president of the Woman's Missionary Society, "their
history deserves to be written."
4. PETER MILLER, son of Garrett Miller, was born
1776, and died 1847. Of his six children descendants are
found in Switzerville and Napanee, and various parts of
Lennox and Addington counties. One son was named
after the famous early evangelist, Calvin Wooster. We are
able to include his photograph.
PETER E. R. MILLER and JAMES, two sons, remain in
Switzerville to maintain the traditions of the family and
further the interests of Methodism.
This section of the family has also been represented
in the ministerial ranks. REV. WILLIAM McDONAGH,
D.D., married Margaret Miller, daughter of Calvin
Wooster Miller. He entered the ministry in 1852, and
superannuated in 1897. His circuits were Humber, Mark-
ham, Newmarket. Bradford, College, Lyn, Maitland,
Dudswell, Sherbrooke and Oso, Pakenham and Arnprior,
Cartwright, Newcastle, Aylmer, Paris, Kincardine, Clin-
ton, Sarnia, Strathroy, London, Exeter and Kingsville.
MISS EVA MILLER, B.A.
daugterof P. E. R. Miller.
P. E. R. MILLER.
He has been financial secretary of Wingham, Godench,
Sarnia and Exeter districts, and chairman of Sarnia,
Strathroy and London districts. He has been assistant
secretary, secretary and president of conference, and a
member of five general conferences. The ''Christian
Guardian," July 3ist, 1907, said, "The venerable Doctor
has lost none of his old-time force and energy, and his
expositions are as clear and strong and evangelistic as
REV. JACOB FRESHMAN, D.D., married a daughter of
Charles Miller, brother of Calvin \V. He began his
128 THE CAMDEN COLONY
ministry in 1863, being appointed to the German mission at
Hamilton, Ont. He has been notably successful and out-
standing in his work. The especial feature of his life was
his work among the Jews of New York city. His wife
proved herself an able colaborer.
5. AGNES MILLER, 1779-1807, married John DougaJl.
of Picton, Ont. Of this family which has identified itself
with the county of Prince Edward, our iniormation is all
too meagre. We suppose John Dougal to have been a son
of the Dougal who was one of the first trustee board of
the Conger Methodist church, built on the farm of Steven
Conger in 1809, a short distance out of Picton. A
daughter of John, named Agnes, married David Stevenson,
M.P., of Picton.
6. WILLIAM, 1783-1863. His children were nine, and
his descendants are many and widely scattered from St
Albans, Vermont, to California and* from Ottawa, Ont.,
to Edmonton, Sask; In strength of character and extent
of Christian usefulness, it is hard to discriminate among
them. Our selections are illustrative.
"Uncle Cephas" Miller was a well known and highly
esteemed figure in the Newburgh Methodist church, aid--
ing largely in bringing to it its latter day efficiency. His
generosity was exemplary, his faithfulness and apprecia-
tion an inspiration. As a class leader his watchcare and
counsel were constant and sound. In the official board,
when the end of the financial year saw a deficit, he would
say "Brethren, our ministers are men of God. They have
done their work, brethren. They have done good work.
They must have their pay. And they shall have it." Of
course they did, after such a speech. When infirmity pre-
vented him from attending the church services, he would
say to the young preacher on his next visit "They tell me
you preached them a good sermon, last Sunday, brother
Preach Christ, brother; preach Christ." For many years
he followed mercantile pursuits in the village of New
burgh, and while reaping financial success, he was
scrupulously conscientious and characterized by strict
integrity. He also exercised magisterial functions as a
justice of the peace, .and was deeply interested m the
highest welfare of his community. He married Miss Eli/.a
j. Shibley. His son, William H., is the strenuous city
auditor of Kingston, Ont., regarding whom the city press
says "he is doing his duty" sometimes in hard places.
He is a helpful and honored member of the Queen Street
Methodist church. His daughter, is married to Dr. J. C.
Berkley of St. Albans, \ t. Augusta Miller, daughter of
Cephas, is married to the Hon. A. B. Aylesworth, dis-
tinguished as one of Canada's greatest lawyers and at
present Minister of Justice in the Canadian government.
As a Newburgh boy, all residents of the burgh rejoice in
his success, and congratulate his esteemed father, John
B., who has long been associated with the advanced
interests of the community and of the Methodist church.
A recent issue of the "Manitoba Free Press' said : "The
Conservative press headed by the "Mail" and "Empire" are
taking columns to tell what a 'frost' Mr. Aylesworth is as
a political leader. It does not occur to them that the best
answer to their contentions is supplied by their own
columns. Public men who are failures, are ignored or
treated with mock magnanimity by their opposing press,
and there are few better proofs that a political leader is
dangerous than unwearied assaults by the enemy. Mr.
Aylesworth is plainly making headway remarkable head-
way, considering the lateness of his advent to the political
field. Mr. Aylesworth is the first Federal Liberal in
Ontario since the Liberals came into power to take his
duties with downright seriousness: he appears to be giving
his whole time and attention to politics, and he has already,
by numerous platform appearances, made himself a
familiar figure to the Ontario electors. ... It may truly
be said that there is no province in the Dominion where
the Liberals stand so greatly in need of hard work and
Mr. Aylesworth's . . . activities are doubtless very accept-
THE CAMDEN COLONY
able to their followers." His son, Allan Featherstone, is
barrister and attorney, member of the firm of Aylesworth,
Wright, Moss and Thompson, of Toronto.
GEORGE MILLER, brother of Cephas, was also known
as one of God's noblemen. He carried with his life the
secret of having refused an early and strong impression
that he should enter the ministry. He did much work
as a local preacher. In his commercial enterprises he we.s
remarkably successful, and yet by fire and flood suffered
losses so often and to such an extent, that he was much
given to attributing his misfortunes to punishment for
of Napanee Mills
ELIZABETH M. PERRY
refusing the call to preach. He married Miss Charlotte
JULIA ANN MILLER, sister of the above, married Rev.
}. B. Aylesworth, M.D., and thus connected the family
directly with the ministry of the Methodist church. Dr.
Aylesworth was in the ministry from 1843 to 1874, and
was stationed at Hallowell, Demorestville, Mitchell,
Bradford, Kleinburg, Colborne, Newcastle, Cobourg,
Bond Head, Owen Sound and Stayner. He was chairman
of district at Colborne, Newcastle, Bond Head, and Owen
Sound. He died at Collingwood in 1888, aged 79.
ELIZABETH MILLER married D. B. Stickney, a pro-
minent manufacturer of Newburgh, whose godly con-
sistency and faithful devotion to duty and church services
even when infirmity prevented him from hearing anything,
drew forth the admiration of all who knew him.
7. GARRETT, 1786-1863, who married Nancy Foster,
of Northport, Ont, of a family that came from the north
of England. Our reproduction of his photograph and
that of his sister represents the most remote generation of
the Millers of which any photograph exists.
To encourage the U. E. loyalists grants of land were
made of two hundred acres to all sons twenty-one years
and over and to the daughters who married under twenty-
Garrett Miller the younger secured his location where
the village of Strathcona now stands. The modern
traveller may descry the winding river crossed by one long
street which descends to one bank and rises from the
opposite one. A store and post office, a railroad station,
paper manufacturing mills, an Episcopalian church and
the tall spired Methodist church, a large school house and
a long rambling row of workmen's homes such is the
village of quiet ways. Flanked on either side by a broad,
rolling landscape with plentiful and majestic elms, there
is altogether such a suggestion of a pastoral paradise as
may well invite effectively the weary, who are meditatively
Garrett Miller made his clearances as his 'brothers did,
and shaped and fenced his fields. He has left for the
modern generation a symbol of his ambition, patience,
thoroughness and uncompromising purpose to have the
best, a stone house which, while now suffering from time
and neglect, has endured for more than forty years after
its builder had been laid to rest. It is an impressive fact
that while the modern pioneer has often been content to
live and die in his first log shanty, as though the acme
of life had been reached, such men as Captain Charles
THE CAMDEN COLONY
Miller in St. Armands, Cue., and his cousin Garrett in
Camden, Ont, built largely and substantially in stone.
The old stone house, exposed to the meanderings of
owls and bats, has been superseded by West Grove Hall
with its modern brick and gables standing out prominently
in the contour of the hamlet, and arresting the eye of the
traveller on the distant highland road.
To the stone house Garrett brought his bride. Here
their eight children were born. Here unexpected sorrow
came by the drowning of the two oldest children two
THE TWO BROTHERS
REV. W. W. MILLER.
bright boys just how, no one ever knew, but their bodies
were found in the near-by river. And from this home
Garrett and his wife, with babe in arms the farthest away
of all the Millers used to walk to Switzerville chapel;
and they enjoyed the services.
Of the children, WILLIAM WESLEY gave himself to the
Methodist ministry, 1856-1889, a period of thirty-three
years and died at the age of sixty-five. His circuits were
Gananoque, Waterloo (Kingston), College, Lindsay, Roncl
Eau, Napier, Nissouri, Bolsover, Bath, Harrow-smith,
Tamwo'rth, Moulinette, Playfair, Lombardy, Roblin,
Battersea, Wolfe Island. He was a godly, faithful
man, who conscientiously went where he was sent; a man
of a still tongue, modest, an informing preacher, probably
underestimated as to his worth. He gave to his circuits
his best endeavors and left the Methodist church property
which he acquired before entering the ministry, and he did
all unobtrusively, as was characteristic of his connection.
His wife was Sarah Mounteer.
PETER, who married Mary Jane Shibley, followed the
A SOUTHERN DESCENDANT
MRS. GORDON GROVES
Canyon City, Texas.
farm life. He was for years an able official and treasurer
in the Methodist church. It was by the combined efforts
of the brothers William and Peter, who gave the land and
quarried stone, that the attractive Gothic church and ample
grounds were secured to the Methodist church at Napanee
Mills, and thus an appointment became established there.
Of Peter's four daughters (there were no sons) one is dead,
her daughter being in Canyon City, Texas, the oldest is
in Carman, Man., the youngest is in the neighborhood of
i34 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Strasburg, Sask., and the fourth is the wife of the pre-
sent writer an able assistant in the work of the Methodist
ministry. Her parsonage life has been spent in Seymour,
Minden, Arden, Adolphustown, Bath, Sutton, Shawville,
Cobden, Kingston and St. John's.
AGNES MILLER, who married Archibald McKim, gave
two daughters to the Methodist ministry Emily wno
married the Rev. W. J. Young, whose ministry, extending
from 1867-1907, included in its operations Ameliasburg,
Stirling, Wilton, Cataraqui, Pittsburg, Morven, Demorest-
ville, Milford, Reach, Mount Albert, Thomasburg, Tweed,
Odessa, Cannifton, Cherry Valley, Rednerville, Tarn-
worth and Seagrave. Their son, Rev. W- Archibald McK.
Young, whose ministry began' in 1897, is stationed at
Rossburn, Man. Mary McKim married the Rev. B. F.
Lewis; their labors were prosecuted in Chicago.
One grandson of Garrett Miller, Orin Scountin, is a
missionary in South Africa; one granddaughter, Alma
Neeley, has entered professional life by marrying Dr. John
Moore, of Shannonville. Ont. Mrs. Henry Denyes, a
sister, is an indefatigable church worker in the neighbor-
hood of Foxboro, Ont., as is also a brother Garrett
Neeley, of Strasburg, Sask.
We venture to anticipate a reference to another of the
pioneer children by inserting the following obituary notice
taken from the "Christian Guardian" of 1864, and written
by the Rev. W. H. Poole, who w.as then pastor of New-
"The three worthies who have lately left us were wont
to tell their children and grandchildren, our people were
Palatines from Ireland, converted to God through the
instrumentality of Mr. Wesley.
"William Miller, the oldest son, was born November
25th, 1783, in Canada East. When twenty-four years of
age he took to his home and heart Miss Hannah McKim,
who made a good wife, a good mother, and a good Chris-
tian neighbor. She left him with nine children, three of
whom soon followed her to the better country. The others,
I trust, are contending for the same home all active and
useful members of the Wesleyan Methodist church. When
fifty-four years old he married a Mrs. Jane Bell, by whom
he had one daughter. The mother and daughter are liv-
ing together having respect unto the recompense of the
"Pie gave evidence of conversion to God when a young
man, was reclaimed from his wanderings through the
instrumentality of the Rev. Mr. Booth, and continued a
member of the church until his death. For full thirty
years his house was open for public worship, where the
Wesleyan ministers and their many visitors found a hearty
welcome. In matters of business he was remarkably
shrewd, active, earnest and successful; while strictly
honest, he understood how to acquire property, 'was
diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord.'
For some weeks before his death, his heart was mellowed
by the sunbeams and clew drops oi Divine love; and when
his Master called him we trust he was ready. Ha'l he
lived a few days longer he would have seen his eightieth
birthday. lie died on the 2Oth of October, 1863. lie was
followed to the old Switzer's church by a large retinue
of sorrowing children and grandchildren, where, after a
short address, his body was committed to the tomb, to
wait until Christ shall bid it rise.
"His brother, Garrett Miller, was born November i8th,
1786. lie came to Erncstown when about twelve years of
age. The next year he gave himself to God and to the
church, joined Mr. Detlor's class, and remained unshaken
in his confidence until his last hour. His stability in
relation to the church o-f his early choice may be accounted
for, in part at least, by the fact that he was an early and
constant reader of our church organ ; from the first he was
wont to hail the 'Christian Guardian' as a welcome weekly
visitor; close and continued attention to its columns put
him in possession of that information which saved himself
136 THE CAMDEN COLONY
and others in the years of storm and trial. Others were
borne off on the tide of division when he remained
unmoved, a pillar in the church of God. In church matters
as in his personal experience, he often said, 'my heart is
fixed.' He was more knowing and better read in church
matters than many of his day. And to his credit, it may
also be said, he was more liberal to the cause of God.
The house of the Lord was his chief joy; often, when
scarcely able to sit up in his chair, he found his way to
the place of prayer. His wife's maiden name was Miss
Nancy Foster. With her he lived long and happily,
leaving behind him six married children, and a number
of grandchildren. After a long illness of patient suffer-
ing he died in great peace, on Monday the 28th of Decem-
"Their brother, John Miller, was born December igth.
I /go, and he, too, in early life found the pearl of great
price. I can bear testimony to the triumphs of grace in
his last hours; that confidence in his Saviour that sustained
him in a long life of fidelity in his Master's cause secured
for him a triumphant exit to his reward. He was an
uncompromising opponent of everything that seemed to
him to be an infringement on old Methodism. The good
man grew eloquent on such topics as free seats in our
churches, the rights of the poor, the good old congrega-
tional singing, the minister reading two lines of the hymn
in church, kneeling during public prayer, becoming serious-
ness at all times in the house of God; on these and kindred
subjects Uncle John was a strong man. His class and his
church loved him much. All found in him a good coun-
sellor, a warm friend, and a consistent member of the
church. It was a great pleasure to him to entertain the
ministers of the gospel; as his fathers did in this respect
so did he, and, indeed, his brothers also. He calmly fell
asleep on the I5th of January, 1864, leaving a large family
following him on the same path to heaven. It is a little
remarkable that these brothers should have passed away
from earth within three months of each other; the eldest
first, then the next, and afterward the youngest. And,
that although living within a short distance of each other,
neither was permitted to see the other during his last
Surely such ideals as these men possessed were worth
perpetuating and are deserving of continued advocacy.
And evidently some of the live religious questions of theii
day are not all dead yet, though forty years have passed
There is a matter of fact in the above quoted obituary
which deserves more than passing notice. A boy twelve
years old or less was converted to God in those days when
young people were just as rational as they are to-day, and
when the worldly amusement offered itself even more
temptingly as a relaxation from the monotony of farm
life; yet that converted boy continued steadfast in the
faith for the long period of sixty-five years a notable
example of the value of early and earnest decision for
The reader may be pardoned if he wonders who was
the preacher under whose ministry that boy was converted.
We think it was Calvin Wooster, for it was at that time
that he was stirring up the Bay of Quinte circuit with his
revival themes. And the seed which he sowed among the
Miller young people was not lost.
A brief biographical sketch of Nancy Foster Miller,
wife of Garrett Miller, written by her son, the late Rev.
W. W. Miller, and published also in the "Christian
Guardian" has been preserved. She 'was born in the
township of Sophiasburgh, Prince Edward County, A.D.
1796. Her early life was not biassed in favor of Metho-
dism; but she was awakened to a sense of her lost con-
dition as a sinner, and led to seek an interest in the
Redeemer's blood under the preaching of the Rev. N.
Reeder in the year 1816, while he was travelling the
Smith's Creek circuit, which according to Playter,
138 THE CAMDEN COLONY
'extended from the border of Yonge Street on the west,
and included the Hallowell and Belleville country in the
east.' On this occasion he preached in her uncle S. Reed's
house, who lived a few miles up the river from Belleville,
and according to previous announcement, directed his
discourse particularly to the young people, many of whom
were present, especially the relatives of Mr. Reed, as he
had taken pains to have it widely circulated among them.
"From this time she ever dated a new era in her iile's
history. As she often expressed it, she then saw things in
an entirely new light, and felt it to be of infinite im-
portance to renounce the vain pomps and fashions of this
world, and gave evidence of a willingness to become any-
thing or nothing for her Saviour, whom she now delighted
to adore and honor by declaring what great .things he had
done for her soul.
"Very soon after her conversion,- following her desire
for Christian fellowship, she united with the people called
Methodists, with whom through the many subsequent trials
of the church, and vicissitudes of life, she remained a firm
and consistent member until death; and although she was,
if not the first of her father's family, vet nearly so, who
made an open profession of religion, she had the satisfac-
tion in after life of seeing them all, or nearly all, with her
bearing the name of Methodist.
"In the year 1821 she was united in marriage to
Garrctt Miller, who was also a member of the same church.
. . . . Of her attachment to the cause of God in gen-
eral, and to the interests of Methodism in particular, much
might be saicl. More than glad was she to have the weary
itinerant to make her house a place of rest and refresh-
ment In all the institutions of the church she
took a deep interest. Preaching the Word, prayer and
class meetings, the love feast and sacrament of the
Lord's Supper, were to her seasons of refreshing. In
domestic life, the reading of the Word, the family altar,
and private prayer, were eoually valued not suffering
the one to be neglected because of the absence of her hus-
band, nor the other by the press of business; the one being
sustained during the five and a half years of her widow-
hood; of the other it might be said that three times a day
might her voice be heard praying and calling on the name
of the Lord. . . ...
"Her last religious act, so far as known by her atten-
dants was that of reading in the Bible after which she
said, 'This, too, soon must end.' She could now scarcely
distinguish the lines. .Becoming unconscious shortly
afterwards, she lingered but forty-eight hours when her
happy spirit took its flight to that land of which it is said
death shall never enter. Thus closed the life of one, who,
although she had no legacy in the form of gold or silver
to bequeath to the cnurch at her demise, yet always
delighted to give of her substance to God's cause during
the fifty-two years in which she recognized His claim on
all she possessed, giving, undoubtedly, during that time,
hundreds of dollars to the church, and leaving behind her
the example of a devoted life, the savor of a good name,
and a godly influence to tell on generations yet to come."
8. ELIZABETH, daughter of Garrett Miller and Eliza-
beth Switzer, born 1788, died 1871. Married David
Perry. Dr. John Carroll classes the Perrys among
"the most respectable of the early Methodist fami-
lies of the province whose names ought not to be
allowed to perish from our history nature's nob'e-
men who by grace were made to be of the excellent
of the earth." The Perrys were several in number Robert,
who entered the early itinerancy and, like all his brothers,
was "compact, heavy and wiry" with "a certain bluffness
of manner"; Peter, who was a notable politician and an
influential member of the Legislative Assembly; the Hon.
Ebenezer, who was a member of the Legislative Council;
Daniel and David who were both local preachers; and
Mrs. Aylesworth, mother of the Aylesworth families, was
their sister. It was on David Perry's farm that the first
church in Newburgh was built, and it is recorded of him
i4 THE CAMDEN COLONY
that besides his own liberal subscription, he loaned the
society 700 without taking any interest for it. Of the
descendants of this branch we regret that our information
is very limited, as is also the case of the last brother of
whom we write.
9. JOHN, son of Garrett Miller, 1790-1864, married
Nancy Neville. There were ten children. One daughter
married a medical practitioner. One son, Anthony, who
married Miss I. McFee, entered the ministry in the State
of Michigan. The oldest son, Aaron, born in 1824.
entered the ministry of the Methodist church in 1850, and
is still alive, and living in the town of Picton, Ont. His
circuits included Sidney, Brighton, Picton, Bath, Wallace-
burg, Peel, Demorestville, Madoc, Shannonville, Preston,
Arthur, Waterdown, Hudson, Belleville, Tilbury, Rain-
ham, Stamford and Oueenston, Kinglake, Walsingham.
He was educated at Newburgh Academy and for a time
taught school at Moscow and Switzerville, Ont.
One of the younger descendants of John Miller is
Bruce Whittington. The following appeared in the
"British Whig" of Kingston, Ont. : "WHITTINGTON-
MclQUHAM. In Kingston, on February 26, 1908, at the
residence of the bride's Father, 390 Albert St., by Rev. F.
H. Sproule, Mabel H., daughter of James Mcllquham, to
R. Bruce Whittington, Napanee.
"A quiet wedding was solemnized at the residence of
Mr. and Mrs. James Mcllquham of this city, on Wednes-
day evening, when their daughter Mabel was united in
marriage to R. B. Whittington, of Napanee, by Rev. F. H.
Sproule of Princess Street Methodist church. The bride
looked charming in her neat and pretty costume. The
number of beautiful presents received, testified to the esteem
in which both bride and groom are held by their friends.
Mr. and Mrs. Whitington left on the midnight train for
Napanee, where they will reside.''
Thus briefly we have tried to show what a sphere of
usefulness was filled by the various members of that
A PARSONAGE GROUP
EMILY MILLER TUCKER
Great grand-daughter of Garrctt Miller U.E.L.
Winifred M., Edith M., Holly M., Wilfrid Rilbrough Miller, her children
OUTSPREADING u 1
modest, almost unheard of family, and what a splendid
harvest of the fruits of righteousness has from time to
time been gathered, until it seems as if the benediction
and godly influence of an ancient father had passed
through upon more than even the fourth generation. We
must now direct the reader's attention to other localities.
Let us say in passing away fro-m the country of the
Napanee that its changes have been many. From Xew-
burgh and Napanee Mills the name of Miller has dis-
appeared, even the quiet and pretty hamlet is no longer
known by its old name. A new order of people has arisen
to carry forward the work of Christian enterprise and
public usefulness bequeathed to them by a people who
fulfilled a lofty mission. The children are scattered, but
to be useful; the "seed shall inherit the earth."
"We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers
have told us, what work Thou didst in their days, in the
times of old. Thou didst drive out the heathen with Thy
hand and plantedst them; Thou didst afflict the people and
cast them out. For they got not the land in possession
by their own sword, neither did their own arm save them;
but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy
countenance, because Thou hadst a favor unto them."
COUSINS FAR REMOVED
"And now I live! Oh! where do I live?"
THE investigator finds romance in the commonest walks of
life, and there are chapters of unwritten biography more
charming than books reveal. The present chapter of our
story will open up a little of the romance of modern
migrations, and present relationships where least expected,
and always with the stamp of the gospel upon them. In
this connection our centres of influence will appear in
Ireland, Nova Scotia, Montreal and various parts of the
United States, notably along the Atlantic sea-board.
Although Garrett Miller, coming to America in 17/2,
was the last of the family circle to emigrate, it does not
appear that the whole of the family had then removed
from Ireland. At least one brother of the name of John
remained behind. This is according to an Ontario tra-
dition. And the name entered into the family history of
both the Ontario and Nova Scotian branches.
In addition there was also a first cousin whose name
was George Miller who lived 1741-1817, contemporary
with our U. E. loyalists, but who remained in Ireland and
was succeeded by a large family. William, a grandson,
is perhaps the oldest living member of all this Miller
family, arid his home is Ardevin, Connaught Avenue,
Cork, Ireland. He has been a literary character and a
Methodist local preacher, and treasures the tradition that
Mr. Wesley used to preacn in his grandfather's house.
Of the relationship existing between this branch and
those who came to America before the revolutionary war
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 143
we learn unmistakably from one Adam Miller, son of
George, who writing from Montreal in 1820 concerning
those who had preceeded him some fifty years, said of
Mrs. Peter Miller, of St. Armand, "her first husband, Mr.
Lawrence, who died in Killaheen, was a first cousin to my
grandmother Miller." Of her last husband (Peter Miller)
he writes that he had died in 1819, and that "he was a
cousin german" of his father. He goes on to state that
Peter had a brother Jacob who with his son Garrett was
conducting a successful lumber trade in Halifax, having
some vessels of his own, and that another brother named
Garrett was engaged in farming in the Bay of Quinte
country. This letter was addressed to his brother Peter
in Ireland. It was brought back to Canada a few years
since and is now in the possession of Mr. Joseph H. Carson,
of Montreal. It serves the purpose of identifying the con-
Two others arrived at Halifax about 1817 and 1818.
One was named William, and we take him to have been
a brother of Adam. His wife died in Halifax, and was
buried in the family plot in St. Paul's Cemetery (closed
since 1846). The other, the earlier arrival, was George
an interesting character with some idiosyncrasies. He is
said to have come to Canada on the invitation of his uncle,
who furnished him with an outfit for his circuit work. His
relationship to the connection we are able to establish by
two authorities first, the tradition of the Nova Scotians
who in Bridgewater and Halifax claim him as a cousin.
Secondly, a letter is extant and in the family of Dr. Mack,
of Halifax, written by Catherine Miller from New York
in 1852. We take this Catherine to have been the daughter
of Martin whom Jacob had adopted from his brother
Garrett. Writing to her "cousin Augusta Miller" she says,
"I suppose you remember cousin George, the Methodist
Other connections we shall presently show became
established in the United States; and thus there is brought
to our view a large field for research.
144 THE CAMDEN COLONY
I. REV. GEORGE MILLER was a member of the Nova
Scotia conference from 1817 to i86g, when he died at the
age of eighty-one, having served the church for fifty-two
years. Dr. Cornish in his encyclopedia gives the name as
Millar, which is a misleading spelling. Professor Alfred
D. Smith, L.L.D., of Mount Allison University, Sackville,
N.B., writes, "Over forty years ago I knew the Rev. George
Miller. .... lie was then living as a superannuated
minister in Bridgetown, Annapolis, N.S He
had three sons, Martin A., George W., .and John T., and
two daughters, Catherine and Elizabeth. I saw two of
his sons here in Sackville over thirty years ago. These
were then residents of New York city, one of them a retired
army doctor, the other engaged in the hay and feed busi-
ness, but I cannot remember which sons they were. Of
the two daughters, one, Kate, I think, married .a Mr.
Wilson, of St. Andrew's or St. Stephen the former, I am
inclined to think. The other one was married twice once
to a Dr. Coehrane. . . . For aught I know there may
have been other children. ... In Mr. Miller's Anna-
polis clays my father-in-law was the leading Methodist
in that part of the world and his house was headquarters
for the Methodist ministers."
To this communication we may add the following
items received from Mrs. Hannah, of the rectory, Leaming-
ton, Ont., sister of Professor Smith. One of the boys was
"Alden." 'The two daughters, Kate and Elizabeth,
attended my father's school during their father's sojourn
at Annapolis Kate, the elder, married a Air.
Wilson, of St. Andrews, N.B., I think a lawyer by pro-
fession. A son of theirs was at Sackville Male Academy
when rny daughter Kate now the wife of Rev. I. Edwards,
Anglican church clergyman, with whom I reside was at
the Ladies' College there; she says he was a very fine
fellow and well liked. That was thirty-five years ago. .
. . . All the (Miller) family were bright and intelli-
gent. Their father ^and mother were excellent people,
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 145
and my parents thought highly of "them so also did my
older brothers and sisters. Mr. Miller was a good
Of his appointments we find the following represent
his stations: Newport, Ramsheg, Bedeque, Yarmouth,
Sheffield, Newport, Shelburne, Horton, Lunenburg, Liver-
pool, Parrsboro, Bridgetown, Fredericton, Annapolis,
Point de Bute, St. John, Sackville, Mill Town, St. An-
It is of some interest to notice the coincidences in the
names of his children as compared with those in the family
of Garrett Miller, of Ontario.
2. From different sources including William Miller in
Ireland, Miss H. Murphy, in Philadelphia, and Mrs. U.
E. Stumph, of Mountville, Virginia, we gather some out-
lines of the history of GEORGE MILLER who remained in
Ireland. He appears to have been intimately identified
with Methodist work at Rathkeale. He married, in 1772,
Anne Beaker (1756-1823). Their family numbered twelve
children, and of these seven removed to America, six of
them to the United States, one to Canada.
(i) ADAM MILLER (1776-1826) came to Montreal in
1820, and ultimately settled in the town of St. Johns,
Oue., where he assumed the principalship of the school.
He died in 1826, and was buried in the cemetery of the
Episcopalian church, the Methodist church not having yet
secured property in the town. He left the reputation of
being a fine, scholarly and Christian gentleman, and
manuscript books, including music, which are still extant
show how 7 excellent were his tastes and accomplishments.
In Ireland he exercised the gifts of a local preacher.
During his voyage across the Atlantic, which he says took
two months, he came into contact with a somewhat bold
and sceptical passenger, and on the Sunday following
Adam Miller became equally courageous in preaching the
gospel. Of his sermon on that occasion which we judge
to have been of a superior order, the following is a brief
146 THE CAMDEN COLONY
The text was John xiv. 6. The preacher opened
by dwelling upon the circumstances which gave rise to the
Saviour's discourse. He then proceeded to develope the
statement that Christ is the way the only way to the
I. By His Doctrine. Note the perfection, sublimity
and superiority of the sermon on the mount the discourse
on the new birth several others and particularly the last
discourse to the disciples on the work of the Holy Spirit.
II. By His Example. He was the Great Exemplar in
filial subjection and obedience as a pattern of humility, of
patience under sufferings, of forgiveness of injuries, of
resignation, of sympathy (as at the grave of Lazarus), of
patriotism (as at Jerusalem), and the perfection of philan-
thropy, the greatest mark of which was the laying down
of His life.
III. By His Atoning Sacrifice. Here the original
transgression was emphasized, the promise of a Redeemer
noted, the establishment of a sacrificial system, types and
shadows of Mosaic economy all referring to Messiah, in
Him the union of the Human and the Divine, John i. and
Genesis i. compared to show the proper and essential God-
head of Christ, omnipotence, Isaiah's prophecy, Christ as
Judge, divinity revealed by miracles, establishing the
office of Mediator, "God forbid that I should glory."
IV. By His Spirit Agent and representative, to carry
on His work of grace, to convince, to renew in righteous-
ness, to purify the heart, to give meetness for glory.
By way of application the preacher dwelt upon the
inadequacy of attachment to any sect, name or party, the
need of personal holiness. He drew attention to the un-
Christianity of Christianity as it affords an opportunity
for the attacks of infidelity.
That sermon was comprehensive, and it affords an
indication of the order of intellect that belonged to this
man and his compeers.
There are numerous items of interest in his letter which
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 147
give some light upon the conditions of his day. Thus
Quebec is represented in possession of a telegraph system,
while travel from Quebec to Montreal might be by steam-
boat "The Car of Commerce" of seven hundred tons
burden and capable of carrying one thousand three hun-
dred passengers; the fare was IDS. for adults, half fare
for children. The boat which left Quebec at 6 a.m. cast
anchor at Three Rivers at 7 p.m. Quebec is spoken of
as "one of the most regular and best fortified cities in the
world and contains a population of about twenty-five thou-
sand. We know that the war of 1812-1815 had been
ended but a few years, and from this letter we learn that
the tide of emigration was now so great that it became
difficult to secure situations in consequence.
Describing a journey to St. Armands he recites his
passage from Montreal to La Prairie by ferry a distance
of nine miles, and fare is. 6d. He proceeded by stage
to St. Johns, a distance of eighteen miles, which was
reached by evening (we now make the journey from
Montreal in forty-five minutes). St. Johns was "a smart
little town with an English church, post office and military
magazine." He made a trip to Mount Johnson about six
miles from St. Theresa (Iberville), where a. ferry crosses
the Richelieu River about midway between Chambly and
St. Johns. From St. Johns a steamboat plies every Tues-
day morning for Whitehall at the head of Lake Cham-
plain, about 150 miles distant. About twenty-five miles
from St. Johns he found St. Armand, where he visited
Captain Charles Miller who conveyed him by Pike River
in his own "calash," and in whose family he "found all
the friendship and hospitality imaginable." Of Charles
Miller he says, "he is a captain in the militia and owns
thirteen hundred acres of land."
His notes regarding Methodist work are relevant.
The English Wesleyan church was endeavoring to do
missionary work in the province. In Quebec the Rev. Mr.
Lusher was superintendent, and the Rev. John de Putron
148 THE CAMDEN COLONY
was his assistant, and Mr. Miller was greatly surprised to
find the Methodists conducting their own sacramental
services; evidently he had not been used to that in Ireland,
or else his surprise must have been because of larger attaMi-
ments in the Canadian life than he had been led to ex-
pect. "In Montreal the English Methodists are very
respectable and have about one hundred and twenty in
society. They have a pretty chapel, and are building a
superb one, the front and side walls entirely of hewn stone.
The Rev. John Hick, their minister, is a man of superior
talent. There was a Bible society established here a few
days ago under the patronage of the Governor. Mr. Hick
was the principal person in its formation." At St. Armand
he found an English church, and about two miles farther
on (Philipsburg) "a very pretty Methodist chapel was
building and a school house with a small steeple." This
was in 1820. But the church does bear in its walls the
date stone 1819. Evidently it was not yet completed.
Thus did Mr. Miller observe and write. When he
came to St. Johns, owing to the circumstances of Metho-
dism, he was counted a lay reader in the Anglican church,
and still regarded as a member of the Methodist church
St. John's Methodism interests us because of this
connection, if for no other. And how slo-w its progress
had 'been ! Methodist ministers visited the town as early
as 1803, and in later years some of the best of the old-
time worthies were stationed there, but it seems to have
taken from 1803 to 1841 to get a footing in the place.
Services here were sometimes held in a government
storehouse and railroad building. Elijah Chichester
and Laban Clarke, who were appointed to the work
in 1803, gave up before the year was out; and
for the rest the work was intermittent, and Mr. Miller in
1820-1826 found little to encourage his Methodist loyalty.
When at length Methodism made a determined effort in
1841, by building a church in the town, the architecture
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 149
showed an advance on previous attempts elsewhere. We
include herewith a view of the church then built which
abides to the present day save only for a recent adornment
"For some years previous to the rebellion of 1837
Wesley an preachers visited St. Johns occasionally, but
during those years and up to 1840 their visits were nearly
or altogether suspended, partly in consequence of the
place which had been used for holding the meetings being
put to another use."
"In the latter part of July or during the month of
August, 1840, the Rev. R. L. Lusher came over from
Montreal and preached in the dwelling house of Mr. W.
Knight. Many persons were unable to gain admittance,
and on the day following it was suggested to take steps
to secure a building site. In the course of the Fall the
subscription list received the names of nearly all the Pro-
testants in the village and vicinity, subscriptions totalling
nearly 250. To this Montreal added 120 and Quebec
50." The late Rev. John Borland, whose son, D. R., is
a present member and whose granddaughter Judith is the
organist, was named a trustee. Since then the pastors
have been as follows: Hugh Montgomery (1841),
Benjamin Slight (1842-1843), Charles Churchill (1844), R.
Graham (1845), James Brock (1846-1848), Matt. Lang
(1849), G. H. Davis (1850-1851, 1858-1860, 1874-1876), J.
C. Davidson (1852-1853), John Carroll (1854), R. Cooney
(1855), R.Clarke (1856-1857), E. H. Dewart (1861-1863), G.
N. A. F. T. Dickson (1864-1866), John Douse (1867-1869),
John Borland (1870-1873), W. S. Blackstock (1877-1878),
W. J. Crothers (1879-81), John Armstrong (1882-1884). G.
Forsey (1885), W. W. Ryan (1886), W. McGill (1887-1889),
Alexander Campbell (1890-1891), A. McCann (1892-1894),
G. H. Porter (1895-1897), F. W. A. Meyer (1898-1900), R.
Mr. Miller did not live to see this manifestation of
Methodist energy, but his descendants did, and his grand-
son, Joseph H. Carson, of Montreal, noted in the province
150 THE CAMDEN COLONY
of Quebec for temperance and bible society work had his
early home here, and received in connection with this
church his religious inspirations. He is known also as a
useful and efficient local preacher.
The children of Adam Miller numbered six, and they
and their descendants have become identified with the
highest intellectual, social and religious influences of the
country, and particularly in and about Moncreal. A great
granddaughter, Miss Grace Tonkin, is deaconess of the
Methodist church in Winnipeg. A granddaughter, Theo-
dora L., is married to Dr. J. B. McConnell, well known
to the medical profession of Montreal as a leading
practitioner; his sons also follow in his steps. Another
granddaughter married the Rev. Walter Rigsby, of the
London conference, who, besides a long list of prominent
circuits dating from 1868, has also held various secretary-
ships of conference and districts as well as the conference
presidency. He has also been a member of four general
conferences. Adam -Miller, a son, was long known as a
leading book dealer in Montreal and Toronto. His widow
married the Rev. Dr. George Young.
Thus have the members of this branch joined with
their U. E. loyalist cousins in promoting the highest types
of citizenship and religious progress.
Of the branches who have settled in the United States
we have but limited information, sufficient, however, to
show the abiding force of the original spiritual ideals,
and our work will consist of brief outlines in this connec-
(2) Of CATHERINE, born in 1784, we only know that
she came to New York and was known to the Southern
connection, after her marriage, as "Aunt Kitty Legaire."
(3) PETER (Adam's brother), 1786-1848, married and
had a family of eleven children. Arthur located at
Youghal and Thomas at Queenstown, Ireland, and Charles
and Henry engaged in large book businesses in New York
and Brooklyn. Henry left a large family. The Rev.
Zebulun Wright Miller, and the Rev. Samuel Miller are
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 151
sons of Arthur and are ministers of the Methodist church.
(3) SAMUEL, 1791-1837, married Rebecca Hicks. The
family is to be found in the neighborhood of Cork, Ireland.
(4) ELIZA ANN MILLER, 1793 , married the Rev.
Samuel Lander, of South Carolina a Methodist minister,
Their children numbered six, of whom the son, Samuel, is
a Methodist minister. A grandson, Rev. John Lander, is
Methodist missionary to Brazil. A granddaughter,
Kathleen, married the Rev. John O. Wilson, of Lander
College, Greenwood, South Carolina. Frank Lander,
another grandson, is a medical practitioner.
(5) MARTHA MILLER, 1797-1865, married Jeremiah W.
Murphy. For a time they lived in St. Johns, Quebec.
They are buried at Wilmington, Delaware. Of their seven
children three, viz., Joseph Wiggins, William and Reginald
Heber became clergymen of the Episcopalian church.
(6) WILLIAM MILLER, 1795-1836, appears to have been
in Halifax in 1818. Beyond that we know nothing of him.
We need scarcely remind the reader of the abounding
and highly commendable tendency thus revealed in this
family in Ireland, Canada and the United States to
identify itself with the Christian ministry, a tendency we
may earnestly desire to cultivate, and which in this case
shows how much Mr. Wesley and his preachers may have-
done to establish and perpetuate those good traits of
character which were found in "Mr. Miller, the Lutheran
We will conclude this chapter by two quotations one
from Adam Miller and the second from an "Aunt Kitty
Miller," of New York, in 1852.
Adam Miller says, "Give our love to my mother and
all the family individually, to Mr. Wood, to all the mem-
bers of the Merciful Society as if named, to Miss Field,
Carnegy, Thomas Mount joy of Vipond and Neal, to Syl
Robinson and family, Mr. and Mrs. Swanton and family,
to my father and mother-in-law and my band through
George." George was an older brother, and the last
152 THE CAMDEN COLONY
remembrance is an indication of his active interest in the
organization of the Methodist society.
Catherine Miller's letter is dated New York, May
loth, 1852, and is addressed to her "cousin Augusta."
After expressing her regret at the failure of Augusta's last
letter to reach her, owing no doubt to the imperfect postal
conditions of those days, she says, "I believe it is some
seven or eight years since I have had the pleasure of hear-
ing from you, but I do hope, dear cousin, that you will
write a little oftener in the future. If you knew the gra-
tification it was to me to hear from my friends, I think
you would indulge me once in a while with a line or two.
I was most happy to receive a letter from cousin Fanny"
(Augusta's sister) "a few weeks since. It was so long a
time since I had heard from her that I almost despaired
of ever doing so again. She says how sorry she was that
1 did not get down to La Have last summer. You may
be sure I regret it not a little and I feel as if I had made
only half of my visit. I was delighted to see cousins
Jacob and John" (brothers of Augusta) '.and if they had
returned sooner I dare say I would have taken a trip down
to see you all if only for a few days. I am afraid it will
be a long time (if I ever do) before I will be able to take
such another journey. Papa's health is very infirm. He
has been an invalid for the last five years and this spring
he is more feeble than usual, so that if I could I would
not like to venture so far from home. Pa was very glad
that I made the visit to your aunt" (one of five sisters who
lived in Halifax) "last summer as they are the nearest
relations he has in this country" (he evidently did not
know of those in the western provinces or the daughter
omitted to say 'among the nearest relations'), "and there
has always been such a regular correspondence kept up
between us. He feels them very near to him. Your brother
Jacob half promised to come and see us this summer. I
do hope he will make his promises good. It would give
papa so much pleasure to see him. I believe he and papa
COUSINS FAR REMOVED 153
were very fond of each other when papa lived in Halifax;
he asked me so many questions about him when I returned.
If Jacob comes he must certainly bring your sister Fanny
with him. A trip to New York now-a-days is nothing to
undertake. Only think of my venturing to Halifax alone !
I suppose with your little family leaving for so long a
journey is out of the question until they are old enough to
spare you better, but I hope we may yet have the oppor-
tunity of seeing each other. I enjoyed my visit to Halifax
very much indeed your aunt treated me with such great
kindness. I will never forget it. Many others I met who
were exceedingly kind and attentive, among them your
friend Captain Chary's family. I think a great deal of
them and hope I may see them in New York and have it
in my power to return some of their kindnesses. I suppose
you have seen Mr. Allen often : he has been living in our
city all winter. I went with him a few evenings ago to
see an exhibition of very elegant paintings. He has some
specimens of his own in the collection, but I believe he
intends taking them on with him, so you will have an
opportunity of seeing them. I suppose you remember
cousin George, the Methodist minister. His oldest son
is in an excellent situation in New York and lives with us.
He is a very fine young man and is as nice to me as a
brother. He visited home last summer" (that was at
Digby and Rev. George Miller w-as superannuated for the
year), "and brought his youngest sister back with him to
spend a few weeks, but we coaxed her to stay all winter.
She likes New York very much and would like to remain
all summer, but I am afraid her parents will not let her
stay. I will miss her dreadfully when she leaves. My
brother is now living in Alexandria in Virginia. We hear
from him often. I am afraid you will think this is a very
stupid letter, but there is not much going on here that
would interest you living so far from us. I heard that
Captain Owen" (Daniel Owen married Elizabeth, sister
of Augusta) "was in our city for some months last sum-
154 THE CAMDEN COLONY
mer. I would have liked to have seen him very much but
he had left before we knew of his being- here. As my time
is limited I must, dear cousin, bid you adieu. Remember
me in love to Mr. Mack" (Augusta's husband) "and all
the children and all your brothers and sisters. Papa and
mama join me in best love to all, and believe me your
"Sincerely attached cousin,
Thus in a way, that to us of these later years appears
strange, even mysterious, do these writers unconsciously
establish their membership in a large and widely scattered
family. We have no evidence that Adam Miller ever
entertained the opinion of the presence in America of any
members of his family circle. Perhaps none of them cross-
ed the ocean during his lifetime. Their arrival, no doubt,
belongs to later years. And at last Peter and Martha
are to be found in the south-westefh States and younger
members of the family in Brooklyn and New York. But
in his letter of 1820, Adam acknowledges the families in
Halifax, Missisquoi and Ernestown three brothers; and
now by the letter of 1852 just quoted there appears to be
in New York a family aoparently unconscious of southern
connections, yet recognizing .affinity to the Halifax branch,
and to the "Methodist minister." By these intimations
we are enabled to bring into one view the scattered frag-
ments fragments that locally recognized some connec-
tion, but among them all we may safely say there existed
not one person of the present generation who conceived
the existence of such a family relationship as we have
briefly outlined, and shall attempt to present in fuller and
more suggestive detail in our genealogical section.
NEW STARTING POINTS OLD PRINCIPLES.
"Hence Liberty, sweet Liberty inspires
And keeps alive his fierce but noble fires."
EAST AND WEST.
WILFRID B. M. TUCKER.
HAROLD M. ARMSTRONG.
FOR a whole one hundred and twenty-five years the seed
has been undisturbed by the fierce and harassing winds
of persecution. No fires, no edicts, no ruthless and
marauding bands have invaded its realm ; it has been free
to be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth with
the beneficent ways of industry, the graces of culture, and
the elevations of religion. And being left to itself it has
not lost its virility.
By persecution ardor has at times been fanned to
flames, energy has been driven beyond its just expressions,
and persistence has achieved unwonted strength. When
persecution has ceased such noble virtues have at times
faded from view as an exhausted flower after the summer
heat. It has been otherwise with this seed of the righteous.
156 THE CAMDEN COLONY
Imbued with energy it would be as alert under the
sunshine of liberty as under the storms of persecution.
Ardent, sanguine and persistent, it could not be content
with ease and pleasure, and a limited environment it would
energetically abhor. So it has come to pass that when
persecution did not exile it, it voluntarily exiled itself;
finding its environment small and its energy and capacity
great it has courageously gone beyond its island home,
its city limits, its farm acres, its county and its province
it has even stepped beyond national lines in following
out its innate, active tendency to productivity.
When Jacob, Peter and Garrett Miller came to
America they represented respectively the mercantile life
and the trade of the weaver and the shoemaker. All three
became soldiers, but by necessity rather than choice, and
as a means of defence rather than -at means of livelihood.
Two of the brothers eventually became farmers and fol-
lowed this profession for at least forty-five years.
Of their descendants, we are able to gather, the
favorite employment has been as agriculturists, and in
this they have represented the foundation of national
wealth. Other occupations have also been followed,
showing breadth of capacity and an aptitude for general
culture. The following items furnish some idea of the
general activities: We have a list of twenty-eight in
mercantile life, eleven in the legal profession, seventeen
doctors, five teachers, one railroad telegrapher, one
inventor, one artist, two authors, one city auditor, one
bible society representative, one deaconess, one customs
house officer, one registrar, one judge, eight members of
parliament, ten militiamen, one sea captain and pilot,
thirty-one have been engaged in the Christian ministry
of whom twenty-four were Methodist, one Christian
Alliance and six Episcopalian, two (and probably many
more) were local preachers; for the balance our list shows
six hundred who have been connected with the agricultural
NEW STARTING POINTS OLD PRINCIPLES 157
The wide spread location of this group of people is
particularly suggestive, and is represented in the follow-
ing geographical list, viz., Cork and other localities in
Ireland; in the United States in Virginia, North <?nd
South Carolina, Delaware, Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia,
Boston, New York, St. Albans, Montpelier, Champlain,
Albury Springs, Toledo, Ohio, Rochester, N.Y., Chicago,
111., Canyon City, Texas, East Orange, N.J., Monraouth,
111., Kentwood, Alabama, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan,
and a dozen or more sections of California; in South
Africa; in India; in Glasgow, Scotland; in Halifax, Anna-
polis, Lunenburg, Liverpool, Mill Village, Bridgewater
and West La Have and other parts of Nova Scotia; in St.
Armand, Philipsburg, Frelighsburg, Sweetsburg, Dunham,
Sutton, Sutton Junction, West Brome, St. Armand East,
Knowlton, Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal, Huntingdon,
St. Johns in Quebec; in Ottawa, Brockville, Lyn, Kings-
ton, Napanee, Newburgh, Strathcona, Switzerville, Mor-
ven, Centreville, Bath, Adolphustown, Selbv. Shannonville,
Foxboro, Madoc, Wellington, Consecon, Picton, Tain-
worth, Bridgewater, Smithfield, Collingwood, Aurora,
Toronto, Campbell ford, Hamilton, Sault Ste. Marie and
Bracebridge in Ontario; in Winnipeg, Manitou, Snow-
flake, La Riviere, Melita and Carman, Man.; Edmonton,
Independence in Alta. ; Strasburg and Govan in Sas-
katchewan; and at Ashcroft in British Columbia. We
would not have the reader suppose that this list is com-
plete; we are quite persuaded that it is far from com-
pleteness. Yet enough is here given to show both the
activity of mind making for that progressiveness that
requires change of locality, and also the excellent taste
and aggressiveness shown in choosing what are among the
foremost localities in the land. There are migrations
which express no more than the fact that the wanderers
cannot bear the stress of civilization, and have drifted
from the strenuous to the laxadaisical ; such cannot be
charged against any of the groups represented in our pre-
158 THE CAMDEN COLONY
sent survey. Eagerness to compete with life at its best,
a determination to run in the race with the swiftest, and
to live on a par with the most strenuous, has created the
motives as far as we can discover for the various attempts
to open up new homes and choose new birthplaces.
And with this family group, representing those who
once dwelt on the banks of the Rhine, now spread out over
twenty-five states and provinces, we read the lesson of
hope. In the providence of God the principles of the
Reformation are becoming of God the principles of the
energy and logic of the schools as by the practical ex-
emplification, social contact and wide diffusion resulting
from the dispersion of groups of people. It is God's
method for spreading good. The light bearer must be
given the larger sphere, and his natural home instincts
must subserve the larger purposes of* the general good of
humanity and the diffusion of the highest aspects of truth.
Hence, as long as the movements of good people continue
we are prone to believe that the knowledge and influence
of the truth shall extend. In the commission given to the
Apostolic Church there is implied this understanding of
its relation to the future it is commanded to travel at
large because the holy ambition of Christ contemplates a
world conquest. If the "devil goeth about as a roaring
lion seeking whom he may devour," it is matter for thank-
fulness that an opposite and mightier force under the
authority of Jesus Christ is also going about as a minis-
tering angel, seeking to make of men those who shall be
heirs of salvation.
To the constancy and faith r ulness of the traveller
there is a tribute of commendation in the fact that his light
shines as brightly abroad as at home. The tenter who is
always right with God is good to humanity; he who is
everywhere loyal to Jesus Christ is always the best friend
to his universal neighbor.
It is a tribute to Christianity also that we would pay
in recognizing the fact that Christianity can travel. There
NEW STARTING POINTS OLD PRINCIPLES 159
have been times when people travelled faster than the
Church and waited long for the Church to catch up; but
the Church has been awakening to her error in this as in
other respects and her conscience has responded within the
past century to the demands of circumstances. The
children of the Church must be followed and fed. And
in doing this work the Church has only prepared and
encouraged the children to invade the realms of stagna-
tion, darkness and superstition and thereby increase the
company of the children of the light. The mother-church
is the Christ-church following the journeying children
with motherly instincts and solicitude. Thus has moved
on the spirit of the Reformation church from the Rhine
eastward to India, southward to Africa and westward to
California in the progress of the brief story we have been
And we would not overlook the tribute of praise which
is due to Methodism for the part she has played in the
development of this family history. Theological and
spiritual activity has often begotten ambition and energy
for the improvement of the material conditions of life;
and thus it was with the Palatine colony on the banks of
the Shannon. Christianity means education, and education
so often means a ferment and restlessness and venture that
we may safely calculate on the improvement of the material
conditions of life with a loosening of old restraints and
claims where it is propagated. Methodism as Christianity
in earnest, Christianity on fire, enormously accelerates
this process. Hence, our explanation of the continuance
of so many, concerned in this story, in the communion of
Methodism, and even when so widely scattered, is that
they have intelligently recognized the advantages of earnest
Christianity and have been imbued with a burning desire
to communicate these to their fellowmen. Hence they have
lived as Christians because they have worked as Metho-
dists. Methodism cared for them, co-operated with them,
followed them, fed them, called and used them; and they
160 THE CAMDEN COLONY
in turn have been prone to confess the everpresent Christ
in this modern Christianity.
Nor would we overlook the suggestion made by our
story of the self-propagating power of goodness. If good-
ness may not have a potentiality of its own, as really as
evil has, we think it scarcely deserves the name it bears.
Good is that which can be, and evil is that which has no
right to be. If that which has no right to be can be per-
sistent and communicative, and multiplicative, surely if
there is such a something as goodness it ought to be pos-
sessed of courage and energy enough to maintain
its right to be. And yet its friends have too often
arrayed it in swaddling clothes. Left to itself good is
as likely to live as evil; this is so because its source is
God, its vitality is divine. And syice Jesus Christ has
redeemed man, and has ownership in man, goodness is
bound to be perpetuated. Childhood begins its career in
a favorable relationship to God, and with a gracious
attitude towards the good ; it is when the processes of
education expose the child to the attacks of evil and
encourage the evil until the will of the child is constrained
to acquiesce that the progress of good is fettered. How
is it that, in the story which we have outlined, so many
ministers of the gospel are found available with gifts and
graces and the good will for service ? Thirty-one ministers
of whom we have record, probably others of whom we have
not learned, and to these may probably be added as many
\vho were local preachers and class-leaders is it not
something of an unusual record ? Here again, we observe,
these preachers and workers arise without concerted action;
they are found in Ireland, in Nova Scotia, in Quebec, in
Ontario, in the States of the American Union. We are
not prepared to assume that God nas blessed this family
more than he would bless all families, but we attribute
much to the absence of perversity and the. presence of a
good will, the maintenance of a good conscience and the
possession of a large degree of intelligence which have
NEW STARTING POINTS OLD PRINCIPLES. 161
made the presence and work of the Holy Spirit more
apparent and beneficent. From that ancestral stock where
stands ' Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister," there has come
a potentiality not easily exhausted a family character
which has tended to reproduce itself, as others may,
beyond the "third and fourth generation." And by so
much, supported and nourished, regenerated and sanctified
through the grace of God, the family life, educationally,
socially, oolitically, commercially and religiously, has
And now, reader, this part of our labor draws to a
conclusion. Our statements and inferences can be verified
by following the subjoined genealogical tables. Even
these are not open to a charge of collusion, for they have
been preserved in scattered fragments without the know-
ledge of each other, or in many cases only in memory.
Whatever lessons, therefore, may be gathered from them
have been undesigned by any of their numbers. We take
our leave of the reader here in the hope that if our attempt
to lead him into admiration of the German peasant as
seen in his modern Canadian and American descendant,
has been a failure, it may be pardoned, and at least com-
mended for its enterprise.
O hearts of loyal love and true,
The friends most true when friends are lew,
Weeding your tears for One despised.
Spending your store at tomb unprized!
Your love shall live for years untold,
Old friends, the best friends, never old;
Perpetual youth shall crown your days,
And prompt us still to sing your lays-
Not all the new designs of years,
Nor new found friend that oft appears,
However fair or blest with charm,
Can equal Friendship's ancient arm.
New flowers invade our garden bed,
And blazon all the ground with red,
And burden atmospheres with show,
With tawdry hue and golden glow.
162 THE CAMDEN COLONY
But bring me back our old time rose,
Unequalled by a flower that grows,
The fragrance of whose heart avails
When every other perfume fails.
The broken alabaster box
Shall cheer the heart that Flattery mocks,
Anoint our days when years have sped
And -pour fresh fragrance on our head.
Across the deep from shore to shore
Let old friends speak for evermore;
The new are like the morning light,
The old like mountains in their might.
The following Genealogical Register represents what has been gathered
of Nine Generations, a total of one thousand names. Were all names in-
serted where information has not been available we are persuaded that the
list would contain several hundred more.
The first generation contains one name.
Generation two contains four contemporary names belonging to two
groups two Miller brothers and brother and sister Switzer.
Generation three, consisting of twenty-one names, is divided into four
groups, consisting of descendants of the four persons instanced in generation
two, and these are arranged as families under the alphabetical order A, B,
In Generation four there is a regrouping under Roman numerals I to
IX indicating the heads of families whose descendants in America we
attempt to trace, The small figures indicate the number of persons in each
generation from all sources.
In tabulating, the descent is traced on horizontal lines by reading gen-
erations in the words Four, Five, Six, etc., and the numbers alternate for
convenience in open and bracketted form.
Thus "Four V. 24, Five (101) Six 172 Seven (165) Eight 76" would
show the person at 76 eighth generation descended through (165) Seventh gen-
eration through 172 Sixth and so on to number 24 group five of generation
HISTORICAL NAMES Sweitzer (Switzer), Muller (Mil-
1 64 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister of the Palatines in
Ireland. The Millers are registered as settled on Lord
Southwell's estate. Others under the name of Miiller
moved directly from Germany to Pennsylvania.
I. Miller (given name unknown), II. Garrett Miller bro-
thers; III. Peter Switzer; IV. His sister Mary; V.
Philip Embury, in some way distantly related to
the Switzers, and who married Mary Switzer.
I. Married a Lawrence, cousin of Peter Lawrence.
II. Died in Albany Co., N.Y., in 1774. Perhaps ''Miller's
Mills" is named after him.
III. Emigrated from Ireland in 1765. Located on a
farm near Ashgrove, Camden, N.Y. After the
Revolutionary War settled near Varty Lake, Ont.
From this family arises the name of "Switzerville."
IV. Married (i) Philip Embury in 1758. They came to
New York in 1760. Embury, born in 1728, died at
Ashgrove, Camden, N.Y., in 1773, leaving two
children who attained full age. Three others died
young. Married (2) John Lawrence, by whom were
A. CHILDREN OF -- MILLER (I).
George Miller, 1741-1817, the only one known of the
family. Remained at Ballygarene in Ireland.
B. CHILDREN OF GARRETT MILLER (II).
I. John, 2. -- Miller, of New York in 1852, 3. Garrett, 4.
Peter, 5. Jacob, 6. Elizabeth.
3. Garrett, 1738-1823, married (i) In Ireland, (2) in
America Elizabeth Switzer, daughter of Peter.
4. Peter, 1740-1819, married Agnes Benor, whose first
husband was a Lawrence. She died in 1832, aged
101. She had children by both husbands.
5. Jacob, 1742-1825, married Elizabeth Bentley, 1747-
6. Elizabeth, , married (i) Philip Roblin, who died
1788, (2) John Canniff. She is buried in Canirfton,
C. CHILDREN OF PETER SWITZER.
1. Elizabeth, married Garrett Miller, U. E. loyalist.
4. Mary, married - - Empey.
5. Margaret, married Neville.
7. 8, 9, three daughters, who died in the United States
and from one of whom Mrs. Charles Thompson, of
Newburgh, Ont., is descended.
D. CHILDREN OF MARY SWITZER (i) EMBURY,
1. Catherine Elizabeth, died young.
2. John Albert, died young.
3. Samuel, 1765-1853, married Catherine Miller, born 1772,
of St. Armand.
4. Catherine, married Duncan Fisher, of Montreal, Feb-
ruary 28th, 1783.
5 Philip, died young.
The writer has not secured the Lawrence genealogy
which should enter here. Andrew Embury, brother of
Philip, settled in Adolphustown, and descendants are to
be found in that locality.
1 66 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
I. CHILDREN OF GEORGE MILLER, OF IRELAND.
1. George, .1774-1838.
2. Adam, 1776-1826, died in St. Johns, Que.
3. Catherine, 1778, died young.
4. Elizabeth, 1780, died young.
5. Anne, 1782-1807.
6. Catherine Anne, 1784, married -- Legaire ("Aunt Kitty
Legaire") of New York.
7. Peter, 1786-1848, married (i) Eliza Hamilton, (2) Eliza
8. John, 1788-1792.
g. Samuel, 1791-1837, married Rebecca Hicks. Neighbor--
hood of Cork, Ireland.
10. Eliza Ann, 1793, married Rev. 'Samuel Lander, Caro-
11. William, 1795-1836.
12. Martha, 1797-1865, married Jeremiah Wm. Murphy.
Both buried at Wilmington, Del., U.S.
II. CHILDREN OF JOHN MILLER, OF IRELAND.
13. Rev. George Miller, 1788-1869, Methodist minister in
Nova Scotia, 1817-1869.
III. CHILDREN OF MILLER, OF NEW YORK IN 1852.
14. 'Aunt Kitty" Catherine Miller.
IV. CHILDREN OF GARRETT MILLER, U. E. LOYALIST,
15. Martin, 1770 , four children.
1 6. Michael, 1772 , seven children.
17. Rebecca, 1774-1869, married C. Bush, U. E. loyalist.
1 8. Peter, 1776-1847, married Sarah Roys, Switzerville.
19. Agnes, 1779-1807. married John Dougal, of Picton,
Ont. One child.
20. William, 1783-1863, married (i) Hannah McJCim, (2)
Jane Bell. Nine children. Newburgh, Ont.
21. Garrett, 1786-1863, married Nancy Foster, of North-
Port, Ont. Eight children. Napanee Mills, Ont.
22. Elizabeth, 1788-1871, married Rev. David Perry.
Newburgh, Ont. Two children.
23. John, 1790-1864, married Nancy Neville. Ten chil-
V. CHILDREN OF PETER MILLER, U. E. LOYALIST, ST.
24. Mary, 1766 , married Col. Garrett Sixby (or Sigsby)
of St. Armand. Seven children.
25. Charles (Captain), 1768-1852, married Margaret Mc-
Cutcheon. Eleven children. St. Armand.
26. Catherine, 1772 , married Samuel Embury. Twelve
children. St. Armand.
VI. CHILDREN OF JACOB MILLER, U. E. LOYALIST, HALIFAX.
27. Garrett, 1770-1840, married Catherine Pernette, daugh-
ter of Col. Pernette. Nine children. Halifax.
28. Abigail, died 1834. unmarried.
29. Nancy, 1771-1859, unmarried.
30. Betsy, 1774-1857, unmarried.
31. Margaret, 1779-1864, unmarried.
32. Mary , 1833, unmarried.
VIJ. CHILDREN OF ELIZABETH MILLER RUBLIN, U. E.
LOYALIST, ADOLPHUSTOWN (not fully traced).
33. Nancy, married William Ketcheson, and lived in Sid-
ney, Ont. Fifteen children, one of whom was
Gatrey, who, when six years old, was marvellously
preserved while lost in the woods of Sidney, Ont.,
for eight days, October 9th to I7th, 1820.
34. John. The connection is represented in a numerous
company of Roblins of Prince Edward and Hast-
ings Counties, Ont., and includes the Premier of
1 68 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
VIII. CHILDREN OF SAMUEL EMBURY, married Catherine
Miller, St. Armand.
35. Margaret, 1792-1863, married John Littemore. Ten
36. Ann Agnes, 1793 , married Abram Jackson. Six
37. Philip, 1795 , married Christina Littemore. Seven
38. Catherine, 1797-1859, married Peter Sixby. St.
Armand. Four children.
39. Mary, 1800-1886, married Nathan Call. No children.
40. Elizabeth, 1802 , married Lorenzo Safford. Several
41. John, 1804-1829, married Margaret Holsopple. One
42. Jane, 1806 , married -- Beade. No children.
43. Samuel, 1809-1839, unmarried.
44. Peter, 1811-1891, married Clarenda Chadsey. Three
45- Charles, 1813 , married Hannah Brill. Seven chil-
46. Daniel Richard, 1817-1883, married (i) Mary Chad-
sey, (2) Lovina Morey. Seven children.
IX. CHILDREN OF CATHERINE EMBURY, married Duncan
47. Janet, 1785-1832, married Rev. John Hicks, Methodist
minister. No children.
48. Daniel, 1787-1826, married Betsy, daughter of James
Torrance, Kingston, Ont. Two daughters.
49. Margaret, 1789-1862, married (i) Wm. Hutchison, (2)
Wm. Lunn, of Montreal. Several children.
50. John, 1791-1865, married Judith Healy. Thirteen
51. Catherine, 1793-1801,
52. Elizabeth, 1794-1862, married John Torrance (1786-
1870), St. Antoine Hall, Montreal, and of Gate-
house, Scotland. Fifteen children.
53. Alex., 1796-1803.
54. Nancy, 1798-1834, married John Mackenzie.
55. James, 1799 .
56. Catherine, 1801-1801.
57. Christian, 1803-1875, married Geo. Munroe.
58. Duncan, 1805-1845, married widow of Mr. Budden,
59. Alexander, 1808, never married.
FOUR I. 2.
(1) John E. L. Miller, married (i) Maria Adams, (2) M.
E. Gillies. Two children.
(2) Adam Miller, married (i) Miss Burrows, (2) Miss
Marshall. By (i) two children.
(3) George Miller.
(4) Robert Miller, married Eliza Cameron, of Montreal.
(5) William Miller, removed to Rochester, N.Y.
(6) Ann , married Hugh Carson, of Montreal. Two
FOUR I. 7.
(7) George Miller.
(8) Arthur Miller, married Eliza Carey, of Youghal.
(11) Thomas Miller, of Queenstown, married Prudence .
(12) Charles, of New York, bookseller.
(13) Henry. , of Brooklyn, bookseller. Left a large
1 7 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR I. 9.
(18) George, died.
(19) Rebecca, married Henry Leavis. Two children.
(21) William, 2 Fernhurst Avenue, Western Road, Cork,
(22) Martha, married George M. P. Bogan.
(23) Emily, married Rutledge.
(25), (26), (27), (28), all died.
FOUR I. 10.
(29) Rev. Samuel Lander, Methodist, U.S., married Laura
McPherson. Eight children.
(30) William Lander, married * Six children.
(31) Martha , married .
(34) Margaret, married - - Langdon. Two children.
FOUR I. 12.
(35) William Miller Murphy, died, aged four.
(36) Anna Dorcas Murphy, died young.
(37) Rev. Jos. Wiggins Murphy, Episcopalian, died 1900,
married Sarah M. Vaughan. Three children.
(38) Rev. William Murphy, Episcopalian, died 1901, mar-
ried Miss Chamberlain. No children.
(39) Rev. Reginald Heber Murphy, Episcopalian, married
Eliza Simmons. Six children.
(40) Samuel Wheeler Murphy.
(41) Miss Maria Hobart Murphy, Christ Church Hospital,
W. Park Station, Philadelphia, Pern.
FOUR II. 13.
(42) Alden Miller.
(43) Martin A. Miller.
(44) Georp-e W. Miller.
(45) John T. Miller.
(46) Catherine Miller, married Lawyer Wilson, of St.
(47) Elizabeth Miller, married Dr. Cochane, of Annapolis,
FOUR IV. 15.
(48) Robert Miller, moved to Pennsylvania about 1837, and
(49) John Miller, married Nancy Scriver, who lived to be
103 years old. Buried at Madoc, Ont. Had six
(50) Garrett Miller, of Newburgh, Ont. Lost trace of
(51) Martin Miller, lived at Consecon, Ont, and had
FOUR IV. 1 6.
(52) Thomas, married Christiana Madden and had two
(53) Averal Miller. Had three children.
(54) Fletcher Miller. Had six children, of whom we have
(55) John Miller. Nine children of whom we have three
(56) George Miller. Two children of whom we have one
FOUR IV. 17.
(59) Julia Ann Bush, married Benj. Clarke, son of Robert
Clarke, Ernestown. Seven children.
(60) Garrett Bush.
(61) Mary Ann Bush, married - - Wilson, of Selby, Ont.
(62) William Bush, lived in Camden East, Ont. Three
children who settled in Philadelphia.
(63) Christopher Bush. Never married.
(64) Agnes Bush. Died young.
*7 2 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR IV. 1 8.
(65) Calvin Wooster Miller, 1803-1872, married Elizabeth
Lake, 1799-1866, Switzerville. Seven children.
(66) Sarah Miller, married -- Fretts.
(68) Charles Miller, married Miss Parrot, Napanee, Ont.
(69) Harvey Miller, married Miss Guigan, removed to
(70) William Miller.
FOUR IV. 19.
(71) Agnes Dougal, married David Stevenson, M.P.,
Picton, Ont. One daughter.
FOUR IV. 20.
(72) Cephas Hulburt Miller, married E. J. Shibley, New-
burgh, Ont. Three children.
(73) Christopher Miller, married Miss Grant, of Napanee,
removed to California. Large family.
(74) Allan Miller, married Miss Jackson. Six children.
mostly in California.
(75) George Miller, married Charlotte Shibley. Four
(76) Julia Ann Miller, married Rev. I. B. Aylesworth,
M.D., Collingwood, Ont. Three children.
(77) Mary Miller, married A. Chapman, removed to Kan-
sas. Three children.
(78) Elizabeth Miller, married D. B. Stickney, Newburgh,
Ont. Two children.
79) Lydia Miller, married Douglas Hooper, Newburgh,
Ont. Two children.
(80) Isabella Miller, married P. Phalen, Newburgh, Ont.
FOUR IV. 21.
(81) Two sons drowned young, names not recorded.
Napanee Mills, Ont.
(82) Agnes Miller, married Archibald McKim. Two
(83) Eliza Miller, married William Drury, Smithfield, Ont
(84) Rebecca Miller, married M. Scouten, Napanee Mills,
Ont. Nine children.
(85) Elizabeth Miller, married John Neeley, Napanee Mills,
Ont. Five children.
(86) Peter Miller, married Mary Jane Shibley, Napanee
Mills, Ont. Four children.
(87) Rev. William Miller, married Sarah Mounteer, died
at Napanee, Ont. One son.
FOUR IV. 22.
(88) Agnes Perry, married Joseph Youmans. Three child-
(89) Robert Perry, married Miss Clancy.
FOUR IV. 23.
(go) (Rev.) Aaron Miller, married (i) Lucy Kilburn, (2)
Elizabeth Huff. No children. Picton, Ont.
(91) Garrett Miller, married Hannah McFee, lived in
Bracebridge, Ont. Nine children.
(92) (Rev.) Anthony Miller, married Isabel McFee, moved
(93) Mitchell Miller, married - Asseltine, Kentwood,
Alabama. Three children.
(94) Mary Miller, married R. Bicknell, Ernestown, Ont.
(95) Matilda Miller, married C. Switzer, Centreville, Ont
(96) Ann Miller, married - , living in Kingston, Ont.
(97) Margaret Miller, married -- Doran.
(98) Elizabeth Miller.
(go) Rebecca Miller, married Dr. Carter.
i74 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR V. 24.
(100) Peter Sixby, married Catherine Embury, St. Armand,
Que. Four children.
(101) Garrett Sixby, married L. M. Brill, St. Armand, Que.
(102) John Sixby.
(103) Katie Sixby, married Jacob Galer, Dunham, Que.
(104) Agnes Sixby.
(105) Mary Sixby, married Jabez Safford. Two children.
(106) Elsie Sixby, married John Pears. Five children.
FOUR V. 25.
(107) Peter Miller, 1797-1814.
(108) Esther Miller, 1794-1874, unmarried.
(109) Catherine Miller, 1795-1882, married Thomas Dolby.
(no) George Miller, 1799-1878. Went to Florida. Child-
ren all died young.
(in) Nicholas Miller, 1801-1884. married M. Luke, Camp-
bell ford, Ont. Three children.
(112) Jane Miller, 1803-1882, unmarried.
(113) Agnes Miller, 1805-1851, married John Cooper,
Stanstead, Que. Four children.
(114) Margaret Miller, 1807-1889, married Rev. Matthew
Lang, died St. Johns, Que. Nine children.
(115) Isabella Miller, 1809-1848, unmarried.
(116) Mary Miller, 1811-1898, married Allan Hyde, Lan-
caster, Wis. Seven children.
(117) Ann Miller, 1815-1866, married George Phelps. No
FOUR V. 26 AND VIII. 35-46.
(118) Margaret Embury, 1792-1863, married John Titte-
more. Ten children.
(119) Ann Agnes Embury, 1793 , married Abram Jack-
son. Six children.
(120) Philip Embury, 1795 , married Christina Tittemore.
(121) Catherine Embury, 1797-1859, married Peter Sixby,
St. Armand. Four children.
(122) Mary Embury, 1800-1886, married Nathan Call. No
(123) Elizabeth Embury, 1802 , married Lorenzo S afford.
(124) John Embury, 1804-1829, married Margaret Hol-
sopple. One daughter.
(125) Jane Embury, 1806 , married Beade. No
(126) Samuel Embury, 1809-1839, unmarried.
(127) Peter Embury, 1811-1891, married Clarenda Chad-
sey. Three children.
(128) Charles Embury, 1813 , married Hannah Brill.
(129) Daniel Richard Embury, 1817-1883, married (i)
Mary Chadsey, (2) Lovina Morey. Seven children.
FOUR VI. 27.
(130) Son, died y6ung.
(131) Daughter, died young.
(132) Augusta Miller, 1804-1883, married Jason Mack, Mill
Village, Queens Co., N.S. Three children.
(133) Garrett Trafalgar Nelson Miller, 1805-1897, married
Maria Morris, of Halifax. Five children.
(134) Frances Miller, 1807-1885, unmarried.
(135) Elizabeth H. Miller, -- 1881, married Daniel Owen.
Lunenburgh. Six children.
(136) Joseph P. Miller, 1808-1881, married Margaret C.
Allen, of Scotland, lived at Bridgewater, N.S. Four
J 7 6 THE CAMDEN COLONY
(137) Jacob P. Miller, 1893, married Miss Daniels, lived
at Bridgewater. No children.
(138) John Miller, 1811-1898, unmarried, lived at Bridge-
FOUR IX. 48.
(139) Mrs. Robert Crooks (nee Fisher), of Toronto. Three
(140) Mrs. Willoughby (nee Fisher), of England, married
Admiral Willoughby, of Royal Navy. Sons and
FOUR IX. 50.
(141) Dr. Arthur Fisher, married Susannah Corse, daugh-
ter of Roswell Corse. Two children.
(142) Annie, married Rev. Henry Lanton, Methodist. Six
(143) Catherine Embury Fisher, married William Simpson.
(144) Daniel Dunean Fisher and William Fisher, twins.
(145) John Mackenzie Fisher, unmarried. Died in New
(146) Peter Langlois Fisher, died young.
(147) William Lunn Fisher, 1825-1887, Quebec, married
Mary Ann Robeson, daughter of David Robeson and
Mary Ronald, of Scotland. Nine children.
(148) James Douglas Fisher. No children. Died in the
(149) Eliza Agnes Fisher and Robert Raikes Fisher, twins.
No descendants. E. A. still living, 1907.
(150) Jessie Torrance Fisher, 1832-1895, married Thomas
W. Ritchie, lawyer, of Montreal. Eight children.
(151) Margaret Hutchison Fisher, died unmarried.
FOUR IX. 52.
(152) Jane Torrance, Quebec, 1812-1875, married David
(153) Selina Torrance, Quebec, 1814-1880, married John
(154) Daniel Torrance, Montreal, 1815-1885, married
Sophie J. Vanderbilt, of New York.
( ! 55) James Torrance, Montreal, 1817 , married Jane
(156) John Andrew Torrance, Montreal, 1818 , married
Betsy Maria Ridrey, nee Lusher.
(157) Catherine Ann Torrance, Montreal, 1820 , married
Thompson Vanneck, Suffolk, Eng.
(158) Elizabeth Fisher Torrance, Montreal, 1821 , mar-
ried John Wood, Liverpool, Eng.
(159) Frederick William Torrance, Montreal, 1823-1887,
married Laura G. Pugh nee Hensley.
(160) Jessie Theresa Torrance, Montreal, 1824-1851, mar-
ried William Forbes, Liverpool, Eng.
(161) Robert Alder Torrance, Montreal, 1826-1848.
(162) Elliott Torrance, Montreal, 1828-1850, married Sir
Alex. Tilloch Gait, February gth, 1848.
(163) Mary Eaking Torrance, Montreal, 1831-1907.
(164) Amy Goddon Torrance, Montreal, 1834 , married
Sir A. T. Gait, September 9th, 1852.
(165) Henry Torrance, Montreal, 1835 , married Sarah
Creighton, of Brooklyn.
(166) Alexander Hutchison Torrance, Montreal, 1837-1880.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (i).
1. Adam Miller, 1837 , married H. S. Gilmour, Hun-
tingdon, Que. Three children.
2. John E. L. Miller, Monmouth, 111. Has one son and
178 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (2).
3. Clandius Miller, died young.
4. Isabella Miller, married John Tonkin. One daughter.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (3).
5. Adam George Miller.
6. Theodora Miller, married - - Briggs.
7. Jane Miller.
8. Sarah Miller.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4).
9. Robert Allen Miller, married Miss Delisle. Three
10. Theodora L. Miller, married Dr. J. B. McConnell, of
Montreal. Six children. ..
11. Mary Miller married George M. P. Bogan. One
12. Christiana Miller, unmarried, lives in St. Lambert, Que.
13. Georgiana Miller, married Rev. Walter Rigsby. One
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6).
14. John E. L. Carson, married E. C. Miller. Three child-
15. Joseph Hugh Carson, married Miss Gillespie, Montreal.
FOUR I. 7, FIVE (8).
6. William Henry Miller.
7. Arthur Miller.
8. (Rev.) Zebulun Wright Miller.
,9. (Rev.) Samuel Miller.
20. Susannah Miller.
21. Mary Miller, married Robert Lee. One daughter.
22. Lizzie Miller.
23. Martha Miller, married William Dill.
24. Anne Miller.
FOUR I. 7, FIVE (11).
25. Fannie Miller.
26. Annie Miller.
27. Lizzie Miller, married - - Walton.
28. Clara Miller.
29. Edith Miller.
30. Ada Miller.
31. Prudence Miller.
FOUR I. g, FIVE (ig).
32. Nannie Leavis.
33. Mary Leavis, married - - Merrick. Seven children.
FOUR I. 10, FIVE (29).
34. (Rev.) John Lander, married Miss Hall. Have chil-
dren. Methodist Missionary to Brazil.
35. William T. Lander, married Miss Ford, United States.
36. Malcolm Lander, married - , United States.
37. Dr. Frank Lander, United States.
38. Ernest Lander, married - , United States.
39. Angus Lander, married - , United States.
40. Mattie Lander, married Prince. Have children,
41. Kathleen Lander, married Rev. John O. Wilson,
Lander College, Greenwood, South Carolina.
FOUR I. 10, FIVE (30).
42. Samuel Lander, married - , South Carolina.
43. William Lander, South Carolina.
44. Frank Lander, South Carolina.
45. Agnes Lander, married Dr. Lawing, South Carolina.
46. Ellar Lander, married - , South Carolina.
47. Clara Lander, South Carolina.
FOUR I. 10, FIVE (34).
48. Alice Langdon, married - - Ammen. Two children,
49. Ida Langdon, United States.
T8o THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (37).
50. William B. Murphy, married Julia Murphy, United
51. George Herbert Murphy, married Gertie Schmidt. One
son, United States.
52. Claud Murphy, married Walter E. Stump, of Mount-
ville, London Co., Va., United States.
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39).
53. Lay Murphy, married - - Thompson. One daughter.
54. Reginald H. Murphy, married - . Three children.
55. Mattie Murphy, married - - Parran. Two children.
56. Julia Murphy, married W. B. Murphy.
57. Bertha Murphy.
58. George DuBois Murphy.
FOUR IV. 15, FIVE (49).
59. William Miller.
60. Robert Miller, 1829 , married Maria Rundle, lives at
Snow Flake, Man. Four children.
61. Harvey Miller died 1904, married Charity Bell, of
Madoc, moved to Michigan. Large family.
62. Mary Ann Miller. ) threesisters who all married . N .
? ~i i rec rds -
64. -- Miller.
FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (52).
65. John S. Miller, ex-M.P., Manitou, Man., married Annie
R. Robertson. One son.
66. Mrs. Strong, of Napanee, Ont.
FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (53).
67. Thomas Miller, of Tarn worth, Ont. Three children.
68. Adelaide Miller, married David Taylor, Lyn, Ont.
69. Henry Miller.
FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (54).
70. John Miller.
71. Malcolm Miller.
FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (55).
72. George Miller.
73. John Miller.
74. James B. Miller.
FouR-IV. 16, FIVE (56).
75- George Miller.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59).
76. Rebecca Clarke, 1827-1905, second wife of Rev. John
A. Williams, D.D., General Superintendent Metho-
dist Church. Four children.
77. Clifton Clarke, married - - . One son.
78. (Rev.) Nelson Clarke, lived in Michigan.
79. William Clarke, married - . One son.
80. Mary Anne Clarke, married Henry Huffman, of Bath,
Ont. Three children.
8 1. Mel in da Clarke, married Bowen A. Perry. One daugh-
82. Elizabeth Clarke, died young.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61).
83. John Wilson, married C. Barker, Selby, Ont. Two
84. Henry Wilson, married M. Doran, lives in Napanee,
Ont. Two sons.
85. Mrs. D. Wartman, of Selby, Ont. Five children.
FOUR IV. 18, FIVE (65).
86. Sarah Jane Miller, 1829, married Robert Armstrong.
87. Electa Maria Miller, 1831, married (i) W. Martin, (2)
J. F. Lake. No children.
182 THE CAMDEN COLONY
88. Margaret Miller, 1832, married Rev. Wm. McDonagh,
D.D. Three children.
89. Mary Elizabeth Miller, unmarried.
James Lake Miller, married Mary E | j ,
Eraser, Switzerville. Eleven chil- f
90. Clarissa Miller, 1838 , married John H. Lake. Eive
91. Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, 1845 , married Agn^s
V. Lowry, Switzerville. Four children.
FOUR IV. 1 8, FIVE (68).
92. Mrs. Rev. Jacob Freshman, D.D., of New York.
93. Sidney R. Miller, of Napanee, Ont.
94. Martha Miller, married James .Daly, police magistrate
of Napanee, Ont. No children.
FOUR IV. 19, FIVE (71).
95. Phoebe Stevenson, married - - Wallbridge, lawyer, of
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72).
96. William H. Miller, married Bertha E. Murdoff, Kings-
ton, Ont. Two daughters.
97. Augusta Miller, married Hon. A. B. Aylesworth, Min-
ister of Justice, Ottawa. One son.
98. Jennie Miller, married William Grange, druggist.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (73).
99. Cephas Miller, in California.
100 John Miller, in California.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74).
101. Hannah Mary Miller, married John A. Percy, Califor-
nia. Two children.
102. Lydia Miller, married Robt. Hope. Four children.
103. Julia Miller, married William Black, California.
104. Gallic Miller, married - - Joy, California.
105. Eva Miller, married Job Wood, California.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (75).
1 06. William Henry Miller, married Hattie Day.
107. George Lester Miller, died young.
108. Agnes Rebecca, married W. Britton Mills. Six chil-
109. Charlotte A. Miller, married (i) Henry Grange, (2)
Thomas Way, Wellington, Out.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76).
110. Julia Aylesworth, married George L. Manning, Col-
lingwood, Out. One daughter.
111. Elizabeth Aylesworth, married W. Cunningham.
112. Dr. George M. Aylesworth, married - , Colling-
wood. Four children.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (77).
113. Julia Chapman.
114. Cecil Chapman.
115. Fred. Chapman.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (78).
116. Emeline Stickney, married John R. Scott. One son.
117. George Stickney.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (79).
1 1 8. Samuel Hooper, married Coleman.
119. Alice Hooper, married -- Wilson, of Napanee, Ont.
FOUR -IV. 20, FIVE (80).
1 20. Agnes Phalen. married Charles Evans, Elkhorn, Man.
184 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
121. William Phalen, married Mina Anderson, Napinka,
Man. Four children.
122. Jennie Phalen, married Clarence Wilson, Winnipeg,
Man. One son.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82).
123. Emily McKim, married Rev. W. J. Young. Five
124. Mary McKim, married Rev. B. F. Lewis. Two chil-
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (83).
125. Agnes Drury, unmarried, Smithneld, Ont.
126. Malcolm Drury, married -- Bullis, Smithneld, Ont.
127. William Drury, married Annie Stewart, Smithneld,
Ont. Three children.
128. Ira Drury, died young.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (84).
129. Melanchthon Scouten, died young.
130. Cynthia Scouten, married Manson York, Ingle, Ad-
dington Co., Ont. Four children.
131. Francis Asbury Scouten, died youne.
132. Agnes Scouten, married -- Towers.
133. Arthur Scouten, died young.
134. May Scouten.
135. Augusta Scouten, married Harry Robinson, Ashcroft,
136. Charles Richard Watson Scouten, married - ,
Sault Ste. Marie.
137. Orin Scouten, Christian Alliance Missionary, South
FOUR-IV. 21, FIVE (85).
138. Henry Neely, married Mina Sweet, Melita, Man.
139. Garrett Miller Neeley, married Elma Sweet, Stras-
burg, Sask. One daughter.
140. Lillie Nee ley, married Henry Sweet, Melita, Man.
141. Edith Neeley, married Henry Denves, Foxboro, Ont.
142. Alma Foster Neeley, married Dr. John Moore, Shan-
nonville, Ont. Two children.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86).
143. Helen Eliza Miller, married Hamilton Armstrong,
Carman, Man. One child.
144. Alice Maud Miller, married James F. Holden, dead.
145. S. Emily Miller, married Rev. W. Bowman Tucker,
M.A., Ph.D. Four children.
146. Agnes Miller, married W. A. Wilson, Govan, Sask.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (87).
147. Charles Wesley Miller, died young.
FOUR IV. 22, FIVE (88). t
148. Jennie Youmans.
149. Alma Youmans, married S. Paul, Melita, Man.
150. Samuel Youmans,
FOUR IV. 23, FIVE (91).
151. Ann Georgie Miller, married G. Whittington, Na-
panee, Ont. Two sons.
152. John Albert Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
153. Edwin Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
154. Stanley Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
155. Robert Wellington Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
156. H. W. Beecher Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
157. Chauncey P. Miller, Bracebridge, Ont.
158. Thomas Miller, Bridgewater, Ont.
159. May Miller, married - - Baird, Bracebridge, Ont.
1 86 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100).
160. Jane Sixby, married Joseph C. Rykert, St. Armand,
One. Three children.
161. Catherine Sixby, married C. Smith, St. Armand, One.
162. Mary Ann Sixby, unmarried.
163. Margaret Sixby, married E. C. Burke, Philipsburg-.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101).
164. Horatio N. Sixby, married Harriett Bullis, St. Ar-
mand, Cue. Four children.
165. Garrett O. Sixby.
1 66. Charles Wesley Sixby.
167. Edmund Galer Sixby.
1 68. Virtue Irene Sixby, married William Boyce.
169. Harriett Elizabeth Sixby, married T. C. Loynes.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103).
170. Edmund Galer, married Sophia England, Dunham,
Que. Five children.
171. Maria Galer, married Hiram Harvey. Six children.
IJ72. Lusher Galer, married Pomelia England, sister of
Sophia. Three children.
173. George Galer, married Matilda Fuller. Two children.
174. J. Nyles Galer, married Sarah Armington, Dunham,
Que. Three children.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105).
175. Garrett Safford, married Andry Spencer, Sutton
Junction, Que. Four children.
176. Mary Safford, married -- Tracey. One son.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106).
177. John Peers, married Abby Chirion. Three children.
178. Mary Peers, married - - Flag. No children.
179. Margaret Peers, married Lester Reynolds, Frelighs-
burg, One. Five children.
1 80. Elizabeth Peers, married Dr. Young. Three children.
1 8 1. Catherine Peers, married Henry Beach. One child.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in).
182. Edith Miller, married John Odell. Nine children.
183. Peter Miller, married Jane Davidson, Campbell ford,
Ont. Two children.
184. Margaret Miller, married Thomas Shannon. Nine
FOUR' V. 25, FIVE (113).
185. Charles Cooper. 1831-1853.
1 86. Thomas Cooper, 1833-1906, married Catherine
McGowan, Two children.
187. John George Cooper, of Boston, married Lydia Bing-
ham. No children.
1 88. Margaret A. Cooper, St. Armand, Que., married Dr.
A. B. Bradley. Three children.
FOUR v. 25, FIVE (114)
189. George Miller Lang, 1836.
190. Catherine Lang, married H. Odell, Champlain, Vt.
191. Margaret Lang, married Wm. Ashur, Canfield Al-
burg Springs, Vt. Two children.
192. James Lang, died young. 1829-1837.
193. Eleanor Lang, died young, 1844.
194. Charles Miller Lang, married Emily Adams, 1902,
Toledo, Ohio. Three children.
195. Alexander J. Lang, married Eliza -Church. Two
196. Matthew T. Lang, married Maria Louise Perry, Bos-
ton, Mass. One child.
197. Mary A. Lang married J. Fosberg, L;icolle, Que.
1 88 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116).
198. Mary Helen Hyde, married Ira Bellows, Wisconsin.
199. Henry Allen Hyde, married Catherine Eustace, Wis-
consin. Three children.
200. Charles Jehiel Hyde, married J. I. Bailey. Four chil-
20 1. George Luther Hyde, died in American Civil War.
202. James Walter Hyde, died in American Civil War.
203. Albert Eugene Hyde, married Catherine Garvey.
204. Margaret Isabella Hyde, died young.
FOUR V. 26, FIVE (118).
205. Jane Tittemore.
206. Philip Tittemore.
207. Eliza Tittemore.
208. Samuel George Tittemore.
209. Jeremiah Tittemore.
210. Robert Lusher Tittemore.
211. John Quiney Adams Tittemore.
212. Margaret Tittemore.
213. Noah Tittemore.
214. Charles Tittemore.
FOUR V. 26. FIVE (IIQJ
215. Catherine Jackson.
216. Mary Jackson.
217. Jacob Jackson.
218. Margaret Jackson.
219. Betsey Jackson.
220. Jane Jackson.
FOUR V. 26, FIVE (120).
221. Samuel George Tittemore.
222. Anson Tittemore.
223. James Tittemore.
224. Henry Tittemore.
225. Maria Tittemore.
226. Martha Tittemore.
227. Adeline Tittemore.
FOUR V. 26, FIVE (127).
228. Catherine Miller Embury, 1836-1887.
229. Sarah Elizabeth Embury. 1844-1907.
230. William Hutchinson Embury, 1846 , Oliver, Cue.
FOUR V. 26, FIVE (128).
231. John Russell Embury.
232. Elizabeth Embury.
233. Charles Embury.
234. Samuel Embury.
235. Carmi Embury.
236. William H. Embury.
237. Edwin Embury.
FOUR V. 26 FIVE (129).
238. Clara Embury, married Thomas Burroughs, Montana,
U.S. Three children.
239. John Edward Embury, dead.
240. Wellington Embury, dead.
241. Willoughby Embury, dead.
242. Isadora H. Embury, married Charles Burroughs, Mon-
tana. Seven children.
243. Charles Embury, lives in St. Armand East. No chil-
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132).
244. Mary Mack, married John R. Creed, 31 Hollis Street,
Halifax. Seven children.
245. Hon. Jason Miller Mack, M.L.C., married Minnie
Kellaher, Liverpool. N.S. Five children.
246. Dr. Joshua Newton Mack, married Susan L. Wilson,
229 Pleasant Stret, Halifax. Two sons.
1 90 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133).
247. Alecia Frances Aliller, married James A. Grant, Hali-
fax. Two sons.
248. Rosa Anstruther Mill-er, married Louis D. Demers,
Halifax. One son.
249. James Miller, unmarried, Halifax.
250. Louis Seymour Miller, married Jennie Roberts, daugh-
ter of Rev. Ed. Roberts, Aylesbury, Eng. Live at
West La Have. Five children.
251. Sydney Garrett Miller, unmarried.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135).
252. Hon. W. H. Owen, M.L.C., married Miss Tobin,
Bridgewater, N.S. Three daughters.
253. Nepean Clark Owen, married. Miss Gelling, Customs
House, Bridgewater, N.S. Two daughters.
254. Jacob Miller Owen, married Miss Farrish, judge,
Annapolis, N.S. Two children.
255. Daniel Miller Owen, married Mary Ruggles Green,
daughter of Rev. - - Green, of Worcester, Mass.,
"Armbrae," Oxford Street, Halifax, lawyer.
256. Catherine Owen, married Rev. J. O. Ruggles, Halifax.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (136).
257. Elizabeth M. Miller, married George W. Godard,
Board of Trade, Bridgewater, N.S.
258. Jennie A. Miller, married W. D. Hall, Bridgewater,
N.S. Four children.
259. Annie Miller, unmarried, "Glen Allen," Bridgewater,
260. J. Arthur Miller, unmarried, "Glen Allen, 5 ' Bridge-
FOUR IX. 48, FIVE (139).
261. Louisa Crooks, married Burns.
262. Elizabeth Crooks, married - - Dawson.
263. - , married -- Granville Cunningham.
FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (141).
264. Roswell Corse Fisher, 660 Sherbrooke Street, Mont-
real, married Mary Field Ritchie, daughter of
Thomas Ritchie and Jessie Fisher.
265. Sydney Arthur Fisher (Hon.), Minister of Agricul-
FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (143).
266. Annie Simpson, married R. W. Barker, Toronto.
267. Douglas Simpson Toronto.
268. Arthur Simpson, Lennoxville, Cue.
FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (147).
269. Leonora Ronald Fisher, 5127 Hibbard Ave., Chicago
270. Florence Fisher, married Ernest Jeffrey, One. Four
271. Marion Ada Fisher, married Sydney A she Fletcher,
One. Seven children.
272. Wm. Dudley Fisher, Three Rivers, Oue.
273. Martha Amy Fisher, married Wm. Fred. Ritchie, 131
Stanley Street, Montreal.
274. Herbert Fisher, died voting.
275. Ida Kate Fisher, died young.
276. Ernest Flenry Fisher.
277. Ethel Maud Fisher, 131 Stanley Street, Montreal.
FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (150).
278. Arthur F. Ritchie, married Frances Jennings, Duluth
279. Wm. F. Ritchie, married Amy Fisher, Montreal.
280. Charles Weston Ritchie unmarried, Chicago.
281. Mary Field Ritchie, married Roswell C. Fisher, Mont-
282. Susan Corse Ritchie, unmarried.
283. Jessie Fisher Ritchie, married R. D. Savage, Montreal.
284. Philip Embury Ritchie, married Frances McLean, Ot-
285. Octavia Grace Ritchie, M.D., married Dr. England,
192 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (i) Six i.
(1) John Albert Miller, California.
(2) James Miller, California.
(3) Adam E. G. Miller, Montreal.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (2) Six 4.
(4) Grace Tonkin, Methodist Deaconess, Winnipeg, Man.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six 9.
(5) Eliza Catherine Miller, Montreal.
(6) Frederica Miller, Montreal.
(7) Allan Miller, Montreal.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) .Six 10.
(8) Dr. Ernest McConnell, Montreal.
(9) Dr. Herbert McConnell, Montreal.
(10 Adeline McConnell, Montreal,
(u) Theodora McConnell, Montreal.
(12) Lulu McConnell, Montreal.
(13) Muriel McConnell, Montreal.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six n.
(14) Ella Bogan, St. Lambert, Que.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six 13.
(15) Walter Rigsby.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6) Six 14.
(16) Walter Carson, Montreal.
(17) Lillian Carson, married F. Smiley, principal of
(18) John H. Carson.
FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6) Six 15.
rip) Mabel Carson, married - - Riddington, G.T.R. tele-
grapher, St. Lambert, Que.
FOUR I. 7, FIVE (8) Six 21.
'20) Lena Lee.
FOUR I. 9, FIVE (19) Six 33.
(21) May Merrick.
(22) Kathleen Merrick.
Five others whose names are not given.
FOUR I. 10, FIVE (34) Six 48.
(23) Beauche, married .
(24) Langdon, married -
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (37) Six 51.
(25) William Herbert Murphy.
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 53.
(26) Margaret Murphy.
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 54.
(27) Mattie Murphy.
(28) Heber Murphy.
(29) Ruth Murphy.
FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 55.
(30) Sollers Parran.
(31) Elizabeth Parran.
FOUR IV. 15, FIVE (49) Six 60.
(32) Hesron Robert Miller, 1858 , married Sarah Lonley.
lives in Aurora, Ont. Has seven children.
(33) Elizabeth Priscilla Miller, died young.
(34) Edgar Ethelbert Miller, 1869 , married 1904,
Maggie Gertrude Lang, of Collingwood, lives at
(35) Annie Rosena Miller, married John Wesley Rundle,
of Sonyea, Ont. La Riviere, Man.
194 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (52) Six 65.
(36) Harold Stewart Miller, married Eleanor Hill, Mani-
FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (53) Six 67.
(37) Edith Miller, Tamworth, Ont.
(38) Reuben Miller, Tamworth, Ont.
FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (53) Six 68.
(39) Clayton Taylor, Lyn, Ont.
(40) Jay Taylor, Lyn. Ont.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76.
(41) Bella MeHnda Williams, married E. A. Boice, Hamil-
(42) Carrie Williams, married F. W. Girvin, lawyer, East
Orange, NJ. Two children.
(43) Ogden Williams.
(44) Benj. Clarke Williams, 1860-1895. One daughter.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six So.
(45) Cyrus Huffman, married (i) Annie Miller, (2) Mary
Young, (3) Ollie Campbell, Bath, Ont. Four chil-
(46) Jane Huffman, married Rev. W. H. Rowson, Burling-
(47) Dollie Huffman, married George Fraser, corner Brock
and Clergy Street, Kingston, Ont. One daughter.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 81.
(48) Julia Ann Perry, married Rev. S. J. Hughes, Mont-
real Conference. Five children.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 83.
(49) David B. Wilson, married L. Hogle, Napanee, Ont.
(50) James Wilson, married Lyda Hudgins, Strathcona,
Ont. Four children.
FOUR IV. 17. FIVE (61) Six 84.
(51) Walter Wilson, married M. Lowe. One son. New
(52) William A. Wilson, married Agnes Miller. Two
children. Govan, Sask.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 85.
(53; Olive Wartman, married N. McKim, Napanee, Ont.
(54) Cephas Wartman.
(55) Ada Wartman.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86.
(56) Peter Armstrong.
(57) Clara Armstrong, married -- Ford. One child.
(58) Calvin Armstrong.
(59) James Armstrong.
(60) John Armstrong, married - . Four children.
(61) Eliza Armstrong, married -- Cronk. Four children
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 88.
(62) William McDonagh.
(63) Margaret McDonagh, married - Dingman. Three
(64) John McDonagh.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89.
(65) Wilma Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(66) Ernest Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(67) Fred. Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(68) Blanche Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(69) Julia Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(70) Walter Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(71) Etta Miller, married - - Johnson. Three children.
(72) Harvey Miller.
(73) Harriett Miller, Switzerville, Ont.
(74) Allan T. Miller, married - . Two children.
(75) Ada Miller.
196 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 90.
(76) Florence Lake.
(77) Margaret Lake, married - - Balkwell. Two children.
(78) Arthur Lake.
(79) Ella Lake, married - - Van Luven. Four children.
(80) Calvin Lake.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 91.
(81) Jennie Miller, 1870, married Major R. Van Luven,
Kingston, Ont. Three children.
(82) Maggie E., 1875, died.
(83) Eva Miller, B.A., 1877, married December I4th, 1907,
Dr. James Mitchell, North Battleford, Sask.
(84) Charles Miller, 1881, married Florence Husband.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72) Six 96.
(85) Mabel E. Miller, Alfred Street, Kingston, Ont.
(86) Ila A. Miller, married Dr. G. C. Berkley, St. Albans,
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72) Six 97.
(87) Alan Featherstone Aylesworth, married, 1906, Gladys
Burton. Lawyer, Toronto, Ont.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE" (72) Six 98.
(88) Alec Grange, dead.
(89) Ethel Grange.
(90) Florence Grange.
(91) Evelyn Grange.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 101.
(92) May Percy, California.
(93) Bert Percy, lawyer, California.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102.
(94) William Hope, California.
(95) Ida Hope, married G. Anson Aylesworth, Newburgh,
Ont. Three children.
(96) Jessie Hope, married Rev. Swaine, Brockville, Ont
(97) Mamie Hope, married Littlewood, Brockville
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (75) Six 108.
(98) Helena Mills, drowned at Arden, Ont.
(99) Maud Mills, nurse, in Chicago.
(100) Blanche Mills, teacher, in California.
(101) William Britton Mills, Independence, Alta.
(102) Ethel Mills, married - - Rombold, Chicago, 111.
(103) Georgina Mills, Chicago.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76) Six no.
(104) Julia Manning, married Edwin Stickney, Newburgh,
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76) Six 112.
(105) Eva Victoria Aylesworth, married E. M. Carpenter,
Edmonton, Alta. Two children.
(106) Mary Wilson Aylesworth, married H. Trott, Col-
lingwood, Ont. Two children.
(107) Ralph Bradley Aylesworth, Edmonton, Alta.
(108) Stella Eliza Aylesworth.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (78) Six 116.
(109) William Scott, married -- Wilson, Toronto.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (80) Six 120.
(no) Marion Evans.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (80) Six 121.
(a) Wade Phalen, () Gerty Phalen, (c) Harvey
Phalen, (d} Clarence Phalen. Napinka, Man.
FOUR IV. 20 FIVE (80) Six 122.
(ill) Stewart Wilson.
198 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82) Six 123.
(112) Rev. W. Archie McKim Young, married Bertha
Morin, daughter of Rev. J. X. Morin. One daugh-
(113) Ernest Young, married - . Two children.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82) Six 124.
(114) Roland Lewis.
(115) Mac. Lewis.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (83) Six 127.
(116) Helen Drury.
(117) Edna Drury.
(118) Stewart Drury.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (84) Six 130.
(119) Evelyn York.
(120) Laura York.
(121) Fred. York.
(122) Marion May York.
FOUR IV 21, FIVE (85) Six 138.
(123) Harry Neeley.
(124) Warde Neeley.
(125) Ethel Maude Neeley
(126) Malcolm Neeley.
(127) Lillian Neeley.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 139.
(128) Vera Neeley.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 140.
(129) Wyn Stanley Sweet.
(130) Walter Grange Sweet.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 141.
(131) Earl Denyes.
(132) Garnet Denyes.
(133) Helen Denyes.
(134) Kennth Denyes.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 142.
(135) Edythe Campbell Moore. Also John Douglas Miller
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 143.
(136) Harold Miller Armstrong, born Napanee, 1895.
FOUR IV. 2i, FIVE (86) Six 144.
(137) Maude Miller Hoi den, married Gordon Groves,
Canyon City, Texas. One child.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 145.
(138) Winifred Miller Tucker, born Minden, Ont., Feb-
(139) Edith Miller Tucker, born Napanee Mills (Strath-
cona), October, 1891.
(140) Holly Miller Tucker, born Adolphustown, December,
(141) Wilfrid Bilbrough Miller Tucker, Bath, May, 1896.
FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 146.
(142) Arthur Miller Wilson, born Napanee Mills, March,
(143) Helen Miller Wilson, born Napanee Mills, April,
FOUR IV. 23, FIVE (91) Six 151.
(144) Bruce Whitington, Napanee, Ont., married Mabel
(145) Claude Whittington, Napanee, Ont.
200 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100) Six 160.
(146) Son, Rykert, St. Armand.
(147) Daughter, Rykert, St. Armand.
(148) Daughter, Rykert, St. Armand.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100) Six 163.
(149) Henry Burke, drowned.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164.
(150) George Sixby, married Bertha Tittemore. One son.
(151) Ella Sixby, married Anson Shelters. Three children.
(152) Anna Sixby, married George Krans. One son.
(153) Lettie Sixby, trained nurse, St. Armand.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103") Six 170.
(154) Dr. Garrett Galer, married Miss Mitchell.
(155) Theodore Galer, killed in American Civil War.
(156) Jay Galer, married Miss Fay. Two children, in
(157) Herbert Galer, married FI. Reynolds, Frelighsburg,
Oue. Two children.
(158) Edmund Galer, married Miss Perkins, Michigan.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 171.
(159) Hannibal Harvey, married Miss Ingalls. One
(160) Mary Harvey, married - - Ingalls. Five children.
(161) Emily Harvey, married -- Crawford Beatty.
(162) Dianthy Harvev, married - - Scott.
(163) Ida Harvey, married - - Robinson.
(164) Lusher Flarvey, married Edna Scott. Three chil-
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 172.
(165) Jennie Galer, married L. E. Sherman, Colorado
Springs. Three children.
(166) Carrie Galer, married Dr. F. R. England, Montreal.
(167) Frank Galer, married E. Spencer, ex-M.P., Frelighs-
burg, One. Three children.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 173.
(168) Nelson Galer, married Ilattie Hall. Two children.
(169) Ella Galer, married Homer Gough, Swectsburg.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 174.
(170) Jay Galer, married A. Oliver, Ingersoll, Ont. Four
(i/i) Homer Galer, married -- McLaren. One child.
(1/2) Jennie Galer, married Dr. F. E. Savage, West Brome,
One. Three children.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175.
(173) Myron Safford, married Miss Hamilton, Sutton,
Que. Five children.
(174) Weslev Safford, married Miss Martin, Sutton Junc-
tion, Que. Two children.
(1/5) Spencer Safford, married Miss Lewis, Sutton Junc-
tion, Que. Three children.
(176) Frank Safford, married Miss Curley, Sutton, Que.
FOUR Y. 24, FIVE (105) Six 176.
(177) Garrett Tracey.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 177.
(178) Perry Peers.
(179) George Peers.
(i So) Mally Peers.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 179.
(181) George H. Reynolds, Frelighsburg, Que.
(182) Charles L. Reynolds.
202 THE CAMDEN COLONY
(183) Arthur N. Reynolds.
(184) William A. Reynolds.
(185) Helen M. Reynolds, married Herbert Galer. Three
FOUR V. 2 A.. FIVE (106) Six iSo.
(186) John Young.
(187) Sarah Young.
(188) Albert Young.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 181.
(189) Catherine Beach.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 182.
(190) Esther M. Odell, married William McKay, Camp-
bell ford, Ont. Several children.
(191) Louise Odell, married, Bing. Krans, Montana.
(192) Helen M. Odell, married Solomon Levy, Montana.
(193) Edith Isabel Odell, married James Armstrong, Lis-
bon Centre. Two children.
(194) I. Maude Odell, Cobourg, Ont., married John Wilkie.
(195) William H. Odell, married Annie Emmons, Paris.
(196) Margaret Jane Odell, 1863-1866.
(197) Charles Miller Odell, married Mary Clark, in Cali-
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183.
(198) George N. Miller, married Alia Casson, Campbell-
ford, Ont. Two children.
(199) Edith Miller, married John Clark, Cramahe, Ont.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 184.
(200) Robert Shannon, married M. Ford, Docato. Two
(201) Hugh A. Shannon, married E. Rutherford, Camn-
(202) Thomas Shannon, in California.
(203) Edward Shannon, dead.
(204) Lena Shannon, married Harry Marks, Castleton,
Ont. Two children.
(205) Doll Shannon, married R. Hay, Campbell ford, Ont:.
(206) Kate Dolby Shannon, in Toronto.
(207) Edith Shannon, in Kingston.
(208) Daisy Maud Shannon, married R. Rutherford. Two
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 186.
(209) Charles Cooper, died.
(210) Agnes Isabella Cooper, married Charles W. Lampee,
Boston. Two children.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 188.
(211) Darius Bradley, died young.
(212) Agnes Bradley, St. Armand, Que.
(213) George Bradley, St. Armand, Oue.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190.
(214) Mary Odell, married Albert Scriver, Odelltown, Cue.
(215) Percy Roswell Odell, married Dorothea Mayland.
(216) Hiram Matthew Odell, married Blanche Kelton.
(217) Elizabeth Margaret A. Odell.
(a) Charles Joseph Odell.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 191.
(218) William Alexander Canneld, married Eliza Hotch-
kiss, Lowell, Mass, Two children.
(219) Margaret I. Canneld, married Joseph Gallagher, Al-
burg Springs, Vt.
FOUR V, 25, FIVE (114) Six 194.
(220) William Rufus Lang, married Cora Peckham, To-
(221) C. Blanche Lang.
(222) Harriett Adams Lang, married Charles G. Robb.
(222a) Emma Agnes Lang, married Samuel Dority.
(222b) Mamie Lang.
204 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 195.
(223) Margaret E. Lang, St. Albans, Vt, married Nov-
ember 20th, 1907, A. O. Morton, M.D.
(224) Walter C. Lang, St. Albans, Vt.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 196.
(225) Charles Alfred S. J. J. Lang, Montpelier, Vt., mar-
ried Mary Eva Davis.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 197.
(226) Bertha Matilda Fosburg, Lacolle, Oue., married -
(227) Mary Adelina Fosburg, married - - Kingsbury, La-
(227a) Delia Agnes Fosberg.
(227b) Hattie Augusta Fosberg.
(2270) Eva Jane Fosberg.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198.
(228) George N. Bellows, Lancaster, Wisconsin.
(229) Mary S. Bellows.
(230) Charlotte L. Bellows, married W. F. Kelly. One
(231) Hiram H. Bellows, died young.
(232) Helen M. Bellows, died young.
(233) Walton D. Bellows, married Lena Fieldhouse.
(234) Burton H. Bellows, married Daisy Keendust.
(235) Julian Dewey Bellows.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199.
(236) Luther A. Hyde, married Fanny Tuttle, Texas.
(237) Henry Oscar Hyde, died in American Civil War.
(238) Alice Philippa Hyde, married S. Stoffer, Kansas.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200.
(239) Agnes I. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis.
(240) Mary K. Hyde, married Joseph Wolstonholme, Ne-
braska. One child.
(241) Hattie B. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis.
(242) Allan J. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis., married Alma
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 203.
(243) Annie Isabel Hyde, Lancaster, Wis.
(244) Mary Elizabeth Hyde.
(245) Eugenia Hyde.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244.
(246) Sophia Augusta Creed, married Stephen W. Mack,
Mill Village, N.S. One child.
(247) Jason Samuel Creed, Halifax.
(248) Fred. Creed, married Jeannie Russell, Glasgow,
Scot. Four children.
(249) John Naylor Creed.
(250) Ned Creed, Halifax.
(251) Hattie Creed.
(252) Frank Creed.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132), Six 245.
(253) Jason Mack, Liverpool, N.S.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 245.
(254) Catherine Mack.
(255) Mary A. Mack, died at the home of her father, Hon.
Jason Mack, Liverpool, N.S., on August 6, 1907,
aged twenty-two years.
(256) Clare Mack.
(257) Leigh Mack.
2oG THE CAMDEX COLONY
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 246.
(258) Frank Gordon Mack, lialifax.
(259) Fred. Newton Mack, Halifax.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six 247.
(260) Reginald Grant, married Winifred G. Hall, West
La liave, N.S.
(261) Wyndom Grant, in California.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six. 248.
(262) David Seymour Demers, died young.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six 250.
(263) Mary Morns Miller, West La Have, N.S.
(264) Gladys Roberts Miller, West La Flave, N.S.
(265) Greta Seymour Miller, West L*a Have, N.S.
(266) Francis Eileen Miller, West La Have, N.S.
(267) Jean R. Miller, West La liave, N.S. Born 1900.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (13 5). Six 252.
(268) Hilda Owen, Bridgewater, N.S.
(269) Vera Owen, Bridgewater, N.S.
(270) Olive Owen, Bridgewater, N.S.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 253.
(271) Geraldine Owen Bridgewater, N.S.
(272) Violet Owen, Bridgewater, N.S.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 254.
(273) Daniel Owen, Annapolis, N.S.
(274) Farrish Owen, Annapolis, N.S.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 256.
(275) Hibbard Ruggles, Flalifax.
(276) Mary E. Ruggks, Halifax.
(277) Florence Ruggles, married Nathan Heard, lawyer,
(278) Nepean C. Ruggles, Halifax.
(279) Charles Ruggles, Halifax.
(280) Robie Stearnes Ruggles, Halifax.
(281) Henry Ruggles, Halifax.
(282) Alice Ruggles, Halifax.
(283) Rev. Vernon Ruggles, of Brooklyn, N.Y.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (136) Six 258,
(284) Gordon W. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S.
(285) Bessie Louisa Hall, Bridgewater, N.S.
(286) Emma M. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S.
(287) James L. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S.
FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (147) Six 2.
V 288) Anny Florence Jeffery, died young.
(289) St. George Ernest Jeffery, married Emma Tweedie,
of Manitoba. New Westminster, B.C.
(290) Leslie Gordon Jeffery, died young.
(291) Sydney Fisher Jeffery, died young.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76 SEVEN (42).
1. John Williams, 1893.
2. James Williams, 1895.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76 SEVEN (44).
3 Carrie Boice Williams, Rochester, N.Y.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 80 SEVEN (45).
4. Erne Huffman, married Henry Creighton, Hawley, Ont.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six Si SEVEN (48).
5. Ethelwyn R. liughes, married W. N. Dietrich, Montreal.
2o8 THE CAMDEN COLONY
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 83 SEVEN (50).
6. Ruth Wilson, Strathcona, Ont.
7. Wilfrid Wilson, Strathcona, Ont. Two others.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 84 SEVEN (51).
8. Walter Wilson, New York.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 84 SEVEN (52).
9. Arthur M. Wilson, Govan, Sask.
10. Helen M. Wilson.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 85 SEVEN (53).
11. John McKim, Napanee, Ont
12. Lulu McKim.
13. Claude McKim.
14. - , sister of above.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61" Six 86 SEVEN (57).
15. Kenneth Ford.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86 SEVEN (60).
1 6. John Armstrong.
17. Sarah Armstrong.
1 8. Emma Armstrong.
19. Dora Armstrong.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86 SEVEN (61).
20. Mabel Cronk.
21. Mildred Cronk.
22. Hubert Cronk.
23. Frank Cronk.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 88 SEVEN (63).
24. Arthur Dingman.
25. George Dingman.
26. Wilhelmina Dingman.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89 SEVEN (71).
27. Gordon Johnson.
28. Harold Johnson.
29. Edna Johnson.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89 SEVEN (74).
30. Hazel Miller.
31. Arnold Miller.
FOUR IV. i7 ; FIVE (61) Six 90 SEVEN (77).
32. Clarence Balkwell.
33. Mildred Balkwell.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 90 SEVEN (79).
34. Harold Van Luven.
35. Leah Van Luven.
36. Luella Van Luven.
37. Ethel Van Luven.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 91 SEVEN (81).
38. Robert Miller Van Luven.
39. Fred. D. Van Luven.
40. Helen Agnes Van Luven.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (95).
41. McGilvray Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont.
42. Hope Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont.
43. John Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (96).
44. Hope Swaine.
45. Allen Swaine.
46. - - Swaine.
47. Robert Swaine.
FOUR- IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (97).
48. Edith Hope Littlewood.
210 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 112 SEVEN (105).
49. Dorothy Carpenter.
50. Louise Carpenter.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 112 SEVEN (106).
51. Claire Trott.
52. Edith Trott.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (82) Six 123 SEVEN (112).
53. Vera Young-.
FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (82) Six 123 SEVEN (113).
54. Theressa Young.
55. Agnes Young-
FOUR IV. 21, FI- T E (86) Six 144 SEVEN (137).
56. David Holden Groves, born April i8th, 1907, Canyon
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (150).
57. Garrett Sixby, St. Armand, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (151).
58. Jay Shelters, St. Armand, Que.
59. Fred. Shelters, St. Armand, Que.
60. Mabel Shelters, St. Armand, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (152).
61. F.ay Krans, St. Armand, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (156).
62. Merritt Galer.
63. Cora Galer.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (158).
66. Carlton Galer.
GENEALOGICAL. 2 1 1
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (159).
67. Jennie Ingalls.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160).
68. George M. Ingalls, married Grimes. One child.
69. Edmund Ingalls, married Call. Five children.
70. Lena Ingalls, married - - Amyrauld. Two children.
71. David Ingalls, married - - Buchanan. One child.
72. Ella Ingalls.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (164).
73. Harry Scott.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (164).
74. Jessie Scott.
75. Gladys Scott.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (i6 3 ).
76. Aggie Sherman, married Dr. Yates, Dunham. Five
77. Clarence Sherman.
78. Gertrude Sherman.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (166).
79. Murray England.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (167;.
80. Emma Spencer, married Fred Ayer, Frelighsburg, Q.
8 1. Edmund Spencer.
82. Muriel Spencer.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 173 SEVEN (168).
83. Carlton Galer.
84. Emma Galer.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 173 SEVEN (169).
85. Edward Gough.
86. Hazel Gough.
THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR v. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (170)
87. Oliver Galer, married Maud De Spain, Phcemx, B.C.
88. Fulton Galer.
89. Ross Galer.
go. Annie Galer.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (171).
gi. Chellis Galer.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (172).
92. Eva Savage.
93. Norine Savage.
94. Doris Savage.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (173).
95. Marion Safford.
96. Harry Safford.
97. Penelope Safford.
98. Dorothy Safford.
99. Andry Safford.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (174).
100. Blanche Safford.
101. Andry Safford.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (175).
102. Garrett Safford.
103. Robert Safford.
104. Lewis Safford.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (176).
105. Frances Safford.
1 06. Alice Safforc.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 179 SEVEN (185).
107. Fred. Galer.
108. Clarence Galer.
109. Lillian Galer.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 182 SEVEN (193).
no. George Odell.
111. John George Odell.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183 SEVEN (198).
112. Roy Miller.
113. Carman Miller.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183 SEVEN (199).
114. George Clark, Bancroft, Ont.
115. Robert Clark, Bancroft, Ont.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (m) Six 184 SEVEN (208).
116. Roy Rutherford, 1905.
117. Leafa Rutherford, 1907, September I2th.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 186 SEVEN (210).
1 1 8. Charles Irving Lampee, married Marion Caverly v
1907. Boston, Mass.
119. Thomas Cooper Lampee.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (214).
1 20. Beatrice Mary Scriver.
121. Clarence Albert Scriver.
FOUR v. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (215).
122. Catherine Elizabeth Odell.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (2i6\
123. Richard Kelton Odell.
124. Marion Odell.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 191 SEVEN (218).
125. Marion Margaret Canneld.
126. Charlotte Maude Canneld.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 194 SEVEN (220).
127. Charles Peckham Lang.
214 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 194 SEVEN (222).
128. Charles Gregory Robb.
129. Charlotte Mary Robb.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 196 SEVEN (225).
130. Matthew Harrison Lang.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198 SEVEN (230).
131. Helen Ursula Kelly.
132. Chester Bellows Kelly.
133. Florence May Kelly.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198 SEVEN (233).
134. Keith Hyde Bellows, Lancaster, Wis.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199 SEVEN (236).
135. Ruth Lorena Hyde.
136. Henry Park Hyde.
137. Ray Luther Hyde.
138. Carl Luther Hyde.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199 SEVEN (238).
139. Mabel Catherine Stoffer.
140. George Allan Stoffer.
141. Fernie Pearl Stoffer.
142. Earl Eugene Stoffer.
143. Lena Viola Stoffer.
144. Simon Levi Stoffer.
145. Mary Dora Stoffer.
146. Alice Stoffer.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200 SEVEN (240).
147. Irma Hyde Woolstenholme, Grand Rapids, Nebraska.
FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200 SEVEN (242).
148. Charles Allen Hyde.
149. Sydney Jehiel Hyde.
150. Delphine Hyde.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244 SEVEN (246).
151. Eleanor May Mack.
FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244 SEVEN (248).
152. Gavin Livingstone Creed.
153. Jean Creed.
154. Frederica Georgiana Creed.
155. - - Creed, daughter.
FOUR IX. 50, F-IVE (147) Six 2 SEVEN (289).
156. Florence Emma Jeffery, born in 1905, the sixth in
descent from Philip Embury.
GENERATION NINE, TO OCTOBER, 1907.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 80 SEVEN (45) EIGHT 4.
(1) "C. B." Creighton, Hawley, Ont.
FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 81 SEVEN (48) EIGHT 5.
(2) Perry Howard Dietrich, Montreal, Que.
(3) John Elwood Dietrich, Montreal, Que.
(4) Norma Isabell Dietrich, Montreal, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 68.
(5) Nason Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 69.
(6) Hazel Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
(7) Earl Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
(8) Edmund Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
(9) Carl Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
(10) Grace Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 70.
(11) Ruth Amyrauld, Sweetsburg, Que.
(12) Ross Amyrauld, Sweetsburg, Que.
2i 6 THE CAMDEN COLONY.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 71.
(13) Lisgar Ingalls, Dunham, Que.
FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 172 SEVEN (165) EIGHT 76.
(14) Annie Yates, Dunham, Que.
(15) Gertrude Yates, Dunham, Que.
(16) Kathleen Yates, Dunham, Que.
(17) Eileen Yates, Dunham, Que.
(18) Harry Yates, Dunham, Que.
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Ida m. N. J. Leslie-
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Mary E. m.
Dr. J. H. W- Bedford
Harriet E. m.
Rev. Dr. Milligan
H A. Johnston
Jas. Eraser Macdonal
Rev. W. A. Guy
University of Toronto
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