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Full text of "The Canada Year Book 1920"

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CANADA 
DOMINION BUREA U OF ST A TISTICS 


THE 


CANADA YEAR BOOK 


1920 


Published by Authority of the 
Right Hon. Sir George E. Foster, G.C.M.G., M.P., 
Minister of Trade and Commerce 


OTTAWA 
F. A. ACLAND 
PRINTER TO THE KI
G'S MOST EXCELLE
T )IAJESTY 
lð,t!7-A 1921 



JUl 6 1957 



iii 


I>REF ACE. 


The Il':Hling; article in the Canada Yt'ar Book of 1020, is on the 

uLject of H.econstruction. It i::; divided into three parts, the first 
dealing with t.he internal ,var-
illle activities of Government and people, 
the 
e('ond ".Ith the re-estabhshnlent of thp returned soldier and the 
third with reconstruction alTIong the general population. 
'l'hc or
allization of the official 
tatistics of Canada by the 
})onlinion Bureau of Statistics has rendered po

ible various changes 
and Ì1nprOyelllpnts in thf' Year Book, alnong thell1 being the addition 
of a stati:-\tif'al 
Ulnlllary of education in Canada, (pp. 130-133); an 
increase in agricultural statistic
, 1l10r(' cSI)('cially in the analysis of 
a
ricultural pril:p:-\; tht' ronlpilation of statistics of Canadian trade 
according to the ÏIllproyed clas:sification of commodities over a period 
of four Yf'ar<), (pp. 350-1U7); an analysis of the Rtatistics of pas
enger 
and freight raihvay services and receiptR, (p. 4GS); and a valuable 
sumnl:lry of the financial ::;tati
tic8 of cities of 10,000 and over, 
(pp. 570-5
1). :\Iorc e
pecially lllUst attention be dra,vn to the 
rc-organization and expan
ion of two section
, nalnely the Climate 
and 
Ieteorology 
('rtioll, Dlade po""'"iblc by the generous co-operation 
of the Donlinion 
reteorological 
ervice, and the Labour and Prices 
t;ection, to ,vhich a subsection on 'wages has no". been added, as ,yell 
a
 short articll's on the occupations of the people and on organized 
lahour in Canada. 
In all the 
ections is given the latest informa,tion available, the 
tables including, ,vherp po
:--ible, the figures of 1920. The titles of 
articles publi
hed in previous edition8 of the Year Book and not 
repeated here, are given for purposes of reference in the Retrospective 
Index on page xv. 
l'he prf'sent edition of the Year Book has been edited by :\lr. S. A. 
CUDMORE, B..-\. (rror.), :\1. .A. (Oxon.), F.S.S., F.R. Econ. ðOC. Grate- 
ful ackno,vledgments are hereby tendered to officials of the Dominion 
and Provincial Governments throughout Canada, especially to 
:\[r. E. H. 8CAM
ELL, Assistant Deputy 
Iinister of Soldiers' Civil 
Re-establishment, for assistance in the preparation of the article 
on Rel:onstruction. The table::; have, as for many years, been 
compiled by 
Iessrs. JAMES SKEAD and JOSEPH 'VILKINS, and the 
diagrams haye been dra"
n by 
Ir. R. E. WATTS. 


R. H. COATS, 
Dominion Statistician. 


Do
n
IOX BlJREA U OF STATISTICS, 
OTTA'VA, 3ept. 15, 1921. 
.
!-18427 





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STATUTE MILES 
50 100 1 bO 200 2 0 300 860 400 460 600 


KILOIVIETERS 
1'0 2'0 8'0 4'0 600 800 700 800 


P"VED BY. PELL A SARNHARrFOftT ERIE, ONT. 


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S\:T
OPTIC1\L TA.ßLE OF CO
TENTS. 


PrefsC'o . . . . 
n.etr
pt'CtiVt. Intit.x .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Frrnturn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., .... . , 
Stati
tit'al Rumnuorv of the PrO
rt'
8 of Canada.. . . 
lndt.x. 


... .. ....................... 


I. IU:("O.:\
TKl'(
'I'IOX 1:\ ('.\X.\U.\. 
By 
. .\. ('t D\IORE, B.A. (Tor.), 
I.A. (Oxon.), F.i'.:;.. F.H. Econ. :-\oc., Editor Canada Year 
11001-, Dominion Burl'au of Statistics, OtuLY.a..... 
Introductory.. . '" ..... .... ., 
Part I - War-time Activitit.'s of Government and People... 
Part 11.- H<'-("8tahli:-ihm<'nt of Hl.turned Soldiers.. 
Part Ill.- Heconstruction arnon/!; the Gent'ral Population. 


II. ('IIRO'OLOGU' \I.. IIISTOR \ OF (',AX.\)).\. H91-19'?O. 
III. PII\ 
I(' \fA {II \R U'TFRI
TI('S OF C \ S..\D.\. 
(;t'O/!;raphiral Ft'atu
.. 
1. I>raina
e BILsins of Canmla.. . . . . . 
2. Lcngths of Principal Hi, prs and Tributaries in Cwu.Ldu... 
3. Area, Elt'vation nnd Dt'pth of the Gn'.Lt Lak(.
. 
t. Areas of Principal f'anadiun I akl'8. by Provinccs ... 
Economic Geology of Canada, 1!1l9. lly Wn,TT 
I.\LCOL\I, Geological Survey, Ottawa 


}> \OE. 
iii 
xV 
xv 
xvi-xviii 
754-768 


1-64 
1 
2-20 
20-43 
43-64 


65-76 


76-86 
81 
81-82 
8:3 
S4-86 
86-92 


1\. .\lU:.\ .\XU .aOPll.,\'I'IOX. 
1. Land and Water Area of C'ana,da, by Provinces and Tt.rritorie8, as in 1920...... . . . , . 93 
"!. Population of Cannda. by JJrovinces and Tprritori('s, in t hp f'pn
us Y <,ars I '}71 to 1911 94 
3. .Area and Population of Ca.nada in HH I, by Provinces and Districts and Population in 
1\}01. . . . . . . . . . . .. _. _. _ _" .. . , . . . . . . . . . . 94-98 
t. Population of Citips and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1911, compared 
y,ith IS71-8HH-1\}01. . .. ............................ 99-100 
.). rrban Population of CaßfLlla dh,ided by Size of )lunicip,Llity Groups, 1901 and 1911 100 
G. Rural and Crban Population oC Canada in 1901 and 1911, by Provinces, anù increase 
or dt.'CrN\..
e in the de('ade ......... . .. . . . . . 101 
7. Rural and Crban Population of Canada hy Provinc('s and ðCXl'8, 1911. 101 
1'. Population of Canada, by ðexes, 1001 and 1011.. .... . 103 
9. PopullLtion of Canada betwl'Cn the ages of 15 Md 49, inclusive, by sexes, cen"!us of 
1011.. . -.. . . 103 
lu. Rat io of Femal
 to 'Ial<'s in Hural and r rban Division=-. I !1l1.. 104 
11. Conju
al Condition of the Pl'ople of Canada. cl:L.'i.-;ifit'd as sin
dl'. married. \\ idowed, 
divorced, Il'J!:ally separateù, and not Jl;iH'n. by Provincc.
, Cf>IlbUS of 1011.".. 104 
1"' Population of tho Prairie Provinces, 1901, 1!I06, 1911 anti 1016.. .. 105 
u. Population of the Prairie JJrovinces by ðex, at each CCl1::iU8 Period from 1870 for 

Ianitoba, and from HIOI for :-:askatclwy,:m and \lberta. lOG-lOi 
u. City Population of the Prairie Provinces, 1f/Ol, 1906, 1911 and 1916.. 107 


'1tal StaU,Urs. 
I.;. Xumber of Births, )Iarriagcs and Deaths, by Pro\"incps. Iflll-l<ll!! . 
16. Number of Births, 
Iarriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities. 1913-1919... 


ti. 
IS. 
19. 


Imml
ratlon. 
Number of Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, 1
07-1920 . ... . ............. 
Arrivals at Inland and Ocean Ports in Canada in Fiscal Year
 1914-1920 . .. . ... . 
Rejections of Immi
ants upon arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after ad- 
mission, by principal cause::;, 1903-1920 '" ' . . . .. . .... 
Kumber by Xationalitiesof Immigrants Deport<,d after .-\dmi
,",ion, l!IO
-1920.... 
Ju,"enile Immi,:!:rants and Applications for their 
t'rvices, 1901-1920..... . . 
Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in Canada for the fiscal 
years 1919 and 1920. . . . . . . .. .. . 
Destination of Immigrants into Canada. by Provinces, 1901-1020. 
Record of Chine
e Immigration, 1886-lfl20.. . 
Record or Oril'nt
1 Immigration, 1001-1920..... .... 
Expenditure on Immigration in the fiscal years 1
68-1920. 


20. 
21. 


. 


2:1. 

t. 

.i. 


26. 


v. I:UI "(' \TJO:\. 


General Features of Canadian Education ðY8tems. . _._ 
Higher Education in Canada. . 
Education :-;tatistics of Canada... 
Technical Education in Canada. .. ... . . . . . . . 
1. Statistical Summary of Education in Canada, by Provinces, 1919, or latest year 
reported.. . " .. ..... . .. .... .. . . . . . . . . ..' .. 
2. 
umber of Schools. Teachers and Pupils in Canada, by Provinces. 1901-1919....... 
3. Teachers in Training in Nova Scotia. Xc\\" Brunswick, Quebec. Ontario and 
)Ianitoba, 1901-1910, Saskatehe",an and Alberta, 1906-1919 ' . . . . . . . . . .. ... 


109-110 
111-118 


120 
121 
122 
122 
122 
12
 
123-124 
124 
125 
125 


126 
127 
127-128 
129 
130-133 
134-137 
138-140 



VD. PRODUCTION. 
Agriculture. 
Field Crops. 
1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Year Average, 1915-1919....... . .. ..... '" .. ........ . ... .. ................ 191-210 
2. Annual Average Yields per acre of Field Crops for Canada, and by Provinces from 
1915 to 1920, with Decennial Averages for the years 1910-19. . . ... . . . . . .. ,.. 210-213 
3. Areas and Yields of Wheat. Oats, Barley, Rye and Flaxseed in the three Prairie 
Provinces, 1918-1920. ....... . . .. ., ........... _ . .. .......... _ . . . . 213 
4:. Total Areas and Values of Farm Crops in Canada, 1915-1920, ...... .... . '" ....... 214 
5. Field Crops of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 1919 and 1920... . 215 
G. Quality of Grain Crops as indicated by Average Weight per measured bushel, 
1911-1920. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ...................................................... 216 
7. Average Values per acre of Occupied FarmLands in Canada,asestimated by Crop 
Correspondents, 1908-10, 1914-20.... .... ................... .......... ....... 217 
8. Average Wages of Farm Help in Canada, as estimated by Crop Correspondents, 
1914-20. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " .. .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . 218 
9. Average Wages per year of Farm Help in Canada, as estimated by Crop Corres- 
pondents, 1920.... _.. . . . . . _ . _ . _ . . . . . . . . .. 219 
Farm Live Stock. 
10. Numbers of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1919 and 1920............ 
11. Estimated Numbers of Farm Live Stock, 1915-1920. ....... ........... ......... 
12. A verage Values of Farm Animals and of Wool, as estimated by Crop Correspondents, 
1914-20. . ., " .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ., . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . ... .. . . . . . . . ., ........- 
13. Average Values per head of Farm Live Stock in Canada, as estimated by Crop 
Correspondents, 1915-1920....... . .. ......... .................................. 
U. Estimated Total Values of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1915-1920. 
15. Estimated Numbers and Values of Farm Poultry in Canada, 1920................ 


VI 


v. Educatioll-con. 
4:. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Roman Catholic Classical Colleges in Quebec, 
1901-1919...... .. _.............................................................. 
5. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in On- 
tario, 1901-1919.. .............................................................. 
G. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Continuation Schools in Ontario, 1911-1919.... 
'1. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in 
Saskatchewan, 1908-1919... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. Number of Teachers and Pupils in High Schools in British Columbia, 1901-1919... 
9. Vocational Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada, year ended June 30, 1920... . . . 
10. Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provincefl, 1901-1919. 
11. Average annual Salaries of School Teachers, by Provinces, 1915-1919.............. 
12. Universities of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees... . . . . . . . . . 
13. Universities of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff in the Various Faculties, 1919- 
1920....................................................................... _.... 
14. Universities of Canada: Number of Students in the Various Faculties, 1919-1920.. 
15. Pniversities of Canada: Number of Students by Academic Years, 1919-1920...... 
16. L'niversities and Colleges of Canada: Number of Students by Province of Resi- 
dence, 1919-1920........ . . .. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 
11. Universities of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1919-1920.. .. . . . . . . .... . .. . .. . 
18. Colleges of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees. . . ... ......... 
19. Professional and Affiliated Colleges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 
Students, 1919-1920 ................................ .......... ...... 
20. Colleges of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1919. . . ..... . . . .. . . . . . 


'"I. CLIIUATE AND 3IETEOROLOGY. 


The Climate of Canada since Confederation. By Sir FREDERICK STUPART, Director, Dom- 
inion Meteorological Service, Toronto......... . . .. . . . - . 
The Weather of Canada during the Year 1919.. . . . . . ...... . . .. .. .. .. .... . . . . '" . ... . .. 
1. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations...... .._ 
2.
Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations... 


Dairying. 
16. Production and Value of Creamery Butter, by Provinces, 1917, 1918, 1919..... - . - - 
17. Production and Value of Factory Cheese, by Provinces, 1917, 1918, 1919........... 
18. Miscellaneous Products of Dairy Factories, 1917, 1918, 1919....... .. . . ........ -. .- 
19. Production and Value of Creamery Butter and Factory Cheese, 1900, 1907, 1910, 
and 1915-1919..... . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 


Fruit Statistics. 
20. Production and Value of Commercial Apples in Canada, 1919................... 
21. Production of Apples in Ontario, by Fruit Inspection Districts, 1919.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
22. Total Quantitie. Q and Values of Fruit Trees, Bushes and Plants sold by Nurserymen 
in Canada, by Provinces, year ended September 30, 1919..... . . . . ..... ......... 


PAGE. 


141 
141 
141 
142 
142 
142 
143-148 
149 
150-151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156-157 
158-160 
160-161 
162-163 


164-167 
168-171 
172-179 
180-187 


220-222 
222-223 


224 


225 
226-227 
227 


230 
231 
232 
232 


233 
234 
235 


Cold Storage Warehouses. 
23. Cold Storage Warehouses in Canada, 1920.. ....... .. ... . . . ... . . .. . . - - .... . . ., .. . .. 237-238 



VB 


!-t. 
2.i. 
"!f.. 
27. 
2
. 


Agricultural Prices. 
WN'kly Range of Prices of Wheat at Winnip
 and Fort William, 19:?O,. .......... 
'Ionthly Range of .\ verajl;e Prices of \\ heat at Winnip
 nnd Fort William 1914-1920 
Weekly Range of Prices of Oats at Winnip
 and Fort William, 1920 ...:. . . .... 
W('E!kly B
\l1ge of Prices of Barley and Flax at Winnippg :Ln(1 Fort Willi LID, tf)
O..... 

Ionthly Range of Average Prices of Barley, Oats and Flax at Winnipeg and Fort 
William, 1914-1920. . " .. . . . .. ... . . . . . .. . . 
'Ionthly Bange of Average Prices in British )Iarkets of Canadian Wheat and Oats 
HH3-1920 ... . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . ' 
Yearly -\'v('rage Prices of nome Groy,n Wheat, Barley and Oats in England and 
\\ales,IHOI-1920 . .. '" ..... .... . __ . . , . . ..... . .. 
\verage 'Ionthly Prices of Flour, Bran and Shorts, at Principal1\larkets, 1920..... 
Average J>rices of Canadian Live Stock at Principal 'Iarkets, 1918-1919-1920..... 
\verage Monthly Prices of Canadian Live Stock at Principal Markets, 1!120.... .. 
Ave
e Prices per bushel paid by farmers for Grade No.1 Clover and Grass Seed 
by }>rovinc('S, during Mar('h, April and 'lay, l!J20, and the average prices fo; 
Canada, as compared with the same period of the previous year....... .. 
A ve
e pric('s per b
shel paid to farmers for Clover .and Grass 
ood, by provinces, 
durmg March, Apnl and 
Iay, 1920, and average pnces for Canada compared with 
the flame period of the previous year...... _. . . . .. .......... . . 
Index Numbers of Agriculturul Pric('s for Canada, i!10!)-1920..... ..... .. 


29. 
30. 
31. 
3"!. 
3.1. 
3J. 


3d. 


36. 


Jliscellaneoull Agricultural Statistics. 
:17. Production and Value of 11ax Fibre and Allied Products, 1915-19. 
:11'0.. \n'fl. and Yield of Tobacco in Canada. 1918-20. . . . . . . . . . 
:19. Estimated Production and Yalue of \\ 001 in Canada, 1915-1920......... .. .. ........ 
.to. Art'a, Yield and Yalue of Sugar Beets in Canada and Production of Refin('d Beetroot 
SUlI';ar, 1911-HH9 ................... ...... ...... . ... .... .. ... 
u. Stocks of Grain in Farmers' hands in Canada on .\ugust 31,1918, August 30, 1919, and 
August31,1920 ............ ... .. .. '" .... 
J"!. ":tocks of Grain in Canada at the close of the Crop Years, 1918, 1919 and HJ20. 
U. f'tocks of \\ heat in Canada at the ('nd of March, 191G-20..., .. .., . 
U. :'tocks of Wheat in Canada at the end of March, 1917-21...... . ......... . 
...;. 
tocks of Oats, Harley and Flaxseed in Canada on March 31. 1!}20 and 1921...... ... 
U. Distribution of the Canadian \\ heat Crop, 1909-20, (a) Production (b) Distribution. 
J7. Estimated Population of Canada, HJ10-19. ... .... . . _. . . .. . 
..... Distribution of the Canadian Oat ('rops. 1909-1920, (a) Production (b) Distribution 
n. Gross Yalue of the Annual Agricultural Production of Canada, 1915-1920. . 


.;u. 
,')1. 
-0) 
Õ)
. 

'J. 


International Agricultural StatisticlI. 
Xumbers of Horses and Cattle by Principal Countries of the World, 1909 and 1918. . 
Xumbers of Farm Live Stock in the British I
mpire. dates nmn'st 190!. and H1l8.. . 
\\orId's Total 
umbers of I'arm Live Btock, dah':,j nf'arcst 1909 and 1918.. ... .. . 
Acre
c and Production of Cereals and of Potatoes in Yarious Countries of the World, 
HI19 and 19:!0......... . . . . . . . . 


Agricultural Ezpenment Stations of Canada. 
Dominion Experimental Farms and :-,tation.'i.. .. . . . . . 
.;J. Dominion Experimental Farms and :"\tations, 1920.. ... . 
Provincial Experimental }'arms and 
tations 


t'Orl'S t r) . 
,}5. QU'Ultities and Val of the cut of Lumber, 
hingles and Lath by Provinces, 1917, 
J918andI919........ .. ... 
56. Total Consumption and '-alue of Pulp\\ood, 1908-19... . . . 
57. Quantiti(,8 and Yaluesof \\ood used in the 'Ianufactureof Pulp, 1917-19....... ..... 
5'\. J\:inds of Wood used in the ,ranufacture of Pulp b
 Quantities and Values, 1917, 1918 
and 1919..., -,. . . . . . . . 
';9. Quantiti(.s of Wood u!"ed and of Pulp manufactured, 1915-1919.... .. 
GO. Production of Pap('r by Provinces, 1917, 1918 and 1919. .... . .. ...... 
61. Fxports from Canada of \\ood Pulp, by ("ountrips, in the fiscal year
 1915-1920..:... 
GO) Quantity and Yalue of \\ood, Blocks and Other, for Pulp, exported to the Umted 

tates, 1904-1920. 


}'ishl'rll'
. 
63. Xumber and Capital Yalue of Fishing Vessels, Boats, Xets, Traps, etc., used in the 
FisheriE's of Canada, 191h and 1919... . ...... . . . . . . . . 
6-&. Kumber of Per
m8 Employed in the Fisheries of Canada, 1918 and 1919. .. . 
6,'). Government BountiE's to Fishermen in the fiscal years 1916 to 1919........ ... . .,. 
66. QuantitiE's and Values of Sea Fish marketed in Canada during the calendar years 
1918 and 1919 . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 
67. Quantities and '.alu

'oi I
land Fish 
'
kete(lï'n Canada during the calendar years 
1918 and 1919 ." . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 
6
. Quantity and v
i

'
i chi
i Commercial Fishes, 1915-16 to 1916-17 and calendar 
years 1917-1919. ............ ... .,.. . . ..... .., 
69. Total '-alue of Fisheries by ProvincE'S in the fiscal years 1916-1917 and calendar years 
1917,191SandI919.............,... .... ..............',.... ....... 


PAGE. 


239 
240-242 
243-244 
244-245 
246-248 
249-250 
251 
251 
252-253 
253 


254 


254 
256 


257 
258 
259 


259 


260 
261 
261 
262 
262 
263-264 
265 
265-266 
267 


269-271 
271 
272 
274-278 


279-282 
279 
282-287 


288 
290 
290 
290 
291 
292 
292 


293 


294-295 
295 
296 
296-298 
299 
299-300 
300 



Vlll 


Fisheries -con. 


,0. Total Value of the Fisheries of Canada in the fiscal years 1870-1919.... .. 
71. Value of Exports and Imports of Fish and Fish Products, 1902-1920...... ........... 
12. Exports of the Fisheries, the Produce of Canada, by principal countries, in the fiscal 
years 1919 and 1920........ -.. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. ................, 
73. Exports of the Fisheries, compared as to Quantity and Value, 1919 and 1920 ("000" 
omitted)....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


l\Iinerals. 
7-1. Quantities and Values of Minerals produced in Canada, calendar years 1919 and 1920 
75. Increase or Decrease in Quantities and Values of Principal Mineral Products, for the 
Calendar Year 1919, as compared with 1918..... .. .... .. .. . ..... " . . .. ..... . . .. .. 
76. Increase or Decrease in Quantities and Values of Principal Mineral Products for the 
Calendar Year 1920 as compared with 1919........................ ............. 
17. Mineral production of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for Calendar 
Years 1918 and 1919... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
18. Value of Mineral Production in Canada, 1886-1920......... .... .. .... .... ....... .. . . 
79. Value of Minerals produced in Canada by Provinces in the Calendar Years 1918, 
1919 and 1920......... . . . . . . . . . . . .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
80. Quantity of Gold produced in Canada by Provinces during the Calendar Years 
1901-1920 _.. ..'.. .,. " - - . . . .. .' ...................... ... ................ 
81. Value of Gold produced in Canada by Provinces during the Calendar Years 1901-1920 
82. Quantity and Value of Silver produced in Canada during the Calendar Years 1887- 
1920... _................. . ........................ .................... 
83. Quantity and Value of Silver produced in Canada by Provinces during the Calendar 
Years 1901-1920.... .. . -. .. .. " . . .. . . . . . .. .......... . ., .. ... ............ 
84. Quantity and Value of Copper produced in Canada by Provinces during the Calendar 
Years 1901-1920.... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., . .. .. .. ., . . . .. ....... ....... 
85. Quantity and Value of Nickel produced in Canada during the Calendar Yt'ars 1889- 
1920... ........ -....... ...................................................... 
86. Production of Principal Minerals in Canada, for the Calendar Years 1909-1920..... . . 

1. Production of Asbestos and Asbestic in Canada for the Calendar Years 1909-1920 .. . 
88. Production of Cement in Canada for the Calendar Years 1902-1920...... 
Iron Blast Furnaces in Canada in 1920.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Electric Furnace Plants in Canada in 1920....... .. ., . . ., . . ., . . .. .. . 
Mines Departments of Provincial Goyernments... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
89. Value of the Mineral Production of Quebec, 1900-19...... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 
90. Production of Silver at the Cobalt and Gowganda Camp, Ontario, 1904-1919...... 
91. Value of Total Mineral Production of British Columbia, 1852-1919. ... . .... .... .... . 
9
. Quantity and Value of Mineral Products in British Columbia for the Calendar Years 
1917-1919.. . . . .. ............................................ ............. . . 
93. Quantity and Value of the World's Production of Gold and Silver for the Calendar 
Years 1918 and 1919... ... .. . . " .... .... . .. . . .... .. ........ .... ..... 
9<1. Imports into Canada of Portland Cement, 1898-1920..... .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 
95. Imports into Canada ot Anthracite and Bituminous Coal for home consumption 
during the fiscal years 1901-1920.... ., .. . . .. .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
96. Exports of Coal, the produce of Canada, 1903-1920..... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
97. Exports of Mineral Products, compared as to Quantity and Value, for the fiscal 
years ended Mar. 31, 1919 and 1920........ ... ... .. .. .. . 
l\lanufactures. 
98. Summary Statistics 01 Manufactures of Canada, 1917 and 1918.. ... . . . 
99. Statistics of )Ianufactures by Provinces, 1915, 1917 and 1918. . . . . .... ., .. .. .. . .., .. . 
100. Statistics of Manufactures by Provinces, 1900, 1905, 1910 and 1915.... .. ... . ., . ... 
101. Statistics of Manufactures, 1917... . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
102. Statistics of Manufactures, 1918.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
103. Statistics of Manufactures by Cities and TO\\Jls, 1918.... . . .. . . .. .. ...... -. . -. .. . 
101. Male and Female Employees on Salaries and Wages, by Provinces, 1918..... .. . . . . . 
10';. Number of Employees by \Veekly Wage Groups, 1918. .. . . .. " ., . . . . .. ... . .. ... . -. . 
106. Wage Earners classified by Groups of Industries and of Wages, 1918..... . .. . . . .. 


PAGE. 


301 
301 
301 
302 


304-305 
305 
306 
306-307 
308 
308 
308 
309 
309 
310 
310-311 
311 
311-312 
312 
313 
313 
313-314 
314 
315 
316 
317 
317 
318-319 
319 
320 
320 
320-321 


324 
324 
325 
326 
326-334 
334 
335 
335 
336 


VIII. TRADE AND CO:\UIERCE. 
1. Aggregate External Trade of Canada, 1868-1921........... ...... .. " ...... .. ...... . 338 
2. Movement of Coin and Bullion, 1868-1918.................. . . .. .... ... .... .... .. 339 
3. Duties Collected on Exports, 1868-1892, and on Imports for Home Consumption, 
1868-1921. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............. . 340 
(. Ratio of Exports to Imports and Value per capita of Exports, Imports and Total 
Trade, 1868-1921.... . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. ... ......................................... 341 
å. Exports to the United Kingdom, to the L"nited States and to Other Countries of 
Merchandise the produce of Canada, 1868-1921..... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 
'G. Imports from the United Kingdom, from the United States and from Other 
Countries of Merchandise entered for Home Consumption, 1868-1921. .... .. ... 343 
7. Values of Exports from Canada to the 'Cnited Kingdom, to the United States, to 
Other Countries, and to All Countries, by Classes of 
lerchandise, in five year 
averages and for the fiscal years 1911-1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .. .............. 344-346 
8. Values of Exports to the United Kingdom, to the L"nited States and to All Countries, 
by Classes of 
lerchandise the Produce of Canada, by values and percentages, 
1918-1921. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . _ . , . ' . . 347 
9. Value of Imports from the Lnited Kingdom, from the 'Cnited States and from All 
Countries, by Classes of Merchandise entered for Home Consumption, by values 
and percentages, 1918-21....... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348-349 



I:\. 


, In. Tr:ule 31111 ('ornrnl'rl'l' con. 


10. 
11. 


Exports of Canada to rnited Kingdom, Cnited f'tates nnd .\11 Countries in quantitips 
and valm's, by cl

es of home produce, in tilt' four fiscal Yl'ars 1915-HI21..... 
Imports of Canada, from the t"nitl"Ù hingdom, the L nited States and All Countries, 
in quantities and vulue
, by cl
L<;ses entered for con:,.umption in the four fiscal 
Yl'Urs 1!11 S-:? 1. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. ... .. ... ... .. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. ... 
EXh'rnal Trade of Canada, by \lain Groups and J>egrC<'s of 
Ianufacture according 
to UriJ.?:in. year l'nded 'larl'h 31, 19
O......... ... . . . ... .. . . . . . 
Yalues of Exports (domestic and forei
) to the British and Forl'Ìgn West Indies, by 
Countrie8, during the fi
cal YE>ars HIlS-19:!0.. . .... ... 
Yalues of IrnIX)rt'" l'n h'rl't I for home cOTh>urnption (dutiahle nnd free) from the British 
and Fon'i
 \\ est Indies, by ('ountrie
, during the ti
cal ymrs HH
-19
0 ., ... 
,- alul! of Imports and EXIX)rt
 from and to Briti
h and ). on'i!!:n \\ l'St lmlies, 1901-1920 
Pl'reentap:e proportions of Imports from tOni ted h. ing(lorn and t. ni h'd :-\tate8, respect- 
inly, to totals of dutiable and free in the 20 tiscal ye..l.rs 1901-1!1:!0 . ..... 
AVl'm
o ad \.alorem Hateq of Duty c.o11ected on Imports from Cnited J\.ingdom, 
rnited :-\tah
 and AI! ('ountril's in tho 53 fiscal years IN:;8-1920...... . . ..... ..... 
Yalue of Total Exports and Imports entered for home consumption, and the duty 
ooll('('t('(l thereon, at certain Ports, during the fiscal ycar
 ended )larch 31, 1919 
and HI:!O.... . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Imports of c('rtain .\rticles of lta'" \tatorial for home consumption, 1!11I:!-19:!0..,. . 
Import
 of Canada by values entl'red for consumption from British Empire and 
}<orei
 Countries, under the Gcner.11, l>rcfcrcntial, und Treaty Rate Tariffs in 
the t",o fisea: years 1919-HI:!O . . .. ... . . ....... ... 
..\
rcgate Trade of Canada by ('ountrie
 for the fiseal yeur ended March 31, 192ù.._ 
\1l.J!I'egate Trade of Canada by Countries for the fiscal year endell )Iarch 31, 1!121. 
'aIUl

 of Exports from Canada of Home Produl'e to the British Empire and to 
l"orei
n Co un tries in t IH' fi ve fiscal ye..lrs HH 7-1921 . . . . . . . 
Yalues of Imports into C
u1Uda of \Ierdmnlli:-l' entered for Consumption, from the 
Briti:.h Empin' and from Furci
 Countrics, in the fi\ e fi
cal year:> 1917-1921, 
nl80 of ('oin and bullion. .... .... .. . .,. .. . 
Value of )h.rchamli:5e importNI into and exported from Canada thro.lgh the "Cnited 

tJ1tes during the fiscal years cndl'd 
Iarch 31, 1!1l!}-19:!0 . . . . . . 
Quantities and '.nluE'S of ::;el<'Cted -\nimal and .\gricultural Food Produ('ts imported 
into the L-nited hingdohl, by Countries whence imported. during the five 
calendar years HH5-1919. .. . . . . . . . ., . . -.. 
Quantitil':" find Valuf"S of .\nimal and .\I.!;ricultural Products, exported from the 
l'nit('(1 :-;tates to Principal Countril'S for the years ended June 30, HH4-HH7, and 
the calendar year'i 1918 and l!IlY... .............. 


1') 


13. 
U. 


l.i. 
16. 
O. 
I.,. 


19. 

o. 


21. 

!. 



:I. 


.H. 



.i. 


'!G. 


'). 

. . 


(;ralll 
taH..fks. 


. Xumber and Btorage Capacity of Canadian Grain Elevators in the crop years 1901- 
I U:! I. . . . . . . . 
29. Qu.mtitil's of Grain inspl,,<,ted during the fbcal year:; l!1l9-1!1:!1. . 
:10. Quantitil':5 of Grain in"ipl'cted rluring the fi
cal year
 endl'd 
Iarch 31, 1914-1921.... . 
:11. 
hipml'nts of grain by ,,();).':)CIs from l'ort \\ i11iam and Port. \rthur for the navigation 
se880ns 19 HI and 1 !I:!O . . . . .. ... ... . . . .. ... . 
32. f:;hipn1l'nts of Grain hy ves
el:5 and all-rail route from Fort" i11iam and Port -\rthur 
for the crop years ended A Uglli> t 31, l!H 9 and I !I:! 0 . 


PAGE. 


3:>0-3ì5 


376-407 
406-407 
408 
40S 
409 


409 
410 


410-411 
412 


413 
413-415 
415-416 
417 


418 
419 


420-424 


424-445 


446--t4S 
449-451 
45:!-453 


453 


454 


Boulltlt's. 
.J3. TIounties paid in Canada on I.mll, Ib99-191S. .. 4.54 
3-&. Bounties pail I in Canada on Crude Petroll'um, HI05-1!.1:!0... 455 


Patents, t.:op)ri
ht, Trade )Iarh.:o;, t:tc. 
3.'). 
umber of Canadian Patent('l.'s, by Province of Re.,idence, for the fiscal years 1911- 
1920 455 


IX. TR_\

PURT \TIU' \
J) ('(nnn .XI('ATIUX
. 



tl'am Raih\a),. 
1. Hl"<'Ord of :--tl"am Rail\\ay 'W{'age, 1835-1919. .. .... 

. :-;team Haih\ay )Iileage by Provinces, 1912-1919... 
:1. Capital Liability of ::;team Haih\ays, 187ß-1919... .. . . . ... . . . . . . .. . - . . . 
-to )Iileage, Capital, Earning
 and Operating Expenses of Steam Haih\ays, 1919..... 
.'). :-\team Railwav Statistics, 1901-1919.. . .. ,. . ... .. .............. 
6. l:arnings and Òperating Fxpen::.es of Steam Railways per mile of line and per train 
mile, 1909-1919...... .. ., . . . .. .. .. .' 
4. Di
tribution of Operating Expenses of :-;tmm Raih\ays, 1916-1919. . 

. )1ileage and Holling ::;tock of Steam Hailways, 1914-1919.... 
9. Commodities hauled as Freight on Steam ltailways, 1915-1919..: . ... . . . . 
lit. 
ummary Analysis of :-;tatistics of Pas::.enger and Freight :-\<.'rnces and Recelpts, 
1910-1919 ..... ..........' . 
11. Xumber of ::;t
m Raii\\ay 'Empi
):
es, Amount of Halaries and Wa!!:es, and Ratios 
of the latter to Gross Earnings and Operating Expenses, 1907-1919; '.' . . .. ..,.. 
1
. Areas of Land Subsidies granted to Steam Railways by the Domlmon and Pro- 
vincial Governments up to June 30, 1919.. - . . . . . . . .. ............;.. 
13. Aid to Hailways in the form of Guarantees of Bonds, Interest, etc., by the DommlOn 
and Provincial Governments, up to June 30. 1919.... .. .' .. .......... 
u. .Analysis of the Total Financial .-\id given to Steam Railways up to June 30, 1919.... 


460 
4tJl 
461 
462-464 
464 
465 
465 
466 
4ti6-467 
4ti8 
469 
469 


470 
470 



x 
Steam RaUways-con. 
15. Total Amount of Dominion Government Aid paid to Steam Railways up to June 30 
of each year, 1901-1919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
16. Cost of Construction, Working Expenses and Revenue of Government Railways, 
1868-1900, and 1901-1919, and before Confederation..... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
17. Capital Expenditure by Dominion Government for construction of Government 
t;team Railways to March 31, 1919.. .. .. .... ... . .. .... . . , . ..... .... . .,. ....... 
18. Number of Passengers, Employees and Others Killed and Injured on Steam Rail- 
ways, 1888-1919.... . . . . .. . ...... ......... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ 
19. Number of Persons Killed and Injured on Steam Railways, 1917-1919. ............ 
Electric Railways. 
20. Electric Railway Statistics, 1901-1919........ . .. . . _ .. . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . 
21. Mileage and Equipment of Electric Railways, 1917-1919..... .... ... ..... .. ...... . .. 
22. Capital Liability of Electric Railways, 1908-1919....... . ............. .. .... . .. 
23. Mileage, Capital, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Railways, 1919.... .. . 
u. Number of Passengers, Employees and others Killed and Injured on Electric Rail- 
ways, 1894-1919.... . . . - . . . - . . . . . .. ...... -. . 
1\lotor Vehicles. 
25. Number of Motor Yehicles registered in Canada, by Provinces, 1914-1920...:....... 480 
26. Speed Limits in miles per hour for Motor \" ehicles, 'by Provinces 480 


Elpress Companies. 
27. Operating Mileage of Express Companies in Canada, for the years ended June 30, 
1917-1919, and for the calendar year 1919. . . .. ..............."........'......,. 
28. Operating Expenses of EA-press Companies for the years ended June 30, 1915-1919, 
and for the calendar year 1919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............ 
29. Business transacted by Express Companies in financial paper for the years endúd 
June 30, 1917-1919, and for the calendar year 1919. .. ............... .... . . . . . 
30. Earnings of Express Companies for the years ended June 30, 1915-1919, and for the 
calendar year 1919..... . ...... .... _ .. . .. " . 
Canals. 
31. Canal Traffic during the Navigation Season of 1919...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
32. Distribution of Total Canal Traffic by months, 1914-1919........ . . . 
33. Distribution of Canal Traffic in Canada, 1919......... . . . . . . . . . .. .................. 
34. Tonnage of Traffic by Canals and Classes of Products, 1918-1919...., . . . . . ., ....... 
3.'í. Principal Articles carried through Canadian canals during the Navigation Seasons, 
1918 and 1919. _. ............................................................... 
36. Traffic through the Canadian Saul t Ste. Marie Canal during the Navigation Seasons, 
1899-1919. ...... '" ...................... .............. . . . . . . " ......... 
37. Traffic through Canadian Canals during the Navigation Seasons 1912-1919....... 
38. Total Expenditure and Revenue of Canals, 1868-1919, and before Confederation, .. 
39. Capital Expenditure for Construction and Enlargement of Canals, 1868-1919 and 
before Confederation..... _ . .. ....... _ .... .......... ..... ... 
40. Traffic through the Panama Canal, August 1914, to June, 1920,. . . . . .. .......... 
41. Traffic through the Panama Canal by Nationality of Vessels for the fiscal years 
ended June 30, 1917-1920....................................................... 


Shipping. 
42. Sea-going Vessels (exclusive of Coasting Vessels) Entered and Cleared at Canadian 
Ports during the fiscal years 1919 and 1920. . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ .... . . . . .. . 
43. Sea-going Vessels entered and Cleared at the Principal Ports of Canada, 1919... ... 
41. Sea-going Vessels Entered Inwards and Outwards, by Countries, 1919. ........... . 
45. Sea-going Vessels Entered and Cleared at Canadian Ports with Cargo and in Ballast, 
1902-1920. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . ' . . . . . . . . 
46. Sea-going and Inland Vessels (exchlsive of Coasting Vessels) arrived at and departed 
from Canadian Ports, 190&-1920.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
47. British and Foreign Vessels employed in the Coasting Trade of Canada, 191&-1920. 
48. Canadian and American Vessels trading on Rivers and Lakes between Canada and 
United States, exclusive of ferriage, ]916-1920.................................... 
49. Vessels buil t and registered in Canada and Vessels sold to other Countries, 1901-1920 
50. Number and Net Tonnage of Vessels on the Registry of Shipping, Canada, 1915-1918 
51. Steamboat Inspection during the fiscal year 1918-1919. . ........ . . . . . . . . . -. . -. . 
52. Kumber of Seamen Shipped and Discharged at Canadian Ports, HJOI:j-1918....... 
53. Canadian Wrecks and Casualties, for the years ended June 30,1870-1900 and 1901-1919 
M. Comparative Statement of Marine Danger Signals, 1909-1919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
55. Revenue of the Department of Marine, 1915-1919.... . . . . . 
56. Expenditure of the Department of Marine, HH5-1919.......... . . . . . . . . . . . 
51. Total Revenue and Expenditure of the Department of Marine, 186
-1919. 
Telegraphs and Telephones. 
:is. Telegraph Statistics of Chartered Companies, June 30, 1910-1919, and for the Calen- 
dar Year 1919. .... . . . . . . . .. ........., .. . . . . . . . .. ........ .. .... .... 
59. Coast Stations for Communication by Wireless Telegraphy with Ships at Sea, fiscal 
year 1919-20. . . . . . . . . .. .... . ... . . . . . . . ' . , . ..... . . 
GO. Canadian Government Steamers equipped wi th the Radiotelegraph. ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
61. Business and Cost of Maintenance of Hadiotelegraph Rtations for the fiscal years 
1918-1919 and 1919-1920.... ... . . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


PAGE. 


4iO 


471 


4ïl 


472 
472-473 


474 
474 
4i4 
475-476 


476 


481 


482 


482 
483 


485 
485 
486 
486 
486-487 
487 
48
-490 
490 
4!)1 
492. 


493 


494-495 
495-496 
496-497 
498 
498 
499 
500 
501 
501 
502 
502 
503 
503 
504 
50! 
505 


506-507 
508-j09 
510 
510 



xi 


,
. 


Tl'll.graphs ami Tl'll'plllme
 -con, 
Progress of Telephones in Canada for tho years ended Juno 30, l!H5-1919, and for the 
Cnll'ndarYl'arI919...... .. .. ......... ....... ........ ......... 

ulUber of felephone Companies reporting to the Department of Rail\"\avs and 
Canals, by }>rovinces, December 31, 1919, with totals for the years ended lune 30, 
H)l4-19. ............................... .......... .... 
Telephones in use and milcaJ!:e of \,ire, by Provinced, Decemb

'31, 19i9; 
\"ith't
tal
 
for tho years ended June 30, 1914-19....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Wire )fi1l'age of Telephones by Classes of Wire, June 30, 1919, and December 31, 1919 
Capital Liability, Cost. Hevenue nnd O(X'mting Expenses of Telephones, Dec. 31, 
1919, with totals for the years ended June 30, 1914-19..... 
Postal 
tatlstlcs. 
Kumber of Post Offices in operation in the several Provinces of Canada, March 31, 
1!I
U ..... ., . . . . .... ........ ... . .... . . .. .. .................. 
Statistics of Gr
 Postal Revenue of Offices collecting 110,000 and upwards, 1919 
and It}
O.. . . .., . . . ... . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rl'Vl'nue and Expenditure of the Post Office Department for the quinquennial years 
18!
1910 and for the years HIlI-1920 .... . . . . . ... 

Iail :O:uhsidics and Steamship 
ub\ entions, 1918-1920. .. . . . . . 
(\Pl'ratiun of the 1\I0nl'Y Order 
) stem in Canada, 1901-1920.. 
)lonl'Y Orders by Prm. inces, 19lß-l\J20.... ., . . . . .. . . .. 
:\umbl'r and Total Values of Postal Notes, ltH6-1920....... 
IßSue of Postage 
tamps, etc., I!H9-1920............ ....... ... 


GJ. 


6.. 
6.1. 
G6. 


67. 
6.
. 
G9. 


.tt. 
71. 
;
. 
,:1. 
H. 


x. L..1UOl.'R, ".U;ES .\:\"1) PR(('t:"'. 
Occupatloll
 of the People. 
1. Pl'rsons ('nJ:m
ed in Gainful Occupations in Canada. by Ages, 1911..... ............. 
2. 
umber of )lall'8 and remall'
 10 years of Age and over engaged in Gainful Occupa- 
tions by Provinces, 1881 to 1911........ .. . .. .. . . . . .. ....... 
3. Kumbl'rs and Pl'rCl'nUlJl;e Di!'tribution by Indu..,tries of Pl'rsons engaged in Gainful 
OCCUI)at ions, 18
1 to 1911.. . ... .. . . .. .. ..... . 
4. 
umbl>rs and Percmtage Distribution by Xativity, t)cx and Industries of Persons 
engaged in Gt,inful Occupations, 1911.... ............. 
nomlnlon Hl'I)artmt'llt of Labour. 
Or anilt'd Labour In ('anada. 
5. )Il'mber.-hip or 1'
de rnions in Canada, 1911-1920...... ... 
6. International Trade t. nion
 opl'rat ing in Canada. '" ....... 
7. K on-intl'rnational Trade l- nions operating in Canada. . .' . . . . 


Trade nlsputes. 
t\. Time LosseR hy Ind
tries in \\orking Days, 1901-19
0..... ..... 
9. 
umher of ni
putes, EfoOtablishments, Employees and Time J.
c:>, 1901-1920 
10. Di:,.putes Cln....:,itil.'d by Ind
tri
, 1901-1920. 
I:mplo) mente 
11. l)ercl'ntagl'" of Cnl'lIlployment in Tradl' Cnions by Provinces, 1915-l!)20 
12. PerCl.'ntag;l'b of Cnemployment in Trade Cnions by Groups of lndu::.tries, 1915-1920. 


PAGE. 


511 


511 
512 
512 
513 


514: 
514-516 
516 
517-.118 
518 
519 
520 
520-521 


522 
523 
523-524 


524-525 


525-527 


530 
530-531 
532 


533 
533 
534 


536 
537 


'\a
l'S. 
13. Index Xumbers of Hourly and Weekly Wage Rates Paid to ::;killed and Semi-t)killed 
\\ orkcrs in 13 Cunadian Citil's, 1901-1920,....... . .... . . ." . 538 
U. lnd('x K umbl'rs of Hourly and \\ l'ekly \\ nga Rates paid to Common Labourers, 
:\li
cl'llaneous Factory \\orkers and Lumbermen, 1911-1920 . _,. 538 
15. Wages per hour and hours \\orked per \H'ek in Leading Trades in Canadian Cities, 
1 !I
U ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 
16. Ratesof\\ugespaidtoRaih\aylabour, 1920. .. _. .... .... .. 540 
17. 
ample \\agl's paid and Hours Worked in )Iiscellaneous Factory Trades in Repre- 
sentath e Factoril's, 1920 ........... '......... _ _ _ . . . 541 
18. 
aIllple Hate::. of Wages and Hours per Week for Common Labour in Factories, 1920 542 
Price., of {'ommoditlt's In ('anada. 
19. Indl'x Xumbers of Wholl'S..'1.le Pric<*> in Canada by )Ionths and Groups of Commo- 
ditil's, 1919 and 1920.. __ . . .. .. .. ...... 543-544 
20. Indl'x 1\umbers of All Commodities by Groups, 1893-1920...., , . . . . .' 546 
21. \\ l'Ckly Cost of a Family Budget of 
taple Foods, Fuel and Lighting, and Rent, in 
terms of the Average Price::. in ßO Canadian Cities, 1900, 1905, 1910, 1915-1920... . 549 
2'!. "eekly Cost of a Family Budget of :-\taple Foods, )< uel and Lighting, and Rent, in 
terms of the average price in each Province of Canada, 19U-1920... 550 


XI. t'IX.-\X('I:. 
Public Accounts. 
1. Rf'Ceipts and Expenditures on Con:mlidated Fund Account, 1916-1920.. . 5.=)2 
2. Detailed H
'Ceipts on Consolidated Fund Account, 1916-1920..... .. . 553 
3. Detailed Expenditure on Consolidated Tund Account, 1916-1920............ 554 
4. War Tax Revenue during the fiscal years ended :\Iarch 31,1915-20.... .. ... 555 
fie \\ ar Tax Revenue collected by the Inland Revenue Department by Provinces, durin
 
the fbcal
'ear l'nded )larch 31, 1920.... .. . . . . . . . ' 555 



Xll 


Public Accounts-con. 
G. Population and Revenue and Expenditure per head, 1868-1920.. _..... 
7. Public Debt of Canada, 
Iarch 31, 1916-1920 "'., .......... 
8. Assets of the Public Debt of Canada, 
larch 31, 1919-1920... .... 
9. Total Liabilities of Canada, March 31, 1916-1920.. . . . . . . . . ., . 
10. Funded Debt payable in London and Canada, )[arch 31, 1920....... '" .. . . . . . . . . .. . 
11. 
ubsidieR and other Payments of Dominion to Provincial Governments, 1915-1920. . 
n. Total 01 
ubsidy Allowances from July 1, 1867, to March 31, 1920.. .. .. 
Inland Revenue. 
13. Excise and other Rf'venues for the fiscal years 1915-1920..... .. . . 
H. 
tatistics of Distillation for the fiscal years 1916-1H20........ ... ........ ........ 
1.). Quantities of Spirits, 
Ialt Liquor, )[alt and Tobacco, taken out of Bond for Con- 
sumption in the fiscal years 1915-1920. _ _ ...... .' _. 
16. Consumption per head of Spirits, Wine, Beer and Tobacco, and amount of Excise and 
Customs Duties per head, in the fiscal years 1913-1920. . . . ' . . . . . . 
17. Number of Excise Licenses issued during the fiscal years 1912-1920. .... ...... . . . 
18. Number of Electric Light and Power Companies registered under the Electricity 
Inspection Act in the fiscal years 1913-1920.. . _ . ... . . . . . . 
19. Electrical Energy generated or produced for Export and for Consumption in Canada 
under the authority of the Electricity and Fluid Exportation Act during the fiscal 
years 1916-1920..... .. .. .. .... . . ., ... . .... . . 
Provincial Public Accounts. 

o. Annual Revenue and Expenditure of the Provincial Governments, 1917-1919.... . .. . 
21. Classified Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts of Provincial Governments 
for their respective fiscal years 1917-19.... ..... ... ............ . . . . . . . . . .. 
22. Classified 
ummary Statement of Ordinary Expenditure of Provincial Govern- 
ments for their respective fiscal years,. 1917-1919......... .... .... ..... ......, '" 


)Iunicipal Statistics. 
23. Population, assessed value of taxable property and exemptions (land and buildings) 
for cities of 10,000 and over in 1901, 1911 and 1919... . . . . . . . . .. '., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2... Receipts, ordinary and extraordinary, of cities of 10,000 population and over for the 
fiscal year 1919....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
25. Expenditure, ordinary and extraordinary, of cities of 10,000 population and over for 
the fiscal year 1919...... . .. . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
26. Available assets, cities of 10,000 population and over, 1919- . ......... .... 
27. Liabilities, cities of 10,000 population and over, 1919... .. ......
. ...... ., . ... .... 
28. Yalues of Building Permits.taken out in 35 citif's in 1917, 1918, 1919 and 1920..... ... . 
29. Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Electric Departments of Municipalities served 
by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission for the calendar years 1916-19. ... .... 
30. Statement of Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Departments of 
lunici- 
palities served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission for the calendar years 
1916-1919......... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . " . _ . . . .. ......,.. 
31. Financial Statistics of Electrical Installations of l\funicipalitic>s served by the 
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 1919.... . ............... . 
Currency and Banking. 
32. Coinag:e at the Ottawa Branch of the Royal Mint in the calendar years 1918-20.. ... . 
33. Gold Coinages of the Ottawa Branch of the Royall\fint, HI08-1920........ . . . . 
3... Canadian Gold Reserves, December 31, 1905-1920....... . . . . . . . .. ,.......... 
3,'). Circulation in Canada of Silver and Bronze Coin, December 31, 1901-1920. 
36. Denominations of Dominion Notes in Circulation, March 31, 1915-1920..... .. . 
37. Dominion Notes Circulation and Rescr\"es at June 30, 1890-1920........ .. . 
3
. Rtatistics of Bank K ote Circulation, 1
92-1920....... .. . . 
39. Circulating: )[edium in hands of the Public, 1900-1920........ .. . . . . . 
40. Number of Branches of Banks in Canada, by Provinces, 1868, 1902, 1905, and 1915-20 
U. Number of Branches of Chartered Banks, by Provinces, as at December 31, 1920.. . 
42. "Kumber of Branches of Canadian Chartered Banks in other countries with their 
location, Dec. 31, In20...... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
43. 
\ssets of Chartered Banks of Canada, December 31, 1920, . . 
u. Liabilities of Chartf'red Danks of Canada, December 31, 1920........ .. 
..,'). General Statement of Chartered Banks for the calendar years 1916-1920. ........... 
46. Deposits in Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere for the calendar year:; 1916- 
1920. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .... ............ .......... ..... .. ....... 
47. Discounts of Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, for the calendar years 
1916-1920. _, '......... _ . . . . . _ . .' _ ..... .. . . . 
48. Assets of Chartered Banks for the calenrlar years 1917-.H.I:!0....... .. ". ........ 
49. Liabilities of Chartered Banks for the calendar years 1917-1920. . . . . . , . . . .. . . . . . .. 
50. Amount of Exchanges of the Clearing Houses of Chartered Banks, 1\116-1920. 
51. Reserve or Rest Fund held by Chartered Banks, by months, 1911-1920...... 
52. Additional Bank Reserves, with Liabilities, 1892-1920...... .._ 
53. Ratio of Bank Reserves to Net Liabilities... .. . ......... 
M. Business of the Post Office Savings Banks, fiscal years 1916-1920.... _.. 
55. Business of the Dominion Government Savings Banks, fisC'al years 1916-l!.I20.... .. ., 
56. Total Business of Post Office and Dominion Government Sa\'Ìngs Danks, fiscal ycar8 
1916-1920.. ........_ 


Loan and Trust Companies. 
57. Liabilities and Assets of Loan Companies, 1914-1919..... .. . 
58. Liabilities and Assets of Trust Companies, 1914-1919.... ... . 
59. [nvestments on Trust Account, 1914-H.I19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 


PAGE. 
556 
556 
557 
557 
558 
559 
559 


561 
562 


562 
562 
563 
563 


56-1-565 


567 
568--569 
568-571 


572-573 
574-575 
576-578 
579 
580 
581 
582-583 


583 
584-591 


593 
593 
593-594 
594 
594 
595 
596 
598 
599 
600 
601 
602 
60:3 
604 
604 
605 
605 
606 
607 
607 
608 
609 
609 
609 
610 


610-611 
611 
612 



xiii 


60. 
iii. 
6"!. 


{'c)mmrrt'lal ....'Uures. 
Comnll'rcinll'ailurl':' in Canmla, by Provinces, for th<" caleml.lr year", 1919 and 19
0 
Comlll<"rcial Failurl's in Canmlu. by Hranclws of l3usinl':-'s. 1915-1920... . . ...... .... 
COlllnll'rciul Failur('s in Canada, by Provinces and Cla....ses for lU
O with totals for 
l!IOS-1919. . .. . ... . . ... . . . .. · 
Causes of Failurl's in Canada and the {"nitell 
tates by '1';ulI
b


 '
(l P
r
"c
ili
g
 
\ l'ar.; <"ndl'cl Dl'C'eml>l'r 31. HH9 and 1920..... .. ' 
Còmnll.rcial Failun':-, 'lOd Busim':-..'i Confidence in Canada: i9Ö
192Ö (ri



bi

ij '. 
Comnll'rci:Ll Failurl's nnd llu
ine:,:s Confidence in Canada. 1900-1920 (Dun)..... 


13. 
6-1. 
6';. 


rAGE. 
613 
613 
614-615 
615
16 
617 
tn8 


(;()\('rnmt'nt \nnuitirs. 
66. Governm('nt .\nnuiti('s Fund Statement, :\Iarch 31. 1920. .. . . - - - - . . . .. ' . .. . - . . . 619 
61. Yaluation on 'larch 31, 1!120. of .\nnuity Contracts i!:isu6C.1 pursuant to the Govern- 
llH.'nt .\nnuitil's Act. 1008... . ... . .. 620 
In,uranee. 


b:". 
6!.. 


}-'ire Insur!:U1ce BusinCRs transacted in Canada.. HH9.. . . . .. .. , . . . ... .... 
\mounts rcc<"in'd for I' ire Insurance Premiums ..I.Ild paid for Los::>cs, with percentage 
oflo.'i:>l.
toPremiums,IS69-1919...... . ...... ....... ............. 
Totnlf' of }lre Insurance Pn'mium!i rcct'iv<"d and Losses paid, with percentage of 

i-c'S to l'r<"miums by :\ationulity of Com(:.nnics, 1
69-1919. .... ... ... . . 
Fire Iru.urance Premiums rl'Cl'in'd and LOS8l'8 paid by Canadian Companies doing 
bu
im'S8 in Canada and other Countril's, \\Ïth pl'rccntage of Losscs paid to Pre. 
miums n'Cl'i\l'd, 18iS-1919.. ...... ..... ....... .. .. 
.\mount of Fire In:,ur:lOce at ri..k in Canada. 1
fi
1919....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
A
et8 of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insuranc('. or Fire Insurance and other 
classes of In
uran('e. and .\!"!"l'ti- in Calltula of Companiet) other than Canadian 
transactin
 
uch bu:-,im':-..., in Canada. 1915-1919.. .. . . ... - . . . "" .. . ..., - 
Liabilities of Canadian COlllpnni('s doing Fir<" In!"uranc(', or Fire Insurance and other 
cla..').Q('8 of Insuranc<", und Liabilitil's in Canada of C.ompanies othcr than Canadian 
tr:lO
acting such busine
 in Canada. 191.5-HH9.. . . ... . . . .. . . . . 
C'a....h Incomo and Expenditure of Canadian Companies cloing Fire In:ìurance or Fire 
In
umnce ancl otlll'r ch
l" of In....urance. und Cash Income and Expenditure in 
Canada of ('ompllOies oth('r than Cnnd.dian tran
acting such businl's:s in Canada. 
HI15-1919.. . . .. ........ '......... . ........ 
Amount of :'\ ct l>rcmiums \\ ri ttl'n nnù 1\ et I.u:.ses inC'urred by Provin('('S in Canada. 
b
 Cannclian. Briti
h ancl Foreign CompaniCl:! transacting Fire Insurance. HH9. .- 
I.ifl' Insumncl' in Cunada. 1915-1919.... .. . 
Insurance J)eath-rat<" in Cnnada. 1916-1!119. -.. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
A:-'ict:, of Canadian I.ife Companil's and A:).:jets in Canada of Life Companies other 
thd.n Canadian Companies, HI15-191H. . . . '" ... .. ..... .. . . . 
Liabiliti<"S of Canadian Lifl' Companil'l'! and Liabilitil'b in Canada of Life Companies 
oth<"r than Cun'Lllian Companies, 1915-1919 ... .. . ..... . .. .. -. . 
Cash Income and J:xpl'nditure of Canadian Life Com panics and Cash Income and 
Expemlitur<" in Cunada of Life Companies other than Canadian Companies, 1915- 
191U ... _ ' . 
'X<"t Amount of Lifl' In:"urance in force in Canada, 1914-1919...... - 
Premium Income of Life Companies. 1914-l!119.... 
Life Insurance on .\f>
cssn}('nt Plan. 191.)-1919...... 
Canadian \\ ar Claims Incurr<"d. 1914-1919. .... 
Insurance oth('r than Fire 
lOd Life. 1919..... -'. .. . . . . . .. ......... - - . . . . . . . . . . 
Income and Expenditure and J\:'set8 and Liabilities of Canadian Companics doing 
Insurance Husinl'
s other than Fire and Life. 1919. . . . . . . .. .. ... ....... 
Income and Expl'nditure in Canada of Companies other than Canadian, doing Business 
other than Fire and Life. 1919.. . 
Dominion and PrO\ incial Fire Iru,urance in Canada. 1919.. . . . ... . .,. . .. .- 
Dominion and Pro" incial Insurance in Canada. other than Fire and Life, 1919.... .. 
Dominion and Provincial Insurance in Canada, other than Fire and Life, net 
premiwns received and l0..5Ses paid, 1919... . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. . . . 
Dominion und Provincial Life Insurance in Canada. 1919....... .. . . .. .......... - . . . 
,Fire Insurance dTected on property in Canada. under Section 129 of the Insurance Act, 
1917. by Companies, Associations or rndef\uiters not licensed to transact business 
in Canada. '."'" 


.0. 


11. 



.) 
. 
. 
.:J. 


.-1. 


.d. 


;6. 


71. 
ì
. 
ì9. 


-'0. 



1. 



2. 

r. 

 I. 

J. 

G. 

;. 



'\. 



9. 
!IO. 
91. 


9
. 
'3. 



II. -\DJIIXISTR.\TIO
. 


ParUamt'1l tar)' Rt'prt'st'11 tatioll. 
1. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the Repre- 
sentation Act, 1914.... ... . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Governors-General of Canada. Us67-1921.. . 
3. Dominion Parliaments, 1867-1921.._....... 
4. Dominion 'Iinistries, Ib9&-1920. .' . . . . 
5. Lieutenant-Governors of Provinces, 1867-1920........ .. . . . . . . . 


Public Lands. 
6. Distribution of the Surveyed Areas in )Ianitoba, Saskatchewan. and Alberta, as at 
January 1. 1920......... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. - - . .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
7. Land Sales hy Railway Companies having Government Land Grants, and by the 
Hudson's Bay Company, in the fiscal years 1918-1920....... . ............:..... 
b. Homestead entries in )Ianitoba, Saskatchewan. Alberta, and British Columbia, by 
Kationalities, made during tbe fiscal years 1915-1920. . .., . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 
t. Receipts of Patents and Homestead Entries in the fiscal years 1916-1920... .. ... . . . 


623-625 


626 
626 


627 
627 


(ì:
8 


629 


630-631 
631 
63
-63:3 
63
i 
634: 
635 


636
37 
637 
637 
638 
639 
639 
640 
640
.u 
641 
642 
642
43 
643 


64-1 


646
48 
648 
649-650 
65û-653 
653-654 


656 
656 
661-662 
66:? 



XlV 


Department of the Secretary of State. 
10. Katuralizations in Canada by Principal Nationalities effected under the Naturaliza- 
tion Acts, 1914 and 1920, during the calendar years 1915-1920. ..... . . . . 


Indian Affairs. 
11. Indian Population in Canada, by Provinces, 1911-1917............................. 
12. Distribution of Indian Population by Age, Sex and Province, with Births and Deaths 
by Provinces, 1917.. . . . .. '" ' . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............. _... ... 
13. Religion of Indian Pópulation, by Provinces, as at :\Iarch 31, 1917....... .. " . .. ., .,. 
u. Attendance of Pupils at Indian Schools, by Provinces, 1919.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
15. Acreage and Value of Indian Lands, by Provinces, 1919.............. ........_ 
16. Area and Yield of Field Crops of Indians, by Provinces, 1919...... .... " .... .. ..... 
11. Numbers of Farm Live Sfock of Indians, with Total Values, by Provinces, 1919.... 
18. Sources and Values of Income of Indians, 1919..... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Public Works. 
19. Dimensions of Graving Docks owned by the Dominion Government. _............ 
20. Dimensions and Cost of Graving Docks subsidized under the Dry Dock Subsidies 
Act, 1910......... " _ _ . . _. . . . _ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . .., . . . . .. . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . 
?1. Expenditure and Revenue of the Public Works Department for the fiscal years 
1916-1920.. ........ '" ..... . .............. . ... ...... .............. 
Harbour Commissions, 671-672; National Gallery....... ........................ 
Public Defence. 
22. Expenditure and Revenue of Militia for the Fiscal Years 1916-1920. .... .. ., '" .... 
23. Expenditure on Account of War ApJ:ropriation for the year ended March 31, 1919... 
2,1. Expenditure on Account of Demobilization for the year ended March 31, 1920..... 
25. Scale of Annual Pensions granted to Dependants of Deceased Sailors and Soldiers of 
the Canadian Naval Forces and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective 
on September 1, 1921....... .... . ..... ...... .... .. . . .. . .. ..... .... . ..... .. . 
26. Scale of Annual Pensions to Disabled Sailors and Soldiers of the Canadian Naval 
Forces and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective on September 1, 1921, 
under the Pension Act..... .... ..... ... .. .. ........ .... " .. . ... ... . . . .... " ..... 
27. Number of Pensions in Force on March 31, 1920, and the Yearly Liability incurred 
thereon. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....................... 
Royal Military College, 682-683, Naval Service, 683-684, Royal Naval College 
28. Strength and Distribution of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on September 
30, 1920............ ....................................................... 
ludicial Statistics and Penitentiaries. 
29. Charges, Convictions, and Percentages of Acquittals for Indictable Offences by Prov- 
inces, 1918 and 1919......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
30. Indictable Offences by Classes, 1918 and 1919. .., _.. .,. _ _ _. _ .. ....., . _. . 
31. Convictions and Sentences for all Offences, by Provinces, 1913-1919.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
32. Juvenile Criminals convicted of Indictable Offences by Classes of Offence, 1919, with 
the total and yearly average for the period 1885-1919..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 
33. Charges, Acquittals, Convictions and Sentences in respect of Indictable Offences, 
1914-1919. . ....... .. ...... .......... .......... _ _.... _.. " . . "'" 
34. Classification of persons convicted of Indictable Offences, 1913-1919... . .. . .... .... 
35. Convictions by Classes of Offence, 1913-1919.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3G. Convictions for Drunkenness for the five years 1915-1919........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
37. Population of Penal Institutions, 1918-1919.......................................... 
38. Movement of Convicts, 1915-1920... . .. .................... _. ...... '" 
39. Kumber of Deaths, Escapes, Pardons and Paroles, 1915-1920.............. 
40. Age of Convicts, 1914-1920...... .... ... . " . ... ... . ... . " .. ..... ... .. .. ., . 
u. Classification of Convicts, 1914-1920. . .. . . 


PAGE. 


664 


665 
666 
666 
667 
667 
667-668 
668 
668 


670 
670 
671 
672 


673-674 
675-676 
676-678 


679 


680-681 
682 
684 
685 


686 
686 
687-688 
689 
689 
690-691 
691-692 
693 
693 
694 
695 
695 
695-696 


Divorce. 
42. Statistics of Divorces granted in Canada, 1868-1920........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 
Acts of Parliament and Publications. 
List of the Principal Acts of Parliament administered by Departments of the Government of the 
Dominion of Canada, as compiled from information supplied by the respective Departments. 698-699 
List of Principal Publications of Departments of the Government of the Dominion of Canada, 
as compiled from information supplied by the respective Departments. .................. 699-705 
List of Principal Publications of the Provincial Governments of Canada, as compiled from in- 
formation supplied by the respective Governments..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705-713 


XID. LEGISLATION AND PRI
CIPAL .
\.ENTS OF THE YR\R 1920. 


Dominion Legislation, 1920............. ...... ". .. ...... .. .......... .......... 
Provincial Legislation, 1920......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Principal Events of the Year 1920......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................................... 
The first assembly of the League of Nations, 7:38: Ninth Congress of the Chambers of 
Commerce of the British Empire, 742: Convention of American Federation of Labour 
at Montreal, 743: Trade Conference at Ottawa between Dominion and West Indian 
Governments, 744: Imperial Press Conference at Ottawa, 744: Provincial Plebiscites, 
745: Provincial General Elections, 745: The Economic and Financial Year, 745: 
Obituary, 747. 


713-720 
720-738 
738-748 



:\v 



I\.. t:
 TR.\("r
 .'RO:U TII.: C.\
.\J).\ G.\ZETTE. 


PrÏ\y Councillor8, 748: Lil'uh'n.lJ\t-Gm,ernors, 748: Ne\\ Senators, 749: New Members of the 
1I0U!
e of Common.q, ;49: Cahinet 
Iinisters and other 
Iembers of the Government 749: 
Juclicinl \ppointm('nts, ;.')0: Commi:,sions, 751: Imperial Honours and Decorations' 752: 
Official AppointlUents, 752: Day of Gpneral Thanksgiving, 75:!. ' 


I.IST OF U.U.S .\
 H HI U;R.\:\IS. 


Map of the Dominion of Canada and "'\e" {oundland.. . _ .. 
Diagram: OrJ.!;anization of the Dominion Rure..m of 
tatisti('s....... .. .. .., ....... 
Map of Canalh, sho\\ in
 normal me..'U1 temperature and prccipi tatioo. in January. . . . . . .., . Facing 
Map of Canada showing normal m('.I.n temperature and precipitation in July.. . . Facing 
Diagram: Index numbers of aver
e prices of field cro
, 1909-1920.... 
Diagrams illustrating the l>aper-mnkinJP; Industry...... . . . . . . . . ... ..... 
Diagram: .\gJl;rE'gate External Trado of Canada, 1901-1921...... . . . .. . . . 
Diagram: Course of Wholesale Prices in Canada by months, 1919-1920..... 
Diagram: Course of \\ holesale PriC'es in Canada, IS9(}-1920...... . . . . . . 


YEAR BOOK. 
History of Canada Prepared under the direction of \RTIIUR G. DOUGHTY, ('.)LG., 
LL.D., Deputy )[inister, Puhlic Archives pf Canada. With IS illustrations... . .. 
Constitution and Govcl'nml'nt of Canada. By THo
t\g BARS'ARD FLJXT, M..\.,TJI..D. 
D.C.L., Clerk of the House of Commons of Canal la, Otta\\a. With 8 illustrations. 
Local Government of Canada: 'laritimA Provinces. By THOY\s B\R
ARD FLI
T, 
'LA., LL.D., D.C.L., Clerk of the House of Commons of Canada, Ottawa..... 
Quebec. By C. J. 
IAG
AN, Inspector Gcneml of Roman Catholic Schools, Quebec 
Ontario. By ER"i'EST II. GODFREY, F .S.S., Editor, Census and Statistics Office, Ottawa 
'[anitoba, 
a
katche\\an and .\lbt'rta. By the REV. CAPTAI
 EDl\tu"'D II. OLIVER. 
Ph.D., Principal of the Presbyterian Theolo
i('al College, Saskatoon, 
askatche- 
wan, and Chaplain of the 196th (Western (;niversities) Üvcr::.eas Battalion. . 
British Columbia. By S. D. RcoTT, Vancouver, B.C . ...... ..... 
Geolo
y and Economic 
tinerals. By R. W. BROCK, 'LA., F.G.S., Deputy 
linister 
of 'lines, Ottawa. With 5 illustrations...... . . . . . . . " .. " . . 
Geolo
 in Relation to Agriculture in Canada. By WYATT 
hLCOLY, Department of 
Mines, Ottawa. With 4 illustrations.. .. - . 
Flora of Canada. By J. 
1. 'iACOUN, C.'I.G.,J.'.L.
., .hsistant Botanist and Xatural- 
ist. D('partment of 
linl'8, Ottawa, and :\1. O. 
f.\LTE, Ph.D., Dominion Agrostol- 
o
ist, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. With; illustrations. . 
Faunas of Canada. By P. A. TAVER
ER, Department of 
Iines, Ottawa. With 6 illus- 
trations..... .... . - . .. . - . - . . - . - . -. - ., .., 
Climate and 'letrorolO$!;Y. By A. J. CO
NOR, )LA., Climatologist of the )[etcoro- 
logical 
ervice of Canada. . .. - - . . 
General Survey of the Climate of Canada. By R. F. :::;TUP.\RT, F.R.S.C., Director 
of the 
[eteorological Service of Canada, Toronto. . . 

atural Resources of the Dominion of Canada. By \\.\TSON GRIFFIN, Department 
of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa.. With 10 illustrations. ........... 
The Story of Confederation. By f'IR JObEPH POPE, K.C.
LG.,C.Y.O.,I.S.O., Lnder 
Secretary of State for External Affairs, OUa\\ a. With 2 illustrations. 
Fifty Years of Canadian Progress, 1867 to 1917. By ERXEST H. GODFREY, F.S.S., 
Editor, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, OUa" a. . . . .. ........ . .. .. .. . 
Water-Powers of Canada. By J. B. CHALLlES, C.E. (Tor.), M. Can. 
oc. C.E., Super- 
intendent, Water Power Branch, Department of the Interior, Ottawa... 
HIstOry of the Great War. By Brig.-General E. A. CRUIKSHANK, LL.D., F.R.S.C., 
Director of the Historical Section, General Staff, Department of Militia and 
Defence, Ottawa. Wi th appendices.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
ERRATUM: Page 164. line 1, for "VII" read "VI". 


RETROSPECTIVE I
DEX. 


""'U'I.\L .\RTf( J.J:
 J:\ (' \
.\n.\ \ J: \R noot\. 1913-1919. 


(Not repented in this Edition). 


Facmg 


............ . 
. . Facing 


HI13 


1915 
1915 
1915 


1915 


1913 


1!H4 


1916-17 


PAGE 


Contents 
61 
164 
164 
255 
289 
336 
545 
547 


PAGE. 


1-29 


1914 


1-17 


1-7 
8-10 
11-14 


1915 
HH5 


14-23 
23-26 


1913 


41-46 
34-38 


1914 


1915 


43-55 


55-63 


113-122 


128-139 


1-61 


1918 


1-13 


1918 


23-72 


1918 


281-283 


1919 


1-73 


. 



XVI 


STATISTICAL SU:\Il\IARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA. 
Area or the Dominion or Canada in square miles:-Land, 3,603,910: Water, 125,755: Total, 3,729,665. 


Items. 


Estimated population. No. 
Immigration.. .......... No. 
Agriculture- 
Wheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . Acres 
Oats. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . :: 
Barley. . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Corn. . . . . . .. . . " 
Potatoes...... . .... " 
Hay and clover. . . . . . . 


1915. 
7,928,000 
144,789 


15,109,415 
11,555,681 
1,718,432 
253,300 
485,777 
7,776,995 


Wheat.... ..... .... .., Bush. 393,542,600 
Oats........... ..." 464,954,400 
Barley................ " 54,017,100 
Corn.................. " 14,368,000 
Potatoes... '.' . . . . . . . . 60,353,000 
Hay and Clover.. . . . . Tons 10,612,000 
Wheat............. $ 356,816,900 
Oats...... . .. .. .. .. .. $ 171,009,100 
Barley....... .. . __ ..... $ 27,985,800 
Corn......... . . . . . . . . . $ 10,24:3,000 
Potatoes....... .... $ 36,459,800 
Hay and Clover... ... $ 152,531,600 
Field Crops- 
Total area........ .Acres 
Total value........ . $ 
Live Stock- 
Horses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No. 
Milch cows. . .. .. " 
Other cattle. . . . . . . 
Sheep........ . . . . . . . ., " 
Swine.... .. 


Horses. . . . . . . . . $ 
:Milch cows .......... $ 
Other cattle. . . . . . . $ 
f:heep.......... $ 
Swine.. . . . . .. . . . . . . $ 
Total value........ . $ 
Dairying- 
Cheese, factory.. ..... .lb. 
Butter, creamery. . . . . . .lb 
Cheese, factory. .. . . . . .. $ 
Butter, creamery. .. $ 
Miscellaneous dairy 
products. . . . . . . . , $ 
Total value dairy pro- 
ducts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. $ 


Fisheries- 
Total value...... 
 


MineralsL- 
Gold. . . .. .......... oz. 
Silver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 
Copper. .......... lb. 
I.Jead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 
Nickel....... . . . . 
Pig iron. . . . . . . . . . Ton::. 
Coal. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . " 
Cement...... brl. 


Gold. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. $ 
Silver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 
Copper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 
Lead.....__ "'...__.. $ 
Nickel.. . .. .. . . . . .. . ... $ 
Pig iron........ $ 
Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 
Cement................. $ 
Total value........ ... $ 


1916. 
8,140,000 
48,537 


15,369,709 
10,996,487 
1,802,996 
173 ,000 
472,992 
7,821,257 


262,781,000 
410,211,000 
42,770,000 
6,282,000 
63,297,000 
14,527,000 
344,096,400 
210,957,500 
35,024,000 
6,747,000 
50,983,:300 
168,547,900 


1917. 
8,361,000 
75,374 


14,755,850 
13,313,400 
2,392,200 
2:34,339 
656,958 
8,225,034 
233,742,850 
403,009,800 
55,057,750 
7,762,700 
79,892,000 
13,684,700 
453,038,600 
277,065,300 
59,654,400 
14,307,200 
80,804,400 
141,376,700 


1918. 
8,593,000 
79,074 


17,353,902 
14,790,336 
3,15:3,711 
250,325 
7:35,192 
10,544,625 
189,075,350 
426,312,500 
77,287,240 
14,214,200 
104,364,200 
14,772,300 
381,677,700 
331,357,400 
77,378,670 
14,214,200 
102,235,300 
241,277,:300 


1919. 
8,835,000 
57,702 


19,125,968 
14,952,114 
2,645,509 
264,607 
818,767 
10,595,383 
193,260,400 
394,387,000 
56,389,400 
16,940,500 
125,574,900 
16,348,000 
4.57,722,000 
317,097,000 
77,462,700 
22,080,000 
118,894,200 
338,713,200 


1920. 


117,336 


18,232,374 
15,849,928 
2,551,919 
291,650 
784,544 
10,379,292 
263,189,300 
530,709,700 
6:3,310,550 
14,334,800 
133,831,400 
13,338,700 
427,357,300 
280,115,400 
52,821,400 
15,656,000 
129,803,300 
348,166,200 


39,110,160 38,930,333 4.2,602,288 51.-127,190 53,0-19,6:1:1) 52,830,865 
825,:J70,600 88G,-I91,900 1,1-11,636,-150 1,367,909,970 1,537,170,100 1,<155,244.0,)0 


2,996,099 
2,666,846 
3,:399,155 
2,038,662 
3,111,900 


3,258,342 
2,8:33,433 
3,760,718 
2,022,941 
3,474,840 


3.412,749 
3,202,2
:3 
4,718,657 
2,369,:358 
3,619,382 


:373,381,000 4380,884,000 429,12:3,000 
16:3,919,000 4198,896,000 274,081,000 
152,461,000 4204,477,000 270,595,000 
16,226,000 420,312,000 35,576,000 
43,65:3,000 449,477,000 92,886,000 


3,609,257 
3,5:38,600 
6,507,267 
3,052,748 
4,289,682 
459,155,000 
307,244,000 
398,814,000 
48,802,000 
112,751,000 


3,667,:369 
3,.548,437 
6,5:36,574 
3,421,958 
4,040,070 


3,400,352 
3,530,238 
5,947,142 
3,720,783 
3,516,678 


43.5,070,000 361,:328,000 
327,814,000 281,675,000 
381,007,000 279,825,000 
50,402,000 37,263,000 
102,309,000 81,155,000 


'H9,610,OOU 4854,01'J,QOO 1,102,261,000 1,326.766,000 1,296,602,000 1,011,216,000 
183,887,8:37 192,96S,597 194,904,336 174,878,31 166,421,871 149,201,856 
83,991,453 82,564:,130 87,526,9:39 9:3,298,:348 103,899,707 111,691,718 
27,097,176 35,512,622 41,180,623 39,456,532 44,586,16t1 39,100,872 
24,385,052 26,966,355 34,274,218 41,859,156 56,:371,985 63,625,203 
18,424,485 26,025,162 34,238,449 43,610,916 
93,879,326 107,310,850 135,196,602 146,333,491 


31,261,611 


918,056 
26,625,960 
100,785,150 
46,:316,450 
68,308,657 
913,775 
13,267,02:3 
5,681,032 
18,977,901 
13,228,842 
17,410,6:35 
2,593,721 
20,492,597 
11,374,199 
:32,111,182 
6,977,024 
137.92U.7.)9 


35,860,708 


930,492 
25,459,741 
117,150,028 
41,497,615 
82,958,564 
1,169,257 
14,483,395 
5,369,560 
19,234,976 
16,717,121 
31,867,150 
3,532,692 
29,035,498 
16,750,898 
38,817,481 
6,547,728 


177.2Ul,53-1 


f39,
08,3782 
\ 52,312,01-1 3 . 
738,831 
22,221,274 
109,227,332 
32,576,281 
84,330,280 
1,170,480 
14,046,759 
4,768,488 
15,272,992 
18,091,895 
29,687,989 
3,628,020 
3:3,7:32,112 
25,025,960 
43,19!),8:31 
7,724,246 


1S9,6 .6,
21 


360,263,502 
710,526 
21,284,607 
118,415,829 
43,846,260 
92,076,0:34 
1,194,000 
14,979,213 
3,591,481 
14,687,875 
20,597,540 
29,163,458 
4,055,779 
36,830,414 
33,000,000 
55,7.52,671 
7,076,503 


356,508,479 


766,764 
16,020,657 
75,05:3,581 
43,827,699 
44,544,883 
917,781 
13,681,218 
4,495,257 
15,853,478 
17,802,474 
14,028,265 
3,0.53,037 
17,817,953 
24,577,589 
54,413,349 
9,802,433 


349,247,279 
765,007 
13,3:30,357 
81,600,691 
35,85:3,717 
61,335,706 
1,090,396 
16,631,954 
6,651,980 
15,814,098 
13,450,330 
14,244,217 
3,214,262 
24,5:34,282 
30,319,024 
80,693,723 
14,798,070 


210.20-1,970 176,6S6,390 227,8.)9.66.) 


lThe figures ror 1920 are subject to revision. 2Fiscal year 1916-17. 3 Calendar years. 4Revised figures. 



'\ \'11 


It('m:-.. 


S1' \ 1'1""'1'1(' \I. 
(T'nl.\R \ Of<' 'I.'UE .-RU(åIU:SS 01<' ('.\
.\n.\-con. 


1920. 


'I :muCuct ur(':-.' 
I.'mpln) t"t' 
Cupi tnl. . 
;-;.,l:1rit'
 anti "a
 ' 
Proc IUl't
 
Tr:u Ie - 
E'port
t. . 
Impur
s. 


Total ....... 
J 'worts, domestic- 
\\ heat..... Bush. 
\\ heat flour.. hrl. 
Oats..... ...... BU"lh 
II av . .. .. ..... . . . TOM 
· Baron nnd hams, f'hou1df'r:i 
nncl ..ides.. . . . ('" t 
Butt('r...... I.b. 
Ch("t.:-('... Lb. 
Whe.lt . .. ... S 
\\ he.,t flour. . ., s 
(

. S 
IIlIv..... S 
* Baèon anti h:ulls,
houlclt'rs 
nncl sides S 
Butt ('1". . S 
Chc't'Se . . . . . S 
*BnC'on onl) in 1!115. 
FislU'ri<'S... . S 
Forcst I)roclm.p..... S 
\hnuCuctur('s. ....... I 
'Iim'rals S 
( ;olcI 4 . . S 
:-:ilvt'r oz. 
('oppcr'. lb. 
'\ïckel. . lb. 
('nal "on:i 
:-\ilver , 
Copt*r. . S 
Xickel. $ 
Coal...... S 
J lllports Cor C'oIDIumpt ion- 
\'t'
etahle Procluet:'! (px- 
ccpt chemicals, fi brc:> 
nnd \\00<1>..... " S 
.\nimals and their Pro- 
ducts \exct'pt chemical
 
andtibre:;).... .....S 
Film
, Tcxtile:> .md Tex- 
tile Products. _.... . . S 
\\ nod, \\ood produC'ts and 
Paper. . . . . .. .. ... .... S 
Jron and its products....., 
Xon- Ferrous )Ietab and 
their produC'ts. .. . S 
,,"on-metallic '[inerals and 
t heir products (e1:c p pt 
chemiC'als}..... . . S 
Chemicals and allied pro- 
duct:>.. .. S 
\11 other commoclitit's ..S 
;-::t..:\I1I H.ailwa V
7- 
\Iilt.s in operation 
('apital.. . 
I )a.<;senq;4:'r:> . . 
)'rl'i
ht 
Earnings ..... 
F xpt'n-..es. . .. ..... 
Ell'Ctrie H.uil\\:1\:-,IL7- 
\Jilt.... in oper.ltion 
CapitaL.. . 
Pa.'i-..en
ers . 
I :rci
ht. .... 
I. armngs. . . . . . 
Expen
e!"... . 


_ H1l5. 


1!1I6. 


'\0 51-1.....\1 
I 1.99.t.IO:i.2i2 
S 2S!I,itil,,')(n 
I 1,407,137, un 


1917. 1918. I 
1).I2,Oû7' 67S.337 
- 2,iðû,û-lH.i:..7 
,03-1,301,91.') 
,')53,38.1,1)75 6:!!1.7HO.644 
3,01,1,5ii,911) 1,4')'\,mli.97.) 


1919. 


S 409,411\.1\:
6 741,610.6 ''\ 1 1, 1.11 ,:Iï'i,7Ii\ l l,5-I0,0
7, i
'\ I ,
16.4-13,R06 1.2:HI,49
,09'" 
I 45:>.95:>,90
 508,201,134 S-I6,-I50,b78 963,532,57
 919,
11,70,':i I,Oûl,528,1 2" 
I "'6.i,371.nll.:"I:f.!\11.77
 1,9'ì,S':!6,61f),
.ãO:
..)(jll,36G 2,1:16.15..,511 
,30",O
O,2
1 
il,913,3S.)1 157,i-l.),469. 1R\J.6-1:i,
ltj 150,392,037 41,80S,897 77,978,03i 
-I,952,3:i7 6,4/)0.214 7,425,723 9,931,1-18 9,2O,j,4:i!l 8,Sû:I,061' 
17. ili....lûô 26.1'\ 1û.322 66,368,832 54:,877 ,
S2 17 ,R79, 783 10, 76S,S7
 
131,
75 2:>5,407 198,914 440,:368 192,208 218,561 


76Q.01-l 1,531),517 2,116,166 2,078,330 1,246,SðS 2,236.42(j 
2,72-1,913 3,4-11,183 7,990,435 4,926,15-1 13,659,157 17,612,60.') 
137,601.lil.l1 16,
,!lM ,583 1S0,7:i3,426 16!J,5:iO,753 1.'>2,207,037 126,39.'),777 
7-1,29:i,:>4d 172,
J(j,-I45 2-1-1,394 ,586 36Iì.3-11.565 flfì.985,056 IS5,044,SOfì 
21,61O,W6 :i.l, 767 ,044 47,473,474 95,S!l6,492 99,931,659 94,2Ii
,92S 
1\,001,126 1-1,637,1\-19 3:1,91S.47!1 37,6.U,29:
 15,193,527 9,:3-19,45,1) 
2,2:i2,558 5,M9,426 4,219,091 5,073,814 7,61ì6,491 4,01\7,6711 
11,1\11,

.1 
7,0!1U.1I3 43,778,03-1 60,OS2,4!)-I 40,2-12.17,1) 70, 12:
,5S0 
6:
!1,625 1.01'\,769 2,491,991 2,000,467 6,1-I0,S61 9,84-1.:
5!1 
19,21:J,áOl 21),6!IO,.100 36,721,136 36,û02,504 35,2:!:1,9S:3 36,336,86'1 
19,1i'l7,lIû'\ 22.37i,97i 2-1.S1\9.2,1)3 32,602,1.1)1 37,137,072 42,2R:>,03.') 
42,6.iO.6...:J ,51,271,-100 ,i5.!I07,209 51, ...!I!) , 70-1 70,.1).11, !llIl 111.'),325,:17,1 
1\.'i,5:
!1.5111 2-12,0:H,!J!N 477,:m!I.676 0:16,602,516 555,42\J.1:JO 40:J, 132, 161 
51,7-10,9...!1 titi,.'i"'!I,S61 S.1,IHû,!I07 7:i, i6:J,50:! 77,514,508 62,:316,304 
1.1.-106,510 16,
70,394 19,671,O:W 13,68S,700 9,202,0:33 5,97-1.:
34 
2.'i.:J55,30.1 27,79-1,566 2:1,844 ,261 21,!160,827 19,759,478 12,37!1,lì-l2 
62,999.718 111,0-16,300 126,4S9,&.I1I 77,.i:J4,OOO 65,612,400 42,00:i,:IOn 
4,1,412,017 70,443,000 82,620,400 8:i,O-l9,900 79,164,400 44,140,701J 
1,512,41\7 1,971,124 1,899,11\,) 1,!102,01O 1,826,639 2,120,1:38 
1:1"iI6,300 14,298,351 15,870,N)3 18.42S,571 19,519,642 14,2ã.I),601 
6.,152,005 1-1 ,û70 ,07:1 22,744,82,1 10,710,70,1 . 8.684,191 5,25:1,218 
.'>.063,656 7,714.769 8,925,554 9 ,1I2!) ,!i:I.'i 11 , 170 ,3.19 9,03!),221 
4,4Iil),251\ 6,032,765 6,817,034 8,
4,038 10, IG9, 722 1:1,IS3,li6fì 
9.1,426,0:!4 12,j,870,66h 1-1 1\, 9:)R,8S
 1.')7,.')06,ß,i4 2-12,07;J,3S!1 
3R.657.514 63 ,834 ,!i2
 60,.1)70,16i 41,.iO.l,09-1 9,:;,098,743 
Vb, 191 ,4:S,1 l-I2.ð6
.0:18 152,311.2S:! 1i8,190,241 231,;,).')9,Xi7 
1.'\,277,420 23,931.265 28,470,71.') 3.5,399,S:;:! 43, ]k:i,2fì7 
92,065,895 1:>3,251,379 19.i,248,713 192,.527,377 186,:H9.87(j 
29,448,661 39,464,210 46,203,053 41,649,431 52,103,913 


53.427,531 
19.25S,326 
I) ).-I,h,:!iS 


79,227,545 


129,788,50-1 
27,840,576 
174,140,682 


135,2.50,417 
34,2H2,6-17 
10:3,399,992 


12] ,9.i6, 17fì 
29.8'''1),102 
62,344,7X() 
39,19r, 
2088,222,267 
51,30fJ,Oi-l 
127,:3K'i,453 
491,938,
.')7 
478,002,824 
1,699 
171,115,40-1 
804,711,:13;) 
2,6\)1,150 
47,047,246 
37,2i2,4S3 



S,672,!)9ð 
1 MI ,3:10 ,2.1:1 


. 
o 3,1,57
 37,434 38,604 38,879 38,896 
S 1,8i;}.XIO,
1'I
 1,893,125,774 1,9ð,i,1l9,H91 1,999,880,49-12,009,909,510 
. . So. 46,:i22,O:i5 -19,027,671 53,i-IU,6S0 50,737,294 78,371,716 
..Tons 8i,204,
:iS 1O!),6.,)9,OM
 121,916,272 127,543,G87 116,699,572 
S 199,...n,072 261,S

,654 310,771,-179 3:30,320,150 382,976,901 
S 147,ï:n,0!19 lS0,.542,2.19 222,890,637 273,955,436 341,866,509 

o. 1.590 1,674 1,744 1,616 1,696 
... S 150.34-1.002 1.,)4,b9.i,.')S4 161,2:1-1,739 1û7,25:3,0!)3 171,894,556 
. Xo. .562,:m2,:i73 5ðO,09-1,167 629,4-11,997 487,365,456 686,124,263 
Ton, I..H:i,!)!):! 1,9:16,6i-l 2,3:j:i,.13t1 2,497,530 2,474,89:! 
$ sl 263122.000 27,-116,285 30,2
7,664 24,299,890 35,696,532 
18,t:3UH2 1
,0!}U,9U6 20,098,6:34 17,53.5,975 26,839,070 


1 Including all establishment:>, irre:-,pl.'Ctive oC the number oC employees: employee",; include ou
'-\ide 
pi('ce \\or1..ers in 1915 and 1917. :For HJl8 the figure
 are preliminary and clo not include outside pIC'C<'>- 
workers. :t E:Kports oC dome
tic merchandi:--e only. 3 Imports of merehandise for home consumption. 
4 The figures Cor 191!1 are Cor gold exported to foreign countrie:3 only. Ii Copper, fine, contained in on', 
matte, rf'q;1II u.... <.>t('. 6 :-:ibti..;ties Cor I!II'\ ,10 not in,'lud,' \[ontreal Tr:unw:lYs. 7 C:tlpn,hr YP:U' I!J:W 
1St
7-n 



XVlll 


STATISTICAL 
L':\nIARY OF TH"
 PROGRESS 01' CAN.\D.\-concluded. 


Items. 1915. 1916. 1917. 


('an
ls- 
Passengers carried... No. 250,836 263,648 244,919 
Freight...... ., Tons 15,198,803 23,583,491 22,238,935 
f'hipping (sea-going)- 
Entered... .... . . . Tons 13,132,944 12,616,927 14,789,781 
Cleared... _ "12,269,642 12,210,723 14,477,293 
Total...... _ ..." 25,40
,58G 2t,S27.650 29,267,074 


Telegraphs, Government, 
miles of line....... .... . 10,488 10,699 10,924 
Tcle!:!;raphs, other, miles of 
line..... .. . . 36,484 38,552 39,196 
Telephone
.. _...... : 
? 5:33,090 548,421 604,136 
Motor vehIcles.... . . . . 89,944 123,464 197,799 


Postal- 
Money orders issued.... $ 
Revenue. . . . - - . $ 
Expenditure......... .' $ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 


Revenue. . _ .. . . . . . . . . . 
Expenditure. . . . . . .. . .' ., 
Gross debt......... .... . . 
As
ets. ....... . . . . . . 
Net debt.. 


I 


1918. 


212,143 
18,883,619 


15,780,160 
17,006,967 
32,787,127 


10,950 


39,438 
662,330 
275,746 


I 


1919. 


291,800 
9,995,266 


11 ,694,613 
13,566,780 


25,261,393 


11,428 


37,771 
724,500 
341,:U6 


89,957,906 
13,046,650 
15,961,197 
133,073,482 
135,523,207 
700,473,814 
251,097,731 
449,376,08:3 


94,469,871 119,695,53;) 142,959,16R 142,37.5,809 
18,858,410 20,902,384 21,:345,:m4 21,602,713 
16,009,139 16,:300,579 18,046,558 19,273,584 
172,147,838 232,701,294 260,778,953 312,946,747 
1:30,350,727 148,599,343 178,284,313 232,731,28:3 
936,987,802 1,;38
,003,26S 1,863,335,893 2,46a,18:3,021 
321,831,631 502,816,970 671,451,836 6t7,5!J8,202 2 
615,156,171 879,186,298 1,191,884,mj'3 1,812,584,819 


I 


1920. 


230,468 
8,73.3,383 


12,010,374 
13,234,380 


25,2-11.7';-1 


11,454 


38,122 


856,266 
407,072 


lfi9,224,93ì 
24,449,917 
20,774,38:> 
349,746,335 
303,84:3,930 
3,041,529,587 
ï92,6üO,9ü3 2 
2,248,86S,62-\ 


Chartered Banks- 
Capital paid up.. $ 113,982,741 113,175,353 111,637,755 110,618,504 115,004,960 123,617,120 
Assets.., . . .:.. $ 1,596,424,643 1,8:39,286,7092,111,559,5552,432,331,418 2,754,568,118 3,064,133,84:3 
Liabilities (eÀcludmg 
capital and reserves). $ 1,35:3,629,123 1,596,905,337 1,866,228,2362,184,359,8202,495,582,568 2,784,068,69k 
Depositsl.... $ I,Hß,340,315 1,418,035,429 1,643,302,020 1,909,895,780 2,IR9,428,885 2,438,07H,7H2 


Savings Banhs- 
Deposits in Post Office. S 
Government. . _ _ 8 
Spccial.. . . .. . . $ 
I.oan Companie",- 
Assets.... . 
Liabilities... - 
Deposits..... . 


39,995,406 
14,006,157 
37,817,474 


42,582,479 
1:3,633,610 
44,139,978 


41,2
3,479 
12,177 ,283 
42,000,543 


69,99,=},036 
69,99,3,224 
7,802,539 


41,654,920 
11,402,098 
46,799,877 


7<1,520,021 
74,.120,021 
H,347,096 


31,60.3,594 
1O,729,21S 
,1)3,11S,()!):
 


Trust Companies- 

hareholders' assets. $ 7,306,350 7,826,943 7,656,292 8,836,137 10,007,941 
Investmcnts on trust 
account.-. .. ..... $ 40,730,033 47,669,243 49,291,347 68,938,236 73,133,017 
Dominion Fire In:"urance- 
-\mount at risk Dec. 31. $ 3,531,620,802 3,720,058,236 3,986,197,514 4,523,514,841 4,923,024.381 5,971,330.272 3 
Prcm. income for year. $ 26,474,83:3 27,783,852 31,246,536 35,954,408 40,031,474 50,505,85ß' 


Provincial Fire Insurance- 
A mount at risk Dec. 31. $ 
Premo income for ye
ro $ 


40,008,418 
13,520,009 
40,405,037 


$ 
$ 
$ 


71,992,666 
71,992,666 
9,193,194 


70,872,297 
70,872,297 
8,987,720 


69,676,223 
69,679,193 
8,934,825 


849,915,678 891,299,821 1,000,541,101 1,004,942,977 1,0.>4,105,0113 
- 3,902,504 4,mn,815 4,185,
.31 4,:302,492 5,2lG,7
)i}3 


Dominion Life Insnrance- 
"mount at risk Vcr. 31. $ 1,311,616,677 1,422,179,6:32 1,.')85,042,.563 l,i8.3,061,273 2,187,837,317 2,657,037,2HP 
Premo income Cor yc_tr. $ 45,106,678 48,093,105 54,843,609 61,li,U,047 74,70
,509 U6,212,H:
.P 


- 348,097,229 41!i,870,273 239, 12G, 190 223,h53,792 174,740,21.-;1 
- 5,311,003 7,397,19:3 4,821,8:

) 4,407,833 3,2
2,6t)!1:1 


Provincial Lifl' InHuran('e- 
.\mount at ri"k Dec. 31. $ 
Premo income for Yl':tr. $ 


3Figures suhj!'ct to 


1 [neluding amounts (leposite.l ebl'wlll're than in Canada. 
J ('vision. 


NOTE. 


2.Active asscts only. 


In the foregoing Summary the statistics of immigration, fiHherics, (1915-17), tnHle, shirping, the 
1'o<.;t ()Hiee, the puhlic Jcbt, rl'n'nul' and expenditure and the Post ()flict O and GOVl'rnl11ent 
avings Bank", 
relate to the fiscal year ended :\lar('h :31. Agricultural, dairying, hshcril'H (1917-20), mim'ral, manulal'tur- 
ing, banking, insuram'e, loan an(l trust ('ompanies' statistics relate to t he calendar yeaf'S and r:ÜI
ay 
statistiC's to thc y('ar::; enclt'd J um' :30, 1915-19, and to the ('al!'nclar year H120. ('anal :,tati:-;tif's art' t ho:,c of 
t.he navigation :,;ea:,ons. The h'lp!!;1"aph :-;t:lti:,t il's I'pl:1te to t 11l' liHl':LI YI':ll':' fur Gon'J"l1l11cnt lim'" nntl to t II!' 
('alt'nd:ll' yp.lr" I'UI' 01 lapr linl':i. 



1.- RECO
STRUCTIO
 IN CANl\DA. 


B1. s. A. CUD110RE, B.A. (TOR.), M.A. (OXON.), F.S.S., F.R. ECOX. 
SOC., EDITOR CANADA YEAR BOOK, DOl\n
IOX 
nrnEAU OF STATISTICS, OTTA ".A. 


SUM\IARY OF CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 


J "'THODUCTORT . . . . - . . ' . . . - - ............ - - . . 
1'.\HT 1 -\\AR-TBIF. ACTIVITIE
 OF 
GoVERr\
II'XT A
D PEOPLE... 2-20 
FOOD PRODUCTIO' AND CONSERVATION.. 3 
fUE 'IUNlTIO'8 IlIODUttTRY IN CA1IoADA. . 6 
".\.R FINAXCE. 8 
\\ \.R LOA1Io8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 8 
\\ AR T AXATIO
 IN CA 'ADA.. . .... _.. .. .. 10 
\\ AR-TIYE EXPAM
IO
 01' GOVEItNME
T 
Fu1Io"cTIo'8....... 13 
FOOD C01loTROL..... .. ..... 14 
FtJEL CO'l/TROL........... .............. 15 
l:TILlZATIO
 01' TIlE NATIOXAL LABOUR 
FORCE.... ....... 16 
CO
RDJ...ATED OPJ:ItATIO
 01' CANADIAX 
RAIL \\ A YS. .. ... ............ .... 17 
OTHER WAR-TI1IE GOVER1Io11EXTAL ACTIV- 
ITII:8.. ....... . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . _ . . . . _ 17 
YOLL"'l/TART CONTRIBUTIO"lS OF THE 
PEOPLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 
THE POST-WAR 
lTUATIOX.._. .......... 19 


}>\RT II.-RE-r:-:TABLI:-:II"r
T OF 
H.ETURi\ED SOLDIEH
... ... 20-43 
'hUTARY HOSPITALS COMMI88IO
..... _ _. 20 
DEPARTMENT OF 
OLDIERS' Cn IL RE- 
J.;STABLI
H\IE:"T. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 
\'OCUIOXAL TRA11lo1XG FOR DISABLED 
SOLDIFH8....... .................. 22 
RE-TRAl'I1IoG 01' THE BLI...D...... .., _. _ _ 24 
PRm ISIOX OT \RTIrICIAL LruBS A'S'D 
ApPLHNCE.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
PosT-DISCHARGE DE
AL TREATME
T... 2.1 
F\lPLOYMENT 0.. DE\IOBILIZED SOLDIERS.. 26 
EYPLOYMEXT CO....DlTIO...S........ _.." _ 26 

PEC'1AL RELlEr TO UNE\IPLOTED RE- 
TtJRXED \lEx, 1919-1921............. 27 
LOA,"s TO YOCATIOXAL AND U1Io"IVERSITY 
STUDENTS .......... 28 


PAGE. 
PART 11.- RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF 
RETURNED SOLDIERS-con..... 20 
SETl'LEMENT 01' RETURNED SOLDIERS ON 
FARMS.............................. 29 
PE1Io SIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
PROVISION 01' RETURNED SOLDIERS' LIFE 
IXSUHANCE............. ,...... ...... 38 
WAR :::)EmICE GRATPITT................ 40 
PREFEHE1IoCE "OR CIVIL SERVICE POSI- 
TIOX8... '" .......... ......... ...... 41 
FREE TRANSPORTA1ION OF DEPENDANTS 
FROM OVEHSEA8..................... 42 
SUMMARY.. .. .. .. 43 


PART III.-RECONSTRCCTION 
\'IONG TIll'; GENERAL 
}>OPt:LATION ...................... 43-64 
THI: CONSERVATION 01' Ln.II:............ 44 
ESTABLIRHMENT OF THE DmllNION DE- 
PARTME
T OF HEALTH......... . . . . . . 45 
RECE:>JT PROVINCIAL PUBLIC HEALTH 
LEUISLA TION. . . . . . . . .. ............. 46 
PROGRESS IN ED{;CATIO
................ 49 
DO'\U'Ii'IO:>J ASSISTANCE TO VOCATIONAL 
EDUCATION.. -..... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 
RECE!'òT PROVI1IoClAL LEGISLATION ON 
EDUCATION........ . . . . . _ . . . _ . _ . . . . . _ 50 
F.STABLLt:;HME:>JT OF GOVERNME:>JT EM- 
PLOYMEKT OFFICES................... 51 
I '\fPOHTANCE OF :5CIEXTIFlC RESEARCH.... 52 
HOXORARY ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR 
ScIE'l/TIFIC AND 1110 DUSTRIAL RE- 
SEARCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 
THE IXCRIi:o\SE OF OFFICIAL STATISTICS... 57 

EED OF A CE
TRAL 
TATISTICAL OFFICE.. 58 
ESTABL1SH\fEST OF D01\IINIO.... BUREAU 
OF STATISTICS.......... ............. 58 
ACTIVITIES 01' THII: DOMINION BUREAU 
01' STATISTiCS........... 59 


I
TRODUCTORY. 
The terln "reconEtruction" adn1its of various interpretations, 
but gen{\rally it may bE explained to mean in this article the getting 
back to nonnal economic' and social conditions after the stupendous 
and long-continued strain and stress of ,yar-the healing of the 
,,"ounds, the elimination of the abnornlalities of the ,var period fronl 
our social and industrial life. 'Yhile it cannot be claimed that "re- 
construction" in this wide senEe of the ".ord is by any means complete, 
it ha
 progres
ed sufficiently far to justify a survey being made of 
,,"hat has been accomplished. 
To realize the greatness of the problem of reconstruction, the 
cOlllpleteness of the disturbance in pre-existing peace-time conditions 
must first be understood. The Great 'Var ,vas a life-and-death 
struggle of nations, not merely a conflict of armieE. 'Yhile the South 
A.frican 'Yar could come and go without perceptibly changing the 
life of the average Canadian citizen, the Great 'Var, in its stupendous 
184
7-Rl 



2 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


demand for food commodities, for munitions, for labour and for lives, 
profoundly affected the lives of the great majority of adolescent 
and adult Canadians. BecaUEe of the great demand for labour 
and the high cost of living, children from 13 to 16 years of age were 
,vithdrawn from school before the normal time, and adoleEcents of 
17 and 18 enliEted in great numbers. The universitieE and the upper 
forms of secondary schools were drained of their male students, while 
the demand for labour in munition factories, in financial institutions 
and in induEtry generally absorbed great numbers of young women, 
many of whom would hardly, under ordinary circumstances, have 
engaged in gainful occupationEe Again, in innumerable cases, 
one man did double work at home while another in the same businesE 
or on the same farm went to the front. The older men who had 
reached the age of retirement remained to conduct a business or came 
back to it to relieve the younger men for active service. This ,vas 
particularly true of the retired farmers, who contributed materially 
to,vards nlaking possible the great increase which took place in 
food production. Thus young perSOl1S, women and elderly nlen 
entered or re-entered the field of production to fill the places of the 
half million able-bodied nlen who crossed the seas on active service. 
This situation continued for years. One of the most serious problems 
of reconstruction has been the readjustment of this unprecedented 
and long-continued displacenlent of the labour force of the country. 
This article on "Reconstruction in Canada" must, therefore, 
deal first of all ,vith the fundamental changes brought about by 
the ,varin the life of the Canadian people and in the domestic 
activities of the Government, laying special stress on ,var finance 
and on the increase of Government functions \vhich ,yas the 
inevitable result of the ,val'. The second part of the article describes 
the various lneasures adopted for the re-establishn1ent in civil life 
of the returned soldiers and their families, involving an enonnous 
but cheerfully borne expenditure, the exact amount of ,vhich is not 
yet accurately determined. The last part of the article is concerned 
,vith reconstruction among the general population of the country 
and the girding up of our loins to meet the difficulties of the existing 
situation, difficulties, ho\vever, insignificant compared with those 
encountered and overcome by the hardy pioneers of French and 
British stock ,vho first settled this country and \vith strong arms and 
primitive tools carved out a ne,v nation in the northern wilderness. 


PART I.-WAR-TIME ACTIVITIES OF GOVERNMENT 
AND PEOPLE. 


Abnormal economic conditions in Canada commenced with the 
out-break of war in August, 1914. Prior to that time the country 
had been passin!! through a normal reaction from the great period 
of prosperity which had reached its culmination about the end of 
1912. The first economic eft' ect of the war was to intensify that 
reaction. The Montreal and Toronto stock exchanges were closed 
for nearly three months from July 28, 1914, and were then opened 



11 .lll J'I \fl-: ArTIflITIES 


3 


. nly for lilllitpd tr:l(lin
. Bank ('If'arings (lpclillpd and con
uln{'rs 
rpfu:-\('d to pUf('ha
e J!ood
 which they did not ilnlnediatf'ly rf'quirf'. 

\:-\ a ('OIl
(\qlH\nrp, factorip
 rlosf'd tllf'ir door:-\ and 
{'riouH l1l1(,lHploy- 
IHent f'nsupd. In :-;pit(' of t h(' ('lllistInpnt of largf' nUlllher
 of Inen 
in thL fir:-\t and :-\t'('ond eontingpnt:-::, thousands of unenlploy('d relnained 
to walk the btrpetf-, of Canadian {'itih; during thf' 'wintpr of HH4-19]5. 
Htati
tic
 rOTIlpil('ò bY' the Ontario ('olnllli:-\sion on lTnl'lllploynlf'nt 
at thi
 tilll(' f'howed that ();') 1 Ontario faetorip
, ,,'hich had elnployp(l 
on tlu' aypraJ!p 
O,020 ".orkf'rs in thp first half of 1913, cmploy('d 
only üU,,}2.t on tht 1 aVl'rnge in th(' lattpr half of 1014, indi('atinf!; an 
avpraJ!l' \lIH'lllploynH'nt in th(' Inanufaeturing illdu
tri(,::5 of Ontario- 
th(' ehipf Inanufaeturing province- of ahout 25 per cent. rrhrough- 
out th(' ".int.Ar thi
 di:-.tre:-\:-;ing :-:ituation '''a:-\ a
gr:lvatf'd hy the :sea- 
f:onal uIH'nlploynlf'Jlt in thp eountry'
 ha:-\i(' indu:-\try- agrieulture. 
l'his "".inu'r of our di:-\collt('nf' was, ho\YeYl'r, to he follo,vpd 
hy h('ttpr tillll'
. "To ll13ny of our indu
tri(::..;, notahly' to agriculture", 

ir Thonla
 'Yhitp had :-\aid on ...\ugu:-\t 20, 1 B14, "thprp 
hould be 
pronoulH.pd :-\tinnllation and quiekpllin
 of aetivity". 1'hi:5 stimula- 
tion and quickpninf!; ".ere no". to takp plaf'e. 
'Y ar, as the ".holp cour
e of history goe
 to })fove, ha
 always 
ilnplipd high pri("(':.;, nlor{' f'
p('{'ial1y for foo(l conunoditips. 'Var 
hoth ".ithdraw:-\ Bleil frolH the cultivation of t h(' :-:oil, therehy dinlin- 
bhing food supply, and abo hring:::, ahout the "'a
ta
e of the food 

uppli('
 that alrf'[Hly pXl:-\t. The sl"arrity of foodlpad
 to high prices, 
:-:tilllulating food produetion Hu(1 inf'idf'lltal1y hringing gr<\at g-ains 
to th{' individuals HPd nation
 ,,-hich, like Canada and Canadians, 
are chipfty ('nlploypd in agriculturp. Thus the 
\merican Civil 
"
ar had 1)('('11 an pra of pro:-\perity for thp farnH'fs of Canada, the 
neur<':-\t neutral country, [) nd thp agriculturists of the pr('
ent wpre 
no,v to have a sin1Ïlar opportunity of profit. 
-\.1together apart from 
:-\u('h 
plfi:,h eon
i(lf'ration:-\, the :\fothf'r Country Hnò her nf\ighhouring 
Euro}>pan alli('
 "erc in urgent r ppd of thp food product
 \vhich 
Canada, the chief granary of the Enlpire as ".ell as the nearest oyersea 
DOlllinion, could Inost reHdily and convenif'nt1y supply. 


}.'OO)) PUO))I"<..;TIOX .\XU CO
SEU\"ATIO
. 
The pro
pect
 at the opening of the spring of 1915 \vere favour- 
ablp. ...\n unu:-\ual nnlount of fall ploughing had been done in the 
'Ye:-:t, ,dlilp a n1ild ,yintf\r and :-\pring had favourf'd the fall ,,,heat 
crop of thp Ea
tf'rn province
. 
ror('over, the Dominion Govf'rn- 
ment, realizing the urgency of the 
ituation, undertook a "Patriotism 
and Production" ealnpaign, publi
hing an Agricultural 'Var Book, 
printing and distributing nUlllerous bullf'tins, and advertif'ing exten- 
Eively in the public press, reaching, it \VaE estimated, about 3,000,000 
readers. Agricultural production ,vas al:-.o stimulated by legislation. 
The Bank Act ,yas alnended by providing that "the hank may lend 
nloney to the o,,"uer, tenant or occupier of Iar.d for the purcha
e of 
seed p.-rain", (5 Ceo. 'T., chap. 1). Po,ver ,vas also given to the Gover- 
nor General in Council to huy, sell and distribute seed grain, fodder 
18427-1} 



4 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


for animals and other goods required, to the farmers of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan. The result of all these measures was that the 
area placed under field crops in Canada reached in 1915, in spite of 
the depletion of the agricultural labour force by enlistment, 39,140,460 
acres, as compared with a previous maximum of 35,575,550 acres 
in 1912. The increase in acreage was, however, small as compared 
with the increase in production. As a result of remarkably favour- 
ab!e 'wpather during the growing period, the average yields per acre 
of the principal cereals in Canada were higher than in any previous 
year on record, the average yield of wheat reaching 26.05 bushels 
per acre as compared with a previous record figure in 1913 of 21.04 
bushels. The total wheat crop of the year amounted to 393,542,600 
bushels, while the oat crop ,vas 464,954,400 bushels. One important 
re
ult of this enormous yield was that the advent of high ,var prices 
in Canada was delayed by at least a year. The Department of 
Labour's avera
e index number of wholesale prices for the year 
1915 was only 148.0 as against 136.1 for 1914 and 135.5 for 1913- 
a very moderate increase under the extraordinary circumstances 
of the time. The average cost per week of a family budget of staple 
foods was $7.866 in 1915 as compared with $7.731 in 1914, a small 
increase which was more than offset for most urban consumers 
of the labouring class by the drop in average rents from $4.75 per 
week in 1914 to $4.122 in 1915. The total weekly cost of foods, 
fuel and lighting and rent, came to $13.844 on the average in 1915 
a
 against $14.308 in 1914-an actual decline of 46 cents, or morc 
than 3 per cent. IVlean\vhile the manufacturing industries of the 
country were stimulated to renewed activity by munition contracts 
which ag
regated about $300,000,000 by November, 1915, and the 
surplus of unemployed was absorbed either by enlistment or by the 
rising munitions industry. 
The educational "Production and Thrift" campaign ,vas again 
actively carried on by the Dominion Government throughout the 
winter of 1915-16, by means both of the issue of publications and by 
advertising. In spite of the steadily decreasing labour supply, due 
to enlistment and to the gro,ving absorption of labour in the muni- 
tions industry, the area placed under field crops, 38,930,333 acres, 
,vas almost equal to that of 1915. The results, unfortunately, were 
no means so satisfactory. The ,vest ern ,yheat crop, in particular, 
was badly dama
ed by rust and hot winds, and in Quebec and Ontario 
serious danlage was cnused by Aup-ust droughts. The net result 
was that the ,vheat crop harvested was only t,vo-thirds a
 large as 
in the previous year, thoup h the acreage sown to wheat had some- 
what increased. From 15,369,709 acres, the crop was 262,781,000 
bushels, or 17 bushels to the acre as against 26.05 in 1915. The 
crops of the United States ,vere affected by the same un favourable 
weather as those of Canada, and the Russian export surplus being 
no longer available on account of the closing of the Black Sea ports, 
world prices for 'wheat and other food commodities began to soar 
rapidly, carrying all other prices in their train. The Canadian index 
number for 1916 was 182 on the average, increasing from 172.1 



FOOD P/{()[)UCTIO
V .LVD CO.YSERV
lTION 


5 


in January to 207.4 in December. 8in1ilarly, the Department of 
Labour's ,vcekly fan1Ïly budget of staple foods, fuel and lighting and 
rent 
ho\v
d an incr('at:C' froITl "14.143 in January to ;$16.328 in 
Decelnbcr, the average for the year 1916 being ::'14.78 as against 
"'-13 .
.ll in 1!H5. 
Throughout the \vinter of 191ö-17 thC' HProduction and Thrift" 
canlpaign ,vas oncp nlore ('arried on, and in the prevailing f'carcity of 
labour it appeared llece
sary to resort to extensive rather than 
intensive agriculture. l\[orc particularly in the Prairie Provinces, 
larv;e areas of ne,\" lund ,vere ploughed up for the gro\vth of \vheat 
and other vital crops, the total area so\\ n to farm crops reaching the 
unprecedented figure of 42,602,288 acres-in spite of the back\vardness 
of the 
pring and th
 l"on
l'qul'nt shortness of the seeding season. 
l\S a con
equence of frü"ts at the end of 
Iay and droughts in the 
sumnler, the ".estern p;rain yields "'ere belo,v the average, ,vhile the 
crQP
 in Quebec and the l\[aritime Provinces ".ere injured in Reptem- 
ber -by parly fro
t
. rrhough Ontario experienced one of the best 
sea"ons on record, the gC'neral results ,vere unsatisfactory, the wheat 
production reaching a total of 232,742,
50 bUf'hcls. This led to 
a ri
c in food price
 as ,veIl as to re
trictions on the use of wheat 
and ,vh
at flour, a Food Controller heing appointed on June 21, 
1917, ,vith po,,'er to inquire into the 
upply 
lnd price of food commod- 
ities, and, f'U bject to t he approval of the Governor in Council, to 
nlake regulations gov<,rning the prices and providing for the consprva- 
tion of food comnloditic
. The averagp index nunlber for the year 
reach{'d thp unprecedentt'<l figure of 2:37, ranging fronl 212.7 in January 
to 2.j7.1 in Decelllber, 'vhile the ,,'eekly fan1Ïly budget increased 
frotn "16.-16 to $19.38 ùuring the same period, averaging 
18 .15 
for the year. 
...\t th(1 clO:'0 of 1917 the calnpaign for increased food production 
,vas at its height. As a re,-,ult of the subnlarine campaign, great 
stocks of food urgently needed by the United I\:ingdom ,vere destroyed 
in tran
it and had to he replaced frolH Korth America, as the Ecarcity 
of shipping 111ade it ilnpossible to Rpare the ships for brinJ!ing ..A.rgentin- 
ian and Au
tralian ,,
heat to Europe. The urgency of the situation 
induced the DOlllinion Government to paES on February 8, 1918, 
an Oròer in Council authorizing for one year the free importation 
of tractors costing not nlore than :'1,400 in the country of production 
-3, de('i
ion ,yhich "Tas partly respon
ible for the great increase to 
51,-127,100 acres in the area. of farm crops, though a part of this 
reported increaEe may have been due to iInproved statistics. The 
area returned as sn,vn to 'wheat in 1918 ".as the largest on record, 
17,353,002 af'rES. 
In the ,vest, ho,yever, the \veather ,vas again unfavourable. May 
,yas cold, ,,'hile June and July ,vere characterized by drought and high 
,yinds and fro
ts occurred to"Tards the end of July. Though Ontario 
again had an excellent EeaEon, the result of the harvest was unfavour- 
able, the yield of ,vheat being 189,075,350 bUEhels, or only 11 bushels to 
the acre. Xaturally prices again advanced, the average index numb
r 
of ,yhole
ale prices for the year being 278.3, rising from 258.7 In 


. 



6 


RECOJ.VSTReCTIOLY I;.V CA;.VADA 


January to 290.9 in Kovelnber, the lnonth of the Annistice; DecelIìber 
sho,ved a 
light decline to 288.8. The weekly family budget for food, 
fuel and lighting and rent rpached an average of 
20 .63 for the year, 
rising fronl $19.61 in January to 
21.51 in December. Food cost 
in Decelnber, 1918, \vas 813.53 as cOlllpared ,vith an averagp food 
cost of $7.337 in 1913. Though food costs again incrpased during 
1919 and the early part of 1920., the starving-out proceSE ,vhich ,vas 
a part of the Gernlan campaign had been finally defeated. 
To sum up, the result of the four years' campaign for increased 
food production ,vas the eÀtenRion of the officially estimated area 
of farm crops froln 33,427,190 acreE in 1914 to 51,427,190 acres in 
1918, an increase of 53.8 p.c. \Yhilp iInprovelnents lnade during 
the period in thp f'ollection of agricultural statistics are no doubt partly 
responsible for this sho,ving, the actual increase attributable to the 
efforts of the Canadian fa.rn1er \vith his depleted lahour force, of the 
to\vn and city nlf'n ,vho gave up their holidays to engage in exhausting 
physical labour, and of the 11,952 young "Soldiers of the 
oil" 
who left 
chool for thp farm during the crop season of 1918, was a 
relnarkable achievelnent. 


TilE 
IUXITIO"SS INDUSTRY I
 CA
ADA. 
Iron and 
teel are the principal ingredients in the munitions 
required in modern warfare. Before the 'war G-erlnany had, by 
bounties on production and export, so stimulated her iron and steel 
industry that she had far surpassed the United I(ingdoln in this 
fipld, producing 19 million tons of pig iron in 1913 as against Britain's 
to! million. Imlnediately on the outbreak of \var, German armies 
occupied the chief iron and >3teel producing regions of France and 
Belgiunl, thus increasing their available resources and diminishing 
those of the allies. It ,vas absolutely necessary, therefore, that 
Great Britain should call a ne\v \vorId into existence to redress the 
balance of the old, and enlist the assistance of the rising Canadian. 
iron and s.teel industry in the struggle. As a result of overtures 
from the Ilnperial \Yar Office, the l\Iinister of l\Iilitia appointed 
a Shell Committee in Septen1ber, 1914, to undertake the task of 
organizing the supply of shrapnel to the British Governlncnt. The 
first shipInents ,vere made in December, 1914, and by l\Iay 3L 1915, 
about 400 establbhlnents \vere engaged in the nlnnufacture of shells. 
In November, 1915, the work of the Shell COllunittee ,vas tran
ferred 
to the Imperiall\1unitions Board, \vhich ,vas directly respon
ible to the 
Imperiall\Iinbtry of l\Iunitions. The Chairn1an of this Board pos- 
Be
spd full adn1Ïnistrative and executive authority over the various 
departlIlents, each of ,vhich ,vas in charge of an expprt. 
\.lnong 
the departments ,vere the Purchasing and Ste('l Departn1(,Ilts, the 
Shipbuilding Department, the .J.\. viation Department, the Fuse 
DepartInent, the Engineering and thp Inspection Deparhnents. 
Industries ne,v to Canad3 \vere established under the direction of 
the Board; it
 shipbuilding contracts anlounted to some :;70,000,000; 
more than 2,500 aeroplanes \vere produced in its factories, SOlne of 



rIlE 1IU^
I1'IU.vS I.YD("
1'IlY I.V CAl\r..l/J..l 


7 


tlU'll1 for the t-nit<'d 
tat('s 
aYy; the' Board ,vas also tht. <l{!,t'nt 
of the lTnitcd 
tatp;-; OrdnaIH'p DppartIuent in arrnnging: l"ontructs 
for lllU Hition
 aud :::uPJ>lic
. I ts al'tivitil'
 Illn}'" be 
ulllni('d up in 
the words of the j{pport of the lInlH'rinl '\:1r Cabinet for 1 U17 fiR 
folIo\\ 
:- 
"Callada's l"ontribution durillf!' tlw la::5t ypar ha'S heen v('ry
trikinp;. 
Fiftpl'Jl }>pr ('('ut of tlH' total PXPPIHlitur(1 uf the 1\1 ini
trY of 1\1 unitions 
in the la
t 
ix IllOlltJIS of th{' Yt:ar wa:-\ incurred ill 
 that ('ountry. 

he ha:--. Inanufactured nearly pyery type of thell froBl the l
-pounder 
to t IH' n. 2-inch. 1 n t IH' ca
e of th' IH-J>ounder, no Ip:--;s than [)[) per 
eeut of th ' output of 
hrapn('l Rhell:-- in thp la
t 
ix Blonth
 ('anH
 fronl 
Canada. <lnd 1l1()
t of t hp:-:e \\ prp COJ)} plptt' round::: of :unlnunition 
,,'hic.h wpnt dif{'rt to Frauf'P. (1alIada al:-:o contrihuted 42 !1<,r cpnt 
of tlH' total 1.5-iueh ....hells, 27 ppr ('('nt of tht' ()-ineh :-\Jlf'll
, 20 per 
ceDt of the' HU-poull(h'r II.E. 
h('lIs, }.') })(,f ("Put of the h-inch and IG 
pcr ("l
nt of t h{' 9. 2-ineh." 
'1'h(' follo".ing fi
url'::; will p;iye 
onl(' idpa of what Canada ace om- 
pli:-\hcd in thc productioll of nlunition
 of ,var:- 


'ALT E OF 
I rXITIOX
 Axn ì\IATEIU \.Lö E-x.TOUTED :FHO:\I C..\
ADA. 


Calendar Y l'ar. 
1
) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1015.._ ... ..._ 
HH tL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1017.. ......... ......... ". 
1915... __.._... 



 
28,1 ü4 
57,21a,ß

 
2nf),.
O.5,257 
3Sg,213,5;,)3 
2ßÜ, 711,751 


Thp effectt= of the {'stahli
llIllent of the nlunitionE in du:::try in 
Canada in if1 crea:::ing iron and steP! production is also ob1'ervable 
in the .,tatistic
 of nUlnufacturl's. In 1910") the iron and Hted products 
indu
 try of Cal1:lda produc('d eOIHnloditip;-; to the valup of 
120,- 
422,-1-20, \\-hile in l
n7 its product;-; ".erp valued at ::;400,385,086 
and in lUl
 at "-1-143,45.\779. Thp chelnical aud ltllipd products 
industry 'V:l
 abu greatly stinnllatf'd by tlH
 ".ar. Connllodities 
to a J!ro:-\
 value of 
4Ö,-t-l0,-lb6 'H'rp produeed by this industry in 
1915, ,,-hile ill 1917 the gro
s valup incrcHRPd to 8133,618,658, and 
in If}18 the grù:--
 product
 'v(\n
 valued at 
173.()49,073. 
To thp 
hiphuildill!! Departnlent of the IInperiaI )[unition::; 
Ro:nd ,,-as due in large nl('a
ure the grpat increa
e in Canadian 
:-\hipuuilding ".hich ".ent far to defeat the nlost seriouE menace to 
the ::;ecurity of the Enlpire during the war-the unrestrictEd sub- 
nlarinf' canlpaign. l)uring the calendar Yf'ar 191R t her(' were lau

hed 
the follo".ing Y(,s::5cIE built to the order of the Inlperial 1IUlllÍIons 
Board: 
teel, 23 've

el
 ,,-jth an approximate deachveight carrying 
capacity of 114,8ü3 ton
; ".ood, 45 ve
:-\el
, with an approxiinate 
deadwei
ht carrying capacity of 13h,600 tons. 
teel ve

els to the 
nurn ber of 11, ".ith an 3 pproxinlate carrying capacity of 48,000 tons, 
built to the ordpr of the Departn1ent of 
Iarine, as well as 11 
teel 
ve:-:
el
 \\'ith a carrying capacity of 45,304 tons and 13 ,,"ooden vessels 



8 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CA1VADA 


,vith a carrying capacity of 20,600 tons built under private contract, 
were launched in Canada during the Eame year. The total launched 
from Canadian shipyardE during the year waE thus 45 steel and 58 
,yooden vessels, with a carrying capacity of 208,167 and 159,200 
tons respectively, a grand total of 103 vessels with a total tonnage of 
367,367 tons. 


WAR FIXANCE. 


Added to the problems of feeding and providing munitions of war 
for fighting forces there is to be considered in modern warfare the great 
problem of ,var finance-the question of hov{ this food and these 
supplies are to be paid for. If, 2gain, the members of these grfat 
modern fighting forces are to be paid for their services, the money 
for mee1ing these payments has alEo to be raised. 
War may be financed either by taxation or by borrowing, but 
only small wars have Ever been financed entirely by the former method. 
Germany undertook to finance the Great War entirely by the latter 
method, on the ground that the war itself was imposing Euch heavy 
burdens upon her people that they ought not alEo to have to bear 
an added burden of taxation, and in the hope that, as in 1870, victory 
would enable her to transfer the co
t of the war to her vanquished 
enemi
E. The United Kingdom and the United States, on the other 
hand. resolved to finance the war as far as posEible by taxation. 
l\lodern ,varfare, ho'wever, turned out to be so enormously expensive 
that even these two wealthieEt nations of the world found themselves 
driven to borrow the great bulk of their war expenditure. 
Canada, like the United Kingdom and the United States, 
increased taxation at the earliest opportunity after entering the war, 
but nevertheless found herself compelled to raise the buJk of her war 
expenditure by borro-wing. This larger factor in providing money 
for the .war may be first considered. 


WAR LOANS. 
Up to the time of en terin g the .war, Ca nada had depended almoEt 
e
tirely upon Great Britain for loans to the DOlninion and Provincial 
Governlnents. On l\,{arch 31, 1914, the principal of the Dominion 
funded debt payable in London ,vas $302,842,485, ,vhile the principal 
of the funded debt payable in Canada was only $717,453. l\loney 
could be obtained more cheaply in London than in Canada, and good 
busineEs policy, it ,vas conEidered, required that the strong.est Cana- 
dian borro-wers, the Dominion and Provincial Governments, should 
borro-w outside the country, leaving the available savings of the 
Canadian people to be borro,ved by busineEs enterprises which were 
not of sufficient reputation to be able to borrow in the international 
money markets of London and N ew York. As a consequence, the 
ability of the Canadian people to finance a great national loan had 
never been brought to a test. That test, since the resources of the 
London market ,vere being strained to the utmost to meet the needs of 
the Imperial Government, had necessarily now to be applied. The 



n-.tlR LOALYS 


9 


Dominion GovernlnC'nt was, indeed, able to secure an advance of 
.t:12,OOO,OOO frolll the IIIlperinl GOYCrnlnent for the period September, 
191-1, to 
Iarch, 1915, on the understanding that a Canadian \var loan 
\vould be Hoated in Great Britain to repay this amount. It became 
evidC'nt, ho\\ever, thnt CanadH her
elf Illust in the main finance her 
effort -.% in the ,var. 
The fir
t DonlÌnion dOIllestic ".ar loan "'as raised in November, 
1915, under authority of chapter 23 of the Statutes of that year 
(.=) Geo. ,r, c. 23). I t originally ('oJlsi
ted of f-;50,OOO,000 5 p.c. tax- 
exenIpt 10 year J;old bond
, i
Eued at 97! and Illaturing Dccen1ber 
1, 1925. ...\
 the i
:-ue ,,'as heavily over-:;ubscribed (public subscrip- 
tions by 24,802:-\\1 bseribt:r::-; "':78,729,500, hank su b
criptions 825,000,000) 
and the c:\.tra lllolley ,vaE needed, the GoverIlInent increased the 
amount of the loan to 
100,OOO,000. In July, 1915, 825,000,000 
of 1 y<-ar and '20 000,000 of 2 year 5 p.c. notes had been floated 
in the Unitpd ;-\tate
, ,vith the object of 
tabilizing exchange and of 
re lieving the prc
sure on London. 
In 
cptenlber, 1 
n ß, the second Canadian domestic ".ar loan of 
c;;,100,OOO,OOO !) p.e. taXl'xC'lllpt 15 year gold bonds 'was issued and again 
ovpr-sub,cribC'd (public suhscriptions by 34,526 suhseribers $151,- 
444,bUO, bank subscriptions :::'50,000,000). In l\farch of that year, 
a loan of 
75,OOO)OOO in 5, 10 and 15 year 5 p.c. bonds had been floated 
in X C',v York. 
The third [1anadian Domestic ,,-ar loan, conlposcd of 8150,- 
OUO,OOO 5 }J.C. tax exelnpt 20 year gold bonds issued at 96, \vas issued 
in 
Iarch, 1917, and ".a
 again over-subscribed, 40,800 public sub- 
scribers applying' for 
200,7G8,OOO, ".hile the banks subscribed 

60,OOO,OOO. In .\ugust, 1917, "'lOO,OOO,QOO of 5 p.c. 2 year notes 
,,-erC' i:-\sued in XC\\" ì
ork at Db. 
llithprto the procp

 of raising n10ney had been comparatively 
ea
y. The buoyancy of Canadian finance "'as illustrated by the 
increasing subscriptions to each successiye loan, ,,,hile the Govern- 
n1C'nt could, when needed, obtain additional fund
 in Ke\v York. 
In April, 1917, ho,yever, the United 
tates entered the ,,
ar. Its 
gigantic preparations drained enormous sums of llloney from the 
X C\\" York 1110lley lllarket, and rIlade it difficult for other countries 
to rai,e money there. IIenceforth Canada had in the main to depend 
on her o\vn peoplp to supply the funds necessary for keeping her 
rapirllyincreasing force::) in the field. SuLsequent. appeals for ,yar loan 
subscriptions had to be nlade to the nlas
('s of the people rather tha:ì.1 
to the c0I11parath.ely fe,v ,,-ealthy or comfortably-off investors. 
The fourth domestic ,yar loan (First '
ictory Loan) issued in 
Kovelnher, 1917, illustrate::; the foregoing relnarks. For the fir8t 
tinle subseriptions as lo\v as 
50 \vere received toward an is
u.e of 
8150,000,000 5! p.c. 5, 10 and 20 year gold bonds, the l\11nlster 
of FinHnce re
erving the right to allot the \vhole or any part o
 the 
anlount subscribed in exce
s of 
150,000,OOO. The subscrIbers 
nUlnbered 
20,035 and the subscriptions totalled t"398,OOO,OOO, or 
about 
50 per head of the population of Canada. 



10 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CA..VAD...4. 


The fifth dOlnestic war loan (Becond Victory Loan) of 5300,000,000 
5! p.c. 5 and 15 year tax exempt gold bonds was issued at 100 and 
interest as of date Kovelnber 1, 1918, and the end of the ,var, then 
clearly in 
ight, stiInulated public subscriptions. The applications 
nunlbered 1,067,879 and totalled $660,000,000. 
The sixth domestic ,var loan (Third 'Victory Loan) ,vas raised 
at 100 and interest in Novelnber, 1919. It consisted of $300,000,000 
taxable .=) year and 15 year 5! p.c. gold bonds. The subscriptions 
funounted to 9\678,000,000. 
The general result of these loans has been that in 1921, the great 
bulk of the Canadian national debt is o,ving to the Canadian people. 
At the end of the fiscal year 1920-21, the DOlninion funded debt 
payable in London ,vas officially stated as 
336,001,470, in New 
York, 
135,87 4,000, ,vhile the funded debt payable in Canada 
an10unted to no less than $2,082,7 56,37ß. The largest creditors of 
the Dou1Ïnion Governn1ent arf' ,vithin the DOlninion it
elf, and as 
a consequence the interest payn1ents lnade on Kational Debt account 
outsiùf' the country are a relatively sn1all item. 


WAR T..\XATION IN' f'ANADA. 


It is a general lnaxim of public finance that ,vhere a debt is 
contracted sufficient ne,v taxation should be imposed to meet the 
interest charge upon this debt and to provide a sinking fund for its 
ultimate extinction. 
'Var taxation began in Canada almost simultaneously ,vith t.he 
outbreak of the ,yare In the short ,var spssion of August, 1914, 
the Customs Tariff Alnendment Act, (chap. 5) and an A('t to alnend 
the Inland Revenue Act; (chap. 6), provided for increasef' in the 
custolns and f'xcise duties on various cOlnlnodities, incluùing coffee, 
sugar, spirituouR liquors and tobacco. In the 1915 session the 
Customs Tariff 'Var Revenue Act, 1915, impoRed duties or additional 
duties of 5 p.('. ad valorem under the British Preferential Tariff, 
and of 7! p.c. ad valorf'm under the Intennediate and General Tariffs 
on all goods in Schedule A of the Customs Tariff, "yhether liable to 
or free of duty, subject to exemptions of 'which the chief ,vere, fish 
caught by Canadian and K e,vfoundland fishermen, goods u
ed in the 
lnanufacture of agricultural machinery and of binder t,vine, certain 
good:5 used for medical and surgical purposps, anthracite coal, steel 
for the rnanufacture of rifles, silk, chelnical fertilizers, cotton seed 
cake and cotton seed cake lneal. By the Special 'Var Revenue Act 
(chap. 8), ne,v taxes 'Vf're iInpo
ed as follo,vs: on every Rank, ì of 
1 per ('ent on thf' average aUlount of its notes in circulation during 
each three nlonths period; on every trust and loan company, 1 p.c. 
on its Canadian income; on every insurance company other t.han life 
and nUlrine insuraIH'f' conlpani(1s, 1 p.c. of its net pren1iunls received 
in Canada; 1 cent on every cablegraul or telegraln for ,vhich a charge 
of 15 centR or nlore is made; 5 cents on the first :jI;5 and 5 cents on f'very 
additional 
5 on railway and stf'alnboat tickets to places in North 
America and the British 'Vest Indies, and on tickets to places outside 



H AU rA...\
\1'/().Y /y C
lX.l/).l 


11 


of thp:,(' 
l if the pri('p t'x('(\pd:-\ :--10, 
:
 if it px("('('ds :-:..to, and 
;) if it 
t\"('l\pd
 
Û
"); 10 ('pn t
 on ('ycry 
lp(\pill
 ('ar hprth and ;) ('(\nts on 
(\\"('r

 }>:lrlour <,ar 
t'a t; all the' forl'g()in
 tnx('::; to he rolll'ct
d by the 
('olllpallips ('OIH'(\rllpd and trall:-\IHitt('d to thp GO\ l'rnll1ent. The 
:-;anl(' _\('t illlpO
 'd the follo\\ ing :-\hUHp duti<'
: 2 ('pnts on ('v('ry hank 
("}wql)(\ and on cyery C'XPf(':--:' and post offi("p 1l101H'Y order and 
 1 (,l'ut 
on ('\"ery po:-\tal Ilot(\, :2 ('PHts on t'ver) hill of lading, 1 c('nt extra on 
ey('ry It'Upr and I)(J:-\t eard, 1 ('(,Ilt for pY('r
. 2;') ('('nts of the retail 
pril"l\ of pro}1rif'tary Incdi('Ìn('
 and perfuIllery, :) ('('ntt' for a pint or 
l('
s and .) ('('rts for p, ('J"Y quart of non-
parkling wÌn(', and ] 3 ('('lltS 
for 
 pint or lps:-\ and 
.) (,Pllt:, for ('ypry pint of 
parlding ".int'. 
By HHn it wa
 
Pt'n that :-\till furthf'r taxation \,"a:-: r('quir
d to 
Inaintain the filUlIH'l'S of thl' DOluillion in a s:tti:-;f:t<,t01T ('olldition. 
. \s :l }"(\:-\ult t}w Businp::;::; I'rofi is 'Yar 1'ax _ \ct of t hat y('a
 (chap. II), 
wa
 pa:-\:-'t'd, illlp():-\in
 :t tax of 2.") p.c. of thp :lIHOunt by ,vhich the 
profit:-\ C'arllPd in hu:-:inl'

 OWIH'd hy an ill('orporatpd eOIHpany l'x{"t'
dt.'d 
7 p.(.. Iwr annUIIl, or, in a hu
in(':-\:-; OWIH'<I by any other per:-\on or 
a:-;:-\()('ia t ion, ('X('('p<1('d 10 p.e. 1)('( ann UBI 1I pOll t h(' (':1 pital cl11ploypd 
in th(' bu
inp:-\
. Businp:-\:-\l's ('Ill ployir g 1(':-\:-; tluln $50,000 rn pital, 
lifp :l:-;suranc(' cOlnpanil'
, Inl:-\in(':o\
('
 
Il
agl'd in fanning and live' stork 
rai:-\inp.., and hu:-\iIH':'
(':-; of \vhi('h 90 p.('. or Blore of thp capital ,yas 
owned hy a prOYÏIH'(' or a nlunieipality W('f(\ eÀpn}}1t
d, th('s(-' excmp- 
tion:-, Bot to apply to hu
iIH':-\:-\('
 PHgaged tf) the t'xt<'ut of20 p.c. or over 
in Hlanuf:u,turing or d('alin
 in Inunitionf' or war lnatl'riab or 
uppli
s. 
In the' 1 017 
(':-\:-\ion the nU
il}(\:--:' Profit:-\ ,rar 'fax ".as anH'IHl<'d 
(('hap. û) to }H'oYidp for a tax of 50 p.('. 011 profit:, in ('XCCS::5 of 15 p.c. 
pcr anlHllll. hut not <.''Xceeding 
O }>.('. per allnUIll, and a t:lX of 75 p.c. 
Oil profit:, in pX{'(':-\:-\ of 
o p.r. })('r anuunl. In the salnl' 
p

ion the 
IIH'OIU
 \r'ar l'ax \('t (('hap. 25) illlpO
l.tl a tax of 4 p.c. on ilH'OIHCS 
(''X{'epding "'
,OOO in tht' ea:-\(' of unlllarri
d 111<'n and wido,vs and 
,,'idowpr'" ,vithout children, and on iIH'OHH'S ex('ppding 
:3,OOO in the 
ea:-\(' of othpr ppr:-\Oll:'. A :-\upcr-tax ".a
 abo ÌIllpose(l, progrp
:-;ing 
fronl 2 p.c. on the :l1llount hy whÌeh an incorne cxcc
dpd ;Sö,OOO 
but did not e"c('p<! 
l 0,000, up to 2,
 p.e. on the alDoullt by .whirh 
an iIH'OIlH' (,'\:("('('(h'd ::' 100,000. 
In thp :-\(':-,sion of IHlh th(' Busin(\ss ',","ar Profit:-\ 'fax Act \vaS 
anlelHlc(1 by chaptcr 10, pxtpnding the op
ration of the Act to 1>u
ilH's:-\eS 
h:lying a capitalization of froln 
2;),OOO to 
.)O,OOO. The Inconle 
"#ar 'fax ..\l't. as :ul1PIHled hy chapter 2;), lowcre(l the lin1Ït of eXClnp- 
tion to 
1,OO() for un1l1arl"Ìpd persons and childle:-\
 ,yido'v
 and 
,,'ido,,'er
 and to :--':!,OOO for otlwr pl'rson
, the fonner paying 2 p.c. 
on inCOnH\ b
t,v("l'n $1,000 and 
1,;)OO, th
 latter 2 p.c. on inCOnlf'S 
1>(\twe('n :;2,000 and 
:3,OOO. rrhe norrnal tax rpllulÌned at 4 p.c., 
bu t thp su pf'rtax ,ya
 inereu:-\ed on incolues excee(ling :::;200,000, 
hl'inJ,!; graduaÍ('d up to 50 p.c. on inCOloes exceeding 51,000,000. 
A. 
urtax wa:-\ also introdu('ed, ran
ing froBl an additional 5 p.c. of the 
eonlbined nOrIllul t:lX anù super-tax on inconle
 hetween 
ß,OOO and 
SI0,OOO to an additionaI3.=) p.c. of the normal and super-tax on incolues 
{'"Xl"('cding 
200,()OO, corporation
 to pay 
 tax of ß p.c. on Íncolnes 



12 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


exceeding $3,000, but no super-tax or surtax. By the Customs 
Tariff Amendment Act (chap. 17), increased duties were imposed 
on tea, coffee and tobacco, and by the Act to amend the Special 
"\Var Revenue Act, 1915 (chap. 46), increased or new taxes were 
imposed as follo\vs:-For each seat or berth in a parlour or sleeping 
car 10 cents and 10 p.c. of the price of the seat or berth; one cent on 
every hundred matches and 8 cents on every package of 54 or fewer 
playing cards \vith customs duties of the same amount on these 
articles when imported; 10 p.c. of the selling price on passenger 
automobiles] gramophones, etc., and records therefor, mechanical 
piano players and records therefor and jewellery. 
In the 1919 session, the Business "\Var Profits Tax was renewed 
(chap. 39) for the calendar year 1919: in the case of businesses having 
a capital between $25,000 and $50,000, profits in excess of 10 p.c. 
were now to be taxed 25 p.c., businesses having a capital of $50,000 
or more to be taxed at the same rate as in previous years. 
The Income "\Var Tax Act \vas amended by chapter 55, which 
increased the general rate of taxation. All corporations paid 10 
p.c. of their net income in excess of $2,000, as against 6 p.c. under 
the former Act. In respect of individuals the normal rate of 4 p.c. 
was to be levied on all incomes exceeding $1,000, but not exceeding 
$6,000, in the case of unmarried persons and widows or widowers 
\vithout dependent children, and upon all incomes exceeding $2,000 
but not exceeding $6,000 in the case of all other persons, the respective 
minÏlna of $1,000 and $2,000 being exempt from taxation. A 
normal tax of 8 p.c. was levied on the excess of all incomes over $6,000. 
The surtax was Ïlnposed on a progressive scale on all incomes of over 
$6,000, applying first at the rate of 1 p.c. on the amount by which the 
income exceeded $5,000 and did not exceed $6,000; then at the rate 
of 2 p.c. on the amount by which the income exceeded $6,000 and did 
not exceed $8,000; then at a rate increasing by 1 p.c. for each $2,000 
increase of income up to $100,000, so that 48 p.c. \vas levied on the 
amount by \vhich the income exceeded $98,000 and did not exceed 
$100,000; then at 52 p.c. on the amount by which the income exceeded 
$100,000 and did not exceed $150,000; 56 p.c. on the excess between 

150,000 and 
200,000; 60 p.c. on the excess bet\veen $200,000 and 
$300,000; 63 p.c. on the excess between $300,000 and $500,000; 
64 p.c. on the excess bet\veen 
500,OOO and $1,000,000; 65 p.c. on 
the excess income over $1,000,000. 
Chapter 47 provided for the entire repeal of the extra duty of 5 
p.c. ad valorem added to the British Preferential Tariff under the 
Customs Tariff 'Var Revenue Act, 1915, and for the pnrtial repeal in 
respect of the intermediate and general tariff rates of the excess 
of 7! p.c. imposed under the same .Act; also for the free Îlnportation 
into Canada of \vheat, ,vheat flour and potatoes from countries not 
imposing a customs duty on such articles .when gro\vn or produced in 
Canada. Five cents per lb. were deducted from the duty on coffee 
roasted or ground under the preferential, intermediate and general 
tariff schedules and 3 cents per lb. were deducted from the duty on 



1VAR TAXA.TIOlV IN CANA.DA 


13 


Rritish grown te:JS under tbe pref{\rential tariff. Under the grneral 
tariff the \.ct provided for a total reduction (including the 7! p.c. 
".ar duty) from 27! p.c. to 15 p.c. on cultivat( rE, harrows, herse- 
rakes, se{\d-drills, HlanUrf' f'pr('nders and weeders and complete 
parts thereof; frolll 27! p.c. to 17! p.l'. on plough
 and ccmplete parts 
thereof, "pindn1ills and complete parts thf'reof, porta hIe enginf's and 
traction engines for fann pnrpc ses, horse-powers and threshing 
Inachine 
f'parators and appliances therefcr. On hay-leaders, petato 
diggers, fodder or feed cutters, g:rain crushers, fanning; mills, hay 
tedders, farn1, rond or field roll('rs. pest-hole diggf'rs, and ether 
fiJ.!:riculturnl ÌInpl(\nH.'nts, provision was llwde for a reducticn of duty 
to 20 p.c. ,vith a silnilar reduction on farm wagC'ns. Respecting 
cen1rnt, the ".ar custOD1S dut) ""as repl'alrd and the general tariff 
rüte redut'{'d to .3 c{'nts pcr 100 Ib8. Specific instead of ad valorelll 
rates of duty were f'nacteù for pig-lead, zinc spelter, and copper 
ingots. 
rhangl's madp in taxatioll at tht' 1 H20 scs::--ion cf thp Dcminion 
Parlifilnent arc drseribf'd in Sc{.tion XIII under the beading "Dcmin- 
ion Legislation, 1020." 


\\.\R TI'UF. F.XI>>.\:\
JOX O}l' GOYF.RX'IK
'T FT1XCTIOXS. 


I t ".a
 a m:.\xim uf ancient history that "".ar bringeth forth the 
I\:in
." \\ ar has intle('d in all ag{'s t('n({(\d to produce an in('rease in 
the functions of J,!;ovcrnment, and this increase is necessarily accom- 
panied by nn increase in g:ovrrnmental machinrry. Herein Canada 
has b('('n no exception to thf' rule, and, as naturally happenpd in a 
federation wherc the responsibility of carrying on the ,var ,vas upon 
thp should(1rs of the ccntral govcrnmf'nt, the functions 2nd machinery 
of that Government 'Yere considerably expand('d. It hecame nec('s- 
sary, for eÀaulple, to control the 11l0Venlent of pf'rsons, of inferm2tion, 
and of commodities across the national frontiers, to secure sufficient 
supplies of food and fuel both for domestic and f{)r industrial uses, 
and to organize the man po,ycr of the nation in the nlost effectivE 
way. 
The \'Y ar :\Ie3sures Act (chap. 2) passed during the short war 
session of ...\.ugust, 1914, gave to the Governor in Council authority 
extending to 
(a) censorship and the control find suppression of publications, 
writings, maps, plnns, photographs, communications and 
nleans of communication. 
(b) arrest, detention, f'xdusion and depcrtaticn; 
(c) control of the h3rbours, ports and territorial waters of Canada. 
and the movements of vessels; 
(d) transportation hy land, air, or "rater and the control of the 
transport of persons and things; 
(e) trading, exportation, importation, production and manu- 
facture; 
(f) appropriation, eontrol, forfeiture and disposition of property 
and of the use thereof. 



14 


RECO..\?STRUCTION I..V CANADA 


This Act also provided that ':no person who is held for deporta- 
tion under this _\ct or under any regulation made thereunder, or is 
under arrest or detention 3S an alien pnemy, or upon suspicion that 
he is an 3lien enf'my, or to prevent his departure froln Canada, shall 
be released upon bailor other,vise discharged or tried, ,vithout the 
consent of the l\Iinister of Justice." The s,veeping po,vers conferred 
by this Act ,vere the ehief basis of the ,var-time expansion of the 
functions of Government. 
Under the 'Yar l\Ieasures Act, a Cable Censorship Rran("h was 
established under the Department of ::\Iilitia and Defence, ,vith the 
object of preventing the transmission of information valuable to the 
enemy and of frustrating attempts made by the enemy to carryon 
commercial enterprises. "Orders and regulations for the prevention 
of the giving out of information calculated to be or that might be 
directly or indirectly useful to the enemy and for the prevention of 
espionage and generally for the security of His l\lajesty's forces in 
Canada" ,vere made by Order in Council of September 12, 1914. 
Further, follo\ving upon a voluntary press censorship initiated at 
the eommencement of the ,var in connection with the Cable Censor- 
ship Branch, there was established under Order in Council of June 
10, 1915, a legally recognized Press Censorship. 
A Director of Public Information was appointed on November 
9, 1917, and on September 12, 1918, a Department of Public Informa- 
tion was established and an 
\.ssociate Director appointed. The 
Department was chargpd ,vith the duty of disseminating throughout 
Canada information relating to the ,var, and especially to the opera- 
tions of the Canadian forces. In discharging its duties the Depart- 
ment published ,veekly in Canada the Canadian Official Record from 
October 1, 1
18, to August 28, 1919. It also published in Europe 
the Canadian Daily Record, for circulation among the Canadian 
troops overseas. 
A l\Iilitary Service Branch of the Department of Justice ,vas 
established by Order in Council of September 3,1917, for the purpose 
of enforeing the provisions of the l\Iilitary Service Act. 
A Public Safety Brauch of thf> Department of Justice, under a 
Director, ,vas formed under Order in Council of Oetobf'r 7, 1918, for 
the efficient administration of the la,vs, orders and regulations enacted 
for the preservation of public order and safety during the continuance 
of the ,var. 


FOOD CONTROL. 
Food control in Canada was initiated by an Order in Council of 
June 16, 1017, made under the provisions of the 'Var l\feasures Act, 
1914. A Food Controller ,yas appointed on June 21, 1917, ,,,ho took 
steps to make available the maximum supply of food (a) for the 
allied armies, (b) for the civilian populations of the United Kingdom 
and allied countries, and (c) for the civilian population of Canada. 
"Cnder Orders in Council made on the recommendation of the Food 
Controller, public eating houses were brought under regulation, the- 
manufacture and free importation of margarine was permitted under 
license, the use of grain and other materials in the distillation of 



RECOSSTRr;CTIO
Y IÞl CA...YAD..1 


15 


liquor 'VfiS prohibitpd, exports of food controlled, flour mills food 
nlanufacturers and other dealers in foodstuffs licel1s('d and re

lated. 
Thp functions of the Food Controller ".erc taken over on February 
11, 1918, by the Canada Food Board, ,vhich up to the datc of the 
armistice i
:;lH:d SOD1e 70 orders draling with thC' re
ulation of foods. 
Up to the end of 1918, the Canada Food Board issuf:d 78,016 licenses, 
12,13() in1port pprmits and 14,761 export permits. 1'he Food Board 
had its staff of inspf:ctors throughout the Dominion to enforce its 
rf:
ulations, but dependf:d to a great extpnt upon provincial and 
Jnuni('ipal authorities. It ".as dissolvrd by Ord('r in Council of 
::\Iar('h 19, 1019, ".hf:n its functions rf:lating to licensf:s for cxports 
from and imports into Canada ,v('re transfprrcd to the Canadian 
1'rad(' ('onln1is
ion. 
...\ Board uf Grain Sup<'ryisors of Canada ,vith offices at vrinnipeg 
,,-as appointl'<l by Ord('r in Couneil under thf' \Var l\Ieasures Act, 
1!H4, on June 11, 1017, with wid{' po".crs of control over thc dis- 
position of grain of thp 1017 ("rop, including the po,ver to fix maximum 
pricf's at whi('h J!rain n1ight bl. sold. Prices based upon grain in 
store at the puhlic tprminal plevators at Fort \Yillian1 and Port 
Arthur Wf:re fixpd for thr ('rnp years ('ndf:d August 31, 1918, and 
(undpr an (''Xt('n
ion of the Board's po".{'rs) ] n19. During; these 
year::; tlH' \YIH'at Export Conlpany, 3 grain pun.hasing agency estab- 
lish{'d by th(' ImpC'rial ({ovprnment under the lloyal Commission 
on \Ylu'at RuppliC's, took <'hargc of exportahle surpluses of grain 
d('f'tinl'd for the lTnitl'd ]\:ingdom, Frnnel' and Italy. \Vhcn after 
the arnli
ti('e the functions of tlu' l{,oyal ConlnlÌssion on 'Yheat Sup- 
plies wrre in 191H extended to deal ,vith that year's crop, thc DonlÏnion 
GOVl'rnll1pnt, by Order in Council of July 31, 1019, created the 
Canadian \\ heat Board,. whi('h was instrueted to dispose of the 
whcat ('rop of 1010 in the Inost profitahle way. The Board was 

iv('n pn,vpr to control tllf' sale of wheat in the home market as well 
as for pxport, :lnd during the first six months of the crop season of 
1919, it also controlled the price at which millers eould sell flour in 
Canada. Thp Board adopted a sch('me including an initial advance 
p:lYlnent to thC' producer of 'wheat, the issuance of participation 
eertificatf:s, and the poolin
 of rpturns. Thc final result was that the 
produc('r rf'ceived 
2.G3 per bushcl for his 1919 crop on the basis of 
No. 1. :\lanitoba Korth('rn, in storc at Fort \rilliam and Port Arthur. 
1'he Inark{'tin
 of th(' 1020 crops ,vas handlrd by privatf' enterprise. 


FrEL CO
TROl... 


Fuel control con111H'Bced in the summer of 1917, ,vhen it became 
evident that o\ving to the entry of the Unitf'd 
tates into the war 
and the enforcement of the draft in that country, the coal supply 
of Canada and the United States ,vas becoming inadequate to the 
denland. {;nder Order in Council of July 12,1917, a Fuel Controller 
for Canada ,vas appointed, and as a consequence of his recommenda- 
tions provision v;as made for the appointment of Fuel Administrator:- 
by the provinces and of Local Fuel Commi
sioners by municipalities. 



16 


RECONSTRUCTION IlV CA.NADA 


Under the scheme of administration adopted, the Fuel Controller 
for Canada took charge of negotiations for.the inlportation of coal from 
the United States and for the shipment thereof, and also promoted 
increased production of coal within the country, afterwards making 
up his coal "budget" of total available supply and allotting its fair 
share to each Province. The Provincial Fuel Administrators then 
proceeded to allot its fair share of the provincial supply to each 
community, and the Local Fuel Administrators to distribute to the 
consumers within each community their pro rata share of the coal 
available. By Order in Council of l\larch 5, 1920, the Order in Council 
of July 12, 1917, appointing a Fuel Controller, and all other Orders 
i.n Council and Regulations respecting fuel control, were cancelled. 
By chapter 66 of the Statutes of 1920, however, fuel control during 
the coal year 1920-21 was vested in the Board of Railway Commis- 
SlonerR. 


UTILIZATION OF TilE NATIOY.\L I
ABOUß FORCE. 


'Vhole nations, rather than mere annies, are involved in 1110dern 
warfare; in the final analysis, each civilian, as ,veIl as each soldier or 
sailor, must go where he or she can render most effective service to 
the common cause. 1Vhile this was fortunately unnecessary in the 
Great War, preparations ,vere nevertheless being lnade to,vards 
its close for the conscription of the whole labour power of the nation. 
As a natural corollary to the Military Service Act which imposed 
conscription for military service upon certain classes of the male 
population, there was passed on April 4, 1918, an Order in Council, 
the purpose of ,vhich was therein defined as to "prevent persons 
capable of useful work from remaining in idleness at a time ,vhen the 
country most urgently requires the service of all hUlnan energy 
available". This Order in Council provided that every mnle person 
between the ages of 16 and 60 residing in the DOlninion of Canada, 
not being a student training for some useful occupation or physically 
iDcapacitated or temporarily unemployed in consequence of a difference 
with his employer, should be regularly engaged in SOlne useful occupa- 
tion. As a means to the same end, an Order in Council of October 
11, 1918, forbade both strikes and lockouts for the duration of the 
war. Further, in order to provide for the Inost effective distribution 
of the labour force of the Dominion, the Canada Registration Board 
was constituted by Order in Council of February 22, 1918, under 
the Chairmanship of the l\Iinister of Labour. Regulations issued 
by the Board called for the registration of every resident of Canada, 
16 years of age and upwards, with the exception of certain very 
limited classes, each registrant being required to state nis occupation, 
and other possible occupations of use to the nation in ,vhich he might 
be elnployed. The registration ,vas carried out, ,vith the assistance 
of a large number of voluntary ,vorkers, on June 22, 1918, the total 
registration on that date being 5,044,034 (2,572,654 males and 2,471,- 
280 females). Subsequently, through the lnedium of the post offices, 
there ,vere registered 202,749 additional persons, giving a total of 
5,246,703, being a registration amounting to 96.7 p.c. of the estimated 



UTILIZ lTIV..V OF TIlE NATIOJ.VAL LABOUR FORCE 17 


rl'
Ô:,t('rahlc population of the Dominion. As:l rC:-5ult of the reo'Îstra- 
tion, provincial authorities 'yef(
 fUrI
i:-:hed ,vith the name
 and 
addrc;:,,,e:5 of 140,000 per-.;ons experienced in SOlne branch of agriculture, 
but not at the tÎ1ne engaged therein. The armistice averted the 
nf'cp
:-\ity for any lHore pÀtensive displacenlent of labour as a result 
of the rf'gi-.;tration. 


('O-OUDI:\.\Tt;J) o.-t:U.\TIO:\ Ot' C_\N.\J)I.\
 R.\ILW.\ YS. 
...-\.d(\quate tran
portation facilities are a fundanlental requisite 
of efff'ctive Illodern ,varfarp, a
 GerInany realized before the ,var, 
and l{u
:,ia, to hrr co
t, after enterinp: upon the struggle. Great 
Britain ('ollllnandeerf'ù the raihvay Systf'1l1S of the country on August 
.
, 1014, and ,vith the co-operation of the raih,.ay officials, operated 
t helu as a 
ing;l(' unit throughout the \vhole course of the conflict, 
thus s('curing the IlUD..inluIH efficiency of tran
portation. As the war 
Wf'nt on, the neces:"\ity of unified operation of the raihvays ,vas recog- 
nized in rrruada abo. rrhe Railway ...\.ssociation for Kational Defence 
,va
 fornled on Ortober 23, 1917, \vith objects \vhieh are stated in the 
follo".ing resolution, passed on that date: 
"l'hat the raihvays of Canada, realizing the national need of 
co-ordinating all industrial activities to,vard the prosecution of the 
,val', and desiring by further co-opf'ration ,yith each other to render 
the most effirient possible service to the national cause, do hereby 
agree to establi
h for the pf'riod of the ,,
ar an organization \\'hich shall 
have general authority to fOrInulate in detail, and from time to time, 
a policy of operation of all or any of the raihvays, ,vhirh policy \vhpn 
it is announcpd by such organization shall be accepted and made 
efTective by the :-.)everal Dlanagemcnts of the individual raihvay 
COll1 panics." 
In the follo\ying year, the Association ,vas re-organized ao;; the nan- 
rrdian I{aihvay 'Var Board, and rendered valuable service in getting 
nlen aud Inunitions to the front, and in economizing the use of rolling 
stock, throughout the course of the ,yare Since the war it has been 
succeeded by the Raihvay _\ssociation of Canada. 


OTIrF.R ".\R-TI'IE GOYERX:\IEXTAL A('
TIVITIES. 
The 'Y fir Purchasing Commission ,vas appointed under Order 
in Council of ::\[ay 8, 1915, to supervise purchase of all equipment, 
store8 and supplies, for ".hich payment had to be made out of the 
'Var Appropriation fund:-\. The functions of the Commission were 
extended by Order in Council of February 6, 1918, to include the 
purcha
e or supervision of purchase of all supplies required for any 
purpo
e by Governmental commissions, boards and departments, 
these purchases to be made on a cOlnpetitive basis, tenders being 
invited flom all persons and firnlS kno\vn to the commission to be 
engaged in the business concerned. 
The l\Iunition::; Resources Commission was appointed by Order 
in Council of Xovember 27, 1915, for the purpose of enquiring into 
Ih427-2 



18 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANA.DA. 


and reporting upon the supply and sufficiency of ra-\v materials in 
Canada required for the production of munitions of ,var and as to 
the best method of conserving the same. The services of this Com- 
mission were placed at the disposal of the Imperiall\funitions Board 
and of manufacturers of munitions. An inventory of Canadian 
mineral resources was commenced in the ,vinter of 1917-18 in co- 
operation with a similar inventory being made by the \Var Minerals 
Committee of the United States. 
The \Var Trade Board ,vas established by Order in Council 
of February 9, 1918, as a sub-committee of the War Committee' 
of the Cabinet, 'with the l\finister of Trade an d Commerce as Chair- 
man. Its powers were to direct the issue of licenses for exportation 
and importation: to supervi
e in it
 discretion all industrial and 
commercial enterpri
es, so as by co-operation with producers to 
prevent waste of labour, ra\v material and product
, to make recom- 
mendations for the main ten ance of more eEsential a
 compared with 
less eEsential industries, and to work in co-operatión with the 
Canadian \Var l\Iis
ion at \Vashington and to co-operate with the 
\Var Trade Board of the United States 
o a
 to secure the most 
effective unity of action by the two countries for war purposes. 
The Canadian "'7"ar Mi
Eion at Washington was constituted by 
Order in Council in February, 1918, for the purpose of securing the 
most effective co-operation between Canada and the United States 
in respect of the e
onomic and financial measures connected with the 
prosecution of the war, the growing demandE for increased production, 
improved means of transportation and more comprehensive organiza- 
tion, and to engage the utn10st effort of human po,verfor economic as well 
as military purposes. The l\fisEion was instructed to act in the 
closest conjunction ,,
ith the British War Mission at \Vashington. 


YOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS OF TilE PEOPLE. 


1Iany of the measures enacted into law by Orders in Council 
under the \Var l\feasures Act of 1914, would in less extraordinary 
times have bee
 thought to infringe the fundamental rights of British 
subject
. At the time that Act was paEsed, however, there was no 
opposition and very little criticism of its provisions in Parliament, 
and the people of Canada as a ,,"hole loyally accepted many restric- 
tions and inconveniences as being necessary to the successful prosec- 
ution of the war. The Canadian people, indeed, 'went farther. 
In addition to the burdens imposed upon them by the State, as 
individuals and collectively they undertook and discharged other 
heavy obligations, contributing largply to the patriotic ,var funds 
of the various allied countries as ,veIl as to their o\vn. 
The value of the free gifts of the people of Canada for war pur- 
poses, including the Patriotic and Red Cross Funds and a great 
variety of other agencies and Allied relief funds, was estimated at 
the close of the war to exceed 598,714,900, being $11.37 per capita 
of the total population. 



rOLu,.v'P..tR}
 CO..V'TRIBU'TIONS OF PlIP PEOPLE 19 


'fhe follo\\ in
 is a SUBunary of t 11(\ various l'ontributions:- 


Fund. 


Dal .. of latest rf'turn. 


Value. 


s 


Canadian Patriotic, inC'luding inwre:-.t....... . . ... Ðt'{'emb{'r 31, 1918. .. . . . . .. . 
Donations of Dominion and ProvinC'ial Govprn- 
nwnts to thp Impprial Gov{'rnnwnt ... . . . . . . 
,ra.nitoha Patriotic Fund...... ...... ..... 
Iar('h 31, HH8.............. 
Canadian Rpd CrosR (',1.sh... .. ... .. .. ....... D('cI'mh('l' 7, 1918.......... . 
Canadian Red Cro
s 8uppli('s.................... (r:;;timated)................. 
British Rpd C'ro
. . .... .. .. ... . . . . . . .. ... .. DeC'('mher 31, 1917...... . . . . 
B{'l!!lsn Relief ('ash......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. De('ember 19, 1918.... . . . . . . 
Bpl
ian RPlid suppli<>s... .. ...... . .... . ...... (('stimat{'d)................. 
Youn
 '{en's Chrbtian A;:.:-oriation for military 
"'ork. . . . .. . _ _ _. . . . . . . .. . _ . . . . . . . . 

 Ii:sc(' llanpou:i. . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ . . . . _ . . . . . . 


46, 187,763 


5, 4G!), 320 
3, !}!) 7, 042 
7,771. OS3 
1
,500,OOO 
6,100.000 
1, r.4
. 104 
1,512,ROO 
4,574,
2t 
8,000,000 
!IS, 714, 933 


'fhp miEccllaneou!== contrihution
 includcd pift
 for the equiplHcnt 
and maintf:nance of ho:-\pitals o'.{\rsea
 and in l;anada, contrihutiors 
to the French, rolish and 
erLian l
elief Funds and to 11UJlH'rOUS 
as
ociations for the supply of field conlfortE' to troopf: oyer:--eas and for 
the care of returned :-:ol(liers. 


Tilt; I.O
T-\\.\U SITUATJO
. 
.ÂE the ab"'orptiol1 of thc Etrength of th(' nation in t he pro
ecution 
of the ,,'ar beCall1C Inorc and lllore conlplete to\\'ards the close of the 
conflict, there loollird up more and B10rr vividly in the nlind" of its 
state::5U1CIl the realization of the 
reat d
f'locations which ,,'ould be 
produced by a sudden stoppage of the grent ,var luachine, ".hich ".aR 
occupying the full attention of SOlne 300,000 Canadians overseas 
and of as In:lny nlore in the ulunitions manufacture at hOTne, as ".ell 
as creatiu
 an extraordinary demand for nlany ordinary peace-tilne 
product
-a denutnd 'which nlÌght di
appear almost overnight with 
thf: ces
ation of hostilities. 
In the full realization of this situation, the Cabinet on October 
23, 1917, cönstituted itself into tw'o Inain branches or conlluittees, the 
one, kno-wn as the War COlnmittee, to deal" ith the problems involved 
in the pro
ecution of the war, the other, kno,vn as the Reconstruction 
and Development Committee, to consider the problems ,vhich woulù 
heconle acute ,yith the return of peace. The Prime 
Iinh:ter, the 

[ini
ters of Trade and Con1merce and of Finance, 'were n1emLers of 
both cOlnmittees. The \\ ar Conllnittee included, besidef the foregoing, 
the 
Iinisters of External Affairs, Justice, :\Iarine and Naval Service, 
Custonls, :\lilitia and Defence, Public \Y orks, the Postmaster- 
General, the President of the Privy Council, and the l\Iinister of the 
Overseas l\Iilitary :Forces. The REconstruction and Development 
Committee included, in addition to the Prime l\Iinister and the 

[inisters of Trade and Conlmerce and of Finance, the 
Iinisters of 
18427-2
 



20 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


Railways and Canals, Immigration and Colonization, Agriculture, 
Labour, the Secretary of State, the l\Iinister of Soldiers' Civil Re- 
establishment, the l\Iinister of the Interior and Indian Affairs, the 
\Tice-Chairman of the Reconstruction Committee, and a l\IiniEter 
,vithout POItfolio. 


PART II.-RE-ESTABLISHMENTOF RETURNED SOLDIERS. 


First and foremost of the great reconstruction problems 'which 
first the Cabinet and later the Reconstruction and Development 
Committee of the Cabinet, had to Eolve was that of the re-establish- 
ment of the returning soldier in civilian life in a position not less 
favourable than the one which he had given up to serve his country, 
thus minimizing the financial sacrifice made by the soldier and at the 
same time contributing to,yards the restoration of the productive 
forces of the country. Since the Eoldiers who during the war returned 
from overseas c
me back wounded or at least unfitted for active 
service, the problem of their re-establishment in civil life first presented 
itself as a problem of hospital treatment. The first work in soldiers' 
civil re-establishment was, therefore, naturally performed by the 
l\Iilitary Hospitals Commission. This Commission was established 
under Order in Council of June 30, 1915, to deal with the provisíon 
of hospital accommodation and convalescent homes in Canada, for 
officers and men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force who returned 
invalided from the front. 
MILITARY HOSPITALS COIUMISSJON. 
The cOlnmission, under the presidency of The Honourable Sir 
James A. Lougheed, P.C., K.C.l\1.G., undertook the provision of 
convalescent hospitals and homes for men returning invalided from 
the front. Houses for these purposes were offered, usually rent 
free, by many patriotic citizens. Gradually hospitals and convales- 
cent homes were opened and arrangements were made 'with general 
hospitals, tuberculosis sanatoria, provincial hospitals for the insane 
and other institutions, for the reception and care of those who 'were 
returning disabled from overseas. By the beginning of 1917 the 
commission had accommodation for about 1,500 patients. During 
that year approximately 10,000 beds in 40 centreE in nine provinces 
were made available, mainly in buildings of modern, yet inexpensive 
construction, equipped for the proper care and treatment of patients. 
The most difficult and insistent problem which the Commission 
had to face was the provision of accommodation for men suffering 
from tuberculosis. In the hurry and rush of the early months of 
mobilization large numbers of men who had been passed as fit were 
found to be suffering from this disease in various stages. They 
lived in every province. It was necessary therefore to arrange for 
their care in every province. Through the co-operation of Provincial 
Governments, municipalities and local anti-tuberculosis associations 
with the Commission, extensions to existing sanatoria were erected 
towards the cost of 'which the Provinces contributed. Provision of 
this class of accommodation involved far more than the mere erection 



JfILI1'AtRY I/O.'>:PI P.\LS CO]fJl/SSIOl'{ 


21 


of payilion
, it inyoh.cd additiol1
 to nduliniRtrativf' buildinl!
, indudil1g 
kitrh(,l1
, dining rOOlns, :,torng p fapilitif's, laundry, PO\\ cr for lip;ht 
and hC'at etr. 


In:I..\U1':\lt:
T Ol
' S())
l)IEUS' C"'IL UE-E'-'T \llLl
JI'lt
XT. 


In 
\ pril, 1018, the nctivC' trC'atment. hO
I>ital
 opC'ratpd by tbe 
('onlnlÌ:-\:-\ion ,ven' turnC'd oyp!" to thp ])ppartn1C'nt of ::\filitia and 
] )pfC'l1ce, in ord('r that that DppartIl1eut nlig,ht care for tlw UIPn ".bo 
hnd not l)('(\n di
('hargC'd. rrhe :i\filitary Irospital
 COllllnission, 
,vhieh had tlH'll lH,'t'll IlH'rg,pd into thC' DppartlIwnt of 
oldiprs' Civil 
Hp-cstahli
hnlC'llt, creatpd under 'flu' })ppartnlC'nt of 8oldierR' (1ivil 
Re-p
ta hli:,hnlpnt Art, 1 n18 (b-9 (':C'o. Y., ('hap. 12), rC'tained re
- 
pon:,ihility for all ca:-\(':, of 1011
 duration. 
uch :\
 t hu....p :iufTC'ring fronl 
tubC'rrulosis and in
anity and al
o all r:1:,(':-\ of rp('UITC'ncp of "nr 
di
3bility nftpr dC'IHohiliza tion. 
lTndC'r the n('\\ :\rranf.:t'lnl'ut thp pC'ak of the load was rC'a('hed, 
in 
o far as in-patient:, \\ ('1'(' ronrC'rnC'd, on FC'hruary 28, 1 D20, ".hC'n 
there ,ypre '; ,GIS cases in ho::.-pital. 'fhe peak of the load in rC'
I)('('t of 
out-patif'nt
 "
as rcachC'd in Noypmhcr, 1H20, ".bcu therc ,yere 2,137. 
On ::\[arrh 31, In21, therC' wprC' 6 2ö-1 in-patients and 540 out-patients. 
Of the in-patients, h"'O ,ven' undergoing treatIncnt for nlental di
C':u.,p
 
and 1,376 for tuhcrculo
i
. 
'fh(\ D('partmpl1t W[i:-- on 
[ar('h 31, ] f}
1, operatinp- directly or 
indirectly 31 ho"'pital:-; and :-:anatoria with a total bed capacity of 
6.781. rrhe Dcparhncnt a]
o opl'ratC's J!{'ueral and spef'ial rlinics 
for tht. treatrnent of recurr('nt ".ar di:--ahilitif's, (a) general trcatment 
(nH'diral and surgical); (b) speeial 
(,1l
(, (('ye, car, no
(' and thro:\t); 
(c) genito-urinary (all di
pases of the tract); (d) chest clinics. 
Alnong thp hu:-,pitals opl'ratC'd hy tll(' Departmcnt [ire t,,
o p
ychopa- 
thif' in
tituti()ns for all IH'rYOU
 anò IJ1Pntal di:'f'a:-\f':'. 
The follo,ving figurp:-\ giy{' tlH' total nUlllhC'r of patÌ{'nt:; given 
ho:--pital treahnent f'ince thC' ('omnH'IH'('ment of the ,york: July 1, 
19]5, to Def'. 31, In1ß, hy 
filitary ITo
pital
 Comlni

ion, approxim- 
atdy 22,742; Jan. 1, 1017, to J.\Iarrh 31. 101h, by 
Iilitary IIo:-\pitnls 
Conlmi:--
ion 2S.25h; _\.pril 1, 1018 to De('. 31, 1010, by })p}>1. of 

.C.H., 34,554; Jan. 1, 1020 to Dec. 31, 10
0, by Dept. of 
.C.}{. 
23,501; Jan. 1, 1921, to 1\Iar. 31, 1021, by Dl'pt. of S.C.R. (new 
ca
es) 4,237; total 113,402. Clinical trC'atments: 
Iay 1, 1919 to 
Dec. 31, 1919. by Dept. of H.C.H., 126,057; January 1, 1920 to Dec. 
31, 1020, by Dept. of S.C.H., 447,142; January 1, 1921, to ::\Iarch 
31, 1921, by Dept. of 
.C.R. 00,455; total 669,G54. 
A 
ocial service 
ection is being operated by the ::\Iedical Branch 
an10ng tuberculo
i
 ('a
l':S, neurological and n1ental cases, out-patients 
who are unable to work, ard nlen, ,yho though they do not require 
treatnlent, mu
t be cla""'cd as sub-normal in the ordinary labour 
nlar ket. 
l\.
 dietetics i
 no,," recognized to be one of the most important 
featuref' of up-to-date hospitat operation, the DC'pal'tment organized 
and developed a special dietary section, and dietitians, with assistants 



22 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


\vhere required, were placed in all hospitals operated by the Depart- 
nlent. The result is that the food is better and is more effectively . 
balanced in so far as caloric value is concerned, and \vhen compared 
'with the previously recognized system of food control, a marked 
economy in expenditure is to be seen. 
As a consequence of the conclusion of reciprocal arrangelnents 
with various countries, the Department established a Foreign Relations 
Section in connection with the l\Iedical Branch, for dealing with 
fonner members of the Canadian forces receiving treatment abroad 
and former nlenlbers of the British and Allied forces receiving; treat- 
Inent in Canad
L 
Shortly after the ArnlÌstice, it was recognized that treatment 
might have to be provided for fornler melnbers of the forces \yho were 
suffering fronl disabilities not directly attributable to ,var service but 
\"hich might have been indirectly caused thereby, owing to a temp- 
orarily lo\vered physical resistance to epidelnic or other con ditions. 
Po,ver ,vas therefore taken to grant free treatment and medicine to 
all former nlembers of the Forces \vho might fall ill during 12 months 
following the date of retirement or discharge. SOlne thousands of men 
in this \vay secured free medical treatment, a concession \vhich 'was 
lunch appreciated. 
Prior to Fehruary 24, 1917, no provision ,,-as lllade for the pay- 
.nlent of former members of the forces 'vho had suffered a recurrence 
of \var disability. On that date an Order in Council ,vas passed by 
the Departnlent of l\Ii1itia and Defence, (P.C. 508), under the authority 
of which all such men 'were specially re-attested for medical treatment, 
and the pay and allowance which they had received on service \vere 
granted. This continued in force until the active treatInent hospitals 
operated by the 1\Iilitary Hospitals Commission \vere turned over to 
the Departnlent of l\iilitia and Defence, when a special scale of pay 
and allowances, based upon militia rates, plus an anlount equivalent 
to Patriotic Fund allowances in respect of depend3nts, was substituted 
for the allowances under P.C. 508, and was payable by the Depart- 
nlent of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establishment. These rates, on the basis of a 
thirty day month, provided $33.00 per month for a private \vithout de- 
pendants, $73.00 for a married nlan without children, with additional 
allowances for children; free clothing, where necessary, was granted. 
On September 1, 1920, the rates were increased to $45.00 for single 
men (inclusive of $7.00 per month in lieu of clothing issue) and $86 
for married men without children, with additional allowances for 
children. In both cases special subsistence was granted for out- 
patients. 


VOCATIOXAI
 TRAIl\
l\ G FOR DISABLED SOLDIERS. 


Prior to the Great 'Val' it had never been considered necessary 
to provide vocational training for men who \vere disabled by war. 
Apart from the payment of a snlall pension, these lnen \vere allo\ved 
to fend for themselves and often drifted into the ranks of the unem- 
ployable. The Government of Canada was the first of the .Allied 



rOCA TION.tL TR_lllVINO FOR VIS.iI/LED SOLDIERS 23 


Governnl
nts to recognize that thc rc-training of the di
ahled 1l1en 
at puhlic expense ".a:-; a neCl'

ary post-\var problenl, be
ide
 Lein
 
H socialJy profitable inve..;tment for publi(' funds. T'hc :\lilitary 
IIo:-\pitnls COIllnli:-\sion ,vas authorized to provide facilities for such 
re-training and for the is
tlc of PHY and fillo,vances ".hile thi
 rf'-trainin{! 
"'a
 in progreß::;. ArranJ.?;elnent:-; 'werc IHad,"' for the opf'ning of 
pecial 

('hool
, for th
 utilization of existing provineial and private institu- 
tions, and for thc placin
 of nlen in indu
tri
s where an intpnsive 
apprenticeship to the n('\\" trade could hp carri
d out. ..\8 an adjunct 
a 
p
cial employnlent and follow-up 
('rvic(' wa:-; e
tHhli
hell. Large 
nUllloers of di
ahl<.d men availpd th
ln
elves of the:-\e facilitif'
, 
thc peak of thç lO'ld being r('a('h
rl in 
r
rch, 1920, ,vhen upwanl
 of 
26,000 (inclusive of nlÌnors rCfelTf'd to hplow) ,vpre l.nHlf'r
oing train- 
inJ.?;. "I'he total ,vho had taken training prior to 'larch 31, IH21, ,vas 
.'j0,996, of ,,,hon1 38,9B4 had graduaÜ.d. Of thp halance, 2,990 at 
that datc wcre undergoing training and H,012 had di:-\cuntinued their 
eour
cs for various reasons. "fhe:--:c luen were traiu
d in 421 distinct 
occupations. Fol1o,v-up Rtatistic
 fo;ho\\"cd that fiG. 01 p.c. of the 
number trainf'd in })epartnlental :-;(.hool
, 79. 3() p.c. of tho:--e trained 
in outside t'rhools, find 73.19 p.c. of tho
e trained in indu:-;tric
, 
,,,ere 
ub
equent ly f'In ployed in the linp of work in which they \\"ere 
trained, or an aVf'rnge of 71. Uti p.e. 
..\t the conllllencenlcllt of thf' vocational training "york t,vo 
poli('if':-; Wf're opf'n to thf' Goy'erull1pnt: (1) 'fo take thf' nlf'n and train 
thenl in highly skilled tr:1(1f'
, 
t1ch a
 ('arpcntprs, printcr
, pltunbcrs, 
Inachini:-\t
, etc., ,vhich, ,vithout previou
 
kill in the
e trades to build 
upon, ,vould havp tak
n fron1 onc to thre' years or po:-::-:ihly IHorp. 
(2) If the nl
n Wf'f(' t'killf'd in 
OH1P occupation, to build upon that 
foundation, by training in SOllle lightf'r occupation rlo
cly allied to 
it, whcre fOflupr cxperience n!Ìght ])(' Illade u..;e of, or if th(\re ,vas no 
previous 
kill to huild upon, to train in :;olne occupation, not piecE: 
,york, 'where a full ,vage could be (':trnf'd in fronl t) to 8 months. The 
s
cond lilcthorl hac:; been adopted as a general principlf'. It Inay he 
added that tho
e 'who received training have ranged in age froln 
youths to Inen of 50 ycars, in education, from the illiterate to the 
university 
tudent, industrially, from the lowe
t grade labourer to 
the Blost highly skilleù mechanic. 
An iInportant 
uh-divif:ion of the vocational courses ,vas the 
trainin
 provided for nlinorfo; who enlisted unùer the age of 18 and 
thus suffered a 
prious intcrruptioll of their apprenticeship or eclucatiop. 
This hranch of the work of the ])epartnlent of Soldiers' Civil Re- 
establi
hmen1. ,vas cOllilllencf'd in the 
priIlg of 1919. The nunlber 
of minors to ,,,hom courses ,yere granted 'vaf' 11,584, 8,091 of whom 
had graduated by l\Iarch 31, 1921, ,vhile 251 ,vere still in training 
and 3,242 had for variou
 reason
 discontinued thcir courses. 
Another aspect of the training activitieH 'which have becn deve- 
loped is that of occupational therapy in the hospitals. It "
a
 found 
in the early 
tageH of the "
ork that tinle hung heavily on the hand'S 
of the convalescent, and it ,va:-: determined to establish classes and 
'war occupations which ,vould relieve the tediunl. This branch of 


. 



24 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA_ 


the work has been most successful. A special corps of ward aides 
,vas trained and it became a regular part of the procedure in all 
departmental hospitals for men to spend a portion of the day in per- 
forming some useful occupational work. This training is often 
commenced while the patient is bed-ridden. The sale of the articles 
produced has proved a welcome addition to the Departmental allow- 
ances. 


HE-TRAINING OF THE BLIND. 
The re-training of blinded soldiers is an inlportant branch of the 
Department's activities. Their training, as was early recognized, 
must be of such a character as to enable them to adjust themselves 
to a ne'w condition and to develop to the greatest extent the senses 
of touch and hearing. The blinded soldiers are taught ho,v to be 
blinò. Blinded soldiers formed a very small percentage of the 
casualties of the Great "\Var, the number receiving pensions on account 
of blindness or impaired eyesight being 1,966, of whom 192 had 
sight 80 impaired as to require re-training, 110 of these being totally blind 
or having only a perception of light. Arrangements were made by 
the Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-Esta,blishment whereby all in 
this condition who wished to do so might receive training at S1. 
Dunstan's Hostel, Regent's Park, London. The Department also 
entered into arrangements \vith the Canadian National Institute for 
the Blind for the training at Pear:son Hall, Toronto, of those 'who did 
not avail themselves of the facilities provided at St. Dunstan's, and 
for a special post-graduate course for those who did. Further, 
provision has been made through the Institute, at the expense of the 
Government, for after-care and for establishment in business of those 
capable of looking after themselves. Blind soldiers have received 
training in such industries as mas:sage, poultry farming, carpentry, 
piano-tuning, stenography, broom-making and telegraphy. 


PRO\"ISION OF ARTIFICIAl.. LIIUßS AND APPLIAl''"('ES. 
The 1\lilitary Hospitals Comnlission recognized in June, 1916, 
that in order adequately to give effect to the Government's policy of 
caring for disabled members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 
it was necessary to supply artificial limbs to those men \vho had 
suffered anlputation as a result of their war service. Prior to this 
date the manufacture of these appliances had been in the hands of 
private firms in Canada and the United States and no standard type 
was universally available, 'while the number of experienced limb 
fitters and surgical appliance makers was limited. The essential 
thing was that the Government should be in a position to control and 
to standardize the issue of these appliances, in view of the fact that 
rene,vals and repairs would have to be issued in all parts of Canada. 
It was therefore decided to establish a Governmental organization 
independent of private interests. Further it was recognized that 
this industry would form a very useful and remunerative occupation 
for a number of returned men who had themselves suffered amputa- 
tion. The first government artificial limb factory was temporarily 



PIlOJ ISIO.V OP ARTIPICI1I J IJIBS .1ND APPLIANCES 25 


ópencd at 47 Buchanan btn
et, 'roronto, and the' work grew to such 
an extent that the larJ!est and nlo::;t up-to-date factory in Canada with 
fitting d('pot:-\ in all the principal ccntres is operated by the })epart- 
lllent of 8oldi('r
' Civil H('-e:-ìtahli:-\llJnPllt. 
\n expl'IÌInental branch i
 
maintained J which is constantly engagcd in rl('vÜ
in
 and developing 
nc". design
 nnd imprOYelllentlo\ on existing appliances. T'hc ])epart- 
nlent is 3bo 11lanufacturing 
urgj('nl applinllces such us spliJlt
, 
braces, belts, corsets, orthopædic hoot
, 8I>ectacle
, etc. Bince the 
rOnlnlf'nCenlC'llt of the \\ork in lU16, gf),

Ð7 appliances of all kinds 
have been is..;ued, 37,135 of thenl during the fiscal year ended l\Iarch 
31, In:!l, thc latt'r lltUnoer including 15,132 n"'pairH. 


))()
T-DI
t"'IJ.\R(a: 1)f:
T.\I
 TRE.\TJtI:
T. 


'flu' Dental Rranch of thp T)epnrÌIllent ".
l
 ebtahli::;hcd, not for 
the purpose of providing d(\lltal '\C'r,.ices for l'yery p:X-Inenlhpf of 
the forces, but to scrve whcn IH'cc""'ary as an adjunct in the r('
tora- 
tion of f'uch ex-melnhers of the force
 to nonnni hl'alth and f\trel}
th. 
'rho:-,(\ entitled to dpntal tr('aÌIll('nt hy the dl'partnH\nt are: (1) Ex- 
nleluLcrs of the forces on the treahucnt or traillin
 Rtrength of the 
Department. rrhi
 c1a:--
 recpive
 dC'ntal trC'atment only ,,'hCD it is 
indieated by the unit'
 Illedical direetor that such trentnlcnt ,viII 
irnprove the luan's general condition. (2) EX-Inenlhel s of the 
force:-- ,vho rcquire dCI.tal heatnlcnt for repair or direct daluage to 
the j::nv or t('('th re:-\ulting frolH "ar f:('rvict'. Thi:-- cla:--s iududef: 
cases of recurrcnce of infectcd nlouth due to servi('e which require 
treatIuent for 3 toxic systelnic condition, due to th
 recurrence of 
oral infection. Thc:--C' In('n are placed in thc 
ame po:-oition af: those 
suffering frolll any other physical di:--ability due to "ervice, and 
receive either full pa)" and allowanccs or are takcn on the ::;trength 
a
 out-p:.lticnt
, being granted allo".ance
 for the time lost in 
a tten ding for trea hnen t, accordin
 to the circunH
t H nces of the ('ase. 
(3) Ex-nlelnhers of the forces ref('rred to the Department by the 
Board of Pension r'ommi:-::-\ioners ".hen it is considered that dental 
treahllent is neCf'
:-\ary to lower pen
iona ble di:..:aoility. 
The nunlber of dental services rendered in Deparhn(,lltal clil)ic
 
frOlll January 1, 1920, to l\Iarch 31, 1921, consisted of 207,308 opera- 
tion::;. In addition 754 patients" ere treated by other than depart- 
nlelltal 
alaried dcnti
ts. It ba::i 13e(,11 found that the installation of 
dental clinics in the hospitals of the Department has resulted in 
many CH::,e:s in a material inlprovement in the condition of the patients. 
Thi
 has been found particularly the ca
e in tuberculosis sanatoria, 
and several instances have heen discovered where an apparent chest 
disability has entirely disappeared ,vhen an unknown dental dis- 
ability has been discovered and reluedied. The dent31 branch has 
also dealt "ith a nunlher of facial ,"ar injuries where bone grafting 
has been required and ,,,here conlplicated prostheses have been 
fitted. 



26 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


EJIPI
OYMENT OF DEMOBILIZED SOI..DIERS. 
It was early recognized that not only was it necessary to provide 
medical treatnlent for a returned soldier, but that he should be 
introduced to enlployment ,vhen in a fit condition to ,vork. In 
October, 1915, the secretary of the 1\lilitary Hospit.als Commission 
was directed to prepare a report on the sÜbject of the provision of 
employment for nlenlbers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force on 
their return to Canada and the re-education of those unable to fono". 
their previous occupations because of disabilities. The report with 
appendices ,vas printed as a blue book and is one of the first docunlents 
issued by any Government in connection with employment after 
the great ,val' and is the first ,vhich contained definite proposals 
regarding re-training of the disabled. I t was pointed out in this 
report that all those ,vho returned would be found to be in one of the 
following classes:-(I) "Able-bodied men for whom the situationb 
and positions they left have been kept open hy patriotic enlployers." 
(2) "Able-bodied men ,vho were out of work at the time of enlistment 
or 'who have been superseded in their absence; and invalided and 
,vounded men similarly situated ,vho ,viII become able-bodied after 
a period of rest in a convalescent home." (3) "Invalided and wounded 
nlen "rho are unable to follow their previous occupation by reason of 
their disability, but who will be ca pable after proper training, of 
taking up other work." (4) "l\Ien who are permanently disa bled and 
,viII be unable to earn their own living under any circumstances." 
A scheme outlined for close co-operation between the Federal 
and Provincial Goveruments resulted in a conference between 
the 1\lilitary Hospitals Commission and the various Provincial 
Governments in October, 1915. .At that conference an agreement 
,vas reached for the creation of Provincial Returned .Soldiers' Employ- 
ment Comnlissions. All the provinces took up this ,york and each 
Commission ,vas regarded as a sub-committee of the l\Iilitary Hos- 
pitals Commission. The Provincial Commissions came into direct 
contact with the returned soldier, his wishes, his causes for complaint, 
etc., and the officers of these Commissions were able to interpret to 
the soldiers the desires and policies of the Government in their behalf. 
They were also instrumental in securing enlployment for a large 
nUlnber of lnen. 


El\IPLOYJIENT COXDITIONS. 


The sudden cessation of hostilities in November, 1918, brought 
the Dominion Government face to face with the problem of assÏ1nilat- 
ing at short notice into the industrial life of the nation a bout 350,000 
men who had been absent on service for periods varying up to five 
years. At that time there ,vpre only t,velve Dominion-Provincial 
Employment offices in Canada, and the provincial organizations were 
unable to handle the ,,-ork. The Departnlent of Soldiers' Civil 
Re-Establishment therefore issued a questionnaire ,vhich ,vas filled 
in by all soldiers overseas, and by l\larch 1, 1919, it was possible to 
form a fair working estimate of the probablE' distribution of the 



FJ/PLOrJIEJ.VT 'UVDITIUNS 


1)- 
....1 


returning: 1lH.'n by tr3des anrl territorial areas. In co-operation with 
vuriou
 Provincial Govcrnnu\l] t
 and t hf' J)ominion })epartulCI1 t of 
Lahour th0 chain of clnploYlnellt offic '8 was quickly pxtpnd0d until 
eV0ry city in Capada had one or mor(' free govcrnnH
nt ('I11ploYlllt'llt 
offices. .\rrang:enlcnt8 werp l11a<10 to connect UIH'I11ployctl workcrs 
in one rli
t rict with unfilled vacnncie-.: ill anot h(,I". .. \ 
pPl'ial ratp of 
1 ccnt pel utile wa:-\ arranged with thp railway:::;, 
u}(l through thp 
creation of 
I)('('ial 
t\ctioll:-\ for <!('a ling" it h profc
:-:iol' al anù bu:-:inc:-:s 
luen and handicapped IHPn, a large nUlllhpr of 
uch pt.'rsons found 
elllploYlllPII t. 
The })ppart n10nt ,yent furt IH'r and 3
::-ii
tcù the IueH who 'Vl'r0 
confronted with prohlpnls ari:-\ing frOI11 thpir ah:--t.'nrp fronl h(>Ine and 
nOrInal oecupation, 
uch a
 adju::;tInput of hu:o:in(':o:s, financial and 
fanÜly affair
, f'('tt l('lncn t of (.lailn:-; for 
ra t ui ty, pay alld a l1owanr('
, 
".01' kin
 pay, pcn:-:ionf:, r<'fund of tra n:-\port a tiOIl, hou
in
, ct c. 'fhrough 
th0 di:--:O:Plllination of COlT 'ct infonnatioll and 
uch a
:--i
t:Ul('0 as i
 
ou t lined a 1.0\"(', t h(' In fOrI Il a t ion all d 
 'rvice Branch of t h0 I)epart- 
n10nt pl"(n
cd tl trapquilli7ing; f0atun' in thp industrial life of the 
DOlninion and in cahning tlnn\
t anlOlJ g t h(' returned IIH'n th('111- 

elvp
. Eff()rt
 w('re nlad0 to OpPJl J}f'W aY('nu('
 of clnploYlllPllt, and 

p0cially f::killed 1110n were 0n
ng{\d to to-tudy vari()u
 angles of the 
indu
trial 
itl1ation and to a........ist fÌnll:' in 
()lvill
 t h{\ problcms con- 
nected with thp !'u1.
titution of Canadian for foreign labour without 
òisorgaui7in
 their plant
. 
This branch of the work, "'0 far a:-\ the IJcpartnlPut of Soldi0r::;' 
rivil H{\-Estubli
lnnent i:3 conerrned, 'V:1:-; dpnlohili7rd in June, lÐ20, 
excppt in rpgard to a:-\si
tance in obtaining C'lllploYlllcnt given to 
vocationally trainf'd or handieapped nlen. During the period of its 
exish'nc(', the total nunlbrr of po::;itions found ,vas 175, 1:>7 and the 
actual nUluher of nlen placed ".as 10U,10:3-. 'fhc totul nUD1}wr of 
inquirie::; for infoflllation anù a...;
i:o:tancp dealt ".it h exceeded 1 ,
18,OOO. 



1.t:l'J.-\l, U.:I
lt:.' TO L
t:\II.LO\.FD RET
TR' F.n 'It:X. t919-19.
t. 
During the lattcr part of 1010, it ,'.aq appar('nt that the prohlelllS 
of re-c
tahli:o:hlll('nt hud not been fully :-,olved and tha1 a Dlea
Uf(' of 
unenlploYlllent relief ,vould be requirèd during the ".inter of 1910-20. 
A surn of 11loney ".as yoterl for this and oth0r rplated purposes and 
a total of :'7 ,058,989.34 ,va
 expended, of ,vhich 
256,Oö0.40 "as for 
administration. Of this expenditure the sum of 4,983,ü91.50 ".a
 
for unemploYlnent relief. This relief ,vork ''':1S carried out by co- 
operation het,veen the Department of Soldiers' Civil He-Estahlishn1ent 
and the ranadian Patriotic Fund. The di
tribution of the D10ney 
allocated ,vas intrusted to the Canadinn Patriotic Fued and com- 
menced in Christma
 ,veek, 1919. Applicants regi
tered for ,york 
for 'VhOlll no positions ,vere immediately available and ,,,ho stated 
that they ".ere in need ,vere referred to the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
so that their cases might be investigated apd a:,sistance given, if neces- 
sary, fronl thp Dominion elnergency appropriation. A considerable 
number of applications ".ere received fronl 11len ,vho had exhausted 


, 



28 


RECONSTRUCTI01V IN CAlvADA 


their war service gratuity, also from others, ,vho while still enlployed 
claimed they were not receiving sufficient ren1uneration to provide 
their families with the necessities of life. 
It was not intended to repeat the relief lneasures during the ,vinter 
of 1920-21, but o,ving to the large amount of unemployment, two 
Orders in Council were passed under which authority was granted 
to the Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishn1ent to grant 
medical and surgical treahnent to unemployed fornler lllembers of 
the Forces an d relief to former members of the Forces ,,-ho were 
pensioners or who had received vocational training on account of 
disability, untill\1arch 31, 1921. It was found that some extension 
of the latter relief was necessary and a further Order in Council w'as 
passed granting such extension to these classes of returned soldiers 
"Tho had dependants, until April 23, 1921. 
The monthly amount of relief granted during 1921 was aE follows: 
IVlan and wife to March 31, $75, to April 23, $65; First child under 
16 (girl 17), to April 23, $12; 2nd child under 16 (girl 17) to April 
23, $10; Single man without dependants (maximum allowance) 
to l\.Iarch 31, $50; Single lllan with dependantE, same as married man. 
The relief given in 1919-20 "Tas in cash, that in 1920-21 in kind 
only. The expenditure during the paEt winter for relief amounted 
to about $1,500,000. 


LOANS TO YOCATIONAL AND UNIVERSITY STrDENTS. 


In November, 1919, on the recommendation of the Parliamentary 
Committee on Pensions and Re-Establishment, which had recently 
concluded its sittings, an Order in Council was passed authorizing 
the Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establishment to make loans 
to certain classeE of forn1er members of the Forces. 
The Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establishlnent ,,"as author- 
ized at itE diEcretion to advance by way of loan to those disabled 
men who have been re-trained and ,vho are in need of Eame, a Eun1 not 
exceeding $500 for the purchaEe of tool
 and equipment necessary 
to establish them in their new occupation, such 10anE to be repayable 
within five years fron1 date of iSEuf' without interest. Further the 
Departmert of Soldiers' Civil Re-EEtabliEhlnent ,vas given authority 
at its discretion to advance by ,yay of loan to those nlen ,vho are 
disabled and who are in need of same, a sum not exceeding $500, 
to enable them to pursue any course of training or education that was 
substantially interrupted by war service, providing in all cases that the 
disability 'was of such a nature as to makf' assistance necessary, and 
provided further that such men are not entitled to or have not taken 
training under the Departn1ent of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establishment; 
all such loans to be repayable in five yea rs without interest. 
In order to carryon this ,york a special division of the ,r ocational 
Branch was created and special officers were appointed in the various 
units. Before the granting of a loan, careful inquiry is made into the 
reasons advanced and into the prospects of successful operation. 
A chattel mortgage, ,vhere possible, is secured and arrangements 



TO.iNS T() roc t TI().Y.tl
 LYD rr
VTVFRSI7'}r ì:31'ULJRN1'S 29 


arc lu:.ule for repaYIHcut in 
lnnll :unounts. 'I'he nunlbcr of applica- 
tions for IO:1I1R approved to :\[arch 

l, 1921, '\\-as 1,ô30 nntI the amount 
aplH"OYt'd 
;)DO,4;)4.7ß. Thp nUln1wr of occupations iu ,dlich nH'n 
hav
 been a:-\
i
ted by loall is 
3. In sueh occupation::; as pluluLing, 
carpentry, cahinet-luakinJr, ('tc., the actunl tool
 requir<'d by a journey- 
IBall :\re purcha:-\pd to PHahle hirn to ohtnin enlploYlnent nt thp 
prevailing rates. '\ïthout the,e t()ol
 this ('ould not he done. I t is 
pstinulted that ....130,000 ".ill nleet the loan exp
nditure oi the })cpart- 
IHent during the pr('sent fi
('al year. 
1'hc work of the Df'partnH'nt of doldi('r
' Ciyil Re-c
tnhli:-\ll111f'l1t 
ha<3 nece
Eafily hcpn of a tf'l1lporary eharacter, to he fiuislH'd whcn 
thp procc

 of rp-p
tnhlislllnpnt b cOlllpletp. rrhnt thi
 ".ork has 
alrf'ady IH.O(,f'(\dt'd fnr to".nrd f'Olllpletioll is evidf'Iu'f'd by th(' pro
re
s- 
ive declinp in the nUlllhf'r of it
 
tafi" frolll 9,035 in 
Inrch, 1 Ð20, to 
5,lS.
 in :\fnrch, 1 D21. }n 
pite of thi.... transitory charact
r, its 
,vork has 1)('('1} of a highly f'OIl:-\truf'tivp and :-\oeially yaluahle nnturf'. 
Settin
 aside the consid('ration that the expcuùiturc on this l)epartnlcnt 
is a debt of grntitude ".hich the nation 0"-(.:-; to it
 defendprs, 
thnt expf'uditufP is nl:-\o a great invc:-\tnlf'nt in huulan life, in increa
ing 
the efficiency of hUluan bcillg
, luany of 'VhOll1 are luorl or le:--.::; im- 
paired in C'arning po,yer by their C'xperiencC's in ,var. J nlpnirment 
of hUlllnn b('ings, however, goe
 011 al:-\o in tinl(\ of pf'af'P, and the 
e:\.periencc gained in the cour...:c of the ".ork of the Dcpartulent of 

oldiers' Civil H,p-e
tablishment Inay yet be of use in cnrrying on 
a pernlnnf'nt ,york of 'What Illay l)e eallpd IUlIllan ('OHSt'l'v:1tion. 


'.ETTLE..'lE
1.' 0.' ßETlU'\ED ""OLUII:ß
 0' }t' \R\IS. 


. 


Canaùa is 
till a prpdolninantly a
rif'ultural courtry. Gcnerally 
speaking, Canada is prospcrOUb ,,,hen the ('rop
 arp good and high 
prices prevail, :lnd depre:-:!'ed ,vhpn the contrary is the f'ns
. It \vas 
natural, therefore, that sppcinl pfforts 
hould he put forth by the 
Governlnent to enlist as Inany a
 po,sible of the able-hodied returning 
soldiers in an occupation 'which i
 never overcro,y(h'd and ,vhich 
involves the opening up of large areas of ne". lands and a fundamental 
addition to priIuary production and thereby to the national ,,,ealth. 
Such 
oldiers, ho".ever, 'were not an likely to be in possession 
of sufficient capitnl to enable them to CODln1ence farming on their 
o,yn account. If they ,vere to do so it ,vas nece
sary that the Govern- 
ment should financ(\ their operations. Accordingly in 1917 the 
Soldier Settlement Board ".as orgnnized and empowered by chapter 
21 of that year's stntutes to a
:-\ist eligible nnd qualified returned 
<5oldiers to 
ettle upon the land. Loans 'were authorized for the 
purchase of live stock and equipment and the f'rection of permanent 
ilnprovelnents on DonlÌnion Lands and al
o for the rellloval of encum- 
brances on farms held by ,var veterans. In February, 1919, an Order 
in Council was passed extending the E'cope of the w'ork and enabling 
the Soldier Rettlement Roard to purchnse for returned men a
ricul- 
tural lands in any province. Tha t Order in Council ,vas confirmed 
by chapter 71 of the statutes of the same year. 



30 


RECO.YSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


Subject to regulations requiring previous adequate practical 
farming experience in Canada and general fitness, members of the 
C.E.F. who saw service outside of Canada are eligible for the benefits 
of the Act, as \vell as those whose service was not outside of Canada 
but ,,-ho are receiving or have received a service pension. The 
benefits of the Act also apply to ex-members of any of the Imperial, 
Dominion or allied forces who resided in Canada prior to the war, and 
to members of the In1perial and Overseas Dominion Forces who saw 
service out of their own country. Imperial' or Don1inion ex-service 
men not resident in Canada at the outbreak of the \var, will, how- 
ever, be required to work on a farm in Canada to gain experience 
before they are qualified to participate. These latter are also re- 
quired to have sufficient working capital to n1aintain themselves and 
their dependants until returns from the land are forthcoming and to 
pay down twenty p.c. of the cost of land, stock, implements and 
buildings. 
Since the con1n1encement of operations, 59,331 returned Eoldiers 
have made application for certificates of qualification. The con
ider- 
ation of these applications involved an examination of every ap- 
plicant's war Eervice and a cloEe inveEtigation of hiE past farming 
kno,vledge and ability, his moral risk, physical and general fitness 
and personal ca pital and assets. Inmost caseE the Board or its 
Qualification COlnn1Ïttee have had to interview the applicant in 
per
on. If an applicant is qualified he is granted a certificate and 
Inay make application for a loan forthwith. If he lacks experience 
he is recommended to secure employment on a farm until he is able 
to satisfy the Board that he possesses the required knowledge of 
farn1 management. Training centres '\vere organized and main- 
tained by the Board in several provinces, and untillVlay 1, 1921, pay 
and al10wances were granted to men, especially those with familie
, 
during the period of training. All training centres have been closed 
and are being disposed of. The only training now recognized is 
practical expErience under ordinary conditions and on the basis of 
wages current for farm labour. 
Of the 59,331 applicants, 43,063 ,vere granted qualification 
certificates. Six hundred and fifty-one. are now obtaining further 
practical farming experience before being considered as qualified. 
A number of the remainder are still in abeyance, while others have 
been disqualified or recommended for practical training. 
To qualified persons, loans may be granted up to $7,500 at five 
per cent interest, repayable on the amortization plan, in six annual 
instalments in the case of loans for stock and equipment, and in 25 
annual instaln1ents in the case of land and buildings. There are 
three classes of loans:-On purchased lands: up to $4,500 for land 
purchase, up to $2,000 for stock and equipment and up to $1,000 for 
permanent improvements; on agricultural lands already owned by 
settler, up to $3,500 for the removal of encumbrances, up to $2,000 
for stock and equipment and up to $1,000 for permanent improve- 
ments, provided the total does not exceed $5,000. The following 



SETTLE11IE.' T OF RETURSED ðULDIERS U
 FAR.1/S 31 


figures 
ho\v by provinces the nUlnLcr of Inen 
ettled on thc land and 
the total nnlount of loans approved. 
Xo. 
Loans. 
313 
:
61 
4tH 
341 
1 .442 

,231 
4,927 
5 ,7S,> 
2,

O 


P.E.T.......... ...... 
X.S. . ... .... 
X .I
. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 
Q\l (\ . . . . . . . .. ........ 
On t. . . . . . . . . . . . 

I an. . . ... . .. ... 

ask. .. ............. 
.AI ta . . . . . . . . .. .... 
B.C. . . . . . . .. .... 


_\mount in 
8û6,18û.OO 
1,200,576.1-2 
1,504,135.47 
1,744,991.46 
6,337,362.52 
13,44!),4()0.47 
19,423,238.05 
23,048,972.16 
12,79
,827.93 


Can a II a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 9 , 771 


80,371,7504S 


LOLlnb ".ere grantcd for the follo,ving purpo::>eb: 
 
TopurchaseLLtnd. .... ...... 44,4U5,542.61 
To renlove enculnhrane('
 on land 
owned by settler.. .... .... 1 ,917 ,582. 6G 
To ercct pernUlncnt improve- 
lupnts........... .......... 9 039,86,5.14 
'ro purcha
e stock anù f'{}uip- 
nlent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 2.'), UO
, 700.07 



0,371,7jO 4b 


There are 14,072 bettlers on pur('ha
ed lands ,vith loalls of 
:-.ß9,259.G08.30; t',9ß4 on encun1bere(llands ,vith loans of 4,742,778.00 
and 3,7:
5 settlers on Dominion land.;; ,vith loan
 of 'ü,369,3G4.18. 
The average loan ppr 
{'ttler is 
!,065.13. 
By Order in Council, all DOlninion lands ,,-ithin a radius of 15 
n1Ïlcs of any raihvay ,vere rescrved for returned soldiers. Eight 
thou
and 
even hundred and seventy-t".o of these nlen have taken 
advantage of this r(\:-,(\fvation and have occupied free lands, of ,vhon1 
3.100 received from the Board financial a
f'istance to purchase live 
stock and farm ÍInpJements and to erect buildings. The total of men 
,,-ho have gone on the land under the ægis of the Board is 25,443, 
includin
 19,771 ,vho as sho,vn above have received financial assis- 
tance. In the three prairie provinces, ".here Don1Ïnion lands were 
available, every eli
ible returned f'oldier ".as entitled under the Act 
to a 
oldier grant of 160 acres and in addition to this soldier grant he 
".as free to exercise his civilian right to homestead another 160 acres. 
The ave.rage soldier grant and homestead taken up by returned men 
is 240 acres, making a total area of free lands granted of over 2,000,000 
acres. 


, 



32 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


The total area of land occupied by soldier settlers under the Act 
IS 4,854,799 acres, made up as follo\vs: 
Purchased Ian d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Encumbered land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Soldier grants (with loans). . . . . . 
Soldier grants (-without loans) . . . 


2,153,184 acres 
360 , 227 " 
980,108 " 
1 , 361 , 280 " 


4,854,799 


" 


The average size of farnls varies according to provinces, the 
largest being in the Prairie Provinces and the smallest in British 
Columbia. The following figures show the average acreage of farms 
and average cost per acre, by provinces: 


A veraO'e 
Province. Acreage. 


P.E.I...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 
N. S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 
N. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 
Que. .. . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 
Onto .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 

lan ........................................................... 220 
Sask. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 
Al ta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 
B.C.......................................................... .. 63 


A yerage 
cost 
per acre. 


$ cts. 
27 70 
19 55 
18 40 
3,t 19 
40 00 
17 00 
17 20 
16 80 
48 36 


In purchasing land or stock and equipment, the settler makes his 
own selection and drives the best bargain he can with the vendor. 
Before the Board 'will purchase, it requires appraisal by its o\vn official, 
in order to ensure that the expenditure of public money is safeguarded 
and that no more than value is paid. In this \yay, the Board has 
saved large sums of money to returned soldiers in purchasing land, 
and an amount aggregating $3,632,421.36 has been cut from the prices 
stated in the applications as the venqor's lowest price. This is an 
average saving over the \vhole Dominion of over seven and a half per 
cent. 
In 1919 the Government gave the Board power to withdraw from 
Forest Reserves land that was suitable for agriculture and the first 
area \vithdra\vn was a portion of the Porcupine Forest Reserve in 
Saskatche\van. This. was thrown open July 1, 1919, for free entry and 
150 ne\v settlers went in and established a can1p. Burning of brush 
land was undertaken, a station was built at Prairie River on the 
C.N.R. and considerable \york has been done in order to afford 
facilities for the new settlers. The Board also was given power to 
declare "settlement areas" where lands are being held from cultiva- 
tion. The Board may purchase these lands at a figure to be decided 
by the Exchequer Court, if the o\vners are unwilling to sell at the 
price offered. Other large areas of idle lands in the 'Vestern Pro- 
vinces have come into the possession of the Soldier Settlement Board 
and have been disposed of to returned soldiers. Some of these areas 



SETTLgJ!E.VT OF' RETURNED SOLDIERS OJ.V FAR1IS 33 


arc: 7S,000 acres of Indian Lands, ,vhich have been divided into 
2kO farming units; 100,000 acres of IIud:-\on Ray L:111d:;;; 18,000 
:lcr(':-; at Eastvie". (the Pope H:1neh); 10,000 acre,; of Doukhohor 
Lanùs near I\..:ullsack. 1'he Boldier Scttlelllcnt Board has also nlade 
arrangements ".ith thp 'Y(;
tcrn Provinces for the Fale of school 
lands, (i.e., 1:1nd:"\ held in tru
t. for the hen('fìt of educntional iIl:-\titutions), 
to "oldier settlers and lllany desirable farIns have tbus been secured at 
very reasonable prices. 
6\n illustration of thf\ 'work that h:t
 heen accûmpli
hl.d in the 
n
'v lanrls opf'nf'd for 
f'ttlenl('nt is afTord('d hy the clpveloplHf'nt of 
the Indian Hf'serves. For instance, on the Piapot Hescrvc ncar 
Zehner, 8ask., ,,'hich ".a
 entir('ly uninlprOvf'd at thc time of :::;ale, 

plpndid progrp:-,:-; ha
 }Wl'1l 11ladf'. Apart frolH ('r<\ctill
 the nece
:-\ary 
buildings and fenee
, 
inking wells and putting up about 1,200 tons 
of hay, 2,200 acre
 have becn hroken and pr('parpd for crop in 1921. 
On th(' Oehoapow:lcP Rp:-;prv(' 1,(j.')0 acres }wvc hP(,11 hrokpn, in addi- 
tion to the erection of huilding:-\, fenc('c::, ('tc. 1'his rr
('rve i
 near 
'Vhitewood, 
ask. On the l\Ii:"\ta".a:-:is and )[uskey I.J:lh.p l{e
erves, 
".hich 'Vf're open('cl for :-\('ttIPH1Pnt in Augu5t 1 Ç)20, ('aeh of th(' :-\('ttJers 
has hrok('n frolH 20 to GO acrec::. 1'ho sanl
 dcv('loplnent is proccedin
 
in oth('r Indian Hp
erve
 and in the gra .ing l('a
es 'whieh }ut\ e rev('rted 
to th,.. Govprnnlent. On th(' Pope l.ea
(' Ilpar Calgary, AHa., ",ettlprs 
hroke 2,ß31 acre
, erect('d Luilding
 valued at 
17 ,000 anù fencinp; 
a t a co
t of "-2,ûO.j. 
6\S ,,-ith thp land, thf' 
l"t tlf'r nlah.('''; hi:-- 0" n 
plpction of farm 
inlpll'lllent
 and 
to('k, hut the Board (''X('J'{'i:-\t's fo'llp('rvi
ion in thf' 
pllr('ha:-,c in order to ..:ccurc the ht'""t po

ible vahlP. By all arrangc- 
1l1ent ,,"ith nlanufactur('r
 of fann maehinery, "ragon
 and other 

quiplnPllt, a 
ll h:"\t an t ial eut ill pri('("
 i:-; gi yell rpturned HH'n, wit It the 
r{,
lllt thai on pureha
c
 alllounting to :"I14,O.:")3,t70.10 a Having of 

SI0.33-LOG has bpen effectf'd. Li\re 
tock to th(. value of 
10,3G
,- 
2;i9.11 }ta
 heen pureha
pd for 
oldi('r Ff'tt 1('1':". .All 
toek all(I equip- 
nlent i:-; pureha:-\ed hy the Board and n'....ol<.l on lien agreeln{'nt
. 

\." no ca
h paYlnent i
 r('quirf'd on stock and equipment the security 
for the alJlount advanccd is th(' :::;t(wk and pquipnH'nt it
{'lf. Thf' 
Board holds title in thi:-\ way to 38,3G3 hor::;es and G2,201 cattle as 
"-ell a
 to thou"ands of sheep, :-iwine, poultry and farm irnplf'ments. 
The fono"Tin
 figurE'
 
hO"w the averagp cost of livf' 
to('k hy provincps: 


P.E.I . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
X.s. ..................... 

.B.. ............. .... 
Que. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Ian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
SRsk... .................. 
Alta. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
B.C. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dommion ayerage......... 
18427-3 


Horses. 


Sets. 
186 66 
144 04 
163 77 
127 54 
142 22 
l7S 28 
166 16 
142 80 
152 84 
]56 6.'> 


Cows. 



 et J. 
8
 84 
71 72 
61 35 
72 49 
9R n 
67 04 
77 88 
82 52 
116 80 
8
 42 


..,hcC'p. 


$ cts. 
10 95 
11 
9 
9 24 
11 90 
14 51 
1
 38 
11 28 
12 20 
15 29 


12 66 


Swme. 


S ('ts. 
18 64 
17 71 
15 82 
16 39 
18 26 
15 39 
15 17 
18 80 
15 28 
16 99 


Poultry. 
Sets. 
o 5.
 
100 
o 89 
o 91 
o 77 
o 9
 
090 
o 94 
o 77 


o 82 



34 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


The system of supervision inaugurated by the Boa.rd keeps 
track of the operations of all the men to ,vhom loans are granted. 
In the early stages of a settler's farm career he will be visited possibly 
two or three times. The supervisor gives him advice concerning the 
best methods to be elnployed in making the farm a success. He is 
advised to purchase the live stock and machinery he needs, ,vhile in 
all cases care is taken to see that he is not overloaded with implements 
he does not need or ,vith stock he cannot feed. If the settler sho,vs 
satisfactory progress, supervision is relaxed. I t may be, ho,vever, 
that the settler will not accept the advice proffered. In that case the 
supervisor can only assist in the purchase of his stock and equiplnent 
and visit him to see that he is not ÎInpairing the value of the Board's 
security. If it is found that the Board's security has been diminished 
by the actions of the settler and that he is losing ground and will 
not be able to meet his obligations, the matter of securing a return 
of the land to the government comes up for consideration. It has 
been noted that in many cases of failure the lnen have been those who 
steadily declined to accept the friendly advice and assistance of the 
supervisor. The field supervisor is in a position to understand the 
needs of each individual settler and advises hÎIn as to 'what should be 
purchased and what ,viII be paid for by the Board. If he buys stock 
on his own initiative, he is not entitled to financial as:c;istance to pay 
for it, unless the supervisor finds that he has purchased to advantage 
and that the animals are necessary to his progress. 
A Home Service Branch of the Soldier Settlement Board ,vas estab- 
lished for the purpose of giving help and encouragement to the ,vives of 
the settlers, Inany of ,vhom are from the Old Land. The Home Service 
Branch has gained the hearty co-operation of such organizations as 
the Red Cross, Canadian Patriotic Society, 'Y olnen's Illstitutes, 
G.'V.V.A., etc. Free courses of instruction in home econonlÎcs 
and farm subjects, such as poultry, dairying, etc., are provided by 
the Board 'with the co-operation of Provincial DepartInents and 
lnany organizations, including extension departments of the univer- 
sities, Red Cross, etc. Thirty-three courses have been held and 
approximately 2,000 'vomen have taken advantage of the instruction 
offered. 
For economy of administration and efficiency in collections, 
standard dates of payment have been fixed in all contracts. In 
Ontario and the east, that standard date is K oveJ1l bel' 1, and in 
l\Ianitoba and west of that province it is October 1. In the fall of 
1920. 12,361 settlers 'who had been established in 1918 or 1919 had 
paynlents of 
2,315,181.05 falling due. On l\Iarch 31, 1921, 8,993 
or 72.7% of these settleff
 had paid 
1,159,569.57 or 50.1% of the 
actual payments owing. In addition, 1,146 settlers made part pay- 
ment in advance-that is, before they had any payment at all due. 
These prepayments amounted to 
794,122.90, so that the amount 
actually collected in instalments amounted on l\iarch 31, 1921, to 
$1,953,692.47. Considering the collapse of markets in the middle of 
threshing, it is felt that the showing is a remarkably good one. Set- 
tlers numbering 329 have repaid their loans in full. Of these 135 



SETTLEltlh";.YT OF HETUll;.YJ..:n SOLDIERS O;.Y FARJIS 35 


It RVf' "'01(1 ont and hayt' riYt'1I "up farrnill
, ".hill' 1 n-! :In' continuing 
to oj)t'rate their fanu
. 
By rea"'<.Hl of dpath, ill health, failure to :-;uccred, or lack of 
desire to carryon, 1,170 loan h(,llefi('iarie:-: ar(.> ulldl'r adyi:-\l'lnellt as to 
th(' d(':-;irahility of adj\1:-\tlll('nt. ()f 1 h(':-,(', 200 have 1)('('11 sold out 
cOlllpletely. III th'...:e C"olllplpt'Ll C:l!-"
, thcrc was illv('
terl 
708,- 
70b.79, and t hp actual receipts on re-
alp ".rrr 711,33.>.80. 
l'h(' 1 !t..O crop r('hlrIl
 rpl'eivec.l by t}H' Hoard f'how a total of 
:-\1:3,H.,,)3, 178 wort h of Illuin cro}):-\ produ('cù hy soldicr 
('ttler
. ðOlne 
of t hp chief itcnl
 are: 


" hf'at. Oats. ll'1.rlQ . Othpr Gr('pn Hn:r. Valu('. 
l!Tains. f('('d. 
hU
}1('I
. bUQJu"ls. bu<..hcl:s. bushcls. tons. tons. S 
4,100 fiS, mo 1,
00 ) , 2.30 )
O 6,500 278,120 
fuO 40..>lb ),)7 1,417 119 6, 9:
0 318,963 
4,840 95,77,") 
30 ,')00 278 9,705 :m3, 332 
1,37ð 3a,419 2,75G 5,732 7,:>92 1,493 290,fl30 
54,16'; 578,300 48, M.j 77,438 284 21,432 1, 2f1'"), 380 
55,j,
04 8,")8,049 Ifì9,293 fi2,OOO - 74,:S05 2, 1fi8,000 
1,124,46
 1,b22,292 76,049 8G,28S 23,939 63,882 3,495,329 
8\{G,644 3,146,572 241,814 57,105 31,339 102. 702 3,937,]37 
59,lüS 230,3(\8 5,710 16, ISO 5,427 19,131 1.775,987 
2,691,194 6,573,833 1 546,554 307,910 ()9,17S 306,080 13, 9b3, 178 


P .E.!. . . . . . . 
X.S........ 
N.H.... 
QlW. 
Ont. . . . . 
Man.. ... 
Sask..... . 
Alta. . . . . . . . . . . 
B.C.. _ _. _.. _ . _ . 


Canada. 


PEl\'SI()
S. 
The war co:-\t to Canada 56,634 lives, incilldill
 2,b92 officers 
and 53,742 of other ranks, a largc proportion of whom lpft deppndants 
hehind thrln. Further, ß,347 offi(,f'r
 and 143,385 of other ranks 

u:-\tained wounds ,yhidl in a large l)('rrt'utage of ca
f'S pcrlnanently 
iIupaired t}wir earnin
 capaeity. It ,vas now inc\.ullbent upon the 
Ila tion to reco
nizp it
 obligation to 111akf' provi
ion for th(' f:lInilips 
of tho
e who lo:"\t tlH'ir liye:-\ whil(' on Hetiy(' ...:prvicp, and for cOlnren- 
sating a:-- far as po
:-:ihle the living for t he partial decline or the total 
lo;o-:
 of their carning power, (.on:--cqu('nt upon "-ound
 recciypd whilf' 
on active 
('rvicE'. 
inc(' hoth the co:-\t of li,
ing and the pn'vailing 
rate
 of ,,-ages ro:-,e continuoll
ly durin
 the course of the ".ar, it ".as 
natural and just that pension rates should be corre
pondingly increa
('d. 
Before the "'ar the regulatiollf' regarding pensions 'vere contained 
in the Pay and ...i\.llowance Rpgulations of the Department of l\Iilitia 
and Defence. At that time pen
ion
 ,verp paid for disabilities and 
deaths 'which re:--u1ted froln military service in the permanent force or 
during paid 
('ryice in canlps, etc., the pension for total disability 
being only 
150 a year. 
A
 soon as casualties began to appear in the Canadian Expe- 
ditionary Forcf' thf' inadequacy of the pen
ions previously paid became 
pvident, and on April 29, 1915, an Order in Council "yas passed amend- 
ing the Pay and _\llowance Rf'gulation
 and incrf'a
ing the pension 
184:?7-3} 



36 


RECO
VSTRUCTI01V IN CANADA. 


rates. In that Order in Council the rate for total disability ,vas 
fixed at $264 per anntull, an amount ,vhich ,vas also fixed as the 
pension for the ,vido,v of a III em bel' of the forces killed 
n action. 
During the next session of Parliament it was realized that the 
rates of pension were still quite inadequate, and a Parliamentary 
cOlnmittee ,vas appointed to consider the 'v hole question. This 
committee reported to Parliament to,vards the end of the session 
and as a result of its report, an Order in Council was passed on June 
3, 1916 (P.C. 1334), putting its recol1l1nendations into effect. The 
pension for total disability "'as raised to $480 per annum and the 
pension for the ,vido,v was raised to :f!:384 per annum. Pensions at 
the rate of $288 per annurH ,vere paid to ,vido,ved lllothers and inca- 
pacitated fathers ,vho had been ,vholly or mainly dependent on the 
f'oldier son. Previously the ,vido,ved lllother could get penðion only 
,,,hen she ,vas dependent on her son. 
The above rates relllained in force until October 20, 1917, ,vhen 
a further Order in Council 'vas passed, again raising the rates as 
fronl April 1, 1917. The pension for total disability ,vas fixed by 
that Order in Council at $600 per annun1 and the pension for the 
,vido,v and dependent parent at 
480 per annun1. The rates of 
pension for the childrpn ,vere also increased at this tiIne, ,vhile a 
Iuarried boldier was allo,ved an additional alllount. 
On December 21, 1918, a further Order in Council (P.C. 3070) 
,vas passed ,vhich did not change the rates of pension but which 
provided for the pensioning of a dependent parent at a partial rate of 
pension, 'where such parent ,vas only partially supported by a deceased 
son. It ,vas no longer neces::,ary for such parent to prove that the 
deceased son had been the ,vhole or lnain support. An Order in 
Council of January 2, 1919 (P.C. 3205), increased the allo,vances paid 
for children. 
During the session of 1919, another Parlian1entary C011111lÌttee 
'vas appointed, which recol1lnlended, among other things, that the 
pensions should be increased by a bonus of approximately 20 
per cent, lllaking the pension for total disahility $720 per annunl and 
the pension of the ,vidow or dependent parent $576 per annum. The 
rates for the wife of a disability pensioner and for certain children 
,vere also increased. 
At the 1920 session of Parlialnent a further committee 
recommended an increase in the bonus frorH September 1, 1920, 
in such a manner that totally disabled soldiers no,v receive $900 per 
annunl and the ,vido,v or dependent parent 
720 per ann tun. It is 
to be noted that the pension for a parent is contingent upon the 
inconle of that parent. It is only ,vhen the parent has no income 
whatever that the nlaxinlulll pension of $720 per annum can be paid. 
In the case of a widowed lllother no deduction from pension is made 
for her earnings or on account of her having free lodgings, or on 
account of her having an inconle of 520 or less a I1lonth. 
It is interesting to COll1pare the rates paid for the average family 
since the beginning of the ,var. In 1914-15 a totally disabled man, 



PEJ.YSIO.VS 


37 


wifp and three childn'n r
ceiYcd b27.50 a 11101lth. In HJ15-16 the 

alllP f:nnily l"l'l"l'i\l'd 
37.00 a nlonth. In ID1()-17 they "'(>1lld 
receiye 
;,)
J)O a. IHonth. III 1917-1
 th('y 1"<'("pivC'd 

2.00 a nlonth. 
l.p to 
eptC'lnher, IBI9, they rcceiycd 
88.00 a 1110nth. J>uring the 
year Sept(,luber 1, IH1H, to Augu'3t 31, 19:!O, they rc('eiyC'd
105.00a 
1l1011th and frolH B('ptelH l)('r 1, 1 n:!o, they havp f('(,f'ivpd 
 137.00 a 
Inonth, if they live in Canada, and 
122.00 a ulouth if they live 
out
idp of Cnnnda. rrhus the p 'nl..;ion for 1920-21 for a f:unily of five i
 
ahllo
t ('xa('tly fiye tillle
 as ll1uch a
 it "as wlH'I1 the war hC'gau, aud 
i:-: two anù one half tÏ1ucs as Jllueh a:-\ it wa.... in IDIG-17. 
'Thp pC'n:--ion for th ' widow has Ll'en incrca
ed in ahno
t the 
nln(' 
proportion. In 19 ].)-1 () a ".idow nnd t hrre childrpn ".ere ent it led to 

37.00 a 1l1onth, in IHlö-I7 to .o,')o.()() a Jllonth, in }917-I9 to 
(jl.00 
a nlonth, fronl 
pI>t(,lllher 1, 1010, to \ug;Ul..;t 31, 1920, to "b1.00 a 
Illonth, and frolll 
ppt('IHber I, }!,:!O to 
f)7.00 a ulonth, proviclp(l 
h(' 
liyC'
 in ranada and to 
ð.,)J)O a Jllonth if :-;hp lives outsidp of (\uuula. 
It hn
 oft('n 1>C(,11 a
""ert('d that the pell,ioll
 paid bY' Canada arc 
larger than thu;:,e paid hy any other country in the ".orld. 1
hi
 Wa
 
t he ('a
p up to the tillH' lcgi:-\la t ion Wa:- pas:-\('d in 1>('('('I111)('r In] U iu 
the Gnited "tatc
. \ totally and pel"lnaul'lltly di:::ahlpd IlUUl in the 
IT nited 
ta tc-
 rc('eiYt.
 1,200 ppr HIlIllllll at thc prC'
cnt tilUP, ".hl'f('a:-; 
in Canada he 1"('('eiYl's .....f>OO pcr annlln1. In tht' 1 T nitet! 
tatl':-\, }UHV- 
pver, there is no incrpu:-,(' ahoyl' the 
 1 ,20() per Hnnlll11 if th' Blan 
hn:-; a wife alld f
unily. In thi.., way thp Canadian pe'nsion for a BUlB 
and wif(' i:-\ ('qual to tit(' ratC' paid in thp l
nit('d State':,; for H BIHn, 
wife and children. !;or in
t:lIl(,(" a Inall, wife' and three ehildrcB 
rcccivp :'1,6-1-1.00 ppr ann\.lIn in Canada. lOhe Canadian ppl1:--ion i:-; 
practically dOll hlc t Ita t paid in any ot her country cxccpt t he United 

ta te
. 
Canada \; p{'n:::-ion hill for thp year frolll 
pptcnlber"l, 1 fJ20, to 

\ugu
t 31, 1921, ,,'ill alnount to het,,'cen "'33,OUO,OUU anù 
3-1,OOO,OOO. 
There arc approxÏInately 83,000 di:-\ability and d('pendent pcn
iollS 
and gratuities p
id or beillg paid and thp total nUluLer of per
ons 
hcnefitting as a result of Canadian pension
 i
 approxinlatcly 17ï,OOO, 
including t}l("\ wive:-\ nnd children of di:-\ahility I>('n
ionC'r
 fllHI {'hildren 
of widows of dpcc'l
ed n1('I11 herH of the for<'C'
. 
During the 1920 :-c.......ion of Parlialuent thc j>pnsion _\.ct ,vhich 
WH:-\ I>a

pd in the se:-
ion of 1919 was anlcnded in a number of paJ'ti- 
tulnr::; which grpa tly ,,,id('IH'd the seopc of th(' I:nv. A. soldicr or 

ailor pen:--ioned for dÜmbility nlay now draw additions to his pension 
not only for hi
 wife and childrcn, but also for hi" moth('r and fathe; 
if he if' 
upporting thenl. 
If a 
olùier or r-:ailor i:, totally disabled aud also totally helplcss 
he l11ay draw as nluch as 
730 a year in addition to any other pension 
which he n1ay have. If a deeeased soldier or sailor \yas l-5upporting 
his Illother or father a:-, ,veIl as his ,vife and children, pension may be 
paid for all of thenl. Previou:-\ly, if the widow were alive, the parents 
had no claim. If a deceased soldier or sailor was supporting both 
his father and mother, they are both pensionable. Hitherto, only one 



38 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


of them could receive pension. If a nlother or father of a deceased 
soldier or sailor, while not dependent on their son, either previous to 
enlistment or during his service have since fallen into a dependent 
condition, a pension may be paid, in the discretion of the Conln1Ïssion, 
provided the father or mother is incapable of earning a livelihood. 
It 'will be seen that the rates of pen
ion in Canada are not only 
higher in Inost instances than the rates in any other country, but 
that the scope of the pension law is broader. Pensions are paid to 
the disabled man himself, to his wife, to his children, and to his 
dependent father and mother. 'Vith regard to a deceased man, 
pensions are paid to his widow, his children, his dependent father and 
nlother, his dependent younger brothers and sisters and to his depen- 
dent brothers and sisters who are incapacitated from earning a liveli- 
hood. 
The following figures will indicate the extent of the pension 
obligation and the manner in which it has been met: 


PENSIONS AWARDED. 


Year. 


Disabil- 
ities. 


Depend- 
ants. 


Cumula- 
tive 
Total. 


From commencement to Sept. 10, 1916.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,8â5 
" " Mar. 31, 1917. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 4,047 4,395 8,442 
" " " 1918............. . 17,327 10,492 27,819 
" " " 1919... . . . . . . . . . . . 50,228 16.577 66,805 
" " " 1920. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 84,416 19,794 104,210 
" " " 1921... . . . . . . . . . . . 95,252 23,011 118,263 


GRATUITIES A WARDED IN LIEU OF PENSIONS. 


Number... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 


14,316 Amount paid thereon. $685,234 00 


Thp. number of pensions in force on March :11, 1921 follows:- 
Dependants.... . .. . . .. . . . 19,209 Liability.............. 812, 954,140 54 
Disabilities............... 51,452 " .............18,230,69716. 


Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


70,661 


31,184,837 70 


NorE:-Included in the above liability are allowances for 26,637 'wives and 36,985 children 
ofldisability pensioners. and also 16,855 chiIdren of dependent pensioners, making in all 
a total of 151,138 persons receiving benefits on March 31, 1921. 
 


PROVISION OF RETURNED SOLDIERS' LIFE INSURANCE. 
Life insurance is a great boon to the nlan of small or moderate 
means \vho has others dependent upon him. By insuring his life, 
he can at once create an estate for the Lenefit of his dependants and 
is thus relieved fron1 anxiety as to \vhat ,vould happen to them in 
case of his premature death. This resource is, ho\vever, open only 
to the man of recognized good health and sound physique, and men 
who have had to endure the strain and stress of years of fighting 



l'RO
 /S/U.Y OF llETURl'lBD SOLD/PRS' LIFB ISBUR.LYCE 39 


rarely fall, or arc though!. to fall, within that cat('gory. Insurallce 
COlupallics naturally look a
h.all(,c at the r'turned soldicr applicant for 
ÏIl:-\urance. 
The provi::::-ion of life ill
urance for rcturtlc(I ::,oIdi
rs ,,
:tS thcrefore 
recognil(
d by the j)on1Ïnion GOYCrnnlellt to be a public duty. Under 
ehnpter 5--1 of the t:::Itn tutc:-\ of 1920, pcrsonl;) don1Îcilcd and resiùent ill 
rallada who 
ery
d in the XavaI, ::\filitary or ...\.ir Forces of the 
])on1ÌnioIl durillg the 'far lfiay ohtain life ill
UraIl('(' in :Ullonnts of 
frolfi ""300 to :-;.>,000 at rate:") lower than the lowest quoted hy insurance 
cOlnpanie::; for 
inlÌlar iIl:-\\U:lIl{'l'. T'he' hf'nefits of the \et are also 
('
te'nded to pcrson
 who seryeù in the Illlperi:1I or .A\llicd Force::, if 
they liv
<l in Can:ula prior to the ,var anù are rc""iùent ill this country 
at the tiIne of application. 
1"'he outstandillJ:!; feat urf' of t hl
 t:;l"hl'111C i
 that no Inedical exam- 
ination i:-\ rpquir
d in order to ohtain the illsurnllc
. It is dc
igneù 
to give the lllan wh()
l' phy:-\ical condition, by rca:::Oll of war service, 
pr
vents hiIn frolll ohtaining r('gular in:-,urallce, nn opportunity to 
protect hi
 depclHlants. rfhe favourahl(' rat
:-\ arC' avnilablp to all, 
no lllatter what IllaV be the state of their health. The C
overJ'lncllt 
doe's not add a cent
 to the rate
 ehnrged to ('over the additional risk 
of in
uring person... ,,"ho are not in J!ood IH'alth or to pay the c'X}Jcn:scs 
of the aellninistration of thc scheIBe. In order to Illake it as easy as 
pO
:5ible for the individual to pay for hi
 insurancc, provision is 
Blade in thp Act for the paYlllellt of prenlitnns 1110nthly ,vithout 
additional char
e. 
'I'he Cunadiau Pension .Act protects the ùppendulltfo; of returncd 
boldiers who
e ùeath i
 c:lu

d hy their military service. T'he l{eturned 

oIdi('rs' In
urance _\.ct furni
hes the protection necc:-\
ary to the 
dependants of ull IHen ,,'hose deaths subsequent to di:5charge do not 
COU1P within thi
 caf<'gory. There is, therefore, a clauRe in the 
In:-\urance ...\.ct ,vhich proyid
8 that when a pen
ion is a,vardcd áS the 
re"ult of the death of a person insured under its proyi:-\iolls the capital- 
ized value of that pen
ion ,viII be deducted from any insurance benefits 
hecolning payable. ',"hen thi
 occur
, a proportionate part of the 
prell1Ìullls paid, equivalent to the prclniunl which ,vould have been 
paid on the total :unount deducted, is refundeù to the beneficiaries 
with interest at four p.c. The' pen
ion paid to the soldier himself 
ha
 no bearing on thiç; clause. 
.A.s the object of this insurance is to provide protection for th
 
dependants of returned soldiers, all policies issued are on the "life" 
plan, that is, the benefit is payable only at the death or total and per- 
nlanent di
ablelnent of the insured. Xo endo\vment policies are 
bsued and the policy cannot be uscd as collateral for the purpose 
of borro,ving nloney. rren1ÏUITIS 11lay be paid during; the entire life 
thne of the insured, or for 10, 15, or 20 years, or until the age of 65. 
The object of the term payment plans is to enable the individual to 
pay for his insurance during the proùuctive years of life "Then it i'S 
not so difficult to pay pren1Íunls as it might be later on. 


. 



40 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CAf.."'ADA 


The insurance benefit is payable one-fifth in cash at death and the 
balance in annual instalments according to the choice of the insured. 
Interest at four p.c., compounded annually, is aIIo\ved on the unpaid 
balance. This form of payment is designed to protect the benefi- 
ciary against making unwise investments and consequently losing 
the benefit of the insurance; the experience of insurance companies 
for years past has been that ,vhen life insurance is paid in a lump sum, 
it is in a great many cases lost within a very short tune. 
A further clause 
.hich is unusual in a life insurance policy of 
this nature provides for the paYlnent of a disability benefit to the 
insured should he become totally and permanently disabled and ren- 
dered incapable of pursuing a gainful occupation from causes not due 
to ,val' service. The benefit consists of relief from all further payment 
of premiums and of the payment to him of a. SUll1 equivalent to one- 
t\ventieth of his insurance annually for a period not exceeding 20 years. 
There are also the usual provisions for the surrender of the policy 
for cash after it has been in force for two years or for an extended 
tenn, and paid-up insurance should the policy holder find himself 
unable to continue his insurance for the full amount. The cash value 
of a policy is approximately the amount which has' been paid in 
prenÜulns by the insured and in SOlne cases is slightly in excess of 
that amount. The amount of insurance in force on July 15, 1921, 
,,,,as 
11,810,OOO; the amount received in premIums, 
175,OOO; the 
number of applications received, 4,025; the claims adjusted, 39; 
the claims awaiting disposal, 33. 


WAR SERVICE GRATL'ITY. 


Soldiers returning fronl active service overseas often reached 
Canada short of funds. Also, after years of service at the front, 
they "Tere often unable to readjust themselves immediately to the 
entirely different conditions of ordinary life. They needed a breathing 
space to permit of a gradual transition and readjustment of their lives, 
and both the Don1inion Governlnent and the nation considered 
it inclunbent upon theln to facilitate the bridging of the gap and the 
re-establishnlent of the returned nlen, by the provision of ,var seryice 
gratuities. 
The amount of ".ar service gratuities payable to nlembers of 
the Canadian naval and land forces who served during the ,val' 
aroused a great deal of public discussion, and ,vas the subject of various 
Orders in Council, dated December 21, 1918, February 8, June 23 
and Decelnber 1, 1919. As Bettled by the last nalned Order (P.C. 
2380) the regulations provided for the payrnent to soldiers who had 
8erv
d overßeas of gratuities equivalent to pay and aIIo\vances for 
183 days, 153 days, 122 d3.Ys and 92 days according as total service 
",.af' for three years, t\VO years, one year or under one year and for 
pay and aIIo\vances to soldiers ,vho had served in Canada only for 
92 days, 61 days and 31 days according 
s service ,vas for three years, 
t,vo years or one year, no payee to receIve less than $100 per month, 



lr iR SERVICE GRA.TUITY 


41 


if lllarrif'd, or 1('...., than 7u per lllonth, if single. ,-r arious propo"als, 

OIHP of t helll involvin
 Inuch htrhCr pa}ïIlPnt
 than t hc:.,(\, ,,('re put 
forth Oil h('half of the r('tnrn('d f;oldiprs, and t he whole qlH'stioll was 
the :-\uhject of exhau
tiyp inquiry by a 
pe 'ial COlllluittcc appoinh'ù 
hy re
olution of th
 1-10\18<.' of rO)}UIlOnS on 
('ptelnl)('r Ig, 1
19. 
1'he ('Olnll1Ïttp(' pf(':-\('ntpd t}u'ir fourth and final rpport Oil Ol'tolwr 
31, 101 U. In rejecting thr' 
 alternatiye propo..;als involving, in 
addition to '-30,000,000 annually paid in pl"nsion
, expenditures 
c
tinlat('d at 
l,OOO,OOO,OOO for th<' fir:-\t, ;-.400,OOU,OOO for thp :spt'ond 
:111<1 
2nU,OOO,OO() for the third, th(' COllllHittce founù that uny one 
of th('lll ".ould be sprioush" dptriln('ntal to the finaneial int'rests 
of the country, 'nHlld in, òlvp ohligatiol1:-\ to n1l'(.t ".hich no 
atis- 
faetory 
('h(,llle of taxation had hitherto h('cn devi:-\cd, and by inflating 
the currency and thu"5 lowering thp purcha:-\ing powcr of IHoncy, ".ould 
increase the high ("o:-\t of living 10 thp di:':l<lyanta ,(, of the :,oldiers 
t}H'nl:-:elV('
. 
l'h(' ('o:-\t to the eouutr," of the war io;eryif'e gratuities whieh "-ere 
paid through thp Dcpartllleitt of 
Iilitia and IJl'fence, W'll
 .lpproxiln- 
ately lG4,OOO.OUO. 


l.nE"''':J(.:XC.
 }
()R ('1\ IL """:R\ 1('" Po
ITIO

. 



\ 
p('l"ial prefPrt'IH'P in f(':--IH'<"t of \"ae
uH'i('::; in tlH' 
f'r\"if'e of 
the DonlÏnion (}o,.('rnlll(,llt "...1:-: p:\t('nded tú f('tllrne I :--oldiprs by an 
Urdf'r in Coun('il of Ft'bruary, 1 D 1 b, whif' h eon taill('d t h(' folIo'\\. ing 
cIa u
p:,:- 
(a) J n all ('olllpptitive e
alllÌnations h('ld under the Civil 
S 'r\"ice _\In(,IHhllent _\ct, 1 HUh, pprsons ,,-ho have be('n on active 

erviee ov('r
('a
 in the Illilitary or naval for('e
 of IIi:") 
Iajesty, 
or of any of the allip:; of lIb .:\Iaj<'sty, ,,,ho ha\"e left such f:eryiee 
,vith an honourabl<.' rccord or ,yho have becn honourahly dis- 
ch.....rg('d, and who obtain :,uffici('nt Inarkio; to pa:,:-) such pxanlina- 
tiOIl:', :-\hall irn':'IH'ctive of th(' Illark
 they hu\"P ohtained, be 
phl{.('d in tllp ord('r of 11lerit on the list of suc('e

ful candidates 
aho,-e all other candidatp
. 
(b) 'fht" 
)rovi
ion
 of any :-:tatllte or ft'gulation prp:-\cribing 
all ag<, linlit and phy
i("al rt'quirenH-'nt
 with r(':-\p('ct to any 
appointlnent in the Ci,.il 
('rvice 
hall not apply to any such 
per...,on, if the COlnIHi:--:--ion c{>rtifil':-) that he ið of such an nge and 
in 
ueh a 'ati
factory phy:-:icul condition that he is then able 
to perfofll1 the duties of the office and ,vill probably be able 
to continue to do 
o for a reasonable period aft
r hi:., appointInent. 
These clau:.,e
 ,,-ere later incorporated into the Civil Service Act 
of the saIne year (
-û George Y', chap. 12). The further concession 
"-a
 granted of exeluption fronl all e:\anlÏnation fees, ".hile by the 
Civil bervice .A.lnen(hnent Act pab::5ed at the autumn bession of 1919 
(10 Geo. 'T, chap. 10), all the privi}
ge
 atcorded to the returned 



42 


RECOlvSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


man were extended to the \vido,vs of those men who had died ,vhile 
on active service or as the direct result of injuries or disease 
contracted in connection therewith. Nurses ,vho had served overseas 
\vere already included under the definition of "returned soldiers". 
As a result of this legislation the returned man secured an 
absolute lien on all positions for ,vhich he could qualify. Special 
efforts \vere made to acquaint returned soldiers with the opportun- 
ities thus opened to them. 
As a result of the above policy, up to June 30, 1921, 31,333 
returned men had been given appointIl1ents by the Civil Service 
Commission, of \vhom 10,104 'v ere filling permanent appointments. 
To a considerable extent, preference has also been given to returned 
men by Provincial and municipal administrations. 


FREE TRANSPORTATION OF DEPENDANTS FR01\l O'-ERSEAS. 


At the outbreak of war thousands of men born in the United 
Kingdolli .were resident in Canada. J\;Iany of them ,vere army 
reservists, \vho immediately responded to the summons of the Mother 
Country, while others \vent overseas with the First and subsequent 
Canadian contingents. The wives and children of thousands of 
these men returned to the old hOllie, in order to be nearer their hus- 
bands and fathers,-and set an example which was followed by 
large numbers of the wives and children of Canadian-born soldiers. 
In many cases they went to England expecting to pay only a short 
visit, but found themselves prevented by the unrestricted submarine 
campaign from returning. At the date of the armistice it ,vas esti- 
mated that there \vere 50,000 to 60,000 soldiers' dependants whose 
return to this country was desirable. 
As a result of the situation outlined above, arrangell1ents were 
lnade by the Department of Imn1Ïgration and Colonization to provide 
free transportation from the United I\:ingdoln, France or Belgiunl to 
destinations in Canada of the wives and children under 18 years of 
age of any men who served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. 
Conductresses, mostly \vith experience in travelling, nursing, etc., 
accompanied each ship and special arrangements were made at 
Canadian ports for the reception and care of the travellers, \vho in 
many cases were aided with funds by the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
and cared for en route by the patriotic and charitable organizations. 
The average cost to the Canadian Government was $50 per head, being 
thus low on account of the large nunlber of infants and young children, 
and of the very favourable rates conceded by the transportation 
companies. The amount spent on this service, exclusive of cost of 
administration, to l\Iarch 31, 1921, was approximately 
2,800,000" 
A further service of a minor character performed by the Domin- 
ion Government for returned soldiers, was the redemption at par of 
exchange of their English cheques representing pay and allo\vances 



FREE 7'R
.LVSPORT
1 TIO
Y OJ' DRPEXD.LVTS FROJI OJ7'ÞJRS/iL1S 43 


which had bCf'n paid in stcrling, al
o of '"ar servi('(' -gratuity and 
p(\n
ion
 payable to pre-war resiùcnts of C1.nada who had scrved in 
the hnperial fon.es. The total 
unount tlnls redccnlcd to 
Iarch 31, 
1921, wa:5 npPl'oxiJnatply ,....J -1,400,000, hut ,vhat it. C()
t the DOloinion 
GOVCfllIllcnt to rcnù '1' this" 'r,.icc ha(l not hpen dcfinitrly a
ccrtained. 



(;'\ 'L\Rl. 


The approxilluLte tUllount 
pcnt down to 
Iarch 31, 1921, in 
rc-cstabli:,hing thf' rcturn(>d. soldicrs, is estÏInated at 'l.l2,700,OOO, 
dividcd a
 follows: gratuiti(\s, :-; It) 1,000,000; pcn:-\ions, :"IUl ,000,000; 
. rr-establislunent, 102,300,000; land >-:ettlenlcllt, .....
2,{)00,OOO; trans- 
portation of dept'lIdantR, ':;2,800,000. '1"0 a
c(\rtain the total cost of 
the entcrpri"e a
 at\[ar('h 31, IH:!I, there "ill have to hp added to 
this the capitalizpd value of a pen"ion charge' no"r e::5tinlatcd at 
:;3;3,000,000 prr annlun. Ûn the other hand, it t:;hould he ren1Cln- 
hered that the 
2,ßOO,OOO :-:pent for land settlPB1pnt i:-; a :-\ccnred 
loan which ,viII in tÏIne come back to the public funds. 


III.-RECO
STRUCTIO
 .L\\ro:\G TIlE GE:\ER..\L 
POPULATIO:N. 


rrhc ,var and thc effort..: ,\ hich have becn made tu re-cstablish 
returned boldiers have laid vpr} hcavy burdcns upon the general 
population of Canada, both in the present and for the future- a fact 
,vhich ,vill have bcen realized hy the rcadcr of the preccding pages. 
X ot to Incntioll non-rccurrent expenditure, the anlOUl1t paid as interest 
on the Don1Ïnion na.tiona.l deLt in the fiscal year ended l\Iarch 31, 
1921, as Rtatcd in the Canada. Gazette for 
\.pril 9, 1921, was 
.n29,- 
118,279, ,vhile the pensions expenditure in thc saIne fiscal year 
alnounted to 
33,312,736 -a total rccurrcnt expenditure for these 
purposes of ::164,4:31,013 a
 compared ,vith $13,20,5,403 in the fiscal 
year 1914 -an incrcase of .....151,22.:5,610-an aU10unt grcater than 
thp total rcceipts of the Dominion Government on consolidated 
fund account in the fiscal year 1915. For many ycars to come Can- 
adians lllust expect heavy taxation, the silver lining to the cloud 
bcing that the money spcnt in interest and in pensions ,vill nearly 
all be spent ,vithin thl' country. It must also be remembered that 
within a few years the probable decline in gcneral intere:-;t rates 
,viII make it possible, by re-funding maturing obligations at lower 
rates of interest, materially to reduce our annual debt charges. 
If, then, taÀation is not to take from the average Canadian citizen 
a much larger percent
lge of his incon1e th
tn before the ,var, that 
income must be greatly augrnented by a general increase in the 
productive efficiency of the people. 
This de
ired increase in productive efficiency is chiefly to be 
attained in the follo,,
ing ,vays: first and foremost, by an improvement 



44 


RECOJ..7STRUCTION IN CANADA 


in the personnel of our people, an improvement in their physique 
and their intelligence, and the application of these to the work of 
sustained and co-ordinated production; secondly, by industrial and 
scientific research, investigating our natural resources and revealing 
methods in which our great potential assets may be converted into 
actual tangible wealth; thirdly, by efficiency in extending and 
co-ordinating our kno,vledge of the business of our country. 
The Dominion Government has recognized its obligations to 
action in these various directions, while it has also recognized the 
fact that, to a considerable extent, action along these lines lies largely 
within the' scope of the Provincial Governments, whose co-operation 
it has invited and received. 
Thus, for instance, in attaining the first of the desired ends, 
the new Department of Health organized within the Dominion 
Government has co-operated extensively 'with the Provincial Govern- 
ments, ,vhile in the case of education the amounts paid under the 
Agricultural Instruction and Technical Education Acts are entrusted 
to the Provincial Governments for expenditure. Again, in the 
pnterprise of securing a better record of our national activities, the 
Don1Ïnion Bureau of Statistics has no fe,ver than 35 different arrange- 
ments with Provincial authorities regarding the supplying to it 
of information for conlpilation in the manner most advantageous 
to the Canadian people. 


TilE CO
SER\'ATION OF LI."E. 


EcononlÏc prosperity, as ,veIl as civilization in general, is likely 
to reach its maximum in healthy nations where there is a high average 
expectation of life. The scientists of the ,vorld are in general agree- 
ment that in no community of the present day is life as long as, 
by reasonable care, it may be made. In the most advanced commu- 
nities of the present day great numbers of children die ,vho have never 
been producers at all, though throughout their short lives they have 
been consumers of economic goods. They may, indeed, be said 
to die debtors to society as ,yell as to the fan1ilies ,vhose care has 
normally provided them ,vith the means of life. .Again, large 
numbers of older persons die before the economic goods they have 
produced are equivalent to those they have consunled, and many 
others die before they have accumulated a surplus. Generally 
speaking, the estates left behind at df'ath are greater in a measure 
roughly proportionate to age !1t death, and, other things such as 
natural resources and the effic1ency of labour being equal, the per 
capita ,vealth of a country should correspond fairly closely with the 
average age at death of its population. When for instance it is 
remembered that, according to vVebb's New Dictionary of Statistics, 
the average expectation of life of males in India at birth was in 1901 
23.6 years as compared with 44. 1 years in England and \r ales, a 
chief cause of India's poverty stands revealed. 



7'IlH CO..\"8ERV_1 T1U.\ OF LIFE 


45 


'rhp 1l10Velllent for tht' pxtl'I1:iiun of lift' to it
 po
ible linlÌts, is 
a. natural rpaction againt;t the wa
tc of lift' in ,,"are It i
 l"{>nRtruction 
v('r
U:i dpstrurtion. "ïth this n}OV('nlent for life extpnsion is inf'x- 
trieabh inyolYt'll tht' hpalth mOVt'IIlent. :\[orhiùitv 
tatistics arc 
still in' thpir infaney 
 hut llll'dieal t'xperts :u1l1 vital st:
tisti('ians, 
u('h 
as 
ir 
\.rthur Xpwf\hohne, a
ree that the Ìlllprovt'IlH'nt in tht' hpalth 
of a population IH.()("('('(h
 appro\..ÍIn:ttt'ly pari passu ,vith an ilH'rl':l:-\t' 
in itR l()n
cvity. 
A
 rrganis the state of hpalth :unoIlg t hl' nations of to-day, 
tht' reYt'latioIl
 TI1adc bv thp t'nfor('('lneIÜ of the ùr'tft in :,u('h countrit's 
as the l!llÌtl'(l Kin
doin :tIHl th(' Unit('(1 
tatcs, 
how 'd that thpl"(' 
"as an nppallinp: :unount. of ill-h('alt h :uHI of physi(':ll dpfp('t rVl'1l 
anlOIl
 thp young In:ll(' population of IIlilitary agt'. .As for Canada, 
out of the 
t)l.tj
),) young 1111'11 hetwepn 20 aIlti :
 I years of ag(' lllf'dil'all
" 
<.'x:unincd under tht' 
lilitarv 5erviep A("t of l
) 17. no fp" ('r t hall 1 
1.2;);), 
or slight l:v nlorp than h:llf " wprc fOUIHl to he 1l10re or Ip:,
 physi('all
. 
unfit. rrlH':il' llH'1l wprp not, it i
 trup, a fair 
:lInpl . of the 
pneral 
population, ;-:il1('p hluHlrl'ds of thousand:i of tht' tit mpn of the:,(' 
ag('
 had alrpady gOIH' Ovprsl"a
. 
 on' th' l('
:;, t h(' 
t a tpllH'nt 
indi('at('s that tlH'r(' i
 ahuIHlallt roülll for ill1}H.ovPIlH'nt in thl' 
physi('a.l ('(}IHlition of the Canadian peoph' and ahundant justifica- 
tion for the cstahlishml'nt of no national hcalt h aut hority. 


t:ST\IU.ISlnlt::\T ()t' fin: UCUII:\'O", IU:P\ItTJIE"f OF JlE.\I.1'II. 


The l)onlÌnion I)('partIu('nt of llcalth was pf'tahli:.;;h(\(l hy the 
])pparhul'nt of IIpalth 
\.ct, 191!) (9-10 Geo. V., ehap. 21). 
The dutip:5 of thp ::\Iini:,tpr adlninistrrin
 thp DepartnlPnt ('xtend 
to alllnatters \vithin DonlÌnioll juri:;diction rela.tins to the prolnotion 
of thp health of the Canadian peoplp, particularly co-operation with 
provineial, tprritorinl and other health authoritirs for ill1provin
 the 
puhlic health and eonserving ('hild lifp. Thp l)epartment is also 
given po'\"er tù rstahlish and Inaintain a national puhlic hpalth 
lahoratory, to in
f>e("t anti give Inl'dical earc to ÏInmigrants an(l Hf'a- 
Bien, to 
upervise, as regarù
 the puhlic hralth, all means of publie 
transportation, as ,,'ell as Don1Ïnion publie buildings. Further, 
th<.' Departmpnt b authorizpd to publish information relating to the 
public health, ilnprov<.'d sanit.ation and thp social ànd industrial 
conditions affecting the health and livps of the people. 
\ Dominion 
Council of Health "a
 abo e:;tablished hy the Act, consisting of the 
Deputy 
Iini
ter of Health as Chainllan, the ('hief executive officer 
of the Provincial J)epartnlent or Boarù of Health for each Province, 

tnd otheT persons not <,xceeding five, appointed by the Governor 
in CouncIl. 
The organization of the Dpparbncnt of I-Iealth was rapidly 
cOlnpleted, and the administration of the follo\ving Act:5 undertaken: 
The Quarantine Act, thp L('pro
y Act, the Public ,\T orks Health 
Aet, thf' Inedieal side of the Imn1Ïgration ..\.et., the Canada 
hipping 


. 



46 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


Act, in so far as relates to sick and distressed mariners, the Adulter- 
ation of Food and Drugs Act, the Patent or Proprietary Medicines 
Act, the Importation and Exportation of Opium, the Commercial 
Fertilizers Act, the Commercial Feeding Stuffs Act, the lVlaple 
Sugar and 8yrup Act, the Honey Act, the Housing Branch of Housing 
and Town Planning, the Opium and Drug Act. The Dominion 
Council of Health has been established, and three branches dealing 
with Sanitary Statistics and Publications, Venereal Diseases and Child 
'Velfare are in process of organization. A. list of the publications 
of the Department of Health ,vill be found toward the end of the 
Admi.nistration section of the Year Book. 
Even before the war it was beginning to be recognized that one 
of the greatest menaces to the life and health of the human race was 
venereal disease. The war undoubtedly increased the danger, as 
millions of men were separated from their homes and families for 
lengthy periods of time. In Canada a considerable amount of ven- 
ereal disease has been found to exist both among returned soldiers 
and the general population. In order to provide funds for combat- 
ting these diseases the Dominion Government in the fiscal year 1920- 
1921 granted the sum of $200,000 for the fight against venereal dis- 
eases, to be carried on in co-operation with the provinces. Of this 
amount $10,000 was to be gra.nted to the National Council for com- 
batting Venereal Diseases, and $10,000 was retained for carrying on 
the work in the Department of Health. The balance ,vas to be 
divided among the provinces in proportion to population, the pro- 
vinces accepting the grant agreeing to establish clinics 'with specialist 
physicians in charge of treatment, and sufficient assistance to carry 
on the 'work efficiently and free to the patients; to establish hospital 
beds with free treatment to inmates of jails and places of detention, 
to provide diagnostic laboratories for venereal disease 'work, with a 
specialist in venereal disease diagnosis, treatment and propaganda to 
carry out the venereal disease work of the provinces. The grants 
actually made amounted to $93,767, 'while an itenl of $200,000 to be 
spent for this purpose has been included in the estimates for the fi
cal 
year 1921-1922. 


ItECI

T PRO'"IX('I..\L prBLIC HEALTH LEGISLATION. 
Public health is, of course, very largely a matter for the Provin- 
cial Governments, and the amount of legislation directly or indirectly 
concerned with public health has for some years been steadily 
increasing. In the course of a brief summary it is impossible to 
enter into details, but attention may be directed to the establishment 
in Ne,v Bruns,vick by chapter 36 of the Statutes of 1918 of a Provin- 
cial Department of Health, the l\Iinister in charge of ,vhich is under 
obligation to collect vital statistics, to take steps to prevent or 
suppress disease, to keep on hand adequate supplies of vaccines and 
serums, and to disseminate general knowledge concerning the ways 
in which diseases ma.y be prevented or cured. He is also empo,vered 



HE "HST P!lUV/l\ "YI.1L PUBLIC IIE.1LTI/ LEGISL61TIO.V 47 


to supprvit"f-' "nt('e "orks :LlHI :se".erng 
 
ystem::; of municipalities 
and to have 
uch change::; lund(, as he d('('HlS n(\ce:-;
ary in the interest 
of the public health. 
By chapter 12 of the 
a
katche,van 
tatutcs of 1ül
 -1919, thcre 
\va
 (':-\tahli
hed a Council of Puhlic IIc:\lth, consisting of a. C'Olllmis- 
sioner, three other qualified Illedical practitionpJ"s and a qualified 
veterinary 
llrgcon. rfhe 
oInlui
:-;ioner is to Illakp a special study 
of the vital statí:;;;tic
 of the province, tu inspect puhlic and charitahle 
institutions :\IHI take what steps he eon:-\id('r
 n('('e
sary for the 
prpvention and buppr('

ion of cOllllnunicahle dis('a
es. lIe shall 
have power to Illake rl' 1'ulations r('
nrdirlg the notifìeation of eOln- 
Illunicahic di:-\en
es, i...;olation, the supply of 1l1edieal aid, vaecination, 
di:-\infcction, the ins)> 'ctiun of slaught('r hous(,:5, cannpric$, etc., and 
the nlcthod:s uf carrying on no}..iou:s :lnd offensi" e tradc
. .:\1 uniripal 
couneil..: or COIIllHittcps chu:-\('n frolH :UllOllg their IllCllllH'rs shall also 
be lllunicipal hoards of health. Evcry city in th(' Province 
hall 
:lppoint a nlcdiral hcalth officer, and oth('r muniripalitic:s Illay do 
so and Inay abo cUlploy sanitary int;ppctors. \Vater supply plans 
anrl analYb =" of ,vater Inu:,t be approvcd hy the rOlllluission(\r, as 
,veIl as se'Yerag(' Ry
tClIl:-;. 
In ..\llH'rta chaptf-'f 13 of the St:ltut('
 of 1
'lb provid('s for the 
e
tahlblllllent of ho-.;pital district'-, the organization of hospital 
boards and the inlpu
ition (,f a ho
pital tax to provide funds for the 
construction and upke('p of the ho:-\pital. 
\. Dep:1rtIncnt of Puhlic 
Health is establi-.;hed in th(' saIne provinee by chapter lü of the 

tatut(;s of 191 9, ,,
hieh shall achnini:ster the pro,.ineial Act
 rplating 
to public' health, :-;hall coll('('t fa('t
 and 
t:lti:-;ti(':, relating th('reto, 
and shall ùis-.;eulÌnatc sHch iufonnation as lllay be founù best adapted 
to prolIlote health and to prevcnt and supprc

 di::>case. 
6\ct::> relating to tile notification of veneral di:--l'a
t', the promotion 
of th(' IHo:4 scipntifi(' Inethod
 of cur(', anrl the prevention of the 
spread of su('h di
('ases, have ,vithin thc past fe,v years bcen enacted 
in most of the provincc:;. This legislation may be brit.fly 
ummurized 
as indicating the 1l1cthod:; ,vhieh are being adopted in this regard. 
By the Public Ilealth Art of 
 ova Scotia, Chnpter 6 of the 
Statutes of 191ö, mf-dieal practitioners are placcd under obligation to 
report tù District i\Iedical Health Officers by nUlnbcr pcrsons suffer- 
ing fronl venereal diseaf'e, and by nalne person
 so suffering but 
refusing Inedical treatInent or acting in such a ,yay as to conducc to 
the' spreading of the dise
lse. Persons of the latter class may be- 
conunitted to places of detention. 
ufferers may be treated free of 
charge; only legally qualified medical practitioners are allo,ved to 
attend or prescribp for such ('a
es. 
By Chapter 51 of the StatutEs of 1
)19, Quebec provides that all 
prisoners arrested for offences of a sexual character shall be medically 
examined, and that where a prisoner suffering from a vpnereal disease 
is discharged, the inspector of the Superior Board of Health for the 
prisoner's home district shall be notified. 


. 



48 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANA.DA 


In Ontario, the Venereal Diseases Prevention Act of 1918 pro- 
vides for the examination of persons under arrest or in custody who 
are believed to be infected with venereal disease, and for the treat- 
ment of such persons. Further, 'where the Medical Officer of Health 
is informed that any person in his district is infected with venereal 
disease and has infected or is liable to infect other persons, he may 
notify such person to produce a certificate from a medical physician 
and he may give instructi.ons for detention and isolation of such person 
if so infected. No person other than a medical practitioner may 
attend or prescribe for cases of venereal disease. 
In l\Ianitoba, the Venereal Diseases Prevention Act of 1919 
provides for the compulsory examination and treatment, and if 
necessary, the detention of persons infected, or suspected of being 
infected, ,vith venereal diseases. Only medical practitioners are 
allowed to treat such cases, such practitioners being under obligation 
to n1ake reports upon the cases of venereal diseases coming under 
their care. 
In Saskatche\van, the Venereal Diseases Act of 1919 provides 
that no person other than a physician shall attend upon or prescribe 
for any person suffering from venereal disease, that persons under 
arrest or in custody who are believed to be infected with venereal 
disease may be examined and if so infected may be isolated and 
placed under treatment. All persons reported to a medical health 
officer as infected with venereal disease and as having infected or 
being liable to infect other persons may be required to procure a 
certificate from a physician. If this is not produced the medical 
health officer may authorize the examination of such person and may 
enter any house for that purpose. Advertisements with regard to 
the cure of venereal diseases are prohibited. 
In Alberta, the Venereal Djseases Prevention Act of 1918 pro- 
vides for the examination of persons committed to gaols or in 
custody, and the treatment of such persons 'v here infected. Also on 
request or with the consent of the council of any municipality, the 
provincial medical officer of health or any medical practitioner 
deputed by him may enter any house for the purpose of examination 
'with regard to the state of health of its inmates, and may cause the 
detention of pErsons found to be infected with venereal disease. 
In British Columbia, the Venereal Diseases Suppression Act of 
1919 requires every medical practitioner and every head of a hos- 
pital, public institution or place of detention to maintain a record of 
all persons suffering from venereal disease coming under his treat- 
ment or supervision. He shall report such cases by name or by 
number to the Provinci&l Health Officer. If such persons neglect 
treatment or appear likely to infect others, they may be committed 
to a hospital or gaol until the danger of infection no longer exists. 
Only legally qualified medical practitioners are allowed to attend 
such cases. 



PRuGRESS IN BDUC ITIOV 


49 


I-ROG IC.ESS I 
 t:u("c \TI():\. 


N ext to phy
ical inlIH'OY(,lllf'nt of the p 'uple in this process of 
recun
tructiun ClJnll.
 their intellcctual inlproVclnent; in fact, froln 
thc C'conon1Ïr point of vip"., tlu"lattC'r Inay "cll he the Ill0re iUlport:lnt. 
Brains rather than hrute strength are what in our day
 lllake increased 
produetion possible by co-ordinating effectively the tasks of lahour, 
and {'ffp('t ivply u:-:iug (':! pital to furt IH"r th(' ".ork of production. 
rrhe cconolnic pro:-\p 'rity of bcutland ,vas pighty years ago attributed 
by )[acaulay to th. e
c('llencp of the t;cottish educational systelu, 
an(l his l'onclu:,ioll has sincf\ h('('OlllC a cOlnlnonpl
H'(". 
\s S('utti:,h <"'x!>eriPHce show:" thp}'p e:l n h(, no greater PITor 
than the a
Slllllptioll that only ,vhat ".e ordinarily call vocatiunal 
education is cconolnir:llly productivp. 1"hl' hi
hlr cultural, highly 
int(\l1('('tual Scottish cdueation of thl' nineteent h ('('ntury Illadl' 8rot:,- 
Blen the industrial as ""ell a
 the intellcctual lcadcrs of the world. 
CaUa(!ï.l abo: ,,"hi('h has been c;:lllpd the 
cotland of 6\Jncrira, enjoys 
:t high reputation abroad as well a
 at hOln<"', for th(\ excellence of 
its acaJcBlÌ(' education. 
.Acadclnic education, howeycr, is not ...uit \d, at le:lHt in its higher 
grades, to the Ina

t'S uf the"' pcuplt
, nor dVl"
 it yi{'ld ns spcl;(ly 
dividcnd
 on ìnve
tIllcnt as doe:-i vocational pducation. rrhc voeational 
education given this yea.r to a boy of 13 or lü lllay ea:-\ily be bearing 
fruit next 
 Car in his incrl'a
l'd productivity in aetual industrial life. 
6\t u. time like the prc
pnt, thp:,e inUllediate n_\:-\ult
 are what are needcd. 


llOJU
IO
 _\SSIST.\:\('
 TO \ O('.\TIO:\.\L };Dt'('.\TIO
. 


\Yhile educational a(hnini
tration is 3. matter for the provincE's, 
the DonlÌnion (
ovenHncIlt, re('ognizin
 the desirahility of supple- 
ulcnting the Provincial funds available for such purposes, secured 
even before the \yar the pa

age of the 6\.
ricu1tural Instruction Act 
(3 G(,o. 'T., c. 5), undcr whi('h sUlns ag
regating 
10,OOO,OOO "
ere 
to be paid over to the provinces ,vithin the succecdin
 tell years for 
the purpo
e of aiding and advancing the farming industry by instruc- 
tion in agriculture, ineluding under this head the ,vork carried on 
by the veterinary colleges. l)uring rccent years the 
rant for this 
purpose has 
lmounted to 1,100,000 per annum, the allocation of 
,vhich among the proyince
 in 1020-21 is given on page 2.
9 of this 
edition of the Year Book. 
In 1919, the DonlÌnion Government decided to a
sist the 
provincE's in vocational edura tion for others than agriculturists. 
By the Technical Education .A.ct (9-10 Ceo. V., c. 73), aid tv the 
provinces ,vas provided for promoting and assisting technical educa- 
tion in Canada by ilnnual g:rants commencing at 
700,OOO and 
aggregating 
10,000,OOO ,vithin tf'n ypars. Out of the annual grant 
each province is to rcceive 810,000, while the balance is to be divided 
18427-4 


. 



50 


RECO:-"TSTR[JCTIO
V IN CA
YA.DA. 


among the provinces in proport.ion to their population as sho-wn at 
the last decennial census. The grants to any province in any year 
are not to exceed an amount equivalent to that ,vhich the Provincial 
Govenuuent shall expend on technical education \vithin such year, 
and the Dominion 
Iinister of Labour is entitled to an accounting 
for the Dominion moneys expended and to a report setting forth the 
,york done in the province in promoting technical education. 
The provisions of the r-rechnical Education 
\ct have been taken 
ach.antage of by all the provinces. Agreements subject to annual 
modification have been entered into 'with Provincial Departments of 
Education ,vith regard to the rharacter and scope of the work to be 
done. I n the application of the Àf't, reference has been luade to the 
rccomluendations of the Royal Commission appointed in 1010, and 
aR a result it hnR been laid dOl\.n that the dominant purpose of any 
course of vocational education is to train for citizenship, the fitting 
for u
eful en1plo
vment. being regarded as the cro\vning element in 
education. Emph
sis is laid on the development of character and 
of ability to co-operate ,vith others. 
The amount actually paid out under the provisions of the A.ct 
dov;n to June 30, 1920, 'was $337,498, or less than half the total 
amount of the grant. There is therefore ample opportunity for 
increGsed aid from the Dominion treasury to the ftdvancing cause 
of technical education in Canada. The reader is referred to page 
129 of the Year Book for a 
hort article on technical education in 
Canada, find to Table 9 on page 142 for the number of vocational 
schools, ,,,ith the teachers and pupils, for the year ended Junp 30, 
1920. 


REf1EXT PRO\"INt'I.\I.. LEGISL,\TIO
 OY EDrt'ATION. 


The education of the people is in Canada a function of the Provin- 
cial (
overnment. The Dominion may, as \ve have seen, stimulate 
certain types of eduf'ation by Rub
idies, hut the Provinces expend 
these subsidies. In the past fe,," years much valuable educational 
legislation has been pas
ed b
T the various Provincial Parliamenti3. 
.Among this legislation is provision for more regular bchool 
attendance. Prinf'e Ed,vard Island, for example, raised the require- 
ment
 of its compulsory attendance from five school years to six, 
and the minimum yearly attendance luUst be thirty ,veeks in Charlotte- 
to,vn and SUlnmerside and 20 \\.eeks else,vhere. ::\Ianitooa in 191ß 
passed a compulsory attendance Act, requiring all children bet,veen 
7 and 14, w'ho have not Inatriculation st.anding, to attend full time, 
,yhile any pupil over 14 ,vho is enrolled must attend regularly. A 
child over 13 may be exempted for employment for six ,veeks in the 
year, but otllcr,vise the employment of children under 11 is forbidden. 
The hoard of any district having an attendance offieer may compel 
children to attend up to the age of 15. Thc most remarkable legis- 
lation rpgarding school attendance is, ho,vever, that of Ontario. 
In that provincc chapter 77 of the Statutes of 1919 maket:. school 



UJ-:f'EX1 1 }'IlOJrl.\('LtIJ IJFOISIJ.1J'IU4V O.Y 1
'J)U(,4 T/O.V 51 


attl'llcl:UH'1' c0l11}>ulsory during till' full 
chool y('ar hy ehildren fro III 
8 to 1-1 year
 of agp, and plal'(\:' children h \twPl'll th(' agps of 5 and 
8, if in actual attpndaIH'(', uIHlpr the S.UllP ohlig:\tions as thp othprs 
to ath'nd full tllllP; it :llso provides for thp appoÎntll1pnt of an 
att 'udaIH'(' ofIi('pr with POWPI'S of a l)l'acc ofI1epr in pvpry urLan 
1l1unieipality and in rural Illunieipalitips, ('),.cPI)t ".here truant offiep1"R 
nlrpady ('xi:-\t, thi
 offif'ial to act undl'1" thp in:'}>f'ctor and provineial 
attpIHlalH'p oflief'r; it also el11pO'Vers the provincial attcndanee 
officcr to act a
 trustrp in thr ca
p of unorganil.pd di-;trict:--. C'hapt('r 
7
 makp:, 
ehool attpudalH.1' eOlnpul-.;or

 for :Hlolp:-,(.pnts l)('t,n'('H 
1-1 and If) YP
ir:, of ag(' who ha yp not at t:linC'd In:! t ri('lIb tioll 
t:l.lldillJ.?;; 
if C),.PIU ptp(l for any rp.
!--CJn t IH
y nl\l
t :i ttpud pH rt tinlP too hourR 
a y('a1", and adolt':'('l'nt
 lwt\\cPIl thp :,g('
 of It) :i1HI Ib lll\l'st :ittpnd 
3:io hour:, a yp:lr, ,dH'rp part tilllP instl'u(,tion i
 within tlH'ir rl':tell; 
cv('ry urhan IHunicipulity uf oJ.OOO or lllorp inh:lhit:lIlts nlus1 alHl othl'rs 
lT1ay c'
t a bli:,h Inl':lns for pa rt tilIH' inst rUl't ion, t hp:,C' to l'OlllP undC'r 
tl1(' 
l'hool hoard
; ('OIIlB1Pl"('ia I high ..whool:-; an' to hp lllldpr ("Ollll11ereÍ:.ll 
eOllunitt \l'S; l'lnploynlPllt of adolp:,el'nt
 i::; to ht' 
ll:'I)('IHI('d during 
the hour:::> of part tilIlP in
tru('tion Hnd thf':'p hour:-, ar(' to hp inl'ludpd 
in thp legal hours of PB1}>lo
 1l11'1lt. 'rhi.... la,,- ,,-ill ("OIU{' into forc(' 
for adoh'scent8 hptwppn 11 and lû YPtil'
 of ngp in 
('pt(,lnhpr, UJ21, 
,vhil(' it i
 pxpc("tc'll to l'Ollh' into forl.p for adol(':,('pn ts bet WPPH 1 ß 
and IS YP:ì.l":-ì of ag(' in SPptpllllH'r, I H:?:t 


'.
T..\ln.I
II'IF.XT 0'- GO\ F.R"I}:'T "Il ' LO,"'lt"" O"'I"It.}:
 


Phy
i('al perfection :lllli il1t('
lp('tllnl di:-;tinf'tion ftrp IHnvcvcr 
alike unproductive if no pnlplo
.mpnt for tlH'l11 ('an hp found. 
...\l"{.ordin
ly th(' (;ovprnll1pnt of (ianacla undpl'took in HHU to JH.oyide, 
not only' for tlH' n'turIl(\d :,oldipr, hut for thp eitizPIl!' gpn(,l'ally, free 
infonnatioll rpgarding PlnploynlPnt, Inaking th(' 
y:.:tcln of frpp PJ11plo.v- 
mpnt ag('ncip:--1 :dn':id
. ('xi:,t iug ill ("prt:ì.in provilH"ps nu tioH-" ide. 
II ('I"(' too thp :,y:,tpln acloptp,l 'Y
ì
 onp of giving aid to the Provill(,ps, 
the DonlÏllion GOyernnl('nt appropri:ì. ting hy thp ElnployuH'nt Offi(,PF; 
Co-ordination ...\('t of IfHb, 
.)(),O()O for tlH' fir:-ìt year, =-,100,OOU for 
the 
p(,olld year, Hnd t\LjO,OOO for ea('h sub:-\pquent 
.car, to he p
lÏd 
to the govenunents of the prOVil1('C.8 in th(' proportion ".hieh thl'ir 
expenditure for tlu. maintl'luì.IH'{' of PIJ1ploYlnf'llt office:-; hP:ì r
 to tlH' 
total of t h(' eXlwHditun'
 of all t IH
 provilu.p::;, the paYlllPnt, ho,yever, 
Bot to c'Xf'e('d onp IUì.lf of th(' (''''{J>pnditure hy the provinf'p. In thp 
fi
cal year rnded 
Ifirch 31, 1 n:!o, l7U.2:)() appli('ation:-: for ".ork 
'Yf\1'e luadc to th(' offi('c...: of thp f)olllÏnion-Provincial Employnlent 
Sprviee, -1-19,022 vacanci('.... WP1'P rpport('d by elnployer
, and 325,937 
regular placement
, be
id{':, .) 1,()(j3 cnsual placPIHC'nt:" W(,I'P Inude. 
Through thf' e
tahli:,hnlPllt of four f'learing-hou
es at 
Ionctont 
Ott:nva, \\ïnnipeg and \rancouver, applicant') for ,,"ork at anyone 
enlploynlent office could he informed of vacancicð registered at any 
other, ".hile a 
pf\cial ratc of one cpnt per n1Ïle "'as arranged for 
lS427-4i 



52 


RECOJ.VSTRUCTION IN CA.NADA. 


their transportation. It is unnecessary to emphasize the importance 
of the work of these offices in promoting the lllost effective distribution, 
both by localities and by occupations, of the labour force of the country. 
In June of 1921, there \vere 77 of these Dominion-Provincial free 
employment age'ncies in operation throughout the length and breadth 
of Canada. For details of the operation of these agencies and for 
employment statistics the reader is referred to the Employment 
sub-section of the Labour, 'Yages and Prices section of the Year Book. 


IMPORTANCE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 


Scientific and industrial research, as is no\v generally agreed, 
,vas the chief cause of the rapid progress of Gerrnany in the period 
preceding the ,yare Germany, through her endo-wment of science, had 
captured the chemical industry of the ,vorld, the dye industry, the 
optical glass industry, and ,vas making great strides in electrical 
and metallurgical industry. Her agriculture also reaped the benefit 
of her assiduous devotion to chemistry, food production being greatly 
increased by the use of chemical fertilizers. 
The English-speaking nations, deprived at. the outbreak of the 
\var of their supplies of chemical dyes, optical glass, etc., found it 
necessary in the midst of the \var to create these industries for them- 
selves, more especially as their products ,yere required in large quan- 
tities for war purposes. In the building up of these industries, ho,,
- 
ever, it was not forgotten that they would be fruitful sources of 
incalculable ,vealth long after the ending cf the 'war. 
In order that the establishment of ne,v industries might be 
carried on upon the right lines, a Committee of the Imperial Privy 
Council for Scientific and Industri3,1 Rese
rch ,vas appointed by the 
British Government in July, 1915, ,vith an Advisory Council composed 
of eight men distinguished in the scientific and industrial ,vorld 
"for the development of scientific and industrial research", applicable 
to the problems of the ,var and of the peace ,vhich ,vould follo\v the 
war. Shortly afterwards a similar "Commonwealth Institute of 
Science and 
 Industry" was established by the Government of 
Australia. 
Influenced by the same considerations, the Government of 
Canada on June 6, 1915, appointed a Sub-Committee of the Privy 
Council, consisting of the l\Iinister of Trade and Commerce (Chair- 
man), and the l\Iinisters of the Interior, Agriculture, l\lines, Inland 
Revenue and Labour, to devise and carry out measures to promote 
and assist scientific and industrial research, \vith 
 view to the fuller 
development of Canadian industries and production, in order that 
during and after the present 'var they might be in a position to supply 
all Canadian needs and to extend Canadian trade abroad. 



S "IFXTIFIC .AXD ISJ)USTRl
tL RHSE..tllrll 


53 


1I0:\OU.\U\ \U\'I
()It\ eOL'('II. 1"01{ S(.IE
'fI"'IC \XU 1'''1 
Tln.\L 
UEst:.\ I{( 'II. 


TTnder this t;uh-COlluuittce of the Privy Council there ,yns con- 

titutl'd. on Xovclnbpr :!f), lU15, nn Ilonofn.ry Advi
ory Council 
for 
ciplltific :\11<1 Industrial H(':-\('areh, (,OJll}>o:-\etl of elevcn Inelubers 
repres 
nting the scientific and illdu:-.;trial int'rests of Canada, under 
Proft'

or A. B. :\Iacalhuu, l\I.I)., Ph.J)., 
c.]J., LL.J)., F.H.S., UR 

\dnÜni
trativ(' Chainllan. rro thib Advi:-\ory rouncil werc a-.:signed 
the following dutics:- 
(a) rro ascertain and taùulat 
 the various research 
agencips in Canada. 
(b) To note and :-;chpdulp th(' re:-\carchc
 and inve:'5ti
ations. 
(c) To co-ordinate all l'l':-\carch agencics so as to prevcnt 
overla pping. 
(d) rro tabulate the tcehnical and scicntifi(' problClus 
that ('onfront th(' prps('nt industrie
. 
(e) To study th(' unu
ed natural resoure('s of Canada and 
the Ly-produet":) of all ha:-\ic indu
tri(;
. 
(f) Tu incren.
c the nUlllher of trained re
ear('h ml'n. 
(g) rru 
tinllllatl" the puhlie luind ill rq
ard to the ilnportance 
and utility of 
eicntific re:;earch and it:-; application. 
Thp .\<lvi
ory Council, in earrying on it:i ".ork sinc(' its organiza- 
tion, has initia t 'd variou::; a::;,i
t('( I r('
earches, the results of ,,,hich 
bid fair to be of great value to the cuuntry at large. Notable amon
 
the
e is the attpJupt to secure fronl the li
nite of the ".e
t a fuel 
,,'hich ".ill be of general u::;e to the pcople of the Prairie Provinces 
for (lomû5tic and manufacturing pur1>o:-:c
. For domestic fuel nlonp 
the people of 
Ianitoha alHl Sa
kat('hewan have heen iInporting 
annually frolll Pcnn
ylYania about half a. n1Ïllion ton
 of anthracite, 
in p:lynlcnt for ,,'hich ahout -1,000,000 has nnnually been sent out 
of the eountry in n'ccnt ypar
. 
\fter pxhall
tiyc e-xpcrilnents had 
heen luade, the Adyisory Board succeedpd in producing a retort, 
d

ignpd along ne". lint-s, ,,'hich ,vas found to have solved the prohlem 
of carbonization. Attcntion ,va:-.; al:-::o giypn to the' prohlem of 
briquetting. )[any ki
ld.5 and combination
 of binders ,vere tried, 
alHI the Board reached the conclusion that ,vith about 11 p.c. of binder 
a fir:,t-cla:-\:-; saleahlc hriquptte cnn he nuulufacturc(l frolll carhonized 
lignite. A cODunerci:ll ùelllon:-::tration plant has been ip. process of 
construction at a point about half-,vay het,veen the mines of the 

IanitolJt1. nnd 
af'katche"\\ nn Coal Company and the \Vestern 
Donlinion Colliers, and i
 expected to be in full operation in 1021. 
This plant is to haye a capacity of 30,000 tons per annum, and, ,viII 
be of material assistance in solving the fuel prohlem of the Prairie 
Provinces. 

\.nother mo
t Î1nportant research a
:-\istecl ".ith funds by the 
.\.clvisory Council, and carried on by Professor Alfred ðtansfield of 
::\IcGill University, b the reduction of iron ores by gases at low 



54 


RECONSTRUCTIOJ.V IX CANADA 


temperature and the electric furnace. The problem is to secure the 
economic utilization of the enormous amounts of lo\v grade ore now 
existing in Canada. 
The results so far ohtained ".ith f;olid reducing agents are very 
satisfrrctory and ,,-ill fonn a valuable basis for further attempts 
either on a laborntory or a ,york seale to construct eontinuous reducing 
appliances for iron or
. The iron ore, iron and steel and their pro- 
ducts, annually importerl into ranr..da exceed $120,000,000 in value, 
96 p.e. of the iron ore used in Canada bf'ing imported. If methods 
can be found \vhieh ,viII make possible the eeonomic utilization of 
the lo,v grade iron ores of Canada, the greater part of thi
 importation 
will be unneeessary. 
For a research on the grn.ding of dairy products (cretì.m and 
butter) a grant has been made to Professor \Vilfrid 8adler, of the 
Department of Dairying of the University of British Columbia. 
This investigation ,vas undertaken to correlate, if possible, the 
grading of eream and butter \vith the bacterial eontent of the milk 
or eream used in the preparation of these products. It is very 
probable that the data \\Thich ,viII result from this investigation ,viII 
make possible a uniform and standard system of grading \vhich ,vill 
determine the keeping qualities of cream and butter from various 
sources, all in relation to special bacterial forms present. 
A grant \vas also given to Captain F. 1\1. Da\,.son to enable 
him to undertake re
earches on the mieroscopic eharacter of cement, 
in relation to its hydration and its physieal properties. Disintegra- 
tion, through the action of alkaline soil ,vaters, has become a serious 
menace to eement structures in Western Canada, \\-here it is found 
necessary to replace conerete several tinles in a generation, the loss 
being estimated in millions of dollars annually. It is not, as yet, 
fully understood ho\v this disintegration occurs and in vie,v of the 
importance of the probleln the llesearch Council proposes to under- 
take it on a scale that \vill insure determinative results, if the required 
expert organization can be eonstituted, and if it can provide the 
required funds for this purpose. 
An investigation by ProfeRsor ,Yo P. Tholnpson of the Univer- 
sity of Saskatche\van, to produce a variety of ,vheat ,vhich \vill 
ripen earlier than the l\Iarquis, be resistant to rust and have good 
milling and baking qualities, is in progress. It has heen found that 
varieties of \vheat. eultivated in the district and found to be immune 
to the rusts prevalent there, may not ,vhen gro,vn in another district 
be resistant to the rusts of that locality. It has further beC'n deU10n- 
strated that \vhen a single ,vheat plant is inoculated with the rusts 
froln different sources it is susceptible in a greater or less degree 
to some of these, ,vhile it usuuJly is lnore or less resistant to the 
rest. This has made it elear that there are strains of rust \vhich 
differ in their virulence. Professor Thompson and his associates 
have produced a nUlnber of hybrids \vhieh have proved resistant 
to the rust strains investigated up to the present, but they do not 
expect them to prove resistant to strains not yet studied. This 



"('/FST//'/G .ÁLYf) IXDrSTR/.\L RFSE6\U('/J 


55 


Blake... i t IH'("('
:..:a r\
, 1 H'fol't, an v .1('('i:-\ivph
 val ua hip rt'
ult s Ina y he 
ohtain{'<1 in thc ÌH'odu('tioll l;r ("olllnll'1'
'ial ru...t-re...i:4an1 hyl;rids, 
that tlu\fl' :-\houl.1 1)(' :t thorough invt':-\ti
ation tn dph'l"Jninc th<' tútal 
nUlllhpr and ehara('tt'rs of thp rust :-:train:-\ of all th<' distriets in th(' 
,,"pstt'rn p1'ovilH'P'" and to a...<'prtain "Ill't h,,)' ne'" on(\:-\ an' ('oHtinually 
ori
in:ltin
 and if 
t) 1.11ul 'r ,,-hat ('ondition
. Th(' att<'lnpt:5 to produce 
n(',," ya riC't i('
 of whpa t hy hyhridi7.a tion JIlU:-\t, t ht\fefore, to lw SUt'l'C:-:S- 
ful, wait till '-'11eh an iu\.p:-:1 i
ation i:-: ('olllplC'tt'd. 
In HHB, all \:..:..;(wiu.tf' ('oHlJnitt(,p ""as appoilltpd hy tht' Bp- 

('ar('h ronneil, \Indt'r tll(' ('hainnanship of Profl':-\:-\ol" J. J. H. 
[a("lcod, 
of thl' Cniyt'1':..:ity of Toronto, to ('arr

 on invp:--tigations in Canada 
on indu:-:trial f
itig\H', a prohlC'lll whidl affp(,ts thp :-\oeial wplfarf' 
of tht\ t'nti1'(, industrial púpulation. In ()('("('lulH'r, un 
), it ""as dpeiclpd 
1 ha tan i nforIn
i tion hun'a u :--hould 1)(' <':-\1 a hli
hpd in 'foronto, in 
whi(.h all :l\.ail:d)}(. litpraturp p('rt:linin
 to probh'lllS of inclu:-\trial 
hygi('l\t.
 nlight lw ('ol1<,('tl'<1, (,:l taloguP(1 an(1 a1>:-\t ractp( 1 and t ha t a 

('("r('tar
. to the ('ollln1Ïtt('l' :-\honld 1)(' appointpd to und(\rtake tlu" 

uI)('rvision of t h(\...(' d utips. 
The Library thus p
tabli:-\lH'd, ("()Il:..:i:-\tiIU.
 of o(,(,:l:-\ional J>uhli- 
eation-.; of eOYCrnlllPnt 1)l'partnH'llt:-:, }'(\}>ort..; Oil scipntifi(' rp:-;('ar('h 
aud tr:l(Il' :-\ur\"('ys. ('t('., anloun1:-ì to ut'arly four hUlldr(.d puhli('ations 
and eovpr
 the tipld of ind u:-\t rial hy
i('lH' fa irly (.0111 ]H'ph('n:-\i \"ply. 
. \11 this IU:! h'rial and ab.o f('fl'r(')l('ps l'ollp('tpd froul a vari(,t y of 
..;ourcps h:lvP hl'('1l ind('xpd. Th(" ('<Hnnlitt('p also :l\lth()rií'('d
 the 
clllploynH'nt of I)r. Cunninghalll, Ll'(.tn)'('r in IIHlu:-\trial IIYl-!:iC'ne 
in the L"nivl'r:..:itv of 'foronto, to undl'rtakp cprtain illve:-;ti
ations 
into the \vorkini (.olHlition
 in Toronto and ncighhourhood. Thl" 
Couuuittpe ('on:..:id('rpd that thp Ino:-:t 
uitable ,,-ork for 1)r. (\lllllill
- 
h
un to undt'rtake fir
t ".as all invc...tigation to a:-;('('rtain in ('('rtain 
sp1<'<,tp<! hut rpp)'(':..:pntative indu:-:trip
 t}1{
 .ln1uunt of lo
t tilnt" due 
to 
i('klU':-:
, and the Hlllount of lahour turnovpr. ()1h('r problpJll:5 
\\"(\1"(' abo, ho,,"evcr, bornp in JllilHI. l'hc 1))'plinlÌnary ,,"ork of the 
(
Ollln1ittt'l' hu:-\ no". hpcn ('onlpl(\tpd nnd fi rpport of their ,\'ork ,,"ill 
he publi:-\hpd hy th(\ I{(':-,car('h Council in th(' near futul"(\. 
I)uring the la:-\t thr('e 
.par:, f01"<,:-\t in\T:-\tigations have bpcn 
conducted in the Ppttnva,va !{p::)prvl' hy t h(' Forc
try Hraneh of the 
])l'partrOl'nt of th(\ Int(\rior ,vith thc aid of grant
 fronl the I{csl'arch 
Council. The ohject of t hi... 
llr\.py i:-\ to (lplinp

tc and de:-\('ribe 
the \"ariou:-:: forest condjtion
; to gathl'r data in n'
anl to topography, 

oil. di:.::trihution of age cla

e
, gro"wth, available supply of 
tnv 
tinl})('r, etc.; in :-\hort, to ('oll('l't all sueh infonnation a
 ,vill be of 
help in planning the organization all(1 lnanap;elnent of thp (\XI)('ri- 
mental area. ..\.11 this inforIuation is to be used to dpternlÍne ulti- 
luatdv the ;:;eientific eondition
 on "which effective reforestation 
Illar be carried on in Eastern ran
Hla. 1"'he data so far ohtained 
are nunlerous and yaluable, but the ;:;11rycy and the neec:-:
ary inve
ti- 
gation as
ociated .with it must be continued on a much larger scale 
for at least ten years further in order to provide all the infollnation 
necessary to attain the ultinlate object of thef'e studies. 



56 


RECOJ.VSTRUCTION IN C
4NADA 


The Council during the year 1920 appointed a number of Asso- 
ciate Committees to superintend special lines of research. Amongst 
these is the Physies and Engineering Physics Committee, constituted 
to deal ,vith all questions concerning researehes in pure physies and 
also in physics on the engineering side. This Committee is composed 
of the leading professors of physics in the universities of Canada 
and it also contains in its membership a number of others ,vho are 
engineers with special attainments in physics. .An Associate Biologi- 
eal Committee ,vas constituted of the leading biologists, physicists 
,and biochemists in Canada, to encourage research on problems in 
marine biology and physiology. An Associate Committee on Food 
Researeh ,vas appointed, composed of a number of biochemists 
,vhose ,york ,viII be to investigate not only the vitamines hut also 
any problem ,vhieh eoncerns the nutrition of the human subject. 
A Fuel n,esearch Board ,vas also appointed. Its function::; will be to 
standardize the coals from the various Inines of Alberta and publish 
the results of its ,york, to guide the market in the use of these coals. 
.A.n Åssoeiate Air Research Committee ,vas appointed to initiate 
and superintend researches in problelns eonnected ,vith aviation. 
This Committee is ,vorking in close co-operation váth the Air Board 
of Canada, representatives of ,vhich attend its meetings and take 
part in the ,york of the COlnn1Ïttee. 
Since the ,val' ended there h3.s been a steady increase in the 
number of qualified applicants for the Bursaries, Studentships and 
Fello,vships instituted by the Research Council. During 1919-20, 
six Bursaries, 19 Studentships and 7 Fello,vships were a,varded. 
Before the beginning of the academic session 3 of those awarded 
Bursaries, 4 of those awarded Studentships and 2 of those a,varded 
Fello,vships had resigned them. T,vo of the FeIIo,vships were held 
in England at the Unive.rsities of Cambridge and l\Ianchester, ,,-hile 
the other 22 students were engaged in research ,york at various 
Canadian universities. One of the most serious handicaps to research 
work in Canada at present is the scarcity of highly trained persons 
qualified to conduct researches and bring them to a suecessful eon- 
clusion. This situation also exists in a smaller degree in both 
England and the United States, and the only ,yay by ,vhich the need 
of Canada in this respect can be met is to award to potential research- 
ers during the next few years a larger number of Bursaries, Student- 
ships and FeIIo,vships. The Researeh Council, therefore, decided 
to 'a,vard for 1920-21 ten Bursaries, t,venty-five studentships and 
ten FeIIo,vships, and it is intended to increase this number still 
further as the supply of qualified applicants therefor may demand. 


NATIONAL RESEARCII INSTITUTE. 


The Research Council has, for the past t,vo years, urged that a 
Central Research Institute be established at the earliest possible 
date, whose functions ,viII be that of carrying on research not only 
in pure science in relation to the st3-ndards of measurements, quality 



.YAl1'/O.Y.1L RESE
lR 
ll IJ.V::3TITUTE 


57 


antI eonlpo
ition of lüa.terials, but .Lbo in science HS applic(} to the 
intlu
tri(-'8 of Canada. 111(' Council has 
ivl'n this que
tion 1l1ueh 
con
ideration and every a
pect has been reviewed. It is a question 
which cannot be ignored or lightly con
ider('<l or postponed, and in 
eon:-:('qUt'n<'t', it felt that it "as n<'("(
""

lry to (,Iupha
iz(' t hp urg<'ut 
need of a H S 'areh In
titute, ,,"bich ,,"ould play thc part in Canada 
of a great or
anilation for rcscarch, like the Bureau of Standard:;; at 
\fa:-\hington or tht' Xational Phy:-:ical Lahoratory in Great Rritain. 
1'he Council belie,. '8 that the e
t:lhli:-\hnlt'nt ofaXational Ites 
arch 
In
titutc ,yould con
titut(\ a factor of ovprwhehning inlportance in 
det<,nnining 1 h<' dpvplopnlpnt of 
cipntific antI indu:,trial rt'st'arch in 
Canada and that the que"tion of instituting the proper fornl of 
or
anization to guitI{' rt'se

rch in Canada, on it
 rPßourccs and thpir 
right and adequatp utili7ation, tnul:-\t.pnds in !lnport:1ncp allY otht'r 
qu \
tjon that is hcfor(' the puhli(' today. 
rrhp e
tabli:-\hnlcnt ofaXatiollal Bf'
e3r('h ln
titutc along 
uch 
lin('
 ,vill tw th"' first 
tpp in the inlugur,ltion in (1anada of a policy 
"hieh will ultilnatt'ly provi<lp for tht, fllll<':4 
('ientific d('Yeloprn
nt 
of all the f('SOUf(' 
8 to ellablf' her to fac' tht' future and all it
 pcr- 
plt'xiti(':-: ,,'ith sOlne dpgrl'e of cqn:lIlÏn1Ìty and preparcdne:--
. 


I' CR}
.\S.. 01" OFFj{'I.\I." '-IT \ TI
T(( .
. 


The unprecedented il1('rea
 
 of the funetiul1s of the C;UVCf1l1llent 
during the ,varied, in (1anada. as in Jlwny other ('ountries, to a great 
incretl
e in the collection and u
e of official stati
tics. Better yital 
statistics" ere needed, for exaluph"': in connection \vith .the enforcc- 
Input of tht' 
Iilitary 
pr\"i(".e .Art. Illlprovt'd :-:tatistics of production 
".ere required, in orùer to decide on que
tion'3 of food distribution 
and of the allucation of the n1Íneral:::; produced. Expanùed trans- 
portation 8t
lti:-\ties ""erc e:-:sPlltial to the co-ordinatefl Inanagelllcnt 
of the raihnlYs of the country for the purposes of the war. Financial 
statistics, in particular, becanlt' douhl
T important ".here financial 
problel11S 100111e(} up heforc goyenllnents and individuals as a conse- 
quence of ellonnou
ly increascd taxation and borro\ving. Even in 
the actual conduct of the ".ar, the :4atistics of actual and pro
pective 
f:upplie
 of Illcn and nlunition
 ,,-ere of par:llllount inlport
nce in 
deciding upon questions of ,var policy. Indeed, !\Iarshal Foch; 
,,-ho in the later St
lgèS of the ".nr ,vas the g('neralis
inlo of the allied 
and a

ociated arn1it's, is reported to hasc 
aid that "statistic:::; ,von 
the ".ar." 
'fhether or not statistics ".on the ".ar, there can be little doubt 
that 
tatistics are going to have much to do ".ith the \vinning of the 
peHCP. \n iInpoyprished "yorlel require:, greater efficiency in the 
production and greater economy in the consumption of ,vealth ancI 
in particular the most economical use of the depleted industrial 
capital of the ,,-orId until that. resf\rvoir of capital is refilled by 
current saving. These needs are experienced by Canada as ,vell 
s 
by the other countries ".hich participated in the war. 


. 



58 


RECONSTRGCTION IN CANADA 


N"E.
D OF A {'ENTRAL STATISTICAL OF}'ICE. 
A coherent and eo-ordinated statistical system-a national 
keeping of social and economic account
-is the very best means for 
promoting the mo
t efficient and intelligent lnanagelnent of the 
natiolltll business. This was reeognized in Canada even before the 
,val', ,,"hen the Statistieal Commission of 1912 reported that "there 
is apparent in the body of Canadian statistics, considered as a ,vhole, 
a lack of coherence and COlnmon purpose," as a result of ,vhich the 
scope of Canadian statistics had been restricted, ,vhile inevitable 
duplication took plnce and the statistics "were unequal in quality and 
value, as ,yell as belatpd in the time of their appearance. This laek 
of unity and co-ordination has preyented true eomparisons bet,veen 
Cannela and other countries. The rernedy for this condition of affairs 
the Commission found in centralization-the creation of a Central 
Statistical Office to organize, in co-operation ,vith the 
evenll depart- 
ment.s coneerned, the strictly statistical ,york unrlertakpn hy the 
Dominion Government. rrhis office should, in conformity ,vith the 
recommendations of 1\11'. .A. L. Bo.wley for a Central Statistieal 
Office in the United Kingdo111, "have cognizance of all the statistics 
of more than departmental importanee ,vhich are published officially. 
l\Iisleading; statistics lnust be suppre
sed, overlapping must 
be stopped, careful plans must be devised for filling in the gaps at 
present left and preparations made for investigation of Inatters 
likely to become of public importance. All Bills involving or affecting 
the eolleetion of statistics should be considered by it. Publi- 
cations for the use of the public should in some cases be edited by it, 
with careful definitions, and ,vith short analyse::3 and critieism stating 
accurately and intelligibly the purport and llleaning of their contents; 
in other cases, ,vhere a department already exists for such publieation, 
there should be co-operation '\vith a vie,v to carrying out the purposes 
already indicated." 
EST
\.nLISJI)IEN"T OF DO;\n:SIO
 BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 
The first step in carrying out the report of the Commi:5t.;Ïon ,vas 
taken on June 19, 1915, by the ereation of the offiee of l)onlÌnion 
Statistician, this officer being entrusted ,,"ith the direction of the 
various statistical activities cOlllprehended in the propo:5ed scheme 
of enlargement and centralization. As a result of this ,york, the 
Act creating the Dominion Bureau of Statistics (8-9 Oeo. V., e. 43), 
,vas passed in 1918. 
l"'he Statisties Act is, structurally, a eonsolidation of the previous 
statistical legislation of the Dominion Government, ineluding the 
Census ...\ct, the General Statistics Act, the llaihvays Statistics 
\.et 
and the Criminal Statistics Åct, ,vith additions to render the scheme 
comprehensive. Specific sections deal ,vith the decennial and quin- 
quennial censuses of population and agrieulture, an annual census 
of industry (to include mines, fisheries, forestry and lllanufactures), 
the statistics of trade and commerce (foreign and internal), trans- 
portation statistics, criminal statisties and general statistics. The 
most signifieant section of the Act, ho,vever, is that ,vhich creates 
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics and broadly defines its functions. 



RS1'AULISlIJ1HN1' OF DOJll..VIO.V Bf lU?1(T OF S1'A1'IS1'lrS !j!) 


Its dutil'
 arc '.to coUpet, au:struct, cOlnpile and puhlish statistieal 
inforIllation relativt' to tht' ('ollun('l"{'ial, indu:-,trial, :-,ocial, l'('OnOllli(' 
and g<.'neral aetiyiti('
 and ('oIHlition of th(' ]wople," also to collahorate 
wit h all other d('partllll'llt
 of the (
o\"{'rllIlH'nt "in th(' cOBlpilation 
and puhlicatioll of :--t
ltbtieal rl'cord", úf adlllini:-.trat ion." l'hp taking 
of tlH' ePlbU
 i:-; undt'r it
 juri
di(.tioll, and finally th(' ..L\et IH'oyidl's for 
provilH.ial eo-ojwratioll-,\.hieh Oil a('('Oullt of t hp (''\.tellt of IH'o\.ill('ial 
juri
di('tion i
 110 l('..;s eb
l.'ntial to :-,tati:-\tieal organilatioll thnn is (.0- 
opera tion 1><.'t w('f'n J )olninion I)('p:trtIlH'1l t:-\ -hy a (' la U:-\(' Plla hling thl' 
Bun'au to l'ntpr into arrangPBH'llt:-: for thp ('oll<'ctioll and :-\upplying 
of 
tatÌ::;tienl data through Provincial I)ppartJllPnts or ofIicprs, ".hieh, 
,,'lH'll ('xt'<,uting an
. duty in t hi:-\ ('onnt't.tioll art' to he (,oll:-\idt'rpd a
 
ofIiepr::; ullder 1 he 
t
ltisties .\t.t. 
By all ()rdpr in (1ouueil pa
:,('d (h-t o1>l'r 12. 1 H 1
. t h<, gt'llt'ral 
poliey guidiug t h(' :H't ivit ips of t 11<<' J )olllinioll Bun 'a u of 
ta t isties 
and its :--plH'rl' of :u-tioll '\"pJ"(' B10}'t' 1}J.t'ei:-\t'I
. dt'fillt,(l. 6\.11 purply 

tati:..;tieal in\'e:-\tigation
 r{'lativl' to tlU' ('Olllnl('f('ial. indu:-ìtrial, 
:,ocial, ('('olloJnic and 
('IH'ral activit ie's of t h(' IH'Oplt' \Vt'J"(' to bl' earripd · 
out in th(' ])olllinioll BUJ'('au of 
tatistie:-" ..\40\ }'('gards rt'cord:-; uf a 

t atisti('al ("har:I(,t('r in any Dppart IllPn t or Branch of t hl' 
OY(,flUll('llt, 
t IH
 !)onlÌnioll 
t a t ist i('ian "a:-: in:-\t ructpd to eonf<'r ".i t h t h(' hpad of. 
:-;uch Ðt']>:lrtIHl'llt or Hraneh d\\'ith a yip\\" to arranging that 
llch 
records hp colll'ct<'d and (.'OJll pikd in su far a
 po:o-:,i hIp in confornlÏty 
,,-i t h tl1{' Ill(.t hod;-\ and or
:lni.lat ion t':-.t a bli:,IH'd in t h(' B UJ'(':LU, the 
uhjpci of :-\lleh arr:ln
t'nlt'nt },t'ing thp In't., pntioll of o\l'r!appinl-!:, the 
increa
c of ('olllparahility, and th(' utilization of d<'partlll('utal organ- 
ization:-: in thp I)(':-.t ,,-ay for statistieal J>urpo:-'t'
..' l'ht, ])oulinion 

tati
tician ""a:-\ al:-:o in:-\trllctpd to I'<'port at a:-i parly a. datp as practic- 
ahle Ul)on the 
tati:,t ical work of (':1('h Ðl'part nlent or Branch of the 
puhlic 
l'rvicl'. In ordpr furt }l('r to pronlut (' ('ffi ('iplley and ('('ollolny 
it ,vas ord('rl'd t Ita t all 
ta ti:-\tieal COlll pilat i()n
 for the (;o\"prllllH'llt 
:;hould hp earrÌ<'d out in :'0 far as practicable hy the nH.'chanical 
appliances install<'d in tht' Burl'au of Htatistics. 
At thp elo
p of it
 initial ypar on ::\Iar<'h 3 L, lUlU, the Blll'<'aU wa
 
organized in eleven nlain Branch(':, at; follo,,":,: I, r\dn1Ïnistration; 
II, Populatioll :lnd th(
 (
ensus; III, 6\griculture; IV, Industrial 
Cen
u
, conlpri..:ing fi:-\heric:;, furs, fore
try, dairy factories, lninc
, 
central po,,'er 
tation::" general nlanufacturp
 and construction; 
,
, External Tradp (Exports and Ilnl)ort:'5); YI, rrransportation; 
'TIT, Internal Trad(', ineluding prict':-ì, ptc ; YIlT, Financp, ÏIH'luding 
public and private finance, ,vealth, deht and taxation; IX, \.dminis- 
tration of J u:;tice; X, Education; and XI, General ::;tatistics and the 
rannda \
 ear Book. The scope of th{'
e various brnnchps \vill be 
better under
tood by ref('relH'c to the diagralll 
ho\vin
 the organiza- 
tion of the DOlninion Bureau of Statistics appearing on page 61. 
.\CTI\.ITI.

 OF 'l'Il
 ß1...RE \IT O}' ST.\TISTICS. 
The sphere:-3 of activity of the various Branches of the Bureau 
are described in detail in the first .Annual }{eport of the Don1Ïnion 
Statistician for the fiscal year ended 
Iarch 31, 1919, to ,vhich the 
interested reader is rcfcrred for further information. 



60 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


The Administration Branch is charged with the general executive 
work of the Bureau, and acts as liaison agent between the other 
Branches. It controls the floating staff of the Bureau, "rhich may 
be transferred from one point to another of the Bureau's ,york as 
required, and is also in charge of the mechanical tabulation, and of 
the ,york of translation. 
The Demography Branch is in charge of the deeennial census of 
Canada, and of the quinquennial census of the Prairie Provinces- 
the periodical stock-takings of the country. It is also charged .with 
the collection of the vital statistics of Canada, 'which before the 
organization of the Bureau had been in an unsatisfactory state, 
collected on varying systems by each of the Provinces for itself, one 
Province having no vital statistics at all. Follo,ving upon a cOJafer- 
ence bet"\veen officials of the Bureau of Statistics and representatives 
of the Provinces in June 1918, it was agreed that after a model 'Vital 
Statisties Act had been passed by eaeh of the provinces, the Bureau 
of Statistics would print and distribute the forms required and under- 
take the compilation. Eight of the provinces have up to the present 
time accepted the arrangement, ,vith the result that, for the first 
time in the history of the Dominion of Canada and after adding the 
figures for Quebec, it has been possible to furnish complete vital 
statistics for Canada for the year 1920. The Demography Branch 
is also charged ,vith the collection of the statistics of immigration. 
An important work carried out by the Branch ,vas the compilation 
of the results of the national registration of June, 1918. 
The Agricultural Statistics Braneh, since its organization, has 
succeeded in ending the dual system of crop reporting earried on by 
the Dominion and Provincial Governments, ,vhich led to mueh dupli- 
cation of effort and frequent differences of opinion in regard to crop 
estimates. For 1918 and subsequent years the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics, in co-operation "\vith the Provincial Governments, has 
undertaken the collection, by means of eardboard schedules filled up 
by individual farmers, of the areas under field crops and the numbers 
of farm live stock in each of the nine provinces of Canada. Cards 
printed by the Bureau are sent to the Provincial Departments of 
Agriculture, whieh by arrangement "\vith the Provincial Departments 
of Education, distributes these cards to the farmers' children through 
the rural school teachers. The cards "\vhen filled out are sent by the 
teachers tó the Provincial Departments, ,vhich arrange them by 
counties or crop districts and send them to the Bureau of Statis- 
tics for compilation. Further, based upon material collected from 
a large staff of crop correspondents, the Bureau furnishes much 
valuable information regarding the erops to the public through its 
l\lon thly Bulletin of Agricultural Statistics. 
The main function of the Industrial C
nsus Branch is the taking 
of an annual census of production other than agricultural. Among 
the ,york done by this Branch is the collection (in co-operation with 
Provincial authorities) of the statisties of dairy factories. Fisheries 
statistics for the Dominion are also collected in co-operation with 
the authorities of Ontario and Quebec, and the Bureau issues the 



1C'fIVITIES OF TlIF B[TRJi:
lU OF' ST t TISTICS 


61 


>< IØ 
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62 


RECO_YSTRCCTIO
V IN CANADA 


statistics for the Dominion in a report ,vhich is edited by the 
Dominion Fisheries Branch. In a similar ,yay, for forestry statis- 
tics, the Bureau ,yorks in close co-operation ,vith the Dominion 
Forestry Branch and the Provincial Forestry Departments and for 
mining statistic
 in co-operation ,vith the Dominion DeparÜnent of 
l\linet; and Provincial ])ppart.ments of l\Iines. As regards ,vater- 
po,vers, again, a similar arrangement has been Inade lvith various 
Provincial authorities, and the dat.a are revised by the Dominion 
'Vater Po,ver Branch. ..As regards general manufactures, the Branch 
sends out schedules to between 35,000 and 40,000 manufacturing 
plants throughout the Dominion, and compiles the t-'normous 
unount 
of informati()ll thus secured. 
The External Trade Stat.istics Branch, since its organization, 
has been successful in e inlÌnating the prE'vious duplic.ation of public- 
atioll
 ,vith the Customs Df'partment. At the same time it has 
succeeùed in devising a ne,v system of classifieati.on of cOlnlnodities 
imported and export.ed, ac.eording to "chief COITlpOnent Inaterial", 
"pu]'po
e" and "source or origin". hnports and exports are c.lassi- 
fied on this basis in Tables 10 and 11 of the 'Trade and Comm('rce 
section of the Y par Rook. 
The Transport.ation Branch of thE' Bureau of Statistics has 
inaugurated a system of ,vater transportation statistics, and provides 
monthly statistics of canal traffic. I t has alsa t.aken over the ,york 
of the Raihvay St.atistics Branch of the Department of H,aihvays and 
Canals, eliminating dupli
ation on many points and making better 
provision for the statistif'al needs óf the Board of I
ailway Commis- 
sioners. l\lonthly statistics of raihvay traffif', revenues and expE'ndi- 
tures are a specially valuable feature, in vie,v of the existing raihvay 
situation. Annual reports on steam and f'Iectric railway statistics and 
canal statistics, as ,veIl as statistics of express comp,anif's, telegraphs 
and telephones, are alsu issued. 
rrhe Internal rrrade Branch is reaping thE' bf'llefit of various 
statistical organizations created for the purposes of the war, espe- 
cially in conne(.tioll ,vith its st.atistics of prices and stocks of 
comlnodities on hanct 'The Braneh secures traffic returns from trans- 
portation compani{>s and statistics of marketin
 from the Grain 
Commi:s:sion, fronl thf' Live Stoek Rran('h of the DepartmC'nt of 
Agrif'u1t.ure, and from the Fuel Controller. It iR also taking over 
the ".holesale price stati8tics formerly compiled and published by 
the DppartInent of Labour. The Internal Trade Branch publishes 
\vepkly statistics of grain in storage and grain Rhippecl, monthly 
statistics of comnloditiC's in eold storagf', of live stock marketed at 
puhlic. stock yards and visible supply of sugar, quarterly statistiC's 
of sto('ks of ra,v hides and skins and annual grain trade and coal 
tradf' reports. 
The Financ.e Branch of the BUr(-'au of Statistics has up to the 
present been mainly occupied ,vith problems of Dominion, Provincial 
and municipal public. finance. The statistic.s of Provinc.ial financ.f', 
published by thf' Provinces on Vf'ry dÜ.,similar li
es, hav.e h('('n 
brought into such uniformity that it is for the fir:-3t tIme possI1
I
 to 
makp a comparative study. The same has been done for munIcIpal 



.\c rIVITIFS uF rlI P UP)fE.l (T OF STA 1'181'/(,S ()
 


fin:UH'p throll
hout t h(' ))olninioll in tht. ra.:--t. of urban ('onllnuniti(.
 
of o,.('r :{.OOO population. .&\n illlportant contrihution has thu:-\ 1>('('11 
luadp tù thp :,tudy of ci,'ic prohl(,IIlS. 
T'ht' .1udif'ial 
t n t i:-\t ic:-: Bran('h publi
hps ann ually tl, volunl(' 

howin
 for l'aeh of t Ii(' I 
IS judieial di:4 riet s of t hp l)oluinion st atis- 
t ie:-, of t hp indiet ahlp and of t 114' Ilon-indi('t a hit' otTf'IH'f'S, ,,"h i('h ha Vp 
hp('1l t'onuuitt('d. analyzNl in tllp nl():-,t nppro\"t'd wa
.. 
\ ;,eh('Il11' for 
tl, :-\ilHilar <.'olllpilation of the :-,tati:-,tics of civil ju:-,tie(' i:-\ also und('1" 
""a v . 
. Tht' Edu('ation 
tati:-\ti(.s firaut'h. aft('r having 1H'ld a eonf('I"('ncp 
,,-ith t IH' Pr()\'in<.'ial ] )(,p:1 I"t nlt'n t:-, of Edut':t t ion rt'garding t h(' grpa t(\r 
unifonnit y of Nlue:l t ion stat i:-\t it'
 and 1IH' pJ'opt'r Sll hj(.('t 
 of 
l)ollliniol}-\\ idt' ('dueation :-:tatistics. ha
 b('glln thp ('olllpiiatioll of 
sllt.h :-\t at i:-\t i(':-\ foJ' <.'('rt :tin pro,'ilH'P
. b('sid('s ("oJl('('t ing din.('t ly 
:-\tati:-\ti(':, of pri, at,- 
(.hool
 and lllli\"t'r:-,itips and profpssional t'olk
('s. 
It ha:-, r('('('n t h' issu('d t h(' fir:,t na t ion-\\ id(. ,. I1i:-\t( lI.ical 
ta t ist i<.'al 
L' f ) ' I . . . ( ' I " 

urv('
" 0 <A u('atloll 111 an:H a. 
Th(, C('IH'ral 
tati:-,t i(':-, Brandl publi:-\hps th(' Canada YP:tr Book, 
and has a d('vplop('d plan for a tHorp frN)upnt sununary of ('anadian 
stati:-,tics whieh \\ ill d(','ot(' :-'J)('cial attpntion to tlu' ('UITt'llt pconolnic 
tJ'pnd in Canada. It abo :,upplip:-, :l('(.uratp statistje
 of Canadian 
progrp:-,:-; to \'nriou:-\ ""ork:-, of ff'ff'rf"n(.p nnd an:,\\ pr:o; nUI1H'roU
 
inquiril'
 frolH within and without tll(
 (.oulltr
, whprt' inforInation 
not falling within th(' 
('Opt. of oth('r Branch('s i
 rp<)uirpd. 
Pprhaps, ho\\"p\,(',.. th(' f!,l'('at('st :Hhalltagt' whi<.h tl1(' Bun':lu 
otT('rs to thp Canadian ppopl(' ari:-,( s out of it:-, (,f'utraJizatioll. Its 
] ntprnal Tradp, E\.tprnal rrradt' and Indu
trial (\'n:-\l1s BrandH':O;, 
work in hallnollY \\'ith ('aeh oth('r upon a 
inglt_" eo-ordinatpd plan. 
rrhus, for installe(', whpre inforluation rt'
arding a e('rtain eOlnnlodity 
i
 d(':-\ir{ d, tIlt' Indu
trial ('PHS\1:-\ can furni:-\h th(' infonnat ion n'v;ar<1in
 
th(' produetioll of that e()nlnHHlit
, in ('nn.H{n, thp Ext('rnal 1'nltlp 
Hranc'h r<'garding thf' iUl])Ortatioll or ('xporf:ttion of that ('olnnlodity. 
1"'hp Int<'rnal rrra(h.. and Tran:-,portation Braneh(':-\, again, 11lay hp 
ahlf' to :-\tatp the InanlH'r in whi('h that eOlnmodity is handl{'d. }n' 
,,"hat I1l('ans it is tran:-\})()rtpd and at what pri('p, whol('
al(' or rptaiÌ, 
it i:-\ :'01<1. 1"'hus tho:..:(' intprt,:--tt\d in th(' production of or in th(' trade 
in an
. :-'l1('h c()nllllodit
. will find a g-rpat df'al of u:-,\'ful inforIuation 
('onc('rning it fr('ely at tlu.ir di
po:-,aj in t h(' DOlninion Burf'au of 

tati:-;ti('s. 
Th(' IH.c:-,ent po:-,ition of the Ot)miniou Bureau of 
tati
tie:-;, its 
undprlyin!!: pllrpOH', it
 ainl:' and ohj('ct:-\, arc well exprcs:-:ed in the 
follo,ving quotation fronl thf' fir::;t .&\nnual Hf'pol't of the Donlinion 

tati:4ician :- 
" .A
 \vill hf' f'vidf'nt, t h(\ oll

lni/.:ltiun of the Burcüu is :-;till in 
proce:,:;, though thf' outlinc has becn tr:l('pd a n<l certain sections filled 
in. E
p('cially "'ill it havt: bcen rClnarked that the Bureau has been 
concerned thus far rather with f:;COpC of the 
tatistics to hp secured 
and the I1leanS of securing th('ln, than ,,"ith the methods of prf's
n- 
ation an(I publication. Pron1Ïnenth y in Inind al:-\o has been the pOInt 
of vic". :-\0 
trongly elllpha
i7.('d during thf' ,nu that 
tJ.ti:-;ti(':-; are not 



64 


RECONSTRUCTION IN CANADA 


merely a record of \vhat has been, but are for use in planning what 
shall be-that it is the duty of a statistical organization to assist 
directly in the day to-day problems of administration, as ,yell as 
to provide their theoretic background. 'V ork of this kind can 
never achieve finality, for the field is too enormous and the need 
of adjustment to changing conditions is constant. It is believed, 
ho,vever, that the Bureau no,v embraces the fundamental subjects 
of ,vhat might be termed a national system of statistics, organized 
to meet the ordinary requirements of the Government and at the 
same time permitting-as a matter of logical expansion and .with the 
minimum cf derangement-the superimposing of such new approaches 
or ne,v directions of development as occasion n1ay dictate. This 
preliminary and foundational organization, it is hoped, will be com- 
pleted during the year 1919-20, so that the census of 1921 may 
proceed from a sound basis. 
"Perhaps the culminating advantage in a centralized statistical 
system lies in the related vie,v it permits and encourages of economic 
and social phenomena. The social and econon1Ìc body is one, not 
several-often conditions in a particular field can be illumined 
best through another field altogether-and its observations should 
be on that basis. The Government is more than a congeries of depart- 
me!lts vested .with a series of administrative functions; it is a single 
agency for the direction of national policy, to fulfil 'which duty a 
broad and analytical outlook upon current trends is indispensable. 
Such outlook a central statistical b.ureau from the amplification of 
experience ,vhich it promotes is especially adapted to provide. The 
organization of the "Genpral Economic Department" of the United 
l{ingdom Board of Trade and the activities of certain universities 
in endo,ving economic research are suggestive here. There is need 
for a national "laboratory" for the observation and interpretation 
of economic and social phenomena on behalf of the Government and 
the production of monographs on features thro\vn from tiII!e to time 
into prominence. It is note,vorthy that recent tendencies in scien- 
tific thought are away from purely deductive reasoning and strongly 
in the direction of the testing of such reasoning by inductive veri- 
ficatory data. On no foundation could such a service be better built 
than on that .which is no,v provided by the Bureau of Statistics." 


In conclusion, it only remains to be said that the Dominion 
and Provincial Governments of Canada, and .which is even nlore 
important, the Canadian people, are, as has been seen more especially 
in the latter part of this article, girding up their loins as their soldiers 
did in \var, and increasing their efficiency in physique, in intelligence, 
in production and organization, to meet the difficulties of the period 
of reconstruction. Though time must pass and much must be done 
before normal conditions are fully restored, the economic and 
political future of Canada is assured. 



Cll NO.\ oLO 'IC_tL II/STUR} UF ('A.N.l1J.l 


65 


II.- CIIRO
OLOGIC.\L IIISl'ORY OF CANADA 


1497 TO 1920 
li!}7. Junt' :!1, '
a=,tl'rn ('O:lst of Xorth H.:
:J. 
\l1wrÜ.a dis('oYPT('(i h) John 
Cabot. 
1 W". Cahot di""Ì .ov('r:o. 1(Wboll Strait. 
15
4 Verrazano pxplorn; t}1f' eoast of 
:\0\"1), 
cotia. 
}''):3-I. .JUlU' 21, Landing of .J:H'qUI':" 
Cartipr at Esquimau
 Bay. 
15:\5. Cart it'r's :O:('('OIui '()yagp. lip n:-;- 
('l'l11is t h(' St. Lawrt nep to Htada- 
('ona (Qw'ht'<<') (
ept. 11) and 
lIoplH'laga ('font rt>al) (Oct. 2). 
1;>-1-1. Cnrtipr'
 thirrl VOY:l!.
('. 
1.')4:!-3. Dt Hoht'f\'al at
Hi his part y 
wintpr at Cap Rougp, find arp 
fPst'u('tl hy Cartipr on hi:i fourth 
V()Yahl
 . 
1;).')7. 
"I;t. 1, J}t'ath of Cartipr ut Ht. 
:\Ialo, Fraw'p. 
1.
n
. 
t rait s of J U:lll <It' Fuca dis('ov('r"cI 
hv ({t' FU(':l. 
Ino:t JtllH' 2:!. Champlain's first ImuIiIH.., 
in C'mada, .1t (
tll'l)('(". 
1 öO,'). Founrling of Port Royal (.\nna- 
p()li
, X .8.). - 
Inu
. ChaUlplain'
 st'('ond visit. July 
:
, Founding of Q\I( b,,(". 
It)n
). .July, Champlain fii 'cOV(,I'::I Lah... 
Champlain 
UHO 11. Huùson (''.ploTt's IIud-.on Bay 
an<l .J:lIJH'
 Bav. 
ltH 1. Brulé as('('ntls ihp ('ttawa Hiv('l'. 
HH
. Oct. }.;, Champlain l11:ult
 Li
\l- 
tpnant-Gplwral of Xf'W Fran('P. 
1H13. .J1IIW, Champlain aSCt'lH.l8 the 
()ttawa Riypr. 
H.lå Champlain ('xplor(':o
 Lah.l..... Xipi:,- 
:-;in
, II uron and Ont ario. (Ui=--- 
('ovpr('d hv Hrulé and Lp Caron.) 
IHln. Fir
t 
('hòols opPIlPd at Thrp(' 
Hivcrs and Tadou
8ac. 
l()
O. Popufat ion of Qud)('p, GO ppr:-=ons. 
162]. COrll' of laws issuprl, and rpJ!:i
tpr 
of births, ({('aths awl marriage's 
op('(wd in QlH'bf'c. 
]622. Lakp SIlIH'rior dis('overpd by Brulé. 
1ft!:
. Fir
t Briti:o:h ::;pttlplIlput of Xova. 

eotia. 
In
7. Xew Franpp and .-\.(':ufia grantNi 
to thl' Company of 100 ..\ssociatps. 
IH2ð. Port Royal takpll by 
ir David 
Kirk('. 
1629. .April 2-1, Trpaty of Susa bC'twePll 
Franpe and Englanrl. July 20, 
Qu('b('(' takpn by 
ir David 
Kirk('. 
Ht:32. :\la1'ph 29, Cana<la and Acadia 
rp:o:torpd to Francp by t hf' Tn aty 
of 8t. Gprmain-pn-Layp. 
18427-5 


:\lay :!:
, Champlain made first 
Gt)vprnor of !\t'w Fran('p. 
If;:U. ,July I, Foun<lat ion of Thrt't' 
H.i\"f'rs. 
If):J.I-:{:). E
p)orat iOI: of t!l(' Gn'at Lakt.s 
by X t.'olpt . 
}();t). j);,(.. 2.'), D,,'ut h of Champlain at 
(
w'l>t'e . 
IG;)tL )Iar('h 10, I)p .:\lontruaJ!:ny ap- 
point ('<I GovP1'nOl.. 
If);j
. ,Junp 11, Fir:o:t n.('ordl el ulrth- 
flllak' in Canada. 
!t>>-!U. Dis('O,Ft'I')- of Lah.p Erip hy Chau- 
1Iumot and Brc;hpllf. 
11)-11. ]h'sitft.nt populat ion of 
P'\ 
Fr:lIu'p, :!-10. 
H.H
. :\Ia
. 17, fOlllHlill
 of \ïll('-:\Iarip 
(:\Iontrt'al). 
] fHu. Explora t ion of t hp 
:l!.
Ilf'nay hy 
I )ahlon. 
1t>>-t7. Lakp 
t. .John dis('ov('r( d h
 
<It' c"ltH'u. 
1ft I
. :\Iar('h :t, ('olll)('il of XC'\" Fr:lI)(,p 
('rC'at(,ll. \ug. 20, J)' \.ill('hou
t 
elf' COlllongt's, g()V
'l"nol'. 
1tH
}. 
[ar('h lü-17, 
Iurd('r of FatlH'rs 
Hrcht'llf and Lalt mant h.) In- 
dian:-.. 
It.;)I. .Jan. 17, ell' Lauzoll go\tf'rnor. 
It).),t. \llg., \(':,ulia tal,,( n h) an (''\p:'- 
dit ion fr01l1 Xpw Eu,rluwf. 
)1..).). 
OV. ;
, ..-\c.adia f"('stofpd to 
Fr:uH'P hy tIlt.. Trputy of \Vpst- 
min:-:tpr. 
H>.')ï. Jan. 2û, \ i .omtc d'_\'rU;Pll:-ion gov- 
('I"nor. 
It).)
\. .hl
(, H
, Frarçois fit' Laval 
arJ'lv(,s III Canada. as \ïpar- 
_ \p()
toli('. 
Int>O. )la
F 21, Dollard dC's OnIl('all
 and 

ixtt't'n ("()1Bpanion
 kill( d at HiP 
Long 
alllt, Ottaw
L H.iv('r. 
Ih()l. Baron d'Avaugour govpl'nol". 
1 t)1):
, Company of 100 .\.Bsociatf's dis- 
:-;olvpd. Ft'h. .>, SPVPl"(' ('arth- 
quakp. April, 
ovpr('ign Conn('if 
of X l'W Frarl<'p ('st ahlishpd. :\Iay 
1. 
affray dp ::\Iðzy 
ovprnor. 
Popu lat ion of X PW Fran('p 
,.)OO, 
of whom 800 wprp in (ìllph( c. 
166-1:. :\Ia)', Company of the \Yest Indies 
founded. 
1665. ::\Iarch 23, de COU1'('pll(' govprnor. 
Population of Xpw Francp, 3,215. 
H)tjï. .J ulv 21, Acadia restorf'cl to Fran('f' 
hv 
 tlw Treatv of Brf'da. \Vhite 
population of Kf'W France,3,918. 
161>s' !\Ii:-:sion at Sault Rte. :\Iarie 
f(mnderl by :\larqupttp. 



66 


CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


1670. l\lay 13, charter of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 
167f. Population of Acadia, 441. 
1672. Population of New France, 6,705. 
April C, Comte de Frontenac 
governor. 
1673. June 13, Cataraqui (Kingston) 
founded. 
1674. Oct. 1, Laval becomes first Bishop 
of Quebec. 
1675. Population of Xew France, 7,832. 
1678. Niagara Falls vi
ited by Hennepin. 
1679. Rhip Le Griffon built on ::\iagara 
river above the Falls by La Salle. 
Population of Xcw France, 9,400; 
of Acadia, 51.5. 
1682. l\Iay 1, de la Barre governor. 
Frontf'nac recalled. 
1683. Population of Xew France,10,251. 
1685. .Jan. 1, 
larquis de Denonville 
governor. Card money issued. 
1686. Population of 
 ew France, 12,373; 
of Acadia, 885. 
1687. ::\larch 18, La Salle assassinated. 
1689. June 7, Frontenar reappointed 
governor. Aug..5, lVlassacre of 
whites by Indians at Lachine. 
1690. l\1ay 21, Rir 'Villiam Phipps 
capturf's Port Royal, but is 
repulsf'd in an attack on Quebec 
(Oct. 16-21). 
169! E.eIRf'Y of the Hudson's Bay Co., 
leaches the Rocky :\lountains. 
1692. Population of Kew France, 12,43l. 
Oct.. 22, Defcncf' of Verchères 
against Indians by l\Iagdeleine 
de Verchères. 
1693. Population of Acadia, 1,009. 
1697. Sept. 20, by the Treaty of Rys- 
wick, places taken during the 
war are nn1Ìually re:stored. 
D'Ibrrville df'feats t'he Hudson's 
Bay Co.'s shipR on HudHon Bay. 
1698. Xov. 28, death of Frontenac. 
Population of New France, 15,355. 
1699. April 20, de Callière governor. 
1703. June 16, Sovereign Council of 
Canada becomes Superior Coun- 
cil and membership increased 
from 7 to 12. 
1705. Aug. 1, ::\larquis de Vaudreuil 
governor. 
1706. Population of Xew Francc,16,417. 
1709. British invasion of Canada. 
1710. Oct. 1
, Pori Royal taken by 
Nicholson. 
.1711. Sept. 1, Part. of 
ir H. 'Valker's 
fleet, proceeding against Quebec, 
wrecked off the Sf'ven Islands. 
1713. Apri1 11, Treaty of Utrpcht, Hud- 

on Bay, Acadia and l\ewfound- 
land ceded to Great Britain. 
Aug., Loui
hourg founded by the 


French. Population of New 
France, 18,119. 
1720. Population of New France,24,234, 
of Isle St. Jean (P.E.I.) about 
100. April 25, Governor and 
Council of N ova Scotia ap- 
pointed. 
1721. June 19, burning of about one 
half of l\lontrcal. 
172:5. Oct. 10, death of Vaudreuil. 
1726. June 11, Marquis de Beauhar- 
noi
, govprnor. 
1727. Population of Ne\\- France, 30,613. 
1728. Populat.ion of Isle St.Jean(P.E.I.) 
330. 
1731. Population of the North of the 
Peninsula of Acadia, 6,000. 
1734. Road openpd from Quebec to 
::\lontreal. Population of New 
France, 37,716. 
1737. Iron smplted at St. Maurice. 
French population of the North 
of the Acadia peninsula, 7,598. 
1739. Population of New France, 42,701. 
1745 . June 17, taking of Loui::;bourg by 
Pepperdl and Warren. 
1747. :\Iarquis df' La Jonquière ap- 
pointed governor, captured at 
spa by the English, took office 
Aug. 15, 1749. 
1748. Oct. 18, Treaty of Aix-Ia-Chapelle. 
Louisbourg restored to France in 
exchange for l\1adras. 
1749. June 21, Founding of Halifax. 
British immigrants brought to 
X ova Scotia by Governor Corn- 
wallis, 2,544 persons. Fort 
Rouillé (Toronto) built. 
1750. St. Paul's Church, Halifax (oldest 
Anglican church in Canada), 
built. 
1752. l\larch 25, Issue of the Halifax 
"Gazette," first paper in Can- 
ada.. British and Gennan popu- 
lation of N ova Scotia, 4,203. 
::\Iay 17, Death of La Jonquière, 
July, Marquis Duquesne de l\Ien- 
nevillp governor. 
1754. Population of New France,55,009. 
1755. July 10, 1Ylarquis de Vaudreuil- 
Cavagnal governor. Sept. 10, 
Expulsion of the Acadians from 
Nova Scotia. 
1756. 'Val' (Seven Years') between 
Great Britain and France. 
1758. .July 26, Final capture of Louis- 
bourg by thp British. Oct. 7, 
First mef'tillg of the Legislature 
of Nova Scotia. 
175Ð, July 25, Taking of Fort Niagara 
by the British. July 26, Begin- 
ning of the Siege of Quebec. July 
31, French victory at Beauport. 



CIIRO,,\OLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA. 


67 


Fbt:-. :-'ept. 13, Ikfp:lt of the 
Fr<<'I1('h on t hp Plains of ..\braham. 
Dcath of" offp. 
ppt. I-I. D('ath 
of 
Ionteahn. Hept. IS, 
ur- 
}"PI1<.I('r of (lw'})f'('. 
17tÞO. ..\pril 

. Yjctnry of th,
 Fnn('h 
lllHh'r J,pvi:-: at Htp. Foy. Sf'pt. 8, 

nrrf'1Hlf'r of 
Iontn'al. 
lilit:llT 
}"ult. :-,pt up in Can:lIla. Popul:
- 
t ion of 
 <,w Franr.(', 7'0,000. 
17t)
, Hriti:--h population of ::\ova :-)f'o- 
t ia, 
,1 04. Fir:-:t, Brit i
h 
l'ttl('- 
IIH nt in X('\\ Bruns" i<<'k. 
17(>>3. I.'f h. 10, Tr..nty <<If Pari:-: hy whieh 
C:lIl:ufa and it H rlf'P( ndf'nf'ic'!õ\ arf' 
f,.tlft! to thp Briti:-:h. ::\lay, 
Hi
ing of Indjan
 und..r Pontiac, 
who takp :1 111 II 11 1)(' r of forts :Ind 
tldeat tllf' 13rjti
h at Blooù\" HUll 
(July 31). net. 7, Civil tÚ)v('ln- 
JUt nt prodaillH d. Cap(' Breton 
amI blf' .";t. .1<-an :UlllP
f(I to 
Xu,"a 
('ot ia. l.nhrador, \nti- 
f'f):-\t i and 
Iagrlal<<'n h;lancl
 to 
Xf'wfoundland, Kov. 
1. Gt'llf'ral 
.'aH. :\[urray appointt'd J!OVf'nlOr 
in f'hit f. First Canadian po
t 
ofTì... 
 ..
tahli
IH d at l\lontr<'al, 
Thrn' HivprH nnd Qlwlw('. 
17t.4. .June :!1, First i:-:su(' of tl1<' <'lup- 
hf'(' "(;azf'ttp." ..\ll
. 1:3, Civil 
goyprnlll('nt f'stnhli:-:h<< tl. 
17ti.;. j>llhlif'ation of th.. first book 
printnl in Canada, .ICat(.('hi:-;lIll' 
tlu Diof'{'s<,,' dp 
t ns." 1\lay lð, 
::\1 on t rf':ll Ilt'nrlv (k
t rov(,d In 
firp. Population of Can:Ïùa., UU;- 
SIO. 
17Ut). July 24, P. a.'p madf' with Pontiac 
a t 'O
wt'g(). 
17G"'. Charlott(
town. P.E.I., foundpd. 
.\pril II. Gr<<.at firf' at 
lont rral. 
.\pril I:? Bir (;\1Y Carlf'ton (Lord 
nor('h(.
t('r), govprnor in (,hid. 
1 'iÜtl, I
Jf' :-\t. .Jean (Princf' Edward 
Island) :-:pparah.d from Xova 

(.ot ia, "it h gOVf'rnor and counf'il. 
1770-72. Ht'arIw's journey to t1w Cop- 
pf'rminp and -,lnve Rivpr
 and 
nrpat 
lavp I
ake. 
1 'i73. 
llppTfs
ion of the ordf'r of Jf'suit
 
in Canada and (.:-:cheat of tlwir 
( staff b. 
1774. Junp 22, Tlw Qut.bf'c Act passed. 
1775, ::\Iay 1, Thp QllPbpf' Act comcs 
into fon'e. Outbreak of the 
Amf'ricnn R('volution. :\Iont- 
gOllery and Arnold invadp Can- 
ada. Xov. 12, 
lontJ,!:omery 
takp
 
Iontreal; Dcf'. 31, is 
ddf'atf'd and killed in an attack 
on QU(' bpc. 
1 M27-5! 


177t.J. TIlt, \mt'rican
 nrp d('f('att'd and 
driv('n from Caunùa bv Carleton. 
1777. :-'f'pt. 1 S, (:(,IH'ral Frt'(}(:ri('k lIaldi- 
lIland gO'.t'rnor in (.hid. 
1 77'
. C,'pt ain .Ja
. Cook "
plo1'('s Xoot- 
ka Hound and ('Iaims the north- 
Wf'1't ('oast of AUH'ri('a for Gn'at 
Britain. June a, Fir:-:t issup of 
t I1p 
lontrf'al "(;nz('ttp," 
1 7s:t 
('pt. a, Trf'aty of V..r:-:aillps, 
1'( f'oJ.!nizing t hp indt'T>endpnce of 
tll(' l"nitc'd 
tatt
. ()r
ani7ation 
of tl1<' 
orth\\rst C01npany at 

Iont r('al. l\:iJ)
ston, Ont" and 

t. John, X ,B" fOHlldp(1 by 
t. nit<< d Empire' Loyali
t s. 
17'4. Population of Canada, 113,012. 
('nitnl EIIlJHr(' J ovalists s('ttle in 
( . PIH'r C:1I1ada m{d found Frc.d- 
ridon, :\ ,B. Aug. IU, .:\cw 
BrllllHwi('k and (\ul!, :,?()) Capt. 
Hrl'ton ::>pparntf'd froul .Kova 

cot ia. 
17
3. .:\lay 1
, Inf'orporation of Parr- 
to\\ n (
t, John, X,B.). 
17
tJ. _\pril 22, Lord Dorc!Icfo'tpr 
o,.pr- 
nor in f'hief. Oct. 23, Govern- 
JlH'nt of Xt'w Brun:-:wit'h. lJlovpd 
from 
t. John to Frt'derif'ton. 
17h7, c. In
li
 appointed AUJ!:li('an 
Bishop of .:\o\'a 
cotia - fir
t ('0]- 
onial hi:..:hop:'ic in t he Brit i:-:h 
Enmirl'. 
1 7

. h: ini(H Collf'
f', "
indsor, X .S., 
opf'nf'd. 
ailinh paf'k('t servif'e 
f 
t ahli
h('(1 I-wtw('pn Grrat Brit- 
ain and Halifax, 
17
P. Qw.f1('f' and Iialifax Arrri('ultural 
:-\(wiptÏt 
 ('
tabli
hfd. 
17UO. ;,pain surn'ndcrs her ('xeluf;i\"e 
righto;; on the Paf'ifie coa"t. Popu- 
lation of Canad:1, 1()1,311. (This 
('('nsus dOf's not Ïllf'ludf' what 
bp('OInlS in the next year L pppr 
Canada.) 
17tH. Thp Constitutional Act divides 
t 11(' provinc(' of Quebec into 
rP1)f'r and Lower Canada, each 
with a Liputt'nant-Govprnor and 
Legislaturf'. The Act goes into 
for<'(' IJf'c, 26, ðcpt. 12, Colonel 
.T. n. 
imf'o(, Lieutf'nant-Gover- 
nor of rppf'r Canada. 
17u2. July g, Simrop sworn in at King- 
ston. Sept. 17, First Legislature 
of r pppr Canada opened at 
!\ pwark (Xiagara). Def'. 17, 
l'ïr
t Legislature of Lowf'r Can- 
ada opf'ned at Quebec. Vanpou- 
vpr 1
land cirf'unmavigated by 
V an('ouver. 
17tJ3. April IS, First issue of the Hepper 
Canada Gazette." Junf' 28, 



68 


CHR01YOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CA1\?ADA. 


.Jacob l\lountain appointed first 
Anglican Bishop of Quebec. July 
9, Importation of slaves into 
Upper Canada forbidden. Rocky 
lVlountains crossed by (Sir) Alex- 
ander IVlackenzie. York (Toron- 
to) founded by Simcoe. 
17Ð4. Nov. 19, Jay's Treaty between 
Great Britain and the "Cnited 
States. 
1795. Pacific Coast of Canada finally 
given up by the Spaniards. 
1796. Dec. 15, General Robert Prescott 
governor in chief. Government 
of Vpper Canada moved frOln 
Niagara to York (Toronto). 
1798. St. John'
 Island (population 
4,500) re-named Prince Edward 
Island. 
1799. April 10, Lieut.-General Peter 
, Hunter Lieutenant-Governor of 
Upper Canada. 
1800. Foundation of X ew Brunswick 
Collf'ge, Fredericton .(now Uni- 
versity of N.B.) The Rocky 
]\1ountains crossed bv David 
Thompson. 
 
1803. Settlprs sent bv Lord Selkirk to 
Prince Edward I::;land. 
1 
06. Jan. 22, Francis Gore, Lieut.- 
Governor of r pper Canada. 
N ov. 22, IHsue of "Le Canadien" 
-first whoIJ)" French npwspaper. 
Population - Ppper Canada, 
70,718; Lower Canada, 250,000; 
New Brunswick, 35,000; P.E.I., 
9,676. 
lS07. Aug. 29, Sir James Craig Gover- 
nor in Chipf. Rimon Fraser 
explores the Fraser River. Esti- 
matf'd population of Nova Scotia, 
65,000. 
180!). N ov. 4, First Canadian steamer 
runs from l\1ontreal to Quebec. 
1811. Lord Selkirk's Rt'd River SettIe- 
IDPnt on land granted by the 
Hudson's Bay Company. Oct. 
21, Sir Georgp Prevost, Governor 
in Chif'f. 
1812. June 18, Dpclaration of \tVar by 
the Uniteò. Statps. July 12, 
Americans under HuH cross the 
Detroit River. Aug. 16, Detroit 
surrenderrd b\r Hull to Brock. 
Oct. 13, Ddpat of the Ampricans 
at Queenston Heights and death 
of Gpn. Brock. 
1813. Jan. 22, British victory at French- 
town. April 27, York (Toronto) 
taken and burned by thp Ampri- 
cans. June 5, British victory at 
Stoney Crpf'k. June 24, British, 
"nrncd by Laura Secord, capt.ured 


an American force at Beaver 
Dams. Sept. 10, Commodore Per- 
ry destroys the British flotilla on 
lake Erie. Oct. 5, Americans un- 
der Harrison defeat the British at 
IHoravianto\\lll. TecUlnseh killed. 
Oct. 26, Victory of French-Cana- 
dian troops under dE.' Salaberry 
at Chateauguay. Nov. 11, 
Defeat of the Alnericans at 
Crysler's Farn1. British stornl 
Fort Niagara and burn Buffalo. 
1814. 1\larch 30, Alnericans rE.'pulsed at 
La Colle. l\lay 6, Capture of 
Oswego by the British. July ri, 
American victory at Chippawa. 
July 2.5, British victory at Lun- 
dy's Lane. Jùly, British from 
N ova Scotia invadf' and occupy 
Northprn l\1aine. Sept. 11, 
British defeat at Plattsburg 011 
lake Charnplaín. Dec. 24, 
Treaty of Ghent ends the war. 
Population - L"pper Canada, 
95,000; Lower Canada, 335,000. 
1815. July 3, Treaty of I.Jondon regu- 
lates trade with the enited 
St.ates. The Red River Settle- 
ment destroyed by the North- 
Wf'st COlnpany but restored by 
Governor Selnple. 
1816. Mar. 2S, Sir John Shprbrookp, 
Governor in Chief. Junp 19, 
Governor Spmplp killed. Thp 
Rpd Rivpr Settlement again 
destroyed. 
1817. July f8, 1<-'irst treaty with the 
Northwest Indians. Lord Sel- 
kirk restores the Red River Set- 
tlenwnt. Opening of the Bank of 
l\10ntreal; first notp issued Oct. 
1. Population of Nova Scotia, 
81,351. 
1818. Jan. 6, 1\lajor-Gpnpral Sir Pere- 
grinE.' l\tIaít1and Lieut.enant-Gov- 
ernor of lTppf'r Canada. l\1ay 8, 
the Duke of Richmond Governor 
in Chief. Oct. 20, Convention at 
London regulating North Ameri- 
can fishE.'ries. Dalhousie College, 
Halifax, founded. Bank of 
Quebec foundE.'d. 
1819. Aug. 28, Death of the Duke of 
Richmond. 
1819-22. Franklin's overland Arctic ex- 
pedition. 
1820. .April 12, The Earl of Dalhousie 
Governor in Chief. Oct. 16, 
Capf' Breton re-annexed to Nova 
Scotia. 
1821. March 26, Thp Northwpst Com- 
pany absorbpd by the Hud::;on's 



('J1HO.\OL()GIC.tL J1I
TUH} UP fYAX.tD.1 


fjg 


Pa\ COllman\"o Chartt'r 
i\"Pu 
to "I("(
iIl'CoÌlc'l.!:e. 
I"':!:? Populat ion of 1 owpr Canada, 
-I:!7,IH5. 
1
:!4. Population of rpp('r Canada, 
l;)O.Ot.ö; of .:\pw I3nm
"i('k, 
7-1,17H. 
l
:!.-). Oc.t. H, Cn'at tin> in tht' 
Iira- 
mil'hi di
triet, X. B. ()pPllinJ! of 
tIle' La('hinp Canal. Populat ion 
of Lowpr Canada, -t 7!1,:!'iS. 
1
:!ß. Founding of B
 to\\Ïl (Ottawa). 
IS:!7. 
(.'pt. :!H, Con\"t'ntion of Iondoll 
n'!ating to tile' ftorritorv w(':-.t of 
t Iw I{oeky mountain
: Popula- 
t ion of Xo\'a f'c'ot ia, ÏIu'luding 
Capp Brf'ton, 1:!:J,t.:m. 
1
:!
. \uJ!. 2:3, 1\lajor-G('I\('ral Rir .John 
ColLorne LiNlt('nant-(3o\"prnor 
of 1 ppt'r Canada. 1'11(' .:\lc.t ho- 
di:--t Chureh of Lpppr Canaùa 


p:lrat('(.1 from that o( t}U' 
1 llJt 'd 
tat,:-:. 
1
:!n. Xo,
. :?7, Fir
t ',"cHand Canal 
up('nNi. l"pppr Canad'l Coll(.'
p 
founckd. 
lsao. Xo\". 24, Lonl \\"llIwr (;o\"('rnor 
in Chipf. 
 
1"'
1. .Junp 1. T}w Xorth :\Iagn('ti(' Pol{' 
di:';('ovprC'd by \
ir) J3nlt'S Hos:;. 
Population - 1
pp('r C:lIlada, 
:?;Jt>,70:.!; I o\\,pr Canada, ':>53,]31; 
.\s:-:inihoia, :!,:
!)O. 
1b3:? Outbreak of clIol('ra in Call3da. 
hH"orporat ion of Qupl)('c and 

lontn.'a1. Bank of Nova 
('otia 
foundt'd. )lay :
O, O}>l'ninK of 
the Ridpall Canal. 
J
j3. AUI!. l
, Thp f'tpamt'r Royal Wil- 
ham, built at (luphpC', !t'aYPb 
PiC'tou for Englanù. 
]
:H. F('h. 21, TtH' XiIl('ty-h\o ]{f':"olu- 
t ion
 on publiC' J!:ripYanC'('
 P<l::'
 .d 
bv till' A:-;
PUlh]\" of Lowpr Can- 
a;13. :\Iar. 6. . Incorporat ion of 
Toronto. Population of LPlwr 
Canada, 321.145; of Xf'W Bruns- 

ç
C'
: 119,4,')7; of ..\,:-;iniboia, 
.
,.
.Jl). 
U

:
j. ,July 1, Lord Gosford Govt'rnor 
in Chi('f. Xo,
. 30, :-;ir Fran('i
 
Bond Head I.iputt'nant-Govt-'rnor 
of rpppr Canada. 
Ib;
ti. July 21, Oppning of thp fir
t rail- 
way in Canada from Laprairip to 

t. John's, (lup. Vi('toria rni- 
vprsity opened at Cobourg (after- 
ward:-: mov('d to Toronto). 
1
:37 }{pport of thp Canada Commis- 
:-:iOIlf'r!'l. Hehel1ion
 in Lower 
Canada (Papinpau) anò Ppper 
Canada (\Y.L. !\la('kf'nzie). Xo\". 
23, Gas liJ!hting first used in 


\luntrd\l. f)pl'. :!:!, \lajor 
GClh'ral 
ir G. \rthur Lit'utpu- 
:lIlt-Go\.('rnor (If {'pppr Carmela. 
1

. F('h. 10, Con
tit ut ion of 1.ow('r 
Canada suspc'ndc'd. and Rp('{'ial 
Council cre'ate.d. 
Ian'h 30, 'l'hl" 
Earl of Durham (;ovc'rnor in 
ChiC'f. April :?7, 'lartial law 
rC'vokC'd. .June' :!S, ..\UlIlC'sty to 
politic'al pri
0I1t'rs proc'laimc.d. 
Xu\". 1. Lord })urha1n, cpn:mred 
hy Brit i
h parlial1H'I1t. rt 
iKns. 
I)t'c'. 13, :-\ir .John ColhornC', 
(;OVt'I'Ilor in Chi. f. Populafion 
t.pp<'r C:mada, 
!ÞH,4:!:!; _\!,o.sini- 
hoia, 3,!löt>; X o\"a Scot ia, :!O:!,- 
:>75. 
If':m. F('h. 11, Lord Durham':-; rc'port 
b\lblUit t pel to parliaulf'ut. 
c'pt. 
H. C. POHle-tt Thom:-:on 
Lord 


.dpnham) (;O\.(,l"nor in Chipf. 
.John ;-;t raehan llladC' first .AnJ!li- 
('an Bi:--hop of Toronto. 
lh-U). .J uly :!a, Pas:-,ing of t}tp . \ct of 
Cniou. Fir:-:t :--hip of till' Cllnarù 
Jirl(' arrivp:, at Iialifax. July :!
, 
el('at h of Lord Durham. 
IhU. Ft'b. 10, l'nion clf tll(' twù prov- 
ÌIwt.'s as t hp provinc'l' of Canada, 
with hinJ!stun as capital. Fpb. 
13, I )rappr-O
ckn Admillist I"a- 
tion. ..\pril 10, Halifax incorpor- 
atc,cf. .JUIU> 13, lIlPe'tillg of firl':t 
unit('d Parliawc Ill. H. p1. 19, 
})path of Lord 
\"dt'nham. Ud. 
7. 
ir Char}c s Ha
ot (;ovc'rnor in 
Chic'f. Population of l TppC'r 
Canada, 
.).\f)Sð; of P.E.r., 
-17 ,O-t
. 
lð I
. 
lareh 10, Op
'nillg: of QU(,C'Il'
 
Cniv<'rsit\., J\.ingston. Aug. 9, 
T})(, A.....hl;urton Trc'atv. 
('Jlt . Hi, 
Baldwin-La l:ontain
' \òminis- 
tration. 
1
43. Fl'b. 2-1, 
ir Charl('
 :\lptC'alfp 
Governor in Chipf. .Junp 4, 
Victoria. B.C., foundpd. J)(,c. 12, 
Drapl'r- Yigpr .\dlninistration. 
"King's (now rnivprsity) Colh'gp, 
Toronto, oIwn('(l. 
Ib4!. ::\lay 10, Capital lIloved from 
l\.in
<.:ton to ::\Iontrpal. Knox 
Colll'gp, Toronto, founded. Popu- 
lation of LowC'r Canada, 697,084. 
lE>45. ::\Iay 2
 anù .JUllP 28, Great fires 
at Quc'bpc. Franklin starts on 
his last Arctic> pxp('ùition. 
\b4t3. 
Iar('h 16, Earl Cathcart Gover- 
nor in Chit,f. :\Iay 18, Kingðton 
inC'orporatpcl. .Junp 15, Oregon 
Boundary Treaty. June 18, 
Drapfr-Papinpau Administration. 



70 


CHROJ..OLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANVDA 


Oct. 1, The :Ii;;.1!"] of Elgin Govrr- 
nor in Chief. 
18-17. .l\Iay 29, Sherwood-Papineau Ad- 
ministration. Electric telegraph 
opened: Aug. 3, l\lonÌ1"cal to 
Toronto; Oct. 2, 1\Iontrcal to 
QUfbfC. Kov. 25, 
Iontr('al- 
Lachine railway openrd. 
18-18. l\larch 11, La Vontainp-Ealdwin 
Administration. ::\Iay :30, Fred- 
ericton incorporated. Respon- 
sible' Government granted to 
N ova Scotia and 
 oy Brunswick. 
1849. April 2fj, Signing of the Rrbcllion 
Losses Act, rioting in 1\Iontreal 
and burning of thp Parlian1Pnt 
buildings. :Kov. 14, Torunto 
made the Capital. Yancouyer 
Island grant{, d to the Hudson's 
Bay Cornpany. Populat ion of 
Assiniboia. 5,3Ul. 
1851. April ô, Tranfflr of tlw po:-;tal 
system frem the Briti:'5h to the 
Provir cLtl Govcrnnlf'nt; uniform 
rate cf postage introduced. April 
23, Postage stamps i
:-;Uf d. Aug. 
2, Incorporation of Trinity Col- 
Ifge, Torcnto. Sf'pt. 22, qUfbrc 
bfcomcR the Capital. Oct. 28, 
Hincks-l\Iorin Administration. 
Re:-:pon
ible Govf'rnment grantrd 
to Prince> Edward Island. 
Population - r ppf'l' Canada, 
952,004-; Lower Canada, 890,261; 
:Kew Brunswick, 193,800; Kova 
Scotia, 276,854. 
1852. July 8, Great firf' at l\Iontreal. 
Dec. 8, Laval Vniversity, Queber, 
opened. T}lf' Grand Trunk Rail- 
way chartered. 
18.54. June 5, Reciprority Treaty \vith 
the rnitfd Htatcs. Srpt. 11, 
l\Iacnab-.:Uorin ministry. Hept. 
20, 
ir Edmup-d 'Y. Head 
Govprnor in Chief, Hcigneurial 
tenurp in Lower Canada abol- 
ished. Secularization of the 
Clprgy Rrscrv('f;. 
1855. Jan. 1, Incorporation of Ot tawa. 
Jan. 27, 1\Iacuab-Tarh(. Admin- 
istration. 1\Iarch 9, Opening of 
thp Niagara Suspension Bridgp. 
April 17, Incorporation of Char- 
loth,town. O(.t. 20, Govern- 
n1ent moved to Toronto. 
1856. The Lrgif'lativp Council of Can- 
ada is madp dcctivf'. First 
merting of thp Lrgislaturp of 
Vancouver Jsland. - 1\Iay 2-1, 
Taché-J. A, 
Iacdonald Admin- 
istration. Ort. 27, Opening of 
thf' Grand Trunk Railway frotn 


1\Iontreal to Toronto, Popula- 
tion of ARsiniboia, 6,mn. 
18.37. Kov. 26, J. A. l\Iaedonald-Cartier 
Administration. Dec. 31, Ottawa 
chospn by Queen Yietoria as future 
Capital of Canada. 
1858. Feb., Discovery of gold in Fraser 
River valley. July 1, Intro- 
duction of Canadian df'cimal 
curffncy. Aug. 2, Brown-Dorion 

\dn1inistration. Aug. 5, Com- 
plf'tion of the Atlantic cable; 
first mp
sage' sent. Aug. 6, 
CartiC'r-J. A. 1\Iacdonald Admin- 
istration. 
-\ug. 20, Colony of 
British Columbia establi:-;hed. 
Con trol of Vancouver Island 
snrl'fnderrd by thp HE(h;on's 
Bay Company. 
1859. Jan., Canadian :-;ilvpr coinagt:> 
issued. 
fl't. 24, Governlllent 
1110vn! to QlH bcc. . 
HmO. Aug. 8, The Prinre of "-ales 
(King Edward VII) arriv(-s at 
QmbEc. Sept. 1, Laying of the 
corner stonp of t}l(' ParlianlCnt 
building at Ottawa by thp Prince 
of 'Valpf':. Prince of "
ales, 
College>, Charlottdo\vn, founded. 
Ibß1. Aug. 14. Great fluod at l\lontreal. 
Sept. 10, l\h'( t ing of the fin
t 
An
lican Provincial Synod. K ov. 
2, Visconnt l\10nk Governor in 
Chief. Population, Upper Can- 
adD, 1,396,091; Lower Canada, 
1,11],;)66; Kew Brunswi('k, 2.j2.- 
047; Nova Scotia, 330,857; Princp 
Edward Island, 80,857. 
18t>2. ::Ylay 24, Sandfield .l\Iacdonald- 
Sicot.te Administration. Aug. 2, 
Vict.oria, B.C., incorporahd. 
1
63. l\1ay 16, Sandfidd 1\lacdonald- 
Dorion Adlninistration. 
1
64. 1\larch 30, Taché-J. A. :\Iacdonald 
Admini
tration. Conff'rf'ncrs on 
Confederation of Briti
h ::\orth 

\lIl('rica; Hept. 1, at Charlotte- 
town; Oct.. 10-20, at Qupbpc. 
Oct. 19, R.aid of American Con- 
ff'de>ratfs from Canada on St. 
Albans, Vermont. 
186.5. Ff'b. 3, The Canadian Lf'gi
Ia.turc 
rpso}vcs on an ad(lrrs.. to the 
Qu('cn praying for Union of the 
provinces of British X orth 
....\nH'rica. .Aug. 7, Belleau-J. A. 
lVlacdonald Administration. Oct. 
20, ProcIanu.ttion fixing tlw seat 
of Government at Ottawa. 
ISß6. :\1ar. 17, Tprmination of th(' 
Reciprocity Treaty by thp "Lnited 
Stat.es. l\Iay 31, Raid of 
Fenians from the {Tnited States 



CIIRuXOLOGICAL II/STOll}. UF CA..Y.IDA 


71 


into C:lIlada; tlH'Y art' dt'fpatpd 
at H.ic1gp\\ ay (.Jurlf' :!) and reU.pat 
:1<'ro:,:::\ tilt' hUrllt'r (Jurlt' 3). 
JUD(, 8, Fir
t uwdiuJ!: at Ottawa 
of tll(" Canadian Lpgislaturp. 

ov. 17, Prcw!amatjon of till' 
union of Vaw.ouvpr bland to 
Briti
h Columhia. 
l
t)7. :\Iar('h :!!), Hoyal a...
pnt gin'n to 
t hp Brit i
h 
 ort h Ampri('a . \(.t . 
July 1, The _\et conh'
 into forel'; 
Fnion of tlH' Provincp
 of 
Canada, 
ova. 
('otia. awl X(,W 
Brun:-:\\ i('k as thp Dominion of 
Canada; l-pppr awl Lower 
Canada madp 
pparat(' provincps 
a
 Ontario and (ltWUt'p; \ï..wount 
:\Ionck first (;oVl'rnor l 
p'l('ral, 

ir John A. :\la(.donald prplllipr. 
X ov. Û, :\1('pt iug; uf the first 
Dominion Parlialllt'nt, 
l
tjS. _\priI7, .L\lurdpr of I)' \rey )1(,(;c'p 
at Ottawa. .Tub 31, Thp Hupt'rt'
 
Land .. \ct authorizt 
 tltp acqui- 
...ition Lv t hp DominioJl of till' 
X orth" pst Tprritoril:S. Dpl". :!n, 
:-;ir John Young (Lonl Li:-'har) 
Governor Gent'ral. 
lðûV. Junl' :!:?, 
\et providing for till" 
go,'ernllwnt of thp Xortll\H.
t 
Tprritoric'::;. 
o,. 19, Dt'(.d of 
surrelldpr to th(> Cro\\n of tilt' 
Hudson's Bay Company's tt'rri- 
torial rights in the Kortll\n'
t. 
Outbn'ak of thp H.l'Ù RiYl'r 
Hebcllion UIHh'r Riel. 
lð7U. l\lay 12, 
\('t to pstablish tIlt' 
province.' of l\Ianitoha. July I'>, 
X ortll\H'st Tl'rritoripl:j t ran:-,f..rr..d 
to thp Dominion and .:\lanitohn. 
admit ted into Confpdprat ion. 

ppt. 
1, \r olsf'lpy's pxppòit ion 
rf'adW8 Fort Garry (\\ïnniprg); 
pud of the rebellion. 
lö71. April 2, Fir
t Dominion Cl'Il
H:-- 
(populations at this and sU('('PPò- 
ing ellumt.'rationf' givpu in tabular 
fonn on page 94). April 14, Act 
pstahli
hing unifornl currPllCY in 
the Don1Ìllioll. :\lay 8, Trpaty hf 
\Yashingtoll, dpaling with qup::;- 
tions out
tallding hl'fwt'pn tht' 
l)nitcd I\:ingòom and "Cnited 

tat('s. July 20, Briti:-:h Colum- 
bia enters Confpderation. 
1872. :\lay 22, TIlt' Earl of Dufferin 
Gov('rnor Gpneral. 
1873. 
Iarch 5, O}wning of thp 
pcond 
Dominion Parliamfnt. 
lay 2:{, 
Act ('stabli
hing thp X ort hWt.st 

Iountnl Polic('. July 1, Prince 
Edward Island pntprs Confedf'ra- 
t ion. X OV. 7, AIpxantl('!' 
la('- 


kl'n7Í1' IH'PlIlil'r. X nv. S, Incor- 
poration of \\ïnnipl'g. 
IS7-t, 
Iar('h :!t), ()ppning of tll<.' third 
Dominion Pariianlt'llt. 
Iay, 
(hltario \grieultural Collqn', 
(
u('lph, Opt'Il('(1. 
1
7.). _\uril S, 'flU' Sort hWPst Tl'rri- 
t'-trips \('t c'sf ah:i:-:lws a Lipu- 
tpnant-( ;OVl'rnor and COUJl(.il of 
tilt' :\"ortllwp:st Territorif:-:. ,Jm1/' 
1,), Formation of the 1>r('sl)\'- 
tcrian Chureh of Canada. .. 
1
;G. .Tullt' 1. ()pC'lling of t IH' Hoval 
:\lilit:lQ Cl)lIpJ!:p, l\:ing
ton. ,hinp 
.>, Fitst :--ittinJ,!: of thp HUpn'HH' 
Court of Canada. .J lily :{, ()ppn- 
ing of tht' Intl'JTolonial Hailway 
frotn (luplwc to llalifa'\.. 
IS77. .Junl' :!O, (
I't'at fir.. at 81. .Jolm, 
X B., ()d., First f'xportatioll of 
whpat froUl 
lanitoba to the 
Cnitpd Kingdom. Founding of 
tlU" l'ni,'..rsit\" of .:\Ianitoba. 
l
ì
. July 1, Cana
1a join
 tlIP Intpr- 
national Pf)
t:ll l"nioll. ()('t. ,j, 
1'11(' )la rqui... of Lornc (
ovprnor 
(
pnpral. ()et. 17, 
ir J. \. :\Ia('- 
dOl1ald prt'mipr. 
IS7U. Ft'b. l:t ()ppuing of thp fourth 
Dominion Parli:ulH'llt. :\Iuy I;>, 

\dopt ion of a protpcti,'p tariff 
("Tht' Xational Poli('y"). 
þ, "'0. Hoyal Canadian . \('ad<'il) \" of ..\rb 
fmindpd. first mppting :
nd pxhi- 
hit ion, :\lar('11 û. :\Iay 11, Sir 
\. T. Galt appointpd fir:-öt Cana- 
dian lIi
h Commi:-:siOJH'r in Lon- 
don. :-\I'pt. 1, _\11 B
"iti:-:h po:-:sps-:- 
:--ion:i in Xorth 
\m('ri('a and 
:Hljar-pnt i
lall<b. ('x('('pt X pw- 
foundland and its dt'pl'ndc'n('ips, 
annexpd to Canada h
' ImpC'rial 
()rdpr in Cmuwil of July :31. Oct. 
21, 
igllillg of tilt' t"oÌltract for 
t hp ron
t ru('t ion ùf t Il(' Canadian 
P:lcifir- Rflilway. 
1ðSl. .April 4, f'N'oJl(1 Dominion c('n
l1s. 
:\la.Y :?, First sod turned of the 
CarÌadian Pacific Railway. 
IbS2. 
Iay 8, Provi:-,ional Di:-;t rirts of 
..\-::-:inihoia, 
a
kfltchewan, Atha- 
ha:-öca and _\lherta fornwd. 
Iay 
2.3, First 11lppting of thp Royal 

f)('ipty of Canada. .Aug. 23, 
H,('gina p
tabli:-:h('rJ as 
f'at of 
Govprmnpnt of Xorthwpst Terri- 
torits. 
1
:'o)3. Feb. 1, Opf'ning of the fifth Dom- 
inion Parliament. AUJ!. 1
, 
TIl(' l\l3rquis ()f Land
O\vnp 
Govprnor Gpl1f'raI. 
ppt. .5, 
l'ormation of thp ;\[(.thOrlit

 



72 


CHROJ.VOLOGICAL HIS1'ORr OF CA.iY"ADA 


Church in Canada; (Tnited Con- 
ference. 
18b4. 1Iay 24, Sir Charlcf; Tupper, High 
Con1missioner in London. Aug. 
11, Order in Council settling the 
boundary of Ontario and J\Iani- 
toba. 
 
Ib
5. March 26, Outbreak of Riel's 
second rebellion in the X orth- 
west. April 24, Engagpment at 
:Fish Creek. J\'lay 2 Engagp- 
lllent at Cut I(nife. 
lav 12, 
Taking of Batoche. J\'la)Y 16, 
8urrender of Riel. Aug. 24, 
First cpnsus of thp K orthwe
t 
Territories. Nov. 16, Execution 
of Riel. 
1886. April 6, Inf'orporation of Van- 
couver. June 7, Archbishop Ta
- 
(
hpreau of Quebec lllade first 
Canadian Cardinal. June 13, 
Vancouver . destroyed by fire. 
June 28, FIrst through tTaln on 
the Canadan Pacific Railway 
from 1\lontreal to Vancouver. 
July 3], First quinquennial ('en- 
f<US of l'Ylanitoba. 
1887. Intprprovincial Conference at 
QlH"bec. April 4, First Inter- 
colonial Conference in London. 
April 13, Opening of the sixth 
Dominion Parliament. 
188
. Feb. 15, Rigning of Fishf'ry 
Trpaty bf'twepn l'nited I\:ingdom 
and GnitC'd States at 'Vashington. 
J\lay 1, Lord Stanky Governor 
Genpral. Aug., RPjcction of 
Fishery Treaty by ""Cnited States 

pnate. 
1890. 1\larch 31, The l\lanitoha School 
Act abolishes separatp schools. 
1&91. April 5, Third Dominion census. 
April 29, Opening of the sPventh 
Dominion Parliament. June 6, 
Death of Sir J. A. J\Iacdonald. 
June 15, Bir John Abbott premier. 
IR92. Fpb. 29, 'Vashington Trpaty, pro- 
vi{iing for arbitration of the 
Behring HC'a Spal }1'isheries ques- 
tion. July 22, Boundary ('on- 
vf>ntion bf'twf'en Canada anrl the 
Pnitpd States. 
ov. 2;"), Sir 
John ThompRon premier. 
18ù3. April 4, First sitting of the Bphring 
Sea Arbitration Court. l\lay 22, 
The Earl of Aberdppn Governor 
General. Dec. 18, Archbishop 
l\1achray, of Rupprt's Land, 
elpcted first Anglican Primate of 
all Canada. 
1894. Junp 28, Colonial Conference at 
Ottawa. Dec. 12, Death of Sir 
John Thompson at 'Yinùsor 


Castle. Df'c. 21, (Sir) l\lackenzie 
Bowen premier. 
1895. Sept. 10, Opening of new Sault Ste. 
Marie canal. Oct. 2, Proclan1a- 
tion naming the Ungava, Frank- 
lin, Mackpnzie and Yukon Dis- 
tricts of Northwest Territori( H. 
1896. April 24, Sir Donald Smith (Lord 
St.rathcona) High Commissioner 
in London. April 27, Sir Charles 
Tupper premier. July 11, (Sir) 
Wilfrid Laurier premier. Aug.,. 
Gold discovered in the I{londvkp. 
Aug. 19, Opening of the eighth 
Dominion Parlian1ent. 
1897. July; Third Colonial Conferencp 
in London. Dec. 17, Award uf 
the Behring Sea Arbitration. 
1898. June 13, The Yukon District 
established as a Reparate Terri- 
tory by Act of Parliament. 
July 30, The Ear] of l\linto Gov- 
ernor-General. Aug. 1, The Brit- 
ish Preferential Tariff of Canada 
goes into force. Aug. 23, Meet- 
ing at Quebec of the Joint High 
Commission for the settlement of 
questions between Canada and 
the United States. Df'c. 25,. 
British Imperial Penny (2 cf'nt) 
Postage introduced. 
1899. Oct. 11, Beginning of the South 
African War. Oct. 14, Canadian 
Government decides to send 
troops to South Africa. Od. 29,. 
First Canadian contingent leaves 
Qupbpc for South Africa. 
HmO. Feb. 27, Battle of Paarùebrrg. 
April26, Great fire at Ot.tawa and 
Hull. 
1901. Jan. 22, Death of Queen Yictol'ia 
and accf'ssion of IGng Edward 
VII. Feb. 6, Opening of the 
ninth Dominion Parliament. 
April 1, Census of the Brit.i
h 
Empire, total population, 397,- 
6.59,316; Canada (Fourth Do- 
minion census), 5,371,315. ;O:;ept. 
16-0ct. 21, Visit to Canada of 
the Duke and Duchess of Corn- 
wall and York (IGng George' Y 
and QUf'en lVlary). 
1902. May 31, End of South African 
War, ppace signe'd at V erecI1lgin
. 
June 30, l\1eeting of fourth 
Colonial Confprence in London. 
1903. Jan. 24, Rigning of the Alaska 
Boundarv Convention. Junp 19,. 
Incorporãtion of Regina. Oct.. 
20, Award of the Alaskan Bound- 
ary Comlnission. 
1904. Feb. 1, Dominion Railway Com- 
mission l'stablishpd unòer the- 



Cl//{f).\PLO lr lL IIISTORY OJ? C..LVA1Jå 


73 


Haih\:l\" .r\(.t of l
tO;
. \pril H', 
Gn'at fin' in Toronto. 
('pt. :!l;, 
I
nrl Grey nO\'t'rIlOr Gt..neral. Oct. 

, lrworl)oration of Fdmonton. 
IUt'.). .Jan. 11, Opt.ning of thp ft'nth 
Duminion ParlialIH'nt. 
ept. 1. 
Crpation of tht' proyim'ts of 
.\lI)('rta and 
a....kat('llf \\ :m. 
I VUl). r ni\'pr
it v of ..\1I)('rta fOllIHkd. 
(kt. 
, " Intt'rJ Hu \ iUl'ial Confpr- 
P!H.t. at Ot t a\\:l. 
H)Oï. 
lart.'h 

, Imlll...:t rial Di:-JHltt.:.; 
Invt t-:tigatioll .\ct pas:.;('d. \pril 
13-:\I3.Y 11. Firt h Colonial Con- 
ft'rt'Ju.(: in London. \.djufo'tlllt'nt 
of ParliaulI'nt ary r('prt'!'t'nt at ion 
in :-\a:.;k:ltt'lu wan and \ILf'rta. 
Xt W CUt-:tolll:- Tariff in('luding 
int rod w.t iOIl of I nt('nll('(liat (-. 
TaritT. .\u
. :!
), Collap
(' of 
<ludu.(' Hridgp, Sept. I 
', IH'\\ 
ComlIlercial ('ol1\'('nt ion wit h 
FranC'(' siglH'd at Pari:.;. (kt. 17, 
Fir:.;t IIlt':",:-:agt' h
 \\ in,Jt.:-:s tp)('- 
graphy \)('h\ (,PIl C'1l1ada alltl t IH' 
Cuitt.d Kingdom. rniv('r
ity of 

ao..:hat('lu wan fOlll1dt't1. 
lUGS. .Jan. 2, E:-:tahlishllH nt of Ottawa 
Bran('h of Ho)'al 
Iint. .\prilll, 
.\rhitration trpaty \)I'tw('pu 
l"nitpd Killgd01Il "and Cnit<.d 
:--:t atr
. 
Iay 4, Rat ifi('at ion of 
Tn a1\ for dt.mar('atioll of bound- 
ary h(.t\\"p('n Canada and rnitnl 

t;l"':-:, Jll1H' 
1-:!:
. Bit.'pnh'llarv 
of Bi
hop La\'al (.pl( brat( d 
lt 
(ludw('. July 
o-:n, (ìW.hN. 
TprC'('ntpuarY Cph.brat iOJl:';: vi...:it 
to QUf'h('(' 
)f Prinr(' of \Val(!-o, 
n pr('!--cutin(! t lw King. ..\up:..
, 
(;f('at firp in Koot('na\ Yalh'v. 
B. C. rnÏ\'('rsit v of Urit i
h 
Cohnnbi:l foundrd.- 
1
to
t. .Jan. 11,
iJ.ming of Intprnational 
Boundan' ".aters Convpnt ion 
h('twP('I1" Canada find rnitpd 

tfit('
. .Tan. :!o. oJ)('ning uf 11th 
Dominion Parliament. Jan.:!ï, 

\J!:n'('nwnt hdw('pn lYnitt'd KinJ.!:- 
dow and lYnited 
tat('
 to 
ubmit 
X ort h At Inntir Coast Fi:-;lH'rif's 
Que:o:tion tu th(' lIa
ue Tribunal. 
:\Iay 19, Appointnwnt of Can a- 
{-iian Commi!'sion of Conspryat ion. 
.July 28, Confprelw(' on Imp('rial 
Defence in London. 
1
no. J.'('b. 1, Ratification of Comm('r- 
{'ial Trr'aty with FranC'P. I'('h. 1, 
International Opium Commis- 
"ion nlf't at Shanghai. :\lay 4, 
Pa::;:sing of X aval S(\y"Yict' Bill. 
:\Iay 6, Dt\uth of I\:illg Eòward 
YII and accf'ssion of King G('orge 


\. .huH' 7, Death of Goldwin 
:,mith. 
ppt. 7, Korth Atlantir 
Coa:-:t Fi:-:lU'rips .\.rbit rat ion award 
of t hp Ilagup Trihunal. :\ ('w 
t null' aJ!f(.t'mt'llt madp wit h (:('r- 
man)', Bf'lgium, lIoHand and 
Italy. 
HH 1. .Jan: 
1, Propo
als for re('iproeity 
with l'r1Ìtt.d Statf's :.;ubmitt('(1 to 
the C[tnadian Parliampnt. 1\lar. 

1, 1 )uk.. of ('onnaught ap- 
pointed C:oyprnor {;.'I1('1"al of 
('an:tcla. l\lay 2;
-JulH
 20, 1111- 
Iwri:il ConfPrt IU'(' in London, 
.Jm\(' 1. I-ift h l)ominion ('en--u:-l. 
J1Il
 11, Di:.;a:-t rous fOft'
t fin':,; in 
Por('upint.' mining di:.;t ript . 
ppt . 
:!I, (:PIH'ral t'h {'tion of Dominion 
Parliam(ut. ()c.t. 10 (:,ir) I{. L. 
Bonlt n, IH'pmipl'. Oc.t. 11, 1 n- 
augurntion at Kit('lwIH'l" of (hl- 
tario IIvdro-EIt.ctric 1'o\\-í'r 
Tral1
lIli:-:="ìon :-\y
tpm. O("t. 13, 
Thp I>ukt' and j)udw
:.; of 
('onnaught land at Qw bt'('. 
'0\'. I;), Opt.ning of l
th 
Dominion I'a rliallH'nt. 
1!t1:? \pril 1.), Loss of thp 
t('am:-:hip 
Titanic. April 15, Appointment 
of Dominions Boval COlnmi:-:
ion 
)Iay I;), E).tpn
i;m of tIlt' hound- 
:lri(::.; of (ltlt'hf'c, Ontario and 
:\Ianitoha. JUJU' 17, JudJ!Jlu nt 
ddivprpd by tlIP Impt'rÌ'l1 Priv}' 
COUJH"il on thp luarrial!(' qlwstion 
rai
( d hy thp N., Tt'mC'I"C' J)('("}"(.P. 
IHl
. \pril Hi, .Jap:uH''jC Tn'aty A(.t 
as:--t.ntN) to. Junp 2, Tradt. 
agrt'()}}t nt with 'V f'f't IlHlil's 
(\
n)(' into forr('. July 2H, l
illg's 
Prize' at Bio..:l<'y won by Canadian. 

('pt( mhpr 1-3, Yifo;it to :\lontrf'al 
of Brit i:.;h Lord Chane('llor (Vis- 
t'ount Hahl:11H'). Od. 4, Xt w 
Cu
toms tariff of United Stat t :i 
go('
 into forcc. 
HH4. Jan. 21, Dt'ath of Lord Strath('ona 
and 'Iount Royal, aged f)4. 
Ia
.. 
:!
j, Lo:-:s of the :4pamship Ernprfð8 
nf Inland. Au
. 3, Arqui:-:ition 
by Canada of two submarines on 
tfw }>a,rific Coast. 'Var with 
Gpnmmy, Aug. 4; with Austria- 
Hungary, Aug. 12; and with 
Turkf'Y Xov. 5. Aug. 18-22, 
:-:pl'C'iaì war 
p
sion of Canadian 
Parliampnt. Oct. lß, Firf't CaIW- 
dian Contingpnt of over 33.000 
troops land at Plymouth, Eng. 
'" 0"\". 1, Loss of four Canadian 
nlÌòshipmen hy 
inking of H. :\1.H. 
Cape of Good Hope in action off 
t lw ("oast of Chill'. 



74 


CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


1915. Feb., Canadian First Contingent 
land in France and proceed to 
Flanders. 
\.pril 22, Spcond bat- 
tle of Ypres; April 24, Battle of 
St. Julien. l\Iay 20-26, Battle of 
Festubprt. June 15, Battle of 
Givenchy; gaHantry of Canadian 
troops highly r-ulogized by F.-:\I. 
Sir John French. July 14, Sir 
Robert Bordf'n attends meeting 
of the> British Cabinpt.. Oct. 30, 
Death of Sir Charlrs Tupper, Bt. 
Nov. 22, Issue of Canadian \Yar 
Loan of 
50,000,000. X ov. 30, 
\Var Loan incrpaf'f'd to $100,000,- 
000. 
HHß. Jan. 12, Order in Council author- 
izing incrpase in number of Cana- 
dian troops to .500,000. Feb. 3, 
Destruction of the Houses of 
ParliaInent at Ottawa by firp. 

-\pril 3-20; BattIp of St. Eloi. 
June 1, Census of Prairip Pro- 
vincps. June 1.-3, Battlp of Sanc- 
tuary 'Yood. .June 3, Order in 
Council estahli
hing Board of 
Ppnsion Comn1Ìf:sioners. Hcpt. 1, 
Cornerstone of new H OUSf s of 
Parliame>nt laid by Dukp of 
COllnaught. Sept., h;:.;ue of 
Se>cond \Yar Loan, $100,000,000
 
Oct. 16, DukC' of Connaught ldt 
Canada on cOlnplption of tC'rIll 
of office as Governor General. 
N ov. 11, Dukp of Devonf'hirf' 
(appointed Aug. 19) sworn in at 
Halifax, K .S., as Govprnor 
General. 
1917. FC'h. 12-l\Iay 15, Yisit to England 
of Prime l\linister and coHeagues 
for I n1pPTiai Confprf'nce. Ft b. 
21, Final Rpport of Dominion:; 
Royal Commi
f:ion. l\Iarch, 
Third war loan, %1.")0,000,000. 
l\larch 14, Dpath of Duchf'sS of 
Connaught.. l\Iarch 20-l\Iay 2, 
l\Ieetin
s in London of Imperial 
\Var Cabinet.. l\Iarch 21-April 
27, Imperial \Var Confn'pll('e. 
l\;Iarch 31, Canadian patriotic 
contributions amount to $49,- 
271,012. April 5, Declaration of 
war against GerInany by Cnited 

tates. April 9, Capture> of 
Virny RielgC'. \pril 16, \Yhpat 
placpd on fr('(' list. Junp 11, 
Appointnwnt of Board of Grain 
Supervisors ,,,,'ith powe>r to fix 
grain pricf's. June 21, Appoint- 
ment of Food ControJIpr under 
Order in Council of .Junp 16. 
July 1, JubileC' of Confedpration, 
1867. Aug. 1.5, Battlp of 1..00:-;, 


capt.ure of Hill 70. Aug. 29, 
PasE:ing of 1\liJitary Sel'vire Act. 
Hl'pt. 20, Comph,tion of structure 
of Quebec bridgp. Sept. 20, Par- 
limuentary franchise extended to 
women; Dominion Govprnnwnt 
authorizrd to purchase ßOO,OOO 
shares of C.N.H. Oct. 4, Battle 
of Passchrndaclp. Oct. 6, Dis- 
Rolution of 12th Parliament. 
Xov. 12, Fourth \Yar Loan 
(Yirtory Bonds). Dpr. 6, Disas- 
trous (.xplosion at Halifax, N .S., 
cause d by collif:ion between the 
I mo and the .Jlont Blanc, laden 
with powprful explosives. Dec. 
17, Gene ral EI('ctioll and L nion 
GovernmE'nt sustained. 
HHS. Fe b. 23, AppointInent of Canada 
Rf'gistration Board. 1\1ar. 18, 
Opening of first session of 13th 
Parlimllcnt.. 1\Iar. 21, Gf'rmans 
launch critical offensive on \Y E'st 
Front. 1\lar. 30, Gen. Foch 
appointed Gplwr:1lisRimo. 
lal".- 
April, second battlE' of the S0I11111e. 
.April 17, Spcret session of Par- 
limnrnt. l\lay 23, ParlianlC'nt 
proro
u('d. Junf'-July, PrinlP 
l\Iini:-5ter and colJraglH s attf'ud 
In1pprial \Var Confprcnc( s in 
London. July 18, 
\.llies a::-;SUIlW 
succesHful offE'nsive on \Vf'stFront. 
Aug. 12, Bat.tle of Amirns. Aug. 
26-28, Captul'p of 1\lonrhy Ie 
Preux. Sept. 2-4, Breaking of 
Droconrt-Qvéant line. SC'pt. lß, 
Austrian P(.'ace Noh'. Sppt. 19, 
E:-5tabli
hln('nt of I\haki ["niver- 
sity of Canada. Hppt. 27-29, 
Crossing of Canal du 
 ord and 
capture of Bourlon \V ooel, Sept. 
30, Bulgaria SlllTPIlllcrs and 
signs armisticf'. Oct. 1-9, Cap- 
ture of Cambrai. Oct. 5, Epi- 
delnic of Spanish Influenza 
cam.;ing closing of churches and 
abandonlnr-nt of puhlic rneC'tings. 
Oct. 0, First Gr-rman Pe>acp N otp. 
Oct. 20, Capture of Dl'nain. 
Oct. 21, Appointment of Hibcrian 
Economic Conm1Í
sion.. Oct. 
2,)-- N ov. 2, Capture of VaJpn- 
('irIHlf's. Oct. 28, I
sue of Fifth 
\Yar Loan for 
200,000,000 in 
the fonn of Victory Bonds. 
Oct. 31, Turkey surrendf'l's and 
:o:igns al'lnistice. 
ov. 4, _-\us- 
tria-Hungary surrcndprs and 
signs armif'tice. Kov. 10, flight 
into Holland of Gf'I1.nan Emperor. 
Capturf' of l\Ion
. Nov. 11, 
GenTIan)' SUITl'ndC'l's and signs 



CIlROSOLOGICL1L 1IISTURr OF CA.S.1D.l 


75 


arllll:-:t H.('. Spoilt an('Ol1S rt.'joiC'- 
inJ..,::I throughout thl' Empin' at 
t 1)(' pro
pC'f.t of ,ìctoriuu
 p!'n.("('. 
I>t C'. 1, Xational Thank:-:gl\ïllh 
ð('r\'Ü'(,:-; for victUI1 and I)('a('('. 
HH9."V('b. 17, Death of :-'ir \\ïlfritl 
L.luri('r. Fl'h.:20 .July 7, Hc('uwl 

e:-::-:ioll of Iat h Parlianu nt of 
èanada.. l\b.r. 7. .\ppointl11('nt 
of Go\"('rnIlLLul ]t('('f.. i\'pr of t h(' 
(;raIHI Trunk P:u'ifi(. H:1ilwa.
. 

Ia\' I-JUJU' ]."), (;!'(':It :-'trikp at 
\\ïrinippg and t"t rik('s in ot hpr 
,rc stprn <"it i(
. 
Iay 
t), Hpt urll 
to Canada of Primp 'Iini
t('r 
from PP:L("P COllfp("('ru'p. ,JurH' :?:J, 
<';('npral Ell etion in (
lH hf'(., r('- 
:-ult ing in r('Í('llt ion of Lilwr:d 
.\dmilli:.;t rat ion. .huH' :2
, 
igna- 
t ur(' at Yf r
ni)ks of l'c U'(' Tl'f'aty 
and ProtoC'ol; Canadian PI( ni- 
pot (,Il t ia ri( 
: tilt' 11 Oil. Cha rln, 
.J. })olH'rt\ fil)( I t h(' ]I on. 

\rt hur L: f'ifton. July :! i, 
Uprwra I Elrct ion in PriJl(
p 1-:11- 
ward blaBcl. f( suit ing in (!Pfr:.!t 
of CUIl
{'rYat i\.(' adlllini
t rat ion. 

\u
. .),-7, 
Il't'ting at (Þttawa of 
Lihpral ('On\'f'nt iUIl and (,I( ('t ion 
of tlH' HOIl. ,,,. L. :\Iack('nzi(' 
King as le:ul('f of Lih('ral party. 
.\ UJ!. 1;), .\rri\'al at f't. JOhll, 
X.B., of II.H.II. th(' Princ(' of 
\\ aks for ( ffi('ial tour in Canaela. 
..-\ UJ!. :.?::? Formal Ol)f.ninh of 
Quehrc Brid
p hy II.H.I1. th(' 
Priru'(' of ',"al(
. Hc'pt. I, I1.R.H., 
th(' PriIH'c of 'Yak
 layS founda- 
t ion 
t one of t ow('r o( IH'W P:u.- 
liam( nt 13l1ildinm
 :It Ottawa. 
;-\cpt. I-X 0\'. 10, Th,rd or 
p('cial 
P('ac(' 
c
:-:ion of I:Jt h Parhanu'nt 
of Canada. 
(pt. I.j, ()pcniuJ! at 
Ottawa of tlw Xational Indu:-:- 
trial Confprpl1(,p. Oct. 20, (;('11- 
('wI Ekdion in Ontario, r('sult- 
ing in d('feat of Con
('ryat iv(' 
administ rat ion and formatIOn of 
)linistr\' by E. C. Drm.v, rnit('d 
Fann('fS' Ör
ani7.
tion. . Is
\}(' of 

ixth ".ar Loan for 
:
OO,OOO,OOO 
in t Iw form of \Ï('tory Bond.... 
Xo\". 2."), I1.H.II. thp Prin('(' of 
"-all s 
ails from Halifax, X.SO, 
on C'ornplpt ion of yi
it to Canada. 
Dec. :20. Organization of "Cana- 
dian XHt ional l{ailways" by 
Order in CoullC'il. 
1920. Jan. 10. Ratifications of th(' 
Tn'at\' of Yl'r:-:ailks havinJ!' h('en 
pxchañg('d, t}1(' war with GC'r- 
lllnny is officially rl('clarnl at nn 


('wI. Feh. In. Gran(1 Trunk 
8h:lr('hold('l'
 l.at ify agrp('nwnt for 
sal... of t Iw ( ; rand Trunk Ra.ilway 
to tlu' Dominion (;o\,prnm('nt. 
t;(.b. :2H-.July 1, Fourth s('
:-;ion 
of t h(' thirh'cllt h Padianwnt of 
Call:lda. l\lay IS, Budg('t 
"p('('(.h. Xl'W !Zlxation imp
sed, 
n;;t imat('d to \"If ld an adcht lomtl 

1()O UOO 000 
,r annual r(,\'l'nu('. 
. , , 
:\Ia\' 3I-.Junp 1
, Tradl' Confer- 
pn';' at ()tt
l\\:L In hn'('ll Domin- 
ion ancl \rc.:;t Indian (
overn- 
IHPllb. Jun(' '7 -IV, Con\'('ntion 
of _\llwri('an Ft'dprat ion of La- 
hour at :\[ont real. .JUIlP 

, 
Pn.n"ilH"ial gpnpral dc(,t ion in 

[anitoha. X(,\\ politi('al grOl1p:i 
hold halanc(' of pO\\l'r, but 
Lil)('ral (;O\'pnllHPnt i-.; rdairu:d 
in otfi('('. .July 8, Sir LO[lwr 
(;ol1in i:i StH'('('('lif.cI h\' lion. L. 
.A. Ta:.wIH,rt"atl as l.J n mipr of 
(1111 hpC'. .July 10, fo\ir I{ohc-rt 
Bord( n j... su('c('('dC'd hy Bon. 
(no\\" Hight lIoll.) \rthur )h'ig- 
IH n as Pn'mipr of Canada. July 
If), I{atifi(,:lt ions of t Iw Tr('
ty 
of :-'t. (;.'rmain-l'I1-Layp haYIng; 
h('(.n l'::\.('hang('(J, t h(' war with 
.\u...tria is ofTi('iall\- (k(']a1('d at 
all ('rul. .J uh" 
'ï. Provincial 
gpnf'ral pl('("ti(;n in 1\o\'a ;-;eotia. 
I ihpral (;o,.pt'IlInpnt of Pn'mipr 

Iurm\. i:-: 
u
tairH'd. \ug. 5-7, 
hnpprï"ni Press ('ollfpl'l'n('c at 
(htn\\:l. ..\lIg. 9. Hatifi('ation
 of 
tlU' Tn'atv of Xl'uilly-sl1r-
c'irH' 
ha\'ing 1)(';'11 ('xehangl'rl, tl1<' \\3r 
"ith BlllfTaria i::; ofIicially <[('('laf('<.1 
at an (';;ù. 
c'pt. lS-:2:3, Xinth 
COIlJ?;ff S:-l of Chamlwrs of Com- 
1I1('r('(' of t}lf' Empire' at Toron.to. 
( kt . 9, Pro\"in('ia.l 
('npral pl('C'hon 
in X( w Brun:j\\"i('k. Liberal Gov- 
PrIHlH'nt i:-- su
tninrrl by a r(,ùucl'd 
majority. Oct. 20, Prohibition 
elc f('atc;1 nnd GOVl'rnml'nt con- 
trol of tllf' liquor traffic favourprl 
hv rf'ÍerpndUln in British Cúl- 
llÎnbin. (kt. 2,=), Rdprpnduffi ft' 
(,OIllpld(' prohihition of th(' liqu.or 
t raftìr is carrin] in K ova Scotia, 
:\lanitoha, .-;askatrhewan and 
Alberta. ()('t" 25-28, Xation
l 
Conff'rpncf's in Ottawa on Tf>chnl- 
cal EdlH at ion and Education 

tati
tics. Xov. 13, First m('et- 
infT Lfaf!Ue of Xations Assembly 
b/gin:-: at CC'npY:l, Switzprland. 
}{t. Hon. 
ir Gpo. E. Fostpr, 
G.C.
I.G., Rt. Hon. C. J. Do- 
lll'rty and Hon. X. 'V. Rowell 



76 


CHRONOLOGICAL HIS TOR} OF CANADA 


represent ing Canada. 1\1. Hy- 
IIlanS of Bplgium is pJpcted 
President. X ov. 24, l\icGill 
University Cpntennial Endow- 
mPIlt .Fund i
 clospd with ovpr 


$6,000,000 subscribed. Dec. 1, 
Provincial general election in 
British Columbia. Liberal Gov- 
prnment iH sustaÌIwd by a reduced 
majority. 


IlL-PHYSICAL CHA.R.ACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 


GEOGRAPHICAL FEATrRE
. 


Situation.-1'he DonÜnion of Canada includes the "'hole 
of the northern half of the X orth .,.\.merican continent, except the 
lTnited States territory of Alaska and the Labrador Coast, ,yhich is 
under the jurisdiction of N e,vfoundland. The southemlTIOst point in 
the Dominion i:-\ 
Iiddle Island in Lake Erie, south of Pelee Island, in 
north latitude 41 0 41'; from here Canadian territory extends north- 
"\Yard to the Pole. In longitude the Dominion stretche::; from about 
,vest longitude 57 0 -the exact boundary ,vith Newfoundland territory 
is as ypt undefined-to ,vest longitude 1-1:1 0 , the boundary with 
Alaska. Canada thu
 extends over about 84 0 of longitude and 48 0 
of latitude. 


General Formation. -The topographic feature
 of the present 
surface of the Alnerican continent admit of its division, in Canada, 
into several physiographic province
. The exposed surface of the 
old pre-Calubrian continent fonus one of the largest divisions and has 
been called the ranadian Shield, the Archean peneplain and, in its 
south('rn portion, the Laurentian Highland. The lllountainous 
country of the ,vest constitutes the Cordilleras, ,vhile the Inountains 
of eastern United States, in their continuation acro::;s the border, 
fonn the Appalachian Highlands of eastern Canada. The Great 
Plains, ,vith various subdh.isions, occupy the area bet,veen the 
mountainous area of the ,vest and the great, roughened ::;urface of the 
Canadian 
hield. The St. La"Tence Lo,vland lies bet,veen the 
Laurentian and Appalachian Highlands. 'Yithin the borders of 
the Canadian Shi('ld an area on the southern margin of Hudson bay 
has been referred to as the Cla
T Belt. It o('eupies a part of the basin 
that ".as sublnerged during the laacial period and covered ,vith a 
('oating of clay ,vhich sn100thed over its inequalities and concealed 
most of the und('rlying rOl"ks. Sinee its Plnergenee thp 
urfaee ha
 
been but 
lightl
v aItef(\d by drainage ehannels cut across it. 


Canadian Shield.-The portion of tht' pre-Cambrian continent 
,vhosf' exposed surface still fornls a large part of Canada, has an area 
of about t,vo and a half million square miles. Its northern border 
crOS
éS the Arctic archipelago, the eastern lies beyond Baffin island 
and Labrador and reaches the depressed area occupied by the St. 



GFUGll.1PJlI('
lL FE.! TUlfES 


77 


LaWI'l'lH'P riYPI", a :-\hort 
pur or point ero:-,sing thi:-: "\-alley at the 
outh,t of lakp Untario to join the ..\dirond:lt'k Ilioulltains ill Xl'\\ York. 
Thl" sout hern houndary rUIl:-\ frolll the :--pur wpst tu (
('(ll"gian hay, 
:-,kirt:-\ tIlt' Ilorth :-\hof(
 of lahP 11uron and sweep:::; alnlost entin,lv 
around tlll' aUl'il'ut dl'pn':-,:-\pd arpa ot'cupied by la kf' 
\l})l'rior. Th"" 
we:-\tprn l.dJ!e, frolH thp lakt' of the 'r'ooJ
 and lake '\
iunipl'
, hears 
nort h\H':-,t to thl' \\ p:-\tt'rn eH(1 of lakc. 6\..thahaska, and passe
 through 
the ha:sin
 o('('upil-'d by Grt'at Slav(' and Grt'at R('ar lahps, r(':L(.hin
 
thp ..\.rctÎe ocean e:l:st of the 
la('kenzip HiYf'r (h,lta. In detail, 
tht. 
urf:H.c fl'aturt'
 of the Canadian 
hipld are irrpJ?;ular; but, viewed 
broadly, it ha:; the ('onfofIllation of a J!,rl'at plain, dpprl'
st'd t()\vard 
the ('pntre and in th 
 north and 
ligh t ly (
l('va tf'd :d()n
 th(' pastl'rn 
and 
outh('rn hurder:" ,,-here it pr(;5l'nts a ;'\onl 'what 
t 'PI> outward 
slope. 'flu' J!,f'Jl('ral plpva tion in t hp east ('rn portion is ulHll'r 2,000 
f('('t, nnd over the larger part of th" plaill is ahout 1,()()O f('pt. Tht' 
highe:-,t portion i:--. along thp uorthpa8tprn nw.rgin wlH'rp it prpSf'llt
 a 
steep faee to thp 
ea. 
Cordillerlll Rc
ion.-Tht' w('stern part of tilt" Alnl'rican con- 
til1pnt b IHorp or les
 lI}ountailloll
. The \nuean l'hain, ,,-hi('h pxtl'ud:-- 
throu;..?,hout thp l('ngth of :::;outh .AnH
fi(,:l and hroaden
 out in Xorth 
Anlcrica anu in Canada, ha:-\ an aV('ra
(' ,,,idth of 0\'('1" 300 Inilcs. 
r-fhi:--. r('
Úon i:-. the Blust cl'vatt'd in Canada, IHany of thl' :-;ullllnit:-\ 
fpaehing h('ight
 of lU,()()O fe('t, wit h o('('n
ional peak
 oypr l;
,OOO 
fe't ahove 
ea-Il'\'el. Thp nlollntainou
 tral't forrninv; the Cordilleras 
can be divided broadly into thrcl' paralh'l hands; an old 
('ri('s of 
plateau
 and nlountain
 fonning th{' l"entral part, rl'ft'rr'd to as the 
Cen tral Bd t, a you ng 
l'rips of parallel ridgps, e
l:.;t (Jf t he ('en tral 
plat(,tUl
, fonned of fault hlo(.k:-\ and fold:-, and known a
 t h(' Ea:-\ü'rn 
Bl-'lt :lnd a third divi::-ion, hetw'en the plat 'au country and thl' 
Pa('ific, calh'd thp "(':4('fn ]
plt. Thl' Bl'lt
 arp further :::;uhdividl'(f 
as in the following taLle
:- 
l.-\Iountain Systenl
 and Ranges in \Vestern Canada. 


E_ \
TEHX BELT. 


S Y
TEl\l. 


::\IOC
TAIX
 OR 
PL
\TEA1;S. 


H.\XGE, GHOüP üR 
PLATEAU. 


ROCI\]E
 


I ROCK 1 110GXTAIXS 
j :\IACKENZIE 
IOUXTAIXS 
l FRAXKLIX MOU)'"TAI""
 


{ HUghf'S rang(', Brisco rang(' , 
Livjngstonf' range, Pallisf>r 
rangp
 Othf'r ranges and groups 


{ 
ayulH:'i rangp, Tigonankweihe 
rangt', othf'r ranges and groupR. 
Cn-named ranges and groups. 


ARCTIC 


RICHARDSON MOUNTAINS 


r n-named ranges and groups. 



78 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERI.STICS OF CANADA 


CENTRAL BELT. 


SYSTEl\1. 


MOUNTAINS OR 
PLATEAUS. 


RANGE, GROUP OR 
PLATEAU. 


COL Ul\IBIA 


r 


IXTERIOR 


CASSIAR 


YUKON 


SELKIRK .MOUNTAINS 


l\10XASHEE 
OUNTAINS 


\ CARIBOO !úOUNTAINS 


JFRASER PLATEAU 
,NECHAKO PLATEAU 
l UN-NAMED MOUNTAINS 
PLATEAUS 
(BABIKE 1\IOUXTAINS 
1 STIKn"E MOUNTAIKS 
t V'N-XAMED MOUNTAINS 


JYUKON PLATEAUS 
l UK-NAMED MOUNTAINS 
PLATEAUS 


{ Purcell range, McGillivray range, 
Moyie range, Slocan group, 
Nelson range, other ranges 
and groups. 
[ Christina range, Midway group, 
other ranges and groups. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 
{ Bonaparte plateau, Arrowstone 
plateau, other plateaus. 
{ Ootsa-François plateau, Nadina 
mountain, other plateaus. 
AND { Un-named ranges, groups and 
plateaus. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 
{ Klappan range, Groundhog 
range, other ranges 
Un-named ranges and groups. 
i TeSlin range, Glenlyon range, 
Pelly range, un-named ranges 
and plateaus. 
AND Un-named ranges, groups and 
plateaus. 


WESTERN BELT. 


SYSTEM. 


l\10UNTAINS OR 
PLATEAUS 


RANGE, GROUP OR 
PLATEAU. 


PACIFIC 


IKSULAR 


[ CASCADE MOUNT.AINS 
COAST MOUNTAINS 

 
[ BULKLEY MOUNTAINS 
UN-NAMED MOUNTAINS 
f v ANCOUVER ISLAND MOUN- 
TAINS 
1 QUEEN CHARLOTTE MOUN- 
TAINS 
ST. ELIAS MOUNTAINS (PART) 


Un-named ranges and groups. 
(Tahtsa range, Whitesail range, 

 Telkwa range, un-named ran.. 
t ges. 
{ zymoetz range, Seven Sisters 
group, Roeher Déboulé range, 
Hudson Bay group. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 


fUn-named ranges and groups. 
1 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CA4"ADA 


79 


'Iountain p
ak8.- Followin
 is a list of the principal n:ulled 
peak
 p
cceùillg 12,000 fpet in plcyation:- 


ALBERTA. 


1 


x. \
IE. ELEY.\- LAT. I
OXG . R.\NGE. 
TIOX. 
. 
..\I.BEHT:\.- 
_ \lbl' rta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,000 ;>2 0 14' 117 0 36' Rocky 
I tns. 
F 0 rbps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,000 51 0 48' 1It)0 fiG' " 
The T\\ ins. . . . . . .. . . . . . 12,085 
')o 13' 117 0 12' cc 
oJ... 
BRITISH COLG\mIA- 
Robson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ,OßS .j3 O 07' 1H)0 OS' cc 
CKO,"- 
.\ug'u:--ta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 
)QO 00 0 IS' 140 0 2S' 
t. l:Jias 
HIlS. 
CO<' k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ,700 00 0 10' 139 0 59' " 
Hubbard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IB, tOO GOo 21' 13n o O
' " 
l
in
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,971 60 0 :J.Y ]40 0 39' " 
LOJ!3.Il. . . .. ........... 1 n , 53
} tiO o 13.') , 140 0 21' " 
L u {' 3. n ia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,147 (H O 01' 140 0 28' " 

Ic..\rthur... . . . . . . . . . . 1-1,2,>;3 HO o 3ô' 140 la' " 

 l'\\-t on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,SfiO t.O o 19' 140 0 5')1 " 
. - 
St. Elias. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 18,000 ()Oo IS' 140 0 j7' u 
S t P(, It'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,lH-l tHO Of)' 14"'" 19' " 

trickland. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,ðlS ül O 14' 1-10 0 4
' " 
:) 
\ all("ouver. . . . . . . . . . . . . ]5,tH7 HO o 21' .139 0 42' " 
Waigh. . . . . ... . . .. . . . " 14,498 61 0 00' 140 0 00' " 
,\ ood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,ððj {H O 14' 140 0 31' " 


Appalachian Region.- file continuation of the Green moun- 
tain:::- of 'erIllout into Cn.nada IlUlV bp traced in the Xotr{1 l):unp 
nlountain
, ,,'hirh approach the 
i. La" f('n('(' hplo". Quebpc and, 
continuing with Ulore easterly trpnd, fonn t hp highland of the (}a
pé 
p{1nin:-iul:t. Over a largp part th('
l' hill:-: hardly attain thp dignity 
of rllountain:-5, hut peaks ri=--in
 :3,.500 fpet ahove thp l1('arby coast are 
found in the Gaspé penin
ula. The continuation of the \Vhite 
l110untains of X e". Jltunp:"hire i:, found in the highland
 of :\faine 
and X e\v Rrunswiek, t hl' continuity hping 
ho\\'n quite plainly by 
the rock-folùin
 and other evidence
 of the J[rpat ('arth nlovelnents 
,,'hich caused the topography. 
\n additional ridge apparently 
forffib thr' prespnt proyinee of X ova Rcotia, and although the high- 
land
 of that province in fe\v places ri::5e to elevations greater than 
1,.500 feet, the rock structure indicates that it ,vas a mountainous 
eountry at no very relnote geologieal period. 
Great Plains.-A great area. inpluding many lliverse features, 
lie::; to the ea:-\t of thp Cordillera=--. The portion that is included unùer 
the tcrnl Great Plains extends fro III the 
outh".e:..:tern edge of the 
ancient 
urface fOfining the Canadian Shield, to the ea-;tefil edge of 
the m(Juntainou
 re
ion of the Cordillera:-\. In thp belt traversed by 
the railway line...; a threefold divi
ion into prairie steppes, rising 
one above the othpr, is clearly reeognizable, though the divisions are 



80 


PHYSIC...-1L CHARA.CTERISTICS OF CA..VADA. 


not distinguishable in the region farther north to ".hich the ternl 
prairie is not applicable. For the purpose of description these three 
divisions are adopted ap.d a fourth is added for the broken hilly 
eountry of the foot-hills. Th
 first or eastern division comprises 
tJ1e plain lying b
t,veen the Canadian Shield and the plateau formed 
of Cretaceous sedin1ents; the second extends from the edge of this 
plateau \vest\vard to the erosion renlnant
 of former Tertiary deposits; 
and the third stretches from this line \vest\vard to the foot-hills. 
North of the prairie country thesp distinctionf: are lesf: noticeable, 
and divisions two and three become merged into one. 
St. Lawrence Lowlands.- The southern interior of the con- 
tinent consists of a plain of lo\v relief, bordered on the east by the 
.A.ppalachian mountains, on the west by the Cordilleran mountain 
systell1s, and on the north by the old surface of the Laurentian 
plateau. To the northeast this plain becomes reduced in width, 
and in the vicinity of Quebec is represented by a narrow plateau or 
shelf on eaeh side of the St. Lawn,'nce river. The triangular area 
beyond, in \vhich is the island of Anticosti, is structurally related to 
the central lowlands. The St. La\\Tence lo".lands may be divided 
into three sections: (1) the St. La\vrenee river plain separated from 
(2) the Eastern Ontario basin by a point of crystalline rocks, and (3) 
the Ontario peninsula à slightly more elevated plain \vhose eastern 
border is a steep escarpnlent, the eastern outcrop of a heavy Ihne- 
stone bed which underlies the \vestern peninsula. 
Waterways.- The ,vater\vays of Canada constitute one of the 
most remarkable of its geographif'al features. East of the Rocky 
lnountains the southern part of the Dominion slopes nort heastward 
to\vards Hudson bay; and the rivers in the south flow eastward. 
Thus the Saskatche"wan river, with its northern and southern branches, 
flo\vs east\vard into lake Winnipeg and thence northward by the 
Nelson river into Hudson bay. On the north the Great Plain has a 
northerly slope, and the l\Iackenzie river, with its tributaries, the 
Slave, Liard, Athabaska, and Peace rivers, flows into the Arctic 
ocean. The l\Iackenzie, exclusive of its tributaries, but including 
the Slave, Peace and Finlay rivers, of \vhich it is the continuation, 
has a total length of 2,525 miles. The Yukon river in the Yukon 
territory also flo\ys northward, passing through Alaska, into Behring 

trait after a course of 2,300 mile:::;. In British Columbia, the Fraser, 
Columbia, Skeena and Stikine rivers flo\v into the Pacific ocean. 
Drainage Basins.- The large drainage basins of Canada are the 
Atlantic (554,000 square miles), the Hudson bay (1,486,000 square 
miles), the Arctic (1,290,000 square miles), the Pacific (387,300 square 
miles) and the gulf of l\lexico (12,365 square miles). Table 1 gives a 
list of the river drainage basins, and Table 2 gives the lengths of the 
principal rivers with their trihutaries and sub-tributaries. 



GEUGRAPHlr.1L FE.t TUllES 


dl 


1.-Droilnag(' naslns of Canada. 


Drainage Basins 


.\tlautte llasin. 
Hamilton........ .. . . . . . . . . .. . - - . 

firamichi... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 
St. John.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. La ,,'rence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
S
('nay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Maurico........ . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Frt'nc h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nipigon. . . . . . . . 
OUs" u. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
l..ièvrc. . . . . .. ................ 
Gat ineau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Tofal .............. 


Jlud!'oun ß.,)' ß.'!'oln 
Kok
oak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gror "f:'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bip:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fastmain... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
RUIX'rt... . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Hroadback... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
X otta way. . . . _ _ _ . _ . 

I 00...('. . . . . . . . . - . 
.\hitibi.. ... . . . . - 

lis8inaibi . 
Albany. _ .. . . 
Keno
ami... . 
A tta" apiskat. . . . .. . 
W inisk . . . . . . . . . . _ . 
Severn.. ....... . . . . . . . 
Hayes. . 
Nelson. . . . . . . . . . . _ . . .. ...... 
Winnip('g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Engli!'.h. . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Rpd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Assiniboine. . . . . . . 

aska tchewan. . . . . . . . . . . . 
North Saskatchewan... .. ... 
South 
askatchewan.. ....... 
R('d Dcer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bo,,' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Belly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . . . . . 
Churchill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Area 
Drained 



q. mile::! 
:to, 100 
5,400 
21,500 
309, 500 
35,900 
16,:!OO 
8,000 
9,000 
56,700 
3,500 
9,100 


551.000 


62,400 
20,000 
26,300 
25, ;>00 
15,700 
9,
OO 
29,800 
42,100 
II, 300 
10,600 
59,'\00 
20,700 
lR,700 
24, 100 
3S, (;00 
28,000 
370,
()(} 
44,000 
20, 600 
63,400 
52, (,00 
158,hOO 
54,700 
65,500 I 
18,300 
11,100 
8,900 I 
115,500 


Drainage Basins 


lIudson ßay ß4lSln -concluded 
hazan. . . . . . . . . . . 
Dubawnt. ... . .. . . . . . . _ _ ... _ . 


Total. . . . . . . . . 


Pacific ßa'ihl. 
\ ukon. ........ . . 
Porcupinc. . . . . . . . . 

tewart. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ppllv..... .. 
J en"es.... 
\\hite.. 
\l
('k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'raku. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
StiJ...ine.... .......... 

a:--s..... 

kf'f'na. . . . . . . . . . . 
J..ra.....r. . . . . . . . 
Thomp
on..... . 
:\echako. . . . . 
Blackwater...... . 
Quesnpl. . . . . 
Chilf'otin..... . . . . . . . .. .... 
Columbia... _...... . . .. . . . . . . . . 
l\:ootcna
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
( ) kanagnn 
Kctt Ie 
Pend d'Or('ille 


Total ..... 


-1rctic II sin. 
Backs. . . . _ _ . . . . . _ . 
(.opperminc.... _. _. . 
.Maf'kpnzie.............. _ . 
J .iard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
IIa\" ................ 
PP
cP . . 
A.thabaska. 


Area 
Drained 


Sq. miles 
32,700 
58,500 


_ .. 1,.fS6.00 


145,800 
:?4,6oo 
21 , 900 
21,300 
35,000 
15,000 
11 , 200 
7,600 
20, :
OO 
7,400 
19.
00 
91,700 
21 , 800 
15,700 
5,600 
.t . S()() 
7,500 
;
!), 300 
15,500 
1).000 
3.100 
1. 190 


.11;7,.WO 


47,500 
29,100 
6

,OOO 
1,700 
25,700 
117,100 
58, 900 


Total. . . . . . . . . 1,'
90,UOO 
Gulf of 31etlco Basin...... 12,365 


N OTE.-Owing to overlapping, the totals of cach drainage basin do not represent an 
addition of the drainage areas 88 given. Tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated by 
indentation of the names. 


2.-LengthC\ of Principal llhrrs and Tributaries in Canada. 


Kames 'liles 


Kames 


Miles 


f1o\\ing into the \tl.,oti.. Ocean. 
Hamilton (to head of Ashuanipi). . 350 
Natashkwan.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 
Romaine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 
Moisie. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 
St. 'Iarguerite......... . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 
St. John.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . 390 
18427-6 


Flo\\ ing into the Atlantic Ocean 
-continued 

Iiramichi........ ......... 
St.. Lawrence(to head of St. Louis). 
:Manikuagan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Outardae... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bersimis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Saguenay (to head of Peribonka). 


135 
1,900 
310 
270 
240 
405 



82 


PHYSICAL CHA-RACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


2.-Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada-concluded 


Names 


Miles 


Miles 


Names 


Flowing into the Atlantic Ocean 
-concluded. 
Peribonka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mistassini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ashwapmuchuan.......... . . . . . 
Chaudière. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Maurice...... . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Mattavlin... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Francis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Richelieu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ottawa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
North. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rouge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
N orth Nation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Lièvre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gatineau... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Coulonge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dumoine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sou th Nation...... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mada waska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Petawav:a.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
l\Ioira. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Trent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
French (to head of Sturgeon)..... 
Sturgeon. ... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
S
an
sh..:...................... . 
l\IIsslssagl. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thessalon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nipigon (to head of Ombabika) . 
Flowing into Hudson Bay. 
Hayes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Nelson (to Lake \Yinnipeg). . . . . . . . 
Nelson (to head of Bow). . . . . . . . . . . 
Red (to head of Lake Traverse).. 
Red (to head of Sheyenne)...... 
Assiniboine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Souris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Qu' Appelle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'Vinnipeg (to head of Firesteel). . 
English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Saskatchewan (to head of Bow).. 
North Saskatchewan. . . . . . . . . . 
South Saskatchewan (to head 
of Bow)...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Belly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Red Deer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Churchill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Beaver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kazan...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dubav.Tnt..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Severn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'Vinisk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Attawapiskat....... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . 
Albany (to head of Cat river)..... . 
Moose (to head of Mattagami) . . . . . 


300 
390 
1.660 
355 
545 
450 
450 
270 
475 
330 
1,205 
760 
865 
315 
180 
385 
1,000 
305 
455 
580 
420 
295 
465 
610 
340 


280 
185 
165 
120 
325 
100 
165 
210 
685 
70 
115 
60 
205 
240 
135 
80 
90 
105 
130 
95 
60 
150 
140 
135 
180 
110 
153 
140 
40 
130 


Flowing into Hudson Bay- 
concluded. 
Mattagami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Abi tibi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
l\fissinaibi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Harricanaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nottaway. (
o head of Waswanipi). 
W aswanl pI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rupert. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Eastmain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Big. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Great Whale. ..... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Leaf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Koksoak (to head of Kaniapiskau). 
Kaniapiskau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
George. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean. 
Columbia (total).................. 
Columbia (in Canada)............. 
Kootenay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fraser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thompson (to head of North 
Thompson)..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
North Thompson..... . . . . . . . . . 
South Thompson... ... . .. . . ... 
Chilcotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Blackwater. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
N echako. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stuart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Skeena.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
N ass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stikine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Aisek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yukon (mouth to head of Nisutlin). 
Yukon (Int. boundary to head of 
N isu tlin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stewart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
\Vhi te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pelly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Macmillan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
J-.Jewes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


275 
340 
265 
250 
400 
190 
380 
375 
520 
365 
295 
535 
445 
365 


1,150 
465 
400 
695 
270 
185 
120 
145 
140 
255 
220 
335 
205 
335 
260 
1,765 
655 
320 
185 
330 
200 
338 


2,525 
365 
230 
550 
260 
765 
210 
265 
1,065 
250 
145 
245 
185 
525 
605 


Flowing into the Arctic Ocean. 
Mackenzie (to head of Finlay)..... 
Peel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Arctic Red.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Liard. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fort Nelson.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Athabaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pembina... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Slave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Peace (to head of Finlay)..... . .. 
Finlay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Parsnip. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Smoky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Little Smoky....... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Coppermine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Backs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


NOTE.-In the above table the tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated by inden- 
tation of the names. Thus the Ottawa and other rivers are shown as tributary to the 
St. Lawrence, and the Gatineau and other rivers as tributary to the Ottawa. 



(;EOGR.\PIIIC4.L FE.\ TUNE...; 


83 


St. La\\'rence I{iver Systen1.-::\Iost inl})Ortant of t h(' lakes and 
rivt'r
 in C'an:Hln is the chain of the Grpat Lakes with their connecting 
riYer
, thp 
t. TA
nYrenl'(, ri\"cr and it
 trihutarie
. rrhis chain is called 
the 
t. Lawrence Hivpr ;'"\ystl'll1. rrhe Great Lake
, separating the 
proyinl'e of Ontario frolH the United 
tates anù l'onnp('teù by a series 
of (,:1n
lls ,,'ith the 
t. La,vrenn.' riyer, alIo\\" of aCC'l':--:5 frOIH the 6\tlnntic 
ocean to the interior of thp 1 )ollÜni()11 at Fort "illi:lIH and Port 
Arthur, twin cities situat 'ù 011 lake Superior. 
The Great Lakes. -1'able 3 
hows the lCll
th, breadth, area, 
f'leyation :1hoye 
pa-leypl 
lnd maximum dt'pth (Jf t.ach of the Grcat 
Lake
. 


3. - \rea. }:Jt'\ation and ))('I)th of tl1(' (.r('at IAftk('s. 


Dl.'pth Elevation 
Lakes I.Æ'n
th. Bread th. 
t axi- Area. above 
nlUlll. Sea-level. 

Iil{>s 
1iks rect.. Sq. Miles Feet 

 . 254 162 1. ()OR 31 , BOO 602 
. u{>E'rIor.... ......... ... ..... ...... 
)Iichigan. .. ........ .... ........ ... 316 118 870 22,400 581 
Huron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 101 802 23, 200 581 

 t. Clair...... . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 24 21 445 575 
Erie. . . . .. .. .. .. ................... 239 59 180 10,000 572 
Ontario.. . . , . . . . . . ...........,....... 193 53 738 7,260 246 
I 


Lake t;uperior, ".ith its area of 31,hUU square ulÌles, is the largest 
body of fre:-:h ,vater in the "orld. A:s the international boundary 
bet".eeu Canada anù the l
llited Rtates pa:,
e...; thro\1
h the ('('ntre of 
lakes t;uperior, Jluron, Erie and Ontario, only half of the areas of 
these lakes J!ivcn iu thc ahove statenlent is ranadian. I'hp ".hole of 
lake :\Iichigal1 is ,vithin Uniteù t;tate8 tprritory. FrolH thp \vpstern 
end of lake 
uperior to the 1110uth of the 
t. Lawreu('e there is, with 
the aid of the 
an:d sy
teln, a. continuou
 navigable ,vatpnvay. rrhe 
total length of the 
t. La,vrence river froll} thf' head of the St. Louis 
river to the Pointc-des-:\Ionts, at the entrance of the gulf of St. 
L:\\\"rence. is l,nOO Jniles. rrhe tributaries of the St. Lawrence, 

eYeral of which ha,"c thelllseives inlportant trihutaries, include the 
Ott:nv3 riyer, ög5 Hliles long; the St. ::\Iaurice river, 325 ntiles long; 
and thc Sagucnay (to head of Peribonka), 405 n1Íles long. 
Other Inland 'Vaters.-In addition to the Gn'at Lakes there 
arc large bodies of inland ,vater in other part
 of Canada. Of these 
only the follo,,'ing principal lakes, ,vith their re
pecti\"e areas, need 
he Inentioned here: ill Qucbec, lake 
Iista
sini en7.) bqunre miles); in 
Ontario, lake Xipigon (1,730 square nÜle.,); in :\lanitoha lake 'Yinnipeg 
(9,437 square milcb), lake 'Vinnipegosi::; (2,0
ß bquare miles) an<llake 

Ianitoha (1,817 :-;quare n1iles); in Saskatche".an, Heindeer lake (2,437 

quare nÜles); in }...lberta, lake .Athahaska (2,182 square miles). All 
these are within the Loundaries of the provinces as at prc
ent con- 
stituted, nnd are ex\'lusive of lakes situated in the X orth,,-est Terri- 
tories, as, for instance, the Great Bear lake (11,821 square miles) 
and the Great Slavp lake (10,719 square Inile
) in the 
Ia('kenzie 
District. 
lS427-6! 



84 


PHYSICA.L CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


Table 4 gives a li
t of the principal lakes of Canada by provinces, 
with the area of each in square miles. The table corresponds ,vith 
the constitution of the provincps as altered by the Boundar

 Extension 
Act, 1912 (2 Ceo. V, ce. 32, -10 and 45). 


4.-Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes b)r Provinces. 


N ames of Lakes 


Areas. 


Nova Scotia- 
Bras d'Or............ ......... 
Little Bras d 'Or. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


New Brunswick- 
Grand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quebec- 
Abitibi, portion in Quebe['. . . . . '. 
Apiskigamish. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Ashuanipi. . . . . . . . . . . . 
A tikonak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Aylmer. . . . . . . . . . 
Baskatong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Burnt. . . .. :.................... 
Champlain, portion in Quebec.. . . 
Chibougamau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clearwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Evans 
Expan

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
Gull 
Gra
d.ÿi
t

i
".
::::::::::: 
::: 
Great Long......... ..... ., '. 
Indian House...... . ......... ., .. 
Ishmmikuagan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kakabonga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kniapiskau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kipawa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Lower Seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 
:Matapedia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Manuan 
Mattag

i'.'. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
:Megan tic........ .... .... 
'Melville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ . . .. ". 
Memphremagog, part in. Quebec.. 
,:Menihek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Minto 
Mishik

'U:
"'''''. 
 : : : : : : : : : . : : : : : : 
Mishikamats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mistassini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mistassinis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 
N emiskau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nichikum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
N omining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Obatogamau.... .... ., .... ...... 
Olga. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ossokmanuan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Papineau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Patamisk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Payne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Petitsikapau......... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pipmaukin.. '" ........ .. . . " ". 
Pletipi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quinze, Lac des........ . . . . . . . . . . 
Richmond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Francis, Beauce county....... 


Areas 


Sq uare 
Miles 
230 
130 


74 
25 
392 
319 
331 
8 
17 
56 
3 
138 
478 
231 
59 
125 
57 
245 
306 
87 
65 
441 
117 
221 
16 
113 
87 
14 
1,298 
28 
112 
235 
612 
122 
975 
206 
56 
208 
9 
56 
50 
131 
5 
44 
747 
94 
100 
138 
46 
269 
13 


N ames of Lakes. 


360 


Quebec-concluded. 
St. Francis river, St. Lawrence, 
part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. John. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Louis... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Peter.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandgirt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Simon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Timiskaming, part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Temiscouata........ ............ 
Thirty-one Mile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Two Mountains.................. 
'G pper Seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'Vakonichi. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Waswanipi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Whitefish......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ontario- 
Abitibi portion in Ontario. . . . . . . 
Bald.... ....................... 
Balsam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Buckhorn. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 
Cameron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Couchiching....... . . . . . . . . - . .. 
Deer........ ... ......... .. 
Dog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Eagle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Erie, portion in Ontario.......... 
George, portion in Ontario. . . . . . . 
Huron, including Georgian bay,. 
portion in Ontario.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
La Croix, portion in Ontario... . . . 
Lansdowne.......... ., .......... 
Long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Manitou, Manitou island... . . . . .. 
Mille Lacs, Lac de....... . . . . . . .. 
l'rI ud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Muskoka................. ., ..... 
N

akan, portion in Ontario.... 
N
p
go.n... . . ., ...... . .. ., .. " ... 
Nlplsslng...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Ontario, portion in Ontario. . . . . . 
Panache. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pigeon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rainy, portion in Ontario. .. . . . . . 
Rice.......................... .. 
St. Clair, portion in Ontario. . . " 
St. Francis, river St. Lawrence,. 
part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Joseph.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . 
Saganaga, portion in Ontario.. . . 
Sandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Seul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Simcoe..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Scugog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ston
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Sq uare 
Miles. 


59 
350 
56 
130 
106 
12 
65 
29 
23 
63 
270 
44 
100 
19 
11,110 
331 
2 
17 
14 
6 
19 
7 
61 
128 
5,019 
11 
14,331 
23 
98 
75 
38 
104 
13 
54 
19 
1,730 
330 
3,727 
35 
15 
260 
27 
257 
24 
245 
21 
245 
392 
271 
39 
19 



GEOGR.lPJI /C.IL FEA TURES 


85 


-1.- \r
 uf 1
lncipal Canadian Lakes bS I
O\ln('e
-continul.ll. 



am('s of Lak('
. 


Un ta.rio--cone Iud ed. 

turgcon, English river... 
8turg('On, Victoria county..... 
:-:;uperior, portion in Ontario. 
Timagami... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Timiskaming, part. . 
Trout, Engli!"h rivf'r. . .. . . ... . . . 
Trou t. 
evern rÏ\ er. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Wanapitf.i...... ......... 
Woods, lake of the, part in Un-. 
t.ario. . . . 


'Jnnitoba- 
Atikalllcg. . . 
<.. '('dar . . 
Cormorant. . . . . . . 
Dauphin. . . . . . . . . 
Doli!':. . . . . . _ . .. .. 
ELb-nnd-flo\\ . . . . .. . . . 
Etawnf'Y... . 
(;ods... .. 
Granville....... . 
Island. . . . . . . 
Kiskitto........ . 
h.iski ttoJi!':isu. . . . . . . 

Ianitoba..... .. 

Ioo
.. ... 

 amp\\. part. . . . 

orth Indian................ '" 

pultin.part. ............. ... 
PlaYJ!f{'pn... .... ... 
R('('d. . . . . . . .. ...... . . . 
Rpd. Df'pr, west of lake Winnip('g- 
OSI
.......... ... 
R('indel'r. part. . . . . . . . . 

t. Martin.... .. . . .. 
:,ptting. .. . 
:,hoal. .. . . . . 
:-;outh Indian.. 

 \\ an. . . . . . . . . . 
Todatara, part... .. .... 
Waterh('n....... .. 
W('kusko..._ ...... 
Winnipeg.... '" ..... 
Winnipegosis......... . . . . 
Wuods, lake of the, part. 



askatchewan- 
Amisk. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
A thabaska, part..... . . . . 
Buffalo... ... . . 
Candle... . 
Chaplin.. . 
Cree......... .. . . 
Cumberland...... . . . . . . . 
Dove........ . . . . 
Ile-a-la-Crosse.... . . . .. 
Johnston. . . . 
Last 
Iountain. ...... 
Little Quill..... . 
Manitou... . 
Montrpal.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 


.A\reas. 

q uarc 
Miles. 
106 
18 
11,1 ik 
gO 
52 
134 
233 
4:> 
1,325 
41,lsS 
90 

8.) 
141 I 
200 
64 
39 
625 
319 
: 92 
5.S1 
G9 
122 
1,817 
552 
12 
184 
76 
224 
86 
hfi 
134 
125 
5S 
102 
1,531 
84 
1;)6 
83 
83 
9,459 
2,0
6 
60 
19,894 


111 
1,801 
281 
150 
66 
106 
lfi6 
242 
187 
131 
98 
70 
67 
138 II 



 amps of Lakes. 


Saskatc1wwan-eoncluùf'd. 
X ame\\", part........ . . . . .. .. . . 
Plongp, Lac la. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 
Red Dp('r on R(.d D('pr river. . . . 
Hf'indf't'r, part......... . . . . . . 
Hong(', Lac In .... . . . . . . 
WhitpLoon....... ...... '. 
Witchikan....... .......... 
Wollaston.... .... . . . . .. 


Albprtn- 
\ thabaska. part.. 
B('aver. .... 
Bi('he, LfU. la. . . . . . 
Buffalo..... . 
Claire.. _.. 
J ('55<'1' SIn vc. . . . 
Pakowki. . 
Rullivan.. . 


Briti:--h ('olumLia- 
Adams. . .. 
\tlin, part. ..... 
Bahine. . 
Chilko. 
Harrison. 
Koot.('nay. . . . . 
Lower Arro" . . . . . . 
Okanagan. . 
0" ikano. 
QUf'
npl. . , . . . 
ëhus\\ap.......... . 
Stuart. . . . . . . . . 
Tacla. . . . . , . .. . . . . . . . 
Tagish, part... ... . . 
Tpslin, part. .. ....... 
G pJX'r Arrow. . . . 



orthwest Territocies- 
Ab('rdf'f'n... .... 
\ylmf'r. 
Bakf'r. . . . _ . . . . . . . 
Clinton-Colden. . 
nubawnt. ....... 
Franklin........ . 
Garry. . . . . . . . . . . 
Gms,Lacde....... . 
Great Bear...... 
c;reat Slave.... . .. .. 
Kaminuriak..... . 
Lower Seal. . . . . . . . . . 
MacdougalL..... .. . . . 
Maguse........ .... 

lartre, Lac la. . . .. . 
.Mackay. . . . . . 
Kueltin, part.. . 

utarawit........ .. 
Pf'lIy. . . . . . .. . ...... 


Areas. 


Sq uare- 
M iles_ 
á4t 
383 
163 
97 
2,302 
343 
97 
70 
906 


S,329 


1,401 
89 
125 
55 
404 
'\0 
72 
94 


2,360 



'> 
;)- 
331 
306 
172 
122 
220 
64 
135 
98 
147 
124 
220 
135 
91 
123 
99 
2,439 


.
14 
612 
1,029 
674 
1,654 
122 
9
0 
674 
11,821 
10.719 
368 
220 
318 
490 
1,225 
980 
230 
343- 
331 



8G 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


4.-Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces-concluded. 


Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


X ukon- 
Aishihik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Atlin, part......... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Kluane...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Sq uare 
Miles. 
123 
184 
52 
858 
34,521 
107 
12 
184 


Yukon-concluded. 
Kusawa..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Laberge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Tagish, part..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Teslin, part........ . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 
! 


Square 
Miles. 
56 
87 
32 
48 
123 


Northwest Terri tories-concluded. 
Schul tz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thoalintoa.. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Todatara, part.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
ì- athkyed....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


649 
Canada.... . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .' 120,921: 


Islands.- The northern and ,vestern coasts of Canada are 
skirted by clusters of islands. Those on the north are nlostly ,yithin 
the Arctic circle. On the west, V ancouv
r and Queen Charlotte 
Islands are the largest and most important. On the east, besides the 
separate island colony of Newfoundland, there are Cape Breton 
Island, forming part of the province of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward 
Island, forming one of the nine provinces of Canada, the l\Iagdalen 
Island:3 and the i::;land of Anticosti. To the south of N e,vfoundland 
are the t,vo slnall i.slands of St. Pierre and 
1iq uelon belonging to 
France. In lake Huron is the island of lVlanitoulin and the so-called 
Thirty ThouRand Islands of Georgian Bay. In the St. La ,vrence 
river, just belo,v lake Ontario, are the picturesque Thousand Islands. 


ECONO
IIC GEOLOGY OF CANADA, 1919. 


By 'VYATT MALCOLM. Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
The purpose of the ,vriter in presenting this paper i:-3 to give a 
brief review of the most important reports anel article
 treating of 
the economic geology of Canada, published during the year 1919. 
It is hoped that this ,vill also serve to indicate to the reader ,vhere 
detailed infornlation regarding the mineral resources of the country 
may be obtained, since the articles revie,ved, although recently 
publi
hed, do not necessarily contain the best and most complete 
information on the subject. The nurübers appearing in brackets 
throughout this paper refer to the names of the publishers listed at 
the end. 
Asbestos.-A report privately published by J. 1\:. I{Nox de- 
scribes in detail the geological features of the serpentine belt of the 
Coleraine area of the Thetford-Black Lake mining district. It is in 
the serpentine belt that the asbestos and chronÜte deposits of Quebec 
are found. 
Clay.-1"he Canadian Chemical Journal of 
larch, 1919, con- 
tains a succinct description by J. I{EELE of the clay deposits of 
northern Ontario, with suggestions as to how they should be treated 
to obtain the best results in their utilization. L. REINECKE (6) 
describes the occurrence of fire clay at Chimney Creek bridge, ,vest 
of Fraser river, British Columbia. 



ECO.YOJIIC GEOLOGY OF CANAlDAt, 1919 


87 


Coal.-1'he nUlpping of the nortlnvard extension of the coal 
hearing strnta of the Cr()".snl'
t coal field ,vas cl1ntinued in lÐ18. 
It ,vas carri(.d a:5 far as the hp:l<hvatcrs of Ohlnlal1 and Living-;tone 
rivcrs ,vithin the Hoch.y lunUllÌains and of 'Yillo,y creek and tribu- 
taril'
 in the foothills. 
\ccording to BUUCE l
osE (1) coal sin1Ïlar 
to th:lt nlÌned in the Crow
ne",t Pass is found but is not lnined. It 
is not pos
ible to p:ive 1l1e:lsurcd ::;ections nor to correlate the se:uns 
".ith tho
e that are 111ined to the south, but se
un
 ranging in thickne
s 
fron1 
ixte('n fCf't to five fept, or le

, ".ere oh
erve(l. In a rf'purt hy 
J. B. 
TE'VART (1) on the" Geol06'Y of th(' di:-\turbpd hplt of 
()uth- 
,,'estern 
\lhprt:t" attention is directed to the coal se
Ull
 of the Bellv 
River :l.nd St. :\I:lry Hi, er fonl1ations of the arf'3. 1.'hP:--e have been 
opened hy tunnel8 to suppl

 the loeal dPlnand for dOllH'--tiC" fuf'l. 
l'he results of investigations carried on in the southern part 
of the Sydney cOLli field ,vcre prc'sellted by _\.. O. IIAYES (1), who 
also reported on work done in the Chitoncy Corner and Ste. Ro:-\e 
coal areas of lnvernp",:-\ county, in the Xpw CUIl1plH'llton area, Yic- 
toria county, and the l
elnpto'\"n area, Colche::;t'r county, Nova 
Scotia. 
Cobalt.-
\ report on rohalt \vrittcn by C. ,Yo I)nl:RY (3} give
 
notes on thc various cohalt n1Ïnpral
, their occurrence throughout 
the ,yorld and more particularly in Ontario, the uletallurgical pro- 
Ce
:3e5 by ,,-hich the 11letal is rerovered, its chelnistry and U
l'
. An 
intcresting occurrcnce of cobalt 3s
ociate(1 ,,-ith gold-bearing arseno- 
pyrite and molybdenite in a vein eightf'cn inche
 to four fect ,,-ide 
on a clain1 adjacent to the I1úcher })e Boule propr'rtif's of 11 azelton 
diç;.trict, nriti
h Coluulhia, is descrihed by J. J. O'N" FILL (1). In 
the first eight-fivc feet of a tunnel drivf'1l 011 this vein four to eightcen 
inches of solid sulphides ',"ere pxpo
eù, 'which 'were sa.id to average 
:-.bO in gold and t,,"o and one-half to five per cent of cobalt. 
Copper.-'Yith the exception of a paper in the Canadian 
rining 
Journal by l{.. E. JloHE on the lluntingflon copper lllÏne of Quehec, 
and a de

ription by.\.. L. P o\.U
oxs (3) of copper deposit:, of north- 
\\ estern Ontario, nearly all the reports of 1019 dealing '\vith copper 
deposits of Canada are those de::;criptive of ore bodic:-{ in British 
Columbia. Th
 reports of the l{e
ident Engineers (5) of the l\Iineral 

urvey dbtricts of British Columbia contain considprable matter 
of interest to geologi8ts, in addition to the usual infornlation regarding 
development ,york a t tl
 various mine:--. 
The Rocher De Boule mine i
 the most itnportant copper mine 
of the Hazelton district. J. J. O'
EILL (1) states that the country 
rock was subjected to fissuring at t,,-o different period:5. Br{'cciation 
of the rock occurred on certain zones along the line of the first fissuring. 
The brecciated lllaterini suffered a certain degree of alteration and 
the fi::;sure 'vas then filled 'with a, siliceous cement. .A second fissuring 
in the same plane then follo'wed. Ore-bearing solutions entered 
these fissures and deposition took place mainly in the brecciated 
zone. Chalcopyrite and hornblende constitute ninety per cent of 
the vein material. 



88 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA^"AD
4 


The ore bodies of one of the most important copper mines of 
British Columbia, the Britannia mine, have been briefly described 
by S. J. SCHOFIELD (1). The ore is in lenticular masses in a great 
shear zone; the schist of this zone has been impregnated or replaced 
by pyrite, chalcopyrite and cupriferous pyrite with minor amounts 
of zincblende. In his study of the geology of Quatsino sounj and 
other parts of the west coast of Vancouver island V. DOLMAGE (1) 
made an examination of the Old Sport copper mine. A limestone 
series overlying a thick flo,v of andesite has been intruded by a mass 
of diorite and has been extensively metamorpho.sed. The ore is 
chalcopyrite, which occurs as small rounded grains and large irregular 
bodies associated with a large amount of magnetite and smaller 
amounts of pyrite and pyrrhot.ite. It is deposited mainly at the 
base of the limestone ,vhere it rests upon the main body of andesite. 
It probably had its origin in the intrusive diorite. 
Gold.-A number of reports were published in 1919 dealing 
with the geological features of several Precalllbrian areas of the Lauren- 
tian plateau of l\Ianitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, in which gold lllining 
ið being carried on or in which prospecting may be conducted with 
reasonable chances of success. The reports of Resident Engineers 
of the IVlineral Survey district of British Columbia (5) contain brief 
notes on the gold mines and prospects of British Columbia. 
The Cariboo placers, British Columbia, that have since 1860 
yielded about $45,000,000 of gold ,yere examined by B. R. MAC!{AY 
(1) in 1918. The preglacial gulch, creek and bench gravels are the 
source of the greater part of the present output of the Cariboo. 
Owing to the fact that these deposits occur in most cases buried 
under a heavy mantle of drift, glacial outwash, and recent stream 
gravels, many of them were entirely overlooked or the mining of 
them had to be abandoned on account of water and other difficulties. 
The cheaper methods of mining of the present day renders some of 
these deposits comlllercially attractive. The tracing of these pre- 
glacial gravels is a matter of detailèd study and mapping. 80me 
notes by J. B. TYRRELL on the pla
er mines of Cariboo were pub- 
lished in Economic Geology, 'T olume 14. 
The origin of the gold deposits of Matachewan district, northern 
Ontario, is dealt with by H. C. COOKE in Economic Geology, volume 
14. The gold occurs in veinlet.:5 of qU:1rtz cutting granite porphyry 
and in schists surrounding the intrusive porphyry In the schists 
the ore bodies consist of a pegmatite dyke in the centre, a middle 
zone of mineralized rock on each side of the pegnlatite and an outer 
zone of altered rock without mineralization which grades into unal- 
tered country rock. The ores were genetically connected with the 
porphyry. A report and map by C. 'v. KNIGHT, A. G. BURROWS, 
P. E. HOPKINS and A. L. PARSONS (3) on a stretch of country extend... 
ing east from near Porcupine, Ontario, to the interprovincial boundary, 
should be of great value to prospectors for gold. Geological for- 
mation.3 are exposed that are promising and a number of gold prospects 
have been opened. Other reports on gold areas in Ontario have been 
presented by A. G. BURROWS (3) and P. E. HOPKINS (3). Notes on 



I eo.., U...\IIC GEULuGl" UF CA.YA.D...l, 1.919 


S9 


a gold af<'a nn the upIH.'r lIarric
lnaw ri\.pr, (luchcc, 'Yen.' I>llbli
l){'d 
hy A. \lAILIIIOT in VOlUlllP 10 of the Canadian l\lining Journal. 

rhc \Vasupika gold area., Ontario, attracted cOll
ideraLle attplltion 
in 1919, and dcscriptions of the geology of the arpa. are given b) H. 
E. TloRE in the Canadian l\Iinin
 Journal. 
Intere:-\ting papers appearetl in th(' 
Iining :\Iag:l.zÏlle by F. C. 
LOHI
G on the Porcupine field and II. 11. JOIIN
01\ on l
irklanù 
Lake goldfield, and fI paper by E. Y'. DOUGHERTY discu
bing the 
origin of the lode fi:-::-\urps of Porcupine appeared in VOhUH(' 118 of 
.:\Iining and 
cientific Pre
s. 
] Iydronlagnesìte.-I)eposits of hydrated 
arLonate;:, of Inag- 
Ilesiulu at Clinton 
l.nd to the north uf Clinton, B.C. are de
criLed 
hy L. !{ElXECKE in the ranadi:1n ChClllical .Journal, aud in the 
Bulletin of the ranadiun :I\Iillillg In
titutc. It is e::,tÏIllated that the 
amount of high grnde Iuaterial at C'linton is 7,000 tOllS, at 'Vat
on 
lak
 2.r;,000 ton:3, and at l\Ieadow lake 180,000 ton
. 
Iron -InforDlatioll ahout newly explored or little known part
 
of the country i
 nhvays of intere;:,t, particularly if there are economic 
po:-::-:ibilitif's ,vorth consid('rin
. ,r ery little infornlation about the 
Belcher i
land
 of IIudson hay had been available to the public until 
after the visit of R. J. }4LAIlEH.TY and E. ì:5. :\IoOHE. E. S. ::\IOOUE 
(l.>) pre
('nt;:; a c()l1
ideration of the iron ore po:"'\:-\ibilitie'-, of the i;o;land
. 
T'he geolo
ical fonnations eon:-\i:-\t of a :;ediIlH'lltary serie::: of gray- 
,vucke, 
l.rko;:,e, slate, sandstone, quartzite, jasper, limestone and 
dolomite ".ith :5ills and flo".
 of Lasalt and diabasc, all prohahly of 
Prec
lInhrian 
l.ge. Iron ore:-, are fonn(l on the i="l:\lld
, but it "-as 
not proved that they ".ere of cOIl1ll1erciai quantity and quality. 
1
he geological forlnationR including some uf the iron ranges 
of the :\Iichipieotcn district of Ontario have heen de.:5cribcd by \V. 
H. COLLINS (1). 1
he iron ore in these ranp;e
 con...:Ïsts of hClnatite 
and 
iderite, the iron fonnation being conlposed of a stratified a
so- 
ciation of banded silica, iron oxidc
, pyrite, and :-:iderite or limestone. 
Lead.- 
ilver-lead depo
its of :\layo di:::trict, Yukon, that have 
attracted consiòeruble attention, have been de"cribed by \\ . E. COCh-- 
FIELD (1). The geology of a part of Lemieux to,vnship, Quebec, in 
which sonle exploration ".ork on zinc-lead deposits has been per- 
formed ".as studied by _\.. 
IAILHIOT (4). 1'he ore occur" in ,,"pll 
defined yein3 and consists of zincblcnde and galena in a gangue of 
quartz and dolon1Ïte. .A. O. HAYES (1) presents notes on a galpna 
vein near :I\lusquodoboit IIarbour, X ova Scotia. 1
he vein is two 
feet six inches ".ide and fillR a fissure in granite. The 
ame author 
presents the re:-:ults of investigations of the zinc, lead-copper deposits 
near Stirling, Richmond county, Xova ;3cotia. 
l\lagnesium sulphate.-
\. number of snlall lakes carrying 
depo
its of epsomite, a natural hydrnted 
ulphate of magnesium, are 
found in the south central part of British Columbia. I)escriptions 
of those near Basque are given by G. C. CRUX in the Canadian 
Chemical Journal, and of thosp near Clinton by L. REINECKE in the 
Canadian ChenlÌcal Journal and the Bulletin of the Canadian 
Iining 



QO 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERIS'T/CS OF CANADA 


Institute. In the same publications l\IR. REINECKE also describes 
the occurrence of sodium carbonate in solution in small lakes north 
of Clinton. In some of these a bed of the salt is deposited during the 
dry season. 
Manganese.-The lack of shipping facilities during the war 
created a brisk demand for manganese produced in Canada and the 
United States. A great number of Canadian deposits were examined 
to ascertain their cOlllmercial possibilities, and reports were made 
in 1919 by A. O. HAYES (1) and E.. R. FARIBAULT (1) on certain 
deposits in Nova Scotia and by G. C. l\1ACKENZIE (6) on a deposit 
near lake Cowichan, 'Tancouver island. 
Mercury.-Deposits of cinnabar, a sulphide of mercury, 'were 
"-90rked at one time on the north side of Kamloops lake, British 
Columbia. The deposits, \vhich have been described by CHARLES 
CAMSELL (1), occupy fissures. traversing sedimentary and volf'anic 
rocks. The cinnabar is frequently associated \vith stibnite in 
 
gangue of quartz, calcite or dolomite. 
Mica.-L. REINECKE (6) reports muscovite mica as occurring 
in pegmatite dykes in the Clearwater mountains north of Canim lake, 
British Columbia Crystals range from one inch to twelve inches 
across. Only actual development \vork will prove whether market- 
able mica is pre3ent in paying quantities. 
Molybdenite.-Brief notes are given by A. O. HAYES (1) on 
certain molybdenite occurrences in Cape Breton county, Nova 
Scotia. L. REI
ECKE (6) describes the occurrence of a deposit of 
molybdenite on Timothy mountain, thirty-five miles northeast of 
Lac la Hache, British Columbia. Fissure veins carrying molyb- 
, denite, gold and cobalt occur on a claim adjoining the Rocher De 
Boule properties of the Hazelton district. 1
hese are described by 
J. J. O'NEILL (1). 
Peridot.- Peridot, the precious form of olivine, is found on 
Timothy mountain, British Columbia. L. REINECKE (6) describes 
it as occurring in coarsely crystalline masses in a basaltic matrix. 
The stones are of a yellowish green to pale and dark green colour, 
and certain of thelll that have been cut have made very fine gelns. 
Petroleum and Natural Gas.-lVluch has been published 
that is of interest to geologists engaged in the search for petroleum. 
D. B. DOWLING (1) describes the general geological conditions of 
Alberta and Saskatche'wan and presents the log.s of the most impor- 
tant wells drilled in the prairie provinces; S. E. SLIPPER (1) describes 
in greater detail the geology of southern and central Alberta; F. H. 
l\lcLEARN (1) makes correl
tions of the Cretaceous formations of 
the Peace and Athabaska valleys; and J. S. STEWART (1) presents 
the results of his investigations in the disturbed belt of soutlnvestern 
Alberta. Our kno,vledge of the geological conditions existing in 
l\lackenzie River basin has been set forth in a report by CHARLES 
CAMSELL and '\VYATT l\IALCOLl\I (1). It is near Norman in the 
l\lackenzie ba:3in that oil ,vas discovered in the Devonian formation 
by the Imperial Oil Company. 



FrO.YOJ! IC GEOLOGY OF C.LY.tD.l, 1919 


91 


_\ttcntion has been direct('d to the po:-\
ihility of revIvIng or 
extending S0111C of t he older producing oil fields of Canada and a. 
thoruu
h study of the fields of :5outh,ve:;tern Untario "as Inadc by 

l. \.. \rILLIA
18 (1). 
Platinußl.-fhe shortage in recent year:'\ of platinunl for use in 
I:-lboratories and in the chelnical industries led to considerable atten- 
tion h(\in
 given tu t he po
:-\ibility of increasing the rE:covery of this 
metal in ('anad:t frolll thp kno,vn sources and of discovering ne,v 
sources of supply. X ot('
 on investigations in _\lberta. are pub- 
lished hy G. ('. .:\I.-\Ch.EXZIE (ö) and in J
ritish Cohllnbia by (
. C. 
:\lACKE
ZI
 (ü) and Cn -\RLEb C \. '(sELL (1). 
\ nUll) hpr of quartz 
veins in southeastern :\Ianitoha reported to carry platinulll ,,"cre 
san)pled b
 E. L. Bu,:cg (1), hut no platinulll ,vas found. ""'ILT...L\
I 
rrIIo
n..Ix:",;o" publishl'<1 in the ('nnadian 
Iining .Juurnal the r('sult
 
of assa} 3 of salnples of a nUIllber of nlÌncralilC'd veins at Franklin 
camp in southern British Cohnnhia; bOlne of the;::,e were n
('ertaint,d 
to be platinunl-hearing. J. J. U'X}
ILL (1) presC'nted a reyie,v of 
the platinunl 
ituation in Canada and nn article by ,\. L. UGLO"'" 
appearcd in the Engineering and 
Iilling Journal on the" Geology 
of platinunl d(\po:,it
) " in ,,-hich he de:-,crihed the nlutle of OCCUITC'nce 
of the ku()\,'u piatinulu dl'po:,it
. 
Pyrite.-Pyritei::; a nlÌneral fronl ,\ hich, hy burning, sulphur 
dioxide is evolyed for use in the lnallufacture of 8ulphuric acid. It 
is produced in con
idl'rable quantitie
 in Canada. I)cI>o
its in the 

Iichipicoten di
tri('t have he('n de:-:eribed hy ".. 11. ('OLLINb (1). 
ßlo
t of thl.;;:e depo=,it::5 hplong to t he iron fonnatioll, ".hich i
 com- 
posed essentially of handed 
ilicn, pyrite, and siderite, or sideritic 
liInestone, arrall
t'd in 
tratiforlll fa
hi()n. 1'hc seg
egations ran
e 
fronl ore c:\rrying ninety per cent of p) rite down to carbonate or 
schi:st sp:lringly iIn:1r('
n:lted 'with pyrite. rrhere are a fe,v slnaller 
bodies of high gr:\de pyrite that do not occur ",ith handed :;ilica or 
siderite, nnd that are thought to he fis
ure-filling
 or replaceluents 
deposits. 
Radium-bearing minerals.-De::'cription
 are given in the 
Canadian 1\Iining Journnl by C. 'V. I

IGHT and It. E. IIoHE of the 
occurrence of pitchblende in the to,vnship of Butt, Xipi

ing di:;;;trict, 
Ontario. The nÜnernl occurs in grail1:S about the :-,ize of peas or larger, 
associated with a n.d fcld:'\par in a pegnlatite dike. 
Road \laterials.
l{eports (1) ,,"ere published in 1919 on inves- 
tigntions nlnde on road nlaterials in 1\Iontreal and vicinity and in 
the vicinity of }{egina by H. GAUTHIER and L. HEI
ECKE respec- 
tiyely. In )Iontreal and yicinity bedrock in the fOfln of dolomite, 
limestone, and igneous rock is utilized in road construction. In the 
yicinity of Regina th(to only materials available are glacial boulders, 
gravels, and :-;ands. 
Salt.-The discovery of the salt beds at ::\Ialagash, Nova Scotia, 
is de:scribed by ...\. O. HAYES (1). In vie,,, of the large amount of salt 
utilized in the fi
h curing industry of the 111aritinle province.;; thi" 
discovery is of economic inlportance. The salt i
 no,,- being mined. 



92 


PHJ:SICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA
VADA 


The deposits are also described by L. H. COLE in the Canadian 

lining Journal. 
Silver.-In a report on the economic geology of Hazelton dis- 
trict, British Columbia, J. J . O'NEILL (1) describes the 
ilver-Iead 
deposits of the Silver Standard, American Boy and other mine3 
north of Bulkley river. The ore conöi8ts of galena, sphalerite and 
tetrahedrite in a siliceous gangue. The vein matter fills fissures in 
tuffs. The annual reports of GEO. CLOTHIER and JOHN D. GALLOWAY 
on northern British Columbia (5) còntain notes of interest to econ- 
omic geologists. 
Tungsten.-G. .L-\' YOUNG (1) describes the wolframite deposits 
that have. been mined to a certain extent on the l\lain Southwest 
l\liramichi river, near t.he mouth of Burnthill brook, N e\v Brunswick. 
The wolframite OCC'lrs in quartz veins cutting argillites near a granite 
intrusion. Traces of tinstone have also been found. If, as seems 
probable, the deposits are connected in origin 'with the granite, then 
occurrences of thiö type of ore deposit may be expected in other 
areas, for a zone of large granite. bodies extends across New Bruns- 
wick from the vicinity of Chaleur bay southwest to the l\Iaine 
boundary. The occurrence of scheelite in a fine-grained, horn- 
blendic rock northwest of Falcon lake, l\Ianitoba, has been described 
by E. L. BRUCE (1). Information regarding the scheelite deposit of 
Hardscrabble- creek, British Columbia, is given by JOHN D. GALLOWAY 
(5), and regarding the scheelite found in the auriferous gravels of 
Dublin gulch, Yukon, by \V. E. COCKFIELD (1). 
Miscellaneous.-As a result of the cutting off of the European 
supply of potash during the ,var the attention of America WU.5 turned 
to the recovery of this element from heretofore neglected sources. 
The dust from Portland cement plants is one of these sources. 
Processes employed in the recovery of potash contained in this dust 
have been described by ALFRED \V. G. \VILSON (2). 
An examination ,vas made by IVI. E. WILSON of the only known 
commercial deposit of kaolin in Canada in 1919 (1). This deposit 
lies in Amherst township, Quebec. The kaolin occurs in fracture 
zone of Grenville quartzite. It is finely disseminated between the 
quartz grains and is found in veins following the planes of fracture 
and movement and in more extensive deposits up to one hundred 
feet in width and several hundred feet in length. 
Pebbles that might be suitable for use in tube mills have been 
described (1) as occurring as a beach deposit on Gabarus bay, Nova 
Scotia. A report by A. LEDOUX (3) on the sand and gravel deposits 
of Ontario ,vas published in 1919. 


SOURCE OF REPOR1S AND ARlICLES REFERRED '10 IN THE TEXT. 
(1) Geological Survey, Ottawa. (2) Mines Branch, Department of Mines, Ottawa. (3) Department 
of Mines, Toronto, Ontario. (4) Mines Branch, Department of Colonization, Mines and Fisheries, 
Quebec. (5) Department of 
Iines, Victoria, B.C. (6) Canadian Mining Institute, Drummond Building, 
Montreal. 



.tRb.\ ."LYD POPlTL.ITIO.V 


93 


I'-.-..\RE.L\ ..\1
I) POP{TL..\TIO:\. 


,Area by Provinces and Territories.-'rahl e t :--ho\\":-- thp total 
area of the I)onlÌnion in lana and ,,-ater and it:' di:-:t rihution into 
provinces and territurie
. 
1.-I
nd and \\atcr \rea of C'anada b)' .-rmlnces and Territories as In 1920. 


Provinces. 


I Land. 


Total 
\\ ater. Lund and 
Water _ 


Prince Ed ward Island.. 
Nova Scotia...... . 
New Brunswick.. . 
Que bee. . . . . . . . . .. .................... 
Ontario. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . 
Saskatchewan..... . . . . . 
Alberta.. . . . . . . . .. . . . 
British Columbia. ........ . . . . 
Yukon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Northwest Territories- 
Franklin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500.000 500,000 
J{eewatin .......... ........ ........ 205.97:
 6.851 212,824 
:MacKenzie.............. ........ ............. 301.953 1 27,447 529,400 
Total.. .. .. ............... ........... 3.603.:
:U;1 126.3291 3,729,665 
'The \vat('l" area i
 cxdu:-iive uf lluù:::;ull bay, Cllgava hay, the ba
. 
of Fundy, the gulf of bt. La,vrence and all othcr tidal ".aters, except- 
ing that portion of t he river St. La\VrenCf' \vhich is het" cen Pointf'- 
de:-;-::\[ont::; and the foot of lake St. l>eter, in Quebec. 
Increase of Popula tion.-According to the corrected returns of 
the fifth Census, the total population on June 1, 1911, ,,-as 7,20H,G-t-3, 
reprp
enting an increa
e of 1,835,32ð since the previou:-, Census of 
April 1, HJOl. For tbe period covered, the rate of increase, viz., 
3-1. 17 p.c., was the largC'st in the world, and was duC' to the heavy tidp 
of in1nligration "which 
et in with the beginning of the pre...ent cC'ntury. 
The countries nexi in order, in re:')pect of the percentage rates of in- 
crease during the ..,ame or ncare'3t corregponding decade, \verc: N e". 
Zealand 30.3, the lTnited btates 21, Auo..:tralia 18, (;ernlany 15.2, 
Holland 14. H, S,,-itzerland 13.2, ])ennlark 12.6, Belgium 10.9, 
Austria g.3, United I
ingdonl 9.1, Hungary 8..), R"reden 7.;), Italy 

nd K onvay ö. 
 and :France 1. ß. Ontario and Quebec continued 
to be the most largely populated of the nine provinces, the forn1er 
having 2,523,274 and the latter 2,00:3,232 inhabitants. K one of 
the other provinces had in 1911 reached half a In ill ion; but Sa
k- 
katche\van had the third largest population ".ith 492.432. All the 
provinces showed an incfl'a:-ie 
incf' 1901. excepting Prince Ed,vard 
Island, ,,-here the population had decrea:;;e(l by 9,531, or 9.23 p.c. 
The Yukon and Xortll\vest Territorie
, ,,-ith relatively sparsp popu- 
lations, sholved decrenses n;oo; compared ".ith 1901. The greate
t 
relative incrense ,vas in the .western provinces, especially in Sask- 
atche,,-an and Alberta. (For tbe results of the quinquennial cenSUd 
of 1916 in the PrairiC' Provinces, f::ee pa
es 10.5-107.) 



q milps. 
q. miles. sq. miles. 
2,1S4 2,184 
21, OtiS 360 21,428 
27,911 74 27,985 
690,865 15,969 706,834 
365,880 41,382 407,262 
231,926 19,906 251,832 
242,8Ub 8,892 251,700 
252, H251 2,360 255,285 
353,416 2,439 355,855 
206,427 649 207,076 



94 


AREA AND POPULATIOlv 


Table 2 sho\ys by provinces and territories the population of 
Canada, as returned at each decennial census from 1871-the first 
taken since Confederation -to the last decennial census of 1911. 
2.-Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in the Census years 1871 to 1911. 


Provinces. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 
Prince Ed ward Island... . . . . . . . . . . . . 94,021 108,891 109,078 103,259 93,728 
Nova Scotia. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387,800 440,572 450,396 459,574 492,338 
New Brunswick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285,594 321,233 321,263 331,120 351,889 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . 1,191,516 1,359,027 1,488,535 1,648,898 2,003,232 
Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1,620,851 1,926,922 2,114,321 2,182,947 2,523,274 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . , . . . . . . . 25,228 62,260 152,506 255,211 455,614 
Saskatchewan....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 91,279 492,432 
Alberta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 73,022 374,663 
British Columbia.. . . . .. " . . . . . . . . .. . 36,247 49,459 98,173 178,657 392,480 
Yukon Territory... . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . - - - 27,219 8,512 
Northwest Territories....... . . . . . . . . 48,000 56,446 98,967 20,129 18,481 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,689,257 4.324,818 4,833,239 5,371,aI5 7,206,643 


3.-Area and Population of Canada in 1911 by Provinces and Districts and 
Population in 1901. 


POPULATION IN 1911. 
Provinces Area Popula- 
and in Per tion in 
Districts. acres. Male. Female. Total. square 1901. 
mile. 
CAN
'DA 2,386,985,395 2 3,821,995 3,381,648 7,206,643 1.93 5,371,315 
Prince Ed ward 93, 728 1 
Island. 1,391' ,991 2 47,069 46,659 42.91 103,259 
Kings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410,355 11 , 598 11,038 22,636 35.31 24,725 
Prince... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498,065 16,551 16,228 32,779 42.12 35,400 
Queens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489,571 18,920 19,393 38,313 50.09 43,134 
Nm"a Scotia. 13,713,920 2 251,019 241,319 492,338 22.98 459,574 
Annapolis........ .. . . . 847,280 9,374 9,207 18,581 14.04 18,842 
Antigonish. . . . . . . . . . . . 355,840 5,915 6,047 11 , 962 21.51 13,617 
Cape Breton N. and 
Victoria. . .. . . . . . . . . 867,264 15,435 14,453 29,888 22.06 24,650 
Cape Breton S....... . 462,016 28,853 24,499 53,352 73.90 35,081 
Colchester. . . . . . . . . . . . 928,640 11, 746 11,918 23,664 16.31 24,900 
Cum berland. . . . . . . . . . 1,077,120 20,708 19,835 40,543 24.09 36, 168 
Digby. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640,000 10,206 9,961 20,167 20.17 20,322 
Gu sborou h......... 1 059840 8 858 8 190 17,048 10.29 18,320 


y g 
NOTE.-The totals of areas for Canada and the provinces and territories arc as measured 
by a planimeter on the map, and em brace land and water, while those for districts are the 
totals of their respective subdistricts, and are land areas only, excepting, as may be indicated 
by footnotes, where large areas are unsurveyed and unoccupied. 
IThe population of the Prairie Provinces, according to the Census of 1916, is given on 
page 105. 2By map measurement. 



.\HE.l .LYD J>OPUL.l TIO.Y 


95 


3.-.\.rea und Population or f..-'8llada In 1911 b). l'rO\ioct
 and Districts and 
l'OI)ulatlon 10 1901 -con. 


})OPULATIO:S IN 1911. 
J)rovinces Area . Popula- 
and in Per tion in 
Districts. acres. 'laIc. Female. Total. sq uare 1901. 
mile. 
.:\0\3 ""icoth -con. 
Halifax City and 
Coun(y. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,3.58,960 0,061 40,1!}ó 80, :?jï l 37.80 74,662 
Rants. . . . . . . ....... 7b6,560 10,016 9,687 19,703 16.03 20,056 
Inverness. . . . . . . . . . . . . 910,600 13,079 12,492 25,571 18.15 24,353 
Kings... . ......... 552,960 10,995 1O,78j 21,780' 25.21 21,937 
Lunenburg. . . .. . . . ... .. 769,280 17,121 16,139 3
, 2601 27.67 32,389 
Pictou. . . . . . ......... 719,360 18,213 17,645 3':>, :-..,').... 31. 90 33,459 
Richmond.... .... . . . . 312,960 6,82h 6,445 13,273' 27.14 13,515 
Shplburne and Queens 1,294,387 12,261 11, 950 24,2111 11. 97 24,428 
Yarmouth. . . . . . . . . . . . 549,604 11,350 11 , 870 23,220 27.04 22.869 
1S"e\\ Uruns1\lck. 11,910.100 1;9, b6ì l 172,O.
2 351,S'9 12.61 331,121 
Carleton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838,78,') 11,034 1 10, 412 1 21,440 16.36 21.621 
Charlotte. .. .. .. . . . . . . 821,376 10,774 1 10,373 21,147 16.48 22,415 
Gloucester.. ..... . . . . . 1,196,67û 16,588. 16,074, 32,662 17.47 27,936 
I{ent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,137,931 12,435 1 11 , 941 24,376 1 13.71 23,958 
Kings and Albert..... 1,345,110 15,470, 14,815 1 30,285 14.41 32,580 
Xorthumberland.... . 3,033,985 16,150 1 15,0-1-1 1 31.194 6.58 28.543 
Restigouche... . . . . . . . 2,092,595 8,434 1 7,253 15, 687 1 4.80 10,586 
St. John City and 
County. . . . . . . . . . . . . 394,163 26, 082 1 27.490 53,572 86.98 51, 759 
Sunbury and Queens.. 1,618,742 8,986 I 8, 130 1 17,116' 6.77 16,906 
Victoria and Mada- 15,OS6 1 
"aska..... . ... ..... 2,153,549 13,136 1 28,222 8.39 21,136 
\Yestmoreland. . . . . . . . 922,993 22,703 21,918 44,62] 30.94 42,060 
'\ ork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,307,367 16,125 15,436 31,56] 8.75 31,620 
Qu('bc('. 22.),19
.561 1,011,502 
91,730' 2,003,232 5.69 1 1,6.jð,898 
.\rgenteuil. . .. . . . . . . . . 50 1,355 8.657' 8,IOPI 16,7G6; 21.43 16,407 
Eagot.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.530 9,135, 9,07J 18,20G 52.60 18,181 
Beauce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.210,266 26, 035 1 25,364 51,399: 27.181 43,129 
Beauharnois. .. . . . . . . . 94,105 10,640 10,162 20,802 1 141.47 21,732 
Bellechasse. .. . . . . . . . . 417,690 10. 63
' 10.509
 21,141 32.39 18,706 
Berthier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,403,359 9, 950 9.9221 19,872 9.06 19.980 
Bonaventure........ . . 2,216,550 14,379 13,7311 28, 1101 8.12 24,495 
Brome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312,422 6,871 6,345 13,216 27.07 13,397 
Cham bly and Ver- 14,3881 
c h è res. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215,680 14,327 28, 715 85.21 24,318 
Champlain.. . . . . . . . . . 6,353,248 23, 293 19,465 1 42, 758 1 4.31 32.015 
Charlevoix. . . . . . . . . . . 1,455,034 10.649 9.988 20.637 9.08 19,334 
Châteauguay. . . . . . . . . Ib9,779 6,647 6,675, 13, 322 1 50.22 13,583 
Chicoutimi and 
Saguenay. . . . .. . . . . . 87,795,034 32,729, 30,612 63,341 0.46 48,291 
Compton. . . . . . . . . . . . . 920.U
ß 15,655 13,975; 29,630 20.59 26,460 
Dorchester. . . . . . . . . . . G02,624 12,930 12,166, 25,OU6 1 26.65 21,007 
Drummond and Ar- 
thabaska. . . . . . . . . . . 766,607 21,233 '>0 3--- 41,5UO 34.72 38.999 
- . OJ'I 
Gaspè. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,912,941 18,195 16,806 35,001' 7.69 30,683 
Hochelaga....... . 1,784 36,707 38,342 1 75,049 1 26,918.58 56,919 
Huntingdon. . .. .. .. . 231,200 6,707 6,533 13,240' 36.65 13,979 
Jacques-Cartier. . . . . . . 73 ,bO
 32,737 32,286 1 ('5,0231 563.86 26,168 
Joliette. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1,928,640 11 . 841 12,070 23,911 7.93 22,255 
Kamouraska... .. .... 664,006 10,619 10,269 20,888 20.13 19,099 
Labelle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,456,052 21,131 19, 220j 40,351 10.52 32.901 
Laprairie and N spier- 
ville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.2
8 9,93i 9,398 19,335 60.57 19,633 
L' Assomption......... 157,b54 7,577 7, 587 1 15.164 1 61.48 13,995 
La val. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95,287 15,370 14,607 '>9 9--- 201. 34 19,743 
- , " 
Lèvis 13 106.351 26 210 


173,977 


14.3191 


14, 594 


28,9 


IBy map measurement- 



96 


AREA. AJ.lD POPULATIOJ.Y 


3.-Area and Population of Canada in 1911 by Provinces and Districts and 
Population in 1901-con. 


Provinces 
and 
Districts. 


Quebec-con. 
L'Islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Lotbinière..... . . . . . . . 
Maisonneuve........ . . 
Maskinongè. . . . . . . . . . . 
Mègantic. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Missisquoi. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Montcalna.... ....... 
Montmagny. . . . . . . . . . 
Montnaorency. . . . . . . . . 
Montreal-Ste. Anne.. . 
Montreal-St. Antoine. 
Montreal-St. Jacques. 
Montreal-St. Laurent. 
Montreal-Ste. Marie. . 
Nicolet...... . . . . . . . . . 
Pontiac. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Portneuf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quebec Centre........ 
Quebec East.......... 
Quebec West......... . 
Quebec County. . . . . . . 
Richelieu. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Richnaond and 'V oUe. 
Rimouski. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rouville............. . 
St. Hyacinthe........ 
St. John and lberville 
Shefford........ . . . . . . 
Sherbrooke. . . . . . . . . . . 
Soulanges. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stanstead. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Tènaiscouata. . . . . . . . . . 
Terrebonne. . . .. ..... 
Three Rivers and St. 
Maurice. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Two Mountains...... . 
Vaudreuil. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
W righ t. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 
Yamaska. . . . . . . . .-. . . . 
Quebec, unorganized. . 


Ontario. 
Algonaa E. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Algoma W....... . . . . . 
Brant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Brantford. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Brockville. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bruce N.... . . . . . . . . . . 
Bruce S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Carleton........ . . . . . . 
Dufferin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dundas........ . . . . . . . 
Durham. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Elgin E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Elgin W.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Essex N.... . . . . . . . . . . 
Essex S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Frontenac........... . 
Glengarry. . . . . . . . . . . . 


IBy map naeasurenaent. 


Area 
in 
acres. 


494,596 
464,895 
6,388 
1,881,600 
499,304 
240,140 
2,698,120 
403,286 
1,367,654 
829 
1,062 
438 
544 
621 
400,690 
12,747,098 
952,832 
824 
594 
503 
1,746,239 
141,602 
783,565 
3,574,468 
155,505 
177,671 
257,934 
363,008 
152,064 
87,111 
276,786 
1,155,961 
500,366 
1,643,552 
178,725 
128,414 
1,553,711 
233,578 


166,951,636 1 
31,433,370 
14,248,389 
213,905 
55,592 
175,919 
608,608 
447,655 
416,558 
356,248 
245,199 
402.549 
232,014 
228,849 
153,133 
299,222 
1,021,380 
305,660 


POPULATION IN 1911. 
Popula- 
Per tion in 
Female. Total. sq uare 1901. 
mile. 
7,897 16,435 21.27 14,439 
11,014 22,158 30.50 20,039 
85,401 170,978 17,265.27 65, 178 
8,244 16,509 5.62 15,813 
14,875 31,314 40.14 23,878 
8,573 17,466 46.55 17,339 
6,796 13,862 3.30 13,001 
8,627 17,356 27.54 14,757 
6,609 13,215 6.18 12,311 
10,274 21,676 16,738.22 23, 368 
24,929 48,638 29,317.66 47,653 
22,029 44,057 64,410.82 42,618 
28,223 55,860 65,717.65 48,808 
27,628 54,910 56,608.25 40,631 
14,978 30,055 48.01 27,209 
13,782 29,416 1.48 25,722 
15,193 30,529 20.51 27, 159 
12,141 21,663 16,793.02 20,366 
24,972 47,429 51,108.83 39,325 
5,248 9,618 12,236.64 9, 149 
12,986 25,844 9.48 22,101 
10,354 20, 686 93 50 19,518 
19,261 39,491 32.26 34,137 
24,999 51,490 9.22 40, 157 
6,522 13,131 54.12 13,407 
11, 709 22,342 80.48 21,543 
10,820 21,882 54.29 20,679 
11,831 23,976 42.27 23,628 
11 , 563 23,211 97.69 18,426 
4,760 9,400 69.06 9,928 
10,464 20,765 48.03 18,998 
17,780 36,430 20.17 29, 185 
14,426 29,018 37.12 26,816 
17,950 36,153 14.08 29,311 
6,866 13,868 49.66 14,438 
5,454 11 , 039 55.02 10,445 
23,561 48,332 19.91 42,830 
9,706 19,511 53.46 20,564 
734 2,066 - 2,405 
1,2
3,984 2,523,214 9.61 2,182,941 
15,690 44,628 0.91 25,211 
10,804 28,752 1.29 17,894 
9,524 19,259 57.62 18,273 
12,867 26,617 306.44 19,867 
9,541 18,531 67.42 18,721 
11,617 23,783 25.00 27,424 
12,965 26,249 37.53 31,596 
13,644 28,406 43.64 24,380 
8,511 17,740 31.87 21,036 
9,117 18,165 47 .43 19,757 
12,794 26, 411 42.00 27,570 
8,595 17,597 48.54 17,901 
13,246 26,715 74.72 25,685 
18,509 38,006 158.84 28,789 
14,471 29, 541 1 63.18 29,955 
10,452 21,944 13.75 24,746 
10 51 21 2"9
 44.51 22 131 


Male. 


8,538 
11,144 
85,577 
8,265 
16,439 
8,893 
7,066 
8,729 
6,606 
11,402 
23,709 
22,028 
27,637 
27,282 
15,077 
15,634 
15,336 
9,522 
22,457 
4,370 
12,858 
10,332 
20,230 
26,491 
6,609 
10, 633 
11 , 062 
12,145 
11,648 
4,640 
10,301 
18,650 
14,592 
18,203 
7,002 
5,585 
24,771 
9,805 
1,332 
1,299,290 
28,938 
17,948 
9,735 
13,750 
8,990 
12,166 
13,284 
14,762 
9,229 
9,048 
13,617 
9,002 
13,469 
19,4<)7 
15,070 
11,492 
10,608 


.6 


, i) 




lRE
l ...1..\ /) POPUL.t r/o.v 


97 


3.
 \rt
a and POludafion of ('anad:I In 1911 b)' PrO\illr('
 and DistrIcts and 
('opulation in 1901 -con. 


}>OP"LLATION IN 1911. 
!>rovinCl>S .\rca Popula- 
and in I"('r tion in 
Districts. acres. 
Ialc. Fcmall' . Total. Fquaro 1901. 
mill'. 
Ontario- -COD. 
Grcnvillc..... . . . . . . . . 2D6,209 8,479 9,OtJ6 17,545 37.91 21,021 
Gr('y E.. . . ... . . . . . . . . 440,356 10, 1451 9, 505 1 19,W0 1 28.57 23,663 
Gre) X.............. 2S6, 7
4 13,778 13,213 26,9Ul 60.23 24,874 
(; r(')' S.... . . . . . . . . . . . 365,(
85 9,725' 9,525, 19,250 33.67 21,053 
Haldimanrl......... . . 313,203 11 ,04'> 10,517 21, 562 44.18 21,233 
H "hon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232,120 11 , ':>35 10,673 22,208 61.23 19,545 
Hamilton F.. . . . . . . . . 1,724 20,!}SD 18,804 :W,7f13 14,792.94 24,000 
Hamilton W...... . . . . 2,266 18,644 18,635 37,279 1,053.08 28,634 
Hastings E. .. . . . . . . . . 826,504 13,075 11 , 903 24,978 19.34 27,943 
Hastings W. . . . . . . . . . . 660,20'> 15,437 15,388 30,825 29.89 31, 348 
H uron I
... . . . .. . . . . . . 274,073 8,OflO 8,199 16,2ð9 3S.04 19,227 
H UTon :-:;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2!IS,.;35 9,764 9,744 HJ, 508 41.82 22,881 
Huron \\'.. . . . . . . . . . . . 256,455 8,452 8,734 17 , 186 42.88 19,712 
I\:ent E... ... . . . . . . . . . 2G.),33û 12,137 11,561 23,098 57.16 25,328 
Kent \r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321,96
 16,414 15,883 32,297 64.21 31,8b6 
Kin

ton.. . . . . . .. . . . . 2,266 9,82':> 10,835 20,660 5,836.16 19,788 
I.umhton E........... 3':>1,140 11,267 10,956 22,223 40.51 26,919 
l..a.rnhton \'".. . . . . . . 3(j.
,363 14, 901 14,208 29, 109 50.58 29,723 
Lanark 
..... . . - . .. . 362,641 7, 018 7,606 14, 624 25.82 17,236 
Lanar k S. . .. . . . , . . . 36.3,6G6 9,904 9,847 19,751 34.57 19,996 
L('ed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399.876 9,157 9, 065 18,222 29.14 19,254 
Lf'nnox and Addington 748,654 10,131 10,25:>1 20,386 17.42 23,346 
Lincoln. . . . . . . . 212,739 17,902 17, 527 1 35,429 106.58 30,5:>2 
London. . .. ... 4,2':>2 21,901 24,399 46,300 6,962.41 ð7,Ð76 
:\liddlescx E...... .. . . 264,71
 10,666 1 10,14 20,814 50.32 20,228 
'lidùlesex X......... . 27!),33:. 7,011 6,726 13,737 31.47 16,419 
"iddk
x W......... 242,99-1 8, 16-1, 8,0.30 16,214 42.70 18,079 
'I usloka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,014,650 11, 204 1 10, 029 21 , 233 13.39 20,971 
X ipissing. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,206,767 43,284, 30,846 7",130 2.35 28,309 
Xorfolk.. . . . . .. . . . .. . 405,927 13,702 13,40
, 27, 110 42.74 29,147 
X orthum berland E.. . 2h0,737 10,307 9,620' 19,927, 45.44 20,4U5 
Xorthumbcrland Woo. 170,007 6,356 6,609 12,96J 1 48.80 13,055 
Ontario N..... . . . . . .. 323,086 8,797 8,344 17,141 33.95 18,390 
Ontario S....... . . . . . . 222,523 12,263 11,602 23,8651 68.64 22,018 
Ottawa City.......... 3,043 34,790 38,403 73,193 1 15,396.21 57,640 
Oxford X....... . . . . . . 262,756 12,691 12,386 25,077 61.08 25, 644 
Oxford Boo........ . . . . 226,554 11 , 355 10,939' 22,29
 62.98 22,760 
Parry Sound....... . , . 2,514,109 14,480 12, 087 1 26,5471 6.76 24,936 
l)cel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299,849 11 , 644 10,458 22,102 47.1b 21,475 
Pprth 
.............. 275,051 15, 2.n' 14,994' 30,235, 70.35 29,256 
Perth S. .. . . . .. . . . . . . 262,281 9, 6771 9,270 18,947 1 46.23 20,615 
Peterborough E. . . . . . 570,479 8,028 7,471 15,4!)
 17.39 16,291 
Peterborough W...... 354,437 12,936 13,215 26,151 47.23 20,704 
l>rescot t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316,344 13, 669 1 13,299 26,968 54.56 27,035 
Prin('c Edward... . .. . 249,S53 8,44
 8,702 17,150 43.93 17,864 
Renfrew N... . . . . . . . . 676,99R 12,0!nl 11 , 526 23,617 22.32 24,556 
Renfrew S...... . . . . . . 1,052,770 14,20Ð 13,643 27,852 16.93 27,676 
Russell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447,152 20,lðR' 19,246 39,434 56.44 35,166 
Simcoe E... . . .. . . . . . . 338,805 18' 324 1 16,970 35,294 66.67 29,845 
Simcoe X.. . . . . . . . . . . 367,917 12,664 12,035, 24,699 42.96 26,071 
Simcoe S.... . . . . . . . . . 357,508 12,621 12,439 25,060 44.86 26,399 
Stormont....... . . . .. . 263.890 12, 273 1 12, 502 1 24,775 1 60.10 27,042 
Thunder Bay and 
Rainy River........ 46,450,167 42,293 24,956 1 67,249 0.93 28,987 
Toronto Centre...... . 651 27,550 25,575 53, 125 52,083.33 43,861 
Toronto E...... . . . . . . 2,198 33,888 35,024 68,912 20,090.97 40,194 
Toronto X........ . . . . I,R67 24,499 31,970 56,469 19,338.70 40,886 
Toronto S............ 2,917 24,312, 19,644 43,956 9,639.47 38, 108 
Toronto \".... . . . . . . . . 3,144 51, 5
)31 53,698 105,291 21,444.20 44,991 
Victoria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,813,908 19, 06.Q 17, 431, 36,4U9, 12.89 38, 511 
Waterloo X........ . .. 174,849 16,616' 17,003 33,619 123.06 27,124 


18427-7 



98 


AREA AND POPULATION 


3.-Area and Population of Canada in 1911 by Provinces and Districts and 
Population in lool-concluded. 


POPULATION IN 1911. 
Provinces Area Popula- 
and in Per tion in 
Districts. acres. Male. Female. Total. square 1901. 
mile. 
Ontario-con. 
aterloo S. . . . . . . . . . . 155,271 14,475 14,513 28,988 119.47 25,470 
eHand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247,849 22,272 19,891 42,163 108.87 31,588 
ellington N... . . . . . . 371,496 11 ,366 10,926 22,292 38.40 26, 120 
ellington Soo.... . . . . 280,882 16,265 15,935 32,200 75.36 29,526 
entworth.......... . 289,257 17,724 16,910 34,634 76.63 26,818 
ork Centre. . . . . . . . . . 213,586 13,827 12,221 26,048 78.05 21,505 
ork N.............. 275,554 11,456 10,959 22,415 52.05 22,419 
ork S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69,745 34,703 33,315 68,018 624.13 20,699 
Manitoba. 47,188,298 1 258,056 205,558 455,614 6.18 255,211 
rand on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,864,902 2 22, 127 17,607 39,734 13.64 25,047 
.auphin. . . . . . . . . . . . 13,193,249 2 24,384 19,616 44,000 2.14 22,631 
sgar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,093,197 2 12,304 11,197 23,501 13.76 24,736 
acdonald. . . . . . . . . . . 2,392,612 2 19,984 15,857 35,841 9.59 23,866 
arquette....... . . . . . 3,333,889 2 18,829 14,769 33,598 6.45 20,431 
rtage la Prairie.... . 1,754,456 2 15,565 12,385 27,950 10.20 23,483 
'ovencher. . . . . . . . . . . 3,610,628 2 21,732 18,961 40,693 7.21 24,434 
lkirk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,444,17J2 28,879 24,212 53,091 2.97 24,021 
uris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,469,244 2 16,142 12,907 29,049 7.53 24,222 
innipeg City........ 12,750 70, 11 0 58,047 128,157 6,432.94 42,340 
Saskatchewan. 161,088,000 291,730 200,702 492,432 1.95 91,279 
ssiniboia. . . . . . . . . . . . 4,803,514 24,619 17,937 42,556 5.67 9,332 
attleford. . . . . . . . . . . . 34,889,994 28,734 18,341 47,075 0.86 6,171 
umboldt... . . . .. . . . . 7.489,8692 30,405 21,790 52,195 4.45 2,166 
ackenzie. . . . . . . . . . . . 5,404,839 2 22,204 18,354 40,558 4.80 13,537 
oosejaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,664,196 2 55,101 32,624 87,725 2.59 5,761 
rince Albert...... . . . 66,087,803 2 20,847 15,472 36,319 0.35 12,795 
u'Appelle.. . . ....... 3,429,965 2 20,053 15,5E5 35,608 6.64 17, 178 
egina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,075,695 2 44,478 26,078 70,556 8.90 7,703 
ltcoats.. .. . . . .. .. . 2,687,635 2 16,019 12,676 28,695 6.83 9,479 
skatoon.. . . . .. . . .. .. .. 4,230,970 2 29,270 21,875 51 , 145 7.74 7,157 
Alberta. 163,382.400 1 223,989 150,67
 374,663 1.17 73,022 
algary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,671,520 2 36,991 23,511 60,502 10.55 8,362 
dmonton...... . . . . . . 78,034,886 2 34,567 22,478 57,045 0.46 12,823 
ac Leod. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,020,634 2 20,516 13,988 34,504 3.66 7,
56 
edicine Hat. . . . . . . . . 16,396,476 2 43,724 26,882 70,606 2.75 10,804 
ed Deer. . . . . . . . . . . . 13,977,487 2 37,085 24,287 61,372 2.81 10,314 
rathcona. . . . . . . . . . . 6,880,155 2 28,536 20,937 49,473 4.62 12,345 
i ctoria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,890,843 2 22,570 18,591 41,161 0.71 10,518 
ritish Columbia. 227,747,200 1 251,619 140,861 392,480 1.09 178,657 
omox-AtIin......... . 91,680,886 2 30,969 11, 294 42,263 0.30 21,457' 
ootenay. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,290,420 2 33,974 16,798 50,772 1.88 31,962 
anaimo. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,738,880 2 20,124 11,698 31,822 11.71 22,293 
ew Westminster... . . 3,100,480 2 35,906 19,773 55,679 11.50 23,976 
ancouver City. . ... . . 417,280 2 74,390 49,512 123,902 190.03 28,895 
.ctoria City. . . . . . . . . 1,894 2 19,089 12,571 31,660 10,695.95 20,919 
ale and Cariboo...:. 111,956,530 2 37,167 19,215 56,382 0.32 . 29, 155 
Yukon. 132,528,640 1 6,508 2,004 8,512 0.041 27,219 
N. W. Territories. 1,229,878,400 1 9,346 9,135 18,481 0.010 20,129 


w 
w 
W 
"\V 
W 
Y 
Y 
Y 


B 
D 
Ll 
M 
M 
Po 
PI 
Se 
So 
W 


A 
B 
H 
M 
M 
P 
Q 
R 
Sa 
Sa 


C 
E 
:M 
M 
R 
St 
V 
n 
C 
K 
N 
N 
V 
VJ 
Y 


lBy map measurement. 


2Totalland area. 



IJUPULA TION 


!,!} 


4.-I'oIndatioll of {,Ult,
 and To" liS ha\ln
 oU'r 5 9 000 illlmbitants In 1911, 
COIl1I)ítrt'd "lth lSì1-St-91-t901. 
XOTE.-The cities and to\\ns in which a Board of Traùe exists are indicated by an asterisk. 
(.). In aU cases the population is for the city or town municipality as it existed in 1911. 
Xo allo'\\unce is made for subsequent annexations. 


Citie8 and Towns. 


Provinc('s. 


.I\[ontrea1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qu('bec............. . 
.Toronto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Ontario....... . . . . . . 
.\\ïnnipeg. . . . .. . . . . . . . ... Manitoba...... 
.V ancouver. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. British Colum bin... . 
.Otta'\\ß........ .. ... . ... . Ontario...... ... 
.llamilton................ " .. ........ 
.(
uebec...... . . . .. Quebec....... 
*Halifax. .. .. Kova Scotia. ...... . 
.London.... .. . .. Ontario..... 
.Calgn.ry.. . . . . . . .. Alberta...... . . . . . . . 
.
t.John....... ...... Ne" Brunswick..... 
*\'ictoria. ... _......... . British Columbia... 
*Uegina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
askatchewan....... 
*Edmonton....... . . . . . . .. Alberta............. 
*Brantford. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Ontario........ . . . . . 
J\: ingston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Iaisonneuve......... . . . . , Quebec. . . .. .. . . . . .. 
. Peterborough. . .. .. . . . . .. Ontario........... . . 
*Hull....... . . . . . . . . . . . . ,Quebec. . ..... .. .. 
.Windsor........ ..... Ontario............. 
*Svdnev........ . . .. Nova Scotia.... . . . . 
.Glace Ha v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . 
.Fort 'YilÜam.. . . . . . . . . .. Ontario....... . . . . . . 
*Sherbrooke...... . . . . . . .. Quebec......... . . . . 
*1\::itchener.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Ontario....... . . . . . . 
Guelph............. ... u ............ 
W('stmount.... . . .. . . . ... Quebec......... . . . . 

t. Thoma:i. . . . . . . . .. . . . Ontario..... . . . . . . . . 
""Brandon....... . . . .. . . . .. Manitoha........... 
.
loo::;eja\\......... .. . . . .. Sa
katche\\ an....... 
Three H.ivers...... . . . . . . Qu('h('c.. .. . . . . . . . .. 
*
ew Wt.'stminster........ British Columbia... 

tratford.... . . . . . . . . .. Ontario......... . . .. 
.( )\\'en Sound.... . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Catharines...... .. . " . .. . . .. . 
*Saskatoon.... . . . . . . . . .. . 8askatchewan.. .. 
Verdun..... . . . . .. . . . . . (-luebec.. .. . . . 
· 
Ioncton ........... ... K ew Bruns" ick.. . 
.Port Arthur... _.... . Ontario..... . 
*Charlotteto\\ n. . . . .' . . . .. P. E. Island. 
*Sault Ste. Marie... . . . . .. Ontario..... . .. .... 
*Chatham. . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
.Lachine.. . .. Quebec... .. . . . . . . . . 
*Galt. . . . .. . . . . . . Ontario..... . . . . . . . . 
.Sarnia. . :. .'. . ........ " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
* BellC'ville. . . . . . . . . .. .... " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
*8t. Hyacinthe... . . . . Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . 
*Valleyfield....... " 
*Brockville............ . Ontario...... 
*W oodstock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 
*
îagara Falls. . . .. .. . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
*Amherst. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. Kova Scotia.... . .. . 
*SorcL... . . . . . . . . . .. .... Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . 
*Nanimo................. British Columbia... 
.
orth Vancouver...... . . " 
*Lethbridge.... . . . . . . . . .. Alberta............. 
*Xorth Bay... . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario... . . . . . . .. .. 
*St. Boniface... . . . . . . . , .. Manitoba........... 
Sydney Mines.. . . . . . . . .. Xova Scotia.... . . . . 
1
2'i-7i 


1871. 


1881. 


115,000 155,238 
5V,OOO 96,IU6 
241 7,9b.3 


24,141 
26,S'\0 
5
t,6
9 
29,
2 
18,000 
41,3:!5 
3,270 


8.107 
12,407 
4,611 
3,ROO 
4,253 


4,432 
2,743 
6,878 
200 
2,197 


7,570 
4,313 
3,369 
7,864 


600 
8,807 
879 
5.873 
1,696 
3,827 
2,929 
7,305 
3,746 
1,800 
5,102 
3,982 


5,636 


31,307 
36,661 
6
,446 
36,100 
26,266 
41,353 
5,925 


9.616 
14,091 
6,812 
6,H90 
6,5bl 
1,4
0 


7,227 
4,054 
9,890 
884 
8,367 


8,670 
1,500 
8,239 
4,426 
9,631 


5,032 
11,485 
780 
7,873 
2,406 
5,187 
3,874 
9,516 
5,321 
3,906 
7,609 
5,373 
2,347 
2,274 
5,791 
1,645 


1,283 
2,340 


POPULATION. 


1891. 


219,616 
1
1,215 
25,63U 
13,709 
44,154 
4
,9.J9 
63,090 
38,437 
31,977 
3,876 
39,179 
16,841 


12,753 
19,263 
9,717 
11,264 
10,322 
2.427 
2,45!) 


10,110 
7,425 
10,537 
3,076 
10,366 
3,778 
8,334 
6,678 
9,500 
7,497 
9,170 
296 
8,762 


11,373 
2,414 
9,052 
3,761 
7,535 
6,692 
9,916 
7,016 
5,515 
8,791 
8,612 
3,349 
3,781 
6,669 
4,595 


1,553 
2,442 


1901. 


267,730 
2U8,040 
4:!.340 
27,010 
5U,928 
52,634 
68,840 
40,832 
37,976 
4,392 
40,711 
20,019 
2,249 
2,626 
16,619 
17,961 
3,958 
11 ,239 
13,993 
12,153 
9,0!/9 
6,945 
3,633 
11,765 
9,747 
11 ,496 
8,856 
11 ,485 
5,620 
1,,558 
9,981 
6,499 
9,959 
8,776 
9,946 
113 
1,898 
9,026 
3,214 
12,080 
7,169 
9,068 
5,561 
7,866 
8,176 
9,117 
9,210 
11,055 
8.940 
8,833 
5,702 
4,964 
7,057 
6,130 
2,072 
2,530 
2,019 
3,191 


1911. 


470,4
0 
376,538 
136,035 
100,401 
87,062 
81.96!) 
78,710 
46,619 
46.300 
43,704 
42,511 
31,660 
30,213 
24,900 
23,132 
18,874 
18,684 
18,360 
18,222 
17,829 
17,723 
16,562 
16,4!W 
16,405 
15,196 
15,175 
14,579 
14,054 
13,839 
13,823 
13,691 
13,199 
12,946 
12,558 
12,484 
12.004 
11,629 
11,345 
11 ,220 
11. HI8 
]Q,984 
to,770 
10,699 
1O,2ù9 
9,947 
9,876 
9,797 
9,449 
9,374 
9,320 
9,248 
8,973 
8,420 
8,306 
8,196 
8,050 
7,737 
7,483 
7,470 



100 



4REA Al'tt"'D POPULATION 


4.-Populatlon of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 Inhabitants in 1911, 
compared with 1871-81-91-1901-concluded. 


, 
POPULATION. 
Cities and Towns. Provinces. 
1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 
Lévis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quebec............ . 6,691 7,597 7,301 7,783 7,452 
*Oshawa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario..... . . . . . . . . 3,185 3,992 4,066 4,394 7,436 
*Thetford Mines...... . . . . Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 3,256 7,261 
*Fredericton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Brunswick.. . . . 6,006 2,218 6,502 7,117 7,208 
*Collingwood. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario.... . . . . . . . . . 2,829 4,445 4,939 5,755 7,090 
* Lindsay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 4,049 5,080 6,081 7,003 6,964 
. . .. 
 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 
*Orillia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1,322 2,911 4,752 4,907 6,828 
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 
*FraserviHe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quebec.. .. . . . . . . . . . 1,541 2,291 4,175 4,569 6,774 
*Yarmouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nova Scotia........ 2,500 3,485 6,089 6,430 6,600 
*Cornwall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario. . .. . . . . . . . . . 2,033 4,468 6,805 6,704 6,598 
*Barrie..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 3,398 4,854 5,550 5,949 6,420 
...................... .. 
*New Glasgow........... Nova Scotia. . . . . . . . - 2,595 3,776 4,447 6,383 
*Smiths Falls. . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario.... . . . . . . . . . 1,150 2,087 3,864 5,155 6,370 
*Joliette..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,047 3,268 3,347 4,220 6,346 
*Prince Albert...... . . . . . . Saskatchewan...... . - - - 1,785 6,254 
*Kenora........... . .., ... Ontario.... . . . . . . . . . - - 1,806 5,202 6,158 
*Truro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nova Scotia........ - 3,461 5,102 5,993 6,107 
*St. Johns.... . . . . . . . . . . . . Quebec............ . 3,022 4,314 4,722 4,030 5,903 
*Portage la Prairie........ Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . - - 3,363 3,901 5,892 
*Chicoutimi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quebec....... ...... 1,393 1,935 2,277 3,B26 5,880 
*Spring Hill. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Nova Scotia........ - 900 4,813 5,178 5,713 
*Cobalt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - 5,638 
Pembroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1,508 2,820 4,401 5,156 5,626 
...................... .. 
*Medicine Hat............ Alberta. . . . .. . . . . . . . - - - 1,570 5,608 
*Strathcona.............. " - - - 1,550 5,579 
.................... .... 
* North Sydney... . .. . . . . . Nova Scotia. . . . . . . . - 1,520 2,513 4,646 5,418 
North Toronto.......... Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 1,852 5,362 
*Welland.............. ... " 1,110 1,870 2,035 1 ,863 5,318 
...................... .. 
*Port Hope....... ........ " 5,114 5,581 5,042 4,188 5,092 
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 
*Co bourg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 4,442 4,957 4,829 4,239 5,074 
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 
*Dartmouth....... . . . . . . . Nova Scotia. . . . . . . . - 3,786 6,252 4,806 5,058 


5.-Urban Population of Canada divided by Size of Municipality Groups, 1901 and 
1911. 


1901. 1911. 
In Cities and Towns Num- Per cent. of Num- Per cent. of 
of ber Popula- ber Popula- 
of tion. Urban Total of tion. Urban Total 
Places. Pop. Pop. Places. Pop. Pop. 
- - 
Over 400,000...... . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - 1 470,480 14.34 6.53 
Between 
300,000 and 400,000....... . . - - - - 1 376,538 11.48 5.22 
200,000 and 300,000. . . . . . . . . 2 475,770 23.53 B.86 - - - - 
100,000 and 200,000...... . . . - - - - 2 236,436 7.21 3.28 
50,000 and 100,000....... . . 3 181,402 8.97 3.38 3 247,741 7.55 3.44 
25,000 and 50,000. .. .. . . . . 5 188,869 9.34 3.52 6 241,007 7.35 3.34 
15,000 and 25,000......... 3 55,499 2.75 1.03 13 237,551 7.24 3.30 
10,000 and 15,000. . . . . . .. . 8 95,266 4.71 1.77 18 221,322 6.74 3.07 
5,000 and 10,000...... .. . 37 275,919 13.65 5.14 46 323,056 9.B5 4.48 
3,000 and 5,000. . . . . . . . . 50 190,789 9.44 3.55 60 226,212 6.89 3.14 
1,000 and 3,000........ . 187 320,433 15.B5 5.97 251 429,553 13.09 5.97 
500 and 1,000.. . . . .. . . 179 130,238 6.44 2.42 247 180,784 5.51 2.51 
Under 500... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 107,614 5.32 2.00 - 90,284 2.75 1.25 
- 
Total. . . .. .... . . . . . . . - 2,021,799 1 100 .00 37.64 - 3,280,964 100.00 45.53 
I 



}IOPl:L 1 T IO.\T 


101 


I. It ural .uul rr')all .)oludatloll of ('anada In 1901 and 1911 b) Pro\1u('('s. and 
In('r('a
f' (+) or dt'crea
" (-) In the decadt". 


(anada ........./ 


I NcnE.
RE 
l'OPULATION 1901. POPULATION 1911. OR 
DECREASE. 
Rural. Urban. Rura1. rrbu.n. Rural. rrbull. 
88,304 14,935 7
,758 14,970 - 9,546 + 15 
3
0, 191 1
9,383 306,210 IS6,128 - 23,981 + 56,745 

53, "3.') 77,

.') 25:?,
4
 !t9,547 - 1,49
 + 

,262 
9! t 2,61j7 656,231 I,O:

,61R 970,614 + 3!},951 +314,383 
1,246,
69 935,978 I,HJ4,7s.') 1,3:?S,4R9 - 52,IR4 +392,511 
1
-1,73h 70,473 255,249 200,36,5 + 70,511 +129,fm
 
73,729 17,550 361,01j7 131,36:> + :?
7 ,3
R +113,81.1 
52,:J!I!J 20,62:J 232,726 141,037 +180,327 + 121,314 


,478 90,17!t 18R,79H 203,6S4 + 100,318 + 113,505 
Ih,077 0,142 4,647 3,
65 - 13,430 - 5,277 

0,129 - 18,4"1 - - 1,648 - 
3,:U9.516 j 2.'21,;9' 13,92.),6;9 3:''\0,961 + 5;6,1 '3 1 +1,") 9.165 


Pro\'inc('s. 


Prince Ed"ard Island. 
l' ova Scotia. .... 
Kc\\ Bruns\\ ick. 
Qu('h('('. . . . . . . 
Ont',rio. 

Ianitoba. ... 

a:-;kutdH'wan........ . 

\lb('rta. . . " ..... . 
Britil"h ('olumbia ........ 
\P ukon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
:Xorthwcst T('rritorics.... 


i.-Uural and t rban I)opulatlon of ('anada br .)rmlnrrs and 
('trs, 1911. 


M.UF:;. 


1'
EMALE8. 


I Rural. 


LXC'CS!õ' 
of 
C'rban. Total. Huml H.um!. 
ov('r 
rrban. 


Excpss 
of 
{rhan. Total. Rural 
over 
Urban. 


Provinces. I 


Prince.Ed ward 
I
land... . 40, 19
1 6,877 1 47,069, 33,31.') 38,566 1 8,093 46,G59 30,473 
Xova Scotia... 157,87
 1 93,141 251,019 64,737 148,332 92,987 241,319 1 ' 55,345 
:\cw Brum;o... 
wick..... 131,599 1 48,2(}
, 179,8G7 83,331 120,74J 51,279 172,022 69,464 
(Jucbcc.. ..' 533,117 478,385,1,0II.?,02 54, ?32 499,501 492,229 991,730 7,272 
Ontario...... .. 63U,850 659,440 1 1,299, _90 -19,.,90 554,935 669,049 1,223, flS4'-114 , 114 

lanitoba...... 141,912 108,144, 250,056 33,768 113,337 92,221 205,5.18 1 21,116 

askatchewan. 212,522 79,20b l 291,730 133,314 148,545 52,157 200,7021 96,388 
Alh('rta....... 140,781 83'200 [ 223,989 57,573 91,945 58,729 150,674 33,216 
British I 
Columbia. 128,242 123,377 251.619 4,865 60,554 80,307 140,861 -19,753 


::::
:: ,2.1;::ll.
:]3.
::: 
ã::::ll' 7
:

 l'ã98'::: 1 3'
::: 1 
::: 
I 
 I I I 


1\ OTE.- The sign minus (-) denotes a decrea
e. 


Sex Ratios.-The male population of Canada ,vas returned in 
1911 as 3,b21,993 and the fpn1ule as 3,3S4,64S; so that the excess 
of male
 over females is 437,347-an excess percentage of 13-or 
of 130 male
 per 1,000 female
. Re('iprocally the number of f('males 
})('r 1,000 nudes is bbG, the deficiency of fen1ale::; as compared .with 
Inalé
 being probably greater in Canada than in any other country. 



102 


AREA A!{Ð POPULATION 


Amongst other countries showing a similar female deficiency per 
1,000 males are Ceylon (888), the Dominion of New Zealand (896), 
the Commonwealth of Australia (926), the Union of South Africa 
(941), the United States (943) and India (953). Excepting India 
and Ceylon, where female infanticide has prevailed, the countries 
named are new, and the proportions are affected by immigration 
in \vhich the male element predominates. In England and 'Vales 
the number of females per 1,000 males was 1,068 both in 1911 and 
1901, and only Norway sho\vs a greater proportion, viz., 1,069. 
In other European countries the number of females per 1,000 males 
is: Scotland, 1,063, Denmark, 1,061, S\veden, 1,046, Italy 1,037, 
Austria 1,036, France 1,035, S-witzerland 1,031, Germany 1,026, 
Holland 1,021, Hungary 1,019, Belgium 1,017 and Ireland 1,004. 
The proportions by provinces in Canada are sho,vn in Table 8 
for the two census years 1901 and 1911. For the latter year the 
nU1l1ber of females per 1,000 males for each province was: British 
Columbia 5tJO, Alberta 673, Saskatchewan 688, 1Vianitoba 822, 
Ontario 942, New Brunswick 956, Nova Scotia 961, Quebec 980 and 
Prince Edward Island 991. It ,viII be seen that the disparity is 
especially marked in the western provinces. 
The situation with regard to sex ratios in the western provinces. 
as it existed in 1911, may be stated in an even more significant way. 
The reproductive period of human life is usually considered in the 
case of females at least, to lie bet,veen the ages of 15 to 50-or 15 
to 49 inclusive. "\Vhere there is an enormous difference between the 
numbers of the sexes at these ages, there can hardly be a satisfactory 
normal crude birth-rate per 1,000 of population. Further, such a 
disproportion between the sexes involves grave moral risks. Table 
9 shows that the disparity between the two sexes at these ages in 
the western provinces was considerably greater than in the total 
population. For each 1,000 males of these ages there 'v ere in lVlani- 
toba in 1911 only 723 females, in Saskatchewan 539, in Alberta 534 and 
in British Columbia only 423. In the comparatively small population 
of the Yukon, there \vere in the same'year only 232 females to every 
1,000 males of these ages. 
Table 10 shows the percentage proportion of females to males 
in the rural and urban divisions of the population, re::;pectively, for 
the census year 1911. Amongst the rural population the felnale 
element is in defect for Canada by 16.48 p.c., but amongst the urban 
population it is so by only 5.05 p.c. The defect is most marked in the 
\vestern provinces. In the urban population, in t,vo out of the three 
l\1aritime Provinces, in Quebec and in Ontario, there is actually 
an excess of the female population, such excess being as high as 17.68 
p.c. in Prince Edward Island. But in the west the female deficiency 
is again apparent, though (except as regards Saskatchewan) not to 
the same extent as in the rural population. 



POl'ULATIO^- 


lOJ 


8.- Population of ('anada b) 
t'W!\., 1901 and 1911. 


1901. 1911. 
Excess Excc-ss 

lales. Females. of 
Iales. Females. of 
'Iales. 
rnles. 
51,959 51 ,300 659 47,069 46,659 410 
233,642 225,932 7,710 251,019 241,319 9,700 
IG8,639 162,481 6,158 179,867 172,022 7,845 
824,454 824,444 10 I,U11,502 991,730 19,772 
1,096,640 I,US6,307 10,333 1,2!1!1,2UO 1,223,984 75,306 
138,504 116,707 21,7H7 2.30,056 205,558 44,498 
49.431 41,848 7,5S3 291,730 200,702 91,028 
41,019 32,003 9,016 223,9
U 150,674 73,315 
114,160 64,497 49,663 251,619 140,861 110.758 
23,Ob4 4,135 18,949 6,.30
 2,004 4,504 
10,176 9,953 223 9,346 9,135 211 
I" "'-1 -U 2 bl9 (,07 13t,t8t .1 I'\t 1 9:'" J,.

' b.J
 4:S. ,.HI 
.....,. Ô) , 
 


Provinces. 


Prince I:d ward hland. . . 
l'ova Scotia....... . 
Xl"\ Brum
,\ick. ............. 
Qup 1)('(' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Untario........ . . . . . . .. . .. . . 

lanitoba...... . . . . . . . ... . . . . 
f'a....katche\\
Ln............ . 
Alberta... ... .. . . . . . . 
Hriti
h Columbia... .......... 
\ u kon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Xorth,\('st Territories........ 


l'allada ............. 


XU
IBER or FE
HLE8 PER 1,000 ,
IALES. 


Provinces. 


1901. 1911. 


.. 


Princ(' Ed ,\ anI Island... . . . . . . . !J
7 

 ova Scotia.. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 967 

ew Bruns\\ick................ 963 
Qupbec.................. ....1,000 
Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990 

Ianitoba..... . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .. 843 


Provinces. 


1901. HH 1. 


991 
961 
956 
9S0 
942 
822 


Sa
katche\\nn....... . 
AlbC'rta.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
British Columhia.... 
\- ukon. . ... . .. ........ 
North"est Territories......... . 


847 68S 
7S0 673 
5ß5 560 
179 308 
fl78 977 


Canada.................. !'a'
 SS6 


1.- PopuJation of Canada bt'hu'ell tlu' ag('s of 1.
 and 49, Indushe, by Sex, 
Ct'nsus of 1911. 


Provinces. 


Prince Ed ward Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

 ova Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

e\\' Bruns,\ick......................... ..... 
Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
() n tari o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

rani to ha.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Saskatche'\-an..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Alberta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
British Columbia........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yukon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Xorth\\cst Territories............... ......... .. .. 


Canada.... . 


Females 
I Males. Females. pC'r 
1,000 :\Iales. 
16,542 16.987 1,026.9 
97,158 90,661 933.1 
67,385 64,836 962.2 
3R3,725 373,012 972.1 
583,90-1 537,064 919.8 
121,404 87,749 722.8 
155,833 83,975 538.8 
121,750 64 ,977 533.7 
161,130 69 ,011 428.3 
4,588 1,070 232.
 
2.877 2,903 1,009.ü 
1,71&,296 1,392,2-15 811.2 



104 


AREA A^
D POPULATION 


10.-Ratio of Females to Males in Rural and Urban Divisions, 1911. 


Provinces. 


Rural. L rban. 


Provinces. 


Rural. 'Crban. 


p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. 
Prince Ed ward Island. . . . . 95.95 117.68 Saskatchewan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.90 65.85 
N ova Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.95 99,84 Alberta..... . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . 65.31 70.58 
New Brunswick........... 91.75 106.24 British Columbia... . . . . . . . 47.22 65.00 
Quebec.......... .. .. ...... 93.69 102.89 Yukon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.35 34.48 
Ontario... . . .. .... .. . ..... 86.73 101.46 Northwest Territories... . . . 97.74 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.86 85.28 
Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83.52 94.95 


11.-Conjugal Condition of the people of C'anada, classified as single, married, 
widowed, divorced, legally separated and not given, by Pro\'inces, Census of 1911. 


MALES. 
Provinces. 
Legally 
Single. Married. Widow- Divorc- separ- Not Total. 
ed. ed. sted. given. 
Prince Ed ward Island 30,216 15,266 1,513 7 5 62 47,069 
Nova Scotia......... 156,643 86,277 6,891 38 37 1,133 251,019 
New Brunswick...... 113,015 61,131 4,978 51 40 652 179,867 
Quebec.............. . 637,113 342,933 26,064 134 401 4,857 1,011,502 
Ontario.... . . . . . . . . . . 762,330 492,650 33,564 189 539 10,018 1,299,290 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . . 160,159 83,987 3,926 50 50 1,884 250,056 
Saskatchewan....... . 192,352 90,765 4,291 85 82 4,155 291,730 
Al berta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147,587 70,706 3,385 106 53 2,152 223,989 
British Columbia.. . . 160,218 83,096 4,079 145 70 4,011 251,619 
yukon.............. . 4,672 1,623 169 31 7 6 6,508 
N'. W. Territories. . . . 5,461 3,419 294 3 2 167 9,346 
Canada........ 2,369,766 1,331,853 89,151 839 1,286 29,097 3,821,995 


FEMALES. 
Provinces. Legally 
Single. Married. 'Vidow- Divorc- separ- Not Tot al. 
ed. ed. ated. given. 
PrinceEd ward Island 28,162 15,138 3,279 8 10 62 46,659 
Nova Scotia......... 139,958 84,008 16,440 36 55 822 241,319 
New Brunswick. . . . . . 101,288 60,069 10,380 37 42 206 172,022 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . 608,366 334,564 46,658 169 511 1,462 991,730 
Ontario... . . . . 672,923 468,186 78,407 227 693 3,548 1,223,984 
Manitoba. . . .. . 118,669 78,751 7,260 38 82 758 205,558 
Saskatchewan....... . 112,387 82,189 5,556 34 55 481 200,702 
Alberta.... . . . . . . . . . . 83,026 62,710 4,509 37 60 332 150,674 
British Columbia.... 71 ,585 61,359 6,178 87 69 1,583 140,861 
Yukon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 1,012 135 18 4 1 2,004 
N. 'V. Territories.... 4,688 3,482 854 - 3 108 9,135 
Canada. . . . . . . . . . . 1,9-11,886 1,251,468 179,656 691 1,58-1 9,363 3,38-1,648 



POPULA7 ' /01Y 


105 


l-ort..LATIOX 0..' Tilt: PIt.\IRlt: PItOYIX('ES. 
TIll' r'cnsus anù 
tatÜ;tic8 .Act, 1 
}O.), providC'd for the taking 
of a ('('n
u
 of population and agriculture in :\lanitoba, 
a
katcIH'\vall 
and _\lherta in 190U and in cv('ry tenth year thereafter, thus in
ti- 
tuting, in connection ,,,ith the general c.1l'cennial cpnsus for all Canada, 
a quinquennial censu:-\ of population and a
riculture for the thr('{' 
Prairie Provincl's. 'I'he quinquennial c('n::,us of ::\Ianitoba, 
a8kat- 
che" an and .Alberta \vas therefore taken as for June 1, 191U, and 
the cOlllpl('te result:::. \,"prc publi
hed in a lleport dated January 12, 
191h. A. 
unlnlar) of the principal data. \va
 publi
hcd in the 'Year 
Book for 1918, pa
(.s 103-112. 
Total Population of Prairic Provinc
s.-The male and 
femalc population of :\[anitoha, 8uskatche,van and \lhcrta (a) by 
provincc
 ; (b) hy the cll'ctoral di,.-t ri('t
 ('on
titut ('d hy the l{<.'pre- 
sl'ntation 
\(.t, 1Ul-l (4-'> Ceo. Y, c. 31); nlHl (c) by citie:-;, to\vns and 
villa
e
, as eOIIlpart,d "ith the population hy sex for lUll and hy 
totah; for 1001 and lUOti, was publi:..;hp(l in the Year Book of 191U-17 
(pp. U.')-10,")). 'rhe total population of the three Prairie Pruvincl'
 in 
lU 1.H \va:, returned. a
 1,l)f)
,220, cOlllpared with 1,:32b,72;,) in lU 11, 
SOS,Sö3 in lUOG and 419,.') 1
 in HUH. 1
hus the popula.tion in the 
thrc{\ province
 ha:-. increascd hy 1,27ð,70S, or :
O:) p:('., 
ince the 
heginning of the t'pntuf}: hy g89,
;)7, or 110 p.c., during the lfif't 
tl'n years; and hy 3G<),10.>, or 28 p.c. during the five years ended 
1 H 1G. T'a hlf\ 12 8ho,,':) the population of the J>rairic Province
 for 
1UOl, 100G, Inl1 and 101G, thc population being distin
ui:;h('ù by 

('x for 1911 and 191(.>' 


12.-Populatlon of the Prairie 1.rO\lnct'
, 1911, 1986 1911 and 1916. 


i lUUI. Ivu6. HHI 1916 
Provinces. 
! Total. Total. 'Iales. Felllale
 Total. Males. Femalf's Total. 
'Ianitoba..... . . . 255,211 365,688 2.
3,056 208,574 461,630 294,609 259,251 553,860 
Saskatche\\an. 91,2;9. 237,763 2!J 1,730 200,70
 492,432 363,7871 284,04"1 64 7,835 
Al berta. . , . . . . . . 73,022, It\5 41') 223,989 150,67-1 374,6631 277,256 219,269, 496,525 
, "I 
TotaJ. . . . . . .1 419,51
 h9S,S6:
1 ;6
,;75 559,950 1,328,725, 935,652 762,56
1 1,698,220 
I I I 


Population by Sex.-TaLle 13 give
 the population by sex 
frolll 1870 for 
Ianitoha find from 1901 for 
askatche'Yan and Alberta, 
\vith absolute and relative cOll1pari
ons. For the thrce province
 as 
a ".hole, males increased by 1 03. Ü p.c. and female'5 by 79.8 p.c. from 
1901 to IHOG. At the end of the ne'\.t five years (1911) the ratio of 
increase for both sexe
 ,,'as nearly equal, being 64. 

 p.c. for males 
and 63.4-1 p.c. for females, "Therea
 in the last C(\n
us (1916) females 
sho,ved, for the three proyinccs as a \yhole, an increase of 202,ûI8, as 
against 16ü,877 for lllales, being a gain in five year
 of 36. 10 p.c. 
for the former, as C'olnpared \vith 21.71 p.c. for the latter. The 
records of 191G 8ho". that this feature of population increa::;e \vas 
conlmon to each of the three province:-.. The increa
e per cent in 



106 


A.REA AND POPULATION 


Alberta was: females 45.53; males 23.78; Saskatchewan, females 
41.52, males 24.70; l\1anitoba, females 24.30, males 16.42. As a 
result of this greater proportionate increase of females the total 
number of females per 1,000 males increased between 1911 and 
1916 from 822 to 880 in Manitoba, from 688 to 781 in Saskatchewan 
and from 673 to 791 in Alberta-a fact which is all the more signifi- 
cant because the census of 1916 was taken on the de jure basis, all 
soldiers from the three provinces known to be living on June 1, 1916, 
being enumerated. Similarly, the number of females of ages 15 
to 49 inclusive per 1,000 males of these ages increased between 1911 
and 1916 from 723 to 845 in 1\1anitoba, from 539 to 686 in Saskatch- 
e,van, and from 534 to 720 in Alberta. 
Population of Principal Cities.-Table 14 gives the population 
of the cities of the Prairie Provinces for 1901, 1906, 
91/1 and 1916, 
with distinction by sex for 1911 and 1916. \Vinnipeg remains the 
only city in the Prairie Provinces that has a population exceeding 
100,000, and this city has gro,vn from 136,035 in 1911 to 163,000 in 
19 \6. Two cities have, however, risen to the category exceeding 
50,000, viz., Calgary and Edmonton in Alberta. In 1916 Calgary 
is shown to have 56,514 inhabitants, as compared with"' 43,704 in 
1911, and Edmonton 53,846, as compared ,vith 30,479 in 1911. In 
the case of Bdmonton, however, the increased population includes 
Strathcona, no,v forming part of the city of Edmonton South. Two 
cities exceed 20,000, viz., Regina, 26,127, and Saskatoon, 21,048. 
The former has receded from a population of 30,213 in 1911, and the 
latter has increased from 12,004 in 1911. Of the remaining twelve 
cities, three exceed 10,000, viz., Iviooseja,v, in Saskatchewan, with 
16,934; Brandon, l\1anitoba, ,vith 15,215; and St. Boniface, Manitoba, 
with 11,021. 


13.-Population of Prairie Produces by Sex at each Census Period from 1878 for 
l\lanitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta. 


POPULATION. INCREASE OVER PRECEDING CENSUS. 
Provinces 
and Years. Males. Females Total. Males. Females. Total. 
. - 
No. No. No. No. p.c. No. p.c. No. p.c. 
Manitoba- 
1870. . . . . . . . . . . . 6,317 5,911 12,228 - - - - - - 
1881. . . . .. . . . . . . 35,123 27,137 62,260 28,806 456.01 21,226 359.10 50,032 409. 16 
1886........... . 59,594 49,046 108,640 24,471 69.67 21,909 80.73 46,380 74.49 
1891. . . . . . . . . . . . 84,342 68,164 152,506 24,748 41.53 19, 118 38.98 43,866 40.37 
1896........... . 1 1 193,425 - - - - 40,919 26.83 
19012...... . . . . . . 138,504 116,767 255,211 54,162 64.22 48,543 71.22 102,705 67.34 
1906..... . 205 , 183 160,505 365,688 66,679 48.14 43,798 37.53 110,477 43.29 
1911......... . 253,056 208,574 461,630 47,873 23.33 48,069 29.95 95,942 26.23 
1916......... . 294,609 259,251 553,860 41,553 16.42 50,677 24.30 92,230 19.98 
Saskatchewan- 
1901........ .... 49,431 41,848 91, 279 - - - - - - 
1906....... . . . 152,791 104,972 257,763 103 , 360 209. 10 63,124 150-84 166,484 182.39 
1911....... . . . 291,730 200,702 492,432 138,939 90.93 95,730 91.20 234,669 91.05 
1916........... . 363,787 284,048 647,835 72,057 24.70 83,346 41.52 155,403 31.5 


1 In lSg6 the Census consisted of a count of population only. 
2 Ten-year increase shown. 



r 11' \ L S1'A 1'1 ðT ICS 


107 


13.-IJolntlation of Ilralrlt' l"'O\hU't'!'J b) 
t'\ at eal'l1 {'t'USUS perIod from 184'0 for 
:\1.u1itoba and froll1 1901 for 
asht't('he"all aud ..\Iberta -concluded. 


PoP\. L_\TlO
. 


I
CREASE OVER PUECEDINO Cn'
BU!
 


Provinces 
and '\ ('ara. 


1\1 alps. Females Total. 


)1 ales. 


Females. 


Total. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


p.c. No. 


p.c. No. 


p.c. 


Albprta- 
lUOI. 
It/Uû.. . 
lUll. .. 
lU16....... 


41 ,019 32,00
 73,022 
108,283 77,12!) 1
5,412 67,264163.9b 45,126141.00 112,390153.91 
223,989 1:J0,674 374,663 115,70û 106.86 73,545 95.35 IS
,251102.07 
277,2':>6 219,269 496,525 53,267 23.78 68,595 45.53 121,8û2 32.53 
2
S 'l,;;J I !IO, 5;;
 419 ,512 
466,2.')7 342,ü(J() 8/).
,8G3 237,
03 103.64 152,04
 79.79 3R9,351 92.81 
7fiS,77.') 5.')U, Uj(),1.3
S,7
:J 
02 ,51
 64.8S 217,3.14 1 ü:J.44 519,8{)
 64.27 

35,6-2 762.56
ll,I)!}8,22rI166,877 21.71 202,618 36.U'i 369,4U5 27.81 


Prairie Pro\"in("c::i- 
1 HOl. . 
1906. . . . . . . . . . . . 
I!Hl. 
H.I16 . 


u.- l:it)" IJopulatloll of th(" IJrairlt. IJrO\iu(,t'S, 1901, 1906, 1911 and 1916. 


I 1901. 1906. 1911. 1916. 
Pro, inces. I 
, Total. Total. :\Ialcs. Females Total. 
Iales. Femalcs Total. 
1\Ianitoba- 
Brandon. . . . . . . . . . . 5,(j
lJ 10,408 7,362 6,477 13,839 7, (i!J7 7,518 15,21.5 
Portage' la Prairie. 3,901 .') , 106 3,118 2,774 5,8!I2 2,!l78 2,901 5,879 
St. Boniface... . - - . 2,019 5,lIU 4,02!} 3,454 7,4S3 5,4S8 5,5:J3 11 ,021 
\\ innipcg.. . . . . . . . . . 42,340 UO,153 74,406 61,629 136,035 82,227 80,773 163,000 
. 
Saskatchewan- 

Ioospjaw. . . . 1 ,5.3
 6,24!J 8,964 4,
!) 13,823 9,007 7,927 16,934 
X orth Battleford - 824 1 ,25R 847 2,105 1,679 1 ,466 3,145 
Prince .\lbcrt... . _ _ 1,7S5 3,005 3,727 2,527 6,254 3,397 3,039 6,43ú 
Hf'gina.... . . . . .. . . 2,24U 6,lW 1!),767 10 ,446 30,213 13,655 12,472 26,127 

a!-h.atoon. . . . . . . 113 3,011 7,217 4,í87 12,004 10,719 10,329 21 ,04h 
S" ift Current..... . 121 554 1,096 756 1,852 1,&1 1,500 3,181 
'Yeyburn..... . . . 113 966 1,302 908 2,210 1,574 1,476 3,050 
Aloe'rta- 
Calgary _ . . . . . . . 4,392 13,573 26,565 17,139 43,704 2!),278 27,236 56,514 
Edmonton........ . 4,176 14,088 17,054 13,4:!5 30,479 27,462 26,384 53,84e 
Lethbridge....... . 2,072 2,313 4.462 3,588 8,050 4,R96 4,540 9,436 

Ipdi('ine Hat..... . 1,570 3,020 3,207 2,401 5,608 4,781 4,491 9,272 
Red Deer...... . . . 323 1,41H 1,213 !J05 2, 118 1,127 1,076 2,203 
Wetaskiwin....... . 550 1,652 1,264 1,147 2,411 1,047 1,001 2,048 


\ ITAL ST
\ TISTICS. 
The vital statistic
 here published sho"r only births, marriage:::, 
df'ath:-" exc('
=-, of hirths over deaths, and crude birth, marriage and 
death rate
 for the eigbt province;:) collecting such statistics from 
1911 to the latest availahle year, also for the citie:-t in these provinces. 

everal inlportant cOll:-,ideratiollS Rhould be borne in mind by 
those ,vho use the
e t
tbl('." or the provinci
ll reports from ,vhich these 
tables are compiled, for conlparative purposc
. 
In .the first place the hirth, ma.rriage and death rates given are 
based upon e;-;tiInated and not upon actually enumerated popu- 
lation
. 'Yhen the re,ults of the Census of 1921 are published, the 


. 



108 


AREA AND POPULATIOlv 


rates here given will undoubtedly, in the case of some of the provinces 
at least, require considerable revision. In a new country like Canada, 
where people move readily from place to place and from province to 
province, it is almost impossible to secure accurate information con- 
cerning the fluctuations of population, especially when so long a 
period has elapsed since the last census. 
Secondly, in spite of considerable improvements recently effected, 
registration generally, and the registration of births in particular, 
is not universally carried out in most of the provinces. The great 
extent of the country, and the isolation of many of its inhabitants, 
partly account for this unsatisfactory situation. 
Finally, the great differences in the age and sex di::;tribution 
of the population in different provinces make comparisons (of birth 
rates, for instance), as among the provinces, unfair and misleading. 
Thu::5, for instance, in British Columbia in 1911, there \vere only 428 
females of ages 15 to 49 to every 1,000 males of these ages, while 
in Quebec there were 972 and in Prince Edward Island 1027. (See 
table 9, p. 103). Evidently in view of the enormous disproportion 
bet\veen the sexes in British Columbia, the crude birth rate per 1,000 
of population in that province could not properly be compared with 
the crude birth rate in Quebec or Princp Edward I
land. Again, 
in consequence of different age distributions of population in the 
different province::;-the Prairie Provinces, for instance, have a very 
young population because of the healthy young immigrants \vhom 
they attract-a comparison of crude death-rates of the provinces 
is misleading. In the Prairie Provinces, taken as a unit, only 126 
per thousand of the 1911 population and 137 per thousand of the 
1916 population had passed 45 years of age, \vhile in Quebec 176, 
in Ontario 218 and in Prince Edward Island 249 per thousand of 
the population were in 1911 over 45 years of age. These latter 
provinces, having a much larger number of persons of advanced 
ages, will inevitably have a higher crude death rate per thousand 
of population than the Prairie Provinces, but this does not at all 
prove the superior healthfulness of the climate of the Northwest, nor 
would it justify insurance companies in charging lo\ver premium 
rates in the Western provinces. 
The results of the census of 1921, \vith regard to age and sex 
distribution of population, as ,veIl as improving registration and the 
earlier and more accurate compilation of vital st.atistic::5 made possible 
under the ne\v arrangement bet\veen the Dominion and the Provinces, 
,vill, it is hoped, enable corrected birth and death rates, capable 
of comparison [1S among the Provinces, to be secured in the com- 
paratively near future. 
Vital Statistics by Provinces.-Table 15 sho\vs by provinces 
(N ew Brunswick excepted) the number of births, marriages and 
deaths in each of the years 1911 to 1919 C\vhere possible), according 
to the latest returns of the provincial registrars. Using the census 
figues of population for 1911, and estimates of the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics for the years 1912 to 1919 (the census figures of 1916 
for the three Prairie Provinces), crude birth, marriage, and death 



rlTAL STATISTICS 


lO
 


ratcs per 1,000 of the population have been calculated for each year 
fig ,yell tl:5 the exec":; of birt h
 oypr dea t h
. For }>rinl'c ]
(hvarù Island 
no data for the year 1912 arc availahle. 1"'hc fi
un's by provincc
 
in thi
 tahle are not 
tri('t1y corn parable, o,ving to the div('r
ity of 
practice ,vbich at pre
('nt prevails ns b('t" eell the different provincial 
r(\gi:-ìtrar
. Xoi only is the 
tati:-ìticnl year not unifonl1 for all the 
provinces, hut there is no uniforIllity in the praeticc as regards the 
inclu
ion or exclu:-\ion of still-births. rrhus, in X ova 
cotia, Quebec 
and Ontario still-births are elirllina ted froll} the ealcula tion:5; in Prince 
E(hvard I
lnnd, ho" ('v('r, :lnd in the Prairie Provinces anù British 
Colulnbia they are induùpd, and for the8C provinces the numbers 
of 
till-births, ,yhieh are too :-\1l1all to aff('ct nlat('rially thp hirth-and 
death-nlte
 c-:llculated, arp given in :! note at the foot of thc tahle. 
V'ital Statistics of Cities.-Tahle 16 record4S the nUlubcr of 
births, Inarriagf's anù dp:! t h
 hy prinrip:ll eities for the ypa rs 1 9 13 
to 1919 (whprc po::--
ihle), in ('ontinuation of thp tahle
 v;iveI1 in prev- 
vious e(lition
. In thi..: table the natural increa
 pcr 1,000 of the 
population i
 based upon thp locally pstÏInnted population in :tll 
ca
('
 "ere gIven. 
15.- 
lImb('r or JUrth
. )Jarrla
s and Dcath
. by Prmlncrs, 1911-1919. 


Provincr-s. 


, I I Mnr- I I Excess 
I Birth- ria
('" Df'ath- of 
I Births. ratr- Pf'r 
Iar- rate ppr IJ<oaths. rate pf'r Births 
I 1 ,UOO riagf's. 1,000 1,000 over 
living. living. living. Deaths 
1,497 15.97 470 5.01 1, 114 11.89 383 
(not pu b Iished in HH2.) 
1,62
 17.37 47t. 5.10 9\{3 10.49 645 
1.511 16.12 544 5.80 1,012 10.80 499 
1,743 lR.59 530 5.65 1 , 0'\5 11.57 658 
1,59b 17.04 534 5.6f1 I,OS4 11.57 514 
1,389 14.82 4
8 5.21 940 10.03 444 
1,297 13.84 510 5.44 1,059 11.30 238 
1.027 10.93 574 6.11 748 7.96 279 
12,322 25.03 3,004 6.10 8,237 16.73 4,0&5 
12, 681 25. 52 1 2.937 5.91 7, 126 14.34 5,555 
12,553 25.22 3,259 6.55 7,225 14.52 5,328 
12,771 25.46 3,643 7.26 7,527 15.01 5,244 
13,171 26.0ð 3.384 6.70 7,675 15.20 5,496 
12,770 25.12 3,726 7.33 8,052 15.84 4,718 
12,382 24.19 3,421 6.68 7,583 14.
2 4,799 
U,421 24.11 3,611 7.01 9,125 17.71 3,296 
12,508 24.11 3,585 1 6.91 9,200 17_73 3,308 
74,475 37.18 15,254 7.61 35 ,904 17.92 38,571 
76,647 37.53 16, 055 1 7.86 32,980 16.15 43,667 
79,089 37.70 17,253 8.13 36,200 17.33 42 ,889 
80, 361 1 38.00 16,1211 7.62 36,002 17.02 44,359 
I 83,274 38.64 15,437 7.16 35,933 16.67 47,341 
80, 327 1 37.93 16,643 7.58 38,206 17.39 42,121 
80,381 35.90 16,936 7.56 35,501 15.86 44,880 
84.f>691 37.00 12.975 5.68 48,902 21.42 35,767 
80.081 34.42 21,590 9.::8 35,170 15.12 44,911 
56,O!Jb 22.23 25 ,807 10.23 31,878 12.63 24,218 
58,870 23.001 28,845 11.27 32, 150 12.56 26,720 
64,516 24.001 26,998 10.00 34,317 12.70 30,199 
66,225 24.21 24,245 9.22 32,440 12.35 33,785 
67,032 25.15 23,506 8.82. 33,294 12.49 33,738 


P. E. Island 1 ...... ... . .. . 1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


Nova Scotia... .... .. . . . .1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
Quebec. .. ...... . .. . . . . . .1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


Ontario.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 


. 



110 


AREA AND POPULA TI01{ 


15.-Number of Births, l\larriages and Deaths, by Provinces, 1911-1919-concluded. 


Birth- Mar- Excess 
Provinces. Births. rate per Mar- riage- Death- of 
1,000 riages. rate per Deaths. rate per Births 
living. 1,000 1,000 over 
living. living. Deaths. 
ntario-concludel.. ... .1916 65,264 24.14 23,401 8.66 35,580 13.16 29, 684 
1917 62,666 22.85 21,499 7.84 33,284 12.14 29,382 
1918 64,729 23.12 19,525 6.97 43,038 15.37 21,691 
1919 62,774 22,20 26,328 9.33 34,010 12.06 28,764 
anitoba 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1911 13,407 29.43 5,177 11.36 5,481 12.03 7,926 
1912 14,666 30.32 6,095 12.60 6,084 12.58 8,582 
1913 16,424 36.34 5 ,985 13.24 5,919 13.10 10 ,505 
1914 17,449 33.50 5,667 10.88 5,617 10.78 11 , 832 
1915 17,832 33.57 5,064 9.53 5,379 10.12 12,853 
1916 17,645 33.85 5,455 10.46 5,141 9.86 12,504 
1917 14,743 25.77 4,049 7.08 5,125 8.96 9,618 
1918 15,317 25.74 3,743 6.29 6,937 11.66 8,380 
1919 15,091 24.38 5 , 378 8.69 6,584 10.64 8,507 
askatchewan 1 .......... .1911 8,745 17.76 3,511 7.13 2,727 5.54 6,018 
1912 11 ,479 20.24 4,651 8.20 3,567 6.29 7,912 
1913 13,200 20.94 4,990 7.92 4,150 6.58 9,050 
1914 16,489 22.83 5,014 6.94 3,950 5.47 12,529 
1915 17,528 29.10 4,581 7.61 4,023 6.68 13,505 
1916 19,243 29.70 5,062 7.81 5,061 7.81 14,"182 
1917 20,332 28 .43 5,105 7.14 5,319 7.44 15 , 357 
1918 21,686 29.08 4,591 6.24 9,782 13.30 11 ,904 
1919 .. 
I berta 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1911 8,813 23.52 3,630 9.69 3,618 9.69 5 , 195 
1912 10,284 23.60 4,429 10.16 4,232 9.71 6,052 
1913 11,871 24.34 5,053 10.36 4,432 9.09 7,439 
1914 13, 685 24.25 4,623 8.19 4,147 7.35 9,538 
1915 13,452 27.36 4,202 8.55 3,588 7.30 9,864 
1916 13,331 26.85 4,230 8.52 4,058 8.17 9,273 
1917 13,576 26.00 4,270 8.12 4,047 7.75 9,529 
1918 14,890 26.88 4,040 7.29 7,924 14.30 6.966 
1919 14, 130 24.03 4,718 8.02 5,507 9.37 8,623 
ritish Columbia 1 ....... .1911 5,841 14.88 4,509 11.49 3,660 9,32 2,181 
1912 8,008 18.85 5,235 12,33 4,313 10.15 3,695 
1913 9,199 18,58 5,012 10.12 4,619 9.33 4,580 
1914 8,754 17.93 4,296 8.80 3,974 8.14 4,780 
1915 8,558 16.22 3,393 6.43 3,832 7.26 4,726 
1916 7,475 13.12 3, 169 5.56 3,887 6.82 3,588 
1917 6,994 13.36 2,861 4.65 3,896 6.33 3,098 
1918-19 5 9,010 20.46 2,829 6.42 6,696 15.21 2,314 
1919-20 6 10,002 18.87 4,650 8.77 4,888 9.22 5,114 
-ukon..... . . . . . . . . . . ... .1911 48 5.64 41 4.82 87 10.22 -39 
1912 612 7.17 48 5.64 58 6.81 3 
1914 3 66 7.75 41 4.82 50 5.87 16 
1915 51 5.99 39 4.58 74 8.69 -23 
1916 48 5.64 38 4.46 82 9.63 -34 
1917 4 32 3.76 15 1. 76 57 6.70 -25 
1918 51 5.99 10 1.18 55 6.46 -4 
1919 2 46 5.11 8 0.90 57 6.33 -11 


o 


M 


S 


A 


B 


1: 


llncluding still-births as follows: P. E. Island, 4 in 1911, 1 in 1913, 3 in 1914, 12 in 1915, 
10 in 1916,4 in 1917; Manitoba, 243 in 1911, 316 in 1912; Saskatchewan 48 in 1911, 170 in 1912, 
134 in 1913, 182 in 1914, 251 in 1915, 285 in 1916; Alberta 160 in 1911, 230 in 1912, 250 in 1913 
(in 1914, 1915, 1916 and 1917, 315,307,305 and 325 stilI births are excluded); British Columbia 
191 in 1911, 240 in 1912, 279 in 1913, 235 in 1914, 246 in 1915, 201 in 1916, 175 in 1917, 188 in 191R- 
19, 270 in 1919-20; Yukon 3 in 1914, 2 in 1916, 1 in 1917. In Manitoba in 1913 and 1914 stiJI- 
births are excluded. 2Incomplete. 311 months. 49 months. 6July I, to June 30. 



V/7'..lL STA TIS TICS 


III 


Ib.-:\ IImb('r of ßirths, 'Iarrla ('S an(1 Dt'aths, by Principal Cltit's, 1913-1919. 


Ci ties. 


I Year. 


P. E. Island- I 
Chnrlotteto" n.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
19H1 


X ova Scotia- 
Halifax... ........ 


1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
19th 
1919 
Sydney.... . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1913 
HH4 
1915 
1916 
1917 
HUS 
1919 


Glace Bn;y. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .... 1913 
1914 
1915 
/ 1916 
1917 
1918 
1 1919 
QUf' bee-- 

lontrcal. .. . . . . .. 1913 
1914 
I nH5 
I 1916 
1917 
I 1918 
.. ..ll!ì13 
1914 
: 1915 
1916 
HH7 
, 1918 
.1 1913 
r 1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 


Qu(>b('c. 


)Jaisonneuve. .. . _ . . 


Sht>rbrooke... . . . . . . 1913 
1914 
1915 
: 1917 
i 1918 


I I Excess Natural 
of I nc rease 
Popula- Births. Mar- Deaths. Birt hs p('r 1,000 
tion. riagcs. ov('r of Popu- 
Dea.ths. lation. 
not 
- 183 glv('n 12
 55 - 
- 46 " 188 - - 
12,000 197 2 " 253 - 
- 
12,000 401 " 251 150 12.50 
12,000 285 " 259 26 2.17 
12,000 227 " 311 - 84 - 7.00 
14,000 203 " 231 - 28 - 2.00 
- 1,402 " 912 490 - 
47, IOU 1,464 " 1,031 4J3 9'19 
55,000 1,492 " 1,12S 364 6.62 
50,000 1,614' " 1 , 103 511 10.22 
50,000 1,600 " !JUI 609 12.18 
50,000 1,465 " gQgl 476 9.52 
55,000 1,595 " 1,330 265 4.82 
- (HI " 368 273 - 
17,9!J6 544 " 349 195 10.
4 
IS,33
 588 " 246 342 18.65 
18,527 5')'" " 338 189 10.20 
_t 
18,527 618 " 335 2R3 15.28 
18,987 626 " 330 296 18.59 
HI,oeo 5lil " 4SS 73 3.83 
- 455 " 276 179 - 
16,741 531 " 271 260 15.53 
16,975 52& " 294 234 13.78 
17,142 436 " 269 167 9.74 
17,142 384 cc 280 104 6.07 
17,297 371 " 216 155 8.96 
17,366 38) " 312 m.l 3.97 
- 20,490 6,280 12,299 8,191 - 
- 20,
86 5,781 11,721 8,665 - 
- 20,6f12 4,603 10, flS8 9,704 - 
575,000 19,759 5 , 190 11,119 8,640 15.03 
590,000 19,664 5,306 11 , 394 8,270 14.00 
6GO, 000 20,373 4,757 1.j,340 5,033 7.0ß 
- 3,096 638 1,668 1,428 - 
- 3,136 612 1 , 784 1,352 - 
- 3,417 679 2,145 1,272 - 
fl3,000 3,688 727 2,226 1,462 15.7 
103 ,000 3,514 769 1,858 1,656 16.08 
lC3. COO 3,811 548 2,253 1,538 15.13 
- 835 2 147 2 403 - - 
- 743 2 131 2 460 - - 
- 768 2 107 402 - - 
33,OGO 855 192 383 472 - 
30,000 1,010 183 296 714 23.80 
- 704 2 137 2 337 - - 
- 673 2 107 2 374 - - 
- 650 2 151 2 299 - - 
- 785 193 2 407 378 - 
- 728 - 690 38 


2" 


1 Omitting 1,635 deaths, persons who lost their lives in Halifax disaster, Dec. 6, 1917
 
2 Incomplete. 



112 


A.REA AND POPULATION 


16.-Number of Births, Marriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, 1913-1919-con. 


o 


Excess Natural 
of Increase 
Cities Year. Popula- Births Mar- Deaths Births per 1,000 
tion riages over of Popu- 
Deaths Iation 
uebec-con. 
Hull. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 655 2 124 204 - - 
1914 - 879 2 137 2 211 - - 
1915 - 1,140 2 - 182 - - 
1917 - 1,010 - 281 729 - 
1918 - 927 - 455 472 - 
Three Rivers... ........... " 1913 - 656 133 343 313 - 
1914 - 660 120 275 385 - 
1915 20,000 677 133 364 313 - 
1916 20,000 647 136 401 246 - 
1917 21,000 673 149 390 283 13.48 
1918 21,500 728 118 474 254 11.81 
\Vestmount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 138 2 24 2 89 - - 
1914 - 162 2 48 2 94 - - 
1915 - 295 2 - 92 - - 
1916 - 429 - 124 305 - 
1917 - 419 - 124 295 - 
1918 - 126 - 160 -34 - 
,,
 erd un. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 505 2 69 2 347 - - 
1914 - 582 2 75 2 345 - - 
1915 - 934 2 - 322 - - 
1916 - 822 - 359 463 - 
1917 - 714 - 402 312 - 
1918 - 714 - 510 204 - 
Lachine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 396 2 65 2 233 - - 
1914 - 422 2 54 2 241 - - 
1915 - 494 2 - 147 - - 
1916 - 510 - 182 328 - 
1917 - 598 - 181 417 - 
1918 - 508 - 306 208 - 
St. Hyacinthe........ . . . . . . . . 1913 - 325 106 2 220 105 - 
1914 - 342 99 2 211 121 - 
1915 11,886 367 - 192 175 - 
1916 - 357 - 206 151 - 
1917 - 258 - 207 51 - 
1918 - 210 - 205 5 - 
ntario- 
Toronto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 454,000 13,722 6,381 6,223 7,499 16.52 
1914 475,000 13,949 5,964 5,602 D,347 17.57 
1915 475,000 12,806 5,676 5,548 7,258 15.28 
1916 470,000 12,498 5,158 5,931 6,567 13.97 
1917 475,000 12,110 5,120 5,597 6,513 13.71 
1918 490,000 11, 779 4,990 7,635 4,144 8.45 
1919 499,300 11,294 6,495 5,695 5,599 11.21 
Ottawa.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 96,350 2,482 1,044 1,767 715 7.42 
1914 97,900 2,592 1,072 1,697 895 9.14 
1915 96,340 2,554 1,051 1,662 892 9.25 
1916 96,720 2,448 1,057 1,742 706 7.30 
1917 97,670 2,408 969 1,551 857 8.77 
1918 100,030 2,968 892 2,290 678 6.77 
1919 103, 620 3,090 1,220 1,691 1,399 13.50 
Hamil ton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 100,650 2,706 1,395 1,211 1,495 14.85 
1914 101,190 2,845 1,163 1,158 1,687 16.67 
100 1 4 1 . 


1915 


,310 2,771 1,151 


, 197 1 ,57 


5 69 


Q 


2 Incomplete. 



.-Il'.lIJ ðT.1 TISTU'S 


113 


llÞ.-
uß1ber of nirth
. \larria
l'
 dud I).'aths. h) '-rhU'il)al CHIf'S, 1113-1919- -con. 


( 'itil''i. 


1\ par _ Popula- 
tion. 


l)ntario-con. I 
IIamilton-('onc-lu<.h.tl.. '. . . .. Hilt) 
HHï 
Hn
 
I!} I!J 


J OIl<.lon... .. . 


.. . . . . . . . ., HH3 
UH4 
1915 
, 191ft 
191ï 
H}I
 
191
 
1913 
UH4 
1915 
19H> 
1917 
1915 
191(} 


Brantrord. 


.. . .1 
I 


Kin
ston. . . . .. . . 


1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
, HHS 
1919 


Petprhorou
h.. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 


1913 
1914 
191.5 
1916 
1917 
191.
 
1919 


\\ ind50r. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 


1913 
1914 
HH5 
1916 
HH7 
1
1
 
1919 
Fort William........ . _ . . . . _ . . 1 1913 
1914 
, 1915 
19H> 
1917 
1918 
Kitchener. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . ..1 :::: 
I 1914 
1 1915 
1916 
1917 
I 191R 
1919 


]8427-8 


104,33() 
10-1 , :330 
I()CJ ,U70 
107,9SU 


52, V-IO 
.it, 2:!U 
5.), 
fjO 
3.i, NU, 
.53. 130 
56.210. 
.jij.
6UI 
26. IOU, 
26.100' 
25, ISO, 
2ti,3.50 
27.410, 
2S, .tIj() 
31,'\70' 
1 
21.010 
21, :!60 
21 , 3
0 
22.2ïO 
2:J , 020 
23,ï-lfl 
.)
 ')6{) 
-' ,- I 
H',170 ' 
19,tì.10 ' 
1 !}, -I:JO' 
18, !}50 
w.noo. 
19, 
VUI 
')0 ') o n 
- ,- I 
21,tHO. 
.).) 500 
23: 640 , ' 
23,640 
')' 3 _ 0 - 1 
_' " a 
2
, 710, 
32,290 , 
24,070 
27, ISO 
20,850 
18,850 
18,850 
19.520 
19,5:WI 
18,500 
18,88U 
19,090 
19,200 
19, 200 1 
19. 580 1 
24,2
0 


I . ) E.",.. /xa,um I 
of 1m'rea;o.p 
BIn IS. 'Iar- Df'ath:,. Births pt'r 1,000 
rialZ;CS. OVl'r of Popu- 
Dea.t h
. lat ion. 
I 2,S"
 1, 147 1 1,24] 1, ß.ti }.'; . 79 
2,747 I,U73. 1,252, 1 , -195 1-I.3;J 
1 2,77U 1 ,003' 1,756 ' 1,01-1 !}-30 
1 2 , 636 ' 1 , 
4
) I 1,2S] 1,382 12'80 
.) . W 


1._031 
1. 
UO I 
1,IX5 
1,

-t 
1, IOU, 
1,1
, 
1,192 
I 
742. 
So." ' 
n:w' 
70!}1 
(i
5 
iOi I 
ß

 
r: <, ,I 
,)_eJ 
517; 
w').) 
,)-- 
5911 
57!' 
tì.33 , 
571 1 
-170 
t76' 
182' 
44S 
4 w -' 
t
:{1 
455 


511 1,423 
f)2t,. 622 
6:32 529 
71-1 1 61-1 
7581 I8-1 

07 287 
786 1 644 
h66 1 309 
956 254 
1,009 199 
815 202 
672 150 
72-1 151 
686 192 
506 202 
531 222 
534 191 
569 184 
194 175 
1S8 159 
513 274 


b( ).., 
6071 
71O ! 
(i:n 
.;.1!
 
;)5:5 1 
.87 
323 1 
296, 
269' 

8
J' 
292' 
233 1 
:tH I 
:! t)." 
287 
291 1 
264 1 
2!Ji I 
30il 
37( 
1 
2:t
 
20i 
223 
215 

63 
193 
215 


)",41 
so:! 1 
8371 
H
21 
91ö l 
1,151 1 
1,011/ 
I 
.
b!' 
2
11 
:JO(j I 
:J771 
440' 
576 
353 


43!1 
.>-.) \ 
.), - 
40.; I 
;'j()U, 
450i 
5.
2 
44U i 
2
 
254: 
277 1 
:J2-1 
331 
a32 
2n 


327 
316 
293 
370 
387 
lSf) 
446 
390 
311 
258 
28S 
223 
300 
243 


245 , 
211 
200 
2271 
195 
324 
191 


34.1 
398 
348 
:\52 
182 
:37 
1
1 


6..)!' 
7 ':-\4 
(i.n 
6-37 
:J . 30 
0.')5 
3'IX 



73 14'29 
527 
O-19 
:\30 13'10 
:J::\2 12.m) 
.)W _ g';m 
_.J,) 
125 4'
H 
.)-- 8'63 
-I.., 
84 4'00 
143 6.82 
117 5.4S 
91 .t.()g 
129 5.60 
51 2.15 
131 5.63 
202 10'5-1 
2221 11.:W 
205 10'55 
124 f)'54 
126 6.42 
111 .5..
;o.. 
182 9.01 
IS4 8.51 
310 13.7S 
339 14.34 
344 14.55 
371 15.65 
321 11.18 
3-10 10..13 
-I7f) 19.7S 
645 23.73 
751 36'02 
527 27.96 
449, 23.82 
424 21.72 
443' 22.69 
I 
2m 14-11 
320' 16. 9.
 
334 17 . 49 
342 17.81 
2!J9: 15.57 
If).! 8.38 
322
 13.26 



114 AREA AND POPULATIOl,'" 
IS.-Number of Births, l\larriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, 1913-1919-con. 
Excess Natura I 
of Increase 
Ci ties. Year. Popula- Births. Mar- Deaths. Births per 1,000 
tion. riages. over of Popu- 
Deaths. lation. 
Ontario-con. 
Guelph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 16,320 394 175 220 174 10.66 
1914 16,800 353 145 209 144 8.57 
1915 16,740 366 184 214 152 9.08 
1916 16,020 362 152 244 118 7.37 
1917 16,020 413 131 211 202 12.61 
1918 16,970 370 142 262 108 6.36 
1919 17,030 323 207 221 102 5.99 
St. Thomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 14,520 318 205 178 140 9.64 
1914 15,490 340 186 218 122 7.88 
1915 15,840 362 169 188 174 10.98 
1916 15,840 324 161 216 108 6.82 
1917 15 ,880 334 147 192 142 8.94 
1918 15 ,810 325 142 279 46 2.91 
1919 15,870 366 222 222 144 9.07 
Stratford. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 14,570 337 141 192 145 9.95 
1914 14,570 357 139 165 192 13.18 
. 1915 15 , 150 378 156 185 193 12.74 
1 1916 16,410 367 162 204 163 9.93 
1917 15,450 335 108 158 177 11.46 
i 1918 15,450 320 93 242 78 5.05 
. 1919 16,060 301 184 157 144 8.97 
Owen Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..1 
m 12,790 329 127 178 151 11.81 
12,560 342 125 138 204 16.24 
, 1915 12,380 312 112 140 172 13.89 
1916 12,080 344 139 202 142 11.75 
1917 11 , 650 312 120 151 161 13.82 
1918 12,270 297 98 174 123 10.02 
1919 11 , 930 290 131 123 167 14.00 
St. Catharines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 1913 15,080 420 194 242 178 11.80 
1914 15 ,860 500 238 243 257 16.20 
1915 16,660 587 257 255 332 19.92 
1916 16,690 554 250 286 268 16.06 
1917 17,760 574 152 227 347 19.54 
1918 17,870 516 166 343 173 9.68 
1919 17,880 563 232 273 290 16.22 
Port Arthur. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 18,030 706 249 294 412 22.85 
1914 18,320 702 210 215 487 26.58 
1915 14,310 589 138 163 426 29.77 
I 1916 15,220 533 142 157 376 24.70 
1917 15,220 516 147 192 324 21.29 
1918 15, 100 497 136 221 276 18.28 
1919 15,100 473 189 191 282 18.66 
Sault Ste. Marie. .. . . . . . . .. . . . 1913 12,290 306 157 236 70 5.70 
1914 13,200 279 180 198 81 6.14 
1915 12,590 288 168 180 108 8.58 
1916 12,920 271 133 196 75 5.80 
1917 13,030 354 133 216 138 10.59 
1918 19,590 525 170 403 112 5.72 
1919 20,850 572 265 353 219 10.50 
Cha tham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 12,390 260 207 207 53 4.28 
1914 12,830 250 194 230 20 1.56 
1915 13,090 256 1 179 189 67 5.11 
1916 13,240. 256 192 230 26 1.96 



T IT
lL ST
l TISTICS 


115 


16.-:\ umber of ßirth" l\larrla
e!' and D('aths
 by Prln<'lpal CIUl's, 1913-1919 -con. 


Cities. lear. 


Ontar io--concluded. 
Chatham-concluded.... . 1917 
HHb 
lUlU 


Galt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. HH3 
HH4 
HI15 
1!116 
HH7 
HHH 
I 1919 
I 


Sarni:;\. . . . . 


..' HIl3 
lUI4 
1915 
lOW 
1917 
l!}IX 
WI!) 


.1 HH
 
HH4 
I!H5 
, 19H> 
1917 
HH8 
19t9 
.11913 
HH4 
1915 
1911, 
1917 
191
 
1919 
,\ ûodstock. .. . . . . . .. . _ .. . . .. . / 1913 
1914 
, 1915 
1916 
1917 
; 1918 
1919 
Niagara Falls. .. .. . .. . . . . . . ..1 1913 
, 1914 
i 1915 
1916 
, 1917 
I 1918 
1919 


B{>llevillE.'. . . . . . . 


Brockville... . . . . _ _ . 


North Bay......... . . . . . . . . .. 1913 
. 1914 
1915 
1 1916 
1917 
1 1918 
1919 


18427-8
 


I Excess Natural 
of Inerea
c 
Popula- Births. :Mar- Dea ths Births per 1,000 
lion. riages. over of Popu- 
Deaths. lation. 
14.350 267, 202 233 34 2.37 
15 , 140 267 1 121 283 -16 -1.05 
15 ,470 247 232, 218 29 1.87 
11.930 280 150 156 124 10.39 
12.020 323 132 139' 184 15.31 
11 ,810 2!J8 108 144 154 13.04 
11 ,880 279 116 143 136 11.45 
11 . 880 275 103 175 100 8.42 
12.520 251 118 238 13 1.04 
12,390 265 162 145 120 9.68 
11 ,5;)0 258 lR4 149 109 9.44 
12.090 270 179 156 114 9.43 
12.140 295 12E 164 131 10.79 
12,280 2H2 165 198 94 7.65 
12,960 271 126 16n 102 7.87 
12.ROO 2b9 117 238 51 3.98 
13.3001 273 194 203 70 5.26 
10. 600 1 258 13
 18; 71 6.70 
11 ,230 240 130 14Y 91 8.10 
11.940 2GO 124 172 88 7.37 
11.610, 255 136' 204 51 4.39 
11 ,430 
I 1331 165 43 3.76 
11 , 360 120. 234 58 5.11 
11.600 264 12;), lil 93 7.96 
9.6751 225 127 186 39 4.03 
9,
Î5 
2b 85 173 55 5.93 
9,460 236 106 193 43 4.55 
9.510 241 1 llY 165 76 7.99 
9,580 :!24 122 181 43 4.49 
9.450 237 121 1 252 -15 -1.58 
9.400 208 115 157 51 5.43 
9,4&5 223 106 143 1 80 8.43 
9,600 i 203 131 124 79 8.23 
9.600 210 111 110 100 10.41 
9.520 1 206 135 132 74 7.77 
9,600 173 101 116 57 5.94 
9,600 189 77 131 58 6.04 
9,700 187 113 167 21 2.16 
12,020 267 1 492 131 136 11.31 
11,650 294 291 140 154 13.22 
11 ,450 263 292 133 130 11.35 
12,030 1 275 294 145 130 10.81 
12,030, 289 225 137 152 12.64 
12.770 316 213 247 69 5.74 
14,690 297 334 172 125 8.51 
9.490 340 124 144 196 20.65 
10.980 406 121 146 260 23.68 
8,935 416 91 128 288 32,23 
8, 750 406 103 107 299 34.17 
8,750 345 103 101 244 27.89 
8,530 343 55 177 166 19.46 
9,230 377 115 145 232 25.14 
I 



116 


ARE.! AAVD POPULA.TIOAY 


6.-::\umber or Births, l\larriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, 1913-1919-con. 


Excess IKatural 
of Increase 
Citie
 . Year. Popula- Births. Mar- Deaths. Births per 1,000 
tion. riages. over of Popu- 
Dca ths. la tion . 
Manitoba- 
\Vinnipeg. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1913 184,730 5,577 3,404 2,204 3,373 18.26 
1914 203,255 5,789 3,070 1,955 3,834 18.86 
1915 212,889 5,823 2,766 1,763 4,060 19.07 
1916 201,981 6,233 2,663 2,039 4,194 20.7H 
1917 201,981 5,638 2,358 1,726 3,912 19.37 
1918 182,848 5,848 2,700 2,061 3,787 20.71 
1919 
Brandon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 15,911 680 296 279 401 25.20 
1914 17, 177 641 277 229 412 23.99 
1915 17,200 625 279 287 338 19.06 
1916 18,048 H21 263 248 373 20.72 
1917 18,048 566 198 212 354 19.61 
1918 15,699 471 150 224 247 15 .73 
1919 
St. Boniface....... . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 11 ,405 327 109 389 62 -5.43 
1914 12,025 421 119 302 119 9.90 
1915 12,307 354 81 268 86\ 6.98 
1916 11,581 334 130 280 54 4.H6 
1917 11 ,581 350 93 257 93 8.03 
1918 11 , 600 334 H9 526 -192 -16.55 
1919 
Portage la Prairie. . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 6,343 231 97 118 11:3 17.81 
1914 6,500 204 85 126 78 12.00 
1915 6,300 200 88 125 75 10.31 
1916 5,832 197 88 119 78 13.37 
1917 5,832 188 75 134 54 9.25 
1918 5,832 192 57 148 44 7.54 
1919 
Saskatchewan- 
Regina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 845 528 486 359, - 
1914 50,000 1,006 493 298 708 14.16 
1915 40,000 1 1,010 428 288 722 18.00 
1916 40,000 956 452 362 614 15.30 
1917 40,000 1,053 470 484 569 14.20 
1918 40,000 930 499 597 333 8.30 
1919 
Moosejaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 515 484 284 231 - 
1914 30,000 607 400 210 397 13.23 
1915 24,000 604 382 188 416 17.30 
1916 20,000 562 451 213 349 17.40 
1917 20,000 716 429 158 558 27.90 
1918 20,000 552 392 378 172 8.70 
1919 
Saskatoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913 - 856 576 429 427 - 
1914 30,000 914 433 265 649 21.63 
1915 25,000 799 445 210 589 23.50 
1916 21,054 748 509 267 481 23.30 
1917 21,054 814 536 -131 383 18.20 
1918 21,054 734 490 437 297 14.10 
1919 
North Battleford............ 1913 - 239 74 67 172 - 
1914 6,000 198 92 46 152 25.3:J 
1915 5,000 148 71 52 1 96 19.20 
1916 3,500 143 82 55 881 25.10 



1"1 T_ t L S '/'. t TIS T [( 'S 117 
.1.- 'um her of IUrt hs. :\1arrl.,

s and Dt'a f hs, h) Prlndl)al l'ltl('
. 1913-1919 -con. 
1\ ellr .lpOPUln_ E}'(,t'ð
 Xatural 
of Incrca
{' 
('it it:s . Hirt Its 'far- I>t'u t It
. Births (X'r 1,000 
tion. riul!t'
 . 0' ('r of Popu- 
])t':lt In.. lation. 
S...RJ..at c he" an--':unc!ud....1. I 

()rth Battleford-('ondudl'o.. HH7 3,500 14-" 95 107 41 11 . 'iO 
, HHS 3,50Ü 1 .)... 61 ti2 65 18.50 
-I 
: 1919 
Prim'p _\lbcrt... .1 1913 310 17
 172 138 
I 1914 10,00(1 274 144 12:1 151 15.10 
BH5 10,00(' 198 13
' H8 100 lO'UO 
HH6 8,50<1 If\4 1371 
tI 85 10.00 
1917 S l 50n 
:J3' 102 120 113 13.30 
HH
 8 
OO' 212' 125 1 149 63 7.40 
HI19 ,J I , I 

\\ift Current.... .1 W14 141 110 18.33 
li,OOO 15J 1 49 
1915 5.0001 lIb 111 3U 88 17.60 
HH6 4,000 1 fJ6 I 1!J4. 47 4t1 12.20 
191'i 4,000 Ij(j 1...,,1 62 94 23 .50 
I... 
W18 4. (J{J(JI 111 151 1 li3 48 12.0n 
1919 
\\ (')' hurn. . . . . .. . . . . . . ./ HH4 165, 48 117 21. Hit 
.5 , 343 I 114 
HH5 5,000. 117 tJ
' 6S 49 9.bO 
191tJ 4,000 115 9(1 41 74 18.50 
UH7 4,000 119 77 49 70 17.50 
191
 1.000 91 71 76 15 3.70 
1919 
AIL('rta- I HH3 
Calgary. . .. . . . . . . . 2,27b 1,37!/ 
'ib 1,400 
IHI4 2,354 1,121 f
 1,669 
HU5 2, 162 1,000 636 1,526 
HH6 56,514 1,949 975 fHl 1,308 23. 14 
1917 56,414 2,06; 926 602 1,465 25.92 
. HHb 2,0f\2 1,059 1,023 
1919 75,000 1, 971 1 1 , W3 755 1,216 16.21 
Fdmonton.. . I 1913 I 778/ .
87 
1,365 9Mi 
HH4 I,R24 1,009' 652 1 1, 172 1 
HH5 1, 909 1 97fi ' 612 1 ,29, 
Im6 53,846 1,.199, 
4
 612 %7 18.33 
1917 53,R46 1 1,549 774 541 1 , OOb I 18.72 
I 191f\ 66,oõo l 1.641 1' 076 1 565 
1919 1,773 1,00ü 823 950 1 14.39 
Lethbndgc .1 HI13 241 
42 166 1 
75 
1914 :?47. 2211 138 109' 
1 
1915 ..,-- 19R 105: 172 
-"1 
19H> 9,43fj :
3" I 197, 140 1 198 20.9b 
HIl7 9,4:6, 3:
3, 2
61 14r., 185 19.61 
1918 360' 230 130 
HH9 12,000 35:
' 199 1 lü4' 189/ 15.75 
'It>dieine Hat... HH3 32k! 264 215 113 
1914 419 179 162 257 
1915 372/ 171 104 2H8 
1916 9. 27
 I 397 207 123 274 29.55 
1917 9,272 452 247 138 314 33.87 
1915 4.59 224 235 1 
1919 11 ,000j 383 205 181 202 1
.36 
BritÜ,lJ Columbia.- , I 
I 
'aneou\"('T... . . . ..... . . .. . . . 1913 II4,220 4.115 2,4h5 1 1,799 2,316/ 20.2
 
1914 106,1101 2,425 1,7171 1.178
 1,247. 11.75 
. 



118 


ARE
-1 A1VD POPULATION 


16.-Number of Births, Marriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, 1913-1919. 
-concluded. 


Cities 


Births. Mar- Deaths. 
riages. 
2,311 1,274 1,127 
1,992 1,252 1,240 
2,008 1,191 1,307 
2,724 1,272 2,294 
2,921 2,029 1 , 712 
986 851 569 
772 770 459 
820 480 464 
836 420 533 
744 382 476 
1,019 405 652 
1,304 612 577 
855 378 491 
536 222 302 
289 173 225 
304 167 212 
322 164 243 
421 128 367 
436 225 255 
318 120 149 
340 98 133 
304 88 162 
261 72 114 
220 63 99 
312 79 22 
303 101 108 


Year. Popula- 
tion. 


British Columbia-concluded. 
Vancouver-concluded... .... 1915 100,000 
1916 100,000 
1917 102,550 
1918-19 123,050 
1919-20 123,050 


Victoria. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918-19 
1919-20 


New 'Vestminster. . . _ 1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918-19 
1919-20 


Nanaimo.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918-19 
1919-20 


50,000 
50,000 
55,000 
50,000 
50,000 
17,198 
15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
16,000 
16,000 
8,000 
8,500 
8,500 
8,500 
8,500 
8,500 
8,500 


4 


Excess Natura 1 
of Increase 
Births per 1,000 
over of Popu- 
Deaths. lation. 
1,184 11.84 
752 7.52 
701 6.84 
430 3.49 
1,209 9.83 
417 
313 
356 7.12 
303 6.06 
268 4.87 
367 7.34 
727 14.54 
364 21.16 
234 15.60 
64 4.26 
92 6.13 
79 5.27 
54 3.37 
181 11.31 
169, 21.12 
207 24.35 
142 16.70 
147 17.29 
121 14.24 
88 10.35 
195 22.94 


Il\IMIG RATION. 
The Census of 1911 sho,ved an increase of 34.17 p.c. in the 
population of Canada in the preceding decade. Of this 34 p.c. 
scarcely more than 12 p.c., certainly not 15 p.c., can have been due 
to natural increase, so that immigration was undoubtedly the 
chief factor in increasing Canadian population during this period. 
Indeed, the gross immigration in the period from June 30, 1901 to 
May 31, 1911, (the Census was taken as of June 1, 1911), ,vas 
1,828,481, a figure nearly equal to the total increase of Canadian 
population in the decade, 1,835,328. Unfortunately, \ve have no 
statistics of emigration, but on the assumption of a normal natural 
increase not exceeding 15 per thousand per annum, we may estimate 
that the larger part of the increase of the decade was due to inlmi- 
gration. Again, in the first three normal pre-war years of the present 
decade (the fiscal years 191.2 to 1914), the total gross immigration 
was 1,141,537, 15.8 p.c. of our total 1911 population. Gross immi- 
gration was thus at the rate of over 5 p.c. of our population per 
annum, while natural increase was certainly not over 1.5 p.c. 
Immigration, which has been at a low ebb during the war period, 
may once lnore, when normal conditions a.re restored, become the 



I.JIJIIGR,tTION 


119 


chief nlean
 of reinforeing P()PUI
ltion and popul:\ting the vast wastf' 
"paces of Canada. Unùer such conditions the racial and linguistic 
conl})o:-.ition uf t h:lt inunigration hl'COlneS ûf paranlount ilnportancc. 
Can:ldians generally prefer that inllnigrants should be of a rcadily 
a:'\sÏ1nilable type, already idf'ntificd hy race or language "pith one 
or other of the t,vo great racc;s no,v inhabiting t hi
 country. 
Since the French are not to any great extent an eloigrating pl'ople, 
this means that the acceptable Ï111migrants who COllle to Canada are 
those ".ho speak the English language-those coming froln the 
United J\:ing;dom or the UltÏtpd State
. Next in onh\r of readine
s 
of a:-\
iInilation are the 
candinavi'lll and Dutch inuuigrants, ,vho 
readily learn English and are already' acquainted \\'ith the working 
of frec dcmocratic institution
; a fc,v years ago nlo:-,t Canrrdian:-; 
would have included the Gcrrnan immigrants in the 
:lIne catpgory. 
Inunigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, ho,vever desirabÌe 
froln the purely economic point of vic,v, are lc
.., readily as
imilated, 
and the Canadiani7ing of the people fronl the
e regions ,vha came 
to Canada in the first fourteen year
 of this century is a problem 
both in the agricultural Prairip Province:, and in the cities of the 
East. Le
s a

inlilable Fìtill, accordin
 to the general opinion of Cana- 
dians, are those iuunigrants who corne to Canada from the Orient. 
In view' of the new cen')us, it is desirablc to con:siùcr briefly 
the immi
ra tion ".hich has taken place 
ince 1 9 11, èlccording to 
origins. In the nine years froBl April 1911 to :\Iarch, 1920, the 
total number of inunigrants ,,-as 1,6(H.,3t)9, of which 364,202, or 33.9 
p.c. came from the United J<:ingdom, 700,039, or 42.06 p.c. from 
the "United States, find 400,118, or 24.04 p.c. from other countrie
. 
These nine years fall naturally into two period:;-the pre-,var period 
from .A.pril, 1911 to July, 1914, inclu
ive, or 3} year:-" and the war 
and reconstruction period froin August, 1914 to :\Iarch, 1920, 5i 
years. In the first period, iDlmigrants from other countries than 
the United I\:ingdom and the United States reached the very large 
nUD1ber of 3ö8,42b in :1 total inlmigration of 1,247,178; in the second 
they numbered only 31,690 in a total of 417,]81, or taking the figures 
for the five fiscal years 1916 to 1920, only 28,371 in a total of 378,023. 
'fhe number of immigrants to be a:,
ÎInilated has thus not markedly 
increased in the past five years, but the problem of assimilating the 
pre-,var Îlnmigrants from the<;e countries reJ.nains. _\.. note,vorthy 
effort to 
olve this prohleIn, so far as the younger generation is con- 
cerned, i
 no'v being made by the Departments of Educ:l tion of the 
three Prairie Provinces. 
Recent In1migration.-For the fiscal year ended 
larch 31, 
1020, (the first full year of peace), the number of irnmigrants aI-riving 
in Canada was 117,336, more than doubling the 1919 figure of 57,702. 
In the preceding ,var years the numbers had been 79,074 in 1918; 
75,374 in 1917; 48,537 in 1916; as cOlnpared with 144,789 in the 
fiscal year 1915 (partly a war year), and 384,878 in 1914, the year 
before the ,var broke out. Of the 1920 immigrants, 59,603, or 51 p.c. 
CaJ.11e froIH the United I\:ingdonl, 49,65ü, or 42 p.c. froln the United 
States, and 8,077, or -; p.c. frolll other countries .As 
ho,Yn by Table 


. 



120 


AREA. A?\-D POPULATION 


17, the increase in 1920 over 1919 ,,,as llulinly due to the larger nurn- 
bel's con1Ïng from the United I\:ingdom, which account for about 
50,000 ont of a total inerease of approximately 60,000. Inlmigrants 
from the L nited States increased by about 9,000, and those from 
other countries by 1,000. Table 18 gives the immigrants of the 
laf't 
even fiscal 
Tpars, f'lassified [Lf'('ording to nationalitie:s. The 
rejections and the deportation of immigrant arrivals from 1903 
to 1920 are recorded by principal causes in Table 19. The occupations 
and de:5tination:-; of imn1Îgrant.s arriving during the fiscal years 1919 
and 1920 are given in Table 22, and the destinations of immigrants 
arriving bet,veen 1901 and 1920 are stated in Table 23. 
- ... .. 
Chinese Immigration.-The conditions under v;hich Chin'ese 
iUlInigrants havp been allowpd to enter Canada have been de::,cribed 
in previous issues of the Year Book (see edition for 1915, page 110). 
The nUll1ber of Chinese entering Canada has been luuch reduced 
in reet-'nt years, o,ving to the operation of the Order in Council (re- 
ne\\"ed every f'ix rnonths since December 8, 1913), under which the 
landing in British Columbia of skilled and un3killed artisans and 
labourf.:'r
 is prohibited. In the fiscal year 1920 the number of Chinese 
in1migrants who paid head tax was 363, as compared with 4,OG6 in 
1919, 650 in 1918 and 272 in 1917. A record of Chinese immigration 
from 1886 tu 1920, sho,ving the nunlber of Îlnmigrants paying head 
tax, the nU111her pxen1pt frolll head tax, and the revenue collected, 
is given as r-fable 24, ,vhile Table 25 gives the total Oriental Ï1nmi- 
gration (Chine:5e, Japanese and Hindoo) for the past t,venty year:5. 


17.-N"umber of Inlmi
rant Arrivals in Canada, 1897-1920. 


bnlIGRANT ARRIVALS IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS 
FROM FRO:\1 
Fiscal Total. Fiscal Total. 
Years. "C nitcd Other Years. United Other 
King- United Coun- King- U ni tf'd Coun- 
dome Stateð. tries. dom. States. tries. 
Ko. Ko. No. No. No. No. No. :Ko. 
1897 1 .. .. . . 11,383 2,412 7,921 21,716 1909.... . 52,901 59,832 34,175 146,9ù
 
1898 1 . . . . . . 11,173 9,119 11,608 31,900 1910..... 59,790 103,798 45,206 208,794 
18mp...... 10,660 11,945 21,938 44,543 1911. . . . . 123,013 121,451 66,620 311 ,084 
1900 2 .... .. 5,141 8,543 10,211 23,895 1912.. .. . 138,121 133,710 82,406 354,237 
1901 .. .. . . . 11 ,810 17,987 19,352 49,149 1913., ... 150,542 139,009 112,881 402,432 
1902..... . 17,259 26,388 23,732 67,379 1914. . .. . 142,622 107,530 134,726 3R4,878 
1903..... . 41,792 49,473 37,099 128,364 1915.... . 43,276 59,779 41,734 H4,789 
1904. . .. . . 50,374 45,171 34,786 130,331 1916.. . . . 8,664 36,937 2,936 48,537 
1905 .. .. 65,359 43,543 37,364 146,266 1917.... . 8,282 61,389 5,703 75,374 
1906. ..... .. 86,796 57,796 44,472 189,064 1918.. .. . 3,178 71,314 4,582 79,074 
1907 3 ..... . 55,791 34,659 34,217 124,667 1919..... 9,914 40,715 7,073 57,702 
19m
. . . . 120,182 58,312 83,975 262,469 1920. _... 59,603 49,656 8,077 117,336 


lCa]end:u year. 
Sjx months, .January to .June, inclusive. 3
îne months enùeò 
lareh 


31. 



[.\[ J[ ]GH..1 TIU6Y 


121 


1
. - \rrhaJ, at Inland and 0 ('an ..orts In ('anad.. in "1,,(.a) 1. ears 19l:1-19".!O. 



ntionalitif"
. 


British- 
J :nJ!1 ish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
J ri:--h . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 
:,('ot (" h. . . . '. . . . . . 
Wf'b,h........ . . . . 
Total ßrHi,h ...............1 


.\fri('un, 
outh....... 
_\u
tralinn_...... .......... 
Au
tro-HunJ!:urißn........... . 
Bf.l
ian. . . . . . . . . . 
Brazilian. 
Hul
3rian . 
( 'hines(' 
Cuban.. . 
J )utch. . . . . . . . . 
.Finnish. . . . . . . . . . 
French. .. . . .. . . 
Gf'rman.. ....... 
Grf'pk. . . 
Hehrew....... . 
Hindoo. . 
Italian. . 
Japanf>S(.'. . . . 
.\1 aCf>ùonian 
)Ialtf.:)(....... . . . . . . 
X t'gro. . . . . . . . . , 

f>"foundland... . 
"X PW Z('alanù. . . 
Per
ian. . 
Poli:,h 
Portugll('
('. . 
Houmanian. . . 
Ru
...ian- 
Ru:,
ian, X .E.
... . . . . . .. 

candina vian- 
Dani:,h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
J('('landic.. __.... . . . . 
X orwe
ian. . . . . . _ . . . 

\\('dish. 
:,('rhian.. . 
:,panish. . . 
:--;wi
s. . . . 
Turkish, etc.- 
Turki..h, K .E.S.. 
.\rahian........ . 
_ \rm('nian.... . . . 
Egyptian....... . 

 . 
'--'vnan...... . 
l" .S.À. Citizen
, via ocean 
ports....... . . .. . ., . . . . . .1 
Wf>::::.t Indian...... . . . . . . . 
Other nationalities... . .. . . . 


Total í'ontlnt.'ntal., etc.... . . 
.'rom the ...S..\............. 


Total immi
ation. . . . . . . . . . 


HH4. HH5. 


102,122 
9,5SS 
29,12'" 
1 , 7
 71 
lI2.'
:. 
56' 
106 
2
,3231 
2,051 
5 1 
1,727 
5,512' 
10 
1 ,5U6 
3, I
3 
2,
:
 
5,537 
1,102 
11 , 252 
hS 
24,722 

=)t) 
1-- \ 
102 
2f.fi, 
496 
24 
1D 
9,793 
M, 
1,504 
24, 4

.1 
b711 


30,h07 
3,S25, 
8,346 
598' 
"3. 
;61 
231 
51 
-- 1 . 0 1 
" J 
1,149' 
,0-1,,1 
1,25
 
I 
f;05 
4.")H 
I , 2()f) 
2,4i2 
1,147 
3,107 


6,22
 
.=)H2 
132 
19 
202 
33R 
21 
7, 
I,Hi6 

 
ðtH 


5,201 



26 
2ft? 145' 
1,647\ 7f-;o..' 
2,4
5 fHfi 
1 H
 2:?0 
1, 13:-;' j55
 
2m'l 20fl 
IS;. 3) 
Hi' -I 
I
U 36 
51 -I 
27& 7{j 
1211 411 
419' 389, 
29 1 36\ 
13-1, 726 .j t ,734 
107,530 1 59,779, 
38.j,
;81 1.j.j,7
91 


X .E.S.-Xot p}:-õewhere 
pecified. 


1\116. 
 
5,&:}71 
81b l 
1,:-;
7 
102 
1 
",.S .J 
111 

') 
isl 
172 1 
2 
1 
,I.; 
I 
l,..,lj 
139 
1
(I 
27 
145 
65 
1 
Jh..
 
401 
4 
34 
255 
1
1 
f\ 
::1 
1 
167 1 
15 
2
2 
Iii 
6 
11\ 
4'")1 
.., 


3 
I 
15 
4;1 
1\ 
2,936 
36,93. 
48.53. 


HH 'i . 


5,174 
958' 
2, 062 1 
S8 
I 
ð.2b2 
I
! 
12
1 


75S 
tH
 
109 
9
 
1,243 
12 


5 
3 
9 1 
2()1 
315 
I' 
\ 
5.703 
61,
9 
I 
75,37,11 


191h. 


393 
3 
151 
24!' 
1!IH 
9 
25" 
136 


2, 4 ;7 I 
li4 
4731 
54 
3.17s 1 
4 1 
34 1 
ïn l 
õ
J 
11 
94 
113 
114 
I 
45 
:32 


1:-;9 
bb3 
144 
:3.'> 
1,199 
13 
. 2 


12 
1 
4 


<). 
_" 


145 
9 1 
303 
332 
7à' 
30 


28 1 
3
1 
.J.a
2 
a 314 1 

9:0;41 
\ 


1919. 


7,954 
336' 
1 '518 1 
106 
9.91-1 


.3,
3 
59 
2 
222 
1 
4 
22 


49 
l,li8 


42 


74 
J 
235 
156 
2bl 
12 


2 


2 


W20. 


4;),173 
2,751 
10, UH; 
68
 


59,603 


a5 
2 
4& 


23 
8S 
8 
1,532 


1 
544 
2 
154 
44 
1,5b4 
12 
39 
116 
1,1ti5 
'ill 


2 
22 
512 
15 
2 
4 


405 
61 
443 
31 


76 
3 
21 


42 
44 
12 
91 
101 
1 
12 
11 


;)1 


233 
11 
179 
241 
12 
15 
100 
1 
10 
18 


21 55 
223 1 66 
3' 22 
7,07) li,077 
40,715 49,656 
I 
57.702 117,336 
I 



122 


AREA AND POPULATION 


19.-Rejections of Immigrants upon arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 
admission, by principal causes, 1903-1920. 


Principal Causes. 


Number Rejected at Ocean Ports. 


1903- 
1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. Jrotals 


Accompanying patients. 249 104 
Bad character.......... 440 122 
Contract labour. . . . . . . . . 56 28 
Criminality....... . . . . . . 46 10 
Head tax.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Lack of funds...... .... . 187 1,038 
Likely to become a pub- 
lic charge. .... . . . . . . .. 1,274 274 164 56 76 71 
Medical causes...... . . .. 2,993 585 256 328 398 319 
Not complying with 
regulations....... .. _ _ 73 48 119 55 178 40 11 22 8 7 474 1,035 
Previously rejected..... --=- 
 
 
 
 --=- 
 --=- --=- --=- I --=- 
 
Totals...... . . . .. . .. 5,318 2,210 972 756 1,827 998 163 174 71 70 662'13,221 
I I I I 


53 
112 
. 3 
5 
6 
246 


4 


3 


2 


4 


28 
80 


76 
102 


58 
56 


4 
17 


8 
4 


1 
11 


2 
4 
1 


590 
947 
92 
79 
6 
28 3,271 
125 2,196 
21 4,995 


9 
1 
1 
3 


204 


994 


452 


38 


55 


19 


10 


55 
34 


55 
30 


19 
12 


27 
19 


Principal Causes. Number Deported after Admission. 
Accompanying patients. 94 18 17 16 101 34 5 9 39 10 18 270 
Bad character......... . 150 71 120 165 159; 128 68 60 84 35 22 1,062 
Criminality....... . . . .. . 335 172 242 334 376 404 329 277 274 236 334 3,313 
Medical causes..... . . . . . 1,475 222 229 370 570 379 206 98 39 70 123 3,781 
Not complying with 
regulations...... . . . . . . - 12 8 4 4 - - - - - - 28 
Public charges.... . . . _ . . 1,829 289 343 392 715 789 635 161 91 103 158 5,505 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
Totals. . . . . . _ . . . . . . . 3,883 78! 959 1,281 1,834 1,734 1,243 605 527 45! 655 13,959 
; 


20.-Number by Nationalities of Immigrants Deported after Admission, 1903-1920. 


Nationalities. 


Deported after Admission. 


B 
A 


o - 
1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. Jrota 
- - - - - - - - - - 
ritish. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 2,801 458 540 559 952 877 602 186 36 99 184 7,294 
merican. . . . . . . . 264 169 256 377 405 461 437 324 407 279 392 3,771 
Other countries......... . 818 157 163 345 477 396 204 95 84 76 79 2,894 
- - - - -- - - - - - -- - 
Totals............. . 3,8S3 784 959 1,2
1 1,83! 1,73! 1,213 605 527 454 655 13,959 
I 


19 3 


Is 


21.-Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Services, 1901-1920. 


Fiscal 
Year. 


Juvenile Applications Fiscal Juvenile Applications 
immigrants. for their Year. immigrants. for their 
services. services. 
No. No. No. No. 
977 5,783 1911. .. . 2,524 21,768 
1,540 8,587 1912. 2,689 31,040 
1,979 14,219 1913. 2,642 33,493 
2,212 16,573 1914... _ . -. 2,318 32,417 
2,814 17,833 1915. . .. . . -. 1,899 30,854 
3,258 19,374 1916. _ ........ .... 821 31, 725 
1,455 15,800 1917.. . . . . . . . . . 251 28,990 
2,375 17,239 1918. . . . . . . . . . . - 17,916 
2,424 15,417 1919. . . . . . . . . . . - 11,718 
2,422 18,477 1920. . ....... ... 1,400 10, 235 
Total. . . . . . . 36,000 399,'{58 


1901. .. . . . . . . . . 
1902. . . . . .. . . . . 
1903. .. . . .. ". . 
1904. . . . . .. ... 
1905. . . . . . . . . 
1906. . . . . . . . . . . 
1907 1 . . .. . .. .. 
1908. . . . . . . . . . . 
1909. . . . . . . . . . . 
1910... .. . . . . . . 


NOTE.-The above are included in the total number of immigrants recorded elsewhere. 
1 Nine months. 



IJIJIIGRAITIO
Y 


12J 


2
. - 0('('111)311011 2tlld ))('stillation of Totallnlßlh:rant .\rrhals In Canada for the }'lscal 
\" ('ar
 1919 and 1920. 


1919. 1920. 
Description. Via From the , ia From the 
Ocean United Totals. OCP.aJ1 U ni tad Totals. 
Ports. States. Ports. States. 
Farmer8 and Carm lubourer-- 

{en. 5'\3 9,553 10,136 5,037 13,561 18,598 
\\omen. 255 3,413 3,66 Q 2,267 3,932 6,19!) 
Children. 141 4,;80 4,921 1,542 4,943 6,485 
Genemllabourcu- 

I('n.. .. . .97 2,M8 3,445 1,897 2,686 4,5"3 
"omen. . . . 110 734 fìH 958 646 1,604 
Children. . . 60 535 595 559 626 1,185 
YechaniC.:;i- 
'Ien. . . . 334 3.778 4.112 2.655 6,136 8,791 
\\ omen. . . 265 1.205 1,470 1,514 1,8.14 3,358 
Children... . 153 1,120 1,273 940 1,551 2,491 
CI('rk8, traders. etc - 

Ien.. ..... . 457 1,078 1,535 {)H 1.03-1 1,981 
\\omen. . . . 155 ß.l0 í95 890 519 1,409 
Children. . 35 ;!...t4 21\9 186 229 415 
Miner - 
)Ien . .. . 15 273 288 331 343 674 
\\ omen. .. .. . 15 53 68 120 50 170 
Children. . ... .. . 18 48 66 118 H 159 
Dom
tiC8- 15 
Women .. . 508 1,188 1,696 4.978 1,076 6,054 
Xot da.'JSified- 
:\[('n, .. . 3,92:> 2,401 6,326 3,311 2,934 6,245 
\\omen. . .......... . 5,971 4.082 10,053 26,928 4,284 31,212 
Childrpn. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3,190 2,932 6.122 12.502 3,221 15,723 
Total<:- 

ren . . . 6,111 19,731 25,842 14,178 26,694 40,872 
\\ ompn. . 7,279 11,315 18,594 37,6,')5 12,351 50,006 
Children...... . .. - .. .. .. .. ........ .. 3,597 9,669 13,266 15,S47 10,611 26,458 
Totals ..... .',t'\; 40,71;') 51,702 67,
I\O 4t,6;)C 117,33' 
Deetinat ion- 
)Iaritime Provinces. . ... . 1,325 2,535 3,860 3,169 2,385 5,554 
Quebec.. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ...... .. 1,566 5,206 6,772 7,273 5,805 13,078 
Ontario... . 4,988 8.838 13,826 27,405 11,939 39,344 
:Manitoba.. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 1,141 3,721 4,862 6,899 4,4

 11,387 
Saskatchewa
:' ::.. ...... 1,126 7,426 8,552 6.264 8,023 14,287 
Alberta.... . 1,275 10,365 11,640 6,717 13,283 20,000 
British Columbia:.:. . . . . 5,565 2,525 8,090 9,945 3,601 13,546 
Yukon.. .. .. - .. .. .. .. .. . 1 99 100 8 132 140 


23. -Destination of Immigrants Into Canada. b). Prmin('es. 1901-1920. 



Iari- Sa5- Briti
h I 
I Colum- 
Fis('al time Quebec. Ontario. 
Iani- katch- Alberta bia and Xot Totals. 
Year. Prov. toba. ewan. Yukon shown. 
Terr'y. 
I I 
Xo. :\0. Xo. 
o. :\0. 
o. 1'0. 1"0. No. 
1901. . . . . . . . 2,144 1 10,216 1 6,208; 11 , 254'1 14,HiO 2, (iOOi 2,567 49,149 
1902........ 2,312 8,817 9, 79
 I 17,422 22,199 3,4R3 3,34R 67,379 
1903........ 5,821 17,040 14,854 1 39, 535 i 43,89R 5,3781 1,838 128,364 
1904. .. . . . . . 5,448 20,222 1 21,266 34,911 40,397 6,994 1 1,093 130,331 
1905.. . . 4,128 23,666 1 35,Rlll 35, 387 1 39,289 6,OOS 1,977 146,266 
1906....... . 6,381 25,212' 52, 746 1 35,648\ 2.
, 72RI 26,177. 12,40(i 1,766 189,064 
! '> '> - 


1907 (9 m).. 


6,;)10 18,319 32,654 _0,....73 15,307 17,559 13,6;)0 


395 124,667 


. 



124 


A. REA. AJ.YD POPULATIO
V 


23.-Destination of Immigrants into Canada
 by Prmin('(>s, 1901-1920-concluded. 


.M:ari- ðas- 
Fiscal time Que bee. Ontario. Mani- katch- Alber 
Year. Prov. toba. ewan. 
No. No. No. No. No. No. 
1908. . . . . . . . 10,360 44, 157 75,133 39,789 30,590 31,4 
1909........ 6,517 19,733 29,265 19,702 22,146 27,6 
1910. . . . . . . . 10,644 28,524 46,129 21,049 29,218 42,5 
1911. . . . .. . . 13,236 42,914 80,035 34, 653 40,763 44,7 
1912....... . 15,973 50,602 100,227 43,477 46, 158 45,9 
1913........ 19,806 64,835 122,798 43,813 45,147 48,0 
1914. . . . . . . . 16,730 80,368 123,792 41,640 40,999 43,7 
1915 . . . . . .. . 11,104 31,053 44,873 13, 196 16,173 18,2 
1916....... . 5,981 8,274 14,743 3,487 6,001 7,2 
1917.. . . . . . . 5,710 10,930 26,078 5,247 9,874 12,4 
1918....... . 5,247 9,059 23,754 6,252 12,382 16,8 
1919.... .... 3,860 6,772 13,826 4,862 8,552 11,6 
1920. . .. .. . . 5,554 13,078 39,344 11 , 387 14,287 20,0 
Totals. 163,466 5:J3,791 913,33t 482,984 940,551 


British 
Colum- 
ta. bia and Not Totals. 
Yukon shown. 
Terr'y. 


No. 
77 30,768 
51 21,862 
09 30,721 
82 54,701 
57 51,843 
73 57,960 
41 37,608 
63 10,127 
15 2,836 
18 5,117 
21 5,559 
40 8,190 
00 13,686 
381,497 


No. No. 
195 262,469 
32 146,908 
- 208,794 
- 311 ,084 
- 354,237 
- 402,432 
- 384,878 
- 144,789 
48,537 
75,374 
79,074 
57,702 
- 117,336 
13,211 1 3,428,834 


24.-Record of Chinese Immigration, 1886-1920. 


Percentage of 
Paying Exempt total arrivals Hegistra- 
Fiscal Year. tax. from tax. admitted tion for 
exempt leave. 
from tax. 
No. Ko. p.c. No. 
Ihð6-91. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,590 222 4.61 7,041 
1892. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,276 6 0.18 2,168 
1893. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,244 14 0.62 1,277 
1894. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,087 22 1.04 666 
1895. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,440 22 1.50 473 
1896........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,762 24 1.34 697 
1897. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,447 24 0.97 768 
1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,175 17 0.78 802 
1899. . . . . . . . . . ..... . 4,385 17 0.39 859 
1900. . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 4,231 26 0.61 1,102 
1901. . . . . . . . . . -.... ............ 2,518 
6 1.02 1,204 
1902 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,525 62 1.73 1,922 
1903. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,245 84 1.58 2,044 
1904. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,719 128 2.64 1,920 
1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 69 89.61 2,080 
1906....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 146 86.90 2,421 
1907 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 200 68.73 2,594 
1908....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,482 752 33.67 3,535 
1909............................ . 1,411 695 33.00 3,731 
1910........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,614 688 29.89 4,002 
1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,515 805 15.13 3,956 
1912...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,083 498 7.57 4,322 
1913......... . .., .... . ... ., ., .. . . 7,078 367 4.93 3,742 
1914....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,274 238 4.32 3,450 
1915....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,155 103 8.19 4,373 
1916........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 69 77.53 4,064 
1917. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 121 30.78 3,312 
1918........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 119 15.47 2,907 
1919. . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,066 267 6.16 3,244 
1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 181 33.27 5,529 
Totals........ .. .... I 78,748 6,012 7.09 8O,2U5 


Total 
Revenue. 


$ 
239,664 
166,503 
113,491 
105,021 
72,475 
88,800 
123,119 
109, 754 
220,310 
215,102 
178,704 
364,972 
526,744 
474,420 
6,080 
13,521 
48,094 
746,535 
713,131 
813,003 
2,262,056 
3,049,722 
3,549,242 
2,644,593 
588,124 
19,389 
140,487 
336,257 
2,069,669 
538,479 


1 Nine months. 


20,537,461 
I 



1.11.11 lr Hat 7'10.\. 


125 


2.).- Rl'('Ol'd of Ol'h'l1(al hnmi.-rl'a(ion, t901-19'!O. 


Fisca.l I Chi- Ja.pa- Hin- Total. Fiscal Chi- Japa- Hin- Total. 
Year. nc
o. neso. doos. Y rar. nese. nese. doos. 
I Xo. Xo. 1\0. Xo. No. Ko. No. 
o. 
.1 
I
U1. . . :?,j.B 6 - 2,.,),')0 1911 . . . 5,3:!0 437 5 5,7fi2 
19U2. .1 3..j
; - - :J.387 1912.... . 6, .')81 765 3 7,34:} 
1903.. . ,I .j. ;
:!!I - - 5. :
2!J 1913. 7,445 724 5 8,174 
UW4... ..I 4,S-t7 - - 4.ö4ì I!JB. .... 5,512 856 
 6,456 
I 
1 !}Q5. . _ . . . I 77 354 45 47û 1915. . . 1 , 258 592 - 1,8.')I} 
U}06......1 168 1,922 387 2,477 1916. 89 tOl 1 491 
1
071......1 291 2,042 2,124 4,4.37 1
17..... 393 G-lb - 1,041 
1908. . . . I 2, 2:J-t 7,601 2.623 12, 4.-
 HH<<3. 7GY b83 - 1,65J 
190
.. .. . . I 2, 100 195 6 2,1)07 HH
.... . 4,333 1,17
 - 5,511 
1910. . . .. .1 2,:JO:? 271 10 2 , !'
3 H)20. . . . . !).U 711 - 1,2.35 
I Total 5:i.;'!!f 19 
"'f) 5, "97 
U,!n2 
I 


1 Xinc months. 
26. - fo"IJt'luJlhll't.' on Immi
atlon In the "sl'al ) ('aI's 1S6ð-1920. 
Year. i
 $ Y ('ar. 
 Year. $ 
IS68............1 36,050 l;'\"
....... 215,33V 18!'6. . . . . . . 120,1 tltJ 1910.. .. ... 960,676 
18bV. . . . . . . . . . . . 26,
'52 1
\\3. . . . . . . 373,9"S 18
7 . . . . . . . 127,438 1911....... 1,079,130 
IS70. . . . . . . . . . . . 55,Y6ô l
."-t...... . 51l,:!U
' lð!-"
. _ _ . . . . 2131,195 1912.. .. . . . 1,365,000 
1871. . . . . . . . . . . . 54,004 1 '\.
:;. . . . .. . 423,861 1.'\99. . 255,879 1913..... .. 1,427,112 
1872.. . . . . . . . . . . 1O!),954 1 ",
6. . 257,355 1900. . 434,563 1914....... 1,893,29S 
1873........ . . .1 265,71S 1"57. . . . . . . 341 ,236 1901. . . . . . . 444,730 1915.. . . .. . 1,658,182 
1874. . . . . . . . . . . . 291,297 1 
,')8. . . . . . . 244,78!J 1902. . . . . . . 494,842 1916.. . . . . . 1,307,480 
1875. . . . . . . . , 278,777 lSS9. . . . . . 202,499 1903. .. . . .. 642,914 1917. . . . . . . 1,181,991 
IIj76........ . 338,179 1890. . . . . . . 110,092 1904. . . .. . . 744,788 1918. . . . . . . 1,211,954 
1877. . . . . . . . . . . . 309,353 IS91. . . . . . . 181,045 1905.. . . . . . 972.3571 1919. .. ... . 1,112,079 
1878. . . . . . . . . . _ . 154,351 1892. . . . .. . 177,605 1906. . . . . . . 842,6G8 1920. . . . . . . 1,388,185 
1879. . . . . . . . . . . . 186,403 1893. .. . . .. 180,677 1907 1 ....... 611,201 Total..... 28,691,H3 
1880. . . , . . . . . . . . 161, 213 1 1894. ... ... 202,235 1908. . . . . . . 1,074,697 1 
1881. . . . . . . . . . . . 
14,251 I 1895 .. . .. . . 195,653 1909. . . . . . . 979,326 : 
1 :!\ine monthd. 



126 


EDUCATION 


'T.-EDUCATION. 


GENERAL FEATURES OF CANADIAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS. 


Under the British North America Act, 1867, the right to legislate 
on matters respecting education was reserved exclusively to the pro- 
vincial legislatures, subject to the maintenance of the rights and 
privileges of the denominational and separate schools as existing at 
the time of union or admission of provinces. In general there are 
two fundamental systems of education throughout Canada, one 
that of the Protestant communities, free from the control of religious 
bodies, and the other that of the Roman Catholic French and Irish 
communities in "\vhich education is united with the religious teaching 
of the Roman Catholic Church. In Ontario, Roman Catholics, 
Protestants and coloured people have each the right to establish 
"Separate Schools" for elementary education, the local rates for the 
support of these schools being separately levied and applied. In 
Quebec, the religious minority in any municipality, whether Roman 
Catholic or Protestant (the Jews being "Protestants" for all the 
purposes of the School Law), may dissent and maintain its own 
elelnentary and n10del schools and academies or high schools, the 
taxation of the minority being separate from that of the n1ajority 
for the three classes of school, except that in the case of the assess- 
ment of corporations, the taxes are levied by the majority and 
divided bet,veen the n1ajority and minority in proportion to the 
number of children of school age. In Saskatche,van and Alberta a 
separa te school ma.y be established by the minority, whether Pro- 
testant or Roman Catholic, subject, ho,vever, to identical regulations 
as to courses, certificates, inspection, etc. In the remaining pro- 
vinces there are special provisions for the education of Roman 
Catholics in the larger cities and towns. 
In all the provinces the cost of education is defrayed from the 
public revenues, provincial and local, and public elementary educa- 
tion is free to parents or guardians, except for certain small fees which 
are payable in parts of the province of Quebec. "Tith the exception 
of Quebec all the provinces have laws of compulsory education, but 
under conditions that differ as between one province and another. 
As a rule, the provincial laws provide for uniformity in the training 
of teachers, the use of text books and the grading of pupils. Second- 
ary schools or departments, and colleges or universities for higher 
education, exist under government control in all the provinces, and 
the three classes of teaching institution are more or less co-ordinated 
to allow of natural transition from the lower to the higher. School 
terms and holidays are arranged to suit climatic and other local 
conditions. Arrangements for the superannuation of teachers are 
applied in most of the provinces. 
Recent movements in the direction of nature study, manual 
instruction, school gardens, agriculture, domestic science and tech- 
nical education are all energetically in progress. 



IIIG/fER ED["CATIO
V I;.Y C.L' AD.1 


127 


lI((al}
R f;J)l'C,,\TlOX I
 C.\X.\DA. 
IIighpr eduf'ation in Canaùa is proyidpd for hy :ì n\.lInhpr of 
uniYer
iti(.
 and colleges. ()f the UniYefsitip
, Toronto, )IcGill 
(
[ontrpal), and the Univerf'ity of \fontrpal, are thp largest. The 
oldp
t univcr
ity in Canada, viz., !\:ing's Colle
e, 'Yinùsor, Nova 

cotia, dates frolll 17
g, and clainls to be al::,o the oldest university 
in His :\Iajesty's Overseab DOBlinion::;. S('ver
\l of the universities 
are affiliated to the oldpr univcr
ities of the mother country, viz., 
Oxford, Canlbridge and Dublin, ,vhilst :501110 of the slnaller Canadian 
universitips, as ,yell as 11l0st of the col1l'
e
, in Ontario and Quebec 
are affiliated to either Toronto or 'lcGil!. In tho \Vest, provincial 
univcr
ities have been established for 
ranitoba at \Vinnipeg (1877), 

askatche\,"
ul at Sa
katoon (1907), 
\lberta at 1
dlnonton (190G) 
and nriti
h Cohnuhia. at Y'ancouver (1907). 

OIne of the universitips and colleges are under the control of 
relig,ious dcnoll1Ïuations, as follo\vs:- 
...\.nglican or Church of England in Canada:-l
ing's College, 
\Yindsor, K.8.; University of I
i:-,hop's f'1011pge, L('nnoxville, Quebec; 
Univer
ity of 'rrinity roll{'
(', l'orollto; 'VycIiffe College, 'I'oronto; 
and Elllluanuel College, Saskatoon. 
ROlnan f'1atholir Church :-ðt. })unstan's College, Cllarlotte- 
to,,-n, P.E.I.; University of St. Franci
 Xavier's College, ....\.ntip:oni:-\h, 
X.
.; univcrsity of St. Jo:-;eph's College, ðt. Jo:-,eph, X.B.; Laval 
"Cniver::;ity, Quehec; Univer..-ity of :\Iontreal, 
Iontrcal; University 
of Otta,va; 
t. .:\Iichael's College, Toronto. 
Other Denoluinations:-I\:nox College, rroronto (Preshyterian); 

rount ....\..llison University, Sackville, N.J
., Yif'toria Univer::5ity, 
Toronto, and \Y esl
y College, \\
innipeg C\Iethodist); Acadia Uni- 
yersity, \V olfville,
.S., .:\Ir .:\Inster University, Toronto, and Brandon 
Colle
e, Brandon, )Ianitoba (Baptist). 
EDI:C-'.TIO
 ST.\TISTICS o Ii' CA
AD.-\. 
There being at prcsent no effective co-ordination of education 

tati:o\tics it is difficult to construct cODlparative tables for Canada. 
In the first place, the year to ,vhich the statistics relate differs accord- 
ing to province. Thus the 
chool year ended June 30 is adopted for 
f'tati:-,tical purposes by Prince Ed\vard Island, Xe\," Bruns\vick, 
Quebec, Ontario Secondary Schools, 
Ianitoba und British Colunlbia; 
the education year for :Kova ScotÌ3 ends on July 31; and the calendar 
year ended Decelnber 31 is selected by Ontario Public and Separate 
Schools, Saskatche\van and Alberta. 
Statistics of Public Schools.-In the tables numbered 1 to 11 
an attempt is, however, made to bring together by provinces (1) the 
number of publicly controlled schools, teachers and pupils, \vith the 
average attendance of the pupils; (2) the number of teachers and 
pupils in normal schools for the training of teachers; (3) 
stati'Stics of secondary school
 so far as they are separately given; (4) 



128 


EDUCATIOi.Y 


the statistics of vocational schools under public control; (5) the 
alnount of receipts and expenditure for public education under the 
school la\v of each province and (6) the average annual 
alaries of 
teachpr
 by provinces. 
In Tables 1 and 2 the nUlnber of schools, teachers and pupilf; in 
all the provinces includes both elenlentary and secondary schools or 
grades; in Nova 8cotia, N e\v Bruns,vick and Saskatchewan, the 
term "school" has a technical significance, being applied to a class 
\vith one teaf'her, irrespective of the number of classes in a school 
building. In Quebec the classical colleges are not included in Table 2 
but are given later in Table 4. In l\lanitoba the sex of thp pupils 
is not separately distinguished. Statistics of secondary education 
are separately available for Ontario, British Columbia and Saskat- 
che\van. They are given in Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Thp acadell1Ïes 
of Quebec take up both the elelnentary and secondary grades of 
school 'work, and are not all classed in the reports as 
econdary 
schoob. Statistics of teachers in training in seven of the nine pro- 
vinces are given for the years 1901-1919 in Table 3. 
Growth of Expenditure on Public Education.-Probably the 
1110St remarkable feature of these statistic:;;; is the extraordinary 
gro,vth during the pre:-;ent c
ntury of the expenditure upon publi'c 
education. In 1901, the first year of the century, the total expendi- 
ture for the purposes of public education in Canada "ras $11,751,623; 
in 1919 or the latest year reported, as shown by Table 1, it was $72,- 
992,667, an increase of $61,241,042, or 521 p.c. 
Statistics of Higher Education.-Ill 'Tables 12-20 are pre- 
sented statistical particulars relating to the universitie
 and college
 
of Canada, \vhich are sUl1llnarized frolll information furnished by 
each of the institutions InentiollP(1. Tables 12 and 17 give the date
 
of foundation, the affiliation, the faeuIties and degrees; Tables 13, 
14 and 18, the lltunber of teaf'hing staff and students, and Table
 16 
and 19
 statistics of property, incoille and expenditure. For 21 of tlH' 
22 universities in Table 16 the total value of the endo,vment
 and 
property in land, buildings, equipment, etc., ê11nounts to $56,830,727. 
For these 21 universities the total incoille amounts to :$7,039,089, 
of which $1,507,579 are derived from fees and the balance frorn invest- 
ments, government grants and other sources. The total expenditure 
of the 
ame universities amounts to :$6,542,213. The total nUluber 
of students attending the 22 universities of Canada in the acadeInic 
year 1919-20, as shown by Table 16, was 28,486. ...\.dding to the::,e 
the 10,057 students attending the professional colleges in the saIne 
year, the grand total of students in attendance at Canadian institu- 
tions of higher education ,vas 38,543. 



EDUC iT/DAV S1'A TIST/CS OF' C.tlNAJ)
l 


129 


T 'C 'IC.\L EDUC.\TIO
 I
 CANAD..'-. 
Technical Education in 
tatc Schoolb is a cOlnparativf'ly np,v 
in
titution. Until recently vocational training ,vas undcrtaken aftcr 
the conlpletion or at the expense of academic education. 
A\mong the first technical courses to be introduced into 
chool
 
,vere conlluerrial coursf's. Cour
e
 de
ignf'd to fit pupils for bu::,iness 
careers ,vere introduced into the hhrh school curricula of Ontario 
and :\fanitoba in IhDO, of nriti:,h Cohllnhia. in 1005, and 
askatrhf'''Tan 
and .L\lhf'rta about the :-\
une tilue, ,,'hih" the classical ('ollf'ges of QUl'hpc 
have long provided business cour
es and a school for highcr COlll- 
mercial studies 'Ya
 foundpd at 
Iontrcal in 19u7. 
"'\briculturc ,,,a
 at firðt tauf,!;ht in eoll<'gf'
, whieh providcd 
training for tcachcrs ,vho carricù the 
uhject into the school
. Apart 
fronl ccrtain 
chools in Quebec find industrial :5chool
 having farms 
attached in other provinces, the study of agriculturf' in ph'IlH'utary 
and '-'('f'ondary day 
('hools ha
 hithl'rto bf'cn confincd to school 
gardf'n
 and lessons on the :5cience of agriculture. 
Trainin
 in handicrafts \va
 introdu("l
d into t hf' school in the 
forTn of nutnual trainin
 fur hoy:-; and dOlllf':-\tic sciencc for girls. rrhe 
fonner ,vas originally intendpd nlcrf'ly as a training in the u:,e of tools, 
affordin
 an agreeahlc diver
ioll froln the ordinar) sehool ,,"ork and a 
UH'ans by ,,-hich the boy could gain 
omc iùea of his lllcchanical 
capacities. .r\.. fOrIll of manual training \vas introduced into Ontario 
schoo!:' in 1883, and in 1891 into Xo" a Heoti
l, ,vhf're it ,vas luade 
cOlllpul:-;ory for tpaehers in training in Ib93, and into the \vestern 
provinces in th(' early years uf this century. By IDI5, Inanual train- 
ing cuurSC8 in Untario had branchcd out into industrial, technical 
and art I-'('hool:--, and in that year a lar
c Tcchnical Bchool \vas opened 
in Toronto. Evening technical cla!'ses, ,vhich ,vere organized in 
ncarly all the province
 in thp fir.;;:t yearR of the cpntury, carried out a 

chenle of actual vocational cour
PB. 
uch courses ,vcre for SOIDe 
tirHe givcn by ccrtain day :5chools in (!uebec. 'fhe iùea of part time 
day vocational courses i
 new to Canada. The .L\.dole:-;cent ,A..ct pasf-:ed 
in Ontario in 1919, Inakes part tilHe attenùance compulsory for 
:ldolescents from 14 to lö years of age ,vho have not attained matricu- 
lation standing or arc not attcnding full tinlP. By 1919, COlnnlf'rcial, 
agricultural and d0l11C:-\tic f'cience cour
e
 "'cre operating in all pro- 
vince.;; and other technical courscs in all but Prince Ed\yard Island. 
In 1919, the DonlÌnion Parlialncnt p:l
sed an Act offering assist- 
ance to thc provinces in promoting tpchnical education and a I)irector 
of 1"eehnical Education ,vas appointed under the :\Iinistcr of Labour. 
The provincial governmcnts accepted the offer and a technical 
education offi('pr has been appointed in all hut t,vo provinces. rrhe 
benefits of the Act arc extendcd to persons over 14 years who are not 
provided for by the ordinary day. schools; the agreement also excludes 
agricultural studies, the training of nur:;es and teachers for ordinary 
school:, and all ,york of university grade. The expenditure in 1919-20 
on technical education by local boards ,vas about 81,800,000, by 
provincial governments '
78,990 and by the federal governn1ent 
8337,498. Df'tails of teaching staff and enrolment of students are 
given in Table 9 on page 142. 
1842;-9 



130 


EDUCATION 


t.-Statlstical Summary of Education In Canada, by 


NUMBER OF PUPILS OR STUDENTS 


N.S. 


N.Rl 


106,982 


71,029 
54 
800 
263 


No. 


Type of Institution 


P.F.I. 


2,830 
255 
738 
1,348 
231 4 


812 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Elementary and secondary grades in publicly controlled 
Schools.. ....""."......"..." .......""..."......".. . 
Technical and vocational publicly controlled Schools-Day 
courses 3 . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . " . . " , . . . . . ." . ........."..... ". 
Technical and vocational Publicly controlled schools-Even- 
ing courses 3 ." . . . . . . ... . '.' 
Normal Schools............. 
Classical Colleges (Quebec).. . " 
Affiliated and professional colleges. . . . . . . . 
Universities. .. . .. . ... . . . . . , . . _ 
Schools for the Blind and Deaf Mutes.. .. 
Other publicly controlled in
titutions. .. .. 
Private business colleges-Day courses 3.... . 
Private bu:-;Ïne8s colleges- Night courses 3. . " 
Private elementary and secondary schools 3....... . 
All (day) in
titutions... .... .. . . . 
All (night) institutions. " . " " . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grand Total-(excluding duplicates). 
Total Popu!atioll in 1911. . . . . . ." "...."".. 
Total Population of Prairie Provinces in t916.... . . 


18,187 
22 
18,209 
93,728 


967 
59 
2,242 
112,763 
2,889 
115,652 
492,338 


494 
164 


72,652 
964 
73,616 
351,889 


17,587 


. " I 
. . 


522 


78 
22 


DISTRIBUTION OF THE PUPILS IN ELEMENTARY A:KD 


N.S. N.B.1i 
52,491 31,784 
54,491 33,136 
97,844 62,895 
49,467 
48,377 
9,138 2,025 
3,024 
6,114 
1,213 
64,891 32,004 
42,091 32,916 
46,194 
18,722 


No. 


P.E.1. 


18 Number of boys enrolled.... ."_ 
19 Number of girls enrolled.. 
20 Total in elementary grades...... 
21 Boys in elementary grades.. . 
22 Girls in elementary grades... . . . 
23 Total in secondary grades.... 
24 Boys in secondary grades. . . . . . . . . 
25 Girls in secondary grades. . . . . . . . . . " " . . . . . . . " . . . . 
26 Total in secondary grades in secondary schools... 
27 Boys in secondary grades in secondary schools....... 
28 Girls in secondary grades in secondary schools. . . .. . . 
29 Number of pupils in graded schools..... . ........ 
30 Number of pupils in ungraded schools........ . . 
31 Number of pupils in rural schools...." .. . " . . . " . . . 
32 N urn ber of pupils in village, town and city schools. .. . 


8,882 
8,705 
16,787 


BOO 


6,463 
11 , 350 
11.350 
6,463 


IF or the whole year. 21918 figures. 3Incomplete. 445ofthesearefrom New Brunswick, 10 Crom P.E.I- 
Many of these take the work in Elementary schools and oC these latter the sex is not given. The num. 
classical colleges which have 7,711 btudents, a large number of whom are in secondary grades. 8lnclud. 
9lnduding technical and vocational schools, 1,061; arts and trades, 1,966. 1 0 ln Quebec most of these 
schools, 2,719, schoob of agriculture 497; schools for higher commercial stu dies, 126; dairy school, 325 
independpnt schools and include elementary schools, 5,952; model schools, 10,382, and academies, 



FDCC.1 'TIO..Y STA. Tl8TICS OP CA." ..tD.t 


131 


Prcnlll(,(,s. 1119. or latfst )ur rel..Þrtt'd. 


ATTESDINlJ EDUC.\TIOSAL I
BTITUTIOy.;8. 


Quebec Ontario I \1 ani toba 
N;k. AJ berta B.C. Kine Provinces No 
u
. 003 8 564.655 123,452 164.219 121.567 72.006 1, 68
1, 590 
425 4,505 115 55 1,099 990 7,093 
3 .lI
il 37.370 l,b
M 411 1,
57 2.44'" 50,331 
1.223 1,329 593 1,00S 4

 404 5,613 
;. ill - - - - - 7.711 
3.027 10 5.291 1.841 60 634 55 9.141 
3.M9 9,8t1::! 2,013 1,637 1,106 1,530 2
, 1
7 
54Y 40,1 159 - - - 1,344 
".095 11 - - - - - 8,095 
(2.244)12 
,1l7 2,5.i2 627 f';
 141 16,098 1 
(ï9::!) 12 3,762 1,55') JOO 703 104 7.551 1 
43.UlJIi" - - 2.Si3 2,6.32 - 51. 743 I 
j09.513 594.194 130.i2!) 170.529 128.404 75.414 I, tH2.093 1
 
7.455 41. 132 3.44
 !'01 2,2tiO 2.;),)2 61,518 I 
'-llli,961" 6:;.i. 326 I:U. iii"! I ï I .3:m 130.61i4 77 . 966 1, !-ï3.611 1 
2.003. 
'I
 2. 523. '!7-l -I:i:t.61-t -192. n
 37-1.663 392. thO 7 .tit, G;)
 I 
- - 5;..'I.1'\bO II i . t\:J,; 96,5'-5 - - 1 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
S 
9 
o 
1 
2 
J 
4 
5 
6 
7 


::'ECO'D.\RT Pl"BLICLY CO
THOLLED ::)c HOOLR 
Queb('(7 Ontario I Manitoha 8a.s..... Alberta B.C. Nine Provin('(.q 
o. 

36.fl33 281,462 83,916 61 , 201} 3,1). 954 79
,628 lR 

55.156 283,193 80.303 60,361 36,052 811.404 19 
4....1.669 523.236 115,456 155,219 113,635 65.928 1,632,669 20 
260.367 33,562 21 
262.550 32.638 22 
10.420 41. 4 1 !I 7,996 9.000 i,9.J2 6,078 94, 808 23 
15,09;)1 2,392' 24 
20,643' 3,414' 25 
40.477 6.809 4,751 5....06 26 
15.095 1,910 2,392 ?- 

I 
20.643 2.841 3.414 28 
80.563 6h,329 61,639 29 
42. "
9 53,238 10,367 30 
217.129 93,943 53.238 31, 110 31 
34 7, 52û 70,276 68.329 40.896 32 


and 5 from B.C. iF or the six months ended June 30. IT he true totals for sccondary grades are given 
ber given b
' sex u.re attending 
econdary 
choolg. 7Inclusi\'e of inde;endent schools but exclu
ive of 
ing mat('rnalschools, 5,
')8: elcIH('nhry school"!, 263,391; model <.choo18, 93.895, and aeadcmies, 84,919. 
aJ'e included in the 
tati
tiCd of the universitil'H and cl
sical COlJ("gL
. 11lncluding draft and confection 
and "night school
," 4.4
S. 12lncluded in private 
chooh., (,'tc. 13ln Quebl"C most of thl'
e are called 
27.66:? 


1842;-91 



132 


EDUCA'l'ION 


t.-Statlstlcal Summary of Education In Canada, by 


ATTENDANCE OF THE PUPILS IN ELEMENTARY AND 


No. 


P.E.I. 


33 Aggregate number of days attended during the year....... . 
34 Average number attending each day. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
35 A verage number of days schools were open during year.. . . .. . 
36 Average number of days pupils attended during year..... . . . . 
37 A verage number of days lost by pupils during year. . ... .. . . . . 
38 Percentage of total attendance in average attendance....... 
39 Percentage proportion of secondary to elementary grades. . .. . 


1,742,007 
10,908 
159.70 
99.05 
100.95 
62.10 
4.77 


N.S. 


11,631,150 
65,906 
176.48 
108.72 
91.28 
61.60 
9.34 


N.B. 


8,697,828 1 
45,797 1 
189.92 1 
122.45 1 
77.55 1 
64.48 1 
3.22' 


TEACHERS AND ACCOMMODATION I
 


No 


P.E.I. 


40 Teachers in publicly controlled schools...................... 
41 Male teachers...... . _ . _ .. ............................ _ . . . . . 
42 Female teachers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
43 Number of school districts having schools in operation....... 
44 Number of school districts without schools in operation...... 
45 N urn ber of school houses...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
46 N um ber of class rooms in operation. . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . 
47 Number of graded class rooms 1D operation.................. 
48 N urn ber of ungraded one room schools.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
49 Average number of pupils to a class room...... '" ........... 
50 A verage number of pupils to a class room in graded schools. . 
51 Average number of pupils to a class room in ungraded schools 


594 
102 
492 
466 
9 
467 
601 
195 
406 
29.73 
33.41 
27.95 


N.S. N.B.3 
3,012 2,107 
163 136 
2,849 1,971 
1,673 1,299 
124 
1,772 
2,812 1,950 
1,433 782 
1,379 1,168 
38.10 33.28 
45.28 40.92 
30.45 28.19 


EXPENDITURE IN PUBLICLY 


No 


52 Total expenditure on education........ . . .......... '" ...... . $ 
53 Total expenditure on education by Government.... . . . . . . . . . S 
54 Total expenditure on education by ratepayers, etc...... ... . . . $ 
55 Expenditure on secondary schoolA. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 
56 Expenditure on elementary schools...... ...... . . . _ ...... S 
57 Expenditure on teachers' salaries...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 
58 Expenditure on teachers' salaries in secondary schools..... . . S 
59 Expenditure on teachers' salaries in elementary schools......$ 
60 A verage annual cost per pupil enrolled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 
61 A verage annual cost per pupil enrolled in average attendance S 


P.E.I. N.S. N.B. 
285,960 2,097,593 1,530,256 
187,488 432,496 277,996 
98,742 1,665,097 1,252,260 


16.26 
26.18 


19.61 
31.83 


21.54 
33.41 


For the whole year. 2 1918 figures. 3For the six months ended June 30. 



EDL"C.i\ TIO
V ST..1 TIS TICS OF C.tLV
\D
t 133 
Pro,hlC('!J 1919, or latest year report('d.-concluded. 
SKCO
DARY PUBLICLY CONTROLLED ScnOOIA. 
Quebec. Ontario t Manitoba. Sask. Alberta. B.C. Nine Provinces. No. 
18,490,031 13,478,701 8,960,593 - 33 
365,803 328.lfl7 S3,5tri 98.791 i4.776 56,692 1,130,434 34 
185 157.15 180,26 157,88 - 35 
].16.26 94.51 111.00 124.30 - 36 
53.74 lo.
.491 89.00 75.70 - 37 
75.23 5S.16 67.68 62.16 61.51 78.73 64.73 38 
8. 03 1 6.92 5.80 6.99 9.23 5.81 39 
PUBLICLY CO"lTROLLJ:D ScHOOLS. 
Quebec. Ontario.' Manitoba. Sa.ik. Alberta. n.c. Nine Provinces. No. 
16,213 14,267 3,479 &,550 4,907 2,332 53,456 40 
2.473 1,603 669 1,269 I,US2 41\6 8,043 41 
13,740 12,001 2,810 5,117 3,820 1,846 45.249 42 
2,040 3,941 2,796 582 - 43 
- 204 250 15 - 44 
7,589 6,995 1,838 873 - 45 
1:!,b24 14,267 3,479 5.005 4,128 2,261 47,327 41; 
1,849 1,552 1,697 - 47 
5,000 1 , 6:JO 2,576 564 - 48 
35.63 39.58 35.48 30.23 29.45 31.85 35.70 49 
43.58 44.04 36.32 - 50 
26.31 20'70 18.38 - 51 
eo"'TROLLKD SCHOOIA. 
Quebec. Ontario.- Manitoba. Bask. Alberta. B.C. Nine Provinces. No. 
16,84-1,684 18,5öS,b90 8,b27,oro 11,783,943 8,805,529 4,228,720 72,992,667 52 
2,145,976 1,31;),918 691, 
"'1 1,339,019 713,O
 1,791,154 s,895,1l1 53 
14.6U8,708 17,272,972 8.135, 111 10,44-1,924 8,092,446 2,437,566 64,100,556 54 
3,412,167 350,6hl - 55 
15,176,723 11,433,2;,8 - 56 
11, 145,6
O 3,296,035 5,048,460 3,560,318 2,710,554 - 57 
2, 118,529 235,460 384,:!65 - 58 
9,027,151 48.3,000 2,326.289 - 59 
29.38 31.43 54.09 45.38 52.S9 58.73 35.06 60 
37.10 52.98 79.90 75.46 85.99 74.59 54.16 61 



134 


EDUCATION 


2.-Number of Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada by Provinces, 1901-1919 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (All publicly controlled schools except Prince of Wales College 
for year ended June 30). 


Teachers. Pupils Enrolled. 
Schools. 
Male. Female. Total. Boys. Girls. Total. 
474 299 290 589 11,319 9,460 20,77 
474 293 295 588 11, 271 9,532 20,80 
480 274 298 572 10,845 9,111 19,95 
480 268 294 562 10,259 8,772 19,03 
475 246 324 570 10,427 8,845 19,27 
478 246 327 573 10,196 8,790 18,98 
479 227 345 572 10,213 8,823 19,03 
476 205 375 580 9,449 8,563 18,01 
479 200 395 595 9,578 8,495 18,07 
478 188 403 591 9,573 8,359 17,93 
478 178 413 591 9,152 8,245 17,39 
474 162 428 590 8,995 8,083 17,07 
475 161 422 583 9,186 8,369 17,55 
474 162 426 588 9,514 8,555 18,06 
477 152 434 586 9,714 8,688 18,40 
476 138 457 595 9,565 8,797 18,36 
473 110 491 601 9,291 8,899 18,19 
468 100 497 597 9,101 8,760 17,86 
466 102 492 594 8,882 8,705 17,58 


Year. 


1901. . 
1902. . 
1903. . 
1904. . 
1905. . 
1906. . 
1907 . 
1908. . 
1909. . 
1910. . 
1911. . 
1912. . 
1913. . 
1914. . 
1915. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
1918. . 
1919. . 


Average 
Attendance 
of Pupils. 
Per 
No. cent. 


9 
3 
6 
1 
2 
6 
6 
2 
3 
2 
7 
8 
5 
9 
2 
2 
o 
1 
7 


12,330 
12,884 
12,112 
11, 722 
11 , 627 
11 , 903 
11 , 543 
11,647 
11 , 543 
11 , 632 
10,511 
10,916 
11, 003 
11,170 
11, 694 
11 , 347 
11,319 
11 , 334 
10,908 


59.34 
61.93 · 
60.69 
61.59 
60.33 
62.69 
60.63 
64.66 
63.86 
64.86 
60.40 
63.91 
62.67 
61.81 
63.54 
61.79 
62.22 
63.50 
62.00 


controlled schools for the year ended 


N ov A SCOTIA (Elementary and secondary publicly 
July 31). 
49,768 
50,247 
49,789 
48,536 
50,465 
50, 198 
49,849 
49,906 
50,758 
50,918 
50,985 
51,498 
52, 105 
52,656 
53,649 
53,944 
53,560 
52,731 
52,491 


1901. . 
1902. . 
1903. . 
1904. . 
1905. . 
1906. . 
1907. . 
1908. . 
1909. . 
1910. . 
1911. . 
1912. . 
1913. . 
1914. . 
1915. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
1918. . 
1919. . 


2,387 
2,394 
2,395 
2,331 
2,429 
2,446 
2,465 
2,516 
2,577 
2,579 
2,639 
2,662 
2,692 
2,724 
2,795 
2,837 
2,856 
2,859 
2,812 


540 
485 
441 
388 
386 
366 
354 
355 
352 
339 
331 
293 
278 
272 
256 
246 
198 
185 
163 


1,952 
2,007 
2,053 
2,053 
2,180 
2,212 
2,272 
2,309 
2,342 
2,384 
2,468 
2,511 
2,583 
2,620 
2,689 
2,773 
2,847 
2,852 
2,849 


2,492 
2,492 
2,494 
2,441 
2,566 
2,578 
2,626 
2,664 
2,694 
2,723 
2,799 
2,804 
2,861 
2,892 
2,945 
3,019 
3,045 
3,037 
3,012 


48,642 
48,812 
48,979 
48,350 
49,787 
50,134 
50,158 
50,199 
50,922 
51,117 
51,925 
52,486 
53,164 
53,695 
54, 119 
55,245 
55,472 
55,361 
54,491 


98,410 
99,059 
Q8,768 
96,886 
100,252 
100,332 
100,007 
100, 105 
101,680 
102,035 
102,910 
103,984 
105,269 
106,351 
107, 768 
109,189 
109,032 
108,094 
106,802 


53,643 
55,438 
55,213 
54,000 
56,342 
59,165 
57,173 
58,343 
61,787 
65,630 
61. 250 
63,640 
65,686 
66,599 
70,361 
69,227 
70, 118 
67,923 
65,906 


54.5 . 
55.9 
55.9 
55.8 
56.3 
58.9 
57.1 
58.2 
60.7 
64.3 
59.5 
61.2 
62.4 
62.6 
65.3 
63.4 
64.3 
62.8 
61.6 


NEW BRUNSWICK 
(Elementary and secondary publicly controlled schools for second term ended June 30) 
]901.. 1,741 353 1,488 1,841 30,870 29,550 60,420 37,717 58.34 
1902.. 1,736 348 1,477 1,825 30,767 29,710 60,477 38,736 59.62 
1903.. 1,726 341 1,474 1,815 30,172 29,141 59,313 37,55258.79 
1904.. 1,722 313 1,503 1,816 29,892 28,867 58, 759 
6,920 58.50 
1905.. 1,750 304 1,562 1,866 30,854 29,546 60,400 35,675 59.60 
1906.. 1,762 302 1,577 1,879 30,913 29,768 60,681 37,540 61.86 
1907.. 1,766 253 1,621 1,874 30,289 29,262 59,551 35,36759.38 
1908.. 1,767 259 1,602 1,861 30,600 29,795 60,395 36,972 61.22 
1909..1,854 251 1,691 1,942 31,489 30,448 61,937 38,73162.53 
1910..1,860 233 1,741 1,974 31,933 31,061 62,994 39,82263.21 
1911..1,885 221 1,754 1,975 31,871 31,202 63,073 39,21562.17 
1912.. 1,906 201 1,811 2,012 32,062 31,502 63,564 40,612 6.1.89 
1913.. 1,897 193 1,809 2,002 31,924 31,656 63,580 41,276 64.91 



EDrCA1'/V.Y ST..IT/STICS OF' C..L\..lD.l 


IJ5 


2.-.:\ umber of :Schools, 1'ea('hers and PIII}!I..; In 
an:ula by Pro\lnt.'('!iI, 
1901-1919- -('on. 


NEW BnuxsWICK-concluded. 


) car. 


. \ veragc 
Tl'achers. Pupils Enrolled. ..\ttt'ndanco 
of Pupils. 
Schools. 
Per 

Il\lc. li'('male Total Boys. Girls. Total. No. Cl' n t. 
1, 9::!
 201 1,831 2,0:1
 3
,
44 32,Oû6 64,310 40.KS2 63.57 
I,Uü4 IS4 1 , 922 2, lOt) 33,437 3:
 , 068 66, 50.; 44, 6S;
 H7. 18 
I,U9tj Hltj 1,9t).j 2, WI 3:
, O

) a
, \59 66,:>4S 4a.914 65.98 
l,mn 167 1 , 962 2,129 32,02.; 32,7.jl 64,776 42,884 66.

 
1 ,9'\li 149 1,9i3 2, 122 31 , 8:>
 :
2 , !}90 64.S4R 44,970 69.41 
1,950 136 1,971 2, lOi 31, ï&t 3:J, 13t1 (H,920 -!6, :
58 71.41 


191-t . 
191:;. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
1918. . 
1919 . 


QUEBEC (El('mf'ntary anti :\Jod('l 
l'hools 2LlHl 
\cadl'lI1iL's for ,}'car ('ndl'd Junc 30). 
Imn. . 5,970 1,268 8,924 10,192 l,!>3, '\01 161 , UbO 314,881 232,2.'),) 73.70 
t90:? 6, O:
2 1,236 9,OS:
 1O,3H} 156,304 164,9S4 321,2sS 236,924 n.74 
190.J. . 6,112 1,827 9,226 10, 55:
 15
, !)87 Wi,20t; 321), 18;
 24:J,123 74.,33 
tn04. . ti .)0).) 1,304 9,433 10,737 IfjO,014 1 (;U, ti.')2 329, ()(;[; 246,3 H.I 7:;.ü:J 
,--.... 
190.) H,2S8 1,336 9,ti07 10, 94:
 162,US2 172,786 :J:J5,76S :! 5." 420 71).07 
1!IO,i 6, :
H4 1,422 9,779 11,201 16f;, Uß7 174,S41 341 ,80S 2():
, III 7H.97 
1907. . ß,417 1 , 527 10, 0;)0 11,577 170,193 177,421 347,614 266, ,
lO 79.54 
190\ 6,4:J5 1,579 10,192 11,771 171,.Hl 181,473 352,944 271,019 76.79 
IHml. . 6,.

.) 1,600 10 , 526 12,126 179,146 187,86(. 367,012 2S:>, 729 77.85 
1910. . 6,617 1,704 10,677 12,381 182,431 192,116 374,547 2!)3, O:
:; 78.2:; 
1911 ti,;99 1,786 11.104 12,MW 189, Hfi 200,007 389,12:J aOl, (.78 77.52 
l!H2. . 6,720 I,S77 11 , 332 13,209 193,2fi3 20ti,773 400, mH a 14, .,20 78.62 
Iü13. . 6,798 1,H52 11,649 13,öOl 19S,492 213.292 411, 784 

24, 447 79.77 
1 !) 14 6,9tH 2,052 12,
!):! 14,344 21O,9:W 224, !)58 435,89.3 344,547 79.44 
Hit.; 7,040 2,184 12,61:! 14,7mi 217,GHO nO,427 448,OQ7 360,
97 80.54 
1!Hö 7,09,'} 2,26;
 12,813 15,07H 22.3,42,j 239,032 464,447 37:J,:m4 80.39 
1!1l7. . 7,19.> 2,265 13,373 15,6:JS 223,36
 240,028 46:
,390 367,4()S 79.29 
Hlth 7, 2,'}.1 2,:m4 13,800 16,194 224,248 24:J, :?ft0 4fi7, .50S a(;!),0;}7 78.94 
191H 7,366 2,473 13,740 16,213 233,834 252,3t.ì7 486, 201 365,803 75.2:J 
U:\'TARIO (Elem('ntary and Secondary puhlicly ('ontrollt'd schools for calendar years up to 
1916 since which date the Secondary School year has ended on June 30). 
HJOI 6,1ß6 2,H66 7, 134 9,
UcJ 247,3:>1 233,778 4
2,5a4 
7.5, 234 55.81 
1002 6,196 2,717 7,430 10, 207 244,509 234,151 490,860 275,910 56.21 
1 !}():
 6,2b1 2,648 7,H77 10,32:> 242,618 233,3
2 487,8RO 275,385 56.44 
1
04 6,315 2,584 7,886 10,470 240,674 232,016 484,351 273,815 56.53 
It105. . 6,361 2,461 8,137 10, 59S 242,OGI 233,094 487,635 281,674 57.5G 
H.lOü 6,3
2 2,376 8, 368 10,744 243,572 234,812 492,544 285,330 57.81 
l:J07 . . 6.411 2,304 8,616 10,920 243, .
93 234,956 493,791 284,998 57.69 
H.lO'\. . 6,479 2,379 8,7b9 11, 16
 248,m2 237, 101 501,641 292,052 58.22 
190!} 6,525 2,279 9, 127 11 , 406 250, 6.
2 2:18,751 507,219 29.5,352 58.43 
1910 6,553 2,233 9,472 11 , 70:; 2.jO, 327 241,430 510,700 299,747 .58.69 
1911. . 6,693 2,145 9,871 12,016 2.53,220 244,708 518,60,) 305,648 58.94 
HH2.. 6,738 2,144 10,127 12,271 2.56,532 24
, 857 526, 9.
1 315,255 59.82 
191:
. . 6,770 2,244 10,505 12,749 263,1.54 256,379 54:!, 822 330,474 60.88 
1914.. 6,841 2,288 10,914 13,202 271,677 264,696 561 , 927 346,509 61.66 
1915. . 6,892 2,322 11 , 182 13,504 278,508 271,792 569,030 365,959 64.31 
1916. . 6,923 2,007 11, 730 13,737 273,676 209,214 560,340 355,364 65.44 
1917. . 6,950 1,913 12,141 14,054 280,597 281,268 561,865 369,081 65.69 
1918. . 6,995 1,663 12,604 14,
67 281,4tì2 283,193 564, 6,55 328,197 58.16 
The dbcrepancy betwecn the total of pupils enrolled in Ontario from 1901 to 1916 and 
the number by scx for the same ypars is due to the in{'lu:-.;ion of kindergarten pupils in the 
total. The number by sex of these kindergartt'n pupils is net availahlt:'. 



136 


EDUCATION 


2.-X"umber of Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada by Provinces, 
1901-1919-con. 
MANITOBA (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended June 30). 


Year. 


Teachers. Pu 
Schools. 
:Male. Female. Total. Boys. 
1,416 618 1,051 1,669 - 
1, 488 629 1,220 1,849 - 
1,584 628 1,466 2,094 - 
1,669 682 1,536 2,218 - 
1,761 597 1,675 2,272 - 
1,847 596 1,769 2,365 - 
1,943 595 1,885 2,480 - 
2,014 598 1,928 2,526 - 
2,105 637 2,025 2,662 - 
2,227 621 2,153 2,774 - 
2,341 651 2,217 2,868 - 
2,430 500 2,464 2,964 - 
2,688 474 2,390 2,864 - 
2,727 598 2,378 2,976 - 
2,888 491 2,500 2,991 - 
3,043 530 2,494 3,024 - 
3,089 524 2,573 3,097 - 
3.256 - - - - 


Average 
pils Enrolled. Attendance 
of Pupil
. 
Per 
Girls. Total. No. cen t. 
51,888 27,550 52.9 
54,056 28,306 52.4 
57,409 36,479 63.5 
58,574 31, 326 53.4 
63,287 33,794 53.4 
64,123 34,947 54.5 
67,144 37,279 55.5 
71,031 40,691 57.3 
73,044 41,405 56.7 
76,247 43,885 57.5 
80,848 45,303 56.3 
83,679 48,163 57.6 
93,954 58,778 62.6 
100,963 68,250 67.5 
103,796 66,561 64.1 
106, 588 69,209 64.9 
109, 925 69,968 63.65 
114,662 72,072 62.86 


1901. . 
1902. . 
1903. . 
1904. . 
1905. . 
1906. . 
1907. . 
1908. . 
1909. . 
1910. . 
1911. . 
1913. . 
1914. . 
1915. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
1918. . 
1919. . 


NOTE.-The Manitoba school year from 1901 to 1911 ended December 31st. Owing to 
a change in the date of the school year no report was issued for 1912. 


SASKATCHEWAN (Elementary and secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended 
December 31). 
1906. . 873 563 733 1,296 16,376 14,899 31,275 15,770 50.31 
1907. . 1,101 1,470 19,454 18,168 37.622 19,841 52.48 
1908. . 1,418 2, 180 24,773 22,313 47,086 26,081 55.00 
1909. . 1,705 959 1,335 2,335 28,930 26,186 55,116 28,998 52.25 
1910. . 1,925 1,074 1,598 2,726 34,084 31,308 65,392 34,517 52.80 
1911. . 2,123 1,316 2,175 3,547 37,692 34,568 72,260 38,278 53.00 
1912. . 2,459 1,245 2,122 3,434 42,380 39,516 81,896 49,329 60.31 
1913. . 2,763 1,413 2,739 4,236 52,679 48,784 101,463 56,005 55.10 
1914. . 3,073 1,552 2,949 4,600 59,340 54,645 113,985 65,009 57.02 
1915. . 3,388 1,609 3,340 5,078 63, 71 0 59,152 122,862 72,113 58.70 
1916. . 3,629 1,490 4,187 5,787 66,497 62,942 129,439 71 , 522 55.30 
1917. . 3,816 1,304 4,430 5,853 72,691 69,926 142,617 88,758 62.24 
1918. . 3,963 1,015 5,047 6,233 76,896 74,430 151,326 91,010 60.14 
1919. . 4,183 1,269 5,117 6,550 83,916 80,303 164,219 98,791 62. If) 
ALBERTA (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended December 
31). 
1906. . 570 280 644 924 14,701 14,083 28,784 14,782 51.00 
1907. . 694 318 892 1,210 17,707 16,631 34,388 17,310 54.00 
1908. . 851 435 1,033 1,468 19,516 20,137 39,653 18,923 48.00 
1909. . 970 570 1,245 1,815 23, 701 22,347 46,048 22,225 48.24 
1910. . 1,195 716 1,501 2,217 28,406 26,901 55,307 29,611 53.54 
1911. . 1,392 867 1,784 2,651 31,753 29,907 61,660 32,556 52.08 
1912. . 1,600 956 2,098 3,054 36,717 34,327 71,044 39,226 55.21 
1913. . 1,705 980 2,314 3,294 41,449 38,460 79,909 45,888 57.41 
1914. . 2,027 1,375 2,603 3,978 46,769 43,141 89,910 54,582 60.71 
1915. . 2,138 1,418 2,800 4,218 50, 140 47,146 97,286 61,112 62.81 
1916. . 2,170 1,355 3,252 4,607 50,375 48,826 99,201 60,271 60.75 
1917. . 2,321 1,267 3,866 5,133 54,446 53,281 107, 727 65,374 60.68 
1918. . 2,766 1,090 4,565 5,655 56,011 55,098 111,109 68,489 61.64 
1919. . 2,796 1, 082 3.820 4,902 61,206 60,361 121,567 74,776 61.51 



ED
.CA 7 1 10.\ 87 1 ..1 TIS7'ICS OF C lN
l])..1. 


137 


2 -
l1mber of Schools, Tearbers and PUI)iI..; In Can:ula, I)) Prmhl(,(,!O\, 
1901-I!H9 -concludeò. 
BRITISH COLCMBIA (Eh'mentary a.nd S('eondary publicly controll('d schools for year ended 
Junp 30). 


A v('m
(' 
Teachers. Pupils ('nrolled. A tt('ndance 
of Pupils. 
Se hools. 
Per 
'[ale. F('male. Total. Boys. G iris. Total. No. cent. 
318 1
:; 343 543 12,069 11 , 546 23,615 15,335 64.94 
3:
7 194 355 570 12,254 11 , 6-17 2:
, 901 15,
OS ti6.13 
346 HW 391 607 12,559 11, 940 24,499 16,627 67.87 
349 182 413 624 13,330 12,457 25,7S7 17,071 ûG. 16 
360 177 452 663 14,104 13,250 '27,354 18,871 68.94 
374 176 477 690 U,524 13,H98 2
,522 19,809 68.39 
3
1 163 530 735 15,347 14,692 30,039 20,459 66.63 
413 UU 576 806 17 , 162 16,152 33,314 23,473 69.62 
447 213 628 gOO 18,6.)9 17,56':\ 36,227 25,6û2 69.97 
4!J7 2

 749 1,037 20,351 19,:U9 39,670 28,423 70.54 
533 323 8.")6 1,179 23, 162 21,783 44,94.1 32,517 71.27 
574 3.31 1,002 1 , 3:>3 25,734 24,234 49,9GH 37, :J84 74.88 
6-14 40G 1,191 1,5H7 29,5.14 27,R40 57,384 43,072 75.12 
716 4\,) 1, ,
14 1,859 31. R!JO 30,067 61,957 49,090 79.30 
767 521 1,44;) 1,966 33,059 31,205 64,264 52,494 81.73 

no 52:3 1,541 2,064 32,874 31,696 64,570 50,880 78.78 
84S 46S 1 , ü!)6 2,124 32, -ISO 32,638 65,118 52,577 80.74 
85:> 436 I,S1O 2,246 33,540 33,976 67,516 54,748 81.08 
873 486 l,b46 2,332 35,94 36,052 72 006 56 6!J2 78.73 


Y ('.ir. 


1001. . 
I!W2. . 
190:J. . 
1904. . 
190,
. . 
1906. . 
1907.. 
HIO,
. . 
1909. . 
uno.. 
1911. . 
1912. . 
1913. . 
1914. . 
1915. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
HHS.. 
1919. . 


N(JI'E.-The totals for teachers in Hriti
h Columbia from 1901 to 19W are gTI'ater than 
the sum of th(' male and the female teachers because no information as to the sex of high 
school tt'ach('rs i., availahlt'. This di:-ercpancy also app('ars in the Summary for Canada. 


1901. . 
1902. . 
1903. . 
1904. . 
1905. . 
1906. . 
1907. . 
1903. . 
1909. . 
1910. . 
1911. . 
1912. . 
1913. . 
1914. . 
1915. . 
191ß. . 
1917. . 
1915. . 


18,472 
18,657 
lR,924 
19,0

 
19,424 
21,09t. 
21,657 
22,371 
23, 187 
2 
, 931 
24,1\83 
23,133 
26,174 
27,4
6 
28, IRS 
2
,S24 
29,483 
30,23ß 


SCMMARY I'OR CANADA (1901-1918). 


5,9f9 ( 1,18.., 
5,962 11,867 
5,848 12,585 
5, 7fl t
, 118 
5,507 f3,937 
6,327 5,886 
5,741 6,
11 
5,991 6,804 
7,06129,514 
7,596 50,678 
7,818 35,61t2 
7,229 51,451 
8,117 55,676 
8,861 57,
99 
9,f44 38,80f 
8, 709 41 , 218 
8, f f J,3, t60 
7,556 lt5,721 


27,126 
27,8t>U 
28,üt>0 
28,908 
29,4S3 
32,263 
33,457 
35,027 
36,480 
38,104 
40,502 
38,71f 
43,872 
46,318 
4S. 1;')t) 
.50,307 
51,601 
53,438 


505,178 
605,
5", 
504,970 
502,705 
610,898 
647,447 
556,61t5 
670,858 
592,91
 
608,023 
6'6,951 
647,181 
678,636 
715,0 7 
739,877 
745,445 
758,452 
765,847 


494,056 1, Olì2, 527 
498,836 1,070,444 
4,Q9,759 1,074,008 
6()(), 114 1 , 073, 054 
607,308 1,093, 9lì8 
641,525 1, 1m, 0.')5 
649,111 1, IS9, 142 
665,693 1,224,090 
682,585 1,266,356 
601,611 1,304,824 
622,345 1,350,821 
645,778 1,314,521 
677,944 1,463,44.5 
711,823 1,546,33
 
755,617 1,595,167 
749,211 1,615,892 
774,263 1,639,303 
787,068 1,662.842 


6.')4,Oh4 
6G4,006 
676,491 
ü71, 173 
693,403 
742,357 
7,50,480 
779,201 
811,432 
846,302 
866,956 
870,882 
966,014 
1,037,166 
1,107,563 
1,102,4.50 
1,13.5,788 
1,105,696 


61.56 
62.03 
63.92 
ß2.55 
63.88 
63.61 
ü3 . 11 
63 . 66 
64.08 
64.81 
64.18 
66.25 
fj6,01 
67.07 
ü9.4:3 
68.23 
69.28 
66.49 


KOTE.-From 1901 to 190.5, inclusive, the Summary for Canada comprised the seven 
provinccs of Prince Edward Island, Noya Scotia, Xew Bruns\\ick, QUf'bec, Ontario, Mani- 
toba and British Columbia. The two provinCC!i of Baskatchewan and Alberta were formed 
in 1905, and from 1906 all the nine provincps are included, with thp exception of Manitoba. for 
1912, when no Education Report was issued by that province. The sex of the teachers in 
the Secondary schools of Saskatchewan is not givf'n, and in 
Ianitoba the sex of the pupils 
was not given for any of the }ears, while Ontario did not give the sex of its kindergarten 
pupils unti11917. In the Summary, therefore, these defects are indicated by printing certain 
items in italics. A general summary for 1919 for all elementary and secondary schoolf 
under public control is given in Table 1, pages 13
133. 



138 


EDUCATION 


3.-Teachers in Training in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and 
Manitoba, 1901-1919, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1906-1919. 
N OVA SCOTIA. 
N umbcT of Teachers in Training in the PrOi:incial ]It ormal College. 


1. ear. Enrol- Year. Enrol- Year. Enrol- Year. Enrol- 
ment. ment. ment. mente 
1901.. . . . . 240 1906...... . 154 1911. . . . . . . 268 1916....... 388 
1902..... . 182 1907...... . 142 1912.... ... 293 1917...... . 263 
1903..... . 145 1908 161 1913.... ... 302 1918....... 260 
1904..... . 191 1909...... . 215 1914. . :. . . . 318 1919. . .. . . . 25.5 
1905... .. . 148 1910...... . 260 1915...... . 355 
NEW BRUNSWICK. 
Number of Instructors and Teachers in training in the Normal School. 


TEACHERS IN TRAINING TEACHERS IN TRAINING 
IN NORMAL SCHOOL. IN NORMAL SCHOOL. 
ear. Instruct- Year. Instruct- 
ors. Male. Female. Total. ors. Male. Female. Total. 
901. . 11 41 155 196 1911. . .. . 16 46 324 370 
902. . 14 68 201 269 1912.... . 16 46 330 376 
903. . 16 35 189 224 1913..... 18 53 305 358 
904. . 19 35 253 288 1914.... . 16 45 312 357 
905. . - 54 231 285 1915 .... 16 52 299 351 
906. . 16 44 263 307 1916.... . 19 45 327 372 
907. . 18 45 315 360 1917.... . 18 41 331 372 
908. . 18 35 299 334 1918.... . 20 29 258 287 
909. . 18 53 290 343 1919.... . 19 13 250 263 
910. . 15 63 295 358 


Y 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


QUEBEC. 
Number of Teachers and Pupils in Normal Schools. 
NORMAL SCHOOLS 1901-1919. 


INSTRUCTORS. TEACHERS IN TRAINING. 

 ear. Schools. 
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. 
. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 31 27 58 97 256 353 
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 31 30 61 130 290 420 
............. .. 5 31 30 61 138 322 460 
............. .. 5 30 31 61 151 241 392 
.............. .. 5 32 30 62 142 274 416 
............. .. 5 35 27 62 143 280 423 
.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 6 34 38 72 159 308 467 
........ ....... 7 39 27 66 165 361 526 
............ .... 10 58 59 117 182 533 715 
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11 53 75 128 177 610 787 
.............. .. 11 50 79 129 174 666 840 
.............. .. 11 43 77 120 160 676 836- 
.............. .. 13 50 86 136 175 913 1,088 
............ .... 14 48 98 146 189 1,081 1,270 
.............. .. 14 54 131 185 191 1,121 1,312 
........ ...... 14 52 144 196 191 1,166 1,357 
...... .. .. . 14 52 144 196 180 1,181 1,361 
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 52 153 205 180 1,159 1,339 
........ .. 14 57 148 205 159 1,064 1,223 


ì 


Average Per 
attend- cent. 
ance. 


1,357 100.00 
1,361 100.00 
1,339 100.00 
1,135 92.80 
NarE.-In Prince Edward Island, teachers are trained in Prince of Wales College; the 
number of the students of this college training for teachers' diplomas in 1919-20 was 68 
men and 152 women, or a total of 220. In British Columbia, teachers are trained at the 
Normal Schools in Vancouver and Victoria. In 1919-20 there were enrolled in th('se 
schools 404 students, of whom 35 were men and 369 women. 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


345 
415 
455 
388 
410 
420 
462 
524 
710 
780 
835 


97.73 
98.81 
98.91 
98.98 
98.56 
99.29 
98.93 
99.62 
99.30 
99.11 
99.40 



ElJUCATIO.Y ST,.\ TIS'lïCS OF CA..\
..lD
l 


139 


3.-Tt'i\clu'r
 In 'I'ralnlng In 
O\a S('otia. 
e" Uruns\\ å(."". 'IUt'bt'(', Ontario au(1 

lal1ltoba. 1901-1919, SaskatdlC\\an and Ubertd, 1906-1919.
continu('d. 


O
"'TAUIO. 
Tearh'T8 traÏ1&cd from 1901 to 1919 inclusi'Ðl 


\ car. 


Provincial 
:Model Schools. N orIllal Schools. 
 ormnl Col1('g('s, Total. 
etc. Grand 
Total. 

lale. Fe- Total. )Iale. Fe'- Total. 
Iale. Fe- Total. 'Iale. Fe- 
nml('. male. male. malc. 
- - - - - - - - - - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 613 
333 R38 1,171 123 496 619 57 75 132 513 1,409 1,922 
305 843 1,14
 54 532 5\6 

7 90 127 396 1,465 1,861 
295 8<)- 1,122 22 282 304 45 121 1\36 362 1,230 1,592 
_I 
30S 901 l,20fl IH 288 306 45 125 170 371 1,314 1 ,(
'\.3 
3
fI 1,361 1,750 21 324 345 52 139 un 4tj2 1,824 2,2
6 
365 flfIS 1,360 1 2:1 405 428 1 - - - 31;8 1,400 1,7ÖS 
37 :?24 :?61 128 1,021 1,149 - - - lü5 1,245 1,410 
4.8 ,).)- C)-. 121 1,114 1,235 - - - 169 1,311 1,510 
__I _.õ) 
31 177 20
 121 1,1-15 1,266 - - - 1.C) 1,322 1,474 
eJ_ 

1 3G8 44!} 11-1: 950 1,064 - - - 195 1,318 1,513 
94 3.36 450 114 8-? H
6 - - - 208 1,228 1 ,4:
t) 
I... 
77 :.!
.:> 362 12-1: 1,077 1,201 - - - 201 1,362 1,563 
61 204 2(,.) 126 1,034 1 , 160 - - - 187 1,238 1,425 
43 167 210" 211 1,398 1,609 - - - 254 1,565 1,819 
14 131 14':> 137 1,156 1,293 - - - 151 1,287 1,43R 
5 157 16:! 59 1,455 1,514 - - - (H 1,612 1,676 
- 
6 86 44 1,056 1,100 1W 304 473 213 1,446 1,659 
4 77 81 203 1,04.3 1,248 2f17 262 j.3
. 504 1,384 1,888 


H}O 1... . . 
190:L. . 
190:3... . . 
1904.. . . 
190.3... . . 
190d... . 
1907-8.. . 
1908-9.. . 
1 !JOH-l 0.. 
191{}-11.. 
IBI1-12.. 
1912-13.. 
HH3-14.. 
1914-15.. 
1915-1b.. 
HH6-1ï.. 
1917-18.. 
If11S-19. . 
1919-20. 


IPrevious to I!JOS thf'l"f' "ere .).) County 'lode! 
chools in Ontario in addition to three 
:!\ormal Schools and the Xormal C'olh.'gc. Th(' function of th('se :Modcl Schools was the 
trainin
 of third cla...s t('aeh('rs, "hill' that of the Xormal S('hooh, was g('n('rally the train- 
ing of second cln:5s and kind('rgart('n t('achcrs, and that of the Colleg;(', the trainin
 of first 
class and secondary t('achers. In If10S, mo
t of the County ::\Iodcl 
ehool.. wcre abolished 
and the duty of training teachers for all the Public and 
t'paratf' 
chools l''\cept those in 
the dbtricts and poorer sections of the pro' ince "as placed upon the Xormal Schools, which 
'\ere incr('ased in number from 3 to 7. 
The Dcpartmcnt of Education ceas('d to rf'port th(' attendanc(' at the 1\'ormal Coll('l?;e 
after 1906. This college has been since knO\\ n by , arious nanlf's. It s \\ ork is now done by 
the Faculty of Education of the Univer.
iti('s of Toronto and QUf'en's andthc figures for the 

ormal College given in the above table for 1918-1f1 Rnd 1f11Y-20 represent the enrolment 
in the :Faculty of Education of these Universities. In 1920 their functiOI s were trarsferred 
to the Ontario College of Education. 
'Autumn 
Iodcl Schools. 



h:r-.TroBA. 
J.Vumber of Teachers and Students in Xormal Schools. 


1. ear. 


IXSTRUCTORb. STLDE
"S AT I:XSTRUCTOR8. STUDENTS AT 
!>ro- 2nù 3rd Pro- 2nd I 3rd 
I vin- Local cla!'
 cla
s Year. vin- Local class class 
cial 
 ormal ses- ses- cial Normal ses- ses- 
: X onnal sions. sions. Normal sions. sions. 
7 13 90 161 1911..... 6 11 126 502 
7 14 86 234 1912..... School year changed 
7 14 82 237 191:i..... 6 11 139 390 
7 14 129 261 1914.. . . . 6 10 180 401 
8 18 171 320 1915. . . . . 6 14 206 406 
6 14 148 328 1916. . .. . 14 12 331 400 
5 11 128 272 1917.... . 13 11 309 290 
5 10 131 279 1918. 10 7 288 225 
5 10 136 312 1919.... . 10 5 251 303 
5 10 l'N 381 


1901. . . . 
1902. .. . . . 
1903... . 
1904. . . . . . 
1905 
1906.. ... 
1907. . . . . . 
1908..... . 
1909. . . .. . 
1910..... . 



140 


EDUCATION 


3.-Teachers In Training in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and 
Manitoba, 1901-1919, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1906-1919-concluded. 


SASKATCHEWAN. 


Teacher8 trainedfrom 1906 to 1919 inclusive. 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


First Class. Second Class. Third Class. Total. 
Year. Grand 
Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Total. 
906. . . . . . . . 17 15 46 98 2 10 65 123 188 
907.. . . .. . . 6 14 33 72 - 7 39 93 132 
908. . . . . . . . 13 13 35 45 20 103 68 161 229 
909. . . . . . . . 5 3 12 41 115 235 132 279 411 
910........ 4 11 32 78 94 228 130 317 447 
911. .. . . . . . - - 28 104 18 91 46 195 241 
912....... . 14 51 29 90 92 304 135 445 580 
913. . . .. . . . 32 57 20 118 83 333 135 508 643 
914. . . . . .. . 46 72 22 97 196 453 264 622 886 
915. .. . . . . . 68 93 43 180 248 590 359 863 1,222 
916. . .. . .. . 40 76 48 242 149 356 237 674 911 
917.. . .. . . . 26 66 38 287 89 575 153 928 1,081 
918........ 15 91 35 382 14 83 64 556 620 
919........ 131 477 450 - - 1,058 
Total.... . -I - -I - -I - - - 8,649 


ALBERTA. 


Teacher8 trained at Calgary and Camrose Normal Schools from 1906 to 1919 inclusitie. 


First Class. Second Class. Total. Grand Special 
Year. Total. Classes I 
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. 
1906.... . - - 25 - - 77 27 75 102 - 
1907.... . - - 29 - - 68 23 74 97 - 
1908.. . . . - - - - - - 44 96 140 - 
1909.... . 19 36 55 33 94 127 52 130 182 - 
1910.. .. . 24 31 55 47 116 163 71 147 218 - 
1911.... . 34 47 81 42 125 lü7 76 172 248 - 
1912... . . 32 50 82 46 150 196 78 200 278 - 
1913.... . 33 78 111 29 152 181 62 230 292 - 
1914.... . 45 69 114 43 200 243 88 269 357 7 
1915.... . 95 83 178 113 287 400 208 370 578 23 
1916.... . 58 88 146 66 203 269 124 291 415 23 
1917.. _ . 31 54 85 32 217 249 63 271 334 24 
1918.... . 30 121 151 30 286 316 60 407 467 21 
1919.... . 44 132 176 74 348 422 118 480 598 345 
Totals 2 

5 789 1,288 555 2,178 2,878 1, 094 3,212 4,306 443 


IThese classes are designed principally for thp purpose of. giving teachers from the 
United Kingdom and United States a short period of training in the special requirements of 
the Alberta Department of Education. In 1918 a class was added for the purpose of enabling 
second class teachers to train for a higher professional certificate. The large enrolment in 
1919 contained a number of students who desire special qualifications for teaching foreigners. 
2The italics indicate partial totals. 



EDUCA TION t3T iTISTICS OF CAN IDA 


141 


-:I. - "umlwr of Tt'"dlt'rs and ))upll
 In Itoman Catholic (;l
slcal Colle
es In Quebec 
1901-1919. 


N umber of Average Number of Average 
Y('ar. Attend- '\. ear. attend- 
Col- Profe5- Pupils ance. Col- Profes- Pupils ancc. 
l('ges. sor
. enrolled. leges. BOrs. enrolled. 
1901. . . . 19 549 5,915 5,468 1911. .. 19 642 7,140 6,fi21 
1902... . 19 562 6,096 5,üU8 1912.. . 21 662 7,818 7,280 
1903. . . . 19 559 6,174 5,694 1913.. . 21 687 8,189 7, 677 
1904. . . . 19 590 6,265 5,758 1914.. . 21 726 R,444 7,841 
190.'). .. . 19 621 6,269 5,77'J. 1915.. . 21 754 R,2.')1 7,ü64 
1906. . . . 19 621 6,318 5,895 1916. , . 21 704 7,696 6,602 
1907. . . . 19 624 6,268 5,7U6 1917 . . . 21 747 8,128 6,790 
1908. . , . 19 624 6,274 5,709 1918.. . 21 747 7,622 6,956 
1 90
). . . . 18 609 6,397 5,S72 1919.. . 21 744 7,711 6,338 
C) 1:( r: 


1910.... 19 64.. 6.<>,)9 6.0<>3 
XOTF.-Thc Roman Catholic Classicnl Colleges are not included in Tahle 2 \,ith the 
otlu'r puhlir institutionl::! for the re.a'IDn that they arc sp('cialinstitutions doing university, 
:,ccondary and even clelll('ntary "ork. The follo\\ ing stati
ti('s of fo;econdary f';C hool
 in 
Ontario, Sabkatchewan and British Columhia have been included in Table 2 and are 
r('pr:Lted here mainly to show the differentiation bet" een the sexes in the higher grades. 


5.-'
Hlml)t'r of Teachers and Pupils In {'oll('dat(' Institutt's an (I IIi h 
chooJs 
In Ontario. 1901-1919. 


}>upiI8 Enrollrd. A vemgo 
\. car. 
chools. Teacherd. attend- Per 
Boys. Girls. Total. uncc. cent. 
1901.. ... . . . . . . . 1:31 579 10,"69 11,654 22,523 13,224 58.71 
1H02.... ..... 134 593 11 , ß29 12,S43 24,472 14,430 58 . !}7 
1903. . . . . . . 135 619 11, 988 13,734 2.'),722 15,317 59.55 
1904.. . .. . .. . 13
 (.i61 12,718 14, 
191 27,709 16,730 60.3R 
1905 . . . . . . . . . . . 140 t1
U 13,03.') 15,ß26 28,661 17,567 61.29 
1906. . . . . . . . . . . 142 719 13,336 lfi., O.j6 29,392 18,078 ß1.S0 
1907... ..... . . . 143 750 13,799 16,532 30,331 18,48;) ßO.94 
1 HO
 . .. .. . 145 795 14,7:n 17,IS1 31,912 19,862 ü2.23 
1HOfI... ... ... 145 820 15,776 17,325 33,101 20,791 ü2.R1 
1910.......... . 145 853 15,196 17,416 32,612 20,389 62.52 
Ifill... ...... . . . 14R 898 14,679 17,548 32,227 20, 177 62.60 
1912............, . 148 917 14,846 17,4
7 32,273 20,268 ü2.80 
1913... .. . .. , . , . . . 161 970 15,489 18,257 33,746 21,448 63.55 
1914......... .. 160 1,023 17,001 19,465 36,4ü6 23,360 G4.06 
19t.=J ............. 160 1,020 17,705 20,721 38,426 24,82.3 64.60 
19W-17.......... . 161 1,038 12,339 16,494 28,833 22,781 79.01 
1917-18......... . . 162 1.051 12,353 16,744 29,097 22,740 78.15 
191R -19. . . . . . . . . . . 164 1. 088 13.228 17 . 504 30,732 24,500 79.72 


6.-Xumber of Teachers and Pupil
 in Continuation Schools In Ontario, 1911-1919. 


Pupils Enrolled. Average 
Y ('ar. Schools. Teachers. attend- 
Boys. Girls. Total. anre. 
1911........ ...... 129 218 2,394 3,359 5,753 3,487 
1912. . , . . . . . . . . . . . 138 226 2,499 3,595 6,094 3,777 
1913......... . . . .. 125 218 2,229 3,315 5.544 3,386 
1914..,... .. , . 131 237 2,474 3,595 6,069 3,812 
1915.... .... . . 132 238 2,803 3,997 6,800 4,274 
191ß-17....... 132 234 1,979 3,103 5,082 3,72H 
1917-18 . . . .. .. .. . . 137 241 1,989 3,115 5,104 3,734 
1918-19... . ... . 136 234 1 867 3,139 5,006 3, 773 


Per 
cent. 


60.61 
61.97 
61.07 
62.81 
62.85 
73.37 
73.15 
75.36 
XOTE.-Previou::-ly to 1911 the statistics of these schools are included with the Ekmentary 
Se hoob. 



142 


EDUCATIO^? 


7.-Number of Teachers and Pupils in Col1egiatl' Institutes and High Schools in 
Saskatchewan. 1908-1919. 


Pupils. 


Year. Schools. Teachers. 
Boys. Girls. 
1908.. . 8 23 335 399 
1909.. . 13 41 504 643 
1910... 13 54 623 805 
1911.. . 13 56 766 927 
1912... 15 67 885 1,129 
1913... 16 84 1,028 1,326 
1914.. . 18 99 1,304 1,622 
1915.. . 21 129 1,5-15 2,038 
1916.. . 21 138 1,566 2,283 
1917.. . 22 119 1,445 2,441 
1918... 22 161 1,533 2,561 
1919.. . 24 164 1,910 2,841 


1st and 3rd 4th Total. 
2nd years. year. year. 
487 183 64 734 
694 338 115 1,147 
884 355 189 1,428 
1,003 486 204 1,693 
1,237 550 227 2,014 
1,446 658 250 2,354 
1,814 763 349 2,926 
2,429 863 291 3,583 
2,398 1,090 361 3,849 
2,507 974 405 3,886 
2,533 1,065 4
6 4,094 
3,005 1,207 539 4,751 


8.-Number of Teachers and Pupils in High Schools in British 
'olumbia, 1901-1919. 


19 
19 
1
 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


Pupils Enrolled. .Average 
ìear. Schools. Teach- attend- Per 
ers. Boys. Girls. Total. ance. cent. 
01....... . . . .................. .. 5 15 215 3&9 584 373 63.87 
02.., ............. ...... .. . . 7 21 313 471 784 454 71.94 
03........ . . . . 8 27 316 540 856 627 73.25 
04........ . . . . 10 29 381 600 981 685 69.83 
05... .. . . 12 34 433 657 1,090 834 76.51 
06......... . . . 13 37 473 763 1,236 923 74.68 
07............. . ............ .. 15 42 432 823 1,355 97& 72.03 
08...... .. ...... .. ... .... 16 49 613 857 1,470 1,124 76.46 
09 . . . . .. . . . . ................... .... 18 59 812 997 1,809 1,441 79.66 
10......... . ...... .. ... ... .... 21 66 919 1,122 2,041 1,549 75.89 
11. . . . . . . . . . ........ ........ 23 71 940 1,048 1,988 1,533 77.11 
12........... . ... ................ 24 77 973 1,178 2,151 1,645 76.48 
13....... . . . .............. .. 30 96 1,232 1,448 2,680 2,109 78.69 
14........ . . . . .... ............ 34 110 1,414 1,593 3,007 2,535 84.30 
15............. ... .......... .. 37 132 1,844 2,068 3,912 3,332 85.17 
16......... . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 40 162 2,260 2,510 4,770 3,816 80.00 
17........ . . . . .............. .. 41 169 2,074 2,767 4,841 3,999 82.61 
18........... . . . .......... .. 43 184 2,151 2,999 5,150 4,201 81.57 
HL....... . . ... ... .. .............. 45 197 Z,392 3,414 5,806 4,670 80.44 


9.-Yocational Schools, Teacherð and Pupils in Canada, Year en(Ie(I June 30,1920. 


Number of Schor)Is 


Number of Teaf'hf'rs. 


Pupils EnroUed. 


Province. 


Dav Corres- Corres- 
Day. Evening and Total. Day. Eyening pond'ce Tot.!l. Day. Eyening pond'ce Total. 
evening. Df'pt. Dept. 


P K Island 
Nova fkotia. . 
New Brun
' 
wick........ 
Quebec. . 
Ontario'... . 
Manitoha... . . 
Sa:--katchewan 
Alberta...... . 
Brit. Colum.. 


26 


26 


117 


11í' 


2,830 


- 2,830 


2 1 3 5 23 28 54 800 2 854 
2 15 4 21 64 85 1 14Ð 650 4,723 - 5,373 
1 38 13 5
 18:> Ð31 - 1,114 4,&05 37,370 - 41. 8/5 
3 4 ï 33 8.i 118 1,159 1,888 3,047 
1 1 2 21 2
 55 411 466 
2 10 3 15 41 6
 2 105 1 , 09f1 1,557 124 2,580 
4 6 4 14 56 Ð9 1 156 9!10 2,448 83 3,521 
- - -- -- ---' - -- -- - --- -- --- 
12 98 29 139 38-1 1,423 3 1,810 8,512 51,8
; 207 60,546 


Totals.. . .. . 


IApproximnte. 2RetuTnf> inc'omplete. 



FlJ CC A T IO.V ST..1 TIS TICS OF (' A.Y 
 1 D.1 


143 


10 - Ueceiph and 'tl)('ndlt ur(' for PuhU(' };dlu'ation in ('anada, b)' Prmlll(,('S, 
1901-1919. 


PWN'CE ED" ARD ISI.A?Io'D. 
(nECEIPT8). 


GOVí'rn- Local GOYí'rn- Local 
\ ('ar, nwnt Assess- Total. Y<,ar. mcnt Asscss- Total. 
Grant. mcnt. Grant. mente 
S S S S S S 
1901... . .... . 12S,2h
 36,647 164,935 1910. .. . . .. 127,54R 53,924 lRl,472 
1902. . . . .. . .. . 127,49;) 3R,827 16G,322 1911....... 126,4
8 54, 73
 11'1,176 
190
. . . . . . . .2:3,91 H 4
,69S 16G,617 1912 2 . . . .. . . 179,9.3G 81 , G% 261,641 
1904. .. . 121, G
t6 47,Omt Im
, 76.1 191
....,... 1:>0,732 56,874 207, l;06 
1 !)O.3. . . . . . .. . . 122,S97 45,69,> 16S,59
 1914 156,503 61,490 217,f)9
 
1906 1 . . . . . . 91,946 34,76:3 126,709 HH.'). 16.
,41:J 91,25S 2.39,671 
1907. ..... . 123, 
ms 46,429 170,327 l!t 16 17:J,!t62 70,610 244,572 
1 
tOS. . . .. . . .. . 127,092 49,S74 17H,96G HH7 17S,H07 72,623 251,2:m 
1 !)O!I. .. . . . . .. . 129,179 54,027 IS:J,206 191
 In,.179 94,96S 26
,547 
I I!H!J.. . . 187,488 98,472 2S5,9fìO 
. . 


I 
ïnc months. 


2Ei
ht('cn month
. 



 OV A SCOTU. 


( HFCEIP'ffi). 


'lear. 


Govcrn- '1 u nici- Local 
nwnt. pal As:-pss- Total 
Grant. Fund
. mente 
S S S S 
254,778 119,876 470, lOR 844,762 
2.
 7 , 616 117,376 53H,851 91:3,843 
263,092 121,016 552,350 936,458 
26S, 904 146,382 569,745 9
.3,031 
271, r..
7 145,627 576,560 993,844 
270,92.') 147,089 635,705 1,073,720 
277,415 146, !t.39 616,431 1,040,805 

35 , ,
'\.t 147,130 6H6,590 1,149,304 

41, O.
S 147,400 711,428 1,199,R1'6 
357,282 146,936 761,014 1,265,213 
378,726 146,823 804,125 1,329,674 
374,810 147,170 859,284 1 , 3S 1 , 264 
:

5, 73.t 156,
64 944,992 1,4H7,590 
:30S, 671 164, mw 1,002,967 1,556,618 
407,213 16'\,00a I,C66,892 1,642,114 
414,73S 16
, 114 1,037,302 1,620,154 
432,2g4 163, .j33 1,157,907 1,753,726 
427,4S4 163,994 1,280,965 1,872,4.t4 
432,4.96 204.,519 1,460,578 2,097,593 


19('1. 
InO:? 
1!103. 
1904. 
190,
. 
1 !t06 . 
IHo;. 
1905. 
1909. 
1910. 
HHI. 
1912.__ 
1!J13. 
1914 
I!H5. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918 
HH9. 



E" BRUXSWICK (RECEIPTS). 
S S S $ 
I!J01. .......... -.. 163,225 90,492 346,6
3 600,340 
1902. 162,227 92,095 341,475 59!'i, 797 
1903. . 160,825 94,969 37.t, 196 629,990 
1904. . 156,982 94,835 380,000 631,817 
1905. . 159,741 91,9-17 :
87, 200 638,888 
1906. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160,D57 91,718 No record. 
1907. . ......... . 160,553 91,429 1'Ç 0 record. 
1 !JOB.. 182,453 91,620 494,947 769,020 
1909. . 190,854 91, 235 539,002 821,091 
1910. 195,363 90,454 580,069 865,R86 
1911. . 196,O
2 90, 193 593,073 879,348 
1912.. .... _. ...... .. .. . '" .... ..... ... 196,958 93,783 632,384 923,125 



144 


EDUCATIOJ.V 


IO.-Receipts and Exp('nditure for Public Education in Canada, by Pro- 
vinces, 1901-1919. 


NEW BRUNSWICK (RECEIPTs)-conc1uded. 


Govern- 
I unici- Local 
ment }:al Assess- Total. 
Grant. Funds. ment. 
$ $ $ $ 
196,320 97,404 648,479 942,203 
195,261 96,946 704,476 996,683 
200,635 97,423 761,753 1,059,811 
206,486 96,141 844.256 1,146,883 
204,754 97,284 843,357 1,145,395 
286,949 97,230 930,567 1,314,746 
277,996 99,097 1,153,163 1,530,256 


Year. 


1913.. .............. _. _ . _. 
1914.. .............. .... -.... . -.' 
1915.... .... ...... .. . ...... ...... '" .. . 
1916.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1917.. .............. ....... ............ 
1918.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1919............ _.....................! 


QUEBEC (E
penditure). 


Year. 


Govern- 
ment 
Grant. 


Local 
Assess- 
ment Total. Year. 
and other 
sources. 
$ $ 
2,999,804 3,453,754 1911...... . 
3,051,109 3,524,559 1912...... . 
3,234.074 3,718,038 1913....... 
3,347,115 3,816,395 1914.. . . . . . 
3,603,758 4,084,518 1915. . . . . . . 
3,802,402 4,338,552 1916. . . . .. . 
4,050,741 4,591,391 1917...... . 
4,565,537 5,148,947 1918. . . .. . . 
4,680,416 5,517,866 1919....... 
5,302,139 6.210,530 


Local 
Govern- Assess- 
ment ment Total. 
Grant. and other 
sources. 
$ $ $ 
1,065,429 5,729,104 6,794,533 
1,204,529 6,212,440 7,416,969 
1,529,006 7,696,765 9,225,771 
1,724,110 7,172,879 8,896,989 
1,782,417 9,681,206 11,463,623 
1,882,838 10,533,769 12,416,607 
2,068,766 11,887,454 13,956,220 
2,077,569 12,405,301 14,482,870 
2,145,976 14,698,708 16,844,684 


1901. . . .. . . .. . 
1902.. . . . . . .. . 
1903... .. . . . . . 
1904.... .. . . . . 
1905... . . .. . . . 
1906... . . . . . . . 
1907... . . . . . . . 
1908... . . . . . . . 
1909..... ... _ . 
1910.... . . . . . . 


$ 
453,950 
473,450 
484,960 
469,280 
480,760 
536,150 
540,650 
683,410 
837,450 
908,391 


ONTARIO (Receipts). 


ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 
Year. I Clergy Re- Total for 
Government Local serve Fund Secondary 
Grants. Assessments and other Total. Schools.! 
sources. 
$ $ $ $ $ 
1901. . . .. .. .. . 377,308 3,784,070 1,468,678 5,630,056 784,626 
1902.. . . . . . . . . 383,666 3,959,912 1,422,924 5,766,502 832,853 
1903. . . . . . . . . . 390,156 4,263,893 1,406,957 6,061,006 876,737 
1904. . . . . . . . . . 405,362 4,464,227 1,600,982 6,470,571 965,867 
1905.. . . . . . . . . 414,004 4,928,790 1,886,490 7,229,194 1,096,266 
1906.. . . . . . . . . 509,795 {),529,496 1,883,394 7,922,685 1,209,782 
1907. . . . . . . . . . 655,239 6,146,825 2,455.864 9,257,928 1,611,553 
1908.. .. . . . . . . 770,426 6,581,232 2,620,523 9,972,181 2,001,307 
1909.. . . . . . . . . 810,595 6,574,372 3,013,501 10,398,468 2,173,533 
1910... . . . . . . . 805,635 7,334,458 3,573,507 11,713,600 2,195,322 
1911......... . 892,377 7,R26,083 3,778,183 12,496,643 2,180,026 
1912......... . 842,278 9,478,887 3,936,887 14,258,052 2,709,389 
1913......... . 778,15U 9,856,380 4,025,284 14,659,814 3,686,267 
1914......... . 760,845 12,608,865 4,069,565 17,439,275 4,857,437 
1915.. . . . . . . . . 849,872 11,810,023 4,089,210 16,749,105 3,352,731 
1916. . . . . . . . . . 831,988 11,010,356 4,327,738 16,080,082 3,380,927 
1917.... . ... . 907,846 12,193,439 4,168,000 17,269,285 3,412,115 
1918.... .. . . . 970,585 13,114,725 4,278,957 18,364,267 3,241,478 


Grard 
Total. 


$ 
6,414,682 
6,599,355 
6,937,743 
7,431,438 
8,325,460 
9,132,467 
10,869,481 
11,973,488 
12,572,001 
13,908,922 
14,676,669 
16,967,441 
18,346,081 
22,296,712 
20,101 ,836 
19,461,009 
20,681,400 
21,605,745 
IJ t is uncertain whether or not these figures include the Technical and Arts School 



EDf.iCATIOJ.\ STA'l'IS'l'ICS OF CANAtD...t 


145 


11.- Rt'{"t'ipts and .:tpt'udlture for Publl(" Education In (:anada by Provinteø. 
1901-t919- -con. 


ONTARIO (EXPEXDITURE). 


Elementary Schools. 
. Total 
Sites Rent, Total for Grand 
Year. Tf>acher8" and 
laps, repairs, for Second- Total 
Ralaries. building apparatus, fuel, Elemcn- ary 
school- prizes, and other tary schools. 
houses. etc. expcnæs. schools. 
S S S S $ $ S 
1901. . . .. . . . . . . . 3,055,321 531,072 Sl,6S5 1. 052.232 4,720,310 72S, 132 5,448,442 
1902. . . . ..: . .. . . 3,19b.132 432,753 86.723 1,107,552 4.825,160 769,680 5,594,840 
1903.. . . . . .. . . . . 3,300,993 428.RI7 74.4S6 1,264,573 5,077,869 816,082 5,8!}3.951 
1904. . . . . . . . . . . . 3,473,710 578,656 87,997 1,319,130 5,459,493 R77,087 6,336.580 
1905. . . . .. .. . . . . 3,669,230 U59, 137 
IR. 200 1,434,670 6,161,236 1,004,498 7,165,734 
1906.. ...... . . . . 3,880,54S 854.452 lûi,547 1,5.19,659 6,403,206 1,029,294 7,432,500 
1907 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,389,524 1,220,820 213,096 1. 7
2, 7
9 7,556,179 1,213,697 8,769,876 
1908.. .... .. . . . . 4,643,571 1,419,754 139,330 1,741,171 7, 94:J, 826 1,385.832 9,329,658 
1909........... . 5,OOS.542 1,264,9S9, 136,627 1,731,2f..1) 8,1-11,423 1, ü21, 637 9,763,0.,0 
1910........... . 5,310,039 2,1-10,200 1
1,171 1,761,792 9,
-1
,202 1,636,166 1O,979,3ü8 
1911........... . 5,610,213 2,164,459 1
9.229 1,990,3S3 9,904,284 2,200,138 12,104.,422 
1912........... . 6,109,54.7 2,777,960 167,755 2,21R,69
 11,273, ü60 2,218,148 13,492,108 
1913............ 6,648,255 2,869,830 149, 167 1 2,65'\.t3.1)5 12,325,907 2,9-12,384 15,268,291 
1914... ......... 7,203,034 4,626,030 167,283 2,854,62114,850,ü6S 3,739,065 18,590,533 
1915... ......... 7,614,110 3,561 , fl51 177,038 2,914,37714,267,476 2,781,768 17,049,244 
1916. ... . ... . . . . 7,929,490 2.2
2, 110 HI:?,212 1 2,U4S,003 13,:
51,905 2,794,402 16,14.6,307 
1917. . . . . . . . . . . . 8,398,450 1, n87, B.a 290,2071 3,4:t1,534 14,111,835 2,743,596 16,855,431 
1918. . . . . . . . . . . . 9,027, 151 1 1,242,642, 16f),136 1 4,737,79-1 1 15,176,723 3,412,167 118, 588,890 



f A1\""ITOB \.. 


Rcceipt:ol 


Balance 
Prom- from 
issory Sundries. pre- Total. 
notes. vious 


ears. 
S $ S $ 

O2,574 1-11,452 115, 677 2,840, 69; 
777,417 424,666 111,741 3,342,03 
905,747 274,803 119,970 3,478,72 t 
1,336,370 281,988 162,736 4,184,76 
1,275,239 76,172 399,539 5,241,80 
960,215 213,283 302,40i 5,013,56 
396,459 150,429 518,388 5,674,34 
2,071,397 122,974 466,837 7,916,13 
2,080,204 2'39,176 609,982 7,074,47 
947,4.86 108,046 376,318 5,720,75 
1, 142,289 133,111 416,194 6,285,87 
1,165,751 2M. no 508,348 6,917,4 


1 
3 
!J 
7 
8 
6 
9 
9 
6 
2 
8 
06 


Y esr. Legi!-.- 'f uni- 
lative cipal Deben- 
grant. taxes. tures. 
S .$ S 
1907. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12,3ð3 1,223,336 315,271 
1908. . ...... . . . . 267,645 1,475,473 285,091 
1909. . . . . . . . . . . . 282, 200 1,539,047 356,962 
1910. . . ... . . . . . . 296,115 1,682,238 425,320 
1911............ 325,410 1,847,380 1,318,06
 
1913............ 351,745 2,1
8,459 987,457 
1914. . . . . . . . . . . . 390,582 2,673,449 1,545,042 
1915 . . . . . .. . . . . . 468,335 3,047,670 1,738,926 
1916............ 503,774 3,296,667 344,673 
1917......... . . . 522,293 3,445,239 321,370 
1918. . . . . . . . . . . . 616,977 3,736,452 2-10,855 
1919. . . . . . .. . . . . 589,174, 4,200,519 188,931 


18427-10 



14"6 


EDUCATION 


to.-Receipts and E
penditure for PubliC' Education in Canada, by PrO\inces, 
190t-1919--con. 


MANITOBA-con. 


Expenditure. 


Year. 
I Repairs Sal6ry 
j 
I Teachers' Building, Fuel. and of 
Salaries. etc. caretaking. Sec.-Treas. 
I 
I . 
$ $ $ $ S 
1907 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,009,224 460,260 79,963 126,216 23,420 
1908. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,103,990 582,034 89,756 126,952 25,656 
1909. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,203,232 641,900 80,921 132,421 26,174 
1910. . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,237,010 830,432 87,002 148,932 28,689 
1911. . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,452,630 1,199,288 109, 299 167,734 29,218 
1913.................... '.. 1,734,854 1,420,882 99,918 132,222 32,493 
1914. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,861,809 1,426,758 146,664 242,270 37,684 
1915........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,066,440 1,358,533 110,049 379,318 65,025 
1916. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,195,226 823,266 165,697 358,315 41,530 
1917. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,314,006 382,988 171,462 385,226 19,806 
1918. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 2,382,840 440,221 197,258 418,660 46,249 
1919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,648,230 556,072 243,155 372,323 51,553 


i Principal Interest Transpor- 
Year. of on Promissory ta tion and Total. 
Debentures. Debentures. notes. other 
I expenditure. 
$ $ $ $ $ 
1907. . . . . . . . . . . ... . 81,795 80,392 667,791 200,856 2,729,917 
1908. . . .. . .. . . . 190,893 99,216 8ß9,334 141,905 3,229,766 
1909.. ............... ........ . 111 , 295 244,596 757,200 137,770 3,3
5,500 
1910........ .. . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . 269,660 127,589 1,013,076 169,281 4,000,671 
1911........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131,975 144,735 1,590,565 199,446 5,024,890 
1913........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294,030 96,979 838,162 387,255 5,036,795 
1914....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230,523 250,392 1,412,515 471,105 6,079,720 
1915.. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184,910 344,476 2,260,906 347,241 7,118,898 
1916. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194,257 409,193 2,132,286 338,459 6,658,229 
1917. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241,223 155,619 1,196,806 466,166 5,333,302 
1918........ . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 360,134 357,409 1,055,581 651,031 5,909,383 
1919...................... . 391,332 400,754 1,305,433 649,888 6,618,740 
I 


NOTE.-For a summary of the principal items of Receipts and Expenditure from 1901 
to 1906, see Year Book of 1915, page 128. From 1907 the items are given in greater detail, 
as above. Owing to change of year, no figures were published for 1912. 



EDr.;C.J1TIOY STATISTICS OF CA.V.1D.t 


147 


10.- Uecelpts and "
tpendlture for Publlr };dlu'aflon in ('ana(la by Pro,InCtS, 
1901-1919.-con. 


S\SKATCHEW.\N (REC
PTS). 


Year. 


I Elementary Schools. Secondary 
I 
chools. 
Govern- local Proc('eù::J 
ment A 'f'
 of D
 Ot her Total.! Gov't Total.! 
Gm-nta. ments. bentures. :--'ources. Grant. 
S S S S S S S 
174,218 602,624 360,206 32
,313 1,46.1,361 - - 
218,385 707,835 507,006 524:,246 1,n.)7,47
 - - 
402,028 992,157 651,828 737, 1-10 2,7.'\3,153 - - 
513,604 1,249.1H2 5
4.873 844,602 3,192,271 - - 
557,299 1,369,531 524,741 1,221,011 3,672,582 - - 
5.15,438 1,519,528 659, 270 1, 2!t;, 5.36 4,02H,79:? - - 
622,088 1,929,345 1,4
O,603 2,048,577 6,030,613 36,945 242,148 
7
2,002 2,913,135 2,07.1,375 2,649,910 8,31}0,422 42, lü3 461,260 
867,590 4, -151,326 1,037,587 2,180,074 8,5:36,577 53,019 4S3,834 
9
O,296 3,997,392 I,009,O
.) 2,441,7
O 8, 428, 4
)3 70,349 512,334 
969,709 4,694,242 649,3QO 2, [,9J, 443 9,312,G
4 77,158 5U3, 1-14 
1,104,156 4,fl54,200 - 4,213,371 10,271,727 83,4g6 704,4S5 
1,162,490 5, ß1.
, 192 4.1.;, 777 1,874,459 9,110,925 UO,793 2276,161 
1,25.').094 1 7,121,046 1,10.3,60') 2,012,422 11,494,164 S3,925 2355,741 


Grand 
Total. 


1906. .. . . 
1907. . . . . 
1905. . . .. 
1909... . 
1910.... . 
1911... . 
1912.. . . . 
1913.. . . . 
1914..... 
1915..... 
1916. . . . . 
1917..... 
1918. . . . . 
1919..... 


S 
1,4G.5,361 
1,9.37,472 
2,783,153 
3,IH2,271 
3,672,5S2 
4,029,792 
6,272,7Gl 
8,821,6S2 
9,020,411 . 
8,H40,S27 
9, 
105, 838 
10,976,212 
9,387,086 
11 , 849, 905 


IThe total expenditure for t)('('ondary fwhool
 "fiS included in that of the elementary 
schools up to 1912. 'This item in 1918 and 1919 does not include money borrowed by 
note. 



hSK.\TCHEW AN: EXPE
DITURB 


I I I I I I 
1906... . 471,736 29.076 113.95b 303,739 339,933 
1907.... I 5S5.594 <<.047 149,301 423.717 530.050 
19Ub.... I 831,842 59.106 207,780 608.515 577,925 
1909.. "11' 044,011 73,098 317,173 700,483 519.302 
1910.... 1.208,651 83,635 379,695 877,978 627,740 
1911. '.11.298,925 84,603 369,951 1,071.783 619,601 
1912.... 1,596,616 94,358 455.949 1,820,705 1,149,986 
1913.... 2,059.456 130,728 678,430 2.605.280 1.898.101 
1914.... 2,588.669 169.491 975,508 2.317,15ö 1,429,173 
1915... . 2.817,412 - 1.253.187 
1916.... 2,956.666 - 1.105,765 
1917....1 3.303,929 - 1.136,599 
1918..../3,831.942 - 1,020,574 1,588,995 845,974 
1919.... 4.813,000 - 809,999 1,737,892, 1.369,8331 


I 
47.251 
84,565 
95,762 
130,558 
144,206 
172,993 
202,531 
294,710 
369.802 


becondary 
Total Schools. 
Expendi- Crand 
ture. Teach- Total. 
f'rs' Tota1. l 
Salaries 
I S I I 
1,448.915 - - 1,448,915 
2,000,675 - - 2.000,675 
2.679,373 - - 2,679.373 
3,032.999 - - 3.032,999 
3,655.42
 - - 3,655,428 
3.990,036 - - 3,990,036 
5,931,844 94,481 312,536 6,244.380 
8,327,179 131.414 460,725 8,787,904 
8,588,462 150,808 483,834 9,072,296 
8,163,897 157,850 501,960 8,665.857 
9,211,390 175.098 580,628 9,792,018 
10,117.716 190,703 686,392 10,804.108 
9,183,975 209,085 1293,110 9,477,085 
11,433,258 235,460 1350,685 11,783,943 


. Pl}id on I School Care- 
. I Teachers' <?ffi
 Pmd on l\otes buildings taking 
'\ ear. !ò:alari es cla
 Deben- (renev.als d 
" d 
, "-' . Salaries turee. and an. -. 
interest). repairs. fuel. 


IThe secondary school expenditure was included in that of the elementary schools until 1912: the items 
for 1918 and 1919 do not include promissory notes. 
15427-101 



148 


EDL
CA T ID1V 


l'.-Recelpts and E
penditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provinces. 
1901-1919.-con. 
Elementary Schools.- ALBERT.\: RECEIPTS. 


Govern- Local Proceeds Borrowed Other 
Year. ment Assess- of Deben- by Sources. TotaL 
Grants. ments. tures. Note. 
$ S $ $ $ $ 
1906. . . . . . . . . . 142,836 416,344 297,158 292,786 140,797 1,289,921 
1907. . . . . . . . . . 197,768 544,716 442,431 431,561 160,224 1,776,700 
1908. . . . . . .. . . 220,712 917,515 764,069 539,939 106,382 2,548,617 
1909......... . 307, 186 961,959 992,516 535,896 234,440 3,031,997 
1910.......... 301,239 1,278,013 673,333 848,625 86,155 3,187,365 
1911. . . . . . . . . . 432,877 1,575,412 1,481,173 1,461,208 120,363 5,071,033 
1912... .. . . . . . 414,116 1,793,480 1,491,498 2,665,063 262,761 6,626.918 
1913. . . . . . . . . . 461,289 2,901,214 3,497,863 1,959,495 228,650 9,048,511 
1914.... . . . . . . 507,682 3,028,776 966,350 2,771,380 279,324 7,553,512 
1915. . . . . . . . . . 540,235 3,733,323 951,205 2.473,976 258,865 7,957,604 
1916......... . 553,141 3,749,007 155,883 1,105,538 1,203,814 6,767,383 
1917. . . . . . . .. . 652,557 3,657,510 268,102 1,451,229 497,479 6,526,878 
1918. . . . . . . . . . 625,830 5,132,232 433,126 1,173,546 195,990 7,560,724 
1919....... ... 713.083 5,601,713 655,960 1,388,001 410,235 8,768,992 


ALBERTA: EXPENDITURE. 


Paid on 
Year. Teachers' Officials' Deben- 
Salaries. Salaries. tures. 
S . $ $ 
1906. . . . . . . . . . . 386, 108 23,796 94,947 
1907. . . . . . . . . . . . 497,746 36,755 131,488 
1908. . . .. . . . . . . 592,223 39,974 207,775 
1909. . . . . . . . . . . 758,816 52,785 244,185 
1910. . . . . . . . . . . 908,045 64,241 347,220 
1911. . . . . . . . . . . 1,144,584 87,409 408,442 
1912.......... . 1,411,201 114,382 482,906 
1913............ 1,672,526 180,165 594,051 
1914.. . . .. . .. .. 2,050,697 179,453 815,062 
1 91 5.. . . . . . . .. . 2,244,964 185,616 1,065,437 
1 9 16. . . . . .. . . . . 2,421,404 230,931 956,563 
1 917 . . . . . . . . . . . 2,620,085 193,484 1,100,181 
1 918 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,860,352 198,870 1,054,044 
919. . . . . . .. . . . 3,560,318 225,242 1.051, 171 


Paid on 
Notes School Other Total 
(renewals buildings Expen- Expen- 
and and diture. diture. 
interest). repairs. 
$ $ $ 5 
298.984 274,525 180,747 1,259.107 
295,517 486,824 345,623 1,793,953 
639,459 607,635 306,616 2,393,682 
574,725 638,065 467,282 2,735,858 
653,987 862,295 526,606 3,362,394 
1,309,134 1,223,142 853,062 5,025,773 
2,021,030 1,526,001 1,111,762 6,667,282 
3,160,030 1,816,203 1,261,211 8,684,186 
2,350,462 1,324,470 1,114,747 7,834,891 
2,731,279 443,641 1,294,533 7,965,470 
1,266,884 325,297 920,535 6,121,614 
1,068,058 414,105 1,199,649 6,595,562 
1,598.757 604,891 1,179,777 7,496,691 
1,503,944 765,935 1,698,919 8,805.529 


1 


BRITISH COLUMBIA: EXPENDITURE. 


Cities, Cities, 
Provincial Municipal- Provincial Municipal- 
Year. Govern- ities, Total. Year. Govern- ities, Total 
Rural and Rural and 
mente Assisted ment. Assisted 
Schools. Schools. 
$ $ S $ $ S 
1901. . . .. . . 350,532 182,160 532,692 1910.... . 818,576 1,098,660 1,917,236 
1902...... . 438,086 150,482 588,568 1911.... . 1,001,808 1,639,714 2,641,522 
1903....... 473,802 130,556 604,358 1912.... . 1 , 151, 715 2,730,773 3,882,488 
1904. . .. . . . 453,313 144,451 597,764 1913.... . 1,663,003 2,995,892 4,658,895 
1905..... .. 479,158 249,89] 729,049 1914. .. . . 1,885,654 2,749,223 4,634,877 
1906. . . . . . . 444,543 244,198 688,741 1915 .... 1,607,651 2,309,795 3,917,446 
Ig07. . . . . . . 474,608 390,163 864,771 1916. .. . . 1,591,322 1,625,028 3,216,350 
1908. . . . . . . 544,672 675,838 1, 220, 510 1917.... . 1,600,125 1,637,539 3,237,664 
1909. . . . . . . 626,074 921,626 1,547,700 1918.... . 1,653,797 1,865,218 3,519,015 
1919.... . 1,791,154 2,437.566 4,228,720 



EDUCATIOJV ST tTlSTICS OF CA.N
tD
t 


149 


11 -A'fl' e \ooual 
alarlt"s or 'chool Tea(.ht..r
., b
 Pro\ln('("S, t91
t9t9. 


Province and Cla

 of 
Certificah' 


Prince Edwarù Island, 1919- 
}<'irst cla!:-
........ 
S('cond class. . . . .. ........ 
Third class. ". - . . . . . 


l"ova Bcotia, HH9- 
Class A .. 
Class B 
Class ('.. . . 
Class D _ _ . . . . . . . . . 
Acad{'mic. _..... 


'\Jf'W Bruns\\ick, 1919- 
First class. . . . _ _ _ . . . 

econd class. _ . . _ . . . . . _ _ . . . 
Third class. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . 

uperior schools.. . . . . . . . . . . 
Grammar schools..... . ... . 


'Iale. Ft'- 
mal('. 


s s 


tilh 4

 
382 33
 
3 I 3 236 


1 , (l9h 
m9 
.").'\9 
326 
1,43
 


1,
OO 706 
507 427 
390 332 
002 
1,52J 


Quebec, 19191- 
Protestant schools. .... . .. . . 1, 7W 6Sh 
Roman Catholio 8chools.. . . 9<JO 224 


Ontario, 1918- 
Public and 
para.tc bchools- 
First CIW:lS...... . . . . . . . . . 1, 7
2 

('('ond ch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 041 
Third cla::ls and district 
('ertificatc........ . . . . . . 
Hi
h Hchools and Colle- 
,.date Institutes- 
Principals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Assistants....... . . . 
Continuation Schools- 
Principals.... .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Assistants. . .... . . . . . . . . . . 


:Mamtoba, 1918- 
Highest salary. . . . . . . . ... . . 
A verage salary for prov- 
ince. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
A Vt'rage ci ties and towns. . 
Highest rural school. . . . . . 
A v(.rage rural school.. . . . . 


595 


2,213 
2, 181 11,4
 
1,303 
\161 I 927 
3, 600 


794 
962 
1,000 
628 


J)rovince and Clas
 of 
Certificate. 



Iale. Fe- 
male. 


s S 
Sa..
katch("\\an, 1919:"- 
Hural 8Chool
- 
First da:-.
 . . . . . . 1,18.1 1,125 
R('cond clas
. . . . . . . . . . 1,152 1,074 
Thir(1 class. . . . . .... .. 1,120 1,027 
ProvilSional. . . _ . . . . . . . . . 1 , 148 1,053 
Citips, towns anù villages- 
J.'irst da
'w . . . . . . . . 1 , n"
4 1,132 

econd class. . . . .. .... 1.352 1,020 
'rhird ch'-'3s. . . . . . . . . 1,20!> 962 
Provisional. . . 900 9
0 
AlbC"rta, HH9- 
First cl
. . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,501 I,U4
 
Second class - . . . . . . . . . . . 1,102 9ti8 
Third class. . . . . . . . . - . . . . . 1,035 H49 
Permit....... . . . . - . . . . . 929 981) 
Speclalist . . . . . . . . 1,847 1,30(t 


(jO.) 
47H 
379 
276 
()8ü 


775 
732 


Eri tish Colum bin, 19W- 
High ::schools- 
j\c
emic....... 
Ci ty J.!radt'ù schools-- 
Ac
emic. ..... ... 
l.'irst. . . . . . . . . . . . _ . _ 

econd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . 
Third. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


2,192 1,619 
1,975 1,159 
2,032 1,171 
1,466 1,055 
1.289 959 


Rural 
Iunicipality bchools- 
Ac
emic. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 1,543 
J.ïrst. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.777 

cond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,424 
Third. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 


959 
1,004 
960 
879 


1,055 
964 
950 
924 


1 In the figures for Quebec lay teacher
 only are included. The teachers in religious 
orders to the number of 6,910 (Elementary Schools, Model Bchoolb and Academies, 1911*) 
J"t>ceive no 8aJarie
. 2 In Saskatchewan, only elementary 
chool tea('hers are included. 


537 


Rural and Assil5ted schools- 
Ac
emic. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1,061 
First. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,066 
ðecond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 022 
Third. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 



150 


EDUGA.TION 


12.-'Cniversities of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties, and Degrees. 
Date of 


Name and 
Address. 


Original 
Founda- 
tion. 


Present 
Charter. 


Affiliation 
to other 
Universities. 


Faculties. 


Degrees. 


University of 1789 
Kings' College, 
\Yindsor, N.S. 
Dalhousie Univer- 1818 
sity, Halifax, 

.S. 


University of St. 1855 
Francis Xavier, 
Antigonish, N .S. 
University of 
ew 1800 
Brunswick, Fre- 
dericton, N .B. 


1802 Oxford and Arts, Law, B.A., M.A., B.Sc., 
Cambridge. Science, Div- D.Sc., l\1.Sc., 
inity. B.C.L., D.C.L., 
B.D., D.D. 
1863 Oxford and Arts and Science, B.A., M.A., B.Sc., 
Cambridge. Law, Medicine L. Mus., M.Sc., 
and Dentistry B.l\Ius.,Phm.B. 
LL.B., M.D., 
C.l\L, D.D.S., 
LL.D. (Hon.). 
1840 Oxford, Dal- Arts, Divinity, B.A.,B.Sc.,B.Th., 
housie and Law, Science, and 
I.A. 
McGill, Ko- Applied Sci- 
va Scotia ence, Litera- 
Technical. ture. 
1909 Arts, Science, B.A., M.A., B.Sc., 
Engineering, LL. D. 
Law. 


Acadia University 1838 
Wolfville, N .S. 


MountAllison Uni- 
versity, Sack- 
ville, N .B. 
University of St. 
Joseph's College, 
St. Joseph, K.B. 
McGill University, 
Montreal, Que. 


1858 


1860 Oxford, Cam- Arts, Applied B.A., M.A., B.Sc., 
bridge, Dub- Science, Partial In Civil Engineer 
lin, McGill. Course in Law. ing, Electrical 
Engineering or 
Forestry, D.Sc. 
1886-1913 Dalhousie, Arts, Theology, B.A., )1...:\., B.Sc., 
Oxford and Engineering. B.D. 
Cambridge. 


1864 


1898 


Oxford. 


Arts, Science. B.A., B.S., B.L., 
B.C.S., 
1.A. 


1821 


1852 


Acadia, 
It. Arts, Applied B.A., M.A.,B.C.L 
Allison, St. Science, Law, D.C.L., LL.D., 
Francis- Medicine, B.Sc., D.Sc., 
Xavier, AI- Agriculture. D.DS., M.Sc., 
berta, are Mus. Bae., Mus. 
affiliated to Doc., B.S.A., 
McGill in D.Sc., B.Arch., 
the Faculty 
1.D., C.M., 
of Applied D.Litt., Ph.D., 
Science. LL.B., LL.M., 
B.Com., B.H.S. 
Oxford and Arts, Divinity, B.A., )1.A., B.D., 
Cambridge. Medicine and D.D., D.C.L., 
Law. Mus.Bac., Mus. 
Doc., L.S.T. 
Theology, Law, M.A., B.A., B.S., 
Medicine, B.L., Ph.D., 
Arts. Ph.L., Ph.B., 
M.D.,M.B.,LL. 
B., LL.L., LL. 
D., D.B., D.L. 
D.D., C.L.B., 
C.L.L., C.L.D. 


University of Bish- 1843 1853 
op's College, Len- 
noxville, Que. 
Laval University, 1852 1852 
Quebec, Que. 


University of 
Montreal, Mont- 
real, Que. 


1878 


1852 


Theology, Law, Bachelor, Licenci- 
Medicine, Arts, ate, Doctor. 
Domestic Sci- 
ence, Drawing, 
Religious and 
Profane Music. 



CXli FR
ITIEC:; UF CA
'
lD
-l 


151 


12.- rnl\t'r...UIt.s of t..anada: .oundatlon. \ftUiatlon, .'aculties and De
ees.-con. 


X ame anù 
Addre<;!s. 


Lniversitv of Tor- 
onto, Toronto, 
Onto 


Yictoria L"niver- 
;:::,ity, Toronto. 
Univcrsitv ofTrin- 
ity Coll
'ge, Tor- 
onto, Ont. 
" estern C nh.er- 
:--ity, London, 
Onto 


Queen's 
:--ity, 
Unto 


L"nh cr- 
Kingston, 


L"ni\ e
jty of Ot- 
tawa, Ottawa, 
Unto 


:\lc)laster l:nh"er- 

ity, Toronto, 
Onto 
Lniversitv of :Man- 
itoba, \'ïnnipeg. 
)Ian. 


C ni ,.ersi t
. of Sas- 
katche" an, Sas- 
katoon, Sask. 


Cniversitv of .Al- 
berta, . Edmon- 
ton, Alberta. 


Cniversitv of Bri- 
tish Còlum bia, 
Y ancou,.er, B.C. 


Original 
Founda- 
tion. 


lS27 


1836 


IS.>I 


1878 


18U 


IF-l
 


183. 


1
.7 


1907 


1906 


1907 


DATE OF 


Presen t 
Charter. 


Act 
1906 


1836 


1
52 


19O5 


ISU 


löt>û 


I",,; 


1877 


1907 


Affiliation 
to other 
Univcrsiti('s. 


raculties. 


Degrees. 


Oxford, Cam- Art
, )I('clicine, B.A., 1\1..\., Ph. D. 
briù
e and Appli('d ;:;ei- LL.B., LL. )1., 
Dublin. ('nce, Engim.('r- LL.D., Mus. 
ing, AJZ:ricul- Bac., Mus. Doc., 
ture, 1'-0 r('s t,... 'I.B.,.M. D., B. 
ry, Education, A.:::;c., M.A$('., 
Household C.E., E.E., M. 
Science. E., P.Paocl., D. 
Pa-d., B.S.A., 
B.
c.A., B.Sc. 
F., F.E., D.D. 
...:., Phlll. B., B. 
Y.Se., D.V.Sc. 
\.rts and Theo- B.D., D.D. 
logy. I 
A
s and Divin- L.Th.,B.D.,D.D. 
lty. 


foronto. 


foronto. 


1910 


Arts, 
Iedicjne B.A., )1. \., M.D., 
and Public LL. D., D.Sc., 
Health,:\lusic. \ D.P.H., Mus. 
Bach. 
Arts, Science, B.A.,)1.A., B.Sc., 
Engineering, D.Sc.,
I.Sc.,1\I., 
Medicine, D., 
I.B., LL. 
EduC'ation, D., B.D., D.D., 
Theolo
y. B. Pæd., D. 
pæd. 
Theology, Phi- I LL. D., D.D., 
losophy, Law, B. Ph., D. Ph., 
.Artsand Com- B.A., M.A. 
mercial. 
Oxford, Cam- ArtsTheologY I B.A.. )I.A., H.Sc., 
hndge, Lon- B.Th., B.D. 
don. 
Arts, Scien('('"B.A.,)I..A., B.Sc., 
La", Medi- 
I.D., C.M., 
C'ine, Enginecr- B.C.E., B.E.E., 
ing, Architee- 
I.C.E.,M .E.E.. 
ture, Pharma- B.:\I.E., B. 
ey, Agrieul- Arch., Phm.B., 
ture. B.S.A., LL.B., 
LL.D. 
O
ord. Arts, Science. B.A., B.Sc., B.S. 
La.w, Agricul- I A., B.E.,LL.B. 
ture,Engineer- 1 :\1..-\., :\1.8e. 
ing,Pharmac) 
.Accounting, 
Education, 
Veterinary 
,r 
diejne. 
Oxíord, )Ic- Arts & Sciences, B.A., B.Sc., 
I.A., 
Gill and Applied Sci- B.S.A., :\1.Sc., 
Toronto. ence, Agricul- LL.B., Phm.B.: 
ture, 
Iedi- B. D., LL.D. 
cine, Dentis- 
try, Law, 
Schools of 
Pharmacy 
and Account- 
ancy. 
Arts, Applied B..\.., B.Sc. 
Science and 
Agriculture. 


1908 


. 



152 


EDUCA TION 


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i 
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158 


EDUCATION 


l8.-Colleges of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees. 


DATE OF 


Name and Address. Original Present University 
Founda- Charter. Affiliation. 
tion. 


Prince of Wales Col- 
lege. Charlotte- 
town, P .E.!. 
Saint Dunstan's Col- 
lege, Charlotte- 
town, P .E.!. 
Preshyteran Col- 
lege, Halifax, N .S. 
College of Sainte 
Anne, Church 
Point, N .S. 
Technical College, 
Halifax, N .S. 


Agricultural College, 
Truro, N .S. 
Holy Heart Theo- 
logical College, 
Halifax, N .S. 
St. Mary's College, 
Halifax, N .S. 
Macdonald College, 
Ste. Anne de Bel- 
levue. Que. 
Ecole Des Hautes 
Etudes Commer- 
ciales, Montreal, 
Que. 
Stan stead Wesleyan 
. College,Stanstead, 
Que. 
Presbyterian Col- 
lege, Montreal, 
Que. 
Congregational Col- 
lege of Canada, 
Montreal, Que. 
Montreal Diocesan 
Theological Col- 
lege, Montreal, 
Que. 
Wesleyan Theologic- 
al College, Mont- 
real, Que. 
Wycliffe College, 
Toronto, Onto 
Knox College, Tor- 
onto, Onto 
St. Michael's Col- 
lege, Toronto, Onto 
Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph, 
Onto 
Ontario College of 
Art,2 Toronto,Ont. 


1836 


1855 


1820 
1890 


1907 


1888 1905 
1894 1906 


1841 1841 


1860 


Practically all Arts. 
Canadian 
Universities 


Facul ties. 


Degrees. 


\ 


Laval, Que. Arts, Prepara- B.L., B.A., B.Sc., 
tory,andCom- Ph.M. 
mercial. 
Dalhousie. Theology. D.D., B.D. 


1892 


Arts, Science. 


Acadia,Kings, Engineering. 
St. Mary's, 
Dalhousie, 
M t. Allison, 
St. Francis 
Xavier. 


1907 McGill. 


1907 1907 Laval. 


1872 1872 


1865 1865 McGill. 


1839 Amended McGill. 
1864 & 
1889 
1873 1879 McGill. 


1872 1879 McGill. 


1879 1916 Toronto. 
1843 1858 Toronto. 
1852 Toronto. 
1874 1874 Toronto. 


1912 1912 


B.A., B.Sc., M.A. 


B.Sc., in 
LE., C. 
E., E.E., 
lch. 
E. 


Agriculture. Associate 
Diploma. 
Theology, Phi- T.B., T.L., D.D., 
losophy. Ph.D. 
Arts, Partial B.A. 
Course in En- 
gineering. 
Agriculture, M.S.A., B.H.S., 
Household Sci- B.S.A., B.Sc.)n 
ence. Agr. 
Commerce. L.S.C., C.L. 


Arts, Commer- Diploma. 
cial, Musie. 


· B.D., S.T.D., 
D.D. 
L.Th., B.D.,D.D. 
B.D., D.D. 
B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.l 
Agricultural, B.S.A. 
Domestic Sci- 
ence, Manual 
Training. 


Theology. 


Theology. 


Divinity. 


Theology. 


Theology. 


Theology . 


Arts. 


B.D., D.D. 


B.D., D.D. 


B.D., D.D. 


Diploma. 



COLLEGE::, OF CA.NADA 


159 


l
.-Collf'ge of Canada: }'oundatioll, UlUlation, .'a('ultic
. and D('grt't'S -con. 


DATE 01' 
Xameand .Address. Original p rniyersity 
Founda- . re:,ent Affiliation. 
tion. Chartpr. 


Ontario Law School, 
Os
oode Hall, Tor- 
onto, Onto 
Toronto Bible Col- 
lege, Toronto, Onto 
Ontario Colle
e of 
Pharmacy, Toron- 
to, Onto 
Royal College of 
Dental Surgeons of 
Ontario, Toronto, 
Onto 
Ontario Yeterinary 
College, Toronto, 
Onto 


"aterloo Collpge, 
Lutheran Theolog- 
ical Seminary, 
"aterloo, Ont. 
Huron College, Lon- 
don, Onto 
St.Jprome's Collpge, 
Kitchener, Onto 
Royal 
Iilitary Col- 
lege, Kingston, 
Ont. 
Brandon College, 
Brandon, '[an. 


The 
Ianitoba Law 
School, Winnipeg, 
)Ian. 
,,"psley College, 
Winnipeg, 
Ian. 

Ianitoba, Agricul- 
tural College, Win- 
nipeg, 'Ian. 
St. John's College, 
'Yinnipeg, 
Ian. 
Emmanuel College, 
Saskatoon, Sask. 
Presbyterian Theo- 
logical College, 
Saskatoon, Sask. 
St. Chad's College, 
Regina, Bask. 
Edmonton Jesuit 
College, Edmon- 
ton, Al berta. 
Robertson College, 
Edmonton 
(South), Alberta. 
Institute of Technol- 
ogy and Art, Cal- 
gary Alberta. 


1<\62 


1911 


1
63 
Ibß.1 


1875 


It-90 


191-1 


1877 


1903 


1866 


1879 


1911 


1907 
1913 


1910 


1916 


1871 


lðòS 


1",,4 roronto. 
1911 I foronto. 


Tulpl1 " Toronto. 
0\ er by 
Gov(.rn- 
mf'nt in 
1908 
1912 - 


Faculties. 


Pharmacy. 


Dt.'ntistry. 


\' eterinary. 


D(<grees. 


L.D.b. 4 


Y.S.' 


Art...:, Theology. Bu\., )I.
-\. 


18(,3 \\ (':,tern rni- rheology. 
Y('r
ity. 


IS77 


1853 


1913 


1916 


IH;6 


'Ic
la
ter. 
I . 
I
amtoba. 
1
lanitoba. 
I 

Ianitoba. 
I 

Ianitoba. 


Art:" Schola::,tic 
l)}1Ïlosophy. 


Diploma" ith title 
L.Th.' 


Diploma and Dip- 
loma with Hon- 
ours. 
-\.rt::s, Theology, B.A. by 
lcMaster 
.Academic, '["'niversity. 
Bu:,ine!ô's, 
\lusic. 
La\\. 


LL.B. by Univer- 
bity. 


Arts, Theology, B.D., D.D.7 

Iatriculation. 
.A
riculture, B.S.A. 
Home 
Economic8. 


o:>a
katchewan Divinity. 
Sa...katche"an Divinity. 


ba:,katchewan Divinity. 


Layal. 
I 
I 

\lberta. 


Preparatory , 
Commercial, 
Classical. 
Theology . 


Technical 
Courses. 


B.D. 
L.Th.,B.D., D.D. 
B.D., D.D. 


D.D. 



160 


EDUCATION 


IS.-Colleges of Canada: Foundation, Aftiliation, Faculties, and Degrees-concluded. 


DATE OF 
Name and Address. Original University Faculties. Degref's. 
Present Affiliation. 
Founda- Charter. 
tion. 
The Anglican Theo- - - - - - 
logical College, 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Columbia Methodist 1892 1893 Toronto. Academic, Diplomas. 
College, New West- Music, 
minster, B.C. Business. 
Royal Naval Col- 1911 - - - Midshipman, 
lege, Esquimalt, R.C.N. 
B.C. 
-- 
 - . .
 


1 Degrees conferred by the University of Toronto. 2 Succeeding Ontario School of Art 
founded in 1876. 3 The University of Toronto grants the degree Phm.B. 4The degree of 
D.D.S. is conferred by the University of Toronto. 6The degrees of B.V.Sc. and D.V.Sc. 
are conferred by the University of Toronto. 6Degreeõ in Arts and Theology S.re conferred 
by the Western University. 7The degree of B.A. is conferred by the University of Manitoba. 


19.-Professional and Affiliated CoUeges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 
Students, 1919-20. 


Name and Address. 


Number of Teaching 
Staff. 


Number of Students. 


Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. 


Prince of Wales College, Charlotte- 
town, P .E.I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Dunstan's College, Charlottetown, 
P . E.I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Presbyterian College, Halifax, N .S.. . 
College of Ste. Anne, Church Point, 
N.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Technical College, Halifax, N .S.. . . . . . 
Agricultural College, Truro, N .S.. . . . . 
Holy Heart Theological College, Hali- 
fax, N .S.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Mary's College, Halifax, N.S.... .. 
Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Belle- 
vue, Que........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerci- 
ales, Montreal, Que... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stan- 
stead, Que... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Presbyterian College, Montreal, Que. 
Congregational College of Canada, 
Montreal, Que...................... 
Montreal Diocesan Theological Col- 
lege, Montreal, Que... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


7 
12 
4 
13 


3 


13 
7 
7 
37 
9 
7 
6 
2 
4 


20 


15 


10 
12 
4 
13 


74 
290 
32 


232 


158 


290 
32 


130 


130 


13 
7 
7 
57 
9 
22 
6 


296 


96 


392 
54 
130 


54 
130 
381 
340 


341 


722 


340 
410 
49 
15 
14 


42 


7 


2 


15 


4 


14 



CO! LEGES OF' CA..VADA 


161 


19. - l.rofc
slon:aI .uul .\fnUatt'd ('olle
es of ('anada: 
tlmbcr of Teacbln
 
talr and 
Students, 1919..!O.-concludell. 



nme and .\ddre:"s. 


Number of Tc:\ching 
Staff. 


Xumber of Students. 


'I ale. Female. Total. .Male. Female. Total. 


Wesleyan Theological College, :\Iont- 
real, Que. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
WyclifTe Colleg p , Toronto, Ont...... . . 
Kno\: Coll('ge, Toronto, Unt....... .. . . 
St. :\lichael's Collt'ge, Toronto, unt.. . 
Untario Agricultural Colll'gl., Gudph, 
Unt. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ontario Col1('gc of Art, Toronto, Ont.. 
Untario College of l'harlllaey, Tor- 
onto, Ont... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ontario Law School, "U8gooùP Hall," 
1'oronto, Ont. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Toronto Bible Coll('gp, Toronto, Ont.. 
Hoyal CnUe....e of Dpntal Surgt'on!i, 
Toronto, Ont... . . - . . . .. .' . . 
Ontario Y('terinary College, Toronto. 
()ut. ...... ....... ........... 
Waterloo Colll'
c LuthPTan and Theo- 
logical S .minar)', Watprloo, ()nt... 
Huron Coll('gp, london, ()nt. . . . . . 

t. Jerorm"s Colll'
e, Kitchcnpr, Unt.. 
Royal 
lilitary l'ollq
e, l\:i, nJ,!;ston 
B:



tn ë
ii('gp, Ür"u:
li

: '
I:

. . . . . 
 : 

Ja.nitoha I a\\ School, \\ïnnip('
,:\lan. 
Wpsley Collp
e, Winnipt'
, 
Ian. . ...... 
\Ianitoha Agricultural Coll('
c, Winni- 
ppg,
lan........... ...... .. 
St. ,John's Collpg
, Winnipl'g, Man.. . . . 
Emmanuel Collpgp, :'aska.toon. Sa
k. 
Presbytprian Theological Colll'gp, 
SLI.
katoon, Sa.sk.............. .. .. 
St. Chad's ('ollpgp, Rt'gina, Sa.:,k. .... 
Edmonton Jesuit CollpJ?;e, Fdmonton, 
.\lberta............. ... .......... 
Robertson Coll{'ge, Edmonton 
outh) 
Alberta. . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
In!';titute of T('('hnology nnd \rt, Cal- 
gar)', Alberta.. . .. . ............. 
Thp -\.nglican Th('olop:i('al Collt'ge of 
B.C., Vancouver, B.C... .. . ... . 
Columbia 
Iethodist Colll'g(', 
('W 
W('stminster, B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Royal Kaval College, Esquimalt,B.C. 
Total. . . . . 


4 
7 
17 
14 


.b 
7 
6 


7 
6 


lit 



;
 


6 
6 
13 


20 


21 
11 


:?!.I 


3 
3 
5 
17 
3 


22 


4 


11 


:::n') 
,AI... 


Ilncluding 301 studl'nts who!'p sex was not givf'n. 
:!Including 1,011 students whm
e sex" as not given. 


18427-11 


1 


12 


12 
5 


1 
1 


3 
9 


8" 


4: 
8 
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164 


CLIJ.fATE AND J.fETEOROLOGY 


VII.-CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY. 


THE CLIMATE OF' CANADA SINCE CONFEDERATION. 


By Sir FREDERICK STUPAR1, Director, Dominion MeteJrological Service, Toronto. 


It has been proved by geologists that in geological tÏ1ne the 
climate of the world has undergone great changes, and many his- 
torians and archæologists have in recent years carried on investi- 
gations as to whether in historical tÏ1nes there has been any appreciable 
change in the climates of the countries for '\vhich exist either \vritten 
records or evidences provided by the relnains of man's handhvork. 
I t has been thought by SOlne that there are evidences of increasing 
desiccation in Asia and southern Europe, \vhile in the western helnis- 
phere, in central Alnerica and adjacent territories, the disappearance 
of a by-gone civilization has been explained as resulting from a 
change of climate which has rendered uninhabitable a land obviously 
once \vell suited to lnan's best desires. 
It has, however, been found that there are many conflicting 
data, and as the question stands to-day the general consensus of 
opinion is that while there have been pulsations of both long and 
short periods during which departures froln average have been quite 
pronounced both as regards temperature and precipitation, yet there 
have not been appreciable progressive changes in either direction. 
In view of these facts we may be fairly sure that in the seasons 
in Canada of the more than fifty years since Confederation there 
have been variations such as have occurred do'\vn through the centuries 
and ,,-ill occur in the future, but we need not expect to find any dpfinitp 
climatic change. There is, ho\vever, one factor which may have 
to some extent affected the climate of eastern Canada and that is 
deforestation and yet, be it said in a somewhat guarded lnanner 
the records that \ve possess do not indicate that this factor is as 
ilnportant as it was once thought to be. 
In inspecting the charts sho'\ving the curves of winter temperature 
for the different parts of Canada during the past 50 years, the most 
obvious fact is that the variations froln average are largest in the 
western provinces and that they dilninish gradually eastward to\vards 
the Atlantic coast. At Edlnonton the mean telnperature of the 
winter of 1887 \vas -4 0 , '\vhile that of 1889 was 220; the lowest \vinter 
lnonthly average, -14 0 , occurred in January, 1886, and the highest 
\vinter monthly, 22 0 , occurred in both January and February, 1889. 
"'\Vinnipeg shows even a greater range, with a mean \vinter temperature 
of _9 0 in 1886 and a Inean of 19 0 in 1878. The lowest monthly 
mean was -16 0 in January, 1883, and the highest 23 0 in February, 
1878. 



NORMAL: MEAN 
TEMPERATURE 
JA N UARV 
METE OROLOqlCA L S[RVI('E' 
ST"'TION6 - Ð 


," 


. NOR.MAL 
PRECIPITATION. 
JANUARY 


sd 



l\IAP OF CANADA SHOWING NOR?\: MEAX' 



 



\IE.\X TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATIO
 IX JANUAR1 


; 


A 


T 



1 


( 
1 
f 
( 
I 


( 
I 
( 



rLI UA TE SI.YCL
 C()
VFEDER.t TI().V 


lû5 


..\t 1"oronto th(' rohleHt \vintC'rs ,vere those of 1875 and 10U4 
with n Illean of 1 i O , follo,ved closcly by 1018 ,,'ith a Ine:tn of 18 0 . 
l'he \varlnest ,,,inter \vas in 1800 \vith a II1ean of 30 0 and the ne
t 
,vannebt 1 90l) \vith a mean of 28 0 , \vhich 
ive a difference of 13 0 
het".ppn t he ""anlle
t and the coldest winters. 'fhe coldest ".inter 
1l1onthly 1l1eall recorded ""as 10 0 .2 in February, 1875, and the warmest 
J anU3.ry nlC'an \vas 32 0 in 1880 and the 'warnlest February \vas 30 0 .3 
in 1882. 
...\t \fontreal the ('olcle
t \vinter Incan \vas 10 0 in 1873 and the 
wanuest 21 0 in 1
7ð and 1892; the coldest January \vas 4 0 in 1888 
nnti also in 1893, :1nd the 'varn1e
t 22 0 in both lR80 and 1013. 'fhe 
('ohl("\
t Fehruary \vas 6 0 in 1883 and the \vannest 27 0 in 1877. 
In X ova 
eotia, as represented by IIalifax, the coldest ,vinters 
"'ere those of lS68 and 1905, 'with meaq. tel11peratures of 18 0 .3 and 
lX O .0, re
pectively, and the ,varnlpst \vere those of 1870 and 1890, 
p:\('h with a 11lean tenlperature of 28 0 .3. l'he coldest January ,vas 
that of 1873 \vith a tenlperature of 16 0 , and the coldest February 
o('('urrpr! in 1 HO.! ".it h a lnean of 17 0 . 
rrht' lo\vest tC'l1lperatures on record at various I:5tations in Canada 
arp as follo,vs: Fort Good IIope, l\lackenzie river _790; Fort 
''''cnnilion -780; Ednlonton -370; Prince ...\lbert -700; 'Vinnipeg 
-330; 'Yhitp River, Ontario -ßO o ; Toronto -2ü o ; Otta,va -32 0 ; 
.:\[ontrpal -2b o ; QuC'hec _3-10; Ifalifax -17 0 . 
'rhe record of 17 years at 'Yinnipeg presents some very striking 
facts. For a pC'riod of 23 years from 1872 there \vere but five winters 
,vith a nlean telllperature higher than the mean of the \vhole pcriod 
and durinv; the 22 years fronl 1895 until 1916 there ,vere but three 
wintC'r
 belo'w normal. Each of the past t,vo "Tinters has been, 
ho,vcver, below, but not as low as the \vinters of 1883-4-5-7 and 8. 
I t ,,"Quid appear that \ve are dealing ".ith a long-period cycle. 
'fhe records at Toronto and .:\Iontrcal prcsent much the same 
features as 'Yinnipeg, but to a somewhat lesser degree. One is struck 
bv the fact that the 'winters for a little better than the first half of 
the period cOlltaincd three distinctive groups of years which are 
not evident in the second half. In the first of these groups, 1873-1883, 
the mean 'winter temperature see-sa\\yed betwcen extremely cold and 
cOlllparatively nlÏld, 1873, '75, '77, '79, '81 and '83 being cold while 
the intermediate ".inters \vere n1Îld. Then in the second group we 
have six consecutive cold ".inters, follo,ved by a grQl,lp of four un- 
usually nlÌld ".inters. Following severe winters in 1893 and 1894 
there \yere ten ,vinters \vith nearly normal temperature, but II).ost 
of them slightly in excess of average. The .winters of 1904 a
d 
1905 .were very cold in Toronto and somewhat belo,v average In 
:\Iontreal and at both places were followed by an exceptionally 
mild ,vinter in 1906 and a very cold winter in 1907. Since that 
time, with the exception of moderately cold ,vinters in 19.11 and 
1912 the winter curve has been mostly above the normal untIl 1918, 
\vhich produced one of the coldest winters on record. In Halifax 
the winter of 1867-8 ,vas the second coldest \\Tinter on record and ,vas 



166 


CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 


follo'wed by 5 years of average or above-average temperature. After 
this the coldest ,vinters ,vere those of 1875, 1883, 1888, 1893 and 
1904, 1905 and 1918, and the mild winters 1886, 1889, 1892, 1900, 
1902 and 1906, 1908, 1910, while 13 winters other than those named 
,vere nearly normal. 
'Vhile, as we have seen, the ,vinters vary very considerably in 
severity, yet as the spring advances departures from a normal value 
diminish, and the summer season throughout the Dominion is subject 
to relatively small variations. There are differences, however, and 
in Alberta the summers of the eighties, exclusive of 1881, 1886 and 
1889, ,vere distinctly cooler than any term of years since, while the 
summers of 1894, 1896, 1898 and 1906 were especially marked by 
high temperature. In nearly all the other years the mean of the 
season differed very little from the normal derived from the whole 
period. The general character of the summers as regards tempera- 
ture has been much the same in Manitoba as in the more western 
provinces. In the seventies they were warm, while in the eighties 
they were cool, especially in 1883 and 1885. The nineties were also 
cool, exclusive of '90, '93 and '94, but since 1900 warm summers 
have predominated with however marked exceptions in 1904 and 
1905 and again in 1915. 
From Ontario east,vard the year 1869 had the coolest summer 
in the half century, and after that the coolest summers occurred 
from 1882 to 1891, exclusive of 1887 and in 1902-3-4. A decade of 
,varm summers cOlnmenced in 1892 and then since 1905 warm sum- 
Iners have predominated, but 1912-15 and '17 were comparatively 
cool. The spell of greatest heat ever recorded in Ontario occurred 
in the first week of July, 1911, when temperatures above 100 were 
registered on several consecutive daxs in the peninsula of Ontario. 
Fifty years of meteorological records afford no ground for belief 
that the precipitation of the Dominion has changed with a gradual 
deforestation and the general activities of man in covering the country 
with a network of railways and wires carrying electrical currents. 
'Tariations of a character which suggests cycles probably due to 
cosnlÌcal causes are however quite apparent, but at the same time 
perplexing, and it may be assumed with a high degree of probability 
that there has been no permanent progressive change in either rainfall 
or snow. 
The 'Vinnipeg records and also records from a shorter term 
of years in the West indicate that the eighties included more dry 
summers than in any corresponding period since, while the Alberta 
records sho,v a remarkable period of about six ,vet summers from 
1899 to 1904 and again from 1911 to 1915. 
'Vhile 1878 was the year of greatest precipitation in Ontario, 
and also the summer of greatest rainfall, the seventies as a whole 
had dry summers. In the eighties the summers of '80 and '83 and 
'85 were wet and the others about normal excepting '87 which was 
very dry. In the nineties the summers of '95, '96 and '98 and '99 
were particularly dry, while the other years had an ample but not 



CLIJIATE SIJ:.lCE CONFEDERA.TION 


167 


exc '

ive rainfall. 
ince 190U the SUUBners of 1007 1911 and 1913 
"l
re exceptionally ùry, ".hil(' others \verc nearÍ y nornlal. ...\.t 
:\Iontrf'al the year iU1I1H'diately succeeding Confederation and 1915 
wcre the years of least prccipitation and 18G9, 1885 and 1900 were 
tht.'\ y('ar of grpatest precipitation. The decade conlll1encing 1870 
'V:l
 that ?f leuf't precipih
tio
l al
ù that conlnlencing 1900 of greatest. 
IIerc agaul ,,'c have no IndIcatIon of progressive change. 
rrhe rccord
 of precipitation Inade at IIalifax since 18G8 sho\v no 
('vidence of progrcssive chang,e during the fifty years \vhich have 
phl}):-\eù. During the fir:-:t decade the average annual precipitation 
,vas 54 inches, durin
 the 
ccond 58 inche
, the thirù 57, the fourth 58, 
the fifth 54 in('hes. rrhe ,yettest years in each decade ,vere 1884 1888 
- , , 
lSDt), In07, 1908, 1910 ,vith total prc('ipitation rc
pectively as follo,vs: 
64, U7, 70, U4, U5, US inches. l'he drie:;t years ,vere 18G8, 1879, 
18bO, 18û4, 1903, 1914, 191G, the respective totals being 50, 48, 47, 
43, is, 18, 1G inches. In the first decade thf' greatest annual snowfall 
"-as 125 inche
 and the least 29 inchf'
. In the second decade these 
figurf's bec:ulle rcspectively 13-1 inches and 32 inches; in the third 
108 and ,')O! inches, in the fourth 108 and 53, and in the fifth 101 and 
;{
. III January, ISO.!, 5G inch('s of 
no'v fell, ,vhile in October, 189ß, 
15 inches of rain ,vere recorded on a total of 20 days. 
I n the seven ties and early eighties there were many more years 
".ith heavy sno,vfalls in ::\Iarch in Ontario and Quebec than have 
occurred in any period of equal len
th since then. The result ,vas 
to make the annual average snowfall for that period considerably 
higher than the normal, although the annual total precipitation in 
year
 ".ith a :-\no"")' 
Iarch ".a
 frequently belo\v nornlal. Lack of 
observations for this period in the \vestern provinces, except at 'Vin- 
nipeg, leave
 us restricted to a consideration of the years since 1883. 
The IllO:;t reluarkable features of the ,vestern snowfalls was the change 
fronl light to heavy ::;no,vfalls .which occurred in the nineties. If 
,\.e consider the decades 1885-1894, 1895-1904, 1905-1914, and form 
t he a vera
e annual totals of sno,vfalls for these, ,ve find at l\Iedicine 
lla t, 20 inches in the first decade, 45 inches in the second, 24 inches in 
the third. _\.t Edlnonton the figures are, respectively, 36, 52, 39 
inches; at Calgary 37,51 and 42; at Qu'Appelle 45,70 and 51. At 
'Yinnipeg, ho,vever, the sequence is different, the respective decadal 
averages running 52, 43!, 50!. At Prince Albert the first of these 
decades is missing, but the second two have averages of 58! and 48! 
,vhich sufficiently resemble the other records, as do also the figures 
for these two decades at Battleford, viz., 35 and 24. 
The dates and degree of late spring and early autumn frosts in 
the ".estern provinces are not quite conclusive, but the general 
inference from the longer records combined with those of short 
period, is that there has been no appreciable change since the early 
days of settlement. In Eastern Canada, however, it may be that the 
diminishing liability to frost in the \varmer nlonths results from 
deforestation, but the question is one that must be investigated 
further. 



168 


CLIJIATE A}..YD lYIETEOROLOGY 


THE WEATHER OF CANADA DURING THE YEAR 1919. 


Information furnished by the Dominion l\Ieteorological Service, Toronto. 
JANUARY. 
Temperature.-Over the greater part of the Prairie Provinces the tempera- 
ture was very much higher than usual, the departures from the normal values 
ranging from 12 0 to 24 0 . In British Columbia (except Vancouver Island), and in 
Northwestern Ontario the excess over the normal was from 6 0 to 12 0 . In Southern 
Ontario the excess was generally about 6 0 , while in Qupbec, the ß:Iaritime Provinces 
and on Vancouver Island the excess was smaller, generally about 3 0 . In the 1\Iac- 
kenzie River Basin and in the Yukon the excess ranged from 50 to 14 0 . 
Precipitation.-In the Maritime Provinces and the greater part of Quebec 
the total precipitation differed little from the normal but in the lower latitudes of 
British Columbia th('re was a considerable excess. Elsewhere in Canada there was 
a fairly large deficiency. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.-There was a great preval('nre of winds from 
a southwesterly direction in Ontario and Quebec, while in other provinces the 
northwesterly gradi('nt was less in evidence than usual. East of the Ottawa 
River and in Korthwestern Ontario there was a considerable deficiency of bright 
sunshine. 


FEBRUARY. 


Temperature.-"\Vest of the Lakes of l\fanitoba the temperature was lower 
than the normal, the greatest deficiency (about 80) occurring in the Peace River 
country. East of the Lakes of 
Ianitoba there was a general excess over normal 
temppratun', the greatest excess being about JO o to 12 0 in tllP Abitibi region and 
probably extending into the Ungava region. 
Precipitation.-The excess over normal precipitation was very marked in 
the interior valleys of British Columbia and in Saskatchewan, and to a lesser degree 
in Northwestern Ontario. From the Ottawa River to the Altantic Ocean, as well 
as in Southern Ontario there was a general deficiency. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.- The predominating directions in Eastern 
Canada were westerly; but with a considerable proportion from the southwest in 
Ontario and Quebec. In Western Canada (except British Columbia), the pre- 
vailing direction was from the northwest. Strong winds, in Eastern Canada, 
occurred on about half the days in the month. 
In Eastern Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, there was an excess of bright 
sunshine, while elsewhere there was a general deficiency. 


MARCH. 
Temperature.-From Lake Superior to the Atlantic Ocean the temperature 
was higher than thp normal, the greatest departures occurring in the Abitibi and 
James Bay regions. In the Lower Lakes and St. Lawrence regions the excess was 
generally from 2 0 to 50. From l\Ianitoba to the Rockies and in the basins of the 
Churchill, Athabasca, Peace and Mackenzie, as well as in the Yukon, there were 
large negative departures from normal. The coldest region was that drained by 
the Athabasca, Peace and 1\1ackenzie where the mean temperature was about 14 0 
below normal. In the lower interior valleys of British Columbia as well as on 
Vancouver Island tne temperature differed little from normal. 
Precipitation.-In the lower interior of British Columbia and in Ontario and 
'Vestprn Quebec there was a considerable excess over the normal precipitation. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.-The northwest and northeast directions pre- 
dominated with occasional gales from the southwest and southeast. Except in 
Ontario the duration of bright sunshine was g('nerally somewhat below the normal. 
APRIL. 
Temperature.-Except in the Lower Lake region, along the Upper St. Law- 
rence and on the coast of British Columbia, thp mean temperature was higher 
than the normal. In the wheat regions of the Western Provinces the excess over 



lrE..1 'rll rR OF CA ..Y..1 D.1 DU III }"?G 1919 


lG9 


normal telU}wrahln' varied frolll 1 0 to 
o. Elscwhl'rc, t;xccpt in the country ahout 
Athabmwa and Grt'at 
lavP Lak('
. the ditTl'rcncc from normal was not so huge. 
Precipita tion.- O\"l'r by far t he 
rpatl'r part of Canada t hp total prt'('ipita- 
tion wa
 in t'
Ct'
:-i of t h(' normal. 1."11(' notpworthy '",ccptions were the I
ootl'nays 
and X ortlwrn :\Ianitoba. 
""inds nnd nri
h t Sunshine.-(jalps Wl'rp fpw but tIlt're wcre many ùays 
"ith strong \\ind
. In Alht'rta th(' prevailing "inùs w('rt' frmu the f:outhpast and 
nortlnn>
t, in 
a
katchcwan from tlw :-.outh(,fif:t and northca8t, in l\lanitoba from 
tlw nortlu':l:-,t. In Ontario tlu' frf'qlH'IH'y was Il'ast fronl the south and sout1wast, 
whilt' in Kova 
 'otia, southwcst('rlips prpdominatt'd. 
EX(,t'pt in the nt'ighhourhood of thp Rocky mountain
 a large deficiency of 
bright sun
hinf' was rt'ported, csppcially large frUlll Lakc II uron to the Atlantic. 


l\IAY. 


Tenlperature.-From ".('-,(('rn Queh('c to thp Rod"y l\lountains the ITll'an 
tt'IllIH'raturf' \\as higlwr than thp normal with thp t'x('pption of a portion of RoutllPrn 
Ontario and flU' country Iwar Lake \thaha:-:ea. Tlw greatl'st dcparturcs from th(" 
normal occurred in l\lanitoba wherp thf'Y ranged from +60 to +go. In Brit i:-:h 
Columhia arul till" Yukon tIlt' lIH'an tf'm}H'raturc "as for t]w most part frOln 2 0 to 4 0 
bf'low normal, whilc in the Atlantic and Gulf rl'gions thf' ditTl'rl'llces froUl normal 
"I're hot h po:-,itivl' and ncgat ivc but gt'nl'rally I::Inlall. 
Precipitation.-In thp low('r interior valll')"s of Briti...h Columbia, in south('rn 

\lberta, 
a
h.atrll('wan, 
Ianitoba, Korthwestl'rn Ontario, Northweí'tt'rn Quelwc, 
th(' total prf'C'ipitation was It'f:
 than till' normal, ('onsiùl'rahly So in northprn Haf:kat- 
cl1l'wan. Eb('whcre thl're was an e
('('

, which \\as notably large in f'outhl'rn 
Ontario. 
\\"inds and nri
ht Sunshine.-t;trong "inds Wl'r(' le
s fr('qul'nt than in the 
pn'('('tling month hut winds from ea
terly quadrants lar
('ly preùominatt'd. Cloudi- 
nc!--s appeared to be much grcatpr than u
ual in the Yukon and ::\Ifiekenzie River 
district..., while southeMl latitudes of th(' "('stprn Provinces r('ported an excess of 
bright 8un
hine. In Eastprn Canada thp doudinl'ss ditT('r('(1 but littlc fron1 the 
norm31. 


JeXE. 
Temperature.-From th(" foothills of the Rocki("s and Lake Athabasca to 
thf' Gulf of 
t. La" renep and J
astern L"ngava the mean tt'mperaturps were gl'n- 
crally from 50 to go above normal and in no case below normal. In Britif:h Columbia, 
the "\ ukon, and the Peace and )Iackenzie basins thf're were fairly large nf'gative 
dcpartllrl':' frmn normal temperature while in the l\laritime Provinces conditions 
were nparly normal. 
Precipitation.-For the most part thf' precipitation of this month was 
df'ficicnt, eí'pcC'ially in Alberta and Saskatchewan, but l\lanitoba and the Peace 
Rivcr di
trict as well as the Yukon had an excess. 
'Yinds and Bright Sunshine.-V{("st of the OUa"n, Rivcr strong winds werf' 
infrequent. Ovcr the greater area of Canada there wus an excess over normal of 
bright sun
hine. 


JrLY. 
Temperature.-Higher than normal temperaturcs continued to prevail in 
thp wheat regions and in Ontario and 'Vest ern Qupbec. In Southern 1\lanitoba 
and in Saskatchcwan the excess was generally about 4 0 . In the Great Slave region, 
as wpll as on both Bea-coasts, temperature was lower than the normal. 
Precipitation.-In this month the rainfall continued to be below the normal 
in nearly all parts of Canada. Exceptions to the general deficiency were the Peace 
River country, Xorthern British Columbia, the Yukon Territory and parts of 
Quebec and i\ cw Brunswick. In 1\lanitoba there were also some localities which 
received normal rainfall but in the western wheat districts generally the dl'ficiency 
amounted to about fifty per cent of the normal. 



170 


CLIMATE AND l'vIETEOROLOGY 


Winds and Bright Sunshine.-There were few days with high winds in 
any of the provinces. The duration of bright sunshine was much greater than 
usual in British Columbia and considerably above average in Southern Ontario. 
In the Eastern provinces there was a general but 'small deficiency. 


AUGUST. 
Temperature.-Temperature continued higher than the normal in nearly 
all parts of Canada except the coast regions. In the wheat belt the excess over 
normal was from 4 0 to 6 0 . 
Precipitation.-In some parts of the Western Provinces there was an excess 
over normal rainfall, but in l\1anitoba there was a general deficien
y. In British 
Columbia only the Kootenays had an excess. In Eastern Canada, only in Southern 
Ontario and Nova Scotia was there an excess. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.-High winds were of infrequent occurrence 
during the month. 
Cloudiness was greater than the normal east of the Great Lakes while in many 
districts of Western Canada there was more than the normal amount of bright 
sunshine. 


SEPTEMBER. 


Temperature.-Over by far the greater part of Canada the mean temperature 
was above the normal. The exceptions within the field of observation comprised 
the western shores of Hudson and James Bays, Northwestern Quebec and small 
areas in British Columbia, and in the Maritime Provinces. Over the greater part 
of the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie basins the excess over normal was from 3 0 
to 50. 
Precipitation.-In Eastern Saskatchewan, Southern Alberta, the greater part 
of Southern Ontario and a part of western l\lanitoba, the precipitation exceeded 
the normal amount. Elsewhere there was a deficiency, which was especially 
large west of the Rocky Mountains. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.- The wind movement, although greater than 
in the summer months, was rather less than the normal for this time of year. The 
general direction was northwesterly on the prairirs, southwesterly in Ontario and 
Nova Scotia, and variable elsewhere. In British Columbia and Alberta there 
was more than the normal duration of bright sunshine. Elsewhere in Canada 
with local exceptions there was a deficiency. 


OCTOBER. 
Temperature.-Very much colder weather than usual prevailed over all 
Canada except Southern Ontario, and small districts on the Pacific and Atlantic 
coasts. On the Central Plains the mean temperatures were 14 0 below normal. 
In the interior valleys of British Columbia they were from 4 0 to 6 0 below normal, 
on the Hudson Bay slopes 4 0 to 8 0 below, in Quebec and the lYlaritime Provinces 
from 0 0 to 3 0 below. In Southern Ontario they ranged from normal to 4 0 or 50 
above. 
Precipitation.-Except in the coast regions of British Columbia and locally 
in the Prairie Provinces as well as in the l\laritime Provinces, there was a large 
excess over normal precipitation. In many districts of the Prairie Provinces twice 
the usual amount was recorded. 
Winds and Bright Sunshine.-The general direction of the wind remained 
southwesterly in Southern Ontario, but in most other parts of Canada there was a 
strong northwesterly component. The gale of the 28th and 29th affected most 
of eastern Canada and attained a velocity of more than 50 miles per hour at many 
points. 
Except in British Columbia there was a fairly general excess of cloudiness in 
Canada during October. 



lrE
1TIIHR OF CA
'..tlj)
1 Dc.:N/YO 191.1I 


171 


i\ OYE
nER. 


Tenlpccature.-On thp Central Plains of "-pstprn Canada the w('ather ('on- 
tinued abnormally cold. TIH' mean tpllllwratuf(':-; tlH'rp ranged frolll 10 0 to 15 0 
bdow normal. In southprn British Columbia, iu the intprior valky
, thp ddìcieney 
amounted to from 4 0 to {)O, in the' Yukon to R O , in Ì\orth\\('stprn Ontario to from 
2 0 to So. In the Lowpr Lakrs and St. LawrPlH'p HqÚon tPl1lpprahlr('R wpre mor(' 
sea
onablp and in mo:,t of X ova S('otia we're a little hiJ?;lH'r than normal. 
Precipitation.-In thp \Yp
tern })rovince'R tllP prp('ipitation continued to bp 
very heavy for this s('ason of thp yC'ar. In Briti:--h Columhia rxcl'pt in the Kootenays 
and tllP I:-;l:md:i prpeipitat ion was al
o nbo\"p normal. In Southern Ontario th('rc 
was a deficiency anù in th(' :\laritimc Provincps an excp:-;:,. 
\\'inds and Bright Sunshine.-Th(' stronJ?; gaIt' from the southw(\st of the 
30th affected all Canarla from Ontario pa
tward. Unll's were of 
('Il('rnl o('('urre'I1('(' 
on about 4 days in ('a:,tt'rn Canada. The' general direction of the wind rpmaillf d 
soutll'wpstprly in Sout hern Ontnrio. 
E).cppt in l\lanitoba, and in high latitudes elsewhere, tlwre was more than 
normal cloudin('!-;s. 


ÐLCE'IBER. 
Temperature.-Tt'mp('raturps \\"('r(' b('low normal in all parts of Canaòa 
('''{c('pt in th(' lower 
lack('nzip Valley. In \Vestern Canada tl1('Y \\ erp 3 0 to go 
he'IO\\ norlllal, and in tl1(' Hainy Hiver and I
akp Sup('rior districts go to 12 0 b('low 
normal; anù in the Lo\\cr Lake's and t;t. I.awre'nc(' region 3 0 to fiO 1)('10\\ normal. 
Precipitation.-J.'rOlI1 l\lanitoba to the Atlantic Ocean there was a gpn('ral 
deficiency while in the I"(,:,t of Canada the prp('ipitation was irregularly distributt'd, 
but "ith the majority of ùistricts having a deficienC'y. 
\Yinds and Bright Sunshinc.- Strong winds or gales occurred on mor(' than 
half the days of th(' month in Ea:-:tprn Canada. The ma).imum forc(' of thp f'trong 
galp of thf' 10th anò the 11th was not fplt in Ontario but its vplocity exceeded 50 
mil('s per hour in Quebpc anù the :\laritime Provinces. 
Thp amount of bright bunshine was much above the average in nearly all 
parts of Cnnada, pxc('pt 
outhe'rn Ontario, and parts of Saskatclwwan and Alberta, 
where the difference from normal was small. 


NOTE ON TE"IPERATURi: AND PRECIPITATION. 
TEMPERATURE.-At the Stations of the Dominion ,reteorological 
ervice the highes1 
and lowest temperature in each 24 hours, termed respectively the maximum and the mini- 
mum, are recorded by self-registering thermometers. For any month the sum of the 
daily ma.\.imd., divided by the number of days of the month, i'3 the mean maximum tem- 
perature of that month. The minimum temperature b obtained in a similar manner. 
The half sum of the mean maximum and the mean minimum is called the mean temperature. 
The averag:es of the!'e results for any particular month over a period of years are the average 
means for that period and are used as normal means or temperatures of reference. The 
highest and lowest temperatures recorded during the whole period of years are termed 
the extreme ma>..imum and extreme minimum respectively. These latter figures are of 
course to be regarded as extraordinary, the more unlikely to recur the longer the period 
from which they have been derived. Temperatures below zero have the minus sign(-) 
prefixed. The mean v.inter temperature is based on the records of January, February, 
March, November and December, and the mean summer temperature is based on those 
of June, July and August. 
PRECIPITATIO:S.- L nder the collective term "precipitation" is included all moisture 
which has been precipitated from the atmosphere upon the earth: min, snow, hail, sleet, 
etc. The amount of moisture is conveniently measured by determining the depth to whiC'h 
it has accumulated upon an impervious surface, and is always expressed in inches of depth. 
The total depth of snow is tabulated separately, but is added to the depth of rain after 
division by ten. An extended series of experiments in melting and mesauring snow having 
been collated, the rule was deduced that a given fall of snow will, in melting, diminish 
on the average to one-tenth of its original depth. This rule is used in practice, All solid 
forms of precipitation other than snow are included in the tables of rain. 



172 


CLIMATE A/I/D 
IETEOROLOGY 


1.- Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations. 


VICTORIA, B.C. 
Observations for 30 years. 


Temperature OF. 


Months. 



fean 
Daily. 


Mean 
Daily 
Max. 


Precipitation in inches. 


:Mean High- Low- 
Daily est. est. 
Min. 


Mean 
Daily 
range. 


A 


verages. Extremes. 
-- 
Snow. Total. Greatest. Least.. 
- 
6.3 4.51 6.54 2.56 
4.5 3.53 6.20 0.96 
1.5 2.55 4.58 0.67 
S 1.73 5.40 0.21 
- 1.30 2.83 0.35 
- 0.93 2.37 0.08 
- 0.36 1.15 R 
- 0.65 2.26 0.00 
- 2.01 4.27 0.32 
- 2.55 5.60 0.46 
1.5 6.46 11.50 0.91 
0.5 5.91 12.41 1.66 
- 
14.3 32.49 51.03 22.58 


Rain. 



 
 - - -- - 
Jan.......... 39.2 43.5 35.0 56.0 -2.0 8.5 3.88 
Feb......... 40.3 45.0 35.6 60.0 6.0 9.4 3.08 
March..... .. 43.1 49.2 37.0 68.0 17.0 12.2 2.40 
April.. . . . . . . 47.7 54.9 40.6 75.0 24.0. 14.3 1.73 
May........ . 53.0 60.7 45.3 83.0 31.0 15.4 1.30 
June........ . 57.1 65.1 49.0 88.0 36.0 16.1 0.93 
July........ . 60.3 69.2 51.2 90.0 37.0 18.0 0.36 
Aug......... 60.0 68.8 51.2 88.0 37.0 17.6 0.65 
Sept. .. . . . . . . 55.6 63.3 47.9 85.0 30.0 15.4 2,01 
Oct. .. h . . . . . 50.4 56.0 44.8 70.0 28.0 11.2 2.55 
Nov......... 44.5 48.6 40.5 63.0 17.0 8.1 6.31 
Dec......... 41.5 45.1 37.8 59.0 8.0 7.3 5.86 
- - ----- 
year........ 49.4 55.8 43.0 90.0 -2.0 12.8 131.06 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 
Observations for 30 years. 


an........ " 35.0 39.2 30.9 55.0 2.0 8.3 7.12 14.4 8.56 10.54 6.08 
eb... 37.8 43.1 32.5 58.0 10.0 10.6 5.90 3.2 6.22 10.17 2.6 
larch.... .. . 41.9 49.0 34.8 61.0 15.0 14.2 4.31 1.5 4.46 10.29 0.89 
pril.. .. . . . . 47.0 55.8 38.3 79.0 27.0 17.5 3.09 - 3.09 5.29 1.04 
lay...... . . 53.5 62.3 44.7 80.0 33.0 17.6 3-56 - 3.56 5.39 1.44 
une.. ....... 58.4 67.7 49.1 88.0 36.0 18.6 2.82 - 2.82 5.42 1.43 
uly........ . 63.2 73.3 53.0 90.0 43.0 20.3 1.33 - 1.33 2.45 0.32 
ug......... 61.5 71.0 52.0 92.0 39.0 19.0 1.71 - 1.71 5.86 0.22 
ept. . . . . . . .. 55.7 64.0 47.4 82.0 30.0 16.6 4.29 - 4.29 9.09 1.61 
ct......... . 49.2 55.7 42.6 69.0 23.0 13.1 5.69 - 5.69 9.20 1.76 
ov......... 42.4 47.1 37.6 63.0 15.0 9.5 10.97 3.1 11.28 18.99 4.18 
ec........ . 38.9 42.8 35.0 58.0 I 17.0 7.8 7.27 2.9 7.56 9.55 4.21 
- - - - -- - - -- 
ear....... . 48'71 56.0 41.5 92.0 2.0 14.5 58.06 25.1 60.57 72.29 52.27 


o 


J 
F 
1\ 
A 

 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 
Y 


PORT SIMPSON, B.C. 
Observations for 20 years. 
Jan......... . 34.0 40.0 28.1 {)4.0 - 9.0 11.9 '.64 9.8 8.62 16.74 1.08 
Feb......... 34.8 41.8 27.7 63.0 -10.0 14.1 4.89 11.8 6.07 16.65 1.93 
Mar.. .. . . . . . 37.6 44.8 30.3 63.0 11.0 14.5 4.53 5.3 5.06 8.16 1.41 
April.. . . 41.6 49.9 33.4 73.0 18.0 16.5 4.55 3.0 4.85 14.31 2.24 
May. . . .. . . . . 48.3 56.5 40.0 79.0 27.0 16.5 5.14 5.14 9.84 1.63 
June........ . 52.8 60.5 45.1 88.0 34.0 15.4 4.26 4.26 7.50 1.20 
July...... . .. 56.0 63.3 48.8 88.0 36.0 14.5 4.42 4.42 9.41 1.28 
Aug......... 56.7 63.8 49.5 80.0 31.0 14.3 6.93 6.93' 14.11 1.74 
Sept..... . 52.2 59.1 45.2 74.0 30.0 13.9 9.03 9.03 14.63 2.20 
Oct......... . 47.1 53.5 40.7 65.0 28.0 12.8 12.21 12.21 16.99 6.71 
Nov......... 39.7 45.6 33.7 65.0 6.0 11.9 11.31 1.6 11.47 23.90 3.26 
Dec......... 36.9 42.6 31.2 62.0 5.0 11.4 9.24 8.7 10.11 18.82 5.23 
----------- 
year........ 44.8 51.8 37.8 88.0 -10.0 14.0 84.15 40.2 88.17 126.48 62.05 



TElIPER ITURP LY/) J>RErIPI1 t tTIO..\ 


173 


1. -Xormal Temperature and Prerlpltatlnn at "'\,'lectNI ('anadl:m Stcltlon
-con. 
K -\MLOOP8, B.C. 
Obseryations for 22 years. 


Temperature of. Pr('('ipitation in in('he
. 
)Iontha. 'IC.lD 'I ('an 'I can lIill;h- Low- 'I NlD \ vera es. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily Daily e
t. est. I>uily - 

I ax. \Iin: ranll;e. Rain. :o-no\\. Total. Greatest. J cast. 
- - - - - - - 
(a) (b) 
Jan.. 22.4 28.3 16.5 54.0 -31.0 11.8 0.13 7.7 0.90 0.60 0.35 
Feb...... ... 26.5 3
.4 19.6 6-1.0 -27.0 13.8 0.20 6.0 0.80 1.17 0.02 
'br('h....... 37.6 47.3 27.8 70.0 - 6.0 19.5 0.20 1.2 0.32 0.8:i 0.01 
April. . . . 49.7 61.1 38.3 9
.0 19.(1 22.8 0.36 
 0.31>> 1.3fl R 
,lay. . . .. . .. . 57.5 7().3 44.8 100.0 26.0 25.5 0.9:i - 0.93 2.50 R 
June........ . 6-1.6 76.4 52.7 101.0 35.0 2:J.7 1.23 - 1.2:3 3.07 0.57 
July...... . . . 69.6 f;::!.7 56.5 102.0 42.0 26.2 1.27 - 1.27 3.50 0.35 
.\UIZ:........ . 61\.1 80.9 5,1).4 101.0 3.').0 25.5 1.05 - 1.05 3.73 0.00 

ept........ . 58.4 69.3 47.4 93.(1 ::!....O 21.9 0.94 - O.tll 2.34 0.10 
Oct......... . 47.8 56.2 39.3 82.0 16.0 16.9 0.57 0.2 0.59 1.41 R 

 oy . . .. . . . . . 35.8 41.5 30.2 72.0 -22.0 1l.3 0.4() 6.5 1.05 1.2:i ().07 
Dee. . . . . . . . . 20.8 32.6 24.9 59.0 -17.0 7.7 0.20 13.5 1.5" 0.G4 0.12 
- - - - - - - - - 
'Year. . . . . . . . 47.2 56.7 37.8 1O::!.0 -31.0 18.9 7..", 3;;.1 10.99 13.47 7.07 


Rn.......... -24.6 -b.O -31.3 3().0 -61"1.0 13.3 0.00 
.6 O.!-.I\ l.n R. 
.cb..... .... -12.0 4.3 -19.6 &.').0 -55.0 23.9 R. 7.3 0.73 1.3;) 0.20 
I ir. . . . . . . . . 5.6 16.5 - 5.3 5:?0 -47.0 21.8 0.()1 4.7 0.4
 1.21 0.00 
\pril..... .. . 27.6 4(1.2 15.1 67.0 -30.0 25.1 O.ls 4.7 0.r,.1) 1.6S 0.2
 
'lay. .. .. ... . 46.8 59.0 34.6 !\5.0 17.0 2&.4 0.83 0.4 0.87 2.00 0.25 
une........ . 56.9 7n.3 43.6 \10.0 27.0 26.7 1. hi 0.3 1.21 2.66 0.25 
uly. . . . . . . . . 59.4 71.9 46.8 9.').0 31.0 2.').1 1. fil - 1.61 3.32 0.62 
ug... . 54.0 66.2 41.7 ...!J.O 23.0 24.5 1.51 - 1.51 2.38 0.07 
cpt........ . 41.6 51.1 32.2 i:O;.O R.O 18.9 1.4() 1.8 1.58 3.52 0.8 
ct......... . 26.4 32.7 20.1 6S'0 -22.0 12.6 0.29 8.8 1.17 4.09 0.1 

ov. 0.4 6.4 - 5.6 46.0 -4....0 12.0 0.01 12.4 1.25 2.60 0.2 
Dec........ . -10'2 -4.3 -16.1 38.0 -55.0 11.8 H. 10.9 1.09 2.09 0.0 
- - - - - - - - 
- ear....... . 22.6 33.0 13.0 95.0 -68.0 20.0 7.02 59.9 13.01 17.75 6.2 


J 
I- 

 


J 
J 
A 

 
o 


'\: 


D-\\\80
, ). \:I\.os. 


Observations for 30 years. 


6 
o 
4: 
8 
8 


Jan.......... 
Feb.... _. 
)Iar. . . . . . . . . 
April.. . 
'lay. . . . . . . . . 
June........ . 
July......... 
.\ug... . . . . . . 
:-\ept . ... .. 
Oct.... ...... 
Xov......... 
Dee. . . . . . . . . 


5.9 
10.6 
23.4 
40.8 
51.2 
57.3 
61.2 
59.0 
50.4 
41.7 
24.5 
16.0 


Year.. . . . . . . 36.9 


EDMOXTOX, ALBERTA. 


Observations for 30 years. 


15.6 
21.1 
34.9 
52.9 
64.4 
70.1 
73.7 
71.6 
62-9 
53.2 
33.3 
24.7 


57.0 -57.0 
62.0 -57.0 
72.0 -40.0 
84.0 -15'0 
90.0 10.0 
94.0 25.0 
94.0 33.0 
90.0 26.0 
87.0 12.0 
f\2.0 -10.0 
74.0 -37.0 
60.0 -43.0 


1.7 
3.5 
6.7 
6.8 


2.49 
2.33 
1.93 
2.60 
4.04 
8.53 
11.13 
6.43 
4.32 
1.86 
3.57 
3.21 
27.81 


0.05 
S 
R. 
0.04 
0.2(\ 
0.00 
0.15 
0.49 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
O.CO 
8.16 


- 3.8 
0.1 
11.9 
28.6 
3
.1 
44.4 
4
.8 
46.4 
37.8 
30.3 
15.6 
7.3 


0.06 
0.00 
0.05 
0.34 
1.73 
3.26 
3.56 
2.47 
1.23 
0.39 
0.06 
0.07 


19.4 
21.0 
23.0 
24.3 
26.3 
25.7 
24.9 
25.2 
25.1 
22.9 
17.7 
17.4 


7.0 
6.7 
6.2 
3.6 
1.3 
S 


0.76 
0.67 
0.67 
0.80 
1.86 
3.26 
3.56 
2.47 
1.40 
0.74 
0.73 
0.75 


48.2 


25.6 94.0 -57.0 22.6 13.42 42.5 17.67 



174 


CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 


t.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Statlons-con. 
:MEDICINE HAT. ALBERTA. 
Observations for 30 years. 
Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. Mean :\{ean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily Daily est. est. Daily 
Max. :\1 in. range. Rain. Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
------- - - --- - 
Jan.......... 11.2 21.6 0.7 62.0 -51.0 20.9 0.00 6.1 0.61 1.72 0.00 
Feb.... 12.8 23.5 2.1 64.0 -46.0 21.4 0.01 6.0 0.61 1.51 0.00 
Mar......... 26.7 38.4 14.9 84.0 -38.0 23.5 0.11 5.0 0.61 1.62 S. 
April.. . . . . . . 45.1 58.8 31.4 96.0 -16.0 27.4 0.37 2.4 0.61 2.26 0.03 
May......... 54.7 68.0 41.5 99.0 12.0 26.5 1.70 0.5 1.75 6.29 0.12 
June........ . 62.5 75.6 49.3 107.0 30.0 26.3 2.57 S. 2.57 5.62 0.00 
July. . . . . . . . . 68.4 82.7 54.1 108.0 36.0 28.6 1.73 1.73 4.86 0.09 
Aug......... 66.0 80.7 51.4 104.0 31.0 29.3 1.51 1.51 5.65 0.00 
Sept........ . 56.5 70.2 42.7 94.0 17.0 27.5 0.88 0.4 0.92 2.41 0.00 
Oct......... . 45.8 58.7 32.9 93.0 -10.0 25.8 0.51 1.1 0.62 3.48 0.00 
Nov......... 29.3 39.9 18.7 76.0 -36.0 21.2 0.08 6.4 0.72 3.11 R. 
Dec......... 21.1 31.0 ll.2 68.0 -37.0 19.8 0.06 4.7 0.53 1.42 0.00 
---.- - - -- - 
year........ 41.7 51.4 29.2 108.0 -51'0 22.2 11.53 32.6 12.79 22.28 6.72 


FORT VERMILION, ALBERTA. 
Observations for 18 years. 
Jan.......... - 14.8 - 2.5. - 27.1 50.0 -73.0 24.6 0.00 4.7 0.47 1.80 0.15 
Feb......... - 3.9 9.7 - 17.5 53.0 -58.0 27.2 0.00 3.7 0.37 0.65 0.20 
Mar.... 11.8 26.0 - 2.4 63.0 -41 0 28.4 0.01 7.0 0.71 1.70 0.00 
April... . . . . . 32.0 44.5 19.5 78.0 -29.0 25.0 0.23 6.1 0.84 1.85 0.00 
:\Iay. . . . . . . . . 49.3 63.3 35.3 93.0 13.0 28.0 0.78 0.6 0.84 2.06 0.00 
June... ...... 57.9 72.2 43.7 98.0 26.0 28.5 1.65 0.1 1.66 3.44 0.25 
July. . .. .. . .. 61.0 75.2 46.9 94 0 
.O 28 3 1.60 1.60 3.49 0.51 
Aug....... 57.1 70.4 43.8 101.0 28.0 26.6 1.57 1.57 3.32 0.53 
Sept. . .. . . . . . 47.3 58.2 36 4 84 0 9.0 21.8 1 40 o 1 1.41 2.33 0.64 
Oct.......... 33.1 43.1 23.1 70.0 -14.0 20.0 0.26 2.1 0.47 0.81 0.00 
Nov......... 14.0 22.4 5.6 48.0 -26.0 16.8 0.02 7.2 0.74 1.40 o 20 
Dec......... - 1.7 10.2 - 13.6 65.0 -500 23 8 0.00 5.0 0.50 1.60 0.20 
- - - - -- - - - - 
year........ 28.6 41.1 16.1 101.0 -73.0 25.0 7.52 36.6 11.18 14.78 7.60 
FORT CHIPEWYAN, ALBERTA. 
Observations for 16 years. 
. 3.5 45.0 -55.0 16.9 0.00 0.90 0.02 
Jan....... .,. - 11.9 - - 20.4 9.0 1.68 
Feb......... - 9.1 0.5 - 18.7 46.0 -56.0 19.2 R. 5.8 0.58 2.03 0.03 
}Iar. . . . . . . . . 5.0 15.1 - 5.0 47.0 -41.0 20-1 R. 5.8 0.58 1.58 0.09 
April.. . . . . . . 28.5 39.4 17.6 69.0 -22.0 21.8 0.20 4.4 0.64 3.04 0.06 
May......... 44.5 53.8 35.1 83.0 - 3.0 18.7 0.65 1.6 0.81 2.08 0-.02 
June........ . 54.0 64.6 43.3 90.0 24.0 21.3 1.56 0.1 1.57 3.31 0.10 
July. . .. . . . . . 61.5 71.0 51.9 93.0 26.0 19.1 2.64 2.64 9.52 0.21 
Aug......... 58.1 68.1 48.2 89.0 25.0 19.9 1.64 1.64 3.67 0.39 
Sept. .. . ., . . . 45.2 53.0 37.3 79.0 13.0 15.7 1.63 1.1 1.74 2.93 0.27 
Oct.......... 33.7 40.1 27.3 66.0 -9.0 12.8 0.75 4.3 1.18 5.30 0.02 
Nov......... n.o 17.9 4.2 56.0 -33.0 13.7 0.91 8.6 1.77 2.28 0.26 
Dec......... 2.2 10.3 - 5.9 49.0 -48.0 16.2 0.92 9.1 1.83 3.20 0.09 
--- ----.- ---- 
year........ 26.9 35.8 17.9 90.0 -56.0 17.9 10.90 49.8 15.88 16.99 6.70 



TI
'J[Pf.'R.l TURP: A.\"D PRECIPITATIO..Y 


175 


1.- ",ormal Tt'mpt"rature and I-rerlpltatlon at '-'rlected Canadian Station!) -con. 
Qu' ..c\.PPELLJ:, S.AJ:iK. 
Observations for 30 ;years. 


TemJX'mturoOF. 


Prt'cipitation in inches. 



ronth!!. 


1\1 pun 
Daily. 


)Ienn 
J>ailv 
\Iax: 



1
3n Hill;h- Low-- 
Daily c
t. est. 
Min. 



h.l1n 
Daily 
r8lijte. 


Ita 


\ \ eruges. xtremcs. 
in. 
no\\ . Total. Greatest. I..em"t. 
- 
.00 6.9 0.69 2.28 0.05 
.00 8.1 0.81 2.85 0.12 
.06 9.6 1.02 4.11 0.05 
43 6.7 1.10 3.59 0.29 
.40 3.1 2.71 6.95 0.25 
.69 H 3.69 7.19 0.32 
.M - 2.84 7.25 0.58 
.0-1 - 2.04 5.03 0.30 
.2S 1.0 1.3... 4.61 0.08 
.53 4.5 0'9S 3.35 S. 
.14 H.4 0.98 2.51 0.12 
.01 7.1 0.72 3.11 0.03 
- 
.42 55.4 18.96 26.47 10.14 


E 


Jan.......... - 0.6 R.5 - 9.7 50.0 -47.0 1".2 0 
Feb......... 2.0 11.2 - 7.2 50.0 -55.0 18.4 0 

Iar......... 11..0 25.7 6.2 76.0 -45.0 19.5 0 
.\pril........ 37.3 49.1 :l5.5 89.0 -24.0 23.6 ().. 

Iu\".. ..... 4ð.9 62.4 37.3 92.0 8.0 25.1 2 
June......... 59.6 70.8 4
.4 101.0 25.0 2:!.4 3 
July......... 63.8 75.9 51.7100.0 34.0 24.2 2 
.\ug......... 61.1 n.3 48.9 JOO.O 27.0 24.4 2 

cpt......... 52.0 64.0 39.99.J.0 12.0 24.11 
Oct..... .... 40.8 51.5 30.2 86.0 -)
.O 21.3 0 
Nov......... 21.8 30.4 13.3 73.0 -30.0 17.1 0 
Dee......... 10.7 18.5 2.8 49.0 -40'0 1 15.7 0 
year........ 34.5 45.1 
3.9 101.0 -55.0 21.2 13 


PRlSC. ALB"RT. S-\:'K. 
Observations for 30 year.!. 
Jan.......... - 5.9 5.3 -17.1 53.0 -67.0 22.4 0.00 8.2 0.82 2.00 0.22 
Feb ........ - 1.3 11.3 -13.9 52.0 -70.0 25.2 0.01 6.8 0.69 2.15 0.04 
1tlar. . . . . . . . . 12.1 26.2 - 2.1 68.0 -44.0 28.3 0.10 7.7 0.87 2.56 0.17 
April..... .. . 36.1 48.7 23.6 86.0 -23.0 25.1 0.3x 4.4 0'b2 3.37 0.03 

Iay . . . . . . . . . 48.9 62.6 35.2 90.0 2.0 27.4 1.34 1.6 1.50 4.87 0.01 
June...... . 58.1 71.0 i5.1 96.0 17.0 25.9 2.67 2.67 7.36 1.00 
July. ........ 62.0 74.2 49.8 93.0 33.0 24.4 2.31 2.31 5.31 0.17 
.\uJ!:........ . 58.8 71.7 46.0 94.0 22.0 25.7 2.31 2.31 b.Ol R 
:-\cpt.. .. .. .. . 49.4 61.7 37.1 87.0 14.0 24.6 1.32 0.7 1.39 2.94 0.09 
(>ct...... .... 38.3 49.2 27.4 &1).0 - 5.0 21.8 0.57 2.3 0.80 1.97 0.10 
Xov....... 18.5 27.4 9.5 66.0 -41.0 17.9 0.12 8.7 0.99 3.06 0
07 
Dec......... 5.3 15.1 - 4.5 58.0 -57.0 19.6 0.01 8.0 0.81 2.61 0.19 
- -- '-- - - - 
1. ear. . . . . . . . 31.7 43.7 19.7 96.0 -70.0 24.0 11.13 48.4 15.97 29.88 9.25 


"JXXIPEG, 
hx. 


Observations for 30 years. 


Jan..... - 3.5 6.8 -13.8 42,0 -46.0 20.6 0.01 8.1 0.82 2.12 0.12 
Feb......... - 0.5 1 ().. 7 -11.8 46.0 -46.0 22.5 0.01 7.4 0.75 1.80 0.09 

[ar . . . . . . . . . 15.2 21).7 3.6 73.0 -37.0 23.1 0.21 9.6 1.17 3.00 0.29 
April. . . . . . . . 38.7 5(}.1 27.4 90.0 -13.0 22.7 1.10 4.4 1.54 5.64 0.25 

Iay . . . . . . . . . 51.5 64.5 .
1'0.5 94.0 11.0 26.0 2.06 0.9 2.15 6.38 0.11 
June...... ... 62.6 74.9 50.2 101.0 21.0 24.7 3.03 - 3.03 6.30 0.45 
July. ... .. . .. 66.2 is.l 54.3 96.0 35.0 23.8 3.25 - 3.25 7.14 0.87 
Aug......... 62.7 75.0 50.4 103.0 30.0 24.6 2.18 - 2.18 4.75 0.77 
Sept........ . 54.1 65.9 42.2 99.0 17.0 23.7 2.07 0.1 2.08 5.49 0.60 
Oct.......... 41.6 52.0 31.3 85.0 - 3.0 20.7 1.22 1.4 1.36 5.67 0.29 
Nov........ . 22.0 30.8 13.3 71.0 -33.0 17.5 0.17 8.2 0.99 2.34 0'06 
!)ro......... 7.2 16.7 - 2.4 49.0 1-44.0 19.1 0.06 8.6 0.92 3.99 0.11 
year........ 


- 1103.0 -46.0 
 15.37 "4;;- 20.24 28.40 14.38 



176 


CLIJ.1fATE AJ.VD METEOROLOGY 


t.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations-con. 


PORT ARTHUR. ONT. 
Observations for 30 years. 


Months. Me 
Dai 


Temperature of. Precipitatio 
--- 
an Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. 
lye Daily Dailv est. est. Daily 
Max. )lin
 range. Rain. Snow. Total. 
- - -- - - - - 
.2 17.1 - 4.6 48.0 -40.0 21.7 0.02 7.4 0.76 
.2 19.7 - 3.3 52.0 -51.0 23.0 0.05 6.5 0.70 
,6 30.8 8.4 70.0 -42.0 22.4 0.11 8.1 0.92 
.6 44.7 26.4 78.0 - 3.0 18.3 1.19 3.6 1.55 
.0 55.6 36.5 89.0 16.0 19.1 1.98 0,5 2.03 
.1 67.2 47.0 91.0 20.0 20.2 2.69 - 2.69 
.6 73.5 51.7 96.0 33.0 21.8 3.76 - 3.76 
.0 70.6 47.5 94.0 31.0 23.1 2.77 - 2.77 
.8 62.3 43.3 88.0 19.0 19.0 3.26 - 3.26 
1.5 50.6 32.9 80.0 1.0 17.7 2.39 0.9 2.48 
.7 34.6 18.7 69.0 -22.0 15.9 0.84 6.2 1.46 
.4 22.7 4.1 51.0 -38.0 18.6 0.18 6,6 0.84 
- - - - - - - 
.7 45.8 25.7 96.0 -51.0 20.1 19.24 39.8 23.22 


n in inches. 


E
tremes. 


Greatest. Least. 


Jan.... _..... 6 
Feb. . .. .. . .. 8 
Mar. . . . . . . . . 19 
April.. . . . . . . 35 
May. . . . . .. . . 46 
June......... 57 
July. . . . . . . . . 62 
Aug. . . . . . . . . 59 
Sept......... 52 
Oct. . . . . . . . . . 4 
N ov . .. . . . . . . 26 
Dec......... 13 
Year. . .. . . . . 35 


1.46 0.21 
2.77 0.04 
2.76 0.18 
3.09 0.07 
4.10 0.36 
6.94 0-50 
9.21 1.39 
5.06 1.02 
7.54 1.30 
5.27 0.37 
4.29 0.35 
2.68 0.02 
29.43 18.80 


TORONTO, ONT. 


Observations for 70 years. 


J 
F 
M 
A 
M 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 
Y 


an.......... 22.1 29.1 15.2 58.0 -26.0 13.9 1.14 17.3 2.8í 5.72 0..61 
eb........ . 21.7 29.2 14.1 54.0 -25.0 15.1 0.93 16.5 
'5b 5.21 0.29 
ar........ _ 29.0 36.3 21.9 75.0 -16.0 14.4 1.50 11.5 2 Ij
 6.70 0.66 
pril. . . . . . . . 41.4 49.6 33.3 90.0 6.0 16.3 2.15 2.5 2.4<. 4.90 0.09 
ay......... 52.7 62.0 43.3 93.0 25.0 18.7 2.97 0.1 2.!:)
 9.36 0.52 
une........ . 62.6 72.4 52.9 97.0 28.0 19.5 2.76 - 2.70 8.09 0.57 
uly. . . . . . 
 . . 68.1 77.9 58.2 103.0 39.0 19.7 3.04 - 3.04 5.63 0.36 
ug....... _' 66.6 76.1 57.1 102.0 40.0 19.0 2.77 - 2.77 7.09 R 
ept........ . 59.2 68.2 50.2 97.0 28.0 18.0 3.18 - 3.18 9.76 0.40 
ct......... . 47.0 54.9 39.1 86.0 16.0 15.8 2.40 0.6 2.46 5.96 0.56 
ov........ . 36.3 42.5 30.1 70.0 - 5.0 12.4 2.49 4.6 2.95 5.84 0.11 
ec.... . . . . . 26.3 32.5 20.0 61.0 -21.0 12.5 1.53 13.0 2.83 6.00 0.47 
-- - - - - -- - - 
ear. . . . . . . . 44.4 52.6 36.3 103.0 -26.0 16.3 26.86 66.0 33.46 50.18 24.84 


PARRY SOUND, ONT. 
Observations for 40 years. 
Jan...... .... 14.3 24.5 4.0 54.0 -38.0 20.5 0.87 31.5 4.02 7.75 1.76 
Feb......... 13.7 24.9 2.6 58.0 -38.0 22.3 0.76 23.4 3.10 6.31 0.46 

lar......... 23.5 34.3 12.8 71.0 -27.0 21.5 1.33 14.8 2.81 5.49 0.75 
April.. . . . .. . 39.0 49.4 28.5 82.0 - 3.0 20.9 1.76 3.1 2.07 4.03 0.75 
May......... 51.5 62.4 40.6 90.0 16.0 21.8 2.96 0.6 3.02 6.06 0.58 
June. . . . . . . . . 61.8 72.7 50.9 94.0 31.0 21.8 2.47 2.47 5.47 0.70 
July......... 66.5 76.9 56.1 98-0 37.0 20.8 2.80 2.80 0.92 1.10 
Aug.... . . . . . 64.2 74.5 54.0 93.0 35.0 20.5 2.83 2.83 5.46 0.63 
Sept....... . . 55.7 67.6 47.9 90.0 24.0 19.7 4.49 S. 4.49 8.43 1.52 
Oct.......... 45.8 54.5 37.1 84.0 9 .0 17.4 3.92 0,.9 3.92 6.33 0.57 
Nov......... 33.5 40.8 26.2 69.0 -20.0 14.6 4.12 14.9 4.12 7.33 2.09 
Dec......... 20.5 29.7 11.4 56.0 -39.0 18.3 4,45 32.3 4.45 8.16 2.18 
- - -- - - - - - 
year........ 41.0 51.0 31.0 98.0 -39.0 20.0 27.95 121.5 40.10 50-30 31.59 



1'EJIPERLt1'URFAX/) !>RECI Pl1'...1 TIOJ.V 


177 


1.- 
orlllal T('ml)t'raturt' antI Prt't'lpltation at 
(')t'cted ('anadlan StatlOI1!\-coo. 
COTT-\Y, ONT. 
Observations Cor 20 years. 


Temperature of. 


Pre<-ipitation in inchc$. 


Months. 


Jan.......... 
I'eh. . . . . . . . . 
)Iar. . . . . . . . . 
_\pril... .... 

Iav. ........ 
Junè......... 
July..... .. . . 
.Au
......... 

ept....... . . 
Oct. . . . . . . . . . 
N' ov . . . . . . . . 
Dec......... 


Year... .. . . . 46.2 


'[t'an 
Daily. 



[ean 
Daily 
Max. 



[l'
m Hill.h- Low- 
j)'lIly 

î in. e:òt. est. 



1
3n 
Daily 
r
e. 


22.0 31.6 12.3 62.0 -20.0 19.3 
21.1 30.9 11.3 57.0 -25.0 19.6 
32.R 42.8 22.8 
O.O - 8.0 20.0 
43.7 54.6 32.7 S7.0 10.0 21.9 
55.6 67.6 43.6 9;).0 19.0 24.0 
64.6 76.6 52.6 y.').O 30.0 24.0 
70.6 83.0 58.2 100.0 36.0 24.8 
6ö.9 
1.6 56.2 100.0 35.0 25.4 
61.6 74.4 48.9 97.0 26.0 25.5 
49.4 61.7 37.1 
5.0 10.0 24.6 
37.8 47.9 27.8 74.0 8.0 20.1 
26,4 35.0 17.9 70.0 -11.0 17.1 


57.3 


A \ erages. Extremes 
n. :-::oow. Total. Greah'bt. I east. 
- 
9 11.8 2.77 6.01 1.45 
1 10.1 2.62 6.16 1.11 
0 6.8 2.58 6.30 1.07 
4 2.1 2.55 4.54 0.47 
b 0.2 3.60 6.76 1.48 
H - 4.18 7.21 0.41 
8 - 3.3S 7.0
 0.66 
9 - 2.49 5.66 0.00 
8 - 2.18 5.50 1.09 
8 0.1 2.49 5.36 1.07 
0 2.7 2.67 5.04 1.05 
2 8.2 2.64 4.42 0.90 
- 
5 42.0 34.15 38.97 26.67 


Hai 


I..') 
1.6 
1.9 
2.3 
3.5 
4. ] 
3.3 
2.4 
2.1 
2.4 
2.4 
1.:> 


35.1 100.0 -25.0 22.2 29.9 


Jan........ '. 
Feb... . . . . . . 

Iar . . . . . . . . . 
April. . . . . . . . 
::\Iay........ . 
June........ . 
July. . . . . . . . . 
Aug....... .. 
Sept....... . . 
Oct.......... 

ov......... 
Dec.... ..... 
,... 
year........ 


6.4 
7.8 
19.4 
37.1 
50.8 
61.7 
ß6.0 
62.2 
55.3 
43.0 
2J.2 
13.6 


17.4 
14.0 
21.6 
,g'-O 
6
.2 
73.4 
76.8 
72.7 
64.9 
51.5 
35.2 
22.0 


- 4.6 48.0 
- 3,4 4"'.0 
8.2 66.0 
26.2 81.0 
39., 93.0 
50.0 100.0 
55.4 102.0 
51.8 !U.O 
45.7 91.0 
34.4 
O'O 
21.1 67.0 
5.2 51.0 


H.-\ILEYBURY, O
T. 


Observations Cor 20 years. 


-40.0 1 
-48.0 
-34.0 
- 3.0 
1,.0 
2b'0 
36.0 
30.0 
24.0 
13.0 
-15.0 
-34.0 


22.0 
17.4 
13.4 
21.8 
22.8 
23.4 
21.4 
29.9 
]9.2 
17.1 
14.1 
16.8 


0.27 
0.20 
0.52 
1.25 
2.83 
2.91 
2.72 
2.
b 
2.31 
2,5S 
0.99 
0.75 


-------- 


Jao.......... 
Feb. . . . . . . 

[ar .. . . . . . . . 
April.. . . . . . . 
:May. . . . . . . . . 
June...... .. . 
July. . .., ... 
Aug..... .... 
Sept....... . . 
Oct.......... 
Nov......... 
Dec. . . . . . . . . 


37.1 


12.7 
l-i.3 
24.6 
41.3 
52.9 
63.9 
69.1 
66.1 
58.5 
46.0 
33.3 
19.6 


46.7 


20.8 
21.8 
31.7 
49.3 
61.6 
73.6 
77.4 
74.0 
66.2 
52.9 
39.2 
26.5 


27.5 102.0 1 -48.0 19.2 20.21 95.2 


::\IOXTREAL, QUE. 
Observations Cor 50 years. 


4.6 
6.8 
17.4 
33.4 
44.3 
54.3 
60.8 
58.2 
50.8 
39.1 
27.4 
12.7 


53.0 
47.0 
61.0 
77.0 
89.0 
92.0 
95.0 
90.0 
90.0 
8()" 0 
68.0 
59.0 


-26.0 
-24.0 
-15.0 
8.0 
23.0 
38.0 
47.0 
43.0 
33.0 
21.0 
00.0 
-21.0 


16.2 
]5.0 
14.3 
15.9 
17.3 
]9.3 
16.6 
]5.8 
15.4 
13.8 
11.8 
13.8 


0.85 
0.72 
1.45 
1.69 
3.01 
3.21 
3.95 
3.35 
3.46 
3.13 
2.26 
1.17 


year........ 41.8 
I 


-------- 


18427-12 


49.6 


34.1 95.0 -26.p 15.5 28.25 120.7 


]7.5 
18.0 
Hì.O 
5.8 
1.5 


2.02 
2.00 
2.12 
1.83 
2.98 
2.91 
2.72 
2.8
 
2.31 
2.86 
2.36 
2.74 
29.73 


2.8 
13.7 
19.9 


31.4 
26.1 
19.5 
5.3 
0.1 


3.99 
3.33 
3.40 
2.22 
3.02 
3.21 
3.95 
3.35 
3.46 
3.27 
3.43 
3.69 
40.32 


1.4 
11.7 
25.2 


3.43 
3.94 
4.43 
4.38 
4:.73 
5.55 
8.21 
4.45 
7.44 
5.20 
4.35 
3.95 
39.77 


6.18 
6.35 
7.32 
4.19 
6.22 
8.00 
7.72 
7.89 
6.65 
7.47 
6.40 
5.94 
48.01 


1.20 
0.54 
0.59 
0.8ö 
0.75 
0.72 
1.55 
].14 
0.96 
0.97 
0.43 
0.88 
27.13 


2.08 
0.49 
1.01 
0.48 
0.11 
0.90 
0.96 
1.23 
0.88 
0.65 
1.44 
1.12 
30 97 



178 


CLI.:v.L4 TE A1VD AfETEOROLOGY 


t.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations-con. 


QUEBEC, QUE. 
Observations for 20 years. 


Temperature of. 


Months. 


:M ean 
Daily. 


Mean 
Daily 
Max. 



lean H . h L 
Daily 19 - ow- 
-'I in. est. est. 


'lean 
Daily 
range. 


Precipitation in inches. 
Averages. 
Rain. Snow. Total. 


Extremes. 
- 
Greatest. Least. 
- 
6.58 1.10 
6.22 0.98 
6.16 1.05 
6.57 0.70 
6.93 0.27 
9.23 1.32 
7.12 0.53 
9.58 1.35 
8.75 1.08 
6.99 0.93 
7.09 0.90 
6.78 1.13 
52.39 32.12 


Jan.......... 9.7 17.7 1.8 47.0 -34.0 15.9 0.64 30.7 3.71 
Feb......... 12.0 20.2 3.7 49.0 -32.0 16.5 0.74 27.3 3.47 
Mar. . . . . . . . . 22.8 30.7 15.0 64.0 -23.0 15.5 1.29 . 19.9 3.28 
April. . . . . . . . 37.0 45.3 28.7 80.0 3.0 16.6 1.42 6.4 2.06 
May......... 52.0 62.0 42.0 88.0 21.0 20.0 3,01 0.4 3.05 
June..... . . . . 61.2 70.8 51.5 90.0 34.0 19.3 3.83 3.83 
July........ . 66.1 75.7 56.6 96.0 39.0 19.1 4.30 4.30 
Aug......... 62.8 71.5 54.1 90.0 38.0 17.4 4.00 4.00 
Rept......... 55.3 63.6 46.9 88.0 29.0 16.7 3.77 3.77 
Oct.......... 42.0 47.8 36.3 77.0 14.0 11.5 2.94 1.5 3.09 
Nov......... 32.2 35.7 28.7 66.0 -10.0 7.0 1.75 14.2 3.17 
Dec......... 15.0 22.2 7.8 55.0 -27.0 14.4 0.85 25.2 3.37 
- - - - - .- - - 
Year... . . . . 39.0 47.0 31.1 96.0 -34.0 15.9 28.54 125.6 41.10 


ANTICOSTI (SOUTH WEST POINT), QUEBEC. 
Observations for 30 years. 
Jan.......... 11.9 19.8 4.0 47.0 -40.0 15.8 0.58 18.3 2.41 I 6.70 0.54 
Feb......... 12.5 19.7 5.3 46.0 -35.0 14.4 0.25 14.7 1.72 4.70 0.27 
Mar..... 21.0 27.1 15.0 47.0 -20.0 12.1 0.50 12.0 1.70 4.95 0.29 
April.... . . . . 30.5 35.4 25.6 71.0 - 3.0 9.8 1.12 5.6 1.68 7.92 R.05 
May......... 39.8 45.0 34.5 78.0 19.0 10.5 2.40 0.4 2.44 4.68 0.05 
June......... 48.4 53.4 43.5 85.0 26.0 9.9 2.93 0.1 2.94 5.58 0.40 
July..... . . . . 56.6 62.3 51.0 79.0 34.0 11.3 3.14 3.14 8.70 0.43 
Aug..... 56.2 61.5 51.0 80.0 28.0 10.5 3.43 3.43 4.92 0.76 
Sept......... 48.7 54.4 43.0 73.0 20.0 11.4 2.92 2.92 4.81 0.70 
Oct.......... 39.8 45.1 34.5 68.0 8.0 10,6 3.40 0.5 3.45 9.85 0.54 
Nov......... 30.2 35.4 25.1 57.0 - 1.0 10.3 2.05 6.4 2.69 4.54 0.49 
Dee. . . . . . . . . 20.5 27.2 13.8 52.0 -34.0 13.4 0.65 14.7 2.12 5.10 0.32 
- - -- - - - - - -. 
year........ 34.7 40.5 28.9 85.0 -40.0 11.6 23.37 72.7 30.64 45.43 15.83 


FREDERICTON, NEW BRUNSWICK. 
Observations for 30 years. 


J 
F 
M 
A 
l\ 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 
Y 


an......... . 13.3 24.3 2.2 55.0 -34.0 22.1 1.64 23.9 4.03 8.34 1.3 
eb........ . 15.4 26.6 4.1 51.0 -35.0 22.5 0.96 47.0 5.66 4.78 0.4 
ar.... ..... 26.5 36.9 16.0 65.0 -20.0 20.9 2.16 25.6 4.72 7.58 1.3 
pril.. . . .. . . 38.9 49.5 28.3 82.0 - 2.0 21.2 1.99 10.0 2.97 4.43 0.3 
fay........ . 51.2 62.8 39.6 92.0 24.0 23.2 3.21 0.1 3.22 9.08 0.8 
una........ . 59.6 71.7 47.5 92.0 26.0 24.2 3.71 - 3.71 8.01 1.4 
uly........ . 65.9 77.0 54.8 96.0 40.0 22.2 3.03 - 3.03 6.28 1.2 
ug ...... . 63.2 73.7 52.7 95.0 35.0 21.0 3.97 - 3.97 6.99 0.7 
ept .. . 55.3 66.1 44.5 92.0 25.0 21.6 3.54 - 3.54 7.73 0.9 
ct ....... . 43.4 54.2 32.6 81.0 15.0 21.6 4.02 o 5 4.07 9.99 0.8 
ov......... 33.0 40.9 25.0 68.0 - 3.0 15.9 3.17 9.0 4.07 6.47 0.9 
ee........ . 19.4 28.2 10.5 58.0 -26.0 17.7 1.56 18.9 3.45 6.42 1.1 
- - - - - - - - 
ear....... . 40.4 51.0 29.8 96.0 -35.0 21.2 32.94 135.0 46.44 54.62 35.0 


6 
8 
2 
o 
8 
7 
6 
6 
1 
5 
6 
8 
2 



1'EJIPHN.t TUN/<: .lXD J>Rl
'CIJ>JTjlTIUA" 


17<1 


1.- 'urmal Tt'ml)t'raturt' and .-rt'('II)ltation at S..lected ('al1adlan 
tatlon
- -concludell. 


\ .\R\lOUTII, N.
. 


Ol,;'!('ryations for 35 years. 


l'cmpcratLlrc of. 


Pn"('ipitatinn in incln.'s. 



Ionthø. 



Iean 
Unil). 


\It'un 
n.til). 

Iax. 


'Ie
m II i h - J.,O\\- 
Dally g 

I in. e:- t . 
t. 



I ('an 
Daib 
rungt'. 


\ , enage!ol. 


Ext renll'>! 


Rain. 
nm\. Total 


Greatt.:-t J east. 


-------- 


Jan..... 30.0 34.3 19.6 54.0 -6.0 14.7 2.;,) 20.3 4.7
 0.92 1.97 
Feb.. 25.7 3
.7 I
'h 52.0 -12.0 13.9 2.13 21.
 4.:n 7.77 
.

 

Inr. .. 31.8 37.8 25.7 55.0 -2.0 I:?I 3.J
 13.3 4.6.1 10.;,) 1.4,') 
.\pril.. . 3H.7 4b.4 33.1 72.0 17.0 13.3 3.17 5.5 3.72 7 .I
 0'/'12 
\lay........ . 4S.1 5,1).6 4u.6 73.0 2,1).(1 1.').0 3.77 K 3.77 7.61i O.in 
Juno...... ... 55.3 63.0 17.6 79.0 31.0 15.4 2.R:
 2'b:
 f). 60 0.69 
Jul)... . 60.S 6
.2 5;{.2 '0.0 41.0 1,1).0 J.3\ 3.Js ð.42 0..')2 
.\Ujl;.. 6Ot. 7 b7.9 5:
'6 S.
.O 39.0 14.3 3.,1)1 3.51 9.5H 1.0
 
I'ept .16.() 6.
.2 is.8 79.0 :u.o ....4 3.50 3.5H 5.7(1 O'/'IX 
Oct. .. . . . .. . 4S.6 ,).) . 4 41.7 74.0 :?5.(I I:
. 7 4.15 0.3 4.1S 11.38 0.7x 
'OV.. . . . . . 41.2 46.6 37.1 00.0 11.0 9.5 J.77 4.0 4.17 8.56 1.51 
Dec. ..... . :H.I 37.6 2-1.5 5
.0 -3.0 13.3 3.31 14.7 4.7h 9.20 1 'b'\ 
..: 
Sõ":7""3i01 "d.O -12.u -- 
Year .. 13.7 3J.,I)\I 7U.gl 47..1)
 ;0,90 3,).06 
I 


C'H\UWTTETO\\ 'I, P.F.J. 


Observations for 30 }"t'arH. 


Tl'mpi'rature 0 F 


Pr('('ipit:Ltion in indlPI'. 



Ionths. I ' I '((',Ln 

 Daily 
. Daily. 'lux. 


'1E':Ln lIiJ?h- 1.0 I "l'an A\PrRjl;l'S. 
Dally 
 - Dai Iy 

in. Cbt. ('S. range. Hain. ::'now. Total. 


FxtJ"('m('
. 


Gre'1test. Leu8t 


-------- 


Jan......... . 19.0 27.0 11.0 52.0 -19.0 16.0 1.46 19.6 3.42 7.62 I. to 
Feb... . 18.0 26.0 9.0 49.0 -21.0 17.0 0,86 17.5 2.61 6.:
7 0.88 

[ar........ . 27.0 34.0 20.0 54.0 -15.0 14.0 1.67 13.9 3.06 5.51 1.48 
April.... . . . . 37.0 44.0 30.0 74.0 8.0 14.0 2.11 8.8 2.99 6.10 0''''2 
May. .. . .. 48.0 56.0 40.0 81.0 26.0 16.0 2.51 1.0 2.61 5.85 0.40 
June........ . 57.0 66.0 49.0 ...7.0 32.0 17.0 2.54 2.54 5.37 0.47 
July...... .. . 66.0 74.0 58.0 91.0 37.0 12.0 2.96 2.96 8.97 1.81 
A.ug....... .. 65.0 73.0 57.0 92.0 12.0 16.0 3.31 3.37 8.44 0.94 

ept . . . . . . .. . 58.0 65.0 50.0 87.0 34.0 15.0 3.36 3.36 8.75 0.06 
Oct. . . . . . . . 41'.0 54.0 41.0 77.0 26.0 13.0 4.4(, 0.2 4.4Q 10.38 0.,1)0 
Xov.... 37.0 42.0 32.0 62.0 11.0 10.0 3.4
 6.0 4.0ð 8.00 1.74 
Dec.....:::: 25.0 32.0 19.0 52.0 -11'0 13.0 2.19 16.0 3.79 7.25 1.41 
year........ 


 92.0 -21'0 1
 30.97 83.0 39.27 56.43 32.4.:; 


18427-121 



180 


CLIMATE AJ.VD METEOROLOGY 


2.-Averages of Sunshine, '\'Ind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
VICTORIA, B.C. 


Sunshine 
Average 
1895-1910. 


s . 
0 0 
c:,)
 
0:> 
00 ...... 
>" 

...... 
'D
 


Wind 
1896-1915. 


Average 
No. of days 
1896-1915 with 


:\ 


00 s:: ........... , Strongest 
'-' c:,) 
::I .9 o þ Õ 
 Q) Wind 
.8 +" 'D '"' 
Ionths. ....1:6 'Q} '"' :.a Recorded. 
0'"' 0'D Ò ::I 
õ..ë Z::I 0 Thun- Fog. Hail. 

.g 0 Z 
 b.D 


 (1;)- Q}>. :Ë '-' s:: der. 
.5
 b.Dc:,) Q} 
'8 Q} .9 
..0 0 

 ell. .
 0. 
sS 
.D 
æ +" 
(!;)..... Q)Q} 
t6 '"'0 > . oo
 c:,) 
::I'"' e æ >+" Q}- Q)
 (!;)::I Q) 
þ-Q) 
:3 ::::0 '"' 
z& Q}O <
 
O <> 
 

o. 0. 
..c 
- -- - - - - -- - - - - 
.........oo.... .. 53.4 19.6 14 3 9.0 N 50 SE - 1 - 
.. .............. .. 79.4 27.9 7 2 8.9 N 48 SW - 1 - 
.. ................. 143.0 39.0 5 2 9.0 SE 52 SW - 1 - 
1.... . . .. . . 184.8 44.9 2 2 9.0 SW 50 SW - - - 
.... . . 198.6 41.9 3 2 8.8 SW 41 W - 1 - 
.............. .. 215.1 44.7 1 2 9.7 SW 49 SW - - - 
.. ................. 293.7 60.4 1 2 9.1 SW 44 SW - - - 
.................. .. 256.9 58.0 1 1 7.8 SW 43 S\\- - 2 - 
.............. .. 183.3 48.6 3 1 6.5 SW 44 SW - 3 - 
. . .. - -.. 118.3 35.3 7 1 6.8 E 56 SW - 4 - 
............ .. 57.3 20.8 10 3 9.9 NE 57 SE - 1 - 
................ .. 38.1 14.9 13 3 8.8 NE 59 SE - 1 - 
- -- - - - - -- - - - 
Tear...... 1821.9 - 67 24 8.6 SW 59 SE - 15 - 


Jan. 
Feb 
Mar 
Apri 

lay 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct. 
1'\" ov 
Dee 


Ì 


* VANCOUVER, B.C. 
Jan..... _ 46.4 17.3 17 4.3 E 40 NW 3 
Feb......... .. 51.5 18.2 10 Q) 4.0 E 26 W 4 

 

lar.......... . 135.6 36.9 7 0 5.0 E 30 SE 1 
.\pril. 179.4 4
.7 4 
 4.8 RE 25 W 1 
1:6 
)lay......... .. 220.0 46.5 3 .z 4.8 BE 23 W 1 
June.......... . 228.0 47.2 2 oo..c:i 4.5 E 27 W 1 
July.... . . . . . . . 265.6 54.6 2 

 4.1 S 22 W 2 
A,ug.. ......... 252.7 57.0 2 3.7 S 20 W 1 

ept... 162.9 43.3 5 
S 4.6 S 26 NW 1 2 
Oct........... . 111.3 33.4 8 
 3.8 SE 35 W 6 
'"''"' 
Nov........... 51.1 18.6 13 Q)Q) 4.3 E 25 NW 4 
>0. 
Dee.. . . . . . . . . 38.8 15.3 15 < 4.4 E 30 W 4 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Year.. ., . 1743.3 88 4.4 SE 40 NW 6 24 1 
* Sunshine, 1908-1917; days clouded, 1909-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1905-1920. 
t KAMLOOPS, B.C. 
Jan........... . 65.0 24.7 12 3.5 S 25 SE 
Feb........... 87.0 31.1 7 :!) 3.1 S 24 NE 
l\Iar . . . . . . . . . . . 166.0 45.2 4 
 4.5 SE 31 W 
0 
April. _ 187.0 45.2 3 
 4,8 S 30 W 
May. . . . . . . . . . . 224.0 46.8 3 
 4.4 S 30 W 
June.......... . 240.0 50.1 3 -& 4.1 S\V 25 SE 
July.... . . . . . . . 295.0 59.9 1 UJ..c:i 4.1 RW 40 SE 
rf!-+-o 
Aug....... 262.0 58.6 2 Æ
 3.5 S\\' 30 SE 
Sept. 185.0 49.1 3 (!;)o 3.5 S 40 S 
ellS 
Oct........... . 140.0 42.3 6 
 '-' 3.6 RE 40 NW 
Nov........... 70.0 26.2 10 Q)Q} 4.4 SE 40 W 
;:..0. 
Dee...... . 49.7 20.1 13 
 3.3 S 30 SE 
-- - - - - - - - - - - 
year..... . 1970.7 67 3,9 S 40 
t Sunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind., etc., 1897-1916. 

 EDl\IO
TON, ALTA. 
Jan.... .. .... . 79 31.6 10 4.4 W 36 W 
Feb... 125 45.7 3 4.9 W 34 NW 
)lar. .......... 174 47.4 3 5.6 f: 28 NW 
April. p . . . . . .. 212 50.7 3 7.2 sW 42 NW 
May. . . . . . . . . . . 222 45.1 3 6.8 RW 36 SE 1 1 
June........ ... 242 47.8 3 5.9 W 34 KW 3 1 
July... .. . . . . 273 53.8 2 5.3 
\V 30 NW 4 1 
þ"ug...... ..... 256 56.3 2 4.7 W 26 NW 2 1 
Sept.......... . 184 48.6 3 5.3 W 36 W 1 1 
Oct.......... .. 150 46.2 4 5.2 W 28 NW 

ov......... 87 33.9 7 4.6 SW 25 NW 
Dec........... 77 33.2 11 4.2 SW 34 
W 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year...... 2.081 54 5.3 SW 42 NW 11 5 
t Sunslune, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916. 



TEJI PRR
l1'[J Hl<' l.V'D ]>UFCI J>I1'
 l 'l'lû"V 


ISl 


%.
 \U'ra
t'" of '..nshlm', \\Ind and "t'ath('r at 
t,.('(.tcd (":inadian 
t:iUOIIS continueù. 
('flu' Yl'Urs indicate thl' period of ooscrvution on wweh averugl's ßn' ba......,<I.) 
\h:DICI:>.B HAT, ALTA. 



Iontns. 


Jan..... . . . . . . . 
Feb.... .... ... 
Mar. . 
.\pril..... . . . . . 
:\[a) ....... 
JUDe. . . . .. . . . . . 
July.......... . 

\ug... . 

ept........ ... 
Oct. . . . . . . . . . . . 
;\' uv . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dec.......... . 


f 
::I 
o 
...c:. 
_.d 
0..... 
J:: 
'"'::> 
CoJ _ 
..:Ie 
E!:- 

ð. 


Runshino 
A vemp;o 
1
95-191O. 


ë 
.
 
-; 
0'" 
C):::I 
t:J)
 


 
J::":: 
CoJ'- 
C.J n 

8. 


s... 
11i 
1m 
220 
233 
26S 
:t!6 
2
-1 
196 
158 
102 
82 


33.1 
41.6 
&ü.o 
5:i.4 
48.9 
55.0 
66.6 
63.S 
52.0 
47.7 
37.8 
32.9 


Year. . . . . . 2.:'43 
· HOSTHER"l, bAFlK. 


Jan......... ... 
Feb..... ... . . . 
l\lar. . . . . . . . . . . 
April. . . 
:\lay........ . . . 
Junc.......... . 
July.......... . 

\u
. . . . . . . . . . . 
:-\ept. . . . . .. ... 
Oct.. 
;\' ov . . . . . .. . . . . 
Dec. _...... ... 


91.6 
137.7 
176.1 
2:W.8 
2fì2.7 
2S0.1 
2ut.8 
272.9 
19().8 
ltl.4 
111.6 
78.3 


36.1 
50.0 
47.9 
5:i.6 
5:Hs 
56.0 
65.2 
60.3 
50.4 
43.3 
t:i.l 
33.0 


o 
I C':.I 
E
 
o. 
C.J- 
11)0 
2
 
"'Ci - 
-"i 
0- 
. ::; 
00 
%
 
c)>. 

-; 
........ 
C)Q) 
;..- 
<Co 


õ 
ö 
z 
C) . 
bÐ! 
f_ 
C)øS 

C> 


>. 

 
o 
...c:. 
C)
 
f.g 
Q)- 
> C) 
<;.. 


2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
I 
1 
2 
2 


Wind 
IMI6-UU5. 



 
... 
:a 
tIÐ 

 
ëiæ . 
;..J:: 
C)O 
....- 
:l.4..... 


5.9 
6.0 
6.6 
7.4 
7.5 
7.5 
6.4 
5.6 
5.8 
5.9 
6.1 
6.5 


.",\\ 

W 
:-\\\ 
W 
I' 
I'W 

W 
:-\\\ 
:-\W 
W 
f'W 
:-:W 


Stronj.!;pst 
Wind 
Recordod. 


... 
Q) 
Co 
00'" 
::":::1 
:=0 
_...c: 
.... 


è 
.9 

 
... 
is 


3.3 
3.2 
4.0 
5.0 
4.9 
4.2 
3.6 
3.0 
3.8 
3.9 
3.4 
3.2 



 
I'W 
s\\ 
SE 

 

.." 

\\ 
t-:\\ 
"'w 
SW 


s 


H\\ 


-If) 
 
51 S 
41 :'
\\ 
50 
 
60 
 " 
61 SW 
46 :-\\\ 
50 \\ 
50 :-\ 
6U W 
()O SW 
60 1\ 


21 


6.4 
\\ 61 S\\ 
· PHI
CE ALBEUT, s.\
I\.. 


\ vern.j.!;e 
No. of daye 
1896-1915 with 


Thun- FOil;. Hail. 
dpr. 


2 
4 
4 
3 
1 


1-1 


1 
3 
2 


year...... 2,25S.8 57 3.8:4 36 I 
\\ 6 3 
* Sunshine and days clouded, 1911-1920; '" ind 18!16-1917, 18!1S mi
inR; d.1Ys with thunder, et('., 1896 19'-1. 


8 
6 
3 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
6 
9 


47 


10 
4 
4 
:i 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
6 
7 
11 


21) 
 W 
29 
W 
35 
W 
36 
W 
25 :-:E 
31 :\ 
31 :-\C 
24 F 
2-1 
P\'('rul. 
28 XW 
20 
t'\"('ral. 
32 X 


*I
DI.\"l HE\D, :-o.\SK. *Qu' ApPl.LLE, S \RI\.. 
Jan............ 81.4 32-8 10 2 9.4 J\\\ 6fì 1\\\ - I - 
Feb.... ....... 103.7 37.0 6 2 9.5 1\\\ 46 W - 1 - 

[ar . . . . . . . . . . . 131.8 35.9 6 2 9,6 \\ 48 
\\ - 1 - 
April. . . . . . . . . . 170.1 41.2 4 2 10.0 :-\W 58 
 - 1 - 
)[ay ...... 214.4 44.6 5 2 9.8 
W 50 
W 2 1 - 
June. . . .. . . . . . . 207.4 12.4 4 1 9.0 H 48 :-\W 4 1 
July..... . .. .. . 272.4 55.5 2 1 8.2 
W 42 ;\'\\ 5 1 - 

o\.ug. . . . . . . . . . . 228.9 51.3 2 1 7.4 o...:W 38 ,",W 4 1 - 
RW 
Sept. . . . . . . . . . . 162.8 43.2 5 1 8.4 W 41 :-\W 1 1 - 
Oct... 130.5 39.5 6 2 9.1 W 45 ;\,W - 1 - 

 ov. . . . . . . . . . . 68.8 25.7 8 1 9.1 W 42 NW - 1 - 
Dec.... ....... 58.8 23.8 12 2 9.0 W 45 NW - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - 
year...... 1,831,0 - 70 19 9.0 W 66 NW 16 12 


J 
F 
\ 


*ðUDShInP aDd days douded, 1891-1910; wmd, etc., 1897-1917 (1908 missing). 
t WI'
"IPEG, :\IA.....ITOB.\. 


aD. ........... 110-3 41.4 9 7 12.8 W 50 XW - - - 
eb. . . . . . . . . . . 138.6 49.2 6 5 12.2 Sw 55 
W - 1 - 
_ lar . . . . . . . . . . . 175.0 47.7 i 6 13.1 :-; 66 XW - - - 
!\pril. . . . . . . . .. 206.7 50.2 5 7 14.5 E 60 W 1 - - 
May. . . . . . . . . . . 2.')0.7 52.3 4 6 14.5 E 66 
\\ 2 - - 
une. . . . . . . . . . . 250.4 51.6 3 5 12.7 E 46 1\W 4 - - 
uly. . . . . . . . . . . 290.5 59.5 2 5 12.1 H 55 RW 5 - - 
llg........... 256.7 57.S 3 4 11.3 ti 43 W 3 - - 
ept.......... . 179.6 47.7 4 6 13.0 S 55 W 2 - - 
ct........... . 12t.8 37.6 8 6 13.8 S 60 XW
 1 - - 
Nov........... 89.6 33.2 10 5 12.4 SW 45 W - 1 - 
Dec...... ..... 81.2 32.2 14 4 12.2 
W 59 W - - - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year...... 2,154.1 - 75 66 12.9 S 66 NW 18 2 - 


J 
J 
A 
S 
o 


t Sunshine, 1882-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916. 



1 


]82 


CLIMATE Al{Ð 
fETEOROLOGY 


2.-A\'erages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 


(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 


CALGARY, MTA. 


Wind (1897-1916). Average Number of days 
(1897-1916) with 
Strongest 
:Months. Average Average wind 
Number Hourly Prevailing Recorded. 
of Gales. Velocity. Direction. Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
Miles 
per hour. Direction. 
January.......... . . 1 6.4 W 52 NW - - - 
February. . . . . . . . . . 1 6.6 W 48 W - - - 

Iarch. . . . . .. . . . . . . 1 7.6 SW 48 SW - - - 
April.. . . . .. . . . .. . . 1 8.5 W 56 NW - - - 
1I-'Iay............... 1 8.8 NW 48 NNW 1 - - 
June.............. . 1 8.6 NW 50 W 1 - 1 
July.............. . 1 7.6 NW 48 NW 3 - - 
August. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7.3 NW 36 W 2 - - 
September. . . . . . . . . 1 7.5 NW 62 NW - - - 
October. . . . . . . . . . . 1 6.5 NW 40 W - - - 
November. . . . . . . . 1 6.0 W 36 Several. - - - 
December........ . 1 6.5 W 52 W - - - 
year........ 12 7.3 W 62 NW 7 - 1 


LE PAS, l\ÚNITOBA. 


Janu 
Feb 
Mar 
Apr 
May 
June 
July 
Augu 
Sep 
Oct 
Nov 
Dece 


Wind (1910-1920). Average Number of days 
(1910-1920) with 
Strongest 
Months. Average Average wind 
Number Hourly Prevailing Recorded. 
of Gales. Velocity. Direction. -- Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
Miles 
per hour. Direction. 
ary........... 1 7.5 W 43 NW - - - 
mary......... . 1 7.2 W 40 W - - - 
ch............. 1 7.5 S 45 W - 1 - 
il. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.3 E 41 SW - - - 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.5 E 40 - - - - 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7.8 SE 44 SW 2 - - 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8.9 W 54 SW - 2 - 
st.. .......... 1 7.7 W 48 NW 2 1 - 
tember. . . . . . . . . 1 6.8 W 41 NW - 1 - 
ober. . . . . . . . . . . 1 7.5 W 42 W - - - 
ember. . . . . . . . . - 7.9 W 33 NW - - - 
mber. . . . . . . . . - 7.1 SW 38 W - - - 
year........ 9 7.7 W 54 SW 4 5 - 



'l'R.\lPFR&iTURF ..LYD J>llFCIPITATIOX 


183 


%.- \\era
p of SUD:!!Ihlne, "Ind alld "('at lur at ,('I('('t('(1 ('3I1a(lIall Statloll
.-continucù. 
(The }'ears indicate the period of obscr\ ation on \\ hich avcragcs nre based.) 
PORT XEL'>ON, 'hN. 


"ind (1916-1920). A \ eru
o X urn ber or days 
(1916-1920) ",ith 
Stron
e:it 
Months. -\. \'crnJl;o A veraKC \\ind 

urnbcr Hourly Prevailing Rl'('ortiod. 
of Gal '::I. Y clocity. Direction. Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
'Iil('!! 
per hour. Direction. 
J Muary . . . . . . . . . . . 2 12.4 W 34 WXW - 1 - 
Fl'bruary.. .. .. . .. . 3 12.9 \\ 48 
W - - - 

Iarch. . .... . . . . . . . 3 11.4 W 41 
I
 - 1 - 
-\ pri 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 12.H :-\E 51 XW - 1 - 

lay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 12.4 XE 40 
E - 3 - 
Juno......... ..... . 3 13.6 XE 38 !'\E XW 3 2 - 
July. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 13.8 XI; 53 
E 3 1 - 
.\ugust. . . 2 12.4 
\\ -1:! 
EKW 2 2 - 
Septelll ber . . . . . . . . . 3 12.1) :-\W 4:? SWNW 1 1 - 
October. . . . . . . . . . . 4 13.6 KW 40 - - 1 - 
::\ O\'em ber . . . 0 . . . . 5 13.1 r\W 43 N - 2 - 
December. .0...... 2 11.7 W .2 NW - - - 
Y car. . . . . . . . 32 12.7 t:;W 53 Nh 9 15 - 


POUT AUTHLR. OXT. 


Wind (lb' 6-(920). A veru
e ::\ urn her or da) s 
(lS96-1920) with 
I 
tron
l' t 

lonthso \ \ eraKe \ \ ('rage I \\ind 
1\ umber Hourly Pr('\ uili
 ReconlL.-d. 
of Gules. \" clocit). Direction Thunder. Fog. Hail. 

Iile:i I 
per hour. Direction. 
January. . . . . . . . . . . 1 6.9 XW 37 1\\\ - - - 
February....... . . . 1 7.1 KW 50 K\\ - - - 

Iarch. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7.8 XW 52 KW - - - 
April. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7.8 
 39 NWXE 1 1 - 

lay . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. 1 7.8 SC 41 !\E 1 2 - 
Juno. . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . - 6.7 E 51 r\W 2 2 - 
July...... .... ... .. - 6.4 S 34 N\\' 4 1 - 
August. . . . . . . . . . . . - 6.7 
W 41 r\W 3 2 - 
:-\l'ptember........ . - 7.1 t'\\ 62 KW 2 2 - 
October. ......... 1 7.4 Sw 4
 r\\\ 1 3 - 

ovcrnber....... . 1 8.1 XW 40 r\W - 1 - 
December. . . . . . . . . 1 7.' KW 52 K\\ - 1 - 
year........l 8 7.3 ::;W 62 l'\\ 14 15 - 


WHITE RIVER, 01\1'. 



Ionth.s. 


Wind (1896-1920). A vernge K urn ber or days 
(lb96-1920) with 

trongest I 
Average A vera
e \\ ind 
,umber Hourly Prevailing Recorded. 
of Gales. Velocity. Direction. ----- Thunder. Fog. Hail. 

lileB 
per hour. Direction. 
- 4.2 BE 28 
W - - - 
- 3.3 E 22 bXW - - - 
- 4.4 E 30 X - - - 
- 5.0 E 30 X - - - 
- 5.6 SE 28 :-\W 1 - - 
- 5.0 S 32 ðW 1 - - 
- 4.4 SW 23 N 2 1 - 
- 3.6 S 24 SW 2 1 - 
- 3.9 SW 24 
 2 1 - 
- 4.1 SE 25 SW - - - 
- 4.6 SE 25 NW S" - - - 
- 3.7 S 24 S - - - 
- 4.3 SE 32 SW 8 3 - 


January _ . . . . . . . . . . 
February. . . . .' . . . . 

Iarch. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

l\priL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
)lay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
June. . ........... 
July. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
August. . . . . .. .. .. . 
September........ . 
October. . . . . . . . . . . 
November....... . 
December........ . 
Year. . . . . . . . 



184 


CLI..
fATE AJ.lD METEOROLOGY 


2.-Averages of Sunshine .Wlnd and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 


(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 


COCHRANE, ONT. 


Wind (1911-1920). Average Number of days 
(1911-1920) with 
Strongest 
Months. Average Average with 
Number Hourly Prevailing Recorded. 
of Gales. Velocity. Direction. --- Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
Miles I. . 
per hour. IDIrectIOn. 
January. . . . . . . . . . . - 7.8 W 34 NW - - - 
February. . . . . . . . . . - 7.2 NW 32 NW - - - 

Iarch. . . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.2 SW 33 NW - - - 
April. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.4 SE 35 NW - - - 
1\Iay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.5 S 35 NW 1 1 - 
June....... . ... . . . . - 8.4 S 34 SW 2 - - 
July. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 7.1 W 29 SW 3 - - 
August. . . . . . . .. .. . - 6.5 W 31 NW 2 - - 
September........ . - 7.3 SW 30 SW 1 1 - 
October. .. . . . . . . . . - 7.2 SW 35 SE - 1 - 
November..... .".. - 6.6 SW 30 SW - 1 - 
December........ . - 6.8 NW 27 SW - 1 - 
year........ - 7.5 SW 35 NWSE 9 5 - 


ANTICOSTI, SOUTH WEST POINT, QUEBEC. 


Wind (1897-1920). Average Number of days 
(1897-1920) with 
Strongest 
Months. Average Average wind 
Number Hourly Prevailing Recorded. 
of Gales. Velocity. Direction. Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
)1 iles 
per hour. Direction. 
January. . . . . . . . . . . 16 21.9 NW 72 NW - - - 
February. . . . . . . . . . 13 19.9 SW 65 NW - 1 - 
March. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 18.6 S 68 NW - 1 - 
April. . . . . . . . . . . '. . . 8 15.8 SE 70 NW - 3 - 
May. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 13.8 SE 52 NW - 3 - 
June...... . . . . . . . . . 4 13.3 SE 56 W - 5 - 
July..... ... . . . . . . . 3 12.1 SE 44 W - 7 - 
August. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 12.3 SE 68 W - 5 - 
September. . . . . . . . . 6 14.3 SE 58 NW - 3 - 
October. . .. . . .. . . . 10 16.6 S 67 W - 4 - 
November....... . 11 18.8 SE 98 N - 1 - 
December. . . . . . . . . 14 20.6 SW 71 NW - 1 - 
year........ 107 16.5 S 98 N - 34 - 



TE
IPER lTURE 1 'D PRECIPIT
lTIU\ 


185 


2.- \nraJ,: ." of IIlIshlllt'," Ind and" eathn at Selerted Canadian 
tatlon
 -continued. 
\ fhe years indicate the period of observation on which average8 are based.) 
flAILEYBURY, OXTARIO. 


Sunshine EO Wind A vera
e 
A verap;o o
 1896-1920. 1'1; o. of days 
c..
 
1906-1916. cn- IS. 6-1920 with 
>.0 
ø3::r.> 
C é 
- 
t rongE'St ThU.J Fog. 
::I .9 õ-S Õ 
 è Wind 

ronths. 0 
 Uocorded. 
_ø5 .
 ... ... 
.J:: 0'" 0::1 Ö ::I =a II ai 1. 
0': <:.J::I Z
 
 0>. 

"'O t,) .J::
 
 
 C der. 
...
 
c:.. 0>. 
 0'8 :.ê .9 
CI,IC c3 

 0 
..t::I O 
- f
 'C;; ë !S: 
 
- c ",.- ...'" 


 ...- 
ãï: 

 '" :'" CJ:' :'0 ... 
.<0 :. CJ.- -:.. 
 

g, <Co < ...
 ;'::Q. 

 
 ,..-; 
- - - - - -- - - - - 
Jan......... ... 92 33.4 10 1 2 !\W 8 NXW - 1 - 
Feb... . . . . . . . . 119 41.6 7 2 2 :r\ \, 9 
\\ - 1 - 
'Iar. ... . . . . . . . 165 4-t.g 5 2 2 S 9 
\\ - 1 - 
.\pril...... 19:i 47.3 fi 1 2 A 8 NW
 - 1 - 

Ia} . . . . . . . . . . . 210 4.').0 4 I 2 t4 8 :r\W 2 1 - 
June. . . . . . . . . . . 259 5-1.5 2 1 2 f'F 8 S\\ 4 1 - 
July. . . . . . . . . . . 266 55.5 1 1 2 f'W 8 Se,.C'rnl. 6 - - 
A.ug...... ..... 221 50.3 2 1 2 R 8 
W 4 1 - 

C'pt. . . . . . . . . . . 174 6.3 4 2 2 f'W R S 2 1 - 
Oct........... . 110 32.8 7 2 2 
\\ 9 '\;'W 1 1 - 
Xov........ ... 56 20.1 13 2 2 !\\\ 10 S\\ W - 1 - 
Dl'<.' . . . . . . . . . . . Iii 23.2 12 1 2 W 8 NW - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Y e.1r . . . 1,733 - 72 17 2 SW 10 
WW 19 11 - 


· GR.\'\ E"'HLRI3T, (J"'T\RIO. 


Jan...... . . . . . . 
Feb..... .. 

Iar..... .. 
.-\ pril. . . . 

Iay.......... . 
June......... .. 
Julv........... 
.\u
......... .. 
Bept. . . .. 
Oct. ........... 
Xov........... 
Dec. . . . . . . . . . . 


· P\RRY SoUND, ():'o.T\RIO. 


ðo.7 28.4 12 1 9.4 BE 41' W - - - 
126.3 43.4 H 1 9.0 R 49 W - - - 
153.0 41.5 7 1 9.1 t-:W 52 f'W 1 - - 
1"9.4 46.9 5 1 8.9 H 36 NIl - 
217.2 47.4 5 1 7.9 R 39 
 W 2 - - 
229'ð 49.4 2 - 6.8 F:W 36 SW 2 - - 
:?65.2 56.4 I - 6.5 HW 36 XW 3 - - 
252.6 5)00,.2 1 - 6.9 H 30 b W HE 3 - - 
170.6 45,6 4 - 7.4 
W 36 f'W 2 - - 
138.5 41.0 7 - 8.7 to; 36 
W 2 - - 
85,4 29.9 11 2 10.5 
W 48 
W - - - 
61.5 21.5 14 1 9.4 S 37 \\
W - - - 
----------- 
year.... _. 1,970.2 - 77 8 8.4 S 52 SW 14 1 - 


· Sunshin<<:>, 1902-1910, 1915-1920, \\ind, etc., IMI6-1920. 


Jan...... ... .. . 
Feb..... ...... 

1'1.r.. _..... ... 
April....:... .. 

Iay . . . . . . . . . . . 
June......... .. 
July. . .. .. . . .. . 
Aug.... .. 
Sep........ . . . . 
Oct......... '" 
X 
... ov........... 
Dec........ '" 


t TOROXTO, OXT. 


77.9 
108.1 
150.0 
190.7 
218.9 
2.'>9.8 
282.2 
252.7 
207.8 
149.3 
85.3 
65.2 


27.0 
36.7 
40.5 
47.1 
47.9 
56.3 
60.4 
59.8 
55.4 
43.8 
29.4 
23.5 


year...... 2,046.9 


11 
6 
6 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
4 
8 
10 


56 


6 
5 
5 
3 
2 
1 
1 
o 
1 
2 
4 
7 


37 


13.6 
13.7 
12.8 
11.9 
9-9 
8.7 
8.0 
8.0 
8.8 
9.9 
12.2 
13.2 


S\\ 
W 

\\ 

E 
SE 
SE 
S 
SW 
SE 
S 
SW 
SW 


56 NE 
56 E 
60 
W 
50 E 
54 W 
35 NE 
36 W:-;W 
48 NE 
50 S 
53 W 
50 W 
50 SW 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
3 
4 
5 
6 
3 
1 


2 
2 
2 
1 


10.9 


s 


60 NW 


34 


15 


t Sunshine, 1882-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 



186 


CLIMATE AND :ßfETEOROLOGY 


2.-Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 


WOODSTOCK, ONT. 


Months. 


00 
I-< 

 
o 
..c:. 
-
 
0...... 

g 
.oS 
81-< 

C) 
Z
 



 
.9 
+> 
_d 
01-< 

.g 
dC) 

::ã 
C).... 
to) 00 
1-<00 
Q)O 
A.t
 


,0 
S
 
0- 
Q..!. 
000 
;>'0> 

- 
"'0 - 
....."'0 
0Q) 
"'0 
. 
 
00 
Z'ë) 
Q);>. 
bD..... 

Q) 
I-<
 
Q)Q) 
þo..... 
<
 


Wind 
1896-1920. 


Average 
No. of days 
1896-1920 with 


Sunshine 
Average 
1906-1916. 


Q) 
bII' 

Æ 
Q)
 

O 


;>. 
-;:: 

 
o 
..c:. 
Q)
 

'11 
1-<0 
Q)..... 
þoQ) 
<> 


Strongest 
Wind 
Recorded. 


o 
ó 
z 


, 
Q 
Q) 
I-< 

 
bD 
;ê 
.
 . 
þo
 
Q)O 
1-<.... 
A.t
 



 

 
o 
oo..c:: 

E) 
;g
 


Thun- Fog. Hail. 
der. 


.= 
.9 

 
to) 
Q) 
I-< 

 


Jan....... ..... 62.0 21.4 14 4 12.4 SW 57 SW 1 
Feb. . . . . . . . . . . 88.7 30.2 8 4 12.3 W 47 NW 1 
:J\-Iar. . . . . . . . . . . 122'6 33.2 9 5 12.2 8W 52 SW 1 
April. . . . . . . . . . 167.4 41.7 6 4 12.1 SW 48 SW 1 1 
l\Iay. . . . . . . . . . . 206.8 45,6 4 3 10.5 SW 46 SW 2 1 
June. . . . . . . . . . . 246.1 53.7 2 1 8,9 W 36 E 2 1 
July. . . . . . . . . . . 275.4 59.4 1 1 8.4 W 36 SW 2 1 
Aug........... 238.0 55.4 2 1 8.0 SW 40 SW 2 2 
Sept....... . .. . 181.8 48.7 4 1 8.4 W 34 NW 2 1 
Oct......... . . . 135.7 41.7 6 2 10.5 SW 40 NW 1 2 
N ov . . . . . . . . . . . 76.4 26.3 10 3 11.9 SW 53 SW 2 
Dec.... . . . . . . . 54.1 19.4 15 4 12.4 SW 49 SW 1 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year...... 1,855.0 81 33 10.7 SW 57 SW 12 15 
· 
IONTREAL. QUE. 


J 
F 
1\ 
A 
M 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 


an...... . ... . . 76.0 34 12 6 15.5 SW 56 SW - 1 - 
eb.......... . 103.4 41 9 7 16.7 SW 66 NW - 1 - 
lar.......... . 145.9 45 6 8 16.7 SW 60 SESW - 1 - 
pril. . . . . . . . . . 173.7 50 6 4 14.9 S 53 SW 1 1 - 
ay.......... . 204.6 51 4 2 12.8 S 49 W 2 - - 
une.......... . 217.3 50 2 2 11.6 SW 48 SWNW 3 - - 
uly. . . . . . . . . . . 238.4 59 1 1 11.3 W 42 SW 5 - - 
ug.......... . 218.6 58 2 - 10.6 SW 36 W 4 - - 
ept.......... . 171.5 53 4 1 11.7 SW 38 SE NW 3 1 - 
ct........... . 122.2 41 6 2 12.9 SW 45 NW 1 2 - 
OV.......... . 68.5 30 11 5 14.6 SW 58 W - 1 - 
ec........... 60.0 26 14 5 14.0 SW 50 NW - 1 1 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year...... 1,800.1 - 77 43 13.6 SW 66 NW 19 9 1 


· Days clouded, 1901-1920; wind. etc., 1896-1920. 


t QUEBEC, QUE. 


Jan............ 86 31.0 11 9 15.0 SW 62 NE - 1 - 
Feb. . . . . . . . . . . 105 36.5 8 8 16.1 SW 69 NE - - - 
Mar........... 152 41.4 7 8 15.3 SW 72 NE - 1 - 
April. . . . . . . . . . 174 42.5 5 7 14.4 NE 54 NE 1 1 - 
May. . . . . . . . . . . 197 42.1 4 6 14.4 NE 52 W 2 - - 
June.......... . 248 44.6 4 4 13.2 SE 46 NE 4 - 
July...... .. . . . 223 46.8 2 2 11.6 S 43 NESW 7 - - 
Aug...... . . ... 224 48.4 2 1 10.7 SW 39 NESW 5 - - 
Sept........ .. . 152 45.2 5 3 11.5 RW 42 NE 2 1 - 
Oct............ 123 40.2 8 4 12.4 8W 66 NE 1 2 - 
N ov . . . . . . . . . . . 65 24.0 10 5 14'0 SW 58 NE - 1 - 
Dec........... 70 28.8 13 6 13.9 SW 68 NE - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - -- 
year...... 1,819 - 79 63 13.5 S 72 NE 22 8 - 


t Sunshine. 1903-1912; days clouded, 1903-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 



TEJI PER.t TLYRF L\ J) ])RECI 1)ITA TIU.Y 


187 


! - \\l'rag('
 of 
lIn
hlne. t\lnd and "flt'.1thl'r at 
('ll'ch'(1 (".1113(lIan :-.tatlon
-concluded. 
I.The yenrs indicnte the p<'riod of observntion on \\ hich a'\"ern&es nre hnf'f.'d.) 


\\ OUTILLJ:, N.b. 
0 
:-\unshine I
 
A verap:e E;:: 
o' 
18115-1910. (.J- 
<=> 
crJO) 
>0- 
= ø3 
en 
i 

 .
 

[onths. 0 ....d 0"'0 
.J:: 
8 . ::3 
-.i 00 
c..... ?
 
t) 
t8 ...- CP >. 
-OE c
 

 
(.J'- 
E.... 

 .... ..... 
CJ CP 
::3:.1 >- 

Q. 
 
Q, 
- - 
Inn........ .... 84.0 29.6 10 
Feb.... .. . . . .. 99,6 34.4 10 

fnr........... 134.0 
6'4 8 
.'" pril. . . . . . . . . . 147.6 36.6 7 

13Y........ . . . 200.8 4:
.R 5 
June. . . . . . . . . . . 2:J0.O 49.4 2 
July. . . . . . . . . . . 2:J5.6 50.2 2 
August.. . . .. . . 2:J2.4 5:J.6 2 
Sept........ . . . 182.5 4S.6 3 
Oct......... 151.4 44.8 7 
::\ 0". . . . . . . . . . . (j
'9 34.7 
 
Dec.... ... .... 67.2 24.8 11 
- - - 
"\9 ear. . . . . . 1,bt;l.0 75 


Jan............ 
Feb... . . . . . . . . 
)[nr. . . . . . . . . . . 
ApriL... .. . . . 

Iay . . . . . . . . . . . 
June.......... . 
July. . . . . . . . . . . 
Au
st....... . 
Sept .......... 
Oct......... . . . 
Nov... ........ 
Dec........... 


110.3 
124.2 
154.8 
IS4.6 
205.4 
217.6 
236.8 
223.0 
li9'0 
151.4 
91.3 
94.1 


Year. . . . .. 1,9;2.5 


39.2 
43.1 
42.0 
45,6 
44.4 
46.4 
50.2 
51.2 
47.8 
44.8 
33.3 
35.9 


YARMO\.tTH. 
.S. 
Wind Average 
1896-1915. Ko. of days 
1896-1915 with 

 btronjl;cst 
Õ 
 Wind 
.... .... Rt'Cordt.->d. 
Ò ::3 
 
0 
. ..C1 be a.: c:i Thun- Fog.' Hnil 
Q)>, .S der. 
CJ tot'" ::3 .
 

. f'g ï;; . 0 
....
 IT.J:: 
 
CJ_ > C c...... 
'-'ø3 >'-' CJo :':Q.) .... 
;'0 <> .....- is 

- - Co 
-< ...-: 
-- - -- - - - - - 
4 13.2 1'\ \\ 53 f'W XW - 2 - 
4 13.1 :\\\ 60 R\\ - 2 - 
4 12.5 s\\" 60 KW - 4 - 
2 11.1 SW 4
 KW - 4 - 
1 9.9 SW H - 1 7 - 
- 8.6 
 4U f'E 2 7 - 
- 7.7 SW :
6 S 2 13 - 
- 6.7 S\\" 65 R\\ 2 11 - 
1 8.0 
W 4'1 W 1 7 - 
2 10.0 R 5.J: SE 1 4 - 
3 12.0 SW 60 - - 2 - 
3 12.6 ðW 62 
W - 2 - 
- - - - - - - - 
24 10.5 H" 6ö 
" 9 6!) - 


· FREDERICTOX, X.B. 


10 
8 
8 
7 
6 
5 
3 
3 
5 
6 
11 
12 


2 
2 
2 
1 
1 


XW 
:\\\ 
:\\\ 
XW 
:-:W 
\\' 

W 
W 

W 
W 

\\ 
XW 


8.2 
9.3 
9.5 
1).2 
8.0 
7.4 
6.6 
6.7 
6.9 
7.7 
8.1 
8.5 


38 :-,W 
19 
W 
40 XW 
36 ::\ W 
37 
W 
34 :-;W 
32 ::\W 
28 
W 
30 
W 
33 bE NW 
37 
42 :\W 


1 
2 
3 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
3 
2 
2 


1 
1 
2 


84 


12 


\\ 


49 
W 


7.9 


9 


22 


· Sunshine, 1881-1911; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, 1896-1920. 


Jan........... . 
Feb....... .... 
'far. . . . . . . . . . . 
April. . . . . . . . . . 
)lay. . .. . . . . . . . 
June.......... . 
July. . . . . . . . . . . 
Au
....... .... 
Sept. . . . . . . . . . . 
Oct. . . . . . . . _. . 
K ov . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dec..... .. ... . 


Year. . . . . . 1,798 


89 
112 
130 
153 
195 
226 
238 
229 
179 
114 
73 
60 


31.8 
38.9 
35.3 
37.6 
42.1 
4'S.2 
50.2 
52.4 
47.8 
33.9 
25.9 
22.3 


t CHARLOTTETOWX, P.E.I. 


13 
10 
9 
9 
7 
6 
4 
5 
6 
11 
13 
17 


8.8 NW 
8.4 SW 
8.6 S 
8.4 SE 
8.1 S 
7.0 S 
6.3 SW 
6.5 Sw 
7.2 HW 
8.2 SW 
9.1 W 
9.0 NW 


1 
1 
1 


46 :KW 
55 RE 
41 
w 
33 SE 
32 1';" E 
28 S 
32 SW 
31 ðW 
32 SNW 
38 S 
38 NE 
38 SW 


2 
1 
2 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 


110 


SE 


5 


8 


SW 


8.0 


55 


9 


t Sunshine, 1::)06-1916; days clouded, 1907-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 



188 


PRODUCTION 


VII.-PRODUCTION. 


In this section are included the statistics of agriculture, forestry, 
fisheries, minerals and manufactures. 


AGRICULTURE. 


. 


Field Crops, 1915-20.-The agricultural statistics of 1920 for 
all the nine provinces of Canada were collected in co-operation with 
the Provincial Governments under the system applied for the first 
time in 1917. In general, therefore, the reports of both the Dominion 
and Provincial Governments on the crops of 1920 record identical 
results. In Table 1 are presented for Canada and by provinces 
estimates of the area, yield, quality and value of the principal field 
crops for each of the six years 1915 to 1920, "with the five year averages 
for the period 1915 to 1919. In consulting this table it should be 
remembered that comparability is affected by the new and improved 
methods applied in 1917 for the provinces of Quebec, Saskatche"wan, 
Alberta and British Columbia, and in 1918, 1919 and 1920 for all 
the provinces. In many cases the areas in 1917 and 1918, as estab- 
lished by the ne"\v method, show considerable increases, and it is not 
possible to ascertain to what extent these may be due to actual 
expansion. Probably the larger part of the increase shown in each 
case is the result of greater accuracy in the method of collection. 
Season of 1919-20.-For 1919-20 the \vinter ,vas one of excep- 
tional severity, but the killing of winter sown wheat, amounting 
only to 4 p.c. of the area sown, proved to be the slnallest on record. 
This was due to the depth of the sno"\v and to the late spring, by which 
the young crop escaped to a large extent the damaging effects of 
alternate frost and thaw. The seeding season for spring grains ,vas 
later than in any previous year on record, and the delay in getting 
on to the land caused farmers considerable apprehension; but when 
the season actually opened in l\lay the ,veather proved so favourable 
that rapid progress compensated for the later start, and at the end 
of l\Iay the condition of the grain crops was only slightly below 
average and compared quite favourably with what it was at the 
corresponding dates of recent years. Conditions remained favour- 
able during June, but hot, dry "\veather during the earlier part of 
July in Saskatchewan, where more than half the ,vheat crop of 
Canada is grown, made the situation some"\vhat precarious. For- 
tunately good rains fell during the last week of the month, just in 
time to effect a decided improvement in the prospects for a good 
wheat crop. An attack of grasshoppers threatened to assume very 
serious proportions in Saskatchewan; but the damage was minimized 
and the worst effects were averted by an energetic poisoning cam- 
paign under Government direction. 
Areas and Yields of Grain Crops.-The total yield of wheat 
in Canada for the year 1920 "\vas finally returned as 263,189,300 
bushels from 18,232,374 acres, as compared with 193,260,400 bushels 



AGRICCL'TC"RF 


189 


fronl 19,123,DUS acres in 1 U1U and ,vith 25-1.,480, l-!U Lushcl
 frolll 
IG,3-!2,969 acres, the annual nveragp for thf' five years 1 HL,)-19. 
T'he avpra
e yield per acre for Canada ,vas 14! bu
hels, as against 
10 Lushels in 191H :lnd 15
 hushels, the five-ypar averag:e. li or oats, 
the finally estilnatcù production ,,-as 5:
(),709,700 bushpls froln 
15,
-1D,n2q arre
, w:: cOlllparcn ".ith 30-1,387 ,OUO hu
hpI
 frolll 
14,932,114 ueres in IHH) and ,yith 419,774,9-10 bushels frolu 13,121,Ü04 
acres, the averages for the five Yl'ar
 1 Dl.>-l 9. TIlc average yield 
})C'r acre ""3.S 33
 busheb, as against 2Gi hushels in 1H19 and 32 hus- 
Ill'ls, the five-year average. Barley yiC'lded L3,
10,5jO Lu':)hels frolll 
2,351,9H) acres, a
 cOlnparpd ,,-ith .)(),3
D,.tOO hu
heb froln 2,6-15,500 
acn'
 in 191U and with 37,104.2ü
 bushel::; frolll 2,342,570 acres, 
the five-year avprag('\. 1"hf' avcrage yields per acre ,,"ere 24
 bushels 
for 1920, 21
 bushels in lU19 and 2-l
 hUf'hels the íÌvp-year averag p . 
Fla

eed ga ve a total yield of 7,997 ,7UU hu:-\hC'ls fronl 1,428,1 U4 
acref', a
 cOlnpart'd ,vith 5,472/'00 Lushels fronl 1,093,115 acres in 
1919 anù with 6,3()ï ,:
-l() huslll+'i froln 8-10,37.j acres, the five-year 
average. 'rhe yield per acrc ill ID20 ".as 3. () Lu:-\hels, a
 against .) 
hu
h('l:-, in IH19 and 7! hu:--hpls, the five-year averagc. For th(' 
renlaining grain crops t he tot al yiC'ld
" l'rc in hu
hels as follo,vs, the 
corresponding totais for 191 U, anù for the fivc-yC'ar avpraJl,e, being 
J!.iven ,,-ithin hr.u:ket:< HYl', 11.300,100 (10,:!07,4ùO and 5,5bG,320); 
pcas 3,528,100 (3,40G,300 anti 3,2S5,(78); beans 1,263,300 (1,388,ûOO 
and 1,472,396); buck,vhcat h,UH-1,700 (10,530,8UO nnd 8,583,520); 
Juixed p:rains 32,120,700 (27 ,
tj1 ,700 and 21,354,ö9ü); anù corn for 
husking 1-1,334,ðOO (lö,9-10,.")(j() and 11.011,()80). The avcrnge yield
 
per acre of thc
e crop
 ".ere in hu:-\heb as follows: Ry(\ 17
 (13
 and 
}.j
); pea
 19 (J4
 and 16l); beans 17
 (lü
 and 15}); huckwheat 
231 (23! anù 20i); nlÏxed grain
 40 (31 and 33i); and corn for husk- 
ing 49'- (6-1 and 501). 
Root and Fodder Crops.-A
 finally estiuulted, the pro- 
duction of potatops ,vac:; 133J

1,400 bushels from 784,544 acres, as 
cOlupared ,vith 125,374,HOO bu:,hcl
 from 81
,7G7 acres in 1919 and 
,,-ith bß,ô92.ö20 bushels frolu 63:3,937 acres. thc quinquennial average. 
The yiel(l per acre ,yae:; thcrefore 170! bushels, ,vhich conlpares ,vith 
153! bu
hels in lU19 and "Tith 1361 bushcl
, the average. Both in 
average and total yielù the figur('::; for 1 D20 ""ere the highest on 
rerord. Turnips, lnangolds, etc., yiclded 116,
90,900 bushels from 
200,2
f) aere:-\, as conlpared ,,
ith 112,288,600 bushels froln 317,200 
acres in 1910 and ".ith 79,107,OUO bu
hels froTIl 231,819 acres, the 
five-year averaJZ:e. The yield per acre ,vas -101 Lu
hels, the highest 
averap;e on record, and compare
 ,vith 354 bushels in 1919 anù ,,,ith 
:341l bushels, the five-year average. Sugar beets yielded 412,400 
tons from 36.2ð
 acres, as compared ",-ith 2-10,000 tons from 24,500 
acres and ,vith 149,920 tons from 17,900 acres, the five-year average. 
The yield per acre .was 11. :37 tons, as com pared with 9.80 tons in 
1919 and ,vith 8.40 tons, the average. 
The yield of hay and clover ,vas 13,338,700 tons from 10,379,292 
acres, a
 cOlnpared ,vith the previous year's record of 16,348,000 tons 
fro III 10,.595,383 acres, and ,vith the five-year average of 1:3,988,800 



190 


PRODUCTION 


tons fron 8,992,659 acres. The average yield per acre was 1.30 ton, as 
against 1.55 ton for 1919 and for the average. Grain hay in British 
Columbia yielded 136,400 tons from 60,612 acres, as compared with 
151,000 tons from 60,390 acres in 1919, the respective averages being 
21- and 2! tons to the acre. Alfalfa yielded 583,790 tons from 238,556 
acres, as against 494,200 tons from 226,869 acres in 1919 and 350,144 
tons from 146,192 acres, the five-year average. The yield per acre 
was 2.45 tons, as against 2.20 tons in 1919 and 2.40 tons, the five- 
year average. 
Value of Field Crops.-Average values per bushel of grain 
crops for Canada in 1920, according to the prices returned by crop 
correspondents as received by farmers, are as follo,vs, the correspond- 
ing average prices for 1919 and for the five year period 1915-19 being 
placed within brackets: Fall wheat $1.88 ($2.45; $1.63); spring 
wheat $1.60 ($2.36; $1.56); all ,vheat $1.62 ($2.37; $1.57); oats 53 
cents (80; 62); barley 83 cents (51.23; 94); rye $1.33 ($1.40; $1.37); 
peas $2.42 ($2.86; $2.68) ; beans $3.88 ($4.48; $5.36) ; buck,vheat $1.28 
($1.50; $1.32); mixed grains 90 cents ($1.36; $1.08) ; flax $1.94 ($4.13; 
$2.62); corn for husking $1.16 ($1.30; $1.31); potatoes 97 cents 
(95; 90); turnips, mangolds, etc., 41 cents (50; 42). For fodder 
crops the prices are per ton as follows: Hay and clover $26.10 ($20.72; 
$14.90); grain hay $33.12 ($29 for 1919); alfalfa $23.79 ($21.85; $16.10) ; 
fodder corn $7.75 ($6.92; $5.82); sugar beets $12.80 ($10.86; $8.62). 
The total values of crops on farms in 1920 were estimated as 
follows, the corresponding values for 1919 and for the five year 
average 1915-19 being given 'within brackets: 'Vheat 5427,357,300 
($457,722,000; $398,339,400) ; oats $280,115,400 ($317,097,000; 

261,497,260); barley $52,821,400 ($69,330,300; $53,874,514); rye 
$15,085,650 ($14,240,000; $7,670,740); peas $8,534,300 ($9,739,300; 
$8,801,120); beans $4,918,100 ($6,214,800; $7,885,380); buckwheat 
$11,512,500 ($15,831,000; $11,316,100); mixed grains $29,236,200; 
, ($37,775,400; $23,333,370); flaxseed $15,502,200 ($22,609,500; 
$16,679,560); corn for husking $16,593,400 ($22,080,000; $15,656,000) ; 
potatoes $129,803,300 ($118,894,200; $77,875,200); turnips, man- 
golds, etc. $48,212,700 ($54,958,700; $33,076,280); hay and clover 
$348,166,200 ($338,713,200; $208,489,340); grain hay $4,518,000 
($4,379,000 in 1919); alfalfa $13,887,700 ($10,800,200; $5,636,020); 
fodder corn $43,701,000 (:ß34,179,500 $20,692,420); sugar beets 
$5,278,700 ($2,606,000; 
1 ,292,060). Of all field crops in 1920 the 
aggregate valuE' was $1,455,244,050, as compared with $1,537,170,100 
in 1919 and with 
1,372,935,970 in 1918. 1 
Grain Yields of Prairie Provinces.-The finally revised total 
grain yields from the three Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatche- 
wan and Alberta) are as follows: 'Vheat 234,138,300 bushels from. 


IThe prices for wheat in 1919, as publiEhed in the Canada Year Book, 1919, have since 
been increased as a eODH'quence of the value realized by the participation certificates of 
the Canadian 'Wheat Board, the payments for which were not finally made until the close 
of the year 1920. The matter is fully explained in a note on the Valuation of the 'Yheat 
Crop of 1919, which appeared in the 
Ionthly Bulletin of Agricultural Statistics for Feb- 
ruary, 1921, page 59. In Tables 1 and 4 of this section of the Year Book, therefore, the 
prices for the wheat crop of 1919 have been readjusted, and the necessary consequential 
a Iterations have been effected in the letterpress. 




tGRICl.L1l"HE 


191 


lö.
-t 1.17.! :u-n.:--. a:-- rOlllparc(l with 1 (;:>.:>-1-t-,300 hU:-;f'hl
 froIll 17,7;)0,- 
lü7 acres ill l
n U; O
\ts 314.2H7,000 bushcls fro 111 10,070,476 acres, as 
f'olnparen. "pith 233,5
O,OO() hU
}ll'ls froln Ð,432,3hß acres in lÐlÐ; 
ha rl{'y lO,7ßO,500 bushels frolll 1 ,83S,7Ðl :H'f{,
, n
 conlpnred \vith 
3ö,ß82,400 hu
hels froln 1,800,74:> acres in 1919; rye, 8,273,HOO 
hushels fronl 4b2,011 aCfl\S, as compared ".ith 7 ,2G2,400 bushels frolll 
573,218 acres in 1919; flax
ced 7,fi

,ROO bushels fronl 1,391,07G 
acres, as cOlllparcd \vith 5,232,300 bushels frolH 1 ,Oö
,OI4 acres in 
1019. 


1.- --'.re3, Tit'ld, eluaJlt)" and ,. altu" of l-rilldpaI }'(('ld ('rop
 In {',ula(la, 1915-20 and 
}'he 1. Y ear _\'era
l', 1915-19. 


Field Crops. 


I 
Yi..ld 
I \.rea. 1)(' r 
RCrf'. 
I 
I acn.s. bu
h. 
1,030,:;\\1 

.4.) 
81
,2tj4 21.50 
725,300 21.50 
I 4lO,615 19.(}() 
()72,793 23.7.') 
R14,133 24.00 
732,711 23.50 
14. 07S, 834 2,').87 
14,.:'>51,44.') 16.85 
14,mO,550 15.50 
16,9
7,287 10.7.1 
18,453,175 9.50 
17,41R,241 14.oo 
15,610,2,')8 15.25 
15,109,41.1 2û,0:; 
15,3(i9,709 17.10' 
14,7.;5,R50 15,75 
17,535,902 ll.oo 
19, 12.j, 9ßR 10.00 
18,232,374 14.50 
16,342,969 15.50 
11 , 555, 681 40.24 
1O,9U6,487 37,30 
13,313,400 30.25 
14,790,336 28.75 
14,952,114 26.2.3 
15,849,928 33.50 
13,121,604 32. oo 
1,718,432 31.51 
1,802,996 23.72 
2,392,200 23.00 
3,153,711 24.50 
2,645,509 21.25 
2,551,919 24.75 
2,342,570 24.50 
121,677 20.43 
148,404 19.38 
211,880 18.25 
555,294 15.25 
753,081 13.50 
649,654 17.50 
358,067 15.50 


('anada - 
Fall "heat. .. . .I91j 
19lü 
1917 
1918 
1919 
19:!0 
A.nr&ges.1915-19j 
:-:-prmg wheat... 191JI 
1916 
1917 1 
191b 
1919 
19:?0 
Averages, 1915-19. 
_\11 wheat. . ... 1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1\veragcs, 1915-19. 
Oats......... . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Barley........ .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Rye...... . . .. , .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19, 


W<,il!ht AvcT.J.gc 
per . pnce 
Total Yit..ld. measun'd pc'r Total Valuo 
LusllPl. Lu::;llf'l. 


hu'Sh. lb. $ $ 
29,3:.0,()OO :m.71 0.90 27,149,700 
17,.>[J0,OOO .')H.52 1.54 27,118,300 
15, :;
:
, 450 59.37 2-08 32,336,900 
7,942,800 61.19 2.08 16,516,000 
lü, 006, 000 61.20 2.45 39, 3:3ß, 000 
19,41)9,200 (i0. 14 1.88 36, .1.10,.>00 
17,278,570 60.20 1.63 28,19,'),100 
364,2:!2,000 60.31 0.91 329,G67,2oo 
245,191,000 56,51 1 . 2!J 316,978,100 
218,209,400 59.48 1.93 420,701,700 
Ihl,132,5.10 .1}8.69' 2.02 3ß.), 161,700 
177,254,400 5b.53 2.36 41R,3R6,000 
243,720,loo 59.07 1.60 3!JO, 80ß, 800 
237,201,870 58.70 1.56 370,144,300 
393, 542, 600 60.19 0.91 356, R1ü, 900 
2û2, 781,000 57,10 1.31 344,09û,4oo 
233,742,850 59.46 1.94 453,038,6oo 
1
9, 075, 3.10 59.44 2.02 381,677,700 
193, 2ßO, 400 59.12 2.37 4.37,722,000 
26.3,189.300 59.35 1.62 427,357,300 
254, 4RO, 440 59,06 1.57 398,339,400 
464, 954,4oo 36.61 0.36 171,009,loo 
410,211,000 33.86 0.51 210,957,500 
403, 009,800 33.55 0.69 277,065,300 
426,312,500 35.61 0.78 331,357,400 
394,387,000 34.lü O.hO 317,097,000 
530, 709, 700 35.62 0.53 280,115,400 
419,774,940 34.76 0.62 261,497,260 
54,017,100 48.26 0.52 27,985,800 
42,770,000 45.66 0.82 35,024,000 
55,057,7.jO 46.97 1.08 59,654,400 
77,287,240 47.24 1.00 77,378,670 
56,389,400 46.32 1.23 ß9,330,300 
63,310,5,')0 46.62 0.83 52,821,400 
57,104,298 46.89 0.94 53,874,514 
2,486,200 56.32 0.77 1,921,900 
2,876,400 54.95 1.11 3,196,000 
3,857,200 53.44 1.62 6,267,200 
8,504,400 55.60 1.49 12,728,600 
10,207,400 55.09 1.40 14,240,000 
11,306,400 55.44 1.33 15,085,650 
5,586,320 55.80 1.37 7,670,740 
, 



192 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Y ear Average, 1915-19-con. 


Weight 
Yield per 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield Ineasured 
acre. bushel. 
acres. bush. bush. lb. 
anada-con. 
Peas......... . . .1915 196,065 17.67 3,454,250 60.74 
1916 151,790 14.50 2,218,100 59.88 
1919 198,88] 15.25 3,026,340 59.81 
1918 235,976 18.25 4,313,400 59.93 
1919 230,351 14.75 3,406,300 59,60 
1920 186,348 19.00 3,528,100 60.44 
AVE-rages, 1915-19. 202,613 16.25 3,285,678 59.99 
Beans.. . . . . . . . .1915 43,310 16.70 723,400 59.61 
1916 32,500 12.70 412,600 60.00 
1917 92,457 13.75 1,274,000 59.70 
1918 228,577 15.50 3,563,380 58.67 
1919 83,577 16.50 1,388,600 59.99 
1920 72,163 17.50 1,265,300 59.73 
Averages, 1915-19. 96,084 15.25 1,472,396 59.59 
Buckwheat.. . . .1915 343,800 22.88 7,865,900 48.02 
1916 341,500 17,50 5,976,000 46.35 
1917 395,977 18.00 7,149,400 46.49 
1918 548, 097 20.75 11,375,500 47.41 
1919 444,732 23.50 10,550,800 47.23 
1920 378,476 23.75 8,994,700 47.95 
Averages, 1915-19. 416,821 20.75 8,583,520 47,10 
Mixed grains... .1915 467,001 37.51 17,517,600 44.98 
1916 412,670 25.75 10,584,800 43.13 
1917 497,236 32.[0 16,157,080 44.41 
1918 921,826 38.75 35,662,300 46.39 
1919 901,612 31.00 27,851,700 44.83 
1920 811,634 40.00 32,420,700 44.65 
Averages, 1915-19. 640,069 33.75 21,554,696 44.75 
Flaxseed....... .1915 4E3,359 13.19 6,114,000 55.28 
1916 6.57,7S1 12.56 8,259,800 54.99 
1917 919,500 6.50 5,934,900 54.73 
1918 1,068,120 5.75 6,055,200 53.72 
1919 1,093,115 5.00 5,472,800 55.14 
1920 1,428,164 5.60 7,997,700 54.79 
Averages, 1915-19. 840,375 7.50 6,367,340 54.77 
Corn for husk- 
ing.. . . . . . . . . .1915 253,300 56.72 14,368,000 56.32 
1916 173,000 36.25 6,282,000 56.51 
1917 234,339 33.00 7,762,700 56.18 
1918 250,000 56.75 14,205,200 53.97 
1919 2C4,607 64.00 16,940,500 - 
1920 291,650 49.25 14,334,800 56.45 
Averages, 1915-19. 235,049 50.75 11,911,680 55.74 
Potatoes........ .1915 485,777 124.24 60,353,000 - 
1916 472,992 133.82 63,297,000 - 
1917 656,9.r58 121.50 79,892,000 - 
1918 735,192 142.00 104,346,200 - 
1919 818,767 153.50 12.5,574,900 - 
1920 784,544 170.50 133,831,400 - 
Averages, 1915-19. 633,937 136.75 86,692,620 - 


C 


Average 
price 
per Total Value. 
bushel. 


S $ 
1.65 5,724,100 
2.22 4,919,000 
3.54 10,724,100 
2.99 12,899,100 
2.86 9,739,300 
2.42 8,534,300 
2.68 8,801,120 
3.05 2,206,800 
5.40 2,228,000 
7.45 9,493,400 
5.41 19,283,900 
4.48 6,214,800 
3.88 4,918,100 
5.36 7,885,380 
0.75 5,913,000 
1.07 6,375,000 
1.46 10,443,400 
1.58 18,018,100 
1.50 15,831,000 
1.28 11,512,500 
1.32 11,316,100 
0.57 10,062,300 
0.88 9,300,900 
1.16 18,801,750 
1.14 40,726,500 
1.36 37,775,400 
0.90 29,236,200 
1-08 23,333,370 
1.51 9,210,400 
2.04 16,889,900 
2.65 15,737,000 
3.13 18,951,000 
4.13 22.609,500 
1.94 15,502,200 
2.62 16,679,560 
0.71 10,243,000 
1.07 6,747,000 
1.84 14,307,200 
1.75 24,902,800 
1.30 22,080,000 
1.16 16,593,400 
1.31 15,656,000 
0.60 36,459,800 
0.81 50,982,300 
1.01 80,804,400 
0.98 102,235,300 
0.9.5 118,894,200 
0.97 129,803,300 
0.90 77,875,200 



AGRICULTURE 


193 


t.- \.rea, 'Yh'ld, Qualit) itlld Yallu' of PrhU'I()al }'It.ld Crofts In Canada, 1915-20 .nld 
t'iw }" t'itr A H'ra
t', 1915-19--con. 


Weight \ vrrn.go 
Yield per price 
l"ipld Crop
. ..\rea. I 'r Total Yicld. lIl<,asured P<'r Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bush. 
('"nada -con. acr<,s. bush. bush. lb. I I 
Turnips, man- 
goldd, ptc.... .1915 15ß,ß91 3S4.05 60,175,000 - 0.24 14,.'>SS,700 
19W 141, 839 
64 .24 36,921,100 - 0.39 14,329,000 
1917 218,233 290.7.'> 63,451,000 - 0'4ß 29, 25.1,000 
1918 32,'), o:n 377. ,'>0 122, 1i!J9, GOO - 0.43 52,252,000 
1919 317,296 354.00 112, 2R
, (i001 - 0.50 54, 9M
, 700 
19
0 290,286 401.00 116, :mo, 900 1 - 0.41 48,212,700 
.\v<,ragl.:
, 1915-19. 
31 , 819 341 .25 79,107,060 1 - 0.42 33,07G,2S0 
tons. tons. p<,r ton. 
Hay and clovpr.1915 7,770,995 1.36 10,612,000, - ]4.37 152,531,600 
191G 7, R21, 2.
7 1.8G 14, .'>27,000' - 11.üO 1 ().
, 54 7 , 900 
1917 H, 22.., 034 1.66 13,684,700 - 10.33 141,376,700 
191H 10,544, fì2.. 1.40 14,772,300 - If) . 25 241,277,300 
1919 1O,59,'),3s'1 1.5,') lü, 34
, 000 - 
0.72 338,713,
00 
1920 10,379,292 1.30 ]3,338,700 - 26.10 34S, 16fi,200 
A.yerages, 191&-19. 8,fJf)2,659 1.5.1 13,9S8,
00 - 14.90 
OS,4
9,340 
Grain hay 
(B.C.). . . .. .. .1919 (;0,390 2.50 151,000 1 - 29.00 4,379,OO{) 
192{) liO,lil2 2.25 13ß,400 - 33.12 4,,')18,000 
.\UaUa......... .1915 98,4S
 2.6,j 21iO, 970' - 12.68 3,amJ,loo 
1916 99, :
50 2.91 280,750 - 10,69 3, Olin, 000 
1917 109, S:!,
 2.39 
62,4oo - 11 . ,1)9 3, 041 , 300 
1918 196,4:!8 2.25 446,400 - 17.84 7, 9fj3,':;00 
1919 220,869 2.20 494,200 - 21.85 10,800,200 
19
0 238,5.'>6 2.45 5
a,790 - 23.79 13,887,700 
.\verages, 1915-19 146,192 2.40 350,144 - 10,10 5,û30,020 
I'oddpr corn.. ...1915 332,4ß9 10.17 3,3S
,770 - 4.91 16,ßI2,000 
191ß 293, O,
8 6.05 1,907,800 - 4.92 9,396,000 
1917 31iß,518 7.34 2, 690, 370! - 5.14 13,834,900 
1918 SO:!,On9 9..50 4,787, :,00 - 0.15 29,439,100 
1919 ,511,7n9 9.75 4,942,7(.0 - 6.92 34, 179,,
00 
1920 5RS, 977 9.00 5,641,7;)û - 7.75 43,701,000 
.\ verages, 1915-19 401,177 8.8;) 3,542,240 - 5.82 20,692,420 

ugar:beets.... .1915 18,000 7.83 141,000 - 5.50 775,500 
1910 15,000 4.7,
 7l,00ú - 6.20 440,000 
1917 14,000 8.40 117, ßOO I - 6.7,
 79;
, SOO 
1918 18,000 10.00 180,000 - 10.25 1, 84,
, 000 
1919 24,.'>00 9.80 240,000 - 10.86 2,006,000 
1920 30,28S 11.37 412,400 - 12.80 5,278,700 
_-\.veJagcs, 1915-19 17,900 8.40 149,920 - 8.62 1,292,000 
Prince };d \\ ard per 
Island - hush. bu!'h. bush. 
Spring wheat.. .1915 34,400 19.00 653,{)00 59.0.5 1.08 70.
, ROO 
1916 34,500 16.7,5 578.000 58.79 1.52 879,000 
1917 36,000 14.50 522,000 57.6.1 2.09 1,091,000 
1918 30, 3,
2 20.00 600,000 59.93 2.22 1,344,000 
1919 35,59,5 17.00 624,600 59.00 2.73 1,705,200 
19
0 37,601 12.00 4,
2 , 900 5.5.56 2.00 906,000 
_-\.verages, 1915-19 34, 169 17.50 590,840 58.88 1.86 1,110,300 
Oats......... . . .1915 196,000 34.80 6,832,500 36.70 0.45 3,074,600 
1916 199,000 37.25 7,413,000 36.93 0.01 4,522,000 
1917 201,000 32.2,5 6,4K2,300 34.80 0.80 5, 18,'>, 800 
1918 169, 729 34.':;0 5,839,000 36.42 0.77 4,535,000 
1919 174,937 34.00 6,038,000 36.00 0.85 5,132,000 
1920 183,452 27.75 5,09.5,000 32.}'5 0.70 3,567,000 
A\ erages, 1915-19 18ð,133 34.75 6,520,960 36.17 0.69 4,489,880 


18427-13 



194 PRODUCTION 
I.-Area, Yield, QuaDt)" and 'T alue of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
I'ive Year A\erage, 1915-19-con. 
Weigh t Average 
Yield per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
Prince Edward acres. bush. bush. lb. $ $ 
Island-con. 
Barley........ .1915 3,700 28.88 106, 800 48.83 0.71 7.1),800 
1916 3,600 29.25 105, 000 47.40 0.95 100,000 
1917 3,500 28.50 99,750 46.45 1.22 121,700 
1918 5,672 28.50 162,000 49.31 1.25 203,400 
1919 5,636 29.00 164,000 50.00 1.40 229,700 
1920 5,046 24.50 123,000 47.47 1.27 156,200 
Averages, 1915-19 4,422 28.75 12,751 58.40 1.15 146,120 
Peas. ... . . .. . . . .1915 70 15.75 1,100 61.67 2.33 2,500 
1916 60 22.25 1,300 59.71 2.19 2,800 
1917 60 14.00 840 60.60 2.86 2,400 
1918 460 16.00 7,300 60.66 2.90 21,200 
1919 490 16.00 8,100 60.00 3.25 26,300 
1920 164 16.50 2, 700 60.00 3.00 8,100 
Averages, 1915-19 228 16.25 3,728 60.53 2.96 11,040 
Buckwheat. . . . .1915 2,600 29.00 75,400 48.15 0.75 56,500 
1916 2,500 27.25 68,000 49.10 1.00 68,000 
1917 2,500 29.00 72,500 47.80 1.32 95,700 
1918 5,592 21.75 122,000 48.77 1.44 175,500 
1919 4,094 20.75 87,800 48.80 1.50 132,000 
1920 4,035 23.50 95,000 46.67 1.30 123,500 
Averages, 1915-19 3,457 24.50 85, 140 48.52 1.24 105,540 
:Mixed grains. . .1915 8,000 38.65 309,200 43.00 0.55 170,000 
1916 8,000 41.25 330,000 47.60 0.75 248,000 
1917 7,800 38.25 298,400 42.61 0.98 292,400 
1918 13,475 44.50 600,000 45.00 1.04 623,400 
1919 18,900 44.00 843,400 44.00 1.22 1,039,400 
1920 16,504 33.75 556,600 41.44 0.85 473,000 
Averages, 1915-19 11, 235 42.50 476,200 44.44 1.00 474,640 
Potatoes....... .1915 31,000 114.78 3,558,000 0.46 1,637,000 
1916 31,000 206.00 6,386,000 0.52 3,321,000 
1917 35,000 175.00 6,125,000 0.75 4,594,000 
1918 31,543 170.00 5,362,300 0.63 3,378,000 
1919 36,234 125.00 4,529,000 0.85 3,850,000 
1920 36,322 170.00 6,174,700 0.65 4,013,600 
Averages, 1915-19 32,955 157.50 5,192,060 0.65 3,356,000 
Turnips, man- 
golds, etc.. . . .1915 7,900 449.46 3,551,000 0.26 923,000 
1916 8,000 477.00 3,816,000 0.28 1,068,000 
1917 8,100 505.39 4,094,000 0.31 1,269,000 
1918 8,246 520.50 4,292,000 0.29 1,244,700 
1919 12,337 518.00 6,396,000 0.26 1,638,800 
1920 9,397 481.75 4, .529, 000 0.30 1,359,000 
Averages, 1915-19 8,917 496.75 4,429,800 0.28 1,228,700 
tons. tons. per ton. 
Hay and clover.1915 198,000 1.77 351,000 12.18 4,275,000 
1916 199,000 1.70 338,000 11.56 3,907,000 
1917 197,000 1.55 305,400 12.67 3,869,000 
1918 222,691 1.50 334,000 14.17 4,732,800 
1919 238,883 1.80 428,000 20.00 8,564,000 
1920 243,394 1.25 304,200 26.00 7,909,000 
Averages, 1915-19 210,915 1.65 351,280 14.43 5,069,560 
Fodder corn... .1915 260 13.00 3,400 3.00 1O,2UO 
1916 250 13.00 3,300 2.50 8,300 
1917 250 7.00 1,800 5.00 9,000 
1918 420 5.25 2,200 9.00 19,800 
1919 .522 12.00 6,260 8.00 50,000 
1920 190 8.00 1,500 10.00 15,000 
.
verages, 1915-19 340 9.95 3,391 5.74 19,460 



.tGRICULTURP 


195 


1.-.\rt'a. \ It'ld. CluaUf) nnd 'alut' of 'Þrlndl)al "'it'hl (.rOl)'" In (".LU.U)". 1915-.?O and 
"'Î\t' }-t'ar \\t"ra
t.. 1915-19 -con. 


I 
I W('ight .\ v
ragc 
Yipld 
ppr pu pnc(' 
Fi<,ld Crops. _ \ fea. Total "\ ipld. l1H'a:-;urcd ppr Total vallH'. 
:l("rp. hu
h('l. huslwl. 
acres. bush. hu:-;h. lb. S S 
::\0\3 Scotia - 
:-':pring wheat.. .1915 13,300 18..57 247.000 .19.26 1.21 2t1s.700 
191f> 13,400 19..50 261,000 :)9. 9.5 1.70 444,000 
1917 16,:?00 1.1.7.3 2.'>.1), 1.'>0 .1)7.93 2.34 fí97,OOO 
1915 32, 737 22.25 72
,OOO .i9.43 2.36 1,71S,OOO 
1919 28,9.11 19..50 .if..!,OOO .,8.32 2.81 1, 5S.1, 000 
1920 26,116 19.50 .i 11 , !tOO 59.00 2.15 I, mI.':), 000 
.-\veragcs, 1915-19. 20,914 19.7.1 411,030 58.9S 2.26 92b,.')40 
Oats.......... . .191.5 112,000 31.14 3,487,700 34.1
 0'.19 2,0.37,700 
191(; 116,000 34.75 4 , m 1 , ()()O 34.19 0.71 2,862,000 
1917 123,000 2!J. 25 :
, 597, ROO 32.21-. 0.92 3,310,000 
1911" 14.i, 0.1G 37.25 .1,403,000 34.69 1.06 5,727,000 
1919 l.iS,83S 36.00 5,71
,OOO 34.,')4 1.14 6,519,000 
1920 l.i2,97ß 30.2.i 4,ß3ü,ROO 33.4,') 1.00 4,614,000 
A \ erages, 1915-19. 130,97.5 34.00 4,447,500 33.9S 0.92 4,095,140 
Barlcy. . . . . . .. .1915 4,HOo 26.20 12",400 48.39 O.SO 102,700 
HHh 4,700 2ß. 2.3 123.000 48..i8 0.99 122,000 
1917 4,f\OO 24.7.i 118,800 46.:;4 1.34 }.1)9, 200 
HH8 11,571 30.00 347,000 48.19 1.62 5()2,000 
1919 13, MJ4 31 . :?5 434,000 46.97 1.77 768,000 
IH:?O 11,4s7 26.00 
!J
, 100 46.76 1.51 4.12,000 
.\verag('s, 1915-19. 7,973 29.00 230,240 47.73 1.49 342,7S0 
R
-e..... ...1915 300 1.5.00 4,500 .l)r. .00 1.08 4,900 
1916 3:?0 17.00 5,400 j{) . 00 1.2.1 6,800 
191. 300 1.1.00 4.500 54.50 1.()7 7, 500 
191b. 531 14.,rjO 7,700 .1.1.67 1.85 14,200 
1919 1,04(j 29.50 31,000 .13.00 1..1.'> 48,000 
19:?0' 470 15.00 7, 100 .i6. ()() 1.50 10, 6.50 
.'\xcragc's, 1915-19.1 49!1 21.25 10,620 ,');).03 1.53 16,280 
Peas. . . . . . . .. . . . 1915 190 IS.6r. 3,.1.50 .19.00 2.01 7,100 
1916 1
0 17.75 3,200 :,9. RO 2.73 8,700 
1917 170 14.25 2,400 .18.50 4.44 10,700 
HUb l 1,753 IS.75 33,000 59.50 3.20 106,000 
1919 1,896 20.00 38,000 .i8.50 3.84 146,000 
1920 1 1,046 20.50 21, 400 .16.81 3.67 7S,5oo 
Averagl's, 1915-19.1 838 20.00 16,030 59 . ()() 3.47 55,700 
Beans......... .1915 840 17.5ü 14,700 59.8;
 3.87 56,800 
1916 8.10 16.2.1 13,SOO fiO.oo 5.62 78,000 
1917 1,000 17.75 17,7.10 59.00 7.95 141,100 
1918 8,829 lß'25 143,000 59. 14 7.34 1,050,000 
1919 6,8.59 12.75 87,000 57.56 6.37 554,000 
1920 4.617 IS.50 85, 900 58.50' 6.00, 51.1,400 
- - - - 


Averages, 191.r19. 
Buckwheat.... .1915 
191ô 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 


3,6,6 
10,200 
10,000 
10, 900 
19,342 
17,384 
13, 1061 
13,56.) 
I 


1.).001 
21. 72 1 
24..50 
21.00 1 

t
 I ' 
22.2.5 
23.25 


5t:>,2aO 


59.11 


221,500 
245,000 
22H,900 
445,000 
4
9,000 
291. 400 
315,
80 


47.4.5 
46.97 
46.56 
47-10 
47.23 
47.27 
47.06 


18-l27-13
 


6.811 
0. 72 1 
0.84 
1.14 
1.35 
1.55 
1.36 
1.21 


3,5,980 
159, .500 
20ö, 000 
261,000 
601,000 
680,000 
397,000 
381,500 



196 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Valnt' of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Year Average, 1915-19-con. 


YieJd ,V eight Average 
Field Crops. Area. per per price 
Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
acres. bush. bush. lb. $ $ 
N ovaIScotia-con. 4,100 
Mixed grains... .1915 34.16 140,000 43.05 0.71 99,400 
1916 4,100 34.00 139,000 44.07 0.92 128,000 
1917 4,000 24.00 96,000 39.91 1.24 119,000 
1918 5,407 36.00 195,000 42.24 1.30 254,000 
1919 8,628 37.50 218,000 46.77 1.53 334,000 
1920 6,171 32.50 200,600 39.20 1.32 265,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 5,247 30.00 157,600 43.21 1.19 186,880 
JPotatoes........1915 33,700 141.23 4,759,000 - 0.58 2,760,000 
1916 34,500 201.00 6,935,000 - 0.69 4,785,000 
1917 41,000 174.94 7,173,000 - 0.92 6,599,000 
1918 51,250 190.75 9,776,000 - 0.93 9,092,000 
1919 62,060 161.00 9,992,000 - 1.09 10,891,000 
1920 50,092 203.75 10,209,000 - 0.98 9,966,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 44,502 173.75 7,727,000 - 0.88 6,825,400 
Turnips, man- 
golds, etc... . .1915 9, 200 390.02 3,589,000 - 0.34 1,223,000 
1916 9,000 404.00 3,636,000 - 0.42 1,527,000 
1917 9,100 350.93 3,193,000 - 0.47 1,501,000 
1918 23,823 391.25 9,320,700 - 0.58 5,406,000 
1919 30,291 537.75 16,289,000 - 0.60 9,773,000 
1920 19,946 431.75 8,611,000 - 0.62 5,368,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 16,283 442.50 7,205,540 - 0.54 3,886,000 
tons. tons. per ton 
Hay and clover.1915 538,000 1.78 958,000 - 13.33 12,770,000 
1916 553,000 1.80 995,000 - 12.25 12,189,000 
1917 542,000 1.65 894,000 - 11.83 10,580,000 
1918 605,464 1.45 878,000 - 20.00 17,560,000 
1919 678,357 2.10 1,425,000 - 22.34 31,835,000 
1920 632,069 1.50 948,000 - 35.00 24,966,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 583,364 1.75 1,030,000 - 16.49 16,986,800 
Alfalfa........ . .1915 30 2.30 70 - 13.00 900 
1916 30 5.00 150 - 15.00 2,300 
1917 30 3.50 100 - 15.00 1,500 
Averages, 1915-17. 30 3.55 80 - 14.69 1,567 
Fodder corn.. . .1915 500 4.64 2,300 - 7.00 16,000 
1916 500 8.75 4, 400 - 2.50 11 , 000 
1917 480 9.20 4,400 - 6.00 26,400 
1918 4,644 9.50 44, 000 - 9.00 396,000 
1919 2,960 9.50 28,000 - 8.00 224,000 
1920 1,451 8.00 11 , 600 - 10.00 116,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 1,817 9-15 16,620 - 8.10 134,680 
per 
New Brunswick- bush. bush. bush. 
Spring wheat.. .1915 14,000 19.09 267,000 59.59 1.26 335,000 
1916 14,000 17.25 242,000 59.20 1.72 416,000 
1917 16,000 12.00 192,000 58.43 2.25 432,000 
1918 49,453 19.00 940,250 59.68 2.32 2,183,700 
1919 35,641 17.50 623,000 59.61 2.80 1,744,400 
1920 29,485 15.75 464,400 58.25 2.11 979,900 
Averages, 1915-19. 25,819 17.50 452,850 59.30 2.26 1,022,220 
Oats......... . . .1915 201,000 27.66 5,559,600 36.33 0.55 3,058,000 
1916 198,000 30.50 6,039,000 35.49 0.68 4,107,000 
1917 190,000 22.50 4,275,000 33.33 0.94 4,018,500 
1918 224,442 31.50 7,051,400 35.32 0.97 6,877,400 
1919 305,484 30.25 9,261,000 35.10 0.98 9,086,000 
1920 309,071 29.50 9, 117, 600 34.93 0.60 5,470,600 
A vera es 1915-19. 223,785 28.75 6.437,200 35. 11 0.84 5,429,380 


g , 



AGRICULTURB 197 
1.-.\r('a. 1 jt'ld. Qualit) and ';1.1Ut' of PrhH'll)al Fit'ld f'rol)S In f'anada 191,
-20 and 
f'iu' Y t'ar \ H'ra Pt. 1915-19 -con. 
Weiv;ht Average 
Yipld })('r pric ' 
Field Crops. An'n. })('r Total Yield. IHl'a.sured ppr Total Yalu(\. 
Rc'rp. bu:-;}U'l. huslH'l. 

t'\\ IIruns"ick acres. bu
h . bu
h. lb. S S 
-con. 
Barle) . . . . . . . . .1915 2,1O() 22. !.6 4
,OOO 48.85 O.S5 40, SOO 
HH6 1 , uno 23.75 4.1 , ()()(J 46.70 1.00 45,000 
191i 1 , son 22.00 :
9, fiOO 12.R4 1.3fi 53,900 
191ð 6,601 24.7.5 Ih:J, 140 47.H7 1..1,1) 253,270 
1919 1O,6j):? 20.75 2X.1,00() 47.4S 1 . :
,I) 3R5,OOO 
W20 I\,17i 23.75 194 , 200 46..50 1.41 2n, soo 

\ Vl'rUJ.!;ps, 1915-19. 4,613 25.25 116, 14
 16.77 1.34 1.5.),,)94 
Rye........... .1918 30
 16.2.) 5,()O() 1.
.,) !), 000 
1919 353 20.00 7,000 56.00 2.()() 14,000 
1920 2:>4 14.00 3, (;00 l.ðO 6,.100 
.Av('rav;c
, 1918-19. 330 18.2.> 6,000 1.92 11 , ;')00 
Peas...... ... . . .1 U5 420! 17.0ð 6,700 fiO . 2i 2.52 If), 
IOO 
19lß 400, 16.50 6, HOO (;0.21 2.4(; It), 200 
191il 400 15.00 6,000 fiO . 4,) 2.S:3 17,nOO 
1918 4,0771 14.7.)1 (iO, 100, 59.37 3'li
 221,
00 
191!J 1 4, fin7, 14.7.1 mi. 000, .5!J.
5 3.03 209,000 
1 !.2OI 2,S44 1.1.00 42,700 60..10 2.35 100,300 
_\vemJ!;p
, 191'>-19. I, !'9!1 14.75 29,
O, 60.03 3.24 9H,OüO 
lka ns. . . . . . . . . . I!) 1 ;) 270 1 21.37 5,700 1 f,o . 71 4.03 23,000 
lOW' :?10 1.1.25 3,800 1 no.,r)4 H. ] 1 23,000 
HHi: 300 1!h10 .1,S.10 
9,001 H.75 51,200 
HilS 5, 491 1 1.1.:;0 S'), .')
O .!9.39 1 8.0.1 fi
9,400 
HH91 6,409 lfi . .10 JOn, 000 ,)
h5b1 5.2S .5.56,000 
19:?0 4,2')4' 1ß.2.j' 69,100 HO.OO\ 3.39 234,200 
_h'('ra
c
, 191.1-19.' 2,.')44 1 Jf).2SI -! 1 , 386 59.64 6.49 26S,.520 
Buckw}lC'at... . .191.31 I 
5S, ()()(I, 2:2. f)'- 1.31.1,000: 47..,.1 0.73 960,000 
19W\ 53, noo' .).) __I 1. 
 Oft, ()()() I 4t)..11 0.84 1,013,000 
__' 1 ')1 
If Hi 57,0001 HJ.50, 1, 111. .1)00 4.'),48, 1.13 1,2.1)fi,000 
191X 72,4'ì;j' :?O . 7,) I 1, 4U9, ;')00 47.38 1.6S 2,477,000 
19H}
 . 74.642 2.j.001 1 , x71 , 000 47.74 1.36 2,547,000 
19:?0 üü,3fift .)C) ...- 1,;OH,f'OO 40. 691 1.4S 2, 1
9,200 
_"-. la 
_\ verages, 191
19. 63,02.3 22.2.> 1,400,fìOO 413.92 1.18 1,6[0,600 

liXl'd grains....1915 900 1 31.50 2S,4()() 4.1).80 0.71 
O,OOO 
191() ðiOI 34.25 30,000 43.2.') 0.7R 23,000 
191'1 840 19.50 16,3
n 4:
 . 29 1.10 18,000 
191b 4, 292 1 32.50 ]39,900 42.97 1.2S 17.1),200 
19191 5,297 33.75 179,000 43.83 1.23 220,000 
1920 3,3!J.1. 29.7.1 101,000 41.00 1.17 118,200 
_\veraJ,!;(':-;, 19]5-19.1 2,4-10 1 32.2.3 78,736 4:3.83 ] .16 91,240 
}'otatoes........1915 40,000, 144.31 5,772,000 0.64 3,694,000 
19W 39,000 1 192.00 7.48
.OOO 0.84 6,290,000 
1917 46,000 1 149.80 1 6,
9],000 1.13 7,787,000 
191h -- '""? 15
 . 501 9, 077, ü()() 1.00 9,0ï7,600 
,)/,2/_ 
191!J 75,573 142.75 10,790,200 0.97 1O,4fi6,00O 
1920 78,335 19R.00 15,510,300 0.70 1O,8.)7.
00 
Averages, 191
19. 51 , 569 155. 25 1 8,003,760 0.93 7,462,920 
Turnips, lllan- 
golds, etc... . .1915 8,000 329. 10 2,633,000 0.33 '3mJ,OOO 
1916 7,700 41l'00
 3,165,000 0.45 1,424,000 
1917 7,700 300.54 2,314,000 0.61 1,412,000 
1915 18,507 350.00 6,477,.500 0.58 3, 7.j7, 000 
1919 1 24,279 3üü.50 8,898,800 0.5
 5, 1.5.1, 000 
1920 1 20,0:30, 353.00 7,070,600 0.20 1,414, ]00 
.\ vcrages, 191.5-19. 13,237 355 . 00 4,697,660 0.54 1 2,523,400 



198 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Qualit)" and '.alue of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Fhe Year A,'erage, 1915-19-con. 


acres. 


Yield 'V eight Average 
per per price 
Total Yield. measured Total Value. 
acre. bushel. per ton. 
tons. tons. lb. $ $ 
1.39 791,000 - 14.00 11,074,000 
1.48 850,000 - 11.27 9,563,000 
1.60 909.000 - 10.29 9,354,000 
1.50 1,111,000 - 15.30 16,998,300 
1.40 1,111,000 - 20.26 22,512,000 
1.20 871 .700 - 27.87 24,294,300 
1.45 954,400 - 14.56 13,900,260 
1.50 1,800 - 9.00 16,200 
7.00 770 - 2.50 1,900 
10.00 1,000 - 4.00 4,000 
9.00 770 - 6.00 4,600 
4.50 15,600 - 10.00 156,000 
5.00 30,000 - 8.00 240,000 
8.00 41,900 - 10.00 419,000 
5.00 9,628 - 8.44 81, 300 
per 
bush. bush. bush. 
19.88 1,411,000 59.62 1.34 1,891,000 
15.00 960,000 57.71 1.86 1,786,000 
14-00 3,883,600 57.94 2.46 9,553,700 
17.25 6,308,000 58.82 2.28 14,382,000 
16.75 4,206,000 59.12 2.86 12,029,000 
17.00 3,775,000 59.45 2.24 8,456,000 
16.25 3,353,720 58.64 2.36 7,928,340 
30.13 42,182,000 36.92 0.55 23,200,000 
22.75 24,411,000 33.55 0.77 18,796,000 
21.75 32,466,200 34.34 0.92 29,868,900 
27.25 52,667,000 35.98 1.00 52,667,000 
26.75 57,275,000 35.47 1.06 60,712,000 
30.25 66,729,000 36.51 0
88 58,722,000 
26.00 41,800,240 35,25 0.87 37,048,780 
26.53 2,255,000 48.79 0.86 1,939,000 
20.00 1,456,000 46.67 1.15 1,674,000 
18.50 3,063,600 48.14 1.58 4,840,500 
24.00 4,551,000 48.16 1.62 7,373,000 
22.75 5,344,000 47.63 1.64 8,764,000 
25.25 4,910.000 47.83 1.41 6,923,000 
22.25 3,339,920 47.87 1.47 4,918,000 
16.71 145,000 55.90 1.12 162,000 
14.25 118,000 53.97 1.40 165,000 
16.75 376,000 53.36 1.78 669,300 
16.25 472,000 54.78 2.10 991,000 
17.25 578,000 .15.87 2.00 1,156,000 
18.75 534,000 55.70 1.8S 1,004,000 
16.50 337,800 54.77 1.86 628,660 
16.56 404,000 61.14 2.47 998,000 
14.00 302,000 59.95 3.22 972,000 
12.00 797,500 59.75 4.51 3,596,700 
15.50 1,664,000 60.26 4.14 6,889,000 
15.00 1,225,000 60.14 3.62 4,435,000 
17.00 1,035,000 60.74 3.36 3,478,000 
14.50 878,500 60.25 3.85 3,378,140 


Field Crops. Area. 


New Brunswick- 
con. Þr",1
 
Hay and clover .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Alfalfa.. . ... . . . .1918 


Fodder corn... .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Ayerages, 1915-19. 
Quebec- 
Bpring wheat. . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Oats......... . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Barley. . . . . . . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Rye...... . . . . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19. 
Peas......... . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Ayerages, 1915-19. 


569,000 
574,000 
568,000 
740,637 
786,175 
726,380 
647,562 


1,178 


110 
100 
85 
3,459 
5,906 
5,24
 
1 , 93

 


71,000 
64,000 
277,400 
365,670 
251,089 
222,045 
205,832 
1,400,000 
1,073,000 
1,492,700 
1,932,720 
2,141,107 
2,205,908 
1,607,905 
85,000 
72,800 
165,000 
189,202 
234,892 
194,444 
149,499 
8,700 
8,300 
22,450 
29,063 
33,481 
28,462 
20,399 
24,400 
21,600 
66,457 
107,386 
81,642 
60,870 
60,297 



.tGU/CULTUllE 


199 


1.- \rea 1 h'ld, CluaU.) and' alu(' of I'rint'il)al "'h'ld Cro()s in Canada, 191;;-20 and 
}'h l' \-l'ar \ H'ra rl', 1915-19--con. 


Field Crops. 


CJucbec-con. 
Beans. . . . . . , . . .1915 
19W' 
19171 
191" 
1919 1 
H.l20 
.\vera
es, 1915-HI' 
Buckwheat. . . . .191.3! 
19lö 
1917 
1918 1 
UH9' 
HI20 1 
Averages, 1915-191 

fiwd grains. . .1915 1 
HH6 
IH17 
HilS 
1919 1 
If120. 
... .\ verages, 1915-1
i 
l.lax::-.eed....... .191a 
1916' 
1917 1 
191
 
I! H9 1 
1920 
.\ verage<", 1915-19 1 
C<:>rn for husk- 
Ing........ ...1915 1 
HH6 
1917 1 
191
 
1919 1 
1920 1 
-\. veragl
, 1915-19 1 
Potatoes....... .1915 1 
1916 1 
1917 1 
19U'" 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19 


Turnips, man- 
golds, etc.... .1915 
1916 




 I I 
UH9 
1920! 
.-\.verages, 1915-191 


Area. 


acres. 


4,700 1 
4,400 
55, 157 
 
109, 
03 
43,202, 
35,ð3.j , 
43,452 
I 
104,000 1 
101,000 
163,5771 
227,01
 
170,043 1 
151,765 
153, 127 1 
101. 000 
91,000 1 
122,819 1 
194, 2S.
 
}'57,637, 
143,"42:J 
133,34S 1 
600 
500' 
5,700 
7,357 1 
11,.
q 
16,03.1 1 
5, lObi 
16, 300 1 
13,000 
74,339' 
54,690' 
43,603 1 
47,741 1 
40, 3
t)i 
117, OOU I 
112,OOD 
')') 6 ' )1 - 
-- " ' I 
264,871 
315,590 
310, 69
' 
207,276 1 
W'2,J 
10,000: 
70,192, 
95,526 1 
87,496 1 
83,613 
54,683 1 


Yield 
p('r 
acre. 


Weight Average 
per pri('e 
Total Yield. mea
urcd p('r Total Value. 
bushel. bushel. 


bush. 
21.g9 
17.75/ 
15.00 
17.001 
19.75 1 
1
.OU 
17.25 j 
24.69 
19.00 
16..30' 
20.751 
24.00 
25.75 1 
20. 75 1 
29.67. 
20.251 
21.25 1 
27.00' 
27.00 
29.2.5 
25..30 
I 
11.kU 1 
10.50 
8.25 
11.2.5 1 
9.7.il 
11.,50 
10.00' 
I 
31.17 1 
24.75 
24.25 1 
21.75' 
41.00; 
29.75 
27.75 1 
149'6ó l 
131.00 1 
80.00 
147.00 1 
181.50 1 
185. 50 1 
141 .50 
308.251 
265-00 
224- 511 
295.50 
317. 50 1 
329.25 
283. 75 1 


bu"h. 


10:3,000 1 
78,000 1 
827, 400
 
1,867,000 1 
. .33,000, 
645,000, 
745, 6
Oi 
2,568, 000 
 
1,919,000: 
2, 6!JU, 000 j 
4,711 ,OUU 1 
4,U81,000 
3,908,000 
3,195,600j 
2,!}97,OOO 
1 , S4:J , 000 
2, HOH, HOOi 
5,246,000 
4,
56,000 
4,IH5,000i 
3,390,380, 
7,000 
5, 300 1 
47,000, 

tJ , OO() 
111, ()()O 
IS4, 000 j 
50,660 
1 
5lJö,lJoO 
322,000' 
I,R02.700. 
1,190,0001 
1, 7f\
, 000 
1,420,0001 
1, I:!:?, 140 
17,51O,OU) 
14,672,000 1 
18,158,000 1 
38,936,0001 
57, 
80,ODOI 
57,633,000 
2Ø,311, 
OO' 


3,144,000 
2,650,000 
15,759,000 1 
2>3,
28,000 
27, 7S0, 000 1 
27,530,000 
15,512,200 


lb. 


59.38 
60.1S 
59.90 
5!} .451 
59.81! 
60.15' 
59.74. 


4
'1; 
46.35 
46-55 1 
4S.20, 
47.72 
4H . I!} 
47.40j 
45.4-1. 
44.04 
44.50! 
45.4H; 
44.54 1 
46. HI 
44.
O 
54.1r. 1 
54.50' 
53.21' 
54.6r, 
53.46 
55.79 ' 
54'001 
56.K5 
56.18 1 
56.89 1 
56.41 
55.97 
56.58 


s 

:

I 
" " 7 1 
, ., I 
5.7'1' 
4.52 
4.0ö 
5.83 
0.R4 

:
:
I I 
1.77 
1.70. 
1'3'
1 
1.53\ 
o.nl 
0'9!} 1 
1.33 
1.46 
1.50 1 
1.2(; 
1. 27 1 
2.lb 
2.501 
3. 37 1 
3.74 
3. 91 1 
3.57 
3.67 


s 


327,000 
434,000 
6,428,900 
10, 67!},OOO 
3,
56,OUO 
2,632,000 
4.344,mm 
2,157,000 
2,:322,000 
4,6W,:WO 
R,3:3
,000 
6,H3S,000 
5, :39:J, 000 
4,884,860 
2,IS
,OOO 
1,825,000 
3,471,200 
7,6.39,000 
6. :

4, 000 
5,2
6,000 
4,30.5,440 
15,000 
13,:WO 
1.58,400 
310,000 
434,O()0 
657,000 
1
6, 140 


1.12 
1.52 
2.25 
2.10 
1.84 
1.59 
1.95 
0.55 
0.97 
1.38 
0.98 
0.
5 
1.00 
0.93 


569,000 
tS9, 000 
4,056,000 
2,518,000 
3,2!J0,000 
2,258,000 
2, 184, 400 
9,631,000 
14,232,000 
25,058,000 
38,157,000 
48,688,000 
57,633,000 
2.7,1-13,200 


0.36 
0.48 
0.59 
0.53 
0.53 
0.50 
0.53 


1,132,000 
1,272,010 
9,298,000 
14,960,800 
14,723,000 
13,765,OQO 
8,277,160 



200 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops In Canada, 1915-20 and 
Fh'e Year A\'erage, 1915-19-con. 


Weight 
per Average 
Total Yield. measured price Total Value. 
bushel. per ton. 
tons. lb. $ $ 
3,682,000 - 15.89 58,507,000 
5,224,000 - 11.00 57,464,000 
5,065,000 - 9,58 48,523,000 
6,799,900 - 15.75 107,098,400 
6,449,000 - 20.54 132,462,000 
5,363,000 - 29.00 155,527,000 
5,443,980 - 14.84 80,810,880 
8,100 - 11 .78 95,000 
7,000 - 9.50 67,000 
8,600 - 8.37 72,000 
9,300 - 11.70 109,000 
67,000 - 14.22 953,000 
68,000 - 21.00 1,428,000 
20,000 - 12.96 259,200 
293,000 - 6.39 1,872,000 
248,000 - 5.75 1,426,000 
586,800 - 5.00 2,934,000 
626, 100 - 7.42 4,645,700 
611,000 - 8.41 5,139,000 
695,000 - 10.20 7,089,000 
472,980 - 6.77 3,203,340 
per 
bush. bush. 
27,546,000 59.41 0.93 25,618,000 
16,465,000 59.42 1,55 25,521,000 
14,114,800 59.38 2.09 29,499,900 
7,054,800 59.80 2.09 14,763,000 
15,052.000 61.33 2.45 36,877,000 
18,492,000 60.20 1.89 34,890,500 
16,046,520 59.87 1.65 26,455,780 
2,706,000 59.41 0.96 2,598,000 
1,466,000 57.80 1.55 2,272,000 
2,203,500 59.32 2.08 4,583,300 
8, 186,200 59.84 2.03 16,638,000 
5,646,500 58.27 2.46 13,890,400 
4,480,500 57.92 1.81 8,112,600 
4,041,640 58.93 1.98 7,996,340 
30,252,000 59.41 0.93 28,216,000 
17,931,000 58.79 1.55 27,793,000 
16,318,300 59.36 2.09 34,083,200 
15,241,000 60.54 2.06 31,401,000 
20,698,500 59.76 2.45 50,767,400 
22,972,500 59.10 1.87 43,003,100 
20,088,160 59.67 1.72 34,452,120 
122,810,000 34.67 0.39 47,896,000 
50,771,000 30.30 0.64 32,493,000 
98,075,500 34.11 0.72 70,614,400 
131,752,600 35.58 0.78 102,212,000 
78,388,000 32.76 0.91 71,378,000 
129,171,300 35.95 0.58 74,670,300 
96,359,420 33.48 0.67 64,918,680 


Field Crops. Area. 
acres. 
Quebec-con. 
Hay and clover.1915 2,922,000 
1916 2,985,000 
1917 2,961,983 
1918 4,533,266 
1919 4,299,360 
1920 4,290,121 
Averages, 1915-19 3,540,322 
Alfalfa.. . . . . . . . .1915 2,860 
1916 2,600 
1917 3,818 
1918 4,144 
1919 28,488 
1920 28,200 
Averages, 1915-19 8,382 
Fodder corn. . . .1915 34,000 
1916 31, 000 
1917 69,030 
1918 86,358 
1919 74,007 
1920 86,833 
Averages, 1915-19 58,879 
Ontario-- 
Fall wheat.... .1915 972,000 
1916 774,800 
1917 656,500 
1918 262,616 
1919 619,494 
1920 762,371 
Averages, 1915-19 677,082 
Spring wheat.. .1915 121,000 
1916 90,200 
1917 113,000 
1918 351,423 
1919 361, 150 
1920 267,367 
Averages, 1915-19 207,355 
All wheat. . . . . .1915 1,093,000 
1916 865,000 
1917 769,500 
1918 714,039 
1919 980,644 
1920 1,029,738 
Averages, 1915-19 884,437 
Oats. . . . . . . . . . . .1915 3,095,000 
1916 1,991,000 
1917 2,687,000 
1918 2,924,468 
1919 2,674,341 
1920 2,880,053 
Averages, 1915-19 2,674,362 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


tons. 


1.26 
1.75 
1.71 
1.50 
1.50 
1.25 
1.55 


2.84 
2.65 
2.26 
2.25 
2.35 
2.40 
2.40 
8.61 
8.00 
8.50 
7.25 
8.25 
8.00 
8.05 


bush. 
28.34 
21.25 
21.50 
19.50 
24.30 
24.30 
23.75 
22.36 
16.25 
19.50 
23.25 
15.60 
16.80 
19.50 
27.67 
20.73 
21.25 
21.25 
21.20 
22.30 
22.75 
39-68 
25.50 
36.50 
45.00 
29.30 
44.90 
36.00 



A G R I C F L T (11U
 201 
t.- \rl'a, 'It-Id, (Jllallt). and 'ahle or J-rlnrirml Fit-lei {'ro()s In ('.u..,da, 1915-20 .,od 
....he 'Year \\Cracre, 191.')-19 -con. 
\YpiJ.!:ht A Vf'ragl' 
Yipl(1 p<..r pri('(' 
Fipld Crop
. Arpa. J>f'r Total Yi('ld. mpa
urcd P<'r Total' alu('. 
a('rf' . hu
hd. hu:-shcl. 
a('r('
. bu:-:h. hu:-:h. lb. S S 
Ontarll}- -con. 
Barlf''y . .. _ .. .191'; 449,000 
4.2
 15,
hH,OOO 47.R3 0.56 8,G07,000 
19Hi 326,000 

.OO 7. 49R, 000 1 44.94 0-99 7,422,000 
1917 3(;1,000 31.00 11, HH,OOO 47.20 1.16 12, 9S 1 , {;(.)() 
1918 6üO, 404 3ß.75 24,247,700 4.'\.13 1.0G 25, 
ij(J, 000 
19l!J 51i9, 1
3 23.10' U, 1
4, (){)(J, 4:>.81 1.32 17,215,000 
1920 4S4,32
 34.40' 11), tiliO, 3;'0' 4H.70 0.94 1;), fj,i:J, 200 
.\V l'rHJ.!:ps, 1915-19. 473,117 30.2:> 14, 2Sì, 940' 4G.78 1.00 14,406,920 
Ryc..... . 19Vi 78,000. 19'b
 1,5;) 1,000\ ã()'hH 0.79 1,225,000 
191() li!},OOO I 17..30 1, 
OS, 000 1 5.").20 1.17 1,413,000 
191i üS,OOO 17. 75 1 1 , 207, 000 I 5';.69 1. (i4 1 , !)79, .")00 
1918 112,721j1 If).00 1,813,000 5;).6:> 1.5;) 2,RIR,400 
19H I 140, 072 1 1.i.bO 2,219,000. M . !)7 1.4R 3,279,000 
1920 133,090 17.70 2,349,900 5.5-30 1.35 3,176,200 
.\ Vl'rages, 1915-19. 93,SCO 17.00 1,599, Üooi 5;).lì.\" 1.34 2,142,980 
P('a
........ . . . . H)1;) 1fì9, 000 17.79 3,007,000 1 59.:-'0 1.54 4, fì
l, 000 
HU6 12H,OOO 14-25 1, i9ti, 000 1 59.71 2.06 3,700,000 
1917 1
f),OOO 16.75 1 2,110,::00 59.
S 3.21 6,774,700 
1HI
 113,8G2 21.00 2, 3H I , O(JO 59.
.i 2.
4 .'),3
S,700 
1919 127,2.')3 14-30 1. 8Iß, .iOO 59.9i 2.31 4,IS0,000 
19:!0 109,IH7 20.20 2.
09,500 fjO.43 2.00 4,419,000 
.\vl'ragc
, 1915-19. 132,4

 16.75 2.222,200 59.b5 2.22 4,924,880 
B('an
 _ . . _ _ . UH:> 37,500 1ß.00 fjOO, 000 59.76 3.0.3 1,
00,000 
1916 27,000 11-7.') 317,000 59.72 5.34 1, (iU:J, 000 
HIl7 36,000 11.7.i 42
.000 59.42 6.79 2,872,200 
1918 loo,OS2 13.75 1,3
7,8Oú 59.27 4.66 G, 41i4, 500 
1919 22,9
0 12'fìO 2M, 500 61.74 3.79 1,039,000 
19
0 22,74-t Hi. 70 380,500 59.70 3.10 1, lRl, 100 
.\ycrages, 1915-19. 44,700 13..")0 G03,2f.i0 59.9b 4.00 2,773,740 
Buckwheat... _ .1915 lliU,OOO 21.81 3,b
h,OOO 48.21 0.70 2,580,000 
1916 175,000 14..iO 2,!}
8,000 4.')' SO 1.09 2,76ß,OOO 
1917 16
 , 000 18.7:; 3,m7,500 46.G9 1.37 4,161,400 
191b 2:?
,üf)2 20..30 4,5fìS,000 46,91i 1.40 6,42ß,600 
1919 178,5fJ9 22.80 4,072,000 46,71 1.36 5,534,000 
1920 143,204 22.30 3, HJO, :')00 48,10 1.07 3,409,800 
.-\ y('ragps, 1915-19. 181,64G, 19.75 3,5S6,300 46.87 1.20 4,293,600 
)Iix('d grains... .1915 345,0001 39.91 13,iû9,OOO 44.7h 0.54 7,435,000 
19lü 2
li. 000 I 26.00 7, 43ü, OOOi 40.77 0.89 6, ()18, 000 
1917 295,0001 37. 75 1 11,136.300 44.99 1.12 12,472,700 
1918 619,3h9 1 44.25 2i,4G:?,400' 46.01 1.09 29,823,900 
1919 62
,i61 31.40 1 19,735,3001 44.71 1.35 26,672,000 
1920 .
81, 689 44.20 25,712,400 44. JO 0.81 20,709,000 
.\yeragcs, 1915-19. 434,830 36.50 15,907,bOO 44.2.i 1.04 16,G04,320 
Fla:x
eed...... . .1915 5,000 12.38 1 62,000 .10.78 1.72 107,000 
1916 4, 500 9.2.5 42,000 57.17 2.78 117, 000 
1917 4,000 13.00\ 52.000 55-00 3.70 192,400 
1918 15, 925 1 12.25 196,200 51). 72 1 3.41 670,000 
1919 13,717 9. 40 1 129,500 ;)9.k6 3.48 4.iO,500 
1920 21. 053 1 10.70' 224,900 ;)6.50 2.43 545,500 
A, ('rages, 1915-19. 8.G2
1 11. 25 1 9ü,340 :;.i. 91 1 3.19 307,380 



202 


PRODUCT/DiY 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Tear Average, 1915-19-con. 


Yield Weight Average 
per per price 
Field Crops. Area. Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
Ontario-con. acres. bush. bush. lb. $ $ 
Corn for husk- 
ing. . . . . . . . . . .1915 237,000 58.48 13,860,000 55.75 0.69 9,674,000 
1916 160,000 37.25 5,960,000 57.18 1.05 6,258,000 
1917 160,000 37.25 5,960,000 54.58 1.72 10,251,200 
1918 19.5,310 66-75 13,015,200 58.23 1.72 22,384,800 
1919 221,004 68,60 15,152,500 - 1.24 18,790,000 
1920 243,909 53.00 12,914,800 56.60 1.11 14,335,400 
Averages, 1915-19. 194,663 55.50 10,789,540 56.43 1.25 13,471,600 
JPotatoes........1915 155,000 92.66 14,362,000 - 0.76 10,915,000 
1916 133,000 61.00 8,113,000 - 1.28 10,385,000 
1917 142,000 133.67 18,981,000 - 1.00 19,981,000 
1918 166,203 116.60 19,376,000 - 1.26 24,413,000 
1919 157,286 96.30 15,145,000 - 1.37 20,820,000 
1920 157,509 152.10 23,961,700 - 0.97 23,131,200 
Averages, 1915-19. 150,698 100.75 15,195,400 - 1.13 17,102,800 
Turnips, man- 
golds, etc... . .1915 112,000 394.42 44,175,000 - 0.21 9,277,000 
1916 97,000 211.00 20,467,000 - 0.36 7,368,000 
1917 94,000 340.93 32,047,000 - 0.35 11,216,000 
1918 141,001 460.25 64,896,000 - 0.32 20,767,000 
1919 123,029 348.00 42,756,000 - 0.35 14,027,000 
1920 119,744 493.00 57,989,800 - 0.28 16,518,000 
Averages, 1915-19_ 113, 406 360.25 40,868,200 - 0.31 12,531,000 
tons. tons. per ton. 
Hay and c1over.1915 3,082,000 1.32 4,068,000 - 14.06 57,196,000 
1916 3,059,000 2.00 6,118,000 - 11.90 72,804,000 
1917 2,998,000 1.70 5,097,000 - 10.26 52,295,000 
1918 3,470,036 1.32 4,596,900 - 16.50 75,848,000 
1919 3,508,266 1.59 5,589,000 - 20-61 115,161,000 
1920 3,533,740 1.26 4,459,000 - 24.30 108,356,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 3,223,460 1.60 5,093,780 - 14.66 74,660,800 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . .1915 60,000 2.72 163,000 - 13.41 2,1
6,000 
1916 56,000 3.00 168,000 - 9.75 1,638,000 
1917 52,000 2.74 142,500 - 10.08 1,436,000 
1918 144,010 2.28 329,000 - 15.78 5,191,000 
1919 146,790 2.14 314,400 - 20.20 6,351,000 
1920 162,820 2.45 399,580 - 23.49 9,384,400 
Averages, 1915-19. 91,760 2.45 223,300 - 15.05 3,360,400 
Fodder corn. . . .1915 287,000 10.63 3,051,000 - 4.76 14,523,000 
1916 248,000 6.50 1,612,000 - 4.80 7,738,000 
1917 265,000 7.54 1,998,000 - 5.00 9,990,000 
1918 380,946 10.35 3,944,300 - 5.73 22,601,000 
1919 399,549 10.05 4,014,000 - 6.30 25,304,000 
1920 449,176 10.39 4,668,050 - 6.85 31,976,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 316,099 9.30 2,933,860 - 5.46 16,031,200 
Sugar beets.. . . .1915 18,000 7.83 141,000 - 5.50 775,500 
1916 15,000 4.75 71 , ()()() - 6.20 440,000 
1917 14,000 8.40 117,600 - 6.75 793,800 
1918 18,000 10.00 180,000 - 10.25 1,845,000 
1919 24,500 9.80 240,000 - 10,86 2,606,000 
1920 36,288 11.37 412,400 - 12.80 5,278,700 
A" erages. 1915-19. 17,900 8.40 149,920 - 8.62 1,292,060 



..tGRlru LTC.UJ-.; 


203 


1.-- ma, 1.1t'ld, (lualit) aUld Valuc or IÞrlndl)al J"Ït'ld ('rops in ('anada 191.'i-"!O and 
}'I\ ' )0 ('ar .\ H'r.l
e. 191ã-19 -<,on. 


. Wei"ht I-\Ye!"". 
YiPld 
per per price 
1- ield Crops. Area. rotal Yil'ld. nH':l:-õured per Total Yalue. 
acre. bu
he1. bu
ll('l. 
Uanltoba - acres. bu
h . bush. lb. S S 
Fall wheat. .. . .1915 2,705 23,29 ß3,000 61.33 0.90 56,400 
IH16 3,S2U 15.93 61,000 - 1.40 1 
5,400 
1917 3,S60 22.2,jl 85,900 62.33 2.20 um,ooo 
191ð 2,ï34 18.00i 49,0001 - 2.06 101,000 
Averages, 1915-18 2. 626i 19.75 51,780, - 1.67 . 86,360 
Spring wheat. . .1915 24.76 1 69,274,nou
 bl.18 0.90 62,606,500 
2,797,719 1 
1916 2, 721,
!.16 10.ò8 29,606,000 1 51.23 1.23 36,415,400 
1917 2,445,000 16.75 to,9.i3.S00 60.82 2.0.') 83,955,300 
1915 2, 9öO, 9t)," 16.25 4H, 142, 100 60.16, 2.06 HH,l73,OOO 
HU9 2, '
O, 30J 14.25 40,H75.300' 57.22 2.40 98,341,000 
1920 1 2, 705. t):
2 I 13.90 :37.54
.OOO' 59.56 1.83 f>H, 769, 000 
.\vera g es..1915- 19 1 2,765, 177 1 16. 50 1 45, 7!J0, 240 i 58.12 1.66 76,098,240 
All "heat..... .1915 2,SOO,424 24.76 69,337,000 61.1H 0.90 62,662,900 
1!116 2,725.72:> lO'S
1 29,667,000 - 1.23 36,500,SOO 
1917 2. HS, S60: }6.75' 41 ,039, 700 60.b6 2.05 84,144,300 
19Us 2.983,702 16.351 4
,191,100 - 2.06 99,274,000 
A, erages, 1915-18 2.191,74:'1 17.25 37.646,960, - 1.50 56,516,400 
38,52 1 
Oats......... . . .1915 1, 31!, 36?1 50, 7?0, 000, 36.36 0.35 17,912,ðOû 
, , ( 


1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1 
}20 
..\yerages, 191.3-19' 
, 
Barley....... . .19151 
1916 
HH7 1 
191
 
HH9 
1920' 
A. verages, 1915-19: 
R ,-e.. . .. . . . . . . . 1915' 
- 1916 1 
1917 
191h 
UHU I 
Ut!O 
A'\ erages, 1915-19 
Peas........ . . _ .1919 
1920 
)lixed grains.. .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19 
Flaxseed....... .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19 


1,443.599 1 
1,500,000 
1,714,894 
1,847, 267 1 
1,873,954 
1,564, 625i 
567,O
() 
6 
 7,503' 
708,000i 
1, 102, fJG.1 

!ì3,9471 
R39,078 
791,8!J9 1 
11,5071 
30,050 
37,000 
240,469: 
298,932 1 
148, 602 
123,591 
5,6661 
4,162 


659 
1,400 
1,400 
30,309 
30,355 
28,800 
12,825 
14 , 505 
15,684 
16,300 
107,961 
57,379 
146,455 
42,366 


33.55 
30.25 
31.75 
31.2.3. 
30.75 
32.75 
29.38 
19.97 
22.50 
25.25 
19. 25 1 
21.00 
23.00 
1
.()
1 
1
.54 
17. 25 1 
16.2.:') 
13.75 
15. 50 1 
15.25 
14.25 
15.00 
33-38 
32.25 
31.00 
28.25 
25.00 
21.25 
27.00 


8.27 
13.3b 
9.00 
10.00 
9.00 
7.90 
9.75. 


1".439,000, 
45,375,000 , 
54,473,500 
57,698,000 
57,657, 000 1 1 
51, 347, 100 
16,6.58,000, 
I:J,729,000 
1.3.9:JO.000. 
27, H63, 400 
17 .149,400 
17 ,520,00(1 
18,2b5,960 
20
,OOO 
55ï.OOO 
û38, 300 
3,935,700 
4,Ok9,400 
2,318,600 
1,8s5,6
0 


81,400 
62,200 
22,000 
45,000 
43,400 
856,000 
759,000 
612,000 
345,080 
120,000 
210,000 
146, 700 
1,091.000 
520,300 
1,157,800 
417.6001 


33.05 
27.27 
35.21 
33.42 
34.89 
33.06 


0.4t1 
0.67 
0.71 
0.72 
0.56 
0.59 


23, ,35,100 
30,401,300 
38,676,000 
41,420,000 
32,007,000 
30,429,040 


47.70 0.51 8,420.400 
42. 78 1 0.80 1O,9R3.200 
46.27 1.07 17,045,100 
48.54 0.S9 24,8S7.000 
43.90 1.17 20,137,000 
46.311 O.SO 13,9
8,000 
45.84 0.b9 1 16,294,520 

- 
5' 0.80 167,100 
a' a 
56.50 1.06 590,400 
54.03 1.62 1,034,000 
73.66 1.41 5,549,000 
54.89 1.28 5.2R8,000 
54.91 1.35 3,140,100 
59.35 1.33 2,513,700 
60.00 2.0ð liO, 000 
60.00 1.10 68,400 
43.00 0.48 10,600 
42.00 0.45 20,300 
1.25 54,250 
43.50 1-03 882,000 
40.56 1.40 1,063,000 
43.50 1.87 1,144,000 
42.26 1.18 406,030 
55.00 1.61 193,300 
2.13 447,300 
54.50 2.85 418,100 
54.72 3.15 3,437,000 
55.05 4.26 2,215,000 
54.66 2.25 2,587,700 
54.82 3.21 1,342,140 



204 


PRODUCTIO!{ 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops In Canada,1915-20 and 
Five Y ear Average, 1915-19-con. 


Weight Average 
Yield per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
Manitoba-con. acres. bush. bush. lb. S S 
Potatoes....... .1915 29,878 85.85 2,565,000 - 0.64 1,636,100 
1916 31,987 147.22 4,709,000 - 0.61 2,872,500 
1917 34,400 105.90 3,643,000 - 0.76 2,769,000 
1918 45,000 185.00 8,325,000 - 0.56 4,662,000 
1919 42,000 126.00 5,287,500 - 0.81 4,266,000 
1920 37,000 92.25 3,410,000 - 1.36 4,733,300 
Averages, 1915-19 36,653 133.75 4,905,900 - 0.66 3,241,120 
Turnips, man- 
golds.. etc.... .1915 2,658 250.19 665,000 - 0.42 282,500 
1916 3,118 145.00 452,000 - 0.49 221,500 
1917 2,500 185.12 463,000 - 0.63 292,000 
1918 9,910 251.75 2,494,800 - 0.44 1,097,700 
1919 6.045 184.00 1,113,000 - 0.60 663,000 
1920 7,404 145.25 1,076,000 - 0.93 1,005,100 
Averages, 1915-19 4,846 214.00 1,037,560 - 0.49 511,340 
tons. tons. per ton. 
Hay and clover.1915 88,478 1.02 90,000 - 9.43 848,500 
1916 77,642 1.83 142,000 - 7.80 1 , 107, 600 
1917 75,000 1.00 75,000 - 11.11 833,300 
1918 74,000 1.00 74,000 - 16.00 1,184,000 
1919 260,378 1.50 401,400 - 16.99 6,818,000 
1920 208,512 1.50 311,900 - 16.00 4,968,900 
Averages, 1915-19 115, 100 1.35 156,480 - 13.79 2,158,280 
Alfalfa......... .1915 3,671 1-36 5,000 - 12-20 61,000 
1916 4,422 2.75 12,200 - 11.83 144,300 
1917 4,400 2.07 9,100 - 13.45 122,400 
1918 3,600 2.25 8,100 - 18.00 145,800 
1919 5,181 2.20 11 , 400 - 22-40 256,200 
1920 3,679 2.00 7,410 - 22.45 166,400 
Averages, 1915-19 4,255 2.15 9,160 - 15.93 145,940 
Fodder corn. .. .1915 7,591 2.63 20,000 - 6-18 123,600 
1916 9,830 2.75 27,000 - 4.67 126,000 
1917 9,800 '\ 86 47,600 - 7.50 357,000 
1918 12,340 5.50 67,900 - 10.50 713,000 
1919 16,867 6.80 114,500 - 13.28 1,520,000 
1920 17,042 4.40 74,400 - 19.00 1,412,000 
Averages, 1915-19 11 , 286 4.90 , 55,400 10.25 567,920 
- 
Saskatchewan- per 
bush. bush. bush. 
Fall wheat.... .1915 9, 968 26.28 262,000 - 0.92 240,900 
1916 15,258 21- 24 324,000 59-50 1.41 456,800 
1917 10,000 17.00 170,000 60.00 2.07 351,900 
Averages, 1915-17 11,742 21.50 252, 000 - 1.39 349,867 
Spring wheat. . .1915 8,919,292 25.12 224,050,000 60.75 0.91 203,647,100 
1916 9,016,851 16.33 147,235,000 55.18 1.28 188,460,800 
1917 8,263,250 14.25 117,751,300 60.92 1.95 229,615,000 
1918 9,249,260 10.00 92,493,000 60-97 1-99 184,061,000 
1919 10,587,363 8.50 89,994,000 59.00 2.32 208,787,000 
1920 10,061,069 11.25 113,135,300 59.95 1.55 175,360,000 
Averages, 1915-19 9,207,203 14.50 134,304,660 59.36 1.51 202,914,180 
All wheat. .. .. .1915 8, 929", 260 25.12 224,312,000 - 0.91 203,888,000 
1916 9,032,109 16.34 147,559,000 55.27 1-28 188,917,600 
1917 8,273,250 14.25 117,921,300 60.91 1.95 229,966,900 
Averages, 1915-17 8,744,873 18.75 163,264,100 - 1.27 207,590,833 



AGRICULTURF 


205 


1.- \rl'a, } h'hJ, Cluallt) and '-alue of '..-Inrlpal .'ll'ld Crops In Canada, 1915-.'ð and 
}'hl" Y I'ar \ \('raJ;:l', 1915-19 -con. 


Yield W cigh t Ayerag , 
p{'r pric{' 
Ar{'a. JX'r Total Yicld. nIcß.....;urcd IW r Total Valuc. 
acrc. buslwl. bu
lwl. 
acr{'s. hush. Lush. lh. S S 
3,336,
4.
 43.4R 14.'),Oßß,OOO 37.4h l 0.32 46,125,700 
3,791, <\07 43.06 16
,
78,OOO 35.76 0.46 7."),107,900 
4,.')21,600 27.
S 1

, 213, ftOO 34.58 0.62 7ß,
92,400 
4,!ìsS.499 21.50 107, 2.i3. 000 34.38 0.70 75,077,000 
I 4,S37.747 23. 10\ 112, 157,000 35.4S 0.70 7S, 510, 000 
5, IOfì, S22 27.701 141, M9. 000 3.1.00 0.41 58,03.1,000 
4,29.'),180 30.25 130, 19:J,400 1 35.54 0.54 70.242,600 
I 
299,f}{)3 31.74 9,523,00UI 47.54 0.4ti 4,391,300 
3ü7,20i" 27.00 9,916,000 4ß.0
 0.77 7,ß
S,
0 
üü9,900 21.00 14,Ofì7,900 4ß.84 1.00 14.0G7,9()() 
I ü99,29l1 17.00 11,""iS,OOO 4fì .10 0.S8 10,4fìl. 
I 492,5
ü U,-20 H,971,000 46.8ï 1.0:-, 9.liS9, 
519,014 20.2.
 10,501,500 46.7.') 0.66 6, 9
1, 00 
505,796 21.50 10.873,180 46.67 0.85 9,248,9 
7.20i 2)0\.17 203,000. 5.').17 0-64 130,.3 
22,759 24-0
 548,0001 5.').91 1. 10 1 602,8 
53, 2.iO 1
.75 99
,4oo 43.00 1 . ()'1 1.627,40 
123, .
OO 11..')0 1,420,0001 5.").19 I-50' 2,130, 
190,482 10..10 2,000.000 55..")2 1.31 2,620.00 
172.449, 14-70. 2,.135,000 1 56.14 1.26 3,194,00 
79,440 13.00 1.033,bbO 52.96 1.37 1,422,14 
5')- 1.")'4
1 8,100 61.00 1.72 13,9 
_J 
1,600 32-.10 1 52,000 (jO. 00 2.25 117.00 
2. no.') 17.25 44,goo 60-00 4-00 179, (iO 
I 4.251 20.00 X5,000 Co.oo 1.50 128,0 
4.
.13 18.00 87,300 60-00 4-00 349,0 
2,.119 14..10 36,500 - 2.00 73,00 
I 2,767 20.00 5.5,460 fiO'20 2.83 157,50 
b61 18.00 1.5,000 - 6-4.5 97,00 
1. 820 10.00 18,200 60.00 4-00 72,8 
793 17.00 13,500 - 4.00 54.00 
1.341 12-2:> 16,600 - 5.11 84,90 
2,372 25.30 60,000 48.33 0.69 41,60 
14.1.')0 35.00 495,300 40.00 0-46 227.8 
39, 500 32-00 1, 2fJ4, 000 fjO. 00 1.2.5 1,580,0 
23,449 21.00 492,000, 4.").00 1.10 541,00 
22,017 35.00 771,000, - 1.40 1,079,00 
18,361 33..50 61.1,000 - 1.2.1 769,0 
20,29
 30.2.5 616,4{j01 45.83 1.13 693,88 
- . .. 


o 
000 
000 
o 
00 
00 
00 
o 
000 
o 
o 
o 
00 
o 
o 
00 
00 
o 
o 
o 
00 
o 
o 
o 
00 
00 
o 
o 
00 
o 
1.51 7,928,400 
2.23 14,923,200 
2.60 12,247,600 
3 - 10 13, 036. 000 
4.14 18,589,000 
1.82 10, 383, 000 
2.63 13,344,840 
2,626,900 
4. .137,800 
7,6.59,000 
6,672,900 
10,013,000 
8,576,000 
6,301,920 


Field Crops. 



askat('hl'\\ 
'n-con. 
Oat;:: ...........1915 
1916 
1917 
1915 
UH9 
1920 
A, erages, 1915-19 
Barley. _ .. . _191.) 
1910 
1917 
1918 
HHY 
1920 
6\vcragcs, 1915-19 
Rye. . .. .. . . . . . .191.3 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 

\vcr3gc
, 1915-19 
Peas......... . . .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
A, cra
('s, 19}').-19 
B{'ans.. _ . . . . . . .1918 
1919 
1920 
Averagcs, 1918-19 


Mixed grains.. .1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
19
0 
Averages, 1915-19 
Flaxseed....... .1915 
1916 
1917 1 
1918 
1919 
1920 
Averages, 1915-19 


395, 2<>41 
542,034 
75.3.700 
840,9.17 
929,94:> 
1,140,921 
692,378 


13.30 
12.35 
6.2.:; 
5.00 
4.80 
5.00 
7.25 


5,25.J,000 
6,692,000 
4,710,000 
4,
05,000 
4,490,000 
5,705,000 
5,070,520 


5<>.8tf 
55.29 1 
55.55' 
54.43 
53,82 
53.95 
55.00 


Potatoes....... .1915 34,885 110.28 3 . 
47 . ()()() I 0.68 
1916 46,989 155.76 7,319,000 0.62 
1917 67,700 133.00 9,010,000 0.S5 
1918 59,783 116.25 6,950,900, . 0.96 
1919 66,176 170.00 11,250,000 1 0.89 
1920 53,814 127.50 6,861,0001 1.25 
Averages, 1915-19 55, 109 139.2.5 7,675,
80 0.82 



206 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Qualit}T and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Year A "erage, 1915-19--con. 


Yield Weight A VPfage 
per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
acres. bush. bush. lb. $ S 
Saskatchewan-con. 
Turnips, man- 
golds, etc.... .1915 1,245 232.93 290,000 - 0.31 91,200 
1916 1,621 252.93 410,000 - 0.57 233,700 
1917 11, 104 155.55 1,727,000 - 0.91 1,572,000 
1918 9,760 225.75 2,203,300 - 0.91 2,005,000 
1919 13,932 257.75 3,591,000 - 1.12 4,022,000 
1920 10,449 301.00 3,145,000 - 0.94 2,956,000 
Averages, 1915-19. 7,532 218.25 1,644,260 - 0.96 1,584,740 
tons. tons. per ton. 
Hay and clover.1915 25,113 1.39 35,000 - 8.39 293,500 
1916 25,154 2.35 59,000 - 5.85 345,200 
1917 260,275 1.42 369,600 - 10.12 3,740,000 
1918 315,117 1.15 362,400 - 11.92 4,319,800 
1919 265,417 1.05 279,000 - 17.00 4,743,000 
1920 234,532 1.40 328,300 - 10.00 3,283,000 
Averages, 1915-19 178,215 1.25 221,000 - 12.16 2,688,300 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . .1915 2,620 1.83 4,800 - 9.48 45,500 
1916 3,086 2.85 8,800 - 10.25 90,200 
1917 9,500 1.61 15,300 - 13.40 205,000 
1918 6,943 1.40 9,700 - 17.50 169,800 
1919 11 , 526 1.60 18,400 - 27.50 506,000 
1920 10, 473 2.25 23,600 - 20.00 472,000 
A yerages, 1915-19 6,735 1.69 11 , 400 - 17.83 203,300 
Fodder corn. . . .1915 1,877 2.40 4,500 - 6.49 29,200 
1916 2,253 2.60 5,900 - 6.00 35,400 
1917 15,658 2.00 31,300 - 8.00 250,400 
1918 11, 186 5.65 '63,200 - 10.50 663,600 
1919 6,690 12.50 84,000 - 12.50 1,050,000 
, 1920 16,685 3.75 62,600 - 18.00 1,127,000 
Averages, 1915-19 75,33 5.02 37,780 - 10.74 405,720 
per 
Alberta- bush. bush. bush. 
Fall wheat. . . . .1915 39,908 31.30 1,249,000 61.32 0.84 1" 0.j1, 900 
1916 18,177 30.20 549,000 61.19 1.39 763, 100 
1917 51,700 20.50 1,059,900 60.53 1.98 2,098,600 
1918 44,065 15.00 661,000 60.00 1.92 1,269,000 
1919 40,600 15.75 640, 000 60.80 2.43 1,555,000 
1920 38,000 18.75 713,000 61.00 1.52 1,084,000 
Averages, 1915-19 38,890 21.50 831,780 60.77 1.62 1,347,520 
Spring wheat.. .1915 2,098,123 31.12 65,289,000 61.57 0.88 57, 2"J, iUU 
1916 2,586,798 24.95 64,539,000 58.00 1.33 85,836,900 
1917 2,845,600 18.25 51,932,200 60.86 1.73 89,842,700 
1918 3,848,424 6.00 23,091,000 59.94 1.92 44,335,000 
1919 4,241,903 8.00 33,935,000 60.07 2.31 78,390,000 
1920 4,036,483 20.50 82,748,000 61.32 1.52 125,777,000 
Averages, 1915-19 3,124.170 15.25 47,757,240 60.09 1.49 71,135,660 
All wheat. . .. . .1915 2,138,031 31.12 66,538,000 61.52 0.88 58,325,600 
1916 2,604,975 24.99 65,088,000 58.45 1.33 86,600,000 
1917 2,897,300 18.25 52,992,100 60.81 1.74 91,941,300 
1918 3,892,489 6.00 23,752,000 59.97 1.92 45,604,000 
1919 4,282,503 8.00 34,575,000 60.11 2.31 79,945,000 
1920 4,074,483 20.50 83,461,000 61.30 1.52 126,861,000 
Averages, 1915-19 3,163,060 15.25 48,589,020 60.17 1.49 72,483,180 



AGRICULTURE 



07 


.- \rt'a. 11t'1d, 'luaU t) .uul '.aln(' of Prlnt'Ï))al FIt')d l'rOI)s In l'.ulada, 191.)-"0 and 
flu- Yl'ar \\l'ra (', J91.)-19 - con. 


Yield Wpight A. \'erage 
I per ppr price 
Fiehl Crops. Area. Total Yield. mea:sureù per Total' aluc . 
acre. bushel. Lu
hel. 
acres. Lush. bush. lb. I I 
\lht'rta -con. 
Oat::,........... .1915 l,b27,Oil 45.91 
3,k76,OOO 39.76 0.31 25,532,900 
1916 2,124,OSI 48.11 102,199,000 37.36 0.46 47,011,500 
1917 2,537,900 34.00 86,2
S,600 37.09 0.63 54,361,ROO 
1918 2,651,548 22.75 tiO, 323, 000 1 35.94 0. 73 1 44,036,000 
1919 <) --6- 3-') 23.7.5 fì.:;, 725, 000 36.60 0.64 42,064,000 
_,I I,. I..., 
1920 3,OS9,700 :
7 . 25 11.5,091,000 38.09 0.36 41,433,000 
.\vcmg
s. 1915-191 2, 381 , 594 3:J . 50 i9,(j
2,320 37.35 0.53 42,601,240 
Harley . . . . . . .1915 ( I 32.31 9,822,000 49.57 0.44 4,340,400 
304,00.1 
HH6 336,5
6 29.04. 9,774,0001 46.1b 0.71 6,939,500 
1917 472,100 22.00 1O,aS6,200 45.16 0.9S 10,178,500 
HH
 470,073 16.50' 7,7.')6,000 44.17 0.97 7,523,000 
191!1 414,212 25. :;0 10,362,000 47.00 1.09 11,512,600 
lfl20 iSO, (j!1[I 26..30 12,7:m,000 48.12 0.62 7,8!
8,000 
. \ \'pragp:.;, 1 t115-19 3tm, 396 24.25 9,660,040 46.42 1.84 8,09b,800 
TIp.'....... .. .1915 15,963 23.47 J74,726 56.63 0.62 232,400 
1916 17,975 24.49 440,OUO\ 53.71 0.95 418,000 
1!H7 30,8S0 20.50 633,000 55.25 1.50 
149, 500 
HIl8 47,877 17.25 b26,000. S4.90 1.41 1, 16.:;,000 
1919 R:3, R04 14.00 1,173,000 1 55.14 1.42 1,6G6,000 
lU20 16U, 96U 21.25 3,42U, 000 56.85 1.25 4,275,000 
.\veragcs, 1915-19 39,300 17.5U GS9, 345 55.13 1.29 S86,140 
Pea
. ... ... .. . . .1915 160 20.00 3,200 62.00 2.011 6,700 
1916 650 20.00 13,000 57.50 2.25 29,300 
1917 1,851 17.50 32,400, 60.00 2.00 64,800 
1918 1,994 18.()() 36,000 60.00 1.50 54,000 
1919 1,603 18.00 29,000 60.00 3.00 87,000 
1920 2,899 17.00 49,000 60.00 2.00 98,000 
Averages, 1915-19 1,252 18.25 22,720 50.90 2.13 48,360 
Beans.. . . . . .. . .1918 763 10.00 14,000 60.00 6.45 90,000 
1919 690 10.00 6,900 60.00 4.00 2
, 000 
1920 2,305 17.00 39,000 60.00 4.00 156,000 
Averages, 1918-19 726 14.50 10,450 60.00 5.64 59,000 

Ihed grains... .1915 2,370 37.13 88,000 47.20 0.52 45,700 
1916 4,550 30.00 136,500, 36.00 0.35 47,800 
1917 24,027 25.75 618,700 51.50 1.20 742,400 
1918 27,9'9 21.50 602,000 40.00 1.15 692,000 
1919 26,000 36.25 943,000 57.00 0.83 783,000 
1920 8,398 30.00, 252,000 43.00 1.00 252,000 
A.verages, 1915-19 16,987 28.00 477,640 46.32 0.97 462, 180 
Fla'\.seed....... .1915 48,000 13.96 670,000 56.37 1.44 966,700 
1916 95,063 13.79 1,310,500 55.91 1.06 1,3
9,100 
1917 139,800 7.00 97R,600 54.00 2.78 2,720,500 
1918 95,920 5-00 480,000 55.25 3.12 1,498,000 
1919 .1\0,690 2.75 222,000 55.75. 4.15 921,000 
1920 103,700 7.00 7:.6,000 55.40 1.83 1,329,000 
_-\xerages, 1915-19 91,895 8.00 732,220 55.46 2.03 1,499,060 
Potatoe
. . . . . . . .1915 28.314 142.12 4,024,000 - 0.44 1,779,800 
1916 29,216 163.71 4,7b3,000 - 0.53 2,535,000 
1917 48,917 151 .46 7,409,000 - 0.76 5,631,000 
1918 44,247 70' 50 1 3,119,400 - 1.11 3,462,500 
1919 45,848 179.75 8,241,200 - 0.83 6,840,200 
1920 43,00tl 166.00 7,138,000 - 1.00 7,138,000 
_-\ verages, 1915-19 39,308 140.25, 5,513,320 - 0.79 4,049,700 


, 



208 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Year Average, 1915-19-con. 


Field Crops. Area. 
Alberta-con. acres. 
Turnips, man- 
gold, etc..... .1915 1,688 
1916 1,700 
1917 10,947 
1918 12,506 
1919 12,500 
1920 12,300 
Averages, 1915-19 7,688 
Hay and c1over.1915 187,404 
1916 173,461 
1917 493,522 
1918 469,000 
1919 433,296 
1920 383,527 
Averages, 1915-19 351,336 
Alfalfa........ . .1915 17,207 
1916 20,612 
1917 31,396 
1918 24,285 
1919 21,553 
1920 19,906 
Averages, 1915-19 23,011 
Fodder corn.. .1915 701 
1916 685 
1917 3,976 
1918 700 
1919 900 
1920 7,644 
Averages, 1915-19 1,390 
British Columbia- 
Fall wheat... . .1915 6,000 
1916 6,200 
1917 3,240 
1918 7,200 
1919 12,699 
1920 13,762 
Averages, 1915-19 7,068 
Spring wheat.. .1915 10,000 
1916 9,800 
1917 18,100 
1918 29,000 
1919 31,202 
1920 32,453 
Averages, 1915-19 19,620 
All wheat.. . . . .1915 16,000 
1916 16,000 
1917 21,340 
1918 36,200 
1919 43, 901 
1920 46,21.5 
Averages, 1915-19 26,688 


Weight Average 
Yield per price 
per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
bush. bush. lb. $ $ 
235.19 397,000 - 0.29 116,000 
279.41 475,000 - 0.61 289,800 
207.56 2,272,000 - 0.74 1,681,000 
188.50 2,357,400 - 0.66 1,555,900 
221.50 2,768,800 - 1.06 2,934,900 
261.75 3,219,500 - 1.00 3,219,500 
210.25 1,654,040 - 0.80 1,315,520 
tons. tons. per ton. 
1.31 246,000 - 7.60 1,870,600 
1.93 334,000 - 8.62 2,879,100 
1.48 730,400 - 10.92 7,976,000 
0.85 398,700 - 15.82 6,307,400 
1.10 476,600 - 20.89 9,956,200 
1.30 498,600 - 20.00 9,972,000 
1.25 437,140 - 13.25 5,797,860 
2.15 37,000 - 7.64 282,700 
2.65 54,600 - 10.70 584,200 
2.05 64,400 - 10.73 691,000 
2.00 48,000 - 21.50 1,044,900 
2.00 43,000 - 29.16 1,254,000 
2.25 44,800 - 24.00 1,075,000 
2.15 49,520 - 15.58 771 , 360 
3.42 2,400 - 6.13 14,700 
2.56 1,700 - 9.00 15,300 
1.00 4,000 - 7.00 28,000 
5.50 3,800 - 10.50 40,000 
5.58 5,000 - 10.50 52,500 
4.25 32,500 - 18.00 585,000 
2.45 3,380 - 8.90 30,100 
per 
bush. bush. bush. 
33.44 200,600 60.46 0.91 182,500 
30.75 191,000 61.00 1.53 292,000 
31.75 102,850 60.67 1.92 197,500 
24.75 178,000 59.67 2.15 383,000 
24.75 314,000 59.50 2.88 904,000 
19.25 264,200 60.00 2.18 576,000 
28.00 197,290 60.26 1.99 391,800 
32.43 324,400 58.40 0.96 311,400 
31.00 304,000 59.55 1.54 468,000 
28.50 515,850 59.55 2.00 1,031,700 
22.00 638,000 60.25 2.08 1,327,000 
22.00 686,000 58.50 2.79 1,914,000 
18.75 610,100 60.00 2.21 1,348,300 
25.25 493,650 59.25 2.05 1,010,420 
32.80 525,000 59.32 0.94 493,900 
30.94 495,000 60.16 ] .54 760,000 
29.00 618,700 59.94 1.99 1,229,200 
22.50 816,000 59.96 2.09 1, 710, 000 
22.75 1,000,000 59.00 2.82 2,818,000 
19.00 874,300 60.00 2.20 1,924,300 
26.00 690,940 59.68 2.03 1,402,220 



AGRICULTURF 


209 


1. - \rt'<I, '\ It,ld elualit)" auu) Yalut, of PrhU'iJt:tI Fit'ld CrOlts ill ('allada, 1915-.
O and 
I'iu' '"t'ar \H'rål"l', 191.')-19 -con. 


Yield 
ridd Crops. .Âr('a. Pf'r Total Yidd. 
i acrc. 
ßrihsh (ohlin Itl:1 - acres. bu
h. bu
h. 
con. 
Oats......... . . .1915 71,000 (j 1 . H4 4,390,GOO 
1916 CO,ooo 60-,")0 3,6
O,OOO 
HH7 60,
00 ;;3.75 3, 2
,), 800 
1918 39,000 39.75 1, .3,;0, 000 
1919 45,021 47.25 2,127,000 
19:?0 47, 'lfl2 34.75 1 , 6.ì3 , 000 
Ayerages, 191,)-19 55,044 54.25 2, (1....6, fiöO 
Barley _ . . ... .191.1 2,G30 40.36 106,900 
191H 2,700 .j-7.') 124,000 
1917 5,500 2H.2,) IGO, {/OO 
HHS 7,9:?7 :!G.50 20H,OOO 
1919 10,497 33-00 346,000 
1920 9,646 37.75 31)4, 100 
.\ YE'ragl'S, 1915-19 5,855 32-25 189,360 
Rye...... .. . _ . .1918 820 
O.OO 2.3,000 
1919 4,911 22.50 110,000 
1920 5,367 25.75 1:>8,200 
.h'eragcs, 1918-19 2,865 23.50 67,500 
Pea:;......... . . .1913 1,300 29.75 ò8,700 
1916 1,300 33.75 44,000 
1917 1,338 23.75 31,SOO 
1915 2,193 21.50 47,000 
1919 2.251 23.00 52,000 
1920 2,6';7 26.00 fifl,l00 
.h erages, 1915-19 1,676 23.50 42,700 
Bpans. . . . . . . . .1918 2,74R 18.50 51,000 
191u 1,677 17 "., 29,000 
. -;}\ 
1920 1,615 20.00 32,300 
..\.Yerages, 1918-19 2,213 18.00 40.000 
)[ Ì'i:ed grains. .UH;) 2,600 40.UO 104,000 
1916 2,600 50.00 130,000 
1917 1,850 40.00 74,000 
1918 3,228 21.50 ü9.000 
1919 4,017 36.50 147,000 
19:?0 4,893 36.00 176,100 
.-\verag('s, 1915-19 2,859 36.75 104,800 
Potatoes.. .. . .. .1915 16,000 247.28 3,956,000 
1916 15,300 1b{l.00 2,892,000 
1917 15,024 lfili . 5.5 2,502,000 
1918 15,013 22
'00 3,423,000 
1919 18,000 170.00 3,OliO,000 
1920 17 , 780 W5.00 2,933,700 
.,h erages, 1915-19 15,867 199.50 3,166,600 
Turnips, man- 
golds, etc.. " " . 1915 3,800 455.61 I, 731, 000 
1916 3,700 500.00 1,850,000 
1917 4,500 344.58 1,582,000 
1918, 5,758 422.00 2,429,900 
1919 7,3
7 36.
 . 00 2,696,000 
1920 7,403 4:
5 . 00 3,220,000 
Averages, 1915-191 5,047 407.7;) 2,057,780 


Weip:h t . \ verage 
p('r pric(' 
m('a
ur('d ppr Total Yalue. 
bu:-:hel. bu::-hel. 
lb. S S 
3.; . 2S 0.49 2,151,400 
37 -13 0.64 2,323,000 
I 3.')..')0 0.90 2,912,200 
34.17 1.00 1,:>;)0,000 
3li . 00 1.07 2,276,000 
36. 00 0.9H 1,596,300 
33.82 0.73 2,242,520 
49.89 0.G4 68,400 
47.60 0.83 103,000 
48.67 1.28 :W6,000 
32.50 1.47 307,000 
47.75 1.82 630,000 
50.00 1.50 546,200 
49.28 1.39 262,8.')0 
GO.OO 2.07 52,000 
54.75 2.08 229,000 
55.00 2.02 279,200 
57.38 2.08 140,300 
tiO.OO 1.24 48,000 
61.20 1.67 73,000 
.')9.8.'3 2.46 78,200 
(30.00 3.00 141,000 
.')9.00 2.60 137.000 
.if). 00 3.05 211,000 
(30.01 2.24 9.j,440 
- 4.20 214,000 
GO.OO 3.75 109,000 
60.00 4.50 14.),400 
- 4.04 Wl,300 
- 0.50 5
,000 
52.00 1.2.
 163,000 
- 0.70 51,bOO 
- 1.10 7(j,000 
50.00 1.37 201,000 
41.00 1.25 2:?0, 000 
- 1.04 108,7GO 
- 0.43 1, 7f.:0, 000 
- 0.70 2,024,000 
- 0.69 1,726,400 
- 0.97 3,320,300 
- 1.00 3,060,000 
- 1.28 3,755,000 
- 0.75 2,382,140 
- 0.39 675,000 
- 0.50 925,000 
- 0-64 1,012,000 
- 0.60 1,457,900 
\ - 0.75 2,022,000 
- 0.81 2, (j08, 000 
I - 0.59 1,218,380 


18427-14 



210 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Yalue of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1915-20 and 
Five Year Average. 1915-19-concluded. 


'Y eigh t Average 
Yield per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. ton. 
British Columbia- 
concluded. acres. tons. tons. lb. $ $ 
Hay and clover .1915 167,000 2.34 391,000 - 14.57 5,697,000 
1916 175,000 2.67 467,000 - 17.75 8,289,000 
1917 129,254 1.85 239,000 - 17.60 4,206,400 
1918 114,414 1.90 217,400 - 33.25 7,228,600 
1919 126,251 1.50 189,000 - 35.25 6,662,000 
1920 127,017 2.00 254,000 - 35.00 8,890,000 
Averages, 1915-19 142,384 2.10 300,680 - 21.35 6,416,600 
Grain hay. _... .1919 60,390 2.50 151,000 - 29.00 4,379,000 
1920 60,612 2.25 130,400 - 33.12 4,518,000 
Alfalfa. . . _ .. . . . .1915 12,100 3,52 43,000 - 14.84 638,000 
1916 12,600 2.88 36,000 - 15.00 540,000 
1917 8,681 2.58 22,400 - 22.92 513,400 
1918 12,268 3.25 39,900 - 32.25 1,286,800 
1919 13,331 3.00 40,000 - 37.00 1,480,000 
1920 13,478 3.00 40,400 - 33.71 1,361,900 
Ayerages, 1915-19 11, 796 3.07 36,260 - 24.60 891,640 
Fodder corn... .1915 430 12.62 5,400 - 4.00 22,000 
1916 450 10.00 4,500 - 7-00 32,000 
1917 2,239 7.00 15,700 - 15.00 235,500 
1918 2,016 10.10 20,400 - 10-00 204,000 
1919 4,368 11.50 50,000 - 12.00 600,000 
1920 4, 713 11.50 54,200 - 17.75 962,000 
Averages, 1915-19 1,811 10.60 19,200 - 11.40 218,700 


NOTE.-PriC6 of potatoes are as returned October 31. 
2.-Annual Average Yields ppr acrp of Field Crops for Canada and by Provinces from 
1915 to 1920, with Decennial Averages for the years 1910-19. 
A ver- 
Field Crops. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. ages 
1910-19. 
bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. 
Canada- 
Fall wheat................. 28.50 21.50 21.50 19.00 23.75 24.00 22.50 
Spring wheat.... .. . . . _ . . . . . 25.75 16.75 15.50 10.75 9.50 14.00 16.50 
All wheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.00 17.00 15.75 11.00 10.00 14.50 16.75 
Oats. . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.25 37.25 30.25 28.75 26.25 33.50 33.25 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.50 23.75 23-00 24.50 21.25 24.75 25.75 
Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.50 19.50 18.25 15.25 13.50 17.50 16.00 
Peas. . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.75 14.50 15.25 13.25 14.75 19.00 15.75 
Beans. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.75 12.75 13.75 15.50 16.50 17.50 16.25 
Buckwheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.00 17.50 18.00 20.75 23.50 23.75 23.00 
Mixed grain..... . . _ . . . . .. . . 37.50 25.75 32.50 38.75 31.00 40.00 33.25 
Flax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . 13.25 12.50 6.50 5.75 5.00 5.60 9.40 
Corn for husking. . . . . . . . . . . 56.75 36.25 33.00 56.75 64.00 49.25 53.75 
Potatoes................... 124.25 133.75 121.50 142.00 153.50 170.50 146.00 
Turnips, etc..... . . . . . . . . . . . 384.00 264.25 290.75 377.50 354.00 401.00 352.25 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.36 1.86 1.66 1.40 1.55 1.30 1.50 
Fodder corn. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 10.17 6.65 7.34 9.50 9.75 9.60 8.85 
Sugar beetß. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.83 4.75 8.40 10.00 9.80 11.37 9.10 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.65 2.91 2.39 2.25 2.20 2.45 2.40 




lGHICL'LT(JRE 


2.- \nnllal .\H'ra
l' Yil'lds I)l'r :U'rl' of Fil'hl (-ro))s for <-'anada and by IÞrmhlcl's from 
1915 to 19'JO, \\lth Ul'('l'nnial.\H'rafTl's for the ) cars 1910-19- -con. 


I A ver- 
Fil'lù Crops. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. ages 
1910-19. 
bush. bush. bush. bush. Lush. bush. bush. 
)Jrhu'(' I,d \\ ard Isl:lIu)- 

pring wheat. . . .. . . .. . . . . . 19.00 J6,75 14 5') 20_00 17.00 12.00 18 7 
Oats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.75 37.25 32.25 34.50 34.00 27.75 34.75 
Barle). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.00 29.25 2,\\ .50 28.50 29.00 24.50 2H'0 
Peas.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.7,'} 22.25 14.00 16.00 16.00 16.50 18.5 
Buckwhpat. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.00 27.25 29.00 21.75 :!0.75 23.50 26.0 
Mixed grain.... . ........ . 
8.75 41.25 ;)'\\.25 44.50 44.00 33.75 41.7 
Potato('
. ... . . . . . . . . . . . 114.'75 2('6.00 175.00 170.00 125.00 170.00 171.75 
Turnip
, etc..... . . ...... . 14(1.50 177.00 505.50 520.50 518.00 481.75 483.5 
tons tons tons ton" ton::, tons tons 
Hay and clover... . .. . . . . . . 1.77 1.70 1.5,") 1.50 1.
0 1.25 1.5 
Fodder corn.......... . . . . 13.00 13.00 7.00 5.25 12.00 8.00 9.5 
:\0\., :--('ofia
 bush. hush. Lush. hu
h. hush. bush. bush. 
:-:pring wheat. . . . . . . . . . 1
.50 19.50 15.75 22.25 10.50 19.50 20.0 
Oats. . .. . . . . . . . . . 31.25 34.7:5 29.25 37.25 36.00 30.25 32.5 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.25 26.25 24.75 30.00 31.25 26.00 28.25 
Rye....... . . . 15.00 17.00 15.00 14.50 20.50 15.00 20.25 
Peas. . . . . 18.75 17.75 14.25 18.75 20.00 20.50 20.25 
Beans. . .. . . . . 17.50 16.25 17.75 16.25 12.75 lR.50 16.5 
Buckwheat. . ..... . 21.75 24.50 21.00 23.00 25.2.1 22.25 23.75 
)1 ixed J.'!;rains. . . .. . 34.25 34.00 24.00 36.00 37.50 32.50 32.0 
Potatoes. . . . . ......... . 141.25 201.00 175.00 100.75 161 .00 203.75 lR3.0 
Turnips, etc. . _... ..... . 390.00 404.00 351 .00 391 . 25 537.75 431.75 426.5 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover........ .. .. 1.7S 1.
0 1.65 1.45 2.10 1.50 1.7 
Fodùer corn.......... . . . . . . 4.64 8.75 9.20 9.50 9.50 8.00 8.8 
Alfalfa.... . ... . 2.30 5.00 3.50 - - - 3.19 
,('\\ Bruns \\ leL. - bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. 
Spring wheat....... . . . . 19.00 17.2.1 12.00 19.00 17.50 15.75 18.0 
Oats. . . . . . . . ... . 27.75 30. ,")0 22.50 31.50 30.25 29.50 29.25 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . 23.00 23.75 22.00 24.75 2ü.75 23.75 25.75 
Peas. . . . . . .......... . , . 17.00 16.,:}o t.
.00 14.75 14.7:5 15.00 16.00 
Beans. . . . . . . 21.25 15.
.1 10. ,1)0 15.50 16.50 16.2.3 16.5 
Bud..wheat............... . 22.75 22.75 19.50 20.75 25.00 22.75 23.75 
)Iixed grain. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 31.50 34.25 19.50 32.50 33.75 29.75 31.50 
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144.25 192.00 149.75 15ö.50 142.75 lU8.00 176.25 
Turnips, etc... . . . . . . . . . . . . 32n.00 411 .00 300.50 350.00 366.50 353.00 346.00 
tons ton
 tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.39 1.4R 1.60 1.50 1.40 1.20 1.40 
Fodder corn......... . . . . . . . 7.00 10.00 9.00 4.50 5.00 8.00 5.20 
Ql
C 
('('- 20.00 15.00 14.00 17.25 16.75 17.00 16.50 
::"prmg wheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Oats.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.25 22.75 21.75 27.25 26.75 30.25 26.75 
Barl('
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-50 20.00 18.50 24.00 22.75 25.25 23.00 
R
.e. . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.75 14-25 16.75 16.25 17.25 18.75 15.50 
Peas......... ....... ....... 16.50 14.00 12.00 15.50 15.00 17.00 15.00 
Beans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.00 17.75 15.00 17.00 19.75 18.00 17.25 
Buckwheat. ............... 24.75 19.00 16.50 20.75 24.00 25.75 25.75 

I Ï\,eù grain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.75 20.25 21.25 27.00 27.00 29.25 26.00 
Flax...................... . 12.00 10.50 R.25 11.25 9.75 11.50 10.50 
Corn for husking... . . . . . . . . 31.25 24.'75 24.25 21.75 41.00 29.75 28.50 
Potatoes.................. . 149.75 131.00 80.00 147.00 181.50 185.50 144.75 
Turnips, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308.25 265.00 224.50 295.50 317.50 329.25 288.25 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover............1 1.26 1.75 1.71 1.50 1.50 1.25 1.50 
Fodder corn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.61 8.00 8.50 7.25 8.25 8.00 5.95 

.lfalfa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.84 2.65 2.26 2.25 2.35 2.40 2.40 


lAverage of eight years, 1910-17. 
18427-14! 


211 


5 
o 
o 
o 
5 
o 
5 
5 


o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
1 


o 


o 



212 


PRODUCTION 


2.-AnnuaI Average Yields per acre of Field Crops for Canada and by Provinces from 
1915 to 1920, with Decennial Averages for the ).ears 1910-19-con. 


A ver- 
Crops. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. ages 
1910-19. 
Ontari
 bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. 
Fall wheat................. 28.25 21.25 21.50 19.50 24.30 24.30 22.75 
Spring wheat. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 22.25 16.25 19.50 23.25 15.60 16.80 19.00 
All wheat.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.75 20.75 21.25 21.25 21.20 22.30 22.25 
Oats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.75 25.50 36.50 45.00 29.30 44.90 34.75 
Ba1;:ley. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.25 23.00 31.00 36.75 23.10 34.40 29.50 
Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.00 17.50 17.75 16.00 15.80 17.70 17.00 
Peas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.75 14.25 16.75 21.00 14.30 20.20 16.75 
Beans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.00 11.75 11.75 13.75 12.60 16.70 15.50 
Buckwheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.75 14.50 18.75 20.50 22.80 22.30 21.00 
Mixed grain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.00 26.00 37.75 44.25 31.40 44.20 35.50 
Flax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.50 9.25 13.00 12.25 9.40 10.70 13.25 
Corn for husking. . . . . . . . . . . 58.50 37.25 37.25 66.75 68.60 53.00 57.00 
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.75 61.00 138.75 116.50 96.30 152.10 114.75 
Turnips, etc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.50 211.00 341.00 460.25 348.00 493.00 368.00 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.32 2.00 1.70 1.32 1.59 1.26 1.45 
Fodder corn......... . . . . . . . 10.63 6.50 7.54 10.35 10.05 10.39 9.55 
Sugar beets... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.83 4.75 8.40 10.00 9.80 11.37 9.10 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.72 3.00 2.74 2.28 2.14 2.45 2.40 
lUanitoba- bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. 
Fall wheat....... .... .. . .. . . 23.25 16.00 22.25 18.00 - - 21. OW 
Spring wheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.75 11.00 16.75 16.25 14.25 13.90 17.25 
All wheat. . . . .. . . . . . . . . 24.75 11.00 16.75 16.25 14.25 13.90 17.50 1 
Oats...................... . 38.50 33.50 30.25 31.75 31.25 30.75 34.25 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.50 20.00 22.50 25.25 19.25 21.00 24.50 
Rye........ ..... .......... 18.00 18.50 17.25 16.25 13.75 15.50 15.50 
Mixed grain. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 33.50 32.25 31.00 28.25 25.00 21.25 27.25 
Flax...................... . 8.25 13.75 9.00 10.00 9.00 7.90 10.75 
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85.75 147.25 106.00 185.00 126.00 92.25 150.00 
Turnips, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250.25 145.00 185.00 251.75 184.00 145.25 249.25 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover.. . . . . . . . . . . 1.02 1.83 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.40 
Fodder corn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.63 2.75 4.86 5.50 6.80 4.40 5.75 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.36 2.75 2.07 2.25 2.20 2.00 2.25 
Saskatchewan- bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. bush. 
Spring wheat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.00 16.25 14.25 10.00 8.50 11.25 16.00 
Oats.................. ..... 43.50 43.00 27.25 21.50 23.10 27.70 33.25 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.75 27.00 21.00 17.00 18.20 20.25 23.75 
Rye....................... 28.25 24.00 18.75 11.50 10.50 14.70 13.25 
Peas........ ........ ....... 15.50 32.50 17.25 20.00 18.00 14.50 20.00 
Mixed grains............... 25.25 35.00 32.00 21.00 35.00 33.50 30.25 
Flax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.25 12.25 6.25 5.00 4.80 5.00 9.30 
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.25 155.75 133.00 170.00 170.00 127.50 148.25 
Turnips, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.00 253.00 155.50 2?5.75 257.75 301.00 249.25 
tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover.. . . . . . . . . . . 1.39 2.35 1.42 1.1.5 1. OS 1.40 1.35 
Foddpr corn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.40 2.60 2.00 5.6.5 12.50 3.7.5 4.95 
Alfalfa.. . . .. . " " a a _... _. 1.83 2.85 1.f)1 1.40 1.60 2.2.5 1.80 
Alherta- bu
h. bu
h. bush. bu:-:h. bU"ìh. bu:-;h. bu
h. 
Fall wheat..... - . 31.25 30.25 20.50 15.00 15.75 18.75 20.75 
Spring wheat....... . . 31.00 25.00 18.25 6.00 
.OO 20.50 16.75 
All wheat.." . . . . . _ . . 31.00 25.00 18.25 6.00 8.00 20.50 17.00 
Oats..... -......... .. .. .. 4û.00 48.00 34.00 22.75 23.75 37.25 3û.25 
BaTlpy. . . . . ...... .. .... 32.2.5 29.00 
2.00 16..50 2.5.50 2û.50 25.50 
Rye. . . . . . . . 23.50 24..
0 20.50 17.25 14.00 21.25 19.25 
Ppas.......... . . . . . 20.00 20.00 17..50 18.00 18.00 17.00 18.00 


lAverage of nine years, 1910-18. 



.tGRICULTCRD 


213 


2.- \nnual .\\('rage Yields I)('r a('re of Fit'ltl ('rops for Canada and by Prminces from 
1915 to 19"!O, nltll l)ecelllli:,1 .\\cr.,"'es for tilt' )cars 1910-19 -concluded. 


Crops. 1915. ]!H6. 1917. 1918. 
Albt'rta -cone luded. Lush. husb. bush. busby 

I ix('d grains.. . . 37.2.) 30.00 :!.).75 21 . .')0 
Fla"t... .. . . ...... . 14.00 13.7.') 7.00 ,5.00 
Potatoes... . . . . . . . . 142.00 1fi3 . i .') 1.')1.50 70. ,=}O 
Turnips, etc.. ... . .).,- ')- 279..')0 207.50 188.50 
_.j,)' -.> 
tons tons tons tons 
Hay and clover. 1.31 1.93 1.4S 0.8.') 
Foddl'r corn. . . - .. . . 3.42 2..')ü 1.00 5.50 
.\lfnlfa. .. . . 2.15 2.(35 2.05 2.00 
Brltisb (,'olumbia- bush. hush. hu
h. bu
h. 
Fall 
heat....... . 33..')0 30.75 31.75 24.75 

prinJ!: 
 heat. . . . . . . . . . . 32.50 31.00 28.50 22.00 

\ll wheat..... . . . . . . 32.7.') 31.00 29.00 22..')0 
Oats. . . . . . . . . ta.75 fiO. .')0 53.7.') 39.7S 
Barl('y. . . . . . 40.25 4.').75 29.2.') 26.50 
I )(,a5. . . . . . . . . _ 29.7.') 3:1.75 23.7;,} 21.50 

I ixcd grains. . . . 40.00 50.00 40.00 21 . 50 
Potatoe
... . 247.2.') 189.00 1fiü . 50 228.00 
Turnips, etc..... . . i.).) . 50 500.00 344.50 422.00 
ton:-- tons tons t()n
 
Hay and clov('r.. . . . : I 2.34 2.67 1.8.) 1.90 
Fodder corn........ . , 12 . f;
 10.00 7.00 10.10 
Alfa.lfa.. . .. . . . . . . . . . 3.52 2.& 2..')8 3.25 


. \ ver- 
1919. 1920. ages 
1910-19. 
bush. bush. bush. 
36.25 30.00 28.50 
2.7.') 7.00 9.10 
179.75 1ßß. 00 151.50 
221.50 2ß1. 75 227.25 
tons ton'i tons 
1.10 1.30 1.35 
5.5S 4.2S 2.35 
2.00 2.25 2.2.) 
Lu:-,h. hu:--h. Lu:--h. 
24.75 19.2.') 29.00 
22-00 lS.75 25.S0 
22.75 ]9.00 2ß.75 
47.2.1 34.7.') .=}4 . 2.=} 
3:J .00 37.7S 34.00 
23.00 26.00 27.2S 
36..')0 36.00 40.2.') 
170.00 ] 6.=} . no 204.2,:") 
36.3.00 4:
;) . 00 43:;.50 
t()n
 t()n
 fond 
1.50 2.00 2.10 
11 . 50 11. ;'0 9.70 
3.00 3.00 3.40 


3.-Areas and Yields of" beat, Oats, Barl(')', R) e and "'Ial,eed In the thr('t' Prairie PrO\lnces, t9tS-
O. 


Provinces. 


Prairie Prodnces- 
\\ heat. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Oats. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Barley...... . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 
Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Flax.. ................... 
31:mltoba- 
\\ heat. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Oats. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Barley. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
:Flax. .. .. ................ 
Saslt.atche\\ all- 
\\ neat.. . . . . . . 
Oats. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Barley...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . 
Flax. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Alberta- 
\\ heat. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Oats. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Barley.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rye.. . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Flax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1918. 


seres. 
16,125,451 
9,354,941 
2,272,334 
411,826/ 
1,044,838 
2,983,702 
1,714,894 
1,102,965 
240,469 
107,961 
9,249,260 
4,988,499 
699,296 
123,500 
840,957 
3,892,489 
2,651,548 
470,073 
47,877 
95,920 


1919. 


seres. 
17,750,167 
9,4.')2,386 
1,800,745 
573,218 
1,068,014 
2,880,301 
1,847,267 
893,947 
298,932 
57,379 
10,587,363 
4,837,747 
492,586 
190,482 
929,945 
4,282,503 
2,767,372 
414,212 
83,804 
80,690 


1920. 


seres. 
16,841,174 
10,070,4ï6 
1,838,791 
4
2, 011 
1.391,076 


2,705,622 
1. 873,954 
839,07b 
148,602 
146,455 
10,061,069 
5,106,822 
519,014 
172,449 
1,140,921 
4,074,48J 
3,089,700 
480,699 
160,960 
103, 700 


,1918. 


bush. 
164,436,100 
222,049,500 
47,607,400 
6,181,700 
5,776,000 
48,191,100 
54,473,500 
27.963,400 
3,935,700 
1,091,000 
92,493,000 
107,253,000 
11,888,000 
1,420,000 
4,205,000 
23,752,000 
60,323,000 
7,756,000 
826,000 
480,000 


1919. 


1920. 


bush. 
165,544,300 
235,580,000 
36,682,400 
7,262,400 
5,232,300 
40,975,300 
57,698,000 
17.149,400 
4,089,400 
520,300 
f)!/, 994, 000 
112,157,000 
8,971,000 
2,000,000 
4,490,000 
34,575,000 
65,725,000 
10,562,000 
1,173,000 
222,000 


bush. 
234,138,300 
314,297,000 
40,760,500 
8,273,600 
7,588,800 
37,542,000 
57,657,000 
17,520,000 
2,318,600 
1,157,800 
113,135,300 
141,549,000 
10,501,500 
2,535,000 
5,705,000 
83,461,000 
115,091,000 
12,739,000 
3,420,000 
726,000 



214 


PRODUCTION 


4.-Total Areas and Values of Farm Crops in Canada, 1915-20. 
AREAS. 


Provinces. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 
acres. acres. acres. acres. acres. acres. 
Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . 39,140,460 38,930,333 42,602,288 51,427,190 53,0,19,640 52, 8.'J0 , 865 
P. E. Island...... 481,930 485,910 491,210 488,180 526,628 536,105 
Nova Scotia...... 727,260 746,580 752,980 910,387 1,011,144 919,547 
New Brunswick. . 893,800 889,220 888,125 1,188,200 1,335,118 1,253,834 
Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . 4,901,760 4,590,200 5,778,139 8,201,362 7,973,021 7,905,987 
Ontario........ . . . 9,391,500 7,637,500 8,233,500 10,000,063 9,915,884 10,108,272 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . 4,843,816 5,030,960 4,837,660 6,325,150 6,344,318 6,020,310 
Saskatchewan... . 13,036,596 13,850,769 14,678,042 16,332,872 17,430,554 17,347,901 
Alberta.. . . . . . . . . . 4,570,918 5,409,544 6,692,616 7,739,391 8,170,971 8,389,521 
British Columbia 292,880 289,650 250,016 241,585 342,002, 349,388 


VALUES. 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


Canada... . . . . . . . . . 825,310,600 886,.J9!,900 1,114,636,,150 1,372,935,970 1,537,170,IOO'l,t55,244,t!
O 


P.E.lsland...... 10,930,400 14,124,100 16,530,000 16,277,800 22,367,400 18,530,400 
Nova Scotia...... 19,566,700 22,369,800 23,313,400 42,486,200 63,357,000 47,846,550 
New Brunswick.. 20,092,600 22,924,200 24,404,200 42,891,270 53,134,400 46,357,300 
Quebec.... .. . . . ., 104,683,000 102,937,300 153,197,900276,776,900309,963,000330,251,000 
On tario. . . . . . . . . .. 207, 043, 500 190, 646, 000 251, 095, 100 384, 013 , 900 383, 573, 900 375, 746, 900 
Manitoba....... .. 92,318,800 76,749,000 137,470,750 180,507,500 182,097,200 133,989,900 
Saskatchewan... . 265,605,700 292, 773, 900349,488,200 299,362,500340,029,800 271,213,000 
Alberta......... .. 93,514,200 148,738,600 176,965,800 113,072,700 158,044,400204,291,500 
British Columbia 11,625,700 15,232,000 12,171,100 17,547,600 24,603,000 27,017,500 



_
GRICUL7'L"RP 


215 


C01l1parative ,raluc of Field Crops, 1919 !Lind 1920.-In 
'fable 5 the field crops of Canada for the year 1920 are cOln- 
p
1red ".ith thuse of 1919 in rcspect of quantity and value. For 
1920 there is an iucf(':1H' in the total value of rye find all root and 
fodder crops, excepting turnips, etc. 'Vheat, oats, harley and other 
grain crops, excepting rye, sho,v a decrease. 'fhe net decrease in 
value of lU20 as compared 'with lUlU i
 caused by lower prices off- 
settin
 higher yield
 in the case of ".hcat; for potatoes, fodder eorn, 
sugar beets and alfalfa both yield and value in 1020 are higher than 
in l DI9. For oat
, barley, pl"
l:', lllixpd graill:', ftaÅ 
lnd turnips, 
etc., the yield
 are higlll'r, hut the lower prices renùpr t he total values 
le
s. For bcans, buckwl}l'at and corn for husking, the reduction in 
value is cau
('d by both lower values dlHl lower yields. For hay and 
clover alHI 
rain hay higlH'r values outweigh 100wpr yicld:5. Taking 
th(\ field crops :15 a ,,"hole, the total value is less in lU20 by only 
5.3 p.c., this decrease bcing cau
ed by lower prices to the extent of 
21.7 p.c., n10re than offsetting hio-her yields to the extent of lû. 4 
p.c. 


5.- t'it.'ld Crol\S of eall3da, compared as to (!uantit)' and' alue, for 1919 and 19"!0. 
("000" omitted) 


Field Crops. 


l'all wheat _ . . . . . . 
::-\pring \\ heat. .. .. ... ... .. 
.\ll wheat. . _ _ . 
Oats. . . . . . . . . , . , . . . - . - . 
Barley, . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 
It ve. . . . . . . . . . - , . . - . . . 
l
èao:). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bean::;,.,. ..... ....- 
Buckwheat..... . . . .. . . - 
)Ii
ed grains. ... .... . . . . ' - 
Fla
......, - -. ..........' 
Corn for husking. . . . . . - . . . 
Potatoes... ..... . . . . . . . 
Turnip::., etf', 
Hay and clover.. . . . . . . . 
Grain hav..... ........ , 
Foddpr còrn... ....... 
f:ugar beets. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Alfalfa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 


Actual 
value, 
19
0. 


s 


36,5,")0 
:390,807 
4:!7,3'")7 
2
0, 115 
52,821 
15,086 
8,5:34 
4,918 
11,513 
29,236 
15,502 
16,594 
129,803 
48,213 
348,166 
4,518 
43,701 
5,279 
13,888 


Valuo 
at pri('('
 
of 1919. 


s 


47,847 
575,270 
623,117 
4:?6, 705 
77,840 
15,773 
10,OS7 
5,663 
13,496 
43,972 
33,041 
18,685 
127,O:?1 
56,966 
276,367 
3,955 
39,014 
4,478 
12,758 


\('tual 
valup, 
1919. 


S 
39,336 
418,386 
457,722 
317,097 
69,330 
14,:?40 
9,739 
6,215 
15,831 
37,77,") 
22,610 
22,080 
118,894 
54,959 
338,713 
4,379 
34,180 
2,606 
10,800 


Inc'rease 
(+) or 
ùpcreasc 
(-) 


Due> to I Due to 
higher IlargN <+) 
(+) or or sma.ller 
lower ( - ) 
(-) prices quantitips 


s 


s 


$ 


- 2, 7
6 - 11,297 + 
, .) 11 
-27, :'79 -184,463 + 1.5fj, 8S4 
-30,36.5 -19,"),7nO + 1ß.5, ;39.5 
-36,9S2 -146,590 +109,608 
-16,509 - 25,019 + 8,510 
+ 846 - 687 + 1,.j33 
- 1,20.5 - 1,5.33 + 348 
- 1, 297 - 745 - 552 
- 4,318 - 1,983 - 2,335 
- 8,5:39 - 14,736 + 6,197 
- 7,108 - 17,539 + 10,431 
- 5,486 - 2,0
n - 3,395 
+10,909 + 2, 7
2 + 8,127 
- 6,746 - 8,753 + 2,007 
+ 9,4,")3 + 71,799 - 62,346 
+ 139 + 563 - 424 
+ 9,521 + 4,687 + 4,834 
+ 2,673 + 801 + 1,872 
+ 3,088 + 1, 130 + 1,958 


Totals...... .. .. .. .. . l,t55,2U 1,788,938 1,537,170 -81,926 - 333,691 +251,768 


Increase or decrease per 
cent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


- 5.3 - 21.7 + 16.4 



216 


PRODUCTION 


Quality of Grain Crops, 1911-1920.-Table 6 gives the aver- 
age ,veight per measured bushel for each of the principal grain crops 
fron1 1911 to 1920, with the ten-year average for the period 1910-19. 
It shows that for fall wheat the weight.in 1918 and 1919 was about 
61.20 lb., ,vhich is above the decennial average of 60.22 lb. For 
spring ,vheat the average, 59.11 lb., ,vas exceeded in five years out 
of the ten and for all 'wheat six years out of the ten, the average 
being 59.38 lb. The average of 35.17 lb. for oats ,vas exceeded for 
six years out of the ten and for barley (average 47.23 lb.) five years 
out of the ten. For the remaining crops the decennial averages are 
a
 follo.ws, the number of ti:wes the average ,vas exceeded being placed 
within brackets: Rye 55.22 lb. (5); peas 59.57 lb. (9); beans 59. DO lb. 
(7) buckvçheat 47 .68 lb. (4); n1ixed grains 44.90 (4); flax 55.03 lb. (4) 
corn for husking 56 lb. (6). 


6.-Quality of Grain Crops as indicated by Average Weight per measured bushel, 
1911-20. 


Ten 
year 
Crop. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. aver
 
age 
1910- 
19. 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. . lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. 
Fall wheat..... . . 61.12 60.21 60.25 59,61 59.71 59.52 59.37 61.19 61.20 60.14 60.22 
Spring wheat. . . . 59.21 58.90 60.37 59.46 60.31 56.51 59.48 58.69 58.53 59.07 59.11 
All wheat. ..... 59.65 59.23 60.34 59.49 60.19 57.10 59.46 59.44 59.12 59.35 59.38 
Oats....... ...... 34.65 35.40 36.48 35.31 36.61 33.86 33.55 35.61 34.16 35.62 35.17 
Barley. . . . . . . . . . . 46.97 47.59 48.41 47.22 48.26 45.66 46.97 47.24 46.32 47.62 47.23 
Rye............. 55.11 54.84 55.66 55.47 56.32 54.95 53.44 55.60 55.09 55.44 55.22 
Peas. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59.58 56.88 60.00 60.53 60.74 59.88 59.81 59.93 59.60 60.44 59.57 
Beans. . . . . . . . . . . . 58.30 59.05 59.70 60.21 59.61 60.00 59.70 58.67 59.99 59.73 59.50 
Buckwheat..... . 47.32 47.62 50.32 48.20 48.02 46.35 46.49 47.41 47.23 47.95 47.68 
Mixed grains.. . . . 45.10 44.48 44.74 45.51 44.98 43.13 44.41 46.39 44.83 44.65 44.90 
Flax............ . 58.29 54.88 55.79 52.49 55.28 54.99 54.73 53.72 55.14 54.79 55.03 
Corn for husking. 55.29 55.67 56.27 56.62 56.32 56.51 56.18 53.97 - 56.45 56.00 


Average Values of Farm Land.-Table 7 sho,vs that in 1920 
the average value of the occupieù farm lands of Canada, .which 
includes both in1proved and unin1proved land, together ,vith d,velling 
houses, barns, stables and other farm buildings, ,vas $48 per acre, 
as cOIllpareù with $46 in 1919, $41 in 1918, $38 in 1917, $36 in 1916 
and $35 in 1915. By proyinces, the value in 1920 was highest in 
British Colunlbia, viz., $175, as against $174 in 1919, land in this 
provincp having a special value due to orcharding and fruit gro,ving. 
In the other provinces, the average values of fann lands per acre 
were as follows: Ontario and Quebec, $70; Prince Edward Island $40; 
Nova Scotia $43; lVlanitoba $39; New Bruns.wick $35; Saskatche,van 
and Alberta $32. The Canadian average values of land per acre 
for the years before 1920 are slightly lo,ver than those previously 
published in the simiìar table appearing in the Year Book.! Thi8 
is o,ving to the adoption of the principle of "\veighting," by ,vhich the 
Canadian averages for all the years have been recalculated according 
lSee edition of 1919, page 200. 




tGRICUL7'URF' 


217 


to the proportion of of'f'upi('d land ill each proyincp, a
 returned by 
the Cen
u
es of 1911 alld lU1G. 'rhe résult i:-5 a bOII1pwhat trUl'r indica- 
tion of t hl. av(\ra
e than the Un\, eio'htC'd fi
urc prcyiously 
iYeu. 


7.-.h t'ra 0'(' '..ihIt'S pt'r .u'rt' of Ot'('UltiNI Farm I..an(ls In (anada, as estinlatcd by 
('rol) ('orrt'
ltond('nts, 1905-IO 19U-20. 


Provinces. 19Oð. 1909. 1910. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 
- - - - - - - - - 
$ S S S S S S S S S 
Canada................ . 31 32 33 37 35 36 38 41 46 18 
P. E. Island...... . . , . 34 32 31 39 38 :m 44 44 51 49 
::\ ova Scotia. . . . . . , . . . 2;) 31 ')- 2" 2
 34 34 36 41 43 
-') 

('W Bruns\\ick.. 21 24 19 
6 f).) 2tJ 29 35 32 35 
QUf,b('c.... . 42 43 4:J 47 .')1 ..) 53 57 72 70 
. . . . . . ,,- 
Ontario. . . ... . 47 30 4
 54 ':;2 33 55 57 fiß 70 

lanitoba.. .., .., ').. 29 29 32 30 32 31 32 35 39 
_I 
:-:a
h.atchewan.... . :?O 22 22 24 
4 23 21) 29 32 32 
.\lbprta. . . . . . . . . 1" 20 24 
1 23 ')0) f)" 28 29 32 
-. 
llriti:-h Columbia.. ... 76 73 74 1:;(\ 1'). n9 1 149 149 174 175 
....) 


_\v(\rage \"a
es of Farn) IIelp.- \. further adyauce is recordC'd 
in the :lyeral!p ,yag< 
 paid for farIll help in 1920, as l"oJnpar('d with 
the preyiou
 yC'ar, and tlU' :lyprag(':-\ for 1 n20 \\"PI"(' again OH' highest 
yet l"{'aehp(l. For Ow whol(' of CtH
:lda the ay('raJ!.e wagC':-, paid per 
1110nth to fanu helpers durin
 the :--Ullllner bea
on of 1020 ".ere for 
n1PIl .SG and for" Ollll.n 
-l7, including board; the average valu(\ of 
whidl wa
 
::?H ppr lllOllth for 1l1C'1l and 
20 per 1l10llth for W0111en. 
In 1919 the correspondinp: ay('rag,es wpre: 
78 for In en, including 
hoard value "'24, and 
-1:3 for WUI11C'n, ineluding hoard value ð19. 
For the (,olnpl(,tl' ypar the av('ra
e value of ,,'ag,es and Loard ,vas 

ð21 for In en and 
492 for ',"OI11e11, as cOIllpared with ::;7ô4 for men 
and ;::.4ß3 for Wonl(\n in 1010. By provincps, the average ".ages per 
luonth for 111alC' and feluale }H'lpC'r:-:, re
pectiyely, in the sunlnler season 
and ineludillg board were, in 1920, a
 follows, the figures for 1919 
being givpn ,,,ithin braeket:-- for c0I11pari:-:on: Prince Echvard Island 

()O and 8;32 (
51 and 
2b); Xova 
("otia 
73 and 
3b (
G9 and b34); 
Xe,," Brun
\\"iek 
ïU and 
:3.=j (:-.79 and 
35); Quebec 

6 and 
40 
(,-j6 and 
3ï); Ontario 75 and '44 ( 70 and '40); 
Ianitoba 
98 
nnd 
3S ( 'SO and 
52); 
H
h.atchp,van 
102 and 
üO (
04 and 
55); 
_-\.lhC'rta ;0-;107 and ;:;62 (
9.) and :;.
8); I
ritish Colulllbia ::'95 and 
63 
(:SOG and 
t3-!). 
In Table 8 the total value of '''age:, and board is given for 1920, 
as cOJl1pared ,vith previou::5 year
, and in rrable 9 the value of the 
yearly board for 192:'> is given 
('parately. As a general rule, the 
value of the board per nlonth in the sunlmer 11lonths is higher than 
the Illonthly value for the ,,,hole year, the difference by provinces 
ranging fronl 
11 to :;;;45 p<-'r annunl for Inen and from 
8 to 841 per 
annUlll for ".omen. 


. 



218 


PRODUCTION 


S.-Average "ftages of Farm Help In Canada, as estimated by Crop Corrt'spondents, 1914-
9. 


N 


Males Femal 
Males per month in Females per month in per per 
Provinces. :summer season. summer season. year. year 
-- 
Wages \V ages Wages Wage 
" ages. Board. and Wages. Board. and and and 
board. board. board. boar 
- - - - - - 
$ $ $ S S S $ 
 
anada.... . ...... ........ .1914 22 14 36 8 11 19 323 um 
1915 22 15 37 9 11 20 341 200 
1916 26 17 43 9 13 22 397 228 
1917 45 19 64 19 15 34 611 364 
1918 49 21 70 21 17 38 681 416 
1919 54 24 78 24 19 43 764 465 
1920 60 26 86 27 20 47 821 492 
rlnce Edward Island....... .1914 15 10 'y 5 8 13 221 136 
...i) 
1915 17 10 27 6 9 15 238 137 
1916 18 13 31 9 9 18 301 16;- 
1917 26 14 40 13 10 23 407 254 
1918 31 15 46 14 11 25 469 289 
1919 33 18 51 15 13 28 504 318 
1920 42 18 60 18 14 32 572 372 
-ova Scotia............... ... .1914 20 11 31 7 8 15 301 155 
1915 21 12 33 8 8 16 310 169 
1916 ?3 16 39 8 11 19 365 195 
1917 37 17 54 14 12 26 543 296 
1918 41 19 60 16 14 30 590 326 
1919 47 22 69 18 16 34 628 346 
1920 49 24 73 21 17 38 735 408 
- ew Brunswick... . . . . . . . . . . . 1914 21 11 32 7 8 15 302 165 
1915 20 14 34 8 8 16 308 153 
1916 22 14 36 7 10 17 328 164 
1917 39 18 57 15 1:3 28 572 306 
1918 49 20 69 17 14 31 725 335 
1919 56 23 79 20 15 35 604 401 
1920 56 23 79 19 16 35 785 391 
uebel'... . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .1914 21 13 34 7 9 16 296 175 
1915 20 13 33 6 10 16 301 159 
1916 25 16 41 9 11 20 371 196 
1917 42 17 59 17 12 29 523 287 
1918 45 20 65 20 13 33 575 317 
1919 53 23 76 22 15 37 695 372 
1920 62 24 86 24 16 40 767 407 
ntarlo.. ..... .... ... ..... ,1914 19 13 32 7 10 17 297 172 
1915 18 13 31 6 11 17 304 179 
1916 23 16 39 19 13 32 360 206 
1917 41 18 59 18 14 32 561 344 
1918 42 20 62 19 16 35 607 382 
1919 48 22 70 22 18 40 691 431 
1920 52 23 75 25 19 44 736 470 
lauitoba.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1914 24 15 39 9 13 22 364 226 
1915 30 15 45 14 13 27 390 245 
1916 30 18 48 12 15 27 454 2S3 
1917 47 21 68 23 17 40 689 4:>2 
1915 55 23 78 26 19 45 791 494 
1919 63 26 89 32 20 52 889 55: 
1920 70 28 98 34 24 58 975 559 
askatchewan......... . .1914 24 17 41 9 14 23 366 235 
1915 25 17 42 10 14 24 386 241 
1916 31 18 49 11 15 26 434 278 
1917 50 23 73 23 18 41 734 470 
1918 61 25 86 29 20 49 849 545 
1919 66 28 49 32 23 55 912 5!)S 
1920 72 30 102 35 25 60 1,003 653 
Iberta... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .1914 24 16 40 10 14 24 365 236 
1915 27 17 44 10 14 24 404 253 
1916 32 20 52 13 16 29 501 299 
1917 53 23 76 25 19 44 784 476 
1918 60 26 86 28 22 50 863 569 
1919 67 28 95 34 24 58 976 648 
1920 76 31 107 36 26 62 1,038 638 
rltlsh Columbia........ . . . . .1914 27 21 48 13 18 31 460 324 
1915 30 19 49 15 16 31 463 287 
1916 28 22 50 11 18 29 543 325 
1917 53 25 78 H !1 18 303 i81 
1918 61 28 
9 34 23 57 903 589 
1919 65 31 96 37 27 64 1,065 715 
1920 64 31 95 36 27 36 1. 033 762 


es 


s 


d. 


c 


p 


N 


Q 


o 


1\ 


S 


A 


B 



FARJ! LrVp STOCK 


219 


'.-.\u'raC;t' "aC:l"
 prr) C.1r of }'arm )(rlp in C
lnada, a
 
tlmat('d hr Crop COrrC!\IJOn- 
dt'uts, 1920. 


1.1 3.lf

. 
Provinces. " ages 
\\ agcs. Board. and 
board. 
$ $ $ 
<'"uada . . . . . . . . ft: 2;
 
'!1 
P. E. I<::land.... . . 371 201 ;'i2 
Xova 
cotia._ 4-') 2fj
 i3;' 
. . ,- 

 C'W Hruns\\ ick. . . .,)
1 2;'4 i
;' 
Qul.bcc..... . . . :;:?4 243 i6i 
Ontario........ . . . - . . . 4i4 262 736 

Ianitoba. ..... . . 6.30 3'r 9i5 
. . . . . . . _oJ 

a'5katchc" an. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HI;7 331J 1,003 

\lb('rta........ . . . . . Wi 341 I,03S 
British Columbia..... .. .. . . ( '4 349 1,033 


'-'1' \ 1'ISTI('S OF ".\ R
n 1.1\'1': 
T()(' h.. 


}.'emal('s. 
\\ 
es 
"agcs. Board bond 
board. 
$ $ $ 
275 217 49.. 
212 160 372 
218 190 408 
213 liS 391 
23.j r'> 407 
,- 
2.')9 211 4iO 
312 247 559 
3G4 2
9 1,5:
 
3f,O 2i8 738 
431 311 742 



unlbcrs of Farm ,Aniolals.-Ill 1'ahle 10 are given by prov- 
inces the nUlllber of each description of fa.nn live ::,tock in Canada, 
for the year 1 H20, a
 conl}Jared "ith ] U 1 f), according to estilnate:-; 
jointly Inade by the 
tati:-\tical authoritie
 of the DonlÌnion and 
Provincial GOVCrIUllents. rrhe total nUl11ber of hors(,s in Canada 
on June 15, 1920, ""a
 estin1ated at 3,400,332, as cOlllpared ,vith 
3,(jß7,3ß9 in 1919. :\Illies nUIllhered 9,053, as against 15,102 last 
year. Cattle nUlnbercù 0,177 ,3hO, ao:; cOIHpared with 10,083,011 in 
1019, ineludinf.!, tnilch CO'YS 3,530,23h, as cOlnpared "ith 3,548,437; 
f'heep 3,720, 7
3, as 
oIHpart'd with 3,421,938, and s,vine 3,516,ß78, 
as cOlupared ,vith 4,040,070. The total head of poultry ,vas 30,505,819, 
as con1pared ,vith 34,645,238 ill 1919, the different de
criptions in 
1020 being hells 25,942,105, turkeys 791,Î(j6, geese 754,455, and 
ducks UI7,(j3b. Rabbits, all in Briti:-\h Columbia, numbered g2,146, 
a
 agail1
t g3,030 in 1910. For all dc
criptions of farlI1 live stock, 
excepting sheep, the nUlnbers in HJ20 were ll'
s than in 1919. Sheep, 
,vhich for so Illany years before 1917 ,,-ere declining in numbers, 
sho,,-ed a further 
ati
factory increase, the number, 3,720,783, con- 
stituting: an advance of 29S,t'25 over the re('orù total of 3,421,938 in 
1019. By provinces, Prince Ed,,"ard I
land ::;ho,ved an increase over 
the numbers of 1919 for all descriptions. In the other provinces, 
hor
es sho,ved a decrea:-:e, as con1pared ,vith 1019, in all provinces 
except Briti
h Colunlbia, ,vhere the nUluber ".as 44,070, as compared 
,vith 43,717. Cattle ;::.ho".ed a decrettse in all provinces. Sheep 
increased in all provinces excepting 
Ianitoba, and swine decreased 
in all provinces excepting Prince Ed,vard Island. Poultry, including 
all descriptions, increa:,ed in Prince Ed,vard Island, 
lanitoba, and 
British Colulnbia, but declined in X ova Scotia, New Bruns,vick, 
Quebec, Ontario, 8a
katche,van and ..\lberta. 


. 



220 


PRODUCTION 


10.-Numbers of Farm Live Stock In Canada by Provinces, 1919 and 1920. 
- CLASSIFICATION.-Horses: Stallions, Mares and Geldings 2 years old and over: Colts and fillies, under 
2 years. Cattle: Bulls for breeding; Milch cows; Calves, under 1 year; Steers, 2 years old and over. All 
other cattle. 


Province. 


1920. 


Canada- 
Horses- 
Stallions... __....... .. 
Mares...... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Geldings. . . . . . . _ . _ _ . _ _ 
Colts and fillies.. . . . . . 
Total. _ . . . . . . . _ 


Mules.... . . . . . _ . . . _ . . . . . 
Cattle- 
Bulls....... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Milch cows...... ..... 
Calves. . .. . . . . . _ _ . 
Steers. . . . . . . . 
Other cattle. . . . . .. . . . . 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . 
Sheep.............. ..... 


Swine..... . _ . . . . _ . . . . . . . 


1919. 


No. 
49,084 1 
1,634,724 
1,366,677 2 
616,884 
3,667,369 
15,102 


300,471 
3,548,437 
2,424,229 
840,319 
2,971,555 
10,085,011 
3,421,958 
4,040,070 


Poultry- 
Hens.......... '" . .. .. 31,785,722 
Turkeys.......... '" . . 839,711 4 
Geese..... 802,869 4 
Ducks.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 777, 692 4 


1920. 


No. 
44,401 1 
1,504,462 
1,315,968 2 
535,521 
3,400,352 
9,055 


279,659 
3,530,238 
2,141,954 
782,132 
2,743,397
 
9,477,380 
3,720,783 
3,516,678 


25,942,105 
791,766 4 
754,455 4 
617, 638 4 


TotaL................ 34,645,238 5 30,505,819 6 
Rabbits (British Colum- 
bia only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


P. E. Island- 
Horses- 
Stallions. _ . .. ... . . . 
Mares.... . 
Geldings.... . _ . . . 
Colts and fillies.. . . . . _ 
Total.. . . . . . . - . . 
Cattle- 
Bulls. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Milch cows....... 
Calves.... . 
Steers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle........... 
Total.. . . . . . . . . . 
Sheep. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Swine. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Poultry- 
Hens................. . 
Turkeys........... _. _. 
Geese. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ducks................ . 
Total.. . . . . . . . . . 
Nova Scotia- 
Horses- 
Stallions............. . 
Mares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Geldings..... .... . 
Colts and fillies.. .... . 
Total........., . 


83,050 


75 
17,851 
12,455 
4,195 
34,576 


3,708 
45,662 
32,589 
4,299 
39,219 
125,477 
114,955 
49,510 


575,647 
9,388 
26,544 
13,134 
624,713 


1,718 
35,972 
27,056 
4,843 
69,589 


82,146 


80 
18,630 
13,427 
3,432 
35,569 


4,958 
49,932 
36,297 
5,277 
42,679 
139,143 
128,529 
49,917 


611,399 
6,482 
22,654 
9,282 
649,817 


1,226 
36,244 
26,635 
3,748 
67,853 


Province. 


Nova Scotia-concluded. 
Cattle- 
Bulls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Milch cows............ 
Calves. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Steers. . . . . . . . . . . " ... 
Other cattle. .. . . . . . . _ . 
Total.. . . . . . . . . . 
Sheep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Swine...... .. . ... . .... . , 


Poultry- 
Hens.................. 
Turkeys. . . . . . . . . _. ... 
Geese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ducks. . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . 
Total. . .. ..... 
New Brunswick- 
Horses- 
Stallions and geldings. 
Mares. . . . . . . . . . 
Colts and fillies. _ . 
Total. 


Cattle- 
Bulls...... . . . 
Milch cows. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Calves. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Steers. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle........... 
Total.. . . . . . . . . . 
Sheep..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 
Swine..... . 


Poultry- 
Hens.................. 
Turkeys. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . 
Geese.... ... . 
Ducks. . . . . . . . . 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . 
Quebec- 
Horses- 
Stallions...... _... _ _.. 
Mares........... ....:. 
Geldings..... ........ . 
Colts and fillies. . . _ . . . 
Total.. . .. __ .. 
Cattle- 
Bulls....... . . ..... .. ., 
Milch cows. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Calves... . 
Steers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle........ . ., 
Total. . . " ..... 
Sheep. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Swine..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1919. 
No. 


6,806 
162,230 
82,481 
50,643 
103,901 
406,061 
261,529 
69,982 


813,715 
7,903 
15,796 
17,545 
854,959 


32,027 
38,685 
7,116 
77,828 


12,370 
153,058 
83,857 
25,163 
90,574 
365,022 
212,745 
104,939 


729,619 
30,627 
24,396 
12,056 
796,698 


14,068 
213,192 
184,132 
52,510 
463,902 


122,232 
1,056,347 
494,060 
92,296 
504,709 
2,269,644 
1,007,425 
935,425 


No. 


5,979 
170,308 
79,379 
43,936 
98,859 
398,461 
403,567 
57,950 


805,328 
6,283 
16,532 
10,543 
838,686 


32,894 
38,242 
5,601 
76,737 


11, 226 
147,760 
70,737 
26,049 
77,216 
332,988 
280,090 
92,925 


701,987 
22,192 
20,142 
8,913 
753,234 


9,040 
196,043 
170,793 
57,323 
433,199 


119,394 
1,030,809 
449,394 
75,431 
457,184 
2,132,212 
1,031,982 
836,431 


lExcluding stallions in New Brunswick. 2Including stallions in New Brunswick. 3Including 
145,659 cows suckling calves in Alberta. 4Not including Alberta. fiIncluding 439,244 other than hens 
in Alberta. 6Including 2,399,855 poultry of all kinds in Alberta. 



F lRJf LIVE STOC]( 


221 


10.- 'umbers of "arm 1.lft' Stock In ('anada by Pro\lnrt's. 1919 nn(119
O -con. 


Province. 1919. 1920. Pro
 ince. 1919. 1920. 
Quebec-conl'luded. "'as
atrhe" an - 
Poultry- lIors('S- 
Hens........ - . . . . 3,4oj7,4
O 3. 177,-I0:! Stallions. . .. . .. . . 15,002 12.018 
Turkeys....... .. o' . 118, H(}i 114,377 
rarl's.... . .. . 4;6,2
9 3R3, 300 
Get'8c......... . . . 124,3
 1:
(I, 3
. Geldings... . .. . 393,002 3Ii!1,518 
Duels. . . .. . 108,206 115,6Y; Col
 and fillies.. . . . 193,359 1;-1,969 
Total. .. . 3,&08.9iO 3,537.
OO Total. 1. 078, 452 939,h05 
Ontariu - 
[ulcs.... . 14,522 8,475 
} I or
l":oo- 

tallions.. . . .. . 4,Oði 3,902 

rar
. .. o. . 354.677 3'>1,517 ClLttk- 
Gl'ldinJ!:
... . .. . 269,390 266,-1;7 Bulls... _ __ 30,714 27.534 
Colts and fillies. 
n, 415 b2,7-11 
[j)('h cows... 0 374,062 35-1, 507 
Calves.. .. 364,336 326,308 
Total. - . 719,569 704,640 
t('('r8. . . 1
.>,915 130,';1
 
Otlwr cattle....... 474,536 484,96.> 
Cattle- 
Bulls.. . .. . 63,b9 65,';57 TottLl. 1,379,563 1,324,062 
::\[ilch cows....... .. . 1,141,016 1,170.010 
C'ahes..... . .. . 6:-.S, MO 6.;5,316 :;hecp... . 146,911 100,918 
f'teers.. . . ... .. . 260,204 245.706 
Other cattle....... . . . . 773,932 745,OJ8 Sv. ine. . . 432,367 321,900 
Total. .. . 2.927,191 2,ðSl.82'; 
Sheep.... . .. . 1,101. ';-iO 1, 129,O
.1 Poultry- 
Hl'M... . 8,079,351 6,21i,518 
Swine... .. .. . 1,695,4Si 1,61-1,350 Turkl'}"8....... . 179,8'>2 221, 691 
G('C
e. . 112. lO:J 92,743 
Poultry- Duc ks 1-14,221 75.1S8 
Hen:,. .. . 10,573.506 10,0.10.872 
Tur key:). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:!7, bO"J 267,b"'3 Total. 8,.')15,;;27 6.607,140 
G
('... 42tl, b63 395.2JS 
.Ducks........... . . . . . 377,838 311,652 
\n....rta - 
Total. . . 11 . ';0:;, bOO 11 , 005, 6-15 } lor:,{'8- 

hllions.. 11, 806 1.5,810 
)Ianltnha
 
[arN..... 318.050 303,531 
llor:,
- Geldings. 2"'6.191 277.2.iO 
:'tallions. .. . 1..';00 1 , 500 Colts and fillies. _. lö-l,333 145,260 
)[ar
 161,:!74 158.114 
Gl'ldings _ _ . . 14-1, 4 ';0 141 , 246 Total. 800,3bO 741,8.51 
Colts and fillies. . . 72. 112 55,768 
Total. .. . 379.356 356,628 
Cattll
 
CattlE'- Bull
 38,274: 26,384: 
Bulls.. . .. . 19,021 16.734 )Iilch Co\\ s. . .. . . 336,596 305,607 

Iilch CO\\s...... 227,Sï2 221,7b5 C'alves.. .. 428,b
8 321.547 
C'alves. . .. . 207.5ï7 177.272 
tccr8..... .. 180.734 171.216 

teer
....... . .. . 91,065 
3,769 Other cattle 599,552 531,11:)7 
Other cattle. .. . 236 , 2:
6 :!5:-..414: 
Total. 1,5b4,0-14: 1,355,941 
Total. . . _ . . ';öl,7ïl 757,9i4 
:.;heep... . 364,498 383,424 
Sheep.... . .. . 167.170 156.716 
. .1 S\\ine... .. 445,858 286.556 
::
m ine. 261. 5-12 212.5-12 
Poultry- Poultry- 
Hen... 2.429.90b 3,100.000 Hcfu!. ..... 3,987,131 
Turkl'Y:' 157.51b 145,000 Turkeys. _._ l 439,244
 
Gl'e<;(' . 61. O:!5 64,500 Gec!'e.. 2.399,855 
Due h.::. 82,715 64,000 Ducks. , J 
Total. ' ... . I 2.731,166 3,373,500 Total. ' ...... -.. 4.426,375 2,399.855 



222 


PRODUCTION 


10.-Numbers of Farm Live Stock In Canada by Provinces, 1919 and 192O-Concluded. 


Province. 1919. 1920. Province. 1919. 1920. 
British Columbla- British Columbia-con. 
Horses- Other cattle........ _ . . 148,896 47,855 
Stallions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828 825 
Mares... '" 18,734 18,841 TotaL......... . 246,238 154,772 
Geldings...
 . . . . '" . 17,154 17,728 
Colts and fillies. . . 7,001 6,676 Sheep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44,985 46,473 
Total.. . . . . . 43, 717 44,070 Swine. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44,960 44,101 
:Mules.... . .......... . 580 580 Poultry- 
Hens.................. 1,139,365 1,297,599 
Turkeys...o..... . . ' 7,717 7,858 
Cattle- Geese..... . . . . . " . . 11, 962 12,262 
Bulls....... . . . . . . . .4,157 1,693 Ducks. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,977 22,363 
Milch cows........ 51,594 79,520 
Cal ves.. . . . . . . . . . . 41,591 25,704 Total. . . . 1,181,021 1,340,082 
Steers....... _ . . , . . . - - 
Rabbits.. ...... . . 83,050 82,146 


H.-Estimated Numbers of Farm Live stock, 1915-1920. 


Live Stock. 


Canadi\- 
Horses...... .. 
Milch cows. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle. ' , . . . 
Total cattle.. . . . . . . . . . . . 

h
ep. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
SwIne.... ..'. _....... 


Prince Ed ward Island- 
Horses................... . 
Milch cows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle. . . _ . . . . . . . . . . 
Total cattle...... . . . . . . . 


i

:::::::::: ::: :::::::: 


:s ova Scotia- 
Horses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Milch cows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 
Other cattle '............ 
Total cattle... .... . . . . . . 
Sheep. . . . . " .. . . 
Swine......... ..... 


New Brunswlck- 
Horses. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Milch cows. . _ . _ . . . . . . ' 
Other cattle. . 
Total cattle....... . .,. . . 
Sheep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Swine....... ............ 


Quebec- 
Horses. . . . . . . . . . ' . . _ . ' 
Milch cows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle. . . . . . . . . . . 
Total cattle. ... ... . . . 
Sheep. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Swine. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 


Ontario- 
Horses........ . . . . . . . 
Milch cows, . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . 
Other cattle. . . . . . . _ 
Total cattle....... . . . . . . 
Sheep. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Swine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 


1915 


No. 
2,996,099 
2,666,846 
3,399,155 
6,066,001 
2,038,662 
3,111,900 


36,898 
47,043 
59,503 
106,546 
86,640 
40,792 


63,244 
128,814 
144,458 
273,272 
205,542 
53,402 


65,827 
101,665 
96,437 
198,102 
111,026 
72,533 


372,567 
720,420 
612,500 
1,332,920 
554,491 
632, 729 


903,52ï 
1,077,808 
935,606 
2,013,414 
611,789 
1,469,573 


1916 


No. 
3,258,342 
2,833,433 
3,760,718 
6,594,151 
2,022,941 
3,474,840 


38,562 
46,032 
57,260 
103,292 
88,797 
38,300 


64,193 
130,141 
140,673 
270,814 
200,979 
51,928 


65,169 
100,221 
92,223 
192,444 
105,997 
70,683 


332,628 
639,805 
535,693 
1,175,498 
497, 711 
531,303 


896,208 
1,082,119 
901,924 
1,984,043 
589,581 
1,404,618 


1917 


No. 
3,412,749 
3,202,283 
4,218,657 
7,920,940 
2,369,358 
3,619,382 


38,948 
46,032 
54,970 
101,002 
90,573 
35,236 


64,193 
131,442 
135,046 
266,488 
200,979 
49,850 


65,169 
100,221 
89,456 
189,677 
103, 877 
69,269 


379,276 
911,023 
958,010 
1,869,033 
849,148 
712,087 


887,246 
1,082,119 
865,947 
1,947,966 
595,477 
1,236,064 


1918 


No. 
3,609,257 
3,538,600 
6,507,267 
10,045,867 
3,052,748 
4,289,682 


32,620 
41,429 
69,092 
110,521 
73,046 
40,814 


70, 101 
157,829 
249,422 
407,251 
259,847 
68,238 


66,590 
120,123 
166,624 
286,747 
140,015 
79,814 


496,811 
1,163,865 
1,245,819 
2,409,684 
959,070 
997,255 


732,977 
1,097,039 
1,770,683 
2,867,722 
972,341 
1,656,386 


1919 


No. 
3,667,369 
3.548,437 
6,536,574 
10,085,011 
3,421,958 
4,040,070 


34,576 
45,662 
79,815 
125,477 
114,955 
49,510 


69,589 
162,230 
243,831 
406,061 
261,529 
69,982 


77,828 
153,058 
211,964 
365,022 
212,745 
104,939 


463,902 
1,056,347 
1,213,297 
2,269,644 
1,007,425 
935,425 


719,569 
1,141,016 
1,786,175 
2,927,191 
1,101,740 
1,695,487 


1920 


No. 
3,400,352 
3,530,238 
5,947,142 
9,477,380 
3,720,783 
3,516,678 


35,569 
49,932 
89,211 
139,143 
128,529 
49,917 


67,853 
170,308 
228,153 
398,461 
403,567 
57,950 


76,737 
147,760 
185,228 
332,988 
280,090 
92,925 


433,199 
1,030,809 
1,101,403 
2,132,212 
1,031,982 
836,431 


704,640 
1,170,010 
1,711,817 
2,881,827 
1,129,084 
1,614,356 



FAHJ1/ LIrE STUC}{ 


223 


11. - ....tlmat('d 'umbrr.. of "arm I.he stot'l
, t!II;;-1920-roncludl'tl. 


Live Stock. 1915. HII6. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 
":mltoIM - Xo. No. No. It No. No. No. 
H ()rz,.c
. . . . . . . . " . 317,H7 324.175 324.1i5 3S4.7i2 379.356 356,628 

1iI('h CO\\8 . 15ï.4H4 1 !Iti. 
.,," 202,177 

.'), 6.i!! 227,g72 :?21,71'i5 
Ot hf'r ('uU 10 N6. fìO.J 357,
iO 357,h70 5:?1.240 553,R99 536.189 
Total cattle... 404,097 554, 15
 5l;0, 04 i 746,MJ!J 7st,7il 757,974 

hN'p. . 50, 
1-0 76,750 1-0.5
 136,7h2 167,170 156,716 
Sv.ino. 163,308 205,89b 175,013 2M,596 261,542 212,542 

askat('hn\31l - 
110r
es. 630. Oti2 Ml,!I07 f.
O, :
Ol 990,009 I,OiR,4.i2 939, SO.') 

rilch cows 211, fì
 322, 1
.i 3;)4,430 352,9ð9 3i4,062 354,507 
Ot her c:Lttle 543, 6mt 6
q. :W
 856,6'7 926,342 1,00.'),501 969,555 
# Total cattle ...... 75.'),2!1
 1,011.393 1. 211,Ot10 1,2iH.331 1. 379, 563 1,324,062 
:-.hl'('p....... . 133,311 124,2:i7 127,R92 I:J4.177 146,911 160,918 

\\ ine. . . 411,324 530,727 5i3,938 5
I, 240 432,:m7 321,900 
Alberta- - 
Hor

. . 544:.772 634,1bh 71"",317 791,24b bOO,3
O 741,851 

Iil('h CO\\ 
 I
:J. 974 277.324 325,
61 32H, 702 3:J6. 596 305.607 
Other cattle . . f)fin. 000 SI\2,766 1.209,433 1. 362. f\,O 1. 247. 44
 1,050.3341 
Total cattlE'....... b43.974 1.160.090 1.53.').294 1.691.582 1.5M.044 1,355.941 
::-iht'Cp. . . . . - 238.579 2tl;? . 620 276.966 332, 17!1 J64,4!lg 3b3,424 
S\\ine. . 22f l . b96 tiO.J. .')54 730.237 601,534 445,858 286,556 
IIrltl..h ('0InmhI3- 
Hon.c
L . ... . 61. 355 61,312 55,124 44,131 43,717 44.070 

I i )('h ('0\\ S 37, PH 39,31b 49,005 50.96j 51,5!14 79,520 
Ut her ('uttl(' . . 100.439 103.101 191,338 195.165 194,644 75.252 
Totul cattle....... 13M,3'-3 142.419 240.313 246,130 246,238 154.972 

hN'p. . . 46,401 46,2ti!J 43.t:\.5g 45.291 44.9
5 46,473 

wine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.543 37.829 37.6&5 39.805 44,960 44.101 


llncluding 14:>.6:)9 cov.
 suckling calves (\Ibert.,). 


"'alues of Farnl Live Stock and of \Vool.-As coulpared with 
1!119, thc values of fann live &tork in 'rable 12 sho". a considerable 
dC'er('a:-\c. For Canada as a ,,-hole, hor:-;(':-\ undC'r one ypar averaged :-"4H, 
as against :-..55 in 1919, hor
e
 OIl{.. year to under three years :;102, as 
a
ain
t 
lOg, and hors(\
 threp years old and ovcr 151, as again,-;t 
;"\lG1; eattle undpr one y('ar :--:
O, as ag;ain
t 
2.), cattle one year to 
under thr{'e yearR 
-1.), a<.; agair

t 
.)(j, ('attic thr{'e years and oyer ;S(j7, 
a
 again,>t '8
. For all description
, the average value pcr head for 
Cnnnda "a:o; for hor
e!:) 
I06, as again
t 
119 in 1019; for milch co',"s 

ðO, as again:-\t :"\92; for other cattle 
4 7, n
 ag-ainst :,58; for all cattle 

59. as against '"'70; for 
heep 10, as against 
15; and for s".ine 
S23, a
 agnill
t 
2.). For 
,yine ppr 100 lb. live ,,-eight the average 
was 
1.5, a
 againf't 
IG in 1919. The average price per lh. of ''"001 in 
1020 for Canada ,va
 
2 cents for un".a
hed and 32 cent
 for washed, 
as a
ain:--t la
t year's records of 55 cent
 and 70 cents per lb. 
By application of the averagc ynhl{,s per hcad as in Table 13 to 
the nUlnbers of farru live stock, as retun-:.ed in June, 1920, it if' possible 
to calculate approximately as in Table 14 the total value of farnl live 
stock in Canada for the year 1920, ,vith tl1(' corre
pondinp.. values for 
1019 in brackets, as follo,,"s: Horç.:es ::-361.228,COO (
135,070,OOO); 
cattle B5t.)1,500,OOO (
708,821,OCO); 
h
ep 
37,2G3,OOU (S50,402,000); 
s,vine 
81,155,OOO (
102,309,OCO). Thu
, the total value of thef=:e 
de:-;rriptions of farn1 live stock anlounts to :'1,041,246,000, as conl- 
pared ,,"ith 81,296,G02,000 in 1919. 
Farm Poultry.-Table 15 gives the numbers and values of 
farm poultry in 1920, the values being obtained by application to the 
numbers of average values per head reported for the first time by 
crop correspondents. 



224 


PRODUCTI01V 


12.-Average Values of Farm Animals and of Wool, as estimated by Crop Correspo
dents, 1914-20. 


Horses. 


Provmce. 


1 year 
to 
under under 
1 3 
year. years. 


Milch 
3 cows. 
years 
and 
over. 


$ $ $ 
Canada. . . .. .. . . . .1914 55 114 165 
1915 54 111 160 
1916 54 109 160 
1917 57 116 167 
1918 56 112 162 
1919 55 108 161 
1920 49 102 151 
P. E. Island...... .1914 46 95 143 
1915 42 92 136 
1916 37 76 112 
1917 41 79 118 
1918 43 86 131 
1919 53 97 146 
1920 45 93 141 
Nova
Scotia...... .1914 53 116 166 
1915 53 108 167 
1916 50 99 150 
1917 49 101 149 
1918 51 100 152 
1919 55 109 167 
1920 51 107 157 
Kew Brunswick. . .1914 54 123 183 
1915 59 127 182 
1916 55 113 169 
1917 54 118 165 
1918 60 125 175 
1919 62 125 204 
1920 58 120 176 
Quebec..... . . . . . . .1914 49 107 164 
1915 48 104 159 
1916 49 105 155 
1917 53 117 171 
1918 53 114 171 
1919 55 120 179 
1920 50 111 169 
Ontario........ . . . .1914 54 111 152 
1915 51 102 142 
1916 52 105 151 
1917 55 105 147 
1918 54 105 146 
1919 53 101 144 
1920 52 100 143 
)Ianitoba....... . . .1914 61 126 176 
1915 63 124 178 
1916 61 123 171 
1917 63 127 178 
1918 65 126 182 
1919 59 117 172 
1920 50 104 154 
Saskatchewan.... .1914 63 133 187 
1915 64 132 150 
1916 65 133 188 
1917 69 137 194 
1918 64 134 190 
lÐ19 56 108 162 
1920 46 97 149 
AI berta . . . . . . ... . . . 1914 45 91 137 
1915 47 97 142 
1916 51 102 151 
1917 55 109 161 
1918 48 96 142 
1919 40 82 I'Y 

" 
1920 32 72 114 
British CoIumbia..1914 46 93 162 
1915 42 93 136 
1916 48 87 144 
1917 50 101 155 
1918 52 98 150 
1919 63 110 167 
1920 50 103 162 


Other horned 
cattle. 
Swine 
1 year per 
to 3 100lb 
Under under years live 
1 3 and weigh t. 
year. years. over. 
- - 
$ $ $ $ 
16 37 54 7 
17 38 55 9 
20 43 63 12 
24 52 77 17 
25 57 88 16 
25 56 83 16 
20 45 67 15 
11 23 35 7 
11 25 37 8 
14 31 46 12 
17 37 54 17 
17 38 60 16 
20 48 72 16 
14 31 47 13 
10 25 42 8 
11 28 44 8 
13 33 54 11 
18 41 63 17 
15 40 62 17 
17 46 75 18 
16 40 66 16 
11 24 39 8 
11 25 37 8 
13 28 44 12 
16 37 55 16 
18 38 58 17 
17 41 58 17 
15 35 53 15 
11 27 41 9 
12 28 42 10 
16 35 52 14 
19 43 67 20 
18 40 62 17 
19 42 64 17 
16 35 54 17 
20 43 62 8 
20 45 64 9 
23 51 71 12 
29 63 90 17 
29 65 94 17 
29 64 95 17 
25 55 82 16 
17 38 56 6 
18 41 60 8 
21 47 67 11 
27 .:;5 83 16 
28 65 93 16 
26 59 85 16 
18 43 65 14 
18 41 61 6 
20 44 62 8 
22 47 67 10 
27 58 83 15 
30 64 92 15 
27 60 86 16 
19 45 66 13 
21 42 61 6 
22 45 64 8 
27 51 73 11 
33 62 87 16 
32 64 95 15 
26 57 83 16 
20 45 64 14 
22 48 73 8 
21 48 67 9 
24 48 72 13 
2t1 62 89 17 
29 65 93 15 
35 70 102 19 
30 68 95 19 


$ 
57 
62 
70 
84 
87 
92 
80 
39 
42 
52 
63 
71 
83 
60 
40 
45 
53 
63 
65 
76 
71 
40 
40 
48 
63 
65 
70 
61 
47 
51 
62 
81 
79 
84 
75 
64 
70 
76 
92 
96 
107 
92 
62 
65 
74 
88 
91 
90 
71 
66 
69 
73 
85 
91 
91 
73 
66 
69 
77 
89 
93 
89 
ï1 
89 
91 
90 
103 
106 
118 
125 


Wool per lb. 
Sheep. -d 
Un. <D 
...c:: 
washed. 
 

 
-- 
$ $ c. $ c. 
7 o 19 0.26 
8 o 28 o 38 
10 o 37 o 59 
15 o 59 o 75 
16 o 62 o 80 
15 o 55 o 70 
10 o 22 o 32 
6 o 21 o 27 
7 o 32 o 40 
9 o 37 o 47 
14 o 60 o 76 
15 o 65 o 83 
14 o 46 o 59 
8 o 19 o 26 
5 o 21 o 26 
5 o 31 o 40 
7 o 39 o 49 
9 o 61 o 74 
10 071 o 88 
11 o 62 o 76 
8 o 21 o 29 
5 o 22 o 22 
5 o 30 Ú 40 
6 o 36 o 48 
10 o 59 o 74 
12 071 o 89 
11 o 57 o 73 
8 o 21 o 32 
7 o 23 o 30 
7 o 33 o 43 
11 044 o 58 
15 o 65 o 83 
14 o 63 o 83 
13 o 57 o 76 
10 o 29 o 42 
9 o 19 o 25 
10 o 26 o 33 
13 o 34 044 
18 o 55 o 66 
20 o 61 o 76 
18 o 54 o 67 
12 o 18 o 25 
9 o 14 o 18 
9 o 21 o 29 
12 o 31 o 37 
16 o 51 o 55 
17 o 56 o 67 
15 054 o 61 
9 o 17 o 23 
7 o 15 o 20 
8 o 20 o 24 
10 o 28 o 38 
14 o 50 o 54 
17 o 56 071 
15 o 51 o 62 
8 o 19 o 28 
7 o 14 o 18 
8 o 23 o 2.'> 
10 o 28 o 37 
15 o 51 o 55 
15 o 57 o 69 
14 o 52 o 64 
10 o 18 o 22 
8 o 15 o 16 
8 o 19 o 20 
11 o 29 o 45 
14 o 46 o 52 
15 054 o 64 
16 o 49 o 58 
11 o 17 o 32 



FAR]I LlrJi' STuCK 


225 


13.-.\ u'ra J '-"hlt'!\ I)t'r bt'ad of J'arm I.he :">10<'1.. In ("anada. ":0, ('sUmalt'tl by ('rol) ("orrt'
pondt'nts, 
1915-19' Þ O. 


Farm \nimals. 


('anada - 
II or
t':-. 

[iI('h ('O\\
 
( )t ht'r ('att It'. 
Total ('attl.... 

hl't.'p. .... 

\\in("..... 


J.rhl(,(, }"d\\ard I
bl1d - 
Hor
c:,.. . 

I i Idl CO""9 
Ot hl'r ('aU It> 
Total cattlt'. .. 
:,ht"t,p. 
:'Ì\\ ine. . . . . 



o\a 
('otla - 
II or
t'8 . 

lilch ('0\\. . 
( )ther cattle 
Total ('uttlt'. 
:-:ht'l'p. 
:'\\ ine. 


't'W llrun
"lclt.- 
lIurl"e:.. .. .... 

Iilch cO\\s. 
Ottwr cattle. 
Total ('tLtt Ie 
:,het'p ........ 
:-:\\ine...... 


IIIt'hr - 
Ilor:-t's 

Iilch CO\\:o. 
Otllt'r cattlt' 
Total cattle. . . . . . 

hN'p........ 
:-:\\ inc...... 


On 1 arlo - 
Hor:.cs. . . . .... . 
\Iil('h ro
 
Ot her catt It' 
Total cattle 
:-\hN'p . 
:'\\ ine. .. . . .. 


:\Ianltoba- 
Hor
t's... . 

li1ch CO\\8 
üt her cattle. . 
Total cattle....... 

hecp. 

\\ine..... . 


:-;askatchl'\\ an - 
Hor:-.es. 

Iilch CO\\". 
Ot twr caU Ie 
Total cattle 

h('t'p . 

 \\ ine. .. . .. . 


Alberta - 
HorsC8........ . 

fi1('h CO\\"8. 
Other cattle. '" 
Total cattle. 
Sheep........ 
:-'\\ine........ . 


British Columbla- 
lIorses. ........ ... . .. .. ........ 

Iilch CO\\S, ...................... 
Ot her cattle . . .. . . . . . . . . __ .. 
Total cattle. ...................... 
foIheep " .... .. ...................... 

\\ ine........ ........................ 
18427-15 


1911 


S 
125 
62 
5 
52 

 
14 


106 
42 
2h 
34 
7 
13 


121 
45 
32 
3
 
6 
18 


137 
40 
2,1\ 
34 
5 
If' 


112 
51 
41 
46 

 
15 


120 
70 
4S 
59 
10 
14 


133 
65 
44 
52 
9 
15 


147 
69 
4h 
54 
8 
13 


113 
69 
49 
53 
8 
13 


102 
91 
50 
61 
8 
15 


HH6 


S 
129 
70 
54 
61 
10 
IS 


101'\ 
53 
3
 
.1 
7 
1
 


12; 
-19 
:
:J 
41 
7 
17 


115 
62 
51 
57 
II 
17 


1 :!.:; 
76 
65 
71 
13 
18 


12... 
74 
51 
59 
12 
17 


149 
73 
51 
58 
10 
17 


121 
77 
56 
61 
10 
17 


10.
 
94 
55 
66 
II 
19 


HH7 


. 
126 

6 
57 
69 
15 
.26 


b1 
52 
35 
42 
9 
20. 


132 
!\'> 
46 
63 
15 
29 


113 
!IJ 
63 
79 
19 
25 


13.., 
88 
57 
b9 
16 
24 


138 
85 
59 
66 
14 
2.:; 


122 
b9 
64 
70 
15 
24 


118 
103 
65 
73 
14 
21 


1915 


S 
127 

7 
61 
70 
16 
26 


ho 
tH 
3'\ 
50 
14 
27 


III 
63 
45 
54 
9 
29 


I ,).. 
-, 
6:
 
40 
5') 
10 
27 


131 
i
. 
4í 
61 
14 
26 


111 
96 
67 
i8 
20 
'27 


1-11 
91 
64 
ï3 
17 

tJ 


14
 
91 
66 
73 
1ï 
28 


107 
{l3 
70 
74 
15 
24 


123 
106 
67 
75 
15 
24 


1!11t) 


. 
119 
92 
58 
70 
15 
25 


10:J 
71 
44 
54 
15 
29 


117 
65 
H 
,!):
 
10 
30 


1-11 
6,') 
41 
51 
12 
28 


110 
Hlï 
6
 
83 
18 
25 


131 
90 
58 
67 
1.1) 
27 


1 <)
 

a 
91 
62 
70 
15 
26 


129 
118 
71 
81 
16 
28 


l't?O 


. 
106 
bO 
47 
59 
10 
23 


114 

q 
.1)3 
64 
14 
<).. 
_I 


109 
60 
34 
4J 
8 
24 


I ,).. 
_I 
76 
54 
6:
 
11 
29 


119 
71 
43 
5.') 
8 
24 


1:
H 
70 
-12 
sa 
II 
31 


139 
61 
39 
49 
8 
22 


134 
R4 
4-1 
hi 
1:
 
24 


12b 
75 
38 
56 
10 
26 


108 
92 
57 
71 
12 
23 


114 
71 
44 
52 
9 
22 


108 
73 
45 
59 
8 
20 


94 

!I 
60 
66 
14 
25 


80 
71 
45 
51 
10 
18 


126 
126 
7l. 
99 
11 
21 



226 


PRODUCTION 


li.-Estimated Total Values of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Produces, 1915-1928. 


Province and Year. Horses. Cattle. Sheep. Swine. Total. 
$ $ $ $ S 
Canada........ .. .... .1915 373, 381,000 316,380,000 16,226,000 43,653,000 749,640,000 
1916 380,884,000 360,874,000 20,312,000 49,477,000 811,547,000 
1917 429,123,000 544,676,000 35,576,000 92,886,000 1.102,261,000 
1918 459,]55,000 706,058,000 48,802,000 112,751,000 1,326,766.000 
1919 435,070,000 708,821,000 50,402,000 102,309,000 1,296.602,000 
1920 361,328,000 561,500,000 37,263,000 81,155,000 1,041.246,000 
P. E. Island..... . ... .1915 3,911,000 3,588,000 606,000 510,000 8,615,000 
1916 3,355,000 4,369,000 799,000 766,000 9,289,000 
1917 3,408,000 4,998,000 1,245,000 947,000 10,598,000 
1918 3,353,000 5,930,000 1,081,000 1,183,000 11,547,000 
1919 3,935,000 8,024,000 1,603,000 1,320,000 14,882,000 
1920 3,880,000 5,991,000 1, 073, 000 1,205,000 12,149,000 
Nma Scotia........ . . .1915 7,621,000 10,354,000 1,130,000 961,000 20,066,000 
1916 6,933,000 12,172,000 1,306,000 935,000 21,346,000 
1917 7,141,000 14,391,000 1,809,000 2,626,000 25,967,000 
1918 8,194,000 21,383,000 1,433,000 2,020,000 33,030,000 
1919 1 8 ,838,000 25,496,000 2,877,000 2,099,000 39,240,000 
1920 8,066,000 21,927,000 3,260,000 1,395,000 34,648,000 
New Brunswirk 1915 9,018,000 6,767,000 555,000 1,269,000 17,609,000 
1916 8,244,000 7,904,000 689,000 1,202,000 18,039,000 
1917 8,244,000 9,848,000 1,039,000 1,853,000 20,984,000 
1918 9,3R5,000 14,580,000 1,642,000 2,219,000 27,826,000 
1919 10,776,000 19,510,000 2,449,000 3,291. 000 36,026,000 
1920 10,666,000 16,237,000 2,241,000 2,044,000 31,188,000 
Quebec....... . . . . . . . .1915 41,728,000 61,187,000 4,159,000 9,175,000 116,249,000 
1916 38,252,000 66,720,000 5,226,000 9,032,ODO 119,230,000 
1917 49,875,000 118, 078, 000 12,737,000 20,294,000 200,984,000 
1918 65,082,000 148,007,000 13,427,000 25,929,000 252,445,000 
1919 62,163,000 139,119,000 13,097,000 22,450,000 236,829,000 
1920 55,583,000 119,164,000 10,320,000 21,747,000 206,814,000 
Ontario.... '" . ..... .1915 108,423,000 119,349,000 6,118,000 20,574,000 254,464,000 
1916 112,026,000 140,866,000 7,370,000 25,283,000 285,545,000 
1917 100,259,000 154,428,000 11,016,000 31,211,000 296,914.000 
1918 8], 16
,00O 224,280,000 19,766,000 43,896,000 369,111.000 
1919 79,153,000 242,895,000 19,831,000 42,387,000 384.266,000 
1920 76, 197,OCO 205,007,000 13,349,000 37,641,000 332,194,000 
Manitob.t........ . . . . .1915 42,274,000 21,088,000 432,000 2,368,000 66,162,000 
1916 40,754.000 22,313,000 597,000 2,215,000 65,879,000 
1917 44.574,000 38,330,000 1,289,000 4,157,000 88,350,000 
1918 54,371,000 54,168,000 2,317,000 7,517,000 118,373.000 
1919 49,523,000 52,684,000 2,518,000 7,185,000 111,910,000 
1920 40,536,000 39,344,000 1,389,000 4,601,000 85,870,000 
Saskatchewan.. .. . . .1915 92,619,000 40,699,000 1,066,000 5,347,000 139,731,000 
1916 fj6,025,00C 44,214,000 1,384,000 5,686,000 147,309,000 
1917 121,482,000 80,329,000 1,822,000 14,492,000 218,125,000 
1918 147,511,000 93,261,000 2,281,000 14,59.5,00(\ 257,648,000 
1919 139,807,000 96,381,000 2,204,000 11,242,000 239,634,000 
1920 101,499,00r 69,509,000 1,287,000 6,438,000 178,733,000 
A bertn.............. .1915 61, .559,000 44,942,000 1,789,000 2,871,000 111,161,000 
1916 68,673,000 52,949,000 2,455,000 3,658,000 127,735,000 
1917 87,635,000 106,789,000 4,016,000 17,708,000 216,148,000 
1918 84,662,000 125,971 ,000 4,983,000 14,437,000 230,053,000 
1919 75,236,000 104,804,000 5,103,000 11,146,000 196, 2R9, 000 
1920 59,348,000 68,963,000 3,833,000 5,158,000, 137,302,000 



P.t It.\l Il1.r; 8Tn(Y!\ 


"227 


u.- .'
tlmated 'rotal 'alu(' of t'arm I he 
tock In Canada, b) PrO\illces. 1915-19
O 
-f'ol1f'lud('d. 


. 
Provincf' and '\ ('ur. Hor1'f':'I. Cattle. Shf'(,p. S" inf'o Total. 
I S S S S 
ßritbh ('uhnll 1)1a .. .1!H5, Ö, 22S, uoo, :-',40H,OOo 37l,OOo 57R,Oo(l l,j I :)
:
, (Ion 
lOHì 6, ti22, 000, 9, :Hiï. 000' 4
6,OOO' 700,000 Ii , 1;.1. 000 
1 
11 i I 6, ,'}o.) , 0001 17 . 4
,') . onn 
 ()n:
 , onn I 7Hl,OOO, 2;),
q,OOO 
!tH,1o, .5,42"',000 IS,47
,OOO' ()7!t, 000' 9,'},),OOO 2.) , ,j40, oon 
)fH!' 5,li

',OOo
 ]9,00\0\,001'1 720,000' 1,2,)9, uoo' 27 , 5 :?t) , lIOO 
1920 5,.:;,j3,OOOj 15,
':;",OOO ,=> 11,000' 926,0001 22, 34,
 , oon 
I 


I,) - .:..tlm:sh'd 
 umht'r, and' ;,hlt''\ (If Farm Poultr) In Canada, 19'!0. 



 


.\\t'r
 . Total \ vl.rage Total 
Dt'...rript ion. , '\ un' l>t'r. pri('(' vslut' Dl . ('I ipt ion. 
umh('r. prir(' vdul'. 
I per h<'tul. per lll'<Lll. 
- - 
Sets $ S ('b. I 
'anada - Untarlo- 
I'urk(')"!': 
06, 166 4 00 3,225.0011 Turk('y
. 
6i, 
,1 ,) or 1.339. -tOll 
Gt"t'H. 761,655 2 80 2.131,100 Gt......(' 39.1, 23
 2 "''''I 1. 13!o1, aOtl 
I 111(' k
. . 6;} I, 235 1 50 !li6,900 Duck 311 , 6;)2 1 fJ'" -t!I:? !I()O 
( If h(,1 fo\\ I.. . . 2S. 2"0, 76.1 1 01' 30,fi'\3.o0r Ot Ilt'r fo\\ I.. ... lO,030.bi:! 1 19'11. !I.m. iOO 
Total
 30,,j0,j,St, 1 1 37,016,0 Tot ai, . 11,00,j,G.-, 1 3.)1...,90;,300 
trilH'l' "'d \\ .&rtl Wanltuba - 
f..l:wd - 1'urhy 14.'), om 3 3, 4,0.O<'U 
rurkl'YB. . . . 6,4b2 3 72 ::?4,100 ( ;t"<':-I' t>4. ,íor' 2 ;,.) II1-t . .')00 
( ; t'('
e . . 22,654 285 64 , tj(l() I>uckr- 64,001, 1 25 >0.0.0(10 
Duch. 9,282 1 oil 13.00(, Üt her fO\\ 1:-. . . 3.10(1.01 ( o 90 2. 7!11I.1I1I(I 
( It ht'r fo\\ lb. 611.319 1 00 612.000 Totar, . . 3.3i3,5CO 1 C-I' 3,.jl.J.:iOO 
Tot al:oo 61' ,"\ Ii 1 10 '4H,:WO 221.6011 I 

a
"at"'u'\\an - 
0\"3 Srotla- - Turk(') :- 3 00 liD.). 100 
rurk(')
 . 6,2E.3 4 24 26, tlOf: (; ('t"'P 9:?, ;1:-: 2 50 2
1. !I(IO 
l;t"t.''''c. 16,532 3 05 50,40(' Du(' k 
 ;.'). 11-
 1 2.''i1 !14. OliO 
Ducks ..... 10,543 1 50 15, .,0(' Ot h('r fowl ... 6.217.51"i o !12 5.7::0, too 
( It h('r fo\\ 1:- ..... 
05, 328 1 00 
05, 300 Tot al'i ... . 6,G07,UO 1 02 6, il1.100 
Total.!, " \iI,6
6 1 O. '!}
,10" 14,4001 I 
.\lht'rta - 
"" Brun,wlcL.- l'urk{') . . 
 
!I .U,2(\0 
Turk{'
 !-. 22,192 4 00 88, ....011 G ('('<. {' 7,201 - .).) IS,4nll 
Gee:-e. 20,142 3 07 61,f..OO Duck.... . . 33, 597 J 1 :?2 41.000 
Duck!' 8,913 1 59 14,20'-, Other fo\\ l
 2,34-1.6!)'" II 
I:! 2, 1.17, 000 
Ot her fO\\ Is. 701. %ï 1 15 
o; ,30 Total, 2,399,
,j.j o 9-1 2.260,600 
Totals '" 753,%31 1 129 9;%,100 ..M<I 
Rritlsh ('tllumhia 
uebee - Turkey.. 7 .'"i0 j
.9nO 
rurk(') s.. _. 114,3;71 4 3.') 497,90ft (;('(':-(" . 1:?,26_ 3 j
 43. 
ftO 
G (,{,Sl' . 130,384 2 74 3,17.300 Duc k 
 22,3631 1 k.; 41.4011 
Ducks.. . . 115,69;/ 1 59 1 "4, 0011 Ot h('T fo\\ I... I, 297 , .1)9
1, 1 50 1. 
1-t6. 400 
Oth('r fowl!- " 3,177,402 1 23 3, 90
. 200 Total., 1.:UO,O

 1 56 
,'190,(.4tU 
Tota''i. . ...-... 3,537.8 0 1 "U 4,9-t7,-IQO I I 


( 


::\ 


Q 


Fur-Farmin
 in Canada.-AC'rording to a report i
sued by 
the l)on1Ïnion Bureau of 
tati
ti('
. th{> total value in IBIO of the 
fur-farIning inùu'-'try in (1anada, ,vhich includes ranches and fur- 
hearing anilnals oth('r than those of the :,ilver fox in Prince E(h,.ard 
I
land, ".as ;;$:3,078,02ö, \vhieh cOlnpri
('s :-.\:3,009,4,=)8, the value of 
fur-bearing anilllais and S87h,568, th(' valu(' of land and pens. Alto- 
gether there 'v ere in 1919, 414 fox farIn
 in operation, ineluding 
2--19 in Prince Elhvard Island, 49 in X ova Scotia, 20 in X e,v Bruns- 
wick, 52 in Quehec, ten in Ontario, one in 
Ianitoha, one in 
a
kat- 
ehe".an, 11 in ...-\.lherta, eight in Briti
h Colulnbia and 13 in the 
18427-15
 



228 


PRODL
CTIO^T 


Yukon. There .were also three nlÌnk farms in Nova Scotia and t,vo 
small raccoon farms in Quebec, ".ith property valued at $1 875 and 
8765 respectively. The nUlnber of silver foxes on farms at date of 
Decelnber 31, 1919, ,vas 6,878, v.ith a total value of $3,012,965. 
Patch or cross foxes nUlnbered 831, valueù at $75,458, and red foxes 
255, valued at $10,345. Of the total nunlber of silver foxes, Prince 
Ed,vard Island possessed 5,149, 
oYa Scotia 375, Ne,v Brunswick 
458, Quebec 318, Ontario 120, the Prairie Provinces 280, British 
Colulubia 65, and the Yukon 113. Silver foxes born on fur farms 
in 1919 numbered 4,877, patch or cros:, foxes 495, red foxes 162, 111ink 
40 and raccoons 2. 
A total of 2,028 ::-5ilver fox pelts of the value of $481,864 lvere sold 
frolll fur farnls in 1919, distributed by provinces as follows: Prince 
Ed,vard Island, 1,570, value $368,654; Nova Scotia 116, value 

28,843; N e,v Bruns,vick 100, value ::!i22,855; Quebec 84, value 
830,525; Ontario 44, value 
6,417; l\Ianitoba, Saskatche".an and 
Alberta 63, value $13,180; British Colulnbia 8, value $1,330; and 
the Yukon 43, value 
10,020. There ,vere also sold froln fur farms 
305 patch or cross fox pelts, value $20,914; 156 red fox pelts, value 
84,216; one blue fox pelt, value 
65; 56 111ink pelts, value $1,030, 
and two raccoon, value $30. 
In all, therefore, during the year 1919, the total number of pelts 
produced by C,anadian fur fanns ,vas 2,548 of the '<lalue of $508,079. 


DAIRYIXG. 


Creameries and Cheese Factories, 1917, 1918 and 1919.- 
rrhe total number of dairy factories Illakin
 returns in Canada in 
1919 ,vas 3,282, as compared ,vith 3,373 in 1918 and 3,418 in 1917. 
Of the total in 1919, 1,018 \vere creameries, 1,787 ,vere cheese factories, 
453 were cOlnhined factories Illaking butter and cheese, and 24 ,vere 
condensed milk factories. The great Illajority both of creameries 
and cheesf' factorie
 ,vere in Quebec and Ontario. In Quebec there 
,vere 631 crf'amerie::;, 833 chef'se factories, 403 c0111bined factories 
and one condensed l1Úlk factory. In Ontario, creameries numbered 
179, cheese factories 888, combined factories 37 and condensed milk 
factories 17. The total nUInber of patrons (i.e., farmers supplying 
milk and cream) ,vas 275,060, as cOlnpared \vith 252,416 in 1918 
and 248,683 in 1917. In 1919 the patrons numbered 79,015 in Quebec 
and 99,771 in Ontario. The totaL value of the capital inve::-5ted in 
the dairy factories of Canada in 1919 was 
28,388,026, as c01l1pared 
,vith 
23,131,620 in 1918, and $19,628,001 in 1917. The number of 
employees ,vas 10,716 in 1919, anci their ::-5alarie::-5 :tnd \vage::-5 amounted 
to $7,629,997. The aIllount paid to patrons ,vas $107,412,542, as 
compared ,vith $83,637,391 in 1918 and $73,863,301 in 1917. The 
total expenditure ,vas $128,556,744 and the value of products ,vas 
8135,196,602, comprising butter $56,371,985; cheese $44,586,168; 



D
1IR}ï.\"G 


22H 


cOIHh'n:-:p( 1 produrt
 
 1 :J. n;{o,.") 1:3; wholp IHilk and ('I"('anl 
 I'>, ib
, i."):! 
and Illi:-:('pllallpous ;-..1,81 H, I
-L For un
, t IH' eXIH'n:-:t'S tot alh'd 
 l()l,- 
3f>-1,tH2 and th{' produets wen' yahH'd at :--;}07,:3-tO,ð.")O. 
Production and 'Talul
 of Crl
an1ery Bu tter.-''l'hc total 
produ('tion of ereaull'ry Luttprin lBIH Crable 16) was 103,bUO,iOilh., 
yalup 5ti,:Jil,!Jð3, a:-\ ('olllpan'd with 93.20h,3-1ö lb., yalup "'.1l,
30,I3() 
in HH
, and 
i,.,)2ti,H;i
J Ih., yalup ':
-!.27-L218 in 1
t17. (llH.he(' and 
Ontario tog;ethpr produepd ahout ()!) p.t". uf thp total erparrH'ry buttpr 
in Canada. 1"hp production of (llH'l)('(' in IHln was :{B ()Sl.:J()() 11,., 
yalup c...:!O,ð57,32:3, a:-\ ("olllpar(,d with :{f),7t) 1.0'>7 11,., Y:\luc 
I().3ü-t,050 
in 101
 and ".ith :31,3H2..,)G2, yalue :-:13.ü
C).310 in IHli. Ontario 
in 1Ul!J pf()(lu('ed 33,UU:
.5f)2 lb., yalup 18,3-l0,H.>I, a
 cOlIlparpd 
. t I ') (\ t -.) t,), ) I . l .) I ,. . > (\.) I... ., I (\ 1 \.l 1 · ) "'" - - ( >> - - "'" I 
\\ï 1 _.'. t;)_. t_...., ya UP 
 .J, \,).}.".}O In v 0, ant _0,") ),1.)0, Ya UP 

 II ,2:Jt>,R:JB in 1 H 17. For a II Canada t 11(' a Yf'ra!!:p wholt'sale pri('p of 
en':Ullpry hutter \\.ork('d out at .")-1 (.('nt... per II,. in lUlU. a:-: (,olllparcd 
,,"ith 43 ('Pllt
 per 11.. in 10lb and 3U ('('nt"'!H'r 11>. in lUli. 
Production ...lnd Yalue of Factory Chccse.
l'he total pro- 
(luetion of faetory che('
c in ]9HJ Crablp 17) wa
 1l>h.121,
7l 11,., 
yahlt\ '1-t))
f), I tiS, n:-: eonlpa n'd wi th 17 -!,
7b,31;i lb., yahH' "

n,.L")(),.>;32 
in 1Ulb :lIHlln-l.UO-....;3:
() Ih.. yalup :,-tI,I
O,ö2:3 in Utli. Ontario and 
Qud)('(' to
('t Ilt'r prot1u("pd Hi p.l'. of t la' total fa('torY-1I1:ulp ('hpp:-:c 
in Canada. In Ontario tlu' quantity produc 'ù in 1019 was 103,320,011 
Ih., valup '27 ,9
0,4 77, a=" ('olupan'd with 1 07 ,ö
{), i2-t Ih., value 
"'
-t.3.)ü.OH-J in 19]8 and 1:!1.17:3,U
ti Ih., yalup .2.'),7i1,U.t-t in 191i. 
In Quehp(' t h(' qunntity prodlH'ed in UH 9 ,vas 58.0-t-l., i1 U Ih., valup 

 };,).30':} -l
S. as (,olnpared with ()2,070, 1 ()2 11,., yalue 
 13,9iü,8G6 
in 1918 and ü7,b35,Oli Ih., yalup bI4,li2,2i3 in 1917. rrhe averag p 
,vholc
ale price of factorY-lnade ehe '....e for Canada was, for 191 B, 
27 cent':) per Ih. as compared ,vith 22 cent::, pf'r lb. in HU8 and 21 cent:-: 
per lb. in 1 U Ii. For 1 gig the highest price ppr lb. ,vas in 
a
katf'hewan, 
32 tPnt:-: per Ih. In the othpr proyilu.(,:-\ thp pri('(' rangpd frOlll 2G 
('ents to 2H eent
 per Ih. 

liscellaneous Dairy Factory Products.-The production of 
conden
ed Inilk in 1910 ,,"as ß2,216,3b3 lb., valued at 9,456,016; of 
evaporated milk, IG,107,934 Ih., valued at ::;I,7
Y,080; and of milk 
po,vder, 6, ibS, 770 lb., valupd at 
 1.617 .04ti. Thp value of the crcam 
and whole milk 
old by dairy factorie
 'VH
 
1.
,-l88,752. Thp largpst 
proportion of the Inilk and rreanl :-\old i
 eontributed by city dairies, 
,vhich are cla
:-:ified a
 dairy factories when producing butter or 
chppsp. Table 18 sho,,"
 the quantitips and values of product
 other 
than butter and cheese in the years 1917, 1918 and 1919. 



230 


PRODUCT/OiV 


16.-Production and Yalue of ('nalUt'ry Butter, by Provinces, 1917, 1
IS, 1919. 


CRE.UIERIES. 


Province. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1917. 1918. 1919. 
lb. lb. lb. S $ S 
Prince Edward Island.... .. ' 513.520 5-1ð,924 7-1ì,8
5 205,368 249,039 400.693 
N oya ðcotia. . . , 1,746,662 1,756.905 2.102,419 711,652 808,755 1,183,76
 
New Brunswick... 498,173 633,316 910,5(}'1 206,564 290,539 503,714 
Quebec. ., . 28,726,628 30.839,505 30.680,200 11.404,337 13,722,990 16,957,549 
Ont:uio.... . . -...... .. . 26,288,841 26.969,588 31,921.695 10,241,545 12,003,063 17,243,316 

ranitoba.... . . .. . 7,050,921 8,431,962 8,268,342 2,595,472 3,895,041 4,350,693 
Baskatchewan. 4,220,758 5.009,014 6.622,572 1,575.965 2,221,403 3,495,172 
Alberta. .. . . .. . 4,998,096 6,597,319 8,771.137 1,887,262 2.934,705 4.538,993 
Brit
sh Columbia. 1,201,646 1.560,478 1.646,820 555,747 797,782 1.005,686 
Canada . .. . 75,215,251 82,317,011 91,671,5H 29,383,912 1 36,923,317 49,679,5;8 


CO:\fBIXED FACTORIES. 


Province. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1917. 1918. 1919. 
lb. lb. lb. S S S 
Prince Ed ward Island. . . . . . . 41.345 37,b93 83,93
 16,762 17,065 44:,494 

ova Scotia.... . - - - - - - 
New Brunswick..... .. ...... . 67,526 26,694 - 27,122 12,279 - 
Quebec. 5,665.934 5,921,552 7,001,166 2,284,973 2,641,960 3,899,974 
Ontario. . 1. 694, 509 1,160,095 881 , 25.
 664,523 546,935 492,351 
Manitoba.. . - 5,000 - - 2,435 - 
f'a..katchewan . - - - - - - 
Alberta.... . 3,945.87::; 2,4.15. !H8 3,0,11.75;' 1,527.279 1,091, 14ti 1,593,740 
RritiEh Columbia. 93,097 21 , 446 21,470 38.8'/6 1O.0i9 13,311 
. . 
<'
anada 11,508,28t 9,628,59ð 11 ,039 , 5S.
 4,55!>,535 4,3"1,899 6,0!3,S78 
I I 


('O'DEXSED Fo\CTORIE8. 
Province. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1917. 1918. 1919. 
--- --------- 
lb. lb. lb. S S $ 
Prince Ed ward Island.. 42.406 34,937 73,9I'ð 17,810 27,46S 40,693 
i\ ova Scotia. . . 5,010 2,560 
Ontario. . 730, 996 1.267,
O2 1.100,61
 312,961 586,472' 60.1, 2
4 
I 
('ana.da 773, 402 1 1,322,739 1,1;9,611; 330,711 6t:}, 940 I Gts,ã:n 
TOT.\L. 
Province. 19lï. 1915. 1919. 1917. 1918. 1919. 
lb. lb. lb. S S S 
Prince Edward I:sland..... 597,271 641,754 905,752 239,940 293,572 485,880 
Xova ðcotia.... .... . 1,746,662 1.756,905 2.107.42g 711,652 808,755 1,186,322 
Kew Brull:swick............. 565,699 660,010 910,504 233,686 302,818 503,714 
Quebec. . 34,392,562 36,761,057 37,681,366 13,689,310 16,364,950 20,857,523 
Ontario. . . 28,714,352 29.397,485 33.903,562 11,219,029 13,136,470 18,340,951 
)Ianitoba. 7,050,921 8,436,962 8,268,342 2,595,472 3,897,476 4,350,693 
Sa::ikatche\\:an::....... . . .. 4,220,758 5,009,014 6,622,572 1,575,965 2 , 221. 403 3,495,172 
Alberta... .. 8.943,971 9.0,53,237 11,822.890 3,414,541 4,025,851 6.132,733 
British Colu
bi
'.'.... 1,294.743 1, .')81,924 1,668,290 594,623 807,861 1. 018. 997 
Canada . 87,526, 939 1 93,298,348 103,S90,707 34,274,218 41,859,1..6i 56,:171,9".; 
I 



J).1/U}Y/SG 


231 


;. IÞrodlidlon and' aluc of }'ador) Cht't'st', b) YroYlnct'
 1'17, 191101 and 1919. 


CHEESE FACTOIUi::>. 
. 
Pro\ inee. 1917. 1915. 1!1l9. 1917. 191
. 1919. 
lb. lb. lb. S S S 
Prince Ed\\arù bland... I, 599 . 
"-'i 1. 535. 
71 1. 677,431 333.723 350.606 432,502 
:\ 0\ a :-'cot ia 67.497 61. 195 47.360 14.26
 13. 
97 1
,9,j2 
XC" Brun.
"ick. 1.18ð.2t16 1,149.367 1. 2.12, 
-t!} 
-I.l. fi
9 2.19.431 349.794 
Queb<'C 0.014.037 39.117.406 37. 9:18, Sï
 R. :161. OSI 8.776. !lty.? 10.001.712 
()ntario .. lU.319.617 102. t-ï4. 662 99,046.731 2-1.31
,420 23,
13,;;20 26. i -14 , 016 
:\Ianitoha .. I. OO:J, 64û 6.'i7.0
5 4
:I, ,,j,1 IW.036 143.6!J6 III . 89S 

a.... kntdll'y, an 104. 649 1 I:J.573 35.4.12 3,2.i7 11 ,52i 
Alherta IM.90
 30.1,.')!)
 
:!.692 43.431 80,195 
Briti:òh Columbia. 35.000 230.347 21\9.501 10,655 56,076 83.805 
Total I 111,017 ,bote 3.1,áu.i,äD.; 32, 37 ,8')
,tOI 
I.')'" 34
,G
71 J4d,

4,4111 O,MI6 
I 
("O.IBI
ED F 
CTOHIE
. 
Province. 1917. 191 lQ19. 1917. HU8. 191Q 
lb. lb. lb. S S S 
Princt.' Ed\\ard I:;land....... 635.100 665,497 i\.l5, I:J
 13
.594 152,677 2U8.007 
:\l'Y, llrun:;y,iek. 55. h 10 35.S.')':) 12. 016 1 8,146 
(
Ul'h('(' 27.81O.9ðO 22.952.756 20, 105, M 1 5.MI,192 6.19!ì,!lM 5.303.776 
( )ntario 6,853.46' 4,ð39.56U 4,200,0\12 1.453.524 I, OC:JIJ. 4:161 1,156.470 
\[anitoba . 500 :.!.')7.4;3 1 125 
.\lbl'rta 1,170.256 367. tt?6 ll4. !):
2 87 . 4
O 64,963 
Briti:,h Columbia 36.094 19.300 15.00 ' 8. 2911 1 4, b25 1 4,500 
('anada ',561, ;0'1 
" ""1.,-106 l.Þ,. :10,99; 7,675, ..... .,55%,'-'>3 1,737,776 
I I 


CO
DJ:S
!:D FACTOIUE
. 


1918. 1919. 
S S 
43.063 19,991 


Province. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


1917. 


lb. 


lb. 
li2.4931 


lb. 


s 


.. .1 


73.21'- 


Ontario .. 


TOTAL. 


::5 


Province. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1917. 1918. 1919 
. 
lb. lb. lb. S S S 
rince :f: d \\ ard Island. . . . . .. 2.234,985 2,201.368 2.4;2.563 466.317 503 , 28.3 640.569 
. 0\ a 
eotia. . . _ . . 67,497 61.195 47.360 14,269 13,897 12.952 
:'I;ew BrUD8\\ick..... . - - - . - 1.2-14.106 1.185.225 1.252,849 257.645 26i.577 349,794 
uebec 67.835.017 62.070.162 58.04-1.719 14.172.273 13.976.866 15,305.48b 
ntario. . 121.173,086 107,8"'6,724 103.:320.041 25,771.944 24.356.019 27.920.477 
lanitol.,a. 1,003.646 657.5
 423.855 199.036 143,
21 111. bV8 
'a,....b.ntchewan _ .. . - 13.573 35,452 - 3.257 11 ,527 

lberta_ 1.274.905 652.834 520.530 280.185 130.911 145.15& 
riti:>h Columbia... il.094 249,647 3M. 50') 18,954 60.901 88.305 
Canada It.J,t04,336 1 .i4,
78,313 166,t21,S21 .u,1
O,'23' 39,456,532 44,586,161) 
I I 


p 
); 


Q 
o 
:\ 


n 



232 


PRODUCTIo.lf 


18.-)lIscellaneous Products of Dairy Factories, 1917, 1918 and 1919. 


1917. I 1918. 1919. 
Products. -- 
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 
$ S S 
Condensed milk......... lb. 32.105,799 3,811,281 40,700,209 5,711,174 62,216.383 9,456,016 
Evaporated milk. ..... . lb. 29,415,012 2,635,952 38,612,367 4,048,055 16,107,934 1,789,089 
Milk powder. . . . .. lb. 3,979,514 817,287 5,530,915 1.388.2
 I 6,788,770 1,617,046 
Sterilized milk.......... lb. - - - 7,460,400 852,080 
Modified milk. . . . _ . gal. 8,044 8,794 - - - 
Skim condensed milk... lb. 127,820 6,391 495,395 29,724 494,973 32, 
)21 
Condensed coffee and 
cocoa... . ... lb. - - - - 743,984 150,668 
Whey butter. . . . . '" lb. 727,075 247,757 891,543 354,675 1,404,491 661,014 
Casein. .. lb. 180,023 28,337 243,763 40,854 199,703 32,693 
Ice cream. . . . . . . . gal. 2,000,761 2,200,360 2,033,190 2,517,435 2,854,070 3,634,686 
Whole milk sold........ gal. 15,062,945 5,917,544 18,986,646 8,568,966 23,017,800 10,662,526 
Cream sold. . . (lb. butterfat) 4,613,834 2,545,327 4,616,449 2,943,790 6,505,394 4,826,226 
Buttermilk sold............ . - 205,455 - 235,529 - 256,491 
Miscellaneous, including curd 
cheese, skim-milk, whey 
and whey cream.......... - - - 186,712 - 266,993 
Total.. . . .. . . . . . - 18,421,485 - 26,025,162 - 31,238,449 


Comparative Statistics of Dairy Factories.-In Table 19 
the production and value of creamery butter and factory cheese for 
all Canada is compared for the years 1900, 1907 and 1910 and for-the 
years 1915 to 1919. For 1900 and 1910 the figures sho,vn are those 
of the decennial census; for 1907 they are those of the special postal 
census of that year, and for 1915 to 1919, they are as collected by 
the Don1Înion Bureau of Statistics in co-operation \vith the Provincial 
Governnlents. Including the miscellaneous products set out in 
Table 18, the total value of the production of dairy factories in 
Canada for 1919 \vas $135,196,602, nf' compared ,vith 
107,340,850 
in 1918 and $93,879,326 in 1917. 


19.-Production and Yalue of ('reamery Butter and Factory Cheese, 1900, 1907,1910 
and 1915-1919. 


Year. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Creamery Butter. 


Factory Cheesf>. 


1900........................ . 
1907.... ..................... 
1910.......... ............... 
1915........ ................. 
1916........................ . 
1917........................ . 
1918........................ . 
1919........................ . 


No. 
3,576 
3,515 
3,625 
3,513 
3,446 
3,418 
3,373 
3,282 


lb. I 
36,066,739 
45,930,294 
64,698, 165 1 
83,991,453 
82,564,130' 
87,526,939 
93,298,348 
103,890,707 


$ 
7,240,972 
10,949,062 
15,645,845 
24,385,052 
26,966,352 
34,227,218 
41,859,156 
56,371,985 


lb. 
220,833,269 
204,788,583 
199,903,205 
183,887,837 
192,968,597 
194,904,336 
174,878,313 
166,421,871 


S 
22,221,430 
23,597,639 
21,587,124 
27,097,177 
35,512,622 
41,180,623 
39,456,532 
44,586,168 



PRCITS 


2.33 


}'It,".1' 
T.\1'I
TI( 
 Ot' (' \
.\J).\. 1919.\ 


COIlIIlICrci'\l Production and 'Talu
 of ...\pples.-A('('ording 
to infonna tion ('ollf'('t('d joint ly hy t hp l)oJllinion Bu n'a u of 
ta ti;-;- 
ti('
 and the Fruit Branch of the l)()lninion Df'p:utlnent of \gri('ul- 
hIre, the cOllunereial produ('tion of applps in Canada for thp ypar 
191 9 wa
 3,33-!,ôtiO harfl
b, yalul' 
:!-\ ,:3UG,21 0, (list ributt'd hy prov- 
ill('(':-; a:-: folIo"-,: X ova 
cutia, 1,GUO,OOO La 1'1'('1:5, value "'U,U
n,G80; 
X,,," llrun:-\wie k, -\0,000 harrt'b, va lu(' .
:
()7 ,-l00; Qu('l)('('. 70,500 
harn'b, value .....,27 ,UjU; Ontario, 
 7
,
t)O balT('b, valut' .'7 ,():30,

0; 
nriti:-;h Colunlhia, 2,23(),UOO bnx(':-., ('f}llivalent to 71",300 barr('l" 
valup 
G,.) 10,:300. TIH'sP figu rp:-; n'pfl.':-;(
nt a v('rage w hol(':-\ale pri('('
 
1)('1' harrcl of 
ô.2-l for Xo\"a 
cutia; 
7.()
 for X(,,, Brul1:-;wi('k: ..'7.;;0 
for QUt'lw(': 
. for Ontario; '
.7h for Briti:-\h Cohnnbia, and 
7 .:
 1 
for all Canada. III thp ("a:-:(' of appl<':o: ('xportt'd to th(' lYnitcd Kingdolll 
t he value in('l ude, u(' 'an fr('iJ,!ll t rat P:", ,vhi('h vari('d f rUIn s2.50 to s:
 
p('r barn
1. For tbe provÌIH'p of ()ntario, t he total proÙlletion of 
S78,
(j() barrel;-; ("on:-;i:-\t:-: of 2-1-, 1
2 harn'ls of ('arly appl('s, 12.1,201 
harrels of fall apph" and 730,:.?27 harrpl
 of wintpr appl(':-;. 
l'abl(' 20 ,hows for the year un n t ht' productioll and '
alup of 
conllnprcial apples in Canada, and 
rahl(' 21 
how:-; for thc y('ar lUlU 
the produetiol1 of applt,s in Ontario by Fruit Inspection 1)i4rict
. 



o. - .-rod lid ion nnd , ahl(" of ('omnwrdal ..\ 1)1)lt.
 In {'iinada. 1919. 


Total , al UP 
Province. Quantity. , alUf'. pt'r 
barn'l. 
Harrds. S S 
Xoya Scotia....... 1, liOO, 000 9,\J89,bhO 6.24 
X cw Brunswick 40,000 307,400 7.
8 
Quebec...... . . - . . . . 70,500 .127. !)SO 7.50 
Ontario..". .. ................. . 878,8üO 7,030,880 8.00 
British Columbia......... . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . 745,300 2 6,540,300 8.78 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 3,33:1,b60 2:1,396,210 7..U 


lAbridgpd from the complete Report in the _\Ionthly Bulletin of Agricultural Statif-tics, 
August, 1920 (Vol. 13, Xo. 144, p. 211), and also published sepalately. 


. 



234 PRODUCTIOJ.V 
21.-Production of Apples in Ontario b) Fruit Inspection Districts, 1919. 
No Inspection District. Early Fall Winter Total 
Apples. Apples. Apples. Apples. 
barrels. barrels. barrels. barrels. 
1 Otta'wa and St. Lawrence Valley.. 2,297 5,148 4,775 1
.2
0 
2 Picton, South Bay and Lakes Dis- 
trict. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 2,389 39,205 41,801 
3 \Y ellington, Rednerville.. . . . . 78 7,115 12,248 19,441 
4 Trenton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,088 29,004 31,09
 
5 Brighton....... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 341 1,441 21,78] 23,563 
6 Cobourg, Colborne and Port Hope 581 3,994 37,876 42,451 
7 Bowmanville, N ewcastlt and 
Oshawa. . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 1,195 25,663 27,017 
8 Clarkson, Oakville, f'tc..... . . . . . - . 7,880 12,240 61, 233 81,353 
g St. Catharines. . . .. . .. . . . 235 109 11, 236 11 , 580 
10 Fruitland-Beamsville........ .... 2,741 732 24,777 28,
50 
11 Simcoe- Thamesville. . . . ....... . 73S 320 126,617 1:?7,675 
12 Middle.;;;ex. '" .. . . . . . . . . . . 54 124 19,841 20,019 
13 E

ex and Lambton.... . . .. .... . 1 , 4.33 14,398 57,555 73,408 
14 Lake Huron. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,210 60,512 188,532 254,254 
15 Gporgian Bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,456 12,396 69,884 84,736 
- ----- 
Totals.... . .. . " . 21,132 124,281 736,227 878,S60 


Nursery Trees, Bushes and Plants.-During the year ended 
September 30, 1919, the total value of the nursery fruit stock reported 
as sold in Canad
 amounted to $270,818. Of :tpple trees 306,419 
were sold to the value of $85,561, c0mprising 42,327 Early apples, 
value $11,741; 53,86.5 Fall apples, value $14,371, and 210,227 \Vinter 
apple
, value $59,448. 
The number and value of other descriptions of fruit tree8, bU8he
 
and plants \vere as follows: TREES: pears, 63,149, value $22,056; 
plums, 75,284, value $24,980; peaches, 68,453, value $11,842; cherries, 
70,557, value $24,240. BUSHES: currants, 180,040, value $28,057; 
grapes, 82,345, value 88,014; gooseberries, 62,440, value $14,328. 
PLANTS: raspberries, 495,331, value $27,786; stra\vberries, 1,638,538, 
value $23,431; blackberries, 14,000, value $490, and loganberrie:" 
330, value $33. 
The average \vholesale price per tree, bush or plant works out 
a
 follo\vs: Apples, from 27 to 28 cents; pears, 35 cents; plums, 33 
cents; peaches, 17 cents; cherrie8, 34 cents; currants, 16 cent:;; 
grapes, 10 cents; gooseberries, 23 cents; raspberries, 6 cents; stra ,"v- 
berries, $1.43 per 100; blackberries, 4 cents; and loganberries, 
10 cents. 



FllCITS 


2.
,j 


'fahlt, 22 :'l1l1lIll
lrizp
 for (':Ul.lda and for e<leh of the provinet'''; 
thE' nUlulH'r and ,"ulue of tn'e
, h\l:-\hp:, or pLlnts rp}>orted a
 :-\old 
h
. llur:,prynll'll in Canad:l in 1919, for 'aeh (le;:;cription of fruit. 


2.
. -rotal <<:uantlth'..alUl'"ahlt''' of I'rlilt Trt.t's, Rusin's and I'lants !o>old b) 
UrM'r)ml'n In 
('anada. b) pro,ln('('''. year ende1 
pptember 3J. 1919. 


I I 
D
('ription of 1 \':
riC- 
oJd. 1 \ V('!'8g(' I Totu: 
Tn'(
. Bu
h t prl<'
 '" alu e . 
unù Plant. 1('". per umt 
--- 
Xo :\0 ('t.nts. 1 
('anad:r - I 
ApPu'
-FarIy. 
I -12,327 .2
 11.74121'1 
Fall IY 5J.
t)5 .2i I 14,:HO 
t9 
\\inh'l 53 210.227 
 5V,44S.-19 
Total I 
 J06.419 
 I 
5,5tiO , Ii 
II 63.149 .35 22.056.')
 
34, 15.2ð4 .33 24.9bO.tO 
to 6
, 4';3 .1' 1 II. S.U.
:! 
:?6 70.551 .34 24.239 i," 
I 1.1.000 .04 1 t
IO,O{' 
I.) 1 !{O. 040 . 16 1 
6, OJ i 0, 
I:J h2.J45 10 R.Ott 2.! 
10 1 6'!.440 .2:
1 14.32'd)O 
17 !Y5.331 06 1 27.1
.60 
p<,r 100 I 
_",l.6.18,
 1. 43 23.430, HI 
1 330 10.00 33 00 


Pl'ars. 
Plullls. 
Peachp" . 
Ch('rril. 
:-:
I\1.L FRl."IT 
H1u"kherri
. 
Currant:'!. . 
Grupp:'...... . 
Goo
d)('rri
. . 
H,
plX'rrieð. . 


:-: tra \\ lwrril':-. . . 1 
Loganherrie.s. . 


Dt':-,'ription of Yaric- I::;olù. A Y
rage Total 
TTl'C. Bu:-h tie<... price. Y ILIUl' 
and Plant. per unit. 
Xo. 
o cents. S 


s 


On t arlit - 
Apl'u;-, Farly. 11 21.6.19 .:?O 4,36
 46 
Fall.. P 2S.S
 .2116.1Si.3t' 
Winter. 
 105.632 
 1 23'162 20 
Total 60 156.171 .:l2 34,31R.0.) 
--- 
Pears.... 11 :m.850 . 
U 11, 
.
;
 !)... 
Plums.. 16 60,00.1 .26 15.i01.30 
Peacllt':. 
 I 89,145 _09 
.2i:),6i 
Cherri('S. . . 11 58.024 .30 17.1 iO 53 
S
\LL FRnnt'- 
Currants 9 135. \Oti 011 10, Hi:? ():! 
GrUpt'H . 101 i6. 9
1 071 5.120. H 
Guo:.pberri
. . 1 1 31.235 I:! 4.40.... 70 
H:L"'phl'rrieb. 12 393.900 .04 1 14.6:!5.6ì 
I)cr 100 I 

trn.wb('rrieø. . IS :
M,306 1 10: 12,O-l:! 2f1 
Blu('kberrieø... 
 14,000 
i I' O.OU 
Total ,. alue.. - 127. 6,)
 .
 


Total ,. alue..! 


- 2;0.81i n. 



ova 
cotla - I 
.-\ppu::-\-Farly.. 12 1.
50 .3')1 
Fall. .. 81 
25 4S 1 
\\int('r. 2
 1.019 .30 
--- 
Total I


 I 
Pears. . 6 253 i I 
Plum:5 . 1.') 
21 70, 
Pcach
. II 35 :!!I' 
Cherrif'
 10 4i4 72 
S\f\LL FRUT
- I I 
CurrW1b.... 1 I. 55\) Ii i 
Grap('s. . . 4 14 50 
Goo:-eb('rries. . 3 45h .21 
Ha.'ipberries.. . 1 9.052 .0-1 1 
I*r 100 

trawberric
. . I 
 855,525 .45 
Total Value.. - - - 


BrUI!o>h ('ulum- 
bla - 
.\PPLF:i-l',:Lrly.. 7 11.467 3514,Og2.7.) 
FaiL... 6 20.64! 33 1 6,721.öO 
\\ intpr 2:! '-.9.156 
 30.950,6.) 
Total 
 121.
6ì 
1 4I,7Ii.).20 
5 22,462 4.11 9,bt l !17.1 
9 1O.0ß-I 4HI 4.931 OU 
1 8.673 .41 3.555 90 
8 10.IS.i .50,5.057.90 
9 22.161 301 6.t
4 to 
6 5..107 41 2.251.00 
5 13.3691 24. 1 3,1.15.35 
5 54.979 .07 4. 0
3.4fJ 
Iper 100 
8 219.679 1.25 2.727.50 
I 
O 10.00 
.OO 


b.13 
 
3tl6 4.- 
2.124 2!} 


3. 17 4 5-
 


17g 95 
M:! 95 
10, 2,
 
3.12 10 


2M. 2.1 
7. ()(' 
100.00 
3.39. iO 


3,8')5 62 


8.885.30 


<<lu('bfr - 
ApPLEs-Farly. 
Fall.. .. 
Winter. 


6 6,739 3') 

 3.506 .31 
17 8,038 .2S 


Total. 



 18,2b3 1 30 
3 5S4 .25 
10 1.586 1 .44 
4 362 1 .49 
6 665 1 . 1
1 
4 103 .35 
4 hOO . 28 
7 6.925 1 . 03 
per 100 
4 1,100 1.53 


Pear:. .. 
Plum
 . 
(,herri
. . 

\f\LL FRLlT5- 
Currantð.. . 
Grapes . 
Goo8eherrie:-. . 
Ra.-,pberries. . . . 



trawberri
.. . 


Total Yalue.. 


Pears... . 
Plums. 
Pt.'aclu'" . . . 
Cherri
.. ... 

\fALL FRlIT8- 
Currant::;. . . . 
Grap<>s.. ... 
Goo:-('herries.. . 
Raspherries.. . . 


::\trs\\ berries. . 
Loganberrie:... . 


Total Value. 


2 ,1
9. 90 ?rairie Pro,I..- 
1.055.35 ces-- 
2.2
3.0;) ApPI.E
-EarI:r.. 
FaiL.. . 
5,4iH.30 \\inter 


144.00 
693.00 
176.00 
116.50 
35.75 
220.70 
216.8S 
219.00 
1.300.13 


Total . 


Plums.. . 
(,herri
. . . . 
S
HLL FRLITs- 
Currants. ... 
Gooseberries.. . 
Raspberries.. . 


84.144.40 


4 612 .81 496.3i 
I 10 1.00 10.00 
I 382 .83 318.30 
- - 
6 J .004 .h
 824 6; 
- - - -- 
i 2,70S 1.15 3.012 I.') 
5 1.512 .99 1.493.2.') 


6 19.852 .51 10.119.91 
3 10.578 .61 6,443.2.') 
5 30,475 .2b l 8,519.95 
per 100 

trawberrie5... 
 164. 72ö 
 1 12'416.40 
Total Value.. - - - 42,829.58 



236 


PRODUCTION 


The varieties of \vhich n10st numbers ,vere sold ,vere as follo'ws: 
Early apples: Duchess of Oldenburg, 18,663; )T ello\v Transparent, 
10,793; Fall apples: 'Vealthy, 23,938; 'Vinter apples: l\Iclntosh 
Red, -12,832; Northern Spy, 13,599; Delicious, 13,252; King of Tomp- 
kin
, 10,789; Fameuse, 7,015; Pears: Bartlett, 8,143. Plums: European 
9,159; Japanese, 4,269; Peaches: Elberta, -1,330; Early Cra'wford, 
3,852; St. John, 3,1-15; Cherries: Sours, 8,520; l\Iontmorency, 6,344 
S,veets, 5,312. Currants: Champion, 20,372 ; Naples, 10,680; Grapes: 
Concord, 15,9-16; Gooseberries: Do,vning, 5,483; Raspberries, Cuth- 
bert, 54,530; Red, 21,000; Colulnbia, 11,160; St. Regis, 12,593; 
Black, 10,675. 8tra\vberries: Senator Dunlop, 965,980; 'Yillialns, 
-11,000; Everbearing, 183,351. 


Fruit Production in Quebec.-A_ccording to infonnation 
collected by the Horticultural Division of the Quebec Department 
of Agriculture and communicated to the Dominion Bureau of Statis- 
tiC8, the total production of fruit by the province of Quebec in 1919 
,vas as follo,vs: Apples, 110,40G barrels; strawberrie::;, 591,605 lb.; 
raspberries, 56,446 lb.; gooseherries, 28,560 lb.; and currants, 1,246 
ll>. The estimated value of these fruit
 ,vas: Apples, at $5 per 
barrel, $552,030; stra,vberries at 17 cents per lb., $100,573; rasp- 
berries, at. 17 cents per lb., 
9,031; gooseberries, at 10 cents per lb., 

2.8.56; and currants, at 15 cents per lb., 
187. The total value of the 
fruitR named \vas therefore $664,677. 


Cold Storage of Perishable Products.-Under the Cold 
Storage Act, 1907 (6-7 Edw. 'TII, c. 6), subsidies have been granted 
by the Dominion Government towards the construction and equip- 
ment of cold storage warehouses open to the public, the Act and 
regulations made thereunder being administered by the Department 
of .A.griculture. Table 23 sho,vs for 1920 the number of cold storage 
,varehou
es in Canada, with the refrigerated space. This amounts 
to 33,247,774 cubic feet, of ,vhich 4,928,304 cubic feet apply to ware- 
houses subsidized under the Act and 28,319,470 cubic feet apply to 
non-subsidized \varehouses. 



('01..]) S1'O/f..tGE H 6\ HEllO ("'SES 


:?
7 


1)3 - Cold 
for.agt. "ilrt'hoUSl'S In ('anada. 1920. 



t;B:-OIDIZED Pt:BLI \\ AREHOt::-\F:i. 


H.drigcr- Total 
Province. I 
umLer. at pd Co
t. Subsidy. 
"pw.c. 
Cubi,. f(.('t. S S 
Prinrl' Ellward l:.-land....... .. . 1 150,000 50,000 15,000 

ova 
cotia...... . 3 473,490 '!.'P.7,237 SH, 171 
1\Pw Bruns\\ ick....... 2 781,161 192,577 57,7n 
QucL('c... , 2 24N.394 245,2S7 73,5-';(ì 
( )n tario. . . . . . . . . . . . . If) 1 , (ì'!.(), 1 Uti 632,547 IS-t.514 
Manitoha..... . 1 27,5()() 32,000 f}.IiOO 
:-'a:-katdlPwan. . . . 4 441 , S(ìS HiO,707 4S,212 
Al1wrta..... . . . . 2 :m2, .131 242,O()() 72, (ìOO 
Briti:-õh Columbia..... . 3 877, 1G4 4.1S, 000 137,400 
Total 
uh:.;idiz('d..... . 31 1.9
....3(JI 2,:
uU.;
.i.i fi
 I. S.;6 


=--rB::-;IDIZFD .-\XD X OX-
t:'ß:-.I[)Ilt"D "\UEHUt:':-.t:",. 


R..frig('r- 
Provin('p. ::\0. nt('d 
:O;pacp. 
Prince Ed ward !:stand _ .1 Cubir fp('t. 
4 234,000 
Xova ::;cotia. . . . .. .1 18 1,097,976 
Xpw Brunswirk.._ : I .).) 969,541 
QucbE'c. ... .. .. 56 6,29ð,I04 


Prin('ipal .\rti('lp:-- btof(.d. 


Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


99 


1 
I('at and C('nt'ral, 1 Egjls, 1 Uait and Fi...h, 
1 I'ox 'l('at and 
l('at. 
Hutter and Icc Cr('am, 1 EJo(
:::O. 1 Gt'npral, 
3 Fi
h and "('at, 1 Butter, 3 Fish. 7 Bait 
and Fi
h, 1 'I('at, }
i
h, }'arm and DaiQ' 
})roducts. 
1 
h-at and Poultry, 1 Curpd 
leat
, 1 Eggs, 
2 Gt'neral, Ib Bait and Fi
h. 
19 Gen('ral, 10 
Ieats, 2 Dairy Product:,; and 
)Ieats, 1 Eggs, 
Ipat and Butter, 3 
I("at:'l 
and Poultry, 2 Butter and Ir'e Crpam, 2 
Fr{':;;h and Curpd :\Ipats, 1 
Il'at, Poultry 
and Fi:.;h, 3 Dairy Produet
, 3 Fi
h, 2 
('ured )1 ('ats, 4 )Ieats and Gf'neral, 1 

Ieats, Poultry and Gpnffal, 1 
It'at and 
Buttcr, 1 Dair
. Products, )Ieat.s and 
E


, 1 Butter. 
11,100,757 12 Genpral, 9 )Icat, 7 Butter and Ice ('re'alll. 
6 Egg
 and Gem'ral, 1 Butter, PoultQ' 
and Egg
, 2 
Ieat and Gpnf'ral, 1 ButtN 
and Gf'neral, 1 Egg'i, 9 Butter, 14 )Ieat, 
Poultry, Eggs and Dairy Products. 4 

Ieat, Fi
h, Poultry, Egg
 and DaÍIy 
Product::" 1 
Ieat and .Fruit, 2 
Il'at, 
Butter and Fruit, 12 Fish, 1 
Ieat and 
Dairy Products, 2 Fruit, 1 .Fruit and 
Fi
h, 1 Fresh and Cured Meats, 1 Fi
h 
and 
Ieat, 2 Dairy and Farm Products, 
2 Fi
h and General, 1 
hat and Cheesc: 
2 Egg::; and Buttf'r, 1 
leat and Butter, 
1 Meat and Provisions, 1 Meat and 
General, 2 Packing House Produets. 



238 


PRODUCTIO
V 


SUBSIDIZED A
 D X OX-SUB:-.IDIZED W AREHOUSEs-concluled. 


Province. 


No. 


Refriger- 
ated 
Space. 


Principal Artie les Stored. 



fanitoba. . . 


42 


Cubj(' feet. 
4,006,147 6 Gc.neral, 5 Butter and Ice Cream, 6 Meat, 
1 Meat and General, 15 Fish, 2 Butter, 
3 Meat and Dairy Products. 1 Packing 
House Products, 1 Meat and GenC'ral, 1 
Fish and Poultry, 1 Dairy and Yegeta- 
bles. 
3 Butter, 5 Butter and Ice Cream. 5 General, 
6 Mfat, Fish and General, 1 Eggs and 
General, 1 l\1eat, 1 Eggs, Butter and 
Meat. 
3 General, 4 Meat, 5 Meat, Poultry, Egg:s, 
and Butter, 5 Butter and Ice Cream, 1 
Meat, Fish and General, 1 Eggs and 
Fruit, 1 Butter. 
9 Fish, 3 Butter, 1 Fish and ::\If'at, 2 .Meat, 
2 Butter and Ice Cream, 4 .:\-1 eat, Fi:sh 
and General, 4 General, 1 Fi:;.:h and Gen- 
eral, 2 Meat and General, 1 Meat, Butter 
and Eggs, 1 Butter, Eggs, Poultry and 
Cheese, 1 Butter, Eggs, Meat and Cider, 
2 Packing House Products, 1 Fruit, 
Butter and Gen('ral, 1 Meat and Butter, 
1 Butter and General, 1 Meat, Fish, 
Butter, Eggs and Poultry, 1 Meat, But- 
tn, Eggs and Poultry. 
1 Fish. 



a
katC'hcwan. ... . _ 22 1,560,306 
Alberta. . . . ..... . 
O 3,806,835 
Bliti
h Columbia.... .. 38 4,129,208 
I 
i 
I 
ì 
i 
I 
Yukon. . 1 44,900 
Totals. 322 33,247,77J 


PRICES OJ' AGRICrLTURAL PROD{)CE 


'fables 24-29 record the average prices of Canadian agricultur31 
produce and (Table 30) the ye
rly average prices from 1901 of Briti8h- 
gro,vn \vheat, barley and oats. Tables 24-28 record the average 
prices of Canadian grain at '\Vinnipeg and Fort '\Villis,m, \veekly, for 
the ,veeks ended Saturday during the year 1920 (Table
 24, 26-27) 
and in monthly averages over a series of years (Tables 25 and 28). 
Table 29 gives the month]y rpnge of fiver3ge prices in British markets 
of Canadian wheat and oats for the years 1913 to 1920, the English 
currency, ,veights and measures having been converted into Cr.na- 
dian equivalent denominations at the par of exchange. Table 31 gives 
the monthly average prices of flour, bran and shorts at principal markets 
in 1920, Table 32 the average prices of Canadian live stock at principal 
lnarkets for the three years 1918 to 1920 and Tahle 33 the average 
monthly prices of selected desf'riptions of Canadian live :::;tock at 
principal markets in 1920. The last-named table is an abridgment 
of the more detailed classification appearing in the l\Ionthly Bulletin of 
A.gricultural Statistics. Tables 34 and 35 give the average prices paid 
to and paid by farmers in Canada for clover and grass seed in 1920 



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l)ll/rES OF C 1 Y_1Dl.1S GR.tl.Y 



-t
 


.!G. - n (.l'l.l) Rauge of Itrl e '
 of Ua.... at" "Innilu,'
 and "'urt WiIIi:!m. 1..2 I. 


I ",'r bu:-,ht'l of :a lb.) "::oeuC'E: Hoard of (;ra.in ('(JlIllllis...ionl'r!ol for Canada. 


Dah'. 


I
I
U 


.January 3 
'10 
17 
:?4 
:H 


Xo. 2 C.W. 


s '.. 


". 


:\0.3 C.\\. Xu. I r('(.tJ E
 i\o. I F(',,(l. Xo.2 F((.d. 


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---- ------ ------- ------- 


s c. 
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s c. 


0.921-t) D4i 
O'{):?I-()'U.')
 
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U. 941-Q. 9.)1 


.\u'r:!!:(> ...I 0.72 8.1.f
 


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21 
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1:1 
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24. 


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)1 ny I 
.. 8 
,. 15.. 
.. 2'2 
.. :?9 


..\ \('ra
t'.. 


Junt.' 5. 
.. 12. 
" 19. 
" 2H. 


A \l'ragl'... . . 


July 3. 
,,' 10. 
.. 17. 
,. 24. 
.. 31. 


A, f r.. 
t' . .. . . 


.-\uru
t 7 
" 14.... 
21.... .. 
28....... . 


A \t'rage... . . 


1
427-16! 


u' {iul-t) . 9;'i 
() . {II -0 . {)C i 
()'9()1-0.Ð
 
0.941-0.971 


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1.09
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1 . Ii i-I. 1 R 
1.16
-1.19i 
1 . 23 -I. 29 
1 16 1 -1.20. 


I. 17}-1'281 
1 . 26 -1.34 
1.32 -1.38! 
1.26 -1.32
 


1.251-1.33
 


1.25!-1.31! 
l'lR
-1'291 
1,131-1,18 
1'131-1.
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O.g
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I. r...I-I.22 


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1.32 -1.38i 
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1.09 -1'I
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1.15 -1'21 
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24-1 


PRODUCTIO
Y 


26.-\Veekl)' Range of Pric('s of Oats at \\'innipeg and Fort William, 1920 -concludpd. 
(Per bushel of 34 lb.) RorRcE: Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada. 


Date. 


1920 


No.2 C.\Y. 


$ c. $ c. 


Septpm bel' 4 _ . . 0 . 84i-0. 93i 
,. 11. . . 0.83
-0.88t 
" 18... 0.79i-0'871 
" 25.. . 6 0.73
-0.79 


A\'erage..... O.85i-O.86! 


(Ictober 2. 
9.... . . . 
16. ...... 
23...... . 
30.... _. 


,. 


" 


A \'('rage... _ . 


K oy(\m bel' 6. 
" 13. . . 
" 
O. . . 
" 27. . . 


A\'era
e.... . 


Dec('mher 4... 
11.. . 
18.. . 
25.. . 
31.. . 


" 


" 


A \'erage... . . 


0.71 1-O.75t 
0.69'k-0.74l 
O.7li-0.76t 
0.72 -O.73! 
0.09 -O.71i 


0.70!-0.71
 
0.661-O.69i 
0.62
-0'661 
0.54
-0'64! 
0.531-0.571 


0.59!-O.64! 
0.52j-0.58i 
O. 52
-O' 5ÇJ
 
o. 51i-0.5
H 
0.S2!-0.53! 
0.251-0.551 


0.521-0.
6 


$ c. $ c. 


Xo.3 C.'Y. X 0.1 F<:,ed Ex. No.1 Fcpd. No.2 Fped. 


$ c. $ c. 


0.
lt-0'90
 
0.80i-O.87
 
0.76}--O.8ßl 
0.70!-0.76i 


0.771-0.85 


0.081-0.7t! 
0.661-0.691 
0.05
-0.70! 
0'65i-0'67i 
0.04 -0.65 


0.66
-O.68
 


0.60t-O.62
 
0.561--0.60
 
0..
li-0.59 
0.501-O.53i 
O. 54!-O . .59 
o . 49i-O . 54i 
o. ?"O,}-O. .1.51 
O.48i-0.5]
 
0.491-0.50i 
0.491-0. .12! 


0....9
 0.5
i 


$ c. $ c. 


0'81!-0-901 
0.80!-O-87! 
0.76 -0.861 
0.74 -0-7.51 
0.781 0.8!! 


0.6Ji-0.71 
o. 65'k-O. 68k 
0.ß5!-0.69! 
0.65!-0.67! 
0.63 -0.65 


O' 65!-O. 681 


0.60!-0.62! 
0.55I-O.GO! 
0.50i-O.58 
0.491-0.521 


0..54 -0. 58! 
0.47i-0.52i 
0.49i-0.5Ii 
o. 481-0. .-:O
 
0.49A-O.fOl 
0.49l-0-52i 


0....8!-O.5H 


$ c. $ c. 


0.79j-O.881 
0.79i-0'86! 
0'74j-0'851 
o.n -0.75i 
O.76!-O.83'k 
0.051-0.69 
0'63'k-0'68! 
0'65!-0.69t 
0'63
-0'66! 
0.61 -0.03 


O.63!-O.671 


0.581-O.60! 
0.53i-0.57! 
0'47i-O.55
 
0.461-0.491 
0.511-0. 5.
! 
0'45t-0'501 
0'47
-0'49i 
O. 4.
I-O. 4
1 
0.47i-O'4
i 
0'47i-0.Wi 


O.46
 O..f9} 


0.77
-O.831 
0.79i-0'861 
0.71i-0'851 
O.60t-0.71 
0.67!-O.82 
0.63i-0.67} 
0.6] i-O. 641 
O.601-0'651 
0.60!-0.62ï 
0.58 -0.60 
8.61-0.61 


o. 57!-0. 5.
t 
0.501-0.54ï 
0.441-0.52 
0.431-0.461 


0.48
-0.52. 


0.421-0.46
 
0'44i-0'46 
0.421-0.451 
0'441-0'4;')i 
0.441-0.4;1 


O.43!-0.46 


27.-Weekl) Range of Prices of Barley and J'lax at Winnipeg and Fort \\lmam, 1920. 
SOURCE: Board of Grain Commis:sioners lor Canada. 


BARLEY (per bushel of 48 lb.) FL.\X (per bushel of 50 lb.) 
Date. 

o. 3 C.W. No. 4 C.W. Rejected. Feed. No.1N.W.C Ko.2C_W. 
o. 3 C.\\-. 
1920 '5 c. S c. $ c. 
 (' . $ c. $ c. $ c. 5 c. $ c. $ c. '3 (' . $ C. $ c. S c. 
January 3.... . 1.6H-1.67! 1.tj2
-1.62
 l':
1i-1.34i }.3H-}'34
 4.72 -4.80 4.68 -4.76 4.32 -4.43 
" 10.... . 1.65
-I.71i 1.45!-1.49
 1.3H-1.3ï! 1.3Jt-}.36j 4.74 -4.04! 4.68 -4.8H 4.39 -4.52! 
" }7.. . . . 1.7H-1.72
 1.471-1.50j l'3H-1.37t 1.32!-}.37! 4.91l-5'111 4.80!-4.95
 4.49!-4.66! 
" 24.. _.. 1.78l-1.80l 1.46
-1.49 1-:Hi-1'371 1,341-1,36 4. 91 -5.} O! 4.79 -4.92
 4.47 -4.60! 
" 31. }.821-1.83! 1.47!-}.491 }.35!-1.35j l'35
-1'35j 5.0n-5'}91 .4'9}!-5.01 4.59 -4.67 
Average... . t.12 -t.1S} 1.Jn-t.ã2
 1.33l-1.:16; 1.32
-1.36t 4.8n-'{.8á
 4.77
-4'S91 ......>!--I.ãn 
Feb
lary 7. . . 1.65 -1.82
 1'36
-1-49
 j .24 -1.24f 1.24 -1'24
 4.95 -5.20 4.69 -4.98 4.35 -4.64 
14, . . 1.64!-1.751 1'34i-1.45i 1'23
-1'35
 1.23
-1'35{ 5.02 -5.2!l 4.76 -4.95i 4.42 -4.61
 
" 21. . . 1.70
-1.77! 1.441-1.48 1'33
-1'37! 1'33
-1'37! 5.18 -.j'25
 4.86 -5.00
 4.51 -4.65! 
" 28. }.68 -1.7l! 1.42 --1.45
 1.30j-1.31i l'30
-1'3H 5'16
-5.40 4'91
-5.05 4.56
-4.70 
. . 
Avera
('... . 1.G7 -1.1l)1 1.39l-1.Jn t.2n-l.32
 1.27
-1.32
 ã.07i-5.2G
 ".tm;-4.99
 J.J6
--I.G5
 
March 6.. . . 1.71 -1.74 1.4.j -1.491 1.3:3 -1.36
 1.33 -1.:
6
 5.19 -5'3li
 5.08
-5.21 4.733-4..
1 
" 13 _. 1.651-1.701 1.47i-1.50
 l'3H-1'37i l'3H-1'371 5.31}-5.50 5.2}!-5.42 4.86
-5.0ï 
. . 
" 20.. . . 1.73}-1.75i I.M
-1.56i 1.40
-1.42 1 .40 l-l . 41 1 5.53 -5.70! 5.43 -5.65! 5.08 -5.301 
" 27.... . 1.63 -1.73 1.42 -1.53
 1 .29 -1.40 1.29 -}.40 .1.05 -5.56 4.98 -5.48 4.38 -4.98 
Average... . 1.681-1,731 1.-lil-l.ã21 1.3-1
-1.39 l.at -1.38
 S.;!7 -5.5:11 ,}'1ì1-5.JJl J.76!-5.04i 
April 3. . . . .. .. 1.64 -1.7I! 1.43!-1-51 1.32 -1.39! }.32 -}'39
 5 '12
-5'26 5.05
-5.19 4.45
-4.59 
., 10. .. . . . . . 1 . 65i-1.73
 1.47 -1.501 1.33!-1.361 1.33!-1.361 5.19 -5.36 5.09 -5.23 4.74 -4.8H 
" 17.. _ '" .. }.691-1'751 }'501-1.561 1,371-1.42 1.371-}.40l 5.39 -5.70! 5.29 -5'651 4.94 -5'30} 
,. 24.....:. . }.701-1.75 1.501-1.55! 1'37l-1.42 1.371-1.411 5.37 -5.66 5,30 -5.56 4.70 -5.26 
Average. .. 1.611-1,131 1.i1
-1.ã31 1.:15 -1.-tO 1.35 -1.39i ã.26hi.49i ;'j.lloì:-4).401 4.70}-5.0eï 
---- 



PH/CBS Of' ('lL\ 6t DIA6\ OH6tl.,y 



4,) 



7. 'hi'
I) Ran If' of '-rl('('" of lCarlt") and }'I3I at "Innlpet! and }'ort "llilam. 19
0 -concluded. 
-':O"CRCE:-Buard of Grain Commissioners for Canada. 


Date. 


BARLEY (per bushel of 4
 lb.). 


I L }'L.'X lJ>er bu
hel of 56 lb.). 


I
O. 3 C.W. Xo. 4 C.".' Ht'jt'Cted. Ft>('d. 1I

 IX.\\.C '\:0.2 C.,\. 
o. 3 CW. 
- 1920. I Co I c. I r. ! c.ll c. I c. I c. I c. 
 I c. I c. I 0. I.. I G. I.. 
!\ra,' I .. 1.;7t-l.bOt 1.60 -1.62d 1,.54 -1.56] 1.54 -1.561 11 5.04 -5.15 4.99 -5'10 4.34 -4.45 
. 
 .. l.gOt-I'82! 1.621-1.67: 1.57 1 -1.63J 1.57'-1.1)31 5.07 -5'11 5.03 -5'13 4.37 -4.47 
.. 15 1.791-I.R2j 1,64'-1,61 1.60Î-I.6:i 1.591-1.62t ll 5.10 -5,171 5.06 -5,131 4.40 -4'4';'
 
..
:.? .. 1.7bt-l'M2 I'.')
i-I.t.;) 1.541-1.60 1.54t-l'60} 4.56-5.0.') 4.52 -5-01 3.86 -4.3.') 
" 29.. .. I.S01-1.8.j 1.581-1,63 1.541-1.59 1.541 1,60" 4.55 -4.75 4.51 -4.71 3.90 -4'O
 
\tl"r8J:f'. 1';Si-I"
 1.60; t.6
 l.)il-t. I..'il 1.a.u .. S--I ;}.0.')1 ...

 -5.011 ...I;1-1.3.'i
 
Juno 5... 1'
U -1.\101 1.60 -1'hllt 1-;)(; -1.62 1.5ß -1'62 11 4.4b --l.6:? 4.42 -4.:J7j 3.85 -4.05
 
.. 12 1.87 -1.02
 1.62 -1.671 1.57t-I'62) (.57j-l.621"4.26.4.42t 4.22 -4.3
 3.69 -3'Mi 
:: }
 
:

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 =
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, l.a.:s I.,


 1.G.11...2:1 t.
9, .19 ...3-1 3.69 _3.
'" 
lu

 3. 1.7b -1.9
1 1.46 -I.ti:!} - - - - 1 3'!l3j-t.1O
 3.89}-4.061 3.4Jt-3.55 
10 1.62 -1'
01 1.:i2 -1.47t 1-36 - - 1.36 - 3.;3
-3'M, 3.'ì!l1-3'jo..
 3.:W -3.35t 
.. 17. 1.70 -I,;.') 1.38 -1.43 1.3:i -1.38 1.33 -1.38 3.63
-3.
5 3..')9 -3'
1 3.14 -3.351 
.. 24 .. 1.7.') -I.;
I 1.4.') -1.53 1.34 -1.411 1.34 -1,411 3.511-3.8:1 3.47 -3.ï
 2.!l6 -3.32 
.. 31 1.34
-1.4,') 1.241-1.4,\ \191-1'35 0.991-1,35 
 3.36 -3.49 3.32 -3.45 2.77 -2.M- 
..\u'raJ!e 1.631-1.7-1 1.37 I.. 1.2;);-1.3;
 1.
.)}-t :17, 3."113.
2. 3.':9 3.;1'00 3.09'-3.'!9' 
Augu:)t i 1.37t-l.43, 1'27j-l.33
 l'U2
-1'10t I.02 3 -t'101 1 3.4!) -3.53
 3-39 -3-47} 2-8
 -2-!I
' 
.. 14 1.431-1.4ti 1.331-1.31)1 1-11\-1.1
 I. 111-1' IS 113.49 -3.571 3.4:i -3,.111 2.94 -3.0';'1 
.. 21 1.41f-l.4.")l 1.33 -1.3öl 1.14 4 1.1
1 1.141-1.1/'11 111 3.471-3.531 3.401-3.4';1 2.961-3-03: 
., 2
 1.:!fI}-1'39 1'24}-1'33 1.11t-I'17 
'
1
-
'
713'411-3'50 3,351-3.44 3.06 -3,14 
.-\teraf.!{' ... I.an-I.U' 1.'!9:-I.3-Il I.Ct - 1.16 
 3.;0,-3..')3 
.:m 3.47 2.M -3'0.;" 

('ptl'mber 4. 1.2,H-l'L\l 1-:!Oi-I'24 I.O!ti-l. J31 l'II!-I-I.I:i
 3.41 -3.4ït 3.35 -3.41 3.13 -3.17 
.. 11 1.25
-1.3H 1.201-1,251 1-09i-1.1tH 1.091-1.161 3.451-3.66 3'3
1-3.59 3.mt!-3.30 
.. ]h. 1.11'1 -1'29
 HI!I -1'221 1 1'02 -1'14 1-00 -1,14 3.42 -3.55t 3.36 -3.4!'ÌI 3.05 -3'19! 
" 25.. 1.1l1-1'16l 1,05l-I.O';'l 0.961-0.99 0.!!4j-0-97 3.30 -3.40t 3.24 -3,321 2.85 -3-031 
.-\t('ral!{'....1 1.201-1.261 1'131-1.19: 1.041-1.IOt 1,031-1'10 3,391-3,521 3-33j-3.451 3'031-3.1;! 


October 2... 
.. 9.. 
., 16. 
.. 23 
" 30. 


1.09 -1'J3
 1.03 -1.08 0.94 -O'
h 0.92 -0.96 3.J7 -3.30 3.13 -3-24 2.77 -2.f..,) 
1.05j-l'0b
 1.001-1-03 0.8\.1j-O.931 0.R7j-0'9]
 2.flO -3,10 2.
(i -3.0ll 2.50 -2.';'0 
l'l1t-I'22 1.06 -1,18 0-93 -0.95 0.91 -0.95 3.02 -3'10 2-r!
 -3.06 2.62 -2.70 
1.131-1.20 1-08 -1'16 o. 841-"()' R6 0.841-0.E;tJ 2.i8t-2.97 2.741-2.93 2'3
1-2'57 
1.17 -1'22 1.11 -1.17 O-83:-o.
it 0'b3!-0.81
 2.76 -2.851 2.72 -2.8It 2.36 -2.4.")t 


Aterage ... 1.11i-l.I; 1.0- 1 12 O.90
-G.92 O'l'n 0.9H 2.921-3.0' 2.l\'I -3.02 2..')'! -2.65 1 



O\'ember 6.. 1.16t-l'21 
" 13. 1.07 -1.]8! 
" _0. 0-85 -]-12 
.. 2i. 0.83j-0.921 
Au
rage ... O.'S -1.U 
De('ember 4.. 0.911-1.09 
.. ] 1.. 0.93 -1.10t 
" ]b.. 0.94:-1.02 
" 25.. 0.90 -ü.MI 
" 31.. 0.871-0.891 
An'rage.... 0.'11-1-01 


1.051-1.11t 0.841-0.911 0.84t-O.9H 2.59 -2.RO: 2-.15 -2.76: 2.19 -2.40! 
1.02 -1,07! 0.81 -0.f<71 O.SI -f).S7t 2.32 -2.52 2.28 -2.48 1.95 -2.12 
0.75 -1.04 0.67t-0'S21 0.67I-o.h21 2-00t-2.34! 1.96 -2.30j 1.65 -1.H9! 
0';3t-0. 781 0'66
-0.701 o. 66t-0. 70
 1.8.) -2.03 1.81 -1.98 1.50 -1-fii 
0.
9 1.00: 0.;;) -O.
1 O.ì.j -0.83 2-...-2.-121 2.I.j -2.31", l'8
1-2'0t: 
0.7
 -0.84}1 0'7JJ-0.80
 0.711-0.80, 1.92 -2'J2 J.86 -2.07 1.55 -1.76 
0.i6 -0-83t 0.651-0.761 0.651-0.761 2.08 -2.18 2.04 -2-14 1.;3 -1.&3 
0.771-0.83 0.66 -0.6';'1 0.66 -0-671 1.9b -2.08 1.92- 2.04 1.61 -1.i3 
0-80 -0.86! 0.67 -0.691 0.67 -0-69
 1.96 -1.98 1.92 -1.94 1.61 -1.b3 
0.7ö -0.84 0.62!-ü.671 0.621-0.671 1 1.91 -1.99 1.87 -1.95 1.56 -1.6n 
0.7ìl-O'
5a O.IfP-o, 72: 0.661
' ì2
111'9G' -2. 01 [.921-2'02' 1.6H-l. ì2j 



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,...... 



!)RICES ()F (' LV tDIJ.V GR..4.L' 


2-10 


29.-'Ionthl) Itanrt' of \\t'rart' I'riet's in Uritish 'larkt,t;o; of ('analilan ""t.'at and 
Oats, 1913-19"!O 


January 
" 


Fpbruary 
" . 



Iar('h 


. \ priJ 
.. 


" 


u 


" 


)Iav 
" 


Junp 


Datr. 


191:1 
Wl-1. 
IHI5 
191f) 
1917 
191
 
HH9 
IH::O 


WI:J 
1914. 
1915. 
191f) 
1917 
1915 
HH9. 
19:.?0 


H)):J . 
l!Jl4 . 
1915 
1916 
1917. 
I!JI S . 
W]9. 
W:.O. 


HH:J. 
HII.f 
HII."). 
1!l16. 
H))i. . 
W ).\ . 
l!1I9 . 
19::0. 


Ifll
. 
1914. 
1 9 I.") . 
1916. . 
If II i 
HilS. . 
IflW. . 
HI:.?O. 


191
 
HIl4 
HI].I) . 
19 Hi. 
I!H7. 
191R. 
H1t9. 
1920. 


Xo.1. 


" IIE.o\T (})f'r bU:-;}lf,J of 00 lb.) 


Xu. 2. 



o. 3. 


Xu. 4. 


()AT:-- 
(per bu
hcl 
of 34 Ih.) 


s (' S C'. I C' S C'. S c. S C'. S (' S ('. S (". S c.. 


I 12 -1. I.') 
l. Of) - 1. 07 
I. i:.?
1.72i 
2.01 ,-2 .021 
2 .64 i- 2 73 
2 :>-1 t 
2 .4
 
2.29} 


l.15 -1.17 
l.Ot) -I 07 
I. g,,' 1 2 0 I 1 
2 .1
i-2 15t 
2. ('41-2. 7:J: 
2.391 
2.4R 
2.291 
1.15 -1.17 
1.11 -1.12 
I. 9S1-2 .011 
2 . 05
- 2 .071 
2.fO
-2.6il 
2.4
i 
2.49 ' 
2.4"1 


L.I.
 -I. ]Iì 
1. 07 -1. 09 
I .971-2. OOi 
1.921-1.94: 
2.6 0 1 
2 42 
2..j] 
2.781 


] .20 -1.21 
1 _ 08 -I. 09 
2.121-2.151 
I.S4lo-1 :-,7 
2,ü2 
2.42 
2.51 
2.79J 
1.16 -I. I
 
1.10 -1. 11 
I.S2
-1.84i 
1. 581-1. 62. 
2.59: 
2.421 
2.51 
2.791 


I .09 -I. 12 I .Ofi - I . 07 
I . 03 -1.04 I . UO -I. 02 
l. fP lu l . t 1!l11 C 6 t-l.fi7 y 'o- 
1. 9
 -:!. 00 1. Hh:-1. 91-:1 
2 fi2 -2.H4I 2.59 -2.ß2 
2 .::O
 2 .2.1;
 


2.fi21 


I I :J - I. I.') 
1. U4 - I 0.') 
I. 9;-1 I. !lSI 
2. 101-2. 12t 
2.H2 -2 f41 
2.:J41 


2.2h1 


I 12 -I 1 :J 
I. OS -109 
I . !).")I-] .9 S 1 
202i-:!.041 
2 . .') ï i- 2 1:41 
:? :J7 t 
2.4f} 
1.12 -I.I
 
I.Oti -1.07 
] "141-1.97i 
1. fH -I 93l 
2 . .í
l"O' 
2.37 
2 -1H 
2 76 


l.1
 -1.19 
I .07 -] . O
 
2.091-2.121 
I . ....1 t-] . 1./4 
2..161 
2.:J7 
2.48 
2.76: 


l. 13 -1. 1.1) 
1.0g -1.09 
1 . i9
-1 .S2 
1 .55/"0' 1. .18 
2..14: 
2.371 
2.48 
2. if;! 


1. O!) - I. to 


1.04 -1.0.') 
0.94 -0.97 
I fi;J -I .631 


2 201 


Of) -I. OS 


0.54 -0 .')7 
0.40 -0..')2 
o 'j9
-().
21 
0.9Pj-O H2
 
1.:J5 I :)7
 
I.li(j -I.fi
i 
I fi.')!- I . ß
 
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o . ,1)4 0 . !) 7 
0.49 O.!):! 
o )0\7 lli
O. nOl 
0.90 -().{lI
 
I.? 4}-1 . :
7 
I . fi,l) I -1 . IjS 
I . (j.j 
- 1. t)S 
I.fis
-t. ill 


1.931-1 .H.'). 1.
Sl 1.901 
2.07j-2.01.!1 
2..1)9 -2. G2 
2.291 2.19) 


I.OH-I.W 
I.Ofi -I.UI-: 
1.92}-10.')} 92 -1 931 
1. 9!11-:? OOj 
2.511-2.fi2 2 3Ht 
2 301 2.20j 


] 21 -I. 22 
I 0.") -I . Oli 
1.911-1.941 
I. 

 -I. 901 
2 .4
1 
2.301 


1.14 -1.15 
I.U4 -] .05 
2.061-2.091 
I . 7P
I.SI 
2.501 
2.30
 


1.10 -1.12 
1.07 -1.07 
1. 76
-1. 79J 
1..16
-1.58. 
2.471 
2.31 


1. 19 -1. 20 


I 
9
-1. 01 
I g51-1. k7! 
.) 'H. 
.... -2 
2.2.1 


o . :;a 0 . 5.5 
0.52 0..')4 
O.
fji-O.

l 
0.90}-O.93 
1. 3.1: -I . :J8 } 
I (i51-1. 6S 
I . G2i-1 . fj.5} 
I . {H i-I fi4 


o ..
2 0 ..
4 
o ..12 - O. M 
o kS - 0 . 90
 
o .I-:.!:I-O .H9} 
I . (ifg- 1 . G9i 
I . (j.=Jl- I . fi8 . 
I . 62i- 1 . ß.5! 
1.:J9 -1.441 


1.11 -1.12 0..")2 -0.5.
 
- O..
() -0..12 
2.01 -2.0.11 0.k9 -O.9H 
0.93
-O.96! 
2.44l I i.1!-1.781 
1.6.j
-1.68 
l.fJ21-1.6.5! 
1.4

-1.531 
0..12 -0.57 
0.49 -0.52 
0.
8 -O.DO! 
O. !IO -0. 91! 
1. 75t-1.78f 
1.65
-1.6R 
1.621-1.65
 
1. ß
i-1. 65
 


I . o.
 -I .07 
1.05 -1.06 
1.781-1.81 


2.381 
') '). 
-.-;) 


. 



250 


PRODUCTIOIV 


.... 


29.-Monthly Range of _\\erage Prices in British Markets of Canadian "'.heat and 
Oats, 1913-1920 -concluded. 


July 


A u
u:-;t 


S('p
pm bpI" 


( ktohcr 


November 
" 


Decem ber 
" 


" 


" 


" 


Date. 


1913. 
HH4. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1913. 
1914. 
191.1. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. .. 
1919. 
19Z0. 


1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. . 
19':0. . 
191
. 
1914. . 
191.1. . 
1916.. . . 
1917. . 
]918. . 
1919. 
1920. 


1913. . 
1914. . 
1915... . 
1916... . 
1917. . . . 
1918. . 
1919. " 
1920... . 


1913. " 
1914. . 
191.5. . 
1916. 
1917. . 
1918. . 
1919. 
1920. .. 


'VHEAT (per hushpJ of 60 lb.) 


No.1. 


No.2. 


No.3. 


Xo.4. 


OATS 
(per bushel 
of 34 lb.) 


$ ('. $ c. $ c. 5 c. $ c. $ c. $ c. $ c. $ c. $ c. 


.. 1.16 -1.18 
..1.10-1.11 
.. 1.71 -1.74 
., 1.62 -1.65 
2.62 - 
., 2. 42! - 
2.51 - 
2.79i - 


1.12 -1.14 
1.35 -1.38 
1.7üi-1.7
i 
2.05!-2.09t 
2.62 - 
. .. 2 .421 - 
. .. 2 .45 - 
2.83! - 


1.13 -1.14 
1.42 -1.44 
1.75!-1.78! 
2 . 15l-2 .19 
2.35
 - 
2 .42
 - 
2.29.\ - 
2.8.5
 - 


1. 07 1. 09 
1.37 -1.39 
.. 1. 75!-1.7E
 
2.27! 2.30! 
2 . 35
 - 
2 .42i - 
2.29! - 
3 . 1O!-3 . 62 


1.04 -1. 06 
1.45 -1.48 
1. 78!-1.&0 
2 .481"ð"
 . 51Ý"ð" 
2 .3bl - 
2.431 - 
2.29! - 
3.60!-3.62 
] .06 -1.08 
1.50 -1.51 
1. 80!-1.8U 
" 2. 59i-2 . 70
 
.. 2 .34 i - 
.. 2.48 - 
.. 2 . 29i - 
.. 3.341-3. :Wl 


1.13 -1.14 
1.07 -1.08 
1.68 -1. 71 
1. 62 -1. 64l 
2.56 - 
2 .40
 - 
2 .48 M _ 
2.76! - 


1.10 -1.11 
1.32 -1.34 
] .73 -1.76! 
2.02!-2.05! 
') .....1 
- .')'2 
2.3ii 
2 .43! 
2.80ì 


].10 -1.11 
1.38 -1.39 
1. 7(lift. 79 
2 .l::::i-2 .15i 
2.30i - 
2.37! - 
2.:2ü! - 
2.82i - 


1.04 -1.06 
1.=15 -1.37 


2.24t"ð"2.27! 
2.3:"i - 
2.37t - 
2.26* - 
3.0[1-3.531 


1.01 -1.04 
1.42 -1.45 
1. 75j-1. 771 
2 .45{2 .48ý1a- 
2.31l - 
2.40
 - 
2.2G! - 
3.51i-3.531 


1.02 -1.04 
1.47 -1.49 
1. 77i-1. 7El 
2.57!-2.59i 
2.:101 - 
2.4R - 
2.26! - 
3.26 -3.38l 


1. 09 -1.10 
1.05 -1.0ß 
1. 65 -1. 68 
1.68-1.70 y \ 
2.471 - 
2 .31
 - 


1.05 -1. 07 
1.30 -1.32 
1 . 70i-1. 73i 
1. 97 ih2. 001 
2.4i! - 
2.31ï - 
2.41-?"ð" - 
2.76i - 


1. 02 -1. 04 
1.04 -1.05 
1. 7lt-1. 74 


2.38} - 


0.99 -1.00 
1.27 -1.30 
1.641-1.67! 


2.3Rl - 
2a23! - 


2.72 - 


1.06 -1.07 1.02 -1.03 
1.37 -1.38 - - 
1.72 -1.75
 1.63!-1.66
 


2.3 f l"ð" 
2.31t 
2.23i 
2.76
 


1. 02 -1. 04 
1.32 -1.34 


2.22i-2.28
 
2.261 - 
2.31i - 


2.28t 
2.23í 
2.25 
2.73! 


0.97 -1.00 
1.30 -1.32 


2.17! 
2.25 


0.52 -0.56 
0.50 -0.51 
0.891-0.91i 
0.87 -O.89l 
1.68 -1.70 
1. 65!-1. 68 
1. 6
l-1. 65l 
1. 6:: i-I. 65! 


0.52 -0.54 
0.79 -0.82 


0.891-0.92 
1. 6-ti-1. 6Î
 
1. 65!-1. 68 
1. 63 - 
l.ü:2l-1.65
 


0.50 -0.53 
o . 83 --0.86 


0.90!-0.93 
1.6
1-1.65! 
1. 6.5!-1. 68 
1 :J7i-1.621 
1. 6:::i-1.65
 


0.48 -0..5l 
0.79 -0.83 
0.77 -0.8I! 
0.97 -0.99
 
1 .621-1 .65! 
1. 65!-1. 68 


2 . 97!-3 .441 2. 94
-3 .38! 1.6H-1. 631 


0.9R -1.01 
1.40 -1.42 
1. 72t-l. 74i 
2.42
-2.45
 
2.261 - 
2.31i - 


0.95 -0.98 
1.34 -1.35 
1.68 -1.68! 


2.15! - 
2.23! - 


3.40 -3.44! 3.37 -3.38! 


0.99 -1.02 
1.44 -1.46 
1. 74
-1. 78 
2.57!-2.59
 
2. 2f l tf - 


0.96 -0.99 
1.42 -1.43 
1.71i-l.72t 
2.531-2.56 
2.20j - 


3.141-3.17! 3.111-3 .13! 


0.48 -0.51 
0.78 -0.81 
0.821-0.84
 
1.1Bl-l.17! 
1. 66!-1. 69! 
1. (5
-1.68 
1. E 51-1. 601 
1..55j-l.58! 


O.4D -0. .52 
0.75 -0.78 
0.77!-O.801 
1.34!-1.37 
1. 66 -1. 68i 
1. 6.j!-I. 68 
1.42!-1 .51 i 
1. 21!-1. 29l 



PRICES Of' C..LY..tDI.lL\ GR.tI
V 


:!jl 


uÞ.
 \ t'ar., \ u-r..,rt' "rh't.s of IIml1(, Gro\\ n ",.....t Tearle) and Oat
 In En
land and 
"ah's, 1901-19.?O. 
:-'OURCE: "london Gaz('Ut'," puhli
lH'd pursuant to s. 8 of the Corn Hpturns .\(.t, l.
":!. 


" IWI\.t. Rarl('y. Oats. 
Yt'ar. 1 flar. 
J>f'r I J>f'r J>f'r J>f'r per J>f'r 
4r. bu:-:h. qr. IJU::-h Clr. "
h. 


I sel 
I s. d. S c. s. d. ! ('. ::i. d. 
I UO I . 2t) 9 0.81 .). 2 0.77 I
 5 o . 5f 11911 . 
_J 
I
U
. .2b 1 o 85 :?1 8 0.7b 20 2 0.61 1912. 
Him. . 21) 9 O.SI .).) 8 0.6t1 17 2 0.;)2 HH:J.. 
I!;C4. . 28 4 0.8" 22 4 O.()') Hi 4 0..-<'/1 1914.. 
1 !JO.) . 29 
 0.90 24 4 0.74 17 4 1 0..1:' 191.,.. 
1 !JOt), . :!
 3 0.8) 24 2 0.73 I') 4, O. .")(JII19 ilL . 
1
07 "0 ; 0.9:3 25 1 O. 76 1
 10 0.5; HH7 
19(
... . ....) 0 0.9; 2.1 10 0.79 1; 10 1 0.541 1918.. 
lum. . ;)6 11 O.S
 26 10 0.82118 11 0.51'11919.. 
lUlU. ;H 5 0.96 23 1 O,70j1i 4 , 0.53 19:!0 


s 


\, hf'at. Barky. 
I' J}t'T Pf'r 1)(' I' 
r. Lllioh. qr. hu:-;h. 
- - - 
. d. S c. :). d. S c. 
d 0.96 27 3 0.S3 
9 I. Of) :m 8 0.93 
S 0.96 27 3 o.
a 
11 1.06 27 2 0.S3 
10 I . () I :37 -I l. J
 
.1 l.'iS .")3 f I . ;")(j 
9 2.30 ß4 9 I .S
) 
10 2,22 .")9 0 1 . 7:
 
11 2.22 i., 9 2.2] 
10 2.46 S9 5 2.60 


Ih 10 O. .1 ï 
21 6 0 ,f).) 
19 1 0..).'" 
20 11 0 . #)4 

O 2 0.92 
:J:i ;) O. S!J 
49 10 1. :32 
4!t 4 I. :H 
1)2 [) 1. :J 9 
.')() 10 I ,:') 1 


Oat
. 


J>f' 
q 


pl'r I>t' r 
qr. hu
h. 


s. d. S.' 


. 31 
. :34 
. 31 
.34 
.52 
.jS 
7.1 
. í2 
72 
(0 


31.- \H'r.t:!;c :Uonthl, 'trlcc
 of ."our. Uran und 
horts. at I>>rlndl)al "arkt,ts. 19'!O. 

orR("E: For 
Iontrf'al. Tradp Hullptin: for Toronto. D. al. rs' f) uota.tion
: f(lr \\ïnnipl'g. 
and to .
. ('itin., "Th( Xortll\H 
tHn ::\Iilh r," ::\Iinn.'apolis. 


) onth. Flour . our I ...tnn. ar ::;tnm nrd 
I 
(anitoba Ontario lïour Flour 
, :'t:Lßdard del'd at Bran. :,horts. tJute (Cotton Bran. :'hort:s 
grode. 
[ontfl'.ll. bags) . bugi) . 
I Per brl.l 
19:!O. Per brl. Per ton I Per ton. Pcr brl. Pcr brl. Per ton. Per ton 
I 
I cts. . cts. . cts I cts I cts. I cts. I cts. $ Ct8 

muary . .. . 13 34 9 75 4-t 70 52 25 13 25 13 40 45 25 .j2 2.') 
F euruary . .. . 13 40 10 90 45 25 52 25 13 25 13 45 45 25 52 25 

laI"('h. ..... .. . 13 40 10 76 45 25 52 25 13 25 13 4.') 45 2.') 52 2.) 
\pril... . 13 47 10 iß 4
 87 55 'ö7 13 40 13 60 51 25 5'ö 2.') 
)lay. .... . , 14 55 11 3S 53 50 60 50 14 :-,,') 15 05 .:;4 25 61 2.) 
une... . . 14 95 13 25 54 25 61 25 14 85 15 05 54 2.j fH 2.j 
uly 14 92 Sominal ,j4 25 61 2.') 14 85 15 05 54 25 61 25 
.\Ui!;U:5t . . . . . . . 14 95 Sominal 54 25 61 25 14 85 14 55 5
 25 61 2.') 
September. .. . 14 21 Xominal 54 50 59 H 14 25 14 55 54 25 59 75 
}ctober. . . 12 90 Xominal 44 F>5 49 85 1300 13 30 40 25 45 2.') 
X ovem ber. 12 02 Xominal 39 38 44 56 12 20 12 40 40 25 45 25 
Decem ber . . . . . . . 1110 X om inal 40 25 42 27 1110 11 30 40 25 42 25 


J 


J 
J 


)(ontreal. 


FI 


Toronto. 


I d 


)Ionth. 


I Winnipeg. I )linneapolis. Duluth 

 Flour. Bran. I :'horts. Flour. I Bran. I::ihorts. Flour. 
Per brl. Pcr ton. Per ton. 1 Per brl. Per ton. Per ton. Per brl. 
I ct!< I cts. S cts. S cts. I cts. I ct!<. 
 cts. S cls. S cls. S cts. S Ct8. 
12 65 39 00 46 00 1 14 53 -15 36 U 5Sl-42 70 44 37 -45 10 14 18 -14 43 
12 65 39 00 46 00 13 41 -14 20 :12 50 -43 37147 83 -48 50 13 35 -13 66 
12 65 39 00 46 00 13 371-14 25 t7 00 -4
 25 51 50 -52 87t 13 55 -13 63
 
12 761 43 50 50 50 14 55 -15 01 ;-19 66 -50 50 54 00 -54 871 14 25 -14 50 
13 64 4li 1'0 53 1'>0 15 2S -15 69 53 00 -53 40 57 25 -57 60 14 95 -15 30 
U 30 H 00 55 00 14 02 -14 60 1 50 75 -52 62t .56 00 -56 75 14 15 -14 50 
14 30 48 00 55 00 13 68 -14 00147 00 -48 12153 25 -54 50 14 171-14 3n 
14 30 48 00 54 00 12 32 -12 88 41 50 -42 80 50 00 -51 80 12 35 -13 01
 
13 20 48 00 53 00 12 70 -13 35 37 331-38 25 45 00 -47 25 12 311-12 561 
12 34 45 00 50 00 10 90 -11 41 29 'ö
 -31 3S 31 75 -33 75 11 00 -11 25 
11 77 41 00 46 00 9 45 - 9 78 30 30 -31 20 29 80 -30 10 9 25 - 9 50 
10 65 35 SO 38 40 8 97 - 9 37 26 10 -26 80 124 40 -25 40 8 50 - 8 75 
XOTE.-The ton = 2,000 lb. and the barrel = 196 lb. 


1920. 


January.. .. . . . 
February. 
)[arch. 
ApriL. 
)lay.. 
June.... . 
July..... 
August.... . 
::;cptember.... . 
October. ... 
K ovem ber . 
Decem ber . . . 



252 


PRODeCTIO
Y 


32.-Average Prices of Canadian the Stock at Principal ::\Iarkets, 1918-1919-1920. 
SO"L':RCE: Markf't
 Intelligence Division, Li,.e I"'to('k Branch, Dominion D('partment of 
A.gri('ul ture. 


Classification. 



teens-heavv finished. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stp('rs-l,000'::'1,200 lb., good.... . ... 
Steen;-1.000-1,200 lb., common....... 
:-'teers-700-1,000 lb., good...,. " . . 

t-ef'rs-700-1.000 lb., common. 
Heifers, good........................ 
Hpifprs, fair... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
H<'ifers, common. . . . . . . . . 
('ow
. good........ . . . . . 
Cows, eODlmon... .. 
Bulls, good... . . ., 
Bulb. common....... 
( 'annel'S and cuttprs. . . 
Oxpn. 
Calve:-;, veal.. . . 
Calv(.s, grass.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

to\.' kprs-450-800 lb., good. 
Stoekers-4.50-800 lb., fair. .. . . .. .. 
Fepdprs-800-1,100 lb., good 
Fepder::--SOO-l,100 lb., fair...... 
Hog
 (fed and watpred), sclpcts... 
Hogs (fed and watered), heavips.... 
Hogs (fpd and watered), lights...... . . 
H01-!:-' (fed and watered), sows..... .. 
Hog:-; (fed and waterpd), stags . . 
Lambs. good.. . . . . . . . . 
I
mnh
. eommon.. .,. .. 
Shec'p. hp1-wy...... .. .. 

h('('p, light . . . . . . . . . . 
."3 hppp. C'ommon...... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Cla::,:-;ification. 


1918. 1919. 


Toronto. 


I $ C"t
. 
15 36 
]3 29 
11 5.5 
12 12 
9 75 
12 40 
10 31 
9 07 
9 51 
8 33 
10 19 
7 91 
5 77 
9 6.5 
14 17 
7 80 
9 72 
8 SO 
10 81 
10 18 
]9 2] 
19 00 
17 69 
17 09 
14 7.5 
16 10 
14 40 
]2 49 
13 28 
S 07 



t('ers-}waYy finished... . . 

teprs-l,OOO-I,200 lh., good....... 

teers-l.OOO-1.200 common. . . . 

tf'er:-;-700-1,000 lb., good....... 
:'te('rs-700-1,000 lh., common...... 
Hpifer
. good. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
H('ifer
. fair. . " . . . . 
Heifer
, common..... . . . . . . . . 
Cows, goocl. . . . 
('ow
, cOlnnlon........ . 
Rulls. good. ..... 
Bulls. common... . . 
C'annpr
 and ('uttprs. . 
Oxpn. . . . . . . . . . 
CaIYe
, veal.......... 
Calves. gra:-;:-;. . . . . . . . . . . 
Sto('kf'rs-450-
OO lb., good....... 

toC'kf'rs-4.}0-800 lb., fair.. . . 
Fppders-800-1,OOO lh., good...... 
Fpf'dprs-800-1,100 lb., fair. . . 
Hogs ({Pel and watprpd), 8('le('ts..... _. 
Hog:;; (fed and watered), heavies.... .. . . 
Hog
 (f('d and watered), lights. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


$ ("t
. 
13 98 
13 66 
11 18 
12 39 
8 04 
12 19 
9 58 
7 32 
10 14 
I 74 
10 13 
7 53 
.5 49 
8 50 
15 36 
6 52 
9 35 
7 97 
12 32 
10 41 
19 .59 
19 16 
18 43 
17 .53 
14 9.5 
1-! 63 
12 27 
9 09 
9 13 
5 92 


1918. 


5 PÌS. 
12 9.) 
12 47 
10 27 
11 24 
9 32 
10 47 
9 14 
7 82 
S 96 
7 23 
8 48 
7 04 
:) 21 
7 85 
10 02 



 20 
7 20 
9 92 
7 92 
18 59 
15 64 
16 30 


1920. 


$ etE' . 
13 77 
12 89 
10 22 
12 27 
8 6.1 
12 56 
8 82 
7 67 
10 65 
7 89 
10 46 
6 98 
4 63 


16 79 
8 58 
9 02 
8 23 
11 22 
10 78 
18 98 
18 87 
16 fi8 
1.5 41 
13 27 
1:3 86 
10 04 
8 .52 
8 U5 
!j 3ß 


Winnipeg. 


1919. 


$ ets. 
11 35 
11 1.5 
9 70 
9 80 
7 25 
9 .55 
8 18 
6 35 
9 83 
7 03 
7 01 
6 23 
4 87 
7 42 
9 57 
8 39 
6 60 
10 0.5 
8 24 
18 37 
15 8] 
15 55 


1918. 


$ cts. 
13 20 
12 80 
1111 
11 61 
9 40 
1110 
9 07 
7 69 
9 97 
8 23 
10 35 
7 08 
5 35 
9 75 
11 76 
6 40 


20 40 
18 98 
18 63 
16 80 
15 88 
1.5 6.5 
14 63 


12 3
 
10 
O 


1920. 


$ cts. 
10 12 
10 46 
6 91 
9 80 
6 24 
8 36 
6 42 
.1 07 
8 79 
5 91 
6 31 
4 91 
3 65 
6 30 
8 46 


6 48 
5 39 
8 33 
6 49 
18 33 
16 56 
16 01 


Montreal. 


1919. 


$ cts. 
14 00 
12 6ï 
10 86 
11 57 
8 58 
10 45 
8 75 
7 17 
9 74 
7 44 
10 27 
6 44 
5 21 
9 14 
11 98 
7 42 


'19 96 
20 24 
17 28 
17 51 
15 62 
13 98 
12 no 


8 86 
7 91 


Edmonton. 


1919. 


$ ets. 
10 90 
9 95 
8 10 
9 45 
7 75 
9 55 
8 75 
6 70 
8 25 
7 25 
6 95 
5 95 
4 91 
7 15 
8 29 


7 9.5 
7 45 
8 15 
7 90 
18 25 
16 2.1 
1.1 85 


1920. 


$ C't
 . 


13 08 
11 42 
12 34 
8 08 
11 62 
8 81 
710 
9 77 
6 91 
11 13 
5 06 
4 48 
10 30 
12 13 
ß 99 


19 82 
18 97 
18 O.=) 
16 24 
18 83 
12 79 
10 .58 


10 44 
7 17 


1920. 


$ et
. 
12 28 
9 6.5 
5 S3 
8 30 
5 83 
7 68 
6 18 
.5 62 
7 97 
,} 71 
6 14 
4 22 
3 54 
8 88 
8 66 
7 12 
5 54 
9 94 
18 11 
17 2() 
16 40 



('..4 .Y.1 /)/..1 Y fA I' F STO(' [{ 


2;)
 


32.- \u:ra...e Itrl es of ('anadiall (.he !Stock at .Þrint'ipal )Iarkets. 19J5-1919-1920 - 
concluded, 
:--Ol'Hf'E: 
Iark('t-.: Intt'IIiK( nc'(' Di,'i:..:ion. Lin' :-'tc)('k Hranc'h. Dominion D('pa.rtrnc
t 
o( \
ri('ulturt'. 


Winnipl.g. Edmonton. 
('la.-.::-\ifi('uf ion. ----- 
HH
. HH9. 19:?0. 191H. 19:!(L 
-- -- -- 
I $ c . f:o, ('t:o- S ('t:-l. S c.t:oJ . S ('b 
Bog:, ((('(Iancl \\atl'rt,cI), :-:0\\":-. I.
 10 I:> 2fi I:J 94 I!) 10 16 II 
Hog:ol ((('d anci \\atc'n'd), :--tag:o- I:? 38 11 21 11 77 12 20 v> 07 
La III h:..:, good. . . I.") -t
 12 6
 11 II 12 t)- 9 UK 
_:J 
1.:1.1111.:--. COllllllOn.. I:? ;;0 7 '\2 6 6:> 11 0.") 7 61 
:"'\I)('pp, Ilf'a\"y. 
:--:I)('('p, light..... I:! 
,!'\ 9 2h 7 2
 9 :'0 79:i 
:--:h('('p, (,oll1mon. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . 10 fO 6 79 4 81 
 ;0 f) 7
 


33. -.\\rrage Uonthl) (trlcb or ('anadialll.he Stod.. at (trlndpal Jlarl..('ts. 19'!O. 

Of-RCE: 
larkí'ts Intcllifl;cncc Di\"i:o-ion. Li\"(
 
tock Branc.h, Dominion Dcpartllh'nt or 
.\
ri('ulture. 


Cla.i.'iification Jan. Feb. 
Iur. I .\pril I 
Ia
 . 1 June. I July. .\u
. &>pt. Oct. Xov. Dec' 

Iontreul- $ c $ c. I c. 1 1 C $ (' I $ (' $ c S c Ie $ c. S c. $ c. 
::5tecrs. 1,000-1,200 lb., 
Jl;ood. . .. 1l.!I
 12.ft?113..;.1 14.1'- 15.2;) li.912.) J.I.50 1I.f'
 11.72 10.22 9.f)Q 10."" 
Hei(ers, good III 13 II 25 12 ();I 13 52 13..10 ....062.> 12 70 ]0 25 10 41 9 1.1 9 16 9 ..
 


I;
e(f;J

nJ '
uwr_ 1 115'30 1 17,75 16.
-& 11-1.4" I
.IO 11
..)t).?!'iilO'20 1I.tl1'\ 13.7ß 13.51 13.55 12...5 
ed),F\ell'Cts ..... 19.12 19.
j
20.2
 j !O.t I 3 21.00 10.4375 / 21'04 20.77 - 19.54 17.59 16.72 
Hogs ((ecl und \\ ater. 
ed), Ii
hts.. 111-I.ß2 19'0:-7 19.93 !D. 57 10'
1J - Ib.
ù - 14.00 1-1.55 
J :mlbs, good. 16.51 16.75 17.33 116.2
1 - 1:-..11)61, 1-1.90 12.71 12.60 12.15 12.64 12.29 

hcep, light 1 9,49 1 11,30 12'73 1 1
'51 12.25 10.925 b.62 ;.16 6.00 6.50 6.1-1 5.52 
Toronto - 
:;teers, 1,000-1,200 Ih., 
g
d...._.. 12'
?
:12.;2: 13.13 13.5
 14.47 14'
.1 14.65 12.91 12.41 10';1\ 10.05 9.74 
lIel(e
, good. 12.1.12 11. \11\, 12 .:
'1 12.9:) 13. 
3 I.HiO 1-& .05 1 
 .b:3 17.03 10.50 10.17 10.2.1 
Calves. "eat.. .., . 17.5Ið I 18.t)ð7IY.IS 16.4.1 115.43 15..)ö IJf).b5 17.50 17.98 17.n 16.58 4.01 
Hogs ((cd and" nter- I j I I 
ed), N.'ll'Ct8. . . 1".22:) 19.03.1 19. 62 !O .1.1 20.23 19..')9 20.60 20.39 20.60 19.71 Hi .19 J 5. .1i0 
Ho
::o (fed and \\ater- I 1 
eel), lights.. 16.19 16.!1.1 17."5 II
.O:
 1".1.... 17.7.i:1.
 1
.6(1 IS.I
 1
.....5 17.99 1-1.97 13.:{ß 
lambs, 
ood... i.......fì-l19.657 19.
6 11".6.'i 111.77 IQ.1h7517.2.'í 14.87 13.70 IJ2.70 12.53 12.77 

heep, Ii ht.......... lO
iti4 1I.4!15 13.23 1-1.1)0 14.011 12.IX 10.45 8...6 7.79 7.06 6.24 6.10 
Winnipl'g- I I 
:'teers. 1,000-1,200 lb., 
good. ..... 11.3
 11.34';- 11.,53 12....1 1-1.10 14...9.1,11.7..610.57 10.49 S."...., 8.62 7'.19 
H{'i(cr8. good 10.297 10.27 11.07 11.36 13.40 13.2'\25 IO.S8 9.77 9.51 7.56 6.96 7.4fi 
Calws, veal. .. S.3:?4 1O.61
 11.01 12.59 13.21 11.547510.572 9.07 8.....7 7.22 5.60 6.72 
Ho
.::i ((ed unJ \\ ater- I 
ed),sell'Ct
 ... .. 17.06618.79720.70 20.03 21.61 19.39518.50 19.73 21.08 18.69 15.21 13.65 
Hogs ((eel and \\ater- 
ed), light!'.. 15.06
 15.715 19.00 
I limbs, good. 14.17 14.375 15.0:3 

heep, light 10.135 12.25 12.01 
C'nlgary- 
::;tecrs, 1,000-1,200 lb., 
good ... ... . 10.
... 11.00 11.53 12.02 13.72 13.00 '10.30 9.64 9.55 7.30 7.54 7.24 
Heifers, good 9.2h, 9.75 10.34 11.00 13.50 13.2.1 
.2.i 7.S6 7.7
 6.19 6.12 5.!12 
Calves. veaL........ 8.31 g.875 9.50 8.43 11.95 13.50 11.716 9.62 10.19 8.92 7.11 6.27 
Hogs ((ed and water- 
ed), l'ielects ........ 16.79 20.18720.22 20.49 21.52 19.52.117.90 19.34 22.30 20.89 15.81 13.71 
HOR;s ((ed and \\ ater- 
ed),liJ!:hts.. 16.05 Ih.975 19.25 
Lambs. good. . 113.12516.166 
::;heep, light...... 10.20 11.333 13.72 
Edmonton- 

teers, 1,000-1,200 lb., 
good....... . 10.33 1I.1b711.7:! 11.97 14.us 12.hI2510.50 8.80 8.46 7.42 7.25 7.l.2 
Heifers. gooù . . 8.25 9.50 lO.i8 1O.6R 12.10 12.25 9.417 7.30 7.40 b.16 5.75 5.6
 
C'ah.es.vea!.......... 7.90 9.25 11.38 11.M 14...7 14.00 10.60 9.23 8.99 8.42 7.03 6.95 
Ho
s ((ed and water. 
ed),selects.. ......16.81 18.91219.
9 19.{j4 21.20 19.:312517.8519.2121.8920.80 15.19 13.26 
Hog"! ((ed and water- 
ed).lights... .....14.71 
Lambs, good......... 11.25 

heep, light........ . .. 8.50 


17.j
 19.56 17.112516.6;4 17.94 20.35 16.57 13.02 12.46 
15.00 15.6.1 15.!1!I.117.
7412.53 lI.lil 9.53 B'hl 11..')1 
12.00 12.20 126-0';"5 9.658 7.77 7.56 6.22 5.35 6.74 


19.41 20.39 19.7125Ij.30 17.78 18'hl 17.;0 13.05 10.51 
9.00 - 13.375 11.02 10.46 10.60 10.24 10.41 
17.30 l4.fiO 13.50 9.0h3 9.72 7.39 7.25 7.21 7.42 


15.912 16.62 16.

 IS.15 17.0625 / 15.81317.25 17.89 17.16 11.65 1O.2S 
13.50 15.81 17.00 - 13.00 9.07 10.28 9.05 9.35 9.50 
9.50 10.00 13.00 10.00 7.63 8.20 7.77 6.86 7.00 


, 



254 


PRODUCTIOIV 


34.-An'rage Prices per bushel paid by farmers for Grade No.1 Clover and Grass 
seed, by prodnces, during l\larch, April and l\lay, 1920, and the average pric('s for 
('an ada, as compared with the same period of the previous year. 


I 
Province. Red Alsike. Alfalfa. ;:;wpet 
Cloyer. Clover. 
$ c. $ c. S c. $ c. 
Prince Ed ward Island. . . . . . . . 47 45 38 46 67 50 34 75 
Xoya Scotia..... .. .. ... 44 62 40 9:? 34 07 28 65 
X ew Brunswick, . . . . . . . . . 44 90 42 35 38 67 25 70 
Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 62 42 66 35 91 32 40 
Ontario... . . . . . . . . . . . 45 16 40 64 39 24 30 32 
::\fanitoba. . . . . . 38 96 36 59 40 03 25 90 
Saskatchpwan....... . . . 40 18 40 40 40 50 26 31 
llberta. . - - .. -.. -. .... .. . . 41 59 40 03 44 04 26 78 
British Columbia.. . . .. .. 45 51 44 18 38 27 29 81 
Canada, 1923.. . . .... .. 44 68 41 451 39 00 27 01 
Canada, 1919. . . . .... .. 32 16/ 26 36 1 26 06 19 02 
I 


\Vpst- Tim- Brome 
ern Rye. othy. Grass. 
$ c. $ c. $ c. 
9 75 
10 7.1 
7 60 11 06 5 40 
5 54 10 32 7 70 
8 45 10 16 
5 27 11 17 7 87 
4 57 13 80 4 74 
6 34 12 30 6 11 
5 33 12 90 7 19 
5 53 11 36 6 00 
5 80 8 74 5 27 


35. - ,.\.verage prices per bushel paid to farmers for ('Iov('r and Grass Se('d;o b}" prminces, 
during IUarch, April and l\Ia}', 1920, and a\'erage prices for Canada compared 
with the same period of the previous }Tear. 


Province. 


Red AI' k \If If 
weet W ('st- Tim- Brome 
Clovpr. SI "f'. - a a. Clover. prnRyp. othy. Grass. 


Prince Ed ward Island. . . . . . . . 

 oya Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

ew Brunswick..... 
Quebec. _ 
Ontario. . . . . . _ . . . 
:\lanitoba... _ . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . 
Saskatchewan....... . . . . . . . . 
Alberta..... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . 
Briti
h Columbia.. . . . . . . . . . . 
('anada, 1928. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Canada, 1919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


$ c. 
43 09 
41 99 
38 33 
39 80 
35 07 
40 50 


$ e. 
33 49 
36 73 
33 03 
34 96 
30 58 
30 00 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$c. $('. 


$ c. 
7 91 
9 34 
9 98 
8 79 
8 49 
9 38 
12 80 
11 61 
9 80 
7 73 


4 01 
3 9U 


24 00 


25 00 
810 
20 83 
15 00 3 44 
19 20 3 57 
16 00 · 
17 35 1 3 50 
14 11 3 78 


.. 03 
4 2S 


39 00 
31 90 
37 67 


42 00 
40 11 
23 41 


36 00 
33 5t 
21 56 


33 14 
22 59 


Index Numbers of Agricultural Prices.-Records of the average 
prices received by farmers for agricultural produce have been col- 
lected annually since 1909 through the crop correspondents of the 
Census and Statistics Office and Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 
From these records annual index numbers have been calculated for 
each crop and for the field crops as a 'whole. The average prices for 
the five year pre-war period 1909-1913, have in each case been taken 
as 100, and the figures for each year are expressed as a percentage of 
these. In calculating the index numbers for the combined field 
crops, the various crops have been ,veighted according to the P!O- 
portion which the value of each crop in each year bears to the total 
value for that year. Table 36 and its accompanying illustrative 
diagram show the great incre
Ee 'which took plHce in agricultural 
prices during the war period and the fall which took place in 1920. 



rR1C

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256 PRODUCTIO"-V 




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1lISCELL.L\EUrS .tGRI CLTflR.1L STATISTIC8 
.)7 


'nS("EI.I..\
":01.:-' \Glnf'('I
T(TU.\L 
T \TISTlf'
. 
Production of Flax Fibre, 1919.-Ae('ording to infornultion 
furni:-\hed by the Economic Fibre Production Division of the I)olllinion 
Experilnental FarIns, 19,2ti2 acr('s of flax for fibre wpre grown in 
Untario, hOD acre:s in Quebec and 200 acre.... in \Iallitoba, nUlking a 
total area of 20,262 acres for Canada in 1919, as compared with 
20,000 al'res in 1918, and 8,000 :u.res in 1917, gro,vn in Ontario. r-rhf' 
average yicld per acre in 1019 of pure lincn fibrc '''as 21ð lb., ,,,hich ,vas 
valued at fronl gO cent::; to 
l per lb. aceordin
 to 
rade. .\.lthough 
t ht' yipld p('r acre ".a
 lIlurh lo,ver than that of 1918, viz., 310 lb. per 
acre, the quality '''a
 lllore uniforrn. 'I'here ,vere in addition l,lG2 
tons of coarse to,,,, 'whieh ,yas 
raded at prices ranging fronl 18 rent::; 
to 32 ('ent::; p(\r lb. There ,ycrc 90,000 bu
he]"" of inspeeted :-\eed 
hipped 
to Ireland, the price reali cd heing . 10.75 per hu:-\he1. f.o.h. the Inill" 
in Canada. 
1'able 37 is à 
tatenlent of the :lr('fi, yield .lnd value of flax gro""n 
for fibre and of allied product:-\ for ('aeh of th(' ye:lrs 1913 to 1.U19. 


37.- Produdlon and ,-
.III(, of FI
I\ 'lhrt" anti \HiNI Prodll(.t
. 191.ï-19. 


I )p:,c'ription. 


un.;. 1916. HH7. HHR. Hn9. 
4.000 5,200 8,000 20,000 20,2H2 
200 57 :
;)O 
10 21S 
E'OO aoo 1,400 3, 100 
,20R 

O lï5 - DOO 1,162 
- bOO - - - 
12 4" 9 k 1 - 
-tl'\.000 25.000 72.(JOO 110. (,00 1 90,000 2 
400 HOO 1,100 3:;0 1,-..00 
320.000 1<;0.0(10 1.540.000 l. OS5, 000 
, 97.
. -too 
2,800 5,O{)() - 270,000 .

I.OOO 
- 15 - - - 
- 12.000 - - - 
1.uO 3 5..
u 8.5u 1 10.75 2 
76,800 ï5.000 396.000 930,763 1 9ß7.500 2 
39i1, 600 27
.000 1.f)
6,OOO 2,2
5,7üG 5, :;
:
, fJO() 


\rt'a. ... . . . . . Ilen':o. 
\ ipld of fi hrp JX'r uen'. . . . . I h. 
Yield of fibre. ton:o. 
Yit'ld of to\\ .. . " 
Yield of flu't 
tra\\ u 
Yipld of :-;f'pd per aert' . hu:-;h 
\"Îpld of 
('p(I....... . . " 
Yalul' of fihrt' pt'r ton...... S 
Yalue of fibre. 
\ alul' of tow. S 
Yalul' of flax 
tra\\ pt'r ton S 
Yalue of fla't :-.tra.\\. .. S 
Yalue of 
ppd pt'r hu
h..... S 
Yaluc of :--t't'd. . . S 
Total value of all produets.1 


I
eed of fibre quality shipped to Ireland. tIn
pected heed shipped to Ireland. 


It ,,-ill be seen from the table that for 1919 the total value of all 
flax fibre products amounted to 85,523,000, as compared ,vith $2,285,- 
709 in 1918 Hnd ,vith 
399,600 in 1915, the fir:,t year of record. For