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Walker's Texas Division. 




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" When on the field of freedom bled, 

I press the ashes of the brave ; 
Marveling that man, should ever dread. 

Thus to wipe out the name of slave ; 
No deep-drawn sigh escapes my breast — 

No woman drops my eyes distain ; 
I weep no.;, guilant beans, at rest — 

I bui/ <'bp.ore the\ rtied in vain/' 




108 to 114 Wooster Street. 


.v 1013 





R 10!3 L 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington., Li-tile & Co.s 
PUXJHSBG, Ele-tl:otyfzi~ ->.m> Ftereotypers, 
103 to 114 Wooster St., N. Y. 


This volume, with its many imperfections, is, with feelings of pro- 
found respect and admiration for officers and soldiers, and the cause 
for which they fought, dedicated to Major-General John G. Walker, 
and the dead and living of the gallant soldiers of his Division of the 
Confederate States Army, by one who has had the honor to fight under 
and with them, but whose rank never exceeded that of a 



The Texas Soldier 13 

The Private Soldier 16 


The Organization of the 16th Texas V. Infantry at Camp Groce. — De- 
scription of Camp Groce and Camp Hebert. — Camp-Life. — Presen- 
tation of Colors. — The Departure. — Reception at Houston. — Camp 
at Virginia Point. — Camp Scenes and Camp Amusements. — Night 
Alarm. — Scenes on Picket 19 


Marching Orders. — Return to Camp Groce. — Storm in Camp. — Parting 
Scenes. — En route for Little Rock. — On the March. — A Review. — 
Special Order. — Camp Texas. — March through Little Rock. —De- 
scription of Little Rock 29 


March from Little Rock to Clarendon Heights. — Crossing Grand Prairie. 
— Camp at Clarendon Heights. — En route for Camp Nelson. — Re- 
crossing Grand Prairie. — Suffering of the Troops. — Arrival at 
Camp Nelson. — Organization of the Division. — Names of Officers. — 
Departure of Deshler's Brigade. — Sickness in Camp. — General Re- 
view. — Night Alarm 40 


Leave Camp Nelson. — Arrival at Bayou Metor.— Grand Review of the 
Division. — The Division ordered to Vicksburg. — En route for Van 
Buren. — Camp near Little Rock. — Spending Christmas in Camp. — 
Special Order 61 


March from Little Rock to Pine Bluff. — Counter-marching. — General 
Walker assumes command of the Division. — Hog Stealing. — De- 
scription of Pine Bluff. — En route for Arkansas Post. — Dispatches 
from General Churchill to General Walker. — Surrender of the Ar- 
kansas Post. — Camp Freeze-Out. — Picket Duty. — Arrival of General 
Holmes. — Fortifying at Camp Freeze-Out 66 

Biographical Sketch of Major-General John G. Walker 72 

Return to Pine Bluff. — Camp Mills and Camp Wright. — Description of 
Camp Wright. — Card -playing. — General Haws assumes command 
of the 1st Brigade.— Marching Orders. — General Holmes' Farewell 
Address to the Division 75 


CHAPTER X. page 

The Division moves to Louisiana. — Arrival at Ouachita City. — A New 
mode of Traveling. — Excursion-trip on the Washita River. — Over- 
land Route to Alexandria. — A Free Ride. — Description of Alexan- 
dria 79 

Expedition up the Tensas River. — A Night-march to Perkins' Landing. 85 


Skirmish at Perkins' Landing. — A Negro Description of the Cannonad- 
ing. — Official Report of the Skirmish 87 


The Division crosses the Tensas River. — March to Milliken's Bend and 

Young's Point. — Scenes before the Battle 93 


The Battle of Milliken's Bend. — Operations of Haws' Brigade at Young's 
Point. — General McCulloch's Report of the Battle. — General Walk- 
er's Report of his Division at Milliken's Bend and Young's Point.. — 
Federal Report of the Battle 95 


Retreat from Richmond. — Gallant Conduct of the 18th Regiment and 
Edgar's Battery. — Heroism of a Private Soldier. — Tappan's Brigade 
to the Rescue. —Arrival at Delhi 110 


March from Delhi in the direction of Goodrich's Landing. — Texas Cav- 
alry. — Capture of Fort Mound. — Return to Delhi. — The Appearance 
of the Troops. — Fall of Vicksburg. — Surmises about the Surrender 
of Vicksburg. — On the Cars. — Arrival at Monroe 113 


General Walker's Official Reports of the Operations of his Division in 

Madison and Carroll Parishes. — After the Battle of Milliken's Bend. 119 


March from Monroe to Alexandria. — General McCulloch leaves the 
Division. — Amusing Anecdotes of an Ordnance Sergeant en route 
for Berwick Bay. — Operations of General Dick Taylor. — The 
"Greyhounds" resting. — Capture of Fort Beauregard. — The Grey- 
hounds on the Enemy's Trail. — Preparing for Battle. — Arrival of 
General Scurry - 127 


The Battle of Bayou Bourbeaux.— Official Report of the Battle. — Gen- 
eral Taylor's Congratulatory Address to the Troops of Walker's 
Division. — Federal Report of the Battle 138 

On the March. — Expedition across the Atchafalaya Bayou 150 



General "Walker's Report, giving his Reasons for failing to attack Pla- 




Re-crossing the Atchafalaya Bayou. — March to Bayou De Glaize and 
Marksville. — Fortifying at Yellow Bayou. — Spending Christmas in 
Camp. — Preaching in Camp. — Opening of the New Year. — Match 
Drill. — General Haws leaves the Division. — Arrival of General 
Waul. — Cotton Selling. — Operations of Scurry's Brigade. — Landing 
of the Enemy at Simmsport 157 


The Retreat from Yellow Bayou to Mansfield. — General Scurry's Report. 
— Line of Battle. — Capture of Fort DeRussy. — "Bull Battery." — A 
Stampede. — Arrival of the Enemy at Alexandria.— Forced Marches. 
— Capture of Edgar's Battery and the 2d Louisiana Cavalry. — Pre- 
paring for Battle. — Double-quicking. — Arrival of Green's Cavalry. . 169 

The Battle of Mansfield.— Official Report of the Battle 182 

The Battle of Pleasant Hill 193 


Scenes after the Battle 201 


General Taylor's and Governor Allen's Addresses to the Army of Western 

Louisiana 203 


The Federal Report of the Battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, and 

the Retreat of the Federal Army , 207 


Marching Orders. — En route for Camden. — Death of General Tom Green. 
— Arrival of the 3d Texas Infantry. —Names of the Officers. — 
March through Shreveport and Minden. — General Kirby Smith's 
Address. — Operations of the Arkansas and Missouri Cavalry. — 
Evacuation of Camden. — In pursuit of the Enemy. — Desolation of 
the Country.— Breakers ahead 241 

The Battle of Jenkins's Ferry.— The Federal Report of the Battle 249 

The Burial of Generals Scurry and Randall 256 


Return to Camden. — General Kirby Smith's Address to the Soldiers of 
the Trans-Mississippi Department. — En route for Alexandria. — 
Promotions. — General Taylor's Address to the Cavalry and Po- 
lignac's Division. — Camps near Alexandria 259 



The Enemy's Retreat from Pleasant Hill. — Fortifying at Grand-Ecore. 
Vindication of General Kirby Smith. — Destruction of the Country. 
— Critical Position of the Enemy at Alexandria. — Burning of Alex- 
andria. — Fighting at Yellow Bayou 265 


March from Pineville to Snaggy Point. — Storm in Camp. — General 
Walker leaves the Division. — Organization of the Artillery. — 
March to the Mississippi River. — General Walker's Orders to Gen- 
eral King. — Preparations to cross the Mississippi River. — General 
Taylor's Plan thwarted. — Failure to cross the Mississippi River. . . . 269 


On the March. — General Forney takes command of the Division. — Ar- 
rival at Monticello. — Grand Review. — March from Monticello to 
Camden. — Fortifying Camden. — March from Camden to Camp 
Sumter. — March from Camp Sumter to Camp Magruder. — Win- 
ter Quarters. — Description of Camp Magruder. — Amusements in 
Camp. — Anecdotes, etc. — Sham-Battle. — General Review 275 


En route for Shreveport. — Grand Review of the Division. — Grand Bar- 
becue given by the Ladies of Louisiana to the Division 286 


General Buckner's Address. — On the March. — Dismounting the Caval- 
ry. — Reinforcements. — Organization of the 4th Brigade. — Searching 
for Honey 291 


Homeward Bound. — Retrograde Movement. — Line of March. — Generals 
Smith, Magruder, and Forney's Addresses to the Soldiers. — Negotia- 
tions for the Surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department. — Ar- 
rival at Hempstead. — Disbanding of the Troops. — Farewell Parting. 298 


The " Personnel " of the Division, and How they accept the Situation. . 308 


Surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department 310 

Appendix 312 

Conclusion 313 


iN presenting the following pages to the public, I trust 
I am not ignorant of my presumption ; and can only 
offer, as an apology, the neglect heretofore, of abler 
pens than mine, to rescue from probable oblivion the deeds 
and prowess of " "Walker's Division " of Texas troops of the 
Confederate States Army. 

To me the task has been a labor of love — still, one I would 
have preferred had been undertaken by some one more com- 
petent, who could in a measure do justice to the noble sub- 
ject ; for surely it would require the pen of a Thucy elides, to 
give a full and graphic account of the battles, advances, and 
retreats, in which " Walker's Division " participated during 
the late civil war. 

To the student of military science, the following pages 
will not be likely to afford much matter of interest, in a 
scientific point of view, as they are written by one whose 
position as a 'private soldier precluded a knowledge of the 
strategic reasons for the marches and battles which he merely 

That " truth is stranger than fiction " is an axiom as correct 
as it is right. Thus I claim for these pages of history a strict 
adherence to truthfulness in recording actual occurrences — 
facts gathered from the great and bloody drama of the late 
war, around which lingers the halo of imperishable glory, 
possessing all the fascination and interest of romance. This 
record has been jotted down on the long and weary march, 
in the quiet camp, before and after the fierce conflict of 


deadly strife. A correct record of events as they actually 
occurred, it is presented to the public. I have indulged 
in few fancies of the imagination, nor do I claim for this work 
any peculiar literary excellence. Simple in construction of 
sentences, unpretending in style of composition, it is given to 
the public for perusal, as one of the many bloody chapters in 
the history of the late revolution, when Southerners endeav- 
ored, by force of arms, to establish their independence, and 
preserve untarnished the principle of constitutional liberty 
bequeathed to them by their ancestors, and baptized and con- 
secrated with their best blood, from the despotic domination 
of Radicalism. 

Let the thousands of the loyal and true hearts that sleep 
beneath the blood-enriched soil of Louisiana and Arkansas 
answer. Let the glorious muster-roll of heroes and martyrs 
in our cause reply whether they were right or wrong in striking 
a blow for their freedom. The attempt has failed ; and while 
the Southern people accept the issue of the struggle as the 
unalterable decree of a mysterious Providence, records of 
the past, as contained in this volume, will be regarded as 
priceless mementoes of heroic deeds and an imperishable 
epitome of gallant achievements, fierce conflicts, determined 
valor, and patient and long-enduring sufferings of those brave 
men who sacrificed their lives, and devoted their energies 
and efforts towards the establishment of long-cherished prin- 
ciples and institutions. 

Mere history can furnish only a tittle of the vivid reality of 
warlike scenes. Perusing its pages, the reader gleans only the 
record of gallant achievements — lives in the midst of scenes 
befitting a romance, and not stern realities. Thus there is a 
strange fascination in such compilations. War has existed 
almost since the creation of the universe, and its records, 
from ancient days down to modern times, when Napoleon 
electrified the world with his brilliant victories, possess pecu- 
liar attractions and deep interest. Yet the reader gathers not 
from the pages of history, with its glowing descriptions, and all 
the attendant pomp and glory of the struggle, its attendant 


horrors, the deadly suffering, and unbearable anguish which 
accompany the dark side of the brilliant, fascinating picture. 

'Tis well that it should be so. There are few, however, 
especially in this suffering, ruined Southern land, who do not 
understand, aye, know, from experience dearly purchased, 
what war means, in the fullest signification of the term. 

This book is a chapter from its bloodiest record. The 
author has labored under peculiar disadvantages, being* 
deprived of official records and documents, and has been 
compelled to rely on his present experience and information, 
and such notes and papers as could be obtained from the 
surviving members. In order to make my work acceptable to 
the general reader, I give a sketch of the battles in which the 
division participated, but making a diary of our marches the 
leading feature. 

If I have failed in presenting as complete and interesting a 
work as the subject demands, it is a fault, not of the head or 
heart, but simply because my sources for obtaining necessary 
information have been, not only limited, but very meager. 

I do not write this work from any mercenary motives, but 
with the sole desire of helping to rescue from obscurity the 
glorious military record " Walker's Division " earned during 
the late war. 

I hope the history of every Texas regiment and brigade in 
the Confederate States army will be written, and thus pre- 
serve the material for some future Bancroft of Texas history. 
We have given too many Texas regiments and brigades to the 
late Confederate States service, to let their history sink into 
obscurity ; besides, their bravery and services are of such a 
nature as to cause a glow of pride to tingle through every 
Texan heart. As I have said, I hope other pens will write 
the histories of other organizations. If I have but contributed 
a correct record of Walker's Division to the general fund, I 
am satisfied. Imperfect as this record may be, it is given to 
the public, not for criticism, but as a compilation of facts, 
exhibiting some of the innumerable thrilling scenes through 
which they participated as votive actors. 


Though vanquished in the final result, though the princi- 
ple for which we fought and for which our comrades died 
seems to be forgotten in the blind passions of the hour, jet we 
have the proud satisfaction to know that our defeat was 
accomplished by an overwhelming foe, and they must and 
ever will do us the justice to say that they " met afoeman wor- 
thy of their steel." 

I shall endeavor to give a graphic account of the organiza- 
tion of the 16th Texas Volunteer Infantry (Flournoy's), the 
regiment to which I had the honor of belonging until it was 
attached to a brigade, and this brigade with three others 
were formed into a division, the history of which division, 
from camp to field, I have endeavored to give as fully as 
possible, in the following chronicle 






" Rebellion ! foul, dishonoring word, 
Whose wrongful blight so oft has stained 
The holiest cause that tongue or sword — 
That mortal ever lost or won. 
How many a spirit, born to bless, 
Has sunk beneath that withering name, 
Whom but a day's, an hour's success 
Had wafted to eternal fame ! " 

the first day of February, 1861, Texas took sides 
with her sister States. The time had come when all 
the Southern States must " hang together " in one 
common cause, or else "hang separately." They hung to- 
gether, cemented by the great principle that, " whenever any 
form of government becomes destructive of its ends, it is the 
right of the people to alter or abolish it." 

As the news of the capture of Fort Sumter spread with 
the velocity of the hurricane, it roused the energies of the 
Southern people to the highest tone of patriotism, and to 
deeds of the most lofty action. The lawgiver left the senate- 
house, the lawyer the court, the judge the bench, the mechanic 
his shop, the husbandman his plough, and rushed forward to 


the seat of danger, to join their Southern brethren on the 
" tented field." 

The bright star of victory led them onward through the 
dark shades of war, casting light and hope athwart the path 
of the war-worn Texas soldier. 

Texas should be proud of the noble men who went forth for 
her, to battle for right and liberty. They have taken a name 
already famous, and made it the most glorious of the age. 
They have borne aloft her banner — through toilsome marches, 
through times of starvation, in rags, often shoeless and coat- 
less — into the heart of danger, and planted it on the topmost 
pinnacle of fame. The sons of the " Lone Star State " dis- 
tinguished themselves on every battle-field, from the first bat- 
tle of Manassas to the last one at Palmetto Ranch, on the 
Rio Grande. And here I wish to note, that it is a singular fact 
that the last battle of the war was, though the contending 
parties did not number over fifteen hundred men, as decisive 
a victory for the Confederates, in comparison with the num- 
bers engaged, as the first battle of Manassas ; but, alas ! both 
were unavailing offerings to the god of war. 

The proud achievements of the troops of Texas are above 
all praise. History furnishes us no nobler example of heroism 
and constancy. I know of no battle where they have been 
engaged, that they have not been chosen to bring on the fight. 
What battery has stood the force of their resistless charge ? 
What retreat have they failed to cover ? The flower of the foe 
has been cut down by their determined valor. Patient and 
enduring on the toilsome march, swift and certain in the sur- 
prise, and terrible as the tempest-blast in the charge, they 
have proven themselves worthy of the name of Soldiers of 
Liberty. If the world has ever known their superiors in valor, 
history gives not the example. 

Texans are born soldiers ; from early boyhood they are 
taught the use of the rifle and six-shooter. They know that 
much depends on their skill in the use of arms — the safety 
of themselves and their families from the murdering Lipau, 
or the ruthless Comanche. They learn in early childhood 


what has contributed so largely to the fame of the French 
soldier — perfect self-reliance at all times and under all cir- 
cumstances. This, perhaps, is the most valuable quality a 
soldier can possess. Without it the most thorough bull-dog 
courage often ends in a worse than useless sacrifice of life. 
The Texan possesses another high quality of a soldier — power 
of endurance, and ability to march when suffering for food and 
water, that would prostrate men not trained to travel the im- 
mense prairies of Texas, where they are often for days without 

********* * 

The gallant dead — how fell they ? Heroes ! thousands of 
whom have no monuments save the memory of their ever- 
lasting valor. At the cannon's mouth, where the foe stood 
thickest, in the deadliest charge, with the forlorn hope, on the 
perilous scout, or at the first breach — there lay the Texan. 

" The soldier of liberty, who died for her sake, 
Leaving in battle not a blot on his name, 
He looked proudly to heaven, from the death-bed of fame." 

May we not feel confident that the rising and coming gen- 
erations of Texans will not attaint the holy halo that sur- 
rounds the name of the Texan soldier, but, on the contrary, 
try to emulate the deeds he has done and accomplished, 
not only on the tented field, but in the council chamber; 
and that, whether republican institutions on this American 
continent survive the present ordeal or not, the " Lone Star " of 
Texas shall ever remain the emblem of those who, like the 
immortal Bayard, are sansjyeur et sans reproche? 




"And while adversity's chill blast 
Sweeps like a besom o'er our land, 
And round her bleeding forms are cast 
The hated tyrant's chains at last, 
We still possess the glorious past — 
The victories of our patriot band — 
The memories of the fields of glory, 
Which aye shall live, in soug and story, 
To cheer the brave and shame the coward. 
By that blue heaven bending o'er us, 
By that green earth spread out before us, 
By that dear fame of those who bore us, 
We are not whipped, but overpowered." 

'HE fortune of a private soldier is indeed an humble 
and, I might almost say, a penal one. Having to en- 
dure the sun-rays on the march, the blinding snows 
and chilling winds of winter, to plunge into the swollen torrent, 
or traverse the arid plains, nothing can possibly sustain him, 
unless it be a high and holy cause, or a sense of the rectitude of 
the purpose for which he has taken up arms, and for which he 
strikes. No glowing vision of a monument erected by a 
nation, or even by his comrades in arms, can allure him to the 
dangerous path. Of the private soldier of any army, but, above 
all, the private soldier of the army whose banners are 
consecrated to the laws which are the expression to us of 
the safeguard of popular rights, and the cause, in an eminent 
degree, of civilization and liberty pervading the soldiers of 
the armies everywhere, but especially the armies called to- 
gether by such a cause — it may indeed be said of them, 
as an eloquent European said of those who fell before the 


walls of Buda, the consciousness of doing right impressed on 
their features, that "they were the nameless demigods of 
liberty." No monument rises up in his anticipations of the 
future ; he cannot expect that, when he returns from the war, 
either brave hands or fair hands can wreathe the bays upon 
his bent or aching brow, or even anticipate that he will be 
remembered by those who most heartily bade him leave the 
threshold of his home, and go forth and do his duty like a 
man. Nevertheless, there is a fame milder, and perhaps 
more sacred than that which descends in bounteoiis pleni- 
tude upon the head of the conspicuous officer, or upon those 
who have signally distinguished themselves in battle. 

Among the private soldiers of the late Confederate army 
were men of culture, men of gentle training, men of intellect, 
men of several positions, men of character at home, men 
endeared to a domestic circle of refinement and eloquence, 
men of wealth, men who gave tone and character to the 
society in which they moved, and men who, for conscience' 
sake, made a living sacrifice of property, home, comforts, and 
who were ready to add crimson life to the holy offering. Many 
of these, if they would .have surrendered honor, and their inde- 
pendence, could have remained in possession of all these 
elegances and comforts. But they felt like the Roman who 
said : "Put honor in one hand and death in the other, and I 
will look on death indifferently." Without rank, without title, 
without anticipation of distinction — animated only by the high- 
est and noblest sentiments which can influence our common 
nature — the private labors, and toils, and marches, and fights ; 
endures hunger, and thirst, and fatigue. Through watchings 
and weariness, sleepless nights and cheerless, laborious days, 
he holds up before him the one glorious pri ze — " Freedom to 
my country ;" "independence and my home." 

I do not believe that there has been a private in the Con- 
federate army, who has been under the fire of battle, and has 
returned maimed or in the freshness of his vigor to his 
home, who will not enjoy the fame with which the loving 
wife, or venerable mother, or, prouder still, with which his 


children will remember his deeds. The private soldiers may 
not have municipal authorities to welcome them, after their 
onerous, tiresome, and exacting duties ; but with a love multi- 
plied infinitely, multiplied by the dangers they have encoun- 
tered, the labors they have resolutely and heroically per- 
formed, by the sacrifice of health and limbs that they have 
incurred for their country, that has given them shelter and 
has maintained for them a magnificent sanctuary — for all 
these the wife of their choice will clasp them, as I am sure 
she has done before, in hundreds of instances, still more 
dearly to her heart ; for all that she will still have a deeper 
sanctity. The waving hand of the old woman who nourished 
you at her breast will impart her welcome at the threshold, 
and perhaps her farewell benediction. With tears she may 
impart it, but ah ! they will be tears glowing with enthusiasm 
and with an old mother's love. This, I say, is the fame — the 
milder, the more obscure fame, if that be not a contra- 
diction of terms — but nevertheless, by reason of this, the more 
sacred fame, which will be perpetuated for a generation or 
two, or more, in the household and amongst the relatives of 
the private soldier. I have often felt pained and annoyed at 
the flippant reference to the private, while the unreasoning 
speaker seemed to regard the officers as the prime and 
meritorious agents of all that is done. Why, in those ranks 
is an amount of intellect which w r ould instruct and astonish 
the statesman ! The opinion of these men will be, and ought 
to be, omnipotent with the people and government of their 
country. The admiration of their devotion and heroism is 
without limit, and when the blind passion of our foes dies 
away, and harmony prevails throughout this continent, I 
hope our worthy foes will do us justice in acknowledging 
that the private soldiers of the Southern army were never 
whipped, but overpowered. 





'HE 16th Texas V. Infantry was organized at "Camp 
Groce," near Hempstead, Austin County, on the 25th 
of March, 1862, with the following Field, Staff and 
and Company officers, viz. : 

Colonel— George Flournoy. 
Lieut. -Colonel— J ames E. Shepard. 
Major — William H. Redwood. 
Quartermaster — W. H. D. Carrington 
Commissary — Joseph Lee. 
Surgeon — U. G. M. Walker. 
Asst.-Surgeon — S. Ewing. 
Cliaplain — R. H. Taliaferro. 
Adjutant — R. L. Uphaw. 

Company A. 
Captain, X. B. Sanders. 
1st Lieut., J. M. White. 
2d Lieut. , J. F. Estes. 
2d Lieut., Sr., Ishmael Kile. 
Orderly Sergeant, D. A. Chamberlin. 
75 men. 

Company B 
Captain, W. H. Jerrell. 
1st Lieut. , A. Testard. 
2d Lieut., H. L. Lewis. 
2d Lieut. , M. M. Murdock. 
Orderly Sergeant, H. C. Surghuor. 
74 men. 

Company C 
Captain, M. H. Bowers. 
1st Lieut., Joseph Bird. 
2d Lieut., John R. Spann. 
2d Lieut., J. L. Vaughn. 
Orderly Sergeant, B. F. Lockwood. 
83 men. 

Company D. 
Captain, A. H. Chalmers. 
1st Lieut., E. Taylor. 
2d Lieut., W. L. McLaughlin. 
2d Lieut., John Rumsey. 
Orderly Sergeant, T. J. McLaughlin. 
85 men. 



Company E. 
Captain, G. T. Marold. 
1st Lieut., A. E. Klaedon. 
2d Lieut., C. H. Hanke. 
2d Lieut., J. Groff. 
Orderly Sergeant, F. Giesheke. 
73 men. 

Company F. 
Captain, Z. Hunt. 
1st Lieut., Z. W. Matthews. 
2d Lieut., B. T. Harris. 
2d Lieut., C. M. Campbell. 
Orderly Sergeant, S. Hayford. 
84 men. 

Company G. 
Captain, F. Moore. 
1st Lieut., C. F. Millett. 
2d Lieut., John Davidson. 
2d Lieut., John Smith. 
Orderly Sergeant, John 0. Johnson. 

Company H. 
Captain, M. Quin. 
1st Lieut., J. B. Good. 
2d Lieut., J. McDonald. 
2d Lieut., J. R. Coryell. 
Orderly Sergeant, I. C. Bell. 
51 men. 

Company I. 
Captain, L. Moore. 
1st Lieut., A. McDow. 
2d Lieut., V. S. Rubb. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Ledbetter. 
Orderly Sergeant, James E. Wilkins. 
Ill men. 

Company K. 
Captain, T. I. Peel. 

1st Lieut., Peel. 

2d Lieut., A. Ramer. 
2d Lieut. , James Donahoe. 
Orderly Sergeant, J. M. Bennick. 
64 men. 

Camp Groce, so named in honor of Colonel L. W. Groce, 
the owner of the land, commanded a splendid panoramic 
view of a long extent of country, situated on a rising ground 
alongside of the Central Railroad, between three and four 
miles from the town of Hempstead, in Austin County. It 
was at first covered with trees and dense brush ; these being 
cleared away, except some of the trees left for shade, a pretty 
camp soon sprung up like a city. Here our regiment was 
pleasantly encamped, occupying the long wooden sheds that 
were built for our barracks. The bright fires that crackled 
and glowed around gave a cheerful appearance to the place, 
about which the men could be found grouped, — some cooking, 
some furbishing up their arms after return from drill, others 
pitching quoits, or collected together listening to some story- 
teller spinning his yarns. What a scene for one unaccustomed 
to witness a regular encampment ! It was a spectacle both 
strange and new, to see young men, reared amid the luxuries 
and comforts of home, whose fair faces and white hands had 


never been soiled by contact with work, doing soldier's duty, 
bending over the camp-fire, preparing meals or boiling coffee 
— tears streaming frorn their eyes, caused by villainous smoke 
from those same camp-fires — carrying wood and water, and, 
when the day's duties were completed, lying down upon a 
board, with knapsack or a billet of wood for a pillow. Military 
discipline soon inducted us into the mysteries of camp-life, 
and in time we became accustomed to its daily routine, which 
was by no means light. At early dawn the reveille roused 
us from slumber. Roll-call being over, the companies 
were dismissed to put their quarters in order. Breakfast at 
6 o'clock, A. M. In the mean time two men from each com- 
pany were detailed to serve in the main-guard, to enforce 
discipline and guard the camp. A police guard was also 
appointed, who cleaned up all dirt and filth about the tents, 
brought water for the company, wood for the cooks, and, in 
fact, kept everything in order and cleanliness during the 
drilling of the troops. 

There was a daily drill, three times a day, at the following 
hours, viz. : 

Company Drill, at 7 o'clock, A. M., 
Company Drill, at 2 o'clock, P. M., 
Battalion Drill, at 3£ o'clock, P. M., 

and "Dress Parade" every evening, at 5 o'clock; at sundown, 
Company Muster, for roll-call and supper. Tattoo, at 9 P. M., 
when the men retired to their respective quarters ; fifteen 
minutes later, three taps of the drum was the signal for all 
lights to be extinguished, and the camp was in darkness and 
quietude. These duties were conducted with regularity and 
precision, and performed with a promptitude and cheerful- 
ness surprising in men who had never known restraint, and 
w ere fresh from the business and luxuries of home. Every- 
thing necessary for the comfort and convenience of the troops 
was furnished, and laugh, jest, and song attested the general 
satisfaction and good feeling of the men. 

Opposite " Camp Groce," on the left of the railroad, was 


situated "Camp Hebert," named after Brigadier-General 
P. O. Hebert, who then commanded the district of Texas, 
New Mexico, and Arizona ; — here was encamped Colonel Car- 
ter's Brigade of Cavalry. From this position there was a mag- 
nificent view of the hills that gird the place, forming a sort of 
natural amphitheatre; looking picturesque with their waving 
forests of trees, and innumerable white tents. Look into the 
cavalry officers' tents, and you will find that they don't fare 
so badly in camp. Neat beds are contrived ; some are cots, 
others saplings or frames covered with cotton, and plenty of 
coverings. On one side is a table, with books and novels, 
a box of cigars, and, most likely, a bottle of "commissary." 
These, with a looking-glass, and the officers' equipments are 
complete. Four flies form a mess-tent; and as the colonel 
and staff are going to dine, we will just see what kind of fare 
they have. It consists of stewed beef, boiled ham, mashed 
potatoes, and a couple of chickens, which some of the Austin 
County housekeepers were kind enough to raise for them — at 
least the officers' servants thought so ; for dessert, a couple of 
bottles of old rye, which some of the planters sent them — for 
their especial benefit ; all these flanked by a respectable force 
of negro waiters. 

Officers and orderlies are always lounging or riding about 
headquarters, which gave it a very gay and stirring appear- 
ance. At some distance from the colonel's headquarters are 
the less pretentious headquarters of some of his subordinate 
officers, while, a little further on, are the modest tents of the 
rank and file, arranged in streets. 

The men around these are collected in groups, wearing 
their bell-spurs, while around each waist is dangling a huge 
knife, made by some village blacksmith, giving them the 
appearance of warriors, apparently ready for any emergency. 
Some are playing cards, pitch and toss, or a thousand other- 
games known only in the army ; others are dining, and grum- 
bling at their rations, while dining, perhaps, on turkey. The 
cooks are busy around a huge camp-kettle, placed on the fire, 
in which a joint of bacon and some peas are bubbling and 


bubbling around, as if they were patriotic enough to enjoy 
being eaten for the good of the soldier. A smaller vessel sim- 
mers near it ; but, as the lid is on it, I cannot see its contents 
— most likely a brace of chickens under the wing of a fat tur- 
key. This is the way the cavalry lived at " Camp Hebert." 
You might ask them where they got all these good things. 
They will tell you, as a matter of course, that their commis- 
sary furnished them. Follow their career through Arkansas 
and Louisiana, afterwards, and ask the ladies of those States 
about their chickens, when Carter's Cavalry was in their 

Nothing of much interest transpired at "Camp Groce" 
(outside of the routine of camp duty), until the morning of 
the 25th of April. On that day the ladies of Austin County 
presented the regiment with a beautiful "flag." This appro- 
priate present was received with hearty cheers. The address 
of the lady orator was one of peculiar force and unsurpassed 
eloquence. Her clear ringing voice was heard by aU, and 
her manner and words sent a thrill of enthusiasm to every 
manly bosom, attested by frequent loud and prolonged bursts 
of applause. Colonel George Flournoy accepted the flag 
from the fair donors, and gave them assurance that, so long 
as a member of the 16th Regiment remained alive, it should 
never suffer a stain of dishonor. After the presentation of 
the colors, the regiment continued learning its A, B, C, of 
military tactics, until the 16th of May, when we bade adieu to 
the old camp, endeared to many by pleasant associations, 
and friendships formed to be severed only by death. We em- 
barked aboard the railroad cars, bound for Virginia Point, 
and arrived at Houston about 4 o'clock, P. M. During our 
march from the Central to the Galveston Depot, the regiment 
was the recipient of one grand ovation, the balconies of the 
houses, banquettes, and streets being crowded with countless 
thousands of men, women, and children. Ladies waved 
their handkerchiefs, and flung bouquets on the marching col- 
umn, bidding the brave boys farewell. Many knew that it 
was, perhaps, a last farewell to the enthusiastic and noble 


soldiers of this command, and they duly appreciated the 
heartfelt expression of sympathy showered upon them, and 
the emotion manifested upon many fair and lovely faces. As 
the regiment marched up Main Street, a gentleman remarked : 
"There goes a body of men who will make their mark on the 
battle-field." After arriving at the Galveston Depot, and 
finding no train ready to leave for Virginia Point, we en- 
camped near the depot until the following day, when we went 
on board the train bound for Virginia Point, distant from 
Houston about forty-three miles. We arrived at Virginia 
Point about 2 o'clock, P. M. Our quartermaster was on 
hand to convey us to our quarters, in a long row of wooden 
sheds, which had been previously occupied by Colonel Cook's 
Regiment of Artillery. They had left for Galveston a few 
days previous to our arrival. 

Virginia Point commands a splendid view of Galveston 
Island. It was strongly fortified. Port Nelson, at this place, 
had fine casements, an extensive esplanade, and mounted 
several guns of large caliber. The situation of the fort, on a 
jutting neck of land, was delightful. Here the troops spent 
their time pleasantly enough (except occasionally annoyance 
by musquitoes), reclining on the grass, watching the numer- 
ous vessels sailing by; or, perched along the railroad bridge 
(connecting Galveston Island with the main land), rod in 
hand, awaiting a nibble from one of the finny tribe, or per- 
haps watching the declining sun gilding the prairies with its 
golden beams, while around was diffused the purple haze of 
an Indian summer. Here the troops were visited by their 
wives and children (such as were fortunate enough to have 
any), and many a pleasant day passed over in sweet for- 
getfulness of what had gone by, and with hopes of the 

Nothing worthy of notice transpired in camp until the 
night of the 10th of June. Shortly after midnight we heard 
the "long roll" beat. This we knew was a token of danger. 
Presently, orderlies came galloping through camp, notifying 
company commanders to have their companies on the parade- 


ground in five minutes' time. Doubl'e-quickmg to the pa- 
rade-ground, some shoeless and hatless, we formed in line of 
battle. Presently the ordinance sergeant, assisted by several 
deputies, commenced issuing ammunition to the several com- 
panies. About the time each company had their ammunition, 
heavy cannonading was heard in the direction of Galveston. 
Many were the surmises and conjectures of the soldiers as to 
the cause. Apparently to keep up the excitement, one of 
the pickets stationed on the railroad bridge shouted aloud, 
"Who comes there?" followed by the report of a musket. 
The hands of every man clasped his gun tighter, and every 
preparation was made to resist an attack from the enemy — 
for, in the hurry and alarm, we could think of nothing else — 
but, on making inquiry about the sentinel's firing, it was ascer- 
tained that a cow, in attempting to cross the bridge, was shot 
by him. He reported to the officer of the guard that he saw, 
as he supposed, a "Live Yankee," creeping slowly towards 
him, with intent to kill him, and he fired in self-defence. 
His explanation proved satisfactory to the officer of the 

Another incident, I deem worthy to relate, occurred with 
another of the sentinels on the bridge. An officer, be- 
longing to the regiment, was returning from Galveston. After 
passing by several of the pickets without any difficulty, 
he approached an Irishman (who was on picket). He halted 
the officer, and asked him for the "countersign." The officer 
informed him that he did not deem it necessary to avail him- 
self of getting the "countersign," owing to the fact that he 
had supposed all the soldiers knew him. The Irishman 
replied that his instructions were, not to let any person pass 
without he had the "countersign." Moreover, he informed 
the officer, he knew no person while on duty ; and, if Jeff. 
Davis undertook to pass without having the "countersign," he 
would not allow him to pass. The officer, hearing those 
remarks, became very angry, and threatened to prefer 
charges against the Irishman. The Irishman became indig- 
nant, and, in order to punish the officer for his insulting 


remarks, ordered him to maik time, at the same moment 
presenting his bayonet to the officer's breast, and commencing 
to sing 

" I am monarch of all I survey ; 
My right there is none to dispute. " 

After finishing his song, the officer asked him to call the 
officer of the guard, and have him released. He answered 
the officer by replying, that, if he wanted the officer of the 
guard, he could call him ; but, for his part, he had no use 
for the officer of the guard. The officer hearing this, com- 
menced calling for the officer of the guard. The officer of 
the guard hearing him, came and released the officer from his 

Ever afterwards, when the officer took a trip to Galveston, 
he was pretty certain to have the countersign before he un- 
dertook to pass the bridge pickets. 

It is a matter of fact that, several years afterwards, this 
same Irishman, while on picket in Louisiana, gave to a 
colonel of a cavalry regiment the same kind of treatment 
he had given to the infantry officer at Virginia Point. 

After remaining on the parade-ground about half an hour, 
and seeing no enemy in sight, the command was given : 
"Eight face," then " Countermarch, by file right," back again 
to our old . quarters. In the mean time we were assured 
that the "stars and bars" still floated defiantly over Gal- 
veston Island. 

We soon learned the cause of our being disturbed in our 
midnight slumbers. The cause of the heavy firing we heard 
was owing to the Steamer Rusk undertaking to run the block- 
ade, which she did successfully. She was loaded with cotton 
for the government, and her destination was the ever-faithful 
" Island of Cuba." After the excitement died away, everything 
remained quiet in camp. 

"While encamped at Virginia Point, and, I might say, during 
the whole period of time we remained in Texas, there was a 
most improvident waste of beef, the regular rations being 


served out to each man. Those who could obtain choice 
luxuries from home, of course threw away the coarse and 
tough parts of the beef given them. These, however, soon found 
customers, for clouds of buzzards were continually hovering over 
and lighting within the lines, playing the part of most excel- 
lent scavengers. 

Could we but have anticipated the horrible sufferings 
we were then bringing upon our heads, or rather stomachs, 
by the prodigality — had we thought the time was near 
at hand, when the poorest morsels we were throwing away 
so lavishly would be absolutely necessary to sustain life 
— a more provident course would have been adopted. Some of 
the old campaigners that had been in the Mexican War 
spoke of this waste of victuals at the time, remarking that the 
buzzards were fattening upon meat of which we should all 
feel the want before the close of the war ; which proved, alas ! 
too true. But by far the greater portion of the troops were in- 
experienced, and went on the principle of taking special good 
care of ourselves to day, and letting to-morrow look out for 
itself. We gained experience and wisdom afterwards, but we 
bought it at an enormous price. 

Much as we all were pleased with our location at Vir- 
ginia Point, our destiny was for a larger field to operate 
in. We soon learned that our services were required in Arkan- 
sas, to help drive back the invaders from her soil. General 
Hindman, Commander-in-Chief west of the Mississippi river, 
requested General Hebert, then in command of Texas, to send 
him all the Texas regiments he could spare. Conse- 
quently, on the 1st of July, Colonel Flourney received 
orders from General Hebert, to hold his regiment in read- 
iness to march at a moment's notice. On the evening of 
the 6th of July, the order for the regiment to march to Little 
Bock, Arkansas, was read at dress parade. The ensuing night 
was accordingly spent in various avocations by officers and 
men. Nearly all wrote home to their friends the exciting news, 
while the balance gave way to fun and jollification; very 
little sleep was enjoyed by any one. The morning of the 7th 


dawned, and the preparations for the march were made ; 
blankets were rolled up, haversacks tilled with rations, guns 
and equipments were highly polished up, awaiting for the 
regiment to form, in order to take a final adieu of Virginia 




j M^ff N the 7th of July, under the heat of a scorching sun, 
"Wl^* the regiment marched aboard the railroad cars. After 
^4^ a ride °f about five hours, we arrived in Houston. As 
we marched through the town, to the Central Depot, the same 
greeting was extended to us by the ladies as they had done 
previously. There is something solemn, yet soul-stirring, in 
the solid tramp of a body of armed men, as they depart for 
some scene of deadly strife, with ensigns fluttering in the 
breeze, and the strains of martial music, or the roll of the 
stirring drum. Shortly after our arrival at the depot, we went 
aboard the cars, bound for our old camp-ground, viz., Camp 
Groce, where we were to remain a few days, to make the 
necessary preparations for the forthcoming long and tedious 
march to Little Rock. 

Nothing unusual transpired on our trip from Virginia 
Point, worthy of notice. On our arrival at Camp Groce, we 
were much surprised to find Colonel Elmore's Regiment of In- 
fantry occupying our old barracks ; consequently, we had to 
take possession of Camp Hebert, then vacated by Carter's 
Brigade of Calvalry. We remained at this camp several weeks, 
for the purpose of making tents, and making preparations for 
our journey to Arkansas. The morning after our arrival in 
camp, our quarters were visited by one of those terrific storms 
so prevalent during this season of the year, and which the 
open nature of the country rendered all the more furious in 
its force and grandeur. About nine o'clock, huge masses of 


clouds, inked in their darkness, gathered in the northwest in 
fantastic forms ; they were piled up like a succession of jagged 
mountain peaks, their rough edges tinged with a pale 3'ellowish 
light. How a vivid flash of lighting would dart its forked 
tongues, athwart the blackness, followed by the rumbling 
thunder-roll ! The storm drove down with furious speed upon 
our encampment. The men hurried hither and thither, driv- 
ing down the tent-pegs, and tightening the cords. From ex- 
perience, they knew what to expect. It burst at last upon the 
camp with tenfold fury. The lightning's blinding flash was 
followed by the thunder's peal, crash upon crash, in rapid 
succession. The trees groaned and shivered with the wind- 
king's mighty power. Then came the rain, first in large 
pattering drops, succeeded finally by a deluge of water, as if 
all the flood-gates of heaven had been loosed. Cries, shouts, 
and laughter were heard on all sides, according to the nature 
of the men's mishaps ; tents tumbled upon their occupants, 
from beneath which the men would emerge like drowned rats, 
much to the amusement of their more fortunate comrades. 
Such scenes as these were of no rare occurrence and formed a 
part of the soldier's experience at Camp Hebert. 

Many of the troops had become impatient at the delay, as 
the regiment had to remain at this camp until the 31st of July. 
Previous to our taking up the line of march, the regiment was 
inspected by Colonel George Flournoy. A neat and appro- 
priate address was delivered by him. About 2 o'clock, P. M., 
we went aboard the train, bound for Navasato, our wagon train 
having been sent ahead of us the day previous. On our arri- 
val at Hempstead, the platform was rilled to its utmost capacity 
with citizens of both sexes, from different portions of the State. 
The scene that ensued beggars all description. Language 
grows weak and impotent in the attempt to portray these 
early parting scenes of the war. The warm embrace, the 
streaming eyes, agonizing expressions of sorrow, loving 
words of cheer and advice, the whispered prayers for their 
loved ones' safety, the tokens of love and remembrance, are 
memories as ineffaceable as the foot-prints of time. Kegard- 


less, in the abandonment of the excitement and deep feelings 
of the moment, the members of the different companies kissed 
and embraced their sweethearts indiscriminately. Those 
soft, encircling arms, and the warm pressure of loving lips, 
linger with the soldier to his dying hour, and often come 
back, with irrepressible influence, to the hearts of those who 
survive the dread carnage of battling hosts. 

Fair countrywomen! 'twas but the expression of your 
woman's sympathy, deep affection, and abiding hope in the 
cause which your loved ones had espoused. Many of those 
warmly-throbbing hearts now mouldering lie 'neath the green 
sod of distant States, in the soldier's humble grave ; but the 
survivors cherish the memory of those bygone scenes with 
deep reverence and holy affection. 

At the expiration of the given time, the men promptly 
returned to the cars. Cheer after cheer was given to the ladies 
of Hempstead, as we took our departure for Navasoto. 

On our arrival at Navasoto, scenes similar to those at Hemp- 
stead took place, wherever the regiment had friends and rela- 
tions, while every farm, hamlet, city, and village, poured forth 
their inhabitants at the roadside to wave an adieu to the 
men. Such enthuasism, unanimity of sentiment and feeling 
was never before exhibited. 

As we marched through the town to our camp-ground, 
bouquets of flowers were continually lavished upon us by the 
fair donors of Navasoto. We encamped in the rear of the town, 
and had dress-parade, in order to please the ladies of Nava- 
soto. We remained here until the morning of the 2d of August, 
awaiting the arrival of our wagons, from Camp Groce. 

Aug. 2d. Early this morning, the regiment took up their line 
of march for Little Kock, Arkansas. During the march, the 
troops were compelled to carry their knapsacks, in order to 
break them in to the harness of old veteran soldiers. After 
marching five miles, we struck camp, selected for us by our 

Aug. 3d. At two o'clock this morning, the reveille aroused the 
men from their slumbers. After cooking breakfast, we took 


up the line of march once more. "What a day of severe 
experience it was for all who participated therein ! Shoulders 
grew sore under the burden of supporting knapsacks, limbs 
wearied from the painful march, and feet grew swollen and 
blistered as the men marched along the dusty road. The 
country we marched over was rocky, especially around the 
town of Anderson. The troops, however, soon became accus- 
tomed to marching, and bore its hardships with fortitude and 
courage, keeping up their spirits with songs and jokes, as they 
passed along. After marching twelve miles, we arrived at a 
small creek, and reposed on its banks for the night. 

Aug. 4th. Marched ten miles. Passed by several well-culti- 
vated farms, with 

" Dress-waving fields and pastures green, 
With gentle groves, and slopes between. " 

Aug. 5th. Marched five miles, and camped on Bead-Eye 
creek. The country here was beautiful, being an open, rolling 
prairie land, extending as far as the eye could reach, in gentle 
undulations. In former ages this section of country was inhab- 
ited hy a tribe of Indians called the Bead-Eye tribe ; conse- 
quently the creek derived its name from the tribe of Indians. 
Tired and weary as the troops were, they had little spirit 
to examine the beauties of nature. We remained encamped at 
this creek until the morning of the 8th. In the mean time, our 
camps were continually visited by fair ladies from the sur- 
rounding neighborhood. Many were the bright smiles on their 
fair faces, and also loving glances from their bright eyes. Aye, 
and cheering words from their fair lips, to the brave defenders 
of their firesides, were conclusively bestowed on the brave 
soldiers, showing how beauty appreciated valor. On the 
morning of the 8th, the march was once more resumed, much 
to the satisfaction of the men. Soldiers are proverbial for 
their restlessness, and, strange as it may seem, infinitely pre- 
fer the tedious and toilsome march to the quietude of camp 
life for any length of time. Arrived at the town of Madison- 
ville, and marched by platoons through the town, to the tune of 


Dixie. The town was thronged with ladies from the surround- 
ing country, eager to look at the soldiers and hear the music 
of the band. 

This town is built on a sand-hill, which makes it look deso- 
late and bleak. After passing the town, we marched two 
miles, and camped on the bank of a small running stream, 
marching the distance of ten miles. 

Aug. 9 th. Marched eight miles. Crossed the Trinity river 
at Robbins' Ferry, and camped on its banks until the morning 
of the 11 th inst. While resting here, the troops enjoyed them- 
selves by bathing their sore and wearied limbs. 

The morning of the 11th dawned a bright and beautiful one ; 
a lovely harbinger of those dreamy days when the soul 
drinks in with intoxicating pleasure every scene of beauty. 
At daylight the troops were in line, ready for the march. 
Marched eighteen miles, and arrived at Colonel Bennet's old 
camp-ground. It is situated west of the town of Crockett. 

Aug. 12th. Marched twelve miles, over a dusty road, and 
through a section of country almost devoid of water. 

Aug. 13th. Marched ten miles, over a deep sandy road. The 
heat was suffocating, the thermometer stood at HCP, and the 
breeze was as refreshing as steam from an escape-pipe. 

Aug. 14th. Marched eight miles, and camped at a tan-yard. 
This may look like slow travelling, but it is accomplishing a 
great deal when we take into consideration the effect of the 
sun, the heat being terrible. The nights were somewhat pleas- 
ant, but the days perfectly awful with their suffocating atmos- 
phere. If you wish to imagine yourself in this country, just 
get into a hot oven, and if there be any difference, it will be in 
favor of the oven. 

Aug. 15th. At daylight this morning, we took up the line of 
march. Passed through the town of Palestine, and camped 
two miles east of the town, after marching eight miles. The 
crops in this section of country apparently were good; the 
farmers seemed highly pleased with the prospect before them ; 
peaches were in abundance — delicacies which the men made 
the most of, and greatly enjoyed. Palestine is situated on 


rolling hills, and distinguished for no particular beauty, either 
of location or building. 

Aug. 16th. Marched fourteen miles. The day, as usual, was 
sultry and warm. We camped near a spring of cool water, 
which proved to be refreshing. It was the first water we had 
met on our day's march. 

Aug. 17th. Marched nine miles, and camped on the banks of 
the Angelina river, where we remained until the morning of 
the 20th inst. While encamped here, the troops enjoyed 
themselves in swimming. 

Aug. 20th. Crossed the Angelina river, and marched fourteen 
miles. The general appearance of the country, after cross- 
ing the river, was hilly, interspersed with rich valleys of great 
fertility, covered with a dark mulatto soil. 

Aug. 21st. Marched two miles, and encamped near the town 
of Tyler. We remained at this camp until the morning of the 
23d inst. On the evening of the 22d, there was a review of 
the regiment by General H. E. McCulloch and staff. The 
affair was grand and imposing, and attracted an immense con- 
course of people. Although there were present no " knights 
of the quill," to write about the manly appearance and mili- 
tary bearing of the men, the general seemed very much 
pleased with their discipline and cleanliness. After the re- 
view, he made a patriotic speech to the troops. 

Aug. 23. About 7 o'clock, A. M., we took up the line of march 
again. Marched through Tyler, to the tune of Dixie. The morn- 
ing was clear and beautiful. The gorgeous sunrise, viewed from 
the hills, the evidence of divine handiwork bursting upon us 
at every step, swelled our hearts with unutterable emotions. 
As we proceeded on our journey, climbing hill after hill, the 
men would stop and gaze, as they arrived on the summit of the 
various hills, apparently with breathless admiration upon 
the grandeur of the scenery. We bivouacked about 11 
o'clock, at a spring in the piny woods, after marching nine 

Aug. 24th. Marched nine miles. The march to-day was very 
tiresome, up and down hill. The day was warm, almost to 


suffocation. We halted for about fifteen minutes in every 
hour to rest. 

Aug. 25th. Crossed the Sabine river. It was so shallow that 
the men were able to wade through the water, which was 
very transparent and intensely cold. After crossing the river, 
our road was up the river for a few miles, when it turned 
into the hills, where we had a beautiful view of the adjacent 
scenery. We encamped at a running creek, after marching 
fifteen miles. 

Aug. 26th. Marched nine miles. This day's march brought 
us over a very hilly country. Our encampment was very well 
selected, being at the base of a range of hills, where wood and 
water were abundant. 

Aug. 27th. Marched fourteen miles, and camped near the 
town of Gilmer. This was one of the severest day's marches 
we experienced. It was excessively warm, without the least air. 
The hills on each side seemed, as it were, to reflect the rays of 
the sun so as to strike us with double force, until it became 
almost insupportable. 

Aug. 28th. Passed through the town of Gilmer, in Upshur 
County. Gilmer, apparently, looks rather the worse for wear. 
It is built on a sandy soil, and as we marched through the 
town, the sand would rise around us in perfect clouds. We 
marched ten miles through a thickly-timbered country. 

Aug. 29th. Marched thirteen miles, and camped near the 
town of Dangerfield, where we rested until the first of Sep- 
tember. The men spent their time principally in washing 
their clothes. 

On the 1st of September we were on the march again. 
Passed through the village of Dangerfield, noted for the rocky 
and hilly country around it. You could discover the iron ore 
on several hills, and I have no doubt but there is iron enough 
in these ridges or hills to meet all the wants of the State, if 
properly worked. We camped in a valley between two high 
hills. The distance we traveled to-day was seven miles. 

Sept. 2d. Marched twelve miles over a rocky and moun- 
tainous country. 


Sept. 3d. Marched ten miles ; in two days' march we crossed 
many gorges, or deep ravines, that were very much broken 
and very difficult to travel over. 

Sept. 4th. Marched twelve miles ; crossed the Sulphur Fork 
River and encamped on its banks : the width of the river 
where we crossed it did not exceed fifteen feet. 

Sept. 5th. Marched seventeen miles. The section of country 
we traveled over to-day, apparently was very fertile ; corn, 
wheat, oats, and rye matured well. 

Sept. 6th. Marched ten miles ; crossed the State Hue, 
dividing Texas from Arkansas. The only difference by which 
we recognized that we were in Arkansas was a sign-board 
with the learned inscription, " Ark-Saw." The schoolmaster 
had likely been lately abroad when this was written. After 
crossing the imaginary line, three hearty cheers were given 
for Texas. We passed through a little village named Rondo. 
Near this place we encamped alongside of the camp of Water- 
house Regiment for the night. They did us the honor of 
presenting arms as we passed their camp. 

Sept. 7th. Early next morning we bade adieu to Waterhouse 
Regiment and proceeded on the march. Marched thirteen 
miles and encamped on the bed of Red River, nearly oppo- 
site the town of Fulton. It was cloudy through the day and 
drizzled a little ; during the night it rained hard. At ten 
o'clock no biped walks outside the tents, save sentinels 
marching the lonesome rounds through wet and dark- 

Sept. 8th. Crossed Red River on a ferry-boat drawn by 
oxen ; the teamsters had considerable difficulty in getting 
their wagons up the high bluff at Fulton. It continued driz- 
zling rain, making our marching laborious through the stiff 
clay. We arrived in camp late in the evening, after march- 
ing twelve miles. After our arrival in camp the following 
order was read to us on " dress-parade " : 


Head- Quarters, Trans-Mississippi Department, 
Little Bock, Arkansas, 

Sept. 6th, 1862. 

Special Order, No. 19. 

Brigadier-General Henry E. McCulloch having reported to 
these head-quarters, is hereby assigned to the command of 
the Division composed of Colonels Bandall and Clarke's 
Brigades. He will, immediately on assuming command of 
the Division, report to these head-quarters the true rank of* 
each of the field-officers of the several regiments of his Divi- 
sion, lately arrived from Texas. 

By command of Major-General Holmes. 

On the morning of September 9th we passed through the 
town of Washington, a pleasant- looking town, having a popu- 
lation of about three thousand inhabitants. It is situated in 
the midst of a fine farming-country. Some of its residences 
are very fine, principally built of brick. Delightful gardens, 
tasteful lawns, and spacious streets, give the whole place an 
air of comfort and elegance. We encamped about a mile 
north of the town, where we remained until the morning of 
the 13th, when we took up the line of march, traveling 
through a beautiful section of country. In fact, I might 
term it a perfect garden, and though not literally teeming 
with milk and honey, it was teeming with something better 
— farm-yards, well stocked with hogs and poultry, stacks of 
corn-fodder, corn-houses and bins filled with corn and grain ; 
and sweet potatoes seemed to grow spontaneously. We 
arrived in camp early in the day, after marching ten miles. 

On the morning of the 14th we waded the Little Missouri 
Biver, and marched sixteen miles. 

Sept. 15th. Marched sixteen miles ; passed through the 
village of Okolona, noted for having a ten-pin alley and black- 
smith's shop. 

Sept. 16th. Marched twelve miles ; passed through the 
town of Arkadelpkia, the band playing the "Bonny Blue 


Flag." Crossed the Washita River, two miles below town, 
and encamped on its banks. 

Sept. 17th. Marched twelve miles up the river bank. 

Sept. 18th. Marched twelve miles and camped at the vil- 
lage qf Rockdale. This place is provided with a hotel, gro- 
cery store, and blacksmith's shop. 

Sept. 19th. Marched twelve miles over a rocky road, desti- 
tute of water. 

Sept. 20th. Marched nine miles and encamped on the 
right bank of the Saline River, about two miles from the 
town of Benton. The river at this point looks more like a 
creek than a river. We remained at this point until the 
morning of the 22d, for the purpose of washing our clothes, 
in order to be clean and neat in dress previous to entering 
Little Rock. 

Sept. 22d. Early this morning we passed through the town 
of Benton, and continued our march until we arrived in sight 
of the spires of Little Rock, about four miles distant. All 
of a sudden the regiment made a flank movement, from the 
road into the woods on the right of the road. After march- 
ing through the woods for about a mile, we arrived at an old 
camp-ground, known by the name of " Camp Texas," where 
all Texas troops had to go through the etiquette of military 
tactics, previous to paying their respects to the " Grand 
Mogul " of the Trans-Mississippi Department, namely, Gen- 
eral Holmes. 

Sept. 23d. About eight o'clock this morning we took up 
the line of march for Little Rock ; about half-past nine we 
arrived in the suburbs of the city ; stacked arms and rested 
about half an hour to make preparation for the grand tri- 
umphal march through the city. As we marched through 
the city we did full justice to " Hardee's Tactics." As we 
passed the State House, General Holmes and the Governor 
of the State, and their respective staff-officers, took their 
position on the steps of the State House to witness our 
marchings. The regimental flag was dipped through respect 
for them. The nieji were in fine spirits, and marched through 


the streets of Little Rock with a firm and regular step. They 
attracted universal attention and received a perfect ovation, 
the streets being crowded with men and fine ladies, who 
greeted them most enthusiastically. There was the flutter- 
ing of innumerable handkerchiefs, and showers of bouquets 
greeted us on our march. In passing through the city we 
observed officers of all grades loitering about the" city. There 
seemed to be no scarcity of gold lace and brass buttons. If 
they had been organized into a corps, they were so numerous 
that they would be able to defend the city against any force 
that the enemy might bring to bear against it, provided they 
remained, without the assistance of the private soldiers. 

After marching through the principal streets of the city we 
took the road leading to St. John's College, distant from town 
about two miles ; the college was used as a hospital. We 
camped near the college. On the following day all of our 
wagons, with the exception of six, were taken from us ; shortly 
afterwards our transportation was reduced down to one wagon 
for the regiment. All surplus baggage was sent to Little 
Rock for safe keeping, never to be returned. 

The city of Little Rock is built on the banks of the Arkan- 
sas River. It is the capital of the State of Arkansas. The 
country surrounding it is rich and productive. At the com- 
mencement of the war it had a population of 11,000 inhabit- 
ants. It is adorned with many fine buildings ; among the most 
noted are the State House, Arsenal, Penitentiary, St. John's 
College, and Gas-works. It is famed likewise for its beauti- 
ful churches ; also for its magnificent private residences, with 
their lovely flower-gardens, which savored of Oriental ease 
and luxury. It is hard to conceive a city more beautifully 
situated or more gorgeously embellished, with splendidly 
shaded walks and drives, with flowers, shrubberies, and plan- 
tations. Most of its stores and public buildings were of brick, 
while most of the private residences were framed, neatly 
painted, with piazzas hanging with plants and creepers. A 
spell of ease and voluptuous luxury seemed to pervade the 
place. The river is navigable at all seasons of the year. 




the morning of September 25th, we took up the 
line of march for White River. "We crossed 
the Arkansas River at Little Rock, on a pontoon 
bridge ; after marching fifteen miles we arrived at our camp- 

Sept. 26th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped near the town 
of Brownsville. Near this place were encamped a great many 
Texas troops, both cavalry and infantry; the former com- 
manded by Brigadier-General H. E. McCulloch, and the latter 
by Brigadier-General Nelson. "We remained encamped at 
this place until the 2d day of October, when we took up our 
line of march for Clarendon Heights, on White River. The 
cavalry and infantry commanded by Generals McCulloch 
and Nelson were ordered to report to General Hindman, at 
Duval's Bluff. The infantry command was afterwards ordered 
to report to General Roune, at Clarendon Heights. After 
marching twelve miles, we arrived in camp. Shortly after 
our arrival it commenced pouring down rain. 

Oct. 3d. Still raining. It looks as if the windows of heaven 
had opened abruptly ; the rain descends like a deluge. After 
marching twelve miles, through mud and water, over Grand 
Prairie, we arrived at camp. Our wagons failed to arrive 
until late in the evening. When they arrived, commenced the 
great strife of tent-pitching, or rather, blanket-stretching, in 


an overflowed prairie ; deep floundering of mules and com- 
missary wagons ; swift going to and fro of quartermaster ser- 
geants ; terrible objurgations of truculent teamsters ; curses 
not low of company caterers, over drenched " corn bread " 
and ruined rations, with no fires to cook them withal. But 
at last night-shadows fall ; " tattoo" is beaten, and somnolent 
" taps " resolve our motley crowd under our blankets, sup- 

Oct. 4th. Sunrise, or rather the hour for sunrise, sees us 
stirring, seeking a more eligible site for another camp. Here 
we are, all afloat in Grand Prairie, and likely to remain so if 
these pluvial skies continue over us. Casting your eye across 
the prairie, you behold the flags of the different regiments 
and battalions of Texas. Ploughing through the mud and 
water knee-deep, advancing towards us, some few miles in 
our rear was Churchill's Division, composed of one brigade 
of Arkansians, and one brigade of Texans, trying their mus- 
cular strength as to which would get to Clarendon Heights first. 
After marching twelve miles we arrived in camp, near Clar- 
endon Heights, where we remained until the 9th inst. After 
all the troops had arrived, there was a temporary organiza- 
tion of an army corps. The entire number of our forces at 
this point amounted to about 25,000 troops, of all arms. For 
what purpose they were concentrated here I am unable to 
explain ; I doubt if any officer beside the general command- 
ing the Trans-Mississippi Department knew. Several rumors 
were afloat about the advance of the enemy ; but, with the 
exception of some of Colonel Parson's Cavalry stampeding 
and giving a false alarm, there was no enemy nearer to us 
than the garrison at Helena, on the Mississippi River, some 
fifty miles distant. At Clarendon Heights were assembled 
the bone and sinew of Texas and Arkansas, all dressed in 
their home-spun suits. Alas! but few of that gallant band 
are now left to tell their sufferings in crossing and re-crossing 
Grand Prairie. Our camp at Clarendon Heights was situated 
in a deep wood of lofty pines, which, being stripped of their 
foliage, afforded little shelter, while the ground was satu- 


rated and muddy from rain. The troops not being allowed 
any tents to protect them from the wintry blast, officers and 
men had to sleep beside the camp-fires, and cover them- 
selves with their blankets the best they could. To add to 
our misery, General Holmes ordered fortifications to be built. 
A detail of fifty men from a regiment was every day employ- 
ed. The rainy weather having set in they were prevented from 
making much headway. Occasionally the "long roll" would 
beat, as it were to excite the minds of the troops for battle ; then 
again, a reckless cavalryman would ride through our camp, 
informing us that the enemy were landing from their trans- 
ports. Rumors aboub the enemy were continually spread- 
ing throughout the camps. Many of our troops were 
armed with the old flint-lock guns, with a buckskin pouch, 
resembling the backwoods hunter. The fever and ague, 
having broken out amongst the troops, spread to an alarm- 
ing extent ; more than half of the Division was confined 
with them, and amongst the members of several regiments 
there was not a sufficiency of men well enough to do guard 

On the morning of the 9th we took up the line of march 
back towards Little Rock. It was currently reported in 
camp, that the enemy was about to play a "coup de main," 
by coming up the Arkansas River, thereby cutting off our 
communication with Little Rock. General Churchill's Brig- 
ade of Arkansians, and Garland's Brigade of Texans, were 
ordered to the Arkansas post. After marching seventeen 
miles we arrived in camp, late in the evening. During the 
night a heavy hail-storm occurred. 

Oct. 10th will be long remembered by the members of the 
Division that participated in the march re-crossing Grand 
Prairie. It rained, sleeted, aifd froze. The bleak north 
wind swept over the prairie, and struck, with benumbing force, 
our thin and straggling lines. Men lost the step, and, swerv- 
ing from the line, dropped by the wayside, to rest on the few 
mounds in the prairie that were not covered with water. 
Completely chilled through — even their senses were be- 


numbed — they would beg to be left behind, to sleep and to 
perish. A stupor, a perfect indifference for life, came over 
man}^ of them. 

The exhausted mules sank down in their harness, and were 
left as they fell. All were left who could not help them- 
selves. Each man, wrapped in his own misery, cares not for 
his comrade's wretchedness, but as the reflection of his own 
increases its intensity. But the men are patient ; accus- 
tomed as they are to long marches, they make little com- 
plaint. Yet there was one thing that did not seem fair : that 
we should be marched on a line of railroad, and the said rail- 
road (Memphis and Little Rock) chartered by the government, 
and not be carried over it. Perhaps it would have made 
our heads swim to have been put through so fast. Even the 
sick were not allowed to ride. We arrived in camp late in 
the evening, after marching fourteen miles, the rain still 
pouring down in torrents. 

And without any tents or shelter to be found, 
But by the rain we were all drowned, 

To cheer our hearts for Arkansas. 

Having no shelter to protect us from the elements, we made 
large fires to keep us warm. Around the fires were groups 
of sick, huddled together to protect themselves from the 
wind's fierce charge. Boys, do you remember it all now, 
without the aid of this notice ? "We do distinctly and most 
emphatically remember the 10th of October, 1862. 

On the morning of the 11th, we took up the line of march, 
without being able to cook breakfast, owing to the incessant 
rains. Marched seven miles, and encamped near the village 
of Brownsville, where we remained until the morning of the 
13th. We discovered that the alarm about the enemy get- 
ting in our rear proved false. Colonels Roberts' and Speight's 
Regiments, and Edgar's Battery, were ordered to the village 
of Austin. Could a correct daguerreotype view have been 
taken of us, at any point on the march between Clarendon 
Heights and Brownsville, I know not whether it would excite 


more pity than mirth ; in fact, I am inclined to believe it 
would occasion a little of both. 

On the morning of the 14th, the balance of the troops 
were ordered to Austin, distanced about thirteen miles. On 
our arrival near the village we encamped near some springs. 
"We were given to understand that this camp was to be our 
winter-quarters, and to be known by the name of Camp 
Nelson, in memory of General Nelson, who died a few days 
previous to our arrival at this place. 

Camp Nelson was located about two miles east of Austin, 
in a belt of woods skirting the valleys running east and w r est, 
shut in by high acclivities. The country here is a succession 
of high, rocky hills, and deep, dark, narrow denies, sur- 
rounded on all sides by these frowning hills. The camp was 
protected from the cold, piercing, wintry winds ; yet it also 
seemed like imprisoning the men to winter them here, far 
distant from any communication with friends at home. Occa- 
sionally the mail-carrier from Little Rock would arrive in 
camp, bringing glad tidings from the loved ones at home. 
He was welcome to all alike. Occasionally, curses were show- 
ered upon him for not bringing letters to all. He would con- 
sole them by telling them he would bring them a letter the 
next time. While we were encamped here there was a great 
deal of sickness amongst the troops. Dysentery and fevers 
of various kinds made many victims. The hospital was 
rilled with sick. The sickness was owing a great deal to the 
impure water we had to use. Fully 1,500 men died at 
Camp Nelson. It was a sad and silent affair to follow a 
comrade-in-arms to his final resting-place ; gloomy thoughts 
arose in many a manly bosom. How mournful thus to die, 
among rough but sympathizing comrades, with no soft hand 
to wipe the death-damp from the clammy brow ; no loved 
one's voice to whisper words of hope and consolation to the 
departing spirit! Yet such was "the beginning of the end" 
to many a sorrowful scene through which the soldier is des- 
tined to pass. Now, scenes of suffering and death have not 
blunted the feelings or familiarized the mind with human 


agony, and the heart must needs go out in tender sympathy 
toward the far-distant relatives of the buried volunteer. Ah, 
those graves of our dead ! — what memories come back at the 
thought of them ! 

" As softly as starlight melts into day, 
On pinions of angels tlieir souls passed away. 
Strong men are bound — in anguish they weep 
O'er the dead still so dear, in death's quiet sleep. 
But ah ! far away o'er mountain and glen 
Lie the homes that they ne'er shall enter again ; 
Where loving ones wait to welcome, in joy, 
Back to their sunlight their own soldier boy. 
But above them now sweeps the blue azure dome ; 
Ne'er shall parents or friends welcome them home. 
Dear comrades, farewell ! your battles are o'er ; 
Together in conflict we'll rally no more. 
Farewell ! life is o'er ; earth fades from your sight ; 
Around you has closed death's long dreamless night ;'* 

Agreeable to orders from Lieut. General Holmes, command- 
ing the Trans-Mississippi Department, Brigadier-General 
Henry E. McCulloch was assigned to the duty of making a 
general organization of the Texas Volunteer Infantry, that were 
encamped at Camp Nelson, into a division. This division 
consisted of four brigades. A battery of light artillery was 
attached to each brigade. 

The following-named officers comprised General McOul- 
loch's staff, with their respective rank, viz. : 

Major Wm. King, Quartermaster 

" J. H. Earle, Commissary of Subsistence. 

Captain Wm. A. Pitts, Ordnance Officer. 
1st Lieut. A. McCulloch, Aid-de-Camp. 
Captain B. E. Benton, Asst. Adjt. General. 

After the organization of the division, it was officially 
known as McCulloch's Division. Major Gen'lJohn G. Walker 
relieved General McCulloch from command of the same, about 
three months after the organization. General McCulloch was 
assigned to the command of the 3d Brigade, relieving Colonel 
George Flournoy from command of the same. The division 


assumed the name of Walker's Division, and was known by 
that name until the close of the war, notwithstanding several 
changes took place in the division commanders. The division 
was known to Confederate troops, as well as to many of the 
Federals, by the very appropriate name of " Walker's Grey- 

I deem it necessary to remark to my readers, that the 
muster-rolls of the various regiments are based upon the 
rolls of the year 1863, as a fair standard of the company and 
staff officers then on duty. Some of the officers' names are 
omitted from the list of names, owing to the fact of failing to 
receive the necessary information. In order to avoid un- 
necessary expenses, I deemed it fair and just to avoid giving 
the names of officers that were promoted, or killed, or those 
who died, and those who resigned from the cause of sickness or 
otherwise, etc. 

The 1st Brigade of the Division was commanded by 
Colonel Overton Young, of the 8th Texas Volunteer Infantry, 
and consisted of the follow r ing regiments, viz. : 

The 8tli T. V. Infantry, commanded by Lieut. Colonel B. A. Phillpot, 
13th T. Dismounted Cavalry " " Colonel J. H. Burnett, 

18th T. V. Infantry " " Colonel W. B. Ochiltree, 

22d T. V. Infantry " " Colonel R. B. Hubbard, 

and Captain Halderman's Battery of Light Artillery, number- 
ing four guns. This brigade was afterwards commanded by 
Brigadier-Generals Haws, Ward, and King. The following are 
the lists of the company and regimental officers belonging to 
the brigade, viz. : — 


Colonel Overton Young. 
Lieut. Col. B. A. Phillpot. 
Major — J. W. Raine. 
Surgeon — J. R. Beauchamp. 
Asst. Surgeon — U. Hatnie. 
Quartermaster — L. H. Duicham. 
Commissary — J. E. Cook. 
Adjutant — Volney Ellis. 



Company A. 
Captain, Wm. Clark. 
1st Lieut., A. G. Nolan. 
2d Lieut., Henry Holtzclaw. 
2d Lieut., W. C. Dilrell. 

Company B. 

Captain, F. Voight. 
1st Lieut., M. G. Thomas. 
2d Lieut., E. G. Grayson. 
2d Lieut., E. S. Dickson. 

Company C. 
Captain, E. Smith. 
1st Lieut. Jas. Weltman. 
2d Lieut., T. M. Price. 
2d Lieut., B. F. Scott. 

Company D. 
Captain, A. D. Story. 
1st Lieut., J. G. Searcy. 
2d Lieut., G. D. Campbell. 
2d Lieut., Thomas H. Graves. 

Company E. 
Captain, L. H. Durham. 
1st Lieut., W. R. Turner. 
2d Lieut., A. J. Ball. 
2d Lieut., J. C. Holman. 

Company F. 

Captain, Jas. Jeffries. 
1st Lieut., J. A. Holt. 
2d Lieut., H. Peudarves. 
2d Lieut., S. S. Edney. 

Company G. 
Captain, A. T. Simpson. 
1st Lieut., S. S. Smith. 
2d Lieut., Jeff. Campbell. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Harris. 

Company H. 
Captain, A. V. Green. 
1st Lieut., M. A. Fuller. 
2d Lieut. , Clay Robertson. 
2d Lieut., C. R. Claybrook. 

Company I. 
Captain, Wm. Peck. 
1st Lieut., W. B. Waldron. 
2d Lieut., L. T. Epps. 
2d Lieut., Clay Robertson. 

Company K. 
Captain, W. M. Nunn. 
1st Lieut., John H. Yarbo. 
2d Lieut., H. H. Jones. 
2d Lieut., A. Bugbee. 


Colonel — W. B. Ochiltree. 
Lieut-Col. — D. B. Culbertson. 
Major — Wm. H. King. 
Surgeon— F. D. Halowgtjest. 
Assistant Surgeon — J. N. B. Gwinn. 
Quartermaster — Wm. Colby. 
Adjutant— D. D. Walton. 

Company A. 
Captain, M. A. Gaston. 
1st Lieut., D. A. Gates. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Richardson. 
2d Lieut., J. K. Mathews. 

Company B. 
Captain, R. Z. Buckner. 
1st Lieut., W. T. Davenport. 
2d Lieut., R. Beaty. 
2d Lieut., H. F. O'Neil. 



Company C. 
Captain, Thos. R. Bonner. 
1st Lieut., A. A. Cameron. 
2d Lieut. , G. M. Martin. 
2d Lieut., H. McKnight. 

Company D. 
Captain, John K. Cocke. 
1st Lieut., G. W. Martin. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Gillian. 
2d Lieut., J. H. Bonner. 

Company E. 
Captain, R. Kunningham. 
1st Lieut., John R. Ferguson. 
2d Lieut., A. W. Henderson. 
2d Lieut., J. J. Davanay. 

Company F. 
Captain, J. G. Wood. 
1st Lieut., J. Cherry. 
2d Lieut., T. B. Coplin. 
2d Lieut., V. Evans. 

Company G. 
Captain, J. Dansby. 
1st Lieut., C. G. Graham. 
2d Lieut., H. L. Holt. 
2d Lieut., S. E. Newsom. 

Company H. 
Captain, J. W. Duncan. 
1st Lieut., L. W. Stephens. 
2d Lieut., T. S. Skeen. 
2d Lieut., B. A. Jones. 

Company I. 
Captain, W. W. Thompson. 
1st Lieut., J. C. Maple. 
2d Lieut., Wiley Mayers. 
2d Lieut., M. Farley. 

Company K. 
Captain, W. H. Lovelady. 
1st Lieut., T. S. Skeen, 
2d Lieut., J. M. Castle. 
2d Lieut., Thos. E. Vick. 


Colonel — John H. Burnett. 
Lieut.-Uol. — W. A. Crawford. 
Major— C. R. Beaty. 
Surgeon — Thos. H. Hollis. 
Assistant Surgeon — J. R. Cornish. 
Quartermaster — R. J. Blain. 
Commissary — 
Adjutant — J. Pat. Henry. 

Company C. 
Captain, C. J. English. 
1st Lieut., E. D. Cruddock. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Crease. 
2d Lieut., T. B. Payne. 

Company A. 
Captain, G. W. Nash. 
1st Lieut., J. H. Noble. 
2d Lieut., B. Durst. 
2d Lieut., H. Dursh. 

Company B. 
Captain, J. F. Smith. 
1st Lieut., John Long. 
2d Lieut., J. B. Young. 
2d Lieut., F. A. Bickham. 

Company D. 
Captain, Jas. S. Hawks. 
1st Lieut., J. C. Oldham. 
2d Lieut., R. W. Smith. 
2d Lieut., G. W. Hudson. 



Company E. 
Captain, Jas. Eastland. 
1st Lieut., J. E. Jennings. 
2d Lieut., E. E. Jessup. 
2d Lieut., J. B. Rouncervil. 

Company F. 
Captain, S. B. Thomas. 
1st Lieut., W. J. Reynolds. 
2d Lieut., J. B.Wright. 
2d Lieut., M.V.Miller. 

Company G. 
Captain, Thos. F. Frunth. 
1st Lieut., W. F. Seale. 
2d Lieut., M. McAllister. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Crawford. 

Company H. 
Captain, S. Stark. 
1st Lieut., Thos. J. Bruck. 
2d Lieut., John D. Williams. 
2d Lieut., W. T. Hare. 

Company I. 
Captain, S. A. Fairchild. 
1st Lieut., Gr. W. Haynes. 
2d Lieut., F. A. Davis. 
2d Lieut., H. G. Clure. 

Company K. 
Captain, John F. Beam. 
1st Lieut., C. H. Jones. 
2d Lieut., E. G. Gercloff. 
2d Lieut., W. P. Hicks. 


Colonel— R. B. Hubbard, 

Lieut. -Colonel — J. J. Cannon. 

Major — P. F. Parks. 

Surgeon — E. P. Becton. 

Assistant Surgeon — W. M. Hamilton. 

Quartermaster — F. N. Gary. 

Commissary Dilitumity. 

Adjutant — Bird Holland. 

Company A. 


3. A. Brown. 

1st Lieut. 

, J. L. Brown. 

2d Lieut. 

V. A. Paul. 

2d Lieut. 

Jun.,G. W. Traylor 

Company B. 

Captain, John T. Nelson. 
1st Lieut., E. Baker. 
2d Lieut., B. F. Rogers. 
2d Lieut., Jun., Joseph Henry. 

Company C. 

Captain, S. S. Coizine. 

1st Lieut., Win. Boyd. 

2d Lieut., A. M. Barnes. 

2d Lieut., Jun., F. M. Tidwell. 

Company D. 

Captain W. R. Anderson. 
1st Lieut., J. L. Ewing. 
2d Lieut., J. C. Swagerty. 
2d Lieut., Jun., S. L. Shopner. 



Coup ant E. 

Captain, A. D. Reushaw. 
1st Lieut., B. C. Stone. 
2d Lieut., B. W.Browning. 
2d Lieut., B. P. Stout. 

Company F. 
Captain, John Gaynes. 
1st Lieut,, G. S. Shotwell. 
2d Lieut., H. W. Vinson. 
2d Lieut., Jun., John R. Oats. 

Company G 
Captain, J. M. Jones. 
1st Lieut., A. M. Glover. 
2d Lieut., J. Abies. 
2d Lieut,, 0. N. Shelton. 

Company H. 
Captain, J. J. Carter. 
1st Lieut., J. H. Rambo. 
2d Lieut., J. R. Wright. 
2d Lieut. B. W. Lee. 

Company I. 
Captain, E. Sharp. 
1st Lieut., R. C. McKinly. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Wood. 
2d Lieut., Jun. , Wm. Masterson. 

Company K. 
Captain, P. E. Freeman. 
1st. Lieut., J. P. Huddleston. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Ewing. 
2d Lieut., Robert Good. 


Captain — Horace Halderman. 

1st Lieut. — A. R. Graves. 

1st Lieut. — G. P. Bass. 

2d Lieut. — Chas. Spann. 

2d Lieut— W. P. Allen. 

Assistant Surgeon.— G. W. Boynton. 


The 2d Brigade comprised the following regiments : 

The 28th T. D. Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel E. H. Baxter. 
" 11th T. V. Infantry, " Colonel O. M. Roberts, 

" 14th " " Colonel Ed. Clarke. 

Gould's Battalion, " Major E. S. Gould. 

And Captain Daniel's Battery of Light Artillery. 

The Second Brigade was commanded by General McClay 
after the death of Colonel (afterwards General) Horace Ran- 



The following officers comprised Colonel H. Randall's staff : 

Colonel Randall, Commanding Brigade. 
Major B. Hardeman, Quartermaster. 
Major J. M> Douglas, Commissary of Sup. 
Capt. J. M- Jessup, Aid-de-Camp. 
Lieutenant L. Randall, Ordnance Officer. 
Capt. J. B. Hardeman, A. A. General. 


Colonel— Horace Randal. 
Lieut. -Col. — Eli H. Baxter. 
Major— H. G. Hall. 
Surgeon — W. P. Smith. 
Asst. -Surgeon — E. W. Ceade. 
Quartermaster — N, P. Ward. 
Commissary — 
Adjutant — George T. Howard. 

Company A. 
Captain, W. A. Jemison. 

1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut., 

J. W. Fuller. 
J. H. Claidy. 

2d Lieut., John B. Dormon. 

Company B. 
Captain, P. Henry. 
1st Lieut., James H. Cannon. 
2d Lieut.. I. P. Smith. 
2d Lieut., I. K. Dolby. 

Company C. 
Captain, A. W. D. Berry. 
1st Lieut., P. W. Clements. 
2d Lieut., G. O. Thomas. 
2d Lieut., E.I. Newton. 

Company D. 
Captain, J. M. Scott. 
1st Lieut., D. Skinlock. 
2d Lieut., James B. Allen. 
2d Lieut., A. L. Adams. 

Company E. 
Captain, O. M. Doty. 
1st Lieut., Wiley J. Thomas. 
2d Lieut., S. G. Wolfe. 
2d Lieut. , William A. Muckleroy. 

Company F. 
Captain, Theop. Perry. 
1st Lieut., John McLemore. 
2d Lieut., I. L. Wagnor. 
2d Lieut., R. Fitzpatrick. 

Company G. 
Captain, W. F. Roberts. 
1st Lieut., Geo. B. Campbell. 
2d Lieut., James H. Gee. 
2d Lieut., H. M. Warren. 

Company H. 

Captain, J. C. Means. 
1st Lieut., Jesse Sheffield. 
2d Lieut., W. G. Blain. 
2d Lieut., W. A. Hobb. 

Company I. 
Captain, J. A. McLemore. 
1st Lieut., W. B. Vaughn. 
2d Lieut., Morgan Rye. 
2d Lieut., T. N. Garmer. 

Company K. 
Captain, W. H. Rumsey. 
1st. Lieut., M. M. Sample. 
2d Lieut., T. M. Lumsbright. 
2d Lieut. , J. M. Trosper. 




Colonel — O. M. Roberts. 
Lieut.-Col.— J Ames H. Jones. 
Major — N. J. Caraway. 
Surgeon — A. G-. V. Doney. 
Quartermaster — W. M. Ross. 
Commissary — John H. Douglas. 
Adjutant — W. H. Christian. 

Company A. 

Captain, M. Mast. 
1st Lieut., John C. Fall. 
2d Lieut., H. H. Cawthon. 
2d Lieut., L. B. Polk. 

Company B. 

Captain, Thomas Smith. 
1st Lieut., J. L. Tipps. 
2d Lieut., James W. Weloh. 
2d Lieut., 0. M. Auh. 

Company C. 

Captain, W. G. Engledow. 
1st Lieut., W. W. Hill. 
2d Lieut., J. C. Tarbutton. 
2d Lieut., G. W. Stephens. 

Company D. 

Captain, T. H. Rountree. 
1st Lieut., E. W. Giles. 
2d Lieut. , D. Scanlock. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Lenke. 

Company E. 

Captain, A. F. Jordon. 

1st Lieut., J. H. Ross. 

2d Lieut., George T. Harrison. 

2d Lieut., W. H. Wooton. 

Company F. 

Captain, R. P. Sibley. 
1st Lieut., J. H. Oliphant. 
2d Lieut., W. T. Eddington. 
2d Lieut., W. T. Nurris. 

Company G. 

Captain, G. T. Walker. 
1st Lieut., W. D. Thompson. 
2d Lieut., J. B. Johnson. 
2d Lieut., N. J. Gates. 

Company H. 

Captain, A. H. Johnston. 
1st Lieut., R. B. Roberts. 
2d Lieut., James Matthews. 
2d Lieut., F. W. Harper. 

Company I. 

Captain, T. B. Smith. 
1st Lieut., Thomas J. Foster. 
2d Lieut., E. R. Kaykendall. 
2d Lieut., C. Coulson. 

Company K. 

Captain, 0. E. Roberts. 
1st Lieut, , J. J. Fain. 
2d Lieut., J. A. Derrick. 
2d Lieut., W. W. Edwards. 




Colonel — Edward Clarke. 
Lieut.Gol. — William Byrd. 
Major — A. H. Rogers. 
Surgeon — W. E. Saunders. 
Asst. Surgeon — W. S. Fowler. 
Quartermaster — John Bryan. 
Commissary — 
Asst. Adjutant — R. R. Jones. 

Company A. 

Captain, N. S. Allen. 
1st Lieut., J. H. Van Hook. 
2d Lieut., B. C. Rain. 
2d Lieut., J. L. Buchan. 

Company B. 

Captain, W. L. Pickens. 
1st Lieut., J. L. Thompson. 
2d Lieut., P. G. Nebliut. 
2d Lieut., J. C. Harcrow. 

Company C. 

Captain, W. I. Smith. 
1st Lieut., J. D. G. Adrain. 
2d Lieut., B. W. Boren. 
2d Lieut., B. P. Batey. 

Company D. 

Captain, R. F. Wiley. 
1st Lieut., C. B. Russell. 
2d Lieut., S. M. Sears. 
2d Lieut., Moses Pace. 

Company E. 

Captain, J. J. Flinn. 
1st Lieut., W. E. Shipley. 
2d Lieut., H. C. Hollis. 
2d Lieut., W. W. Noble. 

Company F. 

Captain, E. B. Gassaway. 
1st Lieut., G. W. Davis. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Farris. 
2d Lieut., William Davis. 

Company G. 

Captain, D. C. Laird. 
1st Lieut., William Gibson. 
2d Lieut., W. M. Seeton. 
2d Lieut., L. A. Denson. 

Company H. 

Captain, P. G. Nebhut. 
1st Lieut., J. F. Buchan. 
2d Lieut., Mileno McKing. 
2d Lieut., Jesse Woodward. 

Company I. 

Captain, J. M. Spratt. 
1st Lieut., B. F. Hart. 
2d Lieut., W. A. Nieth. 
2d Lieut., S. H. Cox. 

Company K. 

Captain, Sam. J. Lyle. 
1st Lieut., 

2d Lieut., K. H. Lockhart. 
2d Lieut., A. D. Spratt. 




Major — Robert S. Gould. 
Surgeon — W. E. Saunders. 
Quartermaster — Henry D. Patrick. 
Adjutant — C. T. Bannman. 

Company A. 
Captain, P. I. Holly. 
1st Lieut., W. R. Hulett. 
2d Lieut., S. S. Strong. 
2d Lieut., E. W. Womack. 

Company B. 
Captain, William W. Veser. 
1st Lieut., Neil McMillan. 
2d Lieut., J. T. Glass. 
2d Lieut., T. I. Camp. 

Company C. 

Captain, James McClean. 
1st Lieut., 

2d Lieut., D. B. Grigsby. 
2d Lieut., R. H. Grigsby. 

Company D. 
Captain, Thomas J. Thorn. 
1st Lieut., J. D. Polk. 
2d Lieut., L. D. Goodwyn. 
2d Lieut., Sam. Hanna. 

Company E. 
Captain, A. G. Rogers. 
1st Lieut., T. J. Nison. 
2d Lieut., I. R. Barbee. 
2d Lieut., C. G. Wooten. 

N. B.— On Nov. 12th, 1864, Com- 
panies A and B of the squadron of 
Cavalry attached to the Division, 
was dismounted and attached to 
Gould's Battalion. Major Gould was 
promoted Lieut. -Colonel, and Captain 
Veser to Major of the same. 


Captain — J. M. Daniel. 

1st Lieut. — 

1st Lieut. — 

2d Lieut. — 

2d Lieut. — J. J. Wilson. 

Assistant Surgeon — G. W. Bryan. 


The 3d Brigade comprised the following regiments, viz. : 

The 16th Texas V. Infantry, commanded by Lieut-Colonel J. Shepard ; 

" 16th " D. Cavalry, " Colonel Wm. Fitzhugh ; 

" 17th " V. Infantry, " " R. T. P. Allen ; 

" 19th " " " " R. Waterhotjse ; 

And Captain Edgar's Battery of Light Artillery. 



The 3d Brigade was afterwards commanded by General 
H. E. McCulloch, General Tom Scurry, and General E. Water- 


Colonel — George Flotjrnoy. 
Lieut.-Colonel — James E. Shepard. 
Major — W. H. Redwood. 
Surgeon — U. G. M. Walker. 
Assistant Surgeon — I. W. Cocke. 
Quartermaster— A. F. Flowers. 
Commissary — A. C. McNeely. 
Adjutant— R. L. Upshaw. 

Company A. 
Captain, X. B. Sanders. 
1st Lieut., J. M. White. 
2d Lieut., J. F. Estes. 
2d Lieut., Ishrnael Kile. 

Company B. 
Captain, W. F. Jerrell. 
1st Lieut., A. Testand. 
2d Lieut., H. L. Lewis. 
2d Lieut., M. M. Murdock. 

Company C. 
Captain, M. H. Bovvers. 
1st Lieut., Joseph Bird. 
2d Lieut., John R. Spann. 
2d Lieut. , J. S. Vaughn. 

Company D. 
Captain, A. H. Chalmers.. 
1st Lieut., E. Taylor. 
2d Lieut., W. S. McLaughlin. 
2d John Rumsey. 

Company E. 
Captain, G. T. Marold. 
1st Lieut., A. E. Klaedon. 
2d Lieut., C. H. Hanke. 
2d Lieut.. J. Groff. 

Company F. 
Captain, Z. Hunt. 
1st Lieut., Z. W. Matthews. 
2d Lieut., B. T. Harris. 
2d Lieut., C. M. Campbell. 

Company G. 

Captain, Fred. Moore. 
1st Lieut., C. F. Millet. 
2d Lieut., John Davidson. 
2d Lieut., John 0. Johnson. 

Company H. 
Captain, M. Quin. 
1st Lieut., J. B. Good. 
2d Lieut., J. McDonald. 
2d Lieut., J. R. Coryell. 

Company I. 
Captain, Alex. McDow. 
1st Lieut., V. S. Rubb. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Ledbetter. 
2d Lieut., N. Franklin. 

Company K. 

Captain, Peel. 

1st Lieut., T. J. Peel. 

2d Lieut., A. Ramer. 

2d Lieut., James Donahoe. 




Colonel — Wm. Fitzhugh. 
Lieut. -Colonel — E. P. Gregg. 
Major — W. W. Drumond. 
Surgeon, — W. P. Head. 

Assistant Surgeon 


Assist. Quartermaster — David Rhine. 

Assistant Commissary 

Adjutant — T. H. Hudson. 

Company A. 

Captain, F. M. Dougherty. 
1st Lieut. Gr. T. Bird. 
2d Lieut., H. Coppage. 
2d Lieut., Hugh Cox. 

Company B. 
Captain, R. C. Coffey. 
1st Lieut., G. W. Fitzhugh. 
2d Lieut., James M. Tucker. 
2d Lieut., James A. Poindexter. 

Company C. 
Captain, James D. Woods. 
1st Lieut., George W. McGlothlen. 
2d Lieut., George A. Dickeman. 
2d Lieut., W. A. Anderson. 

Company D. 
Captain, John H. Talbert. 
1st Lieut., W. D. McDonald. 
2d Lieut., C. S. Dwining. 
2d Lieut., A. Clark. 

Company E. 
Captain, W. T. G. Weaver. 
1st Lieut., J. K. P. Russell. 
2d Lieut., D. M. Waddill. 
2d Lieut., F. Kilgore. 

Company F. 

Captain, W. H. Taylor. 
1st Lieut., T. J. Taylor. 
2d Lieut., E. M. Young. 
2d Lieut., J. M. Cope. 

Company G. 
Captain, M. W. King. 
1st Lieut., G. M. Hobson. 
2d Lieut., T. H. Batsell. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Connolly. 

Company H. 
Captain, G. H. Fitzhugh. 
1st Lieut., L. Walker. 
2d Lieut., J. J. Miller. 
2d Lieut., W. H. McDaniel. 

Company I. 
Captain, Thos. F. Mosbey. 
1st Lieut., W. B. Sargent. 
2d Lieut,, S. J. Hodges. 
2d Lieut., W. J. McAnew. 

Company K. 
Captain, Fred. L. Gates. 
1st Lieut., August Buimer. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Kulfin. 
2d Lieut., J. M. Morrill. 




Colonel— R. T. P. Allen. 

Lieut. -Colonel — George W. Jones. 

Major — J. W. Tabor. 

Surgeon — D. Port. Smythe. 

Assistant Surgeon— R. H. Lewis. 

Assistant Commissary — Cyrus Copfy. 

Adjutant— T. M. Hunt. 

Company A. 
Captain, R. D. Allen. 
1st Lieut., John E. Martin. 
2d Lieut. , O. H. P. Garrett. 
2d Lieut., I. C. Douglass. 

Company B. 
Captain, I. Z. Miller. 
1st Lieut., Ciceo Nash. 
2d Lieut., Samuel Fleming. 
2d Lieut., Chas. Keton. 

Company C. 

Captain, Thomas H. Gutlin. 
1st Lieut., B. T. Middleton. 
2d Lieut., Geo. G. Tucker. 
2d Lieut., I. M. Fort. 

Company D. 
Captain, H. Ryan. 
1st Lieut., A. J. Ridge. 
2d Lieut., A. Boyce. 
2d Lieut., L. T. Duson. 

Company E. 
Captain, Seth Mabey. 
1st Lieut., J. M. Young. 
2d Lieut., Geo. W. Miller. 
2d Lieut., W. Rice. 

Company F. 
Captain, E. P. Petty. 
1st Lieut., J. S. Cunningham. 
2d Lieut., H. N. Little. 
2d Lieut., H. McLester. 

Company G. 
Captain, W. J. Malt-by. 
1st Lieut., C. M. Smith. 
2d Lieut., D. V. Grant. 
2d Lieut., 0. W. Wimberly. 

Company H. 
Captain, C. A. Sabath. 
1st Lieut., E. Kollmaner. 
2d Lieut., J. C. Douglas. 
2d Lieut., W. B. Rover. 

Company I. 
Captain, John Smith. 
1st Lieut., J. Jalonick. 
2d Lieut., R. H. Taylor. 
2d Lieut., Jno. W. Houston. 

Company K. 
Captain, S. J. P. McDowell. 
1st Lieut., J. B. Long. 
2d Lieut., E. H. Rogan. 
2d Lieut., B. F. Luce. 




Colonel — R. Waterhouse. 
Lieut. -Colonel — E. W. Taylor. 
Major — W. L. Crawford. 
Surgeon — J. P. Hervey. 
Assistant Surgeon — J. E. Kirley. 
Quartermaster — A. C. Smith. 
Commissary — 
Adjutant — J. B. Jones. 

Company A. 

Captain, W. J. Clarke. 
1st Lieut., J. H. McDerinott. 
2d Lieut., W. N. Covey. 
2d Lieut., R. W. Hill. 

Company B. 

Captain, B. A. Baker. 
1st Lieut., W. B. Rountree. 
2d Lieut., H. W. MahofEey. 
2d Lieut. , Jasper Thomas. 

Company C. 

Captain, A. C. Allen. 
1st Lieut., G. W. Smith. 
2d Lieut., L. P. Moughan. 
2d Lieut., John Punkhurst. 

Company D. 

Captain, C. S. Marshall. 
1st Lieut., M. M. Deerson. 
2d Lieut., T. B. Yarborough. 
2d Lieut,, W. R, Hoover. 

Company E. 

Captain, A. R. K. Northrop. 
1st Lieut,, J. R. Jones. 
2d Lieut,, J. G. Lee. 
2d Lieut., J. E. Kirkley. 

Company F. 

Captain, F. D. Sedberry. 
1st Lieut., K. D. Bateman. 
2d Lieut., W. H. Mason. 
2d Lieut., C. C. Coppedge. 

Company G-. 

Captain, L. M. Ferguson. 
1st Lieut,, J. J. Bradley. 
2d Lieut., 0. C. Connor. 
2d Lieut., I. J. Arberry. 

Company H. 

Captain, H. A. Wallace. 
1st Lieut., J. R. K. Brooks. 
2d Lieut., W. M. Wallace. 
2d Lieut., W. E. Barksdale. 

Company I. 

Captain, J. A. Piques. 
1st Lieut., A. M. Ewing. 
2d Lieut., W. K. Hoover. 
2d Lieut., P. P. Robinson. 

Company K. 

Captain, S. A. Minter. 
1st Lieut., T. H. Pogue. 
2d Lieut., J. S. Minter. 
2d Lieut., S. S. Bromley. 



Captain, Win. Edgar. 
1st Lieut., J. M. Ransom. 
1st Lieut., John D. Grumbus. 

2d Lieut., H.Hall. 

2d Lieut., N. R. Gouiey. 

Assistant Surgeon, T. C. Thompson. 

The 4th Brigade, commanded by Colonel Deshler, consisted 
of his own regiment, the 18th T. D. Cavalry, commanded by 
Lieut.-Colonel Darnell, and the 

10th. T. V. Infantry, commanded by Colonel R. Q. Mills. 

15th T. D. Cavalry, " " " Sweet. 

25th T. D. " " " " Gillespie. 

The 4th Brigade, commanded by Colonel Deshler, might 
be said to be only temporarily attached to the division, from 
the fact that they left the division shortly after it was organ- 
ized. Shortly after their withdrawal from the division, they 
were captured at the Arkansas Post. After they were ex- 
changed, they remained east of the Mississippi River. 

Shortly after the organization of the division, Lieutenant- 
General Holmes arrived in camp from Little Rock, to review 
each brigade of the division separately. He was well pleased 
with the discipline of the troops. After the review, every- 
thing remained quiet in camp until the night of the 20th 
of November, when we were aroused out of our slumbers by 
hearing the "long-roll" beat. As this was the recognized 
signal of danger, there was rolling, tumbling, and jumping out 
from our berths or bunks ; a general scramble for clothing, 
intermingled with all kinds of cries and exclamations : " Where 
are my shoes ? " " Who has my pants ? " " Where in the devil 
is my coat?" etc. We arrived on the. parade-ground, some 
clothed, others deshabille, hatless and shoeless — a motley 
crowd indeed — only to find a pleasant moonlight morn and 
nothing astir. 

We had been incontinently "sold "by some staff-officer, 
who gave the alarm to ascertain how long a period of time 
it would take us to form in line of battle. After remaining in 
line of battle for half an hour, another staff-officer rode 


along the line, and directed regimental commanders to allow 
their men to return to their quarters again. Many of the men 
enjoyed the joke, while others used the king's English in a 
manner not taught in the Bible. The excitement soon died 
away, and we remained in camp till the morning of the 24th, 
when we took a final adieu of camp Nelson. 




m the morning of the 24th of November, we took up 
the line of march for Bayou Metor, distant about 
eleven miles from Camp Nelson ; marched eight 
miles and camped. 

Nov. 25th. Marched three miles. It took us until late in 
the evening to get our wagons over a shaky and boggy 
bottom ; each regiment was engaged in corduroying the road 
to get their wagons over. For the information of the unini- 
tiated, I must tell them that corduroying a road is placing 
two or three tiers of trees along like a railroad-track, and 
then across those others are laid, and the interstices filled in 
with earth. We made several miles of such in our campaigns 
through Arkansas and Louisiana. After we got our wagons 
over safely, we shortly arrived at our camp on Bayou Metor, 
where we remained until December 1st. 

The following day, after our arrival at Bayou Metor, we 
received orders to make preparations for a "grand review," to 
be held by General Holmes, on the morning of the 27th. 
The troops were busily engaged in cleaning themselves, as 
well as their arms and accouterments, so as to make a good 
appearance before their department-commander. 

About 8 o'clock, A. M., on the morning of the 27th, the 
division, accompanied by their respective batteries of artil- 
lery, proceeded to the parade-ground, distant about three 
miles from our camp. The ground selected was quite exten- 


sive, and very well suited for the formation and inspection 
of troops. Shortly after our arrival on the parade-ground, 
Genera] Holmes, accompanied by his respective staff-officers, 
arrived on the ground, from Little Rock. Several carriages, 
with citizens, accompanied him, to witness the review. As 
he rode rapidly along the line to examine the condition of the 
troops, the bands struck up the tune of "Hail to the Chief." 
After taking his position, the column passed in review. At 
the head of the column was General McCulloch and staff, 
followed by Young's Brigade, then Randall's, next Flournoy's, 
and their respective batteries. This review — the first real 
review of the Division — presented a dazzling sight. There 
they are, before you— the columns extending for about two 
miles marching along with their guns and bayonets glitter- 
ing in the morning sun, and the gay flags and banners 
flaunting in the breeze — there they are, infantry and artillery ; 
brigade and regimental commanders, dressed in gorgeous 
uniforms, and riding prancing steeds richly caparisoned ; staff 
officers gay and sparkling, full of ambition and the hope of 
winning an honored name. After the review we returned 
to camp. Had dress-parade at 5 o'clock, P. M. Orders were 
announced for company commanders to make out then pay- 
rolls. On presentation of the pay-rolls to the regimental 
quartermasters, the troops received two months' pay. After 
receiving their pay, the officers had gay times, going to 
parties given by the citizens in the neighborhood. Doubt- 
less, to this day the buxom Arkansas ladies in that vicinity 
remember the Texans, with their manly bearing, good looks, 
polished ease and elegance of manners, and graceful move- 
ments. The majority of these men were gentlemen, once 
moving in refined society at home, and nothing more de- 
lighted them than to exhibit their accomplishments to the 
astonished gaze of these same plain, honest, country people. 

The soldiers enjoyed themselves in dancing and singing 
during the evening, filling the quiet air with their harmoni- 
ous voices ; the pleasant songs floating away in the quiet- 
ude, in soft, echoing refrains. 


Nov. 28tli. Orders were read at dress-parade for company 
drills four hours each day. There was a very alarming in- 
crease of sickness. Drill ! what, and give up all other 
schemes ? Verily, no ! The life of ease and pleasure which 
had made the hours pass away, had undoubtedly incapacitat- 
ed the men from doing soldier's duty. Was it really so ? 
Let us see how the sequel proves. 

Dec. 1st. Moved camp five miles further up the bayou. 
Nothing worthy of notice transpired in camp until the eve- 
ning of the 4th inst., when it commenced to snow, continuing 
to do so all night. Next morning we awoke to find the 
ground hidden 'neath winter's white mantle, while the light, 
feathery flakes were rapidly descending from the dark clouds 
overhead. On the morning of the 6th, the sun rose on a win- 
try scene of dazzling beauty, such as the eye seldom gazes on. 
The air was sharp and biting, the ground beautiful in its 
smooth whiteness ; while the limbs, twigs, and boughs of 
the trees glittered and glistened as the sun shown upon their 
crystal covering of ice, as if incased in diamonds. 

It was one of winter's most magnificent pictures, calling 
forth unbounded expressions of admiration from those who 
had never witnessed such a spectacle. It was, indeed, some- 
thing new to those who had been accustomed only to the 
softly-smiling skies and balmy atmosphere of Texas. 

On the morning of the 10th, General H. E. McCulloch was 
ordered by General Holmes to hold his division ready to 
move to Vicksburg, Miss. 

On the morning of the 13th we took up the line of march 
to Vicksburg, marching 18 miles. After our arrival in camp, 
a courier arrived with dispatches from General Holmes to 
General McCulloch, countermanding the Vicksburg march, 
and ordering the division to march to Van Buren, Arkansas. 

Dec. 14th. Marched eight miles, through mud and water. 
The "iron horse" on the Memphis and Little Rock Rail- 
road blew his whistle, as much as to say : if we came to 
Arkansas with the expectation of riding on railroads we 
would find ourselves mistaken- 


Dec. 15th. Marched nineteen miles. On our line of march 
Major C. F. Morgan's Squadron of Cavalry passed us on 
their way to reinforce General Hindman, who was reported 
retreating in the direction of Fort Smith, followed by a large 
force of Federals, commanded by General Curtis. After 
getting about four miles above Little Rock our route of march 
was again countermanded. The division was ordered to 
camp nearly opposite Little Rock. 

On the evening of the 16th, Colonel Speight's Regiment was 
ordered to the Indian Nation. 

We remained encamped ojDposite Little Rock long enough 
to spend Christmas, and anything but a merry Christmas. 
Many of us had intended to keep Christmas somewhat after 
the manner of our home style, but we could purchase neither 
eggs nor whisky in Little Rock, to make an egg-nog. We 
were, therefore, compelled to make our Christmas dinner of a 
piece of corn bread and some blue beef. On Christmas night 
the citizens of Little Rock could witness fully 15,000 camp- 
fires, that glowed and sparkled like the gas-lights of 
a city. 

The imagination can easily picture such a Christmas night- 
scene in camp. The sentinel's challenge, and the strains of the 
regimental bands, ring clearly and musically on the night-air. 
Around the fires that glow and flame, the men were grouped, 
singing, joking, laughing with a light-hearted ease, as if they 
never knew " dull care." Most of them were full of practical 
jokes, light and sparkling as champagne, and had a gay 
faculty of taking the sunny side of everything. No wonder 
if, amid such scenes, the soldier's thoughts fled back to his 
home, to his loved wife, to the kisses of his darling child, to 
the fond Christmas greeting of his parents, brothers, sisters, 
friends, until his eyes were dimmed with the dews of the 
heart The exile feels a longing desire, particularly at 
Christmas time, for the pleasant, genial fireside and loving 
hearts of home. How many of that group will, ere another 
Christmas comes, sleep in a bloody and nameless grave ? 
Dec. 26th. Left camp at sunrise ; re-crossed the Arkansas 


River at Little Rock, and camped three miles from town, on 
the Pine Bluff Road. In the evening the following order was 
read, on " dress-parade," to each regiment in the division : 

Special Order No. 121. 

1st. Major-General John G. Walker, having reported to 
these headquarters, in obedience to Special Order No. 264, Ad- 
jutant and Inspector-General's Office, is assigned to the com- 
mand of the Division of Texas troops now commanded by 
Brigadier-General McCulloch. On being relieved by Major- 
General Walker, Brigadier-General McCulloch will assume 
command of Floumoy's Brigade, same Division. 

2d. Major-General Walker, with his Division, will move 
without delay, and take post at Pine Bluff. 

By command of Major-General Holmes. 




lQ]]fjj?> the morning of December 27th we took up the line 
*^§*=7^ of march for Pine Bluff. About four miles from Little 
94^ Rock, the Pine Bluff road leaves the river ; conse- 
quently the scenery, marching through the Pine Hills, is not 
very interesting. We struck camp on the side of a hill, after 
marching fifteen miles. 

Dec. 28th. Marched eleven miles, over a rocky and hilly 

Dec. 29th. Marched eleven miles, over the same kind of 
road as yesterday. 

On the 31st of December we took up the line of march, 
back by the road we came, to Little Pock. Marched fifteen 

The year '62 went out amid a blustering storm. The wind 
blew almost a hurricane, shrieking forth a watchful requiem 
over the dying year. The gloom was indicative of the dark 
storm-cloud of war, that hung like a funeral pall over the 
land, bringing sorrow and woe to thousands of once happy 
households. The mind involuntarily winged a thought to- 
ward the coming year, and sadly questioned, "Will 1863 still 
find the land the scene of bloodshed and fierce strife ? " It 
trusted not ; and looked forward to the day-spring of brighter 
hopes. The Confederate soldiers, the patriot sons of the 
South, were thought of amid their terrible sufferings in Ten- 


nessee and "Virginia, as they nobly endeavored to roll back 
the swift tide of invasion. 

We remained at this camp until the morning of the 2d of 
January, 1863 ; in the mean time the following order was read 
on dress-parade, announcing the change of commanders of 
the division : 

General Order No. 1. 
In accordance with instructions from the head-quarters of 
the Trans-Mississippi Department, the undersigned hereby 
assumes command of the division of Texas troops lately com- 
manded by Brig. -General McCulloch. 

The following officers are announced as comprising the 
Division Staff. 

Signed, John G. "Walker, 

Major-General Commanding. 

Major K. P. McClay, Chief of Staff. 

Major A. H. Mason, Commissary. 

Major William M. Stone, Quartermaster. 

Major Thomas B. French, Major Artillery. 

Surgeon E. J. Beall. 

Surgeon E. L. Massies. 

Captain J, A. Galt, Assist. Adjutant-General. 

Captain Thus. Cos, Assist. Quartermaster. 

1st Lieut. Compton French, Aid-de-Camp. 

Captain W. A. Smith, Assist. Adjutant-General. 

A. Faulkiner, Captain commanding Cavalry Squadron. 

The first day of the new year opened bitter cold. It froze 
all day. In commemoration of the new year we marched 
twelve miles. 

Jan. 2d. Marched six miles, and camped within four miles 
of Little Rock. We remained at this camp until the morn- 
ing of the 5th, when we were ordered about face, and march- 
ed back again to Pine Bluff. Marched ten miles and 

Jan. 6th. Marched fifteen miles. It was generally believed 
amongst the troops that General Holmes was advised by the 
Medical Board to give Walker's Division enough of exercise. 


This may be the object of our inarching and countermarch- 
ing between Little Bock and Pine Bluff. 

Jan. 7th. Marched eight miles. 

Jan. 8th. Marched twelve miles and camped five miles west 
of Pine Bluff. We remained at this camp until the morning 
of the 11th. At this camp the division was formed in line of 
battle to witness three soldiers belonging to McCulloch's 
Brigade, drummed out of camp for " hog-stealing." The bands 
played " The Rogue's March " along the line. The three sol- 
diers marched along the entire line, followed by a file of soldiers, 
with fixed bayonets. This kind of punishment, inaugurated 
by General McCulloch, seemed to be a novelty to the Texas 
boys, and it created roars of laughter amongst the troops. 
Boys, ask yourselves if you were ever guilty of " hog-steal- 
ing " during the late unpleasantness ? 

The town of Pine Bluff is the county-seat of Jefferson 
County. The town is built on the west bank of the Arkansas 
River, situated about fifty miles south of Little Bock, in the 
midst of a fine cotton-growing country. At the commence- 
ment of the war, it had a population of about four thousand 
inhabitants. Some of the residences were very fine, and built 
of brick. Delightful gardens, tasteful lawns, and spacious 
streets, give the whole place an air of comfort and elegance. 
The river was navigable to this place at all seasons of the 

While encamped near Pine Bluff, we learned that the 
enemy had been badly repulsed at Yicksburg ; and, in all 
probability, part of their forces would ascend the Arkansas 
River, for the purpose of capturing the place. On the night 
of the 10th, General Walker received dispatches from Gen- 
eral Churchill, stating that eight gunboats and twenty-five 
transports had arrived near the Arkansas Post, and he ex- 
pected to be attacked every moment. He asked for reinforce- 

On the morning of the 11th we took up the line of march 
to reinforce General Churchill's command, distance about 
fifty-five miles. Passing through the town of Pine Bluff, we 


continued our march down the river-bank. After marching 
twenty-five miles we camped for the night. During the 
march, couriers bearing dispatches were continually passing 
to and fro from General Walker to General Churchill. The 
following dispatch was received by General Walker from 
General Churchill, about 8 o'clock, P.M. : 

Head- Quarters, Arkansas Post, 
Jan. 11th, 1863, 7.30 A.M. 
General Walker : 

I am now occupjdng my inner line of iutienchments. I 
have strong hopes of success. If I am not overpowered by 
numbers shall fight to the last, and should I be compelled to 
leave these works I will withraw into the " fort " with two 
thousand men, and still fight, until every gun is dismounted. 
The enemy are now drawn up in line of battle in front. I 
expect them to attack me every moment. My infantry has 
not been engaged. The enemy has a great deal of artillery. 
I have but one field-battery. 

T. J. Churchill, 

Brig.-General Commanding. 

The next dispatch received was dated ten o'clock, notifying 
General Walker that the infantry pickets were engaged, and 
that he, General Churchill, was still hopeful of holding out 
until reinforcements arrived. 

At daylight on the morning of the 12th, we continued the 
march about five miles in the direction of the Post, and 
camped on the river-bank. News was received by General 
Walker that General Churchill had surrendered, with all his 
forces (about daylight). General Churchill's command con- 
sisted of one Brigade of Arkansians and Colonels Deshler's 
and Garland's Brigade of Texans. From stragglers who 
made their escape from the Post, it was learned that, after a 
few hours' fighting, a white flag was displayed from a promi- 
nent point, unexpected to General Churchill and many of the 
troops of his command, as they were confident of holding the 


place until Walker's Division arrived. Alas ! the traitor's 
name is screened from history ; but enough is known that no 
private soldier had anything to do with this traitorous act. 
Reader, pause and reflect for a moment. An army of some 
six or seven thousand well-disciplined troops, strongly forti- 
fied, with plenty of provisions, ammunition, etc., surrender- 
ing after a few hours' fighting, no matter how great the 
enemy's strength might be, when, by holding out a few hours 
longer, sufficient force would be on hand to render them as- 
sistance ! With Hindman's forces on the left bank of the 
river, and Walker's on the west bank, the enemy would evi- 
dently vacate the post, and take shipping on their boats, 
bound for some other point outside of the Arkansas Post. 
We remained encamped on the bank of the river until the 
morning of the 19th, awaiting the advance of the enemy. In 
the mean time, General Holmes arrived in camp from Little 
Rock, to assume command in person. On the morning of the 
13th we awoke out of our slumbers to behold the ground 
covered with snow, which was still falling, with no prospect 
of its clearing away soon. During the day all our tents were 
taken away from us. This camp was generally known by the 
name of " Camp Freeze Out." 

In the evening it commenced to freeze, until our wet gar- 
ments were stiff. The cold increased. " It was winter in its 
most savage mood. The wind howled like a wounded mon- 
ster through the frozen wood." The wide waste of snow and 
ice concealed the treacherous pits and fallen timber of the 
forest from our unpracticed eyes. We expected every moment 
to meet the enemy's fleet and forces ; for the river, swollen 
by the rain, hurried its dark flood along with drift and foam, 
sweeping masses of snow from the banks, and seemed con- 
spiring with the elements to hasten his advance. But the 
dark flood knew better the secrets of fate. 

Jan. 11th. To-day six prisoners, escorted by Captain Mor- 
gan's Company of Cavalry, passed through the camps on their 
way to Pine Bluff. They were captured while foraging for 
some delicacies that Uncle Sam didn't furnish them with, 


From them we learned that, after the surrender of the Arkan- 
sas Post, our troops were put aboard transports bound for 
St. Louis, and from there they would be conveyed to Camp 
Douglas, Illinois. 

On the morning of the 15th, General Holmes, anticipating 
the gun-boats up the rive]-, backed by their land forces, com- 
menced fortifying some two miles from the river bank (a 
pretty safe distance). A detail of twenty men from each 
regiment in the division commenced fortifying. The position 
selected by General Holmes was a pretty secure one, for 
once inside of the fortification, the enemy could not see us 
from the river bank, nor we them. 

On the 16th it commenced snowing at noon-time ; by sun- 
set some four or five inches had fallen. During the night it 
commenced to freeze, which was pretty severe on the troops 
that were on picket. Picket duty is the most dangerous and 
least cheering part of the service. It has not the excitement 
of battle, the presence of comrades, the charge, the cheer of 
the wild huzza of victory and triumph ; it has no such 
stimulating influences. No matter how cold the weather may 
be, even in the depth of winter, the advanced pickets are not 
allowed fire, and dare not walk about to warm themselves. 

The morning of the 17th dawned with the elements still 
against us. Worse than ever, it commenced to rain in the 
morning ; at noon it ceased for a short period of time ; it 
then commenced to snow, and during the evening it com- 
menced to freeze, with the wind blowing from the north. 
Parsons' Brigade of Cavalry arrived in camp : they relieved 
the infantry pickets from duty for the time being. During 
the night we learned that the enemy's fleet had withdrawn 
from the Arkansas Post, and were on their way to the Mis- 
sissippi River. On the evening of the 18th we received 
orders to be ready the following morning, to take up the line 
of march back again to Pine Bluff. 




^AJOR-GENERAL John G. Walker, was born in 
Cole County, State of Missouri, in the year 1825. 
His father, the Hon. J. G. Walker, was State 
Treasurer for many years. At the age of twenty-one years, 
he was appointed by President Polk 1st lieutenant of Com- 
pany K, Colonel Persifer P. Smith's regiment of mounted 
rifles, in which he bore his part in the campaigns of Mexico. 
Afterward he served with the same command in California, 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Oregon, having attained the rank 
of Captain in the United States service. At the beginning of 
the late war he was on duty at Fort Union, NeAv Mexico, and 
his affections being with the South, he lost no time in resign- 
ing his Federal commission and making his way to the Con- 
federate seat of government. On tendering his services to 
President Jefferson Davis, he received the commission of 
Colonel, and as such commanded the 2d Regiment of Virginia 
troops in the army of General Beauregard, then in Virginia. 
He was shortly afterward promoted to the rank of Brigadier, 
and distinguished himself in the bloody battles of that State, 
and was in due time made a Major-General. While in com- 
mand of a division in Lee's array, he took a prominent part 
in the capture of Harper's Ferry, and the next day reached 
the field of Sharpsburg, just in time to save the fortunes of 
that battle. President Davis, on hearing of the number of 
Texas troops that had arrived at Little Rock, Arkansas, sub- 
sequently ordered General Walker to Little Rock, to take 
command of the Texas troops at that point, then commanded 
by Brigadier- General H. E. McCulloch. 

General Walker, after taking command of the Texas troops, 
soon became very popular with them — his presence was 
always hailed with the wildest enthusiasm by both officers 


and soldiers. His masterly retreat before Banks' army, and 
his gallant and desperate charge at Mansfield and Pleasant 
Hill, where he was seriously wounded, evince his capacity 
and bravery as a commander. 

Notwithstanding his sufferings from his wound, he begged 
to be carried on a litter to command his men. 

He gave us our first lesson in the field in the face of an 
enemy, and of all the generals in command of the Confederate 
troops, he was the most untiring, vigilant, and patient. No 
commander could surpass him. Devoid of ambition, incapa- 
ble of envy, he was brave, gallant, and just. At Jenkins' 
Ferry he arrived just as the battle commenced, although in a 
feeble state, suffering from his wound. At the sight of him, 
many of the troops were so enthusiastic that they placed their 
hats upon their bayonets, and gave him hearty cheers. It was 
a touching and fitting compliment to the gallant chieftain. 

Nor did he escape the attention of the department com- 
mander, for his gallantry and services on the battle-field. He 
was assigned to the command of the District of Louisiana, 
and afterward to the command of the Department of Texas, 
New Mexico, and Arizona, a position he filled with honor to 
himself and the department he commanded. 

I deem it proper to copy from the Houston Telegraph news- 
paper the appropriate remarks relating to the discharge of his 
duties while in command of the department, as follows : 

" The administration of the duties of the commander of this 
district by Major-General Walker have added to the high repu- 
tation of that gallant officer. As a commander in the field, he 
had won the best distinction of a soldier, that of well-fought 
battles, honorable wounds, and the confidence and devotion of 
his soldiers. "We have never heard an officer or private from 
General Walker's old Division but spoke of him in terms of 
admiration and attachment. Accustomed to and preferring 
service in the field, we understand it was in opposition to his 
own feelings and taste that General Walker entered on the 
command of a district so extensive, important, and responsi- 
ble as this. 

" We believe that he leaves it having impressed all who have 


liad any opportunity of seeing him in the exercise of his duties, 
with the conviction of his ability, his conscientious devotion 
to duty, and the equity and justice of his character. 

" Laborious, systematic, painstaking, unostentatious — work- 
ing himself according to a rigid standard of duty, and exact- 
ing the like from others, confidence had gathered strongly 
around the sound judgment and propriety of his general busi- 
ness administration of our military affairs. We are very sure 
he will carry with him, we hope to more honorable fields, the 
sincere respect and confidence, and the warm good wishes of 
the people of Texas." 

General Walker, in giving up the command of the district, 
was assigned to the command of a cavalry corps that was en- 
camped near Hempstead. In taking command of the cavalry, 
he issued the following masterly and patriotic address, al- 
though forlorn, and while negotiations were pending for the 
surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department : 

" Soldiers : In assuming command in the field at this dark 
hour in the history of the war, I confidently appeal to your 
patriotism to sustain me in the discharge of the responsible 
duties I have assumed. The disastrous events, the intelligence 
which has just reached us, point to some decisive crisis of the 
war, which our limited knowledge of those events does not 
yet permit us fully to appreciate. 

" Every instinct of manhood, however, calls upon us to bear 
the great disaster that has overtaken our arms with fortitude, 
resolution, and patriotism. Let us so conduct ourselves that, 
whatever may be the result of this war, we may be able 
to point with honorable pride to the part we have sustained 
in upholding the honor of the South. 

" We cannot yet determine what line of policy it may 
become necessary for the Trans-Mississippi army and people 
to pursue in view of recent events, but let us bear in mind that 
nothing but eternal infamy, individually and nationally, will 
result from abandoning the field at present. Remember, be 
true to your duty ! Stand by your colors and your generals, 
and treat those who advise differently as your worst enemies, 
and traitors to your country. 




r N the morning of January 19th we bade adieu to 
Camp " Freeze Out,' and took up the line of march 
^4S^ back again to Pine Bluff. The road being im- 
passable to travel, we marched through the deserted planta- 
tions, weary, foot-sore, hungry, and cold. Yet, the troops 
marched with buoyant spirits, joking, laughing, and singing as 
they marched along. After marching twelve miles, we arrived 
at camp. 

Jan. 20. Marched fourteen miles. The troops continued to 
travel through mud, ankle deep ; yet, cold and drenched as 
they were, they marched cheerfully forward, shouting forth, 
with stentorian voices, the chorus of the " Bonnie Blue Flag," 
and other patriotic songs. It seemed as if they were deter- 
mined their spirits should not succumb to their accumulated 
sufferings, hardships, and trials. It appears almost incredible 
that men could exhibit such recldess indifference, such strength 
of wall and determination, after such a week of bitter expe- 
riences as these men underwent. The war, however, developed 
and decided some strange theories as to the amount of physi- 
cal powers which the human frame contained — powers of 
enduring fatigue, hunger, thirst, heat and cold — which would 
scarcely have been believed before, if asserted. We arrived at 
camp, situated northwest from Pine Bluff. This camp was 
known by the name of Camp Mills, after Colonel R. Q. Mills, 
of the 10th Infantry. He was captured at the Arkansas Post. 
We remained at this camp until the 9th of February, drill- 


ing and cleaning our camp-ground. General Walker issued 
orders that t%o men from each company in the division should 
be granted furloughs for a reasonable period of time. This 
order gave general satisfaction throughout the division. In the 
mean time, while remaining at this camp, the weather changed 
to bright, clear, and pleasant days. Tents sufficient to shelter, 
and blankets to make the troops comfortable, soon arrived, 
when we were ordered to move camp to a more suitable loca- 
tion, on the banks of the Arkansas River, about four miles 
north of the town of Pine Bluff. Our camp at this location 
was known as Camp Wright, receiving the name from the 
owner of the land that it was located on. 

Our situation here was a good one, and, for the first time 
since we had been in the State, the troops were comfortably 
situated. And they appreciated it very much ; for, if ever 
there was an army that had been harassed and " used up" to 
accomplish nothing so far, it was this army. At this camp, 
it was an imposing sight to see a long stretch of country, rich 
and beautiful as the sun ever shone upon ; the deep pine 
forests ; belts of wood, whose dark green foliage contrasted 
strongly with the white tents. Fields lately luscious with vines 
are drooping with amber-colored corn, all of them covered 
over wifh white tents, arranged with street-like precision, with 
regiments or battalions on parade or review, with martial 
music echoing along the river-bank, from splendid bands. 
Add to this the Arkansas River, flowing on in majestic grand- 
eur, on its bosom numerous transports steaming up and down. 
Such was our encampment at Camp Wright. 

The nights were surpassingly fine, considering the season of 
the year. No fairy tales of magic wonder, no genii power of 
Aladdin's wonderful lamp could produce anything so sublimely 
grand. Here, in the southern clime, the nights are superb. 
The moon floats grandly through a clear, azure sky of the 
deepest blue. The white tents glow, and the bright arms 
stacked on the parade-ground, glimmer in the moonshine, 
while the river looks like a sea of molten silver, quivering under 
the soft moon-beams. In this fair and fertile land, marred by 


man but blessed by God, the days and nights passed merrily. 
At night the tents resounded with laughter, nm^ic, and fun ; 
by day, the leisure hours were spent in visiting each other, or 
playing the fascinating game of " bluff." When the cry of 
"lights out!" ran from mouth to mouth along the hue of sen- 
tinels, the camp became shrouded in darkness ; but suppose 
we step into a tent, and see if the lights are really "out." 
Lifting the "fly," upon the inside of which a blanket is pinned, 

we enter. Sergeant and privates * * * and (whom 

many of our readers would recognize without the aid of a 
magnifier), and others are seated comfortably upon a blanket, 
each mouth adorned with a pipe from which clouds of smoke 
are emanating, while their minds are all intent upon the cards 
before them. The light is well shaded, so as to be invisible 
on the outside, and the game goes on under the whispers of the 
players. Corn grains are spread around, each representing a 
specific amount, not greater than a dollar. 

From the players, who are steeped in tobacco-smoke, we 
catch the sentences : " I'll raise you two." " I'll go five 
better." " Can't see it." " Three queens," etc., etc., etc. 
Thus was the game of " Bluff" often played in our camp, and 
seldom was it finished until the early morning reveille startled 
the players from their sport. "While remaining at this camp, 
many of the troops received sixty days' furlough, and re- 
nounced camp-life pro tern., to visit distant friends in Texas. 
We remained at "Camp Wright" until the 24th of April, with- 
out anything unusual transpiring, with the exception of the ap- 
pointment of Brigadier-General Haws to the command of the 
1st Brigade. Colonel Young, on being relieved from com- 
mand of the brigade, resumed command of his regiment. The 
following-named officers comprised General Haws' staff, viz : 

Major C. McClartt, A. A. General. 

Major R. H. Dyer, Quartermaster. 

Major R. S. Seman, Commissary of Subsistence. 

Captain J. L. Robertson, Adjt. and Inspector-General. 

1st Lieut. A. J. Walker. Ordnance Officer. 

1st Lieut. S. N. Haws, Aid-de-Camp. 


Brigadier-General Haws was formerly a United States offi- 
cer, but, like many of bis old comrades in arms, he offered his 
services to the Confederate government, which were cheerfully 
accepted. He was commissioned by President Davis to the rank 
of Brigadier-General, and assigned to a brigade of cavalry 
under command of Major-General Hindman. He participated 
in many of the cavalry raids throughout Arkansas. He arrived 
in time to lend his aid to "Walker's division, in the anticipated 
attack of the enemy, near the Arkansas Post, with his command 
of cavalry. 

On the evening of April 23d, at dress-parade, the following 
address or order from General Holmes was read to each 
regiment in the division previous to our departure for Louisi- 

" Major-General J. G. Walker will proceed with his division 
without delay to Monroe, Louisiana. On his arrival he will 
report for orders to Lieut.-General Kirby Smith, commanding 
the department. 

" In taking leave of Walker's Division, the commanding 
general of the district expresses his sincere regret. It was 
instructed and disciplined under his supervision ; and, hav- 
ing the fullest confidence in its strength, patriotism and 
valor, he hoped it would be his proud privilege to participate 
in the honor in store for it when it meets the enemy. Better 
officers and men no division can boast of. The Confederacy 
may well be satisfied with the security of its interests entrust- 
ed to them. 

By command of Lieut. -General Holmes." 




'HE morning of April 24th was clear and beautiful, 
such as we often experience in the spring. We left 
camp at daylight, bound for Alexandria, Louisiana. 
Reports had reached us from Louisiana, that General Dick 
Taylor was retreating from before the enemy, who was advan- 
cing on Alexandria. Marched fourteen miles, and camped. 

April 25th. Marched ten miles. The country we traveled 
over resembles the lands of Northeastern Texas. The soil is 
very fertile, and produces large crops of corn, oats, and wheat. 

April 26th. Marched fifteen miles. The country we marched 
over was thickly settled. 

April 27th. Marched twelve miles, and camped near the 
town of Monticello. 

April 28th. Marched twelve miles. As we passed through 
Monticello, the ladies were on the sidewalk, waving their 
handkerchiefs as a token of admiration for the Texas boys. 

April 29th. Marched eleven miles ; passed through the villa- 
ges of Lacy and Fountain Hill. 

April 30th. Marched ten miles, and encamped near the town 
of Hamburg. On the morning of May 1st we continued 
our march. After crossing the State line dividing Arkansas 
from Louisiana, we camped in the mid&t of a small prairie, 
having marched only three miles. 

May 2d. Early in the morning we continued our march, 
traveling in a southwesterly direction. The day was excess- 
ively warm, and water along our route was very scarce. 


After a hard and laborious march of sixteen miles, we arrived 
at a running stream of clear water, where we camped for the 

May 3d. Marched sixteen miles, and camped on Bayou 
Bartholomew, a tributary of the Ouachita River. 

May 4th. Marched twelve miles, down the bank of the 
bayou, and camped about three miles from Ouachita City. 

May 5th. Marched three miles, and arrived at the mouth of 
Bayou Bartholomew, where it empties into the Ouachita 
River. Opposite the mouth of Bayou Bartholomew is located 
the famous City of Ouachita (or Washita), consisting of a 
store and warehouse. It is situated on a high bluff. The river 
is navigable to this point at all seasons of the year. On our 
arrival at the mouth of the bayou, we witnessed about a 
dozen transports awaiting to carry us to the town of Tren- 
ton, nearly opposite the City of Monroe. After everything 
was in readiness we got aboard ; shortly afterwards, we found 
ourselves rapidly steaming down the crystal-like Washita 
river, at the expense of the government. This ride on the 
transports was unexpected on our part. We arrived at Tren- 
ton about 4 o'clock, P. M., distant from Bayou Bartholomew 
about thirty-six miles. Our division quartermaster kindly 
paid our fare by giving a check on the Confederate Govern- 
ment. After disembarking at Trenton, we marched two miles, 
and camped in the rear of the town. We remained at this 
camp until the morning of the 9th. While encamped near 
Trenton, various rumors were currently afloat in camp 
about Banks' army advancing on the town of Alexandria, 
and the capture of the same. These rumors proved, alas ! too 
true. We waited anxiously to hear from our army under the 
command of General Dick Taylor — how they were progressing 
with the enemy. General Hebert, then commanding the 
Northern District of Louisiana, endeavored to obtain a 
brigade of the division, to assist him in driving back, or rather 
to capture, a brigade of the enemy that was encamped on the 
banks of the Mississippi River, making raids all over the 
^.country. As General Walker's orders were imperative to 


proceed to Alexandria, he could not accommodate General 
Hebert, but promised to do so as soon he drove Banks' army 
back. The sequel will show how he fulfilled his promise. 

May 9th. About sunrise we embarked on board of the same 
transports that conveyed us from Washita City ; our destina- 
tion this time was Alexandria. Our wagons the day previous 
went overland. About 8 o'clock, A. M., the signal whistle 
was blown for " all aboard" Shortly afterwards, the boats 
moved out into the current of the river, and took their position 
in line, — General Walker's boat taking the lead, under a full 
head of steam. When passing by the town of Monroe, the 
inhabitants appeared to have turned out in mass to witness 
us passing by. The ladies waved their handkerchiefs as a 
token of friendship, and the bands played some of their favor- 
ite pieces of music, to please the ladies. 

The troops were highly pleased with the trip ; they experi- 
enced that it was a much easier mode of travel than taking it 
afoot, with their knapsacks on their backs. Nothing worthy 
of notice transpired on our trip down the river, until we were 
near the town of Harrisonburg, when a courier, from General 
Dick Taylor's head-quarters, hailed General Walker, and 
handed him a dispatch informing him that the enemy had 
crossed Red River at Alexandria, and were likely to attack 
Fort Beauregard at Harrisonburg in the rear; and that four 
gunboats had left Alexandria for the purpose of making an 
attack by water. He sent a dispatch to Colonel Logan, com- 
manding the fort, to burn his last cartridge in its defence. 
Colonel Logan replied that he had as much force as he want- 
ed, and that he would hold the fort with " God's blessing." 

General Walker at once ordered his boats to "about ship " 
on hearing the news from Colonel Logan. So we took the 
back track once more for Trenton, where we arrived about 3 
o'clock the next morning, after an excursion of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five miles. We remained on board until 
daylight, when we went ashore, and camped four miles west 
of the town, where we remained until the morning of the 16th, 
waiting to hear further news fi*om the enemy. If they suc- 


ceeded in capturing Fort Beauregard, it was expected they 
would advance on the town of Monroe or Trenton. General 
Walker, in the mean time, kept his communication open with 
Colonel Logan. 

On the morning of the 13th, four gun-boats, under command 
of Commodore Wood worth, arrived about two miles below the 
fort, and demanded the surrender of the same. Colonel 
Logan replied, that as long as he had a cartridge left, his com- 
mand would never surrender. Shortly after the " truce " had 
expired, the gun-boats commenced shelling the fort with a ven- 
geance, and kept up the cannonading until late in the evening, 
without doing any damage to the fort or garrison. The next 
morning they opened their fire again. Colonel Logan and 
his garrison were hot idle. During the night, he sent a com- 
pany of sharpshooters in the vicinity of the gun-boats, for 
the purpose of picking off their gunners. In this they were 
very successful, as they compelled the gun-boats to withdraw 
some distance down the river, from their original position. 
The cannonading continued throughout the day, without 
doing much damage. About sunset two dispatch-boats of the 
enemy joined the fleet, after communicating with Commo- 
dore Woodworth. The gun-boats shortly afterwards retired, 
as, for the present, they had abandoned any further attack 
on the fort. 

Before retiring, they buried six of their men on the river- 
bank. As they were descending the river, they continued 
throwing up signal rockets. Quantities of cotton and broken 
timber, evidently torn off by our shot and shell, floated down 
the river in their wake. Thus, with a very small force, Colo- 
nel Logan had accomplished his design in compelling the 
enemy to withdraw, notwithstanding then guns were of a 
heavier caliber than his, and with only the loss of one of his 
men, who was killed early in the action. 

During the bombardment of the fort, General Walker 
received a dispatch from Colonel Bartlett, commanding at 
Delhi, that the enemy, numbering about 1,000, had crossed 
Bayou Macon, and were advancing on Monroe. This news, 


and the delay of our wagon-train, retarded our march in any 
direction in pursuit of the enemy. In the mean time, news 
was received that the enemy had recrossed Bayou Macon, 
and, for the present, had abandoned their raid on Mon- 
roe. Our wagon-train having arrived, we took up the line of 
march on the morning of the 16th, for the town of Campti, 
on Red River. Marched seventeen miles, and camped for the 

May 17th. Resumed our march this morning, and marched 
fourteen miles. Passed through the town of Vernon. 

May 18th. Marched fifteen miles, and passed through the 
village of Woodville. 

May 19th. Marched nineteen miles. The country we 
passed over is of light, rich soil, rolling enough to make it 
fine for cultivation, and is covered with timber of the largest 
kind, which extends from the Washita to Red River. Grain 
is raised in abundance, consisting of corn, oats, barley, and 

May 20th. Marched nineteen miles. Passed through the 
town of Sparta, situated on top of a sand-hill. 

May 21st. Marched seventeen miles through a pine forest. 

May 22d. Marched sixteen miles, and encamped at a large 
lake, two miles to the right of the town of Campti. On our arri- 
val at this place, we learned that Banks' army, hearing of our 
approach, had evacuated the town of Alexandria, and was 
falling back towards the Mississippi River. We remained 
encamped at the lake, awaiting boats to carry us to Alexan- 
dria, until the morning of the 26th, when we marched to 
Campti, there to take passage on the boats that had arrived 
during the night, for Alexandria. 

Nothing worthy of notice transpired on our trip down the 
river. We arrived at the Alexandria Falls, about two miles 
from the town of Alexandria, on the morning of the 27th. 
The distance from Campti to this point is 150 miles. Ran- 
dall's Brigade continued down the river, expecting to over- 
take the enemy before they got to the Mississippi River. In 
this they were unsuccessful. They returned the following day 


to camp, near Alexandria. After ascertaining that the 
enemy had crossed the Mississippi River, on their way to 
attack Port Hudson, we remained encamped near the Falls 
of Alexandria, for the purpose of cooking rations, previous to 
taking a trip to Perkins' Landing, on the Mississippi River. 
The town of Alexandria is built on the right bank of Red 
River, about 200 miles from its mouth. The river is navi- 
gable to this point at all seasons of the year. The town is beau- 
tifully located in the midst of a cotton and sugar-cane country. 
It is unrivaled, in the State of Louisiana, for its healthy and 
pleasant situation, and the grandeur of the surrounding 
scenery. Its principal street, about one mile in length, is 
built on the bank of the river, and, parallel to this street and 
river is located the Planters' Railroad, running through the 
town, and extending south a distance of about twenty -five miles. 
The sidewalks are thickly covered with stately shade-trees, 
overlapping themselves in many places. Opposite, and across 
the river, is one range of pine hills. Another lies about 
twelve miles southwest from the town. It seems of an irreg- 
ular formation, and extends to the Sabine River, on the border 
of Texas. 

Picturesque views, of great beauty, are obtained from the 
surrounding hills. At a distance of two miles up the river 
are situated the rapids of Alexandria (better known as 
Alexandria Falls). These rapids or falls have become histor- 
ical, from the fact of Commodore Porter's building a dam 
across them, in the year 1864, in order to enable him to get 
his fleet over them, on his cotton expedition up Red River. 

The town of Alexandria has several fine public and private 
buildings ; among the most noted is the Ice-house Hotel ; 
also the Court-house and Market-house. The town is also 
adorned with many fine churches, of all denominations. 
Across the river, about four miles from the town, stands the 
famous Military Institute that General Sherman presided 
over at the commencement of the war. 





*N the evening of May 28th we left camp near Alex- 
^^jg andria for Little River, distance about twenty miles. 
$4-te^ Marched ten miles through a pine and hilly section 
of country. 

May 29th. Marched ten miles and arrived at Little River ; 
here several transports were waiting to carry us up the Ten- 
sas River. Previous to going aboard of them, we cooked two 
days' rations. It would shame a lazy cook to see with what 
expedition we cooked our meals. The moment we stacked 
arms, fires were lit of rails or branches, and the knapsacks 
thrown off. Then we took a slice of bacon or a piece of beef, 
and roasted it before the fire on the end of a stick. In this 
way a soldier cooked his hasty meal in about fifteen minutes. 
About two o'clock we were all aboard ; lines and stage-planks 
were hauled in. 

The boat that General Walker and staff were aboard of led 
off, followed by the balance of the transports, all loaded with 
troops. On they went, ploughing through the waters of 
Cathoulia Lake. Nothing unusual occurred during the trip. 
We arrived at the mouth of Black River during the night, 
ascending the same until we arrived at the mouth of the 
Tensas River. Previous to ascending the same, the utmost 
caution for the safety of the troops was adopted by General 
Walker. To prevent a surprise from the enemy, sentinels 
were placed upon the hurricane deck of all the transports to 
keep watch, lest the enemy should be lurking about. We 
were only twenty-five miles from the Mississippi River. The 


country between the two rivers was invested with the enemy's 
pickets. On our way up the river, a Federal soldier was 
taken prisoner ; he was foraging amongst the negro cabins. 
A few miles further up the river, from where we captured the 
Federal soldier, is Buck's plantation, the head of navigation. 
We arrived at this place on the evening of the 30th inst. 
The distance from Little River to this point is about 250 
miles. We went ashore on the right bank of the river, and 
camped. After supper we received orders to be ready to 
march at a moment's notice. 

At 9 o'clock, P. M., McCulloch's Brigade took up the line of 
march for Perkins' Landing, on the Mississippi River. This 
landing is near the town of New Carthage, and about fifteen 
miles from Vicksburg, and distant about twelve miles from 
Buck's plantation. Randall and Haws' Brigades followed 
after. At this place the enemy was encamped, and supposed 
to be in heavy force. While on the march we passed by 
farm after farm all deserted and the buildings going to decay. 

After leaving the river, the route of the troops was through 
a cane-brake, dark and dismal, and as desolate and dreary 
as the imagination could picture, and highly musical with 
croaking of frogs ; to these add reptiles of every hue and spe- 
cies, and you have some idea of the ground. It was difficult 
for the troops to march over. Tramp ! tramp ! tramp ! — firm 
and undaunted, the brigade proceeded on its perilous jour- 
ney, like a band of dark spirits, over the hard and uneven 
road, accompanied by the dull rumbling of the artillery car- 
riages. That was a night that tried men's souls. Although 
moving slowly forward, in momentary expectation of being 
attacked, nothing special occurred. As the first roseate hues 
of morn tinged the eastern horizon, we discovered the smoke 
arising from the enemy's camps. 




rN the morning of the 31st of May, McCulloch's Brigade 
formed in line of battle, in a skirt of timber adjoining 
Perkins' plantation, and commenced to advance on 
the enemy's camp. They were followed soon after by Haws' 
and Randall's Brigades. On the arrival of McCulloch's Brig- 
ade at the enemy's camp, they discovered, much to their sur- 
prise, that the enemy had withdrawn, under the protection of 
their gun-boats. The enemy seemed not to anticipate our 
coming until a few minutes previous to our arrival, as they 
left precipitately, leaving behind them their provisions and 
cooking utensils. Our troops helped themselves to the ene- 
my's "hard-tack" and coffee. The coffee they found very 
palatable, and more nourishing than corn-meal coffee. After 
they had satisfied their appetites, McCulloch's Brigade ad- 
vanced in search of the enemy. After passing the enemy's 
camp about half a mile, their skirmishers were fired upon 
from the direction of the woods that were on the right. Our 
skirmishers quickly returned the fire, and advanced in the 
direction of the woods, where the enemy was formed in line 
of battle. On their arrival at the woods, they discovered, 
much to their surprise, that the enemy was in full retreat, 
double-quicking towards the levee that was in front, and 
about half a mile from where our troops were fired ivpon. 
After ascertaining that the enemy was formed in line of battle 
behind the levee, and under the protection of their gun-boats, 
they fell back and joined their respective commands. In the 
mean time one of the enemy's gunboats opened fire upon 


them, without doing much harm, their shots being fired at 
random, as it were, to fire the woods. General McCulloch 
immediately ordered Captain Edgar's Battery of Light Artil- 
lery to the front. After taking their position, they at once 
opened fire on the gun-boats. Their battery was ably sup- 
ported by Allen's and "Waterhouse's Eegiments, while Flour- 
noy's and Fitzhugh's regiments supported the flanks. A 
regular artillery duel now ensued. The intervening valley 
was one dense cloud of smoke, which rose in floating 
canopies over it. We could behold the sheets of flame, 
followed by volumes of smoke, jump out from the mouths 
of the brazen monsters, while the loud reverberating 
sounds echoed through the river valley. Captain Edgar and 
his lieutenants handled their brave veterans with skill : they 
worked their guns with alacrity. It might not be amiss to 
mention that Perkins' Landing is situated about twenty-five 
miles south of Vicksburg, between Carthage and Ashwood 

Several of our artillery shots must have evidently taken 
effect on the gun-boats, as they soon dropped down the river, 
out of the range of our guns. 

After the withdrawal of the gunboats, the entire division 
was formed in line of battle, expecting to draw the enemy out 
from under cover of their gun-boats. After remaining in hue 
of battle about half an hour, our pickets returned and 
reported that the enemy got aboard of their transports, 
destroying a large amount of stores that were intended for 
Grant's army at Grand Gulf. 

Shortly afterwards we took up the Hue of march back 
again to the Tensas River. We arrived at camp on the 
Tensas River late in the evening, after marching twenty-four 

Our loss at Perkins' Landing was one killed and six 
wounded. The loss of the enemy must have been greater. 

A good story was told of a negro cook, named Sam, 
belonging to one of the officers, who helped himself to the 


enemy's goods while the cannonading was going on. While 
he was engaged in making a thorough examination of the 
enemy's camp, it was visited occasionally by a round-shot or 
shell. It was getting too hot for Sam ; so he removed to what 
he thought a safe place, when a shell comes right bang near 
him. Sam jumped up like an acrobat, and grinned like a 
gorilla. "Oh, Sam, are you scared?" asked a soldier who 
was calmly looking on. " Golly, massa, I can put up with 
dem black fellows," meaning round-shot, "but them damn 
rotten fellows dat burst so, dey play de bery debil — you 
don't know where dey strike you," said Sam, alluding to the 
shells. He could not stand that, nor did he understand it. 
He threw away his plunder, and hastened to discover some 
place of concealment. He ran, and ran, until he was com- 
pletely exhausted ; he knew not where to go. He lay down 
behind a log. A shell exploded near the spot. That was no 
safe place. He espied Captain Edgar's Battery busy at work 
handling their guns, and thought that would be a good place 
for protection. After reaching the spot, he discovered that it 
was anything but safe. In hunting about, he found a place to 
hide in. Glory ! Alas, he found one of his fellow-servants stove 
into the hollow log so firmly that he was unable to extricate 
himself. Poor Sam for two long hours was running from 
place to place, but nowhere could he find a spot free from 
those awful bombs that followed him with such pertinacity. 
Everything must have an end — the fighting closed. Old Sam 
found himself safe and sound. He afterwards remarked, 
that if there were any more battles, he would stay out of 
the way of the bombs. 


Major K. P. McClay, Asst.-Adjt. and Lisp.- General : 

Sir, — At one o'clock this morning, I moved with my brig- 
ade from this camp to attack the enemy at Perkins' place, 
on the Mississippi Eiver. Had two bridges constructed over 
Bayou De Hussy (one of timber, the other of cotton bales and 


plank). Marched ten or twelve miles ; drove the enemy's 
outposts in, and attacked him by opening a fire of shot and 
shell from one section of Captain Edgar's Batteries, directed 
against his transports and encampment, both of which were 
too closely under the cover of his gun-boats to admit of an 
infantry attack without endangering too great a loss to us, 
with no a prospect of receiving corresponding benefit to our 

The principal portion of my infantry were kept under cover 
of a small levee and mots of timber skirting a lake, which hid 
them from the enemy's view, while the section of the bat- 
tery and Colonel Waterhouse's Eegiment were thrown for- 
ward in the open field, the battery opening fire upon the 
enemy's transports, which was instantly returned by the 
enemy's gun-boats. This fire was kept up by Captain Edgar 
for one hour and twenty minutes, during which time he threw 
ninety-six shot and shell into the enemy's camp, and at his 
transports, upon which he was embarking his land forces. 
Having witnessed the conduct of officers and men of the battery 
and Colonel Waterhouse's Regiment, it is gratifying to say, that 
they did their duty nobly. Captain Edgar commanded his 
men and guns, causing them to be ably and effectually 
handled. Their fire was energetic and efficient ; nearly every 
shot and shell well directed. Himself, and his officers and 
his men, behaved most gallantly during the engagement, ex- 
posed to heavy fire from the enemy's transports during the 
whole time. Colonel Waterhouse was in front of his regi- 
ment, exhibiting coolness and courage worthy of imitation 
by all officers and men. His major (Taylor) and company 
officers were alike calm and at their respective posts, ready 
to execute with promptness any order that might be given, 
while their men stood up under the fire like a wall of mason- 
ry, until ordered by me to lie down, in order to expose them 
as little as possible to the balls and fragments of shell that 
were constantly flyingly thick about them. 

Major Redwood, who was placed in charge of the skirmish- 
ers (aided by Captain Flowers, quartermaster of Colonel 


Flournoy's Regiment, his adjutant), managed them with ability 
and courage which showed him fit for the duty to which he 
had been assigned, while the officers and men under his com- 
mand behaved in the most commendable manner. 

Captain Pitts, of my staff, was put in command of a few 
men mounted as cavalry, and used as a corps of observation 
or reconnoitering party. He was in advance of all ; obtained 
and furnished me valuable information as to the position and 
movements of the enemy, without which my own movements 
would have been conducted at great disadvantage. The ser- 
vices of this party were indispensable to me, and were gal- 
lantly performed. The balance of my command, though 
hidden as far as possible, most of the time, from the enemy, 
were nevertheless exposed to his shell, which were thrown 
from his gun-boats wherever he suspected we might be 
posted ; and not an officer or man, so far as I could perceive, 
failed to do his duty, or showed the least disposition to avoid 
a full participation in the conflict. Upon the contrary, all 
seemed anxious to go fully into the fight, and when ordered 
to form line of battle in the open field, within six hundred 
yards of the bank of the river, in full view of the gun-boats, 
the movement was executed with as much promptness, cool- 
ness, and courage, as it could have been done by the best 
troops the world has ever produced. 

The enemy fired over two hundred shot and shell at my 
command, with less effect than I supposed the same number 
could have been fired at the same distance. My loss was 
one killed, two wounded, and two missing. 

The loss of the enemy could not be ascertained, but must 
have been considerable, as several of Captain Edgar's shots 
were known to take effect upon the transports ; besides the 
many well-aimed shells that exploded in the timber which 
covered their encampment, as well as many favorable oppor- 
tunities which presented themselves to our skirmishers, of 
picking off individuals during the fight. I learn from un- 
official sources, that the enemy had eleven killed and several 


■wounded on the land, besides those which must have suffered 
similarly on the transports. 

It is not in the number killed and wounded of the enemy 
that the loss or the benefit to our cause chiefly consists, but 
in the fact that they were compelled to remove or destroy 
their stores, abandon their camp, and break up their depot 
on the bank of the Mississippi Kiver, directly under the cover 
of their gun-boats, -which is well calculated to distract the 
movements of General Grant, and cause a diversion in favor 
of Vicksburg, by compelling him to send a force to their side 
of the river, to prevent his communication from being cut 
off from his source of supplies on the Upper Mississippi 

Signed, General Henry E. McCulloch. 




'N the morning of June 1st, we commenced crossing 
^ the Tensas Eiver. After crossing, the division 
camped on the river-bank. 

On the morning of the 2d, Haws' and Kandall's Brigades 
took up the line of march for Flowers' plantation, on Bayou 
Macon. After marching twelve miles, they camped on the 
banks of the bayou, waiting for McCulloch's Brigade. On 
the morning of the 3d, McCulloch's Brigade took up the line 
of march for Flowers' plantation. 

On the 4th, the entire division marched up the banks of 
Bayou Macon some thirteen miles. Bayou Macon is a deep, 
dirty, sluggish stream, stocked with a variety of fish and alli- 
gators. The river bottoms on both sides of the bayou are 
wide, well-timbered, and of the greatest fertility, admirably 
adapted to either cotton or corn. Clear of the bottoms, you 
meet with undulating prairies, affording nutritious grass for 
pasturage. The country is subject to bilious fevers, and 
others of a debilitating type. 

June 5th. Marched fifteen miles. On our march through 
the swamps we beheld several large rattlesnakes, that had 
been killed by our advance guards. Very frequently, in the 
swamps of Louisiana, a soldier wakes up in the morning and 
finds that he has a rattlesnake for a sleeping partner ; but 
there is one excellent trait in the character of these reptiles : 
they never bite unless disturbed, and will get out of the way 
as soon as possible, except in the month of August, when 
they are said to be blind, and will snap at anything they 
may hear about them. 


June 6th. Marched ten miles, and camped near the village 
of Kichmond on Roundaway Bayou. We remained here 
long enough to cook rations, previous to advancing on Milli- 
ken's Bend and Young's Point, on the Mississippi River. 
After cooking two days' rations we remained in camp about 
four hours, to rest. In the evening we received orders to get 
ready for a night-march. All the troops realized the hard- 
ship of a night-march, and the forthcoming battle ; yet not 
a man quailed or was found missing from his place. Many 
of the men delivered letters to those detailed to remain with 
the wagons, for the loved ones at home, in case they died on 
the battle-field. In sections four abreast, and close order, 
the troops took up the line of march, in anticipation of meet- 
ing almost certain death, but with undaunted, unquailing 
spirits. In breathless silence, with the high and glittering 
stars looking down upon them, through dark and deep defiles 
marched the dense array of men, moving steadily forward ; 
not a whisper was heard — no sound of clanking saber, or rattle 
of canteen and cup. 

After crossing Roundaway Bayou at Richmond, nothing 
unusual transpired until we arrived within six miles of Milli- 
ken's Bend (the same distance from Richmond), where the 
road forks ; the right-hand road leads to Young's Point (some 
twenty-two miles distant), and the left leads to Milliken's 
Bend. Haws' Brigade proceeded to Young's Point for the 
purpose of breaking up the enemy's camp, and McCuiloch's 
Brigade proceeded to Milliken's Bend for the same purpose ; 
while Randall's Brigade remained at the forks of the road, to 
reinforce either of the two brigades in case of emergency. 




" Oh, few and weak our numbers were — 
A handful of brave men ; 
But to their God they gave their prayers, 
And rushed to battle then." 

yj$£ BOUT four o'clock, on the morning of June 7th, 1863, 
aji^I? McCulloch's Brigade, after a tedious night's march, 
^SJa had arrived within a mile of Milliken's Bend, on the 
Mississippi River, for the purpose of attacking the enemy, 
who w r ere encamped in heavy force at this place. Milliken's 
Bend is a level plateau, free from timber and traversed by 
several roads. It was well capable of defense, for the levee 
protected the front, while burdock hedges extended all around 
it, making it, as it were, a naturally-fortified place. 

Owing to the position and circumstances, it was reasonable 
to suppose that the enemy would have artillery placed in 
position to sweep the roads leading to their fortifications. — 
They relied on their gun-boats principally, to protect them 
from any flank movement. Their infantry pickets extended 
about half a mile from the main levee, and were concealed be- 
hind the hedges. Our cavalry scouts, belonging to Colonel Har- 
rison's Louisiana Regiment, had advanced to within half a mile 
of the levee, when they were fired upon. The effect of so sud- 
den and terrible a fire, from an invisible foe, was very startling 
and disheartening. No wonder the simple-minded cavalry 
scouts were broken, and that many of them hurried to the rear, 
in utter confusion, with and without muskets, hats, or coats ! 


As they rushed headlong from under fire, down the road, 
our men were led to suppose it was the enemy ; consequently 
they were fired upon by our infantry pickets, and it was not 
until two of their horses were killed that we discovered the 
mistake ; fortunately, none of the men got hurt. 

General McCulloch, having to rely on his infantry pickets 
after the cavalry abandoned him, brought forward his heavy 
lines of skirmishers, who were met with a galling fire of 
musketry. The enemy's skirmishers soon fell back. 

" McCulloch's Brigade, advance ! " is heard in a bold, distinct 
voice above the roar and clamor of battle. " Forward, double- 
quick, guide center ! " and onward the gallant heroes dash 
into the face of the most invulnerable point of the enemy's 

They are greeted by a murderous fire of minie balls. 
Gaps are opened in the ranks, but they close again and move 
still onward ; thus fighting from hedge to hedge, and ditch to 
ditch, to the main levee, where the enemy took position. It 
was impossible for our troops to keep in line of battle, owing 
to the many hedges we had to encounter, which it was impos- 
sible to pass, except through a few gaps that had been used 
as gates or passways ; so we had to get out the best way 
we could. The 16th Dismounted Cavalry, under command 
of Colonel Gregg, the 17th Infantry, under command of Colonel 
Allen, and the 19th Infantry, commanded by Colonel "Water- 
house, took position on the left of the road, while the 16th 
Infantry, under command of Colonel Flournoy, took their 
position on the right of the road. 

With the first streak of daylight visible through the light 
mist that ascended from the river, the battle became general. 
The enemy opened a terrible fire of musketry. After firing a 
volley at the enemy, we were ordered to charge them with the 
bayonet. Without stopping to reload, the troops on the left 
of the road rushed upon the enemy. The enemy gave away 
and stampeded pell-mell over the levee, in great terror and 
confusion. Our troops followed after them, bayoneting them 
by hundreds. After the enemy got behind their breastworks, 


composed of cotton-bales, they made a stubborn fight. "When 
our troops got into close quarters with them (the troops 
of the enemy were composed principally of negroes), bayonets 
were crossed, and muskets clubbed, and the struggle indeed 
became a close and deadly one. 

The enemy repeatedly attempted to hold their position 
behind their cotton-bales, but were met each time by the 
ringing cheer and charge of the gallant Texans ; so much so, 
that their heroic commander, General McCulloch, exclaim- 
ed, " Bravo, bravo ! " in ecstasy of admiration and delight. 
Nothing could sucessfully resist the fighting of our troops. 
Our officers and men did all that men could do ; they fought 
like so many tigers over their prey. When our troops gained 
the bloody field, they could see how desperately they had 
fought for its possession. 

Dead bodies were found lying in every direction. Let us 
take a look along the shattered ranks. An awful sight ! See 
that number of brave fellows now stretched in their gore, who, 
but an hour ago, were the personification of life, strength, and 
manliness ; who had marched up with stout hearts to the 
fray — a march only from earth to eternity. They will never 
march again ! Our gallant troops were led by such men as the 
gallant and brave Colonel Dick "Waterhouse, ably assisted by 
his mild and heroic Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor ; the tacti- 
cian, Colonel R. T. P. Allen, assisted by his indefatigable 
Lieutenant-Colonel Wash. Jones ; so, too, the bloody 16th 
Dismounted Cavalry, still without their veteran Colonel Fitz- 
hugh, but in good hands when led by the chivalric Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gregg, aided and assisted by the intrepid Major 

As I previously announced, the 16th Infantry was on 
the right of the road when the charge over the levee was 
undertaken. The commander of the 16th Infantry, the brave 
statesman Colonel George Flournoy, was entirely ignorant of 
the plan of attack ; consequently, under the circumstances, 
he had to rely on his own judgment — ordering his men to 
cut their way through the burdock hedge in their front. Once 


through the hedge, he gave the command to fix bayonets ; in 
the meantime he gave instructions to his officers, that as 
soon as the regiment had crossed the levee, the regiment 
should move, by the right flank, towards the enemy's quarters. 
After giving the command "Double-quick!" in a loud and 
sonorous voice, the regiment commenced to advance towards 
the levee, and, apparently, the greatest vivacity and enthusi- 
asm prevailed among his men. Already a rattling fire on the 
right plainly announced that the work of destruction had 
commenced ; but, alas! as the 16th Infantry was on the eve of 
climbing the levee, General McCulloch's adjutant arrived 
with orders, from General McCulloch to Colonel Flouruoy, 
to double-quick his regiment to the left of the brigade, to 
prevent the enemy from flanking his left wing. The calm 
and cool perception of Colonel Flournoy in undertaking to 
attack the enemy on then* flank instead of their front, showed 
a great deal of skill and wisdom. An attack made on 
either the right or left flank of the enemy's works, could 
have easily been accomplished, without any serious loss 
to our troops, while an attack coming from any other 
source was hazardous and dangerous to the attacking 
party, owing to the fact that the enemy had their cotton- 
bale breastworks to cover them. Colonel Flournoy directed 
the adjutant to tell General McCulloch that his regiment 
would be able to capture the enemy's camp if he would allow 
him. The adjutant informed him that his orders were im- 
perative, and must be obeyed. Colonel Flournoy immediately 
ordered his regiment to double-quick to the left of the 
brigade. Away they go, pell-mell, along the foot of the 
levee, led by their colonel, erect and precise in his saddle, 
towering above his men, calm as a summer morn. It was 
cheering and inspiring indeed to observe his men, calm and 
with such determined air, and the unbounded confidence 
with which they followed him. The strong voice of his 
lieutenant-colonel, Shepard, the Ney of the division, conspicu- 
ous on his iron-gray charger, is heard urging his men forward 
with a velocipede speed. As he passes by the various regi- 


ments of the brigade, with sword in hand, cheer after cheer 
greets him. As a token of gratitude towards them, he uncov- 
ers his head, showing his gray hair, and announcing to them 
the fact that it wasn't a safe place to make them a speech ; he 
would do so after the battle was over. Here I will state, 
that of all the field officers of Walker's Division none was 
more highly respected by the troops of the division, than 
Lieutenant-Colonel James E. Shepard. The 16th Regiment 
having arrived at the position assigned to them, and with 
celerity formed in line of battle, to await further orders, 
General McCulloch shortly afterwards came along, and 
ordered a detail from each company of the regiment to act 
as sharpshooters, and to take their position near the top of 
the levee, to harass and annoy the enemy as much as possi- 
ble. In the mean time, Colonel Flournoy, hearing some firing 
in his rear, ordered a company to ascertain where the firing 
came from. The company sent out by him soon returned 
with six prisoners that were lying in ambush. 

General McCulloch, while riding along the line, was fired 
upon by a stray Yankee, who had evidently been cut off from 
his command. Carrying always a carbine when in action, he 
returned the fire, and killed the Yankee, proving to be a better 
marksman than his opponent. 

During the firing across the levee by our sharpshooters 
an incident occurred worthy of notice, which I will relate : 
A musician, belonging to the band of the 16th Infantry, who 
was detailed to aid and assist the infirmary corps, was sent to 
a house in rear of the command for the purpose of getting 
some water for the wounded. Arriving at the house, he found 
himself in the middle of a company of Uncle Sam's colored 
pets, commanded by an Anglo-Saxon Yankee, who immedi- 
ately made him a prisoner. The Yankee captain inquired the 
position of our troops, and was informed by the musician, who 
gave the location in quite a different direction from where our 
troops were. The captain then replied, that he could easily 
get through to his lines. The musician remarked to him that 
he would pilot him past our lines. The captain allowed 


liim the privilege, and, as a matter of course, the musician led 
him and his company into our lines, where they were all taken 
prisoners, without the firing of a gun. 

About 7 o'clock, A. M., three of the enemy's gun-boats 
arrived at the scene of action, and commenced shelling our 
troops. These brilliant and substantial exploits of hero- 
ism of our troops were witnessed by the commander of 
the division, who, from the beginning of the battle, had occu- 
pied a position on an eminence in the rear of the line of bat- 
tle. His cool sagacity comprehended every movement of the 
troops and its consequences, and, with infinite self-possession, 
amidst a continued shower of shot and shell, seeing that 
further sacrifice on the part of his troops was useless, about 
ten o'clock, A. M., he rode up in person to General McCulloch, 
and ordered him to withdraw his brigade from the scene of 
action, on account of his hearing that several transports, 
loaded with troops, had passed Lake Providence, on their 
way to reinforce Milliken's Bend. On the arrival of McCul- 
loch's Brigade at the position taken by Randall's Brigade, they 
were heartily cheered by their comrades. The gun-boats con- 
tinued shelling our troops until they were out of range of then- 

Our loss in this engagement was 44 killed, 130 wounded, and 
and 10 missing. Total casualties, 184; including 2 officers 
killed, and 10 wounded. 

The loss of the enemy numbered about 800, including the 
number of negroes that were drowned in the Mississippi River, 
in undertaking to swim to a transport that was lying at the 
opposite bank of the river. 

General McCulloch's Brigade did not exceed 1,500 men 
when they went into action. The enemy had twice, if not 
three times that number, backed by three gunboats. In jus- 
tice to General McCulloch, I will state that the battle was 
made in obedience to orders received from Major-General 
Taylor, commanding the District of Louisiana. His orders 
were imperative to General McCulloch to attack the enemy's 
works, and carry them at the point of the bayonet. 


General Taylor was led to believe that the force of the 
enemy consisted only of one battalion of cavalry, and one 
brigade of negro troops, without artillery or gun-boats. From 
information received after the battle, we learned that the 
enemy were fully apprised of our intended attack, and had 
made full preparation to give us a warm reception, having 
received a reinforcement of several transports, loaded with 
troops, the night previous. 

General McCulloch was entirely misinformed of the enemy's 
number and position, as his guide had deserted him when the 
enemy's skirmishers had opened fire upon him, Conse- 
quently, he had to rely on his own skill and ingenuity in ascer- 
taining the nature of the ground over which his troops had 
to advance. Instead of finding, as was represented to him, 
an open field, without any obstruction, the ground we advanced 
over was exceedingly rough and broken, covered entirely with 
running briers and vines. It was also cut up with ditches, 
and obstructed with burdock hedges. In fact, so strong was 
the enemy's position, that General McCulloch acknowledged 
to several of his officers, after the battle was over, that noth- 
ing but the bravest and best of fighting, under the providence 
of God, could have given victory. 

In General McCulloch's official report of the battle, he 
sincerely mourns the loss of his brave men, by remarking 
that it is truly deplorable, and his heart sickens at the con- 
templation of the battle, as well as at the scathing ordeal 
through which his brigade had to pass ; but, nevertheless, his 
confidence in and love for his brave men are by no means 
shaken. He hoped at some future time his brigade might meet 
the enemy in an open field, where they would have a fair chance, 
so as to gain a complete victory to compensate them for the gal- 
lant fighting they had done, and would do again, when called 
upon to meet the fire of the enemy. 

McCulloch's Brigade, in company with Randall's, rested 
about half an hour after they were safe from the fire of the 
enemy. After refreshing somewhat, they took up the line of 
march back again to Richmond. About fifteen minutes' march- 


ing brought them to the hospital, located in some negro cabins 
designated as a hospital by having a yellow flag on top of the 
various cabins. 

If one wishes to view the havoc of war, next to the battle- 
field this is the place to witness it ; so fearful, so horrible are 
the scenes, that, long after you leave the place, perhaps haunt- 
ing you to the verge of life, the screams of the wounded, the 
groans of the dying will ring in your ears, or some form, cold 
and stiff in death's icy embrace, be present to your mental 

But this is no time for these feelings ; such is the fortune of 
war. It is consoling to see how some of the men bear up under 
their misfortunes, and endure the agony of dreadful wounds ; 
many of them are smiling and happy, as if returning from a 
pleasure-party. " Well, they have popped me this time," ex- 
claimed one poor fellow, with a ball through his face ; " but I will 
be at them again." " Hallo, Bill," shouted, in a faint voice, a 
half -grown boy from an ambulance, to a friend on foot, who 
was holding up his shattered arm ; " they have broken my 
thigh, but it is in a glorious cause." Many with slight wounds 
are hurrying up the surgeons to have them dressed, so that they 
may accompany the brigade on its march. 

One more picture, and the tableau is complete — the burial 
of the dead. During the battle, trenches fifty feet long and 
three feet wide were dug, to receive the bodies of the brave 
men and officers. It was seldom a coffin could be procured, 
and the brave defender of his country had to be wrapped in 
his blanket, and, in his soiled and battle-stained garments, he 
was placed hastily in the trench, and left to rest in peace. 

" No useless coffin inclosed his breast, 
Nor in sheet nor in shroud we wound him ; 
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest, 
With his tattered blanket around him." 

After passing the hospital, we continued our march towards 
our old camp, near Richmond. We arrived in camp about sun- 
set. As many of the troops were preparing to eat supper, we 


received orders to form in line of battle. Immediately orders are 
issued to take up the line of march back again the way we came. 
Various rumors are afloat that Haws' Brigade was surrounded 
by the enemy, with no possible chance of escape without assist- 
ance from the balance of the division. Hearing no more from 
Haws' Brigade since they parted with us at the forks of the 
road, the night previous, the rumor was generally believed 
that it was in a critical position. Continuing our march 
about two miles from camp, we heard the glad tidings that 
Haws' Brigade was all right, and was within a mile of us. 
The news proved true, and the balance of the division was 
ordered back again to their old camp-ground. Haws' Brig- 
ade arrived shortly afterwards, with quite a number of prison- 
ers they had captured at Young's Point. How the report 
about their being surrounded originated I am unable to say. 
At dress-parade, in the evening, the following official report 
from General McCulloch was read to his brigade : 

General Order No. 1. 

On Saturday, we again met the enemy in force at Milliken's 
Bend, on the bank of the Mississippi River, under the protec- 
tion of his gun-boats. Their pickets and skirmishers and out- 
posts were steadily driven from ditch to ditch, and hedge to 
hedge, until they fell behind their breastworks, at which they 
made a stubborn and desperate stand, but which were carried 
by our troops with a charge not excelled since the Avar com- 
menced. In this charge the regiments of Colonels Waterhouse, 
Allen, and Fitzhugh were the participants, until Colonel Flour- 
noy's Regiment arrived, and assisted in driving the enemy from 
his barricade, in an angle of his works, on our left, — Colonel 
Waterhouse, with his regiment, gallantly charging over the 
levee, and entirely through the enemy's camp, to the water's 

Too much credit cannot be awarded to our gallant officers and 
men for the courage and gallantry displayed on this battle-field. 
Our loss of 184, in killed, wounded, and missing, shows but too 
plainly how firm was the resistance of the foe, while the hun- 


dreds which they left dead behind their breastworks and 
strewn over the field, attest, with equal clearness, how desper- 
ately and efficiently our troops fought. We met the enemy 
at fearful odds, and, with well-directed fire, bayonets, and 
clubbed guns, drove him from his stronghold, through his 
camp, and under the bank of the river and the protection of 
his gun -boats. 

During this day's battle, all did their duty to such an ex- 
tent, and so many commendable acts of gallantry were per- 
formed, that it is impossible to specify them here. The com- 
manding general returns his grateful thanks to the officers and 
soldiers of his command for the gallantry with which they 
sustained our glorious cause upon this desperately-fought 
field, and he feels that a grateful country will award to them 
all he would ask. He assures them that, while his heart 
bleeds over the recollection of the dead and wounded of his 
command, the noble conduct of all increases his love for them, 
and confidence in those that are still left with him to defend 
our country and our cause. 

(Signed,) General Henry E. McCulloch. 


Major E. Surget, Asst. Adjt.- General : 

Sir, — I have the honor to forward herewith the report of 

Brigadier-Generals Henry E. McCulloch and J. M. Haws, of 

the operations of their brigades in this vicinity. In regard to 

the former, nothing could have been more admirable than the 

gallantry displayed by officers and men ; and the failure of 

complete success was principally owing to the want of local 

knowledge and the incompetency of the guides, the great 

strength of the position, and the extreme difficulty of carrying 

it by a coup de main. 


As soon as the enemy's pickets were encountered, it seems 
General McCulloch formed his brigade in line of battle, and ad- 


vanced upon the enemy, who were posted behind the hedges, 
so as to fire through the openings. Upon reaching the hedges, 
it was found entirely impracticable to pass them^except 
through the few openings left for convenience by the planter. 
In advancing through the gaps, the line of battle was neces- 
sarily broken, and the frequency with which this became 
necessary before reaching the levee behind which the enemy, 
in superior force, was found posted, exposed the brigade to a 
galling fire, while broken into columns in order to pass through 
the openings in the hedges. Owing to these frequent inter- 
ruptions the brigade was unable to advance in the order of 
battle. The brigade reached the open space between the last 
hedge and the first levee, about twenty-five paces in width, in 
some confusion, and the ensemble of the movement upon the 
enemy's position was thus necessarily lost, the different regi- 
ments of the brigade having reached the open space at differ- 
ent periods. Notwithstanding the galling and destructive 
fire of the enemy, the regiments of Allen, Fitzhugh, and 
Waterhouse, were formed and led against the enemy, driving 
them from their hiding-place. The enemy was securely posted 
behind -the first levee, awaiting our advance. Notwithstand- 
ing the disadvantages our troops labored under, Ave drove 
them from its covers, and followed them across the open 
space between the two levees, using the bayonet freely. At 
the second levee, however, our men encountered the main force 
of the enemy, entirely covered from our fire, and, after a gal- 
lant effort to carry the position, were compelled to fall back 
behind the first levee. We continued to hold until the wounded 
were sent to the rear, and the men, exhausted by the excessive 
heat of the day and want of water, were withdrawn in good 
order by General McCulloch. Randall's Brigade, which by 
General Taylor's orders w r as held in reserve, six miles from the 
field, was hastened forward upon General McCulloch's request 
for reinforcements, but did not reach the scene of action until 
General McCulloch, having several times failed to carry the 
second levee, had drawn off his brigade. In the meantime, the 
enemy's gun-boats, four in number, had taken position so as to 


rake the open space between the second levee and the river 
with grape and canister ; and had our men succeeded in gain- 
ing the open space, the enemy, by retiring to the water's edge, 
would have given their gun-boats complete command of the 
position. Under such circumstances it would have been folly 
to have persisted in the attack, which could only have resulted 
in a fearful sacrifice of life ; and after making a personal recon- 
noissance as far as practicable, and otherwise gaining the best 
information possible, I determined not to order another assault ; 
but having sent off the wounded and rested the troops for sev- 
eral hours near the battle-field, in the cool of the evening, 
I determined to withdraw the two brigades, sending McCul- 
loch's back to this place, and taking post with Randall's, four 
miles in advance, to cover the road along which General 
Haws' Brigade would return from Young's Point. 

In regard to the operations of the brigade of the last- 
named officer, I have only to remark that my orders to him 
were peremptory, to attack the enemy at Young's Point. Our 
information of the strength and position of the enemy at 
that place was so recent, and was thought to be so entirely 
reliable, that I did not think it necessary to attach any con- 
ditions to this order. The failure to carry out my instructions 
can only be defended by the existence of circumstances 
entirely at variance with those supposed to exist, and upon 
which the order was based. The loss of several precious 
hours in finding a bridge, which would have brought on the 
attack in the heat of an excessively hot day ; the exhausted 
condition of the men who would have gone into action under 
a burning sun, after an almost continuous march of nearly 
thirty miles ; the strong position of the enemy, defended by 
three gun-boats, are the reasons assigned by General Haws 
for assuming the responsibility of not attacking the enemy's 
position. From what I know of Brigadier- General Haws, I 
am satisfied that the conviction must have been overpowering 
that the attack would fail, after a useless sacrifice of fife, or he 
would not have taken the responsibility he did. 

In conclusion, it must be remembered that the enemy, be- 


hind a Mississippi levee, protected on the flanks by gun-boats, 
is as securely posted as it is possible to be, outside of a regu- 
lar fortification. 

(Signed,) J. G. Walker, Major-General. 


To Brigadier-Gen'l Thomas, Adjutant- General of the Army : 

General— I have the honor to report that,, in accordance 
with instructions received from me, Colonel Leib, commanding 
Ninth Louisiana A. D., made a reconnoissance in the direc- 
tion of Richmond, on June 6th, starting from Milliken's Bend 
at 2 o'clock, A. M. 

He was preceded by two companies of the Tenth Illinois 
Cavalry, commanded by Captain Anderson, whom he overtook 
three inures from the Bend. 

It was agreed between them that the captain should take 
the left side of "Walnut Bayou, and pursue it as far as Mrs. 
Ames' plantation, while Colonel Leib proceeded along the 
main Richmond road to the railroad depot, three miles from 
Richmond, where he encountered the enemy's pickets and 
advance, which he drove in with but little opposition, but, 
anticipating the enemy in strong force, retired slowly toward 
the Bend. 

When about half-way back, a squad of our cavalry came 
dashing up in his rear, hotly pursued by the enemy. Colonel 
Leib immediately formed his regiment across an open field, 
and with one volley dispersed the approaching enem}\ Ex- 
pecting the enemy would contest the passage of the bridge 
over Walnut Bayou, Colonel Leib fell back over the bridge, 
and front thence to Milliken's Bend, from whence he sent a 
messenger, informing me of the success of the expedition, 
and reported the enemy to be advancing. 

I immediately started the Twenty-third Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry to their assistance, and Admiral Porter ordered the 
gun-boat Choctaw to that point. At three o'clock, the fol- 


lowing morning, the enemy made their appearance in strong 
force on the main Richmond road, driving the pickets before 
them. The enemy advanced on the left of our hne, throwing 
out no skirmishers, marching in close column by division, 
with a strong cavalry force on his right flank. 

Our forces, consisting of the Twenty-third Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry and the African Brigade — in all, 1,061 men — opened 
upon the enemy when within musket-shot range, which made 
them waver and recoil, a number running in confusion to the 
rear. The balance, pushing on with intrepidity, soon reached 
the levee, when they were ordered to charge, with the cries of 
"No quarter!" 

The African regiments being inexperienced in the use of 
arms, some of them having been drilled but a few days, and 
the guns being very inferior, the enemy succeeded in getting 
upon our works before more than one or two volleys were 
fired at them. Here ensued a most terrible hand-to-hand con- 
flict of several minutes' duration, our men using the baj'onet 
freely, and clubbing their guns with fierce obstinacy, contest- 
ing every inch of ground, until the enemy succeeded in flank- 
ing them, and poured a murderous enfilading fire along our 
lines, directing their fire chiefly to the officers, who fell in 
great numbers. 

Not till they were overpowered and forced by superior 
numbers, did our men fall back behind the bank of the river, 
at the same time pouring volley after volley into the ranks of 
the advancing enemy. The gun-boat now moved into posi- 
tion, and fired a broadside into the enemy, who immediately 
disappeared behind the levee, but all the time keeping up a 
fire upon our men. The enemy at this time appeared to be 
extending his line to the extreme right, but was held in check 
by two companies of the Eleventh Louisiana Infantry A. D., 
which had been posted behind cotton-bales, and part of the 
old levee. In this position the fight continued until near 
noon, when the enemy suddenly withdrew. 

Our men, seeing this movement, advanced upon the retreat- 
ing column, firing volley after volley at them while they 


remained within gun-shot. The gun-boat Lexington then 
paid her compliments to the flying foe, in several well-direct- 
ed shots, scattering them in all directions. I here desire to 
express my thanks to the officers and men of the gun-boats 
Choctaw and Lexington, for their efficient services in time of 
need. Their services will be long remembered by the officers 
and men of the African Brigade, for their valuable assistance 
on that dark and bloody field. The officers and men deserve 
the highest praise for their gallant conduct. The enemy con- 
sisted of one brigade, numbering about twenty-five hundred, 
in command of General McCulloch, and two hundred cavalry. 
The enemy's loss is estimated at 150 killed, and 300 wounded. 
It is impossible to get at anything near the loss of the enemy, 
as they carried killed and wounded off in ambulances. 
Among their killed is Colonel Allen of Texas.* Our loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, amounts to 652. 

Submitting the foregoing, I remain yours respectfully, 

(Signed,) Ellis S. Dennis, 

Brigadier-General Commanding. 

* Now teaching military school in Kentucky. 




FTER the battle of Milliken's Bend, we remained en- 

camped near Richmond until the morning of the 
15th (in the mean time our wounded and sick men 
were sent to Monroe). When our pickets were driven in by 
the enemy, General "Walker immediately formed the division 
in line of battle ; at the same time he ordered the 18th In- 
fantry, under command of Colonel Culbertson, to take position 
at the upper crossing, about a mile north of Richmond, with 
instructions to hold the crossing at all hazards until he could 
get his wagon-train out of the way. Captain Edgar, having 
charged his guns with grape and canister, ordered six rounds 
of ammunition to be placed alongside of each gun. This 
having been accomplished, he ordered his men to conceal 
themselves as much as possible until he ordered them into 

Presently, the enemy emerges out of the woods, and ad- 
vances in martial array, their banners floating- on the breeze, 
as if they were on parade. Colonel Culbertson passes along 
the line, speaking words of cheer to his men, telling them 
that the safety of the entire division was intrusted to them, and 
ordering their bayonets to be fixed. They stood like a stone 
wall, awaiting the approach of the enemy. On they came, 
like a huge avalanche pouring across the valley. It seemed 
to be a race with them, which of their regiments should be 
the most successful in capturing the rebel battery. Closer 
they came, until they got within about one hundred and fifty 


yards, when Captain Edgar ordered his men to be up and at 
them. Eight manfully did his men go into action, handling 
their guns with alacrity and cheerfulness, throwing grape and 
canister amongst them, and slaying them by hundreds. The 
ground was covered with their dead and wounded. Captain 
Edgar's men were playing havoc amongst them. The 18th 
Texas Infantry, commanded by the brave and fearless Colonel 
Culbertson, crossed the bayou and charged the enemy at the 
point of the bayonet, driving them pell-mell into the timber. 
They were panic-stricken, as they never stopped to resist the 
charge of the brave 500. Although their numbers exceeded 
18,000, under command of one of their ablest generals, Gen- 
eral Davis, they anticipated that they were ambushed. Get- 
ting into the timber, they finally rallied. In the mean time 
Colonel Culbertson withdrew his regiment across the bayou 
again, and rejoined the balance of the division. This charge 
made by the 18th Infantry will compare favorably with any 
regimental charge that has ever been recorded. Too much 
praise cannot be awarded to Colonel Culbertson and Captain 
Edgar and their men for their gallantry and cool presence of 
mind on this occasion. The division fell back to Bayou 
Macon on the arrival of Colonel Culbertson's Regiment and 
Captain Edgar's Battery. 

General "Walker anticipated that the enemy would follow 
him up as soon as they got over their fright. Once across 
Bayou Macon, General Walker contemplated giving battle. 
As was expected, the enemy's cavalry followed us up to Bayou 
Macon. Our rear-guard skirmished with them from Bound- 
away Bayou up to within a few hundred yards of the crossing 
of the bayou. 

One of their officers, more persevering or braver than the 
balance of them, advanced ahead of their main column. He 
came in contact with one of our soldiers who was tired and 
unable to keep up with the main body of our troops. He 
was ordered by the officer to surrender, whereupon he or- 
dered the officer to surrender to him. Neither would sur- 
render to the other ; consequently they commenced firing at 


each other. The private soldier proved to be the best shot, 
as he killed the officer. He took possession of the officer's 
horse and accouterrnents, and continued his march to camp. 
He arrived in camp in due time, and was highly compliment- 
ed by his officers for his bravery. After crossing Bayou 
Macon we camped for the night, having marched ten miles. 

During the greatest portion of the night we remained under 
arms and in line of battle. It was generally believed among 
the troops, that the enemy would attempt to cross the bayou 
during the night. 

On the morning of the 16th we learned, much to our sur- 
prise, that the enemy had fallen back towards Milliken's 
Bend. "We took up the line of march for the town of Delhi. 
"While on the march we met General Tappan's Brigade of 
Arkansians, on a forced march, coming to our " rescue." They 
informed us that they heard a great many of " Walker's Grey- 
hounds " had been captured by the enemy. After assuring 
them that the greyhounds were too quick for the enemy, they 
became reconciled. After marching twelve miles we camped 
for the night. 

On the 17th the march was resumed. After marching 
seven miles we encamped near a spring of fine water, north- 
east of the town of Delhi, the terminus of the railroad built 
froin the town of Monroe. We remained at this camp until 
the morning of the 22d. 




j Mj^fjf N the morning of the 22d, the march was resumed in 

■^|=^ the direction of Goodrich's Landing, on the Missis- 

§>$&\ .sippi River, where the enemy was supposed to be 

intrenched. After marching twelve miles, we camped near 

the village of Monticello, on Bayou Macon. 

May 23d. Marched ten miles. Our march to-day lay 
through a pleasant valley, bordered on each side by the green 
forest trees. We passed by once-pleasant homesteads, already 
desolated by war ; green fields, and orchards in full bloom, 
despite the desolation and ruin around them. After cross- 
ing the Tensas River, we camped on its banks until the morn- 
ing of the 26th, when we took up the line of march back the 
way we came ; marched fourteen miles and camped. 

May 27th. Marched eight miles up Bayou Macon, and 

May 28th. Early this morning we resumed our march ; 
left Bayou Macon and marched back again four miles in the 
direction of Goodrich's Landing, between Milliken's Bend 
and Lake Providence, on the Mississippi River. While on 
the march, we met Colonel Parsons' Brigade of Cavalry, com- 
ing from the direction of Gains' Landing. As they passed 
by us, I could not but admire their horsemanship ; they all 
appeared to be excellent horsemen, and at a distance their 
general appearance was decidedly showy and gallant. Their 
uniform contained as many colors as the rainbow ; their arms 
consisted mostly of Enfield rifles, slung to their saddles, while 


around the waist of each was buckled a heavy cavahy sword, 
which clattered at every movement of their horses. A pair 
of holster pistols attached to the pommels of their saddles 
completed their equipment. 

A short distance from Goodrich's Landing, the cavalry 
came across a fort, built on an Indian mound — one of the 
" high places," where aborigines worshiped or made mauso- 
leums for their dead. It towers above the roofs of houses, 
and looks down upon the negro cabins like a mountain in the 
dead level of the surrounding marsh and swamp. Traditions 
claim that this section of the country has been the hunting- 
ground of the Choctaws, an old confederacy of red tribes, 
who once possessed the lower Mississippi lands, beginning 
with the "Houmas," near the coast, and numbering many 
clans, whose very names are now forgotten. These clans or 
tribes built their forts from Bayou Boeuf to the Arkansas 
Biver, ranging across the Teche and Atchafalaya Bayous, 
and through all the beautiful Attakapas country. They 
waged a fierce and determined war against the French for 
nearly a century, before their remnants, broken and disheart- 
ened, migrated to the wilderness far beyond the Mississippi, 
and were ultimately lost amidst the predatory hordes which 
roved around the bases of the Sierra Madre. 

This fort or mound, near Goodrich's Landing, was gar- 
risoned by negro troops for the purpose of raiding and de- 
stroying everything that could assist any of our troops. They 
devoted their time, headed by their officers (white men), in 
burning private residences, corn-cribs, cotton, etc. 

On the arrival of the cavalry at the fort, they waited some 
time for General Randall's Brigade. As soon as they arrived, 
both forces surrounded the fort, and demanded the surrender 
of the same. The enemy at first refused to surrender, but 
seeing the position of our troops, ready to carry the place at 
the point of the bayonet, they finally surrendered to our 
forces, conditionally. The garrison consisted of 1,200 negro 
troops and twelve white officers. After the surrender, we 
remained encamped near the fort until the morning of the 


30th, when we took up the line of march back again to our 
old canrping-ground at Delhi. After marching twenty miles 
we camped on Bayou Macon for the night. 

May 31st. Marched four miles, and arrived at our old camp- 

"While we remained encamped in the Mississippi bottoms, 
Falstaff's ragged regiment was well uniformed in comparison 
with our troops. No two were costumed with any attempt at 
uniformity, and each individual stood forth a decided char- 
acter. But few of the troops had shaved for weeks, and, as a 
consequence, there was a large and general assortment of 
unbrushed black, gray, red, and sandy beards, as well as fero- 
cious mustaches and whiskers — enough to rig out an army of 
West India buccaneers. A more brigandish set of Anglo- 
Saxon forces has never been collected. Then as to costume, 
it is utterly impossible to paint the variety our division pre- 
sented. Here would be a fellow dressed in homespun pants, 
with the knees out of them ; on his head might be stuck the 
remnant of a straw hat, while a faded Texas penitentiary 
cloth jacket would perhaps complete his outfit. His neighbor, 
very likely, was arrayed in breeches made out of some cast- 
off blanket, with a dyed shirt as black as the ace of spades, 
and no hat at all. Then would come a man with a woolen 
hat made like a pyramid, sitting jauntily upon his head, while, 
to introduce his style of hat, he had it covered over with 
assorted buttons ; and, to top the climax, had a red tassel 
sewed on top. Notwithstanding his gaudy hat, a part of a 
shirt, and occasional fragments only of what had once been 
a pair of military pantaloons, made up the rest of his attire. 
But, singular as it may seem, there could hardly be found a 
merrier, I might be going too far in saying a happier, set of 
men in Christendom. Our very looks bred good humor ; for 
there was something irresistibly ludicrous in the appearance 
of each man — a quaint solemnity and droll gravity of coun- 
tenance, which would elicit some facetious and good-natured 
remark from his neighbor. The comic and eccentric were 
strangely mingled with the tragic and melodramatic ; but 


the former predominated to a degree that completely stifled 
any pathetic feelings which might otherwise have arisen, and 
induced us to laugh rather than cry at the forlorn but fan- 
tastic figure each one presented in the moving panorama. 

So completely disguised were we all, that I doubt whether 
our anxious mothers would have recognized us; and even 
could they, by some well-remembered mark, have detected 
an errant son, methinks they would have been slow to ac- 
knowledge one who had wandered so far from their hearth- 
stone as to have lost their veiy identity. 

We remained at our camp at Delhi, awaiting the long-looked- 
for " Fourth of July," which, according to the enemy's report, 
was to decide the fate of Vicksburg. Bets of Confederate money 
were freely exchanged amongst the troops, regarding the fate 
of the doomed city. On the night of the 3d of July, pretty 
much all the members of our division, for curiosity's sake, 
remained awake all night to listen to the cannonading, which 
could be distinctly heard from our camp. As the hours flew 
by, the sentries on post would cry out, "11 o'clock, and Vicks- 
burg all right !" and so on, during the hours of the night. 
Morning at last dawned, and still the cannonading continued, 
up till the hour of 7 o'clock, when we heard the report of 
about a dozen shots in rapid succession. A gloom of sad- 
ness appeared to have come over the troops. Some of the 
men accounted for the rapid firing by remarking, that the 
Yankees were celebrating the " Fourth of July " in the old 
style of by -gone days, but the general belief among the troops 
was, that Vicksburg was in possession of the enemy ; which 
proved, alas ! too true. It was not until the morning of the 
7th that we knew, for certain, the fate of Vicksburg. Our 
first information (outside of the Yankee sources) was from a 
parolled officer that had just arrived at Delhi. Even then it 
was not credited by General Walker, as he immediately had 
the officer arrested and put under guard, until he was recog- 
nized by some of the leading citizens of Delhi, when he was 
released from custody. 

As soon as it became known for certain, in camp, that Vicks- 


burg had surrendered, a perfect stonn of indignation burst 
forth among the troops. What ! surrender, and that too on 
the 4th of July, above all other days ? Impossible. The men 
broke forth in bitter denunciation of Lieutenant-General Pem- 
berton, boldly proclaiming that he had sold it to the enemy. 
Surrender on the 4th of July ! Why should that day, of all 
others, be chosen for our humiliation ? The Southern soldier 
preferred dying — a thousand times preferable — to making the 
National anniversary a thrice memorable natal day, and give 
to the United States a new impulse for prosecuting the war. 
Would it not be received as a good omen, and infuse a new 
spirit into the efforts of the foe for our subjugation ? Such 
were some of the fierce denunciations used, whether justly 
or not, the world has never discovered. Yet it seems scarcely 
possible, or probable, that General Pemberton could have 
been actuated by such perfidious motives. 

But the question is asked by the author of this work, -How 
did the prisoners that were captured at Milliken's Bend and 
Young's Point, nearly a month previous to the fall of Vicks- 
burg, know about the circumstances ? Kind reader, bear with 
me a little further, and I will endeavor to substantiate jDroof 
that the surrender of Vicksburg was a premeditated affair 
between the Federal and Confederate commanders. 

The writer of this book had occasion to pay a visit to 
Colonel Gregg of the 16th Dismounted Cavalry, who was 
seriously wounded at Milliken's Bend, and then lying in hos- 
pital at Richmond. On the gallery of the hospital was seated 
Lieutenant-Colonel Baxter, of the 28th Dismounted Cavalry, 
and a Yankee officer (belonging, I believe, to the 2d Illinois 
Cavalry), in conversation about the war. I was cordially in- 
vited to take a seat. During the conversation, the Yankee 
officer (who was captured at Milliken's Bend) informed 
Colonel Baxter that General Pemberton would certainly sur- 
render Vicksburg on the morning of the 4th of July. If it 
did not prove true, he, the Yankee officer, was willing to wear 
a ball and chain during the war. On the contrary, if his 
remarks proved true, he wanted Colonel Baxter to use his 


influence in setting him at liberty. Ponder, gentle reader, on 
those remarks, and what is your verdict ? Then, again, take 
the surrender of Vicksburg in general, and the causes attached 
to it. "Was not General Pemberton guilty of gross neglect of 
duty in two ways ? 1st. In not fortifying Vicksburg so as to 
resist an attack from the rear with the least possible loss of 
life. 2d. In not procuring supplies for the garrison sufficient 
to make a protracted defense in case of a siege. This is the 
great and chief cause of complaint. Immense quantities of 
supplies could have been got in the Yazoo Valley ; yet no 
efforts were made to obtain these supplies, or to transport 
them to Vicksburg, although it was known that General Grant 
was making strenuous exertions to cross the Mississippi Biver 
and attack Vicksburg from the rear, and might succeed at 
any moment. Again, the large quantities of supplies which 
accumulated at Snyder's Mills were allowed to remain there, 
and were eventually destroyed. These are indisputable facts, 
and are placed on record as necessary to the completeness of 
the history concerning the siege and fall of Vicksburg. 

On the morning of the 7th, we took up the line of march, up 
Bayou Macon again, to Monticello, for what purpose I am un- 
able to say, unless it was to quiet the excitement in camp 
about the fall of Vicksburg. Marched eleven miles and camped 
on Bayou Macon until the next morning, when we marched 
back again to our camp at Delhi, and remained there until 
the beginning of the 11th, when we bade adieu to our old 
camp, and went aboard the railroad cars bound for the town 
of Monroe, distant forty miles. We arrived at Monroe at 
1 o'clock, P.M. On our arrival we marched through the prin- 
cipal streets of the town, to see and be seen by the ladies. 
After our promenading we encamped about half a mile south 
of the town, on the banks of the Washita Biver, until the fol- 
lowing morning. The town of Monroe has one long, broad, 
handsome street, and many cross streets, shaded by trees and 
adorned with fine mansions. Before the war it was a great 
cotton mart, and the plantations around are very productive 
and well adapted to grow the raw material. 




Lieut.-Colonel S. S. Anderson, A. A. General T. M. Depart- 
ment : 

yQ Y direction of the Lieutenant-General commanding the 
iM Department, and for his information, I have the 
honor to lay before you the following report of the 
operations of my division in the parishes of Madison and Car- 
roll, opposite Vicksburg, Mississippi. In order to a better un- 
derstanding of the subject, I include in this review the opera- 
tions of the division previous to the departure of Major-Gen- 
eral Taylor to Alexandria, after the partial failure of the attack 
upon Milliken's Bend, on the 7th of June last, up to which 
time, he being present, I was acting under his immediate 
orders. Marching from Alexandria on the 27th, 28th, and 
29th of May, the brigades of McCulloch, Randall, and Haws 
were embarked on board transports at Le Croix ferry, on 
Little River, on the 28th, 29th, and 30th, respectively, and pro- 
ceeded down Little River to its junction with the Ouachita 
and Tensas ; ascended the latter to the mouth of De Rossel 
Bayou, where McCulloch's Brigade, which was accompanied 
by Major-General Taylor, debarked on the afternoon of the 
30th, and immediately took up its line of march for Perkins' 
Landing, on the Mississippi, six miles below New Carthage. 
Early the next morning, I arrived with Randall's Brigade, and 
proceeded with it towards the same point, where it was known 
the enemy had a camp of instruction and insurrection for 
negroes, which it was hoped General McCulloch would be able 
to surprise and capture. The delay, however, in constructing 


a bridge over De Rossel Bayou, and an entire want of cavalry 
to cover our movements, enabled the enemy to escape upon 
his transports. General McCulloch reached the Mississippi, 
barely in time to enable his artillery to send a few shots into 
the enemy's transports as they left the landing. Upon coming 
up with Randall's Brigade, I found the point evacuated, and 
two gun-boats anchored off the site of the abandoned camp. 
Here, being entirely destitute of cavalry and guides, and be- 
ing entirely ignorant of the topography of the country, it was 
impracticable to proceed further. 

General Taylor had, as he informed me, directed the cav- 
alry of Colonel Harrison to meet us at the point of de- 
barkation, but for some reason they did not reach us. As 
Harrison's men were mostly residents of this very region, and 
as Ave confidently expected its co-operation, no other guides 
had been provided ; and. as the country was entirely deserted, 
none could be procured. Haws' Brigade having arrived during 
the night of the 31st, the whole division was crossed over to 
the west bank of the Tensas, and proceeded across to Bayou 
Macon, ascending its left bank to the intersection of the road 
leading from Delhi to Richmond; received their much-needed 
subsistence from the former point, constructed a trestle bridge 
across the Tensas, and crossed that river on the 6th of June, 
and the same evening reached Richmond, which, two days be- 
fore, had been taken possession of by a squadron of Harrison's 
Cavalry, which had joined us on Bayou Macon. At Richmond, 
we intersected the road by which Grant's army had passed 
below Vicksburg, and by which, until recently, he had drawn 
all his reinforcements and supplies, but which was now no 
longer used, as the fall of the water and the drying up of the 
swamps gave the enemy a much shorter line from Young's 
Point to Bedford's, opposite Warrenton, Mississippi. A few 
weeks previous to our coming, the enemy's operations could 
have been seriously embarrassed by cutting his line of com- 
munication at Richmond, but the golden opportunity had 
passed. The opening of the Yazoo River enabled the enemy's 
army to draw their supplies from the Upper Mississippi, and 


land them at Snyder's Bluff, to the rear of Yicksburg. On the 
6th of June, I was directed by General Taylor to attack, with 
McCulloch's Brigade, the enemy's position at Milliken's Bend, 
distant from Richmond about twelve miles ; and, simultane- 
ously, Brig.-General Haws was ordered to attack the enemy at 
Young's Point, twenty miles distant, while I was directed by 
General Taylor to remain at a point between the two places 
with Kandall's Brigade, in order to reinforce either the one or 
the other, as circumstances might require. Brig.-General 
McCulloch gallantly attacked the enemy at Milliken's Bend, 
about daylight, on the 7th ; drove him from all his positions, as 
far as the river-bank, where a second levee was encountered 
(behind which the enemy rallied, supported by four gun-boats, 
three of which arrived during the progress of the action), from 
which the efforts of our brave men, led by their gallant com- 
mander, were unable to dislodge him ; and, after suffering a loss 
of nearly two hundred in killed and wounded, and our men 
being no longer able to continue the contest, from sheer exhaus- 
tion, produced by extreme heat and want of water, General 
McCulloch withdrew his brigade in perfect order, bringing off 
his wounded. At this moment, I arrived upon the field with 
Randall's Brigade, and finding McCulloch's men no longer in 
a condition to afford any assistance, should the attack be re- 
newed by Randall's Brigade, and that the enemy was being 
constantly reinforced by transports coming from below, and 
that his position was an exceedingly strong one, which would 
cost us a heavy loss to carry, for which in my judgment, success 
would be an inadequate compensation, I determined, there- 
fore, not to renew the assault. I remained, however, in the 
immediate vicinity of the enemy's position until night, destroyed 
the gin-houses, and drove off the stock belonging to the cot- 
ton plantations that were being cultivated by lessees of the 
Federal government. 

The enemy's loss in this engagement, I have reason to be- 
lieve, amounts to at least eight hundred, in killed and wounded. 
We captured about sixty negro soldiers, with two white officers 
who commanded them, sixtv or seventy stand of arms, and 


two hundred head of horses and mules, and a number of 

In the mean time, nothing was known of Brig.-General 
Haws' operations ; but, during the night I received intelligence 
that he was on his return, without having attacked the 
enemy at Young's Point, as directed. Upon his rejoining 
me on the following morning, he reported that his march to 
young's Point was delayed several hours by the incompetence 
of his guides, and that, in consequence, instead of reaching the 
point to be attacked at daylight, as intended, he did not reach it 
until half-past ten o'clock in the morning ; and that the exces- 
sive heat of the day, the want of water, and a march of thirty 
miles, continued for twenty-eight hours without sleep and but 
little rest, had so exhausted his troops as to have rendered hope- 
less any attack upon the enemy's fortified position. 

Major-General Taylor's instructions to me, delivered to 
Brig.-General Haws, were imperative to make the attack, 
but I am convinced from what I know of the state of exhaus- 
tion resulting from excessive heat and fatigue, that General 
Haws' men were incapable of the physical exertion necessary to 
carry a fortified position defended on the flanks by gun-boats. 
How far these considerations justify a failure to obey an un- 
conditional and imperative order, I am not prepared to say. 

In my frequent interviews and conferences with Major-Gen- 
eral Taylor, on the subject of relieving Yicksburg, he always 
expressed the utmost anxiety, which was fully shared by my- 
self and my command, to strike a blow that would bear directly 
upon the conduct of the siege, with the small force at his dis- 
posal, numbering less than five thousand effective men upon 
leaving Alexandria — reduced, on the 8th of June, by sickness, 
resulting from excessive heat, bad water, malarious climate, 
and the casualties of battle, to something less than four thou- 
sand. After that date, General Taylor considered that, with 
this small force, no material aid could be afforded the garrison 
at Vicksburg. The justice of these views, I think, will be 
better appreciated from an examination of the topography of 
the country opposite Vicksburg. 


It will be seen that, in marching into the peninsula at the 
extremity of which Yicksburg is situated, the route is parallel 
to the Mississippi, both above and below the point to be 
reached, and that a small force once east of Young's Point 
and Warrenton, would inevitably be cut off from returning. 
The forces of the enemy at Young's Point, which, since Gen- 
eral Haws' demonstrations, have been considerable, could be 
increased to any extent in a few hours, and would have but 
two or three miles to march, by a good road leading along 
Walnut Bayou, and intersecting the road leading towards 
Vicksburg, and by which we would be compelled to march. 
Nearly the same is true in regard to Bedford, nearly opposite 
which the left of Grant's army rests. But, suppose we could have 
eluded the vigilance of the negro spies — and the country in that 
region is filled with them — and the watchfulness of the enemy's 
scouts and pickets, which, since our attack upon Milliken's 
Bend, have been doubly on the alert, we would still encounter 
an insuperable obstacle to our further progress, at the canal 
dug by the enemy across the peninsula. This canal, not more 
than a mile and quarter in length, effectually bars the ap- 
proach of even a much larger force than ours to the river-bank 
opposite Yicksburg, and a delay of only a few hours at the 
canal would draw upon the rear of our small force such an 
attack as would result inevitably in our destruction or capture. 
These considerations seemed so just, that I was directed by Gen- 
eral Taylor to withdraw my division to Alexandria, by way of 
Monroe, as soon as steamboat transportation could be procured 
at the latter place. Accordingly, Randall's Brigade left Rich- 
mond on the 3d, and, proceeding to Monroe, and embarking 
on transports, had reached Columbus, on the Ouachita River, 
when the order for my withdrawal from the swamp was coun- 
termanded, and Randall's ordered to rejoin me at Richmond, 
and I was instructed to proceed to Bedford, and to break up 
the plank-road from there to Young's Point, and to strike at 
the enemy wherever I could do so effectually. I was awaiting 
the arrival of Randall's and Tappan's Brigades before marching 


towards Bedford, when, about eight o'clock on the morning of the 
15th, I was attacked, at Richmond, by a division of the enemy's 
forces, coming from Milliken's Bend, numbering between seven 
and eight thousand, three light batteries, and eight hundred 
cavalry, under the command, as I afterward understood, of 
General Devin or Davis. My whole force, consisting of 
McCulloch's and Haws' Brigades, terribly reduced by sick- 
ness, did not exceed fifteen hundred effective men, with a light 
battery of four guns, and twenty cavalry. With such a force 
I could not hope to more than hold the enemy in check until 
my sick and wounded could be removed. With this view, I 
continued to engage the enemy, until between twelve and one 
o'clock, P. M., when, having effected my purpose, I retired 
from Richmond towards the Tensas, which I crossed about 
sundown. The enemy did not attempt to follow me in force, 
and except some skirmishing between his advance and my 
rear-guard, my march was unmolested. 

So large a number of sick men has, perhaps, never be- 
longed to so small a force ; and no command was ever so 
rapidly reduced in strength in the absence of an epidemic. 
Excessive heat of the weather, the deadly malaria of the 
swamps, the stagnant and unwholesome water, are the causes 
to which are attributable these sad results. My division 
looked like a vast moving hospital. We had sick men in 
wagons and carts, wounded men on litters, borne by soldiers, 
and a crowd of enfeebled and emaciated men for whom no trans- 
portation could be had, who were straggling along in front of 
the marching column, which accommodated its movements to 
their feebleness. I had the satisfaction, however, of bringing 
off every sick and wounded man, and lost only about fifteen 
killed, wounded, and missing, in the engagement in the morn- 
ing. I had no means of knowing the loss of the enemy, but I 
have reason to believe that it was considerable. On reaching 
the Tensas River, I was joined by General Tappan's Brigade, 
thirteen hundred strong, which raised my whole effective 
force to twenty-eight or twenty-nine hundred men — a force 
too small wnth which to resume the offensive, as the care of 


my large number of sick and wounded men required my first 

Major E. Seuget, A. A. Geril: 

Major, — Since the date of my last report, the forces under 
my command have broken up the plantations engaged in rais- 
ing cotton under Federal leases, from Milliken's Bend to 
Lake Providence, capturing some 2,000 negroes, which have 
been restored to their masters, with the exception of those 
captured in arms, and a few, the property of disloyal citizens 
of Louisiana. I consider it an unfortunate circumstance 
that any armed negroes were captured ; but, in the cav- 
alry expedition which broke up the plantations below 
Lake Providence, Colonel Parsons, commanding two cav- 
alry regiments, from the district of Arkansas, acting 
under my orders, encountered a force of 113 negroes, and 
three white officers, in a fortified position. The officers pro- 
posed to surrender upon the condition of being treated as 
prisoners of war, and the armed negroes unconditionally. 
Colonel Parsons accepted the terms. The position, a high 
mound, the side of which had been scarped and otherwise 
strengthened, was of great strength, and would have cost 
many lives and much precious time, if captured by assault. 
Under these circumstances, Brigadier-General Tappan, 
who came up before the capitulation was consummated, 
approved the convention. This was on the 30th ult., and I 
had made all my arrangements to push, the next day, towards 
Providence and Ashton, some miles above, where I intended 
to establish my batteries for the annoyance of the enemy's 
transports. That night I received General Taylor's instruc- 
tions to march my division to Berwick Bay. I immediately 
returned to Delhi, and had embarked one of the brigades on 
the railroad train, when I received instructions from Lieut.- 
General Smith to remain in this vicinity. On the 5th inst., 
General Smith was here in person, and directed me to proceed 
to Ashton, on the Mississippi, and endeavor to blockade the 
river against the enemy's transports and supply-boats. In 


accordance with these instructions, I marched from here on 
the 7th inst. The same morning, Captain James, who had 
been sent with a flag of truce to deliver a communication 
from General Taylor to General Grant, returned and reported 
the delivery of the dispatch to the enemy's pickets, at 
Young's Point. He brought intelligence, derived from 
sources that I did not credit, that the garrison at Vicksburg 
had capitulated on the 4th inst. Not considering this en- 
tirely certain, I continued my movement, but the same day I 
received the intelligence, unfortunately too well authenticated 
to admit of a doubt. At the same time I received instruc- 
tions from Lieutenant-General Smith to return to this point, 
and, if forced to abandon the Washita Valley by superior 
numbers, to fall back on Eed Eiver, towards Natchitoches. 

I am now engaged in burning all the cotton I can reach, 
from Lake Providence to the lower end of Concordia Parish, 
and shall endeavor to leave no spoil for the enemy. I have 
also instructed the cavalry to destroy all subsistence and for- 
age on abandoned plantations, that, from its proximity to the 
river, may give the enemy facilities for invasion. When this 
destruction is effected, I shall withdraw the greater portion 
of my force towards the Washita Eiver, to some more 
healthy locality. The ravages of disease have fearfully weak- 
ened my force, and I consider it essential to its future 
usefulness that it should be removed from here as early as 




GREEABLE to the orders of Lieutenant-General 
^^ Kirby Smith, the division took up the line of 
^M^hM march for Alexandria, on the 12th of July, after 
taking a parting adieu of the citizens of Monroe, but not 
before we gave them to understand that we would soon again 
pay them a visit. This kind of a promise we could safely 
give to the citizens of any town or village in Louisiana or 
Arkansas. It was a noted fact that our division always paid 
the second visit to the citizens of those towns, whether they 
were welcome or not. This seemed to be part of our pro- 

After crossing the Washita River at Trenton Ferry, about a 
mile and a half north of the town of Monroe, we arrived at 
camp, situated about a mile west of the town of Trenton. 
We remained at this camp until the morning of the 19th, 
when we proceeded on our journey towards Alexandria, via 
Campti, on Red River. Our route of march was over the 
same section of country that we had previously traveled. 
After marching five miles, we arrived at camp early in 
the day. 

July 20th. Marched five miles. 

July 21st. Marched eight miles. 

July 22d. Marched ten miles, and camped near the town of 
Vernon. At this place General H. E. McCulloch took fare- 


well of his brigade. He had received orders from General 
Kirby Smith to report to General Magruder, in Texas. 
After his arrival in Texas, he was assigned to the command of 
the northeastern portion of the State, with his headquarters 
at Bonham, in Fannin County. He fulfilled this position 
with honor to himself and his adopted State, until the close 
of the war. His duties were very laborious and tedious on 
the frontier, he having to guard against the murderous 
Comanches, as well as to look after the enemy, who were 
continually making raids from Fort Smith, Arkansas, towards 
the Texas frontier. In addition to protecting the frontier 
people from raids by the Indians and Federals, he had to 
protect them from the pests of the country, known by the 
name of Jayhawkers. After he left the brigade, Colonel 
George Flournoy was assigned to the command. 

July 23d. Passed through the village of Vernon, and 
marched twelve miles. 

July 24th. Marched fourteen miles. 

July 25th. Marched ten miles. 

July 26th. Marched eleven miles. 

July 27th. Marched thirteen miles, and arrived at Campti, 
on Red River, thus making the second trip to this place with- 
in the short period of a few months. We remained encamped 
close by a lake until the morning of August 3d, when we left 
camp and proceeded five miles down the river-bank. Arriv- 
ing opposite Grand Ecore, a steamboat was in readiness to 
ferry us across to that place, where we camped on the 
sand-flats until the following morning, when transports ar- 
rived from Shreveport to carry us to Alexandria. On the 
morning of the 4th, we went aboard and proceeded down the 
river. On our trip down the river one of our doctors took a 
little too much "benzine." (Notwithstanding it was war- 
times, there was a bar-room on every boat that plied on Red 
River. As a matter of course, no privates need apply.) The 
doctor had for his companion an ordnance-sergeant, belong- 
ing to the Regiment, whom he frequently treated. 

"While emptying their glasses, the M. D.'s conversation was 


about medicine, and he commenced spouting Latin, which 
led the bar-keeper to believe that they were both doctors. 
After they had had several drinks together, the " doctor's " head 
became dizzy ; so he concluded to go to his state-room, 
leaving the ordnance-sergeant the bar-keeper's guest. Sev- 
eral soldiers were lookers-on, putting one in mind of the fable 
of " The fox and the grapes." One of the soldiers, more witty 
than the rest, approached the ordnance- sergeant, addressing 
him as " doctor," and asked his permission to get some 
whisky. The sergeant being a jolly fellow, understood the 
joke, and at once ordered the bar-keeper to let his men have 
as much whisky as they wanted ; at the same time notifying 
the men not to get drunk, as he would be held responsible 
for their behavior. The commander of the regiment, seeing 
his men merrier than common, soon ascertained the facts, 
and the bar-keeper was immediately placed under arrest ; and 
he, to save himself from being court-martialed, went in pur- 
suit of the would-be doctor, and had him arrested. The 
bar-keeper was soon set at liberty. A short time afterwards 
this same ordnance-sergeant appeared in the role of a con- 
script officer, on Black River, which he carried out to perfec- 
tion. Getting tired of camp-life, he strayed away from camp, 
for the purpose of getting a good dinner. He came across a 
house, ten miles from camp, and seeing no soldiers about, he 
alighted and asked for dinner. As dinner was getting ready 
for him, he got into a conversation with the host of the house. 
He soon discovered that he was not in the service. He in- 
formed the host of the house that he was a conscript officer. 
On hearing this announcement, the host begged him not to 
conscript him, as he had to provide for fifty soldiers' wives 
and widows. After dinner, the ordnance-sergeant, alias the 
conscript officer, asked what his bill for dinner was. The 
host replied that he would make no charge, and gave him to 
understand that as long as he was in the neighborhood, he 
was welcome to make his headquarters at his house. Thank- 
ing him for his kindness, he informed him that, as a conscript 
officer, it would be necessary, before he could exempt him 


from military duty, to have the fifty soldiers' wives and wid- 
ows at his house the next day, as he wanted to witness them 
himself. The following day he came again to dinner, when, 
sure enough, he beheld fifty soldiers' wives or widows pres- 
ent. After eating dinner, he made a patriotic speech to the 
women. He told them, in case they failed to get a good sup- 
port from the party that he had exempted from military 
service, they must write to his headquarters, at Shreveport. 

Shortly after our arrival at Alexandria, General Walker 
received orders from General Taylor to hold his division in 
readiness to march for Berwick Bay. This order was after- 
wards countermanded, owing to the fall of Port Hudson. We 
remained encamped near Alexandria, until the 10th day of 
August. In the meantime we learned that General Dick 
Taylor was in possession of the La Fourche country, having 
defeated the Federal Generals Weitzel and Dwight. After 
capturing Berwick Bay, he moved his forces in the direction 
of New Orleans, which he was confident he could capture, 
provided the fall of Port Hudson had not taken place so sud- 
denly, as there were but few troops in the vicinity of New 

On the morning of the 10th we took up our line of march 
for Camp Green, in the piny woods, situated about twenty- 
five miles southwest of Alexandria ; marched ten miles, and 
camped on Bayou La Moore, opposite the residence of Gov- 
ernor Moore. Owing to the poor quality of the " blue beef " 
we had been getting for several weeks past, some of the troops 
concluded to " charge the commissary," and see if there was 
anything more substantial than blue beef. After having been 
assured by some of their officers that they would get better 
beef in a few days, they quietly withdrew, fully convinced 
that the " Commissary Department of the C. S. Army " was 
nothing more than a myth, and had no reality but in the 

August 11th. Marched fifteen miles, and arrived at Camp 
Green. During our march to this camp we passed through 
— I might safely say — the richest valley on earth, then verdant 


with rustling canes, or yellow with broad acres of ripening 
corn — -all giving promise of an abundant harvest. The health 
of the troops at this camp was very good, owing, I suppose, to 
the morning exercise we took before breakfast, in the way of 
marching five miles. Whether the medical department advised 
this exercise for the health of the troops, I am unable to say. 
This kind of exercise was considered rest for " Walker's 
Greyhounds." In our retired encampment, where the long- 
leafed pines bent their green and palmy tops together, almost 
shutting out the blue sky, we seemed to have found that 

" Boundless contiguity of shade, 
Where rumor of oppression and deceit, 
Of unsuccessful or sucessf ul war, 
May never reach us more." 

We remained encamped at Camp Green until the morning 
of the 31st of August. Nothing unusual transpired in camp 
at this place, with the exception of the 16th Infantry being 
ordered on picket below Alexandria. 

On the morning of the 31st, when about moving camp, we 
learned from some parties just arrived from Alexandria, that 
the enemy was in possession of the town of Monroe, on the 
Washita River, and that 7,000 more of the enemy had crossed 
Bayou Macon, from the direction of Lake Providence, and 
were advancing in the direction of Bayou Bartholomew, 
while another force of them was within a few miles of Little 
Bock, Arkansas. After marching five miles, we camped near 
a running stream of water, and remained there until the morn- 
ing of Sept. 2d. Shortly after our arrival in camp, Randall's 
Brigade took up the line of march for Harrisonburg, on the 
Washita River. On the morning of the 2d, we took up our 
line of march again, for the purpose of finding a better camp- 
ground. Marched eighteen miles, through the piny woods, 
in a zigzag form, before we struck camp. 

Sept. 3d. Marched twenty miles, and camped where 
wood and water was in abundance. This camp was known 
by the name of Camp Texas ; the country here was rolling 
land, covered with open woods. We remained at this camp 


until the morning of the 5th, when we took up the line of 
march for Alexandria, owing to dispatches received from 
Colonel Randall, informing General Walker that the enemy 
had captured Fort Beauregard, and had burned the town of 
Harrisonburg to ashes. After marching six miles on the 
Alexandria road, we filed off to the left, in the direction of 
Bayou Rapides, and finally struck camp, after marching twelve 
miles. We remained at this camp until the morning of the 7th, 
when we left camp again ; marched six miles and camped 
within two miles of Alexandria, where we remained until the 
26th inst. Shortly after our arrival in camp, we learned that 
the enemy had re-crossed the Washita River, and was on their 
way to the Mississippi River. In a few days afterwards, 
Randall's Brigade rejoined the balance of the division. 

While encamped here, application was made by company 
commanders to division headquarters to grant them the priv- 
ilege of furloughing two men from a company. Their appli- 
cation was referred to district headquarters, and refused. 
There was much excitement and dissatisfaction in camp 
After long months of severe service, enduring untold hardships 
and trials, fighting several battles with a courage and bravery 
which had made their name distinguished everywhere, the 
only boon asked, the only favor which could have been con- 
ferred on them as a recompense for their deeds, was refused. 
Now they could look forward only to a life in the army until 
the termination of the struggle. The disappointment was 
most bitterly felt, and it is not surprising that it found 
expression in still more bitter words. 

On the morning of the 26th we received marching orders 
to proceed to the town of Washington, Parish of St. Landry. 
Marched fourteen miles, and camped on Bayou Boeuf. 

Sept. 27th. Marched fourteen miles, passed through the 
village of Cherryville, and camped two miles beyond the 
village on Bayou Bceuf. 

Sept. 28th. Marched fourteen miles, and camped within 
four miles of Evergreen. 

Sept. 29th. Marched fifteen miles, passed through the 


villages of Evergreen and Big-Cane, and camped within 
four miles of the town of Washington. From the time we 
left Alexandria until we arrived at this place, it rained inces- 
santly, making the roads impassable to travel. The day after 
our arrival in camp, about 500 Yankee prisoners passed 
through our camp, escorted by some of Green's Cavalry, en 
route for Alexandria. They were captured at the battle of 
the Fordoche. We remained encamped at this place until 
the 3d of October, when we took up the line of march for 
Simmsport, on the Atchafalaya Bayou. Marched seven miles, 
and camped near Evergreen. 

Oct. 4th. Marched twelve miles, and camped at an old 
plantation on the Simmsport road. 

Oct. 5th. Marched eighteen miles ; passed through the vil- 
lage of Moreauville. At this place we met Mouton's Division 
of Louisiana troops, who were nearly all dressed in Federal 
uniforms that they had captured at Brashear City. They were 
a fine body of troops, and did good service in the Attakapas 
country. We arrived at camp, within four miles of Simmsport. 

Oct. 6th. Early this morning we marched back again, 
over the road we came, for Washington. Marched eighteen 
miles, and camped at the same camp we occupied on the 
night of the 4th. 

Oct. 7th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped two miles 
from Evergreen. 

Oct. 8th. Marched eight miles, passed through Big- 
Cane, and camped at our old camping-ground. Immediately 
after our arrival in camp, the 16th Dismounted Cavalry, 
under command of Colonel Gregg, was sent on picket, to 
Morgan's Ferry, on the Atchafalaya Bayou. Tliey returned 
the following evening to camp. They reported that the 
enemy's gun-boats in the Atchafalaya had shelled them, but 
without doing any harm to them. On the morning of the 
10th, apparently to keep the "Greyhounds" in marching 
trim, we left camp at daylight, and marched seventeen miles : 
passed through Evergreen again, and camped on Bayou 
Houghpower, where we remained until the morning of the 


13th, when we were on the march again. Marched eleven 
miles, and camped on Bayou Bceuf. 

Oct. 14th. Marched seventeen miles, towards "Washing- 
ton, on the Bayou BcEuf road. 

Oct. 15th. Marched ten miles. 

Oct. 16th. Marched ten miles. 

Oct. 17th. Marched three miles, and encamped along- 
side of Mouton's Division, and a portion of Green's Cavalry, 
near a little village named Moundville. Shortly after our 
arrival in camp, the 13th Dismounted Cavalry, commanded 
by Colonel Burnett, was ordered on picket, below the town of 
Opelousas. While encamped near Moundville we learned 
that the enemy, numbering about 27,000, under command of 
General Franklin, was encamped within seven miles of 
Opelousas. General Tom Green's Cavalry were daily skir- 
mishing with them. 

On the evening of the 18th, General Dick Taylor and stafi 
arrived in camp from Alexandria, to take command in person 
of the entire army that was concentrated at this place. He 
is a son of old " Bough and Ready." He has a good record 
of past services under Stonewall Jackson, in Virginia. In his 
masterly retreat before General Banks, when that Federal 
commander made his rapid march from Brashear City up the 
Teche, ascending to Alexandria, and thence diverging to Port 
Hudson, time after time his troops contested the enemy's 
progress with barely a force of 5,000 men against 50,000 of 
the enemy. He abandoned Franklin, on the Teche, after a 
hard-fought battle, evacuating New Iberia after destroying 
the enemy's flotilla and defense ; falling back from Alexandria 
only when Admiral Porter's guns and mortars had rendered 
it untenable. But the numerical damage which his troops 
sustained was slight, and their war spirit seemed to wax 
rather than wane before the enemy's advance. No sooner 
did General Banks wheel his army Mississippi- ward than his 
war-spirit blazed behind him. 

Owing to his arrival in camp, the troops anticipated being 
brought into action every day. Preparations were made by 


him to give the enemy a warm reception if they should 
advance. Many were the rumors afloat in camp about the 
advance of the enemy : occasionally we would hear that 
they were within a few miles of our camp ; then, again, we 
would hear of their retreat. 

On the morning of the 21st, the 16th Infantry, commanded 
by Colonel Flournoy, was sent to the assistence of General 
Green's forces, and also to relieve the 13th Infantry, which 
was on picket below Opelousas. 

Oct. 22d. Early this morning the enemy advanced on 
Opelousas, driving the 16th Infantry and Green's Cavalry 
before them. The 16th Infantry arrived at camp in the 
evening. They reported that the enemy took possession of 
Opelousas at about 10 o'clock, A.M., and was advancing on 

Oct. 23d. To-day the enemy took possession of "Wash- 
ington. Green's Cavalry fell back towards Moundville. The 
11 th Infantry, commanded by Colonel Roberts, and the 18th 
Infantry, commanded by Colonel King, were ordered to 
Moundville, to reinforce the cavalry. General Taylor formed 
his line of battle, in a position to sweep the road that they 
would be most likely to advance on ; parks of artillery were 
planted, ready to belch forth at a moment's notice ; the in- 
fantry was sheltered by a ditch in their front. Every minute 
seemed like an hour to us, till the ball should be opened. 
The enemy advanced to Moundville, but, seeing our infan- 
try pickets, fell back to Washington, followed by our two 
infantry regiments, who were continually skirmishing with 
them. They were ably assisted by all of Green's Calvary, 
except his old Arizona (or Sibley's) Brigade, which was left in 
position on the infantry's right flank — it was commanded by 
Colonel Bagby, — the brigade of Partisan Bangers under 
Colonel Meyers, and the 2d Louisiana Cavalry, commanded 
by Col. Vincent. All the cavalry was under the command of 
General Tom Green. There were several batteries of light 
artillery, including the Valverde, Semm's, Edgar's, Daniels', 
Mesh's, and Haldeman's. The number of our forces con- 


centrated here was about 11,000, not half the number of the 

Notwithstanding the srnallness of our forces, compared with 
the enemy, General Taylor was determined to give battle if 
the enemy advanced. 

The two infantry regiments, reinforced by Colonel Harri- 
son's (formerly Speight's) Regiment, the 15th Infantry, belong- 
ing to Mouton's Division, formed themselves into a brigade 
commanded by Colonel O. M. Roberts, and advanced on the 
town of Washington, accompanied by Green's Cavalry. On 
then arrival at Washington, the enemy was rapidly retreat- 
ing across the prairie to Opelousas ; in the mean time General 
Taylor established his headquarters at Moundville. 

Leaving Colonel Roberts' Brigade at Washington for the 
present, we will return to the maneuvering of the balance of 
the troops. Hearing of the retreat of the enemy, the divis- 
ion fell back about two miles to a better camp-ground. 
Shortly after our arrival at the new camp-ground, General 
Scurry arrived in camp from Texas. He was assigned to the 
command of the 3d Brigade, thus relieving Colonel Flournoy 
froin command of the brigade. General Scurry was gener- 
ally known by all the troops in the division, owing to the 
prominent position he held in the Arizona expedition, and 
the bravery he displayed in the battles of Valverde and 
Glorietta, which he fought and won ; and his masterly retreat 
from New Mexico, gave evidence of no little skill. We be- 
lieve, to him is mainly due the credit of saving, after its cap- 
ture, the celebrated Valverde battery, which has made itself 
heard and felt by the Yankee invaders on more than one occa- 
sion. At the retaking of Galveston by General Magruder, he 
commanded the land forces, and distinguished himself by his 
deliberate coolness and skill throughout the battle. 

Through respect towards him, the bands of the brigade 
serenaded him. After the music had ceased playing, several 
of the officers, and the majority of the men, called upon him 
to make a speech. He informed them that he despised 
speech-making nowadays, but in a few days expected to meet 


the enemy, and then he would address a few remarks to them, 
and he expected the troops of the 3d Brigade to respond to 
them as brave soldiers should do. 

General Scurry's staff consisted of the following-named 
officers, viz. : 

Major T. J. Scurry, Quartermaster. 

" H. H. Haynie, Commissary. 
Captain S. F. A. Bryan, Ordnance Officer. 

" J. F. Wooford, Commissary of Subsistence. 

" James Clarke, Aid-de-Camp. 

" A. N. Mills, Assist. Adjt. -General. 

While remaining at this camp, a regiment from each 
brigade went on picket every night. We remained at this 
camp until the 26th inst., when we fell back some twelve 
miles and camped near the village of Holmesville. At this 
camp we witnessed the shooting of a deserter, who was mak- 
ing his way towards the enemy ; he was captured by our 
cavalry scouts. We remained encamped near Holmesville 
until the 8th of November. On the morning of the 3d, news 
was received from Colonel O. M. Roberts that his regiment 
and King's Regiment, in conjunction with Harrison's Regiment 
of Infantry and Green's Cavalry, had met the enemy at Bayou 
Bourbeaux, and completely routed them. 

On the 6th they arrived in camp, escorting the prisoners 
they had captured at the battle of Bayou Bourbeaux. 




" A nation's flag, a nation's flag, 

If wickedly unrolled, 
May foes in adverse battles drag 

Its every fold from fold. 
But in the cause of liberty, 
Guard it till death or victory ; 

Look you, you guard it well ! 
No saint or king has tomb so proud 
As he zchose flag becomes his shroud. " 

'HE night of the 23d of October, 1863, found the 
brigade of infantry commanded by Colonel O. M. 
Roberts (consisting of the 11th, 15th, and 18th Regi- 
ments of Texas Infantry) bivouacked near the town of Wash- 
ington, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana. It was a most uncom- 
fortable night — cold, dark, and rainy. The troops, greatly 
wearied by the day's march, lay down to sleep, supperless. 
The following day they expected to meet the enemy in battle. 
But the ever-vigilant " Texas Cavalier," General Tom Green, 
notified them the following day " to abide their time " until 
he had made all the necessary arrangements for a decisive 
battle. They remained encamped near "Washington, awaiting 
orders. General Green's cavalry were employed in skirmish- 
ing with the enemy, who were encamped some eight miles 
southeast of the town of Opelousas. 

On the evening of the 2d November, Colonel Roberts re- 
ceived orders from General Green to report with his brigade 
at his headquarters, near Opelousas, on the following morning. 


After a tiresome and laborious tramp, they marched through 
the town of Opelousas to the tune of " Dixie," as daylight was 
dawning, on the morning of the 3d. They halted near Gen- 
eral Green's headquarters to cook breakfast. After breakfast, 
a general advance of the cavalry and infantry forces was or- 
dered by General Green. On arriving within three miles of 
the enemy's camp they halted to rest. While the troops were 
resting, General Green held a consultation with his field- 
officers, after informing them that General Dick Taylor had 
ordered him to attack the enemy's rearguard, then encamped 
on the west bank of Bayou Bourbeaux (Boggy Creek), eight 
miles south of Ppelousas. Close by the enemy's camp was a 
skirt of timber, about six hundred yards wide, running 
through the prairie. A large body of the enemy, consisting 
of part of the 13th Army Corps, under command of General 
Burbridge, were encamped : their forces consisted of about 
five or six thousand veteran troops of the Northwest. They 
were the rearguard of Franklin's army, who were encamped 
four miles further south, on Carrion-Crow Bayou. The road 
from Opelousas to the enemy's camp led southward, along the 
western side of the skirt of timber, for a mile or more, and 
then turned abruptly eastward through the skirt of timber 
and across the bayou, where there were several bridges, and 
then on southward, through the prairie, to Carrion-Crow Bayou. 
The Federal rearguard camps were situated about two or 
three hundred yards south from the point where the road 
turned eastward to cross the bayou. 

The plan of the battle adopted by General Green and his 
officers was as follows : Colonel O. M. Roberts, with his in- 
fantry brigade, was to move southward upon the enemy, 
under shelter of the timber, between the bayou and the road, 
driving back the pickets and outposts. The brigade of Par- 
tisan Rangers, under command of Colonel Majors, were to 
exhibit themselves in line of battle on the prairie eastward, in 
sight of the enemy, so as to attract their attention in that 
direction. Colonel Bagby's brigade of cavalry, accompanied 
by the Valverde Battery (I believe) and General Green, was 


to advance frorn the northwest, towards the enemy's camp ; 
dismount, give the signal, by firing cannon, for the fight to 
commence, and, as soon as practicable, form a line on the 
right of the infantry. Colonel Majors' rangers were to 
advance upon the enemy, so as to fall in on the right of 
Bagby's brigade, and to act in conjunction with or in support 
of the dismounted cavalry and infantry, in what was intended 
to be an almost simultaneous concentration and dash of all 
of Green's forces upon the enemy's camp. The plan was 
then and there formed impromptu by General Green, who, 
when asked by one of his field-officers, " How many of the 
enemy do we attack to-day?" replied, "I do not know the 
number, but I do know that there are not too many for us to 
attack." (We had no reserve force.) The officers having been 
informed of their respective duties, and having made the 
arrangements and preparations for a battle which was then 
certain to come off, each brigade moved off to assume the 
position and perform the part • assigned to it. The infantry 
brigade was formed in line of battle, in the following manner : 
The 15th T. Y. Infantry, commanded by Colonel James H. 
Harrison, took their position on the right of the brigade ; 
the 18th T. V. Infantry, commanded by Colonel King, was 
assigned the center, and the 11th T. V. Infantry, commanded 
by Lieutenant-Colonel James II. Jones, took their position 
on the left of the brigade. Very soon our infantry skirmish- 
ers came upon our cavalry pickets, who were amusing them- 
selves, as it were, in shooting down a wide lane, one and a 
half miles long, at the enemy's pickets, who were filing back 
in return. The infantry skirmishers continued to advance, 
followed by the brigade. Majors' cavalry had already gone on 
towards their position, and here Bagby's cavalry turned off 
obliquely to the right. General Green and staff followed 
after. General Green, beholding his cavalry pickets wasting 
their ammunition without any effect, at once ordered Colonel 
Boberts to clear the lane. That heroic and indefatiga- 
ble officer, who was on his way home to recover his 
broken health, hearing that his regiment was ordered to the 


front, hurriedly returned to lead his gallant men to victory. 
Though very pale and feeble, his dark eye was lit up by mar- 
tial music ; his frail form appeared full of vigor and vitality. 
Imagine the old veteran colonel of Walker's Division at the 
head of his column, with his sword drawn, gallantly leading 
his men to victory ! Soon the lane was cleared of the enemy, 
driving them before him. After getting through the lane, he 
formed his men in line of battle, in the edge of the timber, 
and moved steadily forward, driving the enemy's outposts into 
their camp. Seeing some trees cut down near the camp, he 
anticipated that probably the enemy might have some 
masked batteries behind the trees ; he halted his brigade a 
few moments, until he could learn the facts. Hearing from 
his sharpshooters, who were some distance in advance of his 
brigade, that no artillery was placed behind the trees, he 
ordered his brigade to advance in the direction of the enemy's 
camp. Nearing the enemy's camp, he beheld them in line of 
battle, ready to give the Texans a warm reception on their 
arrival. Nearer his brigade advances, showing a bold and 
solid front to the enemy. His sharpshooters fire, and stop 
to reload again ; then moving forward, nearing their camp, 
they meet with a large body of the enemy. Upon which 
they fall back gradually, and rejoin their command. Soon 
the war-worn old veteran gave the command, in his 
sonorous voice, "Charge them, boys!" which was quickly 
done, notwithstanding the enemy was formed in a ravine, an- 
ticipating a charge from the Texans. They placed their ar- 
tillery so as to bear on our troops, from the edge of their 
camp. Fortunately, their shots passed over our men, doing 
no harm. In the meantime a large body of the enemy's cav- 
alry had been forming to charge our infantry in their rear, by 
forcing the passage of the bridges, in opposition to a force 
under Major Carroway, of the 11th T. V. Infantry, who had 
been sent there by Colonel Roberts, aided by a cavalry com- 
pany, under Captain Jack Waterhouse. Now the battle raged 
in all its fury. All of the field-officers, except Colonel Rob- 
erts, dismounted and led their commands with undaunted 


firmness. The voices of the brave officers, encouraging 
their men, could be heard, loud and distinct, amidst the crash 
and roar of a continued fire of small arms and artillery. Men 
fell thick and fast on both sides. Here it was that the gal- 
lant Captain Stillwell, of the 11th T. Y. Infantry, fell mortally 
wounded, and Captain Richard Coke, the "nonpareil" officer 
of the 15th T. V. Infantry, while in the act of leading his 
men, was seriously wounded. The dashing Captain Christian, 
Adjutant of the 11th T. V. Infantry, was also seriously wounded; 
and the old veteran commander, Colonel Roberts, had his horse 
shot while cheering on his troops. The same misfortune 
happened to two of his acting aid-de-camps. Captain J. E. 
Hart, of General Green's Staff, and Major Carroway, who had 
just arrived from the bridge they were ordered to defend, in- 
formed Colonel Roberts, personally, that unless they got rein- 
forcements immediately it would be doubtful whether they 
would be able to hold the bridge longer than fifteen minutes, 
as the enemy's cavalry was preparing to carry it by storm. 
Colonel Roberts informed them that, under the circumstances, 
he could not withdraw any of his forces then engaged with 
the enemy, to aid or assist them; he would communicate 
the facts to General Green as soon as possible ; in the mean- 
time giving them to understand that the bridge must be held 
by them at all hazards, and that he was then fighting the 
enemy under great disadvantage. Colonel Roberts expected 
that all of General Green's troops would attack the enemy 
about the same time. From some cause the cavalry did not 
arrive until about fifteen minutes after the infantry was 
engaged. Those two heroic officers returned to their com- 
mand, determined to hold the bridge at any sacrifice. It was 
certain that unless Colonel Roberts should be reinforced, his 
brigade would be lost ; but, as the column of cavalry dashed 
madly forward, led by the heroic Majors and Bagby, and 
came in range of the enemy, their guns vomited among them 
a storm of bullets. The infantry firing ceases a few minutes. 
The command is given : " Fix bayonets ! forward ! double- 
quick ! " when the whole line, in perfect order, as if on parade, 


responded by a simultaneous shout, and rushed upon the enemy, 
driving them "pell-mell" over their camp-ground. With their 
lines broken, and they fleeing in disorder, the cavalry sweeps 
down upon their flanks, giving time for the infantry to breathe 
a few moments. But the ever-keen eye of the infantry brig- 
ade beheld part of the enemy's cavalry still in his rear, and 
still held in check by Major Carroway and Captain Hart. He 
gave the command, " Kight-about face ; forward march !" Few 
of the officers or men anticipating any further danger from 
the enemy, they kept talking at the top of their voices, as they 
advanced over the ground they had previously charged over. 
Soon they came upon the enemy's cavalry, who were killed or 
taken prisoners in a few minutes' time. So sanguine were 
the enemy of success that they formed a line covering the 
entire length of our rear, and were busily engaged in running 
off stragglers and wounded men that had fallen out of our 
lines, and were quietly awaiting our defeat, to capture our 
forces in their retreat. Just at that point of time General 
Green appeared on the field, much surprised in seeing the 
position of our infantry, until it was explained to him why 
the infantry brigade was turned in that direction. Our artil- 
lery did good service across the bayou, in firing upon the 
scattered troops of the enemy, as they were retreating south- 
ward across the prairie. All this time, however, the arms of 
Majors' and Bagby's brigades were resounding in the dis- 
tance, as they pursued the retreating foe. Some of the ene- 
my's artillery that escaped returned the fire, and an artillery 
duel ensued, which effected but little on either side, and 
ceased in an hour, when our forces were ordered back to 
camp, near Opelousas. The enemy came out in force, and 
their cavalry followed our forces several miles towards our 

This battle, from the first to the last firing, lasted fully 
three hours. It is impossible, in a short sketch of this kind, 
to do justice to the gallant conduct of the officers and men. 
It would afford the writer great pleasure to do so. Our forces 
lost, in the infantry brigade, twenty-one killed; wounded, 


eighty-two; taken prisoners, thirty-eight. Our cavalry and 
artillery lost in killed, three ; wounded, twenty. We cap- 
tioned about six hundred prisoners, and killed and wounded 
about two hundred. Most of the prisoners were captured by 
the cavalry, and, doubtless, many feats of bravery were per- 
formed by them on that occasion, which would deserve a com- 
mendable notice if they could be detailed. 


The Major-General commanding congratulates Brig.-Gen- 
eral Green, and the troops under his command, upon the 
brilliant feat of arms at the Bayou Bourbeaux, on the 3d inst. 
A force greatly inferior to the enemy drove him from all his 
positions, taking and destroying the camp of the 13th Army 
Corps, of the United States army, and bringing off from the 
field over 600 prisoners, including many commissioned officers, 
seven regimental flags, and a considerable number of small 
arms. The veterans of General Green's Division proved 
themselves, on the occasion, worthy of the reputation won on 
other fields. The little brigade of infantry, consisting of 
Koberts' 11th, Speight's 15th (commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Harrison), and Kings 18th — the whole led by Colonel O. M. 
Roberts, and not carrying over 950 muskets into action — 
charged and broke the enemy's right wing, under a heavy fire 
of musketry and cross-fire of artillery, and routed and dis- 
persed a large cavalry force, which endeavored to pierce 
their lines. The number of their killed and wounded attests 
the spirit and gallantry with which this brigade performed 
their share of the work of this memorable day. With equal 
spirit and like success, Majors' and Bagby's Brigades, the 
latter including Waller's Battalion, forced the enemy's left 
and center, and compelled them to abandon the field. 

For the blow thus vigorously dealt the enemy, the Major- 
General commanding tenders his sincere thanks to Brig.- 
General Green, to Colonels Majors, Bagby, and Boberts, and 
to all the officers and men who participated in the action. 
(Signed,) Major-General Taylok. 



Major-General Walker : 

General, — The Major-General commanding directs me to 
say, in addition to what he has said in his " Official Report " 
of the battle of Bourbeaux, that the conduct of the two regi- 
ments from your division, and at present under General 
Green's command, has responded to his highest hopes and 
expectations. They pressed the veterans of Yicksburg with 
a coolness, resolution, and perseverance that was irresistible. 
Their loss is, in Colonel Roberts' Regiment, four killed, and 
in Colonel King's, ten, with a proportionate number of 
wounded. The men are in cheerful spirits, and eagerly an- 
ticipate dealing a second blow. 

The Major-General commanding presents his congratula- 
tions on the conduct of your men. 

(Signed,) R. Taylor, Major-Gen. Commdg. 
Levy, A. A. General. 

The day after the battle, the enemy having possession of 
the battle-field, our men were buried in the prairie, near the 
battle-field. About a week afterwards, Lieut. Airhuit, of the 
11th Regiment of Infantry, with a detail of men, raised a 
large mound of earth over them, which still stands, covered 
with Bermuda grass, — an honored monument, humble though 
it be, to the memory of the brave Texans who, on the bright 
November day, nobly gave their lives to their country. 

The court-house in Opelousas was made a hospital for our 
wounded, and there occurred a scene that melted into tears 
the most obdurate. It was the sympathy of the women. 
The ladies of Opelousas and its vicinity, young and old, 
Catholic and Protestant, came crowding in, and waited upon 
our men just as if they had been their husbands and brothers. 
Long will be remembered with heartfelt gratitude, by the 
Texas soldiers, the appreciative kindness and sympathy of the 
Louisiana ladies. About ten days after the battle, the enemy 


embarked on board of their transports at Morganzia Land- 
ing, for New Orleans. 


Major William Hoffman, A. A. General of the 13th Army 

Corps : 

Major, — I enclose herewith report of Brig.-General Bur- 
bridge, in regard to the battle of Bourbeaux, on the 3d inst. 
On the morning of the 1st inst., by order of Major-General 
Franklin, the troops of the 3d Division were ordered to march 
and encamp at Carrion-Crow Bayou, while General Bur- 
bridge, with the troops under his command, was ordered to 
march down the Teche, and cross it, and move by way of 
Grand Coteau, where the road from Yermilion to Opelousas 
crosses Muddy Bayou, about three miles from Carrion-Crow 
Bayou, in the direction of Opelousas, and go into camp there, 
on the north side of the bayou. Colonel Fonda, Avith about 
500 mounted infantry, was also ordered to encamp near him. 
The troops all moved and went into camp, as ordered. The 
19th Corps, on the same day, moved back to Carrion-Crow 
Bayou, and on the following day to Vermilionville, leaving 
the 3d and 1st Brigades of the 4th Division of the 13th Corps, 
to hold the positions before named. The position of the 
troops, on the morning of the 3d inst., was then as follows : 
Brig.-General Burbridge, with one brigade of the 4th Division, 
about 1,200 strong, with one 6-gun battery of 10-pounder 
Parrotts, and Colonel Fonda, with about 500 mounted in- 
fantry and a section of Nimm's Battery, on the north side of 
Muddy Bayou ; and the 3d Division, General McGinnis 
commanding, 3,000 strong, with one battery, at Carrion-Crow 
Bayou, three miles in the rear of General Burbridge. The 
two bayous before named run in an easterly direction, nearly 
parallel with each other, and along the stream there is a belt 
of timber, about 150 yards in width, while between the two is 
smooth, level prairie. To the right of General Burbridge's posi- 
tion was an extensive and dense tract of woods, while on his 


front and left, the country was high, open prairie. About 9 
o'clock in the morning of the 3d, I received an order from 
General Burbridge, saying that the enemy had shown himself 
in some force. I immediately ordered out the 3d Division, and 
just as I had got them into line, I received another note from 
General Burbridge, saying that the enemy had entirely dis- 
appeared. Ordering the division to remain under arms, I 
rode rapidly to the front, and learning from General Burbridge 
and Colonel Fonda that all was quiet, and that such troops 
of the enemy as had shown themselves had all fallen back, I 
started to return to my headquarters, near the 3d Division. 
When I had arrived at about midway between the two camps, 
I heard a rapid cannonade. Sending two members of my 
staff to the rear, to bring up the 3d Division, I rode back to 
the front, and, crossing the bayou and passing through the 
timber to the open ground, I soon discovered that we were 
assailed with terrible energy, by an overwhelming force, in 
front and on both flanks. Many of the troops had broken, 
and were scattered over the field, and the utter destruction or 
capture of the whole force seemed imminent. 

The attack on the right, through the woods, was made by 
infantry, and though our troops fought most gallantly on that 
wing, they were compelled to give way before overwhelming 
numbers. Here it was that we lpst most of our men in killed 
and wounded. The 23d Wisconsin, Colonel Gubby com- 
manding ; 96th Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Brown commanding ; 
and 60th Indiana, commanded by Captain Gatzler ; and 17th 
Ohio Battery, Captain Rice commanding, fought with the 
greatest desperation, holding the enemy in check for a con- 
siderable space of time, but for which our entire train, with 
our artillery, would have been captured. As it was, General 
Burbridge was enabled to bring off every wagon, and all 
government property, with the exception of one 10-pounder 
Parrott gun, which was captured just as it was crossing the 
bayou, the horses having been shot. The bringing off of the 
section of Nimms' Battery commanded by Lieutenant Mar- 
land, after the regiment sent to its support had surrendered, 


extorted the admiration of every beholder. "While the fight 
was proceeding, the 3d Division came up on a double-quick, 
but by the time they had reached the middle of the prairie, 
and one and a half miles from the scene of action, General 
Burbridge's command had been driven entirely out of the 
woods, while the rebel cavalry, in great force, charged through 
the narrow belt of timber on the left, and were coming down 
on his rear. By this time the 3d Division had come within 
range, formed in line, and commenced shelling them, which 
immediately checked their further advance, while General 
Burbridge, who had again got his guns into position, opened 
a cross-fire upon them, when the whole force of the enemy 
retreated to the cover of the woods. Our whole force was 
deployed in line of battle, and moved as rapidly as possible 
through the woods, driving the enemy out of it, who retreated 
rapidly. I moved the troops up on their line of retreat about 
one and a half miles, while the cavalry pursued about three 
miles. My men being brought up at a double-quick, were 
very much exhausted, and it was not possible to pursue 
further. Our losses are 26 killed, 120 wounded, and 566 
missing. The loss of the enemy, in killed, was about 60 ; 
number of wounded not known, as they carried all but 12 off 
the ground ; but wounded officers, who were taken prisoners, 
represent the number of wounded as being very large. We 
took 65 prisoners. 

Brigadier-General McGinnis, being very ill, was not able to 
be on the field. The troops of the division behaved admi- 
rably under the command of Brigadier-General Cameron, of 
the 1st, and Colonel Slack, of the 2d Brigade. The action 
of General Burbridge was gallant and judicious, from the 
time I first saw him until the close of the engagement. The 
conduct of the 67th Regiment, Indiana Infantry, was inex- 
plicable, and their surrender can only be attributed to the 
incompetency or cowardice of the commanding officer. They 
had not a single man killed. Our mounted force, under 
Colonels Fonda and Robinson, though very small, behaved 
very handsomely. I left at Carrion-Crow Bayou, to hold 


that position, three regiments of the 3d Division, namely, the 
11 th Indiana, 29th Wisconsin, and 24th Iowa, with one section 
of artillery. It was fortunate that I did so, for while the 
fight was proceeding with General Burbridge's command, 
Colonel Beylor, of the 1st Texas Mounted Rifles, swept 
around on our left, and attacked the camp at Carrion-Crow 
Bayou ; but they were driven off with a loss of three killed ; 
we lost none. I refer particularly to the report of General 
Burbridge for the names of those deserving honorable men- 
tion. On the 4th hist, the enemy sent in a flag of truce, pro- 
posing to give up such of our wounded as they had, not hav- 
ing the means to take care of them. I sent for and received 
forty-seven. They refused to give up our wounded officers — 
among them, Colonel Gubby, of the 23d Wisconsin, a most 
gallant and meritorious officer. Though wounded, I am pleased 
to learn that his wound is not severe, and that all our prison- 
ers are well treated. As to the force of the enemy engaged, 
opinions are conflicting ; but, from the best data I have, I 
judge them to have been from six to seven thousand, the 
whole under the command of Brigadier-General Green. 
(Signed,) C. C. Washbukne, 

Major-General Commanding. 




BOUT noontime, on the 8th November, we took 
up our line of march for Simmsport. Marched ten 
miles, and camped near the town of Evergreen. 

Nov. 9th. Passed through Evergreen, and marched four- 
teen miles. 

Nov. 10th. Marched sixteen miles ; passed by Moreau- 
ville and Simmsport, and camped on the banks of the 
Atchafalaya Bayou. The engineer corps, under command of 
Captain Boyd, were employed in constructing a pontoon bridge 
across the bayou. While awaiting the completion of the 
bridge, many of the troops employed their leisure time in 
fishing. On the morning of the 12th, the troops crossed the 
bayou on flat-boats, the bridge not having been completed. 
About sunset all the troops had crossed. "We camped for the 
night near Colonel Simms' residence, opposite Simmsport. 

Nov. 13th. Marched ten miles, in the direction of the Mis- 
sissippi River ; camped on Bayou Letsworth, within four miles 
of the river. We remained at this camp until the 20th inst. 
On the evening of the 14th, a detail of twenty-four men from 
each regiment in the division went on picket, at the mouth of 
Red River. The following day, the pioneer corps, accompanied 
by the 8th Infantry (Colonel Young's Regiment), and Daniels', 
Edgar's, Halderman's, Semms' and West's Batteries of Light 
Artillery followed after. During the night they took their 
positions on the banks of the river. The morning of the 16th 
dawned to behold the river-bank bristling with cannon, ready 
to open fire on any of the enemy's " craft " that should 
attempt to run the " gauntlet." In the afternoon a transport 


made her appearance, and was signaled from the gun-boats. 
She " about-shipped," and returned up the river again. Shortly 
after the transport left, the gun-boat Cherokee hoisted 
anchor, and steamed down the river, on a reconnoitering 
tour. After passing our lowermost battery, she returned 
to her mooring again, satisfied, I suppose, that the banks of 
the river were clear of " rebels." Our artillery officers, hav- 
ing received orders not to waste any ammunition in firing at 
gun-boats, but to pay particular attention to transports, 
allowed the gun-boat to pass by unmolested. Nothing 
worthy of note transpired in camp, except the usual changes 
of the different regiments relieving each other on picket, 
until the morning of the 18th, when along came a transport 
loaded with troops. When opposite our batteries, she 
rounded to and tied up, on the opposite bank of the river, 
waiting, I suppose, until the heavy fog on the river should 
clear off. Morning at last dawned, and preparations were 
made to open fire on her. Three companies of the 16th 
Infantry were ordered to take position on the river-bank, 
with instructions to open fire on her as soon as the artillery 
fired. When about ready to leave her mooring, our batteries 
opened fire on her, tearing her from stem to stern. The 
infantry fired some thirty rounds before she floated down 
the river. One of her wheel-houses was torn away ; the stove 
in the kitchen was upset by a cannon-ball ; and, from the 
upsetting of the stove, the kitchen or cook-house caught 
fire, doing considerable damage. The gun-boat Cherokee 
soon came to her assistance, and escorted her down the river. 
From New Orleans papers, received in camp shortly after- 
wards, we learned that the name of the transport was the Black 
Hawk. After the return of the gun-boat Cherokee, she com- 
menced shelling our troops, but without doing any damage. 
While the cannonading was going on, a portion of Mouton's 
Louisiana Division arrived, in time to participate in the 
frolic. They seemed fully determined not to allow the Texas 
troops to have all the fun. As soon as they had taken their 
position, our troops returned to camp on Bayou Letsworth, 


excepting our artillery, who still remained to assist Mouton's 
troops. During the evening, five gun-boats made their appear- 
ance ; black clouds of smoke came belching forth from their 
chimneys. When opposite our batteries, they rounded to 
and formed for action. The signal being given by the Chero- 
kee, " Rats, to your holes ! " was the cry among the troops. 
Broadside after broadside was given without dislodging our 
troops. Apparently to change their programme, they changed 
their position to cross-firing. During the cannonading, 
our troops did not return the fire, having no ammunition to 
waste at random. The cannonading continued for about three 
hours. Our loss was one man killed. He was killed while 
playing cards, near the top of the levee. A round shot 
ricochets-, and strikes him, with a dull, heavy sound, and bounds 
over him. He is stone dead. The two men on each side of 
him, playing the game with him, drop their cards, rise up, 
lift the corpse, lay it down under a tree in the rear, cover his 
face with his blanket, come back to the old place, lie down 
on the same fated spot, and grasp their muskets to avenge his 
death, without saying a word ! How brave, how cool, how 
dauntless these men are ! One of the gun-boats, more daring, 
probably, than the rest, concluded to come close up to the 
river-bank, to see, I suppose, whether the rebels had skedad- 
dled. One of our batteries opened fire on her, with grape 
and canister, tearing away her wheel-house, and otherwise 
damaging her, thus compelling her to withdraw in a hurry. 
Satisfied, I suppose, that she had experienced enough from the 
rebels, several of the other gun-boats came to her assistance, 
and towed her to her anchorage, at the mouth of Red River. 
On the morning of the 19th, the 19th Regiment of Infantry, 
commanded by Colonel Wash. Jones, in company with Dan- 
iels' Battery, proceeded down the river-bank to Morganzia 
Landing, about twenty miles distant, to watch a better oppor- 
tunity for transports. On their arrival at Morganzia they 
placed their battery so as to sweep the river either way. 
The enemy seemed to be aware of their movements, as all of 
their transports were escorted by gun-boats. On the morning 


of the 20th, the division took up the line of march, in the 
direction of Morganzia Landing. After marching fifteen 
miles, we arrived at camp. We remained at this camp until 
the evening of the 30th, when we took up the line of march 
back again to our old camp-ground, on Bayou Letsworth. 
During the march, the 19th Infantry rejoined the command. 
We encamped at our old camping-ground over night. The fol- 
lowing morning, December 1st, we took up the line of march 
for Plaquemine, a small town on the Mississippi River. 
Marched twenty miles clown Bayou Letsworth, and camped. 

Dec. 2d. Marched ten miles. Our march to-day was prin- 
cipally through a cane-brake. 

Dec. 3d. Marched eighteen miles. Passed by the old 
battle-field of Bayou Fordoche. We beheld several corpses 
exposed to the rays of the sun, some of them apparently only 
half buried. A detail of our men was left, in charge of an 
officer, to put the graves in proper order. After passing the 
battle-field some two miles, we camped on Bayou Gross 
Tete, where we remained until the morning of the 8th. This 
section of country might have been termed the " Paradise " 
of Louisiana before the war ; but alas, what a change has 
befallen it now ! The houses are all deserted ; occasionally you 
meet with a few old, faithful negroes, left by their owners to 
take care of their place until their return. Here you can 
behold mansion after mansion, including costly sugar-houses, 
now going to decay. While we were encamped here we 
learned that the enemy was aware of our programme. The 
garrison at Plaquemine was heavily reinforced, and, in addition 
to the reinforcements of the garrison, there were thirteen 
gun-boats, at the mouth of Plaquemine Bayou. General Walk- 
er, believing it would be folly on his part to undertake to 
capture a place which, even if successful, it would be impossi- 
ble for him to hold, declined making the attempt ; conse- 
quently, we about-faced and marched back in the direction of 
Morgan's Ferry, on the Atchafalaya Bayou. After marching 
eight miles, we arrived at camp. While on the march, the 
16th Infantry, commanded by Colonel Flournoy, and Captain 


Daniels' Battery, were sent on an expedition to the Mississippi 
River, to interrupt the passage of any transports plying on the 
river. The clay after their arrival, the steamer Yan Pool 
made her appearance. When opposite our battery, she was 
summoned to surrender. Not complying with the request, 
our troops opened fire on her, killing the pilot, and wounding 
the captain and several other parties on board. She finally 
made her escape, considerably the " worse for wear." After 
the transport got beyond the reach of our guns, our troops 
withdrew from the river to rejoin their command. Soon after 
they left, three gun-boats came down the river, and com- 
menced shelling where they supposed the rebels were. 

On the morning of the 9th we continued our march. 
Marched twenty-one miles. The weather commenced to be 
squally ; the rain fell in torrents ; many of the troops were 
unable to get to camp ; our train and artillery had to remain 
in the swamps, the roads through them being impassable in 
the black darkness of a cloudy night. Their situation was by 
no means an agreeable one. 

Dec. 10th. Marched ten miles, and arrived at Morgan's 
Ferry ; the rain was pouring down in torrents. The troops 
quickly put up their blankets in tent form, on their arrival, 
for the purpose of making a shelter for the night. The 
roads were knee-deep in mud, oftentimes holding the men 
fast, who, in the struggle, left their shoes behind, or fell into 
some hole, out of which they were dragged coated over like 
a pie-crust. The artillery got stuck in the mud, and the men 
had to drag it out. Sometimes rider and horse would roll 
into deep ruts. They were soon up again, the men and 
horses looking like some strange animals covered with a coat 
of mud-mail. 




Major "W. M. Levy, A. A. & I. General : 

Major, — Id order to carry out what I supposed to be the 
wishes of the Major-General commanding the district, 
that I should attack the enemy at the town of Plaque- 
mine, I left the mouth of Red River on the morning of 
the 1st of December, and, after much difficulty in getting our 
artillery and train over the interior roads rendered neces- 
sary to take in order to avoid the banks of the Mississippi, 
my advance reached this point (Lavina) last night. Pre- 
vious to my reaching here, my information in regard to 
the strength of the enemy's force at Plaquemine, and the 
nature of the defenses, natural and artificial, led me to 
hope it possible that, by rapid movements, we could carry the 
place by a coup de main, before the enemy could receive intel- 
ligence of our designs, or before he could receive reinforce- 
ments. At this point, however, I have received the most 
exact and entirely reliable information in regard to the 
strength of the garrison, and the nature of the defenses. In 
addition, I am well assured that a spy of the enemy yester- 
day afternoon carried him the information of our movement, 
which leaves no longer a hope that we will be able to effect a 
surprise. We are still forty miles from the point to be 
attacked. There is an absolute certainty that we will meet 
such resistance as will render the capture of Plaquemine, if 
not impracticable, only possible at an expense of life that we 
cannot afford. I am fortified in this opinion by the unani- 
mous concurrence of Brigadier-General Mouton, command- 


ing division, and Ms brigade commanders, and the brigade 
commanders of my own division. The circumstances of my 
position and the great necessity to preserve from useless 
sacrifice the only force left us for the defense of "Western 
Louisiana, compelled me to abandon the attempt on Plaque- 
mine, a position of no strategic importance, and to content 
myself for the present "with opposing such obstacles as may 
be in my power to the navigation of the Mississippi River. 




the morning of December 11, 1863, we commenced 
re-crossing the Atchafalaya, at Morgan's Ferry. 
W^I^M After all the troops had crossed, including Mouton's 
Division, we camped two miles from the ferry. The rain com- 
menced pouring down in torrents. We built huge fires, and 
remained standing by them all night. It was impossible to 
lie down, as the camp-ground was entirely covered with water. 

Dec. 12th. Left camp at sunrise, without any breakfast. 
Marched ten miles, through the bottoms, and camped on the 
bayou bank. 

Dec. 13th. Marched seventeen miles. Passed through Simms- 
port, and camped on Bayou De Glaize, about two miles and a 
half north of Simmsport. Soon after our arrival in camp, the 
weather cleared off. We remained at this camp until the 
morning of the 15th, when Haws' and Eandall's Brigades 
were ordered to Marksville, there to go into winter quarters. 
Although late in the season, it was better late than never. 
Scurry's Brigade remained behind for the protection of the 
Atchafalaya country. After the arrival of Haws' and Randall's 
Brigades at their camp, near Marksville, they commenced 
preparations to protect themselves from the winter's blast, by 
building huts and making their quarters comfortable. 

Scurry's Brigade was more fortunate, in having better quar- 


ters than Haws' and Randall's Brigades. The day after the 
withdrawal of Haws' and Randall's Brigades, Scurry's Brig- 
ade moved froni their camp on Bayou De Glaize, to the Nor- 
wood plantation, one mile north of Bayou De Glaize, where 
they took possession of some negro cabins (then vacated), 
making themselves perfectly at home. A company from each 
regiment in the brigade was sent on picket at Simmsport, to 
protect the pontoon bridge in the Atchafalaya Bayou, 
and to be on the lookout for the enemy. Nothing worthy of 
notice transpired in camp until the morning of the 23d, when 
Scurry's Brigade crossed the Atchafalaya Bayou, and pro- 
ceeded in the direction of the Mississippi River, in order to 
capture a foraging party of the enemy that was playing gen- 
eral havoc along the bank of the Mississippi River. The 16th 
Infantry, commanded by Colonel Flournoy, was sent in ad- 
vance of the brigade to ascertain the strength of the enemy. 
They advanced within a few miles of the enemy's camp # 
Night overtaking them, they slept on their arms during the 

We will accompany a regiment going out on picket, in order 
to give our readers an idea of how the men got on. Their 
blankets are thrown over their shoulders ; their guns are clean 
and bright ; they take up the line of march in the direction of 
the enemy. Arriving within a few miles of the enemy, they 
halt and establish their reserve posts, while, further on, they 
place their pickets, with strict orders to keep a sharp lookout. 
It was night; the men had to scramble through the brush and 
trees, through ravines, to gain the different stations. 

Thus, our pickets in front quietly and noiselessly keep their 
posts. They are relieved every two hours, and go back to 
join their commands, who are grouped around a blazing fire 
in some ravine, sheltered from the enemy's observation. Here 
they refresh themselves out of their haversacks, and, perhaps, 
■join in a game of cards, or listen to those wonderful tales that, 
like those of the " Arabian Nights," are got up for the enter- 
tainment of the company. 

Only the experienced can know the real state of a man's mind 


when on picket duty, especially if in hourly expectation of 
the enemy's approach. They alone can understand the watch- 
fulness and care necessary to protect the line, as well as the 
body of the sentinel. Eyes and ears must be ever ready to 
catch the faintest sound, and the musket must be in place for 
instant duty in the event of an alarm. 

On the morning of the 24th, our pickets reported that the 
enemy had embarked on board of their transports during the 
night, owing, I suppose, to hearing of our approach. Scur- 
ry's Brigade soon returned to their old camping-ground, 
without the opportunity of having a " brush " with the 

Leaving Scurry's Brigade at their old camp, we will proceed 
on our journey to Marksville, where Haws' and Randall's 
Brigades are encamped, and see how they are enjoying 
Christmas. For the most part, the men were actively engaged 
during the day, by the duties and routine of camp-life. It is 
only at night that this busy hum of martial life and bustle 
sinks into repose. Then five thousand camp-fires glow and 
sparkle from hill and dale, looking, through the darkness of 
night, like the gas-lights of a city. The imagination can easily 
picture the scene. The sentinel's challenge, the sound of 
music from the bands, ring clearly and musically on the night 
air ; and the camp-fires glow and flare, around which the 
men are grouped, singing, joking, and laughing, with a light- 
hearted ease, as if they never knew " dull care." Most of 
them are full of practical jokes, light and sparkling as 
champagne, and had a gay faculty of taking the sunny side of 
everything. Near one of the huge fires a kind of arbor was 
nicely constructed of the branches of trees, which were so in- 
terwoven as to form a kind of wall. Inside this were seated 
a couple of fiddlers, making elegant music on their fiddles. 
Around the fire, groups were dancing jigs, reels, and doubles. 
Even the officers' colored servants had collected in a group by 
themselves, and, while some timed the music by slapping their 
hands on their knees, others were capering and whirling 
around in the most grotesque manner, showing their white 


teeth as they grinned their delight, or " yah, yah"ed, at the 
boisterous fun. 

It is no wonder that a great portion of the troops were 
gathered around there, for it was Christmas night, and home 
thoughts and home longings were crowding on them ; and old 
scenes and fancies would arise, with sad and loving memories, 
until the heart grew weary, and even the truest and tenderest 
longed for home associations that blessed Christmas night. 
On the right of the camp-ground was another arbor, lately 
erected for prayer-meetings at night. It was beautifully lighted 
up with burning pine-knots. Gathered under the arbor were a 
number of soldiers, quietly and attentively listening to the 
words which fell from the lips of the preacher standing in 
their midst — the preacher with his gray locks and wrinkled 
brow showing the foot-prints of time. Amongst the groups 
of eager listeners were men just entering the threshold of life, 
yet whose vocations placed their feet upon the verge of the 
grave. The rows of tents, the black groupings of adjacent shel- 
ters, all made an impressive scene. Occasionally, mingling with 
the preacher's words, came laughter from some group assembled 
round a camp-fire near by, or a shout of some unthinking, free- 
hearted stroller about camp. Words rich with eloquent mean- 
ing rolled from that aged preacher's lips, like rippling waves 
of ocean, successively, rapidly, breaking upon a sandy shore ; 
the light of hidden power burned in his eyes, as he pleaded 
— warned his hearers of the life to come, and the consequences 
of an unprepared condition for its hidden realities. The ex- 
hortation finished, a closing hymn was sung, rolling its waves 
of fine melody out upon the night's still air, over the adjacent 
prairies. The benediction pronounced, the audience dispersed 
to discuss — some in serious, others in jocular vein — the sub- 
ject-matter of the discourse. 

Such is one of the occasional, more impressive scenes from 
camp-life on a Christmas night. 

No wonder if, amidst such scenes, the soldier's thoughts fled 
back to his home, to his loved wife, to the kisses of his darling 
child, to the fond Christmas greetings of his parents, brothers, 


sisters, and friends, until his eyes were dimmed with the dews 
of his heart. The soldier feels a longing desire, particularly 
at Christmas-time, for the pleasant, genial firesides and lov- 
ing hearts of home. How many of that group, ere another 
Christmas comes around, will sleep in a bloody and nameless 
grave ? Generous and kind hands may smooth the dying sol- 
dier's couch, or he may linger for days, tortured by thirst and 
pain, his festering wounds creeping with maggots, his tongue 
swollen, and a fierce fever fastening upon his body, as he lies 
out on that dreary battle-field ; or, perhaps, he has dragged 
himself beneath the shade of some pine-tree, to die by inches, 
where no eye but God's and his pityiDg angels' shall see him, 
where no human aid can succor him. Years afterwards, some 
wayfarer may discover a skeleton, with the remains of a knap- 
sack under the skull. This is too often the end of the sol- 
dier's dreams of glory, and all 

" The pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war." 

It is but a short transition from love, and hope, and life, to 
sorrow and death. Another Christmas, and many a Texas 
home will be steeped in affliction for the loving friends who 
have laid their bones on the battle-fields of Arkansas and 

Dec. 26th. To-day, the troops received four months' pay, in 
Confederate money, a species of money not very useful to the 

Dec. 27th. Last night we had a heavy thunder-storm and 
bitter norther ; but, after rain, look out for the rise in Eed 
Eiver, and the Atchafalaya Bayou ! Everything was very wet, 
and the camp-fires had hardly begun to smoke, when there 
was an alarm of gun-boats coming up Red Eiver. " Fall in! " 
was shouted on all sides. So soon as the different regiments 
were formed in line, the alarm proved to be a hoax. The 
troops returned to their quarters, and resumed cooking their 
breakfast ; the day was spent in growling about the parties that 
gave the false alarm. 

Dec. 28. To-day opened with cold, piercing weather ; in the 


afternoon, it commenced to snow. The men retired under 
their blankets, and into their huts. The wind howled above 
us, and the snow fell thick and fast. 

Dec. 29th. During last night the weather cleared up, but 
notwithstanding that, the morning was dark, damp, and 
gloomy, enveloping the prairie near us in such an impenetra- 
ble fog that nothing was discernible in the direction of the 
river. At noon, however, the sun appeared and rapidly ab- 
sorbed the veil in its majestic brightness. At dress-parade, 
orders were read to us, that no person was allowed to cross 
the Atchafalaya without a permit froni district headquarters. 
If this caution had prevailed from the commencement, it would 
have kept out the Yankee spies, who were acting in the garb 
of cotton buyers, and at the same time gathering all the in- 
formation necessary for the enemy to profit by. Many of the 
troops suspected there was foul play used in some manner or 
shape, and meetings were held among themselves, denouncing 
the cotton-buying scheme as an act of treason to the honest 
and patriotic people of the South. In this movement I con- 
sider they acted with prudence and forethought, as they had 
justifiable grounds for their action. Many of our men that 
were taken prisoners at Pleasant Hill, afterwards recognized 
some of the said cotton-buyers acting in the capacity of staff 
officers to General Banks, the Federal commander. After the 
troops had the assurance that no more cotton would be sold to 
the enemy, nothing unusual transpired in camp, except the gen- 
eral routine of camp-life, such as guard-duty, drills, details 
for cleaning camp, cutting wood, bringing water, and the vari- 
ous other daily duties upon which our boys throve and grew 
fat. The gay songs and amusing incidents, so common to a 
soldier's life, kept us all in fine spirits, and were sources of 
pleasure in helping to beguile time of its monotony, until the 
morning of the 30th, when it was generally reported in camp 
that five gun-boats and one transport loaded with troops had 
arrived at the mouth of the Atchafalaya Bayou. In the mean 
time, General Scurry had formed his brigade and Haider- 
man's Battery at Simmsport, to give the enemy a warm recep- 


tion in case they made their appearance. Late in the even- 
ing, we learned, much to our surprise, that the enemy was on 
their way up Black Biver, to attack Fort Beauregard again, at 
Harrisonburg. General Polignac's Division crossed Bed Biver 
to harass and annoy the enemy, which they accomplished, 
compelling them to withdraw from Black Biver, without being 
able to reach Fort Beauregard. Our loss was comparatively 
small, while the enemy's must have been great. General 
Polignac's troops fought them an entire day from behind the 
levee, killing many of their pilots and gunners. 

Thus closed the monotony of camp life for the year 1863. 
The weather was unusually rainy and stormy ; yet happy, 
very many happy hours were spent in those rough huts, de- 
spite storms without. 

The new year dawned clear and pleasant, with the thunder 
of war echoing over the land. The year 1864 witnessed one 
of the most fierce, desperate, and bloody struggles that the 
world had ever seen. The holidays passed away without 
anything of interest transpiring. Of course the towns of 
Alexandria and Shreveport were the theater of many gay and 
festive scenes among the post-officers. To the private soldier 
they differed little from other days. He had the same round 
of duties to perform, without relaxation or relief. Ah ! how 
he missed the joyous scenes and festivities of more peaceful 
times, when he mingled in gay throngs, or participated in the 
pleasant reunions around the home altar ! Such memories 
were of the past, while the present was full of clouded reali- 
ties, and the future seemed to contain no olive-branch of 
peace for the land. 

The excitement about the gun-boats being pretty much 
over, Scurry's Brigade commenced building fortifications at 
the mouth of Yellow Bayou, a short distance from Simmsport. 
Nothing of any importance transpired in camrj until the morn- 
ing of the 13th, when it was again reported that the enemy's 
gun-boats had entered the mouth of Bed Biver, and it was 
generally supposed that they would ascend up as far as Alex- 
andria, or j3erhaps attempt to enter the Atchafalaya Bayou, 


and destroy the pontoon bridge. On the morning of the 14th 
our pickets reported that the gun-boats had withdrawn during 
the night. After the excitement about the gun-boats had 
died away, nothing of interest transpired in camp until the 
morning of the 20th, when a niatch-drill for an elegant banner 
took place between the 8th Kegiment (Colonel Young's) of 
Haws' Brigade, and the 11th Regiment (Colonel Roberts') of 
Randall's Brigade. The banner was awarded to the 8th 
Regiment, by General Walker, in a neat and appropriate 

The ordinary routine of camp duties took place every day 
without disturbing the monotony of a soldier's life — without 
anything worthy of notice, until the first day of February, 
when a squad of 100 men, from Scurry's Brigade, crossed the 
Atchafalaya Bayou, for the purpose of capturing a company 
of the enemy that was encamped on the opposite bank of the 
Mississippi River. Our troops intended to cross the river 
during the night, on an old flat-boat they had secured. After 
arriving at the bank of the river, they waited until dark. 
After they embarked on board, they discovered that the boat 
was in a leaky condition and not safe ; consequently they re- 
turned to their camp the following day. In the mean time 
Captain Clark, of General Scurry's staff, crossed the river in 
a skiff, and set fire to a large quantity of the enemy's cotton 
that was piled up opposite the mouth of Red River. 

The balance of the month of February passed by without 
hearing any further news from the enemy's gun-boats. The 
troops were enjoying fine health. A liberal system of fur- 
loughing was granted by General Walker, which gave general 
satisfaction to the troops. 

During the latter part of February, Brigadier-General Haws, 
commanding the 1st Brigade, was relieved from command, 
and was assigned to the command of Galveston Island, Texas. 
General Haws was an officer very much respected by his 
troops. Before his departure for Texas, a meeting of the 
officers and soldiers of his brigade was held, in order to ex- 
press their feelings. The meeting was a large and enthusi- 


astic one, and prominent speakers were on hand. A commit- 
tee was appointed to draft resolutions in regard to the loss of 
their commander. The resolutions were as follows, and were 
fully indorsed by the entire troops of his brigade : 

" Whereas, we are called upon to surrender our honored 
commander, Brigadier-General J. M. Haws, to another field 
of duty, in the holy cause of our struggling country, the wis- 
dom of whose rulers has selected him to a sphere of action 
more consonant with his acknowledged abilities, 

" Therefore, Resolved, That we cannot permit him to de- 
part without bearing with him an earnest expression of our 
high regard. By his mild, but firm, discipline, his unflinching 
pursuit of the dictates of duty, coupled with a paternal solici- 
tude for the safety and comfort of his troops, he has now not 
only the esteem, but the unfeigned affection of every officer 
and soldier of his command. Happily combining the most 
distinguished traits of a soldier and a gentleman, he required 
not our cordial wishes, however eagerly tendered, to insure 
the proudest success, wherever duty may call or his own fer- 
vid patriotism lead him." 

Shortly after General Haws' departure, Brigadier-General 
T. N. Waul (late of WauTs Legion) arrived in camp from 
Texas to take command of the 1st Brigade. The following 
officers comprised his staff, viz. : 

Major H. B. Adams, Quartermaster. 
" M. S. Munson, Commissary. 
Capt. John G. Ashe, Asst. Insp. -General. 
1st Lieut. R. W. Broduax, Aid-de-Camp. 
Capt. Adolph King, Asst. Adjt. -General. 

On the first day of March, four gun-boats, loaded with 
troops, ascended the Washita River to Fort Beauregard, at 
Harrisonburg, for the purpose of again destroying the fort. 
When this fort had been occupied previously by the Federal 
troops, they destroyed it, as they believed, forever ; but as 
soon as they adjourned, after their depredations, sufficient 
force was employed to make the fort impregnable against 
any force hereafter that the enemy might bring against it. 


Heavy firing was heard in the direction of Fort Beaure- 
gard. After bombarding the fort for several hours they 
finally withdrew, without doing much harm to the fort or gar- 

On the evening of the 4th, the gun-boats that had been 
bombarding Fort Beauregard made their appearance off the 
Atchafalaya Bayou. Captain Halderman's Battery was placed 
in position at Simmsport, supported by Scurry's Brigade, 
where they awaited the aj^proach of the enemy. Late in the 
evening a courier arrived from the mouth of the bayou, and 
informed General Scurry that the gun-boats had withdrawn. 
On the morning of the 5th, General Scurry's Brigade quit 
work on the fortification known as Fort Humbug, on Yellow 
Bayou, which proved afterwards a very appropriate name. 

March 6th. All of the sick of the division were ordered to 
be sent to Alexandria, there to be transported on boats to 

On the evening of the 7th, Scurry's Brigade was notified to 
hold itself in readiness to march at a moment's notice ; news 
was received that Banks' army, numbering some 30,000, was 
encamped at Brashear City, and its destination supposed to 
be the Red River country. Having received no further news 
from the enemy until the 11th, no particular notice was taken 
of the alarm. We ascertained on that day that the enemy 
was encamped near the town of Franklin, on Bayou Teche. 
On the evening of the 12th, Scurry's Brigade took its position 
at " Fort Humbug." They learned that several of the enemy's 
gun-boats and transports, loaded with troops, had arrived at 
Simmsport, even before our infantry pickets were informed by 
our cavalry pickets of the approach of the enemy. Our in- 
fantry pickets were taken completely by surprise. They made 
a narrow escape from being captured. 

General Scurry was not a commander to be daunted ; 
neither he nor his troops feared to meet the enemy, whatever 
might be their numbers — however tried their bravery. From 
information received afterwards, it seems that General Scurry 
was aware of the approach of the enemy : he was informed a 


few days previous, by a young lady living across the Atcha- 
falaya Bayou. The heroism of this young lady, riding several 
miles through the woods, showed what Southern women 
would do for their country. It is to be regretted that her 
name was not jotted down to adorn the pages of this his- 
tory. Yet she is not forgotten in the minds of Scurry's 

General Scurry, hearing of the landing of the enemy at 
Simmsport, at once sent a courier to General Walker, inform- 
ing him of the landing of the enemy. Scurry's Brigade, hav- 
ing remained in line of battle some time without seeing or 
hearing anything about the enemy, had some doubts about 
their landing. Many of the troops even doubted the landing 
of the enemy ; but they soon learned that the report was 
too true, by the rapid advance of our infantry pickets, in a 
«' double-quick," coming towards us. On their arrival we 
learned from them that the banks of the Atchafalaya were 
literally crowded with live Yankees. They informed us, 
furthermore, that they lost all then cooking utensils, and, if 
they had not been better runners than the Yankees, they would 
have had them with their cooking utensils. General Scurry's 
line of battle was so arranged that, in case of an attack from 
the front, the attacking battery would suffer severely before 
they would be able to cross the bayou in front of our fortifi- 
cations. The bridge across Yellow Bayou was destroyed by 
our pioneer corps, after our infantry pickets had crossed. 
General Scurry and staff appeared to be in the height of their 
glory, as they rode along the line. General Scurry made a 
brief remark to his troops, informing them that, although he 
did not make a speech to them when he took command of the 
brigade, when called upon to do so, he would now address 
them a few words, and the sum and substance of his remarks 
were^ " that he expected every officer and soldier of his bri- 
gade to do his duty." Three hearty cheers were given for 
General Scurry, three for General "Walker, and three for 
" Fort Humbug." After the cheering had terminated, the 
troops waited anxiously behind their breastworks, until late 


in the evening, expecting to see the blue-coated gentlemen ; 
but it seems they took matters coolly, from the fact that they 
remained behind the protection of their gun-boats until the 
following morning, apparently not caring whether Scurry's 
Brigade held possession of Fort Humbug or not. 





'\ENEBAL WALKEE, having been notified of the 
s^£ strength of the enemy at Simmsport, which consisted 
of some 15,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and a like pro- 
portion of artillery, numbering in all about 18,000, part of 
the same forces that had been operating in the State of Mis- 
sissippi, under General Sherman, and commanded by Gen- 
eral A. J. Smith, immediately ordered General Scurry to fall 
back and join the main forces of the division, near Marks- 
ville. Scurry's Brigade, after taking a final adieu of Fort 
Humbug, left their camp about 10 o'clock at night, and fell 
back slowly. After marching twelve miles they camped near 
Moreauville. The following morning they marched five miles 
and formed a junction with the balance of the troops, at the 
Long Bridge, near Moreauville. 

During the day, the enemy advanced in force as far as 
Moreauville, while their cavalry came a mile or two beyond, 
capturing three wagons belonging to Scurry's Brigade, which 
had been sent back to their old camp after baggage. After 
encountering our pickets they fell back. 

Major E. P. McClay, A. A. General : 

For the information of the General commanding, I have 
the honor to report, that on the 12th I was informed by the 


pickets stationed at Keel River Landing, on the Mississippi 
River, that three transports, crowded with troops, accom- 
panied by two gun-boats, had entered the mouth of Red 
River. Almost simultaneously a courier from the pickets 
on Old River arrived with information that these vessels had 
entered the Atchafalaya, and that fourteen gun-boats had 
entered the mouth of Red River. I immediately put the bri- 
gade in motion for Simmsport, intending, if I arrived in time, to 
oppose, with all the means at my disposal, their landing ; or, in 
case they had landed, to drive them aboard their vessels. 
My brigade numbered about 1,400 bayonets, with Haider- 
man's Battery of Light Artillery, while the force of the enemy 
aboard of their transports was supposed to be, at least, 
2,000. With no greater disparity than this, I felt perfectly 
confident ol my ability to attack them with success. My 
command had passed the works at Yellow Bayou, when I 
received information that fifteen additional' transports had 
entered the Atchafalaya, loaded with troops, escorted by 
three more gun-boats ; that ten transports, with troops 
aboard, and ten gun-boats had gone up Red River. The 
movement down the Atchafalaya had, for the moment 
severed all communication with the small body of cavalry 
stationed east of the bayou, for the purpose of observing the 
enemy's proceedings on the Mississippi ; thus depriving me 
of all means of watching a road leading from Red River, 
around the big bend of Bayou De Glaize, to Moreauville, im- 
mediately in my rear. This road was perfectly practicable 
for an army of all arms ; and if the enemy chose to avail 
himself of it, he might interpose a superior force between me 
and other brigades of the division, and thus prevent my join- 
ing them with my command. 

To preserve my communications with the forces under the 
immediate command of the Major-General, I resolved to fall 
back beyond the junction of the two roads, without engaging 
the enemy ; for an engagement at that time could have had 
no other object than to ascertain the number of the enemy's 
forces. A conflict for such purpose would have resulted in a 


useless waste of life and blood, if not have hazarded the 
loss of the entire command, for an object that could be better 
attained by other means. A nearer approximation of their 
numbers could be had by ascertaining the number of vessels 
engaged in the transportation of the troops ; and this, before 
leaving, I definitely ascertained to be twenty-seven trans- 
ports, which landed their troops at Simmsport, and which, at a 
low estimate, would give them 18,000, including those on the 
ten transports that had gone up Ked River. In addition to 
this there were equally urgent considerations impelling me to 
place myself immediately within easy distance of the other 
brigades of the division. The forces in front of me were a 
portion of Sherman's command ; of this there could be no 
doubt. They came down, not up the Mississippi River. We 
had learned from various sources, the most reliable of which 
was proven — the Major-General commanding the district of 
Western Louisiana having expressed his belief in its truth — 
and which subsequent movements have proven to be true, 
that General Banks was organizing a very large force for an 
advance upon Alexandria, by way of Opelousas and the 
Boeuf, and that its appearance might be momentarily ex- 
pected. It was evident that any delay in getting out of the 
trap thus laid for us would enable the foe to successfully 
accomplish the destruction of any of our forces that should 
be caught between them. Ordering the teams and other 
public property back to the bridge on Bayou De Glaize, I 
returned to my old position in the rear of the works on Yel- 
low Bayou. These works were rendered almost useless for 
purposes of defense ; the swamps, which, from being usually 
impassable at this season of the year, had been relied on to 
protect their flanks — otherwise without protection — having 
dried up, and being perfectly practicable for troops. I de- 
termined, however, to avail myself of whatever impediments 
they would oppose to the advance of the enemy, and re- 
mained in position until 10 o'clock, P.M., and then moved 
leisurely and without interruption back, and found the train 
encamped at the bridge on Bayou De Glaize. Up to this time 


the Major-General had been constantly notified, by courier, of 
my movements. At this point I received a communication from 
him, directing me to delay the enemy as much as possible, to 
enable him to make the necessary arrangements to secure the 
public property at Marksville, and that we would form a junc- 
tion near Mansura. The position I occupied at the bridge on 
Bayou De Glaize being such that, in any conflict there, the 
enemy would be able to avail himself to the utmost of his 
great superiority of numbers, I determined to take position 
in the light works at the long bridge over Bayou De Bout. 
In the afternoon, after everything was crossed over, the 
bridge was burned, and the brigade moved about two miles 
to the last-mentioned place, and took position there for the 
purpose of making a stand. The position was naturally a 
strong one, and had been somewhat strengthened by the 
construction of the light works alluded to. I hoped to be able 
to hold the enemy in check here until the Major-General had 
completed his arrangements. His arrival in person relieved 
me from further doubts, and his assuming command put an 
end to all further independent action on my part. 
(Signed,) W. B. Scurry, 

Brig.-General Commanding. 

On the arrival of General Walker, the division lay under 
arms all night (at the long bridge), behind some breastworks 
that were previously built by the Louisiana troops, for the 
better protection of the bridge. It became necessary to burn 
the bridge, to prevent the rapid advance of the enemy, on 
Fort De Bussy, the key of Bed Biver. 

General Walker established his headquarters under a large 
tree, fronting the bridge. In the meantime a heavy picket 
force under command of Colonel Gregg, of the 16th Dis- 
mounted Cavalry, was ordered to watch the movements of the 
enemy till daylight, when General Walker would be able to 
make the best disposition of his troops. During the night 
our wagon-train was moved across Bayou De Lac. The fol- 
lowing morning we marched to within half a mile of the 


village of Mansura, built in the middle of a prairie, and dis- 
tant from the " Long Bridge " about two miles. Line of 
battle was at once formed. General Walker made every 
preparation to give battle at this place. He had selected 
level ground for his infantry to maneuver about on, while 
the site was solid enough for his artillery. He was so 
closely pursued that he was obliged to interrupt the enemy's 
march in order to be able to get his wagon-train out of the 
way. Besides, a retreating army must have some start, that 
they may be able to sleep and eat. It ought also not to have 
the enemy too close to it ; for to suffer an attack by the way, 
with their backs turned, is the most dangerous manner of re- 
ceiving battle. There is then a moment, when the wisest thing 
that can be done is to choose one's ground, and there halt to 
fight. Such was the resolution adopted by General Walker. 
The generalship displayed on this occasion, considering the 
disadvantages under which he labored, has not been excelled 
during the war. 

With a force of only about 6,000 men, and without a sufficient 
force of cavalry to watch the movements of the enemy, he 
kept at bay an army of 18,000, thereby showing his opponent, 
General A. J. Smith, that he had to deal with a foeman 
worthy of his steel. 

The enemy had us apparently in a tight place (if they were 
not afraid), for, by throwing a force up Bayou De Glaize, they 
might have cut off our only road of retreat. As long as we 
remained in line of battle, they made no move to come out of 
the timber. 

General Walker, seeing no possible chance of the enemy 
giving battle, and knowing that Banks' army was moving 
across the country to intercept him, fell slowly back to Bayou 
De Lac, marching twenty-eight miles closely pursued by the 
Federals. Turing the evening, our forces in the rear were 
much harassed by the enemy's cavalry, but a well-planned 
and executed ambush, at the end of a lane, resulted in wound- 
ing several of them, and putting the balance to flight ; this 
deterred them from pressing the pursuit, and by night it had 


ceased altogether. The bridge across Bayou De Lac was 
burned after all the troops had crossed over. 

By this maneuver General "Walker drew the whole force of 
the enemy upon the prairie, and, the bridge being burned, 
rendered pursuit impossible, except by Mansura or Bayou De 
Glaize, a distance of some twenty miles, to Bayou Hough- 
power ; while for us it was but five miles. 

After we crossed Bayou De Lac, the enemy advanced in 
the direction of Fort De Russy, on Bed River, to co-operate 
with their gun-boats. They went forward some 10,000 strong, 
and were repulsed several times, with heavy loss. Finally 
they were reinforced by the whole of A. J. Smith's com- 
mand. They came up in such numbers as to crowd entirely 
into the fort. 

Fort De Russy is situated three miles from Marksville, on 
Red River. The garrison was composed of detached com- 
panies, one from each regiment in the division, numbering 
about 400 men, and was under the command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Byrd. Nothing was saved from the fort but two 
large thirty-two pound Parrott guns. These pieces were 
removed before the arrival of the Federal forces, and accom- 
panied our division on our retreat. These huge guns, trans- 
formed into field pieces, and each drawn by a dozen oxen, 
presented such a novel appearance that, when first seen by 
our troops, they created no little merriment. They were 
christened by the name of the " Bull Battery," by some of 
the troops, and were afterwards thus known during the entire 

We remained encamped at Bayou De Lac until the even- 
ing of the 16th, when we made a night-march of twenty 
miles to Lloyd's bridge, on Bayou Boeuf, some twenty-five 
miles south of Alexandria. For several days after the cap- 
ture of Fort De Russy, we were closely pressed by the 
enemy's cavalry. Sometimes they dashed upon the rear of 
our columns, and, as our command consisted of infantry alone, 
with the exception of one company of cavalry, commanded 
by Captain Faulkiner, our duties were necessarily much 


more arduous than they would otherwise have been. After 
our arrival in camp we learned that the enemy had taken 
possession of Alexandria. 

March 17th. At 5 o'clock, P. M., we fell back some six 
miles further, to the piny woods, and camped. 

March 18th. General Mouton's division formed a junction 
with our division to-day. It consisted of one brigade of 
Texans, commanded by the French General Polignac ; and 
one brigade of Louisianians, commanded by Colonel Grey. 
Late in the day, we were joined by the 2d Louisiana Cav- 
alry, commanded by Colonel Vincent. We marched thirty- 
one miles, traveling part of the night. While we were rest- 
ing a few minutes on our night-march, we were thrown into 
excitement by the startling call, " Who goes there? " of one 
of our advance guard, followed by the heavy report of a 
musket. The hands of every man were instantly upon Ms 
gun, and every preparation was made to resist an attack from 
the enemy's cavalry ; for, in the hurry and alarm, we could 
think of nothing else. Presently we heard a heavy tramp 
coming down the road, indicating a charge from cavalry. The 
troops all of a sudden stampeded, some of them running 
down the bank of a creek alongside of the road, while others 
jumped a fence on the left of the road. To add to the excite- 
ment of the moment, some wag yelled out, at the top 
of his voice, " Charge against cavalry ! " Bayonets were 
fixed, and triggers were cocked ; but we soon discovered the 
cause of alarm, in beholding two Texas beeves that had 
escaped from the drivers, and which were followed by some 
of them, in order to return them to the herd. This alarm 
having been satisfactorily witnessed by the troops, we again 
resumed the march, and arrived at camp, near Heuestone, in 
the piny woods, hungry and exhausted. 

On the 19th the march was resumed. We marched twenty 
miles, and camped near Carroll Jones's, a wealthy free negro. 
At this point we were thirty-five miles from Alexandria, and 
out of all danger of being cut off from Shreveport. Sending all 
of our baggage ahead to facilitate our movements, we had no 


shelter to protect us from the elements, making the damp 
chilly ground our couch, and the azure sky our only covering. 
Add to this the tortures of hunger and want of sufficient 
apparel, which all endured with comparatively little murmuring 
or complaining, and it shows a spirit which nothing could 
break or conquer. 

" We are the sons of sires that baffled 
Crowned and martyred tyranny ; 
They defied the field and scaffold 
For their birthright — so have we." 

It is a noted fact that, previous to our division going to 
battle, or anticipating one, the troops became, as it were, all at 
once, very religious. As a matter of course, Ave had a revival 
at these camps; preaching was a nightly occurrence. The 
scene at one of these gatherings was very impressive. A 
huge shelter protected the assembly from the night-dews. 
Rough seats, made of logs, covered the space beneath this 
shelter. Stands, on which were built fires from pine knots, 
shed a lurid light over the vast concourse. The hymns sung 
would rise in rich cadences, floating away on the evening 
breeze in solemn, harmonious strains, followed by an earnest 
prayer and an impassioned and eloquent discourse. It was 
a strange spectacle to witness — these rough, bronzed soldiers, 
inured to danger and hardships, making bloodshed the 
chief aim of their lives, exposed to the evil influences of a 
soldier's dissipated and reckless existence, thus striving to 
seek a " home not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

March 20th. We learned to day, that Banks' army had 
formed a junction with Smith's army at Alexandria, thereby 
concentrating no less than 48,000 men, all as well armed and 
equipped as an army could be, with an abundauce of ammu- 
nition and supplies, and transportation of the most costly 
kind, and almost unlimited in amount, for the purpose of 
crushing out or swallowing up our little army. It was the 
vain-glorious boast of the enemy at Alexandria, that before 
the end of April, all the " rebel troops " in Louisiana and 
Arkansas would be driven into Texas. 


During the night of the 20th, all of our wagons were sent 
off in the direction of Shreveport. A squad of Louisiana 
cavalry brought in six prisoners that they had captured at 
McNutt's Hill. About midnight we were ordered to cook one 
day's rations, and to be ready to march at daylight. "When 
about ready to proceed on our journey the following morning, 
the order of last night was countermanded. During the day 
we heard heavy firing in the direction of McNutt's Hill, dis- 
tant from our camp about twelve miles. We learned after- 
wards that the 2d Louisiana Cavalry was falling back before 
the enemy. Edgar's Battery of Light Artillery, that was 
attached to Scurry's Brigade, was ordered to the front. 

Notwithstanding the gloomy weather, a violent storm of 
rain and sleet having fallen while we were encamped here, 
everything betokened the greatest activity. General Dick 
Taylor had taken the field in person, and had immediate com- 
mand of the army. The foe, encouraged by our continued 
retrograde movements, was becoming bolder, and even more 
daring every day. 

On the night of the 22d an event occurred that cast a mo- 
mentary gloom over our army. The splendid cavalry regi- 
ment commanded by Colonel Vincent, which had so recently 
joined us, was posted, under direction of General Taylor, as 
advance pickets on the Alexandria road. While our infantry 
was enjoying their quiet slumber, after laborious and tedious 
marches, a detachment of the enemy's cavalry, commanded 
by General Mower, made a circuitous march during the night, 
guided by some Jayhawkers, and attacked Colonel Vincent's 
command in the rear, capturing nearly 400 of the cavalry, 
besides the guns and men of Captain Edgar's Battery. This 
sad news fell like a thunderbolt on our division, as each bri- 
gade exhibited considerable jealousy towards the others con- 
cerning the Nonpareil Battery ; all three of the brigades 
claiming it as their battery. In consequence of this severe 
loss, and the non-arrival of the expected troops from Texas 
and Arkansas, General Dick Taylor declined making a stand 
at this point as he previously had contemplated. On the 


morning of the 23d, our infantry pickets reported the rapid 
advance of the enemy. We formed in line of battle near 
Carroll Jones's house, awaiting the approach of the enemy. 
Some few of the 2d Louisiana Cavalry made their escape and 
arrived in camp. They reported that their capture was owing 
to the mistake of placing the pickets too far apart from each 
other, thereby allowing one of the Louisiana Jayhawkers an 
opportunity of creeping up to the line of pickets, and await- 
ing the approach of one of the couriers from the front. 
Challenging the courier, on his approach, for the counter- 
sign, and receiving it from him, he retired, and commu- 
nicated it to the enemy. The enemy, on receiving the coun- 
tersign, had no difficulty in surrounding their camp, and 
capturing them. After remaining in line of battle for 
about an hour, at Carroll Jones', and hearing no news 
from the enemy, we proceeded on our way towards 
Pleasant Hill ; marched twelve miles, and camped for the 

March 24th. Marched thirty miles, and camped at an old 
camp-meeting ground, situated in the midst of a pinery. Our 
commanders must have believed that we were made of 
cast-steel, the way they marched us. We remained at this 
camp for the purpose of practicing skirmish- drill, until the 
morning of the 29th. Whilst at this camp we heard the glad 
tidings that General Tom Green, with his cavalry, numbering 
about 13,000 men, had crossed the Sabine River, en route to 
reinforce us. 

On the 29th, a pleasant but cloudy morning, the army was 
again on the move. Marched seventeen miles over a rough 
and hilly road, almost devoid of water. 

March 30th. Marched thirteen miles. Caught up with our 
wagon train. We marched in rear of the train, and arrived 
in camp, near Fort Jessup, late in the evening. 

March 31st. Marched twent} r miles. Passed by Port Jes- 
sup, an old United States fort before the annexation of Texas 
to the Union. The location of the old fort is one of exceed- 
ing loveliness — healthy, and combining every advantage for a 


flourishing settlement. There is a growth of heavy timber, 
some two miles in width, adjacent to the fort ; while the rich 
bottom lands of the Sabine Kiver afford great inducements to 
the industrious husbandman. Grain, of all kinds, grows in 
abundance. Cotton and sugar-cane yield well. There are still 
standing the remains of the fort, barracks, sutler's store, 
General Twiggs' dwelling, and some out-houses, but now 
crumbling away with decay. Eeported that the enemy's cav- 
alry was within seven miles of us. 

On the morning* of April 1st we marched ten miles, and 
camped near the town of Pleasant Hill. In the afternoon 
Green's Cavalry arrived from Texas. They met the enemy's 
cavalry on the Natchitoches Road. In accordance with Tom 
Green's style of fighting, he went right for them, chastising 
them wherever they made a stand. The whole country, far 
and wide, was aroused to the highest pitch of excitement by 
the retreat of our army. The inhabitants, aU along the route 
of our retreat, were hurriedly quitting their homes, and flying 
before the approach of the invader. Consternation and 
alarm everywhere prevailed among the citizens. Old men 
shouldered their muskets and came to our assistance, to help 
drive back the invader. While on the march, we heard that 
the enemy had taken possession of Natchitoches about 2 
o'clock, P. M. 

On the morning of the 2d we marched five miles, in the 
direction of Bayou Pierre, southeast from Pleasant Hill. 
Heavy cannonading was heard by us in the direction of 
Natchitoches. About 6 o'clock in the evening, as we were 
preparing to cook supper, an officer of General Walker's 
staff arrived in camp to notify brigade commanders of the 
rapid advance of the enemy. He informed them that 
it now became a race between their men and those of 
the enemy, who should get to Pleasant Hill first. The 
division was formed in line rapidly ; regimental com- 
manders received orders to double-quick their regiments to 
Pleasant Hill, distant about five miles. On we sped, like 
lightning — every man for himself, and the " devil take the 


hindmost." To add to tlie excitement of the moment, cou- 
rier after courier came galloping on their fast steeds, inform- 
ing us that the enemy had surrounded our wagon-train, and 
that there was a possibility of our losing it, unless we hurried 
up. On we sped. Night overtook us in the race. We fell 
pell-mell over stumps and roots of trees, arriving at Pleasant 
Hill at 7 o'clock, making the distance of five miles in one hour, 
carrying our knapsacks and accouterments. On our arrival 
at Pleasant Hill, we formed in line of battle under the crest 
of the hill, and remained so all night, expecting every minute 
the approach of the enemy. Morning at last dawned, bright 
and glorious, but no enemy was in sight, much to the disap- 
pointment of the troops. They seemed to be perfectly worn 
out with the marching and counter-marching. They preferred 
meeting the enemy in a fair field, small as their number was, 
rather than to be harassed and annoyed by them. During 
the night the commissary department opened its coffers to 
the troops, allowing them to help themselves to provisions 
that they were unable to get transportation for. 

April 3d. Marched ten miles in the direction of the town 
of Mansfield. We camped near a saw-mill, about half-way 
between Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. 

April 4th. Marched twelve miles, leaving the Mansfield 
road to the left, and taking the Kingston road. On our 
march we passed twenty wagons loaded with flour, bound for 
Green's Cavalry. We encamped four miles from Mansfield, 
in a swampy bottom, and about thirty-seven miles from 
Shreveport. We remained at this camp until the morning of 
the 7th, in order to collect as much available force as possible, 
to meet the impending danger. Yet the great distance of the 
troops in Arkansas, and the absence of facilities for transpor- 
tation, the advance of the Federal General Steele through 
Arkansas (he had already crossed the Washita Kiver, driving 
before him the army of General Price, and intending to form 
a junction about the middle of April with Banks' army, at 
Shreveport), prevented the concentration of any of General 
Price's army at the battle of Mansfield. 


In the meantime, General Taylor, with his apparently in- 
adequate force, resolved to give battle, and to this end every 
preparation was made. On the night of the 7th, orders were 
received to cook one day's rations, and to be ready to leave 
at four o'clock the following morning. During the day, the 
enemy's advance reached Pleasant Hill, driving Green's Cav- 
alry before them. 




"Ours are no hirelings, trained to the fight, 
With cymbal and clarion, all glittering and bright ; 
No prancing of chargers, no martial display ; 
No war-trump is heard from our silent array. 
O'er the proud heads of freemen, the lone star doth wave — 
Men, firm as the mountain, and still as the grave. 
To day we shall pour out our life-blood like rain ; 
We come back in triumph, or come not again." 

the morning of April 8th, 1864 — a day set apart by 
the President of the Confederate States for fasting? 
humiliation, and prayer — " "Walker's Division " moved 
from then camp, situated four miles north of the town of Mans- 
field, to meet the enemy, who were advancing in heavy force 
from the direction of Pleasant Hill, some twenty-four miles 
distant. Arriving near the town of Mansfield, General Walker 
formed his division in line of battle, and awaited the advance 
of the enemy. 

Orders were sent to General Tom Green, in command of 
the Texas Cavalry, to fall back slowly, so as to decoy the 
enemy towards our line of battle, where a well-planned ambus- 
cade had been prepared for their reception. 

In order that the situation of our army may be fully com- 
prehended, I give the following explanation : The road from 
our camp to Mansfield was over a remarkably high ridge, 
flanked by ravines, where it would be impossible for one army 
to attack another without suffering terribly from an ambus- 
cade or masked batteries. The ravines, extending close to the 
road, were covered with a dense, almost impenetrable growth of 


black-jacks and hazel bushes. Many of the troops went to 
work with their knives, lopping off the branches of the trees 
and bushes which obstructed a good view of the road, in 
order to render their aim and fire more effective. The men 
waited and watched for the foe, with compressed lips and 
blanched faces, betokening the inward excitement, while every 
man kept his allotted place. We remained in this position until 
11 o'clock, A. M., when General Taylor ordered General 
Walker to advance his division to meet the enemy, who were 
reported about half-way between Mansfield and Pleasant Hill ; 
and, advancing cautiously, the head of the colunm soon 
moved off in the direction of Mansfield, the bands playing the 
favorite tune of " Dixie." The inhabitants of Mansfield ap- 
peared to be astonished when they beheld Walker's Division 
marching proudly back to meet the enemy, before whom they 
had so lately retreated. As the troops marched through the 
town, the sidewalks were thronged with ladies — misses and ma- 
trons — who threw their bright garlands at the feet of the brave 
Texas boys, beseeching them in God's name to drive back the 
enemy, and save their cherished homes ; assuring us that 
the} T looked to us for protection. On hearing these patriotic 
words we felt that we were indeed " thrice armed," and, 
although greatly outnumbered, would in the end be victorious. 
Alas ! how many a brave heart, which thrilled with patriotic 
emotion that morning, as we marched with flying banners 
through the town, was stilled in death before the last gleams 
of that day's sun rested upon the field of carnage ! How many 
strong men, as they listened to the sweet voices of those maid- 
ens, and thought of their loved ones at home, ceased to think, 
or speak, or breathe, before that day had gone! 

On our march to meet the enemy, we beheld Generals Tay- 
lor, Walker, Mouton, and Green, on the right of the road, ap- 
parently in deep consultation about the forthcoming battle. 
While they are engaged in council, I will sketch them in 

Major-General Dick Taylor is of middle stature, with a com- 
pact, well-knit frame. His face is regular, but almost bronze, 


showing unmistakable evidences of his Louisiana lineage. He 
has a glorious pair of dark eyes, that scintillate beneath his 
heavy brows and dark hair. A heavy, curved mustache covers 
his well-formed mouth. Such is his appearance, and his fighting 
qualities are in accordance. As a soldier, he has been won- 
derfully successful. Though some of his movements savored of 
rashness, when calmly weighed, they showed the good judg- 
ment and military genius that conceived them. When once he 
forms an opinion, he acts upon it with an unbending, uncom- 
promising resolve. 

Major-General John G. Walker is a man of slight frame, 
and apparently delicate constitution ; of a grave, pleasing de- 
meanor, and of most affable and courteous manner. He is kind 
and courteous to all, without compromising his dignity. He was 
beloved by his officers, almost adored by his men. As a gen- 
eral, Walker is calm and cautious ; does everything by rule ; 
leaves nothing to chance. He makes his arrangements for 
battle with caution and foresight, and is sure to have every 
brigade of his division move with clock-work regularity, and 
strike at the proper time and place. Nothing disturbs or un- 
nerves him. 

Major-General Mouton, commanding one brigade of Texans 
and one of Louisianians — formiug a division — was a noble- 
looking man, of fine, dignified appearance. He was a courteous, 
refined gentleman, and a brave officer. He had fully the 
confidence of General Dick Taylor as a general. He took a 
distinguished part in protecting the people of Louisiana, his 
native State, from the ruthless invaders, until he fell, on that 
fatal day, the 8th of April, at Mansfield, in about the forty- 
fifth year of his age. 

Major-General Tom Green is nearly six feet high, rather 
stoop-shouldered ; his face is rather rounding, with a short, 
grizzly beard. His troops had unbounded confidence in him, 
and believed whatever he did was right, and that is everything. 
If sent on any expedition, no matter how hazardous or ap- 
parently useless, their only reply was, "Well, boys, if old 
Tom said so, it's all right." His career as a soldier has been 


a brilliant record of dashing exploits — of noble victories. 
General Tom Green and his cavalry have been through 
almost every battle-field west of the Mississippi River, and, 
wherever his banner floated, down went the enemy's. 
There are men who are soldiers by inspiration. Green is one. 
"West Point may mould officers, and instruct them in the 
rudiments of war ; but it could not infuse into many the spirit 
and military genius of Tom Green. 

After marching about four miles from Mansfield, on the 
Pleasant Hill road, we beheld Mouton's Division formed in line 
of battle on the left of the road. Immediately on the approach 
of Walker's Division, several batteries of light artillery took 
position on an eminence at the left of the road, and about 
three hundred yards in advance of Mouton's Division ; the posi- 
tion that .the artillery occupied would enable them to " rake " 
the Pleasant Hill road from any direction. On the arrival of 
Walker's Division, they filed off to the right of the road 
through a skirt of timber, Waul's Brigade in front. A more 
gallant body of men, more spirited and resolved, never marched 
forth to battle. Next came Randall's Brigade, under that 
heroic and indefatigable officer. They marched forward at a 
quick step, in their usual rollicking and bold style, overflowing 
with impatient and long-restrained ardor for the fight, the 
promise of which had reconciled them to their long and 
laborious retreat before the enemy. Scurry's Brigade followed 
after Randall's Brigade, which brought up the rear of the 
division. The men in this brigade appeared to be in splendid 
condition. They were full of fun, led by their gallant chief, 
who looked every inch a soldier. A regiment of this brigade 
is ordered to advance, and take position in a ravine, some six 
hundred yards in advance of the main line, in order to ambus- 
cade the enemy, provided they advanced before the general 
line of battle was formed. The balance of the troops of 
Walker's Division, after marching and countermarching and 
maneuvering, was formed in line of battle about 2 o'clock, 
P. M., behind a rail-fence, inclosing Moss's plantation ; the 
left of the division rested on the line of the Pleasant Hill road, 


Scurry's Brigade on the right, Ward's in the center, and Ran- 
dall's on the left. 

The intervening space between Walker's and Mouton's 
Divisions was filled with several batteries of artillery, some of 
which were in position, as already mentioned. The cavalry, 
except that portion then skirmishing with the enemy, had been 
dismounted, and occupied the left of the line, with the excep- 
tion of oue regiment, who took their position on the right. 
After the line of battle was formed, the command was given 
to " stack arms." The fence in our front was pulled down. 
We remained inactive for about an hour, awaiting the ap- 
proach of the enemy, who were reported to be in line of bat- 
tle, about one mile in our front. The firing of our cavalry 
skirmishers became each minute more distinct. Presently, the 
regiment of Scurry's Brigade that had taken position in ad" 
vance is seen double-quicking across the field, making towards 
their brigade. Guns are elevated in order to cover their retreat. 
All eyes are eagerly watching their approach, as they advanced 
to take their position in their brigade. 

This calm before the storm — the period immediately preced- 
ing the conflict, when it is apparent that the deadly conflict is 
near at hand — is more trying even than the battle itself. Unsus- 
tained by the reckless excitement and wild furor of the actual 
strife, the strongest mind must shudder at the fearful thought 
that a few short moments more may usher the soul into eternity. 

On the right of the division, and about fifty yards in ad- 
vance, was our favorite leader, General Walker, surrounded 
by his staff officers, eating their lunch before they enter the 
conflict. Casting your eyes to the left of the division, you can 
behold General Dick Taylor, mounted on his black steed, fol- 
lowed by a lonely courier, advancing towards General Walker. 
On his arrival, the two generals converse together some 
twenty minutes. General Taylor then returns, going a little 
quicker than he advanced. This was owing, I suppose, to his 
hearing heavy firing on the left of the line, which plainly indi- 
cated that the work of destruction had commenced. Infantry 
skirmishers were at once pushed forward to feel the position 



of the enemy. News flashed along the line that the division 
of General Mouton had attacked a superior force of the 
enemy, in a strong position. For half an hour the echo of 
their guns swelled upon the evening breeze, and, during that 
period, an awful feeling of intense anxiety and suspense filled 
the minds of the troops not engaged in the conflict. The 
conflict ceases. Alas ! we hear the melancholy tidings that 
the brave General Mouton was killed just as he had borne the 
banner of the " stars and bars " to victory. 

When the gaUant Louisianians learned the certainty of their 
idolized chieftain's death, many of these lion-hearted men 
threw themselves in wild grief on the ground, weeping scald- 
ing tears in their bitter sorrow. It is a fearful spectacle to 
see strong-hearted men thus give way to their feelings. It 
demonstrated the devotion felt for their gallant chieftain, 
and showed how deeply he was enshrined in these brave souls. 

Shortly after the report of General Mouton's death, the 
cavalry mount, and move off to the right, in full gallop. 
Presently, General Walker and staff are in their saddles. He 
orders his brigade commanders to prepare for action. All 
being in readiness, he gives the command : " By the right of 
companies to the front, forward march ! " Every man moved 
off quickly, with a confident and determined step. The line of 
march was through a large field in our front, then through a 
skirt of timber, and into another field. Picture a nearly tri- 
angular space, broken by woods, fences, and fields, — its base 
a long ridge of underbrush running from southeast to north- 
west, its lower side traced by a fine extending westerly to a 
line of woods that forms the left right-angle as you approach 
the area by a road, the Mansfield and Pleasant Hill highway, 
which intersects that area. As we approached a narrow skirt 
of timber, and about six hundred yards from the enemy's 
position, we beheld General Walker, mounted on his iron- 
gray horse, with his field-glass to his eye, taking observations 
of the enemy's position. His actions and features were a 
study for the closest scrutinizer of physiognomy. Not a quiver 
on his face — not the movement of a muscle, to betray anxiety 


or emotion, notwithstanding the shower of balls whizzing 
around him. 

Resting a few minutes in the skirt of timber, the command 
was given, " By companies, into Hue ! " After the line was 
formed, orders were given to " fix bayonets." In the mean 
time, the enemy continued firing upon us from then* batteries. 
Soon the command was given to " double-quick." We im- 
mediately commenced advancing in the direction of the 
enemy, who were securely posted behind a rail-fence. They 
greeted our coming with a perfect shower of leaden hail. 
The men shouted, at the top of their voices, at each iron 
messenger as it approached, many indulging in jokes and 
witticisms, such as, " This kind of ball-music is fine for 
dancing." " Here comes another iron pill ! " " Dodge, boys, 
but don't tremble! " 

The fire of the enemy increases ; it is terrible. He is 
gathering all his strength for one final struggle. Shells, canis- 
ter, and bullets are falling around like a hail-storm. Our 
different brigade commanders ride along their lines, encour- 
aging [their men ; still there is no faltering, but wild cheers, 
and on they press. When our army had arrived within about 
fifty paces, and before we had fired a shot, a general flash 
was seen along the enemy's line, and a storm of bullets went 
flying over our heads. They had aimed too high. Onward 
our troops advance, pale with excitement, compressed lips and 
blazing eyes betokening the spirit of their determination. 
Casting your eyes along the column, you behold the flags of the 
various regiments floating on the breeze, and each regiment 
trying to be the first to scale the fence. Nearer our troops 
advance ; the color-sergeants flaunt their flags at the enemy, 
and fall ; others grasp them and fall, and they are then 
borne by the corporals. In this fearful charge, there was no 
flinching nor murmuring — nothing but the subdued talk of 
soldiers, the gritting of teeth for revenge, as they saw their 
comrades falling around them. At last the fence is gained ; 
over it our troops go, like an avalanche of fire ! A loud and 
prolonged Texas yell deafens the ear ; their cheers rise in one 


great range of sound over the noise of battle, and are heard 
far down the lines to the left, where the Louisiana boys are 
at it. 

Nothing could withstand the impetuosity of our charge. 
After crossing the fence, we came abruptly upon the enemy's 
guns. With loud huzzas we rushed upon the enemy before they 
could reload. A murderous discharge of rifle-balls was poured 
into their very bosoms ; afterwards, using our bayonets, we 
mercifully bayoneted them, ere they could recover from their 
astonishment. Their prostrate column was trampled in the 
mire. Ah ! now comes the tug of war. The enemy is panic- 
stricken ; they abandon their artillery ; they cannot stand 
the bayonet charge ; they retreat, and from their appearance, 
" every man is for himself." They sadly feel the loss of their 
artillery. Cheer after cheer bursts forth from our lines, as the 
enemy is seen fleeing, casting away their knapsacks and arms. 
Our cavalry now charges down on their flanks, making the 
very ground quake and the enemy tremble. Urged on hj the 
excitement of victory, we pursue the flying foe, killing where 
they dare resist, and capturing them by hundreds. At last, 
their wagon-train, numbering over two hundred wagons, 
falls into our possession. Cheer after cheer again is loudly 
given by our troops, as they behold quartermaster stores of 
every description. The enemy, seeing the loss of their wagon- 
train, endeavored to rally their men for the retaking of the 
same ; but, as often as they were formed, they were compelled 
to retire. The flight had become universal. The enemy had 
left on the ground, dying and dead, where the battle began, 
about one half of their forces ; and, through the woods and 
along the road, our cavalry and artillery completely slaugh- 
tered them. Horses and men, by hundreds, rolled down to- 
gether ; the road was red with their blood. After pursuing 
them four miles, they finally made a stand at a peach and 
plum orchard, where they were reinforced by the 19th Army 
Corps. Entirely unconscious of the arrival of fresh troops 
to their assistance, we passed half-way through the field 
before we became aware of their reinforcements. Then came 


the terrible shock. Volley after volley, and shower after shower 
of bullets came whizzing down upon us. It was utterly im- 
possible to advance, and to retreat beneath the range of then 
long guns seemed equally desperate. We lay down, arose 
again, and then involuntarily sought such shelter and protec- 
tion as the ground afforded. 

Encouraged by our brave leaders, our brave men attempted 
again and again to charge the enemy, who were behind their 
barricades of logs and fences, which they hastily constructed 
to cover their retreat ; but human fortitude and human brav- 
ery were unequal to the task. The very air seemed dark and 
hot with balls ; the thunders of the artillery-guns resounded 
through the heavens and seemed to shake the earth to its very 
center, and on every side was heard their crushing sound as 
they struck that swaying mass, tearing through flesh, bone, 
and sinew. The position of our line could have been traced by 
our fallen dead. Within a few short moments many a gallant 
spirit went to its long home. 

The sun was now declining. General Walker, with his 
generals, was busily engaged in encouraging their troops, 
while sharing with them every peril. After General Walker 
had carefully reconnoitered the lines of the enemy, he ordered 
his brigade commanders to form their brigades for the final 
and successful charge. Some time elapsed before the troops 
were ready for the successful charge. Hark ! there peals 
forth the signal-gun. A wild shout of enthusiasm burst forth 
from the Texas ranks as they rushed in full career upon the 
enemy's lines. The sun went down, and the struggle still 
continued. Twilight darkness is over the battle-field, but a 
blaze of intense light from our bayonets gleamed over the 
contending hosts. One by one the stars came out calmly 
in the sky, and the moon, in silent beauty, rose serenely in the 
east, and looked down with her mild reproof upon the hideous 
carnage ; and still the struggling squadrons, with unintermitted 
fury dashed against each other. Beneath such blows men 
and horses rapidly fell. The clangor of the strife grew fainter 
and fainter. Still, in the gloom of the night, as the eye gazed 



upon the tumultuous mass swaying to and fro, it was impos- 
sible to judge who were gaining the victory. 

The spectacle was so sublime, so awful, so sure to be fol- 
lowed by decisive results, that each army, as by common con- 
sent, suspended its fire to await the issue of this extraor- 
dinary duel. The roar of musketry and the heavy booming 
of artillery ceased. The soldiers rested upon their muskets, 
and the exhausted cannoniers leaned upon their guns, await- 
ing daylight to come to renew the battle. 

Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon the doctors and 
chaplains of the division, for the care and kindness with which 
they looked after the dying and wounded. They spent the 
night with their lamps going over the battle-field, serving the 
dying, and attending those who might recover. Oh, what a 
boon is even a drink of cold water to a maimed soldier lying 
on the field of battle, tortured with pain and thirst ! 

The morning of the 9th had scarcely tinged the eastern 
horizon with the grayish dawn, when we discovered no enemy 
in sight, much to our surprise. The reason for the withdrawal 
of the enemy from the battle-field during the night, has been 
furnished me by an officer of the 16th Dismounted Cavalry. 
This officer was seriously wounded late in the evening, and 
fell into the enemy's hands. He was carried to a log cabin, 
in the rear of their hues, which was used as their hospital. 
In this cabin or hos2?ital a council of war was held by the 
Federal generals. The attention of General Banks, the com- 
mander of the Federal forces, was attracted by the heavy 
moaning of the rebel officer. After questioning him about 
the nature of his wounds, he asked the officer the number of 
the Confederate forces engaged in to-day's battle. The officer 
replied that he was not aware of the strength of our forces ; 
but he knew the main body of our forces were still behind, 
and that only the advance of our army were engaged in to- 
day's battle — but, on to-morrow, our entire army would be en- 
gaged. General Banks, believing the supposed dying officer's 
words, immediately ordered a retreat of his army to Pleasant 
Hill. Thus closed the memorable battle of Mansfield. 


It is impossible for me to make individual mentioD of all 
those who on that day sacrificed their lives upon the altar of 
our country, but many a once happy home now mourns the 
loss of some brave soldier who on that night slept in death 
upon the sanguinary battle-field of Mansfield. 

Our loss in the divisions amounted to 600 in killed, 
wounded, and missing. While the loss of the enemy amount- 
ed to 1,500 in killed and wounded, 2,000 prisoners, 20 pieces 
of artillery, including Nims's battery, the veteran battery of 
seventeen engagements, Chicago Mercantile battery, and the 
First Indiana battery, besides two hundred wagons and 
thousands of small-arms. 


General Boggs, Assistant Adjutant- General. 

General, — I have the honor to report to you that a battle 
occurred yesterday afternoon a little below Mansfield. The 
fighting continued until night, the enemy having been at 
times reinforced by the 19th Army Corps. We fought the 
13th Army Corps all day, and lat'e in the evening met the 19th 
Army Corps, and drove them back. We have captured about 
2,000 prisoners, 20 pieces of artillery, 200 wagons, and thou- 
sands of small-arms. Our loss in officers has been severe, 
and we have many wounded. 

(Signed,) E. Taylor, General Commanding. 




" Bide your time, the morn is breaking, 

Bright with freedom's blessed ray ; 
Thousands from their trance awaking, 

Soon shall stand in martial array. 
Man shall fetter man no longer, 

Liberty shall march sublime ; 
Every moment makes us stronger, 

Firm, unshrinking, Texans, bide your time ! ' 


N T daylight on the morning of the 9th of April we 

were reinforced by General Churchill's Division 
M of Arkansians, and Parson's Division of Missou- 
rians. Shortly after their arrival, we took up the line of 
march in pursuit of the enemy, who was reported to be in the 
neighborhood of Pleasant Hill, some twelve miles distant. 
The road that the enemy retreated over was literally strewn 
with knapsacks, cooking utensils, etc., etc. They obstructed 
the road by felling trees, to retard our pursuit as far as possi- 
ble. On our arrival within about six miles of Pleasant Hill, 
we met a squad of Green's cavalry, escorting some three or 
four hundred " Zouave " prisoners, dressed in their peculiar 
style of uniform, en route for Mansfield. Some of the soldiers 
noticing their eccentric uniform, remarked that the war must 
soon be over, supposing that the " rebels " had whipped all 
the men in the Northern States, and Lincoln was filling up 
his ranks with women. The Zouave prisoners were rather 
amused when they were informed by some of the Texans that 
the Texas troops had too much honor to fight women (allud- 
ing to the Zouave dress). On their arrival at Mansfield they 


would all be paroled, on account of the Confederacy having 
scarcely provisions to feed their own troops, without providing 
for women prisoners. After the Zouave prisoners passed us 
by, we continued our march towards Pleasant Hill. On our 
arrival near the town, we learned, much to our surprise, that 
the enemy, having been reinforced by General A. J. Smith's 
Army Corps, were in line of battle at Pleasant Hill, awaiting 
our approach. Our Division was shortly afterward formed 
in line of battle, as on the day before. After moving through 
an old field covered with underbrush, we came into another 
field. On the opposite side of the field was posted the enemy 
to our left and front, and in the immediate vicinity of the 
town of Pleasant Hill. We discovered that the enemy had 
burned several houses in the town, in order to be able to 
work their artillery to advantage. 

Pleasant Hill is a small village of about two hundred inhab- 
itants, situated on a slight eminence thirty-five miles from 
Grand-Ecore : the town boasts of a hotel, three storehouses, 
and an Academy. During the night, General Kirby Smith, 
accompanied by Governor Allen, had arrived from Shreve- 
port. General Kirby Smith having taken command in person, 
formed his general line of battle in the following order. 
General Green's Division of cavalry took position on the 
extreme left ; Mouton's Division of infantry, commanded 
by Polignac, on the right of the cavalry ; Walker's Division 
next, and Churchill's and Parson's Divisions on the extreme 
right. The Louisiana militia, under command of Governor 
Allen, was held in reserve, in case of an emergency. In 
justice to the Louisiana militia, I will state, that notwith- 
standing they were past the years of enduring the toils and 
hardships of a soldier's life, no braver or nobler body of men 
ever went into action ; wherever their patriotic Governor led, 
they followed. 

After the line of battle was formed, skirmishers were thrown 
forward to feel the position of the enemy. They had to advance 
in open and exposed order, while the enemy's skirmishers 
availed themselves of the trees, and every convenient cover. 


The enemy kept up a constant galling fire upon our troops 
for about half an hour. Presently General Smith pushed 
forward his entire line, driving the cloud of skirmishers of the 
enemy before them. After advancing a short distance, we be- 
held the enemy drawn up in line of battle, in excellent order, 
with batteries strongly posted and in great force. 

About four o'clock, P. M., the battle opened furiously by 
an attack on the enemy's left, by the Arkansas and Missouri 
troops. They passed down the hill obliquely to the right to 
support a battery, which was about to be placed within a 
few hundred yards, of the artillery of the foe. Though silent 
as they passed down the hill, a shout arose a few seconds 
after, which, from the direction they had taken, every listener 
could distinguish as theirs. The incessant roar of artillery 
came from the batteries at close range. Shells and round- 
shots, ploughed through their ranks, and shattered the trees. 
Thick volumes of smoke arose from the woods, and floated 
along the valley. Still the Arkansas and Missouri troops 
advanced, reserving their fire until they got into close quar- 
ters with the enemy. The latter came resolutely to meet 
them, like a sweeping avalanche. Our troops greet them by 
firing a volley along the entire line, mowing them down by 
hundreds. All the effort on the part of our troops to check 
or turn this human avalanche, proved unavailing, and for the 
first time our brave and determined men staggered and gave 
ground, and commenced to fall back. Our officers in vain tried 
to detain them, but our troops suddenly fall back, grouping 
around then- officers. Our situation soon became most criti- 
cal, and a few moments longer might have been disastrous ; 
but General Walker seeing those two divisions falling back in 
disorder, immediately ordered General Scurry's brigade to 
reinforce them. The brigade stripped themselves of their 
blankets and knapsacks, in order that nothing might impede 
their work, and then swept down the hill, across the field, 
and on towards the enemy, delivering fire after fire on the 
enemy's forces. Batteries open on them right and left, hail- 
ing grape and canister into their very faces, while from the 


woods, a stream of lead was poured afore tlieni. As their 
line swept along, the heroic General Scurry galloped towards 
the head of his column, hallooing, " Come on, boys, you 
have got your chance at last." The order was quickly 
responded to, and with a desperate onset the whole line 
rushed forward upon the enemy. It was a fine sight, that 
charge of Scurry's Brigade to the death-struggle. General 
Scurry expected to be assisted by the troops he went to re- 
inforce, but the panic-striken troops were too slow in rallying 
to do any good. Those gallant fellows followed quickly their 
general, and soon cleared the way. The enemy poured into 
them a cruel, crushing fire ; but in vain, their onset could not 
be checked. But the field was not cleared ; the enemy seeing 
the comparatively small body of their assailants, fell upon 
our gallant troops in massed columns, driving back our for- 
ces. General Walker perceiving the critical position of Scur- 
ry's brigade, almost surrounded by four times their number, 
immediately ordered the brigades of Waul and Randall to 
charge the enemy at the point of the bayonet, as the only 
possible means of saving Scurry's brigade from destruction. 
In the very thickest of the fight rode the gallant warrior 
General Scurry, urging his men forward, exclaiming aloud, in 
his stentorian voice, " Scurry's brigade may be annihilated, 
but must never retreat." Hat in hand, cheering on his men, a 
rifle ball glances his cheek, slightly wounding him ; but 
without paying any attention to his wound, he continued 
cheering on his men. All of his brave troops seemed inspired 
with the same courage. Ah, yonder advances the gallant 
brigades of Waul and Randall, led by their gallant chiefs, 
coming to their relief. " Thank God," exclaims the heroic 
Scurry, " my brigade is saved." The dashing charge of Waul's 
and Randall's brigades compelled the enemy to withdraw their 
forces from their left, and concentrate them in their center to 
meet the charge. Right gallantly our troops charge across 
the open field in their front, as steadily and as coolly as if on 
parade. On their arrival within about one hundred yards of 
the enemy, they are ordered to lie down. The keen eyes of 


their commander saw the enemy in the act of firing, and he 
pursued this course in order to save the men from the 
enemy's first fire. 

General Walker seeing this unexpected movement of his 
troops, galloped towards his men, to cheer them on : a nobly 
appearing chief, and full of vigor and life, as he dashed along 
the line inspiring his brave men with enthusiasm. Wherever he 
rode, cheer after cheer greeted him, for there is an irresisti- 
ble spell around this officer, who has exhibited the real 
Napoleonic energy. He well knew that if his hue faltered 
the least, and was not successful in driving the enemy from 
their position, Scurry's brigade would be sacrificed. While in 
the act of waving his hat, in cheering his men onward, he 
was pierced by a minie-ball, but paying no attention to his 
wound, he issued his orders to his brigade commanders amid 
a continual shower of shot and minie-balls. It was not 
until his chief of staff, Major McClay, saw him in the act of 
fainting from his severe, but not dangerous wound, that he 
was persuaded to dismount. Even after he was placed on a 
litter, he would not allow himself to be removed from the 
battle-field until he heard that Scurry's brigade was out of all 
danger. Never were troops better handled, and orders more 
quickly executed than by the troops of Waul's and Randall's bri- 
gades. They had already driven the enemy from the top of the 
hill. The piles of the enemy's dead attest the correctness of 
our aim, and the obstinacy of the conflict ; most gallantly did 
those two brigades sustain their well-earned reputation, 
stimulated and encouraged by the conduct of their officers, 
and wakened to a perfect enthusiasm by the presence of their 
brigade commanders, Generals Waul and Randall, who, utterly 
regardless of all danger, rushed into the thickest of the fight, 
rallying their troops, where they showed any signs of waver- 
ing, disposing their forces so as to protect their weakest 
point. Our division artillery kept up a continual fire on the 
enemy's line, making sad havoc among them. The enemy 
form their second hue of battle in a skirt of timber, about 
half a mile from their original line, for the purpose of mak- 


ing another effort to regain the hill they were driven from ; 
Mouton's Division, now commanded by the gallant and 
chivalric French General Polignac, among the first to 
abandon the ease and comfort of a luxurious home to engage 
in the perilous conflict for Southern independence, is ordered 
to reinforce Walker's Division. Standing erect in his saddle, 
he hallooed aloud : " My boys, follow your Polignac." This 
fine division of Texans and Louisiauians need no appeal or in- 
centive. It overflows with ardor and impatience for the conflict. 
The Louisianians, burning to avenge the wrongs and insults 
of their beloved State, shouted as they advanced, " Mouton !" 
as their battle-cry ; while the brigade of gallant Texans with 
the cool and intrepid veteran Harrison to lead them, as he 
led his regiment to victory at the battle of Borbeaus, rer 
sponded with a shout. 

The last division was Green's cavalry, forming close on 
Polignac's, and ready to leap into the first opening where 
fighting was to be done. The fight now became general. Each 
line moved forward, encountering every few hundred yards or 
so a battery strongly supported by the enemy's infantry, with 
the same unvarying result. Often our men recoiled and fal- 
tered under the iron tempest from these terrible batteries, but 
our indomitable chiefs would re-collect and re-form their men 
and return to the charge. The enemy maintained his position 
with unusual firmness ; three several times did our brave boys 
charge them, when at times it became a hand conflict ; but 
as often as we charged them, we were hurled back as if by a 
resistless and superhuman power. Officers galloped along our 
hues calling loudly for another charge. The lines halted. The 
troops seemed transfixed with horror or stunned with dismay, 
they neither advanced nor receded, but gazing at the frightful 
line of the enemy, and then at the ground before them, cov- 
ered with their killed and wounded comrades, they paused, 
faltered, and seemed to be fast verging towards a panic. 
It was a critical point in the bloody drama; the enemy's lines 
must be broken. Generals Kirby Smith and Dick Taylor per- 
ceived this, and determined to throw themselves into the 


breach, not in the spirit of bravado or a mere vain-glorious 
desire of parading their heroism ; least of all, from any such 
petty or ignoble weakness as that imagined by small minds — 
a feeling of chagrin and conscious injustice on account of the 
criticisms and censure that had been so heedlessly indulged 
in towards them by the thoughtless and misinformed (in judging 
them as selling the Trans-Mississippi Department to General 
Banks) — but from a high and lofty spirit of patriotism and 
self-sacrifice that looked only at the danger to their country 
and the cause, which confronted them. Seeing the inability of 
the other commanders to make their men charge the enemy's 
lines, both Generals Kirby Smith and Dick Taylor seized a 
musket, and called upon the troops to follow them. The 
grand figures of their commanders-in-chief mounted upon 
their large black stallions, looming up from the foreground, so 
conspicuous as target for the enemy's sharpshooters, seemed 
to expand to gigantic proportions, as they beckoned their men 
to the charge. The gallant troops of Walker's Division were 
the first to follow. Polignac's Division and Green's Cavalry 
caught the heroic contagion, and now our line moved forward 
at double-quick, and then, with a wild rush, receiving the 
deadly iron blast as it swept down the slopes, and rushing 
over their batteries, they scattered the heavy masses of the 
enemy's infantry in the wildest confusion. This was the might- 
iest effort of physical force and courage of the day ; and when 
it was performed, the tall figure of the patriotic Governor of 
Louisiana, W. H. Allen, could be seen on the crest of the hill, 
waving his hat in triumph, while the shouts of our troops 
echoed far off, like the roar of many waters. The news is re- 
ceived that Scurry's Brigade, while in the act of crossing 
a ravine, about two hundred yards from the enemy, are 
attacked by a large force, and part of our forces are captured, 
numbering about two hundred and fifty officers and soldiers. 
The cause assigned for their capture was the fact that 
many of our troops, on their arrival at the ravine, deemed 
it a safe place to fight in ; every shot from the troops in the 
ravine made a vacancy in the enemy's ranks. Singular to re- 


late, the men in the ravine found themselves in squads, with- 
out any of those squads seeing each other, really not knowing 
the strength of the forces until after they were taken prison- 
ers, owing to the zig-zag shape of the ravine. The enemy 
had crossed the ravine above them, and marched diagonally 
between them, thus cutting off then* retreat and compelling 
our men to surrender. Our cavalry, on the left, under the 
bold and fearless Green, pressed down upon the enemy's 
flanks, compelling them to retreat, leaving their dead and 
wounded on the battle-field, and leaving us in possession of 
their camps that they had occupied in the morning, we pursuing 
them as long as we could see any of them. 

Night was over all, and the stars began to shine : our 
wounded and those of the enemy's were removed and cared 

Our troops were now utterly worn out. The men fell down 
in the ranks from exhaustion. They had fought for two days, 
in incessant and unparalleled battles, routing and pursuing the 
enemy, which, if fully related, would fill a volume larger than 
this book. The shades of the evening began to gather over 
the scene. The curtain of night was about to fall on the 
bloodiest tragedy ever enacted in the Trans-Mississippi De- 
partment. As long as there was a streak of light by which a 
gun could be aimed, our indefatigable cavalry made use of it. 
Thus closed the battle of Pleasant Hill, in which less than 
20,000 Southern volunteers proved the equals of a splendidly 
appointed army of 40,000 of the best soldiers in the United 
States army. 

Our loss and that of the enemy was about in proportion to 
the battle of Mansfield. Banks' army returned to Grand- 
Ecore, on Red River, where they would be under the protec- 
tion of their gun-boats. During their retreat they destroyed 
the balance of their train, lest we should draw on their Com- 
missary again. 




f y JXF any of my readers have ever been in a battle, and 
^iyA many of them I know have, they will recall all the 
"W^JI horrors of that sad scene — the blood and carnage of 
the fight, the wild shouts of victory and vengeance, the ghastly 
forms of the dead piled in all shapes, the groans of the 
wounded, who call on you in mercy to shoot them in order to 
put them out of pain. Some bodies are disfigured ; they 
have either been torn to pieces by shells, or scattered about 
by horses and wheels of artillery. Their clothes alone keep 
the shattered remains together. 

Dead and maimed horses lie about, some still plunging and 
endeavoring to drag their broken limbs after them. The poor 
animals look at you most reproachfully, as much as to say, I 
had nothing to do with all this carnage. I was brought here 
against my will, and why should I suffer ? A visit to the first 
field-hospital is the most painful thing of all. It resembles a 
butcher's shamble, with maimed and bloody men lying on all 
sides ; — some with their arms off; some with their legs off; 
some awaiting their time, while the doctors, with upturned 
cuffs and bloody hands, are flourishing their knives and saws, 
and piles of bloody-looking limbs are strewn around them, while 
some who have died on the dissecting table, add to the ghastly 
picture. After all, the physical sufferings here are not greater 
than the moral sufferings of dear ones at home, whose friends 
have been engaged in battle. They hear that a great battle 
has been fought — a great victory won. This is joyful news, 
indeed ; but the heart yearns to learn the fate of Mends. 
Many a parent, wife, sweetheart, tremblingly opens the news- 


paper and casts the eye along the list of killed and wounded. 
Alas ! that cry and stifled groan tells the dreadful news. 
There is mourning in that house — mourning in many a house, 
North and South, for the soldiers that will never return. 
There are broken hearts, gray hairs, desolate homes, widows 
and orphans, as the price of victory. 

There are some whose names appear missing in the news- 
paper, and yet they have not been heard from. Friends hope 
they have been taken prisoners. Comrades return from the 
war, but can tell nothing about them. Hope grows into sus- 
pense, the heart is sick of this uncertainty. The green leaves 
become brown and fall, the winter passes away, the beautiful 
spring smiles again, yet nothing is heard from the long ab- 
sent, but not forgotten soldier. No, they will never hear from 
him till that great accounting-day, when all mankind shall be 
summoned together ; for he dragged himself to die beneath 
the shade of a tree, where his flesh was picked by the birds 
of the air, and his bones have long since moldered into 



general taylor and governor allen's address to the 
army of western louisiana. 

General Taylor's Address. 

JUL OLDIERS of the Army of Western Louisiana : — At 
last have your patience and devotion been rewarded. 
Condemned for many days to retreat before an 
overwhelming force, as soon as your reinforcements reached 
you, you turned upon the foe. No language but that of 
simple narrative should record your deeds. 

On the 8th day of April you fought the battle of Mansfield. 
Never in war was a more complete victory won. Attacking 
the enemy with the utmost alacrity when the order was 
given, the result was not for a moment doubtful. The enemy 
was driven from every position ; his artillery captured, his 
men routed. In vain were fresh troops brought up. Your 
magnificent line, like a resistless wave, swept everything 
before it. Night alone stopped your advance. Twenty-one 
pieces of artillery, 2,500 prisoners, many stands of colors, 250 
wagons, attest your success over the 13th and 19th Army 
Corps. On the 9th you took up the pursuit and pressed it 
with vigor. For twelve miles, prisoners, scattered arms, 
burning wagons, proved how well the previous day's work 
had been done by the soldiers of Texas and Louisiana. 

The gallant divisions from Missouri and Arkansas, unfortu- 
nately absent on the 8th, marched forty-five miles in two 
days to share the glories of Pleasant Hill. This was emphati- 
cally the soldiers' victory. 

In spite of the strength of the enemy's position, held by 


fresh troops of the 16th Corps, your valor and devotion tri- 
umphed over all. Darkness closed one of the hottest fights 
of the war. The morning of the 10th dawned upon a flying 
foe, with our cavalry in pursuit, capturing prisoners at every 
step. These glorious victories were most deadly won. A 
list of the heroic dead would sadden the sternest heart. 
A visit to the hospital would move the sympathy of the most 
unfeeling. The memory of our dead will live as long as noble 
deeds are cherished on earth. The consciousness of duty 
well performed will alleviate the sufferings of the wounded. 

Soldiers ! from a thousand homes thanks will ascend to 
the God of battles for your victories. Tender wives and fond 
mothers will repose in safety behind the breastworks of your 
valor. No fears will be felt that the hated foe will desecrate 
their homes by his presence. This is your reward, but much 
remains to be done. Strict discipline, prompt obedience to 
orders, cheerful endurance of privations, will alone insure 
our independence. 

Governor Allen's Address to the Soldiers of Missouri, 
Arkansas, Texas, and Louisl^na. 

In the name of the people of Louisiana, I congratulate and 
thank you for our late brilliant victories. Tour insolent foe, 
after months of preparation, advanced his vast columns, 
supported by an enormous fleet of gun-boats, marking his 
pathway with pillage, desecration, and wanton destruction. 
When he thought the fruits of victory within his grasp, and 
when his mercenary hirelings were gloating over their plun- 
der, you fell on them with a blow so sudden and so crush- 
ing, that they were hurled back in terror and dismay on the 
path made desolate by their villainy. You have slain, wounded 
or captured one-third of their grand army, and every day 
brings some new token of your valor, some new trophy of 
your victory. You have stript the Federals of their well- 


appointed artillery and their rich-laden trains. You have 
met the Yankee chief in the day of his pride, and torn from 
him his laurels, and from his followers their 'stolen wealth. 
You have destroyed a portion of his boats, and more will 
doubtless fall into your hands. Louisiana will never forget 
her gratitude to the noble soldiers who have punished and 
rebuked the remorseless invader of their soil. Brave, gallant 
soldiers ! you fight neither for pay nor for fame, but for inde- 
pendence and your sacred rights. Yet fame will be yours. It 
will be a proud boast of the children of another age, that 
their fathers fought at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. In the 
midst of the turmoil and din of war the individual names of sol- 
diers are unheard, but time hallows their memory and embla- 
zons their deeds. A great, free, and noble race, dwelling in 
the land you are now making glorious with your chivalry 
and your blood, will gladly do honor to those who fought to 
make them free. 

Soldiers ! the God of battles has been with you. By his 
help and your own stout hearts and strong arms, you have 
gained the most complete victory ever won in this depart- 
ment. The veterans of Missouri vied with those of Arkansas, 
while the Texan and Louisianian rushed side by side into 
the shock of battle. We have to mourn the loss of many a 
gallant son. Let us drop a tear over their hallowed graves, 
then seize our weapons with a firmer grasp, and push the 
bayonet with a more deadly thrust. 

Soldiers ! the eternal God of justice will give us vic- 
tory in the end. Our bleeding country will be redeemed 
and saved, and in due time you shall see your homes 
again. ^^ ^rM^tfau £*u£- $h \ f 

From Western Louisiana you send your brothers in arms, 
now fighting jmder Lee, Johnston and Beauregard, the glori- 
ous tidings of your recent great victories. We have more 
work to do. This campaign, however, will be short. Our 
armies have thus far triumphed on every field. We have 
vanquished the enemy everywhere. Within the last forty 
days we have gained ten victories. Best assured, that before 


the autumn sun shall shine upon your brave and manly 
forms, you will hear the welcome order : 

" Soldier, rest, thy warfare's o'er ; 

Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking ; 
Dreams of battle-fields no more, 
Days of danger, nights of waking." 




, 'N the 13th of March, 1864, one division of the 13th 
^§=g£ Corps, under Brigadier-General Mower, and one 
division of the 17th Corps, under Brigadier-General 
Kilby Smith — the whole under command of Brigadier- 
General A. J. Smith — landed at Simmsport, on the Atchafa- 
laya, and proceeded at once toward Fort De Russy, carrying it 
by assault, at 4 30 P. M., on the afternoon of the 14th. Two 
hundred and sixty prisoners and ten heavy guns were cap- 
tured. Our loss was slight. The troops and transports under 
General A. J. Smith, and the Marine Brigade under General 
Ellet, with the gun-boats, moved to Alexandria, which was oc- 
cupied without opposition on the 16th of the same month. 

General Lee, of my command, arrived at Alexandria on the 
morning of the 19th. 

The enemy, in the mean time, continued his retreat through 
Cheneyville, in the direction of Shreveport. Officers of my 
staff were at Alexandria on the 19th, and I made my head- 
quarters there on the 24th, the forces of General Franklin 
arriving on the 25th and 26th of March ; but, as the stage of 
the water in Red River was too low to allow the passage of 
the gun-boats or transports over the falls, the troops en- 
camped near Alexandria, General Smith and his command 
moving forward twenty-one miles to Bayou Rapids, above 
Alexandria. There were but six feet of water in the channel, 
while seven and one-half feet were necessary for second-class 
boats, and ten feet for first-class boats. The river is narrow, 
the channel tortuous, changing with every rise, making its 


navigation more difficult and dangerous, probably, than any 
of the Western rivers, while pilots for the transports were 
reluctant to enter government service for this campaign. 

The first gun-boat was unable to cross until the 26th ; 
others crossed on the 28th, with some transports, and others 
still on the 2d and 3d of April — the passage being made with 
difficulty and danger, occupying several days. 

Several gun-boats and transports, being unable then to 
ascend the river, remained at Alexandria, or returned to the 
Mississippi. While at Alexandria, Major-General McPherson, 
commanding at Vicksburg, called for the immediate return of 
the Marine Brigade — a part of General Smith's command — to 
protect the Mississippi, for which purpose it had been spe- 
cially organized. The transports of the brigade were unable 
to 'pass above Alexandria. The hospital boat "Woodford" 
had been wrecked on the rapids in attempting to make the 
passage up. The troops were suffering from small-pox, which 
pervaded all of the transports, and they were reported in 
a condition of partial mutiny. It was not supposed, at that 
time, that a depot or garrison would be required in Alexan- 
dria, and this command, being without available land or water 
transportation, were permitted to return to the Mississippi, in 
compliance with the demand of General McPherson. This 
reduced the strength of the advancing column about three 
thousand men. 

The condition of the river, and the inability of the trans- 
ports to pass the falls, made it necessary to establish a depot 
of supplies at Alexandria, and a line of wagon-transportation 
from the steamers below to those above the falls. This was 
a departure from the plan of the campaign, which did not 
contemplate a post or depot at any j)oint on the Red River, 
and involved the necessity of leaving a division at Alexandria 
for the purpose of protecting the depot, transports, and 
supplies. Brigadier-General 0. Grover was placed in com- 
mand of the post, and his division left for its defense. This 
reduced the force of the advancing column about three thou- 
sand men. 


While at Alexandria, on the 21st instant, a movement was 
organized against the enemy posted at Henderson's Hill, 
twenty-five miles in advance. The expedition consisted of 
three brigades of General A. J. Smith's command, and a 
brigade of cavalry of the 19th Corps, under command of 
Colonel Lucas, of the 16th Indiana Volunteers ; the whole 
under command of Brigadier-General Mower, of the 16th 
Corps. The enemy was surprised, losing two hundred and 
fifty prisoners, two hundred horses, and four guns with their 
caissons. Colonel H. B. Sargent, of my staff, was severely 
wounded in this action, and disabled from service during the 
campaign. This affair reflected the highest credit upon the 
officers and men engaged. 

Anticipating by a few days the passage of the gun-boats, 
the army marched from Alexandria for Natchitoches, eighty 
miles distant by land, reaching that point on the 2d and 3d 
of April. The enemy continued his retreat, skirmishing 
sharply with the advanced guard, but offering no serious re- 
sistance to our advance. 

The only practicable road from Natchitoches to Shreve- 
port was the stage-road through Pleasant Hill and Mansfield, 
distant one hundred miles, through a barren, sandy country, 
with little water, and less forage, the greatest portion an un- 
broken pine forest. 

A reconnoissance from Natchitoches on the 2d of April, 
under command of General Lee, discovered the enemy in 
force at Pleasant Hill, thirty-six miles distant, and established 
the fact that a portion of Green's command had arrived 
from Texas, and were then confronting us. Prisoners cap- 
tured from Price's command indicated what had been feared' 
from a loss of time at Alexandria — a concentration of all 
the available force of the enemy, numbering, according to 
the statement of prisoners and intercepted letters, about 
twenty-five thousand men and seventy-six guns. 

The river was perceptibly falling, and the larger gun-boats 
were unable to pass Grand-Ecore. The troops under com- 
mand of General A. J. Smith, who had hitherto moved in 


transports by the river, now marched by land from Natchi- 
toches, with the exception of one division of the 17th 
Corps — two thousand five hundred men — under Brigadier- 
General Smith, which, by order of General A. J. Smith, con- 
tinued its movement by the river, in company with the fleet, 
for the protection of the transports. The arrangement of 
land transportation for this portion of the column, the replen- 
ishing of the transports from the supply-trains, and the dis- 
tribution of rations to the troops, were made at this point ; 
but the fleet was unable to ascend the river until the 7th of 
April. The condition of the river would have justified the 
suspension of the movement altogether, at either point, but 
for :he anticipation of such change as to make it navigable. 
Upon this point the counsel of the naval officers was impli- 
citly followed. 

On the 4th of April, Colonel 0. P. Gooding, commanding a 
brigade of cavalry, engaged upon a reconnoissance north of 
Red River, encountered Harrison's command — one thousand 
five hundred strong — in which the enemy was defeated, with 
considerable loss. Our loss was about forty in killed, 
missing, and wounded. The enemy's repulse was de- 

The army was put in motion for Shreveport, via Pleasant 
Hill and Mansfield, April 6th. General Lee, with the cav- 
alry division, led the advance, followed by two divisions 
of the 13th Corps, under command of General Ransom ; 
first division, 19th Corps, under General Emory ; and a bri- 
gade of colored troops under General Dickie — the whole un- 
der the immediate command of General Franklin. The detach- 
ments of the 16th Corps, under command of Brigadier-General 
A. J. Smith, followed on the 7th, and a division of the 17th 
Army Corps, under command of Brigadier-General T. Kilby 
Smith, accompanying Admiral Porter, on the river, as a guard 
for the transports. 

The fleet was directed to Loggy Bayou, opposite Spring- 
field, where it was expected communication would be estab- 
lished with the land forces at Sabine Cross-roads, a distance 


of fifty miles by land from Grand-Ecore, and one hundred 
miles by water. 

I remained with my staff to superintend the departure of 
the land and water forces from Grand-Ecore, until the morn- 
ing of the 7th, and then rode rapidly forward, reaching the 
head of the column the same evening, where the main body 
encamped. General Smith's command was at the rear of the 
column, on the march, but passed the negro brigade on the 
road to Pleasant Hill. A very heavy rain fell on the evening 
of the 7th, which greatly impeded the movement of the rear 
of the column, making the roads almost impassable for troops, 
trains, or artillery. The storm did not reach the head of the 
column. In passing the troops from Natchitoches to Pleas- 
ant Hill, I endeavored as much as possible to accelerate their 

The enemy offered no opposition to the march on the 6th. 
On the 7th the advance drove a small force to Pleasant Hill, 
and from thence to Wilson's farm, three miles beyond, where 
a sharp fight occurred, with the enemy posted in a very strong 
position, from which they were driven with serious loss, and 
pursued to St. Patrick's Bayou, near Carroll's mill, about nine 
miles from Pleasant Hill, where our troops bivouacked for 
the night. We sustained in this action a loss of fourteen men 
killed, thirty-six wounded, and nine missing. We captured 
many prisoners, and the enemy sustained great losses in killed 
and wounded. During the engagement, General Lee sent to 
General Franklin for reinforcements, and a brigade of in- 
fantry was sent forward ; but the firing having ceased, it was 
withdrawn. The officers and men fought with great spirit in 
this affair. 

At daybreak on the 8th, General Lee, to whose support a 
brigade of the 13th Corps, under Colonel Landrutn, had been 
sent by my orders, advanced upon the enemy, drove him 
back from his position on the opposite side of St. Patrick's 
Bayou, and pursued him to Sabine Cross-roads, about three 
miles from Mansfield. The advance was steady, but slow, 
and the resistance of the enemy stubborn. He was only 


driven from Lis position on the cross-roads by artillery. At 
noon on the 8th, another brigade of the 13th Corps arrived 
at the cross-roads, under Brig. -General Ransom, to relieve the 
1st Brigade. 

The infantry moved from Pleasant Hill at daybreak on the 
8th, the head of the column halting at St. Patrick's Bayou in 
order that the rear might come up. I passed General Frank- 
lin's headquarters at 10 A.M., giving directions to close up the 
column as speedily as possible, and rode forward as rapidly 
as possible to ascertain the condition of affairs in front, where 
I arrived between one and two o'clock. General Ransom 
arrived nearly at the same time, with the 2d Brigade, 13th 
Corps, which was under his command in the action at the 

I found the army in line of battle, the skirmishers sharply 
engaged, the main body of the enemy posted on the crest of 
of a long hill in thick woods on both sides of a road leading 
over the hill to Mansfield on our line of march. 

It was apparent that the enemy was in much stronger force 
than at any previous point of the march, and being confirmed in 
this opinion by General Lee, I sent General Franklin, imme- 
diately on my arrival, a statement of the facts, and orders to 
hurry the infantry with all possible dispatch, directing Gen- 
eral Lee at the same time to hold his ground steadily, but 
not advance until reinforcements should arrive. Our forces 
were for a long time stationary, with some skirmishing on the 
flanks. It soon became apparent that the entire force of the 
enemy were in our front. Several officers were sent forward 
to General Franklin to hurry up the column. Skirmishing 
was incessant during the afternoon- At 4.30, P.M., the 
enemy made a general attack all along the lines, but with 
great vigor on our right flank. It was resisted with resolute 
determination by our forces ; but overwhelming numbers 
compelled them, after resisting the successive attacks of the 
enemy in front and on the flanks, to fall back from their 
position to the woods in rear of the open field, which they 
occupied, retreating in good order. The enemy pressed with 


great vigor upon the flanks, as well as in front, for the pur- 
pose of getting to the rear, but were repulsed in this attempt 
by our cavalry. 

At the line of woods a new position was assumed, sup- 
ported by the 3d Division of the 13th Army Corps, under 
General Cameron, which reached this point about 5 P.M., 
and formed in line of battle under direction of Major-General 
Franklin, who accompanied its advance. The enemy attacked 
this second line with great impetuosity and overpowering 
numbers, turning both flanks and advancing heavily upon the 
center. The assault was resisted with gallantry ; but the troops 
were compelled to yield the ground, and fall steadily back. 
The road was badly obstructed by the supply-train of the 
cavalry division, which prevented the retreat of both men and 
artillery. We lost ten guns of Ransom's Division in conse- 
quence of the position of the train, which prevented their 
withdrawal. Repeated efforts were made to re-form and 
resist the advance of the enemy ; but though their progress 
was checked, it was without permanent success. 

Brig.-General "W. H. Emory, commanding 1st Division, 
19th Corps, had been early notified of the condition of affairs, 
and instructed to advance as quickly as possible, and form a 
hue of battle in the strongest position he could select to sup- 
port the troops in retreat, and check the advance of the 
enemy. The order to advance found him seven miles in the 
rear of first battle-ground. He assumed a position at Pleas- 
ant Grove, about three miles from the cross-roads, on the 
edge of a wood commanding an open field slojung to the 
front. The 161st New York Volunteers, Colonel Kinsay com- 
manding, were deployed as skirmishers and ordered to the 
front of the hill, upon the edge of which the line was formed, 
to cover the rear of the retreating forces, to check the pur- 
suit of the enemy, and give time for the formation of the troops. 

General Dwight, commanding 1st Division, formed his 
troops across the road upon which the enemy was moving, 
commanding the open field in front ; the 3d Brigade, Colonel 
Benedict commanding, formed to the left, and the 2d Bri- 


gade, General McMillan, in reserve. The line was scarcely 
formed when the 161st New York were attacked and driven 
in. The right being threatened, a part of General McMillan's 
Brigade formed on the right of General Dwight. The fire of 
our troops was reserved until the enemy were at close quar- 
ters, when the whole Hue opened upon them with the most 
destructive volley of musketry. The action lasted an hour 
and a half. The enemy was repulsed with very great slaugh- 
ter. During our fight a very determined attempt was made 
to turn our flank, but was defeated. Prisoners reported the 
loss of the enemy in officers and men to be very great. Gen- 
eral Mouton was killed in the onset. Their attack was made 
with great desperation, apparently with the idea that the dis- 
persion of our forces at this point would end the campaign, 
and with the aid of the falling river, leave the fleet of trans- 
ports and gun-boats in their hands, or cause their destruc- 
tion. Nothing could surpass the impetuosity of the enemy 
but the inflexible steadiness and valor of our troops. The 
1st Division of the 19th Corps, by its great valor in this ac- 
tion, saved the army and navy. But for this successful 
resistance to the attack of the enemy at Pleasant Grove, the 
renewed attack of the enemy with increased force could not 
have been successfully resisted at Pleasant Hill on the 9th of 
April. We occupied both battle-grounds at night. 

From Pleasant Grove to Pleasant Hill, where this action 
occurred, was fifteen miles. It was certain that the enemy, 
who were in reach of reinforcements, would renew the attack 
in the morning, and it was uncertain whether the command 
of General Smith could reach the position we held, in time 
for another engagement. For this reason the army toward 
morning fell back to Pleasant Hill, General Emory covering 
the rear, burying the dead, bringing off the wounded and all 
the material of the army. 

It arrived there on the morning of the 9th, at half-past 
eight, effecting a junction with the forces of General Smith 
and the colored troops, under Colonel Dickey, which had 
reached that point the evening previous. 


Early on the 9th, the troops were ready for action, the 
movements of the enemy indicating that he was on onr rear. 
A line of battle was formed in the following order : 1st Bri- 
gade, 19th Corps, resting on a ravine, from the right ; 2d Bri- 
gade in the center, and 3d Brigade on the left. The center was 
strengthened by General Smith's forces, whose main force was 
held in reserve. The enemy moved toward our right flank. 
The 2d Brigade withdrew from the center to help the 1st Bri- 
gade. The brigade in support of the center moved into posi- 
tion ; and another, General Smith's Brigade, was posted on the 
extreme left position on the hill, in echelon, to the rear of the 
left main line. Slight skirmishing occurred during the after- 
noon. Between 4 and 5 o'clock it increased in vigor, and 
about 5 P. M., when it appeared to have nearly ceased, the 
enemy drove in our skirmishers, and attacked in force, his 
first onset being against the left. He advanced in two oblique 
lines, extending well over to the right of the 3d Brigade, 19 th 
Corps. After a determined resistance, this part of the line 
gave way, and went slowly back to the reserves. The 1st and 
2d Brigades were soon enveloped in front, right and rear. 
By skillful movements of General Emory, the flanks of the 
two brigades now bearing the brunt of battle were covered. The 
enemy pursued the brigades, passing the left and center, until 
he approached the reserves, under General Smith, when he 
was met by a charge led by General Mower, and checked. 
The whole of the reserves were now ordered up, and in turn 
we drove the enemy, continuing the pursuit until night com- 
pelled us to halt. The battle of the 9th was desperate and 
sanguinaiy. The defeat of the enemy was complete, and his 
loss in officers and men more than double that sustained by 
our forces. There was nothing in the immediate position or 
condition of the two armies to prevent a forward movement 
the next morning, and orders were given to prepare for an ad- 
vance. The train, which had been turned to rear on the day 
of battle, was ordered to re-form and advance at daybreak. 
I communicated this purpose at the close of the day to Gen- 
eral A. J. Smith, who expressed his concurrence therein. 


But representations subsequently received from General Frank- 
lin, and all the general officers of the 19th Corps, as to the 
condition of their respective commands for immediate active 
operations against the enemy, caused a suspension of this 
order, and a conference of the general officers was held, in 
which it was determined, upon the urgent recommendation of 
all the general officers above-named, and with the acquiescence 
of General Smith, to retire upon Grand-Ecore the following 
day. The reasons urged for this course by the officers of the 
13th and 19th Corps were : First, that the absence of water 
made it necessary to advance Or retire without delay. 
General Emory's command had been without rations two 
days, and the train, which had been turned to the rear during 
the battle, could not be put in condition to move forward upon 
the single road, through dense woods, in which it stood, with- 
out difficulty and loss of time. It was for the purpose of com- 
municating with the fleet at Springfield Landing, from the 
Sabine Cross-roads to the river, as well as to prevent the con- 
centration of Texan troops with the enemy at Mansfield, that 
we had pushed for the early occupation of that point. Con- 
sidering the difficulty with which the gun -boats passed Alexan- 
dria and Grand-Ecore, there was every reason to believe that 
the navigation of the river would be found impracticable. 
A squadron of cavalry, under Mr. Young, who had formerly 
been employed in the surveys of this country, and was now 
connected with the engineer department, which had been 
sent on a reconnoissance to the river, returned to Pleasant Hill 
on the day of the battle, with the report that they had not been 
able to discover the fleet, nor learn from the people its pas- 
sage up the river. The report of General T. Kilby Smith, 
commanding the river forces, states that the fleet did not arrive 
at Loggy Bayou until 2 o'clock, P. M., on the 10th of April, two 
days after the battle at Sabine Cross-roads. This led to be- 
lieve that the low water had prevented the advance of the fleet. 
The condition of the river, which had been steadily falling 
since our march from Alexandria, rendered it doubtful, if the 
fleet ascended the river, whether it could return from any 


intermediate point; and jDrobable, if not certain, that if it 
reached Shreveport, it would never escape without a rise of 
the river, of which all hopes began to fail. 

The forces designated for this campaign numbered forty-two 
thousand men. Less than half this number were actually 
available for service against the enemy during its progress. 
The distance which separated General Steele's command from 
our field of operations (nearly two hundred miles) rendered 
his movement of little moment to us or the enemy, and reduced 
the strength of the fighting column to the extent of his 
force, which was expected to be from 10,000 to 15,000 men. 
The depot at Alexandria, made necessary by the imprac- 
ticable navigation, withdrew from our forces 3,000 men, 
under General Grower. The return of the Marine Brigade 
to the defense of the Mississippi upon the demand of Major- 
General McPherson, and which could not pass Alexandria 
without its steamers, nor move by land for want of land 
transportation, made a further reduction of 3,000 men. 
The protection of the fleet of transports on both sides of the 
river made it necessary for General A. J. Smith to send Gen- 
eral T. Kilby Smith's Division of 2,500 men from the main 
body for that duty. The army-train required a guard of 500 

These several detachments, which it was impossible to 
avoid, and the distance of General Steele's command, which 
it was not in my power to correct, reduced the number of 
troops fi-om 42,000 to 20,000 men. The losses in the. three 
battles of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of April amounted to about 
3,969 men, and reduced our active force that amount. The 
enemy, superior to us in the outset, by falling back, was able 
to cover his great losses by reinforcements, which were within 
his reach as he reached his base of operations, while we 
were growing weaker as we departed from ours. We had 
fought the fight at Pleasant Hill with 15,000 against 22,000 
men, and won a victory, which, for this reason, we were una- 
ble to follow up. 

Other considerations connected with the actual military 


condition of affairs afforded additional reasons for the course 

Between the commencement of the expedition and the bat- 
tle of Pleasant Hill, a change had occurred in the general com- 
mand of the army, which caused a modification in ruy instruc- 
tions in regard to this expedition. 

Lieutenant-General Grant, in a dispatch which I received 
on the 27th of March, at Alexandria, which was dated March 
15, gave me the following instructions : " If you find 
that the taking of Shreveport will occupy ten or fifteen days 
more than General Sherman gave his troops to be absent from 
then command, you will send them back at the time specified 
in his note (blank date) March, even if it should lead to the 
abandonment of the main object of the expedition. Should it 
prove successful, hold Shreveport and Red River with such 
force as you deem necessary, and return the balance of your 
troops to the neighborhood of New Orleans." These instruc- 
tions, I was informed, were given for the purpose of having 
" all parts of the army, or rather all arms, act as much in 
concert as possible," and with a view to a movement in 
the spring campaign against Mobile, which was certainly to 
be made, if troops enough could be obtained without embar- 
rassing other movements, in which event New Orleans would 
be the point of departure for such an expedition. 

A subsequent dispatch, though it did not control, fully justi- 
fied my action, repeated these general views, and stated that the 
commanding general would much rather the Red River expe- 
dition had never been begun, than that you should be detained 
one day after the 1st of May in commencing the movement 
east of the Mississippi. 

The limitation of time referred to in these dispatches was 
based upon the opinion which I verbally expressed to General 
Sherman, at New Orleans, that General Smith could be spared 
in thirty days after we reached Alexandria ; but it was predi- 
cated upon the expectation that the navigation of the river 
would be unobstructed ; that we should advance at once upon 
Alexandria, Grand-Ecore, or elsewhere, on account of low 


water, and that the forces of General Steele were to co-operate 
at some point on the Red River, near Natchitoches or Mon- 
roe. It was never understood that an expedition that involved 
on the part of my command a land march of nearly four hun- 
dred miles in the enemy's country, and which terminated at a 
point which we might not be able to hold, either on account 
of the strength of the enemy or the difficulty of obtaining sup- 
plies, was limited to thirty days. The condition of our forces 
and the distance and difficulty attending a farther advance 
into the enemy's country, after the battles of the 8th and 9th 
against superior numbers, rendered it probable that we could 
not occupy Shreveport in the time specified, and certain that, 
without a rise, the troops necessary to hold it against the 
enemy would have to evacuate it for want of supplies, and 
impossible that the army should return to New Orleans in 
time to co-operate with the general movements of the army 
contemplated for the spring campaign. It was known at tins 
time that the fleet could not repass the rapids at Alexandria, 
and it was doubtful, if the fleet reached any point above 
Grand-Ecore, whether it would be able to return. By falling 
back to Grand-Ecore we could determine the condition of the 
fleet, the practicability of continuing the movement by the 
river, reorganize the troops that had been shattered in the 
battles of the 7th, 8th, and 9th ; jjossibly ascertain the posi- 
tion of General Steele, and obtain from him the assistance 
needed for a new advance up the river or upon its southern 
bank, and perhaps obtain definite instructions from the gov- 
ernment as to the course to be pursued. Upon these general 
considerations, and without reference to the actual condition of 
the respective armies, at 12 o'clock on the 9th, I counter- 
manded the order for the return of the train, and directed 
preparations for the return of the army to Grand-Ecore. The 
dead were buried, and the wounded were brought in from 
fields Of battle and placed in the most comfortable hospitals 
that could be provided, and surgeons and supplies furnished 
for them. A second squadron of cavalry, under command of 
Mr. Young of the engineer department, was sent to inform the 


fleet of our retrograde movement, and to direct its return if 
it bad ascended the river ; and on the morning of the 10th 
the army leisurely returned to Grand-Ecore. The wounded 
were immediately visited by Dr. Sanger, who took with him 
clothes, rations, medicines, and other supplies, and pro- 
nounced them iu comfortable condition. 

The fleet sailed from Grand-Ecore on the 7th, and ar- 
rived at Loggy Bayou on the evening of the 10th, one day 
after the battle at Pleasant Hill, and two days after the one 
at Sabine Cross-roads. General T. Kilby Smith received a 
verbal message on the evening of the 10th, and on the morn- 
ing of the 11th written orders to return. 

The transports were in a crippled condition, rudders un- 
shipped and wheels broken. The enemy attacked tbe fleet, 
on its return, near Pleasant Hill Landing, on the 12th, with 
a force of about 2,500 cavalry, a strong reserve of infantry, 
and ten guns, under General Green. But the troops, pro- 
tected by cotton bales and bales of hay, with the gun-boats, 
kept up a deadly fire and drove the enemy from the river. 
For two miles the bank was strewn with the wounded and 
dead. Among the rebel officers who were killed was General 
Green, who was left dead upon the field. The troops of the 
transports saw him fall, and claim it was the work of their 
artillery — the gun-boats and transports firing at the same 
time. The enemy, under Liddell, who had occupied the north 
bank with 2,500 men, attacked the fleet on the 13th, but was 
driven back with loss. The navigation up aud down the river 
was intricate and dangerous, and the steamers were fre- 
quently aground. Several of the boats were laden with am- 
munition and ordnance stores, but the energy of the officers 
and men brought off every boat. The only loss in stores was 
one hundred sacks of oats, thrown overboard to relieve a boat 
aground. They reached Compte on the 18th with a loss of 
one man killed and eighteen wounded, where they met a force 
sent from the army for their assistance, and reached Grand- 
Ecore on the 15th without furthur obstruction. General T. 
Kilby Smith, to whom I am indebted for much of my infor- 


mation on this subject, mentions with commendation Major 
D. C. Houston, who had the ammunition and ordnance stores 
in command, and Lieutenant-Colonel "W. S. Albert, of my 
staff, who accompanied him ; also officers and men of his own 
command, and masters of transport steamers. General Smith, 
who commanded the land forces and transports, is entitled to 
the highest commendation, for the energy, skill, and success 
with which he managed this most difficult affair. 

Lines of defense were established at Grand-Ecore on the 
12th of April, and orders given to attack the enemy if he ap- 
proached. A pontoon bridge was thrown across the river 
during the night. Our pickets were driven in on the 
13th. But the enemy appeared, upon a reconnoissance made 
in front, to have gone below, either for the purpose of attack- 
ing our troops at Alexandria or occupying Monet's Bluff, on 
Cane Biver. On the same day General Smith crossed the 
river with two brigades, two batteries, and a strong cavalry 
force, to aid the fleet still above Grand-Ecore. Dispatches 
were sent to General Steele informing him of the condition of 
affairs, and requesting him to join us at some point on the 
river. Orders were sent to New Orleans for reinforcements, 
and the lieutenant-general was informed of the state of affairs 
by telegraph, and of my intention to advance upon Shreve- 
port if General Steele would come to my assistance, and of 
my intention not to withdraw without orders. 

The fleet returned on the 15th in safety, without the loss of 
vessel or material of war. Admiral Porter, with whom I had 
a conference on his arrival at Grand-Ecore, advised against 
any further attempt to ascend the river without a rise, and 
his counsel was followed. The river had been steadily fall- 
ing. Supplies were brought up to Ecore with great difficulty. 

It was found that two of the gun-boats would not go below 
Grand-Ecore, and it was now certain that the fleet would not 
pass the falls at Alexandria. 

Lieutenant-commander Selfridge, left in command of the 
fleet by the admiral, who had gone to Alexandria, sent me a 
dispatch dated 17th April, stating that he was informed the 

222 walker's texas division. 

army was to -withdraw immediately, and that it would be im- 
possible in that case to get the boats down the river. I in- 
formed him at once that the army had no intention of with- 
drawing from that, position ; that I had sent to New Orleans 
for troops, and, by special messenger, to General Steele to co- 
operate ; and that till it was definitely ascertained that his 
assistance would fail us, and that my force would be insuffi- 
cient to advance further upon the line against the enemy, who 
appeared to be in full force, I should entertain no thought 
of a retrograde movement, and never, if it left the navy in any 
danger. No such purpose was entertained, and till I received 
information in reply to my dispatches, it was my purpose to 
maintain my position. A copy of this letter is appended to 
this report. The next day I received instructions from Lieu- 
tenant-General Grant (to which I have referred), that if my 
return was delayed one day beyond the first of May, when it 
would be necessary for my command to co-operate with other 
armies in the spring campaign, it would have been better the 
campaign had never been attempted. These instructions, 
with the fact that the river was not likely to rise, the report 
received by Captain E. T. Dunham, that General Steele could 
not co-operate with us, and that the difficulty of passing the 
falls of Alexandria was hourly increasing, if the passage were 
not even then impossible, led me to change my determination. 
It was not, however, until the entire fleet was free, trans- 
ports and gun-boats, and that Admiral Porter, in charge of 
the "Eastport," which had been aground for some days 
several miles below Grand-Ecore, sent me word by Colonel 
W. S. Albert, whose statement is here appended, that she 
was clear, and further protection unnecessary, that orders 
were given, the 21st of April, to turn the supply-trains in the 
direction of Alexandria. The army moved on the morning of 
the 22d of April, every vessel having preceded both the 
marching orders and movement of the army. Any statement 
that the army contemplated moving from Grand-Ecore to- 
ward Alexandria, against the advice or without the approval 
of the naval officers in command, or until the departure of 


every vessel in the river, is without the slightest color of 

In my interview with Admiral Porter, on the 15th of April, 
he expressed the utmost confidence that the river would rise, 
and gave me no intimation of his withdrawal from Grand- 
Ecore, or of the proposed withdrawal of his vessels, nor of 
the apprehension of the retreat of the army. I gave him at 
that time distinct information of my plans, which were to ad- 
vance. This fact was communicated to Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Self ridge, in my letter of the 17th of April. 

The admiral expressed the same confidence to officers of 
the army who from long experience in the Red River country 
were equally confident that it would not rise. The difficulties 
attending the voyage of the " Eastport " were incident to the 
condition of the river, for which the army was in no wise re- 
sponsible. I had offered every assistance possible, and did 
not leave this position while any aid was suggested or re- 

Colonel Baily, after consultation with the general officers 
of the army, offered to float the "Eastport" over the bars by 
the construction of wing-dams, similar to those afterward 
built at Alexandria ; but the assistance was declined. No 
■counsel from army officers was regarded in nautical af- 

The army marched from Grand-Ecore on the 22d of 'April, 
having been detained there ten days by the condition of the 
navy... To prevent the occupation of Monet's Bluff, on Cane 
River, a strong position commanding the only road across the 
river to Alexandria, or to prevent the concentration of the 
enemy's forces at that point, it became necessary to com- 
mence the evacuation without his knowledge, and to prevent 
his strengthening the natural defenses, by the rapidity of our 
march. The conflagration of a part of the town at the time 
appointed for .our movement, partially frustrated our first 
object, but the second was fully accomplished. 

The army marched from Grand-Ecore to Cane River, a 
distance of forty miles, on the 22d of April, and moved on 


the position held by the enemy, at daybreak, on the 23d. 
About 8,000 men and sixteen guns, under command of Gen- 
eral Bel, were found in possession of the bluff, on the oppo- 
site side of the river, who were surprised to see the presence 
of our army, but ready to dispute our only passage to Alex- 
andria. At daybreak one division of the 19th and 20th, the 
cavalry commanded by General Arnold and the artillery by 
Captain Classon, the whole under the command of General 
W. H. Emory, were ordered forward to the river for the 
purpose of forcing this position. The pickets were encoun- 
tered on the west side of the river and quickly driven across ; 
but the main division was found to be too strong to be car- 
ried by direct attack. A reconnoitering party, under Colonel 
Baily, of the 4th Wisconsin Volunteers, sent to ascertain the 
practicability of crossing the river below the ferry toward 
Bed Biver, on the morning of the 23d, reported that the river 
was not fordable below the ferry ; and that, owing to the im- 
passable swamps on one side and the high bluffs on the 
other, it would be impossible to cross Cane Biver below the 
ferry. If we failed to dislodge the enemy, the only alter- 
native was to attempt a crossing on the north side of the Bed 
Biver, a very dangerous movement. 

At the same time, a force under command of General H. W. 
Birge, consisting of his own division, the 3d Brigade of the 
1st Division, 19th Army Corps, Colonel Fessending com- 
manding, and General Cauwren's Division, were ordered to 
cross the river three miles above, turn the left flank upon the 
enemy, and carry the heights in reverse, if possible. Upon 
the success of this movement depended the passage of the 
river by the army. The route traversed by General Birge's 
command lay through bayous, swamps, and almost impen- 
etrable woods. This force reached its position late in the 
afternoon. To accomplish their purpose it was necessary to 
carry two strong positions held by skirmishers and pickets, 
before the enemy was encountered in force on the crest of a 
hill commanding an open field, over which our troops were 
forced to cross in making the attack. The 3d Brigade, 19th 


Corps, Colonel Fessending commanding, carried this position, 
which was defended with vigor, by assault. Its occupation 
compelled the retreat of the enemy from the bluffs command- 
ing the ferry and ford. 

Our loss in this brilliant and most successful affair, was 
about two hundred killed and wounded. 

Colonel Fessending, who led his command with gallantry, 
was severely wounded. General Birge, as in all actions in 
which he was engaged, deserved and received the highest 
commendation. Lieutenant William Beebe, of the ordnance 
department, and Mr. Young, of the engineer department, 
both volunteers, were conspicuous in the fight. Mr. Young 
was twice wounded, and died in July, at New Orleans, of 
wounds received in this battle. The attack on the rear of the 
enemy's retreat failed in consequence of the difficulty en- 
countered on the march, and the late hour at which our 
troops gained their position. 

The enemy was thus enabled to escape with his artillery, 
by the St. Jessup Eoad, to Texas. 

The main body of the army had moved from Clouterville, 
at 4 30, P.M., on the 23d, to the river. 

They drove in the enemy's pickets three miles in advance 
of the river, and formed a line of battle in front of the enemy's 
position, while General Birge was moving on the enemy's 
left flank. The enemy opened with a heavy cannonade from 
his batteries, which was returned by our artillery with spirit, 
and effect. The fire was continued at intervals during the 
morning, but the troops were held in reserve for the purpose 
of effecting the passage of the river the moment General 
Birge commenced his attack on the right. The attack lasted 
till dark, when the enemy retreated, leaving our forces in pos- 
session of the heights. General A. J. Smith's command had 
sharp skirmishing with the advance of the enemy on our rear 
on the 23d. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 24th, six guns were 
fired from the camp of the enemy in our rear. It was inter- 
preted as a signal that they were ready for a combined 


attack ; but the enemy in front had then been driven from 
the river, and the contemplated movement upon our front 
and rear failed. 

During the morning of the 23d, an effort was made by a 
portion of the cavalry under Colonel E. J. Davis, to turn the 
right flank of the enemy's position, by crossing the river 
below the ferry in the direction of Red River, which proved 
impracticable on account of the swamps. A sharp engage- 
ment took place on the morning of the 24th, between the 
troops of General T. Kilby Smith and the enemy in the rear, 
which resulted in the repulse of the latter. Our loss was 
about fifty in this affair. 

Had the enemy concentrated his forces and fortified his 
position on Monet's Bluff, we could not have forced him from 
it, and should have been compelled to run the chances of 
crossing Red River above Cane River, in the presence of the 
enemy on both sides of the river. Orders had been sent to 
General Grover to move on Monet's Bluff with his forces, 
should it be occupied by the enemy, or our march be seriously 
obstructed ; and his troops were in readiness for this move- 
ment. The army marched from Monet's Bluff on the 24th of 
April, and established lines of defense at Alexandria on the 
25th and 26th of April. 

In the intervening twenty-four days between the departure 
of the army from Alexandria and its return, the battles of 
Wilson's Farm, Sabine Cross-roads, Pleasant Grove, Pleasant 
Hill, Compte, Monet's Bluff, and several combats in the 
neighborhood of Grand-Ecore, while we were in occupation 
of that point, had been fought. In every one of these battles 
we were successful, except the one at Sabine Cross-roads. 
The failure to accomplish the object in view was due to other 
considerations than the superiority in numbers of the enemy 
in the field. In these operations, in which my command had 
marched 400 miles, the total loss sustained was about 3,980 
men, of whom 289 were killed, 1,541 wounded, and 2,150 
missing: a large portion of the latter have since been re- 
turned, but a considerable number returned at Reel River. 


None of the artillery or stores were lost, except the loss sus- 
tained at Sabine Cross-roads. We lost there Nims's Battery 
and a portion of the St. Louis Howitzer Battery, 150 wagons 
and 800 mules, captured by the enemy on account of the 
position of the train near the field of battle. Up to this time 
no other loss has been sustained by our army. 

As soon as the lines of defense were completed, prepara- 
tions were made for the return of the fleet, then above the falls. 

From the difficulty encountered by the supply transports 
in passing the falls, it was known at G-rand-Ecore as early as 
the 15th of April, that the fleet could not pass the falls, and 
the means of its release freely discussed by army officers. 
During the campaign at Port Hudson, the steamers " Star- 
light " and "Red Chief," were captured by the Illinois cavalry 
under Colonel Prince, at Thompson's Creek. The bed of the 
creek was dry and the boats were sunk several feet in the 
sand after the capture of Port Hudson. Colonel Baily con- 
structed wing-dams, and floated them into the Mississippi. 
This incident naturally suggested the same works at Alex- 
andria for the relief of the fleet. A survey was ordered to 
determine what means could be best undertaken. The en- 
gineers had completed the survey of the falls, captured from 
the enemy during the campaign. It was found, upon exam- 
ining them and surveying the river, that the river channel 
was narrow and crooked, and formed in solid rock, and it 
would be impracticable to deepen its bed. 

It was therefore determined to construct a dam and float the 
vessels over the falls. Capt. Palfrey, who made the survey, said 
he thought it feasible, and the only question was how long a 
time would be necessary for so great a work. 

The management was intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Baily, of the Fourth "Wisconsin Volunteers, who was used to 
such work, and had successfully freed the boats on Thompson's 
Creek. Colonel Baily had suggested building a dam while at 
Grand-Ecore, and had offered to relieve the "Eastport" 
when aground below Ecore by the same means, which offer 
was declined. 


Material was collected and work commenced on Sunday, 
May 1st. The dam was completed Sunday, May 8th, and the 
" Osage," " Hindman," and two others came over the rapids at 
4 P.M. The water had been raised by the dam seven feet, 
with a fall below the dam of six feet, making a fall of thirteen 
feet above and below the dam. The pressure of water at its 
completion was terrific. I went over the work at eleven o'clock 
on the morning of the 8th, and felt that the pressure was so 
great it could not stand. I rode immediately to the point where 
the fleet was anchored, to see if they were ready. I reached 
the fleet about midnight ; scarcely a light or a man was to be 
seen. It was apparent the boats were not ready to take 
advantage of the completion of the dam, and feeling it could 
not stand another day, I wrote a note to Admiral Porter at 
one o'clock on the morning of the ninth, which was delivered 
in person at 2 A.M., by Col. J. G. Wilson, stating my 
belief as to the condition of the dam and the fleet, and asking 
that measures be taken to put the boats in condition to float 
over the dam at the earliest moment possible in the morning. 
A little after five on the morning of the ninth I saw part of 
the dam swept away. The four boats that had passed the 
rapids the day before were able to pass below through the 
opening the water had made. Only one of the vessels above 
the falls, the "Lexington," was ready to move when 
the dam gave way, and came down and passed the dam 
safely, with all the vessels that were below the rapids. Had 
the others been ready to move, all would have passed the 
rapids and dam safely on Monday. Until after the dam had 
been carried away, no effort had been made to lessen the 
draught of the imprisoned vessels by lightening them of 
cargo, armament, or plating. Before the second series of 
dams were completed a portion of the armament and the plat- 
ing, materially lessening the draught and depth of water, were 
removed. Lieutenant W. S. Beebe of the ordnance depart- 
ment, U. S. A., superintended the removal of the heavy naval 
guns from above the rapids by land, assisted by officers and 
men of the army. The army immediately commenced the 


reconstruction of the dam. This new darn was completed on 
the 12th of May, and on that afternoon all the boats passed 
below the rapids to the dam. At six o'clock in the evening 
the " Mound City " and " Carondelet " passed the dam in 
safety. The other boats remained above until the morning of 
the 13th. The water above the dam was falling, but at nine 
o'clock all the boats had passed safely. 

Preparations had been made for a movement of the army 
the evening after the passage of the boats below the dam on 
the twelfth, and after all were below, on the 13th, orders were 
given to march. 

The construction of the dam was the work of the army ; 
but little aid or encouragement was received from officers of 
the navy, except Lieutenant A. B. Santhorne, commanding 
the " Mound City," who assisted in setting the cribs, and was 
always ready to assist the officers in charge of the work. 

The soldiers labored zealously, night and day, from the 1st 
to the 13th of May inclusive, when the passage of the boats 
was completed. 

Upon my arrival at Alexandria, on the 25th of April, I 
found Major-Gen. Hunter with dispatches from the Lieuten- 
ant-General, reaffirming instructions which I had received 
at Ecore, relating to operations of the army elsewhere and 
the necessity of bringing the Shreveport campaign to an end 
right away. The only possible means of executing the orders 
had already been taken. Gen. Hunter left on the 18th with 
dispatches to the Lieutenant-General, informing him of the 
condition of affairs ; — that the fleet could not pass the rapids, 
that there was no course for the army but to remain for its 
protection ; that it would be necessary to concentrate all our 
forces to protect both army and navy and destroy the enemy. 

Major-Gen. McClernand, with the largest part of the forces 
necessary, recently, at Matagorda Bay, which had been 
evacuated by order of Gen. Grant, dated March 31st, arrived 
at Alexandria on the evening of the 29th April. Brigadier- 
Gen. Fitz Henry Warren, left in command of Matagorda Bay, 
followed with the rest of the forces in Texas, except on the 


Rio Grande, where the batteries of the enemy at Marksville 
obstructed the passage of the fleet and army. While engaged 
in the construction of the dam, a dispatch was received from 
Major-Gen. Halleck, dated April 30th, as follows : 

"General Grant directs that orders heretofore given be so 
modified as not to withdraw any troops from the operations 
against Shreveport and on Red River, and that operations be 
continued there until further orders." 

This dispatch was not received until it was too late to 
move either up or down the river from Alexandria. It was of 
course then impracticable to execute these orders. 

Lieutenant Simpson, of my staff, left by the gun-boat 
" Signal " with dispatches for Lieutenant-General Grant, 
Admiral Farragut, General Sherman, and General Rosecrans. 
The gun-boat Covington, having in convoy the transport "War- 
ner, accompanied the Signal. We received news on the 6th, 
of the destruction of the gun-boats and transport. The enemy 
had established a battery near Marksville, supported by a 
large infantry force. Communication with the Mississippi 
was closed from this date. 

Lieutenant Simpson was captured, but destroyed his dis- 
patches. The " City Belle," on her way to Alexandria with 
four hundred and twenty-five men of the 120th Ohio Volun- 
teers, was captured by the enemy. Two hundred of the troops 

The fleet passed below Alexandria on the 13th of May. The 
army, on its march, did not encounter the enemy in force 
until near Mansura ; he was driven through the town in the 
evening of the 14th. At daybreak next morning our advance 
encountered his cavalry on the prairie, east of the town ; he 
fell back, with steady and sharp skirmishing, to a belt of 
woods, which he occupied. The enemy's position covered 
three roads diverging from Mansura to the Atchafalaya. He 
manifested here a determination to obstinately resist our pas- 
sage. The engagement, which lasted several hours, was con- 
fined to the artillery, until our troops got possession of the 
edge of the woods — first upon our left by General Emory, and 


subsequently on our right, by General Smith, when he was 
driven from the field after a sharp and decisive fight, with 
great loss. 

The 16th of May we reached Simmsport, on the Atchafa- 
laya. Being entirely destitute of any material for building a 
bridge to pass this river, about six hundred yards wide, a 
bridge was constructed of the steamers, by Colonel Baily. 
This work was not of the same magnitude, but was of as 
much importance to the army as the dam at Alexandria was 
to the navy. It had the merit of being an entirely novel con- 
struction, as no bridge of such magnitude was constructed of 
the same material. The bridge was completed at 1 o'clock, 
on the 19th of May. The wagon-train passed over that after- 
noon ; the troops next morning, in better spirit and condition 
to meet the enemy than at any time during the campaign. The 
command of General A. J. Smith, which covered the rear 
during the construction of the bridge and passage of the army, 
had a severe engagement under Polignac, on the afternoon of 
the 19th, at Yellow Bayou, which lasted several hours. Our 
loss was one hundred and fifty in killed and wounded ; that 
of the enemy greater, besides many prisoners taken by our 

Major-General E. R S. Canby arrived at Simmsport on. the 
19th May, and assumed command of the troops, as a portion 
of the forces of the division west of the Mississippi, to which 
he had been assigned. 

Rumors were freely circulated about the camp at Alexan- 
dria, that the town would be burned upon its evacuation. To 
prevent this destruction of property, part of which belonged 
to loyal citizens, General Grover, commanding the post, was 
instructed to form a thorough police, and to provide for its 
occupation by an armed force, until the army had marched 
for Simmsport. The measures taken were sufficient to pre- 
vent a conflagration in the manner it had been anticipated. 
But on the morning of the evacuation, while the army were 
in full possession of the town, a fire broke out in a building 
on the levee, occupied by refugees or soldiers, in such a 


manner as to make it impossible to prevent a conflagra- 

I saw the fire when it was first discovered. The ammunition 
and ordnance transports, and the depot of ammunition on the 
levee, were within a few yards of the fire. The boats were 
floated out in the river, and the ammunition moved from the 
levee with all possible dispatch. The troops labored with 
vigor to suppress the flames, but owing to the high wind and 
combustible matter of the building, it was found impossible 
to lirnit its progress, and a considerable portion of the town 
was destroyed. On the 1st of April, two or three days before 
the army moved from Alexandria to Natchitoches, an election 
of delegates to the constitutional convention was held at 
Alexandria, by request of the citizens of the parish of Rapides. 
No officer or soldier interfered with or took any part in it. It 
was left exclusively to the loyal citizens of the place. 

Three hundred votes were cast, — a large majority of the 
voting population of the parish. Fifteen hundred votes were 
a full representation before the war. 

Nearly five hundred men from this and adjacent parishes 
enlisted and gave efficient service during the campaign. 

Under the general prize-law the naval authorities, upon 
their arrival at Alexandria, commenced the capture of cotton 
on both sides of the river, extending eight or ten miles in the 
interior. Wagon-trains were organized, gins set running, and 
the business carried on with great success, while the fleet lay 
at Alexandria. Some difficulty occurred with the marines, 
who insisted upon their right to pass the lines of the armv, 
which was terminated by the advance of the army and navy 
to Grand-Ecore. 

I was informed by parties claiming property which had 
been taken by the naval authorities, to whom I referred them, 
that upon application the property had been restored to them 
by the commander of the fleet. The army did not enter into 
competition with the navy in the capture of this property. 
In order to remove all the products from the country, that 
might aid in the rebellion against the government, General 


Grover, in command of tlie post at Alexandria, and the 
quartermaster at Alexandria, after the departure of the army, 
were directed to gather all property that might remain there 
after its departure, and transmit it to the quartermaster at 
New Orleans, who was instructed to turn it over to the offi- 
cers of the treasury, to be disposed of according to the laws 
of Congress. 

Notice was also given to the supervising agent of the treas- 
ury, at New Orleans, that no trade was to be carried on with 
that portion until after its occupation by the army. No per- 
son was allowed to accompany this expedition as reporter, or 
for any other purpose, except on a written declaration that no 
trade by private parties would be permitted under any cir- 
cumstances, and that no property on private account would 
be transported on public or private vessels to New Orleans ; 
but that all property sent to New Orleans would be consigned 
to the chief-quartermaster, and by him turned over to the 
treasury agent, and held subject to such claims as would be 
approved at Washington. 

Previous to my departure from New Orleans, the chief 
quartermaster, Col. S. B. Holabird, had been instructed that no 
privileges would be given to any party whatever, under any 
circumstances whatever, to trade in, dispose of, or sell private 
property ; that property coming down from that country, so 
far as the army was concerned, would be turned over to him, 
and by him to the proper treasury officer. 

The same information was given to the treasury agent. No 
person was given permission to accompany the army except 
on these express conditions, and then only to persons whose 
public position seemed a full guarantee against the abuse of 
the privilege, and when requests could not properly be re- 
fused. They were given to reporters of the public press, and 
to prominent officers of States whose troops were in the 

Upon representation made by officers of the treasury de- 
partment at Alexandria, that there would be some trouble in 
receiving such property, except upon the treasury regula- 


tions of the 26th of January, 1864, these regulations were 
officially promulgated for that purpose at Alexandria and 
New Orleans. 

These orders were enforced by all officers connected with 
or representing the army. There was no privilege given to 
any person to trade in, dispose of, or transport private prop- 
erty ; no privilege of this kind was recognized under any cir- 

Every dollar's-worth of property that came into the army's 
hands, during this campaign, was either appropriated to its 
use, in kind, by the officers of the commissary or treasury de- 
partment, receipts being given therefor, or transmitted to the 
chief quartermaster at New Orleans, and by him turned over 
to the Treasury DeiDartnient, to be disposed of according to 
laws of Congress. 

Where cotton interfered with the transportation of army 
material, refugees or niggers, or troops, upon the evacuation 
of the country, it was thrown from the boats to the levee. I 
intend this statement to be as comprehensive as language 
can make it, and to cover all possible methods, direct or indi- 
rect, by which officers or citizens could evade or violate these 
laws on the river, or at New Orleans, or appropriate public 
or private property to personal advantage, or deprive the 
government or individuals of any property which, by any 
interpretation of military orders or public laws, could be con- 
sidered as justly belonging to them. 

General Grover, commanding the post, Colonel S. B. Hola- 
bird, chief quartermaster at New Orleans, and Hon. B. F. 
Flanders, supervising special agent of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, will be able to account for public or private property 
coming into their hands during this campaign. 

I was engaged upon the Gulf, hoping, by the capture of 
Galveston and Mobile, to put my command in readiness to 
co-operate effectively, by Mobile and Arkansas River, with 
General Sherman, in accordance with the campaign suggested 
by the Lieutenant-General commanding the armies, in his 
dispatches of the 15th and 31st of March, when I received 


instructions to communicate with the admiral and officers 
commanding the fleet and forces of the Upper Mississippi, 
upon the subject of the campaign against Shreveport. 

I immediately complied with these orders. They had re- 
ceived similar instructions, and, upon communication, ex- 
pressed their readiness to enter upon the campaign. With 
the forces contemplated, and the co-operation of the fleet, its 
success was reasonably certain. Under such circumstances 
I could not decline co-operating with them. I at once aban- 
doned all other enterprises and gave my whole attention to 
this enterprise. 

The first difficulty encountered was encountered in the 
navigation of the river. Sixteen days' delay in passing the 
rapids at Alexandria, and three days' delay at Grand-Ecore 
in awaiting the rise of the river, enabled him (the enemy) to 
concentrate his forces, and rendered impossible that celerity 
of movement on which the enterprise rested. Eight days of the 
delay at Alexandria may be attributed to the delay of organ- 
izing Franklin's command ; but the fleet was unable to pass 
the rapids until eight days after his arrival at Alexandria. 
This delay was owing to the impracticable navigation of the 
river ; but it is not improper to say, that the forecast and 
diligence which are forced upon men in the daily routine of 
life would have forbidden an attempt to force a fleet of so 
much importance to the free navigation of the Mississippi, to 
a point from which it- could never hope to escape, unless on 
the theory that the river ought to or would rise. The move- 
ment of the navy, in a dispatch of Rear- Admiral D. D. 
Porter, to which the Secretary of the Navy has given official 
publication and sanction, is attributed to the request of Gen- 
eral Banks, who deemed the co-operation of the gun-boats so 
essential for success that he (Porter) had to run some risks, 
and get them over the falls. This implies that the responsi- 
bility of his action rests upon the army ; but it is not consist- 
ent with the facts. 

The co-operation of the navy was an indispensable basis of 
the expedition. Major-General Halleck informed me, Jan- 


nary 11th, that he had been informed that Admiral Porter 
would be prepared to co-operate with the army in its move- 
ments ; and the admiral himself informed me, February 26th, 
that he was prepared to ascend Ked River with a large fleet 
of gun-boats, and to co-operate with the army at any time 
when the water was high enough. The fleet was as necessary 
to the campaign as the army. Had it been left to my direction, 
I should have preferred undertaking a campaign requiring but 
eight or ten light-draft gun-boats, to forwarding twenty heavy 
iron-clads 490 miles, on a river proverbially as treacherous as 
the rebels who defended it, and which had given notice of its 
character by falling when the other rivers were rising. 

There is a better reason for disregard of the palpable difn- 
culties of navigation, than the over-zealous counsels of the 
army officers in nautical affairs. Admiral Porter afterwards 
dispatched to me : " I have reached Grand-Ecore with my 
vessels with ease, and with some of them I reached Spring- 
field Landing, the place designated for the boats to meet the 
army. My part was completed. The failure of the army to 
advance, and the retreat to Grand-Ecore, left me entirely at 
the mercy of the enemy." The records of the campaign do 
not all support the fiery ardor of this statement. 

The fleet did not reach the designated point until two days 
after the first decisive battle with the enemy. The admiral 
occupied four days in moving 101 miles, on what he called a 
rising river, with good water, to the place appointed. General 
T. Kilby Smith reports, that the fleet made twenty-seven 
miles on the 7th, fifty-seven on the 8th, sixteen on the 9th, 
and nine on the 10th of April ; total, 104 miles. The failure of 
the fleet, with usual expedition, together with the fact that the 
gun-boats were unable to pass Grand-Ecore until the 7th, jus- 
tifies the conclusion that its advance was hindered by low 
water, and governed the army in its retrograde movement to 
Grand-Ecore, as it did on every important occasion during the 
campaign. The admiral's dispatch does not state that, besides 
the mercy of the enemy, he had left to him General T. Kilby 
Smith's command of 2,500 men, whose most gallant act is not 


mentioned at all in what the admiral calls " this curious 
affair " between the enemy's infantry and the gun-boats. In 
view of the published dispatches of Admiral Porter, it is my 
duty to say, that every position of difficulty in which the 
army was placed was the immediate result of the delay of the 
navy. This may have been inevitable and entirely justi- 
fiable, from the condition of the river — it is not my province 
to pass judgment ; but the fact remains, nevertheless. 

During my term of service it has been my rule of conduct 
not to pass judgment on the conduct of other officers, but I 
feel it my bounden duty to say, in this official and formal 
answer, that the published statement of Admiral Porter, in 
reference to the Red River campaign, is at variance with the 
truth, of which there are many thousand living witnesses, 
and does foul injustice to the officers and men of the army ,to 
whom the navy department owes exclusively the preserva- 
tion and honor of the fleet. 

The partial disintegration of several commands assigned to 
this expedition was a cause of embarrassment, but not of 

The command of Major-General Steele, whose command, I 
was informed by Major-General Sherman, would be 15,000 
strong, numbered, in fact, but 7,000 men ; these operating 
over a line 700 miles in extent, whose purpose or results were 
entirely unknown to me. • 

I was informed by General Steele, that if any advance was 
to be made at all, it would have to be made by the Washita 
and Red Rivers, and that he might be able to move his com- 
mand to Monroe for that purpose. This would have united 
our forces on Red River, and insured the success of the cam- 
paign. On the 28th of February, he informed me he could not 
move by the way of Monroe ; and on March 1st, one day be- 
fore I was ordered to move, I was informed by General Sher- 
man that he had ordered General Steele to move direct to 
Shreveport. March 5th, I was informed by General Halleck 
that he had no knowledge of Steele's movement, except that 
he had been ordered to facilitate my movements toward 


Shreveport. March 10th, General Steele informed me that 
his objections against the road I wished him to take were 
stronger, and that he would move to Washington, and thence 
to Shreveport. I received information on the 26th, dated 
March 6th, from Major-General Halleck, that he had in- 
structed General Steele to make a real movement, as sug- 
gested by you (Banks), instead of a demonstration that he 
(Steele) thought advisable. In April, General Halleck in- 
formed me that he had ordered General Steele to cooperate 
with me with all available forces. April 16th, I was informed 
by General Sherman that he had ordered Steele to concen- 
trate all his available forces with my army and navy. In 
May I received information of April 28th, from Steele, say- 
ing he could not leave Camden unless supplies were sent him, 
as those of the country were exhausted ; that we could not 
help each other, our lines operating so far from each other ; 
that he could not say, definitely, he would join me at any given 
time or place on Red River ; and that from the distance be- 
tween us I could render him no assistance — an opinion in 
which I concurred. I never received authority to give orders 
to General Steele ; my orders were to communicate with him 
on the subject of the expedition. His orders he received from 
other sources. I have no doubt that General Steele did all 
in his power to insure success ; but, as communication with 
him was necessary by special messenger, and occupied from 
fifteen to twenty days, for each communication, it was impos- 
sible for either of us to fully comprehend the relative position 
of the two armies, or to assist or support each other. 

The command of General A. J. Smith was a partially inde- 
pendent command. General Sherman, in his dispatch of the 
16th, dated the 10th, informed me that the thirty days for which 
he lent me General Smith's command would expire on the 10th 
of April — the day after the battle of Pleasant Hill. General 
Smith's instructions compelled him to correspond with Admi- 
ral Porter. His orders were dated " Headquarters, Red River 
Expedition, Steamer Clara Bell." He never received orders 
from me. He was in no wise accountable for the failure of 


the expedition, and may be said to have gained as much by- 
its failure as by its success. After his thirty days had run out, 
he claimed the right to go to Vicksburg, notwithstanding the 
condition of the army or fleet, and did not hold himself re- 
sponsible for any damage done them by his departure, nor 
for the lack of that attention which their preservation de- 
manded ; that responsibility I was called upon to assume in 
written orders. I entertain no doubt that his official course 
was in consistency with his orders. I cheerfully acknowledge 
the generous efforts made by General Mower, of the 16th, and 
General T. Kilby Smith, of the 17th Corps, to infuse into the 
different corps that unity which was necessary for the success 
of the campaign. 

I gladly accord to the men the honor of having fought a 
desperate enemy, superior in number, with as much gallantry 
and success as that which signalized my immediate command. 
No higher praise than this can be accorded any soldiers. 
Alexander's troops never fought better. 

The result of the position of the cavalry-train, and the 
loose order of march of Major-General Franklin's command, 
on the 8th of April, before the battle of Pleasant Hill, has 
been stated. A commanding officer is responsible for what 
happens to his troops, no matter what the cause. I do not 
shrink from this responsibility. But while it was both proper 
and necessary for me to give personal attention to the move- 
ment from Grand-Ecore, on the morning of the 7th, it was 
supposed that the moving of a column of 15,000 men, moving 
in a single road for not less than fifty miles, in such a manner 
as to be able to encounter the enemy, if he offered resistance, 
might safely be intrusted to an officer of the reputation and 
experience of General Franklin, whose rank, except in one 
instance, was superior to that of any one of the officers in the 
Gulf Department. 

I make no complaint of the navy, except in view of the 
prolific dispatches long since published on this campaign. 
I may properly repeat a few facts already stated. The suc- 
cess of the expedition depended on celerity of movement. 


The navy delayed the army sixteen days at Alexandria, and 
three days at Grand-Ecore ; it occupied four days in going 104 
miles upon what the dispatches call a rising river and good 
water ; where it arrived two days after the first, and one day 
after the decisive battle of the campaign, at Pleasant Hill. 
These are not opinions, they are facts ; to the army they are 
bloody and pregnant events. The difficult navigation, the 
failure to concentrate the forces, and the limited time were 
the cause of its failure. We owe nothing to the enemy — not 
even our defeat. 

Could any one of these difficulties have been avoided, the 
success would have been accomplished. But the occupation 
of Shreveport could not be maintained. The presence of the 
enemy would have required such a powerful force for its de- 
fense as could not have been obtained by the river, and for 
which no other preparation had been made, as suggested in 
my dispatches of March 30th. The only way of keeping this 
place would be by concentrating a force superior to that of 
the enemy, with time to pursue wherever he might go, even 
if it took us to Galveston and the Gulf Coast. This was 
suggested as a possible means of the results of the cam- 
paign, but was not embraced in the original plan, and it 
was specially precluded by the Lieuten ant-General command- 
ing the army. 

I remain 

Your obedient servant, 

N. P. Banks, M. G. V. 




'HE morning of the 10th of April dawned, and behold- 
ing no enemy in sight, we learned, much to our sur- 
prise, that they had retreated during the night, as 
they had done after the battle of Mansfield. Our division 
received orders to fall back towards Mansfield. The Arkan- 
sians and Missourians were likewise ordered to fall back, 
leaving the cavalry and Polignac's Division of Infantry to pur- 
sue the enemy. 

After falling back from the battle-field, we continued our 
march some ten miles, when we arrived in camp. Shortly 
after our arrival in camp, we received orders to be ready, at a 
moment's notice, to take up the line of march for Camden, 
Arkansas, for the purpose of giving battle to the enemy, who 
had possession of the town. The force of the enemy at Cam- 
den was variously estimated at 18,000 men, under the com- 
mand of General Steele, who had previously preconcerted the 
plan with General Banks to meet him at Shreveport. How 
far the two armies got towards Shreveport the sequel will 

On the morning of the 11th we continued the march. 
After marching about ten miles, we arrived at camp, north of 
the town of Mansfield. Shortly after our arrival in camp, we 

heard the melancholy news of the death of General Tom » 

Green. He was killed at Blair's Landing, on Red River, 

16 rv V. 




while lie was in the act of placing his artillery, in order to 
destroy the enemy's fleet. 

April 14th. Marched twenty-one miles. 

April 15th. Marched twenty miles. Shortly after our depart- 
ure from camp, we passed by the camp of the 3d Texas Infant- 
ry, commanded by Colonel Sackett ; they had just arrived from 
Texas, and were ordered to report for duty to General Scurry ; 
they were assigned to his brigade. On our march through 
the city of Shreveport, you could behold thousands of officers 
gossiping over the late victories. We crossed Red River at 
Shreveport, on a pontoon bridge, and camped about two miles 
from the city. 

April 16th. Marched ten miles, and camped on Bayou Eed 


Colonel — P. N. Sackett. 
Lieut-Col. — E. F. Gray. 
Major — S. G. Newton. 
Surgeon — E. W. Britton. 
Assistant Surgeon — R. L. Harris. 
Quartermaster — F. Seibert. 

Commissary — 

Adjutant — Henry McCormick. 

Company A. 

Captain, F. Frickie. 
1st Lieut., E. Merreim. 
2d Lieut., L. D. Brewster. 
2d Lieut., F. Dreyzehner. 

Company B. 
Captain, P. J. Biesenbuck. 
1st Lieut., F. C. Radcliff. 
2d Lieut., A. Koeing. 
2d Lieut., Gusteve Uhl. 

Company C. 

Captain, D. Lively. 
1st Lieut., B. H. Luckett. 
2d Lieut., W. C. Anderson. 
2d Lieut.; R. C. Daily. 

Company D. 

Captain, J. B. Hicks. 
1st Lieut., O. Newman. 
2d Lieut., P. Scott. 

Company E. 

Captain, Miles Elkins. 
1st Lieut., Sam Fleming. 
2d Lieut., G. W. Bird. 
2d Lieut. , Leonard Moss. 

Company F. 
Captain, Jno. Rosenheimer. 
1st Lieut., Manuel Ztuni. 
2d Lieut., Jules Hafner. 


Company G. 

Captain, F. H. Sherhagen 
1st Lieut.^P. Shardin. 
2d Lieut., Allison Ryinan. 

Company H. 

Captain, T. H. Hulig. 
1st Lieut., Win. Byrd. 

Company I. 

Captain, J. M. Trainer. 
1st Lieut... John Watson. 
2d Lieut., L. H. Brown. 
2d Lieut., L. H. Brown. 

Company K. 

Captain, Jules Bosi. 
1st Lieut., L. Sarasin. 
2d Lieut., H. Schlenning. 

April 17th. Crossed Bayou Red Chute, on a pontoon bridge. 
Marched through the village of Fillmore, and camped near 
the town of Minden, after marching twenty miles. 

April 18th. Passed through the town of Minden, with ban- 
ners flying, and keeping step to the tune of " Dixie." The 
streets were crowded with young ladies, waving their handker- 
chiefs, and cheering us most lustily. Their enthusiasm 
seemed to know no bounds, and at every gate they stood with 
bouquets to present to the troops as they passed. May patri- 
otic Minden long prosper, and never may her streets be trod 
by any hated foe ! We arrived at camp early in the day, 
after marching twelve miles. We rested at this camp until 
the morning of the 20th. The men and animals were thor- 
oughly fagged out. While remaining at this camp, the fol- 
lowing patriotic address from General Kirby Smith was read 
on dress parade to us. 

God has blessed our arms with signal victories at Mans- 
field and Pleasant Hill. The general commanding finds it an 
appropriate occasion to pay a well-merited tribute to the en- 
durance and valor of the troops engaged in these battles. 

Collected from remote points — from Missouri, Arkansas, 
Louisiana, and Texas — after long and tedious marches, their 
combined courage has gained, on the soil of Louisiana, the 
patriot-soldier's highest reward, victory. They have driven 


in confused flight froni the battle-field the boastful minions 
of despotism. 

In the name of a grateful people I thank them for this 
splendid result. While we mourn for the glorious dead, and 
sympathize with the heroic wounded, let us take courage for 
the future. 

By prompt obedience to orders and patient endurance, we 
will be enabled to repeat this great achievement whenever 
the enemy shall advance in force against any part of the 
Trans-Mississippi Department. 

When the soldiers of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and 
Texas stand together in battle, with the blessing of God, we 
confidently expect victory. 

The names of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill will be inscribed 
on the colors of the regiments engaged in these battles. 

(Signed,) General E. Kirby Smith. 

On the morning of the 20th we marched six miles, to 
Walnut Creek, and camped, by order of General E. Kirby 
Smith, who had taken the field in person. He announced 
taking command in person as follows : 

" Major-General E. Kirby Smith assumes command of the 
army of Arkansas. His headquarters will be at the junction 
of the Wire and Buena Vista roads. 

Major-General Price is hereby assigned to the immediate 
command of the Missouri and Arkansas divisions of infantry." 

After taking command, he w T rote to General Taylor, describ- 
ing the situation of the enemy at Camden. He estimated the 
enemy's force at about 18,000. He established his head- 
quarters at Woodlawn, within seventeen miles of Camden. 
He immediately ordered a cavalry force of 3,000, under com- 
mand of General Fagan, across the Ouachita River, to cut off 
the enemy's supplies, between Pine Bluff and Camden. He 
also instructed General Fagan to attack Pine Bluff and Little 
Bock, as those two towns had but a very small garrison for their 
defense. If successful in capturing those two towns, to cross 
the Arkansas River and destroy the enemy's depot at Duval's 


Bluff, on White River, and unite his forces, if possible, with 
General McRae, who was engaged in collecting all the availa- 
ble forces inside the enemy's lines. 

While encamped at Walnut Creek, our camps were com- 
pletely beset by the female inhabitants of the surrounding 
country, many coming from a distance of fifteen and twenty 
miles, to see the soldiers, and hear the bands play. While 
remaining here, we learned that the Federal general, Steele, 
was strongly fortified at Camden, but that he was closely in- 
vested by General Price's army, with no possible chance of 
his escape. 

Many amusing incidents occurred between the ladies and 
soldiers of this camp. The soldiers used to visit the farmers' 
dwellings, especially where there were some bright-eyed 
lassies ; thus exhibiting that fondness for feminine society 
and companionship which characterized them when at home. 
A worthy private soldier, with his " chums," comprising an 
entire mess, had been frequent visitors at a farmer's house 
near the encampment, where two really handsome and accom- 
plished ladies resided. Rising one day from an agreeable 
tete-a-tete over the dinner-table, two or three of the men con- 
sidered it nothing more than an act of politeness to invite the 
farmer and his family to take dinner with them the following 
day. " I shall certainly do so, with pleasure," was the reply. 
Nothing more was thought of the invitation until the next 
morning, near the dinner-hour, when who should make their 
appearance in camp but the farmer, wife, daughters, and 
small members of the family (as he had promised), to dine 
with the "boys." There was nothing prepared, and, worse 
than all, no provisions on hand with which to prepare a suita- 
ble dinner. The joke was soon known all over camp. The 
men strolled negligently about the unfortunate victims in 
groups, to enjoy and add to their discomfiture ; and sly jokes, 
witticisms, and suppressed laughter greeted them on all 
sides, as they escorted their visitors through the encampment. 
They determined not to be the subject of fun for the whole 
regiment; so, "nil desperandum" with commendable zeal a 


portion of the mess made preparations for dinner, while the 
remainder " played the agreeable." By dint of borrowing 
and begging, a really nice meal was served up, consisting of 
the following bill of fare : corn-bread, hominy, with some 
rancid blue beef. " Not very palatable," says the farmer, " but 
I take a little to prevent hunger." Now, add to this most 
detestable water, and the bill of fare is completed. The mess, 
for once in the history of the company to which they belonged, 
were excused from drill that day, and a fashionable meal 
eaten in the encampment. 

The weather was dark, gloomy, and very damp, while we re- 
mained at this camp, but even that didn't keep the ladies away. 
They still roamed through the camp, gratifying their natural 
curiosity. On the morning of the 24th inst. we resumed the 
march in the direction of Camden ; crossed the State line 
dividing Arkansas and Louisiana ; noticed a change in the 
character of the country. 

April 25th. Marched sixteen miles. Passed through a lit- 
tle town named Calhoun. After our arrival in camp, we 
learned that General Steele had succeeded in getting supplies 
from Pine Bluff. 

On the morning of the 26th, we marched eighteen miles, 
and camped within twelve miles of Camden. Many were the 
surmises, rumors, and reports about Steele's army. Occasion- 
ally we would hear that General Price's army had the enemy 
completely surrounded, with no possible chance of escape, and 
momentarily expecting the surrender of Steele and his army ; 
and again, we heard that General FJrice had all the forces 
necessary, without the aid of Walker's Division of Texans. 

General Kirby Smith's headquarters were within a few miles 
of our camp. After our arrival at this camp, we learned more 
fully the strength of our forces that were opposing the enemy, 
their situation, etc. "We discovered, much to our surprise, 
that the enemy remained unmolested in Camden, sending out 
his cavalry scouts all over the country, and no obstacles 
thrown in his way to prevent him from joining his forces with 
Banks's army, at Alexandria. He was left perfectly unmo- 


lested, to withdraw from Camden or to advance on Shreve- 
port at leisure. Until the arrival of Walker's Division no 
effort was made to check his career, except the crossing of part 
of our cavalry to the east side of the Ouachita River. 

It is useless to deny the fact that, up to the period of the arri- 
val of Walker's Division, no campaign was ever worse conducted. 
As soon as General Steele discovered the object of General 
Kirby Smith, he determined to evacuate Camden and fall 
back to Little Eock. Having cut down a number of wagons, 
as well as throwing the greater part of his artillery into the 
river, he succeeded in crossing his troops to the east side of 
the river, which feat he completed by sunrise on the morning 
of the 27th. Hearing of the evacuation of Camden, General 
Kirby Smith at once issued orders for the troops to pursue 
Steele to his fortifications at Little Rock. On our march 
towards Camden, we passed by the headquarters of General 
Price, better known as " Old Pap," so called by his troops. 
We arrived at Camden at 4 o'clock, P. M., and received orders 
to cook three days' rations. Singular to state, the evacuation 
of Camden was not known (or, if so, not acted on) in our 
army until o'clock in the morning, notwithstanding the 
reports that there was no possible chance for Steele's army to 
escape. But he gave our generals to understand that he was 
too old a bird to be caught with chaff. The fortifications at 
Camden, constructed by General Holmes, and improved by 
the enemy, were not inferior to any in the Trans-Mississippi 
Department, and, from the appearance of the place, we should 
have had some difficulty in taking it, if the enemy had not 

Being without a pontoon-train of any kind, it was neces- 
sarily a slow and difficult undertaking to cross our infantry. 

On the morning of the 28th we commenced crossing the 
Ouachita River, on a hastily-constructed floating bridge of 
plank. No transportation was allowed us. The troops car- 
ried their own rations and ammunition. After getting across 
the river, we continued our line of march in pursuit of the 
flying foe, satisfied that Walker's Greyhounds would overtake 


the enemy before they got to Little Bock, notwithstanding 
they had about thirty hours start of us. Our cavalry having 
crossed the river, they took their position in advance. No 
one doubted but that the flight of the enemy would soou be 
checked. After marching fourteen miles, we ' camped for the 

April 29th. Left camp at 3 o'clock, A. M. On we traveled, 
mile after mile, with no sign of the enemy, other than the 
blackened ruins which marked his path. Passed through the 
town of Princeton, and encamped on a creek two miles be- 
yond, after marching twenty miles. During the night it com- 
menced to rain, and partly overflowed our camp. 

April 30th. Continued our march at 3 A. M. On our arrival 
at the town of Tulip, we were informed that the rear-guard of 
the enemy had passed scarce two hours before. All then be- 
came wild with excitement. The troops, although broken down 
with fatigue, became fired with new life and energy, and re- 
doubled their efforts to overhaul the flying foe. The passage 
through the town of Tulip will long be remembered by the 
troops of our division. Paining as it did, the ladies rushed to 
the roadside, and with wild enthusiasm cheered us on to the 
coming struggle. On account of the severity of the march, the 
troops were in a wretched condition. I do not exaggerate in 
stating that scarcely half the effective force was in position. 
Between the hours of 6 and 7 o'clock, we heard the echo of 
cannon in advance; the skirmishers had commenced. At 8 
o'clock, the rain ceased. Shortly afterwards we arrived at the 
enemy's camp of last night, and saw all around evidence of the 
morning's skirmish — trees cut half in two by cannon balls ; 
Mmbs of trees torn off and lying in the road ; fences down and 
scattered in endless confusion ; old clothes and all the para- 
phernalia of a soldier lying in all directions ; houses riddled 
with cannon and musket balls ; negro-quarters and meat- 
houses broken open and rifled of their contents ; — in a word, 
a general desolation prevailing everywhere. Onward we push, 
striving with every nerve to do or die in our undertaking. 




" No gorgeous banners we unfold, 
Of crimson silk and yellow gold ; 
No waving plumes, nor helmets bright, 
Nor chargers prancing for the fight ; 
But men as true, and hearts as bold, 
As e'er a life for freedom sold 
At Leuctra, or Thermopylae, 
We bring into the field to-day, 
To chase the weir-wolf from his lair, 
Or, failing, sleep forever there." 

BOUT the hour of 12 o'clock, M., on the 30th of 
Jp April, the rattling of musketry gave us to under- 
stand that at last we had overtaken the enemy* 
rather unexpectedly. They were in the act of crossing the 
Saline River, at a point known as Jenkins's Ferry, distant 
from the town of Camden about 55 miles. As soon as the 
Federal General Steele discovered that an engagement was 
inevitable, he recrossed such of his troops as had already 
crossed, and formed his line of battle in the form of a crescent 
around his pontoon bridge. His position was a strong one, 
and further strengthened by such logs as they could conven- 
iently get at. The location was in a thickly-timbered bottom, 
and the ground was covered with water, from ankle to knee 
deep, precluding the possibility of using artillery. 

On arriving within about two miles of Jenkins's Ferry, 
Walker's Division filed off to the right, taking a road that 
apparently had not been used for years. At this place we 
beheld our favorite leader, General Walker, mounted on his 
iron-gray war-horse, awaiting to address a few remarks of 
encouragement to each regiment as they passed him by. His 


presence alone on this occasion was enough to inspire his 
troops with the highest patriotism and love for their old 
chieftain ; cheer after cheer was freely given him, as they 
passed by him. They had implicit confidence in his judg- 
ment, and that he would not tolerate any useless sacrifice of 
life in the forthcoming battle. The greatest vivacity and 
enthusiasm prevailed throughout the whole division. Already 
a rattling fire of musketry was heard in our front, plainly 
indicating that General Price's command was in action. At 
first a few scattering shots were heard ; quickly, volleys of 
platoons succeeded, and soon the fire extended and increased, 
until the rolling reports of long lines of musketry could be 
distinctly recognized. General Kirby Smith notified General 
Walker that the Arkansas and Missouri troops were at it, hot 
and heavy, and to press on the Texans, to support them. The 
Texans moved forward with alacrity, rushing headlong into 
action. The 3d Brigade of the Division, commanded by 
General Scurry, dashed up gallantly on the right, using their 
muskets quite soldierly, and, in the language of General 
Walker, sustained the fight, without assistance, against 7,000 
of the enemy, for forty minutes. 

The 2d Brigade, commanded by General Waul, went into 
action on their arrival, like old veterans. 

The 1st Brigade, commanded by General Eandall, was ably 
led by that distinguished officer into action. He seemed 
ubiquitous as he screamed his orders here and there, always 
urging his men on the foe. An incessant roar of musketry 
prevailed for about six hours. During this time the tide of 
battle ebbed and flowed — now advancing, then receding ; but 
at no time did the ground fought over vary more than two 
hundred and fifty yards. Owing to the dense fog and the 
dense clouds of smoke which hung in the thick woods, many 
times, opposing lines could only be discovered by the flash of 
their muskets. The firing on both sides grew more terrific 
every moment ; even the elements were terribly convulsed. 
They seemed to groan with the heavy burden of storms which 
had been gathered from the hemispheres, to pour upon the 


heads of God's erring children the vial of wrath, as an 
admonition to both armies to stay their bloody hands. But 
we continued fighting, irrespective of the storm. In the midst 
of the battle, our gallant general (General Walker) could be 
seen galloping along the lines, cheering his men forward. 
He was accompanied by his chief of staff, Major McClay. 

General Kirby Smith likewise was indefatigable, riding from 
line to line, cheering on the men. Seeing some of the Arkan- 
sas troops falling back, he rallied them by dismounting from 
his horse, and, taking a gun from one of the soldiers, he took 
his place in the ranks as a private. The troops, seeing him thus 
exposing his life, rallied to his support, and kept in hue until 
the close of the battle. To see the commanding general of the 
Trans-Mississippi Department, wielding the destinies of a 
great fight, with its cares and responsibilities upon his shoul- 
ders, performing the duty of a private soldier, in the thickest 
of the conflict, is a picture worthy of the pencil of an 

About 4 o'clock P.M. the enemy endeavored to turn our 
right flank, by extending their lines, which they were able to 
do by reason of their great numbers. This was unfortunate 
for us, as it required a corresponding extension of our hues, to 
prevent their extreme left from outflanking us — a movement, 
on our part, which weakened the force of resistance along our 
whole line of battle, which finally extended over a space of 
three miles. It also rendered it the more difficult to reinforce 
the left of our army, as the further the enemy extended his left, 
the greater the distance our forces had to travel over tho 
impenetrable swamp, covered with briers, brambles, and water ; 
and all without the least knowledge of our locality, which 
proved insurmountable barriers to our success. There was no 
time to be lost to counteract the enemy's movement. The 
enemy made every possible effort to turn our flank, for one 
long weary hour, during which time the tide of battle ebbed 
and flowed along the entire line with alternate fortunes. The 
enemy's column continued to stretch away to the left, like a 
huge anaconda, seeking to envelop us within its mighty folds, 


and crash us to death ; and at one time it really looked as if 
they would succeed. 

The moment General Walker discovered the enemy's order 
of battle, he dispatched orders to General Kirby Smith for 
reinforcements, to turn the enemy's flank. In the mean time, 
General Walker was on the alert in watching the enemy's 
programme. Notwithstanding all of his generals had been 
wounded, he was still confident that the battle would end in 
our favor. He advanced his division in an oblique direction, 
continuing to keep up a heavy filing on the enemy, expect- 
ing every moment reinforcements ; but, alas ! the reinforce- 
ments came too late. Had General Walker received rein- 
forcements when he asked for them, he would have destroyed 
the enemy, and perhaps have captured then entire army. 
Attacked in front, on the flank, and in the rear, they could 
not possibly have escaped ; and if they did escape, it would be 
with the loss of thousands of prisoners, and all his artillery 
and- wagons, while the field would have been strewed with 
his dead. A few minutes before the battle was over, Parsons's 
Division of Missourians, reached our right. They dashed on 
the enemy's flanks with loud shouts, and in the most gallant 
style. Meanwhile, General Price rallied the left for the final 
struggle. General Kirby Smith kept the center well up, 
while Walker's Division dashed into the fight with a shout that 
seemed to shake the very earth. The result of this maneuver 
drove the enemy back ; they commenced to retreat, first in 
good order, and finally in much confusion. The Federal 
troops fought well, and were handled in a masterly manner, 
until they were about to be flanked. 

Before crossing the river, the enemy destroyed everything 
in the shape of transportation. They threw their artillery 
and wagons into the. Saline River, and left their dead and 
wounded on the field. Having crossed the river, they 
destroyed their pontoon bridge, rendering further pursuit on 
our part impossible. Our troops having exhausted almost 
the last cartridge, they were unable to reap much advantage, 
except the glory of the battle-field. 


A few minutes after the battle was over, General Fagan's 
Cavalry Corps, composed of Arkansians and Missourians, 
arrived on the battle-field. They had come from the neigh- 
borhood of Benton, distant about thirty miles from Jenkins's 
Ferry. They had anticipated meeting the enemy at or near 
Benton, but hearing the sound of cannon, and believing that 
the battle had taken place, they rode in a gallop the entire 
distance, in order to have the pleasure of participating with 
us in whipping the foe. On their arrival, many of their 
officers beseeched General Kirby Smith to allow their com- 
mands to_swim the river in pursuit of Steele's army. General 
Smith believed that the risk the cavalry would have to un- 
dergo in swimming the river, without the infantry being able 
to cross, was too great. As it was, he was satisfied with the 
laurels he had already won ; consequently he allowed Steele's 
army to return to Little Rock, his base of operations, unmo - - 

General Steele's loss was very severe. But a few months 
previous, he marched proudly from Little Rock towards, 
Shreveport, with 20,000 men, 1,000 wagons, and 30 pieces of 
artillery. He returned, having lost 800 wagons, 16 pieces of 
artillery, and 12,000 men, demoralized and burdened with his 

Our loss was very severe. We numbered amongst our dead 
some of the most gallant men of the division. Generals 
Scurry and Randall died a few days after the battle. 

" Hope for a season bade the world farewell, 
And freedom shrieked when Scurry and JJandall fell." 

The loss in the Missouri and Arkansas Divisions was 
equally severe, and many a true heart, which in the morning 
beat with high hope, at night lay cold in death. 

Having alluded to General Fagan's Corps of Cavalry, it is 
proper to give some account of them. Much blame was at- 
tached to General Fag^,n, in failing to check the enemy's 
march before they got to the Saline River. Many hard things 

254 walker's TEXAS division. 

were said about him. Amongst the various rumors I heard, 
and which seems probable, was, that the enemy had suc- 
ceeded in arresting one of General Price's couriers, carrying 
a dispatch from General Price to General Pagan, informing 
General Fagan of the evacuation of Camden by the enemy, 
and that the enemy would probably cross the Saline River, 
near the town of Benton. General Steele, upon reading Gen- 
eral Price's dispatch, at once had one of his own couriers 
dressed in the captured courier's clothes, and sent a dispatch 
to General Pagan, signing General Price's name, for him to 
hold the crossing of the Saline River, near Benton, at all 
hazards, until his infantry arrived. 

But admitting the above rumor to be false, it appears mys- 
terious to the mind of any sane person, that General Fagan 
failed to leave scouts behind him, to watch the movements of 
the enemy, instead of leaving a vacancy of some thirty miles 
between his forces and those of the enemy, without even a 
solitary picket to inform him of the whereabouts of the 
enemy. Most singular to relate, General Fagan's command 
encamped at Jenkins's Ferry the night previous to the battle, 
and took up their march from there at two o'clock in the 
morning, the very day of the battle. It was an unfortunate 
occurrence, and can only be excused on the ground that 
General Fagan, being in front, was necessarily cut off from 
the commanding general, and was consequently without cor- 
rect information. 

Soon after the battle ended, a detail of men were employed 
in burying the dead. Armed with shovel, pickaxe, and spade, 
they proceeded along the battle-ground to complete this 
mournful task, which the enemy were unable to accomplish. 
The ground was thickly strewn with the ghastly and mangled 
forms. The effluvium from the swollen, festering forms was 
too horrible for human endurance. No conception of the 
imagination, no power of human language, could do justice to 
such a horrible scene. 

Faint rays of the sinking sun now peered through broken 
clouds upon the blood-stained waters of the Saline. Our 


camp-ground was selected about two miles from the battle- 
ground. Shortly after our arrival in camp, rations were 
issued to us from the commissary, consisting of two ounces of 
bacon and one ear of corn to each man, with which we had to 
be satisfied, as there was nothing else to be had to satisfy our 
appetites. The following morning found us wet and cold, 
hungry and broken down in spirits. About eight o'clock the 
rain ceased, for the first time in three days ; the sun came out 
in all its glory, and one of the most bright and lovely of sum- 
mer days smiled upon Jenkins's Ferry. The skies ceased to 
weep, and the veil of clouds was withdrawn, as if God would 
allow the angels to look down and witness this awful spectacle 
of man's inhumanity to man. 

E ambling over the battle-field and witnessing the newly- 
dug graves, surrounded by water, I felt like calling to memory 
the dying words of our Revolutionary heroes, and applying 
them to those gallant heroes before me, who sleep the sleep 
that knoweth no waking. " If you are vic torio us, and our 
country emerge s free and independent from the contest in 
which she is now engaged, but the end of which we are not 
permitted to see, bury us in our beloved State, and engrave 
our names on the monument you shall erect over us, as 
victims who willingly surrendered their lives as a portion of 
the price paid for your liberties; and our departed spirits will 
never murmur, nor regret the sacrifices we made to obtain for 
you the blessing we hope you may enjoy." 




" For oh, how grand they sink to rest, 
Who close their eyes on victory's breast." 

yN the morning of May 1st, we heard the melancholy 
*£ news of the death of General Scurry ; he died during 
§$&< the night. His remains were escorted by the entire 
division to the town of Tulip, distant about eight miles. He 
was buried the following day with military honors. Generals 
Smith, Price, Walker, Churchill, Parsons, Hawthorne, and 
Tappan, were present. On our return to camp after the 
burial of General Scurry, we learned that the gallant General 
Eandall had breathed his last, having expired an hour after 
the burial of his comrade-in-arms ; he was buried the follow- 
ing day, with military honors. 

The following beautiful obituary notice, written by Captain 
W. G. Weaver (of the 16th Dismounted Cavalry) in memo- 
riam of the death of General Scurry, is very appropriate, 
and, without his permission, I take the liberty of applying it 
to both Generals Scurry and Randall : 

" ' Our leaders have fallen ! ' Brigadier-Generals William 
R. Scurry and Horace Randall are dead. They fell on the 
field of battle, in the arms of victory, the place where heroes 
died. But oh ! the price of victory ! The precious offering 
of noble, generous, and heroic heart' s-blood has brought 
mourning to their conquering brigades. How difficult it is 
to realize that they are numbered with the heroic dead of 
the world's grand revolutions, the illustrious hosts of Free- 
dom's martyrs ! 

y^rn^r \S 


" But a few days since we saw their bold forms towering 
above the lines of battle. At Mansfield and Pleasant Hill 
we heard their words of gallant cheer to the soldiers who 
loved them. We saw them fearlessly lead the desperate 
charge which wreathed our banners with victory's laurels. 
At Pleasant Hill, in the face of the foe, ten times our strength 
in number, a hundred times in position, they led their deci- 
mated brigades through torrents of grape, hurricanes of shells, 
and showers of bullets ; and though they saw destruction 
before them, still their calm and open faces wore the same 
undaunted look, and their old, familiar smiles played there as 
sweetly as in moments of hilarity around the camp-fire. 

' Cannon to the right of them, 
Cannon in front of them, 
Cannon to the left of them, 
Volleyed and thundered.' 

Still those clear, sonorous tones rang through the forest : 
' Charge them, boys ! ' but these words will never ring along 
the line of battle again ; no more will they sound at the 
head of their columns. They are gone to the warrior's grave, 
the soldier's rest ! and for nobility, kindness, and sin- 
cerity of heart, for unfaltering courage, constant moderation 
as commanders, unvarying patience, unalloyed cheerfulness, 
and genial humor, there live not their superiors, but their 
names will still be the soldier's watchword, glory's legacy, 
our country's honor. The dying words of these noble heroes 
were, that they were content to die, since they received their 
death-wounds while doing their duty on the battle-field. 
Could the devotion of their brigades, the confidence and 
respect of their superior officers, and the kindness of friends 
have saved them, they would not have died. 

' The path of glory leads but to the grave.' 

Over their coffins let us alternately strew clusters of myrtle 
and cypress — emblems in life of delight ; garlands of affec- 
tion in death." 


" Multiplied words can add nothing to their fame. It is 
eternal as the granite hills. Their bodies moulder in soldiers' 
graves. The emerald sward, and, doubtless, sweet flowers 
planted there by living hands, cover their honored remains. 
Of all the martyrs' graves that dot the southern hillsides and 
valleys, none contain the remains of nobler souls and more 
fearless and chivalric spirits, more efficient commanders, more 
idolized chieftains, than those which hold the mortal remains 
of Generals Scurry and Kandall."* 

* Private soldier's remarks. 







m wN the morning of May 3d, the whole army was ordered 
r^£ back to Camden. This place, for the present, was 
^fm to be our base-line of defense, in consequence of the 
difficulty of obtaining supplies east of the Ouachita River. 
After marching twelve miles we arrived at the same camp- 
ground we left on the morning of the 30th of April. 

The-sick list of the division was very large, owing to the 
result of late hardships. Comfortable hospitals were provided 
for our sick and wounded at Camden. The patriotic ladies of 
Camden were untiling in their endeavors to ameliorate the 
sufferings of the brave soldiers that were brought to their city. 
At dress-parade, in the evening, the following congratulatory 
address of General Kirby Smith was read to us : 

" Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi Department : The cam- 
paign inaugurated at Mansfield, on the day of national fast 
and supplication, has, under Providence, been crowned with 
most glorious and brilliant success. You have defeated a foe 
three times your own number. The fields of Mansfield, Pleas- 
ant Hill, Cloutierville, Poison Springs, Marks's Mills, and Jen- 
kins's Ferry, attest your devotion. 8,000 killed and wounded, 
6,000 prisoners, 34 pieces of artillery, 1,200 wagons, one gun- 
boat, and three transports, are already the fruits of your vic- 
tories. The path of glory is still open to you. Permanent 
security to your homes is before you. Call together your com- 
rades, and, shoulder to shoulder, we will yet free the soil of 


our beloved country from the invaders' footsteps. Soldiers of 
Arkansas, Missouri, Texas, and Louisiana ! you have the 
thanks of a grateful people. Your living will be respected, 
and your dead honored and revered. While in the midst of 
our victory we are called upon to mourn the heroic dead. 
Generals W. R. Scurry and Horace Randall have fallen upon 
the field of honor. At Jenkins's Ferry they offered themselves 
up precious victims on the altar of liberty. Mouton and 
Green are gone! Scurry and Randall have followed on the 
same glorious path. Be it ours to emulate their virtues and 
valor, and to act as men not unworthy to associate with such 
heroes. The colors of their respective brigades will be 
draped in mourning for thirty days." 

On the morning of the 4th we left camp at sunrise. A long, 
weary march of seventeen miles brought us to camp, worn 
out and exhausted. 

May 5th. Marched seventeen miles, over a new road that our 
pioneers made, and camped within three miles of Camden. 
Owing to the continued rains, the streams were very much 
swollen, and often we waded the mud knee-deep. Roads were 
repaired, and bridges built. Then we were water-bound. It 
seemed as if all the tortures and sufferings of years were be- 
ing poured upon us from one huge vial of wrath. We re- 
mained at this camp until the morning of the 8th. The night 
previous, orders were received from General Kirby Smith for 
General Walker to move his division in the direction of 
Campti, on Red River, or to any other convenient point that 
General Taylor might select. 

On the morning of the 8th, the entire division was ready 
for marching. About 9 o'clock, A. M., we commenced crossing 
the Ouachita River, at the Lone-Pine Ferry, situated about 
a mile north of Camden. After all the troops had crossed 
we continued our march, passing through Camden, and struck 
camp about a mile from Camden, on the Shreveport road. 
During the evening we learned that the orders issued for the 
division to march to Campti were countermanded ; the town 
of Alexandria was selected as the place we were to march to. 


LP rViA tA' 


On the morning of the 9th we left camp at daylight, for 
Alexandria, to which place Banks's army had retreated after 
the battle of Pleasant Hill, in order to be under the protection 
of then gun-boats. On their retreat from Pleasant Hill they 
were hotly pursued by Green's Cavalry, under the command 
of General Wharton, and Polignac's Division of Infantry. We 
arrived in camp late in the evening, after marching fifteen 
miles. Shortly after our arrival, the Arkansas and Missouri 
Divisions arrived and camped alongside of us. 

May 10th. Marched sixteen miles. A heavy shower of rain 
commenced pouring down upon us, completely saturating us. 
On we marched through the silent and gloomy pine woods, 
entertaining each other with jokes, and all manner of witty 

May 11th. Marched twenty miles ; crossed the State-line 
dividing Arkansas from Louisiana. Shortly after arriving in 
camp it ceased raining. 

May 12th. Marched sixteen miles. At this camp Colonel R. 
Waterhouse, of the 19th Infantry, and Major R. P. McClay, 
of General Walker's staff, were promoted to Brigadier-Gen- 
erals, by order of General Kirby Smith. A few weeks after- 
wards, Colonel King, of the 18th Regiment, was promoted 
Brigadier General, on the resignation of General Waul. 

General McClay was assigned to the command of the 1st 
Brigade ; General King was assigned to the command of the 
2d Brigade, and General Waterhouse was assigned to the 
command of the 3d Brigade. 

On the 13th we marched seventeen miles, passing through 
the towns of Homer and Athens. 

May 14th. Marched twenty-one miles. Passed through the 
town of Mount Lebanon. At this town was established one of 
the best hospitals in the Trans-Mississippi Department, in 
charge of Doctor Powell, one of the most scientific doctors 
south of Mason and Dixon's line. Many of the Texas troops 
were under his kind treatment. The troops marched through 
the town by companies, in columns, presenting a handsome 
appearance. The sidewalks were filled with ladies, and many 


highly palatable gifts were distributed by them to the soldiers. 
After our arrival in camp it commenced to rain, pouring down 
in torrents. During the night a courier aimed in camp, with 
dispatches for General Walker, from General Taylor, urging 
General Walker to hasten his division forward to Alexandria. 
He reported that the enemy was still in possession of Alex- 
andria, making every exertion to get their fleet over the falls, 
and if our division could possibly get opposite the town, with 
the assistance of artillery we would be able to destroy their 

On the 15th we marched fifteen miles. The Arkansas and 
Missouri troops were ordered back to Camden. 

May 16th. Marched twenty-one miles. Our march to-day was 
severe on the men as well as on the teams. A company of 
men from each regiment was detailed to accompany the 
wagon-train, to help them out when they became stuck in the 
mud. Heard that the enemy was engaged in fortifying Alex- 

May 17th. At an early hour we were again in motion. Af- 
ter marching twenty miles we bivouacked for the night. No 
further news from Alexandria. 

May 18th. Marched eleven miles. The march to-day was 
truly a pleasant change from our previous tedious marches. 
The scenery on either side of the route was magnificent, and 
doubly recompensed a lover of nature for any annoyances 
occasioned by the trip. 

May 19th. Marched eighteen miles. After our arrival in camp, 
General Walker was notified by General Taylor that the ene- 
my had evacuated Alexandria, leaving it a mass of ruins. He 
also informed General Walker that the troops of our division 
that had been captured at Pleasant Hill had been exchanged, 
and were doing guard-duty at Natchitoches. This was glad 
tidings to their old comrades in arms. 

May 20th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped near a running 
creek. Many of the troops enjoyed themselves, after their 
long and tedious marches, by swimming and bathing in. the 
limpid waters. At this camp the following address was 


read to the troops, on dress-parade, by order of General 
Taylor : 

" The Major-General commanding desires to express to 
Major-General "Wharton, commanding Cavalry Corps, and 
Major-General Polignac, commanding 2d Infantry Division, 
and the officers and men of their commands, his high appre- 
ciation of their gallantry and conduct displayed in the action 
of the 16th and 18th instant, at Mansura and Norwood. At 
Mansura the enemy's whole army was kept back for five hours, 
his charges repulsed, and, at the proper time, our forces were 
withdrawn from his front to be thrown upon his flank and 

" At Norwood, a superior force of fresh troops was beaten 
after a stubborn resistance, and driven from the field, leaving 
their dead in our hands. Here fell Colonel Stone, command- * 
ing 2d Brigade, Polignac' s Division, whose gallantry at Mans- 
field and Pleasant Hill had endeared him to this army. 

" The skillful dispositions made by General Wharton, com- 
manding in the field, in both these engagements, stamped him 
as a soldier of high capacity, and equal to any position." 

On the 21st we resumed our march, traveling through a 
poor, piny section of country, and arrived at camp after a 
march of fourteen miles. 

May 22d. Marched fourteen miles, and encamped near Pine- 
ville, opposite Alexandria. We remained at this place until the 
4th of June. Apparently to keep in good walking trim, we 
had to march six miles every morning, in addition to going 
through the routine of company and brigade drills every day. 
The summer days were hot, hotter, hottest, and fleeted rapidly 
away, while the men employed the time as best they could, 
lying 'neath the shadow of the pines, indulging in speculative 
fancies, yet interested spectators of the fierce struggle for su- 
premacy between the contending hosts. The gentle summer 
air would swell into thunder-toned voices, borne from the 
mountains and valleys, from Virginia and Georgia, mingled 
with the triumphant shouts of victory. Aye ! victory, radiant, 
triumphant, would poise, like the incarnation of beauty, upon 


the Southern banner, and point to the obscurity which shroud- 
ed the future, as if it contained the germs of white-winged 
peace and final success. The rainbow of hope, with every tint 
of its exquisite coloring, would stand out in bold relief against 
the dark war-cloud that hung over the land, and was fast sink- 
ing into the horizon of the past ; its dark setting rendering all 
the more beautiful the soft hues. It seemed then as if the 
sun of peace was tinging with its parting beams the jagged 
edges of the storm-cloud, as with a silver lining. Thus it 
seemed as if the Southern hosts were striding forward towards 
the goal of their hopes, the prize for which they contended 
so stubbornly, and gave so freely the priceless treasure of 
their rich, red blood. 

Thus, while the men indulged in then speculations, they 
were actually suffering both for clothing and shelter. Our 
rations consisted chiefly of com-meal and poor beef, and not 
in large quantities. "We were without tents, and usually slept 
on pine brush, in the open air, protected from the night-dews 
only by shelters of brush. 

walker's TEXAS DIVISION. 265 



WURING our march in pursuit of General Steele in Ar- 
kansas, we heard no particular details of Banks's 
army in Louisiana, until we arrived at Pineville, 
opposite Alexandria. Here we learned that the enemy fell 
back from Pleasant Hill, towards Grand-Ecore on Red River, 
where they would be under the protection of their gun-boats. 
At this place the enemy commenced fortifying, to protect them 
from an attack in their rear. The prisoners they had cap- 
tured from us at Pleasant Hill were exchanged. The enemy 
was compelled to do so in order to have all their available 
force (without the extra charge of guarding prisoners), in 
order to reach the Mississippi River with safety. Much 
blame was attached to General Kirby Smith in withdrawing 
the division from Louisiana, in order to pursue General Steele 
in Arkansas, before Banks's army was annihilated in Louis- 
iana. For him to act otherwise than rendering the same aid to 
the people of Arkansas as he did to the people of Louisiana, 
would have stamped him forever unfit for the office he held 
as Department Commander. Taking the field in person, he 
displayed military skill in defeating two of the best disci- 
plined armies of the enemy that they had in the field, in the 
short period of twenty-two days. 

Our cavalry felt the loss of their gallant commander, Gen- 
eral Tom Green, to lead them on to victory, as he had done 


before on many a bloody battle-field. If he had been alive, 
the enemy never would have crossed Cane River, much less 
the double bridges, without they had done so as prisoners 
of war. 

The enemy, after remaining a few days at Grand-Ecore, 
behind their fortifications, took up their line of march for 
Alexandria, distant about one hundred miles. Then entire 
route could be traced by the melancholy monuments of their 
devastating march ; it could be distinguished by tall chimneys 
standing solitary and alone, and blackened embers lying at 
their feet as it were. Every fine residence, every corn-crib, 
smoke-house, cotton-gin — all that could give comfort to men — 
were committed to flames. Dead animals — horses, mules, 
cows, calves, and hogs, slain by the enemy, were scattered 
along the road. 

After they arrived at Alexandria, they commenced fortify- 
ing the town ; here they remained a few days awaiting the 
arrival of their fleet, commanded by Admiral Porter. His 
fleet was above the falls, about two miles above Alexandria. 
The fleet was in a critical position above the falls, and it 
was generally believed that they would have to abandon 
it altogether, from the fact of Red River falling so rapidly, 
while they were loading their transports with stolen cotton. 
A few days elapsed before they were released from their 
awkward position. The fleet succeeded in getting over the 
falls in the following manner : There was a large sugar-house 
a short distance from the falls, which they pulled down, and 
out of the materials made a dam of some six hundred feet 
across the falls, which enabled their fleet to pass. If proper 
disposition had been made of our forces, it would have been 
impossible for them to have saved their fleet. On the arrival 
of their fleet at Alexandria, their land forces prepared to 
evacuate the town, but not before they set fire to the town. 
The town was fired in several places by their negro troops ; 
the flames soon burst forth, and the streets were quickly 
crowded with helpless women and children. Agonized 
mothers, seeking their children, all affrighted and terrified, 


were rushing on all sides from the raging flames and falling 
houses. Invalids had to be dragged from their beds, and lay- 
exposed to the flames and smoke that swept the streets. 
Drunken negro soldiers, as well as white ones, rushing from 
house to house, emptying them of their valuables and then 
firing them ; contraband negroes carrying off piles of booty, 
and grinning at the good chance, and exulting, like so many 
demons ; officers and men reveling on the wines and liquors, 
until the burning houses buried them in their drunken 

" Through solid curls of smoke the bursting fires 
Climb in tall pyramids above the spires, 
Concentrating all the winds, whose forces, driven 
With equal rage from every point of heaven, 
Wheel into conflict, round the scantling pour 
The twisting flames, and through the rafters roar ; 
Suck up the cinders and send them sailing far, — 
They warn the country of the raging war." 

Maddened in his disappointment to subdue the " rebels," 
General Banks was determined to lay the country waste for 
revenge. After leaving Alexandria, he marched for Simms- 
port on the Atchafalaya Bayou, closely pressed by our cavalry 
and infantry. At Yellow Bayou, near Simmsport, the enemy 
made a final stand, but was repulsed again by our forces, 
destroying the bridge over Yellow Bayou to prevent further 
pursuit from our troops. They crossed the Atchafalaya 
Bayou at Simmsport, and made a hasty march to the mouth of 
Red River, where transports were awaiting to convey them 
to New Orleans. 

General Banks certainly must have come to the conclusion 
that the people of Louisiana, outside of New Orleans, were 
not as loyal as he expected to find them. They only recog- 
nized Governor H. Allen as the executive officer of Louisiana. 
Notwithstanding the bombastic proclamation of his military 
satrap, Mr. Hahn, styling himself Governor of Louisiana, or- 
dering the people of Louisiana to lay down their arms, and to 


show no resistance to Banks's expedition, an army which had 
advanced in all the pomp and pride of war, was now returning 
to New Orleans more like a disorderly mob than an organ- 
ized army. Thus closed Banks's second Bed Biver expedi- 




/N the morning of June 4th we left camp, at Pine- 
ville, for Snaggy Point, on Red River. Marched twelve 
miles down the east bank of Red River, and camped. 

June 5th. Marched ten miles, and arrived at Snaggy Point. 
Preparations were at once made to cross the river to the 
west bank. A detail of one hundred men were employed in 
cutting down the river bank, so that our wagons could cross. 
After everything was ready, the order was countermanded. 
We remained encamped at Snaggy Point until the morning of 
the 11th. On the evening of the 7th, a tremendous storm took 
place, flooding the camp with water, which flowed in a minia- 
ture river through its center, sweeping away tin pans, plates, 
etc. Amid the lightning's vivid flash, and the deep roll of 
thunder, could be heard the shouts of the men, then- exclama- 
tions and expletives, as they were literally drowned out of 
their quarters. " Knee deep ! " one would shout ; " Quarter less 
twain ! " came from another direction ; " Quack, quack, quack ! " 
answered a third — thus displaying an indifference to their 
inconveniences, and commendably endeavoring to make sport 
out of each other's mishaps. It rained every day while we 
remained at this camp. The men were lying in mud and 
water, oblivious to all their troubles, curled up like snakes, 
and actually making pillows of their knapsacks. 

On the morning of the 11th it ceased raining ; we moved 


four miles, to a dryer camp-ground, where we remained until 
the morning of the 13th, when we took up the line of march, 
back again, in the direction of Pineville. Marched ten miles 
and struck camp, our wagons failing to arrive until late in the 
night. After eating supper, we lay down on our blankets, to 
think of our loved ones at home, and when the cruel war 
would be over. On the morning of the 14th we left camp 
about 9 o'clock. Marched fifteen miles, leaving Pineville to 
the left. Reported in camp, that General Dick Taylor was 
ordered across the Mississippi River, to take command of the 
defenses of Mobile. 

June 15th. Marched twelve miles, through the pine hills. 
The weather was unusually fine. We finally struck camp on 
Bayou Flaggon, within three miles of Holloway's prairie. 

June 16th. Marched seven miles, and encamped near 
Taylor's hospital, about fifteen miles from Alexandria. For 
the last two days we marched in a semicircular form, hunting 
a good camp-ground. 

On the morning of the 17th we learned, much to our sur- 
prise, that our favorite leader, Gen. Walker, was assigned to 
the command of the District of Western Louisiana, thereby 
relieving Gen. Taylor. About noontime, on the 18th, General 
Walker bade farewell to his " Old Division." Although he did 
not take each officer and soldier by the hand, his counte- 
nance, and the countenances of his men, sufficed to express the 
feeling he entertained for them and they for him. Oftentime s 
have we seen Gen. Walker dash along the road, followed by 
his staff, when, meeting some soiled and uncouth-looking pri- 
vate, wearily marching down the road, he would bend forward 
gracefully in his saddle, and, lifting his hat from his brow, 
salute the soldier with all the polished ease and elegance of 
manner so indicative of the high-toned gentleman, with a 
soldierly politeness worthy a superior, and not as if the 
object of his deference and marked attention was the private 
soldier of his division. No wonder the men loved him and 
disliked to part with him ! 


" We had seen him on the fierce field of battle, 
Firm as the granite, while the musket's sharp rattle, 
The cannon's deep roar, the charge of the foes, 
Told where thickest the fight — where fiercest the blows. 
We had seen him, on march, long, toilsome, and dreary, 
Encourage the men, travel-worn, weak, and weary ; 
Amid the quiet of camp, on the showy review, 
Always affable, kind, brave, courteous, and true, — 
Ever cherished, remembered, wherever thou mayest go, 
Brave Gen. John G. Walker, we bade thee adieu." 

After Gen. Walker had been relieved of command of the 
division, Brig.-General King took command of the same, in 
the absence of Brig.-Gen. Waul (senior general), who was 
absent in Texas, suffering from the wound he received at the 
battle of Jenkins's Ferry. General King remained in command 
of the division until the arrival of Major-General John H. 
Forney, who arrived from east of the Mississippi Kiver 
shortly after General Walker was relieved. 

Nothing unusual transpired in camp until the morning of 
the 30th, when we moved camp a few miles, to a new camp, 
which might be safely called Camp Vermin. At this camp, we 
were annoyed, day and night, with mosquitoes, red-bugs, ticks, 
etc., and last, though not least, with blue beef. Shortly after 
our arrival at this camp, all of the light artillery in the Dis- 
trict of Western Louisiana was formed into three battalions, 
commanded by Col. J. L. Brent ; afterwards, with a slight 
alteration, by Major G. W. Squires. They were composed as 
follows : 

1st battalion. 

Captain W. G. Moseley's Horse Artillery. 
" M. V. McMahon's " " 

" T. D. Nettles's (Valverde) Horse Artillery. 
" J. A. A. West's " " 

Commanded by Major 0. J. Semmes. 

Captain H. C. West's Light Artillery. 
" Wm. G. Gibson's " " 
" B. F. Winchester's " " 

" Thomas Boone's " " 
Commanded by Major G. W. Squires. 



Captain T. 0. Benton's Light Artillery. 
J. T. M. Barnes's " " 

M. T. Gordey's " " 

Commanded by Major T. A. Faries. 

We remained at this camp until the morning of the 23d of 
July, when we received orders to proceed, with all possible 
haste, to the Mississippi River, the location to be at or near 
Waterloo Landing. After marching fifteen miles, we arrived 
at camp on the edge of Cathoulia Lake. 

July 24th. Marched twenty miles. We traveled through a 
section of country that was entirely deserted by man and 

July 25th. Marched ten miles, and camped on the bank of 
Black River, about two miles below the mouth of Trinity- 
River. We remained at this camp until the 27th, when we 
crossed over Little River on a pontoon bridge, and camped on 
Bird Creek (about four miles from Harrisonburg), after march- 
ing twelve miles. We remained at this camp until the 26th 
of August. While remaining at this camp, General King re- 
ceived a 'letter of instruction from General Walker, relating 
to transfer of cotton, etc., etc., in the following patriotic 
words : 

" General : — You are instructed to prevent all intercourse 
with the enemy at Natchez, or elsewhere, for the purpose of 
trade, or upon any pretext whatever. You will warn persons 
who are or have been in the habit of visiting places occupied 
by the enemy, that such visits will be treated as cause of arrest, 
and the confiscation of any goods that they may introduce 
within our lines. You will see that these instructions are 
strictly enforced. The habit of permitting such intercourse 
has demoralized the people, and depreciated our currency, 
and it must be prevented. Similar instructions have been 
sent to the commander of the cavalry." 

This was gratifying news to the troops, coming from their 
old commander. Although shoeless and coatless, they pre- 


ferred it, rather than to wear any ill-gotten goods from their 
oppressors. On the evening of the 25th, we received orders 
to be ready to cross the Mississippi River. This order created 
some dissatisfaction amongst the troops. Quartermasters were 
busily engaged in sending off all baggage. All baggage was 
ordered to be sent to Shreveport for " safe keeping." Only 
one wagon and one ambulance were allowed to each regiment. 

On the morning of the 2Gth, we took up the line of march 
again ; crossed the Washita River at Harrisonburg, on a pon- 
toon bridge. Harrisonburg looked rather the worse for wear. 
But few houses were left standing in the place. The town wag 
destroyed by the Federals when they took possession of the 
place. After crossing the Washita River, we continued our 
march in the direction of the Tensas River. We arrived in 
camp late in the evening, after marching eighteen miles. 

Aug. 27th. Marched twelve miles, and camped on the banks 
of the Tensas River. Shortly after our arrival in camp, the 
pontoon-train from "Alexandria, accompanied by General 
Polignac's Division, arrived. The boats were placed across 
the Tensas River, to swell them, so as to make them water- 
tight before we would attempt to cross the Mississippi River 
in them. In the mean time, detachments of cavalry were sent 
along the bank of the Mississippi River, to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy's gun-boats. We were distant from 
Waterloo Landing, on the river, about five miles. Some few 
of the troops deserted, in order to escape crossing the river, 
but the mass of the troops were ready to embark at a 
moment's warning. Some reflections had been cast on the 
division for not going across, when, in fact, they were never 
ordered to make the attempt, nor even allowed the pleasure of 
seeing the river at this place. For the information of the 
many, I will state, from good authority, that General Taylor 
failed in his well-laid plan. It was not his intention to 
attempt to cross any troops over the Mississippi River until 
he was able to negotiate with two of the gun-boat commanders 
for buying them and their gun-boats, for a certain amount of 
cotton, then stored at Brownsville. His plan was for the two 


gun-boats to come alongside of the river-bank, where our men 
were prepared to board them. Dressing our men in the 
Yankee uniform, at the same time knowing the enemy's sig- 
nals, he would send one of the gun-boats up the river, and the 
other down the river. It seemed very probable he would be 
able to capture all the gun-boats on the Mississippi River. 
This he expected to accomplish, after he succeeded in getting 
their private signals. If successful in this undertaking, he 
could readily cross his troops over the river, without being 

It is well enough known that the two captains were afraid of 
one another. These remarks I make by way of an explanation, 
as the real cause of the non-crossing of our division. General 
Taylor, having failed in his plans, took a final adieu of the 
division. During the night, he crossed the river, to take 
charge of the defenses of Mobile. 




UG. 29th. Having abandoned all hopes of crossing the 
river, for the present, we fell back some twelve 
miles from the river, and camped to await further 

On the morning of the 30th of August, accompanied by 
General Polignac's Division, we took up our line of march for 
Monticello, Arkansas. This movement was made through the 
intercession of General Magruder to General Kirby Smith. He 
informed General Kirby Smith that the Federal general (Gen- 
eral Steele) at Little Rock had been reinforced by the 16th Army 
Corps, under command of General A. J. Smith. The Fed- 
eral general, anticipating that Walker's and Polignac's Divis- 
ions had crossed the Mississippi River, had contemplated 
making a reconnoissance towards Monticello. The expedi- 
tion was to start from Pine Bluff. When about ready to start, 
they heard of the arrival of our forces at Monticello. Conse- 
quently they had to abandon their contemplated raid, on hear- 
ing of our advance. After marching eight miles, we camped 
on Turkey Creek. 

Aug. 31st. Marched sixteen miles, and camped near Bceuff 
Prairie. On arriving in camp, the commissary department, 
to be up and doing, issued us four ounces of " hard tack," and 
three-quarters of a pound of flour. The next day we rested, 
to eat our "hard tack." 


Sept. 2d. Marched eight miles, in the direction of Monroe. 

Sept. 3d. Marched fifteen miles, over a dry, sandy road ; 
water was very scarce along the route. Shortly after our arrival 
in camp, our new division commander, Major-General John 
H. Forney, of Vicksburg fame, arrived in camp, accompanied 
by his respective staff officers, as follows, viz. : 

Major S. Croom, A. A. General. 

" H. B. Adams, Quartermaster. 

" H. W. Williams, Paymaster. 

" J. M. Douglas, Assist. Commissary. 
Surgeon — D. Port Smith. 
Med. Inspector — J. C. Nidelet. 
Lieut. R. L. Upshaw, A. A. and Inspector- General. 

" J. M. Avery, Ordnance Officer. 

" J. M. Wyley. Aid-de-Camp. 

" R. R. Jones, Aid-de-Camp. 

Major-General John H. Forney was an old United States 
army officer ; a graduate of West Point. He was a strict dis- 
ciplinarian. He commanded a division of Alabama troops, 
east of the Mississippi River, and participated in pretty much 
all the battles east of the river, from the battle of Manassas to 
the fall of Vicksburg. After being paroled at Vicksburg, he 
returned to his home in Alabama for a short period of time. 
Having been exchanged, he was assigned to the command of 
all the Vicksburg paroled soldiers. Afterwards, he was ordered 
to report to Lieut.-General E. Kirby Smith, for duty. On 
reporting to General Smith, he was assigned to the command 
of late Walker's Division. 

On the 4th, we marched fourteen miles, over a dry, sandy 
road. The day was clear and warm. The constant daily march 
over the sandy roads began to exhibit its effects on the men. 
They were physically worn out, and much reduced in flesh. 

Sept. 5th. Marched eleven miles. On our arrival in camp, 
blankets were stretched in tent form, to keep the scorching 
rays of the sun from us. 

Sept. 6th. Marched eight miles. Passed through the town 
of Monroe again, and camped about half-a-mile north of the 


town, at an old camp-ground, known by the name of Bluff 
Springs, where we remained until the morning of the 14th, 
when we took up the line of march in the direction of Bayou 
Bartholomew ; marched fourteen miles and camped for the 

Sept. 15th. Left camp at 4 o'clock, A. M., and marched 
eighteen miles. Apparently for recreation, a new style of 
tactics was adopted by General Forney, which consisted in 
having roll-call every time we rested. "What his object was 
I am unable to say, unless it was to shorten the period of 
resting. No sooner was the roll called than we would be on the 
march again. 

Sept. 16th. Marched twenty miles. Passed through the 
town of Bastrop, and camped a few miles from the town. 

Sept. 17th. Marched twenty-four miles. Roll-call as usual. 
Crossed Bayou Bartholomew on a pontoon-bridge. Crossed 
the State-line dividing Louisiana and Arkansas. Passed 
through a little village called Berlin, and arrived in camp 
near the town of Hamburg, where we remained until the 
morning of the 19th, when we were on the march again. 
Passed through the town of Hamburg, and marched sixteen 

Sept. 20th. Marched seventeen miles, and encamped near 
the town of Monticello, the place of our destination for the 
present. From the 21st till the 24th, we were employed in 
cleaning our camp-ground. On the evening of the 25th, 
at dress-parade, we received orders to be ready the next day 
for a grand review, to be held by General Magruder, then 
commanding the State of Arkansas. 

Sept. 26th. Having dressed ourselves in our best apparel, we 
left camp at 9 o'clock, A. M., and arrived at the parade-ground, 
situated north of Monticello. After we took our position, we 
stacked arms, and awaited the presence of General Magruder. 
General Forney was soon notified that the commanding-gen- 
eral of the State of Arkansas would shortly make his appear- 
ance on the field. Presently, the command " Attention," was 
given ; then, " Take arms." Drawing our breath, and cast- 


ing our eyes to the right, we perceived, at a distance, 
something resembling a comet, with a long tail, advancing 
towards us. Further investigation plainly told us that what 
we took for a comet was nothing more nor less than the bunch 
of ostrich-feathers in General Magruder's hat. He approached 
General Forney, and the two saluted each other. The bands 
struck up the tune " Hail to the Chief." General Magruder 
then took his position alongside a number of carriages filled 
with ladies. Presently, General Forney gave the command, 
" Prepare for inspection." " To the rear, open order." After 
the lines were dressed, and the guides had taken their position, 
General Magruder passed along the lines, mounted on his 
war horse "Cinchmatus," who appeared to keep time to the 
national air of " Dixie." As he passed before us, I believe 
there was not an officer or soldier in the division who did not 
eye the hero of the peninsula, Malvern Hill, and last, though 
not least, the hero of Galveston, in such a manner that, even 
if he dressed himself in mask apparel, he could be easily 
recognized by any soldier of the division. After getting 
through his inspection, he took his former position alongside 
the carriages. The command was given, " Close order, march ! " 
" Prepare to pass in review by companies, left wheel, column 
forward, guide right, march ! " After passing in review, we took 
our former position. Afterwards, General Magruder drilled us 
for half an hour, to please the ladies. He expressed himself 
highly pleased with our division, and remarked that he would 
soon settle the dispute between him and Steele, the Federal 
commander, viz., whether he or Steele was the legal com- 
mander of Arkansas. The divisions of Polignac, Churchill, 
and Parsons were also on the parade-ground. After the review 
was over we returned to our old camp, where we went 
through the regular routine of camp-hfe. Nothing unusual 
transpired in camp until the morning of the 30th, when the 
Missouri Cavalry, under command of General Price, crossed 
the Arkansas Eiver, on their way to their own State, to create 
a general havoc among the loyal folks wherever they 


On the morning of the 30th, we received orders to get ready 
to march for Camden, on the Ouachita River. 

On the morning of October 2d, we took a final adieu of 
Monticello, and marched off in the direction of Camden. The 
roads were miserably bad, owing to the incessant rains. We 
arrived in camp late in the evening, after marching only 
twelve miles. Our wagons did not arrive until midnight. 

October 3d. Marched thirteen miles. The country we 
traveled through was remarkably fertile, but the most of the 
farms were lying waste, without fences ; while briers, and 
weeds, and young saplings encumbered the rich soil, in place 
of the golden grain, and rich harvests of corn. In addition to 
want, there was deep mourning in every house we passed, for 
dear ones who had bravely laid down their lives in the cause 
they believed was just. 

October 4th. Marched fourteen miles, tramping over pud- 
dly roads and wading through the creeks. To-day's march 
was over roads deserted, almost covered in with overhanging 
woods, bleak, black, and dismal looking. About four o'clock 
in the evening we arrived in camp. 

October 5th. Marched eleven miles. The sun was up, and 
looked bright and cheerful throughout the day. 

October 6th. Marched twenty miles, and encamped near 
Camden, where we remained, drilling and fortifying the place, 
until the morning of the 15th, when we were ordered to cross 
the Ouachita Eiver, at the Lone-Pine Ferry, situated about 
two miles north of Camden. After crossing the river we 
camped about half a mile from the town. At dress-parade, 
in the evening, we were ordered to be ready to commence 
fortifying the following morning. Our division was assigned 
the duty of fortifying the water-front of Camden ; Parsons's 
the south-east ; Polignac's, the south-west ; and Churchill's, 
the north-west lines. 

On the eve'ning of the 16th, we witnessed the melancholy 
performance of shooting Captain John Guynes, Company 
F, 22d Texas Infantry. He was accused of encouraging his 
men to desert, when we were expected to cross the Missis- 


sippi River. He was a man about fifty years old, and very 
much admired by bis men, and well liked by the officers of 
his brigade. Every effort was made to have him reprieved, 
but all without avail. 

On the evening of the 8th, General King was relieved from 
duty with the division, and assigned to the Texas Brigade of 
Polignac's Division. Nothing unusual transpired in camp 
until November 3d, when a regiment from each brigade 
went on picket on the Princeton road, about twelve miles from 
Camden, for what purpose I am unable to say, as there was 
no enemy nearer than Pine Bluff, some eighty miles distant. 
After completing the fortifications around Camden, we took 
up the line of march for Camp Sumter (named by the Mis- 
souri troops), on Red River, north of Shreveport, near Spring 
Bank, on the morning of the 14th, and marched twelve miles 
over a very good road. 

On the morning of the 15th it commenced to rain as if all 
the " floodgates of heaven were turned loose." Arrived in 
camp late in the evening, wet to the skin, after marching 
fifteen miles. 

October 16th. Marched eleven miles. Still raining. A 
great many of our wagons were unable to arrive in camp last 

October 17th. Marched twelve miles, over a stiff red clay 
road, the rain still pouring down in torrents, with no pros- 
pect of its clearing up soon. It was almost impossible to 
march over the roads ; and, to look at us on our weaiy and 
laborious march, one would judge us to be a party of " Shak- 
ing Quakers," reclining backward nearly as much as forward. 

October 18th. Marched eight miles, and arrived at Camp 
Sumter. Shortly after our arrival in camp, the weather 
cleared off, with the exception of a cold norther. We remained 
at this camp until the morning of the 22d, when we were 
ordered to march for Minden, Louisiana, to go into winter 
quarters. About nine o'clock in the morning, we bade fare- 
well to Camp Sumter, but not before we received four ounces 
of sugar from the Commissary Department — the first we had 


received since we left the sugar regions of Louisiana. We 
marched twelve miles, over a barren and rocky road. 

October 23d. Marched fourteen miles. The weather was 
miserably cold, and a regular norther blowing. 

October 24th. Marched fifteen miles, through a rich section 
of country. The weather cleared off about sunset. 

October 25th. Marched fourteen miles, and camped on a 
clear, crystal-running creek. 

October 26th. Marched twelve miles through the pine 
woods, and camped. 

October 27th. Marched twelve miles over the same section 
of country as yesterday. After our arrival in camp, the 
weather cleared off, and no indication of any more rain soon. 

October 28th. Marched eight miles, and camped near the 
town of Minden. We remained at this camp until the 1st of 
December, when we moved camp four miles, to a more suit- 
able camp-ground. After our arrival in camp, we were given 
to understand that the present camp would be our winter 
quarters. Preparations were at once made by the troops to 
erect log cabins, which was quickly done. On the evening of 
the 4th, at dress-parade, we were informed that our present 
camp was to be known by the name of Camp Magruder, 
through respect to General Magruder, commanding the State 
of Arkansas. Many of the troops were careless in building 
their cabins, owing to the fact that there was no certainty 
of our remaining any definite period of time ; but the cold 
weather now set in, which left them no alternative but to 
get into their cabins as soon as possible. 

On the morning of the 8th, it commenced to sleet ; during 
the night it commenced to freeze, and the next morning the 
ice was fully two inches thick. Providence seemed to have 
favored us until we had our quarters completed. 

On the evening of the 12th, the troops received two months' 
wages. This was the first money we had received in two 
years for our services, or, in other words, the first money re- 
ceived since our pay was advanced from 111 to $13 per 
month. To prove the generosity of our paymaster, he ad- 


vised the soldiers to bond their money for a period of twenty 
years, drawing interest at the rate of eight per cent, per 
annum. The greatest portion of them believed in the old 
adage, that " half a loaf of bread was better than none," and 
chose the ready cash, giving a receipt to the C. S. A., and 
trusting to their honor for the balance due us, viz. : two 
years' pay, clothing, etc., etc. Those that were unfortunate 
enough to trust to the bonding scheme may get the princi- 
pal and interest after the ratification of the treaty of peace 
between the Confederate and United States. Those that re- 
ceived their $22 enjoyed themselves at betting at monte, 
poker, euchre, etc., etc., much to the amusement of the bond- 
holders. The greatest care as to the cleanliness of cabins was 
the next order of the day, and each regiment tried to excel 
in this particular. Time passed on as smoothly as you 
pleased, nothing occurring to disturb our peace of mind, ex- 
cept the routine of camp duties. 

Camp Magruder was situated on the right of the military 
road leading from Shreveport to Camden, in the midst of a 
pine ridge. On the south-west was a deserted field, well 
adapted to the exercise of drilling. Of course, camps were 
always selected in view of such very agreeable contingencies. 
Our quarters were substantial log cabins, constructed of pine 
logs. Each cabin was fourteen by sixteen feet. The privates' 
quarters were in two parallel rows, facing each other, while 
the officers' ran perpendicular to them, forming nearly a 
square at one end. The men were not too much crowded, 
and slept in berths placed one above the other, similar to 
those in a state-room of a river steamer. 

We have read descriptions of palaces, with their marble 
colonnades, tesselated floors, ceilings frescoed and embel- 
lished with carved and curious figures, adorned, ornamented 
and furnished with all the richness and elegance which art 
and genius could devise, or the skill of man produce ; yet no 
such picture intrudes its glare and glitter upon us at Camp 
Magruder. The heart wearied with long years' of suffering, 
danger and hardship, amid the stirring and eventful scenes 


of our struggle for national independence, naturally turns to 
an humbler scene, with all its fond associations. " Home, 
sweet home," is a theme which melts the heart of the stern- 
est of our scarred veterans. Many times have we seen the 
tears steal down the bronzed cheeks of those who have passed 
unmoved amid the horrors of the battle-field, as the strains 
of this cherished refrain came from some saddened heart, 
gushing its melody from a sweet-toned voice or instrument. 
We remember the cottage-home embowered in trees, with the 
rose and honeysuckle clambering over the trellis at the ends 
of the porch, and the jessamine, with its sweet-scented flowers, 
perfuming all the summer air. We remember, too, with in- 
tense yearning, the social family-gathering in the evening, 
the fondly-loved sisters and brothers, the adored mother and 
revered father, now exiled from that cottage home, or battling 
in the ranks of our country's patriots. Ah ! how these 
memories throng to the mind and bring forth long-dormant 
reminiscences of the past ! But what have these thoughts to 
do with " Our Quarters " at Camp Magruder ? Nothing, dear 
reader, save as a reverie of camp-life. 

The winter wind is whispering a sighing requiem through 
the pine-boughs, which form a shelter near our present home. 
Its breath is sharp and biting. What matters it ? Do not 
our log cabins keep Boreas at bay ? Moreover, there is a 
comfortable fireplace at one end, with its mud chimney out- 
side, where the fire crackles and the ruddy flame leaps joy- 
fully upward, as if defying all old Winter's fierce attacks. 
We sit (my companions and myself, I mean) around this cozy 
fire, and laugh and chat away the laggard hours, as if stern 
war was not a bitter reality, and life had no aim save the 
enjoyment of its flitting hours. Soldiers are proverbial for 
their light-heartedness and reckless joviality under the most 
trying circumstances. Taking a ramble through the camp, 
you could behold a party of soldiers engaged at whist, all 
fours, euchre, or some other game. In another part was the 
game of monte, and around would be gathered a large num- 
ber of betters, staking small sums upon the turn of the cards ; 


for all appeared to have more or less Confederate money. In 
still another quarter, a small party would be seen half-re- 
clining upon their blankets, while one of them recited some 
story of other days and lands. Songs, too, enlivened the 
scene, and served to beguile the hours. "We will introduce 
our readers to a cabin full of soldiers, who are enjoying them- 
selves with songs, jokes, etc., etc. 

" "Why," asked one of them, who appeared to be the leader 
in the crowd, "are love and war so closely allied? I cannot 
see the analogy between them at all, unless it be that one 
leads to a future being, the other to a future world." 

" Bravo, Jack ! Now you have given and solved a conun- 
drum in the same breath. It is always said and sung that 

" ' None but the brave deserve the fair,' " 

exclaimed the jolly C from a corner of the cabin. 

" That may be very well," replied Jack, "but you find the 
dear creatures seldom trouble their heads much about a fellow 
if he gets an ounce of lead in the stomach ; they generally bear 
the thing with Christian resignation, and console themselves 
by picking up some sensible man who stayed at home, to 
look after them." 

" A plague on such cowards," said another. " You are los- 
ing your gallantry ; didn't you see how they literally buried 
us in flowers, as we passed through Minden ? " 

"All very fine ; it reminds me of a hungry man suffering at 
a delicious feast, while some sensible fellow walks in and 
enjoys the banquet." 

During the time we remained at camp Magruder, there was 
an active campaign of amusement, and both men and officers 
devoted themselves with ardor to such sports as the service 
at all tolerated, enjoying the fleeting hours up to the time we 
took a final adieu, with unabated devotion to pleasure. Such 
was camp-life at Camp Magruder. 

The utmost contentment and good feeling prevailed among 
the men, and all seemed determined to enjoy the days of the 
winter months. With abundant material for the purpose, they 


soon manufactured tables, shelves, and benches. Most agree- 
ably were they disappointed at their situation and surround- 
ings. They soon gathered about them all those little com- 
forts and conveniences which so materially contribute to the 
happiness of a soldier's precarious existence. 

Nothing unusual transpired in camp, until the evening of 
January 8th, 1865, when the troops participated in a " sham 
battle," under the jurisdiction of General Forney. Every- 
thing passed off pleasantly, and to the entire satisfaction of 
the ladies, who assembled in large numbers to witness the 
scene. We returned to camp late in the evening, strongly 
convinced that it was easier to participate in a hundred 
" sham battles " than one sure-enough battle. After the " sham 
battle " was over, nothing unusual transpired in camp until 
the morning of the 17th, when the commander of the Trans- 
Mississippi Department, Gen. Kirby Smith, arrived at camp, 
for the purpose of reviewing his troops ; and great enthusiasm 
was evinced by them. He was accompanied by General 
Buckner, of Fort Donaldson fame, then commanding the dis- 
trict of Louisiana. After passing in review, and taking oui 
former position in line, Gen. Buckner put us through Hardee's 
tactics for about two hours, which proved highly gratifying to 
the ladies who had come from all parts of the country to wit- 
ness the grand review. We returned to camp late in the 
evening, tired and weary. We remained at camp Magruder 
until the morning of the 26th, when we took a final adieu of 
it, and took up the line of march for Shreveport. A large 
number of ladies from the surrounding country arrived in 
camp, to witness our departure, and, as the troops were mov- 
ing off, " Good bye," " God bless you," was on the lips of all. 




'N the evening of the 26th we arrived in camp, after 
fsg getting a thorough drenching from the rain that had 
$4^ been falling in torrents upon us. Our march to-day 
was sixteen miles. 

Jan. 27th. Marched eight miles. Notwithstanding the 
heavy drizzling rain falling the men were all in fine spirits, 
and gay songs, from a hundred throats in unison, made the 
march a merry one. 

On the morning of the 28th the march was resumed. Re- 
crossed Red River at Shreveport, and camped about a mile 
east of town, after marching four miles. On our arrival in 
camp, details were made from the various companies, to haul 
wood and water a distance of about half a mile. To add to 
this inconvenience, about 4 o'clock, P.M., a most terrific storm 
of wind, rain, and hail commenced from the north-west ; the 
howling tempest and pelting rain blended in a continuous 
roar throughout the night. When the morning of the 29th 
began to send its pale rays across the hills, our camp pre- 
sented a most lamentable spectacle. Only two tents were 
standing, out of all the officers' tents in the division. The men 
were huddled together in groups, endeavoring to keep warm. 
The fires, having been extinguished, could add nothing to their 
comfort ; and the poor fellows, wet, supperless, and without 
the fragment of a chance for breakfast, presented a most 
wretched appearance indeed. Tents, blankets, and all the 
paraphernalia of a soldier's outfit were scattered right and left 
over the camp-ground. O or brave and determined troops looked 


as if in a dream, standing near their shelter, lamenting their 
lost supper and breakfast, — many of them in their shirt sleeves, 
regardless of the rain, and reminding one of a person invited 
to a feast, who could not go. Poor fellows ! they looked the 
personification of "Patience on a monument, smiling at grief." 
The storm continued raging in all its fury, until the evening 
of the 29th, when the wind changed, and it cleared off 
piercingly cold. 

On the 30th, apparently to warm the troops up, General For- 
ney held a grand review of the division. The parade-ground 
was about five miles from our camp. On our march to the 
parade-ground, many of the soldiers, worn out by exhaustion, 
and unable to march with their companies, were picked up 
and placed under guard by General Forney's body-guard 
(consisting of a company of cavalry). On their arrival on the 
parade-ground, they were compelled to march a ring until 
the review was over. This treatment of the sick was loudly 
denounced by both officers and men. 

On the morning of the 31st it commenced to rain again, 
and, in the midst of the rain, we moved camp to where wood 
and water were more abundant. Shortly after our arrival in 
camp, it ceased raining for a short period of time. In the 
evening it seemed as the flood-gates of heaven had been 
opened upon us. It continued to rain until the morning of 
the 6th, when once more it cleared off, and the sun came out 
as brilliant as ever. 

On the morning of the 7th, we again moved camp, conven- 
ient to a drill-grouncL The ordinary course of drills was per- 
formed each and every day. Such was camp-life near Shreve- 
port, where we passed " awa' the small hours," regardless 
of sunshine or storm, contentedly smoking our pipes, or dis- 
cussing the latest war news. A soldier's tent — provided he is 
blessed with any — is his parlor, kitchen, and bedroom ; and 
contains, within its small and circumscribed limits, all the con- 
veniences of his existence. How seldom do we imagine what 
man can endure, and still continue hopeful, healthy, and joy- 
ous. Such is a soldier's life. 


We received orders on the evening of the 14th to make 
preparations for a grand review and barbecue, to take place 
on the 18th. While encamped near Shreveport we were 
daily visited by numbers of ladies from the surrounding 
country, and from the city of Shreveport, who always had 
pleasant smiles and cheerful words for the soldiers. The 
brass-band attached to the division discoursed most exceUent 
music, and was a great feature of our camp-life, and a source 
of great gratification to our men. Soldiers, as a class, are 
passionately fond of music. Well do we remember with 
what deep emotions we have listened to the harmonious 
strains, as they floated out on the air, some still moonlight 
night, returning in murmuring echoes from the surrounding 
hills. Truthfully has the great English bard written : 

" He who hath not music in his soul, 
And is not moved by concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treason, stratagem, and spoils." 

Awaiting for the coming of the 18th, the troops continued 
performing their duties of guard mounting, morning drill, 
policing camp, and evening parade : such were the hours in 
camp. In the evening a roseate hue would tinge the western 
horizon, or light clouds flit lazily across the sky overhead, 
and camp-fires glittered for miles ; shouts, laughter, the hum 
of voices, mingled with songs, sentimental and religious, 
would float away on the still evening air. Such were some of 
the duties we had to perform. 

Thus the days slipped away into the irrevocable past. The 
fierce storm-cloud swept in its fury over Virginia, Georgia, 
and Missouri. The result of the elections in several of the 
Northern States proclaimed the probability of no change in 
the political status of the land. 

At last the day of the 18th arrived. The day was clear, 
beautiful, and pleasant. Thousands of spectators, of all ages, 
and both sexes, thronged to the grounds, early in the day. 
The division moved from their camp to the parade-ground, 
about 10 o'clock. As soon as they arrived on the parade-ground, 


they took their respective positions in line of battle. Shortly 
after the line was formed, Generals E. Kirby Smith and J. B. 
Magruder, accompanied by their respective staffs, arrived. 
Aids-de-camp were dispatched with orders, to the various 
brigade commanders. Everything being in readiness, the head 
of the column moved off, pissing in review. After the review 
was over, the division commenced to maneuver ; advanced 
in columns of attack, and, after deploying, broke to the rear, 
forming two lines of battle. After changing front to rear on 
the first hue, they advanced to the attack. First was heard 
the scattering fire of the skirmishers ; volleys of musketry min- 
gled with the roar of artillery. The maneuvering was well 
executed, and, but for the gala appearance of the scene, a 
spectator would have imagined that one of those bloody 
dramas so frequent in those warlike days was being enacted. 
As it was, some fair ladies screamed, and down the cheeks of 
others coursed tear-drops, either of sympathy for a soldier's 
dangers, or from some memory brought up by this warlike 
scene. After the sham battle, the division was drawn up in 
columns of regiments, to be presented to that gallant band, 
the veterans of the 3d Louisiana Infantry. This command, 
numbering 130 men, was marched up to the division, and in- 
troduced by Gen. Forney to his troops, in a few pointed 
remarks, which were responded to by three hearty cheers. 

The division then presented arms to the regiment, which 
compliment was returned. Arms were then stacked, and all 
repaired to the tables, where a bountiful and substantial re- 
past was spread. Without waiting for grace to be said, we 
helped ourselves, in regular soldier's style, much to our own 
comfort and to the pleasure of the ladies, doing ample justice 
to the dinner, and only regretting that we had not such a din- 
ner every day. After dinner we repaired to the speaker's 
stand, to enjoy a "feast of reason and a flow of soul." A let- 
ter from Governor Allen was first read, in which he expressed 
his regret at his unavoidable absence on this occasion. The 
troops were very much disappointed in not having the pleas- 
ure of hearing the gallant and defiant chieftain of Louisiana. 


Too much praise cannot be bestowed on him while governor 
of Louisiana. Day and night he superintended the feeding 
of the hungry and the caring for the soldier's widow. The 
Louisiana troops adored him, while the Texas troops ad- 
mired him for his patronage. At the cessation of hostilities 
he bade adieu to the people he loved so well, and took up his 
abode in a foreign country, where he breathed his last. His 
remains have been carried to his own State, and interred 
amongst the people he loved so well ; and when the time ar- 
rives that each State will have the right to erect monuments 
over their fallen heroes, 1 am satisfied that the gallant sons 
of Louisiana will not forget their patriot governor, H. W. 

But notwithstanding the absence of the governor, short 
and stirring addresses were delivered by Colonel L. Bush of 
Louisiana, and Colonels Gr. Flournoy and Hubbard of Texas. 
The whole affair passed off pleasantly, and will be long 
remembered by all those who participated in it. We felt 
grateful at this complimentary tribute to the gallantry and 
valor of Texans by the citizens and fair women of Louisiana. 
The 18th of February, 1865, will not soon be forgotten by the 
immense concourse assembled near Shreveport. On the 19th 
General Forney received orders from General Buckner to 
hold his division in readiness to move to Natchitoches. At 
dress-parade, the following address was read to us. 




HE Lieutenant-Gen eral commanding desires to cau- 
tion the troops of his command against indulging in 
unreasonable expectations of peace. The policy of 
our enemy, heretofore, has been to attempt to force us to 
comply with dishonorable terms which they have proposed. 
The question should be willingly left where the Constitution 
of the country places it, in the hands of the President and 
Senate. It is our duty to abide, patiently, their action, and to 
continue, as soldiers, to prepare for a prolonged struggle to 
rescue the independence to which we are so clearly entitled. 
Our vigilance, energy, and determination to contend for the 
rights which we claim, should be in no degree relaxed. 

By command of 

Lieut. -General Buckner. 

On the 21st we took up the line of march in the direction 
of Natchitoches ; marched ten miles, and camped near the old 
Mansfield road. We remained at this camp until the 6th of 
March. While at this camp, the following-named cavalry 
regiments were dismounted and attached to our division, 
viz. : 

Colonel Chisum's 2d Regiment, Texas Partisan Rangers. 
" J. H. Candle's 34tli Texas Cavalry. 
" J. M. Wells's " 

" DeMorse's 29th " 

After dismounting the cavalry, another brigade was organ- 



ized, known as the 4th Brigade. W. H. King was assigned to 
its command. It consisted of the following regiments : 

16th T. V. Infantry, commanded by Colonel Geo. Flournoy. 

18th " " " T. M. Bonner. 

28th Texas Dismounted Cavalry, " " E. H. Baster. 

34th, " " J. H. Candle. 

Wells (no number), " "J. M. Wells. 

Col. DeMorse's 29th Dismounted Cavalry was attached to Waul's Brigade. 
Col. Chistjm's 2d Partisan Rangers was attached to Waterhouse's Brigade. 


Colonel — J. Chisum. 
Lieut. Col. — C. Miller. 
Major — J. G. Vance. 
Quartermaster — Capt. W. T. Barns. 
Surgeon — J. C. Brtjbaker. 
Adjutant — J. O. Crtjtchfield. 

Company Officers. 
Company A. 

Captain, J. W. Wilson. 
1st Lieut., H. L. Gilbert. 
2d Lieut., B. F. McBride. 
2d Lieut., M. L. Payne. 

Company B. 
Captain, A. J. Hunt. 
1st Lieut., A. C. Hoyle. 
2d Lieut., S. P. Bell. 
2d Lieut., D. Jackson. 

Company C. 
Captain, J. G. Williams, 
1st Lieut., C. Gour. 
2d Lieut., A. Brundrige. 
2d Lieut., G. P. Porter. 

Company D. 
Captain, I. Foreman. 
1st Lieut., J. S. Vest. 
2d Lieut., I. B. Farmer. 
2d Lieut., W. D. Vance. 

Company Officers. 
Company E. 
Captain, R. L. Askew. 
1st Lieut., I. Brooksier. 
2d Lieut., S. Garvin. 
2d Lieut., T. M. Crowder. 

Company F. 
Captain, R. H. Scott. 
1st Lieut., F. B. Lilly. 
2d Lieut., J. Walker. 
2d Lieut., . 

Company G. 
Captain, J. W. Lane. 
1st Lieut., J. W. Tregg. 
2d Lieut., T. H. Williams. 
2d Lieut., J. P. Wallace. 

Company H. 
Captain, J. D. Stratten. 
1st Lieut., A. A. Thomas. 
2d Lieut. , A. G. Jackson. 
2d Lieut. , J. A. Jackson. 



Company I. 

Captain, R. H. Harding. 
1st Lieut., W. S. Murrell. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company K. 

Captain, C. L. James. 
1st Lieut., J. 0. Heath. 
2d Lieut., W. V. Moore. 
2d Lieut., J. G. Gibbs. 


Colonel — Chas. DeMorse. 
Lieut. -Colonel — Otis G. Welch. 
Major — Joseph A. Carroll. 
Surgeon — R. W. Reed. 
Assistant Surgeon — E. B. Rochille. 
Quartermaster — John Carroll. 
Adjutant— L. C. DeMorse. 

Company Officers. 

Company A. 

Captain, J. W. Dougherty. 
1st Lieut., A. A. Miller. 
2d Lieut., W. I. McNeil. 
2d Lieut., J. J. Smoot. 

Company B. 

Captain, Nick Wilson. 
1st Lieut., A. Z. Bone. 
2d Lieut., Eli Tibbets. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company C. 

Captain, W. T. Gunn. 
1st Lieut., G. W. Pierce. 
2d Lieut., R. D. Hancock. 
2d Lieut., J. W. Hardison. 

Company D. 

Captain, W. H. Hooks. 
1st Lieut., Eli Gaffney. 
2d Lieut., G. W. Mitchell. 
2d Lieut., Rufus Mann. 

Company Officers. 

Company E. 

Captain, (vacant.) 
1st Lieut., A. J. Zonnet. 
2d Lieut. , J. W. Robinson. 
2d Lieut., H. Tritt. 

Company F. 

Captain, E. R. Oliver. 
1st Lieut., P. Fulbright. 
2d Lieut., Jno. A. Franklin. 
2d Lieut., Jno. A. Hooker. 

Company G. 

Captain, W. I. T. Littlejohn. 
1st Lieut., D. W. Mosley. 
2d Lieut., V. Buyless. 
2d Lieut., I. E. Byrd. 

Company H. 

Captain, (vacant.) 
1st Lieut., " 
2d Lieut., F. M. Bonds. 
2d Lieut., . 



Company I. 

Captain, (vacant.) 
1st Lieut., R. P. Duty. 
2d Lieut., W. C. Rainey. 
2d Lieut., J. G. Attoway". 

Company K. 

Captain, Thos. R. Wilson. 
1st Lieut., W. I. Walker. 
2d Lieut., R. E. D. Smith. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 


Colonel — John H. Candle. 
Lieut. -Colonel — Wm. M. Brush. 
Surgeon — Francis D. Cash. 

Company Officers. 
Company A. 
Captain, Ed. Baldwin. 
1st Lieut., B. F. Martin. 
2d Lieut., J. H. Hallford. 
2d Lieut., J. H. Byas. 

Company B. 

Captain, E. T. Morris. 
1st Lieut., W. C. Hightower. 
2d Lieut., A. Gray. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company C. 
Captain, L. D. Ross. 
1st Lieut., M. V. Devitt. 
2d Lieut., D. L. Ritchey. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company D. 
Captain, A. H. R. Bryant. 
1st Lieut., W. J. Lewilling. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company E. 
Captain, A. J. Duckworth. 
1st Lieut., J. R. Zourie. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company Officers. 
Company F. 
Captain, W. Metcalf. 
1st Lieut., B. B. Meders. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company G. 
Captain, W. N. Brush. 
1st Lieut., J. M. Fox. 
2d Lieut., W. G. Barnes. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company H. 
Captain, T. J. Dove. 
1st Lieut., H. Wheeler. 
2d Lieut. , Thomas Grant. 
2d Lieut., J. N. Steel. 

Company I. 
Captain, J. H. Roderick. 
1st Lieut., J. H. Kincaid. 
2d Lieut., W. T. James. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company K. 

Captain, E. B. Titus. 
1st Lieut., J. M. Blain. 
2d Lieut., D. H. Bearden. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 





Colonel— J. W. Wells. 
Lieut.-Col. — C. Good. 
Major— S. E. Gillett. 
Quartermaster — W. R. Warren. 
Commissary — J. R. McDonald. 
Surgeon — G. G. Dtjggins. 
Assistant Surgeon — D. W. Swiggart. 
Adjutant — R. W. Matthews. 

Company Officers. 

Company A. 

Captain, Julius Harshaw. 
1st Lieut., F. H. Dun. 
2d Lieut., J. B. Reagan. 
2d Lieut., J. E. Jones. 

Company B. 

Captain, L. F. Cook. 
1st Lieut., J. M. Kennedy. 
2d Lieut., G. W. Thompson. 
2d Lieut., T. C. Marsh. 

Company C. 

Captain, D. M. Vanter. 
1st Lieut. W. C. Jones. 
2d Lieut., R. R. White. 
2d Lieut., P. H. Lacy. 

Company D. 

Captain, J. J. Edwards. 
1st Lieut., J. J. Whittington. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company E. 

Captain, J. T. Parrish. 
1st Lieut., Robert Edwards. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company Officers. 

Company F. 

Captain, R. H. Chapman. 
1st Lieut., D. J. Marsh. 
2d Lieut., A. R. Brown. 
2d Lieut., A. D. Wallace. 

Company G. 

Captain, (vacant.) 
1st Lieut., D. J. Bear. 
2d Lieut. , P. H. Cross. 
2d Lieut., S. M. Weems. 

Company H. 

Captain, T. A. Perkins. 
1st Lieut., J. D. Williams. 
2d Lieut., J. S. Cross. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company I. 

Captain, A. P. Ryan. 
1st Lieut., T. P. Lockhart. 
2d Lieut., J. P. Gatlin. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 

Company K. 

Captain, J. N. Daniel. 
1st Lieut., A. J. Ward. 
2d Lieut., S. S. Syday. 
2d Lieut., (vacant.) 


After the dismounting of the cavalry, everything passed off 
quietly in camp. The reason assigned for the dismounting 
of so many cavalry regiments, by order of General Kirby 
Smith, was owing to the scarcity of com and fodder to feed 
the animals ; and, besides, the cavalry branch of the service 
w r as larger in proportion than all the infantry and artillery 
combined, in the Trans-Mississippi Department. 

While remaining at this camp, near Mansfield, an amusing 
and laughable incident occurred in camp. On the evening of 
the 4th, some soldiers paid a visit to Mr. 's residence, situ- 
ated a few miles from camp. Mr. devoted his leisure 

time to the raising of bees. In close proximity to his house 
were some dozen of bee-hives. A few of the soldiers attracted 

the attention of Mr. in telling yarns of their exploits in 

the war, while the balance of them were engaged in helping 
themselves to his honey. The following morning he missed 
some of his bee-hives, and at once reported the facts to the 
field-officer of the day. The field-officer of the day, as a mat- 
ter of course, sjnrpathized with him in the loss of his honey. 
He told him he would give him the privilege of making a 
thorough search throughout the entire camp, and, if he discov- 
ered the honey, to report the facts to him and he would pun- 
ish the guilty parties. 

As he proceeded from mess to mess, throwing the cooking 
utensils about, the uproar and crowd increased, hollowing at 
the top of their voices, "Here's your honey." Unmercifully 
they made the intruder the subject of witticisms and sly jokes, 
making honey the theme of it all, until he could stand the as- 
sault no longer. 

Turning upon his persecutors with a lugubrious expression 
of features laughable to behold, and raising his stick aloft, he 
exclaimed: "Gentlemen, some parties took three bee-hives, 
and not satisfied in doing that, they broke into my store-room 
and took a basket containing three bottles of honey, which I 
had engaged to one of my neighbors. I care not for the honey 
that the thieving rascals stole ; and they haven't the manli- 
ness to acknowledge it. I want them to give me my basket, 


if not the honey. Men, the basket they stole belonged to my 
brother. He's in the Southern army, and I hate to lose it. 
Give me my basket," hollowing at the top of his voice. "No 
you don't, old fel," said a voice ; "you want somebody to bring 
you the basket, and then take him up for stealing your honey. 
No you don't. ' 'Lasses is sweet, but honey am sweeter.' " 

Stooping to enter a tent, he was assaulted by a full dose of 
corn meal (scarce as it was), from the mischievous occupant. 
As he suddenly emerged, sputtering and blowing the meal 
from his mouth and nostrils — a serio-comic spectacle — a new 
uproar greeted him. " Take him out," said one ; " hunting 
honey is a pretense ; he is trying to steal some one's ' blue 
beef.'" Thus, this seeker, after having lost his sweetness, 
was assailed on all sides with a thousand absurd sugges- 
tions how to find his honey, until, almost crazed, he fled to the 
officers' quarters, cursing the Texans, and swearing that there 
wasn't an honest man among all the Texas troops. He with- 
drew from camp, still hearing the ringing voices of the men, 
" Here's your honey." 

On the evening of the 5th, General Forney received orders 
from General Smith, for his division to proceed to Hemp- 
stead, Texas. 




I^N the morning of the 6th, the division was formed in 
line. The command was given to " about face." We 
marched back the same road we came, and camped 
after marching ten miles. The whole command was exceed- 
ingly rejoiced in returning to their beloved State. But, as the 
old proverb says, " Never hollow until you are out of the 
woods." Such was the case on this occasion ; as, the fol- 
lowing morning, we "about-faced" again and marched eleven 
miles back the same road we marched over yesterday — the 
rain pouring down in torrents. Many were the murmurs and 
curses of the men, at being disappointed in not getting to 

On the 8th marched thirteen miles; passed through the 
heroic town of Mansfield, where the ladies were, as usual, glad 
to see the " Greyhounds." 

March 9th. Marched thirteen miles. After arriving in camp 
we were visited by a heavy hail-storm. 

March 10th. After resting until about 4 o'clock, P. M., we 
took up the line of march, and marched six miles. We re- 
mained at this camp until the morning of the 12th, when we 
once more took up the line of march for Texas. Maiched 
fourteen miles, through a cold and drizzling rain. The morn- 
ing of the 13th was bitterly cold, yet the troops traveled mer- 
rily along through the pine woods, entertaining each other 


with jokes and all manner of witty fusilades. Arrived in 
camp late in the evening, after marching thirteen miles. Af- 
ter our arrival in camp we learned that the enemy was fitting 
out a large expedition at New Orleans, for the purpose of in- 
vading Texas. We also received information that all of Gen- 
eral Bee's Cavalry was ordered to be dismounted. Two of 
his regiments were ordered to report to General Forney, at 
the crossing of the Sabine River, but failed to report. 

On the 14th we marched through the town of Keatchie. The 
troops were hailed with enthusiasm by the citizens. Every 
door, window, and house-roof was crowded with eager spec- 
tators. We arrived in camp early in the day, after inarching 
six miles. 

March 15th. Marched ten miles ; crossed the State-line, and 
camped in Texas once more. Went to sleep with lighter 
hearts than we did since we left our beloved State, some three 
years ago. 

March 16th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped on the banks 
of the Sabine River. 

On the 17th we crossed the Sabine River at Grand Bluff, in 
Panola County. At the point of crossing, the river was some 
fifty yards wide, the water running over a bed of sand be- 
tween six and seven feet deep. By keeping the ferry-boat in 
rapid motion, the passage was made without difficulty. After 
crossing the river we marched three miles from the river-bank 
and camped. 

March 18th. Moved camp two miles further, and camped at a 
stream of pure water, fringed on either bank with large cotton- 
wood trees. We remained at this camp until the morning of 
the 20th. Game was in abundance, and the boys enjoyed 
themselves a-hunting. 

On the 20th we took up the line of march again. The 
weather was now delightfully cool in the morning and even- 
ing, while the heat of the sun at noonday was tempered by 
a fresh breeze from the south. We marched thirteen miles, 
through a thickly-timbered and well-watered country. Of 
timber there is a sufficiency for all ordinary purposes, and 


the day must come when this section will support a thriving 
population. We camped about four miles from a village 
called Kake Pocket, a suitable name when Confederate money- 
was at stake, as the money basis of the country. 

Early on the morning of the 22d, we took up the line of 
march. After marching fifteen miles we arrived at camp. 
As soon as our wagons arrived, the animals were turned out 
to graze until dark, when they were brought back to camp 
under guard. They appeared to improve very much, owing 
to the abundance of the mesquite grass. 

March 23d. Our march to-day was nearly due west. Game 
was abundant. In the distance, looking west, a line of high 
bluffs had been seen, supposed to be the hills that border 
the town of Eusk, in Cherokee County. "We arrived in camp 
early in the day, after marching ten miles. 

On the 24th, while pursuing a westerly course, with the 
high hills in plain sight before us, we reached a swift-running 
creek, where we camped for the night, after marching thirteen 

March 25th. After marching four miles, we arrived at the 
neatly-located town of Eusk. The town is located between 
two hills. The scenery is delightful. The population con- 
sisted of about 2,000 people. After passing through the 
town, we struck camp on a small creek, about one mile south- 
west of town. 

At an early hour on the morning of the 26th we were on the 
march. The atmosphere was dehghtfully cool, after recent 
rains which had fallen. We continued our march in a south- 
westerly direction. We arrived at a beautiful valley, where 
wood and water were plentiful. A beautiful stream of water, 
some twenty feet wide and six inches deep, ran through the 
valley. We camped at this creek of water, after marching 
fourteen miles. 

As usual, on the morning of the 27th, we were once more 
on the march, still marching in a southwesterly course. After 
marching several miles, we arrived at an elevated ridge. From 
the top of this ridge you could behold, at some distance off, 


the roads leading to the towns of Henderson, Crockett, and 
Palestine. The country we traversed to-day was a poor, un- 
fertilized, barren country, hardly suitable for man or beast to 
live in. The soil was a red clay, mixed with gravel. Dwell- 
ing houses were few and far between. In fact, there could be 
no comparison between it and the poor, sandy soil of Arkan- 
sas. This was the first section of country lying west of the 
Sabine River that we came across not suitable for agricultural 
purposes, but very well adapted for manufacturing purposes. 
We arrived in camp late in the evening, after marching four- 
teen miles over a rocky and hilly road. 

March 28th. Marched fourteen miles. Shortly after our ar- 
rival in camp a heavy thunder-storm took place, wetting our 
clothes and extinguishing our camp-fires. We had no means of 
shelter to keep even our provisions dry ; consequently, the 
following morning we took up the line of march, wet and hun- 
gry. Marched twelve miles ; passed through the town of 
Crockett, and camped two miles from town, where we remained 
until the morning of April 2d. While remaining at this camp, 
General Forney ordered company drill twice a day. This order 
seemed, not to give satisfaction, and led to cries all over camp 
of " Beef, beef, and no drill." Orders were soon issued from 
division headquarters to regimental commanders, to have all 
the soldiers that hollowed for beef arrested ; consequently, the 
cry of " beef " was stopped amongst the troops for the pres- 
ent. The company-drill exercise, no doubt, would have been 
proper, provided we had been in a permanent camp ; but, un- 
der the circumstances, a little rest was more preferable. 
However, the duty of the private soldier was to obey orders, 
whether right or wrong. 

On the morning of the 2d we took up the line of march 
again, traveling in the direction of the Trinity River. 
Marched fifteen miles, and camped on some table-land adjoin- 
ing the bottom-land of the Trinity River. 

April 3d. Crossed the Trinity River, and continued our 
march about twelve miles. Our wagons didn't arrive in camp 
until about midnight. 


April 4th. Marched five miles, and camped convenient to 
a pond of dirty water, which we were compelled to use, as 
there was no other within a long distance of our camp. 

April 5th. Marched fourteen miles, over a miserably poor 
country. Although the immediate bottom of the Trinity 
River is good soil, of a dark and sandy mould, yet, a short 
distance from the river-banks, the soil is generally poor. 

April 6th. Marched fifteen miles. Our march to-day was 
more pleasant than yesterday's march. We traveled over a 
country of picturesque and varied scenery, broken into rocky 
hills of singular shapes ; little valleys, with pure crystal water 
here leaping swiftly along, and there losing itself in the sands ; 
timber of different kinds— everything to give it a varied 
beauty, except game. 

April 7th. Marched ten miles. The weather was pleasant 
and cool. The country we traveled over was extremely beauti- 
ful. The farms were well cultivated. 

The morning of the 8th opened clear and beautiful, and the 
troops seemed anxious to get to Piedmont Sjmngs, to drink 
of its famous waters. We arrived at camp, situated near the 
springs about noontime. The springs are situated alongside 
of a running creek, beautifully timbered, which sweeps closely 
around, shutting up the springs in a kind of a cove. The 
water has a very agreeable taste, resembling that of the 
famous Seltzer Springs, in the grand duchy of Nassau, a 
country famous for wine and mineral waters ; and it is almost 
entirely of the same character, though still more agreeable 
than that of the famous Bear Springs, near Bear River 
of the Great Salt Lake. We remained at the springs, appar- 
ently for the benefit of our health, until the morning of the 
13th, when we took up the line of march for Hempstead. 
Marched eight miles, and arrived in camp. 

April 14th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped near Groce's 

April 15th. Marched fifteen miles, and camped near Camp 
Groce, about two and a half miles from Hempstead. We 
remained at this camp, awaiting further orders. The troops 


appeared to be in buoyant spirits ; many of their friends came 
from distant parts of the State, to welcome them back once 
more to their beloved State. But, alas ! the sad news of all 
the Confederate troops east of the Mississippi Eiver, seemed 
for the time being to crush their spirits ; but, notwithstanding 
the various rumors afloat, the troops of the division continued 
to do their duty in a cheerful manner. Many of them believed 
the war would be continued west of the river, and that we 
would be reinforced from across the Mississippi River. Their 
patriotism was irreproachable, notwithstanding they had heard 
that the armies of Generals Lee, Johnston and Taylor had sur- 
rendered. They awaited patiently to hear General Kirby 
Smith's programme. But, alas ! they were soon given to un- 
derstand that General Kirby Smith considered that any further 
resistance on his part would be in vain. He was willing and 
ready to surrender the Trans-Mississippi Department at any 

In the mean time, stirring addresses were made to the troops 
to stand by their colors to the last moment, by Generals 
Smith, Magruder, Walker, Forney, etc., etc., as follows : 


Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi Army : 

The crisis of our revolution is at hand. Great disasters 
have overtaken us. The army of Northern Virginia and our 
Commander-in-Chief are prisoners of war. With you rest 
the hopes of our nation, and upon your action depends the 
fate of our people. I appeal to you in the name of the cause 
you have so heroically maintained — in the name of your fire- 
sides and families, so dear to you — in the name of your bleed- 
ing country, whose fate is in your hands. Show that you are 
worthy of your position in history. Prove to the world that 
your hearts have not failed in the hour of disaster, and that, 
at the last moment, you will sustain the holy cause which 
has been so gloriously battled for by your brethren east of 
the Mississippi River. 


You possess the means of long resisting invasion. You 
have hopes of succor from abroad. Protract the struggle, 
and you will surely receive the aid of nations which already 
deeply sympathize with you. 

Stand by your colors ; maintain your discipline. The great 
resources of this department, its vast extent, the numbers, the 
discipline, and the efficiency of the army, will secure to our 
country terms that a proud people can with honor accept, and 
may, under the providence of God, be the means of checking 
the triumph of our enemy, and of securing the final success of 
our cause. 


The Major-General commanding the District of Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona, deems it proper, in view of recent events, 
to call upon the army and patriotism worthy of the holy cause 
of liberty and independence, and of the great efforts hereto- 
fore made by the army and the people of Texas to advocate 
and uphold it. 

The enemy threatens our coast, and will bring his great, 
undivided resources for a successful invasion of the State. 
Let him be met with unanimity and Spartan courage, and he 
will be unsuccessful, as he has been in Texas. 

Let him be met at the water's edge, and let him pay dearly 
for every inch of territory he may acquire. Six hundred 
Frenchmen, under the first Napoleon, recaptured France from 
her enemies. 

Forty-two Irish soldiers, on our soil, drove fifteen thousand 
men to sea. 

The army of the Trans-Mississippi Department is larger, in 
finer order, and better supplied than ever. There are no 
navigable streams in Texas ; therefore the enemy will be 
divested of the great power of steam, which he has elsewhere 
relied upon. 

Crops have been bountiful. Our armies can therefore be 
supplied in almost any part of Texas. 

There is no reason for despondency ; and, if the people of 


Texas will it, they can successfully defend their territory for 
an indefinite period. 

The Major-General commanding therefore exhorts the sol- 
diers of the army to stand firmly by their colors, and obey the 
orders of their officers ; and recommends to the citizens, that 
they devote themselves still more fully to the cultivation of 
breadstuffs ; for, should our armies be unsuccessful in the East, 
every gallant soldier will rally to the banner of the Confed- 
eracy, which will still float defiantly west of the Mississippi 


After having been so long and so arduously engaged in the 
service of your country, I know that the news from the other 
side of the Mississippi River is calculated to depress your 
spirits, and I therefore desire to say to you a few plain words. 
And I call upon you to listen to me, as one that has the same 
interest at stake as yourselves. You should recollect that all 
the news we have received is from Northern telegrams, direct 
from the hands of our enemies, who would much rather whip 
us by dispatches than any other way. They tell us that our 
friends in the East are whipped, have surrendered, and are 
conquered. Some of it may be true, but a good deal of it is, 
doubtless, false. In this uncertainty, let us hope for the best, 
but be prepared for the worst. At the same time, I conjure 
you to stand firm. 

Let us wait to hear from our own side of the question. Of 
course the news is far from cheering. "We all feel depressed. 
We all feel that it is time to consider well how to act. But it 
grieves me to learn that some of you, I cannot think many, 
are willing to sacrifice the fair renown of the division by leav- 
ing it now ; and it is to them that I am speaking. 

But why are you acting thus ? Think ! are you acting hon- 
orably, nobly, wisely ? It is full a thousand miles to the scene 
of action in Virginia and North Carolina. Shall the great 
State of Texas quail before the enemy has come within sight 
of her shores ? And shall the proud men of Texas throw down 


their arms, and run cowardly home, before the enemy has set 
foot in the State, or they have even been asked to surrender? 
Should the worst come to the worst, you certainly can make 
better terms and stipulations banded together as an army and 
with arms in your hands than you can scattered and dispersed 
all over the country. Should the enemy invade this country 
in large force, you surely cannot believe that your generals 
would be guilty of the madness of sacrificing your lives, with- 
out a strong probability of success, and unless there was some 
great end to be obtained. In conclusion, I appeal to you as 
men and soldiers — I ask you for the honor of your State and 
your honor ; in the name of your wives and children ; in the 
name of those gallant Texans who have fought and toiled on 
every battle-field of this war — to do jour duty orderly and 
quietly, till the proper authorities shall say when and on what 
terms we shall be discharged. My interest is the same, and is 
identified with yours. My only object is now, and will be, to 
do what I conceive to be the best for you and the country at 
at large. 

Be firm and irreproachable. When we get to our homes, 
let it be with honorable discharges in our hands. 

On the morning of May 1st, a Federal officer, named 
Colonel Sprague, arrived at the mouth of Red River, with 
dispatches from General Canby to General Smith. General 
Smith sent Colonel Flournoy, of the 16th Texas Infantry, and 
Colonel Alston, of his staff (under flag of truce), to mfeet 
Colonel Sprague, and learn the nature of his dispatches. 
On meeting with Colonel Sprague, he informed them that he 
was sent by General Canby to demand of General Smith the 
surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department. It appears 
that Colonels Flournoy and Alston did not have the authority 
to act for General Smith ; consequently, they returned to 
Shreveport, bearing the dispatches to General Smith, for him 
to act according to his judgment. The troops hearing that 
General Kirby Smith was about to surrender, confusion worse 
confounded reigned everywhere, among the troops and citizens. 


The soldiers were gathered in groups everywhere, discussing 
the approaching surrender. Curses, deep and bitter, fell 
from lips not accustomed to use such language ; while num- 
bers, both officers and men, swore fearful oaths never to sur- 
render. It was such a scene as one seldom cares to witness. 
The depth of feeling exhibited by compressed lips, pale faces, 
and blazing eyes, told a fearful story of how bitter was the 
hopeless surrender of the cause for which they had fought, 
toiled, suffered for long years. The humiliation was un- 
bearable. For nearly four years had " Walker's Division " 
battled for the South, homes, and freedom ; for nearly four years 
of horrors, suffering, toil, and bloodshed, they had trod the soil 
of Arkansas and Louisiana, and left their heroic dead upon 
the hills and plains of those States ; and now, once more in 
their native State, they are to witness the final overthrow of the 
Confederate government. They must relinquish their arms, and 
see their proud banner trailed in the dust, never more to be 
raised by mortal hands. What a torturing reality for their 
brave and noble spirits ! 

The morning of the 19th found the majority of the troops 
gone or preparing to leave. They were allowed to take a 
wagon to each company. On the evening of the 20th, the 
balance of the troops that remained were furlonghed, or, 
more properly, discharged from the Confederate army. 
The parting among the troops was most affecting. Many 
put their arms around each other's necks, and sobbed like 
children ; others gave the strong grasp of the hand, and 
silently went away with hearts too full for utterance ; while 
still others would mutter a huskily-spoken " Good-bye " or 
deep oath. Such were some of the farewell scenes. To- 
gether in battle or camp, in sunshine and in storm, in suf- 
ering and pleasure, in sorrow and joy, on the weary and toil- 
some march, no wonder that their hearts were linked together 
in bands of steel, with ties unspeakable, inexpressible. No 
wonder the parting — perhaps for years, perhaps forever — 
wrung their souls with torturing agony. 




N events of unusually startling nature, the mind natu- 
- rally investigates causes, reasoning from these to the 
IP.- effect produced. Thus, in reading the history of this 
gallant organization, the peruser inquires, " Who and what 
were these men ? " Let us answer. The members of Walker's 
Texas Division were principally men of high social standing 
at home ; intelligent, refined, young, — the fires of youth glow- 
ing in their stalwart forms, voluntarily offering their services 
to their country. They were actuated by a firm conviction of 
the justice of their cause. From workshop and counter, 
from cottage and mansion, from the lordly plantation and the 
crowded city they came, standing side by side in defense of 
a common cause. Look at them ! the fire of a fixed deter- 
mination glowing in their clear, bright eyes ; the strength of a 
settled purpose evinced in their firm tread and upright car- 

No wonder that they distinguished themselves on the 
battle-field, covering themselves with an imperishable glory. 
There is not to-day a man living who ever doubted the courage 
and gallantry of the whole division. Thus they fought 
through the stirring scenes of the whole war, and when the 
inevitable decrees of fate decided against them, they accepted 
the issue as brave men only could. 

If they were gallant soldiers, now they are good citizens, 
and can be implicitly trusted in their fealty to the govern- 
ment. They feel that they have been overpowered, and 
accept the situation as brave and honorable men — such men as 
Generals T. N.Waul, W. H. King,E. Waterhouse, and Colonels 


Overton Young, O. M. Boberts, James H. Jones, John H. 
Burnett, W. A. Crawford, Ed. Clarke, "Wm. Byrd, Geo. Flour- 
noy, James E. Shepard, Wm. Fitzhugh, E. P. Gregg, T. P. 
AUeu, Geo. W. Jones, E. W. Taylor, W. L. Crawford, D. B. 
Culbertson, Thos. E. Bonner, B. B. Hubbard, J. J. Cannon, 
E. H. Baxter, B. S. Gould, etc. 

They are considered the most trustworthy of citizens. 
Many of them have held some of the highest offices of this 
State. Yet they were the first to answer to the bugle-call. 
These are all true men. In financial and commercial circles, 
at the bar, in the workshop, at the bench and counter, in 
the fields, they are striving to rebuild their fallen fortunes — 
striving to regain the loss inflicted during the war. They are 
neither despondent nor despairing, but work with alacrity and 
cheerfulness, to repair the many ravages of the conflict. Such 
are the positions of men who gave fortunes and staked their 
lives on the issue of the war. The heroism displayed in 
accepting their defeat is not less praiseworthy than their 
undaunted bearing in the deadly battle-field. 




ERMS of a military convention, entered into this 26th 
| day of May, 1865, at New Orleans, between General 
P E. Kirby Smith, commanding the department of 
Trans-Mississippi, and Major-General E. R. S. Canby, U. S. 
Army, commanding the army and division of West Mississippi, 
for the surrender of the troops and public property under the 
control of the military and naval authorities of the Trans- 
Mississippi Department. 

I. All acts of war and resistance against the United States, 
on the part of the troops under General Smith, shall cease 
from this date. t 

II. The officers and men to be paroled, until duly exchanged, 
or otherwise released froni the obligations of their parole, 
by the authorities of the Government of the United States. 
Duplicate rolls of all officers and men paroled to be returned 
by each officer, as may be designated by the parties hereto, 
officers giving their individual paroles, and commanders of 
regiments, battalions, companies, and detachments signing a 
like parole for the men of their respective commands. * 

III. Artillery, small arms, ammunition, and other property 
of the Confederate States Government, including gun-boats 
and transports, to be turned over to the officers appointed to 
receive the same on the part of the Government of the United 
States, duplicate inventories of the property to be surrendered 
to be prepared, one copy to be retained by the officer deliver- 
ing, and the other by the officer receiving, for the information 
of their respective commanders. 

IT. The officers and men paroled under this agreement will 


be allowed to return to their homes, with the assurance that 
they will not be disturbed by the authorities of the United 
States, as long as they continue to observe the conditions of 
their parole, and the laws in force where they reside ; except 
that persons residents in the Northern States, and not excepted 
in the amnesty proclamation of the President, may return to 
their homes on taking the oath of allegiance to the United 

V. The surrender of property will not include the side- 
arms, or private horses, or baggage of officers. 

VI. All horses which are in good faith the private property 
of enlisted men will not be taken from them. The men will 
be permitted to take such with them to their homes, to be 
used for private property only. 

VII. The time, mode, and place of paroling and the surren- 
der of property will be fixed by their respective commanders, 
and it will be carried out by commissioners appointed by 

VIII. The terms and conditions of this surrender to extend 
to all officers and men of the army and navy of the Confeder- 
ate States, or any of them, being in or belonging to the Trans- 
Mississippi Department. 

IX. Transportation and subsistence to be furnished at pub- 
lic cost for the officers and men, after parole, to the nearest 
practicable point to their homes. 

(Signed,) S. B. BUCKNEE, 
Lieut. Gen. and Chief of Staff, for Gen. E. K. Smith. 


Major-General and Chief of Staff, for Major-Gen. Canby. 



I cannot close this volume without a special acknowledg- 
ment of my indebtedness to my friends for their interest in 
my labors, and for furnishing me the necessary funds to have 
my book published, as well as furnishing me with valuable 
documents and papers. I sincerely trust that they may feel 
repaid by a perusal of its pages. 

J. P. Blesstngton. 



In closing this chronicle, I regret that many a noble deed 
and daring act, done by the men of " Walker's Division," 
should be left unnoticed ; but the necessity of keeping my 
record within reasonable limits has compelled brevity in all 
my narrations, and what I have considered a judicious selec- 
tion, under all the circumstances, of the facts that are con- 
tained in this book. There has been no necessity with me to 
draw on the imagination in order to be able to fill a certain 
number of pages. The only trouble has been to give such 
facts as would portray the courage and consistency of our 
men. Indeed, it needed not the potent aid of fiction, as in 
many other accounts of warlike events, to preserve the name 
of " Walker's Division." 

I have thus briefly sketched the services of the gallant 
troops, during the late war. I have labored to be as correct 
and impartial as possible, and if I have in any way failed in 
the prosecution of this important task, it has been through 
no feeling of partiality of mine. I trust that my readers, one 
and all, and I know many of the gallant members of my old 
division, at least, will believe me, when I say that my object 
in putting this work before the public has not been of a sor- 
did nature ; and if I, by my publication, keep from oblivion 
the deeds of the fathers of the future generations of Texas, 
my desire is accomplished — my most ardent wish gratified. 

Let the veil of obscurity fall over the deeds of those who 
often were misled during moments of excitement, or blindly 
followed their own wishes in preference to military orders. 
The curtain falls upon the bloody drama of war ; the foot- 


lights have been extinguished ; the actors have all departed ; 
the audience of the world's wondering nations turned to other 
scenes. The pen which has dotted these reminiscences 
through long and weary years is laid aside, as white-winged 
peace, all radiant with joy, settles down once more upon the 
land of Columbia. 

" How vain, how frail, how transitory 

This world, with all its pomp and show ! 
Its mighty names renowned in story, 
They've gladly left them all below."