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Dev.B. 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




FRANCES LOEB LIBRARY 
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN 




CAMP DEVENS 




Courtesy of the Y. M,C.A. 



Camp Devens 



CAMP DEVENS 

DESCRIBED AND PHOTOGRAPHED 
BY 

ROGER BATCHELDER 

Author of " Watching and Waiting on the Border " 
WITH A FOREWORD BY 

Major ROGER MERRILL 

Adjutant, isxst Infantry Brigade, Seventy-Sixth Division. National Army. Camp Devens 

With photographs taken by the author under the official authorization of the Committee on 

Public Information and the War Department, and with the endorsement 

of the authorities at Camp Devens 




BOSTON 
SMALL. MAYNARD & COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 






Copyright, 191 8 
By Small, Maynard & Company 

(Inoorixn-ated) 



:i ^- 



I, 



FOREWORD 

Mr. Roger Batchelder, 

Sir: — You are to be congratulated for this accurate and 
complete description by pen and lens of Camp Devens. For 
us who are here it will be valued as a record of our early 
days when the National Army was in its swaddling-clothes. 

Later we will search it for a sight of the familiar train- 
ing areas, knowing that the unpainted exterior of Camp 
Devens mothered and trained lion-hearted men for the 
great duty to which America has set her will. 

Very truly yours, 

ROGER MERRILL 

Major A. G. R. C. 151st Infantry Brigade 
Camp Devens, December 21, 191 7 



THE BUILDING OF CAMP DEVENS 

Six months ago, the traveller on the road between Ayer and Fitchburg saw little to attract 
his attention. About a mile from the former town began a stretch of scrub and brush, populated 
only by an occasional rabbit. There was nothing imusual about this tract. It had its 
quota of hills and swamps, two or three ponds, and here and there a farmhouse. At that time 
the passers-by merely noticed that it was a particularly drab and imattractive bit of waste. There 
are himdreds of areas of similar appearance and topography in New England. 

The little town of Ayer was then merely an ordinary New England village. The fact that it 
was the jimction of the Fitchburg, Worcester, and Portland branches of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad added Uttle to its importance. In appearance the center of Ayer was not tmlike that 
of a Maine village of the * 'backwoods*' type. Commercially, there was only a single street, lined 
on one side, for a space of a few blocks, with the business enterprises of the town. The village 
had neither declined nor advanced during the last half -century ; independent of the outside 
world and the vaguely distant metropolis of Boston, it had maintained a placid and tmruffled 
existence, the tranquillity of which was interrupted only by the arrival of an occasional train, and 
the advent and the departure of the United States mail. The two or three hundred dwellings, 
small, neat cottages belonging, for the most part, to the respectable, hardworking class, were the 
only other evidences of life in the little village. As I heard a native say: **In those days Ayer 
was present, but not voting.'' 

Upon our entrance into the war of the world, the order of things changed. The military 
authorities, searching diligently for a favorable site for the projected divisional cantonment, came 
to Ayer, viewed the nearby waste, and pondered. When the reports went to Washington, some- 
one stuck a pin with a little red flag on it at the dot on the map marked **Ayer." The real history 
of the town began. More military experts came, accompanied by engineers and men skilled in 
planning enormous projects. Eventually they agreed that the wilderness tract on the Fitchburg 



road should be the training-camp of the youth of New England. Early in Jime the leases 
of the land were signed, the contract awarded to Fred T. Ley Company of Springfield, and on 
June 1 8 the vanguard of the army of laborers arrived at the future Camp Devens. 

The construction of the cantonment of the Seventy-sixth Division was a triumph of engineering 
and contracting skill, and a monument to American efficiency and industry. Nearly nine thousand 
acres of virgin brush and swamp, a tract seven miles in length and two in breadth, was trans- 
formed into a huge city of soldiers within ten weeks. Five thousand workers, the pick of the skilled 
and imskilled labor of the state, were shipped to the groimds. Before any work could be done, 
quarters for these men had to be constructed and they were housed in long shed-like structures 
of wood, covered with tar paper. Then the actual work began. Under the supervision of Captain 
Edward L. Canfield, Jr., the quartermaster of construction, the brush was cleared, the swamp 
drained, the terrain levelled. As soon as conditions allowed, the carpenters set to work erecting 
buildings on the cleared areas. Surveyors laid out lines of barracks and mapped out the many 
miles of roads. Day after day the work went on imceasingly ; the wilderness lost its desolate aspect 
of former times, and hiunmed with industry. Throughout the day there came the sounds of tire- 
less hammering, of digging and blasting. Steam-rollers toiled in every section of the camp. A 
great squadron of motor trucks ran in a continuous line to and from the spur of the tracks which 
had been extended to the camp, distributing endless supplies and equipment. 

The contractors did everything in their power to insure the health and comfort of the workmen. 
Their quarters were completely fitted out with the necessary equipment which they were com- 
pelled to keep in the best of condition. A great dining-hall was erected, where they might obtain 
good food at nominal prices. The skilled laborers and office-workers had a restaurant near 
the headquarters, with a la carte service. For the benefit of the Italian workers a special restau- 
rant was built ; here Italian chefs prepared Italian foods to suit the taste of the most discriminating. 
In the vicinity of the restaurants there sprang up the commercial center of the camp. A barber 
shop opened for business; an Italian store, a tobacco shop, and canteens selling every variety of 
small merchandise made this center a true shopping-district. 



In order to assure the contentment of its employees, the contractors paid phenomenally high 
wages, and liberally rewarded overtime work. Unskilled laborers earned up to thirty dollars a 
week; some members of the skilled trades earned as much as a himdred dollars weekly. The pay- 
roll of the contractors amounted to over $100,000 a week. 

As soon as the buildings were erected, electricians, plimibers and steam-fitters started their 
work. Shortly after the carpenters left a barrack's, the men of other trades took possession and it 
was soon ready for occupancy. It is difficult for the uninitiated to conceive the magnitude of 
the work. In those ten short weeks, five thousand men built 1400 buildings, laid twenty miles 
of road, installed 2200 shower baths, 400 miles of electric wiring, and 60 miles of heating pipes. 
Over forty million board feet of lumber were necessary for the stupendous building operations. 

The electric lights were switched on for the first time on August 30. Two days later the 
contractors announced that the camp was ready for occupancy. New England had the imique 
distinction of being the first section to complete its cantonment. 

Major-General Harry Foote Hodges was appointed commander of the new imit, the Seventy- 
sixth Division, and ordered to Ayer. The subordinate officers were, for the most part, those who 
had received commissions at the Plattsburg camp, with a scattering from the regular army. In 
honor of General Charles Devens, the illustrious Civil War soldier of Worcester County, the 
military authorities announced that the cantonment of the Northeastern military department 
should be called "Camp Devens." 

The first draft men arrived at Camp Devens from Maine on September 5 ; from that time on, 
the flow from all parts of the district continued until 40,000 men were within its borders. The 
authorities distributed them immediately into the various organizations of the camp till each had 
its full quota. Four regiments of infantry were established: the 301st, 302d, 303d and 304th. 
These were installed in barracks on the further side of the divisional headquarters. A depot 
brigade of thirteen battalions was formed. There were three regiments of field artillery: the 
301st and 302d of light artillery, and the 303d of heavy artillery. Three machine-gun battalions 
the 301st, 302d and 303d; the Headquarters Train, comprising the 301st Ammimition Train, the 



3oist Supply Train, the 301st Engineers' Train and the 301st Sanitary Train; the 301st Signal 
Battalion and unattached units of the Quartermaster's and Medical Corps, and the 23d Engineers, 
completed the roster of organizations in the camp. 
In general, the assignments were as follows: 

301st Infantry: Boston. 

302d Infantry: Southeastern Massachusetts. 

303d Infantry: Eastern New York. 

304th Infantry: Connecticut. 

Field Artillery : Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. 

Depot Brigade : Western Massachusetts. 

Machine Gun Battalions: Connecticut and Northeastern Massachusetts. 

30 1 st Engineers : Rhode Island. 

Headquarters Train : Central Massachusetts. 

There are some specific exceptions to this summary, which is, of course, subject to change 
at any time. 

At first the men were scantily equipped with rifles, uniforms, and other military accoutre- 
ments. Eventually the supplies poured in so freely that there were enough uniforms and equip- 
ment to outfit properly each man. 

There are now thirty thousand soldiers at Ayer; the average has been forty thousand, and 
at one time there were forty-eight thousand within the borders of the Camp. Take all the inhab- 
itants of Fitchburg, or half the people of Springfield or Hartford, put them in a field of 9000 acres 
and you have some idea of the population of Camp Devens. And it is not only a city in terms of 
population, but also in many other ways. This military city has a post-office, a telegraph office, 
a telephone switchboard, several police stations or guard-houses, an adequate fire department, an 
excellent hospital, a restaurant, a theatre and many other like institutions. Its police system is 
I^erfect, and is far better than any municipal department in the countr>\ 



The spirit of the draft men has been admirable. Few wanted to leave their families, their 
homes, their businesses; but when they found that they were needed, they responded to a man. 
There are many discomforts in the life of a soldier, and these men were most of them untried 
and imtrained by hardships. Nevertheless, they are contented and, if they complain, it is with 
a smile on their faces. The transition from civil to military life has been abrupt, the difficulties 
of training men at Ayer have been many, but the path ahead is clear and when the crucial test 
comes, the enemy will find that the American Citizen, trained as a soldier, is second to none. 

This book is intended primarily for the soldiers at Ayer, and for their friends and families 
at home. To the boys in camp it is hoped that it may serve as a memento of their army life, 
their companions, their work and their play. Those who are imacquainted with military life will 
be able better to appreciate what it all means. They will see where their boys live, how they live, 
and will realize the progress they have made and are making. Are the boys happy ? In answer 
to that question so often asked, I refer you to any one of the pictures. Most of the men have 
broad grins; all are smiling. These pictures illustrate the Ayer spirit, and the spirit which will 
bring us peace with victory. 

For permission to reprint several picttu^s of the incoming draft increments, I wish to acknowl- 
edge the courtesy of the Boston Herald ; I am also indebted to R. W. Barton of Cambridge, and 
to the following officers of Camp Devens: Major Roger Merrill, 151st Brigade; Captain Leslie 
E. Thompson, Adjutant, 304th Infantry; Captain Charles D. Case, 304th Infantry; Captain 
Weston B. Flint, Depot Brigade; Lieutenant Russell Codman, Depot Brigade; Lieuten- 
ant E. C. Wynne, Adjutant General's Department; Lieutenant Julian Lathrop, 303d H. F. A.; 
Captain Brown and Lieutenant Hal S. White of the Intelligence Department, and above all, to 
the enlisted personnel of the camp whose aid and co-operation enabled me to prepare this volume. 

December 20, 191 7 Roger Batchelder 



THE MOBILIZATION OF THE CITIZENS 



On Jtrne s, 191 7, each one of these men 
registered at a booth in his city or town. He 
answered innumerable questions about his past, 
present and probable future history. Then he 
went home and, perhaps, forgot all about it. 
But Uncle Sam did not forget. On an eventful 
day in July, — the twenty-eighth — that national 
guardian of ours picked a multitude of slips 
from a huge bowl in Washington. On each 
slip was a number; one of these numbers was 
458. The machinery of war then started to 
move. Nimiber 458 in one district was, let us 
say, John Jones of Boston. For five years, 
John had been working in a grocery store, driv- 
ing a taxi, or selling tickets in a theatre. He 
received a letter from an exemption board order- 
ing him to appear for examination. He was 
physically fit and was passed by the doctors. 

Then John went home and waited. Several 
weeks later he received another letter, telling 
him that he was to be a soldier and ordering 
him to report at the board office at eight o'clock 
the next dsQ^. That afternoon he called on his 



friends and said good-bye, and in the evening 
he went to see the one girl in the world and then 
returned home to have a chat with the folks. 

The following morning he awoke at six 
o'clock. He laid his best suit on the top shelf of 
the closet and put on an old suit of working 
clothes. At the breakfast table, his father was 
unusually silent ; the small brother cast envious 
glances at the hero ; mother and sister began to 
cry softly. John told them not to worry; he'd 
have the Germans beaten by spring at the latest. 
Soon he kissed the family good-bye and started 
for the office of the board. 

There he found a group of twenty other 
John Joneses, Harry Browns and Bill Smiths, 
and he learned that their experiences had been 
identical with his own. The chairman of the 
board spoke a few words to them, several 
political leaders shook their hands, slapped their 
backs, and marched them down the street to 
the station. And now John and his newly-made 
friends are waiting for the train, under the 
watchful eye of the board chairman. 



12 




"All Aboard for Ayer" 



THE ARRIVAL AT AYER 



When Jones and his companions get into the 
cars, they find many others from adjacent dis- 
tricts with them. Some cannot speak English 
well; but nevertheless, they all talk at once. 

**Did you claim exemption?" 

''Are you married?*' 

'*What do you do with these checks?" 

The last question refers to the tags which 
had been distributed by the board official. 
They bear the district niunber and the num- 
ber which has been assigned to the prospective 
soldier. These were given out for identification 
purposes, so that the camp officers will know 
where the man comes from if he forgets his dis- 
trict, or is unable coherently to express himself. 

"I haven't got a ticket," declares someone. 

Then it is explained that tickets are not 
necessary, as the government has provided 
transportation facilities without charge to the 
draft men. 

*'This is the first free ride I ever had," an- 
nounces another with a broad grin. 

One man produces a pack of cards and starts 
a game of ''pitch." There is soon a group 



around the players, watching critically every 
phase of the game. Other men follow this 
example and shortly there are several games in 
progress. Then comes singing. 

After an hour the brakeman enters the car 
and cries : 

''Ayer. All out, boys." 

There is a wild scramble for the bundles and 
suitcases. Eventually the men are out on 
the platform. A sergeant comes up to our 
group and asks Jones : 

''District 21?" 

"Yes, sir," answers Jones, saluting in Boy 
Scout fashion. 

"Don't salute and call me 'sir,'" says the 
sergeant, one of the regular army men. "I'm 
not an officer. Better wait until you know 
how, anyway." 

"This way, boys," shouts a cavalryman, 
moimted on a spirited Western horse, which 
bears the brand "U.S." on its flank. "Fall in 
line and follow me." 

Then he leads them majestically from the 
station. 



14 




Leaving the Station at Ayer 



EN ROUTE TO THE CAMP 



**Gee, what a hick town!*' 

With this announcement the Boston men 
greet Ayer. Many of them have never before 
been in the rural districts of the state, and the 
lack of movement and excitement is to them in- 
conceivable. The few pedestrians — natives, 
for the most part — stare curiously at the new 
arrivals, and the latter in turn stare back. The 
curiosity of the people of Ayer is only natural, 
for the draft men have an astounding variety of 
clothing. Here is a machinist with a flannel 
shirt and woolen suit stained with grease; 
next to him is a college man, who, disregarding 
the advice that old clothes be worn, has dressed 
himself in the height of fashion. There are 
all kinds of hats : derbies, straws, caps, and soft 
hats of every style, color and degree of an- 
tiquity. Conscript Thomdike of Boston chats 
amiably with his former boot-black, Tony 
Peroni, of Summer Street. And at the end 
of the line is a taxi driver who has often driven 
the rich man about town. Some of the men 
have been soldiers before and wear their old 
uniforms; others, desiring to *'cut a dash" in a 



military way, have purchased ready-made 
imiforms of doubtful quality and fit. 

The men regard curiously every soldier whom 
they see. The only soldiers now at camp are 
members of the regular army. They are per- 
fectly uniformed and precisely correct in their 
every move. It is only natural that they 
should regard the novices with the slightest 
bit of disdain; they cannot realize that within 
a year these men will occupy the same trench 
with them, "Somewhere in France." And 
similarly, the draft men look up to the soldiers 
as demi-gods; their perfection is only too ob- 
vious to the "rookies," and they understand 
that these soldiers are trained men, those who 
have carried the colors in the Philippines, in 
Cuba, or even in Mexico. 

"Is that feller a colonel?" asks Jones of a 
companion who has seen service with the mil- 
itia. He points to the leader of the line. 

"Naw, of course not, he's only a private. 
You don't suppose a colonel would bother about 
us, do you?" 



i6 




"Camp Devens, Next!" 



ENTERING THE GROUNDS 



The men walk down the street for half a 
mile, cross the railroad tracks, and come in 
sight of the camp. 

**Well, will you look at that?" cries Brown in 
an awe-struck voice. 

"Some little camp, what?" 

'*I thought we were going to live in tents. 
Wooden buildings, it looks to me." 

The procession halts at the main gate. The 
trooper dismounts, salutes an officer, and a^ks 
for instructions. The major consults a book. 

''District forty-four, depot brigade," he an- 
notmces. 

"Orderly, have these men examined and then 
report to Captain Reed, 4th Battalion. North 
Adams men, aren't you? District twenty-one 
goes — " 

The column goes through the gate and up 
the main highway. 

A bugle blows. At this, the first sign of 
military activity, the men glance around dubi- 
ously. 

"What's that?" asks one. 

"Mess-call," answers the cavalryman curtly. 



"Mess-call?" 

"Yes, mess, chuck, grub, food, don't you 
get that?" 

Soon they come to the cross-roads and are 
enabled to get a good view of the camp. To 
the left are the artillery barracks, and further 
along, Baldwin's Restaurant. Thousands of 
laborers, their white badges pinned conspicu- 
ously on their hats, are making a mad rush for 
dinner. From all parts of the camp they come, 
leaving their implements behind them. They 
regard the coming soldiers in a friendly man- 
ner and wave their arms in every direction as if 
to say : 

"See what I've done for you. Isn't it a 
good job?" 

Around the bend the column goes, every man 
hot and perspiring. On the right is the parade 
ground, stretching along for half a mile. On 
one side of it the men see long lines of infantry 
barracks laid out in perfect order. In front 
of them is the depot brigade, — their desti- 
nation. 



18 




TsE Arrival at the Camf 



EXAMINING THE NEW ARRIVALS 



This picture shows a Ueutenant of the medical 
corps examining a group of newly-arrived 
draft men. It is illustrative of the care which 
the men have received from the beginning. 
Each man who was drawn in the draft was 
examined by a local board and passed or re- 
jected by them. Every man who underwent 
this primary examination, and was subsequent- 
ly accepted by the local board, was theoretically 
in good physical condition. The army regu- 
lations stated specifically that none but the 
physically fit should be taken into service. 
The medical authorities were greatly surprised 
and annoyed when, on superficial examina- 
tions like this one, they found men who were 
obviously imfit for service. 

After the men had been in camp for a few 
days, they were thoroughly looked over by the 
officers of the medical corps. In many cases 
the latter found that flagrant violations of the 
rule had been made by the local physicians. 
Men came to the camp who could see nothing 



without glasses. Some had missing fingers 
or toes. I saw one man whose right leg was 
three inches shorter than the left. A medical 
officer told me that certain districts were worse 
than others. 

This state of affairs caused much unneces- 
sary trouble for the authorities. When a super- 
ficial examination was so fruitful in bad results, 
complete examinations were of course necessary. 
Men who could not be retained were sent home 
immediately ; those whose condition might be 
remedied by treatment went to the base hos- 
pital until they were fit for duty. 

The great majority of the district boards 
did their wcrk well, according to the officers; 
many have clean records. Those which refused 
to comply with the regulations in order to fill 
the quota from their districts not only ham- 
pered greatly the efforts of the camp doctors, 
but also caused great and unnecessary expense 
to the government. 



20 




"Let's See Your Teeth!" 



PHYSICAL TRAINING 



It is axiomatic that perfect physical condi- 
tion is requisite to military efficiency. Army 
leaders not only encourage exercise on the part 
of the men but also require a certain amount 
of physical training as a part of the day's work. 
The systems and the methods of carrying them 
out differ in many organizations, but in each 
of them a certain procedure is religiously and 
regularly followed. 

Some company commanders have a so-called 
"setting-up" exercise before the morning mess, 
directly after the reveille roll-call. This is in 
charge of a sergeant who has been designated 
by the commanding oflficer. The company is 
extended so that there is an interval of two 
paces between each two men, and four paces 
between ranks. First the sergeant illustrates 
and explains the exercises to be performed; 
then the company joins him. There are certain 
groups of four different exercises prescribed in 
the manual, and after the company has prac- 
tised for some time the sergeant has merely to 
say: "Company, attention. First group, one- 
two-three — " 



The men then go through the entire group 
without command. 

Sometimes the "setting-up'* is performed by 
battalions, as in this picture. The men march 
to an open field, remove their hats, coats, and 
blouses and go through the movements en 
masse. When the soldier has mastered the 
minor exercises, he is taught to perform others 
with a rifle. 

This training is not carried on in a super- 
ficial manner, but in accordance with certain 
definite principles of physical development. 
Each movement has for its object the building 
up of some member or set of muscles; by a 
combination of all, every part of the soldier's 
body receives benefit, and whatever minor de- 
ficiencies he may have are overcome. 

And so, if upon your arrival at Camp Devens 
you perceive a body of half dressed men, 
gyrating and bending in an astounding manner, 
do not concern yourself as to their sanity ; they 
are merely having "setting-up drill." 




After the Setting- vp Drill 



LOOKING NORTH FROM BOULDER HILL 



In the foreground, on the further side of the 
road, is the commercial center of the camp. The 
large sign of Baldwin's Restaurant is visible 
through the trees. Formerly this cafeteria 
was controlled by the Baldwin Company, a 
private concern, under the supervision of the 
military authorities and contractors. Recently, 
however, it was taken over by the government ; 
it is now under the dominion of the Quarter- 
master's Corps and the ticket sellers, cooks, and 
waiters are all enlisted men in the department. 

The interior of the building is most interest- 
ing at meal-time. It is filled with soldiers who 
prefer the food here to that of their own mess- 
halls, and those who have been assigned to this 
place by the authorities. The men pass through 
a gate at the left and receive the food from a 
counter in the rear. There is no choice of 
dishes; certain menus are prescribed for each 



meal. As the diner enters the main hall by 
another gate, he receives a check on which the 
amount due is pimched. He then eats at one 
of the long wooden benches, and pays his check 
as he leaves the hall by a third gate. 

In the rear of Baldwin's can be seen the bar- 
racks of the 301st Light Field Artillery, and in 
the distance, the top of the Hostess House and 
the administrative building of the Y. M. C. A. 
The two chimneys are those of the plants which 
heat the buildings in the vicinity. The road in 
front nms by the quarters of the 303d Heavy 
Field Artillery, to the Quartermasters' Corps 
and the railroad. The road at the extreme 
left, running perpendicular to it, is the main 
highway of the camp and runs from the 
Depot Brigade, in the rear, to the main gate, 
which lies in the direction of the center of the 
panorama. 



24 




Baldwin's and the 301 st L. F. A. 



A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF CAMP DEVENS 



Looking due west from Boulder Hill, one 
can see a greater part of the cantonment. 
Directly in front, behind the pines, are the bar- 
racks of the 301st Engineers. Beyond the 
pond, at the right, is one end of the huge 
Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. Past the engineers* 
quarters, looking across the clearing to the 
buildings at the left of the prominent smoke- 



stacks, are the barracks of the Depot Brigade. 
Below the sky-line, in the center of the picture 
we have the 303d and 304th Infantry, and look- 
ing over the Y. M. C. A. Auditoritmi at the 
right, one sees the barracks of the 301st and 
302d Infantry. The conspicuous chimneys 
mark the situation of the various heating- 
plants of the camp. 



26 




Looking West from Boulder Hill 



TOWN AND CAMP 



(i) Main Street op Ayer 
The little town has changed greatly since 
June, 191 7, when business was humdrum and 
life was unexciting. Now the soldier-popu- 
lation of 30,000 men has removed from this 
street many traces of its former rusticity. 
Boston merchants rented stores and equipped 
them in the true metropolitan fashion. The 
town merchants, fearing this competition, 
brushed the cobwebs from their windows, 
stocked up with every necessity and luxury, 
and installed electric milk-shakers and cash 
registers. There now seems to be a race be- 
tween the natives and the visiting merchants to 
see which can charge the highest prices for 
their wares; at last reports the local tradesmen 
were miles ahead. 

(2) Automobile Row, at the Station 
The prospective visitor at Camp Devens, 
upon arriving at the station, falls prey to that 
species of vulture commonly known as the 
jitney driver. These motorists were formerly 
the farm hands, station agents and second-story 
men of the vicinity. When the troops came to 
Ayer, they purchased jitneys which were in 



every stage of dilapidation and inaugurated 
a motor service to and from the camp. At 
first, they charged the soldiers atrocious prices, 
but eventually the various units purchased 
huge 'busses of their own and ran in competition. 
The stranger will do well to assure himself before 
embarkation that he will be charged only the 
fixed price cf twenty-five cents, and to renew 
his life insurance policy before venturing on 
the perilous journey. 

(3) A Supply Wagon 
It is a common thing to see the heavy, 
rumbling supply wagons in the streets of Ayer, 
bringing rations and other necessities to the 
camp. They are drawn by the most efficient, 
yet the most vicious, beasts of burden on earth 
— the government army mules. 

(4) The Main Gate 
If the visitor arrives by trolley at the camp, 
he leaves the car at this gate; practically all 
traffic enters and leaves here, with the excep- 
tion of the Sunday rush, when the upper gate 
is pressed into active service. Military police, 
wearing the blue arm band inscribed *'M. P.," 
are constantly on guard. 



28 




(i) "Broadway" 



(2) Automobile Row 



'mm 


i 


r 


1 


i 


a 






(3) A Supply Wagon 



(4) The Main Gate 



THE DIVISIONAL HEADQUARTERS 



This building is the military center of the 
camp, and the headquarters of the 76th divi- 
sion. Here are the offices of the commanding 
general and his staff, and the headquarters of 
the principal administrative departments of 
the camp. 

The officers who comprise the staff and **make 
the wheels go roimd" at Ayer are: 

Major-General Harry Foote Hodges, Division 
Commander; Lieutenant W. W. Cowgill, Aide- 
de-Camp; Lieutenant-Colonel M. B. Stewart, 
Chief of Staff; Major J. M. Wainwright, Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff; Captain Arthur F. Brown, 
Assistant Chief of Staff; Major Harry L. 
Hodges, Division Adjutant; Captain T. E. 
Burleigh, Assistant Division Adjutant; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel D. M. Dalton, Division Quarter- 
master; Major A. M. Pardee, Division In- 
spector; Lieutenant-Colonel E. K. Masse, Divi- 
sion Judge Advocate; Major G. M. Peek, 
Division Ordnance Officer; Colonel F. A. Pope, 
Division Engineer Officer; Major Chas. A. 
Lewis, Division Signal Officer; Lieutenant- 
Colonel John W. Hanner, Division Surgeon; 



Major J. L. Siner, Division Sanitary Officer; 
Captain A. E. Foote, Division Post Exchange 
Officer. 

These officers are the experts of their branches 
of the service and it is through them that all 
orders and memoranda are promulgated and 
distributed to the various departments of the 
camp. 

The headquarters is on a high hill about a 
half-mile from the main entrance. The flag 
on its tall pole, the largest banner in the camp, 
is visible from nearly every part of the canton- 
ment. 

The interior of the building reminds one of 
the offices of a big corporation. Orderlies are 
nmning to and fro, bringing in reports, or taking 
out memoranda to be quickly distributed by 
motor-cycle riders. The doors in the front 
of the building open into the administrative 
offices, which are equipped with desks and 
office-chairs, and are literally filled with official 
documents; the walls of the rooms are covered 
with maps, notices and typographed memo- 
randa. 



y> 




Headquarters, 76TH Division 



A Y. M. C. A. HUT 



The greatest non-military organization which 
has ever become attached to the army is the 
Y. M. C. A. To the soldier, the Y. M. C. A. 
Hut is a fraternity, a chtirch, a theatre, a com- 
mon meeting-place, possessing none of the or- 
dinary disadvantages of some of those institu- 
tions. As soon as the workers learned that an 
encampment was to be built at Devens, they 
made plans to organize. Fourteen buildings 
were constructed in the various sections of the 
camp. There is one main administrative build- 
ing near the field artillery quarters, an auditor- 
ium to accommodate 3000 men, and nine huts 
similar to that in the picture. 

At one end of the building there is a stage 
where the entertainments and performances 
are produced. The main part of the room is 
filled with benches on which there is an ample 
supply of writing paper, pens and ink. 

Movies are shown frequently; often the local 
talent of nearby units entertain their companies, 
and there are frequent boxing and wrestling 
matches, and similar forms of exercise and 
amusement. The walls are lined with book- 



cases which contain every type of book which 
a **live" man might care to read. In a box 
near the center of the room are piled the current 
magazines and newspapers. 

On Sunday, the Association holds three 
services, which are the only religious activities 
on the weekly calendar. The rest of the 
week, the Y men seek to entertain, amuse and 
gain the confidence of their proteges, and 
thereby exert a beneficial influence over them. 
The success of this organization is undoubted; 
men who have never been in a church or a 
Y. M. C. A. building before naturally flock to 
the army huts. Ask the soldier what he thinks 
of the Y. M. C. A., and his enthusiastic answer 
will surprise you. The men realize that these 
huts are for them, and that every one of the 
fifty workers in Camp Devens is their friend, 
and is doing his best to make them comfortable 
and happy. 

Kenneth Robbie, the General Camp Secre- 
tary, assisted by an administrative staff of 
seven, has charge of the Camp Devens Associa- 
tion. 




Y Hut, Number 29 



THE HOSTESS HOUSE 



The Hostess House, which was built under 
the auspices of the Y. W. C. A., stands on a 
high bluff near the 301st Light Field Artillery, 
a short distance from the main road. It was 
erected for the benefit of women who visit the 
camp. Formerly the wives and woman visitors 
of the soldiers had no place of meeting; the 
barracks and Y huts were obviously inconven- 
ient for them, and when they desired to eat, it 
was necessary for them to return to the town. 
On November 26, 191 7, this new house was 
opened to the public, and was placed in the 
charge of several lady attendants. All women 
who come to the camp are invited to share the 
hospitality of the Association. If a mother ar- 
rives at nine in the morning and finds that her 
son will not be at liberty until noon, she goes to 
the Hostess House until that time comes. Not 
only women and their escorts are welcome, but 



also any of the boys who wish to wait for friends, 
or taste a little home cooking. 

The dining room, which is of the cafeteria 
type, is becoming more popular every day. 
Men are accustomed to bring their friends for 
dinner, tea or supper. A special breakfast is 
served on Sunday. 

This organization has charge of the Woman's 
Employment Bureau, and is doing excellent 
work in that field. The Board attempts to 
obtain positions as housekeepers in the neighbor- 
hood for soldiers* wives, so that they can be 
near their husbands. Thus far, every applica- 
tion has been filled and many women have been 
enabled to earn money and at the same time 
remain in the vicinity of the camp. The 
Board stipulates that all people who hire sol- 
diers* wives shall allow the husbands to visit 
them at the homes. 



34 




The Ktjj^T^fes 



THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 



This organization is doing excellent work 
at the camp. One notices on each of its signs 
the inscription: ''All Welcome." 

'*I want to emphasize the significance of those 
two words," one of the secretaries told me. 
*'Some people think that the K. of C. building is 
for Catholics alone, but that is by no means the 
case. It makes no difference whether a man if 
a Catholic, a member of the society, or not; is 
he isn't, he will receive the same cordial treat- 
ment as any one else. We are not doing this 
work for the K. of C. men alone ; we are doing 
if for our soldiers, and we want every American 
soldier to make our house his headquarters." 

This is a typical example of the co-operative 
spirit of the non-military workers at the camp. 
The Knights of Colimibus have three large huts 
at Ayer, and a dozen men in charge of them. 
The interior of the huts is similar to that of 
the Y. M. C. A. buildings. Each one is fitted 
with basket-ball apparatus, and has a piano, 



a complete library, and writing materials. 
Thomas C. Moore, of the Ayer Council, has 
charge of the cantonment work and is assisted 
by men from other New England Councils. 

An innovation at Devens is the organization 
of an elimination basket-ball league. Each 
unit in the camp has been invited to form a 
representative team and will play at the K. of C. 
buildings for the championship of the division. 
There are also frequent boxing matches under 
the supervision of experts. 

The entertainments are given not only by 
local talent, but also by visiting groups from 
the K. of C. Councils. Each Sunday a field 
Mass is held at building Ntmiber i . On one oc- 
casion the service had an attendance of 18,000 
men. The building shown in this picture is 
No. 3, near the base hospital; each morning 
the workers go from here to the hospital with 
writing paper and stamps and do what they 
can to make the sick men comfortable. 



36 




K. OK C Hlt, Number 3 



CAMP INSTITUTIONS 



(i) Divisional Headquarters 
This picture shows the administrative build- 
ing from the side facing the 301st Infantry 
barracks. In the rear of the headquarters are 
the barracks of the Headquarters Troop, the 
only troop in camp. It is generally reputed 
to be the **crack unit" of the cantonment. As 
one of the members said to me not long ago: 

'*Why, I'd rather be right where I am, a 
private of the troop, than in the boots of any 
*shave-tair lieutenant in the cantonment.** 

(2) A Typical Officers* Quarters Building 
The officers* quarters are ordinarily in a line 
behind the barracks of the organization to which 
their occupants are assigned. They are about 
sixty feet long and their capacity, at the most, 
is thirty officers; few of them have this 
number, however. Majors and captains have 
private rooms, while the lieutenants bimk two 
in a compartment. At the extreme end of the 
quarters (in this case, at the left) is the officers* 
mess and the kitchen. The officers are re- 
quired to provide for their food from their pay; 



cooks and waiters, — called kitchen police — are 
assigned from the enlisted men of the battalion. 
Other orderlies clean the quarters, make the 
beds and keep in condition the equipment of 
their superiors. 

(3 AND 4) The Base Hospital 
The base hospital is in the rear of the camp, 
and is completely isolated from the other organ- 
izations. It consists of an administrative build- 
ing, and long rows of hospital barracks for the 
patients. Certain houses, apart from the main 
group, are intended for such contagious diseases 
as may occur from time to time. 

On an average, eight hundred men are treated 
at the hospital every day. This number does 
not betoken an alarming percentage of illness, 
as every man with the slightest disorder or 
complaint is sent to the base, and many are 
found to be afflicted by trivial or by imaginary 
indispositions; it would be difficult to find a 
civil community of 30,000 people, each individ- 
ual leading an active life, with only 800 in 
imperfect physical condition. 



38 




(i) Divisional Headquarters 



(2) Officers' Quarters 




(3) Headquarters, Base Hospital 



(4) Barracks, Base Hospital 



EXCHANGE, HEAT, GRUB AND GUARD-HOUSE 



(i) The Post Exchange 
The great joy of the soldier's life is the regi- 
mental post exchange. At his company can- 
teen he can buy tobacco, candy or other minor 
luxuries, but at the exchange he can get any- 
thing from a needle to a washtub. Every 
article which the man in khaki needs or likes is 
on sale. There are all kinds of food, mostly 
put up in packages, a variety of cigarettes 
which would rival that of a city tobacconist, 
stationery, books, post-cards, toilet articles, 
ad infinitum. 

(2) A Heating Plant 
Probably there has been no matter more 
widely discussed than that of heat at the can- 
tonment. During the cold days of October, 
the pipes were not yet ready, and the tempera- 
ttire of the barracks was not very high. At 
that time there was considerable complaint, 
principally from the newspapers of the small 
cities and towns. It is too cold at Ayer, they 
said. 

The heating system once in operation, there 
soon came to be little cause for complaint. 
The barracks are cold in the morning because 



the windows are open at night, but by the time 
breakfast is over the sleeping rooms are reason- 
ably comfortable. This picture shows one of 
the heating plants from which the steam is 
piped to the barracks in the vicinity. 

(3) Getting Grub for the Day 
Each morning the supply wagons bring to 
the kitchen the commodities for which the 
mess sergeant has requisitioned. One wagon 
brings bread, another meat, and so on. Here 
we have one of the kitchen police receiving the 
alloted amount of meat for his company. The 
sergeant who accompanies the wagon has just 
checked off the allowance of that company. 

(4) ''Turn Out The Guard" 
Each regiment has a guard-house, and imder 
ordinary circumstances, a different company 
is daily assigned to guard duty. One-third 
of the entire number are always at their posts; 
the remainder wait at the guard-house imtil 
their turn comes for active duty, or until an 
alarm is sounded. This picture shows two- 
thirds of the guard of a light field artillery regi- 
ment in front of the guard-house. 



40 




(i) Post Exchange, 303D Infantry 



(2) A Heating Plant 




(3) A Quarter o' Beef 



(4) "Turn Out the Guard" 



THE CAMP FIRE DEPARTMENT 



When the camp was being built, the authori- 
ties realized the great danger from fire in the 
hundreds of wooden buildings and made pro- 
visions for a camp fire department. By the 
time the draft men had arrived, the several 
fire stations were finished, and a nimiber of 
Ford trucks, the property of the Quartermas- 
ter's Corps, completely equipped and ready for 
any contingency which might arise. Those 
draft men who had previously had experience 
as firemen were attached to the fire department 
and supplemented by men from the Quarter- 
master's Corps. Lieutenant George H. Whit- 
ney, a Harvard man from Boston, who had 
previously attained much notoriety as a '*fire 
fiend,'' was appointed chief of the department. 
He organized his men, formulated elaborate 
schemes for fire prevention and planned care- 
fully to cope with any possible conflagration. 
A numerical system of fire alarms, similar to 
that employed in the cities, was adopted, and 
a loud whistle which can be heard for several 



miles, installed in one of the power-houses. 

There was little need of the department until 
the cold spell of October came on. All the bar- 
racks and officers' quarters were then heated by 
small oil stoves, which proved to be of the high- 
explosive variety. For no apparent reasons 
these stoves exploded regularly and with lam- 
entable results. A number of the buildings 
caught fire, and several burned to the ground; 
it was due to the efficiency of the department 
alone that a general conflagration was averted. 

The responsibility for putting out fires is not 
limited to the fire department, but extends to 
every soldier in camp. When the fire-alarm 
soimds, all the companies in the vicinity come 
to the rescue and aid the firemen. In order 
that the hydrants may give the greatest possible 
pressure, the water supply is turned off in the 
buildings until recall blows. The authorities 
have drawn up a set of drastic rules for fire 
prevention, particularly adapted to the existent 
conditions at camp; these are strictly enforced. 



42 




Fire! 



CONCERNING TRUCKS AND FATIGUE 



(i) An Army Truck 
This huge truck, belonging to the Quarter- 
master's Department, is one of the himdred 
such vehicles which are at Camp Devens. 
More speedy than the mules of former days, and 
of greater capacity than the mule-drawn sup- 
ply-wagons, they are almost luiiversally used 
for trucking in places where the condition of 
the roads permit. One sees many of them 
daily at Ayer, nunbling along, the chains jing- 
ling noisily, and at a rate of speed which makes 
life miserable for the unwary pedestrian. 

(2, 3 AND 4) Fatigue Duty 
The next three pictures illustrate the sig- 
nificance of the term ''fatigue duty." If any 
manual labor has to be done about the camp, 
details are called for. The men thus selected 
perform the required work, whether it be to 
unload a truck or to build a road. 

The first * 'fatigue*' picture shows a detail of 
M Company, 302d Infantry — men from Rock- 
land and Quincy — building a road, or at least 
trying to build one. It was zero weather and 



the grotmd was like so much solid rock. Never- 
theless, they were working away cheerfully. 

"A little gtmpowder might help," I suggested. 

"Lord, man, it would take another Halifax 
disaster to loosen this dirt." 

Nimiber three is a group of men from the 
Headquarters Train, trying to make the roads 
passable after a snowstorm. They are now in 
front of the imit headquarters and are working 
more industriously than ever, because they 
have only one more load to shovel. When 
they finish, they will take the first train for 
Worcester, for a week-end visit. 

The last picture shows a detail from Ambu- 
ance Company Nimiber 302, loading the ac- 
cumulated garbage of the day into one of the 
Quartermaster's trucks. The man in the fore- 
ground, who is saluting with a cigarette in his 
mouth, unquestionably realizes the gravity of 
the situation. 

Each morning these trucks go to the kit- 
chens, collect the refuse and carry it to the 
transfer station in the rear of the camp. 



44 




(l) "GANGWAVr 



(2) Road-building 




(3) The Last Load 



(4) "Any Garbage?" 



TWO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONARIES 



(i) The Bugler 
One of the most ardent ambitions of the 
small boy, in these times of wars and nmiors of 
wars, is undoubtedly some day to be an army 
bugler. This enthusiasm and envy is by no 
means limited to the youth; it is shared by 
people of mature years, and even by the sol- 
diers themselves. There is something pictur- 
esque about the bugler, and something that 
suggests romance in his notes. Before any- 
one is astir, with the exception of the cooks, the 
bugler comes from his barracks in the dim 
morning light, and shrills the ''first call," which 
precedes reveille. It then seems as if some 
one turned on an electric switch which rouses 
inanimate beings to activity, and changes 
darkness into light. The lights in the barracks 
flash; there comes from all sides thesoimd of 
closing windows, the dropping of shoes, and 
inharmonious yawns. The bugler has awakened 
the camp. Throughout the day he announces 
mess, sick-call, drill-call, and numerous others 
imtil taps blows, when the same magic notes 
turn out the lights and silence the songs and 
voices of thirty thousand men. 



Owing to the wide area over which the 
buildings are distributed, the men blow their 
instruments into a megaphone. In this pic- 
ture, the bugler of the 304th Infantry is annoimc- 
ing to his comrades, who have just retiuned 
from drill, that mess is waiting for them. 

(2) The Sentry 
Another interesting figure is the sentry. 
The camp proper is patrolled by the military 
police, who have ''billies" instead of rifles. 
Some of the regimental guards, however, carry 
rifles, and patrol certain posts, as in an ordinary 
war-time encampment. This guard, with his 
bayonet fixed, is patrolling the vicinity of a 
battalion headquarters of the 303d Infantry. 
It is a cold job because his post is not extensive 
and has not much walking space. It will be 
noticed that the home-made helmet and gloves, 
quantities of which the women of America have 
been industriously knitting for their boys, are 
doing good service. 



46 




1 

* 





(i) "Soupy, Soupy, Soupy!" 
(This is the orthodox translation of mess-call) 



(2) "Halt! Who Goes There?" 



RELIEVING THE GUARD 



According to the ordinary procedure of 
guard duty, a man is on duty for two hours and 
off for four, imtil the prescribed twenty-four 
hours have elapsed. Each shift is under the 
control of a corporal — the well-known * 'corporal 
of the guard/' After one shift is over, the 
corporal of the guard who is to go on duty 
and the corporal whose men are about to be 
relieved, visit each post with the relief. At 
Post No. I, they pick up Smith and leave Jones, 
and so on. When the corporals return to the 
guard-house, they have an entirely different set 
of men; those they started with are now scat- 
tered at the various posts. 

This picture shows the relief of the guard. 
In the quadrangular group, the man on the 
left is the old guard at Post No. 6; he has 
been on duty for two hours. Facing him is 
the relief who will take the post for the next 
two hours. The first one is explaining to his 
relief the limits of the post, and is communi- 
cating any orders which may have been given 
him. The man with his back towards us is the 



corporal of the old guard; facing him, with 
the smile, is the corporal of the relief. The 
six men are partly of the old guard and partly 
of the relief. When the colimm moves on, 
the man who has been relieved will fall in at 
the rear and return to the guard-house for f our 
hours of rest. 

In case of any trouble on a post, the guard 
summons assistance. If he is undecided what 
course to pursue in a minor disagreement, he 
cries, ''Corporal of the guard; No. 6!" If the 
sixth post is distant from the guard-house, 
the man on the next post passes on the cry and 
eventually the corporal arrives to settle the 
difficulty. If the guard is taken ill, he cries 
"Corporal of the guard; No. 6; relief!" The 
corporal then comes with a man to relieve him. 
If there is serious trouble, the guard cries: 
"The Guard! No. 6.'* The corporal at the 
guard-house reports to the commander of the 
guard (usually a sergeant), who turns out the 
entire guard and rushes to the scene of disorder. 



48 




The Relief 



BAYONET PRACTICE 



One of the most important branches of mili- 
tary science which soldiers must master is the 
skilful use of the bayonet. Before the men 
leave for France, every one of them will know 
how to defend himself from another bayonet, 
how to conduct an offensive, and how to com- 
bine skilfully the two movements. Quite 
naturally, this work has been very popular at 
Camp Devens. There is nothing that the 
American likes better than hand-to-hand, man- 
to-man fighting. For that reason he excels 
in football, in wrestling, in boxing, and in 
every other sport in which the element of per- 
sonal contact and aggression is predominant. 
That is the reason why he must learn this 
science thoroughly, and that is why, when he has 
learned it, he will make the best bayonet fighter 
on the Western Front. There is nothing 
particularly inspiring about shooting at a forest 
two miles away in the hope of hitting some 
one, or in firing at a trench, the occupants of 
which are not in sight. But when the American 
meets his adversary face to face, when it is skill 
against skill, there he will be at his best. 

But there is another feature of American 
fighting which will hinder our men. The Anglo- 



Saxon likes to fight fair; he plays a clean game 
and expects his adversary to do the same, 
hence he is not looking out for fouls. Accord- 
ing to the German code of fighting, a man fouls 
whenever possible. The Huns surrender and 
then shoot their captors in the back, and have 
innumerable other little tricks which **are not 
being done** in clean fighting. Otu- boys are 
being trained how to deal with these methods. 
The American soldier is not encouraged to 
emulate Prussian barbarism ; he is being taught 
how to cope with it, how to overcome that 
barbarism, and thereby save his own life. 
Every element of warfare which the authori- 
ties teach your son, your brother, your 
friend, is for his own good and is likely to save 
his life at one time or another. 

The bayonet work of Camp Devens is imder 
the tutelage of Major Reginald Barlow, of the 
302d Infantry. Major Barlow is a veteran 
fighter and has seen service in South Africa. 
When the war broke out he was an actor play- 
ing in "Old Lady 31." He is now regarded as 
one of the most expert bayonet instructors in 
the country. 

As yet, the United States has not evolved 



50 




"Over the Top — and Give 'Em Hell" 



BAYONET PRACTICE— Continued 



any partictdar form cf bayonet fighting for 
this war, but the authorities are constantly 
experimenting. When the perfected system is 
adopted, it will probably be a combination of 
the English, French, and Canadian codes. 
The men are being trained according to cer- 
tain principles which the English have foimd 
most successful and efficacious. 

The bayonet fighters in these pictures are 
men of the 13th Company, Depot Brigade. 



The preceding picture shows them coming over 
an imaginary *'top," and gives some idea of what 
a bayonet charge in skirmish line looks like. 

The picture opposite shows the same men 
receiving instruction in thrusting from Lieuten- 
ant Russell Codman of the 4th Battalion. The 
dummies are of burlap sacks filled with straw. 
The man on the end seems to be making a par- 
ticularly determined and deadly thrust. 



52 




Getting Ready For — "Der Tag" 



GRENADE PRACTICE 



Another constituent of the modem art of 
warfare is the hand grenade, an offensive arm 
hitherto practically unrecognized by our regu- 
lations, which has become an important fea- 
ture in the fighting on the Western Front. 
The grenade is made of cast iron and is about 
the size and shape of a lemon. The outside 
of the casing is corrugated, so that when it ex- 
plodes, it bursts into fragments. The grenadier 
holds it in his right hand, removes the safety 
pin with his left, and hurls the grenade in the 
direction of the enemy trenches. Five seconds 
after the grenade leaves the hand, it explodes, 
scattering some fifty bits of iron in all direc- 
tions, with such force that they are danger- 
ous at a distance of a hundred yards. It is 
sometimes used preliminary to the attack, in 
order to clear the opposing front-line trench, but 
more often to '*mop up" an enemy trench, after 
it has been taken. The French company 
formation, adopted since the beginning of the 
war, substitutes a number of grenadiers for the 
customary riflemen, and the newly adopted 
English and Canadian formations also have 



squads of men skilled in throwing the danger- 
ous missiles. Our formation for action on 
the Western Front has not yet been perfected 
but when the final decision is made, there will 
be a large nimiber of these grenadiers attached 
to each company. Accordingly, the military 
authorities at Ayer, leaving no stone tmtumed 
in the thorough preparation of the men, have 
already begun to teach them the art of throw- 
ing the grenade. Lieutenant Mallet of the 
French Mission, assisted by Lieutenant A. W. 
Wright, is superintending the grenade work 
at the camp. The group in the picture are 
non-commissioned officers from the 7th Bat- 
talion, Depot Brigade. They are learning the 
rudiments in advance of the privates so that 
they will be able to instruct their charges when 
the time comes. The Americans find it rather 
difficult to throw the dummy grenade; they 
are tempted to throw it like a baseball, but it 
must be done with a circular overhead move- 
ment, by swinging the arm as the pitcher does 
in the English game of cricket. 



54 




Clearing an Imaginary German Trench 



SIGNALLING 



The knowledge of the methods of signalling 
is not restricted to the Signal Corps, but is 
necessary to men in every branch of the serv- 
ice. The two principal codes used by the 
United States army are the wig-wag, which is 
a visual adaption of the International Morse 
code, and the semaphore two-arm or two-flag 
code, which is illustrated in the accompanying 
picture. 

Certain movements and formations are also 
regulated by signals, the knowledge of which is 
imperative to their proper execution. Often 
in the trenches or on the battlefield, the noise 
or distance is so great that oral commtmication 
is impossible, and written notification not 
feasible. On this accoimt it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the soldier, whether engineer, cavalry- 



man or artilleryman, be able to communicate 
with his officers or companions in another part 
of the field by arm signals. 

Ordinarily, flags are used, as they are more 
easily seen, but in this picture where the train- 
ing is taking place, they are not necessary, and 
only two men seem to be equipped with them. 
The semaphore code is very simple and the 
letters follow certain movements of the arms 
in logical sequence. The man in front is 
signalling the letter O. Of the three men on 
the right whose arms are raised, the first is 
giving the letter J, and those behind him are . 
both signalling the letter A. The signallers 
are members of the 14th and isth Companies of 
the Depot Brigade. 



56 




Semaphoring 



SANITATION, BAYONETS AND HOUSE-MOVING 



(i) The sanitary officer of Camp Devens 
has decreed that as a health precaution all 
blankets and mattresses shall be suspended 
during the hours of morning drill from the win- 
dows of the barracks, and that every window 
in the btiilding shall be open. That is the 
reason for the rather astounding display of 
sleeping accoutrements in this barracks of the 
302d Light Artillery. 

(2) The medical authorities have also taken 
strict precautions to prevent the spread of any 
epidemic among the draft men. The few and 
scattered cases of measles have resulted in the 
wholesale quarantine of the companies to which 
the sick men belonged. This picture shows 
the quarantined barracks of a caisson company 
of the Ammunition Train. A promenade has 
been fenced in for the guard; he will allow no 
one to come within the outside fence, and the 
patients are restricted to that area enclosed 
by the inside barrier. 

(3) Here we have First Lieutenant H. D. 
White instructing his men in bayonet drill. In 



order to illustrate the many varieties of offen- 
sive and defensive positions, the lieutenant 
has ordered each pair to assume a different 
pose. The men on the end are executing the 
preliminary movements, but in the center we 
can see a man who has come to close quarters 
with his adversary and is, so to speak, "after 
him tooth and nail.** This platoon is from 
H Company of the 302d Infantry, and the 
combatants formerly lived on Cape Cod. 

(4) These men from the 304th Infantry 
realize that a soldier is expected to do every 
kind of work on the calendar. A building which 
was formerly used as sleeping quarters for the 
civilian workmen was needed near the regi- 
mental headquarters for a motor-cycle garage. 
Accordingly, a detail was called to transfer it, 
and now the moving is in full progress. They 
have about three blocks farther to go, but 
judging from the happy expressions on their 
faces, the distance does not seem to be of much 
concern. 



58 




(i) "Out the Window You Must Go" 



(2) Quarantined 




(3) Up and at 'Em 



(4) Moving Day 



THE MEDICAL CORPS 



Since the Red Cross has come under the 
dominion of the War Department, the am- 
bulances and equipment have become adjuncts 
to the Medical Corps, and the workers enlisted 
men in the army. The Medical Corps at Camp 
Devens is under the direction of Lieutenant - 
Colonel Powell, the divisional surgeon, who has 
under him 230 officers and x lOO men. Besides 
the base hospital there are twenty-six infirma- 
ries, attached, for the most part, to the regimental 
units. Each of these smaller hospitals has a 
staff of officers and trained men to take care of 
the trivial cases or to administer first aid upon 
event of an emergency. Each morning, after 
breakfast, the men who are not w^ell answer 
"sick-cair' and are marched by a non-com- 
missioned officer to the regimental infirmar>\ 
If their illnesses are imaginary or obviously 



only temporary, the staff treats them there ; any 
men whose condition is really not normal^ or 
who might develop sickness through lack of 
proper care^ are sent to the base hospital in 
ambulances. 

It lends a touch of realism to the ordinary 
commonplace incidents of the camp to see these 
ambulances, ^ith large red crosses on the side, 
go tearing along the road. The * 'rolling stock" 
of the Medical Corps consists of thirty ambu- 
lances like those illustrated and four field hos- 
pitals. The drivers of these vehicles belong 
to the four ambulance companies, whose quar* 
ters are adjacent to those of the Headquarters 
Train. 

The picture shows three of the ambulances 
waiting near one of the regimental infirmaries 
for patients to take to the base hospital. 



60 




The Ambulances 



THE FIELD ARTILLERY 



Camp Devens has three regiments of field 
artillery: the 303d, heavy artillery, the 301st 
and 302d, light artillery. Colonel A. S. Conk- 
lin is the commanding officer of the combined 
regiments. The enlisted men are those drafted 
from Northern Maine and New Hampshire. 

(i) Battery F, 303D. H. F. A. 
Captain Gallaudet of Waterbnry has just 
ordered his organization, Battery F, to fall in 
for fatigue duty. It is early afternoon, and the 
entire regiment is about to pick up the groimds 
and do odd jobs in the vicinity. A quarter- 
mile away, there is a huge supply of wood, 
scattered promiscuously over the landscape; 
these boys from the north will spend the after- 
noon gathering and placing it in piles for the 
trucks to distribute. 

Blue Overalls 

(2) At the same time Battery D is rotmding 

the comer. A road not far away must be 

opened before night and the soldiers have 

donned blue overalls to keep their imiforms 



from getting dirty. They surely present a 
strange appearance, with their campaign hats 
and the blue, loose-fitting clothes, in place of 
the regulation khaki. 

(3 AND 4) Artillery Practice. 

Lieutenant Julian L. Lathrop, the former 
Harvard athlete, who has been in the ambulance 
service at the Western Front, is drilling a squad 
from Battery E. In the absence of horses and 
artillery, they use wooden imitations and 
themselves drag the *'big gims" around. They 
are now ready to fire; there is a goodly supply 
of theoretical ammimition in the wooden 
caisson at the right of the gun, and the sergeant 
is about to give the signal which will (also 
theoretically) cause a shell to disturb the peace- 
ful quiet of the town of Clinton, ten miles away. 

On the ''camouflaged'* horses the same squad 
is learning the fine points of equestrianism. 
Whenthegenuinearticlesarrive, all that will be 
necessary will be to get on good terms with the 
animals. 



62 




( 


i) Battery F 




1^ 


WUM 


1- 

L 




■piir_L i 


t 


■■■ 11 




r. 



(2) Blue Overalls 




(3) "Ready — Fire" 



(4) The Gentle Art of Equestrianism 



THE DEPOT BRIGADE 



"What is the Depot Brigade?" comes the 
query from all sides. 

Some people seem to harbor the impression 
that it is an organization which camps in the 
railroad station, or uses the freight yards as a 
drill-field. But such is not the case. It is not 
even remotely connected with the railroad 
depot or with the freight and passenger serv- 
ice. The Depot Brigade is a clearing-house 
for soldiers, — a training school which never 
takes a vacation, although many of its graduates 
daily receive their degrees as first-class soldiers. 
To the Depot Brigade come all the recruits; to it 
are sent all those men who do not readily pick 
up the elements of military training in the line 
regiments. In a way, it may be compared to 
the foundry which receives crude iron and odd 
lots of old metal, and molds it step by step until 
the finished product is perfected. 

The Depot Brigade is the reserve upon which 
the line regiments depend to replenish troops 
which have been transferred or sent away. 
While the infantry line trains the same men 
day after day until they are proficient as a unit, 
this clearing-house trains individuals until 
they are fit for the line, and then sends them 



away; the vacant places are necessarily filled 
by green men, and the whole process has to be 
duplicated. . 

If a certain company of the line requires 
fifty men to fill its ranks, an appeal is made to 
the Depot Brigade; accordingly, fifty well- 
trained men appear the next morning at the 
roll-call of the infantry organization. If two 
hundred men must leave for Georgia, if ten 
men suited for engineers are needed, the Depot 
Brigade comes to the rescue. This training 
school is numerically the largest organization 
in the camp; it prepares men for every branch 
of the service. 

The officers are the hardest-worked men at 
Ayer. They do not drill the same men day 
after day, but often have several different 
companies pass through their hands in a month. 
They must have on the tip of their tongue every 
detail of the regulations, for while Brown has 
been in the service two months and Green one 
month. Black has had only two weeks' training 
and White did not come to camp until the day 
before yesterday; the officer must therefore be 
ready to explain the principles of grenade 
throwing to Brown, the elements of bayonet 



64 




The Main Street, Depot Brigade 



THE DEPOT BRIGADE— Continued 



combat to Green, the intricacies of company 
and platoon drill to Black, and the manual of 
arms to White, — and all within an hour if 
need be. There is no time to glance at the 
regulations; he must know what he is talking 
about every minute. 

The constant transferring of men from the 
brigade necessarily entails constant practice in 
army paperwork, a most important element of 
military science. Again, every detail must be 
clearly graven in the officers' minds. Such 
constant practice in every branch of the art of 
soldiering cannot but bring about an efficiency 
which would not otherwise be obtained. 



The preceding picture shows the main street 
of the depot brigade. The headquarters is on 
the knoll at the left, and the battalion streets, in 
lines of barracks, run perpendicularly to the 
right from this thoroughfare. The officers' 
quarters are some distance from the road and 
parallel to it, on the left. It can be seen that 
the brigade is on the side of a long slope; from 
its summit one can gain a view of the entire 
cantonment. 

The picture opposite shows a Depot Brigade 
battalion, comprising in this case about 500 
men, and made up of four skeletonized com- 
panies. 



66 




A Depot Brigade Battalion 



THE HEADQUARTERS TRAIN— THE SIGNAL CORPS 



The 301st Headquarters Train and Military 
Police embraces four other organizations: the 
301st Supply Train, the 301st Ammunition Train, 
the 301st Sanitary Train and the 301st Engi- 
neers' Train. The members of these motorized 
units come principally from Worcester, Spring- 
field, and the central part of Massachusetts. 
Many experienced drivers and skilled mechan- 
ics have been transferred to the Headquarters 
Train and are employed at their old trades. 
This is in accordance with the plan of the 
authorities to put every man where he will do 
the best work. The Commanding Officer is 
Colonel G. H. Estes, formerly of the infantry. 

The signalling department of the camp is 
under the control of Major C. A. Lewis, the 
divisional signal officer. Captain John F. Fan- 
ning commands the 301st Signal Battalion, the 
only detachment of the Signal Corps at Ayer. 
This battalion is unlike the other units in 
that its members are, for the most part, vol- 
unteers who were recruited last spring and 
early summer, before the draft became effec- 
tive. The equipment of the Corps includes 



a complete wireless outfit which communicates 
frequently with other stations in all parts of 
the cotmtry. 

(i) The main street and some of the bar- 
racks of the Headquarters Train. 

(2) The 204th Ambulance Company at 
right dress. This unit is a part of the Medical 
Corps, but its barracks are adjacent to those of 
the Train. These boys are mainly from Worces- 
ter and Springfield. 

(3) A view of the barracks of the 301st 
Signal Battalion. The first three belong to 
Companies A, B and C, respectively; the 
building beyond, which resembles an officers* 
quarters, is that of the headquarters detach- 
ment. 

(4) Another view of the Signal Corps, show- 
ing the drill field. The building in the back- 
ground, upon which the antennae of the wire- 
less are seen, is for the overflow from the 
three other buildings. The wireless, which is 
now in the officers' quarters, will also be moved 
into the new structure. 



68 




(I) The Main Street 



(2) 204TH Ambulance Company 




(3) The Signal Corps 



(4) Signal Corps Barracks 



THE INFANTRY 



The 301ST Regiment 
Like the now censored expression ** Sammy/' 
which so aroused the wrath of the American 
soldier in France, the designation '* Boston's 
Own," as applied to the 301st Infantry, has 
caused much heated discussion at Camp Devens. 
The members of that regiment are Greater 
Boston men, for the most part; upon their 
arrival at Ayer, the unit was christened "Bos- 
ton's Own" by one of the newspapers. The 
phrase appeared again and again in the columns 
of the press tmtil it became a fixture at the 
camp, and a tradition among the people of 
Boston. Immediately the other infantry or- 
ganizations and the Depot Brigade, which has 
many units made up solely of Boston men, 
took exception to the term and were annoyed 
by the notoriety which was extended by the 
press to that regiment alone. Some men of the 
301st, also wearied by the constant repetition 
of the phrase, and the subsequent loss of mili- 
tary identity as a imit, became indignant. 
When asked where they had been assigned, men 
of other imits declared : 



'*We're from the 302d (303d or 304th), 
not from Boston's Own,'' 

The Depot Brigade cries hotly: 

* 'Forget the 'Boston's Own* stuff when you're 
around here." 

And an officer of the 301st explained to me: 

'*Such nicknames, though novel at first, be- 
come unpleasant when overworked. We prefer 
to be the plain 301st until we have a record be- 
hind us. Then they may call us what they 
like." 

Such are the opinions! Visitors at the camp 
are strongly advised to ask for the 301st In- 
fantry, if they wish to find that unit; should 
they ask the direction of ** Boston's Own," they 
might be sent to the opposite side of the camp. 

The 301st Infantry is situated a himdred 
yards to the south of the Divisional Headquar- 
ters. The commanding officer is Colonel Frank 
Tompkins. This picture shows the barracks 
of the regiment, taken from the rear. 



70 




The 301 ST, OF Boston 



THE QUARTERS OF THE SUPPLY COMPANY, 301ST INFANTRY 



The lower floor of the typical barracks is 
devoted to the mess hall and kitchen, the first 
sergeant's office and the recreation room; the 
top floor is used for sleeping quarters. The 
Ayer men are particularly fortunate in regard 
to their bunks and equipment. Each man has 
an iron cot, equipped with a spring and a straw 
mattress (a luxury unknown to the soldiers of 
the **good old days" of a year or two ago.) Be- 
sides these, he has as many blankets as are 
requisite for his comfort. No pillows are fur- 
nished, but the soldier may buy one for his per- 
sonal use if he so desires. Pajamas are not 
in vogue. 

As there are no closets or mahogany bureaus, 
the men deposit their personal belongings under 
their cots; there they are as safe as in a vault, 
for, according to the soldier's code of honor, 
theft is classified with murder and arson and is 
unknown in an army camp. In the center of 
the room there are pegs on which overcoats 



may be himg; but all other personal belongings 
are restricted to the area of the cots. 

At night every window is opened six inches 
as a result of the recent order of the Sanitary 
Officer. Directly after mess in the morning, the 
soldier makes his bed. It is not **made" in the 
ordinary way, but, rather, in accordance with 
the military regulations. All blankets and 
bed clothing are neatly folded and deposited 
in a pile at the head of the bed; personal ar- 
ticles must be in similarly neat piles beneath 
each cot. The barracks are inspected daily by 
an officer; any man whose bunk is not in good 
condition, or who has neglected to comply 
with any of the rules, is given a reprimand and 
extra **fatigue duty." 

The boys in this barracks are of the Supply 
Company of the 301st. When the picture was 
taken, they had just finished **tidying up" the 
big room for inspection. 



72 




Supply Company, 301 st Infantry 



THE MESS-HALL 



The lower floor of each barracks contains a 
spacious mess-hall and kitchen for the members 
of the company. The mess-hall is fiiled with 
long wooden benches and seats. In the rear 
is the kitchen, where the food is prepared and 
cooked on large ranges. The cooks are per- 
manent members of the culinary department, 
and were originally selected on account of 
previous experience in that field, but the waiters 
and helpers, the **kitchen police," as they are 
called, are only on duty temporarily. Each 
day a detail is selected from the company roster 
to act as kitchen police. These men are re- 
lieved from military duties and are under the 
orders of his Majesty, the Cook. They carry in 
the supplies from the trucks, peel potatoes and 
onions, and at meal time act as waiters, bringing 
the food to the tables from the sideboard which 
separates the kitchen and the dining hall. This 
duty is not sought by the men and hence is 
often given for days at a time as pimishment for 
some laxity in discipline. 

When the mess-call blows the men throng to 
the tables upon which the food has already been 



placed. As soon as they are allowed to sit down 
there is one grand rush for the plates of food. 
Smith has the potatoes, and Jones the platter 
of meat. After Smith has taken all the pota- 
toes he wants, he gives the dish to Jones, who 
in turn passes back the meat. Meanwhile, 
Brown, Green and Black are industriously 
heaping their plates with bread, beans and 
prunes. After a while this mutual interchange 
is completed and most of the men are happy. 

Those who have not obtained enough howl 
for the distracted orderly to bring them more. 
It is all done good-naturedly, however, and no 
matter how hard a time a man may have in 
getting what he wants when he wants it, he is 
never hungry when he leaves the mess-hall. 
For this is one of Uncle Sam's cardinal rules for 
the health and happiness of his boys, — good 
food and plenty of it. 

The mess-hall shown here is that of a company 
of the 303d Infantry. The kitchen police, 
one of whom has a mop in his hand, are in the 
foregroimd; the cooks can be seen behind the 
sideboard. 



74 




The Most Popular Place in Camp 



THE 302D INFANTRY 



The 302 d Infantry, Colonel C. C. Smith 
commanding, comes from the southeastern part 
of Massachusetts. Some of the men came 
from Quincy, Hingham and towns near Bos- 
ton; others Uved in Provincetown and the vil- 
lages of Cape Cod, on Martha's Vineyard and 
Nantucket. These are the men whose fathers 
and grandfathers sailed from New Bedford and 
Nantucket on long whaling voyages, or earned 
their subsistence by fishing trips to the banks of 
Newfoundland. And their sons and grandsons, 
strong and sturdy young men who have spent 
their lives on the shores of Massachusetts, have 
forsaken the sea, and are preparing to fight by 
land the great war of democracy. 

The street in the picture runs through their 



barracks, and connects the reginiental street 
in front with the highway in the rear. The 
latter encircles the barracks of the 301st and 
the 302d. Looking down the hill, one can 
see the great parade ground, or drill field, which 
these two regiments overlook. 

This picture illustrates the manner in which 
all the infantry sites are laid out. For instance, 
the barracks of A and E Companies are on 
the main street below, while B, C and D, and 
G, H and I, are situated in tiers behind them. 
One of the officers' quarters is seen on the other 
side of the road at the bottom of the hill. The 
small buildings along the side of the barracks 
are latrines, which contain the toilets and 
shower baths. 



76 




A Street of the 302D 



RETURNING FROM THE TRENCHES 



At seven-thirty this morning a detail from the 
302 d Infantry was formed, and was ordered 
to don overalls and take picks and shovels, in- 
stead of rifles, for the morning drill. The tmit 
had representatives of nearly every company 
in the regiment. 

**Squads right, march," commanded the 
officer in charge, and the column moved up the 



road. After ten minutes' walk the men arrived 
at the trenches, and spent the morning in dig- 
ging, and receiving instruction in the forma- 
tion and construction of trenches from the 
Canadian and French officers. It is Saturday 
noon and now they are returning to their bar- 
racks. For most of them, the week's work is 
over, and a day and a half of rest is in prospect. 



78 




A Detail from the 302D 



THE 303D INFANTRY 



The quarters of the 303d and 304th Infantry 
are at some distance from those of the other 
two units of infantry, and stretch along the 
road which runs parallel to the adjacent Depot 
Brigade, in the southeastern part of the camp. 
The men of the 303d are the only ones at Ayer 
who were not residents of New England; they 
come from northeastern New York state, from 
Albany, Schenectady, Johnstown and other 
towns and cities in that section. In imitation 



of the Boston regiment, they call themselves 
**New York's Own," but from the jocular man- 
ner with which they pronounce this designa- 
tion, one imderstands that they do not mean it 
seriously, but are merely poking fun at their 
neighbors. 

The company in the picture is returning to 
the barracks for mess, after several hoiu's of 
strenuous ''fatigue duty." The regiment is 
commanded by Colonel J. F. Preston. 



80 




"When the Day's Work is O'er" 



THE 304TH INFANTRY 



From Connecticut comes the 304th Infantry, 
imder Colonel J. S. Herron; a large number of 
its men were fonnerly employed by the indus- 
trial plants of Bridgeport, Hartford, New 
Britain and Waterbury. Some of the men 
were imable to speak English, and others had 
never learned to write. I saw the roll call of 
Company G, commanded by Captain Charles D. 
Case; parts of it resembled a list of Russian 
fortresses and similariy unpronounceable names. 
The sergeant who calls the roll did not find it 
easy to enimciate clearly patronyms which 
begin with ''Kryz-," or *'Crmn-\ These 
examples are by no means exaggerated; similar 
arrays of consonants are common things on the 
company rosters. Such conditions are not 
confined to this regiment, but are foimd in every 
organization at Ayer; they are more than ordi- 
narily prevalent in the 304th because of the 
large number of men from the industrial cities 
which contributed their quota to that unit. 

The authorities have made every effort to 
bring to these men of foreign birth the same 
knowledge of the English language enjoyed by 



their native-bom comrades. Schools teaching 
written and spoken English were formed, and 
those men who had not been educated were 
required to attend. The results have been 
remarkable, as the pupils have shown, from the 
first, a keen desire to learn. And although, on 
account of their lack of knowledge of English, 
they were at first somewhat slow in mastering 
the elements of drill, they soon acquired a 
proficiency which rivalled that of their Ameri- 
can-bom fellow soldiers. 

It is hard to realize that many members of 
this column of platoons, which is now marching 
like a veteran body, were working at machines 
three months before and had not the slightest 
idea of military regulations. Then some of them 
could not imderstand spoken English, and their 
only idea of discipline was that of the factory. 
Now they are living under better conditions 
than some of them enjoyed in the factory 
towns from which they came, keeping regular 
hours, taking continuous exercise and eating 
good, wholesome food. Is it any wonder that 
they make such a good showing? 



82 




A Column of Platoons 



THE REVIEW OF THE 304TH INFANTRY 



In a military cantonment, reviews of regi- 
mental units are held frequently, both for the 
delectation of the higher officers and other digni- 
taries, and also for practice in mass drilling and 
formations. These pictures present the general 
aspects of a regimental review. 

In the course of the morning, the order comes 
to the company commanders to be ready for a 
review of the regiment at 11.30. Drill is ordi- 
narily suspended and the men are given an 
opportunity to clean their uniforms, polish 
their shoes, and prepare their rifles and equip- 
ment for the usually attendant inspection by 
the person or persons in honor of whom the 
formality is held. At 11. 15, the company com- 
manders order their imits to form in company 
line. He then conducts an informal inspection 
of the men. 

(i) "A" company has just formed and the 
captain is explaining the procedure that is to 
follow. At the same time the other companies 
are likewise forming and receiving the same 



instructions. The captain 'then marches the 
company to the place where the battalion is to 
assemble. He reports to the major, who takes 
charge of the battalion, and marches it to the 
designated place on the parade ground. 

(2) The first battalion has taken its place, 
and the line in the rear is standing at attention. 

(3) The entire regiment is now in position 
before the reviewing stand. An officer with a 
megaphone is explaining certain details which 
must be learned before the next formation. 

(4) The formality being over, the battalions 
are returning to their barracks in column of 
platoons, that is to say, several squads abreast. 
The order comes ** Platoon right by squads.** 
The platoon on the left is changing its formation 
and instead of marching in platoon line, like the 
second unit in the picture, it is forming a column 
of squads, — one squad behind the other, the 
usual marching formation. In this formation, 
the captains take their men to their barracks. 




(i) Company A, 304TH Infantry 






(2) 


Company Front 




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(3) At Attention 



(4) "Platoon Right by Squads" 



CAMP ACTIVITIES 



(i) The Supply Team 
Once more we have one of the mule teams; 
this one is an adjunct to the Supply Company 
of the 303d H. F. A. The transportation 
and distribution of company supplies comes 
within the province of the supply company, a 
tmit which is attached to each regiment. The 
men usually selected for this organization are 
those who have had previous experience in tak- 
ing care of horses and mules, or in driving carts. 
In the regular army, the supply men have the 
longest working hours of any enlisted men in 
the service. Directly after breakfast, they 
harness their teams and drive away; they do 
not appear again at their quarters until supper 
time. 

(2) Policing the Grounds 
The word **police," taken as a verb, means, 
in military parlance, to "clean up." The 
'^policing** of a mess hall signifies the sweep- 
ing of the floor and washing of the tables. The 
* 'policing" of the camp grounds denotes the 
cleaning up of all papers and rubbish in the 



vicinity. Two men carry a box or a sack for 
the refuse; the rest pick up every scrap which 
might arouse the wrath of the vigilant inspector 
or sanitary officer. Here we have a group of 
men from the 302d Field Artillery, putting 
their grounds in good order for an expected 
inspection by the colonel. 

Throwing the Medicine Ball 

(3) Outdoor games are often substituted for 
the setting-up exercises. This circle of men from 
the Signal Corps is engaged in throwing about a 
heavy medicine ball. The physical training of 
the camp is superintended by R. F. Nelligan, a 
civilian instructor, who was formerly the Profes- 
sor of Hygiene and Physical Exercise at Amherst 
College. Mr. Nelligan offered his services to 
the War Department and was sent to Ayer 
in November. 

Marching 

(4) The fourth picture shows the first bat- 
talion of the 304th Infantry, which is about to 
march to the drill field for practice in battalion 
formations and movements. 



86 




(i) Supply Team 



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HMMSS^I 



(2) Police Duty 




(3) "Tossing the Pill" 



(4) A Battalion of the 304TH 



DRILL FIELD, RANGE AND TRENCH 



(i) "The Prize Squad" 
When members of companies I and K, 
302d Infantry, came down with the measles, 
the other members of the vmit were placed 
tinder strict quarantine. In order to prevent 
loss of valuable time while waiting for the 
quarantine to be lifted, the officers took groups 
to isolated parts of the camp and conducted 
the drills. The picture shows a group of non- 
commissioned officers of the two companies in- 
dulging in a quiet, private drill, "far from the 
madding crowd.*' The lieutenant in charge 
informed me that they were the "prize squad 
of the camp.*' 

(2) At the Trenches 
Men from the 303d Infantry are seen digging 
a first-line trench. While one shift of men is 
working, the rest receive explanations and 
instructions. 



(3) The 301ST AT THE Range 
This picture gives a good idea of the appear- 
ance of the rifle range in the afternoon. The 
crowd of men who are waiting behind the firing 
line are from the 301st Infantry. They are 
on the htmdred yard range, and the men are 
shooting from a standing position. 

(4) Keeping Warm 
When the temperature drops at the trenches, 
the men gather brush and old boards and do 
their best to keep warm. The large nimiber 
of men around the fire is good proof of its popu- 
larity at the present chilly moment. When 
the cold becomes intense, the captains send for 
hot coffee from the company kitchens. This is 
brought to the trenches in huge boilers by the 
supply wagons. Such acts of forethought and 
kindness to the men are indicative of the spirit 
of the officers at Ayer; they make every effort 
not only to train their men, but, at the same 
time, to keep them comfortable and contented. 



88 




(i) "The Prize Squad*' 



(2) A Front Line Trench Under Construction 




(3) "Commence Firing" 



(4) Only Four Below 



THE RIFLE RANGE 



After the camp was completed, the authori- 
ties scanned the neighborhood for a suitable 
rifle range for the draft men and eventually 
selected an immense field about two miles dis- 
tant from the camp. A nimiber of short ranges 
were established, some of loo yards, some of 
200, and others equipped with apparatus de- 
signed for practice with low calibre rifles. 

Every man in camp will take his turn at the 
ranges. The soldiers go for practice in com- 
pany or battalion units, and their efforts are 
carefully supervised by officers and expert 
riflemen. For those who are unacquainted 
with the equipment of a rifle range, a short des- 
cription might be welcome. The men fire from 
three positions: prone (i. e. lying on the stom- 
ach), kneeling, and from a standing position. 
The targets have a black bulls-eye in the center, 
with larger rings encircling it. A bulls-eye 
counts five points, and the corresponding rings, 
four, three, and two; a hit on any part of the 



target cotmts two. After the man has shot, 
the markers, who are in a trench beneath the 
targets, pull them down and examine them; 
then they raise them again by a system of pul- 
leys, and designate with a disk, which is on a 
long pole, the position of the hit. A scorer, 
standing behind the firing line, keeps a careful 
record of the score. Ten shots are fired, and 
the percentage is figured on the basis of a pos- 
sible total of fifty. 

The men in the picture, belonging to the 
304th Infantry, are firing from a trench which 
is an exact copy of a firing trench on the western 
front. When standing on the floor of the 
trench, the soldiers are not in range of the 
enemy *s rifle fire; the firing step enables them 
to shoot over the top of the parapet. 

The scores of the men have been most grati- 
fying; at the 100-yard range, some organizations 
of the 304th have had an average of forty out of 
a possible fifty points. 



90 




The Firing "Trench 



THE TRENCHES 



In order to train the draft men tinder con- 
ditions resembling as closely as possible those 
that they will later encounter in France, the 
authorities have ordered that a complete set of 
trenches be built, both for the practice in con- 
structing them, and for the training in their 
use which will follow. All the men of the line 
will take part in the exercises. Officers and 
non-commissioned officers from the French and 
Canadian armies, who have seen active service, 
and realize the actual conditions of trench war- 
fare, are supervising this work at Camp Devens. 
The United States has no standard trenches; 
those which will be eventually adopted will be 
a combination of the best points of the systems 
used by the allied forces. The trenches at 
Ayer are really only experimental, but they 
answer their purpose in demonstrating to the 
infantrymen the characteristics and uses of 
those which are employed at the western front. 
The soldier will learn to distinguish the first, 
second and third-line trenches and the commtini- 



cation trenches which connect them. He will 
know how to dig the trenches, to build the 
firing step, the berme, the parapet, the parados, 
and he will become acquainted with the function 
of each. He will learn how to build dugouts, 
how to construct revetments, how to drain the 
trenches, and many other details which are 
mysteries to the iminitiated. When the system 
is completed he will be taught to defend them, 
and from them to conduct a strong offensive. 
No matter what system is finally adopted, the 
men from Ayer will have a thorough knowledge 
of the fundamentals of trench construction and 
trench warfare, and with this to work on, they 
will be able quickly to pick up whatever new 
details may develop. 

The picture shows some men of the 303 d 
Infantry in a commtmication trench. The 
wooden frame-work constitutes, in military 
parl^^nce, a revetment of fascines, which has 
been constructed to obviate any possibility of 
a cave-in. 



92 




A Communication Trench 



AROUND THE FIRE 



The outside temperature of New England 
is not comfortable dimng the winter months. 
On this account, many people have attacked 
the plan of the War Department to have 
a camp in the North; they claimed that 
the men would be subject to innimierable 
ills on account of the rigorous weather. The 
authorities have had one great object — to keep 
the men in their own districts until they leave 
for France. According to this plan, the men 
have an opportunity to go home frequently, and 
their friends and relatives are enabled to visit 
the cantonments. And by this method, the 
people can see just what progress the men are 
making; the mother can realize the great care 
that is taken of her boy, and the benefit which 
he receives day by day from the training. 

There is no doubt that a southern climate 
would be more comfortable for the Massa- 
chusetts men. At Ayer it is cold, but the 
men have plenty of clothing to keep them 
warm, and the barracks are as well heated as 



the ordinary home. The cold weather is 
exhilarating; it inures the men who have al- 
ways lived in hot houses to the out-door 
life of winter and consequently is more bene- 
ficial than would be the languorous warmth 
of the South or the variable weather conditions 
of England or France. And above all, the 
Ayer cantonment enables the men to prepare 
for war at home. Few would exchange this 
privilege for a camp in another section. The 
people see their boys being trained; they do not 
have to imagine this instruction, as though 
it were carried on in some vague place like 
Charlotte, N.C., or "Somewhere in France." 
In every way, the Ayer cantonment has been 
a monumental success. The War Department 
has done its best, the camp authorities are doing 
their best, and the spirit of enthusiasm and 
intensity of the enlisted personnel is the spirit 
which will make them the best citizen-soldiers 
that the world has ever seen, and will also lead 
them to victory and a glorious peace. 



94 




God Bless Us, Evekv One 




WAR DEPARTMENT 
PHOTOGRAPHER'S PERMIT 



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CAMP DEVENS. AVER. MASS. 



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