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Full text of "Canada at the Universal Exhibition of 1855"

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(Ca-v, ISOf. S-&. X. 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



,^} af'/t/-/ 



CANADA ' ^'-'^-■^ 
UNIVERSAL EXHIBITION^ 



18 5 5. _ 

printed bg order of ll)e Cegislmioe AtsmblB- 




TORONTO: 

PRINTED BY JOHN LOVKLL, YONUB HTREEl. 





C'-'-^ \^ Oir. 5(0.2. 






^ee^. j/(r^x^ o^'^^-c^^sM^X^ 





I 



i 
I 



^^' 



COIHUNICATIO.^ or THE REPOBT 



TO 



fflS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR GENERAL, 

BY 

J. O. TACHi:, 

• BCBBTABT TO TBB BXBCUTITB COMHITTBB. 



TO HIS EXCELLENCY 

SIR EDMirXD WALKER HEAD, 

(Sootmor Gentrai of llje proointee of Sriliel) NortI) Qlmttica, 

&r. 1:0. 4c. 

Mat it plraki Your Kxcellcncy : 

The Executive Committee who were charged with the management 
of the Canacliun Exhibition, held in view ot* the Universal Exhibition in 
Paris, in 1535, deeming that their duties are now completed, have distsolved, 
having directed me as their Secretary to present the final Keport of their 
proceedings. 

I hnve the tionor to transmit to you aa fonning part of my Report, the 
documents fjllowing, which contain the history of tfio Canadian Exhibi- 
tiooot'1855, namely: — The Minutes ot* the Proceedings of the first Commis- 
sion, and the Minutes of the Executive Committee. 2nd. The Re|X)rt of 
tbe Secretary to the Committeis including the decision upon the Ess;iy8 
mbmiltcd forcotii()ctition. 3ni. A statement in dtrtail under difFen^nt heads 
of tbe expends incurred by the Committee;, l)ein 2: the report of the financial 
department ot the Exhibition. 1th. My own ro)Kirt a? (*ommis'?ioner from 
Canada to i^iri.o. with an apjieiviix containing copies of three works pub> 
iished at Paris on the occasion of tbe Exiiibition, 46 letters on the subject 
of tbe Exiiibition, a complete C italo^ueof the prizes awanied to the different 
countries. I»eiu:; a rc^mmr of the officinl lists published in the Moniteur, and 
also a statement of tht* ^ums nceiveil and exp?nde<i by myself. 5th. A 
rcp-.-r! by Sir William l^ogan, with appendices, comprising a statement of 
the dtMribution of the articles after the oInfPMrth»» exhioiii'^n. ruid a list of 
the prizes awarded to Canada. 

The Keport made by William Gunn, ilsquire. Treasurer of the Com- 
mittee* the statement of the expenses incunre I by Sir William f^jran and 
nyself acting as CommisMoners, and the vouchers for all the m(»hie.<i paid 
oat, have been submitted for the approval of the Auditor fif the I^ublic 
Accounts, and by him certified to be correct. 

1 have alto forwarded to tbe Hon. the Secretary of the Province, a case 



containing all the papers, correspondence, documents and memoranda be- 
. longing to the Executive Committee. 

I have been authorized to conclude some few matters, on account of 
which the Committee did not think it necessary to continue their sittings, 
and thus delay the sending in of their report, after continuing their labors 
for a period of eighteen months ; these comprise a few payments to be 
made of sums appropriated by the Committee, and of some expenses, the 
accounts for which have not as yet been sent in, amounting in the whole 
to about two hundred pounds currency, to be paid out of the balance of 
£644 2s. 4d. remaining in my hands. 

I am further directed to state that the following articles, the property of 
the Province, are safely deposited as follows, viz., two fine specimens of 
black walnut and sycamore in the hands of the Hon. John Young, at Mon- 
treal ; a gold watch, a set of artificial teeth, and a model in silver of a fire 
engine, in the hands of the Chairman of the Central Local Committee at 
Toronto. 

Several cases are expected which contain the articles enumerated in de- 
tail in a list furnished by Sir William Logan, as having been forwarded to 
Canada. They consist in part of articles belonging to the Province and 
partly of articles, the property of individuals, for the restoration in good 
order of which, the Executive Committee were responsible ; the freight of 
these articles is yet to be paid, out of ihe balance in hand. 

A collection of foreign grain brought from the Paris Exhibition, the 
Committee have directed to be divided between the Boards of Agriculture 
for Upper and Lower Canada. This collection having been addressed to 
Montreal, the following gentlemen have been charged with its distribution, 
viz.. Major Campbell, of St. Hilaire, Chairman of the Board of Agriculture 
for Lower Canada, the Reverend Messire Villeneuve, Mr. J. Logan, and 
Mr. Alfred Perry, of Montreal. The sfimples above referred to came for 
the most part from the United Kingdom, Tuscany, Austria, and Algeria. I 
have no doubt that experiments as to the comparative value of these dif- 
ferent samples and their adaptation to the climate of Canada, will be con- 
ducted in a manner which will be of service to Agriculture throughout the 
land. 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

J. C. TACHfi, 
Secretary of the Canadian Executive Committee 

for the Paris Exhibition. 
Toronto, 2lst April, 1856. 



ABSTRACT 

or TBI 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMlTrEE. 



riOCKBDINGS. 

The commanication in October, 1854, of the documents received from 
the Lordii composing the Board of Trade of London, by the Honorable P. 
J. O. ChauveaU) at that time Provincial Secretary, was the first signal 
which aroused the public to the necessity of having Canada represented at 
the Exhibition in Paris. 

On communication of these documents to the Legislative Assembly, a 
Resolution was passed by that House, on motion of the Honorable Mr. 
Toang, in accordance with which, an Address was presented to His Ex- 
cellency the Governor General, praying that His Excellency would be 
pleased to take the necessary steps to secure a fitting representation of the 
products of the Country at the World's Exhibition of 1855. 

Proceeding upon this Address, a proclamation was issued, constituting 
a Grand Provincial Committee, composed of gentlemen from all parts 
of the Country, to whom was confided the care of taking the necessary 
flieps in the matter. 

This Provincial Committee, composed of about two hundred persons, met 
for the first time on the 30th of Octolier, with Sir Allan Napier MacNab as 
Chairman, and appointed a sub-Committee, to enquire into and report upon 
the matter, on the following Thurs lay, the 2nd November. This Com- 
mittee was composed of Sir Cusack Koncy, the Honorables F. Hincks, P. 
J. O. Chauveau, T. Mackay, J. Young, Captain Rhodes and Messrs. J. W. 
Gamble, J. C. Tach6, J. Langton, E. W. Logan, de Rottermund, and C. J. 
Laberge. 

Go the day appoint^, the sub-Committee above mentioned presented 
the foHowing Report, which was adopted by the Provincial Committee. 

rtKLIMIlffABV REPORT OP TUB COMMITTKK. 

The Committee appointed at the meeting of the Provincial Committee 
hald on the SI St ultimo, to suggest the course to be adopted to secure a 



8 



proper representation of Canadian products at the Paris Exhibition in 
1855, have the honor to report : 

That after much consideration and discussion they have arrived at the 
conclusio:.s : 

That it is absolutely necessary, in order to secure the end desired, that 
authority should be given to the Provincial Committee to purchase such ar- 
ticles as they deem essential to that object. They are of opinion that any 
attempt to induce voluntary effort by means of local Fairs would be fruitless. 
The experience of all who were actively engaged in promoting the Canadian 
Exhibition at the World's Fair in Liondon in 1851, is, that the success of the 
present effort must depend entirely upon the energy and judgment to be 
displayed by an efficient Executive to be appointed by the Commissioners. 
They would recommend that the Provincial Committee should delegate 
their powers to an Executive Committee, to be composed of twenty-one 
members, fifteen of whom should be i>i a position to give their attendance 
at Quebec ; two should be resident at or near Montreal, the remainder to 
be gentlemen specially connected with the industrial resources of Upper 

Canada. 

The Executive Committee shouH appoint their own Chairman and 
Secretary ; such Chairman and Secretary to be the Officers of the Pro- 
vincial Committee. 

They recommend the immediate selection of such Executive Committee, 
and with a view to avoid any difficulties, they have ventured to suggest 
the names of twenty-one gentlemen, who would^ in their opinion, be 
efficient members of it, to wit : 

The Honorable T. McKay, the Honorable N. F. Belleau, the Honorable 
F. Hincks, the Honorable J. Young, Mr. Gamble, M.P.P., Mr. Langton, 
M.P.P., Mr. Cartier, M.P.P., Mr. Tach6, M.P.P., Mr. Stevenson, M.P.P., 
Mr. Brown, M.P.P., Mr., Rhodes, M.P.P., Mr. A. A. Dorion, M.P.P., Sir 
Gusack Roney, Mr. Street, Mr. E. W. Thompson, Mr. Holwell, Mr. 
' Archambault, of L'Assomption, Mr. Matthie, Mr. L6gar6, artist, Mr. L. 
Denisnn, and Mr. Leeming. 

They further recommend that in communicating the appointment of 
each member, enquiry should be made from him, whether he is prepared 
to give his active services to the Committee, and in case he declines doing 
so, or, after accepting, if he neglects attending three successive meetings of 
the Committee without furnishing a satisfactory excuse, then that his seat 
be considered vacant and the Committee at liberty to fill up the vacancy. 

They n*commend that the quorum of the Executive Committee shall 
be five. 

The Committee do not deem it necessary to go into a detailed 



9 



statement of their viewn, as to the duties devolving upon the Executive 
Committee. 

They would however probably in the first instance, determine as to 
the description and classification of the articles which it would be 
expedient to offer for exhibition : sub-Committees might take charge of 
the various classes, and assisted by the Ixx^al Committees they will ren- 
der less difiicult the selection of the articles and the means of obtaining 
them. 

The Committee consider that they should not omit to recommend 
to the attention of the Executive Committee the importance of securing 
the publication of a work upon Canada, its productions and resources, 
accompanied by a map, sfiewing the geographical features of the 
Coimtry, and the different routes followed by European emigrat'on, cost 
of passage, &c. 

The Committee suggest that competition should Ihj invited for such 
work by the offer of one or more adequate pri»'s. 

it has net fallen within the province of this Committee to enter 
into the consideration of the amount which will be nMjuin'd to effect the 
objei'ts contemplated. 

They entertain no doubt however, that the sum reciuired will be 
obtained, to carry out efficiently a project which so seriously concern* 
the advantat^e and the L<?st interests of the Province. 
The whole nevertheless humbly submitted, 

T. McKAY, 

Chainunn of the sub-Committee. 

By the adoption of this Report, the Executive Conmiittee of the 
Canadian Exhibition in Paris, comiH>sed of the gentlemen whose names 
it contains, became constituted. At a later jieriod the Honorable Mr. 
Chau%'eau, of Quebec, was added to the Executive Committee instead 
of Mr. Holwell, and Mr. I-,ouis Rieard, inMead of Mr. Arehamlmult, the 
two tr<'ntlernen so replaced being absc»nt. 

On the very day of its formation, the Executive Committee held a 
met ting and elected the Honorable Francis Ilincks^ Chairman, Mr. J. C. 
Tache, Se<*n'tar>', and W. Gunn, Esquire, Treasurer. Ab<Mit the middle 
of the following summer, 1835, Mr. Ilincks having Ix^en appointed 
Governor General of the Windwanl Islands, Captain Rhiules, of Quebec, 
snrci'edfMl him as Chairman of the Committee. 

On the 4th November, the Executive Committee published the 
follon^'ing regulation, to sen'e as a guide for the line of iM)nduct to be 
followed : 



10 



THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



Appointed to ensure a fitting representation of the industry and resources 
of Canada at the World's Exhibition to be held in Paris in the year 
1855, have the honor to report : 

That the success of the present effort to procure a creditable 
exhibition of Canadian industry at the Paris Exhibition must depend, 
in a great degree, on the cordial and zealous co-operation of the public 
at large through the several Local Committees. It has been deemed 
absolutely necessary, in order to ensure unity of action as well as 
efficiency, that there should be a Central Executive Committee, the 
members of which, or at least a large majority of them, should be able 
to meet together. The Executive Committee will, however, be most 
anxious at all times to receive the counsel and advice of the Local 
Committees. It is recommended that such Local Committees be oigani- 
sed in the chief towns of each County in Lower and Upper Canada, 
and that they should consist of all members of either Branch of the 
Legislature, all Members of the Commission lately appointed by His 
Excellency^the Governor General, all Wardens, Mayors and Reeves, the 
Professors]|of incorporated Colleges, the Presidents and Secretaries of 
Agricultural Societies, and Presidents of Mechanics' Institutes or other 
scientific bodies. The Committees should have power to add to their 
number, and it is hoped that in each locality, some one or more of the 
classesjndicated will at once organize a Local Committee, the Secretary 
of which' should put himself in communication with the Secretary 
of the Executive Committee, and give him all the information in his 
power as to the employment of the people in his locality. Where any 
special manufacture is carried on, it should be noticed, and accompanied 
with any propositions which may be made for its illustration. For 
reasons which will be explained elsewhere, it is proposed that at Mon- 
treal and ^Toronto there should be Central Local Committees, and as the 
duties of these Committees will be much more laborious and responsible, 
they should be organised in a different manner. It is proposed that 
until further arrangements can be made, the resident members of the 
Executive Committee should correspond with the Secretary, and that 
they should submit, with as little delay as possible, the names of such 
' gentlemen as may be eligible for serving on the Central Committee, 
bearing in mind that the most important qualifications, are the ability to 
be useful, active and energetic co-operation, and disconnection with 
parties likely to be exhibitors. Having provided for the organization 
of the Committees, the next subject for consideration is the mode to be 



11 



adopted to secure a creditable representation of our industry at Paris. 
The Executive Committee would earnestly press on the public the 
importance of systematic, and, when practicable, scientific arrange- 
menta. They beg to call attention to the following extractH from the 
Juror's Reports on the London Exhibition. In the report of the Jurors 
of Class 1, on mineral products, by Mr. Dufrcsnoy, Member of the 
Institute of France, Inspector General of Mines, &c., it is said : 

-'Of r11 tho Britith Colooicfl, Caoftda is tlmt whutc cxhibitii'ti in the inutt inttrMting and 
oompUte, and one mav even mj that it it •u|>etiur,»o far as the mineral kiugdom is vtiiccmed, 
to all countries tliat hare forwarded their pnnlucts to the Exhiliition. Tl.is conivs frmu the 
fact that the oullei'tioo )ws been tnatle in asj^t^'niatic manner, and the ri'sult is, that the stodj 
uC it furnishes the means of appreciating at onoc the giMdogical structure and the mineral 
resour<*es of Canada. It is to Mr. Lof^n. ime of the Members of the Jury, who fills the oiBe« 
of Geohv^oal Surveyor »>( Canada, that we are indebted for this collectioD. and its Talo* 
arises fnmi the fact that he ha« selected i>n the h\Mti mo»t of the •|>ecimeus that have httn 
scBttA the Exhibition, and arranged them since their arri\al in L(»ndun.** 

Again, in the rc|>ort of the Jurors of Class 3, ^' Sulnjlancen us»ed as 
food," by Dr. Hooker, it is said : 

"Me«'». Law<Miu*s collection exhibits the tur and grain of every variety of cereal aod 
also mcxlels of all the roots which it has been found practicable t<» cultivate in Scotland ; tha 
ipeeimens are Iwautiful. and the arrangements M.*ientific and eicellent. No eoosideratioo of 
«ost or trouble lias l»een allowed to interfere with piovuliug all tlmt is mvessary tu render 
this e«dIr><*tion a true and o«»mplete illustration of the vegctabb* pr<Mlucts i»f Sct»tUnd, A 
Council Medal lias U'en awarded to Uessrii. Lawson fi>r their admirably display e<l, very 
empleie, instructive and scientificallv arranged collection of the alimentary products of 
Seotland** 

The Jun)rs of (-lass 4, in their n»port on animal and vcgt^table 
joibstances chie(ly used in nianufaetun»s, as implements, or lor orna- 
ments, by Pn)ft?s5ior Owen, savs : 

** Among the numerous sam|>leti of raw produce c*»ntributeil by different c«»untrit*, there 
are several cuIUrtions of es|)ecial value which derive additional merit from their c^^mplcttness 
aod from the fact tlmt they illustrate the trade and manufacture^ of an entire c«»uniry. Tha 
inportauce of such oollecti<ini, not only in a commercial but ina^Utistical and scieutilic poiot 
of view. It very great, aod the Jury therefore, U'ing desirous of ei pressing their appndiatioo 
aC the practical benefits to be derived from the foniuitiiHi aod study of such c«illcctioiis. aod 
ibe advantages which the eummercial and manufacturing ct mmunity may oUain by their 
B»eaos, liave detennine<l U> rrc«>nimend the award of the Council Medal to the (tovemmenta 
«*f thfkse oouotriet. the natural pn»ducts of which were so instructively aod completely 
mkibited.'* 

The three classes above adverted to, comprise the great staple pro- 
duets of Canada, her minerals, agrieulturul products, and timl)er, and 
the Committee hope that efforts will be made to ensure a satisfactory 
representation of them. They would likewise suggest that the res|)eetivc 
manufactures should be illustrated, by exhibiting the materials in their 
▼mrions stages, up to the highest |>oint of perfection. It is most 
important in the opinion of the Committee that copies of the Jurors' 
Report of the London Exhibition should be placed within reach of as 



12 



many as possible, and all persons desirous of exhibiting, are stronglj 
recommended to read such parts of that interesting work as may be 
specially important to them. Those who have copies of this work are 
requested to place them at the temporary disposal of the Committee in 
order that they may be distributed throughout the Country. 

To assist the public as much as possible in the meantime, the Com- 
mittee propose appending to this report a concise table shewing the 
classification adopted at the London Exhibition, and the awards of the 
Council Medals, also the names of Canadians who obtained Medals or 
*' Honorable Mention/' A more detailed list may be j^iven hereafter, but 
the Committee are anxious that as little delay as possible should take 
place in developing their scheme to the public. 

The Committee being of opinion that voluntary effort is not to be 
relied on, have obtained the sanction of the Commissioners to the princi- 
ple of paying for all articles sent to the Paris Exhibition, but at the same 
time they propose that the contributors should receive all prizes or honors 
which may be awarded to the articles sent by them. The great difficulty 
in carrying out the plan of purchasing, is to avoid partiality, and the Com- 
mittee have anxiously considered this point, and have determined to 
recommend : 

1. That all who have received prizes or honorable mention at the 
London Exhibition in 1851, or the New York Exhibition of 1853, and all 
who have received first prizes at either of the Provincial Exhibitions of 
Upper and Lower Canada in 1853 and 1854, should be invited to send 
propositions to the Local Committees stating whether they will send 
specimens of their products and manufactures for exhibition to Montreal 
or Toronto, on or before 1st February next, payment to be made for such 
articles at the fair wholesale market value, to be decided in case of dispute 
by the Judges at the Local Exhibition. 

2. The Local Committee may further recommend for consideration a 
proposition from any party who has received a first prize at any Local 
Exhibition, which shall be referred to the sub-Committee of the Executive 
Committee charged with that branch of industry. 

S. In case of failure to obtain contributions from the above classes or 
under special circumstances, the sub-Committee may take such steps as 
they may think best to ensure a proper representation of their ])articular 
branch. By these means it is hoped that public confidence will be in- 
spired in the impartiality of the Committee. But it is proposed to go 
further. The whole public are invited to compete at the Local Exhibi- 
tions, at Montreal and Toronto, and any successful competitor will ha^e 
his contribution purchased on the same terms as those furnished by the 
classes already described. The Executive Committee do not bind them- 



13 



•elves to 8end to the Paris Ezhibitio:. any of the articles which they 
engage to purchase. They must be guided by circumstances, such as the 
extent of the contribution, the quantity of space allotted, &c., &c. The 
articles not sent will of course be resold on account of the Commission. 
The propositions made by the parties entitled to furnish ariicles under the 
above regulations, must be as specific as {lossible, and must \hs forwarded 
at once to the Secretary, so that the proper sub-Committee may dis])ose 
of them. It will be advisable to prevent as much as possible, similar 
articles being made by different nranufacturers and mechanics. It is 
hoped that no delay will now take place, and that the L<K*al Committees 
will be active in obtaining and promptly procuring the propositions of 
intended contributors. It is recommended that all the contributions be 
sent to Montreal or Toronto, where they will be delivered free of expense 
to the Central Committee at each place, and exhibited to the public at a 
small admission price. Jurors will be appointed to aid the Committee in 
determining on the articles to \>c sent to Paris, but no prizes will be 
awarded. Such is the scheme which the Executive Committee are of 
opinion will, if zealously sup|)orted by the Local Committees and the 
public, ensure for Canada an honorable [xisition at the great Paris Exhi- 
bition. 

F. HINCKS, 

Chairman. 

J. C. TACIlfi, 

Secretary. 

These regulations were numerously distributed to the public, together 
with a classification of articles suitable for the Exhibition, and with 
th? following list of the sub-Conmiittees chosen from among the Execu- 
tive Committee, and specially charged with the duty of endeavoring to 
obtain the articles l>elonging to their respective classes, accompani^'d also 
by a notice to the l^iocal Committees. 

Sub-Committee 1. — Mr. Langton, M. P. P., Chairman.— Messrs. Rhodes, 
M. P. P., and Dorion, M. P. P. 

Sub-Committee 2. — Mr. Rhodes, M. P. P., Chairman. — Messrs. Gamble, 
M. P. P., E. W. Thompson, R. L. Denison and Archambault. 

Sub-Committee 8. — Hon. Mr. Young, Chairman. — Hon. Mr. McKay, Hon. 
Mr. Belleau, Mr. Langton, and Mr. Leeming. 

Sub-Committee 4. — Mr. Dorion, M. P. P., Chaimum. — Hon. Mr. McKay, 
Sir Cusack Honey, Mr. Stevenson, M. P. P., and Mr. HolwelL 

Sub-Committee 5. — Mr. Gamble, M.P.P., Chairman. — Mr. Ciurticr, MJPJ. 
Mr. Brown, M. P. P., Mr. Street, and Mr. Mattbie. 



14 



Sub-Committee 6.— Mr. Brown, M.P.P., Chairman. — ^Mr. Gamble, M.P.P. 
Mr. L6gar6, Mr. Street and Mr. Leeming. 

Sub-Committee 7. — Mr. Holwell, Chairman. — Sir Cusack Roney, Hon. 
Mr. Young, Mr. Stevenson, M.P.P., and Mr. Archambault. 

Sub-Committec 8. — Hon. Mr. Belleau, Chairman. — Sir Cusack Ronej. 
Mr. Cartier, Hpn. Mr, Young, and Mr. L6gar6. 

** The Chairman and Secretary are ex officio members of all the Snb- 
" Committee f. 

"The Local Committees are requested to report their formation as early 
** as possible to the Secretary, and to offer such suggestions as they may think 
** useful. No expenses are to be incurred without the written authority of 
'*the Chairman and Secretary of the Executive Committee. All proposals 
"should be accompanied by an estimate of the probable cost. It must be 
*' borne in mmd that the great object is to illustrate in the most systematic 
** manner the industrial resources of the Country. It has been found impos- 
"sible to give the names of any of the parties entitled by the regulations to 
" contribute, except those vho obtained rewards at the London and New 
** York Exhibitions. Circulars will be sent to the others as soon as possible.'^ 

This appeal of the Executive Committee was responded to by the public, 
and Local Committees were formed in different parts of Upper and Ix)wer 
Canada. 

The Central Committees of Toronto and Montreal were constituted as 
follows : 

Montreal Committee: Messrs. H. Bulmer, Chairman, Louis Ricard and 
W. Evan«, Secretaries, W, E. Logan, the Honorable Mr. De Bleury, M. 
TAbbe Vijleniuve. Messrs. H. Lyman, V. Hudon, N. Valois, J. P. Litchfield, 
W. Hartley, T. Dods, A. Perry and A. Cantin. 

Toronto Committee : Messrs. E. W. Thompson, Chairman, G. W. Allan, 
Secretary, Buckland, Treasurer, Sheriff Jarvis, W. Armstrong, R. L. 
Denison, T. Wheeler, J. Wheeler, W. Edwards, A. Ward, E. Musson, J. 
Flemming, T. D. Harris, S. Thompson, J. Harrington, J. Pell, F. Cayley, 
W. Gamble, Professors Wilson, Croft, Hind, Cherriman and Chapman, and 
F. Cumberland. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEES. 

One of the first acts of the Executive Committee was to open a compe- 
tition with the view of obtaining a short and concise work on Canada, 
having for its object to maka the foreigner acquainted with the Country. 
The public were informed of the object of the Committee by the following 
notice : 

<< The Executive Committee for the Paris Exhibition have deemed it im- 



16 



porUnt to diateminate through Europe, fuller information ihm is generally 
to be found in published works* upon the industrial condition and capabilities 
of the Province, and have therefore decided upon offering for public com- 
petition, three prizes of £160, £00 and £40 for the three best emays on 
Canada and its resources, its Geological Structure, Geogrnphical ff*Htures, 
Natural Products, Manufactures, Coramerce, Social, Educational and 
Political Institutions, and general statistics. 

* In the treatment of the subject regard is to be had to the facilities for 
transport both of goods and passengers between the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence and the regions of the West, and to a comparison of the^e facilities, 
as to cost and distance, with those offered by other routes. 

** Persons desirous of competing for the above prizes must send in their 
casays either in the French or English languages to the undersigned on or 
before the 15th February next. Each essa> to haee a motto, a duplicate 
of which must be inscril)ed on a sealed envelope, contiining the name of 
the author, and must accompany the essay. 

** The copyright of Prize Essays will be considered th*' property of the 
Committee. 

** Practical utility and comprehensiveness, combined with conciseness, 
will be among the chief considerations upon which the awards of the 
Judges will be based. 

"J. C. TACn£, 
^^ Secretary of the Executive Committee. 

** Quebec, 13th November, 1854.'' 

Nineteen writers responded to this appeal; the following is the Report 
of the Judges Appointed by the Committee, and charged to decide ns to the 
respective merits of the essays, and also the final decision of His Excellency 
Sir Edmund Head. 

•KrORT or TIIK JUDGES. 

The Committee to whom the Executive Committee on the Paris 
Exhibition referred the selection of the Prize Essays on Canada, submit 
the following Report : 

The Committee have received from the Secretary nineteen Essays, 
eighteen of which have been carefully considered, but the nineteenth is so 
illegibly written that it has been quite impassible to decipher it, without an 
amount of time and pains, which the several members of the Committee 
have b:!rn un-tble to give. 

Of the ci:<hteen Essays, the Committee have selected three with the 
following mjttoes : ** Labor omnia vinrit/^ — '^J'aivu re ip^ jf raconUJ*^ — 



16 



and *• Viritde et labore^ dum spiro sperd*^ — as those which in their judgment 
aro entitled to prizes, but they have been unable to decide upon the order 
in which they shall stand, as they are equally divided in opinion upon their 
classification, and they therefore report them to the Executive Committee, 
simply as prize worthy, considering it better not to make particular 
reference to their notes, as to the position which each Essay should occupy 
on the prize list. 

In addition to these three Essays, the Committee recommend those 
with the following mottoes : ** Suam quisque pellam portal^* — " Reddit ubi 
Cererem teUus inarata quoiannis^ — and ^^Itii mthnaticmsas tviih nature^ she- 
knows no pause in progress or development^ and attaches her curse to all inac- 
lion" — to the favorable consideration of the Executive Committee, either* as 
deserving to be published at the public expense, or as entitlingtheir authors 
to some gratuity to assist in their publication, as the Executive Committee 
shall deem best, with the consent and at the option of the authors them- 
selves. 

The Committee have been most favorably impressed by several of the 
remaining Essays, and while they have not considered it necessary to 
make any further classification, they cannot avoid congratulating the 
Country, that the opportunity has been afforded to so many able writers, of 
dbplaying the capabilities of this noble Province. 

In conclusion, the Committee regret that their various avocations, 
since they were named as Judges, have kept them so constantly engaged, 
that they have not been able to give so close an attention to all these 
Essays as they should have desired, but they have given them the most 
careful perusal the time allotted would permit, and although there is not 
one, even of those reported, without several errors of detail or description, 
they have risen from their perusal with much gratification, arising as well 
from the great amount of correct statistical information that has been 
brought together, as from the agreeable and readable shape in which 
much of it has been prepared for the public eye. 

(Signed,) J. HILLYARD CAMERON, 

D. B. STEVENSON, 
ROBERT CHRISTIE, 

E. PARENT, 

L. H. HOLTON, 
A. N. MORIN, 

Quebec, 28rd April, 1855. 



17 



The opinions of the Jurlget whose decision we have just giveO| beiqg 
«|aally divided as to the meritf of the three works, selected as superiorly 
the others ; the Committee prayed His Excellency the Governor Oaoeral^ 
Sir Edmund Head, to examine the three manuscripts and to give as a 
decision which should be final^ his opinion as to the rank which eaohaMajr 
should occupy, with respect to the two others. 

The fcilluwing is the decision of IFis Excellency : — 
The Govrrnor General having carefully perused and cnn>iiderrd the 
Essay? placed in his hands by the Jii^IgcA, assigns the first place to thst^ 
bearing the motto 

** Labor omnia vincit.'* 

The other two, though very difTcrcnt in character, he has great diffieultjf 
in placing. The French Ks^ay (Jai vii cc que jc racuntc J u more roada 
ble, and in some respects preferable to the English one, 

" Virlutc ct labore duni spiro, 8j>ero." 

On the other hand, the English is more systematic and concise, and ibr 
pitqioses of reference conveys more information ; and if it is impassible !• 
treat them as equal, which His Excellency would willingly do, it seems 
proper to assign the second prize to the latter of the two, and the third Ca 
the French. 

(Signed,) EDMUNJ HBAD. 

1st May, 1855. 

The Executive Committee have, therefore, to announce that the Firsi 
Prise is awarded to John Sheridan Hogan« Escpiire, auth:)r of the Bsnjf 
bearing the mollo^^Labor omnia vinciC^ the Second Prize to Alexander MorriS| 
Escpiire, of Montreal, with the motto, ** Vtriuie ei labnre^ dmm ^m$it 
^prro^'*" and the Third Prize to J. C. Tach6. Esquire, M. P. P,, author ol 
iLcFffry, wnU the motto *' Xai vu ct qvfje racontr.^^ 

In accordance ^^ith the recommendation of the Judgcft, the Execotive 
Committee have awarded three extra prizes of X25 each, to the authors oC 
the Essays bearing the mottoes. ** ^'i/am quisqtte pellam portal^ — " RMA 
«M Cereran telius inarata qnotannis^'* — and ** // w urith tiationt om with aolarSp 
pie kumcs no pause in progress and development^ and aUnckrt her cune lo M 
iMoriicuy The authors of these Essays are Hector L. Langi-fin, Esquire^ 
of the City of Quebec; E. Billings, Esquire, of the City of Ottawa, and 
William Hutton, Es({uirc, Secretary Board Statistics, Queb.x. The autbiMTS 
of the other Essays may obtain then on application to the Assistant 8^ 
cretary of the Committee, I. R. Eckart, Esquire, Quebec. 

FRANCIS niXCKS, 
Chairman Executive Committee. 

B 



18 



The Committee ordered that 5,000 copies of the Essays by Messrs. 
Hogan and Tache and 1,000 copies of that by Mr. Morris should be printed. 
The Essay by Mr. Hogan was also translated into French and two maps 
were annexed to each of the copies, a map of the country was also appended 
to the Essay by Mr. Tache. 

Transmission of Articles. 

In order to facilitate as far as possible, a comparison between the 
London Exhibition in 1851, and that of Paris in 1855, in so far as Canada 
is concerned, the list of articles forwarded in 1851, the only document re- 
maining, which relates to the Canadian Exhibition in London, is givenbelow. 



List of Articles forwarded from Montreal for the Grand Exhibition in 
London, and consigned to Henry Houghton, Esquire, 44, Friday 
Street, London, Agent appointed by the Commissioners. 

55 Packages of Minerals, Ores, and Earths, consisting of blocks of Marble, blocks of Ser- 
pentine, specimens of Peat, Earth, Shell Marl, Ores of Iron, Zinc, Lead, Copper, 
Nickel, Silver, Uranium, Cobalt, Manganese, Iron Pyrites, Molybdenite, Magnesiaa 
Limestone, Magnesite, Wliite Quartzoae, Sandstone, Schistose Stone, Soapstone, 
Pipe Clay, Whetstone, Plumbago, Agates, Jasper, Waved Chert, Lithographic 
Stone, Iron Ochre and Stone Paints, Canadian Tripoli, &c. 

The above are contributed principally by W. E. Logan, Esquire, Dr. James Wilson 
of Perth, the Montreal and the Prince's Mining Companies, Sheriff Dickson, Sheriff 
Boston and others ; the whole accompanied by a vnluable collection of Canadian Fossils, 
and specimens of Gold from the Chaudicre, contributed by Dr. Douglass of Quebec, 
will be placed under the direction of Mr. Logan, who has already proceeded to England 
for the purpose. 

Also, 

1 bale Hops, B. Smith Stanstead. 

1 bale Hops, J. Penner.... Lachine, 

ft barrels Spring Wheat, W. F. Weeso Ameliasburgh. 

3 barrels Spring Wheat, P. Desjardins Terrebonne. 

S brls. Spring Wheat, D. Laurent Varennes. 

3 barrels Spring Wheat, John Drummond Petite Nation. 

3 barrels Spring Wheat, John. Allan Long Point. 

3 barrels Fall Wheat, J. Graham Sydney. 

3 brls. Fall Wheat, Agricultural Association Canada West. 

3 brls. Fall Wheat, Agricuhural Association Canada West. 

1 brl. Fall Wheat, James Logan Montreal. 

1 brl. Peas, Wm. Boa St. Laurent. 

1 brL Peas, D. Limoges Terrebonne. 

1 brL Peasi D. Jones Sydney. 



10 



• J T —. "^ 



I l»rl, BarU'V, Wrn. Boa St. Laun»nU 

I Lirn!! Oats, R. N. Watt*, M. P. P Gninlham. 

MtI. (KiM, A. Mtiir Iliiicliinbmoke. 

I l»i; li«':in«, ('. Fonrnior I^>ni:uf»uil. 

I br!. ii*'an-. M.ulain** l>»fn»»re M«>iitr»>:il. 

1 ht\. Bfiii.s, (\"lIow) Jo^. Brii'n St. Martin. 

I Irl. Bran*. }...rj««) Jnn FivIut Uivi^m <le8 Prairie*. 

i liiirTi'i r.iit'kwli.;it, K. Tpitiiwim KinifHoy. 

i l;irr.»l l;ijrkuu-at, J A: K. f'aiiitr Tliurl«>w. 

*i I r •. n..t!ii.';il, II. Sjii.iir- BowinaiiviUe. 

- ' r.". Ii'-i'ir, J. SMn|Wi»n *: f'o «l<> 

1 \ rl V. -iir, 'rh.Mna«« Lm:;l>on Th«irl(»w. 

1 l»ri. h .«» ;r, I*. V. Kailev *it» 

1 Ml. Ill lii*:! \I»'al, i\ Trffilnilin Kim«j>«<*V. 

J Ir! I.i<li.t:i M'-ai, A. R«Miu» St. l^iiirtMit. 

1 l»ri. F.a« S'^rA^ B. I)♦•^j:lr»^in•« Si. Ki.*#». 

I l«a'n»l >it tTKiM i *;l S«'"tl, Jjunt'S Fi*-!!**! U'i\ .^'••' 'i**^ Prairi"«. 

I N:. H'lfkwhiMt, li. iV-jarilni^ St. Rom». 

\ *'a;r# I Ti'imtti) S«"»il. S. l*!»a<!«vni .St. .Xnni*. 

J Uiff-l Twii !:»)• S».»iil, TlKtinat .Mo(iii'..\ Mnntn-al. 

I ; rl. R« •! (. ;«f. iT S'-f'<i, J. J»':rr»-yn Kawilon. 

1 !tI. C'«-ni in t:i»* l^r.J. I.i.'an Mt't'triMl. 

I t»rl. iU> •!'» \\f\ >iiaw Tonnito. 

1 bafff*'. Vinr^ar, <iillr-|.j«». Miifatt ^ Co *. . .M"'Ur»»a!. 

'i t-t\t« M«rt »i, J. PhmiI'Tl' ;''l Hn 

'i Ihi%--* tl'i lir.triHnii ati-i .^hi;»t«in St. Ililairr. 

1 ).ir Prt-'-rv.'.l P»'a!«>«*8, Bumi-'Mi Ai Sliipum Jo 

\\f It-, -i ..*•'•■ r» li ;»'il Mapl'.^ S-i/ir, ("«»inii!i-.>i'i»**M. 

ft .l»-. •».;•• 'ft: ■••I M.«,iM* >H^Mr. Jiif.ii \l:i*'< Yi»ik. 

M * M ij' ">!/;:, J"! ParktT II i^l). l>*-i.»m Town«hip«i, 

\Z : •. M-,-' >: I'ar, .\. Fi^mt \^.ut, tlo Jo 

J J /• •. ">•;'. MaiJrii I!. I I, J, FI- *.-''.'r M-'ritnal. 

\ .1../.'. I..:*, •Try Vin«'::ar, J. F|.''r;i»T <!o 

I ra-.f « » . ly, .1. I 1i*I»'Im"i Jo 

II* iTiji S •' !, F. 'iri»T Jo 

»1 < .(j'l !*r ■."!<, .\";M»n i4?-.J H.tliT;^ »*o 

6 * *r\\ \V.ii"k». .N.«!*jm anJ Bntt'Tit tlo 

6< irr- Ur««.Ti* U. N. Braj'.irrJ Ilaiiiiitotu 

t' irii \\ 'ii*k^, i!i d«» 

^1 » .f. I ►.;-:»•'«», «'•> ilo 

I ' i. I •- .uT ■, J. I<^»v.'y MtMitrr.iL 

" , 1-- > i!l, J4 \U* , Jo »».» 

> :•• F i\. .M IS:i»ti'Ti S! R. *. . 

• < ■ . ■•, ITI !l ^ . iu^iU'j- { wm |)i::;..i-i, r. F. 

ii . •. *, I'i; ,b* , S. Ba^.T Ill .fo 

I LU'.-^*»', I-' Jb*., P Sp-:iror St Arm tJ (\ F. 

I ti*.*^. •>.'» » 'f.. I rovinr:al .At'riiMjIttiraJ A<*«¥'iati'->n < .iM.v*a Wf-L 

1-- F*;l. R' iri!.art >! niri'.il. 

i • f V Pofk, L. |.i:.T ^»o 



20 



€3 lbs. I^nl, E. Idler Montreal. 

1 brl. Beef, II. Nicholm>n - *.. do 

t6 lbs. Ilonejy Hem y Lyman do 

%-) tt>s« iieea Wax, Joseph Pinsonnault St Ifartin. 

10 lb:*. Gloe, A MoParlano C6to des Neij 

1 dos. bottled Cider, J. Penncr Lachine. 

1 dosL Mineral Waters, A. Mann MontreaL ' 

Smoked Hams, G. Reinbart do 

Prepared Hams, E. Idler do 

Dried Beef, Smoked, E. Idler do 

1 brl Fino Ship Biscuit, A. Fitts do 

1 caee Bread Crackers, A. Fitts do 

I case Biscuits, &c., John Hobb do 

6 Black Waluut Planks, J. Davies Simcoe. 

t do do do Cotnmiftsioners. 

6 Biroh, 2 Red Elm. 4 Butternut, ^20 Pine, 3 Bird*8 Eye Maple, 4 Oak, 3 Iron Wood, S 
Hornbeam, 2 Hard Maple, 3 Soil Maple, 3 Ash, I Tamarack, 7 Spruce, 3 Cherry, S 
Knees for Shipbuilding, Curled Maple, Bird's Eye Maple, Bluck Walnut YeoMn. 

6 Bmbroidered Chairs, W. Drum Quebec. 

Blm Knot Work Table, J. R. Cameron MontreaL 

Sofa, Reed and Meakins do 

d (^hairs. Reed and Meakins do 

t Chiffonier do do do 

Dried Smoked Sausages and Bolognas, E Idler do 

Table, Imitation Mahogany, Ramsay and Mc Arthur do 

do do Oak, do do 

do do Marble, do do 

Walnut Bedstead, James Morice. do 

SWalnut Chairs, S. Redhead do 

t Office do do do 

1 Drawing-room Chair, William Allen do 

1 Ornamental Stool Quebec. 

t Stone Centre Table, R. Hammond MoutreaL 

6 Rocking Chairs, William Allen do 

Piccolo Piano Forte, J. W. Herbert do 

Spring Back Sofi, J. and W. Hilton do 

Walnut Centre Table, do ^. do 

Walnut Pier Table, do -. do 

Spring Back Sewing Chair do do 

6 Drawing-room Chairs, do do 

T«te-ik-Tete, do do 

Chiffonier, Reed and Meakins, do 

Black Walnut Ceutre Table, Reed and Meakins do 

Sofiny do do 

Rocking Chair, do do 

6 Black Walnut Chairs, elaborately carved, needle work coverings— style of 14lh oen« 
lury— intended as a present to Her Majesty the Queen, from the Ladies of Moulroalr 

fiOlbt. Cut Nails, Holland and Dunn Montreal. 

« yards Wire Cloth, W. H. Rice do 



21 



€ Bench Plaoos A. Waltaoe ^....^ MuntreaL 

^Moaldingilo ilo do 

Poli«h«d Balance Scales, complete, C. P. IMd do 

8 Chopping Aies^ do do 

10 do do do do 

Cooking Stove, with Copper Furultore, com., G. II. Cheney . Torunto. 

Perlour Stove, G. il. Cheney do 

f no riale, do do 

3 eaise« cotitaining rarieties Ship ^ucks, made by J. Clarke. Montreal, 
3 Chopping A\e^ Samuel Shaw Toroatoi 

I Broad do du • do 

9 Coo|)ei'f Toot% i!o do 

9 Framing Chine 1% do do 

1 Hantfog Aie, do do 

9 Piecea Oil Cloth, M. I^flnmme Montri*aL 

3piiiit Shoe La^tl■, Wanliil do 

Pletibte Branch Pi|H», William Fer«^uj»on do 

3 Chopping Atea, G. Leavitt Dumhie. 

t Bioail do do do 

1 Chopping Aie, Scott and GIaji»fo d ^..-. Montreal. 

Cup^iu;{ rieea, Jarnc** Perry do 

Leather Tiank, M Dean do 

1 do do J. Iffin do 

€ Whipa, Ji»*h Tlifi-ckeld Toront3. 

€ Biv^he*, (U'icy) Tho*. Wheeler do 

S Fancy PidU, Ja*. Bai!y Sherbrooke. 

I do Pail, 1500 j..i.im, R. S Du*lJ Ayr. 

I ea«e Piiie*, .iwuirled, llendernon MunlieaL 

Specimen ConlMge, T Diton ■ Toronto. 

Bot Taine, A. >iKiOfier..... MonlreaL 

3 CoiU Rope, llenilefMin Qncbfc. 

I Coonlerp.-ihe, Simcn Heaii. Ilatlt'V, C. E. 

arable CU4h^ do tJo 

1 CounterpaiK*, Thoe I)i\on Toronto. 

ailori^ liiaiikfU, Wm. Gamble Milioa Mille, C W. 

I piece Carpeting do do do 

1 pwce i\o B.irber F>ciiiei«in;j, C. W. 

1 piece Linen, M Foitier St l)a\id. 

I pM«eGr(-y Cloth, Willet & Co Chambly. 

1 ptece Gr-y Cloib, lion. Tlioma* McKay New fcAimboro* neiirBjtowft 

1 leece Satine:te, do do do 

1 pieee «lo dark, do do do 

1 pMce do bfoun, do do do 

i Pair BUiiketa 

FoftabV Gf 111 Milt, C P. UdJ Mont-eal. 

Lig^J P!ott:;h, A. Ficvk ''o 

f U;htp4Hijln.Sk.iu.cr&McCiiilork Broi kville, C. W. 

iHay Foffka,3 Piongs Skinner & McCullock do 

i do 2 do do ^ do 



t 



...nnM.'kvillo, C. W. 
ilo 

Pn-scott. 

'IViTi'lx-nn'j. 

Cilc'f^sfdrl. 

Amc'li.'isbur^U. 

QucIm.m". 

do 

do 

•. . . . di) 

St. C'.'itiuTi'.ie*-. 

Tiirfij^ Rivor<. 

>. '1 IIi-'i'l'TS'.-n M«'iiti\':'.i. 
ilo do 

di) dr 

\u: Thrft? ri\r»rs 

, -y.i^br:] St. Ilihiif. 

» :; M(.'litr";'.! 

do 

'■!.-\i'V South Pt..lli>ii. ('. \ 

Q':«'l»f'r. 

II u;iill.»:i. 

t, '! 1> ■.••••••••••'••••••••••-'IOII;|t.V, ', . 

'J'oiCIlt ». 

\ \\ v.'-it Mu'iti( '.•'.■.. 

.^"M,- IM i!o 

N. I QlK'l'cr'. 

' .' S.uiriri i'(» 

.•.^ d'» 

Mont re.'.; 

\ i\ d'» 

;. .; (■iiiiiiniMiT do 

. do 

\ v::.M do 

.. •■■.,1 r;i>tiii^, (i. E. IMclsoii do 

M.;'. :i'\vs do 

^ ^ '. l?i\»tluM-i Toronto. 

\\ .il.r do 

\ . . ' Kt'i :',«•>■, Won. J.'uno.s Ferrii»r...Mr.ntre.'ii 

\' M nuti'O Forij^vs JI'>J^'»^'i^- t^^rrioi. do 

do do d(. 

»\» do do do 

,!.» do do dc 

si* do do do 

.. ■ . ■..'. r. llodiiT St. IIv;iiint>^ ■. 

" -.w .;. r. I'K'Uuiii!: .....Toro.M^(\ 



% 



« X 



23 



Arrh2t«i't:irall)rawii];^x, J. Duncan Mniiin^ul. 

• Mm!»'1 Ilri iji-, K. Luwis Mflboiirne. 

City "t M'lTiinal Ariii'«, vii;: raved on leather, Mailamu dc Monteiiacti, Montreal 

Sh"! \Ui^ :iM 1 Mtiier hunting articles, J. Alloa Montreal. 

Mt''!*'! Cannon, do do 

Sii*rifnrn-» III Urntijitry, C. M. Diekinnon do 

I><) do Cliarles Ralin Toronto. 

Kirl.-. T.J. 11..V.I Montreal. 

R.:I", T A-hii"M Turmto. 

C«'r:.. ,f lu, M.icl'iicrMin Montreal. 

II !■ .'-..i S.ii:-:i_' •*,(!. Ui'ifih.irt do 

T;.' j.:.''.f N t:iJ. T. Asliiieid Toronto. 

I) • •'.'> J. U. SitiipHtin 

('\ T . ■.•!.'. \I irPii'TsiiM Montreal. 

\Vj I;., i:. 1 (*a^»\ Tatrhk Iliiiinn** do 

( 'M.; !• :•■ S .11 r.l'.i?!' da Tay**, Messrs. Adams d«* 

>*i« .^.:<«:i. C'<'rnnii7t-iuner> ilo 

>V ;irn K'.j.::*-, <i«»:i^, Itra-s Corks. Sic.^ C. l»arlh do 

<';i-'* *i.ir J.-.. >• -d-. a-'M.rte.l, (it* »rje Shepherd do 

Tw'i ( .1-" -I r.i:.i-y Si.aj*'*, John Mat!i«-w.son and S)n do 

('.!*" M':,\v 1'' lit. ^'.s Mir ted. manut:ii- tared at Quebec, Cuinmrs. 

M.l.:.ir\ Ui":.;- 1, >ii J.iH. Ah'xaniler, A. D. C Montreal. 

1 r.v^i- I >::..i:ri<-:ilal Ki-lier Pre*.-* Piintini:* J. Starke & Co.... do 
Sj.c.'.*''i l*:.:.'.i:i:: in Cnlijr.s Irotn i'anadi m Ink, J. BaylU. do 

( I-.- C'i-.n;i' tr* TyjH', C T. I*;iNirr.ive do 

••jnv;!:u-:i-»« I doM-nutliH* Wiirk. lienty Lai^i^'ult do 

I'm >;lvir i!o (». .Sava:,'e do 

I)«) Wdil (*oit'Mi, J. I*. Anhton, St. Laurent. St. Laurent. 

r.'»- r.iij.ri", (ifiji-je I't-rry Mo;ttrt*al. 

CV; !.**.• : ().!. I* •r^)iii>- thl, Wliah-Od, Porjuii^e I^'atlier, Whale LiMther. Spt*rimons ot 
rri;.;i:_: l'> |*'*. r«'M il Mdi'I--' VenetT, Cork S<do Clog-*, Hiiiili:i^ Ii«M»t5, Mucassiu 
.-.•■l >.'■•■'•. Stump K\t[aei<>r, kenl from QueU'C. R. Sy nie>, KMiuirc. 

JOII.N LEEMIN*;, .Secretary. 

Mor.tniil. Ut March, ISSL 



24 




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To the articles above ennmerated must be added a Geological Chart 
of Canada, by Mr. Logan, and a Topographical Map, by Mr. Keefer. 

A certain number of articles, about forty, altogether, were voluntarily 
contributed by exhibitors from various places. The greater part of these 
articles have no great intrinsic value ; but the articles of the exhibitors 
whose numbers and names are mentioned below are not in the same 
category, and the Executive Committee have guaranteed the return of 
tbeir several contributions : 

11. Mr. TAbb^ Malo, see Catalogue. 

78. Mr. J. W. Ryland, do 

80. Mr. Pietro Morettl, do 

86. Mrs. McCuIloch, do (£300 guaranteed.) 

218. Mr. Paul Kane, do (property of Mr. Allan.) 

310. Mr. D. Mcrcier, do 

315. Mr. TAbb^ Tanguay, do 

In the descriptive Catalogue published in Paris during the Exhibition 
will be found all the particulars, which it could not be expected would 
be included in the foregoing lists, which arc only given here to shew the 
plan adopted in forwarding the articles. 

Such was the collection sent to Paris under the immediate superin- 
tendence of Messrs. J. C. Tach6 and W. E. Liogan, who were appointed 
Special Commissioners, charged to support and advance the interests of 
Canada at the Great Universal Exhibition of 1855. Other gentlemen, of 
whom Messrs. De Puibu!<que, Bossange, Maitland, and Boulton, resided 
at Paris, and others of whom were expected speedily to arrive at the 
place of Exhibition, were added to the Commission in the capacity of 
Honorary Commissioners, and Messrs. Romain and Perry were appointed 
Corators of the Articles. 

Erpenses of the CommUiee. 

The following table exhibits, under their diflerent headings, the sums 
appropriated and expended by the Committee. The Accounts in detail 
having been handed to the Auditors of the Public Accounts, with the 
necessary vouchers and explanations, the whole, upon examination, have 
been approved and found to be correct : 



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The expenses are charged nnder several principal series, and, fur 
reasons to be explained hereafter, are distributed nnder the several head- 
ings of Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, and Paris. No. 1 comprises sunis 
disbursed as travelling expenses of the two Commissioners, the salaries 
of the two Curators, the sum of £500 a gift to Mr. Perry, and various 
other expenses. No. 2 includes contingencies of all kinds, and items of 
expenditure which arc not referable to any other head. No. S consists 
of sums paid for advertisements in the journals, l(c., &c., and at Paris 
for the printing of Mr. StuartV Geological Chart, of Mr. Tachfi's descrip- 
tive Catalogue, and other expenses of the kind. No. 4 shows the cost 
of the various articles. No. 5 is compoMsd of the exfx'nses of packing and 
carriage of articles from difiercnt parts of the country, to Quebec, Montreal, 
and Toronto in the first instance ; from thence to Boston and New York, 
and finally from these two seaports to Liverpool and Havre. No. 6 is 
a classification of the sums disbursed at Paris in the arrangement of the 
articles for exhibition, the prp|)aration of counters and glass-cases, and 
for purposes of embellishment, &c. No. 7 shows the sums expended at 
Paris for the publication of Mr. Tache's Essay, and for that of the other 
Essays in Canada. 

The labor of collection was shared, as will appear by the statement 
of expenditure, between the Executive Committee, and the Central 
Committt'cs of Montreal and Toronto. The articles purchased by the 
Executive Committee were indifferently the produce of Up|)er or Lower 
Canada, and furnished chiefly by contributors of that class who had 
previously received prizes at the London and New York Exhibitioniy 
and by tliose who had been fortunate enough to obtain first class prizes 
at the Provincial Exhibition. 

The articles ac(|uircd by the Central Committee at Toronto were 
exclusively Up|K*r Canadian ; those purchased by that of Montreal were 
txclusively Lower Canadian. 

In their pn>spectus, alM)ve quoted, the Executive Committee laid 
down as a principle, that the pnxlucts of mines, forests, and agriculture, 
should nec(*ssarily receive the highest degree of attention; accord- 
ingly, the display of pnxlucts of these three kinds was truly magnificent, 
and the pa*niiums obtained were such as to give full satisfaction to all 
who were inten^sted in exhibiting the natural resources of our country 
to the greatest advantage. 

It is not necessary to give a methodically classified catalogne of the 
•griruhural products sent to Paris. The samples were numenms, very 
fine, and in great variety. Fruits and vegetables being nnturolly pnme 
to decay very speedily, and thereupon not admitted into the building in 
original state, wcm neverthelest rapresanted, either in the shape of 



46 



preserves of different kinds, by drawings, or by being modelled in wax, 
from nature. The following classified catalogues of products exhibited 
in the three first classes of natural objects will no doubt be perused with 
interest. These lists are of course given only for general information : 



MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES SENT FROM CANADA, IN THB 
ORDER IN WHICH THEY ARE USED IN WORKS OF ART. 

1. MetaU and their 0r$8. 

Oxidulated iron, from Marmora, Madoc, Sherbrooke, Crosby, Hull| 

Leeds and Portage du Fort. Specular Iron Ore, from McNab, Wallace 

and Lake Nipissing. 

Bog Iron, from Houghton, Yaudreuil, St. Nicholas, Machiche, Point 

du Lac, St. Pierre, Cap de la Madeleine and St. Valier. 

Titaniferous Iron, from Sutton and Brome. 

Ilmenite, from Bay St. Paul and St. Urbain. 

Blende, from Lake Superior. 

Lead Ore, from Lake Superior, Gasp6, Ramsay, and Lansdown. 

Copper Ore, from Lake Superior, Lake Huron and Inverness. 

Native Copper, from Lake Superior. 

Auro-argcntiferous and Argentiferous Pyrites, from the Eastern Town- 
ships. 

Nickel, from Lakes Huron and Superior, and Daillcbout. 

Silver, native, from Lake Superior. 

Gold, native, from River du Loup, Fief St. Charles, Aubcrt de Flsle, 

Etchemin, 
Gold, native, from River Chaudiere, River Famine and other neighbor* 
ing places. 

Platinum, from Fief St. Charles. 

Iridosmine, from Fief St. Charles. 

Auriferous Pyrites, from La Beauce. 

Argentiferous Pyrites, from La Beauce. 

Arsenical Pyrites, from La Beauce. 

2. Mhw^ah requiring chemical operations iofit them for use. 

Uranic Ochre, From Madoc, 
Chromic Iron, from Bolton and Ham. 
Cobalt, from Lake Superior. 
Wad, or Earthy Manganese, from Quebec 



47 



Iron PjriieBf from Lanoraye, Dautraye, and the Eastern Townships. 
Molybdenite from Lake Superior and Somerville. 

Dolomitei from Daihousie, Blythficld, Sutton, Brome, Shipton, Bt SyWes- 
tre and Point Lery. 
dte, from Sutton and Bolton. 



8. Mineral paints. 

Iron Ochre, from Ste. Anne near Quebec, Cap de la Madeleine, Shipton, 

Pointe du Lac, and Rimouski. 
Baijtes, fix>m Burgess and Lansdown. 
Phosphate of Iron, from Vaudreuil. 

4. Maieruds applicable to the Fine Arte. 
lithographic Stone, fi^m Marmora. 

5. Materials applicable to Jewellery. 

Agates, from Lake Superior and the North Shore. 
Uiradorite, from Grcnville. 
Jasper, from Lake Huron. 
Ribboned Chert, from Lake Superior. 
Pcrthite, from Bathurst. 
Rubies, fitxn Burgess. 

6. Rffractary Materials. 

Soap Stone (compact talc) from Bolton and Potton. 

Mioh from Grcnvillc. 

Plumbago, from Grenville and Burgess. 

White Sandstone, from Si. Maurice. 

Asbestus, bom Daihousie and Karoouraska. 

7. Mineral Manures. 

Phosphate of Lime, from Perth. 

Gypsum, fix>m Brantford and Oneida. 

Shell Marl, from Ottawa, Sheffield, Montreal and Stanstead. 

8. Grinding and Polishing Materials. • 

Whetstones, from Madoc, Eastern Townships. 
Canadian Tripoli, from Laval. 

9. Matericds employed in the c4msiruction of buiUings. 

Slates, from the Eastern Townships. 

While Granite, Hereford, Bamston, St. Joseph and Nicolctp 



48 



Pseudo-granite, from Nicole t and Lorette. 

Sandstone, from Ramesay, Pembroke, and St. Manrioe. 

Calcareous Sandstone, from Lauzon and Chaudiere. 

Limestone, from Marmora, McNab, The Chats, Gloucester, Montreal, 

Packenham, and Caughnawaga. 
Trap, from St. Roch. 
Marble, from Oxford, Lake Brompton, Dudswell, Saint Armand, Saint 

Lin, McNab and Packenham. 
Hydraulic Limestone, from Thorold, Quebec, Oneida, Nepean and 

Brantford. 
Building Bricks, from divers places. 

10. CornhmiiUe Maieriab. 

Peat, from Longueuil and Sheffield. 
Asphalt, from Enniskillen. 

11. mtsceUaneous MineraU. 

Aerolite, found at Madoc, forming a mass of iron with 6.35 per cent, of 
Nickel, weighing 370 lbs. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE DIFFERENT TARIETISS OF CANADIAN WOODS, 
SPECIMENS OF WHICH FORM THE CANADIAN COLLECTION 

FOR THE PARIS EXHIBmON. 

1. MagnoKacecB. 

White wood, so called in Canada, (Liriodendron tulipifera. Linn.) 

2. TileacecB. 
Lime, (Lilia Americana. Linn. 

3. AnacatdiiB, 
Sumack, (Rhus Typhina. Linn.) 

4. Aceracect. 

Maple, (Acer Saccharinum. Linn.) 

Red Maple " " 

Waved Maple " « 

Bird's Eye Maple " « 

Plane, (Acer Dasycarpum. Ehrhart.) 



49 

5. Amygdalea. 

Wild jcllow plum. (Prunus Americana. Marshall.) 
Red Cherry. (Cerasus PeiinsylvaDica. Loisel.) 
Black cherry. (Cerasus seroiina. De CanduIIe.) 
Choke Cherry. (Cerasut VlrgiDiaDa. I>c CandoUc.) 

6. Corikxcece, 
Cornel, flowering dogwood. (Comiis Florida. Linn.) 

7. Pomacect. 

Dotted or Apple Thorn. (Crataegus punctata. Jacquin.) 

Bed Thorn. (Crataegus coccinca. Linn.) 

White Thorn. (Crataegus crus Galli. Linn. ) 

Mountain Ash. (Pyrus Americana. De Candolle.) 

June or Service herry. (.Vinelanehicr Canadensis. Torrey and Gray.) 

8. Fraxinect. 

White Ash, (Fraxinus Americana. Linn.) 
Black Ash, (Fraxinus Sambucifolia. Lambert. 
Bock Ash, (Fraxinus Pubescens. Walter.) 
Bim Afeb, (Fraxinus Juglandifolia. Lambert.) 

9. Lauracect. 
Sassafiras, (Sassafrac Odicinale. Von Ir^ciibcck.; 

10. Uhnacect. 

White Elm, (Ulmus Americana. Linn.) 
Red or Slippery Elm, (Ulmus Fulva. Micluuix.) 
Bock Elm, (Ulmus llacemosa. Thomas.) 
Gray Elm, ( " " " ) 

11. Jaglandacea. 

Botteniut, (Jrg^ans Cincrca. Linn.) 

Bkck Walnut, (Juglans Nigra. Linn.) 

Soft Walnut. 

Shell bark Hickory, (Carya Alba. Nullal. . 

Smooth bark Hickory, ( •* Tormcntosa. Nultal.) 

Pignut, * ( " Glabra. Tomey.) 

Butteniut, ( ** .\niara. Nutial.) 



60 



12. Cupv^fertct. 

White Oak, (Quercus Alba. Linn.) 

Swamp White Oak, ( " Bicolor. Wild.) 

Red Oak, ( " Rubra. Linn.) 

Black Oak, ( " Nigra. Linn.) 

Chesnut, (Castanea Yesca. Linn.) 

White Beech, (Fagus Ferruginea. Aiton.) 

Blue Beech, Horn-Beam, (Carpinus Americana. |liichaux.) 

ton Wood, (Ostrya Virginica. Willd.) 

13. Betulacem. 

Paper or Canoe Birch, (Betula Papyracea. Aiton.) 
Yellow Birch, ( " Excclsa. Aiton.) 

Cherry Birch, ( " Lenta. Linn.) 

Black Birch, ( " Nigra. Linn.) 

, Alder, (Alnus fncana. Willd.) 

14. Saliacem. 

Black Willow, (Salix Nigra. Marshall.) 

Aapen Poplar, (Populus Tremuloidcs. Michaux.) 

Large-toothed Aspen, ( " Orandidentata. ^^ Michaux.) 

BalmofOilead, ( " Balsamifera. Linn.) 

Cotton Wood, Necklace Poplar, Populus Mcnililera. Aiton.) 

15. Planianacece. 
Ilutton-Wood, American Sycamose, (Plantanus Occidentalis. Linn.) 

16. ConifereiB. 

Pitch Pine, (Pinus Rigida. Miller.) 

Red Pine, ( « Resinosa. Aiton.) 

Yellow Pine, ( " Mitis. Michaux.) 

White or Weymouth Pine, (Pinus Strobus. Linn.) 

Balsam Fir, (Abies Balsamea. Marshall.) 

Hemlock Spruce, ( « Canadensis. Michaux.) 

White Spruce, ( " Alba. Michaux.) 

BUckSpruce, ( « Nigra. Poiret.) 

American Larch, Tamarack, (Larix Americana. [^Michaux.) 

White Cedar, (Thuya Occidentalis. Linn.) 

Bed Cedar, Savin, (Juuiperus Virginiana. Linn.) 



61 



LIST OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS OF WHICH DRAWINGS AND 
MODELS IN WA2C, TAKEN FROM NATURE, WERE EXBlBITBD. 



1. 
Fanuly of the Cnici&nB, cUm BnaMcc 

BftMUtU 

lurniiM, 6 ▼arietiet. 

2. 
Family of the UmbellifenB, daai Danciiw. 

CSurrott, 8 Ttrietiet. 

8. 
Family of the Chenopodeei clam Cyclolobec 

BHta. 
Beeta, 9 varietiet. 

4. 

FamQy of the Liliade, claas Hyacinthen^. 

Alinm Saiivum. 
Oidona, 6 rarietiea. 

S. 

lunily of the Crudferae, claas Raphane. 

Jlopibfiacf. 
RadiiheaY 7 Tarietiea. 

6. 
Fanuly of the Umbelliferae, class Pencedanett. 

Poiiinaea, 
Fkraoipa, 8 Tarietiea. 



«s 



iBtrns. 

X 1. 



Family of the Bosaceas, class Pomaceae. 

Malui. 



Apples. 



' Fameuscs, 4 varieties. 

Rennets, 5 varieties. 

Crises, 6 varieties. 
^ Other varieties, 63. 



2. 
Family of the Rosaceas, class Amydaleas. 

Prunus. 

Plums, 86 varieties. 

Family of the Cucurbitaces, class Cucurbitcce. 

OucurUs Melo. 
Melons, 7 varieties. 

The collection of grain and cereals included all the varieties of 
these plants which are cultivated in the country. 

The reports hereto annexed, cf the Commissioners appointed to repre- 
sent Canada in Paris, complete the general report of all the proceedings 
connected with the Canadian Exhibition. 

The Executive Council flatter themselves that they are enabled to 
bring their labors to a termination, with the consoling reflection that the 
most complete success has crowned the undertaking, for the due carrying 
out of which, the cotmtry has manifested such earnest solicitude. 

W. RHODES, 

Chairman. 



J. C. TACHfi, 

Secretmy. 



Toronto, 2l8t April, 1856. 



REPORT 



or 



J. C. TACflE, ESQ., 



CA^TADIAX COXmSSIOKEB TO rAUIB 



IN 1855. 



REPORT OF J. C. TACH]fe, ESQUIRE, 

CANADIAN COMMISSIONER TO PARIS. 



[Tnmdatian.] 

The duties which devolved upon the Special CommiBsioners appointed 
U/aoperintend the Canadian Department at the Great Exhibition in Parifl, 
were of two kinds : the Commissioners had to direct the arrangement of the 
•ilicles forwarded for exhibition, to place them in positions in which they 
might be seen to advantage, to see that due care was taken as regarded 
their preservation, and to be present at the office of the section to answer 
ench questions as might be put to them by casual visitors ; on the other 
hmnd, the Commissioners had a duly at least equal in importance to dis- 
charge,;^viz. : to use every endeavor to diffuse throughout Europe, correct 
inibrroation respecting Canada, and to render tlie success which crowned 
our exhibition as notorious as |)ossible. It will at once be evident, that 
to]^bave exhibited collections of articles to the mere passing gaze of 
▼isilors, would only have been to aim at transient etfect, to seek only a 
momentary repute. It became then of absolute importance to perpetuate 
the remembrance of the Canadian Exhibition, and to make known to the 
world such information as would be calculated to advance tlic progress 
of emigration, commerce, and industrial pursuits. Another duty fal- 
ling within the office of the Commissioner was, to transmit to the people 
of Canada, from time to time, information in regard to events which 
might occur at the place of exhibition, and to enable the Canadian 
public to derive profit to as great an extent as they had reason to expect, 
by the grand lessons which science, agriculturts arts and commerce 
might draw from the occasion so far as they were applicable to the in- 
terests of the country. 

It was at once apparent to the two Special Commissioners, Sir William 
Logan and myself, that these different duties so distinct in their nature, 
diflering so essentially the one from the other, could only be satisfactorily 
peribrmed by each Commissioner assuming his own distinct share of the 
task. Sir William Logan, therefore, undertook the armngeinent of the 
exhibition and the other duties attaching to that part of the work, aided 
ia his labors by the two curators of the articles, Messrs. Romain and 
Perry, whilst I assumed that part of the work having reference to the dif- 
iosioo of information throughout both Europe and Canada. ' 



r J 



58 



tion by the River St. Lawrence, and to the regulation of our Tariff of 
Customs Duties. There is no doubt, however, that the attention of Europe 
is now directed to Canada, and out of the thousand facts which go to 
prove tliis assertion, ] will content myself with saying, that it is mainly 
due to the popularity in Europe of the productions of our for68t«| that 
the Imperial decree was framed, which reduces to a mere nominal duty 
the enormous impost which heretofore debarred the importation into 
France, of timber or vessels of foreign build. The eye5 of Enropeaii 
commerce have been opened to the immense natural resources of the 
beautiful country which we inhabit Speaking of the Exhibition gener- 
ally the London Times, in an article almost exclusively devoted to Canar 
dian productions, amongst other things remarks: '* We may certainly hope 
" to place Canada on a footing to enter into competition in our markets 
** with Sweden, for the production of the best iron manufactured with wood 
** charcoal." The remainder of the article had for its object to shew that 
we ought more particularly to turn our attention to the exportation of the 
natural productions of the country, or of those in the first stage of manufao- 
tore. 

There is, moreover, no doubt that the success of our exhibition will be 
the means of attracting to our shores an emigration from the continent of 
Europe, and in proof of this result I may be permitted to quote a passage 
from a letter written to me in October last, from Darmstadt, by Baron 
Wedekind, Chief Ranger of the Duchy of Hesse, and compiler of the 
records of the German forests : ** In conclusion,'' says this eminent per- 
** sonage, I congratulate you upon your Canada, Although the feeling in 
" favor of emigration has very much diminished in Germany, I would re- 
** commend Canada to the emigrant, in preference to any other country." 

I think it may, with justice be asserted, that the object of the Exhibition 
has so far been completely attained ; to derive from it at a more remote 
period the greatest possible profit, becomes the duty of the people of 
Canada, each one to the extent indicated and entailed upon him by the 
position which he holds. 

I have before stated that it was part of my duty to inform the 
People of Canada, from time to time, of all the principal circumstances 
which occurred at Paris, during and in Connection with the Exhibition. 

For this purpose I transmitted a regular correspondence, comprising a 
rapid sketch of the Exhibition from two different points of view, namelyp 
a comprehensive review of the Palace of Industry and its annexes, a vo- 
cabulary, in fact, given in the form of a ramble through the Exhibition, 
the other is an examination, of necessity limited to the extent of time and 
space, and the amount of information at my disposal, comprehending, 
however, an examination of the branches of industry represented at PariSp 



60 



claw bjr class, lUMMmliDg to the system of classification adopted by the 
Imperial Commission. These lettera, forty-eight in numberv published in 
the Canadian newspapers are annexed as appendices to this report. 

Although the remark made by Sir William Logan in his report is abso- 
lutely true, namely, that it is impossible to give a list which would be 
nmtheniatically correct, more particularly if commentary be attempted, 
of all the prizes awarded, before the publication of the final report of the 
Iflleniational Jury ; we may, however, make use of the figures contained in 
the liet of prizes published by order of the Imperial Commission to give a 
eomparative view ; the final report cannot diflfer in any essential particular 
from the preliminary report, which wss made with great care, and which 
was made use of in the distribution of the medals. 

From the lists here mentioned, it appears that Canada has carried oflT 93 
prises^ among which we find one grand medal of honor, one medal of honor, 
thirteen silver (first class) medals, thirty bronze (second class) medals, and 
forty-eight ''honorable mentions." To enable the reader to judge of the 
aggregate as well as the comparative amount of success obtained in the 
eeveial universal exhibitions in which Canada has entered the lists as a 
competitor, as marked by the number of prizes received, I here shew the 
Mai numbers of said prizes awarded at the Exhibitions of London, New 
York and Paris. 
Tbey are as follows : 

At London, 67 medals and ^ honorable mentions.'* 

At New York, 63 - - " 

At Paris, 93 ^ u u 

The errors induced by the discrepancies of the various reports cannot, 
in any serious degree, affect the comparative proportion here shewn. I 
shoald not omit to remark that Canada is the single instance of a colony 
iMving obtained a grand medal of honor ; that the medal of honor was 
awarded for the collection of woods and grain of Canada, and that the 
eootribotions to the three classes forming the group of natural products, 
derived from a large number of localities, widely scattered, and situ- 
in the most remote as well as the conterminous parts of Upper and 
Lower Canada : a striking proof that our country, throughout its whole 
•itent, is productive, and that its productions are of a high degree of ex- 



it is incumbent on me to make especial reference to a machine, con- 
cerning which the Committee always evinced the highest interest, and for 
the success of which tbey made a comparatively large appropriation. It 
will be at once understood that I mean Mr. Remain's steam cultivator. 
Thm machine, to which the inventor had devoted his life, and his very un- 
oammon mechanical talents, was transmitted to Paris in an unfinished 



60 



state, and he devoted to it several months of incessant latk)r before he 
able to make the first trial of it. This trial took place privately, and in 
my presence ; it was finally successful as far as the principal mecbanism 
was concerned ; but the period of time during which it continued to act, 
did not exceed a few minutes, in consequence of a faulty mode of applica> 
tion in the construction of the boiler. Ssveral engineers, and some agri- 
culturists of distinction, were admitted to witness the trials, and all with 
whom I conversed were of opinion that the principle of the machine was 
good, and that it contained the solution of the problem of the steam plough ; 
the fault lay, in their opinion, in a simple matter of detail. M. Cor6^ a 
French mechanician, the author of a History of Mechanics in the 19th 
century, speaking on this subject at the special agricultural banquet, given 
at Paris, 25lh October, 1855, expressed himself in these words : *^ I feel a 
*' high degree of satisfaction, which you, gentlemen, will all share with roe, 
^ in learning that the problem of the application of steam to the plough lias 
** been completely solved by a Canadian meclianician, who is proad of his 
* French descent. I lately saw this important machine at work, this plough 
^ of which steam was the motive power* and the exp3riment was such as 
'^ to leave little to be desired to ensure its perfection.'' 

In consequence of the reports which prevailed of the experiments whidi 
were thus made beyond the jurisdiction of the jury of the Exhibition, the 
English house of Croskill sent agents to Paris io ofler to purchase his in- 
vention from Mr. Uomain on terms which the inventor considered as highly 
advantageoas to himself, and likely to promote the ultimate success of tlie 
undertaking to which he had devoted his life. The house of Croskill sti- 
pulated that the machine should be withdrawn Irom the exhibition. On 
the Application of the inventor, and having consulted both French and 
English engineers on the subje^jt. Sir William Liogan anJ I thought it onr 
duty to enable Mr. Romain to avail himself of proposals which he, the 
person principally intcres'.ed, thought the most likely to effect the entire 
success of his invention. In the contract which w;is entered into between 
Mr. Romain and thd house of Croskill, or rather their successors in that 
house, the machine U designated as Romain^s Canadian S!eum CuUivali^r* 
Referring for all details on the several subjects which 1 have here touched 
upon, and to the various appendices subjoined to this report, it now only 
remains that I should render an account of the funds which were placed at 
my disposal as Commissioner at Paris. My accounts at full length having 
been examined by the Auditor of public accounts, and compared with the 
voucLers annexed to them, have been found ccrrcct ; 1 here present a 
statement. 

General statement of monieff received and expended by me, as Commis- 
sicner at the Paris Exhibition, (in sterling.) 



61 



Db. 



Ci- 



lb 

fblkfe 



Ilbltal.fr FMi 



M. P9Uiix.orLI«ie 
Cunanl 



rvoMlnimi in ny 
la mttlUnc •quiptfit.'Ae 



IM 
til70 



J 



Tat 

CM 






ts • 



Bf traTelUng dpcnaet tod otttflt 

By Wm. ChafNiuMi, of Londoo 

By RUmp for the nmc 

By this UBOuot paid to 8lr Winia» 



38SI IS « 



By Mr Roouan. fbr MUry tnm Itt April 
to 10th ilccember. and to reimlnum 
bb outlay M a citotodian 

By other nperaet of frei|(ht. arrange* 
ment of goods, printing. Ac 

By penooal eipeoMt of all kinds, and 
other dishurttneota 

By hahuice deposited in the Bank of 
Montreal 

By halanee ca»h in hand 



9 



X a. d. 

ISS 10 • 

116 IS • 

• If • 

ISflO • • 

491 • • 

MS 10 • 

179 • 

Mt It • 

2S IS f 



Sittl u « 



.•*• 



Il appears by the above statement that or the sum of X385I 13s. Od. 
•larling there remains to the credit of the Committee a balance of six 
hundred and eighteen pounds five shillings and six pence sterling, which I 
tmre repaid to the Executive Committee Fund partly by deposit in the 
Bank of Montreal, partly in payment of appropriations made by the 
Coounittee. 

I cannot conclude these few lines without a word in reference to the 
aaaeriion made by a portion of the prjss in the United St>ites amounting to a 
charge that the machines exhibited by Canada, were, for the most part,surrep* 
imitations of American inventions ; I deny the truth of this insinuation 
emphatically. Two or three implements of agriculture improved^ not 
invented, l»y citizens of the United States, and now become public pro[)crty. 
an indeed exhibited, not a^ Canadian inventions, but as s()ecimens of 
aroriKmanship. This was [lerfrctly fair, inasmuch as similar implements 
lo be seen in the departments of almost all the nations who were 

ited in the Exhibition. 
If the journalists who have presumed to make this charge haii taken 
eoonael with the Commissioners of their nation, with whom we were at all 
times on the best terms, and to whose kindness we were indebted for a pait 
of the rpice allotted to us in the annexe near the river, they would have 
lecelved convincing assurance that the success obtained by Canada at 
Plariiv was due only to the intrinsic merit of the products which »be 
These few remarks will carry conviction to the least candid 
Moreover it is but ri^ht to admit that some joumaU in the 



62 



liiiiliHl States were iD(]ace<l, by a sense of justice and good faith, to conrote 
\\%\\ki> clittrges, and to call upon their authors to produce proofii of their 

liuOi. 

J. C. TACHfi^ 
Ccmmissioner for Canada^ 

■ 

Uliuoiwki. 15th Feb., 1856. 



PAMPHLET, 



PUBLISHED AT PARIS. 



J. C. TACH^, Esq. 



•fitEICH_DF CANADA 




o 



SKETCH OF CANADA, 



ITS IXDUSTIUAL CONDITION AND KESOUllCES : 



BY J. C. TAG HE, 



BBROP TUB PARLIAMBXT OP C.(K\DA. AND COMMIS8I05KU FOB CANADA T() TUB 

1'.VIVKB.S1L BXlliRITION*. A. P. IMS. 



■• *» «w«« ■»^%"»^" 



PsMiOf^ M •r^f' ^f <^f Crrrntipr Cammittrr in r^ar^r §f t|r eaaafeian Cr|ibUi«i 

in ^rtti^n at Cackcr. 



rEAStLATKD rtOM TflB FftSXCIk 



PAR I 8: 

IIBCTOR BOSSAN(}E A 80NB, 

QUA I TOLTAIRI, 23. 

1856. 

B 



EXPLANATION 



OY 



HE FIGURES ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL MAP 



ABTBTEZED TO THIS TOLUM 



I order not to crowd the annexed map with names, which would 
estroy its utility as an index to the diflferent waters distributed 
;h the valley of the Saint Lawrence, the position of the rarious 
ies has bc^en indicated by figures, as follows : 



loty ofGaKp«. 


35. 


— Richelieu. 


6& 


— 


Leeda. 


Bonaventure. 


36. 


— Saint-Hjracinth. 


69. 


— 


Frontenao. 


RimoimkL 


37. 


— Rouville, 


70. 


— 


Lenooz. 


Tfraiscouata. 


3a 


— Iberville. 


7L 


— 


AddingtoD. 


Saguenay. 


3a 


— Bagot. 


72. 


— 


Prince-Edward. 


Karoouraflka. 


40. 


— Shefford. 


73. 


— 


Hastings. 


ChicoulimL 


41. 


— MiMisquoL 


74. 


— 


Nortbuxnberland. 


Charlevoix. 


4Z 


— Berthier. 


75. 


— 


Durham. 


MontmorencL 


43. 


— Aasomption. 


76. 


— 


Peterborough. 


L'llet 


41. 


— Joliette. 


77. 


— 


Victoria. 


Montma;;oy. 


45. 


— Montcalm. 


7a 


— 


Ontario. 


Bellechaasn. 


46. 


— Monteral. 


79. 


— 


York. 


Quebec. 


47. 


— Uval. 


80. 


— 


Peel. 


Levis. 


48. 


— Terrebonne. 


8L 


•— > 


Siracoe. 


Oorcht».«:er. 


49. 


— Two Mouataina. 


m. 


— 


Halton. 


Deauco. 


50. 


— Laprairie. 


83. 


— 


Weotworth. 


PortneuC 


51. 


— Chateauguay. 


84. 


— 


Brant. 


Lotbiuidrc. 


5Z 


— Argentcuil. 


85. 


— 


Wellington. 


M^^ntic. 


53. 


— Vauilretiil. 


86. 


^— 


Waterloo. 


Nicolet 


51. 


— Ottawa. 


87. 


— 


Perth. 


Yaroa^ka. 


55. 


— Pontiac. 


8a 


— 


Lincoln. 


DrammoniL 


56. 


— PrescotL 


89. 


•» 


Wellaiid. 


Anhaba»ka. 


57. 


— RusselL 


90. 


— 


Haldimand. 


Cbamplain. 


58. 


— Carleton. 


9L 


— 


Norfolk. 


Saint- Maurice. 


59. 


— Reiificw. 


92. 


— 


Elgin. 


Maskiiioii:;!*. 


6a 


— Lanark. 


93. 


— 


Midlesex. 


Wolfe. 


61. 


— Boauharnoia. 


94. 


— 


Oxford. 


Complon. 


62. 


— Ilunlingilon. 


95. 


^ 


Kent. 


SberbnMjk<*. 


63. 


— Soulanges. 


96. 


— - 


Eaaex. 


Sun4»tfaJ. 


61. 


— (ilengarry. 


97. 


.— 


Lambton. 


\rfch^re<. 


65. 


— Stotmont. 


98. 


— 


Huron. 


Charablv. 

• 


66. 


— Dundas. 


99. 


— 


Bruce. 


Saifit-Jean. 


67- 


— Grenville. 


100. 


.-> 


Cloy. 


Nspicrville. 













SKBTCn 

or 



CANADA, 

ITS 

INDUSTRIAL CONDITIOxN AND RESOURCES. 



PllEFACR 

The object of this nkctch is to combine within the smallest poienibb 
limits, the mo^t valuable information- on the past and present condition 
or CanaJ.i, to enable the reader to judge of the future pro&pscts of this 
fine Colony. 

Numerous works exist relating to the Ilistor)', the Commerce, and the 
•ocinl and political position of Canada ; but they arc all eiihw*r too 
Toluminous or intenJed to elucidate some one particular subject, — miny 
of them are so cro\vd;;J with fissures, that the pcruHfil of them is out of 
the question, except to persons seeking complete information upon the 
general statistics of the country. 

Every efTort has tieen made to compress, in this pamphh t« all that can 
interes: the public, within limits which may render the work accrplablo 
to the geneni reader. 

Nuihiog is more difficult than to say much in a few words; it would 
b; impofsiblo to give a detail of all objects of interest in Cannda, even in 
a work of ten times the length of this. Cjnvinced of this, the author has 
simply confined himself to pourtraying the main features and characteristics 
of hii country, anJ has only enJeavour.vi to delineate them with perfect 
truth. 

The realer must bear in minlthitthti little volume is meant for ''the 
million \^ aceonlingly, the man of lett?rs will fin I in it but a sma!l amount 
of hter»tare ; the tourist, little of th3 pioture^q le ; t!io philcajpher, but 



70 



little science ; the political economist, perhaps, too few figures ; still, all may 
derive from it some knowledge which they do not already possess ; and if 
tlie vast number of persons throughout Europe, who have been taught that 
Canada is the perpetual abode of ice and snow, can be convinced of their 
error, the aim of the author will have been attained, and something will 
have been done towards pointing out to the super-abundant population of 
Europe, a country where the emigrant may find a home, and a free and 
wide field* for his industry, under the protection of wise and liberal in- 
stitutions, which allow to all, the peaceful enjoyment of their affections 
and their traditionary modes of existence. 



I. 

PRflLIMINARY REMARKS. 

laporlMMt of GaiiadA.^Boandarict. ezUnt and potitioo of the Country .—ParU inhabited.^ 
3fATigabl« Watert-^ndat in the River Saint Lawrene<».— Natural wealth.— ImproTCmeat 
Mooanso. — Arrangcfnent and intention of thia work. 

Canada has undergone great changes since the period when France 
consoled itself for the loss of this immense territory, by exclaiming. — 
"after all, what signify a few acres of snow in Canada ?'' Now, in 1855, 
these acres of snow have become a country covering a space of 360,000 
•quare miles, inhabited by 2,000,000 of people ; the annual products of its 
fertile soil, exceeding in value £25,000,000, independent of the wealth of its 
forests and the riches contained in its unrivalled fisheries ; its traide employs 
an ocean fleet of more than a million of tons burden, and a flotilla on 
the lakes and rivers of upwards of two hundred thousand tons. Its Govern- 
ment is nearly independent, with a revenue of one million sterling, and it 
possesses educational and charitable institutions, worthy of the most 
highly (avorcd countries in the world. 

Bounded on the north and west by the immense tract known as the 
-King's Posts'* or tho '* Hudson's Bay Company's" territory, on the 
south and east by the Gulf of St. I^wrence, the Province of New Bruns- 
wick and the United States; Canada assumes the form of a paral- 
lelogram, its length extending from the north-east towards the south-west. 

Its whole length in round numbers is 1200 miles, its breadth, about 300. 
The limits of the countr}*, taking it lengthwise, extend from the GOth to 
the 84th degree of west longitude, and from the 42nd to the 52nd parallel 
of latitude. 

Here as in other countries the Isothermal zones are not regulated by 
the parallels of latitude, and with the exception of that part c f t'ie west- 
em Peninsula, in the immediate ncigiibuurhood of L*ike Erie, at 
the extremity of Upper Canada, which is the hottest part of the countr}*, 
and the coast of Labrador, the northeru extremity of Lower Canada, 
which is by far the coldest, the slight difference of climate aflects only 
the production of some delicate fruits, the ordinary objects of agricultural 
laboar, not at all. 



72 



The inhabited part of this vast country contains an area of no more 
than about 36,000 miles, the remainder is the properly of the province^ 
and still exists in its primitive state as a forest, afibrd.'ng timber for build- 
ing, of which great quantities arc annually exported for the markets of 
Europe and America. 

No country in ihd world is so well watered by fine riverj as Canadai 
intersected as it is by the River St. Lawrence through its entire length. 
This river is navigable for the largest ve&sels up to Quebec, 450 miles from 
its mouth, and for vessels of 600 tons as far as Montreal ; sixty leagues 
higher up, it bears on its bosom large steam3ss and sailing vessels of 
from 200 to 300 tons burthen. 

The tide is perceptible as far up as Three Rivers, ninety miles above 
Quebec ; in the harbour of Quebec the highest tides risa to 20 feet, ordi* 
nary tides to about 12 feet, it being found that from this port to the gulf» 
this river is subject to the same induences as the open sea. 

The natural productions of Canada are aa various as its surface is ex- 
tensive ; the m )st usefu! kinds of woods exist in abundance from one ex^ 
tremity of the country to the other, minerals, even gold, are found, alsc^ 
copper and iron, the forests^ are inhabited by wild animals affording the 
most valuable furs, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence boasts of the finest fish- 
eries in the world, 

The soil is almost every where proverbial for its fertility, and the ex- 
plorations that are constantly made, prove that the land is good even in 
localities where it was supposed to be the reverse. 

Canada thus specially favoured by Providence has advanced at a firm 
and steady pace in the march of improvement ; its population which in 
1700, amounted only to some sixty odd thousand, has in less than a cen- 
tury increased thiiry-fo'd. A proportionate amount of land has also been 
cleared for cultivation, roads, and riher means of communication (in some 
respects unequaled in the world) have Lcen opened to commsrce, and 
education has kspt pace with the progress of agriculture and the indus- 
triil art«'. As a natural consequence, the poltical and civil institutions 
have ad van ^cd under the fostering influence of an enlightened libsrty. 

Cnnala has its deficiencies, no doubt, as well as all other countries, and^ 
as elsewher\ all is not perfection ; ihe lower orders have their periods of. 
tridi, but taking the things of this world at their true value, and men for 
what they appear to be worth here as elsewhere, there are fow countries 
where one can live belter than in Canada, no matter to what part of it^e 
mav turn. 

Not to trouble the reader with a mnss of details on a variety of subject?, 
and to allow every one to study that subject which interests him most, tho 
author has divided this sketch into several chapte!*s, each under a special 



73 . 



heading and containing the information relating to some particular featare 
of the country. As it is in the first place especially necessfary to give some 
idea of its gfogra|:hy, the succeeding chapter is intended to make the 
reader familiar with those territorial diviiions^an acquaintance with which 
is essential to a clear comprehension of the hi^itory and the other data 
which form the subject of this work. This is succeeded by a hasty outline 
of the history of Can ida, a brief description of the geological configuration 
of the country as fir as it relates to industrial pursuits, some hints on the 
e!inuite and meteorology, and on the natural productions and the benefit 
derived from them. Trade and statistics generally are not forgotten in this 
picture, together with the means of transport and the improrements made 
in this branch. One chapter is specially devoted to give the reader clear 
aod correct ideas cf our social and political organization. 

The author is well convinced of the difliculty of connprisinfir so much 
valuable matter in so small a space, but it is absolutely necessary ; it is the 
only form in which information can be made palatable to the people ; it i^ 
in bet the only metho i of reaching aM classes of society. This treatise is 
ioC a literary production : this will be at once perceived by the educated 
reader ; it is a picture of things as they are, to enlighten for practical pur- 
poees ; il it is not this, it is nothin;;^ at all. 

The object is, to make Canada known to the world, for this purpose we 
must have a book which all the world will read; the man of education 
without weariness, the man of limited education without the fear cf mit- 
tmden^tanding it ; it must be a book which you can carry in your great-coat 
pocket or in your travelling portfolio, to read it on boarJ a steamboat, or 
in a railway carriagn, when the hurry of business givc<< you leisure ; it 
must be at the same time a book which tlie artisan may carry home aii<l 
read at his leisure aAer the labors of the day. 

The author has done his utmost ro lie clear and precis?, and ihove all 
tmihful. All the information contained in figures in the diflorent chapters, 
it io round numbers, but still so near the exact truth, thit by tli3 eiil of 
this year, 1855. they will b? cxccedeJ in reality. The fii^ures in the chapter 
of statistics are the true numbers, extracted from official documents collected 
and poidished. 

A ^mall mapofC.inada is plane I at the end of the volume : this, contain* 
big few derails, is only intende I to give th3 rearbr an idea of the topci:;ra- 
phieai configuration of the country, and cf the principal great terr.torial 
divtsioQS. 



II. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DATA. 

DivWoQ of Lowor aod Upptr 0«naiU, or Canada Frooeh and Canada Kngliah. — Dlfftraooo 
boMraoa tho two Scotiout.— Tanitortal diTU^oni.— Ocognphical davcripUon of tho two 
Coanirica. — ^The Gulf and ita Idlaiida — Labrador. — Nurth Coaat.^Gafpc.— Dittricta and 
Countiea.— The Saguenajr.— Lake St John.— South coa»t.— Quebec— Three Rivera— S.unt 
Mavrieo.— TIm St. Prancin.— The RIehclica.— Ifonireal.— 1 he Ottawa.— Bjtoirn or Ottawa 
Ciij.*-Rapida.- -Brock Tilla.— The Thoofand Iabnda.*-Onta no.— Kingaton, Riter Trent 
—Toronto.— Lake Simeoe. --Uamiltoo.— Niagara. — Lake Eiie.— Ritcr Detroit— Lake 
St Clair. — ^Ibe Thamea. — Lake Huron. — Fiahiog and MiLiog Statiooa on Lake Superior. 

Allhoagh Canada at present consists of hut one single Province, it is 
nevertheless divided into two sections widely different from one another. 
Upper and I^ower Canada, or Canada West, and Canada East. The 
latter extends from the Gulf to the River Ottawa, on the north of the 
St. I^wrence, and to the point of intersection of the 45th parallel with 
the river on the south. This section enjoys all the ocean navigation of the 
Colony, the other. Upper Canada, extending towards the west and south- 
west includes within its limits, the navigation of the great Lakes Ontario, 
Erie. Huron and Superior. 

The area of I^wer Canada is much greater than that of Upi^er Canada, 
bat from Ix>wer Canada which is about six time.i as large as the other 
seelioo, must be deducted about one quartrr: which, heini; situited along 
the eoost of I^brador and behind it. will nc%-rr serve any other purposes 
than tbotfe of the huntsman and the lumberer : all the rest is suitable for cul- 
tivation with the exception of a few of those sterile tracts which are to be 
met with in most countries. 

Lower and Upper Canada offer as great a contrast in the manners and 
social hahifs of the people, as they exhibit in their laws and geographical 
aiiaation. The former is chiefly inhabited by French or Franco-Canadians, 
the latter almost exclusively by people of British origin ; in Lowit Canada 
an immense majority belong to the Catholic religion, in Upper Canada the 
largest number belong to the different denomination?* of Protestants. The 
English laws prevail exclusively in Upper Canada ; the old French Civil 
law constitutes the sole code in Ix>wer Canada. 

The territory is divided into Districrs, Counties, divitiions and Uniims of 
Counties for judicial and political purposes; the Counties are again sub- 



70 



divided into Townships in Upper, and into Pariihes and Townships in 
Lower Canada. There are thirty judicial districts in the formrr and seven 
in the latter; there are fifty-eight Counties in Lower Canada, forty-two in 
Upper; these Counties have also their electoral suh-di visions, which it is 
not necessary to describe here, as the number of electoral colleges will be 
duly enumerated hereafter. 

We will now enter on the plan which we propose to follow ; to make 
the reader acquainted with a little of the geography of the country, we 
shall take the roule which nature herself points out to us, by ascending the 
stream of the Saint Lawrence, which passes through onr territory as its 
main artery, and follow the northern sliore of the great lakes through part 
of Upper Canada. 

Let us first notice the Magdalen Islands in the middle of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence ; the principal Islands of the group being seven in number. 
They form part of the Province of Canada, and derive their importance 
from the fact of their being a good rendezvous for those engaged in the 
fisheries, who find in these waters, cod, herring, markerel, seals and whales. 
The Gulf of St. Lawrence fiom north to south, from the coast of Nova 
Scotia, to that of Labrador, is upwards of three hundred miles in width. 

At the Western extremity of the Gulf and at the mouth of the River St. 
Lawrence, is situated about midwa}*, the Island of Anticosli, one hundred 
and thirty-five miles in length, and thirty-six miles wide at its broadest 
part. 

This Island is not only a station for hunting and fishing, it contains also 
some land capable of cultivation ; at present there are but five houses on 
it, two lofty light houses, for the benefit of navigation, two depots of pro- 
visions in case of shipwrecks, and a permanent fishing and hunting 
establishment. On the north of Anticosti is the coast of Labrador, which 
is extremely sterile, but its rivers abound with the finest salmon and its 
shores are frequented by all kinds of salt water fish, which are taken in 
great quantities at the difi*erent fishing stations established there. 

To the south of Aniieosti, on the left hand, ascending the St. Lawrence, 
is the district of Gaspe, comprising the Counties of Bcnaventure and 
Gaspe. Here the soil is excellent ; the people of this locality are enn 
ployed in agricultural pursuits, in the getting out of timber, and more 
e^'pecially in cod-fishing. Only a small part of this district is settled; but 
the population is increasing very rapidly. 

The north shore, on the right hand, facing the Gaspe coast, only presents 
to notice a few hunting and fishing establi.shments. The land, f >r a certain 
distance, ascending the river, is scarcely fit for cultivation, leing broken 
and rocky ; it however abounds with gooJ timber, of excellent qualiiy — 
well adapted for exportaition. 



77 



The mean breadih of the St. I^wirnce at this point, is about sixty 
miles, it narrows rery suddenly at the Pointe des Monts on the north 
shore; upon this p)int, which projects a considerable distance from the 
land, a light-bouse Is erected. 

The north coast and the consts of Oasp6 are watered by n great num. 
ber of streams alM>unding in fi.sh ; and which float or are capable of floating 
brpe quantities of timber, of which there is a f*:ood supply ; there are also 
on both sides, good harkour^ for shipping ; among which, that of the 
ScTcn Inlands is most remarkable. At the western eitremify of Gasp^, 
may be seen, at a distance of about twenty-four miles in the interior, the 
Chicchack, or Notre Dame Mountains, the highest in Canada, being 
about 4,000 fWet al>ove the level of the si*a ; they form p:irt of the chain 
of the Alleghanies, or Apalachian range. 

On the south share, we have the County of Kimou^ki, then I'emiscouata. 
the large populations of both cf which are exelusively engaged in agri- 
cnltaral pursuits — a part c>f them, however, are occasionally employed in 
getting out timber for the l.uropenn market. On the north, is the new 
County of Saguenny, the few Inhabitantfi of which are exclusively 
engaged in lumbering. 

On the left, is the County of Kamouraska, which, with thnt of Temis* 
couata and Rimouski, form the District of Kamonra.«ka, included within 
that masrniflcent range of settlements which lie along the shores of the 
St. I^wrence, known and celebrated in the country ns the Cote du Sud. 

On the north shore, opposite Temiscouata, and forming the boundary 
between the Counties of Sagucnay and (.'harle\*oix. is the River Sagucnay, 
the great tributary of the Nt. Lawrence, the wild and majestic scenery 
of which is without a parallel. From its mouth, at Tadousnc, to Ha! Ha I 
Bay, in the interior, for about fifty-four miles of its course, its average 
breadth is a mile, and its depth one hundred fathoms. In this distance, 
it receives the waters of several tributary rivers, and with the exception 
of a few bays forming the mouth of these rivers, its banks are formed by 
mountains of fantastic outline, in some places. 1,500 feet high, their faces 
descending almost perfcndicularly to the water's edge, and over which 
flow slender streams of water from the table lands at their !«ummits. 

From Ha! Ha! Buy to Chicoutimi. the Saguenay scarcely varies in 
breadth, but its depth at low water docs not exceed 10 fett, the ebb and 
flow of the tidex are perceptible as high up as the rapid«, rcvrnty-eight 
miles from the St. I^awrence, the flood tides reaching alxnit the height of 
10 feet. Prom that point, the Saguenay receives the waters of Lake 
Kenogami, and discharges itsrlf from F^ko St. John, by two outlets 
formed by an island in th^ir centre*. Like St. John, twenty-f ur miles 
long, and about the same in breadth, is the great ba&in of the Sagnt^nay : 



7a 



into if, innumerable rivers empty themselves. The lands in the vicinity 
of the Upper Saguenay, which form the County of Cbicontimiy have been 
rapidly settled within the last few years. Upwards of sixty sea-gding 
shi s and a large number of schooners annually ascend the Saguenay to 
bring down the timber prepared there fur the home and foreign markets. 

An Indian tribe, the Montagnais, the most numerous in Canada, at 
present inhabit the Counties of Saguenay and Chicoutimii and bring 
great quantities of valuable furs to tbe foreign market. 

Returning to the St. Lawrence above the mouth of the Saguenay, we 
have on the north shore, the Counties of Ch.^rlevoix and Montmorenci, 
and on the south, the Counties of L'lslet, Montmagny, and Bellechasse. 

The St. Lawrence, which, from the Pointe des Monts to Kamouraska» 
varies in breadth from eighteen to thirty-six miles, does not here exceed 
twelve miles, and its waters begin to change gradually from salt to fresh. 
Opposite the last n^med Counties, and forming part of them, lies a group 
of lovely islands, of most picturesque appearance ; they are called, lie 
auxCoudres, Goose Island, Crane Island, Grosse Isle, and Madame Island; 
and lastly, the splendid Island of Orleans, twenty-one miles long, and 
comprehending five Parishes, which form part of the County of Mont- 
morenci. 

After passing the Island of Orleans, we enter the roadstead of Quebec, 
within which is situated the present Capital of Canada, on the site where 
Champlain first laid its foundation ; its port is large enough to contain 
thousands of ships, its wharves, extending 50 feet into the river ; and its 
citadel is one of the strongest in the world. Quebec is built partly on 
the bank of the river and partly on tbe promontory called Cape Diamond; 
it is bounded on one side by the waters of the St. Lawrence, and by the 
pretty River St. Charles on the other, and is situated in the midst of tbe 
most lovely scenery in all America 

The reader will find in another chapter, statistics relative to the different 
towns and divisions of Canada, all of which are advancing with rapid 
strides in the march of improvement. 

On the right, to the north of the city, is the County of Quebec ; on the 
left, on the south bank of the river, are the Counties of Levis, Dorchester 
and Beauce, the two last being in the interior. The river above Quebec, 
becomes very contracted, varying from one mile to four in breadth : a few 
miles higher up, it has a depth of only about 14 feet on the shoals. Leav- 
ing Quebec, you have on your right, the County of Portneuf, and on your 
left, the County of Lotbiniere, and in the interior and in rear of Loibiniere, 
the County of Megantic ; these three counties, with the city of Quebec, and 
the Counties cf Quebec, Montmorcnei, Charlevoix, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, 
Beauce, Dorchester, Levi, Bellechasse, Montmagny. and Tlslet, compose 



19 



the Jadicial District of Quebec — the third ia geographical poaitioo; 
aKcendingihe river. 

On the banks of the St. Lawrence, are the Counties of Nicolet and 
Yamatka ; in rear, in the interior, those of Drummond and Arthabaska; 
and on the norih shore, the Counties of Champlain, St« Maurice, and 
Matkinong^y which, with tlie town of Three Rivers, situated between the 
Counties of St. Maurice and Chconiplain. at the mouth of the Kiver St. 
Maurice, composes the Judicial Digtrict of Three Rivers. 

The River St. Maurice, which is upwards of three hundred miles in 
length, and which receives the waters of a large number of lakes, is of 
very great importance on account of the vast quantities of timber growing 
in its vicinity, the richness of the soil en its banks, and the existence of 
mines which produce iron of excellent quality. The town of Three 
Rivers is the centre of nil the trade of the St. Maurice. 

In the interior, towards the south, in rear of, and acyoining the District 
of Three Rivers, is the District of St. Francis, consisting of the small 
town of Sherbrooke, and the Counties of Wolfe, Compton, Sberbrooke, 
and Stanstead. The population, though still inconsiderable, ig making 
rapid progress. 

In following the course of the river, we have crossed a part of Lake St. 
Peter, an expansion of the River St. Lawrence; its length is about twenty 
•even miles, its breadth about nine miles ; in the upper part, there are 
naroerous islands. Lake St. Peter receives the waters of the River St. 
Francis, which gives its name to the District above mentioned, which it in* 
tenects. and those of the splendid River Richelieu, which fljws out of 
Lake Cbamplain. These streams all swell the volumQ of the great St. 
"Lawrence. Lake Champlain lies almost entirely within the territory of 
the United States ; but the whole length of tlio Richelieu is within Cana- 
dian territor}*. 

The banks of the 'Uchelieu arc the most fertile in the whole District of 
Montreal ; we have on the right, the Counties of Vercheres, Chimbly, St. 
John, and Napierville; and on the lef^, ths Counties of Richelieu, St. 
Hyacinth, Rouville, and Iberville, which are bounded by the river, and in 
the interior. Bagot, Shefford, and Muisisquoi. In the County of St. Hyacinth, 
is the prpity little flourishing town of St. Hyacinth. 

Returning to the St. Lawrence, at the iiu>uth of the Richeli.^u, and 
ascending; the former, which we must follow to a great distance In^furc 
reachin:; the end, we have on the south shore, a second time, the Counties 
of VcrchercH and Chanibly; on the right, to the north, Berthicr and 
L*Aisomptif>n. front'n'^ on the St. Lawrence, and in rear, the Counties of 
Joiiette and Montcalm. 

We have thus reachtd the Island of Montreal, which priwluces. ninong 



80 



a thoasand other excellent articles, the best apples on the Continent of 
America. 

This island, thirty miles in length and nine in breadth, forms of itself 
the county of that name. It contains ten Parishes, and also the fine city 
of the same name, the most populous in all Canada, as well as the best 
built ; in fact, in this particular, it is inferior td no city in the new world. 
Montreal is the principal terminus of the inland navigation, and the 
emporium of trade with the United States. 

To the north of the Island of Montreal, is Isle Jesus, divided from it by 
the River Ottawa ; it is about twenty-four miles in length, and containi 
four Parishes, which, with the adjacent islands, compose the County of 
Laval. 

I^le Jesus is separated from the north shore by a branch of the Ottawa, 
which bears the name of Uivi^re du Nord ; on the main land, along the 
shores of this river, lie the C )unties of Terrebonne and Two Mountains. 
On the south shore, opposite Montreal, are the Counties of Laprairie and 
Chateauguay. 

At the extremity of the Island of Montreal, at the junction of the hlaok 
waters of the Ottawa, or Grand lliver, with the clear stream of the St. 
Lawrence, the two rivers form expansions, the expansion of the St. Law- 
rence being called Lake St. Louis, and that of the Ottawa being known 
as Lake of the Two Moun'ains; these two lakes are divided from one 
another by h\e Perrot and the end of the Island of Montreal. Lake St. 
Louis is enterej by the Rapids of Caughnawaga, or St. Louis, the deiKsent 
of which, in a steamer, which is now effected without the slightest danger, 
is well calculated to give satisfaction to those who arc fond of that kind of 
excitement. 

Let us now follow to the westward, the course of the River Ottawa which 
flows out of the Lal^c or Lakes Tcmiscamang at upw.nrds of three hundred 
miles from its mouth. 

On the north shore is the County of Argentenil, and on the left to the 
south, the County of Vaudreuil. From this point .the Ottawa forms the 
boundary between Upper and Lower Canada ; ascending the River, on the 
Lower Canada shore to the right, are the Counties of Ottawa and Ponliac, 
which form the new District of Ottawa. On the Upper Canada shore are 
the Counties of Prcscott, Russell, Carleton and Renfrew, with Lanark in 
the rear. 

A very large proportion of the timber trade of the Province is carried on 
in the vicinity of the Ottawa. Its principal tributaries are the Rivers au 
Lifevre, the Gatincau, the Rideau and River au Moine, about seventy-five 
miles from the mouth of the Ottawa ; at the foot of the Chaudi^re Falls, on 
the Upper Canada shore, is Bytown now called the City of Ottawa. By* 



81 



town tlAnds id a fine mtuation on a height which, in the form of an amphi- 
theatre, commands the bay forming its harbor. 

Allbnugh this Town is built on the Western shore, it is the general mart 
fisr the trade on both sides of the Orand River, the population is half 
French, half English ; a handsome iron suspension bridge spans the Hirer 
at this point. This tributary of the St. Lawrence presents a series of mag- 
nifioent views from its mouth to its source ; although navigable throughout 
VQch df its length, the course of this splendid river is, in many places inter- 
mpced by rapids, the principal of which are at Carillon, the Chaudi^re, 
the Chats atid the Allumettes. Steamers of a large class ascend and de- 
■oend reaches of the River ; smaller ones go the entire length by means of 
locks ; and rafts of timber either shoot the rapids, or avoid them by pass* 
ing over slides constructed for the purpose. 

To return to the St. Lawrence, on the left hand lie the Counties of Beau- 
hanMMS and Huntingdon, and on the left the County of Soulanges ; these 
are die last Counties of Lower Canada on the River and in the District of 
Mootreal. This District, which is one of the least extensive of Lower Can- 
ada* is, however, one of the most populous and consequently the richest. 

At the end of Lake St. Louis towards the west, an the rapids called the 
OMcades and the Cedars, beyond which the River widens again to about 
fiwr miles, thus forming Lake St. Francis. 

Worn the end of this Lake at St. Regis, at the intersection of the 45th 
parallel, Canada lies wholly on the north shore of the St. Lawrence and of 
die great lakes ; the south shore belongs to the United States, but the 
waters are common to both countries. 

Following the same course we reach the County of Glengarry, the first in 
Upper Canada on the St. Lawrence, chiefly inhabited by Scotch Highland- 
en. From this point the reader will perceive by the change in the names 
of places, that we have loft Lower Canada ; the emigrants from the British 
Ues have a respect for the traditions of their country, consequently 
the names of their Counties and Districts are the same as those of well 
known localities in Old England, Ireland and Scotland, or they are named 
after men who have added lustre to the British name, or have figured in 
the page of history since the conquest of Canada. One County opiy re- 
taina its French name, that of Frontenac. Following the example of 
Lower Canada, many of the primitive names given by the Indians to the 
townships and rivers have been preserved. 

After Glengarry come the Counties of Stormont and Dundas, which for- 
owrly constituted the Eastern District. In Stormont is the little Town of 
Goniwall at the foot of a rapid called the Long Sault. 

Afier posting the Rapids called the Oallopa, we arrive at the 

F 



82 



of Grenvillc and Leeds and the pretty Town of Brockville, prettily situated 
on a rising ground. 

Wc now reach the Thousand Islands, one of the most picturesque scenes 
in the whole of our splendid River. The name indicates a shoal of small 
Islands, strewed about in inextricable confusion ; they are of all sizes, from 
that of a bark canoe upwards : some are merely a bare rock, others are 
covered with verdure ; some are level with the water, others present to the 
spectator fine bold shores of scarped rock ; no two are alike, each has its 
peculiar beauty. 

We reach Lake Ontario, one hundred and eighty miles long, forty-eight 
wide, a hundred fathoms deep and its level two hundred and thirty five 
feet above that of the ocean. 

Next comes Kingston, the second fortified place in Canada, the third 
town in importance in Canada West, situated near the Counties of Fron- 
teuac, Lennox and Addington. 

The north shore of Lake Ontario next presents to us the County of Prince 
Edward, on a ]>cninsula bounded by Lake Ontario and the Bay of Qiiint6. 
At the upper extremity of this Bay lies the County of Hastings and the 
Town of Jiollovillo. These two Counties are inhabited principally by the 
descendants of New England colonists, who refused to take part in the 
revolution of America, and who by their fidelity to the British Government 
earned the luune of United Empire Loyalists. It is into the Bay of Quint6 
that the Trent empties itself, a river of some importance from the extent of 
its timber trade, mid the high state of cultivation of the neighboring 

Countv. 

Next in succession, on the Lake shore, are the Counties of Northumber- 
land and Durham, and the little towns of Cobourg and Port Hope. In 
rear of these are the Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, with the small 
Town of Peterborough. In this neighbourhood the country is intersected 
by fine Lakes, on which the steamboat's whistle is already heard ; then 
follow the Counties of Ontario, York and Peel, of which the City of 
Toronto forms the centre. Toronto is the first City of Upper, and the 
third of Uniteil Canada, it is favourably situated in a bay which forms its 
harbour. 

This City is built in the modem American fashion, with very wide 
streets crossing each other at right angles : it is the centre of a very 
considerable trade. 

In rear is Lake Simcoe, thirty miles in length by fifteen in breadth : 
this empties itself into Lake Huron by the River Severn. It gives its 
name to the County of Simcoe, which encloses a part of its waters and is 
about the highest land in the country, being about 700 feet above the sea. 

At the upper end of Lake Ontario arc the Counties of Halton and 



88 



Wentwortb, the city of Hamilton and the County of Brant. Hamilton 
lies in Burlington Bay, at the head of the navigation of Lake Oniario, its 
■ite is picturesque and well chosen for commercial purposes; like the 
neighboring Town of Brantford it is increasing at a rapid rate. Hamilton 
if the second city of Upper Canada, in importance and population. 

In the interior to the West are the Countiesof Wellington, Waterloo, and 
Perth. There isy in thb part of the country, a considerable settlement of 
Germans. The chief place is the little Town of Berlin in the centre of 
what they call " Little Germany." 

From Burlington Bay, as far as the River Niagara, which is the boun- 
dary of tbis part of the Province, the south shore of Lake Ontario be- 
longs to Canada; to tlie eastward, in tbis locality, are situated the 
County of Lincoln, and the small Town of Niagara, tbc latter at the mouth 
of the river. Tbis river which unites Lakes Ontario and Erie, is properly 
speaking only the continuation of the St. Lawrence; it is at about tbe 
middle of its length that tbe Niagara Falls, of which tbc whole world bas 
hemrd, are situated. Fortunately it is not my province to describe tbis 
great wonder of nature ; who in fact could attempt to give a correct idea 
of the Falls of Niagara ? 

On entering Lake Erie, tbe first Counties which present tbemselvcs to our 

noCice are VVelland and Ilaldimand. Lake Erie is about two bundred 

< 

and forty miles long by fifly four in breadth, its dcptb is not more iban 
eighteen fathoms, and its elevation above tbe level of tbj sci five bimdred 
aid sixty four feet. 

The County of Norfolk, next in succession, was tortnerly tbe Talbot 
INstrict named after Colonel Talbot, tbe first settler in tbis Count v. well 
known in Upper Canada, for his success in coloni/ition. W«* bavc next 
the Counties of Elgin and Middlesex: tbe latter baving tbe rising Town of 
London for its Capital. 

In the interior is the County of Oxford, and on tbc »bore, Kent, Essex 
aid Lambtoii, on the river Detroit; at tbe bead of the* navigation of the 
river Thames is the thriving little Town of Cbatham. 

The river Detroit forms tbe juncticm of Lakes Erie and Huron : like ibo 
Xiagarm it is only a part ot tbe 8t Lawrence ; at about its middle it widens 
out, and forms Lake St. Clair, 24 miles in length l>y tbe s;ime bro.ulib. 

Having entered Lake Huron, and coasting along its Eastern s!iore, we 
find the Counties of Huron, Bnice and (irey, — tbe last in Upper Canadn. 

The length of Lake Huron, is two hundred and forty miles l»> .i !)rea»lili 
of about ninety. Its sbape is very im*gular, its deptb alK)iit seventy-fivi- 
liulioms, and its elevation above tbe sea 51^5 feet. 



84 



Here end the Canadian settlements, with the excepdoo of some fishing 
posts on Lakes Huron and Superior, and some small companies of settlerS| 
established in localities faToorable to the drawing of timber or the working 
of copper mines. I do not enumerate among these the scattered remains 
of those wandering tribes who inhabit the extreme end of Upper Canada ; 
these nations are fast disappearing from the Country, except the Montagnais 
in Lower Canada, in the Saguenay territory, of whom it is said, that the 
pure and gentle manners introduced by the missionaries have saved them 
from the vices ai:d misery which are exterminating their brethren. 



III. 

A FEW WORDS ON THE PRINCIPAL PERIODS IN THE HISTORY 

OF CANADA. 

DiicoTcry of CtDada bj Jaeqaet Cartier. — Do RoberraL— Champlaio founds Quebee. — 
Qncbce Uk«n bj tbo English. — Canada r«laken by the French. — Montreal founded. — ColberVa 
Mhcme for eoloouinf^ New France.— CitU QoTemment of theCokmy.^Eccletiastieal adminu- 
tratioa — Education. — War between the colonies. HraTery of the Coloni»ta. — Siege of Qua- 
bee.— De Frontenae.— D*lleniUe.->SUte of New France in 17S1.— Quebec in 1755. Succetiea 
wmd ^rweraec^Defeat of Montcalm.— Victory gained bj De Lerit. — Capitulation and traaty 
•fcttaaiooin 1761.— Struggle* between the French colonitti and English Eniigranta. — Ciril 
OoTcrameot of 1774.— American War of Independence. — Constitution of the year 1791.— War 
«f 181S. — Insurrection of ] 837.— Present Ooyemment 

The reader musi not ezpeet more in this short chapter, than u few hastj 
remarks on the principal features of the political existence of this import<uit 
country. 

Canada was discovered by Jacques Cartier, in 1534 ; he made three 
voyages thither in succession, passed the winter in Quebec, and explored 
the river from the Gulf to Montreal. Quebec and Montreal were then aa 
now, the great centres of population of the aborigines ; the former was called 
Scadacooa, the latter Hochelaga. 

The first Governor of Canada, M. de Rober%'al, perished with the whole 
of bis suite on his second voyage. This terrible catastrophe contributed 
Dot a little to retard the progress of the colony. 

From 1534 to 1608, the dale of the foundation of Quebec by Champlain« 
ibeo Governor of Canada, history records nothing of interest beyond the 
ofganization of companies in France, voyages, discoveries and wars with 
the American Indians. The disturbed state of politics in Europe caused 
the care of managing the colonization of Cauada to devolve almost entirely 
oo private indiriduals, who unforttmately devoted their energies rather to 
driving a goodj trade in furs with the Indians, than to the promotion of 
agriculttiral industry in the colony. But dating from the foundation of 
Quebec, and thanks to the seal of M. de Champlain, the idea was formed 
of making settlements* and of inducing the Indian nations (either by 
fierce or treaty) to ally themselves with France. In 1C29 the success of the 
Colony was ag^n retarded by the taking of Qtiebec, by the English Admiral 
Kirk, but in 1632 Canada was restored to France. 



86 



Montreal was founded in 1641, and made strong enough to resist the 
invasions of the Iroquois, who were always ready to harass the French and 
their Indian allies. 

Old France had done hut little for its colony in 1663, but under the 
administration of the great Colbert, plans of colonisation were fonned. At 
this period the French population of Canada amounted to no more than 
two thousand inhabitants, irregularly scattered in Tadoussac, Quebec, Three 
Rivers, Montreal, and a few other posts. 

Till then alj political authority in the colony, both civil and judicial had 
been vested exclusively in the Governor. At that time however, a more 
regular and effective system of Government was established, by separating 
the Executive from the Legislative authority. 

The earliest constitution of Canada established a supreme Council, several 
tribunals with limited powers, and the Couttime de Paris as the legal Code. 

A functionary, styled an " Intendant" was appointed, who combined 
the offices of Minister of Justice, of Finance, of Police, and of Public 
Works. Grants of land continued to be made, as at former periods, in the 
form of fiefs and seigniories, under conditions regulated from time to time, 
by Royal edict of the King of Franco. Questions of feudal law becoming 
matters of litigation were decided by the decrees of the governors and 
intendants. 

The Ecclesiastical Government of the country was at first administered 
by vicars apostolic, then by bishops, the first of whom was Monseigneur de 
Laval. Schools and colleges were instituted by the zeal of these bishops. 
New discoveries were continually made, the success of which was greatly 
advanced by the activity of the missionaries, and the country rapidly im- 
proved. 

In 1G89 war broke out between the French and English colonics, which 
was marked by the usual variations of success of the opposing parties. In 
saying that war broke out between the colonies, I allude to the neglected 
state of New France, left to its own resources to stand or fall. The 
English Admiral, Phipps, came with a fleet to lay siege to Quebec, but 
was repulsed. Thanks to the good government of Count de Frontenac, 
New France was so successful in arms that she determined to assume the 
offensive against the English colonies, and acted with such energy that 
Dlberville, the Canadian Cid, after several successful battles by land and 
sea, took possession of Newfoundland and its capital, St. John's, and also 
reduced the forts in Hudson's Bay. 

At length, in 1697, peace was concluded with England, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1701 by a treaty of alliance w^ith all the Indian nations in 



87 



Canadm. A new war was succeeded by a new treaty, by which France 
ceded to England Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson's Bay. 

In 1721 New France reckoned a population of twenty-five thousand 
souls, owners of sixty-four thousand arpents of cultivated land, yielding a 
very considerable produce. It contained several educational establish- 
ments, and a fair amount of trade was carried on. 

In the course of the hostilities which took place in 1754, Washington 
was defeated at Fort Necessity by M. dc Villiers. 

On the declaration of war in 1755, England had determined on the con- 
quest of Canada, and France, caring little for her colony, entrusted its 
protection to the heroism of the inhabitants, aided by a few soldiers. The 
beginning of this campaign was favorable to the Canadians, who defeated 
Braddock at Monongahela, and t<x>k the forts of Oswego and William 
Henry, which they destroyed. In 1758,- however, England raised her 
colonial army to fifty thousand men. The English General, Abcrcromby, 
lost the battle of Carillon, but the English army were successful in their 
enterprises in the Gulf. 

In 1759 General Amherst attacked the interior of Canada, while Wolfe 
with a fleet came before Quebec, and landed his troops on the Island of 
Orleans ; having scaled the heights of Abraham, he offered battle on the 
plains near Quebec ; the victory was gained by the English, both Generals 
were killed, and Quebec was obliged to capitulate. The Chevalier de 
Levis was unable to retrieve this loss, though he subsequently defeated 
the tame troops on the Heights of St. Foy. The fate of the colony was 
decided ; having lost the support of its stronghold, and attacked on all 
ttdet, it was compoUcd to surrender; thus, by the capitulation of 1761, 
New France ceased to form a part of the French Empire, and became a 
dependency of the English crown. The capitulation secured to the twenty 
thouand colonists the free exercise of their religion, the ninintcnance of 
their ancient laws, and the preservation of all their institutions, social, 
religious, and educational. 

From 1761 to 1774 the history of the colony is filled with recitals of the 
eoDtetts between the old French colonists and the new settlers of British 
origiOf the latter being nearly always sustained by the desjwtic government 
of that period. 

In 1774 a sort of constitution known as the ** Quebec Act, was framed 
in England ; by it a supreme Council was created, the old French laws 
were re-established, and an equality of civil rights secured to both Catholic 
and Protestant, by dispensing with the oath administered to public officers, 
which up to this date had prevented Catholics from holding any ofllice. 

The American war of Independence had some influence in Canada, the 



88 



Colony waf invaded, but remained faithful to its allegiance and opposed 
and repulsed the enemy. 

In 1791, was granted that constitution which established freedom of 
election and responsibility to the (icople, it was received with enthusiasm 
by the population of Canada. All appointments to places of honor and 
profit were under the patronage of the Crown ; the people elected their 
house of Ileprescntatives, and the King appointed the members of the 
Jjegislativc Council ; all laws before coming mto force, required the as- 
sent of the three branches of the Government. An Executive Council 
formed nt the same time a Court of Appeals, but the nomination to office 
and maintenance in it, in this body, depended entirely on the Crown. 

In 1812,'tlic war between the United States, and the mother country, 
gave the militia of Upper Canada an opportunity of displaying their 
courage, and, with some trifling exceptions they were generally successful, 
so that the enemy was finally repulsed afler a contest of three years. 

The continual difTerenccs between the Colonists and the authorities, which 
succeeded the war, resulted in 1837 in an insurrection, and a partial rising 
in both provinces. This movement was subdued and for some time Lower 
Canada was placed under martial law, and afterwards governed by the 
decrees of a Special Council. 

In 1840 the constitution which now regulates the affairs of the province, 
was granted)[by Great Britain ; this constitution will be treated of in the 
chapter specially dedicated to a description of the political and social in- 
stitutions of the country. 

The constitutional Government which Canada now enjoys, on the model 
of that of the mother country, is administered, as in England, in turns by dif- 
ferent parties, who assume the reins of Government and conduct its afiairs, 
and again in their turn pass into opposition. The most remarkable feature 
in the history of Canada, from 1840 to 1855, is the vast amount of 
public works, undertaken and completed either wholly or in part, and of 
which some more extensive notice will be taken hereafter. 

The colony appears to be animated by a most excellent public spirit, 
which laying aside the petty interests of party devotes itself to the general 
welfare, pointing out to the different classes of society how much nature 
has done for the country, and what is required to accelerate its progren 
towards the greatness which awaits it. 



IV. 

PHYSICAL ASPECT OF CANADA, AND REMARKS ON ITS 

GEOLOGY AND METEREOLOGY. 



of ibe Cotmtrj. — Form and character vf the Mountaioa. — Limita (»f the rallcj of tha 
St Lawrence. — Chain of the Laureotidea and AppaUehian or AUeghanj Mountaina. — 
PeaUirca of the CoDntrjr — Couraea of the Rirera.— Level of the Valley of the St. Law- 
raiiea: North and South Shore— -Principal geological charaeteristiea. — Climate. — Com- 
paratiTe temperature. — Canadian Wintcra.— Meterological obterTationa. 

Although the surface of the country is in general very uneven, there 
•re no very great mountains ; none of them exceed 5000 feet in height, and 
nowhere do they assume the appearance of crags or peaks, their well- 
rounded summits being always covered with full-grown trees; and if by 
chance the naked rock exhibits itself like a wall on the borders of rivers, 
it is always crowned by a sort of table land, on which the largest trees arc 
found to flourish. 

Two chains of mountains, which form together what is called the heigki 
of landy and which have a general direction from the north east towards the 
south west, inclose the valley of the St. Lawrenc*e on both sides, and in the 
north divide the waters of the tributaries of the St. Lawrence from those 
of Hudson's Bay. The first of these chains is called the Laurcntides. In 
the south, the height of land formed by the Alleghany or Appalachian 
range separates the waters of the St. Lawrence from those which flow by 
the river Ristigouche, into the the Bay of Chaleurs, by the river St. Johoi 
into the Bay of Fundy, i»nd by the Penobscot, the Hudson and others 
directly to the Atlantic Ocean. From the height of land, the ground 
ikipet downwards to the bed of the river at a less inclination in proportion 
m it approaches the west, for the valley of the St. Lawrence has a gradual 
aacent as it penetrates into the interior, but the centre of the valley 
riaet more than the siiies, so that on reaching the flat country in the 
interior the rivers cross one another and form a net work, those which 
flow towards the ocean receiving their waters from the neighborhocnl of the 
lakes, and those which empty themselves into the lakes draining the coim- 
cry lar to the south. 

The mean height of the bottom of the ravines in the chain of the Alle- 
gbanietf in the interior of the District of Gasp6 b about on the same level 



90 



as the waters of Lakes Huron and Michigan, and the summits of the Appa- 
lachians, in the neighborhood of Lake Erie, in the States of New York 
and Pennsylvania, are about the same height above the level of the sea, 
as the tops of the Alleghanies, in the District of Gaspe, Quebec and the 
State of Vermont ; but in the west, the beds of the great lakes are on much 
higher levels than that of the Gulf, and the river St. Lawrence in the Dis- 
trict of Gasp6 and Kamouraska. There is a difference of only two hun- 
dred and thirty -five feet between the level of the waters of the Gulf and of 
those of Lake Ontario, in a distance of seven hundred and fifty miles, and 
the depth of Lake Ontario, is a hundred fathoms. There is a difference of 
level between Lakes Ontario and Erie of three hundred and twenty-nine 
feet, though they are but a few miles asunder, and the Lake Erie is 
only one hundred and eight feet deep. Along the whole extent of 
the St. Lawrence, the north shore is more irregular than the south. The 
vast number of rivers that flow into the St Lawrence through its lengthen- 
ed course, do not reach it in a uniform direction, but at a variety of angles, 
nearly all however, flow from the west towards the east on the north shore, 
and from the south towards the north, on the north shore, except towards 
the great lakes into which the rivers empty themselves from all directions. 

There is a far greater amount of territory on the north than on the south 
shore, and the sides of the valley of the St. Lawrence are also much more 
extensive ; it is also on the north shore that the largest rivers and the 
finest forests are found. 

The stratum on which the basis of the valley of the great river rests par- 
takes of the character of the primary gneiss and transition formation, which 
crops out in several parts of the country, the gneiss more particularly on 
the north shore in both sections of the Province, the transition rock on the 
south shore. Of the different geological formations of the country which 
are most remarkable, some are analogous with those of the states of the 
neighboring Union. All appear anterior in their conformation, and conse- 
quently in lower layers than the coalfields, and even lower than the Devo- 
nian strata of transition rocks, the latter being only seen at the two ex- 
tremities of the country. The silurian period appears to be the pre- 
dominant characteristic. 

The kind of rocks most prevalent, to class them by a purely mineralogi- 
cal system, are the terriferous, calcareous, the argillaceous and conglom- 
erate, among which the most common are the calcareous and sand- 
stone. Canada is rich in minerals and the reader will find a list of the 
most important in the chapter dedicated to the natural productions of the 
country. 

The climate of Canada is generally very healthy, especially towards the 



91 



lower part of the Ri?er. No endemic disease exists in the country, if 
we except the intermittent fever in some parts of Upper Canada ; this also 
disappears as soon as the country is cultivated, and the few marshes in the 
neighborhood of the great lakes become dry or united with the cities. 

In so vast a tract of country there must of course be great variations in 
the meteorological phenomena, taking as examples the climate of Quebec, 
for the eastern end of the Province, that of Toronto for the west, and Mon- 
treal for the centre. The temperature rises gradually going west, so as to 
make a difference of about a fortnight in the advent of spring between 
Toronto and Quebec, and the same for the beginning of winter. The 
mean temperature in summer is a little higher at Quebec than at Montreal, 
and a little higher at Montreal than at Toronto. The mean temperature of 
Quebec in winter is some degrees lower than that of Montreal, and the 
temperature is lower in Montreal than in Toronto. Thus Quebec exhi- 
bits the greatest degree of heat in summer and of cold in winter, so that 
in short the annual mean temperature of Quebec differs but little from 
that of Toronto. It will be seen hereafter, what effect the climate has 
upon the vegetable productions of the country, affecting, as has been 
already stated, only certain tender fruit trees and shrubs. 

At Quebec the temperature in summer often rises to 95^ Fahrenheit, and 
has fallen in winter, though but rarely, to 93^. The maximum temperature 
at Toronto during a period of ten years was 95^, but this is not common ; 
and the minimum temperature for the same {>eriod was 18^ below zero. 

The mean temperature of the years 1847-8-9, at Toronto and Montreal, 
was for Toronto 45^ 30" above zero ; for Montreal 45^ 45", making a differ- 
ence of only 15". 

We may here cursorily remark, to avoid comparative calculations, that 
Arago estimates the mean temperature of Europe at 55^ 20^^ Fahrenheit 
and Dr. Craigie that of England at 50^, and that the mean temper- 
ature of Canada is between that of Copenhagen (44^ 18") and Berlin 
(46« 4^) 

The greatest meteorological variation between Upper and Lower Canada 
consists in the following fact : That in Lower Canada the snow covers the 
earth early in winter, and disappears in the space of a few days in spring, 
while in Upper Canada almost universally it lies but a few weeks ; that in 
the former its depth in the woods amounts to about three feet, while in 
the inhabited i>art of the latter, it rarely exceeds a few inches. 

Our winters which Europeans believe to be dreadful, are with us the 
season of enjoyment, and many strangers after passings winter in Canada 
have been heard to say : " Well ! after all, your winter is delightful, and 
b not hard to bear. 



92 



Our snow which frightens the new comer, makes the best roads in the 
world, and winter is the season for the carriage of heavy articles, for pro- 
curing timber and fire-wood, and for pleasure excursions ; and if the winten 
are long, and the snow deep,* they have the inestimable advantage of 
contributing to the health of the inhabitants, by destroying all miasmata, 
and nourishing and fertilising the soil ; neither is the wonderful rapidity 
with which the growth of vegatation proceeds, to be forgotten. 

The winter air is very dry, and so exhilarating, that without consulting 
a thermometer, a change of a few degrees is not percef>tible, and generally 
speaking, those days in the winter are the least agreeable when the temper- 
ature is too high for the season. 

The principal fault of our climate is its excessive dryness in summery 
which however, decreases as cultivation extends, and which is less felt in 
the Lower St. Lawrence, in the districts of Gasp6, Elamouraska, and 
Quebec, and on the tongues of land which constitute the counties of 
Lincoln, Welland, Essex, Kent, and Lambton, on account of their being 
surrounded by large masses of water. But these two extreme points of 
the Province, have as a counterpoise to this advantage two drawbacks 
peculiar to them ; in Lower Canada the heavy northeast winds with their 
accompaniment of beating rain in the autumn; and in the west, Cold winds 
and muddy roads, frozen or half frozen during the greater part of |he 
winter. 

The autumn usually brings over the navigable waters, heavy fc^, which 
certainly form one of those miseries of our country, from which, however 
highly favoured otherwise, it is not exempt. 

Canada has but little to complain of in the way of meteorological pheno- 
mena, such as devastating storms, thunder or hail ; although some accidents 
have occurred from these causes, they are so rare and so limited in their 
extent that we may almost congratulate ourselves upon being exempt from 
them on the shores of the St. Lawrence. 

The rivers bounded by high banks are not subject to those inundations^ 
which in many parts of the old and new world cause from time to time such 
serious devastations. 



V. 



NATURAL PRODUCTIONS AND MANUFACTURE& 



pf tM§ Mhurmt Kingdom, aod tbe principal loeatioiM of th«ir bada, baildiog 
0locM^ oombotUble nuUUri, tiuo«rftl ooloart, precious stooct, ttooct capable of ▼itrificaUao, 
OMBcral fcrtilitiog tubstancM, preeioot and other roctatt. — Productions of the VegttMt 
Kingdom, timbers for building and other purposes, plants and fruitu — Productiom of 
At Animml Kingdom, beasts, birds fishes, and cetaceous animals.— ifafMi/<if<«riii^ pro- 
ailnMiiim of the raw material, its oooTsrtioo into articles of eonaumptioii. 



We now proceed to consider the principal substances of the Mineral 
Kingdom, which are known at the present day to exist in the country, and 
to give the names of the places in which they are found ; it is of course our 
iDtmtion only to speak of those articles which come under the head of in- 
dostrial produce. 

Gianite of good qtiality for building purposes is found principally in the 
eounties of Megantic, Sherbrooke^ Stanstead, Shefford, and St. Hyacinth ; 
gnew is also found in abundance on the north shore, in different parts of 
both Upper and Lower Canada. 

Sandstone for building is also found in different parts of the Province, 
principally near Quebec, the mouths of the Niagara in Canada West, and 
the Ottawa in Lower Canada* 

Calcsuvous boulders are found in all directions. Lime also exists in all 
parts of the country, and hydraulic limestone on the shores of the Grand 
BiTer, in the county of Brant, near Lake Huron ; it exists also in the 
vicinity of Kingston and Bytown, in the county of Argenteuil and at 

Qtiebec 

Clayi of vtfious qualities are fotind over the whole face of the Province. 
Marbles of a diversity of colours are found in many places, and serpentine, 
p«rtictilariy in the districts of Quebec and St. Francis, on the south sliore 

of the river. 

The combustible su\)stances of the Mineral kingdom are very rare ; 
nevertheless, peat, nsptha, petroleum, and asphalt exist in certain places. 

Slate of good quality abounds in the ncighbourhwxl of the River St. 
Francis, and in the district of Quebec. Millstones of an inferior quality 

J be procured, but the best are to be had in the district of Gasp6. Whet- 
aboond in several kxralities, and very good tripoli has been discover- 
ed in the cotinties of Berthier and Montmorenci. 



94 



Earths of different colours are met with in numerous places; for instance, 
white barytes along the north shore, from Lake Superior downwards ; 
yellow, red, and brown ochre, in Tadousac and Montmorenci, and on the 
borders of Lake Huron a kind of ferruginous clay, which produces a deli- 
cate red. 

Lithographic stones are procured, which, though not of the best quality, 
may be employed to great advantage. 

In the category of precious stones we can boast of agate, jasper, hyacinths, 
amethysts, and jet ; grains of ruby found on the borders of the Ottawa have 
been shewn to us. 

Materials for the manufacture of transparent and opaque glass are abun- 
dant, but more especially in the counties of Beauce and Megantic ; there 
is a great deal of white quartzose sandstone on Lake Uuron, near Lake Erie, 
and in the counties of Beauharnois, Vaudrcuil and Laval, — and basaltic 
and other similar rocks on the north shore of Lake Superior, and ia the 
counties of Montreal, Vandreuil, and Chambly. 

Compact talc and pot stone arc found in ma.iy places in great abuDdance, 
but chiefly in the counties of Beauce and Megantic, together with plumbago; 
asbestus is found in Stanstcad and Kamouraska. Gypsum is to be had on 
the shores of the Grand lliver, near Niagara, and in the Islands in the Gulf 
at the mouth of the St. Lawrence ; phosphate of lime principally on the and 
Upper Ottawa, and probably along all the north shore, going eastward; and 
calcareous marl, suitable for manure in a number of places. 

The country also contains uranium, chrome, cobalt, manganese, iron 
pyrites, dolomites, and magncsites, for all which chemistry may find uses. 

Native gold exists under ground in sufficient quantities to be worked to 
great advantage, in the county of Beauce near Quebec, on the banks of 
the river Chaudit^re. Slight traces of gold in veins have been discovered 
in the copper mines of Lake Superior and in the districts of St. FraDcis 
and Quebec, where native silver is also found. Nickel and cobalt are 
met with near Lake Huron, and traces of them are found in other places. 
Copper exists on the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior and in the District 
of St. Francis. Lead is found in the Ottawa and Gasp6 districts. Iron 
in its various natural states abounds in many parts of Upper and Lower 
Canada, but principally near the River St. Maurice in the neighbourhood 
of the town of Three Rivers. The crystalline schists on the north shore 
through the whole extent of the country are found to contain masses of 
iron ore, generally of specular iron. 

We shall now proceed to inquire what are the most common and most 
useful productions of our forests, first noticing those which exist over almost 
the whole country ; we shall then show what trees are wanting in some 
localities, and what are exclusively peculiar to others. 



95 



The trecf which v.e find almost universally in our woods, are, the oak, 
maple, walnut, yoke-elm, elm, birch of two kinds, ash, three kinds of pine, 
hemlock, tamarack, yellow and black spruce, the fir, cedar, poplar, aspen 
and white birch of two varieties : all these trees attain a considerable size, 
and grow in all parts of Canada, except on the coast uf Labrador, where 
the only trees that thrive, arc the white birch, the fir, the different kinds 
of spruces, beech and one of the varieties of pine. The trees of smaller 
growth common to all the country are the cornel tree, willow, alder, hickory, 
and .wild cherry In our forests are found also, gooseberries, currants, 
strawberries, wortleberries, junii)er berries, raspberries and a host of other 
trees, shrubs, berries and plants, some of which are useful as metlicines or 
for dyeing ; these plants, among which we must not forget to mention the 
ginseng, so famous in China, are found throughout the whole length of the 
Phivince, firom Gaspe to the Kiver Detroit. 

The black walnut, the chesnut, iron wood, saffron and a few others, are 
peculiar exclusively to the peninsula at the western extremity of Upper 
Canada. The oak is more abundant and of better quality in Upper 
than in Lower Canada. The same remark applies to the elm, but all other 
woods attain a greater perfection in Lower Canada. 

There is one w<M)d in particular of great value in ship-building, and 
which from its strength and durability is beginning to be held in high 
estimation in the foreign markets, it is called Red Spruce, or Tamarack. 
This wood appears to possess within itself, all the requirements of ship- 
rimber. The smallest of the forest trees above mentioned attain a height 
of seventy feet, and a diameter of two feet at their full growth. We have 
ptoet of one hundred and fifly feet in height by six feet in diameter, which 
•erre for lower masts in one single piece for 8hi|)s of two thousand tons. 
Our black walnut, bird's-eye and curled maple, and our waved red beech, 
are splendid woods for cabinet ware and marqueierie, 

Canada has sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1853, specimens of all the 
productions above enumerated : just as they arc got out in abundance 
for commercial purposes. 

As a matter of course all varieties of grain and vegetables are cultivated, 
and arrive at great perfection thro!ighout the whole province ; the same 
may be said of tobacco, hemp, flax, and hops, as well as apples, plums, 
cherries and many other fruits. The best apples on the whole continent are 
those grown at Montreal, here also arc produced the best pears and melons ; 
owing to the great care bestowed on their cultivation ; the best plums, and 
best cherries (called French) come from the Quebec district, where other 
fruits only come to perfection when sheltered by thick trees against the 
north east winds of autumn. Grapes are produced with some success at 



96 



Morilrc'nl, but peaches attain perfection only west of Toronto, and more 
IKiTlicMiliirly near the river Niagara. 

'I'h(* wild uuimHls found in Canada are the moose deer, (a kind of elk;) 
Ciirilidu, (^roat rein-deer,) the buck, the black and red bear, the lynx or atag- 
Wfilf, I lie wildcat, nmrtin, mink, common wolf fox, the carcajo or kinka- 
Jfiu, llio martin, an animal which belongs to the fiunily of small bears, the 
bravor, the otter, muskrat, marmot, the polecat, the skunk, the hare, which 
nlioinMU in Lower Canada, and a great variety of squirrels. I have here 
only nuMitioned those species of animals which are most numerous and 
whirli lire found in alt our forests, with this exception, that the moose is 
n<it found on the coast of Labrador, rarely crossing to the east of the 
Hu^urnay or to the west of the Ottawa, and never passing higher than the 
UiclirrHMi on the south-west, which shews it to be an animal peculiar to 
liowcr (>anada; again, the skunk is found in the west where the moose is 
not m*c*n. The wolf is very scarce below Quebec, but foxes are numerous 
and vrry large ; on the north coast of Labrador and in the Saguenay terri- 
tory ,bliu?k and silver foxes are common ; the price of their skins is perfectly 
fiilinlouH, i\ single black fox skin, having been known to fetch as high as 
£21, Htrrling. 

Our birdit comprise every variety of ducks, wild geese ; both salt and 
ttvvAx water divers, the wild turkey of Upper Canada, the partridge, which 
abnuuilri overy where, but chiefly in Lower Canada, quail, woodcocki 
shlpts rranos ond henms, plover of all kinds both large and small, birds of 
pn^V, Hurh as eagles, hawks, and others, screech-owls, ortolans, the thrush, 
the wtindprrker, the titmouse, and many others, some remarkable for the 
liiiiiiilv (*f ihrir plumage, others for their melody ; among the latter the 
huiiiuiiiig bird, and the nightingale, which arrive pretty early in the 

vpiiiiK 
TImi firth which lire the most plentiful in our lakes and rivers are the 

saliiioiHrout, the ooinmtm trout, maskinonge, touradij white fish which 
urn iif gn*iit variety* the pikr, |M»r(*h, and a host of others; the sturgeon 
wliitOi iitttiinrt 11 liMigth of sevend feet, frequents some parts of the river. 
(Jiritl i|iiuiititleN of fish an' taken in the Western Lakes, but they are 
IrilliiiK noiiipitrtHl with the fisheries of the Gulf and Lower St. Lawrence, 
wliisro (uhI, nmekert^l, herring, pilchard, sea-trout, eel, salmon, and 
MiHiiV otlit«r HpiteU^M of fish abound in such quantities as to attract many 
Miriniiui from the United States. 

Kvnvy yeiir, fish to a large amount is caught on these stations, without 
U\\k \\\^ intii utuumnt the profits derived from the porpoise, seal, and whale 
Ualu'iU'H; owners of fishing vessels have made enormous fortunes by 
puihvuuH ll^t^ branch of industry. 



97 



It i8 needless here, to notice the domestic animals, the different Euro- 
pean varieties of which have been introduced into thi^ country, to cross 
or improve the breeds. 

It must be evident to the reader, that a population not exceeding 
^000,000 is too scanty, and unable to furnish sufficient hands for the 
cultivation of a fertile soil of so vast extent, or to reap all the advantages 
to be derived from those resources which we have merely attempted to 
describe in few words, and he will perceive at the same time that there 
is ample room under the Canadian heaven.s for the employment of intelli- 
gence, capital and labour, the great levers of human industry. 

Let us take a hasty view of the industry of the country imder two 
principal headings : Firstly, The production or extraction of the raw 
material ; Secondly, The conversion of primary substances into manu- 
fiurlnred articles, either for home consumption or for exportation. We 
•ball, in this chapter, only point out the names of the commodities, as a 
statistical enumeration of them will be given in a chapter dedicated to 
that purpose. By the extracts, which the reader will find in another chap- 
ter taken from the census of the inhabitants, he will see the number of 
hands which each trade employs. 

Besides the extraction from the earth of stone fit for the erection of 
buildings and monuments, employment is found in extmctinj^^ gypsum 
to be used as a fertilizing matter, white quartzose sandstone for the pre- 
paration of glass, coloring earths or pigments, for the paintin*^ of houses, 
in procuring native gold, copper, and particularly iron in all its varieties. 
We shall of course only notice hero such substances as an* produced in 
large quantities. The Europt^an capitalist or iiianufac'tiinT wishing to 
make practical experiments in Canada, may, by coinparini^ the account 
which has just been given of the natural products of ihe counlrj, with 
what the author here shews are worked and employed, ami by n^fcrring 
to the tables of statistics of the occupations of the pei>ph», arrive at a 
very correct estimate of the resources from which we derive the 
greatest profit, of the amount of that profit, and als4» of thos<* matters 
which are not as yet made use of; he may thus judi»i» what hntneh of 
industry would yield the highest n*tnni, and offer the U^st fit^ld for tlu' 
emplojmnent of capital. 

The yields, of the mineral substances of which we have s{M>ken, 
do not suffice for the uses of the country, and though these minerals 
exist in pesl sbOBduice under the soil, we nevertheless, are e<Mn|M*lled 
to impoft goH, boo, eopper, and colouring matters in their raw slate. 

The pltdtiet of our forests eniployed for building pur|>otics, tor cabinet- 
making, aiid\tianiar.ery is the principal item of our exportation, and 
nddetltocHMMBiSietlired furt and agricultural pnKlucc.-*whicli is in (.^annda, 



% 



98 



similar to the prodiictioDS of England and the north of France, — ^form aimoet 
the only articles which we export in their raw state, the other exports being 
com])aratively trifling. Our woods supply gums for the preparation of 
varnishes, and for certain chemicals, among them are the fir gum, the 
spruce gum, and the pine gum, or Canada balsam. 

The natural productions which Canadian industry employs for conversion 
into articlos of utility, or to adapt for useful purposes, will be enumerated 
in my future oliscrvations on our manufacturing establishments. There 
arc in Canncla ii all directions, foundries for the manufacture of all such 
articles as arc usually produced in similar establishments, firom the largest 
parts of steam engines to the smallest cooking utensils. The manu- 
facture of clay into bricks and other articles of pottery is also carried on 
very extensively. Some of our producers have furnished considerable 
quantities of excellent slate, but still, the supply of all these articles is &r 
from equalling the consumption. 

The manufacturing industry of Canada, employs a part of our timber in 
ship-building, and in this respect Quebec is one of the greatest shipbuilding 
ports in the world. I may be excused a little national pride, when I 
state the fact, that a ship of 1,600 tons, the Boomerang, built at Quebec 
by Mr. Thcophile St. Jean, made the shortest passage on record, firom 
England to Australia, having beaten the Marco Polo, a rival ship, by 
seven days ; at the same time landing her cargo in perfect order, notwith- 
standing the high rate of sailing. Our manufactories of furniture, carriages 
and iinplenionts, in which wood forms the chief material, exempt us from the 
necessity of sending abroad for supplies for our home consumption, 
speaking of course in general terms, without noticing more than the most 
remarkable features, ,iud avoiding all such details as are only to be found 
in tables of statistics. I have here to add to the list of manufactures firom 
the products of our forests, that of pot and pearlash, and also, the con- 
version (by means of our numerous and powerful saw mills) of our forest 
trees into planks, boards, laths, &c., &c., &c. 

The produce of furred animals and the plumage of birds, are also 
prepared in several ways, yet skins exported by us in their natural state 
frequently return here manufactured. 

Great quantities of oils are manufactured firom the blubber, of 
cetaceous animals taken in the gulf and River St. Lawrence, and the curing, 
salting, and smoking offish is carried on, on a large scale : of these articles 
our production exceeds our consumption, and we might even increase 
our production of these articles, inasmuch as foreigners come an- 
nually to reap the benefit of our super-abundance. The manufacture of 
porpoise leather nuist be noticed, it having been brought tgisuch perfection 
as to entitle it to the rank of a new invention : whale leather is also made, 
though the whale is generally supposed to have no skin. 



99 



The raw materials of afjjicultural industry, employ in their preparation, 
a Tast amount of labour. 

Our mills eonvert our wheat into flour of several descriptions and quali- 
ties. An abundance of sugar is made from the sap of the maple tree. We 
prepare our meats by salting or smoking, either for domestic use or for 
exportation : but it would be superfluous to enumerate all these various 
branches of industry which miike up the complement of, and go to swell 
the labors of our farmers. We export comparatively little grain in its 
natural state. 

Canada reckons several woollen and linen fabrics among her artificial 
productions, and all sorts of machinery, tools, leather, paper, printing type, 
musical instruments, and further, contains workshops for every art, 
trade and profession. In these branches of labour the workmanship of all 
ordinary useful articles is of a high standard ; in matters of luxury we yield 
tfae palm to Europe, but to Europe only. 

The author is well aware that many details given in this chapter may 
appear tedious, but the intention of this work made their publication a 
matter of duty. The commercial statistics will iamiliarizo the public with 
chose imports and exports of Canada, which we have not thought proper to 
introduce here. 



VI. 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 

Coarnoo Roadt;— Mail atid Telegraph Comaiaoieatioiit ;-»KaTigatioo of the St.7Lawreoce ;— 
Katoral obtiicles overcome; — St Lawrence, Liehioe, Be«uhamoii, and: Wellaod 
Canalf ;— Best route to the far West.^RiTen, S.-iguenaj, Richelieu, Ottawa, nud Chaublj ; 
^Rideao and Orenville Canak ;«SUdefl for rafti ; — Burlington and De«Jardina Canals ; — 
Ormnd River, Thames and others; — Rallwajt;— ^ Lawrence R'lute compared with the 
American Lines of trarel. 

Before entering upon a review of our great routes of intercommuni- 
cation, let us ob»cr\'e that gtxxi common roads traverse the^country]^in 
all directions, that there is no cornier, however thinly inhabited, nor 
however remote from the centre of population, that has not]a road leading 
to it. These are not all first clas4 mads, far from it, but ,^they are 
passable, and indeed are traversed daily by the mails going into the set- 
tlements formed along the great public roads, and twice a week to the 
more remote settlements. It is hardly necessary to add that Jelegraph 
lines arc established wherever they have been found necessary, and that 
they are double and treble between the great centres of population and 
business. 

The distance from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the extrcmitvTof 
Lake Superior, following the course of the Lakes and Rivers, is above 
1800 miles ; few rivers in the world present so extensive a highway, and 
none are navigable for large ships to so great a length ; the St. Lawrence 
alone offers this advantage? to vessels treble the tonnage of those with 
which Columbus and Cartier made the discoveries of Am(*rica and Ca- 
nada. Nature had rendered the St. Lawrence navigable as high as 
Quebec for ships of the largest size, and for vessels of five or .six hun- 
dred tons burthen as far as Montreal, but there they encountercdj an 
obstacle, the St. Louis Rapids, which interrupted their progress ; beyond 
thin the navigation was again open for large vessels, but between Mon- 
treal and Kingston forty-one miles of rapids formed a serious barrier to 
their ascent ; next followed Lake Ontario, and. from I^ke Ontario to 
Lake Erie, a di.stance of only twenty-seven miles, an ascent i>f 330 feet, 
and the Palls of Niagara opposc^l themselves; from thence through 
Lakes Huron and Michigan the navigation was o[)en, but the entrance to 
Lake Superior was still barred by the Falls of St. Mar}*. Now, all 
these obstructions, all these formidable Imrriers oppose<I by nature have 
disappeared, you may ulart from any ocean port in a vessel of two hun- 



102 



dred tons burthen and reach without transhipment the head of the great 
Lake. The St. Louis Rapids are avoided by the Lachine Canal, nine 
miles in length ; the Cedars, Coteau, Long-saut, Gallops, and other 
Rapids by the Beauhamois, Cornwall and Junction Canals, thirty-three 
miles long. The Falls of Niagara and accompanying Rapids by the 
Welland Canal, twenty-seven miles long, and the St. Mary's Rapids by 
a very short Canal, built by the Americans, our neighbours. The Lachine, 
Beauhamois, Comwall and Junction Canals have together 27 locks, the 
dimensions of which within the gates are 200 feet by 46, with nine feet 
depth of water on the sills. The Welland Canal has 27 locks of 160 feet 
by 26 feet in breadth, and eight feet six inches depth of water on the 
sills. 

The reader will perceive that Canada has reason lo be proud of her 
great " highway," which moreover has cost the country over £2,800,000 
sterling. 

It must be evident that the St. Lawrence route is unrivalled. It is 
undoubtedly, the best, ihe safest, and the cheapest for the emigrant, 
whether he wishes to settle in any part of Canada, or to wend his way 
towards the Western States of the American Union, Ohio, Michigan, 
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, or Minnesota, for it is the connecting 
link with all the American Railroads which reach the Lakes at Buffalo, 
Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, and Milwaukic, and 
with all our own lines of Railroad. The whole of this Canadian navi- 
gation, extending over the fresh waters of a great river and extensive 
lakes, is in the highest degree favorable lo the health of travellers and 
lo the preservation of certain articles of trade which become damaged 
by a lengthened exposure to heat, and many of which indeed suffer 
considerably by a long voyage on the tepid waters, without depth or 
current, of the Erie Canal in the State of New York. 

Before speaking further on the subject of the superiority of the St. 
Lawrence route over every other, for tlie greater port of North Americai 
let us examine the other inland navigable routes which the country possesses, 
all these different branches from the same trunk radiate from each side of the 
principal artery. The first is to the North, the Sagueuay, which offers a 
navigable channel for nearly ninety miles, to the largest sea-going ships. 
The second is the Richelieu, which unites the Saint Lnwrence with Lake 
Champlain, aided by the Chambly Canal, constructed for the purpose of 
avoiding the rapids of the same name. The length of this canal is about 
12 miles, it concains ten locks, each one hundred and twenty feet long by 
twenty-four broad. Next is the Ottawa which has at its mouth a lock one 
hundred and eighty feet by forty-five, with six feet water to allow the large 
steamers to pass from Lake St. Louis into the Lake of Two Mountains, 



108 



which connects the Ottawa with the Saint Lawrence, aa &r as Carillon, at 
that point iarge veMels are compelled to make a stop ; other boats a few 
miles aboTe Grenville, extend their mute to the City of Ottawa. So much for 
large vessels, but the Ottawa forms a water thoroughfare for a distance of 
more than two hundred miles for steamers one hundred and thirty feet 
long by thirty-two in breadth, drawing five feet water, this route was 
opened by means of the St. Anne Lock, of which we have spoken, at the 
totrance of the Lake of Two Mountains, by a Canal which avoids the 
rapids which impede the navig'Uion between Carillon and (irenville, then 
by another canal, the Rideau, 126 miles long which intersects the interior of 
the coimtry from the City of Ottawa, taking its course towards the South 
West as far as the neightiorhood of Kingston, at the mouth of the river 
Cataraqui. This canal, constructed on a mixed system, comprises locks of 
which we have given the dimensions, and others, some of which are of 
gigantic dimensions, and nrc intended to raise the level of lakes and 
rivers. This expensive work, undertaken by the British Military Govern- 
ment for a purely strategical purpose, is now devoted entirely to commerce. 

Beyond the Chaudiere KapiJs near the City of Ottawa, the Ottawa is 
navigated by Steamers of middling size to the foot of the Cliats Kapids ; 
fiom this point a railway built by individuals on an economical plan and 
which, for that rca.«on, is called the Altoriginnl Rail-Road^ connects with 
another line of steamers which runs to Portai^ du Fort. 

Independent of this the Ottawa po<>csses slides, constructed along 
its whole length for the descent of rafts, thus avoiding the rapids which 
formerly caused the loss of many lives, and of large quantities of lumber. 
Slides are also constnicted on the Rivers St. .Maurice, Trent andotheni. 

At the head of Lake Ontario, Burlington Bay used to be inaecehsiblf, 
io cotisequence of a bar or spit which barred the entry, hut a channel has 
been excavated faced with piers to preserve the sides, and so constructed 
as to admit the largest vessels that navigate the Lake. From the end of 
Burlington Bay, the Desjardins Canal, about three miles in length, has been 
opened. This is simply a passage through u swamp, deepened by a dredging 
machine, the object of this work was to avoid the ascent and descent of a 
ftcep hill, the foot of which borders the marsh through whieh the canal 
b made. 

The Grand River, which empties it.sclf into Lake Erie, is made navigable 
for vessels of small burthen as far as Brantford, about 3G miles from its 
mouth, and is connected with the Welland Canal bv a branch of this canal 
which is fed by the River. 

The Thames is also navigable for a certain distance for vessels of moderate 
draoghl, it empties itself into Lake St Clair. 



■Iir.l loll" liiiiilur I fin'li willnnit lmns|ji{>mcni 

l.i.li. -II..- SI. l/..ii.- H.iipi.1- fir.- i.voi.lcl \,y lli. 
iiirli' I III li'iif^llii llif O-fhir^, <.'oti'>!.ii, I,onfT-t<;i> 
t(ii|<iilM \,y III'- lt<'iinli!irii»i.'4, Curiiwull and Jiinr-1 
iNiliM l„i,,., 'I'lii. KiillM .if Ni<.t,'iiri iiikI acw.if 
VV.IIiiFi'l i:iiii:il, iwt-iily-Ni'Vi-n inili-s lonf,', imd '. 
II M'lv .III III rmiMl, liiiilt \iy iliii AriirTi<-:ms,imr n- 
lli-iiiiliiiiiiMi',, ('iiniwiill mill .liim-li(in f'imnis ' 
• lini.-ii .11.11'. ,.r wlii.-li wiltiin tli<- ;,':it.<s aw 20' 
.1. |iil> <.l wiit.r <.ii III.- mIU. Th.- Wfl]imd( 
l>V Hi I.i<-l III lir.'iiillli. iind (<i<;lil t'l-ct »<is in. 
•.ill'. 

I'll.- II a.l.-i will )i.-iv<-iM- thiit Ciitiiul:! 

n* " lll);ll^^.l^.'■ wlii.-li iiinn-ov.T has .- 

hl.-iliiii; 

ll imi- w.l.'iit llial III.- St. I.it\vr 

I.>iil.l.-.ll>. III.' I>.-Ht. III.- Mit'.-sl. iinr 

«li.-il»i hr w i.lir . 1.1 M-lili- in ;tiiy Jiar; 
1..W-11.I1 III,' W.'i.iii Siiii.-s ..I ihc \ 

Ih.l «. niiH..!-., l,-»,i. \Vis,-,.usin, . 

litil. iMlli.iU 111.' \iii.-ii,':ni K.iiln>:i.: 

ri. >.iu>.i. s.m.iii-k\. ri.i.-.ii.. n.- 

»iilt .11 .-«. ,^^^,> I1IU-. ,-1 l^iiln-:f' 

-: .i. . v..n.l.iv:..^fi 111.- iixMi ■ 

t..!., ■■. .. ... .!,.■ Im-.-.!..-.: d.-«i.v : 






104 



No mention is made here of inlrri r 
tion of some of our inland lakr> iv:*\ 
and River St. John, Lakes TenilMM;!!.;! 
Lower Canada, which put us in ro-.i * • 
ihe rrovinec of New Brunswick. 

A raih'oad unites the CountiK.^ 
one direction and with llu' \' *,'..* 
effecting a junction at M.'i' .. 
railroad wliich runs I ^ I*ori i.i- 
route forms part of a l!;; »■ 
wliich is intended lo p' . . 
the following portions ., . 
Temiscouata to l^hi. ' 
l*orl Sarnia. Ii is i 
Brid«se is no\* f».:'.ii. 
of the Si. 1/iv. 'c:!' 
he ahon! t!i.'.« :•. 
JLS that i'Vi .* •.: 
such a.- ! • .... 
the lanj;; " 

and r> 
thiv r. 
wit!i 
ji'i '• 

\ y • t 

.1. 
I I . 



Tni."^?CI:3Z€Ti at 
1 

-:obcc, with the 
;rd, mav be ear- 
.ill the comforts 
, v.iThout having to 
--ini: through the 
■i in the journey 
,: :i the voyage to 
1-5, a trilling dif- 
:Uo account the 

\ ..vrcnce connects at 
. •. rentes, the irreatcr 
Vr..>ni this circum- 
<•: for our produce 
., ■;- further, either 
•.■".-.Mi-le that wher. 
_; -lo Av.:criw':ni Er.e 
:r .'t :l.wir St. .termer. 
■ r-vc-l '^ L.ike 0:.::^- 
; :..:<> our Brilirb. 
' "':c »il-t:uice frc»m 
•;.;, -, .11. -1 ilie mcar. 
,.. :j ...< • V the best 
.'N M- ri .r.. ivls for 
r : \:'\ :r:;veiler, 

•■ ji;:;r ::: i*^-^ '•- ^^^ 

• . v ;• 11. !.r every 



r ...::zrdnts 



V C-] "r. 01. for 



- .:ii New 
:..! charge 
1 a:* route. 
:i mind 
.ia<* .cats and 



«. ... 



107 



the Auierican Kailroada, which are most moderate in their charges* Much 
cheaper passages may be procured on the St Lawrence, but nothing 
cheaper can be found on any railroad. 

The prices here presented shew that the difference of fiure is more in 
favor of the emigrant than the general traveller. The same difference exists 
with respect to freight which amounts to much less by the St. Lawrence, 
and the saving increases with the bnlk and weight of the goods to be 
conveyed. 

Below 18 a ci)mparutive scale of the charges for carriage of a barrel of 
iour by different routes, from Cleveland in the State of Ohio, to the differ* 
ent sea-ports ; 

From Cleveland to 

H. D. 

Boston, (by Erie Canal and Railroad) 5 

New York, (by Erie Canal) 4 

Portland, (by St. Lawrence and Montreal) 8 6 

Quebec, (by St. Lawrence) 2 

This same barrel of Hour, the freight ol which, by the American 
routes, amounts U> 5s., delivered at Boston via the States, woidd only 
ooat Ss. 9d., if M*nt there via the St. Lawrence and Montreal From 
Toconto to Quebec the freight of the same article is on the average Is. 
Cd., and from Toronto to New York 2s. 6d. These charges arc of course 
aobject to change, but the proportion is always that indicated here. 
The prices quoted are the ordinary charges of steamers and freight 
trains. The down freight on the St. I^wrcnce is something less, as 
freight vess<*ls descending the river, slioot the rapids, wberea.*» on 
aseending, they have canal charges to pay. 

It has been objected to the Sl Lawrence route, that it is only o|)en 
put of tlie year, and that we are quite isolated during the remainder. 
The navigation of the St. Lawrence is generally open by tlie 27tli April 
or Ist May, and closes about 25th November. 

Now, during this period of seven months, its great thoroughfare affords 
ample passage for all the freight, and as to emigrants and travellers they 
would do well not to go westward in winter, even should they take 
Boston or New York as their starting point. The Erie Canal and Hudson 
River arc not open in the spring earlier than the port of Quebec, although 
the temperature in the neighborhood of the former is higher in winter ; 
bat the St. Lawrence has means of its own for getting rid of the ice 
which coTcni it. 

It has been asserted in books written on the subject of the great high- 
wajra of which we have spoken, that the navigation of the St. Lavirrence 



108 



presents more dangers than other routes, and it has been niged as an 
argument that the rates of insurance are much higher on this route than 
elsewhere ; the latter fact must be admitted and on first 
consideration it seems to carry great weight, but this is due to other 
causes than the amount of losses, causes which result from the fact that 
Assurance Companies arc composed almost exclusively of capitalists, 
who are quite ignorant of the real interests of the trade with which they 
are dealing. The reader will see further on in the chapter of statistics, 
the comparative amount of premiums and losses on Marine Insurances. 
I will now proceed to use an argument of another kind, in favor of the 
St. Lawrence route which admits of no discussion, but assumes all the 
authority of past experience. 

The year 1848, was probably the most disastrous ever known for the 
whole world as regards shipwreck ; in this year the United States lost 685 
sailing vessels, out of 21,000 which compose their merchant fleet, Eng> 
land in the same year 501 ships out of 30,000 ; Canada out of 2,000 sail- 
ing vessels, which navigate the St. Lawrence from Montreal to the Gulf, 
120O of which were from beyond the sea, had only 48 shipwrecks ; and 
(never before nor since that period,) has our river witnessed so many 
disasters. 

By these figures it is proved that in the year of the greatest losses for 
the whole world, (the best consequently on which to form a comparison,) 
we have lost 1 ship in 42, and the United States 1 in 35. This then is the 
evidence we have deduced from the Assurance Companies, to establish 
the comparative amount of safety on the navigable waters of the two 
countries. 

This constant comparison of Canada with the United States will be ex- 
cused, when it is reflected that too often in France the credit of all that is 
done in North America is given to the Americans, a slight error which our 
amiable neighbours tolerate, with a benevolence quite at variance with 
their usual habits. 



vn. 

POLITICAL AND CIVIL INSTITUTIONS OF CANADA. 

CoDBtitution of Canada ; — Ezecative power ;-^Legialatiye power ;— EnactmeDt of Laws ;— Diitiei; 
of the Legislatiye Bodies ; — Elective principle ; — Ck>mpoeition of the ExeeotiTe Oomidl, 
Assemblies ; Recesses ;— Prorogations and Dissolutions of the Houses ;— Administratioa of 
Jnstice in Canada East, or French Canada ; In Canada West ; — Education ; — Saperin* 
t«ndent of Education ; — School Funds ; — Management of School Revenue ; Univerntiei; 
Colleges ;— Clergy ; — Local Municipalities ;— Roads . — Reference to several snlgeeU in 
the following chapter. 

The constitution which unites Upper and Lower Canada nnder one sole 
Government is identical with that of England, with one only exception, 
which is this, that the sanctioning of any law may be reserved for the 
supreme authority of the Mother Country whenever the Governor thinks 
proper. This prerogative is only exercised to maintain the principle of 
colonial dependence, for in point of fact, the Parliament of England, grants 
the fullest liberty to the Colonial Parliament and the management and 
enjoyment of all their revenue. 

. The Executive power is composed of the Governor, who represents the 
Sovereign, and of a Council of Ministers who alone are responsible for the 
acts of the Government, and preserve their position only by possessing the 
confidence of the two branches of the Legislature. In the event of a 
collision between the Representative power and the Executive, the latter 
can dissolve the House and appeal to the people by a new election. 

The Legislative power is made up of two Assemblies, of which the 
Legislative Council, is named by the Crown, by the advice and counsel of 
the ministers, and the number of which is unlimited, the other the Legisla- 
tive Assembly is elected by the people of Counties and Towns, and iscomr 
posed of 130 Members, 65 for each section, the term of whose service expires 
every four years, and may cease before this period, in case of a dissolu- 
tion of Parliament. The Legislative Assembly alone has the power to 
vote the supplies, and any measure involving an appropriation of revenue, 
must originate in this Assembly. 

Other laws emanate either from the Legislative Council or from the 
Assembly, which bodies alone can consider and amend all Bills. When a 
Bill or proposed Act, brought up Irom one House to the other, is amended, 
the Act is returned to the Chamber in which it originated, who may either 
agree to the amendments or not, or propose other amendments to the amend, 
meats ; should both houses concur, th^ Bill is passed, and only requires the 



Ill 



Governor's tanclion to become law ; if otherwise, then a conference is 
arranged between Members of the two Assemblies, chosen as amfertts. 
In thi4 meeting the affair is always arranged, if not the Bill would fall to 
the ground. 

The Chambers are the High Court of Enquiry of the Country, and 
have the right to take cognizance of all matters ; and all informa- 
tioii asked for by the insjority of the Assembly must be given by the 
Govemmenty or they must resign or appeal to the Country. Questions 
are decided by a majority of the members present, without regard to 
Dumbcrs, provided there be a quorum. A quorum of the Legislative Council 
consists of eleven, and of the Assembly of twenty-one Each chamber i< 
pmided over by a Speaker, who gives the casting vote on equal divisions ; 
the Speaker of the Council, is appointed by the Executive, and the Speaker 
of the Assembly, by the House. 

All measnresy investigations and other preparatory labours are prepared 
or carried on by Committees who report to the House. These Committees 
are either general, that is, composed of the whole Hoane, or special, when 
composed of a limited number of Members ; there are besides these. Stand- 
ing Committees, who report at different periods on all matters referred 
to them for enquiry. 

It is intended shortly to make the Legislative Council elective, which 
will be an important change in the constitution, not only as respects 
tbeir responsibility to the people, but also as regards the relations between 
the two Chambers, and between the Chambers and the Executive. 

The council of ministers which is here called the " Ministry'* or 
^ Administration,'* and whose number is not limited by the constitution, 
is at present composed as follows : 

A Provincial Secretary, whose office is identical with that of Min- 
iaier of the Interior and of Education. 

A Receiver (Seneral whose office relates to matters of Finance. 

An Inspector General of Public Accounts. 

A Commissioner of Public Works. 

A Commissioner of Crown Lands, — colonisation, woods and forests. 

A Minister of Agriculture, attached to which is an office of Statistics 
and Patents of Invention. 

Two Attorneys (Seneral, the Law Officers, of Upper and Lower 

A Postmaster General. 

Minister without otiice, who is Speaker of the Le^slative Council. 
Of these Ministers five are from Upper Canada and five from 
Lower Canada. 



112 



Attached to the Ministiy and retiring with it, but not forming part of 
it are two Solicitors General, whose duties are connected with those of 
Attorneys Greneral. All these functionaries must be members of one or 
other of the Chambers, and there must be some of them in both. 

The Council of Ministers are in constant session and assist the GiOYe^ 
nor with their advice ; he presides at all meetings where his decision is 
required to the measures of the Council, but the Ministry have Conunittee 
meetings at which business is discussed and arranged ; the Governor is 
not present at these meetings, etiquette not admitting of any discussion 
in his presence. 
The nomination of all public officers rests with the Governor. 
The Speakers of the two Assemblies have the nomination of their own 
officers except the Serjeants-at-Arms and Gentlemen Ushers ; these, re- 
ceiving the usual commissions are nominated by the Executive, who are 
generally guided in their selection by the wishes of the Speakers. 

Disputed elections of Members of the Legislative Assembly aie 
decided by Election Committees, chosen from the body of the House in 
virtue of a law to that effect. 

Parliament must meet every year, its sitting usually lasts several 
months and is called a session. It may adjourn for long vacations with- 
out affecting the session, but when the labours of the Session are 
terminated by order of the Grovemorin Council, it is called a prorogation, 
and the next meeting of parliament commences a new session. A 
parliament is the duration of the Assembly from one election to another; 
after every general election, w^hether before the expiration of the four years 
from the issue of the writs (by dissolution) or not, anew Parliament begins. 
In the interval between the end of one Parliament and the beginning of 
another, a space of time which should not amount to a year, and rarely 
exceeds a few months, there is no legislative power in existence. This 
will suffice to show that our constitution is the same as that of England, 
our parliamentary rules and practices are exactly the same, and the Houses 
and members individually enjoy all the privileges secured by these 
rules in the same manner as all the prerogatives of the Crown are 
vested in the Governor, who is the Representative of the Sovereign. 
Changes of Ministry occur as in England, in fact every political move- 
ment is here an imitation of what is done at home on a larger scale. 

The description we have given of the extensive powers of the Cana- 
dian Parliament which affect everything connected with the legislation 
and govemment of the country, leads us naturally to allude to a subject 
which, especially for the French, is a bug bear which keeps foreigners 
away from all quarters of the British Dominions, that is, the law of 
inheritance or Alien Act, 



113 



The Frenchman who wishes to emigrate to Canada need not fear for 
himself or his family, the unjust operation of this law, nor of the law of 
primogeniture ; these objectionable laws, to which, however, she owes, 
in a great measure, her agricultural position and the stability of her 
Government, are unknown in Canada. We may suppose that the colony, 
poMessing the power of legislating on the subject, has taken good care to 
annul all laws which had a tendency to banish strangers from its terri- 
lory, emigration being the most important element in the pros|ierity of 
00 vast a country as this, so rich in natural productions and one which 
is slill so thinly inhabitecL The foreigner may be assured of finding in 
Canada, all those arrangements which will secure to him and to his 
Cunily, the possession, and peaceful, and uninterrupted inheritance of 
that wealth which his industry and capital may have procured him, 
€m laws and enactments tending to encourage honest and well disposed 
emigrants to settle among us. 

The judicial power is diflereutly organised in Lower and Upper Cana- 
da. Here in few words are the two organisations ; with one exception, 
that in certain cases an appeal against the decisions of the Courts here, 
may be made to the Privy Council in England. 

In Lower Canada, the highest tribunaJ is called, TheQueen^a Bench j 
it is composed of four judges, with a Chief Justice as President, but any 
of whom can act in the absence of the others in certain cases ; this Court 
beaiB cases of appeal and gives judgment in serious criminal matters 
which do not come within the jurisdiction of the Police Courts. Another 
Cooft composed of ten judges, two of whom are Chief Justices, one for 
Montreal and one for Quebec, is called the Superior Courts and gives 
jodgment en premiere instance in important causes and in appeal, in all 
cafes referred from the Courts below. The third in order is the Circuit 
Otmrt; the number of judges of this Court at the present day is nine, 
one of whom resides in each of the districts of Kamouraska and 
Ottawa, two in the district of Gtspe and one in the Circuit 
of Chicontimi, in the Saguenay territory; their jurisdiction extends 
to warns not exceeding £50 currency ; in some districts the resident 
. judges exercise iu addition, the jurisdiction belonging to other Courts, 
but only during term. The Circuit judges hold with the justices of the 
peace, Quarter Sessions to try certain criminal cases. 

There is besides an Admiralty Court, the sole juJge of which, sitting 
at Quebec, decides all matters of maritime law. When the inhabt- 
taats of a Parish demand it, they may establish among thctn!H*lves a 
•• Commissioners* Court," which adjudicates on mntlers of debt only, 
lot exceeding £6 currency. S|)ecial Magistrates, without salar\', called 
Justices of the Peace, are appointed among the inhabitants in diHcrent 

u 



VIII. 
STATISTICS AND GBNEBAL INFOEMATION. 

ITorb— (1.) Ctntot oCPopaUtion ;— Bj Origin ;~Bj R«lIgioo ;— Bj Sectiont of the ProTiDM ;— 
Popobtion of chief towDt ;— Remarki ;— €omp«rftUTe Table ; — Namber of Lanatict ;— 
BtoUtlict of FroTindal PeoiteotUry ;— GentiM of ProfeetioDt, Trades, ke, (8.) Agri- 
coltoral Oeofua, and of land owned and under colthration ; — Partition of Real Eatate ; — 
DiTiakm of Fields ;— Annual Prodaee of Land ;^Nanib«r of Cattle ;^Aggregato 
Valoo of Produce ;— Market Valae of Agricoltoral Produce in 1861 ;— Compariaon with 
tbo UnitMl States;— Sutiatici of Edacation ;—UniTeraiaes ;— Colleges;— Schoob;— 
Komber of Pupils ;— Clergy. (4.) Public Works ;— Light Hoosefl ;—WharTes;— Canals 
SBdcs;— Roads snd Bridges ;— Cost of these Works ;— Report on them ;— Tow-Boats ; 
— BsihwMls. (6.) Finances of the Country ; — ReTenue snd its Sources ;— Conparatifo 
Sti l sfli sn t ;—ProTincial Ledger. (6.) Trade :— Business of the Ports;— Value of Im- 
ports snd Exports ; — Principal Articles of Importation and Exportation ; — Ship- 
B«iildbg ; — Banks; — Insurance Companies. (7.) Various Details; — Local Taxes; — 
Postsge ;— Currency ;— Price of Houses ;— Fares by Steamboat and Sailing Vesiels, 
tnm Europe to Quebec. 

The last Censos, shewing the popalatioiiy and the agricultural and 
indiistriai condition of Canada, took place in 1851. The reader must 
not forget that four years work great changes with us, as will be seen 
by the tables of comparison in the next chapter. For instance, it is a 
well known fact, that the population of the Province, on the Ist of 
Jaouary^ 1855, considerably exceeded 11,000,000: this the reader may 
lake as a criterion for C()mpari8on. 



I. 
Census or 1851. 

Population of Canada, 1,812,265, distributed as follows between the 
two sections of the Province : 

Upper Canada 052,004 

Lower Canada 890,261 

These numbers are subdivided as follows, into origins and principal 
birth places: 



118 



Franco-Canadians 695,945 

Canadians, (not French) 651,673 

Natives of Ireland .* 227,766 

<< England 93,929 

** Scotland 90,376 

Continent of America 64,109 

Europe 18,467 



C( 



The grand divisions of the population into religious denoniinatioiis are 
as follows : 

Roman Catholics 914^561 

Church of England 268,592 

Presbyterians. • . • 176,094 

Methodists 173,959 

Free Church 61,589 

Dissenters 176,065 

No religion • 71,334 

Jews 351 

Lower Canada contains : 

^ Franco-Canadians 669,528 

Canadians, (other origins) 125,580 

Roman Catholics 746,866 

Upper Canada: 

Anglo-Canadians 526,093 

Franco- Canadians 26^417 

Protestants 733,917 

Population of the chief towns of Upper and Lower Canada, in 1851, 
in numerical order : 

Upper Canada : 

Toronto 30,775 

Hamilton 14,121 

Kingston 11,585 

Bytown, (City of Ottawa) 7,760 

London 7,035 

Belleville 4,569 

Brantford 3,877 

Cobourg 3,871 



119 



Dandas 



Brockvilie. 
Port Hope* 

Lower Canada : 



8,517 
3.340 
3^46 
8,476 



Montreal 57,715 

Quebec 42,052 



Three Riven. 

Sorel 

St. Hjracinlb. 

Su John 

Sberbrooke... 



4,930 
3,424 
3,313 
3,215 
2,998 



With regard to Quebec, it appears that the Banlieut contains about 
10,000 souls, in addition to the figures given above. 

All these populations have increased considerably, especially in Upper 
Canada, the rendezvous of British emigrants. The European must not 
judge of the importance of a town by its population, for taking one 
population with another, much more business is done in Canada than 
elsewhere ; for instance, where will it be possible to find a town of 43,000 
inhabitants, (that of Quebec in 1851,) whose export trade amounts to 
£1,600,000 currency, and whose commercial fleet averages 1,000,000 tons. 

In the following table will be seen the increase of population in the 
two sections of the Province since 1763 : 



YEABS. 



--l! 



NUMBERS OF PEOPLR 



t. 



•I 

\> 
M 



'I 



1703 
1814 
1823 
1831 
1844 
1^18 
1851 



LOWER CAHADA. 

i 

! 70,000 
* 835,000 
427,000 
512,000 
699,000 
770,000 
890,261 



I 



I 



I 



UPPER CAITADA.t 



CA5ADA. 



12,000 ' 82,000 



95,000 
150,000 
200,000 
500,000 
721,000 
952,004 



430,000 

375,000 

772,000 

1,199,000 

1,401,000 

1342,265 



I 



120 



There are few States of the American Union in which the increase of 
population has been so rapid as in Canada, taken as a whole, within a 
fcw*years, and not one in which it reaches so high a figure as in Upper 
Canada, I shall give here a table showing the proportionate increase of 
Canada and the United States during ten years : 

Population of United States, 1840 17,067,458 

Do do 1850 23,091,488 

Increase 35 per cent. 

Population of Canada, 1841 1,090,000 

Do do 1851 1,842,265 

Increase 69 per cent. 

Population of Upper Canada, 1841 465,857 

Do do 1851 952,004 

Increase 104 percent. 

According to the Return from the two Lunatic Asylums of Toronto 
and Quebec, there were in 1851 : 

In Upper Canada 288 Lunatics. 

Men 150 

Women.. • • •• 138 

In Lower Canada 153 Lunatics. 

Men 80 

Women 73 

The nu nber of criminals imprisoned in the Penitentiary, 390 

For Upper Canada 256 

For Lower Canada. •• • 138 

I shall now proceed to give a very long catalogue of almost all the 
trades and professions, practised in the Country, with the number of persons 
employed, give a separate statement for each Section of the Province. 
This table is better calculated than anything else, to shew the amount of 
our industry, and to instruct the emigrant and capitalist, when compared 
with the other statements contained in this sketch. Some notes which ac- 
company it, will point out to those desirous of becoming acquainted with the 
Industrial condition of the Country, the best use to be made of it. It may 
be as well to remark that these data touching tfae employments of the people 
are not mathematically correct. The incomplete manner in which this 



121 



part of the census was performed by those who were entrusted with ^^ 
duty in 1851, has rendered the labour of correction extremely onerous : — 
This lisi may however be very useful. 

Alphabetical Table of the personal census of Canada^ as regards trades^ 
professions and useful employments. 

Upper OADAck. Lower CtDsds. 

Agents, Brolcers and Auctioneers 281 228 

Apothecaries 108 26 

Artists of all kinds, Architects, Sculp* 

tor8,fcc 218 259 

Armourers • • • 58 21 

Surveyors 102 78 

Barristers and Attorneys. 302 273 

Hotel and Tavern Keepers . > 1,772 443 

Stevedores •^ 163 

Bankers 32 11 

Hair-dressers : 94 80 

Jewellers, watch and clock makers 200 147 

Botchers 600 474 

Bakers 462 590 

Shopkeepers 435 590 

Brewers and Distillers 440 74 

Brick-makers and Potters 92 60 

Caulkers, Rope- makers, Block-makers and 

Sail-makers 125 226 

Wool-carders 72 94 

Carriage-makers and Wheelwrights •••••• 1,789 • 584 

Chair, Cabinet-makers, and Upholsterers. • 1,258 379 

Hatters 113 68 

Shipwrights, Carpenters, Joiners, fcc 8,367 8,923 

Coachmen, Cabmen, and Carters 3,400 3,500 

Collectors and Agents 137 60 

Pedlars 240 67 

Merchants 20 51 

Clerks in General 3,242 2,376 

Accountants 88 62 

* Contractors 718 600 

Confectioners 86 76 

ConsUbles, Bailiffs, &c. 185 90 

Boot and Shoe-makers 6,898 3,069 

Farmers and Householders 86,224 78,264 



123 



Dentists 36 8 

Clergy 963 620 

Editors and Booksellers 83 76 

Grocers 475 580 

Sub-contractors, for suppljring timber 3,000 3^000 

Manufacturers (general) 771 846 

Tinsmiths 433 3S3 

Founders 471 408 

Blacksmiths 4,235 2,840 

Hotel-keepers 319 247 

Printers 500 400 

Working Engineers 337 8t4 

Primary School Teachers 2,422 2,000 

Cullers 3 78 

Gardeners 279 142 

Farm Labourers, (not proprietors) 78,584 63,865 

Masons and Plasterers 6,909 1,816 

Machinists ' 685 272 

Tradesmen 2,600 2000^ 

Seamen, Fishermen and coasting Pilots • . • 5,000 8,000 
Mechanics and daily Labourers, (not classi- 
fied 20,000 20,000 

Physicians and Surgeons 382 401 

MUlers 1,830 667 

Wholesale dealers 155 589 

Notaries 19 538 

Artificers in Metals, Copper, Lead, &c • • • 64 59 

English Military Pensioners 257 29 

Ship-painters 641 600 

Dealers in Ashes • 84 16 

Professors of Universities, Colleges and 
Members of Learned Professions, (not 

included above 80 150 

Book-binders • 51 40 

Private Gentlemen 1,116 3,870 

House Servants 3,180 6,550 

Saddlers 873 278 

Tailors 2,662 671 

Farmers • 561 582 

Weavers 1,738 166 

Coopers 1,935 478 

Veterinary Surgeons and Farriers 46 20 



128 



We haTe shewn that the population of Upper Canada in 1851 was 
969^004, and of Liower Canada 890,261. The above Tables, which have 
been taken from the census of 1851, and which refer to the employment 
of Males only, give 260,000 for Upper Canada, and 220,000 for Lower 
Canada in roond numbers. Now this is as nearly as possible the ezaet 
Male popnlation from 15 to 65 years of age, for each of the sections of the 
Pkorince. 

A comparison being made between the amonnt of the whole popdatioB 
of each Division of Canada, and that of the adnlt popnlation, it will be 
seen, that the number of adults is, comparatively speaking, far greater in 
Upper than in Lower Canada ; this arises from the fact that the French 
Canadian population increase only by the excess of births over deaths, 
wliilein Upper Canada the increase is swelled by immigration. 

While on this subject it may be well to give a statement of the inhabi* 
tants of Canada classified according to their ages, which cannot fail to be 
interesting to the attentive observer, and from which many interesting facts 
as to the fluctuation of the population may be deduced. 

Number of persons of bath sexe$ in Upper and Lower Canada. 

AgCH. Upper CuMdA. Lower Oanadi. 

Less than 1 year 37,782 89,686 

From 1 to 5 years 181,380 127,050 

do 5 to 10 years 188,726 115,085 

do 10 to 15 years 119^263 104,689 

do 15to20year8 100,058 102,564 

do 20 to 80 years 166,852 148,710 

do 80 to 40 years 108,992 94,781 

do 40 to 60 years 69,542 65,795 

do 50 to 60 years 41,621 48,648 

do 60to70years 20,356 24,095 

do 70to80year8. 7,156 11,084 

do 80to90years 1,746 3,030 

do 90to 100 years 225 407 

do 100 np\iards 20 88 

Ages not given, from error 8,310 9,699 

We must here observe that the social position of the people in Upper 
and Lower Canada is widely difierent In the former a disposition to 
spread themselves overthe country and a system ofdivision of bbonr prevails 
mmoiig the people, in consequence of which, the city po|>ulation, although 
nearty equal in the two sections, in Lower Canada is collected in only a 
faw localities, but in Upper Canada it b dispersed through a large number 



124 



of small towns. This arises from the difference of character of the pre- 
dominant race in each section ; France and the French originally settled 
Canada East, England and the English, Canada West. 

In the numbers of 29,000 for each section of the Province, classed in 
the table of occupations and as artisans and daily labourers, (generally,) is 
comprised all that versatile class of men who are alternately hewers of 
wood or hunters in the forests, sailors or fishermen, ship carpenters, or 
artisans of every description, in the shop or the manufactory, and who 
change their trade with the seasons, or as any particular kind of employ- 
ment is in most demand. 

It must be understood that the number of mariners in the preced- 
ing tables applie'JB only to those who man the vessels of our inland or 
coasting trade, as all sea-going ships are almost exclusively manned by 
British sailors. 



2 
AGRICULTUBAL CENSUS. 
The following extracts are from the census tables of 1851 : — 

The total number of acres of land in the hands of different proprietors, 
17,989,796 * acres. 

Of which in Upper Canada 9,826,417 acres. 

do LfOwer Canada. . • • 8,1 13,379 do. 

Under cultivation 7,300,839 do. 

Of which in Upper Canada 3,695,763 do. 

do LfOwer Canada 3,605,076 do. 

Of the whole amount, there are, lands 

covered with wood 10,638,957 do. 

In Upper Canada 6,130,654 do. 

In Lower Canada 4,508,303 do. 

Which gives a mean for each person of 10 acres, 4 cultivated, 6 woodland ; 
this average is now exceeded, as acquisitions of land and the extent cleared 
increase in far greater proportion than the population. 

The approximate value of all the lands in the hands of different parties 
is in round numbers. £67,000,000, currency. 

* The acre is rather larger than the arpent, about an eleventh more, and rather less than half a 
hectare being 0.404.671 hectares. 



126 



«= 



For Upper Canada* £37,000,000 

For LfOwer Canada 30,000,000 

The number of land holders in 1851, was 195,683, the average amount 
in possession of each holder was about 92 acres, and the mean value 
of each lot, £340, currency, in round numbers, shewing an approximate 
mean value of £3 14s^ currency, for each acre of land, half cultivated 
and half in wood. 

The lands is divided in the following manner among the holders : 

In Upper Canada : 

Land holders 99,890 

Holders of 10 acres and under 9,976 

do 1 to 20 1 ,889 

do 20to80 18,467 

do 50tol03 48,027 

do 100to200 18,421 

do over 200 3,120 



99,900 



Lower Canada: 

Landholders 95,<)23 

do of 10 acres and less 13,261 

do of 10 to 20 3,074 

do of 20 to 50 17,409 

do of 50 to 100 37,885 

do of 100 to 200 18,608 

do of over 200 4,585 



94,822 



In 1851, the lands in Up|ier Canada were : 

2,274,746 acres ploughed. 
1,365,556 ** pas^ture. 
55,461 ** gardens. 



In Lower Canada : 



2,072,953 acres ploughed. 
1,502^55 " pasture. 
30,209 '* gardens. 



126 



The following table will shew the yield of different kinds of produce 
in Upper and Lower Canada : 



PEODUCE. 


Bttbhels. 


UPFBB CASJlDX. 


LOWER OAJIf ADA. 


Wheat 


12,675,603 

625,355 

11,186,161 

2,872,413 

1,686,441 

479,615 

639,264 

4,987,475 


3,480,343 

764,144 

10,248,679 

1,351,074 
343,103 
390,220 
530,417 

5,092,698 


Barley 


Oats 


Peas 


Indian Com 


Eye 


J ^ t. ........... 

Buck-wheat 


Potatoes 





It must be borne in mind that although the amounts in this Table are 
given in bushels, the returns from Liower Canada were made in minot 
which are an eighth larger than a bushel, so that to shew a fair proportion, 
an eighth should be added to the Lower Canada produce (i). Upper Canada 
raises most wheat, most Indian-corn, and most peas ; Lower Canada most 
barley, most oats, and most potatoes. 

Table exhibiting amounts of other produce. 



FBODUCE A^D HEASUBES. 


UPPER CANAT)A- 


LOWEBCAJE^ADA. 


Tons of hay<2^ 


681,782 


965,653 
1,867,016 


Pounds of hemp and flax.. 


50,650 


Yards of linen 


14,995 


889,523 
1,836,964 
6,190,694 


Yards f>f flannel . . . r . . . r . . . 


1,828,633 


Pounds of maple sugar... 


3,581,505 


Gallons of cider 


701,612 


53,327 


Pounds of tobacco 


764,476 


488,652 



(i) The author has not time to make these calcolations. 



(2) The ton of haj weighs 20 cwts. 



127 



Table of the number of Cattle. 



VVMBXB OF CATTLE. 



Horses. 



Sheep 



Draught oxon 



Young cattle 



Cows 
Hogd 



UPPXB CiyjLDk. 



LOWER CAVXDA. 



20;i,300 
f>68,022 
193,982 
251,988 
290,924 
569,257 



1«2,077 
629,827 
111,819 
180,817 
291,514 
256,219 



It would be impossible to give a detailed statement of the agricultural 
produoe, we shall, however, give the aggregate annual value, of a large 
munber of articles quoted from the returns of 1851. 

ToUl Value of all grain £ 5,624,268 cy. 

do cattle 10,947,537 

do of the following articles : 

Hay, seeds, hemp, flax, hops, wool, tobacco, 

sugar 



3,965 012 



Total value of the following : 

Butter, cheese, cider, flannel, linen, salt 
beef, salt pork « • 

Total value of potatoes 



2,901,937 
630,011 



The following arc the prices assigned to diflerent articles in 1851, on 
which to found an estimate ; all these articles have increased enormously 
in price, still these tables may be assumed as a guide to the mean prices 
of the articles contained in it for large quantities of middling quality and 
inferior, for average years. 

Horses £12 10 cy. 

Cows 3 15 

Usen 6 

Yoaogcattle 1 10 

Sheep • 7 

1 



126 



TIh*. lollcnviii'j: t.ililc will .slu^vv the yield oS 
in I 'iiiMT :in(l Lower ( 'niiad.'i : 



I'JiODUCK. 



Whral 

r»;irIt'V 

C);j1 ; 

l».-a^ 

llpli.lll C'tM'll 

K\o 

■ 

l>in"K-\\lir:it . 
IV>lato('s . .. . 



irVPER C.N • 



12.(; 



11 



..I 



l! nui4 l>r h\n\w in mind that 
.'ivi'n in lMi>:|irls, lluMTlurns IV* 
whirli ;uv an rii;lit!i lai'i^or tluiii 
an ('i!;h(li NiuuiUl Iv adilod totii. 
r.iiM's inosi wlhMi, niosl Indi.t 
)'ar!r\. lu. •>! ikiIn, and ino<! ; 

TaMi* oxhil'":* 



* ■ ■ 





<) 


u 


.) 





2 





2 








1 


3 


1 


10 





2 


10 






njoiu iT vNu m;: 



i'tailod herein amounts to 

. i:i3,S2>,S63 cy. 
10/:45,902 



l\^V.N Ot' \\'.\\ 



\ a.v.s i»f it" 
\ai\is of .. 

Pv . .: 



• ■ .\.;;!,v^r '" 



*«»o ;ou .-I 1 



* H 



.• \ic ot* certain other ariicles. such 

.;r::iMo!«. We should also place to 

uo arisinsr from the oil. ar;d skins of 

^ca in the Gulf, amounting to about 

, vu: X*,rH\000. the value ol lurs obtained 

.* ,iv *. v»l" whtwt ha.< latelv l.een subjected to 
.,a u»\\oviT. arc now disappearing; the 
.Asi iu* whx>Ie or' Lnver Canada, and the 

%^ ". tr li'ur.vi ':i\.»'A. n :h-? jv.r.graph on 

V X * A\^ OvH^ ^*»".r. vrov. :. r.^un i nuir.bers, and 
.^x .\o ^'t :ho Iv>r:*-:< :.:-r.: :i::d :oroigncon- 
V ^w.^V vu :m: > • 5 w;- C..rad.\ siirplyirg 



x » 



129 



1_ a 



• • • 



'>narc the produce of Canada with 

^ two countries are on nearly an 

i!ion, but that Canada has the 

.:i [>roportion to the land under 

Kc recent settlements taken as a 

<i greater amount of natural re- 

' ^r.l 23,263.488 

:> 1,842,205 

s 303,078.070 

« la 17,030.700 

tailed above, less the forest 

States £330,230,558 

24,008,705 



■ : I 



.«■ 



\'.IC 



( .inada rather more than £13 cy. per head, and for 
•; 1 1 cy. a head ; but if we add to the produce of the 
tiicr articles of their production, and idso add to the 
productions of the woods and the fisheries, the devel- 
employs in Canada so much larger a proportion of 
•It! of trades, &c., number of labourers and lumberment) 
iC'* would be much in favor of Canada. 
' rviJent proof of this assertion is, that the produce of cultiva- 
. i .mada amounts to 24s. per acre, while in the United States it 
(exceed 22s. 



I 



8. 

STATISTICS OP IDOCATION. 

Upper Canada ia much better provided with common elementary 
Schools than Lower Canada; but Lower Canada contains a greater 
omnber of collegiate and classical institutions. The following tables 
give the enumeration for the year 1853: 

For Upper Canada : 

VsoibM. Pvpik. 

Colleges 8 751 

Normal Schools t 545 

Gnunmar Schools 98 2,900 

CoauDOii Schools MIO 180,000 

I 



i 



I 



.1 



131 



.-i'lv<»s lo the noiicp of llio stranger 
, :ire the Llght-hc»uscs, whit It com- 
•' lower part of ihc river, which 

tii'Tand ox|>eiisive kind, am liioso 

\\'«'>!orn Litkes. 

l>r«»ii about £60,000 ey., of the latter 

r.i'.I«»\vs, to th<» nnmhcr of seven: two on 

ihe Point des Monts, in the County of 

litTnl of Bicquet, County of Uimou^ki; one 

.1 ! L-Lind, County of Teini^^couain, niid one on 

I. i hose on Uicquet and tlic IMhirs have re- 

I i)ic({uet is provided with a ;{6-pounder, which 

::* l"»j;uy wratlicr. 

. . in their great holidity and styh; of huilding, are 

.:!ri;r light in the St. Uoch traverse, oj>jK)sitc the 

. • i. t.s .".re in course of construction ; two in the Straits 
II Aiiticosti, and another at Pi>int Ga>|>i\ all of which it 
t with FrenePii lanterns. 
- -s for the benefit of the inland navig.it ion are too 
■ :ihe, some of them are on iloatiiig bar;;is. 
' < i.iss of public works are the artificial harbours the total 
.1 li.is l>een £450,000 cy. 
-rv«-n in Lower Canada, the aggregate cost of which was 
■"' "» ey., inclulin^ the light-houses erected on ihein: some of 
. •: quite complete. The others are nee.rly all in l'j»pt'r Canada; 
• Ills amounted to about £:{00.000 cy. 

.mis, including the Ilideau, form a complete route of ennmiunica- 
• t«'tal costt amounts to £5,083.000 currency, distributed as follows : 

Ui.li-au Canal £ I ,riOO.O()0 cy. 

Wetland do ],oOO/)00 

(;;illops do 300,000 

Cornwall do 100,000 

Ucauharnois do r.(K).(K)0 

Lachinc do l^^O.ooO 

(."humbly do 1 fo.ooo 

St. ( )urs Dam '21,000 

St. Anne do 2:j,ooo 

iHfsjanlins Canal .'UKHH) 

Burlington do 850,000 



•v 



. .^-t.o «atiK» we have laid out £88,000 for deepening 

. ^.kc ii^'ixtving the Rapids, and have efiected a loan of 

. , .««,^id^ ^u the Grand River. All these latter works 

**■ . ,u»0(>cs Cornwall, Beauharnois and Lachine Canals, 

>%^ .u.Ai«iict) Canals, on account of their forming a 

,^ . .,^WiC«* jc the navigation of large vessels, the locks 

;^.«^%;u8j> uhi capable of receiving vessels of 400 tons 

^ .'a^ -ouu wi.hm1 in our large rivers, have been built on a 
V ^^V4>^ k.^tawa» St. Maurice and Trent ; their total cost 

. , vv» 
. .N..V ^ caijHeting first class roads, with well built bridges 
- *-:v^'^uH?r to JB798,0O0 currency. 

^^ s,^. .:taaJa £530,000cy. 

. iuiada 268,000 

^.. *i ».^xpended on the above mentioned Public Works in 
. , . V. V. :w^ ibllows, viz : 

v..,^^.;^ £ 150,000 cy. 

vl x^ V %.iJi Whiuvwi 450,000 

" \ 5,085,000 

.^ .K? Ch^nels of Rivers 182,000 

^\\^' 150,000 

^J "^ 798,000 

TW»I £6,815,000 



V 



V v*^v^^^.?^ 1^ k* deducted the sum of £1,500,000 currency, 
VvJ^Al4 V'^Mi^ expended by the English Military Govern- 



% 



^.Av\t W\**^^ »'J these works by the Province is alrea ?y 
,, . Cvvx^v^^^ >^l^ every year. 
^ ^ ,.,,^^4. v*'lK<> above Revenue from 1848 : 

,v^v .x.%** £46,493 cy. 

.v,.v^ 56,200 

.VV^ 65,772 

^v^ ,,,. 76,216 

^^V* 84.602 

>S*» ''^'^^ 



133 



Private Companies, which without having the monopoly, have however, 
peculiar emoluments from the Government, maintain a regular line of tow 
boats ; in return for this advantage, their charge for towage is fixed at a 
certain rate which they cannot exceed on pain of forfeiture of their con* 
Iraet 

Ocean lines of large screw steamers, make regular passages between 
Liverpool and Quebec in the summer, and between Liverpool and PorUand 
(Stale of Maine,) in the winter. The owners receive pecuniary encoor- 
agement on conditions calculated to serve the public interests. 

We will now devote our attention to RaUrodd StaiiMics. There are now 
in Canada, about 3,060 miles of Railroad altogether, either projected, in 
progress or completed, without including the long contemplated line from 
Trots Pistoles to Halifax by the Bay of Chaleurs, which would make 
Halifax in Nova Scotia, our great winter port, and would form a oom- 
plete line of communication from the Gulf to the Wesfem extremity of 
llie Province, side by side with our g^at inland navigation, and most 
efiectually supplying its loss during the winter months. 

Our Railroads, of which we have given the total length, are at present 
in the condition shewn below as regards their progress towards completioo, 
which has advanced rapidly since the completion of the Canals. 

Complete 700 miles. 

In progress 2,0IG do 

Chartered 844 do 

lotal • 3,000 

It would be difiicult to give the average cost of our finished railroads 
bot we may assert, taking into account the high price of labour and 
materials, that it would be impossible to build a first*class road, (I mean 
as compared with American roads, which are generally a single track, and 
tbe finish and solidity of which are inferior to the English and French 
loads.) for less than from £0,500 to £10,000 currency per mile, 
unless under most favourable circumstances as regards locality, pecuniary 
bcilities and management. 

I shall now give a statement of the average cost per mile of some roads 
or parts of roads, quite completed, the amounts being in round numbers 
iod in French currency : 

Grand Trunk 217 miles. 100,000 francs. £ 0,500 cy. 

Great Western 229 *' 220,000 « 1 1 ,000 " 

Ontario and Simcoe W '' 1 50,000 ^ 7,500 «' 

Bufiklo and Goderich 75 «« 100,000 *^ 5,000 • 

Total length 887 miles. 



134 



Thii uver/i;jjo cost as exhibited by this table is £8250 currency per mile, 
fhiii \h tiikiri;; each road to represent the whole, but when the length of 
0ftch route or th(^ total cost is taken into account, then the mean cost rises 
to JCO,nOO per mile. 

Tho tlinx*. first oF the above mentioned roads, viz. : the Grand Trunk, 
tbi) (ireat WcHtern, and the Siracoe, have each a share of the Provincial 
Kuoranloe, that is to say, the Provincial Government secures to the share- 
hold#!rN of the Companies the repayment of a certain part of the capital 
Uid out ill the construction of the roads, should the speculation not prove 
remunerative, and as a security for the money thus advanced, the Gov- 
nrnn\i*nt heoorncs a privileged creditor by a mortgage on the whole property 
<>f thoC'ofnpiiny. Should the road pay, and tho investment prove profitable 
to the Shiirrholdern, then the latter are bound to make payment of the deben- 
turnN JMNurd ill their favor and in circulation in the money market. In thi» 
nnno i\w provinco 1ms nothing to pay, but in the opposite case the province 
would hiivo to redeem their debentures and become proprietor till the 
itrnouiit of their loan was made good. By a law which regulates this 
traiiMuotion, tho amount which the Executive is empowered to secure to 
ditch company, in limited. The total length of the three roads to which this 
tfimruntou has been accorded, is 1,434 miles. 

The maximum amount of debentures which the Province can be called 
upon, first to issue, and afterwards, to pay in part, should the Company 
buoomo loNori, has been fixed at £5,000,000, currency. 

'i*ho capital invested in our railroads when the 3,060 miles are completed 
may be wjt down at £16,000,000, currency, the capital now employed 
lifnouritN to about six millions currency. * 

To the £10,000,000, above mentioned, is to be added £1,500,000, the 
probable cost of building the Victoria Bridge over the St. Lawrence. 



6. 



FINANCE. 



The revenue of the province for the disbursements of 1854, amounted 
to, £1,423,620, currency, or about £1,250,000, currency, net. 

The ex|)enses of the civil list, including the expenses of collecting the 
revenue in 1854, amounted to £939,534. currency. The unexpended 
bulance this year has been appropriated to the public works which were 
vilher in progress or newly commenced. 



185 



Tbe different sources of the revenue are as follows : 

Costoms £1.1 15,000 

Excise 20,000 

Bank Imposts 25,000 

Public Works 1 00,000 

Militia Fines 4,020 

Casual Revenue 20,000 

Law Fee Fund 4 500 

Territorial 100,000 

Below is given a statement of tbe revenue for 1849, to sbewtbe im- 
provement tbat has been made since that year, in which we entered into 
tboae great financial speculations, which were the means of relieving ns 
from the burthen imposed on our money market by the great public works 
which being unfinished yielded no return. 

Revenue of 1849 : 

Customs £450,000 

Public Works 50,000 

Excise 30,000 

Territorial and other 44,640 



574,640 



Tbe Government has no bank of its own, the revenue is deposited as 
•ooo as received, in the public banks, and yields a certain amount of inter- 
est, when the Minister of Finance has decided on not withdrawing the 
monies for a stated time ; in that case a consolidated fund is formed* 
which remains in the bankers* hands, who pay interest at the rate of four 
per cent, till the money is required, in which case sixty days' notice of 
withdrawal must be given ; suras are occasionally deposited f^r a stated 
I, but these cases are exceptions. Thus in 1854, on the 1st October, 
had the following amounts at disposal : 

Bank of England £ 229 cy. 

Glyn, Mills & Co., London 12,G23 

Baring Brothers, do 1,890 

Bank of Upper Canada 302,008 

Do Montreal 8,675 

I>o Korth America ••••••••••••••••••... 7G,585 

Peoples Bank 59,573 

Midland DUtrict Bank 111,788 



» 



• • 



1,271 
11,000 
11.085 
40,586 

£235,298 cy. 



. ^fk.Mi» ^W : 



£13,135 

10,208 



•..i^C'UMut of our finances, shewed their state to be 

tU:^U»l, li><>4 t 



Debit side. 



.i..N\.u Company 



:ci I'oaus. 



'uiiU. 



• •••■••«•• • •• •••••• 



I 



£5,080,273 cy. 
1,102,056 
1,064,582 
851,616 

794,668 



...liwiii* in the Bank of England, & 



1,500,000 
605,198 

£10,998,393 cy. 






iKc t^ explain these different items. The first ex- 

v.^*.x '*« *um* expended on public works. The second 
^. A sums due for advances made to railway compa* 
.^.. ii^x I he work progresses, and guaranteed as above 
. ., .^ovUKVil by a law which authorizes municipalities 
.^.,uuv"i ihc negotiation of their local debentures, the 
^uiuullv into the hands of ihe Receiver General the 
:.. »»»a- lu^olittted by him in the name of the Province, 
.4i the iralc of six per cent, for twenty-five years. 



%■«<% 



-\V' 



■X 



^ ; ^iuik* rcivived for the sale of lands reserved by 
:^^.^v*A*u»i Olcrgy, and which the Receiver General ia 
s^ki ^4^ ^ ^^^ beneficiaries. 



187 



The Indian Fundi and School and other funds, composing the sixth, 
seventh and eighth items, are likewise special funds, created in con- 
nection with the public domain, and which the Minister of Finance must 
gire a special account of. These items are carried to the debtor and 
creditor side as balances ; as also the ninth item, made up of moneys de- 
posited to order, and entered as cash in hand, moneys placed out at 
interest, redeemable at sixty days, and the sum in English Consols, devoted 
to the reduction of our debt. 

In order to meet these obligations as they become due, we have the 
fbllowing on the credit side of the account : 

1. Loan on the Imperial Guarantee £1,825,000 cy. 

2. Debentures payable in London 1,727,568 

8. do do in Canada 827,554 

4. Redemption of the Public Debt 488,880 

6. Issue of Debentures in favor of the Grand Trunk 

Company, authorized by law 1,102,056 

6. Debentures issued in virtue of other laws 2,112,482 

7. Special funds of Clergy Reserves, Indian and 

other funds 794,668 

Part of the Consolidated Revenue Fond for the cur- 
rent year, and the Sinking Fund 1,500,000 

From various sources • 620,285 

Total £10,998,898 cy. 



The three first items are made up of loans made by us to meet that part 
of the first item of our debtor accounts, which our revenue does not pay ; 
cbey form our positive debt, which diminishes by the deposit of our instal- 
ments, of which the next article, No. 4, is an example. 

The fifth and sixth articles form our collateral debt, and are resources 
established to meet various exigencies, which we hope to cover by the 
pro6ts produced by the employment of the capital. For instance ; the 
bterest and sinking fund, paid in by the Municipalities will redeem the 
debentures i58ucd in their favor. As a security from the railways, we 
have a privileged mortgage on them. 

The seventh item relates to the revenues of lands reserved, as has been 
ilready explained, which exactly meet Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the debtor 
ttde. 

Hie rest explains itself. 



i 



.jc was... £4,350,000 

3,386,500 

1,172,910 

. tilted by the 

451,262 

...i:iccs, wc may 

. . xs carried to the 

,. cJod the direct 

565,000 

^ cd to the balance 
ic Jt of the present 
730,000 

».T in value than the amount set down. 
i\} was only £53,533, amounts now to 



. I 1849 was only quoted at £100,000, 
_ . j' IS54, it is raised to £488,830. 
^•vxCK>nthe English money market. Our 6 
.v.vvmable in twenty-five years, commands a 
.v.-* ivachos 17. 



, « 



6. 

COMMERCE. 

^ . V- {'usi a statement of the number of arrivals and 
h viil ports, both sea and inland. The year chosen 
:, ..X, v»t" which cuuiplcte returns have been published 
iu-iU, namely, 1853. 

»^,v*c!!» from sea, and entered at the following ports: 

o^^^v 280 

>..\v 1,300 

•:' \^i';» ivnis. 

4.\\ -^lid the remainder from Montreal and Gaspe. 
, VI s iilcvl was 05S,SJ>3 tons, makir;; a total of entered 
» \\1,KW tons. 



.• * 



1S9 



Of the vessels which entered port 66 were foreign. 

The total numher of vessels which passed through our Canals, whether 
up or down was 20,400, with a total tonnage of 2,138,654 tons. 

71,000 tons of flour and 100,000 tons of iron passed through the Wcl* 
land Canid. 

Tlie whole value of our imports for 1853 was £7395t359 cy. 

Exports 5.946,752 

In 1850 the imports were only 4,245,517 

Exports 8,990,428 

We must here remark that for the principal article of our export trade, 
t. e., timber, the vahic is set down at the price at which it is produced, not 
mt the selling price, which is of course considerably higher. 

The |x)rt of Montreal receives the largest freight The value of the 
goods entered in 1853, was £3,381,539, currency. 

The port of Quebec has the largest export trade, it amounted in 1853 to 
£2.443,457. In this account is not included the value of newly built ships, 
a table of which is found below. 

This last description of export was valued io the same year at £1,165^056, 
currency. 

Below is a list of those articles which arc imported in the largest quan- 
tities, with the total value of importation of each kind of article, for 1853 : 

Raw Sugar £264,919 cy. 

Tea 890,106 

Manufactured Tobacco 106,794 

Cotton 1,315,635 

Iron Manufactures 648,720 

Linen 133,414 

Woollen Goods 254,255 

Bar and Sheet Iron 810,805 

Railway Iron 343,693 

Books 103,245 

Chief articles of exportation, with their values, in 1868 : 

•Produce of Fisheries 86,000 

do Forests 2.355,253 

Animal produce 842,631 

Agricuhural Pro<lucc 1,995,194 

•NoTL^To gxwe ao idetof the Gulf Fitheriet, lo the jtu% 1S47-49,633,7I1 barreli of nuck- 
trcl wen r«criTed in iho PorU of tb« Suu« ol MasMchuMlU, aloMMl «11 of which w«r« takta ia 
lk« Golf oC St. UvrcDOi. 



140 



Below 19 the number and tonnage of the ships built and registered in the 
whole Province, in 1853 : 

Ships 200 

Tonnage 61,512 tons. 

Add to this the number of vessels built in the Province, but not regis- 
tered at the Customs : 

Ships (or small craft) 84 

Tonnage 8,769 tons. 

Grand total of vessels • 284 

Total tonnaj^c 70,281 

Under this head we find for Quebec, 50 vessels..49,541 tons. 

Kingston 2,008 " 

Gaspfe 1,583 ^ 

The rest have been built at different parts of Upper and Lower Canada. 

BAKES. 

The principal incorporated Banks are the Bank of BrUtsh North America^ 
(Branch,) the Upper Canada, Montreal, Quebec^ Ciiyj Midland District^ €hn 
and People's BanJca. 

The general statement of the affairs of the above institutions for 186S, 
Mas as follows : 

Debtor side £4,931,507 cy. 

Credit side 7,155,005. 

Tlic principal Savings Banks in 1853, were the 

Hamilton, 

Montreal, 

Montreal (Provident Savings,) 

Northumberland and Durham, 

Quebec (Provident and Savings.) 

The sums deposited in these Banks in 1853 amounted to £207,304 cur- 
rency, of which ^\ were distributed among the three Banks of Montreal 
and Quebec. 

The principal Insurance Companies (I say principal, because several of 
these institutioiis sent in no account of the state of their affairs to the De- 
partment of Statistics,) are 

1. The British American (Firo and Life,) 

2. Canada (Life,) 



141 



8. Mutual, 

4. Kingston Marine Insurance, 
6. Ontario do do, 

6. St. Lawrence do do, 

The amount of property insured against firo and marine risks was, as 
exhibited below, for the offices, 1, 4, and 6 only, the other amounts have 
not been given in complete. 

Value of property insured against fire £1,093,814 cy. 

Premiums 9,726 

Losses by fire in the year. • • • • • • • 6,327 

Value of Marine Insurance • • . 602,942 

Premiums received • • • • • 6,925 

Losses 8,282 

It may be well here to draw the attention of the reader to these figures, 
aa diewing the comparative risk attending navigation as connected with 
the trade of Canada. 

By a law called the *^ New Banking Act,** extended privileges are 
granted to Companies wishing to establish Banks, they being obliged as 
a security for their solvency to deposit provincial debentures in the hands 
of the Receiver General. The amount of these deposits on the 1st January 
of this year, was £201,125, being the gross amount of capital of all the 
Banks that have taken advantage of this system. 

The incorporated Banks pay a tax of 1 per cent, on their paper issues. 
In 1858 this tax produced a revenue of £23,053. The highest amount it 
had reached in previous years was £18,950, in 1852. 



7. 

Oeneral infarmatiom. 

We wish here to collect together several little items, omitted or deferred, 
and addressed more particularly to emigrants. We enter on the subject 
without any special dedication of this paragraph. 

Local taxes are much higher in Upper than in Lower Canada. In 
Upper Canada the Municipalities take charge of the roads, pay the juries, 
•nd meet several other expenses, while in Lower Canada the people arc 
taxed for education only ; the public works are peribrmed by {lersonal 
labour, under the superintendence of the Municipalities. The system in 
Upper Canada, is, in this respect, better on the whole, although it has been 
^boaed in aome of the 



142 



The postfigc on letters is 3d. currency, over the \vhole province, for any 
letter not weighing more than half an ounce, (the charge increasing with 
the vireight.) The postage on books or pamphlets by the mails, is very cheap. 
The exchange with England ranges from 20 to 22 0/0. 

I have given here a table of the value of the current money of the Pro- 
vince, the pound, Halifax currency, consisting of 20 shillings at the same 
rate, and being about the same value as a French Louis d'or. 



COINS. 



ENGLISH. 



£ 8. d. 
Sovereign 14 6 

English Crown...... 6 1 

I>o nairC'n... 8 i 
Shilling 13 

Six pence 7i 



AMERICAN. 



£ 8. d. 
Eagle 2 10 

Dollar 6 

Hair Dollar. 2 6 

Dime 6 



FRENCH AND SPANISH. 



£ i.d 

Crown 6 6 

5 fhinc piece 4 8 

Spanish dollar 6 

Pistorecn 10 



A settler's hut costs from £5 to £25. 

A good farm house from £75 to £300. 

A good barn generally cgsts from 20s. to 80s., the lineal foot ; thus a 
barn, 40 feet by 30, will cost from £40 to £60 ; a barn 200 feet long, 
which is a common size here, will cost from £200 to £300. 

A temporary barn for a new colonist may cost from £5 to £10. 

Workmen's wages vary from 3s. to 5s. a day of ordinary labour. Trades- 
men earn from Ss. to 7s. 6d. In 1853-4, wages w^re higher in consequence 
of the great public works which were then in progress. 

Lands with standing woods, well situated, and near to any settlement, 
arc worth at least 15s. an acre, and private sales of wood land have been 
made as high as 40s. Lands in the Crown Domain, of which nearly all 
wild lands form a part, are sold at low or almost nominal prices, varying 
from Is. 6d., to 3s. 6d., and 8s., these lands are sold on very easy terms. 
Land is much higher in Upper Canada than below ; the population being 
exclusively British, the greatest part of the emigration from the United 
Kingdom is directed there and the demand raises the value. 

The best route for emigrants is by Quebec, to which port the price of a 
passage from Liverpool, for the working c lasses, varies from £3 to £6 in 
sailing vessels, and costs about £7 10s. in steamers. 

In all our ports and cities there are emigrant agents who give all neces- 
sary information to emigrants; and there arc Hospitals, in which, if sick, 
they are treated gratuitously, with kindnesa and attention. 



CONCLUSION. 

**I have,'* said a Canadian, ^Wisited many foreign countne?, and I 
hare seen many more picturesque and more abundant in wealth, but I 
hare never seen one which ever gave me cause to regret that it was 
my lot to live in Canada.'' 

^^ Those who would go to settle in Canada/' said a traveller, ^* may be 
sure of finding in the towns and old settlements, all the comfort of the 
first cities of Europe ; and in the newly opctied country, a vast field for in- 
dustry, and a sure return for their labour, especially if they bring with them 
a moderate capital." 

The author is decidedly of the same opinion, and this stu.ly of his 
country has made him love it more; the conclusion he has come to, as 
regards those who wish to leave Europe to setile in America, is this, that 
few countries offer a fairer prospect for the future, to the Emigrant and 
bia posterity, more especially to the agriculturist, if he is wise enough to 
remain one. It is not our intention here to advise those who can 
enjoy their ease at home to come to thi? country to seek a fortune. Far 
from it. They might have cause to fear that punishment would overtake 
them, for despising that moderate fortune which it had pleased Providence 
to grant them. Besides, brilliant and rapid fortunes are not more common 
in America than in Europe ; but there is certainly more room and a 
better field for industry, though Canada is not a land of plenty, flowing 
with milk and honey. A man leaving Euro|)C, directing his steps to 
America, or to any other part of the world, with the idea of making a 
large fortune in a short time, stands an excellent chance of being 
disappointed. The Emigrant compelled by adverse circumstances to 
leave his country, must have seen enough of the rough side of life to 
make him ejitertain more sober aspirations than these. But, let us re- 
peat once more, the poor industrious man, the intelligent and honest man, 
tbe capitalist (however small his means,) whose industry is fettered by 
the difficulty of finding secure investments for his capital — all these will 
find what they require in Canada, and much better in many re5pects than 
elsewhere. The soil is boundless and fertile, Nature has already provid- 
ed ao abundant return in the forests, which the settler can at once turn 
to account. The climate is remarkably healthy, the natural pnxluctions 
abundant and various, the scenery beautiful and majestic, and all that is 
wanting is the stout arm of the laborer and the influx of capital. 

We will now an5wer a question which naturally is asked by all intending 
emigrants. Where are we to go in your immense territory ? Which is 



144 



the best direction to take ? In all sincerity I reply : Go where you will, all 
places are nearly alike, some have one advantage, some another. Every- 
where you will find a safe asylum, but I may as well frankly state that 
emigrants speaking the English language only, and Protestant emigrants, 
would do better to settle in Upper Canada, and French Catholic emigrants 
would find it more congenial to their feelings to remain in Lower Canada. 
The Frenchman, Belgian or French Swiss, will find themselves as it were 
in their own country in Lower Canada, especially those from Breton or 
Normandy. The Catholic finds every parish church surmounted with a 
fine steeple, bearing the cross he has been accustomed to see. Again, the 
Yorkshireman or Highlander may fancy that his native county has been 
transferred to Upper Canada. Emigrants from the British Isles hf^ve learnt 
this, for it is always towards Upper Canada that they direct their steps. 
Lower Canada has not since the Conquest received fifty families of French 
origin, and it is surprising how its population has increased to its present 
figure. This extraordinary growth of the French Canadian race, is perhaps 
unequalled in the history of the world, and moreover it is a fact which goes 
to prove the high moral and sanitory condition of the people. 

The reader will observe in these remarks that the principal object of 
thb work — which merely expresses the sentiments of the Grovernment 
that called it forth — is to attract emigration to this country ; and that, 
with a friendly feeling towards Europe, which has a superabundant popu- 
lation, and equally so towards Canada, where the available labor does not 
suffice for the work. 

Reference has oflen been made to capitalists ; and indeed the man of 
business, who studies this work and the descriptive catalogue of the Paris 
Exhibition, about to be published, will perceive that there are means of 
making in Canada the most advantageous investments of capital ; more 
especially in schemes for rendering available the natural riches of the soil, 
the forests, and the waters, resources which, it may be safely said, Canada 
possesses to a degree not exceeded in any other country in the world. 

The question of emigration to Canada may present weightier and more 
important features than the simple welfare of the emigrant or the coun- 
try; but the limits of this work do not allow the consideration of 
questions of so high an order, which affect England as a power and a 
mother country, and the French as a race, and as allies of the former. I 
shall content myself with saying that their interests are one and identical, 
80 fiur as Canada is concerned. 



DESCBIFTIVE CATALOGUE 



or THB 



PRODUCTIONS OF CANADA 



EXHIBITED IM PARIS IN 1856. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



or THB 



RODUCTIONS OF CANADA 



EXHIBITED IN PARIS IN 1855, 



■T 



J. C. TACHB, ESa, 



COMMISSIONEB FBOX CANADA TO THB UXITEmAL EX0IBm0.1. 



\JrmuUuAfnm tkt Frtmth ) 



PARIS. 

rBIXTID BT O. A. PISaRD — DKXTA!f A 00. 

1853. 



BRIEF SKETCH 



ov nu 



CANADIAN EXHIHITION. 



i 



The Canadian exhibition in London, in 1861, was as unccesufnl an 
eoald be reaiionably desired when we consider the infancy of the coun- 
toy, the inconsiderable number of the population, and the difficulties 
ariaiog from its remotenens from the continent of Europe. 

Sixty priaes and honorable mentions, obtain.^d in the different classes, 
a special report by the jury on the class of mineraN, by which the 
CuMulian oollection was placed at the head of all the others, and stated 
to be mtperior to ike exkibiibm of minerals by all ike oiher couniries bore 
witness to its complete success to the full extent of our expectations. 

The country was satisfied, but a number of exhibitors, to whose indi- 
vidoal eflbrts the success of the exhibition is due, had suffered consider- 
able losses, and the results to the commercial interests of the country 
wwne not proportioned to the general calculation, from the circumstance, 
that, exoept as regarded the minerals, the zeal and devotion of indivi- 
doala had b?en alone depended upon, and that spirit of unanimity so 
important in the selection of articles for exhibitions of that nature, had 
Bol been brought to bear upon the labors incident to the formation of 
the collection. 

Profiting by the ex|ierience acquired, and with the desire of seeing 
Oanafhi take part in the noble spirit of emulation which attracted all 
people to Paris — the Executive Committee charged with the manage- 
OKBt of the matter, determined to give that national and general charac- 
to the Canadian section of the Universal Exhibition of 1855, which 
wanting to the exhibition of 1851. 

Tb preserve to itself every freedom of action, the Committee determined 
that all the articles, selected by the juries of admission, should be pur- 
dMaed by the Committee, and forwarded to Paris at the expends of the 
PiDvince, but in the name of the contributors, who were to retain the 
tiie and the advantages of exhibitors. Prom this it will be seen, 
that the? original idea was to set the country in the place and stead of 
individuals, and thus to evidence to the people of other lands the 
ires of the country rather than the skill of ibi inhabitants, and 
wisdom of such a measure is at once apparent, applied to a country 
^^indiny In natural wealth. 



150 



But although the object in view was principally to represent the re- 
sources offered by the countiy, the Committee on the other hand deemed 
it their duty, not to neglect the opportunity of shewing to the European 
public, that the Canadian heavens do not refuse to those over whom they 
shed their light, those talents which originate, bring to perfection, or 
carry on, the different arts and manufactures ; and if we may be permit- 
ted to believe and repeat the flattering testimony expressed day after 
day by the visitors of the annexe, those efforts have resulted in certain 
success. Canada has forwarded to the Paris Exhibition, articles be- 
longing to all the classes contained in the catalogue of the Imperial 
Commission, with the exception of the 19th and 21st, which relate to 
cotton and silk manufactures. These do not exist in Canada, with the 
exception perhaps, of some few establishments, which are comparaliyely 
tmimportant. 

The three first classes, viz. : those relating to mineral and agricnltnial 
wealth and the produce of our forests, are the divisions in which Canada 
will more specially shine, if shine it do at Paris. The mineral 
productions, contributed by nearly eighty exhibitors, are the most nomer^ 
ous ; they are classified in the order of their application in the arts, and 
are sufficiently complete, to give an idea of the abundRUce of this cla«s 
of productions, and at the same time to give an insight into the geological 
formation of the country. It may be said, that with the exception of 
coal, Canada contributes every species of earths, metals, and mineral snb- 
stances, which cons:itutc the basis of the various metallurgical manu- 
factures, or serve as materials for building : in this latter class the marbles 
and cement must not be forgotten. 

These sources of wealth have as yet hardly been rendered availablei 
owing to the want of capital and labour: the Province has, as yet only 
commenced operations in these various branches of industry. 

The exhibition of Canadian timber, it is reasonable to believe, will 
prove that its inexhaustible forests, extending over nearly 360,000 square 
miles, are unrivalled throughout the world for the variety of species, and 
more particularly for the size of the timber of full j^ro A^th. It will be seen 
by the accompanying catalo^e, that in this clats, as well as in that of 
wood for cabinet making, Canada possesses certain precioos raretieSi 
which it alone can furnish. The productions of the fisheries and of tlie 
chase placed in the same category, enable the country to take an ex- 
clusive place, as a field for industrial pursuits. 

It is hardly necessary to dilate upon the importance and beauty of 
Canadian grain; it will be sufficient for the visior to examine atten- 
tively the gallery of the annexe on the Coura la Reine in the Canadian 
sec I ion, to form an idea of the great number and beauty of the agiicul-^ 



151 



tnrmi productions, properly so called, of this Province. The varieties of 
•pring and fall wheat, of barley, oats, and peas, the suitableness as bread- 
stoflsof many of these descriptions of grain, will at once make it apparent 
that a fertile soil is seconded by a favorable climate, which admits, more* 
over, of the cultivation of Indian ct>m, tobacco, and fruits which our 
winters do not prevent from attaining a perfect development. 

In the fourth and fifth classes of general mechanism applied to manu- 
fkctores, and the sixth and seventh of special mechanism, Canada 
having obtained several prizes and honorable mentions in London, 
forwarded to Paris articles which are at least worthy of remark, and 
of which much has been already stid by the public. Among these 
articles are some which are second to none exhibited by any other 
country. 

It was not to tie expected that the Canadian Exhibition would include 
inany of the articles comprised in the 8th and 9th classes, which, having 
lefeience to manufactures, relate more particularly to the sciences and 
the employment of chemical and physical agents, for the very simple 
leasoQ that a small population cannot create an adequate demand for 
a production so special in its nature. 

In the tenth class, Canada has been enabled to exhibit the remarka- 
ble productions with which nature abound^ varnishes, gums, vege* 
table and animal oils, soaps and alkalis, leathers, dyes and paint stuflfs. 
Special notice should be taken of two articles exclusively belonging to 
Canada, and introduced into manufactures by Canadians; i refer to the 
porpoise leather and the paper mide from the i/nmorlellc (gnaphalium.) 

In the eleventh, the methods employed in the preparation and preser- 
vation of alimentary substances, to adapt them for exportation, and to 
enable them to support the accidents of a long voyage, are illustrated by 
a large number of specimens. 

In the twelfth class, Canada exhibits several plants and substances, 
giving a partial idea of the numerous drugs which f«he is capable of sup- 
plying; and in the thirteenth class, spi'cimens of articles connected 
with navigation and ship building, the latter, one of the principal sources 
lirofn which Canada derives her wealth ; a branch of trade to the impor- 
tance of which no limits need be set, seeing the abundance and excellent 
^pialities of the materials which form its basis. 

In the fiiurteenth class, the visitor may M*e mcxlels of the immense 
irorks connected with the navigation of the St. I^wrence, and al?H>, what 
will be of the greatest interest to foreign consumers, a number of articles 
sminnfactnred of wood, the low prices of which cause the greatest 
Mtoniihment to all. 



CLASSIFICATION OF ARTICLES SENT FROM CANADA AND 
EXHIBITED IN THE ANNEXE NEAR THE RIVER. 



First Ditimow. 
Manufactures. 

Irt Group. — Articles having for their object the indastrial pursaits in 
connection with the extraction or productioti of the raw material. 

FIRST CLASS. 
Mintno Avn mbtalluroical oFBaATioni, sTATisncfl, and obnbbal 

DOCUMENTS. 

I. Geological Commisaion of Canada — Montreal, Ix)wer Canada, 
Geological Map of Canada, and a collection of minerals mentioned in 
detail in the following sections : 

f. Kee/er {Thomas) Civil Engineer, Montreal, Lower Canada. Topo> 
graphical^Map of Canada. 

Skction 4. 

Combustible Minerals. 

S Scobell (/,) Architect, Montreal, Lower Canada Turf, pressed 
and not pressed. 

4. Boston^ John^ Sheriff of Montreal, Lower Canada. Turf. 

Sbction 5. 
iron and iron Castings. 

5. Billings (C.^) Ottawa City, Upper Canada. Silicate of iron. 
Geological Commission of Canada already mentioned under No. 1. 

A mass of pure meteoric iron, titanifemus iron, oligist and chromic 
magnetic pyrites, iron pyrites, ferruginous ochre. 

6. Marmora Iron Company^ Marmora, Upper Canada. Oxydulated 



7. OUawa Mimng Compmnyy Ottawa, Upper Canada. Oxydulated 



& Dickson {Andrew)^ Kingston, Upper Canada. Oligist iraii 



154 



9. Lancaster (R. ) , Vaudreuil, Lower Canada. Specimens of bog iron 
ore and phosphate of iron. 

10. Larue ^ Coy Manufacturers, Three Rivers, Lower Canada. Bog 
iron ore, with specimens of castings made therefrom. 

11. Morifiy St. Valier, Lower Canada. Specimens of bog iron ore. 

12. Morris (Alexander) j Montreal, Lower Canada. Oxydulated iron 
from South Sherbrooke. 

IS. Mudget (jB.,) Sutton, Lower Canada. Titaniferous iron. 

14. Pnrter ^ Co^ manufacturers, St. Maurice Forges, Lower Canada. 
Specimens of bog iron ore, ca<*tings and malleable iron. 

15. SeymoWy Madoc, Upper Canada. Oxydulated iron. 

16. Smith (H L.) Sutton, Lower Canada. Titaniferous iron. 

17. Stutson (Oramely) Sutton, Lower Canada. Titaniferous iron. 

18. Stevens {Geargey) Newborough, Upper Canada. Oxydulated iron. 

19. Vanorman (£.,) manufacturer, Tilsonburgh, Upper Canada. Spe- 
cimens of bog iron ore. 

SsCTIOIf 6. 

Common Metals (with the exception of Iron.) 

20. Bluity Lansdowne, Upper Canada, Sulphuret of lead. 
Geological Commission of Canada^ already mentioned at No. 1. 

Specimens of copper ore, zinc, uranium and galena. 

21. Copper Bay Alining Company y Montreal, Lower Canada. Speci- 
mens of Lake Huron copper ore. 

22. Montreal Mining Companyy Lower Canada. Copper Ore from 
Lakes Hurcn and Superior. 

23. Quebec and Lake Superior Mining Company y Lower Canada. 
Native copper and specimens of Michipicoten copper ore. 

24. MacLean (/,) Ramsay, Upper Canada. Sulphuret of lead. 

25. Sleep r (Ltmis,) Quebec, Lower Canada. Copper ore with native 
gold and a series of minerals, illustrating the veins of Leeds, Lower 
Canada, 

Section 7. 

Precious Metals. 

Geological Commission of Canada y already mentioned at No. 1. Na- 
tive silver with copper, ores containing gold and silver, ores containing 
silver. 

26. Douslas (J.y) Quebec, Lower Canada. Auriferous pyritesi 
auriferous galena, gold and silver from the Beauce mines near Quebec, 
extracted by washing. 



155 



t7. Logan 'Jame$^) Montreal, Lower Canada, native gold, platinam, 
and iridiMiminum, with the different deacriptions of pebbles and fine 
aand which are mixed np with the^e metaU at River du Loup, Beance, 
near Quebec 

SUeper (LtmiSy) Quebec, Lower Canada, already mentioned under 
Na t5. Native gold. 

Skctioii 9. 

Nofi'Metallic Mineral Productions. 

t8 Altferi ( V.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Steatite. 

t9. Andies (L Sf R^ Chambly, Lower Canada, Amianthus. 

50. Benlon(L A",) Stanslcad, Lower Canada. Shell marl. 
tosion^ Montreal, Lower Canada, already mentioned under No. 4. 

Shell marl 

51. Brum (A.,) Rice Lake, Upper Canada. Marmora marble. 

Sf. Brown {Jufn-s^) Cement Manufacturer, St. Catharines, Upper 
Canada. Thorold cement, with a specimen of calcareous stone, of 
which it is com|XJ8ed. 

SS Ctn^on 4r Debloia^ Quebec, Lower Canada. Red ochres. 

S4. Calway (Jdmes^) St. Joseph, Ix)wcr Canada. Granite. 

etiological Commission of Canada^ already mentioned under No. 1. 
Dolomite, ilmenite, bog mangacef>e, agglomeration of jas|)er, magnesian 
limestone, M*q)eniini*, marbles, ochres, sandstone for building purposes, 
hydraulic limestone, white brick, building stone, stones for lithographic 
porposcM, slaie, tripoli, agate, jasper, quartz, waved agates, whetstones, 
sandstone, white quartz, fossils, and other articles. 

So. SMpion State Com/tany Lower Canada. R(x)fmg slates 

56. HamUton International Company^ Upper Canada. Asphalt. 

57. Cheesman (A.,) Philipsburgh, Lower Canada. St. Armand mar- 
ble. 

58. Cyr (L.,) Ste. Rose, Lower Canada. Shell marl. 

S9 Gran / Trunk Railway Company, Specimens of the different de- 
acriptions ofstoni* used in the public works 

40. Donaldsim (/.,) Oneida. Upper (*anada Gypsum. 

4f. Foster (//,* BronK*, Lower Canada. Dolomite. 

42. Crautrrau (Pterrf,) Architect, Quebec. Lower Canada. Quebec 
cement and the stone in its natural state, together with the stone formed 
from the ccmr*nt. This contributor received a diploma in Canada tat 
his preparation 

4S. Guy 'J.,) Melbourne, Lower Canada. Roofing slates. 

44. HiUiard tf Dicmson^ Pakenham, Upper Canada* Building stone. 



156 



4&. thdcMaoB ^ MoriBioniy Montreal, Lower Canada. A blooltof 
hewn limestone for building purposes. 

46. Jadsman^ Gikwrn^ Kingsey, Lower Canada. WhetstoneB. 

47. Jarvis ( W. B.^) Toronto, Upper Canada. Building matPii^b* 

48. It Jay (r.,) Grenville, Lower Canada. Mica. 

49. Keefer {Samuel^) Civil Engineer, Brockville, Upper Canada. Stoaa 
used on the public works. 

Keefer {T/tomas^) already mentioned under No. 2. Blocks of hewn 
limestone for building. 

60. Lemieux {FrafifoiSy) Commissioner of Public Works at Quebec, 
Lower Canada. Lorette, Pointe aux Tremljles and Cap Kouge build- 
ing stone. 
61. Leslie {JameSy) Sherbrooke, Lower Canada. Roofing slates. 
52. Littkj Paris, Upper Canada. Hydraulic limestone. 

Larue ^ Company^ already mentioned under No. 10. Liroestone^ 
argillite, and moulding sand, materials employed in the Radnor 
Forges, near the River St. Maurice, in Lower Canada. 
Mudget (jB.,) already mentioned under No. IS. Dolomite. 

63. Macdonaldy Des Chats, Upper Canada. Building stone. 

64. Maikay {Honurable Thonuta^) New Edinburgh, Upper Canada. 

Shell marl. 
66. MacLoughlin (D.,) Ottawa City, Upper Canada. Amprior mar- 
ble and building stone. 

66. JUOrcMannis {J.,) Bolton, Lower Canada. Pot stone, or steatite. 

67. Townley (Mrs.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. White brick. 

68. Martinda^e {ThamrtSy) Oneida, Upper Canada. Gypsum. 

69. Munroe 4^ Co., Pointe du Lac, Lower Canada. Ochres. 

60. Newton ( FT.,) Bolton, Lower Canada. Chromic iron. 

61. O* Connor (Daniel^) Lansdowne, Upper Canada. Sulphate of 

baryta. 

62. PerravU (Zephiriny) Kamouraska, Lower Canada. Amianthus. 

63. Perry {Edmjndy) Brockville, Upper Canada. Blocks of Cut lime- 

stone. 

64. Primmerman (J.,) Bamston, Lower Canada. Blocks of granite; 
Porter ^ Co.y already mentioned under No. 14. Limestone and re- 
fractory sandstone, used at their forges at St. Maurice in Lower 
Canada. 

•6. Samsony Pointe Levi, Lower Canada. Dolomite. 

66. SparkeSy Ottawa City, Upper Canada. Shell marl. 

67. Spottiswood 8^ ReynoldSy Paris, Upper Canada. Gypsum. 

68. SykeSy Deber^jue fy Co.y Montreal, Lower Canada. Labradorite. 

69. Tanguay (ii&&^,) Rimousiii, Lower Canada. Fossils. 



157 



70. Tardif {JoMtpky) Tring, Lower Canada. Roofing slates. 

71. WkiU if Gallopy Melbourne, Lower Canada. Pot ptone. 
7i. WhUe {P,y) Pembroke, Upper Canada. Building stone. 

75. WkUecambe (J.,) Hawksbury, Upper Canada. Shell marl. 

74. Wilson {JdmesJ) Physician, P^rth, Upper Canada. Phosphate of 

lime, barytes, graphite, perlhile and perislherite. 
75 IFoodiMrd (//.,) Bolton, Lower Canada. Steatite. 

76. Kales (H^.,) Paris, Upper Canada. Gypsum. 

77. VeamoM (J.,) Belleville, Upper Canada. Shell marl. 



RECAPITULATION. 

WASfCS or THR ARTICLCS COICTAINCD flT mMT CLASS. 

Topqgniphic and Geological MapA. 

MetaU and their Ore$. 

A lomp of meteoric iron, oxydnlated iron, oligist iron, bog iron, titan* 
ifeioasiron, ilmenitc, blende, galena, native copper ore, pyrites containing 
gold and silver, nick«*l, native silver, native gold, platinum, iridium, 
•orifemos pyrites, arsenical pyrites 
Mmenf$ requiring Chemical Manipulation to adapt them to the Fine Arte. 

Ochre of uranium, chromic iron, cobalt, manganese, rooiybdeaite 
doloroite, magnesite. 

Mineral Paints. 
Iron ochre, barytine, phosphate of imn. 

Minerals made use of in the Fine Arts. 

Lithographic stone, mineral materials ina<le use of in jewellery^ 
agates, Labradorites, jaspers, (]uartz, wavinl agates, perthite rubies. 

Refractory Materials. 
Pol stone or steatite, mica, plumbago, white sandstone, mmiantbos. 

Miner(d Mohures. 
Phosphate of lime, gypsom, shell marl. 

Sharpening and Polishing Materials. 
Whetstones, tripoli. 



158 



BuUdi'*g MaleriaU. 

Slate, white granite, gneiss, sand^-tone, calcareous sandstone, lime- 
stone, trap, marble, hydraulic limestone, bricks. 

ConAustible Matters. 
Turf, asphaltum. 



PRICES, 



It is a difficult task to assign any price to the articles above named| 
and in fact no commercial value has hitherto been affixed to them. Here 
is all that can be said on the subject : 

Magnetic and bog iron ores cost about 5s. per ton, delivered unsmelted 
at the furnaces on the spot Baryline costs at present £2 lOs. per t d, 
delivered unsmelted, and £7 10s., when smelted and prepared. 6yp> 
sum is worth from Is. to Is. 5d. per bushel when ground for manure, at 
the pit, or more according to the dii^iance from it. 

Sandstone and limcstcnie, for building purposes, cost, on delivery to 
undressed blocks in the towns ready for cutting, from 8d to Is. per cabie 
foot. The cost of quarrying, exclusive of the different chHrges for carriiigei 
b from 63. to 10s. per cubic yard. Blinrks of iiuiestone and sandstonei 
cut and laid on the spot where the work is to be carried on, cost, in pro- 
portion to their size, from 2s. to 5s. {icr cubic foot. GrHuitc costs a little 
more ; blocks not so well finished, prepared for docks and canals, generally 
cost about £1 per cubic metre, when used fir that purpise. 

Lime is worth from 6J. to lid. per bushel, according to the localities in 
which it is found. 



REMARKS. 

Mining operations in Canada are yet in their infancy, and the improve- 
ment of its mineral resources, has been confined, properly speaking, 
to mere experiments. It is only during the last few years that the 
manufacturers of the country have <iffered any serious competition 
to the importation of iron casting. It U but a few years since, 
that, with a very insufficient staff, the Geological Conirnission of Canada 
commenced their labours, and revealed to us imnicnse mineral wealth. 
Iron, copper, coloring matters, and bull. ling materiak are found in inex- 
haustible quantities, and of superior (piality. Were adequate labour and 



159 



capital directed by science to be employed, Ctnada would be prepared to 
furnish foreign countries with these different primary materials at greatly 
reduced prices. 

These few remarks will suffice to shew that Canada is represented at the 
Unirersal Exhibition not as working her mines, but merely as possessing 
that natural wealth which, by the application of labor and science, might 
be turned to advantage. 

Let us remark that experiments have been tried with some of the 
cements, of which there are numerous specimens at the Exhibition, which 
tend to shew that if rough cast upon Ittths, the plastering forms an im- 
penetrable covering for bouses, offering at the same time the advantages of 
lightneis and solidity. A roof of this description, constructed as an ex- 
periroenf , has been found to withstand the influence both of the heat of 
summer and the cold of winter, without shewing the slightest flaw or 
leakage. 

Gypsum is now exported in the United States, and as this branch of 
trade extends, a reduction in the price will necessarily be effected. 

Messrs. Logan ft Hunt, Members of the Canadian Geological Commis- 
SMNi, and Commiraioners in Paris, have just published a pamphlet upon 
the mineral productions of Canada. 

We mtist alno notice that the exportation of metal (wtn the mines, in- 
creases every year. The exportations were calculated at £8,S50« iu 1852 
at £27,800, in 1853; and reached the value of £74,000, in 1854. 



160 



SECOND CLASS. 

vork8trt9 huhtino, fisheries, and spontaneous vxoktablx pbo- 

ductions. 

Section 1. 
Statistics and various Documents. 

The Canadian Executive Committee have placed at the diRpotal of the 
Commissioners in Paris, a considerable number of printed documents, con- 
taining remarks upon Canada. These documents are distributed gratis to 
visitors. 

Section 2. 

Fsresfrif. 

78. Bouchard {Pierre)^ Quebec, Lower Canada. A small sample of cuiIed 

maple. 

79. Dorwin {J. TT), Montreal, Lower Canada. Pine plank. 

Dichfm {Andrew)^ mentioned under No. 8. Small specimens of 64 
varieties of Canada woods. {See Recapitulation.] 

80. Farmer and De Blaqiiiere^ Woodstock, Upper Canada. Spedmens, 

in sawed planks and cross sections, of the following descriptions of 
timber, and their several varieties: elm, lime, birch, maple, ash, 
cherry, walnut, ironwood, plane, chestnut, beech, poplar, carth- 
amnm, cedar, mountain-ash, and oak. 

81. Oamble {J. TT.), Vaughan, Upper Canada. Specimens of the following 

descriptions of timber : pine, oak, elm, and biich. 

82. Kennedy (WiUiam)^MoniTea\ J Lower Canada. Specimens of wood 

for cabinet-making purposes. 

83. Lavoie {Abraham), Rimouski, Lower Canada. Cross sections of 

spruce. 

84. Lavoie (Joseph)^ Rimouski, Lower Canada. Cross sections of 

tamarac. 

85. Leve^que {Oeleslin)^ Rimouski, Lower Canada. Knees of tamarac 

86. Marmon {Jean), Rimouski, Lower Canada. Cross sections of birch. 

87. Saint Armandy Becaucour, Lower Canada Small specimen of 

polished ash. 

88. Saint Amaudy (3f ), Quebec, Lower Canada. A sheet of bird's-eye 

maple for veneering, illustrating at the same time a new plan for 
preparing timber for veneering. 



lei 



89L Sharpki {J.)^ Quebec, Lower Canada. Specimcoi of the fuUowing 
descriptions uf timber, and of their several varieties : pine, spruce, 
walnut, oak, birch, ironwood, elm, ash, while birch, lime, and maple* 

SiCTioii 3. 

Manufactures in wood. 

90. Caniin (A.^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Boat oars. 

•1. Dubeau (Jeanj) Quebec. A wooden bottle exhibited as a specimeo 

or cooper's work. 
93. Orant and Hali, Montreal, Lower Canada. Barrels. 
9S. HalUday (JameM^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Specimens of wood 

turning. 
M. Lamouche (il.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Wooden shovels. 

Larue 4" ^o** already mentioned under Nj. 10. Charcoal UNed id 

their Forges near Three Rivers. 

95. Manning ( WilUam^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Staves. 

96. MacGibbon (WilUam^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Hoops and barrels. 

97. Moore (Thomas,) Mimico, U()per Canada. Axe handles. 

98. Paxton and Jennings, Montreal, Lower Canada. Staves. 

99. Redpaik (</.,) Montnuil, Lower Canada. Difierent prepanitions of 

maple sugar. 

100. Smith {D. fO..) Montreal, Lower Canada. Ilaniiles of tools and 

wheel spokes. 

Seotioit 4. 

Land and amphibious animals. 

109. Booth (J..) Niagara, Upper Canada. Stuffed animals. 
10^ Cirr (</.,) Toronto, Upper Canafla. Horse hair. 
108. Kennedy (D.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Stuffed birin. 
KM. Ijtpag' (J. L.,) Rimou:»ki, Lower Canada. Porpoi^ oil. 
105. Z^vesque (Nich'jku,) Rimouski. Lower Ca'iada. P.*rpoise oil. 

108. MncCaUoch (Mrs.) Muntreal, Lower Canada. CoUecticn of stuffed 

birds. 
lOT.f Mereirr (Davii) Quebec, Ix>wer Crmada. Products of the cliase, 
and caribou and seal itkin coat«. 

109. Mochrie (George) Montre.-i*, I^wcr Canrdi. Preserved venison. 

109. Milo (Abbe^) Becancoar, Lower Canada. Car.bou ^kio drvsaod 

white. 

110. Namli (Professor,) Quebec, Lower Canalf*. Castoreum. 

111. Simpson (Sir Ceor^e^) Lacliine, Lowerlaiadj. L^at^ lynx, for^ 

oCler, m.nk, niar.i.i and beaver (urp. 



183 



Bear, wolf, lynx, fox, moote deer, cariboo, deer, beaver, seal, otter, mink 
and martin skins. 



PRICES 

OP ABTICLIS nr CLASS XL 



The prices here quoted are those obtained daring the last few yean ; 
they are higher than those of the preceding ones. It is a known fact 
thai this increase in the cost of all articles of consumption is coomion to 
all countries. 

The price of square timber of the description known by merchants un- 
der the name of white and yellow pine, is, for square logs from 3d. to9d. 
per cubic foot, according to the quality and sixe of the logs. 

Oak, subject to the same variation, is from Is. 4d. to 2s. 6d. 

Birch and maple from 7d. to Is. 

Red spruce from 6d. to Is. 

Elm from 8d. to Is. 8d. 

Ash from 6d. to lid. 

Black walnut from Is. to Is. dd. 

Red pine from 8d. to Is. 2d« 

Cedar from 4d. to 6d. 

Sawn lumber taken from the market for exportation assumes the regu- 
lar form of the plank of commerce of the uniform length of 12 feet, and the 
mifbnn thickness of S inches, the breadth being variable. Plank is sold 
by the hundred pieces standard measure of St. Petersburg, containing 
about 2 cubic metres, and about 130 metres superficial measure of sawing, 
reckoning only one saw cut per plank. 

Fine plank cost per hundred from 120s. to 800s., according to the kind 
and quality. 

Spruce plank from COs. to 150s. also according to kind and quality. 

Beams, of various kinds of wood of small dimensions, prepared for build- 
ing purposes, as pine inches by 5 inches cost, according to the place of 
aale, from 2|d. to 5d. per lineal foot. 

Firewood by the cord, containing at least 4 cubic metres costs in the 
riCies: — 

Hard maple mixed with birch (weighing about 2600 kilogrammes) from 
aOs. to 40s. 

Soft wood (weighing about 2000 kilogrammes) from 12s. 6d. to 20s. 

The cedar shingle, split and shaved, costs from 7s. to 9s. per thousand, 
capable of covering a swface of about 80 metres from the rain. 



164 



The lath of commerce which is of cypress, split only in the roogh, costs 
from 16s. to S5s. per cord. 

The board of 10 feet in length, by 1 inch in thickness, and a mean 
breadth of 10 inches costs: 

Clear pine, according to quality and kind, from 40s, to 80s., per hun- 
dred pieces ; 

Clear spruce, also according to quality and kind, from 5M)s. to 408. 

The stave of commerce, of oak, in pieces containing on the average 1200 
cubic inches of timber, costs from 85(ls. to 9508. per thousand. 

The above prices are those of the Quebec market, which, being the prin* 
cipal port for shipment, rules, in this particular, the whole export trade wiih 

Europe. 

The flour barrel of commerce, made to hold about 196 lbs., costs from 
2s. 8d. to 28. 6d. 

Maple sugar, in lumps, costs, according to the season and the quality, 
from 3(1. to 6d. per lb. 

Pine gum (Canada balsam) costs from 4s. to 4s. 6d. the quart. Spniee 
oil (a lesinous oil) from 6s. to 7s per quart. 

Whale oil costs about Is. per quart ; porpoise, Uack porpoise* shark and 
seal oils when clarified, cost about Is. SJ. ; cod, capelin, and sardine oils I Id. 

The prices of furs are very various, according to the year. The follow- 
ing are the extreme rates in ordinary seasons for ordinary sizes and quali- 
ties: 

Bear sk'ns, 20s. to 80s. ; lynx, 12s. to 20s.; red fox, 53. to 7s. ; silver 
fox, 50s. to 1 50s. ; black fox, 150s. to 600s.; beaver, 3s. to 8s. per lb.; 
otter skins, 25s. t«) 50s. : mink, 5s. to 10s. ; stone martin, 20s. to 50s. ; 
red martin, IDs. to 20s. ; elk and moose, dressed, 20s. to 40s. ; seal, 2s. 
6d. to 5s. 



REMARKS. 

The timber for sale at Quebec undergoes the inspection of a body of 
officers known as the department of the Superintendent of Cullers. The 
Cullers arc authorised measurers and inspectors of timl>er, granting through 
the medium of the Superintendent, who keeps a register thereof, certificates 
of the quantity and quality of wood for sale, sold, or purchased. There 
are three modes of purchasing : 

1st. By the whole raft, on its arrival, measured, %Yithout breaking bulk, 
on a certified statement of the kinds and the quant ity« but without any 
guarantee as to quality; 2nd. By the raft, on a certified st<r?ement of the 
kiuds, the quality, aud a specification of ike apparent defects afloat; 3rd. 



i 



165 



^ 



On t certified statement of the kindsy the quantity and quality, after due 
inspection and dressing of the logs, severally, by the Cullers in the booms. 

Purchasers in the Quebec market, who are acquainted with the roanufac- 
ttirer and th^ place where the timber is made, commonly buy in the raft, 
while still afloat ; strangers buy the timber from them culled, dressed with 
the axe, and warranted. 

To give an idea of the dimensions of our timber, we may say that each 
teveral piece squared, contains from 80 to 250 cubic feet ; there are logp 
of still larger sise, those for instance which are intended for masts. Some 
idea of the averaice size may be formed from this circumstance ; namely, 
tbat a veasers cargo is rated, or considered as ordinary, in respect to the 
dimennons of the timber taken generally, when each square log contains 
from 50 to 75 ctibic feet ; it is rated as choice when the average log ex* 
ceeds 75 cubic feet, and there haye been cargoes of which the average log 
exceeded lOQ cubic feet. 

I here present a statement of the principal descriptions of square timber, 
iDeasured and culled at the port of Quebec only, in the year. 1853. It must 
be borne in mind that these quantities relate only to large square timber 
Cir building purp«)ses« 

White and Yellow Pine 17,422,724 cubic feet 

Red Fine 1,851,485 •' •« 

Oak 1,160.614 " " 

Elm 695,285 " •« 

Ash 158,990 " •• 

Tamarack 707,155 •« •* 

Maple and Birch 71,007 " •« 

Masts 1,067 pieces. 

Span 849 " 

Of the different kinds mentioned in the list of woods exhibited in the 
annese of the Cuurs4a' Heine, Canada exported in 1853, the following 
^luuililiea : 

Square Timber 617,421 tona. 

Planks and Boards 25,523,115 pieces. 

Shingles 24,821 thoiisanda. 

Birchwood 29,445 conls. 

Laths 80,000 " 

Tamarack Knees, Sleepers, Round Logs, 

Railroad Ties 431,830 pieces. 

Staves of Commerce 4^34,000 '' 



166 



The forest, moreover, contributed to the exports of that year 27|074 
barrels (each about 5| cwt.) of potash and other salts. 

A few remarks on the purposes to which these woods are applied will not 
be misplaced. It will be discovered, in the first place, that the great variety 
of kinds and abundance in quantity of the woods of our forests, is the rea- 
son that the greater number of them have no intrinsic value in the country ; 
and that they would cost, to those desiring to procure them, only the price of 
cutting and the carriage ; except pine, walnut, ash, elm, tamarack and cedar ; 
all other kinds bear a value in commerce, equal only to the cost of cutting 
and carrying them. Pine, one of the chief products of Canadian woodcraft, is 
useful for all purposes, being much used in cabinet and joiner's work, build- 
ing and ship-building, in short in all the arts in which wood is a material. 
Spruce is next to pine, being applied to the same uses, and substituted 
for it. It is stronger than pine. 

Tamarack is, perhaps, the most valuable wood in Canada. For ship-build- 
ing particularly ,it contains the qualities found separately in other kinds of 
wood, but combined in none, lightness, strength, and a degree of dura- 
bility equal to tliat of the cedar. It is used for many purposes in timber 
work, and since the discovery of its excellence in Europe, the demand for 
it has greatly increased. The best oak is superior to it, only for the outside 
work of a ship, and where it is exposed to violent shocks or friction. In 
naval architecture, nothing will bear comparison with it, either for the kneeSp 
bends, or garlands of a ship. 

Cedar is used in the frame-work of buildings, in the timbers of ships, and 
in the fencing of lands. This wood is very abundant, and very cheap in the 
lower district of the St. Lawrence. It everywhere attains a large size. 
Oak is used almost exclusively in turners' and coopers' work, and in ship- 
building ; and it is prepared to be exported for such purposes. There are 
several kinds ; the white oak is the best, growing chiefly in the upper dis- 
trict of the St. Lawrence. 

Elm of various kinds, some inferior, and others excellent, is used in ship- 
building, both at home and abroad. 

Ash is used in the various branches of building, in turners' and coopers' 
work, and in carriage making. 

The various kinds of birch are used chiefly by cabinet-makers, and 
carriage-makers. For such purposes it is exported. In the frames of 
ships, for the parts under water, it is more used as it becomes better known. 
No wood is better adapted to sustain shocks and frictions than birch of 
good quality. 

Maple, particularly the kind, known as birds' eye maple and curled 
maple, is one of the most beautiful woods for cabinet work and inlaying. 
Its hardness, beauty, and cheapness render it particularly suitable for floor- 



167 



log. We must notice a piece of ▼eoeering obtained by a mechanical pro- 

ce«; this specimen bears some resemblance to a piece of cloth, and is 27 

jards in length without a break. It will be observed that maple acquires 

by being polished, a warmth and a depth of color, which is peculiar to it. 

The different kinds of walnut, especially the black walnut, supply the 

most valuable materials to the cabinet maker. The same may be said of a 

MMciet of cherry-tree, which resembles mahogany, and which is used in 
Upper Canada. 

The lime and the bass-wood are peculiarly useful in carriage-building 
for the panels of carriages. These species of wood, being free from knots^ 
and but slightly subject to warp or shrink in the work, might answer for 
many purposes. They are likewise used in cabinet work. 

These are nearly all the kinds of wood which arc turned to any account 
in Canada. Comparing this list with that of the trees which abound in 
the forests, how many do we pass by with neglect, which in Europe are 
turned to useful purposes ; the fir, the bouleau, the poplar, and many 
others, would cost but the trouble or the expense of cutting them. 

The gums of the resinous trees, as the pine, the fir and the . tamarack » 
particularly that of the first, yield valuable substances, which may be ap- 
pKed in the preparation of varnishes and officinal matters. 

It is unnecessary to invite attention to the furs of Canada, their beauty 
is acknowledged on all hands. 

We commend to the attentive examination of connoisseurs, the porpoise^ 
whale and seal oils, and others, not omitting that of the little black porpoise, 
(jtU^pkinus minor). This last has the quality, peculiar to itself, of not con« 
gealing at as low a temperature as 34^ Fahrenheit, which only deprives it of 
its transparency. The greatest cold known in Canada, in ordinary seasons 
which causes other oils to coagulate, does not even render that of the black 
porpoise less transparent. All these oils are clarified and thus acquire a 
higher value in the market, being freed from the dirt and impurities, 
Qsoally suspended in the coarse oils of commerce. 



109 



148. Jams (F.^) Toronto, Upper Canada. Hops. 

144. Kempton {A..) Saint Theretei Lower Canada. Wheat 

145. Knoz {W. t/.,) Lachine, Lower Cana^la. Flax. 

146. Laurent (David^) Varennes, Lower Canada. Oat& 

147. Logan (James^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Barleji carrot and other 

vegetable seeiU. 

148. Lyman ( William^) Montreal, Lower Canada. CIoTcr 8eed and Unseed 

cake. 

149. MacOawan (Jokn^) Lachine, Lower Canada. Spring wheat 

150. Marmette (Doctor,) Montmagny, Lower Canada. Tobacco. 

151. Miller ( TTatffr,) Sainte Rose, Lower Canada. Peas. 

152. Jt^jftr ^ Keaiinffy Louth, Upper Canada. Dried fruits. 
15S. 0$mye {F. M.) Sault au RecoHet, Lower Canada. Hemp. 

154. Omoald (•/.,) Sainte Ther^, Lower Canada. Bariej. 

155. Felleiier (J. F.^) He Jisiis, Lower Canada. Spring wheat. 

156. PiuauU (Nicolas^) Rimouski, Lower Canada. Beans. 

157. Kobertsan (J.,) Long Point, Lower Canada. Peas. 

15S. Saint Pierre {Jean^) Rimouski, Lower Canada. Spring wheat. 
159 Shaw {Alexander f) Toronto, Upper Canada. Chicory. 

160. Shepherd {George^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Collection of garden 

seeds. 

161. Sloane {Alexander^) Toronto, Upper Canada. Wheat and Ladian 

com. 
102. Saguenay AgrimUural Society^ Lower Canada. Wheat and peas. 
168. Sfevens ( William,) Saint Martin, Lower Canada. Timothy grass seed. 

164. Taylor (Jame^,) Ilatfey, Lower Canada. Maple sugar. 

165. Thayer ^t/.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Indian com and beans. 

166. Vill^neuve (Abbe,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Wheat and |>eas. 

167. W<ide (A.,) Cobourg, Upper Canada. Wheat, oats, buck wheat, and 

barley. 

168. Wilson (D.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Tobacco. 

Sbctioii 5. 
Articles of special culture. 

169. Perry (il.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Nuts. 

Sbctioh 6. 
Produce ef domestic animals. 

170. BamtJ^rd {Mrs.^) already mentioned, No. ISO. Wool. 

171. Larombe (A/rs.,) St. Michel, Liiwer Canada. Wool. 

172. R*t>trt%on (•/.,) Lactille, Lower Canada. Wool. 

17S. Sauikmick (M. 0.) Sl Ililaire, Lower Canada. Wool. 



171 



REMARKS. 

The model of a Canadian farm has been 8enl oyer in order to giTe an 
idea of country property in Canada. In our country each estate is enclosed, 
the properties are distinct, and the farmer, who is the proprietor, never re- 
sides beyond the limits of his own fields, unless he is the owner of several 
lots. The intermixture of large and small properties exists to a very mo- 
derate extent ; hitherto, the monopoly of property and its subdivision into 
very small lots, those two gravest of evib, have been unknown. The owner of 
more than 400 arpents of land, is, in Lower Canada, considered a large pro- 
prietor ; and a man owning less than 80 arpents is looked upon as a small 
proprietor. 

There is nothing particular to be said with respect to the agricultural 
implements : it is but fair to admit, that those which are exhibited have 
been made from models of European and American invention, a few of 
which have undergone some change. There are, however, some ploughs of 
Canadian design, and some of these possess undoubted superiority. 

We do not hesitate to assert, that the exhibition of breadstuSs, fruits and 
seeds from Canada, ranks among the most complete of the class. This 
ought to be so, inasmuch as this colony is almost exclusively an agri- 
cultural country, and to this noble pursuit owes its prosperity and 



It would be useless to enter into any dissertation upon Canadian grain, 
one remark will suffice, viz. : that Canadian wheat contains a large propor- 
tioo of gluten, which, in breadmaking permits the admixture of a consider- 
able quantity of potatoes, producing at the same time excellent bread. 

The following are the quantities exported in 1853, of the different agri- 
coltural productions ; the year 1853 is given, because the returns for 1854 
have not as yet come to hand : 

Wheat 2,666,903 bushels. 

Barley 43,350 " 

Peas 242,910 " 

Oats 1,028,310 " 

Indian com, beans and seeds 40,000 *' 

Of wool in the natural state only 424,452 lbs. were exported ; it should 
be remarked that large quantities of breadstuA and animal food are ex- 
ported in various modes of preparation for keeping. 

The sugar made from the sap of the maple tree, with all the saccharine 
properties of other sugars, possesses a flavour not unlike that of vanilla. 
Ihb sugar which is generally preferred by the people of the coantry, it 



172 



altogether consumed at home ; and, in 1853, the insignificant quantity of 
6,996 lbs. only was exported. The total production of maple sugar had 
attained the extent of 10^000,000 lbs. at the date of the last general cantos 
in 1851. 



FOURTH CLASS. 

oekb&al mechanism as applied to industbt. 

Section 1. 

Weighing and guaging apparatus. 

176. Ladd {C.P.^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Scales used in commerce. 

177. Hodden ( TT.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Scales. 

Section 7. 
Machines for raising weights, 

178. Clark (James^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Pulleys. 

Section 8. 
Bydravlic and other Engines. 

179. Fergusson ( TT.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Hose pipes. 

180. Lemoine (Louis^) Quebec, Lower Canada. Fire Engine. 

181. Perry (ffeorgsy) Montreal, Lower Canada. Fire Engine. 

Section 9. 
Bellows work. 

182. Lindley (R,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Bellows. 

Note. — Classes 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, will be included under the same re- 
capitulation. The remarks therefore which relate to these classes 
will be found given together, and will precede class 10. 



FIFTH CLASS. 

flPECIAL M ACBINERT — ARTICLES RELATING TO CARRIAOa. 

Section 2. 

Harness and Saddlery. 

183. Archamhatdt {Andri^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Varnish for hardieiil 
leather. 



173 



184. Banington (George^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Set of harness. 
186. Campbell {£. it,) Hamilton, Upper Canada. Haroesa-inouniiogs. 

186. Gmbi {Jukfij) Brockville, Upper Canjda. Uameta-inountings, 

187. ComnetU (MagMre^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Set of doubit 

bameML 

188. Dean (Robert^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Leather Trunk. 

189. Edwards (W. ^ B.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Saddles. 

190. Olasford (George^) Brock ville, Up|>er Canada. IlameA for collars. 

191. LarivUre {Andri^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Harness 

102. Morris (Roberiy) Montreal, Lower Canada. Harness and travelling 

trunks. 
198. TVe'AeU ][</.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Whips. 

194. WUUe {Joseph^) Fraserville, Upper Canada. Yokes for oxen. 

SecTioif 5. 
Specimens of Carriage building. 

195. Qingras {Edouard^ Quebec, Lower Canada. Four-wheeled pleasure 

carriage. 

196. Lediie (Clovis^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Four-wheeled pleasurt 

CHrridge. 

197. Saurin {Joseph^) Quebec, Lower Canada. Pleasure sleigh. 

Section 7. 
Articles appertaining to Jtaiheags. — Materials used, 

198. IMIand ( V.,) Montreal, L<)wer Canada, Railroad spikes. 

Pip^r Brothers^ Toronto, Upper Canada. Large lantern for locomo- 
tive engines. 



SIXTH CLASS. 

SPECIAL MACHIIfCBY AND APPARATUS rOR WORKSHOPS. 

SeCTIO!! 5. 

MetaUurgic ifachinery. 

Dean (TZoftrrf), already mentioned under No. 182. A p<irtable forge. 
Limdleg (C'.,) already mentioned under No. 182. A portable forge. 

SscTioif 6. 
Apparaltts and Mechanical Contrivances used in IVorhhi^ps. 

199. ITfifne and Wtule^ Port Hope, Upper Canada, Drilling Duu:hine. 

200. Hood Brothers^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Braces. 



174 



Ladd^ already mentioned under Ko. 176. Grinding mill. 

201. MacLeBan (J, TF!,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Morticing machine. 

202. Munro {Daniel,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Planing machine. 

203. Parson (7.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Brick making machine. 

204. Rodden (TF.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Planing and turning ma- 

chines, Carpenter's bench. 

Sxcnoif 7. 
Machines for making smoB articles in MetaL 

205. Dunn (P.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Nail making machine. 

SSCTION 9« 

Machines used in Agriculture and in the production and preparation of 

articles of Food. 

206. Romain {Robert^) Peterborough, Upper Canada. Steam Cultivator. 

Section 12. 
Machines for special Uses. 

207. Taylor and Dockrillj Montreal, Lower Canada. Sewing machine. 



SEVENTH CLASS. 
machinkrt and apparatus for woten manufacturbs. 

Section 2. 

Spinning Machines. 

208. Brough (i2.,) Gananoqne, Upper Canada. Spinning wheel. 

Srction 6. 
Machines for special uses. 

209. Taylor and DockriU^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Sewing machine. 



EIGHTH CLASS. 

INSTRUBfENTS RELATING TO THE EXACT SCIENCES|aND FOR EDnCATI0irAl< 

PURPOSES. 

Section 8. 
Instruments for measuring space^ and Optical Instruments. 
210. Ream and Potter^ Toronto, Upper Canada. Engineers' level. 



179 



Some chartfl and fowil incrustations belonginf^ to this class are referred 
to elaewherey under the title Geological CominisBion of Canada. The Abb6 
Tanguay and Bfr. Keefer. 



NINTH CLASS. 
oosTBiTAircEa coirirECTED wrrH the kconomical paoDUcnoir and bm« 

PLOTMKirr OF HKAT, UOHT, AND KLBCTRICnT. 

SXCTION 5. 

Production and employmenl of heai and cold. 

Sll. CkinicSimard^ Methoi ^ Ch.y Quebec, Lower Canada. Stoves. 
212. Maeklin^ (0. S.) Chippewa, Upper Canada. A stove. 
S18. Prawse ((7. F.) Montreal, Lower Canada. Refrigerators. 
Sodden^ already named. A kitchen stove. 



RECAPITULATION 

OP TBI AETICLX8 OOMPRISBD IN CLAaSXS POUE TO NINB INCLU6IVB. 

Scales, pulleys, leather hose, fire engines, bellows, harnesses, 
hames, trunks, saddles, whips, yokes for oxen, pleasure carriages, railroad 
spikes, morticing machine, planing and turning machines, brick making 
machine, nail making machine, steam cultivator, sewing machine, spinning 
wheels, an engineer's level, a refrigerator, stoves. 



PRICES. 



POR OOMMBRCIAL PURP08X8. 

Scales, from £12 lOs. to £20. 

Pulleys, from Is. to Is. l^d per inch in diameter. 

Hoae for Fire Engines, 58. per linear foot. 

Fire Engines, according to size, from £40 to £800. 

Forge bellows, from £7 10 to £15. 

Carnage harnesses, from £80 to £50. 

Working harness firom £5 to £100. 

Leather trunks, htm £1 15s. to £10. 

Saddles, from £5 to £15. 



176 



Pleasure carriages, (similar to those exhibited) from jS90 to £175. 

Lanterns for Locomotives, £26 lOs. 

Portable forge, £7 10s. 

Drilling machine, £30. 

Braces £1 10s« 

Morticing machine, £25. 

Planing machine, £75 to £150. 

Turning machine, £25. 

Brick making machine, £12 IDs. 

Nail making machine,, about £75. 

Plough worked by steam, (a new invention) £800. 

Sewing machine, £25 10s. 

Engineer's level, £30. 

Refrigerator, £9 10s. 



REMARKS. 

It could not reasonably be expected that Canada, where it is so difiicnlt to 
procure labor, to turn to advantage the great number of natural produc- 
tions which the soil itself contains, on account of the comparative scjrcenefli 
both of capital and workmen, should contribute any extensive collectioa 
of articles, for the most part belonging to those classes of manufactures 
which require a low rate of labor, and a large consumption, and which are 
adapted to an advanced stage of society. Nevertheless, Canadian manu- 
factures have already gained distinction in England in those branches con- 
nected with the construction of fire engines, pleasure carriages^ and 
various other articles. 

If Canada could have sent to the Exhibition a model of its large saw 
mills in that section of mechanism having reference to forestry, she might 
have competed with all other countries in that branch. For instance, a 
model plan of the large saw mill at Montmorency, near Quebec, or of that 
at Ghicoutimi, on the Saguenay, containing each from 80 to 120 saws, and 
which furnish for exportation from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of sawn lumber 
each per year — would have been an object of great interest. 

We cannot leave the subject of the preceding classes without saying a 
word touching a new and purely Canadian invention, which was sent at 
great expanse to Paris, to receive the verdict of the International Jury — ^I 
allude to the steam plough or steam cultivator. For several years past 
mechanics have applied themselves to the serious and difficult task of 
applying steam as a motive power to ploughing ; but all the efforts made 
up to the present time have been, it may almost be said, futile* 



177 



ReccDtly in Eogbuid^ several maehinet ioTented fi>r the purpoee of 8oIvtDg 
this diflBcult proUem, were tried at an exhibition held for the porpose* 
A newspaper giving an account of these trials, says : ^ Another disap- 
^ pointment ! the steam plough is not yet in existence I Shall it be said 
** that steam cannot be applied to agricultural purposes!** 

The Canadian machine, which is at present in Paris, — the name of whose 
inTcntor we shall not mention (to remain fidthfol to the promise we gava 
not to mention any name in the course of our remarks) — has already been 
tried in London. It was worked there, but only for a short time, on ac- 
count of a deficiency in the construction of the (Nrdinary boilers. Several 
competent persons in England and Scotland have foretokl, that notwith- 
standing this deficiency, it would soon be successfiil. 

Since that time the inventor has devoted all his energy and attention to 
the construction of a new species of boiler adapted to the working of the 
machine. In a few days the steam plough and its new boiler will be sub- 
Hiitted to proof, at an experimental trial. If this trial be successfiil, one of 
the most diflBcult problems of the present age will have been solved ; if it 
be not satisfiurtory, it b to be hoped that the inventor will always be favor- 
ably remembered for the cflTorts he has made, and that Canada will be 
boked upon with consideration for the sacrifices she has made in assisting 
him to carry out his object 



TENTH CLASS. 

Chemicals, 
htkuio amd dtb-stuit8» papsb« leather and caoctchovc man uracturea, 

SiCTION 1. 

Chemical Productions. 

214> Brentum (P.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Potash. 

215. Chrr (D.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Glue. 

S16. XysMui ( William^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Alkaline Sails. 

217. MacHtrland (il.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Glue. 

218. Timimmd {T. M.t) Chatham, Upper Canada. Chemical productions. 

Section 2. 
Oib, Resins^ IkseHctM^ Soaps^ Varnish^ Ochres^ tfc. 

219. ArtkamhmiU (il.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Harness Varnish. 
m. FUktr (Jl,) Riviirs des Prairies, Lower Ouada. Oil of Sesamum. 



178 



25L Fac (C />.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Neat's-foot Oil. 
222. Searle {J. (7.,) Osnabruck, Upper Canada. Toilet Soaps. 
228. Keefer {T. CO Montreal, Lower Canada. Oil of the small black 
Porpoise (Delpbinus minor.) 

224. Laflamme (^.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Oilcloths. 

225. Lepage {L. «/.,) Rimouski, Lower Canada. Porpoise OiL 
226* Leveque (M.y) Kimouski, Lower Canada. Porpoise Oil. 

227. Lyman {S. </.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Wax. 

228. Lyman ( TFi») Montreal, Lower Canada. Linseed, SeaI,WhaIe, Neat*» 
foot, Lard, Cedar, Spruce, and Pine Oils ; wax. 

289. Teiu {Charles H.,) Riviere Quelle, Lower Canada. Clarified Seal, 
Porpoise, Whale, Shark and Capelin Oils. 

Section 3. 
Caoutchouc and Chdia Perchcu 

280. Montreal India Rvhber Company^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Lidia 
Rubber Boots and Shoes. 

Section 4. 
Leather and Skins. 

281. Houghton and Wallacey Brantford, Upper Canada. Leathers. 

232. Maddin (0. a9.,) Chippewa, Upper Canada. Leathers. 

233. Tetu (CJuirles H.^) Riviere Ouelle, Lower Canada. Porpoise Leather. 

234. Valois (Narcisse^) Montreal, Lower Canada. Tanned Leather and 
Dyed Sheepskins. 

Section 6. 
Paper and Pasteboard. 

235. Andres {S. i2.,) Chambly, Lower Canada. Paper manufactured from 
Gnaphalium or Immortelle. 

Section 6. 

Bleaching, Dyeing^ Printing, ^e. 

236. Qingras {Pierre^) Quebec, Lower Canada. Dyed furs. 

237. Lyman (TT.,) ^ Cb., Montreal, Lower Canada. A collection of in- 

digenous dyeing plants, consisting of alder, white oak, butternut, 
and poplar bark, carthamum, golden rod, and sumach leaves. 

Section 7. 
Colors^ Inksy and C/ialks. 

238. Tach6 (J. (7.,) and Michaud (T,,) Rimouski, Lower Canada. Mineral 

paints, grey, and others ; both raw and prepared. 



J 



179 



Section 8. 



TobaeeOy Opium^ and other Narcotics. 

289. Marmette Dr.^) Montmagny, Lower Canada. Tobacco. 
S40. WUmm (D.,) Toronto, Upper Canada Tobacco. 



RECAPITULATION. 

MAMKS or ASTICLES COIfTAIlfED IIT THK TKlfTR CLASS. 

Potash, glue, alkaline sitlts, chemical prcxliictions, varnish for leather, 
oil of sesamum, Neat's-foot <ul, little black porpoise, (Delphinus mtiuir,) 
whale, seal, porpoise, cafielan, shark, lard, cedar, pine, and spruce oils, soaps, 
oil cloths, india rubber boots and phoes, leather, porpoise leather, paper 
manufactured from gnaphaliuin, dyed furs, plants for dyeing, mineral paints, 
tobacco. 



PRICES. 

The prices of several of the articles above mentioned, arc regulated by 
that of the foreign markets ; the quantity manufactured not being sufficient 
to meet the demand: — Potash of commerce varies from 15s. to 238. per 
cwt. ; oils from cetacea and fish vary as to their price, as has already been 
Slated in class 2, according to their different kinds and qualities, from 10|d. 
to Is. 3d. per quart ; oil and gums of trees from 4s. to 7s. |>er quart. 

Porpoise leather, generally speaking, is worth 30s. per side, that is, the 
half of a hide ; these sides are, on an average, 9 feet in length, by about 
4 feet in breadth. 

Mineral paints are so abundant, that the price of the raw material on 
the spot does not exceed 160 for every 100 of the cost of the lab<}r; we 
may say that they can be had at the place of collection for 5s. per 200cwt. 
Canadian tobacco sells for aliout 7d. per lb. 

It b useless to give the constantly varying prices of articles which are 
not exported from Canada. As regards imported articles, Euro|H>An prices 
will suffice for the information of merchants who may be dej«in>us of 
shipping to Canada. It is evident that if they can do a successful business 
here, nothing can prevent them from over-coming all competition there, as 
our TaritT of Customs, which, for most imported articles, varies from 8 to 
10 per cent, ad valorem^ extends the same conditions to all. 



180 



REMARKS. 

Potash and other vegetable alkalis, fbnn a very coimderable branch of 
the exportation of the country. Settlers, when cutting down and burning 
the forests, generally convert a portion of the ashes into alkalis of com- 
merce. In 1853, there were exported to foreign countries 27,074 barrels 
of potash and pearlash, estimated at the aggregate valueof £156,791 ; this 
maJces the average price less than that quoted above. It, however, may 
probably not be exact. Oils from cetacea and fish, in the difierent states 
of purity, furnished tor exportation, were exported during the same year 
to the extent of 18,225 gallons, of which the estimated value was £2,247. 
This amount does not include the extensive exportation by the HndaonVi 
Bay Company; and it is but an insignificant amount, compared with 
the immense resources of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The oils exhibited 
at Parb, in the Canadian section, are of superior quality, prepared by 
a special process for the lighting of light-houses ; comparatively speak- 
ing, with respect to the price, these clarified oils are more economical than 
the common oils. 

I must draw attention once more to the quality possessed by the oil of 
the cetacea called in Canada, little black porpoise, [Delpkinus minor) of 
rcsbting the frost. 

Leather made of the skin of the porpoise which has become altogether 
a new article of Canadian manufacture, deserves special mention. Looking 
at its strength, elasticity and beauty it offers incalculable advantages over 
articles of the same kind. It possesses besides, a particular property which 
may be of great advantage to a great many manufactures and especially 
Parisian manufactures, that of being of greater service than any other sub- 
stance in the polishing of metals. 

Paper made from the immortelle is a manufacture quite recently intro- 
duced, and one which yet requires the sanction of practice and experience. 
It is made of the flowers of the gnaphalium, a plant common enough in its 
wild state, in certain unsettled parts of America. 

The dyed furs exhibited in this class are, as specimens, destined to shew 
the perfection of a particular process for dyeing furs. The specimens com- 
prise red martin dyed as sables, and which are so perfect as to deceive the 
eye of the most competent judge. By way of comparison a red martin is 
attached to the martins dyed. The value of the red martin skin is on an 
average 10s , that of the sable 30s., that of red martin skin dyed 20s. The 
cost of the process of dyeing is about 8s. per skin, including the profit 
and loss of the dver. 



J 



181 



It will be suflBcient to examine the beautiful bright colors of the speci- 
meiui of iancy work worked by our Indians, to see that our forests are rich 
in the primary materiab for the finest dyes. 

Amongst the ochres and other mineral paints, which are found in abtm- 
dance* there is a cUiy which furnishes a natural grey color, and which* if used, 
might give to commerce a common paint* at a much lower price than any 
of those now known in the markets. This paint is remarkably adapted for 
coloring and sanding buildings, and fur the grounding employed in many of 
the arts. Canadian tobacco was formerly, under the French rule, one of 
the principle articles of commerce. It is certain that, were it grown with 
care, it would become an excellent product ; as it is now cultirated in 
Canada, it is a plant which requires scarcely any care* but which, nererthe* 
less, when in good condition, is held in high &vor. 



ELEVENTH CLASS- 

PaiPAEATIOlf ilND PaBBBRVATIOir OP AITICLBS OP FOOD. 

SXCTIOH 1. 

Fltmr^ Starch and their ambinaiunu. 

Ml. GwMe ( W.) Etobiooke, Upper Canada. Flour of wheat, barley, 

buckwheat and peas, Indian com and oatmeaL 
t42. Fitts {Clarh^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Biscuits. 
i43. Lacomhe (Afr«.)» St. Michel, Lower Canada. PoUto starch. 
844. Lammm (Edward)^ Toronto, Upper Canada. Wheat flour, and biscuits. 

245. Maedaugall («7i,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Wheat flour. 

246. Nmy smith («/oibi), Toronto, Upper Canada. Biscuits. 

247. Plait (Samuel;) Blenheim, Upper Canada. Wheat flour. 

248. Proctor {J, 2>.) , Montreal, Lower Canada. Indian com flour. 

249. BM (Johfi,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Biscuits. 

250. Stmihwick {if. B.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Indian com stardi. 

251. Thomas {Richard^) Montreal. Lower Canada. Buckwheat flour. 

Sacnoir 2. 

Sugars and Saeeharims Matters. 

tS2. Oasse (Lams,) Rimouski, Lower Canada. Maple Sugar. 

258. Bsdpaih (J.y) Montreal, Lower Canada. IdM^t and other sujan b 

the raw and refined state. 
254. 3^br (James,) Hatley, Lower Canada. Maple Sugar. 
256. FaMf (iVbrtusf,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Maple sugar and syrup. 



182 



Section 4 

Preserved and Manufactured Articles of food and sauces. 

256. AsfUon {J. P.,) Montreal, Low^r Canada. Pickles. 

257. Bauden {J. ^ TF.,) Montreali Lower Canada. Bear hams. 

258. Crawford ( W->i) Toronto, Upper Canada. Mustard. 

259. IdUr (JL,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Preserved meats. 

260. Leonard (P.,) Toronto, Upper Canada. Chicory. 

261. Mochrie (Cfeorge.j) Montreal, Lower Canada. Preserved meats. 

262. Moyer and Keating j Louth, Upper Canada. Dried fruits. 

263. Shaw (Alexander^) Toronto, Upper Canada. Chicory. 

264. Soutkwick (Af. J}.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Preserved meats^ 

potatoes and apples. 

265. Thomas (Richard,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Sausages. 



RECAPITULATION. 

NAMES OF ARTICLES CONTAINED IN THE ELEVENTH CLASS. 

Wheat, barley, buckwheat and pea flour, oat and Indian meals, biscuits, 
potato starch ; maple sugar, maple syrup; pickles; hams, bear hams; 
mustard ; preserved meats ; chicory ; dried fruits ; preserved potatoes. 



PRICES. 

Flour of merchantable wheat from 20s. to 30s. per barrel, (196 lbs.) 
according to the quality ; other flour sells from 26 to 40 per cent, cheaper, 
according to circumstances and quality. 

Ship biscuit from 14s. to 20s. per cwt. 

Maple-sugar from 8d. to 7|d. per lb. 

Maple syrup about 7Jd. per quart. 

Hams sell, from 25s. to 30s. per 100 lbs. 

Salt pork from 50s. to 60s. per barrel, (about 2 cwt.) 

Salt beef from 40s. to 50s. per barrel. 

It must be remarked, that the rise in the price of articles of food durimic 
the last few years, forces us to give maximum prices, which were very sel- 
dom obtained before ; besides, it will be understood, that these prices are 
merely quoted here, for the purpose of giving a general idea of the condition 
of the Canadian exporting market. It will be felt that it is indeed a 



183 



difficult tatk« when we consider the extent of the country and the namber- 
Um flnctnations, >fhich have uken place during the last few years. We 
therefore confine ourselves to quoting the prices at the shipping ports of 
Quebec and Montreal^ with all the caution necessary on so delicate a subject 



REMARKS. 

This class contains those articles, which, next to timber, furnish the 
greatest proportion of the exports from Canada. The following is a succinct 
statement of the quantity quoted from the Customs Returns for 1855 : — 

Flour, 790,000 barrels, (196 lbs. per barrel); biscuit, 9,608 cwL 
salt pork and hams, 24,500 cwt. The other items are resolved into a 
Dumber of small details, which it would be useless to give here. The 
value according to the returns of this year of the exportation of flour 
alone, is £1,062,208, making, in round numbers, an average value of 27s. 
per barrel. The flour comprised in the above is of superior qaulity, hardly 
any other than wheat flour is ever exported. 

All these articles undergo inspection, and the most ample security 
is given to the purchaser ; they are held in high repute in the English 
markets, to which they are almost exclusively shipped. 

The maple sugar, of which we have already spoken, is not exported in 
quantities worth mentioning, nor is the maple syrup, which is nevertheless, 
in eveiy respect, superior to the best West India molasses. 

It may not be out of place to mention here that the value to Canada of 
the exportation of agricultural productions, which, in their classificaticn 
are divided into separate classes as exported, is equal to a sum of at least 
£2,000,000 per annum, that is to say, an exportation to the amount 
of 20s. for each individual of the population, or of £6 for every head of a 
fiunily, and £12 10s. for every farmer. Thus the Canadian farmer is not 
Vkomme aux quaranie icuSy as, after having enjoyed and paid for all the 
necessaries of life, he makes a clear profit of about £12 10s. 

By way of comparison, we give below the Liverpool market price of the 
two principal articles referred to, taken from an annual circular, which 
serves as a standard for 1853. During the autumn of that year, flour of good 
quality was selling in Liverpool at from £2 to £2 10s. per barrel, and salt 
pork of good quality, from £3 ISs. to £4 5s. per barrel; thus flour was 
worth about £l 8s. more than it was in Canada, and for pork also there 
was an advance of £1 3s. per barrel. It should be remarked that this 
excess of price covers the freight, which was very heavy at that period, 
the cost of insurance, besides storage and the profiu and losses of the 



AMKOl 




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185 



RECAPITULATION. 

WAMBS or ▲BTIOLBf OOlinUlBD V TBI TWXLITH CLASS. 



Bfineral waters ; medical plants ; ofScinal preparations ; Canada balsam ; 
oil of sproce ; pharmaceutical extracU ; cod-liver oil ; castoreum ; staffed 
^itimifcla ; skios of Canadian birds ; collection of Canadian birds. 



PRICES. 



As the greater part of the above-mentioned articles are not likely to be 
interesting, very speedily, as matters of conmiercey i here sabgoin the 

of only a few which are now known to conmierce. 
Canadian balsam (pine gum), 4s. 6d. per quart 
Oil of spruce* 7s. per quart. 
Cod-liver oil. 4s. 6d. per quart. 
Castoreum (the natural bag) 2s. 6d. per lb. 
Eitract of hyosciamusi 16s. per lb. 

^ of ciouta, 16s. per lb. 

* of aconite, Ms. per lb. 



REMARKS. 

la tlM space alloCted to these notes, there is but little to be said relative 
to the articles of this class. The only substances capable of becoming 
^Ijeets of export and national commerce are : the vegetable oils and gums 
known as Canadian balsam, oil of spruce, or Canada turpentine ; cod- 
ttver oil, and castoreum. 

The gums and the turpentine produced in our forests are valuable in 
the preparation of the finest kind* of varnish. We can furnish at com- 
paratively low prices, cod-liver oil, which our fishery establishments pro- 
pan in the greatest perfection. It is unnecessary to speak of castoreum, 
as we are alone in the production of the article as an otyect of commeroe. 



186 



THIRTEENTH CLASS. 

NAVAL AND MILITAmT flOlKNOS. 

Section 1. 

Principal elements used in Shipbuilding and the Art of Navigation. 

275. Cflarke (Mrs. James), Montreal, Lower Canada. Pulleys. 

276. Hood ^ Brothers, of Montreal, Lower Canada. Brace. 

277. Macgregor (A. & D.), Esqaesing, Upper Canada. Collection of 

cordage. 

278. Sohier (G. W.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Ship's figurehead in 

wood* 

Section 2. 
Swimming^ Safety^ or Diving Apparatus^ ^ 

279. Ash (Lieutenant), Quebec, Lower Canada. Model of a safety raft. 
S80. l^iomas (Captain), Toronto^ Upper Canada. Model of a safety raft- 

SSCTION 8. 

Drawings and Models of the various systems of Naval Architecture adopted 

on the Rivers, Canals, and Lakes. 

281. Hudson (Captain), Toronto, Upper Canada. Models of boats. 

282. Cantin (A.), Montreal, Lower Canadn. Oars. 

Section 4. 

Drawings and Models of the systems of Naval Architecture adapted^ fi 

Seagoing^ Merchant^ and Fishing Vessels, 

283. Lee (Thomas C), Quebec, Lower Canada. Models of clippers 

steamers. 



i 



187 



FOURTEENTH CLASS. 

BUILDIlfO MATBEIALB, AND ABOBITlCTaES. 

SscnoH 1. 
Building Materials. 

SM. Brawn (R.), from Rice Lake, Upper Canada. Marmora marble. 

586. Brawn (Jamfs), St. Catherines, Upper Canada. Cement from 

Tborold, and the stone in its natural state. 
t86. Oalwajf (James), St. Joseph, Lower Canada. Granite from Vau- 
dreuiL (Beaace.) 

587. Ckeesman (R.), Phllipsburg. Lower Canada. Marble from St. 

Armand's. 
288. {Magical Ommisiian af Canada, Montreal* Lower Canada. Marble 

from Dndswell, and Missisqnoi Bay ; serpentines fit>m Brompton 

and Oxford ; block of limestone (cat), from Gloacester, and white 

bricks from Westminster. 
tW. Skipian Slate Company, Shipton, Lower Canada. Roofing slates. 

290. Grand Trunk Railway Company^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Specimens 
of the Tarious kinds of stone in the building of the Bridges or 
Railways, (Grey Granite and Limestone.) 

591. Oauvreau (I^erre,) Quebec, Lower Canada. Quebec cement and the 

stone in its natural state ; a pipe made of cement. 

592. Chty (J.), Melbourne, Lower Canada. Roofing Slate. 

298. Hilliard and Dickson^ Packenham, Upper Canada. Building Stone 
(Limestone.) 

294. Huichison and Morriem^ Montreal, Lower Canada. A block of 

Limestone (cut.) 

295. Jeavis (W. B.), Sheriff of Toronto, Toronto, Upper Canada. Build- 

ing materials. (Bricks, &c.) 

296. Keefer (Samuel), Brockville, Upper Canada. Building Stone for the 

Bridges on the Brcxrkville and Amprior Railway, (Sandstone and 
Limestone.) 

297. Keefer (Thomas C. ) , Montreal, Lower Canada. Blocks of Limestone 

(cut) and hardened hydraulic cement. 

298. Leeming (John), Montreal, Lower Canada. Blocks of Limestone, cut 

with a 



188 



299. Lemieux (Honorable Francois), Quebec, Lower Canada. Gramte 
and other building stone from Iiorette, Pointe aux TrembleSi and 
Cap Rouge. 

800. Leslie (James), Sherbrooke, Lower Canada. Roofing Slates. 

SOI. Little^ Paris, Upper Canada. Hjdranlic limestone. 

302. MacDonaldj Chats, Upper Canada. Blocks of Limestone (cat) 

303. Machtttghlin (D.), Bjtown, Upper Canada. Marble and Building 

Stone frt>m Amprior. 

304. Perry (Edmund), Brockville, Upper CSanada. Blocks of limestone 

(cut.) 

305. Primmerman (J.), Bamston, Lower Canada. Bamston Granite. 

306. Zbr(ft/ (Joseph), Tring, Lower Canada. Roofing Slates. 
807. Tbumley (Mrs.), Toronto, Upper Canada. White Bricks. 

308. 7F%t^ (P.), Pembroke, Upper Canada. Building Stxxie (Sandstone.) 

Sbction 2. 
Various branches of Industry connected with Building. 

809. Fox (D. W.), Toronto, Upper Canada. Spedmens of Slate Roofing. 

810. Ostdl (J.) and Cb., Montreal, Lower Canada. Doors, Blinds, and 

Wooden Boxes. A model of the Court House at Montreal. 

311. Murphy (J.), Toronto, Upper Canada. Specimens of Painting in 

imitation of wood and marble. 

Sbction 6. 
Works connected with inland Navigation. 

312. Office of Public Works^ Quebec, Lower Canada. Models for Canab 

and Bridges. 

SscnoK 8. 
Bridges. 

313. Director of the Grand 2Vuni RaUwayy Montreal, Lower Canada. 

Model of the Victoria Bridge. 

SEonoN 10. 

814. Thomas (W.), Toronto, Upper Canada. Architectural designs, and 
model of a Monumental Obelisk. 



189 



FIFTEENTH CLASS. 

6T1BL ASD TtB PE0DUCT8. 
SXCTION 5. 

Steel TdoU. 

816. DaU (H. EL), Oalt, Upper Canada. Edged Tools. 

816. Dawmm (J.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Set of Planes. 

817. Higgins (J. J.)» and Co.j Montreal, Lower Canada. Axes. 

818. J(me$ (D. J.), Oananoque, Upper Canada. Sbovek and Spades. 

819. Parkin (W.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Lron Shovels. 

820. Scott (Robert), Montreal, Lower Canada. Axes and Augers. 

821. ?ra/&ie0 (W.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Set of Planes. 



SIXTEENTH CLASS. 

GENERAL METAL WORK. 
SXCTIOH 1. 

JBlabaraium of Metah and Allaifs hy Casting. 

822. Ladd (C. P.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Cast Metal Coffin. 
828. Rodden (W.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Castings. 

824. Rice (W. H.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Sieve and Wire Cloth. 

Section 5. 

Ironmongery and Nail making. 

825. Petik (Thomas) and Co.^ Montreal, Lower Canada. Nails. 



SEVENTEENTH CLASS. 
o0ld6mith8' work, jewellery, mancfacruel of bbonxis. 

Section 3. 

Goldsmiths' Work, and Precioms Meials. 
826. Bokk and Henderg^ Lower Canada, ^ver Plates. 



190 



EIGHTEENTH CLASS. 
glass and pottbbt. 

Section 2. 
Window and Mirror Cflass. 
327. Spence (J. G.,) Montreal, Lower Canada. Stained Glass. 



RECAPITULATION. 

NAMES OF ARTICLES CONTAINED IN CLASSES XHI TO XX INCLUSIVB. 

PuUeySy braces, collections of cordage, figure-heads for ships, models of 
rafts for salvage, models of boats, oars, models of ships and steamboats, 
marble and building stone, cements, slates, bricks, doors, windows and 
Venetian blinds, paintings on wood, models of canals and flood gates, model 
of the Victoria Bridge, architectural designs and design for a monument ; 
edged tools, cabinet maker and joiners' tools, axes, shovels, cast-iron coffio, 
cast-iron ornaments, metal plates for dropping seeds, rails, articles of 
jewellery, stained glass. 



PRICES. 



In order to be consistent in following out the plan of noticing only those 
articles under this head which may become immediately interesting to the 
commercial world, we have but few of the preceding to particularise, in 
relation to their prices. The succeeding remarks will convey all other 
information which is of value. 

Boat oars Is. 6d. to 3s. each, according to size. 

Woodwork of sashes 9s. 

Woodwork of doors 19s. 

Chopping Axes of modem patterns and of the weight of SJ lbs. 6s. 

Large smoothing Axes 10s. 

The price of other tools in proportion. 



191 



REMARKS. 

The specimens of cordage exbibiteU are of good quality, and give us 
reason to regret that the cultivation of hemp has been almost abandoned 
in Canada. Under the French Qovemment, the exportation of this article 
was an important item in the trade of the colony ; the soil, climate and 
degree of humidity beine highly favorable to its growth. 

The perfection to which naval architecture has arrived in Canada is 
shewn by the models of ships and steamboats exhibited. It must be re- 
collected that Quebec is one of the largest ship-yards in the world, if it 
be not, indeed, the largest of all. There were built there in 1858, fifty 
sea-going ships, of the aggregate tonnage of 49,541 tons, of the value, at 
the high rates then current in the English market, of £600,000. I invite 
attention to an apparatus for the saving of life and property, the simplicity 
and cflBciency of which are well worthy of notice. This admirable inven- 
tkm would, if adopted, be a safeguard rendering loss by shipwreck almost 



The models exhibited, of some of our great public works and buildings, 
the specimens of building stone and other materials were sent principally 
with a view to shew the state of the industrial arts in the colony, and its 
material resources. The plans and drawing of our large canals and of the 
Victoria Bridge works which may be termed gigantic in character are cal- 
culated to produce some degree of astonishment in the public mind. 
Among the building materials some very fine hydraulic cement will be 
noticed. The edged and other tools have attracted a good deal of attention 
both by the perfection of the workmanship and their cheapness, both 
qualities so remarkable that it is needless to invite attention to them. 

We now come to the wooden manufactured articles, namely, the doors, 
window-sashes, oars, turners', coopers*, and other wares of various kinds. 
The great importance of this branch will be appreciated, when it is recol- 
lected that our vast forests arc intersected in all directions by large rivers, 
capable of floating heavy bodies, navigable, and abounding with wnicr- 
powers. These circumstances operating with the vast means <:f transport 
adapted to the most bulky articles of commerce, give to Canada great ad. 
vantages over every other country, and truly may we maintain, that we 
can send to Euro|>e, the timber, or the articles manufiMrtured fmm it, at 
paying prices, far below those of any other country. Packing-cases are 
sent from Canada to the East Indies, the cost of which answers the views 
both of the producer and the customer. 



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193 



TWENTY-SECOND CLASS. 

ILAX Ain> HBMP MAVUPACTUBIS. 

Sbction 4. 
Tmrm and 2%f«ub of Linen, Hemp, and oiker fin'ee, ^ 

888. Sider^of Charily, Montreal, Lower Canada. Linen Thread. 

889. Bimehard, (bide.), St. Vallier, Lower Canada. Linen Thread. 



TWENTt-THIRD CLASS. 

HOCUBET, CA&PBTSt EMBROIDBRT, AMD LACB WOBK, QOLD AVD tTLTlB 

rRIBOBS, BTO. 

Sbction 8. 
EniUed WaHu 

SIO. EbeneuTf (S.)y2Toronto, Upper Canada. WooRen Glores. 

841. Harper f (Mrs.)^ Etobicoke, Upper Canada. Woollen Stockinga. 

842. Moore, (Mra.), Etobicoke, Upper Canada. Woollen Stockings. 
848. Maemm, (Mrs.), Etobicoke, Upper Canada. Woollen Stockingik 
844.J{iSKlMr(A0ni,;(Mr8.), Cooksrille^Upper Canada. Counterpanes. 
846. SHfelf (Bfrs.), Toronto, Upper Canada. Counterpanes. 

SlCTIOV 6. 

3miroidiry. 

846. Langevin, (Mde.), Montreal* Lower Canada. A Table-corer. 
817. Vaneelow, (Mrs.), Montreal, Lower Canada. A Table-cover. 

Sbgtiov 7. 

Lace Work. 

ML StnUer {UiM)^ BioekTiIle, Vpp^t Canada. Needle-W€ffk. 



194 



RECAPITULATION. 

KAMES OF ARTICLES COBffPRISBD IN CLASSES XX TO XXm INCLUSIVB. 

Horse-hair, cloths, and wools, woollen stockings, woollen shawls, 
woollen counterpanes, flannels, woollen fabrics, termed country cloths, 
linen thread, coarse linen cloth, thread, knitted articles, thread-lace, woollen 
gloves, woollen and thread counterpanes, table-covers, knitted articles. 



PRICES. 



The ordinary cloths and stuffs of domestic manufacture, or produced 
by machinery are sold from Ss. 3d., to 10s. per yard. 

Raw wool for from O^d. to Is. per lb. 

Flax prepared for spinning, from 4d. to 6d. per lb. 

Common flannel from 2s. to 2s. 6d. per yard. 

Coarse linen cloth, from Is. 3d. to 2s. per yard. 

The articles of hosiery, embroidery, and domestic manufacture, havo 
no fixed value in the market. 



REMARKS. 

The articles in the last mentioned classes were sent to the exhibition 
merely as specimens of the industrial skill of this country, in that particular 
department. It is not to be expected that a small community, fully occu- 
pied in the ordinary pursuits of life, should have leisure to cultivate those 
arts which have for their object the rich and luxurious fabrics of European 
service. Enough for us that we can produce good coarse cloths of 
woollen and linen materials, which are worthy of notice (particularly 
those made by farmers' wives in their own aboJes) as being adapted to 
make clothes for the working man, and for the low price at which they 
can be afforded. A few manufacturers do, however, aim at producing 
finer and more delicate fabrics. 

Among the articles exhibited there are specimens of knitted and lace- 
work, caps and other matters in wool, cotton and linen, which are not devoid 
of interest in respect both of the material and the workmanship. These 
articles are made at home by farmers' wives ; and it is to be observed that 
such occupations are considerable sources ol wealth to their families, and 
that, moreover, they have a tendency to improve the breed of sheep by the 
spirit of rivalry which they produce. 



105 



TWENTY-FOURTH CLASS. 

PURNITUKE AND DECORATIOH. 
SBCTIOlf S. 

Fiamiture and Oabineiware for DomeaUe fmrposti. 

S49. Bevii (J.\ Hamilton, Upper Canada. Round table. 

SM. HUim (J. ft W.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Sofa and chain. 

S51. MacOarvey (Owen), Montreal, Lower Canada. Rocking chairs. 

SlOTlON 4. 

Hmcff Furniture and Decorative Articles^ in the preparation of which vnlna- 
bk woods^ Ivory, or Mother-of- Pearl are employed^ or which are 
rendered costly by Carving or Inlaid work, and the addition of Omamenie 
of value. 

Sn. Drum (William). Quebec, Lower Canada. Chair covered with 

leather, embroidered with moose hair. 
S5S. Rhodes (Captain), Quebec, Lower Canada. Chair covered with 

leather, embroidered with moose hair. 
S54. Spence (J. C), Montreal, Lower Cannda. Work table of glas% 

painted and gilded. 
Sft5. Widder (Miss), Toronto, Upper Canada. Drawing-room chair. 

SccrioN 5. 

Deeeraiive Furniture of Wood^ or Moulded substances^ Oilded or Japanned 
articles^ ^ 

S6d. CuAing (Mrs.), Montreal, I^wer Canada. Fancy frame. 

S57. Hare (Albert), Montreal, Lower Canada. Looking glass frame. 

ScciiOH 6. 

Afiides of Furniture made of Reeds, Siraw^ ^.^ Household appendages^ 

Domestic articles. 

SM. Boyd (John), Montreal, Lower Canada. Brushes. 

S59. Jenkin (Thomas), Montreal, Lower Canada. Brushes and bristlea 

t60. Nelson & Butters, Montreal, Lower Canada. Brooms. 

Slction 7. 
Tapestry Work. 
S61. Dans <Mrs.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Needle work. 



196 



RECAPITULATION. 

KAME8 OF AftTICLXS DT CLASS ZZIV. 



Round table of different woods, sofa and chairs, rocking chairs, chairs 
covered with embroidered leather, ^ass woric table painted and plded, 
drawing-room chair, pier glass frame, picture frames, broshe% brooms, 
decorative needle-work. 



REMARKS. 



The articles exhibited by Canada in this class, while they serve as speci- 
mens of cabinet and other work connected with household furniture, pre- 
sent at the same time the qualities of our useful woods. The round table 
shews them all united in a sort of mosaio work : visitors vnll remark 
the beauty of our bird's eye maple, our black walnut, and, mope par- 
ticularly, of our curled maple, a fine specimen of which is preeented in 
the boudoir chair. 

Upon inspection of a magnificent couch of bird's eye maple, among 
the inimitable productions of Parisian cabinet making, I was infoimed, 
that while the beauty of this wood for purposes of cabinet making and 
room pannelling was generally appreciated, it was excluded from general 
use, on account of its high price, and the difficulty of procuring it I was 
surprised at this information, from the fact that this wood is so abundant in 
Canada as to be used for fuel, and might be furnished in Europe at a price 
hardly exceeding that given here for pine. The shipment and unloading 
of timber makes a considerable item in the price which it attains in 
the market ; these woods being bought second or third hand in the English 
timber market, all the charges for transhipments, commissions, profit and 
loss, uncertainty, and the delay, and inadequacy of such a source of sup- 
ply, must be added to the price which it is really worth. 



197 



TWENTY-FIFTH CLASS. 

ABTIOLU or CLOTHIKO AMD OF PABHIOlf AWD PAKCT. 

SBcncM %• 
Linen Drapery^ Slays j Braces^ and Oarter$. 
SeS. SmiUy (Robert), Hamilton, Upper Canada. ShirU. 

Section 8. 
CoaU and other Oarmmile. 

S6S. GmUhier (Edward), Montreal, Lower Canada. Coats of Home 

made Cloth. 
1M. Hendereon and Company, Quebec, Lower Canada. Cloth great coat 

trinuned with beaver. 
MS. Wkeekr (Thomas), Toronto, Upper Canada. A feather mantilla. 

Sionoir 4. 
Boots J Shoes, Oaiters and Otcves. 

S60. Bofheau (Joseph), Qnebec, Lower Canada. Caribou and porpoise 

leather boots. 
MT. Eckart (Isaac), Quebec, Lower Canada. Snow shoes and vrinter 

boots. 
M8. FMer (Mrs.), Quebec, Lower Canada. Moose hair gloves. 
9M. Mereier (D.), Quebec, Lower Canada. Costmne of a Huron Chief. 
tlO. MerrifiM ijr S^eridan^ Toronto, Upper Canada. Boots. 
tri. Pottard (Mrs.), Hamilton, Upper Canada. A pair of woriiad 

Slippers. 
S11. Price (David), Chicoutimi, Lower Canada. Moccasins emimndered 

withiilk. 
t78. SeandrtU 4* Robinson, Toronto, Upper Canada. Boota 
S74. Smiih 4* Co- J Montreal, Lower Canada. Boots and shoes. 
S7&. Taehi (J. C), Rimouslii, Lower Canada. Moccasins partly covered 

vrith Indian rubber so as to resist cold and damp. 

Sicnoii 5. 

Hats and Caps. 

9M. Omture (Mrs.), St. Ambroise, Lower Canada. Hay and straw bats 
and other articles. 



198 



377. Mattel (Mrs.), St. Ambroise, Lower Canada. Hay hats and articles 

of the same material. 

378. Martel (Miss), Quebec, Liower Canada. Hay hats and other articles 

of the same material. 

379. Ranger (Mrs.), Acadie, Lower Canada. Straw hats. 

Section 7. 
Fana^ Screens, ParasolSj Umbrellas^ Walking Sticks. 

380. Jones (Mrs. J.), Montreal, Lower Canada. A screen embroidered 

with wool. 

381. Pattenais (Miss P.), Industry, Lower Canada. Embroidery in 

wool. 

Sectioh 11. 

SheaihSj Morocco work. Pasteboard work^ Basket workj ^c. 

882. Malo (I'Abbg), B6cancouo Lower Canada. Indian curiosities and 

antiquities. 
S83. Jones (Peter), Brantford, Upper Canada. Indian Curiosities. 
884. Mercier (D.), Quebec, Lower Canada. Fancy work by Indians. 

385. Rhodes (^Mrs.), Quebec. Lower Canada. Embroidered bark-work. 

386. Tanguay (I'Abb^), Rimouski, Lower Canada. Indian curiosities. 



RECAPITULATION. 

NAM£S OF ARTICLES CONTAINED IN CLASS XXT. 

Shirts, coats of home-made cloth, beaver-skin great coat, a feather 
mantilla, caribou skin hunting boots, riding boots, porpoise leather boots* 
snow-shoes, boots of seal-skin dressed smooth, moose down gloves, dress of 
a Huron Chief, boots and shoes, embroidered moccasins, moccasins partly 
covered with Indian rubber, hay and straw hats, an embroidered screen, 
embroidery in wool done by the needle, Indian curiosities, and antiquities, 
Indian ornaments, dress and furniture, embroidery upon bark. 



PRICES. 



It would be impossible to give so exactly as to be practicably useful, 
a detailed statement of the prices of most of the articles above men- 
tioned, which being as they are, ornamental and fancy articles, are 
valued in proportion to the taste, the work and elaborate elegance with 
which they are prepared. The following are the ordinary prices of some 
of them. 



199 



A winter suit of good and strong home-made cloth snitable for a 
farmer, costs £2 lOs. 

BooUi called Canadian boots for working* 2s. 6d. per pair. 

An ornamental over-coat of beavf*r-skin, from £lO to £l5. 

First class hunting boots of caribou leather, £2 lOs. 

Riding boots and trowsers (called Crimean,) of caribou, £3. 

Ornamented slippers embroidered with moose hair, upon an average 
25s. 



REMARKS. 

It is needless to offer remarks on the beauty and cmfort of beaver-skin 
coats, or the difference bet^veen the European prices of such articles and 
the prices given above. 

The boots made of caribou-skin are light and water-proof* a high degree 
of excellence in those respects; and it is certain* that the sportsman will 
look in vain elsewhere for any equal to those exhibited by Canada. Such 
boots would be incomparably superior to all others for the use of Engineers 
and Officers in the army, engaged in the inspection of works, which com- 
pel them to remain a long time on wet and miry ground. 

Another description of boots is made of common leather. These are 
termed Canadian or Indian boots, and are used only by farmers, lumber- 
men, fishermen and sportsmen, in their various pursuits. They cost only 
ts. 6d., and are admirably suitable for the laboring- man, the sailor and the 
toldier ; — English seamen and soldiers when in Canada, use them in wet 
or cold weather. 

A partial application of caoutchouc miy be seen in a species of moc- 
eaainof tiressed raoosc-skin, a very .suitable shoe for town or country ; as a 
protection against cold and damp this shoe is invaluable. 

The gloves of moose down are a sftecimen of a curious material. 
Moo^ down is the name given to a species of wool, covering the skin of 
this huge quadruped, beneath the long hair. This textile and felt-like 
•obetance, is of a pecoliar nature, and might possibly be adapted to some 
special and profitable use. 

The manufacture of hay and straw bats is rapidly increasing in Canada, 
of which fact the specimens exhibite J are proof. In the Report of Exports 
for 1851, this branch of industry does not appear, yet in 1852, it amounted 
to £2,000, and in 1863, to £6,200. 

The curious and elegant articles of feather work, mt)ose hair, porcupine* 
quills, and bark-work, are attractive to visitors; and it must be con- 
finsed that there is in the ornamental articles and those pertaining to the 



377. Marti I --^ ind refinement which 

of f] -a Ls the untaught art of 

378. Mart' 

of' 
370. 7^// 



380. .1 



381. / 



:v- 



:i^ 



LASS. 

YTOGRAPHY, AND COPPER PLATE 



.. Painting. 

. . ..! ada. Drawings in water colors. 
38*2. .rr L^dnada. Drawings of Canadian 

3^: .. ' iiiaJa. Plans, 

as 






,.-wA .:•<(/ Stone Engraving. 
. *. Jn. Lithographic drawings of Cana- 

s.*. ''OS 4. 

w,T Cunada. Photographs. 
.^ •iv:- Canada. Daguerreotypes. 

^ ^^^. ', .»\v<»r Canada. Fruits in wax-work. 
^ , iiii ^'.^1. I 'Owor Canada. Fruits and vege- 

^vv: Canada. Seal engraving. 
Si\-vu^x 7. 

\vs' ■•*-*■ Lower Canada. Sjvcimens of typo- 
v"^*« *. ,^\\\T i'ana.ii. JSp.^oi mens of typography. 



801 



••& Smith (W. W.), St Johns* Lower Canada. Speeimeni of typo- 
graphy. 
•99* Siarke and Co,^ Montreal* Lower Canada. Speeimeni oftypography. 

SsCTIOK 8« 

Book-binding. 

490. D$ PmHu3ju$ (Addphe), Bookbinding in porpoiae leather. 

401. Maekag (Mrs. W. S.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Booka. 

402. Miller (R. ft A.), Montreal. Lower Canada. Specimena of book- 

binding. 
408. Taung (A.), Montreal. Lower Canada. Specimen of book binding. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH CLASS. 

MAifUPACTUREs or MUSICAL orsTBUMorrs* 

SaonoK 6. 
Stringed InstrumentSj with keyboards. 
404. Bood (T. D.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Piano-forte. 

Sconov 8. 

Man^factured arHeU$ and acetMsorieM. 

406. Bood (T. D.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Piano-forte and aounding 
board. 



RECAPITULATION. 

HAMaa op ABTICLBa OOKTAllf BO Iff CLASBBS ZXTl AIID ZZm. 



Drawings in water-colors ; drawings of Canadian fruits andgvegetaMea ; 
arehitectnral designs, lithographs representing some of the cities of Canada ; 
pboiographed portraits ; frait and vegetables in wax-work ; seal engraying ; 
apeeimena of typography ; book-binding in porpoise leather ; specimens of 
book-binding ; an npright piano and sounding board. 



202 



REMARKS. 



All the articles above named, have been sent for the purpose of giving 
an idea of Canadian scenery or of illustrating the degree of excellence 
attained in Canada in the different branches of art referred to. 

Tlie collections of drawings in water-colors, and of Canadian fruits and 
vegetables in wax-work also serve to complete the exhibition of the pro- 
ductions of agriculture and horticulture in this country. A specimen of 
book- binding with porpoise leather is another evidence of the beauty of this 
new and hidierto exclusively Canadian production. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH CLASS. 

painting^ engraving and uthographt. 

Section 1. 
Drawing and Painting. 

406. Kane (Paul), Toronto, Upper Canada. Oil paintings. 

407. Rylandj (J. H.), Montreal, Lower Canada. Oil paintings. 



REMARKS. 

In the department of Fine Arts, Canada has sent but a few small paintings 
selected from a remarkably interesting collection of views of the scenery 
of western America. Mr. Paul Kane, a young travelling artist, who 
has travelled for seven years over the extensive prairies of America, on 
both sides of the Rocky Mountains, has collected from amongst the sixty 
tribes he visited, a most complete museum of the utensils, dress, tent fur- 
niture, arms, tools, &c., used by these aborigines. He has also painted the 
portraits of the chiefs of these tribes, taken drawings of the scenery and 
sketches of their manners and customs. Mr. Kane will very shortly bo 
able to publish an account of his travels, accompanied by plates repre- 
senting his rich collection. This work will be the more valuable from the 
fact, that the Indian tribes are fast disappearing, or at least are losing every 
day the peculiar and picturesque manners and customs which characterize 
them. 

In terminating my remarks upon this class, I think it my duty to state 
that we have in Canada, artists who could have sent to Paris, paintings 
which would not have been without merit. Two of these artists (*) ob- 



(*) Messrs. Plamondon and Hamel : a third, Mr. Bourrassa, has since joined them, haTiog 
oompleted his studies in Rome and Florence. We may mention the name of one more Cani- 
dian artist, Mr. Falardeao, a natire of Qaebeo and at present residing in Florence. 



203 



success as pupils in the schools of Rome and Paris, but their ezces- 
siTe modesty would not |,ermit them to contribute to the exhibition. I 
mention this fact as a further proof that Canada is no longer an uncivilised 
eoontry. 



CONCLUSION. 

The few preceding remarks are intended as a sequel to the information 
contained in the different pamphlets distributed during the exhibition in 
relation to the resources of Canada. Their object is merely to give that 
general information which is calculated to attract the attention of business 
men and to allow them to judge d priori of the advantages which might 
resolt from commerce with this country. It will be seen that the 
data furnished relate particularly to Canadian articles of exportation, 
and the reader will therefore conclude that we import all those articles 
which we do n )t export. 

All these observations serve to pj ove one thing, namely, that Canada 
can supply Europe with inexhaustihU quantities of timber of the different 
▼arieties mentioned, with the produc' of fishing and the chase, with mine- 
rals in their natural state, more espe ially with copper at comparatively 
advantageous return prices. 

A' similar trade has been carried on between England and Canada 
for nearly a century, which has i: creased year after year to such 
an extent that the English market is no longer sufficient as a channel 
lor certain classes of produce. During last and this year, for example, 
eoounercial affairs in Canada have suffered considerably from the circum- 
stance of our having over charged the English timber market with our 
produce, which now encumbers the timber wh irves of many of the ports 
of England, to that extent, that business men say, Umt Canada has pro- 
vkled for her timber consumers, one year's supply in advance. 

A great number of persons from France and other continental coun- 
tries have been informed by mc of the {K>H9ibility of importing these 
articles direct to their respective countries, certainly what is possible as 
regards transport, with respect to Liverpool and London, is equally pos- 
sible with respect to Havre and Saint Malo, and what the English mer- 
cantile navy is able to accomplish is equally possible for French mer- 
chant ships, the navigation of the St. LawR*ncc being free ; charges for 
bright may be said to be equal to all the European ports on the Atlantic 
seaboard. 

It may be said that the average charges for freight vary from 25s. to 
SSa. per ton measurement, subject always to the variations arising from 
Ihe nature and bulk of the merchandise to be shipped. 



OBSEKVATIONS 



ov 



THE EXHIBITION 



BT 



J. 0. taohA, esq. 



NOTE. 



Tbe following details in connection with the nnivenal Exhibition, have 
alfeady been published in the form of correspondence addressed daring 
tbe Exhibition, to a portion of the French Press in Lower Canada, some 
of these articles have been republished in the English papers of Lower 
Canada. The House of Assembly having ordered them to be printed to 
form part of the history of the Canadian Exhibition of 1855, it has been 
thought advisable to alter the original form of these sketches and to 
make some changes in the order in which they were first written. They 
have therefore been divided into four series, each composed of a certain 
number of chapters. The first series contains an examination, very in- 
complete no doubt, or to speak more correctly, a list of the names of the 
principal works exhibited in the Fine Arts Palace ; the second is a sort of 
report of a rapid ramble made through the exhibition of manufactured 
productions ; the third consists of a series of observations upon the articles 
exhibited in each class of the official classification, reflections upon the 
exhibition in its relation to and eflcct upon Canada, and destined to the 
fiillest extent possible to place the people of the Country in possession of 
the principal additions to science, which might be a source of profit to 
them hereafter. Lastly, the fourth series relates to the exhibition of 
breeding animals which was intended by the French Government to com- 
plete the exhibition of 1855 in connection with Agriculture. 

The official statistics relating to the Exhibition not being complete and 
finally published, it is more than probable that the figures contained in 
these remarks, in so far as they relate to the number of exhibitors and 
other details of this kind, although derived from the best sources, may 
not be mathematically correct ; the small errors, however, which may 
have slipped into the memoranda furnished by the authorities during the 
exhibition, cannot in any way affect the conclusions to be drawn from 
the general resultsof the exhibition; for example, lookingupon the matter in 
this light, it matters very little whether we state that there were a hundred 
exhibitors more or less out of the twenty thousand or so who contributed 
to the Industrial Exhibition, it is of no practical importance, whatever, if 



\ 



■\. 



J 

i 



/ 



FIEST SERIES. 



PRINCIPAL WORKS EXHIBITED IN THE PALACE OF THE 

FINE ARTS. 



I. 
GENERAL DATA 

Hie exhibition of the Pine Arts, was Iwld in :i huillins rrrctrd apart 
from the otheni, situated a short disianoc froin the other huildin:;^ dedicated 
to Industry ; placed there out of the way. witii its in.' wre and simple outhnes 
removed from the noise of the machincrv ind tiie his>in»; of ihi' sti'att). it 
oflTered to the works of intellect, a quiet and stciin* re -ting pl:i(*t*. sirtable 
to them inever}' respect. Th»? buildinjr Is in the fo in »f a |j;ir il!-l«>ira»n 
farroundcd on the exterior bva Lrllory : Mi* fumade .^'u tic d rm <»rn s»-mi- 
circle composed of seven Columns almonf th .'ritsit ••; ..nmne ■». LJLiht t8 
admitted to the nKiins and trallories fr'»ni '»•• roof, in a -n m . •• t i :.tf »rd hm 
equal a distribution of it a> pMs^iMi- «,vrr tht (Iit:rr» ni \vn Ks , \ xt\ The 
architect of the Louvre, Mr. LeI'uf*!. h 'd btrn •-jiip^e . witli :li«* prfimra- 
tion of the plans of this edilice, thf vter: r ^:jr.'Mt» ..1 the \v.il.< tif vtiieh, 
present a total space fur exhibition •! h* -aw l-to (H)o << .n.or -ret. 

Kb a matter of courte .•*)*. the eonrri'j! i i ^ «i. • r ' » on- wei-c 

placed at the entrance to tht* biiil .ir*tr im 1 ip •* ' «t ■•• .^ i|ii«**:*.y t the 

head of the catalogue; the lirsi pioiur *« t :.-.f''..r" v . >t. .r\ ilif -w of 

the Tisitor were those from Denmark. S.v ' -n, C • ^ i». Tu-j*! i>, IVru, 

Tdrkey« and ihe States of the Chup*!j t'l r- 1 .-!• • v to i ■ » ii-:» t w.is 

occupied by Great Britain, and thit t • t.< * b. V \n nt. ii> Lm;i:i and 

Holland ; French and Prussian piintin*''* off ;;.i»' i, • i *'\\w. M*vr..il l:i;:;e 

rooms in the middle of the biiiM n/. ail t i ■ tt r i M)iiare ro..ni lieai 

the vestibule ; the pictures c»f «»t'ifr t.:i» n-.s wiTf ii«in/ 'o he *»! lf> i»f oilier 

gmllerie.<i on the first sU)r\ ; th- *4ii| ^ ,%*< emt iin«*ii «1 vm^s. fiiu'r ivh^jn 

water colour drawin^^s littio^Ma^'ln a'lil era »»n ilr.iw • The n .mlh-i oi* 

exihibiton beloni^in^c to all M:iii<»ns \%a< ,Hi.». :in i h t al ir: ii<Mr «*f 

works exhibited inclu iin:: e ir* o;is >k tchfs. &: ., .v . w s .it*« omihl: to 

the official catalogue 5,16i, whch wee d Md'->i ^ri * nta \ .i^ o Liws 

o 



210 



among the different nations: France, 2,867, Great Britain, 780, Belgiam, 
269, Prussia, 225, Austria, 217, Holland, 131, Spain, 122, Switzerland, 110, 
Bavaria, 76, Sweden and Norway, 60, Denmark, 52, United States, 44, 
Saxony, 33, Sardinia, 27, Portugal, 27, States of the Church, 25, Duchy of 
Baden, 22, Hawratic Towns, 1 1, Two Sicilies, 6 Peru, 5, Turkey, 3. 

Of the 2,029 contributors to the Fine Arts section, 1,230 were painters, 
323 sculptors, 184 engravers, 163 architects 40 lithographers and 89 artists 
in water colors, crayons, &c. 

To form a judgment of the number of prizes obtained as compared with 
the number of exhibitors, I give below the total number of contributors 
and prizes obtained in each of the principal countries, the number of 
prizes includes the " honorable mentions." 

The reader must understand that in giving these statistics, no attempt is 
made to give any opinion as to the intrinsic merits of the different schools 
of painting and sculpture, some of which moreover have abstained from 
exhibiting. No, Art is not to be estimated by figures, the voice of pos- 
terity or what is the same thing, the unanimous agreement of human opinion 
are the only consecrations of genius ; when the great medal of honcnr 
therefore was awarded to Messrs. Ingres, Delacroix, Cornelius and other 
historical painters, and at the same time to painters of other classes of 
subjects it is by no means less certain, that the one class is widely 
separated from the other. But as a fact of general interest and curiosity 
the lists which follow have undoubtedly been of high standing. In these 
details are included the prizes awarded in the three classes, including paint- 
ing, sculpture, engraving and architecture. 



Names of Countries. 



France 

Great Britain . . . 

Belgium 

Prussia and ZoUverein 

Austria 

Holland 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Sweden and Norway... 

Spain 

Denmark 

Uuited States 

Ottoman Empire 



NUMBER OF 


PRIZES 


EXHIBITORS. 


OBTAINED. 


1063 


294 


291 


66 


42 


30 


215 


35 


109 


15 


88 


9 


44 


6 


46 


8 


37 


6 


48 


4 


32 


4 


12 


3 


2 


1 



211 



or these four hundred and cighty-prizos of all classes, sixteen were of a 
peculiar character, I refer to the sixteen great medals of honor awarded 
in the three Classes forming the Fine Arts section. 

Of these sixteen great medals of honor, eleven were obtained by natives 
of France, six of whom were painters, three sculptors, one an engraver, and 
one an architect. England obtained two of these medals, one for 
painting and the other for architecture. Belgium and Prussia each 
obtained one for painting, and Saxony one for sculpture. 

Unfortunately the Fine Arts Exhibition, magnificent, though it was, did 
not attain sufficient pro{V)rtions to render it the complete expression of the 
state of the arts, at the present ti:ne,by reason of the numbers who abstained 
from exhibiting. Italy, that classic land of the beautiful, the alma parens. 
of the art, has, it may l)c said, altogether abstained from exhibiting. We 
have had no opportunity of beholding the works of her Minardi, Gagliardi, 
Beuuoli, Palagie, Agricola, Grigoletti, Lipparini, Gc^hetti, Capalti, 
Conaoni, Chierici ; of her sculptors Tenerani, Cacctatore, Tadolini, Jaco- 
metti, her celebrated engraver Mercuri and many others. Whatever may 
be the causes of their absence it is not the less to be regretted ; although 
the French and German schools contributed very largely, they also suffered 
considerably from some of their principal members refraining from exhibit- 
ing ; the most to be regretted among these, being the great French Masters, 
Messrs. Paul Delaroche, and Arry ShefTer, and of the German school, 
Messrs. Overl>eck, Schnoor de Carolsfeld, Bendemann and Mr. Gallait of Bel- 
gium, absences which the Parisian press has characterized as regards some 
of them by the ap[)elation of '' abstentions didaigncusfs^ In French sculp- 
ture David d\\ngers,since dead, did not exhibit. The Englisth and American 
sculptors, Gibson and Power, who live in Italy, and for Italy, refrained 
from exhibiting with the rest of the Italian school to whiih they belong. 
Italy being thus al)sent from the assembly, the French, German, Belgian 
and English schools remain distinguished one from the other by clearly 
defined characteristics. It has l>een said of them, *^ The exhibition is 
divided into four thoroughly distinct zones, England, Belgium, Gerr.any 
and France. England represents individuality ; Belgium, skill in execution ; 
Germany, beauty of conception, and France eclectism.** 

At present the French school takes the highest rank, both on account of 
the number of iu great masters and by its fecundity in all the bmiichcs of 
the art ; thU 8U|H?rioriiy as a general fact, cannot be ctm tested. It would 
be difficult to define the ruling quality in the French sehcM»l, for the simple 
reason that its illustrations have taken different routes, all however, leading 
to glory, and the word eclecticism which has l)een used to characterize this 
tcbool, is applicable to French art in iu entirety, and must not be taken as 



212 



fixing an uniform standard established from the average of the elements of 
the art, and adopted almost unanimously by its artists. 

The difference is as great, for instance, between the pencils, the brush, 
and the pallets of Messrs. Ingres and Eugene Delacroix, as between the 
composition, drawing and coloring of the German school, and those of the 
other schools. 

The German school possesses a much more defined character, in so far as 
relates to the common resemblance between its leading masters ; the great 
German works have certain national indications, which cause them to be 
at once recognized as belonging to a distinct class. This school devotes 
itself more particularly to the ideal, and is distinguished by the class of 
subjects of the greater part of its works, and like the literature of Germany 
disdains the scenes of real life, striving rather to develop symbolical theories, 
and plunging into the world of fables. 

The Belgian and Spanish schools exhibit a good deal of the eclecticism 
of the French school, with a more general tendency to elaborate finish. 

England has made unheard of efforts for the Fine Arts competition of 
1855, she has felt as a great nation ought to feel, that she had erred in 
1851, when she excluded art from her exhibition, and at Paris the whole 
force of her artists presented ihrnisclves at the summons, in full array. 
The English school, for an English school now exists, has not yet attained 
the lofty range of the art, it docs not produce large pictures, and makes but 
rare excursions into the field of history. The real merit of its artists is 
exhibited in the painting of animals and pictures of that class, originality of 
design and the elaborate finish of the details, everywhere distinguishing 
the English school among all the others. 

In the specimens of sculpture exhibited, the chief success has been 
attained by France, Saxony, Italy and Belgium. France and England 
excelled in the class of architecture. 

France carried off nearly all the prizes in the sections of engraving 
and lithography, England ranks next, and after her Prussia. In the 
section of water colours, all the prizes excepting one awarded to Swit- 
zerland, were carried off by England. France is unrivalled in the sec- 
tion of crayons, and excels in miniature painting. 

It should not be forgotten that these letters contain only lists of names, 
and it is only sought, through their means to render the Canadian public 
familiar with the great names of European paintings ; in a small country 
devoid of reviews devoted to the subject, and in which are found but a 
few works which treat of subjects here touched upon, too much must 
not be expected, what I write I write for the masses. 



213 



II. 

tup: FRENrn school. 

The greatest French paintcn^ art* M«*ssrs. Ingres, Eugene Delacroix, 
Horace Vemet, Decamp.«4, Mci^sonuier ami Ileim ; there must btr added 
to complete this glorious li.nt of masters, Messrs. Paul DelariK'he and 
Arry ShetFer, who did not exhibit ; bi*sidrs this Pleiad, there an* other 
great names which shine with brilliant splendor. 

Mr. Ingres, a pupil of David, iK'longs to tlie classic school, to that 
school which believes that uncultivated genius cannot be pc*rfecUon, and 
that study and traditional knowledge are necessary. It has been said 
by Mr. Ingn^s, ^^ I know nothing which has not been taught mr." In these 
words may be summed up, his life and fifty years of labor, and if this great 
master has not bef*n able to learn everything, he has of a certainty learnt 
and taught much, for he has instituted a school. Form, outline and con- 
tour have been his study, the ideal, the object of his aspirations, through- 
oat the whole of his enormous labors he has never sacrificed to the 
exigencies of fashion or the n*quinMnents of novelty. 

This patriarch of art contributed to the Exhibition 40 works, extending 
over all the periods of liis long career. The most celel)rated of these pic- 
tures are, in the historical class, (Eiipus divining the enujma ; Venus Anadyo- 
ment ; Joan of Arc at the Conmatiun of Charles VII. ; the vow of Louis WW \ the 
Virgin with the H'^st ; St. Ptter receiving the K^ys of Parattise ; the Martyr- 
dom of Saint Symphorium ; Homer deified and the AjHftheo.sis of Napolam ; 
among the misc^ellaneous works, Ibnry IV*.. playing with his childr*n ; Pope 
Pious VII., celebrating Divine Worship ; Tinttnrrt and rrtin Fran^oise De 
Rimini; in portrait painting, the fHirtrnits of Chenibini, Mr. Berlin, 
Senior, Count .Mole, and the Countess de Ilaussouville. 

The painter who, in the opinion of everjUxiy, ranks immediately after 
Mr. Ingn*s, and wlu> cons4'()uently takes the si>cond place in this cate- 
gory, is Mr. Eugene Delacroix, a pupil of Guerin, of ixiwerful genius, 
full of cn*ative imagination, enthusiastic often, original always. Mr. 
Delacroix^s talent is not one which is so gi^Ufrally acceptable as thnt of 
Mr. Ingres, it is by his m tu:niticent roh»rini( that Mr. Drlacroi.x eaptiv.ites 
the great number of his admin^rs. 

Of the thirty-five picturt^s exhibited by Mr. Engine Delacroix, the fol- 
lowing may be instanced as evidencing the i;enius of :he master: — 
HamlH^ (scene with the grave diggers) : Tasso in prison ; Vanir and Vinjil in 



214 



n .' i . ••(.. ficyi-.HsV : the Massacre of Scio ; the Frenzy of Medea; the 28tt 
••*..i. '. N>'». ■■♦c Jtistice of Trajan; Christ on the Cross; Christ at the 

Nlr. Uoiiwo Voriiel ihe painter of battle pieces is distinguished for his 
;k \.iau>*itHe tertililyof imagination and his adherence to nature ; he is 
I -^ij'** v'i \ incout. A man who has been able to attain a reputation 
.iuu.ai v* ilMt oujoyed by Mr. Horace Vernet, must undoubtedly be the 
'K'A.MVNv»i v>l iiiuiu'nse talents. lie has exhibited 22 pictures, among 
w .lu J 'lio Olio ri»pn*senting the taking of La Smala covers of itself 600 
lOi » ti ^njKMliries. Among the works exhibited by Mr. Vernet, those 
• uvsM \\\»iihy oi rtMUurk an^, La Smala ; the Battle of Hanan; the BaUk 
.■i )iinUtnii'iiU ; Judith and Holophemes ; Rebecca at the Fauniain; 
UtJ^if^. Hti turn ^ from Lion-hunting; Portrait of Brother Phillip, 
(«iMiiW (»/' the Brothertf of the Christian Doctrine^ and the portrait of 
M^^ntiul Vuitluiht. It iH worthy of remark that Mr. Vernet is the son, 
k;lalul'M^4l uiul grfUt-grnud-Hon of celebrated painters. 

Vli. IVi'auipM, pupil of Mr. Add de Pujol, has contributed to the Ex- 
liiUiiiou iu» \vnH thun lil'ly-two works, in the different classes of subjects. 
Ml. I Vv auipM* pictun*H lire distinguished by their effect, and the harmony 
,iuU uuil\ oi ihtur (Htiiorption, wo feel that the painter has been inspired 
w iil» i lui^ht uiul i^h'ur idoa, pleasant or terrible, severe or lively, but 
i!i ii h\ wa^ 'lo iiiiluu*d with it to enable him to work it into a picture, 
i^uil lo t ^'uiju^l ull llio arcM»MHorios in the scene to give force to the principal 
,.ii,. . t. ^\tl(^ll ho piiiiUcMi his admirable Defeat of the Cimbri, be did 
u M iiiai li limiJioll' li» cJiin part irular scene, no, his design was not to repre- 
. iti «>un v.t-uouil phtod against another, but the serried ranks of 
tt^Kin »u opjumiMl to th(^ well ordered forces of civilization, and 
.,.uu 4 liikt** phu't* in a narrow plain surrounded by precipi- 
i,.» K 1, III uoulh u IrnipoHtuous sky. A strong light is necessary to 
lUt (ull odiH^I nf Mr. Docamp's pictures, and several of them had 
,, I kUi. .4vl\«4ikliiMo ill iIh^ Exhibition. His principal pieces were, the 
' ^^i v i'^v < VM»fc*'< ; Joseph sold by his Brethren; Eliezer and Rebecca; 
ly , ^uki ICh^^hi^nt : Interior of a Court yard; the Monkeys; the 
XT' \ i'^*W»'4'W w*''A '* Tortoise; Dismissal of a Turkish School; 
ivvM^^* /M'Mi Mff History of Sampson, and one of an Episode 
.'\'M \^ Ihp (VmftW. 
V> U.t\\», *\ i^upil of Vincent, exhibited seven pictures and sixteen 
it. -KW \»ltl painter, whose name was hardly ever mentioned 
\, A\\\\\'\'\ «»l " pleasantry, but connoisseurs recognized in him 
»:*x -^u» and th** Exhibition has renderrd him popular. There 
V *.^.H \^\l Uii'adth in his coloring, and his drawing is faultless. 
, \.*k^v^« Omt ooiubination of great qualities, of which some are 









215 






wanting in the greatCHt masters. Ilin principal pictun*sexhibilr(l were, 
a Massacre^ the Hubject taken from Jo^ephus ; ihe Martyrdom of Saint 
Hjfpoliie ; St. Hyacinihe invoking the Kirgtn, restores a young man to 
/|/e, and a piece, the title of which in the catalogue was at« follows : King 
Charles X, dixtrilmting prizes to the artists at the close of th*: Exhibition 
of 1824. "The moment represwmted is that when Cartelier is rt*ceiving 
from the King the order of St. Michael ; Charletf V'emct has just received 
it." We liave praised the talent of the painter, then; is something still 
more adinimhie in the goodness of heart and right feeling which courts 
that talent in honor of his competitors, we cannot say his rivals. 

M. Meissonnier is a painter of general subjects. He brought nine 
pictun*s to the Exhibition, and was the sixth of the French scrhool who 
obtained the Grand Medal of Honor. He is a pupil of M. Lei>n 
CognetV. M. Meissonnier^s distinguishing characteristic is the delicate 
finish of every detail in his pictun*s. This m-cures to him the admira- 
tion of all oljservers, and more substantial complements in the sha|)e of 
piles of bank notes for his pictures. He is, however, honestly entitled 
to both. His pictun*s are nearly all small; he has lately incn*ased 
the sizf*, but large or small they are delicious. Those which proved the 
most atlniciivt* in the pn?sent Exhibition were : A Quarrel ; The Bravos ; 
A Vowii^ Man at IVork ; The Game of Bowls in the days of Louis XV, ; 
the Game of the Tonneau. 

Having devot«»d this brief notice to the six French artists to whom 
the Jur)' assigned the foremost rank, I am bound ti> make passing men. 
tion of the names and principal works of a few others of the gn*at 
painters of the French s<;hool. A list of all would fill a volume, and I 
am limited to a few pages. Following the example of M. Heim, a 
few of the older painters sent their works to the Gallery of Fine Arts. 
M. AlKHit, a witty writer, gave them the collective title of *^ The Old 
Guanl.^^ They art* Messrs. Abel <le Pujol, a pupil of David^s ; L£on 
C<^et, and Henri ShefTer, both pupils of P. Guerin ; Sehnetz, a pupil 
of DavidV and Legros'; Vinchon, a pupil of Serangeli's. 

A few names we must mention of other gn*at artists in historical 
painting: M. Couture, and his large pictun* of the Roman Onjia^ known 
aluo as the Romans in the Decline of the Empire; M. Chenavani, with 
his fine CfirttKms, embracing all Historj*, a work designed for the deco- 
ration, fonnerly intended, of the Pantheon. M. Flandrin, and his St. 
Chir r^stnring sitjht to the Rlind ; M. Sehmann, with his Jrrrmiah in 
Bonds : M. Muller, The Summonft of the last Victims vf (he RritjH of 
Terror ; M. R. Fleiiry, and his Bf^nvmuto Cf Hint in his Workshop ; .M.Bt*nou- 
YiWr J St. Irancis hlrs^ivg thr tVy of As\ise ; M. C basse ria u, ylrii/# Chiefs 
defying each other ; M. G6r6me, The Age of Augustus^ or the Birth of Jesus 



216 



Christy the subject taken from Bossuet's Universal History ; M. Glaize, 
The Pillory^ an allegorical painting, a historical representation of genins 
and merit slighted or persecuted ; M. Yvon, The Retreat from Russia^ or 
Marshal Ney covering the Retreat of the Grand Army. 

Among the miscellaneous paintings we must notice among others, A 
Ceremony in the Church of Delft ^ by M. Isabey ; Tlu Daughiers ofEvey by M. 
Roqueplan ; My Sister is not at Uome^ (an idyll) by M. Hamon ; The 
Peasant* 8 Dinner^ by M. Edouard Frere. 

In landscape and other styles, how many remarkable pictures : T%e 
Coast near Granvillej by Theodore Rousseau ; The Effects of the 
Morning^ by M. Corot ; A Path through the Wheatj by M. Fron^ais ; 
Landscape with Aniinals^ by Jules Noel; Morning, by M. Acbard; 
The Fens of Picardy, by M. Huet ; The Hay Field (a scene in Au- 
vergne) by M'lle Rosa Bonheur ; Oxen going to Plough, by M. Troyon ; 
Animals at Rest, by M. Brascassat ; The Flowers of the Tomhs, by Bl 
Saint Jean. The names of Cabanel, Dauzats, Gudin, Hubert, Jalabert, 
Lariviere, Mar^chal, {Crayons,) Rouget, Constantin, Wintenhalter, and 
Madame Heberlin, {MiniaturCj) all excellent in their respective styles, 
must not be omitted. 

SCULPTURE. 

The three great French sculptors, the greatest at least of the present 
day, are already of old standing : Messrs. Rude, Dumont, and Duret 
As I have before remarked, M. David d'Angers did not exhibit. Rude's 
Child and Tortoise, Dumont's LeucothSe, and Buret's Neapolitan f^sh- 
erman, were therefore the principal works in the department of Sculp- 
ture. These three artists received each a grand medal of honor. 

Next to these veterans of their art were : M. Guillaume, with his 
Anacrion, in marble, and The Mower, in bronze ; M. Lequesne, with 
his Dancing Fawn, in bronze ; M. Pcrraud and his Adam after the 
Fall, in marble ; M. Bonassieux, Meditation, in marble ; M. Marcellin, 
with the Return of Spnng ; M, Maillet and his Agrippina and Calig' 
via, a group in marble ; M. Raggi, with a group also in marble, MetOr 
bus. King of the Volsci and his Children ; M. Gatteaux, Minerva qfler 
the Judgment of Paris, in bronze ; M. PoUet, An Hour of Nighty in 
bronze. We must not omit the names of Foyatier, Jaley, Cabet, De- 
bay, Moreau, Oudine, Cavelier Droz, Gumeny, Oliva, Etex, Lachesne 
de Caen, and Le Comte de Nieuerkaerke. 



217 



OTHBS BSAHCHBS OF AST. 



In Engraving, M. Henriqnel Dupont obtained the grand meclal of 
honor, and was the only engraver to whom this highest prize was 
mwaided. Everybody has heard of that chrf d^ctuvre of engmvinf^, the 
Hemycicle of Paul de la Roche. The next after this great master of his 
ait are : Messrs. Calamatta, Fon«tcr, Martinet, Leroy, Pollet, Blanchard, 
Bnidet, Caron, Damour, Desclaux, and the two Francois. 

In medal and stone engraving the most celebrated names are those of 
Messrs. Bovy, Depaulis and Salmson. 

The most eminent in Lithography arc Messrs. Mouilleron, Leroux, 
Desmaisons, Laurens, Sirouy, Soulange and Teissier. 

In Architecture, the grand medal of honor was awarded to M. 
Daban. His greatest work exhibited was composed of twelve draw- 
ings of the Castle of Blois (Loir et Cher.) Next after him are Messrs. 
Qoestel, Christie, Due, Labrouste, Normand, Boeswilvad, VioUet, Le- 
dnc, Vandoyer, Lesnel, Lassus, Baltard, Clerget, Pacard, Tetaz, Daly, 
Millet, Rnprick, Robert, Denuelle, Petit. In the engraving and litho- 
graphy of architectural designs, Messrs. Bean, Gancherel, Gnillaumot, 
and Hognenet, are distinguished. 



m. 

GERMAN SCHOOL. 

M. Pierre de Cornelius, of Prussia, received the honor, or rather the just 
tribute of the grand medal of honor. This master, the founder of a school, ex- 
hibited eight large pictures, his designs for the frescos of the Cami^) Santo 
at Berlin. The subjects are: 1. The seven angels of the Revelations 
poming oui the vials of the wrath of God ; 2. The four horsemen of the 
BevelaiionSf Plague^ Famine, War and Death ; 3. Works of Christian 
Ciariiy ; 4. Satan cast into the bottomless pU^ taken from the Revelations ; 
5. The New Jerusalem ; 6. Work of Charity ; 7. Beatitude '' Blessed 
mre they thai hunger and thirst after righteousness^^ ; 8. The common 
desiiny of men. This statement of the subjects which be has chosten 
denotes a powerful genius, conscious of its strength ; neither has its poa- 
over^rated its powers, the conception, composition, and drawing of 
cartoons is in the grand style of Michael Angelo. 



219 



IV. 
BELGIAN SCHOOL. 

In contravention of the opinions cited below, the Bel^an School has 
been assigned the next place afker that of Germany, because the latter 
affects the historical style, while the former ranges over the field of gene- 
ral art. ** France is in no danger,^ le Conito de Kis declantn. ** of losing 
^her high position, but if one day, such danger were to arise, no doubt 
* Belgium would inherit the glorious distinction." 

" The public/' says M. About *' will draw two conclusions, one, that 
'* after our department, the Belgian stands pre-eminent ; the other, that 
^ without a catalogue it is impossible to discern where the French School 
**eixls^ and the Belgian begins." 

M. Henry Leys is the Belgian master who obtained the grand medal of 
iMMior. He is a painter of general subjects, and exhibited three pictures, 
tbe TVeniainei of Bnihal de Haze^ an event of the sixteenth century ; the 
Walk beyond the WaUs, from Goethe s Faust ; and New Yearns Day in 
FLtmdrrs. ^ 

With M. Leys, we have Messrs. Willems, Madou, PortaeK RoWh?, Van 
Moer, Verla% Joseph Stevens, Alfred Stevens, Dillens, Hamman, Robert, 
Thomas, Verboeckhoven, Degroux. It is in general art that the Belgian 
painters are most distinguished. The following pictures of this school 
were the most attractive : in history, ChrislophT Columbms discav^ing 
Atmerica, by M. Hamman ; Judas wandering dunng the night of Our 
Smiomr*$ condemnation ; in general subjects. The Dog mnrktt^ by M. Joseph 
Stevens ; Reading, by M. Alfred Stevens ; The interior of a Siik Mercer's 
8kep. by M. Florent Willems; A Walk.hy M. Degroux. 

We must not omit to remark that M. Gallait, the great historical painter 
of Belgiam, sent no picture to the exhibition. 

The Belgian sculptors who were most distinguished were Messrs. Guil- 
lAume and Jean Geefs, Fraikin, Van Hove,Chardon and Jacquet. Among 
tbe works exhibited were the marble statue of King Leopold, and the Lion 
im Loee, by M. Guillaume Geefs ; a statue of th^ Virgin, a plaster model 
hy M. Fraikin, the Negro Slave, a group in plaster, by Van Hove. 



220 



V. 

ENGLISH SCHOOL. 

Sir Edwin E. Landseer, a painter of animals and general sabject8» is 
the English artist to whom was awarded the grand medal of honor. Of 
nine pictures exhibited by this favorite English painter, the most attraetiTe 
were the charming little landscape, called the Sanctuary^ of which erwy 
one has seen the engraving; Shoeing ; Jack in Office ; the tethered Bam. 

All Sir E. Landseer's works are remarkable for extreme delicacy of 
finish and skill in drawing. 

Of the works of other English painters, the most admired were: (k 
Ascot meet, by Mr. Grant ; Portrait of the laie Professor Wilson^ by Sii 
Watson Gordon ; Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman^ by Mr. Leslie ; 
Tilbury Fort, by Mr. Stanfield ; a scene from the Bourgeois GenHthomms, 
by Mr. Frith ; OpheKa, by Mr. Millais ; Ruins of the Temple ofikeSssik 
at Baalbecj by Mr. Roberts ; Football, by Mr. Webster ; the Woff skgtr, 
by Mr. Ansdell ; the last sigh of the Moor^ BoabdiPs farewell to Orenaki 
by Mr. Hurlstone ; Portrait of Dr. Wardkan^ by Mr. Macnee; Job and As 
Messenger, by Mr. Poole. 

Mr. Malready, an artist of high repate in England, found no &vor in 
the eyes of the Jury, but had partisans among the critics in art who ad* 
mired his pictures of the Wolf and the Lamb, the Evening GuMf tk 
Bathers, and the Whistonian Controversy. Amateurs also noticed Sir 
George Hayter's Picture of the Trial of Lord William Russell (168S-) 

The English are the principal Painters in Water-Colors. Their best 
artists in this style are Messrs. Cattermole, Haghe, Tayler, Hunt, Nash, 
Topham, Wehnert, and Wells. 

In engraving, the Jury awarded prizes of various degrees to Messrs. 
Robinson, Cousins, Doo, Gruner, Pye, Stocks Lumb, and Wilson. 

Mr. Thonbum received a first-class medal for miniature painting ; Jfr* 
Lane honorable mention in lithograph ; Messrs. Foley, Lawlor, MacDonaU, 
Macdowell, Sharp, and Weekes, honorable mention in sculpture. 

England carried ofi* numerous and brilliant marks of distinction in the 
department of architecture. Sir Charles Barry received one of the grtttl 
medals of honor in this class ; Messrs. Cockerell, Jones, and DonaldsoOf 
medals of the first class for drawing of existing monuments ; Messrs. 
Hardwick, Scott, Falkener, and Hamilton, medals of the second class ; 
Messrs. Burton, Fowler, Wyatt, Allom, Digby, Kendall, and Shaw,honOT^ 
able mention. 



221 



VI. 
OTHER SCHOOLS. 

Among the works exhibited by other countries we noticed the Sermon im 
s Clu^ cf Lapland, by Mr. Hockert, or Swetlen ; The Lake qf the four 
C^mionSt by Mr. Calame, of Switzerland; the Gipsy Camp^ by Mr. Knaus, 
of the Ddchj of Nassau ; the interment of St. CeciHa in the Catacombs^ by 
lladraiOi of Spain ; o Country Funeral^ by Mr. Fidemand, of Norway. 

In teolptare, Abel expiring^ a statue in plaster by Mr. Dupr6, of Florence ; 
JBm e/ter ike FaH in marble by M. Fraccarotii, of Venice ; Bust of the 
Af€kdMke Ckarlee qf Atutria, in plaster, by Mr. Fenkom, ot Austria ; tke 
nmtk qf Abel in marble by Mr. Migliorettit of Milan ; Rutk^ in marble, by 
Mr. Bonnardel, of Rome. 

In architectore, a plan of a monument to commemorate the alliance of 
Englandt France, and Turkey, by Mr. Bilezik^ji, of Turkey. 

The other names of note are, in painting* Messrs. Gronland, of Den- 
■Mfffc ; Godct o( Norway : Muyden and Gsell, of Switzerland ; Blaas and 
SirfnIOt of Austria ; Ferri, of Sardinia ; Mayer, of the Netherlands ; May and 
Rosriter. of the United States. In sculpture, Messrs. Pierotti and Rad- 
oilikit of Austria ; Marquis de la Torre, of Verona ; Bissen, of Denmark, 
Velm, of Milan. 



SECOJ^D SERIES- 



VISIT TO THE INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION. 



I. 

GENERAL DATA. 

rhe nations of the earth had agreed to accept the international Jury of 
55|** said a journalist of Paris, ** as the court of supreme jurisdiction 
licb sat to revise the decisions of the Jury of original jurisdiction of 
51.*^ Each country, therefore, attended the Paris Exhibition with the 
strength of its industrial resources. That of London had ascertained 
powers of each respectively ; and that experience had, it was evident, 
I m guide to the National Comniittees, in the selection of what they had 
ihibit. 

he arena at Paris grew to dimensions much larger than the limits an- 
•tcd ; and this was so much the case, that every body was taken by 
rise. Nations remote from. France continued their contributions, long 
r the final period appointed by the Imperial Commissioners charged 
I the management of this vast department ; and it was not till some 
t after the opening of the Exhibition, that they were in possession of 
be information necessary to carry out the business of arrangement, 
othing seeias better to shew the importance of the Exhibition of 1855, 
I a comparison between the figures which determine the relative mag- 
k of that and its predecessor of 1851. 

be total area of the Crystal Palace of London, 1951, was in round 
kbers 800,(K)0 square feet ; that of the Palace of Industry and its An- 
i at Paris, exclusive of the Palace used for the exhibition of Fine 
i» was 1,220,000 feet. The whole number of exhibitors in 1851 was 
40, that of the exhibitors at Paris in 1855 was 20,830. 
comparative statement of the exhibitors of each several nation at the 
libition of 1851 and 1855 respectively cannot fail to be highly interest- 
Such a statement will furnish proof of the mfluence of such exhibi- 
I, of the intercht which thry excite, and of the improvement which 
r produce. 



A table of the Exhibitors of each Nation ia 1851 and 1855. 





1861. 


1856. 


French Empire 


1710 
7381 
872 
781 
305 
606 
286 
167 
117 

lis 

263 

109 

95 

99 

999 

86 

499 

Swedflo 

12 

190 

39 

lU 

Frunia 

80 

52 

IS 

8S 

6 

Prnuia 

Pnisua 


10691 


Great Britain and Ireland... 


2671 


PruMia 


1318 


Aumia 




Russia, China, and Penia 








spirin ;::;;;;:;:::::;;::; 


568 


Portugal 


413 


Sweden 


117 


Holland 


111 




406 




207 




198 




















ISI 


A.ex.co 


107 




96 




90 


Honse-Towna 


89 


Urand Duchy of Baden 


88 


Grand Duchy of Hes« 




Kiuiea of the Church , , 


71 




69 










H.u.v.r..." ::.::::;;::::::::;:;::::::::: :"::■■ 










16 




14 


N*w (jrauaila 








Uucbyof BaxeOobourgGotha 


11 




7 






Haw/l ^ 


s 


Brazil .. 










3 


Ituth)- of Baxe Altenbourg 


2 



185 



A Table of the Exhibitors, &c. — {Cotiiinued,) 




Principaliij of Lippe 

*' of Bcnaumburg-Lippe 

DoiniaiaiD Ropublic 

Principalitj of UeuM (eldest Branch) 

PHoctpalitj of BeuM ^oungent ** ) 

Orand Duchy of 8axe \\>imar 

Priocipaltty uf Schwarxburg Radolstadt 

TWfciih Empire, Egypt and Tonis 

The three laat countriet shew to mnall a number of ex- 
hibitors only became their respectiYe GoYemments trans- 
Bitted the several collections. 

Total 




2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



20639 



The premiams distributed in London in 1851, were of four claasea. 
dengnated as General Council Medals, Council Medals, Prize Medals, and 
Honorable Mentions ; there were at Paris in 1855, divided into five classes, 
designated as Grand Medals of Honor, Med.ils of Honor» First ClassMedals 
Saoond Class Medals, Honorable Mentions. 

In London, in 1851, there were awarded 8 General Council Medals, and 
180 Cooncll Medals, distributed among the several. countries as follows : 

' Great Britain and Ireland t 

Franco 9 

General CouncU Medals i|gj^- •••••• ' 

Tunis 

Turiiey 1 

''Great Britain and Ireland 75 

France 53 

Prussia 9 

United Sutes 5 

Austria 4 

Russia 8 

Bavaria S 



Council M^ftjf 



Tuscany 9 

Switterland 9 

t 

I 

I 



turn 

States of the Church 
HoUand 



226 



At Paris, in 1855, without reckoning the prizes awarded in the three 
dassses of the Fine Arts, there were distributed 112 Grand Medals of 
Honor, and 258 Medals of Honor, divided as follows : 

r France 70 

Great Britain 17 

Belgium 7 

Prussia 5 

Austria 8 

United States 3 

Britishlndia 3 



Grand Medals of Honor < 



Canada «• 
Sweden • • 
Denmark • 
Lombardy 

Piedmont • 
Ravaria .. 



Medals of Honor 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

f France 149 

Great Britain 81 

Prussia 19 

Austria 16 

Belgium 10 

Switzerland • 10 

Tuscany 4 

United States 8 

Duchy of Baden S 

Holland 3 

Spain 2 

Hanover 

Wurtemberg 

Sweden 

Denmark • • • • 

Duchy of Hesse 

Bavaria 

Portugal 

Canada 

British Guiana 

Austrsdia 

The international jury of 1851, was composed of about half English and 
and half foreigners ; that of 1855, was half French and half foreigners. 

At Paris as at London, the price of admission was different on different 
days of the week, and in both there was an exceedingly low rate appoiote' 
for one day in the week. In London this rate of admission was Is. sterliiV 
or Is. 3d. of our money ; at Paris, it was 20 centimes, rather less tbanSd* 
of our money. It is well known that in France, admission to exbibitioDS 
and museums is for the most part gratuitous. The smallest number of 
persons who visited the Cystal Palace in 1851, on any one of these low 



227 



priced days, waa 84»000; the largest 109,000: The smallest number at 
Paris was 42,000* the largest 120,000. 

Having given this general information and exhibited those statistics of 
both, the comparison of which is so interesting, we shall now proceed to re- 
view the labyrinth of those floors and those galleries, which the world had 
charged with the wondrous products of human genius. 



II. 
TBI CKirrmB or the w avi. 

The small plan of the Champs Elys^s which accompanies this volume 
shews the relation and position of the difi*erent edifices of the Exhibition 
at Paris. Lei us enter the Palace in its eastern face and cast a rapid 
glance over the mass of articles which occupy each distinct compartment 
of this vast receptacle of all nations. 

Having entered the nave, we find on each side of the passage by which 
we approach, chimney pieces, and various architectural ornaments of 
marble of difi*erent kinds, and a few rich articles of bronze ; those on the 
right being of French manufacture, the other nations occupying the op- 
posite side. 

The nave contains large articles, collected on this middle or neutral 
space, between the French compartments occupying the whole north 
part or right side of the edifice, and the foreign compartments occupying 
the other side. 

The two first articles which we notice are : 1st .A lookinf^-glass from 
St. Gobain, a specimen of French skill in glass-making. This plate is 
aamply 17 feet by 10 feet. There is room in it to see oneself at full 
length. It b needless to say that the beauty of this article is on a par 
with its extraordinary size. 2nd. A crystal candelabra of enormous 
st»9 having eighteen gas jets ; This article is of English manufacture, from 
the House of Osier, of London and Birmingham. Next in succession are 
m lantern of French manufacture, and two bronzed candelabra, one from 
the foundry of Tusey, the other from the English foundry of Messn. 
Ifuel, Whal &, Co. Two reflecting lanterns, one having a revolv- 
ing light moving by a mechanism of clock-work, by Mr. Sautter 
of Paris ; the other with a fixed light from the nianutactory of 
Chance, Brothers k Co., of Birmingham. An equestrian figure the 
satiirml Aie, representing a knight armed cap^t^it in polished steel*. 



MS 



Mr. Granger, of Paris, property purveyor to the Opera. Ad iron door 
made Mr. W. Bally, of London. An eagle, defending its prey, in bronae» 
copied from a beautiful composition of the French sculptor, M. Cain» by 
Mr. Vittoz, a manufacturer of bronzes of Paris ; the eagle-slayer, a bronze 
by Messrs. John Bell, of London. A superb canring in wood, called the 
Shrine of St Hypolite, executed at Rouen, by Messrs. Ouelbery, cabinet- 
maker and Alphonse Jean, wood-carver, from the design of M. Desmarest, 
chief architect to the department of Seine infirieure. An article of furni- 
ture in oak, by Messrs. Holland and Son, of London. A model in joiners' 
work of the immense printing establishment of Napol6on Chaix, of Paris, 
the celebrated editor of the Railway Library, with figures, shewing the 
machinery at work. A telescope, 12 feet long and 9 inches in diameter, 
mounted parallactically to the latitude of Paris, 48^ 50* and moveable by 
wheel- work, by M. Secretan, optician to H. I. M. the Emperor. Instruments 
nsed at the observatory at Greenwich, a meridian circle, and a transit 
instrument A splendid pleasure boat, built at London, by Messrs. Searie 
k Fie, builders to H. M. the Queen. This beautiful boat is built of 
Canadian birds'-eye maple and mahogany. A marine trophy, a large od- 
lection of apparatus and models connected with the sea and river servioei 
of English manufacture, models of steamers, sailing vessels, anchors, chains^ 
blocks and cordage: this trophy is snrrounded by figures habited in 
diving dresses. A fine statue in bronze of St Jean Baptiste, by M. Calla» 
a Parisian artist 

Mechanical compositors and distributors of type for printing. The 
progress to perfection which this French invention is daily making in 
France and Belgium, enable us to foresee a time when the composition and 
distribution of type will be efiected with such rapidity, that the cost of 
books, and other printed matters, will be greatly diminished. 

A Knight attacking a serpent with bow and arrow, cast in bronze, by M. 
Victor Thifibaut. 

An altar-front in white marble, representing in demi relief busts ef 
Christ and the Apostles, surrounded by vine-branches and large fdiage, 
also in half relief. Another altar in marble (Gothic) surrounded by a gloiy. 
On the front of this altar is a symbolical representation of what inspired 
the answer of the Virgin : Ex hoc beatam me dicent amnes generati0ne$! 
The Mother of our Saviour accompanied by St. Elizabeth, appeals en a 
hill, towards which the eyes and the homage of all nations and generation 
of the earth are directed, represented by shepherds, magi, princes^ and 
doctors of the law. This long train of people, pontiffs, and kings, doaas 
with Pope Pius IX, proclaiming the dogma of the Immaculate Coneeptioib 
and the sailors of the French fleet in the Baltic receiving from ttw 
Emperor the image of the Virgin. These two superb altars are the 
work of the Abb6 Choyer d'Angers. 



Another altar of veined marble in the Bysantine style. A vast chimney 
piece of the same material, embellished with the statue of a female, 
symbolical of the City of Paris, and with four medallions containing 
portraits of Tasse, Arioste, Dante, and Petrarca. These two works are 
by M. Vossey of Paris. 

A magnificent aviary, ornamented with small basins containing live fish« 
and with flowers, sculptured figures, and turtle doves, canaries, and other 
birds, living together in the utmost harmony. This aviary is by M. Tahan, 
of Paris. 

A statue of Icarus falling, in bronze, of great beauty and grace, effects 
hard to be attained, in the inverted position of Icarus, the type of imprudent 
adventurers. This beautifbl work was designed by the artistic hand of M. 
Hypolite Ferraf, and cast by M. Vittoz of Paris. 

A Brazilian diamond of the weight of 225 carats, bearing the name of 
fibr of the South, exhibited by M. Halphen. 

A Gothic altar with statues of angels and a pointed arch, in French 
artificial stone. 

Two bronze busts representing their Majesties the Emperor and 
Empress, by Messrs. Elkington, Mason & Co., of England. 

A Gothic pulpit of wood, carved by M. Vereman, of Holland. 

Queen Boadicea rousing the Britons, represented with two of her 
children, and holding a sword. This bronze work was cast by Messrs. 
EOdngton, Mason & Co., of Birmingham, and was copied from the 
origiaal in marble by the English sculptor, John Thomas. 

A statue of Lesbia weeping for the death of her bird, in bronxe, by M. 

Labro&e, of Paris. 

An altar of white marble with a mosaic pavement, in Bysantine work, 
by M. Jabonim, of Bordeaux. 

The nave is here divided by the transept, having at the point of inter- 
section a gushing fountain of fusible lava, decorated with flowers of the 
natural colours^ in bronzci by the decorators of Paris. 

We continue our walk through the central nave towards the westero 
extremity of the Palace. 

▲n altar of the middle ages, in Goldsmith's work, by Messrs. Poussielgue 
and Rosand. 

A fountain in porcelain, by Messrs. Creil and Montereau. 

A Gothic chair of carved wood, by Messrs. Couypers and Stohembergi of 
the Netherlands. 

An altar in goldsmith's work, by M. Bochelet, of Paris. 

An immense plate looking-glass, by Florefle, of Belgium. 

A fountain surrounded by a basket of flowers in freestone, by M. 
Mclnrtrhy, of Belgium. 



230 



An altar-piece of oak, in the Gothic style, by Messrs. Goyeis Brothers 
of Louvain, Belgium. 

A Madonna of carved oak in a niche of the same with statues of angels, 
columns, and incense vases. The angels hold suspended over the head of 
the Virgin a crown of marble of dazzling whiteness. 

Four basins, by M. Giovanni Lsola, Professor at the Royal Academy of 

liassa, Italy. 

Several articles of smaller importance, duplicates of which are in the 
galleries, among them are telescopes and a clock from Austria. 

The two horses of Marley in galvanized copper after Coustou. 

Model of the great French ocean steamer, Danube. This admirable model, 
which cost £3000, and represents one-fifteenth the size of the original, 
the screw and sailing vessel Danvbe^ shews even the movements of the 
steam-engine, the minute parts of its structure, the sails, riggings, furniture 
and fittings of all kinds, of a ship exemplifying the mixed principles of the 
screw and sails, as prevalent in the present age. The Danube is the pro- 
perty of the company of the Messageries Imperiales for the Medi- 
terranean and Black Seas. It is 240 feet long, 33 feet beam, 20 feet depth 
of hold, and draws 14 feet water. It has three masts, a screw-engine of 
870 horse power, goes 13 knots per hour, and carries 600 tons of merchan- 
dize, besides passengers, &c. This model was made in the workshops 
of La Ciotat, near Marseilles, according to the plans of M. Dupuy 
de L6me, engineer, and under the eye of M. Delecour, Engineer. This is 
the most beautiful of all the numerous and beautiful models in the Exhibi- 
tion. 

The large lantern of M. Augustin Fresnel, the inventor of the lenticular 

reflectors. This admirable invention is now too well known to require long 
description. 

Two players at bowls, bronzes after the antique, in the Museum at 
Naples, by M. Gros Marly, of Paris. 

A bronze in the style of Patin, by Messrs. Eck & Durand, of Paris : 
This group represents a combat between a horse and a lion. 

Vases of Berlin porcelain, to imitate that of Sevres. 

Four bronze stags of the natural size, from Berlin ; two of the ordinary 
dusk colour, the two others of a light buflf colour. 

A hunting dog in bronze. 

A fiower.stand of pyramidal form, in the Moorish style, with pillars, vases 
and arabesques, of colored bronze, by Mr. Charles Diebitch, of Berlin. 

This closes the list of the articles in the parallelogram forming the 
centre of the nave. 



1 



IIL 

LATERAL PORTIONS OF THE NAVE. 

to the right in the foreign department, we return from the 
weal tci the eastern extremity. 

The first compartment contains contributions from Saxony. These 
are tapestries, and small pieces of embroidered needle- work, in imitation 
of engravings on copper plate, exhibited by Mr. Hi6tel ; paintings on 
porcelain in the shape of fancy boxes, medallions, shaff-boxes, and 
ornamented articles for the toilet by Mr. Backer; articles of plated 
ttnw by Mr. Reichel ; and lace mixed with plaited straw, by Mr. C. 6. 
Rein and M. Brennewit. 

The second compartment contains articles of pottery ; small fountains, 
▼ases, Kitatuettes, and table«fumiture of terra cotta« alabaster, stone, and 
poioelain. These several substances are used either separately or com- 
bined, either in their natuml state, or ornamented with paintings. The 
exhibitors are Messrs. Villeroy and Bock of Prussia. 

The third and fourth compartments also contain Prussian articles, the 
fanner, porcelain from the royal manufactory at Berlin, and a mirror 
from that of the glass Company of Aix-la-Chapelle ; the latter, crystal 
and porcelain lustres by M. C. Spiim and likewise articles of porcelain 
from the royal manufactory at Berlin, among which is a pretty candela- 
brum with a figure of Capid pointing an arrow. 

The next four compartments belong to Austria, and contain porcelain 
and enamels of Messrs Guntler, Grobmann and NcfTer, a gothic clock 
ease, and various fancy articles of wood carved in the most admirable 
manner, by Messrs. Stanmer and Brcul ; a bas-relief representing a 
religious subject from the Imperial Printing Oflice at Vienna ; and a col- 
lection of vases of stained and cut glass. These vases magnificently de- 
eorated with scenes of history and the chase, are by Mr. Hegenbarth. 
These are the contents of the first compartment of Austria, the others 
eoDtain a splendid collection of vases, ornamental and fancy articles in 
plain, coloured, and enameled glass from the manufactory of Messrs. 
Eralick and Taschcck ; another still finer collection of gla^ and porce- 
lain from the manufactory of His Excellency, the Comte de Harrach; 
and finally another collection of porcelain in imitation of Sevres, by 
llesars. Fischer and Portheim. 

The three next compartments contain articles from Belgium ; one. 



S38 



magnificont cloths of various colours from the factory of M. Biollej and 
Son, ut Verviers ; another, a collection of sacerdotal vestments of un- 
pttniUcleil richness and beauty. This is one of the finest show-cases in the 
exhibition. The exhibitor, Mr. Van Halle of Brussels has inscribed over 
it tho words, ^^ God alone is great, glory to Him alone !" The last of 
thoM^ three compartments is that which contains specimens of fire-arms. 
Tho K^tns, rifles, and pistols which enrich this case, several of them 
hiKhly wrought, are from the manufactories of Messrs. Victor Ckillette, 
Thont^t, L'Honneux Brothers, Malherbe, Dandoy, Reick and Son, Mags, 
Novcnt and Co., Sch^pers of Belgium, and particularly from that of the 
oolobrated Lepage of Liege. Among them is a rifled pistol of admirable 
workmanship, firing twenty-four times without reloading. 

We have now arrived at the cross alley, which is here deeorated wMl 
two small parterres of natural flowers and marble statues. Here is tha 
American section : as the most hondrable place had been assigned ta 
Prance at New York, the compliment was reciprocated to the Umted 
States at Paris, and, as if to give point to the proverb ^* a good deed is 
aever thrown away,'* it happening that the United States could not fiU 
their pavilion, the Commissioners of that country gave up a part of It to 
Prance, the products of which occupy much more than half the baihl- 

ing. 

Near the parterres, which we have just noticed, is a division contaiii- 
iag articles of a rather novel manufactures that of hardened caontchone. 
This material is now fashioned into combs, brush handles, handles of 
tools, optical instruments, artificial whalebone, furniture, omaments, 
boies, stocks of guns, knife^sheaths, scabbards, pouches and innumera- 
ble otiier articles. 

This composition is the invention of Mr. Groodyear, an American of 
Nuw York. Mr. Charles Morey, another American, purchased the 
patent right in France from the inventor, and it is at present in that 
iunmtry timt this manufacture has been carried on to the greatest extent 
it hihors, however, under two great disadvantages, one is the smell of the 
ouotitnhouo which cannot as yet be got rid of, the other is the absence of 
iho tudt of time to ascertain its durability. The articles exhibited in the 
I^uUk^u of Industry are from the manufactory of the Grcneral Company of 
huriU^iVul caoutchouc, and from those of Messrs. Rousseau, Laferge and 
{\\,^ wi the Seine et Oise ; of Louis Panris & Co., of Lille ; of Mirabel 
\ -l^iuulmud & Co., of St. Denis ; of Lafertrille & Co., of Paris; Fauvelle 
IWUv'Uurro, of Paris, and of Poulot Prudent, of Paris. 

.Si ill (^uaibiug along the alley, we find two compartments in the American 
l^^vUu^^i iiua containing Colt*s Revolvers, and highly finished clocks and 



WAtebei from tbe house of Leioy and Son of Pari% the other artielet ez- 
dntively French Parimn jewellery by Mr. Maurice Mayer. 

The eight foUowing compartments, reaching to the extremity of the alley, 
bekmg to the United Kingdom, and contain painted and gilt articles of iron 
ware from tbe manufactory of Ferry, Shoolbred, LoTeridge 4* Co., woollea 
carpets, tissues and stufisof silk, wool, and cotton from Bedford and Hali- 
lax ; articles of furniture of papier-mach6 by Jennens and Betteridge, and 
lamps and ornaments for doors from Timothy Smith and Son of Birming- 
ham ; cotton prints and muslins of all descriptions of pattern and beauty of 
&bric by Messrs. Dalglebh Falconer & Co, of GUsgow ; articles of esjrth- 
enware and porcelain from the Staffordshire Potteries ; china-ware from 
Messrs. Rose and Daniel of Liondon ; tissues of silk from Manchester ; 
beautiful mantel-pieces of polished iron and bronze, in the most correct 
taste, by Uoole of SheflBeld ; and last, a magnificent case containing speei- 
Bsens of linen, cloth and lace of Irish manufacture, sent by the bouses of 
Holden ds Co.^ and Robert Lindsay 6l Co., of Belfast. 

Cfoesing the eastern end of the Nave, and psssing along the northern 
side which belongs altogether to France, we examine the compartments 
and cases occupying the right of the alley immediately adjoining the 
oenCrs of the building. 

The first compartment contains a church organ of small sixe and desigaa 
ior larger ones, contributed by Mr. Caill6 of Paris ; likewise a melodeon by 
Messs. Alexander fc Son. 

The next division contaiiu the magnificent harps and pianos of the 
aalebraled Erard, and the no less beautiful ones of Messrs. Pape, BIsncbet, 
Playel ds Co.. flutes and fifes by Mr. Tulon, Tk>lin% Tidineelloes, 4^., by 
Messrs. Bernard and Vnillanme ; and instruments of military music by 
Mills, Besson dt Gautfot 

We next arrive at the fine exhibition of typography, types» engravings 
and specimens of printing, by Mr. Henri Plon, then at the compartment 
oeenpied by Messrs. Tuber dt Brothers^ containing decorative articles of 
sCaloes and bas-reliefs in carton-pierre, a bust of the Emperor, and 
pnrtienlariy a frame remarkable for iu fresh beauty, its daxxUng whiteness 
mod its colossal demensions. This frame forms a chimney-piece embel- 
Ikhed with a running border of artificial flowers and surmounted with a 
plate ghH% such as can be made only at Paris. 

Tbe minister of War has deposited in this place a trophy of the arma 
wsad by the In&ntry and field-artillery, cannon, brass fieU-mortara, maa» 
ket% riillesi pistds, sabres, bayonets, lances, cuirasses, helmets, fcc. The 
remarkable are the Minie Rifle, with the half bent sabre of the 
d$ KMcsaJMi, and tbe lance-musket of the Cent-gaides. This 
is loaded at the breech and is very light. Instead of the 



234 



bayonet, a sword or rapier of great length is fitted to it, and the weapon 
thus formed by the union of the musket with the sword, is more than 
seven feet long, and may be used as a lance. 

The next case contains beautiful Cashmere shawls contributed by 
Mr. Bietry ; optical instruments by Mr. Cam ; superb ivory articles by Bfr. 
Poisson, fancy articles by Mr. Mayer, and perfumery by Messrs. Henry 
and Demerson. 

After them we have biscuit ware in every shape by Mr. Gille, toilet 
articles by Mr. Sormani, charming fans by Mr. Duvelleroy, and porcelain 
vases, artificial flowers, and various articles for the toilet, by several ex- 
hibitors : among them stained and gilt papers by Mr. Angrand, and fismcy 
buttons by Messrs. Trelon, Welden and Well. 

One compartment is devoted to ornamental articles for the side board 
by Jeanselme & Son, among them a game-keeper carved in wood, and a 
gilt side-board, in the oriental style, adopted and perfected by Parisian art. 

The compartment which now meets our eyes contains bronzes by 
Mr. Rarbedienne, and among the vast number exhibited we are attract- 
ed by a copy, half the size of the original, of the door of the celebrated Bap- 
tistery at Florence made by Lorenzi Giberti ; a group reduced to one third 
size of the Laocoon ; a copy half size of the Venus of Milo ; the Moses of 
Michael Angelo, one fourth size, and two splendid candelabra of bronze gilt 

The next space is occupied by Mr. Tahan with furniture firom his 
celebrated factory. Here among other articles may be seen a supeib 
side-board of rose-wood with gilded arabesque. 

Cut glass of eveiy description from the renowned manufactories of 
Clichy, St. Louis and Baccarat, adorn the next compartment. The 
last mentioned of these manufactories have placed there two immense 
candelabra entirely composed of glass, their total height being 17 feet 

French laces are well known, we therefore stop for awhile before the 
pavilion of Mr. Auguste Lef^buie, who exhibits black point lace from 
Bayeux, Brussels, Venetian, Valencienne and Alen^on point : we admire 
not more than others perhaps, some artificial fiowers of white lace, and a 
toilet table ornamented with these flowers and draped with the different 
varieties of point lace. 

We now come to the central avenue. Opposite to the great fountain in 
the middle of the nave, a small parterre has been arranged on each 
side ornamented with marble statues. In this vicinity are pavilions 
containing inimitable specimens of Parisian plate and jewellery, silver 
salvers, services, ewers, baskets and candelabra, by Mr. Fray ; a mag- 
nificent tea service, dishes with covers, and a model in bronze of a 
superb vase executed in repoussi silver, the subject of the bas-relief 
which ornaments the cup is a tournament of the middle ages, exhibited 



235 



by Mr. Darand. Next to these articles, the following gentlemen ex- 
hibit: Mr. Manuel, candelabra of silver gilt, a Gothic poniard, the handle 
of which represents St. Michael overthrowing Satan, and a shield re- 
presenting the last combat of the Amazons, from the ctelebrated design 
8ie Victoria Victis ; Messrs. Radolphi and Wiese exhibit superb col- 
lections of every varietyiof jewellery in which, all descriptions of precious 
materials are fashioned in a thousand different ways ; Mr. Morel* Ladeuil, 
chaser, contributes a model in wax of a vase to be executed in rep<mM$S 
for the sum of £950, the subject is The dance of the PairieSy taken from 
the poems of Germany ; Mr. Wechte, a magnificent vase representing 
the combat of the Centaurs and the Lapithae, and Mr. Lebrun, a mag- 
nificent collection of silver vases of various designs. 

The next compartment contains the incomparable mousselines-de- 
laines and superb cashmeres, exhibited by Messrs. Bemoville Brothers, 
Larsonnier Brothers, and Chenest. 

Porcelain ware contributed by a number of exhibitors, occupies the 
next compartment, we may notice particularly, a bust of the Empress, 
Mnlptured by Mr. Barre, and executed in porcelain by Mr. Gille, Jr. ; 
•ad two vases of biscuit- ware, representing the festivals of Bacchus, 
exhibited by Messrs. Jouhanneand and Dubois. 

A magnificent compartment is that containing the court mantle of 
•ilk and gold and the cashmeres exhibited by Mr. Gagelin, the fresh 
looking feathers and the head dresses by Madame Melanie Bnm, and 
the jewellery by Messrs. Bruneau and Company, Bapst and Charles 
DoroQ. 

After these come magnificent candelabra in bronze, plain, gilded 
•ad coloured, exhibited by Mr. Deni&re ; among the groups which 
eo m pose the the pedestals of these candelabra arc some which 
contain very exquisite statuettes, a large candelabrum with a hunting 
design, representing a tree in coloured bronze resting on the base of a 
column ornamented with boars' heads surrounded with oak leaves. At 
the foot of the tree is a dog in bronze ; a gun and hunting accoutrements 
•le supported by the trunk ; and hares and partridges are hung to tho 
branches which support the candles. 

The next compartment contains lenticular reflectors for light houses 
bj Lepaute ; clocks and chronometers, by Mr. Wagner, and optical 
iastfuments by Mr. Dubosq-Soleil. 

Among the superb cashmeres exhibited by Mr. Ileb^rt, which occupy 
tlie next pavilion, we notice a shawl, the principal design in which 
fepresents the bust of the Emperor, surrounded by allegorical figures. 

Here the minister of Marine has erected a trophy of the weapons em- 
plogred in the French Navy. Cannons thiowing oval halls of tOO lbs. in 



2S« 



weight ; grappling irons, axes, cutlasses and boarding pikes ; enonnoos 
muskets for the marines, pistols, sabres, bayonets, in fact all the instm- 
ments of destruction which Mr. Cobden would like to see at the bottom 
of the ocean, doubtless to give the unnecessary trouble of inventing them 
over again. 

Let us stop to admire the beautiful jewellery by Mr. Froment Meuiioe, 
and particularly that magnificent Church ornament of silver, with small 
pictures on enamel, the pedestal is ornamented with small silver statoes 
of the four Evangelists ; the arabesques, which form the outer firamei 
contain three pictures, the middle one represents the crucifixion, that to 
the left Jesus in the Garden of Grethsemane, and that on the right the Ece$ 
Homo. The same compartment also contains artificial flowers by Misi 
Pitrat. 

The next stall contains an immense variety of zinc wares, pipes, con- 
duits, sheets for roofing, vases, implements, garden statues, in bci no 
end of zinc contrivances exhibited by the Nouvelle Montaigne Foundry. 

The factory of St Jacques in the department of Allier, occupies tht 
last compartment of the avenue which we have gone through. It caa- 
tains a model of that vast establishment and models of wagons, looomop 
tives, railway carriages, in fact all the contrivances employed about zmil- 
ways, to the manufacture of which this factory is dedicated. 



IV. 



CIRCUIT OF THE NAVE. 



We cross the nave from the north to the south side, to visit the cooh 
partments located on each side that portion situated between the twn 
side avenues. In order the better to understand the movements we aio 
making, it must be borne in mind that we are traversing the Palace firom 
the centre towards the perephery, following the avenues by a deviating 
course, traversing first those which are the nearest to the middle of Ae 
nave, afterwards those which are more remote, and proceeding iho§ 
until we reach the avenue which is nearest to the wall. 

Passing from the first French avenue which we visited, to the foreign 
side of the Palace, the first objects which present themselves to view, 
belong to the exhibition of Saxony ; they consist of cloths of various 
kinds, exhibited by Messrs. Lohse and Robert Albrecht ; specimens of 
book binding, typography and galvanoplasty, some of which are very 



S97 



These aie contribnted by Mr. Brockans, and the house of 
Oleaecke and Devrient 

Next to these contribntions from Saxony, is placed the exhibition of 
articles from the Grand Dnchy of Baden. Metallic fabrics of great beauty 
made of copper wire, contribnted by Mr. Kehl ; among these metallic 
doths is one destined % use in paper making, which presents a con- 
tinooos surface revolving on a cylinder, this cloth beantifnlly woven is 
SO feet long by 7 feet wide. Next come from the same country, printed 
fabrics of cotton and thread contributed by Mr. Gabriel H£ro86 ; fine 
specimens of different woollen cloths, by Messrs. Rcecklin and Son; 
splnidid velvets of all imaginable colors, from the Badoise Society of 
Ettlhiger. 

We next pass to the large compartment belonging to Prussia. Entering 
the court we see to the right and left various specimens of china work, 
from the Royal Factory of Berlin^ and also specimens of the same articles, 
by Widow Mattschas, among which a very beautiful statue in terra cotta, 
bnlf life size, representing Hape^ is worthy of remark. 

A great part of the Prussian compartment is occupied by a display of 
instmmmts of warfare, more partieulariy subres and swords; helmets and 
ruiraaaes of very beautiful workmanship may be seen, and a magnificent 
c-tnnon of cast steel ; these objects come from the following manufactories, 
nsmeiy : Messrs. Lunschloss, Schmolz, Hoppe, Harlkopf, Holler, Schilling, 
EiK^I, Moffa, Speyer and Krupp. 

The other numerous objects contained in this magnificent compartment 
c'Hnprtae jewellery of various kinds, particularly some beautiful little hunt* 
sc'ciies, painted in miniature on ivory, by M. Cari Schuiz ; a magnificent 
Christ in bronze, of about three-fourths life size, at the foot of the cross is 
a statue of the Virgin embracing the feet of Jesus. This beautiful object 
is contributed by the Count d'Enisi^dal ; a splendid Gothic mau^leum 
oT cmsl iron, flrom the foundries of Count de Stolberg Wemigerode ; the 
same nobleman furnished for exhibition the following articles, also of 
ctsl ifoo : a superb cross of filagree work, in the Gothic style ; lattices 
of ttnparallelled lightness and elegtuice ; iron lace covers and clasps for 
hooks ; filagree fims as delieate and light as if made of more flexible 
maserials. ( 1 ) Count Stolberg also exhibits crucifixes and other articles 
for religioiis purposes of fine white marble. Mr. Fischer's bronzes 
aomprise a very pretty group, half life size, the subject of which is a favm 
attacked by an eagle. Mr. Stobwasaer exhibits paintings upon fancy 
aitieles e eni pnae d of sheet iron, which display much freshness and taste. 



<1) II U v«U lowva IbU ?!■■■■■ mm pracoti in tlMM mnkdm a vittrtttj •uKm. m4 
ft varaMk of eolor vUdi ham B«f cr Uia imp«rt«d t« tb« Itoa of aay oUior oooatfy. tmd wbdb 
biat m —A to tbo qMHty of tbo awlal it to tbo WMBish s twr fait p r oaiMw wyJoyod. 



238 



An incredible number and variety of articles of every kind, articles for 
religious purposes, toilet articles, jewels, amulets, necklaces, bracelets, &&« 
&c,, decorated with amber and coral, are contributed by exhibitors whose 
names are as follow : Messrs. Hoffman, Winterfield, Ni^se, and Tessler. 
The Prussian gold and silversmiths are fully represented ; among the articles 
contributed by Messrs. Rentropp and Kime, we inay notice a (Sothic cal- 
vary in silver, about ten feet in height, gold and nlver vases, and a superb 
cover for a Roman Mi^al in silver, by M. Kune of Altena; a fountain of 
bronze and silver, a gothic cross with groups in ftos tdief repces^iting 
subjects from the apocalypse, and an equestrian group, representing an 
Amazon defending herself from a tiger, by Wagner; vases by Volgbld; 
magnificent salvers by Loventbol & Co. ; a salver In the form of a shieldi 
representing in low relief a combat of the Amazons, by Loventbol. We 
find a magnificent column of Prussian casting from the foundries above 
mentioned ; the column is surmounted by an eagle holding a thunderbolt 
in his talons, the middle of the Gothic shaft of octagon figure presents 
eight statuettes of beautiful workmanship, representing the arts and 
sciences. Mr. Haag has exhibited specimens of colors applied to enameb 
Mr. Lauchammer among other very beautiful articles in bronze ezhibiiB a 
fire place of burnished casting, ornamented with decorations in bronze and 
polished in a severe yet agreeable style. Volgold and son have contributed 
a large has relief representing the marriage of a Prussian Princess ; a 
specimen of the gal vano plastic process in fine silver, more interesting as a 
process than as a work of art To conclude this brief description of the 
principal articles in this compartment we may remark the variety of jewel- 
lery and toys exhibited by Friedeberg and Friedmann. 

The two large compartments adjoining that we have just visited are oc- 
cupied by Austria. The first object which presents itself to the eyes of the 
visitor among the Austrian productions, is, the exhibition of the Imperial 
Printing Office at Vienna^ one of the most magnificent typographic 
establishments in the whole world. There are constantly employed 
in it more than 1000 hands, and there are prosecuted to the utmost degree 
of perfection all the branches of the arts connected with typography. The 
magnificent collection exhibited consists of specimens of the following pro- 
cesses : a secretary table containing all the illustrations of polygrapbyi 
to wit : four volumes in folio, containing more than three thousand difi!a^ 
ent specimens of the characters employed in ancient and modem writingy 
and of the types employed in printing the difierent languages by their 
respective nations, copies of antique engravings, including those of Albert 
Durer, illustrations and engravings by the processes, known under the 
technical names of xylography, chimitype on copper or steel, lithography 
chromolithography, chimigraphy, the gal vano plastic process, stylograpby» 



gmlvKnogmphy, hyBlography, photography, microtype, and primtDg fm 

Iliia lalter procea, recently 8dopte<l in the Imperial PrintiDg OfBce of 
AtHtria, meriu spftcial mention un accoant of ibe beauty of the itnpreadon 
it prodacea and tbe importance of the applications that may ho made vi 
it in Um advancement of ibe nalaral science. It consista in producing ao 
irafvewoa in rrlieC by means or object.') them>e]vns, having nil thi: intlli- 
fiilnoaa oT nainra, and esbibiting all their niinule«t details, such as tbo 
lanvca ufa trecflowera, plantii,*kinMoraninnal»,inseet», and different kiod* 
of wnren f&brict ; in order to obtain th«e fac timiUi the object is plaeaU 
opon • aoDd plale uf atecli and oorercd wilb a sheet of lead evenly rolled, 
the whole is then placed in a rolling prmu by meana of which th« itnprea> 
man of the object ia produced in the malleable anbatanee of the lead, thia 
figtm ia retaken from tbe lead upon copper, by meana of tbe galvano pbatie 
ptueaa^ but inosmach ai it is reproduced Id relief, a sMond galrano pUa* 
tie operation i> necssaary to obtain upon copper a Iwllow tmpreaaioii, 
which ettablea tbe fi^re to be trvnaferrej to paper in detni-rdior. Tbe 
Imperial Printing Office of Austria exliibita amoua a nLimher of illastra- 
tioaa tbua (Stained, a print from nature or a bnt of large siw, the skin of 
iba animal was finrt emptied and iben submiiled to tbe eflccts of tha roU- 
ing preaa : any imitation nSccled by hand, does not in any degree approach 
the baauty, and cnuns especially the SdeJiiy of these impreaejaiia froin 



Tha eibibitioD by tlic Imperial Printing Office also includes engniTing 
by meaaf of the punch, type produced Irom 80,000 different matiioea, 
Mermtypcd ptaten, books in different charactera, magnificent bonk cuvrn 
with gold and niverclaaps, engraving in all atyleiit, nrtictc* urelectnt-pUi?. 
■■d amoog others a superb collection of illustrationa in relier, of analony 
■nd Bainral htaiory, for the tiae of the blind. 

Tbt AtMrian oompartmenu which we *n now intpeding alto coittain' 
tmnrnvm ollter arltcles, olensila, and coven, oT Oerrnan silver, poliabed, 
pbled and gilded, from the manafactMy at Bemdorf ; an asionishtng exhi. 
biliaa aa reganJa tho niunber and beaaty of the spMimeoa of Bobcniian 
ganTKta, cootriboted by tbe following exblUtorv : Heaara. Uoman, Podie- 
brad, Goldscbmidl. and Coant Scboenborn, gold ehaina ol moat parted 
baauiy and purity by Bolzaai 4c Co. ; vaaea of goM and aUver, amoo^ 
which may be nuiiced a cup having deaigns in rvlieToB Ibe tnbjeet of bona 
nwiag, the cap i> of gold and llie objecu in relief of bumiabrd •tlver, thcas 
ate ooatribaied by M. Radxvrsdor of Vienna ; a map in reCef ol 
district in Upper Austria, by M. Pauliny ; goud and allver 
boSMk by SohMlI ; two superb geographical inapa. with mouniaina It 
.of Anatrta the other of Kuropc, tent by the Imperial IiuUttite 



140 



of Vienna ; jewellery by Messrs. Plchler and Roeeo Brotheni ; a eoUecfcioD 
of precious stones, polished, by Mr. Anton Pozelt of Bohemia ; a magai* 
ficent collection of jewellery, comprising coronets, braoeleta» boaqaets of 
garnets, rings, necklaces, pins, and more particolarly a masnTie cross of 
silver, in rqioussS with gilded niches, in the Gothic style, containing ata* 
tuettes of tiie Madonna and Child, Angels and Saints ; this magnifioent 
article was made by M. J6r6me Grohmann of Prague ; wooden and copper 
musical instruments by Zeigler and Sons, and Miller and Son, of Yianoa; 
strings of all kinds for musical instruments, by Louis Vantorini ot Loos- 
bardy ; a piano in a case of curled maple wood, by Mr. Peters. 

So much for the contents of the first of the two Auatrifti compaxi- 
ments : the second contains articles of quite another descriptioa — ^linea 
and cotton fabrics, white, colored and printed, sent by M« Forster, 
of Bohemia, and M. Larger, of Moravia ; cotton fabrics, by Mr. Dot- 
mitz ; specimens of dyestufi*s, especially Adrianople red, by Heckle & 
Brothers, firom Upper Carenthia and Feld Kerch, Wellinger, Seykoia 
of Bohemia ; beautiful specimens of cotton thread by the heirs Diezasr 
and Mr. Heimsch ; and fabrics from Trunau, BaumwoU, Lower of Austria, 
and from Constance in Lombardy ; fustians by Mr. Spetser, of Moravia ; 
woollen, silk, linen and cotton &brics, from the factory of M. MoUer ; 
a numerous collection of colored cotton fabrics, by Mr. Francois Lev- 
texiberger; white cottons of enormous width, from the factory of M. 
Sobotka at Prague ; beautiful calicoes, glazed cottons and muslins, by 
Messrs. Neubert, Heilmann, and Redelhammer. 

Next to these in the same compartment we find articles of ceramie 
and glass manufacture, such as tissues of glass, spun and colored by 
M. Tammasi, of Venice, including baskets, artificial flowers, lace, cer- 
tainly for the most part more curious than beautiful in appearanoe, 
enamels, artificial pearls, charlottes and brocatlles of the famous Vene> 
tian glass so long celebrated, glasses in sheets and panes, white and 
colored, by M. Marietti, also of Venice ; aventurine and mosaic imita- 
tion rock work in glass, some of which are very beautiful, by Mr. Pio- 
aglia ; a magnificent collection of crystal and cut glass, by M. Janks 
& Brothers, which comprises ciystal vases of different shades, oma> 
mented with designs displaying admirable skill. Stone porcelain, terra- 
cotta and ciystal, the materials employed in the fabrication of various 
articles and domestic utensils are sent in great numbers by M. Richard, 
the Imperial Factory of Lombardy, the factory at Prague, and by Count 
de Hum. In the midst of this collection we observed table services of 
gilded porcelain, upon which the gold has been laid so perfectly that we 
are almost induced at first sight to enquire why those articles of gold 
plate have been placed in the midst of the stone ware and porcelain ; 



241 



the reason is, that in the very form of these table vases, gold plate has 
been imitated so closely that you might fancy you were looking at 
articles of gold in repousMi work. 

The next compartment to those of Austria, which we have jiisl 
visited, belongs to the Belgian exhibition ; it contains : A collection of 
black cloths, by M. Simonis, of Verviers ; cloths of all colors, among 
which are red, yellow and superb green cloths, from the factories of 
Messrs. Bleyfuez & Son, of Dison ; an immense collt*ction of woollen 
fabrics and fine cloths, by Charles Weber, of Ver>*i<'rs; onlnance 
and muskets exhibited by the Government of Belgium ; lastly an enor- 
mous collection of wea}K)ns of warfare and for the chase, the specimens 
of which are contributed by the following manufacturers, chielly from 
Liege, to wit : Messrs. Lepage, Lemille, Bemimolin, Falisse and Trap* 
man, Jausin, Lardinois, and Landers. This collection is com}K)sed of 
arms of all kinds — rifles, muskets, pistols, sabres, hunting knives, bayo- 
nets, some of which anMHost profusely ornamented, while the simplicity 
€t Others is quite remarkable. There an* rifles from £2 10s., and others 
which cost £150. The rifles and muskets used by all the different 
armies of Europe are there represented. 

We next enter the United States' Department, in which we see — a 
collection of wooden models of vessels, printed works and engravings 
lelating to the natural history of the United States, and some fine hydro- 
gmphical charts, the work of Lieutenant Maury, of the American Navy. 
The lines on these charts indicate the course of the winds and surface 
canents of the different oceans, others shew the latitudes in which whales 
are found. All these articles were given to the French Government by 
the Federal Government a few years ago ; a collection of engravings, 
especially as applied to the engraving of bank notes; two collrrtions of 
daguerreotype portraits, one by Mr. Meade, of New York ; pianos and 
Ttolins; a fine collection of specimens of native cop}M^r, exhibited by 
the SoeiM Franfoise du Lac SuperUur ; a few small s{>eeimeiis of 
«teel from South Carolina, contributed by the Swedish Steel Company ; 
a fine side-board of carved wood, from the works of Messrs. Ringuet, 
Leprioce, Marcottc & Company, of Nt*w York ; 8|)ecimens of dentistry, 
bjr Messrs. Fowler, Preterre and Kingsley, New Yorl^ ; a magnificent 
eoUection of Califoraian gold in its dilferent natural conditions ; ebron* 
ometers, scales and standards of American weights and measures, 
■eat by the comptroller's oflice ; scales used in commerce, frt>m the 
leale company of Vergt^nnes, State of Vermont ; medals rt*Iating 
to the hbtory of the United States, from the mint at Philadelphia ; two 
oniitel pieces, in colored marble, from Massachusetts, without oroamentt 



242 



sent by Mr. Tucker ; a model of a large river steamboat ; a tanned alii- 
gator^s skin and boots made of that leather ; this is a very singular and 
beautiful production ; the surface is covered with quadrilateral marks 
similar to the hammering of the workman, and varying in size accoid- 
ing to the different parts of the animal. 

The next compartment, which is within the space allotted to the 
United States, is occupied by French industiy; here may be seen 
magnificent paper-hangings exhibited by M. (Senoux, of Paris ; a piano, 
the case of which is of carved ebony, from the manufactory of Mr. 
Harz; articles of * decorative furniture, in different styles, by Messrs. 
Drapier, Desgranges, Lemercier, Ribailler and Mazaroz ; amongst others, 
a side-board by the latter, with fishing and hunting subjects, purchased 
by the Emperor ; porcelains and bronzes, by M. Boutigny ; and lastly, 
(bmiture of Thuya and other Algerine woods, exhibited by Mr. Fourdi- 
nois, among which we may remark a series of decorations for a room 
ornamented with statues representing hunting subjects, and a btu-reUef 
representing a mythological winter scene. 

The three compartments next to those I have just referred to, belong to 
the English exhibiton, and contain ; an extensive collection of bronzes 
and plate, byElkington, Mason & Co., of London and Birmingham; the 
objects most worthy of remark, are two statues in bronze of life size, the 
sabjects of which are Dorothea and The Young Naturalist^ a vase in 
imitation of the antique silver candelabra with statuettes and a group 
representing Cruy of Warwick killing the dun cow : The Knight, his 
horse and the cow are silver, the tree at the foot of which the scene is 
taking place and the ferns ornamenting the soil, and the ground itself are 
of bronze. The next compartment is the Birmingham Court ; it contains 
woollen cloths, by Messrs. Stancomb & Son, Clark, Salter & Co., Wilson 
and Armstrong, Dickson and Laings. A splendid assortment of sewing 
oottons, by Brooks and Brothers ; specimens of shell buttons by Messrs, 
Banks and Hammond ; gun caps, by Messrs. Armstrong & Co., and 
Walker & Co. ; specimens of locks by Messrs. Cotterill and Woolbridge ; 
gold and steel pens, by Messrs. Hincks, Wells, Mason, Mitchell, and 
Wiley ; sounding apparatus by Messrs. Ogden and Ericssons ; articles 
of stamped copper by Mr. Joseph Hill : fishing materials by Mr. AUcock ; 
small steel articles by Messrs. Boulton & Son ; a collection of lanterns, 
cocks and other articles of that description, by Mr. Messenger ; beautifnl 
biasses both polished and twisted, also copper pipes and nails beautifully 
wrought, by Mr. Everitt; metallic cords for pianos and harps by 
Messrs. Webster & Son ; articles of papier-mach6 inlaid with mother of 
pearl, or ornamented with paintings of different kinds, by Messrs. 
Macallum and Hodson, Foothorape, Strowell and Sherton ; locks, by 



J 



243 



Ifeflern. Toaks & Son ; braces, 8tra|>fs and woven belts, by Mr. Taybr; 
•pecimens of buttons of dilFercnt kindi* by Mesiirs. Aston and Daia, 
Watts and Marton, Swithkemp and Wright ; stationery, by Messia 
Allan and Moore ; beautiful specimenH of saddlery by Mr. Midlemore, 
and lastly a variety of surgical bandagcn by Mr. T. P. Salt, which com- 
plete in these diflerent classes, the collection from the manufacturing 
town of Birmingham, the exhibitors of which have erected an office fof 
general information in the middle of the compartment, which as wt 
have just stated they call the Birmingham Court. 

The adjoining compartment contains; Twilled cotton fabrics, bj 
Messrs. Paul & Co., and Fyfe and Sons, of Glasgow ; muslins and laeet 
by Messrs. Wallace, Macdonald and Brown ; white cottons by Mr. Bride; 
difieient cotton fabrics by Messrs. McMillan, Laird and Thompson^ 
tewing cottons by Clark ; lace by Mr. Tumbull ; poitery, crystal and 
porcelain, by Messrs. Rose*, Daniell, Pinder, and from the StaflTordshire 
potteries ; beautiful linen damasks, cotton damasked fabrics, and mixed 
woollen and cotton fabrics, by Mr. Beveridge of Scotland ; cotton g(Kxl% 
by Messrs. Hollins, Slaters and Smith ; beautiful tools by Mr. Howard ; 
articles of silver and plated steel by Messrs. Dixon & Son ; numerous 
specimens of cutlery by the following makers : Messrs. Saynor and 
Cooke, Wilkinson & Sons, Hameroft, Norwill & Sons, Spencer & Son, 
Ward, Oxiey, Wastenholn, Wilson and Davy ; crystal and plated wara 
by Messrs. Sam^n and Davenport ; fancy cutlery by Mr. Roundl 

To conclude the enumeration of the contents of this compartment t 
most notice the pavilion containing specimens of the linen manufacture 
of Ireland, the land so renownt*d for fine linen. This splendid exhibV 
CioD, prepared by the Belfast Committee, includes everything that is pro- 
doced by this flourishing branch of industry, fine woven fabrics, muslinai| 
laoes, embroidered jaconets, damask(*d stufls, and a number of fabric8i| 
the fineness of which is only surpassed by their whiteness and freshness* 

Passing from the South to the North side of the nave, at its eastern 
extremities, we reach the compartments occupied by Prance, and whick 
are similar to the foreign sections which we have just examined. Pro- 
ceeding from the eastern to the western extremity of the Palace, we 
first reach the large Court set apart for the exhibition of French prinf- 
ingy and the bookbinding which forms its necessary adjunct. It oo»- 
sists of books of Natural History by Mr. Victor Masson ; architectural 
works with plans, by Mr. Daly ; scientific works by Mr. Roret ; tbs 
▼arioas pnKluctions of the printing oflices of Messrs. ftlaison. Gamier 
sod Brothers, Delalain, Gillaumin, Amyot, Levrault, Firmin Didol, 
Didier, Langlois, Dalmont and Mame de Tour, all well known firms; 
maaieal pablications by Messrs. Schonenberger, Hengael fc Co , Derrie ; 



244 



gaperb bindings for books, in which gold, silyer, wood, polished steel, 
mother of pearl, and precious stones are employed either separately or 
together in the formation of arabesques, reliefs and artistic designs of all 
kinds, for the ornamentation of the leather, the primary and principal 
material which is treated with inconceivable taste and variety of 
method ; these specimens are principally contributed by Messrs. 
Len^gre, Curmer Belin, Leprieur and Lortic. We may also admire the 
illustrated works by Mr. Claye ; the different specimens of letter-press, 
lithography and engraving, by Messrs. Fume, Bance, Dupcmt, Bailliere ; 
soipe beautiful engravings by Messrs. Renouard & Co. ; richly bound 
illustrated works by Mr. Lehuby; engravings by Mr. Louilleuz; 
archaeological and monumental engravings by Mr. Silberman, of Stras- 
bourg ; types by Messrs. Laurent and Debeny ; religious works by Hr. 
Adrien Lecl^re. 

To complete this brilliant exhibition which illustrates in this compart- 
ment the whole modem art of typography, we have only to examine the 
collection presented by the Administration of the Imperial printing office 
of Paris, the principal objects exhibited may be classed as follows ! 1st. A 
collection of punches, matrices, and French and foreign type ; 2nd. A series 
of specimen sheets ; 3rd. Volumes from the oriental collection and others ; 
4th. Applications of electricity to printing; 5th. Different methods of book 
binding ; 6th. Models on a small scale of different apparatus for drying, 
printing; 7th. Greological and geographical maps ; 8th. A. book printed 
with ornaments in gold and colors, for the Exhibition. The two 
latter classes merit special mention. In the beautiful geological charts of 
France, we find a practical application of that admirable invention of the 
Imperial printing office, aided by the Mining Administration of France, for 
printing in colors. To color the geological chart by Messrs. Dufresnoy 
and Elie de Beaumont, twenty-four successive impressions from as many 
lithographic stones were required, nevertheless the most delicate outlines 
and the most minute details have been preserved. The book, printed for 
the Universal Exhibition, is the Imitation of Jesus Christ, this magnificent 
volume in folio contains the Latin text, and the translation into verse by 
Fierre Gorneille ; nothing can excel the beauty of the type nor the elegance 
of the ornamentation of this masterpiece of printing of the age, only 
100 copies of this work have been printed, and the total expense is 
calculated to be about £10,000: a distribution of them has been made 
among the principal libraries of France, the learned French and foreign 
Societies and the principal European Courts. 

The present Imperial printing office was founded by Louis XIU. and 
commenced operations in the Louvre in 1640. The Imitation of Jesua 
Christ was the first great work printed there. This vast establishment em- 



245 



plojet 94 hand presses, 14 steam presses, 20 lithographic presses, 1 press 
fiir engravings, and two hydraulic presses for hot pressing, it employs 
about 1,700,000 pounds of type. 

The compartment adjoining the one we have ju«t examined, contains 
objects of art of different kinds such as, wax fruits, by Mr. Barrier, of 
Meauz, articles of decoration by Messrs. Hardouin and Berrier and Son^ 
sculptors, artistic frames by Mr. Shierry, wax fruits by Mr. Loticsse of 
Paris, specimens of gilding by Mr. Souly, jr., among others a magnificent 
frame for a glass, executed for Mehemet Ali, various kinds of sculpture for 
churches by Messrs. Solon and Hugon of Roydor, among which we may 
remark a Madonna by the former, and a Notre Dame des Vic I aires hj 
Mr Hugon ; Church ornaments in plaster by Mr. Ilailigental of Strudbourg, 
leather ornaments and decorations, such as soffits, wainscotting, cornices, 
ftc., by Mr. Dulud, sculpture by Mr. Crosset, fancy articles of mother of 
pearl, amongst others a splendid head of the Ecce Hamo^ by Mr. Courquin, 
sculptures in carton pierre, among which may be remarked a Jesus preach- 
ing on the mount, by Mr. Tirant, artificial flowers in shell-work l)y 
Mitflame Rose of Toulon ; house ornaments by Messrs. Marck and Coutan ; 
busts by Mr. Guetrot, statues and bas-reliefs^ increased or reduced in de- 
Biensions from mo<lels by mathematical process, exhibited by the Sociitk 
4e» Arts hdustriels de Paris ; specimens of house decorations in imitation 
of porcelain by a process patented by Mr. Chaud6 ; wood carving by Mr. 
Planson ; carvings of different kinds, amongst others a superb crucifix ia 
iTory by Mr. Michaud ; antique engravings restoreil, and gildings by Mc 
Boucarut ; a medallion in car^'cd wood representing the Holy women at /As 
fotii t,f ih^ cross ^ ornamented with statuettes of the four Evangelists by 
Mr. Siverler; beautiful wood carvings from the house of Wirih of Switzer- 
land, exhibited by the agency at Paris ; mirrors and plate gln.«i>es by Mr. 
Hercier, superb wax mouldings, the subjects taken from natural history, 
by Mr. Stahl, moulder to the Museum of natural history ; bronzes ani 
plaster casts for religious purposes by Mr. Pillioud; artisitic mouldings, and 
amongst others an EcC'i Homo^ and Knights in Mingle combat^ by Mr. 
Vincent ; plaster casts by Mr. Salvadorc Marche ; in the midst of which, a 
Madonna^ Night by Pollet, Pmdier^s Bacchnnd and Leda, reduced 
to one fourth their original size deser>'e attention ; miniature plaster cJnls; 
copies of the works of Mftne and Cain by Mr. Dufoilly ; alabasters by Mr. 
Vullienne ; gildinpr* by Mr. Duniond Peterclle ; a Guardian angel medal- 
lion in wochI by Mr. Victor Froyer ; ivory carvings by Mr. Bland of I)irpj>c ; 
amcmg which we may notice a magnificent Christ one fourth life size and 
a cup ornamented with sporting designs, an ivory Chris^t and a Ltts-rrfir/^ 
of the same subject by Mr. Wolf of Paris ; paper and leather bcautifullj 



846 



cut with scissors by the Countess de Dampierre ; specimens of electro-plate 
bjr Mr. Beaurc ; heraldic engravings upon metal by Mr. Chevalier: 
engraving in intaglio and in relief on fine stones by Mr. Brasseux ; archt- 
Ccclnrnl ornaments in Roman cement by Messrs. Rozet and Menisson of 
Vitry-le-Francais ; a superb box of carved ivory by Mr. Moreau; plaster 
casts reduced and increased in size by the mathematical process by Mr. 
Sauvage ; among others a reduction to one half and an enlargement by one 
•half of the Venus of Milo, a collection of fruits and vegetables in plaster by 
Messrs. L6dion and Buchetet of Paris; specimens of monuments in full re- 
! lief, among them we may admire the model of the Cathedral of St. Jean dea 
* Yignes at Soissons by Mr. Bethcder of Soissons ; the astonishing produc- 
* CSon of mcmuments in shell work by Mr. Hostin d'Etel in the Morbihan. 
> It is almost impossible to imagine, how this artist can reproduce in this 
« manner by the arrangement of sea-shells all the details even to the statues 
on the monuments, — as for example in his model of the splendid Cathedral 
of Toul, — small statues less than ode inch in height are formed in perfect 
accordance with artistic principles, of more than twenty shells differing in 
fcrm and size. We should do wrong to believe that these works are mere 
diild^s play, nothing illustrates so strikingly as these works of art, tlie vast 
Gothic lace work of the Cathedrals of the middle ages, which will continue 
Co be objects of admiration when many other objects will have disappeared, 
tor man does not live by bread ahnty his understanding and mind require 
other food, and failing this nourishment, the human race begins todegene* 
rate, each stone detached from the palaces of Babylon and the temples d 
Eg\'pt witnessed another step taken by these nations towards the lower 
regions of barbarism ; when a people not only maintains its monuments, but 
reproduces their beauty, it is an evidence that it is increasing in intellec- 
tual vigor. 

Let us go on to the next compartment, which is filled with articles com- 
prised in that category which Parisian industry has entitled PanUtUiei. 
We sec fruits in marble by Mr. Carette ; specimens of looking glasses by 
Mr. Luce ; alabasters by Mr. Everard ; articles of iron in repoussS work 
and particularly the shield representing the battle of Rosbec by Mr. Mer- 
teillo ; bas-rrliefc in ivory by Mr. Catel d'Abbe\411e ; wax fruits by Mr. 
Montel of Toulouse, including 1300 varieties; a Christ in wood and other 
ftatuary by Mr. Faurre of Paris ; articles in ivory by Mr. Morcst, and 
«bt)ve all, his model in relief of Notre Dame de Paris and his Venus d$ 
Alediriy reduced to a proportion of one tenth ; ornamental furniture by Mr. 
Gcoi^e ; fancy bronzes by Mr. Asse ; fancy fans by Mr. Camaret ; articles 
in stone and nialachile by Mr. Therct ; sculpture and fancy articles in wood 
by Mr. Viardot ; gilded bronzes by Mr. Garuier ; Scotch articles shewing 
ihc different tartans on wood and leather by Mr. Gency ; chased steel 



247 



Articles burnished or gilded, by Mr. Henry, among which may be seen m 
superb hunting knife, travelling necessaries, porte-monnaies and other 
fancy articles by Messrs. Magnet, Laurent, Henry, Schlose and BrotherSi 
Sormani, Felix, Aucoc, Tahan, Monneret, Berthet, Huet, Boguet, Kapp, 
Gaillard, Vervelle, Muller, Triefus, P6ret, Stagmuller, Mace and B(>til« 
anger ; it is needless to remark that these artists are engaged in differ- 
ent branches of manufactures, the raw material employed serving to dis- 
tinguish them. The taste displayed in the fabrication of these articles is 
DO where more strongly manifested thun in Paris, whence inmiensc quanti- 
ties of these articles are annually exported. 

Let us continue our ramble through the same compartment Here wa 
find liquor stands and oil cruets by Mr. Mar6chal ; portfolios by Mr, 
FenoQx ; fancy caskets by Mr. Tabor ; fancy articles ocnanv^nted with 
eameoss precious stones, enamels, mother of pearl, ikc., by Mr Lenoa ; 
novelties in earthenware and p<»rcelain by Mr. Gellee and Brothers ; gilded 
jewellery by Mr. Dclecomte ; fancy articles in wood by Messrs. I^*ker and 
Otto ; decorated and fancy furniture by Messrs. Corbel and Martin. 

To conclude thn description of this extensive compartment let us say a 
word about a Chinese Kiosqu», ere^^ted in the middle, and in which is a 
oomberof toys, dolls and automata by Messrs. Voisin,Girout & Co., Theroude^ 
Verdanaime and Bontems. The latter exhibited a small pavilion which 
attracted immense attention at the New York Exhibition, and even here 
was an object of great curiosity. This stall contained a tree, about which 
flew» walked, drank, sang, and remained quiet by turns, automaton birdS| 
perfectly natural in appearance. We ought not to forget that the oele* 
brated Vaucanson did not disdain to exercise his mechanical genius io 
the construction of automata, and that by these means he succeeded in 
resolving many great problems. 

The next compartment contains a part of the magnificent collection of 
French crystal and glassware, which is unequalled in the world, considered 
•ither as works of art, or as a branch of manufacture. 

Here we have watch and s|)ectacle glasses and goblets, by Messra 
Burgun, Berger, and Co., of Moselle ; superb engraving on glass by Mr. 
Becker, of La Meurthe, among which we may particularly admire the descent 
from the cross by Rubens, the Madonna, after Raphael, and a bust of the 
Emperor. The collection of glass and crj'stal wares include s|)ecimens of 
every branch of manufacture connected with them, vaees, goblets, bnaina, 
candelabra, of white, colored, gilded, cut, polished or unpolislied gla«^ 
in imitation of |)orcelain and enamels, ornamented with arabesques, and 
figures sent from the glans manufactories of Vallerestlial, Lyons, St. Lonit 
Baccarat, La Villette, ('lichy, and Pantin, and by Messrs. Mougin and 
Brothers, of Vosges. We may alto notice the artificial flowers bj M^ 



248 



Moussier and Boulland ; the letters painted in gold on glass by Mr. 
Lambourg, of Saumur, a lion of life size attacked by a serpent ; the whole 
in glass deceives all the visitors. Visitors are continually in ecstasies ai 
the skilful manner in which these animals are stuffed, and can hardly be 
brought to believe that the scales of the serpent, and the beautiful mane 
of the lion are composed of glass. 

We come now to the principal compartment of French gold and silver- 
smiths' work, in which gold and silver glitter in every shape and form. 
We admire successively, the contributions by Mr. Grichois, called inter- 
crystal plate, these consist of arabesques, or other designs in gold or silver 
enclosed in the middle of transparent glass ornaments; the exhibition of 
vases and other ornaments for religious purposes, by Mr. Thierry; arti- 
cles of jewellery, of gold and brilliants, for religious purposes by Mr. 
Gerbaud, Jr. ; articles by Mr. Poussielgue Rusand, particularly a (Jothic 
ostensory ; others by Mr. Delani, all of silver, among which we may 
remark a cup representing a river and other fresh water subjects; gold 
ewers, and basins, and other objects, by Mr. Charpentier; the beautiful 
collection by Messrs. Favier and Neveu, of Lyons, among which we may 
particularly remark, six ostensories of large dimensions, a golden ciborium 
with medallions in Sevres porcelain, and garnished with brilliants, and a 
patena ornamented with a bas-relief representing Jesus Christ rising from 
the tomb ; gold plate by Messrs. Cosson, Corby, Thouret, Baleine and Son ; 
silverplateby Mr. Deltyuveny; gold plate inlaid with ornaments in ivory, 
&c., by Messrs. Veyrat and Rudolphi ; magnificent articles by Mr. Casse, 
among others, a medallion shield 30 inches in diameter, with hunting 
subjects, the top of the shield is formed of a statuette of a huntsman 
winding the horn, and holding six beautiful greyhounds in a leash, sylvan 
ornaments decorate the perimeter, and surround three medallions contain- 
ing bas-reliefs, representing wolf, boar, and stag hunts at the moment of 
the death. 

We observe the plate exhibited by Mr. Callot ; specimens of plate for 
religious purposes, by Triouellier, and particularly an ostensory of colossal 
dimensions for the permanent exhibition of the Sacrament. This large 
work is about four feet in height, the rays of the glory extend two feet, 
the pedestal is adorned with statues of the four evangelists, the base is 
composed of a sheaf of wheat surrounded with statues of the three divine 
virtues, the base of the rays of glory is surrounded with a vine, statues of 
angels and with clouds; the statues of the evangelists, and of the divine 
virtues, and the clouds are composed of silver, the rest of the piece is of 
gold. 

Let us in conclusion admire the bronzes for church decoration by Messrs. 
Jansse, H6bert and Bachelec ; and the mouldings for gold and silver plate 



249 



by Messrs. Henry Ilayet, Leonard and Guayton. Among the articles 
exhibited by Mr. Guayton, we may remark a calvary, after Jubtin, and a 
vase representing a subject from Dante*8 Inferno ; the handles, periphery, 
and base of the vase are adorned with figures of the damned, intenipersed 
with numerous serpents ; upon the top is a group representing Dante and 
Virgil his guide. 

We now enter the porcelain saloon, not the one containing the Sevres por- 
eelain however, but the one dedicated to the contributions of different French 
makers; we notice bright colored china services by Messrs. Mansard and 
Son ; fancy articles, statuettes, animals, &c., by Messrs. Capoy and Brothers ; 
vases and candelabra by Messrs. Laroche' and Pannier ; specimens by Mr. 
Jacob Petit, especially two statues, three-quarter size, of two young gar- 
deners, male and female ; delicate articles by Mr. de B.ittigues. among 
others a large vase, with paintings representing the emblems of music ; 
the handles being formed of small figures of cupid ; services, vases and other 
articles by Messrs. Mac£, Ernie and Condrcc, Taimours and Ilonore ; 
statues and statuettes by Fleur}% among the rest a Virgin of the size of 
life; imitations of antiques and of Chinese and Hindoo vastus by Mr. 
Mayer; Chinese porcelains by Finet ; porcelains by Mr. Lerosey, among 
OCbersa magnificent dessert ser\*ice, called the Pompadour srrtirt>^ and three 
medallion portraits, of Napoleon I., Napoleon III. and the Empress 
Eugenie; crystal and [Mrcelain ware by Messrs. Jouhanneau and Dubois, 
particularly two beautiful rfnaissance vases of biscuit, with bas-reliefs 
of the feasts of Bacchus ; Mr. Boyer*s collection, among which, deserving 
of special notice, are three glass basins with hunting subjects painted 
on them, one representing a stag hunt, another a wolf hunt, and the 
third a bear hunt ; and lastly, articles by Mr. Gille, junior, in the midst of 
which we particularly remark a quail fight, and among the groups in 
bi^ait ware, an Immaculate Cbnception of life size, and a charming group, 
half life size, called Penitence ; an unfortunate JilU perdue half conceal- 
ed by her flowing tre.sses, at the feet of a relijietts" who is in the act of 
presenting the cross to her, the contrition of the guilty one and the con- 
fiding charity of the good Nun are admirably rendered. 

The next three compartments, which comnmnicate one with the other, 
are devoted to the exhibition of French bronzes, a mo«t extensive manu- 
fiu^tare, of which Parin is specially the centre of production, and the 
whole world the market. The French exhibitors in this class are very 
Dumerous, and among the contributions of each one are objects deserving 
of admiration, which we cannot |x>ssibly remark in detail ; we niny, how- 
ever, stop to admire the works which more part'cutarly btrike u<, amimg 
them, the statuette of a young negress going to the fountain, l»y Mr. I>au- 
brec, two charming groups, forming a pair, by Mr. Lachesno of CaCn. 



VJ 



•:i: is in the act of threatening a 

. y a faithful dog; tlie nnixture of 

. '\\o resolution of the dog who is 

.*.:.*tion and malice of the serpent 

." ■ ^ represents the dog panting hut 

• -• .::::d <»ut and the head parted l>oin 

: .M in his transports of gratitude 

« •. .t.;!i:'ul little head intermingles the 

. >. ivv locks of the noble animal ; the 

.. Mit.nff, innocence and devotion are 

: . J such objects as these, we recognize 

.: :orous contributors, of vases candela- 

ir: 'nis, &c., in bronze, plain, gilded, and 

I. t us proceed to eonsiiler the iineist >pe- 

i • iMttle r»f IJrenneville, twellth centurv, 

Jr Li'.iier, engraver; two bathers, one-third 

III alarms sounding the trumpet, l)y Mr. 

. 'd . l.abron.\ one represenlini; a gcind old 

v X ssod by two sweet little angels of chil- 

.. . V vlaid, at l! e moment when the recluse of 

.'* friend to think of Heavenly thinizs, saving 

••:''••///'/•» ftj^m tarih v:e may hv vuitri] fnrtvtr 

J I ird, a Z )uiive anl a Scotch lliirblanden 

. rr.idier, by M'ssrs. Duplex and Salles; 

».•.'::/.', by Mr. Leljlaiic ; a bust of Dante, 

.i k \\\i in electro plate, by Mr. Feuijuieres ; 

!.i tiovsiiii; a tortoise, by Mr. Durand ; a wurk 

. .. lul the marrijiije jewel case of Marie An- 

•.. l>.ioohana\ alter CloJeon, Atalanta lacing 

. NvTveier ridmtr on a drairon, i>ivinu: notice 

. . i>r bv Messrs. M.»ris, 8«tn, *S: Co. ; to which 

I :».». Litter gi*(»up the artist has given a life 

.^ x»' v»'. the ili>g<, they beini? only fixeil at the 

....:m:s iliey prt'ss uj».»n: el.'Ctro pbited medal- 

ik\! lihiMis sell at tin* low p/ice oflrv»m three 

. . N '.ii!i:<; l.iiifcriis ftir iias by ^fr. (loorize; 

.XX. % l\c\ i^ Tt*. ; lilt' hyjn|.h in the cradle, 

. iN". bv Mi><rs. M.rov an i brv tilers. Alma. 

v .\- .e\.n and c,i>t bv Mr. W\\\ the finish of 

•»* vi.uicer h.is tbrnwa away a part of her 

_^. . her ca>laneis lie on the ground by 



251 



her Aide, she seem.s fatigued, this dark daughter of the cant, and the languid 
postures which her lassituJe causes her to assume, are still more graceful 
than those of her irregular dance. 

A good number of these works of art are in galvanized /inc, on which 
account the price of the article may be much reduced without any effect upon 
the artistic merit or the lasting capacity of the objects ; for example, the 
group of The Sorcerer proclaiming the SMath is to be had ft>r £45 ; if it 
were brt>nze the price would l>e £250. The Nymph in the Cradle may be 
had for £27 10s.; were it of pure brume the price would be £75 ; and 
Alma ryojting^ sold for £100, would be worth £500. 

We shall conclude this sketch of the circuit of the nave by a remark 
npon the process of covering with a coat of pure copper, wood, iron 
casting!*, zinc, &c., by Mr. Oudry, of Paris. By this pnicess Mr. Oudry 
covers with a layer of cop|>er more or less thick, without rivet or sawder, so 
that it adheres perfectly to any object whatsoever, from a nail or a piece 
of wire to a canal lock gate or the bottom of a ship. It is needless to say 
that tliis result is produced by electricity ; the specimens exhibited are 
▼cry l)eaiitifiil, a wooilen plank is covered on one side wiih a coat about 
one millimetre in thickness. No means other than the process are adopted 
and the union is perfect. 



V. 

UNDER THE OALLEBIES, FIRST AYENUR 

We are now about to examine the articles exposed on both sides of the 
avenue which extends around the nave immediately beneath the guUeriea* 
Starting from the north siile of the building we cross over to the south- 
western extremity of the Palace, and notice in passing the linen and 
eotton fabrics of French manufacture, by Mr. SchlumbergiT, of the 
Department of the Up|KT Rhine ; the stuffed work by Mr. Lefevre, of Parb, 
particularly a swan and a sn)>erb boar*s head. Tlien diverging a little to 
the right we see the articles exhibited in the west vestibule, namely, vasesf 
ornaments, and other articles in glass and crystal, by Mr. Steigeirwald, of 
Bavaria; lattices, iron chairs and metal bird cages, by Mr. Lobouc, of 
France ; beautiful veneered flo<>ring, by Mr. Wierth, of VVurtemburg 
iron garden furniture, by Mr. Tessieri of France ; and wire bird cages, bj 
Ur. Clairin, of Versailles. 



262 



Leaving the vestibule and crossing to the south, we inspect the exhibi- 
tion of cutlery, by Mr. Dittmar, of Wurtemburg ; thimbles of gold and 
silver and inlaid with hard stone, by Mr. Gabler, of Wurtemburg ; a 
miniature plan in relief of Jerusalem, by Mr. Louis Erbe, also of Wurtem- 
burg; linen and cotton fabrics, by Messrs. Stauss and Leushnei, of 
Saxony. 

Following the left hand, we traverse the long avenue which crosses the 
Palace from west to east, and on the two sides we have clocks in wooden 
cases, from the Black Forest, in the Duchy of Baden ; a very extensive 
collection of cutlery, by Mr. Holler, of Prussia ; axes, cutting tools and 
saws of all kinds, by Mr. Linderberg and Brothers, of Prussia, especially 
a circular saw five feet in diameter ; buttons, snuff boxes and mantel orna- 
ments in metal, by Mr. Greef, cf Prussia ; cornices, door handles, &Cr, for 
house decoration, in stamped copper, by Messrs. Kulhmann Brothers^ 
Adamy, Schmole and Schmidt Brothers ; linen fabrics of various quali- 
ties, by Count Harrach, Messrs. Kufferle & Company, Groer Brothers, 
Oberleither, Folscr, Walter & Hrtiska, of Austria ; linen and hempen 
thread, from the spinning mills of Wicsenberg, in Moravia, Austria ; table 
cloths, by Mr. Schneider, of Austria; mats, cords, &c., of linen and 
hempen thread, deserving particular notice, by Mr. Haussman, of Austria; 
flax and hemp from the Central Society of Austria, whose sales amount 
to about 200,000 livres per annum ; cloths and flannels, by Messrs. Rhal- 
erbeck, Gerard Dubois and Deheselle, of Belgium; carded and spun 
wool, by Mr. Xoffray, of Belgium ; linen thread, by Messrs. Oldenhove, 
Vandclbucke, and the ateliers de chartU of Gand, in Belgium ; four 
chairs, by Messrs. Eliers & Blake, of Boston, United States ; French pro- 
ductions in India rubber, amongst others some very pretty shawls and a 
preparation for sheathing ships. 

We now pass in front of the middle aisle, which leads to the passage to 
the Panorama. This little avenue contains specimens of that ornamental 
Parisian cabinet ware, the articles of which present an incredible richness 
of appearance, being manufactured of the most precious woods, adorned 
with gilding or arabesques or with statues and bas-reliefs of bronze or 
gilded copper. The objects here exhibited are from the factories of 
Messrs. Wasmus Brothers, Schnidler, Mullcr, Gros, Jeanselme, Marcelin, 
Boux, Charmois and Huret. 

Re-entering the avenue which we left for a short time, we see printed 
cottons from Manchester, United States, pretty boots and shoes for 
ladies, by Mr. Shaw, of New York ; table cutlery, by Mr. Garside, of 
Now Jersey ; white and colored cottons, from the Anioskeag Company 
of New Hampshire, and the productions of the Hamilton Woollen Com- 
pany of Massachusetts. 



253 



Next we have on each side of the aveoue, paTilioni set apart for the 
manufacturers of England and Scotland, more particularly of London, 
Aberdeen and Glasgow ; woollen cloths and fabrics, bj Messrs. VVrighlej, 
Crombie, Iludder^field, Clay, Day k Son, McFarlanc and Gross ; mounse- 
line de laines, alpacas, light stufis, and other fabrics, by Messrs. Sugden, 
Titus, Salt d& Son, Blake d& Company, Boyd, Grum, Gourlie & Son, Auld 
6l Buchanan, and Ilamel; coarse woollen fabrics and carpets, by Mr. 
Hadden ; watered fabrics, by Messrs. Waller Milligan dt Son ; shawls and 
handkerchiefs of silk and wool, by Messrs. Evans & Co., Swaisland, 
Backer, Tuckers & Co., Wingate & Son, Walford, Fairer 6l Harrison ; 
diapered and plain fabrics, by Messrs. Somerville, Dallas ; carpets, by Mr. 
Tcropleton; hatter's work, by Mr. Blair; sewing cotton, by Mr. Clarke; 
•trong diapered fabrics, by Messrs. Scales k Herbert ; brushes, mats and 
cordage of cocoanut fibre, by Messrs. Widley hi Co.; a fine collection of 
sail cloth, by Messrs. Baxter, Brothers & Co., of Dundee ; specimens of 
linen thread, by Messrs. Dangan & Co., of Dublin. 

Crossing from the south side of the palace to its eastern extremity, we 
hftve on the right a collection of fishing utensils and apparatus used in 
Ireland. We sec immense hand nets and miniature models of the slopes 
naed toseni'e as passages for fish. Some of these are constructed with 
atepa so as to enable the fish to ascend streams notwithstanding the erection 
of dams or other impediments for the creation of motive power, manu« 
facturing or industrial purposes. Employers of water powers in Canada 
ought to be compelled to take similar precautions, costing as they do 
almost nothing, especially on the streams flowing into the lower part of 
the Sl Lawrence which salmon generally ascend. The small tanks be- 
longing to these models are filled with water supplied by a famrain in 
the palace, ami contain small fish which are furnished by Mr. Mallet of 
Fans, Professor of Pisciculture, who rears pike, carp, eels, &c., as other 
people do puppies. He also exhibits bottles containing the spawn of those 
different fish, and points out to us those which are good and those which 
ueebar. 

Leaving this interesting quarter, having cast a glance upon a curions 
primitiTe canoe of leather and basket work called a Cvraele^ used in ancient 
times by the inhabitants of Gaul and Ireland, and comparing this wn.*tcliod 
specimen of navigation and the pretty bark canoe of our Canadian Imlinns 
we then enter the avenue on the French side. Here are specimens of basket 
work, vrooden hats, baskets, boxes* vases of basket-work, by Mo^vr*. Am- 
beroy, Mutet, Desiugues, Renardin, Pierson, Tordeux, Derk, and BarlNitie, 
elegant feather brooms in all colors, by Messrs. Lodd6, Henoc and LhuiN 
leor; hair jewellery by Mr. Lemonnier; specimens of brushes, clothes brui«hes« 
looCh bmahea, scmbbing brushes, &c., by at least 20 makers in different 



254 



parts of France ; mountings for fans from the factories of St. Genevieve, 
Oise ; artists' brushes, by Messrs. Mariette, Saunier, and Mesdames Pil- 
lion and Fontana of Paris, a large collection of p'pes, snuff boxes, tobacco 
pouches and other articles of tobacconists' ware, by several exhibitors i 
statuettes inca^sabks by Messrs. Delattre & Co. ; two beautiful calvaries 
in ivory, one by Mr. Desnoyel, of POise, and the other by Mr. Sac6p6e of 
Dieppe ; cheap wooden and horn combs by Mr. Comeil of PAriege ; a 
number of fancy articles, and playthings comprised under the head of 
Parisian articles ; rosaries, by Mr. Pillot, of Jura ; gold and silver gilt 
papers and burnishing stones, by Mr. Dufour of Paris ; beautiful book bind- 
ings by Messrs. Cerf and Nakara, of Bordeaux, among them a baptismal 
gift covered with green velvet, sprinkled with golden bees, and sunnoaoted 
with a charming statuette of a child in a cradle. 

A row of compartments contains magnificent specimens of ivory carv- 
ing, for which the town of Dieppe has attained so high a reputation: in 
this beautiful collection the following exhibitors have distinguished them- 
selves ; Mr. Lafort, by an ivory cover for a Roman Missal ; Mr. Poisson, 
by a gothic chapel for an oratory ; Mr. Correau, by a statue of the Holy 
Virgin in a gothic niche ; Mr. Vangorp, by a beautiful Christ ; Mr. Bcl- 
hcste by a powder horn, with bas-reliefs, representing the hunting goddess 
Diana ; Mr. Garnot by an Ecce Homo of great beauty, cne fuurtli life 

size. 

Wc next come to a collection of parasols, walking canes, and whips of 
all kinds, tastefully and richly ornamented with ivory, metals, precious 
stones, &c. ; next we have dolls and children's toys, by more than a dozen 
exhibitors; umbrellas by Mr. Callier; beautiful fans adorned with draw- 
ings, and feathers, with mountings of gold, ivory or precious woods, 
also common fans sold at 2 Jd. a piece ; specimens of leather by Mr. Jos- 
selin ; scabbards for swords, and sabres, and sheaths for hunting knives, 
stained ivories and stamped leather by Mr. Obr6 ; masks and dominoes in 
great variety by Mr. Cochet ; vases and services of the Algerian cactus 
pattern, mounted in silver by Mr. Toussaint; plate by several firms in 
Paris and the Departments. 

We may particularly notice the historical armor, objects of art and 
classical jewellery, by Mr. Granger, furnisher to the opera; we notice in his 
collection a splendid antique cuirass, of beautiful workmanship in gilded 
copper, an Imperial Crown of gilded copper, and a knight's complete 
suit of armor, in the Italian style. 

We now arrive at the porch at the grand entrance to the Palace ; in 
passing we notice numerous vases, statues and other objects, in porcelain, 
French sandstone, common earthenware, and terra cotta ; among these we 
observe a door in the Byzantine style, adorned with statues of half life size. 



855 



and a Virgin in the monumental style from the factories of Messrs. Vire- 
bertx Brothers of Toulouse, a Polyhymnia aAer the antique, a colossal 
•tatue a Leda, life size, a iKiar hunt, and a specimen of the ap{>licnti<m of 
terra cotta to the external decoration of houses, these articles are exhibited 
by Mr. Jamant, junior, of Paris. 

Re-entering the grand lateral avenue, wc arrive at the extensive collec- 
tion of French boota and shoes, which comprises every description of foot 
gear, of every imaginable material, even of wooil ; it is needltfss to speak 
of the richness and eUgance of a part of these articles, nor of the excessive 
cheapness of the other part. This collection contains contributions from 
ntore than forty makers, chiefly Parisian. Visitors remark particularly 
the hiiitorical collection by Mr. Pillot, particularly the brodkins and the 
antique cothumes, the foot gear of the middle ages, and the boots of the 
WMusqueiaire. 

Next we have a beautiful collection of fans by many contributors i 
buttons of gold, silver, copper, iron, wood, shell, mother of pearl, silk, and 
what not, exhibited by a score of contributors ; coquettish looking garters 
by Mr. Jourdain ; clasps of all kinds, stud?, and shirt buttons, and other 
fancy articles by Messrs. Dande, Chambellau, and Hesse, Jr. 

Bronze manufactures comprise so wide a range, that notwithstanding 
all the f*pecimens we have already enumerated, here again we have tube.\ 
walking: sticks, fire guards, and screens, all manufactured of bronze by 
Mr. Pierou, of Paris ; lamps and chimney ornaments and other articles of 
bronze and copi)er gilt by Messrs. Rivard, Becquet, Gousse, Kenardeux, 
8n*i Lehuitel ; galvanized artificial flowers by Mr. Gervaisot, specimens of 
g.lding and varnishing in imitation of gold by Mr. Lauglasse. 

Arriving at the end of this avenue on the French side, we notice the 
▼«ri<-us fabrics in wool, silk and india rubber, applied to the manufacture 
of boots and shoes, by Mr. Jacquemin Gaudant. Beautiful felt tor clothing 
puqioses, and for carpets from the manufactory of Choisy le Koi ; and the 
variety of fabrics in carded wool by Mr. Pin Bayart, of Kouhaix. 

Tlie exhibition of these two branches of woollen manufacture,/«//« and 
fiiiricM of carded tcool is very interesting, on account of the great beauty 
of the specimens on view. 



256 



VI. 

UNDEE THE GALLEEIES— NEAE THE WALL. 

We now proceed to the inspection of the first compartment under the 
galleries. Here are placed those articles, the exhibition of which occupies 
a large space, on account of the large number of exhibitors in each class, 
and which do not possess the same degree of interest as articles in the 
other parts of the Palace, which we have visited, nor as those placed in the 
upper galleries and in the panorama. 

We begin with the French department, which commences at the 
Western extremity of the Palace, and shall continue our ramble from 
north to south, then from east to west, returning to our starting point. 

Here we have splendid carpets by Mr. Desbischops Grau, from the 
Department du Nord ; a collection of cloths, stuffs, and fabrics in wool, 
cotton, and linen, contributed by about fifty exhibitors from different parts 
of France ; hair cloths and fabrics, plain, colored and mixed with silk, 
hats, shoes, crinolines, &c., by several exhibitors; hair and silk fabrics for 
furniture coverings by Mr. Joliet, of Paris ; a vast collection of hempen 
manufactures by about twenty exhibitors from the Departments, a large 
collection of counterpanes in linen, cotton, and silk, among which we 
observe the fine linen counterpanes shewn by Mr. Bufiault, those of cotton 
by Mr. Albinet, and those of silk by Mr. Guyon ; also calico counterpanes 
by Madame Lacroix, of Les Alpes ; serges and flannels by more than ten 
exhibitors ; hangings and carpets, particularly those by Messrs. Labouriau 
and Trapet ; clothing by Mr. Parissot, from his establishment in Parian 
called La belle jardiniire. 

Passing to the foreign side, opposite the French, we enter the Wurtem- 
burg Department. Here we have carpenters' tools by Mr. Bolsterli ; 
iron utensils, fancy articles, and glass ware by numerous exhibitors ; a 
fine silver church lamp in the Grothic style by Mr. Bruchmann ; iron and 
wooden furniture, particularly a toilet bureau of cedar in very good taste ; 
pianoes, clocks, specimens of printing and binding, various cloths and 
fabrics, hats, &c. ; paper hangings by Mr. Veiel, and beautiful stufied birds 
&c., by Tiedemann, among which we admire an owl attacked by ttao weasds. 

We next come to the compartment of Bavaria, which contains jewellery, 
and ornamented arms, stained glass, glass ware, and a collection of 
toys, a fine assortment of musical instruments and wood for violins, a fine 



857 



collection of articles in wax and plaster, articles for religious purposes, 
anatomical preparations, &c.» colored and gilt papers, fancy articles in 
born, ivory and metal ; hose for fire engines ; marquetteric work by Mr. 
Hartman, of Municli ; fine files by Mr. Graber : tools* horse shcx^s and 
other articles in metal ; beautiful wire cloths by Mr. Kalteneker, of Munich 
leather trunks, a collection of pencils, a variety of cloths and fabrics ; and 
lastly, some concave mirrors by Mr. Kalb. 

Saxony comes next to Bavaria, and exhibits a variety of linen and 
cotton fabrics, embroidery, and printing on cloth ; a fine collection of 
shawls by Messrs. Ambroun and Schnciber ; specimens of xilographyi 
specimens of bookbinding and printing, very fine carpets, articles of 
clothing ; beautiful boas, mufis, and tippets of feathers and down by Mr. 
Pattermann. 

After Saxony we have the Duchy of Oldenbourg, which presents a 
pyramid of fine stearine candles ; cameos, and other precious stones, and 
a collection of cloths and other fabrics. 

Hanover is distinguished by its fine collection of linens and hemp fabrics 
of every variety, hunting weapons, a collection of toys and fancy articles, 
clocks, metallic articles, among others a bronze statute of the King of 
Hanover. 

Brandeburg and Silesia exhibit a beautiful and numerous assortment 
of cloths and linens. 

Luxembourg exhibits a collection of cloths ; cotton fabrics called tiger 
Jtins^ which sell at from 4d. to 7|d. a yard, if we are to believe the 
afiche ; gloves, bonnets, lace, and clothing, paper hangings, tobacco, 
slates, and a large cabinet of bronzed wood, ornamented with statues 
and flowers cast in metal. It is certainly not distinguished for good taste. 

Next comes a part of the compartment of Prussia and the other German 
Slates not specially referred to. The various objects which present them- 
selves are, a large collection of ditferent wove fabrics, bcauti.ul and good 
pianos, beautiful little landscapes and other designs in hair, very beautiful of 
the kiikL by Seel ; tapestry work, furniture, leather prepared for use in the 
nanufacture of pianos, wood and cork carvings, the latter remarkable for 
.tbeir delicacy ; frames of gilt wood, specimens of photography, walking 
Hicks, whips and other fancy articles ; a collection of buttons and studs ; 
also of boots and shoes and other articles of clothing ; a table of gilt wood, 
the top of which is covered with a cloth composed of silk and |x;aris, and 
faaaring escutcheons which contain the lollowing singular collection of 
portraits : Napoleon 1, Peter the Great, Washington, Freiierick II, Voltaire, 
Shakespeare, Goethe, and Schiller. We also have iu this section a collec- 
tioo of toys and fancy articles ; stoves ; several fire proof safes of beautiful 
workmanship and tasteful design ; a collection of plushes of diflercnt 

m 



258 



colors, and cloths of great beauty, from Aix la Chapelle : lastly, a large 
collection of manufactures in metal, instruments, utensils, and tools; 
articles used in saddlery, and bronzes, among which we observe a Christy 
one-third life size ; a fine group representing the baptism of Clarinda by 
Tancred: the warrior is in the act of pourinor water from his helmet upon 
the forehead of the infidel ; the base bears the inscription from Jerusalem 
Delivered : lo vado in pace. 

In the middle of the exhibition from the Zollverein States, we observe 
a collection of mineral waters, worsted and silk embroideries, clocks, mn- 
sical instruments and beautiful wire cloths from the Duchy of Baden. 

We enter the Austrian section. Austria is one of those countries which 
displays the greatest amount of that artistic taste in the finish of articles, 
whicb gives an increased value to the object. Hence we have a collection 
of engravings and articles belonging to the printing, book and stationery 
trade, a collection of hardware, secretaries, work-boxes, &c., colored 
papers, gold and silver gilt for book-binding, pasteboard models of Venice, 
a trophy composed of canes, pipe stems, &c., playing cards in exquidte 
taste and of brilliant colors, beautiful little designs in marquetterie work, 
specimens of photography; iron bedsteads, by Mr. Schfeder, who has succeed- 
ed in removing the appearance of discomfort presented by iron furniture 
generally ; a collection of fire proof safes, a large collection of tools of all 
kinds, toys, small carvings in woixl, a large collection of meerschaum 
pipes, the finest in the building; among them are immense pipes, on 
which groups of figures are carved ; one represents in bas-relief the takipg 
of Missolongui by the Greeks, the figures are about two inches in height, 
and there are more than twenty about the bowl of the pipe ; fancy articles 
of all kinds, a collection of umbrellas, accordcons, a numerous and varied 
collection of woollen thread, among them the fine wool used for cash- 
meres; fine cloths from Lombardy, and a large pavilion filled with cloths, 
alpacas, shawls and woollen fabrics, by Mr. Liebig ; a large collection of 
pearl buttons, spectacles, fine engravings, leather trunks, and portman- 
teaux, carvings, frames, and ornaments in carton-pierre, a vast collection 
of cloth from Austrian Italy, and other parts of the Empire, among which 
we particularly observe the white and colored cloths by Messrs. Moro, of* 
Carentliia, and Blaschke of Moravia ; basket work, a collection of hair 
cloths, coarse fabrics and plushes, carpets, marquetterie work and fumi. 
ture, among which we admire a beautiful cabinet of black walnut and 
rose wood, simple and elegant in style, from the manufactory of Mr. 
Oggioni of Venice. 

This long catalogue of articles, which may, indeed, appear tedious, cannot, 
however, fail lo be useful to my Canadian readers. In a risiiig conntiy, 
to which but few travellers turn their attention, and in which the means 



859 



of diffusing information are still limited, the mere statement of the diC> 
ferent branches of human industry is of itself calcula(e<l to originate 
many useful projects ; besides, it is interesting to be made aware of the 
parts taken in the arts by the people of different nations. 

Let us continue our journey through the numerous compartments 
ranged along the walls of the Palace of Industry. We had reached the 
Belgian Court, on the foreign side. This Kingdom, the exhibition from 
which is so remarkable, presents in this {rartion of the space she occupiesi| 
specimens of horse hair fabrics, woollen cloths and stuffs, counterpanes 
of all kinds, linen fabrics, specimens of thread, sail cloth, and a collectioB 
of table linen ; among the latter a beautiful table cloth, the designs od 
which represent a hawking scene in the days of chivalry ; a large collee- 
tion of pottery, tiles, bricks, draining tiles, and large melting pots for 
iiiic ; a large floor in marquctterie work, twenty foet square, exhibited by 
Messrs. Dekeyn & Brothers, of Brussels. In the exhibition of marqtiet- 
Cerie work, we have wood sawn into very thin planks, from the knot of an 
oak, which gives it a beautiful spotted appearance : this is a further proof 
ef the care taken in Europe in the search of that description of timber 
which abounds in our forests, and which we altogether neglect in Canada. 
Among the furniture exhibited, we observe a fine large cabinet by Mr. 
▼anderbrande of Malincs ; next we have in the Belgian exhibition a col- 
lectioo of drawing tools, beautiful hempen cordage, and a cable three- 
fourths of an inch in circumference and fif^y fathoms in length, of bram 
wire twisted in strands; a large collection of xinc« iron, wire, metal 
utensils, tools, nails, fire proof safes, iron in broad sheets almost as fine « 
sheets of paper, ornaments in cast iron of great lightness, a superb broon 
viae for the garden. 

We enter the United States' section. Here we have a large collectioo 
ef articles of clothing and safety apparatus, and a variety of utensils in 
iesible and hardened India rubber. The greater part of these articles 
of French manufacture. This collection contains a beautiful Ameri* 
map of the United States, on India nibber. If the printing upon 
anch a substance be indelible, it may be fiincied of what utility to the 
SMriner this application might become. 

We now reach the English compartments, which contain a vast collec- 
tioo of the following articles: Articles of cast and polished iron, among 
echert lattices, stoves and mantel pieces ; articles of papier macli6, such 
« work-tables, portfolios, kc; harness mountings, in iron, copper and 
ether materiaU ; lanre common carpets, cloths, alpacas, tartans, shawls^ 
and other woollen fabrics, silk tlu'ead, hair clotlis, a large collec> 
of buttons, a large assortment of locks, &c; numerous specimens of 
■eedlesi pies, and other small articles of that kind ; wrought iron ute»- 



200 



sils, a fine large iron lattice of great lightness and in excellent taste ; large 
and small article of pottery, among which we observe a jar ten feet in 
height by five feet in diameter ; church clocks, mixed fabrics of linen and 
cotton, silk and cotton, carpets, hangings, varioos light fabrics, fbwlii^ 
pieces and harpoon guns for whale fishing, specimens of wire, a collection 
of lamps, tiles, bottles and articles of general use ; a billiard table, articles 
of furniture, particularly a large couch of citron wood, maple and rose 
wood, by Messrs. Trollop & Son ; a collection of porcelain, among which 
are some works of art in biscuit, among others The Deaih of Abdj by 
Messrs. Minton & Co.; a Moses taken mU of the Waters^ and TSUmia^ by 
Mr. Wedgewood ; a lai^ collection of shawls and other fabrics ; a laige 
collection of tools, cutlery, hardware, steelware ; a large circular saw, six 
feet in diameter. 

Next we have,still in the English Department, the following articles : car- 
pets, a large collection of cotton fabrics, unbleached cotton, lidung, 
fustians, velvets, cotton sheeting, furniture stufis, braid, in feet every 
description of cotton manufacture, particularly some beautiful cotton 
counterpanes stamped and embroidered, exhibited by the Manchester Ccm- 
mittee ; shawls, plaids, horse clothing, counterpanes, flannels and other 
woollen fabrics, sail and packing cloths, hemp, matting, mats of cocoa-nat 
fibre, stoves and other cooking utensils, cordage, threads, fishing-nets, and 
lines ; building materials, modes of war vessels, yachts, life-boats, among 
others a life-boat constructed partly of wood and partly of India mbber, 
which may be folded up so as to occupy hardly one-fifth of its real vohmie, 
by Mr. Berthon; models of bridges, viaducts, docks, quays, and lodrs; 
imitations of woods and marbles, painted on wood ; a church organ, pianos, 
and metallic strings for musical instruments ; walking-sticks, bows, and 
arrows, and other fancy articles ; hunting weapons, and, lastly, a coUection 
of decorations and objects of art in carton- pierre, the most beaatifel of 
which is an altar for a church ornamented with bas-reliefs and sormonnted 
with fiv3 niches, the one in the middle containing a statue of the Yirjipn, 
on each side are two angels bearing the attributes of the mother of die 
Saviour. The design of this altar is worthy of remark. 

We now pass to the French side, for it must not be forgotten that Fraooe 
occupies the whole of one side of the Palace, the whole of the Panorama, 
all the passage, and more than half the annexe. The French Department, 
which we are now about to inspect rapidly, contains a collectioo of 
linen and cotton fabrics and articles of clothing, and here we have a series 
of articles of these manufactures in every stage from the cheapest article 
produced, up to the richest and most costly. 

The first objects we notice are articles of ladies' dress, corsets, caps, bon- 
nets, mantillas, in fact all the articles comprised under the term confection 



261 



df bkme ei de fin^ collars, cbemiacsy neckercbie&» gloves, stockings, &c. ; 
next are dresses, inea*s apparel, cloaks, garters, &c., a fine collection of 
Am, and skins and winter clothing, among which wc notice a beautiful 
isaDtilla called earooo, of crimson velvet trimmed with the finest furs, which 
is labelled martres du Canada price 8000 francs ; in the midst of this exhi- 
biuoQ of clothing, in respect of which Paris gives the laws to the whole 
world, we notice a collection of historical costumes of the Court of France 
at diflferent periods. 

Let us stop's moment before the exhibition of Mr. Letailltfur, who has 
succeeded in replacing furs which have become too rare, by sheep skins 
prepared and djed in various ways and cobrs, and with which also he 
maoufiKttures hourie and carriage rugs. The preparation oi lamb skin^ for 
winter coats has already been commenced in Lower Canada. It mu^t be 
CQOtinued, for in proportion as the population of the world increases, the 
kive of comfi>rt becomes diffused, and civilization creates new wants, 
iodostry must supply the deficiency in the natural production of certain 
articles. 

The reputation of French hats are universal ; well, here we have speci- 
Bens to suit every taste and condition, from the plumed hat of the 
general officer to the modest, crushed up fel* of the commercial traveller ; 
we have too, woman's head gear so fresh looking and coquettish, and 
ornaments in hair, phuts, combs, wigs, fcc. 

Next is a collection of French cottons by a number of exhibitors, among 
whon* the manu&cturers from the Rhine departments are distinguished, 
fine cotton fabrics, cotton sail cloths, glazed cottons, calicoes, tickings, 
mosliris, aitton sheeting, unbleached and colored velvets, counterpanes, 
eoltoii fiibrics in imitation of wool, linen and silk, figured cotton cloth for 
buok-bindinc, prints, sewing cotton, &c. Next we have hair-work by Messrs. 
Oooatant and Lemonnicr. Among the articles exhibited by the former we 
notice a net* work of serpe its in the form of a crown, and among those ot 
the latter a large picture five ftet s(|uare* representing a laiulsca{>e, and an 
Mgic making a descent upon a teal's neat ; next a collection of linens, table 
doths, and damasked fabrics, among which a splendid doth with de igna 
rrpresenting bear banting, scenes in the Polar regions, &c., stani|>cd and 
Msliroidered stofis, and muslins, and black and white point lace. 

Fieoch book-work, including printing, engraving of all kinda, 
book-binding, geographical maps, maps in relief, in fact every dea» 
cription of article comprised under the terms book-work and atxik 
liooery, i» here n*preHent€*d by more than one hundretl contributon 
over and above tbo^w we have aln*ady noticed. In the niiiNt of this 
oollcction, in a class in which Franc*e holds the highest rank, W(» (ibs4*r\'e 
lepfuductioos in lithograph of the works of the masters in painting, ia 



262 



which not only the composition and drawing are effectually prodaced, 
but even the tone and style of the artist ; as, for exampic^ Decamp's 
works, in which you seem to observe that richness of color which is a 
characteristic of that eminent artist, and which gives him in certain 
pictures such a character for originality. 

Let us continue our examination of the industrial section of these 
▼ast compartments : here we observe sail cloth of hemp, and artists* 
canvases, some of which are twenty-five feet by twenty-four; carding 
machines for every description of spinning manufactory, mattrasses and 
bed furniture ; a fine and extensive collection of cordage, pack thready 
bobbins, and straps of hemp, thread, packing cloths, and mats of hemp ; 
a large collection of pottery, porcelain, bricks, tiles, vases, utensils^ 
and objects of art of all qualities and descriptions, among which we 
remark two fine statues, one-fourth the natural size, in biscuit ware, 
representing Clovis and his wife, by Messrs. Yaleu and Berthood ; a 
large collection of glass ware, bottles, globes for lamps, and articles of 
common use, glass bells, and a trophy composed of 104 bottles^ 
placed one upon the other, the largest of which is about three feet in 
height by about two feet in diameter, the dimensions ot the smallest 
being really liliputian ; next we have a large collection of cloths of all 
eolors, stuffs, a variety of woollen fabrics, alpacas, common shawls, 
French cashmeres, counterpanes, flannels, plaids, stamped and spotted 
fsibrics, carpets, &c.; next we have satins and velvets, damasked fabrics, 
muslins, bar6ges, satinettes, merinos, glazed cottons, hangings and furni- 
ture stuffs. 

. Amongst all these articles, some of which astounded us by their 
cheapness, and others by their richness and beauty, we admire as 8 
work of art, a piece of needle-work embroidery, representing sheep 
shearing in the country, by Mr. Perilleux, and as a specimen of manu- 
facture some beautiful white and colored woollen felts by Mr. Bellion; 
some of these felts are half an inch in thickness. 

Lastly, in the midst of these specimens of spinning and weaving, we 
notice a space containing bronzes by Mr. Etex, amongst others the 
statue of Monseigneur Affre falling on the barricade, with an olive branch 
in his hand, bearing the legend, ^^The good shepherd giveth his 
life for the sheep ;" and a group representing Cain in despair, surroonded 
by his weeping family, immediately after the murder of his brother. 
The latter group is remarkable for its beauty of conception and compo* 
sition. 



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263 



VII. 

THE GALLERIES. 

We now proceed to inspect the galleries of the Palace ; we reach 
tbem by the grand central staircase near the passage to the Panorama^ 
on the south-eastern side of the building. Ascending the stepi^ of 
polished stone, we remark all around the vast landing place the 
following objects, namely : large floor carpetings, by Mr. Braquani6^ 
of Paris; a beautiful Italian white marble mantel piece, by Mr. 
Rossi, of Milan; a medallion, with the bust of the Empress EugcniCi 
over whose head a Cupid holds the Imperial Crown ; two statues 
of angels ornament the two extremities of the console ; pretty little 
colored window panes from Austria, lai^ paintings on glass for 
chnrch windows from Belgium, and lastly at the entrance to the gallery, 
the immense astronomical clock for the Cathedral of Besancon, which 
indicates not only the time but also the principal astronomical phenom* 
ena, lunar phases, eclipses, &c., in all 112 different indications ; it was 
constructed by Mr. Beroardin, according to the calculations and under 
the superintendence of Cardinal Mathieu, Archbishop of Besancon. 

Proceeding towards the right of the avenue which traversc-s the gal- 
lery to the balustrade, from which the whole of the nave may be seen, 
we see in the space set apart for the United States, a collection of pianos, 
church organs, harmoniums, accordeons, and other musical instruments, 
by French exhibitors, and attached to the balustrade a fine large clcx;k, 
by Mr. Colin, of Paris; this beautiful instrument indicates by dilferent 
bells and dials the hour in the different capital cities in the world, the 
lunar phases, and the day of the month ; the time is transmitted to other 
dials in diflerent parts of the building by means of electricity. 

The whole of that part of the southern gallery which extends on our 
right from where we arc now standing to the eastern extn»nuty of the 
Palace, is devoted to the Briti9h Exhibition ; here we have instnuuenta 
and maps by the Surveying Department of Great Britain, consi^tin^ for 
the most part of beautiful the<x!olites and levels; acoustic instrtmienta 
in great number and variety, by Mr. Rein ; beautiful h|)eciniens of 
clock work, a large collection of optical, astronomical and st*ientifio 
instniments, among which we remark delicate balances by Mr. Ortling, 
which are sensible of a weight of one thousandth part of a i^iin ; they 
are mounted on agates and rubies ; an electric apparatus for measuring 
the direction and intensity of the wind at tea, by Professor Smyth ; 



864 



capillary preparations injected by Dr. Hett, of London, for the stndy of 
human and comparative anatomy ; a large collection of maps, books^ 
engravings of different kinds, models for drawing in plaster, 
and plates with subjects in anatomy, natural history, and other 
analagous subjects, for schools and libraries: amongst these we 
must remark particularly the magnificent geological chart of England, a 
collection of the different fruits of the Amygdalloid family, a ccdlection 
of small cables, copper conductors for telegraphs, pretty reliefs carved 
in wood, among which we remark The Procession of Neptwue^ by Mr. 
Hall, and a group of dead game, composed of a woodcock, a snipe and 
a partridge, by another artist ; statuettes in bronze, marble and other 
materials, in the midst of which we remark a group of Cain and Abd, 
by Mr. Carrier : Abel is represented dead ; and Cain, with one hand on 
(he altar, on which is the lamb which his brother had sacrificed to the 
Xiord, seems to be meditating upon the enormity of his crime, the first 
murder, which spread desolation over the abodes of men. 

Continuing, we see specimens of photography and daguerreotyping, 
and an apparatus for stereoscopic photography, exhibiting the picture 
either flat or in relief, according as we examine it either through one 
or two lenses ; furniture and room decorations, ccxisisting of fringes and 
embroidery, some of which, composed of velvet, embroidered with gokl^ 
are remarkable for theii richness and beauty ; an extensive ooUectioQ 
of embroideries, lace, muslins and prints, chiefly from Nottingham ; 
shawls, the most beautiful of which were from the Jewish house of 
Salomons, to which the recently elected Lord Mayor of London be- 
longs. Next we have silks, woollen fabrics, linens, rich carpetings, 
velvets, various articles of clothing, gloves, hosiery, boots and shoes, 
&c., &c. ; artificial flowers, toys and stationery, cases of instruments, 
brushes, specimens of printing and binding, and an envelope machine. 

Having traversed the labyrinth of the avenues and compartments con- 
taining the objects we have just inspected, we arrive at the principal 
exhibition of English gold and silver smiths' work ; many have contri- 
buted to this collection ; Messrs. Hunt & Roskell, in their articles of 
jewellery, exhibit diamonds and precious stones, amounting in value to 
£50,000 sterling ; the Goldsmith's Company of London exhibit a number 
of emblematic vases and candelabra, one of which represents the 
festival on the occasion of granting the privileges to the Company of 
€roldsmiths by Richard II. 

This collection of plate is very numerous and of great richness ; we 
particularly observe a shield of iron and silver representing Shakspeare, 
Milton and Newton, each surrounded with attributes, as difficult to divine 
as enigmas, the subject of the composition is described as follows: 



206 



Skaktpean teaUd on the vessel of immartaUijfj floating on the river of life, and 
AfMo and Minerva theunng him the vices of hwnan nature^ personified hy 
figures in torments^ $nonsters^ ^c. ; in spite of its intricacy it is a fine work, 
bat the most beautiful specimen is one representing Jupiter hurling thun- 
derbolts at the Titans, designed by Mr. Vechte, a French artist, employed 
in London by Hunt and Roskell, the successors to Storr and Mortimer ; 
the shield of which I have before spoken, was designed by this artist 
This collection is remarkable for its richness, a niunber of the groups 
being in solid silver. 

We now arrive at the exhibition of the East India Company, who 
adopted the happy idea of exhibiting not only the remarkable manufac- 
tared productions of India, but also of exhibiting the characteristics of 
tliat wonderful country, and as it were transporting the visitor into the 
midst of the scenery in that strange land of civilization, causing our 
minds to rectur to the Tales of the Thousand and one nights, and the 
eockanted shores and |>alaces of fairy land. 

First we have pavilions painted in oriental style, containing Indian 
staflk, superb cashmeres which arc imitated in France, but which have 
never yet been equalled, various velvets and other fabrics of the richest 
colors, muslins embroidered with gold and silver, silk and cotton scarfs, 
gauaes ornamented with arabesques in gold, the whole incredibly trans- 
parent and light, a sun beam might sport and reflect itself on the gold 
threads of the tenth tissue. Next we have costumes made up of the 
above materials, embroidered slip|)ers, Turkish slippers of gilded white 
leather, and caps of gold and silk, velvet cloaks for Indian Princes, 
arms, bows and arrows, muskets and pistols, sabres and daggt*rs, lances, 
eoats of mail, helmets, cuirasses of most fantastic form, and inconceiva- 
My rich in ornament, musical instruments, guitars with one or more 
etrings, drums, tom-toms, flutes, chibouques and narguillis, toys, car- 
riages the most curious in the world, small statuettes, figun^s n*present- 
ing Indian animals, the elephant, crocixlile, serpents, monkeys, and the 
pffetty little Hindoo cow, an object of worship on the shores of the 
Ganges. 

In this exhibition there is something so original and so fabulous that 
yoo seem to be transported to another world, especially when }roa 
examine the representations of life in the East; first, there is an Indian 
Tillage, or more prop<*riy speaking a bazaar in the country, consisting of 

enclosure in the form of a parallelogram, made of bambcMw, covered 
thatch ; in the court, herding together, arc ^'(Hnen, childn*n, men, 
boraes, cattle and elephants, on the r(x>f of the honse are troiips of monkeys 
basking in the sun, or gaml)olling in a fantastic manner. Tlien wo have 
the pavilion of an Indian Prince, containing ivoiy and ebony sofas, on mag^* 



266 



nificent carpets, a cloth of green velvet spotted with gold covers the princi- 
pal sofa, in front of which is a table with a chess-board, walking sticks of 
costly woods, narguillis glittering with crystal and gold, ivory, precioas 
stones and amber shew their aristocratic bowls, in fact it is evident that 
the personage for whom all these objects are destined, must be deemed 
and believes himself to have been formed of other materials than mankind 
generally, for with us, in all our views of luxury, the entertainment of our 
friends is always one of our aims, whereas here, everything is destined 
for one single individual who has been condemned to suffer continually 
from indulgence, idleness and ennui. Here again we have another 
prince, who, finding his palace too warm, has taken up his abode in his 
tent. He sits listlessly on cushions smoking his chibouque, his courtiers 
stand around, slaves holding large fans stand in a circle around him, 
a medicant is in the act of advancing towards him, he must not give 
him anything himself, he must give instructions to an attendant, and 
remain as he is, folded in his own dignity, wrapped up in silk, velvet, 
and gold, and walking from his palace to his tent and from his tent to 
his palace. All this may appear amusing to you ; for my own part, — I 
am obliged to you, — but I would rather not be an eastern prince. 

Here we have the car of Juggernaut, which moves along drawn by 
thousands of devotees, the car is in the form of a pyramid, and must be 
about thirty feet in height. Imagine to yourself every conceivable 
variety of arabesques and fantastic carving, the whole painted red, green, 
yellow, blue and white, and you will have some idea of the architecture 
of this car. 

To conclude our inspection of this curious Indian collection, let us 
examine the models of pirogues, a climbing pole on a festival ground, 
some models of the Temple of Ambabi, and of the mosque of Ahinidebad, 
some specimens of printing in Hindostanee, some jewellery and some 
household utensils, and other articles in ordinary use. 

Next to this collection is a compartment in which Australia exhibits 
specimens from her gold fields and of her other mineral wealth, speci- 
mens of her vegetable productions, and also some stuffed animals and 
birds, many of which are peculiar to that country. 

Leaving the Indian and Australian collections we enter the compart- 
ments occupied by the articles sent from Egypt, whoseviceroy just now 
is acting in so independent a manner towards the Sultan his suzerain. We 
observe in this collection a panorama of the Isthmus of Suez, just com- 
pleted, by a French engineer, Mr. de Lesseps, preparatory to the con- 
struction of a canal between the two seas, articles of saddlery richly 
ornamented, oriental fabrics, embroideries, woollen, silk and cotton stuffs. 



887 



caqietingfl, grain, minerals, wines, sugars, articles in alabaster of 
remarkable beauty, and lastly, books printed in Arabic and Turkish. 

Tunis displays some wove fabrics, sadlery, and clothing, and a 
beautiful pipe. 

The Ottoman Empire occupies the next division, which is filled or 
neariy so, with stuffs, embroideries, carpets, shawls, scarfs, and a variety 
of woollen and silk fabrics ; of the silks some are from a French estab- 
lishment at Mount Lebanon ; a collection of the current coins, pipes, 
chibouques, and narguillis, weapons of war, and military saddles, 
cutlery, and lastly, specimensof photography anddrawing from Wallachia 
and Moldavia. 

From China, incense vases and others in porcelain, scent bagK, and 
japanned screens, iron -wood furniture carved and inlaid, shawls and 
other stuffs, and two beautiful large yellow vases of Chinese pocelain. 

Tlie little kingdom of Gr^ccc stands a collection of woollen and silk 
fabrics, cordage and leathers, articles of clothing and specimens of 
photography, the m(Klel of a Greek corvette, a collection of dried Greek 
flo^'ers, and, lastly, a very pretty costume, and rich male attire spotted 
with gold. 

In the next compartment occupied by Tuscany, whose principal exhi- 
bition is in the annexe, we remark a collection of very preUy furniture 
and some beautiful mar(|ueterie work, specimens of fine Tuscan mar- 
ble, mosaics in stone from Florence, pretty articles of stationery, candel- 
abra, and vases of serpentine, bronzes, among which a copy of the 
Perseus, by Bellini is worthy of notice, porcelains from Florence, the 
well known and admired straw bonnets from Tuscany, a marble man- 
telpiece, specimensof silk and cotton thread, a collection of stuffs, some 
cordage, pottery, and locks, specimens of photography, alaba!«ter and 
porphyry vases, beatitiful imitations of ancient Italian delph called 
majolica^ made to deceive connoisseurs. The compartments of tlie other 
Italian states, namely, the states of the Church and Sanlinia, are con- 
tiguous to those we have just examined. It may be said that the 
kingdom of Naples abstained from exhibiting, and tlie few productions 
from that country are placed in the compartment of the states of the 
Church. The industrial section of the exhibition from the Roman states 
is placed in the annexe. In the section in which we now are, we ob- 
serve, a large collection of those beautiful cameos, for which K<ime is so 
renowned, a collection of mosaics of all siaes, among which is one 
representing the Rom&n Forum, by Mr. Galante. This magnificent 
work of art is nearly five feet in length and thirty inches in breadth, and 
i« worth £1500. We also notice pottery made of the famous earth 
bom Mount Janicula, coral jewellery, a beauiifol model of Trajan** 



868 



column in bronze, a machine for catting out cloth for coats, artistic 
designs and ornaments in marble, stucco and Greek antique marble, 
worsted hangings in imitation of Grobelin's, specimens of silk, dotbs, 
and articles of clothing, artificial flowers in wax and muslin, beautiful 
photographs of ttie monuments of ancient and modem Rome, different 
kinds of furniture, and, lastly, a portrait in mosaic of the £mperor 
Napoleon I. 

Sardinia exhibits woollen, linen, silk and cotton fabrics, embroidered 
fabrics worthy of notice, leathers, beautiful lithographs, wax fruits, a fine 
collection of specimens of clock making, musical instruments, surgical 
instruments, bookbinding, stuffed birds, mosaics in wood, some hand* 
some furniture, fancy articles for smokers, a plaster group of Napoleon 
I and his son, and a patch-work quilt, similar to those frequently seen 
in the country, in Canada. 

Nearly the whole of the gaUery on the north side, which we have just 
entered, is filled with French productions, which we shall cursorily ex- 
amine, for they are so numerous that we should never come to an end 
were we to examine them in detail ; we have already, in the nave and 
in the lower galleries, examined in detail, objects for the most part simi- 
lar, we shall therefore proceed by groups without following the labyrinth 
of pavilions and compartments. 

The entire front of the gallery looking immediately upon the nave^ 
is occupied by a suit of magnificent pavilions containing jewellery of ail 
kinds to the value of many thousands of pounds; gold, silver, diamonds, 
pearls, rubies, topazes, emeralds, in fact all the precious metals and 
stones, of exquisite workmanship, and arranged with the purest taste, 
attract the gaze of visitors, who are astounded at the wealth displayed ; 
some of the articles in this superb collection of the so world renowned 
jewellery of France, merit special mention, on accoupt of their artistic 
beauties, for as regards richness and brilliancy it would be diffcult to 
make a selection ; first we have an ornamented sword with a steel hilt 
by Mr. Henry, a table of silver and mosaic by Mr. Farry, a pin with 
a figure of the Virgin by Mr. Mellerio, lastly, the model of a cup in 
jasper of one single piece with figures and statuettes in repoussi gold and 
enamel, representing Theseus and Andromeda, this bijou is said to be 
worth £4000. 

If we proceed fix)m the balustrade, directly to the great central staircase, 
by which an entrance is gained to the gallery on this side, and which as 
it were, divides the gallery into two, we observe in the corridors at the 
entrance to the gallery, a collection of beautiful carpets by the most 
celebrated French makers, among which we must not forget those of 
Aubusson, a gigantic crystal candelabrum of great beauty from the re- 



Downed factory of Baccarat, and a pier glass from St. Gobain, 17 ft. by 
S with a frame worthy of its beauty. 

Next we remark, contained in a number of beautifal pavilionn, and 
oocapying different parts of the gallery, a large plate glass from 
Montlucon, silks of the inimitable Lyons manufacture, a variety of 
fabrics in silk, wool, and linen, embroideries, laces, muslins, stuffs, 
worked with gold and silver, points, &c. ; amidst all these varieties of 
luxuries replete with taste may be distinguished the manufactures of Lyons, 
Paris, and St. Etienne, and in laces and embroideries, Valenciennes, 
Cambrai, Amiens, Ntmes, Mulhouse, Ronen, Nancy, Tarrare ; next we 
have exhibited all the processes in the production and manufacture of silk 
from the gathering of the cocoon, up to the richest and most delicate 
hbrie. 

Nearly in the middle of this gallery, is the apartment prepared fur the 
Empress, the principal ornaments in which consist of tapestry hangings, 
made in the reign of Louis XIV, by the young ladies of St. 
Cyr under the direction of Madame dc Maintenon, a pier glass in the 
Louis XV style, made in London, furniture of magnificent Parisian 
cabinet work, silk hangings and the inkstand used by Na[x>leon I at St. 
H^ltae. 

After the French compartments, we have the Portuguese, Spanish and 
Swiss compartments. 

In the Portuguese exhibition we remark a collection of wood for 
oabinet making, a collection of specimens of marbles, Portuguese to- 
baccos, a variety of fabrics, particularly some light silk stuffs, em- 
broideries, mats, and other articles of plaited straw, woods and other 
snbstances, some paper made of aloes, porcelain, admirable imitations 
of flowers and feathers, and, lastly, a colossal porcelain vase of grent 
beauty. 

Spain exhibits a fine collection of stuffs and wove goods, porrclain, 
delfand pottery, beautiful embroideries, gold and silver plate, Chunh 
ornaments, medallions modeled in wax, plaster bas-relief**, fin**amH, 
pianos, furniture, and photographs. The distinguishing quality cif the 
Spanish exhibition is the combination of cheapness and the excellence 
and good taste of the articles; here it is evident we are dealing with a 
nation amongst whose people, the principles of art are generally diffused. 

Switaerland demands special notice for her embroideries in nc^Nllr. 
work, her reliefs and groups carved in wood, for which she is so jus«ily 
celebrated, various woollen, silk, cotton, and linen fabrics, cutlery, 
musical boxes, a fine collection illustrating the Swiss manufacture, 
jMT exc^flmce, viz., watchmaking, a superb oak pne-Die% some photographs, 
aiid^ lastly, some embroideries on clolh and plaited straw. 



270 



In traversing the Swiss Department we have passed one of the pavil- 
ions on the staircase leading to the gallery ; in the vicinity of the stair- 
case are exhibited a stufied lion, the skin of which was furnished by 
the celebrated Lieutenant Gerard, the lion slayer, and some specimens 
of glass staining, one of which represents a scene entitled, The education 
of the Blessed Virgin. 

We now reach the cross gallery at the western extremity of the build- 
ing which contains the exhibition by Holland, Sweden and Denmark, 
and a part of that of the German states. 

On arriving at the compartment of Holland, we have got through the 
examination of about three-fourths of the galleries. The principal ob- 
jects in the Dutch exhibition contained in this department have more or 
less reference to navigation ; we have models of merchant and war ves- 
sels, a model of a flat bottomed fishing boat, models of the celebrated 
dykes, a model for the construction of ship's masts of iron, scientific 
instruments, compasses, chronometers, sextants, &c. ; after these we have 
collections of engravings, letter press, and bookbinding, a fine collecticm 
of natural loadstones, glassware, and fancy articles, various fabrics, 
among which we remark some fine large carpetings, and counterpanes, 
and other household articles, next a collection of utensils, furniture, 
arms, and other fancy articles from the Island of Jara. 

In the next compartment, Sweden and Norway exhibit a collection 
of fabrics, among which we notice some fine linens, a collection of scien- 
tific instruments, and fine surgical instruments, a collection of sculpture 
and ornaments and furniture in carved wood, various articles of cloth- 
ing and decoration, specimens of bookbinding, furniture of different 
kinds, gold and silver plate, a table on which stands a large porphyry 
vase, some beautiful furs, musical instruments, fancy articles of birch 
bark, models of public works, and, lastly, some perfumery. 

Denmark exhibits in this part of the building, a collection of furs ; the 
productions of its woollen and cotton manufactures ; specimens of Dan- 
ish porcelain from Copenhagen, some of which are works of art copied 
from the works of the celebrated Danish sculptor, Thorwaldsen, the 
author of the famous statues of Jesus and the twelve Apostles ; musical in- 
struments, particularly pianos, collections of stuffed animals and birds ; 
some furniture, among which is a bookcase of carved wood, mathemati- 
cal nautical instruments, a model of a pilot boat, articles of clothing, 
and, lastly, a beautiful mechanical compositor. 

Among the fabrics, models of vessels, embroideries, earthenware, cabi- 
netware, marquetterie work, and other articles sent by the free tov^ni of 
Hamburg, we notice a collossal barometer, the style of execution of 
which, does honor to its maker, Mr. Kruss. Entering the part of the 



271 



galleries aimigned to the Gennan states, we perceive around the passages 
leading to it, specimens of Prussian stained glass, and a pavilion contain- 
ing the celebrated Eaux de Cologne, by Mr. Jean Marie Farina. 

In the first of these compartments the diflercnt Gennan states exhibit 
a variety of fancy stufls embroidered, Htampc*d and damasked, em- 
broideries, toilet articles, specimens of engraving, superb specimens of 
photography, a collection of playtliings and fancy articles. Among the 
nnmerons articles of bronze and electrotype here exhibited, we remark a 
ma^ificent bas-relief of the picture by Gendron La Dansedes Willis^cxe- 
cuie<l in electrotype by Mr. Kress of the Grand Duchy of H(*sse. 

Next comes Pnissia with an exhibition of various fabrics dillering in 
price, among which we notice particularly Berlin carpetings and wools, 
and Utrecht velvets, numerous and varied specimens of stationer)', en- 
graving, bookbinding, and books, architectural designs and collections of 
arch:e<ilogical drawings, albums, ma|)s in relief, photographs ; and, 
lastly, a collection of skins and furs. 

From the Prussian we pass to the Austrian collection which astonishes 
the visitor by its richness, and amid which we particularly admire the 
beautiful veK'cts of Vienna and of the Provinces of the Empire, every 
description of silk, linen, and woollen fabric rivalling the finest of their 
kind in the whole world, embniidered, s[x>tted and damasked tissues, 
&c., specimens of silk and wool in the various stages of their pn*paration, 
national costumes, shawls and other toilet articles ; a collection of hats 
and caps in which we remark the singular fashions in vogue in the dif- 
ferent provinces, such as Hungary, Transylvania, and Wallachia, a fine 
collection of carpetingn, specimens of the beautiful Bohemian crj'stal 
wanr, which was the first to compete with that of Venice, and, lastly, 
a magnificent organ completes the catalogue of the mcml remarkable 
objects in this beautiful section. 

Belgium here, as on the ground floor, is next to Austria, she exhibits 
among other objects a collection of fancy carpetings, dilFerent kinds of 
embroidery, specimens of engraving and photography, musical instni- 
mcnts, and particularly some pianos fn>m Brussels, ornaments of marble, 
such as mantel-piec(*s and frames, dresses and car()ets of fur^i of different 
kinds, articles of jewellery and gold and silver plate, bronzes, fancy arti- 
cles in great variety, a collection of biscuit ware and some articles in 
terra cocta. 

We shall conclude our examination of the galleries and conse(|uently 
of the Palais (PIndustrie, by noticing the few articles from the Southern 
States of America and Central America. Ix»t us observe the stuffed 
biidft, the mats and carpets, and the natural productions of Guatemala 
and New Gienada, the collection of minerals from the Aigentino Kepub- 



272 



lie, the natural productions of Brazil, the collection of minerals, the 
tobaccos and other plants, the books and stationery, the tissues em- 
broidered with gold, and lastly, the collection of birds and insects firom 
Mexico. 



VIII. 
THE PANORAMA. 



We now proceed to examine the annexe called the panorama, which 
immediately adjoins the Palace. The panorama is divided into two 
principal sections, the circuit and the central division, the whole is occu- 
pied by French exhibitors. 

We shall first make the circuit of the building entering on the right. 
Here is assembled the most considerable collection of French furniture ; 
the perfection at which French workmen have arrived in this branch is 
well known. This vast collection, which is composed almost exclusively 
of fancy furniture, is contributed by a host of exhibitors, the list of whose 
names it would take too long to give ; let us then content ourselves with 
the examination of a few of the specimens which are worthy of special 
remark : a polished oak mantel-piece, ornamented with statuettes, by Mr. 
Roudillon, a frame of Sevres enamel and two large pannels, painted 
with arabesques ; a book-case by Mr. Klein, of carved black walnut, and 
consisting of two distinct parts supported each by four pannels^ the 
lower part is omamented with busts of Dante and Virgil, and with alle- 
gorical designs, emblematical of the arts, the whole is surmounted by a 
globe, supported by a figure of Atlas, the globe itself being surmounted 
by a figure of science seated on a couched lion : an immense side-board 
by Mr. Ribailler, adorned with statues of natural size of the four quar- 
ters of the world, and with a host of allegorical figures and bas-reliefs, 
the merit of the workmanship being a recompense for the strangeness 
of this encyclopediacal composition ; an ebony sideboard with bronze 
omaments, and a black walnut book case with bronze ornaments, by 
Mr. Barb^dienne, who manufactures both bronzes and furniture ; next 
to these we have bedsteads and other furniture ; next an immense col- 
lection of implements and cutlery, the most beautiful and complete ever 
offered to public view ; the next section contains musical instruments of 
French manufacture, wind, string, and percussion instruments ; let us 
note the names of the justly celebrated makers, Pleyel, Blanchet, Debain, 
Pape, Alexandre, Darche, Boisselot, Hertz, and especially the firm of 



273 



Erard, who always rank at the head of this branch of industry, and will 
continue to do so, notwithstanding the death of the head of the firnii 
which took place during the exhibition. The chef d^cEUvre exhibited, 
by Erard is a grand piano in the style of Louis XV., decorated with 
bronzes and paintings d la Wateau ; the total weight of the tension, the 
cords being of steel, is 44,000 pounds. 

We now enter the central section of the panorama. Observe around 
this large circular compartment, the Gobelins and Beau vais tapestry, the 
large picture in wool representing the family of Darius at the feti of 
Alexander ; the Miraeulous dranght of Fishes^ after Raphael ; La Vierge aux 
pniMitonSy also after Rapiiael ; Christ laid in the Sepukhrey after Caravache ; 
ChriMi ai fhe 2VmA, after Champeigne ; illnstrations of the fables of Lafon- 
tmine. and fumitnre covering from Beauvais; porcelain vases and carpeti, 
by Mr. Sallandronzc. Here are exhibited specimens of aluminum, 
the new metal recently discovered. 

In the middle of the panorama a platform' has been erected ; on the 
lowest elevation are the Crown Jewels of France, contained in a magni- 
ficcot pavilion, around which, an uninterrupted stream of visitt^rs con- 
tinually circulates. Let us stop to admire these jewels, in which the 
beauty of the workmanship, the precious metals and stones rival one an- 
other, let it suffice to say ihat the total value ofthe jewels is calculated at 
iCt ,800,000. Below and around the elevation on which the Crown 
jewels are placed, the platform is occupied by a collection of Sevres 
porcelain, and gold and silver plate, among which we particularly notice 
a large monumental vase, with figures representing the different nations 
of the earth, executed in commemoration of the Universal Exhibition of 
1851, enamels representing the four Evangelists, statues in biscuit ware, 
table services, vases, and candelabra. Among the plate we parttculurlj 
lemark a service of 100 covers, executed for the Emperor by Mr. Chris- 
lofle ; the entire service is composed of 350 pieces, bearing the arras of 
die Napoleon dynasty, the principal piece is an epeigne in the form of 
a temple, the cnpola bearing the figure of France rewarding merit, it is 
snrroaiided by statues ol religion, concord, power and justice ; at the base 
of the eupola we see on one side the genius of agriculture on a car 
^Ifawii by foar oxen, and the other side the genius of war, on a car drawn 
by four war horses ; let us also remark the models in Sevres porcelain of 
Tarknis ancient works. Proceeding by the gallery, let ns direct {mt 
steps to the ammexe du hard de Peau. 

In the gallery jnst referred to, is exhibited on one side, the greater part 
ef the exhibition of French clock work, including clocks, watches, 
dnonometers, and other scientific instruments ; and on the other side 
mm ooUectioos of nattual history, plants, flowers, and fiuits, methodicaUj 



274 



arranged ; collections of animals prepared for museams, and curiou9 
specimens of fossils, amongst others a plaster cast of the head and 
tnsks of an antediluvian animal. At the entrance to the annexe, are 
exhibited wax models, the greater part of which are of beautiful work- 
manship. 

Before entering the annexe, we shall briefly examine the area fenced 
in, which surrounds the panorama ; here, in a number of pavilions and 
tents are contained a number of articles sufficient of themselves to form 
a magnificent provincial exhibition ; all the articles contained in thi» 
section are of French exhibition. Let us note the principal objects; 
first of all we see ranged along the palisade, artistic groups in terra-cotta^ 
destined for the decoration of gardens, blocks of artificial stone, which 
having been submitted to experiment, has been found to possess a force of 
adhesion superior to that of natural stone, statues and arbours of lead and 
zinc, a pretty little pleasure boat by the Seine boatmen ; next we have 
a collection of agricultural implements, ploughs, rakes, thrashing 
machines, steam ploughs, mills, reaping machines, wine presses, harrows,, 
and many others, five or six of which are from Belgium. 

Here it is that under a cover France has exhibited her agricultural 
products, cereals, plants, and preserved fruits ; among this collection we 
remark beautiful merino wools, French flax and hemp, silk cocoons, 
some very curious beehives, and specimens of pine for shipbuilding 
planted in the Landes which had attained a growth of 15 feet in the short 
period of four years. 

Here, also, the Marquis de Bryas exhibits within a pretty rustic 
pavilion his admirable method of deep drainage by means of earthen 
ware pipes, and here are displayed beautiful specimens of French carriage 
building and wheel wright's work, and models of railway vans and 
carriages. 

Let us now briefly examine the exhibition of cheap articles, which is 
called the Qaierie de riamomie damesiiqne. This gallery is exclusively 
'devoted to articles of food, clothing and furniture. Amongst the cheap 
'.articles of food we observe preserved vegetables, Indian meal, and the 
^various so called Italian pastes. In the fuel section we remark, pressed 
turf, and coal made from charcoal and cinder dust mixed with tar by 
means of an hydraulic pfess. English crockery at four shillings a dozen, 
and Belgian and French earthenware cups at one penny each ; tent bed- 
steads for less than ten shillings ; stockings from Nottingham at one 
shilling per doz ; French buttons at one shilling, the lot composed of 1748 
. buttons ; French clocks at eight shillings ; in fact a host of articles 
wonderful for their low price, which however does not in every case con- 
Intitule cheapness. As regards the^ success attained in this section, 



S76 



France, Pruj^ia, Austria, Great Britain and Belgium take the firal 
lank. 

Austria exhibits excellent clocks at wonderfully low rates. I forgot 
to mention that there was an organ suitable for a village church, tlia 
price of which was only £5* It seems that in France, a very fair orgaa 
may be bad for £S5. 



IX 

ANNEXE DU BORD-DE-L'EAU. 

We have only the annexe now to examine ; we enter this building at 
Ibe east end, next to the Place de la Concorde, and bctfore ins|)rcting 
the articles on the gn>und floor, let us look at the contents of the tfali(*rit*s, 
which it will be better to examine first, as they do not extend the whole 
length of the building, but only about half way, terminating abruptly at 
the commencement of the exhibition of machinery in motion. 

Ascending the stair case which leads to the right hand gallery on the 
north, we first notice a part of the exhibition of the English Colonies, 
including Ceylon and the Indian Archipelago; we observe ivory, tortoise- 
sbellf and metallic articles, made by the natives, cal>inetwarr an<l fancy 
articles, preserved fruits and natural productions from the three natural 
kingdoms; minerals, cereals, and prepared fruits, furs, and skin?«, and 
mattrasses and hammocks used by the natives. 

The collection from Austmlia is composed for the most part of a variety 
ef timber and articles made of the different kinds of woods, somi* ^tufTrd 
animals, and furs ; a collection of minerals, particularly some s|>erimcn8 
from the gvild fields, vegetable producrtions, specimens of printing and 
bookbinding ; the articles sent from Van Dieman's Land and the CafN: 
ef Good Hope, are almost identical with the above. 

The collection from New Z«*aland contains fetiches, instruments and 
etensils used by the natives, a collection of wooils of the cmmtry, and 
■pecimens of a gum held iu great repute, for the pnrparotidn of vumi««h. 
Here are placed a few specimens of English, Canadian and Fn*neh 
pioductions. 

The Stales of the Church here exhibit a part of their colleoiion orc«*r.imic 
■lanufactures, sandn and rarlM)nate9 for |)olishing metals, afinrliliN-k f»f 
iock alum, a collection of fon^st productions, agricultural priKliirtit>nf«, 
chemical productions, presi*rved fruits, edged tools, hemp productions, sail 
doth, and spenn candles. Here, Sardinia, ainoog other articles, exhibits a 



S76 



inn collection of stone, marble, and other materials of the kind ; a 
oiillcctiim of minerals, earthenware, and agricultural and forest pro* 
duotitui9« 

Norway exhibits some very curious articles o( clothing, furs, carriages, 
kiMim'hoUl implements, specimens of paper and pulleys, a model of a 
tt(^w sttH^ring apimratus, and some planks of northern pine and fir. 

The (lornum States shew some mineral and agricultural productions, 
•miu' iron nmnufactures, clothing, and specimens of paper, fire arms, and 

vutlorv. 

lVu!U»in exhibits some natural productions and manufactured articles, 
aimui^ others some telegraphic cables, some curious surgical instruments, 
^^'oinieus of |ui(H'r, and a collection of optical and philosophical instra- 

mouta* 

Austria has iH^lIected here a number of important articles, among others, 
H fine inUlcH'tiiUi of iron and steel manufactures, implements, fire arms, 
OMtlery^ surgical instruments, &c, geological, geographical and hydn>> 
Umphioal eharts, nuHlels of buildings, and of boats ; clocks, and optical 
«ud iH'ientitio instruments, agricultural productions and implements, and 
kisti>\ an immonae voltaic pile for the producticm of electricity. 

Ileit^ Itelyiuiu presents a fine collection of agricultural productions, 
pn'imnHt funs |p4d and silver plate, and water proof clothing. 

The rest of this gallery is occupied by France. Here are telescopes 
and nautioal instnmKints, a diving bell, a level, and other engineering 
instnuuents^ phtUographical apparatus, a large collection of mathematical, 
astnMUMuioul and phikxftophical instruments used in the sciences of 
otMi«rvution« In^autiful l*Vnoh parchments, suigical instruments in great 
variety and of In^autiful workmanship, contrivances for the education cf 
iho bluuK instructive games for children, sui^cal bandages, artificial 
lUiatiMuioal preparatiims, stutitnl birds, and a collection of agricoltuial 
|M^Hluoti\U)s i4* Frani'e and Algeria, and some French furniture. 

*l\i o\uicluda tHir visit to the galleries, we traverse the building and 
aa^HMuiiu^ to the left gallery on the south, we proceed to the eastern 
aiilr«Muil>' \4* the annexe, where we shall conunence a rapid survey of 
lh\^ \U\|iH^ta dis|Jayed on the principal floor. 

*rho K^^^'^'^v ^"^^^ ^ ^^ Seine contains a piano and fiirniture made 
\4* Ali^Himi WiKHi, next wr have the exhibition from French Guiana, cob- 
tiA«tii^ s\f Imrkis w\hh1s and plants, the skins and plumage of animals and 
tuuK t^^ruHUlural pnnluotions, spices, dye-stuffs and firuits, weapons, 
ui.o^« i«us( x^hor articles, 

N\\( K^ thisi wUeotiiHi from Guiana, we have a few articles firom 
W^k^ '^^ vV^^wU^a, ivmjuising sponges, and cecals, cottons, tobacco, 
V4\l v4(v^u^VK^ viyt^siu^oUs^ and native fabrics. Next, France displays 



2T7 



tome aliroentaiy preparations, and some India rubber cloths, and a fine 
and numerous collection of chemical productions, and |)erfumeries, amon^ 
which we notice those coming from Provence. 

Next comes Austria, with a very good collection of chemical 
pieparations, particularly some celebrated salts and acids, specimens of 
nurioos sugars, surgical instruments, and numerous orthopcpdical cou- 
trivanoes ; next we have a pretty collection of articles for draftsmen and 
artists, paper, colors and pencils. 

Prussia exhibits some liqueurs, syrups, sugars, manufactured tobaccos, 
candles, and essences ; and a fine collection of the celebrated Eaa 
de Cologne. 

The articles collected here by the different petty German States and 
HoUand, are virtually of the same description as those we have jusC 
examined from Prussia. They all belong to the united Zollvereia 
ezbibitioD. 

Next, we notice in succession the following articles : from France 
•ooie church ornaments, and articles of clothing made in the deaf and 
dumb asylums of Paris and Bordeaux, transparencies for windows, and 
models of house roofs. From l^nis, some furs and skins, some agricul* 
tural productions, and dried fruits, articles of leather, and earthenware* 
From Spain, a fine collection of chemicals, some candles, tobaccos, 
paper, and mineral productions, among them rock salt from Gate* 
and lastly, a collection of the famous Spanish cigarettes, the 
lie ornament of the Majo. 

We stop to examine the beautiful collection of agricultural produclione 
hgr the Board of Trade of London, comprising every production classified 
in order, the grain in the ear with the stem and the roots, preserved 
firoita and vegetables, plants and woods ; also, wools and other animal 
piodiicta. 

Proeeeding, we observe the productions of the English Colonies in the 
Mediterranean ; from the Islands in the Mexican Gulf, and from Guinna, 
eooaiiiting, ^-fro n Malta and the loninn Islands, of coffee, suf^r, 
wooda, agricultural productions, prepare<l fmits, dried fish, and a few 
bbrice ; stuffed binis, and sfiecimens of engravini; and typography from 
Jamaica ; minerals, forest and agricultural pHxIuctions, toilet artirlee 
and clothing, stuffs, and household articles, musical instrumc*nts, and 
speeimens of photography from British Guiana ; a fine collection, con- 
listing chiefly of mineral pnxluctions, amonir which is plastic earth of 
good quality, abcmt 111 specimens of the produce of the forests and the 
cheae ; we notice particularly the wood of the banana tn*e, an«l some 
tut bear skins ; a large collection of agricultural prinluce, wheat, i^oirt^et 
codoo, pepper, kc, and a variety of raw and refined sugars, banana 



278 



meal, rum, starch, gums and medicinal plants, cordage of various fibres, 
mboriginal articles of clothing, hammocks, and other fumitare, native 
huts and implements. 

Having inspected the galleries, we proceed through the whole length 
of the annexe, 4,000 feet, noticing on our passage those objects, 
among tlic thousands which seem most worthy of observation, or tho«e 
at least which attract the largest share of attention, for there are objects 
here of the greatest interest which appear to remain forgotten, and which 
seem lost in this immense collection which is too vast altogether to admit 
of the study of its details. The first compartment at this extremity of the 
annexe belongs to England, it contains a vast collection of iron castings, 
balconies, furniture, artistic and decorative objects, and others by the 
Coalbrookdale Company, numerous collectionsof specimens of iron, and 
iron manufactures, from different parts of the United Kingdom, and a 
fine collection of saddlery by several contributors ; the specimens com- 
posing it are very beautiful ; a collection of leathers of various qualities 
and variously prepared, a fine collection of English coal and coke 
arranged according to their degrees of utility ; a vast collection of sotqm 
of different kinds, and specimens of essences and various chemioal 
preparations. 

We now come to the agricultural implements, or implements connected 
with agriculture, exhibited by Great Britain; the principal of which are 
a numerous collection of ploughs of different forms and dimensions, 
harrows, drills, horse hoes, thrashing machines, and reaping machines, 
horse rakes, portable eteam engines, and lastly, a tile machine for making 
earthen ware tiles for drainage, around which, a crowd is always 
gathered to examine it in operation*. 

From the English Department we pass to the Canadian Compartment, 
which is the only place in the annexe which is inclosed in a similar 
manner to the large compartments in the Palace. Nearly all the articles 
from Canada are collected in this compartment with the exception of 
the machines in motion, to the number of 12, some agricultural imple- 
ments, and a few articles placed in one of the galleries of the annexe 
immediately abbve where we are now standing. 

CANADIAN COMPARTMENT. 

The visitor upon entering the Canadian section, which is bounded at 
Ihe two extremities by pavilions in which are arranged the objects of 
•mall dimensions, or of delicate texture, is at once struck with the 
appearance of the trophy of Canadian timber which occupies the centre 
of the compartment. This trophy which is nearly GO feet in height, upon 
an octagonal base 14 feet in diameter is composed of three stories 



279 



foiTOountcd by a spire, the top of which is ornamented with a beaver, 
the emblem of Canada. A winding stair case in the interior leads to 
the galleries on the different stories, the highest of which fonns the 
prominent feature of all the trophies in the annexe. From this gallery 
the view of the building is really magnificent ; this extensive edifice 
nearly 4000 feet in length, presents itself to the gaxc of the visitor in all 
its varied aspects, with its numberless decorations and variety of colors, 
the lairy like confusion of all the objects displayed on the ground floor 
and in the galleries, and the iron and crystal vault of the immense 
industrial caravanserai. The complete view of the annexe, the aerial 
and indefinable prospect renders this gallery one of the mo»i curious 
points of the Exhibition of 1855. 

The Canadian trophy, so beautiful for its picturesque form, is not only 
a pavilion of luxury, but also an exhibition of articles of the second class, 
that is to say, of the produce of the forests, composed of the contributions 
of more than thirty exhibitors ; it is constructed with the woods of 
Canada, and contains 64 varieties and more than 200 s|)cciiiicns, which are 
principally in the form of the boards and planks of commerce ; some of these 
aie more than one yard wide, by nearly four in length. To thes«o woods 
are added manufactured articles more or less intimately connected with 
lambering, wooden doors and windows, blinds, boxes, casks and barrels, 
oars, wooden sliovels, handles of axes and other tools, hoops, beautiful 
qiecimens of veneering in birds^-eye maple, splendid furs and sev(*ral 
other articles, all these stand gracefully out from draperies of imperial 
purple. At the foot of the trophy are seen enonnous disks of wood, 
fbnned by transverse sections of trees covered with their bark, and 
intended to shew the texture of the difl*ercnt species. 

Let tis take a short review of the geographical arrangement of the 
aaloon which engages our attention. We have ala-ady said that the 
two extremities are bounded by glass cases, the spaces between which 
give access into the interior, which is divided into eight parallel zones, 
extending in the direction of the length of the annexe. Let us notice the 
general arrangement of the contents of each zone, beginning with that 
which is bounded by the wall on the north-east side, nearest to Cours la 
Heine. Here we have the numerous mineral and metallurgic pn>ducts, 
including a bi*autiful geological map, a large topographical map, and all 
kinds of building materials. 

The second zone contains agricultural produce in its rough state, and 
the third the same produce manufactured ready for C4>mnu*n*e, togt'ther 
with the products of the chase and the oil furnished by the fi>ii('ries. 

Then comes the beautiful model of the Victoria Bridgi*, which excites 
the admiration of so many spectators, by the mere perfection of its 



280 



execution, but still more by the idea which it gives of that gigantic 
enterprise, which, thanks to the diflferent documents published at Paris, 
is now known to all the world, as well as many other things before 
unknown concerning our beautiful country. 

Crossing the centre of the saloon, we see, on each side of the trophy, the 
two beautiful carriages of Canadian manufacture which have been so 
much praised, and the two fire engines which are so remarkable in every 
respect. The fifth zone is formed of models of canals, bridges and 
public edifices. In the sixth zone we see different instruments, and 
especially manufactured metals, and in the seventh a rather large exhibi- 
tion of furniture and a piano. 

Lastly, leaning against the southern portion of the walls of the building, 
are s|)ecimcns of paintings, engravings, and photography, collections of 
birds and stuffed animals, specimens of cordage, and of prepared and 
dressed leather. 

Let us now cast a glance on the glass cases which form the line of 
separation between the Canadian section and those adjoining. They 
are five in number, at each extremity. Those of the western extremity 
contain, crossing from north to south, the first, preserved meats, salted and 
smoked tongues, hams, &c. ; the second, straw and hay hats, samples of 
book binding, particular preparations of porpoise, caribou and moose skins, 
and a great many other articles ; the third, stuffs, and various fabrics ; 
the fourth, embroidered articles, lace work, and wearing apparel ; the 
fifth, Indian curiosities and fancy work, of such taste and richness as to 
surprise every body who saw them. 

The glass cases at the eastern extremity, crossing from south to north, 
contain : the first, beautiful furs, martin, mink, otter, beaver, fox, and 
many other kinds, which it is really comfortable only to look at ; the 
second, a collection of different kinds of shoes and boots ; the fourth, jewellery 
and articles belonging to the toilet; and the fifth, medicinal plantsand those 
used in dyeing, pharmaceutical extracts anl chemical preparations. 

Still advancing in the annexe, immediately adjoining the Canadian 
Exhibition is one of the American divisions, which, like all the others, is 
almost entirely occupied by France. The United States exhibit here, 
only some reaping machines, one of which appears to be the best of all 
that were exhibited, thrashing machines, and a few other agricultural 
implements. France has occupied this American compartment by a 
collection winch offers one of the most important features of the whole 
exhibition. This collection is a splendid illustration of its civil and 
militar}- genius, and contains models rt^presenting the building, accom- 
modations, and arrangements of men-i^f-war of ever}' discription, and 
above all, of those steam batteries, the use of which is so new, so bold 



SSI 



and 8o altogether French ; illustrations of the launching of ships and of 
the formation of stocks ; models of pilot, fii^hing and racing boats ; models 
of merchant vestels, and various apparatus for rescuing shipwrecked 
persons and property ; models of public works, temporary and permanent 
booms for rivers; models of the construction of harbouns bridges^ 
Tiaducts, aqueducts, tunnels, models of scaflblding for house building ; 
a beautiful model of a light house, shewing a perpendicular section of 
thfi intArior ; a model of the harbor of Calais, and a map in relief of the 
harbour of M arveilles. What distinguishes all the productions of French 
genius is their solid and durable appearance, and their monumental 
mtfmou 

Tuscany has a pleasing exhibition here, composed principally of a 
ooUectioa of minerals, which are very remarkable in every respect ; 
a beautiful collection of building timber, and cabinet work ; a collection 
of bread-stuffs, plants, and roots, admirably arranged ; very fine npecimena 
of wool, leather and other animal productions; and specimens of the 
beautiful Tuscan straw which is so celebrated* 

The States of the Church exhibit here, minerals, productions of the 
ibiest ; breadstufls and other agricultural produce, and some agricultural 
implements ; amongst which is an ingenious harrow, intended to t>e 
adapted to the celebrated French plough of Dombasle. 

Spain exhibits a collection of minerals, and some beautiful specinH*n9 
of marble ; a collection of woods, comprising about 600 different s|)ecies, 
together with the leaves, fruit, roots, bark, sections to shew the grain and 
the charcoal and ashes which they produce, this collection is the most 
beautiful of its kind ; breadstuffs and other sgricultural produce ; wines, 
and superb oil ; tools of various kinds, and especially the tools which 
pertain to wood craft ; a collection of cordage ; and lastly, a beautiful 
eollection of merino and other w<x>ls of those magnificent flocks of Spain 
which have obtained such a world wide renown. 

Portugal exhibits pnxlnce of various kinds, amongst others, minerals ; 
difli*rent sorts of wood and corks ; agricultural implements and produce, 
eofdage, and earthenware vessels. 

The Kingdom of Sardinia exhibits a collection of substanci*s belonging 
to the mineral kingtlom, among which are the beautiful marbles for which 
the quarries of Piedmont are so cel(*l>rated ; woods and agricultural 
produce ; and several mcHlels of various machines, amongst others the 
plan of a hxM^niotive de?(i^ed to overcome stt^per inclines than our 
present locomotivrs are capable of surmounting. 

Turkey shews a fine collection of agricultural pnxluc**, partirnlnrly of 
bieadstufis, preserved fruits, and tobacco ; there are also specimens of 



288 



silk and skins of birds and animals, amongst which are tiger and ostrich 
skins. 

Greece, which is here placed in the neighbourhood of her ancient 
enemy, presents a pretty, though not very large collection ; there are 
plastic earth, and beautiful Grecian marbles, porphyiy, agate from Mount 
Taygetus ; Rosso antico ; cipolin marble ; the black marbles of 
Mantinea ; the alabaster of Psythalia, &c. ; a fine collection consisting 
of 77 varieties of woods from Achaia and Elidus ; agricultural produce, 
amongst other things, preserved and dried fruits, and the celebrated 
beeswax of the mountains of Greece. 

In the midst of these foreign productions, there is a collection of French 
leather which is universally celebrated. 

Switzerland, in addition to productions similar to those of the countries 
we have already enumerated, exhibits a little pavilion containing coun- 
terpanes embroidered with needlework, together with other productions 
of that kind executed in an asylum for children ; articles of furniture; 
machines of various sorts, and a beautiful plan in relief of the environs 
of the celebrated landscape of the Lake of the Four Cantons. 

Holland next presents itself with its specimens of mineral, agricultural 
and forest productions, and excites particular attention by a collection of 
articles pertaining to shipping ; and by an exhibition of cordage, and of 
the productions of its Colonies of Java and Sumatra : consisting princi- 
pally of sugar, coffee, opium, indigo, cotton and oils, the whole arranged 
in a trophy, surmounted by the celebrated panther of Java, stuffed, in 
the act of springing and bearing in her mouth a young deer just caught 

Denmark exhibits a collection of minerals, woods and agricultural 
produce, amongst which are some beautiful wools ; chemical preparations 
and stearine; then agricultural implements, amongst them a plough 
and a harrow for a single horse, and the model of a nailmaking machine, 
which, it is said, is capable of manufacturuig 5,000 nails per hour. 

Amongst various manufactured articles, the productions of the Hanseatic 
towns, is a beautiful carriage from ^Hamburg, and a rather singular 
production, consisting of cigars, manufactured from a paper which is 
made with stalks and refuse of tobacco, thus preventing waste. 

Here Sweden has collected the greatest part of her exhibition. The 
principal articles are minerals, particularly samples of her celebrated 
iron, in the state of ore and castings, in the manufactured state, 
particularly as cable chains, anchors, and other articles connected with 
ships ; as steel, accompanied by specimens of lock making, and tools, 
particularly of tools used in mining, and farming implements. Then 
comes a collection of woods, comprising about twenty varieties, together 
with an instrument for measuring trees, and specimens of pitch and tar : 



283 



m collection of agricultural produce, breadstufTs, seeds and undressed 
wools ; of the sledges and furs of the north ; leather and stuffed birds. 

Then come the German States of Baden, Bavaria, Wurteiiiburg and 
Hesse, whose united collection is particularly remarkable, (besides the 
articles exhibited here by all the States) for tobacco, leather, paper, 
tools and instruments as^mbled in the form of a truphy ; soaps, furs 
millstones, candles, chemical and distilled preparations, and for fire 
engines. 

Prussia exhibits splendid specimens of the products of her iron and 
copper mines, and of the tools used by the miners ; in the midst of the 
nave is placed^ on an immense platform, a vast apparatus for distilling, 
comprising five great copper canldrons ; to the mineralogical collection 
of Prussia is added a fine geological map, the bust of Humboldt, and 
cast statuettes of the twelve apostles, one-fifth of the size of life ; several 
bells of various sizes, in cast steel, are ranged in the midst of the Prussian 
division, they are of magnificent tone, the largest weighs nearly 6,000 
pounds, and is worth £440 of our Canadian money ; this exhibition is 
completed by articles of the kinds already enumerated in other countries, 
amongst which we specially remark the fine wools of Prussia, the finest 
in the world, together with those of Austria and Spain. 

Austria has raised in the centre of this section of her exhibition a vast 
trophy of about twenty-five feet in height, made in the shuiie of a bottle, the 
exterior of which is formed by an immense quantity of bottles, contain- 
ing Austrian wines ; then comes a collection of minerals ; a fine collection 
of woods, amongst which we observe some superb fir planks, pn*pared for 
the making of boxes ; agricultural produce and farming implements ; 
eaithenwarc of various kinds ; collections of soa|>s and stearine candles ; 
then a collection of saddles and other articles of saddlery ; and a multi- 
tude of other articles, amongst which we must not forget the fine wools 
and fleeces of Austria, whose provinces of Hungary, Silesia and Moravia 
•ell the finest at very low prices. 

The products of Belgium, which come next, are entirely of the same 
deacription with those already enumerated, excepting only, the spienJid 
productions of the zinc mines, amongst which is remarkable, a fine 
block of calamioe stone, and geological maps of great merit. 

We now enter upon the domain of France, which here o(*cupies about 
half the entire art*a of the annexe, that is to say, a npave of about 2000 
feet, or very nearly 10 acres in length, by nearly 75 feet, whirh is the 
entire width. The collection which now presents itsi*lf an<l which in 
importance is probably the most considerable in the wiu»le exhibition, is 
the roetallurgic collection, amongst which, together with a crowd of 
articles manufactured from iron, copper, steel, lead and zinc, cast, 



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286 



color, greatly resembles the bird'8-eye maple of Canada. The collection 
of agricultural proiluctaof Algiers has been formed into a trophy, in which 
the splendid grain is admirably displayed, among which the fine ripe wheat 
b most remarkable. Many specimens of cotton give magnificent prcimisc 
of future greatness for Algiers in that manufacture. Amidst all this wealth 
of production, we find arms, ornaments, utensils and tissues of Arab manu- 
fiurture ; an illustration of the productive talent of that noble race who now 
dwell in tents, afier having been lords of the halls of Urenada and the 
Alhambra. 

Wc have now reached that point in the annexe where it is divided by a 
beautiful fountain, the basin of which is embellished with a gigantic aquatic 
plant of bronze of the natural colors. 1 he leaves of the water lily are 
neither more verdant nor more flexible than these metallic leaves, its flow- 
en are not whiter, nor its stamens more slender. 

We are still in the French department, and have now reached that part of 
tlie annexe termed the machinery section, because nearly at this place com- 
mences that driving shaft which derives its motive power from mighty steam 
engines placed without the building, and which in its turn communicates it to 
hundnMls of machines the parts of which were in all directions, in general mo- 
tion, like a meeting of the Shakers, or dancing Dervishes. It will be recol- 
lected tha^ at the London Exhibition, the managers had provided for the work- 
ing of the English machinery only, and that foreign exhibitors had no chance 
to compete with their English rivals. But here the motive power is sup- 
plied without limitt and gratuitously, to all nations and all exhibitors. Here 
are twelve Canadian machines in motion. The driving shaft here mentioned 
b not less than 1500 feet in length, and turns 100 times in a minute. All 
wbo require motive p)wer can obtain it on a simple requisition: the wheel 
b fixed, the strap attached, and the machine is at once in motion ! 

Around the fountain above mentioned are exhibited vast cranes, for 
nisng heavy weights, one of which can raise 72,000 lbs. 

It would be an endless task, and would defeat the end which I have pro- 
posed to myself, to particularize each individual machine, which is here 
exhibited ; I must therefore generalize. 

France exhibits numerous locomotives, several of which are of colossal 
power, portable steam engines also, and many other engines and machines 
mceemorj to the tise of steam ; machines for boring the earth ; grist and saw 
milta, machines for the working of metals and wood, for the kneading and 
moulding of plastic earths, for striking coins and medals, and for the manufac- 
ture of chocolate ; looms for the fabrication of cashmere shawls, and other em- 
broidered tissues ; sewing machines ; a circular machine for the mechanical 
performance of netting; an apparatus for the rapid preparation of coflTce, 
which b aliDoat miraculoua in /ta eflTecta; presaea of all kioda, among them 



286 



a copying press, and one for the fabrication of cards ; a machine for making 
envelopes ; a machine to saw the hardest stone ; one for cork cutting ; 
another for washing bottles ; a contrivance for making various articles of 
metal ; models and apparatus of all kinds ; mechanical reels for winding 
silk ; and a host of machines for combing, carding, spinning and weaving 
cotton, wool, silk and linen ; fire engines and pumps of all kinds and for 
various purposes. 

Next after the exhibition of French machinery are those of Belgium, 
Austria, Prussia, ZoUverein, England, Canada, the United States, Holland, 
Sweden and Norway. The five first mentioned countries exhibit specimens 
of the same machines as France, but in much smaller number ; England 
the most ; Canada, the United States and some others, have only a few 
machines, which will be mentioned hereafter. 

In the Belgian collection we notice an iron stem-post and rudder for a 
vessel of 2000 tons, and a machine for composing and distributing type. 

In^ the Austrian section are carriages, among which is that of the Mayor 
of Vienna, fire engines and a steam pump, locomotives, and a fine model 
of an hydraulic press. 

In the joint compartment of Prussia and the Zollverein we find, besides 
such articles as the above, fire engines, a book binder's press, and car- 
riages. 

England exhibits, amidst numerous articles of the classes mentioned 
above,, many of them very remarkable, cotton looms, several beautiful 
carriages, fire engines, a pump acting by centrifiigal power, a testing ma- 
chine for chain cables, and a model of the various parts of the ship of 
23,000 tons, which is now building in London, under the direction of Mr. 
Brunei. 

Here Canada exhibits planing, morticing and boring machines, work- 
benches and turning-lathes, and finally, a nail-cutting machine. 

The United States exhibit a few steam engines, a machine for making 
screw nuts at one stroke, one for cleaning rags, pumps of various kinds, 
and a few other machines or elements of mechanism. 

Among steam and other engines from the North of Europe, we must 
not omit to notice a steam engine for a screw steamer, from the manufac- 
tory of Motala in Sweden, which involves a new principle in the manner of 
its adaptation. 

We here terminate our pilgrimage through these vast and numerous 
halls, the receptacles of the Universal Exhibition of Paris in 1855. This 
great scene of peaceful rivalry was closed on Thursday, 15th November, by 
the Emperor, with Roman pomp and magnificence. 



THIRD SERIES. 

STUDIES OF THE CLASSES. 

Before I proceed to a cursory review of the twenty-eight clasps of the 
Exhibition which composed its industrial section^ together with the 31st 
class comprising the cheap articles, it is proper that I should make a rapid 
sanrey of the Canadian Department, so far as such a survey may be avail- 
able to lead us to profit by examples and comparisons; I shall accordingly 
say a few words concerning the Canadian part of the Exhibition in respect 
ol its practical uses, before I proceed to examine the several clanses of 
productions. 



L 
CANADIAN SECTION COMPARED. 

In the first class, embracing all that relates to the extraction of mineral 
subntances, and to the minerals themselves, we were among the last, and 
Car behind most countries, in reganl to metallurgical operations, for the very 
simple reason that wo are deficient in the population and capital which 
carry on, and still more deficient in the men of science, who in France, 
England, Austria, Prussia, Belgium and other countries direct and en- 
lighten, the labors of the min?. But if we proceed to an examination of the 
minerals in their natural state, our section at once assumed the first rank, 
and no country was in a condition to com{)ete with us for a moment, either 
io the aggregate or the details of the department. The class of Canadian 
mtnerab was the most complete and had the advantages of displacing at a 
glance to the learned observer the geological configuration of the couniry, 
with reference to the industrial results which it may yield. For this suc- 
cess, which is a mere repetition of that obtained at London in 1n5I, 
Canada is indclited entirely to the geological commissioners; and this 
shews to demonstiation, the necessity of c<mtinuing the labors of limt com- 
mission on a more lilieral scale. Wo possess in the bosom of the earth the 
vntoocbed riches, which in England have been the main element of in- 
dustrial and commercial greatness ; but the conditions of progress towards 



288 



that g'eatnessy are the light of science, and extensive enterprise. Mining 
operations cannot be profitably conducted on a small scale. 

When we reflect that the iron which abounds in Canada is nearly of the 
same quality as that oF Sweden, that it is found in places, surrounded by 
immense forests, and that, we have at hand the stone, sand, and other 
matters which are necessary for the smelting, moulding and casting of the 
metal, we may well wonder that every year we import from England, 
Sweden and the United States mnnufactared iron to the amount of more 
than £1,000,000. But, we must again observe, success attends such enter- 
prises, only when undertaken on a grand scctle, whatever the abundance of 
the raw material. The working of an iron mine is not for limited meass^ 
nor to be carried on on a petty scale. A cheap market must be a full market. 
In Europe blast furnaces are now built caciable of smelting 80,000 lbs* per 
diem. The want of coke in Canada, be it (»bseryed9 does not oppose an 
obstacle to Ihe successful prosecution of iron-works. Ours is a ooantiy 
of rich forests 270,000 square miles in extent. Sweden smelts her iron 
with charcoal only, and sells it to England for a paying pi ice ; the English 
convert it into steel and send it to other countries. Other European 
countries use charcoal, notwithstanding the general scarcity and deamess 
of wood in Europe. 

Examining the diffei-ent articles of cast-iron, which are exhibited in the 
annexe by the water-side, and comparing them with similar articles sent 
from Canada, we are impressed with a feeling of their superiority, not in the 
quality of the material, but, in respect of taste and appropriateness of 
design. Most of the designs of such ornaments of our prcxluction are 
frightfully ugly, and generally speaking, the weight is preposterous. We 
are lavish of materials, not only needlessly but even ii\juriously, as affecting 
the excellence of the articles made. If we expended the value of the 
superfluous material in taste of design, we should produce cheaper 
and better articles. 

The second class, embracing the products of the forest advanced us to 
the foremost rank, both as producers and as manufacturers. No country 
could compete with us in the show of woods, and particularly of the kinds 
used in ship-building, including in the estimate all the various species. 
In this class are included, moreover, all the products of the chase and the 
fisheries, in which departments the Gulf, and the vast territories of the 
Saguenay and the North-west, place us beyond competition if not as pro- 
ducers, at least as proprietors of the finest field for production, in the whole 
world. 

In utilitarian respects, it is plain that the Canadian department of the 
Exhibition was foremost in the class, now under consideration. A few 



J 



S89 



remarks on the mode of getting out the timber, as bearing on the subee- 
quent application of it in the mechanic arts, will not be out of placr. 

In lumbering, as the making of timber is termed in Canada, ju»t that 
amount of intelligence is brought into action, which is require.! fur the 
squaring of the logs, and the 8a.ving of them into the planks of com- 
merce. None of that skill of woodcraft is exerciied which turns to the 
best and most profitable account the various species, by attondiui; to their 
several degrees of adaptation to the mechanic arts, and to the pre|iara- 
tion to be expended on them to make them fit for market. As before 
obsenred, two things only are known, square timber an'! the [A.iuk three 
inches thick. A more recondite study of the application of tiiub'-r to the 
mechanic ans, would instruct us in the fact, that there are cim.iitions of 
l^i^hf girth and diameter required in those arts, by the influence of which. 
the square log of 50 feet long by 20 inches 9(|U«'ir«% nnd plitiik of 12 feet 
by 10 inches lose their intrinsic value hs compared with that higher vulue 
which is derivable from compliance with those con(iition.s. How many 
are^tbe trees left to rot in the forest because they are not reducible to i& 
saw-log of tlie standard measure or a square stick of the requin*d dimen- 
sions ? which, trimmed to another form. wouKi in other mark-ts bear a 
greater value, though diminished in volume. 

Of more tlian sixty pri icipal species of timber which we |>«»&Ae»^ ue 
make profitable use of scarcely ten, the rest are left to absolute d(*cay. In 
Europe the birds-eye maple is considered as equal to the most |>ri c:<*us of 
the woods used in cabinet-work. It is indeed hardly attainable, and whrn 
(bond, it bears a higher price than mahogany. From this cause arlM s the 
deamess of all the articles made of maple in the Parisi:iii cabinet-work. 
the finest in the world. 

The axe-handles, wood«*n shovels and other hiujII ariiei<*< <>' tl.i kni 
attracted much admiration and some surprise at their chea|>n**v.^ e«p'":a.'lT 
tbe^doors, casements, and window-blinds. These hr:inclie> if n:tr indus- 
trial skill and hibor will no doubt receive a great inifMiIsi-. :ith1 a wider 
field of operation in a country aU>unding with m*vt#Ti:iI, wfur- w.itt-r* 
power is found at every point, .-md where ali the conditif>nv .-p.* fi>urkl 
whichSare requisite for extensive enterprise, and prmhietion .it i cheap 
rate. 

These remarks will, I trust, he not alt* cither unprofltnltlr. 1'hey an* 
but hints, fiut they may serve to guide reflectin;; minds in the co(i>..!f*rati«in oi 
subjects which arc highly important to all. Frt«ii this Kxhll'i'i»:i of IS-Vi 
will be derived a collection of facts, affonfing: fiNul for years oi reflection 
and leading to conclusions, th•^ bearing of whxh on the n:«tioti'i. ;>ros|H'riiT 
of nations, and on the pro^T^ss of the nrt^ can b/ i\» yet but little apprtM"- 
ated. The preliminnr}* study of these, in the aggrrg:it(% must precede 

T 



290 



that of the details. This is my object iD these observationSy and I pursue 
it as far as time and space permit me. 

The class of Agricultural productions, properly so called, which is the 
third, taken as a whole, found us on a level with the foremost. Our grain 
won the admiration of all who saw it. I must not fail to notice the remark^ 
generally made, that we neglect the cultivation of hemp, of flax, and of 
tobacco, which our soil is so well suited to produce in abundance and of 
excellent quality. These thrco articles, especially the last, may be made 
the source of imiuense profit. The demand for hemp is increasing in a 
ratio much greater than that of its production, and this independently o^ 
the occasional seasons of scarcity which occur in respect of all other natural 
productions. The vast increase of the shipping of all nations, has for many 
years past produced a scarcity of those articles in which hemp is required 
as a material. Those articles have now reached fabulous prices, prices 
which may, to a certain extent, interfere with the success of-our ship- 
building, a pursuit so intimately connected with our prosperity. 

In a description of the visits paid by Prince Nappleon to the Exhibition, 
we read /' Canada makes a brilliant display of its productions : its specimens 
" of grain, fruit, flowers, and bread-stuffs of various kinds, attract the at- 
'^ tention and challenge the admiration of the world. The pains which the 
*' Commissioners and delegates of Canada have taken, entitle them to the 
^^ praises which Prince Napoleon has more than once bestowed on their part 
"of the Exhibition." 

Canada took its place therefore among th'^se countries which acquired 
distinction, by the rarity, the beauty, and the importance of the produce of 
their soil. We were the very first in abundance and quality. Some 
countries excelled us in the classification of the substances which they 
exhibited, and a graduated arrangement was wanting in ours, which the 
Commissioners could by no means accomplish at the season at which they 
made their collection. I allude to the display of the ear with the stalk, 
shewing to the visitor the complete production of nature as it was gathered. 
The juries, and commissioners in general, attached great importance to 
these collections of plants, scientifically made, finding that they furnish 
valuable data for the study of the influence of climate and various modes 
of culture, as favoring the development of the whole plant, or certain of its 
parts. To sum up all in one word, — we stand before the world, at the Uni- 
versal Exhibition, as a country eminently agricultural, and inferior to none 
in respect to the faculty of production 

Apart from the merit of excellence in quality, our display of grain and 
seeds possessed that of variety and an abundance of each kind. This latter 
circumstance enabled us to make exchanges : and the varieties which we 
thus acquired may put us in the way of making experiments, the results of 



291 



which may be important. Algeria, in particular, furnished us with some 
novelties which promise to be valuable. 

We had but few articles in the fourth class, which consisted of mechani- 
ed inventions applied to manufactures ; neither could wc hope to be dis* 
Cungoished in this department in a comparison with European countries, 
ezcepi bj our fire engines, a particular in which we have rivals, but no 
aoperiors. " Canada,'* Prince Napoleon observed, ^^distinguished itself in 
diii clan by two fire-engines.*' 

Reference can be made, for the particulars of each class, to the recapitula- 
doD of the premiums awarded, which is annexed to this sketch. 

In the fifth class — mechanics applied to locomotion and the means of 
trmnaport— our contributions of products of the carriage builder and the 
Mddler, bore favorable comparison, for their tastefulness and excellence, with 
articles of ordinary merit, notwithstanding the extraoniinary number of 
eihibitors. 

Having first recommended visitors to proceed to the annexe for the ex* 
pmi purpose of examining the two Canadian vehicles, to which he assigns 
a prominent rank in the Exhibition, M. Tresca, the author of a work on 
the Exhibition, goes on to say, " these carriages are elegant in form, and 
" the iron-work, especially, is very carefully managed. They are creditable 
••to the taste of the builders. M. Clovis Le<Iuc has, however, built his 
•** Americaine' with a head which has long since gone out of fashion, and 
•* which diminishes its effect ; and M. Edouard Gingra^* carriage is hung 
coo low, *^ and has too low wheels, a fault which disturbs the harnionv of 
** psrti which should exist in all carriages." 

Oor two clever builders will forgive the candor of these remarks. Our 
obgect is not to flatter, but to instruct and to encourage ; and while they 
turn this criticism to profitable account, our mechanics may find con*iolation 
in the reflection, (hat neither men nor carriages are faultlexs^ even at the Ex- 
hibition. 

The sixth cla» concerns the mechanical powers applied t(» special pur- 
poses* and the materials used in manufactures. It was impossible for us 
to enter into serious competition in this class, c<msidered in its fullest ex- 
tent We are, in the New World, far from the perfection whieh has l)cen 
attained in France, England, and Belgium, in point of workmanship. I sav 
in point of workmanship, l>ecausc there are new American inventions, par- 
ticolariy in agricultural implements, in which the mechanic principle is 
inconteslahly superior. In this class, we did all that could l>e expected 
firom us. 

M. Tresca, of the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers^ whom we have liefore 
mentioned, notices Mr. Munro's planing machine, Mr. Mcljcnnon^t morticing 
■Mchine, to which the author awards the merit of a new principle in the 



293 



arrtui^ruent for working inside and outside at the same time, Mr. Rodden's 
trvnail machine, and the planing machine and work-bench of the same 
^Mulcnuui. The last mentioned article elicited from the writer the following 
r^^mark : — *^ Tliis machine although not remarkable in any one of its detailSi 
'^ lHHX>mes so for the extreme simplicity of its mounting and fittings, its 
^' small bulky and its cheapness, the price being only £100.'' 

\Vc made no contribution to the seventh class, which embraced mechanisift 
applitnl to the textile arU The same may be said respecting the eight, 
which relates to the exact arts, and comprises optical and mathematical in* 
ttti'umonts, clocks and watches, and apparatus for purposes of education ; 
neither do we enter the lists in the ninth, which includes articles designed 
\\\ eiHUioinise light, heat and electricity : in this, however, we have our 
i\H»king 8tove8. 

In the tenth chiss, relating to chemistry, dying, printing, paper making, 
UK'k-hinding, we contributed nothing which could be compared with simi- 
lar (mHluctioii from European states, except in respect of the raw material, 
which, strictly speaking, belongs toother classes. The leather of the por- 
|u»i4, caribou, and moose skin, will very probably be the subject of a special 
articlis ill the rejKirt of the Jury. 

Ill tliiH |mrt of the Exhibition we display some novelties in manu&cturet: 
dueh lui the leathers above mentioned, vegetable oils, the products of par- 
ticular upeeicii )>eeuliar to Canada, a natural grey paint, furs dyed the 
natural eolorn, ami paper made from the '* immortelle" (ffTutphaiium,) 

Our u)u'riiiieiH of '^hie seemed to find favor; but in that prepared from 
i\A\ u timlt Nvai reiuarked, which I shall mention in order that it may be 
asiUiUnl. it is tlu* dina^reeablc udor of the fisL, from which the European 
aiiiv li' ita nitiiclY iViOtL It api^ears that this smell depends altogether on 
i\i^ uiaiiiM^i ol |Me|mration ; and that, to avoid it, it is only necessary, after 
ilii* (lunluei h oiiee obtained, to avoid, in all subsequent stages of manipo- 
laLiuu, ViMtii^tt with lUiv utensil, tool, vessel, or even the hand of the 
III iiii|»viUtMi| which luiA been touched by the raw material. 

riiv i>U«veiith eliiMn, that of prepared alimentary substances, found us, as 
pioilu^nii \«1 |Mc«eived fruits and meats, behind other exhibitors; bat 
. \s>\\iu il \4>i with Kicat mu^cossin flour, ours being generally superior to any 
. \UiU.iiv^l Oiu t'heene also received a premium. 

' v^^^^'vU aiul Ih iti^ih (iuiana do honor to the mother country," M. Treses 
.»\ , KM hu hm»k (Mititled, * A Visit to the Exhibition,^ " by their flour 

. "S. u .l4l\il " 

. . o> liiv uaUirul productions of the province of pharmaceutics have 
► V .Uo Msaice which they have received, what profit might be ex- 
\s^u^kietc botanical exploration of our country. 



t\ M 4 



293 



Tbe thirteenth class, relating to ship-building and the military art* ex- 
hibited oo the part of Canada, beaatiful models of ocean and river steamers 
and apparatus tor rescuing life and property from shipwrecked vessels. Ib 
theie departments Quebec has produced models worthy of the first dock- 
jarda in tbe world. 

In the fourteenth class, that of civil architecture, althimgh inferior in 
selatioD to the whole, and nearly unrepresented in respect of the inonumen- 
tal section of this department , one compartment attracted considcraljle 
notice by the display of models of our public works, and the exhibition of 
wood prepared fur building purposes, as door8, window sashes and blinds. 
became the objects of much notice at Paris on account of their chcap- 
The general use of the cements of Quebec and Thorold cannot be 
too strongly recommended. Our building stone from Montreal and other 
places were also much admired, and ihe collection of niurblcr>, exhibited by 
diflerent persons, gave great 6clat to this section of our department. 

The fifteenth class contained articles of steel. In this department we 
exhibited nothing but edged tools, but they were no bU|K?rior in temper 
aod form to nearly all others, that our success was, comparatively, very 
l^eat. When it is remembered that iron of a quality a<hnirably adapted for 
the fabrication of this material is abundant in Canada, the reflection should 
lead our views to the production of an article so constantly in demand, so 
extensively used. Some countries im}>ort the kind of iron which is suitable 
§at the manufacture of steel ; but we possess in ourselves all the elements 
of this important source of wealth, and yet we import the sttel of which 
we make these tools so superior in quality. 

Our ca-itings— entering into the i«ixtecnth class—were not without merit; 
but jet we have much to learn in an art which has been carried to »o high 
a degree of perfection in Euro|>e, es|>ecially in tastcfulnos of (lc^ign. In 
ttMptct of quality, without attaining the perfection of sonic countries, nur 
productions are on a par with those of other countries in general, and this 
we owe to the superior quality of our ore. 

Tbe seventeenth and eighteenth classes contained articles ot jewelry, 
faroDzes, glass and earthenware. In all these dei)artmcnts wc are absolutely 
deficient, and we must long be satisfied with the proiluciion ol articles of 
bare necessity, and with purchasing from Europe those articles of luxury 
which in France, England, Austria, Prussia and Belgium havt* attained 
iocredible perfection. 

In the manufacture of cotton, occupying the nineteenth clus:i, we had 
nothing to shew. 

In the twentieth class, that of woollen goods, we hud many articles of 
dotha and cheap tissues, particularly of domestic manufueture. .\r tides 
of thb kind were in a manner lost in the vast collection ; but neverthelesii 



294 



it was evident that our country cloths are, for durability and strength, 
considered to be admirably adapted to our climate. The mode of fabrics- 
tion, at home, is moreover connected with our social condition, in as 
much as it militates against the centralization of the people, a state in 
which individuality of character, for which the people of Canada are now 
happily remarkable, is usually lost. 

Nature had denied us the means of contributing anything to the twenty- 
first class, that of silks. 

A few articles of the twenty-second class — that of fabrics of hemp and 
linen — and particularly a collection of very good cordages and specimens 
of linen spun by the hand, sufficed to make us regret that this department 
had not received frpm us all the attention which it deserved. This neglect 
is the less to be excused as the soil and climate of Canada are eminently 
suited to the culture of the material. 

The twenty-third class comprised hosiery, tissues, gold and silver lace, 
embroidery and thread lace. Although we were not quite unprovided with 
articles in this department, which were above mediocrity, it is needless to 
remark that we could have no pretensions to excellence, compared with 
the aggregate of products of the kind ; yet we received for our collection 
a medal of the second class, and two pretty pieces of worsted work obtuned 
honorable mention. 

The manufactures connected with furnishing and the decorative art 
formed the twenty-fourth class, in which Canada numbered thirteen exhi- 
bitors ; the beauty of our woods, shewn in veneerins and cabinet-work, 
particularly that of the curled maple, the novelty of the dressed skins em- 
broidered with moose hair, and the curiosity excited by the sight of the 
rocking-chairs, unknown in Europe, produced an interest, and achieved a 
degnu! of success, difficult to be attained by ordinary means and efforts. 

Ill the twenty-fifth class, which comprehended clothing and articles of 
fashion and elegant taste, we exhibited many beautiful objects, and main- 
tained a highly successful competition. Our shoes and boots of porpoise 
and caribou leather, straw and hay hats, Indian curiosities, and embroidery, 
obtained the admiration of many, and marked distinction from the Jury, 
which will be particularized in the recapitulation of the premiums. Oar 
minfortune was that European exhibitors sent collections, while we could 
send only a few articles : now, supposing his merit to be no more than 
(•(jurtl, assuming even that it is inferior, an exhibitor of a collection has 
gnat advantages in the opinion of a Jury, who are not apt to care greatly 
for single articles. Our boots and shoes, fur coats, Indian curiosities, straw 
and hay hats, and embroidery in wool, and especially our clothes of country- 
cloth in the score of comfort and substantial value, attracted the notice of 
many visitors, and were certainly entitled to receive it. 



295 



The twenty-sixth class comprised articles connected with printing, 
photography and engraving. We are of course, in these matters, far be- 
hind, particularly in the evidences of taste ; and the success which we did 
attain was trifling, and the premium awarded only to stimulate and 
encourage. A still gpreater deficiency was to be expected in the next class, 
the twenty-seventh, being that of musical instniments. We have already 
•era that the twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth and thirtieth had reference to 
the fine arts, and that Canada exhibited nothing of the kind. 

The reader will perceive that, in this ra lid sketch, I have not entered 
into details, but merely generalized facts as they occum d, in the aggre- 
gate. 

Ooe thing gave a degree of comparative merit to our section, on which 
we beard many flattering remarks. This was the unity of idea, which 
had guided us in the collection. Our exhibition was complete, and fairly 
lepreaented the industrial progress of the country t%a well as its natural 
reaoiux^s. 

I may conclude these remarks by observing, that our success in the 
elaaws of mineral wealth, forest pioductsand agricultural produce, plainly 
pointi to the cultivation ot the soil and the natural advantages, as the 
floaree of our future prosperity ; that in manufacturing, it is our interest to 
fabricate articles of which our metallurgical, woodland, and agricultural 
labom furnish the materials ; that in other hnnches of manufactures, we 
eannot for a long time hope to produce more than what is necessary for 
oidinary consumption and daily domestic service ; that for articles of taste, 
of perfection in art, and luxury we must resort to Europe to satisfy the 
wants created by advanced civilization ; that we are to remain convinced, 
that perfection is the work of time and the result of circumstances which 
cannot exist in a new country, a very growing (xipulation (tartly composed 
of Emigrants. 



II. 

Before enterine in this section of our remarks, I mujit premise that the 
efliclal daasification of industrial products, recognized seven int>up8, 
eomposed, in the aggregate, of 27 claHses. Ti> them was added a 
enpplenientary class, termed that of domestic economy, comprizing cheap 
aiticles of food, clothing, furniture, and domestic furniture and dwellings.* 

* Mote of tlM iMhoolopoftl aud ■tatutioU infurmttioo euotniiM*] io tbMi» rrmarkt wit 
<nP— 1€<1 from work* publUhed oo th« spot, particuUrlv from tlM AttomnI o/ iks ViaiU 9f 
jN'fan NmpoUom from Mr. Tr«tea't work, and from arti«lM in tbo jaumAlt A« Pairu and /^ 
Mtrndt hdmairid ; tbo rwnaiadcr ar« tlM rttolU of tte vuiU and ptrMoal odMrraliuo of tbo 

r. c. TmM.) 






L* *••>. 



?LKST GROUP. 

"IJ^nrSAL FBODUCTS. 

*v . ..Miti-v^^ vtiMa ven* oK^t distinguished for the result of metallurgy, 

• t ^..^ ^ -s. fi5» n irdclcs exhibited, are England, Belgium, France, 

.>^ . ^<«k««««.'it« ixu ?^^i£c$i;ft. In respect to the quality of iron, as the 

<. .ai.a:acrarvs in question, the six countries take rank as 

.,..- v^fc,v»c4K *lei£tufxi. Prussia, Austria, France and England. In 

.^»»^w i« ;u<uiaty prv>duced and brought to market, whether for 

«.«•. »cs<«^i(^k^v4^ jr c^p^rtauon, they are classed as follows: England, 

>%^. . ^>^K^ >us8iw* S^-eden and Belgium. This distribution of 

^« rrtrsffufciively of population, or extent of territory, and 
«... tv«\>«v ol stanstical facts.* 

^ . ■ ^wv«uetu which is the best, is manufactured with chaicoal. 

X K>i :'.te edSfct of the ixirlicular mode of smelting, but is 

. ..1^, ; V* :iw quality of the ore and of the use of charcoal for fuel, 

« '.cthii ro^ England receives this superior kind of iron from 

. iv* ;'ui^HHe s>t* manufacturing it into steel, for which purpose 

. .«wjuit> of iix.^, so abundant in England, is not suitable. 

.^. v. '.,.> .il ways held the first rank in the iron-trade, in respect of 

' »i»s .* due "ot only to the enterprising spirit of the country, but 

\, ...I vo or iron-ore and coal, contained in its bosom, and 

^ wt oiiK^r matters useful and necessary in its production. 

. .V irxU !u!f a century ago, to use steam in the blast 
^ ,.*vi*uve :h«r Hutting mill for the hammer, and coke for 

. s.. »v ^^ w Are :m>sl distinguished, belonging to the several 

.v^'^v^,. 04 ihe manufacture of iron, are: for England, the 

s.-^kwi»v^ iviKl the Rimney Iron Company ; for France, 

^ . ;v \lvHitHC5iire Iron Company, and the Company of La 

•K '•^^ <H iW^ium, the Iron Works of Couillet and Selessin; 

:s - * ^*v J'^''^^^ and the administration of the Iron Works 

*»wvs S;cii^%4wr4^uberg ; for Prussia, the manufactory of 

^ V'^-'^ '»*'^' '"'^* ^^** Bocliuin. It is not useless to make 

..^-ss>* ^'^^ ^^ mstlter of general information. 
>^ .u.,^ »v iK" INVO counties which are most distinguished 



1 !V' 



w^^w^K ^vt*"^ ^ ^^^'' indications ; and are meant, rather to point 
^ ^^ „w_^ ,.K .va^.^ txact information. 



297 



Among the manufactarent and companies above mentioned, we notice 
tL Cbenot, as making use of a peculiar method which gives great re- 
floltii. This metallurgist treats the ore with gas and obtains the metal 
in a spongy state. It is not yet ascertained how far this method may be 
^>plied on a large scale ; rtne thing is certain that it must have some 
useful result in one way or another. 

The beautiful sheet iron of Austria is well known, it is as thin as de- 
licate sheets of paper, and perfect in texture. This is of incredible 
beauty. 

What lightness is found in the railings, the iron scats, &c., of the English 
manufacture of the Coalbrookdale Company in Shropshire, and how 
dieap also are the articles T The reason is plain, the purchaser has not 
to pay for a load of useless iron. 

What elegance there is in the stoves and other articles of French 
manufacture, from the blast furnaces of the Marquis de Vogu6 of France ? 
These designs of hunting and historical scenes arc bas-reliefs of art, and 
the articles are not dearer on that account, because the material is not 
wasted ; and as to the casting, the beautiful costs no more than the most 
deformed piece that ever was moulded. This is now generally under- 
flood ; and in England where art is less perfect than m France and Bel- 
giiun, the proprietors of founderies endeavor to procure artists from those 
two countries. A French sculptor, M. Geneste, is, at this moment, in the 
leeeipt of a salary of £2000 per annum from an English manufacturer. 

The art of combining the usc^ful with the agreeable is the climax of 
material progress. The study of the beautiful in art, b, to the intel- 
ketoal man, what the study of truth is to his moral existence ; but we 
thall return to this subject when descanting on those classes which relate 
lo the various uses of iron. 

We now come to the second class which includes the results of the 
woodland ocrcupations, of himting, fishing, and some other pursuits, the 
•tject of which is the collection, not the culture of the productions of 
Mtnre. 

la scientific respects, and in respect of variety, Spain occupied the 
fnl place in the exhibition, of products of the forest. The admirable 
Bpttnish collection presented 600 different species, and derived immense 
importance from the idea of shewing, with specimens of the woodSf 
Ihoae oi the bark, leaves, Howers, and fruits of the trees and shrubs. The 
beautiful cork trees of Seville and Salamanca were particular objects of 
admiration. The Spanish exhibition had been prepared under the aua- 
piees of the Royal Forest Institutes of Villa Viciosa, It will be teen 
that individual energy and the spirit of association are the strongest 
•prings of improvement in the arts of life, in respect of abundant pro> 



298 



duction and varied transactions, the singleness of action and enlarged 
intelligence of government are necessary to the success of those full and 
material courses of study on which depends the progress of the scientific 
vehicle of the arts, and the forward movement of mankind in the path 
of improvement. Thus in France, the skill of the planter has succeeded 
in producing, for exhibition in 1855, pines and oaks of which the seed 
was sown in 1850, in the Landes of St. Albin, and which now measure 
12 feet in height, by a girth of 12 inches. As these reflexions have led 
us to France, it is fit that we should invite the attention of the studious 
in such matters to the injection of the lighter woods, from which process 
they acquire durability and several other qualities important from the 
uses to which they are applied. Something analagous to this is the 
new process exhibited by Sardinia for the staining of woods ; the speci- 
mens exhibited were of beech. 

Sweden exhibited a fine collection of oak, pine and beach for ship- 
building purposes, and Norway one consisting of planks of conmieice 
combined in the form of a pyramid with great effect. 

Austria was likewise distinguished for its exhibition of articles of the 
second class, and obtained the admiration of all, by a fine coUecticm of 
thin boards of that celebrated Moravian fir which is in such request 
among musical instrument makers. In its qualities, this fir appears 
to bear a perfect resemblance to the large white fir of the lower St. 
Lawrence, of which no use is made in Canada, although it yields a 
very fine board. 

Algeria, which with Canada stood on a par with the countries of the 
second rank, presented one of the finest collections, comprising among 
others the cedar, the olive, the thuya or citre^ the cactus, and the cork- 
oak. Considerable quatities of these woods are already exported from 
that country, and the commerce is increasing daily. Of all these woods 
of Algeria, the cttre or thuya attracts the most attention ; it was known 
and esteemed for its use in cabinet work in the time of the Romans, by 
whom a piece of furniture of this wood was considered an article of 
luxury. The wood is of a light red, varying from pink to a deep flame 
color. The part of the tree preferred is that situated at the junction of 
the bole or trunk with the root, as it yields the most variegated, wavy, 
or spotted timber. This is a remark worthy of the attention of our wood 
cutters and cabinet makers. Hitherto we use both at home and bt 
exportation only the trunk or bole of the tree, between the stump and the 
first fork, being precisely that part which yields ihe fewest of those varie- 
gated effects of the growth, which are so sedulously sought after, for 
the purposes of the art of decoration. 



299 



The Grand Ducby of Tuscany exhibited one of the finest collections 
of woods, the principal kinds being fir, beech, soft maple, white horn- 
beam and oak. Among other specimens we noticed a horizontal section 
of fir, which measured seven feet in diameter, and a similar section of 
maple, (hollow) of nearly the same diameter ; but these two articles had 
no other merit than that of shewing the grain and the large growth of 
the trees from which they were taken. 

Portugal exhibited some interesting specimens of timber for building 
and cabinet work. 

British Guiana was distinguished for the order and good taste which 
the Ckimmissioners of that colony had evinced in the arrangement of 
their interesting collection of valuable woods, the most remarkable being 
the rose wood and the brazil wood. They also published during the 
exhibition, a very interesting catalogue of the industrial products of their 
eoantry. 

Singapore, the Sandal Islands, and the Mauritius sent their contriba- 
tioos ; and the Island of Ceylon exhibited 300 specimens of the different 
woods of the oriental world. Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and the 
Cape of Good Hope were not behind in this class, 
r We must notice also the fine collection of woods from New South 
Wales, one of the most beautiful in the Exhibition. 

The inspection of the woods of New Zealand satisfied us of one fact, 
namely* that till recently the greater part of the woods and plants afforded 
by that new country wen* unknown to Kurope. 

In the class of furs, the finest displays were the contributions of 
Canada and of Greenland. In the oils yielded by the cetacea, we had 
the saperiority, at least no animtil oil was exhibited which would bear 
comparison with our clarified poqioise and seal oils, and that of the 
•inall black porpoise {delphinus minor,) 

The conclusion to be drawn from a com|)arative review of the entire 
exhibition of forest products is, that, excepting a few special exceptions 
of no gem*ral cxscurrence, no country on the globe is so rich as Canada 
in large timber of the most useful class, furnishing the staple for the 
greatest amount of consumption. So much for the productive faculty of 
our soil. It is our part, taught by experieqpe, to tum to the bc*st account, 
the great natural weahh of our forests. 

The third class of the Exhibition compriwd articles connected with 
agricnlture, and comprehended two grand divisions, the history, tlie in^ 
plements and the products of cultivation. 

We must relate the results of the experiments made at Trappes, thirty 
miles from Paris, on the land of Mr. Dailly, a celebrated French farmer. 
For the purpose of the several operations, the land was divided into five 



300 



parts. The part.on which the experiments in drainage were to be made 
was under the direction of Mr. Pelligault, an engineer, that for ploagb- 
ing under Meters. Auterocke and Thi6baut, that for the various modes 
of preparing the soil under Mr. Masson, that for the trial of thrashing 
machines under Mr. Hause, Professor of the Imperial School at GrignoQ, 
that in which the drills and grubbers were to be tried, under Mr. Boa- 
chet, foreman to the Pluchet at Trappes. 

The draining tiles and other apparatus of the Marquis de Bryas was 
superior to every thing of the kind previously known. By the applica- 
tion of this system, the Marquis has raised a property near Bordeau 
formerly worth only £35,000 to an annual value representing a capital 
of £55,000. The most complete draining tools were supplied by the 
Vicomte de Rouge of France, and Messrs. Burgess and Keg, of E^land, 
General Morin's dynamometer, an instrument to measure the power of 
traction required by various implements is the most perfect instrument 
of the kind ; the next best seemed to be that of Mr. Bentall of England. 
Among the ploughs, harrows, and other implements of the kind the most 
admired were those of Howard of England, of Morse of Canada, of 
the French School of Grignon, of Ransomes of Engla,nd, of Hamoii 
of France, of Odears of Belgium, of Redolfi of Tuscany. The horse- 
hoe of Mr. Hamois of France, the Norwegian harrow of Mr. Ca|q)elea, 
and the roller of Mr. Croskill of Hlngland, were also admired. 

The most prominent articles in the next part were an English root- 
cutter by Messrs. Ransome and Sims, worked by a small steam engine, 
by Mr. Calla, a French manufacturer ; another root-cutter, by M. Mau- 
rer of Baden ; a chum, from M. de Lamberk of Belgium ; a com- 
theller from Austria, a straw-cutter from Belgium ; and most remarkable 
of all, a machine for making draining tiles, invented by M. Calla of 
France ; and another machine, lately invented by a French lady named 
Champion, for preparing the clay for that same purpose. 

The threshing machines which were most approved of were those of 
Mr. Pitts of the United States, of M. Duvoir of France, of Messrs. 
Clayton & Co. of England, and of M. Pinet of France. The first was 
the best, and was worked by a French steam engine made by IL 
Calla ; that of M. Duvoir, th^next best, by horse power ; that of Messis. 
Clayton, by a steam engine of their own ; and that of Pinet by a gear 
of new and very ingenious invention. The Canadian threshing machine 
had comparatively but little success, and this unfavourable result was 
partly, perhaps entirely, the effect of the mode of working it, by the 
horrible plan of horses ascending an endless stair. 

The two best reaping machines were those of Mr. McCormick of 
the United States, drawn by two horses, and that of Mr. Coumier of 



301 



FVance, drawn by one Hotm*. The improvementfi in thiH mnchine aro 
not yet complete, but we are on the right road to sach a degree of per- 
fection as will render the uise of it common. The foar rakes tried were 
those of Mr. Howard of England, of Grignon of France, of Count 
Moielli of Sardinia, and of Mr. Moody of Canada. The best was 
Howard's. 

The hay-making machine of Mr. Smith of England, which in a few 
minutes turned a field of lacerac just mown, astonished and delighted 
the spectators, and with reason, for the ndininible work of the machine 
is beyond all prai.<(o. 

it is evident by this review that whatever may be said in America, 
and especially the United States, of the inferiority of the old world to 
die new in rcs|)cct to mnchincs to facilitate the operations of agriculture, 
we have still more to leara fnun Europeans than they can learn from ns. 
Immense improvement is in prt>gress, and is the more important from 
die impetus communicated to the movement by learard bodies, which 
die sin^e uncombined eflbrts of individuals in America do not give in 
an e<inal degree. 

To resume our review of the implements which most attracted the 
attention of the public and of connoisseurs, and which obtained the 
preference of the judges at the trials made at Trappes, we come to 
the reaping machines by McCormick, and that of the self-acting raka 
by Wrigh% on the Atkins plan, both from the United States; that by 
Coomier of France ; the American reaping machine, by Manny, which 
was most sncccs<(fnl ui cutting lucerne The French draining apparatus 
by the Marquis de Bryas, and the Viscount d<* Koug^ ; Mr. IIoward*k 
horse rake and his plough (of England ;) and the dynamometer, by 
General Morris, (French ;) the English hay-making machine, by Mr. 
Smith ; the thn*shing machine, by .Mr. Pitts of the United Stat(*^ and 
M. Duvoir of France ; steam^ engines, by Mr. Calla : the cora-sheller 
from Austria ; the straw-cutter, from Belgium ; draining tile machines, 
by .M. Calla and Madame Champion of France ; and the drill from the 
Imperial school at Grignon. The principle of all the American neaping 
machines is that of the saw, moved with great rapidity by wheel gear ; 
this plan is liable to be frequently disordered, but has the great advan- 
tage of not choking readily ; in the Fn^nch machine by Couraier, the 
principle of the shears is substituted for that of the saw« the former 
being less liable to Ix^come disordered or to wear out, but very subject 
to be choked, and this {leculiority renders it less useful for cuttim? green 
crops, such as lucerae. The Moniteur remarks, in an artich* on the 
•abject, that the idea of the reaping or mowing machine is very ancient. 
They were in use among the Greeks and Romans at a remote 



302 



and Pliny and Columella describe them. These descriptions are veij 
interesting, particularly as we have, after a long interval of silence and 
oblivion, recovered the idea, with all the advantages arising from oar 
improvement in the mechanic arts. 

In the exhibition of the products of agriculture the different countries 
were distinguished by contributions as follows : France presented a fine 
collection of cereals and plants, prepared in the most systematic manner 
by Mr. Vilmoria, and rice from the celebrated rice-fields of Camargne 
on the Rhone. 

Algeria was especially noticed for its exhibition of agricultural pro- 
ducts, properly so termed : wheats of various kinds, barleys, oats, and 
maize were shewn with their stalks, in splendid sheaves and of species 
known and esteemed in the days of the Romans, who received from 
Africa immense quantities of grain. 

England drew the admiration of all beholders by her fine collection 
prepared by Professor Wilson. This collection comprised samples of all 
the grains with the stalk and the root ; models of the fruits and vegeta- 
bles of the United Kingdom, and herbals shewing the plants peculiar to 
the soil of the British Isles ; the exhibition of English grain, seed and 
vegetables, was superior to all as a scientific collection ; but fell a littie 
short in respect of quantity. 

The beautiful collection from Austria was especially remarkable for 
the cereals of Bohemia, and the fine wools in the fleece from the flocks 
of Bason dc Barteinstein and Count Barkoczy. In the two fold respect 
of quantity and quality, tlie Austrian collection was next to that of 
France. 

Prussia exhibited the finest wools in the world which were sent by 
the Directors of the Royal Flocks at Frankenfelde. 

The Agricultural exhibition from Holland was combined in a trophy 
in the centre of the Dutch section of the annexe. 

Portugal occupied a distinguished ^lace in this class of the 
exhibition. The display of wheat, maize, almonds, olives, vegetable oils 
and models of fruit and vegetables was above all praise. 

Spain had a splendid collection in the department of agriculture, re- 
markable especially for its variety consisting of all that all other countries 
produce. It is unnecessary to praise the beauty of the wools and fleeces 
of their flocks which are already so celebrated. 

The Agricultural products of British Guiana, of Egypt, of Belgium, 
and of the United Stales, though not interesting as collections, in com- 
parison with those above described, were greatly distinguished for their 
excellence and importance, and offered some remarkable peculiarities of 
value. 



308 



This third class completed the first group according to the classification 
adopted by the Imperial Commissioners ; the group namely, which com- 
prised the extraction and production of the simple material substances 
necessary for the support and comfort of life. 

I must repeat, inasmuch as the announcement tends to increase our 
knre for our country, that in this group, taken as a whole, Canada held 
the first place, by its display of natural wealth and its productive 
capacity. Taking, one by one, the three classes which we have review- 
ed^ Canada stands as follows : — In the first class, being that of mineral 
pioducts, we were in the front rank in respect of variety of species and 
scientific arrangement ; but certainly far behind in respect of turning our 
mineral resources to account. In the second class, that of products of 
the forest, we were in the first rank in respect of the aggregate of useful 
upeeitn which we exhibited, and likewise in the amount of lumbering 
carried on, with a view to exportation. In the third class, that of agri- 
caltaral products, we were not behind the first, in respect of the import- 
ance of the articles exhibited ; and in the amount of production, as com- 
pared with population, we held the same equality of precedence. 

liCt me here cite, for the general l)enefit, a truth which becomes more 
fully patent from this exhibition, namely, that in manufactures, art, not 
the value of the material, constitutes real superiority ; and this tnith was 
proved incontestably at this great scene of competition. Let us every 
where inscribe the aphorism, ^' Inteliigence should rule the worU.^'* 



III. 
SECOND GROUP. 

MAHUrACTURCS 'RELATING TO THE APPLICATION or MBCHA!«ICAL 

POWER. 

Classes 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

We come to the examination of articles of the fourth class. This com- 
prised articles of general mechanism applied to m:inufactun*s, and was 
the first of the second group according to the classification of the Im* 
penal Commissioners. 

It was one of the classes which numbered the smallest number of 
exhibitors ; the total number from all countries being about S50. Of 
this number Prance supplied about 200. Th<* countries which contri* 
boted the most after Frani*e, wen^ England SI, Austria 17, Prussia 16, 
and Belgium 14. 



304 



The enumeration of a few of the principal articles, noticed by comioiB- 
«ears, and mentioned by observers, may be serviceable to attract the 
attention of Canadian mechanics to the continued efforts and success of 
Europeans in invention, in the province of mechanical art, as connected 
with the increasing demand of human ingenuity in producing. All pro- 
fessional persons who made a study of the Universal Exhibition of 
London in 1851, and who have had an opportunity of attentively examin- 
ing that of Paris in 1855, confess to an inmiense amount of improve- 
ment in all nations, an improvement which tends to bring the con- 
veniences and comforts of life more and more within the reach of all 
classes of mankind. The Exhibition of London greatly contributed to 
to that improvement, and the first idea of universalizing exhibitions will 
ever remain a memorial to the honor of the English name. 

Here we particularly remarked, amongst the articles furnished by France 
for the fourth class, the following articles : asmoke consuming grate, which 
in the shape of an endless chain, uncoils as the coal is consumed, combining 
advantages in health and economy, hitherto unknown in the use of this kind 
of fuel ; a non-condensing and expansive steau engine, the chief merit of 
which consists in its not causing any pressure on the side valves ; a roCaiy 
steam engine ; a pump made by an eccentric rod resting on a tube of 
vulcanized caout cbouc, and acting without the aid of pistons or valves; a 
mechanical pair of bellows possessing the advantage of giving an immense 
volume of air, with comparatively little apparatus ; a ventilator intended to 
ventilate mines and aiills, and which gives besides other advantages a 
pressure of air six times greater than that obtained by the plans usually 
adopted ; a machine to regulate the flood gates of canals and dam heads, 
arranged in such a manner as to keep the water always at the same level 
under the most disadvantageous circumstances ; a new steam engine od 
the expansive and non-condensing plan, made in such a way as to preserve 
all the pressure which the steam has in the boiler, the mechanism is reico. 
lated by the hand, and only permits the quantity of steam absolntelj 
necessary to the inversions to be introduced ; a steam engine intended lo 
economise fuel, by employing steam mingled with the products of the 
combustion ; a steam engine for marine purposes, made to be placed in 
the stem of the ships, in such a way as to economise space, very consider- 
ably, and a dyanometer the highest perfection of improvement, intended 
to measure exactly the power employed by every working engine. 

We observed in the English compartment of the Exhibition a steam 
engine with three cylinders, arranged so as to economise the heat of the 
steam, after it has served its purpose ; a hydraulic press for testing cables, 
&c., of immense power, and a new system of propelling shipi, formed by 
a paddle, feathering alternately, and fixed at the water line. 



S06 



Austria amongst other things exhibited a pump without either piston or 
Taives, but formed by an eccentric rod ; a steam engine remarkable for 
the waj in which it exercised the motive power; a horixontal steam engine 
and a series of modek for double letrers or weighing machines. 

The following articles coming from diflTcrent countries also attracted 
particular attention, namely, a ventilator worked by a ateam engine of 
peculiar construction, and a steam engine made with two cylinders, acting 
at right angles on two shafts, this comet from Belgium ; four oscillating 
steam engines from the United States intended to act without the usual 
iiile valves ; a steam engine exhibiting a considerable number of improve- 
ments, and intended for sea-going ships, sent by Sweden ; a new plan of 
employing combined pulleys from Sardinia. 

Let us now examine the productions of some of those countries which 
are roost distinguished in the fifth class of the Exhibition, particularly all 
that pertain to locomotives for railroads, and before entering on these 
detuls, let us mention one (act of great importance in all questions relating 
to railroads. It is known that the question of the relative weight of the 
loooiiiotives, of trains, has, since the origin of railroads, occupied the atten- 
tion of professional men ; people seem to be inclined to different opinions 
in England and on the Continent. In France, Austria and Germany for 
example, they are disposed to give locomotives a great weight « supported 
by a considerable number of wheek, whilst in England people seem inclined 
to return to the comparatively light engines. 

In the Exhibition of France, we remarked in the compartment devoted 
to locmotives, an engine capable of moving in ordinary use a train of 45 
cart loaded with an aggregate weight of 600,000 pounds ; to this it 
appears to add the qualities of being easy to clean, of consuming little fuel, 
of having a lower centre of gravity, and of having the chimney longer : the 
nixed machine of Messrs. Gouin which has its tender attached behind 
for the purpose of making its weight serve to keep the locomotive on the 
railroad track ; the engine *^ The Eagle,** also Messrs. Gouin*s, the motive 
wheels of which are nearly 10 feet in diameter, the boiler is divided in two 
and the centre of gravity is below the axles of the large wheels, the piivcn- 
ger trains, it is said, can be drawn by this locomotive at a speed of tfO milea 
an hour ; the engines of Messrs. Cail dc Co., distinguished for the perfection 
of the workmanship. The other articles belonging to this cla^ which were 
particularly remarked among the innumerable articles contributed by France 
were, ao iron wagon sent from the manufactory of Mr. NepveudcCo. ; the 
Inzurioas carriages of Messrs. Clochez and Leclerc ; the town carri«grt by 
Uevrs. Leiorieux and Dunaime ; a calash by M» Bergeon ; a chariot l^ 
Mr. Cliquennois; a phaeton by Mr. Ilayot ; a carriage by Mr. Balvallcttc^ 

V 



306 



and a char d banc by Mr. Vidcrker. In the department devoted to saddlery 
Fnuice numbered 29 exliibitors, who contended with England for the 
superiority in this branch which is so much- cultivated in England. 

In the English section of the Exhibition which was particularly distin- 
guisl'.e:! in this class by its fine exhibition of articles of saddlery ; wc noticed 
locomotives by Mr. Stevenson and Mr. Fairbuni, that by the latter is hung 
by means of springs made of caoutchouc ; a locomotive illustrative of the 
system of Crampton, which consists in placing the driving wheels behind 
the boiler ; this engine Wiis built in France, at the manufactory of the 
chemin defer de Nord; the chameleon phaeton by Mr. Starey changing 
its form at pleasure ; a chariot by Messrs. Davis & Sons ; and three fine 
calashes sent by London manufacturers. The 81 English exhibitors 
of articles of saddlery offired to the public view a complete assort* 
ment of everything pertaining to this kind of manufacture. For solidity 
and cxcellenee of material, English saddlery has no superior in the world; 
the names of those who were declared the l>est amongst the numerous 
English exhibitors of the class now occupying our attention, are Messrs. 
Gordon & Son, Blackwell, Cuff, Shipley and Dunlop. 

Austria, amongst other articles, exhibited a locomotive fi-om the railroad 
manufactory of the State, calculated to surmount steep grades ; another 
locomotive from the manufactory of Mr. Gunther ; the magnificent state 
carriage of the Mavor of Vienna ; carrias^es from the manufactories of Messrs. 
Laurenzi & Co. of Vienna; admirable saddles by Mr. Laoeffler ; Hungarian 
bridles ; the plan of a locomotive by Mr. Engerth ; Wallachian harness by 
Mr. Sindel which is extremely light. 

The industrious Belgians were not behind in this class; amidst other pro- 
ductions of theirs, we admired the followingarticles : a locomotive by Messrs. 
Cockerel & Co., built after the German fashion called Engerth 
which consists in causing part of the weight of the locomotive to rest upon 
the tender, so as to equcilizc the weight of the whole mass, which is thus 
extended over a wider range of the track ; a locomotive by Messrs. Zaman, 
Sabaticr <fe Co., of Brussels ; a berlin by Messrs. Jones, Brothers, of 
Brussels ; some cabriolets by the same manufacturers ; a snow plough f jr 
locomotives, by Mr. Dnfour ; harness, saddles and other articles of that 
dc?cription, by Mr. L Kloub6c Lejune ; some splendid harness by Mar^chal; 
and lastly, some harness by Messrs. Thery de Gand, Rousseau of Liege, 
and Van-Moll Asschc. 

Wc must r.oiice among the products of the kingdom of Prussia, a 
locomotive by Mr Borsig of Berlin, made for high rates of speed, under 
f ivorable circunst mccs ; and the fine bridles by Mr. Kornbach remark- 
able for their lightness and finish. 



307 



The M'veral German states had al^o sent to the Paris Exhibitiuti a few 
locomotives worthy of public notice. All the conntries mentioned had 
likewise sent models of the numerous articles composing the track, and the 
rolling and stationary stock of a railroad. 

In carriages, we remarked vehirles by Messrs. Hermans k, Co., of 
Holland, a Spanish volantc from Mexico, and two waggons from Switxcr- 
land. 

Among the articles of saddlery from countries not hitherto mentioned, 
we must notice with approhntion, the following: bridles and harness bv 
Mr. Vincent, of Portugal; Italian sadiilcry of Mr. Talamucci, of Tu>cany ; 
«id an army-surgeouK* Stiddle, from Holland. 

As supplemeiitsiry to what has l)een said of the variety of opinions 
relative to the weight to be given to locnmiotivcs, we shall mention one 
hcU namely that the adoption of ellifrved axles, of the rerpjisite strength 
and quality, enables the machinist t(» place his cylimliT within the frame- 
work of the engine, while, in any other plan, the want of room, in a 
manner compelled him to put them on the outside of it. Another conclusion 
resulting fmm the Exhibition of IHof), is the adoption of enginea of high 
speed, requiring new and different arrangements of the gearing. Another 
(act also of sone importance is the ini>re general adoption of steel in&tead 
of iron, as the material of the principal |>arts of ?«(eam engines. 

To the well known elegaiue and strength which have long distinguishe«l 
the manufacture of carriages and saddlrry, the laU'rs of modern makem 
have now added lightness. This has, however, by a natural exaggeration, 
beep carried to aA excess which trenches on the two former, neither of 
Chem lesa imi>ortant. 

In the sixth class, according to the classification of the Imperial 
Commissioners are included special machines a|»plirablo to materi^ils and 
in manufactures. It contains twelve sectitins relating to the fol|i>wing 
articles, namely : elementary machines, luachines for mining purposes, 
Che Mmc for building pur[>oses, the same for the working up of mineral 
materials, other than metals, the wunc tor metallurL'iral pnr|)OH^4, materials 
Vied in mechanical architecture, machinrs fgr the nianufactiire <»f small 
articles in metal, the same for lumbering pur|K>so<, the same ft>r farming 
purposes and the preparation of ftMMl ; the Fame fiir operative chrmi^trv, 
the Mme for the arts of dyeing and printing, the same f«»r certain s|K*cial 
branches of maiuifacturing industry. 

It woidd l)c tedious to give a review, nt any length, of the anirles of this 
class, in which there were at lea-^t olM) exhibitors: i. «. 297 Krenrh, 57 
Bnglti^h, 3tj Austrian, 26 ISelgian, 20 Prus>tan, 18 American, t> Tuscan, 
and 5 Swin. The remainder were from the smaller states of Europe, and 
4 from Bfcxico. 



308 



The machines of which this immense collection consisted were put in 
notion, at the expense of the French Government, by means so skilfuUy 
contrived, that the whole was effected, without impeding the passage of 
visitors, or rendering their free access and the indulgence of their curiosity 
perilous to themselves. The motive power was communicated from over- 
head at stated distances, to the extent of more than 1500 feet, by means 
of belts or straps working on a driving shaft or windlass. This iron shaft 
of the length mentioned, was supported by an enormous trestle of cast 
iron, occupying the centre of the annexe, and it was driven by enormous 
steam engines, situated outside of the edifice. Thus the motive power was 
distributed gratuitously and without limitation to exhibitors of all nations. 

Before we proceed to details concerning particular machinery, let us say 
a few words respecting the various kinds which attracted the greatest share 
of public attention. This will shew the tendency of industrial ideas at the 
i^xhibition of 1855. The different modes of applying the principle of the 
trip-hammer in the manipulation of metals, have been greatly iocreased, 
principally in the preparation of leaf gold. Inventions for the mechanical 
conversion of wood to useful purposes have greatly improved, and been 
enriched with niceties of fabrication which European art affords ; and in 
this department France displayed some considerable improvements, in 
sawing out by machinery, materials of exact form, as for shi[je benda and 
knees, whether the sawing be done in curved or straight lines. The idea 
of a composing machine, as applied to typography, has also had new 
results, which lead us to conclude that it is susceptible of practical 
a{iplication. The improvements made in the cylindrical presses, tei^ng 
to their application in the printing of elegant volumes, and their coloured 
engravings are a feature in the labors of successful invention which has but 
lately appeared. 

We should now proceed to a few details respecting certain machines, 
which are distinguised from the mass by some peculiar merit : 

Among those which are adapted to the manipulation of mineral 
substances which are not metallic, we noticed an Austrian machine, 
exhibited by Mr. Vittorelli, cutting out by a series of saws, while it planes 
and polishes with graving tools, building and other stone; a French 
machine by Mr. Chevalier, which by means of an endless steel-wire 
adapted to pullies, saws with the greatest regularity the hardest atone, as 
quartz, granite, lind even crystal ; the machines for the manufacture of 
draining tiles by Mr. Borie, celebrated for his hollow bricks, also by Messrs. 
Galla and Touaillou of France, and those by Messrs. Whitehead and 
Clayton of England. In these the mass of clay kneaded and passed 
through a mould of the required form, is cut to fancy, by means of one or 
more steel threads fixed in a state of tension, in moveable frames. 



309 



Among the machines for working in wood we remarked thofc of 
Meanrs. Perin and Philippe for cutting oat mouldings and hollow cod- 
loars; and morticing machines by Messrs. Damon and Bemier, which 
have this peculiarity that the mortice is made by an instrument revolving 
with remarkable rapidity, and remaining rounded at the ends, muftt be 
finished by hand For very long or continued mortices, the superiority 
of this plan is indisputable, on account of the rapidity of the opemtion. 
We ootieed two machines by M. Sautreuil of Fecamp ; one for preparing 
flooring boards by a single stroke, the other a planing machine for 
smoothing building timber on four sides at once ; this latter is u«t*d in 
France, in preparing planking for ships ; lastly, we remarked a turning 
lathe, with four descriptions of tools, for the manufacture of wheels. 
There were likewise two sets of saws, by Mr. Normand of Havre, one 
for catting out the ribs, frames and futtocks of a ship, with their bevel- 
ings, bends, crooks, and varying thickness ; the other imitating with the 
motion of the cross cut saw, the absolute precision of cut belonging to 
that implement of manual labor. These two sets of saws were the most 
perfect machines of the kind. In the foreign departments of the Exhibi- 
tion we noticed with approbation the tool machines by Messrs. Whiv 
worth, Smith k. Co., and by Shepherd, Hill h Co., of England ; the 
Teaeering saw by M. Schwartzkep of Prussia ; and the connecting gear 
bj Mr. Siglo of Austria. 

Among the machines for the fabrication of small articles in metal we 
noticed a forging machine by %f r. Whitworth of England ; shears for 
catting sheet-iron, by Mr. Richmond of the United States ; and a machina 
for catting nails, by Messrs. Frez & Stohz of Paris, who have introduced 
eaontchooc as a material for springs in all their machines. 

In the section of machines to facilitate chemical processes and the 
manipalation of food, the best were, a mill with five nms of stones, with 
the friction movement, and fitted so as to permit the separation of a mill 
stone from the others, even while at work, by Messrs. Fremont, Fontaine 
and Braalt of Frenee ; and an apparatus for cleaning grain, by Mr. 
Vachon of Lyons. 

A maltitade of machines of great importance certainly, but of nopraa- 
tical interest for us, or which would require too long and too minute a 
apeeification, were found in the remaining sections of the clans which 
now engages our attention. These cursory visits to the dcmiain (»f 
manofiuTturing art, will shew how readily we might extract pmfit fmra 
the roost rapid survey of this Exhibition. An idea sometimes, c»r a word, 
is sufficient to suggest to an artisan the conception of a valuable iitiprnvi>. 
ment, or to reveal to him a resource before unknown. We have a ri^ht 
lo be jMoad of oor succese at Paris, but we ma»t not be led by it to 



SIO 



^. c 



l»4^WI • 



. • . *< 






• t V t. 



■■••:* 



.*i , I* \ III le we are still but tyros. We have in arts 
.. .iv.vri :o learn, and Europe will be our teacher, 
c^ 'iiedQiinie with the reflection that we possess^ 
- . i*.^iv>8- dnsi prosjjerjty. 

^ ..•.«.<! At*re most distinguished in this seventh class, 
Lu coik'ciively nearly all the articles exhibited, are 
^ .k.,v,. ViiMrtd, Bt^lgium and Prussia. 

.. ^^..kiiou v>i particular substances, for weaving and spinning, 

• .'oou> o\ Messrs. Scrive Brothers and Miroude of France, 

.ii^tss c\^-wheels, and other gear by Messrs, Pengest & 

lit- pwsiiing rollers by Mr. Fleary of France, and the 

.>v U.V .'4 Mr. Kisler of Prussia, and of Mr. Horsfall of England, 

.V Aiu/ic. England, which contributed the greatest namber of 

...^ liUiUiaiued her superiority in respect of machines adapted to 

K.ii^ oi ^^olton; and accordingly Mr, Tresca observes, their exhi- 

N^jiiiaiiig machines consists almost entirely of cotton spinning 

Oi ilicse English machines, the most remarkable were the 

iiui splicing machine invented by Mr. Evan Leigh, exhibited 

u «4.v UubM>n and Barlow of Bolton ; the spindle roving frame by 

N».a vu oi Kockdale ; the various bends of gear in action by Messrs. 

X V. o. ; and especially the complete exhibition sent by Messrs. 

;i4v»;hi'rs of Oldham. In the French department public attention 

:iv lied to the stripping cord by Mr. Lecoiur ; the rota frotteur and 

;.i\wu^ frame by Mr. Danguy, junior ; the mull-jenny loom by 

\v « Uaili't and Dubus, with 432 spindles; the blower and spreader 

s ^4» kiv:%kloin ; and the looms of Messrs. Nicolas Sclumberger & Ca 

1 lu .lrp.tiliuout of machines for cotton spinning was filled altogether," 

t \i». lu'.^tca olw»rved, " by England and France, and, with the single 

vvj»iK^»i4 Mr. Sclumberger's machines presents no progress worth 

lu tu.u luiK'j* for the preparation and weaving of flax, we noticed those 
.■. \l\ .«*!:*. MrrlruiH of Belgium, Farinaux, Ward and Lacroix of France, 
v*\»»-K^ \V i*^»« ^^f England. There were also a few machines from 
V '.u.^ uivl TruHsia. 

l« vU'l'.ii'tuiout of machines for the manufactures of wool is occupied 

^ ^\*i V Mlu'*iv(»ly by French exhibitors, among whom we distinguish 

\.. .. v'\»ll»^t, Vigoureux and Penard, for carding, who follow the 

.. ,tx 4i pwivMii'«* t>f carding by rovings. Mr. Mereier was at the head 

,v .:».v , \\lu» Inhibited machines for carding-wool. 

\t, . » Nh^viiicr, Ileilnmn, Michel and Windsor of France, Messrs. 
Sv » t, llHUi^^iiillc and Grassmeycr of Austria, and Messrs, Benardel 



>.%. 



311 



and H<*n8oh of Prussia, were di^(tJDgui8hed among thos«c of tlic firnl 
rank for tlie perfection of their inachineti. • 

One machine by Mr. Ues4huye8 attracted much allention. It was for 
making watch gaards, purses and other articles of the kind. 

Tlie mechanical weaving of stulis places England, whcm mo.st of the 
machines in use were invented, in the foremost rank among all nations. 
A machine for weaving sail cloth by Messrs. Parker was paiticularly 
meationed. 

France takes prcci*dence for machines for the manufacture of figured 
fabrics, as she had the merit of inventing them. The march of improve- 
ment in this departm4*nt, is supt*rs4^ding the cartoons of the Jaci|uard 
looini by paper patterns which have the advantage of gn*ater ccuuomy. 
The mach nes of Messrs. Acklin, Es|>any and Blanchet wen* noticed 
with approbation. 

Besides these there was a multitude of machines for fulling, combing 
and spinning of material for mt*ehanicul spinning ; but it is not ti) be 
expected that we should enter into a detailed enuineratiim of the whole. 
Those mentioned above are intended to shew how etinstantly the arti* 
nosof Kuro|»e are engaifed in diminishing the price, while they main- 
tain the excellence of their productions, nay, even increase it, and to 
impress on our own manufacture* rs alld merchants the necessity under 
which they lie, of closely following the steps of their teachers, both for 
ir own sake and that of the public. 



IV. 
THIRD GROUP. 



UArnVFACmUEB BASED OST THE APPLICATION OP PHYSICAL AN1> CUtMICAL 
AOKNTH, AMD HAYING HCFKaBNCB TO INSTRUCTION. 

Classes 8, 9, 10, II. 

The Imperial Cons'Tvatory of Arts and Trades exhibited the w<Mghts 
and measures of Fmnce. This exhibition derived a doubU* in:cn*st 
bom the circumstance that these measures has b«*en aln*ady 
adopted by several Kuro|)(*an States, and that the adoption (»f thmi by 
all is in agitation, lliey anr aln*ady in use among th«' le(irn«'d of all 
CfNintries. The necessity of adopting terms and- divisions of wciuht and 
measun^ known to science and of gi*neml applieatiim, w:is !>)iewn 
during thn deliberations of the international eongn'ss on stati>iics at 
Pamin I85& 



312 



The French Grovemment had sent to the Exhibition of the United 
States' Department, the American weights and measores presented by 
the United States Government a few years ago. 

We noticed the arithmetical machine by Mr. Thomas, which giTes 
products of thirty figures ; the new rules for logarithms by Mr. Gravet, 
and the scales for weighing coins by Baron Siguier. 

In the manufacture of time-pieces Mr. Wagner, the French clock 
maker, has introduced some remarkable improvements, in the method of 
regulating the compensation in the scapements, and in the nniform action 
of the pendulums. Mr. Cote of London, made his ccmtribntion of im- 
provements in this branch. The spiral springs of the house of Latz of 
Geneva, for watches and chronometers were greatly admired. These 
articles do not lose their properties on being subjected to fire and tem- 
pered anew. Their excellence is truly surprising. 

The clock for the palace of the Exhibition, by M. Collin, indicated the 
hour on two dials far apart, by means of electric wires. This is the ap- 
plication of a new system to electric clocks, in making which Messrs* 
Verite and Robert^Houdin, (the famous Professor of Legerdemain,) excel. 
Of monumental clocks, the most remarkable were the astronomical 
clock by Mr. Bemardin of France, and clocks by Mr. Weiss of Prussia. 

In watchmaking the reputation of the French, Swiss and Belgian 
makers is well known, and was well supported at the Exhibition. Of 
instruments designed to measure time, bulk or distance with precision 
and specially applied to scientific uses, it may serve a useful purpose to 
mention a few, namely, an achromatic object glass, by Bfr. Lerebours, 
15 inches in diameter, and about 26 feet focus ; refracting telescopes by 
Mr. Bardon ; a new kind of object glass, adapted for photogmphic appa- 
ratus by Mr. Jamin ; a parallactic telescope by Mr. Secretan ; an instru- 
ment by Mr. Porro, which may be used either as a telescope or as a veiy 
powerful microscope ; a microscope by Mr. Nachet ; microscopes and 
theodolites, by Mr. Chevalier ; and to complete the list of productions, 
(nearly all French and Parisian), a new instrument, the profilograph. by 
Mr. Dumoulin. This beautiful invention is used to trace an exact out- 
line of a landscape by mechanical means, and for extensive levels its 
importance is very great. 

The English Government exhibited a fine model of the meridian cir* 
cle at Greenwich. Among English exhibitors Mr. Locke distinguished 
himself by his parallactic telescope ; and the Engineers of the Coast 
Survey by the fine collection of instruments which they use. 

In the Austrian Department we noticed the meridian telescope of the 
Polytechnic Institute of Vienna, the numerous and beautiful surveyors' 
instruments, by Mr. Starke, and maps in relief shewing the levels and 



813 



women by varied tints, the roads, and a register of varions statistical in- 
forniation. 

This class contained, however, numerous instniraents to ascertain the 
density of bodies, acoustic instruments, and electric machin€*s, varioui>Iy 
applied, instruments for the purpose of registration, meteorological and 
other apparatus. We have mentioned only the novelties in this class, 
for it were an endless task to make special mention of all who distin- 
guished themselves. 

The countries which bore off the honors in this class are, in the order 
of the premiums awarded, France, Switzerland, England, Austria. 

We now come to the articles examined in the ninth class. 

The art of preparing bog-turf for fuel has been much improved in 
Eorope. Necessity has proved to be the parent of invention. 

In a rapid review of this class, much usefal information is to be 
gathered, the bare notice of which may furnish our artizans with ideas 
of improvement sure to be productive of good. What we are mainly to 
study is not the products of our own country ; these we may always 
examine at our ease ; it is the matters exhibited by other countries, 
which we can inspect at no other time but that of an Exhibition. De- 
tailed criticisms of these will be given in the final report of the inter- 
natioiial Jury. There and there only, we are to look for a perfect ap- 
pieciatioD of objects. 

In its review of the various articles in this ninth class, and giving an 
aoooont of the visit of Prince Napoleon, the Maniieur makes the follow- 
ing remark : ** Heating by means of wood, coal, or charcoal, and light- 
^ Ing by the direct combustion of a limited number of solid or liquid 
^ aabstances would at the commencement of the present century have 
^ improved the staple of this ninth class,** and it proceeds to notice the 
glowing disposition to use the heat of gas ** for purpuses of hffyiene^ of tk§ 
^ f rfpatoHom ^f food^ and of meehanieal jmrntits^ pMie and jprivaiey 

Tlie first article taken in the order of classification were chemical 
roalcbes, in which branch Austria holds the first rank, the s|)ecimens 
sent being the ordinary and regular productions of the makers who sent 
them. This branch is said to give employment in Austria to 20,000 
workmen* Sweden also exhibited excellent specimens of this article. 
Several French exhibitors had also sent their contributions, and as 
France is the classic land of taste and fancy, we had tasiefui and fanry 
matches. The highest price for round matches was one penny |ier 
thnosand. 

Pressed eoal, a mechanical compound of solidified fragmentii of coal 
mixed with the residue of coal-tar, has on account of its su|>eriority to 
eoalt ooroe into general use, particularly for shipping. It is sold in 



su 



France at 30s. per ton. In the Exhibition, France and Belgium shewed 
the best specimens of this article. It seems that in Belgium they have 
succeeded in solidifying coal by pressure only, without the use of the 
coal-tar to agglutinate it. 

The preparation known as moulded codl^ discovered by Mr. Popelin 
Ducane, was shewn at the exhibition in numerous specimens, made of 
the dro««s and dust of coal mixed and agglutinated with coal-tar. It is 
in shape like charcoal, or else cylindrical. 

The making of turf, in pieces pressed and dried, carbonized tuif^ or 
comp:ict anthracite turf, has assumed in Europe a degree of impcnr- 
tance and has reached an extent, the proofs of which appear in the pro- 
ducts of the kind sent by France and England. 

The perfection to which candle-making has been carried is well known. 
It will soon enable the poorest to lay aside the use of the old tallow 
candle. England, Austria, Belgium, and France, are here again the 
most distinguished ; France especially is pre-eminent for its shew of 
acids and alcohols for the rectification of fatty substances, which are the 
basis of candles. 

It would be impossible to describe, in this place, the difTerent'systems 
of warming houses, pertaining to the four groups of which we have 
knowledge ; that is to say, by open fire-places or stoves ; by heated air ; 
by the circulation of hot water in pipes ; and by steam similarly diffused ; 
but it may be useful to those persons in Canada who interest themselves 
in the respective merits of those various modes, to be acquainted with 
the names at least of the artizans who have distinguished themselves by 
the beauty of their production. These are, for stoves, hot-air stoves, and 
apparatus for conveying it, Messrs. Laury, Chevalier, Pauchet, and 
Ambart of France ; Messrs. Bailey, Edwards & Son, and Hoole of Eng- 
land ; Messrs. Carton of Belgium, and Stait of Switzerland. For hot 
water apparatus, Mr. Duvoir Leblanc of Paris has acquired a high lepa- 
tation and received a medal of honor. 

You are aware that the Indians of Canada obtain fire by the rapid 
friction of two pieces of wood. Well, the pinks of civilization, Messrs. 
Beaumont and Mayer of Paris, exhibit a machine, consisting of a 
boiler filled with water which is heated to the pressure of three atmos- 
pheres, by the caloric generated by a conical metal tube, in which ano- 
ther cone of hard wood accurately adjusted to fit its interior, is made to 
revolve. This mode of generating heat is intended to be employed only 
when the motive power is obtained free of cost, as when it consists of a 
waterfall. You will })erc(Mve that if this novel idea is capable of being 
usefully and economically applied, the want of water-power will cer- 
tainly in Canada be no bar to its introduction. 



316 



There is a wish to intnxhice gas, the* Manifrur remarks as a)>i>v<* riled, 
as an article of domcHtii: fuel. This principle has l>eeii applied in Kni^- 
land by means of asbestos. The current of gas is convey in a lighted 
state through an apparatus consisting of wicks of aslx^Mos. Great results 
are anticipated from this discovery. We may observe that the asliestos 
exhibited in the Canadian section and sent from Kamouraska is exaotly 
of the pliable and silky kind with short fibres which is suitable for this 
parpose. 

Very interesting apparatus for procuring vcntilati4>n was also exhibited 
as well as models of appanitus applied ti) blast furnaces for the smelting 
of ore. The use of this apparatus, the bi*llows of which convey heated 
instead of cold air, produces a casting, not only of better quality, but 
also at less expense. 

In the lamp department a vast number of improvements were exhibited 
which might be very usefnlly adopted in Canada. True jwrfection 
in this department is to 1m* found only in FVance. We may mtMition the 
lamps by Mr. Hadrot, as n'markable for their brilliant light, tht»s<> of Mr. 
Aubineau for theirgreat size, those of Mr. Guillaume for their diminutive 
size, and the cheap and economical lamp by Mr. Dessaules, b«*sides 
many others. Lanterns for the light houses constitute also a brunch of 
manufacturing skill in which Fnmce has attained nncpiestionabic 
eminence: this su|)er]ority is indeed undisputed. The immortal Fr(*snel 
who invented the lenticular lanterns, has conferred this ghirious preemi* 
nence on his country ; accordingly the F''n»nch Govemmenl had enacted a 
kind of monument to his honor in the centre of the nave. This was a 
lenticular lantern of large dimensions, placed u|X)n a pillar, which was 
dedicated to the memory of the great inventor. The coasts of France 
■re lighted by 198 b(*acons of various sizes. 

There was no great exhibition of improvement in lighting by g:is. 
Most of the apparatus exhibited had reference rather to the tnuismission 
ct gas, than to the means of gf*nemting it. or to its economical use. 

The various modes in which electricity is applied t«> the mechanical 
arts, eom|)osing the ninth class, might affonl matter f4»r mueh interesting 
•peculation ; but l>f*sides n*(|uiring s|M*cial and exact knowledge, this 
subject d(M*s not jiossess an inten*st in our young eountr}', eipial lo that 
of the branches of industry hen* lightly coninienti*d 4)n, with a vi«'w to 
draw public attcnli<»n to the pn>gress of UHMlern art. 

We cannot omit, however, to mentiiin the <li>eoveries niadt» !»y an Aus- 
trian, Mr. Gintiof Vieniiii, in tin* electric lelei^raph. That ^t-ntltiiian, by 
availing hims^*lf of the iuterruptit>n of the eleetrlt* curr-ri!, by n(»n 
cuoductorSi has succeeded in transmitting two dilfcn^ut comnuinicutions 



816 



in opposite directions, by the same wire. *^ This " says Mr. Tresca, 
*^ is the greatest improvement yet made in the electric telegraph. 

Here we shall close our few remarks in a class, the components of 
which are highly interesting to Canada, either as a consuming popnlaticHi) 
or as possessing the natural resources which may render it a producing 
one' to an important degree, in many of the most valuable branches 
particularised. We shall be fortunate if, while depicting the improve- 
ments which were most remarkable at the Paris Exhibition, we may 
lead some inquiring reader to seek farther and more exact information. 
This would undoutedly lead to the adoption of new modes of deriving 
benefit from our natural resources. 

The tenth class, containing articles comprised under the heads cl 
chemical ariSj dying and printing, paper-makings mant^faciured jfttM, 
caoutchouc^ ^c, is one of those which numbered most exhibitois. Of 
these the official catalogue contained nearly 2000 of all countries. The 
countries which contributed most largely to this class with the number of 
exhibitors from each, were France 900, England 166, Prussia 15S, Aus- 
tria 100, Belgium 58, Spain SS^ Holland SS. Next after these was 
Canada 26. 

In the production of matters purely chemical, Austria and the Grennan 
States appeared to hold the first place in the Exhibition. Among other 
articles of the kind, we noticed the collection of large masses ctf alkalein 
metals from Prussia, and compound ethers from Austria. 

White zinc, used as a paint, with great advantage over white lead, was 
principally exhibited by Belgium and particularly by the Franco-Belgian 
Company, known as the Compagnie de la VieHle Moniagne. 

England exhibited Lithia and yelhto Pruesiate of PotoBe^ obtained by 
the use of common coal, instead of animal carbon. 

It would be tedious to particularise all that the Exhibiticm contained 
of acids and other products of the chemical art ; but we cannot omit the 
wonderful French, production the new metal, termed almmimaiL 
Aluminum was first obtained as a distinct substance by M. Wochler, a 
German chemist, but we are indebted to Mr. Sainte-Claire DeviUe, who 
continued his researches, assisted by the private purse of the Emperor 
Napolton, for producing it as a material for domestic utensils. We cannot 
here enlarge upon the process by which it is obtained, suffice it to say 
that, having been already fashioned into t domestic utensils, it has been 
found to possess the following properties : -^ degree of lightness, equal 
almi^st to thai of glass, a high degree of so porousness, a capability of 
resisting the action of fire next to that of si. er; freedom from loss by 
oxydation, tenacity and hardness equal to these qualities in any of the 
metals in common use. 



S17 



Gelatine assumes in Canada a character which is most interesting, 
inasmuch as it is now used for the preservation of game and other meats, 
bj being applied as a coating to exclude the atmosphere. It is needless 
to insist on the value of such a process as a measure of preservation. It 
will be seen at once, that it a principle essentially economical, as the very 
sabstanoe, used as a preservation of the main or principal substance, re- 
tains all its value, and that the food thus preserved, undergoing no pro- 
cess of manipulation, remains in possession of all its original flavor and 
other properties. 

Among the numerous specimens of ultramarine produced by artificial 
means, that of Mr. Guimet of France, the inventor of the process, by 
which it is manufactured, was naturally the best Some idea may be 
Soaaed of the importance of this product when we learn that formerly 
natural ultramarine cost £75 per pound, and that no more than 4 lbs. were 
oooramed in Europe in a year, whereas Europe now uses five millions 
of pounds yeariy which costs no more than one shilling per pound. 

In leather, France was distinguished for its morocco, its varnished 
leather and its calf leather, all having a world-wide reputation ; England 
lor its strong sole leather and that which is used for saddlery. In the 
articles mentioned, France was closely followed by Austria, Germany 
and Belgium. 

It is well known that the celebrated Russia leather did not appear 
at tbe Exhibition, but we must remark that that leather, which has quali- 
ties so peculiar, is tanned with the decoction of willow bark and im- 
pregnated with an oil extracted from the bark of the bouleau. We make 
this remark, because we have willow and bouleau in Canada. 

In tbe manufacture of paper, diflerent countries offered a vast number 
of exhibitors, among the new papers made without rags we noticed 
atraw-paper made by Mr. Louis Piette of Belgium. 

It would be a tedious labor to enumerate the different uses now n:ade 
of eaootchonc, we have already noticed the advantage of substituting it 
fur steel in springs for certain machines. We must remark by tlie way 
thai we ate indebted to France for the discovery of caoutchouc, to Elng- 
land for its first application to useful purposes, and to the United States 
fur its oonnexion into a pliable and durable substance, as well as into a 
haidened form, capable of great resistance. Mr. Goodyear of the United 
Stales reeeived the grand medal of honor for his discovery of hardened 
caootcbooc. 

Tbe French satNiiis who discovered the method of making artificial 
vltramarine, and who are now producing opium, give us reason to hope 
Son a further discovery in artificial quinine, a product of which tbe final 



818 



disappearance was anticipated together with that of the qninqoina from 
which only it is now obtained. 

We now come to a class, the eleventh, which has intimate relation to 
Canadian interest, being based upon agricultural produce. It relates 
to the preparation and preservation of alimentary substances. 

This class is naturally reducible to two grand divisions, termed, in 
the words of the Imperial Commissioners : 1. Preparation of alimentary 
substances; 2. Preservation of alimentary substances. 

In the preparation of alimentary substances, and the extraction of their 
various elements, we remarked the following articles : an apparatus by 
Messrs. Martin & Co. of France, for extracting the gluten ; an appara- 
tus for baking, tenned the mechanical kneader by Mr. Roland, also of 
France. In the French compartment were observed also many different 
apparatus used in the manufacture of sugar and spirit from beet-root 

It would be impossible to enumerale the numcrou.s articles in this class, 
for, as they relate to the most ordinary wants of mankind, they are not 
the exclusive productions of one or two countries, but fall within the 
scope of all. Accordingly there was no country which had not numer- 
ous exhibitors. 

It may be of service to notice the progress made in France in the pre^e^ 
vation of meats. In our review of the preceding class we have already 
made a few observations on the use of gelatine, as a coating to guard 
meat from contact with the ak, but that discovery is the least extraordin- 
ary which has been made. 

By a process, which consists of rapid drying by means of hot air, and 
then of compression by means of the hydraulic press, vegetables have 
not only been prepared for keeping, but also made to occupy a compara- 
tively trifling space. It is only necessary to steep them in cold water 
six hours, in order to restore them to their original color, appearance and 
even bulk. It will be seen that, on these conditions, they may be mat- 
ters of daily use. It is calculated that, by this process more than 1200 
lbs. of dried vegetables may be packed in a case of 1 cubic metre (30 
cubic feet). This quantity represents 8000 lbs. of fresh vegetables which 
would on an average require a space of 1300 cubic feet at least. Thus 
seven times the bulk of nutritive matter may be made fit for transport, in 
a space 43 times smaller than it would naturally fill. The allied armies 
in the Crimea were supplied with vegetables, thus prepared, to the extent 
of 42,000,000 of rations. 

The b^ef hiscuit of the American Navy is now well known. Several 
other articles of th? kind were exhibited, among tb3m mmt biscuit^ con- 
tainin:^, in half a pound of matter, six rations of good soup ; and biscuit of 
the same description, by a company from Buenos Ayres. 



319 



Tho Genial Meat Preserving Company in France have pnxlucpd a «iil>. 
stance wiiii^h they have tenned conservafine, extracted from the oflal of 
animals, such as the bones deprived of the marrow, tendons, dec, with 
the addition of su^ar and gum. The principle is evidently the same as 
that of preservin:^ by <;e!atine. The question is, which of the two rm- 
Mertnfines is the best ? Th<^ Company exhibited a lejj of l>eef wi*is;hinc: 
nearly 100 lbs., preserved six months before. This had in all re:4|)ecis all 
the freshness of mpat just killed. 

B'lt the most extraonlinary discovery of this kind U that of Mr. Lamy. 
a Pre'ichman, who preserves meat without coverin«^ or coatin;? it,ex[x>s<*d 
to the air and the sun. Ilis procoits, which he has not revealed, is ptire'y 
scientific, and consists, it is said, in coa^rulatin? those pirts which arc 
liible to putrefaction, and which prwluce fermentation in alimentary sub- 
»t inces. He exhibits le^ of mutton, preserved seven! years as^o. salmtm, 
pike, vegetables, fruits whole partridges, and a whole diM»r preserved two 
years since. In the winter, Mr. Lamy supplies fruit at fabulous prices, 
and the purchasers profess themselves perfectly satisfied with the (juality 
of what he sells. 

We should endeavor to profit by many of these discoveries, in Canada. 
They would enable ns to export enormous quantities of nlimeninty sub- 
Ptrinces, which now remain unsold, because their liability to decom[>o»ition 
or their bulk renders the carriage of them ditlicult, or too expensive, or 
alrogctber impracticable. 



V. 
FOURTH GROUP. 

MAllUrACTCRBS FBRTAIMIMO To THE LKARN'EO PROrESSIO.Nfl. 

Classes 12, 13, 14. 

The articles exhibited in the twelfth class — that which related to the 
public health— were few in number. Connected with the supply of 
Water of good quality to large cities, we saw nothing but some tiitering 
DiaGbines, which oflered ii i new feature. On this* head, we must cite 
•uific observations made in the Paris papers. It seems to be n^^recd that 
the rrf|uiMte quantity of water /y/t diem for each individual, to place a city 
in this respect in circumstances I'avorable to health, is about sixteen i;al- 
loos or three cubic feet. At Rome the daily supply is nearly ItU) gallons 
to eich individual ; of c<»urse this (piiMijy includes the public b.*ithH, 
public wa.sh- houses, and all that is required fur domestic consumption. It 
would have been well to have exhibited along with our models of bridgea 



322 



steam engines intended to be exhibited, were diverted from their pacifie 
destination, to be usefully employed on board the allied fleets. Thus it 
was that, models excepted, there were fewer engines exhibited at Paris 
than at London. But, to make amends, new inventions and evident 
improvements were manifested, giving assurance that we are on the road 
to important discoveries, and new modes of applying them. 

We shall specify a few of the improvements effected in the manufacture 
of steam engines, intended for maritime service. 

The gradual increase in size of the motive machinery, and the use of 
engines of great power, is the great fact of the age. In this change <rf 
system the intention is, not only to move larger bodies, but to attain greater 
speed, and what has been done in this behalf has established as an axiom 
" that greater speed requires greater power in the proportion of the square of the 
speed required.'*'* 

Another step in the road of improvement is the substitution of the screw 
apparatus for all others in ocean navigation, particularly in that branch of 
it which combines steam toith sails. It was for the purpose of increasing the 
motive power of the screw, without dminishing that afforded by the sails, 
when necessary, that the French engineers have invented the screw i 
quatre brancheSj which may by a system of joints, be reduced to two, and 
occupies no more space than the screw d deux branches. Two new systems 
were promulgated at the Exhibition, having reference to the placing or 
housing of the engine in the hull of the vessel ; one (French) fixes it in the 
divoyures of the after part of the vessel in order to save room ; another 
(Dutch) distributes the weight of the engine throughout the entire length 
of the vessel, in order to avoid these alterations of form produced by the 
application of considerable weights acting constantly on an isolated point 
of the frame. 

Finally, in France, opinions are in favor of the direct application of the 
motive power to the screw, while in England they seem to incline to its 
application by gearing. The adoption of the former principle aims at the 
saving of room ; that of the other diminishing friction and giving better 
control of the piston, diminishes the wear and tear of the engine. We 
must observe that the use of steel in various parts of the engine diminishes 
the risk arising from wear and tear, and the danger of accidents so produced. 

Among the numerous exhibitors in this class, the French Minister of 
Marine was particularly distinguished; the articles exhibited being a great 
number of models of ships, and their rigging and equipment. 

The following articles in this part of the Exhibition demanded especial 
admiration : a model of the engine of the ship Napoleon^ a screw of 960 
horse power, working by gearing, — said to be the fastest ship of her rate 
afloat ; a model of the engine of the ship TAlgirien^ a screw, with direct 



823 



actbn, of 900 hone power ; a brass screw, weighing 25,000 lbs. intended 
fer the ship Vlmpirial ; this has four fixed branches but is nevertheless 
removable ; a model of the steam mortar-vessel k Vauiour^ the first war 
steamer in which mortars were shipped and fired, — it is now at Sebastopol ; 
a model of the apparatus used in launching the man of war PUlm on the 
Charentei is worthy of especial notice. In this case, it was necessary, on 
account of the narrowness of the river, to cause the vessel, on leaving the 
ways, to take a list up and down the stream. For this purpose the ship 
was rigged on each side with a strong chain. These were shortened by 
the decwsation of certain ofthcir links which were tied with ropes intended 
to break one after another, their tenacity being graduated and calculated 
to produce the effect desired. The plan was crowned with complete 
•occess ; and, having been applied to a body so ponderous as that of the 
{Tim, does credit to the skill of the engineers who drvifled it. 

England exhibited, as illustrations of its naval power, models of the heads 
and stems of ships, and articles of various kinds. In the exhibition of the 
Dutch naval establishment, we notice models of small war-vessels, built 
with flat floor-timbers. These flat l>ottomed ships, are intended to navigate 
the coast, and for attack and defence in shoal water. The war in the 
Baltic caused great attention to [yc paid to inventions of this kind. 

We now come to the exhibition of articles pertainnig to merchant 
shipping, on the ocean and on rivers. It is remarkable that the exhibition 
in this class, although no doubt very interesting, was not expressive of all 
the importance which mankind attach, in our day, to maritime affair?. 

The fir»t objects which drew our attenticm in this department, not as 
novelties in invention, but for the boldness of entreprise which they 
indicated, were the models and plans of the several [>arts of that gigantic 
vessel, now being built in London by Messrs. Scott and Russel, under the 
direction and ax*ording to the plans of ^fr Druncl the engineer. It is 
known, that monster ship will measure 23,000 tons, and will, in round 
numbers, be 700 in length, 80 feet beam, and will have engines of the 
aggregate power of 2,G00 horsc^s. En«Eland had also a maritime trophy, 
containing models of the grout ships //imcjArya, Persia and others, diving- 
apparatus, apparatus for the rescue of shipwrecked persons and propertv, 
and a number of articles connected with ocean and river navigation. In 
the ship-building section of the English compartment, the mo^t celebrated 
and illustrious name was that of the house of Napier of Glasgow. 

England stands foremost am<»ng the nations of the world for the number 
of its large foundries for the manufacture of steam-engines for ships. In 
reapect of perfection and lieauty of workmanship, almost all other European 
nations are on an equal footing ; in the experimental part of the art, Franot 
to bold the first rank. It may not be nnintereiting to know thai 



824 



there are in Europe about sixty great establishments particularly devoted 
to the manu&cture of steam-engines for ships. Of this number England 
possesses thirty, and France fifteen ; the others are distributed among the 
several other Slates, according to their population, or rather according to 
their maritime position. 

One of the most striking articles in the exhibition of the French merchant 
navy, was the fine model of the ship DantAe belonging to the Compagnie des 
Messageries, It shewed all the details of her construction, rising and 
equipment, together with her engine and screw in operation, a master- 
piece of workmanship. Among the numerous specimens of French skill 
were building models, half of iron half of timber by the inventor of the 
system, Mr. Arman, who obtained the Grand Medal of Honor, in this 
section ; numerous models of French clippers; huge plates of iron 3 feet in 
width, by 15 feet in length and 3 inches in thickness. These plates were 
intended for the defences of ihe floating batteries contrived by the Emperor 
Napoleon for the attack on the citadel of Cronstadt, that terrible claw of 
the Northern Bear. 

In the other sections were, the model of a river steamer used by the 
Austrians on the Danube, of 240 horse power and drawing very little 
water ; the model of the American^ a river steamer of the United States of 
1,000 horse power ; a very fine steam engine with a screw having a direct 
and reverse movement t^xhibited by the Swedish foundry ofMotalato 
which this article does great credit ; an iron stern-post with a rudder of a 
new form, from Belgium. 

In the second division of this thirteenth class, relating to objects 
of military art and the fabrication of arms, it will be perceived at once 
that France took the foremost rank. Belgium being the next in prece- 
dence for workmanship, particularly in the manufacture of fire arms for 
sporting purposes. England exhibited very little in this department. 

The arms used by the French army were collected in the nave of the 
palace in a superb trophy, designed by M. Panguilly Haridon, the 
engineer. Before proceeding to make a few remarks on details, which 
derived a particular interest from the circumstances of the war then in 
progress, it will not be amiss to consider the improvements made within 
a few years in the manufacture of arms, and in the art of handling and 
using them. Here are then, in brief, the specifications of the improve* 
ments made : extraordinary precision of aim in firing from mortars^ fiom 
the knowledge of the rotatory motion of the shells on their axes ; pe^ 
fection and simplicity attained in the use of rockets in open field war- 
fare ; diminished damage from repeated firing now obtained, in manu- 
facturing artillery to the extent of sustaining 3000 discharges without 
perceptible damage, whereas 200 shells were formerly the greatest nuro- 



S25 



bcr which could be fired from guns of the largest calibre ; a new method 
of preserving gunpowder from the eflects of the weather and from danger 
of explosion ; rapidity in loading combined with correct aim in firing, 
with musketry. 

To all this progress we have to add the general improvements made 
in workmanship and material. The use of sporting guns, loaded at the 
bieech, has also become general, and the alterations made daily in this 
class of fire arms give us reason to ho|)e that they may be adi>ptird by some 
arm of the military service. A few brigades have already received them, 
as for instance the cent garde i of the Em|x»ror. To give an idea of the 
regard to economy which prevails in the manufacture of arms, we may 
olMcrve that good muskets are to be had, wholesale, in France and Bel- 
gium, for ten shillings, while such is the luxury of finish and embellish- 
ment applied to sportsmen's guns, that they are sold as high as £500 
each. 

We noticed in the French compartment the musket of the cent gardes^ 
which as we have seen, is loaded at the breech. This musket is fitted 
with a straight sabre of the length of the old rapier, fonning with the 
musket a lance more than seven feet long. Next we had the celebrated 
rifle, known as the MinU rifle^ the improvements in which are due to 
two French Officers, Messrs. Minie and Delvigne. It is well known that 
the shape of the ball, which has undergone and is still undergoing great 
alterations, is highly important in attaining precision in the din*ctii)n of 
the ball, fired from this formidable wea[M>n. Revolving pistols have 
undergone a variety of alterations, most of which are improvements. 
Mr. Gastine Reinette of Paris, exhibited some banrls of fowling piecesv 
the strength of which was wonderful. This pm|K>rty of exemption from 
the danger of bursting is the eflect of a new process of weKlini;, which 
consists in using, instead of flat bands, twisted spirally on a mandrel 
fitting clow*ly, so as to be welded afterwards, two triangular nxls, fitting 
one into the other, for the puqx>se of being welde<I. These bands or tikIs, 
thus twisted together on the mandrel an^ to each other as the female is 
to the male screw, when the latter is ins(*rted. 

1 omitted to mention the fiehl-piece termed the Emperor^s Mysietn. 
His piece, intended to fire shells as well as solid shot, relieves an army 
from the necessity of carrying mortars, as wril as field pieces ; and 
the principle equalizes the diameter of the hollow, with that of the as 
shot, it simplifies the service, and facilitates the equipment of an I 
force. 

Belgium, and particularly Liege, exhibited a vast collrdtioo of ■ 
arms, both military and for sporting purpi>ses. All the iinpiovmMl 



326 



known in France^ except in a few particulars, are known and tamed to 
practical account, with the same degree of perfection, as at Paris. 

Prussia made a fine exhibition of fire arms, among which we noticed 
the cast steel cannon by Mr. Knipp. 

In the English compartment, a Mr. Needham who was an exhibitor, 
shewed a gun to be loaded at the breech, in which the charge is ignited 
by a needle. This is a Prussian invention, on which Mr. Needham pre- 
tends that he has made improvements. Great praise was bestowed upon 
some ornamented arms, exhibited by Mr. Zuloaga of Spain. A rifle with 
carved work by Mr. Rinzi of Milan was regarded as a master-piece of 
workmanship ; and in the Sardinian section we remarked a model of a 
portable drill for cannon which would save the trouble of sending to an 
arsenal or an armourer's forge, to repair the touch-hole of a gun, when it 
is useless. 

The fourteenth class contained, imder the title of CivU Constructions^ 
(buildings for the purposes of civil life) a mass of articles connected 
with, or pertaining to, the private dwellings of mankind, and to public 
edifices, required by the social habits of civilized life. 

We shall take a hasty survey, for no other is possible, of what this 
section contained that could interest us. Among the numerous speci- 
mens of building stone exhibited, we noticed, first in order, the collec- 
tion from Wurtemburg, arranged in form of a pyramid, and in the 
geological order of the natural formations. This comprised granite, 
sandstone and limestone of various kinds, and belonging to the diflerent 
epochs. We next came to the fine collection of limestone from the envi- 
rons of Caen, in Normandy, the price of quarrying which on the spot 
varies from I5s. to 20s. the cubic metre (30 cubic feet.) There were also 
specimens of the carboniferous and colored limestone of the environs of 
Bristol. This collection was the same as that exhibited in England in 
1851. 

Public attention is now occupied, particularly in France, with a ques- 
tion long and extensively agitated, concerning the fabrication of artifi- 
cial stone, to supersede rubble masonry with economy of material and 
labor, and yet secure greater solidity. Mr. Coignet of St. Denis, exhibited 
a stone consisting of coal ashes and quick lime^ or of ^and, small shingk 
and limCy or again, of sand^ terra cot/a in powder ^ ashes and lime. This 
substance costs from 6s. to 10s. per cubic metre. It is run like grouting, 
and in fact the building is cast in a mould, by portions which are more 
or less considerable. A house in the environs of Paris was thus cast, in 
every part, together with its mouldings and other ornaments. Separate 
walls have also been erected 50 feet in height, by way of experiment. 
Blocks of artificial stone are also made, in which plaster is the principal 



327 



material. Mr. Bernard exhibited al^m small sperimms of lar<^i*rl)ln(*kii, 
which he 18 making for the harbor of Cht>rlK>iir^ of an arliririal vitrifiod 
sabstancc, which appears to be superior to hydraulic cements and grout- 
ing. This substance is obtained fmm plastic clay, well worked, and 
subjected to excessive kiln-burning. 

France, England and Wurteinberg seemed to hold the first place in 
the invention of cements. The Exhibition contained material evidence 
of the labors of Messrs de Villeneuve and V'icat, Engineers, particularly 
in the application of the Hul>-carbonutes of lime*, and magnesian lime- 
stone. 

It would be a tedious lulior to give the names of the vari<Mis marbles 
from all countries. Some, lu>\vevcr, wen* so iN'autiful, that it would be 
unjust to omit to mention them. Algeria had si*nt, ainon^ either kinds, 
that beautiful marble which is called ai^ate or onvx, the veined and 
transparent whiteness of which is so greatly admiri*d,and the line yellow 
marble of Xumidia, these two were celebrated among tin' aneit-nts. 
Florence exhibited a collection of those inagnifieent Tumniu marbles, 
whicri are known to the whole world. Greece and the Island o( C<»rsiea 
had splendid s|M*(*imens of rouge aniique^ gn'en |K)q)hyry, rerJ aniique^ 
and other marbles. England exhibited fine large s|H'eimens i)f Coniish 
serpentine. 

Many countries had contributed slates, tiles, and bricks, of various 
forms and (quality. Th«^ hollow bricks seemed to be much approved 
oC owing to their comparative lightness and small cost. It was shewn 
indeed, that in the fabrication of this new article for buihliui^, there is 
a saving both in the quantity and manipulation of the material, as well 
as in the processes of drying and burning. Tin* articles of this kind 
exhibited by the house of Messrs. Boric, Brothers, were a«lminible. 
Term cotta was shewn to be applicable to a new um\ as a stucco or 
planter, in places in which damp might destroy ordinary mortar. 

Next after Canada, in the exhibition of timber, as a material for build- 
ing, came Jamaica, British Guiana, New South Wales, Van Diemen*s 
Land and Algeria, particularly in respect to flooring and woods for in- 
ternal decoration. Among the articles exhibited by Algeria, we 
the wood called Thuya or^Citre which was so highly firii 
Romans, ("icero is said to have paid for a table 
a sum equal to £5000 of our currency. In the AlfW^ 
specimens carefully selected from the root, the tn 
knots of the tn*e, in order to shew the Yariegala^ 

. Sweden, Norway, Anstriai Tuscany, and Mf 
specimens of timber suitable both for bnllttm 



328 



we have already had occasion to notice in a general way, under the bead 
of Products of the Forest. 

A word relative to the processes of two French inventions, one 
for the preservation of wood, the other for coating very soft species 
of stone as a defence against exfoliation or efflorescence. Mr. Bou- 
cheni produces by pressure the complete saturation of the pores of 
timber with a solution of sulphate of copper, while the wood is still 
green. The expense of the process and of the material is about 15s. per 
cubic metre (30 feet cubic) of soft wood. Thus pine of superior quality, 
worth 6d. per foot, would, after saturation, cost Is. per foot. As a test of 
the efficacy of his plan Mr. Boucheni exhibited the results of 18 years' 
experience. Railroad ties of bouleau, laid down nine years ago, had 
been taken up in order to be exhibited. They were in a state of perfect 
preservation, while similar pieces, laid down with them at the same 
time, were totally decayed. Mr. Kulman, by repeated moistening of 
the surface of soft stone, coats tt\em with a layer of silex. This be calls 
silicating. Now this silication costs about Is. per square metre f9 or 10 
square feet) and renders the softest ston6 as durable as the hardest kinds. 

We may be allowed to cite the flattering compliments paid to Canada 
by Mr. Tresca : "Canada," he says, " « a land of hope not likely to he dis- 
" appointed. Active^ intelligent^ enterprising, beyond aU other distinct nations^ 
" which equally abound in the elements of industrial production^ it claims and 
*' demands our attention.^^ 

In the department of metals as materials for building purposes, we 
noticed among many other articles, cast-iron pillars for beacons, wharves, 
and bridges ; T irons for floors, from several factories of France, in which 
country this method of building prevails extensively; waved sheet- 
iron from the French factory of Montataire, used in roofing without 
rafters or irons, piping for water-works 10 feet long by 3 feet diameter 
cast at the foundry of Fourchambault in France, for the city of Madrid. 

We must not omit to mention the large models of tressels, scafiblding, 
rooffing and other articles connected with building exhibited by Messrs. 
Neveu & Co. of Paris ; as that gentleman is a master in his profession 
and one of those who advocate and maintain the use of wooden ma- 
terials in building, against the encroachments of iron. It is impossible 
to give in this place even a hasty sketch of the numerous models of 
public works, French and foreign, which were exhibited. France had 
Dooms, both temporary and permanent, tunnels, water- works, viaducts, 
bridges, and light-houses, alse a model of a bridge now being built over 
the Seine opposite to the Hotel de Ville. This bridge, of one arch, while 
very light in appearance, evinces a degree of boldness, never equalled, in 
the arrangement of the key of the arch. An engineer named Martin, 



820 



who is mho an artist, was strack with the diffeience in an artistic view, 
between stone bridges and iron bridges, and with the mean appearance 
of the latter, and has endeavored in erecting his bridge at Tarascon to 
give to metal bridges, together with the durability of stone, the same 
handsome monumental appearance. All honor to Mr. Martin who han 
thus continued to mingle the useful with the beautiful, as qualities 
equally necessary! 

In die En^ish Exhibition, there was a model of the tubular bridge 
over the Menai, which sinks somewhat in dignity before the undertaking 
of the Victoria Bridge ; a model of the harbor of Grimsby at the mouth 
of the Humber, and another of a similar work at Wearmouth. 



VI. 
FIFTH GROUP. 

MAIfUFACTUABS OF MIHBBAL PBOOUCTB. 

Classes 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Let us cast an eye ovi^r the fifteenth class, relating to rough and manu- 
factured steel. There is a species of this material now largely manufac* 
tnredy and the use of which is rapidly extending, for the fabrication of 
cooimon tools, parts of steam-engines, and even ordinary carriages. This 
is called puddled steel. It is not mure costly than malleable iron, inas- 
much as it is produced by merely interrupting, at a given moment, the 
process of decarbonizing cast iron while rendering it malleable. Puddled 
steel, therefore, is merely casUiron less charged with carbon than the cast- 
ing of the blast furnace, or iron containing more carbon than malleable iron 
contains. This discovery, so simple in its nature, b due to Mr. Stengel, 
a Prussian, and was improved on in Belgium and France. It is now. 
** As ^eal fact in meiallurgy^ to use the words of a connoisseur. No 
country is in a better position than Canada to produce this steel, which is 
destined to supersede iron, very advantageously, in many of its uses. 

Yorkshire has placed England in the first rank among the nations which 
produce the steel of commerce in respect of quantity. These English 
sleeb are made of Swedish iron. Next after England comes Austria, in 
which country the provinces of Styria and Carinthia manufacture a large 
quantity and of superior quality ; then France, represented principally by 
the steel factories of the Loire, and, lastly, Prussia and Sweden. 

Cast steel is now used for many pnrposen, to which it was considered 
inapplicable but a few years since. In the exhibition of bells, cauldruns, 
cmnnoo, plates for engraving on steel, springs, pieces of machinery, taxU 



330 



for railways, we observed cast steel to be used, instead of iron, giving 
the advantage of much greater strength, with equal weight, and it is 
probable ere long, at reduced cost. 

In the manufacture of common tools and articles of that class, three coun- 
tries seemed to supply the demands of a large export trade, being in the or- 
der of the quantity supplied, England, Prussia, Austria. France is self-sup- 
plying, but exports little. Sheffield, in England, and Solingen on the 
Rhine, are the chief centres of production. 

The problem to be solved in the production of tools, as of other articles 
in ordinary use, is how to produce the best article at the lowest remune- 
rative price. Taking both these conditions into the account, France, 
England, Austria, Prussia, and Canada were on terms of perfect equality. 
Austria has a reputation for the manufacture of scythes which she has 
always maintained. About 6,000,000 are made in each year, and 1 ,850,000 
sickles and chopping knives. In order to give an idea of the beauty, taste, 
and luxury displayed in certain articles, on the one hand ; and on the other 
of the cheapness at which similar articles can be produced, we D>ay 
remark that there are scissors to be had at £10 per pair, and scissors at 
Id. per pair, that there are razors sold at Is. per dozen, which will not 

shave, and razors which will shave well, at Is. each. 

« 

It would be useless to give a more detailed account of the articles in 
this class. We must limit ourselves to those which obtained marked 
distinction, and to new modes of production, new demands of fashion, 
in order that our countrymen may reap some benefit fron an Exhibition 
which they could not visit, though they contributed to it so nobly. 

The sixteenth class, to which we now come, related to the fabricaiion 
of metal articles of ordinary use. It would be tedious to mention all 
the articles comprised in the extensive exhibition of this class, to which 
so many had contributed, but in which the improvements apparent bore 
no comparison to those cited in the other classes relating to the manufac- 
ture of metallic articles : for the simple reason, probably, that articles of 
this class being in every day use, have been speedily brought to a certain 
height of perfection, which cannot be exceeded, except by the silent 
working of time. 

We have already noticed the high intelligence manifested in the 
manufacture of cast-iron articles in Europe, and the beautiful exhibition 
made by the Coalbrookdale Company, whose articles occupied a space 
near that of Canada. Other manufacturers obtained notice, as Mr. 
Ducel and the foundry at Val d'Osne in France, and Messrs. Requilfe, 
Pecqueur and Buckens at Belgium ; but as we have no commentary to 
make of any practical utility, it would be tedious to enumerate the 



331 



▼arioos branche» composing the sections of this class, particnlarly as it 
is connected with those which precede and follow iu 

Among the articles in copper, we noticed the large pieces of wire cloth 
and metallic sieves, contributed by the German States and the sheet- 
oopper sent by Pmssia and France. We mast not omit to mention the 
•ollection of ntensils and articles of zinc, by the Soci4f6 de la VieiU^ 
Momiagnt. As instances of the precious metals applied to ordinary 
uses, and to utensils, for chemical manipulation, tlie articles exhibited 
by Messrs. Desmontis, Chapuis and Co. of France, and those by Messrs. 
Benham and Froud of EIngland, obtained notice. 

The most successful in the fabrication of metal articles for common 
purposes were Messrs. Delloye-Mathieu of Belgium, the house of 
Bochum of Prussia, and Messrs. Dietrich, Barbezat, Mouchel and 
Roswag, and the house of Romilly in France. 

The nextcla^s, the seventeenth, relates exclusively to article?* of luxury, 
and includes goUrnnithB* work, jewelry and thefabricaiion of bronzes. 

On the subject of jewelry and goldsmiths' work, we shall say nothing, 
inasmuch as we could only give a list of names which would convey a 
▼ery faint idea of the wealth exhibited ; moreover the names may be found 
in the pieceding series. We shall, however, say a few words relative to 
to the last section in this class, namely that of the bronzes. 

This branch which is essentially allied to art, is peculiarly Parisian. 
Within these few years the discovery of the galvanoplastic art, that of 
the method of copying by a mechanical process, the master-pieces of 
•cnlpture, and that of the use of zinc, and some economical compounds, 
have greatly enlarged the field of this species of manufacture, by enabling 
its professors to sell, at prices which an* within the n*ach of persons of 
middling fortune, fine copies of the great works. It is [xissible, for 
Inslance, thanks to electro metallurgy, to procure for a few shillings, a 
eopy of a bas-relief, on a reduced scale, but possessing all the merit of 
the original in its relative proportions. 

The process of copying, by a mechanical process, here mentioned, is 
doe to two operators, of artistic talent whose names ought to be placed 
in fecoid, Messrs. Collas and Sauvage. The processes of these* artists 
•re dtflrrent, but both are perfectly successful. The sale of real works 
of art, at cheap rates, must evidently produce an immense effect in the 
taste of the people. Messrs. Susse, Barbedienne and others, for instance, 
are prepared to supply on terms within the means of persons of onlinary 
fertooe, copies of the Venua of Milo^ and of the Apollo Belvedere^ in 
short of all the master-pieces of modem and ancient statuary in 
plaster ; and copies in metal on a smaller scale at moderate prices. 



832 



To this.class belong also these beaatifal imitatiotis of plants in metaly 
with their natural colors ; with such plants covered with imperishable 
leaves, and anfading flowers, tlie fountains of the Palace of the Bxhibition 
were embellished. Prussia seems to reserve to itself the exclusive privilege 
of fabricating those beautiful castings, of velvet smoothness, imitating die 
finest lace work, and ornaments which no one else can imitate. 

The Universal Exhibition of 1855 was rich in aitiolea of the eighteenth 
dassy namely that of glass, porcelain and pottery, in respect botli iif 
quantity and excellence. 

In the manufacture of bottle-glass, the inhabitants of the wine gto^lig 
countries naturally take precedence, as necessity is the moiker ^ iuvemlum; 
accordingly France, Austria and the Rhenish provinces sent die finest 
specimens of bottles and glasses ; Austria especially, had in tke aanexe a 
trophy of bottles full of wine, exhibiting at the same time tbe wines and the 
vessels in which they are deposited for exportation. 

Numerous were the articles of window and plate ^ass, wfaicfa wen 
exhibited from all the countries of Europe. The two large plates from 
France especially, and one from Belgium, were looked upon as models cf 
perfection, and triumphs over the difficulties of the art The same may be 
said of a collection of glass vessels, contained one within another, to the 
number of one hundred and four. 

France, Austria, and Bavaria were distinguished for their exhibitions of 
crystals. With respect to crystal lustres, France and England are the sde 
producers, and this manufacture, the handmaid of luxury, was magnificently 
reprensented by two candelabra and the large lustre from tbe French 
crystal works of Baccarat, and by a candelabrum from Messrs. Osier & 
Co. of England. 

We have to notice an experiment made in France with signal success 
in the manufacture of crystal. This consisted in substituting boracie acid 
or silex and zinc for lead. It produces a material harder and less fusible, 
and renders the glass infinitely preferable to all otliers for optical purposes ; 
but more refractory for engraving and gilding by heat. 

The manufacture of crystals in Bohemia, presents a fact, seen elsewheie 
and in other pursuits, but which is worthy of being noticed and kept con- 
stantly before the eyes of political economists and the heads of industrial 
establishments: labor carried on by families at home. Those magnificent 
crystals so perfectly cut and polished, are wrought and perfected, by 
country people and their families, in their cottages, at those seasons when 
it is impossible to pursue the labors of the field. We have no time to 
comment on this fact, but it contains the solution of a problem in social 



388 



economy, the corollary of w ich is the maintenance of a healthy equili- 
brium between the aggregate of population and the number engag<^ in 
agriculture, and the prevention of too great a centralization of the masses. 
too often the origin and cause of misery and demoralization The ceramic 
art has made wonderful advances. The potter now manufactures porti- 
coes, as he formeriy fashioned niilk^pots. He is become an artist, and 
statues or (.roups of statues issue from his hands. He proves that form^ hoI 
mailer^ rules in work of art. It would be tedious to describe all that was 
exhibited in pottery, common or monumental, in earthenware or porcelain, 
branches in which all contended for the {mim ; always exceptini; the por- 
celain of Sevres, which had no equal, though it found many imitators. 
One word we must say on those machines for tempering ami grinding 
clay, for bricks and earthen pipes, and those moulding-machines* which 
tarn out bricks and pipes, with a saving of time and money which are 
tmly astonishing. Several of them were in operation in the annexe, par 
ticularly in the French and English compartments. The most important 
iMture, perhaps, of this mechanical fabrication, consists in the fact, that any 
one could purchase at a reasonable rate, these pipes for deep drainage 
which are destined, by their general use, to effect a total change in the 
agriculture of the world. As our space does not permit us to describe 
these prooessesi the adoption of which is becoming universal, and which 
render urt so largely subsidiary to the pursuits of agriculture, we shall 
mention the names of the two persons who have effected the most in 
furtherance of this great end, and whose publications ought to be read 
by all educated farmers, particulariy those who possess capital. It may 
easily l>e supposed that we mean the M'irquis de Bryas, and Mr. Parkes 
the English Engineer. 



334 



vn. 

SIXTH GROUP. 

liANUFACTURB OF TlfiSUBS. 

Classes 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. 

We shall cast a rapid glance over the nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-dnt, 
twenty-second and twenty-third classes. These comprehended almost a 
fourth part of the whole number of exhibitors at the Great Exhibition* 
that is to say, 6,000. The general aim in the manufacture of tissues is 
low prices. Acccordingly spun cotton, which ten years ago cost 6s. per 
yard, now costs but Ss., and woollen cloths were exhibited in the Econ- 
omical Gallery costing only 2s. per yard. This advance towards cheapness 
seems to be made from time to time, subject to two conditions: at first, 
it is cheapness only : that is to say, the diminished cost is obtained in the 
first place, generally speaking:, at the ex[)ense of quality ; but, that point 
being attained, the manufacturer perceives the necessity of improving the 
intrinsic value of the article, and, while the selling price remains at the 
same point, the goods improve, so that after the lapse of a few years, an 
article is produced at half the primitive cost, fully equal in value, intrinsi- 
cally, to that of the previous period. 

England occupies the first place among the nations for the quantity of 
cotton manufactured in every form of preparation, and stands second to 
none in respect of quality ; except, perhaps, in a kind which seems pecu- 
liar to the town of Lille. This is an imitation of watered silk {nurin 
antique) in (Cotton. England produces nearly one-half of all the cotton 
goods sold throughout the world. Its factories contain 18,000,000 spindles, 
and spin nearly 600,000,000 lbs. of cotton yearly. France reckons 
4,600,000 spindles, and pro<luccs 144,000,000 lbs. of cotton yam. lu 
Europe, Austria stands next to France, Prussia and the ZoUverein to 
Austria, next Spain, then Belgium. This gradation refers to quantity* 
In respect to quality, all countries are perceptibly on the same level. We 
here speak only of the countries which took a serious part in this section 
of the Exhibition. Of others, it appears that the United States reckon 
nearly 6,000,000 spindles, and accordingly take rank next afler England ; 



836 



aod that Russia stands next to Austria in respect of quantity ; but that 
neither the United States nor Russia has, in respect of quality, all consi- 
dered, attained the perfection achieved by the nations above mentioned, 
in many branches of the cotton manufacture. There is a tendency, on 
every hand, to introduce a combination of cotton with other materials of 
textile fabrics, substituting it, in many kinds of goods, for wool, flax, 
hemp, and even silk. This is natural, with a view to cheapness ; thus we 
have wool and cotton, silk and cotton, linen and cotton* and cotton mixed 
with various other materials. 

In the manufacture of flax and hemp, France, Austria, Prussia, and 
Ireland stand foremost, and equal^ in respect of quantity. Ireland takes 
precedence, perhaps, in respect of the production of ordinary goods, but 
France is fiu: before that country, in fancy goods and the finer articles 
generally. Nearly all (or at least the greater part of) the articles of this 
class, from the United Kingdom, are manufactured in Ireland. Belgium 
ahares the distinction of France in respect of quality, and is on a par with 
the (3erman States, and next after the countries above mentioned, in 
regard to quality. 

In the manufacture of linen and hempen goods, particularly of the 
fcnner, a great part of the spinning, on the Continent, is still done by 
hand. It would be a question worthy of consideration, how fiu: we might 
•occeed, by a suitable organization of domestic labor, and in circumstances 
fiivorable to substantial competition witli the large manufacturing estab- 
lishroents, in producing the same articles, and thus diminishing the still 
increasing centralization of the masses, which is attended, in the large 
frctories, by that mixture of all ages and both sexes, which produces de- 
omralization and wretchedness. 

Several new materials for the loom, or but recently used to a serious 
extent, now engage public attention. One is the Urtira Nivea^ of which 
England exhibited manufactured specimens, under the name of China 
Gnm. Others are the Agave^ Manilla hemp, the fibres of the cncoa-nut, 
the palm* of the mulberry, the date, and of a number of others. What do 
HOC the savage tribes of the Pacific contrived to effect with the bark of the 
€$imr / It is one of the principal objects of mechanical invention of the 
day to discover methods of applying new materials to the textile art, which 
tiU recently was limited to the use of hemp and flax. Thb is a result of 
the constantly increasing demand, especially for naval puqxMKrs. 

This fact which has been evident for so many years, ought to lead us to 
oonaider that in Canada our soil and our climate, and the hydrulogical 
conditions of the country are admirably adapted for the cultivation of hemp, 
which in fiict used to be exported firom Ganadai 



S36 



In woollen manufactures the same relative posidons are taken, that k to 
Bay, that France, Austria, Prussia, England, the United States and Belgium 
rank first with respect to the quantity produced, and that nearly all the 
nations are on a par with respect to the quality of the wool produced. It 
is, however, but just to add, that the progress in England, France and 
Belgium as regards fine cloths, is due entirely to the efforts of the manu- 
fiicturers, whilst as regards Austria, Prussia a:kid Saxony, their position is 
partly due to their altogether special situation with reference to the pro- 
duction of the raw material ; the flocks of Saxony, Silesia, Hungary and 
Moravia produce the finest wool in the world. 

With respect to the price of cloths of similar qualities, the different 
countries appear to rank as follows : Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Bel^um, 
France and England ; the cheapness of material and low price of labor 
are conditions peculiarly in favor of Austria. 

Woollen stufis are divided in the first place into embroidered, woven and 
felted ; the woven stuf& are divided into three special classes, light and 
napless fabrics made of long carded wool, fulled and milled fabrics, made of 
short carded wool, and lastly, mixed fabrics, a sufficiently vague definition. 

In England the fabrics are principally of long wool ; Austrian manu&c* 
tiures are of short wool ; France excels in the class of novelties and 
embroidered stuffs ; French cashmeres are the only ones which can 
compete with those of India. 

Next to the woollen &brics are placed all those &brics in which the 
skins and hair of different animals constitute the only material, or are 
mixed with cotton, wool or thread. 

Germany alone has exhibited stuffs made firom wool taken from the rags 
of old cloth. This manufacture the French call Renaissance. Holland formerly 
so celebrated for her cloth manufactures and so proud of her special fame, 
has now lost her glory, and presents perhaps the most striking instance, in 
this branch, of rapid and complete decay. 

Of silk manuiactures there were about one thousand exhibitors, the 
countries holding the first rank in this department were as follows : France 
521 exhibitors, Switzerland 94, Austria 86, Prussia 49, the Sardinian States 
37, England 85, Spain 80, Tuscany 80, States of the Church 12, — ^there 
were also others fi'om several other States. 

It appears that France alone produces nearly one-half of all the articles 
in silk which are sold throughout the whole world, and in this branch of 
industry France is distinguished, both by the superiority and quantity of 
her productions. Nothing can compare with the articles of silk fi'om the 
manufactories of Lyons, Paris and St. Etienne. 



S37 



For the purpoflea of this work it if utelcas to give more than that general 
fbrmation which no one ought to be without, with respect to the various 
branches of manufacture and which may tend to enlighten the merchant to 
m certain extent with reference to the situation of the various markets, and 
Che lespective qualities and prices of the articles. 

Let us pass on to the articles in the twenty-third class, which comprises 
hosiery, carpets, embroideries, laces and gold and silver firinges. 

To give an idea of the immense difference between the intrinsic values 
of the original materials employed in this class, it will suflSce to say, that for 
the greater part of these manufactures, the price of the thread varies from 
lOs. of our money up to £250 per pound, that is to say, in the proportion 
of one to five hundred, and to give an idea of the importance of the manu- 
fiictore of lace and embroideries, it will be enough to state that it employs 
in Europe about 1,300,000 women and young girls. This branch of 
industry b the more interesting, from the fact, that it is almost the only 
one which permits the work people to labor in their own dwellings, and 
which does not ezpoM them to the dangerous proniscuousness of the 
factory. At this branch the young mother may work with her children 
around her, under her husband's own roof, and the young girl in the 
paternal domicile surrounded l)y her brothers and sisters under her mother s 
eye. 

Imitation cotton lace is made by machinery and can be sold as low as 
ooc-half-|)enny per yard. 

The materials of which these beautiful fabrics ase composed, are linen, 
silk, woollen and cotton thread, tMimctinies mingled with gold or silver 
thread. 

France and Belgium excel all other countries in the fabrication of 
laces, prints and embroidery. France suqmsses Belgium In the making 
of black and white silk laces, and fancy articles ; Belgium exceU Franc*e 
in Bmseels and Valenciennes |X)ints. Next to the«ie two countries rank 
Austria, Switxerland and Scotland. In the manufacture of laoes, twists, 
lie., io (act lace making and embroidery in general, particnlariy em- 
broiderj lor religious purposes, France, Belgium, Au9«tria ami Switxerland 
bold the highest rank. 

In tapestry work there is one branch which the workers carry on at 
home ; this is peculiar to Sweden, and has attracted attention as an art, 
as a production, and as a social question ; this is tlie manuCocture of 
lapestiy embroidered with the needle. We have only now a word to 
•ay of the beautiful French manufactui^ of tapestry ; let ns remark the 
tapestry froni Aubusson and other factories and pass gradually to tbo 

W 



338 



tapestry of Beauvais and Gtobelins, which must be considered not so 
much in an industrial as in an artistic point of view. When by a line 
traced with worsted thread can be produced, the composition, drawing 
and coloring of Raphael's Miractdoua draught of fishes y and Philippe 
Champaigne's Dead Christy the worker must not only be an artist but a 
skilful (me. Beauvais is devoted more particularly to the manufacture 
of tissues for house and furniture decoration. 

To the exhibition of Grobelins hangings may be added the beautiful 
velvet carpets called savontieriej which is now a branch of notanufacture 
at Gobelins. One of these carpets, the velvet of which, worked with the 
needle, is more than an inch in thickness, and at which four workmen 
have labored seven years, is worth £6,000. 

The countries which ranked next to France in tapestry work, were 
England, Austria and Prussia. 



VIII. 
SEVENTH GROUP. 

rURNITURE AND DECORATION, ARTICLES OF CLOTHINO, &C., AlfD DRAWIKO 
AND MODELLING APPLIED TO INDUSTRY, PRINTING AND MUSIC. 

Classes^ 24, 25, 26, 27. 

The exhibition of furniture resulted in great success to France, and 
especially to Paris ; the only fault found with the exhibitors was, that 
they did not display specimens enough of the common furniture in ordi- 
nary use. It is impossible to describe the richness and beauty ctf this 
vast collection of French furniture. 

We remarked as deserving of praise an English pier glass with arose 
wood frame, from a design by Mr. Brigneaux, a French Eulist, the work- 
manship, however, was altogether English ; a fine oak book-case fioni 
Denmark, and some pulpits for churches, and a niche carved in oak, 
with a static of the Virgin, by a Dutch artist. 



S39 



In all these branches, designs have to be obtained (rom Paris or the 
other industrial centres of France, and this should not be forgotten by 
those of our cabinet makers who are desirous of being initiated into the 
•ecrets of harmony and mathtmatxcal precision in the adjustment of the 
parts and taste in the decorations and accessories. 

In the other branches of decoration, France always maintained a vast 
toperiority, but the foreign eihibitions were more worthy of remark than 
on the former occasion in 1851 ; thus Austria exhibited fine carvings in 
Wagmm stone ; Rome* Tuscany, and Sardinia, fine mosaic work applied to 
decorative furniture ; England, some magnificent work boxes, Scotland, her 
flincy articles shewing the various tartans ; Germany, her fancy smoking 
eontrivances. 

In Morocco leather work, England and France evince decided 
superiority. 

For paper hangings, France took the same rank which she had carried 
by assault for furniture. It would be alike useless and tedious to enter 
into details respecting the difi*erent materials employed in the manufacture 
of furniture, fce., carton-pierre, papier macho, fcc. : we have only to observe 
that Paris alone manufactures £200,000 worth of furniture, and therefore 
m the difierent varieties of timber are the chief materials in this branch 
of industry, which is daily increasing in importance, it is a market, the 
conditions of which Canaia ought to study with some care. 

The twenty-fifth class was divided into two principal sections, articles 
of clothing properly so called, and fancy articles including canes, fans, 
parasols, and other fancy articles. In this class, as in all those in which 
alone is to be consulted. Paris gives the law, and France manufac- 
for the whole world. From this general rule, we may except the 
hats and fabrics of straw from Tuscauy, Switxerland and Belgium, the 
delicate fancy articles in wood from Switzerland, which are equal to those 
df Franca of the same kind, some hair work from Prussia, meerschaum 
pipes from Austria, and soma cheap articles in gloves, hats and umbrellas 
from England. 

The most remarkable articles in point of usefulness at the Exhibition of 
1U5» were some water-proof fabrics of various kinds, seamleas clothing 
of felU axA clothing sewed by machine r}'. 

This exhibition of clothing presents a very picturesque appearance, duo 
to the exhibition of historical costumes by the property purveyors to the 
Paris theatres, and the nstional and provincial coetumes of the difl'^reot 
eoiuitrie% turbans, vests, and embroidered caflana from the countries where 
Uamiam prevails, the gauses and cottumes of crimson velvet worked 



340 



with gold from Greece, clothing of various materials adorned with 
feathers and shell-work and the spoils of the chase, by the Aborigenes 
of America, Africa, and Oceanica, and above all, the precious stuffs and 
gauzes embroidered with gold and precious stones used by the Princes of 
India. 

In this class is comprised the vast collection of toys, consisUrg of dolls, 
figures, automata, and a thousand other trifles, usually placed on the mantel 
piece or drawing-room table. In that class France, England, Austria, 
Bavaria, Saxony, and Wurtemburg are the most distinguished : the United 
States exhibited some toys of India rubber, and India some figures in 
ivory and ebony representing the manners and customs, animals and 
plants so peculiar to the East. It would be useless, indeed impossible, to 
enter into any longer details respecting these classes, which, in an exami- 
nation of this nature possess interest only as a whole, and for which a 
brief description suflices. 

The twenty-sixth class, relating to drawing, and modelling, applied to 
industry, letter press and copper plate printing, photography, printing and 
binding deserves a longer and more detailed examination than the classes 
preceding. 

In the happy application of art to industry and the introduction of taste 
into manufactured articles, we must notice particularly two mechanical 
processes, both producing the same effects by slightly different means, viz., 
the reproduction with the greatest exactitude, in fact a mathematical 
exactitude of every description of object in relief and consequently of the 
dtef (Pceuvres of sculpture and statuary. These processes invented almost 
at the same time by two Frenchmen, Messrs. Sauvage and Collas in 1836, 
have already worked wonders, especially in the manufacture of bronzes 
and plaster casts, the entire aspect of which they have altogether renewed ; 
the two master-pieces exhibited to illustrate these processes were a statue, 
in plaster of the Venus of Milo, increased one-half, placed by the side of 
a reduction by one-half of the same work, and the equestrian statue in 
bronze of the Emperor Napoleon the Third, increased to double the size, 
from the model by Mr. Debay. A host of other copies of all sizes and of 
different materials, ancient and modem master-pieces, were exhibited in the 
Palace and the annexes. 

By means of wax, every variety of created being with all their colors, 
reflections, physical appearances, varieties ofshade and transparency have been 
reproduced. Even oysters have been copied in spite of the softness of the 
substance which characterises them, and the reflections ever fleeting of the 
mother of pearl composing their shells ; copied we say with a perfection which 



341 



astonishes and confounds one : this discovery has rendered immense service 
to the physical sciences, and to medical study. 

Beautiful carvings in wood and ivory and monldings of different matcri.ils 
both natural and artificial^ form part of the fine and interesting exhibition 
m the class we are now considering. The artists in these different brandies 
appear to have paid special attention to religious art, and from h to have 
derived their most beautiful conceptions, and their most delicate execfiition. 
There seems indeed to be some indefinable connection between the mate- 
rial employed by the artist and the subjects which he treats ; for example 
there are groups and statues which are much more effective in bronze than 
in marble and vice vena; some descriptions of marble are more suited for 
Mrtain attitudes than for others, and this the artist feels ; there is one 
subject which almost all ivory carvers have treated, — the Ecce Homo — 
is not ivory admirably calculated to represent the sublime sacrifice of the 



Carton-pierre appears to enjoy special favor among the artificial sub- 
stances employed in decoration, the frames of the magnificient pier glasses 
in the exhibition were composed of this material. 

Leather has been adapted to purposes of decoration and beautiful 
hanging of leather worked in relief were to be seen in the palace of industry. 

Nearly all the countries of Europe have exhibited in the branches just 
referred to ; France took the lead in this great concourse ; Austria possesses 
the art of producing wax figures ; England exhibited beautiful decorations 
in carton pierre, amongst other things, a church altar surmounted by a 
statue of the Virgin ; and some beautiful medallions with hunting subjecu. 
Italy, and particularly Florence, has dbtinguished herself by her prepara- 
tions in wax of subjects in natural history. 

Lithography which has, in Prance especially, been brought to such per- 
fection, is particulariy valuable as a means of reproducing paintings from 
the fact of its being able to exemplify the styl^ and tone of the painter 
with greater fidelity than engraving either on wood or steel. This art has 
recently received a new application which goes l)y the name of cAromo/y- 
thograp^yy by which term we may understand enffmving on stone with 
eotort. This process consists in the drawing upon as many stones as there 
are colors or tints to apply, drawing on each stone only the part to be 
produced in one particular color ; the difltculty lay in giving the exact 
precision to the different sections of the entire piece, and adjusting exaetly 
the divisions in all the details of the execution. This difficulty has Ijccn 
overcome and perfection has been attained. Mr. Dufour, the author of the 
celebrated AUom Dufour has given to Mr. Logan a charming copy reduced 



842 



of the Geological chart of Canada, in which are contained 23 different 
shades and colors. Copies are produced in this style of illuminated 
manuscripts, the workd of pious monks of the middle ages, which are 
brought out with inconceivable fidelity and skill. 

After France, Austria and England are the two countries in which litho- 
graphy and chromolithography are cultivated with the greatest success. 
We niay remark that by means of chromolithography, the price of colored 
maps and pictures has been reduced in the proportion of three to one. 

England maintains her old superiority in the style of engraving called bj 
the English mezzotirUoj and which the French name maniire noire. 

It is useless to enlarge on the beauty of copper and steel engravings. 
In wood engraving, which appears to have reached the zenith of its glory, 
the different countries in which this art has been carried out, appear to 
have attained about equal success, the process being more mechanical thao 
in the other branches of engraving. 

The imitation of water colors is only carried out in England to any great 
extent. 

The astonishing and curious invention of Mr. Daguerre has, since it left 
bis hands, undergone various modifications ; besides daguerreotypes we 
have now photographs taken on paper, heliographyy that is to say, a style of 
engraving in which light takes the place of the burin of the engraver. In 
this latter branch the exhibitions from France, England, Greece, Florence, 
Rome and Munich were especially worthy of notice. 

We must not leave this subject without referring to the works of Messrs. 
Solomon and Gamier of Ghartres, who, by the application of a discovery 
made by Mr. Niepce of St. Victor, have by a series of processes in which 
hdinSy mercury^ acids and thick ink are the principal materials, succes- 
sively or simultaneously employed, succeeded in producing at will and very 
rapidly, copies of crayo^ drawings, specimens of typography and of 
prints or engravings exactly similar to the original models. 

It would be impossible to describe the perfection at which typography 
has now arrived. The two principal establishments in the world have 
illustrated the history and progress of this wonderful art, which has 
changed the aspect of the world. If -3Esop, returning to the world had 
again to answer the double question, '* Which is the best and worst thing ?** 
Instead of answering as he did before, " The tongue/' he would certainly 
say it was the art of printing. Let us return to the establishments lo 
which we referred, viz : the Imperial Printing OtBces of France and Aus- 
tria. 



a48 



The Imperial Ptiating OfTce of France exhibited, as shewing the utmoet 
degree of perfection in typography attained in 18o5, a folio edition of the 
ImUaiiom de Ji^ua Chfisi^ with the translation into French verse by Pierre 
Comeille, ornamented with vignettes and arabesques, executed by purely 
typographical processes. All the Fs in this edition bear the distinguishing 
mark of the type of the Imperial Printing Office of France, that is to say, 
a small mark to the left of the letter, the distinctive sign of all the printed 
matter issuing from this establishment 

The Imperial Printing Office of Austria exhibited, as the invention moat 
remarkable for iu novelty, magnificent specimens obtained by the process 
styled metkode natwreUe^ invented in that fine establishment. These con* 
atsted of collections of plants, leaves, roots, ferns, sea- weeds, skins, and 
other produce of living animak, .also laces and tissues. These productions in 
deroi-relief are obtained by the impression of the object itself on a thin 
sheet of lead, and then taken from the surface of this ductile metal by the 
electrotype process. In order to obtain the first impression on the lead, the 
leaf or other object is placed between a plate of lead and another uf poU 
iahed steel or copper, and the whole is then submitted to the action of 
a rolling press. Nothiug can exceed the beauty and fidelity of these 
copies ; by means of this procesiv all public institutions may be provided 
with copies of those beautiful herbals which are now confined exclusively 
to a &w great and old families, for it is impossible by any other means to pro- 
duce in relief the characteristics of plants which it may be sought to study. 

In this class also is comprised the exhibition of designs for manufae* 
tnres, an art which gives that superiority to France ia all classes of pro- 
doctt in which good taOe is of any im|.ortauce. A manufacturer here 
eJbeculea everything in accordance with a design prepared by an artist who 
devotes himself specially to the branch, the hitter has nothing whatever to 
do with the meclianical processes, and the business of the workman is only 
to produce with exactness the design submitted by the artist. In the 
panorama we perceive the most beautiful designs for stuffii, ornamental and 
iuiey articles and articles of clothing and furniture. 

Type founding being the chief element of good and beautiful typo- 
graphy, it b needless to say what perfection it has attained. The progtess 
in this manofiMTture which has enabled typography to rival engraving and 
lithography in the production and imitatiou of arabesques and penmanship 
is due to Mr. Derriey of Besan^on, an artist and type founder, to whom is 
principally due the bringing to perfection of vignettes in ty|iography. 
Now, however eccentric may be the signature of a man of law, an exact 
typographic imitation of it may be produced by moveable type. 



9U 



Book binding nvat represented at the Exhibition in all its varied forms 
from the monumental styles exhibited in the French and Austrian com- 
partments, works of art in which the purest taste has been displayed and 
in the preparation of which the most valuable materials have been employed 
and fashioned in a thousand ways, to the cheap bindings in cotton, numer- 
ous specimens of which were sent by England. Illuminated covers 
for the decoration of drawing-room tables or for school prizes were ex- 
hibited by Mr. Lcn^gre of Paris. We notice also beautiful gilded covers 
and metallic binding, by Mr. Gast6 of Paris, applied to public registers 
and mercantile books, and which by their peculiar style and solidity form 
a distinct branch of the manufacture. 

The twenty-seventh class, which is the last which relates to manufitc- 
tures, includes musical instruments of all kinds. 

We shall only offer a few general remarks to note the most recent im- 
provements in this class, which numbered nearly 500 exhibitors, of whom 
850 were French. 

An improvement which it is said has worked wonders, as regards sound 
in wind instruments of wood, is the enlarged arrangement at the outside of 
the holes, which in these instruments are not stopped directly by the fingers, 
but by means of a small contrivance for the purpose. 

In wind instruments of copper, it seems that by allowing large diame- 
ters to the curves, an immense effect is produced in the quantity and 
quality of the sound. 

The celebrity of Italian violins from the town of Cremona is well 
known. This reputation was due to four or five makers, who no longer 
exist, but whose talent was such that great artistes have paid as much as 
£1,000 for a Oremana^ for so are these violins called. A Parisian maker, 
Mr. Vuillaume, has succeeded in imitating so perfectly that the differ- 
ence cannot be distinguished, the style, workmanship, arrangements and 
the varnish of Cremonas, and what is better still, the real merit as regards 
sound, of these celebrated instruments, satisfying thus both caprice and 
necessity : this caprice perhaps should not be called so, for without its 
exigencies such great perfection might never have been attained. 

We shall say nothing of the organs, harmoniums and pianos, of which 
there are about 400 specimens. Every one knows the name of Erard, 
whose pianos have as great a reputation as the violins of Cremona. The 
head of this firm died during the Exhibition and the direction passes to 
the nephew of the deceased, who was himself a nephew of his predeces- 
sor. This firm has acquired a princely fortune, and owns the celebrated 



846 



estate of Pasfiy, known as the Chateau de la Muette. The firro of Erard 
has a branch in London. 

We may mention the mechanical piano by Mr. Dehain of Paris*, on 
which you may play without being a musician, as you play on a barrel 
organ, by turning a handle, but, by means of an excelii*nt piano key- 
board, (the very best if you like) the keys of which are acted U|>on by 
ootea of mosic, represented on small boards by metallic points, which 
perform like a great master. Tluis you have one of Mr. I)chain*s me- 
chanical pianos, you ask for the music of a new opera, it is sent to you 
noted on a board, with the breves, crochets, &e., you place it in the 
slide of your piano, you set some one to turn the handle, and you hear 
the opera beautifully executed. Mr. Uebain gives nearly 100 pieces of 
music noted on boards to those who purchase his pianos. 

The countries which most distinguished themselves in the fabrication 
of musical instruments, were France, Au.««tria, Prussia, Bavaria, Italy 
and Belgium. Naples is particularly celebrated for her inimitable cAcrn- 
tereUes. Of copper instruments Austria had as many exhibitors as France. 
This was we believe the only section in the whole exhibition in which a 
foreign state had as many exhibitors as France. 



IX. 

THIRTY-FIRST CLASS. 

We have already referred to this interesting class of domestic economy. 
In the recapitulation of prizes we shall sec the success obtained rc8|>ec- 
tively by each nation ; let us here mention the classes in which the 
different nations excelled in cheap productions. In thi^ class were 
comprised articles connected with printing destineil to furnish means of 
instruction to the working classes. In this class Messrs. Maine & Co. of 
Toars, have received the Great Medal of Honor, for their eilurational 
works, and other publications, combinins? excellence of ({unlity, at a low 
price, the combination of which two elements alone constitutes rhen|>> 



lo the section relating to the preparation of articles of focnl, we remark 
with interest the various Italian meals and pastes, the meals and preser%*ed 



346 



meats of France, and Canada, the beautiful preserved fruits and vegetables 

of France, the French and Rhine wines. The countries which are 
distinguished in this section are, — in the order of success obtained, — 
France, Portugal, Sardinia, the German States, and Canada. Austria 
exhibited some wine of good body, at an excessively low price, and 
Spain some dried fruits at very moderate prices. 

In the section relating to clothing, we ad mired the cheap French cloths, bu^ 
especially those of Austria and Prussia, the French boots and shoes, the 
Prussian and English cottons, and the cheap Austrian and Belgium 
linens. As regards the number of prizes obtained in this section, the 
different countries ranked as follows : France, Austria, Prussia, England, 
the German States, Portugal, Canada and Belgium. 

In the section relating to dwellings we remarked, French and English 
economical methods of building, economical contrivances for lighting 
from France, Belgium and Portugal. France exhibited nearly all the 
articles in this section. 

In the section relating to furniture, we observed iron furniture from 
England and France, furniture of common woods from France, delf axid 
stoneware from England, France, and Portugal, and a fine collection of 
coopers' work from the United States. 

We have already stated that, in this class, articles connected with 
printing at low prices, destined for the education of the poorer classes 
were admitted. In this branch France obtained several prizes, and 
Prussia also for cheap engravings, destined for popular education. 

It must be bome in mind that to derive profit from these observations, 
it is necessary, in each class, to refer simultaneously to the different 
series, and to the recapitulation which immediately follows the fourth 
series, which contains the total number of prizes awarded to each 
country, — this number may be compared, with the number of exhibitors 
given at the comn^encement of these observations ; these series ar» 
rendered complete each one by the others. 

Our labors are now brought to an end. A writer has said : ^< Let us 
^^ hope that this great exhibition will not be looked upon only as a 
^^ simple matter of curiosity on the partof the public^ orasasimple question 
of publicity and progress on the part of the exhibitors ;" were that all 
indeed, the exhibition being concluded, nothing more remains. We 
have endeavoured to derive from it some little information for Canada, 
and have managed that some written documents shall remain in Europe, 
which may serve to perpetuate for the benefit of the country, the useful 
and practical remembrance of our own exhibition. Our motto has been: 
** To diffuse information respecting Csinada, and to study the industry 
" of other countries." 



FOURTH SERIES. 

A rmW WORDS on TBS UiriTKRSAL KXHIBITIOlf OF BECBDIMG AlllMAUI. 

The grand agricultural exhibition of breeding animaln was held in 
the Champ de Mars during the first month of the Industrial and Art 
Exhibition which took place at Paris ; it formed a necessary addition to 
the class of the gi^at exhibition relating to agriculture. 

The place set apart for this exhibition was a portion of the west side 
of the lawns which border the Champ de Mars. Five rows of tents and 
stalls tastefully ornamented, served as shelter for the 1684 animals sent 
thither from the different countries of Europe ; wide passages, and 
squares adorned with sparkling fountains and the ta^es in the vicinity, 
aflforded shade, air, space and ventilation to the thousands of visitors 
assembled there from all points. 

The only species of animals admitted were, homed cattle, sheep, swine 
and poultry. The classification had provided two principal sections in 
each class, viz : male or female animals of breeds foreign to France, 
bom and raised by foreigners out of tlie country, the property either of 
ibieigncrs or natives ; and male or female animals of either French or 
foreign breeds, pure or crossed, bom and raised in France. Each section 
further divided into a certain number of classes, comprising tlie 
breeds. 

At the close of the exhibition, His Excellency the Minister of Agricul- 
ture deduced the conclusions to be drawn from the general results of 
thp exhibition : *^ From comparative study,'' said His Excellency, ^^ may 
^ be drawn a rule to a certain degree fundamental. The three qualities 
^ (in homed cattle,) meat, milk and labor are very mn*ly imited. The 
^ predominance of one of these qualities speedily demonstrntrs tlie 
** absence of the other two.'' 

After an analytical study of the exhibition, of the different varieties of 
homed cattle, it seems clear : That the breeds which appear to unite tlie 
largest proportional average of the three qualities specified, are tlie 
French breeds of Salcrs, Aubrac, and Parthenai. 

The breeds whi<rh wrre distinguished the most, for the quality of m<*at, 
are the English Durham breed, which exceeds all the known breeds in 



348 



this respect and in point of precocity, and also the English Hereford and 
Devon breeds. 

The breeds which combine to the greatest degree, the two qualities of 
milk and meat, are the Dutch breed, the Swiss, Fribourg and Schwitz 
breeds, the English Ajnrshire breed ; the Scotch breed, and the French 
Normandy and Flanders breeds. 

The French Charolais combines to the greatest degree, the two 
qualities of meat and labor. This breed exhibits great beauty of 
form. 

The Breton and Aldemey are for their size the best for milk. The 
Breton breed particularly, is extremely small and the elegance of its 
form gives it the appearance of an animal intended to ornament a park, 
rather than the appearance of a farm animaL 

The qualities of meat have attained their highest state of developement 
in England ; those of milk and labor in France, Belgium, Holland and 
Switzerland. 

The finest breeds of sheep, for wool, are those of Saxony, Spain, 
France and Austria. The quality of sheep, in the way of meat, has 
attained the greatest perfection in England. 

In conclusion, it appears that the finest breeds of homed cattle in their 
respective qualities are, the Durham, Flemish, Hereford, Norman, 
Schwitz, Swiss, Parthenai, Ayrshire and Charolais. In the section of 
sheep, the pure or crossed merinos are far superior to the others. As 
regards pigs, the Craonaise and Leicester breeds appear to be pre- 
ferred. 

To give an idea of the munificence of the French Government, it is 
sufficient to say, that the first prizes in the different categories of the 
homed cattle class, consisted of a gold medal and the sum of £50. The 
French Govemment extended to this portion of the Great Exhibition, the 
same idea of rewarding, besides the exhibitors themselves, the subordi- 
nate workman, &c., and awarded prizes consisting of medals and sums 
of money to the stewards, bailifis and farm servants, recommended as 

having contributed to obtaining the desired results. 

The population of Canada, being especially an agricultural one, they 
will read, not without interest, the names of dome of the great Europeiin 
breeders. }n order that the most distinguished of these may be known, 
we propose to give here the names of those who took the first prizes in 
the different classes, sections and categories. 



849 



FIRST CLASS. 

HOftMBD CATTLE. 

FirM Section. 

Animals of breeds foreign to France, bom and raised out of thu coun- 
try : 

Kni Calegary — Short Homed Durhama. 

Ist prize for a bull 16 months old, the Marqub of Talhouet de la 
Sarthe, France. 

1st prize for a cow of 20 months old, Lord Leversham. 

1st prize for a cow 4 years old, Mr. Strattou, Irlngland. 

Second Category — Hereford breed. 

1st prize for a bull 8 years old, Lord Berwick. 

Ist prize for a cow 43 months old, Mr. W. Perry, England. 

Third Category — Devon, Sussex and analogous breeds. 

1st prize for a Devon bull 5 years and 8 months old, Mr. G. 
Turner, England. 

1st prize lor a Devon cow, H. R. H. Prince Albert. 

Fourth Category ^XyrAiire^ Alderney an J Scotch breeds. 

Ist prize for a Scotch bull 3i) months old. Lord Talbot. 

1st prize for an Ayrshire cow, G years old, the Man}uis de Vugue 
du Cher. 

F(fth Category— Dutch breed. 

1st prize for a bull 3 years old, the Agricultural Colony of Gaillon, 
in France. 

1st prize for a cow 7 years old, Mr. Gilles of S^ne and Mame. 

Sixth Category — S wiss breed. 

Ist prize for a bull *i years old. Dr. Muller of Switzeriand. 

1st prise for a cow 7 yean old, Mr. Charles Mullar of Switzerland. 



850 



ae 



Seventh Category — Schwitz breed. 

1st prize for a ball 42 months old, Mr. Chabert of Lower Rhine. 

1st prize for a cow 9 years old, Mr. B3lla, Director of the French 
School of Grignan. 

Altogether 62 prizes and honorable mentions were awarded in the seven 
preceding categories. 

Second Section. 

Animals of French and foreign breeds bom and raised in France. 

First Category — ^Norman breed. 

1st prize for a bull 32 months old, Mr. Lain6 of the Lower Seine. 
1st prize for a cow 5 years old, Mr. Lechantier of Calvados. 

Second Category — Flemish breed. 

1st prize for a ball 30 months old, Mr. Demarelle of TAisne. 
1st prize for a cow 8 years old, Mr. Doaville of La Somme. 

Third Category — Charolais breed. 

1st prize for a bull 23 months old, tha Count de Bouille, de la Nievre. 
1st prize for cow 30 years old, Mr. Louis Mass6, da Chen 

Fourth Category — Qaronnais and Agenais breeds. 

1st prize for a bull 17 months old, Mr. Truel de Beauliea of the D^ 
partment of Haute- Vienne. 

1st prize for a cow 4 years old, Mr. de Lavergne of Gers. 
Fifth Category — Comtois breed. 

1st prize for a bull IQ months old, Messrs. Tourtel Brothers of La 
Meurthe. 

1st prize for a cow 4 years old, Mr. Chaupy of Doubs. 

Sixth Category — Mountain breed. 

1st prize for a Limousin bull 34 months, Mr. Tamaad of Haatd- 
Vienne. 

1st prize for an Aabrac cow 26 months, Mr. Charles Darand of la 
Lauz^re. 

Seventh Ca/e^ory— Parthenais, Cholatais and Nantais breeds. 

1st prize for a Chalotais bull, 12 months, Mr. David of La Loire-in- 
ferieure. 

1st prize for a Chalotais cow 6 years, the same, Mr. David. 



SSI 



Eiyhih Caiegcry — Breton breed. 

Ist prize for a bull 23 months, Mr. Guenevoax, of ile-et-Villeine. 
1st prize for a cow 23 months, Mr. Allier. 

Ninih Category — Other French breeds. 

Ist prize for a Breton bull 5 years, Count de Champagnjr du Mor- 
bihan. 

1st prize for a Lorraine cow 6 years, Mr. Pargou of T a Meurthe. 

Tenth Category — Pure Durham breed raised in France. 
1st prize for an ox of 20 months, Mr. Boutton-L£v£que. 
1st prize for a cow 20 months, the Count of Falloux. 

Eleventh Category — Other pure foreign breeds. 

Ist prize an Ayrshire bull 21 months old, the Marquis of Dampierre. 
1st prize for a Swiss cow of 6 years old, Mr. Thieraut Abb6 of Mame. 

Twelfth Category — Cross breeds. 

Ist prize for a Norman-Durham bull 8 years old, Mr. Gregoire of 
Mame. 

Ist prize for a Durham-Cotentine cow of 8 years old, Mr. Cecire of 
rOrne. 

In this second section of the firrt class, there were awarded 86 prizes 
and honorable mentions of all sorts. 



SECOND CLASS. 



Sedion. 

Animals bom and raised in foreign eoantries. 

First Category ^yUrinos and half*breed Merinos. 

No first prizes were awarded in this categor}*. 

2nd prize for a ram of 2 years old, Mr. C. CoUin of ilollaiiJ. 

2nd prize for a lot of Merinoe-oegretti sheep, the same, Mr. CuUia. 
Steond Ca/€|^ory— Breeds with long wool. 

lit prize for a ram of Leieeeter breed, Mr. Riafdom of Lynoh. 



352 



1st prize, ex-ceqtWj for a Leicester ram, Mr. L. C. Watkins. 

1st prize for a Leicester sheep, Mr. G. Turner of England. 
TTiird Category — Breeds from Holland, TexeY^ Cotswold and Oxford. 

1st prize for a Cotswold ram, Mr. Beale Brown of Switzerland* 

1st prize, ex-^zquo^ for a Cotswold ram, Mr. Landy. 

Ist prize for an Oxford sheep, the same, Mr. Brown. 
Fourth Category— SoxxiYi Down and analagoos breeds. 

1st prize for a South Down ram, Mr. Jonas Webb, of England. 

1st prize for a South Down ram, Mr. Rigdon ot England. 

1st prize for a South Down ram, Mr. Allier of France. 

In this section of the Second Class there were awarded altogether 40 
prizes. 

Second Section. 

French and foreign breeds born and raised in France. 
First Category — ^Merinos and half-breed Merinos. 

1st prize for a Merino ram, Mr. Simphal of I'Aisne. 
1st prize for a lot of Merino sheep, Mr. Hutin of France. 
Second Category : — Foreign breeds with long wool. 
1st prize for a New Kent ram, Mr. Allier. 
No first prizes for sheep in this class. 
Third Category : — Foreign breeds with short wool. 

1st prize for a ram of South Down breed, the same Mr. Allier. 
No first prize was awarded for sheep. 
Fourth Category : — Cross breeds. 

1st prize for a half breed merino ram, Mr. Millaut, of Cher. 

1st prize for a lot of Dishley merino sheep, Mr. Pluchet, of France* 



THIRD CLASS. 
swnnB. 



First Section. 



Animals bom and raised in foreign countries. 
First Category : — Large breeds. 

1st prize for a boar of Berkshire breed, Mr. Boutton L§v«que, of France. 
1st prize for a Manchester sow, the Viscount of Curzay, of France, 



S53 



Seeand Category : — Small breeds. 

Isl prize for a Leicester boar, Mr. Bacary Williams, of England. 

Ist prize for a Lieicester cow, the same Mr. Williams. 

The total number of prizes and honorable mention granted in this 
section was 11. 

Second Section. 
French and foreign breeds raised in France. 

Fird Category .—Pure French breeds. 

Ist prize for a boar of Craxniainft breed, Mr. Boutin, of Maine and 
Loire. 

1st prize for a how of Augcronne breed, Mr. Allier, of France. 
Second Category : — Diflferent foreign breeds. 

Ist prize for an Essex boar, Mr. AUier. 

Ist prize for a cow of New Leicester breed, the Marquis of Dam- 
pienc. 

In this Miction therejwere awarded in all 16 prizes. 



FOURTH CLASS. 
GOATS. aABBrrs, ac. 



1st prize for a hc-goat, Mr. Giot, of France. 
1st prize for mbbit.*, Mr. Gi*rani, of Paris. 
There were awanled altogetht*r 5 prizes in this class. 



FltTII CLASS. 

POrLTRY. 



Ist prize for |>oultry of Creveci-ur breed, Mr. Ch:iumcl .\(taiii, «if 
Franc*e. 

Ist prize for a lot of Cochin-China breed, Mr. Gerard, already men- 
tioned. 

Z 



354 



Ist prize for a lot of Dorkings, Mr. Keyworth, of England. 

1st prize for a lot of Spanish poultry, Mr. J. C. Baker, d[ England. 

Ist prize for a lot of Brahma fowls, the same Mr. Baker. 

1st prize for a lot of Dutch breed, Mr. Grevers Deynoat, of the 

Netherlands. 

1st prize for a lot of Italian fowls, Mr. Gerard, of Paris. 
1st prize for a lot of fowls of mixed breeds, the same Mr. G6rard. 
1st prize for turkeys, the same Mr. Gerard. 
1st prize for geese, the same Mr. Gerard. 
1st prize for ducks, Mr. Licmaire, of France. 
1st prize for pigeons, Mr. Barzeau, of France. 
There were awarded altogether 28 prizes in this last class. 



RECAPITULATION 

OFTUE 

PHIZES AWARDED. 

NOTE. 

Tlic lollowing extract from the WnXa of priaM^s awanled, by the Inter- 
national Jury, to the contributors from the diflferent countries irpresented 
at the Exhibition, mny Ik? very useful to commerce in general, as being 
the expr(?s««ion of the degrees of advancement attained in the different 
branches of industry by the different nations of the world. 

We have already seen that the exceptional prizes awarded by the 
Imperial Commission, under the titles of Grand Medals of Honor and 
Medals of Honor, are intended as the expression of the degree of perfec- 
tion obtained, or of discoveries added to science, and in consequence 
are limitc*d in number, in so far as general production is concerned. 

In awarding the first and w^cond class prizes, and the honorable 
mentions the gocKl (quality and comparative cheapness of the articles 
exhibited were more particularly considennl. W«? have already seen, in 
the third series of observations U|x)n the exhibition, mention made of the 
production in large quantity, of articles exhibited in the principal 
branches of industry. In onler to form a correct opinion oi the com|)ara- 
tive state of manufactures in the different countries, we must not lose 
sight of the extent of population, and in order to study the indtistrial 
conditions of the various populations, we must examine the cir- 
cumstances of situation, climate and extents of territor)', in which they 
arc situated. 

At the end of each class is ins(*rted a list of the prizivi, awanled to the 
journeymen and overseers of the exhibitors of the different articles. The 
intention in adopting this description of prizes, has been to reward the 
personal merit of the artists, painters, sculptors and mechanics, u hoae 
talent, good condtict and zeal are the mainspring of the production of 
the articles exhibited. The numbiT of these prizes in each branch of 
industry affords, to a certain extent, evidence of the social condition of 
each country, and still more of the solicitude of the head** of the different 
branches ibr their subordinates, as least as far as regards Europe. 



356 



We shall see at the conclasion of each class a detailed list of the prizes 
awarded to Canadian exhibitors. We should here mention with gmtitode the 
services rendered in the Canadian portion of the flxhibition to the mem- 
bers of the Jury and others, by Messrs. De PulLusquey Hector Bossange 
and Maitland, Honorary Commissioners, residing in Paris. These gentle- 
men exerted for the benefit of Canada all the experience which their long 
residence in Paris gave them, and all their knowledge of the resources of 
Canada, — ^in fact they used all the zeal and energy which a spirit of kindness 
could suggest. 



PRIZES OBTAINED BY THE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES IN THE 
DIFFERENT CLASSES OF THE INDUSI RIAL EXHIBITION. 

FIRST CLASS. 

Mining and metallurgy, comprising general statistics, the modes of work- 
ing mines, the modes of preparing metals, coals and combustible min- 
erals, iron, common metals, precious metals, coins and medals, non-metallic 
mineral prod actions. 

PRIZES. 

! Belgium S 
Prussia 1 
Canada 1 

France • • • • 5 

Belgium 2 

Austria 1 

United Kingdom • • • • • 1 

Prussia 1 

Hanover 1 

f France and her Colonies 143 

United Kingdom and Colonies 65 

Austria 60 

Prussia < 43 

Belgium 38 

ZoUverein • 22 



Medals of Honor 



JdedalsJ of First and 
Second Class, and * 
Honorable Mentions 



Sweden and Norway 

Spain 

Portugal 

Tuscany 

Sardinia 



21 
12 

11 
9 

4 



Medals of First aod 
Second Clas8» and 
Honorable Mentions 



857 



r United Sutes 4 

Ottoman Empire t 

Switzeriand 3 

States of Spanish America 2 

States of the Church • 1 

Greece 1 



PBlZSa AWARDED TO 0VBBSSBR8, JOURNBYMBH AMD WORRMBM. 

Only one Medal of Honor was awarded, to Mr. Uufouich of France, 
Mining Engineer, for a Pamphlet. 



! France 74 

Belgium 24 

Prussia G 

I Austria 4 

[ Hanover 1 

PRIZBS TO CANADA. 

The Grand Medal of Honor was awarded to Sir William Logan, for his 
Geological Map of Canada, and as exhibitor of the greater part of the col- 
lection of minerals. 



SECOND CLASS. 

Everything relating to the management of treev, or to sporting 
fishing and huntimi, and products obtained without cultivation, com* 
prising statistics and general documents, management of the trees, hunting 
of terrestrial auid amphibious animals, fishing, products obtained without 
cultivation, destruction of vermin, me.ins U!ied for acclimatizing animals 
andptanu. 



Grand Medal of Honor j Fkranoe I 

/ Canada.. ••••• 1 

Madab of Honor ] British Guiana I 

(Sydney 1 



358 



Other Prizes 



'^France and her Colonies 

United Kingdom and Colonies* 

Austria • 

States of Spanish America • • • . 

Spain 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Greece 

Sweden and Norway • , 

United States 

Tuscany 

Denmark 

Ottoman Empire 

Switzerland 

Prussia 



40 

27 

8 

5 
S 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
I 



PRIZES AWARDED TO OVERSEERS, JOURNEYMEN AND WORKMEN. 

France 19 

United Kingdom 7 

Austria 5 

Spain 2 

Prussia 1 



PRIZES TO CAHADA. 



A medal of honor was awarded to the government of Canada for all 
the collection of this class, and of the following class which belongs to 
the same group (see catalogue for names of contributors.) 

A first class medal to tlie Hudson's Bay Company, for a collection of 
furs. 

A first class medal to Mr. Andrew Dickson, of Kingston^ for a collec- 
tion of timber. 

A second class medal to Messrs. Farmer and De Blaquiere, of Wood- 
stock, exhibitors of a collection of timber. 

A second class medal to Mr. Sharpies, of Quebec, for exhibiting a 
collection of timber. 



* TIic prizes given to Canada, as also tiiose of all the other Oolonies, in all the classes, are 
included in the number of those of the United Kingdom, and are reported with details at 
the end of each Class. 



359 






THIRD CLASS- 

Agricaltnre» comprising statbtics and general documents, farming, agri- 
coltnral toob and implements, general produce, special produce, rearing of 
useful animals, industries immediately connected with agriculture. 

Grand Medal of f„ . , ^ , 

Honor ^ tmled Slates 1 



Medals of Honor. • • 



Other Prizes < 



(United Kingdom 5 

Austria S 

Denmark 1 

Grand Duchy of Baden 1 



' France* and iior Colonics 356 

Austria • • • 90 

United Kingdom and Colonies 68 

Portugal 56 

Spain 35 

Belgium 31 

Greece 21 

Gcnimn States 21 

Pnis.Hia 18 

Sweden and Norway 17 

Denmark i 11 

Tuscany 10 

Sanlinia 9 

Netherlands 9 

States of Spanish America 7 

Switzerland 6 

Ottoman Empin^ 6 

United States 6 

LTunis I 



Prises awarded to 
Orerseers, 
Journeymen and 
Workmen 



fFnmee 166 

Austria 2t 

Prussia ••• 6 

United Kingdom 6 

ZollvenMU 6 

Denmark ^ •• 4 

Belgium ••••••• S 

United States 1 



360 



PRIZC8 TO CANADA. 



First Class Medals. . • 



^Mr. Cross of Montreal, for cheese. 
Canada Company, Toronto, for wheat 
Lyman & Co., Montreal, for seeds. 
Mr. Shaw, Toronto, for chicory. 

^Mr. Perry, Montreal, Mechanic. 



Second Class Medab. ^ 



Honorable mention. • • < 



' Mr. Fisher, of Montreal, for seeds. 

Mr. Fleming, of Toronto, for seeds. 

Mr. Laurent, of Varennes, for oats. 

Mr. Morse, of Milton, for a plough. 

Mr. Shaw of Toronto, for seeds. 

Mr. Shepperd, of Montreal, a collection of seeds. 
^Mr. Wade, of Cobourg, for seeds. 

Mr. Coffin, of Gasp^, for wheat 
Mr. Evans, of Montreal, for seeds. 
Mr. Kempton, of Ste. Thgrfese, for seeds. 
Mr. Jarvis, Toronto, for hops. 
Reverend Mr. Villeneuve, Montreal, for wheat 
and peas. 



FOURTH CLASS. 

Machinery in general, as applied to industry, apparatus for weighing 
and guaging, instruments used for conveying power and detailed portions 
of machinery, horse gins, windmills, hydraulic machines, steam engines 
and air engines, machines used in moving heavy weights, hydraulic 
engines for lilting, ventilators and bellows. 

Grand Medals of ( France 1 

honor \ Sweden 1 

{France 4 
United Kingdom 1 
Grand Duchy of Baden 1 



361 



Other Prixes. 



France and Colonies If8 

United Kingdom and Colonies 25 

Prussia 8 

Belgium 4 

United States S 

Austria 

Sweden and Norway 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

Denmark « 

Spain 

Sardinia 1 

^ZoUverein • 1 



raiZKS AWABOKD TO OVKRSEXRS, JOUnirKTMKll AND WOSKJiKir. 

( France 5 

t Portugal 1 

PnlZBS TO CANADA. 

First Class Medal, Mr. George Peny, of Montreal, for a fire engine. 
Honorable mention, Mr. Lemoine, of Quebec, for a fire engine. 



FIFTH CLASS. 

Special machinery and apparatus for railways and other modes of 
transport, comprising apparatus for carrying burdens on the arm, the 
back| or the head, specimens of harness and saddlery, materials and 
apparatus for wheelwrights^ work and carriage making, carriages, rail- 
way apparatus, apparatus for water conveyance, air balloons. 



Grand Medals of 
Honor 



Medals of Honor. 



(France 1 

Austria • I 

Prussia ••••• I 

France 8 

United Kingdom 6 

Belgium •• S 

Austria • 1 

Wurtemburg •••••• 1 

Hanover •••• 1 



362 



Other Prizes. 



^France and her Colonies • • 7S 

United Kingdom and Colonies 36 

Belgium • 9 

Austria 8 

Zollverein 6 

Netherlands S 

Prussia S 

Sardinia t 

Tuscany 2 

Switzerland 1 



PRIZES AWARDED TO OTERSEERS, JOURNEYMEN AND WORKMEN. 

r France 8 

Austria 4 

United Kingdom 3 

Belgium 3 

Sardinia. 3 

Prussia ^ 

PRIZES TO CANADA. 

Honorable mention to Mr. Barrington of Montreal, for a harness. 



SIXTH CLASS. 

Special machinery and apparatus for workshops, comprising separate 
pieces of machinery and apparatus for workshops, machines used in mining 
operations machinery used in building, machines for working non-metallic 
minerals, metallurgic machines, apparatus and mechanical contrivances 
used in workshops, machines used in the manufacture of small articles in 
metal, machines used in the felling of trees and in their after treatment, 
machinery used in agriculture and in the preparaton of alimentary subs- 
tances, machines used in the chemical arts, machines used in connection 
with dyeing and printing, machines used only in certain trades. 

r France 2 

Grand Medals of Honor < United Kingdom 1 

( Denmark 1 



363 



Medals of Honor. 



Other Prizcft 



France ••••••• 3 

United Kingdom 1 

United States I 

France and her Colonies 199 

United Kingdom and Colonies • • • • 80 

Belgium • ••• 9 

United States 9 

Zollverein • • • • ••• 7 

Prussia •• ••••• 4 

" Sweden and Norway • 4 

Austria $ 

Switzerland 3 

Tuscany 3 

Portugal • 1 

Spain 1 

Netherlands 1 



PSIZIS AWARDED TO OVERSEKRS, JOUR.NETMBlf AND WORKMES. 

' Sardinia 6 

Tuscany • 4 

Switzerland 3 

Austria 3 

Netherlands 2 

Zollverein • 1 

, France 1 



rtlZU TO CANADA. 



First Class Medal to Mr. Kodden of Montreal, fur a Machine for carpen- 
ters' work. 



Second Class Medals to 



Honorable Ment 



Mr. Munro ot' Montreal fur a Planing and Groov- 
ing Machine. 

Mr. Paige ot* Montreal, fi>r a large Threshing 
Mucbinv. 

f Mr. Duiui (»!' Montreal, a nail making machine. 
' Mr. Hire of Montreal, a sifting machine. 

Rimouski. a model of 



»^"'-- j Messrs. Dion & Lepage, Ri 
[ a thresliing mill. 



364 



SEVENTH CLASS. 

Special machinery and apparatus for the manufBictore of woven fabricsy 
comprising instraments used in spinning and weaving^ machines used in 
the preparation and spinning of cotton, machines used in the preparation 
and spinning of flax and hemp, machines used in the preparation and 
spinning of woo], machines used in the preparation and spinning of silky 
rope making, lace making and special machines, weaving of the low warp 
and high warp, looms for making hosiery, apparatus and machinery for 
bleaching, dyeing, dressing, and the folding of fabrics. 

Grand Medab of Honor < .. .^ , 'J* * V * * * , 

( United Kingdom 1 



Medab of Honor < 



Other Prizes 



France 8 

United Kingdom 1 

Belgium ^i 1 

' France and her Colonies ISO 

United Kingdom and Colonies 24 

Prussia 9 

Belgium 8 

Austria 7 

United States 4 

Portugal 8 

Zollverein 8 

Switzerland 1 

Spain 1 

PRIZES AWARDED TO OTSRSEERS, JOURITETBISir AND WORKBIElf. 

France 8 

Austria 4 

1 United Kingdom 8 

[^Belgium 8 

No prizes to Canada in this class. 



365 



EIGHTH CLASS. 

Arts relating to the exact sciences and to instruction, comprising stand- 
ard weights and measures, documents of all kinds relating to the different 
weights and measures used in each country, clock work, optical instru- 
ments and apparatus of all kinds used in measuring space* instruments 
employed in the study of physics, chemistry and meteorology^ mapi^ 
modek and documents relating to astronomy, geography, topografdiy and 
statistics, apparatus used in the study of the sciences, materials for elemen* 
tary instruction. 

Grand Medalsof Honor — France !i 

France ••••••• 6 

Switzerland 4 

Medals of Honor ••.• i United Kingdom 2 

I United States S 

(^Sweden 1 

' France and her Colonies 197 

Switzerland M 

United Kingdom and Colonies 18 

Austria 11 

Zollverein 11 

Sweden and Norway 11 

Prussia 10 

Netherlamls 8 

Denmark • ••••••• 6 

Belgium 4 

United States 2 

Portugal S 

Tuscany 2 

Sardinia •••.•••• •••••• t 

Sicily 1 

States of Spanish America 1 



Other Prizes 



PBIZSS TO JOUBilKYMEIV, OYEaSEKBS AffD WOBKMBK. 



1 



France 4 

Switzerland •••••.••••••••• t 



No prises to Canada in thiH clasii. 



368 



PRIZES AWARDED TO JOURNETMEK. OYER8EER8 AND WORKMEV. 



Belgium S 

Portugal 8 

Spain 1 

German States 1 



No prizes were awarded to Canada in this class. 



ELEVENTH CLASS. 

Preparation and preservation of alimentary substances comprising 
flour, fecula and their extracts, sugar and sweet substances, fermented 
drinks, preserves and condiments, preparations from cocoa, coffee, tea, 
&c., confectionery and products of distillation, apparatus and processei 
for the preparation of food. 



Grand Medal of 
Honor. 



France 1 



Medals of Honor 



• • • • 1 



France .. 
Zollverein 



4 
1 



Other Prizes 



France and her Colonies 420 

Portugal 'J^' 

United Kingdom and Colonies 72 

Austria 60 

Spain 28 

Zollverein 27 

Prussia 19 

Netherlands 16 

Sardinia 14 

Belgium W 

States of Spanish America 10 

Tuscany 8 

Greece ' 

Switzerland ••...•••... 5 

Ottoman Empire 2 

Sweden €md Norway 2 

States of the Church 1 

^United States ^ 



369 



PBIXBS AWABDBD TO JOUBNKYMEN, OTBBABBBB ABD WOBKMBN. 

Large Medals of Honor — France t 

i France SO 
Austria ••• . 10 
Belgium 10 

PBIZES TO CANADA. 

tnd Class Medals ^Government of Canada for the Canadian collection 
(■ee.in catalogue the names of contributory to this class.) 

Mr. Clarke Fitts, of Montreal for biscuits. 

f Mr. Gamble, of Etobicokc, for flour 
Mr. Lawson, of Montreal, for flour and biscuit. 
Mr. McDougal, of Montreal, for flour. 
Honorable mentions. • ^ Mr. Nasmith, of Toronto, for biscuit. 

Mr. Proctor, of Montreal, for flour and Indian 

com. 
, Mr. Ilobb, of Montreal, for biscuits. 



TWELFTH CLASS. 

Hygiene, Pharmacy, Surgery, Medicine, comprising. Hygiene and Pu!>- 
lic Health, Hygiene in Private Life, Use of Water, Vapour and Gas, 
Anatomy of Man, and Comparative Anatomy, V(*terinary Medicine and 
eare*of Horses. 

Large Medals of ( France I 

Honor ( United Kingdom I 

Medal of Honor. — France I 



0:hfr Prizes ^ 



' France and herColonies 147 

United Kingdom and C«>lonies S9 

ZoUvercin •••• ••••••.•• II 

Sweden and Norway 9 

United States 9 

^ Austria 6 

T 



Other Prizes h 



870 



1^ Sardinia 5 

Netherlands 5 

Spain S 

Prassia 2 

Tuscany 2 

Belgium 

Ottoman Empire 

States of Spanish America 

Denmark 

Greece 

Portugal 

^ Switzerland 

PRIZK8 AWAEDKD TO JOURNXYMKir, OTER8EEB8 AND WORKMKV. 

France 16 

PRIZC8 TO CANADA. 

o 1 i-ii «# ji 1 f Mrs. McCulIoch, of Montreal, for a collection 

Second Class Medal.. I . „t„flu^ u:lio f«„„ Potio\io 

( ot stuliea Diras irom Oanada. 

f Mr. Croft, of Toronto, for officinal preparations. 

Honorable Mentions. • < Mr. Lyman, of Montreal, for officinal prepara- 

( tions. 



THIRTEENTH CLASS. 

Naval and military arts, comprising the principal elements of the ma- 
terials used in Ship-building, and of the art of navigation, swimming 
apparatus, life-boats and diving-bells, drawings and models of ships, 
boats, &c., used on rivers, canals and lakes, and in commerce and deep 
sea fishing, drawings and models of vessels of war and military engi- 
neering, materials of war and military equipage, equipment of troops, 
arms and projectiles, pyrotechnics. 

TFrance 

Large Medals of Honor -| ^^ . ^°^ ^^ 



I Belgium 
1^ Prussia 



r France • • • • •.•••••••• • • 

Medals of Honor. . . . < Belgium 3 

vPrussia 2 



871 



Oilier Priaea. 



f France and her Colonies 147 

United Kingdom and Colonies St 

Belgiam t8 

Austria 9 

Pnissia 9 

Sweden and Norway 7 

United States 7 

Zollverein 5 

Switzerland 5 

Netheriands 4 

Spain S 

Greece 

Tuscany 

Ottoman Empire 

Denmark 

(^ Portugal 

niZES AWAaDBD TO JOURRKTMBlff, OTSBSBBBS AND WOBBMBB. 

Large medal of honor to Mr. Dupoy de L6me, of Paris. 

(France 41 

( Austria t 



Other Prizes. 



FBIZBS TO CABADA. 

«_ ^1 m« •■ 1 t Mr. Lee, of Quebec, for models of steam and 
FiiM Claw Medal.... j ^.^.^ ^^^,^ 

Second Class Medal. . — ^Mr. Cantin, of Montreal, for boat oars. 

„ VI %# . S Captain Thomas of Toronto, for a model of a lifc- 

Hoiiorable Mention • • < hnat 



FOURTEENTH CLASS. 

CiTil Engineering comprising bnilding materials, the divers branches 
of work connected with building, foundations, works in connexion with 
marine naTigation, roads and railways, bridges, distribution of water 
and gas, special buildings. 

uqeMedaitof Honor j ^^ '''"f^"" ;;;;;-; :;;;;;;;;;.; J 

MMal of HooOT — Fnnce 1 



372 



Other Prizes' 



^ France and her Colonies S09 

United Kingdom ^•••. •••• • SI 

Prussia 15 

Belgium 14 

Sweden and Norway IS 

Austria 9 

Tuscany 8 

Zollverein ^ • • • 6 

Sardinia 5 

i States of the Church 5 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Ncfiherlands 

G.ecce 

Portugal 

Tripoli 

Denmark 

Switzerland 

United States 



PRIZK8 AWARDED TO JOUKNETMEV, OVERaKBRS AND WORKMEH. 

Large medals of Honor to Messrs. De Montricher, Poiree and Vical, 
of France. 



Other Prizes 



fFrance 65 

Belgium 10 

Austria t 

Prussia 1 



PRIZES TO CANADA. 



First Class^Medals . . 



'' Public WorksOffice, for models and materials. 

Geological commission, for building materials. 

Montreal, for wooden doors aod 
sashes. 



ueoiogicai coi 

1 Mr. Oslell, of 
^^ window I 



Second Class Medal lo Mr. Brown, of St. Catherines, for building 
materials. 

Shipton Slate Company, for slates. 
Hamilton International Company, for asphalt 
' I Mr. Gauvreau, of Quebec, for Quebec hydraulic 
[ cement 



Honorable Mentions 



878 



FIFTEENTH CLASS. 

eel end iu products comprising the manafacture of steel for the 
ket, manafactore of special kinds or steel, springs, cutlery, steel 
I, Tarions steel manufactares. 

^Medalsof 5 Unitrd KiiigdomV/.!!^'!!*/,^ 1 

Honor. ^ Pmssia 1 



lab of Honor. . • • 



tr Prixes 



i 



United Kingdom S 

France S 

Austria t 

Prussia t 

^ Wurtemhurg. •• • • •• 1 

France and her Colonies 125 

Austria 60 

Prussia* • ••••••••• ••••••••.••••• 57 

United Kingdom and Colonies 54 

Switzerland 8 

ZoUverein 6 

Sweden and Norway ••• ••••••••• 6 

Belgium 5 

Tuscany t 

Denmark t 

Spain 1 

^ Portugal 1 



PmiXXS AWARDED TO JOORNBTMBSf, OTBaSKCMS AMD WORKMBII. 

France 

Austria It 

I Prussia 9 

(^ Belgium t 

PBIZES TO CAffADA. 

Mr. Scott, of Montreal, for tools. 
■id Class Medals. \ Mr. Higgins, of Montreal, for axes. 

Mr. Parkyn, of Montreal, iron shovels. 

Mr. Date, of Gait, for tools* 
oimMe Mentions • ^ Mr. Dawson, of Montreal, for planes. 

Mr. Wallace, of Montreal, lor planes. 



■ - * ^-l 




ft««i iHeMtur. 



It 

r 



^Ak^t'tm^ ^^' i'vcfoa auc 



_ € 

4 

4 

S 

S 

S 

7vr*iei 1 



^MMMf^^ VAJrX«IU 7x> ^'^riEVrT: 



n 

j AjdumUu * 

Piumf;;3i 3 

3^/ilrefwrf A 1 

ToAeaiojr 1 



PSiZn TO CAVAOA. 



TMr. Peck, of Montreal, for nails. 
I Mr. JffOHfij of Gananoqae, for inm instruraeDl^ 
Ili/n/^ftbU; M^nt'umn . j j^^ Parkyn, of Montreal, for iron instrumciiH. 

I Mr- Ric#^ of Montreal, for tin. 



876 



SEVENTEENTH CLASS. 

CroldsmithV and silvemmith^s work, jewellery, bronzes, comprising 
processes used in goldsmith's work, catting and engraving of stones 
used in jewellery, manufactures of precious metals, plated goods, 
jewellery, imitation jewellery, jewellery made of various metals, 
statues, bronzes. 

Larj^ Mcdab of Honor — France S 



Medals of Honor. 



Other Prizes. < 



' France 11 

United Kingdom S 

Prussia S 

Netherlands 1 

Spain 1 

' France and her Colonies 187 

Prussia 18 

United Kingdom and Colonies 15 

Austria 11 

« 

Switzerland 9 

Spain 

Zollverein ...•.•....•.... ..*.... 6 

Sweden and Nonii^ay 5 

States of the Church 4 

4 

4 

S 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



Belgium .....•••. 

Netherlands 

Denmark 

Naples. ... ...••. 

Tuscany 

Portugal 

States of S|>anish America. 
Tunis 



PBISSS AWAEDCD TO OVBRSUCas, JOUBNBTMKII, AHU WOaXMm. 

Large Medal of Honor to Mr. Vechtc of Paris. 

France 81 

United Kingdom 



Ocber Prizes. 



16 



Prussia S 

Austria 5 

Belgium t 

States of the Church 1 

Netherlands 1 



376 



No prizes awarded to Canada in this class. 



EIGHTEENTH CLASS. 

Glass and pottery comprising general processes used in making glass 
and pottery, window glass and mirror glass, bottle glass, crystal glass, 
crystal, &c., for optical instruments, ornaments, common pottery and terra 
cotta, faience, stone ware, porcelain, artistical objects. 



! 



LargeMedals of 
Honor. 



Medals of Honor. • • • 



France S 

United Kingdom 1 

France 4 

Austria 1 

Prussia 1 

Belgium 1 

Bavaria 1 

' France and her Colonies 154 

Austria 25 

United Kingdom and Colonies 25 

Belgium 15 

Prussia 13 

Zollverein •••••• 6 

Netherlands • • • 4 

Sweden and Norway 4 

Tuscany 2 

Switzerland • • • • 2 

Portugal 1 

Denmark 1 



PRIZKS AWABDKD TO OVERSEERS, JOURNEYMEN, AND WORKBIEN. 

France 47 

United Kingdom 19 

Austria • • • 8 

Belgium • 6 

Prussia •••••••• 4 

Denmark • S 

Spahi 1 

German Spates •••••••••••• 1 

Tuscany 1 



877 



No prises to Canada in this class. 



NINETEENTH CLASS. 

Coltoo mannfactores comprising the materials used in the roannfiMstiiie 
of cotton, raw cotton, prepared and spun pure cotton, fabrics, plain, pnre 
ootton fabrics, figured, pure cotton fabrics for special purposes napped^ 
li^t cotton fabrics, pure cotton fabrics, manufactured with coloured 
threads, pure cotton fabrics, printed, cotton velvet, mixed fabrics, cotton 
ribbons. 



Laige Medals of 
Honor. 



1 



United Kingdom t 

France 1 



Medals of Honor. 



{France S 
Switzerland t 
United Kingdom • 1 



Other Priaes. 



' France and her Colonies 19t 

Switzerland SS 

United Kingdom tl 

Belgium tl 

Austria 18 

Prussia 9 

{ (German States 5 

Portugal t 

Sweden and Norway t 

Tuscany t 

Netherlands t 

Denmark 1 

^ Spain 1 



mines aw aided to ovsasBBas, joubvktmbw, avd wobkmxv. 

France 85 

^ Switzerland 6 

Belgium * 6 

Netherlands 1 



No pnmM awaided to Canada in this class. 



378 



TWENTIETH CLASS. 

WcM>Uen and won(ted manufactoies, comprising illustrations of tlie 
pfocesses, raw wool^ hair and bristles, prepared and dyed, woollen yam 
plain and twisted, bleached or nnbleached dyed in grain or in pieoe^ 
with or without a mixtoie of cotton, silk, fcc., feibrics of carded wool 
milled, carded wool fabrics not milled or only slightly milled, combed 
wool iiBUmcs, combed or carded wool fabrics mixed with oolloii, ocxnb^ 
or carded wool mixed with silk, floss silk, ootton^ wocdlen ahawli^ 
cgiluneie shawls, horse hair fabrics. 



Large Medals of f-. -^ jU.***! ^ 

xx^«^ \ United Kingdom 1 

IBelgiam 1 



Honor. 



fPrance 7 

Medals of Honor. ...<« ™ 

Prussia S 

United Kingdom 2 



Other Prizes 



France and her Colonies 288 

Prussia 112 

Austria 59 

United Kingdom. • 39 

German States SO 

Belgium 24 

Spain 9 

Sweden and Norway 6 

Portugal 5 



Netherlands 

China 

Sardinia 

States of the Church 
Turkey 



4 

2 
1 
1 
1 



PRIZES AWARDED TO OTER8EERS, JOURlCETMEHy AND WORXJCKIT, 

France ; 282 

Belgium 52 

Austria • • • •••••••.•••«••••.• 16 

German States .•••.••••••• 19 

United Kingdom ••• • •.•••« 1 



No prizes to Canada in this class. 



879 



TWENTY-FIRST CLASS. 

Silk manufactiirea compriiing the preparatioD of the silk, raw and 
thiown ailk, plain fabrici and pure tilk^ fabriof of pure tilk, figuiedt 
bfooaded or with pattami velvet and plush, fabrics for furniture, hang- 
iagpand church decoration, fancy silk fabrics, mixed with gold, silver* 
Mttoo wool, flax, in which silk is the principal material, fabrics made of 
pore or mixed floss silk, silk ribbons. 



France 6 

Large Medals of Honor \ Lombardy 1 

Piedmont •••• 1 



Medab of Honor < 



Oclier Priaea.. 



France 25 

Austria 2 

' Prussia 2 

Switzerland 2 

^ United Kingdom 1 

f France and her Colonies. 253 

Switzerland 68 

Austria 65 

Pnisaia 35 

Sardinia 34 

United Kingdom and Colonies 24 

Tuscany 20 

Statesof the Church 11 

Spain 10 

Greece 7 

Ottoman Empire 

Portugal 6 

German States 4 

Belgium 4 

States of Spanish America 3 

Sweden and Norway 2 



raizn awabdbd to ovaasBaas, lovaxKVMBJi, awd woaxMBii. 

France 61 

Austria 11 

United Kingdom 4 

Ihiissta # 

Belgium • 1 

No priMS to Canada in this class. 



380 



TWENTY-SECOND CLASS. 

Flax and hemp manufactures, comprising the preparation of flax and 
hemp, flax, hemp and other vegetable fibres raw and prepared ^ thread 
from flax, hemp and other fibres, sail cloth and other coarse cloths, fine 
cloths and ticking cambrics, damasked and diapered fabrics, fiax mixed 
with cotton or silk, fabrics made from other vegetable fibres than flax 
and hemp. 



Large Medals of Honor < 



France 
Ireland. 



Medals of Honor. 



f Belgium 

J France 

United Kingdom 
Prussia 



Other Prizes. 



France 129 

Belgium 48 

Austria • • 82 

Prussia 82 

United Kingdom 26 

German States 16 



Netherlands , 

States of the Church. 

Portugal 

Spain 

Switzerland 



4 
2 
1 
1 
1 



No prizes to journeymen, &c., or to Canada in this class. 



TWENTY-THIRD CLASS. 

Hosiery, carpets, embroidery, lace of every kind, ^old and silver fringes, 
comprising all articles of these different classes manufactured of silk, floss 
silkf wool, horse hair, thread and cotton. 

^^ ^ 

Laree Medals of Honor ) „ , . , 

^ (JDeigium*.* •• ••••• I 



881 



Medals of IIooor< 



Other Prizes. 



! France 8 
United Kingdom S 
Belgium 1 

France 289 

United KingJom and Colonies 59 

Belgium 89 

Austria si 

German States fg 

Prussia 1 

Sweden and Norway 1 

Switzerland | 

Spuiii 10 

Surdinia • .,,, 

Netherlands 

Greect* ••.••.•.•••••••. 

Denmark 

Portugal 

Tuscany 3 

Slates of the Church 

China* ••• , .. 

States of Spanisth America 

Turkey 

Tunis 



nUSBS AWASDBD TO OTBB8BBRS, JOUBBIBTMBN, AND WOBKMBN. 

France 377 

Belgium 18 

Austria |4 

United Kingdom 7 

Gennan States | 



PBIZCS TO CANADA. 



Second class medal to Gdvernmer.t of Cinada for their collection. 

Mrs. Jones, of Montreal for a screen worked ia 



Honorable Mentions • . 



wool. 



j Miss Parthenais, of L' 
1 ill woij and siik. 



Industrie, for embroidery 



382 



TWENTY-FOURTH CLASS. 



Furniture and deoorafion, eompristiig decorative fomitore made of 
ftone, stony eabstancef or in metal, cabinet work for daily nae, fiui^ 
fiurmtnre and decorative articles characterized by the use of costly woodi| 
iroryf shell, by sculpture and inlaid work, furniture €i moiilded snfastaBoeiy 
gilt, lacquered, &c^ furniture made of reeds, cane, straw, dcc^ household 
utensils, upholsters* work, stained paper, stuffs and leather prepared for 
hangings, blinds, book-binding, &c., decorative painting, fittings ftr 
theatres, public ceremonies, &&, cbuich fumitore, ornaments and decora- 
ticms. 

Large Medals of Honor { France 3 



Medals of Honor 



Other Prizes 



France •••• 1 

United Kingdom S 

Prussia 1 

Tuscany 1 

' France and her Colonies 210 

United Kingdom and Colonies 49 

German States 15 

Belgium • 14 

Austria • 11 

Prussia 11 

Tuscany 9 

Sardinia 8 

Sweden and Norway 7 

PortugHJ 6 

Netherlands 4 

States of the Church 4 

Switzerland 3 

Greece 2 

Spain 2 

Denmark i 

United States 2 

Ottoman Empire 1 



PRIZES AWARDED TO OVERSEERS, JOURNEYMEN, AND WORKMEN. 

France 115 

Prussia 13 

United Kingdom 12 



888 

Belgiom lO 

States of the Chureh 3 

Amtria t 

Switxerlmnd 2 

Deomftrk ] 

PKIXfet to CAW ADA. 



SMoDd Cb M dal / **'* Drum, of Quebec, for a chair of waved mapeL 

*" \ Mr.Hilton.orMontfeal,foracoIlectioiioffuniiture. 

SM. Bevis, of Hamilton, for a motaic table. 
Mr8.Widder, of Toronto, for a drawing room chair. 
Mr. Mac Garvey» of Montreal, for rocking 



TWENTY-FIFTH CLASS. 

Articles of clothing, objects of fashion and fancy, comprising materials 
in making clothes, buttons, linen drapery, stays, braces and garters^ 
eoata and clothes, boots and shoes, gaiters and gloves, hats and caps, hair 
work, feather and bead head dresses, ornaments, artificial flowers, needle 
woik, fans, screens, parasolii, umbrellas, sticks, articles of hardware in 
wood, ivory and shell, &c. Dressing-cases, inkstands, fancy articles orna- 
mented with ivory, &c., sheaths and manufactures in morocco leather and 
eardboard, basket work, tec, toys, dolls, wax figures, games of all 
kinds. 

[France 

IbddiofHooor it"""^ ! 

Fusoany. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1 

Switzerland 1 



884 



Other Prizes 



France and her Colonies 506 

United Kingdom and Colonies 136 

Austria 86 

German States 44 

Sweden and Norway 42 

Prussia 39 

Portugal S3 

Belgium 17 

Greece 16 

Switzerland 12 

Tuscany 10 

Spain 10 

Denmark 9 

Ottoman Empire 8 

Sardinia 7 

Netherlands 6 

States of Spanish Amc rica • 3 

United States 2 

States ('f the Church S 

Tunis 1 



PRIZES AWARDED TO 0¥ERSEBRS, JOURNEYMEN, AND WORKMEN. 

France 286 

Austria 30 

United Kingdom 17 

Belgium • " 8 

German States 6 

Switzerland - 2 

PRIZES TO CANADA. 



Second Glass Medals ...^ 



' Mr. Barbeau, of Quebec, for hunting and riding 
boots. 

Mr. Henderson, of Quebec, for a beaver pelisse. 

Mr. Mercier, of Quebec, for Indian work. 

The Montreal India Rubber Company. 

Mr. Smith, of Montreal, for a collection of boots 
and shoes. 



885 



Honorable Mentiuns.., 



Mr. Mercier, uf Quebec. Indian curiosities and 

furs. 
Meivni. Mcrryfield Sl Sberidon, of Toronto, for a 

collection of boots and ^Ikmts. 
Mr. Gauthier, of Montreal, for clothing. 
MeMsm. Scauberth & Robinson, of Toronto, for a 

collection c.f boots and sboes. 
The Sisters of Providence, of Montreal, for wax 

work. 
Mrs. RhodcH. of Quebec, for ornamented bark 
[ work. 



TWBNTY-SIXTII CLASS. 

Drawing and iiio<leilin^ applied to inlustry, letter pn.*ss und copfier 
plate printing ; photography, comprisins^ writing, drawing and painting; 
lithography, autography and storie-engruving, engnivin;; oti rneialor winmJ. 
stereotomy, moulds and stamps, f)riiitinir. 



FrHnc<' 



Large Me<hils of Honor < . 

I Au.stri:i 



France 



Medals of Honor. 



il' ranee 
United Kingdom 
Prussia 



I 
I 

1 



IHher Prizes 



f France and her i.\>ionicA 420 

United Kinudorn and (\ili*i.ie> stl 

German Stule^ • . . . 47 

Prus.sia 29 

Austria '27 

IJelgium • 18 

Netherlands H 

Switxeriitnd. ••• H 

Spain 7 

United Siate^ 7 

Slates of Spanish Ank»rica tl 

Sardinia «) 

Tuscany • h 



386 



States of the Church 5 

Portugal 3 

Greece 3 

Ottoman Empire 3 

Denmark 3 



PRIZES AWARDED TO OVERSEERS, JOURMETMEir, AND WORKMEN. 



Larffc Medals of Honor < tt •-. j it-** j 
^ i United Kingd 



om( 






1 
1 



fFrance 72 



Other Prizes 



] Austria 6 

-\ German States 6 

Belgium 5 

United Kingdom i 



Honorable Mentions. • 



PRIZES TO CANADA. 

Miss Cochran, of Quebec, for fruit in wax work. 
Mr. Doane, of Montreal, for photographs. 
Mr. Miller, of Montreal, specimens of book-bind- 
ing. 

Mr. Palmer, of Toronto, specimens of daguer- 
reotypes. 

The Sisters of Providence of Montreal, fruits in 
wax work. 

Mr. Young, of Montreal, specimens of book- 
binding. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH CLASS. 



Manufacture of musical instrumenti?, comprising wind instruments in 
wood, horn, ivory, bone, shell, leather and metal ; wind instruments with 
key-boards, stringed instruments, without key-boards, pulsatile instru- 
ments, automaton instruments, manufactured articles and accessories. 



Large Medals of Honor < 



France 



( Bavaria 



4 
1 



887 



Medml of Honor ^ France. 



Other Prizes 



(France 117 

Austria 2t 

German Sutcs 7 

Belgium G 

United Kingdom 4 

Prussia 4 

Switserland •• • 3 

United States 3 

Denmark 2 

Netherlands 1 

States of the Charch 1 

Spain 1 

Tuscanv 1 

Sardinia 1 



raiZES AWARDED TO OVBRSBBms, JOUElfBTIffKlf, A!fD WOBKMBN. 

France 29 

Austria 4 

Belgium 4 

IVuasia 2 

United Kingdom 1 

no PBIBBS TO CAHADA IJt THIS CLASS. 

To complete the number of all the priies awarded in the nris, we must 
add the special prizes given excluiiive of the classes ; those awanled by a 
mised Commission in the bninches comprised in classes X, XIX« XX, XXI, 
XXII, and XXIII united, and alM>ve all the prizes awarded in the 
additional class XXXI, rstabli^hed during the exhibition, for cheap articles 
of the descriptions most useful to the poorer and middle classes of society. 



SFBCIAL PRIZBS CXCLtTSITB OF CLASSBS. 

Urge Medaisof Honor j u^^ Ki;;gd■om^::.::::.:::;:;::;:;::::;:;::: ? 

United Kingtiom 1 

Portugal 1 

Uedala of Honor i Toseany I 

I Cuba I 

I Netberiaiids 1 

vBritisb IndUa 1 



388 



PBtZBS ORAMTEO BT A MIXED COMMISSION OF CLASSES X, XIX, XX, 

XXI, ^I^XII AND XXIII. 

Large Medals of IIonor<^ France 4 



Medals of Honor, 



Other Prizes. 



( France 6 

^ United Kingdom 2 



France and her Colonies 59 

Unided Eangdom and Colonies 31 



Austria 

Switzerland 



8 
6 



Prussia 5 

United States 

Denmark 

Netherlands 



2 
1 
1 



TIURTY-FIKS I' CLASS, ADDITIONAL. 

Domestic economy comprising chca{> articles of food, building, furni- 
ture and clothing. 

Large Medal of Honor.^ Franc*? 1 

Medals of Honor ] . . , 

( Austria 1 



/■ 17* 



Other Prizes 



France and her Colonies 207 

Prussia , 17 

Austria 15 

United Kingdom and Colonies 11 

Portugal 9 

German States 5 

Sardinia 4 

Belgium 3 

Spain 1 

United States • 1 



389 



rmunt awaedbd to oversrbrs, jousmbtmen, akd workmen. 

France 9 

United Kingdom 2 

Belgium 1 

Priusiu • 1 

PRIXB8 TO CANADA IN THR TWKNTY-SBCOND CLAM. 

A r\ \f . I I i ^^^' ^^'^** ^* Montreal, for |ire«erved m 

l Mr. Smith of Montreal (or boots and nhoeii. 

jDorable mention. ... { Mr. Ot»n.s of MontrrnI, for cheese. 

RKOAIMTILATWIN. 

Qrand total of the pjizeii awarded to each Country, exclusiive of (he 
tegories of the I^rgc MedaU of IL>n(ir and Medals of Honor.* 

FrancK and her Colonies 7,763 

United Kingdom and Colonierif 1,326 

Au.stria 1,012 

Prussda 724 

Belgium 616 

German States 475 

Switzerland 293 

Sweden and \orway 263 

Portugal 235 

Spain • 150 

Sardinia I S2 

NetheriandH |2I 

Tuscany 116 

Uniteil States 75 

Greece 66 

Denmark 6t 

States of Spanisli America 49 

States of the Church 43 

Ottoman Empire 34 

Tunis 4 

China 3 

Sicily 2 

Tripiih I 

* All IImm aaabtrt tad Ihom prtctdloE bav* bMQ cupUd with ear* Iron lb* UtCi of tb« la- 

raalioasl Jwy, sad rorisod wlUi minvto ftUcntion. 

t Wllk ffOfud to fkmaeo sad laxlAnd, sod tipoeblly tho IstUr. ih« Coloates fern a 



REPORT 



or 



SIR W. E. LOGAN. 

Toronto, Srd April, 1856. 

Sis,— HmTing returned to Canada after the performance of the dutiea 

ligned to me in conjunction with Mr. J. C. Tach^, as one of the special 
Commisstonem to the Paris Industrial Exhibition, and brought with me the 
various medals awarded to the contributors of the collection of products 
sent firom the province, I have the honor to inform you that these have been 
placed in the hands of the Provincial Secretary for safe-keeping, until such 
time as it shall please His Excellency the Governor General to order the 
distribution of them among those for whom they are finally intended. 

Tliese medals consist of one grand nietlal oi honor, one medal of honor, 
thirteen first class and thirtv second class i icdals. In addition to the names 
of the contributors to whom the medals were decreed, those of fortv-three 
contributors appear in the official li^t as* rewarded by an honorable nienticm ; 
but beyond the publication in the official list there are no diplomas or 
documents of any kind connected with them. 

In the oflScial list of prizes published in France at the time of the dis- 
tribution of the medals, nothing more is registered than the name of the 
contributor, the class comprehending his contribution, and the country from 
which it comes. A copy of this as relates to Canada, I now transmit to 
jou : and you will perceive that, with no other official document as a guide, 
it would be im|)ossible, without great liability to error, to state the grounds 
oo which the awards have been made, or frame any report, comparing 
Canadian contributions with those of other countries, or putting forth what 
might be considered the general results of the Exhibition. This can only 
be done after the final reports of the juries have reached this country, and 
these were not expectcil to issue from the press sooner than thre months 
from the time of my departure from Paris, towards the end of December. 

They were at that time being framed* but no access was permitted to 
to them or to the bases on which they were founded, except to mem- 
bers of the juries, and no juror was allowed to examine more than the 
documents of the class to which he was attached. The only juror especially 
eoonected with Canada, was Mr Hunt, of the g(*ological survey, who was 
appointed by Prince Napoleon to the first-class — that including mineral 
products. AH the fiicta relating to the proceedings of the jury on this class 



392 



are in his possession, and he is engaged in preparing a report which will 
embody such details regarding the applications of Canadian minerals as 
have been suggested by the opportunities and experiences afibrded him by 
the Exhibition. 

Accompanying this I transmit to you also a statement shewing how the 
Canadian collection has been disposed of since the close of the Exhibition, 
some of it having been presented to various institutions in Paris connected 
with the French government, part of it sold, some portion returned to 
Canada, and the remainder deposited in the Sydenham palace to form the 
nucleus of a collection of Canadian products, which the Canadian govern- 
ment, accepting an offer of space from the Directors of that institution, are 
disposed to place there, and to make worthy at once of the province, and of 
the building in which the collection will be displayed. 

In addition to the foregoing documents, I hand you a statement of 
monies paid and received, by which you will observe there is a balance ' 
against me of (£6 19s. 3d. cy.) six pounds, nineteen shillings and three 
pence. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 

Your most obedient servant. 

W. E. LOGAN. 

To W. Rhodes, Esq., M. P. P., 

Chairman of the Executive Committee, 

of the Paris Exhibition Commission. 



UST OF PRIZES AWARDED TO CANADIAN EXHIBITORS 
THE PARIS INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION OF 1855. 

Clois I. 
Grand Medal of Honor, W. E. Logan,— Canada. 

Class II. 

Medal of Honor, Canada. 

lat Clasa Medal, Hudson Bay Co., — Lachine. 

A. Dickson, — Kingston. 
2Dd Clan Medal, Fanner & DeBlacquiire, — Woodstock. 

G. Sharpies, — Quebec. 

Class lU. 

lit Cla« Medal, Canada Company, — ^Toronto. 

G. Cross, — Montreal. 

W. C. Lyman k Co., — Montreal. 

A. Shaw, — Toronto. 

A. Perry, — Montreal. 
Sod CbMS Medal, J. Fisher,— Montreal. 

J. Fleming, — ^Toronto. 

D. Laurent, — Varennes, 

L. Morse, — Milton. 

A. Shaw, — ^Toronto. 

G. Sheppard, — Montreal 

R. Wade, — Coboarg. 
Honorable Mention, A. Coffin, — Gasp^. 

W. Kvans, — Montreal. 

A. Kimpton,— >St. Thirise. 

W. F. Jarvis,— Toronto. 

Abbe Villeneuve, — Montreal 



894 



Class lY. 

1st Class Medal, George Perry, — ^Montreal. 

Honorable Mention, ! . . . .L. Lemoine, — Quebec. 

Glass Y. 

Honorable Mention, G. Barrington, — Montreal. 

Cflass Yl. 

1st Class Medal, W. Rodden, — Montreal. 

2nd Class Medal, D. Munro, — ^Montreal. 

B. P. Page, — Montreal 
Honorable Mention, P. Dunn , — Montreal. 

Dion &L Lepage, — ^Rimouski. 

W. H. Rice,— Montreal. 

Class IX. 
2nd Class Medal, W. Rodden,— Montreal. 

Class XI. 

2nd Class Medal, Clark Fitts,— Montreal. 

Government of Canada. 
Honorable Mention, E. Lawson, — Montreal. 

J. McDougall, — Montreal. 

J. D. Proctor, — Montreal. 

J. Robb, — Montreal. 

Class xn. 

2nd Glass Medal, Mrs. McCuIloch, — Montreal. 

Honorable Mention, H. Croft, — ^Toronto. 

Wra. Lyman & Co., — Montreal. 

Class XUl. 

1st Class Medal, T. C. Lee,— Quebec. 

2nd Class Medal, A. Cantin, — Montreal. 

Honorable Mention , Captain Thomas, — Toronto. 



896 



CUm XIV. 

Itt Class Medal, Board of Works,— Quebec. 

Geological Surrey of CaDada, — Montreal. 

J. Ostclly — Montreal. 

3nd Class Medal 9 J. Brown, — ^St. Catherines. 

Honorable Mention, Shipton Slate Co., — Shipton. 

International Mining Co., — Hamilton. 

P. Qaavreau,—* Quebec. 

OUm XV. 

2nd Class Medal, R. Scott, — Montreal. 

3i &L J. Iliggins, — Montreal. 

W. Parkins, —Montreal. 
Honorable Mention, H. & H. Date, — Ualt. 

J. Dawfton, — Montreal. 

W. Wallace,— Montreal. 

Ola»i XVI. 

Honorable Mention, Thi«. Peck, — Montreal. 

D. T. Jones, — Gananoque. 
Wm. Parkins, — Montreal. 
W. U. Rice,— Montreal. 

Class XXni. 

2Dd Class Medalt Kingston.* 

Honorable Mention, Mad. J. Jones. — Montreal, 

Mad. P. Partenais, — Industrie. 

CUiss XXIV. 

2nd Class Medal, Wm. Drum, — Quebec. 

J. & W. Hilton, — Montreal. 

* This li ftwdtd to th« eoOtetiv* eootcau oC a psTiUoo marked KlDgMoti in wbkk Iks |M#> 
darts oCUm fiillowlflg comrilmiort wcr« «xpoMd. 

fiknoo BaMi, wonted •tockiogfl^ •bavli, hUakoU and iUaotb; lladi»e Oolbj, wonted 
Hocklngt, ebawli and flanDela; Madame Boochafd, wonted thrvad; Barber Brotkera, 



LtSl^MtU 



•fes "^dier. — ^Toronto. 



. . .. J. 3arbcan, Quebec. 

Tentierwn & Co., — Quebec. 

'Jjiiada Iiulia Rubber Co., — Montreal. 

jtnnaiu of Canada. 

Snrrtii h Co., — Montreal. 
. ..D. Merrier, — Quebec. 

Sfcrrifield & Sheridan, — Toronto. 

^tmL Rhodes, — Quebec. 

Scaodritt & Robinson, — Toronto. 

ScsCers of Providence, — Montreal. 

'.Tm XXVI. 

...)I» Cochrane, — Quebec. 
J. C. Doane, — Montreal. 
R. Jc A Miller, — Montreal. 
T. J- Palmer, — Toronto. 
Sisters of Providence, — Montreal. 
A. Young, — Montreal. 

^T^j<5 XXXI. 



K. Idler, — Montreal. 
5mvih & Co., — Montreal, 
^k Cn^ss, —Montreal. 



STATEMENT 

SHEWING TllE MANK£U lH WllLCll TH£ ARTICLES SENT 
FROM CANADA TO THE P-UUS EXHIBITION WERE 

DISPOSKl) OF. 

In ihiti Tahle ihe drsignaiwu #»/* the Article i$ generally prrr^thd hy th^ name of 

the Kxhihitor. 



TLASS I. 

The cullcctioii of minerals in ilii» c\a»s was distributeil in part to the Heob 
fh-% Mines at Taris, and the mnainder sent to Sydenham Palace. For 
details n|K>n \]m einss and tli«>?i* that follow we refer to the cata- 
logue. 

CLASS II. 

Boucli:ird, i^ierre, Api-eiinens of iiia]ile scut to Sydenham. 

Diclcjion, Andrew, specimen { of (iml)iT, >ent to Sydenham, as also the arii- 
rkM of the same riass exhihiterl hy Messrs. Farmer and DcBlaquierc, 
Gamble, Kennedy. Lavoie« Lev^qiie, Marmon, MiKxly, Saiot Amaiid, 
Saint ArmiTid, Sii^irpl. '^. hti'HMn. (irant & Hall. Il.dliday, I^moiiche, 
MaeGilibon, aii<l Maniiiii:;. 

Mo'tre, Thomas, Paxt'>ri. Jennii]^* and ^>mitli, h.incilcs of tuoU ujid ^tave(•, 
dJHtribnted between I he CW^tit'^iV^ ttf^x Art.^ at Metiers^ the An^itrian 
('.»:nmis.':i.)n, Messrs (ioltlenbup^ of Germany, and Sydenham Palace. 

Mercier, David, divers Hriicle> sent liaek to owner. 

Hud:ion*!i Ray Company, a c.»llec:io:i of fiir?«, part stoM to the prolii of 
(^mada, part pre-enieJ t.i the En^ll^h Commiiuion and the Jardin 
ties Planttix^ and the remainder -eat back to Canada. 

Murphy, M., fishinit-iines, sold. 



398 



Peacock, John, artificial flies fur fishing, presented to the Conservaioire des 
Arts et Miiiers. 

CLASS nL 

Evans, W., plan of a Canadian farm, presented to the Imperial School at 
Grignon. 

Bingham, J., an iron plough, sold. 

Bro«gh, R., rakes, some presented to the Imperial School at Origaon, 
and the remainder sent to Sydeniiam. 

Dion & Lepage, large model of a thrashing machine, presented to the Im- 
perial School of Grignon. 

Glasford, George, scythes sent to Sydenham, 

JeA'ies, J., stump and root extractor, 

Moody, Matthias, reaping and weeding machines. 

Morse, a plough, 

Piuge, a thnisuing machine, 

Patterson, a plough. 

RiC«'» a fanner, the foregoing were sold for the benefit of the Committee. 

*lH\v whole of the collection of seeds and grains (see catalogue) was in part 
exchanged for seeds and grains firom the following countries, vis: 
France^ Kixglaud, Austria, Portugal, Egypt, Turkey, Tunis, Tuscany, 
Statei of the Church, Algeria, Norway and Denmark ; part were pre- 
^nted to the *Sw*«Wi» ImpMale iVaccHmxiation de France; to the Con- 
M*ri\tioirt dfs Arh rt .Wliers ; to the Imperial School of Grignon ; to 
Mr. Vilmorin and other members of the Jury, and the remainder seot 

\k\ Svtlohhauu 

« 

^VuY, Alftvil, hickory nuts, sent to Sydenham. 

Hv^^HM^iHMu w\H»l ; 8i)utliwick, wool ; Corse & May, oil cake ; all sent to 

Sydi^nUam. 
V\vwi» Vioitr^tts choo«o, given lo the French Exhibition of cheap articles. 
N^'tuW^ Km rhtHM«e, damaged and lost. 

CLASS IV. 

L«^UU i-i P., iHNiles, sent lo Sydenham. 

t\\\UU4^ »iivilc<*» Hcnt to Svtlenham. Some articles from this contributor 

\%v'U^ *^»Kl lo his profit, as they were his private property. 
>vj^\Kwv^4, W. J,, hose and pipe, sent back to Canada. 
•. .Kuuv^ l.vm».'«. tirt> engine, do. do. 
V. v\, v^s^»;\s thv t^ngine, sold to English Government. 






CLASS V. 

Archambault, Andr^, harDen, sent to Sydenluun. 

Btfring^n, George, do., sold. 

Combs, John, bames, sent to Sydenham. 

Courrette, Magloire, do. do. 

Dean, Robert, leather portmanteau, sold. 

Edward, W. R., saddles, sent to Sydenham. 

Morris, Robert, harness, sent to Sydenham, leather portmanteau sold. 

IMkeld, I, eollection of whips, sent to Sydenham. 

Wiltte, Joseph, yoke, sold. 

Gingras, Edwanl, a carriage, sent to Sydenham. 

Leduc, Clovis, do. sold. 

Saurin, Joseph, a sleigh, sent to Sydenham. 

Holland, ^L, railroad spikeft, sent to Sydenham. 

CLASS VI. 

Dean, Robert, a portable ibrge, sold. 

Lindlay, C, do. do. do. 

Helme and Wade, boring machine, sent to Sydenham. 

Ladd, C. P., flour mill, sent to Sydenham, sold. 

MacLellan, a mortising machine ; Munro, a planing and grooving machine ; 

Parsons, a brick making machine ; Rodden, cabinetmakers' machine ; 

planing machine ; trenail making machine ; Dunn, a machine for mak 

ing nails, all sold. 

CLASS VII. 

Broagh. R., Spinning jennies ; Taylor and Dockrill, a sewing machine, all 
sent to Svdcnluim. 

CLASS VIIL 

Heam and Potter, an engineers' level, sent back to Canada. 
Kcefer, Thomas C, a topographical map of Canada, scut back to Canaila. 
Taoguay, L*Abb6, fossil bones, being a private contribution, were sent back 
to the owner. 



IM 



r:- -■-- io- 

^^ n i iusuged state. 

-ju-r. Hsnc rj SvdcDham. 

w 

, -■ >':ii!ti2iain. 

j«.-ji3'-CTj*, sent to Sydenham. 
.:&rcac descriptions, part sent to Sydenhaniy and 
V Ticac to the firm of Levasseur, al Parisy as 



■ V 



CLASS X. 

. »^... sai'.s^ sold. 

- ju.i, ;:»ue, sent to Sydenham. 

it;iii:cal preparations, sent to Sydenham. 
,. . wiivT varnish, sent to Sydenham. 

V II. -jcut to Sydenham. 
^^ -.1 jiU sent to Sydenham. 

... -a^':** sold. 

v,.:.H.'.c?<: -•iL iTiven lor sample8. 

V-. !.-^ >v*it 10 Sydenham. 
., ^-i... v.-tvMse oil, part giyen by Mr. Tach6 for samples, 
.,.. i,<.i ^•■i: to Sydenham. 

, -xii. ' Svvlonhara. 

lai urti ^v^rotiiblo oils, sent to Sydenham. 
. X U. '.\:.- ^"o,. boots and shoes, part sold, and part sent to 

..„ > .*:.»v.\. lci:Iier, sold. 

• ♦ 

^ ^..v^>c ..vch^T. in part given for samples, and the remainder 

V . s>.. v^' 'sxl .v/.l dyed leather, sold. 

V V •uj.vr v.:a.Io froin the plant Gnaphalium, given to the 
: ,.% •..> .i",sr* Meliers. 



\.*xs j^cc ^^r..n lurs. 



401 



Lyman k, Co., plants fur djeing in part, sent to the Imperial Manufactory 

of Gobelind, and the remainder sent to Sydenham. 
Tacb£ k Michaiid, mineral paints, sent to Sydenham. 
Marmette, Dr., tobacco, sent co Sydenham. 

CLASS XL 

Gamble, W., flour of different qualities, sold. 

Iltts. (*larke, biscuits, sold. 

Lacombe, Mrs., potato starch, given fi>r samples. 

Lawson, Edward, flour and biscuits, sold. 

MacDougall, J., wheat flour, sold. 

Nasmith, John, biscuitn, sold. 

Piatt, Samuel, flour, sold. 

IVoctor, J. D.. Indian meal, sold. 

Thomas Kichard, buckwheat flour, sold. 

Gasse, Louis, maple sugar, given to a chemist to be analysed. 

Redpath, J., maple sugar, sold. 

Taylur, Jas., maple sugar, sold. 

Valois, Narcisse, maple sugar and syrup, given to be analysed. 

Ashton, J. P., pickles, sold. 

Bauden, J. & W., bear hams given to the Jury. 

Crawford, W., mustanl, sold. 

Idler, E., preserved meats, given. 

Leonard, P., chicory, sent to Sydenham. 

McKhrie, ^icorge, preserved meats, sold. 

Mover k Keating, dried fruits, part given to the Jury, and the n^mnindfr 

sent to Svdenliam. 
Shaw, Alexander, chicory, smt to Sydenham. 

Southwick, M. B., preserved meats and vegetables, given to the Jury. 
Thomas, Kichanl, sausages, wiilvlrawn fnnn the Exhibition on account ot 
being damaged. 

CLASS XIL 

Ardouin, A., collection of medicinal plants used for dyeing, part preset itetl 
to the Imi>erial Maiuifactory of Gobelins, and the remainder sent to 
Svdenham. 

Groft, IL« pharmaceutical pre|>arations, sent to Sydenham. 

Giruux, Olivier, medicinal plantH and vegetable gums, sent to Sydeiiham. 

Lesp^rancc, Joseph, cod liver oil, sent to Sydenham. 

Booth, J., stuflTed animals, presented to the Jardin dts Pkudes. 

A* 



402 



KjBUAM4y» l>», skin* iif Canadian birds, part given to the Jardin des Plantei, 

a&Mi pace Co the Britiah Board of Trade. 
MauCiulocii^ Mn»> coUeciion of Canadian birds, belonging to the 

cJkiubiCiuc, seat back to owner. 

CLASS XUL 

Cfattki Jm puUeya, sent to Sydenham. 

Uogd and Brothers, brace* presented to the Conservatoire desArisei MUien. 

Miacgr^or, A. k D., collection of ropes, sold. 

Sphicr, G., iigure*head for a vessel, left in the Trophy of the English Navy. 

A»h, Lieutenaut. model of a safety raft, sent to Sydenham. 

liiouMM, Captain, do do do da 

Uudii>u, Captain, model of a safety steamer, sent to Sydenham. 

Oaiuin, A., oars, presented to the Minister of Marine and Colonies in 

France. , 

Liijc, YhouMia, modeb of clippers and steamers, sent to Sydenham. 

CLASS XIV. 

All the buikliog materials belonging to this class were given partly fiir 
briUgDa and locks in France, and the remainder sent to Sydenham. 
OhIcII vt Co«» wooden doors, windows, blinds, and other articles, divided 

bctwtHMi the French Exhibition of cheap articles and Sydenham Palace. 
UmuU v»f iNibtic Works, models of locks and bridges, sent to the Conservor 

ivir^^ Jif^ Arts ei Mtiiers. 
Vh<Mul hunk Kailroad Company, model of Victoria Bridge, sent to Syden- 

^"U^^^iUMti W.» architectural drawings, sent to author. Model of General 
Ul\K*k^t uionument, presented to the relations of General Brock in 

CLASS XV. 

tUc UhJh kerning the collection in this class were for the most part sold; 
;^ ivUA*uiulv4' wvrtJ divided between the Conservatoire des Arts et MitierSj 
\/\. 'xAwx ISihwo Hiul the Austrian Commission. 

CLASS XVL 
V . \ V 1. ^^ . iH»sv OHStings, given to the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 



403 



Bioe, H., wire cloth, fent to Sydenbain. 
Peck, Thomai dc Co., nails, fent to SjdeDbmm. 

CLASS XVIL 
Bohle k Henderj, pimted ware, told for the weight of metal 

CLASS xvm. 

Spence, J. C, stained glass, sent to Sydenham. 

CLASS XX. 

The greater part of the woollen fabrics and other materials forming the 
collection in thb class were sent back to Canada, with the following except 
tions, Tix. : 

Carr, J., hair sent to Sydenham. 
Bean, Simon, a shawl and other articles in wool, gi^en on the premises : 

part of the flannel was sold and the remainder sent to Canada. 
Bouchard, Mrs., worsted articles, sent to Sydenham. 
Colby, Mrs., a shawl, told ; some articles giTen to the persons employed on 

the premises, and the remainder sent to Canada. 

CLASS XXU. 

Sisters of Charity, thread, given to the Jury. 

Bouchard, Mrs., needle work and Canadian cloth, sent to Canada. 

CLASS XXHL 

Ebenesar, S., worsted glove:}, sent back to Canada. 
Harper, Mrs., worsted stockings, sold. 
Moore, Mrs. do do do. 

Musson, Mrs. do do do. 

SiWerthorn, Mrs., counterpanes, do. 
Stiflel, Mm., do do. 

Lanicevin, Mrs., table cover, do. 

Vencebw, Mrs., do do sent back to Canada. 
Senkler, Misses, needle work, sent back to Canada. 



4(Mi. 



CLASS IV. 

Bevis, J.) centre ubie, sold. 

Hilton, J. & W., sofa and chairs, sold. 

MacGrarvej, Owen, rocking chairs, one given to Mr. Maitland, the remain- 
der sold. 

Drum, chair of curled maple, sold. 

Rhodes, Captain, chairs covered with moose skin and worked with moose 
hair, sold. 

Spence, J. C, work-table, sent to Sydenham. 

Widder, Miss, a devotional chair, private contribution, sent back. 

Cushing, Mrs., fancy frame, sold in a damaged state. 

Hare, Albert, do do da 

Boyd, John, brushes, sold. 

Jenking, Thomas, brushes and leather, sent to Sydenham. 

Davis, Mrs., worsted embroidery, sold. 

CLASS XXV. 

Smiley, Rol>ert, shirts, sold. 

Grauthier, Edward, dresses of Uoffe du paySy sold. 

Henderson & Co., beaver skin coat, sold. 

Wheeler, Thomas, feather cape, sent back to Canada. 

Barbeau, Joseph, hunting and other boots, sent to Sydenham. 

Eckart, Isaac, snow shoes and Esquimaux boots, sent to Sydenham. 

Fisher, Mrs., moose skin gloves, private contribution. 

Mercier, David, Huron Chief's dress, sent back to owner. 

Merryfield & Sheridan, shoes, part sold, and remainder sent to Sydenham. 

Pollard, Mrs., embroidered leggings, sent back to Canada. 

Price, David, embroidered moccasins, private property. 

Scandritt & Robinson, boots, sent to Sydenham. 

Smith & Co., boots and shoes, part sold and remainder sent to Sydenham. 

Tach6, J. C, moccasins, soled with india rubber, private contribution. 

Couture, Mrs., straw hats, sent to Sydenham. 

Martel, Mrs., do sold. 

Martel,Miss, do do. 

Ranger, Mrs., do sent to Sydenham. 

Jones, Mrs., screen embroidered in wool, sent to Canada. 

Parthenais, Miss, embroidery in wool, sent to Canada. 

Malo, L'Abb6, Indian curiosities, private property ; sent back to owner. 

Jones, Peter, Indian curiosities, sold. 



406 



Mercier, David, Indian work, private contribution, Mnc hack to owner. 

Rhodes, Mn., embroidery on bark, sold. 

Tanguay, L'Abb6, Indian curiosities, sent back to owner. 

CLASS XXVL 

Armstrong, W., water colour drawings, sent back to Canada. 

Shepherd, Bfiss, drawings of Canadian fruits and vegtcablea, sent to Syden- 
ham. 

Tully, Kivas, architectural drawings, sent back to Canada. 

Whitfield, lithographed drawings of Canadian towns, sent back to Canada* 

Doane, J. C, photographic portraits, sent back to Canada. 

Palmer, J. E., do do do do do. 

Cochrane, Miss, wax fruit, presented to the Ctmaervatoire des Arts et^Hiin. 

Sisters of Providence, do do do do do. 

Wheeler, J., seal engraving sent back to Canada. 

Rose, specimens of photography, do da 

Salter fc Ross, do do do do. 

Smith, do do do do. 

Starke & Co., do do do do. 

De Puibusque, Adolphe, book binding in porpoise leather, sent back to 
owner. 

Mackay, Mrs., specimens of book-binding, sent to Sydenham. 

Miller, R. fc A., do do do do. 

Young, A., do do do do. 

CLASS xxvn. 

Hood, T. D., piano-forte and sounding board, sent to Sydenham. 

CLASS xxvm. 

Kane, Paul, oil painting, the property of Mr. Allan, sent back. 
Ryland, J. U., oil paintings sent back to owner. 



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A SKETCH 



or 



THE GEOLOGY OF CANADA. 



A SKETCH 



OF 



THE GEOLOGY OF CANADA 



ITIVO 

TO EXPLAIN THE GEOLOGICAL MAP 

A3CD TBI 

COLLECTION OF ECONOMIC MINERALS 

•nrr to 

THE UinVERSAL EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 18(6. 

. '• W.E. LOGAN, F. R. S. 



Manbtr of the OtologioAl Soeietiet of France mhI England, Direolor of Um Ooologionl Com- 

nuMion of CmoAdn. ^, 4a, fte. 






T. STERRY HUNT, A. M. 



lUnibtr of tbo.Ooologienl Siwiet j «if Fnuiei, ot tha Am«ri«n Aeadonj of Arlt and Sci' 
Cbamiat and ICneralogiftt U» the O«olofpeal CommiMion of Canada, Mambw 
of tb« Intomational Jurj of Um UniTenal Exhibition 

at Paria. 4e., 4c.. 4r. 



(Tyranakttcd Jnrm tht Frtnch^ 



PARIS 

HECTOR IIOSSANOE k SON. 

1855. 



INTRODTJCTION. 



The commencement of a systematic investigation of the Geology of 
Canada, dates only firom the year 1842. Before this time, however, 
several efforts had been made by men who appreciated its importance, 
to establish a commission for the Geological and Minerological examina- 
tion of the Coontry, bat it was only in 1841 that the Legislative Aa* 
lembly having voted a sum of £1500 for a geological exploration 
of the Province, the Governor, Sir Charles Bagot, named in 184t, Mr. 
W. E. Logan, as Geologist, and Mr. Alexander Murray, as Assistant 
Geologist, to put the project into execution. The exploration, being thus 
commenced, was continued under Lord Metcalfe by a second grant of 
jCtOOO a year for a period of five years from 1845, and in 1850 the 
Act wa8 rencwHsd under the administration of Lord Elgin, for a similar 
period. 

The Geological Exploration of Canada presents peculiar diflkulties ; 
in old countries where civilization of many centuries has developed the 
mineral resources of the soil, where mines and quarries furnish every 
where facilities for studying the nature and arrangement of the different 
formations, where, finally, the labors of the Topographer have preceded 
those of the Geologist and given exact maps of the country, geological 
researches become comparatively eai«y. But, in a new countrj* like 
Canada, all these things were wanting; the geologist was obliged to 
precede civilization, and, penetrating into unknown regions, to point out 
sources of mineral wealth hitherto unknown, preparing thus the way for 
the industry of civilized men who shall replace the savages. If we add 
to all these considerations that a geographical knowledge is an imlispen- 
sible preliminary to investigations of this nature, it hasonen been neces. 
sary to combine topography with geology, and to make at the same time 
a geographical and geological map of the country, vk*e may form Moroe 
idea of the difficulties to be surmmmted in the Geological Sur%'ey of 
Canada. 

Canada has an area of about 40,000 square leagues ; and the n^searrhes 
of Messni. I^)gan and Murray, aided by those of Mr. Richardson, have 
already made known the geology of a great portion of this extent. Ac- 



4.16 



cording to the evidence given before a Committee of the Legislative 
Assembly, in October, 1854, it appears that the explorations up to that 
date, comprehended the shores of Lakes Superior and Horon, as well as 
all the great western basin of Canada, the valley of the St. Lawrence as 
far as the Gulf, the valleys of the Richelieu, Yamaska, St Francis and 
Chaudiere, that of the Ottawa and its branches as far as Lake Temis- 
caming, as well as almost all that part of Lower Canada south of the 
SU Lawrence, including the district of 6asp£. To these geological 
labours must be added the topographical surveys of several rivers tribu- 
tary' to Lakes Huron and Superior, of a great part of the Ottawa and its 
branches, as well as the surveys executed by Mr. Murray upon two lines 
of exploration between the Ottawa and Lake Huron, and the measure- 
ments of the principal rivers of 6asp6. AH these topographical labours 
were only accessary to the Geological Survey, although necessary to its 
prosecution, and have greatly augmented the task of the Greological 
Commission. 

The Annual Reports of the Geological Survey form at present abont 
1200 pages in 8vo., summaries of the geolc^cal researches of each year, 
with descriptions of the economic materials met with in the progress of 
the investigation, as well as researches upon the rocks, minersds and 
soils of the country, by Mr. C. Sterry Hunt, who has, since 1847, been 
attached to the Geological Commission in the capacity of Chemist and 
Mineralogist. 

The inevitable expenses in a country where it has been necessary to 
carry on at the same time topographical and geological investigations, 
and to organize expeditions into regions still in a state of nature — ^have 
been such, that, notwithstanding the liberal sums accorded by the Pro- 
vincial Government for these researches, it has not been without con- 
siderable personal sacrifice on the part of its director, that the Geological 
Survey has been carried on up to the present time. At the last Session 
of the Legislative Assembly there was accorded the sum of £2,000 for 
the publication of a Geological Map of Canada, upon a scale of, ^u^^ifi^j 
(having thus a length of more than six feet by a breadth of three feet,) to 
be accompanied by a condensed summary of all the Reports which have 
yet appeared. It is proposed, during the continuation of the Survey, to 
publish each year, besides the annual Report of Progress, a livraison of 
ten plates of the characteristic fossils of the different formations of Canada 
accompanied by a descriptive text, and also to give geological sections, 
with a minutely detailed geological Map on a large scale, which will 
be published in several parts to appear successively. 

The geological commission has secured, for the palaeontology, the co- 



417 



operation of Mr. Jame^ Hall, of New York, who will diirct the npocial 
studies required for the description, and publication of the foM«ils. This 
distinguished professor, so well known by his researches upon the 
geology of the United States, will sotm publish a geological map of that 
oountiy on the same scale as that of Canada, and as Mr. Logan has 
adopted the divisions established by Mr. Hall, in the palieozoic rucks erf* 
the United States, their combined labours in these; adjacent countries 
will give to the Geology of North America, a unity of plan which will 
greatly facilitate futun* geological researches on the American continent. 
The Map of Canada, which in now being engraved in Paris, will be 
published bef3re long. 

The Canadian government wishing to send to the Universal Exhibition 
at Paris a series of the economic minerals of the country, Mr. Logan was 
directed to collect thom« and the minerals here exhibited, although in 
part, exhibited under the names of diflerent individuals, were, with a few 
exceptions, collected by the p<*rsonal care of the members of the Geologi- 
cal (ommission. In order to indicate the geological rt*lations of these 
materials, Mr. Logan has exhibited at the same time a map u|x>n a scale 
of tn}obJiy tipon which he has brought together for the first time all the 
details of his geological labours ; at the same time, as an explanation 
both of the map and the collection, we have thought pro|)er to give in the 
little treatise which follows, a short account of the most interesting facts 
in the geology and mineralogy of Canada. We have added, moreover, a 
catalogue of the economic minerals of the countr}*, and a small map, on 
a scale which is one-sixth of that about to be published. The geology 
of the neighbouring States is taken from the Maps of American GeologistSf 
especially from that of Mr. James Hall. 

For the geological facts, and for whatever relates to the physical 
structure of the country, all is due to Mr. I^gan and his gi*ological 
avistants ; the mineralogy, as well as the chemistr}' of the metamorphic 
locks and the mineral waters, is the result of the researches of Mr. T. 
Slerry Hunt, who has edited this little sketch. 

Paris, August 1st, 1855. 



SKETCH 



GEOLOGY OF CANADA. 



I 

THE LAURENTIDES. 



The province of Cmnada is traversed, through its whole length, by a 
OMMantainoiis region, dividing it into two basins, which may be distinguish- 
ed as the Northern and the Southern basins. These mountains, which have 
been named the Laurentifles, form the North shore of the St. Lawrence* 
from the Gnlf ai far as Cii|>c Tourment, near Quebec; from which point 
they leave the river, and while they follow its general direction liecorae 
more and more remote, until near Montreal, they are at a distance of ten 
leagues from tho St. Lawrence. Goiny^ further Westward, this moun- 
tainous region follows the line of the Ottawa, and cro!»es this river near 
the Lae des Chais^ fifty leagues from Montreal. Thence taking a South- 
ward direction, it readies the St. Lawrence near the outlet of Lake 
Ontario, and from this |)oint running? North-westward, the Southern limit 
of thiA formation, roaches the Soutli-esihtern extremity of Lake Huron, at 
Matchedash Bay, and forms the Eastern shore of the lak^ as far as the 
47th degree of latitmle, where quitting; this lake, the formation trains Lake 
Superior, and extends in a \nrth-west direction to the Arctic Sea. 

To the South of the St. Lawrence, this same region cctrem n coa^ider- 
able space between the Lakes Ontario and Champlnin. mM constitutes the 
Adirondack mountains. With this exception and perhaps also a small 
exposure in Arkansas and another near the sources. of the Mississippi, 
his formation is not found to the South of the St. Lawrence, and 
as it belongs especially to the valley of this river and constitiltes the 
Laarentide Mountains, the Geological Commission of Canada has di^ 
tingnished it by the name of the Laurentum tpUm. 



u 

THE LAURENTIAN SYSTEM. 

The rocks of this system are» almost without exception, ancient seciimen- 
tarj strata, which have become highly cr}'8talline. They have been very 
moch disturbed and form ranges of hills, having a direction nearly North- 
east and South-west, rising to the height of 2,000 or 3,000 feet, and even 
higher. The rocks of this formation are the most ancient knnwn on the 
Aoierican continent, and correspond probably to the oldest gneiss "of 
Finlaod and Scandinavia, and to some similar rocks in the North of 
Sootland. 

The rocks of the Laurentian formation are in great part crystalline 
schists, for the most |mrt gneissoid or homblendie. Associated with these 
schists, are found large stratified mssses of a crystalline rock, which is 
composed almost entirely of a lime and soda felspar. This rock is s ine- 
times fine grained, but more oAen porphyritic, and contains cleavable 
masses of felspar, sometimes several inches in diameter ; these felspars 
are triclinic, and have ordinarily the composition of andesine, labradorite, 
anoffthite. or of intermediate varieties. Their colours are various, but the 
cleavable felspars arc generally bluish or reddish, and often give colored 
refleetioiis. Hypersthene is very generally disseminated in these feisp ithie 
locks, but always in small quantity. Titanic iron-oro is also found in 
then, in a great number of places, sometimes in small grains, but often in 
eoosiderable masses. 

With these schists and felspars are found strata of quartsite. asnociated 
with crystalline limestones, which occupy an important place in this 
formation. These limestones occur in beds of from a few feet to three 
hundred feet m thickness, and often present a succession of thin beds 
iolercalated with beds of gneiss or quartzite ; these latter are scnnetimes 
qoartzite conglomerates, and have in certain cases a base of dolomite^ 
AiBBociated with these limestones, are sometimes found beds composed io 
great part of wollastonite and of pyroiene, species which evidently owe 
their origin to the metamorphisro of siliciuus limestones. BeJs of dolomite 
and of limestone more or less inagnesian, are olten inierstratitit-d with the 
pass Utiestones of this formatim. 

The limestomsi of this system aie rarely oompact, and most frequently 



422 



ar« coarsely granuted. They are white or reddish, bluish or grayish, aod 
these colours are often arranged in bands which coincide with the stratifi- 
cation. The principal mineral species met with in these limestones, are 
apatite, fluor, serpentine, phlogopite, scapolite, orthoclase, pyroxene, horn- 
blende, wollastonite, quartz, idocrase, garnet, brown tourmaline, condrodite, 
spine), oorindum, zircon, sphene, magnetic and specular iron, and graphite. 
The condrodite and graphite are often arranged in bands paralld witfi the 
stratification. Beds of a mixture of wollastonite and pyroxene are some- 
times met with, which are very rich in zircon, sphene, garnet and 
jdocrase. The most crystalline varieties of these limest(mes often exhale 
a very fetid odour when bruised. The limestones of this formation do not 
yield everywhere well crystallizeJ minerals ; near the bay of Quints there 
are met with beds which still preserve the sedimentary character, and show 
only the commencement of metamorphbm. 

The conditions in which they are sometimes found, indicate that the 
agents which have rendered these limestones crystalline, have been such 
as to render the carbonate of lime almost liquid, and that, while in that 
state, it has undergone great pressure. As' evidence of this opinion, we 
find that the limestone often fills fissures in the adjacent silicious strata, 
and envelopes the detached, and often, folded fragments of these less 
fusible beds precisely like an igneous rock. 

The crystalline schists, felspars, quartzites and felspars which we have 
described, mak'e up the stratified portion of the Laurentian system, but 
there are besides, intrusive granites, syenites and diorites, which form 
important masses ; the granites are sometimes albitic, and often contain 
black toumoline mica in large plates, zircon and sulphuret of molybdenor. 

Among the economic minerals of this formation, the ores of iron are 
the most important, and are generally found associated with the lime- 
stones. The magnetic iron ore which supplies the forges of Marmora, 
C. W., is brought from Belmont, where it forms a succession of beds as- 
sociated with crystalline limestone and a greenish talcons slate. The 
strata are here arranged in the form of a basin, and the iron ore predomi- 
nates for a thickness of more than 100 feet. A few miles distant from 
this locality, in the Township of Madoc, there has been wrought a bed 
of ^magnetic iron ore which occurs in a micaceous schist and has a thick- 
ness of 25 or 30 feet. The ore, which is very fine grained, often possesses 
magnetic polarity, and contains a mixture of small quantities of actyno- 
lite with a little yellow uranite ; it furnishes an iron of superior quality. 
Many other masses of this kind of ore are found in the surrounding 
region ; that of South Sherbrooke has a thickness of 60 feet, and that of 
Crosby on the Rideau is nearly two hundred feet thick. At Hull on the 



488 



Ottawm, a bed of ore 100 feet thick is exposed by an undulation of the 
strata fonning a sort of dome, so that the ore is wrought with great faci- 
lity. These ores are for the most part pore magnetic oxyde of iron, some* 
times mixed with a few hmidreths of mica or qaartx. 

A compact variety of oligist ore, (red hematite,) often replaces the 
magnetic ore in this formation. At Macnab npon the Ottawa, a bed of 
this species twenty-five feet in thickness, is found in the crystalline lima- 
stone ; the ore is mixed with a little silica and carbonate of lime. Mr. 
Murray of the Geological Commission, has lately recognized the existence 
of a large extent of crystalline oligist ore upon one of the islands of 
Lake Nippissing. 

The limestone of the Laurentian system are often traversed by veins of 
calcareous spar and sulphate of baryta, containing sulphuret of lead in 
disseminated masses, or in veins which are often two or three inches 
in thickness. One of the^* localities in the township of Lansdowne is 
already explored ; what appears to be a continuation of the same vein, is 
met with in the township of Bedford ; these localities are in a general 
dire<nion N.E. and S.W. The galena is sometimes accompanied with 
small quantities of blende and inm pyrites; it is very slightly argt*ntifer- 
ooa, yielding by coupellation only about two ounces of silver to the ton 
of ore. 

Veins containing copper pyrites have been observed in several localities 
in the Laurentian system ; but the quantity of metal which they contain, 
appears very inconsiderable. One of these localities is in the Seigniory of 
Lanoraie, in the county of Berthier, and near to it in the same Seigniory 
there is a vein of quartz 40 feet wide containing a great quantity of, 
cubic and magnetic pyrites. In the neighbouring Seignior}' of Daillcbout 
there is found a considerable vein of cubic inm pyrites, containing small 
portions of cobalt and nickel ; this same formation in the State of New 
York has furnished crystallized sulphuret of nickel. 

Graphite is very frequently disseminated in small plates in the crj'stal- 
line limestone, and also fonns veins, sometimf*s of considerable thick- 
ness. Near Gnmville, on the Ottawa, are two of these* veins, one of 
which was wrought some years simre. The graphite, acc^inling to the 
description of Mr. Logan, there forms three detacht*d veins, each having 
a thickness of about five inclics, and is accompanied by wollastonite, 
orthodase, idocrase, garnet, zircon, and sphene. Fine specimens of gra- 
phite have also been found in several other localities. The graphite of 
these limestones being very crystalline and lamellar, cannot be sawn like 
that of Cumberland, and besides, its colour is grayish and its lustre 
meuUic, so that it is not suited to the manufacture of pencils. It may, 



424 



however, be very well employed for the fabrieation of lefracUnj 
crucibles. 

The sulphate of baryta which is now very much employed in the 
fabrication of paints is common in the Laarentian formation. Tlie gangoB 
of the lead veins already mentioned, often consists of this mineral, and 
in a portion of that of Landsdowne in which the galena disappears, the 
vein which has a breadth of about two and a half feet, is filled with pure 
sulphate of baryta, often in large ciystal. Bathurst and Macnab are alBO 
localities of this mineral. 

The titaniferous iron-ores of this formation merit the attention of mi- 
neralogists by their abundance as well as by their associations ; although 
these minerals are not adapted to the production of iron, when they con- 
tain a large proportion of titanic acid, they may become important as 
sources of titanium. The principal deposits of titanic iron in Canada, 
are at Baie-St.-Paul, where a single mass of 90 feet in breadth and SOD 
feet in length occurs with many other smaller ones in a rock which is 
chiefly composed of a triclinic felspar. The ore which is granular has 
the composition of the ilmenite of the Ural Mountains ; it gave to Mr. 
Hunt titanic acid 48,60, protoxyd of iron 37,06, peroxyde <^ iron 
10,42, magnesia 3,60=99,68 ; it contains in some parts, a considerable 
proportion of orange-red transparent grains which are pure titanic acid 
and belong to the species rutile or brookite. The felspathic rocks of this 
formation in several other localities, contain titanic iron often in sroaU 
masses an inch or more in thickness and always marking the lines of 
stratification. If, in the progress of chemical science, titanium or its 
compounds should ever become important in the arts, these localities of 
Lower Canada will afford inexhaustible supplies of titanic iron-ore. 

The crystalline limestone near Grenville furnishes a great quantity of 
mica in large crystals, capable of being divided into very thin plates, 
having a length and breadth of from twelve to twenty inches, and perfectly 
homogeneous and transparent. This locality is already wrought, and the 
mica is largely employed in the construction of stoves and lanterns. 

The gneiss and quartz rock of the Laurentian system furnish in many 
localities excellent building materials, but, as these rocks occur for the 
most part in regions as yet but little inhabited, and as they are besides, 
more difficult to work than the silurian limestones, these harder materials 
are as yet but little explored. The Laurentian limestones furnish a white 
marble which is often marked with bluish or grayish undulation, as for 
example that of Amprior ; or it is mixed with grains of green serpentine 
as the marble which is wrought at Grenville. These limestones are 



436 



fine-grained, but the dolomite of lake Mazinaw may be compared with 
the marble of Carrara. 

Among the minerals in this formation having an economic value, we 
most not forget the phosphate of lime so precious for agriculture, which 
b often met with in these crystalline lime stones. In the township of 
Burgess, there is a remarkable locality of this mineral in a bed of coarae- 
gfained reddish limestone, containing also large crystals of mica. The 
phosphate of lime of a pale green colour, often forms long prisms two or 
three inches in diameter ; the angles of these crystals are never very well 
defined, and the mineral often takes the shape ofrounded masses, giving 
to the limestone that aspect of a conglomerate, and recalling those beds 
of Silurian limestones which wc find filled with coprolites composed of 
phosphate of lime. The proportion of phosphate of lime in the limestone 
of Burgess, may be estimated at about one-third of the mass. 

As stones capable of being employed for the purposes of ornament, we 
may cite from this formation the aventurine felspar to which Thompson 
gave the name of pert kite j but which is an orthoclase, and the perisie' 
rite of the same author which is a white translucent albite, remarkable 
for its beautiful reflections of blue, yellow and green, n*sembling those of 
labradorite. A beautiful variety of this latter species, which we have 
already stated to be abundant in the hyperstenic rocks, is found in several 
places in erratic blocks, and exists in place, in the M*igniory of Mille* 
Isles. In the township of Burgess a nnl variety of corumdum resembling 
the ruby, is found in small quantities, and the red zircons of Grenville 
are sometimes transparent and of a fine colour, constituting veritable 
gems. 



Ill 

THE HURONIAN OR CAMBRIAN SYSTEM. 

The shores of lakes Huron and Superior offer a series of schists, 
sandstones, limestones and conglomerates interstratified with heavy beds 
of greenstone, and resting unconformably upon the Laurcntian formation. 
As these rocks underly those of the silurian system, and have not as yet 
afforded any fossils, they may probably be referred to the Cambrian 
system (lower Cambrian of Sedgwick.) The schists of this system 
upon Lake Superior are bluish in colour, and contain beds of clurty, 
silex, marked by calcareous bands, and holding anthracite in its fissures. 

These are covered by a considerable thickness of trap, upon which 
repose massive beds of red and white sandstone which sometimes 
becomes conglomerate and contains pebbles of quartz and jasper. Beds 
of a reddish argillacous limestone are often interstratified with these 
sandstones, which are intersected and overlaid by a second eruption of 
greenstone of great thickness and columnar in its structure. This for- 
mation, which, according to the observations of Mr. Ix)gun, has, on lake 
Superior a total thickness of about 12,000 feet, is traversed by a vast 
number of trappean dykes. 

In the corresponding formation on the north shore of lake Huron, the 
sandstones are more vitreous and the conglomerates more abundant than 
on lake Superior; they are, however, associated with conglom* 
erates and schists similar to those we here just descrit>ed, and the 
formation offers great intercolated masses of greenstone. A band of 
limestone, fifty feet in thickness forms a part of this series to which Mr. 
Logan assigns a thickness of about 10,000 feet. He has shown after the 
irruption of the interstratified greenstones, that of two systems of trap 
dykes and a third of granite, intermediate in time between the two 
eruptions of trap. The formation of the metalliferous veins is still more 
recent. The principal mineral species of these veins are native copper, 
quartz, calc-spnr, dolomite, fluor, and sulphate of baryta with several 
zeolites, of which laumonite is the most common, heulandite, stilbite, 
thomp*M)ntie, apophyllite and analcime arc also met with, as well as 
pn*lnite and datholite. These vrins are only metalliferous where they 
traverse the beds of greenstooes. 



428 



The most important localities of native copper are the islands near 
Nepigon Bay, lake Superior. Upon the island of St. Ignace a vein 
coincident with the stratification, has been traced from one end of the 
island to the other. This vein affords, whenever it has been explored, 
native copper often finely crystallized and associated with gray copper 
ore. Native copper has also been wrought on Michipicoten islands, at 
Bf aimanse and at Mica Bay, on the £astem shore of the lake, where it is 
associated with gray sulphuret of copper and with copper pyrites. Native 
silver, often well crystallized, accompanies the copper in all the localities 
indicated in Michipicoten and St. Ignace islands. At Prince's mine on 
Spar Island, this metal is found in a vein of quartz and calcareous spar 
accompanied with sulphuret of silver and copper, blende, galena, 
malachite and arseniated cobalt. The native silver occurs in the form 
of little laminsB in the calcareous spar ; several essays upon a mass of 
several hundred pounds weight, have yielded from three to four per cent 
of silver, containing traces of gold. Upon Michipicoten Island arsenical 
nickel is found with an arseniuret of copper (domeykite) and a green 
hydrated silicate of nickel and alumina containing 31 per cent of oxyd 
of nickel. Nickel is also found at Wallace mine on lake Huron as an 
arsenical sulphuret associated with pyrites ; this ore furnishes IS per 
cent of nickel with a little cobalt. 

The veins as yet examined on Lake Huron do not contain native 
copper ; copper pyrites are there the predominant ore, but the Bruce mines 
have furnished considerable quantities of gray sulpliment, and of varie- 
gated copper ore in a gaugue of quartz with heavy spar and dolomite. 
At Wallace's mine, at Root River, and at Echo Lake, there are also large 
veins where the metal is found in the form of copper pyrites. 

This Huronian formation is known for a distance of about 150 
leagues upon Lakes Huron and Superior, and everywhere offers metalli- 
ferous veins, which have as yet been very little explored. It cannot, 
however, be doubted, that this region contains metallic deposits, which 
will one day become sources of great wealth to Canada. The coal 
formation of the neighboring State of Michigan will then furnish the com- 
bustible required for melting the ores. 



IV. 



THE PALiEOZOIC FORMATIONS. 

Upon the islands of the north of Lake Horon a series of fossilifeious 
strata is found to repose horizontally upon the inclined strata of the 
Huronian formation, but, further south, these fossiliferous rocks rest directly 
upon those of the laurentian system, throughout the whole of their outcrop 
in the valley of the St. Lawrence. These fossiliferous strata correspond 
to the oldest fossiliferous rocks of Europe designated by Murchison 
as the Silurian system, but forming the upper Cambrian of Sedgwick. 
To this formation succeeds the upper silurian system of Murchison 
(Silurian of Sedgwick) and the devonian ; these groups, with the excep- 
tion of a small area of the carboniferous system, occupy the whole of 
the Canadian portion of that great basin which is bounded to the north 
by the Laurentian and Huronian systems. 

Mr. Logan has shown that the basin thus indicated may be divided 
into two parts by an anticlinal axis, which, following the valley of the 
Hudson and of Lake Champlain, enters Canada near Missisquoi Bay, 
and thence, running North- West, reaches the St. Lawrence near Descham- 
bault, ten leagues west of Quebec. The western portion would then 
form a subordinate basin containing the Apalachian, Michigan and 
Illinois coal fields, while the eastern portion would embrace the coal 
fields of New Brunswick and Massachusetts. The rocks of these two 
basins present remarkable differences in their chemical and physical 
conditions. The formations of the western basin are nearly horizontal, 
and offer a perfect conformity, while in those of the east, there is discord- 
ance between the upper and lower silurian, and between the devonian 
and carboniferous formations. The strata of the eastern basin are more- 
over very much folded and contorted, and have in some parts undergone 
profound chemical and mineralogical changes. We shall first give a 
description of the sedimentary deposits of the westem basin. 



THE WESTERN BASIN. 

RepcMing upon the LanienUan and Cambrian (rocXet), and from the 
bate of the paloonnc aeries is found a sandstone, which is often purely 
qnaitzoae, but sometimes {colored) by a mixture of oxyd of iron, and be- 
coming slightly calcareoos in its western prolongation. The fossils of 
this formation are few in number, being limited to two species of Ltaguls^ 
some fucoids, and those impressions which have been named ScoUiku$. 
It is worthy of remark that the germ Lingola which characterises the 
most ancient formations, still exists in tropical seas, and that the shells of 
all its species, both recent k fossil, are composed in great part of plurplatic 
(lime,) having a composition different from other shells and identical with 
that of the bones of vertebrate animals. The different species of Orpicula 
a germ closely allied to Lingula and the conularia offer a simolar com- 
position. 

This sandstone to which the Geologists of New York have given the 
name of the Potsdam Sandstone often bears the foot prints of an animal 
which is regarded by Prof. Owen of London as a species of Crustacea 
of which we have perhaps no living analogue. The impression of the 
feet on each side are very near to each other, but the width of tiie tracks 
from 5 to 1*2 inches, and there is an intermediate groove which appears to 
have been made by the tail of the animal. Pn>f. Owen has given to these 
impressions the name of protecknites. They arc very abundant at Van- 
dreuil, St Anne and many other localities. The thickness of this forma- 
ticm of sandstone in tho Eastern part of Canada is about SOU feet, but it 
diminishes towards the west. 

Upon the Potsdam Sandstone reposes a formation known as the colci- 
feroue sandstone having at the East a thickness of 250 feet and it is charac- 
terized by peculiar organic remains among which are fiicoids and several 
species of gastcropods. To the calciferous sandstone succeeds a mass of 
lime stone in which the New York Geologists have recognised four 
divisions designated by the names of Chaxy, Birdseye, Black River and 
Tkvnioo, each of these is characterind by particular feasib At Montreal 



432 



this group has a thickness of about 1200 feet, and presents at its base 
massive greyish beds ; towards the upper part the limestones became 
black and bituminous, and are intercalated with black shales which 
form the commencement of the succeeding formation. Towards the 
west, these limestones are less abundant and the divisions not so well 
marked : upon the Manitoulin Islands, according to Mr. Morray, their 
total thickness does not exceed 300 feet. 

These limestones are often very rich im fossils, which are sometimes 
silicified ; near Ottawa the casts of Orthoceroe and of some other fossils 
occur in a granular ferruginous dolomite, while the (encasing) limpsfrme 
contains no carbonate of magnesia. In the Ghazy limestooe near Hsw- 
kesbury as well as in a bed of sandstone at AUumette Island, belonging 
probably to the summit of calcilerous sandstone there, are found rounded 
masses from one to three-fourths of an inch in diameter, consisting in gmat 
part of phosphate of lime, and apparently composed of the ezuvio of ani- 
mals subsisting on the phosphatic sheUs just mentioned which are rerj 
abundant in these same beds. Fragments of Lmguia are often vitUrte 
in the interior of these o(^>rolites, which yield by analyses, from S6 to 45 
per cent, of phosphate of lime, with a little fluorid and carbonate, aad 
portions of magnesia and oxyd of iron. The residue is silicious saftd, 
with two or three per cent, of organic matter, which exhales ammcnia 
with an animal odour when the coprolites are tested. The formatioii 
which rests upon the Trenton limestone is known by the name of the VHea 
Slates ; these slates are black, bituminous and very fragile, contaimng 
abundance of graptolites, and having a thickness of from 60 to 100 feet 
To the Utica slates succeeds a series of bluish or grayish schbts, inter- 
calated with thin beds of sandstone and limestone. This series which 
is often very fossiliferous belongs to the Hudson River group of the New 
York Geologists, and attains in Lower Canada a thickness of about 1500 
feet ; on Lake Huron, however, it is reduced to about 200 feet. 

Resting upon this last series we find in the western part of Canada, a 
red argillaceous sandstone, known as the Medina sandstone and regarded 
as the base of the upper silurian system. At the western extremity of Lake 
Ontario, this sandstone has a thickness of 600 feet, but it becomes thin- 
ner towards the west, and appears to be wanting in the eastern basin. It 
is followed by a series of limestone and fossiliferous shales of no great 
thickness, known as the Clinton Group ; and overlaid by massive beds of 
bituminous limestone, known as Niagara limestone. This formation pre- 
sents an elevated plateau at the Falls of Niagara, while following at a little 
distance the S. W. shore of Lake Ontario, is prolonged to Cabots Head, 



438 



opOD Lake Huron, and tlieoce to the Manitoulin Inlands. The upper 
beds of this (brmation, often contain cavities filled with crystals of cal* 
careous spar, dolomite, sulphate of baryta, flour, celestine, sclenite and 
anhydrite, somettmei* with blende and galena. The cofnbtned thickncM of 
the Clinton and Niagara groups on Lake Ontario ih about 300 fi*et, but upon 
the Manitoulin Islands it rises to nearly 600 fi*et. To this fonnalion 
succeeds a fonnation of shales and Iim(*stones known by the names of tlie 
Oyp^tferous Group and the Onondaga Soli Group which is followed by 
bc^ds of limestone containing Delthyris and Peniamerus. These lime- 
stones fonn the summit of the upper silurian system, which attains be- 
tween the Lakes Erie and Ontario, a total thickness of about 1 100 feet. 

Tlie base of the Devonian Synltm^ in the Stale of New York, is the 
Oriskany aanihione represented in Canada by a white i|uartzose sandstone 
of little thickness upon which n»sts ihv corniferoua limestone of the New 
York Geologists, tlie two formini^iogiMhcT what they have named the upper 
Helderbc*rg series. To these rocks siiee(*i*d black bituminous shales 
known as the Ihmiiion Group. This is the highest formation met with 
in Western Canada, but in the neighboring States of .Michigan and New 
York, we meet with the upper portion of the l)t*vonian sysleiu in the fonn 
of maseiive sandstones inten*alated with shales, and divided bv the New 
York Geologist into the Portage and Chemung Group^ and the CaUkilt 
M'tunfain Group, This last is reganled as the ef]uiva!t*nt of the old n*d 
sandstone of England, and immediately underlies t)H* curt>onifenius sys- 
tem. 

The fossilifenms limestones of Montreal and St. l)omini(|U(* take a fine 
polish and are emph)yed as marbles; tliey exhibit white foH?«il f«tnn u|)on 
a gray or bluish gray grouml. At Missisipioi Bay, and at (^lrn\\all, is 
foanda ^ne black marble, which k)elongs lothe rn*nion limejiuine. Si. Lin 
furnishes large slabs of a beautiful reddish gray marble, tilli*d with organic 
remains, especially with corals which have a bright red colour. This 
marble belongs to the Chaxy division, wiiich at Pakenham, gives a com* 
pact chocolate-brown marble susceptible of a very fine |M)lish. The rocks 
of the Hudson River Group and the Trenton limestone furnish every- 
where good material for building and |)aving The Cliazy limestone con- 
taines an argillaceous bed which is largely wrought on tlie Ottawa, and 
furnishes the hydraulic cement of Hull, which is much esteemed. This bed 
characterized by the proximity of a layer filled with Ci^here^ has been 
traced over a large area and furnishes a hydraulic clement at Kingston and 
Loughboro\ At Quebec a black limestone b(*longing to the Hudson 
River group, yields also a very valuable cement. The Tliomld cement 



434 



so widely used, is derived from the base of the Niagara limestone while 
the gypsiferous formation at Cayuga, at Paris, upon the Grand River, and 
at Point Douglas on Lake Huron furnishes a cement which hardens veiy 
rapidly under water. 

The chazy limestone in the vicinity of Marmora, contains beds of a 
superior lithographic stone in large quantities. The same stone may be 
traced at intervals as far as Lake Couchiching a distance of about 75 
leagues. 

The gypsum quirries of the upper Silurian rocks are very important, 
and are found all along the outcrop of the so called gypsiferous forma- 
tion. The principal quarries wrought are in the townships of Dumfries, 
Brantford, Oneida and Cayuga. The gypsum is chiefly employed in the 
country as a manure or calcined as plaster of Paris. But apart from the 
domestic consumption, the townships of Oneida and Cayuga furnished 
last year 7000 tons for exportation to the United States. These gypsums 
are of recent origin ; they occur in the form of mounds, which penetrate 
the pateozoic strata, and even the overlying clays of recent date. The 
beds of limestone which surrounds them are upraised, broken, and in 
great part absorbed. Mr. Sterry Hunt^ of the Canadian Geological Com- 
mission has shown that these phenomena are due to certain springs con- 
taining free sulphuric acid which acting upon the carbonate of lime 
have changed it into gypsum. {SeeComptes Rendus dePAcacUmiedes 
Sciences^ 1855, \8t Semeslre p. 1348.) The Utica slates which are some- 
times highly bituminous are worthy of attention as sources of oils and 
bituminous matters, but as yet no experiments have been made with 
them from an industrial point of view. 

The Hamilton shales are still more bituminous and furnish in many 
parts of Western Canaada, springs of petroleum, as those upon the 
Thames and in Enniskillen where there are several superficial layers of 
asphalt, which appears to have been produced by the transformation of 
petroleum. The largest deposit of asphalt covers three acres, and there 
is another of half an acre with a thickness in some parts of two feet 
This matter furnishes by distillation among other products a great quantity 
of naphtha. 



VI. 



THE EASTERN BASIN. 

We have already indicated the existence of an anticlinal axis which 
divided in two part.s the palaeozoic region of Canada. U|M)n (he line of 
this axis the most n*rent formalion (with the exception of the quateraaiy 
deposits) is the lower [)ortion of the Hudson River gnMip, distinguished 
by the name of the Lorraine or Richelieu shales. In the Yaniaska valley 
an outcrop of the Tn^nton limestone marks this anticlinal line which 
separates the two basins. Not far to the iMst of this limestone, we find 
reposing upon the Richelieu shales a S4>rtes of sedimentary rock> which 
constitute the uppi*r part of the Hudson River group, but which aie 
entirely wanting in the westc-ni basin from which they have probably 
been removed by denudation. This series is eompoM'd of massive 
grayish >andstone, often ealean»ous, associated with s4'hi.Hts, gray, green, 
and red near the suiniiiit, and with oth<>r sehiMs black bituminous and 
graptolitic. In some parts of this fonuation thr sandMom* lx*eomrs eon- 
glomerate and (*ncloses gn»at fragments of the inferior fossiliferuus firmn- 
lions. MoH' fre(|uently however these sandston«'s pass into a bitniuinous 
limestone containing fossils, and mixed with magnesia, oxy«l of in»n or 
silicious sand. The^e lim<*stones an* interealat(*d with >iliciou9 and 
bituminous dolomite which weathtTs yellow and eontain^ia |M>rt ion of car- 
bonate of iron ; the dolomite ap|>f'ars in some parts to \n* n»plac<*il by a 
ferrugin(»us and .silieiou** earlx)nait* of mai;nt*si:i. This series of neks 
fonns the ht*ii^ht«* of Point-Lrvi and QucIh^c, whi^n* it has a thickness 
of IQOO feet. To this Qui'lx'c formation, succee<l red and gret'n M*hists 
holding little bands of calcareous matter, and interealated, es^M^cially 
near the summit, with great masses of cpiartzosi* sandstone, often cal- 
careous, and coloured reddish or greenish by a mixture of argillaet-ous 
matter. This series of sandstones and schists which may have a total 
thickness of SOO feet, has been named by Mr. Logan the Sillery gnnip, 
and appears to be the equivalent of that which the New York Cieogolists 
have designated as the Shawangunk or Oneida conglomerate, which in 
central New York is inter|H>sed between the Richelieu shales and the 
Medina sandstone. This Sillery group like that of Quebec is wanting 



436 



in Western Canada, but to the east the two may be traced a? far as 
the southern extremity of the Apallachian coal basin. 

The Silleiy groap offers bat very few organic remains ; at Riviiie Onelle, 
however the sandstone has fnmished bodies composed of phosphate of 
lime, and resembling fragments of bones. In the same locality also a bed 
of conglomerate w^ith a calcareous base contains a great number of 
what appear to be coprolites ; they are composed of phosphate of lime 
with a little corbonate, some animal matter, and 10 or Iz per cent of 
oxyd of iron, and are intermingled with a large quantity of ircm pyrites 
in small radiated globules. This association appears to be doe to the re- 
ducing action of organic matters upon a neutral proto-sulphate of iron 
which would famish at the same time bisulphuret and oxyd of iron. 
The gn^tolitic shales of Point- Levi also contain coprolites. 

Upon the Quebec and Sillery groups, which form the northern shore 
of the peninsola of Gasp^, repose unconformably about 200 feet of 
fossiliferons limestones and shales which represent the upper silurian 
system, and to these succeed 7000 feet of devonian sandstones interstra- 
tified with red shales. Upon the Southern shore of GaspS the nptnmed 
edges of these devonian strata are overlaid by 3000 feet of borizcHital 
beds of 11 sandstone, the mill stone grit which forms the base of the New 
Brunswick coal-field, but they are themselves destitute of coal. 

Tii2 fossilifefoas limestones of Gai?pe may be followed to the S. W. as fiir 
as Lake Mcmphramagc^ upon the line of the United States, and from thence 
they contimie southwards in the vallcv of the Conneciicut until they are 
concealed hv the triassic sandstones of Massachusetts, affording a continuous 
outcrop of 700 miles. The devonian system, which is purely silicious in 
Gaspe, presents towards the S. W. some beds of limestone, which arc found 
associated with the upper silurian limestones, in the line of the great valley 
just indicated. 



vn. 



THE METAMORPHIC ROCKS. 

The rocks of the eastern basin have been disturbe<l by successive told- 
ings and dislocations, and form a Kcries of parallel montoin ranges* which 
belong to the Apallacliicn system and which, traversing the province of 
Canada, in a south-west direction, may be traced as far as the State of Ala- 
baroa, in latitude 34^ N. Some of these* mountainH in Canada attain a 
height of over 4000 feet. The rocks of this mountainous region have been 
very much metamorphosed and rendered crystalline by chemical action, so 
that the fossils are for the greater part obliterated. The rc»cks tlui:* altered 
belong to the Hudsum River group and \o that of Sillery, and they form 
a belt having an average breadth of al>out 40 miles, which limits to the 
north-west the valley occupied by the superior limestones throujrhotit its 
whole length. The direction of this metamorphic belt does not coincide 
precisely with that of the undulations of the region, fn>ni which it rcHults 
that the latter, in their northern prolongation, pass out of the limits of the 
metamoq)hic re;^ion and present the strata with their characteristic fossils. 
The changes which these sedimentary strata have undergone are often very 
remarkable, some of the beds have been converted into chloritic, micac<'ous 
and talcotis schist and others into felspathic, hornbletidic and epidotie rt>ckt. 
With the talcne schists and agillites are intercalated betls of scr|H*ntine, 
which have alreadv been traced for a distance of 160 miles in Canada and 
are accompanied by limestone, dolttmite. magnesite and diallage. 

The investigations of the Geological Commission go to sliow that during 
the changes which these sedimentary rocks have undergone, there has been 
DO introduction of foreign material?*, tjut that on the contrary all the minerals 
which are found in these crvstalline strata have been nnKluced bv the re- 
actions and chemical combinations of the matters already existing in a state 
of mixture in the sediments. The utialteretl argilactHins Krhi«ts yield by 
analysis four or five {>er cent, of alkali which snfliceii to torm the feli^par 
and the micas fotmd in the crystaline schi^ts; the doltmiite^ and the mag- 
oesites always contain a large amoinit of silica and very often a {xirtion of 
oxyd of chromium which under the fonn of chromic inm elniracte rises the 
serpentines of this region. The K*dimentary origin t»f iIicm* serpeiitines it 



438 



very evident and they are probably the result of an action between silica 
and carbonate of magnesia in presence of water, and aided by a somewhat 
elevated temperature. BischofF has shown that silica even in its insoluble 
modification decomposes the carbonate of lime, magnesia and iron, in con- 
tact with water at 100^ centigrade. A similar reaction with highly silicious 
magnesites would furnish a hydrated silicate which is no other than ser- 
pentine, and with the dolomites would result amphiboles and diallages. 
Magnesites containing less silica would yield talcs and steatites, while dol- 
omites containing too little silica to form amphiboles would give rise to the 
mixtures of serpentine with carbonate of lime so common in these strata. 

Among the unctuous schists possessing a pearly lustre there are many 
which are not magnesian but owe their physical characters to a micaceous 
mineral, which in certain cases at least is a hydrous silicate of alumina, 
idential with the pJiolerite of cuillemin. It is worthy of remark that the 
principal minerals of these metamorphic rocks are hydrated, as for example, 
the serpentine, talc, chlorite and pholerite ; the diallage is also hydrated. 
Among the anhydronus specise which these rocks contain, we may mention 
pyroxene, orthoclasc, epidote, and more rarely garnet, sphene and tourma- 
line. 

As we approach the north-western limit of the metamorphic region, it is 
easy to observe the gradual transition by which the schists lose their 
chloritic and nacreous aspect, and a?sume their original sedimentary charac- 
ter. Beyond the limits of the nietamorphism, but in a region where the 
rocks arc still much disturbed, there arc found fissures filled with a black, 
bituminous and very fragile material, which sometimes forms botryordal 
masses. This matter loses by a strong heat 20 per cent, of volatile by hy- 
drocarbons and leaves a pulverulent charcoal which burns with difficulty 
being only a few thousanthes of ash. This substance which is very common 
in the formations of Sillery and Quebec appears to have been derived from 
the bitumen of the palaeozoic rocks, which volatilized by heat has been con- 
densed in fissures, where it has subsequently undergone such changes a^s 
have caused it to lose its volatility, and converted it into a coal-like material. 

In the County of Ga-pe, the limestone of the upper silurian sytem, 
which have suffered no mineralogical changes, rest upon the metamorphosed 
strata of lower silurian, and frequently enclose fragments of these latter, 
but towards the south-west, the fossils of these limestones show ])roofs of 
a comiTicnceineiit of such inetamorphisii , and in the valleys of the river St. 
Francis and of Like Meinpliraina^og, the lim<?slone become crystalline 
and mi.'aceou.s, although the fossils of the upper silurian and devonian 
epochs may be still recognized upon weathered surfaces and in thin sections 



439 






of the limestones. Towards the south-east these crystalline limestones 
are overlaid bj micaceous schists more or less calcareous, associated with 
chiastolite slates, quartxites and linrnblendic rocks containing garnets, the 
whole being altered palaeozoic strata, and penetrated by granites of the 
devonian epoch. The facts which we have cited shew that the inetHmor- 
phic action in this region, as well as the force which produced the undula* 
lions of the strata was prolonged up to the end of the palaeozoic c|Mich. 

The crystalline strata just described contain many metallic veins which 
traverse both the upper and lower silurian rocks, and these veiuK, together 
with the mineral contents of the nietamorphie strata themselves make this 
region very iiiterrsting in an economic p int of view. A series of highly 
ferruginous KJates of the lluds^m River group, yield in the towniihi|»s of Bolton 
and Brome beds of iron ore, in which the metal in the form of magnetic 
ozyd or peroxyd is disseminated in crystals or more often in grains and 
scales in a chloritic schist associated with dolomite. These beds have a 
thickness of from six to fifteen feet and yield from 20 to 50 per cent, of 
metallic iron. They often contain titanic acid, but generally in small 
quantity. The titanium also appears in the form of crystals of nplione in a 
vein traversing one of the l>eds of nia:;neiic iron ore, and in anotluT locality 
as crystallized rutile upon specular iron ; chemical analysis shews the 
presence of titanium in the unaltered ferrtiginotis .slates of the altered region. 
These deposits of iron ore are very abundant, but from the mixture of 
chlorite and the presence of titaniiiin, they cannot In* compared with the 
deposits of the same s)>ecies in the Laurentian rocks. The same ores are 
met with in many other localities in thi^ formation .\ remarkable locality 
of magnetic and titaniferous iron occurs in Vaiidreiiil and Beaiice, where 
the two sp(>cies intimately mixed, form a l>ed fifty feet thick in !ieri)entine. 
The ore is granular and after having been ptilverized may lie separated by 
the magnet into two [)ortions ; the maixnetic p{>rtion which f innn about 
two-thirds o' the mass is pure magnetic (»xyd of iron, while the residue is 
ilmenite containing 48.6 \ycr cent of titanic acid. The M*r|>entiiies of this 
region contain in many places disseminated grains of chromic iro*i ore, of 
which a bed of twelve inches oi'curs in IKiIton, and one of fotirteen 
inches in Ham. These ores contain from 4t) to 50 |>er cent, of oxyd ot 
chromium. Chn>mic iron also occurs disseminated in the d^ilomites and 
magncsites. 

The copper ore% of this inetam(»rphic region are found in veins which 
are generally concordant with the stratification, and are associated with the 
dolomites of the Quebec formation. In Upton there is a vcn twelve 
inches wide, of argentiferous copper pyrites, in a gangue of cpiartz, and 



440 



another similar vein near Sherbrooke contains, besides silver, traces of g^old. 
In Leeds and Inverness are found considerable veins of sulphuret of cop- 
per, variegated copper ore, with a gangue of quartz and dolomite. In 
Leeds a bed of ferruginous dolomite contains sulphuret of copper and 
specular iron with a little native gold. Small quantities of copper ore are 
met with in various other localities ; they are often disseminated in beds of 
dolomite, with blende and galena. 

The seigniories of Vaudreuil and St. (Jeorge, in the Valley of the 
Chandiere, present veins of quartz which traverse slates belonging to the 
base of the upper silurian limestone, and contain native gold in small 
quantities, with galena, blende, arsenical sulphuret of iron, cubic and 
raascnetic pyrites. The blende and pyrites arc both auriferous, and the 
galena from a recently opened vein contains one-thousandth of silver. 
The debris of these slates and of those of the Quebec formation, have 
furnished the auriferous sands which cover a large area on the south-^ast 
slopes of the metamorphic belt. The, gold, the existence of which Mr. 
Logan has shewn in the alluvium over a surface of about 10,000 square 
miles, is associated with magnetic, chromic and titanic iron ores, rutile, 
zircon, and small quantities of native platinum and iridosnium. The goId» 
which sometimes occurs in masses weighing several ounces, but more often 
in the form of small scales and grains, contains from eleven to thirteen per 
cent, of silver. It is not easy to say what proportion of gold is contained 
in these sands, but experiments on a large scale have shewn that the 
exploration cannot he pursued with profit with the present price of labour. 
Cobalt and nickel have been found in traces only in these rocks. An 
arseniated oxyd of nickel is found in small quantity at Bolton, and the oxyds 
of the two metals are associated with the chromic iron of Ham. 

Among the economic matcriaU of this region, the roofing slates must 
not be forgotten. It is now only six years since the geological commission 
first signalized their existence, and already large quarries are wrought, which 
furnish in abundance slates of superior quality. The quarries of Melbourne, 
Richmond and Kingsey, belong to the Hudson River group, but those of 
Westbury and Rivifere du Loup, are near the base of the upper silurian. 
These slates have a cleavage independently of the stratification, and have 
shining surfaces. Silicious slates which serve as whetstones, arc common in 
many localities in both of these formations. 

Steatite, which generally accompanies the serpentines of Lower Canada, 
is abundant in Bolton, Potton, Vaudreuil, Beauce, and many other localities. 
The former beds, intcrcolated for the most part with argillaceous or horn- 
blendic schists, may be obtained in large masses. A compact chlorite 



441 



or poutone is abo very abundant in many parts of the same formation, 
and may readily be sawn into large blocks. The serpentines throughout 
their whole extent, furnish very beautiful dark green marble, often resem- 
bling the peri-antique; green serpentines of various shades are mingled with 
white and grayish limestones, giving rise to many varieties of these marbles, 
the finest of which are from Broughton and Oxford. Near Philipsburg the 
Trenton limestones afford a fine white marble ; in their southern prolonga- 
tion, these limestones become more crystalline, and form the white marbles 
of Vermont, which are now celebrated. The upper Silurian limestone of 
Dudswell arc grayish and yellowish, with veins and spots of black ; they 
still exhibit on their polished surfaces, the traces of fossils, and often form 
marbles of great beauty. 

The dolomites and magnesian carbonates of this region fumbh in abun- 
dance the materials for the fabricafion of the salts of magnesia. A deposit 
of magnesite in Bolton has a breadth of more than 300 feet ; the rock is 
crystalline and colored green by oxyds of chrome and nickel : another bed 
of it has been found at Sutton. The analysis of the two has given as follows • 

SutioQ. BoliOQ. 

CwboiuUe of BugDMU 83.S6 SaiS — nmgneiU 28.63 

OtfboiuUa of inm 9.02 8.SS — oijd of iroo.... 6.1S 

SiUc^ inMlttbla 8.03 83.30 

100,40 100,65 

The insoluble part of these magnesites is chiefly silicious sand. It is 
worthy of remark that the Bolton rock contains silica and magnesia in the 
proportions required to fonn a serpentine. 

The granites already alluded to, which traverse the devonian system, 
are very fine grained, of a grayish color, and splitting wiili facility, yield 
a superior building material ; that of Stanstead is the bext known. Vau- 
dreuil fumishes a bluish-g^ay variety which is used by the country 
people for the fabrication of mill-stones. 

To the cast of the great anticlinal axis which divides in two partst he 
palaeozoic formations of Canada, are the mountains of Brome, Shefford, 
and Yamaska ; these arc great masses of an intrusive rock, which is a coarse- 
grained diorite, often having the aspect of a granite, and containing gene- 
rally a white felspar with augite and a little mica. The mountains of 
Monnoir, Beloeil, Montarville, Montreal and Kigaud, to the west of the 
tame axis, are also formed of intrusive rocks ; Beloeil, which is the most 
elevated, has a height of about 1,S00 feet. These hills are composed of 
diorites having much resemblance to that of Brome and Yamaska ; these 
diorites are characterized by the presence of small amber-yellow crystals 
of sphene. 



VIII. 



THE QUATERNARY OR ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. 

Wc have already indicated the existence in Canada of the palaeozoic 
rucks and the baic of the carboniferous systernf but with the exception of 
the post-tertiary deposits, ilie more recent formations are entirely want- 
ing. The surface of Can:t(hi is formed of clays interstratified with sands 
and cliys, and in many parts overlaid by diluvium. Thew.* stratified de- 
posits contain the remains of a ^reat ntany sipecies of marine animals, 
identical with those now inhabitin|^ the j^ulf of the Sf. Lawrence. The 
concretions found in a be<I of clay near Ottawa contain in ^reat abundance 
the remains of the cajK*linjx (w^aZ/y/wv n'l'o'^N-^) a^^Miciatcd soinclimes with the 
Cyd'jstomas htmpu^^ and ^reat numljcrs of the li*aves of exo^cin»u* trees. The 
skeletons of a celarea and of a species of Phn n h ive Iwen fouml in the clays of 
Montreal, where beds filled with shells exist at a height of 500 fret alxive the 
present sra-level. Similar stratified clay>, but without fos>ils, have even 
been remarked at an elevation of 1,200 feet. The detached l>oncs of the 
Elrpha^i pfimujeuim and of a .species of deer have lH*en found in a stratified 
gravel on the shores of Lake Ontario. In the Valley of the Si. Lawrence 
several terraces may f>e distinguished, marking tht* different limits of the 
M^a during the deiH>sition of the.<^e |H>st-terti:iry strata. 

The rhiys of this series form the superficial soil of a (^eat ptirtion of the 
countrv ; thev are <iften calcareous and constitute a mmI leuiarkablv fertile. 
Ttie alluvium which is spread over but limitid arexs, h:is U en tnui*>])orted 
from the U'lrth : in the eastern part of the St. L:iwrriice V:ilU-y it consists 
almost excluMvely of the ruins of rocks of tlie Laurenlian ^v^tem. but in the 
south-west of Canada the drbri^ f>t' the paltpozoic fi>rm:ttions are mingle<l 
with those <»f the crvstalline rock^. 

The 84)il of the sonth-e:i>: of t*anii<la is comjMiKd of the ruins tif ihc 
nietamtirpliic palaeozoic strati wliioli ft>rm that mountain chain, already de- 
scrilKii as a prolongation of the Alleghaiiies. In the Laurent ide mountains 
tile h.)iU are verv fertile near tin* limestone- and the lime fi-Upars and wi* 
finti that the .scttlemrnts hav** fii||i»wed the outcri'iM of the>e roi'ks, while 
the tini-i^s.tid and quartz ore district^i are btill uncultivated. Aniung the 






economic materialfl of the superficial depodts are clays for the fabrication 
of bricks and coarse pottery which are wrought in a great number of 
places. In the vicinity of London, of Toronto and of Cobourg there are 
clays which yield white and yellow bricks that are much esteemed. 
J^oulding sands and tripolis are also abundant in different localities. De* 
posits of shell marl, very valuable as manure, occur often in beds of large 
extent; among other localities we may cite Sheffield and Olden, near 
Kingston, the vicinity of Ottawa, Stanstead and New Carlisle. 

The hydrated perozyd of iron limonite, is widely spread in Canada, and 
forms superficial deposits often of large extent. The forges of St. Maurice, 
near Trois Riviferes, have been supplied for nearly a century with the 
limonite of that neighborhood, and a furnace for the smelting of the same 
ore has lately been established at Champlain in the same vicinity. It is 
worthy of remark that although the St. Maurice ore contains a considera* 
bic proportion of phosphate, it furnishes castings and malleable iron of an 
excellent quality. In the County of Norfolk, on the shores of Lake Erie, 
there are beds of limonite which have been wrought for a long time, and 
there are also extensive beds of this ore in Yaudreuil, near Montreal, and 
at Saint Yallier. 

These deposits of limonite on the north side of the St. Lawrence, are 
oflen associated with iron ochres ; the most remarkable localities of which 
are at Pointe-du-lac and St. Anne de Moiitmorenci. The ochres of Pointe- 
du-lac are wrought, and yield by different processes a variety of valuable 
pigments. The phosphate of iron, vivianite, in a pulverulent form is 
found in abundance with the limonite of Vaudreuil. 

Considerable areas in the eastern part of Canada are covered with 
marshes which furnish abundance of peat, but this combustible is as yet 
almost unknown in the country. There are a ^reat many ol these marshes 
upon the north side of the St. Lawrence from Mille Isles, in the District of 
Montreal, as far as Champlain, a distance of about 120 miles; and upon 
the opposite shore they are found from the County of Beauharnois to the 
Rivifere du Loup, over a length of about 300 miles. The savatine of St. 
Hyacinthe covers an area of about two leagues, and there are others still 
larger. The peat is often twelve and fifteen feet in thickness, and of ex- 
cellent quality ; that of Longueuil, in the vicinity of Montreal, has been 
wrought for a year past, and furnishes a fuel which will before long become 
very important for a country where coal is wanting and where wood is 
already bcconiin<x dear. 



IX. 



TIIE MINERAL WATERS. 

The roincml waters of Canada without exception iraiie from the iioaitcrcd 
paUeozoic rocks, and offer from their number and their variouM compoai- 
tion a very interesting subject of investigation. The annual re{iorts of the 
geological commission give the analjbis, by Mr. Sterry Hunt, of fifty-nine 
springs, of which fifty- four are more or less saline, and may l)e divided 
into two classes : the neutral waters which contain besides salts of soda, 
chlorides of calcium and magnesia, and the alkaline waters holding carlio^ 
nate of soda. Both of these classes ccuitain with but few exceptions, 
bromides and icnliiies in small quantities, as well as bicarb<mate of lime and 
magnesia, often in gr(*at iibundance. In those sprini^s which do not con- 
tain sulphates, stdis of baryta and strontia are constantly met with, and 
small traces of oxyds of iron uml manganese are never wanting. In miine 
of the neutral salines the quantities of chlorides of magnesia and calcium 
are so considerable that the waters are very bitter, but others, which contain 
less of these salts are very agreabic to the taste, and much fr(r«{uenied bv 
invalids. In the re|>ort^(»f the geological commission for 18o3, there is a 
list of tuenty springs of this class, containing, from four to thirty-six parts 
of solid matter iu one thousand parts of water. Among these springs the best 
known are 8aint-Lcoii, Caxton, Plantagenet, Lanoraie, and Point -du-Jour, 
but others equally good are found at Nicolet, St. Genevieve and elsewhere. 
Tlie quantities of bromides and iodides, and the salts of iMuryta and strontia 
contained in several of these springs give them valuable medicinal pro- 
perties. 

Id the report already cited there is also a list of eighteen alkaline springa, 
of which twelve furnish from two to twelve parts of solid matter lo the thoo- 
sand of water. Among these twelve there are nine which contain salts of 
baryta and strontia, these two bases being almost always associated. In 
the more saline of these, the quantity of carbonate of soda is relatively 
•mall, being equal to from one to twelve hundredths of the total weight of 
soda salts, while in the weaker waters it rises to fifty and even eighty-hun- 
dredtha. The greater number of these waters contain small quantities of 
borate of soda, which is included with the carbonate in the numbers which 



446 



we hare just given. The best known of these springs are those of Yar- 
ennes and Caledonia, which are feebly alkaline and pleasant to die taste. 
A spring at Chamblj contains two thousandths of solid matter, of idiidi 
one half is carbonate of soda, and another at Nicolet contains in a litre 1'135 
grammes of alkaline carbonate, and onlj 0*123 grammes of chlorids. The 
proportion of potash in these mixed salts rarely rises abore two or three- 
hundredths, but the alkalies of a spring at St. Ours, determined in the state of 
chlorides, give twenty-five hundredths of chloride of potassium. The water 
of this spring contains 0*53 grammes of solid matter in a litre, principally 
alkaline carbonates. All the waters of this class hold in solution alica, 
often in considerable quantity, and deposit by boiling, silicates of lime and 
magnesia, mixed with carbonates of these bases. Silica in a soluble form 
is always found even in the neutral saline waters. 

With some few exceptions, the springs of these two classes rise firom 
strata belonging to the lower silurian system, the waters of the limestones 
which form its base are generally neutral, while the springs which flow firom 
the schists which cover these limestones are often alkaline 

Among the springs of the upper silurian rocks there arc some neutral 
salines, and those of the acid waters, of which we have spoken in noticing 
the gypsums of Upper Canada. The analyses of four of these springs have 
furnished from 2*00 to 4*30 grammes of free sulphuric acid, and from 0*60 
to 1*87 grammes of sulphate of iron, alumina, lime, magnesia, and alkalies to 
the litre. Of these acid waters that of Tuscarora is the best known and has 
a great reputation arnon;: the country people of ihe vicinity in the treat- 
ment of varioud diseases ; all these acid springs contain a little sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. Many of the springs of the silurian rocks are more or 
less sulphurous, but thatof Charlottevillc, which is upon the outcrop of the 
devonian strata contains in addition to a considerable amount of chlorides and 
sulphates, the large proportion of 32 cubic inches of sulphuretted hydrogen 
to the gallon. 

The acid springs of which we have just spoken, as well as a great num- 
ber of salines, evolve carburetted hjdrogen gas, and often in consider- 
able quantities. None of the springs of Canada as far as yet observed 
appear to merit the appellation of thermal. 



THE GREAT NORTHERN BASIN. 

lis great basin, of which the Laurentidcs form the southern limit id very 
little known. Among the Laurentian rocks at Ukes Nipissing, Saint Jean, 
and des Allumettes, small areas of lower silurian rocks are met with, which 
are to be regarded as detached portions of the southern basin. The last of 
these localities occurs on the Ottawa at the mouth of the Mattawa, and 
sixty miles further north, after having passed the great Laurentian axis, we 
reach the vnlley of lake Temiscaming, which belongs to the northern basiu. 
Here Mr. Logan found a ^crics of chloritic schists, somctinies conglomerate 
in character, nearly horizontal in their attitude, and having a thickness of 
about a thousand feet. To these schists succeed 500 feet of massive green* 
ish white sandstones, overlaid by a calcareous formation 800 feel thick, and 
compoied of strong beds of yellowish and grayish limestones intercolated 
with caicfUTous shales. The whole filled with tha characteristic fossils of 
the upper silurian period. 

The chloritic schists pmhnbly correspond to the Iluronianrocks, but it is 
difficult to fix the age of the sandstones which are destitute of fossils. In 
all the collections brought from this northern region, there have as yet been 
found no fossils more ancient than tlioso of lake Temiscaming ; the numer* 
ous fossils found in the diluvium on the shores of lake Sui^erior, nl^o help 
to show that the lower silurian system is entirely wantinjc in the vast basin 
to the north of the Laurentidcs ; from which fact Mr. Logan concludes, 
that these mountains from the coast of Labrador to the Arctic Ocean form- 
ed the limits of an ancient siliu'ian sea. 



/ 



CATALOGUE 



or THB 



ECONOMIC MINER AJi? OF CANADA. 



METALS AND TOEIIl ORES. 

Magnetic Iron Ore. — Marmora, four localities ; Madoc, four localities; South 
Sberbro«)ke, Bedford, Hull, three localities ; Portagi* du Fort. 

Specular Iron Ore. — Wallace Mine (Lake Huron,) MacNali, St. Amaud, 
Sutton, three localities ; Brotne, three localities ; Bolton. 

Limonite {Bofr Ore.) — Middletown, Charlottoville, Wulsiingham, (.twillim- 
bury West, Fitzroy. Eardley, March, Hull, Templrton, Vaudreuil, Si. 
Maurice, Champlain, Batiscan, Sle. .\nne, Portneuf, Nicolei, Stan- 
bridge, Simpson, Ireland, Lauzon, St. Vallier. 

TUani/erow Iron. — St. Urbain (Baie St. Paul,) Vaudreuil (IWaucc.) 

Sulphurei of Zinc {Blende.) — Princess Mine and Mamainse (l^ke Superior.) 

Swlphuret of Lead {Oalena.) — Fitzroy, Lansdowne, Ilamsay, Be<lfortl, Bas- 
tard, la Petite Nation, Ausc des Sauvages, and Ause du Petit Uaspe* 
^Lumanse. 

Copper. — St. Ignace and Michipicoten Lilands (Lake Su|)erior,) St. Henri, 
native copper. Prince's Mine (Lake Su[)crior,) sulphuret if eoppeir. 
Mica Bay and Maimanae (Lake Superior) tulpkuret variegated eopper 
ami copper pgrites, Bruce's Mine (Lake Huron,; Root Ri? er, Kcbo 
Lake and Wallace Mine (Lake Huron,) copper pgrites. Inverness and 
Leeds, variegated copper. Upton, arg^niifer^ms copper ptfrites. Ascot, 
copper pjfriles containing gold and silver. 



460 



NkkeL — ^Miehipiooten (Lake Saperior,) anemUd midkelt wiik a ifii'«fui 
sQenUe cfnickd, Wallace Hine (Lake Hiiron,)«i^pAari«maKris^ of mdUL 
Dailleboot Berthier, niekeUfaoms pjfrUes. Hmm and BoltoD, in small 
quantiUea, assodated with chromic iron ; the nickel in moat d dieae 
different localities ia associated with a little cobalt 

S%li;er. — St. Ignace and Michipicoten Iriands (Lake Soperior,) naiwe nber 
with native copper. Prioce's Mine (Lake Superior,) native silver wUk 
sulphurei of silver. 

CMd. — Seigniory of Yaudreuil, Beaace, on the Rirers (juillanme, Leasaid, 
Bras, Touffe des Pins, and du Lac. Seigniory of Aubert de liale* 
Rivers Famine and da Loup. Aubert-Grallion, Poser^s Stream, and 
the River Metgermet. All these localities in the CSonnty of Beanoe 
afford native gold in the alluvial sands. This auriferous r^on has an 
area of 10,000 square miles, and the precious metal has been found at 
Melbourne, Dudswell, Sherbrooke, and many other localities in the 
valleys of the St. Francis and the Chaudi^re. Native gold is also 
found in small quantities in Leeds, in a vein with specular iron, and 
at Vaudreuil, Beauce, with blende and pyrites. These sulphureta are 
both auriferous, and the copper pyrites of Ascot also contain a small 
proportion of gold. The native silver of Prince's Mine likewise ccm* 
tains traces of gold. 



NON-METALLIC MINERALa 



Uranium, — ^The yellow oxyd of uranium is found in small quantities with 
the magnetic iron of Madoc. 

Chromium. — ^Bolton and Ham are localities of chromic iron. 

Cobalt. — At Prince's Mine, Lake Superior, arseniate of cobalt and associated 
with nickel in the localities mentioned above. 

Manganese. — Bolton, Stanstead, Tring, Auliert-Crallion, Ste. Marie, Beauce, 

Ste. Anne, earthy peroxyd. 

Iron pyrites. — Clarendon, Terrebonne, Lanoraic, Gartbsby. 
Graphite. — Grenville, Fitzroy. 



461 



Dalamiin. — Lake Masaaw, North Sberbrookt, Drommoiid, St. Anaund^ 
DaoliaiD, Siutoo, Brome, Ely, Durbam Melbourne, Kingeey, 8bip- 
loo, Chester, Haliiu, Invemets, Leeds, 8t Giles, Ste. Marie, Saint 
Joseph. 

Carbonate of Magn$9ia.^-3ntumj Bolton. 

Su^fkaU ofBtir^a. — Bathnrst, Macoab, Lansdowne, and many localitias 
oo Lake Saperior. 

Iron OchrtM. — St. Nicholas, Ste. Anne de Montmorency, Champlain, 
Wallham, Mansfield, Durham. 

SteaHte. — Sutton, Bolton, Melbourne, Ireland, Potton, Vaudreuil, Beaoce, 
Broughton, Elsevir, the steatite of the last four localities is employed 
as a refractory stone, and that of Stanslead and of Leeds is ground and 
employed as a paint. 

LUhogtaphic Stone. — Marmora, Rama, lake Couchiching. 

Agatee. — Isle St. Ignace, Michipicoten, and Thunder Bay (lake Supe- 
rior) Gaspi. 

Jasper, — Great Riviere Quelle, Gasp6. 

Labrador felspar. — Miile Isles, Drummond and many other localities. 

Aventwme. — Burgess. 

Hjfaeinihe. — Grenville. 

Corumdum. — Burgess. 

Amethyst, — Spur Lnland, and many other localities on Lake Superior. 

Jet, — Montreal. 

Quartzose SamistOHe. — For the manufacture of glaM, Cayuga, Dunn, 
Vaudreuil, Isle Perrot, Beauhaniois. and many localities on the 
north shore of Lake Huron. — ^The sandstone of St. Maurice is em- 
ployed as a fire-stone for iron furnaces. 

Retintte and Basatt.— For the fabrication of black glass : many 
ties on Lake Huron and Superior. 

Gjfpnun. — Dumlries, Brantford, Oneida, Seaecai Cayuga, k 
localities are very numerous. 



452 



Shell Marl. — Calumet, Clarendon, Nortb-Gwillimsbnry, Bromley, 
MacNab, Nepean, Gloucester, Argentenil, Hawkesbuiy, Yandreoil, 
St Benoit, Ste. Th^rise, St. Armand, Stanstead, St Hyacinthe, 
Montreal, New Carlisle, (Gasp6.) 

Phosphate of lime. — Burgess, Hull, Calumet, Ottawa. 

MSUones. — Several kinds of stone, more or less adapted to the purpose, 
are employed in Canada for the &brication of millstones. The best is 
a corneous quartzite which accompanies the serpentine of the Eastern 
Townships, and has been wrought at Bolton. 

A silicous conglomerate which serves to make millstones is found at 
Yaudreuil, at the Cascades, Ham and Port Daniel. We may mention 
also^for this purpose the granites of Stanstead, Barnston, Barford, 
Hereford, Ditton, Marston. Strafford, Weedon and Yaudreuil, Beauce, 
the granite millstones of Yaudreuil are much esteemed. The pseudo- 
granites and diorites of the mountains of Ste. Th^r^se, Rouville, 
Rougcnioti*, Shefford, Yamaska and Broine, are also sometimes em- 
ployed to make millstones. 

Qrindstones, — A sandstone, known as the gray-branci, and found at the base 
of the upper silurian of Western Canada in many localities is em- 
ployed for the fabrication of grindstones. The Potsdam sandstone 
and a s:iiuIstone from Gaspe basin are also employed for the same 
purpose. 

Whetstones, — Madoc, Marmora, lake Mazinaw, Fitzroy, Potton, Stanstead, 
Ilatley, Bolton, Shipton, Marston. 

Tripoli, — Laval, Lanoraie. 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 

O-ranttes, — Large masses of a very beautiful intrusive granite are found 
in many of the townships of the East. Among other localities we may 
cite Stanstead, Barnston, Hereford, Marston, Megantic mountains, 
Weedon, Winslow, StaflFord, and Lambton. The diorites of the 
mountains of Ste. Th^rfese, Rouville, Rougemont, Yamaska, Shefford, 
and Brome, furnish also good building stones. 



I£8 



Sandstone. — A beautiful variety of yellowish-white Hanilfltonc occort ml 
Niagara, Quecnstown, Barton, Hainilton, Flamboru' West, Nelson, 
Nassagaweya, Esquesing, Nottawasaga, and Cayuga. Other loealitiea 
are Rigaud, Vaudreuil, Ue Perrot, St^-Euatache, Terrebonne, Beaii- 
hamois, St. Maurice, Lac des Allumettes, and Fitzruy. 

Oalcanoys Sanddme. — ^Brockville, Ottawa, and a great many places on the 
Ottawa river, St. Nicolas (Lauxon), Ca|>c Rouge Maibaie. 

Limestones. — Maiden, Manitoulin and St Joseph^it islands, Ca|N: Hurd, 
Cabot's Head, Sydenham, Euphrasia, Nottawa^aga, Mono, Esquesing, 
Nelson, Ancaster, Tliorold, Matclicdash Bay, Orillia, iSania, Mara, 
Marmora, Madoc, Belleville, Kingston, Macnab, Ottawa, Plantagenet, 
Ilawkesbury, Cornwall, Isle Bizarti, Isle de Beauhamois, Catighr*awaga, 
Montreal, Isle Jesus, Terrebonne, Philipsburg, St. Dominique, Gron- 
dines, Deschambault, Bcauport, BaicSt. Paul, Maibaie. Upton, Acton, 
Wickham, Mngoon s Point, Stanstead, Ilatley, Dndswell, Tcmiscouata 
Gaspd, Port Daniel, Richmond, Anticosti. 

Hydraulie Limestones. — Point Douglas, (Lake Huron,) Paris, Cayuga, 
Thorold, Kingston, Loughboro*, Hull, Quebec. 

Roofing States. — Kingsey, Halifax. Lamhton, Melbotume, Westbury, Riviire 
du Loup. 

Hogging Stones, — Toronto, Etobicoke, River Credit, York, Tcmiscaming, 
Bagot, Horton, Clarendon, Sutton, Potton, Stansteatl, Inveniets, Port 
Daniel. 



Clays. — Clays suitable for the fabrication of red bricks, tiles and 

pottery, are everywhere found through the valleys of the St. Lawrence, 
Richelieu and Ottawa. Clays, fur the manufacture of white bricks are 
met with at London, Toronto, Cobourg, and Peterborough. 

Moulding Sand. — Augusta near Preneott, Montreal* Acadie, Stanstead. 
Fullers* Earth. — Nassagaweya. 



Marbles. — White. — Lake Mazinaw and Philipsburg. 
Blaek. — Cornwall Philipsburg. 
Red.— Si. Lin. 



454 



Brawn. — ^Pakenham. 

TeHow ^ Black. — Several varieties at DadBwell. 

Crrijf ^ variegated. — Macnab, Philipaborg, St. Dominiqoe, Montreal. 

Oreen. — Serpentines affiirdtng several beautiful varieties of marble 
occur at Orenville, and along a range of 150 miles in the Eastern 
Townships. Among other localities we may mention Stukely, 
Brompton, Oxford and Yaudreuil — ^Beauce. 

COICBUSTIBLBS, ETC. 

Peat. — ^Humberstone, Wainsfleet, Westmeath, Beckwith, Goulboum, Glou- 
cester, Cumberland, Clarence, Plantagenet, Alfired, Caledonia, L^Ori- 
nal, Osnabruck, Finch, Winchester, Roxburg,Longueuil, St. Hyadnthe, 
Monnoir, the Seigniory of Riviere du Loup, Riviere Quelle, Macnider. 

Petroleum. — Mosa and many localities on the Thames, River St. Jean and 
Ruisseau-Argent6, (Gasp6.) 

AsphaUunu — ^Enniskillen. 



CONTENTS. 



OOMVinUGATlO* Of BsroBT.. I 

ABSTBACT or PltOCKDlllGt 

of ike Cammiiiety compriiimg 

PrtlimiDAry lUport T 

ReguUtioD of ExceutiTe GoBiiuttce 10 

Sab-Commiiieei appoiiiMd It 

Report oQ PriM Emajs II 

Dmuiod of UU EiodlMcy 11 

UtlofftrtielMforwMtMtoUMLoDdiABihibitMiiia'lUl II 

ArtMlMtrMMAiUcdioPArutnllll 14 

AppoiaUntnt of Cwnmiitiooii 41 

SUUmcat of Esp«iiMS 44 

CLuaUkAUoft of Minonk 41 

ClMMftmtioo of Woods 41 

ClMiiiWutioii of FfiU and VfUbbs. II 

RFPOET or MS. J. C. T4CHB. 

Dutiot of Oommiafioiitrt H 

DiTiftioo of Labor %$ 

InfonoAUon rttpMCing Ouuula M 

rritMobUinad It 

RouuuD'a Stcftm PluuKb It 

of Um OomwiMio— ti tl 

of AiMfkMi Pnm tl 



SKVTCH or CAVA04. 

EiplaaatloB of tb« G«Qgrtfihie«l Chart 

PrtlbM 



456 



L PaSLDfUAftT lUlfAEM. 71 

Importanee of Canada. — BoniMUriea, ezUot and podtioii of tbe e unnir j . — 
ParU inhabitod.— KaTigablo Waters.— ^Hdet in the Rirer St La^rrcneeL 
— ^Katoral wealth. — ImproTement anee 1760. — ^Arrangement and inten- 
tioo of thii work. 

n. OiooaAraiCAL Data 75 

DiTiaiona of Lower and Upper Canada, or Canada Frendi and fi^w^^*^ 
Engliah. — Diiferenee between the two sectiooa. — ^Territorial diriiiona. 
— Geograi^eal description of the two Conntriea. — ^Tbe Oulf and its 
lalanda. — Labrador. — North Coast. — Gaspe^Districts and Coontiea. — 
The Sagaenaj.— Lake St. John.— Soath Coast — Qaebe&— Tliree RiTers. 
—Saint Ifanriee.— St Frands^The RieheUen^MontreaL-Tlie Ottawa. 
— Bjtown or Ottawa Citj.— Riqpids.— BroekriUe^— The Thousand 
Islands. — Ontario. — Kingston^ — Rirer Tren . — ^Toronto.— Lake Simooe. 
— Hanulton.— Niagant— Lake Krie^RiTer Detroit— Lake St Clair.— 
The ThamM. — Lake Huron. — Fishing and Mining Stations oo Lake 
Saperior. 

nL A Fxw woEDa os the peuoipal rsaioDs in thi Histoet or Cavada... 86 

Disoorerj of Canada bj Jaoqnes Cartier. — De Boberral. — CSiamplain fonnds 
Qoebee. — Quebec taken bj the English —Canada retaken bj the French. 
— Montreal founded. — Colbert's scheme for colonising New France. — 
Civil Ooremment of the Colony. — Ecclesiastical administration. — Edu- 
cation. — War between the Colonies. — ^Bravery of the Colonists. — Siege 
of Quebec— De Frontenac—D'Iberille.— State of New France in 1721. 
— Quebec in 1756. — Successes and reverses. — Defeat of Montcalm. — 
Victorj gained by De Levis. —Capitulation and treaty of cession in 
1761. — Struggles between the French colonists and English emigrants. 
— Civil Government of 1774. — American war of independence. ^Con- 
stitution of the year 1791. — War of 1812. — Insurrection of 1887. — 
Present Government 

IT. Phtsioal asfxct or Canada, .and rkmabks on rrs Gkologt and Mitb- 

OBOLOOT 89 

Surface of the Country. — Form and cb&racler of the Mountains. — Limits of 
the valley of the St Lawreoce. — Chain of the Laurentides and Appala- 
chian or Allegany Mountains. — Features of the Country. — Courses of 
the Rivers. — Level of the valley of the St Lawrence,— North and South 
Shore.— Principal geological characteristics. — Climate. — Comparative 
temperature. — Canadian Winters. — Meteorological obeervauoos. 



467 



1. uM.^ — "I I " ■Jja. — ■ -1 'g a ' -JU.. 



T. VifvBAi. Pioooonon avo MAXVFAonn 



FtodofltioM of th« IfiMnd KingHnm, and th« prtafli|Ml loettiooi of thtir 

bodib boOdinf itoiM, iwnbtntlblo nuttori, miiitnl eokara, prcoooo 

■loBtiL itonti MUMkblo of TitriHoitioiL mlMfil ftfilUmnv miliiluieMk 

proaioas and oChor motolA. — Prodnctaoot of tbo V«faUbU Kingdom, 

Umbtn* for hqildinf and otbor porpoMs, plaaU aad frnlu.— Prodiio> 
tioiit of the AoiniAl Kingdom, bMsU| birdi, flabm, and ettaooooa 

animali.'— ManqfJuinring proBmam, aztraotUn of tbo raw maUrial, ita 

oooTtrtion into artielM of ooonunptfon. 

TI MiAm or Con iiviiiCATioa 101 



Oimmon Roada. — Mail and Talcgraphic cofnmnniaaikina^^yavigattoo of tba 
8t lAwranoa.~Natund obataelaa oraraoma. 8L Lawranea, l^arhlna, 
BaaoharnoiA, and Welland Canak.— Baat roata to tba lar Waat— 
Rifan Sagncoaj, Ricbelian, Ottawa, and Chambljd — ^Ridaaa and Orcn- 
Tilla Canali. — Slidaa for raAa.<»Biirltngioii and Da^ardina Oanala^F— 
Orand RiTor, Thamea and otlMra.-»Bailwaja.— Gt^ Lawraaea Boota 
oomparad with tha Amariaan Linaa of traToL 

TIL PounOAL AMD CiTIL IvaTITimOIIS Of OAMAnA. 1 10 

Oooatitotion of Canada.— Exaeuti TO powar.— LagialatiTa powar.— EaaaCaaol 
of Iawi.— Dotiaa of tha LcgialatiTa Bodiaa<->BlactiTa prineipla.— Com- 
poaitloo of Kzaaotiva Conaeil, Amambliaa, Baaaaaaa. P roro ga lioM and 
Diaaolatiooa of tba U(maaa.^Adminiatratioo of Jiutioa in Canada EmI, 
or Franeb Canada.— In Canada Wait^Eduaalioo.— tinpariatcndaot of 
Bdaaation — Sebool Fonda.— Managamant of Sobool RaTanoa.— Uni?ar- 
ttUaa.— Collagaa.-Clarg7.— Loaal MoaiaipaliUaaL— Boada.-Balar«aco 
to aararal aabiaeta in tba following cbapCar. 

Till — SfATifnca Ann OniEALliiroaii Anon lit 



Nou.— <!•) Cm«ii«^i*«^«/joii—Bjr origin; by raligion; by Mctiooa of 
tba Prorinee ; popnlatioo of cbiaf tovaa ; raoBarka ; aompaimtiT# tabia ; 
norobar of lunatiaa; atatiatiaa of Prorinaial Penitentiary; aanaw of 
profaaaiona, tradaa, ^ (t.) AgriauUural a«ana, and of lasd ownad 
and ondar cnltiTatlon; partition of rtal catata; diTiaioa of iakb; as- 
nital prodoaa of land ; nombar of eattia; aggragata ralna of prodoea; 
markat raloa of agrienliarat prodoea in 18A1 ; aompariaos witb tba 
Unltad StataiL (I.) Statistiea of Bdomtioo— rniTarailiaa ; eollagaa; 
acbooU ; nombar of popila ; alergy. (4.) Publia Worka— ligbt bonaaa ; 
vhanrm ; aaaala» alidaa ; roada and bridgaa ; aoal of tbaaa works ; raport 
aotbam; towbaato; raalroada (6.) PiaanMa of tba Oaontry— Raranoa 
and ita aonraaa ; aumparatirealatcniaot; Pr»Tioaial ladgar. (CjTrada 



468 



BasncMoftiwporti; Tsliie of itaporti and ocporti ; principal ■rtidM 
of imporUtioo and ezporUtioii ; lUp Mldiag ; banks ; innranaa eoan- 
paniM. (7.) Yarkma detafla— Loeal taxea; poiUga; evNO^; prioa 
of hootet; fares Ify lUiamboat and aailiog TCiiela from Enrape to 
Qnabea 



OOVOLBBIOV 



14S 



Irt 



tod Dinnon .... 



DESO&IPnyE OATAIOGUX. 

Brief eketch of the Gbnadian Exhibition 149 

^litOlaif, mineral prodnctioiis .15S 

lad - Foreatry 1«0 

Srd •• Agrionltiiral prodnetiona 168 

'4th Olais, General meohanicfl Itt 

5ih " Artielee relating to earriagea 1^ 

6ih " Apparatus for workshopa 1*78 

7ih *< Apparatus for weaving, Ae 1T5 



Srd.DiTisioa ....< 



'8th Class, Instruments relating to the ezaet soienees 1T4 

9th « Instmments oonneeted with employment of heati 

eold,Ao. n* 

10th ** Chemical prodoetions ITI 

11th " Preparation of articles of food 181 



fl2th Clsss, Hygiene pharmacy, Ac 184 
18th " Kaval and military science 188 
14th " Building architecture 187 



6th Division 



6th Division .... 



7th Division ... 



.-« 



'16th Class, Steel and its products 188 

16th " General metal work 189 

17th ** Goldsmiths' work, jewellery, Ito. 189 

18th ^- Glass and pottery 190 

' * iOth CUss, Woollen manufactures 192 

f 28nd " Flax and hemp manufacturee 198 

88rd ** Hosiery embroidery, Ac 198 

'24th Class, Furniture and decorations • 196 

26th „ ArUcles of clothiog, && 197 

26th „ Printing, Bookbinding, <bc 200 

27th „ Musical iDstnimeotB 201 



* The nineteenth class related to cotton manufactures, none of which were exhibited, 
f The twenty-first class related to silk manufactures. 



4B9 



^^^ I ta<fc Ohw, p>iifa», gMBw^Nr *» 



Coodoiion 101 

OBSBRVAnOKS ON THE eXHIBITIOV. 
NoU tot 

FIRST SERIES. 

Kumbcr of eshlbitora tlO 

Kfunbcr of pritct obCaintd tlO 

Ohaneiorhtiet of Ui« difbrait ■eboob 

AwmA 9ekooi, PtuBtiDf 

Beolpliiro 

OUmt braDcbM 

Sculptor* 
M g i rnn arAool, 

Senlpioro 
Affia idboo^ PainUDf tfO 

Other bnuicbot t>0 

aiiUr«dU0/« **1 

SECOND SERIES. 

▼Ut to tbo IndiMtriol EihibUioD tU 

ConporaUTO inportMOO of Sshibitka of ISAft ttS 

KtunWr of •xbifaitoro fr«a mA oovotry tt4 

rirtt cloM prtmiuiM. IMl tfi 

Fitit «1«M prtmiaoMi IMS tM 

Number of Tiiiloro tH 

CtiUf€ of ikf nm9€ tfll 

Lmttrmi poriiamn/ th0 n€9* ttl 

Exhibitloo of SosoQj, PnM»o, tad Aoitrui ttl 

Rxliibitioo of Bolgium, United Sutc*. ODd FruMO ttS 

EibibiUoQ of CnglAiiJ and Frooro UM 

ofFfBDCO MS 



• Wo MfU BotbiDf an tbo two ImI olnn« of Mnlplaro and 



400 





dm 

Cmdt 
Umii 

rw 9 


tUc/ tk§ %mre^ Exhilitiiin of Smawr, Badau Ti imi 

Kxhibiti^ifi of ProMiA ••....••.•.........-. - 


svr 




ICvliiliitifiii of Anitria ••.....•........^....w.ww-r^ 






Ksbilitiofi of Ihlnnni ....■..■■•■....••*..««**>*.>>-r«^>>^-- 


jm 




KTfailitifm 4>f FnitrKl Statfiw IViDee. 


Sil 




KzliiHtioii of Ei^lnd 

KiZfaiUtioo rf FnnM ....••..........>..•.. 


fits 

9a 




r fAr pmllerieA. ftnt «»f«Me. EilnbitiaB of Fnaet. ... 


SI 




Ezliibitioii of tbc G«nDan Stat«i 

EiMatico of Fraaee and Uaitfrd Btatei 


93 
39S 




Kzkifaitim of tl^ Toit^ Cinr^on .....x. ........ ........... 


2U 




KzUMuoQ of Fm«f 


SM 




r 00 fml20w^^ msmm tk, ^^ KzUUlka I^FnHTT 


9« 




^ik^tira <if Out G*i TiiMt Statei .. ^....,.....^^.... -. 


2S7 




K«*ttfcrtia^ «f PnitfU . . . . . .. ..... . 


S97 




^zilAilk* of AortrtB. . . ... ...^a.--.*^. x^.... 


298 




Kx^Sn'^CB C< ffnfiC^D ..... .. .. . . ..................... «.. .. 


2Sf 




ExIblKtka of tbe rsc^ed Stita 

F»«WTifl^ j4ihtTm:t^ Es^mb. 


S5t 

SM 




Kiktlnk« «f Fnnee 

mC^Hm. £i»c*.>f« «f FniH» - 

'^"Wl^tw f f tJbf T'eEvc EjiiPsnL. ... ...................... 


SiO 

S6S 

SftS 




EziCbsarK ifiLt £ms Ias>a 

FiVn^re :f Aasnla «.„,., t - r 


S<ft 

266 




^13.' ti Mf ?c rc *-^ 1 «t- a iiLi^ iQir . — ' c^T ..,,,,,,T«-. ......... 


266 




TIxii'Titat •■' T"a^**? ^ loif Sfcr^xA . . , 


267 
267 




Iai.-?it..Tt .f Ttbim 

Tm* Ti fc'.'c -■/ T wTarii" «>? >?ka 


268 

269 




I^xsTrt^.iL !i S'r.zst-TJO'i 

Xaa."*! ■;;•,■« .m-' H T«~j."t»f kT'f ZVatoBvi 


269 
270 




£xx~:i::<.-ii .c isx r«CT*r«ir 

IjOin .-.^ :r ?*!"SfcUL ^ iacr*ik. sbi I«^.ait 


270 
271 
271 






272 
278 




* 
TSmci f .►ti: tou iL,'""fr pxiM. . . — 


278 

278 




T*r->.-3 .• » s.^ 

-* .>im . :> . :.i. ."V. y-N. '• . 


273 
273 
274 






274 



481 



9Amm 

Anm$a$ dm horddttHm^ Eihibitioa of Britiih onliwki tTf 

EikibitioiM of Twiotti «0QDlri« t79 

KibiUtiow of Praoch eolooict ST! 

EikibitioiM of Pruiet and eokniM ttl 

OmarfJOT Metioa tY8 

E^bitioa of Um UDitod Btoiei tSO 

EiUbitioo of FruMt S80 

EihibilioD of Tommj Stoioi of the Chur«h Stl 

Ezhibitioo of PortugAl. Sardinia fSl 

Eihibitioo oTTurkey S81 

Eihtbitioo f>f Greece. S wit Airland.. S8S 

Ezlubitiuo of UoUand, Deomark ttt 

Ezfaibitioo of Sweden and Korwaj t3S 

Eshibitiun of Oennan Statet. Prtuaia tSt 

Exhibition of A uttria. Belgium tM 

Exhibition of France and colonies t8t 

Exhibition of machinrrf ip molion fSI 



THIRD SERIES. 

HTUDIB8 or THE CLAB8B8. 

CmmaUian tecttom eompartd t8t 

let Division, Natural products SM 

2nd - Marhinerj SOS 

Srd * fkjsical and chemical agents Sll 

4th ** Industries relating to the scicncfft SI9 

ftth " Manufactures of mineral protlnctions S29 

6th ** Manufacture of tissues ZU 

7th ** Purniture decorations, Ac SS8 

Slst Class, (additional), cheap articles ^ S4ft 



FOURTH SERIES. 

BZHIBITION or BRBSOINO AJilMAIA 

General dednctioot ^•.••« S4t 

PiBvr Class; Bls«k caltis ^^ S4f 

Itt Hoctioo. Animals of breeds foreign to Pranee ^ S4f 

tod *• PrcMk brMik » - SM 



MS 



9Aam 
Sboond Clam. 

1ft 86cnoD> For6ign i nimal i •••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••m** • •• S61 

2nd " Freneh animals .^......m* ^.. - S69 

TnaD Olabs; Pigt —•••••.•-•— ^ —•..—..•- S62 

lit Section, Foreign breeds ^^ •••••«• t52 

2nd ** French breeds •• .^^ -•••••••• S68 

FovETH Class; Goats, Ae. ^ .m......*..- SM 

FnrTH Class; Fooltiy ^ ». ^ 858 

RSCAPITULiLTIOlf OF PRKMIVM8 AWARinBD. 

Von W5 

Itt Class, Mining and MetaUorgj ^^... 856 

2nd " Forestry ^ 857 

8rd •* Agriculture ^ 869 

4th " General Mechanism ••.•..— •« 860 

5th " Special mechanism •,. •« 861 

6th ** Special mechanism 862 

1th " Wearing,^ 864 

8th ** Scientific instruments .' 865 

9th ** Instruments connected with the employment of heat and cold. 866 

10th ** Chemical productions 867 

11th " Preparation of articles of food 868 

12th " Hygiene and medicine 869 

18th ** Kayal and military science S70 

14th ** Building, architecture, <fcc 871 

16th "* Steel aud its producto 378 

16th ** General metal work 874 

17th " Goldsmith*' work, Ac 876 

18th " Glass and pottery 876 

19th ** Cotton manufactures 377 

20th ** Woollen manufactures 378 

2lBt ** Silk manufactures 879 

22nd ** Linen and hemp manufactures. 880 

23rd ** Hosiery, embroidery, Ac. 880 

84th ** Furniture and decoration 882 

26lh •• Articles of clothing 883 

26th ** Printing, &c 886 

27th '* Musical instruments 886 

ExcxFnoNAL Pesmiuics. 387 

81st Class, cheap articles 888 

RsOATITULATIOir 889 



463 



BIPOBT Of BIB WILLIAM LOOAV, 
ooMManoviE vbom cavaoa. 



M«bU MOl to th« HoBorabU tb« ProTinebl StercUrf Ml 

IjR or CAVABUV PUO KBCITtSSm - SM 

StATBmvT uanrniQ bow ABnoui izBumB wbbb miALLf muimbdov 8M 

StrtwBJBt of mooiM rccctfod from m1« of articlM «ikiblUd 406 

OBOLOOICAL 8KITCH OP CANADA. 

Lmoot'cnoif 41$ 

L Hm LMircDtidM - ^ 41f 

IL TIm LaurcoUan tyitem 421 

IIL TIm Camlirian or Iluronian •^■t«m ^ 427 

17. The PaloMiotc rockt ^ 410 

V. TIm Wcttetn baain 4S1 

VI. Tha Eastern Uain / 4Sft 

VIL M etAnH>rphie rocki 4t7 

VIII. Sapcrfieial depoaiU 44t 

IX. Mineral waten - 44ft 

X. Nortbam baain 447 

Gatalogna of tb« eofMHrniic mioerala of CaoaJa 44t 



TORONTO: 



PBINTKD BT JOHN L O T B L L , T O N O ■ STBBBT. 



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AN OVERDUE FEE rF THIS BOOK IS 
NOT RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON 
OR BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED 
BELOW- NON-RECEIPT OF OVERDUE 
NOTICES DOES NOT EXEMPT THE 
BORROWER FROM OVERDUE FEES. 

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