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Full text of "Campaigns and battles of the Sixteenth Regiment, Tennessee Volunteers, in the war between the states, with incidental sketches of the part performed by other Tennessee troops in the same war. 1861-1865"




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



f- 




' 



CAMPAIGNS AND BATTLES 





TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS, 

IN THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES, 

WITH INCIDENTAL SKETCHES OF 

The Part Performed by other Tennessee Troops in the same War, 
1861-1865. 



BY THOMAS A. HEAD. 



NASHVILLE, TENN. : 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN PUBLISHING HOUSE. 

1885. 




Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 1884, by 

THOMAS A. HEAD, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 




DEDICATION. 




4.1 4? 

The I ifeemory oT our oen om- 
y / 

rades of trje Qosl Oause, 
v^)o tr^eir Kami ies ana Descendants, 

o trje ^)urvivors of tpe unfortunate strug- 



P L fl 

ae jrom eacQ C/lrmy, 

nd to allj.w9o may appreciate Fidelity 
to I rincip e and Devotion to Duty, 

Aolunne is I \espectfully ^Inscribed by 
Hutrjor. 



448308 



CHAPTER I. 

Organization of the Regiment and stay at Camp Trous- 
dale Transfer to Virginia Huntersville Cheat 
Mountain Campaign Sewell Mountain Winter in 
North-western Virginia. 



CHAPTER II. 

Transfer to South Carolina Battle of Coosaw River 
Soldier Life on the Coast of South Carolina Cam- 
paigns in Mississippi Siege of Corinth Retreat to 
Tupelo Reorganization at Corinth Transfer of 
the Army to Chattanooga Kentucky Campaign 
Battle of Perry ville Return of the Army to Ten- 



CH AFTER III. 

Battle of Murfreesboro Retreat of Confederates to 
Tullahoma and Shelby ville Subsequent Retreat to 
Chattanooga. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Battle of Chickamauga Investment of Chattanooga 
by the Confederates Siege of Chattanooga Battle 
of Missionary Ridge Retreat of Confederates to 
Dalton. 



6 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER v. 

Georgia Campaign Battles of Resaca, Adairsville, and 
Peach Tree Creek Battles around Atlanta Fall of 
Atlanta and Invasion of Tennessee by Confederates. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Battle of Franklin Siege of Nashville Confederate 
Repulse at Nashville and the Retreat into North 
Carolina Surrender of .Confederates under John- 
ston Reunion of Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment at 
McMinnville, Tenn. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Muster Rolls of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, 
giving names of every man in the Regiment, by Com- 
panies List of Killed and Wounded, and Died of 
disease, by Companies. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Sketches of other Tennessee Regiments Eighth Ten- 
nessee, with Rolls Fifth Tennessee Carnes's Bat- 
tery Seventeenth Tennessee Fiftieth Tennessee 
Forty-ninth Tennessee Seventh Tennessee Elev- 
enth Tennessee Seventh Kentucky Wright's Bri- 
gade Thirty-third Tennessee. 



CHAPTER IX. 



Sketches of Officers: Captain D. C. Spurlock Cap- 
tain J. M. Parks Colonel- Joel A. Battle Colonel 
John H. Savage Captain L. N. Savage General 
F. K. Zollicoffer Major-general B. F. Cheatham 



CONTENTS. 7 

General William A. Quarles Colonel C. A. Sugg 
Colonel W. F. Young Brigadier-general William 
McComb General Robert Hatton Major-general 
W. B. Bate General J. B. Hood Major-general P. 
R. Cleburne Bishop C. T. Quintard Rev. Joseph 
Cross, D.D. 



CHAPTER X. 



Official Reports: Colonel D. M. Donnell Colonel 
John H. Anderson Colonel John G. Hall Captain 
B. Randals Brigadier-general Wright. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Forrest's Cavalry. 



CHAPTER XII. 
Miscellaneous Sketches Prison Life, etc. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. - 



FRONTISPIECE. 

PAGE. 

Brigadier-general F. K. Zollicoffer, 21 

General R. E. Lee, 35 

Colonel John H. Savage, 49 

Captain William G. Etter, 55 

Wright S. Hackett, 141 

Lieutenant-colonel Thomas B. Murray, 163 

Captain D. C. Spurlock, 172 

Major Jo. H. Goodbar, . 177 

Captain J. M. Parks, , 184 

Colonel William L. Moore, 204 

Colonel Ben. J. Hill, 227 

Captain W. W. Carnes, 237 

Battle of Perryville, 240 

Colonel Joel A. Battle, 272 

Captain L. N. Savage, 289 

Major-general B. F. Cheatham, 313 

Major-general P. R. Cleburne, 367 

N. B. Stubblefield, 371 

Colonel D. M. Donnell, 389 

Major H. H. Dillard, 393 

General M. J. Wright, 417 



compliance with a promise made by the 
author to his comrades in arms, during the 
late war, this volume has been written, 
and is now offered to the public. Many 
of the events narrated are matters of per- 
sonal knowledge and personal observation. 
Every available record has been brought 
to bear, by which to test the accuracy and 
authenticity of the narrative. It has been 
a work of great labor, and each line of its 
pages has been subjected to every test of au- 
thenticity , regardless of labor and cost. The 
work can be relied upon as correct in every 
sense. There is no romance upon any of its 
pages. It has no attempt at eulogy upon the 
one hand, or disparagement upon the other. 
It is merely a plain and simple narrative of 
facts as they occurred. 



io PREFACE. 

If an occasional error is found, the indul- 
gence of the reader is invoked, from the mere 
fact that we are human, and by no means 
proof against mistakes. If such should be 
found it will be the result of oversight by no 
means intentional and will be promptly cor- 
rected in subsequent editions. 

In preparing these pages, the author has been 
actuated by no selfish motives. It is but jus- 
tice to the memory of our fallen comrades that 
a just and correct record be made of their he- 
roic deeds that their names be preserved in 
the record of their gallant works. The) 7 were 
brave men and true patriots. They were hon- 
est in their convictions of right, and true to 
their plighted faith. Upon their record is no 
stain of treason. Their names are to be de- 
fended and handed down unsullied to all future 
generations. The same is equally applicable 
to their surviving comrades, not only of Ten- 
nessee, but of the whole South. They never 
made the conflict. They were prompt at their 
country's call to come forward and offer their 
all in her defense. Descendants of Revolu- 
tionary sires who had been baptized at the 
fountain of liberty in fire and in blood their 
first lessons had been a true and faithful alle- 



PREFACE. 1 1 

giance to their State ; that valor was virtue, 
a*nd a knowledge of war was wisdom. That 
they were brave men and true to their plighted 
faith has never been questioned, even by their 
enemies. 

The author extends his grateful acknowl- 
edgments to the good people of McMinnville 
and Warren county, who, with scarcely an 
exception, have so kindly extended to him every 
assistance and every indulgence within their 
power, in the work of preparing these pages. 
To Lewis Peach, of Fayetteville, John D. Tol- 
ley, of Lynchburg, J. M. Morgan, of Gaines- 
boro, and many others, the author is indebted 
for kind assistance so freely and cheerfully 
rendered. 

This work has been completed and published 
under many trying difficulties. The people 
have been liberal in subscribing to the work, 
and this edition goes to the public with a sub- 
scription list of seven hundred copies. The 
price of this volume is reasonable, and it is 
hoped that no one will depend upon borrowing 
from his neighbor, but all may go at once and 
buy a copy. 

The illustrations are from photographs taken 



12 PREFACE. 

during the war, and engraved mostly by the 
Crosscup & West Engraving Company, of 
Philadelphia. 

The muster rolls and casualty reports are 
principally from the memory of survivors, 
while some are from official records. The 
Confederate archives being meager, it was im- 
possible to get a full record from that source. 
For favors in this line, the author is indebted 
to General Wright, of the War Records office 
at Washington. 

It is hoped that the work may receive a 
careful perusal at the hands of the public. 

T. A. H. 

Nashville, 1885. 




INTRODUCTION. 



indeed appreciate the difficulties that beset 

the pathway of him who attempts a record of 

a 

*> human events, after an interval of a quarter of a 

century. Such a record necessarily falls under 
the observation of living- witnesses, and is, therefore, 
the more assailed by critics. Few indeed there are 
who would write their own history with that impar- 
tiality that others might bestow upon it. 

Writing extensively the history of the exploits of liv- 
ing parties who are living witnesses of the circum- 
stances of which we write, great care has been taken 
to submit each item to the severest tests of accuracy 
and authenticity before giving it a permanent place 
upon the pages of this book. In some instances the 
account may not be as full as it might have been if such 
parties had been preparing the record themselves. In 
other instances the account may contain more than 
may be agreeable to others. Knowing these facts the 
writer has exercised the gi'eatest care and caution, 
lest injustice might be done in some way. Actuated by 
this feeling, no account has been given of the misdeeds 
of any person. That some parties in each regiment 
acted in an unsoldierly manner cannot be denied. We 
will attempt no detailed account of the overenthusiasm 
of some men who insisted on a terrible persecution of 
their neighbors for opinion's sake merely. That many 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

good citizens and neighbors suffered from this source 
in the days when excitement ran highest, and "men 
had lost their reason," cannot be denied. Time adjust- 
ed these things. Peace came at last, " with healing on 
her wings," and' man became reconciled to his neigh- 
bor. Neither will any record be made of the same 
class who beset the poor man with promises to see that 
his family was cared for if he would go to the war. 
The poor man, in many instances, left his wife and lit- 
tle ones and joined the Southern army under these 
pledges. We will not record how faithfully these 
pledges were kept by the parties who made, them. 
The soldier's family received assistance from these par- 
ties by paying the most extortionate prices. Neither 
will any record be made of that class of fireside patri- 
ots who insisted that one Southern man could whip 
ten Yankees, and insisted upon imprisonment or death 
to those who did not come out and avow their allegiance 
to the Confederacy. When the "Yankees" did come 
in these patriots, in many instances, went forth to meet 
them, and became at once as intensely loyal to the 
Yankees as they had previously been to the Rebels. 
Neither will any record be made of the Southern sol- 
dier who deserted his standard and resorted to the oc- 
cupation of pillaging and murdering his neighbors. 
As these were few in number, and in many instances 
paid for their treachery with their lives, we pass over 
their record in silence. 

That a prosperous people were estranged and divided 
into factions by conflicting interests was of itself a 
calamity. That these factions absorbed the Northern 
States on the one side and the Southern States on the 
other, each with a powerful army, was deplorable. 
These issues were purely sectional, and turned upon 



INTRODUCTION. 15 



exigencies for which the Constitution had made no 
provision. The one side believed that the general gov- 
ernment conferred rights upon a State. The other as- 
serted that each State was independent, and had been 
so acknowledged by treaty with Great Britain at the 
close of the Revolution. This party embraced many 
of the original thirteen Colonies. They believed that 
the States went into the Union possessed of all the 
rights of independent States. They claimed that they 
entered the confederation for the sake of mutual pro- 
tection that it was not the province of the general 
government to confer rights upon a State, but to protect 
a State in its original rights. The Southern States 
claimed that the institution of slavery was a right of 
which they were possessed when they entered the orig- 
inal confederation, and the government was bound to 
protect them in this right. As the anti-slavery party 
began to strengthen in the North, the Southern States 
began to be fearful of their interests in this institution. 
They began to urge a system of legislation in the na- 
tional Congress with the view of throwing additional 
protection around it. As these measures were opposed 
by Northern members, the subject of slavery began to 
be agitated. Upon the election of Mr. Lincoln to the 
presidency, the Southern States became dissatisfied, on 
the ground that he was pledged to a policy detrimental 
to their interests, and, claiming their rights to withdraw 
from the Union, passed ordinances of secession, and 
established a Southern Confederacy. The general 
government denied them their claimed rights. A 
four-years war was the result. Tennessee cast her 
destinies with the South. The best men of each sec- 
tion came forward and enlisted in the armies of their 
choice. In chronicling the deeds of the Confederate 



1 6 INTRODUCTION. 

soldiers of Tennessee, we mean no invidious distinc- 
tions. Each Southern State marshaled an army of 
heroes, as did the States of the North, and while we 
honor the names of the Confederate survivors, and 
reverence the sacred memory of the dead, we accord 
due honor and praise to the gallantry and patriotism 
of the Northern soldiers. All were brothers, hound 
together by the strongest congenial ties. Conflicting 
interests had estranged them as time moved onward. 
Divided, as they finally were, on sectional issues for 
which the framers of the Constitution had failed to 
make provision, they each maintained their position 
with that steadiness and determination that has not a 
parallel in ancient or modern wars. They fought each 
other with a desperation.showing that they were each 
made of good material, and that, 

When Greek meets Greek 
Then comes the tug of war. 

The war ceased; they were brothers again. Identi- 
cal in interest the victor and vanquished ceased to be 
enemies. They beat their swords into plowshares, 
their spears into pruning hooks, and learned war no 
more. In friendship they conversed over their cam- 
paigns and battles, and instead of enemies they treated 
each other as brothers. Actuated by this impulse, a 
respect and honor for the Federal soldier, this work is 
written, in which the deeds of the Tennessee troops in 
the Confederate army are truly and faithfully portrayed. 
First among which we mention the history of the 
Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, to which 
the writer belonged. 




TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THIS regiment was composed of volunteer com- 
panies from the counties of Warren, White, De- 
Kalb, Coffee, Van Buren, Putnam, and Grundy. 
Warren county furnished four companies; White coun- 
ty, one company; White and DeKalb, one company; 
DeKalb, one company; Coffee and Grundy, one com- 
pany; Van Buren, one company; Putnam, one com- 
pany. 

These companies were officered as follows: 

1. CAPTAIN MURRAY'S COMPANY. 
(Warren County.) 

Thomas B. Murray ......,, Captain, 

A. P. Smartt First Lieutenant. 

James Hill Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas York Third Lieutenant. 

2. CAPTAIN DONNELLS COMPANY. 
(Warren County.) 

D. M. Donnell Captain. 

Wright S. Hackett First Lieutenant. 

E. C. Read Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. Castleman.. Third Lieutenant. 

2 



1 8 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



3. CAPTAIN COFFEE'S COMPANY. 
(Warren County.) 

P. H. Coffee Captain. 

George Marchbanks First Lieutenant. 

W. W. Moonej Second Lieutenant. 

J. G. Rains Third Lieutenant. 

4. CAPTAIN MEADOWS 1 COM PANT. 
(Warren County.) 

L. H. Meadows Captain. 

H. L. Simms First Lieutenant. 

W. G. Etter Second Lieutenant. 

B. J. Solomon fThird Lieutenant. 

5. CAPTAIN BROWN'S COMPANT. 

(White County.) 

D. T. Brown Captain. 

S. B. McMillan First Lieutenant. 

James Revis Second Lieutenant. 

W. D. Turlington Third Lieutenant. 

6. CAPTAIN SHIELDS' COMPANT. 

(White and DeKalb Counties.) 

P. C. Shields Captain. 

A. T. Fisher First Lieutenant. 

W. L. Woods Second Lieutenant. 

James R. Fisher.. Third Lieutenant. 

7. CAPTAIN BREWER'S COMPANT. 
(Coffee and Grundy Counties.) 

Calvin C. Brewer Captain. 

S. G. Crocker First Lieutenant. 

G. W. Turner Second Lieutenant. 

J. E. Bashaw Third Lieutenant. 

8. CAPTAIN TORK'S COMPANT. 
(Van Buren County.) 

Harmon York Captain. 

Green B. Johnson. , First Lieutenant. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 19 

M. B. Wood Second Lieutenant. 

A. T. Seitz Third Lieutenant. 

9. CAPTAIN SAVAGE'S COMPANT. 
(DeKalb County.) 

L. N. Savage Captain. 

Iraby C. Stone First Lieutenant. 

John K. Bain Second Lieutenant. 

R. B. Anderson Third Lieutenant. 

10. CAPTAIN DILLARD'S COMPANT. 
(Putnam County.) 

H. H. Dillard Captain. 

W. K. Sadler First Lieutenant. 

Holland Denton , Second Lieutenant. 

R. A. Young. Third Lieutenant. 

The Grundy county company was not complete in 
numbers, and the greater portion of its men attached 
themselves to Captain Brewer's company, while the 
principal .portion of the others entered Captain Mead- 
ows' company, and a few joined the other companies of 
the regiment. The commander of the company, Captain 
Hannah, afterward entered Colonel Hill's regiment, at 
the head of a company, where he distinguished himself 
as a good soldier and a gentleman. Captain Hannah 
fell at the battle of Shiloh, in the thickest of the fight. 

The companies were rendezvoused at Estill Springs, 
near Tullahoma, where most of the companies were 
mustered into the State service for twelve months. 
Captain Donnell's company was mustered into the serv- 
ice at the State Capital, and some of the other compa- 
nies at the camp of organization near Nashville. 

On the 24th of May, 1861, the companies left their 
camp of rendezvous at Estill Springs, and proceeded 
to Camp Trousdale, on the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad, in Sumner county, near the Kentucky line 



20 



At this place they were organized into a regiment 
about the first of June, 1861. John H. Savage was 
unanimously chosen colonel of the regiment, which 
was designated and known as the Sixteenth Regi- 
ment of Tennessee Volunteers. The officers received 
their commissions from the Governor of the State, and 
the field and staff-officers of the regiment at the time 
of its organization were as follows: 

JOHN H. SAVAGE, Colonel; 

THOMAS B. MURRAY, Lieutenant-colonel; 

JOSEPH H. GOODBAR, Major; 

GEORGE MARCHBANKS, Adjutant; 

JOHN T. READ, Surgeon; 

CHARLES K. MAUZY, Assistant Surgeon; 

GILBERT R. CAMPBELL, Quarter-master; 

JAMES GLASSCOCK, Commissary; 

J. W. POINDEXTER, Chaplain. 

Shortly after organizing, Drs. James B. Ritchey and 
Thomas Black were assigned to duty in the Medical 
Department. A. J. Brown was assigned to duty in 
the Subsistence Department of the army, with the 
rank of major, and was afterward permanently as- 
signed to duty in the Pay Department of the brigade. 

The regiment went into camp of instruction at 
Camp Trousdale, where were encamped the Seventh 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel Robert 
Hatton; the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, 
Colonel Alf. S. Fulton; the Sixteenth Regiment Ten- 
nessee Volunteers, Colonel John H. Savage; the Seven- 
teenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel Taz. 
W. Newman; the Eighteenth Regiment Tennessee 
Volunteers, Colonel J. B. Palmer; and the Twentieth 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel Joel A. Battle. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



21 



The regiments above-named were commanded by 
F. K. Zollicoffer, who had been commissioned as brig- 
adier-general in the State service, and placed in com- 
mand of all the troops collected at Camp Trousdale. 

The Sixteenth Regiment was composed principally 
of young and middle-aged men, of robust health and 
strong constitutions. The regiment remained at Camp 




Trousdale near eight weeks, and performed the usual 
routine of drill and guard duty. So sudden a change 
in the manner and habits of life told on the health of 
the men to some extent, and quite a number were 
taken sick, but were soon convalescent. With the ex- 
ception of the casualties resulting from measles, there 
were few deaths and very little fatal sickness in the 
regiment during its stay at Camp Trousdalei 



22 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

The regiment was ordered to East Tennessee about 
the 2ist of July, 1861. The men were jubilant at the 
prospect of entering into active service. The great 
battle of Manassas was fought about this time, and the 
enthusiasm of the boys was boundless. They all 
wanted to move to the front. Colonel Savage was 
warmly devoted to his regiment and proud of it. The 
feeling was reciprocated in full by his men. They all 
felt the most abiding confidence in his ability, his in- 
tegrity, and his patriotism, and were ready and eager 
to follow him, where danger was thickest, to the per- 
formance of any duty that their country asked at their 
hands. 

Colonel Savage, the commander of the Sixteenth 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, had seen much hard 
service, and had a large experience in the former wars, 
in which he figured prominently in the defense of his 
country. He had been commissioned three times, in 
as many different wars, in the service of the United 
States government. His first service was in General 
Gaines's call to maintain the neutrality of the Texas 
frontier when Santa Anna and Houston were engaged 
in war; his second service was in the Seminole war, 
and his third service was in the war between the 
United States and Mexico. In this war he was major 
of the Fourteenth Infantry, and rendered valuable 
service to his country in the memorable campaigns 
and battles in which the United States army was en- 
gaged. He was severely wounded while leading his 
column in an assault upon the Mexican position at 
Molino del Rey, after which he was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Regular 
Infantry, composed of troops from Pennsylvania, New 
York, and Virginia. In this war he was in the same 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 23 

brigade and held equal rank with Joseph E. Johnston, 
who, at the time, was lieutenant-colonel of Volti- 
geurs. 

At the close of the Mexican war Colonel Savage re- 
turned to his home and engaged in the practice of law. 
He was subsequently elected to Congress from the 
Fourth Congressional District, and represented his peo- 
ple in the Congress of the United States for a period 
of eight years. When the war broke out between 
the States he espoused the cause of the South. At 
the head of his regiment, made up from his congres- 
sional district, and of the families of his constituency, 
he led his men to deeds of noble daring and thrilling 
achievement. 

On the morning of July 2ist the tents were struck, 
and the baggage placed upon the train in the midst of 
a drenching rain. The men were cheerful and happy 
at the thought of going to Virginia. The news of the 
great battle of Manassas was received about this time, 
and the enthusiasm of the men was at its highest point. 
The regiment took the train about eight o'clock, and 
proceeded through Nashville to Chattanooga, and at 
the latter point remained a few hours awaiting transpor- 
tation. From Chattanooga they proceeded to Haynes- 
ville, East Tennessee, where they went into camp to 
await further orders. 

Brigadier-general S. R. Anderson had been placed 
in command of all the troops forwarded to East Ten- 
nessee. Brigadier-general D. S. Donelson had been 
assigned to duty in this department, and placed in 
command of three Tennessee regiments. These regi- 
ments were the first forwarded to Virginia, and were 
commanded by Colonels Hatton, Maney, and Forbes. 
Savage's and Fulton's regiments were at first placed in 



24 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

Anderson's brigade and ordered to Western Virginia. 
These orders were subsequently changed, as will be 
afterward shown. 

Receiving orders at Haynesville from the War De- 
partment to proceed immediately to the scene of ac- 
tion, on the 27th of July the regiment took the train 
and proceeded to Bristol, where it arrived on the 28th, 
and departed on the following night for Lynchburg. 
Arriving at Lynchburg on the 2pth, the regiment was 
encamped near the city, and remained in its encamp- 
ment till August ist, when it was ordered to Staunton, 
by the way of Charlottesville, where they arrived 
about ten o'clock on the morning of August 3d. 

The following correspondence shows the disposal 
that was made of the Tennessee troops at this time: 

RICHMOND, July 27, 1861. 

General S. R. Anderson, Lynchburg, Va.: The three Ten- 
nessee regiments first advanced will be under the command of 
General Donelson. The other two regiments under your com- 
mand you will order to Bristol, where fuller orders will reach 
you. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War. 

LYNCHBURG, July 28, 1861. 

Hon. L. P. Walker: There have been ordered to Lynchburg 
five regiments, three of whom have been forwarded to, and are 
now at, Staunton, commanded by Colonel Hatton, Colonel Ma- 
ney, and Colonel Forbes. These are the three first advanced. 
The other two are commanded by Colonel Fulton and Colonel 
Savage. Part of Fulton's command has already reached Lynch- 
burg, and the remainder, with Savage's regiment, will probably 
reach here to-daj- or to-night. At Haynesville and Bristol, East 
Tennessee, there are three regiments, commanded by Colonel 
Battle, Colonel Newman, and Colonel Rains. Ordered there 
from Middle Tennessee. Your order yesterday evening was to 
forward the two additional regiments expected here to Staunton. 
Under your telegram to-day I have to ask whether I shall order 
these regiments (Fulton's and Savage's) to remain here, go to 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 25 

Staunton, or to return to Bristol ? I proceed to Bristol this even- 
ing. Answer to my acting aid, Colonel Smith, at this point. 

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier-general. 

RICHMOND, July 25, 1861, 5:30 P.M. 

General S. R. Anderson, Lynchburg, Va.: The President di- 
rects that you proceed immediately to Scott and Lee counties, 
Va., and seize and punish a party of invaders said to be commit- 
ting depradations at Estillville and in that region. Make use for 
this purpose of the two Tennessee regiments at Bristol, and any 
other troops, volunteer or militia, whose services you may find 
available. Supply yourself with ammunition, powder, and lead. 
Celerity and caution are necessary. 

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-general. 

LYNCHBURG, July 26, 1861. 

Hon. L. P. Walker: Your dispatch received. I have or- 
dered two regiments from Bristol. There is still one more at 
Bristol. Shall I order that ? Shall I remain here ? Give me 
instructions as to my course. 

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier-general. 
RICHMOND, July 27, 1861. 

General S. R. Anderson, Lynchburg, Va.: Order the regi- 
ment to Lynchburg, and thence to Staunton. You will receive 
orders controlling your personal movements. 

L. P. WALKER. 

The people of Charlottesville extended every court- 
esy and hospitality to the soldiers, and the boys enjoyed 
their stay of a few hours in the city by visiting the 
University of Virginia, and seeing the sights of the 
place in general, till the evening of the 3d, when they 
took the cars for Staunton, then to Millboro, and ar- 
rived at that place about three o'clock on the morning 
of the 4th. The regiment remained at Millboro till 
the evening of the next day, arranging baggage and 
other equipments preparatory to an overland march to 
Huntersville, about thirty-five miles distant. On the 
evening of August 5th they took up the line of march? 



26 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

and encamped at a pleasant place a few miles from 
Millboro the first night. On the following day the 
march was resumed, and at night the regiment en- 
camped at the celebrated Warm Springs of Virginia. 
The men partook bountifully of the comforts of the 
Bath House, and, after a good night's rest, took up 
their line of march on the morning of the yth, passed 
Bath Alum Springs, arrived at Gatewood in the even- 
ing, and encamped for the night; proceeding onward 
at six o'clock on the morning of the 8th, and arriving 
at Huntersville in the evening. 

. The weather was exceedingly warm, and this had 
been the regiment's first experience in marching. The 
men were possessed of a large amount of individual 
baggage, which they wished to carry, as the means of 
transportation were limited. In addition to their arms 
and. accouterments, many were loaded down with a 
large quantity of other baggage which they did not 
wish to lose, and in carrying so great burdens the men 
were greatly fatigued by this their first marching, and 
many fell behind before reaching Huntersville; com- 
ing on as fast as they could conveniently do so, after 
resting and recuperating a little on the way. 

Some of our men fell sick on the way from Camp 
Trousdale to Huntersville, but the greater portion of 
them speedily recovered and rejoined the regiment at 
Huntersville. On this trip our highly esteemed major, 
Jo. H. Goodbar, was taken sick at Morristown, and 
died on the roth of December, 1861. Major Goodbar 
was an excellent officer and a most estimable gentle- 
man. His stay with the regiment had been a brief 
one, yet the officers and men under his command had 
learned to love him, and they deplored his loss as that 
of a brother. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 27 

The sick of the regiment were left at Millboro under 
the care of Dr. Thomas Black, then a young physician. 
As the number of sick increased on the march to 
Huntersville they were all collected at Bath Alum 
Springs, where a regular hospital was established under 
Dr. Black's charge. His labors were incessant until 
he received assistance from the Medical Department. 
The sick of the brigade were being collected here, and 
the hospital had over a hundred patients.* 

The regiment arriving at Huntersville on the even- 
ing of August 8th was encamped in a field in a nar- 
row valley on the bank of a little stream. The rains 
had set in and seemed to be almost incessant. The 
ground on which the regiment encamped was marshy 
and damp, and the men, weary of the long and ardu- 
ous march just completed, began to fall sick, and many 
of them died. The weather became damp and cold, 
and it rained continually. 

The three Tennessee regiments at first assigned to 

* Dr. Black's labors here at first were so constant that he 
scarcely had time to sleep. One night he lay down, and by 
the time he was fully asleep he was called upon to go to a man 
who had eaten too many huckleberries and was about to die of 
colic. The man was a detail, and had been on a ramble through 
the day. The doctor gave his directions before he was awake, 
and ordered the man to have a dose of tobacco and sugar. The 
order was obeyed promptly and without question. The tobacco 
was cut fine from a navy plug to the amount of a table-spoonful, 
and mixed with a similar amount of sugar. This was dissolved 
in about a gill of water and taken to the man, who said it was a 
hard dose, but he would take it if the doctor said so, and drank it 
down. For the next fifteen minutes the heaving and vomiting of 
that man was a fixed fact. He was then easy. In the morning 
he was well, and congratulated the doctor on his peculiar remedy. 
T he doctor, till then, knew nothing of the matter. 



28 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

General Donelson's brigade were now placed under 
General Anderson. The two regiments at first assigned 
to Anderson were now placed under Donelson, and 
constituted his brigade. 

The Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, together with 
the Eighth Tennessee, was organized into a brigade, and 
placed under the command of Brigadier-general D. S. 
Donelson. The troops at Huntersville at this time 
were the Eighth and Sixteenth Tennessee Regiments; 
a Georgia regiment, under Colonel Bromly; the Forty- 
eighth Virginia Regiment; a cavalry battalion, and a 
battery of artillery. The brigade was placed in Lor- 
ing's division; which at this time was encamped at 
Valley Mountain, organizing an expedition against the 
Federal stronghold at Cheat Mountain. Generals Floyd 
and Wise were in front of Rosecrans, on the Charles- 
ton road, near the Gauley river, in the Kanawha valley. 
The troops at Huntersville were held in readiness, not 
to repel any contemplated attack on that post, which 
was at least fifty miles inside of General Lee's lines, but 
to be as a kind of reserve force to be sent out td the as- 
sistance of General Lee, at Cheat Mountain, or to Gener- 
als Wise and Floyd, on the Gauley river, as the occasion 
might require. Meanwhile, the Sixteenth Tennessee 
Regiment, with its brigade, remained at Huntersville 
till early in September. The weather being very damp 
and cold, and the location of the encampment being 
exceedingly unfavorable to good health, many of the 
men died of malarial and typhoid fevers. The large 
and fearful daily increase of the sick-list in the regi- 
ment caused the commander to seek some method of 
ameliorating the condition of his men. Accordingly, 
Colonel Savage applied to General Donelson for 
authority to remove his encampment to a better posi- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 29 

tion, on high and dry ground, and, as an inducement, 
presented the report of the surgeon of the regiment 
showing the rapid increase of sickness in his regiment 
in its present encampment. 

On the 23d day of August the tents were struck and, 
the regiment was removed to a hill-side about three- 
quarters of a mile distant, where the men were more 
comfortable. The Eighth Tennessee Regiment, seeing 
the wisdom of Colonel Savage's course, changed its en- 
campment also; and in a few days General Donelson 
moved his head-quarters to the hill-side, near the head- 
quarters of the Sixteenth Regiment. The wisdom of 
the move thus inaugurated was self-evident. The sick- 
ness of the regiment rapidly abated, and the men re- 
mained at their hill-side encampment until the 6th day 
of September, when they were ordered to Valley 
Mountain, together with all the troops of General Don- 
elson's brigade. 

The sick and convalescent of the regiment were left 
at Huntersville with Dr. C. K. Mauzy, and on the 
morning of September 6th, the regiment was in line and 
on the inarch to report to General Loring, at Valley 
Mountain. The march on the 6th was pleasant, though 
it lay along a narrow and fertile valley, bounded on the 
right and left by lofty and almost perpendicular moun- 
tains, the valley merely in the shape of a trough, and the 
mud was deep and disagreeable. On the evening of the 
6th the regiment encamped in a tributary valley, at a place 
known as Camp Edra. Here the men received fresh 
beef of the very best quality, but had no salt. Rich, 
fat, and juicy, the men ate it with their bread, and on 
the morning of the 7th the column moved onward 
and arrived in the evening at Big Spring. At eight 
o'clock on the morning of September 8th, the regi- 



30 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT . 

ment took up its line of march through a fertile region 
of country. Having left the tents and heavy baggage 
at this place, the men proceeded over very muddy 
roads through the day and arrived at Valley Moun- 
tain in the evening, at the head-quarters of General 
Loring. 

The commissary wagons arrived at a late hour of the 
night, and the men were ordered to prepare five days' 
rations and be ready to march at daylight of the fol- 
lowing morning. On account of the scarcity of com- 
missary stores in that quarter, resulting from limited 
transportation and bad roads, the men were not en- 
cumbered with heavy rations, their five days' supply 
being scarcely sufficient to do them two full days, yet 
it was the best that could be done under the circum- 
stances; and the soldiers, with their rations in their 
haversacks, with forty rounds of ammunition in their 
cartridge-boxes, and their surplus baggage left with 
the trains, appeared in line on the morning of the loth 
on the summit of Valley Mountain. 

At this place Donelson's brigade was joined by the 
Second Tennessee Brigade, under Brigadier-general 
S. R. Anderson. This brigade was composed of the 
First Tennessee Regiment, under Colonel George 
Maney; the Fourth Tennesseee Regiment, Colonel 
Forbes; and the Seventh Tennessee Regiment, Colonel 
Robert Hatton. The five Tennessee regiments were 
thus brought together on the morning of the loth, in 
the face of a defiant and exultant foe. The men were 
cheerful and buoyant, and were eager for the conflict, 
when they could test their prowess on the enemy's 
stronghold at Cheat Mountain. 

The morning was bright and beautiful, and. the view 
from the summit of the mountain presented the grandest 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 31 

scenery that the eye could possibly behold. The peaks of 
the neighboring mountains were radiant with the golden 
sunshine of the morning, and the huge, craggy rocks 
of their brows shone forth and sparkled in the distance 
as magnificent temples on the borders of a populous 
city. The valley was wrapped in a dense fog, which 
extended to a certain uniform height, presenting to the 
view of the beholder the appearance of a vast lake 
or sea, out of which the different hill-tops emerged 
at ir-regular intervals as islands. The scenery was 
delightful to behold, and across this apparent sea of 
hills and valleys was posted the enemy whom it was 
our business to dislodge; and the preliminaries to the 
work, inaugurated on this delightful and memorable 
morning, involved difficulties and dangers almost with- 
out a parallel in history. 

General Loring rode along the lines upon a fine 
white horse, and, instead of his uniform, he was 
clothed in citizen's garb. He wore a heavy velvet 
frock coat, and as the men beheld an empty sleeve 
they learned that he had lost an arm in one of the bat- 
tles of the Mexican war. With great modesty and 
little display he rode along the lines and made the 
necessary disposal of his troops. 

This was the first time the commander had been seen 
by many of his men, and his appearance inspired the 
fullest confidence in his ability. The men stood in 
readiness to perform the work before them, and were 
awaiting the orders of their commander. The work 
in hand was an arduous one, and required men of the 
greatest amount of endurance, daring, and nerve to 
execute it. 

The Federals were posted several thousand strong, 
and strongly fortified, at a position on the Huttonville 



32 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

pike, near the terminus of a mountain ridge that sepa- 
rates Tygert's Valley from a small cove, down which 
flows a small creek, known as Beckey's Run. A small 
stream comes down Tygert's Valley* known as Con- 
ley's Run, the word "run" being the Virginia term 
for " creek." 

It was the object of General Lee to place a part ot 
Loring's division, with such other troops at his com- 
mand as were available, in front of the Federal posi- 
tion on the Huttonville pike, and to gain the rear of 
the position with Donelson's brigade, by way of Ty- 
gert's Valley, along Conley's Run to a certain point a 
few miles from the Federal stronghold, thence across 
the ridge into the cove, and thence down the cove, 
along Beckey's Run, to a point opposite the Federals 
across the ridge; then to ascend the ridge and come 
down upon the Federal position from the rear. Gen- 
eral Jackson was to take position in front of the Fed- 
eral position on Cheat Mountain, with Anderson's 
brigade to co-operate with him on the flank and rear. 
The plan of the campaign thus marked out, each com- 
manding officer proceeded to its execution. 

Before leaving Valley Mountain the following or- 
ders from the commander-in-chief were read to the 
troops in line: 

r^ , ~ , x HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE FORCES.) 

General Order) VALLEY MOUNTAIN, W. VA.! 

September 9, 1861.) 

The forward movement, announced to the Army of the North- 
west in Special Order No. 28, from its head-quarters of this date, 
gives the general commanding the opportunity of exhorting the 
troops to keep steadily in view the great principles for which they 
contend, and to manifest to the world their determination to 
maintain them. The eyes of the country are upon you. The 
safety of your homes and the lives of all you hold dear depend 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 33 

upon your exertions. Let each man resolve to be victorious, and 
that the right of self-government, liberty, and peace shall in him 
find a defender. The progress of this army must be forward. 
R. E. LEE, General Commanding. 

Donelson's brigade was now separated from Ander- 
son's, and proceeded to penetrate the Federal rear, 
which involved a winding march of about thirty miles 
across a series of mountain gulfs, apparently untrav- 
ersable. The mountains were steep, the valleys nar- 
row, and there was no road not even a path. 

General Donelson was ordered to keep within sup- 
porting distance of Loring's column, and had found 
a guide to the expedition who was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the country. The name of the guide 
was Butcher, and as he wore the title of "Doctor," it 
is presumed that he was a physician. He appeared 
to be a clever gentleman, about forty-five years of 
age, full of nerve and energy, and with a vast amount 
of solid and reliable pluck. He was warmly devoted 
to the cause, and rendered valuable services to the 
expedition. 

Proceeding a few miles from Valley Mountain, the 
brigade came to the top of a deep mountain gorge at 
the edge of an old field. Just beyond the field the 
brink was approached, and looking beyond, lofty 
heights could be seen across the gorge, with here and 
there a field and a mountain cottage. A few tents 
could be seen far off in the distance, but we knew not 
whether they were the encampments of friend or foe. 
Beyond and below us was the apparently impassable 
abyss, the descent of which must be accomplished, 
and followed by the ascent of the heights immediately 
following. The field-officers led their horses diago- 
nally with the mountain side to a certain distance, and. 



34 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

turning to the right or left, proceeded at right angles 
to that direction, thus alternating along a route in a 
general direction of a straight line, but having the 
variations and meanderings of a worm-fence. Thus 
the horses were passed across two deep gulfs. The 
artillery could not be used, as the route was absolutely 
impracticable to its transportation. The men passed 
over the route letting themselves down by the branches 
of trees and pulling themselves up as occasion might 
require. In this manner the march proceeded through 
the day, and having crossed two gulfs, entered a dim 
road at an old field at the top of the mountain, and 
camped in line of battle by the roadside in the edge of 
a- skirt of woods. 

At daylight on the morning of the nth the column 
moved cautiously along till about nine o'clock, when it 
came to a branch at the head of the cove, and pro- 
ceeded down the branch until about ten o'clock, when, 
from the fresh tracks in the road, it was indicated that 
a column of troops had just preceded us, and it was 
ascertained further that a Federal column had marched 
down just ahead of ours, and another was expected 
along in the afternoon to re-enforce the Federal position 
down the valley. Our brigade had advanced faster 
than was intended, and was near six miles farther 
down the valley than was expected. We were out of 
supporting distance of General Loring's column, and 
were in a critical position, the enemy in front and rear, 
and the mountains on either side. 

General Lee had ordered the different commanders 
to see that each man in their respective commands 
tack a piece of white cloth or paper on the front of 
his hat and keep it on during the whole expedi- 
tion. This order was given on the morning of our de- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



35 



parture from Valley Mountain, and its object was to 
distinguish his men from the enemy, as the war had 
not been going on a great while, and neither govern- 
ment had yet adopted a regular uniform for its troops. 
The clothing of the men and the regimentals of the 
officers of the opposing armies were so near alike that 
it was difficult to distinguish the one from the other, 




GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE. 

except by their location. At this particular juncture 
it was very important that some badge of distinction 
be adopted, especially by that portion of the army that 
was to operate in the enemy's rear. This badge of 
white cloth prevented Anderson's brigade from attack- 
ing Donelson's at one time on the march, and also had 
the effect to puzzle the Yankees. When a prisoner 



36 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

was captured his first question was, "What is that 
white cloth for?" 

Having traveled more rapidly than the other part of 
the army, on the morning of September n General 
Donelson found himself at the outposts of the enemy, 
at the head of Tygert's Valley. Learning the position 
of the pickets, he had a consultation with Colonel 
Savage, whom he always consulted promptly on crit- 
ical occasions, and the pickets having been surprised 
and captured without alarming their confederates, 
Colonel Savage, with Captain Bryant's company of 
the Eighth Tennessee, and Captain L. N. Savage's 
company of the Sixteenth Tennessee, accompanied by 
the guide, proceeded as an advance-guard down the 
valley, and soon came upon the second stand of pick- 
ets, who attempted to escape, when they were fired 
upon, and two of their number fell. The others, three 
in number, were made prisoners, and from them the 
position of the main picket force was ascertained, 
which consisted of a full company of infantry, posted 
a short distance down the valley, at an old house where 
a road came into the valley across the ridge from 
Becky's Run. The house was by the side of this road 
at the foot of the ridge, behind an angle of woods that 
projected into the valley, and completely concealed 
them from our view, and as completely concealed our 
approach. 

The advanced pickets and a few stragglers about the 
main stand having been successfully captured without 
giving any alarm to the main picket force, Colonel 
Savage, with his two companies, dashed upon the po- 
sition furiously, and charging ahead of his force, he 
rushed into their very midst, and before they were 
scarcely aware of his presence, he had placed himself 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 37 

between them and their command and cut off their re- 
treat. Having gained this point so suddenly, he de- 
manded the surrender of the whole force. This took 
the Yankees by surprise, and a few attempted to make 
their escape, while a few attempted to fire on him from 
the window of the house. Colonel Savage halted those 
attempting to escape, and, driving them back into the 
yard, flourished his pistol in their faces and told them 
that if they did not surrender instantly, he "would 

have the last d d one of them shot in less than five 

minutes! " At this instant the advance-guard appeared, 
and, filing on each side of the house, assumed a posi- 
tion confirming the threat, and the whole company 
surrendered to Colonel Savage on the spot, without 
the escape of a single man to give the alarm to the en- 
campment below. 

This was a daring deed on the part of Colonel Sav- 
age, and might be considered by some as reckless, but 
it was an achievement of much importance to the suc- 
cess of the expedition. Its feasibility and importance 
were quickly comprehended by Colonel Savage on 
the very eve of its consummation. This point was an 
important one, for it guarded the main approach to the 
Federal position on their left flank, and also the only 
available approach to Becky's Run in their rear, by 
way of the road that came down Tygert's Valley at 
the old house. The importance of this point being 
understood by the Federal commander, he had placed 
a heavy picket force here to protect his flank and rear. 
Colonel Savage, taking in the situation at a glance, 
saw the importance of making _a prompt and speedy 
capture of this point, without allowing any one to 
escape to give the alarm, as the Federals could have 
brought out a heavy force in a few minutes. By thus 



38 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

capturing the position, the column could gain its posi- 
tion on Becky's Run before the Federals could realize 
the situation. The resolve was quickly made and as 
quickly pushed to a successful consummation. The pris- 
oners, fifty-six in number, having yielded to the daring 
and prowess of one gallant officer,* were promptly 

*The Nashville Union and American, under date of Decem- 
ber 5, 1861, printed the following account of this transaction, as 
given by its correspondent from the Army of North-western Vir- 
ginia, Dr. J. W. Gray: 

General Donelson took up "his line of march down Conley's . 
Run, and over the mountain to Stewart's Run; took down its wa- 
ters, and, before proceeding far, one of the guides gave intelligence 
that the enemy's pickets were stationed at the Matthew's House, 
a little distance below. This seemed to call back many years of 
our brave old general's life. He at once had his advance-guard 
thrown into position, and directed Colonel Fulton, with the guide 
" Butcher," to proceed on the slope of the hill to the left of the 
house, with a view to preclude escape; and, as this party pro- 
ceeded, placed himself at a point from which he had a full view of 
the house, and then as they came down the hill, and, seeing that 
they were coming down right, gave the command, "Charge!" 
He advanced upon the house and witnessed the capture of four 
pickets by Colonel Fulton and the guide, Dr. Butcher. Here the 
General placed Colonel Savage, with Captain Savage's compa- 
ny of the Sixteenth and Captain Bryant's company of the Eighth 
Regiment, as an advance guard. Captain Bryant was in com- 
mand, being the oldest captain. 

Advancing about half a mile they suddenly came upon six 
other pickets, four of whom surrendered. The other two, en- 
deavoring to escape down the creek (as Tennesseans call a Vir- 
ginia " run "), were shot mortally. Thirteen were captured with- 
out one being left to alarm their comrades in advance of the 
" rebel's " approach. The two companies, led by the faithful 
guide, "Butcher," and Colonel Savage, saw another Yankee in 
the road, gun in hand, looking steadily upon them, and, by the 
time he discovered for certain that they were not his friends who 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 39 

secured, and, after allowing each one to retain his bag- 
gage and personal outfit, their arms and munitions 
were duly appropriated. A detail was made to guard 
the prisoners, and their arms were distributed among 
the troops for transportation. 

were approaching, they had him in pistol range commanding him 
to surrender. He was much confused, but durst not run. Just at 
this moment two others were seen to rush into a little brush 
guard -house below and seize their guns, and, upon reappearing, 
fled in the direction of a woody hill-side, but before reaching it 
were overtaken and soon "quicking it" back to the advance- 
guard, which was hard by, rather than be dispatched in a more 
summary manner. 

About two hundred and fifty yards above a place known as the 
Simmon's House three others the captain of a company, a lieu- 
tenant, and a private were seen angling. Colonel Savage and 
Dr. Butcher rode suddenly up, and, by the flourish of a pistol, 
caused them to wade the run and surrender. The roar and rip- 
ple of the stream prevented them from hearing any thing that had 
transpired above them. One of these, a fussy Dutchman, was 
frightened so near out of his wits that in answer to an impera- 
tive demand, told them that the whole company was at the house, 
just below, the view to which was fortunately obstructed by a 
cluster of trees. Colonel Savage ordered the men to "double- 
quick," and upon turning the grove he, still accompanied by Dr. 
Butcher, both mounted, posted off at full speed to charge the 
house in front. The Yankees discovering them began to bustle 
and stir in all manner of confusion, but the undaunted Savage, 
with his navy repeater drawn and presented, dashed fearlessly up- 
on them, and, in tones and looks of terror, exclaimed: "Down 
with your arms, or you die!" "I'll blow out the first man's brains 
that attempts to fire!" When he had fully gained the opposite 
side of the house he discovered several running, but with a com- 
mand that made the cowardly blood shiver about their arteries he 
halted them and marched them back to the house. Some of the 
Yankees ran into the house, and, presenting their guns through 
the window, were in the act of shooting, when Colonel Savage, 



40 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

The brigade came up at a double-quick, and the 
alarm having been exaggerated, the men had been 
hurried up more rapidly than the occasion demanded. 
Accordingly, to facilitate their advance, many of the 
troops threw down their knapsacks and blankets, and 

knowing that his life depended upon some devilish act of daring, 
fearlessly rode up to the window and rising in his stirrups said, 
" Fire if you dare, and every man of you dies ! " 

Captain Bryant's and Captain Savage's men were rapidly ap- 
proaching. Not a gun was fired. All laid down their a"rms and 
were prisoners of war. Two others were now discovered on the 
hill-side at a long distance attempting to make their escape, but 
the invincible "Butcher" leveled his Sharpe's rifle upon them and 
one fell. The guide (Wood), it is supposed, mortally wounded 
the other, though there were several shots made at him. The 
Yankee officers delivered up their swords and small arms. The 
swords were very handsome, and are now worn, one by Colonel 
Savage, one by Dr. Butcher, and the other by General Donelson's 
aid, Major James G. Martin. Among their guns were found 
several Enfield rifles. Of these trophies General Donelson pos- 
sesses .one, Colonel A. S. Fulton one, and Colonel Savage the . 
other. 

The bold deed above alluded to was all accomplished in a few 
minutes, giving the Yankees no time to determine upon any com- 
mon action. They doubtless could have shot Colonel Savage and 
Dr. Butcher, and many, if not all of them, could have made their 
escape, for the woods were near by, and most of our men, Cap- 
tain Bryant and Captain Savage excepted, some distance off, 
though coming up with all their speed. But the Yankees were 
surprised, and seemed to be utterly confounded. Thus it will be 
seen that we had killed, wounded, and taken prisoners sixty-two 
inclusive, and this expedition has scarcely a parallel in history, 
for, while but little blood was spilt and not a large number cap- 
tured, there is yet something remarkable in the circumstance of 
having fired guns and taken in succession each set of pickets, all 
posted so near each other, without the first alarming the second, 
and the second the third, and so on, until our enterprise had been 
thwarted. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 41 

the brigade was hurried forward into line of battle 
across the valley. By the time this was accomplished 
it was ascertained that the trouble was over and the 
Yankees captured. The prisoners were placed in line 
at the rear, and the column proceeded up the ridge from 
the scene of action by way of the road formerly men- 
tioned. At the top of the hill a large bundle of Yan- 
kee dispatches were discovered in a pile of leaves in 
the path. These dispatches were to the commander of 
the picket force, complaining of the carelessness of a 
lieutenant, and cautioning him of the danger of sur- 
prise. With this information, and some other confiden- 
tial matter in which some patriotic jealousy and official 
spleen were manifest, some valuable information was 
gained in reference to the position and strength of the 
enemy. The Yankee courier was unable to deliver 
the package to the commander of the pickets, and see- 

The Savannah Republican contained the following account of 
this daring adventure shortly after its occurrence, as given by a 
correspondent from the Army of North-western Virginia, under 
date of September 21, 1861: 

A BOLD CAPTURE. After inarching about three miles from 
Tygart's river Colonel Savage, of the Sixteenth Tennessee Reg- 
iment, desiring to make a reconnoissance. sallied off from his 
regiment at least a quarter of a mile, and while alone he suddenlv 
and unexpectedly came up to where a company of Yankees were 
stationed. Both he and they were considerably surprised, but 
the gallant Colonel, changing not a color in his countenance, in 
a bold and defiant manner, standing erect in his stirrups, looking 
in his rear, and then quickly facing the pickets, exclaimed in a 
stentorian voice, "You damned rascals, if you don't ground arms 
and surrender immediately, my men shall surround you and shoot 
you to pieces in a minute!" They did surrender, and he made 
them prisoners without the firing of a gun. The company con- 
sisted of three commissioned, four non-commissioned officers, and 
sixty privates. 



42 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

ing his own escape cut off, he dropped the bundle and 
covered it hastily with leaves. Becoming uncovered 
as the men passed over it, it was discovered by the 
writer and handed to Captain Dillard, who made such 
disposal of it as he thought proper. 

It was now raining, and in the afternoon. The col- 
umn moved cautiously along the ridge, and came to a 
valley on the upper waters of Becky's Run. Proceed- 
ing down the run we arrived about sundown at an 
old house where a log heap was burning. This was 
evidently a picket stand, but the pickets, aware of our 
approach, had withdrawn, and the Federal commander 
found himself approached by an enemy from every 
direction. 

We were now in the rear of the Federal position. 
We were occupying the west base of the ridge, they 
were fortified at the east base, and the ridge terminated 
on our immediate right. General Donelson ascended 
the ridge about dark, and moved up carefully to the 
top, then over the ridge under cover of the night, till 
Fulton's regiment was within a few hundred yards of 
the enemy's camp-fires. Savage's regiment stopped at 
the top of the hill. The path was narrow over which 
the troops moved, and the undergrowth so thick that 
the men could scarcely pass through it. The night 
was very dark, and the rain incessant. About nine 
o'clock in the night Colonel Savage suggested to Gen- 
eral Donelson the propriety of bringing Fulton's regi- 
ment to the top of the ridge and encamping. It was 
accomplished with great difficulty, and the men slept 
all night on their arms. Every commander had now 
gained the position assigned him, and the attack was 
to open on the morning o the i2th. The plan had 
worked admirably thus far. General Loring was in 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 43 

front of the Federal position on the Huttonville pike, 
and was to attack in front. General Jackson was in 
position in front of Cheat Mountain. General Donel- 
son had gained the rear of the position confronted by 
Loring, and General Anderson had gained a corre- 
sponding position to support and co-operate with Gen- 
eral Jackson. 

The troops lay upon their arms during the night, and 
the rain was continual. Morning dawned^and the men 
were put in shape for battle. It had rained continually 
throughout the night, and, having flint-lock muskets, 
which had been loaded the evening before, the loads 
had become wet, and the first thing the men did in the 
morning was to extract the charges from their guns 
and put them in good order. They had all kept their 
powder dry, and having rubbed up their gun%|and ex- 
amined their flints they awaited the signal for attack. 
Hours passed and no signal was given. It was eight 
o'clock before the cause of delay was made known. 
General H. R.Jackson was to open the attack on Cheat 
Mountain pass with Colonel Rust's brigade, "and the 
other commanders were to follow in the atttack upon 
the positions in their respective fronts. The men were 
becoming anxious, and were realizing that if any thing 
had happened to frustrate the plan of operations our 
situation was critical indeed. 

General Loring had gained his position in front of 
the Federals on the Huttonville pike as before men- 
tioned. The pike ran along the base of the ridge in 
front of the Federal works, and the Valley River ran 
parallel with the pike near by. General Loring had to 
cross the river before he could attack this position. The 
rains the previous night had swollen the river, and he 
was unable to cross. 



44 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

General Jackson occupied the first summit of Cheat 
Mountain, while the Federals were fortified between 
the first and second summits at a point known as Cheat 
Mountain pass. Colonel Albert Rust, of the Third 
Arkansas, was ordered by Jackson to attack the pass 
on the morning of September 12, but finding by recon- 
noissahce on the evening of the nth that he was un- 
able to carry the position, General Jackson ordered him 
back to cany:>, and the attempt was abandoned. Col- 
onel Rust was a gallant commander, of sterling quali- 
ties, and stood high in the estimation of his superior 
officers. As his assault was to be the signal for a gen- 
eral assault on all the positions, and the failure of the 
expedition turned upon his movements (though through 
no fault of his), the following report of his movements, 
and the^ause of the failure of the expedition, are given 
in the correspondence between him and General Lo- 
ring. 

ORDERS FROM GENERAL JACKSON TO COLONEL 
RUST. 

Dear Colonel: Return with your command into camp. So 
soon as you arrive address a letter to General Loring, explaining 
the failure and the reasons for it. Show this, to Captain Neal, 
quarter-master, and let him at once furnish an express ready to 
take your letter by the near route. If possible, get the postmas- 
ter, Mr. Abagast, to go, and go rapidly and at once. Say in your 
letter that I am in possession of the first summit of Cheat Moun- 
tain, and am in hopes of something going on in Tygart's Valley, 
and shall retain command of it until I receive orders from head- 
quarters. It may bring on an engagement, but I am prepared, 
and shall whip them if they come. 

Very truly, H. R. JACKSON. 

P. S. I cannot write here. Inclose this scrawl in your letter. 
You had better return yourself at once to camp, leaving your 
command to follow. We had several skirmishes yesterday, and 
killed several of the enemy. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 45 

COLONEL RUST'S REPORT TO GENERAL LORING. 

CAMP BARTOW, September 13, 1861. 

General : The expedition against Cheat Mountain failed. My 
command consisted of between fifteen hundred and sixteen hun- 
dred men. Got there at the appointed time, notwithstanding the 
rain. I seized a number of their pickets and scouts. Learned 
from them that the enemy was between fouf thousand and five 
thousand strong, and they reported them to be strongly fortified. 
Upon reconnoissance their representations were fully corrobo- 
rated. A fort or block-house on the point or elbow of the road, 
intrenchments on the south, and outside of the intrenchments, 
and all around up to the road, heavy and impassable abatis, if the 
enemy were not behind them. Colonel Barton, my lieutenant- 
colonel, and all the field officers, declared it would be madness to 
make an attack. We learned from the prisoners that they were 
aware of your movements, and had telegraphed for reinforce- 
ments, and I heard three pieces of artillery pass down the road 
toward your encampment while we were seeking to make an as- 
sault upon them. I took the assistant commissary, and for one 
regiment I found upon his person a requisition for nine hundred 
and thirty rations, also a letter indicating that they had very little 
subsistence. 

I brought only one prisoner back with me. The cowardice of 
the guard (not Arkansans) permitted the others to escape. Spies 
had evidently communicated our movements to the enemy. The 
fort was completed, as reported by the prisoners (examined sepa- 
rately), and another in process of construction. We got near 
enough to see the enemy in the trenches beyond the abatis. The 
most of my command behaved admirably; some I would prefer 
to be without upon any expedition. 

General Jackson requests me to say that he is in possession of 
the first summit of Cheat Mountain, and hopes you are doing 
something in Tygart's Valley, and will retain command of it until 
he receives orders from your quarters. My own opinion is that 
there is nothing to be gained by occupying the mountain. ' It will 
take a heavy force to take the pass, and at a heavy loss. I knew 
the enemy had four times my force, but for the abatis we would 
have made the assault. We could not get to them to make it. 
The General says in his note to me that his occupying Cheat 



46 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

Mountain may bring on an engagement, but he is prepared and 
will whip them if they come. I see from his postscript that he re- 
quests his note to me to be inclosed to you. 

I can only say that all human power could do toward success 
in my expedition failed of success. The taking of the pickets 
seemed like a providential interposition. I took the first one my- 
self, being at the head of the column when I got to the road. 

In great haste, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

A. RUST, Colonel. 

GENERAL LORING, Commanding. 

The expedition had proved a failure after every com- 
mand of Lee's army had gained its position, and a gen- 
eral retreat was ordered. 

While General Lee was reconnoitering the Federal 
position at Cheat Mountain pass on the nth, Colonel 
Washington, his chief of engineers, while examining a 
position with the view of planting a battery, ran into 
an ambuscade, and being fired upon by a whole platoon 
of Federal infantry, fell, pierced by many bullets, and 
died instantly. Colonel Washington was an able and 
gallant officer, and a near relative of the Father of his 
Country. 

The whole expedition having failed, General Lee re- 
solved to withdraw his forces a short distance. Hav- 
ing given orders to the other commanders he proceeded 
personally to the position occupied by Donelson's Bri- 
gade, and came up to the top of the ridge, accompa- 
nied by an orderly. It was the fifst time the Tennes- 
see troops had seen him. As soon as General Lee ar- 
rived at the top of the mountain he ordered General 
Donelson to withdraw his brigade into the valley, with 
his left in front. The rear-guard now became the front 
guard, and -vice -versa. A general stir was going on in 
the whole country below us. The enemy was ap- 
proaching our position, and had a heavy force near the 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 47 

top of the mountain on the ground occupied by Ful- 
ton's regiment the evening before. We were also being 
approached by a Yankee column by way of Becky's 
Run. Each column was closing in upon us under cover 
of a dense "undergrowth, which was so thick it was 
almost impossible to see any thing before us. We were 
in a complete thicket of brush and tall weeds, and our 
brigade was in a narrow path that crossed the ridge. 
A detail was made from the Sixteenth Tennessee Reg- 
iment, under Captain H. H. Dillard, to move in advance 
of the column, and it had scarcely reached the foot of 
the hill when it was fired upon by the Federal advance- 
guard, and the fire was returned. At this juncture of 
the proceedings the Federals threw their column into 
line of battle, and began to advance up the hill. Their 
advance-guard fronted the advance-guard of the Six- 
teenth Regiment, but their main line diverged from 
Donelson's line at an angle of about fifty degrees. The 
brigade proceeded down the hill rapidly, and in a few 
minutes the left of the Sixteenth became engaged. 
The Federals had not learned our position, and fired a 
volley at the Sixteenth, but the bullets hit in the tree- 
tops. Some of' the boys seemed amused at such 
wild shooting, and shouted to the Yankees at the top 
of their voices that they were shooting into the tree- 
tops. 

A moving fight now began, though no line of battle 
was formed. The men, as they did in Tygart's Valley 
the day before, began to throw down their knapsacks 
and blankets, and to divest themselves of all incum- 
brances.- The Federals at one point were within a few 
steps of us, but were firing at random, the smoke of 
the guns and the report being the only means of dis- 
tinguishing their true position. Colonel Savage or- 



4 8 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



dered a charge. With his shrill and commanding voice 
he gave the command, " Charge the damned rascals, 
'and pack them off on your bayonets!" The order was 
no sooner given than executed with a will. The men 




COLONEL JOHN H. SAVAGE. 

raised the old rebel yell that echoed along the valley for 
miles. The Yankees retreated in hot haste through the 
field at the foot of the hill, with the old Sixteenth at 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 49 

their heels. The Eighth came on as fast as the nature 
of the position would allow. 

The Yankees retreated to the run about the middle 
of the valley, about three hundred yards distant. The 
run being very narrow, and having dirt banks, was 
swollen by the night rains and the banks were soft and 
slippery. In attempting to jump the run many would 
light on the brink of the opposite bank and slip down 
into the water to their armpits, and were thus made 
prisoners. 

As soon as the Yankees passed Becky's Run they 
fell back upon their main line, and the fight was over. 
The Federal loss was eight or ten killed, and about 
eighteen prisoners. The Confederate loss was one man 
killed, private Alpha Martin, of Captain Meadows' 
company, and one or two slightly wounded. Mr. Mar- 
tin was a gallant soldier, and a splendid fellow. His 
comrades all respected and loved him, and his loss was 
deeply regretted. He was the first man of the Six- 
teenth Tennessee who fell upon the field of battle. 
This was the first time the regiment was ever under fire, 
and the men acted bravely. 

The skirmish was a small affair compared with other 
engagements. It did not exceed ten minutes' duration, 
though a hasty retreat was all that prevented a general 
engagement, with the odds all against us. 

The brigade was withdrawn up Becky's Run, and 
the whole Yankee force had come out from the works 
to the top of the ridge where we were stationed but a 
few minutes .before. The men were unable to recover 
their baggage, which they dropped in the first of the 
charge, as the enemy was now on the ground from 
our rear. The Federals, mentioning this circumstance, 
exaggerated the defeat of General Lee's campaign, and 
4 



50 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

gave it the appearance of a rout. The Confederates 
threw down their baggage in the charge, and not in 
the retreat. . 

The brigade proceeded up the valley for a while and, 
turning to the right, marched about eight miles to the 
top of a high mountain, whose sides and base were 
covered with meadows and fields. This was the pos- 
session of a wealthy farmer and stock-raiser. Here 
the men were supplied with beef of the best quality, 
but without bread or salt. As the men were hungry 
as well as weary, they broiled their beef upon the coals 
and ate it. The brigade rested here during the night, 
and till the afternoon of the following day, when they 
marched to a spring on the bench of the mountain, and 
on the day following took position in Tygart's Valley, 
near the very point where the pickets had been cap- 
tured on the nth. A heavy guard was placed around 
the brigade to prevent surprise, and a detail was sent 
on horseback to the wagon train to get bread for the 
men. 

The attempt upon Cheat Mountain having failed, 
General Lee resolved to renew the expedition, and, on 
the i4th of September, issued the following order to 
his troops: 

General Order) HEAD-QUARTERS, VALLEY RIVER, VA.,^ 
No. . ) September 14, i86i.f 

The forced reconnoissance of the enemy's position, both at 
Cheat Mountain pass and on Valley River, having been com- 
pleted, and the character of the natural approaches and the na- 
ture of the artificial defenses exposed, the Army of the North- 
west will resume its former position, and at such time and in such 
manner as General Loring shall direct, and continue its prepara- 
tions for further operations. The commanding general experi- 
enced much gratification at the cheerfulness and alacrity displayed 
by the troops in this arduous operation. The promptitude with 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 51 

which they surmounted every difficulty, driving in and capturing 
the enemy's pickets on the fronts examined, and exhibiting that 
readiness for attack, gives assurance of victory when opportunity 
offers. R. E. LEE, General Commanding. 

In accordance with this order, the troops were all 
placed in readiness for a renewal of the campaign, but 
subsequent developments changed the purpose of the 
Commander-in-chief, and he resolved to withdraw the 
whole force nearer to his base of supplies. 

Accordingly, on the i5th, the column set out on a 
general retreat, and the Sixteenth Tennessee was as- 
signed to the responsible duty of bringing up the rear. 
On the evening of the i6th the brigade arrived at Big 
Spring. On the iyth flour and bacon were issued to 
the men, and they enjoyed the luxury of cooking and 
eating in a more civilized manner. The brigade re- 
mained at Big Spring during the i9th and 2oth of 
September, and the men, resting from their severe cam- 
paign, enjoyed themselves as best they could. Some 
of the boys of the Sixteenth went out foraging, and 
returned with chickens, vegetables, and other luxuries, 
purchased from the natives after much persuading, and 
paying fabulous prices in Confederate money. One 
peculiar luxury at this point and date was the black- 
berry. It was now the 2oth day of September, and 
these berries were just beginning to ripen in the ld 
fields and fence-corners about Big Spring, on this por- 
tion of the mountains of North-western Virginia. The 
briers were thick and prolific, and the boys interviewed 
them liberally with their camp-kettles, bringing in large 
quantities of fresh berries, which were made into dump- 
lings and cobblers. Though destitute of much of the 
high flavoring and fancy qualities of more experienced 
cookery, they were highly agreeable to the palate, and 



52 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

were enjoyed by the men who had before this learned, 
by repeated experience, that a good appetite is not a 
severe critic on cookery. 

On the 22d of September the Sixteenth Regiment, 
together with its brigade, left Big Spring and marched 
to Elk Mountain, seventeen miles distant. The weath- 
er was very cold, and many of the men had worn out 
their shoes and w r ere barefooted. The regiment en- 
camped at the foot of Elk Mountain, and on the morn- 
ing of the 23d shoes were given to the most destitute, 
and the column moved to Greenbrier Bridge. The 
morning was cold and a large frost was on the ground. 
Remaining all day and all night at Greenbrier Bridge, 
the march was resumed on the evening of the 251!!. 
The command had received orders to proceed to Sew- 
ell Mountain to the relief of Generals Wise and Flovd, 
who were being pressed by Rosecrans, and were forced 
to fall back on Meadow Bluff. The regiment marched 
thirteen miles, and on the morning of the 26th resumed 
its march through a thrifty and prosperous country, 
and made seventeen miles, arriving in the evening in a 
woods pasture where they camped for the night. A 
cold rain set in about night, and continued the greater 
part of the night. The regiment was without tents or 
shelter of any kind, and many of the men groped their 
way in the darkness to the barns and outhouses of the 
neighborhood and sheltered till morning. In the morn- 
ing it was very cold and still raining. Spirits were 
issued to the companies, and the march was resumed 
about seven o'clock. The rain continued all day, and 
after passing through Frankford and Lewisburg the 
regiment arrived at its camping place late in the even- 
ing of the 2yth. Colonel Savage marched his regiment 
into a lot where there was a large barn with long sheds 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 53 

on its sides and end. The owner of the premises told 
Colonel Savage to put his men under the shelters, and 
to use his rails to make fires by which to dry them- 
selves. The men were marched under the sheds where, 
drenched, cold, and weary, they deposited their lug- 
gage and built fires along in front. Here they dried 
themselves and cooked their suppers. After supper 
they laid down and enjoyed the comforts of a good 
shelter by good fires. On the morning of September 
28, they drew and cooked a day's rations, and marched 
to Meadow Bluff in the evening. On the evening of 
the 29th the regiment arrived at Sewell Mountain, 
within plain sight and hearing of the enemy. 

General Lee drew up his forces on Little Sewell, 
while Rosecrans, with his army and the army of Gen- 
eral Cox, were encamped on Big Sewell, with just a 
small valley between them. The Charleston road ran 
through the encampment of each army, and the two 
opposing commanders, with their respective commands, 
stood comparatively inactive and looked at each other 
until October 6, when the Federal forces struck their 
tents and fell back in the direction of Charleston. 
General Lee sent out a reconnoitering force to see 
where they had gone, but finding nothing of interest 
or consequence the party returned to Little Sewell. 

Winter was rapidly approaching. The roads were 
bad, and the Federals were far from their base of sup- 
plies. These circumstances caused the Federal com- 
mander to fall back to a point nearer his supplies. Gen- 
eral Lee remained at Little Sewell and awaited devel- 
opments. The Federals showed no disposition to come 
out and renew hostilities, and with each army the cam- 
paign was practically over for the winter. 

The Sixteenth was moved to the foot of Little Sew- 



54 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

ell, where it drilled morning and evening. The weath- 
er was becoming quite cold, and having a limited 
amount of clothing, and that badly worn out, the men 
suffered severely and began to fall sick rapidly. The 
sick were sent to Lewisburg and the White Sulphur 
Springs, and the regiment remained at the foot of Lit- 
tle Sewell until the 2oth day of October, when the 
men all received two months' pay; and on the morning 
of the 2 ist marched back to Meadow Bluff, a distance 
of thirteen miles. On the 22d the march was resumed 
to Lewisburg, seventeen miles distant, and continued 
on the 23d and 24th to Mill Point, thirty-three miles 
from Lewisburg. On the 25th the regiment arrived at 
Greenbrier bridge, which was guarded by a detach- 
ment of the Greenbrier militia. These men wore a 
kind of overcoat with a large cape attached. The boys 
of the Sixteenth Tennessee at this place received coats 
of this kind, which they called "militias," a name by 
which this particular kind of garment was familliarly 
known during the remainder of the war. 

At noon on the 2yth the regiment took up its line of 
march, and camped that evening within one mile of 
Huntersville, where it remained until November n, 
when it took up its line of march and traveled twelve 
miles in the direction of Lewisburg, having been or- 
dered to that point with the least possible delay. Ar- 
riving at Lewisburg on the I4th, the regiment en- 
camped near that place. Winter had now set in in 
earnest. Snow fell on the lyth and iSth, and the 
weather was severely cold. On the i9th a supply of 
clothing arrived for the regiment from the folks at 
home. There was a bountiful supply of clothing of 
every kind coats, shoes, hats, bed-clothing, and all the 
bodily comforts that the good people at home could de- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



55 



vise were received at this time. Letters from fathers, 
mothers, brothers, sisters, wives, sweethearts, and 
friends were also received. The Sixteenth now en- 
joyed itself by its big log fires, dressed up in its new 
clothes, with nothing to do but to rest and delight in 
the timely bounty of its friends and relatives at home. 




CAPTAIN W. G. ETTER. 

Every man was made comfortable. Among the many 
knick-nacs received at this time from the home folk, was 
a magnificent and highly appreciated donation fi'om 
James Hill, Esq., and Hon. H. L. W. Hill, consisting 
of several hundred bottles of splendid apple brandy, 



56 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

which the boys in their worn-out and wearied condi- 
tion enjoyed to the fullest, and treasured with the 
warmest feelings the names and memory of the kind 
donors. 

It was now November 2oth, and the regiment had 
marched over much ground and endured many hard- 
ships. The regiment remained in camp near Lewis- 
burg until November 28th, when orders were received 
to be ready to march on the following morning. The 
29th and 3Oth days of November being very inclement 
on account of so much rain and mud, the order was 
suspended. On the ist day of December the regiment 
marched eight miles. On the 2d it passed Salt Sulphur 
Springs, and encamped at night at the Red Sulphur 
Springs. Proceeding onward on the 4th, passed through 
Petertown on the 5th, crossing New River in ferry- 
boats, arrived at Dublin depot on the 8th, where or- 
ders were received to proceed immediately to Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Drawing four days' rations, and taking the cars on 
the nth, proceeded by way of Petersburg and Wil- 
mington to Charleston, and from Charleston to Poco- 
taligo. Genei'al Lee had been put in charge of the 
coast defenses, with head-quarters at Charleston. The 
Eighth and Sixteenth Tennessee regiments, and the 
Sixtieth Virginia accompanied General Lee, and, arriv- 
ing at Pocotaligo about n o'clock on the i9th, went 
into camp near the station. 

With the exception of a little demonstration on the 
part of the enemy at Port Royal ferry, on the ist of 
January, there was comparative quiet all along the 
coast from Charleston to Savannah during the winter. 
The sick that had been left in Virginia were rapidly 
recovering, and while many rejoined their commands in 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 57 

South Carolina, many others were left to sleep their 
last sleep beneath the Virginia soil. 

At Pocotaligo the boys did nothing but drill and do 
picket duty along the coast to prevent surprises and 
communication between the Yankees and the negroes. 
Vegetables and fish being plentiful, and the climate de- 
lightful, the men grew healthy and happy, and almost 
forgot that the war was going on. 

On the 24th of January, 1862, orders were received 
to hold an election for major on the 25th, which re- 
sulted in the election of H. H. Faulkner, major of the 
Sixteenth Tennessee, to fill the vacancy occasioned by 
the death of Major Goodbar. Shortly afterward the 
regiment was removed to Grahamville, where it re- 
mained in quiet until April yth, when it was ordered 
to Corinth, Miss., to reinforce Beauregard. 



58 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



CAMPAIGNS AND BATTLES 

SIXTEENTH TENNESSEE REGIMENT. 



CHAPTER II. 

CAMPAIGNS IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 



A 



S soon as the Tennessee troops arrived at Charles- 
ton the following order was issued from General 
Lee's head-quarters: 

General Order) HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE FORCES,} 

No. . ) CHARLESTON, S. C., December 18, i86i.f 

General D. S. Done/son, Commanding Third Brigade Ten- 
nessee Volunteers General: The general commanding desires 
that you should proceed with jour brigade to Coosawhatchie, S. 
C., as soon as the quarter-master of this place (Major H. Lee) 
can furnish you with the necessary transportation. Directions 
have already been given to him to that effect. 

Very respectfully, T. A. WASHINGTON, 

Assistant Adjutant -general. 

On the evening of the iSth, the troops took the cars 
on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. The Eighth 
Tennessee and Colonel Starke's Virginia regiment were 
encamped near the bridge over the Salkehatchie, and 
the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment encamped at Old 
Pocotaligo, about six miles east of Coosawhatchie, and 
two miles south of Pocotaligo station. The Federals 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 59 

were threatening the interior from Port Royal ferry, 
also from Mackey's point, Page's point, and Cunning- 
ham's bluff. From each of those different landings the 
roads went to the interior and came together near Po- 
cotaligo. It was necessary to place the main force at 
this point as a reserve to be used against any demon- 
stration of the enemy from either of these points. The 
enemy was in possession of Beaufort Island, and could 
land at any of the above landings at any time. This 
part of the coast defenses was embraced in the Fourth 
Military District, and was under the command of Major- 
general John C. Pemberton. General Donelson's bri- 
gade was assigned to General Pemberton's command 
by virtue of the following order from General Lee: 

General Orderj HEAD-QUARTERS, COOSAWHATCHIE, S. C.,) 
No. . f December 23, 1861.) 

Brigadier-general D. S. Donelson, commanding Tennessee 
Brigade, and Colonel W. E. Starke, commanding Sixtieth Regi- 
ment Virginia Volunteers, will report their commands to Briga- 
dier-general Pemberton for duty in the Fourth Military District of 
South Carolina. By order of General Lee. 

T. A. WASHINGTON, Assistant Adjutant-general. 

As Port Royal ferry seemed to be the most threat- 
ened, a fortification was thrown up at that point, where 
there was an old fort of 1812, and a battery was planted. 
The troops stationed at this point were Colonel Dun- 
novant's Twelfth Regiment of South Carolina Volun- 
teers, the Fourteenth South Carolina Regiment, Colo- 
nel James Jones, Colonel Martin's regiment of cavalry, 
and a battery of Virginia artillery under Captain Leak. 
Colonel Jones being the senior officer was in command 
of the forces in that quarter. 

On the morning of January i, 1862, the Federal gun- 
boats appeared at Port Royal ferry, near the mouth of 



60 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

the Coosaw river, and commenced shelling the Confed- 
erate works at a furious rate. The Federal fleet con- 
sisted of five gun-boats sent out by Admiral Dupont, 
and placed under command of Captain Rodgers, of the 
United States Navy. The land force consisted of Ste- 
phen's brigade and the Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth 
New York Regiments of General Viele's brigade. The 
troops were landed under cover of a tremendous bom- 
bai'dment. The Federal gun-boats threw thirteen-inch 
shells into the Confederate lines with remarkable pre- 
cision, and the Confederates suffered principally from 
this source. One shell exploded in the ranks of a 
South Carolina regiment and killed seven men and 
wounded six more. The cannonading was kept up 
some time before the Federals landed their troops. 
The object of the Federals was to destroy the Confed- 
erate works at Port Royal ferry, and to collect the 
stock from the neighboring plantations. 

The Federal force that landed consisted of about 
three thousand troops and a twelve-pound howitzer, 
under the command of Lieutenant Upshur. The South 
Carolina troops under Colonel Jones had every thing 
in readiness to receive them when they landed. A 
brisk engagement ensued. The Confederates held 
their ground bravely till two o'clock, when General 
Pemberton ordered General Donelson to hasten with 
his command to the relief of Colonel Jones. The Eighth, 
being nearest, arrived on the ground about four o'clock. 
The Sixteenth, being farthest, was put in motion with- 
in fifteen minutes after the order was received, and 
hurried forward. Ammunition was given to the men 
when in the act of starting, and the column moved on 
at a double-quick. It was near ten miles to Port Royal 
ferry. The Sixteenth Regiment arrived at Gardner's 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 61 

Corner about dark, where the wounded were being 
brought from the field. The groans and shrieks of the 
suffering men were distressing. The wounds had 
been inflicted principally with shells, and the men were 
mangled in a terrible manner. 

The Confederates had fallen back, and having es- 
tablished their lines near Gardner's Corner, remained 
there during the night. Colonel Savage had placed 
his regiment in line in front of Gardner's Corner, in the 
edge of a cotton-field, at right angles to the Port Royal 
road. 

Everybody expected the enemy to advance in the 
morning. Donelson's brigade of Tennessee troops and 
General Maxey Gregg's brigade of South Carolina 
troops had now arrived, and every thing was in readi- 
ness for a general engagement, with some show for 
the Confederates, as they had reinforced and with- 
drawn beyond range of the Federal gun-boats. 

On the morning of January 2, the men were in line 
awaiting the attack, but no enemy appeared. General 
Pemberton ordered Colonel Savage to make a recon- 
noissance with his regiment and ascertain, if possible, 
the true position and strength of the enemy, and report 
to him the result. It was intended to give the enemy 
battle if he was found, and every arrangement was 
made accordingly. . On the evening of the ad, Colonel 
Savage, having placed a portion of his regiment on 
either side of the causeway, and with a detachment of 
picked men in front, he advanced cautiously with the 
advance-guard, the regiment following. 

It was the general impression that the enemy was in 
our immediate front, and General Donelson and Major 
Waddy, of General Pemberton's staff, were each of 
that opinion, and wanted to report accordingly to Gen- 



62 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

eral Pemberton. Colonel Savage insisted on a more 
careful and extensive reconnoissance before reporting, 
and his counsel prevailed. It was found that the 
South Carolina troops had been deceived by appear- 
ances. It was late in the evening, and objects in the 
distance had been mistaken for Yankees. Colonel 
Savage pressed the reconnoissance carefully till he ar- 
rived within a short distance of the old fort. Privates 
G. L. Freeman and Isaac Mercer went on in advance 
of the detachment to the river and found no enemy. 
The Confederates withdrew about four miles to a point 
where the Mackey's point road intersected with the 
Port Royal road and formed line of battle. 

On the morning of the 3d it was found that the ene- 
my had returned to their shipping, and the fleet had 
departed in the direction of Page's point. The Con- 
federates remained here three or four days in line of 
battle, but seeing no appearance of a contemplated at- 
tack from the Federals each command was ordered to 
its original encampment. 

The battle of Coosaw river, or Port Royal ferry, was 
the only engagement on the Carolina coast during the 
winter after January i. The Federal loss was fifteen 
in killed, wounded, and missing. The Confederate 
loss was thirty-two, of whom nine men were killed 
and twenty-three wounded. 

Matters were quiet all along the coast during the rest 
of the winter. The Sixteenth Tennessee enjoyed the 
delightful climate of South Carolina in every way. 
Supplies were plentiful, and the boys found that their 
task was easy. The regiment was divided into detach- 
ments much of its time, and placed on guard at differ- 
ent points of the coast near Pocotaligo. 

Early in March the regiment was sent to Graham- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 63 

ville, S. C., -where it was quartered in snug cabins and 
fared sumptuously. While here a number of the boys 
re-enlisted and formed a cavalry company by authority 
of General Pemberton. Captain P. H. McBride was 
placed in command of the company, and the members 
were allowed a furlough to go home and prepare their 
equipments. The regiment remained at Grahamville 
till after the great battle of Shiloh had been fought, when 
they were sent to Corinth by order of General Lee, 
who had now been made commander-in-chief of all the 
armies of the Confederacy. 

The army of General Johnson had been forced to 
withdraw from Kentucky and the greater part of Ten- 
nessee after the Confederate reverses at Fort Donelson. 
The fall of Forts Donelson and Henry was an unfort- 
unate blow upon the Confederacy, and practically 
broke the backbone of its main defenses. The great 
Mississippi valley was the main dependence she had 
for supplies of every kind, and this defeat placed the 
main river system of the valley in the hands of the 
Federals. The western army had fallen back to Cor- 
inth, and the Federals thus came into possession of the 
great States of Tennessee and Kentucky, and the 
greater portion of Missouri. 

General Johnston's lines now covered the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad from the Tennessee river to 
Memphis, and the defenses at Island Number Ten cov- 
ered Memphis from the approaches of the Federal 
gun-boats. General Johnston resolved to put his army 
in shape for a decisive battle on the south side of the 
Tennessee river. General Grant was in command of 
the Federal forces at Savannah, on the Tennessee river, 
and Buell was in command of the forces about Nash- 
ville. Johnston determined to hurl his whole army 



64 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

upon Grant and defeat him before Buell could come to 
his support. By the first of April his plans were fully 
matured and every thing in readiness for the campaign. 
The roads being in bad condition he was unable to ad- 
vance his army as rapidly as his plans contemplated. 
It was his intention to strike Grant on April 5, but the 
.- movement was hindered on account of bad roads, and 
the enemy used the delay to advantage. Buell was or- 
dered to Grant's support in anticipation of Johnston's 
intentions. Grant was not expecting Johnston to at- 
tack him so soon, and before he was aware of the ma- 
tured plans and prompt executive ability of the Con- 
federate leader, Johnston was upon him on the morning 
of April 6, 1862. The Confederates took possession of 
the Federal encampment, and drove the enemy before 
them for some distance. By this time Grant had time 
to realize the situation, and his line was formed for bat- 
tle with the intention of a stubborn resistance. The 
Confederates pressed onward, and struck Grant's sec- 
ond line at Shiloh church, and the battle became des- 
perate. The Federals finally yielded this line, and the 
Confederates pressed on to victory. The fight lasted 
throughout the day, and the Federals had been driven 
back at every point. 

Late in the evening the Federals took another stand, 
and Johnston ordered another charge, after massing his 
force at that point of the enemy's line which he con- 
sidered the key to the position. The gallant Confede- 
'rate chieftain led the charge in person. The lines of 
the enemy were broken, and the Confederates had 
gained a decisive victory. The Federals were driven 
to the river bank, and to have pressed them farther* 
would have resulted in their capture. This was the re- 
sult contemplated by General Johnston, but he did not 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 65 

live to execute* it. He fell, mortally wounded, while 
leading the charge that procured the victory, and at the 
very moment of its consummation. The men were 
discouraged and dejected when they. learned that their 
leader had fallen. General Beauregard now assumed 
command. Night closed its mantle over the scene, and 
the fighting ceased. 

During the night Buell's army came up and formed 
a junction with Grant's forces, and in the morning the 
Federals came out in the aggressive. The Confederates 
were now on the defensive, and were confronted by an 
enemy of fresh troops and their superior in point of 
numbers. The battle of the yth was over much of the 
same ground of the 6th, but with its fortunes reversed. 
The Confederates gradually gave back, from position 
to position, as the Federals had done on the day pre- 
vious. In the afternoon of the yth, Beauregard with- 
drew his entire force from the field in good order, and 
retreated ba'ck to Corinth. The losses on both sides 
had been very great. 

General Beauregard saw the tremendous force that 
was being arrayed against him, and found, after his ar- 
rival at Corinth, that with his army of thirty-five thou- 
sand he was wholly unable to cope with the concen- 
trated hosts of the enemy, and realized that unless he 
was promptly reinforced he would be compelled to 
yield the great Mississippi Valley to the enemy, which 
would be practically surrendering the cause. He ac- 
cordingly asked the Confederate authorities to reinforce 
him from Pemberton's army, of South Carolina, and 
.Van Dorn's and Price's armies, of the Trans-Mississippi 
^Department. He sent the following telegram to Rich- 
mond in cipher, which appeared in the Northern pa- 
pers verbatim on the following morning. The mystery 
5 



66 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

was explained when the Richmond authorities ascer- 
tained that this dispatch had also been sent, in common 
language, by our army correspondent, by way of Hunts- 
ville, where it was taken off the wires by a spy. 

CORINTH, Miss., April 9, 1862. 

General S. Cooper, Richmond, Va.: All present probabili- 
ties are that whenever the enemy moves on this position he will 
do so with an overwhelming force of not less than eighty thou- 
sand men. We now number only about thirty-five thousand ef- 
fectives. Van Dorn may possibly join us in a few days with 
about fifteen thousand more. Can we not be reinforced from 
Pemberton's army? If defeated here we lose the Mississippi 
Valley, and probably our cause, whereas we could afford to lose 
Charleston and Savannah for the purpose of defeating Buell's 
armv, which would not only insure us the vallev of the Missis- 
sippi, but our independence. G. T. BEAUREGARD. 

Upon the reception of General Beauregard's dispatch 
General Lee sent the following to General Pemberton: 

RICHMOND, VA., April 10, 1862. 

Major-general Pemberton : Beauregard is pressed for troops. 
Send him, if possible, Donelson's brigade of two regiments. If 
Mississippi Valley is lost the Atlantic States will be ruined. 

Very respectfully, R. E. LEE. 

To this General Pemberton replied as follows: 

POCOTALIGO, S. C., April 10, 1862, 6:30 P.M. 
General R. E. Lee, Richmond, Va.: Your telegram just re- 
ceived. I consider it an order. Donelson's brigade two Ten- 
nessee regiments, aggregating fifteen hundred and seventy-two 
will move to Corinth as soon as transportation can be got 
ready. J. C. PEMBERTON, Major-general Commanding. 

General Pemberton sent the following order to Gen- 
eral Ripley: 

SAVANNAH, GA., April 13, 1862. 

General R. S. Ripley: Order the troops to take the most di- 
rect and practicable route to Corinth. Let the commander tele- 
graph to General Beauregard in advance for his instructions. 

J. C. PEMBERTON, Major-general. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 67 

General Beauregard telegraphed for the troops to be 
sent by way of Chattanooga, and they were hurried on 
as fast as possible by way of Charleston, Augusta, and 
Atlanta. The Federals had taken possession of Hunts- 
ville about the time that the troops were getting to 
Chattanooga on their way to Corinth, and they were 
forced to go back by way of Mobile, and did not arrive 
at Corinth until April 23, 1862. 



CAMPAIGN IN MISSISSIPPI. 

When the Tennessee troops arrived at Corinth they 
found every thing presenting the true aspect of war in 
its fullest sense. The whole country about the place 
was one vast encampment of troops. The wounded 
from the -great battle had been sent to the interior 
towns and villages along the railroad, while the conva- 
lescent were with their commands in camp. The boys 
of the Sixteenth Regiment went to see friends and ac- 
quaintances belonging to the Fifth and other Tennessee 
regiments, and mingled among their old comrades and 
acquaintances generally for a few days after their arri- 
val at Corinth. The Eighth and Sixteenth Tennessee 
Regiments remained a part of Donelson's brigade, 
which was 'assigned to Cheatham's division, and be- 
came a part of the first army corps under command of 
Lieutenant-general Polk. 

The army of General Halleck now numbered about 
one hundred thousand men, not including the fleet in 
the Mississippi river. The army of General Beaure- 
gard, including the river defenses, was now near the 
equal of the enemy in the field in point of numbers, 
but the inferior in point of equipments. 



68 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

By May i, Beauregard had been reinforced by Van 
Dorn's forces from Missouri and four regiments from 
Pemberton's army. His forces now numbered as fol- 
lows: 

Folk's corps, 17,185; Bragg's corps, 23,100; Har- 
dee's corps, 15,937; cavalry and artillery, 13,318; Army 
of the West, 34,035; Villepigue's division, 4,173; re- 
serve, 7,121. Total, 114,869. 

This number included the sick and wounded in the 
hospital, and the absent for any cause. By the transfer 
of some of the troops, and by deaths, this estimate was 
reduced by May 15, 1862, to 110,845 total present and 
absent. The large number of sick and wounded at the 
different hospitals reduced this number to an aggregate 
of 74,279 present, including sick and wounded in camp, 
the different details for sappers. and miners, infirmary 
corps, and other purposes. The aggregate was reduced 
in this manner to an effective total of 51,218 guns 
ready for action on May 15," viz.: Army of the Missis- 
sippi, 35,705; Army of the West, 12,801; Western De- 
partment, 2,612. Effective total, 51,218. 

With this force Beauregard felt prepared to give 
battle to Halleck, who was advancing on the Purdy 
road. A line of breastworks were thrown up a few 
miles in front of Corinth, and the troops were em- 
ployed daily in strengthening the defenses and cover- 
ing the front of their works with abatis of fallen 
trees. Van Dorn occupied the right wing of Beaure- 
gard's lines, near the Farmington road. Hardee's 
corps occupied the center, and Folk's corps was on the 
left wing. Every thing was put in readiness and wait- 
ing for the attack, which seemed imminent. General 
Price seemed to grow impatient for the attack, and 
moving out his division one morning struck the enemy's 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 69 

left wing and swung it round on their main line and 
then retired to his original position. The old hero of 
so many hard-fought battles kept up a row with Hal- 
leek's left wing pretty regularly. The principal fight- 
ing about Corinth was on the right wing of Beaure- 
gard's lines, while the enemy seemed to be seeking an 
advantage with a view to striking the Confederate rear 
and taking possession of Chewalla, a point on the 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, a few miles south 
of Corinth. As the Federals moved on Corinth and 
established their lines, they threw up fortifications at 
each line. 

The battle being daily and almost houi'ly expected, 
and General Beauregard having arranged his lines and 
fortified his position, had every thing in readiness for 
the conflict, and issued the following address to his 

men : 

HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE FORCES, j 
CORINTH, Miss., May 2, 1862. f 

Soldiers of ShiloJi and Elkhorn : We are about to meet once 
more in the shock of battle the invaders of our soil, the despoil - 
ers of our homes, the disturbers of our family ties. Face to face, 
hand to hand, we are to decide whether we are to be freemen or 
the vile slaves of those who are free only in name, and who but 
yesterday were vanquished, although in largely superior numbers 
in their own encampments, on the ever-memorable field of Shiloh. 

Let the impending battle decide our fate, and add one more 
illustrious page to the historv of our revolution one to which our 
children will point with noble pride, saying, "Our fathers were 
at the battle of Corinth!" 

I congratulate you on your timely junction your mingled 
banners! For the first time in this war we shall meet our foe in 
strength that should give us victory. Soldiers, can the result be 
doubted? Shall we not drive back into the Tennessee the pre- 
sumptuous mercenaries collected for our subjugation? One more 
manly effort, and trusting in God and the justness of our cause, 
we shall recover more than we have latelv lost. Let the sound 



70 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

of our victorious guns be re-echoed by those of the Army of 
Virginia on the historic battle-field of Yorktown. 

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General Commanding. 

General Bragg issued the following address to the 
soldiers of his command, the Second Corps of the Army 
of the Mississippi: 

HEAD-QUARTERS SECOND CORPS, ' \ 
ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, 
CORINTH, Miss., May 3, 1862.) 

Soldiers: You are again about to encounter the mercenary 
invader who pollutes the sacred soil of our beloved country. 
Severely punished by you, and driven from his chosen position, 
with the loss of his artillery and his honor, at Shiloh, when 
double your numbers, he now approaches cautiouslv and timidlv, 
unwilling to advance, unable to retreat. Could his rank and file 
enjoy a freeman's right, not one would remain within our limits, 
but are goaded on by a tyrant's lash by desperate leaders 
whose only safety lies in success. Such a foe ought never to 
conquer freemen battling on their own soil. You will encounter 
him in your chosen position, strong by nature and improved by 
art; away from his main support and reliance : gun-boats and 
heavy batteries and for the first time in this war, with nearly 
equal numbers. 

The slight reverses we have met on the sea-board have worked 
us good as well as evil. The brave troops so long retained there 
have hastened to swell your numbers, while the gallant Van 
Dorn and invincible Price are now in your midst, with numbers 
almost equaling the "Army of Shiloh." We have, then, but to 
strike and destroy, and as the enemy's whole resources are con- 
centrated here, we shall not only redeem Tennessee, Kentucky, 
and Missouri at one blow, but open the portals of the whole 
North-west. BRAXTON BRAGG, 

General Commanding Second Corps. 

The enemy continued to advance slowly and cau- 
tiously, fortifying every line of his advancement. Gen- 
eral Beauregard, finding that Halleck would not bring 
on an engagement by attacking the Confederates in 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 71 

their chosen position, finally resolved to move out of 
his works and advance on the Federal lines, having 
waited for his attack in vain for several days. Every 
thing was in readiness for the movement by May 20, 
when the following order was issued by General Beau- 
regard : 

^ HEAD-QUARTERS WESTERN 

General Orders DEPARTMENT, 

CORINTH, May 20, 1862. 
In the event of a battle, the following regulations will be 
strictly observed by all medical officers of this department, with 
the view of affording the greatest comfort to the sick and wounded 
of the army: 

1. All the wounded not requiring surgical operations will be 
carried to their respective encampments, whence such cases as 
will bear removal will be subsequently distributed among the 
various hospitals in the interior under the superintendence of the 
medical inspectors. 

2. Such of the wounded as will not bear transportation will be 
sent to the hospital at this point, or? the order of the division sur- 
geon. 

3. Cases requiring immediate surgical operation will be treated 
as far as possible on the field, and all such will be sent immedi- 
ately to the hospital at this place. 

By command of General Beauregard. 

GEO. W. BRENT, Acting- Chief of Staff. 

General Bragg issued the following order to his 
corps: 

HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI,! 
CORINTH, Miss., May 20, 1862. / 

As soon as the movement against the enemy takes place, Colo- 
nel D. W. Adams, First Regiment Louisiana Infantry, will as- 
sume command of that portion of the army left to guard the 
trenches. By command of General Bragg. 

GEO. G. GARNER, Assistant Adjutant-general. 

The men were ordered to prepare three days' cooked 
rations for their haversacks, and the wagons were to 



72 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

carry two days' supply of uncooked rations. Forty 
rounds of ammunition was given for each gun, and 
the ordinance supplies were to be kept at a'convenient 
distance for additional supply if needed. Every thing 
was in readiness on the 2Oth for a general movement 
on the 2 1 st. 

On account of the rains on the morning of the 2ist, 
the movement was suspended for twenty-four hours. 
The rain ceasing and the weather clearing up in the 
morning, the whole army was put in shape for a move- 
ment on the following day. Colonel Savage made a 
stirring, patriotic speech to his regiment on the evening 
of the 2ist, and by seven o'clock on the morning of the 
22d the whole army was in line. General Donelson 
addressed his brigade in line by regiments. He told 
in eloquent tones of the bright escutcheon of Tennes- 
see fame on so many hard fought battle-fields in this 
and previous wars, wjiere the Tennessee troops had 
acted their part so nobly, and that in the arduous task 
before them to be performed this day, w r hen the enemy 
was to be attacked in superior numbers and in a posi- 
tion of his own choosing, he had the fullest confidence 
in the valor of the Tennessee troops, and he knew that 
they would, by their noble achievements, add new 
luster to the lofty name that their State so justly and 
proudly bore. The enemy must be driven back. His 
heavy batteries must be charged and his guns taken. 
They were fighting for their homes and all they held 
dear, which they would wrest from the hand of the in- 
vader, but it was a work that would involve much sac- 
rifice and the loss of many lives. The Tennessee troops 
would do their part well, and " strike where danger was 
thickest." This stirring address was delivered to the 
regiment in double column by the General, who rode 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 73 

along the front line as he spoke. The men responded 
with loud and prolonged cheers, and in a few minutes 
the whole column was moving to the front. 

As before stated, Folk's corps occupied the left of 
Beauregard's lines, and the enemy was making his 
principal demonstrations on the right and center, in 
front of Van Dorn's, Bragg's, and Hardee's corps. It 
was near six miles from Folk's position to the point of 
the enemy's line where he was expected to strike. 
Polk, Hardee, and Bragg gained their positions 
promptly and waited for Van Dorn to come up, when 
a signal would be given for a general attack. 

Beauregard's army was about fifty thousand effective 
men, and the enemy was about eighty thousand. The 
opposing armies were looking at each other, both ready 
for the awful work of death. On account of the to- 
pography of the country, Van Dorn was delayed in 
bringing up his command, and meeting with unforeseen 
obstacles, he consulted Generals Price and Hardee in 
reference to the difficulties before him, and at noon dis- 
patched to Beauregard as follows: 

HEAD-qCARTERS ARMY OF THE WEST,! 

May 22, 1862. / 

General: It pains me to say. that I have, after consultation 
with Generals Hardee and Price, determined to return to my in- 
trenchments. I have found unexpected obstacles, topographical 
and otherwise, and I have been delayed until this hour (12 M.), 
and yet not in position. It is too late to begin a general engage- 
ment, and I cannot wait to hear from you to get orders. I have, 
therefore, determined to act myself and return. I will explain 
more fully when I see you. EARL VAX DORX. 

When General Beauregard received this dispatch he 
indorsed it with his approval and returned it to Gen- 
eral Van Dorn. He then gave orders to the corps 
commanders to withdraw their commands to their in- 



74 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

trenchments, and before sundown the whole army was 
in its original encampment along the trenches. Not a 
gun had been fired, and every thing was quiet. 

The Confederates resumed their position in the forti- 
fications before Corinth, and prepared for repelling an 
attack by strengthening their works and felling the tim- 
ber in their front. The Federals crept on slowly and for- 
tified every line of their advancement. Daily the line 
of Federal intrenchments drew nearer the place until 
the 27th, when they had their batteries planted and 
their lines fortified within cannon shot of Beauregarfl's 
lines. For miles to the Federal rear the country was 
one series of parallel intrenchments. 

The enemy had gathered principally on the east of 
the railroad, and every thing gave evidence that he 
did not meditate an attack upon Corinth, but a regular 
bombardment and siege. General Beauregard's com- 
munications were severely threatened on the right, 
where the enemy seemed determined to extend his 
fortified lines, and thus cut off supplies by railroad. 
To counteract these demonstrations, General Price, 
of Van Dorn's army, kept Halleck's left wing busy. 
There was no difficulty in getting up a fight in front 
of Price's division. If the enemy came around too 
presumptuously he was sure of a warm reception, 
for Price always accepted any thing in the way of a 
challenge. In the different sorties on the right the 
enemy was driven back in the first stages of the siege, 
and on one occasion Price took possession of the ene- 
my's telegraph office and telegraphed his compliments 
to the President of the United States. 

By May 25 the forces of the enemy had thickened 
on the right and had gained so strong a foothold that 
Van Dorn was unable to dislodge him. His lines of 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 75 

intrenchments drew nearer and nearer. The Confed- 
erates were now completely on the defensive, with 
every resource taxed to the utmost. The lines of the 
enemy had been re-enforced, and the fall of Corinth 
seemed only a question of time. The commander in 
chief took in the situation at a glance. One of three 
things must be promptly done: the Confederates must 
attack the enemy, or be attacked by him, or evacuate 
the place. This was the nature of the situation as 
viewed bv the corps commanders of the army, and as 
the first two propositions involved serious difficulties, 
the latter expedient was suggested by General Hardee, 
and the various reasons explained in the following 
communication to General Beauregard: 

CORINTH, Miss., May 25, 1862. 

General G. T. Beaurcgard, Commanding, etc.: The situa- 
tion at Corinth requires that we should attack the enemy at 
once, await his attack, or evacuate the place. 

Assuming that we have 50,000 men and the enemy nearly twice 
that number, protected by intrenchments, I am clearly of opin- 
ion that no attack should be made. Our forces are inferior, and 
the battle of Shiloh proves, with only the advantage of position, 
it was hazardous to contend against his superior strength; and 
to attack him in his intrenchments now would probably inflict on 
us and the Confederacy a fatal blow. Neither the numbers nor 
the instruction of our troops renders them equal to the task. 

I think we can successfully repel any attack on our camp by 
the enemy, but it is manifest no attack is meditated. It will be 
approached gradually, and will be shelled and bombarded, with- 
out equal means to respond. This will compel us to make sorties 
against his intrenched positions, under most adverse circum- 
stances, or to evacuate the place. The latter seems to me inev- 
itable. If so, the only remaining question is whether the place 
should be evacuated before, after, or during the defense. After 
fire is opened, or the place is actively shelled or bombarded, or 
during such an attack, it will be difficult to evacuate the place in 



76 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

good order. With a large body of men imperfectly disciplined 
any idle rumor may spread a panic, and inextricable confusion 
may follow, so that the retreat may become a rout. The same 
objections would applv to any partial or feeble defense of the 
place, and an attempt to evacuate it in the meantime. If the 
defense be-not determined or the battle decisive, no useful result 
would follow, but it would afford an opportunity to our enemies 
to magnify the facts give them a pretext to claim a victory, and 
to discourage our friends at home and abroad, and diminish, if 
not destroy, all claims of foreign intervention. 

Under these circumstances, I think the evacuation, if it be de- 
termined upon, should be made before the enemy opens fire, and 
not coupled with a sortie against the enemy in his intrenchments 
or partial battle. It should be done promptly, if done at all. 
Even now the enemy can shell our camp. It should be done in 
good order, so as not to discourage our friends or give a pretext 
for the triumph of our enemies. 

With the forces at our disposition, with a vast territory behind 
us, with a patriotic and devoted people to support us, the enemv, 
as he moved southward, away from rivers and railroads, would 
find insurmountable obstacles in moving columns so heavy that 
we cannot strike them, and over a country where his mechanical 
superiority will not avail him. 

If we resolve to evacuate, every hour of delav onlv serves to 
augment our difficulties. The enemy every day grows stronger 
on our flanks, and menaces more and more our communications. 
If he effects his designs, we must fight at every disadvantage or 
retreat disastrously. History and the country will judge us, not 
by the movement, but by its consequences. 

W. J. HARDEE, Major-general . 

To which General Beauregard replied as follows: 

CORINTH, Miss., May 26, 1862. 

Major-general W. J . Hardee Dear General: I fully con- 
cur in the views contained in your letter of the 25th inst, received 
last night, and I have already commenced giving orders to my 
chiefs of staff departments for its execution. But every thing 
that is done must be done under the plea of the intention to take 
the offensive at the opportune moment. Every commandant of 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 77 

corps must get every thing ready to move at a moment's notice 
and must see to the proper condition of the roads and bridges his 
corps is to travel upon. 

Thanking you for vour kind wishes, I remain yours truly, 

G. T. BEAUREGARD. 

On the evening of May 27, Donelson's brigade was 
placed on picket in front of the breastworks on the 
left of General Hardee's line. On the morning of the 
28th the Federals began to press the Confederate out- 
post very severely, and all indications were favorable 
to a general engagement all along the line. This was 
the first vigorous demonstration of the Federals on the 
Confederate left wing. The right and center had 
been pressed for the last three days. The enemy 
massed heavy columns in the immediate front of the 
Confederate skirmish lines, and placed their artillery 
in position. When this was accomplished they com- 
menced shelling the woods with a view to ascertaining 
the position of the reserve lines of the Confederates 
and the location of their batteries. The firing along 
the skirmish line was kept up with vigor, and the Fed- 
eral batteries kept up a general cannonade all day. 
The Confederate artillery kept silent, though placed in 
a position to be most effective in the event of an attack 
from the"Federals. The Federal batteries had learned 
the position of the Confederate lines, and sent showers 
of grape-shot through the woods. The men lay close 
upon the ground, and the enemy's missiles passed over 
them without inflicting any injury. The skirmishing 
continued throughout the day. The Sixteenth Tennes- 
see Regiment lost three men on May 28. Stephen 
Tate, of Captain Womack's company, was killed on 
the skirmish line in the morning. Sergeant John Gris- 
som and private William Creel}', both of Captain Ran- 



78 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

dal's company, were killed by a charge of grape-shot 
from a Federal battery. 

The skirmishing on the right and center was lively 
all through the day. Hardee's corps was engaged ii> 
hot skirmish righting all along the line. General Cle- 
burn was desirous of gaining an elevated position in 
his immediate front known as Shelton Hill. This po- 
sition, if once gained and protected by artillery, would 
add greatly to the strength of the Confederate* lines. 
General Cleburn ordered his men to move upon this 
point, which lay in the immediate front of the Fifth 
Tennessee Regiment. The way seemed open to the 
top of the elevation, and the right and left were flanked 
by underbrush. Colonel B. J. Hill ordered a charge, 
and the gallant old Fifth raised the old rebel yell that 
could be heard for miles over the din and shock of 
battle. Colonel Hill led the charge, and his men fol- 
lowed with that dauntless valor that had ever charac- 
terized the gallant old Fifth and its daring leader. The 
regiment was repulsed with a fearful loss in killed and 
wounded. It was practically an ambuscade. The 
Federals occupied the hill, and their right and left lines 
diverged inwardly in the shape of a V, and were con- 
cealed by a plum hedge. The Fifth Tennessee charged 
into the opening, and were subjected to a withering 
cross-fire of musketry and artillery on its right, left, 
and front. This was the principal event of the 28th in 
Hardee's front. For this daring exploit at Shelton Hill, 
Colonel Hill and his regiment were complimented by 
General Beauregard in general orders read to the troops 
of the whole army. On the evening of the 28th, the skir- 
mish lines were relieved by fresh troops, and the army 
retired to the trenches. The Federals fortified, on the 
night of the 28th, the ground they had gained during 
the day. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 79 

It was the intention of General Beauregard to aban- 
don the trenches on the night of the 28th, and with- 
draw his army from Corinth on the 29th. General 
Bragg was placed in charge of the removal of stores 
from Corinth, and the work progressed so slowly that 
he suggested to General Beauregard that the place be 
held another day, in order to enable him to remove 
more of the military stores. General Bragg about this 
time became commander in chief, and assumed com- 
mand of the army after the evacuation of Corinth. 

The following correspondence explains the different 
movements of the army at this time: 

CORINTH, Miss., May 28, 1862, 2:30 P.M. 

General: The prospect at the railroad is not encouraging. 
Things move very slowly a want of management with the cars 
as well as the sick. The medical department is now doing bet- 
ter, but I really do not think it possible to get oft" to-night, with- 
out abandoning arms, ammunition, baggage, etc., which we can- 
not afford to lose. My baggage is gone, but I am prepared to 
bivouac for one day in order to save what we can. 

The force crossing toward Chewalla has retired again. The 
firing is between Van Dorn's battery and the enemy, who are 
trying to force Hardee back on the lower Farmington road. 

Yours truly, BRAXTON BRAGG. 

[Confidential.] CORINTH, Miss., May 28, 1862. 

General: Considering that we have still so much yet to be 
removed from this place, I have decided that the retrograde 
movement shall not take place until the 3oth instead of the 2gth. 
You will issue all necessary orders to that effect to the forces un- 
der your command. It would be advisable to stop at once the am- 
munition and provision trains at convenient points to this place. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

G. T. BEAUKEGARD, General Commanding. 
General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding Army of Mississippi, 

Corinth, Miss. 

The troops bivouaced about the trenches all day on 



8o THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT . 

the 29th. Every thing was quiet all along the line. 
Occasionally the sound of a cannon and a little picket 
firing was heard. Generally a dull, foreboding silence 
rested over the scene. Every thing movable was being 
sent to the rear. General Bragg was at the depot su- 
perintending the removal in person. During the dav 
he sent the following dispatch to General Beauregard: 

RAILROAD DEPOT, May 29, 1862, 11:30 A.M. 

General Beauregard Mv Dear General: I have found it 
necessary to take charge here personally. Col. O. B. is working 
with me. It will be impossible to save all. Army, ammunition, 
and the sick. I fear, will be all we can do, but hospital things and 
provisions will be saved, if possible. I find trunks enough here 
to load all trains for a day. They are being piled for burning, 
and great is the consternation. My guard have to be loaded to 
prevent plundering, but all is going on well. If we had trains 
all could be well by 12 o'clock to-night, but there is great want of 
cars. Nothing in our power will be left undone. It is the first 
time I have played chief quarter-master, but it is no difficult task. 

Yours truly, BRAXTON BRAGG. 

Every thing was ready for the movement by eight 
o'clock on the night of the 29th. The camp-fires were 
kindled. The cooking vessels that could not be re- 
moved were broken up by the light of the blazing 
camp-fires. In fact, the Confederates replenished their 
camp-fires by such combustible material of their camp 
equipage as they found inconvenient to remove. The 
main army was withdrawn in the direction of Guntown. 
Colonel Savage was ordered to take his regiment to 
Smith's Bridge, over the Tuscumbia river, and cover 
\he retreat of the army by holding the bridge while the 
army retired to Baldwin. The regiment arrived at the 
bridge about four o'clock on the morning of May 30, 
and, after putting out pickets to guard the approaches, 
cut down trees and completely blockaded the road for 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 81 

some distance through the swamp from the river bank 
to the north and destroyed the bridge. Placing pickets 
along the river the regiment retired a short distance 
and bivouaced. Colonel Savage then reported to Gen- 
eral Polk as follows: 

SMITH'S BRIDGE, TUSCUMBIA, May 30, 1862. 

Colonel }}' . B. Richmond, Aid-de-camp: Your note of this date 
has been received, and, in reply, I request you to inform Major- 
general Polk that my regiment reached this point about daylight. 
The work of cutting the timber and destroying the bridge com- 
menced immediately and was completed about 8 o'clock. The 
regiment is posted near the bridge, with pickets on the river to 
detect an advance by this road. I will move back a few hundred 
yards (keeping pickets on the river), to a point where a road 
leads to the right in a north-western direction. 

I do not think the enemy can force a passage easily, or get in 
my rear, without moving from a point on the railroad near Che- 
walla. I directed Captain Saffaran to obstruct the upper cross- 
ing, but did not visit that point. I will send cavalry there when 
it arrives. This route is obscure, but with latjpr the enemy could 
have passed the ford with cavalry or infantry. 

Forage and subsistence must be drawn from the train on your 
route, as none can be obtained here, unless I should kill a beef 
from the pastures and get forage from the plantations near, which 
I shall do if the regular supply fails. 

I am, Colonel, very respectfully, JOHN H. SAVAGE, 

Colonel Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 

The Sixteenth Tennessee remained at Smith's Bridge 
during May 30 and 31 and the first day of June. The 
enemy made no active demonstration on its front, but 
seemed to strike in the direction of Baldwin. During 
the stay of three days at Smith's Bridge the regiment 
was isolated from the rest of the army, and held an 
important position. Being out of the convenient reach 
of the supply train the regiment subsisted from the lo- 
cality. Beef was procured in the neighborhood, and 
6 



82 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

the people on a neighboring plantation supplied the 
men with corn -bread. On the evening of June 2 he 
withdrew to Baldwin, and on the evening of June 3 
Colonel Savage sent in the following report to Ma- 
jor Williamson, of General Folk's staff': 

HEAD-QUARTERS SIXTEENTH REGIMENT } 
TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS, 

Donelson's Brigade. June 3, 1862.) 

Major George Williamson, Assistant Adjutant -general 
Major: In accordance with the order of Major-general Polk, 
my regiment (conducted by Captain Rucker) destroyed Smith's 
Bridge at daylight on Friday morning. The timber was cut by 
Captain Saffaran's party and the road effectually blockaded. 
Captain Yerger, with his company of cavalry, reported and 
scouted up and down the river for several miles. No artillery 
reported, and I was satisfied to be without it. 

On Saturdav a citizen scout reported two hundred Yankee 
cavalry picketed about a mile from the bridge on the road which 
I came; and that the horses were very poor and the men looking 
badly. He informed them of my force at the bridge. I sent 
him to find a road to their rear, which he promised, but did not 
return, and I hear nothing more of the enemy in that direction. 

On Saturday evening I was informed by a citizen that up to 
that time no enemy had appeared at Chewalla, or near there. 

On Sunday, about 10 o'clock P.M., I received a-note from Colo- 
nel Hunt stating that the enemy were rebuilding the bridge at 
Danville, and that he and Colonel Deas had agreed to march at 
4 o'clock, to prevent being cut off, asking my co-operation, to 
which I consented. 

My regiment marched at 5 o'clock, leaving Captain Yerger's 
company to remain until dark. I fell in with Colonel Clanton's 
regiment of cavalry near Kossuth, who continued in the rear 
throughout the march. Colonels Hunt and Deas were not over- 
taken till after midnight. 

Information of the enemy on our left was received from citi- 
zens and scouts, and about one mile beyond Blackland a body of 
two thousand of the enemy's cavalry were reported as marching 
on that point. A consultation was had between Colonels Hunt, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 83 

Deas, Adams, Siemens, Clanton, and myself, when it was deter- 
mined to march forward and fight whatever force might appear. 
We saw nothing of the enemy, but I am sure he had. active 
scouts on our left, and a considerable force four or five miles 
from Blackland. 

It is thirty miles or more to Smith's Bridge the route I came. 
I reached General Bragg's camp about 4 o'clock yesterday even- 
ing. The men being exhausted, we encamped and came on this 
morning. I had a rear-guard with the strictest orders, yet seven 
men are missing, and as thev are strong men (with one excep- 
tion), it is feared that they have fallen out of ranks until the reg- 
iment passed, and afterward took the wrong road. About eighty 
axes were left upon the road by Captain Saffaran's party. I 
brought forward twelve, threw twelve into the yard of Albert 
Jones, near Kossuth, and deposited the others with a planter 
named Spencer, near Smith's Bridge. 

My men captured a man near Smith's Bridge, believing him to 
be a Yankee. He denied having been in either service. When 
we came to General Bragg's camp he admitted that he belonged 
to the First Louisiana Regiment. I have him yet in charge, and 
should be glad to get rid of him. 

I am, Major, very respectfully, JOHX H. SAVAGE, 

Colonel Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 

The Confederates continued the retreat from Bald- 
win to Saltillo, and thence to Tupelo, where they ar- 
rived June 10, and encamped on a range of ridges 
about three miles west of the depot. The men were 
worn out with fatigue after so long a march, but they 
soon recuperated. Clearing off the timber for their 
encampment, they pitched their tents and enjoyed the 
benefits of rest and quiet. Finding that good water 
could be obtained by digging a short distance, the 
men commenced sinking wells, and in a day or so good 
wells could be found over the encampment, by which 
the men were supplied bountifully with good water. 
Supplies were plentiful, for the resources of the Con- 
federacy were not so severely taxed as at subsequent 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



periods. The men here began to have their first ex- 
perience in high prices. The troops were supplied 
with clothing. Every thing was plentiful, and the 
men were all in good spirits. 

General Bragg was now in command of the whole 
army. The greatest care was now devoted to the drill- 
ing and disciplining of the troops, and the army re- 
mained here until the latter part of July, when it 
started on its celebrated campaign into Kentucky. 



REORGANIZATION. 

We will now return to the reorganization of the 
Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, and of the whole 
army, which took place at Corinth during the earlier 
part of May. The greater portion of the Confederate 
troops enlisted for twelve months, and while at Corinth 
their time expired. The enemy had this circumstance 
in view, and had organized tremendous armies in front 
of Richmond and Corinth, and seemed to be leisurely 
awaiting the discharge of the twelve- month troops of 
the Confederacy, whose term would expire the latter 
part of April or early in May, 1862. The Confederate 
authorities had considei'ed this circumstance carefully, 
and saw, if they disbanded the regiments as their time 
expired, that the cause of the Confederacy would be 
hopelessly lost. A general conscription was promptly 
decided upon, as recommended to the Confederate 
Congress in a special message from the President, and 
a general consci'ipt act was passed by that body about 
the middle of April, 1862. By the terms of this act, 
all soldiers between the ages of eighteen and forty- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 85 

five were to be retained in the service to the close of - 
the war. Such soldiers as were over forty-five or un- 
der eighteen years of age were to be discharged, and 
a bounty was offered to all such for re-enlistment. The 
commissioned officers had the privilege of resigning, 
and to all who were not included in the catalogue of 
exemption, a certain time was given them to choose 
the branch of service they were to enter. 

The saivfe provision that applied to soldiers applied 
also to civilians, and enrolling officers were to be ap- 
pointed in each civil district to enforce these provis- 
ions. To the civilians, the exemption included all civil 
officers, physicians, ministers of the gospel, millers, 
shoe-makers, blacksmiths, all government employes, 
and school-teachers in actual employment as such. 
This placed an armed force in every neighborhood. 
These enrolling officers and their .men gathered up the 
people and sent them to the army, and the ranks were 
recruited in this manner. 

Many saw the approach of the conscript officer and 
enlisted. Such men made good soldiers. Of the con- 
script force, the majoi - ity went under protest. Of this 
number there were few effective soldiers. Some 
fought well in the different battles, and many deserted 
at the first opportunity and persistently avoided all 
participation in the war. To look after this class re- 
quired the services of efficient soldiers, and with this 
class of recruits the rolls were enlarged and the Con- 
federate ranks nominally strengthened, but practically 
weakened. 

The conscript act had reference, first, to the army, 
and required the reorganization of all the forces, by 
virtue of the following order: 



86 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

General Order^ HEA-D-QUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,) 
No. 39. \ CORINTH, Miss., May 6, 1862. f 

I. In pursuance of the provisions of an act of the Confederate 
Congress, entitled "An Act to further provide for the public de- 
fense," all regiments, battalions, squadrons, and companies of 
twelve -month volunteers of this army, will proceed to organize 
by electing their proper company and field officers. This elec- 
tion the several brigade commanders will cause to be held within 
their respective brigades at 12 meridian on the Sth inst., except 
in regiments, or battalions, on picket or outpost service, which 
will hold elections as soon as relieved. 

II. The form of election and certifying these elections will 
conform, as far as practicable, with the laws of the State from 
which the men, or a major part thereof, may come; and in all 
cases where the field officers are elected by the company officers, 
the latter shall be first chosen. 

III. All certificates of election will be forwarded through these 
head-quarters to the Adjutant-general's office at Richmond. Offi- 
cers thus elected, upon receiving a copv of the certificate of their 
election, will immediately enter upon duty; and such as are not 
re-elected will be relieved from duty and their names forwarded 
by brigade commanders, through these head-quarters, to the 
War Department. 

IV. In the elections herein directed no person who is to be 
discharged from the service under the provisions of ihis act will 
be allowed to take part. 

V. In case any regiment, battalion, or company shall have 
been already duly reorganized, and elections held in accordance 
with the provisions of this act, new elections will not be required. 

VI. The commanding general regards it of the utmost im- 
portance at this juncture that only intelligent and capable officers 
should be elected by the men; none others are worthy to lead 
them; none others can do so creditably or safely. Therefore he 
will not recommend any one for commission by the President 
without said officer shall have been reported duly qualified by a 
board of three officers for the examination of all elected under 
this order. 

VII. These boards will require all officers to be of good phys- 
ical and mental abilitv and of fair moral character. All field offi- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. * 87 

cers must be able to maneuver or drill a battalion in the " School 
of the Battalion,'' and be found acquainted with the "Articles of 
War," and the "Army Regulations" touching their duties, es- 
pecially in the camp, on the march, and on outpost service, as 
prescribed from these head-quarters. And all company officers 
must be able to drill a company in the "School of the Com- 
pany" and ' Soldier," and be acquainted with the duties of a 
company officer and officer of the guard, as prescribed in the 
Army Regulations. 

VIII. Boards for the examination of field officers will be ap- 
pointed bv corps or division commanders, and for company offi- 
cers, by brigade commanders. 

By command of General Beauregard. 

THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-general. 

The conscript act and the order to reorganize under 
its provisions caused some dissatisfaction among the 
troops. The men of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regi- 
ment had made arrangement to enter the cavalry serv- 
ice at the expiration of their twelve months, and had 
bought their equipments at Mobile. They murmured 
at the thought of being placed at the mercy of arbi- 
trary power that would assume such absolute control 
of their liberties. They soon came to realize that the 
conscript law was an act of desperation, and unless it 
was enforced the Confederacy would be forced to sur- 
render the cause. It was soon ascertained that the 
majority of the commissioned officers intended to re- 
main with their men, and they (the men) then became 
reconciled to the situation, and proceeded to reorganize 
the regiment. 

The following officers were elected at the reorgan- 
ization: 



88 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

JOHN H. SAVAGE, Colonel; 

D. M. DONNELL, Lieutenant-colonel; 

P. H. COFFEE, Major; 

JCHN R. PAINE, Adjutant; 

THOMAS W. LEAK, Surgeon; 

CHARLES K. MAUZY, Assistant Surgeon; 

FRANK MARCHBANKS, Quarter-master; 

JAMES BROWN, Commissary. 

In the absence of a regular regimental chaplain, the 
religious services were conducted by the Rev. M. B. 
De Witt, Chaplain of the Eighth Tennessee Regiment. 

The following company officers were elected: 

COMPANY A. 

L. N. Savage Captain. 

R. B. Anderson First Lieutenant. 

G. L. Talley Second Lieutenant. 

W. C. Potter Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT B. 

J. H. L. Duncan Captain. 

E. W. Walker First Lieutenant. 

John K. Ensey Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Fisher Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT C. 

D. C. Spurlock Captain. 

E. C. Read First Lieutenant. 

Cicero Spurlock Second Lieutenant. 

J. L. Thompson Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT D. 

J. G. Lamberth Captain. 

William White First Lieutenant. 

F. M. York Second Lieutenant. 

H. L. Brown... Third Lieutenant. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 89 

COM PANT E. 

J. J. Womack Captain. 

J. K. P. Webb First Lieutenant. 

B. P. Green Second Lieutenant. 

Jesse Walling Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

John B. Vance Captain. 

W. W 7 . Baldwin First Lieutenant. 

D. G. Pointer ; Second Lieutenant. 

W. W. Wallace Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT G. 

A. T. Fisher Captain. 

W. L. Woods First Lieutenant. 

A. Fisk Second Lieutenant. 

James R. Fisher Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT H.' 

James M. Parks Captain. 

W. G. Etter First Lieutenant. 

H. L. Hayes Second Lieutenant. 

John Akeman Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT I. 

Ben Randals Captain. 

James Worthington First Lieutenant. 

S. D. Mitchell Second Lieutenant. 

Dennv Cummings Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT K. 

D. T. Brown Captain. 

W. D. Turlington First Lieutenant. 

J. Ed. Rotan Second Lieutenant. 

Wm. Lowrj Third Lieutenant. 

This constituted the reorganization of the Sixteenth 
Tennessee Regiment, which was effected at Corinth; 
May 8, 1862. These officers led the men of the Six- 
teenth Tennessee during the siege of Corinth and on 



90 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

the memorable retreat to Tupelo. Some changes were 
subsequently made where vacancies were filled by pro- 
motions, which "will be duly noted in another part of 
this work. 

The army remained at Tupelo during the months of 
June and July. Memphis had fallen into the hands of 
the Federals. A similar fate had attended New Or- 
leans. The Federal gun-boats had approached Baton 
Rouge from below, and were threatening Vicksburg 
from above. The Federal army had dispersed to other 
points, and the Western Department of Bragg's army 
had returned to the Trans-Mississippi Department. 

General Bragg had placed his army in shape for an 
aggressive movement into Kentucky. The object of 
this movement was threefold. First, it would cause 
the Federal army* to evacuate Tennessee; second, it 
would enable him to recruit his army in Tennessee and 
Kentucky; and third, it would enable him to gather 
supplies of such articles as were becoming scarce in 
the Confederacy. The whole army having been thor- 
oughly reorganized and equipped for the campaign, 
General Bragg sent his wagon trains to Chattanooga 
early in July, and on the 2ist of the month he began 
to send his troops to that point on the cars. On July 
22, the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment took the cars at 
Tupelo and proceeded to Mobile, thence by way of 
Montgomery and Atlanta, and arrived at Chattanooga 
on the 27th. The whole army was being gathered at 
Chattanooga as fast as the railroads could transport the 
troops. General Bragg encamped his arm}' to the east 
of Chattanooga, at the western base of Missionary 
Ridge, and remained in this encampment for a few 
weeks. Many of the Tennessee troops were approach- 
ing their homes, and were met at Chattanooga by rel- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 91 

atives and friends, who brought them supplies of dif- 
ferent kinds from home. 

On August 17, Bragg commenced his forward move- 
ment from Chattanooga. Crossing the Tennessee 
river at this point, he moved forward a few miles and 
encamped for a few days at a place known to the army 
as Stringer's. Proceeding northward from this point, 
he moved leisurely with his army till August 30, when 
he camped for two days at the foot of Walden's Ridge. 
At this place a detail of fifteen men was made from 
the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment to recruit the bat- 
tery. Volunteers came forward to fill the detail, and 
those men were permanently assigned to duty in the 
artillery. 

Captain Randals' company of the Sixteenth was de- 
tailed to guard the wagon trains across Walden's 
Ridge and Cumberland Mountain, and proceeded in 
advance of the army. The army following the trains, 
passed through Pikeville September i, crossed Cum- 
berland Mountain, and encamped for a few days at 
the mouth of Cane Creek, on the west base of the 
Cumberland Mountain. 

While encamped here, the families of the soldiers 
from Van Buren and White counties met them at this 
place with refreshments, and the boys enjoyed the oc- 
casion to the fullest. I-t was a great pleasure to meet 
with relatives and friends; besides, they were supplied 
bountifully with every thing that was good to eat. 
The boys who lived near by were granted a brief leave 
of absence to visit their homes, and to many the re- 
turn to their camp was their permanent parting from 
their families and homes. Many of -those men fell in 
the battle of Perry ville shortly afterward. 

On the morning of the t^th, the regiment arrived at 



92 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

Sparta and encamped. At this point there was a gen- 
eral reunion of the White county boys of the regiment 
and their families and friends. On the 6th. the resri- 

O 

ment left Sparta and proceeded to Gainesboro. The 
army moved on rapidly now. The men thought before 
this that they were moving on Nashville. It was now 
learned that Louisville was the objective point. The 
Federals in Tennessee were commanded by General 
Buell, who seemed completely deceived as to the inten- 
tion of the Confederates. He had completely lost 
sight of Bragg after he crossed the Tennessee river. 
The Northern press seemed to know nothing of his- 
whereabouts till he appeared with his army at Sparta. 
His plans now being understood by the Federals, they 
began to. withdraw from Tennessee, and bore in the 
direction of Louisville. 

It was Bragg's intention to strike the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad north of Green river before Buell 
could arrive. To accomplish this his army crossed 
the Cumberland river near Gainesboro, and pressed 
< onward by way of Tompkinsville and Glasgow, Ky. r 
to Mumfordville, on the Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
road. This point was garrisoned with 4,500 men un- 
der Colonel Wilder. Bragg invested the place on the 
night of September 16, and on the morning of the lyth 
the garrison surrendered. Bragg then moved up the 
railroad to Bacon Creek, where he learned that Buell . 
was at Cave City, and he returned to Mumfordville 
with the intention of giving him battle. Bragg re- 
turned to Mumfordville on the morning of the iSth r 
and placed his army in shape for action. He spent 
the day in line, but Buell failed to appear. 

The wounded were at Mumfordville, the result of a 
battle on the i5th. General Bragg had sent Chal- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 93 

mers's brigade from Glasgow to Mumfordville for the 
purpose of ascertaining the nature of the defenses and 
the strength of the enemy's forces. General Chalmers 
hastened to the point and drew up his brigade before 
the works. He was supported by a detachment of 
cavalry and two pieces of artillery. He was directed 
to make a feint movement in order to ascertain their 
strength. Either misconstruing the order or under- 
estimating the enemy's strength and overestimating his 
own, he assaulted the Federal fort and his brigade was 
cut to pieces. The fort was almost impregnable to 
assault, and was defended by numbers superior to 
Chalmers's force. The result was that Chalmers's 
brigade was at once repulsed, with a loss of four hun- 
dred men. The wounded were being cared for at 
Mumfordville when Bragg returned, after its capture, 
to give battle to Buell. 

After spending the day at Mumfordville, it was as- 
certained that Buell had determined to avoid battle at 
Mumfordville and to hasten on to Louisville. Accord- 
ingly, he set out on the evening of September 18 with 
his whole army, and Bragg moved at the same time to 
Bacon Creek. During the night of the iSth and 
throughout the day on the I9th, the two opposing ar- 
mies seemed to be running a race. They moved side 
by side, with scarcely a dozen miles intervening. In 

-* */ o 

this manner the march was kept up till September 20. 
Bragg had moved along the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad, and Buell moved on the dirt road running 
parallel, and from ten to fifteen miles to the west of 
the railroad. By this time it was learned that Buell 
had gained some advantage in distance, and when 
Bragg learned that Buell would be the first to Louis- 
ville, he abandoned his intentions on the city from his 
present route. 



94 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

He now left the railroad and proceeded to Bards- 
town, where he arrived about September 25. The 
army was encamped near Bardstown for several days. 
On October 4, Buell came out from Louisville with 
his whole army, and moved on Bardstown. Bragg 
moved out on the morning of the 5th, and passing 
Fredericksburg and Springfield, encamped for the 
night, and proceeded on the 6th by way of Perry ville 
to Danville, where his army was encamped for the 
night. On the morning of the yth, the Confederates 
resumed their march and arrived at Harrodsburg about 
3 o'clock in the afternoon. Encamping near the place, 
the men prepared .their rations and had every thing 
ready to march by 8 o'clock in the evening. Buell had 
appeared before Perryville, and the determination was 
established by General Bragg to give him battle at that 
point. It was twelve miles from Harrodsburg to Per- 
ryville. 

Bragg's army was put in motion on the night of 
the yth, and returned to Perryville about midnight. 
Hardee's corps was placed in front of Perryville, and 
Folk's, corps was placed upon an elevation behind the 
town, and held as a reserve. Early on the morning of 
the 8th the enemy engaged the skirmish lines in Har- 
clee's front. The skirmishing increased as the day ad- 
vanced, and merged into a regular artillery duel. The 
Federals had superior numbers. Bragg's army con- 
sisted of Folk's and Hardee's corps. BuelFs army was 
forced to operate under great disadvantages. The 
country roundabout was destitute of water. Being a 
high limestone region, and a severe drouth prevailing 
at the time, the creeks and branches were all dry. 
Bragg's army had exhausted the supply of water dur- 
ing its retreat, and Buell following immediately after 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 95 

him found it very difficult to obtain water for his men. 
This was the situation at Perryville on the morning of 
October 8, 1862. The Chaplin Creek runs through the 
center of the town. At this time there was no water 
in the channel of this creek about the town. Two 
miles below Perryville there was a depression in the 
channel of the creek. This depression was about two 
hundred yards long, the width of the entire channel, 
and filled with water to the depth of from two to four 
feet. When Buell became A ware of the existence of 
this pool of water and a spring near by, he resolved to 
shift the scene of operations to this point. Sending a 
couple of infantry regiments in this direction, he con- 
tinued to engage Hardee's skirmish lines and bore in 
the direction of the spring. In the afternoon he com- 
menced moving his whole army to the left. Polk was 
ordered to counteract this movement. Some Texas 
cavalry charged the advance-guard of two regiments 
about the time of their arrival at the spring and drove 
them back. Folk's corps was hurried to the right. 
Hastening down the Chaplin at a double-quick, it was 
formed in line of battle near the spring before men- 
tioned.. The enemy's advance having been checked 
by the Texas cavalryj formed a line of battle in double 
column about eight hundred yards from the top of the 
bluff, on the west bank of the Chaplin and on the east 
side of a hill. Folk's corps appeared before the bluff. 
Ascending the bluff in line of battle, by brigades, the 
top was gained with difficulty. Donelson's brigade 
was the first to gain the top of the heights. The en- 
emy was posted in their front, in double column, eight 
hundred yards distant. The men were given a mo- 
ment to rest at the top of the bluff, and the word " For- 
ward" was given. The men obeyed with a yell. For 



96 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

six hundred yards the ground was irregular, and hav- 
ing stone fences running in different directions, the 
men scaled them without difficulty. At this point 
there was a slight trough-like depression in the ground, 
running parallel with the enemy's lines. As the Six- 
teenth Tennessee approached the lowest point of this 
depression the enemy opened a murderous fire upon 
them with musketry and artillery from right, left, and 
front. The ranks of the Sixteenth Regiment were 
mowed down at a fearful rate, and the Fifteenth Regi- 

O 

ment also suffered severely. The ranks closed up and 
the brigade pressed onward in the charge. Colonel 
Savage was \vith his men directing their movements 
as calmly as if it had been a regimental drill. 

As the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Tennessee Regiments 
moved up the hill and came nearer to the enemy, the 
fight grew more and more desperate. Heavy charges 
of grape and canister were hurled into their ranks 
from the front and on the flanks. Stewart's brigade 
now came up and formed on the left of Donelson's 
brigade, by which support the Fifteenth Tennessee 
was partially relieved of the severe cross-fire upon its 
left wing. Buell was still bearing to his left, and a 
heavy force was now massed in front, and on the right 
of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. The enemy 
bending his line around the right flank of the Six- 
teenth Tennessee Regiment near an old log cabin, 
an enfilading fire of musketry and artillery was poured 
into its ranks; yet the regiment held* its ground for 
half an hour, when Maney's brigade came up and 
formed on its right. General Manev charged this 
flanking party of the enemy, and swung it around on 
its main line, forming an angle in the shape of the let- 
ter V. This opened the way for artillery, which was 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS.* 97 

hurried to the scene, and planted at the point of the 
angle. The battle on the right now raged with fury, 
and the slaughter was terrible. The enemy finally 
yielded this line and fell back to a lane at the top of 
the hill, about three hundred yards distant. In this 
lane he reformed his lines and planted his batteries. 
The Confederates were prompt to appropriate every 
inch of ground which they gained from the enemy, 
and were quickly pouring destructive volleys into his 
ranks along the lane. The enemy contested this ground 
stubbornly. The Confederates pressed the assault with 
vigor. The enemy, after losing several of his guns 
and many valuable officers, including two brigadier- 
generals,* yielded this line about sundown, and the 
battle ended for the day. The enemy retired to a tim- 
bered region about three miles from their first line of 
the evening. The Confederates held the field at night, 
and had gained a decided victory. 

The losses on both sides had been heavy, and the 
battle, for the number of men and the length of time 
engaged, was the severest of the war. The Sixteenth 
Tennessee lost over two hundred men. The Eighth 
Tennessee suffered severely, as did also the Fifteenth 
Tennessee, of Donelson's, and the First Tennessee, of 
Maney's brigades. The Sixteenth Tennessee engaged 
the Thirty-third Ohio, and subsequently the Seventh 
Ohio, which was commanded by Colonel Oscar F. 
Moore. 

Colonel Savage received two wounds early in the 
fight, and had his horse shot under him, but he re- 
mained on the field till the issue was decided. Late 
in the evening he became exhausted from loss of 
blood. Dr. Charles K. Mauzy, Surgeon of the Six- 

* Webster and Terrell. 



98 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

teenth Tennessee Regiment, dressed his wound, and 
Dr. Cross, the brigade chaplain, procured quarters for 
him in a farm-house, and attended him through the 
night. The Federal general, Jackson, was killed by 
Savage's men. A Federal colonel was brought in a 
pi'isoner, and severely wounded. This man proved to 
be Colonel Oscar F. Moore, said to be of the Seventh 
Ohio, and Was personally acquainted with Colonel 
Savage in the United States Congress. He told Colo- 
nel Savage that his regiment had suffered severely, 
and had lost near half its number. Colonel Savage 
told the Federal officer the same of his own regiment. 
The two regiments had engaged each other through 
the day. Both had suffered greatly, and the com- 
mander of each regiment was wounded, and one a 
prisoner. Colonel Savage assured Colonel Moore that 
he should have the best attention that it was in his 
power to bestow, and ordered the surgeons and at- 
tendants to bestow upon Colonel Moore the same at- 
tention they would bestow upon one of their own men. 
General Jackson and Colonel Savage had known each 
other in public life. 

The wounded were cared for as well as the circum- 
stances would allow. All who could travel were sent 
to HaiTodsburg. Those not able to bear transporta- 
tion w,ere taken to the farm-houses of the neighbor- 
hood, where hospitals were established. 

General Bragg withdrew his army early in the morn- 
ing and returned to Harrodsburg. From Harrodsburg 
he retreated to Camp Dick Robertson, and thence to 
Knoxville. The wounded were left in the field hos- 
pitals and fell into the hands of the enemy. The dead 
were left on the field unburied. The enemy buried 
their own dead, but left the Confederate dead, which 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 99 

lay upon the field for four days. They were then par- 
tially buried by the people of Perryville and vicinity. 
The^ground was very hard and they were just merely 
covered up, and remained thus for six or eight weeks, 
when they were gathered up by the good people of the 
place and decently buried in one common grave-yard. 
Those who died of wounds were buried in the cemeteries 
.at Harrodsburg and Perryville. The people of Pe.rry- 
ville afforded every assistance in their power to the 
suffering of either army. As the Confederate wounded 
recovered they were paroled and sent to Vicksburg 
for exchange. 



zoo THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



CHAPTER III. 

BATTLE OF MURFREESBORO. 

General Bragg's army now returned to Middle Ten- 
nessee. The troops were transported on the cars to 
Chattanooga, from which place they marched to 
Bridgeport and thence to Tullahoma. The railroad 
bridge was rebuilt at Bridgeport, and General Bragg 
was then able to bring supplies by railroad. 

After the retreat from Kentucky, target practice was 
instituted with a view to ascertaining who were the 
picked marksmen of the army. J. D. Phillips, of 
Company A, Sixteenth Tennessee, won the prize, 
which was a Whitworth rifle, of accurate range at three 
thousand yards. These guns were charged to the men 
at $1,500 each, and were used for sharp-shooting pur- 
poses. 

The Confederates now advanced in the direction of 
Nashville and encamped near Murfreesboro. Many of 
the Tennessee troops received furloughs and visited 
their homes. Being now in their own country, many 
of the soldiers received the benefits of supplies from 
home. The Confederate encampment was visited daily 
by the relatives and friends of the soldiers, and during 
the month of December the army recuperated, 'and 
was now in readiness for further operations upon the 
enemy. 

The Federals were around Nashville under com- 
mand of General Rosecrans, who was being re-en- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 101 

forced, and was preparing for an aggressive move- 
ment upon the Confederates about Murfreesboro. The 
Confederate outposts extended to Lavergne, and the 
cavalry made frequent reconnoisance in front to Anti- 
och, on the railroad, and to Dogtown, on Mill Creek. 
Rosecrans moved out from Nashville during the latter 
part of December. As his lines advanced, his. out- 
posts were engaged by the Confederate cavalry and 
infantry, who gradually fell back in the direction of 
Murfreesboro. On December 30, 1862, the Confeder- 
ate lines were established in front of Murfreesboro, 
and Rosecrans had placed his army in battle array a 
few miles to the Confederate front. A general skir- 
mishing and cannonading was kept up all day during 
December 30, during which time each army was ma- 
neuvering its forces with a view to obtaining the ad- 
vantage of position. Hardens corps occupied the left 
wing of Bragg's army and Folk's corps occupied the 
right wing. Cheatham's division was on the right of 
Folk's corps; Donelson's brigade was on the right of 
the division, and the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment 
was on the right of the brigade, and with two com- 
panies of the regiment extending across the railroad. 
The Sixteenth Tennessee was on the extreme right of 
the Confederate lines during the first day's battle. 
Breckinridge's division was placed behind Stone's 
river, on Cheatham's right, as a reserve, and was not 
engaged on that part of the line during the first day's 
fight. General Bragg made a general attack on the 
Federal lines on the morning of December 31, and the 
battle continued through the day, with heavy losses on 
both sides, but no definite advantage to either at the 
close of the day. 



io2 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

The Federals bore to their left during the first day's 
fight, and seemed determined to turn the Confederate 
right wing. This made the battle desperate in Cheat- 
ham's front, and especially on the extreme right on the 
railroad track. This part of the field was held by 
Savage's regiment, and was considered by the com- 
manding general to be the key to the position. The 
regiment held its ground at this point for three hours 
against fearful odds, until it was relieved by General 
Adams's brigade. 

On the morning of January i, Rosecrans had suc- 
ceeded in massing a heavy force upon an elevation' on 
the Confederate righ't wing. Breckinridge was ordered 
to attack this point on the Federal lines, which he did 
on the morning of January i, but was repulsed with 
heavy loss. The position was a very strong one, and 
Breckinridge's forces were inferior to the Federals in 
point of numbers. 

It was now ascertained that Rosecrans had gained 
a decided advantage over the Confederates in the way 
of position, and having been re-enforced to numbers 
by far the superior of the Confederates, Bragg saw at 
once his inability to hold his position, and a retreat 
was ordered. The Confederates withdrew to Shelby- 
ville and Tullahoma. 

The battle of Murfreesboro had been a severe and 
desperate conflict. The Tennessee troops fought with 
desperation, because they felt that they were fighting 
for their homes. The Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment 
lost two hundred and five men in killed, wounded, and 
missing. The regiment held the most critical position 
on the field, and the manner in which it defended its 
position, and performed the responsible and arduous 
duty assigned it, is more fully described in the official 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 103 

report of General Donelson, a few extracts from which, 
we give below: 

The brigade was composed of the following regiments and 
battery, viz.: The Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, 
Colonel John H. Savage; the Thirty-eighth Regiment Tennessee 
Volunteers, Colonel John C. Carter; the Fifty-first Regiment 
Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel John Chester; the Eighth Regi- 
ment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel W. L. Moore; the Eighty- 
fourth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel S. S. Stanton; 
and Captain Carnes's battery. The Eighty-fourth Regiment, be- 
ing a new and very small regiment, was assigned to my com- 
mand on the morning of the 2gth of December, 1862, only two 
days before the battle. 

In obedience to orders, the tents were struck and the wagons 
packed and sent to the rear Sunday night, December 27. At 
daylight Monday morning the brigade was moved to and as- 
sumed its line of battle, which was second and supporting to the 
first line of battle two companies of Colonel Savage's, the right 
regiment, extending across the railroad, and Colonel Carter's, 
the left regiment, across the Wilkerson pike, its left resting on 
the right of Stewart's brigade. This line of battle, with General 
Chalmers's brigade in front, which mine was to support, was 
formed on the brow of the hill, about three hundred yards in a 
south-east direction from the white house, known as Mrs. Jones's. 
That position was retained under an occasional shelling, with but 
few casualties, 'until dark Tuesday evening, when, in obedience 
to orders from Lieutenant-general Polk, the brigade was moved 
forward to the front line to relieve General Chalmers's brigade, 
which had already held that position for three days and nights. 
.... The brigade had occupied the front line behind Chalmers's 
breastworks but a few minutes when General Chalmers having 
received a severe wound, his brigade was broken, and the greater 
portion of it fell back in disorder and confusion. Under orders 
from Lieutenant-general Polk, I immediately advanced my bri- 
gade to its support, and, indeed, to its relief, under a showr of 
shot and shell of almost every description. During this advance 
my horse was shot under me, from which, and another wound 
received at the Cowan House, he died during the day. In ad- 



104 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

vancing upon and attacking the enemy under such a fire, my 
brigade found it impossible to preserve its alignment, because of 
the walls of the burnt house, known as Cowan's, and the yard 
and garden fence and picketing left standing around and about 
it; in consequence of which Savage's regiment, with three com- 
panies of Chester's regiment, went to the right of the Cowan, 
House, and advanced upon the enemy until they were checked 
by three batteries of the enemy, with a heavy infantry support, 
on the hill to the right of the railroad; while the other two regi- 
ments Carter's and Moore's with seven companies of Chester's 
regiment, went to the left of that house through a most destruc- 
tive cross-fire, both of artillery and small arms, driving the 
enemy and sweeping every thing before them, until they arrived 
at the open field beyond the cedar brake in a north-west direction 

from the Cowan House Colonel Savage's regiment held, 

in my judgmeat, the most critical position of that part of the 
field unable to advance and determined not to retire. Having 
received a message from Lieutenant-general Polk that I should 
in a short time be re-enforced and properly supported, I ordered 
Colonel Savage to hold his position at all hazards, and I felt it 
my duty to remain with that part of the brigade holding so im- 
portant and hazardous a position as that occupied by him. Colo- 
nel Savage, finding the line he had to defend entirely too long 
for the number of men under his command, and that there was 
danger of his being flanked, either to the right or left, as the one 
or the other wing presented the weaker front, finally threw out 
the greater part of his command as skirmishers, as well to de- 
ceive the enemy as to our strength in his rear as to protect his 
long line, and held his position with characteristic coolness and 
most commendable tenacity for over three hours. At the expira- 
tion of that time, Jackson's brigade came up to my support; but 
instead of going to the right of the Cowan House and to the sup- 
port of Colonel Savage, it went to the left of the house, and over 
the ground which the two left regiments and seven companies of 
my brigade had gone over. After Jackson's, General Adams's 
brigade came up to the support of Colonel Savage, when the lat- 
ter withdrawing his regiment to make way for it, it attacked the 
enemy with spirit for a short time, but it was soon driven back 
in disorder and confusion, Colonel Savage's regiment retreating 
with it. . 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 105 

The field officers, Colonels Savage, Carter, Chester, Anderson, 
and Major Cotter, all distinguished themselves by the coolness 
and courage displayed upon the field, and greatly contributed to 
the success achieved by their respective commands, by the skill 
with which they managed and maneuvered them 

We have to mourn the loss of many gallant officers and brave 
men, who fell in the faithful discharge of their duty on the field 
of battle. Captain L. N. Savage, acting lieutenant-colonel, and 
Captain Womack, acting major of the Sixteenth Regiment, were 
:Sfeve-rely, if not mortally, wounded, and Captain Spurlock, of the 
same regiment, an excellent officer and most estimable gentle- 
man, was killed The long list of casualties shows how 

closely the field was contested, and how bravely the regiment 
held its important position on the most critical part of the battle- 
field. 

REPORT OF COLONEL JOHN H. SAVAGE. 

JANUARY 8, 1863. 

SIR: The following report of the conduct of the Sixteenth Ten- 
nessee Regiment at the battle before Murfreesboro, December 31, 
1862, is respectfully submitted: 

When the advance was ordered, my regiment being the right 
of Cheatham's division, I was ordered by General Donelson 
(through his aid, Captain Bradford) to move along the railroad, 
put two companies to its right and eight on its left, taking the 
guide to the right. The advance was made under a heavy can- 
nonade, and the line of battle and direction maintained, although 
.serious obstructions impeded the march. The eight companies 
to the left advanced between the railroad and the ttirnpike, in front 
of the Cowan House, without the slightest protection, engaging 
a battery and the enemy's infantry in the woods, at a distance of 
less than one hundred and fifty yards. The companies to the 
right advanced through a stalk-field to the edge of a cotton patch. 
Here the enemy opened a heavy fire at short range, from a 
line extending to the right as far as I could see. This killed 
Captain Spurlock, who fell while leading his men in the most 
gallant manner. 

At this moment it seemed to me that I was without the ex- 
pected support on my left, and that the line had divided and gone 



106 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

off in that direction. My men shot the horses and gunners of 
the battery in front, but I could not advance without being out- 
flanked and captured by the enemy on my right. I, therefore, 
ordered them to halt and fire. In a few moments mv acting 
lieutenant-colonel, ,L. N. Savage, fell by my side supposed mor- 
tally wounded, and my acting major. Captain J. J. Womack. had 
his right arm badly broken. 

There were batteries to the right and left of the railroad which 
literally swept the ground. The men maintained the fight against 
superior numbers with great spirit and obstinacy. The left -coiti- 
panies being very near and 'without any protection, sustained a 
heavy loss. Thirty men were left dead upon the spot where thev 
halted, dressed in perfect line of battle. It was, on the day follow- 
ing, a sad spectacle, speaking more eloquently for the discipline 
and courage of the men than anv words I could employ. 

Here the Thirty-ninth North Carolina came up in my rear, 
and I ordered it into line of battle on my right, but before it got 
into position the lieutenant-colonel was shot down and was car- 
ried from the field. Under the command of Captain , it 

continued under my command and did good service until driven 
from this position, after which I lost sight of it. 

Seeing a heavy force of the enemy crossing a field to my right 
and rear, I ordered the line to fall back to the river, and formed 
two lines to the front and right. To cover this space the men 
were deployed as skirmishers. I also ordered formed a portion 
of Blythe's Mississippi regiment that had collected near the rail- 
road, and was joined by Lieutenants J. J. Williamson and T. 
W. McMurry, Fifty-first Regiment, with three companies, who 
continued with me and did good service. This force checked 
and drove back the enemy advancing up the river, and a column 
that attempted to cut off my whole party along the railroad. 

Lieutenant R. B. Anderson, of the Sixteenth, a valuable offi- 
cer, while directing the skirmishers, was dangerously wounded 
and carried under the river bank by privates Thompson and Ad- 
cock, all of whom were captured by the enemy in his subsequent 
advance. 

When Adams's brigade advanced I drew back my little force 
to let it move to the front, which it did in gallant style, but only 
for a short distance, when it broke and fled in confusion. Most 
of the men I had been controlling moved with it. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 107 

I collected the men of the Sixteenth and Fifty-first and moved 
to the front, en echelon, of Chalmers's position, and remained 
during the heavy cannonade on the enemy. While here two of 
my men were killed by a shell. 

I afterward moved, in connection with Colonel Stanton. near 
the burnt gin -house, and halting the regiment, went on foot to 
my first line of battle. About dark I sent a party after the 'bod v 
of Captain Spurlock, which captured a Yankee captain from his 
lines. 

I claim for my command great gallantry in action; that it en- 
gaged and held in check superior forces of the enemy, who were 
attempting to turn our right forces, that afterward drove Adams's 
and Preston's brigades. 

My flag-bearer, Sergeant Maberry, was disabled early in the 
charge. The flag was afterward borne by private Womack, who- 
was also wounded. The flag-staff was broken and hit with balls 
in three places the flag literally shot to pieces. The fragments 
were brought to me at midnight. 

I carried about 400 officers and men into action. The killed 
amounted to 36 the killed, wounded, and missing to 205, a list 
of which is forwarded. My men did not strip or rob the dead. 

The conduct of my recruits was most honorable. Many of 
them fell in the front rank beside the veteran soldier of the Six- 
teenth. It is difficult to make distinction where all act well. 
While others deserve nobly, I feel that I ought not to fail to- 
notice the courage and good conduct of private Hackett, whom 
I placed in command of the company after the fall of Captain 
Spurlock. 

I am, Major, very respectfully, JOHX H. SAVAGE, 

Colonel Commanding' Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. 

Major J. G. MARTIN, A. A. G. 

The following is a complete list of the killed and 
wounded of the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Vol- 
unteers in the engagement before Mtirfreesboro, as 
shown by the report of Thomas B. Porter, Acting 
Adjutant of the regiment at the time of, and during > 
the battle, December 31, 1862: 



io8 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

Dangerously Wounded Captain L. N. Savage, Acting Lieu- 
tenant-colonel; Captain J. J. Womack, Acting Major. 

COMPANY A. 

Killed Sergeant J. H. Warren; Privates E. League, F. G. 
Kersey, Lee Patterson. Wounded First Lieutenant R. B. An- 
derson, Corporals John A. Moore, R. M. Martin; Privates W. 
A. Hallum, John Mason, dangerous; S. Anderson, M. T. Dozier, 
J. A. Briggs, Isaac Cantrell, Peter Cantrell, A. J. Kersey, 
T. Parsley, slight. Missing Second Lieutenant G. W. Witt, 
Sergeant J. R.' Thompson; Privates W. E. Adcock, John Can- 
trell, L. D. Cantrell, T. M. Hooper, T. J. Harper, E. Lockhart. 

COMPANY B. 

Wounded F. M. Church, T. H. Douglas, mortally; James 
Fuller, W. B. Campbell, L. P. Campbell, severe; W. C. King, 
slight. 

COMPANY C. 

Killed Captain D. C. Spurlock. Wounded Privates B. D. 
Bybee, mortally; T. M. Brown, J. K. P. Martin, severely; S. H. 
Alexander, R. H. Henderson, D. W. King, M. D. Smith, J. J. 
Hensley, J. W. Smith, James Hobbs, R. W. Morrow, slight. 

COMPANY D. 

Killed Priyates M. S. Edwards, S. Gribble, A. P. Gribble, A. 
J. Gribble. W. Perry, James Rowland, W. F. Smith. Wounded 
Walter Cope, J. P. Douglas, J. J. Higginbotham, Thomas Hut- 
son, J. S. McGee, Richmond McGregor, J. K. P. Nichols, B. M. 
Rowland, Lycurgus Smith, J. J. Templeton, W. J. Ware, T. F. 
West, severe; Second Lieutenant J. P. A. Hennessee, Brevet Sec- 
ond Lieutenant F. M. York, Sergeant T. F. Martin; Privates 
W. B. Christian, S. C. Gribble, J. A. Gribble, A. Higginbotham, 
J. D. Lusk, John McGregor, R. G. Martin, W. M. Moulder, W. 
T. Perry, John Quick, G. W. Somers, J. B. Smith, J. Templeton, 
slight. Missing J. F. Moulder, W. H. Edwards. 

COMPANY E. 

Killed Sergeant Michael Mauzy; Privates David Bonner, 
Elias Womack. Wounded Private A. Douglas, Corporal Van- 
hooser. Corporal James Kirby, mortal; First Lieutenant Jesse 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 109 

Walling, Color Sfergeant W. T. Mabry; Private G. X. Clark, 
severe; Sergeants J. B. Womack, A. M. Mason; Privates Luke 
Purser, John Purser, Isaiah Moffitt, G. M. Wallace, A. J. Van- 
hooser, J. S. Womack, John Green, Randolph Laurence, Will- 
iam Laurence, Lawson Cantrell, slight. 

COMPANY F. 

Killed Sergeant Jacob Choate, Corporal John Laycock; Pri- 
vates James Murray, John Brown, James Noe, John Choate, Jo- 
seph Y. Ballard. Wounded First Lieutenant W. W. Wallace, 
Fifth Sergeant John H. Nichols; Private J. Y. Carroll, severe; 
First Sergeant T. C. Bledsoe, Corporal C. A. Ballard: Privates 
James Pleasant, William Webb, John Haggard, R. F. Owens, 
J. F. Owens, W. N. Caruthers, James Mathis, slight. 

COMPANY G. 

Killed Corporal Ben Huchins; Privates J. P. Cantrell, R. P. 
Moore. Wounded John Fisher, T. L. Hodges, mortal; P. B. 
Franks, W. Hasty, J. B. Moore, severe; Second Lieutenant A. 
Fisk, Brevet Second Lieutenant James Fisher, Corporal John 
Meggerson, Corporal A. Perry; Privates John Atnip, T. A. Cot- 
ton, M. D. Fisher, E. M. Greenfield, A. Huchins, R. B. Love, 
James Hasty, J. M. Pollard, John Stricklin, T. Wiggins, J. W. 

Wright, A. J. Youngblood. Missing J. L. Britton. 



COMPANY H. 

Killed Corporal J. R. Jones; Privates John Estes, H. Pen- 
nington, Frank Smith, William Tallent. Wounded First Ser- 
geant John Hughes; Privates T. J. Davis, James Jones, severe; 
Captain J. M. Parks; Privates John Brown, J. N. Clendennon, 
Jo Fern, M. Hayes, Aaron Hughes, A. J. Jordan, Ed Parsley, W. 
A. Russell, W. S. Bullen, slight. Missing John Davis. 

COMPANY I. 

Killed Privates Henderson Rhodes, Peter Baker, Marion 
Priest. Wounded J. C. Moore, Isham Hollansworth, W. J. 
Underwood, mortal; Sergeants N. B. Hambrick, S. R. York; 
Privates Thomas Rawlings, Sam Porter, William T. Worthing- 
ton, severe; Sergeant Sam Worthington, W. R. Paine; Privates 
S. L. Fleming, C. W. Mooneyham, Sol Porter, G. W. Stype, 
J. M. Thomasson, Joshua Worley, Shelby Walling, slight. 



no THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

COMPANY K, 

Killed Elisha Martin, Marshall Capps. Wounded Josh 
Worldley, John Castile, T. J. Templeton, mortal; Second Lieu- 
tenant William Lowrv; Privates A. D. Nash, Sylvester Hum- 
phrevs, James Garland, severe; Sergeants W. G. Simms, J. W. 
Wil>on, D. L. Hensley; Corporals S. M. Snodgrass, Ben Lack; 
Privates Boyle Paslv, John Bathurs, Gardner Green, Elbert 
Capps. Missing William Hodges, J. W. White. 

Recapitulation Killed, 36; wounded, 155; missing, 14 total, 
205. The regiment mustered 360 men for duty at the beginning 
of the action. 

After the battle of Murfreesboro General Bragg 
withdrew his army to Tullahoma. and Cheatham's 
division was ordered to Shelbyville, where it did noth- 
ing during the remainder of the winter and spring, 
except build fortifications. Affairs in both armies re- 
mained quiet till June following. 

During the following spring General Donelson was 
promoted to the rank of major-general and assigned to 
duty in East Tennessee. Colonel Savage was con- 
gidered the senior colonel of the brigade, and of un- 
questioned ability, and his men thought he was the 
one to be promoted. They were surprised to see one 
whom they thought to be a junior in rank and age 
placed over him in the command of the brigade. This 
was an unlooked-for indignity, which Colonel Savage 
resented severely, and accordingly sent in his resigna- 
tion, which was accepted in due time, and he accord- 
ingly bid adieu to his regiment in the following' address: 

HEAD-QUARTERS SIXTEENTH REGIMENT } 

TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS, t 

March 6, 1863. ) 

Soldiers of the Sixteenth Mv Friends and Companions in 
Arms: Nothing but a sense of duty could have forced me to 
the step which I have taken. When the government selected a 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 1 1 1 

junior to command me, it thereby decided that I had not done 
well in the command of my regiment. Not tired of the war or 
less devoted to the cause, but it is improper that I should con- 
tinue in a service where equality is denied me. It is true I did 
not ask the government for promotion, neither did I ask for the 
commanders thev gave me. In the occurrence which forces me 
to retire mav be seen the hand of a distinguished politician, who 
stands almost as high in public favor as Andrew Johnson once 
did, and whose evil offices toward me are as old as my races 
with Pickett and Stokes. 

If selfishness or ambition controlled my conduct, I should at 
the beginning of the war have asked to have been made a gen- 
eral; but believing one good regiment worth many brigadiers, de- 
votion to the cause, and gratitude to my old friends, induced me 
to take their children under my charge to protect their lives and 
honor, and to teach them to be soldiers. 

As a regiment, I am proud of you; your friends at home are, 
and your State has cause so to be. If not the first, your deeds 
upon the field proclaim you the equal of any regiment in the 
service. In Virginia and South Carolina you were never off 
duty, and none dare say that any have done better. In the skir- 
mishes around Corinth, you proved yourselves better soldiers 
and marksmen than the enemy: and when the retreat com- 
menced, you remained three days upon the Tuscumbia, within 
-ix miles of Corinth, confronted by the enemy, and became the 
rear of the column, an honor that you have passed in silence, 
while it has been claimed in publications for several commands, 
brigadiers, and colonels. 

On the bloody field of Perrvville, far in advance of others, you 
began the attack on the part of Cheatham's division, which, fol- 
lowed up by the resistless courage of our, brothers of this, Stew- 
art's, and Maney's brigades, forever dispelled the cloud of slan- 
der and detraction that had darkened the fair fame of the sol- 
dierv of our State. The good people south of you never doubted 
the courage of Tennesseans, and henceforth cowards and mis- 
creants will not dare assail them. 

At Murfreesboro, you were the extreme right of our line of 
attack, and engaged the enemy's line of battle near the center, 
while your brigade marched to the left. Thus isolated and with- 



ii2 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



out protection, at a cost of more than half your numbers, vou 
held in check for three hours the enemy's left wing, and it is be- 
lieved, but for misfortune not your own, you would have main- 
tained yovir ground to the last. 

I mingle my tears with yours for the heroic dead, our brothers 
in arms, who sleep upon the fields of Perryville and Murfrees- 
boro. We never can forget them, and they deserve to be remem- 
bered by the country. 

If in my absence slander shall assail me, let no man believe 
that I can cease to care for your welfare or the rights of the 
Southern people. Character is worth more than monev. Con- 
tinue in the pathway of honor and duty, and if hereafter you 
shall meet the foe, emulate the deeds of former days, that vour 
friends at home may still be proud of vou. 

My resignation having been accepted, I relinquish my com- 
mand to the senior officer present, and bid you farewell, hoping 
that the Great Spirit may guide and protect you through the per- 
ils of the future. JOHX H. SAVAGE, 

Colonel Sixteenth Tennessee. 

The resignation of Colonel Savage having been ac- 
cepted, the command of the regiment devolved upon 
Lieutenant-colonel D. M. Donnell, who now became 
colonel of the regiment by promotion. Captain D. 
T. Brown, of Company K, was lieutenant-colonel, and 
Major P. H. Coffee, having resigned on account of ill 
health, Captain H. H. Dillard, of Company F, became 
major of the regiment. Colonel Donnell was captain 
of Company C at the beginning of the war, and be- 
came lieutenant- colanel of the regiment at its reorgan- 
ization at Corinth. In private life he was a teacher 
by profession, and at the beginning of the war was 
President of Cumberland Female College, at McAlinn- 
ville, Tenn, As a soldier, he had no previous military 
record; as an officer, he was a strict and rigid disci- 
plinarian, and as a gentleman, he was kind and gener- 
ous. He was warmly and conscientiously devoted to 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 113 

the cause he had vowed to defend, and to the various 
duties his office imposed. He was zealously devoted 
to the comfort, the welfare, and efficiency of his men, 
and was thoroughly alive to their interests in every 
respect. The promotion gave satisfaction to the men 
of the regiment, who would have elected him to the 
position had opportunity offered. They had great 
confidence in the ability and integrity of Colonel Don- 
nell, who now became Colonel Savage's successor, and 
they accorded to the new commander the same respect 
and obedience that had been so faithfully accorded to 
his illustrious predecessor. 

The principal portion of Bragg's army was now at 
Tullahoma, though Cheatham's division and the greater 
portion of Folk's corps were at Shelbyville. The 
army devoted its time to drilling and fortifying in front 
of the Federal approaches. During the latter part of 
March the whole Confederate army was concentrated 
at Tullahoma, and remained till the first of May, 
when they returned to Shelbyville. About June 20, 
the Federals began their forward movement, and the 
Confederates retired to Tullahoma and took position 
behind the fortifications in front of the place. Gen- 
eral Bragg expected at first that Rosecrans would at- 
tack him here, but he subsequently learned that it was 
the intention of the Federal general to flank the posi- 
tion, and accordingly the Confederates withdrew on 
the night of July i. 

On the morning of July 2, the old Sixteenth passed 
by their original camp of rendezvous at Camp Harris, 
near Estill Springs. Two years had elapsed since 
their departure from the place at the beginning of the 
war. The place looked natural to the boys, but the 



ii4 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

changes in the ranks of the companies had been so 
great! How many had been left behind on the battle- 
fields of Perry ville and Murfreesboro! How many 
had died of disease! The casualties of these two 
years had been great indeed, and the men looked sad 
as they passed by their first camping-ground. 

The Confederates continued their retreat across the 
Tennessee river, and arrived at Chattanooga early in 
July. During this retreat Vicksburg had fallen into 
the hands of the enemy, by which the whole Missis- 
sippi river was now open to the enemy from its source 
to the Gulf. Other points had fallen into the enemy's 
hands. The Confederate soldiers began to grow de- 
jected at the loss of so many strongholds, especially 
when they realized that a place once in the hands of 
the Federals was permanently lost. It seemed that 
Confederate history at this time was fast becoming a 
catalogue of reverses, and the Confederate soldier was 
growing weary of the many and prominent additions 
that were being constantly made to the list. 

Beset with these feelings, the Confederates upon 
their arrival at Chattanooga encamped upon the same 
ground which they occupied the year before on the 
eve of their campaign into Kentucky. The men, dis- 
couraged by so many reverses, had begun to desert the 
Confederate ranks, and General Bragg had been pun- 
ishing the evil with the severest penalties known to 
the Army Regulations. Quite a number of soldiers 
had been court-martialed and shot while the army was 
at Tullahoma and Shelbyville. These victims were 
principally from the Gulf States, though a few were 
from the border States. When the army arrived at 
'Chattanooga there were quite a number under sentence 
and awaiting the day set for their execution. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 115 

General Bragg rested his army at Chattanooga dur- 
ing the months of July and August, during which 
time he strengthened the fortifications about the place. 
As important military movements were expected in 
the near future, the Confederate leader issued orders 
to liberate all who had charges preferred against them, 
except those under sentence of death, and recom- 
mended Executive clemency in their behalf. The 
Confederate authorities heeded his recommendation in 
general, and the sentence of death was revoked in 
many instances on the very eve of the hour set for the 
execution of the sentence, and the culprits were re- 
stored to their respective companies. Among the 
beneficiaries of this Executive clemency was private 
Hugh Whitehead, of Company F a resident of Put- 
nam county the only culprit that was ever known 
from the ranks of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. 
This man was partially demented and seemed to be 
utterly ignorant of the consequences of desertion. 

General Bragg remained at Chattanooga and the Fed- 
erals perfected their plans of operations. Longstreet's 
corps, consisting of Hood's and Hill's divisions, had 
been ordered to Bragg from Lee's army, but had not 
yet arrived. 



u6 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



CHAPTER IV. 

BATTLES OF CHICKAMAUGA AND MIS- 
SIONARY RIDGE. 

On September 6, the advance of Rosecrans's army 
appeared before Chattanooga and commenced shelling 
the town. The people were at church at the time and 
the Federals threw their shells in the vicinity of the 
church-house, to the great consternation of the wor- 
shipers and the citizens in general. The Federals 
placed a picket line along the north bank of the Ten- 
nessee about Chattanooga, which opened fire upon the 
lower part of town, about the ferry, and wounded the 
ferryman in his boat on the morning of September 6. 
General Bragg placed a picket line along the south 
bank in front, and above, Chattanooga, to the mouth 
of Chickamauga Creek. On the night of Septem- 
ber 7, the writer had the misfortune to fall down the 
embankment, a distance of fifty feet, while operating 
upon this picket line. By good luck there was a raft 
of pine logs anchored to the bank of the river, which 
circumstance prevented him from receiving a good 
ducking, as well as a severe fall. Falling upon the 
rudder of the raft, it swung round and landed him 
upon the raft in safety and dry shod. The darkness of 
the night being intense, this accidental and improvised 
trapeze performance was not beheld by the Federals, 
who occupied the opposite bank of the river. The 
embankment, which was an angle of sixty degrees, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 117 

was quickly ascended by pulling up by the canes and 
brush. In a few minutes the top was gained and no- 
body hurt. 

The Federals kept up the bombardment of Chat- 
tanooga. General Bragg now resolved to withdraw 
from Chattanooga, and after drawing the Federals to 
the mountains of North Georgia, his plan was to turn 
upon them and defeat them. The sequel will show 
how well his plans were matured, and how far they 
were successful. 

With Longstreet's corps added to Bragg's forces, 
he now had an army about equal to the army of Rose- 
crans, and the Confederates were well acquainted with 
the country. This gave the Confederates great hope 
of success. On September 8, Bragg withdrew his 
army from Chattanooga and retreated to Lee and Gor- 
don's Mill, on the upper waters of Chickamauga Creek. 
Here he spent September 9. A column of the enemy 
having moved down McLemore's Cove, Bragg moved 
from Lee and Gordon's Mill to Lafayette, Ga., on the 
loth, and on the I2th retured in the direction of Rock 
Spring Church. On the night of September 12, the 
army was on the march, and stopped in the road for 
a while. Being late in the night and the men very 
tired, they lay down along the roadside and were soon 
asleep. A caison of the battery getting out of order 
through the day, it had been stopped to be repaired, 
and was now hurrying up to rejoin the battery. In its 
hurry it missed the road and came clattering through 
the bushes where the boys of the Sixteenth Regiment 
were sleeping. The drivers were hurrying and yelling 
at their horses, and the noise and clatter being so vio- 
lent and sudden, the men of the regiment began to 
arouse from their slumbers, and rushed pell-mell into 



n8 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

the road, over the fences, and a general stampede was 
the consequence. Those who slept soundest were run 
over by the general rabble. Order was quickly re- 
stored as soon as the men became awake, and the 
march was resumed. The regiment arrived at Rock 
Spring Church on the i3th. 

The Confederates maneuvered from one position to 
another during the i/j-th, i5th, :6th, iyth, and iSth of 
September. On the evening of the iSth, General 
Bragg's order was read to his troops announcing that 
he would engage the enemy on the following day. 
On the morning of the i9th, the army was drawn up 
and the order of battle established. Forrest had taken 
position on the right, Walker's division formed on 
Forrest's left, Cheatham's division formed on the left 
of Walker, each division swinging round from column 
into line by brigades. In this manner the engagement 
extended to the left. The battle opened about 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon of Saturday, September 19, 1863. 
Wright's brigade was on the left of the division, and 
the Sixteenth Regiment was on the left of the brigade, 
near Carnes's battery. General Wright misconstrued 
the order that announced the position of a front line 
of Confederates, with caution not to fire into it. With 
this understanding the brigade swung into line, with 
the battery on its left. The battery rushed right into 
the Federal lines, and, losing all its horses and half its 
men, was silenced. The brigade also rushed immedi- 
ately into the line of the enemy, and received a broad- 
side from his front line before the true situation of affairs 
was understood. A brisk and spirited engagement en- 
sued. The ground was covered with an undergrowth 
of pines and brushwood. To the left was a slight val- 
ley, which was covered with a heavy timber growth, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 119 

east of which were the hills of the north bank of Chick- 
amauga Creek. This valley made a curve and dis- 
charged its waters into the creek. Longstreet ap- 
peared at the top of this hill about 2 o'clock in the 
evening, having marched from the railroad during the 
day. Hood's division, of Longstreet's corps, formed 
on Cheatham's left, and opened a tremendous assault 
upon the enemy's lines, which made them waver at 
first and finally give way. This caused the Federal 
lines to swing round at this place to some extent, and 
Carnes's battery was soon recovered. The engage- 
ment still extended to the left during the evening of 
the i9th, and before night, was general all along the 
line. 

On Sunday morning, September 20, the battle was 
resumed by demonstrations at different points of the 
line. Rosecrans was seeking the most vulnerable point 
on Bragg's lines, while Bragg was maneuvering his 
forces for the same purpose on Rosecrans's lines. The 
forenoon was thus spent in maneuvering by each army, 
with experimental assaults from each side at different 
parts of the field. Bragg finally succeeded in finding the 
point on Rosecrans's line which he resolved to carry, 
and massed his troops accordingly. The point had 
been fortified by the Federals during the night, and 
being considered strong, Rosecrans had drawn off 
many of his troops from it to maneuver at other points, 
till this point was comparatively weakened in num- 
bers. As soon as Rosecrans had penetrated Bragg's 
designs on this point, he began to strengthen the posi- 
tion by throwing -other troops irpon it. This position 
of the Federal lines was V shaped, with its point to 
the Confederates. Bragg struck this position, and his 
first assault failed. Rosecrans was now rushing every 



\ 
120 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

available man to the support of this, the key to his 
whole position, and which must not be given up. The 
Confederate general had proven himself the superior 
in the art of maneuvering. 

In the second assault Breckinridge struck the right 
wing of the Federal stronghold and the line was 
broken. The exulting and victorious Confederates 
rushed over the fortifications. This part of the Fed- 
eral lines not only yielded the position, but its wings 
were now driven in, and in one confused mass the 
flower of Rosecrans's army, thus jumbled together, 
threw down their arms and retreated pell-mell in the 
direction of Chattanooga, eighteen miles distant. The 
Confederates had gained a decisive victory and were 
masters of the field. The Federals had not only been 
defeated, but had been driven from the field in a con- 
fusion that partook of all the features of a rout. The 
backbone of the Federal line had been broken. Rose- 
crans's army had been cut in two, its center routed, its 
wings exposed, and the coolness and skill of Thomas 
alone saved its remnant from capture. Rosecrans re- 
treated in disorder to Chattanooga on the night of the 
2Oth, and the victorious Confederates followed on the 
2 ist, and took possession of Missionary Ridge and 
Lookout Mountain. On the morning of September 
22, General Bragg moved his army to the suburbs of 
Chattanooga, and Rosecrans was hemmed in the place, 
with his communications cut off, both by river and 
railroad. The two armies thus confronted each other 
for two months. 

The battle of Chickamauga had been a severe and 
desperate one, and the losses had been severe on both 
sides. In this battle Brigadier-general Preston Smith 
was killed, also Brigadier-general Helm, of Kentucky, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 121 

was killed, and General Hood lost a leg in the engage- 
ment of Sunday morning. The brigade not participat- 
ing in the action of September 20, the losses of the 
Sixteenth Regiment were not so severe as in previous 
battles. Captain James M. Parks, of Company H, 
was killed in the engagement on Saturday evening. 
Captain Parks was an excellent officer, a good soldier, 
a gentleman, and a Christian. He was beloved by his 

O J 

comrades and all who knew him, and his loss was 
deeply mourned by his comrades in arms, his relatives, 
and friends. All who knew him respected and hon- 
ored him as a gentleman of unimpeachable integrity 
and sterling merit. Private William Hodges, of Com- 
pany F, was killed in Sunday's fight, and private 
Gardner Green, of Company K, lost a leg. 

After the Confederates had besieged the Federals in 
Chattanooga, matters remained quiet in both armies 
till November following, when Rosecrans was super- 
seded by Sherman, who raised tire siege, and Bragg 
retreated to Dalton, where he spent the remainder of 
the winter. 

The Confederate lines now extended around Chatta- 
nooga from the mouth of Chickamauga Creek above, 
to Moccasin Point below, the town. Rosecrans was 
completely besieged, and devoted himself to fortifying 
his lines, as an attack upon the town by the Confed- 
erates was expected any hour. The Confederate pick- 
ets were within a few hundred yards of the enemy's 
outposts. Matters remained thus from day to day. 

General Polk was relieved of his command shortly 
after the battle of Chickamauga, and Lieutenant-gen- 
eral D. H. Hill was placed in command of Polk's 
corps. This change was caused by some misunder- 



122 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

standing between General Polk and the commander 
in chief on the morning of Sunday's battle at Chicka- 
mauga. General Hill made a good corps commander. 
General Polk was assigned to duty in Mississippi. 

On October 23, Wright's brigade was sent to Charles- 
ton, East Tennessee, by way of Tyner Station. The 
object of this move was to rebuild the railroad bridge 
over the Hiwassee river, and to guard the line of com- 
munication between Chattanooga and Knoxville. 
Longstreet was detached from Bragg' s army at Chat- 
tanooga and sent to Knoxville. Burnside was be- 
sieged at Knoxville. Affairs remained inactive and 
monotonous during the month of October and the 
greater portion of November. 

The Confederates were encourged by the victory at 
Chickamauga. Every effort was brought to bear by 
the Confederate authorities, to strengthen the army 
and to encourage the troops. Jeff. Davis visited the 
army and made a speech to the soldiers on the night of 
October n. It was thought by some that there was a 
remote prospect of foreign intervention at this partic- 
ular juncture. The Federal authorities were not idle. 
Re- enforcements were forwarded to Chattanooga. 

On November 23, the Federals began to press the 
Confederate pickets and to marshal a powerful army 
in the Confederate front. Wright's brigade was re- 
turned to Missionary Ridge on the 24th, and arrived 
on the right wing of the Confederate lines on the 
morning of November 25, near the mouth of Chicka- 
mauga Creek. The brigade came on the cars and the 
brigade wagon - train was sent through without an 
escort. On the 24th, the wagon-train was captured by 
the enemy and destroyed. When the brigade arrived 
at the north end of Missionary Ridge on the morning 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 123 

of November 25, it was ordered to a position on the 
extreme right, on the south bank of Chickamauga 
Creek. General Wright was mistaken in the position 
of the enemy, who were posted in heavy force on the 
north bank of the creek. Before the troops were 
aware of the immediate presence of an enemy, they 
received a volley of musketry from the opposite bank. 
LaFayette Clark, of Company D, Sixteenth Tennes- 
see Regiment, was killed, and Lieutenant W. C. Wom- 
ack was severely wounded. 

General Wright withdrew his brigade out of range 
of the Federals, who had the advantage of position, 
and established his lines on better ground. 

The Confederate lines were now pressed at all points. 
Hooker carried the Confederate position at Lookout 
Mountain on the left in the forenoon, and the Confed- 
erates had withdrawn to the brow of Missionary 
Ridge. The Federals massed their forces and moved 
up to the western base. The engagement continued 
through the afternoon along the center, while all was 
comparatively quiet on the flanks. About sundown 
the Federals prepared for a desperate assault upon the 
Confedei'ate center, and massed their forces at the foot 
of the ridge at a place known as Moore's House. Un- 
der a heavy cannonade, they began the ascent of the 
ridge. The Confederates resisted with all their power, 
but the Federals had been so heavily re-enforced, and 
the Confederates had been weakened by the absence 
of Longstreet's corps and other troops sent to different 
points, until the defenses on the brow of the ridge at 
many places were a mere skirmish line. This was too 
weak to withstand the heavy columns of the enemy, 
which now came up the hill in full force. The fight 
raged furiously for a while, but the Confederate line 



124 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

was broken and the enemy gained the summit of the 
ridge. 

General Bragg was in the thickest of the fight, and 
tried to rally his men when his lines gave way. Find- 
ing his forces inadequate to the work of regaining this 
part of the line, he ordered a retreat. The Confeder- 
ate stores at Chickamauga Station were destroyed to 
prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, and 
the army retreated to Ringgold. From this point the 
Confederates continued the retreat to Dalton, where 
they remained through the winter and early spring 
months. 

General Bragg was now relieved of the command 
of the army and his place was filled by General Joseph 
E. Johnston, who became a great favorite with the 
army. The soldiers built cabins to shelter them- 
selves, and in a short time the whole army was made 
comfortable for the winter. Furloughs were granted to 
the men to visit their homes, and a general quiet reigned 
in each army during the remainder of the winter. 

While stationed at Dalton, Jeff. Davis conceived the 
idea that it would have a beneficial effect upon the 
army to intermix troops from different States in the 
different commands. This caused a buzz of discontent 
among the Tennessee troops. By this arrangement, 
Cheatham's division was to be changed so as to be com- 
posed principally of troops from other States. The 
Tennessee troops were unwilling to give up their old 
division commander, who was equally averse to the 
idea of giving up his old brigades and regiments. In 
this emergency General Johnston sympathized with 
the Tennesseans, and succeeded in having the order 
revoked before it was put to a practical test. 

During the winter there was very little done in mili- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 125 

tary circles. In February a Federal column came out 
from Vicksburg and was met by the army of General 
Polk, assisted by Forrest's cavalry. This was a mere 
raid that came out as far as Meridian and returned to 
Vicksburg. Johnston sent a part of his command to 
assist Polk. As soon as the Federals became aware 
of this they moved out on Buzzard Roost Gap, near 
Dalton. Johnston succeeded in driving them back. 
The Federals withdrew from Meridian and the re-en- 
forcements from Johnston's army returned from Me- 
ridian to Dalton. 



126 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



CHAPTER V. 

GEORGIA CAMPAIGN BATTLES AROUND 
ATLANTA. 

The Federal authorities now resolved to concentrate 
the bulk of their Eastern Army upon Richmond and 
their Western Army upon Atlanta. Grant was now 
made commander in chief of the armies of the United 
States, with head -quarters with the Eastern Army. 
Sherman was placed in command of the army that 
was to move upon Atlanta. Each army moved on the 
same day. Sherman moved upon Dalton early in 
Mav, and appeared before Rocky Face Ridge. The 
Confederates met him at the ridge, and a lively skir- 
mish was kept up for a few days, until 'the Federals 
succeeded in turning Johnston's left flank by way of 
Snake Creek Gap, and he was forced to fall back upon 
Resaca on the night of May 13; and on the morning 
of the I4th had his army in position before the Feder- 
als came up. As the Federals advanced on Resaca on 
the evening of May 14, they presented a grand and im- 
posing spectacle. Their forces were massed into three 
columns. As they came up through an open field 
their ranks closed up into a solid phalanx, and appeared 
as so many living walls of blue. Their arms glistened 
in the sunlight, and the columns advanced as steadily 
as though they were on dress parade. The artillery 
kept pace with the columns, and their skirmish lines 
advanced in front at their regular distance. As the 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 127 

columns advanced, the Confederate skirmish lines 
withdrew gradually, and kept up a continual fire on 
their retreat until the Federals arrived at the foot of a 
long hill that lay parallel to the Federal lines. At this 
point the guns from the fort at Resaca poured forth a 
tremendous shower of shot and shell into the ranks of 
the advancing Federals, and the movement was per- 
emptorily checked. The Federal artillery was quickly 
wheeled into position, and a heavy artillery duel was 
carried on during the remainder of the evening. 

General Cheatham had rearranged his lines and 
thrown out his skirmishers. The two opposing col- 
umns were now in plain view of each other, on oppo- 
site sides of a little ravine, and the skirmish lines 
within a stone's throw of each other. The fighting 
was brisk on the skirmish lines all the evening. The 
Confederate artillery sent showers of grape and canis- 
ter into the Federal lines on the opposite hill-side, and 
the compliment was reciprocated with interest and 
dispatch. 

While the lines were being arranged, Colonel S. S. 
Stanton, of the Twenty-eighth Tennessee Regiment, 
was killed. There were no casualties in the Sixteenth 
Regiment during the evening, more than a few very 
slight wounds. 

Night came on and the firing ceased. The Confed- 
erates fortified their main lines and dug pits for their 
skirmishers during the night. At daylight on the 
morning of the i5th, the skirmishing was resumed, 
and thickened on the right till it merged into a general 
engagement. During the i5th, this situation remained 
comparatively the same. 

The Federals had been re-enforced to such numbers 
that they were able to keep Johnston's front engaged^ 



128 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

and still keep a reserved line to operate on his flanks. 
This policy was inaugurated by Sherman at the open- 
ing of the campaign, and carefully kept up all through 
the Georgia campaign to the fall of Atlanta. This 
forced upon Johnston the necessity of withdrawing 
his army to a better position every time he found his 
flanks endangered. The Federals finding themselves 
unable to force the position at Resaca, attempted to 
turn Johnston's left flank again, and he withdrew to 
Calhoun. 

In the retreat, Johnston kept his army in the shape 
of the letter Z, with one part fronting and engaging 
the enemy, while the remainder of the line was retreat- 
ing in shape to cover the retreat of the supply trains, 
and at the same time to be available in the event of be- 
ing pressed. 

From Calhoun, Johnston retreated to Adairsville on 
May 17. On the evening of the lyth, Wright's bri- 
gade was placed in the rear to hold the enemy in 
check during further retreat. The Federals were 
pressing the Confederate rear, and about four o'clock 
in the evening appeared at a large mansion by the 
roadside. This mansion had eight sides, and from the 
house to the right of the road the Federal cavalry 
came up with considerable dash. The Fifty-first Ten- 
nessee Regiment, under Lieutenant-colonel Hall, was 
placed on the skirmish line near the house, and the 
brigade was formed about six hundred yards to the 
rear. A severe brush was carried on between the 
skirmish lines during the evening. The Sixteenth had 
no casualties, though the Twenty-eighth Tennessee 
Regiment lost two men. 

At this place Colonel Donnell left the Sixteenth 
Regiment permanently on account of injuries re- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 129 

ceived at Chickamauga, and his place was filled by 
Captain Randals. 

On the lyth, Johnston withdrew his army from 
Aclairsville to Kingston, and on the night of the iSth 
encamped near Cass Station. It was determined to 
give battle near the town of Cassville, a few miles 
from the station. The Confederate lines were estab- 
lished on the morning, of the I9th. Sherman was 
prompt to time with his whole army, and his lines 
were established at an early hour, with his artillery in 
position for immediate action. The opposing phalanxes 
were facing each other, with scarcely a mile interven- 
ing. Johnston's army had been strengthened by the 
arrival of Folk's corps from Mississippi. This re-en- 
forcement had come up during the engagement at Re- 
saca. Johnston had determined to engage the enemy 
at Cassville, and every arrangement had been perfected 
accordingly. The Confederates were in line and 
awaiting the order to attack, which was momentarily 
expected. The morning was bright and beautiful. 
The country around Cassville was open and slightly 
undulating. Each army was busy in its preparations. 
The columns of the enemy could be plainly seen from 
the Confederate position ; and while all was hurry and 
dispatch in the disposal of the lines, there was a dull 
and foreboding stillness that was broken only by the 
sullen roar of an occasional cannon at some points of 
the opposing lines. The Confederates moved up a 
short distance and halted. Suddenly the order came 
along the lines to "fortify." The order was promptly 
and speedily obeyed. In less than five minutes every 
rail and chunk of wood around was piled up along the 
line as a breastwork for the men. Johnston had dis- 
covered some new developments in the position and 
9 



130 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

strength of the enemy in his immediate front. Sher- 
man had attained some advantage during the morning, 
which the active and watchful Confederate leader was 
prompt to discover, and on the very moment of giving 
battle Johnston discovered the sudden and unforeseen 
disadvantage under which he would be forced to labor, 
and resolved not to risk an engagement at Cassville. 
The enemy had massed his hgavy batteries on an ele- 
vation in Johnston's front, and his artillery was con- 
cealed by the timber. As the Confederates moved up 
this artillery was moved into position, and it developed 
an advantage to the Federals that rendered the situa- 
tion so strong that Johnston concluded not to make the 
attack. Scarcely had the Confederates completed their 
temporary breastworks of fence rails when the order 
was given to withdraw the lines, and the Confederates 
were withdrawn with celerity and promptness, though 
in remarkably good order. The Confederates fell back 
to Altoona on the 2oth, and on the 2ist moved on by 
way of Ackworth to Big Shanty, and thence across 
the Etowah River. 

Sherman had sent a heavy flanking column on the 
left of Johnston's lines in the direction of Dallas. 
Johnston hurried his army across the country and met 
this movement. From New Hope Church to Dallas 
the Confederates took position, and the Federals came 
up on the evening of the 24th. Sherman's forward 
movement was very determined on this line as he had 
laid his plans on this place with the intention of gain- 
ing Johnston's rear before he could reach Marietta. 
The Confederate leader was too sharp for this game to 
be played upon him by Sherman. ' A line of rifle-pits 
confronted Sherman on his arrival at Dallas. 

As the Federals advanced upon these lines they met 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 131 

with the most stubborn and determined resistance at 
the hands of the Confederates. A severe assault was 
made on the Confederate lines at New Hope Church 
on the night of May 25, and heavy skirmishing was 
carried on daily at all parts of the lines from New Hope 
Church to Dallas during the 25th, 26th, and 2yth of 
May. 

The campaign had now become one regular se- 
ries of skirmishes, with occasional sorties at differ- 
ent points from day to day. The scene of opera- 
tions was constantly being changed from point to 
point. Sherman persisted in his attempt to flank 
Johnston out of every position. Every attempt was 
successfully thwarted by the ever shrewd and watch- 
ful Confederate leader. Sherman found that he could 
make no movement without encountering a line of 
Confederate rifle - pits. As the situation demanded 
the establishment of a "new line, the Confederates 
would defend the line through the day and throw up 
fortifications at night. The days were devoted to 
fighting and the nights were spent in fortifying. The 
Confederates were never off duty. The lines were 
under fire at all times, and military operations assumed 
the most active and energetic aspect. 

Johnston's lines were changed almost daily, and every 
new line was promptly fortified. The whole country 
for miles around was cut up with fortifications. The 
scene changed from position to position until the Con- 
federate lines were established on Lost Mountain. 
This mountain was a small mound-like elevation which 
arose to a considerable height above the surrounding 
country, which was level. This mountain was about 
the center of Johnston's lines. In the skirmishes about 
Lost Mountain the Sixteenth Regiment lost two men, 



132 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

and several were wounded. Private Henry C. Tate, 
of Company A, and private Andrew Saylors, of Com- 
pany K, were killed on the 25th. They were both 
good soldiers and good men. 

The campaign was thus vigorously pressed by Sher- 
man and obstinately opposed by Johnston during the 
latter part of May, and was continued with increased 
vigor and determination on each side until the fall of 
Atlanta. 

Johnston's army held its position around Lost 
Mountain until the Middle of June following. On 
the I4th of June he changed his lines from Lost 
Mountain so as to include Pine Mountain, a few miles 
to his rear. Sherman had been operating on John- 
ston's left for the double purpose of getting the Con- 
federates as far as possible from the railroad, and at the 
same time to gain, if possible, the Confederate rear. 
In this manner the scene of operations had thus drifted 
to the distance of twelve or fifteen miles south-west of 
the railroad. Sherman finding that every attempt upon 
Johnston's left had failed, and being thwarted in every 
demonstration in that direction, now turned his atten- 
tion to Johnston's right with a view of turning his po- 
sition on the railroad. Thus operations gradually bore 
back in the direction of the railroad until the Confed- 
erate lines included Pine Mountain on the left. From 
Pine Mountain the movements of the enemy could be 
plainly seen in every direction, and on this account 
signal corps were placed on its summit. 

On the morning of the i4th, General Johnston, to- 
gether with several of his corps commanders, was on 
the summit of Pine Mountain viewing the movements 
of the enemy. This group was discovered by the 
enemy, who fired a rifle shot from one of their batter- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 133 

ies into its midst. The shot passed through the body 
of General Polk, killing him instantly. It seemed that 
the Federals had learned the signals of the Confede- 
rates. The death of General Polk was known along 
the Confederate lines in a few minutes. Strange as it 
may appear, the Federals knew it almost as soon as the 
Confederates. Developments afterward showed that 
a certain Lieutenant Fluke, of the United States Sig- 
ifal Service, had made a study of the Confederate sig- 
nals and had been so successful as to be able to read 
the Confederate signals on Pine Mountain, as the death 
of General Polk was signaled to the army immediately 
after its occurrence. 

On the 1 5th, General Johnston withdrew the left 
wing of his army one and a half miles and established 
a new line, which he hastily fortified. There was very 
severe skirmishing all along this line, which was kept 
up the entire day. 

On June 16 the Sixteenth Regiment lost two men. 
William Lowry, of Company E, and Samuel Baker, of 
Company I, were killed on the skirmish line. The 
skirmishing continued brisk, and some charges were 
made in General Johnston's lines during the day. 

It rained -almost incessantly during the iSth, I9th, 
2oth, and 2ist of June. Johnston had now moved his 
lines till" his right wing included Kennesaw Mountain, 
near Marietta. The Confederate left was extended to 
cover a flanking column of the enemy. The Confed- 
erate lines on the left were quickly established, and 
Hood's corps made a spirited attack upon the enemy's 
right on the evening of June 23. The attack was brief. 
Hood withdrew his column and formed on Hardee's 
left. The lines along the Kennesaw position were 
strengthened. Rifle-pits were dug for the main line 



134 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

and ditches for the skirmish line. The opposing armies 
were often within speaking distance of each other, and 
the picket fighting was constant during the day. At 
night tliere was generally a lull in the picket fighting, 
each side agreeing upon a truce. Sometimes the pick- 
ets would engage each other in friendly conversation. 
At other times the conversation would commence with 
taunts and continue until the truce would be broken by 
a shot. In such cases a brisk fight would be the result. 

Sometimes during the night the pickets would agree 
to meet unarmed at the half-way point between the 
two stands. In such cases the men would exchange 
papers, and the Federal would exchange his coffee 
with the Confederate for tobacco, besides a general 
trade and traffic in such articles as were possessed by 
each party respectively. On all such occasions the 
truce was brief, and at its conclusion each party re- 
paired promptly to his respective position. 

On the 24th the skirmishing was heavier all along 
the lines during the entire day. The weather was hot 
and sultry. The men had become quite inured to hard- 
ships. The health of the Tennessee troops continued 
good. The men were supplied abundantly with plain 
though substantial food, and they bore- up bravely 
under the continued hardships and toils which this 
campaign entailed upon them. * 

Throughout the 25th and 26th were heavy skirmish- 
ing and various demonstrations all along the lines. On 
the morning of the 27th General Sherman massed Jiis 
troops in Johnston's front on that part of the line occu- 
pied by Cheatham's division on the left and Cleburn's 
division on the right. The Federals came on in several 
parallel columns. The Confederates awaited their ap- 
proach until within a few rods of the works, when 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 135 

they opened with artillery and infantry upon the ad- 
vancing enemy, whose ranks were cut down at a fear- 
ful rate. Nothing daunted by the broadside of grape 
and canister from the Confederate batteries and the 
storm of bullets that were hurled through their columns 
from the rifle-pits, the Federals pressed on until their 
front had reached the works and a hand-to-hand fight 
ensued. At one point the enemy succeeded in plant- 
ing his colors upon the works of the Confederates, but 
were shot down as fast as the works were scaled. The 
Confederates stood their ground in front and the bat- 
teries on the flanks poured such a murderous cross-fire 
into the Federal columns that they were forced to fall 
back to their intrenchments. The battle was^brief, 
though furious. The assault was spirited and deter- 
mined. The loss to the Federals was very severe. 
General Harker was slain, and their killed and 
wounded covered the ground in front of the Confed- 
erate works. The Confederate loss was small. Pri- 
vate Joshua W. Carter, of Company C, Sixteenth Ten- 
nessee Regiment, was killed on the picket line, and a 
few were wounded and captured. 

Sherman was now pressing Johnston's position se- 
verely, and having failed in his attempt to carry the 
Confederate position at Kennesaw by storm, the old 
game of flanking was resorted to by the Federal gen- 
eral. The Confederate left was withdrawn a short 
distance on July 2, and on the 3d Johnston withdrew 
his whole army behind Marietta. On the morning 
of the 4th the Federals entered Marietta with great 
enthusiasm. 

The two armies remained confronting each other on 
the Chattahoochie, near Marietta, and engaged in va- 
rious skirmishes and sorties daily until June 17, when 



136 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

the Confederates fortified their lines and prepared for 
a stubborn and determined resistance. 

General Johnston had been removed from command 
by the Confederate authorities, and his place was filled 
by General J. B. Hood, who was at the time a corps 
commander. The authorities at Richmond had be- 
come impatient and dissatisfied because Johnston did 
not engage the enemy at Cassville, and especially be- 
cause he had fallen back from his stronghold at- Ken- 
nesaw Mountain. They could not realize the disparity 
of numbers and strength between the opposing armies. 
It was not to be expected that Johnston, with an army 
constantly on duty and worn, out by a constant cam- 
paign without relief, could turn upon an army of 
double his numbers and superior equipments and drive 
it back from the country. 

General Johnston was a wise and prudent com- 
mander, who knew his own strength and the strength 
of the enemy that opposed him. He had confronted 
an enemy thus flushed with a series of brilliant suc- 
cesses and supplied with every convenience and appli- 
ance of modern warfare, and, with an inferior force 
and with inferior arms and ammunition, he had dis- 
puted every inch of his advance and checked every 
movement that was attempted by the enemy upon his 
lines. Thus had he disputed Sherman's advance, and 
by skillful maneuverings he had engaged his front 
daily, and, with a comparatively small loss. to his own 
army, he had inflicted a severe loss to the enemy, to 
the extent of several thousand men. He had with- 
drawn his army carefully from place to place as his 
flanks were exposed, and with a fi'ont to the enemy at 
all times he protected the withdrawal of his supply 
trains and his wounded, and let nothing fall into the 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 137 

hands of the enemy. In this retreat, Johnston had ac- 
complished one of the greatest military achievements 
of modern warfare, and his brilliant genius and prac- 
tical skill in the work of handling and maneuvering 
large armies justly placed him in the list of the great- 
est military chieftains of the age ; yet he was to be su- 
perseded and his place filled by General Hood a 
good soldier and a brave man, but possessed of more 
courage than prudence, and more valor than discretion. 

On the morning of the iSth the Confederates were 
moved out of their breastworks and hurled upon the 
Federal lines. The loss was fearful, and nothing prac- 
tical was accomplished. The Confederates lost main- 
brave and good men. R. M. Safley, of Company H, 
Sixteenth Tennessee, was severely wounded by a shot 
through the lungs. Lieutenant John Akeman of the 
same company fell in this fight, having received four 
w r ounds, either of which was mortal. Private A. J. 
Agent, of Company I, Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, 
was killed on the field. The other regiments suffered 
greatly. The Confederates were repulsed in this at- 
tack, as the Federals were intrenched and had greatly 
superior numbers. The two opposing armies were in 
the immediate presence of each other all the time and 
under a continual fire. 

General Hood arranged his columns for another at- 
tack upon the enemy, and on July 20 threw his whole 
army upon Sherman's fortified position with all the 
fury and desperation at his command. The losses were 
heavy on both sides. The battle was a severe and des- 
perate one. Many of the boys of the Sixteenth Ten- 
nessee were severely, and some mortally, wounded. 

On July 21, Wright's brigade was moved farther to 
the right of Hood's lines. Private William Etter was 



138 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

killed on the evening of the 2ist while on picket duty. 
On the morning of July 22, Cheatham's division at- 
tacked the enemy's left on that part of the line occu- 
pied by McPherson's division. The Federals were 
driven back at this point and General McPherson was 
killed. The Confederates carried the Federal position 
and captured quite a number of prisoners. As in the 
preceding engagements, the losses were heavy on both 
sides, though, considering numbers engaged, the losses 
of the Confederates were greater. The Sixteenth 
Tennessee lost many valuable men. Grundy Gibbs, of 
Company C, was killed in this engagement. James C. 
Biles, of Company C, received two severe wounds 
during the battle of the 22d, and Wright S. Hackett, 
of Company C, fell mortally wounded and died within 
a few days. The other companies and regiments suf- 
fered severely. Mr. Hackett was a man beloved and 
respected by his comrades and all who knew him. At 
the beginning of the war he was first lieutenant of his 
company and served in that capacity till the reorgani- 
zation at Corinth, when he resigned his commission as 
an officer and entered the ranks of his company as a 
private. Concerning his noble qualities and many 
virtues, the Atlanta papers of August 9, 1864, printed 
the following correct and just tribute : 

THE LATE WRIGHT S. HACKETT, ESQ^. 

WRIGHT'S BRIGADE, CHEATHAM'S DIVISION,) 

August 12, 1864. ( 

Mr. Editor: Death, so fond of a shining mark, in his bloody 
march on the 22d of last month, grasped the vitals of many of 
the heroes in this veteran army among them, Wright S. Hack- 
ett, Company C, Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry. The painful 
intelligence of the fatality of his wound, as announced in the 
Rebel, has reached his companions, and a wail of universal lam- 
entation arises from the ranks his presence so long honored. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 139 

While it may be wrong to particularize in these remembrances 
of our valiant dead, where all so nobly die, yet the character of 
this " bright but fleeting star " was such as to insure from the 
public a sympathetic tear by a brief rehearsal of the associations 
antecedent to the calamitous event of his death. 

Born in the mountainous region of East Tennessee, of fine 
physical form, stout and active, with remarkable intellectual 
promise, he arose in the morning of life to high honors as a lit- 
erary scholar and a graduate at law. He had but embarked upon 
his professional career, with a mind well stored with knowledge 
in all its departments, when that trump, whose martial notes have 
almost robbed Tennessee of her bed of future glory, awakened 
the fire of his enthusiastic bosom, and enrolled him in the list of 
the champions of Southern rights. 

During the first year of the war he participated in the arduous 
campaigns of Western Virginia and North Mississippi, in the 
capacity of first lieutenant, until the reorganization of the army 
at Corinth. At that time he was unanimously chosen captain of 
his old company, which position he flatly but positively refused. 
Unlike a large number of officers I have known, he did not seek 
to avoid conscription, but after a visit home, designed to be brief, 
though protracted by a severe attack of fever which left him al- 
most at the grave, he rejoined his comrades as a private in the 
ranks. Often entreated to accept the position of an officer any 
he might wish he refused them all alike, positively declaring 
his determination to do duty as a private throughout the war, 
which rank he filled up to the time of his death with great credit 
to himself and his command. 

In the gallant charges of his brigade on July 22 he was ever 
with the foremost in that rapid march to victory; and the field 
was nearly won, when, some distance ahead of his lines, recon- 
noitering in front, he fell, shot through and through by a minnie 
ball. He spoke in cheerful tones of his misfortune and left the 
field, expressing strong hopes of recovery. But alas! a few days 
ago he died at Catoosa hospital. 

The heart beats quick, the breath is short, and the moist eyes 
of men who fear not battle, respond to this plaintive tale. The 
surface of the outside world seems ruffled with never a care, but 
the large circle of his acquaintances is stricken with grie,f. He 



140 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

was what we may call a private hero in every sense of the word. 
With superior mental endowment and most unexceptionable 
social qualities, with friends without number, and ample capacity 
to command, the hand of fame and the flatteries of fortune 
tempting upward to earthly glory, still true to his nature he re- 
nounced them all. 

In camp-fire consultations his opinion always preponderated; 
his standard of honor and cleverness was the rule of his mess- 
mates, and his merry laugh and gloom-dispelling jokes were sure 
antidotes to all affections of the blues. Esteemed as a friend, 
faithful and ready; exalted as a soldier and man, we all loved 
him. A grateful and admiring people lament great men like 
Sidney Johnson, Stonewall Jackson, and Leonidas Polk, for the 
chair of a chieftain is empty; and a like feeling drapes the hearts 
of Wright S. Hackett's friends. All recognized him an embryo 
chieftain. Genius sanctioned his earthly advent, fame stamped 
her image on his brow, and the proud bark of childhood rode on 
the deep of praise and power. "Cut down on the theater of glory, 
the soaring aspirations of a noble mind obliterated by sudden and 
unexpected death, his spirit has gone out with the far unknown. 
His form, once so full of life and vigor, is crumbling in decay; 
the joy of his smile is lost to us forever; but the memory of his 
pure patriotism, generous heart, and lofty and refined emotions, 
are endurable as eternity itself. 

These shall resist the empire of decay, 

When time is o'er and worlds have passed away : 

Cold in the dust the p'rished heart may lie, 

That which warmed it once can never die. VlX. 

DEATH OF PRIVATE WRIGHT S. HACKETT. 

From the Chattanooga Rebel, August 9, 1864. 

Died, in this city, on last Saturday, Wright S. Hackett, Esq., 
a private of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, Wright's bri- 
gade, Cheatham's Division, of a wound received on the 22d ul- 
timo infront of Atlanta. 

Mr. Hackett was in every sense a remarkable character, and 
his untimely decease will leave a pang in many hearts who had 
learned to respect and love him. He was about twenty-six years 
old, was a lawyer of rising merit in Tennessee, and was one of 
the best soldiers, most thorough gentlemen, and worthy men that 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



141 



the service afforded. He was as gentle as a child, and as simple- 
hearted and pure in his tastes and affections; as modest as a 
young maiden just budding into womanhood; as devoted to duty 
and his country as any hero of ancient or modern times who has 
been celebrated in song and story; as fearless as the Roman le- 
gionary, and as true as the north star. This is no mere language 
of eulogy; it is the deliberate judgment upon his character of all 
who have been associated with him, in and out of the army. 




W. S. HACKETT. 



He uniformly declined promotion, being convinced that the 
private station is the post of honor. This was done through no 
affectation of a contempt for office, but always with modesty and 
firmness.. He was twice tendered promotion as captain of his 



142 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

company, and twice received the commission as adjutant of his 
regiment, all of which he promptly declined. At the battle of 
Murfreesboro he was clothed with temporary command of the 
regiment by Colonel John H. Savage, commanding the regiment, 
who was suddenly called to manage a detachment that was being 
flanked by the enemy. This was a rare and most signal compli- 
ment to his ability and capacity for leadership, which was enthu- 
siastically accepted by the regiment, who followed him immedi- 
ately afterward into a charge by which the enemy was driven 
back and the detachment of two companies relieved from the 
danger of capture. 

Mr. Hackett's crowning quality was his high moral excellence. 
His morals we*e as pure as the philosopher or Christian could 
enforce. To an intellect of great clearness and force he added 
the highest virtue and the most exemplary habits and principles. 
He was an industrious student even in the army. To his love 
for study was due most of that disposition to avoid promotion, 
which rendered him a conspicuous example of unselfishness. He 
knew that the cares of position would interfere with the pursuit 
of his studies, and hence he preferred to drill and fight in the 
ranks, where he could discharge the duties of the patriot soldier 
without the multiplied cares that would fall to his lot as an officer. 
Such a soldier is a model whose excellences should be held up 
to ouryoung Confederacy for imitation. Rome, nor Greece, nor 
our Revolution of '76, ever produced a purer model. 

His remaius lie in the cemetery at Grifinn, bedewed with the 
tears and laureled with the honors of all who shall come to know 
his character of patriot, soldier, and man. 



RETREAT FROM ATLANTA. 

Hood withdrew his forces in good order and re- 
treated seven miles to Lovely Station. Here he drew 
up his lines and hastily fortified his position. Sher- 
man's army followed in rapid pursuit, and under a 
heavy cannonade he pushed his picket lines to a close 
proximity to Hood's position. The lines thus con- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 143 

fronted each other and picket fighting was kept up 
continually till September 5, when the engagement 
became general. The battle was perhaps not so severe 
as some of tbe preceding engagements around Atlanta. 
The losses on both sides were about the same. The 
casualties of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment were 
Joseph Brown, of Company K, killed, and H. C. Paine, 
of Company I, mortally wounded. 

The fight closed in the evening, with each army in 
its original position, no advantage having been gained 
by either. The armies thus lay confronting each other, 
with heavy cannonading and. picket fighting, during 
the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th of September, with slight cas- 
ualties on both sides. 

On the morning of September 7, the Federals dis- 
appeared from Hood's front, and the Confederates fol- 
lowed back five miles in the direction of Atlanta. 

The Federal army entered Atlanta September 2, 
1864. Hood had been completely flanked out of the 
position by Sherman in the campaigns resulting in the 
battles of Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. The Fed- 
erals had gained their great objective point, and had 
captured the Gate City of the South, which contained 
the principal store-houses and work-shops of the Con- 
federacy. The leading object of the Federals accom- 
plished, and the shattered remnant of the Confederate 
army being thus cut ofF from its resources in every re- 
spect, the collapse of the Confederacy was a mere 
matter of time. Hood saw that defensive operations 
were no longer feasible, and resolved to throw his army 
upon the north side of the Tennessee with the hope of 
gaining recruits and supplies, and also expecting that, 
if he could cut off Sherman's communications with 
his base of supplies, he would be forced to retire from 



144 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

Georgia. Accordingly, the Confederate commander 
put his army in shape for an active aggressive cam- 
paign upon the enemy's rear. 

Sherman detached Thomas's corps to operate against 
Hood in these movements, and with the rest of his 
army he inaugurated his celebrated " March to the 
Sea," which he accomplished without opposition. This 
campaign from Atlanta to the sea was attended with 
a degree of devastation scarcely expected of General- 
Sherman, yet he claimed it as a military necessity to 
lay waste the country and impoverish the people; 
further, that the Confederacy might not be able to util- 
ize this section by gathering up supplies from it to feed 
its armies. 

Sherman had left garrisons at all the principal points 
from Dalton to Atlanta, and fortifying and garrisoning 
the latter place, he left his sick and wounded here, and, 
cutting himself loose from his communications, made 
his march to the sea. 

Hood had matured his plans to attack the most sal- 
ient points of Sherman's line of communications thus 
abandoned. On September 19 the Confederates 
marched about twenty miles and encamped at Pal- 
metto Station, on the West Point road. Theve was a 
general consolidation of companies and regiments at 
this time, and the result was a large list of supernu- 
merary officers. The Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment 
had suffered a long list of casualties in killed, wounded, 
and missing. The effective force of the regiment was 
reduced to so small a number that the remnant of the 
ten original companies was scarcely enough to make 
three good companies by consolidation. Companies 
A, D, and E were consolidated and placed under the 
command of Captain Frank M. York. Companies B, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 145 

C, and H were consolidated and commanded by Cap- 
tain John Lucus Thompson; and Companies F, G, I, 
and K were consolidated and commanded by Captain 
Ad Fiski The regiment was thus consolidated into 
three companies, and the officers of the other compa- 
nies were relieved of command and placed on the list 
of supernumeraries. The other regiments were simi- 
larly consolidated. The Eighth, Tenth, and Twenty - 
eighth Regiments were now consolidated into one reg- 
iment and commanded by Colonel John H. Anderson. 

President Davis visited the army here and addressed 
the men several times. He was listened to with great 
attention, and his remarks were well received. Several 
changes were made. Hardee left to take command of 
the District of South Carolina, and General Frank 
Cheatham took command of the corps. General Ste- 
phen D. Lee retained the command of Hood's corps, 
and General A. P. Stewart was kept in command of 
ours (Folk's old corps).* General Hood had by this 
time perfected his plans for a march through Georgia, 
over the ground where we had fallen back before Sher- 
man. 

About the last of September the reorganization of 
the army was completed and we started north, striking 
the Georgia Central Railroad near Marietta. This was 
the road which Sherman depended upon for his sup- 
plies. "To destroy is a soldier's joy." Here was 
property belonging to our friends, but this was no con- 
cern of ours. The orders were to tear up the tracks, 
and at once the work was begun. Huge fires of ties 
were built, rails laid across them, the center heated to 
a red heat, when they were carried over to the trees 
and bent until the ends met. In some cases the rails 
were twisted around the trunks of the ti'ees, forming a 
10 



146 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

ring* and in every way possible destroying their useful- 
ness. We continued this work until we reached the 
vicinity of Allatoona, when, on the morning of Octo- 
ber 5, we formed line of battle and sent a demand to 
General Corse, commanding the Federal forces, to sur- 
render. To this he refused compliance, so we were or- 
dered by General French to assault the works. 

The fortifications of Allatoona, as near as can be re- 
membered from hasty glances at them during the fight, 
consisted of, first, a line of rifle-pits for skirmishers; 
next, a strong abatis and an infantry parapet with two 
six-pounder guns firing through embrasures; next, in 
rear, was a strong inclosed fort about twelve feet high, 
surrounded by a ditch too deep for escalade. 

When the assault opened the Federals stood right 
up to their work, and we, for a few seconds, had what 
the boys called " a hot time." Our Texas friends in 
the second line Ector's brigade caught up and went 
over with us. As our boys Swarmed over the parapet 
the bayonet was freely used by both sides, officers 
firing their pistols, and many throwing sticks and 
stones. This melee was quickly ended by the surren- 
der of most of the defenders, very few of whom 
reached their large fort in the rear. All this time our 
own batteries were silent. They had been ordered to 
a hill on our right to enfilade the position, and why 
they did not open fire was, and still is, a mystery. 

This was, for the time engaged, the bloodiest fight 
we were ever in, and our loss was heavy. Corse's men 
fought like demons. 

We now received and replied to a hot fire from the 
big fort, and soon stopped their artillerists from look- 
ing through their embrasures, silencing their guns. At 
this point General French ordered the line to fall back. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 147 

This order was disregarded, but a second peremptory 
order soon came, and was reluctantly obeyed. 

Wright's brigade was now commanded by Brigadier- 
general John C. Carter, formerly Colonel of the Thirty- 
eighth Tennessee. 

Hood now moved upon Dalton, which was defended 
by a fortification manned by negro troops. Hood in- 
vested the place, and the colored garrison surrendered. 
The Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment was in the brigade 
that took charge of the fort and the prisoners. 

Proceeding from Dalton, Hood marched through the 
Buzzard Roost Gap of Taylor's Ridge, a few miles 
west of Dalton, and thence by Cedar Town across 
Sand Mountain to Decatur, and invested the place. 
From Decatur the march was continued to Gadsden, a 
small town on the Coosa river, and thence to Tus- 
cumbia, arriving October 30, 1864. The march had 
been a long and severe one, and the men were worn 
out and exhausted. The army remained at Tuscumbia 
till November 8, when orders were received to march, 
the men knew not where. A bridge having been built 
over the creek, the troops were crossed over in the 
night. The rain was incessant. The night was dark, 
the roads muddy, and the weather cold and disagree- 
able. Having crossed over, the men went into camp 
and remained till November n, when the march was 
resumed in the direction of the Tennessee river. Ar- 
riving near its banks, the camp was established and a 
pontoon was thrown across the river. On the i3th, 
Hood crossed the Tennessee at Florence with his army 
and moved on through a fertile, though fearfully deso- 
ated, country. Winter was now setting in with its 
severest rigor, and many of the men were barefooted 
and destitute of many other articles of clothing. The 



148 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

men bore their hardships and privations with heroic 
fortitude, and, regardless of the inclemency of the 
weather, the muddy roads, and their general want of 
necessary supplies and comforts, they stood ready and 
willing to act further and suffer more in the defense 
of their cause, which they conscientiously believed to 
be right and just. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 149 



CHAPTER VI. 
BATTLES OF FRANKLIN AND NASHVILLE. 

On November 22, Hood moved a portion of his army 
back to Florence for the purpose of guarding his sup- 
ply trains on the march. The men waded the snow 
and mud, and passing the State line by way of Waynes- 
boro, encamped on the night of the 24th. Proceeding 
on the 25th, they made a rapid march in the direction 
of Franklin, and camped on the evening of the 26th 
one and one half miles from Columbia, in Maury county, 
Tennessee. Proceeding on the morning of the 2^th, 
they appeared in front of a Federal force in the even- 
ing, after a march of twenty miles. The Federals 
were reported to be retreating on the morning of the 
28th, and orders were received to be in readiness to 
march at a moment's notice. On the 29th the Confed- 
erates moved at daylight, and marched two miles up 
Duck River, where a crossing was effected, and the 
march was pushed with vigor through hills and hol- 
lows with the view of getting beyond the enemy and 
forcing a surrender. The enemy having the advantage 
of better roads, made his escape and took a stand at 
Spring Hill. After a slight resistance at Spring Hill 
the Federals moved on rapidly to Franklin. Hood 
pressed on, after making a march of seventeen miles 
without roads, and encamped for the night within four 
miles of Franklin. The enemy was drawn up in plain 
view. Hood arrived in their immediate front before 



150 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

Franklin about 3 P.M. on the 3Oth. A lii>e of battle 
was formed, and about 4 o'clock he struck their 
outer line of works. The fight was the most desper- 
ate of the war. The Confederates assaulted the outer 
line with desperate force, and after a hand-to-hand 
contest the Federals finally yielded this line and 
took position behind the inner works. Every approach 
to the inner works was obstructed in every manner 
known to civil warfare. 

It was now near sundown. The Confederates came 
up to the work of death in a cool and fearless manner. 
Working their way through the different species of ob- 
structions, the inner works were assaulted, and as dark- 
ness began to envelop the scene the work of carnage 
was desperate almost beyond description. 

The Federals held their ground with a tenacity un- 
known to former conflicts. The Confederates press 
on with a reckless daring and determination, utterly 
regardless of all opposing obstacles. Night had now 
closed its mantle over the scene, and the conflict raged 
the more furiously. Many a gallant soldier of each 
army fell at the feet of his more successful antagonist. 

In this manner the fight lasted until about one hour 
after dark. The enemy retreated, and the Confede- 
rates took possession of the works. The Federals re- 
tired to Nashville during the night and took position 
behind their fortifications. The losses on both sides 
were fearful. The Confederates lost many valuable 
officers and men among whom were Brigadier-gen- 
eral John C. Carter and Major-general P. R. Cleburne. 
The losses of the Confederates were, in proportion to 
numbers engaged, greater than that of the Federals. 

The Sixteenth Regiment had been consolidated into 
three companies, neither of which was full, and the 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 151 

ranks, reduced by sickness and the casualties of other 
campaigns since its consolidation, did not number more 
than a hundred effective men when it entered the bat- 
tle. Its losses were sixteen men killed, besides a large 
per cent, of wounded. The killed were: Lieutenant 
F. M. Pettit, Lieutenant James Green; privates John 
B. Womack, A. J. Kersy, John Driver, Howard Can- 
trell, William Wilhoit, William Thompson, George 
Donnell, A. N. Pepper, C. M. Jordan, John Brown, 
Thomas Hooper, Samuel Lusk, Pleasant Templeton. 
N. B. Hambrick. 

The morning of December i was spent in caring for 
the wounded and burying the dead. The battle-ground 
was strewn with the dead and dying of both sides. 
Hood made the best disposal of his wounded that his 
facilities would permit, and such attention was paid 
to the dead and suffering of the enemy as the time and 
circumstances would allow. 

On the morning of December 2, Hood moved on- 
ward with his army in pursuit of Thomas in the direc- 
tion of Nashville. Leaving Franklin about 9 o'clock 
in the morning, the march was kept up till in the after- 
noon, when the spire of the Capitol could be seen in 
the distance. A halt was now made and the army 
encamped for the "night. On the morning of the 3d 
the Confederates took position on the Murfreesboro 
pike and were drawn up in line of battle. The guns 
from the Federal defenses began to shell Hood's lines 
at a rapid and furious rate, yet he held his position here 
with little change for four or five days. The weather 
had become intensely cold. A heavy rain set in, which 
was followed by sleet and snow. The Confederates 
had no tents or shelter of any kind. Many of the sol- 
diers were barefooted, and their clothing was thin and 



152 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

scant. They had become dependent upon the country 
through which they passed for supplies, for the Con- 
federate base had been destroyed. The situation was 
desperate in the extreme, yet the men stood ready to 
suffer even more than they ever had suffered, with the 
hope of gaining their State capital and rescuing their 
homes from the possession of the enemy. The future 
was all dark to them, yet they remembered the dark 
days of the Revolution, when the hopes of the Colo- 
nies were even more gloomy than theirs. Their object 
and aim were to gain possession of the capital of Ten- 
nessee, and while they paused not to consider their in- 
ability to hold the place, if they even succeeded in tak- 
ing it, they left it all to the wisdom and discretion of 
their commanders, and stood ready, in the midst of 
hunger and privations almost without parallel in his- 
tory, to renew the conflict to the last and sacrifice their 
all upon the altar of principle and in behalf of a cause 
which they believed to be right. 

Matters remained thus until December 15, when 
General Hood issued orders to his soldiers to be in 
readiness for action at a moment's notice. The Feder- 
als had been heavily reinforced, and were threaten- 
ing his left wing. Wright's brigade was sent around 
to the left, where the enemy came out in force and 
drove back both the flanks of Hood's army. Wright's 
brigade formed on the left in time to check the move- 
ment of the enemy in that quarter for a while. It was 
now dark, and the action was suspended for the night. 
The Confederates fortified their lines through the night 
and prepared themselves for action at any moment the 
enemy might force it upon them. 

Early in the morning of December 16 the enemy 
advanced upon the Confederate's position with spirit 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 153 

and determination. Cheatham's division held its 
ground on the left throughout the greater portion of 
the day. Late in the afternoon a heavy reinforcement 
of Federal troops came in from the Cumberland river 
and were hurled against Hood's lines with all the im- 
petuosity of fresh troops, and the Confederates began 
to waver. They were worn out with constant action, 
and seeing the tide turning against them with such tre- 
mendous force, the disheartened and dejected soldiers 
lost much of the spirit that had ever characterized 
them. They felt that all was lost, and that the issue of 
the war was to be decided in this battle. The Federal 
columns came on, and the Confederates fought with all 
the nerve and daring of troops on the eve of a decisive 
action. The Federal lines, strengthened by the arrival 
of so many fresh troops, became too powerful for the 
resistance of the Confederate lines in their front. 
Hood's lines were taxed to their utmost strength at^the 
beginning of the battle, and having no reserves to 
throw upon their weaker points, were wholly unable 
to longer withstand so powerful an onslaught. The 
lines wavered about the center for a while and finally 
giving way, the exultant Federals pressed in at the 
break thus made and exposed each wing of the Con- 
federate lines to the greatest danger of capture. The 
result was a hasty retreat on the part of the Confed : 
crates, which partook much of the nature of a rout. 
The losses on both sides were moderate compared with 
those at the battle of Franklin. Many of the Confed- 
erates were captured, and, without shoes or blankets, 
were taken on freight cars to Northern prisons during 
the rigors of midwinter, and they bore the privations 
bravely. Arriving at prison, they were supplied with 
shoes and other clothing by the Federal authorities, 



154 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

and survived the struggle. Hood withdrew his army 
to Franklin on December 16. Halting at Franklin, 
provisions were issued to his men, and on the follow- 
ing morning the march was resumed in a southerly di- 
rection to Rutherford Creek. The enemy was in hot 
pursuit. At Rutherford Creek Hood's forces engaged 
the advance-guard of the Federals. The engagement 
here was of small dimensions, and Hood continued his 
retreat to Columbia. Arriving at Columbia on the 
night of December 19, he encamped his army and re- 
mained till the morning of the 2ist, when his march 
was resumed and continued from point to point until 
he finally arrived in North Cai'olina, where his forces 
were joined to those of General Joseph E. Johnston, 
who now assumed command, and Hood was known in 
military circles but little more during the remainder of 
the war. 

The Confederate forces were now composed of the 
remnant of three- armies: The Army of Virginia, com- 
manded by General Lee; the Army in North Carolina, 
commanded by General Johnston; and the Army of 
the Trans - Mississippi Department, commanded by 
General Dick Taylor. The destiny of the Confederacy 
was dark and unpropitious, and its doom was sealed. 
Its armies, reduced by the casualties of war and by de- 
sertions, had dwindled down to a mere handful of 
worn-out veterans, who, though knowing that the 
cause was lost and all their highest hopes and bright- 
est anticipations had proved to be mere illusions and 
permanently put to flight, they felt that they had in- 
vested their all in the sequel, and many were ready and 
willing to follow the fortunes of the sinking Confed- 
eracy to the last throes of its expiring agonies, and 
offer themselves as a final sacrifice upon its funeral 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 155 

pile. There were others who had long since beheld 
the hopelessness of further resistance, and had been 
governed accordingly, especially among the troops 
from the border States who had families. "Many of 
these men, who had made good soldiers and fought 
bravely on many battle-fields, and whose scars told 
that they had stood where danger was thick and heavy, 
began to leave the army during the last year and a half 
of the war. These men, as they had made good sol- 
diei's in war, were equally as good citizens in the walks 
of peace. After the battle of Franklin, many of the 
Tennessee troops went to their homes and abandoned 
the service permanently. They had been true and re- 
liable soldiers, and they felt it their duty to take care 
of their families when they saw that further resistance 
in behalf of the Confederacy was unavailing. While 
many of the bone and sinew of the Confederate army 
thus abandoned the struggle, in doing so they did what 
they believed to be their duty under all the circum- 
stances. 

Hood's army had been reduced largely outside of the 
results of the casualties of war. Some of the soldiers 
went home from Chattanooga, some from other points, 
and many went home from Franklin. They had all 
made good soldiers during their stay. 



THE LAST REORGANIZATION. 

At Smithfield, North Carolina, all the Tennessee 
troops were consolidated into one brigade of three 
regiments and placed under the command of General 
J. B. Palmer. The Eighth, Sixteenth, Twenty-eighth, 
Thirty - eighth, and Fifty-first Tennessee Regiments 



156 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

were consolidated with a part of Maney's brigade into 
one regiment and placed under the command of Col- 
onel Fields. The old Sixteenth was consolidated into 
two companies, one of which was commanded by 
Captain Hill, of General Carter's staff, and the other 
was placed under the command of Captain Frank 
York. A. F. Claywell was adjutant of the consoli- 
dated regiment, and made out its last official report 
soon after its consolidation. The surrender followed 
in a few days. 

The three armies, thus reduced by the usual casual- 
ties of a four years' war, were now reduced to the last 
extremity, and the final collapse of the Confederacy 
was a mere matter of time. Hood's army had gone 
through all the vicissitudes of desperation in its cam- 
paigns from Marietta to Atlanta, from Atlanta to Nash- 
ville, and thence on the retreat to North Carolina. 
Like the early historic adventure of De Soto, it was a 
visionary attempt to accomplish something that par- 
took of the romantic in its conception, though grand 
and magnificent in theory. The end proved the i im- 
practicability of the theory. Lured on by the fairy 
dreams that involved the accomplishment of impossi- 
bilities, the Confederate leader wandered from place to 
place, driven by the imperative edict of stinging want, 
and forced to the humiliating resorts of desperation, 
finally arrived in North Carolina with the broken 
and shattered remnants of a once powerful army; but 
reduced by death, disease, and desertion, until this 
once magnificent army of the Confederacy's pride and 
boast was but the mere shadow of its former self. Yet 
its ranks were composed of men who had been tried 
on so many hard-fought battle-fields, and in endurance, 
in courage, in fidelity to trust, and devotion to princi- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 157 

pie, they had stood a multitude of the severest tests. 
In no instance had they ever been found wanting. 
Braver men never lived. Truer men never drew the 
blade. This phalanx, the remnant of Hood's army, 
was placed under the command of the old chieftain 
whom they loved and honored. The men rejoiced at 
the change. They knew the courage and prudence, 
as well as the superior skill, of General Johnston; and 
while they had followed Hood through all his wander- 
ings of rashness and indiscretion, they respected his 
bravery, and devotion to the cause he had vowed to de- 
fend. The gallant old Sixteenth Regiment had been 
with Hooa s army through all its trying vicissitudes 
and its historic campaigns. From Dalton to Atlanta, 
from Atlanta to Nashville, and from Nashville and 
Fra-nklin through all its wanderings, to the surrender 
at Greensboro on April 26, 1865. Its dead lie sleeping 
upon every battle-field from Cheat Mountain to the 
Mississippi, and from the Mississippi to the Atlantic 
and the Gulf. Its sick and wounded surrendered a 
large per cent, of their number to the demands of the 
destroyer, Death, and their bodies lie sleeping in their 
narrow homes in the far-off lands of the stranger, along 
with their comrades who surrendered their lives upon 
the battle-fields. While they had surrendered the com- 
forts and endearments of a quiet and happy domestic life 
to bare their bosoms to the invader and offer up their 
lives upon the altar of their country in behalf of a 
cause and principle which they believed to be right 
and just, their memory will ever live in the hearts and 
and be enshrined in the affections of their surviving 
comrades, and all who may appreciate the exalted and 
noble qualities of fidelity to duty and devotion to prin- 
ciple. 



158 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

The dead, the maimed, and diseased, at the time of 
the surrender, constituted two thirds of its original 
number, inclusive of its recruits. Its effective total 
was scarcely a fifth. This gallant remnant fought 
bravely until the time came when they could fight no 
longer; and when they were surrendered by their su- 
perior officer they laid down their arms with the dig- 
nity of men who had fought a good fight, and accepted 
the generous terms which their gallantry elicited at 
the hands or* their adversaries. Vanquished in arms, 
but not in spirit or principle, they accepted the situa- 
tion like men; and as they had defended their cause 
through a four-years' war upon the principTe of integ- 
rity and honor, they bestowed the same sterling quali- 
ties in faithfully and conscientiously complying with 
the terms of their surrender and the observance of the 
stipulations of their parole of honor. Thus the gal- 
lant old " Sixteenth," in company with the other regi- 
ments of the Confederacy, laid aside the implements 
and paraphernalia of war and donned the happy and 
quiet habiliments of peace. As they had been faith- 
ful, valiant, and true in all the phases of their duty as 
soldiers, so they became equally faithful, industrious, 
energetic, and honorable in the quiet walks of peace. 
Many settled down at their childhood homes and threw 
all their energies into the work of recuperating and re- 
gaining their lost fortunes. Others,-including young 
men, emigrated to the South-west to Texas, Missouri, 
Arkansas, and California and engaged in agriculture. 
Others went to the North-western cities and engaged 
in business. Within twelve months after the surren- 
der, members of the old Sixteenth could be found scat- 
tered through the North-western cities and over the 
Western and South-western States, all intent upon 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 159 

business with a view to regaining their losses. Years 
passed by, and many of them returned to the land of 
their nativity. The men, after the war, were gener- 
ally industrious, frugal, and honorable, and made suc- 
cessful business men and good citizens. 

Twelve years after the close of the war and the sur- 
render of the Confederate armies, there was a re-union 
of the old Sixteenth Tennessee at McMinnville. About 
three hundred of the survivors of the regiment met in 
McMinnville on the public square, and*proceeded to 
the Fair Grounds, where they enjoyed a sumptuous 
dinner prepared for the occasion. The rolls were 
called by Companies, and every man, as his name was 
called, answered, if present; if absent, he was ac- 
counted for if livmg or dead. If living, his place of 
residence was given; if dead, the place and manner of 
his death was made known. Speeches were made by 
Colonel John H. Savage, Colonel T. B. -Murray, and 
Captain J. J. Womack. 

The following account of the re-union appeared in 
the McMinnville Neiv Era, of October n, 1877: 

THE REUNION OF THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT AT 
MCMINNVILLE, ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 5 , 1877. 

A reunion of Savage's regiment was held in McMinnville on 
Friday, October 5, 1877. The day was pleasant, and the assem- 
bly a vast one, numbering between three and four thousand. A 
more orderly and well-behaved crowd never assembled in our 
town. No drunkenness, no boisterous or loud talking, no quar- 
reling or fussing of any kind; and this feeling pervaded the en- 
tire assembly throughout the day. The remains of the regiment 
were formed on the public square at 10 o'clock, and marched to 
the Fair Grounds under the stars and stripes, headed by Colonel 
Savage, mounted on a spirited white horse. As the regiment 
filed out on our streets with its four hundred or less men in ranks, 



160 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

thoughts of the day when it left our depot in 1861, full of life, 
and its ranks numbering over a thousand souls, filled the minds 
of all who witnessed that occasion, and the absence of so vast a 
number from its ranks on its return filled the hearts of those 
present with remembrances of the noble dead, and the spring- 
fountain of affection burst its bounds and filled the eyes of hun- 
dreds with the silent tear of love and affection for the memory 
of those who sleep in the silent and unmarked graves of the va- 
rious battle-fields in which the noble old regiment participated. 
It was a pleasant occasion, and even the sadness lent additional 
charms and bound the remnant in closer bonds of eternal friend- 
ship and fraternal feelings. Arriving at the Fair Grounds, the 
welcome address was delivered by Colonel Savage, in which he 
said: 

"Soldiers of the Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry, C. S. A., 
friends and Comrades, Toadies and Gentlemen: It is my pleas- 
ant duty, under the direction of our Committee of Arrange- 
ments, to extend to all of this large assembly, whether citizen or 
soldier, rebel or federal, a cordial welcome. What is said or 
done here to-day we are willing for the world to see and hear; 
but nothing will be said or done intended in the least to wound 
the feelings of a single human heart. 

" The sound of hostile cannon and the shout of contending 
armies are heard no more within our borders, and much better 
would it have been for the American people if deadly hate and 
bitter words had been banished far away at the same time. 

" The war came it is not my purpose now to say who brought 
it on, or who was right or who was wrong, or whether misfor- 
tune or miscondurt of rulers caused the result. The historians, 
long after we have slept in the grave, will write and settle these 
questions. It is enough for me to say, comrades, that we who 
still live, and our dead brothers in arms, many of whom to-day 
sleep upon lonely mountain or in some desolate plain, in graves 
unmarked and unknown to human eye, and our mothers and fa- 
thers, our kindred and neighbors, then believed we were right. 
We ' lost the cause,' and now submit to the victor as become gal- 
lant soldiers, but neither armies of artillery ha-ve power over the 
mind. 

" We are here to-day to honor the dead. They fought for 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 161 

principle not for fame, power, plunder, or party. They offered 
themselves a sacrifice to the god of battles to maintain the con- 
stitution as it tuas; but we, the living, must obey it as it is. They 
sought to rule nobody but themselves, which they claimed the 
right to do without molestation from kings or armies. For four 
long years, almost without pay, upon scant rations, badly armed 
and clad, the Southern soldiers stood against more than double 
their numbers, sustained by Europe as a recruiting station, and 
by a greater expenditure of money than any the world has ever 
known before courage, patriotism, and a sense of duty, being 
the only- bonds that held the Southern soldiers in the ranks. 
The memory of brave men who fell in such a cause may live for 
ages indeed it mav never die. It is not alwavs the fame of the 

O J a/ 

conqueror that lives longest and shines brightest upon the pages 
of history. But this subject is delicate, and perhaps enough has 
been said in that direction; and what has been said is intended 
for no other purpose than to show that there is nothing in the 
past to shadow the fame or conscience of the Confederate sol- 
diers. 

"And now, comrades, as your old commander, who shared 
with vou many dangers, and who never ceased to care for your 
honor and welfare, I hope I may say without offense to any that 
your deeds upon the field entitle you to share in the honors and 
misfortunes of the lost cause, and proclaim you the equal of the 
best regiment in the service. It is right that we should meet in 
tears for the heroic dead rre never should forget them, and they 
deserve to be remembered by the country. To live in the mem- 
orv of th v e world and of those we love is a heavenly instinct 
man's most powerful incentive to good. I remember a French 
general (Dessaix) who won Tor Napoleon a great battle, falling 
mortally wounded in the last charge. His last words were, 'I die 
with the regret only that I have not done enough to be remem- 
bered by my country.' Our young brothers, bright, buoyant, and 
brave, fell upon disastrous battle-fields. They have no inherit- 
ance in the land; the only thing earthly that yet remains to them 
is the affection and remembrance of their brothers in arms and 
of the people in defense of whose rights they offered up their 
lives. This reunion to-day means that their memory shall not 
perish like brutes of the field, for they were men with immortal 

11 



1 62 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

spirits. Our government, with public money, builds imposing 
monuments over the federal brave, but we are forced to humbler 
methods. We intend to call the roll to-day and hope to account 
for each soldier, the living and the dead; and when the rolls are 
completed we intend to print them and give to each living sol- 
dier, or to his representative when dead, a copy to be kept as a 
perpetual memento of the part their kindred and neighbors bore 
in the great war. It is my duty to thank this large and attentive 
audience for their presence here to-day. It shows that their 
hearts are with the soldiers still. And ladies, I know I utter the 
sentiments of every soldier when I say, a thousand thanks to 
you for your presence and assistance at this meeting. It is hard 
to believe that any cause is wrong that is approved by your 
smiles. I may well liken woman to a good angel sent from 
heaven to bind up the wounds and shed eternal tears over the 
follies and misfortunes of man. We now call the roll to see who 
still lives, and who has gone from us forever." 

The regiment was formed in line, and the orderlies called the 
rolls of their respective companies, carefully noting the history, so 
far as known, of every member of the regiment, giving the pres- 
ent residence, so far as known, of the living, and the time, place, 
and manner of death of the dead. These rolls will be published, 
as promised by Colonel Savage, so soon as they are perfected. 

At the conclusion of the remarks by Colonol Savage, Colonel 
Thomas B. Murray was loudly called for, and responded in an 
impromptu speech of ten or fifteen minutes in one of his happi- 
est strains, in which he said that he had not come there to speak, 
but to grasp his old comrades by the hand and talk over the trials 
of the days that tried men's souls. He said the occasion brought 
sadness to his heart. He had left here on May i, 1861, with 108 
of the noble sons of Warren the sons of the best men in War- 
ren county. He looked around him to-day and saw many famil- 
iar faces; he also saw many vacant seats. He asked where were 
the Thompsons, the Mauzys, Webbs, Smartts, Yorks, Marberrys, 
Spurlocks, Hacketts, and many others too tedious to mention. 
They were the pride and chivalry of the land. They had fallen 
in defense of what they believed right, and he had an abiding 
confidence that they had met their reward in a better land. 

He said he and his comrades believed the South took up arms, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



163 



not for slavery, but for the doctrine of State's Rights, upon 
which a republican government depends in this country. They 
had failed in arms, but had triumphed on an appeal addressed to 
the intelligence of the people. That a Republican President was 
to-day administering the government on democratic or State's 
rights principles. He denied that he rebelled against. the stars 
and stripes that floated over him he was as true to them as 




LIEUTENANT-COLONEL T. B. MURRAY. 

Grant or Sherman. He cared nothing for flags except so far as 
they represented principles. He would follow the stars and 
stripes as far as he did the stars aad bars, so long as they were 
the emblem of principle. He described the condition of the 
half-fed, half-clothed Confederate soldiers in March, 1865, in and 



164 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 

around Richmond, their ranks decimated by hunger and by sick- 
ness, and nothing but defeat and ruin staring them in the face. 
He described the Confederate ship as it went down; and the 
faithful soldier, in the last hours of the struggle, folding his 
arms and going down with the cause for which he had sacrificed 
so much, and asked the question, What government could not 
trust such men when they had plighted their faith ? He then 
addressed the ladies, and told them what their sex had suffered 
for religion and liberty, and how faithful they were to the lost 
cause. He expressed the hope that these reunions would be con- 
tinued as long as the old Sixteenth could muster as many as a 
corporal's guard; not to encourage rebellion, but to promote 
fidelity to principle. 

Captain J. J. Womack was next called for, who in response, 
briefly alluded to the organization of his company as the first or- 
ganized in the Mountain District, and to its perils and privations 
in common with the other companies of the regiment during the 
war, and then passed rapidly over the history of the times to the 
beginning of the present administration. 

He declined to dwell upon the unfortunate administration of 
General Grant, preferring to speak of the present as that from 
which the country, the whole country, had something to hope for. 
He expressed strong confidence in President Hayes, and believed 
that under his administration, wisely and patriotically begun, the 
entire country would, in the near future, enjoy far greater pros- 
perity than it had since 1860. He rejoiced to hear the President 
of the United States announce that the soldiers in the recent war 
between the States, Confederate and Federal, were equally justi- 
fiable in the part they took in that unfortunate struggle. He be- 
lieved this the true ground for all to take the only ground upon 
which all could agree and if it had been taken when the Con- 
federate army surrendered, and Southern people had been recog- 
nized as peers, and not as vassals, the country might have been 
financially and socially far in advance of its present condition. 
In closing, he thanked the mothers, wives, and sisters, for their 
care and sympathy while on the tented fields, and the assembly 
for the invitation to address them. 

At the conclusion of the address by Captain Womack, Colonel 
J. W. Clift, ex-Federal, addressed the audience in a happy man- 



TENNESSEB VOLUNTEERS. 165 

ner, and was followed by W. V. Whitson, Esq., of Forrest's cav- 
alry, and Professor W. M. Janes, of Georgia. At the conclusion 
of these addresses, Colonel Savage dismissed the large crowd, 
which immediately repaired to town, after having spent a pleas- 
ant day, and one that will always be remembered in the kindest 
feeling. 



1 66 THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



CHAPTER VII. 

MUSTER ROLLS. 

COMPANY A. 

OFFICERS. 

L. K. Savage, Captain. B. M. Magness, Third Sergeant. 

Iraby C. Stone, First Lieutenant. T. B. Potter, Fourth Sergeant. 

John K. Ba'n, Second Lieutenant. J. W. Harris, First Corporal. 

R. B. Anderson, Third Lieutenant. L. G. Bing, Second Corporal. 

G. W. Witt, First Sergeant. M. L. Cantrell, Third Corporal. 

G. L. Talley, Second Sergeant. Samuel M. Philips, Fourth Corporal. 

PRIVATES. 

William Adcock. D. W. Cantrell. 

E. K. Adcock. Leonard Cantrell. 

Isaac Adcock. W. C. Cantrell. 

Benjamin Atnip. Thomas Cherry. 

E. L. Atnip. Isaac Congo. 

John Atnip. John W. Colwell. 

Larkiu Bain. Watson Cantrell. 

B. W. Banks. Isaac Cantrell. 

James Bing. Peter Cantrell. 

W. H. Bing. P. G. Cantrell. 

Phineas Bozarth. A. M. Cantrell. 

Joseph H. Bozarth. George P. Cantrell. 

James Bozarth. Martin Cantrell. 

J. A. Briggs. June Driver. 

W. H. Cunningham. W. L. Driver. 

J. H. Cantrell. Isaiah Driver. 

U. E. Cantrell. C. B Davis. 

J. R. Cantrell. Meredith Duwese. 

James Cautrell. D. C. Doller. 

Jehu Cantrell. Thomas Dozier. 

John Cantrell. Martin Delong. 

M. L. Cantrell. Watt Eastham. 

James Cantrell. H. C. Eastham. 

I. D. Cantrell. J. B. Fisher. 

W. H. Cantrell. S. M. Fulton. 

L. D. Cantrell. Calvin Fowler. 

B. M. Cautrell. Samuel Hathaway. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



167 



Len Hathaway. 


Charles Pullin. 


W. A. Hallum. 


Robert Pullin. 


B. M. Hicks. 


W. C. Potter. 


Dallas Hicks. 


O. D. Potter. 


William Herron. 


Thomas Potter. 


T. M. Hooper. 


J. D-. Philips. 


T. A. Hooper. 


Samuel M. Philips. 


Dick Hooper. 


David Pittman. 


James Hooper. 


Robert Rowland. 


Richard Jones. 


Jesse Redman. 


J. W. Johnson. 


Ben Rowland. 


E. S. James. 


Dick Richardson. 


John James. 


W. Richardson. 


W. L. Judkins. 


T. J. Richardson. 


Ben Judkins. 


James Rigsby. 


F. E. P. Kennedy. 


W. G. Stevens. 


James Koger. 


John Stevens. 


Pomp Kersey. 


, J. M. Stevens. 


A. J. Kersey. 


W. B. Sweeney. 


Felix Kersey. 


A. Simpson. 


Calvin Kersey. 


A J. Smith. 


Enoch League. 


Burdine Smith. 


Enoch Lockhart. 


Noah Smith. 


John Lafever. 


Henry Seawelle. 


John Mason. 


H. C. Tate. 


Bud Miller. 


J. R. Thompson. 


L. D. Moore. 


Fielding Turner. 


John Moore. 


Garrison Taylor. 


W. C. Moore. 


Ross Unchurch. 


J. A. Moore. 


John Van Hosser. 


John Martin. 


L. R. Witt. 


W. P. Martin. 


W. Walls. 


Thomas Martin. 


John Womack. 


W. B. Martin. 


P. G. Webb. 


Robert Martin. 


I. C. Webb. 


Jasper Martin. 


D. B. Worley. 


Reuben Meeks. 


W. M. Womaek. 


R. W. McGinnis. 


W. M. Wilmoth. 


Elisha McGinnis. 


John E. Warren. 


G. W. Maynard. 


J. B. Wilkinson. 


J. M. Pertle. 


B. C. Wilkinson. 



KILLED. 

Capt. L. N. Savage, Murfreesboro. J. H. Cantrell, Perryville. 
Lieut. R. B. Anderson, Murfreesboro. James Cantrell, Perryville. 
Lirut. <i. W. Witt, Mufreesboro. W. H. Cantrell, Franklin. 

M. L. Cautrell, Perryville. James Driver, Franklin. 

Benjamin Atnip, Georgia. Thomas Dozier, Atlanta. 

Watt Eastham, Atlanta. S. M. Fulton, Atlanta. 



i68 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



W. A. Hallum, Murfreesboro. 
T. A. Hooper, Franklin. 
F. E. B. Kennedy, Perryville. 
A. J. Kersey, Franklin. 
Felix Kersey, Murfreesboro. 
Enoch Lsague, Murfreesboro. 
Enoch Lockhart, Murfreesboro. 
W. C. Moore, Perryville. 



Robert Martin, Franklin. 

Robert Rowland, Perryville. 

William Richardson, Atlanta. 

A. Simpson, Atlanta. 

H. C. Tate, Lost Mountain. 

P. G. Webb, Perryville. 

John E. Warren, Murfreesboro. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 
Win. Adcock, Camp Trousdale, 1861. Elisha McGinnis, Unknown. 



James Bing, Prison, 1864. 
W. H. Bing, Prison, 1864. 
William Herron, Georgia, 1864. 
Richard Hooper, Georgia, 1864. 
James Hooper, S. C., 1862. 
J. A. Moore, Home, 1863. 



O. D. Potter, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 
Thos. Potter, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 
L. R. Witt, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 
Win. Walls, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 
Wm. Womack, Huntersville, 1861. 
John Womack, Missing, Ga., 1864. 



WOUNDED. 



Capt. G. L. Talley, Chickamauga. 

S. G. Bing, Perryville. 

R. M. Magness, Perryville. 

Samuel M. Philips, Perryville. 

Isaac Adcock, Resaca. 

E. L. Atnip, Atlanta. 

R M. Banks, Perryville. 

B. M. Cantrell, PerryvilK 

D. W. Cantrell, Perryville. 

T. M. Hooper, Perryville. 

Richard Jones, Perryville. 

Fielding Turner, Perryville. 

PROMOTED. 

T. B. Potter, Sergeant Major, 1861. W. C. Potter, 1st Lieut., 1863. 
R. B. Anderson, 1st Lieut., 1862. J. C. Webb, 2d Lieut., 1863. 

G. W. Witt, 2d Lieut., 1862. L. R. Witt, 3d Lieut., 1863. 

G. L. Talley, 3d Lieut., 1862, Capt., 1863. 



Peter Cantrell, Murfreesboro. 
John Lafever, Murfreesboro. 
Garrison Taylor, Murfreesboro. 
B. C. Wilkinson, Murfreesboro. 
G. W. Cohvell, Murfreesboro. 
J. W. Johnson, Franklin. 
John Mason, Perryville. 
W. L. Judkins, Atlanta. 
W. C. Potter, Chickamauga. 
J. C. Webb, Murfreesboro. 
J. R. Thompson, Atlanta. 



COMPANY B. 



OFFICERS. 



C. C. Brewer, Captain. 

S. G, Crocker, First Lieutenant. 
G. W. Turner, Second Lieutenant. 
Jo. E. Bashaw, Third Lieutenant. 

D. W. Tucker, First Sergeant. 

J. H. L. Duncan, Second Sergeant. 



L. P. Campbell, Third Sergeant. 
M. A. Messick, Fourth Sergeant. 
iR. C. Carden, First Corporal. 
Russel Brewer, Second Corporal. 
L. B Campbell, Third Corporal. 
A. M. Green, Fourth Corporal. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



169 





PRIVATES. 


Daniel Anderson. 


John Gaither. 


C. K. Alnian. 


R. E. Garrett. 


Lytle Adams. 


Henry Herndon. 


L. J. Butler. 


J. W. Hatfield. 


" John Brown. 


Riley Howard. 


James Brown, sr. 


I. H. Hawkins. . 


James Brown, jr. 


G. W. Haggard. 


Joseph Brown. 


J. K. P. Haggard. 


Lewis Burton. 


James Hawkes. 


D. C. Burton. 


Isaac Howard. 


T. B. Butler. 


Wade Henderson. 


C. H. Butler. 


Elmer Hodge. 


F. M. Boyd. 


Robert Hill. 


Thomas Burroughs. 


H. P. J. Hathcock. 


E. M. Bashaw. 


Richard Hitson. 


J. K. Butler. 


James Kilgore. 


Anderson Brown. 


W. C. King. 


G. R. Campbell. 


Isaiah King. 


James Garden. 


G. W. Kennedy. 


Wiley Calhoun. 


Thomas H. B. Long. 


J. A. Garden. 


Buck Lowry. 


F. H. Church. 


Thomas Lewis. 


W. C. Campbell. 


Alexander Langley. 


W. B. T. Campbell. 


C G. Lance. 


W. C. Crocker. 


Joseph Massengale. 


, Noah Clay. 


R. C. Messick. 


Thomas Campbell. 


R. J. Messick. 


Thomas Douglas. 


J. W. Messick. 


Osborn Dye. 


G. H. Messick. 


Lacy Dye. 


James McGuire. 


George Davis. 


U. S. McDaniel. 


F. M. Daniel. 


Grift. Myers. 


William Daniel. 


P. H. McBride. 


Thomas Daniel. 


J. W. Mullins. 


James Dickerson. 


Moses Messick. 


Leroy Dye. 


G. J. Newman. 


\V. L. Ensey. 


John Oldfield. 


J. K. Ensey. 


James Popf. 


J. K. P. Foster. 


James Paxton. 


William Foster. 


R. W. Purdom. 


Dennis Faulin. 


Samuel Phelps. 


W. H. Fisher. 


W. A. Powers. 


James Fuller. 


Homer Powers. 


George Frazier. 


Thomas Parker. 


Carrol Fultz. 


Dr. J. B. Ritchey. 


Wiley Ford. 


J. W. Robinson. 


Alexander Farmer. 


M. D. Record. 


G. W. Freeman. 


G. W. Sain. 



170 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



A. P. Sherrill. 


J. M. Williams. 


W. V. Stevens. 


William Wiser. 


Philburn Stevens.- 


Isaiah Wiser. 


Ezekiel Sinartt. 


J. D. Wiser. 


K. J. Smotherniiui. 


Thomas Wiser. 


Isaac Spangler. 


Awris Wilson. 


J. A. Smith. 


Curtes West. 


O. P. Tucker. 


J. A. West. 


T. H. Tucker. 


Jacob Walker. 


Robert Tucker. 


Elisba Walker. 


J. R. Taylor. 


John Walker. 


Janies Taylor. 


William Young. 


Merk Thomas. 


James Young. 


Robert Vickery. 


John Young. 


W. B. Ward. 


Mordecai Yell. 


William Ward. 


Pierce Yell. 


E. W. Walker. 


Pleasant Yell. 



KILLED. 

Capt. C. C. Brewer, in Cavalry (trans- Elmer Hodge, Perryville. 

ferred), 1864. William Wiser, Perryville. 

Joseph Brown, Atlanta. Isaiah Wiser, Perryville. 

F. H. Church, Murfreesboro. G. L. Freeman, Ky., (in Cavalry). 

Wiliiam C. Crocker, Dalton. Dennis Faulin, Murfreesboro. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 

Lieut, G. W. Turner, Va., 1864. Isaac Howard, W. Va. 

Lieut. J. E. Bashaw, Chattanooga, 1865. Robert Hill, Unknown. 



Lytle Adams, Prison, 1864. 
Thomas Burroughs, Va., 1861. 
Noah Clay, Ky., 1862. 
Osborne Dye, W. Va., 1861. 
G. W. Freeman, Ky., 1864. 
3. K. P. Haggard, Unknown. 
James Hawkes, Tullahoma, 1863. 
Wade Henderson, Camp Trousdale, 
1861. 

WOUNDED. 



H. P. J. Hathcock, Prison, 1864. 

T. H. B. Long, Ga., 1863. 

Lieut. T. W. Lewis, Atlanta, 1864. 

Alex. Langley, East Tenn., 1864. 

R. J. Messick, Ga., 1862. 

G. J. Newman, Unknown. 

G. W. Sain, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 

John Walsh, Unknown. 



W. C. King, Murfreesboro. 



Thomas H. Douglas, Murfreesboro. 



PROMOTED. 



J. H. L. Duncan, Capt., 1862. 

E. W. Walker, 1st Lieut , 1862. 

John K. Ensey. 2d Lieut., 1862. 

W. H. Fisher, 3d Lieut , 1863. 

E. W. Walker, Capt., 1864. 

G. R. Campbell, Quartermaster, 1861. 



T. W. Lewis, 3d Lieut., 1862. 
P. H. McBride, Capt, Cavalry, 1862. 
James B. Rickey, Quartermaster, 1863. 
Elisha Walker, 3d Lieut., 1863. 
James McGuire, 3d Lieut., 1863. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



171 



COMPANY C. 



OFFICERS. 



D. M. Don n ell, Captain. 

Wright S. Hackett, First Lieutenant. 

E. C. Keed, Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. Castteiuan, Third Lieutenant. 
A. J. Brown, First Sergeant. 
Harrison Smith, Second Sergeant. 
I>avid Ramsey, Third Sergeant. 



John Cope, Fourth Sergeant. 
Thomas North, Fifth Sergeant. 
L. D. Mercer, First Corporal. 
H. H. Faulkner, Second Corporal. 
William Wooten, Third Corporal. 
Philander Wood, Fourth Corpora 



PKIVATES. 



S. H. Alexander. 
S. II. Allison. 
C. B. Aired. 
C. G. Blaok. 
Thomas Black. 
Thomas B. Biles. 
James C. Biles. 
Asbury Biles. 
W. A. Bell. 
Harrison Biles. 
Thomas Bonner. 
W. J. Bonner. 
J. W. Bybee. 
Richard Bybee. 
A. Blackburn. 
Michael Blackburn. 
James Blackburn. 
E. A. Braxton. 
W. T. Brixey. 
Calvin Brixey. 
W. L. Brawley. 
Reese Brewster. 
John Brewster. 
J. L. Bryant. 
William Blanton. 
John Cunningham. 
J. T. Cannon. 
J. B. Carter. 
A. F. Claywell. 
John Bennington. 
George Donnell. 
Walter Davenport. 
Thomas H. Faulkner. 
Robert French. 
J. Fallman. 
James Gibbs. 
Calvin Glenn. 



B. T. Groves. 
J. H. Greer. 
Thomas Greer. 
Romulus Gwynn. 
L. C. Harp. 
R. C. Henderson. 
D. B. Hoover. 
William Hoover. 
W. S. Hill. 
J. D. W. Hill. 
Peter Hansboro. 
W. M. Harding. 
J. J. Hensley. 
James Hobbs. 
John Herriman. 
John Hennegar. 
Wyatt Hitts. 
Dr. Johnson. 
D. W. King. 
H. J. King. 
John King. 
Henderson Kidd. 
G. Kirby. 
James Lytle. 
Frank Lytle. 
William Lane. 
A. B. Marbury. 
Ben Marbury. 
W. L. Marbury. 
Horatio Marbury. 
I. N. Mercer. 
A. J. Mercer. 
W. R. Morrow. 
J. K. P. Martin. 
Jasper Martin. 
Sampson Martin. 
Lewis Martin. 



172 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



Thomas Mulrany. 
A. L. Mitchell. 
J. N. Mitchell. 
John Meadows. 

C. R. Morford. 

D. C. Mathews. 
A. Perry. 



Joel Perry. 
John Perry. 
John Pace. 
G. E. Purvis. 
Aaron Pepper. 
John Pepper. 
A. J. Paine. 




CAPTAIN D. c. SPURLOCK:. 



T. M. Reeves. 
W. W. Roberts. 
W. S. Ross. 
James Ross. 
E. S. Rowan. 
John Rut-ledge. 
A. J. Rayburn. 



Elisha Reynolds. 
Charles Read. 
William Rhea. 
M. D. Smith. 
Alexander Smith, sr. 
Alexander Smith, jr. 
J. C. Smith. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



173 



D. C. Spurlock. 
Cicero Spurlock. 
C. J. Spurlock. 
W. D. Sinartt. 

E. M. Smartt. 

J. K. P. Sinartt. 
J. C. Sniartt. 
John Swann. 
J. W. .Swann. 
Martin Stiles. 
George Scott. 
Samuel Stotts. 
Frank Smith. 
J. L. Thompson. 



W. L. Thompson. 
H. S. Thompson. 
W. M. Taylor. . 
H. J. Thaxton. 
Joseph Thomas. 
Kobert Vanison. 
Lafayette .Vandergriff. 
William Vaughn. 
C. B. Wilson. 
J. B. Wilson. 
J. C. Wilson. 
William Wallace. 
John Walker. 
T. C. Wheeler. 



KILLED. 



Capt P. C, Spurlock, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut, E. C. Read, Perryville. 
Lieut. W. H. Wooten, Perryville. 
Lieut. Cicero Spurlock, Perryville. 
Sergt. Thomas North, in Cavalry, 

(transferred). 

Corp'l Philander Wood, Perryville. 
Thomas Bonner, Murfreesboro. 
Richard Bybee, Murfreesboro. 
James Blackburn, Atlanta. 
Reese Bruster, Perryville. 
Joshua B. Carter, Kennesaw Mt., Ga. 



George Donnell, Franklin. 

James Gibbs, Murfreesboro. 

Thomas Greer, Perryville. 

Wright S. Hackett, Atlanta. 

Horatio Marbury, Perryville. 

A. J. Mercer, in Cavalry, (transferred). 

J. K. P. Martin, Murfreesboro. 

John Meadows, Franklin. 

Aaron Pepper, Franklin. 

W. T. Thompson, Franklin. 

H. S. Thompson, Perryville. 

J. W. Bybee, Murfreesboro. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 

Harrison Biles, Chattanooga. G. Kirby, Unknown. 

John Cunningham, Ga., 1862. Louis Martin, Sewell Mountain. 

Romulus Gwynn, Grahamville, S. C. D. C. Mathews, Shelbyville, 1864. 
John Hcrriiuan, Unknown. 



John Hennegar, Unknown. 

William King, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 



John Pace, Unknown. 
John Pepper, Unknown. 



WOUNDED. 
J. C. Biles, Perryville, Atlanta (2). W. R. Morrow, Murfreesboro, Chicka- 



J. B. Biles, Kennesaw Mountain. 
Mike Blackburn, Perryville. 
W. L. Brawley, Murfreesboro. 
A. F. Claywell, Perryville. 
L. C. Harp, Chickamauga. 
\V. S. Hill, Perryville. 
D. W. King, Perryville. 
I. N. Mercer, Atlanta. 



mauga. 

Thomas Marbury, Ga. 
C. R. Morford, Perryville. 
Charles Read, Perryville. 
Alexander Smith, jr., Perryville. 
J. L. Thompson, Chickamauga. 
T. C. Wheeler, Perryville. 



174 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



PROMOTED. 
D. M. Donnell, Lieut, Col., 1862, Col., C. G. Black, 2d Lieut., 1863. 



1863. 

W. H. Wooten, 3d Lieut., 1862. 
E. C. Read, 1st Lieut., 1862. 
D. C. Spurlock, Capt , 1867. 
Thomas Black, Med. Dept., 1861. 



A. F. Claywell, Adjutant, 1863. 
H. H. Faulkner, Major, 1861. 
C. R. Morford, 1st Lieut., 1863. 
J. L. Thompson, Capt., 1863. 
A. J. Brown, Maj. & A. Q. M., 1861. 



COMPANY D. 

OFFICERS. 

P. H. Coffee, Captain. Wm. W.-Mooney, Second Lieutenant. 

Geo. Marchbanks, First Lieutenant. J. G. Bains, Third Lieutenant. 



PRIVATES. 



J. E. Anderson. 
John Blanks. 
Monroe Blanks. 
Henry Blanks. 
W. R. Bennett. 
S. H. Brown. 
W. J. Bennington. 
H. S. Brabben. 
A. P. Bragg. 
D. W. Buyars. 
Enoch Buyars. 
Lafayette Clark. 
G. W. Cunningham. 
Mithael Cannon. 
Walter Cope. 
O. B. Christian. 
W. B. Christian. 
D. W. Campbell. 
Gideon Cruse. 
Hardeman Cruse. 
Walter Cruse. 
Stephen Cruse. 
Matthew Douglass. 
J. P. Douglass. 
James Davis. 
R. J. Evans. 
J. P. Evans. 
W. H. Edwards. 
M. L. Edwards. 
L. D. Elkins. 
J. T. Fowler. 
James Farless. 



J. F. Gaw. 

J. W. Greer. 

W. T. Greer. 

M. V. Gribble. 

S. Gribble. 

A. P. Gribb!e. 

A. J. Gribble. 

S. C. Gribble. 

J. A. Gribble. 

J. P. A. Hennessee. 

Hamp Heunessee. 

T. W. Hopkins. 

W. L. Hopkins. 

J. C. Hasten. 

J. J. Higgiulx>tham. 

Aaron Higginbotharn. 

Thomas Hutson. 

A. J. Higginbotham. 

J. J. Logue. 

L. E. Logue. 

J. K. Lowry. 

J. G. Lambert. 

J. D. Lusk. 

Samuel Lusk. 

T. F. Martin. 

William Martin. 

R. G. Martin. 

John Meadows. 

John McDaniel. 

J. T. Moulder. 

John Moulder. 

John Mullican. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



175 



W. W. Mullican. 
J. A. McWhirter. 
J. B. Me .\fee. 
W. H. Macon. 
J. B. Myers.' 
W. T, McGee. 
J. L. McGee. 
Richard McGregor. 
Job 71 McGregor. 
W. M. Moulder. 
Michael McGeary. 
Richmond McGregor. 
J. K. P. Nichols. 
Patrick O'Keith. 
Tim O'Leary. 
W. Perry. 
W. T. Perry. 
William Pinkstone. 
W. C Quick. 
J. D. Quick. 
John Quick. 
T. J. Rodgers. 



W. H. Rains. 
James Rowland. 
B. M Rowland. 
G. W. Sommers. 
J. M. Sommers. 
W. L. Smyth. 
Lycurgus Smith. 
Jerome Smith. 
John Tate. 
Samuel Templeton. 
T. J. Templeton. 
John Templeton. 
Byars G. Webb. 
W. J. Ware. 
R. A. Ware. 
J. T. Walling. 
J. A. Wheeler. 
W. H. White. 
J. W. West. 
T. F. frost. 
F. M. York. 
J. W. Wolcott, 



KILLED. 



Capt. J. G. Lambert, Perryville. 

A. P. Bragg, (transferred to Cavalry), 

Ala. 

Lafayette Clark, Missionary Ridge. 
M. L. Edwards, Murfreesboro. 
W. T. Greer. Perryville. 
S. Grabble, Murfreesboro. 
A. P. Gribble, Murfreesboro. 
T. J. Gribble, Murfreesboro. 
A. J. Gribble, jr., Murfreesboro. 



W. Perry, Murfreesboro. 

James Rowland, Murfreesboro. 

W. F. Smith Murfreesboro. 

A. J. Higginbothain, Detached, 1864. 

Samuel Lusk, Franklin. 

J. K. P. Nichols, Franklin. 

W. H. Rains. Unknown. 

J. M. Sommers, Perryville. 

J. A. Wheeler, Perryville. 

J. W. Wolcott, Atlanta. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 
J. F. Gaw, Camp Trousdale, 1861. Richard McGregor, Va., 1861. 



WOUNDED. 



John Blanks, Perryville. 
AValtcr Cope, Murfreesboro. 
W. B. Christian, Murfreesboro. 
J. P. Douglass, Murfreesboro. 
J. C. Haston, Murfreesboro. 
J. J. Higginbothain, Murfreesboro. 
Aaron Higginbotham, Murfreesboro. 
Thomas Hutson, Murfreesboro. 
J. D. Lusk, Murfreesboro and Perry- 
ville. 



Thomas Martin, Murfreesboro and 

Chickamauga. 

R. G. Martin, Murfreesboro* 
John McDaniel, Murfreesboro. 
J. A. McWhirter, Murfreesboro. 
John McGregor, Murfreesboro. 
W. T. Perry, Murfreesboro. 
W. Pinkstou, Murfreesboro. 
W. C. Quick, Perryville and Atlanta. 
John Quick, Murfreesboro. 



176 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



Lycurgus Smith, Murfreesboro. W. II. White, Perryville. 

T. J. Templeton, Murfrcesboro. J. F. West, Murfreesboro. 

B. G. Webb, Perryville and Franklin. F. M. York, Murfreesboro. 
R. A. Ware, Perryville. 

PROMOTED. 



P. H. Coffee, Major, 1862. 
J. G. Lambert, Capt., 1862. 
S. H. Brown, 1st Lieut., 1862. 
George Marchbanks, Adjutant, 1801. 



J. P. A. Henncssee, 1st Lieut., 1863. 
F. M. York, 2rt Lieut., 1862, Capt , 1868. 
W H. White, 2d Lieut., 1862. 



COMPANY E. 



OKFICKKS. 



Thomas B. Murray, Captain. 
Alfred P. Sinartt, First Lieutenant. 
James Hill, Second Lieutenant. 
Thomas York, Third Lieutenant. 
Moss Mason, First Sergeant. 
William Lowry, Second Sergeant. 



James Green, Third Sergeant. 
Robert Webb, Fourth Sergeant. 
Hugh L. Moffltt, First Corporal. 
H. J. Christian, Second Corporal. 
S. W. Bratcher, Third Corporal. 
Duke Blackwell, Fourth Corporal. 



John Bost. 

J. R. Brown. 

J. H. Brown. 

Asbury Brown. 

W. H. Brooks. 

Aaron Bouldin. 

R. P. Burks. 
John Boren. 

Harrel Byars. 

David Bonner. 

Lawson Cantrell. 
Samuel Cantrell. 
J. C. Corder. 
J. R. Countiss. 
Peter Countiss. 
John Countiss. 
W. C. Countiss. 
James Christian. 
Enoch Cooksey. 
Gillam Clark. 
Abe Douglass. 
Dock Douglass. 
Joseph England. 
Clark Edge. 
Polk Evans. 
W. M. Evans. 



PRIVATES. 



Newt Fusion. 
Reese J. Fuston. 
W. J. Fuston. 
Joseph H. Goodbar. 
John Green. 

A. J. Gribble. 

B. P. Green. 
Elias Green. 
W. W. Gourd. 
E. H. Green. 

D. Holmes. 
J. H. Holmes. 
Read Holmes. 
James W. Hill. 
W. M. Hensley. 
W. M. Jones. 
Isaac Jones. 

E. J. Jones. 
James Jennings. 
Pleasant Jennings. 
Dock Jennings. 
Tillman Keener. 
Lawsnn Keif. 
Nelson Kirby. 
Robert Kirby. 
James Kirby. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



177 



Jerry Killian. 
W. Lowry. 
Polk Lowry. 
James Laurence. 
George Martin. 
Isaiah Moffitt. 
William Mooree. 
John Martin. 



William Manning. 
John Medley. 
Michael Mauzy. 
William Mullican. 
W. C. Morton. 
W. T. Mabry. 
Allen Mason. 
William Mason. 




MAJOR JO. H. GOODBAR. 



George^McNeeley. 
James McGregor. 
Eiley Nunnelly. 
General Nunnelly. 
Archie Xunuelly. 
O. D. Neal. 
John Perser. 
Luke Perser. 

12 



A. J. Paine. 
John R. Paine. 
Thomas Potter. 
E. W. Smartt. 
A. P. Smartt. 
John S. Sanders. 
Carrol Stepp. 
J. R. Skelton. 



178 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



J. P. Smartt. 


Rowland Ware. 


Bryant Stroud. 
John Tanner. 


John R. Woiuack. 
W. C. Womack. 


Isaac Tramble. 


R. R. Womack. 


Stephen Tate. 
John Van Hooser. 


A. M. Womack. 
Felix G. Womack. 


J. Van Hooser. 


John S. Womack. 


L. L. Van Hooser. 


John B. Womack. 


John Van Hooser. 


John C. Watson. 


Fate Van Hooser. 


W. R. Wood. 


Newt Van Hooser. 


U. L. Wood. 


Elias Woiuack. 


William Woods. 


Jesse Walling. 
Robert Webb. 


George Wallace. 
Thomas York. 


Perry G. Webb. 


George W. York. 



KILLED. 



Lieut. James Green, Franklin. 
J. H. Brown, Franklin. 
John Boren, Perry ville. 
David Bonner, Murfreesboro. 
J. R. Countiss, Perryville. 
Lawson Cantrell, Murfreesboro. 
James Christian, Perryville. 
Abe Douglass, Murfreesboro. 
Joseph England, Perryville. 
William Evans, Atlanta. 
Isaac Jones, Murfreesboro. 
James Kirby, Murfreesboro. 
William Lowry, Lost Mountain. 



Michael Mauzy, Murfreesboro. 
Allen Mason, Perryville. 
James McGregor, Perryville. 
A. P. Smartt, Perryville. 
Stephen Tate, Corinth. 
L. L. Vanhooser, Unknown. 
Elias Womack, Perryville. 
Perry Webb, Perryville. 
Rowland Ware, Perryville. 
John B. Womack. Franklin. 
Thomas York, (transferred,) Perry- 
. ville. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 

Maj. J. H. Goodbar, Morristown, 1861. O. D. Neal, Huntersville, Va. 
Polk Evans, Meadow Bluff. J. P. Smartt, Unknown. 

Reid Holmes, Warm Springs, Va. U. L. Wood, (transferred,) Home, 1861. 

Moss Mason, Prison, Rock Island. 



WOUNDED. 



Capt. J. J. Womack, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. Jesse Walling, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. W. C. Womack, Missionary 

Ridge. 

Enoch Cooksey, Perryville. 
John Medley, Perryville. 
Archie Nunnelly, Perryville. 
R. R. Womack, Perryville. 
George W. York, Resaca. 
W. T. Mabry, Murfreesboro. 



G. N. Clark, Murfreesboro. 
J. B. Womack, Murfreesboro. 
A. M. Mason, Murfreesboro. 
Luke Perser, Murfreesboro. 
John Perser, Murfreesboro. 
Isaiah Moffitt, Murfreesboro. 
G. W. Wallace, Murfreesboro. 
A. J. Van Hooser, Murfreesboro. 
J. S. Van Hooser, Murfreesboro. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



179 



PROMOTED. 



Thomas B. Murray, Lieut.-col., 1861. 
Joseph H. Goodbar, Major, 1861. 
J. J. Womack, Capt., 1861. 
John K. Paine, Adjutant, 1862. 
Jesse Walling, 1st Lieut., 1862. 



J. K. P. Webb, 2d Lieut., 1862, Capt. 

1863. 

B. P. Green, 3d Lieut., 1864. 
W. C. Womack, 3d Lieut., 1863. 



COMPANY F. 

OFFICERS. 

H. H. Dillard, Captajn. James McKinley, Fourth Sergeant. 

W. K. Sadler, First Lieutenant. David H. Bullington, Fifth Sergeant. 
Holland Denton, Second Lieutenant. H. I. Hughes, First Corporal. 

R. A. Young, Third Lieutenant. J. M. Null, Second Corporal. 

M. S. Smith, First Sergeant. Joel Gabbert, Third Corporal. 

S. W. Brown, Second Sergeant. J. Y. Crowell, Fourth Corporal. 
B. F. Scudders, Third Sergeant. 



PRIVATES. 



M. M. Anderson. 

F. M. Amonet. 
Joseph Ballard. 

C. M. Ballard. 
Samuel Benson. 
J. R. Bullington. 
Leroy Bullington. 
John Bullington. 
Josiah Bullington. 
Branshaw Boyd. 
Obadiah Boyd. 

J. A. Boyd. 
John Brown. 
David Bryant. 
W. W. Baldwin. 
William Braswell. 
W. N. Caruthers. 
Crockett Clark. 

D. A. Crowell. 
Walter E. Chilton. 
John Choate. 
Jacob Choate. 
Meadow Choate. 
J. L. Davis. 

Van Dillard. 
I. C. Eldridge. 

G. W. Floyd. 
J. H. Fisher. 
W. L. Grimsley. 



W. F. Grimsley. 
Jack Griffin. 
Elijah Garrett. 
Noah Harris. 
Richard Hensley. 
William Hoggard. 
Henry Harpole. 
William Hodges. 
J. M. Jackson. 
Alexander Jackson. 
G. B. Jaquess. 
P. H. Leadbetter. 
Thomas Laycock. 
I. C. Laycock. 
J. R. Laycock. 
W. H. Maxwell. 
D. W. Maxwell. 
T. R. Matheney. 
J. P. Maberry. 
W. T. Moore. 
J. F. Moore. 
J. R. Murry. 
M. J. Nichols. 
John Nichols. 
Lewis Ollerson. 
J. F. Owen. 
W. H. H. Ortry. 
H. L. C. Pearson. 
D. G. Pointer. 



i8o 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



J. J. Richardson. 
John Scarlett. 
B. L. Scarlett. 
A. J. Sutton. 
W. H. Sullins. 
T. C. Thompson. 
John Tolbert. 
J. B. Vance. 
P. M. Wasson. 
Allen Winchester. 
William Wiggleton. 

M. M. Anderson, Perry ville, 
John Choate, Murfreesboro. 
Jacob Choate, Murfreesboro. 
W. F. Grimsley, Perryville. 
William Hodges, Chickamauga. 
Alexander Jackson, Perryville. 
J. C. Laycock, Murfreesboro. 
. James Murray, Murfreesboro. 
John Brown, Murfreesboro. 
Joseph Y. Ballard, Murfreesboro. 



K. J. West. 
J. M. West. 

B. H. Watson. 
W. W. Wallace. 
A. D. Young. 

C. C. Young. 

K. K. McDaniel. 
Rufus Owen. 
William Webb. 
Albert Ballard. 

KILLED. 

J. R. Murray, Perryville. 

J. F. Owen, Jonesboro, Ga. 

Lieut. D. G. Pointer, Perryville. 

Capt. J. B. Vance, Perryville. 

T. C. Thompson, Perryville. 

R. J. West, Atlanta. 

Lieut. W. W. Wallace, Murfreesboro. 

Rufus Owen, Atlanta. 

William Webb, Franklin. 

Albert Ballard, Murfreesboro. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 



David H. Bullington, Tupelo. 
Bransford Boyd, Nashville, 1861. 
T. R. Matheney, Huntersville. 



W. T. Moore, Dublin, Va. 
John Tolbert, Millboro. 



WOUNDED. 

B. F^ Scudders, Perryville. M. J. Nichols, Perryville. 

H. f. Hughes, Perryville and Mur- John Nichols, Perryville and Mur- 



freesboro. 

Joseph Ballard, Murfreesboro. 
John Bullington, Perryville. 
Josiah Bullington, Perryville. 
John Brown, Perryville. 
W. W. Baldwin, Perryville. 
W. N. Caruthers, Perryville. 
J. H. Fisher, Cheat Mountain. 

H. H. Dillard, Major, 1862. 
John B. Vance, Capt., 1862. 
D. G. Pointer, 3d Lieut., 1862. 
W. W. Baldwin, 2d Lieut., 1862. 



freesboro. 

Lewis Ollerson, Perryville. 
W. H. H. Ortry, Atlanta. 
H. L. C. Pearsons, Perryville. 
J. J. Richardson, Perryville. 
P. M. Wasson, Murfreesboro. 
William Wiggleton, Murfreesboro. 
I. M. West, Atlanta. 
PROMOTED. 

W. W. Wallace, 1st Lieut., 1862. 
F. M. Amonett, Capt., 1863. 
M. J. Nichols, 3d Lieut,, 1863. 
J. F. Owen, 3d Lieut., 1863. 



COMPANY G. 

OXFICERS. 

P. C. Shields, Captain. W. L. Woods, Second Lieutenant. 

A. T. Fisher, First Lieutenant. James R. Fisher, Third Lieutenant 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



181 





PRIVATES. 


Jasper Adcock. 


G. W. Gilbert. 


H. P. Adcock. 


L. W. Gilbert. 


William Allen. 


William Gleeson. 


A. J. Allen. 


William Goodson. 


Benjamin Atnip. 


E. M. Greenfield. 


John Atnip. 


James Helton. 


Alfred Bain. 


Lawson Helton. 


Peter Bain. 


J. L. Hudson. 


Isaiah Bain. 


Jesse Hudson. 


John Bain. 


Thomas Hodge. 


Peter Bain. 


Moses Hutchins. 


Henry Bain. 


Ben Hutchins. 


C. Bain. 


C. M. Jordan. 


J. L. Britton. 


Lawson Knowles. 


M. Blount. 


Robert Love. 


W. M. Clenny. 


Levi Lassater. 


Joseph Cantrell. 


Isaiah Lassater. 


C. W. Cantrell. 


Monroe Moore. 


William L. Cantrell. 


Ransom Moore. 


Meredith Carter. 


Dimmon Moore. 


Darius Clark. 


Lawson Moore. 


Phineas Clark. 


Wallace McPeak. 


Jefferson Clark. 


John MeMaiius. 


H. B. Cope. 


John Meggerson. 


William A. Cotton. 


O. D. McGown. 


Ben Capshaw. 


James Mullins. 


Zil Cruse. 


James North. 


T. A. Cotton. 


A. Norris. 


T.'A. C. Denton. 


Thomas Pollard. 


John Denton. 


F. M. Pettit. 


D. L. Dunham." 


Thomas Pettit. 


L. R. Dunham. 


Albert Pickering. 


P. C. Duncan. 


Jasper Roberts. 


John Donnell. 


James Roberts, 


R. N. Earles. 


G. W. Roberts. 


Gabriel Elkins. 


William Roberts. 


John Fisher. 


James Roberts, jr. 


L. B. Fisher. 


Dock Roberta. 


J. P. Fisher. 


Joseph Ray. 


Peter Franks. 


Casson Robinson. 


A. Fisk. 


C. G. Rankhorn. 


W. J. Farris. 


H. L. P. Sanders. 


Lawson Fisher. 


L. H. Stockton. 


M. L. Fisher. 


Wiley Sanders. 


L. B. Fisher. 


Lawson Smith. 


P. B. Franks. 


J. R. Swindle. 


R. Grissom. 


J. J. Stanley. 


Grundy Gibbs. 


C. G. Stacy. 



182 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



Nathan Troglin. 
Lee Troglin. 
Adolphus Wiggins. 
J. W. Wiggins. 
Tilmon Wiggins. 
F. M. Wright. 
S. L. Walker. 
O. D. Walker. 



Alexander Walker. 
Seth F. Wright. 
D. W. Warst. 
Austin Webb. 
James Wright. 
Deskin Wright. 
Andrew J. Youngblood. 



KILLED. 



Isaiah Bain, Perry ville. 
C. Bain, Perry ville. 
J. L. Britton, Murfreesboro. 
W. S. Cantrell, Perryville. 
Darius Clark, Perryville. 
H. B. Cope, Perryville. 
P. C. Duncan, Perryville. 
Lawson Fisher, Perryville. 
Grundy Gibbs, Atlanta. 
J. L. Hutson, Perryville. 
Monroe Moore, Perryville. 
Ransom Moore, Murfreesboro. 
Jasper Roberts, Perryville. 

DIED IN 

Lieut. W. M. Clenny, Ga., 1861. 
Peter Atnip, Va. 
C. W. Cantrell, Ga. 
David L. Dunham, Prison. 
E. M. Greenfield, in Camp. 
James Hilton, Prison. 
James Mullin, Prison. 



Dock Roberts, Perryville. 
J. W. Wiggins, Perryville. 
Thomas Hodges, Murfreesboro. 
F. M. Wright, Perryville. 
Thomas Pollard, Atlanta. 
S. L. Walker, Perryville. 
B. L. Jordan, Franklin. 
Zil Cruse, Murfreesboro. 
Lee Troglin, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. F. M. Pettit, Franklin. 
James N. Cantrell, Murfreesboro. 
John Fisher, Murfreesboro. 

SERVICE. 

L. H. Stockton, Perryville. 

John Donnell, Mississippi. 

Dimmon Moore, Murfreesboro. 

Wallace McPeark, Huntersville, 1861.- 

D. W. Marsh, Camp. 

J. J. Allen, Ky. 

William Gleeson, Vicksburg, Miss. 



William A. Cotton, Perryville. 
P. B. Franks, Murfreesboro. 
William Roberts, Corinth. 
Lawson Knowles, Perryville. 
Adolphus Wiggins, Perryville. 



WOUNDED. 

William Gleeson, Perryville. 
C. G. Rankhorn, Kennesaw Moun- 
tain. 
Andy Youngblood, Murfreesboro. 



PROMOTED. 



A. T. Fisher, Capt., 1862. 
W. L. Woods, 1st Lieut., 1862. 
A. Fisk, 2d Lieut, 1862, Capt., 1868. 
W. M. Clenny, 2d Lieut., 1862. 



F. M. Pettit, 2d Lieut,, 1863. 
P. B. Franks, 3d Lieut., 1863. 
Lawson Smith, 2d Lieut., 1862. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



1 8,3 



COMPANY H. 



OFFICERS. 



L. H. Meadows, Captain. 
H. L. Siiums, First Lieutenant. 
W. G. Etter, Second Lieutenant. 
B. J. Solomon, Third Lieutenant. 
James M. Parks, First Sergeant. 
K. B. Hayes, Second Sergeant. 



W. P. Ray, Third Sergeant. 
K. B. Bess, Fourth Sergeant. 
Carrol Fultz, First Corporal. 
Jerome Safley, Second Corporal. 
F. M. Perry, Third Corporal. 
William G. Reese, Fourth Corporal. 



PRIVATES. 



Adrian Anglin. 
Tip Anglin. 
John Akeman. 
George Akeman. 
Samuel B. Baker. 

F. M. Barker. 
J. S. Brown. 
John Brown. 
John H. Brown. 

G. T^Brown. 
W. S. Bullen. 
Absalom Brown. 
Russell Brown. 
Jackson Brown. 
John Bess. 
Wiley Bess. 
Russell Bess. 
Alius Bess. 
Mitchell Campbell. 
Samuel Cartwright. 
John Countiss. 
John Christian. 

W. B. Christian. 
C. W. Clendennon. 
J. N. Clendennon. 
Jackson Clendennon. 
Isaac Cunningham. 
Jacob Curtis. 
Wiley Curtis. 
Martin Curtis. 
T. Coldwell. 
W. Coldwell. 
Leonard Daniel. 
T. J. Davis. 
John Davis. 
James Dodson. 
P. A. Earles. 



R. R. Etter. 
George H. Etter. 
William Etter. 
John Etter. 
J. P. Etter. 
William Furren. 
Joseph Furren. 
David Fultz. 
M. P. Hayes. 
H. L. Hayes. 
Obadiah Hennessee. 
Mart Hennessee. 
J. C. Hughes. 
Aaron Hughes. 
William Hughes. 
B. J. Hill, jr. 
William Hennessee. 
Rad Hill. 
James Johnson. 
James Jones. 
Isaac R. Jones. 
A. J. Jordan. 
Houston Lynn. 
James Lockhart. 
Joseph Lockhart. 
James McDaniel. 
A. McDaniel. 
A. J. Moore. 
William Mitchell. 
J. A. Miller. 
J. H. Mooney. 
John Murphy. 
W. R. Martin. 
Alpha Martin. 
G. C. McCraw. 
M. E. C. Mobley. 
F. M. Moffitt. 



1 84 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



Sam McCorkle, sr., (Fiddler.) 
Samuel McCorkle, jr. 
Stephen McCorkle. 
David Miller. 
William Overturf. 
Alexander Parsley. 
Henry Powell. 



Edward Pursley. 
Joseph Pace. 
H. Pennington. 
Elijah Poe. 
G. W. Parks. 
Wills Roberts. 
Marshal Roljerts. 




CAPTAIN JAMES M. PARKS. 



Isaac Roberts. 
Levi Rodgers. 
James Rowan. 
W. N. Russell. 
W. H. Russell. 
C. M. Rutledge. 
R. M. Safley. 



Jefferson Savage. 
Jesse Savage. 
James Slaughter. 
B. J. Slaughter. 
Allen Smith. 
J. N. Smith. 
B. F. Smith. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



I 85 



Andy Smith. 
Jackson Smith. 


J. C. Waldo. 
John Willis. 


John Scott. 


William Willis. 


Levi Sides. 


Harmon Willis. 


William Tallent. 


A J. Woodlee. 


Henry Turner. 


W. C. Woodlee. 


Simins Vickers. 


Isaac Walker. 


J. J. Vickers. 


J. C. Watson. 


A. D. Ware. 





KILLED. 



Capt. J. M. Parks, Chickamauga. 
Leiut John Akeman, Altanta, four 

wounds. 

Serg't R. B. Hayes, Perryville. 
Serg't W. P. Ray, Perryville. 
Corp'I Jerome Safley, Perryville. 
.Samuel M. Baker, (transferred;) in 

Cavalry. 

John H. Brown, Fraukiin. 
John Countiss, Perryville. 
Isaac Cunningham, Perryville. 
Martin Curtis, Perryville. 
William Etter, Atlanta. 

DIED IN 

Russell Bess, Camp Trousdale, 1861. 
N. J. Hill, jr., Home, 1861. 
James Johnson, Pocotaligo, S. C. 
William Mitchell, Huntersville, Va. 
J. A. Miller, Huntersville. 
G. C. McCraw, Camp Trousdale. 
Isaac Roberts, Warm Springs, Ya. 



B. J. Solomon, transferred to Cavalry. 
John Etter, Murfreesboro. 
ObadiahHennessee, Perryville. 
Martin Hennessee, Perryville. 
Isaac R. Jones, Murfreesboro. 
Alpha Martin, Cheat Mountain. 
Edward Pursley, Murfreesboro. 
Henry Pennington, Murfreesboro. 
J. N. Smith, Perryville. 
B. F. Smith, Murfreesboro. 
B. J. Slaughter, in Cavalry, (trans- 
ferred). 

SERVICE. 

James Rowan, Home. 

Jefferson Savage, Shelbyville, 1863. 

Jesse Savage, Atlanta, 1863. 

James Slaughter, Atlanta. 

Jackson Smith, Home. 

Isaac Walker, Home, 1861. 



WOUNDED. 



Capt. J. M. Parks, Murfreesboro. 
G. T. Brown, Pocotaligo. 
W. G. Etter, Perryville. 
H. L Hayes, Perryville. 
Carrol Fultz, Perryville. 
R. R. Etter, Perryville. 
G. W. Parks, Perryville. 
J. S. Brown, Murfreesboro. 
W. S. Bullen, Murfreesboro. 
'i . J. Davis, Murfreesboro. 
j. C. Hughes, Murfreesboro. 
->:. P. Hayes, Murfreesboro. 



James Jones, Murfreesboro. 

A. J. Jordan, Murfreesboro. 

W. N. Russell, Murfreesboro. 

W. G. Etter, Chickamauga. 

C. M. Rutledge, Chickamauga. 

J. C. Watson, Chickamauga. 

R. R. Bess, Atlanta. 

J. P. Etter, Atlanta. 

R. M. Safley, Atlanta. 

Rad Hill, (transferred to Fifth Tenn.) 

G. H. Etter, in Cavalry, (transferred). 

J. H. Mooney, in Cavalry (transf red). 



PROMOTED. 

J. M. Parks, Capt., 1862. H. L. Hayes, 2d Lieut., 1862. 

W. G. Etter, 1st Lieut., 1862, Capt., 1863. John Akeman, 3d Lieut., 1862.' 



1 86 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



COMPANY I. 

OFFICERS. 

Harmon York, Captain. James K. Hillis, Fourth Sergeant. 

Green B. Johnson, First Lieutenant. John Grissom, Fifth Sergeant. 
Mortimer 15. Wood, Second Lieutenant. Samuel Fleming, First Corporal. 



A. T. Seitz, Third Lieutenant. 
Philip Shockley, First Sergeant. 
G. M. Cummings, Second Sergeant. 
Ben Kandals, Third Sergeant. 



William Jones, Second Corporal. 
James Worthing, Third Corporal. 
William B. Wood, Fourth Corporal. 



PRIVATES. 



A. J. Agent. 

John Baker. 

Samuel Baker. 

Peter Baker. 

Silas Y. Ballard. 

Cyrus Billingsley. 

John Boyd. 

William Boyd. 

R. C. Boyd. 

C. H. Clark. 

William Creeley. 

Denny Cummings. 

Joseph Cummings. 

Joseph Denny Cummings. 

John L. Cummings. 

George W. Drake. 

J. K. P. Douglas. 

J. B. Foster. 

John Graham. 

G. W. Groves. 

James Green. 

N. B. Hambrick. 

Pleas Harrison. 

W. B. Haston. 

Samuel Haston. 

John Hankins. 

Jacob Hayes. 

T. A. Head. 

W. H. Head. 

I. T. Hillis. 

W. R. Hillis. 

Isham Hollansworth. 

Isaac Howard. 

Levi Johnson. 

A T. Jones. 

James Martin. 

Stephen Martin. 



Isham Martin. 
Neil McClure. 
W. C. McBride. 
G. W. McBride. 
Mathew McBride. 
George W. Miller. 
Martin Mitchell. 
Mark Mitchell. 
James Mitchell. 
William Mitchell. 
S. D. Mitchell. 
B. F. Morgan. 
William Morgan. 
James Moore. 

D. C. Moore. 
Miles Moore. 
John A. Myers. 
Nero Owens. 
Joseph Pace. 
W. R. Paine. 
H. C. Paine. 
Samuel Parker. 
Bryson Parsley. 
William T. Passons. 

E. T. Passous. 
James Passons. 
A. J. Passons. 
George W. Miller. 
John Patton. 
Simon Philips. 
Samuel Porter. 
Solomon Porter. 
T. A. Priest. 
Marion Priest. 
Larkin Priest. 

D. C. Randals. 
Henderson Rhodes. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



187 



JeffC. Rodgers. 
W. W. Rawlings. 
Thomas Rawlings. 
Jackson Rolls. 
John Smaller. ' 
W. J. Smith. 
G. W. Sparkman. 
Nelson Sparkman. 
Elvin Sparkraan. 
Peter Shockley. 
Hickman Shockley. 
John J. Steakley. 
James C. Steakley. 
A. C. Stype. 
Joseph Stype. 
George W. Stype. 
F. M. Stype. " 



KILLED. 



Marion Thomasson. 
A. F. Thompson 
W. J. Underwood. 
John Underwood. 
Joseph Walker. 
Joshua Worley. 
Rufus Ward. 
D. C. Ward. 
Samuel Worthington. 
W. T. Worthington. 
Silas R. York. 
A. C. York. 
John E. York. 
William Wilson. 
W. T. Thurman. 
W. R. Wood. 
U. L. Wood. 



Serg't John Grissom, Corinth. 

Corp'l William Jones, Perryville. 

Corp'l William B. Wood, Perryville. 

A. J. Agent, Atlanta. 

Samuel Baker, Lost Mountain. 

S. Y. Ballard, Detached. 

William Creeley, Corinth. 

N. B. Hambrick, Franklin. 

Ishaia Hollinsworth, Murfreesboro. 

Levi Johnson, Perryville. 

James Moore, Perryville. 

D. C. Moore, Murfreesboro. 

H. C. Paine, Lovejoy Station, Ga. 

Marion Priest, Murfreesboro. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 



Henderson Rhodes, Murfreesboro. 
Thomas Rawlins, Murfreesboro. 
Samuel Parker, Perryville. 
G. W. Sparkman, Perryville. 
Peter Shockley, Perryville. 
Wiley B. Haston, Pejryville. 
John J. Steakley, Perryville. 
James C. Steakley, Perryville. 
Frank M. Stype, in Cavalry, (trans- 
ferred.) 

John E. York, Perryville. 
Simon Philips, Perryville. 
Philip Shockley, Transferred. 



W. J. Smith, Bath Alum Springs. 
Marion Thomasson, Tullahoma. 
Joshua Worley, Atlanta. 
William Wilson, Nashville. 
U. L. Wood, Home, (discharged.) 



G. W. Drake, Huntersville. 
J. B. Foster, White Sulphur Springs. 
Pleas Harrison, Bath Alum Springs. 
John Hankins, Bath Alum Springs. 
W. R. Hillis, Camp Trousdale. 
Isaac Howard, Corinth. 

WOUNDED. 

Sol Porter, Murfreesboro. James Passons, Resaca. 

Lieut. S. D. Mitchell, Perryville. W. T. Worthington, Murfreesboro. 

John Smaller, Perryville. Samuel Worthington, Murfreesboro. 

Cyrus Billiugsley, Perryville. S. R. York, Murfreesboro. 

Lieut. Denny Cummings, Perryville. 

PROMOTKD. 

John Boyd, 3d Lieut., 1861. S. D. Mitchell, 2d Lieut., 1862. 

Ben Randals, Capt., 1862, Maj., 1865. Denny Cummings, 3d Lieut., 1862. 
James Worthington, 1st Lieut., 1862. 



1 88 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



COMPANY K. 



OFFICERS. 



Daniel T. Brown, Captain. 

S. B. McMillan, First Lieutenant. 

John Austin. 
T. J. Bradford. 
James Brown. 

John Basheers. 
Simeon Baker. 
R. D. Baker. 
R. L. Bronson. 
J. I). Bozarth. 
Robert Burnett. 
Hugh Carriek. 
Samuel Carriek. 
Dock Carr. 
G. W. Collins. 
James Call ins. 

C. C. Cash. 
John Castille. 
S. W. Caijtrell. 
Logan Cantrell. 
Marshall Cope. 
El bridge Cope. 
Tip Cope. 
James Cope. 
Andrew Cope. 
T. R. Cooper. 
Jimmy Cottair. 
James Clark. 
Nick Cook. 
John Downey. 
Vance Davis. 
W. B. Davis. 

D. W. Dinges. 
W. L. Dibrell. 
Perry Epps. 
Henry Enimett. 
William England. 
Jubal Early. 
Samuel Eastland. 
Silas Farley. 
Thomas Farley. 
Thomas Farmer. 
Simon Frazier. 
R. D. Fancher. 



James RevLs, Second Lieutenant. 
W. D. Turlington, Third Lieutenant. 



PRIVATES. 



J. K. P. Fancher. 
J. E. Ford. 
Hosea Gist. 
Jesse Gross. 
H. L. Gracy. 
Gardner Green. 
Alexander Glenn. 
P. L. Hensley. 
Trent Hampton. 
John Hudgins. 
J. L. Heard. 
E. M. Irving. 
A. T. D. Irving. 
Henry Jones. 
Henry James. 
W. R. Jett. 
George Johnson. 
Thomas Knowles. 
Jasper Knowles. 
William Knowles. 
John Kirbv. 
Alexander Kirby. 
Zachariah Lay. 
Benjamin Lack. 
Thomas Lisk. 
John Lowry. 
William Lowry. 
William Lafferty. 
J. W. McConnell. 
A. D. McKinzie. 
Daniel Martin. 
George Martin. 
W. B. McManus. 
Frank Marchbanks. 
Joseph Mitchell. 
G. W. Nelson. 
Durgan Nash. 
Alexander Oakes. 
Bryson Parsley. 
Thomas Purtle. 
Elijah Quillen. 
James Revis. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



189 



William M. Revis. 
J. E. Rotan. 
Alexander Rawlston. 
J. E. Shockley. 
T. H. K. Shockley. 
Samuel Scott. 
Robert Snodgrass. 
Samuel Snodgrass. 
Andrew Saviors. 
W. G. Simms. 
James Smith. 
George Shanks. 
Monroe Stacy. 
Thomas Taylor. 
Hiram Taylor. 
A. J. Turlington. 
John Turlington. 

James Brown, Greensboro, N. 
Simeon Baker, Perryville. 
Hugh Carrick, Chickamauga. 
James Carlin, Murfreesboro. 
Marshall Cope, Murfreesboro. 
James Clark, Perryville. 
J. E. Ford, Perry ville. 
Daniel Martin, Perryville. 
F. Marchbanks, in Cavalry, 
ferred. 



T. J. Templeton. 
Green Templeton. 
Pleas Templeton. 
Sylvester Humphrey. 
Alexander Vass. 
George Worley. 
Joshua Worley. 
John Webb. 
Lawson Webb. 
William Wilhoit. 
James Wilhoit. 
Stephen Williams. 
John Warren. 
Joseph Wilson. 
J. H. Whitley. 
J. T. Walker. 



KILLED. 



C. Alexander Oaks, Perryville. 

T. H. K. Shockley, Detached. 

Robert Snodgrass, Ga. 

Andrew Saylors, New Hope Church. 

Pleas Templeton, Franklin. 

George Worley, Murfreesboro. 

Joshua Worley, Murfreesboro. 

William Wilhoit, Franklin, 
(trans- Stephen Williams, Ky. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 



John Bashurs, Prison. 
Logan Cantrell, Huntersville. 
Elbridge Cope, Shelbyville. 
Vance Davis, Greenbrier, Va. 
Jubal Early, Prison. 
Silas Farley, Chattanooga. 
Thomas Knowles, Huntersville, Va. 



John Kirby, Ga. 

Zack Lay, Unknown. 

George Martin, Tullahoma, Tenn. 

Thomas Purtle, Lewisburg, Va. 

William M. Revis, Unknown. 

George Shanks, Tullahoma. 

Sylvester Humphreys, Home. 



WOUNDED. 

William Lowry, Murfreesboro and Jasper Knowles, Perryville. 

Atlanta. William Laferty, Dallas, Ga. 

John Castile, Murfreesboro. James Revis, Murfreesboro. 

H. L. Gracy, Perryville. T. J. Templeton, Murfreesboro. 

Gardner Green, Chickamauga. James Wilhoit, Murfreesboro. 
E. M. Irving, Va. 

PROMOTED. 

Daniel T. Brown, Major, 1862, Lieut.- J. Edward Rotan, 2d Lieut., 1862. 

col., 1863. William Lowry, 3d Lieut., 1862. 

W. T. Turlington, Capt., 1862. W. G. Simms, 3d Lieut., 1863. 



190 



THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT 



RECAPITULATION. 

Showing the number of men enlisted in the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee 
Volunteers, and the total casualties from 1861 to 1865, by companies. 



COMMAND. 


Number 
Enlisted. 


Number 
Killed. 


Number 
Wounded, j 


Number Died 
of Disease. 




"3 

11 

H 


REMARKS. 


Field and Staff. 


3 




3 
23 
2 
16 
26 
18 
18 
8 
21 
9 
10 

154* 


1 
14 
20 
11 
2 
7 
5 
14 
14 
11 
14 

113 


4 
64 
31 
49 
46 
49 
41 
47 
58 
46 
42 

479 


Not including conscripts. 




Company A 


147 
143 
143 
110 
125 
92 
115 
129 
120 
120 

1247 


27 
9 
22 
18 
24 
21 
25 
23 
26 
18 

213 


Company B 


Company C 


Company D 


Company E 


Company F 


Company G 


Company II 


Company I 


Company K 


Total 



* This report includes only the severely wounded. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 191 



SKETCHES 

OTHER TENNESSEE REGIMENTS. 

o-^-o 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE EIGHTH REGIMENT OF TENNESSEE 
VOLUNTEERS. 

This regiment was composed of volunteer compa- 
nies from the counties of Lincoln, Moore, Marshall, 
Overton, Jackson, and Smith, of which Lincoln county 
furnished four companies, Marshall county one, Jack- 
son county two, Overton county two, Smith county 
one, and contained the following number of men re- 
spectively: 

1. Captain McKinney's company, 100 men. 

2. Captain Higgins's company, 78 men. 

3. Captain Bryant's company, 98 men. 

4. Captain Moore's company, 104 men. 

5. Captain Hall's company, 78 men. 

6. Captain Gore's company, 97 men. 

7. Captain Armstrong's company, 80 men. 

8. Captain Buford's company, 62 men. 

9. Captain Myers's company, 89 men. 

10. Captain McHenry's company, 91 men. 



192 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

The companies were organized into a regiment at 
Camp Trousdale, in Sumner county, Tennessee, May 
29, 1861, and officered as follows: 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

ALBERT S. FULTON, Colonel; 

WILLIAM L. MOORE, Lieutenant-colonel; 

W. B. BOTTS, Major; 

C. C. McKiNNEY, Adjutant; 

L. W, OGLESBY, Quartermaster; 

ALBERT EWING, Commissary; 

Dr. J. W. GRAY, Surgeon; 

Dr. GRANVILLE B. LESTER, Assistant Surgeon; 

Rev. DAVID TUCKER, Chaplain. 

The companies were officered as follows: 

1. CAPTAIN McKINNET'S COMPACT. 
[Lincoln County.) 

Rane R. McKinney Captain. 

N. M. Bearden First Lieutenant. 

T. W. Raney Second Lieutenant. 

A. M. Downing Third Lieutenant. 

2. CAPTAIN HIGGINSTS COM PANT. 

(Lincoln County.) 

George W. Higgins Captain. 

Christopher Griswell First Lieutenant. 

E. S. N. Bobo Second Lieutenant. 

David Sullivan Third Lieutenant. 

3. CAPTAIN BRTANT'S COMPANY. 

(Marshall County.) 

James L. Bryant Captain. 

James P. Holland First Lieutenant. 

T. F. Brooks Second Lieutenant. 

B. B. Bowers Third Lieutenant. 

T. E. Russell First Sergeant. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 193 

4. CAPTAIN MOORE'S COMPANT. 

(Lincoln, now Moore, County.) 

William Lawson Moore Captain. 

William J. Thrash First Lieutenant. 

Thomas H. Freeman Second Lieutenant. 

W. L. Shoftner Third Lieutenant. 

5. CAPTAIN HALL'S COMPANT. 

(Lincoln County.) 

A. M. Hall Captain. 

C. C. McKinney First Lieutenant. 

Theophilus W. Bledsoe Second Lieutenant. 

C. N. Allen Third Lieutenant. 

6. CAPTAIN GORE'S COMPANT. 

(Jackson County.) 

William Gore Captain. 

A. B. Botts First Lieutenant. 

James Eaton Second Lieutenant. 

A. W. W. Brooks Third Lieutenant. 

7. CAPTAIN ARMSTRONG'S COMPANT. 

(Jackson County.) 

L. T. Armstrong Captain. 

(We were unable to procure the names of the other officers of this company.) 

8. CAPTAIN BUFORD^S COMPANT. 
(Smith County.) 

William J. Buford Captain. 

(We- were unable to procure the names of the other officers of this company.) 

9. CAPTAIN MTERS'S COMPANT. 

(Overton County.) 
Calvin E. Myers Captain. 

Columbus Marchbanks First Lieutenant. 

W. W. Windle Second Liutenant. 

W. C. Hickey Third Lieutenant. 

10. CAPTAIN McHENRTTS COMPANT. 

(Overton County.) 
Tim S. McHenry Captain. 

Joseph Wright First Lieutenant. 

13 



194 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

Andrew Dale Second Lieutenant. 

Robert Parker Third Lieutenant. 

Captain William L. Moore having been elected lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the regiment, William J. Thrash was 
made captain of Moore's company, and William Bon- 
ner was elected first lieutenant. 

The Eighth Tennessee remained at Camp Trousdale 
in camp of instruction under General Zollicoffer until 
July, when it was sent, with other Tennessee regi- 
ments, to Haynesville, East Tennessee, from which 
point the regiment was placed in a brigade with the 
Sixteenth and assigned to Loring's division of Lee's 
army. This brigade was commanded by Brigadier- 
general Daniel S. Donelson, and the Eighth and Six- 
teenth Tennessee Regiments remained in this brigade 
without change to the close of the war. 

The Eighth Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers was 
composed of hardy, able-bodied men, and participated 
in the memorable campaign of Western Virginia under 
Lee. At the battle of Cheat Mountain this regiment 
bore a prominent part. On the night previous to this 
engagement this regiment was in line of battle within 
a few hundred yards of the enemy's encampment, 
having successfully gained the rear of the position. 
In the affair the evening before, Captain Bryant's com- 
pany was a part of the front guard that secured the 
capture of the enemy's picket line, by which Donel- 
son's brigade was enabled to gain the rear of the Fed- 
eral stronghold on the Huttonville pike. In all the 
campaigns of Western Virginia this regiment bore a 
prominent part, and for endurance and daring it proved 
itself the equal of any regiment in the service. 

Donelson's brigade was ordered with Lee to the coast 
of South Carolina in December, 1861. The Eighth and 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 195 

Sixteenth Tennessee Regiments thus accompanied Gen- 
eral Lee to his new field of labors. At the battle of 
Coosaw River or Port Royal Ferry, January 2, 1862, 
the gallant old Eighth performed welt its part. In this 
battle the regiment lost its first men in action. Having 
been placed within range of the Federal gunboats, the 
regiment suffered, principally from the shells from the 
enemy's heavy guns. 

After the battle of Coosaw River, matters remained 
quiet on the coast of South Carolina during the re- 
mainder of the winter and the early spring months. 
After the battle of Shiloh, the Eighth Tennessee was 
sent to Corinth to the support of General Beauregard, 
who was at that time threatened with an overwhelm- 
ing force of the enemy, by which the whole Mississippi 
Valley was endangered, and the Confederacy was 
about to be cut in twain. Upon the arrival of the reg- 
iment at Corinth in April, 1862^ the men were all in 
good health and eager for active service. How well 
and to what extent their wishes were gratified the se- 
quel will show. 

The men of this regiment had enlisted for twelve 
months, and their period of enlistment was about to 
expire. They expected to be discharged during the 
following May, and wanted to participate in at least 
one big battle before they went home. They knew 
that they were to be held to the close of the war by 
virtue of the conscript act which had recently passed 
the Confederate Congress; yet many thought they 
would have some privileges in the matter, and were 
discussing the branch of service they would enter at 
the expiration of their period of enlistment. At all 
events, they expected to get a chance to go home. 

While the boys of the regiment were revolving these 



196 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

things in their minds, the mighty army of the advanc- 
ing foe was steadily approaching nearer and nearer, 
and securing every step of its advance by the strong- 
est fortifications. A regular siege was now in prog- 
ress, and under the very guns of an advancing foe the 
regiment was ordered to reorganize under instructions 
from the War Department. The commissioned officers 
were allowed to resign and go home, if they chose to 
do so, and the only privilege left the private soldiers 
was to submit to what many considered to be an out- 
rage upon their liberties, while others looked upon the 
matter as a military necessity, and accordingly accepted 
the situation as the best and only thing that could be 
done in order to preserve and maintain the strength 
and efficiency of the service. The regiment was re- 
organized on May 8, 1862, the day set apart for the re- 
organization of the whole army. Many entered into 
the measure under protest, and some deserted, though 
quiet was soon restored, and the men became recon- 
ciled to the situation. Some of the commissioned 
officers were re-elected; others were elected to higher 
offices, and others went home. Of the latter class, 
many joined the cavalry or entered other departments 
of the service, while some were fully satisfied with one 
year's experience in war and not only failed to re-enter 
the service, but were to some extent so indifferent to 
the cause as to appear tender-footed on the issues ever 
afterward. It was thus in all the regiments. The pa- 
triotism of a few men completely exhausted itself dur- 
ing the first year, and they appeared fully inclined to 
cancel the contract into which they at first entered 
with so much enthusiasm. 

By the reorganization and promotion of the officers 
of the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers many 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 197 

vacancies were filled from the ranks, and, in fact, after 
the reorganization of the regiment it was better offi- 
cered than before; and this was the situation of the 
different regiments of the army. The first officers 
were good men, though they were 'selected more 
through their standing and influence in private life 
than through their efficiency. The standard of quali- 
fications was elevated at the reorganization, and the 
true competency of the aspirant was the only currency 
that secured his commission. In this manner the regi- 
ment was officered, principally, with young and middle- 
aged men. The events of the following years of the 
war showed how well they were qualified to perform 
the duties assigned them. 

The officers elected at the reorganization of the 
Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers were as fol- 
lows: 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

WILLIAM LAWSON MOORE, Colonel; 

JOHN H. ANDERSON, Lieutenant-colonel; 

C. C. McKiNNEY, Major; 

JOHN D. TOLLEY, First Lieutenant and Adjutant; 

Dr. COLLINS, Surgeon; 

Dr. GRANVILLE B. LESTER, Assistant Surgeon; 
RANE R. MCKINNEY, Quartermaster; 
WILLIS STONE, Commissary; 
Rev. M. B. DE WITT, Chaplain. 

Dr. S. E. H. Dance, who had been assistant surgeon 
in Turney's First Tennessee Regiment, and had served 
in the Army of Northern Virginia until after the battle 
of Sharpsburg, was, during the following year, pro- 
moted to the rank of a full surgeon, and assigned to 
duty in the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, 
through the request of Colonel Moore and Adjutant 



198 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

Tolley, to fill the position vacated by Dr. Collins. Dr. 
Dance assumed the duties of surgeon of the Eighth 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers on the eve of the bat- 
tle of Murfreesboro, and continued with the regiment 
until the close of the war. 

The company officers of the regiment elected at the 
time of the reorganization were as follows: 

CAPTAINS OF COMPANIES. 
Company A, Captain WILLIAM BURFORD; 
Company B, Captain W. G. CHOWNING; 
Company C, Captain W. H. BLAKE; 
Company D, Captain JOHN SHOOK; 
Company E, Captain N. M. BEARDEN; 
Company F, Captain JAMES CULLOM; 
Company G, Captain WILLIAM SADLER; 
Company H, Captain T. J. DAVIS; 
Company I, Captain J. M. McArEE; 
Company K, Captain WILLIAM J. THRASH. 

After the reorganization, the Eighth Regiment re- 
mained at Corinth during the siege, and retreated with 
the army to Tupelo. It accompanied its brigade 
throughout the Kentucky campaign, and participated 
in the battle of Perryville. It was by the side of the 
Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers in all its 
campaigns and marches, and the history of the one 
regiment is virtually the history of the other. The 
men of the two regiments were warmly attached to 
each other, and on the march*and in the camp many 
amusing incidents occurred in which the men of one 
or the other or both of these regiments were principal 
actors. There was one peculiar characteristic of many 
of the men of the two regiments, and that was a harm- 
less insubordination at times when. there was no dan- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 199 

ger. The men would forage, and no guard could be 
placed so strong, and with instructions so strenuous 
and rigid, as to withstand the sagacity and cunning of 
a member of the Eighth or Sixteenth Tennessee Reg- 
iment. They acquainted themselves with the country 
for miles on either side of the line of march, and .were 
always up with their command at night, laden with 
the fruits of the tramp in the way of chickens, veg- 
etables, and not unfrequently a few canteens of whisky. 
The men would not pillage or plunder the people, but 
would pay for what they procured, with here and there 
a few exceptions. In each regiment there were a few 
men who could find a still-house if it was within twenty 
miles of the line of march, and could go to it and be 
in camp at night against supper time. When any of 
the boys procured whisky, they would divide with 
their comrades, and a general jollification would some- 
times ensue; but the closest scrutiny of the brigade 
and regimental officers could seldom, if ever, locate the 
evil, or ascertain who procured, or was in possession 
of, the whisky. 

The most amusing incident of this kind occurred at 
Sparta, while Bragg's army was on its way to Ken- 
tucky. In the counties of Van Buren, White, War- 
ren, and DeKalb were the homes of the most of the 
boys of the Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. As a 
result, many of the boys broke ranks and went home, 
but got with the regiment at Sparta the next morning, 
where the army encamped for twenty-four hours. The 
boys of the Sixteenth were loaded down with good 
things to eat. Their people had come to camps through 
the day and brought them many luxuries, including a 
good supply of apple brandy and corn whisky. The 
old Sixteenth was lively and jolly. Toward evening 



2oo THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

they had got with the Eighth Tennessee, and not only 
divided with the boys, but showed them the way to 
where more was to be had, and they went after it. By 
night the two regiments were on an equal footing in 
mirth and hilarity. General Donelson knew the drift 
of events, and to cut off the supply of whisky from 
the boys, ordered a strong guard to be put out around 
the brigade, and instructed the officers of the guard to 
pay particular attention and see that not a single man 
was allowed to go out of the brigade encampment 
except by explicit authority from brigade head-quar- 
ters. An officer of the Eighth Tennessee was brigade 
officer of the day, and to him was assigned the duty of 
putting out the guard around the brigade. Getting the 
guard properly mounted after dark, he started out to 
post them. Placing a man at a designated point, he 
moved on, posting his sentinels very close together, as 
he thought. As the detail would move on to the next 
post, the last sentinel posted would fall in on the rear 
and move on with the rest. In this way the officer of 
the day made the circuit of the brigade and had the 
same number of men he started with. Not finding 
the sentinel first posted, he moved on to the next post 
and found it vacant. In this manner he continued 
around the brigade again, but failed to find the senti- 
nels anywhere. When he saw that he had the origi- 
nal number of sentinels he started out with, he con- 
cluded that there was something mysterious about it, 
and procured an ax with which he blazed the trees at 
the places where he posted his sentinels, so that he 
could the more easily find his first starting-point in the 
darkness. In this manner he made the circuit of the 
brigade again, and his detail had not diminished at all. 
General Donelson was becoming' wrothy by this time, 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 201 

and sent out to know 'what 'was the matter that the 
brigade guard could not be posted. Some officers went 
to his tent and told him that many of the men were in 
the neighborhood of their homes and were having some 
fun; that there was no danger, and the men knew it 
that every man would be in place at the proper time. 
This appeased the General for the time being, and the 
brigade guard was dispensed with. In the morning, 
every man was at his post and ready for the march. 

The men of the Eighth and Sixteenth Regiments 
would have their fun and would forage, but when 
emergencies would arise, they could be found right at 
their posts, and they would stay there till the trouble 
was over. 

In the Kentucky campaign, Colonel Moore's Eighth 
Regiment encamped at his old home on the evening 
before the battle of Perryville. On October 8, when 
Folk's corps was ordered to the right below Perryville, 
as the army approached the Chaplin Creek, the Eighth 
and Fifty -first Tennessee Regiments were detached 
from the brigade, with a section of Carnes's battery, 
and sent to the extreme right under Colonel Wharton 
of the Texas Rangers. This movement was for the 
purpose of gaining the rear of the enemy's left wing. 
The movement was successfully accomplished, by 
which the enemy was confused and swung back upon 
his main line almost simultaneously with the approach 
of Maney's brigade. This detour on the right at such 
an opportune moment enabled Maney's brigade to hurl 
back the force in its front, but at a fearful cost of life. 
The Federal line being broken, retreated to the brow 
of a hill about six hundred yards distant and reformed. 
The Confederates pressed their opportunity and gained 
a decided victory. 



202 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

In this battle, Adjutant John D. Tolley, of the Eighth 
Tennessee Regiment, was wounded while standing on 
the premises where his father was born, and the house 
was set on fire and burned by the enemy's shells. 

In the affair with the enemy on the extreme right, at 
the battle of Perryville, the Eighth Tennessee did val- 
uable service, though its losses were not so heavy as 
that of other regiments of the brigade who attacked 
the enemy in front. The action of the Eighth and 
Fifty-first, with the section of artillery, had much to do 
in deciding the issue of the day. The officers and men 
of the expedition performed their parts well. 

The regiment retreated with Bragg's army from Ken- 
tucky, and appeared with its brigade before Murfrees- 
boro in December, 1862. Having recruited its ranks, 
its numbers were full and the men were in good health 
and fine spirits. 

The Confederate army under General Bragg was 
composed of two corps, commanded respectively by 
Lieutenant-generals Polk and Hardee. Hardee was in 
command of the left wing and Polk was in command 
of the right wing of the Confederate forces. On the 
morning of December 31, Hardee attacked Rosecrans's 
right wing and turned it upon its marn line. The at- 
tack was made at daylight, and was attended with the 
best of consequences in Hardee's front. Polk was ex- 
pected to act in concert with Hardee, and make his 
attack simultaneous with the attack on the Confederate 
left. For some cause Polk's action was hindered, by 
which the enemy had ample time to rearrange and 
strengthen his lines in Polk's front. The advance was 
finally ordered on the extreme right, and the enemy 
being strongly posted in a well-chosen position, was 
not so easily dislodged. The battle raged throughout 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 203 

the day, and the issue seemed doubtful. Night closed 
upon the scene with a victory in Hardee's front. While 
the ground in front of Folk's corps had been stub- 
bornly contested, and was strewn with the dead and 
dying, each party had maintained its ground at fear- 
ful cost. On the following day the Federals had gained 
and fortified an eminence on the Confederate right, 
from which it was found impracticable to dislodge 
them. The result was a retreat from Murfreesboro. 
The Confederates withdrew to Shelbyville and Tulla- 
homa, and the Federals remained about Murfreesboro 
during the remainder of the winter and the following 
spring months. 

In the battle of Murfreesboro, the Eighth Tennessee 
suffered heavier losses than in any engagement during 
the war. Among its valuable officers who fell in this 
battle was its regimental commander, Colonel William 
L. Moore. Colonel Moore was a native of Lincoln 
county, Tenn., and was the son of General William 
Moore, who was a soldier under Jackson. Colonel 
Moore w'as born near the town of Mulberry, in Lin- 
coln county (now Moore county), May 5, 1830. In 
his boyhood he received a good education, having the 
benefit of good schools, and as he approached the age 
of manhood, he was placed in school at Danville. Ky., 
the home of his grandparents, where he completed his 
education; after which he engaged in the mercantile 
business at Harrodsburg with Collins Moore, who was 
his uncle. In the year 1853, he was married to Miss 
Neet, of Woodford county, Ky. After his marriage 
he remained at Harrodsburg for two years, when he 
removed to his paternal home on account of the de- 
clining years of his father, who had called him hither 
to look after a large business. Here he resided until 



204 



THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



the breaking out of the war between the States, when 
he enlisted a company of his neighbors, and was elected 
to the captaincy of the same. The company was from 




COLONEL WILLIAM L. MOORE. 

the village of Mulberry and vicinity, and was known 
as " The Mulberry Grays." 

Colonel Moore was elected lieutenant-colonel of the 
Eighth Tennessee Regiment in May, 1861, and at the 
reorganization was elected colonel. A kind officer, a 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 205 

brave soldier, and a Christian gentleman, he was loved 
by his men, whom he led with characteristic coolness 
and gallantry in the affairs with the enemy at Cheat 
Mountain and Port Royal Ferry, at Perryville and 
Murfreesboro. In the last-named battle, on December 
31, 1862, he gave his life to the cause he had espoused, 
and fell with his face to the foe. His horse had been 
shot from tinder him but a few moments previously, 
and in falling he was caught under its body. Extri- 
cating himself with difficulty, he had merely gained 
his feet and spoken a cheering word to his men, when 
a ball from the enemy pierced him in the breast and 
he fell. His death was almost instantaneous. The bat- 
tle was raging fearfully at the time, and the slaughter 
on both sides was terrible. The Eighth Tennessee 
suffered severely in this battle. Its killed and wounded 
amounted to more than half its numbers in the carnage 
of the first day's fight, when the regiment lost its gal- 
lant leader. 

' Captain Bearden was also slain, he and nine of his 
men falling by the same shot from the enemy's cannon. 
One single shell exploded in their midst, and ten lives 
were the fruit of its unerring aim. 

Colonel Moore's death was lamented by a large cir- 
cle of relatives and friends, who had known his sterling: 

O 

qualities from childhood, and by his comrades in arms, 
who knew him but to love him. 

Tullahoma Lodge, No. 262, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, passed the following resolutions of respect to the 
memory of Colonel Moore, as reported by the com- 
mittee appointed by the lodge for the purpose: 



206 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



TRIBUTE OF RESPECT. 

TULLAHOMA LODGE, No. 262. 

The committee to whom was referred the drafting of resolu- 
tions to the memory of our much-lamented brother, William 
Lawson Moore, report that he was born in the county of Lincoln, 
State of Tennessee, on the 5th day of May, 1830, and suddenly 
fell on the field of battle, on the 3ist day of December, 1862, in 
the thirty-third year of his age. 

He entered the Southern army in April, 1861, and was unani- 
mously elected captain of his company; and on being attached 
to the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, was unanimously 
elected lieutenant-colonel, and, at the reorganization of the 
army, under act of Congress, he descended to the ranks, from 
which he was called to the command of his regiment by its unan- 
imous voice. 

His modesty forbade his seeking office, and his gallantry for- 
bade his declining its duties. His men loved him. He com- 
manded their affections and their arms. In time of trial and 
emergency his regiment was looked to with confidence and emu- 
lation. At Corinth his horse was shot from under him. He 
held his command on foot, receiving a painful wound in the hand. 
In duty, he was fearless; in authority, he was calm; and in emer- 
gency, he was brave. He nobly distinguished himself in his suc- 
cessful charge of the enemy at Perry ville, Ky., and the noted 
battle of Murfreesboro on the last day of the eventful year 1862. 
He held his command at the very furnace of the conflict; his 
horse fell from under him; he leaped to his feet with three 
wounds upon his body, unknown to all but himself, calling on his 
men, "Forward, my brave boys!" when a ball penetrated the 
vital breast and he spoke no more. He fell, but he fell forward, 
and his noble spirit fled. The pen of the historian of that bloody 
conflict is now ascribing to the prowess and gallantry which he 
displayed the repulse of the enemy and capture of the spoils. 

Those qualities which endear his memory to all who knew 
him, are not restricted to his short military career. That is 
rather a history of his death than of his life, and he fell before 
he had seen the harvest of what he had sown, or finished what 
he had well begun. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 207 

He was one of Tennessee's favorite sons. In all the different 
relations of life which he sustained, are written the essays of the 
honest man, the good citizen, the generous neighbor, the kind 
father, the fond brother, the loving husband, and his fidelity to 
the Christian faith. In the death of so valuable a citizen, we 
deplore his loss and sympathize with the common heart; and, as 
a brother of our mystic order, we feel with deepest sense the 
breach of fraternal ties. 

Clustered around this scene hang the wreaths of mourning in 
their most melancholy significance. In the midst of circum- 
stances favorable to the hope of many peaceful years, with one 
fell blow he is stricken down. The suddenness, the place, the 
time, and manner of his death the many relationships which 
clung around, and the many bereaved hearts, conspire to 
checker the scene. He was the untje and guardian of an or- 
phan minor, the only brother of five doting sisters, and the 
father of four interesting children, never to hear his instructing 
voice or see his smiling face again; the only son of an aged fa- 
ther, grown gray with the buffetings of many years, who had 
laid his last weighty cares upon his shoulders; and still more 
sad, the husband of a loving wife, whose affections, charities, 
and social qualities entitle her to hopes more bright than the 
altar of mourning, and a destiny more serene than the desolate 
beach of a troubled sea. The fact that he was the participant of 
her joys, the support of her hopes, and guide through the cloud 
and the storm, is a consideration that widens the avenues of sor- 
row and disappointment. 

He snatched from the camp and the march a few fleeting hours 
to mingle once more with the pleasures of home, with his family 
and friends, and to share the greetings of a happy Christmas, 
but the parting hour made haste. Lighted by a brightened sky, 
joy had perched upon the pinions of pleasing expectations, 
cheered by the hope of meeting again. Added to all this, to 
make the sadness more intense, his nephew, W. H. Holman, a 
young man who bore with him the award of esteem from all who 
knew him the only son of a deceased sister belonging to his 
command, was also present, participating in the social festivities 
of the happy circle, and mingling jwith the solicitudes which flut- 
tered around the omens of the future. But, oh! how deep the 
pain to tell! They both fell, bleeding offerings upon the altar of 



208 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

war, on the same field and on the same day. The sun which 
rose upon their buoyant spirits, set upon their dead bodies, cold 
and lifeless in the gore of battle. Their remains were gathered 
up and deposited in the same cemetery, on the same day, in two 
distinct graves, consecrated with the sighs and tears of assembled 
relatives and friends. 

Perhaps there were no two men whose sudden death and irrep- 
arable loss could affect so deeply so many hopes and anxieties. 
Death pursues with a smiling face and strikes his deepest blow 
where fondest expectations meet. One item in connection with 
the subject of this memoir is that the very spot which gave him 
birth, the very garden that nourished his infancv to manhood, 
has opened her bosom to receive him back, to hold him in her 
embrace, as the chosen hostage, to the day of retribution. 

Resolved, That in the death of Colonel William Lawson 
Moore society has sustained an irreparable loss, but should cher- 
ish his good qualities as a bequeathed inheritance, to imitate his 
example and emulate his virtues. 

Resolved, That we deplore his loss and condole with the be- 
reaved; our balm is too stale to heal affection's wounds so deep, 
but we would commend them to the God in whom we trust, who 
"healeth the broken in heart and bindeth up their wounds." 

Resolved, That we tender to the surviving widow and her four 
little ones our best wishes for their happiness. We cannot take 
away their afflictions, but will help bear them; and that they be 
furnished a copy of these proceedings by the secretary. 

Resolved, That we wear the usual badge of mourning for 
thirty days. Jo. C. HOLT, 

E. C. McLouGHLix, 
J. GRIZZARD, 

Committee. 

A true copy. Attest: 
J. GRIZZARD, Secretary Tullahoma Lodge, No. 262. 

After the death of Colonel Moore, the command 
of the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers de- 
volved upon Lieutenant-colonel John H. Anderson, 
who was made colonel of -the regiment, and remained 
with it to the close of the war. Colonel Anderson was 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 209 

an able and gallant officer, and a man highly respected 
and honored, not only by the men of his regiment, 
but by all who knew him. He commanded the Eighth 
Regiment through the battle of Chickamauga, and his 
official report of the part performed by his regiment 
in that battle is furnished in another part, of this work. 
At the battle of Missionary Ridge, the brigade un- 
der Brigadier-general Marcus J. Wright was placed on 
the extreme right of the Confederate line of defense. 
This point was threatened by a heavy force of the 
enemy, who was trying to cut off Bragg's communica- 
tions and destroy his stores at Chickamauga Station. 
The task assigned to Wright's brigade was an arduous 
one, as the Confederate line of defenses, already weak- 
ened by the withdrawal of troops for the East Ten- 
nessee campaign, was now lengthened so far that in 
many points it was a mere skirmish line, and with no 
reserves, and no means of concentration at any point. 
The brigade passed the day in front of an enemy many 
times its number, while the battle raged furiously on 
the left and center. The operations on the right were 
confined to maneuverings principally, in which the 
brigade encountered the enemy in the forenoon on the 
opposite side of Chickamauga Creek. This being to 
some extent a surprise, and the ground unfavorable to 
defense, General Wright withdrew his brigade to a 
more eligible position. In this affair with the enemy 
across the creek there were some casualties among the 
Tennessee troops, but comparatively few in number. 

After the battle of Missionary Ridge, General 
Wright was assigned to duty at Atlanta, as commander 
of the district and post. Colonel John H. Anderson, 
of the Eighth Tennessee, was then placed in command 
of the brigade, a position he filled until after the army 
14 



2io THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

was established in its winter quarters at Dalton. The 
staff officers were retained, and afterward the brigade 
was placed under the command of Colonel John C. 
Carter, of the Thirty-eighth Tennessee. Colonel Car- 
ter was subsequently commissioned a brigadier-gen- 
eral, and commanded Wright's brigade, in its engage- 
ments, to the battle of Franklin, in which he lost his 
life. 

Colonel Anderson commanded the Eighth Tennes- 
see throughout the Georgia campaign, and after its 
consolidation with other regiments he commanded 
the consolidated regiments to the time of the surrender. 
Colonel Anderson was born in Wilson county, Tenn., 
near the town of Lebanon, August 6, 1831. His an- 
cestors came from Virginia. His parents, Frank An- 
derson, jr., and Eleanor T. Anderson, resided in Wil- 
son county. Colonel Anderson received his early edu- 
cation in the schools at Lebanon, and afterward was a 
student of Irving College, in Warren county. Before 
the war he was a merchant. When the war broke out 
in 1861, he enlisted a company for the State service, 
and was elected captain of the same. This company 
was a part of the Tenth Tennessee Regiment, and its 
first service was at Fort Henry, on the Tennessee river. 
At the fall of this place, the Confederates retreated to 
Fort Donelson. The Tenth Tennessee was in the 
battle at this place, and was surrendered with the gar- 
rison. 

A few days after the surrender Captain Anderson 
succeeded in making his escape, in company with 
General Bushrod R. Johnson, and reported to Gen- 
eral Albert S. Johnston at Decatur. General Bushrod 
Johnson was assigned to the command of a brigade, 
and Captain Anderson was assigned to duty on his 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 211 

staff. In this capacity he fought through the first day's 
battle of Shiloh. General Bushrod Johnson having 
been wounded during the first day's fight at Shiloh, 
Captain Anderson was assigned to duty on General 
Cheatham's staff, in which capacity he served through 
the second day's fight, and remained a member of 
Cheatham's staff till the beginning of the Kentucky 
campaign, whe"n he was promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and assigned to duty in the Eighth 
Tennessee Regiment by order of General Bragg, hav- 
ing been' promoted to lieutenant-colonel for gallantry 
displayed on the field of Shiloh. 

Colonel Anderson was with the Eighth Tennessee 
at the battles of Perryville and Murfreesboro. During 
the last-named battle Colonel W. L. Moore, the com- 
mander of the Eighth Tennessee, was killed, and Colo- 
nel Anderson was promoted to the command of the 
regiment as a full colonel. 

At the battle of Missionary Ridge, General Wright 
became indisposed and turned over the command of 
the brigade to Colonel Anderson, who continued as its 
commander until the return of Colonel Carter to the 
army shortly before the opening of the Georgia cam- 
paign. Colonel Carter now commanded the brigade 
and Colonel Anderson returned to the command of 
his regiment. 

When the army arrived before Atlanta, Colonel An- 
derson was again placed in command of the brigade. 
He led the brigade in the battle of Peach Tree Creek, 
July 20 ; also in the different battles around Atlanta. 
He commanded the brigade much of the time from the 
battle of Missionary Ridge till after the battle of Frank- 
lin, when he was placed in command of Gist's brigade 
of South Carolina and Georgia troops, and served in 



212 'THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 

this capacity to the surrender of. the Confederate ar- 
mies. 

During the war Colonel Anderson received two 
wounds, one in the leg, at the battle of Shiloh, and the 
other in the shoulder, at Chickamauga. He was en- 
gaged in the following battles: Fort Henry, Fort Don- 
elson, Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, 
Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New Hope Church, Ken- 
nesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, battles around 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin, Nashville, Bentonville, 
N. C., in all of which he distinguished himself as a 
brave soldier and good commander. 

The Eighth Tennessee Regiment was engaged in all 
the battles of the Georgia campaign, and sustained 
heavy losses in killed and wounded. It accompanied 
the army in the Tennessee campaign after the fall of 
Atlanta, and participated in the battle of Franklin and 
the battles around Nashville. 

It suffered severely in these battles, and left upon the 
field many of its bravest and best men. In the battle 
of Franklin, Brigadier-general John C. Carter, com- 
manding Wright's brigade, was killed while leading 
his men in the thickest and hottest of the fight. 

Following its command from Nashville to Missis- 
sippi, thence to North Carolina, where the last battle 
was fought, the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volun- 
teers surrendered on May 27, 1865, in common with 
the rest of the army, and accepted the generous terms 
offered by their stronger and more successful adver- 
sary. Laying down their arms, they donned the habil- 
iments of peace, and, weary and covered with many 
scars of combat, they returned to their homes and ap- 
plied themselves to the work of recuperating their lost 
fortunes with the same zeal and assiduity that had 



TENNESSEE REGIMENT. 213 

characterized their action as soldiers on so many ardu- 
ous campaigns and on so many hard-fought battle- 
fields. The men accepted the situation in good faith, 
and as they had been zealous and honorable as soldiers, 
they now exercised the same noble qualities, with all 
the embellishments available to the paths of peace. 
Though seemingly unpleasant at first, with a race e.le- 
vated to their political equals, and whom they had al- 
ways known as their slaves and inferiors in every re- 
spect, the situation was at first disagreeable, yet time 
wore away prejudices. The white man treated the 
colored man with courtesy and kindness, and soon 
learned him that his best friends were those best ac- 
quainted with his nature and habits, and the colored 
man became the firm and fast friend of the Southern 
white man. Terms of amity and mutual interest 
sprung up between employer and employe, and the 
old soldiers made rapid progress in thrift and pros- 
perity. 

Many of the members of the old Eighth came home 
at the close of the war possessed of nothing but their 
lives and their honor. By industry, economy, and 
honorable dealing many have accumulated bountiful 
stores of this world's goods, and are possessed of hand- 
some fortunes. Yet the number of survivors at pres- 
ent is comparatively small, when we consider the num- 
ber who went out with the regiment in 1861 and the 
small number who surrendered in 1865. Nearly one 
fourth the original number sleep upon the different 
battle-fields 'from the Potomac to the Mississippi and 
the Gulf. In the four years of war more than two 
thirds of the members of the Eighth Regiment felt the 
missiles of its enemy's guns, and many of the stirvivors 
carry honorable scars. The long list of casualties have 



214 



THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



a claim upon our affections and our memory. We 
cherish their memory. We cannot forget them. 

The following muster-rolls give the members of the 
regiment by companies, with the casualties of some 

of the companies: 

COMPANY A. 



OFFICERS. 



J. L. Bryant, Captain. 

J. P. Holland, First Lieutenant. 

B. B. Bowers, Second Lieutenant. 



T. F. Brooks, Third Lieutenant. 
T. E. Russell, Orderly Sergeant. 



PRIVATES. 



W. C. Andrews. 
D. A. Bethune. 
W. M. Bethune. 
J. F. Biggers. 
J. W. Biggers. 
R. W. Biggers. 
W. T. Blackwell. 
T. E. Brents. 
J. 8. Brooks. 
Wiles Busset. 
J. R. Butler. 
W. L. Carrier. 
Monroe Cauley. 
Joe Cauler. 
G. W. Causby. 
J. B. Collins. 
Jones Collins. 
George Crabtree. 
J. H. Darnell. 
Joel Dodd. 
W. 8. Dodd. 
J. D. Dyer. 
George Foster. 
Thomas Franklin. 
W. F. Gulley. 
J. Haislip. 
J. H. Haislip. 
J. W. Haislip. 
O. P. Hill. 
J. N. Hitchman. 
W. L. Hitchman. 
D. P. Hogan. 
J. A. Hogan. 
Milton Largen. 



R. H. Largen. 
J. M. Luna. 
M. V. Luna. 
R. H. Luna. 
William Luna. 
E. Malone. 
W. A. Malone. 
H. N. Maulden. 
A. M. Meadows. 
J. A. Morris. 
J. M. McAfee. 
J. A. McCrory. 
R. J. McCrory. 
W. H. McCrory. 
J. M. Nichols. 
A. J. Patterson. 
W. H. Peach. 
W. H. Pearson. 
M. Petty. 
H. M.' Pyles. 
E. F. Rambo. 
G. W. Russell. 
J. C. Sanders. 
W. J. Shaw. 
R. A. Shaw. 
R. J. Shaw. 
J. Stilwell. 
P. H. Tally. * 
D. E. Tally. 
J. J. Tally. 
J. N. Tally. 
J. G. Troop. 
J. F. W. Wakefleld. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



215 



COMPANY B. 



OFFICERS. 



A. M. Hall, Captain. 

C. C. McKinney, First Lieutenant. 



T. W. Bledsoe, Second Lieutenant. 
C. N. Allen, Third Lieutenant. 



PRIVATES. 



N. B. Bates. 
W. H. Blake. 
L. D. Blake. 
George W. Blake. 
Thomas Blakemore. 
Anderson Blakemore. 
.Tames Blakemore. 
Henry Blakemore. 
T. O. Blacknall. 
John Y. Blacknall. 
John Bradford. 
Jack Branson. 
W. D. Bonds. 
S. S. Bonds. 
John Bonds. 
John Brewer. 
Green Brewer. 

C. M. Buchanan. 
James Buchanan. 
J. J. Bonner. 
John Brown. 
Patrick Boyles. 
Elisha Blackwell. 
Thomas Caldwell. 
Martin Capps. 

H. K. Carty. 
George C. Carmack. 
James Clark. 
William Cole. 
James Cumberland. 
J. J. Cu minings. 
William Craig. 
John Davis. 
Jo. Darnell.- 
James Darnell. 

D. T. Eastland. 

E. W. Ellis. 
A. S. Fulton. 
William Freeman. 
W. H. Gammell. 
C. W. Gill. 
James Gulley. 



F. W. Glidewell. 
John Gilbert. 
Cullen Gilbert. 
Wash. Gilbert. 
John T. Green. 
John R. Greer. 
John M. Hall. 
Harrison Hall. 
T. F. Harris. 
Thomas Hannaway. 
Eli Hannaway. 
Thomas G. Hester. 
William Hardin. 
William Isom. 
Thomas Jeter. 
William Jeter. 
Samuel Jeter. 
George B. Keller. 
N. B. Koonce. 
H. C. Lambert. 
Samuel J. Leonard. 
H. C. Locker. 
Robert Locker. 

B. E. Malear. 
William McKauts. 
J. G. McEweu. 

E. R. McEwen. 

C. B. Me teal fe. 
Robert Matthews. 
H. B. Matthews. 
W. H. Merritt. 
Thomas Millard. 
Jesse Mitchell. 
Joseph Moore. 
James Mauldin. 
James Morton. 
R. A. Morrison. 
Jacob Moore. 
John Nichols. 
William Nichols. 
Frank Nichols. 
Henry Nichols. 



216 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



Briggs Nichols. John Scott. 

Claiborne Pigg. A. B. Scott. 

Lewis Peach. K. B. Scott. 

William Pitcock. Alex. Scott. 

George \V. Porter. Herbert Smith. 

William Quarles. J. K. Sorrells. 

Bandall Quarles. Harvey Sorrells. 

James Rives. W. T. Watson. 

William Rives. David Watson. 

B. T. Roach. John Watson. 

J. K. Robinson. L>avid Wells. 

William M. Roset>oro. Newton Wells. 

William Saunders. Wyatt Woodruff. 
E. M. Scott. 

PROMOTED. 

W. H. Blake.lst Lieut., 1861, Captain, A. M. Hall, Regimental Surgeon, 1861. 

1862. B. E. Malear, 1st Lieut., 1861, Captain, 
W. H. Bonds, 1st Lieut., 1862, Captain, 1861. 

1863. J. G. McEwen, 3d Lieut., 1863. 

T. O. Blacknall, 2d Lieut., 1862. C. C. McKinney, Major, 1862, Lieut. - 

A. S. Fulton, Colonel, 1861. col., 1863. 

John M. Hall, 3d Lieut., 1861, Captain, C. B. Metcalfe, 3d Lieut., 1863. 
1862. 

KILLED. 

Lieut. T. O. Blacknall, Murfreesboro. John Scott, Murfrecsboro. 
Cullen Gilbert, Murfreesboro. Newton Wells, Murfreesboro. 

Eli Hanuaway, Murfreesboro. John Nichols, Chickamauga. 

WOUNDED. 

Capt. W. H. Blake, Murfreesboro. H. C. Lambert, Murfreesboro. 
John Y. Blacknall, Murfreesboro. Samuel J. Leonard, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. W. D. Bonds, Murfreesboro and Lieut. C. B. Metcalfe, Chiekamauga. 

Chickamauga. W. H. Merritt, Atlanta. 

S. S. Bonds, Murfreesboro. W. M. Roseboro, Murfreesboro. 

John Bonds, Murfreesboro. A. B. Scott, Murfreesboro. 

C. M. Buchanan, Chickamauga. N. B. Scott, Perryville and Murfrees- 

H. K. Carty, Chickamauga. boro. 

George C. Carmack, Murfreesboro. J. E. Sorrells, Murfreesboro. 
J. J. Cummings, Franklin. Harvey Sorrells, Murfreesboro. 

Thomas Hannaway, Murfreesboro. David Watson, Murfreesboro. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 

Capt. W. H. Blake, wounds, Murfrees- Thos. Hannaway, disease, Prison, 1863. 

boro, 1862. Alex. Scott, disease, Atlanta, 1863. 

J. D. Freeman, disease, Murfreesboro, John Watson, disease, Hospital. 

1862. 

DISCHARGED. 

James M. Buchanan, Pocotaligo, S. C., Lieut. T. W. Bledsoe, 1861. 

1862. William Craig, 1862. 

J. J. Bonner, 1862. W. H. Wells, 1862. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



217 



RESIGNED. 

Lieut. C. N. Allen, Tupelo, Miss., May 8, .1862. 
Col. A. S. Fulton, Tupelo, Miss., May 8, 1862. 
Surgeon A. M. Hall, Mumfordville, Ky., Sept., 1862. 

COMPANY C. 



OFFICERS. 



R. R. McKinney, Captain. 
M. M. Bearden, First Lieutenant. 
T. W. Raney, Second Lieutenant. 
A. M. Downing, Third Lieutenant. 
R. D. Hardin, First Sergeant. 
W. J. King, Second Sergeant. 
E. J. Bearden, Third Sergeant. 



J. W. Rawls, Fourth Sergeant. 
W. C. Bright, First Corporal. 
J. H. Fletcher, Second Corporal. 

D. C. Dewitt, Third Corporal. 
J. H. Short, Fourth Corporal. 
W. B Blair, Drummer. 

E. F. Jones, Fifer. 



PRIVATES. 



Doc Anderson. 
A. C. Beech. 
James Billings. 
W. J. Bland. 
John Blankenship. 
F. F. Blankenship. 
J. K. Branson. 
H. C. Brian. 
J. S. Brown. 
J. H. H. Burns. . 
J. M. Byers. 

E. M. Carpenter. 
J. F. Caughrau. 
J. C. -Colbert. 

A. J. Commons. 
J. P. DolU-r. 
Robert Daniel. 
C. M. Dozier. 

F. M. Downing. 
Michael Doyles. 

G. W. Dunn. 
Peter Flannigan. 
J. W. Fleming. 
Naris Flint. 

J. H. H. George. 
W. B. George. 
Thomas Gee. 
H. H. Gray. 
J. II. Gray. 
J. H. Grillis. 
W. J. Grubbs. 
'J. J. Gully. 



W. H. Hamilton. 
J. T. Halbert. 
J. A. Hall. 

D. C. Harbison. 
J. W. Henderson. 
J. R. Hovis. 

B. T. Howell. 
Samuel Howell. 
Solomon Howell. 
J. W. Jamerson. 
John Kelly. 
Michael Kennedy. 

C. G. Key. 
Manley Key. 
J. H. Locker. 
J. J. Maddox. 
N. G. Maddox. 
Leonard Marburry. 
J. A. Meesber. 

J. C. Maroney. 
S. F. McArnm. 

McAllister. 

Henry McDaiiiel. 
J. Y. McDaniel. 
J. M. McFerrin. 
E. J. Philips. 
A. H. Puckett. 

E. P. L. Parr. 

F. C. S. Parr. 
W. J. Raney. 
J. F. Saudlin. 
John i^atterneld. 



218 THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



William Simmons. W. T. Vickers. 

Eli Simmons. A. L. Walker. 

Stephen Smith. Thomas Warren. 

Lewis Spray. William Watson. 

N. P. Steadman. J. M. Weigart. 

W. B. Stewart. H. W. Womack. 

John Sullivan. T. N. Womack. 

W. S. Thomas. J. K. P. Wallace. 

F. M. Thornton. O. Walker. 
J. P. Loon. 

, PROMOTED. 

Lieut. M. M. Bearden, Captain, 1863. J. S. Brown, Captain, 1863. 
Corp'l W. C. Bright, Captain, 1864-5. Norris Flint, Captain, 1862. 

KILLED. 

Dock Anderson, Murfreesboro. W. J. Grubbs, Murfreesboro. 

Capt. M, M. Bearden, Murfreesboro. J. A. Hall, Murfreesboro. 

Lieut. T. W. Raney, Kennesaw Mt. J. W. Henderson, Murfreesboro. 

A. C. Beach, Murfreesboro. McAllister, Murfreesboro. 

Capt. J. S. Brown, Resaca, Ga. Eli Simmons, Murfreesboro. 

J. F. Caughran. Murfreesboro. A. L. Walker, Murfreesboro. 

Capt. Norris Flint, Chickamauga. H. W. Womack, Murfreesboro. 

G. W. Dunn, Murfreesboro. O. Walker, Murfreesboro. 
T. H. Griffis, Murfreesboro. 

WOUNDED. 

J. M. Byers, Murfreesboro. 
DIED IN SERVICE. 

W. J. King, unknown. J. W. Jamison, West Virginia. 

J. F. Blankenship, Atlanta, Ga. Manly Key, Chattanooga. 

COMPANY D. 

OFFICERS. 

Calvin E. Myers, Captain. A. L. Windle, First Sergeant. 

Columbus Marchbanks, Fir"gtLieuten- C. C. Carr, Second Sergeant. 

ant. Robert Boles, Third Sergeant. 

W. W. Windle, Second Lieutenant. J. J. Tompkins, Fourth Sergeant. 
W. C. Hickey, Third Lieutenant. Robert Cash, First Corporal. 

PRIVATES. 

Arkley Allen. J. A. Anderson. 

Benjamin Allen. Hamilton Brown. 

John D. Anderson. Mack Brown. 

E. L. Armstrong. Trib. Bledsoe. 

Alex. Armstrong. James Bilberry. 

Cross Armstrong, Harvey Brown. 

Cull Armstrong. Martin Bilberry. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



219 



John Bell. 


Zeke Long. 


Jeff Boles. 


W. B. McCally. 


Porter Christian. 


James McKinney. 


John Crabtree. 


Laurence Morris. 


Charles Callahan. 


William Morris. 


J. C. Coleman. 


William O'Neal. 


W. M. Copeland. 


John Orsburn. 


Lee Copeland. 


High Patrick. 


John Copeland. 


Robert Philips. 


James Cope. 


Samuel Poteet. 


Reuben Clark. 


*Rland Quarles. 


Wash. Car mack. 


John Quarles. 


Jack Copeland. 


Thomas Ray. 


George Coake. 


Huston Ray. 


J. J. Cullom. 


M. V. Richardson. 


Erasmus E. Cullom. 


A. W. Richardson. 


John Callahan. 


Joseph Richardson. 


S. B. Dillon. 


Mike Speck. 


I>. T. Dillon. 


John Speck. 


Wesley Elum. 


Ben Speck. 


James Elum. 


Jack Sells. 


J. K. P. Eldridge. 


Nick Stephens. 


S. B. Evans. 


Dade Stephens. 


George Finley. 


Miles Stephens. 


George France. 


Hilry Smith. 


Ambrose Grace. 


T. P. Staggs. 


J. K. P. Gilliland. 


Thomas Stewart. 


Allen Gilliland. 


Wilburn Stewart. 


Jack Garrett. 


Pay ton Smith. 


J. R. Hancock. 


Elijah Stephens. 


Van Huddleston. 


William Selby. 


Simon Huddleston. 


Burton Swift. 


Louis Huddleston. 


James Simpson. 


Frank Harrison. 


Asa Shoemaker. 


John Hall. 


Jo. Williams. 


John Hickey. 


A. R. Wilson. 


Burrell Jones. 


G. W. Warren. 


Cain Jones. 


John Wallace. 


A. P. Kines. 


William Wallace. 


Ed. Little. 





J. J. Cullom, Capt., 1862. 



Benjamin Allen, in Cavalry. 
Simon Huddleston, in Cavalry. 
Louis Huddleston, in Cavalry. 
High Patrick, in Cavalry. 
Nick Stephens, in Cavalry. 



PROMOTED. 

E. E. Cullom, Lieut., 1862. 
KILLED. 

Miles Stephens, in Cavalry. 
Robert Philips, Murfreesboro. 
John Copeland, in Cavalry. 
Payton Smith, Clarksville, Tenn. 
James Cope, Franklin, Tenn. 



220 



THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



Ed. Little, Murfreesboro. 
Jack Garrett, in Cavalry. 
Jack Copeland, in Cavalry. 
Elijah Stephens, in Cavalry. 
George Fiuley, Franklin, Tenn. 
John Bell, Perryville, Ky. 



Capt. J. J. Culloni, Kennesaw Mount. 
Lieut. E. E. Culloni, Atlanta. 
Cross Armstrong, in Cavalry. 
Cal. Armstrong, Cclina, Tenn. 
Burrel Jones, South Carolina, 1861. 
John Ciillulian, Murfreesboro. 



WOUNDED. 



William O'Neal, Perryville. 
John Speck, Perryville. 



Lee Copeland, Perryville. 

John Hall, 3 wounds, Murfreesboro. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 



John Crabtree, Virginia, 1801. 
Charles Callahan, Virginia, 1861. 
Samuel Poteet, Virginia, 1861. 
J. K. P. Eldridge, Homo, 1863. 
John Quarles, Warm Spring*, Vn. 



Reuben Clark, Charleston, S. C., 1862. 
John I). Anderson, Home, 1861. 
Harvey Brown, Burkesville, Ky., 1864. 
John Hickey, West Va., 1861. 
Burton Swift, Murfreesboro. 



COMPANY G. 



OFFICERS. 



Geo. W. Higgins, Captain. 
W. C. Griswell, First Lieutenant. 
David Sullivan, Second Lieu tenant. 
K. S. N. Bobo, Brevet Second Lieuten- 
ant. 

Jo. G. Carrigan, Orderly Sergeant. 
M. C. Shook, Second Sergeant. 

PKIV 

J. K. Ashley. 

Jesse Armstrong. 

Thomas Armstrong. 

William Armstrong. 

Elias Ashby. 

J. R. Brewer. 

J. B. Brown. 

J. N.Bell. 

G. W. Borough. 

Jesse Broadaway. 

A. P. Clift. 

John Cunningham. 

C. H. Carrigan. 

W. T. Crenshaw. 

F. M. Colter. 

T. H. Curtis. 

Henry Cummings. 

Jackson Dollins. 

Milton Dollins. 



T. L. Williamson Third Sergeant. 
Francis Wells, Fourth Sergeant. 
M. C. Cotton, First Corporal. 
W. B. McKenzie, Second Corporal. 
M. S. Do! i ins, Third Corporal. 
T. H. Clark, Fourth Corporal. 



J. G. Epps. 
J. N. Epps. 
A. C Freeman. 
W. J. Freeman. 
R. F. Fox. 
J. W. Fin cher. 
Win. Fuller. 
W. H. Gibson. 
G. A. N. Green. 
Alfred Hale. 
G. W. Hale. 
W. C. Hall. 
Richard Hall. 
C. C. Hall. . 
L. Harnby. 
H. F. Hudson. 
W. B. Hudson. 
J. L. Hudson. 
J. B. Headjicks. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



221 



J. G. Harrison. 
Joe Hines. 
W. H. Ingle. 
James Jolly. 
J. D. King. 
Jeft 1 . King. 
J. W. Leonard. 
John McKenzie. 
M. !'. Moore. 
J. F. Moore. 
J. A. F. Moore. 
Jnincs McKenzie. 
J. E. Mills. 
Chas. Miller. 
Amos Morris. 
M. F. Pylant. 
James Pearson. 
G. A. F. Pylant, 
W. D. Prosser. 
J. Reece. 
T. J. Rives. 
T. J. Robinson. 



KILLED. 



J. B. Shook. 
John Sisk. 
G. W. Smith. 
Doake Small. 
L. P. M. Small. 
J. W. Sullivan. 
W. M. Smith. 
James Steelinan. 
D. Tucker (Chaplain). 
Wm. Thompson. 
* David Thompson. 
Patrick Thompson. 
Isom Wells. 
James Wells. 
T. J. Wells. 
W. L. Waid. 
M. J. Wright. 
John Willett. 
T. A. Yant. 
M. P. Yant. 
J. L. Yant. 



Joseph Hudson, Perryville, Ky. 
Capt. M. C. Shook, Murfreeshoro. 
Meredith Yant, Murfreesboro. 
J. L. Yant, Murfreesboro. 
Robert F. Fox, Murfreesboro. 
Win. Armstrong, Murfreesboro. 
James McKenzie, Murfreesboro. 
Wesley Wade, Murfreesboro. 
John G. Epps, Murfreesboro. 
Milton Dollins, Murfreesboro. 
James Steelman, Murfreesboro. 
Alfred Hale, Murfreesboro. 



Win. Fuller, Murfreesboro. 

Lemuel Sma,ll, Murfreesboro. 

Jas. W. Leonard, Missionary Ridge. 

J. D. Ingle, Resaca, Ga. 

Marion F. Pylant, Resaca, Ga. 

Jackson Dollins, Atlanta. 

J. B. Shook, Atlanta. 

G. A. N. Green, Newnan, Ga. 

Jas. D. King, Franklin. 

Jas. Wells, Franklin. 

Doake Small, by cars, in Georgia. 



COMPANY H. 



OFFICERS. 



William L. Moore, Captain. 
William J. Thrash, First Lieutenant. 
Thomas Freeman, Second Lieutenant. 
W. L. Shoftner, Third Lieutenant. 
William J. Bonner, First Sergeant. 
John W. Sullivan, Second Sergeant. 
Albert H. Boon, Third Sergeant. 



John T. Reese, Fourth Sergeant.- 
Moses B. Shores, Fifth Sergeant. 
Wm. H. Robertson, First Corporal. 
Wm. H. Holman, Second Corporal. 
John F. Whittaker, Third Corporal. 
M. L. Mead, Fourth Corporal. 



222 



THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



Joseph Broughton. 
James C. Bright. 
William A. Blackwell. 
John E. Blackwell. 
Thomas Brown. 
H. L. W. B. Boon. 
Alexander Brady. 
Robert M. Boaz. 
Wiley H. Carrigan. 
John S. Carrigan. 
Joseph Call. 
James C. Clark. 
William T. Clark. 
Alsa M. Carter. 
Stephen Cook. 
L. W. Davidson. 
M. M. Dean. 
James H. C. Duff. 
George D. Daniel. 
John Eslick. 
John A. Eaton. 
Isaac V. Forrister. 
Nathaniel S. Forrister. 
W. M. Franklin. 
L. A. Farrer. 
Thomas H. Freeman. 
Enoch Glidewell. 
P. H. George. 
David S. George. 
Riley Gattis. 
Isaac V. Gattis. 
George W. Gattis, jr. 
William B. Hurst. 
James C. Hague. 
Eli Honey. 
Junius Honey. 
James Hachel. 
Richard G. James. 
P. M. James. 
Stephen Johnston. 
John J. King. 
George C. Logan. 
L. B. Leftwitch. 
Arch H. Lee. 
H. D. Lipscomb. 
W. M. Montgomery. 
W. H. Martin. 
Joseph S. Mooney. 
Alexander A. McAfee. 



PRIVATES. 



John D. McLean. 
Rufus A. Morehead. 
James L. Morehead. 
George F. Miller. 
Preston Y. Mitchell. 
E. M. Ousley. 
John B. Parker. 
Aaron Parks. 
Joel Parks. 
Elisha T. Parks. 
James C. Pitts. 
Joel A. Pitts. 
Patrick A. Raby. 
John R. Raby. 
Benj. H. Rives. 
John C. Raney. 
Robert Reese. 
Calvin Reunegar. 
William Rennegar. 
William A. Rutledge. 
William D. Seals. 
James S. Seals. 
William H. Sebastian. 
William L. Shoftner. 
Chris. C. Shoftner. 
Newton M. Shoftner. 
G. W. Shellings. 
George W. Street. 
Asa Street. 
Joseph P. Stacy. 
John B. Steagall. 
Robert F. Steagall. 
Joseph Sullinger. 
John D. Tolley. 
John B. Thomasson. 
Daniel J. Waggoner. 
George A. Waggoner. 
George W. Waggoner. 
George W. Waggoner, jr. 
Felix M, Waggoner. 
Daniel N. Waggoner. 
Marcus D. L. Whittaker. 
L. J. Whittaker. 
Edward D. Whitman. 
James W. Whitman. 
J. M. D. Wilson 
William A. Woodard. 
Elijah W. Yates. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



223 



RECRUITS. 






Green B. Ashby. 
Cullen Bailey. 
Benjamin Broughton. 
W. N. Bonner. 
Hirara Beaver. 
Elisha B. Brown. 
Brittain F. Carrigan. 
Wilson R. Call. 

A. B. Carter. 
Willis A. Carter. 
W. B. Carter. 
John P. Cooley. 
D. A. Crane. 
John W. Cashion. 
James Cashion. 
Madison Copeland. 
W. P. Davidson. 
W. R. Duke. 
William Eslick. 
Isaac Evans. 

W. R. Evans. 
Aaron Glidewell. 
George W. Gattis, sr. 
W. H. Gattis. 
Elijah L. Hester. 
Andrew J. Hudlow. 
AVilliam N. Johnston. 
John H. Leftwitch. 

B. D. Morgan. 
George W. McAfee. 
Jacob C. Morgan. 
James F. Massey. 
John F. M. Mills. 



Ellis Mills. 
F. M. Meyers. 
James W. Mitchell. 
James Marr. 
James M. Major. 
William Norvall. 
Benjamin J. Noles. 
John W. Neela. 
John Owens. 
W. F. Oliver. 
William Panther. 
James Pearson. 
E. B. Raby. 
J. W. Robertson. 
Samuel Rowes. 
Joseph M. Sebastian. 
James Sullenger. 
W. A. Sullenger. 
Samuel C. Strong. 
Henderson Speck. 
W. J. Taylor. 
Nathaniel Tucker. 
Francis Tucker. 
George H. Waggoner. 
Felix Waggoner. 
Henry A. Waggoner. 
Riley Waggoner. 
Stephen P. Wiles. 
John C. Waid. 
W. H. Webb. 
John Ward. 
Thomas B. Yeaters. 



PROMOTED. 



Lieut. Granville B. Lester, Assistant John D. Tolley, Ordinance Serg't, 1861, 
Surgeon, 1861. 1st Lieut, and Adjutant, 1862. 

Capt. W. L. Moore, Lieut.-col, 1861, J. D. McLean, 2d Lieut,, 1862. 

Col., 1862. J. G. Call, 3d Lieut., 1863. 

Lieut, W. J. Thrash, Capt., 1861. M. B. Shores, 2d Lieut., 1862. 

Serg't William J. Bonner, 3d Lieut., John Sullivan, 3d Lieut., 1863. 

1861. George W. Street, 3d Lieut., 1864. 

William A. Rutledge, 3d Lieut., 1862. 



KILLED. 



Capt. Wm. J. Thrash, Murfreesboro. 
James Sullinger, Murfreesboro. 
Joseph Sullenger, Murfreesboro. 



Benjamin Morgan, Murfreesboro. 
Frank Johnson, Murfreesboro. 
George Steelman, Murfreesboro. 



224 



THE EIGHTH REGIMENT 



Newt Shoftner, Murfreesboro. Joseph Stacy, Franklin. 

Lieut. J. G. Call, Resaca. Lieut. George Street, Franklin. 

W. L. Davidson, Chickamauga. P. Y. Mitchell, Franklin. 

George Davidson, Kennesaw Mount- Alexander Brady, Franklin. 

ain. John Reese, Franklin. 

William Martin, Franklin. Benjamin Knowles, Murfreesboro. 



WOUNDED. 



L. A. Farrar, Murfreesboro. 
W. J. Taylor, Murfreesboro. 
James Hague, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. M. B. Shores, Murfreesboro. 
M. D. L. Whittaker, Murfreesboro. 
John Whittaker, Murfreesboro. 
N. S. Forrester, Murfreesboro. 
F. R. Moore, Murfreesboro. 
W. T. Clark, Murfreesboro. 
J. E. Waggoner, Murfreesboro. 
Benjamin Parker, Murfreesboro. 
Enoch Glidcwell, Murfreesboro. 
John Reese, Murfreesboro. 
Lieut. John Sullivan, Murfreesboro. 
Collins Bright, Murfreesboro. 
Lewis Davidson, Murfreesboro. 
Berry Leftwitch, Murfreesboro. 
Brittain Carrigan, Murfreesboro. 
B. A. Raby., Perryville. 



Lieut John D. Tolly, Perryville. 
H. L. W. Boon, Perryville. 
Lucus Whittaker, Resaca, Ga. 
Alexander Crane, Chickamauga. 
Stephen Johnson, Chickamauga. 
George Street, Chickamauga. 
Aaron Parks, Chickamauga. 
John Whittaker, -Adairsville, Ga. 
Lieut. M. B. Shores, Adairsville, Ga. 
M. M. Dean Adairsville, (la. 
Stephen Johnson, Peach Tree Creek. 
William Martin, Peach Tree Creek. 
M. M. Dean, Peach Tree Creek. 
P. Logan, Peach Tree Creek. 
J. D. Wilson, Franklin, Tenn. 
P. Logan, Franklin, Tenn. 
Jeff King, Franklin, Tenn. 
Wilson Call, Franklin, Tenn. 
John Raby, Franklin, Tenn. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 

J. J. Gaddis, Knoxville, 1861. Rufus Morehead, Corinth, Miss., 1861. 

James Morehead, Warm Springs, Va. J. V. Oliver, Corinth, Miss., 1861. 
J. A. Eaton, Warm Springs, Va. 



COMPANY K. 



OFFICERS. 



William Gore, Captain. 

A. B. Botts, First Lieutenant. 

James Eaton, Second Lieutenant. 

A. W. W. Brooks, Third Lieutenant. 

D. M. Haile, First Sergeant. 

T. G. Settle, Second Sergeant. 

L. M. Gipson, Third Sergeant. 



J. P. Abner. 
J. M. Allard. 
Z. H. Bryant. 
John M. Burriss. 



B. P. McClelland, Fourth Sergeant. 
-T. C. Settle, Fifth Sergeant, 
John Van Hooser, First Corporal. 
S. L. Hall, Second Corporal. 
G. M. Ray, Third Corporal. 
Joseph Lipsheets, Fourth Corporal. 
N. B. Young, Musician. 



PRIVATES. 



E. M. Brown. 
G. W. Brown. 
J. L. Brown. 
J. H. Brown. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



225 



William Buchaiinon. 

R. A. Cox. 

Daniel Cox. 

B. F. Clark. 

Jacob Case. 

William Case. 

H. Carter. 

W. S. Cassety. 

L. M. Cason. 

J. J. Coake. 

John De Jarnett. 

Laii Dudney. 

Len Darwin. 

A. G. Den ton. 
W. G. De Shields. 
William Engle. 
W. A. Fax. 
Kendrix Fax. 

B. B. Fax. 
B. A. Fax. 
W. B. Fax. 
Suel Gordon. 
Samuel Gordon. 
R. H. Games. 

K. J. C. Gailbreath. 

W. A. Gailbreath. 

Matthew Gipson. 

J. R. Harrison. 

George Harrison. 

A. B. Haile. 

AV T. Haile. 

I. s. Haile. 

A. (,. HaiK>. 

S. L. Hall. 

Jack Hambert. 

Peter Huff. 

H. C. Hnffhines. 

Sam E. Hare. 

W. H. Jarman. 

William Sadler, Captain, 1862. 



William Keith. 
J M. Keith. 
O. Kirby. 
L. Law. 
Thad Law. 
Abdelenimus Law. 

B. H. Lawson. 
J. M. Morgan. 
P. F. Morgan. 
H. T. Minor. 
W. C. Minor. 
W. J. Mansel. 
J. B. Mansel. 
.T. W. Meaders. 
J. F. McClure. 
Win. M. Poston. 
T. J. Poston. 

C. C. Price. 
Warren Pharris. 
A. D. Pleasants. 
John S. Quarles. 
L. W. Rawley. 
P. J. Rawley. 
Matthew Rogers. 
Wade Ransom. 
H. H. Roberts. 
Win. Sadler. 

A. Stafford. 
J. C. Smallin. 
W. S. Stone. 
C. X. Tinsley. 
John Whittaker. 
George Whittaker. 
Bish. Walker. 
G. S. Wheeler. 
T. J. Williams. 
L. Wasbburn. 
Zeb. M. Young. 



PROMOTED. 

John S. Quarles, Captain, 1863. 
KILLED. 



Abdelenimus Law, Knoxville (by ears) P. F. Morgan, Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 

Capt. Win. Sadler, Murfreesboro. S. L. Hall, Murfreesboro. 

Lieut. D. M. Haile, Murfreesboro. 

R. H. Gaines, Murfreesboro. 

Jack Hambert, Murfreesboro. 

William M. Poston, Murfreesboro. 



Joseph Lipsheets, Franklin. 
J. L. Brown, Chickamauga. 
A. G. Deuton, Murfreesboro. 
R. H. Gaines, Murfreesboro. 



15 



226 THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

B. J. Gailbreath, Murfreesboro. T. J. Poston, Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 

J. M. Keith, Port Royal, S. C. H. H. Roberts, Chirkamauga. 

J. F. McClure, Franklin. 

WOUNDED. 
Capt. John S Quarles, Murfreesboro. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 

William Buchanan, in prison. W. A. Gailbreath, Tupelo, Miss., 1862. 

H. Carter, West Virginia, 1861. Bish. Walker, Tupelo, Miss., 1862. 

Lan Budney. P. J. Rawley, West Virginia, 1861. 



THE FIFTH REGIMENT TENNESSEE VOL- 
UNTEERS. 

This regiment was subsequently known as the Thir- 
ty-fifth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, and was com- 
posed of volunteer companies from the counties of 
Warren, Cannon, Grundy, Sequatchie, Bledsoe, and 
Van Buren, viz. : 

Company A, Grundy county, Captain Hannah, commanding. 

Company B, Warren county, Captain John W. Towles, com- 
manding. 

Company C, Warren county, Captain Charles M. Forrest, com- 
manding. 

Company D, Warren county, Captain W. T. Christian, com- 
manding. 

Company E, Van Buren county, Captain W. Burrell Cummings, 
commanding. 

Company F, Warren county, Captain Ed J. Wood, commanding. 

Company G, Cannon county, Captain James H. Woods, com- 
manding. 

Company H, Warren county, Captain John Macon, commanding. 

Company I, Bledsoe county, Captain L. L. Dearman, command- 
ing. 

Company K, Sequatchie county, Captain W. D. Stewart, com- 
manding. 

The companies were organized into a regiment at 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



227 



Camp Smavtt, near McMinnville, Term., September 6, 
1861, by the election of Ben J. Hill colonel command- 
ing. The field and staff' officers of the regiment were 
as follows: 







COLONEL BEN J. HILL. 

BEN J. HILL, Colonel; 

JOHN T. SPURLOCK, Lieutenant-colonel; 

JOSEPH BROWN, Major and Adjutant; 

Dr. W. C. BARNS, Surgeon; 

Dr. J. W. WOOTEN, Assistant Surgeon; 

Dr. J. M. BELL, Assistant Surgeon; 



228 THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

Captain O. F. BREWSTER, Quartermaster; 

Captain JAMES S. GRIBBLE, Commissary; 
Rev. DAVID P. RITCHEY, Chaplain. 

The regiment, after organizing, remained in camp of 
instruction at Camp Smartt for three weeks, when it 
was sent to Camp Tfousclale, thence to Bowling^jreen, 
Ky., and placed in Brigadier-general P. R. Cleburne's 
brigade, of General Albert Sidney Johnston's army. 
Remaining at Bowling Green until the battle of Fort 
Donelson, it accompanied its brigade in the evacuation 
of Tennessee, and participated in the great battle of 
Shiloh on April 6 and 7, 1862. 

Colonel B. J. Hill, the commander of the Fifth Reg- 
iment Tennessee Volunteers, was a native of Tennes- 
see, and resided at McMinnville at the breaking out of 
the war between the States in 1861. Previous to the 
war he was engaged in the mercantile business at Mc- 
Minnville, where he had resided for a number of years. 
In 1855, he was elected a member of the State Senate, 
and represented his constituents with characteristic 
ability. At the breaking out of the civil war he es- 
poused the cause of his Southern brethren, and en- 
listed in the Fifth (afterward the Thirty-fifth) Regi- 
ment Tennessee Volunteers in September, 1861, and 
was chosen its commander by the unanimous voice of 
its members. 

As a citizen, he was respected and honored, by all 
who knew him, for his enterprising spirit and for his 
sterling integrity. He was steadfast and immovable 
in his determinations, and was kind and generous to a 
fault. As a soldier, he possessed all the requisite qual- 
ities of a commander. He possessed a degree of ob- 
stinate determination that baffled opposition and recog- 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 229 

nized no opposing obstacles. Infusing this spirit into 
the soldiers of his command to a remarkable degree, 
his regiment acted a distinguished part in the various 
battles of the Western Army, beginning at Shiloh. In 
this battle, Colonel Hill led his regiment in the thickest 
of the fight, and for his gallantry, and the gallantry of 
his regiment, he was mentioned in honorable and com- 
mendatory terms by General Cleburne, whose high 
appreciation and firm friendship seemed to have its 
origin on this occasion, and ever afterward Colonel 
Hill was a favorite of his brigade commander. 

In the battle of Shiloh, the Fifth Tennessee Regi- 
ment carried into the engagement 369 guns. The regi- 
ment suffered severely in the engagements of each 
day. The brigade (Cleburne's) to which the regiment 
belonged numbered 2,750 men, out of which 1,000 
were killed and wounded, and 32 were missing. The 
Fifth Tennessee captured about 100 prisoners during 
the two days' engagement. 

The following is the official report of Colonel Hill, 
of the part the Fifth Tennessee bore in the battle: 

REPORT OF COLONEL BEN J. HILL, FIFTH TEN- 
NESSEE INFANTRY. 

IlEAD-qUARTERS FlFTH TENNESSEE REGIMENT, } 

CAMP NEAR CORINTH, Miss., April 15, 1862. f 

Sir: In compliance with your request, I have the honor to 
make the following report, showing the positions occupied by my 
command during the eventful scenes of the 6th and 7th instant, 
at Shiloh, in Hardin county, Tenn.: 

My regiment was detailed to do picket duty on Saturday 
night, the 5th, and was thrown out within three or four miles of 
the enemy's encampment. At davlight Sunday morning we 
were ordered to advance, with the balance of your brigade, the 
Sixth Mississippi, Colonel Thornton, on my right, and the Twen- 
ty-fourth Tennessee, Lieutenant-colonel Peebles, on my left. 



230 THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

We advanced some three miles, when our pickets commenced a 
sharp and lively skirmish. We continued to advance and drove 
them before us to within five hundred yards of the Federal en- 
campment, when they opened a terrible fire upon our column. 
A deep ravine, full of green briers and grape-vines, separated us 
from Colonel Thornton's regiment. My right was exposed to a 
severe flank fire from a battery and from musketry and other 
small arms. We were at the foot of a long hill, upon which the 
enemy were hidden. Captain Hannah, Company A, and several 
others were killed at this place v and many wounded. 

The Fifteenth Arkansas, Lieutenant-colonel Patton, was in 
advance of us, and deployed as skirmishers, but was soon called 
in to sustain the Twenty-fourth Tennessee on the left, which it 
performed gallantlv and promptly. 

The firing was constant and continuous for half or three quar- 
ters of an hour, when one of the aids of General Beauregard 
came to me and said that the battery on the right must be charged 
and silenced at all hazards. I gave" the word and my brave boys 
promptly responded to it. We charged, dispersed the enemy, 
and silenced the battery. As the enemv retreated mv marksmen 
had better opportunity for trying their skill, and well did they 
improve it, as was proven by the number of the enemy who there 
fell. We continued on at double-quick for near a mile, crossing 
their first encampment, and formed a line of battle at the foot of 
the next hill. 

At this time the Twenty-third Tenneseee, Lieutenant-colonel 
Neill, and the Sixth Mississippi, Colonel Thornton, constituting 
the right wing of your brigade, getting separated, you had to go 
to their aid. 

I was then directed, as senior colonel, to take command of all 
the troops on my left by one of General Beauregard's staff, which 
I did, and formed them in line of battle to keep back the enemy's 
right wing. Then with two Louisiana regiments on the left of 
your brigade, the Texas Rangers on the extreme left, on Owl 
Creek, a battery in our rear, the Louisiana cavalry as pickets 
and the Fifteenth Arkansas, Lieutenant-colonel Patton, as skir- 
mishers, we advanced at once, driving the extreme right of the 
enemy for at least a mile before us. Thev halted at their third 
encampment and gave us a stubborn fight. The Fourth Ken- 
tucky and a battalion of Alabama troops were here, on our 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 231 

right, sheltered under the brow of a hill. They had been giving 
the enemy a hot fire, but ceased as we came up. My regiment 
then opened a terrible fire upon the enemy, and kept it up alone 
tor a short time, when the Twenty-fourth Tennessee joined with 
us in firing upon them. Colonel Freeman, commanding a Ten- 
nessee regiment, with a squadron of cavalry, then moved rapidly 
to the left, and opened fire upon their right flank. This, in con- 
junction with our fire in front, told with terrible effect, and they 
retreated, leaving many of their dead and wounded behind them. 
We pursued them and had just formed on the fourth hill, and in 
sight of their fourth encampment, when you returned to cheer 
us with your presence and to supply us with ammunition. 

The remainder of the evening and during the next day, Monday 
we fought under your immediate command. It is unnecessary 
for me to enumerate and recite the many charges and the many 
incidents that occurred on Monday, as you were in command 
and witnessed them all. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to say that my men, though inex- 
perienced, fought well and bravely, and never failed to charge, or 
rally, when I commanded them to do so. As far as my observa- 
tion went, all Jhe Tennessee troops fought well. So it was with 
the Arkansas troops, the Mississippi, the Kentucky, and the Ala- 
bama troops on the left. All of them fought nobly and gallantly 
and against great odds. My regiment captured about one hun- 
dred prisoners during the two davs' fighting. 

With great respect, your obedient servant, 

BEX J. HILL. 
Colo/id Co in nut tiding' fifth Tennessee ffetflinent^ Prov'l Army. 

Brigadier-general P. R. CLEBURXE, Commanding Second 
Brigade. 

HEAD-QUARTERS FIFTH TEXXESSEE REGIMENT. J 

PROVISIONAL ARMY. 
CAMP HILL, Miss.. April 25, 1862. ) 

Sir: In obedience to Special Orders, No, . of date the 2ist 
inst.. in relation to the number of men of this regiment engaged 
in the battles at Shiloh on the 6th and -th inst.. I have to report 
as follows, to wit: 



232 THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

Number detailed as infirmary or hospital corps jy 

Number detailed to go with artillerv 6 

Number detailed to go with sappers and miners i 

Number detailed as wagon-guard t 3 

Number detailed to guard ammunition 2 

~p* 

Total detailed 41 

Number of non-commissioned officers and privates engaged.. 328 

Number of company officers (commissioned) 33 

Number of field officers 3 

Number of staff officers ^ 

Total engaged 369 

In reply to that portion of the ordei which refers to the indi- 
vidual action of the officers and men of this regiment on the 
battle-field of Shiloh, I have to say, the officers and men of the 
regiment fought well and acted with great coolness and bravery. 
Considering their inexperience, such was the conduct of most of 
them on the field. 

In Captain Forrest's company (C), private Samuel Evans 
displayed great coolness and courage. After being severely 
wounded, the ball passing through the cheeks, he refused to go 
to the rear, but remained and fought for a considerable length of 
time, cheering on the men and loading and shooting as fast as he 
could. 

In Company B. commanded by Lieutenant B. II. Womack. 
privates John D. Smith, Douglas Briers, and J. T. Pennington are 
mentioned as having distinguished themselves by their bravery 
and daring. 

In Company D, commanded bv Lieutenant R. C. Smartt. pri- 
vate John Roberts, a very young soldier, behaved with the great- 
est coolness and bravery throughout the whole action. He was 
frequently in advance of his company, was knocked down twice 
by spent balls, and his gun shattered to pieces. He is but fifteen 
years old, but displayed the coolness and courage of a veteran. 

In Company F. Captain Edward J. Wood, Lieutenant C. C. 
Brewer is spoken of in the highest terms for cool bravery and 
gallant bearing. Following the lead and imitating the example 
of his captain, one of the bravest of the brave, he was ever at 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 233 

the head of the men, his gallant captain only in advance, cheer- 
ing them on to the conflict, and ever and anon dropping one of 
the Yankees as his eye would chance to light upon him. Pri- 
vates Abe Boren and Isaac L. Ray, of the same company, also 
greatly distinguished themselves, and are spoken of in the high- 
est terms by their comrades and their captain. 

Lieutenant George S. Deakins, of Captain W. D. Stewart's ' 
company (K), was also conspicuous throughout the engagament 
for coolness and gallant behavior 

It is, no doubt, invidious to single out instances- of this kind. 
Officers and men all did well, considering that thev were raw and 
inexperienced, and they were out Saturday night, the whole reg- 
iment, on picket dutv, and consequently unrefreshed. 

Respectfully submitted, B. J. HILL, 

Colonel Commanding Fifth Tennessee Regiment, Proi'l Armv. 

Major POWHATTAX ELLIS, jr., Assistant Adjutant-general, 
Second Brigade. Third Armv Corps. 

The Fifth Tennessee remained with the army during 
the siege of Corinth, and on May 28, 1862. was on the 
picket lines when Halleck was pressing the Confed- 
erate lines so severely on the eve of the evacuation of 
Corinth. Being ordered by General Cleburne, on the 
morning of May 28, to storm the Federal position at 
Shelton Hill, in front of Corinth, Colonel Hill charged 
with his gallant regiment into a perfect gauntlet of 
Federal columns which were concealed behind a hedge 
of plum bushes; and before he was aware of the fact 
that the regiments which were ordered to support him 
on his flanks had failed to advance to the charge, he 
rushed to the very muzzles of the enemy's cannon and 
dislodged the enemy from their position, yet the fire 
of artillery and musketry was so severe in his front 
and on his flanks, that he was forced to fall back to his 
original position immediately after the accomplishment 
of one of the most daring and gallant achievements of 
the war. For this heroic act, Colonel Hill and his 



234 THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

regiment were complimented by General Beauregard 
in general orders read to the troops of the entire army. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the regiment ac- 
companied its brigade in the Kentucky campaign, and 
fought bravely in the battles of Richmond and Perry - 
ville. At Murfreesboro and Chickamauga it sustained 
the exalted reputation it had so justly won on all 
former battle-fields. 

When the Confederate forces fell back to Dalton in 
1863, Colonel Hill was made provost-marshal-general 
of the Army of Tennessee by order of General Joseph 
E.Johnston. In this capacity Colonel Hill served the 
Confederacy until January, 1865, when he was com- 
missioned a brigadier-general, and assigned to duty in 
the command of cavalry. In this capacity he operated 
principally in North Alabama until the close of the 
war, when he surrendered his command at Chatta- 
nooga to the Federal authorities. Colonel Hill always 
claimed that his was the last command on the east 
side of the Mississippi to surrender to the Federal au- 
thorities. 

At the close of the war General Hill returned to his. 
home at McMinnville, and found that his home and 
his property had suffered greatly from the ravages of 
war. Gathering up the fragments of a shattered fort- 
une, he adjusted his liabilities. an.d, in partnership with 
his brother, he again entered the mercantile business 
in his native town. In a few years he closed out his 
business and entered the profession of law, in which 
capacity he acted during the remainder of his life. 

Shortly after the close of the war his health began 
to fail. The hardships, the exposure, and the excite- 
ment of a four years' war had told severely upon his 
nervous system. He had led his regiment in forty-two 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 235 

battles and skirmishes, and during the whole period of 
his military service missed but a few days from duty. 
After an active, brilliant, and useful life, he died at his 
home in McMinnville, Tenn., January 5, 1880, at the 
age of fifty-four years. Thus closed the life and labors 
of Benjamin Jefferson Hill, the commander of the 
Fifth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, afterward brig- 
adier-general of cavalry, in the service of the Confed- 
erate States. 



CARNES'S BATTERY. 

Carnes's battery was assigned to General D. S. Don- 
elson's brigade shortly after the battle of Shiloh, in 
April, 1862, and continued a part of this brigade after 
the promomotion of General Donelson to the position 
of major-general, when the brigade was commanded 
by Colonel John H. Savage, temporarily, and perma- 
nently by Colonel Marcus J. Wright, who was made a 
brigadier-general about this time. This battery was 
with the brigade in all the engagements from Corinth 
to Chickamauga, and the warmest feelings of amity 
existed between it and the officers and men of the in- 
fantry of the brigade, especially the Eighth and Six- 
teenth Tennessee. Captain Carnes, the commander of 
this battery, always told his brigade commander that 
he was never uneasy about his front, and wanted no 
troops in his rear to be killed by shells thrown at his 
guns; if he would place the Eighth and Sixteenth 
Tennessee on either side of his battery he would have 
no uneasiness about being sustained on the flanks. 
This battery did a considerable amount of desperate 
fighting at close quarters, and was generally supported 
by the Eighth and Sixteenth Tennessee. In every in- 



236 CARNES'S BATTERY 

stance these were the regiments of the bridgade whieh 
the battery always preferred, and the brigade com- 
mander always respected this preference by a compli- 
ance with the wishes of the captain whenever it? was 
practicable to do so. As Captain Carnes operated his 
guns mostly at close quarters with the enemy, he al- 
ways threw a great deal of canister shot into their 
ranks, which had the effect to demoralize and often 
stampede the enemy in his front. The captain having 
proved the efficacy of canister in large quantities while 
at close quarters, he always kept an extra supply on 
hand and dealt it out lavishly upon the enemy to his 
great consternation. This policy greatly pleased the 
chief of artillery of Bragg's army, old Colonel Ola- 
dowski, who became a firm and fast friend to Captain 
Carnes, whom he always jokingly called his " canister- 
shot " captain. 

As Carnes's battery was with Donelson's brigade 
during the greater portion of the war after the battle 
of Shiloh, and it was recruited from time to time from 
the ranks of the Eighth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Twenty- 
eighth, Thirty-eighth, and Fifty-first Tennessee Regi- 
ments, a few items of its history will be given, together 
with a history of its commander, Captain W. W. 
Carnes. 

The battery was organized by Captain W. II. Jack- 
son (afterward General Jackson of the cavalry). 
The nucleus of this battery was a few German mem- 
bers, and the guns of the "'Steuben Artillery" of 
Memphis, before the war. The men were enlisted as 
" regulars," and taken from various places, so that 
scarcely ten men were from the same county, and they 
were always kept under the discipline and rules of the 
regular service. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



2 37 



At the battle of Belmont, Captain Jackson was 
mounted and afterward promoted to colonel, and placed 
in command of the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, and 
was subsequently made a brigadier-general. 




CAPTAIN W. \V. CARXES. 

When Captain Jackson was promoted, W.W. Carnes 
was made captain of the battery. Captain Jackson, 
who was now colonel and afterward brigadier-general 
of cavalry, was a graduate of West Point, and was 
lieutenant in the First Mounted Rifles till the war com- 
menced. 



238 CARNES'S BATTERY 

Captain W. W. Carnes was a young man of excel- 
lent literary and military attainments. He was in the 
graduating class at the United States Naval Academy 
when the war commenced, and at the time he was 
jnade captain of this battery he was only twenty years 
old, and was beyond a doubt the youngest captain of 
artillery in the Confederate States Army. When as- 
signed to DonelsonV brigade the officers of the bat- 
tery were as follows: 

W. W. CARXES, Captain; 

L. G. MARSHALL, First Lieutenant; 

LEWIS BOND, First Lieutenant; 

R. E. FOOTE, Second Lieutenant; 

JAMES M. COCKRILL, Second" Lieutenant. 

Milton Brown, jr., was for a while attached to the 
battery as supernumerary second lieutenant, but was 
subsequently assigned to duty elsewhere. 

The battery was composed of six guns, consisting of 
four six-pounders and two twelve-pound howitzers, 
while under Captain Jackson, and till after the battle 
of Shiloh, when all eight-gun batteries were reduced to 
four guns. This left a second lieutenant more than was 
needed, and Lieutenant Foote was assigned to duty 
elsewhere. About this time Carnes's battery was as- 
signed to Donelson's brigade at Corinth. Its officers 
were then as follows: 

W. \V. CARNES, Captain; 

L. G. MARSHALL, First Lieutenant; 

LEWIS BOND, First Lieutenant; 

JAMES M. COCKRILL, Second Lieutenant. 

As above stated, Captain Carnes was educated at 
the United States Naval Academy. Lieutenant L. G. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 239 

Marshall, who was the oldest officer in the battery, 
was a man of very superior education, was well known 
as a man of letters, and was connected w r ith a leading 
Memphis paper when the war commenced. 

Lieutenant Lewis Bond was a citizen of Browns- 
ville, and a recent graduate of Harvard University. 

Lieutenant J. M. Cockrill w r as from Nashville, and a 
son of Sterling Cockrill of that city. 

These officers remained with the battery until after 
the battle of Chickamauga. The only change in the 
officers of the battery up to this time was the promo- 
tion of Sergeant A. Van Vleck to the position of sec- 
ond lieutenant upon the recommendation of his com- 
manding officer for good conduct upon the field. Lieu- 
tenant Bond was assigned to General Jackson's cavalry 
command as ordnance officer. Lieutenant A. Van 
Vleck was a native of New York, and had been in the 
South about nine years when the w^ar commenced. 
He joined this battery at the breaking out of the war, 
and came from the vicinity of Tracy City, Tennessee. 
He proved a good and faithful soldier in every position 
he filled in the service. He fell at the battle of Chick- 
amauga. 

The first active service in which this battery partici- 
pated on the field, after its assignment to Donelson's 
brigade, was performed at Perryville, Kentucky, Oc- 
tober 8, 1862. Being engaged in a heavy artillery duel 
in the forenoon in front of General Wood's command, 
the battery was considerably cut up, and Captain 
Carnes was ordered to refit and await orders. While 
thus awaiting orders, the scene of operations began to 
rapidly change to the Confederate right wing. Folk's 
corps was hurried rapidly down the Chaplin Creek 
to the right of Perryville, and soon became furiously 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 241 

engaged in an attack upon the whole Federal left wing. 
Proceeding to the scene of operations, Captain Carnes 
found General Cheatham, who told him there was no 
place where he could be put into action at that time, 
but to await orders. The battery had already been en- 
gaged in a lively engagement, but the position on the 
right where the brigade was engaged was inaccessible 
to artillery, as the Federals were posted near the brow 
of a bluff, and there was but one road that led up to it, 
and that was a very narrow one on the extreme right. 
This road was cut out of the side of the bluff, and was 
held near its brow by a heavy Federal force. Captain 
Carnes was ordered to remain and await orders until 
he could be used. Meanwhile Folk's corps ascended 
the bluff by brigades and rushed forward to the attack. 
The battle on the right became desperate. In a little- 
while Colonel Wharton, of the Texas Rangers, came 
up in hot haste and said that he could find a place for 
the battery to do some splendid work. At the same 
time Major Martin, of General Donelson's staff, came up 
with two regiments the Eighth and Fifty-first Tennes- 
see that had been detached from Donelson's brigade. 
After a hasty consultation, these two regiments and a 
section of the battery went with Colonel Wharton, 
making a detour to the right toward the enemy's 
rear. The rear of the Fedei'al left was attacked after 
a manner planned by the daring Colonel Wharton, 
of the Texas Rangers. This attack was made upon 
a fresh line of the Federal forces that had been but 
recently placed there as a reserve. This line, not 
knowing the strength of the saucy party attacking 
them, and confused at the suddeness of the attack 
and the abundance of musketry and canister shot 
so unexpectedly hurled into their ranks, stampeded, 
16 



242 CARNES'S BATTERY 

and their front line giving back about tbis time from 
the desperate onslaught of Maney's and Donelson's 
brigades, the whole Federal left was turned at this 
point, and the slaughter of the enemy was sudden and 
terrible. The Confederate columns were now moved 
up, and the first position of the Federal lines had been 
broken. The field was practically won by the Con- 
federates. 

After the battle of Perryville and the return of the 
Confederates to Tennessee, Captain Carnes was inca- 
pacitated for duty, owing to sickness and a wound re- 
ceived in the engagement of October 8. Accordingly, 
he was sent on furlough to Macon, Georgia, in order 
to receive medical treatment. Here he recuperated 
and was captured permanently, not by Federal bayo- 
nets, it is true, but by the smiles and charms of a beauti- 
ful and charming young lady to whom he was married 
shortly after the close of the war. 

Rumors of a prospective battle near Murfreesboro 
caused Captain Carnes to rejoin his battery before the 
expiration of his leave of absence. He found his bat- 
tery encamped with its brigade in front of Murfrees- 
boro. Soon after his return the battery went with the 
brigade on a memorable march in a snow-storm to La- 
vergne, between Murfreesboro and Nashville. The 
great battle of Murfreesboro was fought shortly after- 
ward. In this memorable engagement Carnes's bat- 
tery did excellent service. The battery was operated 
in front of the Cowan House and in the cedar brake 
on Wednesday, and on the following day was detached 
from the brigade and assigned to a position on the hill 
to the right of the Nashville pike, in front of Stone's 
River. This position was a peculiarly critical and dan- 
gerous one, and the battery was here supported by a 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 243 

Mississippi brigade its own brigade (Donelson's) 
held the ground it had gained on Wednesday. 

After the retreat from Murfreesboro to Shelbyville, 
the battery was camped with its brigade at Shelbyville, 
and afterward at Tullahoma. On the retreat to Chat- 
tanooga, in July, 1862, the rains were almost incessant, 
and when the Confederates arrived at the Tennessee 
river, near the mouth of Battle Creek, they found that 
their pontoons had been broken by the freshets of the 
previous days and the Tennessee river was much 
swollen. The pontoon had broken in the middle, and 
a part of the bridge was found on each side of the 
river. The engineer officers were at a loss to manage 
it. At the suggestion of General Cheatham, Captain 
Carnes was directed to take charge of the work, and 
by using the knowledge of ropes, water, and boats 
acquired in the United States Navy, he quickly re- 
placed the bridge, over which the retreating army 
passed in safety. For this* Captain Carnes was highly 
complimented by Generals Cheatham, Hardee, Wal- 
thall, and others, who witnessed the work from the 
bank of the stream. 

The battery participated in all the movements of the 
brigade up to, and including, the battle of Chicka- 
mauga. In this latter engagement the battery, with 
the brigade, was thrown unexpectedly upon the ene- 
my's breastworks, and through a misunderstanding of 
orders from division head-quarters, the brigade and 
battery each thought that Walker's division was in 
their front, and that they were advanced as a support 
to him. _In this manner the whole column moved 
within a few paces of the enemy's lines. Before the 
mistake was discovered, the battery was in position. 
The undergrowth being thick, and it being very diffi- 



244 CARNES'S BATTERY 

cult to ascertain the true position of the enemy, who 
was posted on an advantageous and elevated position 
and could see the position of the Confederates, the fire 
became general, and the battery received a severe fire 
of grape and canister at very short range. The Con- 
federates at this part of the line were forced to fall 
back a short distance. The battery had sustained a 
fearful loss during the few minutes it took to rectify 
the mistake. Having lost most of its horses and many 
of its men, Captain Carnes was unable to bring off his 
guns when the line fell back, and they fell into the 
hands of the enemy. Hood's division of Longstreet's 
corps attacked the enemy on the left of Wright's bri- 
gade a few minutes afterward, and drove them back. 
In this charge Hood recaptured the guns of Carnes's 
battery. 

In the battle of Chickamauga on Saturday evening, 
the battery entered the action with an effective total of 
seventy-eight men. Of this number thirty-eight were 
killed and wounded. The battery also lost forty-nine 
horses in this brief action of Saturday evening. 
Among the killed was Lieutenant A. Van Vleck, who 
received three wounds within fifteen minutes, the last 
shot causing instant death. Also private Lane, a gal- 
lant soldier and a veteran of the Mexican war, laid 
down his life in the battle. 

Owing to the used-up condition of the recaptured 
guns and the loss of horses and men, it was impossible 
to operate the battery, and the men being temporarily 
assigned to other duty, Captain Carnes was assigned 
to staff duty under Lieutenant-general Polk, who was 
a particular friend. When Colonel Walter, of Missis- 
sippi (who was General Bragg's chief of staff,) learned 
that Captain Carnes felt mortified over the temporary 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 245 

loss of his guns to the enemy in the engagement of 
Saturday evening, he went with General Bragg on 
Sunday morning to show him the ground occupied by 
the battery at the time of its capture. General Bragg 
was pleased with the work that Captain Carnes had 
performed under great difficulties, and complimented 
him for the good work his battery performed until it 
was captured. So well was the commanding general 
pleased with the ability of Captain Carnes as an artil- 
lery officer that he caused him to be promoted to the 
command of a battalion of artillery. 

After the battle of Chickamauga Captain Carnes re- 
ceived a thirty-days' furlough in order to refit his bat- 
tery, being allowed to select from guns out of the fifty- 
nine pieces of artillery captured by the Confederates 
at Chickamauga. On his return from Atlanta with the 
new battery, new horses were given him, and half the 
men of Scott's battery were assigned to Carnes's bat- 
tery, with one of Scott's lieutenants to take the place 
of Lieutenant Van Vleck, who was killed at Chicka- 
mauga. Captain Carnes was placed in command of a 
battalion of four batteries in Stevenson's division. His 
own battery being assigned to that division was com- 
manded by Captain L. G. Marshall, who had been a 
first lieutenant all the tinae while the battery was com- 
manded by Captain Carnes. From this time to the 
close of the war the battery was separated from the 
brigade. 

About this time the artillery of the army was organ- 
ized into battalions and regiments, and managed apart 
from the infantry command. Captain Carnes contin- 
ued in command of a battalion of artillery until early 
in 1864, when he was assigned to duty in the Confed- 
erate Navy under a commission of lieutenant in the 



246 CARNES'S BATTERY 

regular navy of the Confederate States, in which ca- 
pacity he served to the end of the war. 

Carnes's battery was a part of Donelson's brigade dur- 
ing the greater part of two years. Its commander, Cap- 
tain W. W. Carnes, was a young officer of more than 
ordinary ability. He was honored by his men and the 
officers and men of the brigade, and by all who knew 
him. He was a gallant and zealous officer, and a gen- 
tleman of sterling integrity and honor. He always op- 
erated his guns in every engagement where it was pos- 
sible to plant his battery, and where he could not op- 
erate his whole battery he would bring up a section, or 
even one piece, into action, if he could possibly get it 
on the ground. This was the case in many of the 
smaller engagements in which the brigade participated. 
At Perryville, at Murfreesboro, and at ,Chickamauga, 
the battery operated all its guns, and at close quarters, 
with the enemy. In each of these engagements it 
rendered valuable assistance* to the brigade and to the 
whole army. The soldiers of Donelson's brigade cher- 
ished the warmest feelings of friendship and good-will 
toward the officers and men of this battery, which was 
reciprocated in full. There was no envy, and rivalry, 
or jealousy, as was often the case between the infantry 
and other branches of the service. The brigade exer- 
cised a warm feeling of interest and pride in their bat- 
tery, and always showed it. As the guns would move 
out from camps with the infantry columns to take its 
position with them, the battery was always greeted 
with loud and long-continued cheers. The Eighth and 
Sixteenth regiments made heavy details to recruit this 
battery in the later years of the war, and these regi- 
ments became so attached to Captain Carnes .and his 
men that they considered them almost the same as 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 247 

members of the same company or regiment with 
them. 

As an officer Captain Carnes was a rigid disciplin- 
arian, and conducted every feature of his military life 
to a mathematical accuracy. Having been educated at 
the United States Naval Academy and brought up 
under the rigid rules of the navy in reference to obey- 
ing orders, he always made it a point to hold strictly 
to his instructions. When he was ordered to hold a 
place as long as he could he madejt a rule to stay there. 
He -considered that his only means of measuring his 
ability to hold a position to which he had been as- 
signed was to stick to it till relief came or he had or- 
ders to leave it. This was the case at Chickamauga 
where he was placed by a mistake, not his own, in the 
very mouths of the enemy's cannons mounted upon 
breastworks. Here he worked all his guns, and dealt 
death and destruction to the enemy till half of his men 
and most of his horses were shot down. When he 
was ordered to withdraw his battery he found that he 
had neither men nor horses sufficient to take off his 
guns, and, as has been before stated, they fell into the 
hands of the enemy. This was the only retrograde 
movement that he ever made from the field during his 
command of artillery. 

Captain Carnes was a gentleman possessed of many 
good qualities. He always admired a fine horse, and 
was always mounted upon one of the fleetest and best 
horses in the army, and in the tilts and equestrian ex- 
ercises at jumping, etc., he always excelled, and was 
the best horseman in Cheatham's division. 

Captain Carnes was a citizen of Memphis, Tennes- 
see, at the breaking out of the war, and was attending 
the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Es- 



248 WRIGHT'S BRIGADE 

pousing the cause of the Confederacy in the first stages 
of the conflict, he continued in its service as has been 
briefly stated, and was among the last to surrender. 
In 1866, he was married at Macon, Georgia, to the 
lady whom he formerly met at this place in 1863. In 
1867 he settled in Macon, and has resided there up to 
the present time. As he was a faithful, gallant, and 
true officer and soldier in war, and was honored and 
loved by his men, he possesses the same good qualities, 
together with all the embellishments of a true and hon- 
orable gentleman in the quiet walks of peace. 



WRIGHT'S BRIGADE. 

N 

When General Donelson was assigned to duty in 
East Tennessee, with the rank of major-general, Gen- 
eral Wright, who had been previously promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, was placed in command of 
Donelsorvs brigade. His commission was dated De- 
cember 13, 1862, and his first assignment to duty under 
this commission was in the command of a Kentucky 
brigade in Hardee's corps. 

General Wright was assigned tQ duty as commander 
of Donelson's brigade by virtue of the following order: 

Special Order,) HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF TENNESSEE,! 

No. 25. \ TULLAHOMA, TENN., January 31, 1863. J 

II. Brigadier-general Marcus J. Wright is hereby relieved 
from duty in Hardee's corps, and will report to Lieutenant-gen- 
eral Polk for command of Donelson's brigade. 

By command of General Bragg. 

GEORGE WILLIAM BRENT, A. A. G. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 249 

Brigadier-general Marcus J. Wright entered the serv- 
ice as lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred and 
Fifty-fourth* Regiment Tennessee Infantry, in the 
Provisional Army of Tennessee, April 4, 1861; was 
made lieutenant-colonel and acting adjutant-general 
June 10, and was commissioned brigadier-general De- 
cember 13, 1862. He commanded a battalion of the 
One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Regiment and Steuben 
Artillery at Fort Wright, on the Mississippi river near 
Randolph, Tenn., April 29, 1861. He was commander 
of the Post at Columbus, Ky., from February to March, 
1862, and commanded the conscript camp at McMinn- 
ville, Tenn., from September to December 12, 1862; 
was assigned to the command of Hanson's Kentucky 
brigade January n, 1863, and was assigned to the com- 
mand of Donelson's brigade February i, 1863. He 
commanded the brigade in the battles of Chickamauga 
and Missionary Ridge; was assigned to duty as com- 
mander of the District and Post of Atlanta in 1863; 
was commander of the Post at Macon, Ga., in 1864, 
and commander of the District of North Mississippi 
and West Tennessee from February, 1865, to the close 
of the war. 

Wright's brigade was composed of the Eighth, Six- 
teenth, Twenty-eighth. Thirty-eighth, Fifty-first, and 
Fifty-second Tennessee Regiments, Murray's Tennes- 
see Battalion, and Carnes's Battery of Tennessee Ar- 
tillery. This brigade was a part of Cheatham's divis- 
ion, Folk's corps, Army of Tennessee. 

The following constituted the members of General 
Wright's staff', with the date of their appointment and 
the period of their service: 

:: This regiment was numbered on the old list. 



250 WRIGHT'S BRIGADE 

J. T. Beverage, Captain and A. C. S., February, 1864. 

W. II. Browning, Chaplain, February, 1864. 

Laurence L. Butler, Major and Acting A. A. G., December, 
1863. 

Henry L. Elcan, Major and A. Q^ M., January 20, 1863. 

James H. Elcan, Captain and Acting A. D. C., February, 1863. 

Alexis Gardenhire, Acting A. D. C., April, 1863. 

Eugene T. Harris, First Lieutenant and A. D. C., Januarv 20, 
1863. 

Minor Harris, First Lieutenant and A. I. G., 1863-5. 

Charles Hays, Major and Acting A. I. G., January, 1863. 

James R. Howard, Colonel and Acting A. D. C., 1863. 

Hilton S. Jones, Major and Chief Surgeon, 1863-4. 

Edward F. Lee, Captain and A. I. G., September, 1863, to No- 
vember, 1864. 

Andrew J. Paine, Captain and Ordnance Officer, 1863-4. 

William Pierce, Captain and A. I. G., 1863. 

H. Y. Riddle, Captain and Acting A. A. G., December, 1863. 

W. L. Richardson, Lieutenant and Provost Marshal, March, 
1863. 

Charles Smith, Vol. A. D. C., January, 1863. 

T. E. Starke, Captain and A. I. G., January 21, 1863. 

W. A. Thompson, Captain and A. C. S., December, 1864, to Feb- 
ruary, 1865. 

John P. Trezevant, Major and A. C. S., January 20, 1863. 

Leon Trousdale, Captain and A. A. G., January 20, 1863. 

W. C. Whitthorne, Brigadier-general and Acting A. D. C., Sep- 
tember 19 and 20, 1863. 

Sydney Womack, First Lieutenant and A. I. G., January 9, 1863. 

Shortly after the assignment of General Wright to 
the command of the brigade, General Cheatham ad- 
dressed him, through his adjutant-general, Major John 
Ingram, asking him for the names of two Tennesseans 
of the brigade who fell at the battles of Perryville and 
M.urfreesboro, who were conspicuous for their gal- 
lantry on the field. General Wright forwarded the 
names of Captain B. H. Holland, of the Thirty-eighth 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 251 

Tennessee, and Colonel W. L. Moore, of the Eighth 
Tennessee, who fell at Murfreesboro, as shown by the 
following correspondence: 

HEAD-QUARTERS WRIGHT'S BRIGADE, } 

CHEATHAM'S DIVISION, FOLK'S CORPS, > 

ARMY OF TENNESSEE, April 16, 1863.) 

Major : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of jour 
note of the I3th inst., informing me that the major-general com- 
manding directs me to furnish the names of "two Tennesseans 
of the hrigade who fell at Murfreesboro and Perryville conspic- 
uous for their gallantry," for the purpose of making appropriate 
inscriptions on the guns of Maney's brigade. 

I respectfully forward the names of Colonel William L. 
Moore, of the Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, and Cap- 
tain B. H. Holland, of Company C, Thirty-eighth Regiment 
Tennessee Volunteers, both of whom were killed at the battle 
of Murfreesboro, and both of whom were conspicuous for their 
gallantry displayed upon that ever-memorable field. 

I am, sir, respectfully your obedient servant, 

MARCUS J. WRIGHT, Bigadier-general Commanding. 

Major JOHN INGRAM, A. A. G. 

General Wright was a clever, genial gentleman, quiet 
and urbane in his habits, and was a good soldier. His 
promotion to the rank of brigadier-general over Colonel 
Savage was not agreeable to the greater portion of the 
brigade, though they had no animosity against him as a 
man. They regarded him as a gentleman, but at the 
same time they felt that the promotion should have been 
given to Colonel Savage, who was at the time the sen- 
ior colonel of the brigade. The men knew Colonel 
Savage as a commander and had confidence in him. 
Of Colonel Wright they knew comparatively nothing, 
and were disappointed when he was placed in com- 
mand of the brigade. General Wright did compara- 
tively little, however, in procuring this promotion. He 
was popular with the governor and State authorities, 



252 WRIGHT'S BRIGADE 

some of whom, it was said, were far from being ad- 
mirers of Colonel Savage. Some old campaign spleen 
was between them and him, and the feud, though par- 
tially dissembled, dated back for several years pre- 
vious to the beginning of the war. Many of Colonel 
Savage's friends were of opinion that some of the 
State officers were in concert with the governor, and 
their programme seemed to be to see that Savage was 
promoted no further. Seeing that there would be a 
promotion for General Donelson in the near future, 
they procured for Colonel Wright a commission as 
brigadier-general in advance of any vacancy. When 
the vacancy did occur, they had a brigadier ready to 
take charge of Donelson's brigade. 

General Wright received the commission some time 
in advance of Donelson's promotion. The authorities 
treated Colonel Savage with great injustice in this 
transaction. They were the parties who did the wrong, 
and were the proper subjects of reproach. General 
Wright accepted the commission which thev procured 
for him. That the authorities made a mistake in this 
action was apparent to many who were in the brigade. 
Colonel Savage was the superior of General Wright 
in many respects as a commander. .Savage was best 
qualified for a field commander, while Wright had not 
a superior as a district or post commander. This was 
demonstrated in the sequel. General Wright's record 
as commander of the Post at Columbus, Ky., at Mc- 
Minnville, Tenn., Charleston, Term., and at Dalton, 
Macon, and Atlanta, Ga., and the District of North 
Mississippi, is creditable to him as an officer, and in 
that capacity he was without a superior in the Army 
of Tennessee. As lieutenant-colonel of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-fourth Tennessee, General Wright had 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 253 

a good record, and distinguished himself in several 
battles. 

General Wright did what most young officers wculd 
have done in accepting the promotion thus procured 
for him. In this war ''rank" was every thing. The 
Southern soldiery delighted in promotion, and few 
indeed would have declined the commission of a brig- 
adier. 

Though Colonel Savage declined to serve under Gen- 
eral Wright, for reasons explained in his farewell ad- 
dress to his regiment, there was no ill will between 
them, and there ever afterward existed a warm friend- 
ship between these two officers. 

As an officer, General Wright was kind and court- 
eous. There was little of the pomp and display usual 
to the commander of a brigade. He was in every 
respect a gentleman. On account of bad health, his 
stay with the brigade was brief, during which time his 
command was in the battles of Chickamauga and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. Under the chapter of "Official Re- 
ports" can be found General Wright's official report 
of the conduct of his brigade in these two battles. 

Since the war General Wright has resided much of 
his time in Washington, where he has had charge of 
the war records. 



254 THE SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT 



SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT TENNESSEE 
VOLUNTEERS. 

This regiment was composed of^companies from the 
counties of Franklin, Bedford, Marshall, Jackson, and 
Putnam, and was organized at Camp Trousdale in 
May, 1861. The field and staff officers, at the time of 
the organization, were as follows: 

TAZ W. NEWMAN, Colonel; 

T. C. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-colonel; 

A. L. LANDIS, Major; 

KINCHELOE, Adjutant; 

WATT W. FLOYD, Quartermaster; 

W. C. COLLINS, Commissary; 

JOHN W. O'NEAL, Sergeant-major; 

W. F. CALLAHAN, Quartermaster-sergeant; 

THOMAS HARREL, Commissary-sergeant; 

Dr. WATT GENTRY, Surgeon; 

Dr. WHITFIELD, Assisant Surgeon; 

Rev. E. B. CHRISMAN, Chaplain. 

The regiment was composed of the following com- 
panies: 

COM PANT A Bedford County. 

J. D. Hoyle Captain. 

T. B. Terry First Lieutenant. 

Robert Campbell Second Lieutenant. 

Joseph Hastings Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT B Bedford County. 

W. A. Landis Captain. 

U. C. Harrison First Lieutenant. 

H. M. Kimsey Second Lieutenant. 

Math Cortiner Third Lieutenant. . 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 255 

COMPANY CMarsliall County. 

R. C. Williams Captain. 

J. C. Davis First Lieutenant. 

F. M. Orr Second Lieutenant. 

W. M. Bryant Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT D Franklin County. 
T. H. Finch Captain. 

G. W. Corn First Lieutenant. 

William Lee Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Cardin Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT E Franklin County. 

Albert S. Marks Captain. 

William Newman First Lieutenant. 

James Grant Second Lieutenant. 

T. H. Cole. Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT F Marshall County. 

R. H. Hunter ..Captain. 

John Bigger First Lieutenant. 

William Wallace Second Lieutenant. 

James Hunter Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT G Bedford County. 

James Armstrong Captain. 

Thomas H. Watterson First Lieutenant. 

Thomas Cleveland Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas Woods Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT H Marshall County. 

R. H. McCrory Captain. 

W. H. Holden First Lieutenant. 

G. W. Collins Second Lieutenant. 

Sanders Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANT T Franklin County. 

J. A. Matthews Captain. 

G. W. Ingall First Lieutenant. 

Anderson Second Lieutenant. 

Stewart... ..Third Lieutenant. 



256 THE SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT 

COMPANY K Jackson County. 

S. B. McDearmon Captain. 

W. W. Cowan First Liriitoiant. 

R. B. Montgomery Second Lieutenant. 

G. W. Montgomery Third Lieutenant. 

The Seventeenth Regiment was placed in Zollicoffer's 
command, which was composed of the following reg- 
iments: Fifteenth Mississippi, Colonel Statum; Elev- 
enth Tennessee, Colonel Raines; Seventeenth Tennes- 
see, Colonel Newman; Nineteenth Tennessee, Colonel 
Cummings; Twentieth Tennessee, Colonel Battle; 
which operated in Kentucky and East Tennessee dur- 
ing the first year of the war, and was in the battles of 
Rock Castle and Fishing Creek, after which it joined 
the army of General Albert Sidney Johnston, in whose 
command it operated during the campaign of North 
Mississippi. 

On May 8, 1862, the Seventeenth Regiment was re- 
organized at Corinth, in accordance with an act of the 
Confederate Congress and .orders from General Beau- 
regard. The regimental officers at the reorganization 
were as follows: 

ALBERT S. MARKS, Colonel; 

WATT W. FLOYD, Lieutenant-colonel; 

JAMES C. DAVIS, Major; 

J. B. FITZPATRICK, Adjutant; 

D. B. SHOFTNER, Sergeant-major; 

JAMES LITTLE, Ordnance-sergeant; 

B. H. McCRORY, Quartermaster; 

T. H. FINCH, Commissary; 

Dr. W. M. GENTRY, Surgeon; 

Dr. ALFRED JONES, Assistant Surgeon; 

Rev. A. B. MOORE, Chaplain. 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 257 

The company officers were as follows: 

COMPANY A. 

F. B. Terry Captain. 

J. D. Floyd ?. First Lieutenant. 

J. H. Hastings Second Lieutenant. 

Robert Campbell Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

U. C. Harrison Captain-. 

H. M. Kimsey ... First Lieutenant. 

Hight Second Lieutenant. 

Miles Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

F. M. Orr Captain. 

J. W. McCrory First Lieutenant. 

R. H. Armstrong Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 
H. C. Garden -Captain. 

G. W. Corn First Lieutenant. 

W. L. Elzy v Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K 

John R. Handly Captain. 

J. Tipps First Lieutenant. 

M. W. Black Second Lieutenant. 

G. W. Waggoner Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

J. D. Cooper Captain. 

R. P. McCullough First Lieutenant. 

William Byars Second Lieutenant. 

Lee Cathey Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

Thomas H. Watterson Captain. 

Mutt Scruggs First Lieutenant. 

Joel Peay Second Lieutenant. 

John Scott (resigned) Third Lieutenant. 

John Henslee (elected to fill vacancy) Third Lieutenant. 

17 



258 THE SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT 
COMPANY H. 

McAdams (resigned) Captain. 

G. "W. O'Neal (promoted) First Lieutenant. 

T. P. Tolley (promoted) Second Lieutenant. 

A. L. Elzy (promoted)..... Third Lieutenant. 

Z. W. Ewing (promoted) Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

William Clark Captain. 

J. W. Bolton First Lieutenant. 

Looney Second Lieutenant. 

Kelley Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

G. W. McDonald .-... Captain. 

James P. Byrne First Lieutenant. 

M. L. Poe Second Lieutenent. 

J. D. McKinley Third Lieutenant. 

At the time of the reorganization the Seventeenth 
Regiment was a part of Hawthorn's brigade, Cle- 
burne's division. The brigade was composed of the 
following regiments: Twenty-third Tennessee, Colonel 
Neil; Fifth Confederate Tennessee, Colonel Pickett; 
Thirty-third Alabama, Colonel Adams; Seventeenth 
Tennessee, Colonel Marks. 

The Seventeenth Tennessee remained at Corinth 
until the evacuation, and accompanied Bragg's army 
in the Kentucky campaign, and participated in the bat- 
tle of Perryville, and afterward in the battle of Mur- 
freesboro. 

From the time of its organization to the battle of 
Murfreesboro, its campaigns amounted to a total of 
3,597 miles, of which it 

Marched J )53 2 miles. 

Traveled on cars l i^5 " 

Traveled on steamboat 400 " 

Total 3,597 " 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 259 

The following register of its marches was kindly 
furnished us from the diary of Private S. G. Ferguson, 
of Company I, who was a good soldier, and died in 
prison at Point Lookout, Md., in December, 1864, hav- 
ing been captured at the battle of Missionary Ridge in 
November, 1863: 



260 THE SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT 




TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 



261 



: : -JT '^ -lr -"r '1: "1: ^ cc "'" : '- 
: sc -x x x x 'JO x t. -s- -r. -x. -s- -TJ 



l?A\m\m 

" : t< D s 3 : _ 




<^<<^-^-/-^-/^ooooo 



262 THE SEVENTEETH REGIMENT 

In the battle of Murfreesboro the losses of the Sev- 
enteenth Tennessee amounted to 246 in killed and 
wounded. In this battle Colonel Marks lost his right 
leg, and the whole field and staff, except Lieutenant- 
colonel Floyd, were either killed or wounded. In the 
battle of Chickamauga the losses of the Seventeenth 
were, killed, 20; wounded, 57; captured, 70 total, 147. 

After the battle of Chickamauga, and before the bat- 
tle of Missionary Ridge, the Seventeenth Tennessee 
Infantry was detached from the Army of Tennessee, 
and became incorporated into the army commanded 
by General Longstreet in upper East Tennessee, and 
during the campaign of 1863-4, under his command, 
it participated in the siege of Knoxville, the battle of 
Bean's Station, beside a number of minor engagements 
at various points in East Tennessee during the winter 
of 1863-4. The regiment had several men killed and 
wounded in that campaign, and suffered great hard- 
ships by reason of the want of food and clothing and 
the long marches in the severe winter weather. 

In May, 1864, the regiment was removed to the 
Army of Virginia, and immediately upon its arrival at 
Petersburg, it engaged the Federal forces under Gen- 
eral Butler, and as the object was to delay his march 
on Richmond until General Beauregard could re-en- 
force the inferior Confederate force, it was engaged 
for a number of days in fighting the enemy at every 
eligible point, so as to retard General Butler's advance. 
Finally, the enemy occupied the fortification at Drury's 
Bluff, and General Beauregard arriving at this con- 
juncture, the enemy were assaulted, and the Seven- 
teenth Regiment being among the first to carry the 
fortifications in its front, and pressing the enemy 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 263 

closely, had both of its flanks uncovered, and by rea- 
son of this fact sustained a severe loss in killed and 
wounded. Among the killed was Lieutenant-colonel 
Floyd. 

The enemy being repulsed at all points and Peters- 
burg being uncovered, the Seventeenth returned there, 
and from this time to the close of the war it was con- 
stantly engaged in repelling the assaults of the enemy 
in the works around Petersburg and Richmond, as ex- 
igency required, until the evacuation of Richmond 
and Petersburg. In the many engagements it had with 
the enemy, the loss in killed and wounded was great. 
It participated in the battle of Hatcher's Run, in Feb- 
ruary, 1865, and by a gallant and successful charge 
upon the enemy, it gained much credit in that engage- 
ment. It was one of the last regiments to leave the 
defenses around Petersburg, and it did not retire until 
it had repeatedly repulsed the enemy on its front, and 
was nearly entirely enveloped by the enemy. In this 
engagement it lost a number in killed and wounded, 
and one half the survivors were captured. 

From Petersburg the regiment marched to Appo- 
mattox, and there, with the army of General Lee, was 
surrendered, April 9, 1865. 



264 THE ELEVENTH REGIMENT 

THE ELEVENTH REGIMENT TENNESSEE 
VOLUNTEERS. 

This regiment was made up of companies from the 
counties of Dickson, Hickman, Humphreys, Robert- 
son, and Davidson. The regiment was at first com- 
manded by Colonel James E. Raines, and after the 
promotion of Colonel Raines, was commanded by 
Colonel George W. Gordon. The following are the 
names of some of the officers of this regiment: Cap- 
tains James Long, William Green, James Mallory, Jo- 
seph Pitts, Samuel Godshall, Richard McCann, Van 
Weems, William Thedford, Hugh Lucas, T. P. Bate- 
man. These gentlemen were commanders of compa- ' 
nies in the Eleventh Tennessee. Dr. Maney was sur- 
geon of this regiment, and the Rev. Fountain E. Pitts 
was its chaplain. 

This regiment served under ZollicofTer, and was a 
part of Raines's brigade, Colonel Raines having been 
promoted to brigadier-general. After the death of 
Zollicoffer, the Eleventh Tennessee was under General 
E. Kirby Smith about Cumberland Gap. It was in 
the battles of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and all the 
battles of the Georgia campaign. It also participated 
in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and was sur- 
rendered with Johnston's army at Greensboro, N. C., 
at the close of the war. 

We have been unable to obtain any of the muster- 
rolls of this regiment, or any list of it* casualties. It 
was composed of good men and they fought well. Its 
losses in the different battles were very severe, showing 
that it alwavs went where danger was thickest. The 



TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS. 265 

original commander of this regiment, General Raines, 
was killed at the battle of Murfreesboro. 



THIRTY-THIRD REGIMENT TENNESSEE 
VOLUNTEERS. 

This regiment was made up of companies from West 
Tennessee, principally from the counties of Obion, 
Weakley, and Madison. The regiment was originally 
commanded by Colonel A. W. Campbell, who was 
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in 1864. 
Warren P. Jones was lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 
ment, and was killed at the battle of Resaca. Newton 
Paine was major. Among the officers of the regiment 
we have the names of the following: 



Captain HENRY HICKMAN, Captain 

Captain BEDFORD, Captain LACY, 

Captain W. F. MARBURY, Captain COCHRANE, 

Captain W. B. McWmRTER, Captain MOROD, 

Captain GEORGE WILSON, Captain MORRIS. 

Captain McWhirter was killed at the battle of Chick- 
amauga. 

We have been unable to obtain any rolls of the com- 
panies or any list of the casualties. The regiment be- 
longed to Cheatham's division of Folk's corps, and 
fought through the war. As it followed Cheatham, it 
went where there was hard fighting. The gallant old 
Thirty-third was a splendid regiment. 



266 THE SEVENTH REGIMENT 



SEVENTH KENTUCKY REGIMENT, RUST'S 
BRIGADE. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Burnett, Ken- 
tucky, September, 1861, and was composed largely of 
Tennesseans, though many were resident Kentuckians. 
The regiment was placed in General Cheatham's bri- 
gade. After General Cheatham was promoted to ma- 
jor-general, the brigade was commanded by Colonel 
Rust, who was made a brigadier-general. 

Colonel Charles WicklifFe was the original com- 
mander of this regiment, and was a gallant officer as 
well as a good man. At the battle of Shiloh Colonel 
WicklifFe was killed, arid his regiment suffered severely. 
The old Seventh was a gallant regiment. After the 
death of Colonel Wickliffe, it was commanded by 
Colonel Crossland. It was subsequently transferred 
to Buford's division of Forrest's cavalry, where it 
served to the close of the war. 

The Seventh Kentucky did much hard fighting, both 
as infantry and cavalry. Colonel Crossland was as 
brave an officer as ever was placed in command of 
men. His daring exploits are prominently recorded in 
the history of Forrest's cavalry. 

Colonel Wickliffe, the original commander of the 
Seventh Kentucky, was a prominent citizen of Ballard 
county, and warmly appreciated by his people. Since 
the building of the Jackson route of the Illinois Central 
Railroad, a town has sprung up on its line six miles 
south of Cairo, in Ballard county, Ky., on the east 
bank of the Mississippi. This town has grown rapidly 
and commands a flourishing business. Two parallel 



KENTUCKY VOLUNTEERS. 267 

lines of railroad pass it the Illinois Central, leading to 
Jackson, Tenn., and the Mobile and Ohio, leading to 
Mobile. The country around is fertile and the people 
are comfortable and prosperous. 

The town was named WICKLIFFE, in honor of the 
departed hero of the gallant old Seventh Kentucky, 
and is at present the county-seat of Ballard county. 



268 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



OP 



CHAPTER IX. 

CAPTAIN D. C. SPURLOCK 

Was the son of James Spurlock, one of the oldest 
and most enterprising business men of Warren 
county. He was born near McMinnville. His 
early life was devoted to work in connection with his 
father's business, and he received a respectable educa- 
tion at home. He was a leading member of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church at McMinnville, and was 
noted for his upright and consistent life, and for his 
piety and integrity. He was in every respect an ex- 
emplary man, and was loved by his associates and re- 
spected by all who knew him. 

Upon arriving at his majority, Captain Spurlock en- 
gaged in the mercantile business in McMinnville, which 
occupation he followed successfully till the beginning 
of the war in 1861. At this time he enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Captain Donnell's company, of the Sixteenth 
Regiment, and served in this capacity through the 
Cheat Mountain campaign, during which he' was called, 
on account of his most excellent business qualities, to 
the position of quartermaster of the regiment. In this 
position he proved himself eminently qualified, and 



CAPTAIN SPURLOCK. 269 

filled the office with credit to himself and satisfactkm 
to all concerned. 

At the reorganization of the regiment, he resigned 
his position as quartermaster and returned to the ranks 
of his old company, who, appreciating his merits and 
good qualities, called him to their command by their 
unanimous voice. Accepting the position so strongly 
urged upon him by his comrades, he commanded his 
company (C) in all the campaigns of the regiment up 
to the time of his death. 

In the battle of Perryville, his younger brother, Lieu- 
tenant Cicero Spurlock, of his company, fell in the 
opening of the fight. At the battle of Murfreesboro, 
December 31, 1862, Captain Spurlock was among the 
slain in the fearful carnage of the first day's fight. His 
aged father and mother had come to Murfreesboro 
shortly before the battle, and were stopping with Mr. 
Miles, at the Miles House, when the battle came up. 
On the night before the first day's fight, Captain Spur- 
lock obtained a short leave of absence from his com- 
mand in order to call upon his parents at the hotel. 
Captain Miles, who witnessed the meeting and the 
parting of parents and son on this eventful night, de- 
scribes the scene as deeply affecting. After a brief 
meeting, he bestowed a parting kiss upon each of his 
aged parents, who, in return, -bestowed upon him their 
parting blessing and an assurance of their prayers. 
The son, who, though arrived at mature years, and 
laden with the honors of those who had associated 
with him so long, showed on this occasion that respect, 
and honor, and love for his father and mother that had 
shone so brilliantly in childhood, and which the cares 
and allurements of more advanced years could not ob- 
scure. With much tenderness and love, he bid adieu 



270 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

to his father and mother, and this, was the last time 
they ever saw him alive. 

On the following morning the great battle opened. 
In the midst of its fearful carnage, Captain Spurlock 
fell at the head of his company. He fell at his post, 
with his face to the foe. He yielded up a glorious life 
to the cause he loved, and his loss was deplored by his 
comrades as that of a brother. His remains were 
brought off the field and conveyed to McMinnville, 
where loving hands administered the last sad service, 
and where loving hearts bow down in deference to 
the memory of one so brave, so kind, so pure and 
good; whose life had been one bright record of kind- 
ness and usefulness, upon which had been centered so 
many worthy and noble deeds. 



CAPTAIN JAMES M. PARKS. 

Captain James M. Parks was the son of Carrol 
Parks, a substantial and respected farmer of Warren 
county, Tennessee. His ancestors came from North 
Carolina at an early period and settled in Warren 
county. 

In his boyhood Captain Parks labored on his father's 
farm, and as he arrived at his twentieth year he was 
placed in Irving College, where he remained as a stu- 
dent until the breaking out of the war between the 
States. At this time he enlisted in Captain L. H. 
Meadows's company, and was elected orderly sergeant 
at its organization in May, 1861. He was elected cap- 
tain of this company at Corinth in May, 1862, at the 
reorganization of the regiment, and served in* this ca- 
pacity to the day of his death. Throughout his whole 



CAPTAIN PARKS. 271 

military life Captain Parks was much respected for his. 
upright, exemplary life, and for his many sterling qual- 
ities, both as a gentleman and a soldier. He was with 
his company through all its marches and in all its bat- 
tles to that of Chickamauga, when he received a fatal 
wound on the evening of the first day's fight. He was 
pierced by a grape-shot through the upper portion of 
his left breast, the missile ranging in the region of the 
heart, and he lived but a few hours. His company and 
regiment lamented his loss as that of a brother. 

Captain Parks was in every respect a worthy young 
man. Kind and respectful to all, he won the good-will 
and respect of all 'who knew him. His daily walk and 
conversation was without spot or blemish. Upright, 
circumspect, and conscientious in all things, he pos- 
sessed the respect and confidence of his superiors, as 
well as those who were under his command. In his 
seventeenth year, Captain Parks made a profession of 
religion and became a member of the Baptist Church 
at Hebron, in the vicinity of his home. He was an 
upright, pious, and exemplary young man at home, at 
school, and in all the walks of domestic life. When 
he entered the army, those Christian graces which he 
cherished with so much prayerful care in his previous 
life never yielded to the temptations of army life. He 
cherished those graces with more watchful' care. It 
was the motto of his daily life in the army that " relig- 
ion is the same in the army as at home, 1 ' and requires 
even more at the hands of its votaries. 

Captain Parks was buried on the battle-field of Chick- 
amauga, near the spot where he fell. After the close 
of the war his remains were removed by his father 
from the battle-field to the church-yard at Hebron, 
where they now rest, and the spot is marked by a mar- 
ble which records the time and place of his death. 



272 



SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



COLONEL JOEL A. BATTLE. 

Joel A. Battle was born in Davidson county, Ten- 
nessee, September 19, 1811. 

His father was originally from North Carolina, and 
his mother, Lucinda Mayo Battle, being the owner of 
targe estates in that county, he, by inheritance, became 
the possessor of much landed property. 




COLONEL JOEL A. BATTLE. 

He was left an orphan at an early age. His educa- 
tion was limited, there being no good schools near him. 
He was much beloved by his elders, his reverence for 
the aged being remarkable even in his childhood. 



COLONEL BATTLE. 273 

In his nineteenth year he was married to Miss Sarah 
Searcy, of Rutherford county, Tennessee. Two years 
after this marriage his wife died, leaving an only son. 

Shortly after'his wife's death he raised a company 
near his home and enlisted in the Florida War. 

After his return home from the war he met Miss 
Adeline Sanders Mosely, a lady remarkable alike for 
her native refinement and her firm Christian charac- 
ter. 

Six years after his first marriage he was united to 
Miss Mosely, at her home near the Hermitage. 

As a quiet farmer, he lived with his growing family 
at the home of his ancestors for many years. 

In 1835 he was elected brigadier-general of the State 
militia, and in 1851-2 represented Davidson county in 
the Legislature, having, with the Hon. Russell Hous- 
ton, been chosen representative for that session of the 
General Assembly. 

Pie was a zealous Whig, but no partisan spirit pre- 
vented his earnest devotion to the public interests and 
his constant adherence to the principles of right and 
justice. 

As a friend he was unwavering in his attachments. 
His determination and success in overcoming obstacles 
that came in his way was unsurpassed. 

He was a soldier in the late war, serving as colonel 
of the Twentieth Tennessee. 

The first engagement in which his regiment was en- 
gaged was at Barboursville, Kentucky. By a ruse the 
colonel commanding, as he charged the enemy, im- 
pressed them with the idea that he had artillery, which 
was not the fact. The charge was successful, and the 
enemy fled. 

At Fishing Creek Colonel Battle's regiment did no- 
18 



274 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

ble duty. General Zollicoffer, commanding the bri- 
gade to which th'is regiment belonged, fell early in the 
action. Colonel Walthall, of the Fifteenth Mississippi, 
was next in command. The Confederates being sud- 
denly overwhelmed by numbers were forced to fall 
back. The Twentieth Tennessee, after suffering a 
heavy loss in killed and wounded, and being cut off 
from the Fifteenth Mississippi by a flank movement 
of the enemy, came near being captured, but made a 
successful retreat, Colonel Battle in command. 
Joel A. Battle, jr., a gifted son of Colonel Battle, was 
seriously wounded in the left breast, and was brought 
off the field on the back of a fellow soldier. 

Many were the hardships these soldiers endured in 
this, their first disastrous defeat, and they often refer 
to the watchful care their commander had for them 
midst these trying reverses. 

General Breckinridge, to whose division the Twen- 
tieth Tennessee was attached, often spoke with pride 
of his confidence in the bravery and steadfastness of the 
noble Twentieth Tennessee. As a mark of his esteem 
he presented to this regiment a handsome flag made 
of his wife's wedding dress. At Shiloh the Twentieth 
was in the heat of the battle. Colonel Battle had three 
horses shot from under him. On the first day his old- 
est son, William, was killed. The father's heart was 
made sad by the loss, and he clung the more tenderly 
to his other boy, who, still suffering from the wound 
received at Fishing Creek, rode with one arm in a 
sling, doing active service through the day as adjutant 
of the regiment. The second day of the battle of Shi- 
loh is remembered by the soldiers of the Twentieth as 
the bloodiest day of the war. After such fighting as 
was never surpassed, the Federals, being heavily rein- 



COLONEL BATTLE. 275 

forced, the Confederates were compelled to move back. 
When under the cover of night they reached their 
tents, inquiries were made for missing ones. One of 
Colonel Battle's men said to him, "Joel is shot and has 
fallen as we fell back." The father went back to hunt 
for his boy, and was captured in an exhausted state 
when he had gone but a little distance. The body of 
his brave and gallant son was found the next morning, 
and buried by some of his fellow students * of Miami 
University. 

Colonel Battle was held as a prisoner of war for a 
long while. After his exchange he was made Treasurer 
of the State of Tennessee under Governor Harris, his 
health beiijg t<~>o feeble to again enter the service. After 
the war was over, he came to Nashville to seek in some 
way to better his then depleted financial condition. 
Being energetic and attentive to business, he managed 
to maintain his family by his own exertions. 

In 1872, Governor John C. Brown conferred upon 
General Battle the appointment of Superintendent of 
the State Prison, which position he occupied until the 
time of his death. After the commencement of his 
administration as superintendent, important changes 
were inaugurated in the control and discipline of the 
prison, believed by those most conversant with the 
affairs of that institution to have been a great improve- 
ment on the old system, both for the good of the pris- 
oners and the interests of the State. 

He died in Nashville, August 23, 1872. His re- 
mains, as they were carried to the old family burying- 

* Lieutenant W. H. Chamberlain, Captain R. N. Adams, Ser- 
geant John R. Chamberlain, Adjutant Frank Evans, private Jo- 
seph Wilson all of the Eighty-first Regiment Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. 



276 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

ground, were followed through the city by the mem- 
bers of the " Old Twentieth " on foot. 



COLONEL JOHN H. SAVAGE. 

The subject of this sketch was .born in the town of 
McMinnville, Warren county, Tennessee, October 15, 
1815, and is at present near seventy years of age. He 
was brought up on his father's farm, near McMinn- 
ville, and spent his youth as a farmer. In early life he 
was a persistent student, and, possessed of great en- 
ergy and perseverance, he rapidly acquired a good 
stock of practical information on all general topics, and 
an ability to wield the same forcibly and to the point. 
He rose rapidly into prominence while a mere youth, 
and his influence was forcibly felt in whatever cause 
he espoused. Possessed of a true and sterling integ-* 
rity, and a disposition that bestowed all its insight and 
all its powers to the support and maintenance of the 
right, Colonel Savage was honored and respected in 
his boyhood and occupied an exalted position in the 
esteem and confidence of all who knew him. 

In many respects Colonel Savage was a self-made 
man. Born of worthy parents who were possessed of 
a sufficiency of this world's goods to make life com- 
fortable and pleasant, yet the educational facilities of 
the community at that time were limited to such an ex- 
tent that, aside from the advantage of a free school of 
two or three months in the year, there were few op- 
portunities of obtaining a finished education at home. 
Under these circumstances, he made use of every avail- 
able opportunity to acquire knowledge, pursuing his 
studies vigorously, and in many instances without the 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 277 

aid of an instructor. In this respect he became a con- 
stant reader, a practical thinker, and, in every respect, 
a practical man. In boyhood, as in after years, he was 
plain and practical in his opinions and views on any 
and all subjects, and the energy he brought to bear 
upon whatever work he attempted to perform, and his 
enterprises were well considered and attended at all 
times with signal success. In the year 1836, when 
Santa Anna and General Sam Houston were engaged 
in war upon the Republic of Mexico, the latter to es- 
tablish the independence of Texas, General Gaines was 
authorized by the government of the United States to 
enlist volunteers to operate on the Texas frontier to 
preserve the neutrality of the government of the United 
States in that war. Colonel Savage enlisted for this 
service in a company commanded by John B. Rodgers, 
of Rock Island, Tennessee, and the command pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, on its way to the Texas frontier. 
Upon their arrival at Nashville, news was received of 
the capture of Santa Anna, and the company was dis- 
banded, after being credited with forty days' service. 
When it was known that the services of this company 
would not be needed on the Texas frontier, it was an- 
nounced that volunteers would be accepted to fight the 
Indians in Florida. General Armstrong was at Fay- 
etteville, receiving volunteers for the Seminole War, 
and after being discharged from the Texas service it 
was desired on the part of the company that they 
should offer their services to General Armstrong in a 
bod)' and accompany him on his expedition, but for 
some cause the matter was waived by Captain Rodg- 
ers, and no further steps taken in that direction. 

The hesitancy of Rodgers being apparent, the men 
ceased to depend upon him further as a commander in 



276 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

ground, were followed through the city by the mem- 
bers of the " Old Twentieth " on foot. 



COLONEL JOHN H. SAVAGE. 

The subject of this sketch was .born in the town of 
McMinnville, Warren county, Tennessee, October 15, 
1815, and is at present near seventy years of age. He 
was brought up on his father's farm, near McMinn- 
ville, and spent his youth as a farmer. In early life he 
was a persistent student, and, possessed of great en- 
ergy and perseverance, he rapidly acquired a good 
stock of practical information on all general topics, and 
an ability to wield the same forcibly and to the point. 
He rose rapidly into prominence while a mere youth, 
and his influence was forcibly felt in whatever cause 
he espoused. Possessed of a true and sterling integ-* 
rity, and a disposition that bestowed all its insight and 
all its powers to the support and maintenance of the 
right, Colonel Savage was honored and respected in 
his boyhood and occupied an exalted position in the 
esteem and confidence of all who knew him. 

In many respects Colonel Savage was a self-made 
man. Born of worthy parents who were possessed of 
a sufficiency of this world's goods to make life com- 
fortable and pleasant, yet the educational facilities of 
the community at that time were limited to such an ex- 
tent that, aside from the advantage of a free school of 
two or three months in the yeai', there were few op- 
portunities of obtaining a finished education at home. 
Under these circumstances, he made use of every avail- 
able opportunity to acquire knowledge, pursuing his 
studies vigorously, and in many instances without the 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 277 

aid of an instructor. In this respect he became a con- 
stant reader, a practical thinker, and, in every respect, 
a practical man. In boyhood, as in after years, he was 
plain and practical in his opinions and views on any 
and all subjects, and the energy he brought to bear 
upon whatever work he attempted to perform, and his 
enterprises were well considered and attended at all 
times with signal success. In the year 1836, when 
Santa Anna and General Sam Houston were engaged 
in war upon the Republic of Mexico, the latter to es- 
tablish the independence of Texas, General Gaines was 
authorized by the government of the United States to 
enlist volunteers to operate on the Texas frontier to 
preserve the neutrality of the government of the United 
States in that war. Colonel Savage enlisted for this 
service in a company commanded by John B. Rodgers, 
of Rock Island, Tennessee, and the command pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, on its way to the Texas frontier. 
Upon their arrival at Nashville, news was received of 
the capture of Santa Anna, and the company was dis- 
banded, after being credited with forty days' service. 
When it was known that the services of this companv 
would not be needed on the Texas frontier, it was an- 
nounced that volunteers would be accepted to fight the 
Indians in Florida. General Armstrong was at Fay- 
etteville, receiving volunteers for the Seminole War, 
and after being discharged from the Texas service it 
was desired on the part of the company that they 
should offer their services to General Armstrong in a 
body and accompany him on his expedition, but for 
some cause the matter was waived by Captain Rodg- 
ers, and no further steps taken in that direction. 

The hesitancy of Rodgers being apparent, the men 
ceased to depend upon him further as a commander in 



278 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

the proposed expedition, and a portion of the com- 
pany, consisting of Pleasant H. Price, E. M. Mercer, 
Jo. Robertson, Samuel G. Smartt, and John H. Savage, 
met at General Smartt' s and proceeded to Fayetteville, 
Tennessee, where they arrived on July 4, 1836, and of- 
fered their services to General Armstrong, and were 
accepted. The companies being all full, it was found 
that no one company codld receive all of the party. P. 
H. Price and E. M. Mercer joined Captain Chandler's 
company of Highlanders, and Jo. Robertson, Samuel 
G. Smartt, and John H. Savage joined Captain James 
Grundy's company. Not being pleased with the 
branch of service thus entered, Colonel Savage a few 
days afterward secured a transfer for himself and com- 
rades, Mr. Robertson and Mr. Smartt, to Captain Bill 
Lauderdale's company of spies, a company organized 
and equipped at Fayetteville for this special branch of 
the service, and was composed of select men. Colonel 
Savage fired the first gun of the campaign, and serve_d 
in this company till the close of the war. Judge Rus- 
sel Houston, now chief attorney, of the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad, and Judge Archibald Wright, 
formerly Judge of the Supreme Court, were both mem- 
bers of this company. 

In the year 1837, Colonel Savage commenced the 
study of law at his home, and advanced rapidly in his 
studies. He was admitted to the bar in 1839, and prac- 
ticed in the courts of Warren, White, Van Buren, and 
De Kalb counties. Faithful to his clients and well 
versed in the law, he rose rapidly in the profession and 
received an extensive and lucrative practice. In 1841 
he was elected Attorney-general by the legislature, 
and entered upon the duties" of the office in 1842, and 
his practice was extended "to the courts of Fentress, 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 279 

Overtoil, Jackson, Smith, and Macon counties. Mean- 
while he was an elector for Polk in 1844, and was op- 
posed by the Hon. Thomas L. Bransford, on the Clay 
ticket. Colonel Savage served as Attorney-general 
until the .year 1847, wnen ne resigned the office 
and enlisted in the United States army to serve in 
the war with Mexico. He was commissioned major 
of the Fourteenth Infantry, and participated in all the / 
battles in which his command was involved. He was 
severelv wounded while leading an assault upon the 
Mexican stronghold at Molino-del-Rey, and, after this 
battle, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
and assigned to duty in the Eleventh Regular Infantry, 
composed of troops from the States of New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Virginia. This regiment was in the 
same brigade with the regiment of Voltigeurs, of which 
Joseph E.Johnston was lieutenant-colonel. Remaining 
with the Eleventh Regiment till the close of the war, 
Colonel Savage returned to his home and resumed the 
practice of law at his old home. As a lawyer he had 
an established reputation among the people of the 
Mountain District where he was familiarly known. 
His professional and military life having brought him 
so prominently and favorably before the people, he was 
called upon to represent them in the Congress of the 
Unite<9 States, to which position he was triumphantly 
elected. At the close of the term of his election he 
was urged to make a second race, and was re*-elected 
to a second term and for two subsequent terms, mak- 
ing eight years of service in the Congress of the United 
States. 

Possessed of a large and extensive knowledge of mil- 
itary affairs, both from experience and from a careful 



280 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

study of the histories of ancient and modern wars, 
Colonel Savage served for several years in Congress 
on the Committee on Military Affairs, where his sound 
judgment and practical knowledge was of acknowl- 
edged benefit to the law-making power at Washing- 
ton, and as a member he possessed an acknowledged 
influence. 

Discussing, in 1850, in the Congress of the United 
States, the question of disunion, Colonel Savage said: 

I trust I am not more fearful than other men. If danger comes 
I expect to be as ready to meet it as I am now anxious to avoid 
it. I pray to God that I may never again witness the wild work 
of destruction^ called glorious war. I hope eternal peace may 
bless the world. With me 

The drying of a single tear hath more 

Of honest fame than shedding seas of gore. 

But for the remarks of the gentlemen who have preceded me, 
I should have thought it no part of my duty to allude to the 
great question of slavery now agitating the country from center 
to circumference, and threatening a destiny so dark and disas- 
trous. Sir, I have read somewhere of a fabled magnet, far in 
the deep blue sea, whose fatal influence withdrew the nails from 
every vessel that came within its sphere, leaving the proud ship 
and its prouder masters an itfglorious wreck amid the solitude of 
the ocean. Who cannot see that while this question is unsettled, 
each hour will be extracted those fastenings that bind this glori- 
ous confederacy together, until our proud ship is left a shattered, 
broken, disunited thing, to sink beneath the surge of time, as oth- 
ers that have gone before, with no voice to record our memory 
but that which proclaims our folly. . . . But I want no such 
issue. I love the people of the North. I have always felt that I 
would peril all that .is dear to my native State to protect from 
lawless violence Massachusetts' humblest citizen or most barren 
rock. Those of them who know me know that I do. I have 
never imagined, nor can I imagine, how I could live out of the 
Union. I have ever hoped that our ship of State, self-poised 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 281 

upon the billows, would gather the tempest in her sails and fly 
with lightning speed to the home of transcendent national glory 
amid the plaudits of an admiring world. And for this I shall 
still be ready to make any sacrifice except my honor and my 
right to be free and equal on every foot of land beneath the 
" stars and stripes." 

Having served in the halls of Congress for eight 
years, embracing four consecutive terms, Colonel Sav- 
age was nominated for a fifth race in 1860, and was op- 
posed by William B. Stokes, the candidate of the 
Know Nothing party. The popularity of Colonel 
Savage was unbounded among the people of his dis- 
trict, and his record as a member was in every respect 
satisfactory to his constituents. Yet he had a few dan- 
gerous foes, not in the ranks of his competitor, but in 
the Democratic ranks, who had become jealous of his 
popularity, and were ambitious to occupy his place. 
Knowing his popularity, their policy was to humiliate 
him by defeat and get him completely out of the way. 
To do this a few leading lights of the party commenced, 
first, to disparage him in the estimation of the masses, 
and subsequently came out openly for Stokes, and in 
this manner his prospects for re-election were curtailed 
until the election, when he was defeated by a majority 
of four hundred votes. This defeat was not the result 
of a dissatisfied constituency, but through the machi- 
nations of a few ambitious Democrats who wished to 



succeed him, but most signally failed in that particular 
part of the programme. 

About this time the storm of war was gathering in 
the political horizon. The cloud which had been seen 
for years previously, though scarcely as large as a man's 
hand, had now spread to such alarming proportions as 
to begin already to darken the land. Its blighting 



282 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

shadow was being felt in every department of busi- 
ness, and a general distrust seemed to pervade all 
hearts. The presidential election was over and the 
Republican candidate elected. The result is familiarly 
known to the world. War called into action the best 
blood of the nation. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, the general 
cry was, "To arms!" The institutions of learning 
threw open their doors and the young men threw down 
their books and took their muskets instead, and went 
forth to war. The farmer abandoned the plow, the 
mechanic his tools, and the field of conflict was the ob- 
jective point of all. Excitement spread on the wings 
of the wind, and, in the South, all was forgotten save 
the raising and equipment of troops. A similar spirit 
pervaded the Noithern mind meanwhile, and the whole 
country was on the eve of an inevitable conflict. Ten- 
nessee at this time was bestowing all her energies in 
behalf of the South by organizing and arming for the 
conflict. Colonel Savage organized the Sixteenth 
Tennessee Regiment of Infantry, and was commis- 
sioned colonel of the regiment in the beginning of the 
war. He led his command in the campaigns of West 
Virginia during the first year of the war, and subse- 
quently in the campaigns of South Carolina, North 
Mississippi, through the Kentucky campaign, and the 
campaigns of Middle Tennessee. At Cheat Mountain 
he captured a whole company of Federals on picket 
by dashing ahead of his column into their very midst, 
and securing their surrender before his troops arrived 
upon the scene. 

At Perryville he led his regiment in the attack upon 
the extreme right where the battle was hottest, and re- - 
ceiving two wounds early in the engagement, he staid 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 283 

with his command, which fought valiantly to the close 
of the fight, and whose casualties aggregated consid- 
erably over half its number. 

With similar gallantry his regiment fought under his 
leadership at the battle of Murfreesboro, and suffered 
similar losses. In this engagement, Colonel Savage's 
only brother, Captain L. N. Savage, acting lieutenant- 
colonel of the regiment, was mortally wounded. 

After the retreat of the Confederates from Murfrees- 
boro to Shelbyville, Colonel Savage resigned his com- 
mission as colonel of the Sixteenth Tennessee, bid 
adieu to his men in a general address, and retired from 
the service, much to the regret of his men, who loved 
him as a commander, and in whom they had a confi- 
dence so strong and abiding that his place could not 
be successfully filled. 

After the close of the war, Colonel Savage returned 
to his old home and entered again upon the practice of 
law. He was solicited by the people to again repre- 
sent them in the Congress of the United States, an 
honor that he respectfully declined, on the ground that 
he had no desire to engage further in public life. Kind 
and generous in his impulses* a friend to the farmer, a 
friend to the mechanic, the laborer, and the masses in 
general, he has the good-will of his people, who honor 
him in his old age, and as " The Old Man of the Mount- 
ains" they are proud of him. 

Colonel Savage at his advanced age is in the enjoy- 
ment of remarkably good health and a vigorous con- 
stitution. He descended from a long-lived family, his 
father having arrived, at a ripe old age at the time of 
his death, and his mother is now living at the old home- 
stead near McMinnville, in the enjoyment of good 
health and mental vigor, at the advanced age of ninety- 
five vears. 



284 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

After a long and eventful life in the service of his 
country, Colonel Savage is now enjoying the comforts 
of a handsome competency, the result of his long and 
arduous labors. He is generous to all, and his hand is 
always extended to bestow help to the unfortunate and 
destitute. He has bestowed many valuable contribu- 
tions to the support of good schools and the promotion 
of good educational facilities among his people. After 
a long and eventful life of usefulness, he enjoys the 
era of good feeling, of peace and prosperity, the ulti- 
mate outgrowth of war and devastation, as described 
by the poet: 

When peace on earth shall hold her gentle sway, 

And man forget his brother man to slay, 

To martial arts shall milder arts succeed 

Who blesses most shall gain the immortal mead; 

The eye of pity shall be pained no more 

With Victory's crimsoned banner stained with gore. 

Thou glorious era, come! Hail, blessed time! 

When full-orbed freedom shall unclouded shine; 

When the chaste muses, cherished by her lays, 

In olive groves shall tune their sweetest lays, 

When bounteous Ceres directs her car 

O'er fields once blighted by the fires of war, 

And angels view in love and wonder joined 

The golden age returned to bless mankind. 

He has contributed liberally to schools and Churches 
in his section of country, and for the amount of his 
wealth there is not a man to be found in Middle Ten- 
nessee who has contributed more to the building and 
fostering of educational institutions and churches, and 
other worthy enterprises, than Colonel Savage. The 
deserving poor have shared liberally of his bounty, and 
his kindness and generosity are appreciated by his 
people, all of whom love and honor him. 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 285 

Colonel Savage in his private and public life has ever 
shown the admirable traits of firmness and integrity of 
character; a faithful friend and an uncompromising, 
though kind and generous, foe. In his military life he 
was brave and fearless, and would fight to the bitter 
end, though when his foe gave down, he showed that 
kindness and consideration for a fallen or prostrate en- 
emy that always characterized the truly brav^ and fear- 
less man and the true gentleman. At Perry ville, being 
severely wounded and brought to the field hospital, he 
found a Federal officer of his own rank who was 
wounded and a prisoner, and whom he had known in 
public life before the war. To this prisoner he gave 
every assurance of such attention as it was in his power 
to bestow, and gave directions for him to have the same 
attention that w.as bestowed upon one of his own men. 

At the battle of Murfreesboro, when the battle had 
raged through the day, and Colonel Savage's regiment 
was severely cut up and had barely escaped capture on 
the right of the railroad, when forced to fall back with 
the pressure that hurled back the brigade that had been 
sent to his support, many of his dead and wounded, 
and a few others, fell into the hands of the enemy. At 
night the Federal lines were changed, and Colonel 
Savage went to the ground where his wounded were 
left, and with a small detail he proceeded to gather up 
his wounded, many of whom he succeeded in finding 
and bringing back to the rear. While here he found a 
wounded Federal who was suffering severely, both 
from his wounds and the intensity of the cold. Or- 
dering his men to place him at a designated spot 
by a fire, he proceeded to the field hospital to see 
his brother, who was very severely wounded. Re- 
maining with his brother till a late hour of the night, 



286 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

his thoughts ran to the wounded Federal whom he had 
left between the lines, and he proceeded again to hunt 
for him, feeling that he would not forgive himself 
should he suffer him to lay there so severely wounded 
and let him die of cold. While renewing the search, 
he was confronted by a squad of armed men who chal- 
lenged him, and as he could not tell in the darkness to 
what army they belonged, Colonel Savage here felt 
that he was in a very awkward position indeed. He 
began to realize the situation and to reflect on the con- 
sequences of being captured in the enemy's lines at 
this late hour of the night, and, without the object of 
his movement having being explained, such a capture 
at such a time and place would have more of the ap- 
pearance of desertion than capture. In this perplexing 
extremity he returned the challenge, and resolved upon 
the dernier resort of a parley with the armed force in 
his front. To his great relief, Colonel Savage found it 
was a part of his own command who had been cut off 
during the fight in the evening, and were feeling their 
way through the darkness back to their command. 
Colonel Savage was recognized by his voice, which 
was familiar to the whole command; and, after mak- 
ing the wounded Yankee comfortable by placing him 
by a good fire, all parties returned to the lines unhurt. 
Thus his kind impulses in behalf of a fallen and suf- 
fering foe were the means of rescuing quite a number 
of his own men who were cut off by the enemy, and 
whose capture, otherwise, would have been a mere 
question of time, as the lines had been changed during 
the night, and the men would have found the enemy 
on the ground where they expected to find their friends. 
While Colonel Savage was a member of the Ten- 
nessee Legislature, a bill was pending which denied 



COLONEL SAVAGE. 287 

the benefit of the exemption laws of the State to pool- 
people moving out of it. Colonel Savage opposed the 
bill in the following remarks: 

Mr. Speaker: I have great respect for the gentlemen of the 
Judiciary Committee and for the members of this House, but 
every impulse of my nature rebels against the spirit and policy 
of this bill. In my opinion it is neither wise, nor humane, nor 
merciful. The people of these States should be of one blood, 
one bone, one flesh, and one destiny. Nor am I unmindful of 
the still broader doctrines taught from on high, that the human 
race is, or ought to be, a universal brotherhood, in which the poor 
man or woman, to the remotest bounds of the earth, is our neigh- 
bor and our friend. 

Not only is this bill wrong in principle, but it requires but little 
experience or imagination to see that innumerable wrongs and 
injuries will be imposed upon the unfortunate poor, from which 
the humanity and mercy of its advocates would shrink back in 
shame. It is almost certain that men as noble as any -on your 
soil have, in other days, to better their condition, gone to.other 
States, and now, reduced to abject poverty and want, like the 
prodigal son, would gladly return to friends, and kindred, and the 
home of their youth. It may be it is your sister or your beauti- 
ful daughter, or the daughter of your neighbor, who has been 
permitted in the bloom of her youth to accompany the man of 
her choice beyond your borders, has been stricken in her family 
by sickness, misfortune, and death, who is now a poor widow with 
infant children, without friends, in a strange land, pale, emaciated, 
broken down in health as well as pecuniarily. Nature and neces- 
sity would present to her unhappy mind the babbling brooks, 
beautiful flowers, and trusted friends of her former home. She 
resolves to return to father and mother* and kindred friends in 
Tennessee. Perhaps she has nothing left from the wreck of her 
husband's fortune but a half-starved horse, mule, or yoke of cattle , 
a broken-down cart, wearing apparel, household and kitchen fur- 
niture. It is death to stay. Hope points her onward, and the 
journey is begun; but, unfortunately, she is in a State that has 
followed the example the Judiciary Committee would have us 
set. Perhaps on the first, or at a later day, before she reaches 



288 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

the State line, at the instance of some merciless and persistent 
creditor, an officer overtakes her and seizes every article of prop- 
erty, including the scanty allowance of meat and bread for the 
journey, leaving the poor woman and her children to perish or 
live on charity. It is more important that men, women and chil- 
dre.n shall live happy than that the Shylock shall have his pound 
of flesh. 

My understanding of the duties of statesmanship forbids my 
support of a policy that will often be used as a means to oppress 
or destroy the poor, and but seldom to defeat the dishonest debtor. 
Sir, my nature and statesmanship must change before I can sup- 
port the bill. 



CAPTAIN L. N. SAVAGE. 

Captain Lucien Napoleon Savage, whose portrait 
accompanies this sketch, was born near McMinnville, 
Warren county, Tennessee, April 2^, 1837. His father, 
George Savage, was a native of Shcnandoah county, 
Virginia, and his paternal grandfather owned the land 
upon which the town of New Market was located, in 
Shenandoah county, Virginia, and sold the lots upon 
which the principal residences of the place were built. 

Captain Savage's mother was the daughter of Rod- 
ham Kenner, a native of Hawkins county, East Ten- 
nessee, who was a soldier in the War of the Revolu- 
tion, and participated in the celebrated battle of King's 
Mountain. 

Mr. Kenner also represented Hawkins county in the 
General Assembly of Tennessee, which sat in Knox- 
ville in the year 1804. Captain Savage's maternal an- 
cestors were of English descent, having emigrated 
from Wales, and were of long-lived stock, every branch 
of the family being remarkable for strong constitutions 
and more than ordinary longevity. 



CAPTAIN SAVAGE. 



289 



Captain Savage was the only brother of Colonel 
John H. Savage, and, like his brother, spent his boy- 
hood on his fathers farm, where he labored through 
the spring and summer months and attended the free 
schools in the fall and winter. 




CAPTAIN L. N. SAVAGE. 



He subsequently entered Burritt College, where he 
pursued his studies foj" a few years, having previously 
19 



290 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

attended the school at Irving College, in Warren 
county, Tennessee. 

Captain Savage thus acquired a good English edu- 
cation, and was well versed in the classics, in mathe- 
matics, and history. In 1856 he commenced the study 
of law, and pursued his studies with consummate 
vigor. In 1858 he was admitted to the bar, and en- 
tered upon the practice of his profession at Sparta, 
Tennessee, in partnership with T. J. Bradford, Esq., 
and practiced in the courts of White and De Kalb 
counties. His brother-in-law, the Hon. A. J. March- 
banks, being- Judge of the Circuit Court in the adjoin- 
ing counties, Captain Savage withdrew his practice 
from the courts in Judge Marchbanks's circuit on ac- 
count of the relationship between himself and the 
Judge. In 1859 he removed to Smithville, in De Kalb 
county, where he continued the practice of law, and as 
a young lawyer he rose rapidly in the profession and 
secured a large practice. 

At the beginning of the war between the States, 
Captain Savage was a resident of Smithville, where 
he had resided for two years, and had so thoroughly 
established himself in the confidence and affections of 
the people that he wa.s called upon by the young men 
of his county to lead them in defense of the cause 
which they had espoused, and to which he was a warm 
adherent. Accordingly, he organized a company of 
over one hundred young men of De Kalb county, and 
reported to the governor of the State early in May, 
1861, when his company was accepted and mustered 
into the service of the State. This company was made 
the first or senior company of the Sixteenth Tennessee 
Regiment, of which his brother, Colonel John H. Sav- 
age, was the commanding officer. 



CAPTAIN SAVAGE. 291 

Captain Savage was the senior captain of the regi- 
ment, and was by his brother's side in all the cam- 
paigns and hard-fought battles in which the regiment 
was engaged up to the day of his death. At the battle 
of Perryville, Captain Savage received a severe flesh 
wound early in the fight, and upon discovering his 
ability to conceal the wound and go on with his com- 
pany in the fight, he led his company to the end of the 
engagement. While he was observed to be lame 
meanwhile, and for some time subsequently, there were 
but few of his company or regiment that ever knew 
that he was wounded. 

At the battle of Murfreesboro, Captain Savage was 
acting lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and Captain 
James J. Womack was acting major. The regiment 
was hotly engaged during the first day's fight on the 
Confederate right wing, near the railroad. Being 
fronted by an enemy many times its number, the regi- 
ment was pressed severely on its front and flank by an 
apparently irresistible onslaught of musketry and can- 
ister, and the men of the regiment were falling thick 
and fast. Colonel Savage had ordered the regiment to 
lie down and take shelter behind a fence that>ran par- 
allel with part of the line. The men obeyed the order, 
and from behind their frail shelter they poured forth a 
constant and destructive fire into the ranks of the ad- 
vancing foe. While engaged in this hot and desperate 
encounter, the Sixteenth Tennessee lost heavily in offi- 
cers and men, including Captain D. C. Spurlock, Com- 
pany C; Lieutenant R. B. Anderson, Company A, 
killed; and Captain James J. Womack, acting major, 
seriously wounded. In the hottest of this engagement, 
while the list of the slain was so rapidly increasing 
under the fearful and constant assault of the enemy, 



294 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

where a handsojne monument will soon be erected over 
them to mark their final resting-place. Though dead 
these many years, Captain Savage still lives in the 
hearts and affections of a large circle of relatives, em- 
bracing the best families of the country, and by a mul- 
titude of friends over the different counties of the 
Mountain District, who knew him but to love him, and 
who honor his memory as a worthy citizen, a gallant 
soldier, an accomplished gentleman, and a good man. 



GENERAL F. K. ZOLLICOFFER. 

Brigadier-general Felix Kirk Zollicoffer was born 
May 19, 1812, in Maury county, Tennessee. His fa- 
ther', John Jacob Zollicoffer, moved from North Caro- 
lina, and settling in the rich blue-grass lands of Maury 
county, was a prosperous farmer, who divided his time 
between attention to his farm duties and literary pur- 
suits. George Zollicoffer, the paternal grandfather of 
the subject of this article, was a captain in the North 
Carolina line in the Revolutionary War. The family 
came to America from Switzerland, and is of ancestry 
ennobled by a degree of Emperor Rodolphus II., dated 
October 19, 1528. A member of it named John Con- 
rad Zollicoffer, who was an officer in the French army, 
threw up his commission (being furnished with a let- 
ter from Silas Deane, our first commissioner to the 
French court), and accepted a commission from the 
governor of North Carolina, and served in the Revo- 
lutionary War until he was taken prisoner, having been 
afterward released on parole. This old baronial family 
still preserve a faithful record of their lineage in this 
country, and it is their custom to keep up a constant 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 295 

correspondence with the American branch of the fam- 
ily. Every marriage, birth, and death, in the male 
branch of the family, is promptly forwarded and re- 
corded in the genealogical table in Switzerland. The 
oldest living male member of the family in this coun- 
try is by courtesy called " the Baron," and is in regular 
receipt of a yearly annuity from Switzerland. . 

Having received a good, plain education, General 
ZollicofFer's energy and spirit of independence led him, 
at the age of fifteen, to rely upon his own exertions for . 
a subsistence. Accordingly, he entered a printing 
office in Columbia, Tennessee. Shortly after he was 
sixteen he formed a partnership with W. W. Gates 
(since an editor of prominence) and Amos R.Johnson, 
(who subsequently became a lawyer, and was promoted 
to the bench in Paris, Tennessee). Here he met with 
disheartening difficulties, which only served to develop 
and prove the pluck and indomitable will possessed by 
him. In some letters, now extant, from his father to 
him at that time, his high sense of honor, and his de- 
termination not to succumb to the outward turn of af- 
fairs, were much commended. He also complimented 
and encouraged him, for " I am highly pleased," he 
wrote, " with the appearance of your paper, and am 
proud to think that I have a son seventeen years of age 
who can edit such an one." 

The young firm becoming financially involved, quit 
in debt, and ZollicofFer sought employment, first in 
Knoxville, Tennessee, under the veteran editor Heis- 
kell, and subsequently in Huntsville, Alabama, where 
by hard work, strict economy, and self-denial, he man- 
aged to pay oft' the whole debt- contracted at Pans 
his partners subsequently repaying him their portion 
of it. The printing-press upon which their first edi- 



296 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

torial venture had been made, was, in 1855, discovered 
by the Whigs of Henry county, from which they had 
carved a walking-cane, mounted with solid gold, and 
presented it to ZollicofFer as a testimonial. His literary 
tastes were very fine, and while still in his minority he 
was led occasionally to woo the. muses in his leisure 
mome.nts. One of his prose fancies, which abounds in 
beautiful word-painting, has been preserved to the 
public amongst the choice selections in Field's Scrap- 
book. He was said by those who knew him then, to 
be a model of neatness and youthful manliness. From 
Huntsville he returned to Maury county, and located 
in Columbia, taking charge of the Observer newspa- 
per. There he, in 1835, f rille d a happy matrimonial 
alliance with Miss Louisa Gordon, and in the follow- 
ing year he volunteered as a soldier and served as a 
commissioned officer with the Tennessee troops in the 
campaign against the Seminoles in Florida. He re- 
turned in 1837, and resumed his connection with the 
Observer, and continued to edit it with marked vigor 
and ability throughout the memorable campaign of 
1840. He had a strong partiality for agricultural pur- 
suits, and published in connection with the Observer 
an agricultural journal which had a considerable.circu- 
lation, and the columns of which evinced the variety 
of his attainments and his eminently sound and prac- 
tical judgment. The great energy, boldness, and abil- 
ity which he displayed in the management of the Ob- 
server, made a decided impression upon the leading 
minds of the Whig party in the State, and in 1841 he 
was called to Nashville to a place on the editorial staff 
of the Banner, the chief organ of the party. He at 
once made his power felt, and by his zealous energy 
contributed greatly to the re-election of Governor 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 297 

James C. Jones in 1843. After the election his deli' 
cate health caused him. to lay down the peri; but he 
jwas soon called to another field of labor, the legisla- 
ture having, on the ist of November following, elected 
him Comptroller of the State. He was retained in this 
responsible position until the spring of 1849, wnen ne 
resigned. He went into the office without any infor- 
mation as to the routine of its business, and without in- 
structions, but his persevering and untiring purpose 
soon mastered the details of the bureau, and where he 
found confusion he introduced system and order, and 
laid down the seals of office, confessedly one of the 
most reliable and successful comptrollers that had ever 
served the State. 

In August, 1849, ne was chosen to represent David- 
son county in the State Senate. Here his powers of 
intellect and self-culture asserted themselves, and the 
legislation of the session shows that he made his mark 
in the Senate and became a leader there among some 
of the finest minds in the State. 

The year of 1851 was an important period in the his- 
tory of the Whig party of Tennessee, and he was 
again called to the helm to take charge of the Banner, 
in the hope of rallying the slumbering hosts, re-animat- 
ing their drooping spirits, and overwhelming the_ De- 
mocracy again. The nomination of a candidate for 
the chief magistracy of the State was eliciting much 
discussion. 

General ZollicofTer favored the nomination of Gen- 
eral William B. Campbell, and exerted his 'influence, 
which was now second to no Whig leader in the State, 
in that direction. Devoted to the Whig cause, and 
equally devoted as a friend to General Campbell, the 
canvass which followed was a labor of lovet He pros- 



298 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

ecuted it with untiring energy and skill, initiating and 
carrying out many of the measures which conduced to 
its success. Even when so ill that he could scarcely sit 
at his table, he stuck to his post with his invincible 
spirit and indomitable will, triumphing over the infirm- 
ities of his body." A brilliant victory was the result. 
The canvass was one of the most remarkable in the 
annals of Tennessee, and its result added immeasurably 
to the influence of General Zollicoffer. When at its 
height, General Campbell was prostrated by disease, 
and as his competitor, General Trousdale, a war-worn 
veteran, was exceedingly popular, the Whigs were cast 
down and well-nigh hopeless, but the gallant Zollicof- 
fer sprang to their relief, snatched up the old Whig 
banner, and bore it until General Campbell recovered. 
In the following year, that of the presidential contest 
between Scott and Pierce, he added fresh laurels to his 
political career. 

On April 30, 1853, he received the Whig nomination 
for Congress in the Nashville district, and severed for- 
ever his connection w r ith the press. Throughout the 
six years in which he served in Congress his votes and 
acts were in opposition to the party in power, and he 
won a national reputation as a Southern conservative, 
and for great ability, strict probity of character, patriot- 
ism, 'purity, and amiability. These qualities gave him 
great influence as a ^representative. He was univer- 
sally esteemed as an honorable, high-minded gentle- 
man, whose fidelity to principle was conspicuous, and 
who might at all times be relied upon. He sustained 
himself admirably in debate, and if he did not exceed 
in the graces of rhetoric and oratory, he was so well 
fortified with impregnable facts that the readiest and 
wiliest adversary had to look well to his cause. His 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 299 

encounter with the Hon. A. H. Stephens, of Georgia, 
the ablest and most adroit representative during the 
period of his service from the South, was a splendid 
display of parliamentary and elevated intellectual war- 
fare, and was keenly relished by the members. The 
distinguished Georgian went out of the contest with a 
high appreciation of the gallant knight whose lance 
had won its laurels. They afterward enjoyed the most 
amicable relations and became admiring friends the 
great statesman on a subsequent occasion being an hon- 
ored guest at General ZollicofTer's home in Nashville. 

An honorable contemporary, who knew him well in 
Washington city, thus speaks of him: "In his inter- 
course with men he was very courteous and polite, and 
exacted the same deportment from others toward him- 
self. In the House he held a high position, and was 
esteemed for the excellence of his judgment, the in- 
tegrity of his character, and the firmness with which 
he adhered to his convictions. He was a very modest, 
gentle, and dignified man, without pretension, bluster, 
or bravado; and yet he not only had commanding in- 
fluence, but challenged the respect of his opponents." 

He retired from political life in 1859, and remained a 
private citizen until he was elected by the General As- 
sembly of Tennessee a commissioner to the Peace Con- 
gress. He accepted the appointment, but came home 
from the conference sad and disheartened. 

Soon after the secession of Tennessee, a provisional 
army was organized by the General Assembly, and 
Governor Harris tendered to General Zollicoffer the 
commission of a major-general. He declined the ap- 
pointment, giving as a reason, " that he would not con- 
sent to risk by his inexperience the safety and reputa- 
tion of his fellow-citizens of the volunteer State." He 



300 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

was, however, appointed to, and accepted, the position 
of a brigadier-general, which appointment he after- 
ward received from the Confederate government. 
Early in the summer of 1861, it became known that 
the Federal army threatened the invasion of East Ten- 
nessee by the way of Cumberland Gap. To defeat 
this movement, the Confederate government sent brig- 
adier-general Zollicoffer, with a force of about two 
thousand men, by way of Knoxville, to the point of 
threatened attack. 

Kentucky was at this time endeavoring to occupy 
and hold a neutral positidn in the civil war. General 
Zollicoffer, on September 14, telegraphed Governor 
McGoffin that "the safety of Tennessee requiring, I 
occupy the mountain passes at Cumberland and three 
long mountains in Kentucky. For weeks I have 
known that the Federal commander at Haskins's Cross 
Roads was threatening the invasion of East Tennessee 
and ruthlessly urging our people to destroy our own 
roads and bridges. I postponed this precautionary 
movement until the despotic government at Washing- 
ton, refusing to recognize the neutrality of Kentucky, 
had established formidable camps in the center and 
other parts of the State, with the view, first, to subju- 
gate your gallant State, and then ourselves. Tennes- 
see feels, and has ever felt, toward Kentucky as a twin 
sister; their people are as one people in kindred, sym- 
pathy, valor, and patriotism. We have felt, and still 
feel, a religious respect for Kentucky's neutrality. We 
will respect it as long as our safety will permit. If the 
Federal force will now withdraw from their menacing 
position, the force under my command shall imme- 
diately be withdrawn." 

General Zollicoffer also issued a proclamation, which 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 301 

he caused to be distributed over the country, announc- 
ing that he came there to defend the soil of a sister 
State against an invading foe, and that no citizen of 
Kentucky was to be molested in person or property, 
whatever his political opinions, unless found in arms 
against the Confederate government, or giving aid and 
comfort to the enemy. 

About the middle of September he received infor- 
mation that a camp of about fifteen hundred Federals 
was located near Barboursville, Kentucky, and were 
threatening his position. Accordingly, on September 
19, he dispatched a portion of his command to that 
point and dispersed the camp with but slight loss. He 
advanced cautiously in the direction of Somerset, driv- 
ing the enemy before him. A large force of Federals 
under General Schoepf was sent forward to meet him. 
He had purposely permitted a captured Federal officer 
to overhear a conversation between some of his staff 
officers, which induced him to believe that Hardee was 
advancing from Bowling Green with a view to falling 
on the flank of General Schcepf. This officer was 
paroled and mounted, and permitted to go forward to 
join General Schoepf. His information was no sooner 
communicated to the Federal forces than it produced a 
panic, and was followed by what is known as the 
" Wild Cat Stampede." The frightened soldiers re- 
treated at double-quick for miles, while the route of 
their retreat was covered with broken wagons, knap- 
sacks, overcoats, dead horses and mules, and soldiers 
who had fallen from exhaustion. 

After the expedition, General Zollicoffer moved with 
a portion of his command to Mill Springs, Kentucky, 
on the southern bank of the Cumberland river. He 
soon afterward advanced across the river to Camp 



302 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Beech Grove, fortifying his camp with earthworks, 
which was located in a bend of the river in the shape 
of a horse-shoe. This was in January, and he was pre- 
paring to go into winter quarters. His cavalry force, 
about 1,200 men, under command of Colonel McNairy, 
was across the river in his rear. Soon after General 
ZollicofFer had established his camp, Major-general 
George B. Crittenden arrived and assumed command. 
On the night of January 18 a heavy rain fell, causing a 
sudden flood in Fishing Creek, a large stream about 
nine miles from the Confederate camp, in the direction 
of Somerset. 

A citizen of the neighborhood named Johnson came 
into the camp and gave information that two regiments 
of Federal troops had been cut off by the flooding of 
the creek. A council of war was held, and it was re- 
solved to move out a force to attack them. Orders 
were given and preparations made for a movement of 
the whole division at daylight next morning. Pending 
these movements (it has sii^ce been developed) Gen- 
eral Thomas, of the Federal army, had ordered a force 
of eight or ten thousand men to Somerset, with a view 
of crossing the Cumberland at Stegall's Ferry, twenty- 
five miles above Mill Springs, and falling in the rear 
of Zollicoffer above Monticello, from which direction 
the Confederates received their supplies. A portion 
of these troops had taken up their line of march from 
Columbia to Somerset on the day of the battle of Mill 
Springs. The four regiments across Fishing Creek 
were in expectation hourly of a new brigade com- 
mander, who had been ordered to assume the command. 

On Sunday morning, January 19, 1862, just before 
the dawn of day, the Confederate troops moved out 
through a drizzling rain to attack, as they supposed, 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 303 

two regiments of Federals; advancing nine miles on 
the Somerset road, the Federal pickets were driven in 
a half mile in advance of their already-formed line of 
battle. Near this point General Zollicoffer formed his 
men. On the left was placed the Twentieth Tennessee, 
commanded by Colonel Joel A. Battle; on the right, 
the Fifteenth Mississippi, under command of Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Walthall. 

The main body of the Confederate brigade was on 
the left of the Mill Springs road, and in advancing en- 
tered a thick forest directly in front. General Zolli- 
coffer, having ordered the advance of his little com- 
mand, rode forward with several of his staff officers 
through the forest to inspect the position of the enemy, 
and passed into the Mill Springs road beyond the Fed- 
eral line of battle. Discovering his mistake, he en- 
deavored to retrace his route to his own command, but 
had proceeded only a few hundred yards when he 
found himself directly in front of the Fourth Kentucky 
Federal Regiment, under command of Colonel Speed 
S. Fry. The Federals, who were expecting the arrival 
of a new brigade commander, mistook General Zolli- 
coffer for their new brigadier, his uniform being envel- 
oped in an oil-cloth overcoat, and he having come from 
the direction of Somerset, or Columbia. General Zol- 
licoffer quickly discovered his mistake, and, to, put a 
bold front on the matter, rode up to Colonel Fry, and, 
after the usual salutations, started down the road, ac- 
companied by his staff', in front of Colonel Fry's com- 
mand, and about thirty feet in advance of it. He had 
not proceeded far when Major Henry Fogg,* of his 

* It was said by some persons who were engaged in this battle 
that it was Major Ewing, and not Major Fogg, who fired the shot. 



304 SKETCHES OF OFEICERS. 

staff, drew his pistol and fired toward the Federal line- 
In a moment a volley from the Federal line was dis- 
charged, instantly killing General Zollicoffer and Lieu- 
tenant Evan Shield, and mortally wounding Major 

F gg- 

The story that General Zollicoffer was killed by Col- 
onel Fry has gained general belief, but there is very 
little reason to sustain it. On his body were found two- 
wounds one made with a musket ball, which was 
mortal, and another by a pistol shot, which produced a 
severe, but not a mortal, wound. If Colonel Fry fired r 
and his ball lodged in General Zollicoffer's body, it was 
not the missile that caused his death, this having been 
the result of the musket shot. In the meantime the 
hostile forces were hotly engaged, the battle lasting 
from sunrise until about noon. The Confederates 
fought with a devotion never excelled by soldiers on 
any battle-field; nearly half of the Mississippi regi- 
ment fell in the action, while the mortally wounded of 
Colonel Battle's command was very great. 

Thus -fell Felix K. Zollicoffer. A Federal officer 
who had known him in Washington, and who looked 
upon him dead on the field, said that " his face bore no- 
expression such as is usually found upon those who fall 
in battle no malice, no reckless hate, not even a 
shadow of physical pain. It was calm, placid, noble. 
I never looked upon a countenance so marked with 
sadness. A deep dejection had settled upon it. The 
lines of care of the mouth were distinct in the droop 
at the corners, and the thin cheeks showed the wasting 
which comes through disappointment and trouble." 

One of his early friends and associates, who had 
known him well, thus wrote of him soon after his un- 
timely death: "How he fulfilled the expectation of a 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 305 

people who long entertained such exalted confidence 
in his courage and capacity, and redeemed the impres- 
sions of the thousands of young hearts around him, 
many of whose first notions of chivalry were derived 
from his daring, need not be repeated. Up to the hour 
of his fall, at the head of his troops, whose adoration 
marks a volume of suggestive eulogy, and answers 
every question, nothing but an affectionate faith at- 
tended him. He was the model and pattern of integ- 
rity and manhood. Although a civilian, his military 
qualifications received the most general trust; what he 
lacked in experience he could make up in bravery being 
the prevailing feeling; and this is more than sustained 
by the circumstance of his death." 

One of the most exquisite little poems, called forth 
by the tragedies of these four years' war, was written 
by the gifted Henry Flash, to commemorate the death 
of General Zollicoffer. It is as follows: 

"ZOLLICOFFER." 
First in the fight, and first in the arms 

Of the white-winged angel of glory, 
With the heart of the South at the feet of God, 

And his wounds to tell the story. 

For the blood that flowed from his hero heart 
On the spot where he nobly perished, 

Was drank by the earth as a sacrament 
In the holy cause he cherished. 

In heaven a home with the brave and blest, 

And for his soul's sustaining 
The apocalyptic smile of Christ 

And nothing on earth remaining 

But a handful of dust in the land of his choice 

And a name in song and story 
And Fame to shout with her brazen voice, 

" He died on the field of glory." 
20 



306 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

At his fall a wail went up from over the whole 
South, each household seeming to feel as if death had 
crossed its special threshold and even the enemy ap- 
peared regretfully subdued as if they were reluctant to 
proclaim such a victory, and by tender respect to the 
inanimate body of the fallen chieftain, sending it by 
flag of truce to his people and his family, there to re- 
ceive in burial every honor that a loved and sorrowing 
city could bestow, showed a sympathy and apprecia- 
tion of his merits not often bestowed by one hostile 
army to the head of another. His qualities as a public 
character were well known, but there was a gentler 
side to his character known only to those who clustered 
about his family fireside. To them he was indulgent, 
confiding, and affectionate. His attachment to his 
children was strong, deep, and tender, and was repaid 
by a devotion almost amounting to idolatry, and as 
beautiful and pure as it was undying. His loving and 
loved wife had died in 1857. 

In the preliminary report of the battle of Fishing 
Creek, dated Greensboro, Tennessee,"^anuary 29, 1862, 
General G. B. Crittenden says: "I am pained to make 
report of the death of Brigadier-general F. K. Zolli- 
coffer, who fell while gallantly leading his brigade 
against the foe. In his fall the country has sustained a 
great loss. In counsel he has always shown wisdom, 
and in battle braved dangers, while coolly directing the 
movements of his troops." 

His regular report was made without the benefit of 
any subordinate reports, except those of General Will- 
iam H. Carroll and Major Horace Rice, of the Twen- 
ty-ninth Tennessee, and under peculiarly embarrassing 
circumstances. General Crittenden has, without in- 
tention, made several important mistakes, as any one 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 307 

who will carefully examine the records and testimony 
in regard to this battle, will readily perceive. The 
writer has no censure for General Crittenden or for 
any of the officers and men engaged. Many of the 
troops had never been under fire, and the greater num- 
ber of the officers were wholly unfamiliar with military 
affairs, and every command, without exception, engaged 
in that disastrous affair, afterward achieved reputation 
for bravery and soldierly conduct. But in the light of 
history, it is proper to endeavor to find out and record 
the real facts of the great events of the late war with- 
out partiality or undue censure. 

The plan of the battle, as arranged by General Crit- 
tenden, appears to have been well conceived, and the 
reports show that the surprise was complete. Nearly 
all of the Confederate troops, as before remarked, were 
raw recruits who had never before been in action, and 
a majority of the officers were unfamiliar with their 
duties. The same troops who on that day retreated in 
disorder, in subsequent engagements fought as bravely 
and as well as the oldest veterans. 

The two commands which, by official reports, were 
most conspicuous, and bore the heaviest part of the 
battle on the Confederate side, were the Fifteenth Mis- 
sissippi Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel 
(afterward Major-general) E. C. Walthall, and the 
Twentieth Tennessee, commanded by Colonel Joel A. 
Battle. 

The Fifteenth Mississippi Regiment, under Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Walthall, followed by the Twentieth Tenr 
nessee, Colonel Battle, under orders which they had 
received, moved forward toward the enemy and soon 
encountered their pickets, who opened a brisk fire, 
severely wounding Captain C. G. Armistead, who 



308 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

accompanied Colonel Walthall, and a number of 
others. 

The Federal forces were encamped on both sides of 
the road, having in their front a thick growth of woods- 
averaging half a mile in extent. Fronting this wood 
were open fields in which there was a slight elevation 
or ridge. Colonel Walthall moved his command 
through the open field, crossing the ridge, and met a 
force of the Federals in the edge of the woods. This 
force was the Fourth Kentucky Regiment. A fierce 
encounter at once commenced, and the Fourth Ken- 
tucky showing signs of giving way, it was re-enforced 
by the Tenth Indiana Regiment. Soon afterward 
Walthall's command was joined by the Twentieth 
Tennessee Regiment, and the fight continued. This- 
was the most advanced position gained or occupied by 
the Confederate troops during the entire engagement. 

At that early period many of the Confederate troops 
wore blue uniforms, and General Crittenclen had given 
warning of this, and had adopted a pass-word by 
which Confederate troops could recognize their own 
forces. When Walthall was advancing through the 
open fields toward the woods, his skirmishers told him 
that the force in his front was the Twentieth Tennessee 
Regiment, Colonel Battle. The morning was cloudy 
and the troops in front could not be clearly distin- 
guished. To make sure that he was not firing on 
friends, he ordered his command to lie down, and, go- 
ing forward, followed by Lieutenant Harrington (with- 
.out Walthall's knowledge), he hailed the troops in 
front, and inquired who they were. The answer was 
"Kentucky." This was the pass- word which General 
Crittenden had given out. He repeated his question 
and received the same answer. Returning to his line, 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 309 

he took the regimental colors and proceeded again to 
the front, and repeated the question, and receiving the 
same reply, he unfurled his colors, when a volley was 
at once opened upon him from the Fourth Kentucky.* 
killing Lieutenant Harrington, but leaving Walthall 
untouched. The flag was penetrated by a number of 
balls and the staff cut in two. 

Walthall then ordered his men to open fire, and soon 
drove their antagonists from unde*" their cover, and 
caused them to fall back a considerable distance, when 
they were re-enforced by the Tenth Indiana, and the 
struggle was renewed; Battle at this time, with the 

*The following statement is from Dr. Edward Richardson, a 
well-known physician of Louisville, Kentucky, then surgeon of 
the Twelfth Kentucky (Union) Infantry: 

" My regiment, in company with the First and Second Ten- 
nessee Infantry, reached Logan's farm, the scene of the conflict, 
Thursday, January 16. We had no tents, and were therefore not 
noticed by Johnson, the Confederate, who reported our numbers 
to Zollicoffer. We found there in camp upon our arrival the Sec- 
ond Minnesota, Tenth Indiana, and Ninth Ohio. The Fourth 
Kentucky, under Colonel Speed Fry, with a few hundred of 
Wblford's cavalry, joined us on Saturday, the iSth. The picket 
firing began about daylight Sunday morning. It was misty and 
dark, with occasional showers. The first regiment of infaiitrv 
-which met the rebels was the Tenth Indiana. They were forced 
back, and were reinforced by the Fourth Kentucky and Second 
Minnesota. These three, with Stanard's battery, did most of the 
fighting. By the time my regiment was well in line the Confed- 
erates were falling back. I reached the body of Zollicoffer a few 
minutes after he fell, the spot not being more than twenty feet 
in front of our line. He was quite dead, and so was Bailey Pey- 
ton, who lay near him. His body was penetrated bv several pis- 
tol balls from the rear, and by a minnie ball which went clear 
through, from side to side. I have the General's gum coat now, 
and would like to send it to some of his family." 



310. SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Twentieth Tennessee, coming up to WalthalFs aid,, 
and forming on his right. A fierce engagement ensued 
at the forks of the road, to which the Federals had 
been driven, and where the Fourth Kentucky and 
Tenth Indiana were supported by Wolford's Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, and subsequently by the Ninth Ohia 
Infantry. 

The entire Federal line was driven back, but was 
re-enforced, and a Federal regiment having gained the 
left of the Fifteenth Mississippi, and the Nineteenth 
Tennessee Regiment, which was on Walthall's left, 
having been forced to retire, Colonel Walthall with- 
drew his command. 

On the open space on the left of Walthall's com- 
mand General Zollicoffer was killed. 

The Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, Colonel D. H. 
Cummings, re-enforced the Fifteenth Mississippi and 
Twentieth Tennessee in the heat of the fight, and was 
engaged with the Fourth Kentucky under cover of the 
woods, but was subsequently flanked and forced to- 
retire. Rutledge's battery, though placed in position, 
did not fire a gun, having been ordered to retire with- 
out being brought into action. The right of the Fed- 
erals pressed closely upon the left flank of the Confed- 
erates, and suffered comparatively but small loss, owing 
to the disparity in their arms, the Confederates having 
mostly flint-lock muskets of old patterns, while the 
Federals were armed with the latest-improved long- 
range guns. 

When the Confederate line gave way it made its re- 
treat without pursuit from the Federals. Walthall held 
the right of the Confederate line, until Battle, com- 
manding the Twentieth Regiment, formed on his right, 
and held General S. P. Carter's brigade in check, until 



GENERAL ZOLLICOFFER. 311 

Carter, pressing on his flank, forced him to retire. 
The Twentieth Tennessee and Fifteenth Mississippi 
Regiments left the field together and narrowly escaped 
capture. Colonel Walthall, finding a regiment of Fed- 
erals across his line of retreat, and almost surrounded 
on all sides by a superior force, moved to the rear with 
his own immediate command and a portion of Battle's 
regiment, under command of Captain Rice. 

Colonel William Preston Johnston, in his life of his 
father, General Albert Sidney Johnston, reviewing the 
battle of Fishing Creek, says: "The Mississippi Regi- 
ment and Battle's Twentieth Tennessee had borne the 
brunt of the day. The former had lost over two hun- 
dred and twenty men, out of four hundred who had 
gone into battle. The Twentieth Tennessee lost half 
as many more, those two regiments suffering over three 
fourths of all the casualties on that day. They had 
the advance and were better armed than the other 
troops. But had they been supported by the remain- 
der of the column with half the valor and determina- 
tion which the same troops subsequently exhibited on 
other fields, the result would probably have Vjeen dif- 
ferent. Their inferior arms, want of discipline, bad 
handling, and fatigue, sufficiently account for their ill 
success." 

The table of casualties in killed in eight Confederate 
regiments (some of them very large), including cav- 
alry and artillery, shows one hundred and twenty-five 
killed, of which forty-four were in the Fifteenth Mis- 
sissippi Regiment; three hundred and nine wounded, 
of which one hundred and fifty-three were in the Fif- 
teenth Mississippi Regiment, and twenty-nine missing 
out of ninety-nine. 

In General William H. Carroll's command twenty- 



312 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

eight were killed and forty-six wounded in this bri- 
gade. 

In the Twentieth Tennessee Regiment the killed 
were thirty-three, wounded fifty-nine, and missing 
eighteen. These figures show clearly what commands 
bore the brunt of the battle. 

About a half mile from the point where Colonel 
Walthall left the field with the remnant of his com- 
mand, he was joined by Captain H. Rice with a por- 
tion of Colonel Battle's Twentieth Tennessee Regi- 
ment. These commands moved toward their former 
camps several miles, where they met a battalion of cav- 
alry which had been ordered to take up the disabled 
men, and assist them in getting into camp. One com- 
pany of cavalry remained in the rear of the command 
a short time after Captain Rice joined Colonel Wal- 
thall, but soon passed to the front in the direction of 
the camp. 

From the time that Colonel Walthall and Captain 
Rice, commanding a portion of Battle's regiment, took 
the road toward the camp, they did not meet any com- 
mand of part of infantry, except the short time when 
the cavalry company moved in the rear. This com- 
mand had no rear-guard on its retrograde movement, 
except such as was furnished from its own men. 

After crossing the river, Colonel Walthall's com- 
mand marched in order without straggling, and it pre- 
served its organization perfectly throughout the whole 
retreat. 

In thus recording the eminent services of Walthall's 
and Battle's commands in the battle of Fishing Creek, 
no disparagement is intended to the other commands 
in that engagement. Those who failed to earn laurels 
on that occasion earned them afterward, and it is 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 



deemed due to the truth of history to make the record 
which is here written. 




MAJOR-GENERAL B. F. CHEATHAM. 

The following sketch of General B. F. Cheatham is 
from the pen of ex-Governor James D. Porter, and is 
copied from the National Illustrated Magazine: 

B. F. Cheatham was born in Nashville, October 20, 
1820. He was the son of Leonard P. Cheatham, post- 
master at Nashville under President James K. Polk's 
administration. His mother was Elizabeth Robertson, 



314 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

the granddaughter of General James Robertson, the 
pioneer of Middle Tennessee and the founder of the 
present city of Nashville. 

At the breaking out of the Mexican war, in 1846, he 
was among the first of the young Tennesseans to re- 
spond to the call for volunteers. He commanded a 
company, the Nashville Blues, in Colonel William B. 
Campbell's (First) Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 
He shared its perils and followed its fortunes in the bat- 
tles of Monterey, September, 1846; Vera Cruz. March, 
1847; an d Cerro Gordo, April, 1847. ^- t tne battle of 
Monterey his gallantry was conspicuous, and his action 
then as a youthful captain was significant of his fut- 
ure career. 

Judge Robertson, one of the historians of the war 
with Mexico, states when the order was given for the 
First Tennessee to assault the fort at Monterey. ' Cheat- 
ham, catching the order, sprang forward to the charge,, 
crying, 'Come on, men, and follow me!"' 

In his subsequent career, as commander of a regi- 
ment, brigade, division, and corps, his troops were 
stimulated by his presence and with the knowledge 
that he was there to lead them, not recklessly to a 
fruitless slaughter, but execute orders, whatever might 
be the cost. 

So distinguished were his services in the field, and 
so marked was the impression his strength of charac- 
ter made upon all, that in March, 1847, ^ e was unan i- 
mously elected colonel of the Third Regiment Tennes- 
see Volunteers. On its arrival at Vera Cruz, in No- 
vember, 1847, it was brigaded by General William O. 
Butler with Colonel James H. Lane's Fifth Regiment 
of Indiana Volunteers. 

As the commander of this brigade he was intrusted 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 315 

_ , 

with the responsible charge of conveying through a 
broken country, invested by guerillas, the trains that 
carried supplies for Scott's army. 

At the end of the Mexican war, crowned with honor 
and beloved by all his comrades, he resumed the pur- 
suits of peace, and with characteristic energy devoted 
himself to the improvement of his estate. 

More than a decade passed, and again there was a 
call to arms. The old soldier who had followed his 
country's flag over the embattled plains of Mexico, 
who, with the joyous glow of youthful enthusiasm, 
had seen it so often wave in victory, was called upon 
to draw his sword against it. All the proud memories 
of early days protested. A loyalty that had been bap- 
tized with fire at Monterey and Cerro Gordo cried out 
against it. But he did not hesitate, though, like Lee r 
he deeply regretted the necessity that forced upon him 
a choice of evils. 

At the beginning of the late civil war, in April, 1861, 
he was appointed by Governor Isham G. Harris a brig- 
adier-general in the Provisional Army of Tennessee. 
After the transfer of the State forces to the Confeder- 
acy, he was appointed by President Davis to the same 
position in the Confederate States Army. On the 8th 
of March, 1862, he was promoted to the rank of major- 
general. 

In the organization of the Provisional Army of Ten- 
nessee, he was active, and established the camp of in- 
struction at Union City, where he trained, disciplined, 
and equipped one of the finest bodies of troops, of all 
arms of the service, engaged in the war. While in 
command of this camp, General Cheatham exhibited 
other great qualities outside of those of the mere 
technical soldier. The public mind was in a state of 



316 SKETCHES, OF OFFICERS. 

A. 

ferment. Liberal men became violent and intolerant. 
Appeals were made to him daily for the arrest of citi- 
zens suspected of disloyalty to the South. These 
appeals were frequent and persistent, but he had one 
answer to all: "This is a free country. Men must not 
be disturbed because of their opinions. If they are 
not in accord with us, all we can ask of them is to do 
no act of hostility during their residence inside of our 
lines. But I will not permit arrests for opinion's sake 
and when the government of my choice requires it of 
me, I will abandon her service." 

The district commanded by him contained a large, 
per cent, of Union men, and this policy won many of 
them to our ranks and secured the good will of all. 

General Cheatham was one of the most provident of 
soldiers. He was always on the lookout for clothing, 
for shoes, and for all possible comforts for his com- 
mand. The result was that his division was the best 
equipped one of the Army of Tennessee. If a surplus 
of any material was assigned to him, it was sent to the 
rear in chai'ge of a disabled man until it was needed. 
His hospital stores were the subject of his greatest 
watchfulness, and were always in readiness. At Chick- 
amauga, when the army began to maneuver for posi- 
tion, his field hospital was located, and it was the only 
one on the Confederate side approaching complete- 
ness. It was so extensive and well arranged that com- 
plaint was made at army head-quarters that Cheatham 
had appropriated the stores of the army, when the-fact 
was he had simply taken care of what had been al- 
lotted to him from time to time. The list of killed and 
wounded at Chickamauga numbered nineteen hun- 
dred. There was a place for every one of the wounded 
at the field hospital not one was sent to the rear. 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 317 

-They were cared for on the field, and the per cent, of 
deaths was insignificant. 

Cheatham commanded his own division in the fullest 
sense. He had an eye to the quartermaster, commis- 
sary, and medical departments, and was thoroughly 
conversant with the details and want of each, arid reg- 
ulated them all. The men observed this, and very 
soon were so identified with him in feeling and sym- 
pathy, that they knew no organization but his division, 
and to this day the veterans of his command will tell 
you that they belonged to Cheatham's division, never 
mentioning brigade or regiment. In action he fought 
them as one organization, and always had their trust 
and confidence. They learned at the outset of the war 
that he had no ambition to gratify beyond the discharge 
of duty, and that he would never sacrifice the life of a 
single soldier to advance himself. 

General Cheatham moved his command -to New 
Madrid, Missouri, in August, and, after a few weeks, 
under orders from General Polk, he took possession of 
Hickman, Kentucky, and, in a few days thereafter, oc- 
cupied Columbus, Kentucky. The autumn of 1861 and 
the following winter were spent in fortifying Colum- 
bus and in the drill and discipline of the troops. The 
battle of Belmont was fought in November, 1861. Gen- 
eral Pillow was in active command of the troops. 
General Grant captured Pillow's artillery and forced 
him to fall back. Cheatham was ordered across the 
river with a command. He reformed several regi- 
ments and led them forward to the attack, and gave 
the Federal troops the impulse to retreat and abandon 
the field. 

At the battle of Belmont, after the Federal forces 
had been driven from the field, two of General Cheat- 



318 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

ham's regiments, the One Hundred and Fifty-fourth 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel Preston 
Smith commanding, and Colonel A. K. Blythe's Mis- 
sissippi regiment, having crossed the river and joined 
him, he was ordered by Major-general Polk to follow 
up the retreating Federals under General Grant, and 
attack the gun-boats and transports. After arriving 
within half a mile of the boats, he came upon a double 
log house, standing back one hundred yards from the 
road, then occupied by the Federals as a hospital. At 
the gate he found two Federal surgeons mounted upon 
two fine stallions, one a black, the other a gray. Just 
at this time two officers one with his overcoat on, the 
other with his coat on his arm came out of the hos- 
pital and ran toward a corn field and jumped the fence 
and disappeared in the corn field. When they first 
ran out of the house twenty or thirty men of the One 
Hundred and Fifty- fourth Tennessee, who were in 
front, cocked their guns and commenced aiming at the 
officers as they ran toward the corn field. General 
Cheatham immediately ordered them not to fire on any 
stragglers, as his orders were to follow up and attack 
the gun-boats. On the next day he met under a flag 
of truce, where each party was burying the dead, Col- 
onel Hatch, who was at that time General Grant's quar- 
termaster. Colonel Hatch asked General Cheatham if, 
on yesterday when he was talking to the surgeons at 
the gate in front of the hospital, he recollected seeing 
two men run out of the hospital, one with his over- 
coat on, the other with his overcoat on his arm. The 
General replied that he did, and that the front com- 
pany drew their guns upon them, and were in the act 
of firing upon them when the General ordered them to 
desist. Colonel Hatch then informed the General that 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 319 

the two men referred to were General Grant and him- 
self. A few days afterward General Cheatham and 
General Grant met on a steamboat under a flag of truce. 
General Cheatham asked General Grant if what Colo- 
nel Hatch told him in regard to the two officers leaving 
the hospital was correct. General Grant answered 
that it was. General Cheatham has always believed 
that the two fine horses that the surgeons were on be- 
longed to General Grant and Colonel Hatch. He has 

o 

also believed that General Grant was the last one of 
the Federals to get on board their boats. 

General Cheatham continued his march, and within 
half a mile came upon the boats. The water being 
low they were completely hidden under the river 
banks, nothing being seen but their smoke-stacks. 

Lieutenant-colonel Marcus J. Wright, who was in 
command of the One Hundred and Fifty -fourth Ten- 
nessee Regiment, in his report of the battle of Bel- 
mont, says: .... ; ' We moved from here through a 
corn field fronting the enemy's fleet of boats. Colonel 
Smith leading the line until we came to a lane dividing 
the field, and which led to the enemy's boats, the left 
wing of the regiment, under General Cheatham, hav- 
ing filed around the field and taken position on the 
left and up the river. As we passed down the lane 
I observed an officer mounted, and in front of the 
boats, and evidently urging the rapid embarkation of 
the troops. I ordered the men to reserve their fire until 
Colonel Smith should have placed the leading compa- 
nies in position on the light, which he immediately 
<lid, and a volley of well-directed musketry was im- 
mediately opened by the leading companies upon the 
boats. I ordered the companies in the rear to pass 
around rapidly and take position in line and commence 



320 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

firing. This order was promptly executed. The fire 
was at once returned by volleys of musketry from the 
boats, and rapid discharges of grape, canister and shell 
from the gun-boats. The fire was kept up on both 
sides with very little cessation for about an hour, 
when the boats having succeeded in cutting their ca- 
bles, moved out under cover of the gun-boats. As 
the gun-boats ascended the river they continued their 
fire, and their new position giving them a better range 
of shot, Colonel Smith ordered us to fall back to the 
field on the right." 

The first gun-boat fight on the Mississippi river was 
between the Confederate boat "Jackson," under Com- 
modore , and the Federal boat "Lexington," 

at Hickman, Ky. General Cheatham was present and 
engaged in it with a nine-pounder rifle gun, com- 
manded by now Brigadier-general W. H. Jackson, and 
another company with smaller guns. 

The Tennessee Legislature gave him a vote of thanks- 
for service at Belmont. 

He commanded a division with great distinction at 
Shiloh; and at Perry ville he was particularly distin- 
guished; also at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. 

After the battle of Chickamauga, General Bragg dis- 
solved Cheatham's division, and gave him a division of 
troops from other States, allowing him to retain one 
Tennessee brigade, upon the ground that so large a 
body of troops from one State in one division promoted 
too much State pride at the expense of pride in the 
Confederate States. When General Johnston assumed 
command of the army at Dalton one of his first acts 
was to restore the old organization. 

The order to this effect created unbounded enthu- 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 321 

siasm in the division, and with one impulse the men 
marched to army head-quarters with a band of music 
and called for General Johnston. General Cheatham 
escorted him from his room to the front door, and pre- 
sented him to his command with a heartiness as gen- 
uine as it was unmilitary. Placing his hand upon the 
bare head of the chief of the army, he patted it two 
or three times; looking at the men. he said, "Boys, 
this is Old Joe!" This was a presentation speech to 
captivate the soldiers' hearts they called their own 
chief "Old Frank," and it meant that there is another 
to trust and to love. 

In the Georgia campaign his services were just as 
conspicuous. The repulse of the Federal assault upon 
his lines at Kennesaw Mountain will always be re- 
membered for its vigor on one side, and for the calm 
determination and stubborn resistance displayed by the 
other, made with numbers so superior as to appall any 
but troops under proper command. 

General Cheatham was especially careful of the rights 
of citizens. Trespasses upon their property were never 
permitted. He marched his command many hundreds 
of miles and never permitted the destruction of a fence 
or the unlawful appropriation of any species of prop- 
erty. Upon one occasion, marching through North 
Georgia, an aged couple, man and wife, halted him in 
the early morning as the troops were moving out, and 
informed him that during the previous night all the 
sheep owned by them had been stolen by the soldiers. 
The entire command had camped around them, and 
they knew not to whom to charge it. The matter was 
hurriedly investigated the loss was established. Gen- 
eral Cheatham said to the people, "Can you replace 
the sheep?" The old man replied, "If I had the 
21 



322 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

money I might do so, but it will take two hundred and 
fifty dollars, and I have not a dollar." There was no 
one present but the couple, the general, and one other. 
The story of poverty was a touching one; the general 
was visibly affected, and, quietly drawing his pocket- 
book, counted out the money in the hands of the old 
man, and, mounting his horse, rode away. 

During the siege of Atlanta, the commanding gen- 
eral being disabled, Cheatham was taken from Har- 
dee's and placed in command of Stewart's corps, and 
upon the assignment of General Hardee to the com- 
mand of Charleston and its defenses, he was placed 
permanently in command of Hardee's corps, and so 
continued until its surrender. His assault of the Fed- 
eral line of works at Franklin, Tenn., with the divis- 
ions commanded bv Cleburne and John C. Brown, was 
made with deliberation and with full knowledge of its 
difficulties; it was executed with steadiness and deter- 
mination, and with a valor not excelled in modern war- 
fare. He commanded his corps at the unfortunate bat- 
tle of Nashville, and there and upon its retreat to the 
south, was the same gallant and watchful soldier. 

After the close of the war, March 15, 1866, General 
Cheatham was married in Nashville to Miss Anna 
Belle Robertson, a daughter of Colonel A. B. Robert- 
son, for many years a leading citizen and successful 
merchant of Nashville. 

Since the war he has been a quiet, hard working 
farmer. In 1872, he received the unanimous nomina- 
tion of the State Convention of the Democratic party 
for Congressman of the State at large, and was de- 
feated by the independent candidacy of ex-President 
Johnson, who carried just votes enough to secure the 
election of a Republican. Two years later he was ap- 



GENERAL CHEATHAM. 323 

pointed Superintendent of Prisons by his friend, Gov- 
ernor James D. Porter, and held it for four years in the 
most acceptable manner. His first act of administra- 
tion was to abolish the use of the lash, and if he had 
accomplished nothing more, this single act was enough 
to commend him to the good opinion of all humane 
people, but, with the aid of his enlightened assistants, 
he inspired the convicts to a new life by the practice 
of human and friendly acts, taught them that they 
were not entirely friendless, and made them cheerful 
and ready to perform their tasks without an overseer. 

General Cheatham is genial and affectionate and has 
troops of friends. He is modest and very unpretending. 
During the late war he never asked for promotion, and 
has never paraded his performances. If mistakes were 
made by his subordinates he was always ready to over- 
look them, and this was the defect in his character as 
a soldier. On several important occasions he was made 
to bear the burden of these mistakes, because, in the 
kindness of his heart, he would not expose their au- 
thors. When the part taken by Tennessee in the war 
is written, he will be named as her representative sol- 
dier, and none can dispute his title. 



324 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



GENERAL WILLIAM A. QUARLES. 

The subject of this sketch is a native of Virginia, 
and was born July 4, 1825. His parents settled near 
Jamestown at an early period of Virginia's history. In 
his early boyhood they came to Christian county, Ken- 
tucky. General Quarles, at this time, was five years of 
age. Availing himself of the benefit of home instruc- 
tion till 1845, he entered the University of Virginia, 
where he devoted himself to the study of law. In 
1848 he was admitted to the bar, and opening an 
office at Clarksville, Tenn., he became prominent in his 
profession. As a lawyer, he was eminently successful, 
and occupied a position among the leading lawyers of 
the State. 

He was an elector on the Pierce ticket in 1852, and 
was opposed by the Hon. John A. McEwen. In 1858 
he was a candidate for Congress on the Democratic 
ticket, and was opposed by the Hon. F. K. Zollicofter 
on the Whig ticket. In this race General Qtiarles re- 
duced the Whig majority from 1,500 to 275. The dis- 
trict being largely "Whig," General Quarles was de- 
feated. 

About this time General Quarles was .appointed 
Judge of the Circuit Court during the sickness of Judge 
W. W. Pepper, the regular incumbent. Holding this 
office for over twelve months, he modestly declined 
any of its emoluments, but allowed them to go to the 
regular incumbent. He was afterward appointed Pres- 
ident of the Memphis, Clarksville and Louisville Rail- 
road, and held this office for several years. In 1858 
he was appointed by Governor Harris to the position 
of Bank Supervisor for the State of Tennessee. He 



GENERAL QUARLES. 325 

was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention 
at Cincinnati in 1856, and at Charleston in 1860. 

At the breaking out of the war between the States 
in 1861, General Quarles tendered his services to the 
Confederate government, then at Montgomery, Ala. 
The Confederate Secretary of War urged him to re- 
main in Tennessee and induce the Tennesseans to join 
the cause of the South. He was appointed aid-de- 
camp to General S. R. Anderson, and his relations as 
Bank Supervisor made him instrumental in obtaining 
for the State about four million dollars. 

Soon afterward he was transferred from the staff of 
General Anderson and placed in command of Camp 
Cheatham, in Robertson county, Tennessee. At this 
place he organized the Forty-second Regiment Ten- 
nessee Volunteers, and was ordered with his regiment 
to Fort Donelson, participating in the first great battle 
of the West. 

On August 25, 1863, General Quarles was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general, and assigned to the command 
of a brigade which was composed of the following 
regiments: 

Forty-second Tennessee, Colonel J. M. Hulin; 
Forty-sixth Tennessee, Colonel R. A. Owens; 
Forty-eighth Tennessee (Vorheis's), Colonel William M. Vor- 

heis; 

Fourth Louisiana, Colonel S. E. Hunter; 
Forty-eighth Tennessee (Evans's), Colonel Henry Evans; 
Forty-ninth Tennessee, Colonel W. F. Young; 
Fifty-third Tennessee, Colonel J. R. White; 
Fifty-fifth Tennessee, Colonel G. B. Black; 
Thirtieth Louisiana, Colonel Thomas Shields; 
Freeman's Battery Louisiana Artillery. 

His command was engaged in the following battles: 
Fort Donelson, Tenn.; Port Hudson, La.; Jackson, 



326 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Miss.; New Hope Church, Ga. ; Pine Mountain, Ga.; 
Kennesaw Mountain, Ga. ; Smyrna Depot, Ga.; Peach 
Tree Creek, Ga; Atlanta, Ga.; Lick Skillet Road, Ga.; 
and all the battles and skirmishes of the Georgia cam- 
paign. In the last-named battle around Atlanta, Gen- 
eral Quarles fell severely wounded. His wound was 
at first thought to be fatal. Here he fell into the hands 
of that brave and good man, Bishop Quintard, who 
nursed him and cared for him until he was out of dan- 
ger. General Quarles soon rejoined his command and 
was foremost in battle. 

Quarles's brigade rendered gallant service through- 
out the Georgia campaign. At the battle of Lick Skil- 
let Road, near Atlanta, this brigade assaulted the ene- 
my's works and suffered severely. In this assault Gen- 
eral Quarles had two different horses shot from under 
him. When his first horse fell from under him, he 
was tendered another by a member of his staff. This 
second horse fell almost immediately after the General 
mounted. In this engagement Quarles's brigade suf- 
fered worse than any other troops. Its casualties in 
this action were, killed, 76; wounded, 400; missing, 
19 total, 495. 

The following were the members of General 
Quarles's staff: 

G. Thomas Cox, Captain and A. A. G., October, 1863. 

William B. Munford, A. A. A. G. 

A. F. Smith, Lieutenant and A. A. A. G. 

Stephen A. Cowlev Captain and A. I. G., September, 1863. 

Thomas L. Bransford, Captain and Ordnance Officer, 1863. 

Captain Shute, A. D. C. 

Ashton Johnson, Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1863. 

Polk G. Johnson, Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1863. 

Clarence Quarles, Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1863. 

George S. Atkins, Major and A. Q^ M., 1863. 



GENERAL QUARLES. 327 

G. L. Harris. Captain and A. A. C. S., 1863. 

J. Q^ Thomas, Major and A. C. S., 1863. 

W. R. Poindexter, Captain and A. A. C. S., 1863. 

Dr. Thomas Westmoreland, Surgeon, 1863. 

Dr. Jackson, Assistant Surgeon, 1863. 

Dr. R. S. Napier, Assistant Surgeon. 

Of this number. Captain Ashton Johnson was killed 
at Lick Skillet Road, Ga.; Captains W. B. Munford 
and Stephen A. Cowley were killed at Franklin, 
Tenn.; Colonel Bransford and Captain Shute survived 
the war, though death took them for his own shortly 
after the close of the struggle. Colonel Polk G.John- 
son is at present the only surviving member of Gen- 
eral Quarles's staff. He resides at Clarksville, Tenn., 
and is a lawyer of prominence. 

At the battle of Franklin, General Quarles received a 
severe wound, from which he did not recover for a 
long time after the close of the war. Upon his recov- 
ery, he resumed the practice of law at Clarksville, 
where he at present resides. He represented the coun- 
ties of Robertson, Montgomery, and Stewart in the 
State Senate in 1875. ^ e represented his State in the 
Democratic National Convention in 1880, and also in 
1884. 

QUARLES'S BRIGADE. 

The following is from the pen of General Quarles, in 
answer to an inquiry in reference to the history of his 
brigade: 

Limited as this communication must be, it will be 
impossible for the writer, to do justice to this noble 
brigade. What we will say will be the rough sketch 
of the picture rather than a real and life-like portrait- 
ure of the service it performed. The space will ad- 



328 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

mit of a mere summary of events, and will necessarily 
exclude those details so necessary and so important to 
give grace and soul and a life hereafter to the story of 
the chronicler. 

When I claim for this brigade a position in the front 
rank of the soldiers of the South as I shall with per- 
fect confidence claim indeed, when it is claimed that 
it was one of the best, if not the best, brigade in the 
service, I trust it will be understood I make no invid- 
ious distinctions, or, in fact, any claim of superior 
merit; but the excellence of its soldiery was the result, 
partly accidental arising from inferior opportunity, and 
partly, it is but just to say, to the first-rate material of 
which it was composed; for every soldier in its ranks, 
and every officer having command, was a volunteer. 
Its muster rolls have the names of but five conscripts 
on their pages. They rallied to their flag because hon- 
estly and earnestly they believed the struggle they were 
about to make, and did make, was not to dissolve, but 
to preserve, the Union a common birthright inherited 
from revolutionary ancestors a union of co-equal sov- 
. ereignties, with a constitution of government of equal 
rights and equal obligations, and each of these sover- 
eignties, it was believed, was equally bound^in propor- 
tion to the relative strength of each, to preserve, guard, 
and obey the laws of the Federal government within 
the limits of its constitutional provisions. 

To do full justice to the regiments composing this 
brigade the services of each should be given before it 
became a part of the brigade organization. Each reg- 
iment and the battery (Yates') attached to it, had won 
honorable distinction in hard-fought battles before it 
became a part of Quarles's brigade. But this detail of 
service must necessarily be left to the future chronicler 



GENERAL QUARLES. 329 

of each component part when its history is written. 
At Shiloh, at Donelson, at Island No. Ten, and others, 
they had had their baptism of fire, and even though 
but a few weeks before, at their quiet homes in the 
pursuit of a peaceful life, they had exhibited that stead- 
iness of courage in resisting, and- readiness and vigor 
in making, attacks, for which they afterward became 
so well known in the Army of Tennessee. Indeed, 
upon the occasion of an application for one or more 
regiments to act as a support and reserve for this bri- 
gade, which, as it happened, was holding the most im- 
portant, and, at the same time the weakest, part of the 
line, General Hood, then in command of the army, said 
in reply: "No, sir. It is unnecessary. Quarles's bri- 
gade has never lost a picket line. I will be responsi- 
ble that that portion of the line will be held." And it 
is with proud satisfaction that I here say that this just 
and deserved compliment was equally as applicable to' 
the brigade to the end of the war. They never lost a 
picket line, or gave way to the enemy, until ordered 
by their officer, it mattered not what the condition of 
things or what the superiority of numbers. Hood, " the 
bravest of the brave," was chary of compliments, but 
when he believed it was deserved, and the time came 
to speak, he was ever ready to bear willing tribute of 
praise. The old soldier who has himself had the ex- 
perience of the varying fortunes of war, will well un- 
derstand the high measure of praise this language im- 
parts, and will be ready to look leniently upon the 
pride and profound gratification with which I who 
owe so much to this noble brigade, and who even to 
this day can number every individual, both men and 
officers, among my dearest and warmest personal 
friends repeat this so fully-merited compliment. But 



330 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

I am admonished by my fast-increasing lines that I 
must forbear, hoping at some future time and occasion 
to do justice to the unexcelled courage, conduct, and 
merits of the men and officers, inclusive, of the whole, 
both field and staff, whose enduring courage and un- 
complaining fortitude under such privations and hard- 
ships as neither the retreat from Moscow nor that of 
our Revolutionary army to and at the camp of Valley 
Forge can furnish parallels and even mark and num- 
ber these soldiers along with those of whom it may be 
said: They may have had their equals; they have never 
been excelled. 

I cannot close this article without a word of acknowl- 
edgment and deserved tribute to my staff, composed 
mainly of young and unmarried men. When it be- 
came my duty, as it often did, to send them into the 
very jaws of death, I had at least the poor satisfaction 
'of knowing that if any casualty occurred there would 
be no widows' tears or orphans' cries to be heard. 
Their faithful and uncomplaining service, their amiable 
accomplishments in camp, their high and honorable 
characters, their unflinching courage on the battle-field, 
and always ready hand to aid in soothing the wounded 
or ministering to the sick, made them not only the ad- 
miration of all who knew them, but dear to me as if 
they had been the children of my own loins. Alas ! 
how sadly I write these lines, a poor tribute to my 
noble boys, now that twenty years have passed away, 
and along with it so many of them. But one remains 
on earth of my personal staff Polk G. Johnson. At 
the time I appointed him my aid-de-camp though the 
position was one of importance he was but a beard- 
less boy in his teens. His conduct did not disappoint 
my expectations. Faithful in the discharge of every 



GENERAL QUARLES. 331 

duty, he was gifted with a versatility that rendered 
him most useful in taking the place, as he often did, of 
other staff* officers, who, from sickness, wounds, or 
other casualties, were unfit for service. As assistant 
inspector-general, assistant adjutant-general, etc., or in 
his own official position, he was to me invaluable, obe- 
dient to his superiors, polite and affable to and with 
the men always ready to get between them and the 
harsh applications of military rule he tempered dis- 
cipline with kindness. Cheerful and happy in tem- 
perament, he aided greatly in making the dull routine 
of camp life enjoyable, and never shrank from sharing 
the hardships or doing his part of the labor of the 
march and the bivouac. But it was in the battle 
when the pickets had fallen back and the lines met, or 
when the column of attack, with firm and silent march, 
met the death-bearing storm of battle shot and shell 
that he proved himself "every inch a soldier." 

I had read in classic literature of the " guardia cer- 
tameries" (the joy of the contest), but never realized 
it till I saw him in battle where death and glory stood 
hand in hand ready to be wooed and won by the dar- 
ing and the brave. . . . But my boy aid-de-camp of 
the glorious hours my subject arouses my memory to 
recall, is now the man of forty years, as true, as faith- 
ful, as ready to do every duty of civil life as of that 
hour, beloved and respected by all. He fills an office 
of great importance and trust* with honor to himself 
and satisfaction to those having business with his office 
and its court. 

* Clerk and Master of Chancery Court, at Clarksville, Tenn. 



33 2 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



FIFTIETH REGIMENT TENNESSEE VOLUN- 
TEERS. 

This regiment was made up from the counties of 
Montgomery, Stewart, Cheatham. Humphreys, and 
Robertson, and a company from Jackson county, Ala. 

At the organization of the regiment, Colonel Stacker 
was elected colonel, but resigning on the eve of the 
battle of Fort Henry, Lieutenant-colonel C. A. Sugg 
was 'made commander of the regiment with the rank 
of colonel, which position he filled with distinction. 
This regiment was surrendered at Fort Donelson. 

During all the spring and summer of 1862 the regi- 
ment lay in prison. At last, on September 5, the men 
left Camp Douglas for Vicksburg, Mississippi, to be 
exchanged (the company officers had left Johnson Isl- 
and four days earlier on the ist), and on September 
17 they were exchanged officers and men and once 
more trod the soil of the Confederacy. 

On the ipth they were ordered to Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, and there, on the 29th, the regiment was reor- 
ganized. The company officers were as follows: 

Company A, Captain W. C. Allen, Montgomery county. 
Company B, Captain George W. Pease, Kentucky. 
Company C, Captain Reed Jackson, Alabama. 
Company D, Captain Sam. Graham, Stewart county. 
Company E, Captain T. E. Mallory, Montgomery county. 
Company F, Captain James Dunn, Stewart county. 
Company G, Captain Sam. Mays, Cheatham county. 
Company H, Captain E. Sexton, Stewart county. 
Company I, Captain Sam. Allen, Stewart county. 
Company K, Captain Curtis, Humphreys county. 

On the 24th, an election was held for regimental of- 
ficers. Colonel Cyrus A. Sugg was elected Colonel; 



COLONEL SUGG. 333 

T. W. Beaumont, Lieutenant-colonel; and Christopher 
W. Henderson, Major. Lieutenant Williams, of Com- 
pany H, was appointed Adjutant; J. B. Sugg, Quar- 
termaster; John L. W. Power, Commissary; W. G. 
Turin, Sergeant-major; and Cave Morris, Ordinance 
Sergeant. Dr. R. D. McCauley was Surgeon. 

Brigadier-general Tighlman being in command of 
the exchanged soldiers at Jackson, organized a brigade 
for himself composed of the Seventh Texas, Third, 
Tenth, Thirtieth, Forty-first, and Fiftieth Tennessee 

Regiments, and the First Tennessee Battalion, with 

& ' ' 

Bledsoe's First Missouri Battery. 

The regiment remained at Jackson, and in that vi- 
cinity, until October 8, and was then sent by rail to 
Corinth to reinforce General Van Dorn. Met that of- 
ficer's command at Holly Springs, to which place he 
had fallen back from Corinth. On November 5, the 
Federals still advancing, the command fell back to Ab- 
beyville, Mississippi, and thence to Grenada, where it 
remained two or three weeks. 

While at Grenada the small-pox broke out. There 
were seventeen cases, but no deaths. Dr. McCauley 
having resigned, Dr. R. G. Rothrock, now of Nash- 
ville, was ordered by the War Department to report to 
Colonel Sugg as surgeon. 

Here Colonel Gregg, of the Seventh Texas, was made 
brigadier-general, and ordered to take command of this 
brigade, which he did, and commanded until being 
wounded at Chickamauga. Colonel Sugg, of the Fif- 
tieth Tennessee, commanded the brigade during most 
of the retreat. 

On December 24, the whole command was reviewed 
byJefFerson Davis and General Joseph E.Johnston, 
and on Christmas-day the regiment left for Vicksburg, 



334 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

and at Chickasavv Bayou, on the 28th, a sharp fight was 
had with the Federals under General Sherman, and 
the enemy driven back to their gun-boats. On January 
5, 1863, the brigade, under command of General Gregg, 
was ordered to Port Hudson. On March 14, at night, 
occurred the terrific bombardment, during which two 
of the enemy's gun-boats passed up theriver, getting 
between Vicksburg and Port Hudson. The night was 
dark, but the heavens were lit up with the bursting 
shells. " It looked," said one of the men, " like the 
world on fire judgment-day can't beat it." 

On May 2, the brigade left Port Hudson, marching 
on foot, for Jackson, Miss. Reached Jackson on the 
9th, and marched out next day to Raymond, twelve 
miles. There, on May 12, fought the eflemy five hours; 
Gregg's brigade of only twenty- five hundred held in 
check ten thousand Federals. 

Here General Gregg was deceived by his scouts as 
to the strength of the enemy. He entered the fight 
under the impression that he could capture the whole 
command. The Fiftieth Tennessee being on the left 
of the brigade was detached and ordered to charge to 
the rear of battery, but was confronted bv a heavy 
line. After the fight began it was discovered by an 
officer of the skirmish line that a heavy column of the 
enemy was in double-quick to the left, doubtless with 
the intention of getting in the rear of the Confed- 
erates. Lieutenant-colonel Beaumont being in com- 
mand (Col. Sugg being absent on furlough), ordered a 
retreat, and by skillful maneuvering to the left suc- 
ceeded in covering this movement and holding it in 
check, by moving back and charging the enemy. 

Colonel T. W. Beaumont commanded the Fiftieth 
Tennessee. He was wounded in the head and knocked 



COLONIAL SUGG. 335 

down; two men sprang from the ranks to take him up, 
but he rose himself, ordered them back into line, and 
resumed command of the regiment. At this most op- 
portune moment, Dr. Rothrock, having been where he 
could discover a flank movement of the Federals, and 
that the Confederates had yielded the field, reached 
Colonel Beaumont, who was bleeding profusely, and, 
having dressed his wound quickly, informed him of the 
situation. Beaumont then withdrew to the road and 
fell back in good order to Raymond, where he over- 
took the other regiments of the brigade. So hard 
fought was the battle that General McPherson with 
his whole corps did not pursue. The Confederate 
wounded who were left at Raymond stated that they 
were not believed when they told the Federals that the 
Confederates in the fight amounted to but one brigade. 
At Mississippi Springs the brigade was reinforced by 
Walker's and Gist's brigades. The Fiftieth Tennessee 
was stationed on the road to hold the enemy in check 
until the other troops, with stores, could pass out truly 
a post of danger and a post of honor. The Confed- 
erates were forced back into Jackson, and on the I4th 
fell back from Jackson to Canton, Miss. On June i the 
regiment moved to Yazoo City, on the I3th to Mound 
Bluff Church, and remained there until July i; on that 
day broke camp and marched to Big Black river to get 
in the rear of General Grant, who was besieging Vicks- 
burg. 

On the night of the 3d we had orders to cook three 
days' rations, and be ready to move by 2 o'clock in the 
morning to cross the river to attack Grant and deliver 
Pemberton and his troops; but before the hour to 
march, General Joseph E. Johnston, who was in com- 
mand of the three brigades, heard of the surrender 



336 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

of Vicksburg, which, though negotiated on the 3d, was 
not promulgated till the 4th. Johnston withdrew in the 
direction of Meridian. With such quietness was the 
evacuation performed that the Federals were not aware 
until the next day was well spent that the rebels were 
gone. The regiment suffered the loss of a number of 
men killed and wounded. While in earthworks the 
men suffered greatly from heat and want of water; as, 
in fact, they did in this whole campaign, from the time 
of leaving Port Hudson. General Grant seemed satis- 
fied as to what had been accomplished and fell back to 
Vicksburg, and Gregg's brigade was sent to Enterprise 
to recruit. 

On the morning of the ^th, learned of the surrender 
of Vicksburg, and again fell back toward Jackson, 
Miss. Reached Jackson on the yth, and remained in 
the rifle-pits skirmishing with the enemy until the i6th, 
then left at night for Enterprise. * 

At Jackson, Major Robertson, of the Fiftieth Ten- 
nessee, in command of the skirmish line, was compli- 
mented by General Joseph E. Johnston in an official 
order, published in 'all the papers. 

In September, 1863, the command was sent by rail 
to join Bragg in North Georgia. At Big Shanty, near 
Cartersville, Ga., there was a collision * in which thir- 
teen men of the Fiftieth Tennessee were killed and 
seventy-five wounded. Captain T. E. Mallory, of 
Company E, was dangerously, and it was for a long 
time thought fatally, wounded in this collision. 

On September 18, the regiment reached Bragg's 
army on the eve of the great battle of Chickamauga 

* This collision of the cars was at Allatoona Pass, the casualties 
of which were about one hundred and fifty killed and wounded. 



GENERAL SUGG. 337 

and the next morning went into the fight. It was 
nearly annihilated. 

The regiment skirmished all day of the iSth. In the 
evening the enemy made a determined resistance at 
Chickamauga bridge. About dark the main line was 
encountered. The men slept on their arms during the 
night. On the morning of the i9th, Gregg was in the 
front line with the Fiftieth Tennessee on his left, which 
was on the left of Bragg's line. General Gregg was 
wounded during Saturday's fight, and Colonel Sugg 
was placed in command of the brigade. Lieutenant- 
colonel Beaumont was killed. Major Robertson was 
placed in command of the regiment. Colonel Sugg 
received four wounds, but continued in command all 
day. 

On Sunday morning a brigade of South Carolina 
troops took position in front of Gregg's brigade and 
was immediately fired upon from a dense pine thicket. 
Colonel Sugg hurried to their relief. The men raised 
a yell, and with a gallant charge dislodged the enemy 
and drove them to their main line. 

During the remainder of September 20, the fight 
was in an open field. In the evening the enemy posted 
on a ridge a battery of ten guns, with heavy support. 
A stubborn fight raged on this part of the line, and 
the enemy was finally routed, and the guns captured 
and turned upon them. The Fiftieth Tennessee had 
been drilled in artillery, and were ordered to work 
the captured guns. The enemy made one more halt, 
but were soon dislodged, and the battle was over. 

The captured guns, manned by members of the Fif- 
tieth Tennessee, together with Bledsoe's battery, did 
valiant service. On September 22, the regiment, with 
99 



338 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

its brigade, was ordered in the direction of Chatta- 
nooga, and went into camp near Lookout Mountain. 

In the battle of Chickamauga General Gregg com- 
manded the brigade until he was wounded, and Col- 
onel Sugg then took command. The gallant Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Tom Beaumont was killed, and Major 
Christopher W. Robertson fell mortally wounded. He 
was in the twenty-third year of his age. A letter from 
Colonel Sugg, written October 10, 1863, three weeks 
after the battle, says: " I occupied the left of the bri- 
gade; the troops on my left failed to support me, and I 
had to sacrifice my regiment, or let the brigade be cap- 
tured or cut to pieces. The enemy bore down on our 
left; the regiment stood like heroes, though the killed 
and wounded were dropping on every side. We held 
them in check until assistance came, and then, with re- 
inforcements, drove them from the field. We were in 
it three hours; one hundred and eighty-six went into 
the fight; fifty-four only came out. Colonel Beaumont 
and Major Robertson killed; Major S. H. Colms 
severely wounded; Captain Williams killed; Lieuten- 
ants Hayes and Whittey killed; Lieutenant White will 
probably die; Captains Pease and Sexton wounded; 
Lieutenant Holmes Wilson severely wounded; Lieu- 
tenant Wheatley wounded, and a host of men among 
them, Sam and George Dunn and George Hornberger; 
John Crunk killed; Isbell missing; John Benton, Billy 
Boiseau, George Warfield, George Hornberger, Bob 
McReynolds, John Willoughby, Holt, and Franklin, 
were wounded. Many others were killed and wound- 
ed, whose names I cannot recall to mind." 

This is the dreadful tale from the pen of the colonel 
of the regiment, who was destined himself to lose his 
life in the next general engagement. 



COLONEL SUGG. 339 

The Captain Williams here spoken of as killed was 
Adjutant Williams, who, at Mound Bluff Church, in 
June preceding, had been promoted Captain of Com- 
pany D. Fletcher Beaumont, a brother of Lieutenant- 
colonel Tom Beaumont, had been appointed adjutant 
in his stead. 

Major Colms, mentioned as wounded, was Maj. S. 
H. Colms, the commander of Colms's Tennessee bat- 
talion, which went into the battle of Chickamauga 
with the Fiftieth Tennessee, and was afterward con- 
solidated with the regiment. 

Here Gregg's brigade was dismembered, and Sugg 
was ordered to report with his regiment to General 
Maney. The Fiftieth Tennessee now became a part 
of Cheatham's division, until the last reorganization in 
North Carolina on the eve of the final surrender. 

At Missionary Ridge, General Cleburne had repulsed 
several attacks made by the enemy on a part of his 
line. Maney's brigade had been held in reserve all 
day, and in the evening had been ordered to report to 
General Cleburne, who placed the brigade to the relief 
of this part of the line. 

When the brigade arrived, the Fiftieth Tennessee 
was ordered by General Maney to attack the enemy 
and charge their works. The charge was made and 
the enemy was driven down the mountain. This feat 
was exacted of the Fiftieth Tennessee, it was said, to 
gratify the curiosity of the commander, who wanted 
to see how they would ' stand the racket," as they had 
but recently been attached to Maney's brigade. The 
regiment did its work nobly and to the satisfaction of 
the commander. It had stood the test nobly in this 
instance, as it had on all former fields, though at a fear- 
ful loss of life. Here the gallant Colonel Sugg, Colo- 



340 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

nel Beaumont, Captain Mays, and many others, went 
down, some to death and others so disabled as to be 
unfit for further duty during the war. 

On the left the Confederates had been driven to the 
top of the ridge and routed, though Maney held his 
position till ten o'clock at night, and then withdrew in 
perfect order. On the following day his brigade cov- 
ered the retreat. The rear was pressed severely by 
the enemy. At Cat Creek the Forty-first and Fiftieth 
Regiments were halted and formed in line to receive 
the attack of the enemy. Colonel Farquaharson, of 
the Forty-first Tennessee was in command of the de- 
tachment. When he discovered the superiority of the 
advancing lines, and that his flanks were uncovered to- 
such an extent that to be attacked here would result in 
defeat and disaster, he quietly fell back to the reserve 
line. Here the Federals came up in force and received 
a severe chastisement at the hands of the Confederates, 
Under cover of the night, the Confederates withdrew 
in the direction of Ringgold, and thence to Dalton. 

The Confederates went into winter quarters at Dal- 
ton. The Fiftieth Tennessee was stationed at Tilton, 
between Resaca and Dalton. This was done t the 
request of some of the citizens, who knew many of the 
officers and men of the regiment. 

While here the Fiftieth Tennessee and Colms's Bat- 
talion were permanently consolidated. During the 
winter the regiment was sent to Meridian, Miss., to re- 
enforce the Confederates against Grant, who seemed 
to be moving upon Demopolis. Grant having returned 
to Vicksburg, the re-enforcements were returned to 
Dalton. 

During the following May the Georgia campaign 
opened at Rocky Face Ridge, in front of Dalton, and 



COLONEL SUGG. 341 

about the middle of the month was fought the battle 
of Resaca. 

During the winter preceding the Georgia campaign 
the soldiers in all the regiments had cultivated the ac- 
quaintance of the people in the surrounding country, 
and among the young men, Dalton and vicinity had 
quite a social life. Social gatherings were not un- 
frequent, and occasionally a ball or old-fashioned 
'"shin-dig'" was gotten vip in the vicinity of the en- 
campment. When the spring campaign opened it 
had the withering effect of frustrating many con- 
genial associations. , Many of the boys had found 
sweethearts meanwhile, and a few had become par- 
tially oblivious of the pledges they had loft at home. 
Every boy had a "gal" in the rural districts somewhere, 
who would wash and mend his clothing, and bestow 
various pledges of devotion and constancy, for which 
the boy would devote in exchange his surplus of sugar 
and rice and such other articles as were scarce in the 
Confederacy. When the campaign opened, reams of 
Confederate paper were written and interchanged. 
The boys would send a parting message to the girls, 
-and the girls would respond in eloquent, patriotic 
strains sometimes stimulating to valor, and at other 
times in wailing tones of sympathy for the soldier's 
hard lot. Occasionally the muses would be called up 
when they were not in shape for company, but it was 
a day of emergencies. The boys would wear the lines 
received nearest their hearts. Among the various in- 
spirations, the following was received by a young 
soldier from his "gal:" 

o 

" "Pis hard for jou'uns to fight the Yanks, 
'Tis hard for you'uns to live in camps; 
'Tis hard for jou'uns and we'uns to part, 
For jou'uns have done got we'uns' heart." 



34 2 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

The boys with their pockets full of this and similar 
sentiment, met the "Yanks" at Rocky Face Ridge and 
stood their ground nobly. In a few days the army re- 
treated to Resaca. 

In the neighborhood of Resaca was the residence of 
Judge Green, a prominent and wealthy gentleman of 
Savannah. Judge Green had an interesting family^ 
including two beautiful and accomplished daughters. 
Adjutant Childress and Lieutenant-colonel Pease had 
become acquainted with this family while encamped 
at Tilton, and were invited to visit them on the even- 
ing of May 14, to eat strawberries. The gallant 
young officers accepted the invitation, pledging them- 
selves to b on time, but forgetting the proviso that 
Johnston and Sherman had an entertainment that 
was liable to come oft' the same day. The young 
gentlemen appeared at the house prompt to time, but 
under adverse circumstances. Their brigade had been 
ordered to attack the Federal left, and passed through 
Judge Green's yard in line of battle. As the Fiftieth 
Tennessee passed through the strawberry patch in line 
of battle, at a double-quick, Adjutant Childress could 
not forget his appointment, but stooped down hurriedly 
and plucked a few strawberries on the run, which he 
ate as his regiment was going into the fight. The 
battle was severe, and among the wounded was the 
surgeon of the regiment an unusual occurrence in 
the army. The strawberry festival was indefinitely 
postponed. 

The campaign now thickened and was one daily 
round of battles and skirmishes, in all of which the 
Fiftieth Tennessee bore a prominent part at Dead 
Angle or Devil's Elbow, on the Kennesaw line, and 
all the battles around Atlanta. In the Tennessee-cam- 



COLONEL YOUNG. 343 

paign it bore a conspicuous part. This regiment was 
in all the battles in which Ch'eatham's division was en- 
gaged, and in every instance proved itself the equal 
of any regiment in the service. 

At the last reorganization, on the eve of the surren- 
der, about, forty skeleton Tennessee regiments were 
consolidated into one brigade of four regiments. In 
this the old Fiftieth Tennessee lost its identity. It 
made one company of the Second Regiment, and the 
adjutant, J. W. Child ress, now of Nashville, was placed 
in command as captain. The field officers of the con- 
solidated regiment were: O. A. Bradshaw, Colonel, 
formerly of the Fourth Tennessee; Lieutenant-colonel 
G. W. Pease, of the Fiftieth, was Major;, and Dr. R. 
G. Rothrock, of the Fiftieth, was Assistant Surgeon. 

A few days afterward the whole army was surren- 
dered, when the survivors of the Fiftieth Tennessee 
returned to their homes and donned the habiliments 
of peace. 



COLONEL WILLIAM F. YOUNG, FORTY- 
NINTH TENNESSEE REGIMENT. 

This gallant officer entered the service as captain of 
Company G, Forty-ninth Tennessee Infantry, at the 
beginning of the war. The regiment was composed 
of the following companies: 

Company A, Montgomery county, Captain James E. Bailey. 
Company B, Dickson county, Captain T. K. Grigsby. 
Company C, Robertson county, Captain W. V. Fyke. 
Company D, Dickson county. Captain J. B. Cording. 
Company E, Montgomery county, Captain J. M. Peacher. 
Company F, Montgomery county. Captain D. A. Lynn. 
Company G, Montgomery county, Captain William F. Young. 



344 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Company H, Montgomery county. Captain Pugh Havnes. 
Company I, Benton county. Captain T. A. Napier. 
Company K, Cheatham county. Captain William Shaw. 

At the organization of the regiment the field officers 
were as follows: 

JAMES E. BAILEY, Colonel; 

ALFRED ROBB, Lieutenant-colonel; 

D. A. LYNX, Major; 

R. E. DOUGLAS, Adjutant; 

Dr. W. B. WILLIAMS, Surgeon. 

The regiment was engaged in the battle of Fort 
Donelson, where Lieutenant-colonel Robb was mor- 
tally wounded. The regiment was surrendered at Fort 
Donelson, February 16, 1862. The field officers were 
sent to Fort Warren, the company officers to Johnson's 
Island, and the privates to Camp Douglas. The regi- 
ment was exchanged at Vicksburg, September 17, 
1862. The officers met the men at this point, having 
been exchanged at City Point, Va. The regiment was 
reorganized and entered the campaign of North Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana. 

The Forty-ninth Regiment was a part of Quarles's 
brigade. Captain Young was afterward promoted to 
the command of the Forty-ninth Tennessee, with the 
rank of colonel. Concerning the merits of this officer, 
we have the following from the pen of Polk G. John- 
son, Esq., of Clarksville, Tenn. : 

"This brave and gallant Confederate soldier lost an 
arm at Atlanta, in the battle of Lick Skillet Road, July 
28, 1864, and had a minnie ball embedded in his large 
watch over his heart. His regiment suffered terribly. 
A ball passed through the flag-staff and thirty-two 
minnie balls through his flag, and over one half were 



COLONEL YOUNG. 345 

killed or wounded. While being carried from the field 
two men carrying him Captain Dunlap, of Dickson 
county, Tenn., and the other whose name I have for- 
gotten were killed. The writer buried Captain Dun- 
lap the next day, with Lieutenant Ashton Johnson, of 
Quarles's staff. 

"A humble .man, whose parents came from Vir- 
ginia, he was born in Bowling Green, Ky., March 26, 
1830, and moved to Montgomery county, Tenn., in 
1832; and from his early youth he engaged in farm- 
ing plowing the fields with his own hands and gath- 
ering at the harvest-time. Thus his life was spent 
until called to the war in 1861. 

" His good parents, of whom he is justly proud, taught 
him to believe in God and to discharge his duty always 
faithfully. He did not forget this teaching, and in all 
his relations to family, Church, and State, he has been 
true. 

"He was among the first to respond to his country^ 
call in 1861, and among the last to leave it after 'its 
banner had been furled.' He took part with his regi- 
ment in the battle of Fort Donelson, shared their 
prison life, and was with them ever afterward, except 
when confined in the hospital from the loss of his right 
arm at Atlanta. 

"He began his military career as a private soldier in 
Company G, of the Forty-ninth Tennessee; was elected 
captain of his company at its organization, and ordered 
to Fort Donelson. Here this regiment was organized, 
with James E. Bailey, of Clarksville, as colonel, and 
Alfred Robb, of Clarksville, as lieutenant-colonel, and 
the other necessary officers. 

"The subject of our short sketch afterward was pro- 
moted to the colonelcy of the regiment, and has ever 



34 6 



SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



retained the confidence and respect of both olricers 
and men of his command. 

"After the war he continued his old occupation of 
farming, and added thereto school-teaching, being un- 
able to do manual labor, which he followed until 1870, 
when he engaged in the business of auctioneering, and 
has followed it since. He is a member of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church, and an honest and faith- 
ful Christian." 

The following are the muster rolls and casualty re- 
port of a portion of the companies of the Forty-ninth 

Tennessee: 

COMPANY A. 

OFFICERS. 

J. E. Bailey, Captain. L. W. Bourne, Fourth Sergeant. 

T. M. Atkins, First Lieutenant. M. W. Wisdom, Fiftli Sergeant. 

R. A. Wilson, Second Lieutenant. Stephen Pettus, First Corporal. 
W. H. Burgess, Third Lieutenant. Win. Adwell, Second Corporal. 
A. F. Smith, First Sergeant. C. H. Ricou, Third Corporal. 

John B. Johnson, Second Sergeant. Win. McKeage, Fourth Corporal. 
Robert Bringhurst, Third Sergeant. 

PRIVATES. 

Q. C. Atkinson. Cave J. Clark. 

J. C. Anderson. (ieorge Chisenhall. 

B. F. Buck. John Dolon. 
G. W. Buck. Janies Davis. 
J. M. Buck. J. P. Damron. 
G. E. Brgess. F. M. Drake. 
Fletcher Beaumont, S. R. Cooke. 
Frank Bell. W. D. Eminizer. 
J. W. Bourne. J. B. Edlin. 

J. D. Broomfield. George Elliott. 

J. D. Booth. J. W. Ferkin. 

Montgomery Bell. Thomas Finley. 

C. D. Bailey. J. R. Fletcher. 
R. T. Coulter. ?. T. Farley. 
C. H. Bailey. R. C. Goostree. 
L. R. Clark. Daniel Gold. 
L. R. Cooper. L. T. Gold. 

C. R. Cooper. Granville Grimes. 

W. C. Cooper. J. A. Hutchinson. 

Thomas Coulter. R. J. Haskins. 

James Clark. S. Hackney. 

W. J. Camel). \Vm. Harris 



COLONEL YOUNG. 



John Harris. 
Robert Harris. 
James Harris. 
Watson Hibbs. 

F. E. Heatherington. 
W. T. Hargrave. 

J. W. Helm. 
J. G. Hoskins. 
R. G. Halliday. 
Polk G. Johnson. 
J. S. Jarrell. 
Matt. Leggett. 
Charles Loftland. 
C. M. Lewis. 

G. W. Leigh, Jr. 
H. G. Marklin. 
T. F. McCallister. 
James McCarter. 
John McCarter. 
Milton Mise. 

B. McCormack. 
Robert Mellon. 
John Mellon. 
Walker Manson. 
John McCiintock. 

C. P. Moore. 
W. B. Munford. 
Benjamin McGhee. 
W. H. Neblett. 

R. H. Neal. 
John Orgain. 
B. D. Orgain. 



Wm. M. Orgain. 
J. W. Oglesby. 
John O'Brien. 
J. L. Pendergast. 
Robert Poole. 
Thomas Pearson. 
Paris Peter. 
W. H. Powell. 
W. R. Poindexter. 
Cave J. Rigging. 
Alfred Robb. 
Henry Ring. 
Alfred Simpson. 
Henry Simpson. 
Charles Shanklin. 
Thomas H. Smith. 
G. R. Smith. 
D. W. Scott. 
J. W. Smith. 
W. H. Turnley. 
C. L. Thomas. 
W. N. Trice. - 
John^Taylor. 
Nathan Vick. 
James Wells. 
T. W. Walthal. 
B. F. White. 
Albert Walthal. 
B. W. Waller. 
G. S. Williams. 
Polk Wilcox. 



KILLED. 



J. C. Anderson, Fort Donelson. J. S. Jarrell, Franklin. 

Robert Bringhurst, Franklin. Matt. Leggett, Lick Skillet Road, At- 

Fletcher Beaumont, Missionary Ridge. lanta. 

Montgomery Bell, Franklin. Wm. B. Munford, Franklin. 

S. R. Cooke, Franklin. Alfred Robb, Fort Donelson. 

George Elliott, Nashville. Nathan Vick, Franklin. 

John T. Farley, Fort Do-nelson. Polk Wilcox, Franklin. 

R. C. Goostree, Lick Skillet Road, At- R. T. Coulter, Franklin, 
lanta. R. G. Halliday, Franklin. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 

C. H. Ricou, Port Hudson, La., 1863. James A. Hutchinson, 1862. 
B. F. Buck, in prison. Robert J. Haskins, Chicago, in prison, 

Frank Bell, place of death unknown. 1SU2. 

J. D. Booth, Port Hudson, La , 1862. Stephen Hackney, Chicago, in prison, 
John P. Damron, Fort Donelson, 1862. 1862. 



348 



SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



Wm. Harris, at home, 1862. (i. W. Leigh, Jr., Atlanta, 1864. 

John Harris, at home, 1862. John W. McClintock, Miss , just before 

Robert Harris, at home, 1862. close of war. 

James Harris, at home, 1862. John Orgain, time and place unknown. 

F. E. Heatherington, Clinton, Miss., B. D. Orgain, Camp Douglas, 1862. 
1862. B. F. White, Camp Douglas, 1863. 

J. W. Helm, Port Hudson, La., 1863. 

WOUNDED. 

Lewis R. Clark, Jonesboro, Ga. John L. Pendergast, four times, once 

Wm. C. Cooper, Franklin. very severely. 

W. D. Emiuizer, Kennesaw Mountain. Robert Poole, Atlanta. 
John B. Edlin, Kennesaw Mountain. Lewis T. Gold, Franklin. 
J. G. Hoskins, Jackson, Miss. Charles Shanklin, Atlanta. 

Polk G. Johnson, Atlanta. Thomas H. Smith, Franklin. 

Charles Loftland, Fort Donelson and G. R. Smith, Atlanta. 

Shiloh. A. F. Smith, North Carolina. 

Walker Manson, Franklin. John Taylor, Fort Donelson. 

Charles P. Moore, Atlanta. C. H. Bailey, Atlanta and Franklin. 

PROMOTED. 

James E. Bailey, Colonel. George Elliott, Lieut. Company H. 

Thomas M. Atkins, Lieut. -colonel. R. C. Goostree, Lieut. 
Robert A. Wilson, Captain. Lewis T. Gold, Lieut. 

A. F. Smith, General WalthaH's staff. Polk G. Johnson, Lieut., and A. D. C. 
John B. Johnson, Captain, and A. C. General Quarles. 

8. Tenth Tennessee. Walker Manson, Lieut. Company G. 

Robert Bringhurst, Adjutant. John L. Pendergast, Capt. Tenth Tenn. 

Fletcher Beaumont, Adjutant Fiftieth Robert Poole, Lieut Thirtieth Tenn. 

Tennessee. W. R. Poindexter, Captain and A. Q. M. 

Charles D. Bailey, Captain and A. C. S. Alfred Robb, Lieut. -colonel. 
R. T. Coulter, Captain Company G. Thomas H. Smith, Captain Company H. 
Lewis R. Clark, Captain Tenth Tenn. John O'Brien, Ordnance Officer. 
Charles R. Cooper, Lieut. 

The company was in fifteen battles, to wit: Fort 
Donelson, Port Hudson, La.; Jackson, Miss.; New 
Hope Church, Ga. ; Pine Mountain, Ga. ; Kennesaw 
Mountain, Ga. ; Smyrna Depot, Ga. ; Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Ga.; Lick Skillet Road, Atlanta, Ga.; Frank- 
lin, Tenn.; Nashville, Tenn.; south of Lynnville; An- 
thony's Hill; Sugar Creek; Bentonville, N. C.; and in 
a great many skirmishes. 



COLONEL YOUNG. 



349 



COMPANY C. 



M. V. Fyke, Captain. 

T. J. Morris, First Lieutenant. 

H. V. Harrison, Second Lieutenant. 

M. J. Draughan, Third Lieutenant. 

James P. Ownly, First Sergeant. 

W. E. Maurey, Second Sergeant. 

Harry Pepper, Third Sergeant. 

PRIVATES. 
W. H. Banks. 
J. A. Brigg. 
E. H. Bibb. 
Charles Campbell. 
James Cannon. 
T. B. Dalton. 
J. W. Dozier. 
J. B. Doss. 
E. H. Gallaher. 
J. W. Grimes. 
B. S. Holeman. 
Thomas Higgs. 
R. H. Hicks. 
Samuel Harris. 
William Hoffman. 
Archie Hamilton. 
J. W. Judd. 
William Knight. 
A. M. Langford. 
Jasper Mathews. 
Frank Mantle. 
W. E. Maurey. 
G. W. McGuire. 
J. M. Morris. 
G. W. Morris. 



OFFICERS. 

William Barnes, Fourth Sergeant. 
J. W. Hart, First Corporal. 
W. H. Ward, Second Corporal. 
William Cannon, Third Corporal. 
J. C. Cole, Fourth Corporal. 
J. H. Balthrop, Fifth Corporal. 



W. E. Maurey, Franklin. 

W. H. Banks, Peach Tree Creek. 

J. W. Grimes, Peach Tree Creek. 



H. V. Harrison, Atlanta. 

W. E. Maurey, Atlanta. 

J. H. Balthrop, Peach Tree Creek. 

T. B. Dalton, Atlanta. 

Archie Hamilton, Atlanta. 



J. H. Murphey. 
H. C. Murphey. 
William Grand. 
J. W. Percise. 
G. W. Porter. 
William. Patterson. 
Hezekiah Porter. 
James Prest. 
Wiley Powell. 
Young Pepper. 
L. D. Robertson. 
James Robertson. 
W. A. Robertson. 
Henry Ruffin. 
S. F. Solomon. 
H. D. Solomon. 
M. D. Taylor. 
J. M. Thomas. 
W. W. Thomas. 
J. A. Thomas. 
J. H. Turner. 
J. H. Toler. 
D. H. Wilkerson. 
M. L. Watson. 

J. B. White. 
KILLED. 

G. W. McGuire, Franklin. 
Wiley Powell, Fort Donelson. 
D. H. Wilkerson, Atlanta. 

WOUNDED. 

J. M. Morris, Franklin. 
James Robertson, by cars. 
S. F. Solomon, Franklin. 
M. D. Taylor, Atlanta. 



H. V. Harrison, Captain, 1862. 
M. D. Taylor, 3d Lieut., 1862. 



PROMOTED. 

William Barnes, 2d Lieut., 1862, 3d 
Lieut., 1863. 



35 



SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



COMPANY E. 



OFFICERS. 



J. M. Peacher, Captain. 

J. W. Broom, First Lieutenant. 

J. W. Wall, Second Lieutenant. 



K. A. Alley. 
Cap Allen. 
Perry Allman. 
W. H. Burden. 
John Burden. 
Oliver Burden. 
H. C. Bowers. 
T. Bowers. 
Henry Burks. 
Robert Chance. 
J. J. Dilling. 
J. J. Fletcher. 
W. H. Fletcher. 
Charlie Ferguson. 
William Ferguson. 
Jasper Grimes. 
H. B. Hunt. 
William Horn. 
Hiram Hambrick. 
A. J. Hambrick. 
John Haley. 
J. C. Jordan. 



W. H. Powell, Third Lieutenant. 
S. A. Wall, Third Lieutenant. 
R. M. Powers, First Sergeant. 



PRIVATES. 



Henry Lewis. 
Joseph Lyle. 
C. H. Lyle. 
Hart Nolin. 
J. E. Oldham. 
Davis Powell. 
W. H. Powell. 
G. Powers. 
Thomas Powers. 

E. H. Powers. 
John Powers. 

F. B. Powers. 

R. D. Robertson. 
W. Robertson. 
J. N. Robertson. 
Nathan Roland. 
Wash Roland. 
J. H. Sugg. 
George Wright. 
William Weakley. 
Peter Williams. 



KILLED. 



S. A. Wall, Atlanta. 



DIED IN SERVICE. 



T. Bowers, Camp Douglas. 
Davis Powell, Camp Douglas. 
Albert Powell, Camp Douglas. 



W. H. Fletcher, Alton, 111. 
J. J. Dilling, Fort Donelson. 
Hiram Hambrick, on steamboat. 



WOUNDED. 



Lieut. J. W. Broom, Franklin. A. J. Hamrick, Franklin. 

Lieut. S. A. Wall, Ga., (three times). J. E. Oldham, Atlanta. 
Serg't R. M. Powers, Franklin. 

PROMOTED. 
Lieut. J. W. Wall, Captain. 



COLONEL YOUNG. 



35 1 



COMPANY G. 

OFFICERS. 

W. F. Young, Captain. James B. Leigh, Third Sergeant. 

James B. Howard, First Lieutenant. Willis Winn, Fourth Sergeant. 
Charles Anderson, Second Lieutenant. James Council, First Corporal. 
Koss Evans, Third Lieutenant. John H. Morrison, Second Corporal. 

B. W. Humber, First Sergeant. N. J. Morris, Third Corporal. 

J. S. Meacham, Second Sergeant. Thos. Jeff. Stone, Fourth Corporal. 



PRIVATES. 



Houston Adams. 
Richard Averitt. 
Benjamin Buck. 
Joseph Bullock. 
Joseph W. Barnes. 
Samuel J. Bumpass. 
Zebedee Bumpass. 
A. J. Caruthers. 
Melville C'herry. 
Thomas H. Covington. 
Thomas R. Coulter. 
Edward Darnell. 
James H. Dyer. 
William Duberry. 
E. O. Ferrell. 
John Foster. 
P. Gibbs. 
AVilliam Gafford. 
Isaac Gattbrd. 
N. W. Lissenbee. 

Lowry. , 

A. McXiehols. 



J. W. Manson. 
James Norfleet. 
Joseph Norfleet. 
William P. Outlaw. 
William Gates. 
Robert Prewitt. 
William Prewitt. 
T. G. Barbee. (Pete). 
J. D. Riggins. 
C. J. Riggins. 
Ike Smith. 
Taylor Smith. 
Joseph Smith. 
John Stewart. 
John Satterfield. 

Shelton. 
John M. Tyson. 
T. J. Taller. 
J. R. Woo ten. 
E. C. Waters. 
John Woods. 



KILLED. 



Lieut. James B. Howard, Atlanta. A. J. Cuthbertson, Franklin. 

July 28, isi>4. Thomas R. Coulter, Franklin. 

Thos. Jen'. Stone, Atlanta, July 28, James Norfleet, Atlanta, July 28, 

1864. 1864. 

Joseph W. Barnes, Franklin. T. J. Barbee, Nashville. 

WOUNDED. 

Houston Adams, Franklin. Corp'l N. J. Morris, Atlanta and 

Melville Cherry, Seven Pines and North Carolina. 

Atlanta. John M. Tyson, Atlanta, July 28, 

Serg't Ross Evans, Franklin. 1864. 

John H. Howard, Atlanta. Col. W. F. Young, Lick Skillet Road, 

W. N. Lissenbee, Atlanta. Ga., lost right arm. 
William Prewitt, Peach Tree Creek. 



352 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

DIED IJT SERVICE. 

Charles Anderson, Johnson's Island. ZebedeeBumpass, Camp Douglas, 111. 

John H. Morrison, Camp Douglas, 111. Edward Darnell, Camp Douglas, 111. 

Richard Averitt, Camp Douglas, 111. Ike Smith, on exchange boat. 

Benjamin Buck, Camp Douglas, 111. T. J. Taller, Camp Douglas, 111. 

PROMOTED. 

Capt. W. F. Young, Colonel, 1863. Thomas K. Coulter, 2d Lieut., 1862, 
James B. Howard, Captain, 1863. 1st Lieut., 1863, Cap., 1864. 

State of Tennessee, Montgomery Count v: 

The foregoing muster roll of Company G, of the Forty-ninth 
Tennessee Regiment, is a full, true, and perfect list of the same, 
so far as my memory will admit of making. The company was 
organized by me at Palmyra, this county, on December 3, 1861. 
Upon organization, it was composed of sixty-four men. but as 
all records have been lost, I can only furnish the above, which is 
exclusively from memory. 

I was promoted to colonel of the regiment in September, 1863. 
Lieutenants Howard and Coulter were afterward promoted to 
captains, but both were killed, and I am now the only captain of 
this company. VV. F. YOUNG, 

First Captain of Company G, Forty-ninth Tennessee, afterward 
Colonel of the Regiment. 

CLARKSVILLE, TENN., April 17, 1883. 



GENERAL ROBERT HATTON. 

This gallant officer of the Tennessee Army of the 
Confederate service, was a citizen of Wilson county at 
the opening of the war. His record as a citizen and 
statesman was without spot or blemish. He was a 
citizen of whom the State was justly proud. 

At the beginning of the war he brought out a com- 
pany from Wilson county, and was made colonel of 
the Seventh Tennessee Regiment, at its organization, 
by the unanimous voice of its members. John F. 



GENERAL HATTON. 353 

Goodner was lieutenant-colonel; John K. Howard, 
major; George Howard, adjutant; Alexander Vick, 
quartermaster; R. Hawkins, commissary; Dr. Robert- 
son, surgeon; Dr. Fite, assistant surgeon. Upon the 
resignation of Doctor Robertson, Dr. Fite was made 
surgeon. 

The Seventh Regiment was made up from the coun- 
ties of Wilson, Sumner, Smith, and DeKalb, as fol- 
lows: 

1. Captain Hatton's company, Wilson county; 

2. Captain Howard's company, Wilson county; 

3. Captain Goodner's company, DeKalb county; 

4. Captain Fite's company, Smith county; 

5. Captain Douglas's company, Sumner county; 

6. Captain Oakley's company, Wilson county; 

7. Captain Anderson's company, Wilson county; 

8. Captain Anthony's company, Wilson county; 

9. Captain Shepherd's company, Wilson county; 
10. Captain Baber's company, Sumner county. 

This regiment served in Westem Virginia, about 
Cheat Mountain, during the first year of the war, and 
was afterward transferred to the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, where it served till the surrender at Appomattox. 

We regret our inability to give a full history of this 
regiment. It was composed of good material, and was 
officered by the best men that the State afforded. Its 
record is a bright one. To record in full the unwritten 
catalogue of its glorious deeds would of itself require 
volumes. 

This regiment was a part of S. R. Anderson's bri- 
gade, which was composed of the following regi- 
ments: First Tennessee, Colonel Maney; Seventh 
Tennessee, Colonel Hatton; Fourteenth Tennessee, 
Colonel Forbes; Eighteenth Georgia, and Baxter's 
Virginia Battery. 
23 



354 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

When General Anderson was assigned to another 
field, Colonel Hatton, of the Seventh, was promoted 
to the command of the brigade, with the rank of brig- 
adier-general. The Seventh Tennessee was then com- 
manded by Colonel John F. Goodner. After the death 
of General Hatton, the brigade was commanded by Gen- 
eral Archer. This brigade was in the following pitched 
battles: Cheat Mountain, Seven Pines, Mechanicsville, 
Cold Harbor, Gaines's Mill, Malvern Hill, Cedar Mount- 
ain, Wilderness, Gettysburg, Bristow Station, Chancel- 
lorsville, second battle of Manassas, Harper's Ferry, 
Antietam, Shepherdstown, Mine Run, and all the 
daily battles and skirmishes around Richmond and 
Petersburg. In each of these battles the losses of 
the Seventh Tennessee were very severe. Colonel 
Hatton had received a commission of brigadier-gen- 
eral on the eve of the battle of Seven Pines, and fell 
at the close of the first day's fight. His command 
suffered severely. The enemy was strongly fortified 
at the edge of a swamp, through which the Confed- 
erates had to charge to assault the Federal works. This 
swamp was nearly knee deep in water in many places, 
and in passing this swamp many of the severely 
wounded were drowned before assistance could reach 
them. General Hatton led his brave boys against the 
enemy's fortifications. The resistance was obstinate, 
though the Confederates carried the works after a hard 
day's fight. At the close of the first day, in the last 
charge, just as the Federal line yielded and the Con- 
federates gained the works, General Hatton was killed. 
His last command was, "Boys, follow me!" The loss 
of General Hatton was a severe blow to the State and 
to the army. 

Colonel Goodner commanded the regiment much of 



GENERAL HATTON. 



355 



the time during the remainder of the war. Colonel 
Fite commanded at the time of the surrender. It is to 
be hoped that a full history of this regiment may yet 
be written. 

We regret our inability to furnish complete muster 
rolls and reports of casualties of each company of the 
gallant old Seventh. The following is a list of most 
of the members of Company G, as furnished by Ser- 
geant J. H. Bond, of that company. This company 
was brought out by Captain Shepherd, and was from 
Wilson county. Its company officers were as follows: 

L. G. SHEPHERD, Captain; 

J. H. HOBBS, First Lieutenant; " 

M. M. BOND, Second Lieutenant; 

F. GRAVES, Third Lieutenant. 



COMPANY 


G. 


PRIVATES. 




Bill Allen. 
Bill Baird. 


George Huddleston. 
Aaron Hutchins. 


Pete Baskings. 
Can Baliugtlne. 
George Blankingship. 
Huse Bond. 


Laf Hutchins. 
John Harrison. 
Will Harrison. 
Henry Harrison. 


Hart Bradshaw. 


James Harrison. 


Fount Cluck. 
Sum Currey. 
Frank Currey. 
Harris Davis. 


Cal Ingram. 
Tom Jackson. 
Hal Johnson. 
W. H. Johnson. 


Tip Daugherty. 
Lus Dement. 


Nube Jennings. 
Dan Johns. 


John Edwards. 


Ned Jones. 


Buck Edwards. 
W. H. Edwards. 
John Grisain. 


Dock King. 
John Kennedy. 
Laf Lannom. 


Albert Grisam. 


Coon Lannom. 


Will Grisam. 


Joe Launom. 


Bob Gwynn. 
Jack Gwynn. 
Alexander Hamilton. 
John Hobbs. 


Fed Lenard. 
John Mount. 
John McCrary. 
James McCrary. 



356 



SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 



Cap Nelson. Martin Robins. 

Burt Ozment. LUke Robison. 

John Ozment. Calvin Simmons. 

Laf Oliver. Eli Sellars. 

James Oliver. _ J. Summers. 

Wiley Pool. Brud Sullivan. 

Tom Patterson. Laf Sullivan. 

Hue Quisenbury. Bill Sullivan. 

Bill Quisenbury. Bill Vaughters. 

Tom Rucker. John Van. 

Brown Rucker. Dick Vaughn. 

Alexander Richmond. Bill Woodram. 

James Richmond. Balie Young. 
Tom Rice. 

KILLED. 

Wm. Baird, second battle of Manassas. John Ozment, Harper's Ferry. 

Hart Bradshaw, Wilderness. Tom Rice, Seven Pines. 

Frank Currey, Wilderness. Calvin Simmons, Seven Pines. 

Back Edwards, Seven Pines. William Sullivan, Shepherdstown. 

William Grissom, Seven Pines. Baile Young, Fredericksburg. 
Hal Johnson, Gettysburg. 

WOUNDED. 

Harris Davis, Seven Pines. Nube Jennings, second battle of Ma- 

Cal. Ingram, Sheperdstown. nassas. 

Burt Ozment, Harper's Ferry. Martin Robins, Wilderness. 

DIED IN SERVICE. 

Ned Jones, Va. Wiley Poole, Warm Springs, Va. 

John Mount, Warm Springs, Va. Wm. Woodram, Warm Springs, Va. 

PROMOTED. 

Capt. S. G. Shepard, Major, 1862, Lieu- Sergt. J. H. Bond, 1st Lieutenant, 

tenant-colonel, 1863. 1861, Captain, 1862. 

Lieut.-col. J. F. Goodner, Colonel, 1862. Sergt. J. C. Ingram, 2d Lieut., 1863. 
Capt. John Fite, Major, 1862. Martin Robins, 3d- Lieutenant, 1863. 



GENERAL McCoMB. 357 



BRIGADIER -GENERAL WILLIAM McCOMB 

Was born in Mercer county, Pa., Nov. 21, 1832. He 
came to Tennessee in 1854, and from that time until 
the beginning of the war was engaged in developing 
the manufacturing interest of Southern Kentucky and 
Tennessee. He came to Clarksville, Tenn., among 
strangers, and confined himself so closely to the busi- 
ness in which he was engaged that his acquaintance 
was not large, but he was highly esteemed by all who 
knew him. He never engaged in politics, and hence 
had no influential politicians to urge his advancement; 
but he was a patriot, and ever ready to serve his country. 

When the first call was made for troops by Governor 
Harris to defend the South, he promptly responded, 
joining as a private soldier Captain Ed. Hewett's com- 
pany of the Fourteenth Tennessee Infantiy Forbes's 
regiment. His military record is remarkable. A pri- 
vate soldier, without strong and influential friends or 
relatives, and a Northern man by birth, he was elevated 
to the rank of brigadier-general to command two of 
the finest brigades ever connected with any army 
Archer's and Bushrod Johnson's. 

He won this position by gallantry on the field of 
battle, and did it step by step as follows: In May, 1861, 
he was elected second lieutenant of his company. In 
October, 1861, he was appointed first lieutenant and 
adjutant of his regiment by Colonel William A. Forbes. 
Was elected major of his regiment at Yorktown in 
1862. Was promoted to lieutenant-colonel after the 
death of Lieutenant-colonel George A. Harrell^ who 
was killed at the battle of Cedar Run. Was promoted 
to colonel upon the death of Colonel William A. 



358 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Forbes, who was killed at the second battle of Manas- 
sas. Was appointed brigadier-general by President 
Davis and confirmed by the Senate in December, 1864, 
and assigned to the command of the two brigades 
above mentioned, and ordered to report to Major-gen- 
eral Harvey Heth. He continued in command of the 
same until the close of the war, surrendering with 
General Lee at Appomattox Court-house, Va. He 
was wounded three times during the war first at 
Gaines's Mill, slightly; secondly, at Sharpsbtirg, Sep- 
tember 17, 1862, very severely; and lastly, at Chancel- 
lorsville, May 3, 1863, very severely. He was in the 
following battles: Williamsburg, Red House, Seven 
Pines, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Frazier's Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Harrison's Landing, Harper's Ferry, 
Sharpsburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness, Spotsylva- 
nia, Anderson's, Cold Harbor, Squirrel Level Road, 
and Petersburg. He was also in the many skirmishes 
in which his command was engaged. He went to the 
Army of Virginia early in the war, and was with his 
command in all the engagements and skirmishes from 
Cheat Mountain to Appomattox. 

During 1866 he was engaged in raising cotton in Ala- 
bama. In 1867-8 he was superintendent of the Mis- 
sissippi and Alabama Turpentine Company, located at 
Pascagoula, Miss. Since 1869 he has been engaged in 
farming in "Louisa county, Va., and his post-office is 
Gordonsville, Va. 

The following were the members of General Mc- 
Comb's staff all Tennesseans except Captain Archer, 
who was a Virginian: 

John Allen, Captain and A. A. General. 
William T. Moore, Captain and A. I. General. 
R. E. McCullock, First Lieutenant and A. D. C. 



GENERAL BATE. 359 

C. J. Allensworth, Major and A. Q^. M. 

Polk G. Johnson, First Lieutenant and A. I. General. 

James Archer, Captain and Ordinance Officer. 



MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM B. BATE. 

General William B. Bate was born and educated in 
Stunner county, Tennessee. At the beginning of the 
Mexican war he was quite a young man, and was re- 
siding for the time being in the city of New Orleans. 
He enlisted for a term of twelve months in this war, 
and served out his time with distinction. At the close 
of the period of his enlistment he returned to his home 
and assisted in raising a company for further service. 
He was elected to the position of lieutenant of this 
company, and proceeded with his command to the 
scene of action for a second campaign, and served to 
the close of the war. General Bate then returned to 
his home and was shortly afterward a candidate for the 
legislature. At this time he was about twenty-one 
years of age. Being so young, and to a great extent 
unacquainted with the ways of the political world, his 
friends were fearful of his chances of election. Yet 
he made the campaign lively to his competitors, and 
was elected as representative from Sumner county. 

As a debater, General Bate was pleasant and affable, 
a good reasoner, and a man of dignified bearing and 
remarkable oratorical powers. As a member of the 
legislature he was an able and influential member. He 
soon became a leader in his party. 

At the close of his first session as representative he 
entered the profession of law at Gallatin, and during a 
portion of his early professional life was editor of a 



360 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

weekly paper. As a lawyer he was remarkable for 
his knowledge of men. He could read character at a 
glance, and used this knowledge successfully in the se- 
lection of jurymen. In 1854 he was elected to the 
position of Attorney-general of the Nashville district, 
and served the State for six years. In 1860 he was a 
candidate on the Breckinridge electoral ticket, and made 
a vigorous and spirited campaign. 

In the beginning of the civil war he raised and or- 
ganized the Second Tennessee Regiment, and was 
elected its commander as colonel. Proceeding with 
his regiment to the scene of hostilities he served in the 
campaigns on the Potomac, and led his regiment in the 
first battle of Manassas. His regiment was afterward 

cT> ,: 

transferred to the Western Army under Johnston, and 
figured prominently in the battle of Shiloh. 

In the last-named battle General Bate received a se- 
vere wound, and was thereby disabled for the greater 
portion of the ensuing year. For gallantry displayed 
on the field of Shiloh h was promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general, and placed in command of a brigade. 
Returning to his command before his \vounds had 
healed, he led his brigade in all the battles of the West- 
ern Army. 

During the Georgia campaign he wa*s made a major- 
general, in which capacity he served till the collapse of 
the Confederate cause-. 

As a soldier he possessed the essential qualities of a 
commander. Careful of his men in camp and on the 
field, he was appreciated by them and loved as a leader. 
Careful of the rights of citizens, he always looked care- 
fully to the protection of their property and premises 
when in the vicinity of his encampment. With a pro- 
found respect for the moral and religious status of his 



GENERAL HOOD. 361 

men, he afforded every assistance to the chaplain, to 
whom he extended the hospitalities of his tent and 
table. He was a regular attendant at divine service, 
and as a commander he showed by example his solici- 
tude for the spiritual welfare of his men and his respect 
for the Christian religion. As a citizen he is sociable 
and pleasant, and combines all the sterling qualities of 
the true gentleman. 

General Bate is at present the Governor of Tennes- 
see, to which position he was elected in 1882, and re- 
elected in 1884. As an occupant of the executive chair 
he discharges its duties with that ability and integrity 
that have ever characterized every department of his 
private and public life. 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL JOHN B. HOOD. 

This officer was placed in command of the Army of 
Tennessee early in July, 1864, and continued in com- 
mand in the battles around Atlanta and in the Ten- 
nessee campaign 'till after the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville. His military career was an unfortunate one, 
and its record is a catalogue of reverses. He was a 
gallant officer, and was justly entitled "the bravest of 
the brave," but was lacking in that discretion so nec- 
essary to his position at the time he was placed in com- 
mand, and which in this instance would have been 
truly " the better part of valor." As the Confederate 
authorities saw proper to displace the renowned Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston with General Hood, a few 
points in the record of this general's history will be 
given. 

General John B. Hood was born in Owensville, Bath 



362 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

county, Ky., June 28, 1831, and was brought up at 
Mount Sterling, Montgomery county, Ky., where he 
received his early education. He entered upon his col- 
legiate studies at West Point in 1849, an ^ graduated in 
1853. He was assigned to duty in the Fourth Infantry, 
in California, where he served for two 'years. He was 
then transferred to the Second Regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, in which R. E. 
Lee was lieutenant-colonel. Van Dorn, Kirby Smith, 
Fields, Evans, and Hardee, afterward generals in the 
Confederate army, were members of this regiment. In 
1855, Hood was assigned to the Texas frontier, and in 
July of the following year was wounded in an engage- 
ment with the Indians on Devil River. Shortly after 
this he was ordered to report for duty at West Point. 
Having become attached to Texas during his service 
there, he asked to be retained on the Texas frontier, 
both as a matter of choice and policy. Owing to the 
threatening aspect of national affairs, and his sympathy* 
with the South, his desire was to be where he could 
look after her interests in the impending struggle. The 
struggle came, as expected. On April 16, 1861, he re- 
signed his commission in the United States Army, and 
tendered his services to the Confederacy. He was 
commissioned first lieutenant in the Confederate serv- 
ice and ordered to report to General Lee, in Virginia. 
General Lee ordered him to report to General Magru- 
der, on the Peninsula. He was immediately placed in 
command of all the cavalry on the Peninsula, and pro- 
moted to captain. On September 30 he was commis- 
sioned colonel, and ordered to report to Richmond, 
where he "was placed in command of the Fourth Texas 
Infantry. This regiment had been for some time dis- 
turbed by a faction and could not organize. A portion 



GENERAL HOOD. 363 

of its men wanted Colonel Allen, of Texas, to com- 
mand them, while a portion of the officers were op- 
posed to the measure. Colonel Hood took command 
of the regiment, and the appointment was satisfactory. 

The Fourth and Fifth Texas Regiments were organ- 
ized into a brigade on November 12, and placed under 
command of Colonel Wigfall, who had recently been 
appointed brigadier-general. General Wigfall had 
been elected to the Confederate States Senate, and re- 
signed his commission as brigadier-general at the open- 
ing of the Confederate Congress. Colonel Hood was 
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general and placed 
in command of Wigfall's brigade. Shortly afterward 
he was commissioned major-general and assigned to 
duty in Longstreet's corps, in which capacity he served 
till after the battle of Chickamauga, where he lost a 
leg in the first day's fight. 

As soon as General Hood recovered from the ampu- 
tation of his limb at Chickamauga, he was promoted 
to a lieutenant-general and assigned to the command 
of a corps in the Army of Tennessee. In the Georgia 
campaign Hood's corps occupied the left of Johnston's 
army. Every retreat in that campaign was the result 
of Hood's inability to cover the enemy's right. Shortly 
after the retreat from Kennesaw Mountain, Hood su- 
perseded Johnston and took command of the whole 
army. This measure met the bitter disapprobation of 
many of the division commanders, most prominent of 
whom was General Cleburne. The remainder of 
Hood's military record has been briefly stated in an- 
other place. A brave and intelligent officer, he had 
risen repeatedly, from a lieutenant of the ranks to be 
commander in chief of a department and army. Yet 
his last promotion placed him in an unenviable position. 



364 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

The Confederate resources were exhausted. In the 
agonies of desperation the armies and people of the 
Confederacy were hoping against hope, and their only 
vision of success lay beyond the accomplishment of 
impossibilities. Hood took command with these facts 
staring him in the face. He hurled his columns upon 
the fortifications of the enemy only to be slaughtered 
and repulsed by their superior numbers. Atlanta 
was given up, and Hood was in a few months 
pushing, by a flank movement, upon the outposts 
of Nashville. At Franklin he made his last blun- 
der. The works of the enemy were assaulted, and 
after a' desperate battle the enemy gave back, though 
the position could have been easily flanked. These 
pitched battles from the Chattahoochee to Jonesboro, 
thence to Franklin and Nashville, involved a reckless 
and deplorable slaughter of the Confederates. The 
enemy were masters of the field. They were always 
prepared for those assaults. The Confederates would 
move up to the attack with that coolness and steadi- 
ness of courage that is without a parallel in history, and 
were mowed down by the raking of musketry and 
canister from the enemv's works. They did all that 
brave men could do. The enemy boasted of their su- 
perior numbers, and of Hood's weakness in throwing 
his columns upon their works to be mowed down as 
wheat before the scythes, yet 

No vulgar crop was theirs to reap 
No stinted harvest thin and cheap 
Heroes before each fatal sweep 

Fell thick as ripened grain. 
And ere the darkening of the day, 
Piled high as autumn shocks they lav, 
The ghastly harvest of the fray, 

The corpses of the slain. 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 365 

The brave Confederates were never found wanting 
in courage. To them death had no terrors. They ap- 
proached and embraced it, linked, as it was, hand in 
hand with glory, waiting to be wooed and won by the 
daring: and the brave. 



MAJOR-GENERAL P. R. CLEBURNE. 

This gallant officer of the Confederate army was a 
native of Ireland, and was born at Bride Park Cottage, 
on the river Bride, county Cork, Ireland, March 17, 
1828. This place is about ten miles west of the city of 
Cork. His father, Dr. Joseph Cleburne, was a physi- 
cian of considerable note, and was a graduate of med- 
icine from the University of London, and of surgery 
from the Royal College of Surgeons at Dublin. He 
was of an old Tipperary family, originally of English 
stock. 

General Cleburne's mother, Mary Ann Cleburne, 
was the second daughter of Patrick Rouayne, Esq., of 
Annebrook, on the Island of Cork. . This name has 
been preserved in the family, having passed through 
four generations. General Cleburne was named after 
his maternal grandfather, and having been born on St. 
Patrick's day, he had a double title to the name given 
him. 

When General Cleburne was three years old his 
mother died. About one year after, Dr. Cleburne mar- 
ried a second wife Miss Isabella Stewart, the daugh- 
ter of a Scotch clergyman. This woman was kind- 
hearted and intelligent, and bestowed great care and 
attention in the education of the step-children thus 
placed under her charge. 



366 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

From Dr. Cleburne's first marriage there were four 
children three sons and one daughter. Their names, 
in the order of their ages, were: William Cleburne, 
Annie Cleburne (now Mrs, Sherlock, of Omaha), 
Patrick Rouayne Cleburne, and Joseph Cleburne all 
of whom, except General Cleburne, are now living. 

From the second marriage there were four children, 
whose names, in the order of their ages, were: Isa- 
bella Cleburne, Edward Warren Cleburne, Robert 
Stewart Cleburne, and Christopher S. Cleburne. Of 
the latter family only two are now living. Edward 
Warren Cleburne went to sea, and died of yellow 
fever, on the coast of Africa, several years ago. The 
youngest, Christopher S. Cleburne, was a captain in 
the Second Kentucky Cavalry of Morgan's command, 
and was killed at the battle of Cloyd's Farm, near 
Dublin Depot, Va., May 10, 1864, in the twenty-first 
year of his age. William Cleburne is engaged in civil 
engineering, and resides in Oregon. Robert S. Cle- 
burne resides in Cincinnati, and is also a civil engineer. 

General Cleburne's early education was under the 
care of a private tutor. At the age of twelve years he 
was placed in school under a teacher named Spedding, 
of the Established Church. As a boy he was fond of 
childish sports and innocent amusements. He had a 
high sense of honor and a keen sense of disgrace. He 
was fond of history, poetry, and travels. For Latin 
and Greek he seemed to have but little taste, though 
his preference for mathematics was quite prominent. 
His father possessed a good income from the practice 
of medicine, and had a farm of two hundred acres. 
Having a taste for experimental farming, he sunk in 
this what he made out of his profession, and when he 
died in 1844, he left but a small estate to divide between 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 367 

his widow and eight children. This caused General 
Cleburne to look around for some means of support, 
and he apprenticed himself to Dr. Justice, who kept a 
drug-store in the little town of Mallow. Had chem- 
ical tastes and pharmaceutical studies been the only re- 
quirements to advancement in this line of business, 
General Cleburne, perhaps, would have never been 
known outside of the little village of Mallow and its 
vicinity. 




MAJOR-GENERAL P. R. CLEBURNE. 

The first prerequisite to advancement in the occupa- 
tion of his choice was a thorough knowledge of Latin 
and Greek. Unfortunately this was his weakest point, 
and when he appeared for his preliminary examination 
at the Apothecaries' Hall in Dublin, he failed to pass 
the necessary examination. Being eighteen years old 
at this time, General Cleburne felt his disgrace so 
keenly that he resolved that his family should never 
again see a member who had disgraced them, and, 



368 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

without disclosing his intentions to any one, he enlisted 
in the Forty-first Regiment of foot, then stationed at 
Dublin, and daily expecting to be ordered" to foreign 
parts. No one of his family or friends knew any thing 
of his whereabouts for a year. Through Captain 
Pratt, an officer of the regiment, and son of the Rector 
of Desartmore a parish adjoining that of the Cleburne 
family his whereabouts were discovered. This cap- 
tain visited the family, and had General Cleburne 
thought of this he would have enlisted under an as- 
sumed name, as he afterward remarked to his friends. 
His discharge was procured a year or so afterward, 
with a portion of the means that had fallen to him, and 
in company with a sister and two brothers he sailed 
from Queenstown, November n, 1849, * n ^ ie Dai "k 
Bridgetown, under command of Captain Mills. The 
vessel landed at New Orleans on Christmas-day. 

General Cleburne proceeded immediately to Cincin- 
nati, where he received employment as prescription 
clerk in the drug-store of a Mr. Salter, on Broadway. 
The sister and brothers joined him soon afterward. In 
a short time he located in Helena, Ark., where he fol- 
lowed the drug business, and afterward studied law 
and formed a partnership at Helena with Judge L. H. 
Man gum. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, both members 
of this firm enlisted in the Confederate service, and 
were together till the death of General Cleburne. 
General Cleburne was made captain of Company A, 
Fifteenth Arkansas Regiment, and at the organization 
of the regiment was made colonel. He was soon af- 
terward promoted to brigadier-general and placed in 
command of the following regiments: Twenty-third 
Tennessee, Lieutenant-colonel Neil; Sixth Mississippi, 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 369 

Colonel Thornton; Fifth Tennessee, Colonel Ben. J. 
Hill; Twenty-fourth Tennessee, Colonel Mat. Martin; 
Fifteenth Arkansas, Lieutenant-colonel Patton; Sec- 
ond Tennessee, Colonel William B. Bate. 

The above regiments engaged in the battle of Shi- 
loh. The brigade consisted of -two thousand seven 
hundred men, of whom the casualties were one thou- 
sand. In his official report of this battle, General Cle- 
burne made honorable mention of the following parties 
for gallantry displayed upon the field: Privates William 
Dixon, Fifteenth Arkansas; William Pierce, Fifteenth 
Arkansas; W. H. Kinney, Fifteenth Arkansas; H. 
A. Sales, Fifteenth Arkansas; Sergeant T. H. Osborn, 
Fifteenth Arkansas; Lieutenant Josey, Fifteenth Ar- 
kansas; Colonel Ben. J. Hill, Fifth Tennessee; Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Peebles, Twenty - fourth Tennessee; 
LieutenanfR. H. Keeble, Twenty-fourth Tennessee; 
Captain Ridley, Twenty-fourth Tennessee; Lieutenant- 
colonel Neil, Twenty-fourth Tennessee. In this battle 
Colonel Bate, the present Governor of Tennessee, was 
severely wounded. 

General Cleburne was promoted to major-general 
shortly after the battle of Shiloh, and assigned to the 
command of a division in Hardee's corps. 

The following are the names of the members of Gen- 
eral Cleburne's staff', with rank and date of service, as 
furnished from Confederate archives at Washington, 
D. C.: 

Calhoun Bonham, Major and A. A. G., December, 18623. 
Irving A. Buck, Captain and A. A. G., December, 1862-3. 
C. H. Byrne, Captain and Volunteer A. D. C., December, 1862-3. 
J. R. Dixon, Major and A. A. and I.'G., December, 1862-3. 
J. H. Erskine, M. D., Medical Inspector, 1863. 
S. P. Hanly, First Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1862-3. 
24 



370 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Charles S. Hill, Captain and Ordnance Officer, 1863. 
T. R. Hotchkiss, Captain, 1863. 

J. W. Jetton, Second Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1861. 
John M. Johnson, M. D., Chief Surgeon, 1863. 
W. W. Kirkland, Colonel and Chief of Staff, 1863. 

A. S. Landers, Major and A. Q^M., 1861. 
R. C. Sanford, Major and A. C. S., 1861. 

D. A. Linthicum, M. D., Chief Surgeon, 1863-5. 
L. H. Mangum, Lieutenant and A. D. C., 1862-3. 

B. F. Phelps, Captain and A. A. and I. G., 1862. 
H. Rucker, Signal Officer, 1863. 

H. W. Smith, Signal Officer, 1863-4. 

N. B. Stubblefield, Sergeant and Orderly, 1861-3. 

As a commander General Cleburne was without a 
superior for talent and for skill in handling troops upon 
the field. He was in every sense of the word a soldier. 

Cleburne's division was with Bragg in his Kentucky 
campaign, and distinguished itself at Richmond, Ky. 
While a portion of his command was in the battle of 
Perryville, the remainder was holding an important 
position in front of Covington. At Murfreesboro, 
Chickamauga, and the hundred days' battles of the 
Georgia campaign, and Hood's Tennessee campaign, 
this command was distinguished for its effective work 
and the skill and gallantry of its commander. At 
Franklin, General Cleburne fell in the heaviest of the 
charge upon the enemy's works. 

The battle of Franklin was an unfortunate affair to 
the remnant of the Confederate army. Many of Hood's 
subordinate generals were of opinion that the Federal 
force at Spring Hill could be captured by flanking the 
position, and the remainder defeated in detail before it 
could reach Nashville or be re-enforced. General Cle- 
burne urged the policy of a flank movement, and his 
counsel partially prevailed. His division succeeded in 



GENERAL CLKBURNE. 



37 1 



gaining the rear of the enemy at Spring Hill, and he 
had his men posted along the pike. While await- 
ing orders to attack, by which, with little loss, he could 
have cut off their retreat and forced their surrender, 
the commanding general seemed to change his pur- 




'^^^^^''v^^ 

N. B. STUBBLEFIELD. 

pose, and through the usual channel ordered Cleburne 
not to attack the enemy until further orders. Thus 
Cleburne. after he had placed the enemy virtually in 
his power by his skillful generalship, was forbidden to 



372 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

strike the blow that was only necessary to secure the 
victory at small sacrifice and gain Franklin without a 
struggle. Cleburne was forced to remain all night by 
the road-side and let the enemy pass within a few hun- 
dred yards of his lines, going safely into Franklin. Cle- 
burne was eager to strike the blow, and when he saw 
that he was denied the privilege he was deeply moved. 
The battle of Franklin followed the next day. 

DEATH OF GENERAL PAT. R. CLEBURNE. 

The following is a true and correct account of the 
last battle and death of Major-general Patrick R. Cle- 
burne, as given by Judge L. H. Mangum, his law part- 
ner before the war, a member of his staff, and one of 
his most intimate friends: 

" It is due to history and the memory of General 
Cleburne, that a correct account should be written as 
to the part his division performed at Spring Hill and 
Franklin, and the circumstances attending his death 
and burial. 

" I have read many different descriptions, but never 
a correct one, of the part taken by Cleburne and his 
division at those two places. The most of the articles 
that have been written upon the battle of Franklin 
, read, to those who participated in that terrible slaugh- 
ter, like a romance; especially so the account of the 
battle and the death of General Cleburne, written by 
Mr. E. L. Roberts, and published in a number of 
Southern papers. A letter published a short time since 
by Mr. M. Quad, in the Vicksburg Herald, is an ex- 
ception to most of the articles written upon the battle 
of Franklin and death of Cleburne, and is correct in 
the main. 

" I will write of, and describe, things as they actually 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 373 

occurred, and not as I might picture them in my imag- 
ination. In doing so I will endeavor, as far as circum- 
stances will permit, in order to write the truth, not to 
reflect upon the official conduct or military skill of any 
officer, for that can now do no good, although there 
was a terrible blunder at Spring Hill that cost the lives 
of thousands of the best men in the army. 

" On the morning of November 29, 1864, Cleburne's 
division crossed Duck River at Davis's Ford, and, by a 
circuitous route, marched rapidly to Spring Hill. Cle- 
burne's division was composed of four brigades, viz.: 
Granberry's Texas brigade, Govan's Arkansas brigade, 
Lowry's brigade, composed of Alabama and Missis- 
sippi troops, and Mercer's Georgia brigade, command- 
ed by General J. A. Smith. The latter brigade was 
left on duty at Florence, Ala.,. and did not reach the 
command until after the battle of Franklin. Late in 
the afternoon of that day, November 29, Cleburne 
reached the vicinity of Spring Hill (a village situated 
on the Columbia and Franklin pike, twelve miles from 
Columbia and eleven miles from Franklin), being the 
leading division of Hood's army. Approaching this 
village on a road running at right angles to the pike, 
upon Cleburne's division crossing McCutcheon's Creek, 
a quarter of a mile from the pike, General Hood, in 
person, ordered General Cleburne to form line of bat- 
tle to the left of the road, at the foot of a hill, in a corn 
field, then move forward and take the enemy's breast- 
works that were just over the brow of the hill, built 
principally of rail piles. Cleburne executed the com- 
mand rapidly, and in less than fifteen minutes, took the 
works and some prisoners. There was not exceeding 
a regiment of Federals in the works, and those that 
were not captured ran into Spring Hill. Cleburne's 



374 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

command was now in full view of Spring Hill, and 
not exceeding three hundred yards from it. His loss 
in the the charge was four killed and forty - five 
wounded. The Federals had time to fire but one vol- 
ley when Govan's and Granberry's men were on the 
works. A Federal battery on the pike then com- 
menced shelling the command. Govan's and Granber- 
ry's brigades, that were in the charge, becoming more 
or less scattered running after the retreating Federals, 
Cleburne ordered me to direct General Cranberry, who 
was on the left of the line, to form his brigade along a 
fence running parallel with the pike, and about two 
hundred yards from it, so as to be prepared to move on 
the pike, remarking at the time that he would see Go- 
van. Just then a shell bursted over us and wounded 
Cleburne's horse 'Red Pepper' in the hip. He reared 
furiously for a while, and I remained a moment to see 
if the General was hurt. Upon asking him, I shall 
never forget his reply and manner, both showing how 
determined he was to take the pike. 'No; go on, 
Mangum, and tell Granberry what I told you.' I de- 
livered the order. Granberry in a few minutes had his 
brigade formed along the fence. I then returned to 
Cleburne. In the meantime Govan's brigade was 
formed, and the Federal battery on the pike had re- 
treated. As I reached Cleburne, Colonel Bostwick, 
assistant inspector general on General Cheatham's 
staff, rode up with an order from General Cheatham 
directing Cleburne to remain where he was and not 
move on the pike until further orders. This was near 
sunset. But for the order delivered by Colonel Bost- 
wick, Cleburne would have been on the pike and had 
possession of Spring Hill in less than ten minutes. 
Then there would have been no battle of Franklin. As 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 375 

ordered, Cleburne's command remained in line of bat- 
tle till morning, within two hundred yards of the pike, 
along which the entire Federal army passed that night 
from Columbia to Franklin unmolested. 

'"On the morning of the memorable November 30, 
1864, after considerable delay, Hood's army moved 
toward Franklin. It was in the afternoon before the 
army reached Winston's Ridge a high ridge some two 
miles south of Franklin. There a council of war was 
held, and General Hood, against the judgment of his 
best generals, decided to attack the almost impregnable 
works around Franklin, and, what was even worse, to 
attack them in their strongest point. Cleburne op- 
posed an attack, but he was too blunt and frank to have 
any influence with Hood. Cleburne considered the 
removal of Joseph E. Johnston and the appointment of 
General Hood in his stead as a great disaster to the 
army and Confederacy, and exceedingly unwise in 
General Hood accepting the command under the cir- 
cumstances. Cleburne had too little of the political 
general about him to conceal his views; hence General 
Hood had no good feeling toward Cleburne. 

" Dr. D. A. Linthicum. chief surgeon of Cleburne's 
division who remained behind to care for the wounded 
of the division in the skirmish of the evening before at 
Spring Hill came up and reported to General Cle- 
burne, at General Hood's head-quarters, just after the 
council of war was over, just prior to the battle; and. 
after General Cleburne was on his horse, heard General 
Hood say to him: 'General, form your division to the 
right of the pike, letting your left overlap the same. 
General Brown will form on the left with his right 
overlapping your left. I wish you to move on the en- 
emy. Give orders to your men not to fire a gun until 



376 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

you run the Yankee skirmish line from behind the first 
line of works in your front, then press them and shoot 
them in their backs as they run to their main line; then 
charge the enemy's works. Franklin is the key to 
Nashville, and Nashville is the key to independence.' 
General Cleburne smiled and said, 'General, I will 
take the works or fall in the effort.' The line of battle 
was formed on the north side of Winston's Ridge, be- 
tween the ridge and the town, fully one mile from the 
Federal works. Hardee's old corps, then commanded 
by General Cheatham, on the left, and Stewart's corps 
on the right, Cleburne's division on the right of Cheat- 
ham's corps, his left guiding on the pike; then Cheat- 
ham's old division, commanded by General John C. 
Brown, his right guiding on the pike; Bate's division 
on the left of the corps and army. Cleburne marched 
forward with two brigades in front Granberry and 
Govan Lowry in the rear. In a few moments the 
command was under a galling fire from the enemy's 
artillery. The men were ordered not to stop or to fire, 
but to rush upon the enemy's works. The first line of 
works in Cleburne's front was easily taken. This line 
was some two hundred yards in front of the main line 
of breastworks. Behind this first line Cleburne's com- 
mand halted a few moments, preparatory to making a 
charge at the main works. Just at this time I galloped 
up to Cleburne, who was riding alone immediately be- 
hind his division, about the center. Previous to this, 
Cleburne had ordered me to locate one of his batteries 
at a certain point. Soon after leaving upon this mis- 
sion, he sent Captain S. P. Hanly, one of his staff, to 
locate the battery, and for me to return to him immedi- 
ately. Upon riding up to him and asking him what 
he wanted, he replied: 'It is too late,' and directed me 



GENERAL CLEBURNE.- 377 

to go with Cranberry's brigade. He then turned his 
horse toward the right and galloped up to Govan's 
brigade. The whole line was then rushing madly for 
the enemy's works. That was the last time I saw Gen- 
eral Cleburne alive. 

"The space between the enemy's first line and the 
main line was about two hundred yards. The ground 
was level, and I don't think there was a tree or bush 
between them. The fire and destruction were beyond 
description. I went up to the works with Granberry's 
brigade. Generals Granberry and Govan, and their 
stafF, were on foot. About half way between the first 
and main line General Granberry was killed. I was 
within ten feet of him, and remember well the last 
words he spoke:"' Forward, men; never le^t it be said 
that Texans lag in the fight.' As he spoke these words, 
a ball struck him in the cheek and passed through his 
brain. Throwing both hands to his face he sunk down 
on his knees and remained in that position until his 
body was taken oft' the field after the battle. Better 
soldiers and braver men were never marshalled than 
this Texas brigade, and Granberry was, in every way, 
worthy to command such a brigade of heroes. Well 
may the Lone Star State be proud of every man in 
that brigade. 

" When I last saw General Cleburne he was going 
up toward the enemy's works, mounted on a brown 
mare belonging to Lieutenant Tip Stanton, of his 
escort, from Natchez, Miss. This mare was killed 
seventy -five or a hundred yards from the works. 
Young Brandon, of Mississippi, a member of General 
Cleburne's escort, dismounted and offered his horse to 
him. While Cleburne was in the act of mounting, the 
horse was shot dead by many bullets. Then Cleburne 



378 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

rushed on foot for the works. He must have been 
killed between where his last horse was shot and the 
works, about where M. Quad says he found his body 
next morning. 

" The sun was not over half an hour high when the 
battle began, and did not last exceeding an hour. Cle- 
burne's division never made seven charges, as Mr. 
Roberts states, but only one. Those of the division 
thai were not killed or wounded reached the enemy's 
breastworks, but were unable to scale them, so they re- 
mained in the ditch dug along the breastwork until the 
Federals retreated, which was about eleven o'clock 
that night. By twelve o'clock General Lowry had 
guards all over town. Men were detailed, and lights 
procured, to hunt for General Cleburne, but I soon 
stopped them upon being told by a Confederate soldier 
that he had been captured and made his escape that 
he saw General Cleburne passing through Franklin, a 
prisoner. 

" One, not in the battle of Franklin, might think it 
strange that such a conspicuous character as General 
Cleburne should be killed and his death not witnessed 
by any one; but the fire was so terrific and the smoke 
so dense that one could not distinguish an object at 
twenty feet distant. The morning after the battle in- 
formation came to our head-quarters that General Cle- 
burne's body was found. I immediatelv went in search 
of it and found it laid out on the gallery ofcthe Mc- 
Gavock brick house boots, pocket-book, diary, and 
sword-belt gone. I afterward found the latter on a 
soldier, who claimed to have found it. His (General 
Cleburne's) face was covered with a ludy's handker- 
chief finely embroidered. Who placed his body there 
I have never been able to ascertain, and never knew 



GENERAL CLEBURNK. 379 

who found it until I read M. Quad's letter. General 
Cleburne received but one wound, and that was from 
a minnie ball which passed through his body. I pro- 
cured coffins for Generals Cleburne and Cranberry, 
and Colonel Young, of the Tenth Texas, carried their 
remains to Columbia for interment, sent a courier ahead 
to have three graves dug in some suitable place in the 
country there; reached Columbia late in the evening. 
The remains of these three heroes lay, during that 
night, in the parlor of Mrs. Mary R. Polk. While the 
body of Cleburne was lying in Mrs. Folk's parlor, the 
following verses were placed upon his coffin, written 
by the talented and accomplished Miss Naomi Hays, 
niece of ex-President Polk, who afterward married the 
late lamented Major W. E. Moore, chief commissary 
of the Army of Tennessee: 

Fare thee well, departed chieftain! 

Erin's land sends forth a wail, 
And O my country sad laments thee, 

Passed so late through Death's dark vale! 
Blow, ye breezes, softly o'er him, 

Fan his brow with gentlest breath; 
Disturb ye not the peaceful slumber 

Cleburne sleeps the sleep of death. 
Rest thee, Cleburne, tears of sadness 

Flow from hearts thou 'st nobly won; 
Mem'ry ne'er will cease to cherish 

Deeds of glory thou hast done. 

"Funeral rites were performed the next day by the 
Right Rev. Bishop Quintarcl. The bodies were borne 
to the cemetery and placed in graves beside General 
Strahl and Lieutenant Marsh, of his staff. After the 
burial, I discovered that these gallant men were buried 
in that portion of the cemetery known as the 'potters' 
field,' between a row of negroes and Federal soldiers." 



380 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

I felt very indignant, and so expressed myself. Gen- 
eral Lucien J. Polk, brother to General and Bishop 
Leonidas Polk, was present, and most kindly offered 
me a lot in the Ashwood Cemetery, six miles south of 
Columbia, which kind and generous offer I most thank- 
fully accepted. The next day I obtained a detail from 
the commandant of the post and disinterred Generals 
Cleburne, Cranberry, and Strahl, Colonel Young, and 
Lieutenant Marsh. I disinterred General Strahl and 
Lieutenant Marsh at the request of Bishop Quintard. 
Having only a slight acquaintance with those gentle- 
men, I did not feel authorized to remove their remains 
from where their friends had planted them, but did so 
at the earnest request of Bishop Quintard, who I knew 
was a warm friend of General Strahl and Lieutenant 
Marsh. Five graves were dug in Ashwood Cemetery, 
in a row, where Fburied these five noble and gallant 
soldiers. 

"Upon my return to the division, then around Nash- 
ville, I stated to General Cleburne's staff where I had 
buried our general. Captain Hill, ordnance officer, 
related what Cleburne said to him w^hile riding through 
Ashwood Cemetery, about which so much has been 
said and written. Commenting upon the beauty of the 
grounds, he said: 'It would not be hard to die if one 
could be buried in such a beautiful spot.' He never 
expressed himself, as Mr. Roberts said in the Philadel- 
phia Times, ' If I fall in the coming fight, bury me 
here at Ashwood.' 

"In 1869, at the request of many friends, and the 
Ladies' Confederate Memorial Association of Phillips 
county, Ark., Dr. H. M. Grant, an old friend of Gen- 
eral Cleburne, and myself brought the remains of Gen- 
eral Cleburne from Ashwood to Helena, and buried 



GENERAL CLEBURNE. 381 

them in the Confederate burying-grounds, where, Gen- 
eral Cleburne's friends feel satisfied, that could his 
wishes have been ascertained, he would have chosen to 
be placed at rest. 

"No monument has ever been placed over Cle- 
burne's grave by the Ladies' Confederate Memorial 
Association of Phillips county. The only marks that 
show his grave are the marble head and foot stones, 
brought with his remains from Ashwood, where they 
were placed soon after the war closed by the ladies of 
that neighborhood, with this inscription on it: 

' Major-general P. R. CLEBURNE, 

Of the Confederate Army. 

Born in the county Cork, Ireland. 

Killed at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864.' 

" Mr. Roberts has been very erroneously informed as 
to Cleburne's personal appearance and early life. Cle- 
burne was not 'weak and rather wan.' On the con- 
trary, he was six feet high, broad-shouldered, but spare 
built, very active, had remarkable endurance; large, 
dark gray eyes; awkward in his manners; very sensi- 
tive to the opinions of the world, but a stranger would 
suppose him indifferent to them; a poor conversation- 
alist; exceedingly absent-minded, except when onduty 
and the battle-field; perfectly indifferent to danger; 
possessed of fine literary attainments; very fond of la- 
dies' society, but always app'eared embarrassed when 
in their company. A purer and more honorable man 
never lived, yet these noble qualities were only known 
and appreciated fully by his intimate friends. He had, 
to perfection, that noble trait of character always to 
make the amende honorable; never hesitating to apol- 
ogize when in the wrong. He illustrated this on one 



382 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

occasion most generously toward General John C. 
Brown, afterward governor of Tennessee. The Army 
of Tennessee, retreating from Middle Tentiessee to 
Chattanooga, camped at what was then called Univer- 
sity Station now Sewanee. Early in the morning he 
filed his division in the road, when he found a brigade 
marching* in front. This annoyed him exceedingly. 
He galloped to the head of the brigade and asked for 
the commander. General Brown, whom Cleburne had 
never met, answered that he was. Cleburne, in a per- 
emptory and insulting manner, upbraided General 
. Brown for violating orders, and ordered him to halt his 
brigade until his (Cleburne's) division could pass. On 
returning to the head of his division he met General 
Hardee, who told him that he had changed the order 
of march by putting Brown's brigade in front. Cle- 
burne, without saying a word, immediately galloped 
rapidly back to General Brown, and made to him, in 
the presence of his men, a most ample apology for 
what he had said to him. This little circumstance 
made them warm friends ever afterward. 

" Cleburne had never traveled extensively, as Mr. 
Roberts states; nor was he ever, a cornet of British 
Light Dragoons in India, nor a student of Belles Let- 
tres.in Paris. In fact, he was never in that city. When 
in his ' teens ' he ran away from home and joined the 
British army in Ireland, remaining in the service only 
a few months, when his'family obtained his discharge. 
His father was a physician in Ireland, where Cleburne 
graduated in pharmacy, and came to America in 1850, 
and was first employed in a drug-store in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Cleburne was an ardent Whig, a regular reader 
of the old National Intelligencer and Prentice's Louis- 
ville Journal. He was known in early days in Helena 



BlSHOP QUINTARD. 383 

as an 'Irish Whig.' After the organization of the 
Know Nothing party he became a strong Democrat, 
and retrained devoted to that party to the day of his 
death. He was an active member of the Episcopal 
Church, and took great interest in all Church matters, 
and was for a number of years a member of the Vestry 
of St. John's Episcopal Church in Helena, Ai'k. 

" Cleburne's career was as remarkable as it was brill- 
iant, and it is to be hoped that the day will not be far 
distant when a full history of his life will be published." 



BISHOP C. T. QUINTARD. 

This celebrated divine was a citizen of Nashville at 
the beginning of the war, and was rector of the Church 
of the Advent. His ancestors were French Hugue- 
nots, who came to America at an early day, and, with 
the Bayards, the^Pintards, and the Jays they formed a 
colony in New York, which was called New Rochelle. 

Dr. Quintard graduated at Columbia College, New 
York, when quite a young man, and studied medicine 
and surgery under the celebrated Dr. Valentine Mott, 
of New York, one of the most renowned surgeons of 
America. After graduating in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of New York, he was appointed one of the 
assistant physicians of Bellevue Hospital. After re- 
maining in this institution for one year, he removed 
South and located in Georgia. Here he practiced his 
profession, and was an able contributor to the medical 
journals of the day. 

In 1851 he was called to the chair of Physiology and 
Pathological Anatomy in the Medical College at Mem- 
phis. 



384 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

Becoming dissatisfied with secular pursuits, and feel- 
ing himself moved by the Holy Ghost to a sublimer 
work, he commenced the study of theology uftcler the 
Rt. Rev. J. H. Otey, D.D., LL.D., and was by him 
admitted to the holy order of deacons in January, 18=55. 
Resigning his professorhip, he commenced the duties 
of his sac%ed calling, to which he has ever since ar- 
duously and faithfully devoted all his energies and 
ability. 

In 1856 he was ordained priest, and a year after was 
called to the rectorship of Calvary Church, in Mem- 
phis. In 1858 he resigned the rectorship of Calvary 
Church, and was made rector of the Church of the 
Advent, at Nashville, which position he filled till 1861, 
when he was chosen chaplain of the First Tennessee 
Regiment, many of whose men were members of his 
Church. At Cheat Mountain, in the autumn of 1861, 
he was called to act on General Loring's stafF, which 
position he filled till June, 1862, when he rejoined his 
regiment at Chattanooga on the eve of the Kentucky 
campaign. Here he was called to take a position on 
General Folk's staff, which he accepted and filled till 
February, 1863. During all this time he had faithfully 
filled the position of chaplain as well as staff officer. 

In the spring of 1863, at the request of his fellow 
chaplains, he was assigned by General Bragg to the 
charge of the hospitals of Folk's coi'ps. Here he filled 
the positions of surgeon and chaplain, with the privi- 
lege of free travel on all railrdads to the different points 
of his field of labor. In this capacity he served to the 
close of the war. 

Bishop Quintard always attended his men on the 
field in the event of a pitched battle. He never chose 
a position of safety in the rear, but advanced to the 



REV. DR. CROSS. 385 

front with his men, to the very thickest and hottest of 
the fight, and was ever prompt to render surgical as- 
sistanctf to the wounded and speak words of consola- 
tion to the dying. 

Throughout the war Bishop Quintard was a very 
useful as well as a pious and good man. Since the 
close of the war he has been zealous and faifchful in the 
discharge of every duty pertaining to his position as 
bishop of his Church. His present residence is Se- 
wanee, Tenn. 



REV. JOSEPH CROSS, D.D. 

This celebrated divine entered the Confederate serv- 
ice as chaplain of Colonel Bate's Second Tennessee 
Regiment in 1861. Of his history there is a singular 
coincidence of dates. He was born in England, 
July 4, 1813; landed in America, July 4, 1825; joined 
the Church, July 4, 1826; preached his first sermpn, 
July 4, 1829; was married, July 4, 1834; ascended Mont 
Blanc July 4, 1857; commissioned chaplain of the Sec- 
ond Tennessee Regiment, July 4, 1861. 

Dr. Cross's boyhood was spent in very humble cir- 
cumstances. His father came to America in 1822 in 
the hope of bettering his condition, leaving alf of his 
family in England, except one "son, who accompanied 
him. After three years of faithful toil he succeeded in 
gathering up enough means to bring his family to 
America, where he had prepared for them a home. 
During the father's absence in America the health of 
the mother gave down, and the children were placed 
upon the parish for support. The three brothers were 
apprenticed to farmers of the neighborhood, where 
25 



386 SKETCHES OF OFFICERS. 

they remained till funds arrived with which to defray 
the expenses of the family to America. 

Shortly after the arrival of the family in the New 
World the mother died. The father and children were 
established in their new home. Here Dr. Cross grew 
up to manhood, and as he grew up he took an abiding 
interest in*the spiritual welfare of his father's household. 
At the age of thirteen he commenced holding prayer- 
meetings with the boys of the neighborhood, and his 
brothers and sisters were converted. He soon engaged 
in public exhortations, and preached his first sermon 
at the age of sixteen. He now felt the want of an ed- 
ucation, and proceeded at once to the Oneida Confer- 
ence Seminary, at Cazenovia. When he arrived at 
the turnpike gate he had no money, and pawned his 
knife for his passage through. He soon gained an 
audience with the trustees, and prevailed upon them to 
wait for his tuition till he could pay for it by teaching. 
At the same time he perfected arrangements to pay his 
board by sweeping the rooms, sawing wood, making 
fires, and such other work as was needed to be done 
about the seminary. 

During his stay at school he preached every Sab- 
bath in the vicinity. He soon after engaged in teach- 
ing, in which he was successful. He had by this time 
become an able young minister of the Methodist 
Church. He joined the Conference and bestowed all 
his energies upon his work of the ministry. 

About this time there was a severance of the Church 
on political issues, and Dr. Cross came South and set- 
tled in New Orleans. 

By faithful study he had become a learned man, and 
was called to the chair of Belles-lettres in Transylvania 
University. This was in the yedr 1847, wh en New 



REV. DR. CROSS. 387 

Orleans was so severely .scourged with yellow fever. 
Embarking upon a steamer, he started to his new field 
of labor, but was attacked with yellow fever soon after 
his departure from New Orleans. In this trying hour 
he would doubtless have died but for the assistance of 
that good man, Bishop Paine, who happened to be on 
board the vessel. Bishop Paine nursed him on the 
voyage to Cairo, and took him ashore and remained 
with him till he recovered sufficiently to complete his 
journey to Louisville, and thence to Harrodsburg. 

Dr. Cross remained in Kentucky three years. He 
was then transferred to the Tennessee Conference and 
stationed at Nashville, where he remained two years. 
He was next transferred to Charleston, S. C., where 
he preached four years. At this place the honorary 
title of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him. 
While at Charleston he wrote several works, and sub- 
sequently went to Europe. After his return to Amer- 
ica he published an account of his travels. In a short 
time he was called to a professorship in Spartanburg 
Female College, and afterward to its presidency. 

On the eve of the opening of the war between the 
States he removed to Gallatin, where he took charge 
of a Church, and dwelt there until the war commenced. 
He followed the fortunes of the Confederacy from its 
beginning to its final collapse. Throughout the war 
Dr. Cross filled the position of chaplain of the Second 
Tennessee, and other positions to which he was pro- 
moted. As a man of true Christian piety, he was 
prominent, and for his ability and goodness in the dif- 
ferent phases of his work, he was respected, honored, 
and loved by all who knew him. 

Concerning his history since the war the writer 
knows comparatively nothing. 



388 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



OPPIGIALt 



CHAPTER X. 

Official Report of Colonel D. M. Donnell, Command- 
ing the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, 
in the Battle of Chickamauga, September 19 and 
20, 1863. 

MISSIONARY RIDGE, October 6, 1863. 

Captain: I have the honor to make the following- 
report of the part taken by my regiment, the Sixteenth 
Tennessee, in the battle of Chickamauga on Septem- 
ber 19 and 20: 

The line of battle having been formed, we advanced,, 
changing- direction slightly to the right, through a corn 
field and a short distance into the woods beyond, where 
we found ourselves under a very heavy fire from a bat- 
tery of the enemy about one hundred and fifty yards 
in front of the left wing of my regiment. This fire 
wounded a considerable number of my men, who re- 
tired from the field; and at the same time a number of 
others fell back ten or fifteen paces, to seek protection 
behind trees. This for a moment induced the belief 
that the line was giving way, but the men maintained 
their position, firing as rapidly as they could through 
the thick undergrowth, which very much obstructed 
the view of the enemy, for about three hours, when I 



COLONEL DONNELL. 



389 



received an order from Brigadier-general M. J. Wright 
to retire, -which I did. A few moments before I 
received the order, Strahl's brigade, having relieved 
Smith's, was in the act of charging the enemy. Hav- 
ing notified Colonel J. H. Anderson, on my left, I com- 




COLONEL D., M. DONNELL. 

menced moving with Strahl's brigade, but had not ad- 
vanced more than twenty paces when -the order from 
General Wright, alluded to above, came, and I retired. 
During this time our loss was sixty-seven wounded. 



39 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

On the next morning, while lying in line of battle, 
one man was mortally wounded.* 

During this day we changed position several times, 
and just before night joined in the charge which drove 
the enemy from his fortifications, thus ending the en- 
gagement. 

On this occasion the officers and men under my com- 
mand, with few exceptions, conducted themselves with 
their usual gallantry. I am particularly indebted to 
Lieutenant-colonel D. T. Brown, Captain H. H. Dil- 
lard, acting major, and Adjutant A. F. Claywell, for 
the invaluable assistance they gave me in preserving 
order and inspiring confidence in the minds of the 
men. Captain Dillard does not belong to my regi- 
ment, but is attached to the conscript bureau. Know- 
ing him to be a most excellent officer, and being with- 
out a major, I invited him on the evacuation of Chat- 
tanooga to act in that capacity. This he has done on 
the march and in action with marked ability. I cannot 
speak too highly of his cool gallantry and sound judg- 
ment. 

I am, captain, yours respectfully, 

D. M. DONNELL, 

Colonel Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. 

Captain LEON TROUSDALE, Assistant Adjutant -general, 
Wright's Brigade. 

* Private William Hodges, Company F. 



CAPTAIN PAINE. 391 



Report of Captain A. J. Paine, Ordnance Officer of 
Wright's Brigade. 

Number of guns carried into the battle of Chickamauga, and 
number of rounds of ammunition expended on the field, in 
Wright's Brigade, Cheatham's Division, Folk's Corps, Army 
of Tennessee: 



No. 
REGIMENTS. en i 

Eighth Tennessee 


guns tak- 
nto fight. 

260 

242 

254 
264 

2 3 2 


No. rounds Total No. 
expended rounds 
per man. expended. 

9^ 2,400 

iH r > 8 33 
12 3,048 
10 2,640 

ia 2,320 


Sixteenth Tennessee 


Twenty-eighth Tennessee 


Thirty -eighth Tennessee 


Fifty -first and Fifty-second Ten- 
nessee 





Total i)252 12,241 

The detail with the ordnance train during the fight 
were employed chiefly in watching the movements of 
their respective regiments, so as to know at all times 
their exact locality, that they might be able to supply 
them with ammunition at any moment. Their leisure 
hours were occupied in gathering and transporting to 
the rear ordnance stores from the battle-field. The 
brigade carried from the field upward of 1,100 guns, 
beside a good many accouterments and bayonets. 
These guns were hauled to the rear for transportation 
to the railroad. 

Very respectfully, A. J. PAIXE, 

Ordnance Officer, Wrights Brigade. 

October 18, 1863. 



39 2 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



Official Report of Colonel John H. Anderson, Com- 
manding the Eighth Tennessee Regiment Tennessee 
Volunteers, in Battle of Chickamauga. 

CAMPS NEAR CHATTANOOGA, October 3, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to make the following re- 
port of the part taken by the Eighth Regiment Ten- 
nessee Volunteers in the battle of Chickamauga, Sep- 
tember 19 and 20: 

On the night of the iSth my regiment bivouacked 
about three and three fourth miles from the battle- 
ground, and at daylight on the ipth I was ordered to 
move forward and cross the Chickamauga River at a 
ford in the rear of General Walker's division, which 
was then engaged with the enemy about one and a 
half miles from the ford. After crossing, we were 
formed in line of battle in an old field on the bank of 
the river, in which position we remained an hour and 
a half, when we were again moved to the front by the 
right flank, to a position on an eminence about half a 
mile to the front, when we were again formed into 
line, in which position we remained but a short time, 
being annoyed to some extent by one of the enemy's 
batteries, in position near Lee and Gordon's Mill, about 
one mile to our left and front. We were then ordered 
forward to engage the enemy on the left of Major- 
general Walker's division who were hotly engaged by 
the enemy in heavy force double-quick a distance of 
about one mile, over a very broken and bushy ground, 
to the immediate front of the alignment. The correc- 
tion being made, my command moved upon the enemy, 
who was posted upon an eminence protected by heavy 
timber and undergrowth, with two batteries, of artil- 



COLONEL ANDERSON. 



393 



lery stationed in commanding positions to enable him 
to give us a warm reception. I had not advanced far 
when the enemy opened upon me a heavy fire with 
artillery and small arms. My men maintained perfect 
order and moved steadily to the front, to a position 




MAJOR H. II . D I I. LAUD, 

Sixteenth Tennissee Regiment. 

not exceeding, two hundred yards from the enemy, 
when I received an order to halt, and I gave the 
order to open tire, which order was promptly executed, 
with, as I suppose, considerable effect upon the enemy, 



394- OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

as he commenced giving way in my front. The fire of 
the enemy at this time was very severe, causing the 
regiment on my right the Sixteenth Tennessee, Colo- 
nel D. M. Donnell to retire some distance to the rear, 
to a position not so much exposed; and a few moments 
after the Sixteenth retired, the regiment on my left 
the Fifty-first Tennessee, Lieutenant-colonel J. G. Hall 
retired to the rear, leaving both of my flanks exposed. 
I immediately dispatched some three different officers 
te see Brigadier-general Wright for orders, but they 
did not succeed in seeing him. Having no orders, and 
believing it my duty to hold my position, if possible, 
until ordered to the contrary, I maintained and held my 
position, tftough subjected to a murderous fire from 
small arms and artillery, my men standing firmly to 
their posts and keeping up a continuous fire upon the 
enemy. 

Though with considerable loss in my regiment, I 
then dispatched an officer to my left to ascertain if 
there were any of our forces on my left. He returned 
and reported that there was no support on my left at 
all, but that the enemy was there in heavy force. There 
was a force of ours some distance on my right, hotly 
engaged with the enemy; and seeing no immediate 
danger from my left, I thought it best to hold my posi- 
tion as long as possible, in order to keep the enemy 
from turing the left flank of our forces, then engaging 
them on my right, which I succeeded in doing. I held 
my position for about two hours, when it was reported 
that the enemy in heavy force was moving on my left 
flank, and had opened fire upon me from the left. I 
then gave the order to retire by the right of companies 
to the rear, which order was executed slowly and in 
perfect order, to a position one hundred and fifty yards 



COLONEL ANDERSON. 395 

to the rear, upon an eminence, that I might better ob- 
serve the movements of the enemy, and keep him from 
turning my left flank, in which position I was joined 
by the Sixteenth Tennessee, Colonel Donnell, who 
moved forward and formed upon my left. In this 
position I remained a short time, when I observed that 
the forces on my right were being hotly pressed by 
the enemy; and still having no order, I moved by the 
right flank to their assistance, but just before I reached 
them I received orders from Brigadier-general Wright, 
through one of his staff officers, to move to the rear 
about a mile, and join the balance of the brigade and 
get a supply of ammunition, which order I promptly 
obeyed. 

After being supplied with ammunition, I moved by 
the flank to the front, with the balance of the brigade, 
to a position in front of an old field, the opposite of 
which the enemy was in position. It then being near 
sundown, we were formed in line of battle and ordered 
to bivouac for the night. In this position we remained 
during the night and until about 12 M. of the 2oth, 
when we moved to the extreme right of our lines, and 
formed a line in support of Major-general Breckin- 
ridge's command, who was then engaging the enemy's 
extreme left, where we remained until about 5 P.M., 
when we were ordered forward to charge the enemy 
in his fortifications on an eminence near the Chatta- 
nooga road, which order was obeyed with a deafening 
yell; and we moved forward at a double-quick step, 
but before we reached them in their position, they 
abandoned it and fled in great panic and disorder. 
The firing having ceased, the enemy having fled, and 
it being then about 7 P.M., we were ordered to bivouac 
upon the grounds we then occupied, where we re- 



396 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

mained until the following morning at 9 o'clock, when 
we were ordered to move on the Chattanooga road 
about one and a half miles, where we remained until 
4 P.M., when we moved forward to our present posi- 
tion. 

Although my command had been subjected to a great 
many hardships and privations heavy marching 
through heat and heavy clouds of dust, and the morti- 
fication of again being compelled to leave their native 
State, their homes, and those near and dear to them, 
to a treacherous, insolent, and unprincipled foe yet 
they behaved and fought like true patriots and free- 
men, who knew their rights and privileges, and were 
willing to maintain them at all hazards. All honor to 
our brave dead and wounded, who sleep and have be- 
dewed the battle-ground of Chickamauga with their 
blood for the cause of freedom and of the South! May 
the dead live in the memory of every true patriot, and 
the wounded soon be healed to again join their broth- 
ers in arms, and to continue to battle until the last 
armed foe has been driven from our homes! 

I cannot close this report without saying a few 
words in honor of the brave officers and men of my 
regiment. They behaved, with but the fewest excep- 
tions, in the most gallant manner, maintaining their 
position for about two hours under a terrific fire of ar- 
tillery and small arms, in the very face of a large and 
overwhelming force of the enemy. Of the field and 
staff, I would mention Lieutenant-colonel Chris. C. 
McKinney, Major W. G. Burforcl, and Adjutant A. J. 
Murphy, who conducted themselves in the most gal- 
lant and soldierly manner, directing and encouraging 
the men at all times during the action. I have to re- 
gret the loss of Adjutant Murphy, who was severely 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL HALL. 397 

wounded in the arm and shoulder; Captain William 
D. Bond, severely in trie scrotum; Lieutenant N. 
Flynt, I fear mortally, in the hips; and several valu- 
able officers and men whom it would afford me great 
pleasure to mention if the length of this report would 
permit. Accompanying you will please find a report 
of the casualties of my regiment, all of which are most 
respectfully submitted. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your most obedient serv- 
ant, J HX H. ANDERSON, 

Colonel Commanding Eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 
Captain LEON TROUSDALE, Assistant Adjutant-general. 



Report of Lieutenant-colonel John G. Hall, Fifty-first 
Tennessee Infantry, Commanding the Fifty-first and 
Fifty-second Tennessee Regiments, in the Battle 
of Chick am auga. 

IN CAMP NEAR CHATTANOOGA, TENN., October 4, 1863. 
Sir: I respectfully submit the following report as 
to the action taken by the Fifty-first and Fifty-second 
Tennessee Regiments, under my command, in the late 
engagement with the enemy, on September 19 and 20 
last: 

" On the morning of the I9th, in forming the line of 
battle, I was ordered to take my position and form on 
the left of the Eighth Tennessee Regiment, Colonel J. 
H. Anderson commanding. The Twenty-eighth Ten- 
nessee Regiment, Colonel S. S. Stanton commanding, 
formed on my left. I found, on examination, that the 
Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment, Colonel D. M. Don- 
nell commanding, was formed on the extreme right of 
the brigade, and that the Thirty-eighth Tennessee Reg- 



398 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

iment, Colonel J. C. Carter commanding, was formed 
on the extreme left of the brigade, thus placing me in 
the center. The line \Jeing dressed and the order to 
load being complied with, the brigade was ordered for- 
ward to engage the enemy. 

In approaching the enemy's line of battle, I was in 
doubt whether the battalion of direction was on my 
right or left. This embarrassed me somewhat in my 
movements, and when the brigade went into the ac- 
tion, I discovered that in executing an oblique move- 
ment to the left, I had gone too far in that direction; 
that my left wa"s much nearer to Colonel Stanton's 
right than my right w r as to Colonel Anderson's left; 
Colonel Anderson also had gained some ground on 
me by a movement by the right flank, which I did not 
discover at the time of its being executed, under the 
circumstances above stated. 

Learning that the general commanding the brigade 
was on my left, I determined to direct my movements 
with those of Colonels Carter and Stanton. The posi- 
tion which I held during the engagement was an open 
glade, almost entirely level, with the exception of a 
small mound on my extreme left, with but few trees, 
and but little undergrowth. I saw from the range of 
the enemy's balls, and from the surroundings of the 
position which I occupied, that 1 must^ necessarily suf- 
fer severely in any thing like a prolonged engagement. 
I determined, however, to occupy the position and to 
keep the regiments as well prepared as could be done 
under the circumstances for an advance. I remained 
in this position about one hour. The fire of the enemy 
was well directed. We carried into the action 232 
muskets. Thirteen men were killed dead on the field, 
and 132 were wounded eight mortally. 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL HALL. 399 

The officers and men behaved well, loading and fir- 
ing with great coolness about twenty rounds to the 
man. 

When the order to fall back was being complied 
with, color-bearer W. M. Bland, who distinguished 
himself at Murfreesboro, was shot through the head 
and killed. The colors were immediately seized by 
Sergeant Troborough, but almost simultaneously with 
his receiving them, he received a wound from one of 
the enemy's shots, which caused him to relinquish the 
colors to private Rivers, who was also wounded and 
assisted from the field and the colors left. 

The regiment having been supplied with ammuni- 
tion, remained idle until about 4 o'clock in the evening, 
when we were again ordered in line; but our brigade 
taking no further part in the engagement, we were 
ordered some distance to the rear, where we bivouacked 
for the night. 

On the morning of the 2Oth we were again ordered 
in line, and gradually moved round to the right, until 
about 4 o'clock in the evening, when the brigade was 
formed on the right of Brigadier-general Maney's line. 
We were still later ordered forward, but did not en- 
gage the enemy. Met with no casualties. Encamped 
for the night on the battle-field, the enemy having been 
routed and driven off. 

Respectfully submitted, JOHN G. HALL, 

Lieutenant-colonel Commanding Fifty-first and Fifty-second 
Tennessee Regiments. 

Captain LEON TROUSDALE, .Assistant Adjutant-general. 



400 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



Official Report of Colonel John C. Carter, command- 
ing Thirty-eighth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, in 
the Battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19 and W, 1863. 

IN CAMP NEAR CHATTANOOGA, TENN., Oct. 6, 1863. 
Captain: I have the honor to make the following 
report in regard to the part taken by my regiment, of 
Brigadier-general Wright's brigade, in the late battle 
of Chickamauga, fought on September 19 and 20 last. 
The brigade was formed in line of battle about 12 M. of 
Saturday the I9th ultimo. My regiment was on the 
left of the brigade, Captain W. W. Carnes's battery of 
light artillery was on the left of my regiment. The 
brigade was ordered to advance as soon as the line of 
battle was formed. For a short time I thought -that 
Major-general Walker's division was in our front, and 
that Brigadier-general Maney's brigade was on my left. 
I, however, soon discovered that no Confederate troops 
were on the left, and that the enemy alone in heavy 
force was in our front. When I was about one hun- 
dred and fifty yards from the enemy's line of battle I 
was ordered by Captain E. F. Le, assistant inspector- 
general to Brigadier - general Wright, comm'anding 
brigade, to halt my regiment, and was informed at the 
same time that, the command, "Commence firing," had 
been given. I immediately complied with these orders. 
My regiment fought for about three hours under a very 
heavy fire, advancing a little during the time. I can- 
not say definitely what loss I inflicted upon the enemy. 
For my own loss I respectfully refer to a report of the 
killed and wounded already forwarded. 

About 3:30 P.M. of the same day I received an order 
from Mr. E. C. Smith, volunteer aid-de-camp to Briga- 



COLONEL CARTER. 401 

dier-general Wright, commanding brigade, to fall back. 
As this order reached me last, my regiment being on 
the left and the order coming from the right, I believe 
that the other regiments retired a little before mine did. 
I do not assert this as a fact, as I could not observe the 
regiments on the right of the brigade; As soon as I 
discovered that there were no Confederate troops on 
my left I immediately requested First Lieutenant L. G. 
Marshall, of Carnes's battery of light artillery, to turn 
his guns to the left, as I felt sure the enemy would flank 
us; that we the infantry would attend to the enemy 
in front. 

Almost immediately afterward we were apprised of 
the fact that the enemy had flanked us, by his fire and 
by seeing his flanking line. 

On Sunday, the 2oth ultimo, my regiment, together 
with the brigade, was ordered to charge the enemy. 
We complied with the order, but the enemy retreated 
before we reached him. I must be permitted to 
speak of the courage and efficiency of the officers 
and men under my command. Lieutenant - colonel 
A. D. Gwynne, Major H. M. Cotter, Adjutant R. 
L. Caruthers, Captain F. Pugh, H. M. Neely, M. 
N. Nevill, and J. C. Millers, ^nd Lieutenant J. W. 
Chilcutt, R. B. Koen, and R. Field deserve especial 
mention. I regret that necessity compelled us to move 
so rapidly before the line of battle was formed. Our 
sorrow for the fallen is softened by the fact that our 
banners waved over the ground upon w r hich they lay, 
and that shouts of triumph rang upon their ears and 
lit in death their smiles of hope. We return thanks to 
God for the victory won. I am, very respectfully, 

JOHN C. CARTER, Colonel Commanding. 
Captain LEON TROUSDALE, Assistant Adjutant-general. 
26 



402 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



Official Report of Colonel S. S. Stanton, Twenty-eighth 
Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 

HEAD-QUARTERS TWENTY-EIGHTH TENNESSEE [ 

REGIMENT, October 7, 1863. \ 

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report 
of the part taken by the Twenty-eighth Tennessee 
Regiment in the late battle of Chickamauga. The 
Sixteenth, Eighth, and Fifty-first Tennessee Regiments 
being formed on my right, and the Thirty-eighth Ten- 
nessee Regiment on my left, mine was immediately on 
the left of the center regiment of the brigade. 

Having crossed Chickamauga Creek on Saturday 
morning, September 19, we were maneuvered furious- 
ly for two or three hours, and finally placed in order of 
battle. Early after noon the entire brigade w r as or- 
dered forward, with instruction from Brigadier-general 
Wright that each regiment would cover its front with 
skirmishers, to be' instructed by their respective colo- 
nels, to advance with great caution, lest they should fire 
on a line of friends who, he had been informed, were 
on our front, and that ours was a supporting line. 

Having thrown forward skirmishers, as above or- 
dered, we moved forward some four or five hundred 
yards rapidly, through a thick woods, some portion of 
which was densely lined with undergrowth, when, 
somew r hat to our astonishment, instead of friends, who 
were supposed to be on our front, we found ourselves 
suddenly in contact with the enemy, not more than one 
hundred yards distant, who had already commenced 
fire upon us as we came upon them concealed behind 
breastworks. Our line, in moving up to this point, had 
been brought most of the way in double-quick time, 



COLONEL STANTON. 403 

therefore the skirmishers had not kept far in advance 
of the line. The skirmishers were not, therefore, blam- 
able for this sudden contact with the enemy, for the 
filing came upon the line about the same time that it 
did upon the skirmishers; hence the enemy got the first 
fire upon us. But nothing daunted, my brave boys 
fired promptly at the command, and moved forward a 
few paces, when they wer*ordered to fire and load 
lying down. This order was executed for more than 
an hour in splendid style, when from an overpowering 
fire, both of infantry and artillery, from the enemy, 
who were securely intrenched behind said breastworks 
immediately on our front, my line was for a moment 
driven back about fifty yards. It was immediately ral- 
lied again under the unceasing fire of the enemy, and 
much to the credit of my officers and men they moved 
firmly forward again, and in a moment retook position 
even in advance of the ground they first held. Here 
they fought with desperation and unyielding determi- 
nation, returning volley for volley until from an over- 
whelming cross-fire from the left, and receiving at this 
time information that the enemy were flanking our 
left, and being ordered to move by the left flank to 
meet said flank movement, my command was accord- 
ingly brought to their feet and put in motion by the 
left flank. By this last movement the men were more 
fully exposed to the deadly fire of the enemy, and we 
were ordered to retire ; and we did then retire about 
one hundred and fifty yards. Here they were reformed 
and were again ready to face the enemy in further 
combat, when, on the arrival of supporting columns, 
we were ordered by the right of battalion to the rear. 
Having replenished our cartridge-boxes and canteens 
with ammunition and water, we were formed on the 



404 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

right of the position. Nothing worthy of notice oc- 
curred after this until late Sunday evening, when we 
participated in the last charge, which resulted in driv- 
ing the enemy from his main stronghold. In this we 
had three more men wounded. 

The casualties of this regiment in the entire engage- 
ment sums up as follows: killed outright, nine :x 
more died soon after being moved to the rear; wound- 
ed, .seventy: making |he aggregate loss eighty-five. 
None are reported missing. We went into the engage- 
ment with three hundred and eight men, including 
field and staff", infirmary corps, provost guard, etc. 

Much is due my associate field officers, Lieutenant- 
colonel D. C. Crook, Major W. G. Smith, and Adju- 
tant W. B. Whitefield for the energy and courage dis- 
played on their part in aiding me to rally and stimulate 
the men to action, while the sound of musketry, can- 
non, and shell would have rendered it impossible for 
one officer to have been heard, or the command ex- 
tended along the whole line but for this gallant co-op- 
eration on their part. 

The subordinate officers and men throughout the 
entire engagement behaved nobly, and showed them- 
selves worthy veterans of the gallant State from which 
they came, and which they were struggling to regain. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

S. S. STANTON, 

Colonel Twenty -eighth Tennessee Regiment. 
Captain LEON TROUSDALE, Assistant Adjutant-general. 

Inclosure. 

Ox THE FRONT XEAR CHATTAXOOGA, October 6, 1863. 

Brigadier -general Wright: Having learned that 
Colonel S. S. Stanton has been called on for a report 



COLONEL STAXTOX. 405 

of the part taken by the Twenty-eighth Tennessee 
Regiment in the action of September 19, upon the 
banks of the Chickamauga, and believing that he, 
through modesty, will omit an act of the most daring 
gallantry on his part, which contributes not only to his 
own fame, but adds luster to the conduct of the regi- 
ment, we beg leave to mention the same. After the 
terrible onslaught made upon the enemy by your bri- 
gade, the Twenty-eighth Regiment, occupying the left 
center of the same, slightly wavered as if being pressed 
back by the weight of the immense volume of lead 
that was poured against it. Our colonel, seeing this, 
rushed to the front of the line on horseback, seized the 
standard of the colors, and bearing them to the front, 
shouted for his men to follow, which the}' did in the 
most gallant manner, regaining the ground they had 
lost. While thus bearing the colflrs they were riddled 
with balls, being pierced not less than thirty times. 
We respectfully ask that this incident be incorporated 
in and made a part of said report. 

Yours respectfully, 

D. C. CAOOK, 

Lieutenant-colonel. 
W. G. SMITH, 

Major. 
W. B. WHITEFIELD. 

Adjutant. 
W. F. M. BtfATTY, R. ROBERSOX, 

Captain Company H. 
J. G. MAXWELL, 
First Lieutenant Com fan Y K. 

W. S. WOODS, 

Captain Company G. 
O. H. ANDERSON, 
First Lieutenant Commanding Company D. 



406 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

J. R. DONALDSON, 

Captain Company A. 

G. W. COOK, 

Lieutenant Commanding Company F. 

JOHN B. HOLMAN, 

Captain Company B. 
W. H. MITCHELL, 

First Lieutenant Commanding Company R. 

S. S. DEARMAN, 

Lieutenant Commanding Company I. 

Z. H. BRYANT, 

Lieutenant Company C. 



Official Report of Brigadier - general Marcus J. 
Wright, of Battle of Chickamauga, September 19 
and 20, 1863. 

HEAD-qUARTERS WRIGHT'S BRIGADE, CHEATHAM's 
DIVISION, FOLK'S CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE, 
IN THE FIELD, October 9, 1863. 

Major: I have the honor to make the following re- 
port of the operations of my brigade in the battle of 
Chickamauga on the I9th and 2oth ultimo: 

On Saturday, ipth ult., at 3:30 A.M., I was ordered 
by Major-general Cheatham to advance and cross the 
Chickamauga at a ford known as Byron's Ford, fol- 
lowing immediately after Brigadier-general Preston 
Smith's brigade, and followed by Brigadier-general 
George Maney's brigade. Immediately after we 
crossed the ford, heavy firing commenced in our front, 
which was ascertained to be an engagement between 
the reserve division of Major-general Walker and the 
enemy, who was in heavy forces, and was pressing 
Walker hotly with his largely-superior numbers. My 
brigade, after crossing, was 'formed in line of battle in 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 407 

a field in the rear of Brigadier-general Smith. I was 
ordered to follow immediately upon the rear of Smith 
w'hen he moved. In an hour Smith moved in the di- 
rection of the battle-field, and we followed closely in 
his rear. After moving into a wood, in a direction in- 
clining down the Chickamauga, another halt was made 
of half an hour, when I received an order from Gen- 
eral Cheatham to forward in a direction nearly at right 
angles to the road along which we were posted, with 
that brave and competent officer, General Preston 
Smith, still on my right. Maney being in my rear in 
the line of march, I supposed that he would be ordered 
up to the left, and indeed, in the act of executing the 
forward movement in the line of battle, I was informed 
by General Smith' that we were a supporting force to 
Major-general Walker, who was supposed to be in our 
front. My brigade is composed of the following regi- 
ments, which moved in line from right to left in the 
order named: Sixteenth Tennessee, Colonel D. M. 
Donnell commanding; Eighth Tennessee, Colonel 
John H. Anderson commanding; Fifty-first and Fifty- 
second Tennessee Regiments, Lieutenant-colonel John 
G. Hall commanding; Twenty-eighth Tennessee, Col- 
onel S. S. Stanton commanding; Thirty-eighth Ten- 
nessee, and Murray's Battalion, Colonel John C. Car- 
ter commanding; with the battery of light artillery, 
commanded by Captain William W. Carnes. The 
men moved up in splendid style, obeying all orders 
with the alacrity and precision which is their habit on 
parade. With the information I had received, believ- 
ing Major-general Walker in our front, I had directed 
each regiment to throw out skirmishers and to 
guard against the too frequent and often criminal folly 
of pouring a fire into the- rear of our own comrades in 



408 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

* 

arms when engaged against a foe in front. This order 
I immediately countermanded when it became qiute 
evident that a most galling fire had been opened by the 
enemy's batteries and infantry upon my right flank and 
a portion of the center. This fire continued for some 
minutes before the left flank was engaged, and was the 
result of my line of battle being advanced obliquely 
toward the right, instead of being parallel to the ene- 
my's line. It was certainly due also somewhat to the 
fact that the Sixteenth Tennessee and the Eighth Ten- 
nessee Regiments extending their line into a corn field 
in open view of the enemy, whose position was con- 
cealed by timber and undergrowth, were compelled to 
advance into the wood in front, thus finding a better 
and more secure position, and some cover for their men 
from the murderous fire which they were gallantly 
sustaining. The center and left, however, soon be- 
came earnestly engaged. Having no eligible position 
for artillery near the center, I was compelled to post 
Carnes's battery (Steuben artillery) on the left of the 
Thirty-eighth Tennessee, being the extreme left of my 
position supposing, too, at that time, that I would be 
supported on the left by the brigades both of Brigadier- 
general Maney and Brigadier-general Strahl. My po- 
sition was near the foot of a declivity, gently rising 
toward the left, and presenting on that flank the high- 
est ground on our lines, and therefore the best position 
for artillery, while that of the enemy was on an emi- 
nence rising from the drain or low ground just in our 
front, many feet above ours, and protected by works 
probably thrown up the previous night. Immediately 
after the enemy's fire was opened, I dispatched the 
order to commence firing to each of the commanding 
officers of regiments, which 'was executed promptly, 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 409 

and with coolness and precision. I have reason to be- 
lieve that the effect of our firing upon the enemy was 
terrific from the report of' a wounded officer who fell 
into the hands of the enemy and subsequently escaped, 
and from a careful survey of the battle-ground by some 
of the men after the action. The enemy opened upon 
us a cross fire of two batteries and a concentrated 
shower of musket shot from a greatly superior force, 
their line extending the full length of a brigade beyond 
my unsupported left. Our men met the terrible fire 
which was hurled upon them with constancy, coolness, 
and undaunted courage, bearing the shock like veter- 
ans, and not perceptibly wavering beneath its severity, 
and returning shot for shot as far as their inferiority of 
numbers would allow. 

After sustaining this fire for three and a half hours 
from 12 M. to 3:30 P.M. seeing that Brigadier-general 
Smith, immediately on my right, had withdrawn from 
the field, and learning from some of my officers that 
their ammunition was nearly exhausted, I determined 
to order the brigade to retire. Before, however, I 
could give orders to execute this movement, a courier 
informed me that the enemy was flanking my position, 
which, upon moving in that direction, I distinctly dis- 
covered, seeing his line moving through the ravine and 
undergrowth upon the left flank. I then dispatched 
orders to the colonels and commander of the battery to 
withdraw to a hill about a quarter of a mile in the rear. 
Discovering at this opportune moment a supporting 
brigade approaching in line of battle, and not being 
able to move rapidly enough to communicate with 
General Clayton in consequence of my being dis- 
mounted, I requested the colonel commanding the 
leading regiment to move to my left and protect the 



410 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

men in retiring, which he did promptly and efficiently. 
At the same time I informed him that the enemy was 
flanking our position. Each of the regiments were 
withdrawn slowly and in good order, although all the 
horses of the battery except three were killed, and one 
half of the company shot down, either killed or 
wounded, thus rendering the battery useless to check 
the advance of the enemy's flanking force. Captain 
Carnes, First Lieutenant L. G. Marshall, and Second 
Lieutenant James M. Cockrill, of the artillery, re- 
mained with the battery until they received orders to 
retire, narrowly escaping capture, and gallantly stand- 
ing at their posts until the last moment. Second Lieu- 
tenant A. Van Vleck gallantly died at his post. After 
retiring from the field, I at once dispatched a staff offi- 
cer to Major-general Cheatham advising him of the 
position of the brigade, and informing him of the fact 
that our ammunition was nearly exhausted, which was 
promptly supplied. 

After 5 P.M. the brigade was again ordered to take 
position about eight hundred yards to the right of the 
ground on which we had fought the enemy. Major- 
general Cleburne's division and Smith's brigade, of 
Major-general Cheatham's division, at about 6: 30 P.M., 
on our immediate right, made a most gallant and suc- 
cessful movement upon the enemy's position, but my 
brigade was not ordered to participate in the glorious 
charge which cost the lives of many brave patriots, 
and among them the heroic General Preston Smith. 

Having bivouacked at this position on Saturday 
night, on Sunday morning a line of battle was again 
formed, and held steadily for three hours under a most 
harassing fire from the enemy's batteries. One man 
of the Sixteenth Tennessee was severely wounded by 
a round shot. 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 411 

About i P.M. I was ordered to move the brigade 
around to the right of our position, following Maney 
in moving by the right flank. About 6 P.M., Maney 
being on the left, I was ordered to follow his move- 
ments in line of battle. Major-general Walker's di- 
vision and Brigadier-general Jackson's brigade, of 
Cheatham's division, were already engaged fiercely in 
assaulting a fortified position of the enemy, at which a 
very large force of his artillery had been concentrated. 
A furious contest was raging with wild and terrible 
carnage. Though the gallant troops of Walker and 
Jackson held their position with unsurpassed stubborn- 
ness and heroism, yet the enemy, encouraged by the 
strength, natural and artificial, of his position, and his 
concentrated forces, was making a most stubborn fight. 
At this critical moment the two brigades General 
Mnney's and my own were precipitated with a deaf- 
ening hurrah and rapid shock to support our gallant 
comrades who were contending against unequal odds. 
The men were in the highest spirits, and moved for- 
ward with an animation that I have never seen sur- 
passed. At this time the scene was one of the most 
animated and exciting that can be imagined. The 
whole issue of the combat seemed suspended upon a 
moment's work. The shouts of our gallant patriots 
presaged success, and every eye was lighted with vic- 
tory. It came at that propitious moment. The enemy, 
already daunted by the fierce ordeal through which 
they had passed from the guns of Walker and Jackson, 
could no longer bear the trials when the cheers of our 
reinforced battalions were wafted to them on the even- 
ing breeze. They broke in hopeless confusion and 
rout, precipitately fled before our pursuing columns, 
leaving their dead and wounded behind them and sev- 



412 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

eral pieces of their artillery. Although my brigade did 
not reach the position in time to fire but a v*ery few 
guns from the Thirty-eighth Tennessee, yet it is a 
source of heartfelt satisfaction that the cheers of the 
men and their impetuous charge assisted in striking a 
terror into the heart of the foe and in hastening his in- 
glorious flight. In this engagement and that of Satur- 
day the brigade captured seventy-one prisoners, in- 
cluding a captain and two lieutenants. The loss in the 
brigade was eighty-nine killed on the field, eighty- 
three missing, most of whom are known to be, and 
others are supposed to be, in the hands of the enemy, 
and four hundred wounded. Among the. killed I regret 
to mention Captain J. M. Parks, of the Sixteenth Ten- 
nessee; Lieutenant Hainey, of Murray's battalion, at- 
tached to the Thirty-eighth Tennessee; Lieutenant W. 
T. Wade, and color-bearer Bland, of the Fifty-first and 
Fifty-second Tennessee Regiments; Captain S. B. 
Whaley, and Lieutenant Craig, of the Twenty-eighth 
Tennessee; and Lieutenant Van Vleck, of Carnes's 
battery. Among the wounded were Colonels John H. 
Anderson and D. M. Donnell; Lieutenant - colonel 
John G. Hall, and Major Thomas G. Randle; Captains 
D. C. Puryear, James J. Cullom, and W. D. Bonds; 
and Lieutenant Cunningham, J. W. Leonard, N. Flynt, 

and Shaw, of the Eighth Tennessee; Lieutenants 

Potter, J. F. Owen, James Fisher, and James Worthing- 
ton, of the Sixteenth Tennessee; Captain W. H. Mc- 
Donald, Lieutenant H. M. Apple, W. L. Danley, and 
D. C. Taylor, of the Twenty-eighth Tennessee; Ad- 
jutant R. L. Caruthers, Lieutenant J. M. Banks, and 
W. D. Ridout, of the Thirty-eighth Tennessee; and 
Captain R. M. Burton, Lieutenants R. P. Billings, W. 
B. Chester, W. H. White, E. R. Hainey, B. M. Tilman, 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 413 

and W. T. Wade, of the Fifty-first and Fifty -second 
Tennessee Regiments. All the field officers of the 
brigade and the officers of the battery acted with such 
distinguished gallantry that I feel it would be invidious 
to make a distinction. Company officers and men, 
with very inconsiderable exceptions that have come to 
my knowledge, bore themselves with a gallantry and 
steadiness becoming patriots contending for freedom 
and all that honorable men hold dear. 

I am indebted for valuable assistance during the en- 
gagement to my staff officers, Captain Leon Trous- 
dale, assistant adjutant-general; Captain Edward F. 
Lee, assistant inspector - general; my aid-de-camps, 
Lieutenant E. T. Harris, and Lieutenant Sidney Wom- 
ack, and Mr. Charles T. Smith. They each discharged 
their duties with fidelity and zeal. One of my couriers, 
Mr. William S. Hill, won the commendations of all, 
and my warm thanks for his gallantry and alacrity in 
the discharge of his perilous duties. Brigadier-general 
W. C. Whitthorne, adjutant-general of Tennessee, vol- 
unteered to act as aid-de-camp on the first day's march 
from Chattanooga, and discharged the various duties 
that I assigned to him with a promptness, courage, and 
ability which merited and received my warmest thanks. 
On the field General Whitthorne conducted himself 
with conspicuous gallantry. 

The infirmary corps discharged their duties with 
such fearlessness and fidelity as to attract my special 
observation. 

The provost guards also, under their worthy and gal- 
lant provost marshal, Lieutenant W. L. Richardson, 
fully fulfilled the standard of their duties. They lost 
one "killed and two wounded in the engagement of Sat- 
urday. I unite with all true patriots of our country in 



414 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

returning thanks to Almighty God, without whose as- 
sistance our strength is weakness, for the substantial 
victory with which he has crowned our efforts. 

I herewith transmit the reports of the regimental 
commanders of the brigade, to which your special at- 
tention is respectfully invoked. I regret I cannot ac- 
cojripany them with the report of Captain Carnes, 
commanding battery, whose absence on business con- 
nected with his battery necessarily delays its prepara- 
tion. 

I have the honor to be, Major, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, MARCUS J. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier-general. 

Major JAMES D. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-general, Cheat- 
ham's Division. 



Report of Captain Ben Randals, Commanding Six- 
teenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. 

HEAD-qiTARTERS SIXTEENTH TENNESSEE REGIMENT./ 

April 9, 1864. \ 
Captain LEON TROUSDALE, A. A. G., Wright's Brigade: 

Captain: I have the honor to make the following 
report of the part taken by the Sixteenth Tennessee 
Regiment in the battle of Missionary Ridge, Novem- 
ber 24 and 25, 1863: 

On the evening of the 24th, the regiment, with the 
other regiments of the brigade, was marched down the 
east side of the Chickamauga, Colonel D. M. Donnell 
commanding. When near the mouth of the river we 
were fired upon by infantry and artillery surprised, 
as none were anticipating an enemy. The same eager- 
ness was manifested by the men to engage the enemy 



CAPTAIN RANDALS. 415 

that has ever characterized the men of this regiment. 
There were but few shots exchanged. The regiment 
was ordered to fall back under cover of a hill. There 
was no disorder or confusion among the men. All 
acted well the part of good soldiers. They were cool, 
calm, and deliberate. 

We were then withdrawn to the bridge across the 
Chickamauga, with loss of one killed and eight 
wounded. Here we remained on our arms during the 
remainder of the engagement. 

I am, Captain, very respectfully, 

BEN RANDALS, 

Captain Commanding Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. 
P. S. Captain, I have omitted the different changes 
of position during this time, thinking it unimportant. 
Truly, B. R. 



Report of Killed and Wounded of the Sixteenth Reg- 
iment Tennessee Volunteers, in the Battle of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, November 24, 1863. 

Private G. G. Taylor, Company A, wounded slightly; 
private Peter Cantrell, Company A, wounded slightly; 
private Dallas Hicks, Company A, wounded slightly; 
private T. R. Hooper, Company A, severely wounded 
in arm; Lieutenant W. C. Womack, Company E, se- 
verely wounded in thigh; private Andrew Hawkins, 
Company E, severely wounded in breast; Sergeant J. 
M. West, Company F, slightly wounded; private L. 
Clark, ^Company D, killed; private E. M. Irwin, Com- 
pany K, severely wounded in arm. 

BEN RANDALS, 

Captain Commanding Sixteenth Tennessee Regiment. 
A. F. CLAYWELL, Adjutant. 



4i 6 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



Official Report of Brigadier -general Marcus J. 
Wright, of the part taken by Wrighfs Brigade, 
Cheathani's Division, Folk's Corps, Army of Ten- 
nessee, in the Battle of Missionary Ridge, Novem- 
ber 24 and 25, 1863. 

HEAD-OJJARTERS POST, ATLANTA, GA., May 7, 1864. 
Colonel JOHN B. SALE, Military Secretary: 

Colonel: Although a report of the operations of my 
command near Missionary Ridge on the 24th and 25!!! 
of November, 1863, has not been officially required 
of me, yet I have the honor to request that the follow- 
ing report be accepted by the general commanding the 
Army of Tennessee at that time, as a record of the 
part taken by my brigade in the battle near Missionary 
Ridge: 

Being under the immediate orders of the general 
commanding on that occasion, I address this commu- 
nication to you. 

Having been in command of the post at Charleston, 
Tenn., for some weeks, I was ordered by telegram from 
Colonel Brent, A. A. G., on the evening of the 2^d of 
November, to move with all expedition by rail to 
Chickamauga Station via Dalton, Ga., which I exe- 
cuted on the first train of cars I could command- 
leaving Charleston about 4 o'clock on the morning of 
the 24th and arriving at Chickamauga Station about 
8:30 in the morning on the same day. I was also or- 
dered to leave three hundred men at Charleston. In 
conformity with which, I ordered the Thirty-eighth 
Tennessee Regiment, commanded by Colonel John C. 
Carter, and my provost guard, under command of 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 417 

Lieutenant Richardson, to remain, making an effective 
force of about three hundred. 

Colonel Carter assumed command of the post, and 
maintained his position under the severest tests to 
which a soldier can be subjected with the highest con- 
stancy, gallantry, and firmness, until pressed by a 
column of the enemy under General Sherman, num- 
bering fifteen or sixteen thousand, when he reluctantly 
retreated toward Knoxville, and successfully joined 
Lieutenant-general Longstreet in East Tennessee, after 
having destroyed the bridges at Charleston and Lou- 
don behind him. The zeal, ability, and courage with 
which he conducted his isolated command out of the 
difficulties which environed him cannot be too highly 
commended. I refer you to his report, herewith sub- 
mitted, for a full and accurate statement of his opera- 
tions. 

On the arrival of the other portion of my command, 
numbering four small regiments, at Chickamauga Sta- 
tion, I was met with an order from Colonel Brent to 
proceed at once to the mouth of the Chickamauga, to 
resist any attempt the enemy might make at crossing 
the river at that point, leaving a regiment to guard 
the railroad bridge at Shallow Ford. In consequence 
of the weakness of my command, after mature consid- 
eration, the regiment I had posted at Shallow Ford was 
ordered to withdraw and follow on with the brigade, 
when the command moved in the direction of the mouth 
of the Chickamauga. Brigadier-general Folk's brigade 
being in position at the railroad bridge, General Polk 
dispatched a force to the Shallow Ford to take the 
place of the regiment withdrawn by me. I moved up 
in the direction indicated until I came into a road run- 
ning parallel and adjacent to the Chickamauga, on the 
27 



4i 8 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

margin of open fields, which gently sloped up toward 
a line of precipitous hills on the route. It was a very 
exposed position, but the road passing through this 
space was the only one practicable for artillery in the 
direction of the mouth of the creek. 

Captain R. F. Kolb, with his battery, had reported 
to me at the railroad bridge for duty, and was with my 
command. While marching over this ground, by the 
right flank, the Eighth Tennessee Regiment, Colonel 
John H. Anderson commanding, on the right; the Six- 
teenth Tennessee Regiment, Colonel D. M. Donnell 
commanding, following; and the Twenty-eighth Ten- 
nessee Regiment, Colonel S. S. Stanton commanding, 
in the rear, the whole line was suddenly assailed with 
a heavy and galling fire from the opposite bank of the 
creek, at a distance of not exceeding one hundred 
yards. The enemy's sharp-shooters were concealed in 
the undergrowth along the bank and waited, before 
opening their fire, until the entire length of the line 
could be commanded by their fire. I immediately or- 
dered the troops to form, advance to the margin of the 
creek, and fire. This they did promptly and gallantly, 
returning the fire upon the foe with marked effect, 
nearly silencing their guns and driving them behind 
the railroad embankment, where they sheltered them- 
selves and kept up a brisk but desultory fire for sev- 
eral minutes. In the meantime, Kolb, to get his bat- 
tery in position on a commanding point to the left of 
my center, which he did promptly, fired a few rounds 
at the enemy from this point; but ascertaining that a 
better position might be had on the extreme left, I or- 
dered him to that point, where he proceeded and kept 
up a brisk artillery duel with the enemy's battery, com- 
posed of two three-inch rifled-guns. Captain Kolb's 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 419 

guns were served with the greatest coolness and signal 
gallantry, for which he is entitled to my thanks and 
the commendation of the country. His report is here- 
with filed. 

Seeing from the position of the grounds, the ob- 
structions presented by the intervening stream, the 
overwhelming force of the enemy, and his being shel- 
tered by a railroad embankment; and being advised by 
Colonel Grigsby, commanding the cavalry, that a large 
force of the enemy's cavalry had already succeeded in 
crossing the river above the mouth of the Chickamauga, 
and moved out in the direction of Tyner's Station, I 
deemed it best to withdraw my command through the 
hills to the rear, by the right of companies, which was 
done in admirable order, and with but -little damage 
from the enemy's artillery fire; Captain Kolb having 
opened fire upon him from an eligible position, to 
which he had withdrawn through the woods on a route 
for his battery which I had reconnoitered to prevent 
the necessity, if possible, of his battery being exposed 
to the enemy's fire, in endeavoring to return by the 
road on which we had approached. 

In this action I lost from my command one killed 
and eleven wounded. My regimental commanders 
behaved with their usual gallantry, coolness, and skill. 
My troops displayed the highest qualities of veterans 
intrepidity and self-possession when suddenly at- 
tacked by an unseen foe. The horses of my staff and 
field officers not having arrived from the train, I was 
necessarily compelled to ride up and down the lines 
and convey the orders to the different commanding 
officers in person. My staff rendered me all the as- 
sistance that was practicable under the circumstances. 

I retired about half a mile into the hills and selected 



420 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

a high ridge, where I placed my command in position, 
directing Colonel Grigsby to occupy the right flank 
with his cavalry, while the left was protected by a pre- 
cipitous bluff* extending to the creek. About 9 o'clock 
P.M., I received an order from Colonel Brent to move 
with the command to Chickamauga Station, which I 
reached in about one hour and a half. Finding three 
batteries there, I ordered them to be disposed for the 
defense of the station, and selected a position for my 
brigade to defeat an apprehended cavalry raid. The 
men were ordered to rest in their position. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 25th I received 
an order to return to the railroad bridge, and in the act 
of executing it, I was taken ill with a severe chill, 
which was brought on by exposure during the preced- 
ing day. I immediately directed Colonel John H. An- 
derson, senior colonel present, to take command of the 
brigade and carry out the order, which he promptly 
did. You are respectfully referred to his report for 
an account of the subsequent operations of the brigade. 

It affords me high satisfaction to express my ac- 
knowledgement to Colonel Grigsby, commanding cav- 
alry, and Captain Kolb, commanding battery, who 
were not of my permanent command, for the valuable 
assistance rendered my command and the intelligent 
counsel which they rendered me. Colonel Grigsby's 
knowledge of the ground and his careful and thought- 
ful interest contributed materially to the successful 
maneuverings by which my command was saved from 
a heavy and useless waste of life. My officers and 
men of all grades deserve my acknowledgements for 
their good conduct and admirable coolness, by which 
we succeeded in developing a very important position 
of the enemy, and checking any contemplated move- 



GENERAL WRIGHT. 421 

ment upon the right flank of the army, by which the 
enemy might have succeeded in gaining our rear, and 
thus have rendered our reverses most disastrous. 

I regret to report that the cavalry of the enemy, 
commanded by Colonel Long, which crossed near the 
mouth of the Chickamauga, succeeded in capturing 
my brigade train, which was en route from Charleston 
to Chickamauga. My brigade quartermaster, learning 
that a large cavalry force was approaching, had turned 
his train down the Ringgold road, when the enemy 
pursued and captured it. The small detail guarding 
were unable to make any resistance to so overwhelm- 
ing a force. Major Elcan, assistant quartermaster, and 
several of the men with him, escaped capture. This 
proved a severe loss to my officers and men, whose 
personal baggage was in the train, as well as a heavy 
loss to the government. 

All of my staff discharged their duties promptly and 
with the highest zeal and intelligence, including Cap- 
tain Leori Trousdale, assistant adjutant-general; Cap- 
tain E. F. Lee, assistant adjutant-general; First Lieu- 
tenant E. F. Harris, assistant aid-de-camp; and Sur- 
geon H. S. Jones, brigade surgeon. 

Surgeon Jones was at the head of the column when 
the enemy's fire opened, and rendered me material as- 
sistance in transmitting my orders. His field hospital 
was established with promptitude under unusual diffi- 
culties. 

I respectfully refer you to the reports of subordinate 
commanders for a more minute statement of the ope- 
rations of their commands. 

I am, Colonel, respectfully your obedient servant, 

MARCUS J. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier -general Commanding. 



422 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 



CHAPTER XI. 

This portion of the Confederate Arm}' is worthy of 
more than a passing notice. It is to be regretted, how- 
ever, that our limited space forbids a fuller detail of its 
operations and the many hard-fought battles in which 
it was engaged. The history of modern or ancient 
warfare has never recorded more gallant service, or the 
achievement of more consummate victories in the face 
of apparently impassable obstructions. Like Stonewall 
Jackson, if any man could accomplish impossibilities, 
it was General Forrest. He seemed to laugh at obsta- 
cles, and look with contempt upon what would seem 
to others practically impossible. His career in the four 
years' war between the States was as romantic as it 
was -brilliant. Its record is full of gallant and glowing 
achievements, and though the pe>i of the historian has 
faithfully portrayed many of his daring exploits, the 
true merits of this gallant hero have never been fully 
given. 

General Nathan Bedford Forrest was born near 
Chapel Hill, in what was then Bedford county, Ten- 
nessee, July 13, 1831. The place is now a part of Mar- 
shall county, on the waters of Duck River. His early 
life was mixed with hardships and adversity, to some 
extent occasioned by the death of his father and other 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 423 

members of the family in succession, leaving the family 
affairs in an embarrassed condition financially, by 
which young Forrest was thrown upon his own re- 
sources early in life, with a limited education. He 
grew up inured to the hardships of pioneer life, and 
his manhood developed that determined firmness and 
unrelaxing energy that characterized his after-life, and 
rendered his career as a soldier so remarkably famous. 

General Forrest was in many respects the counter- 
part of Stonewall Jackson. He was possessed to a 
remarkable degree of that disposition that naturally 
inspired courage and confidence. As a disciplinarian, 
he was stern, rigid, and exacting, though kind, hu- 
mane, and generous. As an officer, he was brave and 
fearless. He appeared perfectly insensible of danger, 
and never called upon his men to do a thing that he 
was not willing to do himself. He led his men in ac- 
tion, and expected of every soldier the full measure of 
his capacity to render efficient service, and nothing 
short of this would render satisfaction. By discipline 
and association, he infused his own spirit into his com- 
mand, and every soldier under him soon learned that 
their legitimate business was TO FIGHT, and to render 
every blow effective upon the enemy. 

General Forrest was of a sober and grave tempera- 
ment, and always seemed to be in a very deep study. 
He was to some extent absent minded when off the 
field, and seldom, if ever, indulged in jest. His whole 
self appeared to be absorbed in the work he had in 
hand, in maturing plans of operation, and putting 
them into execution. As a commander, he was not 
only busy, but untiring and persistent in the execution 
of his plans, which were always well matured and 
successfully carried out. 



424 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

At the breaking out of the war between the States, 
General Forrest was a resident of Memphis, where he 
had served as alderman for several years. He was 
possessed of a large fortune in landed estates and ne- 
groes, as well as stocks and securities. As the war- 
cloud lowered, Forrest made such disposal of his affairs 
as was practicable, and entered the Confederate service 
in June, 1861. At this time a company of "mounted 
riflemen" were forming at Memphis under Dr. Josiah 
White. Forrest entered this company as a private, 
-June 14, 1861. This company became a part of the 
garrison at Randolph, Tenn. In July, Governor Har- 
ris called Forrest to Memphis, where he was urged to 
raise a regiment of cavalry for the Confederate service. 
General Polk also urged the measure, and Forrest was, 
accordingly, commissioned a colonel, with authority in 
accordance with the governor's request. 

Colonel Forrest enlisted his men rapidly, and pro- 
ceeded to Kentucky for the purpose oT securing arms 
and accouterments as well as recruits. In both he was 
successful. The brilliant career of "FORREST'S CAV- 
ALRY" here had its origin. Armed and equipped, the 
regiment operated upon the Mississippi river during 
the first year of the war, in which several engagements 
took place with the Federal gun-boats. 

Forrest's Cavalry was first conspicuously known in 
the affair with the enemy at Murfreesboro in July, 
1862. Colonel Forrest had started from Chattanooga 
on the 6th, with about one thousand men, for the pur- 
pose of reconnoitering the position of the enemy about 
Nashville. As he passed McMinnville, he received 
reliable information of the situation between that point 
and Nashville; and learning that a Federal garrison 
was at Murfreesboro, he resolved to take the place and 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 425 

capture the garrison. He had increased his command 
to thirteen hundred men by a junction with Colonel 
Morrison. With this force he left McMinnville in the 
afternoon of July 12, 1862, and arrived at Woodbury 
about midnight. The Federals had just been to Wood- 
bury, and had arrested and taken away many of the 
people to Murfreesboro. The people of Woodbury 
were in great excitement. The ladies of the place 
were much affected at the loss of kinsmen, and when 
Colonel Forrest heard their statement, he assured them 
in response that they might confidently look for a res- 
toration of -their kinsmen by the following sunset, and 
assured the ladies of his ability to perform the promise. 
By five o'clock on the following morning Colonel 
W barton captured the pickets on the outskirts of Mur- 
freesboro, and the plan of attack was arranged. The 
Federals were surprised and captured after some skir- 
mishing. In this affair Colonel Duffield, the Federal 
commander, was wounded. The Confederate citizens 
were released and returned to their homes. Forrest 
was made a brigadier-general soon after this affair 
with the enemy at Murfreesboro. Continuing his op- 
erations in Middle Tennessee, he destroyed the railroad 
bridges from Tullahoma to McMinnville. The Fed- 
erals had placed a new garrison at Murfreesboro so 
strong that Forrest did not attempt the place a second 
time, but proceeded to the mountains near Altamont, 
where he rested his command for a while. We next 
hear of him in various encounters with the enemy in 
West Tennessee and North Mississippi. Forrest's 
cavalry seemed to be ubiquitous. The Federals never 
knew when he would appear iipon their flanks or in 
their rear. In the Kentucky campaign this cavalry did 
valuable service. On the march from Munfordville, 



426 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

this cavalry harassed the flanks of Buell's army and de- 
stroyed the bridges of the Louisville and Nashville 
Railrqad from Munfordville to Nolin. This command 
picketed the roads from Bardstown to Louisville, Frank- 
fort, and other points. On the eve of the battle of 
Perry ville (September 26), General Forrest was or- 
dered by General Bragg to repair with his command 
immediately to Murfreesboro, Tenn. The object of 
this move was to gather recruits, and General Bragg 
informed General Forrest that such recruits AS he 
might raise were to be under his immediate command. 
On September 28, Forrest left BardstoWn with his 
command for Murfreesboro, a distance of one hundred 
and sixty -five miles. This journey was performed 
within a period of five days. Forrest assembled his 
cavalry at Murfreesboro and gathered recruits from 
different sources until his command was materially 
strengthened. The Confederates had taken possession 
of Lavergne, and the forces consisted of several regi- 
ments of militia and one regiment of cavalry. These 
troops were all raw, and the Federal commander it 
Nashville resolved upon the capture of the place. By 
a night march, on Octqber 6, the Federals gained posi- 
tion in front and rear of the Confederates, and on the 
morning of the yth opened the attack. The Federals 
were commanded by General Palmer. The Confed- 
erates were defeated. The Federals entered Lavergne. 
The militia gave way in the fight and fled in confusion. 
The Thirty-second Alabama was the only regiment of 
veterans on the scene, and this regiment held the en- 
emy in check and prevented the Confederate defeat 
from becoming a rout. . Forrest was at Murfreesboro. 
As soon as he heard of the disaster at Lavergne, he 
hurried to the scene with re-enforcements. The Fed- 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 427 

erals had withdrawn to Nashville, and the Confederates 
re-occupied Lavergne. Pickets were placed on all the 
approaches to Nashville, and the Confederates pushed 
their picket lines to the very gates of the city. During 
the months of October and November, Forrest was 
busy in arranging his forces for more effective service. 
Since the battle of Perryville, the Confederates had 
withdrawn from Kentucky, and were being collected 
under Bragg in the vicinity of Murfreesboro. The 
Federals, under Rosecrans (who had superseded Buell), 
were now being collected at Nashville, and two pow- 
erful armies were collected face to face, ready for the 
sanguinary conflict soon to ensue. The great battles 
of Murfreesboro came off on December 31 and Janu- 
ary i, following. The Confederates withdrew to Shel- 
byville after this battle, and Forrest's cavalry was en- 
gaged principally in picket duty on the outposts and 
on the flanks of the army during the remainder of the 
winter. 

Previous to the battle of Murfreesboro, General 
Wheeler was placed in command of all the cavalry, 
with his head-quarters at Lavergne. Forrest was or- 
dered with his brigade to Columbia, with a view to 
future operations in West Tennessee. As soon as his 
men were properly armed and mounted, Forrest pro- 
ceeded upon his West Tennessee campaign. A lively 
and spirited campaign, checkered with many thrilling 
incidents, was the result. It would be impossible to 
give the details of the expedition in the space allotted 
to this narrative. Forrest was in constant encounters 
with the enemy, in which he was generally victorious. 
In some instances he encountered such vastly superior 
numbers that he would be forced to fall back in haste, 
but his retreats were rapid, and only consummated in 
order to strike the enemy from an unexpected point. 



428 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

In April, 1863, Forrest was sent by General Bragg 
to the relief of Colonel Roddy, who was pressed by 
two heavy columns of the enemy one from Corinth, 
under Dodge, the other from Eastport, under Streight. 
These two columns were marching upon Tuscumbia, 
Ala. This was the inauguration of the celebrated 
"Streight raid," in which Forrest displayed his best 
generalship, as well as the best fighting qualities of 
himself and his command. The Federals being so far 
the superior of the Confederates in numbers, and hav- 
ing gained such decided advantages meanwhile, were 
pushing their advantages with vigor. The people be- 
came alarmed for the safety of North Georgia, and 
Bragg's communications with Atlanta and Montgom- 
ery. Dodge had commenced a retreat with a view to 
cover the movements of Streight, who was by this time 
moving with all his might in the direction of Rome. 
At this juncture Forrest divided his forces, and placed 
apart under -Roddy to follow Streight. The remain- 
der of his force was sent around to the north-east to 
prevent the escape of Streight's command by a flank 
movement. The men under Streight were the Fifty- 
first and Seventy-third Indiana Regiments; Eightieth 
Illinois, Third Ohio, and two companies of Ala- 
bama (Union) cavalrv. They had marched from Tus- 
cumbia in the rear of Dodge, who had been sent in ad- 
vance to divert the attention of the Confederates and 
disguise Streight's real intentions. The Federals were 
conducted by native guides, and had succeeded in get- 
ting so far that they felt their plans almost accom- 
plished without hinderance. The Confederates gave 
hot pursuit when the intentions of Streight had fully 
developed themselves. A running fight now set in. 
Forrest seeing that Streight intended to avoid an en- 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 429 

gagement by hurrying on in the direction of Rome, 
pressed onward and pushed his adversary with all 
haste and vigor. Dodge had commenced his retreat, 
and left the country desolate, and a line of smoky ruins 
marked his path. In the engagements thus far Forrest 
had captured quite a number of prisoners. Roddy 
was ordered to take charge of the prisoners and return 
to Decatur. Detachments were sent out on the flanks 
of the raiders to guard the passes, and the pursuit was 
pressed with renewed vigor by Colonels Biffle and Mc- 
Lemore. Forrest with his escort, together with a part 
of the Fourth Tennessee Cavalry, rushed forward for 
the purpose of overtaking the enemy and bringing on 
an engagement. A running fight of some hours was 
the result. Streight, seeing that an engagement was 
forced upon him, formed his main line on an elevation 
about half a mile east of Long Creek. Biffle and Mc- 
Lemore came up and formed their line, having dis- 
mounted, and proceeded as infantry. It was near dark 
when the fight began, and for three hours the contest 
was stubborn. The Federals gave way slowly, and 
the Confederates pushed every advantage. At eight 
o'clock Colonel Biffle was ordered around the Federals 
for the purpose of attacking the horse-holders. In a 
- short time a brisk skirmish was opened on the Federal 
rear. The Confederates charged in front, and Streight 
was forced to fall back in confusion. The loss on the 
. Federal side was fifty killed, with a corresponding 
number of wounded. The Confederates recovered a 
section of artillery which had been captured a few 
days previously, and captured about thirty wagons and 
teams. The Confederate loss was slight. Sti'eight 
now realized his situation. The Confederates were 
pushing him desperately, and had sent detachments 



43 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

around to cut off his escape. Forrest followed up, and 
by eleven o'clock the pursuit was hastened. The stars 
were shining and the darkness of the night was to 
some extent diminished. Shortly after midnight 
Straight made another stand on the south bank of a 
creek. The banks were high and steep. Straight was 
soon dislodged- from this position and he resumed his 
retreat. Forrest now halted and rested his men for a 
couple of hours and renewed the chase. Streight 
now turned in the direction of Gadsden, Ala. A run- 
ning fight occurred again, and Streight, after crossing 
the Black Warrior, hurried on at a desperate rate with 
the Confederates at his heels. The Confederates at- 
tacked the rear-guard before it had time to cross the 
river. A running fight was kept up. Streight now 
resorted to every means available to hinder pursuit. 
After crossing a deep and rapid stream, the bridge was 
destroyed. The banks of this creek were high, and a 
crossing was rendered difficult; yet the Confederates 
pressed on. The Federals having crossed Black Creek, 
the bridge was set on fire and destroyed. The current 
was swift. The banks were high, and to effect a cross- 
ing was considered impossible. Forrest was non- 
plussed when he came to the stream, and paused. It 
was impossible to ford the stream, and while he was 
pondering over the situation a little gii'l came up and 
presented herself to General Forrest, and told him of 
an old ford not a great way off. Forrest took the little 
girl up behind him, and she showed him the way to 
the ford. The Confederates w r ere soon across and 
pushing the Federals with their usual vigor. The men 
safely over the stream, General Forrest sent the little 
girl home under special escort. The name of this little 
girl was Emma Sanson. Her mother lived near the 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 431 

bridge, and the Federals in passing her house captured 
some young men who were at home on furlough. 
Upon the request of the young lady that her brother 
be restored, General Forrest assured her that it should 
be done before ten o'clock on the following morning. 
After crossing Black Creek, the Confederates pursued 
the raiders ten miles, and overtook them on Saturday 
evening, May 2, at a village called Turkeytown. The 
Federals soon gave way. 

In this encounter the Federal colonel, Hathaway, 
was killed. The Confederate loss was light. 

The Confederates were now reduced to about five 
hundred men. So great had been the zeal of the pur- 
suit that many had become exhausted. The Federals 
had crossed the Coosa River and destroyed the bridge. 
The Confederates carried over the ammunition by 
hand, and in a short time were in hot pursuit. Forrest 
had sent runners to Rome to notify the authorities of 
the situation, and requesting that they bring out every 
available man. Colonel McLemore moved on the 
right flank and Colonel Biffle on the left, while the 
militia were in front of the raiders. Forrest now sent 
an officer with a flag of truce to demand "an imme- 
diate surrender of the Federal force, in order to stop 
the further and useless effusion of blood." Colonel 
Straight, in reply, asked to communicate with General 
Forrest in person. The two generals met in the woods 
and talked the matter over. Streight hesitated to sur- 
render unless assured that he would be surrendering 
to a force at least his equal in point of numbers. Just 
at this time a section of artillery came up and was pri- 
vately instructed to move in a circle. Streight be- 
lieved that several batteries were moving up and taking 
position at the limit agreed upon in the stipulations 



432 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

made under the flag of truce. Impressed with this 
belief, Straight asked of General Forrest how much 
artillery he had. Forrest replied, "Enough to destroy 
your command in thirty minutes." Colonel Straight 
still insisted on knowing the strength of the enemy to 
whom he was asked to surrender, and held a consulta- 
tion with his officers. In a quarter of an hour he re- 
turned and repeated his desire to he assured that he 
was confronted by at least an equal force. Forrest re- 
plied, "-That discussion was entirely useless that he had 
known of this movemsnt from its first inception, and 
prepared for it." Forrest further called Streight's at- 
tention to the fact that he ( Straight) had a river on his 
right that was not fordable. a mountain on his left that 
shut him off from escape, a force in his front with 
which he was not able to cope, and a fqrce in his rear 
that had gained strength every day. If he (Straight) 
failed to surrender he would thus incur upon himself 
the gravest consequences. Straight clung to his old idea 
of equal numbers, and was in the act of returning to 
his men, when Captain Pointer invited him to take a 
drink before parting, and in a pleasant manner sug- 
gested that it might be the last he would ever take. 
The offer was accepted and the two opposing com.- 
manders shook hands and separated. Straight had not 
gone far before he met a white flag from his own men, 
and he returned with the flag to Confederate head- 
quarters. He announced the desire of his officers to 
surrender, and proposed to capitulate upon condition 
that " all were to be held as prisoners of war, and the 
officers should retain their side-arms and personal bag- 
gage." The offer was accepted. 

In order to keep the enemy still deceived, Captain 
Pointer asked of Forrest what disposition should be 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 433 

made of several imaginary detachments of troops. 
Forrest replied in a corresponding manner, and Cap- 
tain Pointer would gallop away hurriedly to execute 
the orders. Straight and his men, 1,466 in all, had sur- 
rendered to a very small force, and to disguise this fact 
Forrest informed Streight "That, as forage was very 
scarce in Rome, he 'would be guarded to that point by 
onlv his escort and one regiment." 

The route of Streight's raid was from Courtland to 
Moulton, thence to Danville, thence to Mt. Alvis, 
Blountsville, Walnut Grove, McCluskey's, Bennetts- 
ville, Wills's Valley, Gadsden, Turkeytown, King's 
Hill, to Rome. The capitulation was effected on May 
3, 1863, within eighteen miles of Rome, between the 
Coosa and Chattahooche Rivers, in that part of the 
county known as " Straight Neck " precinct. For- 
rest received quite an ovation at the hands of the 
Southern people for his great victory. 

SPRING HILL. 

Shortly after the capture of Colonel Streight, For- 
rest was ordered to Spring Hill, to take charge of all 
the cavalry in that section. Forrest assumed command 
on May 16, with head-quarters at Spring Hill. The 
summej: months were devoted to various movements 
on the flanks of Rosecrans's army. During the latter 
part of June, Forrest was ordered to Shelbyville, and 
performed a prominent part in the retreat of the Con- 
federates from Shelbyville to Chattanooga. 

CHICK AM AUGA. 

At the battle of Chickamauga, Forrest's Cavalry 
brought on the attack on the right, where they dis- 
mounted and performed the service of infantry. Walk- 
28 



434 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

er's division formed on the left of Forrest, and Cheat- 
ham's division on the left of Walker's. In this battle 
the cavalry did most efficient service. 

At the conclusion of the battle and retreat of the 
enemy, Forrest's Cavalry pursued the enemy across Mis- 
sionary Ridge, and the Confederate army following, oc- 
cupied the ridge on the morning of September 21. 

During the winter of 1863, Forrest's Cavalry oper- 
ated in East Tennessee, and engaged in many skir- 
mishes with the enemy. 

FORREST A MAJOR-GENERAL. 

On December 4, 1863, Forrest was commissioned a 
major-general and ordered to West Tennessee. His 
territory was "Forrest's Cavalry Department," com- 
prising West Tennessee and North Mississippi. His 
command embraced the following brigades and regi- 
ments: 

First Brigade Twelfth Tennessee, Lieutenant-col- 
onel J. U. Green; Fourteenth Tennessee, Colonel J. J. 
Neely, Fifteenth Tennessee, Colonel F. M. Stewart; 
Sixteenth Tennessee, Colonel Thomas H. Logwood; 
Seventeenth Tennessee. Major Marshall; Street's and 
Bennett's Battalions Tennessee Volunteers. 

Second Brigade Colonel Robert McCullock (Sec- 
ond Missouri) Second Missouri Regiment, Lieuten- 
ant-colonel R. A. McCullock; Willis's Texas Battal- 
ion, Lieutenant-colonel Leo Willis; Faulkner's Ken- 
tucky Regiment, Colonel W. W. Faulkner; Keizer's 
and Franklin's Tennessee Battalions; Chambers's Bat- 
talion (Mississippi), A. H. Chambers; Second Arkan- 
sas (remnant), Captain T. M. Cochran. 

Third Brigade Colonel T. H. Bell (2,000 men) 
Russell's Tennessee Regiment, Greers's Tennessee 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 435 

Regiment, Newsom's Tennessee Regiment, Will- 
son's Tennessee Regiment, Barteau's Tennessee Regi- 
ment. 

Fourth Brigade Colonel J. E. Forrest McDon- 
ald's Battalion, Seventh Tennessee Regiment, Mc- 
Guirk's Regiment, Third Mississippi Regiment (State 
troops), Fifth Mississippi, Lieutenant-colonel Barks- 
dale; Nineteenth Mississippi Battalion. 

The Second and Third Brigades were formed into a 
division, and placed under command of Brigadier-gen- 
eral J. R. Chalmers. 

General Forrest established his head-quarters at Ox- 
ford, Miss. The Federals at this time were meditating 
a movement on Meridian, and Forrest was busy in 
penetrating the designs of the enemy, and using every 
means at his command to thwart their consummation. 
As a consequence, there was a constant and stirring 
movement between the opposing armies, resulting in 
frequent skirmishes and several hard-fought battles 
within the boundaries of General Forrest's department. 

Later in the spring of 1864, the cavalry command 
in Mississippi was increased by three regiments of 
Kentucky infantry, which had been transferred to For- 
rest's Cavalry Department. These three regiments 
numbered seven hundred men. These, with others, 
were organized into the Second Division of Cavalry 
and placed under command of Brigadier-general Abe 
Buford on March 8, 1864. 

PADUCAH. 

To give the details of the daring deeds and glorious 
achievements of Forrest's Cavalry in this his new field 
of operations would, of itself, require volumes. For- 
rest was in constant contact with the enemy. On 



436 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

March 25, 1864, he made a descent upon Paducah and 
captured the town, but the Federals were garrisoned 
in a strong fortress below the town, and the point was 
also protected by two gun-boats. When the attack 
was made upon the fortress the Confederates suffered 
a severe loss and failed to carry the works. Forrest 
then sent a demand for the surrender of the garrison, 
and added, " That if it became necessary to take the posi- 
tion by force he would not be responsible for the con- 
sequences." This demand was answered by Colonel 
Hicks with a positive refusal. While the parley was 
going on, the Confederates were gathering up supplies 
and stock from the town and vicinity. Forrest recon- 
noitered the position and declined the idea of any fur- 
ther assault on the ground that the capture of the 
place would involve a sacrifice greater than the capture 
would justify, and withdrew from the place. 

The threat that was intimated in Forrest's demand 
for surrender, has been severely criticised by the North- 
ern press, but the demand was made under circum- 
stances in which a little effort was made at intimidation 
merely a measure justified in war. 



FORT PILLOW. 



The next point where Forrest's Cavalry figured, even 
more prominently than in the " Streight raid," was the 
affair with the enemy at Fort Pillow, on the Missis- 
sippi river. This occurred on April 12, 1864. It ap- 
pears that the fort was garrisoned by some negro 
troops and West Tennessee (Federal) troops and a 
corresponding amount of artillery, all commanded by 
Major Booth. These Federal Tennesseans were from 
the surrounding country, and were thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the people. Between these and the 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 437 

Confederate Tennesseans there existed the greatest 
antipathy. By mutual threats, a desperate state of 
feeling existed, not only between the men but toward 
the families of these people mutually. The Union 
families were persecuted to some extent by the Con- 
federates of that section of country, and the men of 
these families were in the garrison at Fort Pillow. 
These men would come out from the fort, accompanied 
by negro soldiers, and would insult the women of their 
Confederate neighbors, and commit various depreda- 
tions upon the community. In this manner the garri- 
son at Fort Pillow became a terror to the country. 
Forrest was solicited by a delegation of citizens to look 
into the matter and punish the offenders. When urged 
by the ladies of the country, he made a promise simi- 
lar to his promises at Woodbury and to the ladies at 
Black Creek when he was after Streight. He assured 
them that "the matter would receive prompt atten- 
tion." Faithfully did he execute his promise in this as 
in the other two instances. 

With his usual sagacity and celerity, he invested 
the fortress on April 12, and planting sharp-shooters 
under cover at the most advantageous points, he be- 
sieged the place. Having carried on an active skirmish 
for some time with his sharp-shooters, Forrest had now 
approached to within a few hundred yards of the fort, 
and having fully ascertained the position and strength 
of the garrison, he was satisfied of his ability to take 
the place. Accordingly, he sent Captain Walter A. 
Goodman, of Genei'al Chalmers's staff, with a flag of 
truce to Major Booth, and a demand for the surrender 
of the place. The demand was in these words: 



438 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

HEAD-OJJARTERS FORREST'S CAVALRY,) 

NEAR FORT PILLOW, April 12, 1864. | 

Sir: As your gallant defense of the fort has entitled you to 
the treatment of brave men, I now demand an unconditional 
surrender of your forces, at the same time assuring you that they 
will be treated as prisoners of war. I have received a fresh sup- 
ply of ammunition and can easily take your position. 

N. B. FORREST. 
To Major L. F. BOOTH, Commanding United States Forces. 

In the engagement preceding the demand for the 
surrender, Major Booth was killed, and the command 
of the garrison devolved upon Major W. F. Bradford, 
who was commander of -the Thirteenth Tennessee 
Battalion. This command was very odious to the Con- 
federates, especially those from West Tennessee. Ma- 
jor Bradford replied over the signature of Major Booth, 
who had been dead for over an hour. Bradford seemed 
inclined to waive proceedings, and asked an hour for 
consultation with the officers of the gun-boat in refer- 
ence to the surrender of the garrison and the gun-boat. 
General Forrest immediately replied that he had not 
demanded, and did not ask. the surrender of the gun- 
boat, but*had only demanded the surrender of the gar- 
rison, and would give twenty minutes for a decision, 
and added that "He could not be responsible for the 
consequences if obliged to storm the place." This 
clause was added, not through any desire or intention 
on the part of General Forrest to go beyond the usages 
of war, but through a knowledge of the inveterate 
hatred borne by 'his Tennessee troops toward the 
Tennessee troops of the garrison, and especially the 
negro troops f and he felt assured that they would, 
on this account, be liable to go beyond the bounds of 
restraint toward the garrison, if he should be compelled 
to take the place by force. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 439 

While this parley was going on, several steamers 
came in sight, and Forrest, believing that the parley 
was continued by Bradford to cover the arrival of re- 
inforcements, hastily sent a detachment to occupy the 
old intrenchments and prevent the landing of troops. 
This detachment was under command of Captain An- 
derson, and his instructions were only to prevent the 
landing of troops during the truce. As the transports 
approached, Captain Anderson fired a few shots 
through their pilot-house, and they changed their 
course. For this act Forrest was charged with violat- 
ing the flag of truce, but he was only acting to meet 
such a violation on the part of the enemy. Bradford 
seemed impressed with an idea that he was not nego- 
tiating with Forrest, and seemed anxious to know that 
this general was actually before him. While yet in 
doubt about the matter, he sent a reply over the signa- 
ture of "Booth," in these words: "Your demand does 
not have the desired effect." When Forrest read this 
reply, he said: "This will not do; send it back and say 
to Major Booth that I must have an answer in plain 
English yes, or no." Forrest believed thait the fort 
would be surrendered, but in a short time a reply came 
from the garrison positively refusing to capitulate. 

Forrest immediately proceeded to storm the place, 
and pushed into the Federal works. The negro troops 
threw down their guns and attempted to run out at a 
gap with a view of escaping to the gun-boat. Cap- 
tain Anderson poured a destructive volley into their 
ranks from the river bank, and the garrison, with its 
colors flying, ran in confusion about the fortress, and 
were shot down at will. Forrest came up meanwhile, 
and ordered his men to cease firing, though the garri- 
son had not surrendered. Many of the wounded had 



440 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

scrambled off to some cabins, which caught fire, and 
before the Confederates were aware of the situation, 
this portion of the Federal wounded had been severely 
burned. Forrest took steps immediately to care for the 
wounded, after having gathered up his prisoners. The 
fight was a desperate one, and by the Northern press 
was looked upon as a massacre. The garrison was 
slaughtered by the Confederates at a fearful rate, but 
it was through the persistent stubbornness of a weak 
and ignorant commander and undisciplined troops in 
the garrison, that would not surrender when over- 
powered. Bradford was a weak and unprincipled 
man, and had negotiated with Forrest in the name of 
Major Booth, who was killed early in the fight. He 
had inspired his men with the same spii'it of knavery; 
and had taught them none of the principles of soldiers. 
The prisoners were taken to Jackson, and thence to 
permanent quarters. On the way to Jackson, Captain 
Bradford was found guilty of violating a sacred pledge 
which he had made under the pretext of going to bury 
a brother. Colonel McCullock had given him quarters 
and treated him like a gentleman under this pledge. He 
attempted to escape during the night and go to Mem- 
phis. Being recaptured, Captain Bradford paid the 
penalty of his treachery with his life. 

The prisoners captured at Fort Pillow were as fol- 
lows: 

THIRTEENTH TENNESSEE BATTALION. 

COMPANY A. 

Sergeant R. C. Gunter, J. Childress, A. J. Knight, J. E. Lemon, J. E. 
Howell, G. W. Kirk, T. E. Burton, J. B. Phipps, J. Clark, J. Long, C. 
Swinney, D. Burton, J. Minnyard, J. Berry, J. Halford, W. T. Lovett, M. 
Mitchell, E. Haynes, A. A. Anthony, V. Y. Mattheny, J. Moore. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 441 



COMPANY B. 

A. J. Pankey, R. R. McKie, J. H. Scoby, J. Green, A. McKie, W. G. Bowles, 

E. Jones, A. J. Crawford, S. Hubbs, G. W. Bowles, T-. L. Perry, J. W. Stewart, 
D. Floyd, W. P. Flowers, J. A. Baker, J. C. Paulk, C. P. Bowles, W. T. Hooser, 
J. Jones, W. Morrow, C. R. Allen, H. Bailey, J. A. Beatty, D. B. Burress, W. 
J. Miflin, J. Burrus, W. Woodward, A. H. Barrom. 

COMPANY C. 

Lieutenant N. D. Logan, H. Corning, W. L. Tate, N. G. Henderson, T. 
Wheeless, E. Scarborough, J. Bynum, S. Read, J. Clarke, D. Myers, W. Staf- 
ford, A. McGhee, F. E. Neeham, J. A. Smith, J. Hann, J. Presley, M. Day, D. 

F. Hood, F. M. Gammon, J. Jones, L. Hohoer, G. L: Ellis, J. H. Webb, H. 
C. Moore, W. H. Bolls, A. J. Rice, William Ryder, J. Norman, J. Southerland, 
A. Middleton, H. S. Morris, J. M. Tidwell, J. M. Knuckles, C. Oxford. 

COMPANY D. 

C. D. Alexander, S. E. Kirk, B. J. Kirk, F. D. Tidwell, William Hancock, 
John Taylor, J. W. Brown, T. Woods, B. Johnson, J. Wilsou, W. R. Johnson, 
J. Moer, M. Harper, E. E. Stewart, B. F. Ellison, T. P. Paschal, J. M. Wilson, 
J. W. Gibson, P. S. Alexander, B. W. King, J. Rumage, J. C. Green. 

COMPANY E. 

Captain J. L. Poston, J. Smith, J. T. Cockran, A. J. Hall, E. Childress, J. A. 
Brown, W. G. Poston, O. B. Goodman, S. N. Scarberry, N. C. Cleek, J. Cozart, 
W. Hincs, J. W. Atwine, C. Ellis, A. J. Madlin, A. Carr, J. F. Stamp, R. 
Richardson, J. A. Haynes, J. M. Smith, T. J. McMurray, J. F. Rolf, J. Shoe- 
mate, Henry Clay, J. Arnold, R. Williams, A. J. Sutton, A.^Lewis, J. H. 
Scarboro, T. A. Lunsford, W. J. Scarberry, J. Hodge, H. Jones, W. H. Henley, 
H. L. Brogden, M. E. Beard, F. Dowling. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Lieutenant P. H. McBride, Johnson's escort ; Lieutenant A. M. Hunter, 
Second U. S. Light Artillery ; Captain J. F. Young, Company A, Twenty- 
fourth Missouri Infantry; W. H. Gibson, S. T. Gibson, J. W. Autring, Will- 
iam Boyer, R. C. Price, and S. M. Price, Steagall's Home Guards ; R. B. 
Springer, Company L, Second Iowa Cavalry ; C. E. Pratt, Company A, First 
U. S., Regular Artillery; H. W. Holloway, Company B, Second Illinois 
Cavalry ; A. Baker, Company I, Fifty-second Indiana Infantry ; R. Mullins, 
Company A, Seventh Tennessee Cavalry ; R. H. Stewart, Company C, Seventh 
Tennessee Cavalry ; W. M. Crews, Company D, Seventh Tennessee Cavalry : 
W. H. Snow, Company M, Seventh Tennessee Cavalry; J. K. Taylor, Com- 
pany E, Sixth Tennessee Cavalry ; T. C. George, Company , Seventh Kansas 
Cavalry. 



442 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 



SIXTH U. S. HEAVY ARTILLERY. 

(Colored Troops.) 
COMPANY A. 

Captain C. J. Eppeneiter, Lieutenant P. Bishop, Sergeant J. Hennissy, A. J. 
Hatfield, J. Thompson, Frank Hooper, Tom Norris, Anthony Flowers, Bill 
Smith, Oliver Jones, Henry Smith, Jenkins Rice, Bill Ward, Monk Moores, 
Cog Horton, Edmond Trice, Peter Williams, Charlie Williams, Dave Manley, 
Ray McGhee, Braxton Kirkman, Wilson Johnson, Bill Oats, Solomon Patrick, 
Henderson Johnson, John Gentry, Sandy Worsham, Wilson Crenshaw, Jim 
McCauley, Albert Ingram, Jefferson Dobbs, Spott Clayton, Harry Hill, Will- 
iam Gray, Jim Danbridge, Dan Newburn, Dave Oats, Frank Browdeu, Tom 
Palmer, Aaron Bradly, David Oats, Henr^ Smith, Wilson Peyton, David 
Johnson, Jacob Lumpkin, Moses Wiseman, Lewis Van Eagle, John McHainey, 
Jim Murrell, Jim Flowers, Sam Baugh, Dick Sallee, Hiram Lumpkin, Jim 
Pride, John Henry Harper, David Flowers. 

RECAPITULATION Prisoners. 



REGIMENTS. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery (colored) 


2 


54 


56 






1 


1 


Thirteenth Tennessee Battalion 


3 


148 


151 


Second U. S. Light Artillery 


1 


1 


2 


First U. S. Regular Artillery 




1 


1 




1 




1 


Steagall's Home Guards 




6 


6 


Second Illinois Cavalry 




1 


1 






1 


1 


Seventh Tennessee Cavalry 




4 


4 






1 


1 






1 


1 










Total 


7 


219 


226 



After the battle of Fort Pillow, various movements 
were made by the cavalry, in which different detach- 
ments were engaged with the enemy at various points. 
During the month of May, Forrest devoted himself 
principally to gathering up recruits and horses, and in 
every available manner strengthening his command to 
the highest possible standard of efficiency. Meanwhile 
his head-quarters were at Tupelo. At this point he 
formed his artillery into a battalion and placed it under 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 443 

command of Captain J. W. Morton, chief of artillery. 
This battalion numbered batteries of four guns each, 
officered as follows: 

First battery, Morton's, four guns; second battery r 
Thrall's, four guns; third battery, Rice's, four guns; 
fourth battery, Walton's, four guns. 

His other troops consisted of twenty regiments, four 
battalions, and five independent companies. These 
troops were distributed with a view to convenience of 
forage and so as to be available in case of urgent need. 
Chalmers's division was stationed at Verona and Gre- 
nada. Another detachment was placed at Panola, and 
the Mississippi State troops and Buford's division 
were stationed at Tupelo. 

An expedition was organized to operate in North 
Alabama to the relief of General Roddy, who was 
being pressed by the enemy in that quarter. Forrest 
now resolved to effect a junction with Roddy, and sent 
him a notice to that effect. About the time of its con- 
summation, a heavy force of Federals were moving 
out from Memphis and threatening Northern Missis- 
sippi. When this fact was ascertained, the expedition 
was recalled by Major-general Lee, and, on June 5, For- 
rest resumed his head-quarters at Tupelo. Matters 
were lively in Northern Mississippi. The enemy 
moved in the direction of the Memphis and Charles- 
ton Railroad, and the cavalry force was being rapidly 
concentrated at Baldwin, to which point Lee and For- 
rest started out on June 7, and arrived there on the 8th. 
The enemy was now at Ruckerville, and preparing to 
cross the Hatchie River. Subsequent information de- 
veloped the fact that the enemy contemplated a move- 
ment upon Guntown by way of Ripley. Forrest was 
active in his maneuvering with the intention of giving 



444 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

the enemy battle. His force at his immediate disposal 
were three brigades, commanded respectively by brig- 
adier-generals Lyon, Rucker, and Johnson. Lyon's 
brigade was composed of the Third Kentucky, Lieu- 
tenant-colonel G. A. C. Holt commanding; Seventh 
Kentucky, Major H. S. Hale commanding; Eighth 
Kentucky, Captain R. H. Fristoe commanding; Faulk- 
ner's Kentucky Regiment, T. S. Tate commanding. 
Rucker's brigade was composed of the Eighth Missis- 
sippi, Lieutenant-colonel A. H. Chalmers; Nineteenth 
Mississippi, Colonel W. L. Duff; Seventh Tennessee, 
Colonel W. L. Duckworth. Johnson's brigade was 
composed of the Fourth Alabama, Lieutenant-colonel 
Windes; Moreland's battalion, Major George; War- 
ren's battalion, Captain W. H. Warren; Ferrell's bat- 
tery, four guns. 

With this force Forrest encountered the enemy at 
Brice's Cross Roads, in the vicinity of Guntown, near 
the waters of Tishomingo Creek, on June 10, 1864. 
The forces of the enemy amounted to over nine thou- 
sand men, composed of two cavalry brigades com- 
manded respectively by Brigadier-generals Warren and 
Winslow, and numbered three thousand men. The in- 
fantry brigades of Wilkins and Hayes, composed of 
white troops, and Benton's brigade of colored troops, 
six thousand strong. The battle was fierce and des- 
perate, and resulted in a complete victory for the Con- 
federates. The colored troops were possessed of an 
idea that no quarter would be granted them, and when 
defeated refused to surrender, and sought safety in 
flight. The Confederates pursuing commanded them 
to halt, but the negroes, disregarding the commands of 
their pursuers, continued their flight, and were shot 
at their very heels. Whether this unfortunate idea was 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 445 

inculcated into the minds of the negro troops by their 
officers to strengthen their courage and efficiency in 
action, or was the result of parleys and interchanged 
threats between themselves and the non-combatants 
before the battle of Fort Pillow, is not definitely known, 
From whatever source it emanated its results were de- 
plorable. As at Fort Pillow, the negroes acted with a 
dogged and reckless obstinacy having no relationship 
to courage, but partaking more of the nature of ani- 
mals that were hemmed and refused to be caught. The 
Confederates expected no quarter at the hands of the 
colored troops. As a consequence, when the Con- 
federates gained a complete victory and had captured 
several of the enemy's guns and quite a number of 
prisoners, the colored troops hurdled in gangs and were 
shot down before the Confederates, who demanded 
their surrender, and would have much preferred their 
surrender to their destruction. 

Previous to the departure of the Federals from Mem- 
phis the colored troops had taken an oath before Gen- 
eral Hurlburt to avenge Fort Pillow, and show the 
Confederates no quarter. General Forrest having been 
apprised of this fact addressed the following note to 
the Federal commander at Memphis: 

HEAD-QUARTERS FORREST'S CAVALRY,/ 

IN THE FIELD, June 14, 1864. f 

General: It has been reported to me that all jour colored 
troops, stationed at Memphis, took an oath on their knees 
in the presence of Major-general Hurlburt and others of 
your command to avenge Fort Pillow, and that they would 
show my troops no quarter. Again, I have it from indis- 
putable authority, that the troops under Brigadier - general 
Sturgis, on their recent march from Memphis, publicly, 
and in many places, proclaimed that no quarter would be 
shown my men. As they were moved into action on the icth, 



446 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

they were exhorted by their officers to remember Fort Pillow. 
The prisoners we have captured from that command, or a large 
majority of them, have voluntarily stated that they expected us 
to murder them; otherwise, they would have surrendered in a 
body rather than taken to the bushes after being run down and 
exhausted. The recent battle of Tishomingo Creek was far 
more bloody than it would otherwise have been but for the fact 
that your men evidently expected to be slaughtered when cap- 
tured, and both sides acted as though neither felt safe in surren- 
dering even when further resistance was useless. The prisoners 
captured by us say they felt condemned by the announcements, 
etc., of their own commanders, and expected no quarter. 

In all my operations since it began I have conducted the war 
on civilized principles, and desire still to do so; but it is due to 
my command that they should know the position they occupy 
and the policy you intend to pursue. I therefore respectfully ask 
whether my men, now in your hands, are treated as other Con- 
federate prisoners of war; also the course intended to be pur- 
sued in regard to those who may hereafter fall into your hands. 

I have in my possession quite a number of wounded officers 
and men of General Sturgis's command, all of whom have been 
treated as well as we were able to treat them, and are mostly in 
charge of a surgeon left at Ripley by General Sturgis to look 
after the wounded. Some of them are too severely wounded to 
be removed at present. I am willing to exchange them for any 
men of my command you have, and, as soon as able to be re- 
moved, will give them safe escort through our lines in charge of 
the surgeon left with them. I made such an arrangement once 
with Major-general Hurlburt, and am willing to renew it, pro- 
vided it is desired, as it would be better than to subject them to 
the long and fatiguing trip necessary to a regular exchange at 
City Point, Va. 

I am. General, etc., N. B. FORREST, Major-general. 

To this General Washburn replied as follows: 

HEAD-QUARTERS DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE,) 
MEMPHIS, TENN., June 19, 1864. ) 

Major-general N. B. FORREST, Commanding Confederate forces: 

General: Your communication of the loth inst. is received. 
The letter to Brigadier-general Buford will be forwarded to him. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 447 

In regard td that part of jour letter which relates to colored 
troops, I beg to say that I have already sent a communication on 
the same subject to the officers in command of the Confederate 
forces at Tupelo. Having understood that Major-general S. D. 
Lee was in command there, I directed my letter to him. A copy 
of it I inclose. 

You say in your letter that it has been reported to you that all 
the negro troops stationed in Memphis took an oath on their 
knees, in the presence of Major-general Hurlburt and other offi- 
cers of our army, to avenge " Port Pillow, and that they would 
show your troops no quarter." I believe it is true that the col- 
ored troops did take such an oath, but not in the presence of Gen- 
eral Hurlburt. From what I can learn, this act of theirs was not 
influenced by any white officer, but was the result of their own 
sense of what was due to themselves and their fellows who had 
been mercilessly slaughtered. I have no doubt that they went 
into the field, as you allege, in the full belief that they would be 
murdered in case they fell into your hands. The affair at Fort 
Pillow fully justified that belief. I am not aware as to what they 
proclaimed on their late march, and it may be, as you say, that 
they declared that no quarter would be given to any of your men 
that might fall into their hands. 

Your declaration that you have conducted the war on all occa- 
sions on civilized principles cannot be accepted; but I receive 
with satisfaction the intimation in your letter that the recent 
slaughter of colored troops at the battle of Tishomingo 
Creek resulted rather from the desperation with which they 
fought than a pre-determined intention to give them no quarter. 
You must have learned by this time that the attempt to intimi- 
date the colored troops by indiscriminate slaughter has sig- 
nally failed, "and that, instead of a feeling of terror, you have 
aroused a spirit of courage an.d desperation that will not down at 
your bidding.- 

I am left in doubt by your letter as to the course you and your 
government intend to pursue hereafter in regard to colored 
troops; and I beg you to advise me, with as little delay as possi- 
ble, as to your intentions. If you intend to treat such of them as 
fall into your hands as prisoners of war, please so state. If you 
do not so intend, but contemplate either their slaughter or their 



448 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

return to slavery, please state that, so that we may have no mis- 
understanding hereafter. If the former is your intention I shall 
receive the announcement with pleasure, and shall explain the 
fact to the colored troops at onee, and desire that they recall the 
oath they have taken. If the latter is the case, then let the oath 
stand, and upon those who have aroused this spirit hy their 
atrocities and upon the government and people who sanction it, 
be the consequences. 

In regard to your inquiry relating to prisoners of your com- 
mand in our hands, I state that they have always received that 
treatment which a great humane government extends to its pris- 
oners. What course will be pursued hereafter toward them must, 
of course, depend on circumstances that may arise. If your 
command hereafter do nothing which should properly exclude 
them from being treated as prisoners of war, they will be so- 
treated. 

I thank you for your offer to exchange wounded officers and 
men in your hands. If you will send them in, I will exchange 
man for man so far as I have the ability to do so. 

Before closing this letter, I wish to call your attention to one 
case of unparalleled outrage and murder that has been brought 
to my notice, and in regard to which the evidence is overwhelm- 
ing. 

Among the prisoners captured at Fort Pillow was Major Brad- 
ford, who had charge of the fort after the fall of Major Booth. 
After being taken prisoner, he was started with other prisoners 
in charge of Colonel Duckworth, tp Jackson. At Brownsville, 
they rested over night. The following morning two companies 
were detailed by Colonel Duckworth to proceed to Jackson with 
the prisoners. After they had started and proceeded a short dis- 
tance, five soldiers were recalled by Colonel Duckworth and con- 
ferred with by him. They then rejoined the column, and, after 
proceeding about five miles from Brownsvilhs, the column halted, 
and Major Bradford was taken about fifty yards from the road side 
and deliberately shot by the five men who had been recalled 
by Colonel Duckworth, and his body left unburied upon the 
ground where he fell. He now lies buried near the spot, and, 
if you desire, you can easily satisfy yourself of the truth of 
what I assert. 

I beg leave to say to you that this transaction hardly justi- 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 449 

fies jour remark that your operations have been conducted on 
civilized principles, and until you take some steps to bring the 
perpetrators of this outrage to justice, the world will not fail 
to believe that it has your sanction. I am. General, your obe- 
dient servant, C. C. WASHBURX, Major-general. 

Accompanying this document was this copy of a 
letter from General Washbtirn to Major-general S. D. 
Lee, referred to in the above communication. The let- 
ter read as follows: 

HEAD-qUARTHiRS DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, 1 

MEMPHIS, TENX., June 17, 1864. / 

Major-general S. D. LEE, Commanding Confederate forces, 
near Tupelo, Mississippi: 

General: When I heard that the forces of Brigadier-general 
Sturgis had been driven back and a portion of them probably 
captured, I felt considerable solicitude for the fate of the two 
colored regiments that formed a part of the command until I 
was informed that the Confederate forces were commanded by 
you. When I heard that, I became, satisfied that no atrocities 
would be committed upon those troops, but that they would 
receive the treatment which humanity, as well as their gallant 
conduct, demanded. I regret to say that the hope I entertained 
has been dispelled by facts which have recently come to my 
knowledge. . 

From statements that have been made to me by colored sol- 
diers, who were eye-witnesses, it would seem that the massacre 
at Fort Pillow had been reproduced at the late affair at Brice's 
Cross Roads. The details of the atrocities there committed I 
will not trouble you with. If true, and not disavowed, they 
must lead to consequences hereafter fearful to contemplate. It 
is best that we should now have a fair understanding upon the 
question of the treatment of this class of soldiers. 

If it is contemplated by the Confederate government to mur- 
der all colored troops that may, by the chances of war, fall into 
their hands, as was the case at Fort Pillow, it is but fair that it 
should be truly and openly avowed. Within the last six weeks I 
have on two occasions sent colored troops into the field from this 
29 



45 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

point. In the expectation that the Confederate government 
would disavow the action of their commanding general at the 
Fort Pillow massacre, I have forborne to issue any instructions 
to the colored troops as to the course they should pursue toward 
Confederate soldiers that might fall into their hands; but seeing 
no disavowal on the part of the Confederate government, but, on 
the contrary, laudations from the entire Southern press of the 
perpetrators of the massacre. I may safely presume that indis- 
criminate slaughter is to be the fate of colored troops that fall 
into your hands. But I am not willing to leave a matter of such 
grave import, and involving consequences so fearful, to inference, 
and I have therefore thought proper to address you this, believ- 
ing that you would be able to indicate the policy that the Con- 
federate government intended to pursue hereafter on this ques- 
tion. If it is intended to raise the black flag against that unfor- 
tunate race they will cheerfully accept the issue. Up to this 
time no troops have fought more gallantly and none have con- 
ducted themselves with greater propriety. They have fully vin- 
dicated their right (so long denied) to be treated as men. I hope 
that I have been misinformed in regard to the treatment they 
have received at the battle of Brice's Cross Roads, and that the 
accounts received result rather from the excited imagination of 
the fugitives than from actual facts. 

For the government of the colored troops under my command 
I would thank you to inform me, with as little delay as possible, 
if it is your intention or the intention of the Confederate govern- 
ment to murder colored soldiers that may fall into your hands, 
or treat them as prisoners of war, and subject to be exchanged 
as other prisoners. I am, General, respectfully, etc., 

C. C. WASHBURX, Major-general. 

To these two communications from the Federal Gen- 
eral Washburn, General Forrest replied as follows: 

HEAD-QUARTERS FORREST'S CAVALRY, TUPELO,/ 

June 23, 1864. j 
Major-general C. C. WASHBURX, Commanding United States 

forces, Memphis: 

General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt (per 
flag of truce) of your letter of the iyth inst., addressed to Major- 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 451 

general S. D. Lee, or officer commanding Confederate forces 
at Tupelo. I have forwarded it to General Lee with a copy of 
this letter. 

I regard your letter as discourteous to the commanding officer 
of this department and grossly insulting to myself. You seek, 
by implied threats, to intimidate him, and assume the privilege of 
denouncing me as a murderer and as guilty of the wholesale 
slaughter of the garrison at Fort Pillow, and found your asser- 
tions upon the ex partc testimony of (your friends) the enemies 
of myself and country. 

I shaM not enter into the discussion, therefore, of any ques- 
tions involved, nor undertake any refutation of the charges made 
by you against myself. Nevertheless, as a matter of personal 
privilege alone, I unhesitatingly say that they are unfounded and 
unwarranted by the facts. But whether these charges are true 
or false, they, with the questions you ask, as to whether negro 
troops, when captured, will be recognized and treated as prison- 
ers of war, subject to exchange, etc., are matters which the gov- 
ernment of the United States and the Confederates States are to 
decide and adjust not their subordinate officers. I regard cap- 
tured negroes as I do other captured property, and not as cap- 
tured soldiers; but as to how regarded by my government, and 
the disposition which has been and will hereafter be made of 
them, I respectfully refer you, through the proper channel, to the 
authorities at Richmond. 

It is not the policy or the interest of the South to destroy the 
negro; on the contrary, to preserve and protect him; and all who 
have surrendered to us have received kind and humane treatment. 

Since the war began, I have captured many thousand Federal 
prisoners, and they, including the survivors of the " Fort Pillow 
Massacre,"' black and white, are living witnesses of the fact that, 
with knowledge or consent or by my orders, not one of them has 
ever been insulted or maltreated in any way. 

You speak of your forbearance in " not giving instructions and 
orders as to the course they should pursue in regard to Confed- 
erate soldiers that might fall into (your) their hands," which 
clearly conveys to my mind two very distinct impressions. The 
first is, that in not giving them instructions and orders, you have 
left the matter entirely to the discretion of the negroes as to how 
they should dispose of prisoners; second, an implied threat to 



45 2 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

give such orders as will lead to " consequences too fearful " for 
contemplation. In confirmation of the correctness of the first 
impression (which jour language now fully develops), I refer you,, 
most respectfully, to my letter from the battle-field of Tisho- 
mingo Creek, and forwarded to you by flag of truce on the i4th 
inst. As to the second impression, you seem disposed to take 
into your hands the settlement which belongs to, and can only be 
settled by, your government. But if you are prepared to take 
upon yourself the responsibility of inaugurating a system of war- 
fare contrary to civilized usages, the onus, as well as the conse- 
quences, will be chargeable to yourself. 

Deprecating, as I should do, such a state of affairs, determined 
as I am not to be instrumental in bringing it about, feeling and 
knowing as I do that I have the approval of my government, my 
people, and my own conscience, as to the past, and with the firm 
belief that I will be sustained by them in my future policy, it is 
left for you to determine what that policy shall be whether in 
accordance wijh the laws of civilized warfare or in violation of 
them. Very respectfully, etc., N. B. FORREST, 

Major-general. 

After Forrest's brilliant victory at Tishomingo Creek, 
the fortunes of the Confederacy were rapidly on the 
wane. The Federal General Wilson was organizing a 
heavy cavalry force for the purpose of striking Selma 
and Mobile. Forrest found his forces inadequate to 
the task of resisting its progress. He met the enemy 
and disputed every inch of ground. Finding further 
resistance useless, he surrendered his command to the 
Federal authorities, near Selma, in the spring of 1865. 
The other armies of the Confederacy had surrendered. 
Forrest issued an address to his men, recounting their 
noble deeds while under his command, and exhorting 
them, now that further resistance was useless, to accept 
the situation in good faith, and make as good citizens 
as they had made soldiers. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 453 

REORGANIZATION OF FORREST'S 
CAVALRY. 

Lieutenant-general N. B. FORREST Commanding. 

^Commissioned Brigadier-general, July 21, 1862; Major-general, December 4, 
1863; Lieutenant-general, March 2, 1865.] 

STAFF OFFICERS. 

John P. Strange, Major and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
Charles W. Anderson, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
William M. Forrest, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
Samuel Donelson, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
C. S. Severson, Major and Chief Quartermaster. 
R. M. Mason, Major and Chief Quartermaster. 
G. V. Bambaut, Major and Chief Commissary. 
George Dashiel, Captain and Chief Paymaster. 
Dr. J. B. Cowan, Chief Surgeon. 

Charles S. Hill, Captain and Chief Ordnance Officer. 
John G. Mann, Captain and Chief of Engineers. 

CHALMERS'S DIVISION. 

Brigadier-general JAMES R. CHALMERS Commanding. 
[Commissioned Brigadier-general February 13, 1862.] 

STAFF OFFICERS. 

Walter A. Goodman, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
L. T. Lindsey, Captain and Acting Assistant Adjutant-general. 
Andrew J. Mills, Captain and Acting Assistant Inspector-general. 
George T. Banks, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
Samuel O'Neill, Captain and Chief Quartermaster. 
William F. Avent, Captain and A. Q. M. Pay Department. 
John T. Buck, First Lieutenant and Chief Ordnance Officer. 
B. S. Crump, Major and Chief Commissary. 
Dr. James R. Barnett, Chief Surgeon. 

BUFORD'S DIVISION. 

Brigadier-general ABE BUFOED Commanding. 

STAFF OFFICERS. 

Hunter Nicholson, Major and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
Thomas M. Crowder, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
D. A. Given, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
D. E. Myers, First Lieutenant and Assistant Inspector-general. 
James L. Lea, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 
J. B. Finch, Major and Chief Commissary. 
John D. Gardner, First Lieutenant and Chief of Ordnance. 
Thomas F. Clardy, M.D., Chief Surgeon. 
William M. Cargill, Major and A. Q. M. Pay Department. 



454 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

JACKSON'S DIVISION. 

Brigadier-general WILLIAM H. JACKSON Coin man ding. 
STAFF OFFICERS. 

E. T. Sykes, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 

James C. Jones, First Lieutenant and Assistant Adjutant-general. 

T. B. Sykes, Captain and Assistant Inspector-general. 

J. H. Martin, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 

W. P. Paul, Major and Assistant Quartermaster. 

A. P. Slover, Major and Chief Commissary. 

Dr. Arthur Bragden, Chief Surgeon. 

Dr. G. A. Hogg, Assistant Surgeon. 

Lewis Bond, Captain and Chief of Ordnance. 

John Waties, Captain and Chief of Artillery. 

William Ewing, Drill Master. 

BELL'S BRIGADE OF BUFORD'S DIVISION. 

Brigadier-general TYRKK H. BELL Commanding. 

STAFF OFFICERS. 

R. D. Clark, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
T. E. Richardson, First Lieutenant and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
J. L. Bell, First Lieutenant and Assistant Inspector-general. 
P. A. Smith, First Lieutenant and Assistant Inspector-general. 
I. T. Bell, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
T. P. Allison, Major and Assistant Quartermaster. 
J. L. Lea, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 
D. M. Womack, Captain and Chief Commissar}'. 
A. G. Harris, First Lieutenant and Brigade Commissary. 
C. C. Harris, First Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 

THOMPSON'S* BRIGADE, BUFORD'S 
DIVISION. 

Colonel ED. CROSSLAND Commanding. 
STAFF OFFICERS. 

C. L. Randle, CajTtain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 

J. P. Mathewsoo, First Lieutenant and Assistant Inspector-general. 

William Lindsey, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 

J. R. Smith, Major and Chief Commissary. 

Robert A. Galbraith, Captain and Aid-dc-camp. 

F. G. Terry, Captain and Ordnance Officer. 

* Col. A. P. Thompson, former Commander of this lirigade, was killed while 
leading an attack upon the Federals at Paducah. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 455 



FIRST BRIGADE, CHALMERS'S DIVISION. 

Colonel EGBERT MCCULLOCK Commanding. 

STAFF OFFICERS. 

John T. Chandler, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
W. .1. Vankirk, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 
J. M. Tyler, First Lieutenant and Acting Inspector-general. 
J. J. (riiyton, Captain and Chief Commissary. 
T. M. Turner, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
J. J. Hay, Second Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 
Dr. F. R. Durrett, Chief Surgeon. 

RUCKER'S BRIGADE, CHALMERS'S 
DIVISION. 

Colonel E. W. RUCKER Commanding. 

STA FF OFFICERS. 

John T. Chandler, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
Ferdinand Smith, Captain and Acting Assistant Adjutant-general. 
John Overton, jr., Captain and Assistant Inspector-general. 
F. B. Rodgers, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
William O. Key, Major and Assistant Quartermaster. 
R. M. Ligou, Captain and Chid' Commissary. 
Dr. C. K. Caruthers, Chief Surgeon. 
C. N. Featherston, Second Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 

NEELEY'S BRIGADE, CHALMERS'S 
DIVISION. 

Colonel J. J. NKEIA" Commanding. 

STAFF OFFICIOUS. 

V. B, Waddrli, First Lieutenant and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
Edward Reneau, Second Lieutenant and Acting Inspector-general. 
M. K. Mister, Second Lieutenant and Aid-de-camp. 
William O. Key, Major and Assistant Quartermaster. 
S. J. Alexander, Major and Chief Commissary. 
Dr. C. K. Caruthers, Chief Surgeon. 

CAMPBELL'S BRIGADE, JACKSON'S 
DIVISION. 



W. CAMPBELL Commanding. 
[Commissioned Brigadier-general May 1, 1864.] 

STAFF OFFICKKS. 

Ferdinand Stilh,* Captain and Assistant Adjutant-general. 
John Overton, jr.,* Captain and Inspector-general. 

* Transferred from Rucker's Brigade. 



45 6 



FORREST'S CAVALR\. 



William R. Harris, First Lieutenant and Aid-de-cami>. 

A. Warren, Major and Assistant Quartermaster. 

W. J. Sykes, Major and Chief Commissary. 

C. N. Featherston,* Second Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 



ARTILLERY OF FORREST'S COMMAND. 
MAY, 1864. 

MORTON'S BATTERY. 

(Four Guns.) 

John W. Morton. Captain. Joseph M. Mayson, Second Lieutenant. 

T. S. Sale, First Lieutenant. Dr. James P. Hanner, Surgeon. 

G. T. Brown, First Lieutenant. 

RICE'S BATTERY. 

(Four Guns.) 
T. W. Rice, Captain. Dan. C. Jones, Second Lieutenant. 

B. F. Haller, First Lieutenant. Dr. Jacob Huggins, jr., Surgeon. 
H. H. Biggs, Second Lieutenant. 

HUDSON'S BATTERY. 

(Four Guns. Originally known as Walton's Battery.) 
E. S. Walton, Captain. W. O. Hunter, Second Lieutenant. 

Milt. H. Frautham, First Lieu tenant. R. P. Weaver, Surgeon. 
G. C. Wright, Second Lieutenant. 

THRALL'S BATTERY. 

(Four Guns.) 

J. C. Thrall, Captain. W. J. D. Winton, Second Lieutenant. 

R. S. Anderson, First Lieutenant. Dr. J. L. Grace, Surgeon. 
J. C. Barlow, Second Lieutenant. 

SECOND TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

C. R. Barteau, Colonel. Dr. J. W. Harrison, Assist. Surgeon. 
G. H. Morton, Lieutenant-colonel. E. O. Elliott, Quartermaster. 
William Parrish, Major. P. A. Smith, First Lieut, and Adj't. 
Dr. J. M. Hughes, Surgeon. Rev. S. C. Talley, Chaplain. 

COMPANY A. 
T. C. Atkinson, First Lieutenant. A. H. French, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

T. B. Underwood, Captain. S. B. Wall, Second Lieutenant. 

G. W. Smithson, First Lieutenant. J. D. Core, Third Lieutenant. 

* Transferred from Rucker's Brigade. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 457 

COMPANY C. 

M. W. McKnight, Captain. Samuel Dennis, Second Lieutenant. 

H. L. W. Turney, First Lieutenant. J. S. Harrison, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

William T. Rickman, Captain. F. W. Youree, Second Lieutenant. 

George Love, First Lieutenant. Ed. Bullock, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

W. A. DeBow, Captain. - R. B. Dobbins, Second Lieutenant. 

George E. Seay, First Lieutenant. F. J. Carman, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

John A. Binkley, Captain. John E. Demming, Second Lieutenant. 

James F. Austin, First Lieutenant. Newson Penell, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

J. M. Eustis, Captain. A. W. Lipscomb, Second Lieutenant. 

B. G. Moore, First Lieutenant. J. J. Laurence, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

B. Edwards, Captain. E. Lassater, Second Lieutenant. 

J. Bedford, First Lieutenant. - T. L. Stubblefleld, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

.S. W. Reeves, Captain. J. H. Bettick, Second Lieutenant. 

William Lattimer, First Lieutenant. W. C. Roberts, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

O. B. Farris, Captain. F. M. McRoe, Second Lieutenant. 

J. H. Neal, First Lieutenant. H. Pryor, Third Lieutenant. 

FOURTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

James H. Starnes, Colonel. Dr. Allen E. Gooch, Assistant Surgeon. 

P. C. Haynes, Lieutenant-colonel. Joseph B. Briggs, Quartermaster. 

P. T. Rankin, Major. Moses H. Cliff, Commissary. 

William H. Davis, Adjutant. Rev. William H. Whitsit, Chaplain. 
Dr. Edward Swanson, Surgeon. 

COMPANY A. 

Aaron Thompson, Captain. B. F. Boyd, Second Lieutenant. 

James C. Candiff, First Lieutenant. S. S. Short, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

J. B. Britton, Captain. E. L. Collier, Second Lieutenant. 

O. C. Rutherford, First Lieutenant. S. T. Bass, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

E. L. Lindsey, Captain. C. C. Hancock, Second Lieutenant. 

W. E. Donnell, First Lieutenant. D. W. Grandstaff, Third Lieutenant. 



458 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 



COMPANY D. 

A. A. Dysart, Captain. F. M. Webb, Second Lieutenant. 

W. M. Robinson, First Lieutenant. John Carpenter, Thinl Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

G. W. Robinson, Captain. W. A. Hubbard, Second 1-iriitriiant. 

W. F. White, First Lieutenant. J. W. Norton, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

W. S. McLemore, Captain. . S. S. Hughes, Second Lieutenant. 

J. T. Pierce, First Lieutenant. S. C. Tulloss, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

Andrew McGregor, Captain. John H. Dice, Second Lieutenant. 

A. J. Duffey, First Lieutenant. E. W. Burwell, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

J. E. Teague, Captain. C. G. Pryor, Second Lieutenant. 

J. W. Johnson, First Lieutenant. J. M. Ragen, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

P. H. McBride, Captain. G. L. Freeman, Second Lieutenant. 

J. A. Smotherman, First Lieutenant. T. W. Lewis, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

Francisco Rice, Captain. W. E. Baker, Second Lieutenant. 

J. B. Poston, First Lieutenant. W. A. Young, Third Lieutenant. 

SEVENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

William L. Duckworth, Colonel. Kenneth Garrett, Quartermaster. 

Wm. F. Taylor, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. J. C. Word, Surgeon. 
C. C. Clay, Major. Rev. W. L. Rosser, Chaplain. 

Wm. S. Pope, Lieut, and Adj't. 

COMPANY A. 

J. W. Sneed, Captain. W. L. Certain, Second Lieutenant. 

H. W. Watkins, First Lieutenant. J. D. Mitchell, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

J. P. Russell, Captain. J. N. Stinson, Second Lieutenant. 

H. T. Sale, First Lieutenant. Robert J. Black, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

John T. Lawler, Captain. S. B. Higgins, Second Lieutenant. 

W. B. Winston, First Lieutenant. A. L. Winston, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

L. W. Taliaferro, Captain. T. J. Mann, Second Lieutenant. 

H. J. Livingstone, First Lieutenant. A. A. Johnson, Third Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 459 

COMPANY E. 

W. J. Tate, Captain. H. Harris, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Statler, First Lieutenant. W. C. Mashburn, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 
C. H. Jones, Captain (consolidated with Company E). 

COMPANY G. 

F. F. Aden, Captain. W. N. Griffin, Second Lieutenant. 

J. J. Blake, First Lieutenant. James T. Haynes, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 
H. C. McCutcheon, Captain. J. A. Jenkins, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

J. R. Alexander, Captain. P. A. Fisher, Second Lieutenant. 

W. P. Malone, First Lieutenant. E. M. Downing, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

J. A. Anderson, Captain. John Trout, Second Lieutenant. 

J. S. Hille, First Lieutenant. E. K. Scruggs, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY L. 

Alexander Duckworth, Captain. Frank Pugh, Second Lieutenant. 
, First Lieutenant. Wm. Witherspoon, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY M. 

Benjamin T. Davis, Captain. Charles Rice, Second Lieutenant. 

William Moore, First Lieutenant. J. L. Livingstone, Third Lieutenant. 

EIGHTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

George G. Dibrell, Colonel. A. C. Dale, Quartermaster. 

F. H. Dougherty, Lieutenant-colonel. J N. Bailey, Commissary. 
Jeffery E. Forrest, Major. Dr. William C. McCord, Surgeon. 

M. D. Smallman, Lieut, and Adj't. Dr. J. Luke Ridley, Assistant Surgeon. 

COMPANY A. 

W. W. Windle, Captain. A. L. Windle, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

Hamilton McGuinnis, Captain. Allen G. Parker, Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas C. Webb, First Lieutenant. Levi Maynard, Third Lieutenant. 

< OMI'ANY C. 

Isaac G. Woolsey, Captain. J. W. Pendergrass, Second Lieutenant. 

William C. Wood, First Lieutenant. Jackson Davis, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

Jefferson Left-witch, Captain. William R. Hill, Second Lieutenant. 

James W. Revis, First Lieutenant. Wayman Dibrell, Third Lieutenant. 



460 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

COMPANY E. 

William P. Chapin, First Lieutenant. Lloyd W. Chapin, Second Lieutenant. 
Jesse Allen, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

Josiah Bilberry, Captain. Thomas H. Webb, Second Lieutenant. 
Jefferson Bilberry, First Lieutenant. Herner, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

Mounce L. Gore, Captain. Newton Byber, Second Lieutenant. 

William Z. Beck, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

James Barnes, Captain. John S. Khea, Second Lieutenant. 

John Hill. First Lieutenant. Joseph D. Bartlett, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

James W. McReynolds Captain. Simon D. Wallace, Third Lieutenant. 

James Walker, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

Bryan M. Swearingin, Captain. Elijah W. Terry, Second Lieutenant. 

Jesse Beck, First Lieutenant. 

NINTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

J. B. Biffle, Colonel. William M. Irwin, Quartermaster. 

A. G. Cooper, Lieutenant-colonel. W. S. Johnston, Commissary. 
Roderick Perry, Lieut, and Adj't. Dr. Henry Long, Surgeon. 

COMPANY A. 

J. J. Biffle, Captain. G. Wells, Second Lieutenant. 

John W. Hill, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 
James Reynolds Captain. Littleton, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

C. F. Barnes, Captain. P. Brownlaw, Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas Helmick, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

Lewis M. Kirk, Captain. May, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

G. J. Adkinson, Captain. P. Pigg, Second Lieutenant. 

James Leftwitch, First Lieutenant. P. Nichols, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

J. W. Johnson, Captain. B. S. Hardin, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Montague, First Lieutenant. John Johnson, Third Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 461 

COMPANY G. 
John S. Groves, Captain. Robert Harris, Second Lieutenant. 

D. B. Cooper, First Lieutenant Jacob Armstrong, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

Thomas H. Beatty, Captain. J. Davis, Second Lieutenant. 

Denton Pennington, First Lieut. M. D. Cooper, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 
Frank Smith, Captain. B. F. Burkitt, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

R. L. Ford, Captain. John Hicks, Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas Hargroves, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY L. 

Robert Sharp, Captain. Robert Clarke, Second Lieutenant. 

Edward Cannon, First Lieutenant. 

TENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 
N. N. Cox, Colonel. D. H. White, Quartermaster. 

E. B. Trezevant, Lieutenant-colonel. J. N. Rickman, Commissary. 
William E. Demoss, Major. Dr. Julius Johnston, Surgeon. 
E. A. Spottswood, Lieut, and Adj't. 

COMPANY A. 

W. J. Hall, Captain. J. W. Towushend, Second Lieutenant. 

John Pace, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

W. H. Lewis, Captain. J. M. Randall, Second Lieutenant. 

William Fisher, First Lieutenant. Thomas Mitchell, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

W. H. Whitehall, Captain. John Homer, Second Lieutenant. 

A. D. Craig, First Lieutenant. Thomas F. Lewis, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

W. J. Robinson, Captain. W. N. Phipps, Second Lieutenant. 

W. P. Edds, First Lieutenant. W. A. Wray, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

John Minor, Captain, J. B. Williams, Second Lieutenant. 
Andrew Nesbitt, First Lieutenant. Nesbitt, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

W. W. Hobbs, Captain. . J. T. Hobbs, Second Lieutenant. 

M. M. Box, First Lieutenant. C. S. Summers, Third Lieutenant. 



462 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 



COMPANY G. 

T. 8. Easley, Captain. J. M. Hall, Second Lieutenant. 

J. A. McCauley, First Lieutenant. AV. J. Frazier, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

B. G. Rickman, Captain. E. H. Shepherd, Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Coode, First Lieutenant. J. D. Land, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

Thomas Fletcher, Captain. B. E. .Summers, Second Lieutenant. 
Clinton Aden, First lieutenant. Dodson, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

Thomas M. Hutchinson, Captain. W. (). Chapman, Second Lieutenant. 

J. Utley, First Lieutenant. J. O. Pinick, Third Lieutenant. 

ELEVENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

James H. Edmondson, Colonel. Dr. J. D. Core, Surgeon. 

D. W. Holman, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. W. H. Anderson, Assistant Surgeon. 
J. T. Martin, Major. O. G. Gurley, Quartermaster. 

W. R. Garrett, Lieut, and Adj't. J. D. Allen, Commissary. 

COMPANY A. 

Charles McDonald, Captain. 

(Afterward McDonald's Battalion.) 

COMPANY B. 
Johnson Nevils, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

T. C. H. Miller, Captain. E. G. Hamilton, Second Lieutenant. 

W. W. Braden, First Lieutenant. E. F. Baney, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

John Lytle, Captain. N. P. Marble, Second Lieutenant. 

John L. Carney, First Lieutenant. I. H. Butler, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

A. R. Gordon, Captain. Robert Gordon, Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. Edmonson, First Lieutenant. George Rotherock, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

P. T. Allen, Captain. 

(McDonald's Battalion.) 

COMPANY G. 

Thomas Banks, First Lieutenant. A.' S. Chapman, Third Lieutenant. 

DavidS. Chancy, Second Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 463 

COMPANY H. 

Chatham Coffee, Captain. William Durley, Third Lieutenant. 

Robert Bruce, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

"T. F. Perkins, Captain. Malachi Kirby, Second Lieutenant. 

John C. Bostiek, First Lieutenant. S. Rozelle, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

James Rivers, Captain. Robert McNairy, Second Lieutenant. 

William H. Baugh, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY L. 
John M. Rust, Captain. James Ward, Second Lieutenant. 

TWELFTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

J. U. Green, Colonel. Dr. E. H. Sholl, Assistant Surgeon. 

G. W. Bennett, Major. S. F. Cocke, Quartermaster. 

R. B. Bone, Lieutenant and Adjutant. Rev. A. G. Burrow, Chaplain. 
Dr. A. Beatty, Surgeon. 

COMPANY A. 

Edward Daley, Captain. R. H. Strickland, Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Crite, First Lieutenant. H. L. Massey, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

W. T. Carmack, Captain. F. E. Brown, Second Lieutenant. 

W. D. Wilder, First Lieutenant. J. E. Yancy, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

J. L. Payne, Captain. R. C. Simouton, Second Lieutenant. 

William Bell, First Lieutenant. C. F. Sullivan, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

J. G. McCauley, Captain. Wm. M. Parker, Second Lieutenant. 

J. Appleberry, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

C. S. McStusack, Captain. J. 8. Stewart, Second Lieutenant. 

J. S. Granberry, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

William Bell, Captain. James Brooks, Second Lieutenant. 

John Matthews, First Lieutenant. Hiram Prewitt, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

John Massey, Captain. Ambrose House, Second Lieutenant. 

W. W. Freeman, First Lieutenant. 0. H. Wade, Third Lieutenant. 



464 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

COMPANY H. 

W. M. Craddock, Captain. W. J. Overall, Second Lieutenant. 

J. C. Haines, First Lieutenant. L. L. Cherry, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

J. B. Scarborough, Captain. William Stewart, Second Lieutenant. 

R. Johnson, First Lieutenant. Wm. McKirksill, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

J. R. McSpadden, Captain. J. T. Briggs, Second Lieutenant. 

E. H. Cobbs, First Lieutenant. R. A. Williford, Third Lieutenant. 

FOUR.TEENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

J. J. Neely, Colonel. H. M. Pirtle, Quartermaster. 

R. R. White, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. T. H. Turner, Surgeon. 

Gwynn Thurmond, Major. Dr. R. P. Watson, Assistant Surgeon. 

E. S. Hammond, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

8. J. Cox, Captain. J. B. Harris, Second Lieutenant. 

M. P. Harbison, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

J. H. DeBerry, Captain. G. Hicks, Second Lieutenant. 

N. A. Senter, First Lieutenant. John B. Holt, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

Z. Voss, Captain. W. H. Swinck, Second Lieutenant. 

R. J. Strayhorne, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

L. A. Thomas, Captain. James Drake, Second Lieutenant. 

J. W. Ricks, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

E. M. Jacobs, Captain. W. G. Pirtle, Second Lieutenant 

A. R. Emmerson, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

W. J. Hall, Captain. M. G. Hall, Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. Moore, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

A. C. Reid, Captain. J. Robertson, Second Lieutenant. 
W. F. Dillard, First Lieutenant. J. Reid, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 
James Gwynn, Captain. D. L. Hill, Second Lieutenant. 

B. F. Tatum, First Lieutenant. H. J. Brewster, Third Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 465 

COMPANY I. 

J. S. Elliott, Captain. John Langley, Second Lieutenant. 

James Laird, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

C. C. Conner, Captain. W. J. Campbell, Second Lieutenant. 

A. W. Fleming, First Lieutenant. 

FIFTEENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

F. M. Stewart, Colonel. John Sheffington, Quartermaster. 

T. H. Logwood, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. A. B. Tapscott, Surgeon. 
Solomon G. Street, Major. Dr. A. Bruce, Assistant Surgeon. 

J. L. Barksdale, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

P. W. Moore, Captain. R. S. Van Dyke, Second Lieutenant. 

W. R. Griffith, First Lieutenant. R. T. Gardner, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

J. L. Garrison, Captain. W. B. Nolley, Second Lieutenant. 

John F. Garris-on, First Lieutenant. W. D. Brown, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

H. T. Hanks, Captain. J. Ray, Second Lieutenant. 

A. B. Henry, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 
T. Nutt, Captain. L C. Street, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 
E. L. Hussey, Captain. G. W. Yapp, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F ; 

T. C. Buckhannon, Captain. F. G. Ferguson, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Thurman, First Lieutenant. E. S. Thitrman, Third Lieutenant. 

, COMPANY G. 

R. B. Sanders, Captain. P. H. Sutton, Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. McCaleb, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 
J. M. Witherspoon, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

P. M. Williams, Captain. R. Y. Anderson, Second Lieutenant. 

T. W. Allen, First Lieutenant. J. L. Seward, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

J. A. Williams, Captain. V. H. Swift, Third Lieutenant. 

R. Stone, Second Lieutenant. 

30 



466 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

MCDONALD'S BATTALION. 

(Forrest's Old Regiment.) 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

D. C. Kelley, Lieutenant-colonel. Lieut. E. A. Spottswood, Adjutant. 

P. T. Allen, Major. G. A. Cockran, Assist. Quartermaster. 

COMPANY A. 

T. F. Pattison, Captain. J. A. Powell, Second Lieutenant. 

W. J. P. Doyle, First Lieutenant. James Southerland, Third Lieutenant 

COMPANY B. 

James G. Barbour, Captain. R. L. Ivey, Second Lieutenant. 

C. D. Steinkuhl, First Lieutenant. J. W. Alexander, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

J. C. Blanton, Captain. Samuel Powell, Second Lieutenant. 

Charles Balch, First Lieutenant. G. Glenn, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

W. H. Forrest, Captain. S. B. Soliman, Second Lieutenant. 

T. H. Magee, First Lieutenant. Joseph Luxton, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

N. E. Wood, Captain. B/A. Powell, Third Lieutenant. 

W. J. Redd, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

J. F. Rodgers, Captain. J. S. Nichols, Third Lieutenant. 

C. A. Douglass, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 
W. J. Shaw, Captain. D. A. Autrey, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

J. L. Morphis, Captain. W. J. Morphis, Third Lieutenant. 

J. H. Jones, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

T. R. Bearfoot, Captain. E. Wooten, Second Lieutenant. 

J. M. Duncan, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

William Higgs, Captain. J. C. Savage, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Johnson, First Lieutenant. John Ramsey, Third Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 467 

SIXTEENTH BATTALION TENNESSEE 
CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

J. R. Neal, Captain. Lieut. W. B. L. Reagan, Adjutant. 

Joseph Paine, Major. H. W. McElwie, Quartermaster. 

COMPANY A. 

James Rodgers, Captain. G. A. Montgomery, Second Lieutenant. 

F. A. Lenoir, First Lieutenant. W. C. Pride, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

R. F. Mastin, Captain. J. T. Vaughn, Second Lieutenant. 

W. N. King, First Lieutenant. J. M. King, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

W. P. Darwin, Captain. Armour, Second Lieutenant. 
H. C. Collins, First Lieutenant. Thomas, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

F. M. Murray, Captain. Campbell, Second Lieutenant. 

T. H. Masten, First Lieutenant. James Baine, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

Thomas S. Rambaugh, Captain. William Williams, Second Lieutenant. 

Thomas Williams, First Lieutenant. AV. P. Reed, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

Mike Stoley, Captain. Monyham, Second Lieutenant. 

E. Etson, First Lieutenant. Moses Anderson, Third Lieutenant. 

SIXTEENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

A. N. Wilson, Colonel. B. M. Bray, Quartermaster. 

Jesse A. Forrest, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. S. H. Caldwell, Surgeon. 
W. T. Parhani, Major. Dr. M. D. L. Jordon, Assist. Surgeon. 

Lieut. F. M. Bell, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

J. A. Russell, Captain. John Coberne, Second Lieutenant. 

W. A. McCandless, First Lieutenant. T. F. Wilson, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

Ed. Polk, Captain. W. B. Malone, Second Lieutenant. 

J. C. Shipp, First Lieutenant. J. R. Glover, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

J. J. Rice, Captain. J. F. Collins, Second Lieutenant. 

I. J. Galbreath, First Lieutenant. J. D. Walker, Third Lieutenant. 



468 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

COMPANY D. 

W. H. Bray, Captain.' J. C. Dodd, Second Lieutenant. 

J. R. Arnold, First Lieutenant. J. M. Bray, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

W. H. Simmons, Captain. A. J. Baxter, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Reverly, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 
James Stennette, Captain. S. J. Crowder, Second Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

J. W. Fussell, Captain. T. R. Mangrum, Second Lieutenant. 

James Tomlinson, First Lieutenant. T. A. Haynes, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

J. W. Carroll, Captain. S. C. Kennedy, Second Lieutenant. 

M. L. Cherry, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

J. C. Gooch, Captain. M. H. Goodloe, Second Lieutenant. 

H. Lassiter, First Lieutenant. J. B. Northern, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

R. E. Dudley, Captain. W. E. Scales, Second Lieutenant. 

J. F. Looney, First Lieutenant. A. F. Brooks, Third Lieutenant. 

NINETEENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

John F. Newson, Colonel. A. B. Crook, Quartermaster. 

D. M. Wisdom, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. Lockart, Surgeon. 
W. Y. Baker, Major. Rev. John Randolph, Chaplain. 

Lieut. H. T. Johnson, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

W. N. Barnhill, Captain. J. C. O'Neill, Second Lieutenant. 

L. T. Settle, First Lieutenant. H. Clyce, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

R. M. May, Captain. N. T. Buckley, Second Lieutenant. 

M. Hayes, First Lieutenant. J. O. Ray, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

William Wilson, Captain. John Barrett, Second Lieutenant. 

William Lee, First Lieutenant. Thomas Barrett, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

T. H. Taylor, Captain. D. J. Bowdin, Second Lieutenant. ' 

M. B. Ormsby, First Lieutenant. W. P. Walker, Third Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 469 

COMPANY E. 

J. B. Michin, Captain. E. R. Turner, Second Lieutenant. 

R. M. Wharton, First Lieutenant. J. R. Adams, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

J. R. Damron, Captain. A. L.Winningham, Second Lieutenant. 

A. P. Meeks, First Lieutenant. W. R. Ledbetter, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 

J. J. Sharp, Captain. A. Brashear, Second Lieutenant. 

M. T. Shelby, First Lieutenant. R. T. Simmons, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

J. G. Sharp, Captain. J. M. Wardlaw, Second Lieutenant. 

J. D. Springer, First Lieutemant. Nathaniel Busby, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

S. C. McClirkin, Captain. J. M. Bumpass, Second Lieutenant. 

J. J. Betts, First Lieutenant. S. M. Ozier, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

W. D. Stratton, Captain. J. J. Lane, Third Lieutenant. 

J. C. Miller, First Lieutenant. E. W. Dunn, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY L. 

Thomas R. Dick, Captain. James Stewart, Second Lieutenant. 
William Hollis, First Lieutenant. Lockman, Third Lieutenant. 

TWENTIETH TENNESSEE CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

R. M. Russell, Colonel. S. J. Ray, Quartermaster. 

H. C. Greer, Lieutenant-colonel. Dr. T. C. McNeille, Surgeon. 

H. F. Bowman, Major. Dr. J. R. Westbrook, Assist. Surgeon. 

Lieut. A. G. Hawkins, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

William Gay, Captain. J. N. Gay, Second Lieutenant. 

J. H. Blackmore, First Lieutenant. R. H. Goodman, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

W. H. Hawkins, Captain. W. H. Courts, Second Lieutenant. 

N. W. McNeille, First Lieutenant. M. B. Dinwiddie, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

J. T. Mathias, Captain. U. S. Halliburton, Second Lieutenant. 

J. P. Armstrong, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

J. A. Shane, Captain. J. W. Herrin, Second Lieutenant. 

J. R. Dance, First Lieutenant. G. F. Nelson, Third Lieutenant. 



470 FORREST'S CAVALRY. 

COMPANY E. 

W. D. Italian] , Captain. J. A. Caster, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 
J. C. Wilson, Captain. J. A. Crutchfield, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY G. 
J. R. Hibbitts, Captain. 

COMPANY H. 

J. R. Gardner, Captain. R. C. McLesky, Second Lieutenant. 

A. C. Miller, First Lieutenant. George Cathy, Third Lieutenant. 

, COMPANY I. 

W. H. Lawler, Captain. 

COMPANY K. 

M. H. Freeman, Captain. T. J. Burton, Third Lieutenant. 

A. J. Killebrew, Second Lieutenant. 

NIXON'S CONSOLIDATED REGIMENT FOUR- 
TEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CAVALRY. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

G. H. Nixon, Colonel. Dr. T. H. Turner, Surgeon. 

T. H. Logwood, Lieuten&nt-colonel. Dr. A. L. Hamilton, Assistant Surgeon. 
J. M. Crews, Major. R. H. Shacklett, Quartermaster. 

Lieut. W. W. Bayless, Adjutant. 

COMPANY A. 

Peter W. Moore, Captain. AV. R. Griffith, Second Lieutenant. 

J. L. B. Barksdale, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY B. 

Z. Voss, Captain. W. M. Weatherly, Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Wharton, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY C. 

C. A. S. Shaw, Captain. H. D. Nealson, Second Lieutenant. 

H. J. Brewster, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY D. 

A. C. Reed, Captain. W. H. Reid, Second Lieutenant. 

C. C. Cowan, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY E. 

Calvin Gilbert, Captain. B. G. Pierson, Second Lieutenant. 

J. T. Scott, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY F. 

James H. George, Captain. P. W. Halbert, Second Lieutenant. 

J. F. Byers, First Lieutenant. 



FORREST'S CAVALRY. 471 

COMPANY G. 

J. B. Voss, Captain. J. M. Jackson, Second Lieutenant. 

A. C. Harwell, First Lieutenant. G. W. Prior, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY H. 

J. B. Van Houtin, Captain. Eugene Allen, Second Lieutenant. 

J. L. Herren, First Lieutenant. G. W. Heath, Third Lieutenant. 

COMPANY I. 

N. J. Vaughan, Captain. T. R. Hallowell, Second Lieutenant. - 

L. Burnett, First Lieutenant. 

COMPANY K. 

R. H. Dudley, Captain. J. L. Dismukes, Second Lieutenant. 

E. J. Neille, First Lieutenant. 

We were unable to procure the names of the officers of the 
remaining regiments of Forrest's Cavalry. 



47 2 MISCELLANEOUS. 



CQlSGELLANEOUS. 



CHAPTER XII. 

PRISON LIFE. 

During the first two years of the war the prison- 
ers captured by the different armies were generally ex- 
changed within a few months after their capture. 
This exchange was agreed upon and conducted by the 
Federal and Confederate governments, respectively, 
through commissioners appointed and instructed for 
the purpose. This was fortunate for the prisoners of 
each army. Aside from the humiliation of captivity 
and constant surveillance, the prisoner's life is a hard 
one. There is a lack of respect between captor and 
captive that is goading and disagreeable beyond de- 
scription. Every item contributing to comfort in any 
way appears to be sparingly, grudgingly bestowed at 
least the prisoner so regards it. The men of either 
army who were so unfortunate as to spend any of their 
time in prison know something of these things. 

While an exchange could be readily effected, prison 
life was of short duration. In the latter part of 1863, 
the Confederates had a large excess of prisoners over 
the Federals, and were anxious to exchange them. 
Colonel Robert Ould, the Confederate commissioner 
of exchange, made every effort to effect an exchange, 



PRISON LIFE. 473 



but the Federal commissioner declined to negotiate 
with him. The Federal authorities seemed determined 
to hold the Confederates permanently, with the view 
of weakening their armies. The Confederate authori- 
ties wanted their men for service in the field, and were 
wholly unprepared to take care of so many prisoners, 
both on account of their poverty of supplies and the 
-demand they had in the field for the services of the 
men necessary to guard them. 

The Confederates collected a portion of their prison- 
ers at the Libby Prison, at Richmond, while the others 
were confined principally at Andersonville, Ga. The 
Federals established prisons at Camp Douglas, near 
Chicago; Camp Morton, near Indianapolis; Camp 
Butler, near Alton, 111. ; and other prisons at Fort Del- 
aware and other points near the Eastern army. To 
be imprisoned in either of those places seemed to imply 
an indefinite captivity, for there was a permanent dead- 
lock in the business of exchange. 

The largest Confederate prison was at Andersonville, 
Ga. At this place several thousand Federal prisoners 
were confined in an inclosure of twenty acres. A tall 
plank fence surrounded the pris<tn. Upon the walls was 
a walk for the sentinel, and on the inside a line was 
established about twenty feet from the wall all around 
the prison. If a prisoner passed this line he was shot 
on the spot, and on this account this line was known 
as the "dead line." A stream of water ran through 
the prison, from which the prisoners procured water 
for cooking, drinking, and washing purposes. There 
were no houses for the prisoners, and they were fed on 
coarse food, and often in scant quantities. It was far 
from the desire of the Confederate authorities to treat 
the prisoners in this manner. It was all that they -were 



474 MISCELLANEOUS. 

able to do. They had neither lumber nor nails with 
which to build quarters for the prisoners. They had 
nothing but coarse food, and that in scant quantities, 
with which to feed them. In fact, they cared for their 
prisoners in the same way that they cared for their 
soldiers. It was hard, but it was the best they could 
do. The Confederacy was at this time impoverished 
in every respect to the uttermost limit. 

The Federal authorities, instead of exchanging their 
prisoners, as was urged by the Confederates, began to 
complain of the treatment they were receiving at An- 
dersonville, and decided to retaliate upon the Confeder- 
ates who were confined in Northern prisons. A dis- 
tressing policy was inaugurated. Rations were cut 
down to the lowest estimate necessary to sustain life. 
Thus, in the midst of abundance, the poor Confed- 
erate prisoners were forced to languish and starve in 
Northern prisons for causes of which they were inno- 
cent, and over which they never had been able to exer- 
cise any control. 

Previous to the adoption by the Federal govern- 
ment of retaliatory measures upon Confederate pris- 
oners, the discipline ifi Camp Douglas was mild and 
humane. The prisoners were well fed and supplied 
bountifully with every necessary comfort. The Fed- 
eral authorities complained of Andersonville, and they 
adopted retaliatory measures. 

A system of the severest oppression, coupled with 
every manner of indignity, was now inaugurated. The 
writer was in Camp Douglas for the greater portion 
of twelve months, and while there saw all the inner 
working of Northern prison life. Hundreds of Ten- 
nesseans were with him, all of whom, if living, remem- 
ber the events of which we write. While we chron- 



CAMP DOUGLAS. 475 

icle these events, there is no disposition in any "way to 
disparage or criminate a people or government against 
whom we were then at war. We are writing history 
and dealing with unpleasant facts, for or on account of 
wliich we feel no enmity toward any one. The hor 
rors of Andersonville have been exaggerated by preju- 
diced pens. That the prisoners suffered at Anderson- 
ville, no one can deny. They had fallen into the hands 
of an enemy that was at the time so impoverished as 
to be unable either to feed them or take care of them, 
and begged their government, on this account, to take 
them in exchange for Confederate prisoners. This the 
Federal government declined to do, and in this man- 
ner resolved to submit to the situation and punish in- 
nocent Confederate prisoners in retaliation. 

"How the Federals treated their prisoners" is a sufj- 
ject that has never yet found its way into print. We 
speak of our experience at Camp Douglas. The other 
Northern prisons were conducted in a similar manner. 



CAMP DOUGLAS. 

This prison was an inclosure ot seventeen acres, sur- 
rounded by a triple plank wall fourteen feet high, 
with sentinel walk on the top of the wall. The prison 
was about four miles from the court-house at Chicago, 
and was named in honor af Stephen A. Douglas, near 
whose residence it was established. The prison con- 
sisted of barracks arranged in rows, in the manner of 
streets. There were twenty-one rows. Each row 
had four barracks, arranged in regular order, with 
cross streets at the end of each barrack. The build- 
ings were box-houses, on posts four feet high, and 



476 MISCELLANEOUS. 

each building contained one hundred and fifty men. 
Some of the buildings were used for hospitals. The 
prison was a little town of ten thousand inhabitants. 
It was supplied with water from the hydrants, and the 
buildings were comfortable. Brigadier-general U. J. 
Sweet was commander of the post, and the prison was 
under the command of Captain Welles Sponable. 
This prison had the "dead line," just the same as An- 
dersonville. If a man passed it he was shot. The 
men were made to retire at sundown, and were not 
allowed to talk to one another after they laid down. 
If the Federals heard any talking at night in the bar- 
racks they would shoot into the house through the 
crowd. This was often done, when several men were 
shot, not only innocently and unexpectedly, but some- 
times mortally. The men were not allowed to walk 
the cross streets. The prisoners were subjected "to the 
severest punishment for trivial ofFenses. 

Good accommodations were furnished the prisoners 
for keeping warm. The barracks were tight and had 
good stoves furnished with plenty of coal. The pris- 
oners were not allowed to sit or stand around the stoves 
after sundown. They were required to lie in bed till 
the bugle sounded in the morning for them to get up. 
The sleeping accommodations were naked bunks, and 
the prisoners were allowed one blanket each. 

The prisoners were allowed to go out at night in 
their night clothes, but were not allowed to go on a 
cross street. In cold weather they were allowed to 
wear their shoes, but were not allowed any other addi- 
tion to their night clothes. If any prisoner became 
possessed of a change of garments the excess was 
taken away from him. Every week the barracks were 
policed by soldiers who in this way would gather up 



CAMP DOUGLAS. 477 

cart loads of clothing which had been taken from the 
prisoners in this manner, and take them out of the 
prison encampment. 

Each barrack had a kitchen supplied with a kettle 
for boiling beef and vegetables. This was the only 
cooking utensil. A detail was made to boil the beef 
and issue it out to the men. The prisoner's ration was 
to each man one half a loaf of baker's bread daily, 
together with about four ounces of meat arid a gjll of 
beans or potatoes. The prisoners were not allowed 
any vessels of any kind. They made little wooden 
dishes and spoons in which they received their scanty 
allowance. There was a sutler's store in the prison 
that sold a few things at exorbitant prices, and for a * 
long time this sutler's establishment was not allowed 
to sell any kind of provisions in any shape to the pris- 
oners. The result of this treatment was that many 
prisoners died of starvation. If a prisoner took sick 
he was removed to the hospital, where better accom- 
modations were extended to him. 

During this period of starvation at Camp Douglas, 
the prison was visited one day by some distinguished 
people from England. The prison officers were show- 
ing them around in great pomp. When they came to 
the barracks of Morgan's men, the boys commenced 
crying out, "Bread! bread! bread!" The British vis- 
itors looked confused and the prison officers were 
greatly exasperated. As a punishment, they ordered 
that no bread be issued to these men for the next 
twenty-four hours, and gave orders to all the men of 
the other barracks not to trade or traffic bread to 
those men under the severest penalties. The men 
became desperate. A dog came into the camp with 
some visitors one day, and was decoyed away from 



478 MISCELLANEOUS. 

its owner. It was reported that this dog was slaugh- 
tered and eaten by Morgan's men. The prison au- 
thorities investigated the matter, but without any 
satisfactory results. The matter passed off quietly. It 
was evident the dog had been appropriated. In this 
way the men suffered in Northern prisons for the last 
year and a half of the war. 

When the news came of the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, the prisoner who expressed himself about 
it in any way was jerked up and severely punished. 
Some people wanted to kill the prisoners and the whole 
Southern people when the calamity was made known. 
The prison was threatened with a mob, but excitement 
soon abated. The war soon closed. The prisoners 
were discharged and sent home. The horrors and cru- 
elties of Andersonville have been at least balanced, if 
not eclipsed, by the cruelties of Northern prisons, of 
which little has been said or written since the close of 
the war. 

It is not to be expected that prison life possesses any 
charms or desirable associations. In civilized wars it 
is destitute of many of the horrors usual among more 
barbarous people. Captivity is deplorable, because it 
is at variance with man's highest nature and noblest 
impulses. 

During the prison life at Camp Douglas, the peo- 
ple of Chicago manifested toward the prisoners 
much sympathy and assistance, not as a political 
measure so much as a matter of humanity. As the 
war progressed, the Federal authorities forbade such 
expressions of sympathy, but the noble ladies of Chi- 
cago continued in the good work, prominent among 
whom was Mrs. Mary Blackburn Morris. This lady 
was possessed of great wealth, and in its bestowal to 



MRS. MORRIS. 479 

the relief of the suffering Confederate prisoners, she 
endeared herself to the prisoners and to the Southern 
people. Mrs. Morris died at Louisville, Ky., October 
18, 1884. In honor of her memory, the following 
meeting was held in Clarksville, Tenn., on Friday, Oc- 
tober 24, 1884, an account of which was printed in the 
Clarksville papers of October 28: 

MRS. MARY BLACKBURN MORRIS. 

In pursuance of the following call, the Confederate 
soldiers and many of the citizens of Clarksville assem- 
bled at the court-house in Clarksville on Friday, Octo- 
ber 24, 1884, at n o'clock, A.M.: 

Our comrades of the Tenth, Forty-second, Forty-ninth, and 
Fiftieth Tennessee Regiments remember the motherly kindness 
of this good woman, who ministered to them when prisoners of 
war at Chicago, 111., in 1862, and to show their appreciation of 
her noble action, and grateful remembrance of the same, a meet- 
ing of Confederate soldiers is called at the circuit court room, at 
the court-house in Clarksville, on Friday, at n o'clock A.M., Oc- 
tober 24, 1884. All citizens ladies especially are invited to 
attend. 

Lewis R. Clark, Tenth Tennessee. 

R. E. McCulloch, J. J. Crusman, T. D. Johnson, D. F. Wright, 
Fourteenth Tennessee. 

W. A. Qiiarles, T. A. Turner, E. M. Nolan, Forty -second Ten- 
nessee. 

J. E. Bailey, T. M. Atkins, R. Y. Johnson, W. F. Young, 
Thomas H. Smith, Polk G.Johnson, Forty-ninth Tennessee. 

Charles W. Tyler, J. L. W. Power, John D. Moore, Fiftieth 
Tennessee. 

William R. Bringhurst, Austin Peay, C. D. Bell, Woodward's 
Cavalry. 

John Minor, Tenth Tennessee Cavalry. 

Henry Merritt, H. H. Lurton, Dortch's Cavalry. 

F. P. Gracey, Gracey's Battery. 



480 MISCELLANEOUS. 

On motion of ex-United States Senator James E. 
Bailey, colonel of the Forty-ninth Tennessee, C. S. A. r 
Brigadier-general William A. Quarles was called to- 
the chair. Upon taking the chair, General Quarles 
paid a high tribute to the many virtues of the noble 
woman whose memory we had met to commemorate. 

The chair appointed Lieutenant Polk G. Johnson^ 
Forty-ninth Tennessee, secretary; W. O. Brandon r 
Clarksville Tobacco Leaf; B. M. DeGraffenried,. 
Clarksville Democrat; and R. H. Yancy, Clarksville 
Chronicle, assistant secretaries. 

The meeting being organized, was opened with 
prayer by Dr. J. W. Lupton, of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

On motion of Captain Thomas H. Smith, of the 
Forty-ninth Tennessee, the following committee on 
resolutions was appointed: Captain Thomas H. Smith r 
Forty-ninth Tennessee Infantry, chairman; Captain 
Lewis R. Clark, Tenth Tennessee Infantry; private 
J. M. Rogers, Eleventh Tennessee Infantry; Major 
D. F. Wright, surgeon Fourteenth Tennessee Infantry; 
private T. A. Turner, Forty-second Tennesse Infantry; 
Colonel James E. Bailey, Forty-ninth Tennessee In- 
fantry; Lieutenant Charles W. Tyler, Fiftieth Tennes- 
see Infantry; Austin Peay, Woodward's Cavalry; Ma- 
jor John Minor, Tenth Tennessee Cavalry; Lieutenant 
H. C. Merritt, Morgan's Cavalry; Captain F. P. 
Gracey, Cobb's Battery; T. J. Munford, One Hundred 
and Fifty-fourth Tennessee Infantry; Captain W. D. 
Taylor, Price's army, of Missouri; Lieutenant A. M.. 
Trawick, Sixteenth Arkansas Regiment; private T. 
D. Lucket, Morgan's Cavalry; Captain J. W. Scales, 
Longstreet's staff. 

The committee retired, and, upon their return, re- 



MRS. MORRIS. 481 

ported, through their chairman, the following resolu- 
tions: 

IN MEMORY OF MARY BLACKBURN MORRIS. 

In all the epochs of civilization individuals have 
arisen equal to the demands of the occasion. Whether 
it be to lead the councils of nations in the senate, the 
soldiers in the field, or to lift aloft and protect from 
corrupting influences the banner of God's holy relig- 
ion whatever may be the demand of the occasion, by 
an influence acting either from within the human heart 
or mind or without, from the direct interposition of 
Providence, the individual comes along with it, coeval 
and co-equal to the duty of the hour. 

Not only is this true with reference to men, but 
woman grows with the demand. Her frail form be- 
comes energized, is braced as with iron nerves, and 
her gentle spirit puts on the courage and strength of 
the lion. The demands for such exaltation of human 
character are not so frequent as to render their num- 
ber in the history of our human kind very great, but 
here and there along the roadway of civilization they 
stand, like the finger-boards of time, at once directing 
and illuminating the way. It is some revolution in 
affairs (grand occasions) that give birth to these men 
and women. We might cull from history a list of such 
names, but prefer to let our own country and our own 
womanhood furnish illustration, and that too in the 
person of her whose memory we have met to honor, 
and to do this we will have to recur to the past and, 
to us, some of its familiar history. 

On the 22d of February, 1862, the first of the Con- 
federate prisoners of war arrived at Camp Douglas, in 
the suburbs of the city of Chicago, 111, These hap- 
31 



482 MISCELLANEOUS. 

pened to be mainly of the Forty-ninth, Forty-second, 
and Fiftieth Tennessee Infantry regiments, all of Mont- 
gomery county. It happened they were placed in the 
barracks from which a Federal regiment had that day 
been sent to the front. Fortunately for our poor fel- 
lows, they had, out of their abundance, left here and 
there crumbs and crusts of bread, and these they eagerly 
gathered up and greedily devoured. 

Strangers, as they supposed, in a strange and dis- 
tant land, they neither hoped for nor expected relief 
from the gentle hand of friend, and still less from that 
of the foe; but after many hundreds had come and 
gazed upon them as upon so many wild animals cap- 
tured from the forest or the jungle, the matronly form 
of a woman, who, their experienced eyes told them, 
was of our Southland, came in their midst with look 
and word and deed of sympathy and love. 

The form referred to was that of her whom we are 
met here to-day to honor, whose name, already en- 
graven on our hearts, we would give our humble efforts 
to place where it of right belongs on the living an- 
nals of the history of the times as one of its great and 
heroic workers, illustrating and exemplifying human 
nature in its highest and grandest type. 

From the date of the birth of the Saviour of man- 
kind to this hour, no higher evidence of his divine origin 
has ever been vouchsafed than this he came as a sac- 
rifice for the good of mankind, as an exemplar for 
every Christian life. He draws nearest Christ who can 
reverently and humbly give himself or herself a sacri- 
fice for the good of others, and surely if ever human 
being did thus put away the things of this world and 
follow after her Master, she did. 

At the date given above, February 22, 1862, she was 



MRS. MORRIS. 483 

the possessor of a luxurious home, in the very front 
rank of all social life in her circle, with the wealth of a 
millionaire, her husband honored in the past as the sec- 
ond mayor of Chicago, and the candidate on the Bell 
and Everett ticket for governor of Illinois, and in the 
front as judge of their court. Hers was the very acme 
of human life, with all the sources from which its 
pleasures are derived in full, present possession. All 
she had to do to keep what she had and even add ten- 
fold to it, was to keep herself aloof from public affairs 
and quietly float down the tide of life; but the spirit of 
her divine Master, " working with her own spirit," 
bid her make her own sacrifice for the lives of others, 
and without a murmur or complaint, without a mo- 
ment's hesitation, she gave it all social position, luxu- 
rious home, wealth, every thing to comfort and relieve 
the captive in his chains, and tl^e cause and the land as 
much her own as if she carried the banner and wielded 
the sword of the Southern Confederacy. 

It was not long after her good offices had been given 
to the prisoners, before she and her husband became 
the objects of "Federal persecution, till to visit her hos- 
pitable home was made a cause of arrest. Soon that 
home was taken from her, and she, a delicate woman, 
all unused to hardship, made the inmate of a dark, cold 
prison, with nothing to feed upon save such prison fare 
as her own money would purchase. To use the unvar- 
nished and literal truth, they took from her all she had, 
save one dress, denying her the use of her own private 
room to make her toilet as they took her off to prison, 
and she was compelled to make a screen of the body 
of her faithful maid servant behind which to make the 
change from her indoor to the one street dress they al- 
lowed her to take awnv with her. All the rest of the 



484 MRS. MORRIS. 

wealth of herself and husband they either gave to the 
bummer, or it became a part of that vast and mysterious 
amount of goods known then, as now, as captured or 
confiscated goods. 

Finally, after long and cruel torture, they sent her 
with broken health, but unbroken spirit, to her brother, 
Dr. James Blackburn, of Scott county, Ky., with or- 
ders to keep " watch and ward " over her, and expatri- 
ate her if she left the limits of Dr. Blackburn's farm. 
With the courage of a man and the devotion of a 
woman, she gave her all to the cause. Many of us re- 
member the soothing words and hand of this noble 
woman in our sickness and suffering, and the words of 
encouragement and cheer with which she revived and 
sustained our drooping spirits; and when, as was some- 
times the case, disease and death came, no mother's 
hand ever more softly and gently placed the boy soldier 
in his shroud and with flowers decked him for the grave. 

After the war and the death of her husband, which 
occurred, we believe, in 1875 or : ^7^' s ^ e came back 
to the home of her girlhood and the home of her 
brother, Dr. Luke Blackburn, then governor of Ken- 
tucky, and when he retired from office she followed 
him to Louisville, Ky., where, with his aid and others 
of like philanthropic character, they erected a sanita- 
rium in which to provide for and treat the unfortunate 
victims of minds diseased. This was the work most 
congenial to her quiet, gentle heart. With all of her 
losses, great as we have seen they were, but a few 
hours before her death she declared that the only 
regret she had in dying was that she could do no 
more for the needy and the helpless. 

On October 18, 1884, at the Sanitarium, near Lou- 
isville, Ky., with the armor of her good work still on 



MRS. MORRIS. 485 

her, Mai'y Blackburn Morris died in the full posses- 
sion of all her mental faculties, and the bright jewels 
of her noble and heroic life crowning her more richly 
and grandly than kingly crown ever decked a royal 
head. To us who meet here to-day her life was more 
even than that of one of the historic characters of her 
time to us she was the kindly, gentle ministering 
spirit, and though gray hairs have blossomed in the 
heads of the boy soldiers she ministered to at Camp 
Douglas in 1862, to our hearts and in our memories she 
was, and is, and will forever be, a second mother; 
therefore, 

Resolved, That the loss of such a person is not only 
a source of grief to those who stand in the circle of 
her own family, and with whom we sympathize and to 
whom we respectfully tender our sincere condolence, 
but a public calamity, in which society at large sustains 
a great and irreparable loss. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the family of the deceased, and that the Clarksville 
papers and the Courier -Journal be requested to pub- 
lish the same. 

In presenting the resolutions, Captain Smith, who 
was the orderly sergeant of Company A, Fourth Ten- 
nessee Regiment, at the time it was carried to Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, 111., as prisoners of war, gave a 
history of its arrival at Chicago and at Camp Douglas, 
and paid a glowing tribute to the deceased, as also to 
the other noble women of Chicago who visited the 
prisoners, nursed the sick, fed the hungry, and clothed 
the suffering mentioning the names of Mrs. Philip 
Larmon, Mrs. J. H. Larmon, Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. 
Belle Waller, Miss Pet Boone, Mrs. Robb, and others. 



486 MISCELLANEOUS. 

Appropriate speeches were also made by the follow- 
ing gentlemen, who seconded the resolutions. 

Ex-United States Senator James E. Bailey, Colonel 
of the Forty-ninth Tennessee; Polk G.Johnson, Lieu- 
tenant of the Forty- ninth Tennessee; Judge Charles 
W. Tyler, Lieutenant of the Fiftieth Tennessee; Lewis 
G. Munford, of the Clarksville bar. 

Judge Horace H. Lurton, of Morgan's cavalry, 
moved the adoption of the resolutions, which were 
unanimously carried. 

Prayer was then offered by Dr. A. D. Sears, of the 
Baptist Church, whereupon the meeting adjourned. 
WILLIAM A. QJJARLES, Chairman. 

POLK G. JOHNSON, Secretary. 



When Camp Douglas was first established, the pris- 
oners had kitchens supplied with stoves and cooking 
utensils, and were supplied with more provisions than 
they were able to consume. They were also allowed 
as much clothing as they pleased to possess. The 
buildings had their floors near the ground, and the 
prisoners would " tunnel " out. To prevent this the 
barracks were put on posts, as before stated, and when 
retaliatory measures were adopted, the stoves were 
taken away. It is strange to what extent man's inge- 
nuity can be exerted under trying circumstances. One 
day a young Kentucky lad, who had been clerking in 
the sutler's store, was missing. -Search proved in vain. 
The lad was gone. It was a regular custom to send 
out boxes or barrels from the store as soon as emptied. 
This lad had crawled into a sugar barrel and concealed 
himself. The barrel was rolled into a cart and dumped 
out on the yard of a groceryman's establishment in the 



CAMP DOUGLAS. 487 

city. The lad made his escape in this way. At an- 
other time a prisoner who staid near the wall had cul- 
tivated very friendly relations with a Federal soldier, 
and succeeded in borrowing his overcoat. At night 
the prisoner put on the overcoat, and with a frail lad- 
der ascended the wall to where the sentry was walk- 
ing. He told the sentinel to keep quiet, that he knew 
where there was some whisky near hy (showing a can- 
teen), and if he would keep the ladder till he came 
back that he would divide the whisky with him. The 
offer was accepted, and the ladder was placed on the 
outside of the wall. The prisoner descended. The 
sentinel waited in vain for his return with the whisky. 
The prisoner was heard from in a few days. He was 
in Canada. He staid there. 

On another occasion a prisoner, after having laid in 
a supply of cheese and crackers sufficient for a few 
days' journey, crawled over the "dead line" in the 
darkness, and quietly " scratched out," and succeeded 
in making his escape. The ground under the wall be- 
ing of a loose, sandy nature, the prisoner scooped out 
a passway with his hands. In the morning the breach 
was discovered. The prisoner had left his bundle of 
cheese and crackers. The Federal officer expressed a 
hope that the prisoner would not be caught, and re- 
gretted that he did not succeed in getting his rations 
away also. 

It was not only astonishing, but often amusing, to 
see with what alacrity and promptness a prisoner would 
obey the stern and rigid mandates of prison discipline. 
Men become humiliated and dejected as this state of 
affairs wears on their sensibilities beyond a certain 
limit. When it passes this limit they lose much of 
their manhood, and gradually droop and die. 



488 CAMP DOUGLAS. 

As the situation became more desperate, the prison- 
ers commenced enlisting in the United States armies 
for frontier service. The war soon ended, and the 
captive was set at liberty. 

This sketch of Northern prison life has been given 
with no intention of reflecting in any manner upon the 
Federal authorities at the time the events occurred. At 
this period the vindictive feelings engendered by the 
sufferings and sacrifices of a four-years war were at 
their highest point. Peace soon came " with healing 
on her wings." " Man's inhumanity to man " was mu- 
tually forgiven, and as time moved onward it was com- 
paratively forgotten. 



On page 325, Col. J. M. Hulin should be Colonel J. M. Hulm. 

Page 333, Henderson should be Robertson. 

Page 337, General Sugg should be Colonel Sugg. 

Page 343, the last organization should contain the following 
officers : Of the consolidated regiment, O. A. Bradshaw, Colo- 
nel (formerly of Fourth Tennessee), G. W. Pease, Lieutenant- 
colonel (formerly of Fiftieth Tennessee), Dr. R. G. Rothroek, 
Surgeon (formerly Fiftieth Tennessee). 



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