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Full text of "Camp stoves and fireplaces"

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CAMP STOVES 



AND 



FIREPLACES 




FOREST SERVICE 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



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CAMP STOVES 



AND 



FIREPLACES 

BY 
A.D.TAYLOR, A.B., M.S. 

Consulting Landscape Architect for the 
United States Forest Service 




PUBLISHED BY 

Emergency Conservation Work 
Robert Fechner, Director 

PREPARED BY 

The Forest Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1937 



For sale by the 

SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

Washington, D. C. 

Price $1.50 (Buckram) 



w 



THE national forests with their lakes, streams, mountain ranges, and mountain 
peaks, including an area more than five times as large as all New England, contain a 
large part of the natural outdoor recreational areas in the United States. 

The Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, charged with the 
custodianship of the national forests, considers these recreational possibilities as public 
resources, to be wisely used and carefuUy safeguarded. Because of the public demand 
for use of these recreational areas, the Forest Service, within the limits of the funds avail- 
able and consistent with the primary purposes for which the national forests have been 
created, is doing everything possible to properly and adequately develop these recrea- 
tional resources for public use. 

The Civilian Conservation Corps, during the last 3 years, has made it possible to 
carry on an extensive program of work in the development of these recreational areas 
which otherwise would have been impossible or long delayed. 

In order to protect the forests from fire, to provide sanitary safeguards, and to furnish 
suitable public conveniences, it has been necessary to designate thousands of camp- 
grounds and picnic areas and to provide these areas with simple and adequate 
improvements. 

On the great majority of campgrounds and picnic areas fires are essential for cooking, 
for campfires, and for warming fires. To fully protect the forest growth, on and surrounding 
these recreational areas, it is necessary that these fires be confined within camp stoves, 
fireplaces and campfire circles. The importance of appropriate design for these features 
has prompted the Forest Service to make a careful and extensive study of this subject in 
order to determine the types of camp stoves and fireplaces best adapted to use under 
varying conditions. 

This subject is of growing significance because of the increasing importance of 
recreational activities not only in the national forests; but on all recreational areas 
throughout the United States in connection with which these facilities are essential. 

Mr. A. D. Taylor, consulting landscape architect for the Forest Service, made a 
careful study of this problem during the summer and fall of 1935. He has condensed his 
findings into the following pages. As the author states, it is fully appreciated that this 
presentation of the subject cannot be considered as complete. The text and drawings 
represent an effort at this time to make available in clear and definite form, the most 
authoritative information compiled to date on the subject of camp stoves and fireplaces. 

It is my hope that this publication will be of real value to forest officers and to 
the thousands of others responsible for the planning and construction of recreational 
improvements throughout the United States. 

June 5, 1936. 




Chief, Forest Service. 



THE tendency for an increasing number of people to procure relief from the physical and 
mental strain of earning a living, by seeking the atmosphere of nature in the national 
forests, parks, and in thousands of other similar areas, creates an important problem for 
those who are concerned in meeting the needs of recreation. The problem of providing 
campground and picnic-area facilities, especially camp stoves and fireplaces, is increas- 
ing proportionately. The importance of this problem is further emphasized by the fact 
that during the summer of 1935 the throng of campers and picnickers using only the 
national forests had increased to 8,000,000. 

Because of the influx of people, especially into the national forests, the national 
parks, and the State and metropolitan parks, the use of the areas adapted especially 
for camping and picnicking would be impractical if facilities for cooking fires and for 
warming fires could not be confined to camp stoves and fireplaces, for the following 
reasons: 

A. To reduce to a minimum, on wooded areas, the ever-present fire hazard. 

B. To increase the convenience and the comfort of man's use of these forest areas. 

C. To protect vegetation against unnecessary destruction. 

The great majority of those who are seeking recreation in the forests not only desire, 
but require these facilities for their convenience and comfort. There is a small minority, 
however, who are strongly prejudiced against the introduction of any man-made facilities 
into the forests. These individuals have an innate love of nature "in the raw", and they 
fortunately are able to adjust themselves to the conditions of nature without the aid of 
these facilities which are normally a part of any important campground and picnic area. 
Those recreation areas which are provided with facilities to increase the comfort and 
convenience of the people who cannot readily adapt themselves to nature "in the raw", 
are the most popular. In the development of any of these features, it is not practical or 
necessary to attempt to provide the conveniences which one can have at home. It is 
necessary, however, to avoid too great inconvenience in the use of these facilities in order 
that those who are less hardy may reap the full enjoyment from their short stay rather 
than to expend their energy in adapting themselves to conditions to which they have not 
become accustomed. 

There is adequate space, especially in the great primitive areas for the small minority 
who desire to "rough it", to procure full opportunity to live with nature as it has existed 
for centuries. The great majority, however, who are living their lives under conditions 
which do not in any way equip them, through experience or inclination, to provide suste- 
nance and comfort without these facilities, should be equally able to enjoy themselves in 
their particular way. 

It is to provide for the great majority that this bulletin has been prepared in the hope 
that those who use, and those who may have occasion to construct, camp stoves and 
fireplaces may be provided with information concerning the problems of location, design, 
construction and use of these facilities. 



While campground and picnic area stoves and fireplaces have been in demand 
during a number of years in the well-developed recreation areas, it is apparent that 
comparatively limited study has been given to this problem, and there is a great lack of 
dependable information upon this subject. It is evident that no definite conclusions con- 
cerning the design and construction for the most appropriate and practical types of 
stoves and fireplaces to be installed on different areas have been reached. It is most 
important, because of the lack of information available to those who are seeking an 
answer to this problem, that this question be given further study in the light of the experi- 
ence which has been gained through this greatly increased use during the past few years. 
There appeared in a recent publication the following instructions or "specifications" 
for the construction of parts of a camp stove or fireplace: 

Three iron pipes, preferably not over I'/t inches in diameter should be run across the fireplace 
from side to side, etc. 

The walls must be sufficiently thick so that they will not crumble. Wherever large flat rocks 
can be obtained, they should be used. The larger they are the better, within reasonable limits. 



Is it any wonder that reliable information is desired, when agencies directing recrea- 
tion activities are publishing information of this kind on the basis of which to design and 
construct camp stoves and fireplaces? 

The conditions under which camp stoves and fireplaces are designed and constructed 
to meet the requirements of everyday use are widely varied and there can be no one type 
of either camp stove or fireplace which seems best to meet all requirements. It has been 
necessary, therefore, to include in this discussion all of the possible types which seem of 
practical value. 

The author appreciates fully that no discussion of this subject at the present time 
can be considered as complete. This compilation represents an effort to bring together, 
within the covers of a single volume, the best information which is available at the present 
time, on the basis of which further study may continue. 

This discussion applies primarily to the problems which are presented in the forest 
camps and picnic areas of the national forests. It may apply equally well to many other 
types of recreation areas and to thousands of recreational developments outside of the 
national forests. 

In further explanation of any lack of completeness in the following text and illustra- 
tions, the author calls attention to the fact that no consideration is here given to the 
"sophisticated" and very architectural types of stoves and fireplaces, often of elaborate 
design, and frequently developed on private estates in close relationship with other 
architectural features. 

The author deeply appreciates the generous cooperation of the representatives of the 
Forest Service, who have supplied a quantity of valuable information on the basis of which 
a number of these drawings have been compiled. He is also indebted to the officials of the 
Forest Service, who have made possible a first-hand study of the actual conditions on the 
ground in many parts of the national forests. To the many individuals outside of the 
Forest Service, from whom information has been procured during the past 4 or 5 years, 
while this study has been in progress, sincere thanks are extended. 

For valuable assistance in the preparation of drawings and text, a word of sincere 
appreciation is due to Mr. H. Dercum, architect, of Cleveland, Ohio, 

AP"1 1936. ^^^^^^Q^. 



N T E N 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Definitions and adaptations to location and use 3 

Types of stoves and fireplaces 4 

Patented stoves (with and without masonry encasement) .... 4 

Campfire circles and open fireplaces 4 

Fireplaces with top grate or top plate 4 

Camp stoves 5 

Combined stoves and fireplaces 5 

Multiple stoves 5 

Warming fires 5 

Combined shelter and fireplace 6 

Barbecue pits and barbecue ovens 6 

General design problems 7 

General considerations 7 

Factors which affect design and methods of construction .... 7 

Practical usefulness versus appropriate design 9 

Location on campground and picnic area 9 

Fire hazard 10 

Fuel problems 11 

Discussion of detailed design 12 

Foundations 12 

Firebox 12 

Top grate or top plate 15 

Stonework 17 

Chimneys 18 

Materials for construction 20 

Iron and brick 20 

Brick 20 

Concrete 20 

Stone 20 

Sand 20 

Detailed discussion of specific types of camp stoves and fireplaces 
(adaptation to location and use; design and construction; variations 

in design) 21 



Page 

Types of fireplaces 22 

Open-end masonry fireplace 26 

Rock-slab fireplace 28 

Standard grate fireplace variations 30 

Informal fireplace 32 

Western picnic fireplace 34 

Informal raised hearth type 36 

Informal raised hearth type 38 

Chimney notch fireplace 40 

Convertible camp stove 42, 46 

Stove-warming combination 44 

Camp stove variations 48 

High chimney stove 52 

Multiple unit stove 54 

Patented stove types 56 

Warming-cooking unit 58 

Barbecue pits and barbecue ovens 60, 62, 64, 66 

Fireplace-shelter types 68 

Warming fires and campfires 70 

Construction details 73, 74, 76, 78, 80 

Good and bad stonework 83 

Undesirable types 86 

Frequent mistakes in fireplace and camp stove design and construction 88 

Camp unit lay-outs 90 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate No. Title of plate Page 

I. Types of fireplaces 23 

II. Open-end masonry type 27 

III. Rock-slab fireplace 29 

III- A. Standard grate fireplace variations 31 

IV. Informal fireplace • 33 

V. Western picnic fireplace 35 

VI. Informal raised hearth type 37 

VII. Iniormal raised hearth type 39 

VIII. Chimney notch type 41 

IX. Convertible camp stove 43 

X. Stove-warming combination 45 

XI. Convertible camp stove 47 

XI-A. Camp stove variations 49 

XII. High chimney stove 53 

XIII. Multiple unit stove 55 

XrV. Patented stove type 57 

XV. Warming-cooking unit 59 

XVI. Barbecue pit 63 

XVII. Barbecue oven 65 

XVIII. Hillside barbecue oven 67 

XIX. Fireplace-shelter types 69 

XX. Warming fires and campfires 71 

XXI. Construction details 75 

XXII. Construction details 77 

XXII-A. Construction details 79 

XXIII. Fireplace construction (within shelters) 81 

XXIV. Good and bad stonework 84 

XXV. Good and bad stonework 85 

XXVI. Undesirable types 87 

XXVII. Camp unit lay-outs 91 



INTRODUCTION 



J. HE campfire appeals to an instinct which is 
common to man and which can be traced back 
to antiquity. Fires will always be in demand by 
those who are seeking recreation in its different 
forms in the national forests and in other areas. 
They provide a means of creating warmth, of 
cooking, of lighting, of exchanging signals, and 
of fostering a community interest among those 
who are gathered in the campfire circle. 

There are two types of areas in the national 
forests, and in other parks and forests, on which 
camp stoves and fireplaces are used. These 
areas are ordinarily designated as forest camp 
or campground (primarily for overnight camp- 
ing use), and picnic area (primarily for daytime 
picnic use and seldom for overnight use). The 
term "forest camp" is generally applicable to 
any area in the national forests used for camp- 
ing or picnicking or both. The term "picnic 
area" is generally applicable only to areas 
used for picnicking. On the other hand, the two 
areas have a distinct use, one for camping pur- 
poses and one for picnicking purposes, and in 
this bulletin the differentiation is made accord- 
ingly. Camp stoves and fireplaces are used on 
other areas in the national forest, known as 
special-use areas, which are particularly 
adapted for summer residences, and for 
summer hotel sites with overnight cabins. 

The forest camp and forest picnic area are 
set aside for this particular type of recreation 
use. Many of the forest camps are occupied for 
periods extending from 1 or 2 days to periods 
extending over a number of weeks, while picnic 
areas are in most instances used for one and 
not more than two meals during any one trip. 
Both of these areas serve as centers of activity 
from which the occupants may take long or 
short trips for hiking, fishing, hunting, etc. 

In the forest camp and in the picnic area, it is 
essential that cooking facilities be constructed 
in order to provide the conveniences so neces- 
sary for the majority of people. Those who use 
the forest camps, especially for camping use, 



require a more complete and convenient cook- 
ing unit than those who use the picnic areas. 

The problems of convenience and adaptation 
to use, appearance, protection against the fire 
hazard, and maintenance must be discussed in 
any adequate consideration of this subject. 

It is frequently observed in the national 
forests that forest camps and picnic areas are 
used so intensively and in such a manner 
that the forest ground-cover is unnecessarily 
destroyed. There is a "saturation point" be- 
yond which these areas should not be inten- 
sively used. This point is in direct relation to 
the kind of vegetation and soil conditions which 
prevail upon any specific area and which 
must be considered in determining the type of 
development for any area. 

Any man-made feature, however well de- 
signed, when introduced into the natural forest 
is an artificial note and an intrusion. It is 
granted that the ideal forest recreation area is 
one in which these features are absent. Unfor- 
tunately, man's use of these recreation areas, 
and nature's requirement that vegetation be 
protected, make certain facilities and regula- 
tions for their use entirely necessary. It is very 
essential that there be an intelligent conser- 
vation of the existing growth on all camp- 
grounds and picnic areas if continued pleasure 
is to be derived from the use of these areas. 

The attitude of the public toward the use and 
protection of the facilities which are provided 
in forest camps and picnic areas varies widely 
in different sections of the country. There are 
those individuals who seem intuitively to ap- 
preciate the effort which is made to increase 
their comfort and enjoyment by providing 
adequate and convenient facilities. On the 
other hand, there are those who are critical 
of these facilities, even though they evidence a 
certain respect for the use of these facilities. 
There is, however, another group (fortunately, 
in the minority) who are inclined to be careless 
and destructive. In some localities throughout 



the country it becomes increasingly important 
on this account to so design and construct 
facihties for campgrounds and picnic areas 
that a m.inimum of damage from vandahsm 
and careless use can occur. 

Fireplaces are chiefly valuable because of 
the open blaze which provides heat and light 
so much desired by campers and picnickers. 
Camp stoves are primarily valuable for cook- 
ing purposes and are necessary where the 
fire hazard is great. Fireplaces should be 
designed so that they may be used with reason- 
able convenience for cooking purposes. 

The amount of money available for the con- 
struction and subsequent maintenance of camp 
stoves and fireplaces is often an important 



factor in determining the type of unit. Some 
types of camp stoves and fireplaces require 
much more maintenance (replacing of parts, 
removal of ashes, and repairs) than do others 
of a simpler and more solid type of construc- 
tion. The kind of labor available for con- 
structing these units is sometimes an equally 
important factor. The type of unit which re- 
quires strict adherence to detailed plans in 
actual construction is not practical unless 
skilled labor is available. In any camp stove 
and fireplace, it is possible, without skilled 
labor, to misinterpret the intent of the plans to 
the extent that the completed feature may some- 
times entirely lose the desired effect. 



DEFINITIONS AND ADAPTATIONS 
TO LOCATION AND USE 



XN this discussion the terms "camp stove" 
and "fireplace" are used to designate the two 
groups of units which are used for cooking, 
warming, and hghting purposes. These terms 
are not synonymous. There are times, however, 
when it is difficult to differentiate between a 
camp stove and a fireplace. 

In some types which are easily convertible 
from a fireplace to a camp stove or a camp stove 
to a fireplace, the unit may be designated as 
one or the other. There is usually a difference 
between the camp stove and the fireplace. The 
stove is that unit which is used primarily for 
cooking purposes and has a definite solid plate 
for a cooking surface, and in which the draft is 
ordinarily controlled by a damper in the door 
or in the chimney, or both. The fireplace is that 
unit which is used primarily for light and 
warmth, and also for cooking. It is usually 
constructed with a grate over the firebox and 
sometimes with a removable plate; but no pro- 
vision is made for the control of the draft by 
any door, or in the chimney. The fireplace is 
ordinarily used on the picnic area and seldom 
used on the camp area except in combination 
with a camp stove. On the other hand, the 
camp stove may be used on the picnic area as 
well as upon the camp areas. In all camp 
stoves and in all but the very simple types of 
fireplaces, the firebox is lined with fire-clay 
brick. Campfire circles (pi. XX) are a type of 
fireplace although they are usually constructed 
only for warmth and light. 

In designing a unit for any camp ground or 
picnic area, the first step is to determine whether 
the maximum use of the unit will be in connec- 
tion with picnic activities or in connection with 



campground activities. The person who comes 
to a campground usually remains during a 
period of days or weeks and he desires during 
this period to be provided with three meals a 
day and therefore to have reasonable con- 
venience in the use of any cooking facilities. 
The camp stove is the unit which provides this 
kind of convenience. The picnicker is on the 
picnic area for a matter of hours only, and 
during this time it may be necessary to prepare 
not more than one meal. As a little inconven- 
ience does not annoy him and in fact may add 
to the thrill of " 'roughing it' ' and of being ' 'in the 
open" lor this short period, he is quite willing 
to accept a certain amount of inconvenience. 

In general it is more desirable that camp 
stoves and fireplaces be in fixed locations in 
order to avoid unnecessary destruction of 
natural vegetation and forest ground cover. 
If these units are moved indiscriminately over 
the recreation area, the natural vegetation is 
soon destroyed and the area loses much of its 
attractiveness. 

In some picnic areas, especially those in 
close proximity to large centers of population 
the only practical solution in the use of the 
area is that of providing movable units (pi. 
I, fig. 6A) for cooking purposes. On such areas 
there may be an intensive use by hundreds of 
picnickers on one day and on another day the 
same intensive use may be concentrated upon 
some other area. In the meantime one of the 
areas is very little occupied. For occasions of 
such intensive use it is, therefore, essential to 
provide a considerable number of units of a 
movable type to meet the requirements of this 
intermittent intensive use. 



TYPES OF STOVES AND FIREPLACES 



XHERE is a variety of types of camp stoves 
and fireplaces, ranging from the simple types 
shown in plate I, figures 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to 
the elaborate and massive types shown on 
plates XII and XIII. In addition, there are the 
patented types of (a) fixed, (b) movable, and 
(c) portable camp stoves, some of which are 
used as assembled after shipment from the 
source of supply, and others are used only 
after being assembled and encased in masonry. 
The simpler forms of fireplaces, similar to those 
shown in plate I, are excellently adapted for 
picnic use on the forest recreation areas and 
especially on open areas, because these 
simpler features are less conspicuous and more 
natural in appearance. 

PATENTED STOVES 

(With ond Without Masonry Encosement) 

These stoves have a wide use, especially in 
the more urban park areas. The type of porta- 
ble stove shown in plate I, figure 2 (designed 
to burn gasoline), is popular, especially where 
adequate cooking facilities are not provided 
on campground and picnic areas. This porta- 
ble stove is often used where only fireplaces 
are available and the camper desires a cleaner 
and easier method of preparing food. These 
stoves are easily carried in the automobile, 
and with a few minutes of preparation they 
are ready for use. In some areas a large 
percent of the campers use this portable stove. 
There are two other groups of patented 
stoves, one of which is used without a masonry 
covering and the other is used with a masonry 
covering (pi. XIV). The patented stove which 
is designed for use without masonry is best 
suited for the more intensively used recreation 
areas under city conditions. This stove is not 
well adapted, from the standpoint of appro- 
priate design, to the natural forest surround- 
ings. On the other hand, the patented stove 
intended for use only when encased in well- 
designed stone masonry (pi. XIV) is an excellent 
stove for use on campgrounds. 



CAMPFIRE CIRCLES AND 
OPEN FIREPLACES 

Fires, either in campfire circles (pi. XX, figs. 
3, 4, 5, and 6) or in open fireplaces (pis. II, III, 
and IV) are always in demand on recreation 
areas where the fire hazard is small. These 
features range from the small circle for indi- 
vidual camp units or individual picnic groups, 
and the large circles for community gatherings, 
to the weU-designed open fireplaces. Their 
main value is not for cooking, except on camp- 
grounds. It is for light and warmth. There is a 
certain element of simplicity and charm in the 
atmosphere created by a campfire circle or an 
open, simple fireplace. No extensive camp- 
ground or picnic area is complete without 
them, and their absence can be justified only 
in locations where the fire hazard prohibits 
their use. 

FIREPLACES WITH TOP GRATE 
OR TOP PLATE 

On campgrounds and picnic areas which are 
entirely in the open, the camp stove and the 
fireplace should be as inconspicuous as it is 
practical to make it, because of the unattrac- 
tive effect which is so often produced by any 
considerable number of more massive types of 
fireplaces on a single open area. 

The most natural fireplace is one which is 
cut into the natural rock outcrop or ledge (pi. 
I, fig. 3), or a similar fireplace so constructed 
that it reproduces the effect of being cut from 
the natural ledge rock (pi. I, fig. 4). These 
fireplaces are most attractive in appearance 
and appropriate to the surroundings. Unless 
the natural rock outcrop happens to be of a 
kind which can withstand intense heat and 
water dousing, considerable damage will occur 
in practical use. 

On some picnic areas, a simple form of 
standard grate with sheet-iron or stone sides 
(pi. I, figs. 6C and 6B) is adopted. This simple 
grate is supported on four legs which may be 
anchored firmly in the ground, if the fireplace 



is supposed to be in a fixed position, or the legs 
may be so set that the fireplace can be moved 
to other locations. 

The stone masonry fireplace with both ends 
open (pi. II) is a simple and practical unit 
where the fire hazard is not great. Most open 
fireplaces are constructed with a definite back 
(pis. Ill, IV, and V). In all of these fireplaces, 
the cooking is done upon a grate or plate which 
covers a major portion of the firebox. The plate 
is sometimes used on fireplaces in preference to 
the grate because of the increased convenience 
of cooking, and to prevent smudging of utensils. 

The fireplace of this type may have a top 
grate supplemented by a top plate, or a grate 
without any top plate. These two may be 
interchangeable. In some fireplaces there is a 
bottom grate; but this is an impractical feature, 
especially when the grate is only 4 or 5 inches 
above the hearth. The area under the bottom 
grate is soon filled with ashes and therefore 
becomes the same as a soUd hearth. If the 
ashes are kept continuously cleaned away 
from the firebox, the cost of maintenance is 
abnormal and sometimes prohibitive. 

In a few types of fireplaces, there is a single 
bar across the front of the firebox (pi. VI) . When 
greater convenience in the use of these types of 
fireplaces is desired, the hearth is raised above 
the ground level in order to have the top of the 
grate at a more convenient elevation (pis. VII 
and X). 

CAMP STOVES 

The camp stove which is primarily for cooking 
purposes sometimes may be converted into a 
hreplace, as shown in plates X and XI. The 
camp stove with the top plate at an elevation 
of 26 to 30 inches is apt to be rather massive 
and for this reason these high units should be 
developed only on campgrounds where there 
is an opportunity to partially screen one unit 
from another unit. 

There is a type of camp stove, known as the 
"oil drum" (pi. XXVI, fig. 10), and the "ice- 
box" (pi. XXVI, figs. 9 and 11), which is very 
practical in actual use but very inappropriate 
for use in natural forest surroundings. There 
can be httle justification, even from the stand- 
point of practical use, for introducing these 
types of stoves into the natural areas. 

Camp stoves are sometimes constructed with 



a chimney notch (pi. VIII), or more frequently 
with a chimney which may be low (pi. X) or 
high (pi. XII). Camp stoves should be appro- 
priately designed (so far as a fireplace or a 
camp stove can be so designed) to fit into the 
natural forest surroundings. High-chimney 
camp stoves should be confined to the heavily 
wooded areas where there is opportunity to 
develop the necessary screen of natural plant- 
ing. There is little justification for the type of 
camp stove with the high chimney except in 
locations where the fire hazard is great and 
the high chimney wth its spark arrester is 
necessary to provide the desired protection. 

COMBINED STOVES AND FIREPLACES 

It is sometimes desirable to use a combination 
warming and cooking unit as shown on plate 
XV. This combination structure is apt to be 
rather massive and it should be avoided wher- 
ever practical in favor of the construction of 
the convertible types of camp stove shown in 
plates VIII, IX, X, and XI. The combination 
stove and fireplace and the convertible camp 
stove are frequently used in connection with 
shelters (pi. XIX, figs. 1 and 5). 

MULTIPLE STOVES 

The multiple stove with the high chimney in the 
middle is a feature which should be avoided in 
forests, except where the congested use and kind 
of use on any area (especially the area of 
Umited extent) makes the use of these units 
necessary. This type of stove may be con- 
structed in units of 2, 3, or 4 (pis. XIII and 
III- A, figs. 7 and 8). 

In general use, this stove in multiples of more 
than two (except where used within shelters) 
should be discouraged. The smaller type of 
stove in single units is much more practical 
and more easily controlled in actual use. A 
single stove unit permits a better distribution 
of use over the area and provides more family 
privacy. Its economy of construction, where 
multiple stoves are required, is one of the fac- 
tors in its favor. 

WARMING FIRES 

On many campgrounds and picnic areas, the 
warming fire (pi. XX, fig. 1) for the use of com- 
munity groups is a practical feature. These 
units are desirable in locations where the 



evenings are cool, and also in some of the 
mountain areas where the natural tempera- 
ture of the water and air is somewhat below 
that which makes for comfort. They are often 
used in connection with swimming pools in the 
forest areas. There is much more reflected heat 
from these fires than from the campfire circle. 
They cannot be used with safety where the fire 
hazard is great. 

COMBINED SHELTER AND FIREPLACE 

Plate XIX shows types of shelters which are used 
either in connection with an outside fireplace, 
or in which a fireplace is constructed. The type 
known as the" Adirondak shelter" (pi. XIX, 
fig. 5) and the type known as the "Trailside 
shelter" (pi. XIX, fig. 3) are very popular, 
especially in areas where there are frequent 
and sudden rains and also where hikers use 
trails during the early spring and late fall. 



There are also shelter buildings for use dur- 
ing inclement weather, in which campers may 
live and prepare their food or keep themselves 
warm. 

BARBECUE PITS AND BARBECUE OVENS 

Other types of camp stoves are the barbecue 
pit and barbecue oven. In some parts of the 
western regions of the national forests and in 
Puerto Rico, barbecue pits and ovens are fre- 
quently used. The purpose of these features is 
that of cooking an entire carcass or large por- 
tions of a carcass at one time, in order to serve 
large gatherings. 

These units must be carefuUy designed, and 
constructed for practical use. They may be an 
interesting and a desirable feature on any 
large and intensively used picnic area. They 
are seldom constructed on campgrounds. 



GENERAL DESIGN PROBLEMS 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The areas used for campgrounds and for picnic 
areas range from tlie lieavy timber with a very 
great fire hazard to the open mountain coun- 
try of the east where oftentimes there is little 
or no hazard. In all of these areas the camp 
stove or fireplace should be designed, first, 
for practical use and, second, appropriate 
design in keeping with the natural forest sur- 
roundings. Sometimes it is imperative that the 
high chimney type (pi. XII) be used in order to 
avoid abnormal fire hazard. These massive 
stoves with high chimneys are strongly discour- 
aged because of their unattractive appearance 
when placed in the natural forest landscape. 

The opinion prevails that there is no such 
thing as an attractive and an appropriate 
camp stove or fireplace, especially when in- 
troduced into the natural forest. Many persons 
feel that such features are entirely artificial 
and must be accepted as a part of the practical 
solution of the recreation problem. They insist 
that the design should be for maximum utility, 
and no effort should be made to develop a de- 
sign which might be appropriate to the natural 
forest surroundings, inasmuch as no design 
can overcome the artificial character of this 
feature. Careful study of this problem of de- 
sign leads to the conclusion that very much 
more appropriate and attractive results can be 
produced if the camp stove or fireplace is de- 
signed to be appropriate to the surrounding 
natural forest landscape. 

The general practice is that of adopting only 
one type of design for the units on an individual 
forest camp or picnic area. It seems to the 
author that such a procedure, literally followed, 
tends toward monotony and a lack of interest, 
which otherwise might be avoided through the 
adoption of more than one type of camp stove 
or fireplace on a single area especially the 
larger areas. It seems advisable in some in- 
stances to introduce an occasional camp stove 
type together with the very definite fireplace 
type. 



The design of any camp stove or fireplace 
should embody the elements of simplicity. It 
must be remembered that if the more elaborate 
types of designs are used, then the resulting 
details of construction will be proportionately 
more complicated and the relative expense 
and work of constructing these units will be 
increased. These units should be simple in 
design and primarily for utilitarian purposes. 

In some instances, a variety of mass design 
can be produced by introducing a "batter" in 
the side walls to overcome a contrast between 
the horizontal ground level and the more or less 
vertical surface of the side walls. This result is 
seldom successfully accomplished in an effec- 
tive way because the fireplace is normally low, 
and unless the "battering" of the side walls is 
exceedingly well done, the effect is not apt to 
be pleasing. There is always the danger of 
attempting to procure an informal effect by 
increasing the "batter" on the side wall, some- 
times to the extent that the base of the stone 
work, especially on the higher types of camp 
stoves, causes inconvenience in the use of the 
stove because the person doing the cooking 
cannot get sufficiently close to the stove. No one 
standard of design is the most practical or the 
most desirable. There are a number of ways to 
design these units, both in mass proportion and 
in detail, and it is the variety of design which 
creates interest and avoids monotony. 

In order to reduce the height of the camp 
stove or fireplace, especially the chimney type, 
and the type with the raised hearth, it is some- 
times desirable to do some grading around the 
sides and back of the stove or fireplace unit as 
shown in plate VI and plate X. If there is avail- 
able a location on a slight slope, the fireplace 
or stove may be set into the slope. 

FACTORS WHICH AFFECT DESIGN 
AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION 

There are important factors which directly 
affect the design and methods of construction 
for camp stoves and fireplaces. 



The natural topography of the area will de- 
termine to some extent the type of design for 
camp stove or fireplace most appropriate to 
the area. On areas similar to the recreation 
areas of the national forests of northern New 
England, where the forest camp and picnic 
area is usually developed on open ground to 
take maximum advantage of the sun, the camp 
stove and fireplace must be as inconspicuous 
as it is practical to make this feature. On other 
areas, amongst the large timber of the north- 
west, it is entirely practical to adopt a type of 
design which is of larger scale and has much 
in common with the surrounding landscape. 

If the topography of any specific recreation 
area is rugged and has considerable outcrop 
of rock, then the design of camp stove and fire- 
place should be governed accordingly, both as 
to the texture of the stonework and the kind of 
stone used for construction. 

The number of camp stoves and fireplaces 
which should be constructed on any recreation 
area is determined by the intensity of use on 
any particular area and also by the type of 
vegetation which exists upon that area. If the 
recreation area is covered with a thick growth 
of trees under which considerable undergrowth 
and ground cover vegetation exists, the number 
of units is determined by the number of indi- 
vidual camp sites which it seems advisable to 
develop and yet preserve the necessary seclu- 
sion and privacy which is so essential to camp 
units. It is estimated that the average number 
of persons per camp stove will approximate five 
to seven during any one time. So far as prac- 
tical, the units should be so separated that each 
family or each group may have adequate space 
and may have its own individual camp stove 
or fireplace. This is particularly true with refer- 
ence to camp stoves. The mixed use of any 
individual unit by more than one group leads 
to confusion and results in unsatisfactory con- 
ditions. On campgrounds, it is usually neces- 
sary to provide one stove for each camp site, 
and on picnic areas to provide one fireplace 
for the occupants of each three cars. 

Climatic conditions will govern to some extent 
the kind of construction. In areas where severe 
chmatic conditions are experienced, and where 
there are extreme changes of temperature, the 
most thorough kind of construction should be 
adopted in order to prevent disintegration of 



the masonry and other damage by frost 
conditions. 

If the recreation area has an established use 
which will continue for a considerable period, 
stoves and fireplaces should be of the most per- 
manent types, which require a minimum of 
maintenance and which will endure through a 
number of years. 

In some localities, there seems to be a pre- 
vailing inclination toward vandalism. In these 
locations, the picnickers, in particular, rather 
enjoy the satisfaction of seeing how much dam- 
age can be done to camp stoves, fireplaces, and 
picnic tables. Under such conditions, where 
these facilities are not used with consideration, 
an unusually strong and simple construction 
should be adopted. Whether or not vandahsm 
prevails in any locality, the movable parts 
should be securely anchored, or attached with 
a chain, in order that these parts may be kept 
in proper relation to the camp stove and hre- 
place. Signs placed in a conspicuous location 
near the fireplace, and containing instructions 
as to the proper use of these facilities might 
avoid some of the damage which is now caused 
to camp stoves and fireplaces partly because 
of lack of this information. 

In locations where the fire hazard is great 
and where it is necessary to douse the fire with 
water, a type of construction must be adopted 
which will withstand these extreme changes of 
temperature. 

Larger and more massive types of camp units 
are adapted only to those locations where large 
timber prevails and where there is adequate 
opportunity to screen the individual camp sites 
from each other. An unfortunate effect will be 
produced in the general landscape composi- 
tion if massive types of camp stoves and fire- 
places are used in areas which are generally 
open and unprotected. 

The question of fire hazard is also an import- 
ant factor which makes it necessary to use a 
type of design and construction which produces 
the minimum danger of fire. In these locations 
of high fire hazard the use of the solid plate and 
the use of dampers and spark arresters in the 
chimneys may be essential. 

The availability of different kinds of materials 
to be used in construction is an important fac- 
tor in determining the type of stonework in any 
fireplace. The types of stone and the ease with 



8 



which the stone may be cut to the desired 
shapes for any desired texture of stone masonry 
should be considered before the final design is 
adopted. 

PRACTICAL USEFULNESS VERSUS 
APPROPRIATE DESIGN 

The camp stove and the picnic fireplace must 
combine convenience of practical use with ap- 
propriateness of design. It is much more im- 
portant in the camp stove than in the picnic 
area fireplace to provide a design which recog- 
nizes as an important requirement the con- 
venience of everyday use. Many campers and 
picnickers will accept any type of design (even 
the "oil-drum" and the "ice-box" (pi. XXVI, 
figs. 9, 10, and 11)) however unattractive and 
inappropriate in appearance, so long as it is 
of practical use. Such sacrifice of design is un- 
warranted. The natural pleasing landscape 
deserves more consideration. There are ways 
in which to combine practical use and good 
design so that such encroachments may be 
avoided. 

The height of the cooking surface of a camp 
stove should approximate from 15 to 24 inches. 
A height of 30 inches more nearly conforms to 
the height of the cooking surface in the kitchen 
range at home. Such a height is to be dis- 
couraged in the forests, because of the resulting 
massiveness of the camp stove. 

With a hearth raised approximately 6 to 8 
inches above the surrounding ground and with 
a depth of firebox approximating 8 to 10 inches 
the resulting height of the cooking surface 
(adding the thickness of the grate or plate) is 
approximately 15 to 18 inches above the ground 
level. Unless it is practicable to easily screen 
these cooking units from each other the higher 
cooking surfaces should be avoided, even though 
more convenient for everyday use by campers. 

Campers and picnickers seek the forests and 
other areas for recreation and exercise; thus 
squatting beside the low (15 inches) fireplace, 
or bending over the slightly higher (18 to 24 
inches) camp stove is one of the forms of 
physical exercise which is a part of the life 
out-of-doors. Convenience in camp life is a 
very relative term which to most recreation 
seekers may involve some expenditure of phys- 
ical energy not enjoyed in the everyday life at 
home, and unfortunately to a very few it means 



the comforts and inactivity of home transferred 
to the natural landscape setting. 

In the use of the camp stove it is essential to 
have convenient access to the cooking surface 
from the sides as well as from the front. For 
this reason, the height of the walls above the 
top of the cooking surface should be kept at a 
minimum. Sometimes it is advisable to raise the 
top of the wall above the cooking surface, in 
order to secure a more permanent type of con- 
struction. The fire-clay brick lining in the camp 
stove should extend to the underside of the top 
grate or plate, and this additional height of the 
side walls may be necessary in order to provide 
an anchor or suitable attachment for the bars 
or grate and to provide a cap which will prop- 
erly protect the joint between the fire-clay brick 
and the surface of the stone wall. By keeping 
the top of the side walls level with the top of the 
plate or grate, it is possible to set pots and pans 
partly off the stove and partly on the wall to 
obtain varying degrees of heat (pis. Ill and V). 

The thickness of the masonry walls, outside 
of the fire-clay brick, may approximate from 6 
to 10 inches. Because of the height of the cook- 
ing surface, any greater thickness of the walls 
is likely to make the top of the stove not con- 
venient to use. 

It is often desirable to construct a stove or 
fireplace with an area of gravel or sandy loam 
(approximating 5 feet in width) entirely sur- 
rounding the front and sides of the unit. If this 
area is not provided, then the natural vegeta- 
tion will be worn unnecessarily and the area 
will become dusty, inasmuch as it will be 
generally dry. If the natural soil is clay, then 
the convenience of using the fireplace will be 
very much reduced unless coarse sand or 
gravel is spread. If flagstone is available, a 
very few broken flagstones may be laid at the 
sides of the unit and immediately in front. 

LOCATION ON CAMPGROUND 
OR PICNIC AREA 

The actual site selected for the camp stove or 
fireplace should have natural surface drainage 
so that muddy conditions may be avoided dur- 
ing wet weather. The fireplace can sometimes 
be built into a slope which will produce a more 
natural effect, especially if some small amount 
of grading is done immediately around the 
unit (pis. VI, VII, and X). 



Locations for stoves and fireplaces on forest 
camp and picnic areas should be selected to 
meet the following requirements: 

A. Easy accessibility to tables, cooking utensils, and 
parking spurs (especially true in camp units) (pi. 
XXVH). 

B. These units should not be nearer than 10 or 15 feet 
from trees, and should under no conditions be under 
any overhanging branches which might be injured 
by smoke or heat. 

C. Adequate provision for a convenient working space 
around the cooking unit, and an adequate storage 
space for wood and other supplies close by the cook- 
ing unit. 

D. The cooking unit should be so located that during the 
heat of the day the necessary shade may be pro- 
cured, if the recreation area is in a section of the 
country where shade is desirable. In sections of the 
country where the sun is desirable, then the cooking 
unit should be located accordingly. 

E. The cooking units should be so located that, under 
conditions of normal prevailing winds, the smoke, 
casual sparks or heat will not be blown into the tent 
or across the table. It should be noted that in some of 
the mountainous country the prevailing morning 
breeze is opt to be in a different direchon from the 
prevailing evening breeze. 

F. The unit should also be so located that in the higher 
altitudes and more open exposures where excessive 
wind may be expected at certain times of the year, 
the unit can be so protected that excessive draft will 
be avoided and the fuel consumption reduced 
accordingly. 

Extreme precaution should be taken in order 
not to damage the roots of existing trees, 
especially the more shallow rooted types. 
Unless the fireplace is properly located, con- 
siderable damage may be done to the roots of 
existing trees by the concentrated lye which 
leaches from the ashes. Injury may be done to 
the roots by the intense traffic over any root 
areas. It is very desirable that the unit be 
located so that the prevaiUng wind will not 
carry the intense heat into the foliage. 

On some campgrounds in parts of the coun- 
try similar to those of northern Montana and 
northern New England (in the White Moun- 
tains) the necessity for sunlight is equally as 
important as for shade in the southerly areas 
which experience intense heat. Sunlight is 
important in some areas in the early morning 
and, therefore, the ideal location for the camp 
stove and table is one which receives sunlight 
during the morning hours. 

On recreation areas which are close to the 
lake shore, the stove or fireplace should be so 



oriented that the opening will be toward the 
lake, from which direction the prevailing breeze 
usually comes. In locations protected from the 
wind at all times, such as in heavy timber, the 
question of orientation is not important. This is 
likewise the case with camp stoves of the high- 
chimney type, where the chimney provides the 
natural draft. 

In the fireplace type, especially those types 
which have a chimney-notch effect, and in 
those types without a chimney but with one end 
closed, it is most essential that the opening to 
the firebox be directed toward the prevailing 
wind. A very careful study should be made of 
the prevailing wind and the extent to which it 
is constant in any one direction during any 
definite time of the year, in order to orient the 
fireplace accordingly. 

On most campgrounds, the automobile is the 
family larder, and for this reason there is con- 
siderable traffic between the camp stove and 
the automobile. The distance between the 
camp stove and the parking spur should, there- 
fore, not be so great that inconvenience will be 
experienced in going from the stove to the car 
(pi. XXVII). 

The cooking unit should not be located where 
there is excessive wind exposure, and this is 
particularly true in areas which have a con- 
siderable fire hazard. 

On some picnic areas designed for group 
picnics, it may be desirable to have the stove 
or fireplace in multiple units as shown on plates 
XIII and III A. The multiple units may be lo- 
cated at one or at both ends of the picnic area. 

FIRE HAZARD 

Whenever one seeks the forest as a source of 
recreation and has occasion to build a fire for 
cooking or for warming purposes, he imme- 
diately creates a fire hazard. This fire hazard 
may be very small upon the more open areas 
where the types of vegetation are not dense or 
of a kind not readily inflammable. On other 
areas the fire hazard may be very great, 
especially in the large types of evergreen timber 
and in arid sections where extremely dry 
weather prevails during the hot summer months, 
which include the period of heaviest recrea- 
tional use. In the forest areas where duff and 
humus are on the ground in any amount, it is 
very important that sand or gravel be spread 



10 



over the surface of the ground to a distance of 
at least 5 feet from the fireplace at the front 
and on the sides. This duff is highly inflam- 
mable and in general it should be entirely 
removed or else well covered with sand or 
gravel. In some instances an area approxi- 
mating 6 to 8 feet in width and of equal length 
is sometimes paved with flagging immediately 
in front of camp stove or Hreplace. An area of 
paving of this size is not necessary and usually 
detracts very much from the appearance of the 
camp stove or fireplace. 

There are a number of methods which are 
adopted for controlhng the fire hazard. Among 
the more effective of these methods are the 
following: 

A. Use of water or earth to extinguish fires before 
leaving them . (Earth is preferred where fireplace is 
not lined with fare-clay brick.) 

B. Construction of chimneys with dampers and spark 
arresters. 

C. Construction of fare lane around the recreation area. 

D. Use of a type of fuel wliich produces a minimum 
quantity of sparks. 

E. Use of plates instead of grates for fareplaces. 

Since fire is the worst enemy of the forest, it is 
important that all stoves and fireplaces be lo- 
cated and designed to create a minimum fire 
hazard. 

FUEL PROBLEMS 

When the campground or picnic area is locat- 
ed where there is an ample supply of fuel, the 
fuel problem is not an important factor. Diffi- 
culty is encountered where the supply of wood 
for fuel is limited. In some of the suburban, 
municipal, and metropohtan park areas near 
large centers of population, the fuel problem is 
very serious. In such areas, it is almost neces- 
sary to confine the use of fuel to charcoal. 

It is advisable, whether or not fuel is scarce, 
to have some method of controlling the use of 
fuel and, especially, of discouraging its ex- 
cessive use. On some campgrounds and picnic 



areas, the occupants cut their own wood from 
a designated area, and the trees which may be 
removed are definitely marked or designated. In 
hardwood forests, this procedure is not practical 
because the green wood is difficult to burn. 

Wherever a supply of wood for stove and 
fireplace use is placed in piles near the camp 
stove or fireplace, and the occupants are 
allowed to use it freely and vnthout charge, 
there is apt to be a great waste of fuel and an 
increased cost of maintenance. On the other 
hand, if suitable fuel is stored in a stock pile 
within a reasonable distance of any group of 
fireplaces or stoves, the occupants of the area 
wiU be less inclined to waste wood, because of 
the additional labor required to carry the extra 
wood from the stock pile to the fireplace. In 
general, wood is more apt to be wasted on 
picnic areas than upon campgrounds. 

The most effective procedure for controlhng 
the consumption of fuel is to authorize someone 
to maintain, for the benefit of any intensively 
used campground or picnic area, a "wood 
yard" from which wood may be purchased. 
Through such a concession the campers and 
picnickers are not inclined to waste fuel, and 
the maintenance cost otherwise incurred for 
providing fuel is avoided. In some recreation 
areas wood is supplied in bundles and a small 
charge is made for each bundle as it is taken 
from the "wood yard." 

On intensively used campgrounds and picnic 
areas the Forest Service will probably find it 
advisable to furnish firewood through a conces- 
sionaire for a service charge sufficient to cover 
this item and other items of service essential for 
the proper administration of the area. 

In densely wooded areas where fireplaces 
are situated in such locations that the sparks 
from the burning wood may set fire to the sur- 
rounding trees, the picnickers should be re- 
quested to use charcoal, which they bring or 
may buy on the site. 



DISCUSSION OF DETAILED DESIGN 



FOUNDATIONS 

Fireplaces which are constructed of loose 
boulders (pi. I, fig. 1) require no foundation. 
The lower stones should be set into the ground 
approximately one-half of their depth. 

All stoves and fireplaces of masonry con- 
struction should set upon a concrete or a 
masonry foundation. 

The foundation may be of two kinds: 

(a) A reenlorced concrete slab which does not extend 
below the frost depth (pis. II, IV, and VIII). 

(b) A concrete or masonry foundation which extends 
below the frost depth (pis. XI and XII). 

In locations where it is not practical to con- 
struct concrete foundations, the grate shown in 
plate III may be anchored with a "log dead- 
man" as shown in figure 6. 

The concrete slab must be properly reen- 
lorced with wire mesh or bars, in order to 
prevent any rupture from frost action. The 
foundation which extends below the frost line 
need not be reenforced, and may be con- 
structed of stone, brick, concrete, or cement 
block, or any similar material which is avail- 
able in the locality. 

In constructing the foundation, a pit of the 
proper dimensions is excavated. The reen- 
forced concrete "floating pad" should rest 
upon the natural subsoil. If any fill is necessary 
on which to construct the reenforced concrete 
pad, it should be limited to a few inches {other- 
wise another location should be selected), and 
this fill should preferably consist of masonry, 
although it may be laid "dry" if thoroughly 
compacted. 

For the foundation which extends below frost 
depth, the bottom of the pit is filled with a mix- 
ture of concrete into which "spalls" may be 
thrown. The material is thoroughly tamped and 
the concrete constructed upon it. 

The concrete mixture should be as follows: 

(a) Where screened aggregate is used, the mixture 
should be one part cement, two parts sand, and 
four parts of coarse aggregate, graded to a size of 
approximately 1 inch. 



(b) Where unscreened aggregate is used, the mixture 
should be one part cement, and six parts of pre- 
graded gravel with a maximum size of gravel pass- 
ing a I' S-inch screen. 

If the fireplace is generally low, and there is 
no excessive weight at one end, which might 
cause the structure to settle unequally, a re- 
enforced concrete "floating pad" is sufficient 
for all normal requirements (pis. II and IV). 
The average height of the low fireplace includ- 
ing this proposed foundation is approximately 
24 to 30 inches. The resulting weight per square 
foot approximates 480 pounds. Average clay 
soil is capable of supporting approximately 1 
ton per square foot, or four times this load. Inas- 
much as the average site chosen for a fireplace 
is on the firmer soils, the normal weight is far 
below that which the soil is capable of support- 
ing and therefore, the question of foundations 
in the majority of these fireplaces, even where 
extreme temperatures are experienced, is one 
of providing a footing which is properly reen- 
forced near the upper surface (pi. IV, fig. 4) to 
allow for the heaving and settling of the fire- 
place as a unit. 

In most of the larger camp stoves with a 
chimney, where excessive weight occurs at the 
chimney end, the foundation wall should extend 
below the frost line (pi. XI). 

FIREBOX 

The size of the firebox has a direct bearing on 
fuel consumption. In areas where fuel is scarce 
and charcoal is used, its size should be kept to 
the minimum dimensions (height 6 to 7 inches, 
length 18 inches, width 12 to 14 inches). It is 
also desirable when charcoal is used as a fuel, 
to so design the firebox that there is a small 
opening in the bottom of the firebox through 
which the necessary draft may be created, to 
cause the necessary combustion in charcoal. 
The firebox in the camp stove (used for cooking 
only) requires less width than the firebox in 
the fireplace (used also as a warming feature). 
The cooking surface should be of sufficient area 



12 



(average area approximates 2'/2 square feet) 
to accommodate at least a frying pan and a 
coffee pot. The area may be increased, as 
hereafter explained, if more cooking surface is 
required. 

The size of the firebox is to some extent de- 
termined by the amount of surface wliich is 
desired for cooking purposes. In the larger 
unit, the dimensions will approximate the 
following: Height 8 to 10 inches, length 20 to 
30 inches, and width 12 to 18 inches. The height 
is normally from 8 to 10 inches, inasmuch as 
the best cooking fire comes from the glowing 
coals rather than from a high flaming fire. 

In order to procure increased cooking and 
warming surface and at the same time preserve 
the minimum dimensions of the firebox, a type 
of design may be adopted as shown on plate 
XIII, figure 3. The open area between the 
firebox and the flue virtually becomes a part 
of the flue, although it is covered with a sohd 
plate, the surface of which is sufficiently hot 
for cooking. 

The open end of the firebox should face the 
prevailing wind. The shape of the firebox is 
normally rectangular. Sides splayed to the 
front are of some advantage in the case of a 
warming fire; but they add to the difficulty of 
procuring and installing the grates, plates, and 

linin g. 

In all stoves and fireplaces the firebox should 
be so constructed that there is a sUght slope 
from the back of the hearth to the front of the 
hearth, in order that any water which accumu- 
lates on the hearth will immediately drain out 
of the firebox. 

Because of the fact that the ordinary kind of 
stone available for camp stoves and fireplaces 
is not resistant to sudden extremes of heat and 
cold without undue damage, the best practice 
is to Hne the firebox with fire-clay brick in order 
to protect the stonework against direct exposure 
to these extremes. In some instances, a lining 
of 10-gage sheet iron, made to conform to the 
measurements of the proposed firebox, and 
with a grating attached, is used in place of fire- 
brick. These combined grates and sheet-iron 
sides can be manufactured at smaU cost, and 
where the cost of procuring fire brick is ab- 
normal, this type of Hning is a practical answer 
to the problem of protecting the stone-masonry 



sides against injury from direct exposure to 
the fire. 

Sometimes it has seemed desirable to con- 
struct a precast firebox of reinforced concrete, 
so that the firebox may be set into a space sur- 
rounded by stone masonry walls which forms 
the sheU of the camp stove. The theory being 
that if the firebox is damaged by heat it can 
be removed easily and replaced by another 
firebox. This procedure does not seem to be a 
logical procedure for the reason that a firebox 
of a much more permanent character can be 
constructed of fire-clay brick as a permanent 
part of a camp stove. Concrete thus exposed to 
intense heat will undoubtedly suffer definite 
damage in a very short time. 

Ordinary brick is sometimes used for hning 
some of the simpler types of fireplaces which 
are not intensively used and which are not 
doused with water. This type of construction is 
not recommended. In locahties where lava 
rock may be procured easily, the lava rock 
hning is equally as acceptable as fire-clay 
brick. Ordinary brick will shatter and disinte- 
grate if subjected to extreme and sudden 
changes in temperature caused by water 
dousing. 

Fire-clay brick (sometimes called fire brick) 
is mode from fire clay by what is known as a 
dry pressing process. In this process, 4 or 5 
percent of water by volume is added to the dry 
fire clay which, when thus moistened, seems 
hardly damp. The thoroughly mixed fire clay 
is then formed into bricks under a pressure 
estimated to approximate 4,000 to 5,000 
pounds per square inch. 

Fire clay, from which hre-clay brick is made 
is dehned by the American Society for Testing 
Materials as a "sedimentary clay of low flux 
content, and consisting essentially of hydro- 
silicate of alumina." There are at least six or 
eight distinct kinds of fire clay, having different 
properties with respect to chemical composition. 

The standard size of fire-clay brick is 9 by 
4'j by 2': inches. There are four classes of fire- 
clay brick, classified according to heat resist- 
ance. The class commonly known as third 
quahty fire-clay brick, or correctly designated 
as moderate-heat-duty brick (according to the 
standard definition), is generally used for hning 
fireboxes and hearths in camp stoves and hre- 



13 



places. The softening point oi this brick is 
approximately 2,905° F. and its maximum 
expansion is one-sixteenth inch per foot at a 
temperature of approximately 2,200°. Con- 
crete will seldom withstand a temperature in 
excess of 1,000° F. and the normal temperature 
in the average camp stove or fireplace ranges 
from 800° to approximately 1,500°. The co- 
efficient of expansion of fire-clay brick is about 
one-third or one-fourth of the coefficient of 
expansion of iron. In decimal figures, this co- 
efficient is 0.000005 for each degree centi- 
grade. 

Fire-clay brick is usually laid on its natural 
bed, but sometimes it is laid on side. In laying 
iire-clay brick in camp stoves and fireplaces 
which are exposed to the weather, the fire-clay 
mortar should be a mixture of fire clay with ap- 
proximately 20 to 25 percent of portland cement 
by bulk. This mortar is "buttered" lightly with a 
trowel on the surfaces of the brick and should 
make a joint approximately one-sixteenth inch 
in thickness. If the ftre clay is spread too thick- 
ly, it virill destroy the strength of the fire-clay 
brick hning. This joint should be just as thin 
as it is practicable to make it. 

The reason for keeping fire-clay mortar very 
thin on the surface of the bricks is because the 
lire clay used in the joint between the bricks is 
not as resistant to heat as is the fire-clay brick 
itself. The joint would, therefore, have a tend- 
ency to shrink and cause damage if the joint 
were even as thick as one-fourth of an inch. 
This thin joint is sometimes procured by dipping 
the fire-clay brick in hre clay of a rich, creamy 
consistency and pushing the brick into place by 
rubbing the top brick back and forth on the 
lower brick. 

Many instances are observed in which ap- 
parent defective construction has not produced 
satisfactory results in the construction of the 
fire-clay brick lining. 

For the best results, fire clay used to create 
a bond between fire-clay brick should be sub- 
jected to a temperature exceeding 1,600'^' to 
1,800° F. in order to cause the chemical reac- 
tion required to make the joint permanent. It 
is doubtful if the heat produced through the 
normal use of any firebox is sufficient to cause 
the permanent chemical change necessary to 
produce the desired result. 

The best results are procured in the construc- 



tion of fireboxes for outdoor camp stoves and 
fireplaces when, to the fire clay, there is added 
by volume approximately 20 to 25 percent of 
Portland cement or similar cement. The addi- 
tion of this cement produces a "cold set", 
which the subsequent heat further fixes, with 
the result that this fire clay and cement joint 
creates a solid and permanent bond. 

It is desirable, in any event, whether or not 
cement is added to the fire clay, to subject the 
lining of the fireplace to an intense fire for at 
least 4 or 5 hours. If fire clay is used without 
the addition of cement, this fire should be suffi- 
ciently intense and continued sufficiently long 
so that the inside surface of the brick shows 
evidences of starting to glow. Unless this pro- 
cedure is adopted the joint will be damaged by 
rain and by freezing. 

There are on the market air-setting, high- 
temperature cements which vnll create an 
excellent bond under a cold set. It is doubtful 
if high-temperature cements will be as perma- 
nent as the bond produced by a mixture of fire 
clay and portland cement or its equivalent, as 
above suggested. 

The average mortar will not usually with- 
stand any considerable amount of heat because 
of the content of lime which fluxes under heat 
and because of the content of sand which does 
not have refractory qualities to the extent re- 
quired in these joints. 

In filling the space between the back of the 
fire-clay brick lining and the face of the stone 
masonry shell or covering, the fire clay, prop- 
erly moistened, should be mixed with pulverized 
calsined fire clay in the proportions of one part 
fire clay to two or three parts of the calsined 
fire clay. It is not recommended that this space 
be filled with pure fire clay for the reason that 
the natural fire clay will shrink to a consider- 
able extent when subjected to intense heat. 
The fire clay should be mixed as above indi- 
cated with calsined clay because the calsined 
clay has been subjected to a considerable heat 
and will therefore not be subject to any con- 
siderable amount of shrinking. 

The space between the fire-clay brick lining 
and the stone masonry backing must be com- 
pletely grouted and thoroughly sealed at the 
top to prevent any water from entering. In some 
camp stoves where intense heat is developed, 
an air space between the fire-clay brick lining 



14 



and the face oi the stone masonry is provided. 
This method of construction is open to some 
question. Sometimes this air space is filled with 
powdered asbestos in order to further protect 
the stone masonry against intense heat. 

It is also advisable to construct the hearth, 
or floor of the firebox, with fire-clay brick 
unless, as in the fireplace shown on plate VII, 
figure 6, the surface of the hearth is level with 
the surrounding ground, in which case it may 
be equally as well constructed of mineral earth 
or natural porous soil. 

In the fireplace with closed back (pis. Ill, IV, 
V, etc.), the only real draft control is in the 
orientation with respect to the direction of the 
prevaihng wind. A raised back somewhat im- 
proves the draft, and a movable solid plate 
may sometimes be used in connection with the 
raised back to further control the draft. 

The chimney notch shown in plate VIII in- 
creases the draft by restricting the gases to a 
definite limited passage. The maximum con- 
trol of draft is obtained where a chimney is 
used. The draft is further controlled by damp- 
ers in the doors at the front of the firebox and 
also by dampers in the chimney. The chimney 
may vary in height, as shown in plates X and 
XII. 

The door on the front of the firebox may be 
of cast iron or sheet iron, in conformity with 
the materials used for the cooking top. Besides 
being hinged so that it can be fully opened 
there may be, as shown in plate XXII- A, figs. 3, 
4, and 5, a small opening in the door to provide 
draft. 

A draft control necessary to maintain the 
desired fire may be provided in one of three 
ways as foUows: 

A. By an ashpit under the firebox, on the front of which 
is a door which may be opened or closed to produce 
greater or less draft. 

B. By an opening in the door as shown in plate XXII A, 
hgures 3, 4, and 5. 

C. By a damper constructed m the chimney (pi. XXII, 
fig. 3), or by a damper constructed in the rear of the 
firebox at the point where the flue enters the chimney. 

It is apparently necessary in some localities 
of extreme moisture conditions, and especially 
in high altitudes where much fog is prevalent, 
to procure a maximum draft by providing an 
ashpit under the firebox. The ashpit is not 
generally recommended nor usually essential 



in the average camp stove. It ought not to be 
constructed unless the requirements for max- 
imum draft, to burn wood not thoroughly dry, 
make such an ashpit indispensable. 

Under normal conditions, sufficient draft 
control may be had through the adjustment of 
the doors in the ftrebox. Sometimes the draft in 
the chimney is controlled by a pivoted iron plate 
on the top of the chimney. The value of this de- 
vice is open to question. The built-in type of 
damper with the revolving metal shield (pi. 
XXII, fig. 3) is the most effective; but its opera- 
tion is not fool-proof. No damper should be in- 
stalled which does not leave a limited portion of 
the flue (approximately 35 percent of its area) 
free when the damper is practically closed. 

TOP GRATE OR TOP PLATE 

The top of the stove or fireplace may consist of 
a grate (simple bars or a fabricated grate) or 
a solid plate. In some instances, in place of a 
definite grate a heavy electric welded wire 
mesh is being used. This type of grate is less 
expensive than the iron plate. The sohd plate 
provides better draft and a better control over 
the draft. Its use reduces the fire hazard and is 
sometimes necessary in certain locations where 
the fire hazard is great. In some States laws 
have been enacted making it compulsory to use 
on camp stoves a solid plate for the top of the 
stove and a door on the front of the firebox 
which at all times prevents any possibility for 
sparks to escape and cause a forest fire. In 
picnic fireplaces, except those used for warm- 
ing purposes, the grate is generally adopted 
but in a few instances a solid plate is used. 
On camp stoves, where the camper desires to 
keep the pots and pans from smudging, a solid 
plate is generally used. In many instances, and 
where the use justifies the expense, a combina- 
tion grate and plate top is used (pis. X and 
III A). 

In some fireplaces, a successful method of 
cooking is that of using a reflector plate of 
sheet iron or other metal, which can be stood 
at an angle of approximately 60° immediately 
in front of the opening of the fireplace, and sup- 
ported by an arm which keeps the plate at the 
proper position in relation to the fire. This 
contrivance is often used in place of a grate or 
plate over the top of the fire, and it may be 
home-made or purchased from some supply 



15 



houses with the necessary attachments to hold 
food which would otherwise be laid upon the 
grate or plate. This method of cooking avoids 
unnecessary burning of food and is almost as 
efficient as the method of cooking food over the 
top of the fire. 

Where the combination plate and grate is 
used, the plate may be used over a part of the 
grate as shown on plate III A, figures 1 and 3. 
Such an arrangement makes possible an area 
for warming and grilling, and also an area for 
frying and other cooking. 

In instances where the plate is used to cover 
the entire grate, both the grate and the plate 
may be hinged as shown in plate X, figure 4, 
or both the plate and the grate may be attached 
by a chain to the sides of the fireplace (pi. VII). 

The plate is, without a doubt, the ideal top 
for a camp stove where the stove is used for 
three meals during each day. In picnic areas, 
where the fireplace is used for cooking pur- 
poses, perhaps once during the day and 
possibly not every day, a grate or mesh is 
acceptable, although the extra work of clean- 
ing blackened pots and pans is necessary. 
The fabricated grate or mesh (pi. VI) is much 
preferable to built-in bars shown in plate IV. 

It is very important that the space between 
the bars in any grate be not too large, thus 
allowing small sections of meat to fall between 
the bars. The average acceptable space be- 
tween bars is IVj inches. The use of separate 
bars, although not the most acceptable solu- 
tion, is sometimes necessary where, either 
because of lack of funds or for other reasons, a 
suitable fabricated grate or mesh cannot be 
procured. 

The bars to be of proper strength should be 
approximately ' 7 to 'i inch square, or they may 
be circular, with a diameter of '4 to 1 inch. 

The plate ought to be of sheet iron or cast 
iron. Ten-gage black iron or boilerplate offers 
a quick heating surface. Cast-iron plate, if too 
thick, usually heats too slowly. A normal thick- 
ness is three-eighths inch. 

Considerable difficulty may be experienced 
because of the tendency of any top plate of 
sheet iron to warp and sag. This undesirable 
result is caused by the following conditions: 

A. Using a plate of iron which is too thin. 

B. Not using the necessary angle irons or other methods 
of reenforcing the top plate. 



C. Making no provision for expansion at the points 
where the plate is attached to the masonry construc- 
tion. 

Removable cast-iron plates are not as prac- 
tical as sheet-iron plates for the reason that the 
rough handling which is received by some of 
these movable tops will cause breakage. In 
all removable plates there should be one or 
more holes at some convenient location to 
facilitate handling. The cast-iron tops may 
sometimes be fitted wnth pot holes of various 
sizes, each of which is covered with a lid or 
sheet-iron plate, all of which must be securely 
anchored to prevent removal or loss. Such small 
movable parts are not entirely practical in the 
average campground and their use should be 
discouraged. 

Steel plates should not be used because steel 
rusts easily when exposed to the weather, 
unless protected with paint and carefully main- 
tained. 

Flanges at the edges of the plates as shown 
in plate VIII, figure 1 and in plate XXII, 
figure 4 and extending entirely across the fire- 
box will do much to prevent sagging. The 
problem of warping is one which comes from 
exposure to heat and is not due to any great 
extent to the inability of the plate to support 
itself. Proper reenforcing on the underside of 
the plate and correct attachment of the plate 
to the masonry sides of the stove or fireplace 
will overcome it. 

A desirable method for attaching any plate 
to the solid masonry is to provide proper reen- 
forcing members on the underside of the plate, 
the end of which will fit into a metal socket 
similar to that shown in plate XXI, figure 5, 
thus allowing for the necessary expansion 
and preventing any damage to the stone 
masonry at this point. Where bars are used, 
the ends of the bars should fit into pipe sleeves 
of somewhat large diameter and with ample 
clearance allowed in order to provide for 
the expansion (pi. IV, fig. 4). Provision may 
be made as shown in plate XXI, figure 5B, 
for the removal and replacement of bars which 
are broken or bent through careless use of the 
fireplace. Where bars are used in place of a 
fabricated grate, it is sometimes desirable to 
carry the bars in sockets entirely through the 
stone masonry wall, as shown in plate XXI, 
figure 5C. In cases where this method of 



16 



construction is adopted, some provision should 
be made for locking the bars so that they can- 
not be easily removed. This is accomplished 
as shown in plate XXI, figure 5, section A-A. 
Attaching bars and grates solidly to masonry 
will break the stone. If a fixed grate is used, 
the grate may be so constructed that the corners 
will have bars which fit into metal sleeves as 
above described. As a matter of fact, the top 
plate and any bars should never be attached 
in a fixed manner to the top of the stone 
masonry. Suitable provision should be made 
to take care of expansion. Where the grate is 
removable it can rest on a base formed by 
the top layer of fire-clay brick as shown in 
plate VII. 

The question of whether to use a removable 
or a fixed top has not been satisfactorily solved 
as a result of experience to date. The remov- 
able top increases the convenience of building 
fires and removing ashes. The fixed top on the 
other hand, is an additional safeguard against 
vandalism and otherwise careless use of these 
facilities. 

Where a solid plate is used, especially in 
fireplaces, it is desirable that this plate be 
removable or hinged so that the fireplace may 
be used as an open warming fire during the 
evenings and on cool days at times when 
the fireplace is not in use for actual cooking 
purposes. 

If the top is removable, it should be securely 
attached with a chain, anchored to the 
masonry, or to a post driven in the ground to a 
sufficient depth to prevent any removal of this 
feature. 

Where a hinge is used for attaching the plate 
or grate to the top of the stove or fireplace, the 
type of construction as shown in plates VI and 
X is most acceptable. If the top grate or plate 
is to be hinged, this detail of construction should 
be solid, and of such a type that damage 
cannot be easily caused by careless handling. 
See detail of hinge in plate XXI, figures 2, 
3, and 4. 

As shown in plate IV, it is sometimes neces- 
sary to sink the grate or plate slightly below the 
level of the side "shoulders" in order to provide 
for the proper anchoring of the hinges or the 
bars. The elevation of the side walls may also 
give some small protection, especially to the 
fire when the grate is used. 



In many camp stoves and in fireplaces with 
a solid top, an abnormal amount of heat is lost 
because it passes up the chimney. This condi- 
tion can be corrected to a large extent by the 
construction of a proper damper in the chimney 
and by the construction of a shallow firebox 
with a larger heating surface, as shown in 
plate XIII. In some areas where the proper pro- 
vision is not made to prevent an abnormal 
amount of heat from passing up the chimney, 
many efficient campers set some of the pots and 
other cooking utensils on the top of the chimney 
in order to take advantage of the heat at that 
point. 

In most camp stoves and fireplaces the 
limited space on the top of the cooking surface 
is not sufficient to set all of the pots and pans 
in which food is being cooked or being kept 
warm. Additional space may be provided as 
shown in plates VI, VII, and VIII, with very 
little additional cost. 

STONEWORK 

There are many kinds of stone available in 
different parts of the country from which to 
construct camp stoves and fireplaces. This 
stone ranges from the "nigger heads" and 
boulders of the New England region to the 
lava rock of the Northwest and the Tufa rock 
of the extreme South. 

The detailed design and construction of any 
stove or fireplace, of which various types are 
shown in the following plates, will vary with 
the kind of local stone which can be procured. 
The same design, built of volcanic rock, will 
take on a different texture and appearance 
from the one constructed of stratified sandstone 
or of boulders. The carrying out of each design 
in the materials available and in the most 
appropriate form must, to considerable extent, 
be left to the judgment of the local superin- 
tendent. 

All stonework should be constructed as 
closely as practicable in accordance with the 
detailed drawings. A special effort should be 
made to procure an informal texture with 
stones laid on their natural bed in order to 
carry the horizontal effect (pis. XXIV and 
XXV). There may be rare instances in which 
the surrounding natural conditions require 
that the stone be laid to produce a vertical 
texture. 



17 



All stone before being laid should be free 
from any dirt or foreign matter and, unless the 
supply of stone is extremely limited, it is much 
better to select individual stones of the size and 
shape which will produce the required texture 
of stonework than to endeavor to use the large 
and the small stones as they are found. 

Stones which are cut or broken are usually 
divided into two classes: (a^l Stratified; (bi 
Unstratified. 

The examples of stratified stone are sand- 
stones, Hmestones, and shales. Igneous rock, 
granite, and lava are in the unstratified 
group. 

Stratified stone (pi. XXV, fig. 5) is easier to 
lay than the unstratified stone (pi. XXIV, fig. 5), 
which requires a more careful selection to pro- 
duce desired effect in actual construction. 

Stone texture is an elusive element in design 
because so much depends on the skill of the 
workmen. A camp stove or fireplace must be 
practical in use, and it must be of appropriate 
design in mass and texture. The texture of the 
stone masonry is so frequently not well designed 
(pi. XXIV, and pi. XXV, figs. 2, 4, and 6), that 
its importance in the completed structure should 
not be minimized. Many of these features look 
like stone piles with no stability or like monoliths 
of mortar and stone with no surface texture. 

Joints in stonework should be neat and ap- 
proximately '/2 to ^/4 inch wide. The color of the 
mortar used in the joints should blend with the 
natural color of the stone. In well-constructed 
stone masonry, the mortar is not conspicuous. 
In any event, the mortar should not be colored 
unless it is necessary to avoid unusually light 
color which contrasts unnecessarily with the 
color of the stonework. These joints should be 
raked fairly deep in order to eliminate so far 
as possible the effect of too much mortar, and 
to produce the effect of a natural dry stone 
wall. 

CHIMNEYS 

The chimney does not add to the attractiveness 
of any fireplace or camp stove. In fact, it is a 
rather unattractive feature which increases the 
massiveness, and for this reason it should be 
avoided whenever practical. A low chimney 
is sometimes not entirely effective, and, on the 
other hand, if sufficiently high to function satis- 
factorily the chimney may dominate the unit. 



The chimney, when used, may range from the 
simple funnel (pi. XXVI, figs. 9, 10, and 11) on 
the "ice box" and "oil drum" types of camp 
stoves to a definite masonry construction, as 
shown in plates XI and XII. It is confined 
usually to the camp stove. A low chimney may 
sometimes be constructed on a fireplace of the 
types shown in plates X and XI. This feature is 
most essential where the fire hazard is very 
great. 

The height of the chimney should be kept to 
a minimum and may vary from 2 feet above 
ground, as shown in plate X, to 6 or 7 feet, as 
shown in plate XIII. 

When the fire hazard is much above normal, 
the chimney should be provided with a damper 
control, and sometimes with a spark arrester 
(pi. XXII, fig. 3, and pi. XIII, fig. 3). 

If the spark arrester is not used, there is great 
danger that the live sparks may be carried into 
highly inflammable timber. The spark arrester 
is a small mesh of woven wire screen in a frame, 
held in place at the top of the flue by means of 
prongs or clamps. It should be installed in such 
a way that its condition may be easily in- 
spected and its replacement made simple. 

The throat of the fireplace is that portion 
leading from the firebox to the chimney flue. 
In the regular indoor fireplace (pi. XXIII) the 
opening of the throat is about equal to the area 
of the flue and is the full width of the fireplace. 
In the camp stove fireplace (pi. XII), here 
discussed, the full width may not always be 
obtainable, but the proper area should be 
maintained, and so far as possible the width 
of the throat should be greater than its height 
(pi. XIII, fig. 3). 

The chimney flue should in every instance 
be lined with a fire-clay brick or with some 
other regular lining. The height of the chim- 
ney, the size of the firebox, and the ashpit, as 
well as exposure, and type of vegetation sur- 
rounding the camp unit are important factors 
in the control of the draft. In general the area 
oi the horizontal section of a round or a square 
flue from a single firebox should be not less 
than one-tenth of the transverse vertical section 
of the combined firebox and ashpit. An arbi- 
trary minimum area for the flue might be 4 
inches square. A rectangular flue should some- 
what exceed the minimum area above stated. 
In camp stoves with open fronts on the firebox. 



18 



the flue area should be further increased as 
indicated by drawings. A flue which is too 
large in relation to the firebox, tends to create 
a sluggish fire. In determining the size of flue 
for camp stoves other than for specific ones 
illustrated in this bulletin, use these illustrations 
as a guide. 

In the multiple-unit type of camp stove, with 
a single square flue, properly lined, division 
by galvanized metal partitions into the proper 



number of smaller flues of proper sizes and 
each serving its own firebox, is essential (pi. 
XIII, fig. 4). This arrangement will prevent 
cold air from being drawn in from any unused 
firebox, thereby lessening the draft from the 
burning fire. The metal partitions will ulti- 
mately rust out and must be replaced. The in- 
stallation of any damper in the chimney should 
be in accordance with drawings shown in 
plate XXII, figure 3. 



19 



MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION 



J.HE appearance and the permanency of 
camp stoves and fireplaces are increased 
greatly if the materials for construction are 
selected with proper care. The more impor- 
tant materials include the following: 

A. Iron (for top grates, plates, doors, hinges, etc.)- 

B. Brick (lor lireboxes and flues). 

C. Concrete (for foundations). 

D. Stone (for masonry construction and dry stone con- 
struction). 

E. Sand (for mixtures of concrete and for hearths). 

IRON AND BRICK 

Iron and brick have been discussed in fore- 
going parts of this bulletin. 

BRICK 

See discussion under Fireboxes. 
CONCRETE 

Concrete should seldom be considered except 
for foundations. Mixtures for concrete are dis- 
cussed under Foundations. 

STONE 

The natural cHmatic conditions may be in- 
jurious to some kinds of stone, especially shales. 
In locations where water will be used generally 
to extinguish the fire, very careful considera- 
tion should be given to the kinds of stone to be 
selected for the proposed construction. In the 
order of their resistance to heat the acceptable 
kinds of stone are the following: 

A. Dense black lava rock. 

B. Fine grained sandstone. 

C. Coarse grained sandstone. 

D. Granite. 

E. Limestone. 

F. Laminated shale and river stone. 

Limestones and shales are most undesirable 
because of the damaging effects of intense heat. 
These stones have a large calcium carbonate 
content. Granite will to some extent "flake", 
and may crack. If the firebox is lined with 
fire-clay brick, providing a means of protecting 
these stones from intense heat or sudden 
changes of extreme temperatures, any of the 
stones in this list will be acceptable. 

Sandstones when procured with fine grain 



will withstand the heat in an excellent manner. 
They are composed of fine sand which is held 
together by some substances of a cementing 
character, usually silica, alumina, or oxide of 
lime. Those with the silica content are much 
more desirable. 

Granite is formed by volcanic action and is 
among the igneous rocks composed of quartz, 
felspar and mica. Because of the quartz con- 
tent this rock has good resistance to heat. On 
the other hand, this type of stone is much more 
difficult to cut than sandstone. 

Slate is not a heat resistant stone and is 
subject to damage under high temperature. 

A Portland cement mortar, or a mortar of 
similar qualities is desirable. The mix should 
consist of one part cement, one part fire clay, 
and five parts sand. A small amount of hy- 
drated lime may be added to prevent the mor- 
tar from setting too quickly. This, however, 
should be used very sparingly and is not es- 
sential. Mix thoroughly before adding water. 



There are two kinds of sand which may be 
procured for mortar, as follows: 



A. Pit sand 

B. River or 1 



r bank sand, 
ike sand. 



The difference between these two types of 
sand is as follows: 

The river sand is generally free from any 
clay content. The grains are less angular and 
in general it is less desirable for use in mortar. 

Pit or bank sand usually has a small clay 
or loam content which must be washed from it 
in order to get the particles of sand clean. 
The particles of sand are angular and some- 
what rough and therefore make it much more 
desirable for mortar making. 

Sand which is used for the hearth and also 
for the area around the fireplace should have 
a small proportion (approximately 10 to 15 per- 
cent) of clay content, in order that there may 
be some cementing quality in this mixture 
otherwise the sand will not pack and become 
firm under foot, especially around the fireplace. 



20 



DETAILED DISCUSSION 
OF SPECIFIC TYPES 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 



o> 



'N THE following plates are shown different types of camp 
stoves and fireplaces, ranging from the very elementary and 
primitive type (pi. I, fig. 1), to the very "sophisticated" and 
artificial type (pi. I, fig. 2). In connection with each specific 
type of camp stove and fireplace, there is presented a discus- 
sion of the problems of adaptation to location and use, and of 
the problems of design and construction. 

In the minds of some readers, these dravnngs may indicate 
in some instances solutions which seem rather ideal, and not 
capable of practical application because of the fact that the 
most desirable kinds and shapes of stones necessary to produce 
the effect shown in the drawings are not available. These 
drawings are intended to show only in a general way the kind 
of design which may be followed in actual construction. Minor 
modifications are often necessary on account of varying 
materials and conditions on different areas in different parts 
of the country. 

The success or failure in procuring the kind of results illus- 
trated in the drawings depends upon the ability of the man 
who is superintending the construction work in the field, and of 
the stone mason who is doing the work of actual construction. 



21 



TYPES OF FIREPLACES 



JLHE simple types shown in figures 1, 3, 4, 5, 
and 6B, are appropriate for forest picnic areas- 
They are not adapted for camp grounds except 
where the camper desires to accept the natural 
inconvencience accompanying "life in the 
wild." Their simplicity, crudeness of construc- 
tion, and inconspicuous mass are strongly in 
their favor. 

FIGURE I 

Crude Fireplace of Boulders or Rocks 
Loosely Piled in the Shape of a Horse- 
shoe. This type is not conspicuous; it is in- 
convenient in use and creates an abnormal 
fire hazard. It has a place on large open picnic 
areas because it is not conspicuous. If this is 
the only type of fireplace provided on the camp 
grounds, the majority of the campers and pic- 
nickers will use some kind of a portable gas 
stove (pi. I, fig. 2) for cooking purposes. The 
construction of this type of fireplace will vary, 
depending on the available stone {whether, of 
the boulder type or of the stratified type). In 
portions of the country where a stratified stone 
is available, a few flat stones might be used on 
which to set pots and pans for warming 
purposes. 

This fireplace is adapted for use as a camp- 
fire for light, and especially for warmth in the 
cool evening hours. In the eastern part of the 
country, where such a large percentage (in 
some instances more than 80 percent) of the 
campers use portable stoves, it is a most prac- 
tical feature to supplement the gasoline stove. 

FIGURE 2 

Portable Gasoline Stove. This stove is fre- 
quently used by campers and picnickers es- 
pecially where there is a scarcity of fuel and 
lack of properly designed camp stoves and 
fireplaces adapted for convenient use. It has 
limited cooking surface, provides quick heat 
for cooking, and it is also of practical value in 
rainy weather. 



FIGURE 3 

Fireplace Cut in Rock Ledge. This type of 
fireplace is very attractive, but often destruc- 
tive of the natural beauty of the rock out-crop. 
Such a fireplace is often expensive to construct. 
It cannot be conveniently used from the sides, 
and therefore must be of minimum length 
(15 to 18 inches). A grate of desired length 
similar to the grate shown in figure 4 may be 
used. The grate on such a fireplace must be 
movable, and attached to the ledge writh a 
chain. In ledge rock which will not withstand 
extremely high temperatures, it is desirable to 
construct a fire-clay brick lining in order to 
protect the stone in the natural ledge. 

FIGURE 4 

Artificial Ledge Effect. — The proposed grate 
may be either a standard grate such as shown 
in figure 6B, or a movable grate chained to 
the rock. In localities where a suitable type of 
ledge rock is available, the construction of this 
type of fireplace may not involve an abnormal 
expense, and may be a most interesting feature. 

FIGURE 5 

Open End Single Stone Type. This is the 
simplest form of open fireplace, and is to be 
strongly discouraged where fire hazard is 
present. If the stones are carefully selected, 
this fireplace is desirable for use on open 
picnic areas. 

FIGURE 6 

Standard Grates. This figure shows three 
kinds of standard grates often used for picnic 
purposes. Each is simple in design, and not 
unduly conspicuous. 

Type "C" is a simple grate with sheet iron 
sides. Type "B" is the same kind of a grate with 
large rocks at each side. The grate in each of 
these fireplaces is supported by four legs, each 
of which may be solidly anchored as shown on 
plate III, figures 4 and 5. Type "B" is the 



22 




PLATE I 



23 



more appropriate type. The grate marked "A" 
is not desirable except on intensively used 
picnic areas where the occupancy varies 
from that of maximum use to that of little use on 
successive days or week-ends. There is to date 
little reason for using such a portable unit in 
the forest recreation areas. In practical use 
the fire is started, and the grate is placed 
over it. 

Simple fireplaces of the types similar to 



figures 5 and 6B should be adopted generally 
for use in designated locations on the "Primi- 
tive areas", where some crude fireplace facili- 
ties must be provided; but limited to only such 
as are absolutely necessary for fire protection. 
There are certain strategic places even in these 
areas where hikers and canoeists must camp, 
and without some such facilities for simple 
cooking these practically unprotected areas 
would be in danger of fire. 



24 



OPEN END MASONRY FIREPLACE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

The open ends may provide a better draft in 
locations where the prevaiUng winds are in 
opposite directions in the morning and in the 
evening, and may further vary during the day. 
This type is ordinarily used with a grate. A 
solid plate, attached to the stonework by a 
chain could, when not used as a cooking top, 
be set up against one end of the fireplace to 
control the draft. It is excellently adapted for 
use on large open picnic areas because it is 
low and not conspicuous. The disadvantage of 
this type is that a strong current of air will scat- 
ter the sparks and create a definite fire hazard. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The stonework on the sides should be informal 
and rustic so far as the available material wall 
allow, and should conceal the fire-clay brick 
lining and soften the general appearance. 

A "floating pad foundation", reinforced as 
shown in the dravnngs, consisting of a concrete 
slab, the top of which is placed slightly below 
ground level, is reguired. This type of founda- 
tion will heave and settle under frost action 
without damaging the stone masonry super- 
structure. It is not essential in this type of fire- 
place to carry the foundation walls below the 
frost line. 

The hearth of the firebox is slightly (1 to 2 
inches) above the ground level and may be 
constructed of porous soil, mineral earth, or 
fire-clay brick. The hearth should be raised 
in the middle and pitched towards either end 
in order to provide proper drainage. 

The open-ended firebox (approximating 10 
inches in height) will accommodate longer 
lengths of wood than the three sided type (pi. 
III). This firebox should be Uned with fire-clay 
brick and in the absence of any connecting end 



to bond the sides together, provision should be 
made to bond the fire-clay brick into the stone 
masonry walls by the use of headers as shown 
in figure 3 of this plate. The four courses of 
fire-clay brick laid on their natural bed vnll 
slightly exceed 10 inches in height, while two 
courses laid edgewise will slightly exceed 9 
inches in height. 

A type of stone should be selected which will 
resist heat. The width of the stone sides should 
be kept to minimum dimensions, approximating 
from 6 to 10 inches. Any standard type of 
grate may be used. The grate showm is hinged 
on "\-inch "I" bolts set into the joints, as 
shown on plate XXII, figure 1. 

Some park authorities have experimented 
with the open-end fireplace constructed with 
concrete sides, and with the bars embedded 
solidly in the concrete walls. In every instance, 
the expansion of the iron has caused the con- 
crete to break. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

A movable grate, securely attached to the 
stonework (pi. VII) may be substituted for the 
hinged grate shown in this drawing. 

The stonework in the side walls may be kept 
at the elevation of the top of the fire-clay 
brick, if a movable plate or grate is used, in 
order to regulate heating of dishes and utensils 
by placing them partly on the grate or plate 
and partly on the side walls. This method of 
construction would weaken the bond between 
the fire-clay brick and the stonework. 

The brick hearth may be omitted and a fill 
of sand or of mineral earth may be used in 
its place. If such construction is adopted, then 
the foundation under each side wall should be 
carried below the frost line (in lieu of a rein- 
forced concrete pad). 



26 




OPElN end MA50NRy TYPE 




it ^-^l 



20.xZ6"(iRILL 
( 2"ME5M 1/4" * I 



GROUND LINE 



— . ."-yr: 



. • <r^7^ CONCCETe -- Y . ^ 



EYE. BOLT HINGE. 



= l/2"nOD3 
6"O.C. BOTH 
DIRECTON5 
OR WIRE MESH 



EL£VATI0N 
Fig 2 



Section "C-c 

Fig 5 




r I/it BATTER 

Tf 



;,fir£ bricks n^^;- 






'-'/Z CODS 

eoC BOTH 

^REENFORCED CONCRETE 51AB I DIRECTIONS 



y . 



5ECTION "D-D" 
Fig. 5 



1/z PiAN "A" I Vi Plan 

Fig. 4 



-O' Z-0" 3-0" 



SCALE 



PLATE II 



27 



ROCK SLAB FIREPLACE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This fireplace of simple design and construc- 
tion is not massive. It is low and inconspicuous 
and well adapted for picnic use, especially in 
areas where the fire hazard is small. The open 
end should be toward the prevailing wind. 
This type without removable plate is not well 
adapted for use on camp grounds. (See pi. 
Ill A.) 

Since the construction of this fireplace is 
dependent upon the availability of the desired 
kind of large stones, laid without mortar, its 
adaptation to certain sites is limited. 

Some question has been raised concerning 
the problem of maintenance in this fireplace, 
where the intense heat comes in direct contact 
with the stone, and especially where it is 
necessary to douse the fire. If the proper kind 
of heat-resisting stone is available (as de- 
scribed under "Stone"), the maintenance ex- 
pense should be no greater than in any other 
fireplace . Sometimes a sheet iron plate is used on 
either side of the standard grate in order to pro- 
tect the stone against the heat (pi. III-A, fig. 2). 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The grate is entirely separate from the rock. 
These rocks should be somewhat irregular. 



with the exception that the ends should be 
roughly dressed, as should the top (to provide 
a shelf on which to set pots and pans). The 
rock used in this fireplace must be of the heat- 
resisting kind. The stones on either side are 
sunk about one-half of their height into the 
ground and the tops of the stones are level 
with the top of the grate. The ends of the 
stone should be set as close together as possible 
in order to prevent a cross draft in the firebox. 
They can easily be replaced if damaged by 
heat and water. 

The grate is anchored by being attached to a 
concrete block as shown on figure 4, or by being 
attached to a "log dead-man" (fig. 6). The 
hearth is usually made of sand or mineral earth 
and is level with surrounding ground. 

The length and width of the firebox is depend- 
ent upon the size of the standard grate which is 
adopted. The height of the firebox should be 
normal, that is 9 to 12 inches. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

Variations in design are shown in figure 2 on 
plate III, and also in plate III A. Sometimes 
the stone at the end may project slightly above 
the top of the grate to form a raised back 
which has a tendency to improve the draft. 



28 




Pig. 2 
PER5PBmVE3 



ROCK 5LAB PIRLPUXCt 



5TAt-lDARD 
&CATE ^^ 



ELfVATION 
Fig 3 



CONCRETE E)A5E- 




-fDUNDATlON 




Section 

Pig 4- 

r-GBOUND LINE 




GBATE LEG 




FIGS 

STANDARD GBATE 
ANCMOaED TO A 
LOG DEAD -MAN 



Plan 

Pig. 5 



12 S' O 



5CALt 



PLATE III 



29 



STANDARD GRATE 
FIREPLACE VARIATIONS 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This type of iireplace may be developed in a 
number of ways as shown upon the accompany- 
ing plate. Its simplicity of design, permanence 
of grate, cheapness and ease of construction 
are important factors which increase its pop- 
ularity. It is constructed in one form or another 
for use on picnic areas and on campgrounds, 
from California to Maine and from northern 
Washington to Florida. It is a comparatively 
inconspicuous unit, and for use in its simpler 
forms (as shown in pi. Ill, fig. 1; and pi. Ill A, 
figs. 1, 2, and 3) in primitive areas and in high 
mountain country near timber line, it has no 
equal. As explained under plate III this unit 
is not recommended for use in areas of high 
fire hazard. 

The type shown in figure 6 is also not recom- 
mended for use in areas where there is any 
tendency toward vandalism or any rough 
usage which might knock down the dry stone- 
enclosing wall. The types shown in figures 7 
and 8 are excellently adapted for areas 
which are used at frequent intervals by rather 
large groups who frequently have "fish fries." 
These multiple units provide necessary in- 
crease in cooking surface and have proven 
to be very popular in actual use on a number 
of recreation areas. In multiple units such as 
shown in figure 8 the width of the top of the 
enclosing wall on either side of the large fire- 
place, may be narrow (approximating 6 
inches) because of the reduced requirements 



for any "warming shelf", and because stones 
of the width normally used on either side of 
the single unit fireplace might cause incon- 
venience in the actual use of the fireplace. 

Wherever the single units are used for camp- 
ground cooking, it is generally desirable that 
a removable plate be used to cover a portion 
of the top of the grate as shown in figures 1 
and 5. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

In addition to the comments with reference to 
the design and construction of this type of 
fireplace included under plates II and III, 
this further information may be of value. 

This fireplace is sometimes designed as 
shown in figures 4 and 6 with the long side 
open to the front. When the fireplace is thus 
designed it is desirable that the top of the sur- 
rounding wall be slightly above the top of the 
grate and yet not exceeding 18 inches in the 
height inasmuch as a wall of greater height 
would not be convenient for use as a seat on 
which to sit while cooking food on the grate. 

The efficiency of this fireplace is greatly 
increased by the use of the removable top plate. 

Whenever a fire-clay brick lining is used in 
the firebox it is very desirable that the stone 
masonry construction protect and cover the 
ends of the fireplace lining as shown on the 
right-hand side of the fireplace in figure 5. 
The method of anchoring the standard grate is 
shown in plate III. 



30 



.DARE GRATE. A5 ON PLATE HI 



FIG 




■STONE WORK 
THU,5 EXP03tD,T0 
BE COMSTR.UCTED 
OF FIRE-RESISTANT 



STANDARD GRATE f 




LOOSE ROCKS 



Fig. 5 



lO GA. 5 I WELDED 
TO 5IDE3 6-END 
OF FCAME OF GRATE 



STANDARD GRATEA& ON PLATE ' 




FIG. 5 



S SIDE SHOWS 
STONE SHOULDERS 
CONCEALING FIRE 
BRICK ENDS 



.4^, 



■i- lO GA IG X28" 
5 I PLATES 
REMOVABLE 




5TONE 

Fig. 7 FAC1U& -- 




lO u,A SI WELDED 
TO SIDES &- END 
OF FR.AME OF GRATE 



FlG-2 



REPIACE VARIATIONS 



Fig4 




SIDES AND BACK C 

e" THICK CURB STONES 

SET INTO GROUND 12 

TO 16" AND WITH A CLEARANCE I 

OF &• TO ID" AROUND GRATE 



28" 5 I PU\TE 




DRY STONE WALL 
SET WITH 6'TO lO - 
F I G & CLEARANCE AROUND GRATE> 



Z-IO GA.30"X30'PLOTE5,REMOVABLE- 




u- "^^ 



BATTERY OF 

5 -STANDARD GRATES 

AS ON PLATE m 



PLATE III A 



31 



INFORMAL FIREPLACE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This informal fireplace is well adapted to the 
natural forest surroundings, especially if the 
stone used in its construction is carefully 
selected. In considering this fireplace for any 
specific area, the designer should determine 
in advance that stones of the character and 
size indicated in the drawings are available 
at a reasonable cost. 

This type ought not to be used where the 
hre hazard is great. It is primarily adapted 
for picnic areas, rather than for campgrounds, 
although with a removable soUd plate the 
variation shown in figure 2 could to excellent 
advantage be used on campgrounds. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

It has the appearance of dry stone masonry, 
although it is of solid masonry construction. 
The joints should be very narrow and raked 
deeply. The stonework in every way should 
present a natural appearance. It is important 
that the side walls be kept as low as practicable 
in order that the cooking surface be easily and 
conveniently accessible. 



Figure 1 shows flat projecting rocks at the 
end and sides on which to set cooking utensils. 

The foundation should consist of a "floating 
concrete pad", properly reenforced as shown. 
In some instances, especially where the hearth 
is of sand or mineral soil, the foundation under 
each side should be carried below frost (fig. 6). 

The width and length of the firebox may be 
varied, depending upon the available supply of 
fuel. The grate consists of 'i-inch iron bars 
or pipe set in I-inch sleeves at either end in 
order to avoid damage from expansion (pi. 
XXI, fig. 5). 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

Figures 2 and 6 show the variations in design. 
A movable plate or grate may be substituted 
for the built-in bars, and this plate or grate 
should be attached securely with a chain. 
(See pi. XXI, figs. I, 6, and 7.) If the stone 
masonry side walls are carried only to the 
height of the fire-clay brick lining it is necessary 
to take special precautions in constructing 
the top of joint between the fire-clay brick and 
stonework. 



32 




Fig Z '^^. 



PERSPECTIVES 
riG 1 



NrORiMAL riRTPUXCL 



5-a"BAPL5,2>t'O.C 
ET IU7D rPIPE.SLEE\'tS 
E Plate zn Fi& 5 -&) 




Elevation 

FiG 5 



Section C-C 



Fig 4 




^ZPlAN"AiKzP^XN"B' 

Fig 5 



VARIATION ^5ECT 
Fig 6 

la" s" o I'-o" 2-0- yo" 



6CALE_ 



PLATE IV 



33 



WESTERN PICNIC FIREPLACE 



J.HE fundamental design for this informal 
fireplace has been developed by the National 
Park Service and modified in minor detail for 
use in this volume. This fireplace is not a 
conspicuous unit, and is most appropriate to 
the natural forest surroundings where the fire 
hazard is not abnormally high. 

The sides are splayed, as shown in the draw- 
ing, and the top of the firebox is covered with 
a sohd plate. For picnic use only, the top might 
be covered with a removable grate, instead of 
a fixed plate. It is the author's observation that 
most recreationists prefer a solid plate, even 
for picnic use. 

The small opening between the back of the 
plate and the fire-clay brick lining provides an 
opening which serves as a flue, especially with 
the back of the fireplace tilted slightly forward. 
(See fig. 3.) The firebox is lined with fire-clay 
brick on the sides and bottom. That portion of 
the bottom of the firebox extending in front of 
the top plate and on which little or no fire will 
exist, may be paved with stone. 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

This fireplace may be constructed vfiih a 
slightly raised hearth, as shown in hgure 3, or 
the hearth may be practically level with the 
surface of the surrounding ground. 

The firebox is larger than the average size. 
The hearth is raised above the surrounding 
ground level, and slopes towards the front. 

The solid plate is securely attached, as shown 
in figure 5, and the height of the firebox is 
approximately 9 inches. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

If this unit were used as a fireplace, it would 
seem practical to have a movable plate or a 
hinged plate, in which case the plate could be 
removed, or raised and leaned against the 
back of the fireplace in order to create a 
warming fire. In order to create a better draft 
a procedure is sometimes adopted whereby the 
back edge of the cast-iron top is turned up at an 
angle as shown in plate IX, although not quite 
as pronounced as in plate IX. 



34 







WESTERN PICNIC FIREPLACE 




(^3.'S,'0 I TOP ANCnOCEO" 



mr^ZTz:^ 



Q_.CVATION 




onCTION A-A 
riG 3 

1-3/8" C I PIATE. ^3^6" "^ ANCHORS 



WIRE *\E5H 

G OC 
-BOTH 



FOUNDATION 



Plan 

FIG 4 



Section B-5 

O 5' ip ' 

Fig 5 

1 2" 6" O l-O' Z-O' 3-0" 4'- 0' 

5CAL^ 



PLATE V 



FROM NATrONJL "ARK SERVICE DESIGN 



35 



INFORMAL RAISED HEARTH TYPE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

The adaptation to location is similar to fire- 
place in plate IV. This fireplace should be con- 
structed of informal stonework in order to avoid 
any formal effect contrasting unnecessarily 
with the natural conditions. In fact it is advis- 
able in this type with the raised hearth to do a 
small amount of grading at the back and sides 
in order to lessen the height of this structure. 

The raised hearth makes it possible to 
develop a higher elevation for the cooking 
surface on the top of the grate or plate. This 
added height for the cooking surfaces makes 
the unit more convenient, and of value for 
camp sites as well as picnic areas. 

The hinged grate and the raised back offer 
the opportunity to convert this fireplace into a 
campfire or warming fireplace, which also 
increases its desirability. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

This type of fireplace has the stone masonry 
sides, except the shoulders, level with the top 
of the fire-clay brick and it also has a raised 
back against which the hinged grate may rest. 
Note the suggestion for a projecting stone plat- 
form on which to set cooking utensils. 

The foundation should be a reenforced 
floating pad as shown on figure 3. 

The raised hearth is constructed of fire-clay 



brick laid on masonry fill on the top of the con- 
crete pad and the appearance of this fireplace 
is improved by the construction of a narrow 
hearthstone (fig. 1) across the front. 

The firebox is hned with fire-clay brick. The 
single rod across the front part of the farebox is 
used for supporting fuel in order to increase the 
draft when the fire is being started. The use of 
this bar is somewhat questionable because an 
accumulation of ashes would soon offset any 
advantage gained by the effort to provide this 
air space, and furthermore, the bar so buried 
in live coals will eventually "burn out." 

The stonework is so constructed that it pro- 
tects the fire-clay brick and conceals this lining 
to some extent as seen from the front. 

The grate is hinged on a bar which is sunk 
into "sleeves" inserted in the stonework (pi. 
XXI, fig. 5, plan B). 

The hinge rod (pi. XXI, figs. 2 and 3) provides 
a method for securely fasteiung the grate or 
plate to the fireplace in a simple and solid 
manner. This provision also makes it easier to 
remove the ashes from the firebox. The grate, 
as hinged, may be raised and supported 
against the back of the fireplace in order to 
create the effect of an open fire. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

For variations in design, refer to plate VII. 



36 




WTW^^ 






" ^ ! :^iMr^-^ PEUSPECTIVEi 



NPORMAL RAI5LD MEARIM lYPt 



"EAR.. LET INTO |J4 PIPE- 




&LLVATION 
Fig 2 



5ECTION "C-C 
Fig 3 




5lD^ ELEVATION 

FiQ 5 



)/ZPlAN"A" I/ZPU\N"B" 

FIG 4 



12" 6" O r-O' Z-O' 3- 0" 



PLATE VI 



37 



INFORMAL RAISED HEARTH TYPE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This type has the same problems concerning 
adaptations to location and to use as relate to 

the fireplace shown in plate VI. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The slabs of stone on which to set cooking 
utensils, and related to the fireplace as indi- 
cated in the sketch, have a tendency to more 
directly "tie" this feature to the ground. The 
single capstone across the back of the fireplace 
extends over and is set flush with the face of the 
fire-clay brick lining in order to improve the 
design and the construction. The front corners 
of the fireplace are returned in such a manner 
that they partially conceal the fire-clay brick 
Uning. 

The hearth if raised to a height approxi- 
mately 12 inches above the ground level, would 
bring the cooking surface at the top of the 
grate or plate to a height of 22 inches, which 
wovild make the unit more convenient for camp 
use, and more massive. 

This entire structure (excepting the single 
slabs of rock at either side) should rest upon a 
reenforced concrete floating pad foundation. 
The flanking rocks are buried slightly in the 
ground. 

The hearth should be constructed of fire-clay 
brick laid on a masonry fill on top of the con- 



crete foundation. There may or may not be a 
projecting stone hearth at the front of the fire- 
place. 

The fire-clay brick is anchored by the cap 
stone across the back and is carried only to 
the level of the stone masonry wall on the sides. 
In this method of construction, the joint between 
the fire-clay brick and the stonework should be 
very carefully constructed in order to avoid the 
possibility of water entering between the fire- 
clay brick and the stonework, thus causing 
damage during the winter months. 

The success of this fireplace depends upon 
the use of large units of stone of a uniform char- 
acter, and upon a careful treatment of the 
joints in order to conceal them as much as 
possible. The flanking rocks which are not set 
upon any foundation should be entirely free 
from the fireplace structure, so that in heaving 
and settling under frost action no damage will 
be done to the stone masonry. 

VARIATION IN DESIGN 

A variation (figs. 2 and 6) indicates the hearth 
lowered to the ground level with the fire-clay 
brick in the hearth omitted, and sand or min- 
eral earth substituted in its place. In this varia- 
tion in design the foundations under the side 
and rear walls should be carried below the 
frost line. 



38 




Fig 1 



PERSPECTIVES 



N FORMAL PAI5LD HEARJM lYPE 



£1 




3/S'EYEEOLT 
PIQ S 



LyiVATION 

FlG- 5 



5 ACTION "C-C 
riG 4 



CHAIN CU PLATE. 




o | l/.j'"'."^"- H [AA^^ffCONCKETE 



1/2 PiAN "A" I 1/2 PiAN 
Fig 5 



VARIATION 5ECT. 
riG. 6 



12' G' O l-O" 2.-0 3-0' 



Scale, 



PLATE VII 



39 



CHIMNEY NOTCH TYPE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

Because of the raised back and the chimney 
notch effect which takes the place of a chimney, 
when a soUd plate is used for the top, it is 
essential that this fireplace, so far as is prac- 
tical, be oriented to take advantage of the 
prevailing wind. 

This fireplace, especially with the solid plate, 
is adapted for use on campgrounds, especially 
if the hearth is raised to make the top of the 
plate approximately 14 to 16 inches above the 
ground. 

This type is a "cross" between an open fire- 
place with a solid back (pi. VII) and the low 
chimney type (pi. X). Its distinct advantage is 
that it is easily converted from a fairly efficient 
cooking hreplace vnth an iron plate cooking 
surface, into an open reflecting fireplace for 
campfire use in the evening. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

Converting this unit from a cooking fireplace to 
a campfire is accomplished by tilting the top 
plate against the notch with the narrow side 
resting on the hearth at the back of the firebox, 
as shown in figure 2. 

The dimensions of the firebox and of the top 
plate are so related that the plate when stood 
on its narrow side will easily fit into the firebox 



as shown in figure 2. The depth of the firebox 
from front to back should be 2 inches less than 
the width. In order to have the plate set on the 
top of the fire-clay brick lining, the plate should 
be 4 inches longer than the width of the firebox, 
thus allowing a 2-inch overlap on each end of 
the plate. In this instance, the width of the fire- 
box is 16 inches and the depth of the firebox is 
14 inches. The length of the plate is 20 inches 
and the width of the plate is 14 inches. 

This structure is also supported on a reen- 
forced concrete floating pad. The hearth is 
constructed of fire-clay brick, and the firebox 
is Uned with fire-clay brick, including the 
chimney notch. The stonework partially con- 
ceals the fire-clay brick, as shown in the 
drawing. 

The grate or plate should be removable, with 
the flange on the front edge of the plate turned 
down, and the flange on the rear edge turned 
up, and it should be attached by a chain to the 
stonework. The bent flanges will tend to pre- 
vent sagging. (See pi. XXII, fig. 4.) 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

The only variation in design which seems of 
sufficient importance is the raising of the 
hearth where this unit is used primarily for 
campgrounds. 



40 




Fig 2 



Perspectives 

Fig 1 



CMIMNEY NOTCM TVPt 




ElXVATlON 
Fig 3) 



vStCTION "C-C" - 

Fig 4 



FOUNDATION 




KZPlAN'A" l/ZPU\N"B" 

Fig 5 



IZ 6 O l-O" 2-0 3-0 



sSCALt 



PLATE VIII 



41 



CONVERTIBLE CAMP STOVE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This camp stove is an unusual type, the funda- 
mental idea for which was developed by region 
1 of the United States Forest Service. It is especi- 
ally well adapted for use in the forest areas, 
where camp stove cooking facilities are re- 
quired. The unit is low and, if carefully con- 
structed with an appropriate type of stone found 
in the immediate locality, this stove is most ac- 
ceptable. 

The necessity for a chimney, which adds to 
the massiveness of any camp stove, is avoided 
by the hinged plate shown in figure 4. In the 
areas of high fire hazard, it is difficult in this 
stove to control the sparks, which in the type 
shown on plate X can be easily controlled by a 
spark arrester in the low chimney. 

This stove is easily converted into a warming 
fire by raising the plate, as shown in figures 2 
and 4. 

Most camp stoves are too massive for use in 
open and semiopen areas, and are only 
adapted for practical use in connection with 
camp units where natural screen planting 
between the units exists. The necessity for 
screen planting where this stove is used is not 
as great as where the larger and more imposing 
units are used. This type of camp stove seems 
to have excellent possibilities as a most useful 
unit easily converted from picnic use to camp 
use or vice versa. 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The plate may be of cast iron or of 10-gage 
boilerplate, bent to fit the design of the stove 
as shown in figures 1 and 4. If a cast-iron plate 
is used, the front part of the plate should be 
counterbalanced by additional weight in the 
curved portion of the plate back of the hinge in 
order that the sudden dropping of the plate on 
the top of the brickwork will not injure the plate. 
If 10-gage boiler plate is used for the top of the 
fireplace, it is not necessary that any counter- 
balance weight be used. 

The hinge on which the plate revolves is 
located as shown in figure 4 and is anchored 
in the stone masonry as shown in figure 6. The 
increased width of the front portion of the plate 
(figs. 1 and 5) allows the plate when raised 
to rest against the side walls, as shown in fig- 
ure 2. 

The hearth should slope sUghtly to the front, 
and at the front edge it may be level with 
the surrounding ground. If, in exceptional in- 
stances, the camper desires a more convenient 
height for the top of the plate, the hearth may 
be raised approximately 6 inches above the 
ground level. 

The underside of the plate is reenforced with 
2- by 2-inch angle irons, which are welded to 
the plate to prevent warping and possible 
sagging. These angles are pierced to allow the 
hinge rod to pass through. 



42 




CONVERTIBLE CAMP STOVE 



ALTERfiATE. !| 
HIMGE. RDD^l 







FIG 3 



L^CArrv foundation walls 

ELEVATION cr^..To^^^Eo"w.r5ECTION "C-C 

Fig 4 

-c 



ALTEraMATL I Vl Q 

HINGE. ROD— K J_ FLAiTE^i s,. 

I I J BEND END 




r^" 



^ 



I'PIPt SLtEVE. 



\\V' /i'/\/// 



t^ 







ENLAPGED 5b::T "p-D" ^IDE.ELLV 
KZPlAN"A' l/ZPLAN"B" f^'G 6 

El G 5 IZ" 6* O I'-O* £'-0' j'-o" 4'-0 



PLATE IX 



43 



STOVE-WARMING COMBINATION 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This fireplace approaches the camp stove type 
and is excellently adapted to campground use. 
These larger types are not recommended for 
the open and extensive picnic areas requiring 
a number of cooking units. The ideal location 
for such fireplaces is one where the ground 
level may be raised at the sides and the back 
to reduce apparent height. 

The low chimney in which a spark arrester 
may be inserted, if necessary, is added protec- 
tion against any fire hazard, especially in the 
timber areas of the West. 

The use of this unit as a cooking stove, or as 
a warming fire, is easily accomplished by rais- 
ing the hinged plate and the grill as shown in 
figure 4. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The design includes provision for a grill or 
grate and or a solid plate, both of which are 
hinged on bar hinges as shown in plate XXI, 
figure 4. When the top grate and plate are 
thrown back against the chimney, this unit is 
converted into a warming fireplace. For use in 
cooking, either the grill or the plate may be 
used. 

Where fuel economy is an important factor, 
the shelf shown in figures 4 and 5 may be 
lengthened as indicated by the dotted lines, 
thus reducing the depth of the firebox proper 



while retaining the same area of cooking 
surface. 

The stone platforms on which to place cook- 
ing utensils may be constructed as shown in 
the sketch. 

The foundation for this type of fireplace 
should be carried below the frost line and the 
fire-clay brick hearth should be supported on 
a reenforced concrete slab, as shown on this 
drawing. The firebox is lined with fire-clay 
brick laid as stretchers. The top plate ought 
to be 10-gage sheet iron. It is not necessary to 
reenforce this plate because the plate will rest 
directly on top of the grate. 

The stonework must be laid in an informal 
manner with carefully selected native stove. 

The low chimney is lined with fire-clay brick, 
laid flatwise. An arch constructed of fire-clay 
brick extends across the flue opening. The top 
of this arched opening is slightly below the level 
of the plate. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

Where steelwork is available at no abnor- 
mal cost, two 3- by 3-inch angles with '74- by 9- 
inch plate riveted to the under side may replace 
the arch and will improve the appearance. 

The raised hearth may be omitted if the lower 
elevation of the top is acceptable and the height 
of the entire mass will thus be reduced approxi- 
mately 8 inches. 



44 




Pig I 



5TOVE:-WARMING COM5INATION 



A 



kl9 X ZZ PLATER ~\ 
|[-I8 X 20 GBILL-m! I 



GRADE. AT REAR. 







WIRE_ME3M 




Ai 



>ll 






T^T^ 



CEETE FOOTING 



ElfVATION 



Fig :3 




Section "D-D" 

Fig a 









Section C 

Fig 6 



1/2 PlAN 'A" I l/Z Plan "B' T ^'i° 't°' ^t^' ";°" 

Fig 5 5CALE. 



PLATE X 



45 



CONVERTIBLE CAMP STOVE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

This type is primarily a camp stove, although 
it may be used as a campfire. The simpler 
units (pis. IV, V, and VIII) are appropriate for 
the natural forest areas. There is, however, in 
many campgrounds, especially in the larger 
timber, a definite need for this convertible 
unit which eliminates undue fire hazard, pro- 
vides for cooking and for warming fire use, 
and increases the convenience of everyday 
use in a camp. 

These units ought to be so located that a 
screen of natural grovrth will separate one 
from the other. 

This camp stove, together vrith the stove 
shown in plate XI-A, figure 4, are excellently 
adapted to campground use. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

It should be constructed with an interesting 
texture of informal stonework and should tie 
naturally to the surrounding ground. 

In addition to the sand or gravel area which 
naturally should surround any campfire or 
camp-stove unit, there might well be a few 
flagstones immediately in front of this camp 
stove. 

The foundation walls should extend below 
frost, in order to avoid the danger of uneven 
settlement due to the excess of weight at the 
chimney end of the camp stove. 

The chimney is lined with fire-clay brick and 
the firebox is lined to the height of the side 
walls. The firebox is entirely enclosed by the 
solid top plate and the single door or double 
doors across the front. 



The sohd top plate extends 2 inches over the 
brickwork on either side and it is hinged at the 
rear of the firebox as shown in figure 2. In 
order to convert this stove into a campfire, the 
doors are opened and the top is thrown back 
against the chimney. A certain amount of heat 
will continue to go up the chimney unless a 
damper is installed to control the draft. 

The danger of warping is decreased by the 
welding of two 1 by 1 inch angles across the 
underside of the top plate (pi. XXII, fig. 4). 

The chimney approximates S'/? feet in height 
above ground level. It may be Uned with lava 
rock, or it may have a terra-cotta flue Uning in 
place of the fire-clay brick. It is very desirable 
that a spark arrester be inserted in the top of 
the chimney, especially if the fire hazard is 
very great. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

It is entirely practical to have the firebox with 
the sides parallel (pi. XI A, fig. 4), rather than 
to have the front of the firebox wider than the 
rear, although the splayed sides reflect more 
heat when used as a warming fire. 

If the front doors are omitted, then it will be 
necessary to install a damper in the chimney 
in order to properly control the draft. 

In figure 4, the height of the top plate above 
the ground is approximately 16 inches. This top 
plate may be lowered approximately 4 inches 
by omitting the raised hearth and thus 
leaving a total height of approximately 12 
inches between the surface of the ground and 
the top of the plate, with chimney lowered 
proportionately. 



46 




PER_5PECT1VE5 



Fig. 1 



CONVERTIBLE CAMP STOVE 




1/2 PLAN "A 1/2 PLAN "B" 

FIG. 5 



FIG. 6 

6- O l-O 2-0- 3-0- 

SCALt 



PLATE XI 



47 



CAMP STOVE VARIATIONS 



Up 



'PON this plate there are shown a few 
variations of camp-stove designs some of which 
are excellent for certain uses and some of 
which do not seem to be practical except 
under conditions which impose unusual require- 
ments upon the camp-stove design. 

The details for design of these stoves are not 
covered in a special drawing because those 
desirable features are covered directly or 
in modified form by parts of drawings on other 
plates. 

Each of these variations in type is discussed 
under its individual heading. 

The desirable stoves for campground use 
are those shown in plates III-A, VII, VIII, IX, 
X, and XI, or variations of some of these types. 
Figures 3 and 4 in plate XI A especially when 
providing for a combination top grate and top 
plate may be adapted for use as a fireplace or 
as a camp stove. 

CAMP STOVE WITH GRATE 
AND SLIDING TOP PLATE 

The usual method of designing combination 
op grate and top plate is as shown in plate X 
or as is shown in plate VII. In the first instance 
the plate is hinged over the grate and in the 
second instance the plate is removable. 

Figure 1 shows a suggested method of 
providing a shding plate which may be pulled 
to one side as shown in the drawing, thus 
exposing the grate for broihng and grilhng. 

This type of design is not simple. Such stoves 
are expensive to construct. The top plate if too 
thick decreases the heating efficiency to a very 
marked extent. This stove does not seem to have 
a definite place for campground use in the for- 
ests and is therefore not recommended. 

CAMP STOVE WITH ASHPIT AREA 
IN FRONT OF FIREBOX 

This type of stove is similar in design to the stove 
shown in ligure 4 with the exception that the 



shallow enclosed pit in front of the firebox is 
added to this unit to serve a dual purpose as 
follows: 

(a) To be used as an ashpit in areas where there is 
abnormal fire hazard. (There seem to be very few 
areas where this abnormal precaution is necessary 
especially if a hearth of flagstone or mineral earth 
is provided immediately in front of the firebox.) 

(b) To provide a space into which to pull the live coals 
so that a toaster or a grill may be placed across the 
top on which to broil steak and other meats. 

This added feature constructed as shown in 
figure 2 makes an abnormally long unit of a 
camp stove. This ashpit area is in no way es- 
sential if the combination grate and plate is 
used for the top. 

CAMP STOVE WITH GRATE 
IN BOTTOM OF FIREBOX 

In some areas where a condition of excessive 
moisture (rain or fog) prevails it is sometimes 
desirable to so construct the camp stove that a 
bottom draft may be procured through a grate 
in the bottom of the firebox. Such a type of de- 
sign is not generally recommended except where 
the condition of the wood used for fuel is so 
affected by the moisture that this additional 
bottom draft is necessary. 

CAMP STOVE WITH SOLID TOP PLATE 

One of the most practical camp stoves is that 
shown in figure 4. The efficiency of this stove 
might be much increased if it were so designed 
that a combination grate and plate properly 
hinged as shown in plate X were used. The 
soUd plate on the top of this stove does not 
permit any use for broiling over a grate and 
neither does it provide opportunity for use as 
a hreplace with the top plate raised as shown 
in plate XI, figure 2. It is also desirable in 
these camp stoves to provide a damper pref- 
erably in the chimney as shown in plate XI A, 
figure 5. 



48 



3LID1NG TOP PLiTES 
FIXED GR'.L 




C.I. FRONT- 



FIG : 




f:^2 



CAMP STOVE VARIATIONS 




GaATE. OVE-R. 



Fig 






PLR^PE-CTIVL 5K.ETCH 
OF DUTCH OVLM 



DUTCH /HOT ■■■^, 



m^' 




PLATE XI-A 



49 



CAMP STOVES WITH THE 
DOOR ON THE SIDE 

In some campgrounds it seems desirable to 
adopt a type of camp stove such as is shown 
in plate XI A, figure 5. The advantages 
claimed for this stove are the following: 

(a) An economy of fuel because the firebox is very 
small in proportion to the cooking area on the top 
of the stove. The heat under a portion of the top 
plate is produced by the flames which travel under 
this plate to the flue, in which a damper is con- 
structed. 

(b) A cooking ledge is provided on the front of the 
stove to be used for warming purposes. 

(c) A "windbreak wall" may be constructed on the 
windward side to protect the top from any abnormal 
currents of air caused by prevailing winds, espe- 
cially in the higher mountain country where a strong 
wind generally prevails, especially in the late fall 
and early spring. 

This stove, if well constructed and kept 
sufficiently low by eliminating the ashpit under 
the firebox, is an appropriate unit in the forest 
surroundings. It is undoubtedly more expen- 
sive to construct than the more simple type of 
stove shown in figure 4. 



DUTCH OVENS 

The dutch oven is probably one of the simplest 
and most effective method of cooking certain 
foods. 

In areas of considerable fire hazard and 
especially in the primitive areas, it is desirable 
to construct a small pit, similar to a campEre 
circle, surrounded by a row of stones which will 
confine the fire within a specific area. 

The success with which a dutch oven may be 
used for cooking depends very largely upon the 
experience and abiUty of the person who is 
using the oven. The general method of using 
this oven is that of building a fire in a small 
campfire circle (hg. 6). After this fire has 
burned sufficiently long to produce a liberal 
bed of live coals, these coals are so arranged 
that the dutch oven, containing the meat or 
other food to be cooked, can be set firmly into 
the bed of coals. After the cover has been 
securely fastened, the entire dutch oven is com- 
pletely covered (fig. 6) with coals and left thus 
buried in a bed of coals and ashes for the 
length of time necessary to properly cook the 
meat or other food to be placed in the oven. 



50 



HIGH CHIMNEY STOVE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

The high chimney stove has little or no place 
in the notional forest areas, because of its 
massiveness. The discussion covering camp 
stoves would not be complete without including 
this type of stove because, in a few locations 
where the fire hazard is abnormally high and 
where it is possible to provide an adequate 
screen between the different camp units, such 
a stove might be used. Its general use should 
be discouraged. 

The cost of constructing such a unit seems to 
be out of proportion to the results which are 
obtained, as compared with the results that 
can be obtained in the construction of the 
simpler types of definite camp stoves shown 
particularly in plates IX, X, XI, and XI A, figure4. 

This feature more nearly approaches the 
conveniences of the stove at home and, for 
this reason alone, it deprives one of some of 
the satisfactions which come from a new kind 
of recreational activity in the natural out-of- 
doors. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

This unit becomes increasingly objectionable 
unless the stone used in its construction is care- 



fully selected and equally carefully laid, in 
order to avoid some of the objectionable 
textures of stonework illustrated in plates 
XXIV and XXV. 

The foundation on which this stove rests 
should be carried below the frost line, as shown 
in figure 4, and it may be constructed by plac- 
ing rocks in the concrete to lessen the amount 
of concrete required. 

The stove is provided with a definite firebox 
and an ashpit, separated with a grate. The 
draft is controlled by a damper in the chimney 
and oftentimes by a damper in the door at the 
front of the firebox. The doors and the top 
plate are generally made of cast iron. 

As shown in the drawings, the firebox and 
the flue should be carefully lined with fire-clay 
brick or other equally acceptable material. 

The author has observed some of these stoves, 
in which the space between the back of the 
fire-clay brick lining and the stone masonry is 
left as an air space or is filled with asbestos. 
The author questions the necessity for this pro- 
vision in the design of this type of camp stove. 
In any event, the top of this space should be 
thoroughly sealed to prevent the entrance of 
water. 



52 




'/ZSECrCn/ZELEV. 

FIG. 5 



BtlDW FP05T 



^V^-^^ 



Section "D-D" 

Fig, 4 



[^ 



-rOUNDATION 



GROUND LINE 




AUtOMATL 5E-CT D-D 

D riG 6 

Vz PLAN "A" M/z Plan "b" '^r ° '° "°" ^° ^^ ^' 

Fig 5 SCALE: 



PLATE XII 



53 



MULTIPLE UNIT STOVE 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

The multiple unit is a massive structure which 
has, with rare exceptions, no reason for exist- 
ence on a national forest, and is in reality a 
camp stove adapted only to picnic area use. 
This type of multiple unit is of greatest value in 
connection with areas used intensively and by 
large organized picnic groups. It has little 
value on areas used for small family picnics, 
or on campgrounds. 

It may be used in multiples of two, three, or 
four, as shown in figure 1. The most practical 
design is in multiples of two, which greatly 
reduces the congestion around the cooking 
space. 

It is very seldom that a multiple unit of 
this kind would be used by campers, except 
those who live at resorts, in connection with 
which there are small cabins constructed 
close together. 

This type of stove in multiple units is excel- 
lently adapted to some of the areas where 
there is intensive activity in winter sports. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The foundation under these structures should 
extend below the frost line and the hearth 
should rest on a masonry fill. The hearth and 
the firebox should be paved with fire-clay 
brick. 

The efficient design of these units requires a 



minimum length for the firebox, and a narrow 
entrance to the flue, creating a considerable 
additional warming area, as shown in figure 
3. Under this type of design, the flames and 
the hot gases are forced through the narrow 
passage over the shelf which is directly under 
the cooking top, thus making the entire surface 
of the cooking top available for use. 

In this drawing, a 10-gage iron top is indi- 
cated, reenforced with 1 by 1 inch angle irons 
welded to the undersurface as shown. The use 
of a thinner gage may cause buckling and 
sagging, and to date the information concern- 
ing this problem is not sufficiently adequate to 
determine the result which would occur by 
using any thinner material. 

The high chimney may have a terra cotta 
flue lining, although fire-clay brick will serve 
equally well. Sometimes the single flue is made 
sufficiently large to meet the requirements of 
the multiple units which it serves and it should 
then be divided into the required number of 
smaller flues of the proper size. This encour- 
ages a more efficient operation by shutting 
out the cold air which would otherwise be 
drawn from the stoves not in operation. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

Sometimes an ash pit may be constructed under 
the firebox, as indicated in figure 5 and as 
shown in plate XII, figure 4. 



54 




MULTIPLE UNIT 5TOVL 



r I 



29 ± SCJUARt 



lEM 



B 9 



n 



i^?^ 



1 



h- 



]3X!3"T,C.FLUE 



UNTEL FRAME 



^ 



'tmsa 



I I CONCRETE TOOT1N&5 ! 



.CqUCB^-ffr 



EJJVATION 

PIG Z 



(-FOOTINGS BELOW FCOST-- 



SECTION "C-C 
Fig 3 



TOP KEENFORCIN& 
■;<ri5 WELDED 



, / J < ,.iJ Y^PtAN| 



CI FUEL GRATE 



^y/A\\\\v/////^\\\'' 



nnr 



22:lt 



CONCEETE ^-V . ^ I ■ / ^/^ ■ 7 J "^ 



VARIATION SECT. 

[A5H PIT Added] 

Fig 5 



1/2 PLAN "B-B" 
Fig 4- 



PLATE XIII 



55 



PATENTED STOVE TYPE 



XHERE are a number of types of patented 
stoves adapted for use on camp grounds and 
picnic areas. These stoves are apparently 
designed primarily for cooking purposes, and 
the author has seen few of these patented 
stoves which, either before or after being 
covered with a stone masonry "shell", seem 
appropriate in a forest setting. They are 
excellently adapted to the more intensively 
used camp ground and picnic areas, near the 
centers of considerable population. The shape 
and appearance of these units are such that 
they do not seem to blend happily with the 
natural surroundings. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

Many of the patented stoves do not have a 
chimney. They are designed with an opening 
at the back of the irebox. The draft control, 
fire box, hearth, top grate or plate, and other 
mechanical features vary with each type of 
patented stove, and the stone masonry work 
should conform to the particular type of con- 
struction. 



Unless the patented stove has a metal back 
and sides, a fire-clay brick lining should form 
a part of the enclosing masonry shell. 

It is customary to provide, in the construction 
of these stoves, a ventilating air-space (see 
fig. 4), between the metal and the masonry. 
This air-space ought to be thoroughly sealed 
at the top. 

The sketch in figure 2 shows another type of 
stove enclosed in a stone masonry covering. 
The use of this type of stove with the square 
metal chimney as shown in the sketch, gives 
rise to considerable difference of opinion con- 
cerning the appropriateness of this kind of a 
chimney to the forest surroundings. 

There may be a few instances in which 
it is more desirable to use an inconspicuous, 
although distinctly artificial chimney of this 
type than to construct a massive chimney which 
is equally as far out of proportion to the camp 
stove. In general, the use of this type of stove, 
with the chimney as shown in the sketch, 
ought to be discouraged in spite of its practical 
value. 



56 




PATENTLD 5TOVL TYPL 




Em/ATION 

FIG 5 



WjC£ MEbH - 
EEENFOKCINci 

oc 'It. bars 

<i ■ O C BOTH*- 
DIRECTIONS 



5LCTI0N 

FIG 4 



I \ i 



PLAN 
Pig O 



NOTt ; NO DIMENSIONS ACE 

SHOWN ON TMO DRAWING 
BECAuat OF THt VARYING 
51ZE^ OF PATENTED 3TOVE5 
WHICH ARE. ADAPTED FOR 
CAMP U5E- 

Fl& Z SHOWS DIFFERENT T-YPE. 
OF PATENTED 5TOVE WITH 
METAL FLUE 



APPROXIMATE 5CALE 



PLATE XIV 



57 



WARMING. COOKING UNIT 



ADAPTATION TO LOCATION AND USE 

The warming-cooking unit is generally not 
adapted to areas where the fire hazard is great. 

These units may be used, (a) in connection 
with shelters (pi. XIX, figs. 1 and 5), (b) in con- 
nection with swimming pools on campground 
areas, and (c) on campground and picnic 
areas. The two most logical ways in which to 
combine the campfire and the fireplace, or 
camp stove, are shown in figures 4 and 5 on 
the accompanying plate. 

When these units are used in connection 
with shelters, it is the usual practice to face 
the camp fire toward the shelter, as shown on 
plate XIX, figure 6, and to have the cooking 
unit on the side farthest from the shelter. In this 
way the interior of the shelter receives the full 
benefit from the campfire, the purpose of which 
may be to warm and to light the interior of the 
shelter. 

The warming fire by itself is another feature 
which is considered in connection with the dis- 
cussion of plate XX. 



These units are adapted only to areas where 
there is an adequate supply of fuel easily 
available. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The design of the stonework should be very 
informal and rustic. The foundation under 
these features should extend below frost. It 
may be advisable to line the sides of the warm- 
ing fire area with fire-clay brick or lava rock 
in order to protect the stone masonry from 
damage by the intense heat. The fire-clay 
brick lining should, however, be avoided if 
possible, even to the height of a few courses, 
because it is unsightly and unnatural in a 
fireplace of this type. 

The top of the grate or the plate may be 
lowered to a height of 14 to 16 inches above the 
ground. 

VARIATIONS IN DESIGN 

The variations in design are shown in figures 
4 and 5. 



58 




PERSPECTIVE 



WARMING - COOKING UNIT 







L 


— '- — 


^- 


B 


A 


-.--A 


T~^ 








— 


~1} 




"[ 




■v-^ 


— - 




'r~- 





Eltvation 

Fig. 2 




'''m---.^t. 



5ECTION "C-C" 
FIG 5 





"V^FOC DETAIL OF HINGE 
^Ef PLATE XSI ElO 4 



5CALE: 



VARIATION ^ Plan 

Fig 5 



l/ZPlAN'A" I/2PlAN'B" 
Fig 4 



PLATE XV 



59 



BARBECUE PITS AND BARBECUE OVENS 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

While barbecue pits and barbecue ovens have 
been in use during a considerable period of 
years, the specific information relating par- 
ticularly to the design and construction of 
these features is rather difficult to procure. 
The three types, as follow: (a) Barbecue pit 
(pi. XVI), (b) free standing barbecue oven 
(pi. XVII), and (c) hillside barbecue oven 
(pi. XVIII), shown in the accompanying plates, 
include the range of facilities normally used 
for barbecuing. 

The word "barbecue" (both as a noun and 
a verb) is used in connection with the roasting 
of the whole carcass of an animal, or, for con- 
venience in handling, the carcass is sometimes 
quartered or cut into even smaller portions. 

For the purposes of this bulletin, only the 
medium-sized barbecue pit and oven is shown 
in the detailed drawings. The larger barbecue 
pits and ovens, when required, are designed 
in accordance with the same plans, and the 
size is computed in accordance with the 
requirements of use, as hereafter explained. 

LOCATIONS FOR BARBECUE PITS 
AND BARBECUE OVENS 

These features are of practical use only where 
large numbers of people congregate in the 
open to eat at the same time. The specific 
location selected for barbecue pits, in particu- 
lar, must be well drained, because any fire 
built in the bottom of a pit would not operate 
efficiently if free moisture were present to 
choke out the fire. The presence of an abnor- 
mal amount of moisture would cause the for- 
mation of steam, and might even cause an 
explosion. 

There should be a reasonably large open 
and flat area adjacent to the barbecue pit or 
oven, in order that all of the people who are 
hkely to gather for any such occasion may be 
accommodated. 

The construction of barbecue features is 
expensive, and the successful operation of the 
barbecue pit or barbecue oven consumes a 



large quantity of wood. These features should 
therefore be constructed only where the supply 
of natural fuel is plentiful, and where there is 
a real demand for the use of this kind of a 
cooking facility. 

In Puerto Rico, where the climate permits 
outdoor activity during the entire year, and 
where roast pig is considered a real delicacy, 
barbecue pits and ovens are almost a neces- 
sity in connection with public recreation areas. 

ADAPTATION TO USE 

Barbecue facilities are adapted to the roasting 
of an entire carcass or to one or more large 
portions of meat at the same time. 

The successful operation of a barbecue pit 
or oven requires an experienced individual 
who understands this method of cooking meat. 
Inexperienced operators may easily spoil meat 
by under- or over-cooking it through incorrect 
operation of the barbecue pit or oven. 

The real purpose of the barbecue pit and 
barbecue oven is that of slowly cooking a con- 
siderable quantity of meat for a period of time 
which may vary from 8 to 12 hours, and some- 
times 24 to 36 hours, depending upon the size 
of the carcass and the degree of heat. 

The maximum success in barbecuing meat 
is procured when the pit or oven can be made 
practically airtight and thus resembling a 
fireless cooker. Unless the pit is practically 
airtight, the meat is very apt to burn. 

OPERATION OF BARBECUE PIT AND OVEN 

While barbecue pits and ovens possess the 
advantage of providing facilities for the cooking 
of a considerable quantity of meat at one time, 
these features also have the disadvantage of 
being difficult to operate conveniently, because 
of the intense heat and the unwieldiness of the 
ordinary-sized carcass of a steer or other 
animal, unless the barbecue feature is well 
designed for practical operation. The practical 
methods of handhng large pieces of meat are 
explained in the text which accompanies the 
following plates. 



60 



DETERMINING SIZE OF 
BARBECUE PIT OR OVEN 

The actual size of the barbecue pit or barbecue 
oven is determined by the number of people 
for whom a supply of meat must be barbecued 
at any one time. In determining the practical 
size for any specific area, it is necessary first 
to determine the number of people who will 
occupy, at any one time, a recreation area 
provided with barbecue facilities. 

It is generally estimated that 1 cubic foot of 
meat weighs approximately 40 pounds, and 
that the allowance per person will vary from 
one-half to 1 pound, depending upon the extent 
to which other foods are supplied for any 
specific occasion. The estimated amount of 
meat consumed per person will also depend 
upon the percentage of bone which remains in 
any carcass to be barbecued (allowance of 20 
percent is usually made for the bone, unless 
the section of beef has been boned) and it will 
also depend upon the amount of waste due to 
undesirable cuts and excessive fat. The skill 
and ingenuity of the operator in properly cook- 
ing and properly cutting the meat when served 
also is a factor. 

It is further generally assumed that there 
ought to be approximately 12 inches of clear- 
ance between all confining surfaces and the 
meat. A cubic foot of meat would therefore 
properly fit into a barbecue pit or barbecue oven 
with dimensions 3 feet wide, 3 feet long, and 3 
feet high, making allowance for the depth of 
ashes which would remain in the bottom of the 
barbecue pit, but no allowance for any ashes 
in the bottom of the barbecue oven (inasmuch 
as the ashes would be removed from the bottom 
of the oven before the meat is put in place). 
This size of meat would therefore serve from 
40 to 80 persons, depending upon the condi- 
tions above stated. 

On the basis of this analysis, the number of 
people who could be served at any one time 
through the cooking facilities of the barbecue 
pits and ovens in the following drawings would 
be approximately as follows: 

Barbecue pit shown in plate XVI (with capacity of 
approximately 310 pounds) —number of people to be 
served approximates from 350 to 600. 



Plate XVII - number of people to be served approxi- 
mates from 250 to 475. 

Plate XVIII number of people to be served approxi- 
mates from 450 to 875. 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

The materials of construction are covered in 
the detailed discussion which accompanies 
each of the following plates. 

In general, it is desirable that the barbecue 
pit and barbecue oven should be properly 
lined with fire-clay brick, although a lining of 
dense volcanic rock would also serve in place 
of the fire-clay brick. 

METHOD OF OPERATION 

In the successful operation of a barbecue pit 
or barbecue oven, the meat is cooked by the 
heat which is retained in the surrounding walls 
and floor of the barbecue pit or oven. 

There are several ways of preparing meat 
for barbecuing. The most common way is to 
take the cleaned and skinned carcass and 
roast it whole, without removing any bones. 

Oftentimes, larger animals are quartered, 
or cut into even smaller portions, each weigh- 
ing from 40 to 50 pounds, to facilitate the ease 
of handling. When the meat is thus cut, the 
individual pieces should be of approximately 
equal size, in order that each piece may cook 
uniformly. The usual procedure is to tie the 
pieces of meat with heavy twine, like rolled 
roasts of beef. 

Sometimes a method of barbecuing called 
steam roasting is adopted, in which case the 
pieces of meat are wrapped in wax paper and 
covered by damp clean sacks before being 
placed in the pit or oven. This method of pro- 
cedure preserves the juices in the meat and 
gives a less-pronounced roasted taste. 

It is necessary, in cooking the meat, that the 
cover to the pit, or the doors to the oven, should 
be replaced and the cooking space sealed as 
tightly as possible immediately after putting 
the meat in place. 

An exclusion of air from the pit and the oven 
during the cooking process is very important, 
in order to insure that the meat will be brown 
in color, tender, and not burned, and also in 
order that the meat shall retain its natural 
flavor. 



61 



BARBECUE PIT 



J.HE barbecue pit offers the simplest means 
of maintaining the necessary degree of heat 
for barbecuing. The Indians and the early 
settlers discovered long ago that a hastily dug 
hole or trench, in the bottom of which wore 
placed large stones, and on the top of which 
had been built a hot fire, was an excellent 
means of cooking large portions of meat. 

Wherever the ground is sufficiently well 
drained to make practical the construction of a 
pit, the barbecue pit is preferable to the barbe- 
cue oven, because the natural ground serves 
to insulate the area surrounding the pit and 
preserves the maximum amount of heat. 

The walls of the pit may be made of concrete 
or stone masonry and the sides of the pit lined 
with fire-clay brick, as shown in plate XVI. 
The floor of the pit should be of pervious soil to 
provide ready drainage and, if desirable, to 
imbed in this soil a few larger stones, in order to 
retain some of the heat in the bottom of the 
pit. 

A fire may readily be made in the pit by 
inserting one or two posts in an upright posi- 
tion, and heaping the wood around these 
posts. After the wood has been put in place, 
the posts are then withdrawn and a small 
amount of kerosene or other oil may be poured 
into the hole, and the wood ignited by a burning 
torch dropped into the hole. 

This fire thus started in the pit (depending 
upon the size of the pit) should be kept burning 
for a period of 8 or 12 hours or longer, in order 
to thoroughly heat the bottom and side walls, 
and to create a bed of ashes over the bottom 
of the pit. 

After the fire thus maintained has thoroughly 
heated the pit, the carcass or chunks of meat 
are put into place in a wire basket, as shown in 
figures 1 and 5 of the accompanying plate. The 
cover to the pit may consist of a pair of hinged 



boiler-plate doors, reinforced with 2- by 3-inch 
angles to prevent any sagging of the doors. 

As shown in the drawing, these doors have 
large handles through which a pole may be 
inserted to facilitate lifting. Free standing posts 
support the doors when the pit is open and 
prevent straining of the hinges. 

The basket is made of woven wire and is sus- 
pended from two pipes, which rest in grooves at 
the ends of the wall, as shown in figures 2 and 3. 

After the meat is put in place, the covers to 
the pit are closed and earth is banked over the 
top of the covers to prevent any unnecessary 
loss of heat and to increase the airtight con- 
dition of the pit. 

When the pit is not in operation, provisions 
should be made so that the covers may be 
locked, in order to prevent vandaHsm and to 
avoid accidents. 

In many places in the western part of the 
country, food is cooked in a "dutch" oven, 
which is a small unit (pi. XI-A), operaHng on 
the principle of the barbeque pit. The con- 
tainer, which resembles a large kettle, is made 
of cast iron and has a tight fitting cover. A fire 
is built, and a liberal bed of live coals is pro- 
duced by burning the fire for the desired length 
of time to produce enough coals so that this 
"dutch" oven may be partly buried in the coals 
and the remainder of the coals may then be 
heaped against the sides and over the top of 
this container in which the food is placed. This 
method of cooking requires considerable skill 
to know the length of time which will be re- 
quired in order io properly cook different kinds 
of meat and other food. The "dutch" oven, so- 
called, can usually be purchased from hard- 
ware stores in the western part of the country, 
and it is in general use by the sheep-herders 
and others who wish to have an efficient and 
compact unit in which to cook food. 



62 



BARBECUE P 



FIG 1 ^ 



ATI ON ^_.--'~ 






^rOOR UFTING POLt IN5ERTtD 
,- r03R HAMDLta l" ''> WELDED 
^'i5/l& BOILERPLATE COVER5. HINGED 






5ect. E)-B 

FIG Z 




! HINGE STRAP 



/^ JcTiStONE OR CONCRETE . 



CONCRETE fOOTING 



DCOR LIFTING POLt 



-REMOVABLE- PIPE-OR-EAR 
MEAT BA5KET CARRIAGE. 
PROJECT S' AT EACH EMC 
A5 LIFTING HANDLES 



i/z Plan 
ThROUGti Pit 

FIG 3 [portion] 



FIG 5 



-MEAT CARRIAGE 





PLATE. DOQIffiJ ti^l WELDED 

.5LCT C~C 

O I 2 3 4 5 S INCHES 



FIG 4- 



1/ZPLAN 

orTOP 

F 1 G 3 [portion] 



5CALt 



PLATE XVI 



63 



BARBECUE OVEN 



J.N SOME locations, where the natural drain- 
age facilities are not acceptable for barbecue 
pits, it is advisable to construct barbecue ovens. 

The most desirable type of barbecue oven is 
the type such as is shown in plate XVIII, which 
is constructed in a slope so that the front of the 
oven is the only evident part of the artificial 
construction. 

It is necessary, however, in some locations, on 
the flat areas, to construct a barbecue oven 
entirely above ground, as shown in plate XVII. 
The question of proper insulation for conserving 
the maximum amount of heat within the oven, 
is a primary consideration. One method of con- 
struction, in order to accomplish this result, is 
shown in the detailed drawings in plate XVII, 
through which method of construction an air 
space is provided between the fire-clay brick 
hning and the outer stone masonry shell. 

In these ovens, not only the side walls and 
the roof, but also the floor, is of fire-clay brick. 
This fire-clay brick floor is laid upon a reen- 
forced concrete base. After the oven has been 
thoroughly heated, the ashes are raked from 
the oven before the meat is placed in the oven 
on the grill which is shown in the detailed 
drawing. 

In this type of feature, the stone-masonry 
walls must be carried below the frost-line. 

The constructing of this type of barbecue 
oven requires that the fire-clay brick shell shall 
first be constructed on the concrete founda- 
tion. The centering is then put in place, and 
the outer stone masonry shell is constructed. 



The wood members used for the centering are 
thoroughly soaked before being put in place, 
so that there can be no subsequent swelling 
which might injure the structure. 

It does not matter what happens to this 
centering after the construction has been 
completed. In all probability it will shrink 
and drop out of place, and it will probably 
char, without affecting in any perceptible de- 
gree, the insulating qualities. 

In all barbecue ovens, a chimney is neces- 
sary. This chimney will have a flue lining, 
which should be supported on iron straps, as 
shown in figure 2. These straps are supports 
for a removable plate, which is put in place 
after the fire has been removed. In order to 
properly seal this part of the oven, natural 
earth is placed on the top of the plate in the flue, 
as shown in figure 5. 

The grill, of reenforcing mesh (fig. 3), on 
which the meat is placed is supported by ^i-inch 
rods, as shown in figures 2 and 5. 

After the meat has been placed in the oven, 
the front opening is closed with a double cover- 
ing consisting of an inner shield of sheet-iron 
(fig. 5), which is locked in place during the 
actual cooking operation. A small amount of 
natural earth, placed at the bottom of the 
inner shield, may help to seal this opening. 

The doors are then closed and locked, and 
it might be advisable to place a small amount 
of earth against the bottom of the doors. 

When not in use, the main outside doors 
should be kept fastened with a padlock. 



64 










i, 1 *Di J "ii.' 




IG.1 DLR^PECTIVE- 



BARBECUE OVEN 



WATtR PROOF CEMtW' 




l*»'x2'57EAP5 WELDED 
C^ENDS BENT TNwAttD 4 UtyARD 



ME.TAL LATH CENTERING 
/Z'X'l'CtNTER.INC? , LETT IN PlACt 
/ f^OAK THOROOGHLV TO iWE.U- 
DtFDRt PLACING - 



3/*' '"COD5, 3 O.C. IN TH-REt 
ALTERNATE. HC5R1Z. BRICK JOINTS 
[PROJECT 3" INTO TIRE. BOX] 



NOT^ -AN ADDITIONAL AIR 

SPACE AND iHE.LL WOULC 
FURTHER CONSERVE THE. 
HEAT FDR OPERATION 




5ECT A-A 
Fig -2 



; — :." ' Fig -5 



5TONE MA^OND 






PLATE -ROD 

l4'/2 SOU REMOVABLE PlAtt/,^ BvRTH FILL DJRUIG OPERATION 

1 ITViv'T.C.FLUE; ] 




-^m . 



■RLMQVABLE 
-lOaA 51 INN^T? SHIELD 
RttNFORCED[PL XVIIl FIG 3] 
rf • 3/4' * LOCX. BAR 



' y^ Sj -^-V-.V.V^^" ' -V ' ' ' J i 'LVlCt AND PADUJ 

^/^A \ \///X 1/7 Dnn«. 



i/2'c i outer. doors 

Hinged. 

^aUiP WITH UXKINQ 
] riLVlCt AND PADLOCK 

GBOOND LINE 



Plan 

Fig 4 



SECT D-B 

Tig 5 



te. 

6 O C BOTH 
DIBECTION5 



5CALt 



PLATE XVII 



65 



HILLSIDE BARBECUE OVEN 



J.HE hillside barbecue oven, where natural 
conditions of topography are adapted to the 
construction of this type of oven, is preferable 
to the free standing oven shown in plate XVII 
because this unit is not as conspicuous. 

Construction of the hillside barbecue oven is 



substantially the same as of the free standing 
oven, except that the natural earth covering 
makes it unnecessary to provide the insulating 
air space between the back of the fire-clay brick 
lining and the inside surface of the stone 
masonry shell. 



66 




Plan atC 



, ^ 



' J'!' 



_, 10 510NE.0PEM 



\'/a'/(I'A'1- / / 



/Af 



,50 



^ 



11 C I DOORo 



10 INCHES 



HILLSIDE BARBECUE OVEN 



RLMOVABLE, 




Plan 

PIG 5- 



5ECT B-B 

^^^ BOTH DIBECTIONS Pip- ("-) 



PLATE XVIII 



67 



FIREPLACE SHELTER TYPES 



J.HE fireplace shelter has proved to be a 
very desirable feature on many campgrounds 
and along numerous trails. In some parts of 
the country where there is considerable possi- 
bility of heavy storms during the recreation 
season these shelters are essential. The shel- 
ters along the trails are usually located in the 
more remote portions of the forest to accommo- 
date hikers and horseback riders who use these 
trails during the early spring and the late fall. 
Properly located shelters along these trails 
also provide effective protection in case of 
sudden storms by affording a place in which 
to get away from rain and cold. Shelters of the 
character such as are indicated in plate XIX, 
if appropriately designed to be adapted to the 
use imposed upon them, are most desirable. 
These shelters are of three kinds: 

(a) Shelter with a fireplace or combination stove and 
fireplace constructed in front of the shelter (hgs. 
1 and 5). 

(b) Shelters with the fireplace or combination stove 
and fireplace constructed within the shelter (fig. 3). 

(c) Shelters with a fireplace within the shelter and a 
camp stove in front of the shelter. 

The problem of locating the camp stove in re- 
lation to the front of the shelter is important. 
The shelter must be so oriented that the prevail- 
ing winds will not carry the smoke from the 
fireplace into the shelter. To be practical the 
distance between the front line of the shelter 
and the front of the fireplace should not be 
greater than 8 feet. If the fireplace is closer 
to the shelter, the heat may be uncomfortable 
unless the shelter is abnormally deep. If the 
fireplace is too far removed from the shelter, 
then it serves no practical purpose for providing 
heat within the shelter during the cold rainy 



days and during the early morning and even- 
ing hours in the spring and fall. 

When the shelter is located along the trails 
and roads, especially in the mountains, these 
structures should be so located that the front 
of the shelter will command important views of 
the fine mountain scenery. 

The design for the shelter may be that of a 
single sloping roof {fig. 5) or with a gable end 
(fig. I). Shelters are constructed of boards or 
preferably of logs, and in a few instances they 
may be of stone masonry construction. 

The size of the shelter should be such that 
there is ample space under the roof to provide 
for one single bed on either side of the shelter, 
a small table and the necessary seating ac- 
commodations. The approximate dimensions of 
the average shelter are 10 to 12 feet in width 
and from 12 to 15 feet in depth. 

Where a fireplace is constructed in the rear 
wall of the shelter, it is desirable that the shelter 
be somewhat larger than the above measure- 
ments. A fireplace so located is a very useful 
feature especially in parts of the country where 
frequent rains cause considerable inconven- 
ience in cooking out of doors. 

The fireplace usually constructed at the front 
of the shelter may serve two purposes: (a) As 
a warming fire and (b) as a cooking fire. A 
combination warming and cooking unit, similar 
to that shown in plate XV is probably the most 
practical unit to be used in connection with 
shelter. Where the fireplace type is used, those 
types which are best adapted for this use are 
shown in plates VI, VIII, IX, X, and XI. 

The fundamental principles of design to be 
followed in developing the fireplace within the 
shelter are shown in plate XXIII. 



68 




\ OREGON TYPE 
hG 1 






'^ff^,' 



PLAN \a/ 

oregon type 
Pig- 2 



ri REPLACE 5MELTCR TYPE5 



~ TPAiLSIOe SHELTER. 
riG 5 



J^^ . . : i i ^:.'v ^ 



Li 



^fZ 



(^ ^i^ — ^ 

PLAN 

TGAILSIDE- SMErLTER. 

riG 4- 




adirondack she-lterr.. 
Pig- 5 









PLAN \r^( 

ADIRONDACK LUl 

&HE:LrErR. ^-^ cooking, fioe 

Pig S o 5 10 15 



PLATE XIX 



69 



WARMING FIRES AND CAMP FIRES 



J.HE Mount Hood type of warming fire (fig. 1) 
is used in connection with swimming pools on 
forest campgrounds, and it provides a feature 
around which the bathers may sit to dry them- 
selves after a plunge in cool waters. The tem- 
perature of the air among the large timber of 
some of the mountain forests is cool even 
during the many warm days of the summer 
months and these warming fires are a wel- 
come feature. The splayed sides (fig. 2) 
provide a surface which reflects a maximum 
amount of heat. 

There are three kinds of open fires: (a) The 
bonfire; (b) the campfire; (c) the open fire- 
place. 

This part of the discussion is confined to the 
campfire, which may be for community-camp 



use or for individual groups of campers. The 
bonfire is a feature similar to the campfire, but 
larger, and usually for large groups. 

The campfire is generally developed within 
a circular area which is well defined by a 
border of stones (preferably small boulders). 
This campfire may be for community groups or 
for single camp groups. 

In the center of the campfire circle it is 
oftentimes desirable to construct an upright 
post of concrete or of iron against which the 
logs may rest, thus developing a more attrac- 
tive fire than can be produced by laying the 
logs in horizontal position. 

The small campfire circle (fig. 5) may also 
be used for cooking purposes, as shown in the 
sketch and m the accompanying plan (fig. 6). 



70 



iijlf^^i _ii!|i[lill|| 




[o 



MT HOOD TYPE: 

PLAN 

Pig Z r^ 



gvzs- 4- 5- 



WARMING riRES ^ CAMP HRES 




SECTION 




LOQ 5EAT5 
12" 14" 6- IS' 
HIGH 



riG 4 



SMALL CAMP P-lRt CIRCLE" 

Pig 5 



SMALL CAMP PICE- 
CIKCLE 
PLAN 
h& G 

KfcTTLEl 




PLATE XX 



71 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



rOR the successful design and construction of camp stoves 
and fireplaces, it is most essential that the details of design and 
construction should be given the most thorough consideration. 
Inasmuch as these details may apply to a number of types of 
camp stoves or fireplaces, it has been deemed advisable to 
arrange these construction details for ready reference, upon 
the following sheets (pis, XXI, XXII, and XXII~A). 

There are a number of variations in these details and it is 
only the purpose of these three drawings to provide detailed 
information concerning the fundamental information which is 
necessary for reference in connection with construction details 
for these features. 



73 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



FIGURE 1 

Section through firebox lined with 4'/2 inches of 
fire-clay brick at sides and 2'/2 inches of fire-clay 
brick on hearth. The grate is chained. 

FIGURE 2 

Section through firebox, with 21/2 inches of 
fire-clay brick side lining and hearth. The grate 
is hinged. (For hinge detail, see fig. 3.) 

FIGURE 3 

Grate hinge detail. The grate frame is ex- 
tended at hinge side as shown the ends being 
welded together. The extended portions have a 
S/g-inch diameter hole for passage of hinge rod. 
The '/2-irich diameter hinge rod is held in 3/^-inch 
pipe sleeves built into the masonry. 

FIGURE 4 

A further development of the grate hinge shown 
in figure 3. Here a solid plate is hinged on to 
the same hinge rod carrying the grate. The solid 
plate may be thrown back independently of the 
grate; or both plate and grate may be thrown 
open, converting the fireplace into a warming 
reflector. In this detail, the hinge bars are two 



separate bent sections, with flattened ends, built 
into the chimney (also see pi. X). 

FIGURE 5 

Detail of built-in grate bars. The bars are let 
into pipe sleeves, allowing for expansion. They 
may or may not be arranged in such a way that 
removal and replacement can be taken care of 
in case of damage. 

In plan B, the bolts near either end of the rod 
are removed. The rod is slipped back into one 
sleeve pocket, freeing the other end for com- 
plete removal. 

In plan C, one or both ends of the rod, to- 
gether with its pipe sleeve fitting, pass com- 
pletely through the side walls of the fireplace, 
with bolts as shown, for securing the rod in place. 

FIGURE 6 

Eye bolt chain anchor. 

FIGURE 7 

Pin chain anchor. 

In addition to types shown, the end of the 
chain may be spiked to a post, or log deadman 
sunk into the ground. 



74 




FIRLBOX DETAIL, ^ECT. 

4/2 "SIDE. LINING. CMAINtD GP/^Tt . 

riG 1 




MRLDOX DETAIL , 5E.CT 

2'/2' 51Dt LINING, MINQED GRATE. 
t=l(^ ^ O .... 5- _ 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



m 



■3/4 P!Pt5LE£.VE. 



rO/A 



/t'^" A 



l/2'^HINQt UOD 



PIAN 



1 






U- iQ 



GRATL. hINGL DETAIL A-^ 
Fig 3 

o 1" z" 3" 4-" 5" 

5EEAL50 PlATt m 



A 






FLATTEN AT END 

PlAM 

A-1 

1/2" "^ BENT HI NQL ROD I 

BUILT INTO CHIMNEY j 



10 QA. PLATE.- 



-GRATt DOTTtD- 



COMB. GRATt ^ PU\TL 
hlNGL DETAIL 
riG 4 

SEE Also PLATt x 



d 



2 3 4-5 



FIRE BRIC K "^ 

Plan B ' 



! > PIPE SLEEVE L-ROD 



m^Hi 



SE 



"P PiANC 



M 



BUILT-IN GRAm EAR DETAILS 
Fig 5 

O r 2' 3" -4' 5"' 
5LL ALSO PVATt JS: ^ ' 



LYL BOLT ANCHOR- 
PIG 6 




PIN ANCHOR 
Fig 7 



^EE ALSO PLATE 



PLATE XXI 



75 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



FIGURE 1 

Wire-mesh grill details. A heavy woven mesh 
or reenforcing mesh is welded or hooked 
around a rod frame, and the resulting grate 
may either be chained to the fireplace or 
hinged, as shown, by means of eyebolt hinges. 

FIGURE Z 

There is great variance of opinion as to the 
respechve merits of solid tops or open grates. 
Also as to the respective merits of cast iron and 
sheet iron. (See general discussion.) The vari- 
ous thicknesses are indicated. 

FIGURE 3 

A chimney is shown lined on the one hand with 
fire-clay brick, and, as a variation, with terra 
cotta flue Hning. 



"A", "B", and "C" show various types of 
spark arresters. 

A damper is shown below. 

FIGURE 4 

Various designs of angle iron reenforcing are 
welded to the underside of the plates. Addi- 
tional dispositions of the angles are possible 
in a number of ways. In the case of cast- 
iron tops, the reenforcing ribs are an integral 
part of the casting and by some persons the 
cast-iron top with such reenforcing is pre- 
ferred. 

Holes are conveniently spotted in the tops 
to facilitate easier handling. 

Bent flanges may decrease the danger of 
sagging. 



76 



A- 



7^ 



WELDED OR HOOKED 



3/6" "P EVt 
BOLT HINGE. 



VlRLME5h GRILL 
DETAILS ^r=^ 

Fig 1 

SEE ALSO PLATE K 



i 



lO GA :>HE 



^ON -SHOULD BEREENPDRCtD 



15 E£M FORCE. FDR LARGL 5RevN3 



GAUGC5 6 
ThlCKNL55&5 
roR5IOVElDR5 

figZ 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 




-4-X4. ME5M G.I. 



A I D P- 



5PARK ARt^E5rER 



10 G A. STRAPS 




CHIMNEY DETAILS 
Fig 5 



it 




-//l-xl-Ls A 


\ 


wy 



• CtAB. FLANGE 



FROtrr FLANG 

BENT FLA Nats 



O' 



A 5EC PLATE Xm 



D 5EE.PtATE.37a 
VACATION 



BEMT FLANGES 



3iNT '^LA-J 


3E.5 


- 


XZO'X 14 
PUOTE. 


5.1. 


c 







I'X 1" LS-X 
WELDED I 



C?^r 



C -SEE PLATtVni 

TOP DETAILS 

Fig 4- o 



D 5E£PIAT^ E? 
VARIATIOM 



PLATE XXII 



77 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



COOKING STANDARD FOR 
CAMPFIRE USE 

This cooking standard may be used either 
as a single standard (pi. XX, figs. 5 and 6) or 
as a double standard (pi. XXII A, iigs. 1 and 
2). It is a simple unit of use primarily on picnic 
areas, and especially adapted for use by 
hunters and fishermen. 

In this unit, facilities are provided for 
broiling on a grate, and for cooking otherwise 
on a plate or grate. Kettles may be hung on 
the hooks shown in figure 2. 

This unit is generally installed with a small 
campfire circle. The provision for raising or 
lowering the irons on which the cooking is 
done, is shown in the details under figure 1. 

The idea of the double standard shown in 
figure 2 originated in region 1 of the Forest 
Service. 

CAST IRON AND SHEET IRON, 
STOVE DETAILS 

The important requirements to be fulfilled in 
the design for the door on the front of the 
firebox are as follows: 

(a) To construct the door oi a quality of iron which 
will prevent the door Irom warping when exposed 
to heat. 

(b) To make provisions .to that the door may be securely 
closed. 



(c) To provide a draft opening in the door. 

(d) To provide hinges so that the door will remain 
hanging in its correct position. 

The draft in the door as shown in figures 3, 4, 
and 5 may be through an opening which is con- 
stant (as in fig. 3), or it may be through holes, 
the area of which may be increased or 
decreased by a revolving lid (as in fig. 4), or 
by a shding damper (as in fig. 5). If the type 
of draft opening shown in figure 3 is used, it 
seems advisable to install, in addition, a damper 
in the chimney to properly control the draft. 
The damper in the chimney is not generally 
required when there is provision for opening 
and closing the front draft as shown in figures 
4 and 5. 

Four methods of hinging the door at the front 
of the firebox are shown in figures 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
The method of attaching the doors with hinges 
as shown in figure 5 is the least desirable, and 
the methods shown in figures 3 and 4 are the 
most desirable. The kind of hinge shown in 
figure 5 does not always hold the door solidly 
in place. 

Doors are also hinged at the top and at the 
bottom. The hinging of doors at the bottom 
should be discouraged, and the hinging of 
doors at the top does not seem to be as practical 
in actual use as hinging the doors on the side. 



78 



SEE ALSO PLATE 2Z, FIG G 




PLAN 



FlG-1 



CCX^KING STANDARD FOR CAMPFIRE USE 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 




^5/s'c.i.FACE> ELtVATION 




B-B ^ 



5tCTION A-A 
F I G 3 G\5T IRON STOVE DETAI L5 







SECT B-D 



ELtVATION 



Fig 4 CAST IRON STOVE DETAILS 



5EE ALSO PLATE 3M, f IG 2 



-lOGA&.ITOP 




SECT. B-B FRONT ELEVATION 

O 5 " 

FIG. 5 SHEET ICON 5TOVE DETAILS 



SEE ALSO PLATEXI FIG, 3 glQE ELEV.^r^TV 

lO GA 5 I TOP -^ ry^,'^^-\ 



DETAILS TOP WINGE ci^^^elded 



>■ lOGA 51 DOOR. -^^ . 

J'WOLE 

O W.I HINGES 

WELDED TO DOOC 



c± ^t1 

a 8 p^^^ 



A O 



FRONT ELEVATION j^^m bedin ma.onry 
o , 5 - SECT A A '^ 

Fig 6 SHEET IRON STOVE DETAILS 



PLATE XXII A 



79 



FIREPLACE CONSTRUCTION 

WITHIN SHELTERS 



J.HE design of the fireplace to be constructed 
within a shelter must follow closely the funda- 
mental requirements for the design of any 
interior fireplace. Ordinarily, the ftreplace 
designed within a shelter building and pri- 
marily for use for warming purposes is higher 
and wider than the normal fireplace in the 
average residence. 

The following are some of the important 
requirements which should be recognized in 
developing a proper design for such a fire- 
place. 

GENERAL DESIGN 

Any well-designed fireplace should have a 
proper draft which will eliminate any smoking. 

The back of the fireplace should slope for- 
ward to the rear line of the throat as shown 
in the drawing. The maximum heat can be 
radiated into the room by splaying the sides. 

The lining of the fireplace should be of fire- 
clay brick, carefully laid in accordance with 
the directions contained on page 14. 

THROAT AND FLUE 

The most important detail of fireplace design 
concerns the throat and the flue, either or both 
of which, if not properly designed, cause failure 
in the practical use of the fireplace. 

The horizontal net sectional area of the flue 
should be about one-twelfth to one-tenth of the 
area of the fireplace opening. The normal 
fireplace opening ranges from 2 feet 6 inches 
to 4 feet in width, 16 to 22 inches in depth, and 
2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet in height. If the fire- 
place is abnormally high, then the area of the 
flue should be increased and may be as much 
as one-eighth of the area of the fireplace open- 
ing, in order to provide an adequate draft to 
properly remove the smoke. 

In computing the area for the flue, care 
should be exercised to make certain that the 



net area is adopted. The sizes of the tile used 
for lining the flue are apt to be misleading 
in that round tile are designated by inside 
measurements and the rectangular or square 
tile are designated by outside measurements. 

In the higher fireplaces with normal area of 
flue, all of the fire should be back of the rear 
line of the hood at the top of the fireplace. In 
reality, the damper in the fireplace constructed 
in shelter buildings can well be eliminated if 
the throat and flue are properly designed. 

The throat should extend across the full width 
of the opening at the top of the fireplace and 
the front line of the throat should be as near 
the front of the fireplace as it is practical to 
make it. Its sectional area should be (when the 
damper is open) the same or very little less 
than that of the flue. 

The flue must be reduced to its normal re- 
quired size by sloping the sides as shown in the 
elevation, and the center of the flue must be 
directly over the middle of the fireplace. Any 
deflection which is to occur in the ahnement 
of the flue must occur above this point where 
the flue reaches a normal and constant area. 
If the flue is deflected to one side immediately 
as it leaves the throat, one side of the fireplace 
will smoke. 

The interior of the flue should not be plas- 
tered, as is sometimes done. This is not good 
construction because the plaster is apt to peel 
and break away from the brickwork, thus clog- 
ging the flue. 

The down current of cold air which may 
occur when the fire is being started is overcome 
by the construction of a flat shelf. This shelf 
deflects the down-current of cool air and carries 
it back into the up-current of warm air. If this 
shelf is not constructed, there is a down draft 
at the back of the fireplace, especially when 
the fire is being started, thus driving smoke 
into the room. This down draft does not occur 



80 



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PLATE XXIII 



81 



after the fire is well aturted and the flue is 
sufficiently heated so that the entire air current 
is upward. The smoke shelf might be sloped 
slightly, in order that if any rain comes down 
the chimney during heavy storms this moisture 
would drain into the fireplace. 

In many fireplaces, a damper is desirable. 
This damper should be installed as shown in 
the detail and must open through the full length 



of the throat. The damper in the throat of the 
fireplace is really only necessary in order to 
close the fireplace during the period of the 
year when the fireplace is not in use, and thus 
protect the interior of the building against any 
drafts of cool air, insects, etc., which might 
come through the chimney. 

The flue is usually lined with terra cotta in 
preference to any other construction. 



82 



GOOD AND BAD STONEWORK 



XHE stonework in a great many of the existing 
fireplaces which have been observed by the 
author is not well done. The type of stonework 
which seems appropriate and inappropriate 
for camp stoves and fireplaces is illustrated on 
the accompanying plates (XXIV and XXV). 
The mistakes which are frequently made in 
the texture of stonework in fireplaces are the 
following: 

A. Using a type of stone which is not adapted for this 
kind of a unit, as shown in plate XXIV, figure 6, and 
in plate XXV, figure 6. 

B. Laying the stonework on an unnatural bed which 
does not create a pleasing composition in the camp 
stove or fireplace design (pi. XXIV, fig. 2; pi. XXV, 
fig. 6). 

C. Using a type of texture which is too formal for such a 
feature in naturalistic surroundings (pi. XXV, fig. 4). 

D. Using cobblestones which are not carefully laid and 
produce a loose and unstable effect (pi. XXIV, fig. 4). 

It is very essential that the stonework be con- 
structed in a permanent way and that the 
texture of the stonework be appropriate to the 
naturalistic surroundings. 

So far as is practical, the horizontal effect 
which is excellently illustrated in plate XXV, 
figures 3 and 5, and plate XXIV, figure 3, 
should be procured if possible. 

No camp stove or fireplace should be con- 
structed to present the formal effect of stone 
texture which is illustrated in plate XXV, 
figure 4. The use of broken stone with sharp 
angles and laid in such a manner that the 



surface texture is very uneven and the mortar 
joints deep, as shown in plate XXV, figure 6, 
should also be very definitely avoided. This 
same type of stone, if carefully selected and 
well laid, can produce an appropriate and 
desirable effect. When laid as shown in plate 
XXV, figure 6, it gives the effect of an unin- 
teresting pile of stones with no character in 
texture. 

The stone which is laid on an unnatural bed, 
as shown in plate XXIV, figure 2, and pro- 
ducing the vertical effect, increases the appar- 
ent height of the camp stove; while the stone 
laid on a natural bed and producing a hori- 
zontal effect, as shown in plate XXIV, figure 3, 
decreases the apparent height of the camp stove. 

The camp stove which is constructed of over- 
sized units of stone with rough surface, as 
shown in plate XXIV, figure 6, is to be dis- 
couraged. 

In general, it is not a logical procedure to 
use in every instance the stone which is avail- 
able in any specific locality without making 
an effort to find stone which is better adapted 
for camp stove construction. 

The above discussion relates primarily to 
stoves and fireplaces that expose a surface of 
stonework sufficient to be designated as a 
"wall." In the case of the primitive and 
naturalistic fireplaces, both the size of the 
stones and the method of laying may be varied 
as shown in the various drawings. 



83 




WIDTrt OF- JOINTS 
VARIABLE AVECAGt I " 



-^^m 



VOLCANIC ROCK 

NATUEAL EESOUCCe 



riG. 



COMPARE WITH RG 5 
OP THIS SMEtT 




UNNATURAL BED 

BAD 



hG 2 



GOOD AND BAD 5TONEWORK 

POR CAMP STOVErS AND P-lRErPLACtS 



WIDTH OF- JOINTS 
AVERAGE- %" 




CDEErK BOTTOM STONE 

TMIN LAYER GOOD 



ElG.5 



COMPAR.t WITH PIGS 
OP THIS 5HEE:T 




COBBLE STONE 

BAD 



Fig 4 



WIDTH OF- JOINTS 
TO 1" 




ROUGH STONE 

GOOD SCALE 



Fig 5 



COMPARE WITH PIG 5 
OF THIS SMtET 




ROUGH STONE 

OVER.&CALE — BAD 



EiG 6 



PLATE XXIV 



84 



A/IDTH OF JOINTS 

=/8'-To: 




TCIMMED STONE AT RANDOM 

GOOD 

Pig 1 



COMPARE WITH PIG 3 
OP THIS SHEET- 




LOOSE: RUBBLE 

BAD 



Pig 2 



GOOD AND BAD STONEWORK 

FOR. CAMP STOVES AND PIREPLACErS 



WIDTH OP JOINTS 
AVERAGt %" 




CDEEK BOTTOM STONE 

COURSt GOOD 

Pig 5 



COMPAQ.E: WITH FIG 1 
OP THIS SHEET 




STONEr BLOCK 

BAD FOR NATURAL 5tTTlNG 

hG. 4 



WIDTH OF JOINTS 
'/a' TO ^4 




SPLIT STONE 

GOOD 



Fig 5 



COMPARE WITH PIG 5 
OP THIS SHEET 




PILED STONt 

BAD 



Pig G 



PLATE XXV 



85 



UNDESIRABLE TYPES 



FIGURE 1 

A fireplace unit, whether portable or stationary, 
with walls of concrete, is out of place in any 
natural surrounding. The concrete fails to 
weather sufficiently to produce any softening 
effect and it disintegrates under extreme 
changes of temperature (especially when 
doused with water). 

FIGURE 2 

The hard and formal cut stone or dimension 
stone should not be used in any natural setting. 
Such fireplaces (well designed) may have their 
proper place on some parts of private estates 
and home grounds; but not in the forest. An 
equally undesirable type of design is that 
which exposes the fire-clay brick across the 
front of the fireplace, as shown in figure 2. The 
use of large grate bars, spaced so far apart 
that the grill is not practical for cooking pur- 
poses, should be avoided. 

FIGURE 3 

As stated elsewhere in this discussion, the 
standard grate, without sides as shown in this 
sketch, is only practical and desirable on pic- 
nic areas which are intensively used, and 
where the fire hazard is negligible. There is a 
proper use for this grate, as shown in plate I, 
figures 4,6B, and6C, andinplateslllandlll A. 

FIGURE 4 

An example of a "clumsy" fireplace, with an 
unusually large fire box and a type of cobble- 
stone texture which makes this feature exceed- 
ingly undesirable. 



FIGURE S 

The stonework in such fireplaces is very "cold" 
and unattractive. The firebox has no fire-clay 
brick lining. The use of the lower grate is not 
practical and the solid attachment of the grate 
or the bars to the stone masonry causes un- 
due damage because of expansion from the 
heat. 

FIGURE 6 

This type is all chimney and no fireplace. It 
has all of the undesirable qualities which could 
possibly be introduced into a single unit. It is 
more of an ill-proportioned chimney than a 
fireplace. 

FIGURE 7 

An incongruous type of construction, with a 
brick chimney and stone masonry sides, where 
the stone texture is extremely unattractive 
because of the regular courses of small boul- 
ders, which create an unstable effect. 

FIGURE 8 

A monumental type of hreplace which would 
"roast an ox" as quickly as it would broil lamb 
chops. The top of the firebox (approximately 
36 to 40 inches in height) is too high. The 
stonework is much too fine in texture and the 
entire massive effect is one which should be 
avoided. 

FIGURES 9, 10, AND 11 

The "ice box" and the "oil drum" types are 
to be avoided on every possible occasion be- 
cause of their very inappropriate design. 



86 











Pre. 4 







KUBBLt MA50N[^Y 

POOR DESIGN AND tXECUTION 



e TYPES 

I 4 

-'-'-^ RUBBLt 

AND BR.1CK 
THt"5TON&PlLE' Fig. 7 

Fig. 6 




PLATE XXVI 



87 



FREQUENT MISTAKES 

IN FIREPLACE AND CAMP STOVE 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 



A. Structures too large and too conspicuous 
to be in harmony with surroundings. 

B. Structures too comphcated in design and 
construction. 

C. Lack of proper setting, or necessary 
screening, as viewed from important 
points. 

D. Lack of character in texture of stone- 
work and unfortunate selection of stones. 

E. Lack of consideration for correct details 
of construction in lining walls or firebox. 

F. Use of common mortar for fire-clay brick 
lining and making joints in fire-clay 
brick construction too thick. 

3. Excessive size of firebox. 

H. Incorrect construction in attaching bars 

and top plates to masonry without making 

provision for expansion. 
L Spacing of bars in top grate too far apart. 



]. Incorrect reenforcing and lack of proper 
attachment for top plate, in order to pre- 
vent warping. 

K. Having top plate too thick and thus pre- 
venting efficient heating. 

L. Existence of sharp corners in construction 

of stone masonry. 
M. Making stone masonry walls so thick that 
there is inconvenience in using the top 
plate for cooking. 

N. Lack of provision for adequate flat wall 

space on which to set cooking utensils. 
O. Building chimneys with flues on fire- 
places which do not have a solid top 
plate. In such instances the flue is 
useless. 

P. Using too many movable parts and of not 
sufficient strength to prevent them from 
being easily bent or broken. 



CAMP UNIT LAYOUTS 



Nc 



lO DISCUSSION with reference to camp 
stoves and fireplaces can be complete without 
including information with reference to the 
lay-out, especially of camp units. 

In the picnic area a tent or shelter is very 
seldom used. The area in which the family 
automobile may be parked is usually in a park- 
ing space which is within a reasonable dis- 
tance of the picnic table and fireplace. Food 
and other supplies are taken from the auto- 
mobile, in its parking space, to the picnic table. 
The picnickers prepare, to the extent necessary, 
the food which must be cooked generally over 
a fireplace. 

In the camp area a tent or shelter is almost 
always used and the camp stove is the gen- 
erally acceptable cooking unit. The automo- 
bile must be parked very close to the camp 
unit because it is continuously in use as the 
family larder to which access must be procured 
before and after each of the three daily meals. 
A separate general parking area removed 
from the camp units is not a practicable 
solution to the problem. 

The solving of the design for the camp unit 
is more of a problem than the picnic area 
unit involving only the table and fireplace. 

The camp unit may be occupied by the auto- 
mobile alone, or by an automobile with a 
trailer. The trailer presents a problem which 
is different from the problem when only the 
automobile is used. 



The two sketches "A" and "B" indicate two 
of the methods for developing the camp unit 
in connection with the trailer. The more prac- 
tical method of providing space for the auto- 
mobile and trailer is that of developing a loop, 
as shown in sketch "B." This loop, when 
meeting the requirements of a single camp 
unit, may be a one-way narrow drive, or only 
of sufficient width to provide for the automobile 
and trailer, or where the loop meets the re- 
quirements of two or more camp units the road- 
way should be "two-way." 

It may be desirable in some locations, where 
a loop is not practicable, to use a spur in 
which to back the automobile and trailer, as 
shown in sketch "A." There may be other camp 
units in which it is desirable to provide for one 
or more families in a single parking space 
adjacent to the camp unit, as shown in sketch 
"C." 

The sketches marked "D" to "O", inclusive, 
show the possibilities for the arrangement of 
the camp unit in order to provide for the auto- 
mobile, tent, camp stove (and where desired, 
campfire) and the picnic table. In some areas, 
a warming-fire may not be required, and there- 
fore only a camp stove is used, as shown in 
sketches "F", "H", "J", and "N." In other 
locations, it is desirable to provide a converti- 
ble type of camp stove, which may meet the 
requirements for cooking and for a warming- 
fire, as shown in plates X and XI. 



90 



....;•■■;;■• 4> ,-^*^ 



WAY ROAD — ► 




AUTOMOBILE 



g TABLE 
[Tj TENT 



3 BONFIRE 
PREVAILING WIND 



5 :::; 

jTnicc;; 

Z WAV ROAD 



CAMP UNIT LAYOUTS 



""MO 








1 1 WAV aOAD -^ 



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iii 



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I WAY ROAD - 



PLATE XXVII 



91