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Author of " Sunday School Outlines'' li Springs from 
the Pisgah Hills," "Our Ebenezers," etc. 

" I have been young and now am old, yet have I not seen the righteous 
forsaken nor his seed begging bread." Ps. xxxvii. 2& 



Entered according to Act of Parliament in the year one thousand nine hundred 

and eight by Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, M.A., Ph.D., in the office 

of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics at Ottawa. 










IT is scarcely necessary to offer an apology Sor intrud- 
ing upon public notice the contents of the following pages. 
Whoever rescues from the ruin of years the primaries of 
his country does his nation a perpetual service. 

The things herein written have been the products of 
enthusiasm the offspring of delight. The romance of 
the things has become more and more real as the com- 
pilation has proceeded, until the writer has become seized 
of the conviction that other people should be afforded the 
privilege of sharing in a delight which they could not 
but appreciate. There has been no desire to parade either 
a person or a family, but the conviction has grown that 
through the agency of a family, and in its scattered heir- 
looms, there were conserved invaluable germs of national 
life, and that matters of more than common importance 
ought to be put into some tangible form, capable of pre- 
servation for the benefit of future historians. 

At 'times, during the writing of Canadian history and 
biography, some individual characters have been given 
special prominence without much detail regarding their 
environment; the effect may be the perpetuation in the 
national consciousness of a name and the celebration of 
the virtues of a person, without giving sufficient credit 
to those who were the special creators of opportunities 
for such persons. And the consequences to our own times 
mav be disastrous, as the result is, on the one hand to 


create an unhealthy desire to be a hero, or on the other 
to so minimize the value of common people and ordinary 
events as to impress young minds with the idea that these 
count for nothing. All of this is to be earnestly deprecated 
and faithfully avoided. There is, too, an uplifting charm 
in observing how the course of widely separated circum- 
stances and far removed times and persons fit into an 
apparently designed order of procedure, for which one can 
give no adequate explanation except by the recognition 
of an intelligent Providence ; and the charm of providen- 
tial direction has been so apparent and transcendent in 
the story which is now submitted, that the writer could not 
be clear, in the light of conscience, and withhold it from 
the public. 

May it not be that heroes are to be found in the ordin- 
ary ranks of life? And perhaps it may require a century or 
more to show how real and magnificent was their heroism. 
Is it wrong to worship heroes? It was to the chagrin of 
a party, but was it a sin or a crime that the world was 
gone after Chist? He attempted the thing that He knew 
ought to be done. He did it though it cost His life; indeed 
He did it only by the cost of His life. And He is to-day 
the world's greatest hero ; and the world most honors 
itself and uplifts itself by recognizing in His divine pur- 
poses the highest expression of human nobleness and by 
worshipping Him. Should not a nation honor itself by 
enbalming the names of its worthies who have humbly 
imitated the Christ virtues? To pass on their bright ex- 
amples is a kindness which each age may demand of its 
people, as the supreme purpose of ages, as of individuals, 
must ever be to attain to the best of which human nature 
is capable; and the display of human virtues constitutes 
a step in the upward process. 


In relation to the history of Canada, too, it may be 
that the following story has been written none too soon. 
Indeed it may be regretted by some that it was not writ- 
ten sooner. The old types of pioneer are rapidly vanish- 
ing. In place of the people who cleared the forest because 
they would live under the Union Jack, there are coming 
masses of people who are breaking up the prairie that 
they may add to their material gains. Once it was con- 
science ; now it is convenience. Once it was duty ; now 
it is gain. The ijew population, like newer strata of rock 
at the foot of the Laurentians, is already overlapping 
the old, and threatening to hide in oblivion its toilsome and 
virtuous enterprises. 

The ambition of the writer has been to place in popu- 
lar form a family story that may illustrate and emphasize 
the facts already contained in histories, but unfortun- 
ately too often limited to reference libraries. Limitation 
of space, of course, forbids anything like an exhaustive 
treatment of the theme in hand; but the desire has been 
to set forth the ideals of life which gave enduring value 
to the efforts of the Canadian pioneers of more than a cen- 
tury ago, and which are worthy of the most loyal acceptance 
by their descendants. Purity of personal charact r, in- 
dustry, economy, humility, integrity, faithfulness and gen- 
erosity, the fear of God and an abiding appreciation of 
righteousness such were the foundation stones on which 
rests the Canadian superstructure ; and such elements com- 
bined to give contentment, peace, happiness and long life 
to those patriarchs of our country who so universally em- 
bodied them in their personalties. Looking at all the 
circumstances one might very well say "go thou and do 

The materials from which the accompanying story has 


been drawn are in part found in many volumes already 
published, but by far the larger part of the matter has 
been gathered from family archives and reminiscences sec- 
ured from a very numerous company of correspondents 
residing in widely separated sections of Canada and the 
United States and even in Ireland. In acknowledging his 
obligations to the correspondents who. have aided him, the 
writer wishes to make grateful mention of William Miller, 
Cork, Ireland; Mrs. W. E. Stu-mph, of Mountville, Vir- 
ginia; Mrs. Gallagher, of Alburg Springs i Vermont; Miss 
Agnes Bradley, of St. Armand, Que; Mr- J. R. Creed, of 
Halifax, N.S: ; Louis S. Miller, of West La Have, N.S. ; E. 
R. Miller, of Switzerville, Ont ; Adam Miller, of Huntingdon, 
Que; Jno. S. Miller, of Manitou, and Robert Miller, of Snow 
Flake, Man. ; Mrs. Dr. Jno. Moore, of Shannonville-, Ont. ; 
and Prof. A. D. Smith, LL.D., of Mount Allison Univer- 
.sity, Sackville N.B- 

The illustrations are intended to be taken as types 
showing the influence of environment, while continuing 
through generations certain physical similarities. 

In securing and compiling 'the genealogical records 
the writer does not know that anything so complete has 
been attempted in Canada, and he is prone to think that 
in time this will 'be regarded as the most valuable part oi 
the book as it has been the most laborious part of the work. 

Tfte Parsonage, 

St. Johns, One 

March 1908. 





An Agent in scattering the Seed I 

Where the Seed grew 5 

Seed Sowing. 

Harvesting without Storing. 16 

Bearing Another's Burdens 25 

The Kighteous Man 33 

Carrying the Seed to America. 40 

The Seed. -49 


Settlement in Nova Scotia. 60 




Peter Miller His Descendants and their Influence. 77 


In the Land of the Napanee Garrett Miller, U.E.L. . 95 


Pioneering . IO 7 


Outspreading. 118 


Cousins far removed. 142 


New Starting Points Old Principles 155 


Introductory. 163 

Generations I-III. . 164 

Generation IV. 166 

Generation V. 169 

Generation VI. 177 

Generation VII 192 

Generation VIII. 207 

Generation IX 215 

Appendix. 217 



Portrait of Author .Frontispiece 

Philip Embury. 43 

Catherine Embury Fisher. 43 

Vrews of Bridgewater N.S 

Little Dutch Church, Halifax 63 

St. Peter's, West La Have 7O 

Miller Types. 

"Glen Allan" . - 73 

J-ean R. Miller. 74 

Methodist Church, Philipsburg 89 

George and Nicholas Miller. ........ 9 2 

A. Dunham Citizen. 93 

First Methodist Church in Canada 99 

Horseless Carriages. 107 

"Maple Lawn". . 116 

Switzervillt: Chapel. 118 

Three Generations. 124 

Calvin Woo'Ster Miller 126 

Father and Daughter. . 127 

Cephas Hurlbert Miller 126 

Oldest Types. 130 

Missisquoi (Brothers. 132 

A Face from Texas- . 133 

A Parsonage Group 140 

Improved Architecture. 149 

East and West 1-55 


Department of Agriculture, Canada, 
Minister's Office, 

Ottawa, Oct. isth, 1907. 
Rev- Bowman Tucker. 

St. Johns P.Q. 
Dear Mr. Tucker, 

Replying to yours of the 8th, I have been very busy so that I 
could not work out the answer to all the questions. I took them 
to my sister-in-law. Mrs Roswell Fisher, who has taken a great 
interest in the family connections, and asked her to make out a 
reply to them. She is working it out, getting some of the imme- 
diate connections in Montreal to aid her. I think in a very short 
time she will have answers to most of your questions and will 
send them to you. I will also send her this letter so that she can 
add the information you refer to. 

Yours very truly, 


No. 2. 
Dictated on train to Montreal, transcribed at Ottawa. 

Rev. Dr. Tucker, 

St. Johns. P.Q. 
Dear Doctor Tucker. 

In reply to your circular of August 26th, offering for sale copies 
of your book on the History of the Palatines, I would be very 
glad to .put my name down for two copies. As soon as they are 
ready you can forward them to my address with the bill, when I 
will be glad to remit. 

With best regards. 

Yours very truly, 



Office of the Minister of Justice, Canada, 

Ottawa, Aug. 3oth, 1907. 
Dear Sir, 

I recently received your circular as to the publication of your 
researches into the History of the Palatines and 1 of -the Miller gen- 
ealogy, and as I should certainly like to have a oojpy of the book, 
I s-cnd herewith a postal note for $2.50 as my subscription. 

I am very glad to hear that you are .preparing the family history 
you speak of, and in this work, as in every other in which you 
may be engaged, I wish you heartily all possible success. 
I remain, 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) A. B. ALYESWORTH. 

Bedford, Que., 

Oct. 25th, 1907. 
Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, 

Dear Sir, 

Sometime ago I received a card from you calling attention to 
the book, "The Seed of the Righteous." Absence from home has 
delayed my reply I can assure you of my interest in 

this addition to our Canadian literature- As the Missisquoi His- 
torical Society has ordered a copy of the work, I shall read it with 
great interest. The sketches that you have already contributed to 
the "News" have won the admiration and gratitude of the public. 
But alas! "Bystander" says, "Genius is always in debt or used to 
be." However wishing you good courage and prosperity- 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) S. A. C. MORGAN. 

Brierbank Cottage, 

West La Have 
Nova Scotia. 

Oct. 25th, 1907. 
Dear Mr. Tucker, 

Enclosed please find postal note for $2.50 our subscription for 
your book which we are most anxious to see. 

Believe us, yours sincerely, 


John W. Saxe, Attorney and Counselor at Law. 
75 Devonshire Building, 16 State Street, 

Boston, Oct. i8th, 1907. 
My Dear Dr. Tucker. 

Find herewith my subscription to your proposed book, which 
1 trust -you will be able to publish. 

For some years I have been studying the history of the Ger- 
mans in America- Mr. Noyes' article, "The Germans of Missisquoi" 
interested me, as my great grandfather John Sachse (Sax) followed 
the Dutchess county, N. Y., migration to Canada. The family also 
became ardent Methodists and has among its members four or five 
Methodist preachers and also one Catholic priest of St Romuald 
Parish, Que. 

The title of pour book is a good one for a romantic novel. May 
I say that for a historical work it is somewhat misleading in that 
it gives no expression of the scope for real subject of what I am 
sure will be an interesting, historical contribution. "The Germans 
of Canada and their Colonization," would express the scope would 
it not? 

I have a correspondent in J. F- Sachse, of Philadelphia, who is 
a leading authority on early German history and whose works are 
scholarly and historically valuable. I hope you have seen them. 
With personal regards. 

Cordially yours., 

(Signed) JOHN W. SAKE- 

Standbridge, Que., 

Oct. 2nd. 1007. 
Rev. Dr. Tucker. 

Dar Sir. 

We take great pleasure in becoming a subscriber for your n r ew 
publication, "The Seed of the Rightous," for the benefit of the 
Missisquoi County Historical Society. The original .poems 1 en- 
closed in volume returned have read with great interest. 
Yours sincerely, 

(Sign-d) CHAS- P. MOORE. 

In furnishing valuable information regarding the descendants 
of Catherine Embury Fisher, Mrs. Roswell C. Fisher, of 660 Sher- 
brooke Street, West, Montreal, appends the following certificate 


which shows how carefully, in some families at least, family records 
have been kept. 

"Copied from two manuscripts in Father's handwriting, Mont- 
real, ist. Feb., 1821. 

"(Signed) JOHN FISHER. 
"Son of Duncan Fisher." 

"The above is a copy of a list made by and sent from Mr. John 
Fisher, Quebec. 


"Montreal, Jan., 1835." 

"The above copied by Mary Field Fisher, ne Ritchk. grand- 
daughter of John Fisher. 

"Montreal, Oct.. 1907. " 

The records thus copied are to be found in the genealogical por- 
tion of this book. 




"Surely the wrath of men shall praise thee. Ps. Ixxvi. 10 

WHEN Louis XIV. was seeking to dominate Europe he 
little thought how much he was doing for North America, 
and for Canada in particular. It was no more possible for 
him to foresee how his vain purposes would serve the 
substantial good of millions than for Pilate and his 
associates to anticipate through the crucifixion of Christ 
the rise and splendid triumph of Christianity. 

Of Louis, whose reign extended from 1643 to 171 5 
a period of seventy-two years, it has been said that he 
was the illumining sun of all the courts of Europe m 
his day. Such a testimony gives some small indication 
of his social position. Of his character it is said that 
without exception he was the most egoistic and unscru- 
pulous, the most ambitious and vain, of his day. The 
smallness of the man was shown m the pompousness of 
his manners and dress. To appear higher than others, 
and to ibe able to look upon them with disdain gave him 
much satisfaction, and for this purpose he wore shoes 
with extraordinary high heels. He clothed himself in 
laces and velvets, in diamonds and gold, that he might 
gain the flattery of the weak, or might overawe by a 
seemingly majestic deportment, which was only of the 
shop-window sort. To his nation he brought the mis- 


fortune of an example which was selfish and irreligious, 
extravagant and pompous, resulting in national im- 
poverishment through superficial living and costly man- 
ners. He has been called "Great," but his greatness 
appears to have been only of the materialistic and sen- 
suous sort. He has been designated "a bigoted, narrow- 
minded, common-place man," and the course of his history 
appears to bear out the judgment; for, breadth of view, 
noble judgments, humane enterprises, generous plans for 
the ennoblement of mankind, he appears to have been 
utterly unacquainted with. 

In his day Louis appears to have stood as the fore- 
most royal exponent of Roman Catholicism. Yet one 
searches in vain to find that this was from conscientious 
conviction, and not rather from a purely selfish desire to 
gain power by the use of any promising supports which 
he might gather about him. 

Until the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661 Louis 
was merely a secondary person, but thereafter for fifty- 
fcur years Louis XIV. was the "most absolute ruler in 
Christendom. ' And the Church of Rome knew how to 
use him. Voltaire once intimated that Mazarin held in 
his chests two-thirds of the coin of the nation. To furnish 
himself with this, and to enrich his friends with money, 
rubies, emeralds and diamonds, he laid his hold upon the 
king with a grip which he never relaxed until death com- 
pelled him. 

After the death of the Cardinal, Louis served the 
church; but he served the church in serving himself. His 
ambition gratified itself in this self-service. He was 
a Roman Catholic. But first of all he was Louis 
the King. At the Cardinal's death Louis was twenty- 
three years of age, and had been king for eighteen years 
years in which the Cardinal had been his tutor and 
master, cnly, however, to develop religiousness out of 
existence, and to establish in the young king's nature a 
great greed of power. 


Two ministers came into the councils of Louis 
Colbert, Minister of Finance, and Louvois, Minister of 
War; one seeking diligently to reduce the national extra- 
vagances and increase the revenue, the other counselling 
useless wars which kept the treasury drained. Rut Louis 
was fond of war. He attacked Spain in 1665, startling 
Europe by his success. In 1672 he sought to subdue the 
Dutch. After six years of war, in which Louis failed, 
a treaty was formed at Nimwegen in 1678. 

Eight years of peace followed, during which the 
States of Europe gradually arrived at a conviction of the 
necessity of mutual organization in the interests of self- 
defence against the aggressive Louis. Accordingly, in 
1686, the Augsburg League was formed, consisting of 
the princes of Austria together with Spain, Holland., 
Denmark, Sweden, Savoy and England. The election of 
William, Prince of Orange, to the throne of England as 
William III. in 1688 put him in the forefront as the leader 
of the forces standing in opposition to the pretensions and 
ambitions of Louis. 

The war which represented the antagonism of the 
Protestant and Catholic forces of Europe began in 1688, 
and after nine years was concluded by the Treaty of 
Ryswick, in which Louis was obliged to recognize William 
as the lawful King of England. 

Three years elapsed, and again Europe was disturbed 
by premonitions of war, of the effect of which the present 
story will have more to say. This war afforded another 
instance of the covetous ambition of Louis. Forty-two- 
years earlier, that is in 1659, Louis had entered into the 
Treaty of the Pyrenees, between France and Spam, by 
which among other things it was agreed that Louis should 
marry Maria Theresa of Spam, but that h-e should 
renounce all claims to the Spanish throne which might 
arise in consequence of his marriage. In 1700, however, 
on the death of Charles II. of Spain, Louis put forward 
a claim to the Spanish throne on behalf of his grandson, 


Philip, Duke of Anjou. Against this claim there appeared 
that of the Archduke Charles of Austria, second son of 
the emperor. The States of Europe, alarmed lest France, 
gaining possession of Spain, should secure predominant 
power in Europe, organized with the co-operation of Eng- 
land in the Grand Alliance. There ensued the War of 
the Spanish Succession, lasting for twelve years. It is at 
this point particularly thait Louis XIV. is connected with 
the heroes of our story, and we must now turn to consider 
their location and character. 



"Where the holiest of memories pilgrim-like throng " 

WHEN the Treaty of Utrecht was drawn up in 1713, it 
stipulated that the Rhine should be the eastern boundary 
of France. This in part seems to have been a recognition 
by the treaty making- powers of the importance of the 
country on the east bank of the Rhine, and its right to 
some sort of treaty protection. Louis XIV. fully recog- 
nized the strategic importance of the Rhine as a water 
way between nations, and especially that of the fortress 
of Strasburg on the Rhine, which he captured and retained. 

To the banks of the Rhine one must come for the 
story of the German Palatinate, which fcr a time embraced 
the country on both banks of the river, but was finally 
restricted to the eastern side. To the Lower Rhine pro- 
vince, bounded on the south by Switzerland, on the west 
and north by France, and on the east and north-east by 
the Upper Rhine and Germany, belonged the home of the 
unpretentious, modest, but illustrious people, whom Louis, 
unable to appreciate, exiled, to be in the providence of 
God established as bone and sinew in the upbuilding of 
American life. 

The cities of the locality are enumerated as including 
Strasburg, Mannheim, Oppenheim, Ladenburgh, Wein- 
heim, Heppenheim, Durlach, Bruchsal, Rastadt, Germ- 
sheim, Baden, Bretten and Heidleberg; the latter, famous 
fcr its university, was its capital. Worms and Spires, of 
historic celebrity, were at the eastern boundary ; at trie 
junction of the Neckar and the Rhine was Phillipsburg. 

The political history of the locality dates back to 


the thirteenth century. In 1294 it became detached from 
Bavaria, to which it had long 'been allied, and received 
its status as an 'electorate," which it exercised until, at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, it again became 
a part of Bavaria, next to Prussia, the most powerful of 
the German States. 

Originally the G erman States were governed by 
Dukes, and these in turn came together to elect one of 
their number as chief or king; whence arose the elective 
character of the old German Empire. The powerful Dukes 
formed the College of Electors, and so important was 
that office considered, that the title of "Elector" superseded 
that of duke in such well-known cases as the Elector of 
Saxony, the Elector of Bavaria, and, in later times, the 
Elector Palatine, and the Elector of Hanover. 

In an interesting volume by an English writer, and 
published in 1836, it is said, "Nothing can exceed the 
beauty of the country from Darmstadt to Heidleberg; 
we pass along the Berg-Strass (via Montana), which takes 
its name from winding at the base of a chain t}f hills, the 
road itself being one of the most level imaginable. The 
mountains of the Odenwald, occasionally crowned by 
some mouldering ruin, and crowned with orchards, vine- 
yards, forests and fertile fields, rich in every species of 
agricultural production, are spread out for the amusement 
of the traveller; and few scenes will live in his recollection 
more vividly than the valley of the Neckar." 

At an early period in the history of Europe this hill 
country, now smiling under the hand of modern industry, 
had been occupied in its primeval condition, first -by the 
Celt and then by the Teuton. Coming from the far east, 
the Celt, as his name implies, was in search of pleasant 
fields and low-lands; the Teuton on the other hand loved 
the hills, the mountains, the strong-holds, he was at home 
with difficult things. The Teuton grew strong by hard- 
ship. He sought conflict and conquest. The Celt moved 
on and the Teuton remained. "Physical circumstances 


reach far in their effects, not alone upon the organs of 
speech, but upon characters as well. It is not too much 
to assert that the profound differences which are manifest 
between Geman races on the one side, heavy, bent on 
fighting, prone to drunkenness and gluttony, and the 
Greek and Latin races on the other, ready, flexible, in- 
quisitive, artistic, loving conversations and tales of 
adventure arise chiefly from the difference between the 
countries in which they are settled. Religion to the 
Greek is an epic; to the Teuton, a tragedy." This reflec- 
tion of a modern writer, as regards the effect cf environ- 
ment may in part be true. Observation and ex[x?nence 
confirm the opinion that environment tends to perpetuate 
certain aptitudes. On the other hand the fact cannot 
be denied that some aptitudes refuse certain environments, 
drift away from them, and seek until they find those 
which are more congenial. The Teuton comes in where 
the Celt moves out. Allowance must be made fcr the 
exercise of the human potentiality, which recogni/.es the 
difficulties of an environment, adopts and improves upon 

"In dress, government, occupation and religion the 
Teuton and Celt presented a strong contrast to each other. 
The Teuton garb was a loose, rude tunic, pinned round 
the neck with a them. In youth he wore an iron collar 
which was thrown aside when he achieved the distinction 
of killing a man. Then, too, the young men c f some of 
the fiercest tribes the Batavians of the Rhine for ex- 
ample cut their hair and shaved their heads for the first 
time. The Gaul or Celt on the other hand loved bright 
and many colored clothes, and hung gold chains on his 
brawny a(rms or around his neck. The Teutonic govern- 
ment was democratic the chief power resting with the 
great assembly of the people, which was convoked at the 
time of full moon; the government of the Celt was essen- 
tially aristocratic, clanship being its leading feature. 
War was the trade of the Teutons; tillage and pasturing 


were the favorite employments cf the Celt. And while 
the Celts clung long to Druidism, the Teutons, acknow- 
ledging one supreme God, were easily prepared to receive 

From such a picture from such primitive conditions, 
the materials have been drawn, out of which to construct 
modern kingdoms, build up modern armies, promote 
modern civilization and. commerce and propagate modern 
Christianity. And from such primitive Teutonic begin- 
nings came the children of the Rhine. Warriors they 
were, but they fought not alone with men ; they subdued 
the hillsides, learned agriculture, and in time became the 
toiling, tax-paying, Protestants of the Rhenish Palatinate. 

From the beginning they were inured to hardship. 
Leaders became masters ; the more adventurous became 
predominant. The prince that drew power to the castle, 
laid the burdening hand upon the peasant. Taxes were 
levied. In their political relationships the princes were 
frequently .at war with each other, or sought the increase 
of their power by conquests achieved in foreign states. 
And while the princes fought the peasants suffered. If 
the common people were called upon to take up arms only 
in times of general and extensive warfare, they neverthe- 
less endured burdens at all times and were kept poor by 
the ruling class. These small farmers of the hillsides, 
enjoying it might be more personal freedom than those 
of eastern Bavaria similarly situated, were nevertheless 
ground to the dust with taxes and dues of all kinds. 
They loved their freedom; their independence was a 
priceless possession. With the exactions of state oppres- 
sing them, they yet knew no servile spirit, but increasing 
in the courage of a plain but sturdy manhood, they un- 
complainingly endured the burdens which in the end 
appeared to minister to their own political liberties." 
Since early feudal times it had been the custom for the 
peasant to pay his rent in grain, flax, fruit, cattle, poultry 
or eggs. He also gave, in accordance with a practise 


caillcd soccage-service, his own labor and that of his 
horses to his lord at stated times. Every change in the 
peasant's family birth, marriage, or death every season 
of the year, every part of his dwelling, or his little farm, 
had its own tax, and all must be paid ; so bitterly was 
the German boor oppressed." Yet under all this the 
Teuton was .a staple factor in the country. Through the 
generations his love of the Fatherland knew no dimin- 
ishing ; rather it increased. Living under these conditions, 
so surely conducing to poverty and so certainly exacting 
from the toiler his best efforts, the German peasant 
found it possible to pride himself on little else than his 
self reliance. The love of life was strong. The Teutonic 
will became well pronounced. 

The strenuous life-struggle produced its effect ; the 
heart sought its consolation in other than the things of 
earth. It had its speech and would be heard. Com- 
munion of spirit becomes more precious amid the dis- 
couragements of this world ; and this communion is 
brought about, it may be, by the hymn and religious 
exercise, or perhaps by songs, proverbs and jests. In those 
days it was by the latter means that the embittered heart 
of the peasant spoke out. Ultimately the nobler instincts 
of the soul awakened to their exercise, and the religion 
of Jesus Christ alone seemed the strong thing to fit in 
and harmonize with the demands of a consciousness that 
takes life seriously. The great undertakings of life 
reveal to the soul its own great relationship and bring it 
into closer communion with God. 

Thus it was that a hundred and twenty-five years 
before Louis was born German Protestantism, arising in 
the neighborhood of the Palatinate, found amcng the 
peasant folk a hearty and prolonged response To a 
people with personality well developed by the struggle, 
of life a religion of freedom appealed effectively and 
found ready acceptance. Where the conditions of life 
demanded self -effort, a religion of direct access to God 


without priestly intervention found fruitful soil. A 
religion affording a personal experience met the require- 
ments most readily of a people whose self-consciousness 
was well pronounced. And because of the strenuous life 
they lived the peasants would readily appreciate a 
religion which brought consolation into personal ex- 
perience, and ministered strength for the arduous engage- 
ments of each day. Here it was that the seed of the 
Reformation found a favorable and fertile soil. If not 
a literary people, these Palatines were a reflective and, 
in a sense, a solitary people, who were capable of keeping 
things in their hearts, and were more likely to prove 
loyal to their convictions than the more cultivated and 
society loving princes, who too often were politic and 
time serving. Amcng the farmers of Galilee rather than 
the Pharisees of Jerusalem Jesus most effectively planted 
the seeds of His Kingdom ! 



"Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters." Isa- xxxii. "O. 

LIKE the plash, plash at the sea shore, repeated almost 
monotonously, yet announcing the coming of the heavy 
swell, so did reformatory movements in Europe precede 
and anticipate the times of Martin Luther. 

Thus, more than three hundred and twenty-live years 
before Luther's work became prominent, Europe felt the 
first dim intimations of a coming revival ; tins was 
through the life and teachings of the Waldenses. The 
movement originated in southern Europe, in Lyons, from 
whence, as if the waters of the Mediterannean were pro- 
phetic in their northward sweep, it too surged among the 
hills of the north. A wealthy and distinguished citizen 
of Lyons was Waldensis, who, living in the latter part 
of the twelfth century, became particularly /.ealou.s in 
his search after and propagation cf Biblical truth. By 
a simple and natural process he rapidly approached a 
consciousness of diviner life than had been commonly 
exhibited, at least in common life. First he secured a 
translation of the Bible into the language of Ins people, 
Then finding the value and usefulness of guides in help- 
ing him to understand the Scriptures, he secured and 
circulated extracts from the Fathers. His readings were 
followed by increasing spiritual yearnings after the divine 
life, and the fuller imitation of Christ. Tins was follow- 
ed by voluntary poverty and street preaching. Alarmed 
by this new movement, the Church at length forbade it. 
The Waldenses refused obedience and were expelled irorn 


the city. Thereafter, taking their wives and children 
with them, and dressed as laymen following various 
trades, they penetrated Europe as far as Austria, into 
northern Italy, Switzerland, and by the banks of the 
Rhine, being everywhere gladly received as the poor 
Waldenses of Lyons. Their object being a mission car- 
ried on by open air preaching, and their humble ways of 
livmg comporting well with their teaching, their influence 
on the peasant life was considerable and lasting. 

Nearly one hundred and fifty years after the rise 
of the Waldenses, John Wycliffe, called the Morning Star 
of the Reformation, was born in North Yorkshire in Eng- 
land As a preacher possessed of liberal culture, he 
exercised great influence and became the dread of the 
church councils. In his preaching he used the Bible; 
indeed it was his treasure house from whence he drew 
his materials in abundance. Using his pen, he wrote 
many short and simple English tracts by which His 
doctrines were spread all over England. Here again the 
right and potency of truth to spread became apparent. 
The Church feared Wycliffe and condemned him and his 
writings. But no man stops the wind by forbidding it 
to blow ; "the wind bloweth where it listeth." And 
Wycliffe s doctrines tock root on the continent. Like the 
teachings of the Waldenses, the teachings of Wycliffe 
also crossed the Rhine, gave evidence of their vigor, and 
reached in time Bohemia. 

A third person concerned in the laying of religious 
foundations in Europe was John Hus, born in Bohemia, 
not far from Bavaria, in 1369. For fifteen years he was 
a contemporary of Wycliffe, and for thirty-one years after 
Wycliffe's death he would seem to have carried forward 
in eastern Europe work that Wycliffe began in the west. 
Wycliffe has been pronounced the first important person- 
ality among the Reformers. John Huss was at least a 
worthy second. The influence of Wycliffe's teaching 
upon him was recognized by his age and acknowledged 


by Hus, although he denied holding some of the English 
Reformer's views. Hus "was not an original, creative 
mind. As a thinker he had neither speculative talent nor 
constructive faculh'." "Nor was he by nature a strong 
character, twice hardened and keen as steel. Rather he 
was a fee/ble and tender spirit, more sensitive thain 
designed for heroic deed. But with his tenderness there 
was combined moral tenacity, indomitable constancy and 
inflexible firmness." "Seldom have the power of con- 
science and the imperial strength of a faith rooted in 
Christ asserted themselves in so commanding and heroic 
a manner." It is remarkable that when in 1519, a hun- 
dred years after the death of Hus, the Bohemian Utra- 
quists sent an encouraging message U> Martin Luther, 
accompanying the message with the works of Hus, the 
German Reformer was surprised, to find that his own 
doctrines were taught therein. So potent was the in- 
fluence of Hus in his day that the Church considered him 
exceedingly dangerous. One of the great crimes winch 
history occasionally records is that committed by the 
Church at the Council of Constance in 1415, when it 
executed its own order and burned John Hus at the stake 
a martyr for the truth of Jesus Christ. His ashes were 
thrown into the Rhine and carried forward to the ocean 
type of the course of the truth which he preached. His 
friendship for Wycliffe had been freely avowed; and the 
same Council which condemned him to the stake ordered 
that the bones of Wvcliffe should be taken up and cast 
far out of consecrated ground. In 1428 this order was 
obeyed. The bones were burnt, the ashes were cast into 
the Swift, the Swift carried them into the Avon and 
thence out to sea. So does truth spread. 

Thus by the Waldenses.and the combined labors and 
teachings of Wycliffe and Hus Europe was from time 
to time evangelized. The reformation doctrines became 
matters of common notoriety. The partyism that arose 
became most pronounced. From 1420 to 1425 Catholic 


Germany issued in large forces in opposition to the Hus- 
sit-e movement in Bohemia. 

Truth never dies. At times it disappears from view, 
is apparently buried in rums like the book of Moses in 
the temple of Josiah's day, but only at length to recover 
its former ascendancy with increased prestige. 

Thus a hundred years of truce in which the doctrines 
of the Bible seemed silenced under the arrogance a,nd 
domination of the Church and then in the providence of 
God .arose Martin Luther. Then it was that the fires of 
Biblical truth that had been bursting out first to the far 
south, then to the west, and later in the east, came now 
to close quarters, and actually became the possession of 
the Palatines of the Rhine. Their characters solitary, 
like the mountains, reflective, self-contained, strong and 
resolute, were fitted to receive and retain the doctrines of 
liberty, even as the free and full consolations of the 
Reformation faith were adapted for just such life. 
Luther gave them the Bible in their own tongue an in- 
valuable treasure. He taught them to sing hymns instead 
of ballads. Their conversations became tinged with 
religious interests. They accepted the truths of the Re- 
formation not as matters of controversy, but as questions 
of conviction, and retained no doubt as to the validity 
of the Lutheran positions, or the falseness of the attitude 
of the Church of Rome. Tne seed which had been ger- 
minating for centuries among these Teutons was brought 
to ripening conditions through the nearness of Spires 
and Worms. The Palatines of the Lower Rhine became 
ardent Lutherans. 

It has been sometimes said that these German prin- 
cipalities were successively Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinistic 
and Lutheran. In part this is accounted for by the early 
doctrine of the state arising from conditions of feudalism 
.-"the religion of the prince is the religion of the subject" 
a condition from which the people emerged by virtue of 
their sturdy character and the spread of Biblical know- 


ledge. And in the final stages, the presence of the 
evangelical spirit, and the ultimate assertion of the 
national spirit account for the acceptance of Calvinism 
on the one hand, and the return to Lutheranism on the 
other. Herein also lies the guarantee of an attachment 
for one hundred and eighty years to Lutheran principles 
and doctrines preceding the age of Louis. In all of this 
no human mind was planning: but God was there. Often, 
undoubtedly the seed fell by the wayside; but some fell 
on good ground, and brought forth righteousness. The 
Bible in English, in the vernacular of France, of Bohemia 
and of Germany was the good seed, received gladly by 
multitudes of the common people; and it brought to them 
the light that did not easily disappear. 



"He that goeth forth and weepeth." Ps- cxxvi. 6 

THAT persecution for conscience sake was the lot of the 
Waldenses, of John Wycliffe and his disciples, of John 
Hus and those who followed him has a ] ready been sug- 
gested. The same might be said of Martin Luther and 
those who identified themselves with him. And regret- 
fully, it may even have to be added in fairness that the 
reformers themselves were not always free from the charge 
themselves of being persecutors, so much was persecution 
the spirit of those years. 

Did the peasants of the Palatinate ever suffer perse- 
cution ? The literature that might afford an answer to 
the question which has of late been raised in historical 
society meetings does not appear to be very abundant. It 
is unfortunate for the Palatines that they were not a 
literary people themselves; nor did they appeal to the 
imagination and enthusiasm of the literary people of 
their age. The times were probably too sombre. The 
questions for a century and a half were so largely religion 
or war war was carried on as a matter of religion, and 
religion was propagated in the spirit of war that a lite- 
rature giving prominence to the humble peasant life of 
the hills and the black forest scracely found an occasion 
for development. 

That it was an ardent age must be admitted, in view 
of the personality of Martin Luther. "Whoever imprints 
apparently, a new character on an age, is himself a 
creature of that age. Formed first by circumstances, he 


reacts upon them, paying with interest what society has 
given." There would have been a Reformation, though 
probably later, without the assistance of Martin Luther. 
That an ardent people, in an age of intense devotion to 
opinion, coulcl have escaped tne persecutions of the age 
is c? friori out of belief. 

With little or no documentary evidence coming t<> us 
directly from the Palatines themselves, it is fortunate 
that for two hundred years past, tradition has per- 
sisted in its assertions; and this tradition being in the 
hands of descendants of the Palatines, separated by the 
wide stretches of the ocean, unknown to each other, and 
without lines of communication, it must be agreed should 
be credible. This tradition found on both sides of the 
Atlantic refuses to us any other explanation for the exile 
and wandering of the Palatines than that they were 
persecuted because of their Protestant principles. "Our 
fathers," say the traditions, "were Palatines of the Rhine 
driven out by persecution from Catholic rulers." True, 
one of the traditions claims the fathers as Huguenots; 
against which there is altogether tco much evidence to 
permit of entertaining the supposition of French origin : 
but it leaves intact and even strengthens the basal supposi- 
tion of religious persecution. It is unfortunate that no 
old German Bibles belonging to these Palatines are to be 
found; but Bibles belonging to families of two hundred 
years ago would be a rare treasure under any circumstance, 
and particularly so in the case of people wno had to flee 
for their life. A writer of a century ago explains the dis- 
appearance of the Bibles by describing the habit of bury- 
ing them in the graves of the old people as in time they 
passed away from their earthly troubles. In some in- 
stances, it is also said, they presented them as keepsakes to 
German soldiers whom they chanced to know. 

But when and where was the persecution? And this 
question we consider has to be answered cumulatively. 

First of all the acceptance of Protestant principles 


brought the Palatine peasants into conflict with the poli- 
tical principle by which for years the German States had 
been governed. If the religion of the prince is the religion 
of the people, it wculd readily appear that when the prince 
was a warm exponent of the Catholic faith the attitude 
of the Protestants towards the Church would be construed 
into disloyalty and insubordination to the prince. Hence 
the reprisals of the ruling classes, which have so indelibly 
impressed themselves en the tradition already quoted as 
"persecution from Catholic rulers.' 1 

When, under the fostering care of Rome, the Jesuits 
arose as the society that would recover for the Church 
the ground which had been lost through the work of 
Martin Luther and his co-laborers, Europe came to pre- 
sent the spectacle of people attempting to promote religion 
by means of warfare. 

Fairness to the truth forbids that one should char- 
acterize the first Jesuits as always bad/ History, which 
credits Lutheranism with promoting much learning, has 
recorded that "among the European Jesuits were many 
fervent spirits actuated by the purest zeal ; many simple 
and poetical minds unstained by hypocrisy; many deeply 
learned men, sincere lovers of truth." 

Yet, for want of that experience of saving grace which- 
has become at once the characteristic of modern revivals 
of religion and the precious possession of the individual, 
justifying him in his professions, and encouraging and 
directing him in his search after Christian "perfection," 
zeal, poetry and learning became perverted to the base 
uses of duplicity and earthly ambition. The lust for 
power became predominant. The instrumentality which 
would bring about the possession of power was sought 
after and, when found, eagerly utilized. The prince and 
his politics became an arm of the Church. In the end 
"the ruling spirit and the political effect of the order were 

Even Lutheranism does not appear to have been free 


from the charge of political tendencies, any more than 
was Jesuitism on. the continent or the so-called Reforma- 
tion in England. The religious question became a poli- 
tical question. The headship of the Church had to do 
with the question of the headship o^f the nation, and the 
tendency to get back to the old Roman identification of 
the Emperor with the gods became apparent. In this 
movement the common people must be supposed to have 
been deeply interested and kept well instructed by their 
pastors, who were for them the depositories of knowledge. 
The historian records how that from the beginning of the 
Reformation the religious question affected politics in all 
principal countries of Europe. The controversial spirit 
luxuriated, and it was fanned by the zeal which claimed 
for itself the sanction of religion. And because of the 
brutalisms of the age the acrimonious controversies of pen 
and platform took on at length the bloodier proportions 
of the sword and the battle field. 

When the Thirty Years' War began in 1618 the Pro- 
testants of the Palatinate became directly involved, and 
were called upon to take up arms and suffer for their 
religious convictions. The Elector Palatine was Frederic, 
a leader among the Protestants of Germany and son-in- 
law of King James I. of England. The war, which was 
closed by the Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648, which 
during its progress involved in succession the States of 
Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden and France, and which was 
in the first two instances religious and in the last political, 
began in a contest for the throne of Bohemia. Ferdinand, 
appointed by the Emperor Matthias, was a bitter enemy 
of Protestantism and, by the people of Bohemia who were 
ardent lovers of John Hus and his doctrines, was regard- 
ed with alarm and dislike. In the person of Ferdinand, 
Jesuitism found a willing and crafty agent, and he rested 
not until he had repressed the Protestant services of the 
Bohemian towns. In revolt against this the Protestants 
of Bohemia took up arms and engaged in a war which 


spread far beyond their own national boundaries. Re- 
jecting Ferdinand, the people, with prayers and tears, 
elected Frederic of the Palatinate to be their king. Fer- 
dinand, succeeding Matthias as Emperor of Germany, and 
Frederic, chosen by the people of Bohemia, thus became 
principals in a religious war. Europe was already mar- 
shalled into great camps known as the Protestant Union 
and the Catholic League. 

To the honor of the Palatinate it thus appears that 
the people were completely identified with Protestantism, 
and in their earnest support of the cause of Frederic they 
had the warm co-operation of the Protestant princes ol 
Germany, of the Dutch Republic and of England. But 
in Bohemia the Elector suffered defeat and was forced 
to flee to Holland, twenty-seven of the leading Protestants 
were executed and thousands were driven into exile. Ihe 
powers of the League, like greedy vultures, swept down 
upon their defeated victims. Should it be thought in- 
credible that the recollection of the persecution which fol- 
lowed should pass down in tradition as "persecution from 
Catholic rulers ?" 

Of those days it has been written that the defence of 
Protestant principles so often suffered because of division 
and treachery which sprang up among the German princes 
themselves. And who shall say that Jesuitism had not a 
strong hand in the matter ? "Never has a great period 
produced baser characters : never has a sacred cause found 
more unworthy champions. The projects harbored by the 
Pope, the Emperor, by Spain and France for the complete 
suppression of the Reformation were well known, and 
could, alone be frustrated by a prompt and firm coalition 
on the part of the Protestant princes." "Heidleberg, 
Mannheim and the Frankenthal were defended by the 
troops of Frederic Henry of Orange, who was abandoned 
by the rest of the united princes." The Catholics were 
acting with increasing vigor. 

To the credit of the Jesuits there is laid a long list 



of heartrending- details of cruelty and intolerance. 
Leaders were betrayed and delivered to the headsman, 
who delighted his cruel lust bv cutting cff first a right 
hand and then the head of his victim. Beheading and 
hanging were favorite means of disposing of opponents. 
The dead were disinterred and burned. Property was 
confiscated. Nobles and citizens were driven to emigrate 
and live in exile. In Bohemia, heretical works, particularly 
these of the Hussites, were burned; and this was not 
a surprising feature of the crusade. So long- ago as 1579' 
thirty-nine years before the outbreak of the Thirty Years' 
War and thirty-three years after the death of Martin 
Luther, the Jesuits had caused 12,000 German Bibles and 
other Lutheran books to be burned at Graetz. It was but 
following out the old spirit therefore. In Bohemia the 
Hussite churches were re-consecrated for Jesuit services, 
And the Emperor declared himself bound in conscience to 
exterminate all heretics. In some instances the people set 
fire to their own homes and then fled into Germany. Such 
scenes were repeated in Germany. Heidleberg was storm- 
ed by savage soldiery, and the pecple were treated with 
cruelty. Valuable literary works were sent to Rome. 
Mannheim was burned to the ground. Strasburg escaped 
by reason of its fortifications, but the inhabitants of neigh- 
boring localities were forced to emigrate. And the 
Palatines of the Rhine were in the highway of war's de- 
structive fire. Why should not the peasants remember 
and tell to their children following the bitter story of 
those sad days, or in grateful love recite their remem- 
brance of the precious teaching of Holy Scripture? 

What a spectacle dees history thus afford ! Religion 
seeking its ends by means of the sword ! In that fell 
struggle Germany is estimated to have lost from one -half 
to two-thirds of her entire population. In Saxony 900,000 
men fell in two years. At the close of the war Augsburg, 
instead of eighty thousand, had eighteen thousand in- 
habitants. The country was impoverished. The working 


class had largely disappeared. Provinces once flourishing 
and populous were left waste and almost uninhabited, and 
were only by slow degrees repeopled. Political liberty 
almost vanished "The nobility were compelled by 
necessity to enter the service of the princes; the citizens 
were impoverished and powerless; the peasantry had been 
utterly demoralized by military rule and were reduced 

to servitude Germany had lost all save her hopes 

for the future." One may be excused for thinking that 
the writer of these words has given a slightly overdrawn 
and emotional picture of the prevailing conditions; never- 
theless, from all accounts it must be conceded that the 
conditions were deplorable. Defeat in the arena of war- 
fare did not, however, destroy the germs of sturdy Pro- 
testantism; and the banks of the Rhine and the hills of 
the Palatinate reverberated with the German hymn-sing- 
ing, the expressions of grateful hearts rich in the con- 
ciousness of possessing religious liberty. Thereafter, foi 
forty years, the Lutheran pastors went among their flocks 
establishing them in the faith; while by the glow of the 
winter firelight the fathers told to their children the recol- 
lections of religious persecution. 

Politics, identified with religion, and drawing the States 
of Europe into two hostile camps, gave suggestion as to 
the grouping of the forces for the War of the Spanish 
Succession which devastated Europe from 1702 to 1713. 
And whereas in the opening of the Thirty Years' War the 
leaders were Catholic Ferdinand of Bohemia and Pro- 
testant Frederic, Elector Palatine, the War of the Spanish 
Succession saw the two leaders in the persons of Catholic 
Louis XIV. of France and Protestant William III. of 
England. The death of William and the accession of 
Queen Anne found the allied Protestant forces under the 
command of the Duke of Marlborough, who prosecuted 
the war on the continent. Under these circumstances 
Louis, having become possessed of Strasburg, the key to 
Germany, and of the country on the west bank of the 


Rhine, conceived it to be essential for the success of his 
military operations that Germany should, if possible, be 
prevented from co-operating with the British forces and 
invading French territory. A barrier should be created 
on the east bank of the Rhine. Fire, pillage and murder 
should be allowed to \vork their fearful carnage. The 
Palatines should receive no quarter. Thus his soldiers 
were turned upon the innocent people. Thirty of their 
towns were destroyed. One hundred thousand of their in- 
habitants were rendered homeless. Then it was that many 
of them fled to the lines of Maryborough and to Holland 
for protection. Surely their trials were manifold. Un- 
doubtedly they wrought to produce the fine gold of a 
sturdy Protestant character. 

And in this last scene of his life Louis XIY. had but 
completed that exhibition of bigotry and heartlessness 
which on preceding occasions had characterized his reign. 
It was of a piece, for instance, with his action in the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, by which the 
Protestant Huguenots of France who had become the 
"marrow of the land" were deprived of the civil rights and 
protection which by the law of France had been guaranteed 
to them an act of his by which France lost eight hundred 
thousand people who emigrated to England, Holland, 
Brandenburg and Berlin. 

And to his record of heartlessness must be added his 
treatment of the Palatinate in 1688. He had espoused 
the cause of the Roman Catholic King James II. of Eng- 
land. He saw how the powers of Europe including Hol- 
land, Denmark, Sweden, Savoy, Spain and England were 
leagueing themselves, and- he prepared himself for war. 
Under his general, Louvois, the Palatinate was overrun 
by French soldiers, and "the fertile state was turned into 
a silent, black, blood-stained desert." One writer states 
that "four hundred villages were reduced to heaps of 
ruins." De Luxemburg "pillaged the country so sys- 
tematically that not a single head of cattle remained in 


the territory within his reach." The great Protestant 
Cathedral cf Strasburg was taken over by the Catholic 
Bishop who restricted the free exercise of religion. 
Lutheran officials were removed from the city; the clergy 
emigrated. The chief magistrate, Dcminicus Dietrich, fell 
a victim to private enmity. The Protestants emigrated in 
crowds. Rotcnburg made a gallant defence though sur- 
rounded by seventeen burning villages. Brigand bands 
displayed a list of twelve hundred villages that were 
d com eel to be burned. In Prague secret agents of France 
prompted the burning of four hundred houses. 

Thus by a variety of pretexts and on several occasions 
did Louis add to the miseries of the humble Germans who 
could net do ether than lore their Bibles and the traditions 
of their fathers, and who would not be other than Protes- 

Is it remarkable then that when driven to Marl- 
borough's lines these people carried with them a tradition 
that has lived until the present time, treasured alike in an 
Irish city home and in a distant Canadian farm house 
"Cur fathers were Palatines who suffered persecution from 
their Catholic rulers" ? 

The fields had. been reaped by cruel hands. The 
harvest was not yet to be gathered in. It was thoroughly 
threshed in the fields and the seed was scattered by the 
strong winds of persecution. It at once began to grow. 



''A transport glows in all he looks and speaks, 
And the first thankful tears bedew his cheeks," 

IT is scmewhat to the glory of England mat while her 
soldiers under Marlborough fought in defence of Pro- 
te=tant rights and the welfare of Europe, the statesmen 
at home considered the responsibility thus thrust upon 
them to humanely assist those Palatines who through 
war were rendered homeless. In 1709, while war was still 
raging, the ships of Queen Anne ("good Queen Anne" she 
was called) were sent to Rotterdam, and from thence they 
brought away a numerous company of people. 

There is a story that a party of Mohawk Indians 
being on a visit to England at the time, and hearing of 
the mi&fcrtunes of the refugees, offered a tract of land 
for their settlement in America. This land was on the 
Schoharie or Mohawk river, and being, by those who did 
not knew, deemed desirable for settlement, it was readily 

As showing the generosity of Indians this was good; 
and it would appear to the credit of England that her 
government was also touched with like feelings. A fleet 
of British ships was provisioned and sent to Holland 
where, at Rotterdam, many thousands of the refugee Pala- 
tines were received aboard, and were given free passage to 
America. One ship and her precious cargo , was lost by 
the way. Those were days before the advent of o-cean 
steamships, and all the disadvantages of ship's quarters, 
slow travel and rough seas had to be endured. So late 


as 1820 one descendant of the Palatines who had decided 
to leave Europe for America tells us in a letter still extant, 
how the voyage occupied three months. In these days of 
rapid trans-Atlantic passage it is hard to conceive of a 
voyage so drawn out as to cover twelve Sundays. And 
there were in those times no lengthy promenade decks ! 
What did they do with themselves? We are fortunately 
in possession of more than one description, which goes to 
show that travellers at such times were not averse to 
living for personal improvement, and that hymn singing 
and gospel preaching were very far from being unpopular. 

Some fifteen thousand of the refugees are reported 
to have been brought to America at that time. Among 
them were such names as Frantz Lucas, Dietrich Klein, 
Conrad, Friedrich, Ludwig, Henrich Newkirk, Reiser, John 
Martin, Casper Hartwig, Christopher Warner, Hermannus 
Hoffman, Rudolph, Neff, Schmidt, Schumacher, Lenhard, 
John Peterzenger, Philip Muller, Schaffer, Peter Wagner, 
Straub, Henrich Man, Eberhard, Kremer, Franke, Ross, 
Peter Becker, Christian Mayer, Godfrey Fidler, Weller, 
George Mathias, Christo Hagedorn, Finck, John William 
Dill, Bernhardt, Conradt, Bellinger. It may not be diffi- 
cult in these more modern times to trace many of those 
names through their American-Anglicized forms. 

The destination of these German emigrants wa^ the 
country of the Schoharie. A tract of land was obtained 
on the east side of the Hudson river in what is now 
Duchess County. Governor Robert Hunter, of New York, 
was active in promoting the emigration to that particular 
locality. It was thought that the country abounded in 
pine, and that a people familiar with the Black Forest of 
Germany would do well in extracting pine pitch, at that 
time so greatly in demand for the use of the British fleet 
then in New York harbor. When, however, the new 
colonizers arrived at their destination, the discovery was 
made that the pine tree was conspicuous by its absence, 
in consequence of which the people became dissatisfied 


The contracts under winch they were bound seemed framed 
altogether in the interest of the wealthier party. Ulti- 
mately it was decided to secure a better location in the 
State of Pennsylvania and better terms were granted. 
Thither by the aid of the local government the settlers 
were removed, and from thence their vigorous and thrifty 
living, coupled with sturdy, moral character, has flowed 
out as a healthful stream to bless a nation and a continent. 

While matters were thus going for some, there were 
others of the Palatines who were cared for by British ships, 
but who did not at that time brave the dangers of the 
Atlantic. They chose to become British subjects in Europe, 
and, like the Huguenot families of France who in 15/2 
escaped the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day and fled to 
England thereby greatly enriching its commerce by their 
skill, they too gre'atly added to the thrift and prosperity of 
England. England received them hospitably. Public 
measures, which, owing to the large number of new comers, 
proved inadequate, were taken to afford them relief. 
Naturalization laws made it possible for them to become 
British subjects off-hand. They were distributed on Black- 
well Common and other parts of England to the number 
of fifteen thousand and more, seven thousand of whom 
arrived at London in the spring of 1709. 

All of this looks as if the soul of England had been 
overflowing with generousness. And undoubtedly there 
was the touch of pity, the presence of the spirit of real 
kindness, and at the same time the recognition of the bond 
of the Protestant faith. It was within a generation of 
the time of Wesley, and Wesley with his Christian heart 
and "consecrated pcetic gifts, still caught the sound of 
that general sympathy which pervaded the common heart 
of England, when he wrote: 

''Help us to help each other. Lord, 

Each other's cross to bear-, 
Let each his friendly aid afford. 
And feel his brother's care." 


Not the scorching sun of prosperity, but the storm- 
days that bring tears to the eye and draw blood to the 
heart these are the times that draw out the best that is 
in human nature and afford the strong an opportunity to 
show their effective sympathy with the weak ones. 

But was it only sympathy that prompted Queen Anne 
and her government to act so benevolently ? Might there 
not be a business side to the issue ? Compared with the 
forty or a hundred-fold that may be reaped, the death 
of one seed is a small matter and its seeming self-abnega- 
tion is crowned with the glory of enlarged prosperity. 
After all do we not most help ourselves by helping others ? 
And in 1709 England was just in a position to appropriate 
new industrial life, true, for the good of that life, but to 
her own advantage also. She had lands in abundance at 
home and abroad, and she needed population to turn her 
resources into commercial prosperity, and thereby give to 
her commercial ascendancy. The large sums of money 
voted by Parliament for transportation and colonization 
purposes would return in increased national power and 
development. So it has been. To a large extent the 
foundations of Canada's present greatness are the result 
cf that wise national policy quickly formulated in Lon- 
don in 1709, and so generously and ably executed. 

Ireland, as well as England, received a portion of 
that thrifty and long-tried German population. There 
were estates in Ireland, largely unoccupied. There were 
land owners who were only too glad to find the product- 
ivity cf their property increased. 

In that section of Ireland, Limerick on the banks of 
the Shannon, the stronghold of James II., and where he 
made his last stand against William of Orange, the Par- 
liament of Queen Anne decided to try the experiment of 
planting a colony of these unyielding German Protestants, 
toughened by persecution and tenacious of their convic- 
tions. In a sense it must have been with malice afore- 
thought that this plan was formed! A regiment of Ger- 


man soldiers was quartered there, and each German settler 
was allowed a gun; and between guns and Protestant 
Bibles, no doubt that parliament hoped to correct the 
Catholicism which had so ardently espoused the cause of 
ex-King James. It was one way of accomplishing con- 

Lord Southwell's estate was available. To him the 
British government paid the rent for twenty years for such 
of these German people as accepted the opportunity oi 
location there. Of the exact number of those who were 
thus settled it is difficult to write accurately, as the 
accounts vary considerably, that is from a few hundreds 
to several thousands. It docs appear that the colonization 
scheme was not confined to one estate, nor even one county. 

Out of the parliamentary vote a grant of eight acres 
of ground was made to each man, woman and child. The 
reader who is accustomed to Canadian free grants of one 
hundred and sixty acres and to farming operations on 
much larger proportions will smile at the idea of a family 
maintaining itself on such a small basis. Yet this arrange- 
ment evidently had an advantageous effect as the gen- 
ealogy of large families so suggestively shows. 

Of those who were thus placed in Limerick a list has 
been preserved which must be of interest to an increasing 
number of Canadians. This list, sometimes represeating 
more than one family of the same name, includes the fol- 
lowing : Baker, Bowman, Bovinizer, Brethower, Barhman, 
Barrabier, Benner, Bethel, Bowen, Cole, Coach, Cornell, 
Cronsberry, Dobe, Dulmage, Embury, Fizzle, Grunse, 
Guier, Heck, Hoffman, Hifle, Lleavener, Glozier, Lawrence, 
Lowes, Ledwich, Long, Miller, Mich, Modlen Neizer 
Piper, Rhineheart, Rose, Rodenbucher, Ruckle, Switzer, 
Sparling, Stack, St. John, St. Ledger, Strangle, Sleeper, 
Shoemaker, Shier, Smeltzer, Shoultice, Shanewise, Tesley, 
Tettler, Urshelbaugh, Williams and Young. 

From Nova Scotia to Ontario, if not even farther west, 
Canadians will find little difficulty in recognizing many 


of these names as now belonging to the citizenship of the 
country. It may be necessary at times to discriminate as 
between those that were imported into Canada from Ire- 
land and the similar names which have travelled north- 
ward from Pennsylvania and New York without having 
ever been in Ireland ; for there is in Canadian history a 
special significance attached to those German-Irish char- 

On the estate of Lord Southwell there arose villages 
of a distinctive order. Ballygarene, Killiheen, Rathkeale, 
Court-Mattrass, and Pallas became notable for their Pala- 
tine character. Some cf the Germans were also located 
in Killnnnen and Limerick town. The industry, thrift and 
general cleanliness of these people scon attracted the 
attention of observers, and brought to them the usual 
accompaniment of prosperity. In twenty years they had 
improved their conditions to a remarkable degree and were 
gratefully enjoying prosperity. Seeing this the land- 
owners, imitating the ancient Egyptians, increased the 
burdens. Rents as high as three guineas per acre were 
exacted ; the result was the impoverishment of the people. 
Thus it was that at the end of thirty years of rent rule 
their attention was drawn to the advantages of life in the 
western hemisphere. 

Regarding their mode cf life and general character 
a traveller of 17/9, writing regarding those who still 
remained in Ireland, says that at that time they had several 
villages in the county and had intermarried with the 
natives. This was written twenty years after the general 
exodus had begun, of which we shall have occasion to 
write later on. "They are not cottiers," he writes, "to any 
farmer. The labor of the natives is commonly balanced 
with rent the Palatines are paid for their work in money. 
Their customs differ from the Irish ; they sometimes have 
their feeding land in common ; they sow their potatoes with 
a plough in drills and plough them out. They plough 
without a driver: a boy has been known to drive four 


horses ; and some ploughs have a hopper which sows the 
land. Their course of crops is I, potatoes; 2, wheat; 3, 
wheat; 4, oats; I, potatoes; 2, barley; 3, wheat; 4, oats." 
All of which makes ?t appear that they were intelligent and 
successful farmers. 

The above extract from "Young's Travels' affords 
such a glimpse of agricultural life .as one might expect 
from a people whose ancestors had for generations been 
the peasant folk of the German hills. There are, how- 
ever, sidelights showing that there were aptitudes tor 
mechanical pursuits. Some also were enrolled in the 
militia and were known as the "German Fusiliers" or "True 

In the village organization they appear to have had 
their o-wn municipal arrangements, of which the head was 
a burgomaster, as also their own school and church life. 
Philip Guier appears to have been both schoolmaster and 

Writing in 1786 Ferrar describes the situation as fol- 
lows : "The Palatines preserve their language, but it is 
declining; they sleep between two beds; they appoint a 

burgomaster, to whom they appeal in all disputes 

They are better fed and clothed than the generality of 
the Irish peasants. Besides, their mode of husbandry 
and crops are better than these of their neighbors. They 
keep their cows housed in winter and feed them with hay 
and oaten straw; their houses are remarkably clean, to 
which they have stable, cowhcuse and lodge for their 
plough, and neat kitchen gardens. The women are very 
industrious and perform many things which the Irish 
women could never be pervailed on to do. Besides their 
domestic employments and the care of their children they 
reap the corn, plough the ground,, and assist the men in 
everything. In short, the Palatines have benefitted the 
country by increasing tillage, and are a laborious, in- 
dependent people who are mostly employed en their :wn 
small farms." 

3 2 


Other contemporary writers are Mr. and Mrs. Hall, 
who say of the Palatines : "Even now they are very 
different in character and distinct in habits from the people 

of the country Huge flitches of bacon hung 

from the rafters; the chairs were in several instances com- 
posed of walnut-tree and oak; massive and heavy, 
although rudely carved chests, contained as we were told, 
the house linen and woollen, and the wardrobes of the in- 
habitants. The elders of the family preserve, in a great 
degree, the language, customs and religion of their old 
country, but the younger mingle and marry with their 

"The men are tall, fine stout fellows; but there is a 
calm and stern severity and reserve in their aspect that is 

anything but cheering to a traveller to meet 

In their dealings they are considered upright and honorable 

Their superstitions savour strongly of the 

Rhine; but they are careful in communicating them, which 
may proceed from their natural reserve." 

Such are the indications afforded, which go to show 
that when, in 1709, England attempted to bear the burden 
of the Palatines, she did not misjudge their capability to 
help themselves if given a little encouragement, and pre- 
sently we shall try to show that England did not mis- 
judge her opportunity to help herself. Appreciation and 
self-sacrifice in their behalf will furnish evidence that Eng- 
land saw in these people human nature of the very best 
build. These Teutons of Germany, dwelling for a season 
on the banks of the Shannon, were in after days among 
England'? most loyal children of the west. 


"Contemporaries all surpassed, see one; 
Short his career indeed but ably run." 

IT has been stated by a certain writer that 'as the Pala- 
tines had brought no German minister with them, and 
for many years after their settlement in Ireland under- 
stood little or no English, they lost the habit of attending 
on public worship." This statement was published one 
hundred and fifty-seven years after the advent of the 
Palatines in Ireland. It has been widely circulated and 
perhaps believed. We think there is at least presumptive 
evidence to the contrary. 

To the above statement we may add that of another 
writer, published in 1864, and which is as follows: "For 
full forty years those Protestant families remained 
destitute of religious ordinances and Christian pastors; 
protesting loudly against the dogmas of Rome, and yet 
removed far away from the true life and power of god- 
liness, destitute of means and privileges, it is not to be 
wondered at if the second generation indulged m in- 
difference or a contempt for all religion." The writer 
evidently forgot that Wesley was born before the advent 
of these people in Ireland, and that with godly Lutheran 
parentage at one end of their life and Wesley and his 
workers touching their settlements within forty years of 
arrival in the country it was scarcely possible for those 
of the second generation to travel long in the wrong way. 
Moreover, it seems inconceivable that in a land which was 
Christian, in name at least, these people should have been 
left for forty years without a minister. We shall present- 



ly show that they did have a Lutheran minister a vital 
factor in our story. Like those Palatines who, coming to 
America, maintained their Lutheran form of worship, so 
did those of Limerick. 

It is quite within probability that both of the writers 
already quoted drew their inspiration from the following 
observation found in Mr. Wesley's Journal under date of 
June i/th, 1/58: "Having no minister, they were become 
eminent for drunkenness, cursing, swearing, and an utter 
neglect of religion." A hard picture surely ! How could 
Mr. Wesley write these words in view of two previous 
entries in his journal? On Wednesday, April 2Oth, 1/48, 
he wrote, "I spent an agreeable hour with Mr. Miller, the 
Lutheran Minister. Frcm him I learned that the earnest 
religion which I found in many parts of Germany is but 
of late date, having taken its rise from one man, August 
Herman Franke ! So can God, if it pleaseth Him, enable 
one man to revive His work throughout a whole nation." 
That was ten years before he wrote that dreadfully con- 
demnatory passage ! That is when the people had been 
less than forty years in the land. Moreover, Mr. Miller 
was a man with whom Mr. Wesley could spend a pleasant 
hour ; a man who was at home in the subject of spiritual 
revivals in Germany and interested in the work of August 
Herman Franke; a man who was spiritually minded, 
evidently regarded by Wesley as a safe and competent 
pastor for the German villages. And it is significant that 
Mr. Wesley wrote of the "Lutheran Minister' as the only 
one, and one that would be well known. 

Again on July iSth, 1749, he wrote : "Mr. Miller, the 
Lutheran Minister, informed me that in a collection of 
tracts, published at Ending, Count Z's (ZinzendorfV; 
brethren had printed several passages of my journal and 
whatever else they could glean up, which tended to pre- 
judice the Lutherans against the Methodists." From these 
words it would appear that Mr. Miller was even largely 
in sympathy with Wesley in his work. L T nder these cir- 


cumstances it is only reasonable to suppose that Mr. Miller 
would labor faithfully for his flock, and would not be an 
idle shepherd. It remains to give to Mr. Wesley's words 
the most generous possible interpretation, and believe that 
he allowed himself to be unduly impressed by those self- 
depreciatcry expressions which usually characterize deeply 
religious and grateful souls. 

In support of the position we have taken there are 
seme corroborative testimonies. From the Rev. George 
Miller, Methodist minister in Xova Scotia and Xew Bruns- 
wick, 1817-1869, himself bom in Ireland in 1788 of Pala- 
tine descent, there is given us this testimony: "They 
came to the country possessed of some of the best theolo- 
gical works written by their reformed divines. Often 
have I heard an aged grandfather read, in the spirit of 
ardent devotion, some of those books. To the juvenile 
hearer, it appeared, he felt what he read, though not under- 
stood by the child as the reading was in German. They 
also seemed divested of the perplexities of thought 
occasioned by the theological controversies which prevailed 
among Calvinists, Anabaptists, Socinians, and others in 
the country. Aware of the unprovoked sufferings of the 
past, in the theatre of Papal tyranny, violence and blood- 
shed, they ever seemed fixed in their views respecting Pro- 
testantism and Popery as unalterably antagonistic." 

Surely a much brighter picture than that presented 
by the words we have been considering ! If perchance 
there were those among the younger men who showed a 
disposition to sin fulness, there were at least also present 
in the communities those who pondered great religious 

And the notable personage of Philip Guier is not to 
be overlooked surely. He was another honorable excep- 
tion to the supposed degeneracy, and a man of strong 
character and wide influence. Guier was burgomaster of 
Ballygarene and schoolmaster. As the first Methodist 
class leader among the Palatines he is of special interest 


to the student of Methodist history. Among the Metho- 
dists of Limerick he enjoyed an honorable reputation and 
exercised a large influence. Such a character is not the 
product of a day. 

Indeed, many names that have become famous in the 
history of American and Canadian Methodism are afford- 
ing lasting evidence that when Methodism came to the 
Palatines it found good material to work upon. 

Mr. Wesley's references to his work among the Pala- 
tines are both interesting and instructive as affording some 
inside views concerning their life and conditions. 

Robert Swindells was the first Methodist preacher to 
hold service in the locality of the Palatines. This service 
was held in Limerick on St. Patrick's Day, 1749. 

Wesley himself entered the county in 1750. Under 
date of June 4th, he writes : "I rode to Newmarket, a vil- 
lage near the Shannon, eight miles, as they call it, from 
Limerick. I found the spirit of the people while I was 
preaching, but much more in examining the society." 
Writing under date of 1760 he says that "Newmarket was 
another German settlement.' The year 1750 seems to 
mark the time when the labors of Mr. Miller as the Luth- 
eran Minister ended and Mr. Wesley's properly began 
among this interesting people. And the transition appears 
to have been accomplished without any of those con- 
troversial bitternesses so often attending proselytism. It 
would appear on the surface as though Mr. Miller must 
have been in sympathy with Mr. Wesley's entrance among 
the Germans; indeed it looks as though he encouraged it 
and even prepared the way. Certainly the minister and 
the evangelist were on intimate terms, and when Wesley 
came to the people he found no opposition to overcome. 
If we ask, where did Wesley preach when he came to these 
villages, there are two answers ready. Garrett Miller, to 
whom we shall more particularly refer later, used to 
delight in telling of Mr. Wesley's frequent visits to his 
father's neighborhood and home. He often heard Mr. 


Wesley preach. William Miller, an aged citizen of Cork, 
Ireland, still living at the time of writing, says, "Mr. 
Wesley used to preach in my grandfather's home." It 
was on one of those occasions that the house was particu- 
larly crowded, and the little son Adam found a place 
for himself under the table. The text for the evening was 
"Adam where art thou?" Promptly the boy answered 
"Here I am, under the table!" As the said Adam long 
ago played his part in Canadian life, and this story is 
one of our most recent importations from Ireland, one 
that has survived the departure of Adam which took place 
eighty-seven years ago, we may well believe it to be 
founded on fact. And thus there springs into view a 
picture of close intimacy, friendly hospitality, and en- 
couraging co-operation between Mr. Wesley and the 
Millers. In the remembrance already quoted of the Rev. 
George Miller regarding the aged grandfather who de- 
votionally read the old German theological works, we 
think we get the last glimpse of Mr. Miller, the Lutheran 
Minister the man who cared faithfully for his German 
flock, and was unselfish enough to encourage Mr. Wesley's 
work among the younger people who were learning Eng- 
lish and were capable of understanding him. We wish to 
embalm the memory of this righteous German. 

From the various entries in Wesley's Journal from 
1750 to 1784 many particulars are to be gathered concern- 
ing the Palatines. He found them settled at Court- 
Mattrass, Killiheen, Ballygarene, Pallas, Limerick and 
Newmarket. Each family had a few acres of ground on 
which they built as many little houses (that is as many 
houses as families). The number of families was decreas- 
ing by removals, but the size of the household was increas- 
ing. Court-Mattrass was built in the form of a square 
in the centre of which was erected a place for public wor- 
ship. Though its proportions were large Wesley found 
it would not hold half of the congregation which had 
gathered to hear him, and he promptly adjourned the 


service to the open air. That was in 1758. The effect of 
the gospel was shown in greatly improved living. "An 
oath was rarely heard among them, nor a drunkard seen 
in their streets." Such towns with an utter absence of 
swearing, cursing, Sabbath breaking, drunkenness and the 
ale-house, he says, were scarcely to be found in all Eng- 
land and Ireland. In appearance he describes them as 
having "quite a different look from the natives of the 
country, as well as a different temper. They are a serious 
thinking people. And their diligence turns all their land 
into a garden. In Ballygarene, "a town of Palatines who 
came over in Queen Anne's time," they retained "much of 
the temper and manners of their own country, having no 
resemblance of those among whom they live." "The whole 
town came together in the evening and praised God for 
the consolation. Many of those who are not outwardly 
joined with us walk in the light of Gods countenance; 
yea, and have divided themselves into classes, in imitation 
of our brethren, with whom they live in perfect harmony." 
'In examining the society I was obliged to pause several 
times. The words of the plain, honest people came with 
so much weight as frequently to stop me for a while and 
raise a general cry among the hearers." 

In 1778 he wrote, "I preached once more to the loving, 
earnest, simple-hearted people of Newmarket. Two 
months ago (March), good Philip Guier fell asleep, one 
of the Palatines that came over and settled in Ireland 
between sixty and seventy years ago. He was a father 
both to this and the other German societies, loving and 
cherishing them as his own children." 

There came a day when Wesley's hopes for the con- 
version of Ireland through the agency of the Methodist 
Palatines appeared to be doomed to disappointment. The 
exactions of the landlords and the attractions of the west 
were decreasing the population and unsettling the Metho- 
dist societies. "The poor settlers," writes Wesley, "with 
all their diligence and frugality could not procure even 


the coarsest food to eat and the meanest raiment to put 
on." "I stand amazed," he cries. "Have landlords no 
common sense that they will suffer such tenants as these 
to be starved away from them?" In 1789 he wrote: 
"About eleven (Wednesday) I preached at Pallas, about 
twelve miles from Limerick. All the remains of the Pala- 
tine families came hither from Ballygarene, Court-Mat- 
trass and Rathkeale; in all which places an uncommon 
flame has lately broken out, such as was never seen before. 
Many in every place have been deeply convinced, many con- 
verted to God and some perfected in love." 

This was Wesley's last entry concerning these people. 

We are disposed to think that if hitherto biographers 
have failed to detect the glory of that mo<dest character, 
"Mr. Miller, the Lutheran Minister," that none the less 
he must be enrolled among the great and faithful ones of 
heaven as one whose influence came as a strong river to 
carry with its course all the streams and traffic of life that 
came in its way. How easily might he have given to 
Methodist work among these people a different character ! 
That he did not, but enabled it to achieve the best possible 
results, with such a beneficent consequence to America, as 
we shall presently notice, forms a standing exhortation to 
all of his descendants to continue to place their influence 
on the side of the greatest possible good. 



"But, if authority grow wanton, woe 
To him that treads upon his fret-born toe; 
One step beyond the boundary of the laws 
Fires him at once in Freedom's glorious cause." 

IT cannot be truly said that the Palatines of Ireland ever 
sought notoriety; yet the history of the United States and 
of Canada could not be faithfully written without giving 
a place of prominence to this clement in the formation of 
the nation's religious and political life. 

The movements of emigration from the banks of the 
Shannon to America were strong and general in the yea s 
1760 and 1765. Individual families preceded and fol- 
lowed those dates. In going to the Western Continent the 
Irish Palatines knew tihat affinities of language and 
national origin awaited them. On arriving at their 
destination they naturally sought out localities that might 
be easily accessible and were already associated with the 
German character. In this way groups or colonies were 
formed which have had some significance in the develop- 
ment of the country. 

Among these who left Ireland at the times mentioned 
were Philip Embury and his wife, Mary Switzer, Paul and 
Barbara Heck, John Lawrence, the Ruckles, Dulmages 
and Detlors, anrl about the same time Peter Switzer. In 
1760 N. Switzer was in America and able to sell to a 
William Knox, secretary of New York province and 
planter of Georgia, 250 acres and M. Miller was able to 
sell to the same 50 acres. Our information, nowever, con- 
cerning this Switzer and Miller is very meagre, and those 


of the same names and with whom we shall have more to 
do arrived in the west from about 1765 and onwards. 

The Methodist work in Ireland had affected these 
people most significantly. Philip Embury had been con- 
verted in 1752 according to one authority under the 
preaching of Wesley in Limerick in the month of August, 
but according to another, and probably more accurate 
writer, under the preaching of Swindells at Ballygarene 
on Christmas Day. It is said that he was a timid man, 
yet he manifested much force of character and became very 
influential among his neighbors and relatives. After his 
arrival in America and while living on the farm, one of a 
group forming a German colony in New York province, he 
was chosen by his neighbors to fill the office of burgomaster. 
Teutonic nature with the added traditions of national 
tribulations and impoverishment, together with the gift of 
the Holy Spirit in a Christian experience, formed for them 
the strongest of social bonds. 

In Ireland the gifts of Embury were soon recognized. 
By trade a carpenter, he supported himself by his calling, 
by such produce as he gathered from a small farm. It is 
said that the first Methodist church built at Court- 
Mattrass was largely the product of his exertions, and that 
probably the principal part of the wood-work was wrought 
by his hands. In New York, in 1/66, he accomplished a 
similar work in the building of the first Methodist church 
in America, of which it is said it exhibited the unarchitec- 
tural device of bemgr adorned with a chimney in order that 
it might satisfy the requirements of law and not be classi- 
fied as a church. 

Shortly after conversion he had been appointed first 
a class leader and then a local preacher. And although 
of a reticent disposition he narrowly escaped becoming a 
confirmed itinerant, for at the conference in Limerick in 
1758 one of the two names recommended for the itinerancy 
was that of Philip Embury, and the British conference in 
August of the same year confirmed the recommendation 


and placed his name in a list of ten. However, lie was 
put on the list of reserve instead of being appointed to a 
circuit, and before he could be again called out Cupid had 
claimed him. In November, 1758, he married Mary 
Switzcr. Thereafter he resolved to seek usefulness as a 
local preacher, and in that capacity he had come to 

The name of Embury will ever be held in honored 
connection with the foundation of American Methodism. 
Commencing the work by holding a service in his own 
house in 1765, at the request of Barbara Heck, he there- 
after superintended the construction of the church on 
John Street, New York, of which he acted as pastor until 
he was relieved by the arrival, in 1769, of the preacners 
Boarclman and Pilmour, whom Wesley had sent to 

Thereafter Philip Embury retired from the city to 
Charlotte County, New York State, to the locality known 
as Camden District. There was an extensive tract of land 
known as the "Wilson Patent," and consisting of some 
thousands of acres, which were being leased in parcels of 
one hundred or more acres as tenant farms. Many similar 
farms were also to be found in the province and were 
largely occupied either by Germans direct from Germany 
or their descendants. Here it was' that Embury took up 
farming and formed a Methodist Society. Of those in 
the district there are given such names as Valentine Detlor 
who reached America in 1756 and now had a lease of 312 
acres, John Embury who had 125 acres, Edward Carscallen 
with 350 acres, John Dulmage with 200 acres, Paul Heck 
with 250 acres, Peter Switzer with 200 acreis; John Law- 
rence whose first holding is not seated but who later 
occupied Philip Embury's farm. Lawrence arrived in 
1770. In 1770 Peter Miller was added to the community 
with 100 acres in Camden and 210 acres in Albany County; 
and soon after 1772 came Garrett Miller who instead of 
leasing purchased 188 acres. In the community was the 

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Rev. Abraham Bininger, a Moravian minister. The 
Methodist Society, however, flourished, and from this 
locality the good seed was ultimately carried into Canada. 

Philip Embury died in 1/73. Of his five children 
only two grew up ; these were Samuel and Catherine. 
Samuel became the first Canadian Methodist class leader 
in the old province of Canada, having taken charge of 
the class which was formed at Augusta, Out., about 17/8- 
1785. Catherine married Duncan Fisher, of Montreal, 
who came to America in 1775. She became the ancestor 
of a large and influential Canadian connect ?ion, one of 
her great grandchildren being the Hon. Sydney Fisher, 
of Knowlton, Cue., who for many years has ably filled 
the position of Minister of Agriculture an trie Dominion 
Government, and has, been closely identified with the cause 
of temperance. Another of her descendants is John 
Torrance, Esq., of Montreal, who for very many years has 
been prominently identified with Montreal Methodism and 
an ardent supporter of St. James' Methodist Church. 

Philip Embury's widow, Mary Swlitzer, married John 
Lawrence in 1775. Their descendants have also been pro- 
minently identified with Canadian Methodism. 

Other persons, whose names afterwards figured among 
useful and honorable Canadian citizens and who lived in 
the neighborhood O'f Embury, were John German, Charles 
Bush, Levi Warner, Barnabas I lough, Robert Perry and 
Philip Roblm. 

Such were some of the faiithful company who brought 
the seed of life into the common places of a continent ! 
Honorable people, of fixed and upright purposes, as their 
careers show, and who bequeathed to their descendants 
an inheritance of straightforward, conscientious and self- 
reliant character. 

By the unfortunate and revolutionary events of 1776- 
1783 these people were disturbed in their homes, reduced 
once more to poverty and driven out to be wanderers. 
Suffering and warfare seemed to be for them at least a 


Of those days many conflicting opinions have been 
placed on record. Regarding the causes of the war it has 
been said by Sabme in his "American Loyalists," published 
in 1847, that while England angered and oppressed the 
Colo-nies by inter feneince with the trade in the West Indies, 
perhaps also excited some jealousy by creating a Can- 
adian province, and assailed local rights by placing upon 
the people taxes in the expenditure of \\thich they had no 
voice, nevertheless, the real source of estrangement was 
interference with labor. "There were no less than twenty- 
nine laws which restricted and bound down colonial 

industry They forbad the use of waterfalls, 

the erection of machinery, of looms and spindles, the 
working of wood and iron; set the King's arrow upon trees 
that rotted in the forest ; shut out markets for boards and 
fish, and seized sugar and molasses, and the vessels m 
which these articles were carried." Certainly the causes 
of the revolutionary war have been fruitful subjects for 
discussion by historians. 

Speaking of the attitude of the colonials it has been 
said that at the outbreak of the war the majority of the 
people were loyalists, but were without duly qualified 
leaders. The "Declaration of Independence was the act 
of a Congress without legal authority.'' 

Where did the Palatines stand ? The names which 
we have already recorded in connection with Lord South- 
well's estate eire so familiar in, the local history of central 
Ontario that the conclusions is easily arrived at regarding 
the origin of such Ontario families. And as we have 
already seen those years preceding the revolution from 
1756 onward were marked by what Mr. Wesley regarded 
as the almost universal emigration of the Palatine families. 
Tliey were in America at the time of the outbreak of war, 
and by 1790 their presence in Canada is quite demon- 
strable. The question remains, Were they United Empire 
Loyalists in the highest sense? 

Like many other important issues in history of which 


the first actors were unconscious of their importance, so 
these were passed by a people who failed to mark many 
events, the waymarks of which we may now well wish 
had been left for our instruction. Had the pioneers of 
our country anticipated the questions of modern historians 
undoubtedly they would have placed their movements on 
record in a way to avoid all uncertainty. In the confusion 
ot the times some have succeeded to the title of United 
Empire Loyalists who but very partially, or not at all, were 
entitled to it. 

Lorenzo Sabine says : "Men, who like the loyalists, 
separate themselves from their fnends and kindred, who 
are driven from their homes, who surrender the hopes and 
expectations of life, who become outlaws, wanderers and 
exiles, such men leave few behind them. Th>e n '.r papers are 
scattered and lost, and their very names pass from human 
recollections." This American! writer has thus candidly 
furnished the reason which the most sympathetic Canadian 
descendant of a loyalist has to present. The loyalist had 
no papers with which to prove anything, because those 
who called him "Tory" and "Traitor," scattered them. 

Loyalists have been grouped in six classes: (i) 
Those who rendered service to Great Britain; (2) Those 
who bore arms for Great Britain; (3) Those who were 
uniform loyalists; (4) Loyal British subjects resident in 
Great Britain; (5) Loyalists who had taken oaths of alle- 
giance to the American State and afterwards joined the 
British ; (6) Loyalists who had borne arms for the Ameri- 
can State and aftewards joined the British forces. 

It is readily conceivable that with such a classification 
there might be constructed an extensive list of loyalists. 

From the thirteen colonies, that is from Virginia, New 
York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Dela- 
ware, Connecticut, Maryland, Rhode Island, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Georgia, 
there were enrolled, according to estimate, 25,000 of loyal- 
ist troops; and of these together with their families, it 


has been said that the emigration into Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and the Canadas, amounted to near 50,000 per- 

It was in 1783, when the British parliament met, that 
in the speech from the throne, the King said, "That a due 
and generous attention ought to be shown to those who 
have relinquished their properties or possessions from 
motives of loyalty to me or attachment to the mother 

J. P. Noyes, a discriminating writer of attractive 
ability and well advanced in his professional duties as 
a prothonotary, insists that there were three classes of 
individuals claiming attention for themselves as loyalists. 
First there were those who, being English officials or non- 
combatants, left the rebelling colonies at the beginning of 
the war. The second class consisted of loyalist soldiers 
who with their families came to Canada at the close ot the 
war. These were enrolled in the army prior to the Treaty 
of Peace in 1783. The third class left after the Treaty 
of Peace had been signed, being driven out by persecution. 

That is there were loyalists, supposedly, of the official 
sort, who were tempted to make gain of their opportunities; 
of the ruilitary class and of the refugee class. To the 
military class the title most properly belongs. 

"To distinguish them from the Refugee Loyalists, 
for all time to come, the government on the gth of Nov- 
ember, 1789, by a minute of council ordered, that: 'All 
Loyalists who joined the standard before the Treaty of 
Peace in 1783, and all children and descendants of either 
sex, are to be distinguished by the letters U. E. affixed 
to their names, alluding to the great principle of the un'ity 
of Empire.' It was further ordered, at the same time, 
that a register should be kept so that their posterity might 
be distinguished from future settlers.'' 

In this roll, so honorable and important, are to be 
found very many of the Palatine names. Attention h?s 
been drawn to the fact that the Dutch settlers and their 


children in the colonies were generally moved by opinions 
of independence, their political training in the home land 
no doubt leading that way; while the Palatines, remem- 
bering gratefully what England had done for their 
ancestors in the days of extreme need were ranged on the 
side of loyalty, so much so that it has been said, "the atti- 
tude of the people towards England often determined 
whether they were Dutch or German." 

A U. E. loyalist is one who was enrolled as a 
Colonial soldier in the army during the war, or he was a 
descendant of such soldier. The Palatines meet this test 
well. There were U. E. loyalists who were not Palatines, 
but there were few, if any, Palatines who were not U. E. 
loyalists. And among them were the seed of that good 
man who bequeathed more than ordinary gifts to his 
posterity "Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister." Heredity, 
religion and nationality united in them .as a company 
strong in service for the purpose of earnestly planting the 
seed of godliness in the social life O'f America. Strong 
in their attachment to that Methodist form of religion 
which brought to them consolation m the hour of need, 
they were equally strong even to the point of being martyrs 
in their political attachments and convictions. The seed 
was planted on American soil. In the midst of war and 
extreme hardship it found a rooting place for itself. Could 
it ;gro\v ? 

Let us remind ourselves, again that in 1709 England 
served herself by helping the Palatines. What she did 
for them then came back to her with good interest in 17/6 
and her beneficiaries became to the extent of their powers 
her benefactors. And Methodism, the work of God, fos- 
tered loyalty to the earthly prince as well as to God it be- 
came the right hand upholder of British institutions. 

The highways into Canada in those days were mainly 
by water. The Richelieu River and Onondago Lake and 
the Oswegotchie invited the refugees to the use of their 
rudely constructed boats. By these routes they passed 


from the forests of New York and reached the St. Law- 
rence, where for some time they were cared for in the 
neighborhood of Quebec, Sorel and Montreal. In 1783 
the country for one hundred .and fifty miles west of Mont- 
real was practically unoccupied except by Indians. A few 
huts were then to be found at the present site of Kingston. 
Beyond that locality again stretched the wilderness until 
the Niagara frontier was reached. In 1784 surveys were 
made and lands allotted. The country west of Montreal 
was divided 'into districts and named Lunenburg, Meck- 
lenburg, Nassau and Hesse. Lunenburg included the 
country from Lancaster to the Gananoque River; Mecklen- 
burg from Gananoque River to the river Trent ; Nassau 
from the Trent to Long Point on Lake Erie, and Hesse 
the remainder of the west. In what is now Quebec pro- 
vince the divisions included the districts of Montreal, 
Quebec and Gaspe Gaspe embracing all south of the St. 
Lawrence. In Lower Canada portions of the land were 
laid out into parishes, and later, when companies were 
formed to colonize large sections these were surveyed into 
townships. In Upper Canada the townships were surveyed 
and numbered. In the Mecklenburg district the numbers 
began with Kingston. Number two, afterwards known as 
Krnestown, was settled with disbanded soldiers. This 
township was opened by survey in 1784. The base line 
was run along the shore from east to west and then the 
lots were numbered from west to east. 

Speaking of the settlers who thus took up land in 
Ontario, Dr. Canniff Haight says that they were of three 
classes, "Those who were forced away from the States, 
disbanded soldiers, and those who were unwilling to live 
under American rule a noble class." In the list of early 
settlers will be found such of our Palatine names from 
Ireland as Embury, Hoffmjan, Lawrence, Detlor, Miller. 
Dulmage, Bowman, Heck and Switzer. The evidence of 
their attachment will come presently. 



"For consciousness is king, and all creation waits 
Attendant on man's will, as steps to higher states; 
Nor does man crown himself, nor is he crowned of God, 
Till, leaving self's low plane, the hills of truth arc trod." 

FAMILY genealogies were of sufficient interest in the 
formative years of the world's early history to draw- 
attention to their careful keeping, and that, too, when 
literary conditions were not as favorable as now. Yet the 
modern spirit has often made for an almost inexplainable 
neglect. Possibly the struggle for existence and the 
demand on personal enterprise in some measure accounts 
for it. While communities remain identical in character, 
succeeding generations may with little difficulty perpetuate 
family traditions; it is the inrush of the stranger that 
threatens to wash away the shore line of the little society 
and to confuse the records. At the present time Canada 
is at the stage where new European deposits may soon 
tend to obliterate some or all of the valuable family tra- 
ditions that have given strength and romance to the young 
nation for the last century and a quarter, and it behoves 
especially the families who are dispersing over the wide 
reaches, of the west to at least follow the example of 
French Canadian fellow citizens of the east, who by 
genealogical encyclopedias are perpetuating the records of 
pioneer families. 

It is unfortunate that the earlier records have not 
perpetuated the Christian name of that righteous man, 
"Mr. Miller, the Lutheran Minister," to whom Mr. Wesley 
was so pleasantly drawn. Everyone seems to have known 



who was the Lutheran Minister. Even some of his readers 
at a distance, Mr. Wesley assumed, would know about 
the Lutheran minister. Yet we wish he had given us his 
name and we think it would have been no ordinary 
name. Could any record be found, we think his name 
therein would be "Garrett." Perhaps it was on his invita- 
tion, and partly because he was aging, and partly because 
he believed in the good work of Wesley that the great 
evangelist began his work among the Palatines. Certainly 
there was a most favourable reception awaiting him, and 
such as seems capable of explanation only on the ground 
of predisposition by some favorable influence, and we think 
that influence was Mr. Miller. 

It is pleasant to again recall that homelike scene from 
the pen of the Rev. George Miller, w^herein he depicts the 
grandfather in the eveningtime of life devoutly pondering 
his favorite German books. The memory of a good man 
is blessed ! We propose now to show how through this 
man God has been "showing mercy unto thousands of them 
that love Him and keep His commandments." 

Of the Miller family we have reliable evidence of the 
presence in America at the outbreak of the war of at least 
five of the family, and these by marriage so connected with 
the Emburys, Lawrences and Switzers that in tracing tfieir 
history we are really tracing large chapters of Canadian 
annals. The names of the Millers were Jacob who married 
(probably) Elizabeth Bently ; Peter who married Agnes 
Benor, widow of Peter Lawrence who had died young; 
Garrett, whose first wife having died in Ireland, married in 
America Elizabeth Switzer, daughter of Peter Switzer and 
niece of Mary Switzer, who married, first, Philip Embury, 
and two years after his death, John Lawrence; an elder 
Garrett Abller also appears in the dim light of sca^it 
records, who died two years before the war began, who 
had come from Ireland, and had engaged in lumbering 
business among the settlers of Orange County, New 
York State, and owned two mills (Miller's Mills is still 


marked on the map). The fifth one whom we have to 
notice was his daughter Elizabeth, who inherited the in- 
terest in the mills by will of her father, and who married 
Philip Roblin, a U. E. loyalist, and who settled in the 
Bay of Quinte country. This lady became the grand- 
mother of John P. Roblin, Ex-M.P.P., of Picton, Ont., and 
indeed the ancestor of .a numerous connection of Roblins, 
including the present premier of the province of Manitoba. 
Her daughter Nancy married William Ketcheson, of 
Hastings County, Ont., and thus became the ancester of 
that numerous and highly respected branch of Canadian 
citizens. In 1792 Elizabeth Roblin was a widow. For her 
second husband she married John Can iff who founded 
CanifftO'ii a short distance from Belleville, Ont. She was 
buried in the family burying ground on the hill in the little 
village. Her daughter Nancy was born during the days 
of hardship connected with the war in 1781. Her children 
numbered fifteen. 

Were these people U. E. loyalists ? For answer let 
us gather up the materials which, quite recently, have 
become available. 

i. JACOB MILLER. Here is a copy of a document, still 
extant, and in the archives of his descendants: "I do 
hereby certify that Jacob Miller, of the Militia of the City 
of New York, has, in my presence, voluntarily taken an 
Oath to bear Faith and true Allegiance to His Majesty 
King George the Third, and to defend to the utmost of 
his power, His sacred Person, Crown and Government, 
against all persons whatsoever. 

"Given under my hand at New York, this 23rd Day 
of January in the Seventeenth Year of His Majesty's Reign. 

Anno Dom. 1777." 

(Signed.) "WM. T.RYON." 

Jacob Miller had six children the records of whose 
birth we have been able to trace by examining different 
cemetery and church records in Hal 1 ' fax, N.S., and these 
date from 1770 onwards, three, probably four, having been 
born in New York. 


Jacob was probably the first of the connection to land 
in America, arriving prior to 17/0, and at the outbreak 
of the war he had attained to the position of a wealthy 
merchant in New York city. In those days they had ways 
by which they seemed to have coined wealth much more 
rapidly than seems possible nowadays, and their capacity 
for suffering the loss of all things and making rapid 
recuperation is one of the striking characteristics of the 
Palatines generally. In New York the rebels rapidly rose 
in the ascendancy, and Jacob and his family, leaving the 
bulk of their property behind, were forced to fly for life. 
Antiquities now preserved by various descendants and 
bearing the earmark of previous centuries in their style and 
material, show that some household possessions \vt:re 
rescued. In after days Mrs. Jacob Miller loved to recite 
to her children how when hurrying through New York the 
bullets were falling about her and she protected her young- 
est child by covering her head with a frying pan. There- 
after, the family took up their residence in Halifax, and 
Jacob became a foremost merchant of that city. 

2. PETER MILLER. The lengthy document constituting 
the military commission of Peter Miller and issued by 
General Johnson is still in possession of his descendants, 
and may be seen at the old homestead at St. Armand, 
Cue., where his great great granddaughter, Miss Agnes 
Bradley, most gladly exhibits it. 

Some modest account of his service, given in brief, as 
consistent with a court report, is to be found in "Ontario 
Archives, 1904." This volume by the way is a gratifying 
resurrection of buried treasures. The statement given also 
furnishes some idea of losses sustained by the war, and 
adds from Peter himself the interesting chronological 
matter concerning his arrival in America. The extract is 
as follows : "He is a native of Ireland. He came to 
America in 1/70. He soon after settled in Cambridge 
district, Albany Co., and lived there in 1775. Says that 
he never joined the Americans and came to Canada with 


Captain Sherwood. Alter he came in he served with Col. 
Peter's corps and with Maj. Leake. He now lives at 
Missisquoi Bay. Property (before the war) 100 acres of 
land in Camden on a lease forever from Mr. DeVaynes, of 
New York. He had cleared 16 acres, with a house, etc.; 
210 acres in Quasencooke, County of Albany. Produces 
lease forever from Ryn Schormorhorn to Peter Miller in 
consideration of 7 N.Y. cur. per an. Conveys 200 acres 
of land as described I4th of March, 1774. Says he built 
a house and improvements for which he paid ^39- After 
the purchase he fenced it and cleared many acres. Thinks 
it cost him 250 York. His family were turned from this 
farm. It is in possession of the landlord. Lost 2 mares, 
2 colts, 6 cows, 2 oxen, a steer, some sheep and hogs, farm- 
ing utensils and hay. His wife saved the furniture." 

The reader will wonder how she saved it, and what 
she did with it. And neither history nor family pos- 
sessions afford any answer. One does not readily see how, 
amid the disturbed conditions of the time, endangered as 
the loyalists and their possessions were by the bitterness 
of their opponents, and subjected to the difficulties of a 
journey to the St. Lawrence, furniture could possibly be 
retained and included in the limited amount of baggage 
the travellers could carry. 

As to the agreement with Ryn Schormorhorn above 
mentioned, the legal document is still in existence, with 
the exception that the document specifies 220 acres instead 
of 210. There is also to be seen at "Miller Homestead" 
the copy of the inventory above given and presented before 
the U. E. Loyalist Land Commission in Montreal, February 
I5th, 1788; it bears the signature of Peter Miller. 

The reader will be impressed with the industry, thrift 
and executive ability which enabled an arrival from Ire- 
land, probably no better off than multitudes of later day 
arrivals, inside of five years, from 1770 to 1775, to sur- 
round himself with as many possessions as indicated in 
the above statements. 


In addition to his step-children his family consisted 
of two children born in Ireland and one born, two years 
after his arrival in America, and who was, therefore, some 
four years old at the outbreak of war. After escaping to 
the Canadian side these reached Sorel where they resided 
until 1784. 

3. GARRETT MILLER, brother of the preceding. Little 
or nothing of his earthly possessions previous to 1706 sur- 
vived that date his life was too full of vicissitudes. 

In a volume, published in Toronto on the occasion of 
the U. E. Loyalist Centennial in 1884, there is contained 
a list of the U. E. loyalists who were enrolled after the 
war. Through the kindness of Colonel Geo. T. Denison, of 
Heydon Villa, Toronto, we have secured the following 
extract from this rare volume : 

Miller, Garrett 

M. District 

Soldier of N. Co. with Burgoyne. Came 
to Canada in 1777. O.C. 20th July, '79." 

In his note Colonel Denison says, "Lord Dorchester in 
1787 ordered that a Roll of Honor should be kept of the 
U. E. loyalists so that they might be distinguished from 
future settlers. This roll is in the Crown Lands Depart- 
ment, Toronto, and was printed in full in the United 
Empire Loyalists 'Centennial Celebration' of 1884. One 
thousand copies of the book were printed and copies were 
sent to all the principal public Libraries. Many were sold 
to the descendants of the U. E. loyalists. The book is 

now out of print The above is a copy of 

the entry. 'M. District,' I think, means Midland District.' 
'O. C., 2Oth July, 1797,' I think, means that his name was 
put on the list on that date by an Order in Council." 

In "Ontario Archives, 1904," the following entry made 
at the sittmg of the Loyalist Commission in Quebec, 1787, 
occurs: "He is a native of Ireland. He came to America 
in 1772. Went first to Virginia, afterwards settled in 
Camden in 1775. Joined the King's army at Crown Point. 
Was taken prisoner in 1777. Served under Col. Peters. 


Was a prisoner for two years. Made his escape and came 
into this province (Quebec). Lives at Sorel. Says he 
bought a lot of one Peter Sparling in Camden in 1774. 
It consisted of 188 acres. Was to pay 110 York money. 
Had paid between 30 and ,"40. Produces a Bond from 
Peter Sparling dated 3ist December, 1774, in the sum of 
200 on condition to convey to claimant his right and 
interest in the township of Camden on or before 1st Nov- 
ember, 1776, on payment of 110. Robert Sparling never 
made the Deed because the money was not paid. Says 
he gave his bond to Sparling for the money. Cleared 12 
or 13 acres. Could have sold the land at I2s. 6d. per acre. 
Lost I cow, I steer, I heifer, i calf, hogs, tools, etc., 
wheat in the ground. Things were destroyed. His wife 
was driven away by the Americans.'' 

The marks of military engagements were earned by 
Garrett to his grave, but with pride rather than otherwise. 

Of his family of ten children, two were born in 
Ireland, two m America before the war, and six at Sorcl, 
One., to which place the refugees fled, and where they 
continued to reside until 1706. 

While residing in Sorel, "man's inhumanity to man" 
was in some measure illustrated. It was in 1795 that Peter 
Sparling, still holding possession of a bond, and finding 
that the thrifty Garrett was recovering his losses and gather- 
ing comforts about him, like a bird on the wing swooped 
down, secured an order from the court, and sold his victim 
out. That may have been good law; one cannot avoid 
questioning the equity. Sparling as a loyalist would have 
lost his property anyway. The money he had been paid 
on it ought to have represented some real gain. In Garrett 
Miller's case it was complete loss, and the only sense in 
which he was to blame if Sparling suffered loss was by 
his loyalist principles. And when we think of it, it was, 
to put it mildly, hardship for a professed loyalist and a 
Canadian Court to put a man to suffering because he had 
dared to be loyal. We do not think that Peter Sparling's 


unfeeling prceeeclure ever brought him additional pros- 
perity. "The quality of mercy is twice blessed." 

4. We must include the Roblms in the present survey 
as loyalists. Our interest is especially connected with 
Philip Roblin who married Elizabeth Miller. In Albany 
County there were two brothers, Owen and Philip. Owen 
Roblin was at Sorel in 1/83. He was a native of America 
and before the war had prospered and acquired much as 
a farmer. It is notable that his operations were on such 
a scale that he had a partner. On the outbreak of war 
land, horses, cattle, hav. grain all were lost. As a 
prisoner of war he suffered greatly was imprisoned and 
kept in irons for thirteen weeks. 

PHILIP ROBLIX, the brother, was also born in 
America. lie joined the British at New York in 17/9. He 
had always acted as a friend of the British government, 
and in consequence he was confined and tried by the rebels. 
The list of his possessions is interesting. He had fifteen 
acres of land with one-tenth (of an acre) in a grist mill and 
saw mill in Smith's Cove in Orange County. They came 
to his wife on the death of her father GARRETT MILLER, 
being left by will. Claimant had been in possession two 
years. The lands, plough and meadow, were worth $ 
York per acre. He had a share in the products of the 
mill. But as an enterprising and thrifty citizen of that 
day his interests were much larger that those of the mill 
property. He had 150 acres of lease land which was for 
six years, and for which he paid 6 per annum rent. He 
paid also for improvements, and made others such as 
fencing and building. Had over one hundred acres 
cleared, ten of which were in orchard. He had a house 
and two lots of land in New York taken in 1779, he him- 
self building the house. Had four horses, one yoke of 
oxen, six cows, fifteen sheep, thirty-five bee hives, wheat, 
furniture and utensils. Everything was left at Smith's 

Elihu Murven, commissioner of sequestration, gave 


a certificate that he seized this property for the use of the 

Before the Commissioners in Montreal in I? 88 an 
affidavit was presented, sworn before Peter Van Alstme 
at the Bay of Oumte by Nicholas Wessels, to claimant's 
property; and also from George Galloway, sworn before 
W. R. Crawford at Cataraqui. 

These names- are of interest as ancestors of some of 
the present citizens of Kingston and the Bay country. 

We think that the above Garrett Miller who died two 
years before the outbreak of war was the father of Jacob, 
Peter and Garrett the Loyalists. It is probable that he 
journeyed to America with his son Peter, and thereafter 
settled near him, where his investment in mill property 
was advantageous both to himself and his neighbors; Here 
it was that he died and was buried. Here, too, his 
daughter Elizabeth met and married Philip Roblin. Some 
twenty years afterwards she appears on the subscription 
list of the first Methodist Church built in the then province 
of Canada as a widow. She knew full well the trials and 
los-cs of a loyalist. 

From the records we have thus been able to gather 
we think that the claim of these Millers, and, therefore, of 
their descendants, to the honorable distinction of genuine 
U. E. loyalists is cloudlessly established. 

And before we pass on, we may note in the same con- 
nection the Switzers and Emburys. Peter Switzer, though 
having a large family and carrying on farming operations 
before the war, and suffering imprisonment as a loyalist 
soldier with his son-in-law, Garrett Miller, yet appears to 
have presented no claims before the commissioners. There 
were many others like him, who either because they did 
not know of the legal requirements in presenting a petition 
or because of their inability to exactly tabulate their losses, 
accompanied also with a doubt as to the utility of the 
proceeding, failed to make themselves heard. Some times 
they were too far from the seat of the Commissioners and 
could not afford the expense of the journey. 


Peter Switzcr with his family settled in the neighbor- 
hood of Varty Lake, north of Kingston, Ont. After this 
family was also named the locality, famous in many 
respects, and known as Switzerville. 

Mary Embury, too, sister of Peter Switzer and widow 
of Philip Embury, knew the troubles, of a loyalist. The 
death of Philip left her with two children in possession 
of a farm of 188 acres, leased forever from Lawyer 
Uuayne. Ller second husband, John Lawrence, described 
as a "good man," whom she married in I//5, had also one 
hundred acres leased in Albany County. The usual farm 
stock was also possessed. But with the outbreak of war 
all this was lost; and these peoiple, obliged to leave the 
States in possession of the grave containing the remains of 
him who had introduced to America that mighty and 
beneficent system of religion known as Methodism a 
loyalist whom America has never cast out, were obliged to 
flee to the St. Lawrence to face the struggle for life in the 
uninviting prospect of the Canadian woods. 

It is unnecessary, for our purpose, to unduly exalt the 
military genius or the martyr spirit of the little group thus 
passed in review, and who at that time represented some 
thirty persons. Thev suffered in common with many 
others. We think we can show that they suffered with a 
religious fortitude. Our purpose is served in showing that 
these, representative of many Irish Palatines, did not 
forget what the British government had done for their 
forefathers, and were lastingly grateful. They suffered 
and lost all for the sake of their king, and they courage- 
ously braved the dangers and hardships of the wilds where 
they might found a new British dominion in a land which 
less than fifteen years before had been conquered and taken 
from France. They were loyalists neither of the official 
type, who might wish to exploit new opportunities, nor yet 
of an honorable class who passed through the war without 
fighting but were afterwards driven from their homes by 


MIGHT. Such was the character of the seed prepared by 
the Protestant principles of Germany, cared for and 
cultured in Ireland by Methodism providentially raised 
up, and now transplanted to Canadian soil. Such was one 
of God's many gifts to Canada. Such was the inheritance 
transmitted to posterity. 




Hills that arise in grandeur. 

Hills that are ages old, 
Where nature's strength lies latent 

Housing the treasured gold; 
Pine-clad, the banks of the old days, 

Scarce seen the mark of wave, 
Where once flowed broadly seaward 

This lesser stream La Have. 

Mem'ries of days long buried. 

Days when our fathers fought, 
Days when to woods primeval 

Courageous hearts they brought, 
Flow in like the rising sea-tide 

And waken new -my song, 
And make these pine hills vibrate 

With men, true, brave and strong, 

Bridgewater's ways are rising 

Like one concerted plan 
Based on the good divinest. 

The highest good of man: 
Harmonious thought prevailing 

And unity of heart. 
Let man with man combining 

Each play a god-like part! 

Sailors these waters travel, 

Commerce increases gain, 
Fast move the feet of toilers. 

Active the heart and brain; 
But up from the valley's lowland 

Move 'mid the hiltops air 
Culture and grace God-given, 

Poet and artist fair. 



Broad be the life and deepest. 

Pure be the air I breathe. 
Heights be by habitations 

To which my heart shall cleave; 
Thus Heaven my goal and portion, 

And Christ my highest good. 
I look to heights above me 

And dwell where God has stood, 

Out on the hilltop, sleeping, 

Lie patriarchs of old: 
Plans that they formed and cherished 

Dropped as their hands grew cold, 
But God lives on, on these hill sides, 

And speaks by men asleep 
"Grow up from lowland visions 

'To broadest life and deep.'' 

Then from the hilltop highest 

Gain I the vision clear. 
Vistas of life far reaching. 

Treasures of gold and dear, 
Bidding me seek the richest. 

Lay hold of perfect love, 
And dwell where streams unfailing 

Through God's blest city move. 

WHEN Jacob Miller arrived in Halifax, it was a town of 
twenty-seven years' growth. Of its future, Colonel 
Dundas, one of the loyalist commissioners, was not very 
sanguine, but said that the people were .able to support 
themselves by reason of the dockyards, the military life 
and fishing-. In his opinion, New Brunswick, beyond a 
narrow strip near to the water, was a barren region of 
almost perpetual snow ,and rocks. 

At the foot of Morris Street (named after Charles 
Morris, a native of New England, and member of the first 
legislative council of Nova Scotia) Jacob Miller exhibited 
his enterprising spirit by purchasing land and building 
at the water's edge a wharf still in use, and which soon 
became known as "Miller's Wharf." On the four corners 
formed by the intersection of Morris and Water Streets he 
built four houses. Three of these are still in use. One 


of these houses, a frame, clapboarded building, large and 
two stories hign and counted "grand" in those days, was 
for many years the family residence. Here it was that, 
after the death of their parents, his five daughters lived 
a retired, dignified and unmarried life, entertaining their 
own select list of friends in their own quaint way. Jacob 
also acquired a large tract of land at the eastern end of 
the city, some of which still remains in the possession of 
his descendants. 

In Halifax the business circumstances of Jacob Miller 
rapidly improved. He established a most lucrative trade 
with the West Indies, and engaged especially in exporting 
lumber. During the time that the Duke of Kent was in 
charge of the British forces at Halifax (1794-1799), 
society, which during the French and Revolutionary wars 
had taken on a very aristocratic and conservative tone, 
enjoyed the generous hospitality which he dispensed. 
Jacob Miller and his son Garrett, then a young man of 
twenty-four, were particularly intimate with the Duke. 
The stage road from Halifax crossed the property belong- 
ing to Garrett on the La Have River, and there the Duke's 
carriage found its final resting place and ended its days, 
some relics of it being still shown in Bridgewater. While 
the democratic tendencies of the Duke drew the people to 
him and to the British institutions which he represented, 
the business of furnishing supplies for the military forces, 
which fell to the lot of Jacob Miller, also had a tendency 
to produce a more than ordinary intimacy. 

That Jacob Miller was a man of generous disposition 
and religious character, becoming in one whose ancestry 
was such as we have shown, and whose brothers were 
immediately connected with the founding of Methodism 
in America, we think it may not be difficult to show. In 
America, however, he never identified himself with 
Methodism, neither did his descendants, a fact which 
suggests the seriousness of influence, example and training. 
It is well known to the student of American Methodism 



that, on arriving in America, Philip Embury and those of 
his associates in Ireland, finding no Methodist Society, 
identified themselves with the Lutheran church, thus 
reverting to the church of their ancestors. And while 
there is no evidence in support, it is only reasonable to 
suppose that while residing in New York Jacob Miller did 
likewise, although he would not be under the same necessity 
as was Philip Embury, inasmuch as a Methodist Churcli 
was now engaged in successful work. On coming to 
Halifax Mr. Miller identified himself with a Lutheran 
church known as the "Little Dutch Church,'' a view of 
which we herewith present. 

This church, built in 1754 or 1755, was consecrated by 
Dr. Breynton, first rector of St. Paul's (Episcopalian" 
Church, in 1760, and in 1801 was succeeded by the pre- 
sent "St. George's'' on Brunswick Street the "Round" or 
'Umbrella" church. The Dutch Church still stands on 
Barrington Street, with its windows boarded up and its 
door locked, as are also the gates into the adjacent 
cemetery, where lie many of the early German settlers, 
whose graves are marked by slabs of the native ironstone. 

After a brief association with this church, the family 
cast in its lot with the much more convenient, and no doubt 
aristocratic, St. Paul's Church, built by commission of the 
King in 1750. This church is still active in Christian 
enterprise, evangelical in its spirit and methods, and, as 
one of the vital forces of Halifax, doing a splendid work. 
Its hall for evangelistic meetings, gymnasium, Sunday- 
school, young people's work, etc., costing $60,000.00, an,' 
always open, is a model institution. 

But Jacob Miller was not bigotted nor forgetful of 
what Methodism had done for him. From good authority 
Professor A. D. Smith, L.L.D., of Mount Allison Univer- 
sity, Sackville, N.B.), we learn that when George Miller, 
a nephew of Jacob, came from Ireland in 1817 as a local 
preacher, and was received on trial for the ministry of 
the Methodist Church in Nova Scotia, it was the uncle 


who both urged him to come and then donated to him a 
horse and outfit with which to begin his work ! 

Nor is this the only evidence of his kindness. Know- 
ing that his brother Garrett in the west had faced many 
hardships and had six sons, while himself had but one, 
he proposed that the oldest boy, Martin, should be sent 
to him and adopted by him. This was a,greed to. But 
Martin missed his opportunity and gave no end of trouble 
to his uncle; joined the military forces, three times 
deserted, was as often pardoned through his interceding 
uncle who paid fines for him, but finally exhausted patience 
and kindness and left for the States. 

In St. Paul's churchyard in Halifax there is a tomb- 
stone, in the family burial lot of Jacob Miller, "Sacred 
to the memory of Ann Miller, wife of William Miller, who 
died in 1818, aged 31 years." This must be taken as an- 
other instance of Jacob's kindness. As we shall see later on 
this. William Miller was a cousin of Jacob's, and the same 
sort of encouragement that brought George from Ireland 
evidently brought William and his family. The wife 
dying, Jacob expressed his great sympathy by having her 
burial place fixed within his own lot ! Surely such deeds 
deserve to be commemorated, and in this age of wanton 
greed we do well to place the emphasis here. The com- 
mand to you, my reader, is to cultivate this spirit of real 
neighborliness. "Go thou and do likewise." 

On May 3ist, 1825, Jacob Miller, having died at the 
good age of 83 years, was buried in St. Paul's Cemetery. 
In 'the same plot lie the remains of his wife Elizabeth, who 
died February loth, 1817, aged 72 years. The antiquary 
also finds four other tombstones bearing inscriptions as 
follows : "To Mary Miller, daughter of Jacob Miller, 
who died 1833"; "To Abigail Miller, daughter of Jacob 
Miller, who died 1834"; "To Mary Robinson, wife of 
William Robinson, late of Stockton, England, who 
departed this life June 3Oth, 1781, aged 35 years"; and 
"To Mrs. Mary Bentley, late from Stockton." From the 


proximity of the graves, and the fact that the oldest stone 
is that of Mrs. Bentley, we think that Mary Robinson was 
Alary Bentley, sister of Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Miller, 
that Mrs. Bentley was the mother, and that Mary Miller 
had been named in remembrance of her aunt. 

After a persevering search in the summer of 1907 the 
graves and records were found of three others of Jacob's 
daughters, in Camphill Cemetery, in another, part of 
Halifax. The entries in the book of records are as fol- 
lows. : "Elizabeth Miller, May 2Qth, 1857, aged 83, born 
in New York"; ''Ann Miller, May 28th, 1859, aged 88, born 
in New York"; "Margaret Miller, February 26th, 1864, aged 
81, born in United States." 

Jacob Miller was succeeded by his son Garrett, who 
proved himself able and worthy to bear the name. Busi- 
ness flourished. A splendid education, such as Halifax 
at that early date afforded, had been granted to the son, 
and he proved himself possessed of good sense and large 
power of acquisition. He rose to prominence in the com- 
mercial world. The following copy of a Note of Ex- 
change, now in our possession, gives some idea of the kind 
of business he transacted : 

"Exchange 3% P.O. discount, No. 1335, 1000 os. od., 
stg., Halifax, 2nd March, 1815. 

"Thirty days after sight, be pleased to pay this my 
First Exchange, the Second and Third of the same Tenor 
and Date not being part, to the Order of Mr. Garrett 
Miller -the sum of 


and place the same to Account, with or without Advice from 
"Your Most Obedient Servant, 


"Dy. Commissary General. 
"To the Right Flonorable, 

"The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 



Endorsement on the back : 
"Pay to the order of William Danson, Esq., 


This signature is in a good hand. 

This would appear to have been a business transaction 
in connection with military supplies. 

During the war of 1812-1815 the Millers of Halifax 
were also active in England's interests. Garrett Miller was 
appointed prize commissioner over the privateers which 
in the service of the King preyed upon the enemy. On one 
occasion the captured vessel had on board a pianoforte, 
the property of the daughter of United States President 
Madison, and had been shipped from New York, where 
the young lady had been attending school. This notable 
article the prize commissioner bought in and presented 
it to his daughter, being still retained in the family of her 
descendants, the Hon. Jason Mack, of Liverpool, N.S. 

Cupid laid his hand upon Garrett Miller also. Clias. 
Morris, Esq., who occupied his own house, which is still 
standing on the corner of Morris and Hollis Streets, had 
married a Miss Pernette, daughter of Colonel Pernette, 
at one time in the military service of Germany in Alsace, 
later a colonel of France, and finally made a British 
subject by act of the British parliament a Huguenot. To 
this colonel the Crown made a grant of 22,400 acres of 
land stretching along the La Have River for eleven miles 
in the neighborhood of the present town of Bridgewater. 
In Ins business capacity Garrett Miller had occasion to call 
at the home of Mr. Morris, and there it was that he met 
Miss Catherine Pernette, sister of the lad) of the house. 
The esteem was mutual, and the visits were repeated, 
culminating in the marriage ceremony which was per- 
formed in the same mansion. "The Avonmore" is the 
present name of the place, and it is a well kept boarding 
house. Without knowing the previous history, this house 
furnished our lodging during a most enjoyable holiday, 
and the discovery of the romance followed. 


To the newly married Garrett the La Have became 
especially attractive, and receiving a portion of the Pernette 
domain he added to it by making extensive purchases and 
creating a large establishment for himself on the opposite 
side of the river. 

This locality has been aptly called "The Rhinelancl 
of Canada." Its charms are indescribable. No wonder 
that the German colony, formed along this river by direct 
emigration from Germany in 1/53, has contentedly 
remained. The little white houses, homes of German 
fishermen, stretching for miles along the shore like a con- 
tinuous village, with a repetition of church spires that 
suggest both liberality and an abundance of gospel 
privileges, together with the pine covered hills, the deep, 
winding river broadening as it moves seaward, and dotted 
with the masts of freight vessels, combine to produce a 
scene the charm of which the traveller cannot easily forget. 
A drive of ten miles along .this river, through the kindness 
of Captain Geo. W. Godard and wife, has furnished one 
of those pleasing recollections that will never grow dim. 
Canadians scarcely know how great is the wealth of natural 
beauty with which this noble land has been endowed. It 
is not limited to one locality either. Ours is a favored land 
wh'ere, if nature's lessons were heeded, culture of taste 
would everywhere abound. 

Identifying himself with the County of Lunenburjg, 
Garrett Miller presently sought the honor of representing 
it in parliament. Here is a copy of his electoral card. 

' To the Freeholders of the County of Lunenburg : 

"The dissolution of the House of Assembly affording 
you the opportunity of exercising your Elective Franchise 
as to a future representation therein; At the instance of 
very many of your respectable body I am induced to offer 
myself a candidate at the ensuing Election for your County, 
in which I have long resided, and much longer have had 
intercourse. Should you by your suffrages deem me worthy 


of such trust, I beg to assure you, I shall make myself 
acquainted with the localities and wants of your County 
(by visiting every part thereof), the interest of which 
particularly, with that of the province in general, it will 
be my study to promote, and for which purpose my best 
exertions shall be used. 

"I have the honor to remain gentlemen, 

"Your most humble servant, 

'Halifax, ;th November, 1836." 

It is a small card. Who could surpass it for its con- 
ciseness and suggestiveness of statement ? The author 
was indeed a man of mental ability and good scholarship. 
He did his own legal work largely. There is extant a 
sketch and statements prepared for court pleading in which 
he defended his rights on the La Have against a trespasser 
who was removing his timber, and the document would 
do credit to a modern surveyor and lawyer in one. He 
was duly elected and sat in parliament from 1837-1841. 
Colonel Jos. Pernette (his father-in-law) had filled the same 
position for two terms from 1761-1770. 

For a specimen of the sort of literature that Jacob 
Miller and his family enjoyed we are indebted to Mr. and 
Mrs. G. W. Godard, of Bridgewater. It is a leather 
bound volume written by Samuel Johnson and entitled 
"Julian's Arts to undermine and extirpate Christianity, 
Together with answers to Constantius the Apostate, and 
to Jovian; By Samuel Johnson. Licensed and entered 
according to Order, London. Printed by J. D. for the 
author, and are to be sold by Richard Chiswell at the Rose 
and Crown, and Jonathan Robinson, at the Golden Lion 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, MDCLXXXIX." 

This volume is interesting in many ways. On the 
previous page it is said "The present impression of this 
book was made in the year 1683, and has ever since lain 
buried under the Rumes of all those English Rights which 
it endeavored to Defend; but by the Auspicious and Happy. 


Arrival of the Prince of Orange, both They and It have 
obtained a Resurrection." Glorious Prince indeed ! And 
this book like the Palatine is a testimony to his zeal and 

Within the volume we have found a sprig of shamrock 
evidently brought from the Emerald "Isle ! Doubtless 
in New York the volume was read again during the con- 
tentious years preceding the Revolution and the bit of 
shamrock was left to mark this suggestive pasage : 'The 
Scripture does not meddle with the secular government of 
this world, so as to alter it; for to alter Government is 
to overthrow the just Compacts and Agreements which 
have been made amongst Men ; to which they have mutually 
bound themselves by Coronation-Oaths and Oaths of 
Allegiance; whereby the duties of Governors and Subjects 
are become the moral Duties of Honesty, Justice and 
righteous dealing; which no man will say, it is the work 
of the Gospel to destroy or abolish." Such a passage 
indicates the way the loyalist thought was working. THis 
highly prized souvenir, with the present writer's name 
inscribed was "Presented by Geo. W. Godard, husband of 
Elizabeth M. M. Miller, igreat granddaughter of the first 
Jacob Miller, of Halifax, N.S., as a souvenir of the family. 
Bridgewater, N.S., July I5th, 1907." 

The first generation of Canadian Palatine loyalists 
seems to have made rapid strides in acquiring general 
culture, social standing, business prosperity, home com- 
forts, and Christian fellowship. The- testimony of con- 
temporaries in the days when conscience governed men 
bears out the impression that these people were among the 
worthy and strong of the land. 

Garrett Miller, of Halifax, who always kept up his 
business and real estate interests in that city, even though 
he had a splendid estate at La Have, has left us a little 
note of some social interest. It has been (preserved by 
Daniel Miller Owen, K.C., of Halifax, and is a fine 
specimen of handwriting. It is a wedding invitation 


addressed from "New Dublin," N.S., has the signature of 
Garrett Miller on the lower left hand corner of the address, 
and was sealed with wax envelopes were not yet in vogue. 
It is as follows : 

"Mr. and Mrs. Garrett Miller's best respects, and 
request the favor of Mr. Peter Kaulback's company on 
Tuesday next, at 12 o'clock at noon, to be present at the 
nuptials of their daughter Elizabeth and Mr. Daniel Owen, 
New Dublin, November i8th, 1837. 

"N.B. Should Tuesday be stormy or rainy will take 
place on next day at same hour." 

( It is probable that the difficulties which clergymen 
encountered in their travels in those days rendered this 
"N.B." especially necessary. 

In his ecclesiastical preferences, following the example 
of his father, Garrett Miller connected himself with the 
Episcopalian Church, and he became largely instrumental, 
if not altogether responsible, for the erection of a church 
on his estate at La Have the first in that section of coun- 
try. From a small hand painting we have secured the 
interesting cut shown opposite. 

It was situated on a high bluff, back some distance 
from the shore line and crowned the hill. It was of ample 
proportions as the existing foundations indicate with a 
large tower in the front. Towards its erection Garrett 
Miller contributed the land, much of the material and 
200 in money. As marking the special respect of the 
community both himself and wife were buried under the 
chancel. A little cemetery adjoins the church site in which 
lie the remains of many unnamed pioneers. The church 
has been demolished, and a new one erected of more 
modern architecture in another part of the parish. It will 
be seen that the lines of architecture were very similar to 
the general conceptions of early ecclesiastical architecture 
in Canada. 

The descendants of Jacob Miller have numbered four 
score persons in their five generations and include in their 


associations two ministers, a doctor, five lawyers "two of 
whom are members of the Legislative Council of Nova 
Scotia one being the leader of the government side,, and 
the third one being a judge), one other is customs col 
lector, and another representing the military genius is 
prominently identified with municipal matters; one in 
Glasgow, Scotland, has become no-ted as an inventor. The 
general trend of life has been in mercantile rather than 
agricultural pursuits. Surely good seed fell on ,good soil 
in Nova Scotia, and has added something to the general 
welfare of the communities! 

G. T. N. MILLER, 1805-1897. FRANCES MILLER, 1807-1885. 

Children of Garrett Miller. 

From the provincial literature we gather the following 
biographical notices: 

Garrett Trafalgar Nelson Miller was born in 1805 in 
the memorable month of Nelson's victory hence the name. 
He lived to be nearly ninety-two years of age. He resided 
on the Miller homestead at La Have, and is said to have 
been one of the handsomest of men, tall and stately, and 
to the last soldierly in bearing, his very stride as he 
walked provoking the admiration of his fellow citizens. 
Somewhat of an aristocrat, he preferred at election times 


to journey -seventy miles to Halifax to vote rather than do 
so at the ordinary country seat. Perhaps he was not the 
only one of his connection to manifest some little 
idiosyncrasy. He married Miss Maria Morris, famed as an 
artist. Of her the "Halifax Herald" has said, "Mrs. Maria 
Morris Miller was a lady of great intellectual culture. As 
an amateur artist her paintings survive to attest a wonder- 
ful skill. Many of these were even given to the world 
in the serial publication known as the 'Wild Flowers of 
Nova Scotia,' the first of which with colored plates skil- 
fully executed were issued under the auspices of Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, while administering the government 
of the province of Nova Scotia, and while Mrs. Miller was 
still unmarried. The admirable works of the then Miss 
Morris instantly won the approbation of tasteful people 
in the mother country as well as in America ; and indeed 
the Queen herself for her Majesty is no mean artist 
not only extended her royal patronage to the Canadian 
lady, but added substantial marks of her personal appre- 
ciation. At a later date the livraisons of the ' Wild Flowers 
of Nova Scotia^ were widely sought for at home and 
abroad ; so that it was mainly by the power of her magic 
pencil that the wealth of the northern forest flora became 
known to the world ; yet it is to be feared that the superb 
works of this skilful artist the Audabon of Nova Scotian 
Field Flowers returned to her more renown and admira- 
tion than substantial rewards." These perfect paintings, 
once on exhibition in England and later in the Provincial 
Parliament Building, Halifax, numbering some one 
hundred beautiful specimens are now sacredly guarded 
in a Haligonian vault. They constitute a thirty years' 
work. Through the kindness of the present owner, Mr. 
Reginald Grant, grandson of G. T. N. Miller, these works 
of art were brought from a twelve years' seclusion in the 
vault, and our eyes were permitted to feast upon these 
faultless and ideal representations of Canadian flowers. 
Joseph Pernette Miller built one of the first houses in 



the neighborhood of Bndegwatcr, Nova Scotia. It still 
stands though unoccupied and rapidly falling into decay, 
and we give herewith a cut of it. He died at Bridgewater 
in 1 88 1, aged 73, having resided there for nearly fifty 
years. He saw the growth of Bridgewater from the time 
when its main street, and indeed the whole town was a 
mere collection of straggling houses with a road not much 
wider than a cow path winding between them along the 
edge of the river, when the only road to Liverpool was 
by the ri\erside to Pernettc's ferry on the old Miller home- 

GLEN ALLAN Oldest house in Bridgewater, N.S. 

stead, thence by Petite Riviere along the shore to Mill 
Village. Hotels, railroads and steamers were unknown 
here. Mrs. Miller was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, 
in which city .she held landed property. Her father, the 
late Dr. Colin Allan, came to Halifax attached to H. M. 
forces as staff surgeon where he resided until he retired 
and removed to Fredericton, N.B., where his remains lie 
deposited in the Cathedral cemetery. Kind, loving, and 
affable to all, ever ready to assist the poor and needy, Mrs. 
Miller was beloved by all who knew her. To a large 
degree she possessed the artist's gift, and in this she is 



succeeded by her daughters, Mrs. G. W. Godard and Mrs. 
W. D. Hall, of Bridgewater. 

John Miller, who died at Bridgewater in 1898, was 
the last of a family of seven, esteemed by many for rns 
old-time, polite manners; a well informed and constant 
reader, taking great interest in the affairs of the day. 

Of the descendants of Jacob Miller in Halifax, are 
MRS. CREED, married to John R. Creed most excellent 
Christian people, of the Baptist Church fine, old-time 
types of home culture, Christian reverence, broad intellec- 

JEAN R. MILLER, Brierbank Cottage, La Haue, N.S. Born 1900 , 

tuality and substantial social tastes. Their children 
faithfully follow them. Mr. Creed traces his ancestry to 
the hymn writer Isaac Watts. D. M. OWEX, who married 
Miss Mary Ruggles Green, of Worcester, Mass. Her 
parents were for years engaged in missionary work in 
Ceylon, and her own spirit has been touched by the same 
sweet Christian graces that made beautiful the parental 
home. ' Armbrae," on Oxford Street, will long be remem- 
bered for the genial Christian hospitality and high social 
culture of lawyer and Mrs. Owen. 

DR. JOSHUA NEWTON MACK who married Miss Gordon, 
closely related to the principal of Queen's University. 


Dr. M. is among the best read of his profession in Halifax. 
His delight in nature studies carried on on a portion of 
the Miller estate, which he inherits, is unbounded. Only 
for fear of surprising a delightful modesty we would 
write many and larger things of this excellent household. 
The family is numbered in St. Matthew's Presbyterian 

"Brierbank" is the home of Louis S. Miller, situated 
on the old estate at West La Have. Mrs. Miller was the 
daughter of Rev. Ed. Roberts of Aylesbury, Buckingham- 
shire, England. They have five children, the youngest, 
Jean R. Miller, is the youngest Nova Scotian descendant 
of Jacob Miller. 

CAPTAIN GEORGE W. GODARD is the indefatigable man 
of all work of Bridgewater president of the Electric 
Light Company, secretary of the Board of Trade, church 
warden and treasurer, general broker and insurance agent, 
etc. He comes of a military family and prizes his family 
treasures, including coat of arms. 

HON. W. H. OWEN, also of Bridgewater and conduct- 
ing an extensive law practise, for many years a member 
of the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia, is also the local 
representative of the American Consulate. 

The descendants of Jacob Miller have developed 
amonig them some with poetic genius as shown in Mrs. 
Godard, Lawyer D. M. Owen and the Hon. Jason Miller 
Mack, leader in the upper chamber of the Nova Scotian 
government. We shall conclude our review of this branch 
of the family by quoting in full a poem produced by Mr. 
Mack at seventeen years of age, and which won the prize 
offered by the University for the best poem of the year 
written on the death of a fellow student. 

"Oh tyrant death! what earthly charms shall save 
When thy stern edicts sentence to the grave? 
What kingly bribe may force thee to relent. 
Or for a space fort-go thy fell intent? 


Where field.-, of ice spread broad beneath the pole, 
And the cold waves on colder glaciers roll 
Where sunny islands gem the tropic seas 
And lend their perfume to the fanning breeze- 

In every various clime thy power is known, 
Zenith and Nadar tremble at thy tone; 
Nor blazing honors gained in martial strife 
May buy from thee an hour of Meeting life. 

Nor prouder glories gleaned from learning's field, 
Against thy dart be found efficient shield, 
Even Virtue's guard before thine arm is weak, 
E'en Courage meets thce with a paling cheek 

And Alma Mater mourns a cherished son 
Snatched from the honors he had won; 
E'en as his hand was reached the prize to clasp, 
Envious thou saw'st and caught'st it. from his grasp. 

But vain the deed, for He who conquered thee. 
Claiming His own, shall set the prisoner free; 
And as some stream that first pursues its way, 
Reflecting from its waves the sun's bright ray 

Then sinking darkly in the deserts' womb, 
Creeps on its course in mystery and gloom, 
Till once more rising to the 'cheerful' light 
It rushes on more joyous and more bright- 

So his life's river in Time's thirsty sand 
Lost for a space shall in a happier land 
Mingle its waters in the crystal tide 
That rolls along, the Tree of Life beside." 




Let me rear a graveless tribute 

To the memory of the past. 
Where thy ceaseless flow of waters 

Deep or shallow travels fast, 
Glad to join the broad St Lawrence, 

Hastening toward the ocean deep, 
Gaining greatness by communion 

Where the broad skies vigils keep. 

Could we summon up the old days, 

What a tragic tale they'd tell 
Of the elemental warfares 

Or the mystic Nature spell! 
How the wrath of heaven o'erwhelmed thee 

And the lightnings smote thy main, 
Or the love of all that liveth 

With the sunshine woke again. 

And there came to thee the morning 

When the age-long silence broke, 
And from out the unknown somewhere 

Heart and brain of man awoke. 
And the red man's bark o'erspread thee, 

And his battle-axe was rife 
When his wild-voice summoned war braves 

To the tribal love of strife. 

Like a vision of the morning 

W r hen the storm-cloud clears the air 
Red man's rule and strife have vanished 

And the white man's laws are here; 
Names like old Missisquoi furnish 

Traces of the Savage age, 
Bits of stone, the Indian's war plant. 

Show the impotence of rage. 


But this morn my pencil sketches 

Forts and barriers, modern things, 
(Which the larger rule of white man 

To thy settled landscape brings ; 
French and English in succession, 

Guarding jealously the gates 
Where thy waters hold strategic 

Highways to Canadian states. 

And I see no more the birch bark, 

But the white man's toiling boat, 
Where the streams of loyal patriots 

Homeless, on thy bosom float, 
And with marks of war upon them 

Wounded men and women brave, 
Seek the honor of the old flag, 

British prestige still would save* 

Till within thy shores' stout forest 

Rung the loyal axe and song, 
Rose the farm house and the church spire, 

Sprang up truth to right the wrong: 
And the fundamentals dearest 

To our free and civil state 
-Found their birth and confirmation, 

British foes to reprobate. 

They have vanished from our vision, 

Empire makers of the past, 
And their monuments are living 

Forms of nation life, that last; 
Not to graveyards, decorations 

May our grateful hearts propose; 
On our Nation's Roll of Honor 

Words of gratitude compose. 

And the Richelieu, the tireless, 

Washing out the stains of blood, 
Marks the memory of the brave ones 

By the commerce and the good 
Of two nations, interchanging, 

Aiding each the other's mart; 
Thus the blood of .loyal freemen 

Plays in modern life a 'part. 


ROWING and portaging along the Richelieu (first known 
as the Iroquois) River, the women and children of loyalist 
soldiers were at length able to reach Sorel. Here a con- 
siderable settlement of the refugees was formed, for the 
government kept them here until land could be surveyed 
and opened up to the new arrivals. Moreover the disposi- 
tion of the authorities was to keep the people away from 
the frontier, and for this reason efforts were; made tu 
induce the people to locate on the north shore of the St. 
Lawrence. With St. Johns, however, as an important 
point, and Isle au Xoix an even more strategic one, it was 
soon evident that settlement must grow this way. 

Thus Peter Miller cast in his lot with St. Armand on 
Missisquoi Bay. Paul and Barbara Heck, John and Mary 
Lawrence, the Detlors, Switzers, Dulmages and others 
decided on going further west. The Hecks are said to 
have settled at Augusta, Ont, on the banks of the St. Law- 
rence, in 1778. As to this date historians disagree, Dr. 
John Carroll holding that it was in 1785. We think the 
earlier date very much more probable. Without any 
pastor, these people held a class meeting among themselves, 
and Samuel Embury, son of Philip, and then of full age, 
was the class leader. To this class has been given the 
honor of being first in Ontario. On this point there has been 
some difference of opinion, and it has been shown that as 
there were as yet no regularly appointed Methodist 
preachers in the country and class meetings could only be 
organized by pastors, that, therefore, the place of priority 
in organization must be given to the Adolphustown class 
formed by Wm. Losce who was the first Methodist preacher 
appointed in (old) Canada, receiving his appointment in 
1791. It was in 1790 that a class was formed at Stamford 
in the Niagara region by a local preacher named Neal, 
who made Christian Warner, converted under his preach- 
ing, its leader, a position he held until his death in 1833. 
But a local preacher was without authority to organize a 
class. Here were two classes existing before the advent 


of the circuit preacher all the more worthy of honorable 
mention as spontaneous expressions of religious experience; 
and from the authority of Playter, Carroll and others it 
seems that the first place must be given to the Augusta 
class, and the position of first Canadian class leader to 
Samuel Embury. Later on he seems to have removed to 
St. Armand, Oue. We know that he married Catherine 
Miller, daughter of Peter Miller, February I3th, 1790, 
and that he died at St. Armand in 1853. His family of 
twelve children has become widely scattered; some 
descendants are living at St. Armand East, and some in 
the neighborhood of Oliver, Cue., while others are 
distributed through the United States. It is altogether 
probable that in the erection of the Methodist Church at 
Philipsburg, Oue., in 1819, he took a prominent part, 
perhaps doing carpenter work, as his father had done in 
the celebrated John Street Church, New York. On the 
St. Armand circuit he also fulfilled the duties of a local 
preacher. When the church at Philipsburg was renovated 
and received memorial windows during the ministry of 
Rev. Dr. G. H. Porter (1898-1902) there was one window 
inserted inscribed to the memory of Philip and Samuel 

St. Armand was laid out as a parish, and in 1784 the 
name of Peter Miller occurs among those of the first 
settlers, nineteen in number, whose names are given by 
Cyrus' Thomas in his "History of some of the Eastern 
Townships" published in 1866. These settlers, he says, 
came to the shores of Missisquoi Bay in the Fall of 1/84. 
One of the company was Garrett Sixby who married Mary 
Miller, Peter's daughter according to the above quoted 
historian they were married in Montreal and removed 
to St. Armand, where he located a farm alongside of that 
of his father-in-law. The house which he built in that 
year, 1784, is still standing and is occupied by his grand- 
son, Horatio Sixby. It is of large size and built of brick 
marvellous bricks to last so long and one cannot avoid 


wondering how and where bricks were to be obtained at 
that time. Commendable enterprise laudable ambition, 
that at that early date would live in a brick house ! 

Unlike his brother in the east, Peter Miller had chosen 
for himself and as it proved, for the larger part of his 
descendants, the pastoral life; and from 1784 to iSig he 
achieved considerable success in clearing the new land and 
developing its resources, and in a measure recouping him- 
self for the losses sustained by the revolution. Although 
a man of forty-four when he thus set out to begin life 
anew a time when many modern men are inclined to think 
life's best chances are over he accepted his task with 
vigor and courage. 

In some respects we shall not wonder at his choice of 
land. St. Armand is one of the favored localities of 
Quebec. A modern view of the country we have given 
in another connection and now quote ourselves : Leaving 
St. Johns by the Central Vermont an hour's ride brings us 
to St. Armand Station. A fine stretch of level farming 
country, that strangely enough had no .attraction for the 
pioneer United Empire loyalist, has been left behind, and 
we have entered the land of bluffs and hills and water- 
courses and sugar bushes that give< miles and miles of 
picturesqueness to the Eastern Townships. 

Talk about romantic scenery. With streets and roads 
winding about in fantastic fashions, over ridges that give 
far prospects, with maple crowned hills or glimmering 
waters, and in the interval prosperous farms and ancient 
houses, who would not exchange care for communion in 
Nature's theatre 5 Rocks break out from the hillsides and 
rise in terraces ledge on ledge (foundations of untold 
wealth) in a way that suggests a home for the fox or the 
wild goat (if ever Canada had such); but the day of such 
habitation is gone, for the hard hand of human industry 
has come and the cold calculation of man's far-seeing brain 
is shaping the course for the development of a great 
industrial future. It is coming to Philipsburg. 


But climbing roadways, with roofs and broad veran- 
dahs peeping at you over the hillsides, quiet valleys where 
you hide from all the world, and the surprises of nature's 
landscape gardening which man's ingenuity has not spoiled 
it is all poetic, and one wonders why, in St. Armand, 
a great Canadian poet has not arisen. 

Into such a locality Peter Miller found his way, and 
no wonder he decided to remain. About a mile from the 
present railway station he secured his location. There on 
the summit of a hill he reared his Canadian home, and 
from that lofty eminence serenely surveyed all the lands 
and people beneath him. At 'the foot of the hill the 
moden railway train thunders past awakening the echoes 
in the valley, and from his car window the alert observer 
may easily descry the white metal roofs of ample farm 
house and modern barn which mark /"where this pioneer 
began his last life's work. The residence of to-day- 
spacious and substantial modernized by wide verandaii 
and internal wood finishings, was built in 1806 by Charles 
Miller, Peter's son, and is of stone. Its century of 
existence with a modern redressing seems only to have 
toughened it to the conditions of life and prepared it for 
a yet long future. As one looks about the wide hall and 
into roomy parlors with old-time fireplaces one can easily 
think that "Miller Homestead," was once the abode of a 
knight knightly at least in character. What an enter- 
prise at that early date to erect a home that even now 
puts to shame many a pretentious residence erected amid 
modern conveniences ! In such large calculations there 
was an air of hospitality a spirit which still delights to 
dwell therein as we can testify from recent experiences. 
AniO'ng the many guests who in early days enjoyed the 
hospitality of this house, the most welcome were the 
pioneer Methodist preachers. In the ample rooms many a 
preaching service and prayer meeting was conducted for 
the benefit of the settlers who always felt themselves 
welcome in "the house on the hilltop," and here, too, the 


business meetings of a Methodist circuit were conducted. 
Considering, therefore, what has been evolved from the 
efforts of the past, this stone house is a sacred place, pro- 
tected by white-winged angels and consecrated by gen- 
erous-handed time. 

Like his brothers, east and west, Peter Miller was 
unobtrusive, contenting himself with doing such things as 
were for the good of his neighbors; beyond that quietly 
minding his own ways. He seems to have left as little on 
record in writing as his brothers, except that we have his 
signature, which cannot be said of them. His descendants 
have, with other documents, .a legal instrument by which 
he made over his property to his son Charles, which bears 
date of 1812, and his handwriting is interesting. 

In his excellent brochure on "Canadian Loyalists," Mr. 
|. P. Noyes quotes in full a petition dated February 7th, 
1785, in which the petitioners somewhat hysterically protest 
their loyalty to the British Crown, and their objection to 
being struck off the list of beneficiaries of government 
provisions. It seems that "a few stubborn men pitched 
their tents in the seigniories when and where there were 
no owners on the spot to warm them off, and from thence 
importuned the government for permission to settle therein, 
on and about Missisquoi Bay. This was firmly and at 
times angrily refused, the government offering them lands 
elsewhere, where the Crown owned the lands; and on 
refusal they were officially warned that their provisional 
allowances would be cut off." This was done ; "the 
Governor General ordered their houses to be destroyed, 
and the settlers sent for location to St. Johns." Yet it 
seems they persisted, in the face of threatenings, to occupy 
the ground and had the courage to send in this petition 
for the granting of supplies. The document, the Dominion 
Archivist, Dr. Brymner, says is the only one relating to 
Missisquoi Bay of that period which contains a list of 
names. We are not sure that the conclusion has been 
correctly drawn that all settlers in the localitv would likely 


sign such a document. There was room for a difference 
of opinion as to the merits of the case, and there is a 
presumption in favor of some refusing to sign who rnay 
not have recognized the grievance. We do not know how 
far Cyrus Thomas is justified in saying that the first 
settlers came into Missisquoi in 1784; but there is a 
difference between the list of settlers which he quotes and 
the petitioners whose names are furnished by Dr. Brymner, 
there being seven names in the petition to government not 
quoted by Thomas, and twelve of those settlers of 1784 who 
are not on the petition of 1785. We take it that the latter 
twelve, .among whom were Peter Miller and Garrett Sixby, 
were well content with their own position, and probably 
saw how the others had provoked the government to harsh 
measures. Peter Miller must have received his grant of 
land as reward for military service; and it is on record 
among the archives of the western branch that while his 
brother Garrett was granted twelve hundred acres Peter 
was given nine hundred. By 1820, as we learn from a 
letter written by a visitor at that time, the combined estate 
of Peter and his son Charles amounted to thirteen hundred 
acres; whence we conclude that Peter Miller did not settle 
as a trespasser at Missisquoi Bay, and, therefore, his con- 
science prevented him from signing that particular petition. 

That the early settlers experienced great hardships 
the histories of the time afford ample evidence. There 
were times of famine. Families lived for days on the 
drink made from boiled beech leaves or slippery elm bark 
and the wild leek. Purchasing points were far distant, 
the means of conveyance often on the settler's back, and 
the only purchasing commodity was the potash made by 
burning the vast quantities of wood to ashes; in this way 
land was cleared of the forest, and a subsistence secured 
lor the time being. 

Peter Miller and his descendants maintained with 
justifiable pricle the U. E. loyalist and military traditions. 
In addition to his own military commission, for which as 


we have seen, he received recognition in the form of a land 
giant, his son Charles also attained the rank of captain, 
his son-in-law, Garrett Sixby, the rank of colonel, and 
the latter title i's also applied to Garrett's grandson Horatio 
fitting most eminently such a name. 

We naturally look around the locality in this year 
1907 for the large estate of thirteen hundred acres. Where 
is it ? The present farm consists of two hundred acres 
only. Not many rods south of the house is the American 
boundary line. How, we ask, could there have been so 
large an estate with a national boundary line so near ? 
Some three or four miles away is a beautiful natural park, 
Highgate, in Vermont State, a favorite summer resort, and 
the popular rendezvous for the Sunday School excursion- 
ists of Montreal and other places. This was once a 
part of the estate and was sold about 1853 after the death 
of Captain Charles Miller. A writer of 1820, after enjoy- 
ing the hospitality of Captain Charles, in dwelling with 
delighted recollection upon his visit, states that the estate 
consisted of thirteen hundred acres, a part of which was 
in Vermont; from which we gather that the property 
extended from the present two hundred acres to Highgate, 
what was regarded as being in Vermont having been pur- 
chased and secured in harmony with the laws of that 
State. The student of Canadian history will be familiar 
witli the troubles that arose between the English and 
American governments in 1837 over the disputes concern- 
ing the Maine and New Brunswick boundaries, resulting 
in the Ashburton Treaty of 1842, by which the Imperial 
Government evidently yielded the claims of the colonists 
for the sake of peace with the States. The treaty, fixing 
the boundary line at the forty-fifth parallel of latitude, 
resulted in the loss of much Canadian territory; and thus 
the Canadian portion of "Miller Homestead" became 
reduced to its present proportions. 

The "line-house" has become a fruitful source of local 
excitement and social discord through the existence of 


this "im?giiicuV' boundary line. The line ought to be 
made several feel wide, and be held as Crown domain upon 
which no one could lawfully build, for as it is houses are 
built contiguous to public highways, and extending into 
both countries, being used for mercantile purposes, more 
especially illegal liquor selling. When the officers of the 
law appear at the "line-house," the occupant always con- 
trives to have his goods on the other side of the line. 
Amusing and exciting have been the scenes witnessed at 
the raidings. Double partitions, false floors, trap doors 
and other ingenious devices have all been invented, 
especially for the purpose of circumventing the liquor law^. 
of the different nations and distressing quiet and law- 
abiding citizens. When the law bailiffs of both countries 
agree on an attack and join in concerted surprises confisca- 
tions and arrests follow, but even this method has been 
known to fail, by giving the "tip" beforehand. Such line- 
houses as those below Abercorn and near Mansonville in 
Quebec have witnessed many stirring occasions. 

Running over the hill and in front of the house which 
Charles Miller built is the public highway leading from 
Canada into Vermont, and as it crosses the boundary line 
one observes on the opposite side of the road one of these 
peculiarly constructed line -houses, the main part of the 
house being on the Canadian side and built up to the 
boundary line, while a box-like addition about large 
enough for a parlor protrudes out of the architectural line 
into American territory. 

It is this peculiar house, so adroitly situated, which 
has made it possible for us to trace the recognition of 
family relationship between the families of Peter and 
Jacob Miller, for there is a remembrance in Bridgewater, 
N.S., of what "Uncle John Miller" (1811-1898) used to 
tell of a visit which he made long ago to his cousins in 
this locality, and the impression which this line-house made 
upon his mind. 

Removed from the noise of city life and the excite- 


ments of large social attractions, Peter Miller and his 
descendants gave themselves to the development of pastoral 
life and the promotion of religious interests; their farming 
operations added to the wealth of the country, but it was 
their religious devotion that we particularly wish to 
emphasize, as the encouragement which they afforded made 
for the general higher quality of citizenship, wherein lies 
the real wealth of a country. 

The pioneer settlers waited long for Christian minis- 
trations. From the time of Peter Miller's location in St. 
Arinand in 1/84 to the advent of a Methodist minister in 
the new settlements about Missisquoi Bay was at least 
fifteen years ! Lorenzo Dew, an erratic character, greatly 
perplexing the conference, was appointed in i/QQ to the 
Essex circuit, which was only on paper. Undertaking the 
work, he labored during August, September and October 
of that year, taking in settlements in Sutton, Dunham and 
the border country of Vermont. This was the first con- 
ference appointment in the province of Quebec. At the 
next conference Essex circuit was reported with a member- 
ship of 2/4; we doubt not. that our hero, Peter Miller, was 
one of the number. Fletcher, in Vermont, was included 
in the circuit. In 1806 Fletcher was separated from the 
Canadian part of the work, and an official resolution was 
passed which is still to be seen in the circuit book pre- 
served in the Alethodist parsonage at Philipsburg, ordering 
that the name of Peter Aliller should have the same plac^ 
in the book connected with the Canadian work that it had 
before Fletcher was taken off. For a number of years a 
stone building, which still stands on the hill going from 
St. Armand Station to Philipsburg which is situated on 
the shore of Missisquoi Bay, served the purposes of school 
house and preaching place. Peter lived long enough to 
witness the near realization of a church erected for the 
worship of God according to the Methodist faith. He 
d;cd in 1819. An Episcopalian Church was already in 
existence at St. Armand. But in 1819 the ground was 


secured at Philipsburg and the erection of the Methodist 
Church begun the first church in that locality. Mrs. 
Miller survived her husband thirteen years, being at her 
death one hundred and one years of age. Really, pioneer- 
hardships seemed to make for longevity perhaps after 
all, were preferable to our modern nerve-exhausting rush. 
To the east of the present St. Armand Station a few rods, 
and on a rising ground, a little hedge-surrounded cemetery- 
affords the last resting place of these Methodist pioneers, 
together with many of their descendants to the third and 
fourth generation. 

Captain Charles Miller, hospitable and generous, con- 
tinued the agricultural life to the day of his death, content 
with performing the duties of private citizenship, but 
greatly beloved b^ his neighbors and family circle. The 
war of 1812 and the rebellion of 1837 found him active 
and loyal in defending British interests. Many of his 
children, of whom there were eleven, removed from the 
neighborhood. His first child, Peter, died young; three 
remained unmarried. One daughter, Agnes, who married 
John Cooper, retained an interest in the old home, which 
is still occupied by her daughter and grandchildren. Her 
brother, Thomas Cooper, born near Stanst-ead, Que., in 
1833, died in Boston in 1896, having persevered against 
great oclcls, and choosing a sea-faring life made himself 
notable as a captain, pilot and ship owner. He was an 
example of fearlessness, honesty, rapid decision and 
action, aggressiveness, and a passion for work. A son of 
Charles Miller, Nicholas, removed to Campbellford, Ont, 
where his descendants are to be found connected with the 
Methodist Church. A daughter, Margaret (1807-1899), 
married the Rev. Matthew Lang, and with him travelled 
Stanstead, Odelltown, Quebec, St. Armand, Belleville, 
Kingston, Montreal, Dunham, St. Johns and Cham- 
bly circuits. The Rev. Matthew Lang was book steward 
in Toronto 1835 and 1836, and chairman Bay of 
Quinte District in 1840, and of St. Johns in 1849. While 



stationed in St. Johns, he went one Sunday afternoon 
(February 2ist, 1850) to conduct a class meeting in the 
soldiers' barracks, was taken ill suddenly and died before 
returning to the parsonage. His family consisted of nine 
children, nearly all of whom settled in the United States 
in Toledo, Alburg Springs, St. Albans, Boston. 

A daughter given to the Methodist ministry and gen- 
erous gifts for the building of a Methodist Church, of 
which he was one of the first Board of Trustees, represent 


something of the relationship of Charles Miller to Metho- 
dism and his helpfulness to his race. 

It is fitting that we should conclude this chapter by 
the following outline history of Philipsburg Methodist 
Church, and the accompanying cut of the church as we 
saw it on a visit in the spring of 1907 . 

Philipsburg Methodist Church, solidly built of the 
native marble, undressed, but still as white as ever, neatly 
painted within, and furnished with modern circular seat- 
ing, with the accompaniment also of memorial art windows, 
is probably the oldest Methodist Church in the provinces 


of Canada which has been in continuous use. It is to the 
honor of Missisquoi county that it has dealt with kindly 
hands and has preserved in excellent condition this land- 
mark of Canadian life. 

The St. Armancl and Philipsburg circuit dates from 
1806. Previous to this date the pioneer preachers were on 
the ground, however, and following up the new settlers 
with the ordinances of religion. On the fly leaf of the 
stewards' book that came into existence in 1 806 there is this 
entry "Whereas Fletcher's circuit has been divided, the 
former records may be found in the stewards' book for that 
circuit." Quoting from information from the present 
pastor, Rev. Wm. Adams, we may say that the first official 
entry in the stewards' book is dated 1819. Previous busi- 
ness has been lost to history. The historian may not be 
surprised to find that in the first fourteen or fifteen years 
with everything in a formative condition, and the people 
not fully impressed with the historical value of their pro- 
ceedings, confusion and irregularity might characterize 
them, and their records kept in temporary form may have 
easily been lost. In the entry of 1819 the ink has become 
faded but the one steward's name which can be deciphered 
is that of Abraham V. V. Hogle. 

At the date of September 25th, 1806, the Methodist 
classes in connection with the Dunham and St. Armand 
circuit were as follows : 

Missisquoi North arid South. 

Stanbridge West and East. 

St. Armand North and South. 

Dunham North and South. 


Sutton North and South. 


Huntsburgh East and West. 

According to Cornish encyclopedia the ministers in 
charge from 1806-1813 were 1806 Henry Eames and Reuben 
Harris, 1807 Gerhsom Pearse, 1808 Oliver Sykes, 1809 


Lansford Whiting, 1810 Heman Gartick and Timothy 
Minor, 1811 Stephen Sornberger, 1812-1813 John T. Adams 
and William Ross. 

At the time of the war of 1812 a break occurs in the 
records. After the war St. Armand starts out separated 
from Dunham, evidently not the least weakened by war. 
The ministers were 1818 Richard Pope, 1819 Richard 
Williams, 1821 Daniel Hillier, 1822 James Booth, 1824 
John de Putron, 1825 Matthew Lang, 1827 William Squire, 
1829 James Knowlan, 1831 Thomas Turner, 1832 Inghrani 
Sutcliffe, 1833 Matthew Lang, 1835 John Tomkins and 
John Borland, 1836 James Booth and Richard Garrett, 1837 
William Squire and Thomas Campbell, 1839 William 
Squire and Malcolm McDonald, 1840 R. Hutchmson and 
M. McDonald, 1842 R. Hutchinson and H. Montgomery, 
1843 H. Montgomery and R. A. Flanders, 1844 W. M. 
Harvard and R. A. Flanders, 1845 J. B. Selley and R. A. 
Flanders, 1846 J. B. Selley, W. E. Shenstone and C. Sil- 
vester. The long list of successors of these pioneers 
includes Wm. Scott, Edmund S. Ingalls, Gifforcl Dorey, 
James Norris, Francis Hunt. John Davies, John Armstrong, 
T. W. Constable, T. Kelly, Allan Patterson, Charles R. 
Flanders, Robert Laiclly, James E. Richardson, R. 
Robinson, S. Teeson. Hiram Fowler, Isaac Wheatley, 
William Williamson, E. S. Howard, George H. Porter, 
William Rilance, William Adams. Surely it has been no 
vain thing to have such a roll of godly mea shedding the 
light of their Christian life upon the community, and 
living to make themselves respected that they might, also 
win respect and honor for their charge and people ! 

It was during the ministry of Rev. Richard Williams 
that the Methodist Church was built at Philipsburg. The 
deed of land was passed on the 7th day of October, 1819, 
by Philip Ruiter and James Taylor. Ruiter is both a 
U. E. loyalist and Palatine name. The deed was made 
to a Trustee Board consisting of Rev. Rd. Williams, and 
Messrs. Garrett Sixby, A. V. V. Hogle, Charles Miller. 



James Blair, James Abbott, Jacob Gaylor, Artemas Turner 
and Alanson Kilborn. The Parsonage was built in 1825. 

Under the ministry of Revs. G. II. Porter and William 
Adams the church has been completely renovated and is 
now in a progressive condition. Painted walls, modern 
circular seating and beautiful memorial windows 
combine to make it a house where one may gladly 
and reverently draw near to God. The memorial windows 


from St. Armand. 


Son of Charles 

born at St. Arniand, Que. April 7, 1797, 

lived and died in Florida U.S.A. 

May 14, 1878. 


Son of Charles 

born at St. Armand, Que. Feb. 8, 1801, 

lived and died in Campbellford, Ont., 

June 24, 1884. 

contain the following names of former pastors : R. A. 
Flanders, Francis Hunt, C. M. Hitchcock, Barnabas 
Hitchcock, Hugh Montgomery, William Scott, and of the 
following congregation : Margaret and Charles Miller, 
Alexander B. Struthcrs, Samuel and Philip Embury, Annie 
A. Pharaoh, James and Jessie Symington, John K. Montle, 
Jane R. Montle, Hiram and Huldah Fleming, Mary Brown, 
Hollis and Robert Hastings, Robert and Henry Crothers, 
Sarah S. J. and George Hastings, Augustus F. and Eunice 
Hogle, Abram and Miriam Hogle, Rodney and Carleton 
Reynolds, William and Mary Jordan, Bertha Mary and 



Mary E. Morgan, Edward Jordan, Morgan and Mary 
Hastings Morgan, C\.>1. Garrett Sixby and Bertha, wife of 
George Sixby. 

All of which suggests that an honorable, chnstian 
inheritance has been transmitted to the young people of 
to-day. Original centres of influence have changed from 
Eden and Ararat, from Egypt and Jerusalem, from 
Athens, Rome and Worms; even the banks of the Shannon 
may forget that the Methodist Palatines ever lived there' 


of Dunham. Que. 

Great-grandson of Peter Mil'er, U.E.L. 
Born 1824. 

and while the Province of Quebec may find itself reshaping 
its working forces and restating its claims to commercial 
attention, there may appear in places a seeming decadence 
of spiritual Christianity in this province, yet it may be only 
that truth, life and religious freedom may appear on a 
larger scale elsewhere. The changing of the soil is the 
saving of the seed. But Philipsburg may still fulfil ; 
mission .as a nursery for the nurture of strong, Christian 

Among the descendants of Peter Miller are to be 
found Mrs, Dr. Yates of Dunham, One.; the late Mrs. Dr. 
F. R. England, of Montreal; Mrs. Dr. Bradley, of t. 


Armand; Dr. Garrett Galer; Mrs. Dr. Savage, of West 
Brome; Mrs. E. E. Spencer, Ex-M.P., of Frelighsburg. 
Those who have long known Dunham Methodism remember 
appreciatively J. Niles Galer "the backbone of Dunham 

We conclude this chapter, also, with the assurance that 
pious ancestry has been a benediction, and that the answer 
to holy wishes arid the fruit of godly example continues 
through successive generations. The patriarchal blessing 
is a morning shower and a midday sun, transformed into 
flowers and fruitfulness. The "wicked are like the chaff 
which the wind driveth away," but of the righteous it is 
said, "his seed shall be blessed in the earth." Goodness 
and conscientiousness, brain power and alertness, industry 
and exalted idealism are capable of reproduction, and 
herein lies our hope of the betterment of the race, as 
through education we co-operate with the graces of the 
Holy Spirit. 



On thy waters enticing, afloat and alone, 
Mid thy banks Napanee, let me find Nature's home, 
Where in quietest pose, there is freedom from strife, 
And thy rapturous calm is suggestive of life. 

Here the tributes are score, which attend on thy grace, 
To make valley and hills an enamoring place; 
For the woodbine abounds, and the tansy is near. 
And the wild flax and lily, to banish my fear. 

While the skies all aglow, soft and blue overhead., 
Witness generousness true, sho\v that love is not dead; 
And the swaying white elder, and modest blue mint, 
\Vith the buttercups wealth, of true love are a hint. 

And the ambitious basswood for freedom aspires, 
While the bittersweet climbs about till it tires. 
And the wild daisy smiles, taking time to think on, 
While the treasures of moments are gliding along. 

Through the popple's white leaf and the poplar's tall head 
Come the lessons of patience and courage ne'er dead; 
While the feathered folk sing all unconscious of grief, 
And the lessons and song bring my tired heart relief, 

To thy broad, branching elms that of dignity speak, 
Joins the kindly old oak, arm of strength for the weak. 
While thy terraced banks rising, now rolling away, 
Enfold thee, defend thee, or asleep on thee lay. 

Mid thy calmness I drift with the flow of thy stream, 

In my reverie lost as a man in a dream, 

Or I rouse me to find thy resources are full, 

Toward Tomorrow, they flow as life grows from the school. 

There are curves in thy course and the banks head the way, 
As the Allwise and Kind drops the veil o'er today, 
Sometimes hidden and deep, like retired lives unknown, 
Then outspreading to view, in the glare of renown. 


And thy waters keep time as they travel along, 

In -their secrets a dirge, or they hear a love song, 

For an outstanding world of humanity dwells 

'Long thy banks, with its woes and in need of thy spells. 

Let me mark not the cloud, nor the death that may come 
When the winter lies on thee- thy summer is run; 
Little shadows are lost and forgotten through bliss 
To the toilers among us thy lesson is this. 

If a rock in the way creates trouble and noise. 
There are glad compensations by manifold joys; 
For the whirl of the strife is a tonic for fear. 
Till we laugh and grow strong when the rapids are near. 

Let the strength of thy stream draw me gently along 
So that God, thy great Source, fill my heart with a song, 
And I rest on my way where, the Life river broad 
Yields its fragrance and joy to the city of God. 

THE land of the Napanee River is a well favored, 
prosperous and beautiful locality, justly provoking the 
pride and patriotism of its citizens. Emptying as it does 
into the far-famed Bay of Ouinte about one hundred and 
eighty miles west of Montreal, it includes on its banks thr 
townships of Camden and Richmond, with the town of 
Xapanee at its outlet, and the prettily situated villages 
of Strathcona (until recently called Napanee Mills), New- 
burgh and Camden East marking its course. Geologically, 
it is but a remnant of its former .greatness, and is but a 
shallow and miniature stream in comparison with the 
breadth and depth and expanding bays that once marked 
its course. Its banks are limestone and, taking the water- 
mark of former ages, very high ; the receding river having 
become narrower the limestone ledges are jutting out a> 
if nature had been intent on creating stairways for the 
convenience of coming men. In some places the soil is 
lacking depth, but the decomposing limestone adds 
fertility, so that verdure abounds to make the land beauti- 
ful. The drive from Napanee by the Newburgrh road 
reveals prosperous agricultural conditions, handsome 


residences and grounds and the presence everywhere of a 
cultured and happy type of human life. It is a country 
of church spires, and one is impressed with the repose and 
ease of the outlook, suggesting freedom' and generous 
social relationships. The roadway largely follows the 
hillsides, thereby giving to one the opportunity to observe 
in the distance the outlines of the river's former greatness, 
or to look down on the roofs of the present-day village life. 
In this locality have lived and studied some of Ontario's 
foremost men. The time was when Newburgh Academy 
was far-famed and foremost among the schools of the 
province, and its halls were filled with students, even from 
the far east. The beauty, culture and comfort of the pre- 
sent day is in striking contrast with the pioneer conditions 
of eleven decades ago. 

To us who are endeavoring to pry into the early his- 
tory, it seems like a strange coincidence that the Palatines 
should always locate on the hills by the water courses; as 
if the sounds of old Germany were still ringing in their 
ears and hearts. Of course, the pioneer kept by the water- 
way as the highway for his limited commerce; but he was 
not obliged to take to the hills, especially not the highest 
hills always. Yet here are the children of the Rhine 
dwelling for a season by the Shannon, then finding their 
home in America by the Hudson, and later in the persons 
of the Miller brothers choosing the suggestive hills and 
waters of thres- widely separated Canadian localities. All 
the level, fertile land was passed over, and they chose the 
rougher land of the hills, yet including in their prospect 
the waterways. The Napanee in Ontario, and the La Have 
in Nova Scotia, like the picturesque shores of Missisquoi 
Bay, afforded splendid opportunity for the play of this 
dominant mountaineering spirit. There has been given to 
these localities a choice of foliage the maple groves are 
the pride of Missisquoi, the luxuriant pine gives its ever- 
lasting color to the La Have, while along the Napanee 
abound the stately elms. 



In 1796 or thereabouts Garrett Miller, the loyalist, 
removed from Sorel and located in Ernestown. What a 
strange name was his ! One wonders at its origin, and we 
cannot help thinking that an ancestor, probably a grand- 
father, had made it specially attractive by his personality. 
Otherwise, why should it be found in each of the pro- 
vincial branches of this remarkable family. And for three 
generations it was continued in the Ernestown Miller 
families, having been specially endeared to them by the 
loyalist, familiarly known as "Grandfather Miller." For 
the last two generations no child has received his name- 
sad that even the good should be forgotten ! 

This pioneer, at once a soldier and a Christian, 
brought to the Ernestown community a directly connecting 
link with John Wesley and his work. In the revival meet- 
ing of 1752, at which Philip Embury was converted, 
Garrett Miller, then a boy of fourteen, sought and found 
the Saviour and remained faithful to his Christian pro- 
fessions through the long period of seventy-one years. 
Writing in 1864, from information gathered about New- 
burgh, the Rev. W. H. Poole said: -"The eye of the 
venerable man, who was at once a soldier and a Christian, 
used to brighten and his tongue become eloquent as he 
told of Mr. Wesley's frequent visits to his father's house 
and neighborhood. He often heard Mr. Wesley preach." 
The religious and reverential spirit which in Camden, New 
York, led him to say, when he expected his residence there 
would be permanent, "For now the Lord hath made room 
for us," appears to have characterized him to the end of 
his life. 

How came it to pass that he located in Ernestown ? 
The writer just quoted says his reason for 'going west was 
"not liking the religious atmosphere" of Sorel. How 
different the history of his descendants might have been 
had he remained east ! Still, we are not satisfied that 
objection to the religious conditions of Quebec took him 
to Ernestown. Why did he not pitch his tent with his old 


friends at Augusta ? It may be said in reply that he 
received grants of twelve hundred acres of land further 
west as reward for military services. And this is true; but 
the land was located in the townships of Darlington, 
Percy, Loughboro' and Leeds, and, for some reason 
unknown, none of it was ever taken up by the grantee. 
Instead he took up a large block of land in the sixth and 
seventh concessions of Ernestown on the ordinary terms 
of settlement. It was located by what is now known as 
the "Switzerville road," and is at present occupied in part 
by his great grandson, Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, of 
"Maple-lawn," Switzerville. Tne estate was ultimately 
extended northward to include land in Camden township, 
so that for years there was a large "Miller block" on which 
were the farms of Garrett and his sons Peter, John, 
William and Garrett an old-time Methodist constituency. 
We think that the reasons for location at this point 
were social and religious. The first Methodist Church in 
the Canadian provinces, of which we herewith present a 
view taken on June 22nd, 1892, had been built, and 
undoubtedly the word had passed down the river that the 
cause of evangelical religion, dear to the heart of every 
admirer of John Wesley, doubly dear to those who had 
known his face and form and had felt the force of his 
words, had taken root in Canadian soil as a tree of the 
Lord's planting. There was rejoicing in every Wesleyan 
heart. Every Wesleyan shanty heard a prayer of thanks- 
giving at the time of the evening meal, when the word 
had come that the enterprise had started ! Little could 
those pioneers have foreseen what that little beginning 
would mean for Canadian patriotism and the national 
Christian consciousness. It is not difficult to see how 
Canada was under obligation to this forward movement 
of 1792, when at the time of the attempted rebellion among 
the Northwest Indians in 1885, it was repeatedly said that 
not one Methodist Indian was found disloyal to the gov- 
ernment. Methodism, which has repeatedly sent its 


greetings to our British Royalty and honored the Sovereign 
by honoring the Representative of the Throne in Canada, 
has by its work among white men and red men made it 
easier for Britain to rule in North America. When we 
remember that Methodism is the largest Protestant Church 
in this Dominion, it is no small item of the National assets 
that we are emphasizing. The Hay Bay Church with its 
first clerically organized class meeting represented the 
beginning of all that gracious spiritual influence, making 
for Scriptural holiness which has since touched the social 
and religious life of Canada. How strategically that 
church was located on the back concession line where the 
waters of the Bay of Qumte, through Hay Bay, dash 
against the shore ! It was almost no particular locality ; 
the church could not be localized and forgotten; it could 
not be limited to the religious requirements of one small 
community. The location was suggestive of the cosmo- 
politan character of modern Canadian Mfethodism, and it 
drew to the ministrations of the church from a far extended 
constituency on either side of the Bay. How the hearts 
of the boatmen must have thrilled with sacred emotion as 
they rowed toward the great camp meetings of those early 
days, and the notes of Methodist hymns and the shouts of 
a praying people were wafted to them from the shore line ! 
Thus Garrett Miller was drawn to where 

"All harmonious human tongues 
Their Saviour's praises speak." 

What quarterly meetings were those which convened on 
Friday and lasted Saturday and Sunday, and represented 
the whole circuit ! 

And was not Elizabeth Miller Roblin already living 
on the middle concession line of Adolphustown, where the 
old homestead is still occupied by Roblins? Her husband 
had died in 1788 four years after settlement began. The 
subscription list for the building of the church in 1792, 
and which is preserved among the Allisons, is said to have 
been as follows : 


s. d. s. d. 

Paul Huff 10 o o Peter Ruttan ...... 4 o o 

Peter Frederick ... 4 o o Joseph Clapp 5 o O 

Elizabeth Roblin .12 o o John Bininger i o o 

William Casey ... 7 o o Conrad Vandusen..i5 o o 

Daniel Steel 3 10 o Heney Hover 8 10 o 

Joseph Allison ... 5 o o Casper Vandusen... 200 

William Green ... i o o Arra Ferguson 3 o o 

William Ruttan ...10 o o Daniel Dafoe 2 o o 

Solomon Huff 2 o o Andrew Embury... 200 

Stophel Carman... 200 Henry Davis 4 o o 

John Green 3 o o William Ketcheson. 200 

The second largest subscription represented the 
widow's. mite. Playter pronounces it "liberal," and adds, 
"the Roblins of the Bay of Quinte have always been hos- 
pitable and liberal minded people." 

The subscribers included old friends and neighbors 
of Garrett, and such considerations, together with a desire 
to be in the locality near to his widowed sister, decided 
him to locate where he might also have fellowship with 
kindred spirits in religious, exercises. 

This old church, still to be seen where the waters lash 
the shore, exposed now to the sacrilegious uses of owls 
and farm conveniences, neglected by those who might. 

"Have treasured it long as a sainted prize." 

but who parted with it for a trifle, was the scene of the 
first winter court of the Midland Division, which was held 
in January, 1/95. Methodism has forsaken this early 
house of prayer because her churches, more convenient and 
splendid, have multiplied in every direction. Localizing 
the cause resulted in shifting the centre of influence in 
Adolphustown, and in 1784, the centennial of the landing 
of the first U. E. loyalists, the centennial church, a beau- 
tiful and commodious modern church, was built on the 
middle concession line where it is attended by a large and 
devotional congregation largely representing the pioneers 
who built the first church. 


Hay Bay church was four years old when Garrett 
Miller moved into the wilderness of Ernestown. With that 
church for the remainder of his life he identified himself 
it was only twenty-five miles from his shanty home, 
perhaps more by the bush roads or the river courses and 
he became a sympathetic outpost for the extension of 
Methodist influence into other communities, as they arose 
through the settlement of the country. 

In his work on "Case and his Contemporaries,'' vol. I, 
page 327, the late Dr. John Carroll refers to the "German- 
Irish Garrett Miller of Ernestown, a Palatine, and the 
grandfather of Rev. Aaron Miller." He had become 
known as a loyal Methodist and centre of religious 
influence. Fifty-eight years of age he was when he started 
to carve out a home in the forest, and in the good pro- 
vidence of God lived to enjoy his work and fulfil the 
mission of his life for another twenty-seven years. Let 
the youthful reader, who probably has never looked on 
the struggles of the modern settler in trie Canadian back- 
woods, try to conceive, if he can, what it meant to a man 
of fifty-eight with a wife and ten children, the youngest 
four years of age, to undertake the hardships of bush life. 
What powers of physical endurance he must have possessed 
to endure the poverty, the travel, the hardship of war, and 
the fatigues of pioneer life, and be able to give twenty- 
live years of service to land clearing ! And what religious 
contentment and perfect confidence in God must have 
pervaded his life that he persevered so courageously, and 
with such masterly strength of purpose, example and 
achievement to the end ! In the end he was the righteous 
seed grown to the ripened and well developed corn in the 
ear, whose fruitfulness continues through succeeding gen- 

Of his neighbors in Ernestown one might, if space and 
time permitted, write volumes concerning their origin, early 
achievements, and social, municipal and religious in- 
fluences; that, however, does not come within our purview. 


Of one, however, we will speak briefly inasmuch as in the 
genealogical histories the name is more frequently 
associated than is that of any other one family This was 
John Shibley who, before the Revolutionary war, had 
married Ellen Godinicr, and who, at the close of the war, 
either could not, or would not, live under other than the 
British flag. The Shibleys were of Swiss and Dutch 
origin with Lutheran training. John Shibley the elder 
married in America Ann Wergman, and of their family 
of nine children only the eldest one, Jo-hn, with his wife, 
came to Canada. Their destination \vas at a point west 
of Bath long known as "Shibley's Point," but now better 
known as "Finkle's Point," and once famous for its ship- 
building enterprise. Airs. Shibley was a woman of sterling 
character, masterful in purpose and inspiring in her energy. 
It is related erf her that as the beat in which she and her 
husband were paddling along the shore reached shallow 
water at trie point for whicn they had been looking, sne 
grasped an axe, sprang from the boat, made her way to 
shore and cutting a tree exclaimed, "I have cut the first 
tree on our farm!' From the old homestead in the front 
of Ernestown the family later removed to the township 
of Portland, from whence it has extended its influence 
and prestige in the counties of Frontenac, Addington and 
Lennox. It is to be noted that whereas th- religious ten- 
dencies of this family were towards Lutheranisin and 
Anglicanism, it was by those Methodist influences which 
Garrett Miller represented that the spiritual and social 
advancements have most largely accrued, and in the 
avenues of Methodism many of the descendants of John 
Shibley have been most actively engaged. 

When William Loscc came to Adolphustown in i/Oi 
he was the first Methodist preacher appointed in Canada, 
and so far as can be learned but little effort had been made 
to preach the Gospel in that locality. The soldier Neal. 
a local preacher, had been doing work in the Niagara 
country, and a class had been formed there; another 


soldier, Tuffy, had been preaching at Quebec; at Augusta 
shortly after 1778 the first Canadian class meeting had 
been held; but in Adolphustown there appears to have been 
no attempt made towards religious advancement until 
1788 when Lyons, an exhorter in the Methodist Episcopal 
church, came to teach school and on Sabbath days held 
services among the people. At the end of Losce's year the 
Kingston circuit, as it was called, reported a membership 
of 165. In addition to the Adolphustown church, he had 
on its completion built another in the front of Ernestown 
about three and a half miles east of Bath, on a high bank 
of the Bay shore, and with a beautiful prospect looking 
southward. This was the locality known as Parrot's Bay. 
The principal contributors toward the enterprise were, 
according to Playter, James Parrot, John Luke, Robert 
Clarke and Jacob Miller. This Jacob Miller, Dr. Carroll 
describes as a "pure Dutchman" direct from the old land. 
A distinction has always been made between his descen- 
dants and those of our hero, in the sense that they were 
unrelated, the one 'being Dutch and the other German-Irish. 
Jacob's descendants have been loyal to Methodism through 
all their history, and Thomas Miller is an enthusiastic 
official of Beulah church on the Bath circuit. The Lakes 
and the Clarkes married into the families descended from 
Garrett Miller. 

The circuit known at first as Kingston was called 
Cataraqui from 1792-1795, Bay of Quinte 1795-1840. In 
1841 Bath and Napanee circuits were formed out of it* and 
in 1851 Newburg circuit was created Kingston circuit had 
been made also in 1822. The Kingston, Napanee, Picton 
and Belleville districts now represent the country that was 
at first touched by the Kingston circuit. 

What militant and triumphant preachers Garrett and 
his neighbors listened to! From 1796 on there were Elijah 
Woolsey and Sylvanus Keeler, Samuel Coate, attractive 
and popular, Hezekiah Calvin Wooster, who spread "wild- 
fire" and was instrumental in great revivals (one of the 


younger Millers was named in remembrance of him), 
Darius Dunham and the erratic but devoted Lorenzo Dow, 
William Anson and Daniel Pickett, who wa.s one of the 
first to preach about Belleville, J. Sawyer, Peter Vannest 
and Nathan Bays, the accomplished and fearless, T. 
Madden and the notables Henry Ryan and William Case, 
Luther Bishop, Elias Pattee, Ninian Holmes, Cephus 
Hulhert (after whom was named another grandson), 
Chandley Lambert, Joseph Lockwood, Thomas White- 
head, P. Covenhoven, Edward Cooper, Isaac B. Smith, 
John Reynolds, David Culp, Ezra Adams, John Rhodes, 
Nathaniel Reeder (during whose ministry, in company with 
Thomas Madden, a marvellous revival spread through 
Fredericksburg, Adolphustown and Ernestown and lasted 
for fourteen months, during which time three hundred per- 
sons were converted), Isaac Puffer, James Wilson, James 
Booth, Robert Jeffers, D. C. Spoke, C. N. Flint, F. Medcalf, 
J. G. Peal, Wyatt Charberlain, and no doubt others who at 
times interchanged or assisted in such special events as 
quarterly meetings and camp meetings. The Methodists 
of those days certainly had the advantage of variety over 
those of our days. Short terms and large circuits had the 
effect of making the Methodist preacher the most interest- 
ing personality that could visit the new settlement. His 
message, conceived not in view of the danger of repeating 
himself to a reading and well informed congregation, but 
in the light of his observations made among the people 
was always sympathetic, sometimes sternly so, and the 
people accepted his word as from God. The soldier, 
trained to obedience, rejoiced in such an aspect of the 
gospel ministry. 

Garrett Miller's humble home near the "Gore" was a 
lodging place for the preacher as he wended his way from 
one settlement to another, or sought out homes where fiis 
visit might result in good; it was open also, as his father's 
in Ireland had been, for the preaching of the Gospel, hence 
it became instrumental in the creation of a new "appoint- 


Similarly the widow Roblin's house, which was larger 
than the ordinary, and consisted of two log houses built 
together making thus two or more good sized rooms, was 
the preacher's headquarters his lodging and washing 
being a contribution to the work. 

Before the death of Garrett "Switzervillc" had become 
a preaching place duly recognized. Peter Switzer with his 
sons Philip, Christopher and John, and his daughters 
Mary, who married an Empey, and Margaret, who married 
a Neville, some of whose descendants are still to be found 
in that section of Ontario-, made up such a considerable 
portion of the community as to readily give it a name. 
Christopher Switzer's was the preacher's occasional stop- 
ping place. 

Hard by the Switzerville chapel on the road leading 
directly southward from the village of Newburgh and 
about three miles distant there was created the usual 
accompaniment of a cemetery. In what year this took 
place there are no records to enable us'to say with accuracy. 
There is evidence of the existence of the appointment in 

1822. And as every one in the locality seems to have 
always taken it for granted that their friends should be 
buried in the church cemetery it is more than probable 
that the old U. E. loyalist, Garrett Miller, who died m 

1823, was buried in the same plot. Years afterwards an 
attempt was made to under drain the ground and in the 
confusion which resulted the markings of the old graves 
were lost. Of that matter the resurrection morning will 
take care. It is the spirit that quickeneth ; the flesh pro- 
fiteth nothing; and the spirit of that pioneer, in every way 
worthy, and who amid many hardships maintained 
Christian constancy, lives on in his numerous and widely 
scattered descendants. "The righteous shall be had in 
everlasting remembrance;" "his seed shall be mighty upon 
earth;" "by their fruits ye shall know them." 




My arms they are strong, and my strides they are long; 

While my vision is keen to see: 
And my intellect's elear, while no hardships I fear 

In this land of the brave and free. 

I'll level the wood, I'll break up the sod. 

..My litlc shack T will uprean 
Where hunters once trod, an altar to God 

I will raise for my evening prayer; 

And my acres shall grow, till from pine-bush and snow 

Golden fields my barns overflow; 
Until under free skies my broad gables arise. 

And home with love's light is aglow 

OUR illustration represents two sorts of horseless carriages 
to be found in the same locality in a certain part of Nova 
Scotia; it is a suggestion of ancient struggle and modern 

The first settlers in the Bay of Ouinte country in 1784 


had no cattle. The first cows were given to the pioneers 
by the government. The first cattle were brought up 
country from Montreal and represented the advent of 
prosperity. When they came, oxen and the slow toiling 
carts (at first "jumper" a sort of rudely constructed sleigh 
that slid along on the mud), were as much appreciated 
then as the horses and wagons are now. When roads were 
passable it was with great satisfaction that the heads oi 
families rode to the "meeting house" while the young 
people, after the labor of the week, found it refreshing to 
walk five miles or more to the same service. Look at one 
of the best outfits of those conditions two oxen under 
the double yoke swinging and bending their heads lazily ; 
the wagon consisting of two wheels with the tongue 
attached to the yoke, the bolster on the axle, and on the 
bolster without the superfluous and unknown luxury of 
springs was built a box-like affair a board across it did 
for a seat, a bit of patchwork quilt for a cushion, some 
straw or evergreens for a foot rug, lap rug there was none, 
and a calico sun-bonnet far surpassed parasols. Yes ! 
Such a carriage took our ancestors to church ; and they 
went regularly. If the young folks were wee folks, and 
they with the wife filled up the ox-cart, then the good 
husband patiently walked bv the side of his cattle, 
occasionally disturbing their dreams by reason of a whip 
made from a new cut sappling. Red handkerchiefs, 
shirt sleeves and sunbonnets added variety enough to the 
appearance of a congregation where the preacher counted 
himself happy if he got a new suit of homespun once a 
year, and where the soul of the people expressed itself in 
luxurious and uncritical singing of those old-time theolo- 
gical and experiential hymns. Ox-carts were good things 
for even church work; electric cars and steam-cars go so 
fast that now-a-days people fly away from the churches 

And the churches and the services connected there- 
with were simple in the extreme. Of ten-times the church 
was merely a closed in frame set on a rudely built founda- 


tion of stone, or on no foundation but a few posts. I he 
windows were square topped, and with small panes of 
glass, and window sash, doors and frames all made by 
hand as were also the nails that were used. The boards, 
too, were sawn by hand, the saw pit being used when two 
men could labor with the same saw. The pulpit was a 
rudely constructed table, set on a slightly raised, and 
usually responsive platform of single boards not very 
substantially stayed. Seats at first consisted of boards 
laid on blocks of wood. It was not difficult to bring the 
people to such places to hear the Gospel preached and no 
modern city preacher addresses more appreciative congre- 

But churches and even ox-carts were rather an after 
thought. The first step in pioneer life was to find a way 
through the forest. This was done by "blazing" the trees, 
that is cutting a chip with an axe from the trees so as to 
mark the course one had taken. Once a. correct course had 
been thus marked out the woodsman proceeded to widen 
his pathway by clearing out the underbrush and trees that; 
were in his way. The trees were cut into lengths and 
thrown crosswise into swamp holes so as to make firm 
footing. Streams were sometimes crossed on loot by 
walking on trees felled from opposite banks. In the 
absence of bridges the cattle, and even horses when 
introduced, had to ford or swim the streams. The first 
bridges were far removed from the plank and iron struc- 
tures of the present day, and for the most part consisted 
of stringers supported by abutments made of sticks of 
timber built up in quadralaterals, and across which were 
laid numerous pieces of split cedar. "Corduroy" road, 
made of logs of trees laid crosswise of the road and placed 
closely together, was the regulation type wherever there 
were special difficulties in roadmaking such as unduly 
steep hills or wet and boggy hollows. 

In entering upon his work of clearing a farm the 
settler's most important tools were an axe, a cross-cut saw 


and an auger. With these he built his first shanty, which 
was usually a hut twelve feet by eighteen feet, one storey 
high and roof sloping one way. The walls were made of 
logs, piled one above the other, the ends being notched 
into each other and fastened down by wooden pins driven 
into auger holes. The roof at first was made of logs, first 
split and then hollowed out like troughs; these were laid 
backs down, with others reversed over the upturned edges. 
The floors were made of handsawn boards. The cracks 
between the logs were "chinked," with chips driven in and 
covered over with mud plastered even with the inside sur- 
face of the logs. 

The furniture was also hand-made. The table, a 
handy cross legged one, or a more elaborate one with four 
strong corner posts stayed with stringers, had a top made 
of home-sawn boards. For chairs, there were at first 
stools made of slabbed pine blocks into which were inserted 
legs made from the limbs of trees. The bedsteads were 
made in the corners of the rooms, by inserting pieces of 
timber into the logs of the walls, and supporting them 
with an upright at the corner. An auger and an axe were 
equal to almost any requirement. The first mattresses 
were abundant supplies of green pine boughs. No wonder 
the pioneers were healthy. 

When the circumstances of the pioneer improved he 
gathered his neighbors for a "bee," had a "raising," and 
put up for himself a log house, which might be twenty-four 
feet by thirty-six feet and twelve feet high, with logs 
hewn to flat surfaces, and a roof made of boards and 
shingles, the house being set against the broad side of the 
shanty, which then became a commodious kitchen. 

The first summer the settlers were in Kingston to-wn- 
ship they lived and slept under the shelter of trees until 
they could build something in which to spend winter. The 
first crop those settlers had was secured by every man 
taking a handful of turnip seed out of the quantity which 
the government supplied to the settlers freely and scatter- 


ing" it upon the ground where he could. It proved to be 
good seed on good soil. 

The clearances on the farms, were made mostly in 
winter time by felling the trees, cutting them into lengths 
and piling the brush. In summer, when dried they were 
burned. Out of the ashes the pioneers made potash which 
was readily an article of commerce and secured the neces- 
saries of life. 

The government supplied ploughs and seed to the 
settlers, who with their oxen roughly broke up the land, 
then scattered the seed and harrowed it by means of heavy 
branches of trees which were drawn over the ground by 
the oxen until the seed was covered. 

Under such circumstances the people were not dis- 
couraged but rapidly improved. When Bishop Asbury 
crossed the St. Lawrence and visited the Canadian Metho- 
dist societies along the St. Lawrence as far west as Kings- 
ton he said : "Our ride has brought us through one of 
the finest countries I have ever seen. The timber is o<f a 
noble size; the cattle are well-shaped and well looking; 
the crops are abundant on a most fruitful soil." 

Undoubtedly the pioneer had to resort to contrivance 
and ingenuity to maintain a living. His industry and 
thrift, his sobriety and godliness rewarded him. Taverns 
and "stopping" places were soon in the land, and in 
instances half a dozen of them scattered along roads to 
waylay the thirsty traveller, where happily there are now 
none. They did their disastrous work, and those of the 
early settlers who patronized them soon lagged behind 
in the march of progress and prosperity. The good sense 
of the sober and prosperous citizens wisely drove the evil 
traffic at length from many places where it had wrought 
its mischievous work. Would it were driven from all this 
fair land ! 

Hunting, trapping and fishing were providential 
sources of "income." One has told how on one occasion 
he subscribed two dollars at the Methodist missionary 


meeting, and knew not where the money was to come from. 
The next day he set his traps. The day following he 
found he had a beaver, whose skin he sold for four dollars. 
The subscription in that case as in many others appeared 
to be a good investment. Another has told how the wolf 
once trapped becomes a coward, and ceases to fight wolf 
nature ! 

The German-Irish farmers were as shrewd, practical 
and sagacious in their methods of living as the modern 
German. Of the latter it has been said, he will thrive on 
Canadian land where other people will starve. The earlier 
pioneers came to grow rye extensively, and they discovered 
that the strength of rye straw in cattle feeding surpassed 
that of any other straw. But the cattle also were wise. 
Rye straw was coarse and the cattle would only eat it 
when starved to it. The farmer, therefore, kept all other 
straw out of the way. It was rye straw or nothing. And 
his cattle flourished. Then he made contracts to feed his 
neighbor's cattle for the winter and bring them out to 
spring in :good condition. And in time a profitable export 
trade of cattle sprang up, which added to the material 
resources of the community. 

The first means of warming and lighting the homes 
was through massive fire-places on the one hand and pine 
knots on the other. Enterprising pioneers built themselves 
large stone chimneys at one end of their house, and this 
was prepared for the fire-place with stone floor and on 
which were laid large lengths of blazing pine and hard- 
wood. What little literature was available at that day 
was read in the light of the fire glow. Pine torches also 
lighted the settler through the wood? when caught out at 
night, and served to keep off the wolf, whose howl was a 
frequent attendant of the forest wilds. Candles were later 
luxuries in the home life and represented an improvement 
on the "tallow dip." 

As for clothing, there were many contrivances and 
economies. In summer very little was required, and the 


feet of boys and girls alike grew tough as they ran bare- 
footed among the stumps of the clearances. For winter 
foot-wear, the men learned to tan the skins of deer which 
they shot in the woods, and of tnese they made moccasins, 
or with coarser skins an article which came to be known 
as "shoepacks. '' Mittens for the hands were also made 
from the deer skins, or were presently knitted from yarn 
by the mothers and daughters, who all learned the use 
of knitting needles. A weaver's loom found its way 
among the settlers, and the processes of taking the wool 
from the sheep's back, carding, spinning and weaving it: 
into cloth for home wear became familiar scenes in the 
pioneer homes. 

The first man that noticed so much sap issuing in 
spring time from a maple tree, which he had chanced to 
wound, and touching it to his lips found it was sweet, 
must have been as great a wonder to his neighbors as the 
man of earlier days who found out how to create fire. 
Thereafter experiments resulted in producing maple 
syrup and sugar, and the families of the pioneers came 
to look on the "sugar bush" as an important asset in their 
financial affairs. 

When the first wheat was grown it created the pro- 
blem of manufacturing it into flour. At first a log was 
hollowed out, or the stump) of a tree was made hollow, 
and in this the settlers pounded their wheat to a condition 
in which it could be cooked ; the same treatment was 
given to Indian corn and it was called "samp" or "sap- 
pawn." The first mill the Ernestown settlers had was 
eastward down the St. Lawrence i 50 miles ; a bag of flour 
was precious in those days. Later, the government built 
a stone mill at Kingston Mills for the accommodation 
of the settlers, and it is said that the pioneers came with 
their grist distances of seventy miles in every direction, 
in many instances carrying their loads on their backs. 
When mills were built at Napanee and Gananoque the 
Kingston mill lost its patronage. It was built by Robert 



Clarke, one of the U. E. loyalist settlers of Ern^stown, 
a gentleman who also gave character to Methodism and 
conducted the building of the pioneer Methodist churches. 
His descendants are in Ernestown and about Odessa and 
Kingston. After over a century of existence the mill 
tumbled down on Saturday, August i/th, in this year, 

The things which the settlers bought usually cost 
according to the character of those days. The late T. 
W. Casey, of Napanee, descendant of U. E. loyalists, and 
in his day a notable character, historically inclined, 
unearthed a number of interesting account books which 
reveal the luxurious prices which the pioneers paid. It is 
true they paid largely in kind from the produce of the 
forest or the farm and this helped them. The story of 
the Missisquoi settler who walked through the woo-ds into 
Vermont and paid $14.00 for a barrel of pork, taking two 
days for his journey, is not in the leat extravagant, and 
it is to be surmised that the barrel was small, inasmuch as 
he was able to carry it home. In the settlement about 
Perth, Ont, in 1817, when prices had beeu reduced one- 
half, they still revealed an altitude quite undesirable in 
our favored days. Flour was then $14.00 per barrel, 
potatoes $2.00 per bushel, wheat $4.00 per bushel, Indian 
corn $2.00 per bushel, beef or mutton i8c. per lb., and 
pork 2oc. per lb. Meat, we might say, was about the only 
reasonably priced article. From the letter of an 1820 
arrival in Montreal we learn that "good port wine was 
4s. to 55. per gal., Jamaica rum the same, good Souchong 
tea 5s. to 6s. per lb., lump sugar lod. per lb., fresh butter 
Sd. per lb., Jamaica sugar Sd. per lb., Hyson, Stecn or 
good breakfast tea, green 43, gd. to 5s per lb." At that 
time "three comfortable rooms" were rented in Montreal 
for $9.00 per mo-nth. 'Of course prices differed with 
localities, and when farm produce increased prices were 
reduced a fact which dees no-t always follow in these 
modern days, owing largely to the increasing influx of 


population. The writer whom we have last quoted was 
a Methodist local preacher, and we cannot avoid smiling 
at his interest in "good port wine" and "Jamaica rum." 

Unfortunately, drink was too often the curse of the 
new settlements. The liquor seller and the pioneer 
preacher were combatants, and the row r dies created by the 
former often interrupted the work of the latter. And such 
were the social customs and ideals of those days that it 
was thought a thing impossible, and even ungenerous, to 
attempt a social function without a liberal supply of 
intoxicants. In correcting these customs the strong and 
independent minded settlers, assisted by their ministers, 
played a prominent part. 

And the "bee" had not a little to do towards stimulat- 
ing a love for drink. The "bee/' was simply .a general 
gathering of neighbors for some lar : ge piece of work. 
When money was a rare thing and everybody had about 
as much of everything else as his neighbors had, paid 
employees could scarcely be found. The only alternative 
was to turn in and work together in common, and thus 
go in groups from place to place assisting each other in 
common. Thus the frames of churches were raised- 
massive timbers (whose proportions have often astonished 
modern builders) requiring united effort to put them in 
place. Houses and barns would have their walls put up 
in a day by such means. Acres of woods would be 
chopped down, or a great "logging bee" would pile up 
the logs that remained after the burning, by the same 
united goodwill and neighborly help. And, of course, 
there were always some then, as now, who wanted "a good 
time," and regarded their neighbor as of an uncanny kind 
if he did not supply liberal drinks. Happily there came 
a change and an end to all that, and largely, be it said 
to their credit, through the agency of the Methodist 
preachers. The "bee" is still a living institution in our 
tie we r localities, but without the old time excesses. 

As for amusement and recreation, some was found, 



more especially in the winter evenings. We may suppose 
that the precursor of the hand-sleigh was a slab of wood 
with the bark taken off. This was followed by a sawn 
board which slid down the snowy hills, and on which the 
young people stood. Later came the hand-sleigh, whose 
runners were fashioned out of crooked tree roots; and the 
hand-sleigh afforded delightful outdoor sports for older 
ones than children. As for indoor sports the great 
amusement was dancing, and it was a trouble to the 
preachers. It is said it "was the fashionable frivolity of 


Home of Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, great grandson of Garrett Miller, 
and located on a part of the lot which was taken up in 1796. 

the times, and the youth met weekly in each other's houses 
for the purpose." 

John Roblm, who was a son of the widow Roblin, at 
whose home William Losce, the pioneer Methodist preacher 
in Canada, made his headauarters, was regarded as leader 
of this amusement in Adolphustown. The preacher 
reproved him, and the next Sabbath in the spirit of repen- 
tance he attended the meeting and went home rejoicing 
in God. He knelt and prayed with his. mother and sisters, 
and then went to a neighbor's where he also had prayer, 
and this resulted in the conversion of that neighbor, who 


afterwards became a class leader. John, like many others 
since, found more joy in prayer than he had in dancing. 
The winter time "protracted meeting" changed the social 
aspect of many a community. After all the greatest 
social factor then, as now, was the religious service, and 
the minister of the Gospel, as the friend of every one, 
received without revealing every onejs confidence, and 
stood as a link of communication between persons and 
communities his personality maintaining a social bond. 
When the school was added to the list of possessions, the 
community was rich and contented. And why not ? 
Along with the sense of independence there was provision 
for the physical, social, intellectual and religious life, for 
adult and youth, for the life present and the life to come; 
and all within the peace loving land of liberty-fair "Can- 
ada of ours." 



"The Men of Faith the Men of Fear, 

These are the gradings of our day; 
One-sixth against five-sixths, makes clear 
That triumph falls to faith alway." 

AT a time when the Bay of Quinte circuit consisted of 
forty-seven appointments, with three preachers in charge, 
and engaged the preachers six weeks to cover the ground, 
"Switzerville" was an important and central point. The 
circuit had a membership of nine hundred and sixty-six! 
No wonder the superintendent felt the burden of 
administering discipline. At what date the "chapel" was 
built it is difficult to determine as accounts differ. Cer- 
tainly it was in existence in 1822. It was in that year 
that the first death in the ranks of the Canadian Methodist 
itinerancy occurred, and in connection with Switzerville. 
J. G. Peale, the indefatigable, soldierly, persevering and 
attractive superintending preacher of the circuit, had 
reached Adolphustown on Saturday affected somewhat 
with a cold, but took his appointment on Sunday morn- 
ing at Hay Bay church. During the night the bay had 
frozen over, and the water had become glare ice, too 
smooth to walk on, and still dangerously thin for a horse. 
Resolved to fulfil his engagements the preacher walked 
across the ice with only stockings on his feet, and then 
proceeded on his way, a journey that must have meant 
twenty miles or more. Getting overheated in church and 
chilled on the ice, he was not well when he reached Switzer- 
ville chapel ; yet he conducted the service. At the close he 
importuned a local brother to lead the class, but through 
modesty because of the minister's presence he declined; 


so that the minister did this work also. Afterwards he 
.went to Christopher Switzer's, his usual resting place, 
where he was taken worse, became delirious and died. In 
his delirium he said "Father Switzer might have led the 
class." The reference would be to Peter Switzer. By this 
circumstance the existence of Switzer's chapel at that date 
is established. 

The church has been made famous by the conference 
.held in it in 1828. Other conferences had been held before, 
notably Elizabethtown near Brockville (1817), Niagara 
(1820), Hallowell (1824), Hamilton to-wnship fi826), 
and in Hamilton village (1827), but those were under the 
supervision of the Methodist Episcopal church in the 
United States. But the conference in Switzerville marked 
the beginning of the history of Canadian Methodism as 
an independent church. Bishop Hedding was present, and 
it was the last time that an American bishop presided. 
The first Canadian Methodist Ordination service was held 
in connection with this conference, and the Rev. William 
Case was elected the first general superintendent of Can- 
adian Methodism. What a humble beginning was this 
first "conference churca" as compared with its successors 
all over the land ! And how highly honored were those 
people of Switzerville and environs ! The memory of 
Wesley was there with those humble farmers, and there 
was the kinship of Philip Embury. Surely the circum- 
stances were appropriate for a glorious, spiritual apostolic 

No doubt the church received improvements as the 
years advanced. We knew it as having a gallery across 
the front end an arrangement that characterized most 
of the earliest churches, east and west. Its pews were 
boxed with doors at the ends, and the pulpit was on the 
landing at the head of a short flight of steps, 

The latter circumstance was made memorable by the 
loss of a sermon book. The young preacher, fresh from 
college (it was in the latter days of the church), fearful 


lest he might forget something from a diligently prepared 
sermon, had carried his manuscript book with him con- 
taining also his list of hymns and reading lessons. The 
pulpit was supplied with an ancient sofa, backless, with 
a turned rail for support. On laying the book on this sofa 
the preacher found to his dismay that it vanished through 
a wide crack in the floor of that high platform. For once 
the congregation had an extemporaneous service; and 
at the close some officials, learning of the minister's 
dilemma, easily removed by means of a fence rail what 
proved to be a portable platform a convenience for that 
occasion at least. 

The people that worshipped in that church were 
intelligent and loyal Methodists. It was evident on one 
occasion that the preacher of the occasion had recently 
been delving in "Evidences of Christianity." His subject 
was Paul's address to the Athenians. He labored to pro- 
duce facts in support of the Christian doctrine of the 
resurrection. In the class meeting that followed, it was 
Miss Switzer who said, "I always find encouragement for 
the Christian life in Christian apologetics." 

On another occasion there was a financial matter to 
present to the congregation. There was a deficiency in 
ministerial salary, and the superintendent of the circuit 
had said it must be attended to next Sabbath. So the 
lessons had been read ; then came the announcements. 
Perhaps in tones which contained some suggestion of con- 
demnation the preacher dwelt upon the importance of the 
local society's standing in relation to the circuit, and then 
upon that of each member in relation to the honor and 
good name of the society, and closed with the earnestly 
expressed hope that the deficiency would be fully covered 
at the appointed time. The hymn that preceeded the 
sermon was being sung by the congregation, when the 
door of a near-by pew swung open, and Switzer, the 
steward, mounting the stairs expressed to the preacher his 
desire to address the congregation. Turning himself to 


the people he said : "Before we close I want to say a few 
words. Our minister has just announced for an adjourned 
meeting. That simply means that we are behind and 
considerably behind. But I am glad our appointment is 
not as much behind to-day as he has stated. Since the last 
meeting I have received several contributions which have 
reduced our obligation to six dollars. And now, as the 
stewards have forgotten to take up the collection this 
morning I now propose that they pass around the con- 
tribution boxes and that we make up the six dollars. The 
stewards will now take up the collection." The long 
handled contribution boxes were accordingly passed, amid 
the smiles of the congregation, and the amount was 
secured. But oh that an artist might have been present 
to portray the countenance of that brother when he dis- 
covered that he had only had a nap and the sermon had 
not yet been delivered ! 

Switzerville church came to an end as a church in 1892, 
when it was removed bodily from its long standing 
foundation and carried to the village of Newburgh, where, 
encased in iron sheeting, it is serving commercial purposes 
by the railway station a seemingly sacrilegious ending. 
It was replaced in the same year by a brick structure built 
on the lines of modern architecture. 

During its history the conditions of the country had 
wonderfully changed for the better. Canada in 1892 was 
undreamed of by the men who built our first churches. 
"Canada with one thousand miles of frontier line," says 
our earliest Methodist historian ! The broad expanse from 
Atlantic to Pacific strapped together by continuous lines 
of steel ; the hum of industries and the mightier hum of 
inrushing people; the immense resources of fields, forests, 
mines and rivers; the military, political, commercial, 
educational and religious achievements; the advanced 
state of civilization and general comfort all this and 
much more, it was impossible for the people of the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century to dream of. And the 


ecclesiastical achievements have been just as astonishing; 
strifes came and divisions, and then undreamed of unions, 
followed by far reaching and grander enterprises in Chris- 
tian achievements. And the local circumstances of 
Switzerville changed correspondingly. The increased 
abilities of the people together with the augmented list of 
preachers tended to reduce the size of circuits, until dis- 
tricts now represent what once were circuits, and circuits 
have almost grown out of what was an appointment, with 
accompanying changes in tne centres of influence. For 
.some years Switzerville has been one of five appointments 
constituting the Newburgh circuit, with sister churches, 
each built of stone, at Camden East, Newburgh, Wesley 
and Napanee Mills a notable circuit in many respects. 

While the Millers and Switzers were diligently 
employed upon clearances on the high lands of Ernestown, 
settlement began down in the valley of the Napanee m 
the township of Camden. David Perry was the first white 
man to build a house in Camden, and this became the 
beginning of Newburgh. His location was on the hillside 
in the north end of the village on the west side of the 
present Main Street and opposite to the present Aylesworth 
homestead. He was a local preacher. On his farm was 
built the first Methodist church in Newburgh a plain 
wooden building of the customary type of the times 
about forty feet by fifty feet with square top windows, 
four on a side. During the pastorate of the Rev. Charles 
Fish, 1854-1856, a movement was instituted to replace this 
church by the beautiful and commodious church now 
standing near the centre of the village. Unfortunately 
for the local historian, a disastrous fire destroyed the 
business portion of the village in 1886, and with the busi- 
ness and home of Miles Caton, who was then recording 
steward of the circuit, were destroyed all the old records 
of the circuit. Two miles down the river is another Gothic 
.church with spire placed on a commanding rise of ground, 
and in the peaceful, strictly-prohibition village of Stratn- 


cona. These three points Switzerville, Newburgh and 
Strathcona constitute the background on which must 
develope the remainder of our story concerning Garrett 
Miller the elder. 

His family consisted of ten children of whom nine 
married. The eldest MARTIN went to Halifax, where he 
lived for a time with his uncle Jacob; when 'an old man 
he returned to Ernestown and lived in the neighborhood 
of Ebenezer camp ground. Some of his descendants are 
in the United States, one son, Robert, having settled in 
Pennsylvania in 1837: other descendants are in the county 
of Hastings, another branch in the neighborhood of 
Consecon, Ont, still another is to be found in Michigan, 
and others in Manitoba and at Aurora, Ont. Robert 
Miller, of Snowflake, Man., is grandson of Martin. 
When young he was licensed as a local preacher. He then 
travelled for three years in the itinerancy. From this he 
desisted because as he says he "took a childish notion that 
the ministry meant much work and little pay!" 'He settled 
to farming and continued his work as a local preacher. 
He is now seventy-eight years of age, and is designated 
by a neighbor, "a splendid old gentleman much respected." 
His wife, who was Maria Rundle, of Columbus, Ont., died 
in 1898, aged sixty- four years 'a beautiful, kind, 
industrious lady." "Gone to a better land." Of three 
living children Edgar lives at Snowflake, and Mrs. John 
Wesley Rundle at La Riviere, Man., while Hesron Robert 
Miller lives at Aurora, Ont. 

The following item which appeared in the Montreal 
"Daily Witness' of March nth, will be read with regret: 
"Snowflake, Man., March 10, 1908. The splendid farm 
house and out-buildings of Robert Miller, was burned 
yesterday afternoon with entire contents. The family 
were absent from home at the time of the fire." 

2. MICHAEL MILLER settled in the neighborhood of 
Centreville, Ont. He married a Miss Empey. There were 
five sons Thomas, Averal, Fletcher, John and George- 


and two daughters Ann and Elizabeth. The descendants 
are to be found in Napanee, Morven, Centreville, Tarn- 
worth and Lyn, Ont., and Manitou, Man. This branch, 
as far as we know, has given no preacher to the church, 
although from the honored name of Fletcher in the list 
we might have expected one; but it has served the country 
well in another honorable capacity in the person of John 
S. Miller, now of Manitou, Man., and for a number of 
years an efficient member of parliament, representing the 
county of Addington, Ont. 

3. REBECCA, daughter of Garrett Miller and Elizabeth 
Switzer, was born in 1774, and died in 1869, living to the 

Their son, W. A., and his wife with their children, of Strasburg, Sask. 

patriarchal age of ninety-five years, notwithstanding war 
and pioneer work. She rests in the Switzerville cemetery. 
Her husband was Charles Bush, also a loyalist. Their 
children numbered six. three of whom have descendants 
-William, whose children settled in Philadelphia; Mary 
A., who married Wilson of Selby; and Julia A., who 
married Benjamin Clarke, son of Robert Clarke, the church 
and mill builder of Ernestown. One photograph is at our 
disposal in this connection and it represents three genera- 
tions from Mary A. Wilson. 


The story of Methodism in the neighborhood of SeJby 
could not be accurately written without giving to the 
Wilson family a large share in the success which it has 
achieved. The younger men are all actively identified 
with the Sunday schools, young people's societies and 
official work of the Methodist church in thier respective 

The descendants of Julia Ann Clarke form a numer- 
ous list, as the genealogical table will show, and are to 
be found from Montreal to Hamilton and to the sixth 
generation from their U. E. loyalist ancestor. The con- 
nection has maintained a close and loyal identity with the 
church. Henry Huffman, for instance, was for fifty years 
a member of the quarterly official board on the Bath 
circuit. Others have been helpers in Sunday schools and 
class meetings. Nelson Clarke entered the ministry in the 
United States. Three Methodist ministers have been 
introduced into this connection as REV. W. H. ROWSOM, 
B.A., graduate of Victoria University, whose stations were 
Matilda, Morrisburg, Quebec, Hatley and Cassville. 
Granby, then removed to the United States and was sta- 
tioned in charge of Trinity Methodist Episcopalian church, 
Albany, N.Y. His widow, granddaughter of Julia Ann 
Clarke, lives at Burlington, Out. REV. S. J. HUGHES, who 
married Julia Ann Perry, daughter of Bowen A. Perry 
and granddaughter of Julia Ann Clarke, entered the 
ministry in 1871, and has been stationed at Ainleyville, 
Mitchell, Wilton, College. Hemmingford, Franklin Centre, 
Beebe Plain, Danville, Arnprior, Gananoque, Prescott, 
Ottawa, Perth, Winchester, Athens. He has been financial 
secretary of the districts of Stanstead, Perth, Kingston, 
Brockville, Matilda, and chairman of Brockville district, 
also secretary of conference, in all of which positions Mrs. 
Hughes has been an appreciative and able supporter, being 
enthusiastic in the woman's missionary work. REV. JOHN 
A. WILLIAMS, D.D., who married Rebecca Clarke, grand- 
daughter of Rebecca Miller Bush, was a most outstanding 



character, in splendid physique, high mental attainments, 
deep spirituality, profound and beloved as a preacher, 
persevering and toilsome as a worker. He was honored 
with the responsibilities of the office of general superin- 
tendent of the Methodist church. He died December i/th, 
1889, aged seventy-two years. He began his work at 
Hallowell in 1846, and here he resolvel to read the Greek 
Testament, and for that reason used to drive early to his 
appointments that he might get a little time for study 
before the people arrived. His charges included Napanee, 
Sheffield, Consecon, Wilton, Cookstown, London, Owen 
Sound, Milton, Toronto, Port Hope, Brockville, Simcoe, 


of Switzerville, 1803 - 1872. 

of Newburgh, Ont. 

St. Thomas, Stratford, Goderich, St. Catherines. The 
highest honors of the church were bestowed upon him. His 
widow died in 1905. "If all the Millers were as good as 
my mother" (stepmother), writes Mrs., Ross, of Hamilton, 
Ont., president of the Woman's Missionary Society, "their 
history deserves to be written." 

4. PETER MILLER, son of Garrett Miller, was born 
1776, and died 1847. Of his six children descendants are 
found in Switzerville and Napanee, and various parts of 
Lennox and Addington counties. One son was named 
after the famous early evangelist, Calvin Wooster. We are 
able to include his photograph. 



PETER E. R. MILLER and JAMES, two sons, remain in 
Switzerville to maintain the traditions of the family and 
further the interests of Methodism. 

This section of the family has also been represented 
in the ministerial ranks. REV. WILLIAM McDONAGH, 
D.D., married Margaret Miller, daughter of Calvin 
Wooster Miller. He entered the ministry in 1852, and 
superannuated in 1897. His circuits were Humber, Mark- 
ham, Newmarket. Bradford, College, Lyn, Maitland, 
Dudswell, Sherbrooke and Oso, Pakenham and Arnprior, 
Cartwright, Newcastle, Aylmer, Paris, Kincardine, Clin- 
ton, Sarnia, Strathroy, London, Exeter and Kingsville. 


daugterof P. E. R. Miller. 


He has been financial secretary of Wingham, Godench, 
Sarnia and Exeter districts, and chairman of Sarnia, 
Strathroy and London districts. He has been assistant 
secretary, secretary and president of conference, and a 
member of five general conferences. The ''Christian 
Guardian," July 3ist, 1907, said, "The venerable Doctor 
has lost none of his old-time force and energy, and his 
expositions are as clear and strong and evangelistic as 

REV. JACOB FRESHMAN, D.D., married a daughter of 
Charles Miller, brother of Calvin \V. He began his 


ministry in 1863, being appointed to the German mission at 
Hamilton, Ont. He has been notably successful and out- 
standing in his work. The especial feature of his life was 
his work among the Jews of New York city. His wife 
proved herself an able colaborer. 

5. AGNES MILLER, 1779-1807, married John DougaJl. 
of Picton, Ont. Of this family which has identified itself 
with the county of Prince Edward, our iniormation is all 
too meagre. We suppose John Dougal to have been a son 
of the Dougal who was one of the first trustee board of 
the Conger Methodist church, built on the farm of Steven 
Conger in 1809, a short distance out of Picton. A 
daughter of John, named Agnes, married David Stevenson, 
M.P., of Picton. 

6. WILLIAM, 1783-1863. His children were nine, and 
his descendants are many and widely scattered from St 
Albans, Vermont, to California and* from Ottawa, Ont., 
to Edmonton, Sask; In strength of character and extent 
of Christian usefulness, it is hard to discriminate among 
them. Our selections are illustrative. 

"Uncle Cephas" Miller was a well known and highly 
esteemed figure in the Newburgh Methodist church, aid-- 
ing largely in bringing to it its latter day efficiency. His 
generosity was exemplary, his faithfulness and apprecia- 
tion an inspiration. As a class leader his watchcare and 
counsel were constant and sound. In the official board, 
when the end of the financial year saw a deficit, he would 
say "Brethren, our ministers are men of God. They have 
done their work, brethren. They have done good work. 
They must have their pay. And they shall have it." Of 
course they did, after such a speech. When infirmity pre- 
vented him from attending the church services, he would 
say to the young preacher on his next visit "They tell me 
you preached them a good sermon, last Sunday, brother 
Preach Christ, brother; preach Christ." For many years 
he followed mercantile pursuits in the village of New 
burgh, and while reaping financial success, he was 


scrupulously conscientious and characterized by strict 
integrity. He also exercised magisterial functions as a 
justice of the peace, .and was deeply interested m the 
highest welfare of his community. He married Miss Eli/.a 
j. Shibley. His son, William H., is the strenuous city 
auditor of Kingston, Ont., regarding whom the city press 
says "he is doing his duty" sometimes in hard places. 
He is a helpful and honored member of the Queen Street 
Methodist church. His daughter, is married to Dr. J. C. 
Berkley of St. Albans, \ t. Augusta Miller, daughter of 
Cephas, is married to the Hon. A. B. Aylesworth, dis- 
tinguished as one of Canada's greatest lawyers and at 
present Minister of Justice in the Canadian government. 
As a Newburgh boy, all residents of the burgh rejoice in 
his success, and congratulate his esteemed father, John 
B., who has long been associated with the advanced 
interests of the community and of the Methodist church. 
A recent issue of the "Manitoba Free Press' said : "The 
Conservative press headed by the "Mail" and "Empire" are 
taking columns to tell what a 'frost' Mr. Aylesworth is as 
a political leader. It does not occur to them that the best 
answer to their contentions is supplied by their own 
columns. Public men who are failures, are ignored or 
treated with mock magnanimity by their opposing press, 
and there are few better proofs that a political leader is 
dangerous than unwearied assaults by the enemy. Mr. 
Aylesworth is plainly making headway remarkable head- 
way, considering the lateness of his advent to the political 
field. Mr. Aylesworth is the first Federal Liberal in 
Ontario since the Liberals came into power to take his 
duties with downright seriousness: he appears to be giving 
his whole time and attention to politics, and he has already, 
by numerous platform appearances, made himself a 
familiar figure to the Ontario electors. ... It may truly 
be said that there is no province in the Dominion where 
the Liberals stand so greatly in need of hard work and 
Mr. Aylesworth's . . . activities are doubtless very accept- 



able to their followers." His son, Allan Featherstone, is 
barrister and attorney, member of the firm of Aylesworth, 
Wright, Moss and Thompson, of Toronto. 

GEORGE MILLER, brother of Cephas, was also known 
as one of God's noblemen. He carried with his life the 
secret of having refused an early and strong impression 
that he should enter the ministry. He did much work 
as a local preacher. In his commercial enterprises he we.s 
remarkably successful, and yet by fire and flood suffered 
losses so often and to such an extent, that he was much 
given to attributing his misfortunes to punishment for 


of Napanee Mills 

of Newburgh. 

refusing the call to preach. He married Miss Charlotte 

JULIA ANN MILLER, sister of the above, married Rev. 
}. B. Aylesworth, M.D., and thus connected the family 
directly with the ministry of the Methodist church. Dr. 
Aylesworth was in the ministry from 1843 to 1874, and 
was stationed at Hallowell, Demorestville, Mitchell, 
Bradford, Kleinburg, Colborne, Newcastle, Cobourg, 
Bond Head, Owen Sound and Stayner. He was chairman 
of district at Colborne, Newcastle, Bond Head, and Owen 
Sound. He died at Collingwood in 1888, aged 79. 


ELIZABETH MILLER married D. B. Stickney, a pro- 
minent manufacturer of Newburgh, whose godly con- 
sistency and faithful devotion to duty and church services 
even when infirmity prevented him from hearing anything, 
drew forth the admiration of all who knew him. 

7. GARRETT, 1786-1863, who married Nancy Foster, 
of Northport, Ont, of a family that came from the north 
of England. Our reproduction of his photograph and 
that of his sister represents the most remote generation of 
the Millers of which any photograph exists. 

To encourage the U. E. loyalists grants of land were 
made of two hundred acres to all sons twenty-one years 
and over and to the daughters who married under twenty- 

Garrett Miller the younger secured his location where 
the village of Strathcona now stands. The modern 
traveller may descry the winding river crossed by one long 
street which descends to one bank and rises from the 
opposite one. A store and post office, a railroad station, 
paper manufacturing mills, an Episcopalian church and 
the tall spired Methodist church, a large school house and 
a long rambling row of workmen's homes such is the 
village of quiet ways. Flanked on either side by a broad, 
rolling landscape with plentiful and majestic elms, there 
is altogether such a suggestion of a pastoral paradise as 
may well invite effectively the weary, who are meditatively 

Garrett Miller made his clearances as his 'brothers did, 
and shaped and fenced his fields. He has left for the 
modern generation a symbol of his ambition, patience, 
thoroughness and uncompromising purpose to have the 
best, a stone house which, while now suffering from time 
and neglect, has endured for more than forty years after 
its builder had been laid to rest. It is an impressive fact 
that while the modern pioneer has often been content to 
live and die in his first log shanty, as though the acme 
of life had been reached, such men as Captain Charles 



Miller in St. Armands, Cue., and his cousin Garrett in 
Camden, Ont, built largely and substantially in stone. 

The old stone house, exposed to the meanderings of 
owls and bats, has been superseded by West Grove Hall 
with its modern brick and gables standing out prominently 
in the contour of the hamlet, and arresting the eye of the 
traveller on the distant highland road. 

To the stone house Garrett brought his bride. Here 
their eight children were born. Here unexpected sorrow 
came by the drowning of the two oldest children two 




bright boys just how, no one ever knew, but their bodies 
were found in the near-by river. And from this home 
Garrett and his wife, with babe in arms the farthest away 
of all the Millers used to walk to Switzerville chapel; 
and they enjoyed the services. 

Of the children, WILLIAM WESLEY gave himself to the 
Methodist ministry, 1856-1889, a period of thirty-three 
years and died at the age of sixty-five. His circuits were 
Gananoque, Waterloo (Kingston), College, Lindsay, Roncl 
Eau, Napier, Nissouri, Bolsover, Bath, Harrow-smith, 


Tamwo'rth, Moulinette, Playfair, Lombardy, Roblin, 
Battersea, Wolfe Island. He was a godly, faithful 
man, who conscientiously went where he was sent; a man 
of a still tongue, modest, an informing preacher, probably 
underestimated as to his worth. He gave to his circuits 
his best endeavors and left the Methodist church property 
which he acquired before entering the ministry, and he did 
all unobtrusively, as was characteristic of his connection. 
His wife was Sarah Mounteer. 

PETER, who married Mary Jane Shibley, followed the 


Canyon City, Texas. 

farm life. He was for years an able official and treasurer 
in the Methodist church. It was by the combined efforts 
of the brothers William and Peter, who gave the land and 
quarried stone, that the attractive Gothic church and ample 
grounds were secured to the Methodist church at Napanee 
Mills, and thus an appointment became established there. 
Of Peter's four daughters (there were no sons) one is dead, 
her daughter being in Canyon City, Texas, the oldest is 
in Carman, Man., the youngest is in the neighborhood of 


Strasburg, Sask., and the fourth is the wife of the pre- 
sent writer an able assistant in the work of the Methodist 
ministry. Her parsonage life has been spent in Seymour, 
Minden, Arden, Adolphustown, Bath, Sutton, Shawville, 
Cobden, Kingston and St. John's. 

AGNES MILLER, who married Archibald McKim, gave 
two daughters to the Methodist ministry Emily wno 
married the Rev. W. J. Young, whose ministry, extending 
from 1867-1907, included in its operations Ameliasburg, 
Stirling, Wilton, Cataraqui, Pittsburg, Morven, Demorest- 
ville, Milford, Reach, Mount Albert, Thomasburg, Tweed, 
Odessa, Cannifton, Cherry Valley, Rednerville, Tarn- 
worth and Seagrave. Their son, Rev. W- Archibald McK. 
Young, whose ministry began' in 1897, is stationed at 
Rossburn, Man. Mary McKim married the Rev. B. F. 
Lewis; their labors were prosecuted in Chicago. 

One grandson of Garrett Miller, Orin Scountin, is a 
missionary in South Africa; one granddaughter, Alma 
Neeley, has entered professional life by marrying Dr. John 
Moore, of Shannonville. Ont. Mrs. Henry Denyes, a 
sister, is an indefatigable church worker in the neighbor- 
hood of Foxboro, Ont., as is also a brother Garrett 
Neeley, of Strasburg, Sask. 

We venture to anticipate a reference to another of the 
pioneer children by inserting the following obituary notice 
taken from the "Christian Guardian" of 1864, and written 
by the Rev. W. H. Poole, who then pastor of New- 
burgh circuit. 

"The three worthies who have lately left us were wont 
to tell their children and grandchildren, our people were 
Palatines from Ireland, converted to God through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Wesley. 

"William Miller, the oldest son, was born November 
25th, 1783, in Canada East. When twenty-four years of 
age he took to his home and heart Miss Hannah McKim, 
who made a good wife, a good mother, and a good Chris- 
tian neighbor. She left him with nine children, three of 


whom soon followed her to the better country. The others, 
I trust, are contending for the same home all active and 
useful members of the Wesleyan Methodist church. When 
fifty-four years old he married a Mrs. Jane Bell, by whom 
he had one daughter. The mother and daughter are liv- 
ing together having respect unto the recompense of the 

"Pie gave evidence of conversion to God when a young 
man, was reclaimed from his wanderings through the 
instrumentality of the Rev. Mr. Booth, and continued a 
member of the church until his death. For full thirty 
years his house was open for public worship, where the 
Wesleyan ministers and their many visitors found a hearty 
welcome. In matters of business he was remarkably 
shrewd, active, earnest and successful; while strictly 
honest, he understood how to acquire property, 'was 
diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord.' 
For some weeks before his death, his heart was mellowed 
by the sunbeams and clew drops oi Divine love; and when 
his Master called him we trust he was ready. Ha'l he 
lived a few days longer he would have seen his eightieth 
birthday. lie died on the 2Oth of October, 1863. lie was 
followed to the old Switzer's church by a large retinue 
of sorrowing children and grandchildren, where, after a 
short address, his body was committed to the tomb, to 
wait until Christ shall bid it rise. 

"His brother, Garrett Miller, was born November i8th, 
1786. lie came to Erncstown when about twelve years of 
age. The next year he gave himself to God and to the 
church, joined Mr. Detlor's class, and remained unshaken 
in his confidence until his last hour. His stability in 
relation to the church o-f his early choice may be accounted 
for, in part at least, by the fact that he was an early and 
constant reader of our church organ ; from the first he was 
wont to hail the 'Christian Guardian' as a welcome weekly 
visitor; close and continued attention to its columns put 
him in possession of that information which saved himself 


and others in the years of storm and trial. Others were 
borne off on the tide of division when he remained 
unmoved, a pillar in the church of God. In church matters 
as in his personal experience, he often said, 'my heart is 
fixed.' He was more knowing and better read in church 
matters than many of his day. And to his credit, it may 
also be said, he was more liberal to the cause of God. 
The house of the Lord was his chief joy; often, when 
scarcely able to sit up in his chair, he found his way to 
the place of prayer. His wife's maiden name was Miss 
Nancy Foster. With her he lived long and happily, 
leaving behind him six married children, and a number 
of grandchildren. After a long illness of patient suffer- 
ing he died in great peace, on Monday the 28th of Decem- 
oer, 1863. 

"Their brother, John Miller, was born December igth. 
I /go, and he, too, in early life found the pearl of great 
price. I can bear testimony to the triumphs of grace in 
his last hours; that confidence in his Saviour that sustained 
him in a long life of fidelity in his Master's cause secured 
for him a triumphant exit to his reward. He was an 
uncompromising opponent of everything that seemed to 
him to be an infringement on old Methodism. The good 
man grew eloquent on such topics as free seats in our 
churches, the rights of the poor, the good old congrega- 
tional singing, the minister reading two lines of the hymn 
in church, kneeling during public prayer, becoming serious- 
ness at all times in the house of God; on these and kindred 
subjects Uncle John was a strong man. His class and his 
church loved him much. All found in him a good coun- 
sellor, a warm friend, and a consistent member of the 
church. It was a great pleasure to him to entertain the 
ministers of the gospel; as his fathers did in this respect 
so did he, and, indeed, his brothers also. He calmly fell 
asleep on the I5th of January, 1864, leaving a large family 
following him on the same path to heaven. It is a little 
remarkable that these brothers should have passed away 


from earth within three months of each other; the eldest 
first, then the next, and afterward the youngest. And, 
that although living within a short distance of each other, 
neither was permitted to see the other during his last 

Surely such ideals as these men possessed were worth 
perpetuating and are deserving of continued advocacy. 
And evidently some of the live religious questions of theii 
day are not all dead yet, though forty years have passed 
over them. 

There is a matter of fact in the above quoted obituary 
which deserves more than passing notice. A boy twelve 
years old or less was converted to God in those days when 
young people were just as rational as they are to-day, and 
when the worldly amusement offered itself even more 
temptingly as a relaxation from the monotony of farm 
life; yet that converted boy continued steadfast in the 
faith for the long period of sixty-five years a notable 
example of the value of early and earnest decision for 

The reader may be pardoned if he wonders who was 
the preacher under whose ministry that boy was converted. 
We think it was Calvin Wooster, for it was at that time 
that he was stirring up the Bay of Quinte circuit with his 
revival themes. And the seed which he sowed among the 
Miller young people was not lost. 

A brief biographical sketch of Nancy Foster Miller, 
wife of Garrett Miller, written by her son, the late Rev. 
W. W. Miller, and published also in the "Christian 
Guardian" has been preserved. She 'was born in the 
township of Sophiasburgh, Prince Edward County, A.D. 
1796. Her early life was not biassed in favor of Metho- 
dism; but she was awakened to a sense of her lost con- 
dition as a sinner, and led to seek an interest in the 
Redeemer's blood under the preaching of the Rev. N. 
Reeder in the year 1816, while he was travelling the 
Smith's Creek circuit, which according to Playter, 


'extended from the border of Yonge Street on the west, 
and included the Hallowell and Belleville country in the 
east.' On this occasion he preached in her uncle S. Reed's 
house, who lived a few miles up the river from Belleville, 
and according to previous announcement, directed his 
discourse particularly to the young people, many of whom 
were present, especially the relatives of Mr. Reed, as he 
had taken pains to have it widely circulated among them. 

"From this time she ever dated a new era in her iile's 
history. As she often expressed it, she then saw things in 
an entirely new light, and felt it to be of infinite im- 
portance to renounce the vain pomps and fashions of this 
world, and gave evidence of a willingness to become any- 
thing or nothing for her Saviour, whom she now delighted 
to adore and honor by declaring what great .things he had 
done for her soul. 

"Very soon after her conversion,- following her desire 
for Christian fellowship, she united with the people called 
Methodists, with whom through the many subsequent trials 
of the church, and vicissitudes of life, she remained a firm 
and consistent member until death; and although she was, 
if not the first of her father's family, vet nearly so, who 
made an open profession of religion, she had the satisfac- 
tion in after life of seeing them all, or nearly all, with her 
bearing the name of Methodist. 

"In the year 1821 she was united in marriage to 
Garrctt Miller, who was also a member of the same church. 
. . . . Of her attachment to the cause of God in gen- 
eral, and to the interests of Methodism in particular, much 
might be saicl. More than glad was she to have the weary 
itinerant to make her house a place of rest and refresh- 
ment In all the institutions of the church she 

took a deep interest. Preaching the Word, prayer and 
class meetings, the love feast and sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, were to her seasons of refreshing. In 
domestic life, the reading of the Word, the family altar, 
and private prayer, were eoually valued not suffering 
the one to be neglected because of the absence of her hus- 


band, nor the other by the press of business; the one being 
sustained during the five and a half years of her widow- 
hood; of the other it might be said that three times a day 
might her voice be heard praying and calling on the name 
of the Lord. . . ... 

"Her last religious act, so far as known by her atten- 
dants was that of reading in the Bible after which she 
said, 'This, too, soon must end.' She could now scarcely 
distinguish the lines. .Becoming unconscious shortly 
afterwards, she lingered but forty-eight hours when her 
happy spirit took its flight to that land of which it is said 
death shall never enter. Thus closed the life of one, who, 
although she had no legacy in the form of gold or silver 
to bequeath to the cnurch at her demise, yet always 
delighted to give of her substance to God's cause during 
the fifty-two years in which she recognized His claim on 
all she possessed, giving, undoubtedly, during that time, 
hundreds of dollars to the church, and leaving behind her 
the example of a devoted life, the savor of a good name, 
and a godly influence to tell on generations yet to come." 

8. ELIZABETH, daughter of Garrett Miller and Eliza- 
beth Switzer, born 1788, died 1871. Married David 
Perry. Dr. John Carroll classes the Perrys among 
"the most respectable of the early Methodist fami- 
lies of the province whose names ought not to be 
allowed to perish from our history nature's nob'e- 
men who by grace were made to be of the excellent 
of the earth." The Perrys were several in number Robert, 
who entered the early itinerancy and, like all his brothers, 
was "compact, heavy and wiry" with "a certain bluffness 
of manner"; Peter, who was a notable politician and an 
influential member of the Legislative Assembly; the Hon. 
Ebenezer, who was a member of the Legislative Council; 
Daniel and David who were both local preachers; and 
Mrs. Aylesworth, mother of the Aylesworth families, was 
their sister. It was on David Perry's farm that the first 
church in Newburgh was built, and it is recorded of him 


that besides his own liberal subscription, he loaned the 
society 700 without taking any interest for it. Of the 
descendants of this branch we regret that our information 
is very limited, as is also the case of the last brother of 
whom we write. 

9. JOHN, son of Garrett Miller, 1790-1864, married 
Nancy Neville. There were ten children. One daughter 
married a medical practitioner. One son, Anthony, who 
married Miss I. McFee, entered the ministry in the State 
of Michigan. The oldest son, Aaron, born in 1824. 
entered the ministry of the Methodist church in 1850, and 
is still alive, and living in the town of Picton, Ont. His 
circuits included Sidney, Brighton, Picton, Bath, Wallace- 
burg, Peel, Demorestville, Madoc, Shannonville, Preston, 
Arthur, Waterdown, Hudson, Belleville, Tilbury, Rain- 
ham, Stamford and Oueenston, Kinglake, Walsingham. 
He was educated at Newburgh Academy and for a time 
taught school at Moscow and Switzerville, Ont. 

One of the younger descendants of John Miller is 
Bruce Whittington. The following appeared in the 
"British Whig" of Kingston, Ont. : "WHITTINGTON- 
MclQUHAM. In Kingston, on February 26, 1908, at the 
residence of the bride's Father, 390 Albert St., by Rev. F. 
H. Sproule, Mabel H., daughter of James Mcllquham, to 
R. Bruce Whittington, Napanee. 

"A quiet wedding was solemnized at the residence of 
Mr. and Mrs. James Mcllquham of this city, on Wednes- 
day evening, when their daughter Mabel was united in 
marriage to R. B. Whittington, of Napanee, by Rev. F. H. 
Sproule of Princess Street Methodist church. The bride 
looked charming in her neat and pretty costume. The 
number of beautiful presents received, testified to the esteem 
in which both bride and groom are held by their friends. 
Mr. and Mrs. Whitington left on the midnight train for 
Napanee, where they will reside.'' 

Thus briefly we have tried to show what a sphere of 
usefulness was filled by the various members of that 


Great grand-daughter of Garrctt Miller U.E.L. 

Winifred M., Edith M., Holly M., Wilfrid Rilbrough Miller, her children 


modest, almost unheard of family, and what a splendid 
harvest of the fruits of righteousness has from time to 
time been gathered, until it seems as if the benediction 
and godly influence of an ancient father had passed 
through upon more than even the fourth generation. We 
must now direct the reader's attention to other localities. 
Let us say in passing away fro-m the country of the 
Napanee that its changes have been many. From Xew- 
burgh and Napanee Mills the name of Miller has dis- 
appeared, even the quiet and pretty hamlet is no longer 
known by its old name. A new order of people has arisen 
to carry forward the work of Christian enterprise and 
public usefulness bequeathed to them by a people who 
fulfilled a lofty mission. The children are scattered, but 
to be useful; the "seed shall inherit the earth." 

"We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers 
have told us, what work Thou didst in their days, in the 
times of old. Thou didst drive out the heathen with Thy 
hand and plantedst them; Thou didst afflict the people and 
cast them out. For they got not the land in possession 
by their own sword, neither did their own arm save them; 
but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy 
countenance, because Thou hadst a favor unto them." 



"And now I live! Oh! where do I live?" 

THE investigator finds romance in the commonest walks of 
life, and there are chapters of unwritten biography more 
charming than books reveal. The present chapter of our 
story will open up a little of the romance of modern 
migrations, and present relationships where least expected, 
and always with the stamp of the gospel upon them. In 
this connection our centres of influence will appear in 
Ireland, Nova Scotia, Montreal and various parts of the 
United States, notably along the Atlantic sea-board. 

Although Garrett Miller, coming to America in 17/2, 
was the last of the family circle to emigrate, it does not 
appear that the whole of the family had then removed 
from Ireland. At least one brother of the name of John 
remained behind. This is according to an Ontario tra- 
dition. And the name entered into the family history of 
both the Ontario and Nova Scotian branches. 

In addition there was also a first cousin whose name 
was George Miller who lived 1741-1817, contemporary 
with our U. E. loyalists, but who remained in Ireland and 
was succeeded by a large family. William, a grandson, 
is perhaps the oldest living member of all this Miller 
family, arid his home is Ardevin, Connaught Avenue, 
Cork, Ireland. He has been a literary character and a 
Methodist local preacher, and treasures the tradition that 
Mr. Wesley used to preacn in his grandfather's house. 

Of the relationship existing between this branch and 
those who came to America before the revolutionary war 


we learn unmistakably from one Adam Miller, son of 
George, who writing from Montreal in 1820 concerning 
those who had preceeded him some fifty years, said of 
Mrs. Peter Miller, of St. Armand, "her first husband, Mr. 
Lawrence, who died in Killaheen, was a first cousin to my 
grandmother Miller." Of her last husband (Peter Miller) 
he writes that he had died in 1819, and that "he was a 
cousin german" of his father. He goes on to state that 
Peter had a brother Jacob who with his son Garrett was 
conducting a successful lumber trade in Halifax, having 
some vessels of his own, and that another brother named 
Garrett was engaged in farming in the Bay of Quinte 
country. This letter was addressed to his brother Peter 
in Ireland. It was brought back to Canada a few years 
since and is now in the possession of Mr. Joseph H. Carson, 
of Montreal. It serves the purpose of identifying the con- 

Two others arrived at Halifax about 1817 and 1818. 
One was named William, and we take him to have been 
a brother of Adam. His wife died in Halifax, and was 
buried in the family plot in St. Paul's Cemetery (closed 
since 1846). The other, the earlier arrival, was George 
an interesting character with some idiosyncrasies. He is 
said to have come to Canada on the invitation of his uncle, 
who furnished him with an outfit for his circuit work. His 
relationship to the connection we are able to establish by 
two authorities first, the tradition of the Nova Scotians 
who in Bridgewater and Halifax claim him as a cousin. 
Secondly, a letter is extant and in the family of Dr. Mack, 
of Halifax, written by Catherine Miller from New York 
in 1852. We take this Catherine to have been the daughter 
of Martin whom Jacob had adopted from his brother 
Garrett. Writing to her "cousin Augusta Miller" she says, 
"I suppose you remember cousin George, the Methodist 

Other connections we shall presently show became 
established in the United States; and thus there is brought 
to our view a large field for research. 


I. REV. GEORGE MILLER was a member of the Nova 
Scotia conference from 1817 to i86g, when he died at the 
age of eighty-one, having served the church for fifty-two 
years. Dr. Cornish in his encyclopedia gives the name as 
Millar, which is a misleading spelling. Professor Alfred 
D. Smith, L.L.D., of Mount Allison University, Sackville, 
N.B., writes, "Over forty years ago I knew the Rev. George 
Miller. .... lie was then living as a superannuated 

minister in Bridgetown, Annapolis, N.S He 

had three sons, Martin A., George W., .and John T., and 
two daughters, Catherine and Elizabeth. I saw two of 
his sons here in Sackville over thirty years ago. These 
were then residents of New York city, one of them a retired 
army doctor, the other engaged in the hay and feed busi- 
ness, but I cannot remember which sons they were. Of 
the two daughters, one, Kate, I think, married .a Mr. 
Wilson, of St. Andrew's or St. Stephen the former, I am 
inclined to think. The other one was married twice once 
to a Dr. Coehrane. . . . For aught I know there may 
have been other children. ... In Mr. Miller's Anna- 
polis clays my father-in-law was the leading Methodist 
in that part of the world and his house was headquarters 
for the Methodist ministers." 

To this communication we may add the following 
items received from Mrs. Hannah, of the rectory, Leaming- 
ton, Ont., sister of Professor Smith. One of the boys was 
"Alden." 'The two daughters, Kate and Elizabeth, 
attended my father's school during their father's sojourn 

at Annapolis Kate, the elder, married a Air. 

Wilson, of St. Andrews, N.B., I think a lawyer by pro- 
fession. A son of theirs was at Sackville Male Academy 
when rny daughter Kate now the wife of Rev. I. Edwards, 
Anglican church clergyman, with whom I reside was at 
the Ladies' College there; she says he was a very fine 
fellow and well liked. That was thirty-five years ago. . 
. . . All the (Miller) family were bright and intelli- 
gent. Their father ^and mother were excellent people, 


and my parents thought highly of "them so also did my 
older brothers and sisters. Mr. Miller was a good 

Of his appointments we find the following represent 
his stations: Newport, Ramsheg, Bedeque, Yarmouth, 
Sheffield, Newport, Shelburne, Horton, Lunenburg, Liver- 
pool, Parrsboro, Bridgetown, Fredericton, Annapolis, 
Point de Bute, St. John, Sackville, Mill Town, St. An- 
drews, Digby. 

It is of some interest to notice the coincidences in the 
names of his children as compared with those in the family 
of Garrett Miller, of Ontario. 

2. From different sources including William Miller in 
Ireland, Miss H. Murphy, in Philadelphia, and Mrs. U. 
E. Stumph, of Mountville, Virginia, we gather some out- 
lines of the history of GEORGE MILLER who remained in 
Ireland. He appears to have been intimately identified 
with Methodist work at Rathkeale. He married, in 1772, 
Anne Beaker (1756-1823). Their family numbered twelve 
children, and of these seven removed to America, six of 
them to the United States, one to Canada. 

(i) ADAM MILLER (1776-1826) came to Montreal in 
1820, and ultimately settled in the town of St. Johns, 
Oue., where he assumed the principalship of the school. 
He died in 1826, and was buried in the cemetery of the 
Episcopalian church, the Methodist church not having yet 
secured property in the town. He left the reputation of 
being a fine, scholarly and Christian gentleman, and 
manuscript books, including music, which are still extant 
show how 7 excellent were his tastes and accomplishments. 
In Ireland he exercised the gifts of a local preacher. 
During his voyage across the Atlantic, which he says took 
two months, he came into contact with a somewhat bold 
and sceptical passenger, and on the Sunday following 
Adam Miller became equally courageous in preaching the 
gospel. Of his sermon on that occasion which we judge 
to have been of a superior order, the following is a brief 
outline : 

1 1 


The text was John xiv. 6. The preacher opened 
by dwelling upon the circumstances which gave rise to the 
Saviour's discourse. He then proceeded to develope the 
statement that Christ is the way the only way to the 

I. By His Doctrine. Note the perfection, sublimity 
and superiority of the sermon on the mount the discourse 
on the new birth several others and particularly the last 
discourse to the disciples on the work of the Holy Spirit. 

II. By His Example. He was the Great Exemplar in 
filial subjection and obedience as a pattern of humility, of 
patience under sufferings, of forgiveness of injuries, of 
resignation, of sympathy (as at the grave of Lazarus), of 
patriotism (as at Jerusalem), and the perfection of philan- 
thropy, the greatest mark of which was the laying down 
of His life. 

III. By His Atoning Sacrifice. Here the original 
transgression was emphasized, the promise of a Redeemer 
noted, the establishment of a sacrificial system, types and 
shadows of Mosaic economy all referring to Messiah, in 
Him the union of the Human and the Divine, John i. and 
Genesis i. compared to show the proper and essential God- 
head of Christ, omnipotence, Isaiah's prophecy, Christ as 
Judge, divinity revealed by miracles, establishing the 
office of Mediator, "God forbid that I should glory." 

IV. By His Spirit Agent and representative, to carry 
on His work of grace, to convince, to renew in righteous- 
ness, to purify the heart, to give meetness for glory. 

By way of application the preacher dwelt upon the 
inadequacy of attachment to any sect, name or party, the 
need of personal holiness. He drew attention to the un- 
Christianity of Christianity as it affords an opportunity 
for the attacks of infidelity. 

That sermon was comprehensive, and it affords an 
indication of the order of intellect that belonged to this 
man and his compeers. 

There are numerous items of interest in his letter which 


give some light upon the conditions of his day. Thus 
Quebec is represented in possession of a telegraph system, 
while travel from Quebec to Montreal might be by steam- 
boat "The Car of Commerce" of seven hundred tons 
burden and capable of carrying one thousand three hun- 
dred passengers; the fare was IDS. for adults, half fare 
for children. The boat which left Quebec at 6 a.m. cast 
anchor at Three Rivers at 7 p.m. Quebec is spoken of 
as "one of the most regular and best fortified cities in the 
world and contains a population of about twenty-five thou- 
sand. We know that the war of 1812-1815 had been 
ended but a few years, and from this letter we learn that 
the tide of emigration was now so great that it became 
difficult to secure situations in consequence. 

Describing a journey to St. Armands he recites his 
passage from Montreal to La Prairie by ferry a distance 
of nine miles, and fare is. 6d. He proceeded by stage 
to St. Johns, a distance of eighteen miles, which was 
reached by evening (we now make the journey from 
Montreal in forty-five minutes). St. Johns was "a smart 
little town with an English church, post office and military 
magazine." He made a trip to Mount Johnson about six 
miles from St. Theresa (Iberville), where a. ferry crosses 
the Richelieu River about midway between Chambly and 
St. Johns. From St. Johns a steamboat plies every Tues- 
day morning for Whitehall at the head of Lake Cham- 
plain, about 150 miles distant. About twenty-five miles 
from St. Johns he found St. Armand, where he visited 
Captain Charles Miller who conveyed him by Pike River 
in his own "calash," and in whose family he "found all 
the friendship and hospitality imaginable." Of Charles 
Miller he says, "he is a captain in the militia and owns 
thirteen hundred acres of land." 

His notes regarding Methodist work are relevant. 
The English Wesleyan church was endeavoring to do 
missionary work in the province. In Quebec the Rev. Mr. 
Lusher was superintendent, and the Rev. John de Putron 


was his assistant, and Mr. Miller was greatly surprised to 
find the Methodists conducting their own sacramental 
services; evidently he had not been used to that in Ireland, 
or else his surprise must have been because of larger attaMi- 
ments in the Canadian life than he had been led to ex- 
pect. "In Montreal the English Methodists are very 
respectable and have about one hundred and twenty in 
society. They have a pretty chapel, and are building a 
superb one, the front and side walls entirely of hewn stone. 
The Rev. John Hick, their minister, is a man of superior 
talent. There was a Bible society established here a few 
days ago under the patronage of the Governor. Mr. Hick 
was the principal person in its formation." At St. Armand 
he found an English church, and about two miles farther 
on (Philipsburg) "a very pretty Methodist chapel was 
building and a school house with a small steeple." This 
was in 1820. But the church does bear in its walls the 
date stone 1819. Evidently it was not yet completed. 

Thus did Mr. Miller observe and write. When he 
came to St. Johns, owing to the circumstances of Metho- 
dism, he was counted a lay reader in the Anglican church, 
and still regarded as a member of the Methodist church 

St. John's Methodism interests us because of this 
connection, if for no other. And how slo-w its progress 
had 'been ! Methodist ministers visited the town as early 
as 1803, and in later years some of the best of the old- 
time worthies were stationed there, but it seems to have 
taken from 1803 to 1841 to get a footing in the place. 
Services here were sometimes held in a government 
storehouse and railroad building. Elijah Chichester 
and Laban Clarke, who were appointed to the work 
in 1803, gave up before the year was out; and 
for the rest the work was intermittent, and Mr. Miller in 
1820-1826 found little to encourage his Methodist loyalty. 
When at length Methodism made a determined effort in 
1841, by building a church in the town, the architecture 


showed an advance on previous attempts elsewhere. We 
include herewith a view of the church then built which 
abides to the present day save only for a recent adornment 
in front. 

"For some years previous to the rebellion of 1837 
Wesley an preachers visited St. Johns occasionally, but 
during those years and up to 1840 their visits were nearly 
or altogether suspended, partly in consequence of the 
place which had been used for holding the meetings being 
put to another use." 

"In the latter part of July or during the month of 
August, 1840, the Rev. R. L. Lusher came over from 
Montreal and preached in the dwelling house of Mr. W. 
Knight. Many persons were unable to gain admittance, 
and on the day following it was suggested to take steps 
to secure a building site. In the course of the Fall the 
subscription list received the names of nearly all the Pro- 
testants in the village and vicinity, subscriptions totalling 
nearly 250. To this Montreal added 120 and Quebec 
50." The late Rev. John Borland, whose son, D. R., is 
a present member and whose granddaughter Judith is the 
organist, was named a trustee. Since then the pastors 
have been as follows: Hugh Montgomery (1841), 
Benjamin Slight (1842-1843), Charles Churchill (1844), R. 
Graham (1845), James Brock (1846-1848), Matt. Lang 
(1849), G. H. Davis (1850-1851, 1858-1860, 1874-1876), J. 
C. Davidson (1852-1853), John Carroll (1854), R. Cooney 
(1855), R.Clarke (1856-1857), E. H. Dewart (1861-1863), G. 
N. A. F. T. Dickson (1864-1866), John Douse (1867-1869), 
John Borland (1870-1873), W. S. Blackstock (1877-1878), 
W. J. Crothers (1879-81), John Armstrong (1882-1884). G. 
Forsey (1885), W. W. Ryan (1886), W. McGill (1887-1889), 
Alexander Campbell (1890-1891), A. McCann (1892-1894), 
G. H. Porter (1895-1897), F. W. A. Meyer (1898-1900), R. 
Robinson (1901-1904). 

Mr. Miller did not live to see this manifestation of 
Methodist energy, but his descendants did, and his grand- 
son, Joseph H. Carson, of Montreal, noted in the province 


of Quebec for temperance and bible society work had his 
early home here, and received in connection with this 
church his religious inspirations. He is known also as a 
useful and efficient local preacher. 

The children of Adam Miller numbered six, and they 
and their descendants have become identified with the 
highest intellectual, social and religious influences of the 
country, and particularly in and about Moncreal. A great 
granddaughter, Miss Grace Tonkin, is deaconess of the 
Methodist church in Winnipeg. A granddaughter, Theo- 
dora L., is married to Dr. J. B. McConnell, well known 
to the medical profession of Montreal as a leading 
practitioner; his sons also follow in his steps. Another 
granddaughter married the Rev. Walter Rigsby, of the 
London conference, who, besides a long list of prominent 
circuits dating from 1868, has also held various secretary- 
ships of conference and districts as well as the conference 
presidency. He has also been a member of four general 
conferences. Adam -Miller, a son, was long known as a 
leading book dealer in Montreal and Toronto. His widow 
married the Rev. Dr. George Young. 

Thus have the members of this branch joined with 
their U. E. loyalist cousins in promoting the highest types 
of citizenship and religious progress. 

Of the branches who have settled in the United States 
we have but limited information, sufficient, however, to 
show the abiding force of the original spiritual ideals, 
and our work will consist of brief outlines in this connec- 

(2) Of CATHERINE, born in 1784, we only know that 
she came to New York and was known to the Southern 
connection, after her marriage, as "Aunt Kitty Legaire." 

(3) PETER (Adam's brother), 1786-1848, married and 
had a family of eleven children. Arthur located at 
Youghal and Thomas at Queenstown, Ireland, and Charles 
and Henry engaged in large book businesses in New York 
and Brooklyn. Henry left a large family. The Rev. 
Zebulun Wright Miller, and the Rev. Samuel Miller are 


sons of Arthur and are ministers of the Methodist church. 

(3) SAMUEL, 1791-1837, married Rebecca Hicks. The 
family is to be found in the neighborhood of Cork, Ireland. 

(4) ELIZA ANN MILLER, 1793 , married the Rev. 
Samuel Lander, of South Carolina a Methodist minister, 
Their children numbered six, of whom the son, Samuel, is 
a Methodist minister. A grandson, Rev. John Lander, is 
Methodist missionary to Brazil. A granddaughter, 
Kathleen, married the Rev. John O. Wilson, of Lander 
College, Greenwood, South Carolina. Frank Lander, 
another grandson, is a medical practitioner. 

(5) MARTHA MILLER, 1797-1865, married Jeremiah W. 
Murphy. For a time they lived in St. Johns, Quebec. 
They are buried at Wilmington, Delaware. Of their seven 
children three, viz., Joseph Wiggins, William and Reginald 
Heber became clergymen of the Episcopalian church. 

(6) WILLIAM MILLER, 1795-1836, appears to have been 
in Halifax in 1818. Beyond that we know nothing of him. 

We need scarcely remind the reader of the abounding 
and highly commendable tendency thus revealed in this 
family in Ireland, Canada and the United States to 
identify itself with the Christian ministry, a tendency we 
may earnestly desire to cultivate, and which in this case 
shows how much Mr. Wesley and his preachers may have- 
done to establish and perpetuate those good traits of 
character which were found in "Mr. Miller, the Lutheran 

We will conclude this chapter by two quotations one 
from Adam Miller and the second from an "Aunt Kitty 
Miller," of New York, in 1852. 

Adam Miller says, "Give our love to my mother and 
all the family individually, to Mr. Wood, to all the mem- 
bers of the Merciful Society as if named, to Miss Field, 
Carnegy, Thomas Mount joy of Vipond and Neal, to Syl 
Robinson and family, Mr. and Mrs. Swanton and family, 
to my father and mother-in-law and my band through 
George." George was an older brother, and the last 


remembrance is an indication of his active interest in the 
organization of the Methodist society. 

Catherine Miller's letter is dated New York, May 
loth, 1852, and is addressed to her "cousin Augusta." 
After expressing her regret at the failure of Augusta's last 
letter to reach her, owing no doubt to the imperfect postal 
conditions of those days, she says, "I believe it is some 
seven or eight years since I have had the pleasure of hear- 
ing from you, but I do hope, dear cousin, that you will 
write a little oftener in the future. If you knew the gra- 
tification it was to me to hear from my friends, I think 
you would indulge me once in a while with a line or two. 
I was most happy to receive a letter from cousin Fanny" 
(Augusta's sister) "a few weeks since. It was so long a 
time since I had heard from her that I almost despaired 
of ever doing so again. She says how sorry she was that 
1 did not get down to La Have last summer. You may 
be sure I regret it not a little and I feel as if I had made 
only half of my visit. I was delighted to see cousins 
Jacob and John" (brothers of Augusta) '.and if they had 
returned sooner I dare say I would have taken a trip down 
to see you all if only for a few days. I am afraid it will 
be a long time (if I ever do) before I will be able to take 
such another journey. Papa's health is very infirm. He 
has been an invalid for the last five years and this spring 
he is more feeble than usual, so that if I could I would 
not like to venture so far from home. Pa was very glad 
that I made the visit to your aunt" (one of five sisters who 
lived in Halifax) "last summer as they are the nearest 
relations he has in this country" (he evidently did not 
know of those in the western provinces or the daughter 
omitted to say 'among the nearest relations'), "and there 
has always been such a regular correspondence kept up 
between us. He feels them very near to him. Your brother 
Jacob half promised to come and see us this summer. I 
do hope he will make his promises good. It would give 
papa so much pleasure to see him. I believe he and papa 


were very fond of each other when papa lived in Halifax; 
he asked me so many questions about him when I returned. 
If Jacob comes he must certainly bring your sister Fanny 
with him. A trip to New York now-a-days is nothing to 
undertake. Only think of my venturing to Halifax alone ! 
I suppose with your little family leaving for so long a 
journey is out of the question until they are old enough to 
spare you better, but I hope we may yet have the oppor- 
tunity of seeing each other. I enjoyed my visit to Halifax 
very much indeed your aunt treated me with such great 
kindness. I will never forget it. Many others I met who 
were exceedingly kind and attentive, among them your 
friend Captain Chary's family. I think a great deal of 
them and hope I may see them in New York and have it 
in my power to return some of their kindnesses. I suppose 
you have seen Mr. Allen often : he has been living in our 
city all winter. I went with him a few evenings ago to 
see an exhibition of very elegant paintings. He has some 
specimens of his own in the collection, but I believe he 
intends taking them on with him, so you will have an 
opportunity of seeing them. I suppose you remember 
cousin George, the Methodist minister. His oldest son 
is in an excellent situation in New York and lives with us. 
He is a very fine young man and is as nice to me as a 
brother. He visited home last summer" (that was at 
Digby and Rev. George Miller w-as superannuated for the 
year), "and brought his youngest sister back with him to 
spend a few weeks, but we coaxed her to stay all winter. 
She likes New York very much and would like to remain 
all summer, but I am afraid her parents will not let her 
stay. I will miss her dreadfully when she leaves. My 
brother is now living in Alexandria in Virginia. We hear 
from him often. I am afraid you will think this is a very 
stupid letter, but there is not much going on here that 
would interest you living so far from us. I heard that 
Captain Owen" (Daniel Owen married Elizabeth, sister 
of Augusta) "was in our city for some months last sum- 


mer. I would have liked to have seen him very much but 
he had left before we knew of his being- here. As my time 
is limited I must, dear cousin, bid you adieu. Remember 
me in love to Mr. Mack" (Augusta's husband) "and all 
the children and all your brothers and sisters. Papa and 
mama join me in best love to all, and believe me your 
"Sincerely attached cousin, 


Thus in a way, that to us of these later years appears 
strange, even mysterious, do these writers unconsciously 
establish their membership in a large and widely scattered 
family. We have no evidence that Adam Miller ever 
entertained the opinion of the presence in America of any 
members of his family circle. Perhaps none of them cross- 
ed the ocean during his lifetime. Their arrival, no doubt, 
belongs to later years. And at last Peter and Martha 
are to be found in the south-westefh States and younger 
members of the family in Brooklyn and New York. But 
in his letter of 1820, Adam acknowledges the families in 
Halifax, Missisquoi and Ernestown three brothers; and 
now by the letter of 1852 just quoted there appears to be 
in New York a family aoparently unconscious of southern 
connections, yet recognizing .affinity to the Halifax branch, 
and to the "Methodist minister." By these intimations 
we are enabled to bring into one view the scattered frag- 
ments fragments that locally recognized some connec- 
tion, but among them all we may safely say there existed 
not one person of the present generation who conceived 
the existence of such a family relationship as we have 
briefly outlined, and shall attempt to present in fuller and 
more suggestive detail in our genealogical section. 



"Hence Liberty, sweet Liberty inspires 
And keeps alive his fierce but noble fires." 




FOR a whole one hundred and twenty-five years the seed 
has been undisturbed by the fierce and harassing winds 
of persecution. No fires, no edicts, no ruthless and 
marauding bands have invaded its realm ; it has been free 
to be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth with 
the beneficent ways of industry, the graces of culture, and 
the elevations of religion. And being left to itself it has 
not lost its virility. 

By persecution ardor has at times been fanned to 
flames, energy has been driven beyond its just expressions, 
and persistence has achieved unwonted strength. When 
persecution has ceased such noble virtues have at times 
faded from view as an exhausted flower after the summer 
heat. It has been otherwise with this seed of the righteous. 


Imbued with energy it would be as alert under the 
sunshine of liberty as under the storms of persecution. 
Ardent, sanguine and persistent, it could not be content 
with ease and pleasure, and a limited environment it would 
energetically abhor. So it has come to pass that when 
persecution did not exile it, it voluntarily exiled itself; 
finding its environment small and its energy and capacity 
great it has courageously gone beyond its island home, 
its city limits, its farm acres, its county and its province 
it has even stepped beyond national lines in following 
out its innate, active tendency to productivity. 

When Jacob, Peter and Garrett Miller came to 
America they represented respectively the mercantile life 
and the trade of the weaver and the shoemaker. All three 
became soldiers, but by necessity rather than choice, and 
as a means of defence rather than -at means of livelihood. 
Two of the brothers eventually became farmers and fol- 
lowed this profession for at least forty-five years. 

Of their descendants, we are able to gather, the 
favorite employment has been as agriculturists, and in 
this they have represented the foundation of national 
wealth. Other occupations have also been followed, 
showing breadth of capacity and an aptitude for general 
culture. The following items furnish some idea of the 
general activities: We have a list of twenty-eight in 
mercantile life, eleven in the legal profession, seventeen 
doctors, five teachers, one railroad telegrapher, one 
inventor, one artist, two authors, one city auditor, one 
bible society representative, one deaconess, one customs 
house officer, one registrar, one judge, eight members of 
parliament, ten militiamen, one sea captain and pilot, 
thirty-one have been engaged in the Christian ministry 
of whom twenty-four were Methodist, one Christian 
Alliance and six Episcopalian, two (and probably many 
more) were local preachers; for the balance our list shows 
six hundred who have been connected with the agricultural 


The wide spread location of this group of people is 
particularly suggestive, and is represented in the follow- 
ing geographical list, viz., Cork and other localities in 
Ireland; in the United States in Virginia, North <?nd 
South Carolina, Delaware, Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, 
Boston, New York, St. Albans, Montpelier, Champlain, 
Albury Springs, Toledo, Ohio, Rochester, N.Y., Chicago, 
111., Canyon City, Texas, East Orange, N.J., Monraouth, 
111., Kentwood, Alabama, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
and a dozen or more sections of California; in South 
Africa; in India; in Glasgow, Scotland; in Halifax, Anna- 
polis, Lunenburg, Liverpool, Mill Village, Bridgewater 
and West La Have and other parts of Nova Scotia; in St. 
Armand, Philipsburg, Frelighsburg, Sweetsburg, Dunham, 
Sutton, Sutton Junction, West Brome, St. Armand East, 
Knowlton, Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal, Huntingdon, 
St. Johns in Quebec; in Ottawa, Brockville, Lyn, Kings- 
ton, Napanee, Newburgh, Strathcona, Switzerville, Mor- 
ven, Centreville, Bath, Adolphustown, Selbv. Shannonville, 
Foxboro, Madoc, Wellington, Consecon, Picton, Tain- 
worth, Bridgewater, Smithfield, Collingwood, Aurora, 
Toronto, Campbell ford, Hamilton, Sault Ste. Marie and 
Bracebridge in Ontario; in Winnipeg, Manitou, Snow- 
flake, La Riviere, Melita and Carman, Man.; Edmonton, 
Independence in Alta. ; Strasburg and Govan in Sas- 
katchewan; and at Ashcroft in British Columbia. We 
would not have the reader suppose that this list is com- 
plete; we are quite persuaded that it is far from com- 
pleteness. Yet enough is here given to show both the 
activity of mind making for that progressiveness that 
requires change of locality, and also the excellent taste 
and aggressiveness shown in choosing what are among the 
foremost localities in the land. There are migrations 
which express no more than the fact that the wanderers 
cannot bear the stress of civilization, and have drifted 
from the strenuous to the laxadaisical ; such cannot be 
charged against any of the groups represented in our pre- 


sent survey. Eagerness to compete with life at its best, 
a determination to run in the race with the swiftest, and 
to live on a par with the most strenuous, has created the 
motives as far as we can discover for the various attempts 
to open up new homes and choose new birthplaces. 

And with this family group, representing those who 
once dwelt on the banks of the Rhine, now spread out over 
twenty-five states and provinces, we read the lesson of 
hope. In the providence of God the principles of the 
Reformation are becoming of God the principles of the 
energy and logic of the schools as by the practical ex- 
emplification, social contact and wide diffusion resulting 
from the dispersion of groups of people. It is God's 
method for spreading good. The light bearer must be 
given the larger sphere, and his natural home instincts 
must subserve the larger purposes of* the general good of 
humanity and the diffusion of the highest aspects of truth. 
Hence, as long as the movements of good people continue 
we are prone to believe that the knowledge and influence 
of the truth shall extend. In the commission given to the 
Apostolic Church there is implied this understanding of 
its relation to the future it is commanded to travel at 
large because the holy ambition of Christ contemplates a 
world conquest. If the "devil goeth about as a roaring 
lion seeking whom he may devour," it is matter for thank- 
fulness that an opposite and mightier force under the 
authority of Jesus Christ is also going about as a minis- 
tering angel, seeking to make of men those who shall be 
heirs of salvation. 

To the constancy and faith r ulness of the traveller 
there is a tribute of commendation in the fact that his light 
shines as brightly abroad as at home. The tenter who is 
always right with God is good to humanity; he who is 
everywhere loyal to Jesus Christ is always the best friend 
to his universal neighbor. 

It is a tribute to Christianity also that we would pay 
in recognizing the fact that Christianity can travel. There 


have been times when people travelled faster than the 
Church and waited long for the Church to catch up; but 
the Church has been awakening to her error in this as in 
other respects and her conscience has responded within the 
past century to the demands of circumstances. The 
children of the Church must be followed and fed. And 
in doing this work the Church has only prepared and 
encouraged the children to invade the realms of stagna- 
tion, darkness and superstition and thereby increase the 
company of the children of the light. The mother-church 
is the Christ-church following the journeying children 
with motherly instincts and solicitude. Thus has moved 
on the spirit of the Reformation church from the Rhine 
eastward to India, southward to Africa and westward to 
California in the progress of the brief story we have been 

And we would not overlook the tribute of praise which 
is due to Methodism for the part she has played in the 
development of this family history. Theological and 
spiritual activity has often begotten ambition and energy 
for the improvement of the material conditions of life; 
and thus it was with the Palatine colony on the banks of 
the Shannon. Christianity means education, and education 
so often means a ferment and restlessness and venture that 
we may safely calculate on the improvement of the material 
conditions of life with a loosening of old restraints and 
claims where it is propagated. Methodism as Christianity 
in earnest, Christianity on fire, enormously accelerates 
this process. Hence, our explanation of the continuance 
of so many, concerned in this story, in the communion of 
Methodism, and even when so widely scattered, is that 
they have intelligently recognized the advantages of earnest 
Christianity and have been imbued with a burning desire 
to communicate these to their fellowmen. Hence they have 
lived as Christians because they have worked as Metho- 
dists. Methodism cared for them, co-operated with them, 
followed them, fed them, called and used them; and they 


in turn have been prone to confess the everpresent Christ 
in this modern Christianity. 

Nor would we overlook the suggestion made by our 
story of the self-propagating power of goodness. If good- 
ness may not have a potentiality of its own, as really as 
evil has, we think it scarcely deserves the name it bears. 
Good is that which can be, and evil is that which has no 
right to be. If that which has no right to be can be per- 
sistent and communicative, and multiplicative, surely if 
there is such a something as goodness it ought to be pos- 
sessed of courage and energy enough to maintain 
its right to be. And yet its friends have too often 
arrayed it in swaddling clothes. Left to itself good is 
as likely to live as evil; this is so because its source is 
God, its vitality is divine. And syice Jesus Christ has 
redeemed man, and has ownership in man, goodness is 
bound to be perpetuated. Childhood begins its career in 
a favorable relationship to God, and with a gracious 
attitude towards the good ; it is when the processes of 
education expose the child to the attacks of evil and 
encourage the evil until the will of the child is constrained 
to acquiesce that the progress of good is fettered. How 
is it that, in the story which we have outlined, so many 
ministers of the gospel are found available with gifts and 
graces and the good will for service ? Thirty-one ministers 
of whom we have record, probably others of whom we have 
not learned, and to these may probably be added as many 
\vho were local preachers and class-leaders is it not 
something of an unusual record ? Here again, we observe, 
these preachers and workers arise without concerted action; 
they are found in Ireland, in Nova Scotia, in Quebec, in 
Ontario, in the States of the American Union. We are 
not prepared to assume that God nas blessed this family 
more than he would bless all families, but we attribute 
much to the absence of perversity and the. presence of a 
good will, the maintenance of a good conscience and the 
possession of a large degree of intelligence which have 


made the presence and work of the Holy Spirit more 
apparent and beneficent. From that ancestral stock where 
stands ' Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister," there has come 
a potentiality not easily exhausted a family character 
which has tended to reproduce itself, as others may, 
beyond the "third and fourth generation." And by so 
much, supported and nourished, regenerated and sanctified 
through the grace of God, the family life, educationally, 
socially, oolitically, commercially and religiously, has 
been affected. 

And now, reader, this part of our labor draws to a 
conclusion. Our statements and inferences can be verified 
by following the subjoined genealogical tables. Even 
these are not open to a charge of collusion, for they have 
been preserved in scattered fragments without the know- 
ledge of each other, or in many cases only in memory. 
Whatever lessons, therefore, may be gathered from them 
have been undesigned by any of their numbers. We take 
our leave of the reader here in the hope that if our attempt 
to lead him into admiration of the German peasant as 
seen in his modern Canadian and American descendant, 
has been a failure, it may be pardoned, and at least com- 
mended for its enterprise. 

O hearts of loyal love and true, 

The friends most true when friends are lew, 
Weeding your tears for One despised. 

Spending your store at tomb unprized! 

Your love shall live for years untold, 

Old friends, the best friends, never old; 

Perpetual youth shall crown your days, 
And prompt us still to sing your lays- 

Not all the new designs of years, 

Nor new found friend that oft appears, 

However fair or blest with charm, 
Can equal Friendship's ancient arm. 

New flowers invade our garden bed, 

And blazon all the ground with red, 
And burden atmospheres with show, 
With tawdry hue and golden glow. 
I 2 


But bring me back our old time rose, 
Unequalled by a flower that grows, 

The fragrance of whose heart avails 
When every other perfume fails. 

The broken alabaster box 

Shall cheer the heart that Flattery mocks, 
Anoint our days when years have sped 

And -pour fresh fragrance on our head. 

Across the deep from shore to shore 
Let old friends speak for evermore; 

The new are like the morning light, 

The old like mountains in their might. 



The following Genealogical Register represents what has been gathered 
of Nine Generations, a total of one thousand names. Were all names in- 
serted where information has not been available we are persuaded that the 
list would contain several hundred more. 

The first generation contains one name. 

Generation two contains four contemporary names belonging to two 
groups two Miller brothers and brother and sister Switzer. 

Generation three, consisting of twenty-one names, is divided into four 
groups, consisting of descendants of the four persons instanced in generation 
two, and these are arranged as families under the alphabetical order A, B, 
C, D. 

In Generation four there is a regrouping under Roman numerals I to 
IX indicating the heads of families whose descendants in America we 
attempt to trace, The small figures indicate the number of persons in each 
generation from all sources. 

In tabulating, the descent is traced on horizontal lines by reading gen- 
erations in the words Four, Five, Six, etc., and the numbers alternate for 
convenience in open and bracketted form. 

Thus "Four V. 24, Five (101) Six 172 Seven (165) Eight 76" would 
show the person at 76 eighth generation descended through (165) Seventh gen- 
eration through 172 Sixth and so on to number 24 group five of generation 

HISTORICAL NAMES Sweitzer (Switzer), Muller (Mil- 
ler) Embury. 



Mr. Miller, the Lutheran minister of the Palatines in 
Ireland. The Millers are registered as settled on Lord 
Southwell's estate. Others under the name of Miiller 
moved directly from Germany to Pennsylvania. 


I. Miller (given name unknown), II. Garrett Miller bro- 
thers; III. Peter Switzer; IV. His sister Mary; V. 
Philip Embury, in some way distantly related to 
the Switzers, and who married Mary Switzer. 

I. Married a Lawrence, cousin of Peter Lawrence. 

II. Died in Albany Co., N.Y., in 1774. Perhaps ''Miller's 

Mills" is named after him. 

III. Emigrated from Ireland in 1765. Located on a 
farm near Ashgrove, Camden, N.Y. After the 
Revolutionary War settled near Varty Lake, Ont. 
From this family arises the name of "Switzerville." 

IV. Married (i) Philip Embury in 1758. They came to 
New York in 1760. Embury, born in 1728, died at 
Ashgrove, Camden, N.Y., in 1773, leaving two 
children who attained full age. Three others died 
young. Married (2) John Lawrence, by whom were 
also children. 


George Miller, 1741-1817, the only one known of the 
family. Remained at Ballygarene in Ireland. 


I. John, 2. -- Miller, of New York in 1852, 3. Garrett, 4. 

Peter, 5. Jacob, 6. Elizabeth. 

3. Garrett, 1738-1823, married (i) In Ireland, (2) in 
America Elizabeth Switzer, daughter of Peter. 


4. Peter, 1740-1819, married Agnes Benor, whose first 

husband was a Lawrence. She died in 1832, aged 
101. She had children by both husbands. 

5. Jacob, 1742-1825, married Elizabeth Bentley, 1747- 


6. Elizabeth, , married (i) Philip Roblin, who died 

1788, (2) John Canniff. She is buried in Canirfton, 


1. Elizabeth, married Garrett Miller, U. E. loyalist. 

2. Philip. 

3. Christopher. 

4. Mary, married - - Empey. 

5. Margaret, married Neville. 

6. John. 

7. 8, 9, three daughters, who died in the United States 

and from one of whom Mrs. Charles Thompson, of 
Newburgh, Ont., is descended. 


1. Catherine Elizabeth, died young. 

2. John Albert, died young. 

3. Samuel, 1765-1853, married Catherine Miller, born 1772, 

of St. Armand. 

4. Catherine, married Duncan Fisher, of Montreal, Feb- 

ruary 28th, 1783. 
5 Philip, died young. 

The writer has not secured the Lawrence genealogy 
which should enter here. Andrew Embury, brother of 
Philip, settled in Adolphustown, and descendants are to 
be found in that locality. 




1. George, .1774-1838. 

2. Adam, 1776-1826, died in St. Johns, Que. 

3. Catherine, 1778, died young. 

4. Elizabeth, 1780, died young. 

5. Anne, 1782-1807. 

6. Catherine Anne, 1784, married -- Legaire ("Aunt Kitty 

Legaire") of New York. 

7. Peter, 1786-1848, married (i) Eliza Hamilton, (2) Eliza 


8. John, 1788-1792. 

g. Samuel, 1791-1837, married Rebecca Hicks. Neighbor-- 
hood of Cork, Ireland. 

10. Eliza Ann, 1793, married Rev. 'Samuel Lander, Caro- 

lina, U.S. 

11. William, 1795-1836. 

12. Martha, 1797-1865, married Jeremiah Wm. Murphy. 

Both buried at Wilmington, Del., U.S. 


13. Rev. George Miller, 1788-1869, Methodist minister in 

Nova Scotia, 1817-1869. 


14. 'Aunt Kitty" Catherine Miller. 


15. Martin, 1770 , four children. 

1 6. Michael, 1772 , seven children. 

17. Rebecca, 1774-1869, married C. Bush, U. E. loyalist. 

Six children. 

1 8. Peter, 1776-1847, married Sarah Roys, Switzerville. 

Six children. 

19. Agnes, 1779-1807. married John Dougal, of Picton, 

Ont. One child. 


20. William, 1783-1863, married (i) Hannah McJCim, (2) 

Jane Bell. Nine children. Newburgh, Ont. 

21. Garrett, 1786-1863, married Nancy Foster, of North- 

Port, Ont. Eight children. Napanee Mills, Ont. 

22. Elizabeth, 1788-1871, married Rev. David Perry. 

Newburgh, Ont. Two children. 

23. John, 1790-1864, married Nancy Neville. Ten chil- 

dren. Switzerville. 


24. Mary, 1766 , married Col. Garrett Sixby (or Sigsby) 

of St. Armand. Seven children. 

25. Charles (Captain), 1768-1852, married Margaret Mc- 

Cutcheon. Eleven children. St. Armand. 

26. Catherine, 1772 , married Samuel Embury. Twelve 

children. St. Armand. 


27. Garrett, 1770-1840, married Catherine Pernette, daugh- 

ter of Col. Pernette. Nine children. Halifax. 

28. Abigail, died 1834. unmarried. 

29. Nancy, 1771-1859, unmarried. 

30. Betsy, 1774-1857, unmarried. 

31. Margaret, 1779-1864, unmarried. 

32. Mary , 1833, unmarried. 

LOYALIST, ADOLPHUSTOWN (not fully traced). 

33. Nancy, married William Ketcheson, and lived in Sid- 

ney, Ont. Fifteen children, one of whom was 
Gatrey, who, when six years old, was marvellously 
preserved while lost in the woods of Sidney, Ont., 
for eight days, October 9th to I7th, 1820. 

34. John. The connection is represented in a numerous 

company of Roblins of Prince Edward and Hast- 
ings Counties, Ont., and includes the Premier of 


Miller, St. Armand. 

35. Margaret, 1792-1863, married John Littemore. Ten 


36. Ann Agnes, 1793 , married Abram Jackson. Six 


37. Philip, 1795 , married Christina Littemore. Seven 


38. Catherine, 1797-1859, married Peter Sixby. St. 

Armand. Four children. 

39. Mary, 1800-1886, married Nathan Call. No children. 

40. Elizabeth, 1802 , married Lorenzo Safford. Several 


41. John, 1804-1829, married Margaret Holsopple. One 


42. Jane, 1806 , married -- Beade. No children. 

43. Samuel, 1809-1839, unmarried. 

44. Peter, 1811-1891, married Clarenda Chadsey. Three 


45- Charles, 1813 , married Hannah Brill. Seven chil- 

46. Daniel Richard, 1817-1883, married (i) Mary Chad- 

sey, (2) Lovina Morey. Seven children. 

Fisher, Montreal. 

47. Janet, 1785-1832, married Rev. John Hicks, Methodist 

minister. No children. 

48. Daniel, 1787-1826, married Betsy, daughter of James 

Torrance, Kingston, Ont. Two daughters. 

49. Margaret, 1789-1862, married (i) Wm. Hutchison, (2) 

Wm. Lunn, of Montreal. Several children. 

50. John, 1791-1865, married Judith Healy. Thirteen 


51. Catherine, 1793-1801, 

52. Elizabeth, 1794-1862, married John Torrance (1786- 

1870), St. Antoine Hall, Montreal, and of Gate- 
house, Scotland. Fifteen children. 


53. Alex., 1796-1803. 

54. Nancy, 1798-1834, married John Mackenzie. 

55. James, 1799 . 

56. Catherine, 1801-1801. 

57. Christian, 1803-1875, married Geo. Munroe. 

58. Duncan, 1805-1845, married widow of Mr. Budden, 

nee Mimn. 

59. Alexander, 1808, never married. 

FOUR I. 2. 

(1) John E. L. Miller, married (i) Maria Adams, (2) M. 

E. Gillies. Two children. 

(2) Adam Miller, married (i) Miss Burrows, (2) Miss 

Marshall. By (i) two children. 

(3) George Miller. 

(4) Robert Miller, married Eliza Cameron, of Montreal. 

Five children. 

(5) William Miller, removed to Rochester, N.Y. 

(6) Ann , married Hugh Carson, of Montreal. Two 


FOUR I. 7. 

(7) George Miller. 

(8) Arthur Miller, married Eliza Carey, of Youghal. 

Nine children. 

(9) Margaret. 

(10) John. 

(11) Thomas Miller, of Queenstown, married Prudence . 

Seven children. 

(12) Charles, of New York, bookseller. 

(13) Henry. , of Brooklyn, bookseller. Left a large 


(14) William. 

(15) Sarah. 

(16) Eliza. 

(17) Maria. 


FOUR I. 9. 

(18) George, died. 

(19) Rebecca, married Henry Leavis. Two children. 

(20) Mary. 

(21) William, 2 Fernhurst Avenue, Western Road, Cork, 


(22) Martha, married George M. P. Bogan. 

(23) Emily, married Rutledge. 

(24) Annie. 

(25), (26), (27), (28), all died. 

FOUR I. 10. 

(29) Rev. Samuel Lander, Methodist, U.S., married Laura 

McPherson. Eight children. 

(30) William Lander, married * Six children. 

(31) Martha , married . 

(32) Eliza. 

(33) Sarah. 

(34) Margaret, married - - Langdon. Two children. 

FOUR I. 12. 

(35) William Miller Murphy, died, aged four. 

(36) Anna Dorcas Murphy, died young. 

(37) Rev. Jos. Wiggins Murphy, Episcopalian, died 1900, 

married Sarah M. Vaughan. Three children. 

(38) Rev. William Murphy, Episcopalian, died 1901, mar- 

ried Miss Chamberlain. No children. 

(39) Rev. Reginald Heber Murphy, Episcopalian, married 

Eliza Simmons. Six children. 

(40) Samuel Wheeler Murphy. 

(41) Miss Maria Hobart Murphy, Christ Church Hospital, 

W. Park Station, Philadelphia, Pern. 

FOUR II. 13. 

(42) Alden Miller. 

(43) Martin A. Miller. 

(44) Georp-e W. Miller. 


(45) John T. Miller. 

(46) Catherine Miller, married Lawyer Wilson, of St. 
Andrews, N.B- 

(47) Elizabeth Miller, married Dr. Cochane, of Annapolis, 


FOUR IV. 15. 

(48) Robert Miller, moved to Pennsylvania about 1837, and 

had children. 

(49) John Miller, married Nancy Scriver, who lived to be 

103 years old. Buried at Madoc, Ont. Had six 

(50) Garrett Miller, of Newburgh, Ont. Lost trace of 

(51) Martin Miller, lived at Consecon, Ont, and had 


FOUR IV. 1 6. 

(52) Thomas, married Christiana Madden and had two 


(53) Averal Miller. Had three children. 

(54) Fletcher Miller. Had six children, of whom we have 

two names. 

(55) John Miller. Nine children of whom we have three 


(56) George Miller. Two children of whom we have one 


(57) Ann. 

(58) Elizabeth. 

FOUR IV. 17. 

(59) Julia Ann Bush, married Benj. Clarke, son of Robert 

Clarke, Ernestown. Seven children. 

(60) Garrett Bush. 

(61) Mary Ann Bush, married - - Wilson, of Selby, Ont. 

Three children. 

(62) William Bush, lived in Camden East, Ont. Three 

children who settled in Philadelphia. 

(63) Christopher Bush. Never married. 

(64) Agnes Bush. Died young. 


FOUR IV. 1 8. 

(65) Calvin Wooster Miller, 1803-1872, married Elizabeth 

Lake, 1799-1866, Switzerville. Seven children. 

(66) Sarah Miller, married -- Fretts. 

(67) Maria. 

(68) Charles Miller, married Miss Parrot, Napanee, Ont. 

Three children. 

(69) Harvey Miller, married Miss Guigan, removed to 

Michigan, U.S. 

(70) William Miller. 

FOUR IV. 19. 

(71) Agnes Dougal, married David Stevenson, M.P., 

Picton, Ont. One daughter. 

FOUR IV. 20. 

(72) Cephas Hulburt Miller, married E. J. Shibley, New- 

burgh, Ont. Three children. 

(73) Christopher Miller, married Miss Grant, of Napanee, 

removed to California. Large family. 

(74) Allan Miller, married Miss Jackson. Six children. 

mostly in California. 

(75) George Miller, married Charlotte Shibley. Four 


(76) Julia Ann Miller, married Rev. I. B. Aylesworth, 

M.D., Collingwood, Ont. Three children. 

(77) Mary Miller, married A. Chapman, removed to Kan- 

sas. Three children. 

(78) Elizabeth Miller, married D. B. Stickney, Newburgh, 

Ont. Two children. 
79) Lydia Miller, married Douglas Hooper, Newburgh, 

Ont. Two children. 

(80) Isabella Miller, married P. Phalen, Newburgh, Ont. 
Three children. 


FOUR IV. 21. 

(81) Two sons drowned young, names not recorded. 

Napanee Mills, Ont. 

(82) Agnes Miller, married Archibald McKim. Two 


(83) Eliza Miller, married William Drury, Smithfield, Ont 

Four children. 

(84) Rebecca Miller, married M. Scouten, Napanee Mills, 

Ont. Nine children. 

(85) Elizabeth Miller, married John Neeley, Napanee Mills, 

Ont. Five children. 

(86) Peter Miller, married Mary Jane Shibley, Napanee 

Mills, Ont. Four children. 

(87) Rev. William Miller, married Sarah Mounteer, died 

at Napanee, Ont. One son. 

FOUR IV. 22. 

(88) Agnes Perry, married Joseph Youmans. Three child- 


(89) Robert Perry, married Miss Clancy. 

FOUR IV. 23. 

(go) (Rev.) Aaron Miller, married (i) Lucy Kilburn, (2) 
Elizabeth Huff. No children. Picton, Ont. 

(91) Garrett Miller, married Hannah McFee, lived in 

Bracebridge, Ont. Nine children. 

(92) (Rev.) Anthony Miller, married Isabel McFee, moved 

to Michigan. 

(93) Mitchell Miller, married - Asseltine, Kentwood, 

Alabama. Three children. 

(94) Mary Miller, married R. Bicknell, Ernestown, Ont. 

(95) Matilda Miller, married C. Switzer, Centreville, Ont 

(96) Ann Miller, married - , living in Kingston, Ont. 

(97) Margaret Miller, married -- Doran. 

(98) Elizabeth Miller. 

(go) Rebecca Miller, married Dr. Carter. 


FOUR V. 24. 

(100) Peter Sixby, married Catherine Embury, St. Armand, 

Que. Four children. 

(101) Garrett Sixby, married L. M. Brill, St. Armand, Que. 

Six children. 

(102) John Sixby. 

(103) Katie Sixby, married Jacob Galer, Dunham, Que. 

Five children. 

(104) Agnes Sixby. 

(105) Mary Sixby, married Jabez Safford. Two children. 

(106) Elsie Sixby, married John Pears. Five children. 

FOUR V. 25. 

(107) Peter Miller, 1797-1814. 

(108) Esther Miller, 1794-1874, unmarried. 

(109) Catherine Miller, 1795-1882, married Thomas Dolby. 

No children. 

(no) George Miller, 1799-1878. Went to Florida. Child- 
ren all died young. 

(in) Nicholas Miller, 1801-1884. married M. Luke, Camp- 
bell ford, Ont. Three children. 

(112) Jane Miller, 1803-1882, unmarried. 

(113) Agnes Miller, 1805-1851, married John Cooper, 

Stanstead, Que. Four children. 

(114) Margaret Miller, 1807-1889, married Rev. Matthew 

Lang, died St. Johns, Que. Nine children. 

(115) Isabella Miller, 1809-1848, unmarried. 

(116) Mary Miller, 1811-1898, married Allan Hyde, Lan- 

caster, Wis. Seven children. 

(117) Ann Miller, 1815-1866, married George Phelps. No 


FOUR V. 26 AND VIII. 35-46. 

(118) Margaret Embury, 1792-1863, married John Titte- 

more. Ten children. 


(119) Ann Agnes Embury, 1793 , married Abram Jack- 

son. Six children. 

(120) Philip Embury, 1795 , married Christina Tittemore. 

Seven children. 

(121) Catherine Embury, 1797-1859, married Peter Sixby, 

St. Armand. Four children. 

(122) Mary Embury, 1800-1886, married Nathan Call. No 


(123) Elizabeth Embury, 1802 , married Lorenzo S afford. 

Several children. 

(124) John Embury, 1804-1829, married Margaret Hol- 

sopple. One daughter. 

(125) Jane Embury, 1806 , married Beade. No 


(126) Samuel Embury, 1809-1839, unmarried. 

(127) Peter Embury, 1811-1891, married Clarenda Chad- 

sey. Three children. 

(128) Charles Embury, 1813 , married Hannah Brill. 

Seven children. 

(129) Daniel Richard Embury, 1817-1883, married (i) 

Mary Chadsey, (2) Lovina Morey. Seven children. 

FOUR VI. 27. 

(130) Son, died y6ung. 

(131) Daughter, died young. 

(132) Augusta Miller, 1804-1883, married Jason Mack, Mill 

Village, Queens Co., N.S. Three children. 

(133) Garrett Trafalgar Nelson Miller, 1805-1897, married 

Maria Morris, of Halifax. Five children. 

(134) Frances Miller, 1807-1885, unmarried. 

(135) Elizabeth H. Miller, -- 1881, married Daniel Owen. 

Lunenburgh. Six children. 

(136) Joseph P. Miller, 1808-1881, married Margaret C. 

Allen, of Scotland, lived at Bridgewater, N.S. Four 


(137) Jacob P. Miller, 1893, married Miss Daniels, lived 

at Bridgewater. No children. 

(138) John Miller, 1811-1898, unmarried, lived at Bridge- 

water, N.S. 

FOUR IX. 48. 

(139) Mrs. Robert Crooks (nee Fisher), of Toronto. Three 


(140) Mrs. Willoughby (nee Fisher), of England, married 

Admiral Willoughby, of Royal Navy. Sons and 

FOUR IX. 50. 

(141) Dr. Arthur Fisher, married Susannah Corse, daugh- 

ter of Roswell Corse. Two children. 

(142) Annie, married Rev. Henry Lanton, Methodist. Six 


(143) Catherine Embury Fisher, married William Simpson. 

Three children. 

(144) Daniel Dunean Fisher and William Fisher, twins. 

No descendants. 

(145) John Mackenzie Fisher, unmarried. Died in New 


(146) Peter Langlois Fisher, died young. 

(147) William Lunn Fisher, 1825-1887, Quebec, married 

Mary Ann Robeson, daughter of David Robeson and 
Mary Ronald, of Scotland. Nine children. 

(148) James Douglas Fisher. No children. Died in the 

United States. 

(149) Eliza Agnes Fisher and Robert Raikes Fisher, twins. 

No descendants. E. A. still living, 1907. 

(150) Jessie Torrance Fisher, 1832-1895, married Thomas 

W. Ritchie, lawyer, of Montreal. Eight children. 

(151) Margaret Hutchison Fisher, died unmarried. 


FOUR IX. 52. 

(152) Jane Torrance, Quebec, 1812-1875, married David 


(153) Selina Torrance, Quebec, 1814-1880, married John 


(154) Daniel Torrance, Montreal, 1815-1885, married 

Sophie J. Vanderbilt, of New York. 

( ! 55) James Torrance, Montreal, 1817 , married Jane 

(156) John Andrew Torrance, Montreal, 1818 , married 

Betsy Maria Ridrey, nee Lusher. 

(157) Catherine Ann Torrance, Montreal, 1820 , married 

Thompson Vanneck, Suffolk, Eng. 

(158) Elizabeth Fisher Torrance, Montreal, 1821 , mar- 

ried John Wood, Liverpool, Eng. 

(159) Frederick William Torrance, Montreal, 1823-1887, 

married Laura G. Pugh nee Hensley. 

(160) Jessie Theresa Torrance, Montreal, 1824-1851, mar- 

ried William Forbes, Liverpool, Eng. 

(161) Robert Alder Torrance, Montreal, 1826-1848. 

(162) Elliott Torrance, Montreal, 1828-1850, married Sir 

Alex. Tilloch Gait, February gth, 1848. 

(163) Mary Eaking Torrance, Montreal, 1831-1907. 

(164) Amy Goddon Torrance, Montreal, 1834 , married 

Sir A. T. Gait, September 9th, 1852. 

(165) Henry Torrance, Montreal, 1835 , married Sarah 

Creighton, of Brooklyn. 

(166) Alexander Hutchison Torrance, Montreal, 1837-1880. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (i). 

1. Adam Miller, 1837 , married H. S. Gilmour, Hun- 

tingdon, Que. Three children. 

2. John E. L. Miller, Monmouth, 111. Has one son and 

three daughters. 



FOUR I. 2, FIVE (2). 

3. Clandius Miller, died young. 

4. Isabella Miller, married John Tonkin. One daughter. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (3). 

5. Adam George Miller. 

6. Theodora Miller, married - - Briggs. 

7. Jane Miller. 

8. Sarah Miller. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4). 

9. Robert Allen Miller, married Miss Delisle. Three 


10. Theodora L. Miller, married Dr. J. B. McConnell, of 

Montreal. Six children. .. 

11. Mary Miller married George M. P. Bogan. One 


12. Christiana Miller, unmarried, lives in St. Lambert, Que. 

13. Georgiana Miller, married Rev. Walter Rigsby. One 


FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6). 

14. John E. L. Carson, married E. C. Miller. Three child- 


15. Joseph Hugh Carson, married Miss Gillespie, Montreal. 

One daughter. 

FOUR I. 7, FIVE (8). 

6. William Henry Miller. 

7. Arthur Miller. 

8. (Rev.) Zebulun Wright Miller. 
,9. (Rev.) Samuel Miller. 

20. Susannah Miller. 

21. Mary Miller, married Robert Lee. One daughter. 

22. Lizzie Miller. 

23. Martha Miller, married William Dill. 

24. Anne Miller. 


FOUR I. 7, FIVE (11). 

25. Fannie Miller. 

26. Annie Miller. 

27. Lizzie Miller, married - - Walton. 

28. Clara Miller. 

29. Edith Miller. 

30. Ada Miller. 

31. Prudence Miller. 

FOUR I. g, FIVE (ig). 

32. Nannie Leavis. 

33. Mary Leavis, married - - Merrick. Seven children. 

FOUR I. 10, FIVE (29). 

34. (Rev.) John Lander, married Miss Hall. Have chil- 

dren. Methodist Missionary to Brazil. 

35. William T. Lander, married Miss Ford, United States. 

36. Malcolm Lander, married - , United States. 

37. Dr. Frank Lander, United States. 

38. Ernest Lander, married - , United States. 

39. Angus Lander, married - , United States. 

40. Mattie Lander, married Prince. Have children, 

United States. 

41. Kathleen Lander, married Rev. John O. Wilson, 

Lander College, Greenwood, South Carolina. 

FOUR I. 10, FIVE (30). 

42. Samuel Lander, married - , South Carolina. 

43. William Lander, South Carolina. 

44. Frank Lander, South Carolina. 

45. Agnes Lander, married Dr. Lawing, South Carolina. 

46. Ellar Lander, married - , South Carolina. 

47. Clara Lander, South Carolina. 

FOUR I. 10, FIVE (34). 

48. Alice Langdon, married - - Ammen. Two children, 

United States. 

49. Ida Langdon, United States. 


FOUR I. 12, FIVE (37). 

50. William B. Murphy, married Julia Murphy, United 


51. George Herbert Murphy, married Gertie Schmidt. One 

son, United States. 

52. Claud Murphy, married Walter E. Stump, of Mount- 

ville, London Co., Va., United States. 

FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39). 

53. Lay Murphy, married - - Thompson. One daughter. 

54. Reginald H. Murphy, married - . Three children. 

55. Mattie Murphy, married - - Parran. Two children. 

56. Julia Murphy, married W. B. Murphy. 

57. Bertha Murphy. 

58. George DuBois Murphy. 

FOUR IV. 15, FIVE (49). 

59. William Miller. 

60. Robert Miller, 1829 , married Maria Rundle, lives at 

Snow Flake, Man. Four children. 

61. Harvey Miller died 1904, married Charity Bell, of 

Madoc, moved to Michigan. Large family. 

62. Mary Ann Miller. ) threesisters who all married . N . 

? ~i i rec rds - 

64. -- Miller. 

FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (52). 

65. John S. Miller, ex-M.P., Manitou, Man., married Annie 

R. Robertson. One son. 

66. Mrs. Strong, of Napanee, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (53). 

67. Thomas Miller, of Tarn worth, Ont. Three children. 

68. Adelaide Miller, married David Taylor, Lyn, Ont. 

Two sons. 

69. Henry Miller. 


FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (54). 

70. John Miller. 

71. Malcolm Miller. 

FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (55). 

72. George Miller. 

73. John Miller. 

74. James B. Miller. 

FouR-IV. 16, FIVE (56). 
75- George Miller. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59). 

76. Rebecca Clarke, 1827-1905, second wife of Rev. John 

A. Williams, D.D., General Superintendent Metho- 
dist Church. Four children. 

77. Clifton Clarke, married - - . One son. 

78. (Rev.) Nelson Clarke, lived in Michigan. 

79. William Clarke, married - . One son. 

80. Mary Anne Clarke, married Henry Huffman, of Bath, 

Ont. Three children. 

8 1. Mel in da Clarke, married Bowen A. Perry. One daugh- 


82. Elizabeth Clarke, died young. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61). 

83. John Wilson, married C. Barker, Selby, Ont. Two 


84. Henry Wilson, married M. Doran, lives in Napanee, 

Ont. Two sons. 

85. Mrs. D. Wartman, of Selby, Ont. Five children. 

FOUR IV. 18, FIVE (65). 

86. Sarah Jane Miller, 1829, married Robert Armstrong. 

Six children. 

87. Electa Maria Miller, 1831, married (i) W. Martin, (2) 

J. F. Lake. No children. 


88. Margaret Miller, 1832, married Rev. Wm. McDonagh, 

D.D. Three children. 

89. Mary Elizabeth Miller, unmarried. 

James Lake Miller, married Mary E | j , 
Eraser, Switzerville. Eleven chil- f 

90. Clarissa Miller, 1838 , married John H. Lake. Eive 


91. Peter Egerton Ryerson Miller, 1845 , married Agn^s 

V. Lowry, Switzerville. Four children. 

FOUR IV. 1 8, FIVE (68). 

92. Mrs. Rev. Jacob Freshman, D.D., of New York. 

93. Sidney R. Miller, of Napanee, Ont. 

94. Martha Miller, married James .Daly, police magistrate 

of Napanee, Ont. No children. 

FOUR IV. 19, FIVE (71). 

95. Phoebe Stevenson, married - - Wallbridge, lawyer, of 

Belleville, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72). 

96. William H. Miller, married Bertha E. Murdoff, Kings- 

ton, Ont. Two daughters. 

97. Augusta Miller, married Hon. A. B. Aylesworth, Min- 

ister of Justice, Ottawa. One son. 

98. Jennie Miller, married William Grange, druggist. 

Four children. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (73). 

99. Cephas Miller, in California. 
100 John Miller, in California. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74). 

101. Hannah Mary Miller, married John A. Percy, Califor- 

nia. Two children. 

102. Lydia Miller, married Robt. Hope. Four children. 


103. Julia Miller, married William Black, California. 

104. Gallic Miller, married - - Joy, California. 

105. Eva Miller, married Job Wood, California. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (75). 

1 06. William Henry Miller, married Hattie Day. 

107. George Lester Miller, died young. 

108. Agnes Rebecca, married W. Britton Mills. Six chil- 


109. Charlotte A. Miller, married (i) Henry Grange, (2) 

Thomas Way, Wellington, Out. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76). 

110. Julia Aylesworth, married George L. Manning, Col- 

lingwood, Out. One daughter. 

111. Elizabeth Aylesworth, married W. Cunningham. 

Eight children. 

112. Dr. George M. Aylesworth, married - , Colling- 

wood. Four children. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (77). 

113. Julia Chapman. 

114. Cecil Chapman. 

115. Fred. Chapman. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (78). 

116. Emeline Stickney, married John R. Scott. One son. 

117. George Stickney. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (79). 

1 1 8. Samuel Hooper, married Coleman. 

119. Alice Hooper, married -- Wilson, of Napanee, Ont. 

FOUR -IV. 20, FIVE (80). 

1 20. Agnes Phalen. married Charles Evans, Elkhorn, Man. 

One daughter. 


121. William Phalen, married Mina Anderson, Napinka, 

Man. Four children. 

122. Jennie Phalen, married Clarence Wilson, Winnipeg, 

Man. One son. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82). 

123. Emily McKim, married Rev. W. J. Young. Five 


124. Mary McKim, married Rev. B. F. Lewis. Two chil- 


FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (83). 

125. Agnes Drury, unmarried, Smithneld, Ont. 

126. Malcolm Drury, married -- Bullis, Smithneld, Ont. 

127. William Drury, married Annie Stewart, Smithneld, 

Ont. Three children. 

128. Ira Drury, died young. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (84). 

129. Melanchthon Scouten, died young. 

130. Cynthia Scouten, married Manson York, Ingle, Ad- 

dington Co., Ont. Four children. 

131. Francis Asbury Scouten, died youne. 

132. Agnes Scouten, married -- Towers. 

133. Arthur Scouten, died young. 

134. May Scouten. 

135. Augusta Scouten, married Harry Robinson, Ashcroft, 


136. Charles Richard Watson Scouten, married - , 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

137. Orin Scouten, Christian Alliance Missionary, South 


FOUR-IV. 21, FIVE (85). 

138. Henry Neely, married Mina Sweet, Melita, Man. 

Five children. 

139. Garrett Miller Neeley, married Elma Sweet, Stras- 

burg, Sask. One daughter. 


140. Lillie Nee ley, married Henry Sweet, Melita, Man. 

Two children. 

141. Edith Neeley, married Henry Denves, Foxboro, Ont. 

Four children. 

142. Alma Foster Neeley, married Dr. John Moore, Shan- 

nonville, Ont. Two children. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86). 

143. Helen Eliza Miller, married Hamilton Armstrong, 

Carman, Man. One child. 

144. Alice Maud Miller, married James F. Holden, dead. 

One child. 

145. S. Emily Miller, married Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, 

M.A., Ph.D. Four children. 

146. Agnes Miller, married W. A. Wilson, Govan, Sask. 

Two children. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (87). 

147. Charles Wesley Miller, died young. 

FOUR IV. 22, FIVE (88). t 

148. Jennie Youmans. 

149. Alma Youmans, married S. Paul, Melita, Man. 

150. Samuel Youmans, 

FOUR IV. 23, FIVE (91). 

151. Ann Georgie Miller, married G. Whittington, Na- 

panee, Ont. Two sons. 

152. John Albert Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

153. Edwin Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

154. Stanley Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

155. Robert Wellington Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

156. H. W. Beecher Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

157. Chauncey P. Miller, Bracebridge, Ont. 

158. Thomas Miller, Bridgewater, Ont. 

159. May Miller, married - - Baird, Bracebridge, Ont. 


FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100). 

160. Jane Sixby, married Joseph C. Rykert, St. Armand, 

One. Three children. 

161. Catherine Sixby, married C. Smith, St. Armand, One. 

No children. 

162. Mary Ann Sixby, unmarried. 

163. Margaret Sixby, married E. C. Burke, Philipsburg-. 

One son. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101). 

164. Horatio N. Sixby, married Harriett Bullis, St. Ar- 

mand, Cue. Four children. 

165. Garrett O. Sixby. 

1 66. Charles Wesley Sixby. 

167. Edmund Galer Sixby. 

1 68. Virtue Irene Sixby, married William Boyce. 

169. Harriett Elizabeth Sixby, married T. C. Loynes. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103). 

170. Edmund Galer, married Sophia England, Dunham, 

Que. Five children. 

171. Maria Galer, married Hiram Harvey. Six children. 
IJ72. Lusher Galer, married Pomelia England, sister of 

Sophia. Three children. 

173. George Galer, married Matilda Fuller. Two children. 

174. J. Nyles Galer, married Sarah Armington, Dunham, 

Que. Three children. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105). 

175. Garrett Safford, married Andry Spencer, Sutton 

Junction, Que. Four children. 

176. Mary Safford, married -- Tracey. One son. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106). 

177. John Peers, married Abby Chirion. Three children. 

178. Mary Peers, married - - Flag. No children. 


179. Margaret Peers, married Lester Reynolds, Frelighs- 

burg, One. Five children. 

1 80. Elizabeth Peers, married Dr. Young. Three children. 

1 8 1. Catherine Peers, married Henry Beach. One child. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in). 

182. Edith Miller, married John Odell. Nine children. 

183. Peter Miller, married Jane Davidson, Campbell ford, 

Ont. Two children. 

184. Margaret Miller, married Thomas Shannon. Nine 


FOUR' V. 25, FIVE (113). 

185. Charles Cooper. 1831-1853. 

1 86. Thomas Cooper, 1833-1906, married Catherine 

McGowan, Two children. 

187. John George Cooper, of Boston, married Lydia Bing- 

ham. No children. 

1 88. Margaret A. Cooper, St. Armand, Que., married Dr. 

A. B. Bradley. Three children. 

FOUR v. 25, FIVE (114) 

189. George Miller Lang, 1836. 

190. Catherine Lang, married H. Odell, Champlain, Vt. 

Four children. 

191. Margaret Lang, married Wm. Ashur, Canfield Al- 

burg Springs, Vt. Two children. 

192. James Lang, died young. 1829-1837. 

193. Eleanor Lang, died young, 1844. 

194. Charles Miller Lang, married Emily Adams, 1902, 

Toledo, Ohio. Three children. 

195. Alexander J. Lang, married Eliza -Church. Two 


196. Matthew T. Lang, married Maria Louise Perry, Bos- 

ton, Mass. One child. 

197. Mary A. Lang married J. Fosberg, L;icolle, Que. 

Two children. 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116). 

198. Mary Helen Hyde, married Ira Bellows, Wisconsin. 

Eight children. 

199. Henry Allen Hyde, married Catherine Eustace, Wis- 

consin. Three children. 

200. Charles Jehiel Hyde, married J. I. Bailey. Four chil- 


20 1. George Luther Hyde, died in American Civil War. 

202. James Walter Hyde, died in American Civil War. 

203. Albert Eugene Hyde, married Catherine Garvey. 

Three children. 

204. Margaret Isabella Hyde, died young. 

FOUR V. 26, FIVE (118). 

205. Jane Tittemore. 

206. Philip Tittemore. 

207. Eliza Tittemore. 

208. Samuel George Tittemore. 

209. Jeremiah Tittemore. 

210. Robert Lusher Tittemore. 

211. John Quiney Adams Tittemore. 

212. Margaret Tittemore. 

213. Noah Tittemore. 

214. Charles Tittemore. 


215. Catherine Jackson. 

216. Mary Jackson. 

217. Jacob Jackson. 

218. Margaret Jackson. 

219. Betsey Jackson. 

220. Jane Jackson. 

FOUR V. 26, FIVE (120). 

221. Samuel George Tittemore. 

222. Anson Tittemore. 

223. James Tittemore. 


224. Henry Tittemore. 

225. Maria Tittemore. 

226. Martha Tittemore. 

227. Adeline Tittemore. 

FOUR V. 26, FIVE (127). 

228. Catherine Miller Embury, 1836-1887. 

229. Sarah Elizabeth Embury. 1844-1907. 

230. William Hutchinson Embury, 1846 , Oliver, Cue. 

FOUR V. 26, FIVE (128). 

231. John Russell Embury. 

232. Elizabeth Embury. 

233. Charles Embury. 

234. Samuel Embury. 

235. Carmi Embury. 

236. William H. Embury. 

237. Edwin Embury. 

FOUR V. 26 FIVE (129). 

238. Clara Embury, married Thomas Burroughs, Montana, 

U.S. Three children. 

239. John Edward Embury, dead. 

240. Wellington Embury, dead. 

241. Willoughby Embury, dead. 

242. Isadora H. Embury, married Charles Burroughs, Mon- 

tana. Seven children. 

243. Charles Embury, lives in St. Armand East. No chil- 


FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132). 

244. Mary Mack, married John R. Creed, 31 Hollis Street, 

Halifax. Seven children. 

245. Hon. Jason Miller Mack, M.L.C., married Minnie 

Kellaher, Liverpool. N.S. Five children. 

246. Dr. Joshua Newton Mack, married Susan L. Wilson, 

229 Pleasant Stret, Halifax. Two sons. 


FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133). 

247. Alecia Frances Aliller, married James A. Grant, Hali- 

fax. Two sons. 

248. Rosa Anstruther Mill-er, married Louis D. Demers, 

Halifax. One son. 

249. James Miller, unmarried, Halifax. 

250. Louis Seymour Miller, married Jennie Roberts, daugh- 

ter of Rev. Ed. Roberts, Aylesbury, Eng. Live at 
West La Have. Five children. 

251. Sydney Garrett Miller, unmarried. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135). 

252. Hon. W. H. Owen, M.L.C., married Miss Tobin, 

Bridgewater, N.S. Three daughters. 

253. Nepean Clark Owen, married. Miss Gelling, Customs 

House, Bridgewater, N.S. Two daughters. 

254. Jacob Miller Owen, married Miss Farrish, judge, 

Annapolis, N.S. Two children. 

255. Daniel Miller Owen, married Mary Ruggles Green, 

daughter of Rev. - - Green, of Worcester, Mass., 
"Armbrae," Oxford Street, Halifax, lawyer. 

256. Catherine Owen, married Rev. J. O. Ruggles, Halifax. 

Nine children. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (136). 

257. Elizabeth M. Miller, married George W. Godard, 

Board of Trade, Bridgewater, N.S. 

258. Jennie A. Miller, married W. D. Hall, Bridgewater, 

N.S. Four children. 

259. Annie Miller, unmarried, "Glen Allen," Bridgewater, 


260. J. Arthur Miller, unmarried, "Glen Allen, 5 ' Bridge- 

water, N.S. 

FOUR IX. 48, FIVE (139). 

261. Louisa Crooks, married Burns. 

262. Elizabeth Crooks, married - - Dawson. 

263. - , married -- Granville Cunningham. 


FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (141). 

264. Roswell Corse Fisher, 660 Sherbrooke Street, Mont- 

real, married Mary Field Ritchie, daughter of 
Thomas Ritchie and Jessie Fisher. 

265. Sydney Arthur Fisher (Hon.), Minister of Agricul- 

ture, Ottawa. 

FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (143). 

266. Annie Simpson, married R. W. Barker, Toronto. 

267. Douglas Simpson Toronto. 

268. Arthur Simpson, Lennoxville, Cue. 

FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (147). 

269. Leonora Ronald Fisher, 5127 Hibbard Ave., Chicago 

270. Florence Fisher, married Ernest Jeffrey, One. Four 


271. Marion Ada Fisher, married Sydney A she Fletcher, 

One. Seven children. 

272. Wm. Dudley Fisher, Three Rivers, Oue. 

273. Martha Amy Fisher, married Wm. Fred. Ritchie, 131 

Stanley Street, Montreal. 

274. Herbert Fisher, died voting. 

275. Ida Kate Fisher, died young. 

276. Ernest Flenry Fisher. 

277. Ethel Maud Fisher, 131 Stanley Street, Montreal. 

FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (150). 

278. Arthur F. Ritchie, married Frances Jennings, Duluth 

279. Wm. F. Ritchie, married Amy Fisher, Montreal. 

280. Charles Weston Ritchie unmarried, Chicago. 

281. Mary Field Ritchie, married Roswell C. Fisher, Mont- 


282. Susan Corse Ritchie, unmarried. 

283. Jessie Fisher Ritchie, married R. D. Savage, Montreal. 

284. Philip Embury Ritchie, married Frances McLean, Ot- 


285. Octavia Grace Ritchie, M.D., married Dr. England, 



FOUR I. 2, FIVE (i) Six i. 

(1) John Albert Miller, California. 

(2) James Miller, California. 

(3) Adam E. G. Miller, Montreal. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (2) Six 4. 

(4) Grace Tonkin, Methodist Deaconess, Winnipeg, Man. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six 9. 

(5) Eliza Catherine Miller, Montreal. 

(6) Frederica Miller, Montreal. 

(7) Allan Miller, Montreal. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) .Six 10. 

(8) Dr. Ernest McConnell, Montreal. 

(9) Dr. Herbert McConnell, Montreal. 
(10 Adeline McConnell, Montreal, 
(u) Theodora McConnell, Montreal. 

(12) Lulu McConnell, Montreal. 

(13) Muriel McConnell, Montreal. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six n. 

(14) Ella Bogan, St. Lambert, Que. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (4) Six 13. 

(15) Walter Rigsby. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6) Six 14. 

(16) Walter Carson, Montreal. 

(17) Lillian Carson, married F. Smiley, principal of 

School, Montreal. 

(18) John H. Carson. 

FOUR I. 2, FIVE (6) Six 15. 

rip) Mabel Carson, married - - Riddington, G.T.R. tele- 
grapher, St. Lambert, Que. 


FOUR I. 7, FIVE (8) Six 21. 
'20) Lena Lee. 

FOUR I. 9, FIVE (19) Six 33. 

(21) May Merrick. 

(22) Kathleen Merrick. 

Five others whose names are not given. 

FOUR I. 10, FIVE (34) Six 48. 

(23) Beauche, married . 

(24) Langdon, married - 

FOUR I. 12, FIVE (37) Six 51. 

(25) William Herbert Murphy. 

FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 53. 

(26) Margaret Murphy. 

FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 54. 

(27) Mattie Murphy. 

(28) Heber Murphy. 

(29) Ruth Murphy. 

FOUR I. 12, FIVE (39) Six 55. 

(30) Sollers Parran. 

(31) Elizabeth Parran. 

FOUR IV. 15, FIVE (49) Six 60. 

(32) Hesron Robert Miller, 1858 , married Sarah Lonley. 

lives in Aurora, Ont. Has seven children. 

(33) Elizabeth Priscilla Miller, died young. 

(34) Edgar Ethelbert Miller, 1869 , married 1904, 

Maggie Gertrude Lang, of Collingwood, lives at 
Snowflake, Man. 

(35) Annie Rosena Miller, married John Wesley Rundle, 

of Sonyea, Ont. La Riviere, Man. 


FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (52) Six 65. 

(36) Harold Stewart Miller, married Eleanor Hill, Mani- 

tou, Man. 

FOUR IV. 16, FIVE (53) Six 67. 

(37) Edith Miller, Tamworth, Ont. 

(38) Reuben Miller, Tamworth, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 1 6, FIVE (53) Six 68. 

(39) Clayton Taylor, Lyn, Ont. 

(40) Jay Taylor, Lyn. Ont. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76. 

(41) Bella MeHnda Williams, married E. A. Boice, Hamil- 

ton, Ont. 

(42) Carrie Williams, married F. W. Girvin, lawyer, East 

Orange, NJ. Two children. 

(43) Ogden Williams. 

(44) Benj. Clarke Williams, 1860-1895. One daughter. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six So. 

(45) Cyrus Huffman, married (i) Annie Miller, (2) Mary 

Young, (3) Ollie Campbell, Bath, Ont. Four chil- 

(46) Jane Huffman, married Rev. W. H. Rowson, Burling- 

ton, Ont. 

(47) Dollie Huffman, married George Fraser, corner Brock 

and Clergy Street, Kingston, Ont. One daughter. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 81. 

(48) Julia Ann Perry, married Rev. S. J. Hughes, Mont- 

real Conference. Five children. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 83. 

(49) David B. Wilson, married L. Hogle, Napanee, Ont. 

(50) James Wilson, married Lyda Hudgins, Strathcona, 

Ont. Four children. 


FOUR IV. 17. FIVE (61) Six 84. 

(51) Walter Wilson, married M. Lowe. One son. New 


(52) William A. Wilson, married Agnes Miller. Two 

children. Govan, Sask. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 85. 

(53; Olive Wartman, married N. McKim, Napanee, Ont. 
Four children. 

(54) Cephas Wartman. 

(55) Ada Wartman. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86. 

(56) Peter Armstrong. 

(57) Clara Armstrong, married -- Ford. One child. 

(58) Calvin Armstrong. 

(59) James Armstrong. 

(60) John Armstrong, married - . Four children. 

(61) Eliza Armstrong, married -- Cronk. Four children 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 88. 

(62) William McDonagh. 

(63) Margaret McDonagh, married - Dingman. Three 


(64) John McDonagh. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89. 

(65) Wilma Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(66) Ernest Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(67) Fred. Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(68) Blanche Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(69) Julia Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(70) Walter Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(71) Etta Miller, married - - Johnson. Three children. 

(72) Harvey Miller. 

(73) Harriett Miller, Switzerville, Ont. 

(74) Allan T. Miller, married - . Two children. 

(75) Ada Miller. 


FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 90. 

(76) Florence Lake. 

(77) Margaret Lake, married - - Balkwell. Two children. 

(78) Arthur Lake. 

(79) Ella Lake, married - - Van Luven. Four children. 

(80) Calvin Lake. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 91. 

(81) Jennie Miller, 1870, married Major R. Van Luven, 

Kingston, Ont. Three children. 

(82) Maggie E., 1875, died. 

(83) Eva Miller, B.A., 1877, married December I4th, 1907, 

Dr. James Mitchell, North Battleford, Sask. 

(84) Charles Miller, 1881, married Florence Husband. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72) Six 96. 

(85) Mabel E. Miller, Alfred Street, Kingston, Ont. 

(86) Ila A. Miller, married Dr. G. C. Berkley, St. Albans, 


FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (72) Six 97. 

(87) Alan Featherstone Aylesworth, married, 1906, Gladys 

Burton. Lawyer, Toronto, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE" (72) Six 98. 

(88) Alec Grange, dead. 

(89) Ethel Grange. 

(90) Florence Grange. 

(91) Evelyn Grange. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 101. 

(92) May Percy, California. 

(93) Bert Percy, lawyer, California. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102. 

(94) William Hope, California. 

(95) Ida Hope, married G. Anson Aylesworth, Newburgh, 

Ont. Three children. 


(96) Jessie Hope, married Rev. Swaine, Brockville, Ont 

Four children. 

(97) Mamie Hope, married Littlewood, Brockville 

One daughter. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (75) Six 108. 

(98) Helena Mills, drowned at Arden, Ont. 

(99) Maud Mills, nurse, in Chicago. 

(100) Blanche Mills, teacher, in California. 

(101) William Britton Mills, Independence, Alta. 

(102) Ethel Mills, married - - Rombold, Chicago, 111. 

(103) Georgina Mills, Chicago. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76) Six no. 

(104) Julia Manning, married Edwin Stickney, Newburgh, 


FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (76) Six 112. 

(105) Eva Victoria Aylesworth, married E. M. Carpenter, 

Edmonton, Alta. Two children. 

(106) Mary Wilson Aylesworth, married H. Trott, Col- 

lingwood, Ont. Two children. 

(107) Ralph Bradley Aylesworth, Edmonton, Alta. 

(108) Stella Eliza Aylesworth. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (78) Six 116. 

(109) William Scott, married -- Wilson, Toronto. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (80) Six 120. 
(no) Marion Evans. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (80) Six 121. 

(a) Wade Phalen, () Gerty Phalen, (c) Harvey 
Phalen, (d} Clarence Phalen. Napinka, Man. 

FOUR IV. 20 FIVE (80) Six 122. 
(ill) Stewart Wilson. 


FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82) Six 123. 

(112) Rev. W. Archie McKim Young, married Bertha 

Morin, daughter of Rev. J. X. Morin. One daugh- 

(113) Ernest Young, married - . Two children. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (82) Six 124. 

(114) Roland Lewis. 

(115) Mac. Lewis. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (83) Six 127. 

(116) Helen Drury. 

(117) Edna Drury. 

(118) Stewart Drury. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (84) Six 130. 

(119) Evelyn York. 

(120) Laura York. 

(121) Fred. York. 

(122) Marion May York. 

FOUR IV 21, FIVE (85) Six 138. 

(123) Harry Neeley. 

(124) Warde Neeley. 

(125) Ethel Maude Neeley 

(126) Malcolm Neeley. 

(127) Lillian Neeley. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 139. 

(128) Vera Neeley. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 140. 

(129) Wyn Stanley Sweet. 

(130) Walter Grange Sweet. 


FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 141. 

(131) Earl Denyes. 

(132) Garnet Denyes. 

(133) Helen Denyes. 

(134) Kennth Denyes. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (85) Six 142. 

(135) Edythe Campbell Moore. Also John Douglas Miller 


FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 143. 

(136) Harold Miller Armstrong, born Napanee, 1895. 

FOUR IV. 2i, FIVE (86) Six 144. 

(137) Maude Miller Hoi den, married Gordon Groves, 

Canyon City, Texas. One child. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 145. 

(138) Winifred Miller Tucker, born Minden, Ont., Feb- 

ruary, 1890. 

(139) Edith Miller Tucker, born Napanee Mills (Strath- 

cona), October, 1891. 

(140) Holly Miller Tucker, born Adolphustown, December, 


(141) Wilfrid Bilbrough Miller Tucker, Bath, May, 1896. 

FOUR IV. 21, FIVE (86) Six 146. 

(142) Arthur Miller Wilson, born Napanee Mills, March, 


(143) Helen Miller Wilson, born Napanee Mills, April, 


FOUR IV. 23, FIVE (91) Six 151. 

(144) Bruce Whitington, Napanee, Ont., married Mabel 


(145) Claude Whittington, Napanee, Ont. 


FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100) Six 160. 

(146) Son, Rykert, St. Armand. 

(147) Daughter, Rykert, St. Armand. 

(148) Daughter, Rykert, St. Armand. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (100) Six 163. 

(149) Henry Burke, drowned. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164. 

(150) George Sixby, married Bertha Tittemore. One son. 

(151) Ella Sixby, married Anson Shelters. Three children. 

(152) Anna Sixby, married George Krans. One son. 

(153) Lettie Sixby, trained nurse, St. Armand. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103") Six 170. 

(154) Dr. Garrett Galer, married Miss Mitchell. 

(155) Theodore Galer, killed in American Civil War. 

(156) Jay Galer, married Miss Fay. Two children, in 


(157) Herbert Galer, married FI. Reynolds, Frelighsburg, 

Oue. Two children. 

(158) Edmund Galer, married Miss Perkins, Michigan. 

One son. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 171. 

(159) Hannibal Harvey, married Miss Ingalls. One 


(160) Mary Harvey, married - - Ingalls. Five children. 

(161) Emily Harvey, married -- Crawford Beatty. 

(162) Dianthy Harvev, married - - Scott. 

(163) Ida Harvey, married - - Robinson. 

(164) Lusher Flarvey, married Edna Scott. Three chil- 


FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 172. 

(165) Jennie Galer, married L. E. Sherman, Colorado 

Springs. Three children. 


(166) Carrie Galer, married Dr. F. R. England, Montreal. 

One son. 

(167) Frank Galer, married E. Spencer, ex-M.P., Frelighs- 

burg, One. Three children. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 173. 

(168) Nelson Galer, married Ilattie Hall. Two children. 

(169) Ella Galer, married Homer Gough, Swectsburg. 

Two children. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (103) Six 174. 

(170) Jay Galer, married A. Oliver, Ingersoll, Ont. Four 


(i/i) Homer Galer, married -- McLaren. One child. 
(1/2) Jennie Galer, married Dr. F. E. Savage, West Brome, 

One. Three children. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175. 

(173) Myron Safford, married Miss Hamilton, Sutton, 

Que. Five children. 

(174) Weslev Safford, married Miss Martin, Sutton Junc- 

tion, Que. Two children. 

(1/5) Spencer Safford, married Miss Lewis, Sutton Junc- 
tion, Que. Three children. 

(176) Frank Safford, married Miss Curley, Sutton, Que. 

Two children. 

FOUR Y. 24, FIVE (105) Six 176. 

(177) Garrett Tracey. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 177. 

(178) Perry Peers. 

(179) George Peers. 
(i So) Mally Peers. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 179. 

(181) George H. Reynolds, Frelighsburg, Que. 

(182) Charles L. Reynolds. 


(183) Arthur N. Reynolds. 

(184) William A. Reynolds. 

(185) Helen M. Reynolds, married Herbert Galer. Three 


FOUR V. 2 A.. FIVE (106) Six iSo. 

(186) John Young. 

(187) Sarah Young. 

(188) Albert Young. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 181. 

(189) Catherine Beach. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 182. 

(190) Esther M. Odell, married William McKay, Camp- 

bell ford, Ont. Several children. 

(191) Louise Odell, married, Bing. Krans, Montana. 

(192) Helen M. Odell, married Solomon Levy, Montana. 

(193) Edith Isabel Odell, married James Armstrong, Lis- 

bon Centre. Two children. 

(194) I. Maude Odell, Cobourg, Ont., married John Wilkie. 

(195) William H. Odell, married Annie Emmons, Paris. 


(196) Margaret Jane Odell, 1863-1866. 

(197) Charles Miller Odell, married Mary Clark, in Cali- 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183. 

(198) George N. Miller, married Alia Casson, Campbell- 

ford, Ont. Two children. 

(199) Edith Miller, married John Clark, Cramahe, Ont. 

Two sons. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 184. 

(200) Robert Shannon, married M. Ford, Docato. Two 


(201) Hugh A. Shannon, married E. Rutherford, Camn- 

bellford, Ont. 


(202) Thomas Shannon, in California. 

(203) Edward Shannon, dead. 

(204) Lena Shannon, married Harry Marks, Castleton, 

Ont. Two children. 

(205) Doll Shannon, married R. Hay, Campbell ford, Ont:. 

(206) Kate Dolby Shannon, in Toronto. 

(207) Edith Shannon, in Kingston. 

(208) Daisy Maud Shannon, married R. Rutherford. Two 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 186. 

(209) Charles Cooper, died. 

(210) Agnes Isabella Cooper, married Charles W. Lampee, 

Boston. Two children. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 188. 

(211) Darius Bradley, died young. 

(212) Agnes Bradley, St. Armand, Que. 

(213) George Bradley, St. Armand, Oue. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190. 

(214) Mary Odell, married Albert Scriver, Odelltown, Cue. 

(215) Percy Roswell Odell, married Dorothea Mayland. 

(216) Hiram Matthew Odell, married Blanche Kelton. 

(217) Elizabeth Margaret A. Odell. 

(a) Charles Joseph Odell. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 191. 

(218) William Alexander Canneld, married Eliza Hotch- 

kiss, Lowell, Mass, Two children. 

(219) Margaret I. Canneld, married Joseph Gallagher, Al- 

burg Springs, Vt. 

FOUR V, 25, FIVE (114) Six 194. 

(220) William Rufus Lang, married Cora Peckham, To- 

ledo, Ohio. 

(221) C. Blanche Lang. 

(222) Harriett Adams Lang, married Charles G. Robb. 
(222a) Emma Agnes Lang, married Samuel Dority. 
(222b) Mamie Lang. 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 195. 

(223) Margaret E. Lang, St. Albans, Vt, married Nov- 

ember 20th, 1907, A. O. Morton, M.D. 

(224) Walter C. Lang, St. Albans, Vt. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 196. 

(225) Charles Alfred S. J. J. Lang, Montpelier, Vt., mar- 
ried Mary Eva Davis. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 197. 

(226) Bertha Matilda Fosburg, Lacolle, Oue., married - 


(227) Mary Adelina Fosburg, married - - Kingsbury, La- 

colle, Que. 

(227a) Delia Agnes Fosberg. 
(227b) Hattie Augusta Fosberg. 
(2270) Eva Jane Fosberg. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198. 

(228) George N. Bellows, Lancaster, Wisconsin. 

(229) Mary S. Bellows. 

(230) Charlotte L. Bellows, married W. F. Kelly. One 


(231) Hiram H. Bellows, died young. 

(232) Helen M. Bellows, died young. 

(233) Walton D. Bellows, married Lena Fieldhouse. 

(234) Burton H. Bellows, married Daisy Keendust. 

(235) Julian Dewey Bellows. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199. 

(236) Luther A. Hyde, married Fanny Tuttle, Texas. 

(237) Henry Oscar Hyde, died in American Civil War. 

(238) Alice Philippa Hyde, married S. Stoffer, Kansas. 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200. 

(239) Agnes I. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis. 

(240) Mary K. Hyde, married Joseph Wolstonholme, Ne- 

braska. One child. 

(241) Hattie B. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis. 

(242) Allan J. Hyde, Lancaster, Wis., married Alma 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 203. 

(243) Annie Isabel Hyde, Lancaster, Wis. 

(244) Mary Elizabeth Hyde. 

(245) Eugenia Hyde. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244. 

(246) Sophia Augusta Creed, married Stephen W. Mack, 

Mill Village, N.S. One child. 

(247) Jason Samuel Creed, Halifax. 

(248) Fred. Creed, married Jeannie Russell, Glasgow, 

Scot. Four children. 

(249) John Naylor Creed. 

(250) Ned Creed, Halifax. 

(251) Hattie Creed. 

(252) Frank Creed. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132), Six 245. 

(253) Jason Mack, Liverpool, N.S. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 245. 

(254) Catherine Mack. 

(255) Mary A. Mack, died at the home of her father, Hon. 

Jason Mack, Liverpool, N.S., on August 6, 1907, 
aged twenty-two years. 

(256) Clare Mack. 

(257) Leigh Mack. 


FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 246. 

(258) Frank Gordon Mack, lialifax. 

(259) Fred. Newton Mack, Halifax. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six 247. 

(260) Reginald Grant, married Winifred G. Hall, West 

La liave, N.S. 

(261) Wyndom Grant, in California. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six. 248. 

(262) David Seymour Demers, died young. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (133) Six 250. 

(263) Mary Morns Miller, West La Have, N.S. 

(264) Gladys Roberts Miller, West La Flave, N.S. 

(265) Greta Seymour Miller, West L*a Have, N.S. 

(266) Francis Eileen Miller, West La Have, N.S. 

(267) Jean R. Miller, West La liave, N.S. Born 1900. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (13 5). Six 252. 

(268) Hilda Owen, Bridgewater, N.S. 

(269) Vera Owen, Bridgewater, N.S. 

(270) Olive Owen, Bridgewater, N.S. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 253. 

(271) Geraldine Owen Bridgewater, N.S. 

(272) Violet Owen, Bridgewater, N.S. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 254. 

(273) Daniel Owen, Annapolis, N.S. 

(274) Farrish Owen, Annapolis, N.S. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (135) Six 256. 

(275) Hibbard Ruggles, Flalifax. 

(276) Mary E. Ruggks, Halifax. 

(277) Florence Ruggles, married Nathan Heard, lawyer, 

Boston, Mass. 


(278) Nepean C. Ruggles, Halifax. 

(279) Charles Ruggles, Halifax. 

(280) Robie Stearnes Ruggles, Halifax. 

(281) Henry Ruggles, Halifax. 

(282) Alice Ruggles, Halifax. 

(283) Rev. Vernon Ruggles, of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (136) Six 258, 

(284) Gordon W. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S. 

(285) Bessie Louisa Hall, Bridgewater, N.S. 

(286) Emma M. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S. 

(287) James L. Hall, Bridgewater, N.S. 

FOUR IX. 50, FIVE (147) Six 2. 

V 288) Anny Florence Jeffery, died young. 

(289) St. George Ernest Jeffery, married Emma Tweedie, 

of Manitoba. New Westminster, B.C. 

(290) Leslie Gordon Jeffery, died young. 

(291) Sydney Fisher Jeffery, died young. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76 SEVEN (42). 

1. John Williams, 1893. 

2. James Williams, 1895. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 76 SEVEN (44). 
3 Carrie Boice Williams, Rochester, N.Y. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 80 SEVEN (45). 

4. Erne Huffman, married Henry Creighton, Hawley, Ont. 

One child. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six Si SEVEN (48). 

5. Ethelwyn R. liughes, married W. N. Dietrich, Montreal. 

Three children. 


FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 83 SEVEN (50). 

6. Ruth Wilson, Strathcona, Ont. 

7. Wilfrid Wilson, Strathcona, Ont. Two others. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 84 SEVEN (51). 

8. Walter Wilson, New York. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 84 SEVEN (52). 

9. Arthur M. Wilson, Govan, Sask. 

10. Helen M. Wilson. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 85 SEVEN (53). 

11. John McKim, Napanee, Ont 

12. Lulu McKim. 

13. Claude McKim. 

14. - , sister of above. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61" Six 86 SEVEN (57). 

15. Kenneth Ford. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86 SEVEN (60). 

1 6. John Armstrong. 

17. Sarah Armstrong. 

1 8. Emma Armstrong. 

19. Dora Armstrong. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 86 SEVEN (61). 

20. Mabel Cronk. 

21. Mildred Cronk. 

22. Hubert Cronk. 

23. Frank Cronk. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 88 SEVEN (63). 

24. Arthur Dingman. 

25. George Dingman. 

26. Wilhelmina Dingman. 


FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89 SEVEN (71). 

27. Gordon Johnson. 

28. Harold Johnson. 

29. Edna Johnson. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 89 SEVEN (74). 

30. Hazel Miller. 

31. Arnold Miller. 

FOUR IV. i7 ; FIVE (61) Six 90 SEVEN (77). 

32. Clarence Balkwell. 

33. Mildred Balkwell. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 90 SEVEN (79). 

34. Harold Van Luven. 

35. Leah Van Luven. 

36. Luella Van Luven. 

37. Ethel Van Luven. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (61) Six 91 SEVEN (81). 

38. Robert Miller Van Luven. 

39. Fred. D. Van Luven. 

40. Helen Agnes Van Luven. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (95). 

41. McGilvray Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont. 

42. Hope Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont. 

43. John Aylesworth, Newburgh, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (96). 

44. Hope Swaine. 

45. Allen Swaine. 

46. - - Swaine. 

47. Robert Swaine. 

FOUR- IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 102 SEVEN (97). 

48. Edith Hope Littlewood. 



FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 112 SEVEN (105). 

49. Dorothy Carpenter. 

50. Louise Carpenter. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (74) Six 112 SEVEN (106). 

51. Claire Trott. 

52. Edith Trott. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (82) Six 123 SEVEN (112). 

53. Vera Young-. 

FOUR IV. 20, FIVE (82) Six 123 SEVEN (113). 

54. Theressa Young. 

55. Agnes Young- 

FOUR IV. 21, FI- T E (86) Six 144 SEVEN (137). 

56. David Holden Groves, born April i8th, 1907, Canyon 

City, Texas. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (150). 

57. Garrett Sixby, St. Armand, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (151). 

58. Jay Shelters, St. Armand, Que. 

59. Fred. Shelters, St. Armand, Que. 

60. Mabel Shelters, St. Armand, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (152). 

61. F.ay Krans, St. Armand, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (156). 

62. Merritt Galer. 

63. Cora Galer. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 164 SEVEN (158). 
66. Carlton Galer. 


FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (159). 

67. Jennie Ingalls. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160). 

68. George M. Ingalls, married Grimes. One child. 

69. Edmund Ingalls, married Call. Five children. 

70. Lena Ingalls, married - - Amyrauld. Two children. 

71. David Ingalls, married - - Buchanan. One child. 

72. Ella Ingalls. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (164). 

73. Harry Scott. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (164). 

74. Jessie Scott. 

75. Gladys Scott. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (i6 3 ). 

76. Aggie Sherman, married Dr. Yates, Dunham. Five 


77. Clarence Sherman. 

78. Gertrude Sherman. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (166). 

79. Murray England. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 172 SEVEN (167;. 

80. Emma Spencer, married Fred Ayer, Frelighsburg, Q. 

8 1. Edmund Spencer. 

82. Muriel Spencer. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 173 SEVEN (168). 

83. Carlton Galer. 

84. Emma Galer. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 173 SEVEN (169). 

85. Edward Gough. 

86. Hazel Gough. 




FOUR v. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (170) 

87. Oliver Galer, married Maud De Spain, Phcemx, B.C. 

88. Fulton Galer. 

89. Ross Galer. 
go. Annie Galer. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (171). 
gi. Chellis Galer. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 174 SEVEN (172). 

92. Eva Savage. 

93. Norine Savage. 

94. Doris Savage. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (173). 

95. Marion Safford. 

96. Harry Safford. 

97. Penelope Safford. 

98. Dorothy Safford. 

99. Andry Safford. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (174). 

100. Blanche Safford. 

101. Andry Safford. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (175). 

102. Garrett Safford. 

103. Robert Safford. 

104. Lewis Safford. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (105) Six 175 SEVEN (176). 

105. Frances Safford. 

1 06. Alice Safforc. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (106) Six 179 SEVEN (185). 

107. Fred. Galer. 

108. Clarence Galer. 

109. Lillian Galer. 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 182 SEVEN (193). 
no. George Odell. 

111. John George Odell. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183 SEVEN (198). 

112. Roy Miller. 

113. Carman Miller. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (in) Six 183 SEVEN (199). 

114. George Clark, Bancroft, Ont. 

115. Robert Clark, Bancroft, Ont. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (m) Six 184 SEVEN (208). 

116. Roy Rutherford, 1905. 

117. Leafa Rutherford, 1907, September I2th. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (113) Six 186 SEVEN (210). 

1 1 8. Charles Irving Lampee, married Marion Caverly v 

1907. Boston, Mass. 

119. Thomas Cooper Lampee. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (214). 

1 20. Beatrice Mary Scriver. 

121. Clarence Albert Scriver. 

FOUR v. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (215). 

122. Catherine Elizabeth Odell. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 190 SEVEN (2i6\ 

123. Richard Kelton Odell. 

124. Marion Odell. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 191 SEVEN (218). 

125. Marion Margaret Canneld. 

126. Charlotte Maude Canneld. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 194 SEVEN (220). 

127. Charles Peckham Lang. 


FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 194 SEVEN (222). 

128. Charles Gregory Robb. 

129. Charlotte Mary Robb. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (114) Six 196 SEVEN (225). 

130. Matthew Harrison Lang. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198 SEVEN (230). 

131. Helen Ursula Kelly. 

132. Chester Bellows Kelly. 

133. Florence May Kelly. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 198 SEVEN (233). 

134. Keith Hyde Bellows, Lancaster, Wis. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199 SEVEN (236). 

135. Ruth Lorena Hyde. 

136. Henry Park Hyde. 

137. Ray Luther Hyde. 

138. Carl Luther Hyde. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 199 SEVEN (238). 

139. Mabel Catherine Stoffer. 

140. George Allan Stoffer. 

141. Fernie Pearl Stoffer. 

142. Earl Eugene Stoffer. 

143. Lena Viola Stoffer. 

144. Simon Levi Stoffer. 

145. Mary Dora Stoffer. 

146. Alice Stoffer. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200 SEVEN (240). 

147. Irma Hyde Woolstenholme, Grand Rapids, Nebraska. 

FOUR V. 25, FIVE (116) Six 200 SEVEN (242). 

148. Charles Allen Hyde. 

149. Sydney Jehiel Hyde. 

150. Delphine Hyde. 


FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244 SEVEN (246). 

151. Eleanor May Mack. 

FOUR VI. 27, FIVE (132) Six 244 SEVEN (248). 

152. Gavin Livingstone Creed. 

153. Jean Creed. 

154. Frederica Georgiana Creed. 

155. - - Creed, daughter. 

FOUR IX. 50, F-IVE (147) Six 2 SEVEN (289). 

156. Florence Emma Jeffery, born in 1905, the sixth in 

descent from Philip Embury. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 80 SEVEN (45) EIGHT 4. 

(1) "C. B." Creighton, Hawley, Ont. 

FOUR IV. 17, FIVE (59) Six 81 SEVEN (48) EIGHT 5. 

(2) Perry Howard Dietrich, Montreal, Que. 

(3) John Elwood Dietrich, Montreal, Que. 

(4) Norma Isabell Dietrich, Montreal, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 68. 

(5) Nason Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 69. 

(6) Hazel Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

(7) Earl Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

(8) Edmund Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

(9) Carl Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

(10) Grace Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 70. 

(11) Ruth Amyrauld, Sweetsburg, Que. 

(12) Ross Amyrauld, Sweetsburg, Que. 


FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 171 SEVEN (160) EIGHT 71. 

(13) Lisgar Ingalls, Dunham, Que. 

FOUR V. 24, FIVE (101) Six 172 SEVEN (165) EIGHT 76. 

(14) Annie Yates, Dunham, Que. 

(15) Gertrude Yates, Dunham, Que. 

(16) Kathleen Yates, Dunham, Que. 

(17) Eileen Yates, Dunham, Que. 

(18) Harry Yates, Dunham, Que. 







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