Skip to main content

Full text of "Camp cookery : a cookery and equipment handbook for Boy scouts and other campers"

See other formats

f^^ ; ^: ,> 


^^^.^ -^^v^-*^ 



i*.**^ ^ 

Boston Public Library 

Do not write In this book or mark it with pen or 
pencil. Penalties for so doing are imposed by the 
Revised Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

This hook zvas issi^ed to the borr 
last stamped below. ||^' * S 4*^ 

ozver on the date 

* ' < t 

V;Jo :2'J 


r . ^ 


DEC '.^i \\ 



B.P.L. FORM NO. 609; 3,24.45: lOOU. 


A Cookery and 
Equipment Handbook 



Dean of the School oj Home Economics 

Oregon Agricultural College 


Assistant Professor of Home Economics 
Oregon Agricultural College 


Formerly Instructor in Home Ecoyiomics 

Oregon Agricultural College _ [ 

Now Instructor in Home Ecojiomics - * 

Iowa State College ' 

Poitfand, b^fescn^ 
Th^ J. K. GUl^-D.'- 


To the Boy Scouts of America 

this book is 

respectfully dedicated 



' AVA 6/AilL'AM" 



In planning the camping trip, the scout or camper 
should consider his own needs as carefully as the tourist 
considers those of his automobile. The significance of 
food and its relation to the efficiency and comfort of 
the human body are quite as important to the camper 
as the proper supplies and tools are to the smooth 
running of an automobile. Campers should know what 
to carry, and how to prepare these foods properly, in 
order to keep the human machine running most 
smoothly when living the rather unusual sort of life 
necessary when in camp. 

When preparing for a camping trip, one need not 
feel that it is necessary to "rough it." While it is true 
that one must often be content with a limited variety 
of foods and equipment, yet if these are judiciously 
selected and the work of preparation done intelligently, 
one will never feel that he has "roughed it." It is not 
so much the great abundance or variety of supplies 
one has with him, but how resourceful he is in their 
use, that determines his success as a camper. Scouts, 
foresters, rangers and sportsmen will find it to their 
advantage, before starting out on trips, to determine 
systematically, not only the number of pounds that can 
be carried, but also the proportion and variety of food 
material actually needed, as well as the amount and 
type of equipment best suited to their needs. To 
camp successfully and get the greatest enjoyment out 
of it is a real art. One purpose for which this book is 
written is to help the Scout and camper make the most 
of camping trips, and get the greatest possible enjoy- 
ment from living out-of-doors. 

PREFACE— Con tinned 

It is also designed to meet the increasing demand for 
information which will assist Boy Scouts and other 
campers in the selection and preparation of necessary 
foods, make suggestions as to the equipment needed 
in camps, and be of help to those who desire to install 
camp cookery in schools, or conduct classes for Boy 
Scouts and Camp-Fire Girls. 

The authors desire to express their indebtedness to 
Dean George W. Peavy, Professor H. S. Newins, and 
Professor J. P. Van Orsdel of the School of Forestry; 
Mrs. Ida. A. Kidder, Librarian, and Dr. A. D. Browne 
of the Physical Education department, all of the Ore- 
gon Agricultural College, who have given many helpful 
criticisms, and have contributed valuable material in 
the preparation of this handbook. 

We also wish to acknowledge the suggestions made by 
many others, as well as certain material borrowed from 
Kephart's ''Camp Cookery," Stewart Edward White's 
"Camp and Trail," and Government bulletins. 

Oregon Agricultural College, 

January, 1918, 


Diet in Camp 
Food Supplies for Camp 

Month's Supply for One Man on Forest Trip 
Month's Supply for One Man on Pack Horse Trip 
U. S. Forest Service Sustenance Estimates for 1, 2, 4, 

6, 8, or 10 men 
Equipment for Camp 
Selection of Camp Site 
Cooking Fire for Small Camp 
Crane for Camp Kettle 
Making a Fireless Cooker in Camp 


Meal Plans for Camp 

Men with No Pack Horse 

Men with Pack Horse 

Food Lists 
Camp Recipes 






Meats — Curing of 
Cooking of 



Suggestive Outline for the Teaching of Camp Cookery 
Outline of Twelve Lessons 



Proper Diet in Camp 

In no place is it as difficult to provide a 
proper diet as in camps, where only limited 
supplies can be taken. The three chief items 
of food in the average cam.p are bacon, dried 
beans and rice. These foods, plus some dried 
fruit, a quick bread, and a beverage, such as 
coffee or tea, form a fairly well-balanced 
ration. Some variety may be obtained by 
replacing the bacon and beans with cheese, 
nuts, ham, game or fish, the last two to be 
procured while in camp. 

Since fresh vegetables are so very important 
in the diet, and are so difficult to carry, ex- 
cept at the start, the camper should avail 
himself of water cress, yellow dock, lamb's 
quarters, pepper-grass, mustard, miner's let- 
tuce, dandelions, and any other edible plants 
which are to be found in the vicinity of the 
camp. All of these are cooked as greens 
with the exception of the water cress. This, 
as well as sorrel, may be eaten raw, often 
serving as a good filling for sandv/iches when 
there is not time to cook a meal. It is also 

very good eaten with bacon between cold 

During the seasons of the year when these 
edible plants cannot be obtained, mineral 
salts are supplied by the use of dried vegeta- 
bles. Desiccated onions, potatoes, carrots, 
turnips and corn can take the place of fresh 
vegetables. Dried spinach is an invaluable 
addition to the diet, and should be used more 
liberally. Hard crackers and hard tack may 
often be a good substitute for the hot breads 
that are so common in camp. 

Fruit in some form is an absolute necessity 
in the camper's diet, not only because of its 
mineral content, but also because of its bulk. 
There is of necessity a tendency to use foods 
of great concentration. The faults of such 
a diet may also be overcome to a great extent 
by the use of bran breads and m.ore dried 
fruits and vegetables. It is also wise to de- 
rive more energy from cereals instead of so 
much from sugar and fat; indeed, much of 
the digestive trouble of campers is due to the 
large amount of fat used. 

No matter what food is being purchased for 
use in camp, it is always economy to buy the 
very best grade on the market. 

Food Supplies for the Camp 
Transportation facilities govern very large- 
ly the quantity and kind of supplies which 
may be carried on any camping expedition. 
There are certain staple food materials, such 
as flour and beans, which are common to all 
camps ; there are the desirable but bulky arti- 
cles such as canned vegetables; and the often 
impossible luxuries such as eggs and cream. 
The forest ranger v/ith a pack horse, the four- 
man hunting party, and the large lumber 
camp, all have different food problems; but 
there are several things to be considered in 
buying supplies for any of these. A food to 
be useful for camp and trail must contain the 
maximum amount of nutriment, or food value, 
with a minimum of bulk. Although these 
conditions limit the available food materials 
somewhat, it is possible to have more palat- 
able and nourishing food, and also more va- 
riety than is usual in camp fare. A judicious 
choosing of 100 pounds of supplies will result 
in a variety which will add much to the health 
and comfort of the woodsman. 

Ration List 
A ration is the food estimated to be necessary 
for one man one day. The amount of various 


articles in the following ration are designed to 
be sufficiently liberal for all circumstances. 


Article Unit Rations 
Fresh meat, including fish and poul- 
try (a) Pounds 100 

Cured meat, canned meat, or cheese (b)Pounds 50 

Lard Pounds 15 

Flour, bread or crackers Pounds 80 

Commeal, cereals, macaroni, ssgo, 

cornstarch Pounds 15 

Baking powder or yeast cakes . . . Pounds 5 

Sugar (syrup or strained honey) . . . Pounds 40 

Molasses Gallons 1 

Coffee Pounds 12 

Tea, chocolate, or cocoa Pounds 2 

Milk, condensed (c) Cans < . ^ 

Butter Pounds 10 

Dried Fruit (d) Pounds 20 

Rice and beans Pounds 20 

Potatoes or other fresh vegetables (e) Pounds 100 

Canned vegetables or fruit Cans 30 

Salt Pounds 4 

Spices Ounces 4 

Flavoring extracts Ounces 4 

Pepper or mustard Ounces 8 

Pickles Quarts 3 

Vinegar Quarts 1 



On the basis of this list, a party of six will 
consume 6 rations a day; 100 rations will 
therefore last 17 days. The cost of the above 
rations will vary, necessarily, with the locality. 
Where transportation is difficult, as by pack 
animals, the above list must be varied by 

omitting the heavier provisions. This in- 
cludes those containing the most moisture, 
such as all canned fruits and vegetables. 
These may be replaced by dried fruits and 
vegetables. Where fresh meat cannot be ob- 
tained, it must be replaced by additional 
bacon, ham, and corned beef. 

Where provisions must be carried on men's 
backs, a still further cut must be made in the 
heavier articles. Under the most favorable 
conditions sufficient flour, bacon, rice, beans, 
oatmeal, cornmeal, tea, sugar, dried fruit, and 
salt should be provided. 

One Month's Supplies for One Man on a Forest 

24 lbs. flour (includes flour, pancake flour, cornmeal in 

proportion to suit) 
20 lbs. meat (bacon or boned ham) 

6 lbs. rice 

I lb. baking powder 

3 lbs. coffee 

1 lb. tea 
12 lbs. sugar 

8 lbs. cereal 

1 lb. raisins 

5 lbs. beans 

3 lbs. or J dozen erbswurst or powdered soups. 

1 lb. dried carrots 

1 lb. dried onions 

2 lbs. dried potatoes 
*1 can dried eggs 

Salt and pepper 
5 pint cans of condensed milk 


One Month's Supplies for One Man on Pack Horse 

24 lbs. flour supplies (flour, flapjack flour, or cornmeal) 
20 lbs. ham and bacon 

2 lbs. hominy 
6 lbs. rice 

3 lbs. coffee 
1 lb. tea 

20 lbs. potatoes 

1 lb. dried onions 
12 lbs. sugar 

3 lb. pail lard 

3 lbs. rolled oats 

5 lbs. mixed dried fruit (apricots, peaches, and prunes) 

Salt, pepper, cinnamon 
5 pint cans of condensed milk 
5 lbs. beans 
i gallon heavy sirup 
5 lbs. navy and brown beans 
*1 can dried eggs 

2 lbs. dried corn 

1 lb. dried carrots 
1 lb. dried onions 
1 lb. raisins 
*Not necessary. 

The use of saccharine tablets is recom- 
mended by some campers because of the ad- 
vantage in lightening a load. Such writers 
do not, however, seem to take into considera- 
tion the fact that, excluding fat, sugar is the 
most concentrated food that can be carried. 
One saccharine tablet may represent the 
sweetening power of one teaspoon of sugar, 
but it does not represent its food value. 

(a) Eggs may be substituted for fresh meat 

at the ratio of 8 eggs to 1 pound of meat. 
There are dried eggs on the market which aer 
considered very satisfactory substitutes for 
fresh eggs. There are some egg substitutes, 
however, which are by no means a good sub- 
stitute for fresh eggs. 

(b) Fresh meats and cured meats may be 
interchanged on the basis of 5 pounds of fresh 
for 2 pounds of cured. 

(c) Fresh mnlk may be substituted for con- 
densed milk in the ratio of 3 pints of fresh for 
1 pint of condensed. Powdered milk of 
a good quality may be used in place of con- 
densed milk (1 pound of powdered milk to 9 
pints of water). Condensed milk should be 
carefully sealed by the use of small disks of 
paper placed over the holes. 

(d) Fresh fruit may be substituted for dried 
fruit in the ratio of 5 pounds of fresh for 1 
pound dried. The dried cranberries and rhu- 
barb m^ake good sauces and are craved by 
most campers. Raisins, dried figs, dried 
prunes, and dried apples are excellent for 
camp use. 

(e) Dried vegetables may be substituted 
for fresh vegetables in the ratio of 1 pound of 
dried for 3 pounds of fresh. Most of the 


desiccated vegetables on the market are of 
good quality. It pays to purchase the best 
grade. Spinach, peas, carrots, onions, pota- 
toes, corn, squash, beets, and string beans are 


Cornmeal is a good substitute for a part of 
the white flour in corn bread. Johnny-cake, etc., 
giving that change in diet which is an impor- 
tant factor to be considered. 

The coarse sort of hominy makes a good 

Rice is a very desirable camp food. It 
w^eighs little in proportion to its bulk, and 
one-half cup is ample for four persons for one 
meal. It contains much nutriment, and one 
does not easily tire of it. It may be served 
in m.any ways; boiled; boiled v/ith raisins; 
boiled, then fried; made into baked puddings; 
cooked with cheese; and made into cakes. 

Macaroni is bulky, but a small package 
goes a long way and is both palatable and 
nutritious. It may be obtained in small 
pieces an inch or two long, and in this form 
can be easily packed. 

Peanut butter is a very acceptable substi- 
tute for butter, having the advantage of being 


more easily handled, and not becoming rancid 
so rapidly. 

With the increase in the cost of meats, nuts 
are coming into greater use as **meat substi- 
tutes." The partial substitution of nuts in 
place of meat in the diet is economy. Note 
the paragraph on page 42. 

One pound of English walnuts costs 25 cents and gives 

859 calories 
One pound of peanut butter costs 20 cents and gives 

2741 calories 
One pound of round steak costs 20 cents and gives 

652 calories 
Note: The above figures are average prices under 
normal conditions. 

As shown by these figures, beef round costs 
three times as much as peanut butter when 
considered in terms of energy. This indi- 
cates the concentration of nuts as compared 
with They should therefore be in- 
cluded in the ration lists for campers. 

Lard or its substitutes may be used. But- 
ter is a luxury not usually carried on long 
trips. However, many campers find it possi- 
ble always to have fresh butter by carrying 
it in a pail, and at each stop placing this pail 
in a stream where it is kept perfectly cold. 
Butter put out in two-pound, hermetically 
sealed packages, has been carried and used 
after a period of three months. 


Raisins and dried fruit, including figs, 
should be on every provision list, while sv/eet 
chocolate (used extensively in the army) is a 
desirable accessory to camp fare because of 
its concentration. 

One consumes much sugar when out in the 
open. It is a quick and comparatively cheap 
source of energy. It is also very concen- 
trated, one pound of sugar containing much 
food value. One need not try to find a more 
concentrated substitute. Sirup is good on 
flapjacks and bread, and should always be in 
camp in some form. 

Beans are rich in sustenance, light in weight, 
and compressed in bulk. They are not easily 
cooked at a high altitude. Lima beans are 
the easiest cooked. A few brown beans may 
be added for variety. 

Even though canned tomatoes have small 
food value, and mean much added weight, it 
is wise to carry them into summer camps or 
in arid regions. They are most refreshing at 
the end of a long hard day, and are valuable 
for their mineral content. 

Tea or coffee may be taken. There are 
brands of coffee-extract now on the market 
which are easily made, and seem to be liked 
by many people. These preparations are 


usually a very fine powder, put up in con- 
venient tin boxes. One-half teaspoonful is 
placed in a cup, boiling water is poured on, and 
the coffee is made. Cereal coffee is preferred 
by some, and is prepared with the same ease. 

A few ounces of cinnamon, allspice, nut- 
meg, ginger, cloves and other spices can be 
easily taken; they help to make desserts pos- 
sible, and some of them may also be used in 
the curing of meats. 

The most practical towels to carry are those 
made from house-lining muslin. They have 
the advantage of absorbing water readily even 
when new. 


(Food required for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 men per day) 

^ , . , Number of Men 

Article :r — - — 

1 2 4 6 8 10 

Flour, pounds 1.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 

Cornmeal, pounds 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Breakfast foods, po dads .10 .20 .40 .60 .80 

Rice, pounds 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Crackers, poun :1s 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Potatoes, pounds 90 1 . 80 3 . 60 5 . 40 7.20 

Sugar, pounds 40 .80 1.60 2.40 3.20 

Coffee, pounds 12 .24 .43 .72 .95 

Butter, pounds 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 

Cured meats, pounds. . .50 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 

Fresh meat or fish, lbs. .25 .50 1.00 1.50 2.00 

Tea, pounds 01 .02 .04 .06 .08 

Lard, pounds 15 ,30 .60 .90 1.20 1. 

Vegetables, poinds.' . . .10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Onions, pounds 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Beans, pounds 15 .30 .60 .90 1.20 1. 

Chocolate, pounds 02 .04 .03 .12 .16 

Baking powder, pounds .02 .04 .08 .12 .15 

Soda, pounds 01 .02 .04 .06 .08 

Salt, pounds 04 .08 .16 .24 .32 

Macaroni, pounds 02 .04 .03 .12 .16 

Cheese, pounds 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Pepper, pounds 01 .02 .04 .06 .03 

Cornstarch and tapioca, 

pounds 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Spices, pounds 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Fruit, dried 15 .30 .60 .90 1 . 20 1 . 

Meat, canned 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Vegetables, canned 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Tomatoes, canned 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Corn, canned 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Fruit, canned 15 .30 .60 .90 1.20 1. 

Milk, canned 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 1. 

Pickles, canned 03 .06 .12 .18 .24 

Extract, pints 04 .08 .16 .24 .32 

Catsup, bottles 02 .04 .08 .12 .16 

Soap, bars 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Matches, boxes 01 .02 .04 .05 .08 

Lemons, dozen 01 .02 .04 .05 .08 

Candles, dozen 05 .10 .20 .30 .40 

Eggs, dozen 10 .20 .40 .60 .80 

Coal oil, gallon 01 .02 .04 .06 .08 

Pancake flour, pounds. .06 .12 .24 .36 .48 

Sago, pounds 02 .04 .08 .12 .16 

This table is EXTREMELY liberal. The quantity cf sal 
specified, appears insufficient ; of spices excessive. 






WALNUTS hulled 




PEANUTS hulled 









MIL! condensed sweetened 









MILX condensed unsweetened 





PEAS canned, 



TOMATOES canned 


Lb. Comparative Food Value 

A calorie is the amount 
of heat required to 
raise one pound of 
water through 4 degrees 
F. Food value is esti- 
mated in terms of cal- 
ories. A man doing 
average work demands 
approximately 3000 
calories of food per day. 
The length of lines in 
this graph represent the 
caraparative food value 
of one pound of some 
of the foods most com- 
mon in camp. 

•— 4082 



Camp Equipment 
For a party of six, where transportation is 
by wagon, the following are the essentials of 
the living equipment for the camp — that is, 
the equipment exclusive of that required for 

3 (7x9) tents (2 for sleeping, 1 for storage and cooking) 

45 feet of | inch rope 

In winter 3 heating stoves, also 1 small (sheet iron) 
wood cooking stove, with pipes. 
2 mess boxes, one for cooking utensils, the other for 
tableware and light provisions, made of pine 
or cedar, screwed together, with hinged tops and 
compartments; also an inside cover, the full 
width of the top, which may be used as a bread 
board. When the lids are opened out and the 
two mess chests placed together they form a 
table of the width of the mess chests placed 
together and a length four times their thick- 
ness. These chests should be 2 feet deep, 20 
inches wide, and 24 to 30 inches long, so as 
just to fill a wagon bed. 

The above chests, although desirable, are 
by no means indispensable, for the resource- 
ful camper can improvise similar conveniences 
with the available materials and tools at hand. 

Mess kit may consist of the following 

2 pepper and salt boxes (aluminum ware) 
2 buckets (collapsible canvas) 
6 cups (enameled) 

1 bread pan (tin) 

2 frying pans 

2 two-quart nesting stew pans (enameled ware) 
1 half-gallon coffee pot (enameled ware, with wire bail 


1 tin measuring cup or i pint tin cup for measuring 
4 enameled camp kettles with covers, size ranging from 

one to three gallons, so as to nest one within the 

6 bowls for soup, oatmeal, etc. (enameled) 
1 Dutch oven 
1 dishpan (heavy tin) 
10 plates (enameled) 

1 quart cup (tin) 

2 large sharp knives 
1 butcher knife 

i dozen steel black-handled knives and forks 

J dozen plated tablespoons 

1 cooking fork (12 inches long) 
Few feet of baling wire (about 15 gauge) 
Pair of plyers (side cutting) 

1 dozen plated teaspoons 

1 kerosene oil can 
White oilcloth (for table) 

1 wash basin (enameled ware) 

Where camp equipment is transported on 
the backs of animals, aluminum and tin 
should be substituted for enameled ware in 
order to reduce the weight, and many of the 
above articles must be dispensed with. The 
stoves for baking will be replaced by a tin 
or aluminum reflector or Dutch oven. The 
aluminum reflector is more easily kept bright 
than the tin, thus enabling it to reflect heat 
more effectively. When not in use, the re- 
flector folds to an inch in thickness and about 
twelve inches by eighteen inches in dimen- 
sion. It weighs only about two or three 
pounds, and costs from two to four dollars. 




Parts hinged 
Oven can be folded together when not in use 



In place of a reflector a Dutch oven may be 
used; a device, however, which has several 
undesirable characteristics. It is shaped like 
a high and heavy iron kettle on short legs, 
and is provided with a massive sunken cover. 
It is not only heavy to carry, but is awkward 
to pack; but for long slow cooking it is ex- 

For transportation on men's backs, prac- 
tically everything must be dispensed with but 
a few tin or aluminum plates, cups, knives, 
forks, spoons, nesting pails, frying pan, and 
stew pan. 

All of these articles may be found in the 
aluminum camp kits which are light, com- 
pact, and complete, and v/hich nest in a very 
small place. These kits are on the market at 
prices from $2.50 to $10.00. 

The miscellaneous camp tools may consist 
of some or all of the following, if transporta- 
tion facilities permit: 

1 ax 

1 hatchet 

Assorted nails 

Quart canteens covered with cloth and canvas, or in 

arid regions a one-gallon canteen to each man. 
Small files 
Assorted rope and string 




S aw 

Note: The use of ashes for the cleaning of greasy 
plates and scouring smoky kettles will save spending 
money for commercial cleaners. Fine sand can well 
be used on the steel or iron utensils, without injury 
to them. 

Newspapers are a splendid substitute for cloths in 

Note: The Red Cross soldier's kit, which con- 
tains sanitary gauze, safety pins, iodine, etc., is 
the safest and easiest form in which such necessary 
articles can be carried. They may be procured from 
Bauer & Black, Chicago. 

Selection of Camp Site 
In choosing a camp site one of the first con- 
siderations should be that of elevation. 
Swampy land should be avoided and protec- 
tion from wind and rain should be sought. 
The supply of wood should not be overlooked 
when choosing a camp. 

One of the miost important considerations 
in placing a camp is nearness to a wholesome 
and adequate water supply. The source of 
danger in water is always human or animal 
pollution. Often it would be wiser to choose 
a pond which may be inspected than a bright 
clear stream which may be polluted at a 
point above. Unpolluted surface water is 
difficult to find, and streams are often dan- 
gerous sources of water supply. The idea 


still prevails that running water purifies it- 
self. However, according to some author- 
ities in standing water there is greater 
chance for the disease germs to die out. 
Ground water from a spring or well is 
usually safer than from a pond or stream. 
A water supply should be protected from sur- 
face drainage. Should it be necessary to 
use water, the safety of which is questioned, 
it should be boiled, for boiling will destroy 
disease germs. 

It is not only important to choose the site 
with great care, but prevent its becoming un- 
sanitary through carelessness. All refuse 
should be disposed of through burning or 
burial. Lack of care in these matters has 
been the cause of. serious illness and even 
deaths in camp. Through the proper dis- 
posal of waste, cleanly habits, and avoiding of 
swamps, danger of typhoid and malarial fevers 
may be reduced. 

Cooking Fire for a Small Camp 

There are many ways of building the cook- 
ing fire. The essential in each case, however, 
is a good permanent draft. For frying, mak- 
ing coffee and similar cooking operations, the 
fire should be small but hot. The wood used 


should be of dry hardwood sticks, an inch or 
less in diameter and about a foot long. First 
build a fire of these and let it burn down to 
form a bed of coals. Have a supply of the 
smaller sticks ready, so that if the fire dies 
down too much it may be replenished. With 
this sort of a fire, the heat is under the utensils, 
and it is not necessary to tie a pole to the 
frying pan handle as is usually the case when 
frying over a fire made with large, long sticks 
of wood. 

A draft is secured by the method usually 
employed in sheep camps. The site is 
chosen and an excavation is made, remov- 
ing the soil to a depth of twelve inches or 
about the depth of the shovel. The hole thus 
made should be approximately three to four 
feet long and fifteen to twenty-four inches in 
width. The side exposed to the prevailing 
wind is then shoveled away, allowing the free 
entrance of air. This opening is the front of 
the cooking fire. The air going in passes 
along the side v^^alls to the rear and thence 
upward, thus completing the draft. Select 
two green poles of sufficient length to extend 
over the ends of the hole (four to six inches in 
diameter), one to serve as a back log, the other 
as a front log. Lay the poles over the hole, 

spacmg them the proper distance to support 
a camp kettle, frying pan, or coffee pot. Kin- 
dle the fire beneath and proceed with the 
cooking. The poles can be replaced from day 
to day as they burn away. When cooking fry- 
ing pan bread by reflected heat, usually a dry 
front pole is preferred to a green, because the 
dryer pole, being somewhat charred, com- 
bines with the hot coals beneath to produce 
a greater amount of reflected heat. 

Methods of Supporting 
Cooking Utensils 
The pole from v/hich kettles or meats are 
hung is usually known as a crane. This crane 
is made from small tough limbs of trees. Any 
one of the styles shown in cuts 1,2, and 3 may 
be used successfully. The pot-hooks are made 
from saplings or number 9 wire, as shown in 
cuts 5 and 6. The use of these hooks often 
prevents burning of the hands when handling 
kettles. If hooks of different lengths are 
made the desired intensity of heat can easily 
be secured by regulating the distance of the 
kettle from the fire. Drawing number 2 
shows a crane especially well suited to the 
roasting of a bird or other For such 
purposes the pole is much longer, and from 


the upper end a long wire is hung. The bird 
is then securely fastened to the lower end of 
this wire, where it is allowed to swing during 
the roasting process. Figure number 4 shows 
a cooking fire often used in temporary camps. 
The large green logs are placed farther apart 
at one end than the other, thus giving sup- 
port to kettles of different sizes as well as 
aiding in giving the fire a better draft. The 
same results may be obtained by using stones 
in place of green logs, thus saving time as well 
as reducing the danger from fire when break- 
ing camp. 


Method of supporting cooking utensils 


Making a Fireless Cooker in Camp 

It is a very simple matter to construct a 
fireless cooker in camp if one has given it 
some thought before starting, and supplied 
oneself with enough material to make the 
cooker. This material need not be ''excess 
baggage/' but may be utilized in constructing 
the pack for the trip. 

It is best to construct a box about the same 
size and shape as the box used in shipping two 
five-gallon cans of oil. These pack readily on 
a maile and hold a surprising amount of camp 
material. The material, to be at its best, 
should be about one inch thick for the end 
pieces and three-quarter inch thick for the 
sides, bottom and cover. Such thickness 
will stand more pressure in packing. If this 
is imipossible, use a plain oil packing box. 

Obtain a sufficient supply of excelsior, pul- 
verized cork, paper or other insulating ma- 
terial to fill the box heaping full. This 
material may be used in the packing. 

In constructing the cooker, see that the 
sides and bottom of the box are solid ; it may 
be necessary to add more nails. See that all 
cracks have a strip nailed over them; and in 
general, make the box as nearly air-tight as 


Place pasteboard, if available, around the 
inside of the box and on the bottom. The 
large pasteboard from a wholesale cereal pack- 
age is best. Then pack insulating material 
into the bottom of the box. Place the vessel 
to be used in the center of the box and pack 
this material firmly around it. Any air-tight 
vessel may be used. Aluminum is best, for 
it heats up quicker and maintains a more even 
heat for a longer period. Regular fireless 
cooker vessels, having clamped lids, may be 

After packing the excelsior or other material 
around the vessel, remove the vessel and line 
the opening with pasteboard, to aid in main- 
taining heat and in keeping the wall from 
breaking dov/n. 

A layer of pasteboard may also be placed 
over the entire top of the insulating material, 
leaving a hole to match that in this material. 
In constructing the lid, cleats about three- 
quarter inch thick and two and one-half to 
three inches wide should be nailed along the 
edges, both at the ends and sides. These are 
made to fit down closely around the sides and 
ends of the box when closed, thus conserving 
all the heat possible. 


A heavy cloth cushion filled with excelsior 
or cork should be provided. This must be 
full enough to make it difficult to shut the lid, 
thus assuring an air-tight vessel. Hinges and 
a hook may be used, or a heavy leather strap 
may be cut into hinges and a large bowlder 
used to hold the lid down tight. 

A fireless cooker is a great convenience, 
making it possible to cook cereal over night, 
and other foods such as beans, during the day, 
thus giving a well-cooked product. 

In order to cook any food in a fireless cook- 
er, first cook until heated through in the 
cooker kettle, cover and place in the cooker 
while it is still very hot. A hot soapstone 
disk, flat stone, or stove lid will make the 
cooking more rapid. The food may need to 
be reheated before serving. 




What the Day's Food Should Supply 
The accompanying meals would supply 
the following substances in about the right 
proportions to keep the camper in healthful 
condition and to make the food taste good, 
providing they were well prepared. 


"(a) Mineral substances of great variety 
(lime salts, compounds of phosphorus, iron, 
and others) . These are used by the body for 
building material, and are found in all parts 
of it. They also produce substances within 
the body tissues which tend to offset acid sub- 
stances produced in the tissues in the course 
of digestion of meats and cereals and serve 
many other important uses. Without fruits 
and vegetables the meals would be likely 
to lack certain mineral substances. Without 
milk they v/ould be lacking in a mineral sub- 
stance specially needed by children; that is, 

'\b) Protein. Protein serves as fuel for 
the body and also provides a certain import- 


ant element — nitrogen — which is needed in 
the case of children for growth, and in the 
case of both children and grown people to 
keep the body in repair. Without the meat 
or meat substitutes (including milk) the meals 
would be lacking in this body-building ma- 

"(c) Starch. This is one of the chief fuels 
of the body and is supplied mainly by the 
cereal foods. 

**(d) Sugar. This serves as fuel for the body 
and to flavor the food. It is found in milk, 
fresh fruits and m.any other foods ; but unless 
small amounts of very sweet substances — 
sugar itself, sirup, or honey — are used, the 
diet is likely to be lacking in it. 

*'(e) Fat. This serves as body fuel, and also 
improves the flavor and texture of the food. 
It is present in meats, nuts and many other 
foods, but unless small amounts of specially 
fat materials, like butter, oil, or cream, are 
used, the meals are likely to be lacking in it. 
Moreover, dishes cooked without a certain 
amount of fat, and meals served without but- 
ter or some substitute seem, to most persons, 
dry and unpalatable. 

'*(/) Cellulose. This is the material which 

makes up the framework of plants. It gives 


bulk to the diet and may tend to prevent con- 
stipation. Without the fruits and vegetables 
the meals would be lacking in this important 

''{g) Certain newly discovered substances 
in very small amounts, which are believed to 
play an important part in keeping people well 
and in promoting the growth of children. 
Without milk in the diet some of these sub- 
stances, particularly those necessary for chil- 
dren, would be lacking, and without meat, 
milk, eggs, fruits, and vegetables, others 
needed by persons of all ages might not be 
present in sufficient amounts. 

''{h) Flavorings and condiments. Inmost 
families some materials are used in preparing 
or serving food which add to the attractive- 
ness of the meals without furnishing the body 
any nourishment. Among these are salt, 
pepper, vinegar, lemon juice, spices, seasoning 
herbs, horse-radish, flavoring extracts, and 
many other materials often spoken of as 
"condiments." These are not discussed at 
length, because they are not absolutely 
needed by the body. They may, however, 
be very useful in making an otherwise unat- 
tractive diet taste good. In fact, the secret 
of making inexpensive meals attractive lies 

largely in the skillful use of seasoning and 
flavors, and in this way they may well be 
worth the cost they add to the diet, even if 
they do not increase its actual food value. 

*'Any kind of food contains one or more of 
the substances just described, and they are 
combined in as many different ways as there 
are kinds of food. A satisfactory diet con- 
tains all of them, and each in its proper pro- 
portion, and the problem of planning meals is 
really that of choosing foods which will do 

^'Grouping Foods to Show Their Uses^^ 
'Terhaps as easy a way as any to select 
the right foods is to group the different kinds 
according to their uses in the body, and then 
to make sure that all the groups are repre- 
sented regularly in the meals. Fortunately 
no more than five groups need be considered: 
(1) Fruits and vegetables; (2) meats and other 
protein-rich foods; (3) cereals and other 
starchy foods; (4) sv/eets; and (5) fatty foods. 
''Group 1 — Fruits and vegetables, such as 
apples, bananas, berries, citrus fruits, spinach, 
and other greens, turnips, tomatoes, melons, 
cabbage, green beans, green peas, green corn, 
and many other vegetables and fruits. With- 


out these the food would be lacking in mineral 
substances needed for building the body and 
keeping it in good working condition ; in acids 
which give flavor, prevent constipation, and 
serve other useful purposes; and in minute 
quantities of other substances needed for 
health. By giving bulk to the diet they make 
it more satisfying to the appetite. 

''Group 2 — Meat and meat substitutes, or 
protein-rich foods: moderately fat meats, 
milk, poultry, fish, cheese, eggs, dried legumes 
(beans, peas, lentils, cowpeas, peanuts), and 
some of the nuts. These are sources of an 
important body-building m.aterial, protein. 
In the case of children part of the protein food 
should always be whole milk. 

''Group 3 — Foods rich in starch: Cereals 
(wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats, and corn) and 
potatoes (white and sweet). Cereals come 
near to being complete foods, and in most 
diets they supply more of the nourishment 
than any other kind of food. It is not safe, 
however, to live only on cereals. The grains 
may be simply cleaned and partially husked 
before cooking, as in cracked wheat and 
Scotch oatmeal; they may be ground into 
flour and used as the basis of breads, cakes, 
pastry, etc. ; or they may be partially cooked 

at the factory, as in many breakfast prepara- 
tions ; or they may be prepared in the form of 
such pastes as macaroni, noodles, etc. In 
all these forms they furnish the body with the 
same general materials, though in different 

''Group 4 — Sugar (granulated, pulverized, 
brown, and maple), honey, molasses, sirup, 
and other sweets. Unless some of the fuel 
is in this form the diet is likely to be lacking 
in flavor. 

''Group 5 — Foods very rich in fat: Bacon, 
salt pork, butter, oil, suet, lard, cream, etc. 
These are important sources of body fuel. 
Without a little of them the food would not be 
rich enough to taste good. 

*'Some food materials really belong in more 
than one group. Cereals, for example, supply 
protein as well as starch; potatoes supply 
starch as well as the mineral matters, acids, 
cellulose, and body-regulating substances, for 
which they are especially valuable; and most 
meat supplies fat as well as protein. For the 
sake of simplicity, however, each material is 
here grouped according to the nutrient for 
which it is usually considered most valuable. 
These points are all brought out in more detail 


in other bulletins which discuss the special 

**The lists given below show some of the 
common food materials arranged in these five 
groups. If the housekeeper will consult them 
in planning meals until she has learned where 
each kind of food belongs, she will have taken 
the first step toward providing a diet which 
will supply all the food needs of her family. 
It will be only one step, to be sure, but it 
should prevent two mistakes — that of serving 
meals that have not sufficient variety, and 
that of cutting down in the wrong places 
when economy either of time or money 
is needed: 

"Group 1 — Foods depended on for mineral 
matters, vegetable acids, and body -regulating 

Fruits — Vegetables — 

Apples, pears, etc. Salads-lettuce, celery, etc. 

Bananas Potherbs or "greens" 

Berries Potatoes and root veget- 

Melons ables 

Oranges, lemons, etc. Green peas, beans, etc. 
Tomatoes, squash, etc. 

Group 2 — Foods depended on for protein 

Milk, skim milk. Fish 

cheese, etc. Dried peas, beans, cow- 
Eggs peas, etc. 
Meat Nuts 


Group 3 — Foods depended on for starch 

Cereal grains, meals. Macaroni and other pastes 

flours, etc. 
Cereal breakfast foods 

Cakes, cookies, starchy- 
puddings, etc. 

Potatoes and other starchy- 

Group 4 — Foods depended on for sugar 



Fruits preserved in sugar, 
jellies, and dried fruits 
Sweet cakes and desserts 

Group 5 — Foods depended on for fat 
Butter and cream Salt pork and bacon 

Lard, suet, and other Table and salad oils" 
cooking fats 

Plan of Meals 

Breakfast — 
Quick bread 
Salt meat 

Dinner — 

Quick bread 

Meat or meat sub- 

Starchy vegetable 

Green vegetable 
(dried vegetable 
or edible weeds) 



Supper — 
Bran crackers or 


Suggestive Food Lists 

Quick breads — 
Dough boys 
Emergency biscuits 
Corn bread 
Bran gems 
Flap jacks 
Dough gods 
Sour dough biscuits 

Cereals — 
Rolled oats 


Vege tables — Dried — 

Fresh — 

Navy beans 

Water cress 

Lima beans 



Lamb's quarter 




Yellow dock 



Potatoes, etc. 

Fr uit — Dried — 

Beverages — 

Peaches, stewed or raw 


Apricots, stewed or raw 


Prunes, stewed or raw 


Figs, stewed or raw 






Desserts — 

Game or fish 

Prune, Dumplings, Pie 

Meat Substitutes^^ 

Apricot, Dumplings, Pie 


Peach, Dumplings, Pie 



Suggested Plan of Meals 

Breakfast — 

Dinner — 

Supper — 


Meat or substitute 


Salt Meat 






Quick bread 




Quick bread 





Food Lists 

Cereals — 

Fresh Meat — 

Rolled oats 



Fish chowder,cakes,baked 

Graham mush 

Creamed salmon 

Farina and dates or figs Meat pie 

Cornmeal mush 

Liver and bacon, etc. 


Food Lists — Continued 

Salt Meat— 

Bacon fritters 
Bacon and dumplings 
Bacon and gravy 
Ham and gravy 
Corn beef stew or hash 
Kippered herring 
Codfish balls 
Creamed dried beef 

Meat substitutes — 

Vegetables — 
Dried — 




Macaroni and cheese 

Baked beans 

Lima beans 



Fresh — 

Baked, boiled, fried 

Water cress 
Edible weeds cooked 
Fried onions 

Canned — 

Soups — 
Split pea 
Peanut butter 

Breads — 
Quick — 

Dough boys 

Com bread 

Brown bread 

Baking powder biscuits 

Emergency biscuits 

Bran gems 

Graham gems 


Griddle cakes 

Dough gods 

Sour dough biscuits 

Desserts — 
Fruit (stewed) 

Prune, etc., pie, dump- 
lings, loaf 
Cinnamon rolls 




1 cup condensed milk diluted to 3 cups, 3 
teaspoons cocoa, 3 teaspoons sugar (if cocoa 
is unsweetened). Heat the milk, add sugar 
to the cocoa and mix with a little hot milk. 
Add the remainder of the milk, heat and serve. 

Add coffee to cold water, keep hot by the 
fire, allowing it to but not boil until 
desired strength. Add cold water to settle. 
The coffee may be put in a small bag, made of 
muslin or cheesecloth, tied loosely, and the 
bag of grounds removed before serving. 

Coffee Extract 
Put ^2 teaspoon (more or less according to 
taste) in a cup and add boiling water. 

1 teaspoon of tea for each cup. Pour over 
fresh boiling water, set aside in a warm place 
3 or 4 minutes to steep, then serve. 

Cereal Coffee 
Put 3^ teaspoon (more or less according to 
taste) in a cup and add boiling water. Stir. 
Add cream and sugar and serve. 


Piir-All the measurements used are **lever' 
unless otherwise specified. 


In camp man probably realizes more fully 
the truth of the statement that * 'bread is the 
staff of life" than he does in any other type of 
living. This adage, however, does not apply 
to bread *'made out of putty and weighted 
with lead," a description which too often 
represents the camp bread. This need not 
be the case, however, for good wholesome 
breads may be made in camp as well as in the 

The baking powder breads are most com- 
monly used in camp, being quickly and easily 
prepared. These involve the use of chemical 
leavening agents which render them less 
wholesome than those made by means of 
yeast (dry yeast may be carried into camp), 
as a source of leavening power. In addition 
to the unwholesomeness, one grows very tired 
of the baking powder breads, and the appe- 
tite demands a change which should be sup- 
plied in the form of yeast bread, salt-rising 
bread, etc., recipes for which are given in 
this book. It is very desirable to use some 
laxative bread at least once a day, as the 


deficiency of vegetables is likely to cause 
constipation. The bran breads given are 
excellent for this purpose. 


All of the following recipes are made on a 
basis of level measurements unless it is other- 
wise stated. 


2 cups of pancake or prepared flour 

Enough water to make a thin batter (about 
% cup) or 

2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder 

}/2 teaspoon salt 

About ^ cup water or condensed milk 

Mix the dry ingredients very thoroughly 
and add liquid; beat very well before frying. 
The pan must be very hot and well oiled, but 
not too much fat should be used or the cakes 
will be soggy. 

Griddle Cakes 

23^ cups flour 

1 tablespoon sugar 

}^ teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons baking powder 

13^ cup milk (condensed may be used) 

1 egg if possible 


Add the milk to the dry ingredients, and 
then the egg, beating vigorously before frying. 

Caramel Sirup 

1 cup water 

1 3^2 cup brown sugar 

Boil until the consistency of maple syrup. 


2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
}/2 teaspoon salt 
2 tablespoons sugar 

Water or condensed milk to make a stiff 

Mix the flour, baking powder, and salt, and 
add enough water for a stiff dough. Drop by 
spoonfuls into an inch of bacon fat which is 
smoking hot, and cook until a deep brown on 
both sides. 

Emergency Biscuit 
2 cups flour 

1 tablespoon sugar 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
^2 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons lard or bacon fat 
^ cup water or condensed milk 


Mix the dry ingredients, then add the 
melted fat and enough Hquid to make a soft 
dough that can be dropped from a spoon on a 
pan without spreading much. Bake in re- 
flector or improvised oven. 

Baking Powder Biscuit 

Same ingredients as for Emergency Biscuit, 
only less liquid is used, and the dough is patted 
out to one-half inch thickness and cut with a 
can into biscuits and baked. 

Bran Muffins 
1 cup bran 
1 cup flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
3^2 teaspoon salt 
1 tablespoon lard or bacon fat 

1 tablespoon sugar 

% cup water or condensed milk 

Mix dry ingredients, and add the liquid, 

then the melted fat. Mix well and bake in 

muffin pan, or drop from a spoon on a biscuit 


Bran Bread 
Add a few raisins to the recipe for Bran 

Muffins and bake in a loaf. 

Quick Muffins 

2 cups flour 


3 teaspoons baking powder 
1 tablespoon sugar 

Y2 teaspoon salt 
1 cup milk or water 
1 tablespoon melted fat 

1 egg if possible 

Mix dry ingredients, add the liquid, melted 
fat, and the egg. Mix well. Bake in a muffin 
pan, or in a flat biscuit pan. 

Cinnamon Rolls 

2 cups flour 

2 tablespoons raisins cut in small pieces 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
2 tablespoons sugar 

}/2 teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons lard or other fat 

Water or condensed milk to make a soft 
dough (about % cup) 

Roll the dough about J^ inch thick and 
spread on it a little melted fat and the follow- 
ing mixture: 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 3 table- 
spoons sugar, 1 tablespoon flour, 1 tablespoon 
water. Roll the sheet of dough into a cylin- 
der and cut off 3^ inch slices. Spread the top 
with sugar and cinnamon mixture, and bake. 
The dough may be sprinkled with sugar and 
cinnamon if preferred. 


Hot Cross Buns 

2 cups flour 

3^ teaspoon salt 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

4 tablespoons fat 

^2 cup liquid (water or condensed milk) 

3^ teaspoon nutmeg 

3^ teaspoon allspice or cinnamon 

}/2 cup raisins or currants 

Mix as for baking powder biscuits, adding 
the spices and the fruit cut in pieces to the other 
dry ingredients. Shape into cakes with the 
hands and mark with a cross on top. Bake 
about 20 minutes. 

Corn Bread 
1 cup flour 

}/i cup yellow cornmeal 
3 teaspoons baking powder 
1 tablespoon sugar 
1 tablespoon lard 
y2 teaspoon salt 
% cup water or condensed milk 
1 egg if desired 

Add the liquid to the dry ingredients, and 
then the melted fat and mix. This bread 
may be baked as muffins or as a loaf. 


Brown Bread 
i cup molasses 

4 tablespoons sugar (brown if possible) 
% cup liquid (water or condensed milk) 
}/2 teaspoon soda 
3/2 teaspoon salt 
2 teaspoons fat 

2 cups graham flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
A few raisins if desired 

Add the molasses and liquid to the dry in- 
gredients and mix. Then steam for 3 hours, 
by setting corn sirup cans or baking pov^der 
cans filled with the mixture in a kettle of boil- 
ing water, and closing tightly. 

Graham Gems 

13/^ cups graham flour 
3^ cup flour 

3 tablespoons sugar 
}/2 teaspoon salt 

13^ tablespoons melted fat 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

13^ cups liquid 

Add the liquid to the dry ingredients. Mix 
well. Then bake in muffin pans, or drop on 
an oiled biscuit pan and bake. 


Corn Dodgers 

2 cups cornmeal 

3^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon sugar 

Wet these materials with boiling water and 
shape into flat cakes, about an inch thick, and 
fry, or bake on hot stones. 

Pulled Fire Bread 
Make a good stiff dough, using 

1 cup flour 

3^ teaspoon salt 

About 2 or 3 tablespoons water 

Pull it out into a long thin strip, wrap this 
strip corkscrew-like on a stick with its bark 
on. Hold over very hot fire or ashes, turn- 
ing constantly until done. This bread is 
easily prepared when equipment is limited. 

Unleavened Bread 

2 cups flour 

}/2 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon sugar 

Mix with water to stiff dough and knead 

and pull until tough and elastic. Roll out 

thin as a soda cracker, score with a knife, and 

bake. If mixed with a very small amount 

of water this bread may be kept for a long 

time like hard tack. 


Ranchman's or Sour Dough Bread 

In a five-pound lard pail mix enough flour 
and water to make a medium thick batter. 
To this add one tablespoon of sugar. The 
pail should be only % full. Allow this to 
stand until the mixture has fermented and 
then become sour. Pour out about 3^ cup of 
the sour dough to start the fermentation in a 
new mixture. To the dough in the pail add 
3^ teaspoon soda, 3^ teaspoon salt, 1 teaspoon 
melted lard, and enough flour to make a very 
soft dough. Mix well. Melt a teaspoon of 
lard in a pan and drop the dough in by the 
spoonful, turning it over in the fat. Allow 
to rise until double in bulk and then bake. 
The }/2 cup of sour dough which has been re- 
served may be poured back into the lard pail 
and the original quantity of batter stirred up. 
This will be sour and ready for use in a very 
few hours. This procedure may be continued 
indefinitely. The exact amount of soda 
needed depends upon the sourness of the 
dough, and it must be determined by ex- 

Salt-Rising Bread 

1 tablespoon of fresh cornmeal, 3^ cup 
scalded milk or water. Add milk to corn- 


meal while hot. Keep in a warm place for 
about 12 hours, or until fermentation begins, 
indicated by bubbles. Rinse out a bowl or 
kettle wuth boiling water, and mix up a stiff 
batter of about 3 cups of flour with some 
water, adding Y^ teaspoon of salt. Stir into 
this mixture the fermented cornmeal. Stand 
in lukewarm water until twice in bulk, keep- 
ing at an even temperature. Put about 2 
quarts of flour into a large kettle, scooping 
out a well in the center. Pour in the fer- 
mented sponge and add enough lukewarm 
water or milk to make into a stiff dough 
which can be kneaded. When quite tough 
and elastic, about 20 minutes kneading is re- 
quired, shape into loaves, and put into pans. 
When risen again twice in bulk, bake in 
Dutch oven or reflector. 

Dough Gods, or Frying Pan Bread 

Dough gods may be prepared by adding either 
* 'shortening" or sugar, or both, to the mixture, accord- 
ing to their availability and the taste of the camper. 

1 sack flour (1 cup only is used) 

2 teaspoons baking powder 
1 teaspoon salt 

}/2 cup water 

Open the sack of floul^ punch a depression 
in the surface, sprinkle the baking powder 


and salt over the exposed area, stir thoroughly 
with a knife blade mixing the ingredients with 
the flour, which becomes loosened from the 
sides and bottom of the depression, until ap- 
proximately one cup of flour has entered the 
mixture. Again punch a depression, this time 
indenting the surface of the prepared flour. 
Into this cavity pour J^ cup water and stir 
gently with a knife blade, causing the loose 
flour on the adjacent walls to tumble grad- 
ually into the water. As the paste thickens 
and approaches a dough, set aside the knife 
and use the fingers of both hands to stiffen the 
dough. The fingers should be clean, dry, and 
covered with flour to prevent the dough from 
sticking. A couple of deft strokes, tumbling 
the dough gently about in the flour, will 
stiffen it sufficiently to be lifted from the 
sack. If the quantity prepared is more 
than necessary for one fry pan, it may be 
easily pulled apart into halves. During the 
process described, a well greased (about 1 
teaspoon bacon fat) frying pan should be kept 
hot over the fire. It is now removed for a 
moment to a firm base, and the dough placed 
in the hot fat and spread evenly about with 
the back of the fingers, the fingers being 
freshly protected with dry flour. Next indent 

with the forefinger the center of the dough and 
fill this hole with hot fat. With the back 
of the knife mark creases which will indicate 
the divisions into which the loaf will later be 

Baking, Place the frying pan and con- 
tents immediately over hot coals. As the 
bottom of the dough bakes shift it in the pan 
to avoid burning. This requires skill, but is 
accomplished by a simple little twist of the 
wrist. Next remove the pan to semi-per- 
pendicular position by propping it near the 
hot coals. The contents are thus exposed 
directly to reflected heat. In a few minutes 
the dough god becomes brown and is baked. 

Liquid Yeast 

4 medium sized potatoes (pared) 

1 qt. water 

3^2 cup sugar 

1 cake dry yeast 

1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon flour 

Cook the potatoes in the water, mash them 
and add the flour, sugar and salt, to which 
has been added 2 tablespoons cold water, and 
cook until thickened. Cool to luke warm 
and add the yeast cake which has been soaked 


in 34 cup lukewarm water. Allow to fer- 
ment about 24 hours. Place in a jar and set 
in a cool, dark place. This will keep about 2 
weeks, and the last cup of it may be used in 
place of a dry yeast cake in making a new 

Yeast Bread 

About 3}/^ quarts flour 

1 quart scalded and cooled sweet milk, or 

3^ cup sugar 

}4 cup fat 

1 cup liquid yeast or 2 dry yeast cakes 
soaked in 34 cup lukewarm water 

1 tablespoon salt 

Mix above ingredients, using only one- 
third of the flour, and allow to become thor- 
oughly light; stir in remainder of flour and 
work until perfectly smooth. The amount 
of flour will vary somewhat with the kind 
used. Allow to rise until more than twice the 
original bulk. Shape into loaves with as little 
working as will permit of smoothness. Allow 
to rise again and bake in moderate oven. 
Good bread may be made by adding enough 
flour at the first to make a stiff dough, thus 
omitting the sponge entirely, 


Rice Cakes 

When cold boiled rice is left over, mix with 
an equal quantity of flour, 3^ teaspoon salt, 
and 1 teaspoon baking powder being added 
to each cup of the mixture. Then fry as 
flap-jacks. Cold boiled potatoes or oatmeal 
may be used in the same way. Rice cakes are 
best mixed with the water in which the rice 
was cooked. 


Many cereal preparations for making break- 
fast porridge are on the market, put up in 
one-pound or two-pound packages, paper or 
tin, with directions for cooking. In nearly all 
cases, time allowed for cooking is not sufficient 
unless the dish containing it is brought in di- 
rect contact with the fire, which is not the best 
way. Porridge should be cooked in a fireless 
cooker or over hot water, without stirring. 
If a double boiler is not procurable, impro- 
vise one by putting a smaller kettle in a large 
kettle containing water. Boiled water and 
salt should always be added to cereals, allow- 
ing one teaspoon of salt to each cup of cereal. 
Cornmeal and finely ground preparations 
should be mixed with cold water before adding 
them to the boiling water in order to prevent 


himping. The diet will be much impr o v ed 
if raisins, dates and figs, ixdiidi are carried 
n so little space, are added to the cereals while 
:hey are cooking. 

Z>'^aza.zcr,: ar.d Cheese 
Cook macarc:::: in bcnirg saltei 7.ater 
twenty minutes, or until soft. Drain. Tc each 
cup of cooked macaroni add 3^ cu^ ^.zt:.i\-, 
catsup or 1 cup canned tomatoes :r. 5 r.. = ; 
be omitted), a little cayenne ;t;;tr. salt, 
and two tablespoons of chiese ::: srr.all 
pieces. Cover with water c: ::r-it:.sti ...Ik, 
diluted, and bake 15 minutes. 

Boiled Rice 

Wash the rice well and sprinkle into a 
kettle of salted water, boiling hard all the 
time. After thirty or forty minutes pour off 
the water and place the kettle near the fire 
so that the grains may dry and swell. Rice 
is most satisfactorily cooked in a fireless 

Rice and Cheese 

Boil 1 cup of rice for ever; 5 : 77:5 : r. s : 5 i r. g 
plenty of water, boilir.z 7^7 :: :: rr ;:t ::e 
grains whole and separa:t .:__ .tasiiir. :: 


salt. When tender put a layer of the rice 
into a pan, then a layer of thinly sliced cheese, 
salt and pepper, another layer of rice, cheese, 
etc., until the pan is filled. Pour over this 
1 cup of diluted condensed milk, sprinkling 
pepper over the top, and bake. 

Baked Beans 

Soak 1 quart of beans over night in cold 
water. Drain, and cover with fresh water 
adding a pinch of soda, and boil for an hour. 
Pour off this water, add fresh hot water, and 
cook until the skins burst and the beans seem 
quite soft. Add to beans and mix: 

1 tablespoon salt 

A little pepper 

6 tablespoons molasses 

}/i cup sugar 

4 or 5 slices salt pork or bacon 

Place in a pan or bean jar, burying the 
pork in the beans, and bake from 6 to 8 hours. 

Creamed Lima Beans 
Soak 1 cup of dried Lima beans for several 
hours in enough water to cover. Drain. 
Add 2 pints water and cook slowly until ten- 
der. Add 1 cup of condensed milk and let 
simmer for J^ hour. Season to taste. 


Creamed Lentils 
Use the same method as that used for 
Creamed Lima Beans. 

Baked Potatoes 

Wash the potatoes and bake in a frying 
pan covered with a Hd, or in an oven, or in 

Potatoes Boiled in Jackets 

Wash potatoes thoroughly and cut a small 
piece from each end, which gives vent to the 
steam and keeps the potatoes from bursting. 
Put them into cold water (not boiling) and 
cook gently but continuously, adding salt to 
the water at first. When done drain the 
water off, and dry before the fire and serve. 

Fried Potatoes 
Wash and pare potatoes, cut in }/gs length- 
wise, and dry on a clean towel. Fry in fat. 
Drain and sprinkle with salt. Cold boiled 
potatoes may be used in place of fresh ones. 

Spinach Saute 
Soak dried spinach in a small amount of 
cold water until it has absorbed a good deal. 
Boil in the same water until soft. To each 
cup of this boiled spinach add 


1 tablespoon butter or bacon fat 

1 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar 

Salt and pepper to taste 

Melt fat, add spinach, sprinkle with season- 
ings, and cook slowly until the fat is absorbed. 
Add the lemon juice or vinegar and serve. 

Creamed Spinach 

Soak and cook spinach as in above recipe. 
To each cup of boiled spinach add 

1 tablespoon butter or bacon fat 

1 tablespoon flour 

}/2 cup milk 

Salt and pepper 

Melt fat in frying pan, add the cooked 
spinach, cook for a few minutes, sprinkle with| 
flour and seasonings, stir, add milk gradually. 
Cook for 5 minutes. 

Boiled Hominy 
Hominy may be soaked in cold water, and 
cooked until soft and tender, or boiled with- 
out soaking, which will require about an hour. 
Use 1 cup hominy to 4 cups water. Season 
to taste. Milk may be added, or bacon fat is 
also good. 

Fried Hominy 
Boiled hominy when fried in bacon fat 
makes a very acceptable dish. 

Dried Vegetable Dishes 
All dried vegetables should be soaked 
in water to cover for a period of 24 hours 
if possible. They then require long, 
s7ow cooking, using this same water. 

Mashed Squash 
Soak squash 12 hours in the proportion of 
3 parts of water to 1 part squash. Boil slowly 
in the same v/ater 30 to 40 minutes. Mash 
well, add butter, salt, and pepper. Serve. 

Mashed Potato 
Soak 12 hours in the proportion of 3 parts 
of water to 1 part potatoes. Boil in the same 
water 45 minutes to 1 hour. Drain, steam 5 
minutes, mash. Add butter, salt, pepper, and 
a little hot milk. Beat with a fork until creamy. 

Creamed Vegetables 
Potatoes, turnips, carrots, and onions which 
have been soaked and cooked according to the 
above directions make delicious creamed 
dishes by adding to them a sauce in the follow- 
ing proportions: For each cup of cooked 
vegetables make a sauce from J^ cup milk, 
1 tablespoon fat, and 1 tablespoon flour. 
Combine flour and the fat, add milk and cook 
well. Add vegetables and season to taste. 


Buttered Vegetables 

Turnips, beets, beans, carrots, and onions 

cooked according to the above directions are 

good when served with melted butter or bacon 


Glazed Carrots 

Soak and cook carrots until tender. Place 

in a buttered baking dish and cover with a 

sirup made by boiling 3 tablespoons sugar 

with a little water. Dot over bits of butter 

and bake in a slow oven for J^ hour. 

Hashed Brown Potatoes 
Soak and cook potatoes until tender. Cut 
in small pieces, place in a frying pan and 
brown in butter or bacon fat. 

Mashed Turnips 
Soak and cook turnips until tender. Mash, 
flavor with butter or bacon fat. Serve. 

Vegetable Soup (Evaporated) 
To each cup of soup vegetables add 2 cups 
water and soak for 24 hours. Cook, adding 
as much water as necessary. Flavor with 
butter and salt. Meat broth is a good 

Potato Soup (Granulated) 

1 cup granulated potatoes 

2 cups water 


1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons butter 
2 tablespoons flour 

2 slices onion chopped fine 
2 teaspoons salt 

Cook potatoes in boiling water until tender 
and easily mashed. Add the milk and 
thicken with butter and flour rubbed into 
paste. Cook well. 

Bean Soup 

1 cup beans 

2 quarts water 

3^2 cup tomatoes (may be omitted) 

1 slice onion 
Salt and pepper 

Boil the beans and water until the beans 
lose their shape and can be easily mashed up. 
Add the tomatoes, onions, salt and pepper, 
boil 5 minutes and serve. Lentils are good 
combined with beans in this kind of soup, or 
split peas may be used. 

Peanut Soup 

2 teaspoons flour 

2 teaspoons peanut butter 
1 pint milk Small amount water 

Heat milk and stir into it the peanut butter, 
which has been thinned with a small amount 

of water to prevent its forming into lumps. 
Combine the flour with enough water to form 
a smooth paste, stir this into the hot milk and 
allow to cook for several minutes in double 
boiler. Season to taste. 

Split Pea Soup 

1 cup dried split peas 

2 quarts water 

1 pint milk or 1 pint meat broth 
3^2 on on 

3 tablespoons fat (butter or bacon fat) 

2 tablespoons flour 
13^2 teaspoons salt 

2 -inch cube fat salt pork 

Pick over peas and soak several hours, 
drain, add cold water, pork, and onion. 
Simmer 3 or 4 hours, or until soft. Rub 
through a sieve or mash. Thicken with a 
batter made from the flour and a little water. 
Add butter or other fat and seasoning. Dilute 
with milk or meat broth. 

Powdered Soups 

To one tablespoon or more of the pow- 
dered mixture add 1 cup of cold water. Cook 
until a thickened soup is formed. These 
soups may be purchased in some variety — 
pea, bean, lentil, and turtle. 

Sun-dried or Jerked Meat 

For preserving in this manner meat should 
be sliced in long thin strips and salt worked 
in, and allowed to stand for a few hours so 
that it may be absorbed. It should then be 
hung over cords or poles in the hot sun to dry 
for a few days. Pepper may be sprinkled 
on it or it may be smoked well for a day over 
a thick smoke on a frame of green twigs. 
When properly cured, the strips are dry to the 
touch and have shrunken to one-half of their 
former size. 

Cured Fish or Meat 

In preparing fish for drying, split them 
along the back, remove the backbones and 
entrails, salt, and hang them up on a frame 
over a slow smudge until they are well 
smoked. Then place in a trough m^ade from 
a soft wood log and cover with a v/eak brine 
for about thirty-six hours. Smoke them over 
a small fire for three days. Meat may be 
cured by the same process. 


Meat, game and fish may be prepared in 

numerous ways in camp. They may be 

stewed, broiled, roasted or fried. The ten- 


derest parts are best for broiling and roasting. 
The tougher portions are made more palata- 
ble by long slow cooking, as stewing and 


23^2 pounds meat, 2 cups potatoes cut in 
slices, turnips and carrots cut in cubes, 3^ 
onion, 2 tablespoons flour, salt and pepper. 
Cut meat from the bone in cubes about Ij^ 
inches thick, season with salt and pepper and 
dredge with flour. Cut fat in small pieces 
and fry out in hot kettle. Add meat and stir 
until well seared. When browned, add 
pieces of bone, cover with boiling water and 
boil about 5 minutes, then cook at lower 
temperature until meat is tender. Add the 
vegetables (except potatoes) the last hour of 
cooking, and add potatoes 20 minutes before 
removing from fire. Remove bones, large 
pieces of fat, and then skim. Thicken with 
2 tablespoons flour diluted with enough cold 
water to pour easily. Dumplings may be 
added to the stew. 

Place the meat in a Dutch oven or covered 
kettle with about two inches of hot water 
in the bottom. Various vegetables or com- 


binations of vegetables, as sliced onions, 
potatoes, turnips, and tomatoes, may be 
added and cooked slowly for several hours. 
One hour before removing from the fire salt 
should be added. 

Gravy may be made by pouring some of the 
liquor from the kettle and adding a little 
hot water, salt and flour (4 tablespoons flour 
to 1 cup liquid) mixed until smooth, and 
cooked until thick. 


Meat should be cut at least one inch thick 
for broiling. Venison should be well pounded. 
Sear in the flames of the fire, and then cook in 
front of a good bed of coals. 

A steak one inch thick should be cooked 
about ten minutes. 

Steaks may be broiled between two large, 
clean, flat, hot stones. 

Roasting a Bird 
In roasting a bird, clean it in the usual way, 
then split it down the back and put two or 
three little sticks in it to keep it as flat as pos- 
sible. If you have any bacon, cut a few holes 
in the thick part of the bird and stick some 
thin strips of bacon in the meat, then rub 


salt on it. Find a pole several feet long — on 
one end tie a string and on the other end of 
the string tie the bird. Set the pole slanting in 
the ground or lean it against a log, weighting 
the lower end with a rock. Let the bird hang 
close to the coals of the camp fire. Twist 
occasionally, or as often as it stops revolving. 
The longer the string, the longer the turning 
goes on without attention. A short piece of 
wire for the lower part of the string lessens the 
danger of the string burning. 

Roasting Meat 

Build a high fire against a log or pile of 
rocks to reflect the heat. Keep the roast in 
the flames until the outside is well seared, and 
then cut gashes in the meat and insert strips 
of bacon or salt pork. Hang on a thick 
string from a pole or tripod in front of the 
fire. Put a pan underneath to catch the 
drippings. Turn frequently, and baste with 
the meat fryings. Make gravy from the 

To roast in a reflector, put the meat in a 
pan containing a little water, and cover the 
top of it with slices of bacon. Baste fre- 
quently. When the front of the roast is 
cooked, reverse the pan. 


To barbecue is to roast the whole carcass 
of an animal. Baste often with the following 

1 pint vinegar 

3^ can tomatoes 

1 teaspoon pepper (cayenne) 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons black pepper 
2 tablespoons lard 

Tie a piece of cloth on a stick and keep the 
meat well basted with the dressing as long 
as it is on the fire. 

Baking in a Hole 
Dig a hole in the ground about 18 inches 
square and 12 inches deep. Place kindling 
in it and over the hole build a cob house by 
laying split wood sticks across, not touching 
each other, and so on until you have a stack 
two feet high. Set fire to it and burn to coals. 
Cut up the meat, and season, adding a small 
piece of fat pork. Put in a kettle, pour in 
water to cover, put on the lid, rake coals out 
of the hole, putting the kettle in. Shovel the 
coals around and over it, cover all with a few 
inches of earth and let it alone over night. 


Baking An Animal in Its Hide 

If the animal is too large to bake entire, cut 
off what you want and sew it up in a piece of 
its hide. Line the hole with flat stones. 
Rake out coals and put meat in, cover first 
with green grass or leaves then with coals and 
ashes and build a fire on top. When done 
remove the hide. 

Baking in Clay 

Dress the animal, but leave the skin and 
hair or feathers on. If it is a large bird, cut 
off the head and feet and pinions, and pull 
out tail feathers and cut tail off (to get rid of 
oil sack). If fish, do not scale. Stir clay in a 
pail of water until like thick porridge. Dip 
the bird in this, and repeat until it is a mass 
of clay. Lay this in the embers or ashes, 
being careful to dry the outside. Bake until 
the clay is almost burned to a brick. 

This mode of cooking should never be tried 
in regions where there is not real clay. 

Venison — to dress and cook 

**If possible, skin the deer while yet warm, 
and it will save trouble. To skin a frozen 
animal is difficult. Hang the deer by one hind 
leg, cut the skin from the top joint to the second 


joint of the leg, make an incision around the 
hock and then begin the process of skinning 
downward. It will peel quite easily if handled 
gently. When the legs are bare, cut the skin 
down the center of the body to the breast, 
being careful not to cut into the flesh. Then 
with gentle force, draw the skin off the whole 
carcass, using the knife when necessary. A 
sharp knife is indispensable. The head may 
be skinned or it may be cut off without. After 
the deer is skinned, hang up by the hind legs, 
insert a sharp knife in the breast and split 
open the full length. Open the deer and keep 
open with a smooth and slender stick. Put 
the hand above the kidney and, with a gentle 
pull release the entrails, which will come out 
easily, leaving the liver, heart, and lungs. 
The animal is now ready for use. Let it hang 
for twenty-four hours before cutting up. 
Then split in quarters, the hind quarters being 
the best. The flesh, if roasted, will be dry if 
bacon is not used on it. Grill chops over hot 
coals or on red hot griddle. Do not try to fry 
in fat. The liver and heart are good baked in 
a pan in the oven with onion and small cubes 
of salt pork.'' — Kephart's *'Camp Cookery." 


Rabbits and Squirrels 
Rabbits and squirrels are pests to the farm- 
er and except in the spring of the year are 
desirable food. 

The ''gray digger'' squirrel and the ''cotton 
tail" rabbit are abundant in many sections of 
the country. 

The Scout in utilizing such game for food 
not only adds variety to his diet in camp but 
performs a distinct service to the farmer. 

Fried Rabbit 
Rabbits must be very tender for this pur- 
pose. Clean, cut into joints; soak for half 
an hour in salt and water, (1 tablespoon of 
salt to 1 quart of water) dip in flour and fry 
brown in one-third cup of lard or substitute. 

Stewed Rabbit 

The older rabbits may be stewed. Clean, 
wash, cut into joints and soak rabbit in salt 
and water, (one tablespoon salt to one quart 
water) . Put in kettle with cold water enough 
to cover, salt slightly and stew until tender. 
Boiled onions (three medium sized to one rab- 
bit) may be added to this stew if desired. 
Fried Squirrel 

The young squirrel may be fried. (Follow 
directions for frying rabbit.) 


Squirrel Stew 

This dish may be prepared by substituting 
squirrel for meat in recipe for Mulligan. 

Broiled Squirrel 

Young squirrel or rabbit may be broiled 
according to directions for roasting a bird. 
Note: To hold over Fish or Game. 

Draw as soon as possible, rinse with soda 
and water (1 tablespoonful of soda to 1 quart 
of water) ; then with fresh cold water. Wipe 
dry and rub lightly with a mixture of salt 
and pepper, and hang in a cool place with a 
cloth thrown over them. A little soda water 
will help to sweeten fish from muddy waters. 

Carp, catfish and other fish taken in stag- 
nant or muddy waters, are improved by 
soaking over night in fresh water, moderately 
salted. Bacon Fritters 

Slice bacon or salt pork, soak in cold water 
for an hour, roll in commeal or flour, and fry 
in bacon fat. 

Bacon and Gravy 

Fry bacon until light brown and crisp. 

Remove from the pan and stir in some flour, 

mixing thoroughly with the fat in the pan, 

fat and flour being in about the following 


proportions: for 1 cup gravy, 2 tablespoons 
bacon fat and 2 tablespoons flour. Brown 
these together and add the cup of hot water 
gradually, stirring to avoid lumps. 

Creamed Dried Beef 

Dilute 3/2 pint of condensed milk by adding 
twice the quantity of water. Put over the 
fire and bring to the boiling point. Stir 
together about 4 tablespoons flour with 
enough water to make a thin batter. Add 
this to the hot milk and stir until it becomes 
thickened. Add a 1-lb. can of dried beef, 
or 2 cups of any dried meat or fish, cut in small 

Corned Beef Hash 

Chop some canned corned beef fine, with 

slices of dried onions. Add two parts of 

boiled potatoes to one of the meat, cutting 

up in small pieces. Season with pepper and a 

little mustard. Put some pork fat in a frying 

pan, melt, add hash and cook until nearly 

dry and a brown crust is formed. Evaporated 

potatoes and onions can be used instead of the 

fresh. T^ ., * ^ * r^ i. 

Boiled Corned Beef 

Put the raw meat into enough cold water 
to cover it. Let it come slowly to a boil, 
and then simmer until done. 


Put ovv c a joint of beef or mutton 

placed in cc -^ vvater, and bring to the boiling 
point, cooking slowly until tender. Add 
onions cut in small pieces. Tomatoes, peas, 
corn, and other vegetables may be added. 
Cook until vegetables are well done. Thicken 
with a little flour mixed with a small quantity 
of water to form a thin batter. Cook for at 
least ten minutes. Vegetables used in mak- 
ing Mulligan may be fresh, dried, or left-over 
ones, and the proportions may vary according 
to the amount available. 

Codfish Balls 
Shred the fish into small pieces. Pare some 
potatoes (1 cup of fish to 1 pint of raw pota- 
toes). Cook the potatoes until soft, drain off 
the water, and mash fish with them. Beat 
until light, add seasoning, and shape into 
cakes. Fry in very hot fat. 

Stewed Codfish 
Soak over night in cold water. Place in pot 
of fresh cold water and heat slowly until soft. 

Codfish Hash 
Mash stewed codfish with potatoes and 
onions, season, and fry like corned beef hash. 


Fish Chowder 
Cut two or three small slices of pork or 
bacon and fry out in a kettle. Put in 3 or 
4 onions, then a cup of fish cut in slices, 1 cup 
of potatoes, and 3^ cup of dry bread. Season 
v/ith salt and pepper, add 1 quart of water 
and stew slowly until well done. 

Fish Cakes 

Take cold cooked fish and remove the 
bones; mince and mix with equal parts of 
bread crumbs and potatoes. Season well 
and fry in a little fat. Brown well on both 
sides. These are improved by the addition of 
a little onion. 

Fish Baked 

This method of cooking fish is delicious, 
and a variation from the usual frying. Clean 
the fish, but do not scale; leave head, tail and 
fins intact, and puta strip of bacon in each fish. 
Dig a hole large enough for the fish to lie in 
with several inches to spare. Build a fire in 
it and get a good hot bed of coals. Rake out 
half of them, cover the remainder with an 
inch of grass, place the fish on the grass, cover 
with more grass, and pile the rest of the 
hot coals on top. Cover the hole with a 
frying pan or flat stones, or earth. The fish 


may be wrapped in wet paper. It requires at 
least two hours to cook a small fish in this way ; 
three for a large fish, under five pounds. 

Fish Planked 
Shad, flounder, sunfish or any other flat 
fish may be planked. Cut off" the head and 
tail, split open the back, but leave the belly 
whole so that the fish may be opened wide 
like a book and tacked on a plank or piece of 
bark. Tack some thin slices of bacon or pork 
to the end of the fish that will be uppermost 
when before the fire and, if desired, a few 
slices of raw onion sprinkled with pepper and 
salt. Sharpen one end of the board and drive 
it into the ground before a bed of hot coals. 
Catch the drippings in a tin cup, and baste 
the fish occasionally until done. Oak, hick- 
ory or alder is best for fixsh planks. 

Smoked Herrings 

(1) Scald in boiling water until the skin 

curls up, then remove head, tail and skin. 

Clean well. Put into a frying pan with a little 

bacon fat. Fry slowly for a few minutes. A 

little vinegar is an improvement. (2) Clean, 

remove skin, and toast on a stick over the 



Salmon Creamed 
Break the cooked salmon into small pieces 
and heat with about one-half the quantity of 
milk. Thicken v/ith a little flour and water 
batter. Season with salt and pepper. 


Crabs are known as **soft shelled" if caught 
just as the old shell is shed, and '*hard shelled" 
when the shell is mature. Crabs are in season 
from first of April through September. They 
are cooked in the shell. When cooked the 
back should be broken off and entrails washed 
out. They may either be boiled for twenty 
minutes in salted water or sea water without 
addition of more salt. 


(1) Clams are procurable from sandy 
beaches at low tide. Open shell with knife 
and remove body using the soft part, which 
is most digestible. Roll in flour and fry. 

(2) Clams in shells may be placed on sea- 
weed over live coals and baked. 

(3) The necks of the long-neck clams are 

used as follows : Split open lengthwise ; scald 

to remove skin and sand. Run through 

grinder, or chop in a bowl, and use in chowder 

or soups. 


Mussels are in season through December 
to May. They should be avoided if taken in 
water near mouth of streams likely to be 
polluted with sewage. Only those which 
are under water all the time should be used. 
They are taken on the rocks at low tide. 
Wash well. Place very near a hot fire, and 
roast until the shell opens. The fibrous part 
is poisonous, and only the yellow mussels 
should be used. This mussel is served T\dth 
salt and butter, or may be ground or chopped, 
and used as clams in chowder or soups. 

Pot Pie 

Fill a Dutch oven or kettle two-thirds full 
with fresh mutton or beef, and cook until 
tender. Add three or four potatoes, peeled 
and sliced, and two onions cut in small pieces. 
Return to the fire and cook until the vege- 
tables are half done, then spread a dough 
over the top made of the following ingredients : 

2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder « 
} 2 teaspoon salt 

5 tablespoons fat 

Water or condensed milk to make a soft 
dough. Cover the kettle wdth a lid, heap- 


ing coals on top, and bake the pie until the 
crust is browned. 

Stew and Dumplings 
Make a stew out of the meat, remove the 
bones. About twenty minutes before serving 
add sliced potatoes and onions, and drop in by 
the tablespoonful a cup of soft biscuit dough. 
Put on the cover and boil until done. Avoid 

Meat Gravy 
Take equal quantities of hot meat fat and 
flour, stir until well browned, and add one pint 
of boiling water or condensed milk to four 
tablespoons of flour. Cook five minutes, sea- 
son with salt and pepper. 

Dried'Fruit Sauce 
Soak 1 cup of fruit in 3 cups of cold water 
for at least 2 hours; over night is better. 
Cook slowly until tender. Add sugar, the 
amount depending upon the fruit, and cook 
15 or 20 minutes. Any kind of dried fruit, 
as loganberries, rhubarb, peaches, prunes, etc., 
may be used for sauce. 

Dried-Apple Jelly 
1 pound of evaporated apples. 

Stew apples in 1 J^ quarts of water, remove 
apples and use as sauce. There should be left 
1 (quart of hot juice. Into it put 1 pound of 
sugar (2 cups). Boil without stirring until 
the juice becomes sirupy and two drops fall 
from the side of a spoon at once. Pour into 
a jar or cup. This makes 1 pint of jelly. 

Dried-Fruit Pie 
IH cups flour 
}/i teaspoon salt 
J^ teaspoon baking powder 
6 tablespoons fat 
3^ cup water (about) 
Mix flour, salt and baking powder together, 
rub in the fat, then add the water a little at 
a time until a stiff dough is formed. Avoid 
stirring this, as that will make it tough. Roll 
out, line a pan, and fill with any cooked fruit. 
Cover with a crust and bake. 

Deep English Pie 

1 cup flour 

2 teaspoons baking powder 
3^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons fat 
2 tablespoons sugar 


Enough condensed milk or water to make 
a soft dough. 

Mix the dry ingredients and rub in the fat. 
Then add the liquid a little at a time to form 
a soft dough. Drop this dough onto cooked 
fruit, covering completely. Bake in a reflect- 
or or oven. 

Fried Fruit Pie or ''Turnover^* 

1 cup flour 

1 tablespoon fat 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

34 teaspoon salt 

Liquid to make a dough as for biscuit 

Mix as for biscuit and roll out 3^ inch thick. 
Melt 1 tablespoon of fat in a frying pan and 
place the pie crust in. Lay some cooked fruit 
on half of the crust and fold the other side 
over, pressing the edges together. Fry on 
one side until brown, and turn over, browning 
on the opposite side. More fat may then be 
added for finishing it. 

Fruit Loaf 

1 cup flour 

2 teaspoons baking powder 
1 tablespoon sugar 

34 teaspoon salt 
1 tablespoon fat 


Water enough to make dough to roll out. 

Y2 cup cooked dried prunes, peaches or 

Make a dough of first five ingredients and 
roll or pat out with the hands to Y2 inch in 
thickness. Cover with the fruit, sprinkle 
with sugar if not sweet enough. Roll up and 
bake about J/^ hour, pouring over a little fruit 

^^^^^' Hunter's Pudding 

Y2 cup finely chopped salt pork (soaked 
over-night in water) 

Y2 cup molasses 

Y2 teaspoon soda 

Y2 cup condensed milk or water 

3^ cup sugar 

YYi cups flour 

Y2 teaspoon cinnamon 

^ cup raisins 

Mix dry ingredients. Add molasses and 
milk to salt pork. Combine mixtures. Oil 
a lard pail, turn in the pudding, cover, set in 
a kettle of boiling water and steam for two 
or three hours. Serve with the pudding 

Y2 cup sugar 
Pinch of salt 
Y2 cup flour 



Put the sugar in a frying pan and stir con- 
stantly until it turns a dark brown and be- 
comes sirupy, but not burned. Just before it 
changes from a light brown to dark, add the 
flour and salt, and finish browning. Then 
add 2 cups water and stir until thickened. 


2 cups flour 

^2 cup molasses 

2 tablespoons lard or bacon fat 

3/^ cup sugar 

Enough water to make a thick batter 

Mix with the flour and sugar 3^ teaspoon 
of soda and 1 teaspoon of ginger and, if possi- 
ble, a handful of raisins or dried currants. 
Add the molasses and water, and bake in a 
medium oven or reflector. (Contributed by 
Jay Billings, Forest Supervisor, Lakeview, 

Ginger Cookies 
2 cups P.our 
}/2 cup fat 

}/2 cup sugar (brown if possible) 
13^ teaspoons ginger 
3^2 cup molasses 
}/2 teaspoon soda 
1 teaspoon baking powder 
J^ cup water 


Mix the sugar and fat, and add to this the 
flour and other dry ingredients, alternately 
with the water and molasses which have been 
mixed together. Roll out and cut like bis- 
cuit, or thin with a little water and drop from 
a spoon onto an oiled pan. 

Camp Cookies 
2 cups flour 

2 tablespoons melted fat 
3/^ cup sugar 

3/2 teaspoon cinnamon and cloves or allspice 

3 teaspoons baking powder 
}/2 cup raisins 

Mix the flour, sugar and baking powder 
together, pour in the melted fat, then add the 
raisins and enough water to make of the con- 
sistency of baking powder biscuit. Roll out 
about ^2 iJ^ch thick, cut with a can, and bake. 

Rolled Oat Cookies 

2 cups rolled oats 

2 cups flour 

^2 teaspoon salt 

% cup sugar 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 


Mix all, and work into it ^ cup butter or 
other fat. Dissolve 1 teaspoon soda in ^ 
cup hot water. Add, and roll out, cutting 
with a can, or thin a little and drop from a 
spoon onto a greased pan. 

1 cup flour 
}/i teaspoon salt 
^ teaspoon baking powder 

3 teaspoons sugar 
3^ teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons milk (condensed) 
1 egg (fresh or dried) * 

Add milk and beaten egg to the dry ingre- 
dients. Beat well while mixing, and drop 
from a spoon into hot fat. Fry till brown and 
cooked through. 


1 cup flour 

3^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

1 teaspoon melted fat 

3/3 cup sugar 

1 egg 


Mix dry ingredients. Add egg well beaten 
and enough milk to make a soft dough. Roll 


out Yi inch thick. Cut and fry in deep hot 

Rice Pudding No. 1 

Y2 cup rice 

Y2 teaspoon cinnamon 

Yl teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons sugar 

A few raisins 

2 tablespoons butter if possible 

Boil the rice until tender in about a pint of 
water to which the salt has been added. 
Then add the other ingredients and cook for 
about 15 minutes. 

Rice Pudding No. 2 
2 cups cold boiled rice 
lY cups milk 

2 eggs (if possible) 

Y cup raisins 

Y cup sugar 

Beat eggs, add the sugar, rice, etc., and 
bake in a pan until firm. 

Camp Pudding 
1 cup fat salt pork (cut in dice) 

3 cups flour 
1 cup sugar 

1 cup currants or other dried fruit 


2 teaspoons spices 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

Have ready a large kettle of boiling water 
and a large bag made from a flour sack. Dip 
the bag into boiling water, remove and dredge 
flour on the outside of it. Roll the pork in 
flour, add the other ingredients, and then 
enough water to make a good thick paste or 
batter. Turn this out into the floured cloth. 
Tie the bag securely. Allow room for swelling 
to twice its bulk. Drop into the boiling water 
and boil 2 hours. If the water stops boiling 
the pudding will be spoiled. 

Sauce for Pudding 
3^ cup sugar 

1 cup condensed milk or water 

2 tablespoons flour 
1 teaspoon spice 

Mix flour, spices, and sugar together and 
add the milk slowly, stirring until smooth. 
Cook until thickened. Remove from fire and, 
if possible, add vinegar to taste. 

Huckleberry or Sallalberry Cobbler 

Put 1 3^2 gallons huckleberries in a stew ket- 
tle without any water. Boil 5 minutes. Pour 
off the juice. Prepare the dough as for Deep 


English Pie, using twice the recipe. Roll out 
about Y2 i^^ch thick and cut a round of the 
dough to fit the bottom of a frying pan. Put 
in the pan and brown on both sides. Put in 
the berries about 2 inches thick. Make the 
upper crust large enough so it can be tucked 
down and connect with the bottom crust. 
This can be done by tilting the pan so that 
the berries will slide to one side of the pan. 
Bake in a reflector or oven. (Contributed by 
C. B. Reese, Foster, Oregon.) 

Molasses Cake 

13^ cups flour 

}/2 cup brown sugar 

3/^ cup molasses 

2 teaspoons baking powder 

3^ teaspoon cinnamon or allspice 

1 tablespoon lard 

Mix in same manner as the gingerbread, 
using about }/2 cup of water, or until a medium 
batter is obtained. Bake in oven or reflector. 

SnowHake Cake 

3^ cup sugar 
1 cup flour 
3^ teaspoon vanilla 

13^ tablespoons lard (or 2 tablespoons 


2 teaspoons baking powder 

Y2 cup condensed milk 

Mix the butter and sugar well until creamy. 
Add the flour, mixed with the baking powder, 
alternately with the liquid. Stir well and 

Plain Cake {with eggs) 

Y2 cup fat 

1 cup sugar 

2 small eggs 

Y2 cup milk (or water) 

2 cups flour 

23^2 teaspoons baking powder 

Y teaspoon vanilla 

Thoroughly mix sugar and fat. Add well 
beaten eggs. Add the baking powder to the 
flour and mix well. Mix the flour and liquid 
alternately with the butter and sugar. Beat 
well and bake in an oiled pan. This cake may 
be varied by the addition of chocolate, nuts, 
spices, etc. 

Fork Cake 

% cup hot coffee 

Y cup chopped salt pork 
2 tablespoons raisins 

2 tablespoons currants or cut prunes 
1 teaspoon spices 


% cup sugar 

IH cups flour 

]/^ teaspoon soda 

2 teaspoons baking powder 

Chop the pork fine and pour the hot coffee 
over it. Stir into this the flour and other 
ingredients, stirring thoroughly to remove 
lumps. Bake in an oiled pan for an hour, or 
steam in a lard pail for about 3 hours covering 
the pail tightly. 

Steamed Carrot Pudding 
1 cup sugar 
}/s cup butter 
1 cup carrots (dried) 
1 cup flour 

1 cup chopped raisins 
3^3 teaspoon each allspice, cinnamon, cloves, 

and salt 
1 cup granulated potatoes (fresh potatoes 

may be used) 
1 teaspoon soda 

Soak carrots for 12 hours, then chop them. 
Soak granulated potatoes for 20 minutes. 
Combine ingredients in the order given and 
steam for 3 hours. 


Baked Dried Pears 
Soak dried pears for 12 hours, add a few 
chopped nuts and a Httle butter; sprinkle some 
sugar over the top and put a little water in the 
pan. Bake slowly for ^ of an hour. 

Dried-Pear Butter 

Soak pears for 12 hours, cut in pieces, cook 
in the same water (adding sugar to taste) until 
they have cooked to pieces and are the con- 
sistency of marmalade. 

Pickled Dried Pears 

Soak pears for 12 hours. To six pears 
add 3^ cup vinegar, 1 stick of cinnamon, 2 
cloves, and enough brown sugar to give a good 
flavor. Cook about 3^ hour and let stand 
for one day. 

Prune Loaf 

Make a biscuit dough and roll into a sheet. 
Cover with stewed prunes, roll into shape 
and bake in a quick oven. When brown 
pour over a sauce made with 3^ cup water, 
3^ cup of sugar and 1 tablespoon butter. 






This brief outline has been included with 
the hope of assisting those who wish to intro- 
duce courses of Camp Cookery in schools, or 
give instructions to Boy Scouts or Camp Fire 
Girls. In the first six lessons it is desirable to 
do the laboratory work indoors, -where the 
underlying principles of Camp Cookery may 
be illustrated by preparing the various kinds 
of foods under the most favorable conditions. 
At this time a well correlated series of discus- 
sions on food requirements should be given in 
connection with the laboratory work. Neces- 
sarily, these discussions must be brief, pointed, 
and applicable to camp diet. 

After the principles of preparing the diff- 
erent kinds of food are familiar, and the 
technic of the class is satisfactory, the re- 
maining lessons should be given out-of-doors, 
under as typical conditions as possible. It is 
desirable to furnish equipment which would 
be suitable for preparing meals over an open 
fire. A reflector, which may be made by any 
tinner, is essential for baking. The kettles, 


pans and dishes should be Hght and durable. 
The dishes must be not only light but un- 
breakable. The number of utensils will, of 
course, depend on the number of groups into 
which the class has been divided. It is usu- 
ally convenient to have groups of four men. 
each group preparing all parts of a complete 
meal. A group should make its own fire, and 
by dividing the work differently, experience 
in cooking all kinds of foods is provided for 
each member of the class. It has been found 
convenient to provide each group with a com- 
plete kit of utensils, also small cans of salt, 
sugar, fat, baking powder, etc., for v/hich a 
group has the responsibility of transportation 
to the camping place. Much confusion may 
thus be avoided. Each of the last six lessons 
should consist of a complete meal, and the 
time of meeting should be so adjusted as to 
replace the evening meal on that day. 

A suggested outline for these meals has been 
included, and into these lessons the teacher 
may introduce various kinds of breads, soups, 
desserts, and meats, which will form well- 
balanced and appetizing combinations. The 
first lesson out-of-doors is likely to be rather 
difficult for the inexperienced, and should be 
made very simple. This meal may be a 

breakfast, and each groupd may prepare a 
different type of meal, making various com- 
binations suitable for breakfast in camp. 

The suggestions on building fires and mak- 
ing cranes in part I may be helpful to those 
unused to camp life. The most important 
thing in the first lesson is to learn how to build 
and keep a successful cooking fire. If possi- 
ble, an improvised table and bench should be 
made by each group. 

The camping place should be accessible, 
near good water, and with wood available 
which can be used for fuel. It is well to 
select as sheltered a place as possible for build- 
ing fires, especially in a windy location. 


Laboratory Work — Discussion — 

Quick Breads Introduction to the study 

Flapjacks of food 

Dough boys Uses of food in the body 

Beverages Food groups 




Quick Breads — continued Food requirements 
Emergency biscuits How determined 

Baking powder biscuits How affected 

Sour dough bread 
Com meal muffins 



Yeast bread 

Review of baking pow- 
der biscuits 

Rolled oats or farina 


Mulligan or stew 
Broiled steak or chops 
Boiled meats 

Meat soups 

Additions such as 
dried vegetables, etc. 
Concentrated soups 
Bean, pea, lentil 



Detailed study and com- 
parison of fuel values of 

Exhibit of the hundred 
calories portions 

Value and methods of 
cooking cereal 

The protein requirement 

Discussion of food combi- 

Greens, etc. 

As large a variety as 


Dried Fruits 

Prunes, apricots. 

Pies, camp cakes 
cookies, etc. 

Mineral requirements 
Importance of furnish- 
ing foods containing 
iron, etc. 
The making of rations 
suited to various con- 
Class-work on preparing 

Camp Equipment 

Consideration of neces- 
sities in view of 
weight, compactness, 
and serviceableness. 
Equipment under all 
One man with and 

without a pack. 
The larger camp. 

Note: The number of foods prepared in each lesson 
will depend on the length of the class period, and 
working facilities. Three hours once a week is much 
better than a shorter period twice a week. It is some- 
times desirable to review one or two fundamental 
recipes, like biscuits, until each member of the class 
is proficient. The number of recipes made by each 
student should depend upon the length of the lesson. 

LESSON 7 (Out-of-doors) 

Breakfast in Camp — 
Suggested menu out- 

Fruit (if possible) 
Quick bread (to be 
cooked by means 
of a frying pan) 
Salt meat or substi- 

Fire building 
Making of a crane 
Begin construction of 
work table. 


Dinner in Camp — 
Menu outline 
Meat — gravy 
One starchy 
One succulent 
Quick bread 

Use of a reflector 
Complete table and bench 

Note: In this lesson dried fruits and vegetables 
should be introduced and prepared in the simplest 
ways. The bread may be baked in the reflector, and 
may be emergency biscuits or commeal bread. 



Dinner in Camp — Broiling over a fire on a 

Outline same as in Les- spit. 

son 8 

Introduce more 
difficult recipes, as 
baking powder bis- 
cuits for the bread, 
a fruit pie, or a 
pudding for des- 
sert, and more 
elaborate vegeta- 
ble recipes. 


Dinner in Canap— Baking in the ground 

Outline same as in Les- Use of clay, grass, wet 
sons 8 and 9 paper. 

Preparing one rather 
difficult recipe, as 
cake or cookies, 
and try cooking 
meat or a fish in the 




Apple— jelly ...... 84 



Ashes — for scouring . 


Bacon Fritters 

. 77 

Bacon and Gravy 


Baked in clay 


Baked in hide 



. 73 

Beans — 



. 62 

creamed Lima 



. 66 

Beef — corned — boiled 

. 78 

corned — hash 



. 78 

Bird — Roasting 

27, 71 


. 46 

Biscuits — Baking Powder 



. 49 




. 50 




52, 54 

frying pan 


pulled fire 

. 54 

ranchman's . 


salt rising 

. 55 

sour dough 



. 54 

yeast . 


Buns — Hot Cross 

. 52 



Cake — molasses 

. 93 



plain with eggs 

. 94 



Cakes — griddle 

. 48 




Camp Cookies 


food supplies 

site selection 
Camping Tools — miscellaneous 

Caramel Sirup 
Carrots — glazed . 

creamed . 
Cereal Coffee 
Cereals — 

cooking of 
Chocolate — sweet 
Cinnamon Rolls 

Classification of Foods 
Cobbler — huckleberry 

Coffee . 
Coffee cereal 
Coffee extract 
Codfish — balls 


Comparative Food Values 
Cooking Fire 
Cookies — camp 


roiled oats 
Corn dodger 

Crane for camp kettle 

Diet in camp 
Dough boys 




Dried Beef — creamed 



8, 13, 44 

fruit desserts 

. 84, 85, 86 



Dutch Oven 

21, 23 

Eggs — desiccated . 


Equipment — camp 

. 20 

Red Cross 


for teaching Camp Cook 

ery . 97 

Fat . . . 

. 37, 41, 43 

Fireless cooker 

. 32, 33, 34 

Fires — making of 

. 25, 26 

Fish — baked 

. 80 

cakes . 



. 80 

cured . 


herring — smoked 

. 81 



to hold over 

. 77 

Flavorings . 



. 48 

Food — groups 

39, 43 

lists — campers 

. 43, 44 

supplies for camp 


supplies for one man 



7, 8, 40, 42 

values comparative . 

. 19, 40 


. 90 

Fruit loaf . 


Fruits — dried 

13, 44 

fresh . 

8, 13 

Game — to hold over . 

. 79 



Graham gems 

. 53 


. 71, 77 

Griddle Cakes 

. 48 


. 78 

corned beef 


Hominy — boiled 

14, 64 

fried . 




Jelly — apple 

. 84 



Lentils — creamed 

. 63 

Lesson Outlines 



. 14 

and cheese 


Meal Plans for campers 

36, 44 

Meats — braising 

. 70 



cooking of 

. 69 




. 69 




. 69 




. 69 





Mess kits 

. 20, 21 

Milk — condensed . 



. 13 



Mineral salts . 

. 36 

Muffins — bran 

. 50 

quick . 



. 79 



Nuts .... 

. 15 

Peanut Butter 

. 14 

Pear Butter 


Pears — dried . 



. 96 



Pie — deep English 


dried fruit 

. 85 

fried . 


pot . . . 

. 83 

Potatoes — 

. 41, 66 


. 63 



Potatoes (continued) 

boiled in jackets 

German fried 

hash brown 

Pot pie 
Prune loaf 
Pudding — camp 


rice No. 1 

rice No. 2 

sauce for 

Rabbit— fried 

Ration Hsts 

Rice — boiled 

and cheese 


Salmon — creamed 



Soups — bean 




split pea 

Spinach — creamed 

Squash — mashed 
Squirrel — fried 

Stew and dumplings 






. 36 

, 42 










9, 10 



. 36 




. 14 























. 70 

Sugar .... 

. 12, 




. 14 

Suggestive food lists 


Supplies — one man 


12, 17 

one man forest trip 


one man pack horse 


Supporting Cooking Utensils 


Sustenance— Table of, for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Men 


Table of sustenance 


Tea ... . 

16, 46 

Teaching Camp Cookery 


Tomatoes — canned 

. 16 

Towels .... 


Turnips — mashed 

8, 66 

Vegetables — dried 




8, 65 

Venison — to cook 

. 74 

to dress 


Water .... 

24, 25 

cress .... 


White Sauce 

Yeast .... 

. 92 
. 58 





Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 

The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 


3 9999 06706 989 6 




^^^<^S^:^^aft^^:^^sas^g^-: :;;^^^a^8aM«