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FRANCES LOEB LIBRARY
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN
Courtesy of the Y. M,C.A.
DESCRIBED AND PHOTOGRAPHED
Author of " Watching and Waiting on the Border "
WITH A FOREWORD BY
Major ROGER MERRILL
Adjutant, isxst Infantry Brigade, Seventy-Sixth Division. National Army. Camp Devens
With photographs taken by the author under the official authorization of the Committee on
Public Information and the War Department, and with the endorsement
of the authorities at Camp Devens
SMALL. MAYNARD & COMPANY
Copyright, 191 8
By Small, Maynard & Company
Mr. Roger Batchelder,
Sir: — You are to be congratulated for this accurate and
complete description by pen and lens of Camp Devens. For
us who are here it will be valued as a record of our early
days when the National Army was in its swaddling-clothes.
Later we will search it for a sight of the familiar train-
ing areas, knowing that the unpainted exterior of Camp
Devens mothered and trained lion-hearted men for the
great duty to which America has set her will.
Very truly yours,
Major A. G. R. C. 151st Infantry Brigade
Camp Devens, December 21, 191 7
THE BUILDING OF CAMP DEVENS
Six months ago, the traveller on the road between Ayer and Fitchburg saw little to attract
his attention. About a mile from the former town began a stretch of scrub and brush, populated
only by an occasional rabbit. There was nothing imusual about this tract. It had its
quota of hills and swamps, two or three ponds, and here and there a farmhouse. At that time
the passers-by merely noticed that it was a particularly drab and imattractive bit of waste. There
are himdreds of areas of similar appearance and topography in New England.
The little town of Ayer was then merely an ordinary New England village. The fact that it
was the jimction of the Fitchburg, Worcester, and Portland branches of the Boston and Maine
Railroad added Uttle to its importance. In appearance the center of Ayer was not tmlike that
of a Maine village of the * 'backwoods*' type. Commercially, there was only a single street, lined
on one side, for a space of a few blocks, with the business enterprises of the town. The village
had neither declined nor advanced during the last half -century ; independent of the outside
world and the vaguely distant metropolis of Boston, it had maintained a placid and tmruffled
existence, the tranquillity of which was interrupted only by the arrival of an occasional train, and
the advent and the departure of the United States mail. The two or three hundred dwellings,
small, neat cottages belonging, for the most part, to the respectable, hardworking class, were the
only other evidences of life in the little village. As I heard a native say: **In those days Ayer
was present, but not voting.''
Upon our entrance into the war of the world, the order of things changed. The military
authorities, searching diligently for a favorable site for the projected divisional cantonment, came
to Ayer, viewed the nearby waste, and pondered. When the reports went to Washington, some-
one stuck a pin with a little red flag on it at the dot on the map marked **Ayer." The real history
of the town began. More military experts came, accompanied by engineers and men skilled in
planning enormous projects. Eventually they agreed that the wilderness tract on the Fitchburg
road should be the training-camp of the youth of New England. Early in Jime the leases
of the land were signed, the contract awarded to Fred T. Ley Company of Springfield, and on
June 1 8 the vanguard of the army of laborers arrived at the future Camp Devens.
The construction of the cantonment of the Seventy-sixth Division was a triumph of engineering
and contracting skill, and a monument to American efficiency and industry. Nearly nine thousand
acres of virgin brush and swamp, a tract seven miles in length and two in breadth, was trans-
formed into a huge city of soldiers within ten weeks. Five thousand workers, the pick of the skilled
and imskilled labor of the state, were shipped to the groimds. Before any work could be done,
quarters for these men had to be constructed and they were housed in long shed-like structures
of wood, covered with tar paper. Then the actual work began. Under the supervision of Captain
Edward L. Canfield, Jr., the quartermaster of construction, the brush was cleared, the swamp
drained, the terrain levelled. As soon as conditions allowed, the carpenters set to work erecting
buildings on the cleared areas. Surveyors laid out lines of barracks and mapped out the many
miles of roads. Day after day the work went on imceasingly ; the wilderness lost its desolate aspect
of former times, and hiunmed with industry. Throughout the day there came the sounds of tire-
less hammering, of digging and blasting. Steam-rollers toiled in every section of the camp. A
great squadron of motor trucks ran in a continuous line to and from the spur of the tracks which
had been extended to the camp, distributing endless supplies and equipment.
The contractors did everything in their power to insure the health and comfort of the workmen.
Their quarters were completely fitted out with the necessary equipment which they were com-
pelled to keep in the best of condition. A great dining-hall was erected, where they might obtain
good food at nominal prices. The skilled laborers and office-workers had a restaurant near
the headquarters, with a la carte service. For the benefit of the Italian workers a special restau-
rant was built ; here Italian chefs prepared Italian foods to suit the taste of the most discriminating.
In the vicinity of the restaurants there sprang up the commercial center of the camp. A barber
shop opened for business; an Italian store, a tobacco shop, and canteens selling every variety of
small merchandise made this center a true shopping-district.
In order to assure the contentment of its employees, the contractors paid phenomenally high
wages, and liberally rewarded overtime work. Unskilled laborers earned up to thirty dollars a
week; some members of the skilled trades earned as much as a himdred dollars weekly. The pay-
roll of the contractors amounted to over $100,000 a week.
As soon as the buildings were erected, electricians, plimibers and steam-fitters started their
work. Shortly after the carpenters left a barrack's, the men of other trades took possession and it
was soon ready for occupancy. It is difficult for the uninitiated to conceive the magnitude of
the work. In those ten short weeks, five thousand men built 1400 buildings, laid twenty miles
of road, installed 2200 shower baths, 400 miles of electric wiring, and 60 miles of heating pipes.
Over forty million board feet of lumber were necessary for the stupendous building operations.
The electric lights were switched on for the first time on August 30. Two days later the
contractors announced that the camp was ready for occupancy. New England had the imique
distinction of being the first section to complete its cantonment.
Major-General Harry Foote Hodges was appointed commander of the new imit, the Seventy-
sixth Division, and ordered to Ayer. The subordinate officers were, for the most part, those who
had received commissions at the Plattsburg camp, with a scattering from the regular army. In
honor of General Charles Devens, the illustrious Civil War soldier of Worcester County, the
military authorities announced that the cantonment of the Northeastern military department
should be called "Camp Devens."
The first draft men arrived at Camp Devens from Maine on September 5 ; from that time on,
the flow from all parts of the district continued until 40,000 men were within its borders. The
authorities distributed them immediately into the various organizations of the camp till each had
its full quota. Four regiments of infantry were established: the 301st, 302d, 303d and 304th.
These were installed in barracks on the further side of the divisional headquarters. A depot
brigade of thirteen battalions was formed. There were three regiments of field artillery: the
301st and 302d of light artillery, and the 303d of heavy artillery. Three machine-gun battalions
the 301st, 302d and 303d; the Headquarters Train, comprising the 301st Ammimition Train, the
3oist Supply Train, the 301st Engineers' Train and the 301st Sanitary Train; the 301st Signal
Battalion and unattached units of the Quartermaster's and Medical Corps, and the 23d Engineers,
completed the roster of organizations in the camp.
In general, the assignments were as follows:
301st Infantry: Boston.
302d Infantry: Southeastern Massachusetts.
303d Infantry: Eastern New York.
304th Infantry: Connecticut.
Field Artillery : Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont.
Depot Brigade : Western Massachusetts.
Machine Gun Battalions: Connecticut and Northeastern Massachusetts.
30 1 st Engineers : Rhode Island.
Headquarters Train : Central Massachusetts.
There are some specific exceptions to this summary, which is, of course, subject to change
at any time.
At first the men were scantily equipped with rifles, uniforms, and other military accoutre-
ments. Eventually the supplies poured in so freely that there were enough uniforms and equip-
ment to outfit properly each man.
There are now thirty thousand soldiers at Ayer; the average has been forty thousand, and
at one time there were forty-eight thousand within the borders of the Camp. Take all the inhab-
itants of Fitchburg, or half the people of Springfield or Hartford, put them in a field of 9000 acres
and you have some idea of the population of Camp Devens. And it is not only a city in terms of
population, but also in many other ways. This military city has a post-office, a telegraph office,
a telephone switchboard, several police stations or guard-houses, an adequate fire department, an
excellent hospital, a restaurant, a theatre and many other like institutions. Its police system is
I^erfect, and is far better than any municipal department in the countr>\
The spirit of the draft men has been admirable. Few wanted to leave their families, their
homes, their businesses; but when they found that they were needed, they responded to a man.
There are many discomforts in the life of a soldier, and these men were most of them untried
and imtrained by hardships. Nevertheless, they are contented and, if they complain, it is with
a smile on their faces. The transition from civil to military life has been abrupt, the difficulties
of training men at Ayer have been many, but the path ahead is clear and when the crucial test
comes, the enemy will find that the American Citizen, trained as a soldier, is second to none.
This book is intended primarily for the soldiers at Ayer, and for their friends and families
at home. To the boys in camp it is hoped that it may serve as a memento of their army life,
their companions, their work and their play. Those who are imacquainted with military life will
be able better to appreciate what it all means. They will see where their boys live, how they live,
and will realize the progress they have made and are making. Are the boys happy ? In answer
to that question so often asked, I refer you to any one of the pictures. Most of the men have
broad grins; all are smiling. These pictures illustrate the Ayer spirit, and the spirit which will
bring us peace with victory.
For permission to reprint several picttu^s of the incoming draft increments, I wish to acknowl-
edge the courtesy of the Boston Herald ; I am also indebted to R. W. Barton of Cambridge, and
to the following officers of Camp Devens: Major Roger Merrill, 151st Brigade; Captain Leslie
E. Thompson, Adjutant, 304th Infantry; Captain Charles D. Case, 304th Infantry; Captain
Weston B. Flint, Depot Brigade; Lieutenant Russell Codman, Depot Brigade; Lieuten-
ant E. C. Wynne, Adjutant General's Department; Lieutenant Julian Lathrop, 303d H. F. A.;
Captain Brown and Lieutenant Hal S. White of the Intelligence Department, and above all, to
the enlisted personnel of the camp whose aid and co-operation enabled me to prepare this volume.
December 20, 191 7 Roger Batchelder
THE MOBILIZATION OF THE CITIZENS
On Jtrne s, 191 7, each one of these men
registered at a booth in his city or town. He
answered innumerable questions about his past,
present and probable future history. Then he
went home and, perhaps, forgot all about it.
But Uncle Sam did not forget. On an eventful
day in July, — the twenty-eighth — that national
guardian of ours picked a multitude of slips
from a huge bowl in Washington. On each
slip was a number; one of these numbers was
458. The machinery of war then started to
move. Nimiber 458 in one district was, let us
say, John Jones of Boston. For five years,
John had been working in a grocery store, driv-
ing a taxi, or selling tickets in a theatre. He
received a letter from an exemption board order-
ing him to appear for examination. He was
physically fit and was passed by the doctors.
Then John went home and waited. Several
weeks later he received another letter, telling
him that he was to be a soldier and ordering
him to report at the board office at eight o'clock
the next dsQ^. That afternoon he called on his
friends and said good-bye, and in the evening
he went to see the one girl in the world and then
returned home to have a chat with the folks.
The following morning he awoke at six
o'clock. He laid his best suit on the top shelf of
the closet and put on an old suit of working
clothes. At the breakfast table, his father was
unusually silent ; the small brother cast envious
glances at the hero ; mother and sister began to
cry softly. John told them not to worry; he'd
have the Germans beaten by spring at the latest.
Soon he kissed the family good-bye and started
for the office of the board.
There he found a group of twenty other
John Joneses, Harry Browns and Bill Smiths,
and he learned that their experiences had been
identical with his own. The chairman of the
board spoke a few words to them, several
political leaders shook their hands, slapped their
backs, and marched them down the street to
the station. And now John and his newly-made
friends are waiting for the train, under the
watchful eye of the board chairman.
"All Aboard for Ayer"
THE ARRIVAL AT AYER
When Jones and his companions get into the
cars, they find many others from adjacent dis-
tricts with them. Some cannot speak English
well; but nevertheless, they all talk at once.
**Did you claim exemption?"
''Are you married?*'
'*What do you do with these checks?"
The last question refers to the tags which
had been distributed by the board official.
They bear the district niunber and the num-
ber which has been assigned to the prospective
soldier. These were given out for identification
purposes, so that the camp officers will know
where the man comes from if he forgets his dis-
trict, or is unable coherently to express himself.
"I haven't got a ticket," declares someone.
Then it is explained that tickets are not
necessary, as the government has provided
transportation facilities without charge to the
*'This is the first free ride I ever had," an-
nounces another with a broad grin.
One man produces a pack of cards and starts
a game of ''pitch." There is soon a group
around the players, watching critically every
phase of the game. Other men follow this
example and shortly there are several games in
progress. Then comes singing.
After an hour the brakeman enters the car
and cries :
''Ayer. All out, boys."
There is a wild scramble for the bundles and
suitcases. Eventually the men are out on
the platform. A sergeant comes up to our
group and asks Jones :
"Yes, sir," answers Jones, saluting in Boy
"Don't salute and call me 'sir,'" says the
sergeant, one of the regular army men. "I'm
not an officer. Better wait until you know
"This way, boys," shouts a cavalryman,
moimted on a spirited Western horse, which
bears the brand "U.S." on its flank. "Fall in
line and follow me."
Then he leads them majestically from the
Leaving the Station at Ayer
EN ROUTE TO THE CAMP
**Gee, what a hick town!*'
With this announcement the Boston men
greet Ayer. Many of them have never before
been in the rural districts of the state, and the
lack of movement and excitement is to them in-
conceivable. The few pedestrians — natives,
for the most part — stare curiously at the new
arrivals, and the latter in turn stare back. The
curiosity of the people of Ayer is only natural,
for the draft men have an astounding variety of
clothing. Here is a machinist with a flannel
shirt and woolen suit stained with grease;
next to him is a college man, who, disregarding
the advice that old clothes be worn, has dressed
himself in the height of fashion. There are
all kinds of hats : derbies, straws, caps, and soft
hats of every style, color and degree of an-
tiquity. Conscript Thomdike of Boston chats
amiably with his former boot-black, Tony
Peroni, of Summer Street. And at the end
of the line is a taxi driver who has often driven
the rich man about town. Some of the men
have been soldiers before and wear their old
uniforms; others, desiring to *'cut a dash" in a
military way, have purchased ready-made
imiforms of doubtful quality and fit.
The men regard curiously every soldier whom
they see. The only soldiers now at camp are
members of the regular army. They are per-
fectly uniformed and precisely correct in their
every move. It is only natural that they
should regard the novices with the slightest
bit of disdain; they cannot realize that within
a year these men will occupy the same trench
with them, "Somewhere in France." And
similarly, the draft men look up to the soldiers
as demi-gods; their perfection is only too ob-
vious to the "rookies," and they understand
that these soldiers are trained men, those who
have carried the colors in the Philippines, in
Cuba, or even in Mexico.
"Is that feller a colonel?" asks Jones of a
companion who has seen service with the mil-
itia. He points to the leader of the line.
"Naw, of course not, he's only a private.
You don't suppose a colonel would bother about
us, do you?"
"Camp Devens, Next!"
ENTERING THE GROUNDS
The men walk down the street for half a
mile, cross the railroad tracks, and come in
sight of the camp.
**Well, will you look at that?" cries Brown in
an awe-struck voice.
"Some little camp, what?"
'*I thought we were going to live in tents.
Wooden buildings, it looks to me."
The procession halts at the main gate. The
trooper dismounts, salutes an officer, and a^ks
for instructions. The major consults a book.
''District forty-four, depot brigade," he an-
"Orderly, have these men examined and then
report to Captain Reed, 4th Battalion. North
Adams men, aren't you? District twenty-one
goes — "
The column goes through the gate and up
the main highway.
A bugle blows. At this, the first sign of
military activity, the men glance around dubi-
"What's that?" asks one.
"Mess-call," answers the cavalryman curtly.
"Yes, mess, chuck, grub, food, don't you
Soon they come to the cross-roads and are
enabled to get a good view of the camp. To
the left are the artillery barracks, and further
along, Baldwin's Restaurant. Thousands of
laborers, their white badges pinned conspicu-
ously on their hats, are making a mad rush for
dinner. From all parts of the camp they come,
leaving their implements behind them. They
regard the coming soldiers in a friendly man-
ner and wave their arms in every direction as if
to say :
"See what I've done for you. Isn't it a
Around the bend the column goes, every man
hot and perspiring. On the right is the parade
ground, stretching along for half a mile. On
one side of it the men see long lines of infantry
barracks laid out in perfect order. In front
of them is the depot brigade, — their desti-
TsE Arrival at the Camf
EXAMINING THE NEW ARRIVALS
This picture shows a Ueutenant of the medical
corps examining a group of newly-arrived
draft men. It is illustrative of the care which
the men have received from the beginning.
Each man who was drawn in the draft was
examined by a local board and passed or re-
jected by them. Every man who underwent
this primary examination, and was subsequent-
ly accepted by the local board, was theoretically
in good physical condition. The army regu-
lations stated specifically that none but the
physically fit should be taken into service.
The medical authorities were greatly surprised
and annoyed when, on superficial examina-
tions like this one, they found men who were
obviously imfit for service.
After the men had been in camp for a few
days, they were thoroughly looked over by the
officers of the medical corps. In many cases
the latter found that flagrant violations of the
rule had been made by the local physicians.
Men came to the camp who could see nothing
without glasses. Some had missing fingers
or toes. I saw one man whose right leg was
three inches shorter than the left. A medical
officer told me that certain districts were worse
This state of affairs caused much unneces-
sary trouble for the authorities. When a super-
ficial examination was so fruitful in bad results,
complete examinations were of course necessary.
Men who could not be retained were sent home
immediately ; those whose condition might be
remedied by treatment went to the base hos-
pital until they were fit for duty.
The great majority of the district boards
did their wcrk well, according to the officers;
many have clean records. Those which refused
to comply with the regulations in order to fill
the quota from their districts not only ham-
pered greatly the efforts of the camp doctors,
but also caused great and unnecessary expense
to the government.
"Let's See Your Teeth!"
It is axiomatic that perfect physical condi-
tion is requisite to military efficiency. Army
leaders not only encourage exercise on the part
of the men but also require a certain amount
of physical training as a part of the day's work.
The systems and the methods of carrying them
out differ in many organizations, but in each
of them a certain procedure is religiously and
Some company commanders have a so-called
"setting-up" exercise before the morning mess,
directly after the reveille roll-call. This is in
charge of a sergeant who has been designated
by the commanding oflficer. The company is
extended so that there is an interval of two
paces between each two men, and four paces
between ranks. First the sergeant illustrates
and explains the exercises to be performed;
then the company joins him. There are certain
groups of four different exercises prescribed in
the manual, and after the company has prac-
tised for some time the sergeant has merely to
say: "Company, attention. First group, one-
two-three — "
The men then go through the entire group
Sometimes the "setting-up'* is performed by
battalions, as in this picture. The men march
to an open field, remove their hats, coats, and
blouses and go through the movements en
masse. When the soldier has mastered the
minor exercises, he is taught to perform others
with a rifle.
This training is not carried on in a super-
ficial manner, but in accordance with certain
definite principles of physical development.
Each movement has for its object the building
up of some member or set of muscles; by a
combination of all, every part of the soldier's
body receives benefit, and whatever minor de-
ficiencies he may have are overcome.
And so, if upon your arrival at Camp Devens
you perceive a body of half dressed men,
gyrating and bending in an astounding manner,
do not concern yourself as to their sanity ; they
are merely having "setting-up drill."
After the Setting- vp Drill
LOOKING NORTH FROM BOULDER HILL
In the foreground, on the further side of the
road, is the commercial center of the camp. The
large sign of Baldwin's Restaurant is visible
through the trees. Formerly this cafeteria
was controlled by the Baldwin Company, a
private concern, under the supervision of the
military authorities and contractors. Recently,
however, it was taken over by the government ;
it is now under the dominion of the Quarter-
master's Corps and the ticket sellers, cooks, and
waiters are all enlisted men in the department.
The interior of the building is most interest-
ing at meal-time. It is filled with soldiers who
prefer the food here to that of their own mess-
halls, and those who have been assigned to this
place by the authorities. The men pass through
a gate at the left and receive the food from a
counter in the rear. There is no choice of
dishes; certain menus are prescribed for each
meal. As the diner enters the main hall by
another gate, he receives a check on which the
amount due is pimched. He then eats at one
of the long wooden benches, and pays his check
as he leaves the hall by a third gate.
In the rear of Baldwin's can be seen the bar-
racks of the 301st Light Field Artillery, and in
the distance, the top of the Hostess House and
the administrative building of the Y. M. C. A.
The two chimneys are those of the plants which
heat the buildings in the vicinity. The road in
front nms by the quarters of the 303d Heavy
Field Artillery, to the Quartermasters' Corps
and the railroad. The road at the extreme
left, running perpendicular to it, is the main
highway of the camp and runs from the
Depot Brigade, in the rear, to the main gate,
which lies in the direction of the center of the
Baldwin's and the 301 st L. F. A.
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF CAMP DEVENS
Looking due west from Boulder Hill, one
can see a greater part of the cantonment.
Directly in front, behind the pines, are the bar-
racks of the 301st Engineers. Beyond the
pond, at the right, is one end of the huge
Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. Past the engineers*
quarters, looking across the clearing to the
buildings at the left of the prominent smoke-
stacks, are the barracks of the Depot Brigade.
Below the sky-line, in the center of the picture
we have the 303d and 304th Infantry, and look-
ing over the Y. M. C. A. Auditoritmi at the
right, one sees the barracks of the 301st and
302d Infantry. The conspicuous chimneys
mark the situation of the various heating-
plants of the camp.
Looking West from Boulder Hill
TOWN AND CAMP
(i) Main Street op Ayer
The little town has changed greatly since
June, 191 7, when business was humdrum and
life was unexciting. Now the soldier-popu-
lation of 30,000 men has removed from this
street many traces of its former rusticity.
Boston merchants rented stores and equipped
them in the true metropolitan fashion. The
town merchants, fearing this competition,
brushed the cobwebs from their windows,
stocked up with every necessity and luxury,
and installed electric milk-shakers and cash
registers. There now seems to be a race be-
tween the natives and the visiting merchants to
see which can charge the highest prices for
their wares; at last reports the local tradesmen
were miles ahead.
(2) Automobile Row, at the Station
The prospective visitor at Camp Devens,
upon arriving at the station, falls prey to that
species of vulture commonly known as the
jitney driver. These motorists were formerly
the farm hands, station agents and second-story
men of the vicinity. When the troops came to
Ayer, they purchased jitneys which were in
every stage of dilapidation and inaugurated
a motor service to and from the camp. At
first, they charged the soldiers atrocious prices,
but eventually the various units purchased
huge 'busses of their own and ran in competition.
The stranger will do well to assure himself before
embarkation that he will be charged only the
fixed price cf twenty-five cents, and to renew
his life insurance policy before venturing on
the perilous journey.
(3) A Supply Wagon
It is a common thing to see the heavy,
rumbling supply wagons in the streets of Ayer,
bringing rations and other necessities to the
camp. They are drawn by the most efficient,
yet the most vicious, beasts of burden on earth
— the government army mules.
(4) The Main Gate
If the visitor arrives by trolley at the camp,
he leaves the car at this gate; practically all
traffic enters and leaves here, with the excep-
tion of the Sunday rush, when the upper gate
is pressed into active service. Military police,
wearing the blue arm band inscribed *'M. P.,"
are constantly on guard.
(2) Automobile Row
(3) A Supply Wagon
(4) The Main Gate
THE DIVISIONAL HEADQUARTERS
This building is the military center of the
camp, and the headquarters of the 76th divi-
sion. Here are the offices of the commanding
general and his staff, and the headquarters of
the principal administrative departments of
The officers who comprise the staff and **make
the wheels go roimd" at Ayer are:
Major-General Harry Foote Hodges, Division
Commander; Lieutenant W. W. Cowgill, Aide-
de-Camp; Lieutenant-Colonel M. B. Stewart,
Chief of Staff; Major J. M. Wainwright, Assist-
ant Chief of Staff; Captain Arthur F. Brown,
Assistant Chief of Staff; Major Harry L.
Hodges, Division Adjutant; Captain T. E.
Burleigh, Assistant Division Adjutant; Lieuten-
ant-Colonel D. M. Dalton, Division Quarter-
master; Major A. M. Pardee, Division In-
spector; Lieutenant-Colonel E. K. Masse, Divi-
sion Judge Advocate; Major G. M. Peek,
Division Ordnance Officer; Colonel F. A. Pope,
Division Engineer Officer; Major Chas. A.
Lewis, Division Signal Officer; Lieutenant-
Colonel John W. Hanner, Division Surgeon;
Major J. L. Siner, Division Sanitary Officer;
Captain A. E. Foote, Division Post Exchange
These officers are the experts of their branches
of the service and it is through them that all
orders and memoranda are promulgated and
distributed to the various departments of the
The headquarters is on a high hill about a
half-mile from the main entrance. The flag
on its tall pole, the largest banner in the camp,
is visible from nearly every part of the canton-
The interior of the building reminds one of
the offices of a big corporation. Orderlies are
nmning to and fro, bringing in reports, or taking
out memoranda to be quickly distributed by
motor-cycle riders. The doors in the front
of the building open into the administrative
offices, which are equipped with desks and
office-chairs, and are literally filled with official
documents; the walls of the rooms are covered
with maps, notices and typographed memo-
Headquarters, 76TH Division
A Y. M. C. A. HUT
The greatest non-military organization which
has ever become attached to the army is the
Y. M. C. A. To the soldier, the Y. M. C. A.
Hut is a fraternity, a chtirch, a theatre, a com-
mon meeting-place, possessing none of the or-
dinary disadvantages of some of those institu-
tions. As soon as the workers learned that an
encampment was to be built at Devens, they
made plans to organize. Fourteen buildings
were constructed in the various sections of the
camp. There is one main administrative build-
ing near the field artillery quarters, an auditor-
ium to accommodate 3000 men, and nine huts
similar to that in the picture.
At one end of the building there is a stage
where the entertainments and performances
are produced. The main part of the room is
filled with benches on which there is an ample
supply of writing paper, pens and ink.
Movies are shown frequently; often the local
talent of nearby units entertain their companies,
and there are frequent boxing and wrestling
matches, and similar forms of exercise and
amusement. The walls are lined with book-
cases which contain every type of book which
a **live" man might care to read. In a box
near the center of the room are piled the current
magazines and newspapers.
On Sunday, the Association holds three
services, which are the only religious activities
on the weekly calendar. The rest of the
week, the Y men seek to entertain, amuse and
gain the confidence of their proteges, and
thereby exert a beneficial influence over them.
The success of this organization is undoubted;
men who have never been in a church or a
Y. M. C. A. building before naturally flock to
the army huts. Ask the soldier what he thinks
of the Y. M. C. A., and his enthusiastic answer
will surprise you. The men realize that these
huts are for them, and that every one of the
fifty workers in Camp Devens is their friend,
and is doing his best to make them comfortable
Kenneth Robbie, the General Camp Secre-
tary, assisted by an administrative staff of
seven, has charge of the Camp Devens Associa-
Y Hut, Number 29
THE HOSTESS HOUSE
The Hostess House, which was built under
the auspices of the Y. W. C. A., stands on a
high bluff near the 301st Light Field Artillery,
a short distance from the main road. It was
erected for the benefit of women who visit the
camp. Formerly the wives and woman visitors
of the soldiers had no place of meeting; the
barracks and Y huts were obviously inconven-
ient for them, and when they desired to eat, it
was necessary for them to return to the town.
On November 26, 191 7, this new house was
opened to the public, and was placed in the
charge of several lady attendants. All women
who come to the camp are invited to share the
hospitality of the Association. If a mother ar-
rives at nine in the morning and finds that her
son will not be at liberty until noon, she goes to
the Hostess House until that time comes. Not
only women and their escorts are welcome, but
also any of the boys who wish to wait for friends,
or taste a little home cooking.
The dining room, which is of the cafeteria
type, is becoming more popular every day.
Men are accustomed to bring their friends for
dinner, tea or supper. A special breakfast is
served on Sunday.
This organization has charge of the Woman's
Employment Bureau, and is doing excellent
work in that field. The Board attempts to
obtain positions as housekeepers in the neighbor-
hood for soldiers* wives, so that they can be
near their husbands. Thus far, every applica-
tion has been filled and many women have been
enabled to earn money and at the same time
remain in the vicinity of the camp. The
Board stipulates that all people who hire sol-
diers* wives shall allow the husbands to visit
them at the homes.
THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS
This organization is doing excellent work
at the camp. One notices on each of its signs
the inscription: ''All Welcome."
'*I want to emphasize the significance of those
two words," one of the secretaries told me.
*'Some people think that the K. of C. building is
for Catholics alone, but that is by no means the
case. It makes no difference whether a man if
a Catholic, a member of the society, or not; is
he isn't, he will receive the same cordial treat-
ment as any one else. We are not doing this
work for the K. of C. men alone ; we are doing
if for our soldiers, and we want every American
soldier to make our house his headquarters."
This is a typical example of the co-operative
spirit of the non-military workers at the camp.
The Knights of Colimibus have three large huts
at Ayer, and a dozen men in charge of them.
The interior of the huts is similar to that of
the Y. M. C. A. buildings. Each one is fitted
with basket-ball apparatus, and has a piano,
a complete library, and writing materials.
Thomas C. Moore, of the Ayer Council, has
charge of the cantonment work and is assisted
by men from other New England Councils.
An innovation at Devens is the organization
of an elimination basket-ball league. Each
unit in the camp has been invited to form a
representative team and will play at the K. of C.
buildings for the championship of the division.
There are also frequent boxing matches under
the supervision of experts.
The entertainments are given not only by
local talent, but also by visiting groups from
the K. of C. Councils. Each Sunday a field
Mass is held at building Ntmiber i . On one oc-
casion the service had an attendance of 18,000
men. The building shown in this picture is
No. 3, near the base hospital; each morning
the workers go from here to the hospital with
writing paper and stamps and do what they
can to make the sick men comfortable.
K. OK C Hlt, Number 3
(i) Divisional Headquarters
This picture shows the administrative build-
ing from the side facing the 301st Infantry
barracks. In the rear of the headquarters are
the barracks of the Headquarters Troop, the
only troop in camp. It is generally reputed
to be the **crack unit" of the cantonment. As
one of the members said to me not long ago:
'*Why, I'd rather be right where I am, a
private of the troop, than in the boots of any
*shave-tair lieutenant in the cantonment.**
(2) A Typical Officers* Quarters Building
The officers* quarters are ordinarily in a line
behind the barracks of the organization to which
their occupants are assigned. They are about
sixty feet long and their capacity, at the most,
is thirty officers; few of them have this
number, however. Majors and captains have
private rooms, while the lieutenants bimk two
in a compartment. At the extreme end of the
quarters (in this case, at the left) is the officers*
mess and the kitchen. The officers are re-
quired to provide for their food from their pay;
cooks and waiters, — called kitchen police — are
assigned from the enlisted men of the battalion.
Other orderlies clean the quarters, make the
beds and keep in condition the equipment of
(3 AND 4) The Base Hospital
The base hospital is in the rear of the camp,
and is completely isolated from the other organ-
izations. It consists of an administrative build-
ing, and long rows of hospital barracks for the
patients. Certain houses, apart from the main
group, are intended for such contagious diseases
as may occur from time to time.
On an average, eight hundred men are treated
at the hospital every day. This number does
not betoken an alarming percentage of illness,
as every man with the slightest disorder or
complaint is sent to the base, and many are
found to be afflicted by trivial or by imaginary
indispositions; it would be difficult to find a
civil community of 30,000 people, each individ-
ual leading an active life, with only 800 in
imperfect physical condition.
(i) Divisional Headquarters
(2) Officers' Quarters
(3) Headquarters, Base Hospital
(4) Barracks, Base Hospital
EXCHANGE, HEAT, GRUB AND GUARD-HOUSE
(i) The Post Exchange
The great joy of the soldier's life is the regi-
mental post exchange. At his company can-
teen he can buy tobacco, candy or other minor
luxuries, but at the exchange he can get any-
thing from a needle to a washtub. Every
article which the man in khaki needs or likes is
on sale. There are all kinds of food, mostly
put up in packages, a variety of cigarettes
which would rival that of a city tobacconist,
stationery, books, post-cards, toilet articles,
(2) A Heating Plant
Probably there has been no matter more
widely discussed than that of heat at the can-
tonment. During the cold days of October,
the pipes were not yet ready, and the tempera-
ttire of the barracks was not very high. At
that time there was considerable complaint,
principally from the newspapers of the small
cities and towns. It is too cold at Ayer, they
The heating system once in operation, there
soon came to be little cause for complaint.
The barracks are cold in the morning because
the windows are open at night, but by the time
breakfast is over the sleeping rooms are reason-
ably comfortable. This picture shows one of
the heating plants from which the steam is
piped to the barracks in the vicinity.
(3) Getting Grub for the Day
Each morning the supply wagons bring to
the kitchen the commodities for which the
mess sergeant has requisitioned. One wagon
brings bread, another meat, and so on. Here
we have one of the kitchen police receiving the
alloted amount of meat for his company. The
sergeant who accompanies the wagon has just
checked off the allowance of that company.
(4) ''Turn Out The Guard"
Each regiment has a guard-house, and imder
ordinary circumstances, a different company
is daily assigned to guard duty. One-third
of the entire number are always at their posts;
the remainder wait at the guard-house imtil
their turn comes for active duty, or until an
alarm is sounded. This picture shows two-
thirds of the guard of a light field artillery regi-
ment in front of the guard-house.
(i) Post Exchange, 303D Infantry
(2) A Heating Plant
(3) A Quarter o' Beef
(4) "Turn Out the Guard"
THE CAMP FIRE DEPARTMENT
When the camp was being built, the authori-
ties realized the great danger from fire in the
hundreds of wooden buildings and made pro-
visions for a camp fire department. By the
time the draft men had arrived, the several
fire stations were finished, and a nimiber of
Ford trucks, the property of the Quartermas-
ter's Corps, completely equipped and ready for
any contingency which might arise. Those
draft men who had previously had experience
as firemen were attached to the fire department
and supplemented by men from the Quarter-
master's Corps. Lieutenant George H. Whit-
ney, a Harvard man from Boston, who had
previously attained much notoriety as a '*fire
fiend,'' was appointed chief of the department.
He organized his men, formulated elaborate
schemes for fire prevention and planned care-
fully to cope with any possible conflagration.
A numerical system of fire alarms, similar to
that employed in the cities, was adopted, and
a loud whistle which can be heard for several
miles, installed in one of the power-houses.
There was little need of the department until
the cold spell of October came on. All the bar-
racks and officers' quarters were then heated by
small oil stoves, which proved to be of the high-
explosive variety. For no apparent reasons
these stoves exploded regularly and with lam-
entable results. A number of the buildings
caught fire, and several burned to the ground;
it was due to the efficiency of the department
alone that a general conflagration was averted.
The responsibility for putting out fires is not
limited to the fire department, but extends to
every soldier in camp. When the fire-alarm
soimds, all the companies in the vicinity come
to the rescue and aid the firemen. In order
that the hydrants may give the greatest possible
pressure, the water supply is turned off in the
buildings until recall blows. The authorities
have drawn up a set of drastic rules for fire
prevention, particularly adapted to the existent
conditions at camp; these are strictly enforced.
CONCERNING TRUCKS AND FATIGUE
(i) An Army Truck
This huge truck, belonging to the Quarter-
master's Department, is one of the himdred
such vehicles which are at Camp Devens.
More speedy than the mules of former days, and
of greater capacity than the mule-drawn sup-
ply-wagons, they are almost luiiversally used
for trucking in places where the condition of
the roads permit. One sees many of them
daily at Ayer, nunbling along, the chains jing-
ling noisily, and at a rate of speed which makes
life miserable for the unwary pedestrian.
(2, 3 AND 4) Fatigue Duty
The next three pictures illustrate the sig-
nificance of the term ''fatigue duty." If any
manual labor has to be done about the camp,
details are called for. The men thus selected
perform the required work, whether it be to
unload a truck or to build a road.
The first * 'fatigue*' picture shows a detail of
M Company, 302d Infantry — men from Rock-
land and Quincy — building a road, or at least
trying to build one. It was zero weather and
the grotmd was like so much solid rock. Never-
theless, they were working away cheerfully.
"A little gtmpowder might help," I suggested.
"Lord, man, it would take another Halifax
disaster to loosen this dirt."
Nimiber three is a group of men from the
Headquarters Train, trying to make the roads
passable after a snowstorm. They are now in
front of the imit headquarters and are working
more industriously than ever, because they
have only one more load to shovel. When
they finish, they will take the first train for
Worcester, for a week-end visit.
The last picture shows a detail from Ambu-
ance Company Nimiber 302, loading the ac-
cumulated garbage of the day into one of the
Quartermaster's trucks. The man in the fore-
ground, who is saluting with a cigarette in his
mouth, unquestionably realizes the gravity of
Each morning these trucks go to the kit-
chens, collect the refuse and carry it to the
transfer station in the rear of the camp.
(3) The Last Load
(4) "Any Garbage?"
TWO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONARIES
(i) The Bugler
One of the most ardent ambitions of the
small boy, in these times of wars and nmiors of
wars, is undoubtedly some day to be an army
bugler. This enthusiasm and envy is by no
means limited to the youth; it is shared by
people of mature years, and even by the sol-
diers themselves. There is something pictur-
esque about the bugler, and something that
suggests romance in his notes. Before any-
one is astir, with the exception of the cooks, the
bugler comes from his barracks in the dim
morning light, and shrills the ''first call," which
precedes reveille. It then seems as if some
one turned on an electric switch which rouses
inanimate beings to activity, and changes
darkness into light. The lights in the barracks
flash; there comes from all sides thesoimd of
closing windows, the dropping of shoes, and
inharmonious yawns. The bugler has awakened
the camp. Throughout the day he announces
mess, sick-call, drill-call, and numerous others
imtil taps blows, when the same magic notes
turn out the lights and silence the songs and
voices of thirty thousand men.
Owing to the wide area over which the
buildings are distributed, the men blow their
instruments into a megaphone. In this pic-
ture, the bugler of the 304th Infantry is annoimc-
ing to his comrades, who have just retiuned
from drill, that mess is waiting for them.
(2) The Sentry
Another interesting figure is the sentry.
The camp proper is patrolled by the military
police, who have ''billies" instead of rifles.
Some of the regimental guards, however, carry
rifles, and patrol certain posts, as in an ordinary
war-time encampment. This guard, with his
bayonet fixed, is patrolling the vicinity of a
battalion headquarters of the 303d Infantry.
It is a cold job because his post is not extensive
and has not much walking space. It will be
noticed that the home-made helmet and gloves,
quantities of which the women of America have
been industriously knitting for their boys, are
doing good service.
(i) "Soupy, Soupy, Soupy!"
(This is the orthodox translation of mess-call)
(2) "Halt! Who Goes There?"
RELIEVING THE GUARD
According to the ordinary procedure of
guard duty, a man is on duty for two hours and
off for four, imtil the prescribed twenty-four
hours have elapsed. Each shift is under the
control of a corporal — the well-known * 'corporal
of the guard/' After one shift is over, the
corporal of the guard who is to go on duty
and the corporal whose men are about to be
relieved, visit each post with the relief. At
Post No. I, they pick up Smith and leave Jones,
and so on. When the corporals return to the
guard-house, they have an entirely different set
of men; those they started with are now scat-
tered at the various posts.
This picture shows the relief of the guard.
In the quadrangular group, the man on the
left is the old guard at Post No. 6; he has
been on duty for two hours. Facing him is
the relief who will take the post for the next
two hours. The first one is explaining to his
relief the limits of the post, and is communi-
cating any orders which may have been given
him. The man with his back towards us is the
corporal of the old guard; facing him, with
the smile, is the corporal of the relief. The
six men are partly of the old guard and partly
of the relief. When the colimm moves on,
the man who has been relieved will fall in at
the rear and return to the guard-house for f our
hours of rest.
In case of any trouble on a post, the guard
summons assistance. If he is undecided what
course to pursue in a minor disagreement, he
cries, ''Corporal of the guard; No. 6!" If the
sixth post is distant from the guard-house,
the man on the next post passes on the cry and
eventually the corporal arrives to settle the
difficulty. If the guard is taken ill, he cries
"Corporal of the guard; No. 6; relief!" The
corporal then comes with a man to relieve him.
If there is serious trouble, the guard cries:
"The Guard! No. 6.'* The corporal at the
guard-house reports to the commander of the
guard (usually a sergeant), who turns out the
entire guard and rushes to the scene of disorder.
One of the most important branches of mili-
tary science which soldiers must master is the
skilful use of the bayonet. Before the men
leave for France, every one of them will know
how to defend himself from another bayonet,
how to conduct an offensive, and how to com-
bine skilfully the two movements. Quite
naturally, this work has been very popular at
Camp Devens. There is nothing that the
American likes better than hand-to-hand, man-
to-man fighting. For that reason he excels
in football, in wrestling, in boxing, and in
every other sport in which the element of per-
sonal contact and aggression is predominant.
That is the reason why he must learn this
science thoroughly, and that is why, when he has
learned it, he will make the best bayonet fighter
on the Western Front. There is nothing
particularly inspiring about shooting at a forest
two miles away in the hope of hitting some
one, or in firing at a trench, the occupants of
which are not in sight. But when the American
meets his adversary face to face, when it is skill
against skill, there he will be at his best.
But there is another feature of American
fighting which will hinder our men. The Anglo-
Saxon likes to fight fair; he plays a clean game
and expects his adversary to do the same,
hence he is not looking out for fouls. Accord-
ing to the German code of fighting, a man fouls
whenever possible. The Huns surrender and
then shoot their captors in the back, and have
innumerable other little tricks which **are not
being done** in clean fighting. Otu- boys are
being trained how to deal with these methods.
The American soldier is not encouraged to
emulate Prussian barbarism ; he is being taught
how to cope with it, how to overcome that
barbarism, and thereby save his own life.
Every element of warfare which the authori-
ties teach your son, your brother, your
friend, is for his own good and is likely to save
his life at one time or another.
The bayonet work of Camp Devens is imder
the tutelage of Major Reginald Barlow, of the
302d Infantry. Major Barlow is a veteran
fighter and has seen service in South Africa.
When the war broke out he was an actor play-
ing in "Old Lady 31." He is now regarded as
one of the most expert bayonet instructors in
As yet, the United States has not evolved
"Over the Top — and Give 'Em Hell"
BAYONET PRACTICE— Continued
any partictdar form cf bayonet fighting for
this war, but the authorities are constantly
experimenting. When the perfected system is
adopted, it will probably be a combination of
the English, French, and Canadian codes.
The men are being trained according to cer-
tain principles which the English have foimd
most successful and efficacious.
The bayonet fighters in these pictures are
men of the 13th Company, Depot Brigade.
The preceding picture shows them coming over
an imaginary *'top," and gives some idea of what
a bayonet charge in skirmish line looks like.
The picture opposite shows the same men
receiving instruction in thrusting from Lieuten-
ant Russell Codman of the 4th Battalion. The
dummies are of burlap sacks filled with straw.
The man on the end seems to be making a par-
ticularly determined and deadly thrust.
Getting Ready For — "Der Tag"
Another constituent of the modem art of
warfare is the hand grenade, an offensive arm
hitherto practically unrecognized by our regu-
lations, which has become an important fea-
ture in the fighting on the Western Front.
The grenade is made of cast iron and is about
the size and shape of a lemon. The outside
of the casing is corrugated, so that when it ex-
plodes, it bursts into fragments. The grenadier
holds it in his right hand, removes the safety
pin with his left, and hurls the grenade in the
direction of the enemy trenches. Five seconds
after the grenade leaves the hand, it explodes,
scattering some fifty bits of iron in all direc-
tions, with such force that they are danger-
ous at a distance of a hundred yards. It is
sometimes used preliminary to the attack, in
order to clear the opposing front-line trench, but
more often to '*mop up" an enemy trench, after
it has been taken. The French company
formation, adopted since the beginning of the
war, substitutes a number of grenadiers for the
customary riflemen, and the newly adopted
English and Canadian formations also have
squads of men skilled in throwing the danger-
ous missiles. Our formation for action on
the Western Front has not yet been perfected
but when the final decision is made, there will
be a large nimiber of these grenadiers attached
to each company. Accordingly, the military
authorities at Ayer, leaving no stone tmtumed
in the thorough preparation of the men, have
already begun to teach them the art of throw-
ing the grenade. Lieutenant Mallet of the
French Mission, assisted by Lieutenant A. W.
Wright, is superintending the grenade work
at the camp. The group in the picture are
non-commissioned officers from the 7th Bat-
talion, Depot Brigade. They are learning the
rudiments in advance of the privates so that
they will be able to instruct their charges when
the time comes. The Americans find it rather
difficult to throw the dummy grenade; they
are tempted to throw it like a baseball, but it
must be done with a circular overhead move-
ment, by swinging the arm as the pitcher does
in the English game of cricket.
Clearing an Imaginary German Trench
The knowledge of the methods of signalling
is not restricted to the Signal Corps, but is
necessary to men in every branch of the serv-
ice. The two principal codes used by the
United States army are the wig-wag, which is
a visual adaption of the International Morse
code, and the semaphore two-arm or two-flag
code, which is illustrated in the accompanying
Certain movements and formations are also
regulated by signals, the knowledge of which is
imperative to their proper execution. Often
in the trenches or on the battlefield, the noise
or distance is so great that oral commtmication
is impossible, and written notification not
feasible. On this accoimt it is absolutely neces-
sary that the soldier, whether engineer, cavalry-
man or artilleryman, be able to communicate
with his officers or companions in another part
of the field by arm signals.
Ordinarily, flags are used, as they are more
easily seen, but in this picture where the train-
ing is taking place, they are not necessary, and
only two men seem to be equipped with them.
The semaphore code is very simple and the
letters follow certain movements of the arms
in logical sequence. The man in front is
signalling the letter O. Of the three men on
the right whose arms are raised, the first is
giving the letter J, and those behind him are .
both signalling the letter A. The signallers
are members of the 14th and isth Companies of
the Depot Brigade.
SANITATION, BAYONETS AND HOUSE-MOVING
(i) The sanitary officer of Camp Devens
has decreed that as a health precaution all
blankets and mattresses shall be suspended
during the hours of morning drill from the win-
dows of the barracks, and that every window
in the btiilding shall be open. That is the
reason for the rather astounding display of
sleeping accoutrements in this barracks of the
302d Light Artillery.
(2) The medical authorities have also taken
strict precautions to prevent the spread of any
epidemic among the draft men. The few and
scattered cases of measles have resulted in the
wholesale quarantine of the companies to which
the sick men belonged. This picture shows
the quarantined barracks of a caisson company
of the Ammunition Train. A promenade has
been fenced in for the guard; he will allow no
one to come within the outside fence, and the
patients are restricted to that area enclosed
by the inside barrier.
(3) Here we have First Lieutenant H. D.
White instructing his men in bayonet drill. In
order to illustrate the many varieties of offen-
sive and defensive positions, the lieutenant
has ordered each pair to assume a different
pose. The men on the end are executing the
preliminary movements, but in the center we
can see a man who has come to close quarters
with his adversary and is, so to speak, "after
him tooth and nail.** This platoon is from
H Company of the 302d Infantry, and the
combatants formerly lived on Cape Cod.
(4) These men from the 304th Infantry
realize that a soldier is expected to do every
kind of work on the calendar. A building which
was formerly used as sleeping quarters for the
civilian workmen was needed near the regi-
mental headquarters for a motor-cycle garage.
Accordingly, a detail was called to transfer it,
and now the moving is in full progress. They
have about three blocks farther to go, but
judging from the happy expressions on their
faces, the distance does not seem to be of much
(i) "Out the Window You Must Go"
(3) Up and at 'Em
(4) Moving Day
THE MEDICAL CORPS
Since the Red Cross has come under the
dominion of the War Department, the am-
bulances and equipment have become adjuncts
to the Medical Corps, and the workers enlisted
men in the army. The Medical Corps at Camp
Devens is under the direction of Lieutenant -
Colonel Powell, the divisional surgeon, who has
under him 230 officers and x lOO men. Besides
the base hospital there are twenty-six infirma-
ries, attached, for the most part, to the regimental
units. Each of these smaller hospitals has a
staff of officers and trained men to take care of
the trivial cases or to administer first aid upon
event of an emergency. Each morning, after
breakfast, the men who are not w^ell answer
"sick-cair' and are marched by a non-com-
missioned officer to the regimental infirmar>\
If their illnesses are imaginary or obviously
only temporary, the staff treats them there ; any
men whose condition is really not normal^ or
who might develop sickness through lack of
proper care^ are sent to the base hospital in
It lends a touch of realism to the ordinary
commonplace incidents of the camp to see these
ambulances, ^ith large red crosses on the side,
go tearing along the road. The * 'rolling stock"
of the Medical Corps consists of thirty ambu-
lances like those illustrated and four field hos-
pitals. The drivers of these vehicles belong
to the four ambulance companies, whose quar*
ters are adjacent to those of the Headquarters
The picture shows three of the ambulances
waiting near one of the regimental infirmaries
for patients to take to the base hospital.
THE FIELD ARTILLERY
Camp Devens has three regiments of field
artillery: the 303d, heavy artillery, the 301st
and 302d, light artillery. Colonel A. S. Conk-
lin is the commanding officer of the combined
regiments. The enlisted men are those drafted
from Northern Maine and New Hampshire.
(i) Battery F, 303D. H. F. A.
Captain Gallaudet of Waterbnry has just
ordered his organization, Battery F, to fall in
for fatigue duty. It is early afternoon, and the
entire regiment is about to pick up the groimds
and do odd jobs in the vicinity. A quarter-
mile away, there is a huge supply of wood,
scattered promiscuously over the landscape;
these boys from the north will spend the after-
noon gathering and placing it in piles for the
trucks to distribute.
(2) At the same time Battery D is rotmding
the comer. A road not far away must be
opened before night and the soldiers have
donned blue overalls to keep their imiforms
from getting dirty. They surely present a
strange appearance, with their campaign hats
and the blue, loose-fitting clothes, in place of
the regulation khaki.
(3 AND 4) Artillery Practice.
Lieutenant Julian L. Lathrop, the former
Harvard athlete, who has been in the ambulance
service at the Western Front, is drilling a squad
from Battery E. In the absence of horses and
artillery, they use wooden imitations and
themselves drag the *'big gims" around. They
are now ready to fire; there is a goodly supply
of theoretical ammimition in the wooden
caisson at the right of the gun, and the sergeant
is about to give the signal which will (also
theoretically) cause a shell to disturb the peace-
ful quiet of the town of Clinton, ten miles away.
On the ''camouflaged'* horses the same squad
is learning the fine points of equestrianism.
Whenthegenuinearticlesarrive, all that will be
necessary will be to get on good terms with the
i) Battery F
(2) Blue Overalls
(3) "Ready — Fire"
(4) The Gentle Art of Equestrianism
THE DEPOT BRIGADE
"What is the Depot Brigade?" comes the
query from all sides.
Some people seem to harbor the impression
that it is an organization which camps in the
railroad station, or uses the freight yards as a
drill-field. But such is not the case. It is not
even remotely connected with the railroad
depot or with the freight and passenger serv-
ice. The Depot Brigade is a clearing-house
for soldiers, — a training school which never
takes a vacation, although many of its graduates
daily receive their degrees as first-class soldiers.
To the Depot Brigade come all the recruits; to it
are sent all those men who do not readily pick
up the elements of military training in the line
regiments. In a way, it may be compared to
the foundry which receives crude iron and odd
lots of old metal, and molds it step by step until
the finished product is perfected.
The Depot Brigade is the reserve upon which
the line regiments depend to replenish troops
which have been transferred or sent away.
While the infantry line trains the same men
day after day until they are proficient as a unit,
this clearing-house trains individuals until
they are fit for the line, and then sends them
away; the vacant places are necessarily filled
by green men, and the whole process has to be
If a certain company of the line requires
fifty men to fill its ranks, an appeal is made to
the Depot Brigade; accordingly, fifty well-
trained men appear the next morning at the
roll-call of the infantry organization. If two
hundred men must leave for Georgia, if ten
men suited for engineers are needed, the Depot
Brigade comes to the rescue. This training
school is numerically the largest organization
in the camp; it prepares men for every branch
of the service.
The officers are the hardest-worked men at
Ayer. They do not drill the same men day
after day, but often have several different
companies pass through their hands in a month.
They must have on the tip of their tongue every
detail of the regulations, for while Brown has
been in the service two months and Green one
month. Black has had only two weeks' training
and White did not come to camp until the day
before yesterday; the officer must therefore be
ready to explain the principles of grenade
throwing to Brown, the elements of bayonet
The Main Street, Depot Brigade
THE DEPOT BRIGADE— Continued
combat to Green, the intricacies of company
and platoon drill to Black, and the manual of
arms to White, — and all within an hour if
need be. There is no time to glance at the
regulations; he must know what he is talking
about every minute.
The constant transferring of men from the
brigade necessarily entails constant practice in
army paperwork, a most important element of
military science. Again, every detail must be
clearly graven in the officers' minds. Such
constant practice in every branch of the art of
soldiering cannot but bring about an efficiency
which would not otherwise be obtained.
The preceding picture shows the main street
of the depot brigade. The headquarters is on
the knoll at the left, and the battalion streets, in
lines of barracks, run perpendicularly to the
right from this thoroughfare. The officers'
quarters are some distance from the road and
parallel to it, on the left. It can be seen that
the brigade is on the side of a long slope; from
its summit one can gain a view of the entire
The picture opposite shows a Depot Brigade
battalion, comprising in this case about 500
men, and made up of four skeletonized com-
A Depot Brigade Battalion
THE HEADQUARTERS TRAIN— THE SIGNAL CORPS
The 301st Headquarters Train and Military
Police embraces four other organizations: the
301st Supply Train, the 301st Ammunition Train,
the 301st Sanitary Train and the 301st Engi-
neers' Train. The members of these motorized
units come principally from Worcester, Spring-
field, and the central part of Massachusetts.
Many experienced drivers and skilled mechan-
ics have been transferred to the Headquarters
Train and are employed at their old trades.
This is in accordance with the plan of the
authorities to put every man where he will do
the best work. The Commanding Officer is
Colonel G. H. Estes, formerly of the infantry.
The signalling department of the camp is
under the control of Major C. A. Lewis, the
divisional signal officer. Captain John F. Fan-
ning commands the 301st Signal Battalion, the
only detachment of the Signal Corps at Ayer.
This battalion is unlike the other units in
that its members are, for the most part, vol-
unteers who were recruited last spring and
early summer, before the draft became effec-
tive. The equipment of the Corps includes
a complete wireless outfit which communicates
frequently with other stations in all parts of
(i) The main street and some of the bar-
racks of the Headquarters Train.
(2) The 204th Ambulance Company at
right dress. This unit is a part of the Medical
Corps, but its barracks are adjacent to those of
the Train. These boys are mainly from Worces-
ter and Springfield.
(3) A view of the barracks of the 301st
Signal Battalion. The first three belong to
Companies A, B and C, respectively; the
building beyond, which resembles an officers*
quarters, is that of the headquarters detach-
(4) Another view of the Signal Corps, show-
ing the drill field. The building in the back-
ground, upon which the antennae of the wire-
less are seen, is for the overflow from the
three other buildings. The wireless, which is
now in the officers' quarters, will also be moved
into the new structure.
(I) The Main Street
(2) 204TH Ambulance Company
(3) The Signal Corps
(4) Signal Corps Barracks
The 301ST Regiment
Like the now censored expression ** Sammy/'
which so aroused the wrath of the American
soldier in France, the designation '* Boston's
Own," as applied to the 301st Infantry, has
caused much heated discussion at Camp Devens.
The members of that regiment are Greater
Boston men, for the most part; upon their
arrival at Ayer, the unit was christened "Bos-
ton's Own" by one of the newspapers. The
phrase appeared again and again in the columns
of the press tmtil it became a fixture at the
camp, and a tradition among the people of
Boston. Immediately the other infantry or-
ganizations and the Depot Brigade, which has
many units made up solely of Boston men,
took exception to the term and were annoyed
by the notoriety which was extended by the
press to that regiment alone. Some men of the
301st, also wearied by the constant repetition
of the phrase, and the subsequent loss of mili-
tary identity as a imit, became indignant.
When asked where they had been assigned, men
of other imits declared :
'*We're from the 302d (303d or 304th),
not from Boston's Own,''
The Depot Brigade cries hotly:
* 'Forget the 'Boston's Own* stuff when you're
And an officer of the 301st explained to me:
'*Such nicknames, though novel at first, be-
come unpleasant when overworked. We prefer
to be the plain 301st until we have a record be-
hind us. Then they may call us what they
Such are the opinions! Visitors at the camp
are strongly advised to ask for the 301st In-
fantry, if they wish to find that unit; should
they ask the direction of ** Boston's Own," they
might be sent to the opposite side of the camp.
The 301st Infantry is situated a himdred
yards to the south of the Divisional Headquar-
ters. The commanding officer is Colonel Frank
Tompkins. This picture shows the barracks
of the regiment, taken from the rear.
The 301 ST, OF Boston
THE QUARTERS OF THE SUPPLY COMPANY, 301ST INFANTRY
The lower floor of the typical barracks is
devoted to the mess hall and kitchen, the first
sergeant's office and the recreation room; the
top floor is used for sleeping quarters. The
Ayer men are particularly fortunate in regard
to their bunks and equipment. Each man has
an iron cot, equipped with a spring and a straw
mattress (a luxury unknown to the soldiers of
the **good old days" of a year or two ago.) Be-
sides these, he has as many blankets as are
requisite for his comfort. No pillows are fur-
nished, but the soldier may buy one for his per-
sonal use if he so desires. Pajamas are not
As there are no closets or mahogany bureaus,
the men deposit their personal belongings under
their cots; there they are as safe as in a vault,
for, according to the soldier's code of honor,
theft is classified with murder and arson and is
unknown in an army camp. In the center of
the room there are pegs on which overcoats
may be himg; but all other personal belongings
are restricted to the area of the cots.
At night every window is opened six inches
as a result of the recent order of the Sanitary
Officer. Directly after mess in the morning, the
soldier makes his bed. It is not **made" in the
ordinary way, but, rather, in accordance with
the military regulations. All blankets and
bed clothing are neatly folded and deposited
in a pile at the head of the bed; personal ar-
ticles must be in similarly neat piles beneath
each cot. The barracks are inspected daily by
an officer; any man whose bunk is not in good
condition, or who has neglected to comply
with any of the rules, is given a reprimand and
extra **fatigue duty."
The boys in this barracks are of the Supply
Company of the 301st. When the picture was
taken, they had just finished **tidying up" the
big room for inspection.
Supply Company, 301 st Infantry
The lower floor of each barracks contains a
spacious mess-hall and kitchen for the members
of the company. The mess-hall is fiiled with
long wooden benches and seats. In the rear
is the kitchen, where the food is prepared and
cooked on large ranges. The cooks are per-
manent members of the culinary department,
and were originally selected on account of
previous experience in that field, but the waiters
and helpers, the **kitchen police," as they are
called, are only on duty temporarily. Each
day a detail is selected from the company roster
to act as kitchen police. These men are re-
lieved from military duties and are under the
orders of his Majesty, the Cook. They carry in
the supplies from the trucks, peel potatoes and
onions, and at meal time act as waiters, bringing
the food to the tables from the sideboard which
separates the kitchen and the dining hall. This
duty is not sought by the men and hence is
often given for days at a time as pimishment for
some laxity in discipline.
When the mess-call blows the men throng to
the tables upon which the food has already been
placed. As soon as they are allowed to sit down
there is one grand rush for the plates of food.
Smith has the potatoes, and Jones the platter
of meat. After Smith has taken all the pota-
toes he wants, he gives the dish to Jones, who
in turn passes back the meat. Meanwhile,
Brown, Green and Black are industriously
heaping their plates with bread, beans and
prunes. After a while this mutual interchange
is completed and most of the men are happy.
Those who have not obtained enough howl
for the distracted orderly to bring them more.
It is all done good-naturedly, however, and no
matter how hard a time a man may have in
getting what he wants when he wants it, he is
never hungry when he leaves the mess-hall.
For this is one of Uncle Sam's cardinal rules for
the health and happiness of his boys, — good
food and plenty of it.
The mess-hall shown here is that of a company
of the 303d Infantry. The kitchen police,
one of whom has a mop in his hand, are in the
foregroimd; the cooks can be seen behind the
The Most Popular Place in Camp
THE 302D INFANTRY
The 302 d Infantry, Colonel C. C. Smith
commanding, comes from the southeastern part
of Massachusetts. Some of the men came
from Quincy, Hingham and towns near Bos-
ton; others Uved in Provincetown and the vil-
lages of Cape Cod, on Martha's Vineyard and
Nantucket. These are the men whose fathers
and grandfathers sailed from New Bedford and
Nantucket on long whaling voyages, or earned
their subsistence by fishing trips to the banks of
Newfoundland. And their sons and grandsons,
strong and sturdy young men who have spent
their lives on the shores of Massachusetts, have
forsaken the sea, and are preparing to fight by
land the great war of democracy.
The street in the picture runs through their
barracks, and connects the reginiental street
in front with the highway in the rear. The
latter encircles the barracks of the 301st and
the 302d. Looking down the hill, one can
see the great parade ground, or drill field, which
these two regiments overlook.
This picture illustrates the manner in which
all the infantry sites are laid out. For instance,
the barracks of A and E Companies are on
the main street below, while B, C and D, and
G, H and I, are situated in tiers behind them.
One of the officers' quarters is seen on the other
side of the road at the bottom of the hill. The
small buildings along the side of the barracks
are latrines, which contain the toilets and
A Street of the 302D
RETURNING FROM THE TRENCHES
At seven-thirty this morning a detail from the
302 d Infantry was formed, and was ordered
to don overalls and take picks and shovels, in-
stead of rifles, for the morning drill. The tmit
had representatives of nearly every company
in the regiment.
**Squads right, march," commanded the
officer in charge, and the column moved up the
road. After ten minutes' walk the men arrived
at the trenches, and spent the morning in dig-
ging, and receiving instruction in the forma-
tion and construction of trenches from the
Canadian and French officers. It is Saturday
noon and now they are returning to their bar-
racks. For most of them, the week's work is
over, and a day and a half of rest is in prospect.
A Detail from the 302D
THE 303D INFANTRY
The quarters of the 303d and 304th Infantry
are at some distance from those of the other
two units of infantry, and stretch along the
road which runs parallel to the adjacent Depot
Brigade, in the southeastern part of the camp.
The men of the 303d are the only ones at Ayer
who were not residents of New England; they
come from northeastern New York state, from
Albany, Schenectady, Johnstown and other
towns and cities in that section. In imitation
of the Boston regiment, they call themselves
**New York's Own," but from the jocular man-
ner with which they pronounce this designa-
tion, one imderstands that they do not mean it
seriously, but are merely poking fun at their
The company in the picture is returning to
the barracks for mess, after several hoiu's of
strenuous ''fatigue duty." The regiment is
commanded by Colonel J. F. Preston.
"When the Day's Work is O'er"
THE 304TH INFANTRY
From Connecticut comes the 304th Infantry,
imder Colonel J. S. Herron; a large number of
its men were fonnerly employed by the indus-
trial plants of Bridgeport, Hartford, New
Britain and Waterbury. Some of the men
were imable to speak English, and others had
never learned to write. I saw the roll call of
Company G, commanded by Captain Charles D.
Case; parts of it resembled a list of Russian
fortresses and similariy unpronounceable names.
The sergeant who calls the roll did not find it
easy to enimciate clearly patronyms which
begin with ''Kryz-," or *'Crmn-\ These
examples are by no means exaggerated; similar
arrays of consonants are common things on the
company rosters. Such conditions are not
confined to this regiment, but are foimd in every
organization at Ayer; they are more than ordi-
narily prevalent in the 304th because of the
large number of men from the industrial cities
which contributed their quota to that unit.
The authorities have made every effort to
bring to these men of foreign birth the same
knowledge of the English language enjoyed by
their native-bom comrades. Schools teaching
written and spoken English were formed, and
those men who had not been educated were
required to attend. The results have been
remarkable, as the pupils have shown, from the
first, a keen desire to learn. And although, on
account of their lack of knowledge of English,
they were at first somewhat slow in mastering
the elements of drill, they soon acquired a
proficiency which rivalled that of their Ameri-
can-bom fellow soldiers.
It is hard to realize that many members of
this column of platoons, which is now marching
like a veteran body, were working at machines
three months before and had not the slightest
idea of military regulations. Then some of them
could not imderstand spoken English, and their
only idea of discipline was that of the factory.
Now they are living under better conditions
than some of them enjoyed in the factory
towns from which they came, keeping regular
hours, taking continuous exercise and eating
good, wholesome food. Is it any wonder that
they make such a good showing?
A Column of Platoons
THE REVIEW OF THE 304TH INFANTRY
In a military cantonment, reviews of regi-
mental units are held frequently, both for the
delectation of the higher officers and other digni-
taries, and also for practice in mass drilling and
formations. These pictures present the general
aspects of a regimental review.
In the course of the morning, the order comes
to the company commanders to be ready for a
review of the regiment at 11.30. Drill is ordi-
narily suspended and the men are given an
opportunity to clean their uniforms, polish
their shoes, and prepare their rifles and equip-
ment for the usually attendant inspection by
the person or persons in honor of whom the
formality is held. At 11. 15, the company com-
manders order their imits to form in company
line. He then conducts an informal inspection
of the men.
(i) "A" company has just formed and the
captain is explaining the procedure that is to
follow. At the same time the other companies
are likewise forming and receiving the same
instructions. The captain 'then marches the
company to the place where the battalion is to
assemble. He reports to the major, who takes
charge of the battalion, and marches it to the
designated place on the parade ground.
(2) The first battalion has taken its place,
and the line in the rear is standing at attention.
(3) The entire regiment is now in position
before the reviewing stand. An officer with a
megaphone is explaining certain details which
must be learned before the next formation.
(4) The formality being over, the battalions
are returning to their barracks in column of
platoons, that is to say, several squads abreast.
The order comes ** Platoon right by squads.**
The platoon on the left is changing its formation
and instead of marching in platoon line, like the
second unit in the picture, it is forming a column
of squads, — one squad behind the other, the
usual marching formation. In this formation,
the captains take their men to their barracks.
(i) Company A, 304TH Infantry
^ ** r ' * I^^^^M
(3) At Attention
(4) "Platoon Right by Squads"
(i) The Supply Team
Once more we have one of the mule teams;
this one is an adjunct to the Supply Company
of the 303d H. F. A. The transportation
and distribution of company supplies comes
within the province of the supply company, a
tmit which is attached to each regiment. The
men usually selected for this organization are
those who have had previous experience in tak-
ing care of horses and mules, or in driving carts.
In the regular army, the supply men have the
longest working hours of any enlisted men in
the service. Directly after breakfast, they
harness their teams and drive away; they do
not appear again at their quarters until supper
(2) Policing the Grounds
The word **police," taken as a verb, means,
in military parlance, to "clean up." The
'^policing** of a mess hall signifies the sweep-
ing of the floor and washing of the tables. The
* 'policing" of the camp grounds denotes the
cleaning up of all papers and rubbish in the
vicinity. Two men carry a box or a sack for
the refuse; the rest pick up every scrap which
might arouse the wrath of the vigilant inspector
or sanitary officer. Here we have a group of
men from the 302d Field Artillery, putting
their grounds in good order for an expected
inspection by the colonel.
Throwing the Medicine Ball
(3) Outdoor games are often substituted for
the setting-up exercises. This circle of men from
the Signal Corps is engaged in throwing about a
heavy medicine ball. The physical training of
the camp is superintended by R. F. Nelligan, a
civilian instructor, who was formerly the Profes-
sor of Hygiene and Physical Exercise at Amherst
College. Mr. Nelligan offered his services to
the War Department and was sent to Ayer
(4) The fourth picture shows the first bat-
talion of the 304th Infantry, which is about to
march to the drill field for practice in battalion
formations and movements.
(i) Supply Team
PH^^^^^^ ' V
(2) Police Duty
(3) "Tossing the Pill"
(4) A Battalion of the 304TH
DRILL FIELD, RANGE AND TRENCH
(i) "The Prize Squad"
When members of companies I and K,
302d Infantry, came down with the measles,
the other members of the vmit were placed
tinder strict quarantine. In order to prevent
loss of valuable time while waiting for the
quarantine to be lifted, the officers took groups
to isolated parts of the camp and conducted
the drills. The picture shows a group of non-
commissioned officers of the two companies in-
dulging in a quiet, private drill, "far from the
madding crowd.*' The lieutenant in charge
informed me that they were the "prize squad
of the camp.*'
(2) At the Trenches
Men from the 303d Infantry are seen digging
a first-line trench. While one shift of men is
working, the rest receive explanations and
(3) The 301ST AT THE Range
This picture gives a good idea of the appear-
ance of the rifle range in the afternoon. The
crowd of men who are waiting behind the firing
line are from the 301st Infantry. They are
on the htmdred yard range, and the men are
shooting from a standing position.
(4) Keeping Warm
When the temperature drops at the trenches,
the men gather brush and old boards and do
their best to keep warm. The large nimiber
of men around the fire is good proof of its popu-
larity at the present chilly moment. When
the cold becomes intense, the captains send for
hot coffee from the company kitchens. This is
brought to the trenches in huge boilers by the
supply wagons. Such acts of forethought and
kindness to the men are indicative of the spirit
of the officers at Ayer; they make every effort
not only to train their men, but, at the same
time, to keep them comfortable and contented.
(i) "The Prize Squad*'
(2) A Front Line Trench Under Construction
(3) "Commence Firing"
(4) Only Four Below
THE RIFLE RANGE
After the camp was completed, the authori-
ties scanned the neighborhood for a suitable
rifle range for the draft men and eventually
selected an immense field about two miles dis-
tant from the camp. A nimiber of short ranges
were established, some of loo yards, some of
200, and others equipped with apparatus de-
signed for practice with low calibre rifles.
Every man in camp will take his turn at the
ranges. The soldiers go for practice in com-
pany or battalion units, and their efforts are
carefully supervised by officers and expert
riflemen. For those who are unacquainted
with the equipment of a rifle range, a short des-
cription might be welcome. The men fire from
three positions: prone (i. e. lying on the stom-
ach), kneeling, and from a standing position.
The targets have a black bulls-eye in the center,
with larger rings encircling it. A bulls-eye
counts five points, and the corresponding rings,
four, three, and two; a hit on any part of the
target cotmts two. After the man has shot,
the markers, who are in a trench beneath the
targets, pull them down and examine them;
then they raise them again by a system of pul-
leys, and designate with a disk, which is on a
long pole, the position of the hit. A scorer,
standing behind the firing line, keeps a careful
record of the score. Ten shots are fired, and
the percentage is figured on the basis of a pos-
sible total of fifty.
The men in the picture, belonging to the
304th Infantry, are firing from a trench which
is an exact copy of a firing trench on the western
front. When standing on the floor of the
trench, the soldiers are not in range of the
enemy *s rifle fire; the firing step enables them
to shoot over the top of the parapet.
The scores of the men have been most grati-
fying; at the 100-yard range, some organizations
of the 304th have had an average of forty out of
a possible fifty points.
The Firing "Trench
In order to train the draft men tinder con-
ditions resembling as closely as possible those
that they will later encounter in France, the
authorities have ordered that a complete set of
trenches be built, both for the practice in con-
structing them, and for the training in their
use which will follow. All the men of the line
will take part in the exercises. Officers and
non-commissioned officers from the French and
Canadian armies, who have seen active service,
and realize the actual conditions of trench war-
fare, are supervising this work at Camp Devens.
The United States has no standard trenches;
those which will be eventually adopted will be
a combination of the best points of the systems
used by the allied forces. The trenches at
Ayer are really only experimental, but they
answer their purpose in demonstrating to the
infantrymen the characteristics and uses of
those which are employed at the western front.
The soldier will learn to distinguish the first,
second and third-line trenches and the commtini-
cation trenches which connect them. He will
know how to dig the trenches, to build the
firing step, the berme, the parapet, the parados,
and he will become acquainted with the function
of each. He will learn how to build dugouts,
how to construct revetments, how to drain the
trenches, and many other details which are
mysteries to the iminitiated. When the system
is completed he will be taught to defend them,
and from them to conduct a strong offensive.
No matter what system is finally adopted, the
men from Ayer will have a thorough knowledge
of the fundamentals of trench construction and
trench warfare, and with this to work on, they
will be able quickly to pick up whatever new
details may develop.
The picture shows some men of the 303 d
Infantry in a commtmication trench. The
wooden frame-work constitutes, in military
parl^^nce, a revetment of fascines, which has
been constructed to obviate any possibility of
A Communication Trench
AROUND THE FIRE
The outside temperature of New England
is not comfortable dimng the winter months.
On this account, many people have attacked
the plan of the War Department to have
a camp in the North; they claimed that
the men would be subject to innimierable
ills on account of the rigorous weather. The
authorities have had one great object — to keep
the men in their own districts until they leave
for France. According to this plan, the men
have an opportunity to go home frequently, and
their friends and relatives are enabled to visit
the cantonments. And by this method, the
people can see just what progress the men are
making; the mother can realize the great care
that is taken of her boy, and the benefit which
he receives day by day from the training.
There is no doubt that a southern climate
would be more comfortable for the Massa-
chusetts men. At Ayer it is cold, but the
men have plenty of clothing to keep them
warm, and the barracks are as well heated as
the ordinary home. The cold weather is
exhilarating; it inures the men who have al-
ways lived in hot houses to the out-door
life of winter and consequently is more bene-
ficial than would be the languorous warmth
of the South or the variable weather conditions
of England or France. And above all, the
Ayer cantonment enables the men to prepare
for war at home. Few would exchange this
privilege for a camp in another section. The
people see their boys being trained; they do not
have to imagine this instruction, as though
it were carried on in some vague place like
Charlotte, N.C., or "Somewhere in France."
In every way, the Ayer cantonment has been
a monumental success. The War Department
has done its best, the camp authorities are doing
their best, and the spirit of enthusiasm and
intensity of the enlisted personnel is the spirit
which will make them the best citizen-soldiers
that the world has ever seen, and will also lead
them to victory and a glorious peace.
God Bless Us, Evekv One
r iO, 1S17- -
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Headquarters 76th Division
CAMP DEVENS. AVER. MASS.
TO CNTCR THIS ^ANTONMCNT. 'THROUGH
PRESENTATION OF THIS PASS. THIS PASS
DISCRETION OF THE DIVISION COMMANDEI
DISCRETION OF^JTHE on
The Permit Given the Author by the
Camp Devens Authorities
\^ COPV J
The Permit Given the Author by the
Committee on Public Information
ach Picture Taken by the Author
Was Stamped in This Way
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