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THE 


CANADA 
YEAR BOOK 
1921 


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OFFICIAL CO 
AT OF ARMS 
APPROVED N
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1
 OF CANADA. 



CANADA 
DOMINION BUREAU OF ST A'fISTICS 


THE 


CANADA YEAR BOOK 


1921 


Published by Authority of 
The Honourable J. A. ROBB, M.P., 


Minister of Trade and Commerce 


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OTTAWA 
F. A. ACLAND 
PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLE
T )IAJESTY 
1922 


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III 


PREF..\CE. 


The outstandin
 feature of the ranada Year Book of 1921 is an increase in the 
scope of the publieation, e..;peciaHy in th(' letter-pre')s. Historical details have been 
added to nlany sections and sub-
ection:;, and hi
torieal tables have been inserted 
to illu.,trate pro
rp
8 sinct' Confederation, 
To particularize, it was felt that the Constitution and Government of Canada 
required treat lllt'ut in the Jight of the altered status of the Dominion, and that the 
evolving governments of the ProvlIlces 
hould al
o be described, especially a:-: previous 
Y par Books cuntaining information on these matters are out of print. The same 
applies to the treatment of the phy
ical characteri
tics of Canada in section IV. 
In 
edion V, 011 Pupulation, are included the results of the census of 1D
1, a
 far 
a
 available, while vital 
tatbtics for the country as a whole are published for the 
tir
t time. ...\n interesting contribution on the development of agriculture in Canada. 
by the Dl'IHlty ::\linister of AgricuJture, intrcduces the section on Production, 
which for the first time includes 
tati:;tics of thp fur trade and ('108oCS with an article 
:--ho\\ ing the d('\.e]opment of Canadian water powers. In the Trade and Commerce 
:--ection a np\\ tabll' shows the trade of Canada by main 
roups, compiled on a 
classitieation 
H'('ording to purpo
l'. The development of different means of tran
- 
J>ortation i
 outlined in the yariolls fmb-
e('tions of the Tran:"portation and COInmun- 
ic'ations spl'tion. The Labour, "-a
es and Prices sf'ction has been eonsiderably 
p'\.pandpd, thr()u
h t h(' 
f'nerous a
..;i:4anee of the Dppartment of Lahour; f'pecia] 
IIlPllt ion Illay he made of the artidp "Canada and t he International Labour Organiza- 
tion" (}>J>. G07-60!)), eontrihutcd by the .As
i::;tant Vf'pllty 1\Iinistl'r of Labour. 
rhc Financp 
p<'tion has bcpn improv('d by a comJ>rehen
ive treatment of Dominion 
Finalu'c sinl'P t 'onfederat ion, and by the publication of a historical table and five- 
ypar detailed tables of Provincial Public revenue and e
penditure, compiled on a 
f'umparahle ha
is hy the Finance 8tati:-:tie
 Branch of the Bureau, which is also 
re::-ponsible for the compilation of thp Dlunieipal financial statif"tics pre
cnted. 
In this spction nttf'ntion may be drawn to the table on pages 717 and 718, showing 
the developnlPnt of Canadian hanking 
incp Confederation, and to the table on page 
j' .j-t, :-õhowing the expan
ion of life int\uranc(' 
ince that date; it is thought that 
t he 
tatistie
 of insurance are prescntrd in a more intf'Uigib]e form than previously. 
To the Administration section has been added, through the courtesy of the Depart- 
ment of Indian Affairs, an authoritative account of the Indians of Canada, as wen 
:1:' a. 
ummary treatment of the activities of the new Department of Health, the 
Department of Soldif'rs' Civil He-establishment and t he Soldiers' Settlement Board, 
In accordance with the 
( neral demand for presC'ntation of statistics in graphic 
form, additions have bf'en Inade to the graphs contained in the Labour, \Vages and 
Prices c;;;ection. .AI
o, in re
pon')e to a general desire for statistics in tabloid form 
of the progress of Canada during the past half-century, the 
tati8tical Summary 
of the Progre
:-: of Canada has been enlarged so as to include historical as well as 
currf'nt trcnd statistic!;, 
In all the sf'ctions i
 given the Iatf'st information available, the tables in many 
l'ases including figures for the fi
("al year 1921-22. The titles of articles published 
in previous edition:-{ of the Year Book and not now revised, are given for purposes 
of reference in the Hetro
pective Index on page 
vii. 
The present edition of the Canada Year Book has been edited by ]\;Ir. S. A. 
CL'DMORE, B,.A. (Tor.), )I.A, (Oxon.), F,S.R, F.R. Econ. Soc, Grateful acknow- 
ledgments are hereby tendered to officials of the D
minion and 
rovin
ial Gov
rn- 
ments throughout Canada, for assistance rendered In the collectIOn of mform, atIon 
The tahk
 have been in the main compiled. a:-. for many years, by ::\le88rs. James 

kead and Jo..;eph \\ïlkin,;;:, while mo
t of the diagrams have been drawn by :\11'. 
H. E, ,,- atts. 


R, H, COATS, 
Dom'i II ion Staf1.'si1."cian, 


Dominion Bureau of Rtati
ti(':;;. 
Ottawa, October 15, 19::?:!, 
38131-A
 



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STATUTE MtLES 
50 100 1bO 200 2 0 390 360 400 450 600 


'l 501 00 


KILOMETERS 
:l00 SOO 400 bOO 600 
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700 800 
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SY:\OPTICAL TABLE OF CO
TE
TS. 


Preface. . , . , , , . . , . . . . , . , , , . , . . . , . , , , . . . . , . . . . , '" . , , , . . . . , , . . , , . , , , . , , . 
Rctrospective Index..., ,. ..,.,.",......,. . , . . . . . . . , . , , . , . , , . . . , . , . . , , . , . , , . , . , . , , . , . . . , , 
Errntn. ,., . . . . . . . , . ..,., . ., " " , ,. , , " , " ., " " . , .. ..,.., ., 
='tati')tical 
umm3ry of the Progress of Canada.", ... ,.,..., .",." 
Index. " 


... ........ ....... .............. ...... ................ 


I. TilE CO
STITrrIOs .\SO nuv..:n,y\n:NT OF C.lN.\O\. 
By:"). A. CUD'fORE, ß.A, (Tor.). )L \. (Oxon.), F.:O;,:-)., F,R. Econ. ::;oc., Editor C.\nada Year 
Book, Dominion Bureau of ::;tat
tics, Ottawa,.. ., , , . , , . . , , . , . , . , . . . 
The ..\rrns of Can.Lda. , . , . , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . , . , . , , . ., .. '. : ". " : '. " '. '. '. '. '. . 
II. I-KU\"J'\'(".1L 1
D LOC.lL (.O\'F.R
nF.XT I
 ('.\
AO
l. 
\rnritimc Pro\ inces. By the late THo\f.\s B\ß:Il:\RD FLI'IlT, 
r..\., LL,B., D.C.L" Clerk of the 
Hou')e of Common
 of Canada, Ottawa. _ ................... .... .... ,...... ... 
Quebec, By G. r. \hUQúIS, Chicf, Bure.m of Statistics of Quebec. _........................ 
Untario. By:'. .\. CrmwuE, lL\.. (Tor.), 
L\.., (Oxon.), 1".:::;,8., F.R. Econ. Soc., Editor 
Canada), e.tr Book. ..... . . 

Ianitoba. H.\Skatchewan und' Alberta: By the 'R

: ËmfU

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,' Ph:ri,... F.R:S:Ò.' 
Prinrip,tl of the Presbyterian Theological College, 

katoon, Saskatchc\\an.... . , . . . . , , . , : 
British Columbia, By JOll.:ll HOSIE, Victoria, B.C".., . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . , , , . , . 


III. ("HROXOLOfiIt.-'.\L IIISTOltY 01<' CANA
.l, U9ì-1921. 
IV. Pß1.SIC\L CU.\K.\CTf:IUS'l'ICS O}' CAN.\:"t \. 
G('Ographical Fe.\tures..,... ..,.... ..,..,. .,. ......."..."...."..",.,.. 
1. Dr.lin.lge Ba....ins of Canada....., . . .. . , . .. . " ..... ........ .. . . 

. I engths of l)rincipal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada...". .""., ..,. ..",.. 
3. Area. Llc>vation and Depth of the Great T.akes.. , . _ . . . . , . . . . . , . , , . . . . 
f. Areas of Principal Canadian Jakes, by Provinces.... . .. .. .. .... .. ..... ..........,. 
Ceology find Fconomic 
[incrals, By It. W. BROCK, 
I.A" LL,D., F.G.S" Dean, Faculty or 
\pplied 
cience, enivcrsity of BritL'!h Columbia..... . . . ..,. ....... .... '" ., '" .. _., 
t;colo
y in Relation to 
riculture in Canada. By WYATT 
IALCOLM, Del)artment of Mines, 
tJtta\\a......................,..."... ................. .,. _......,.......,., 
rhe Flora of Canada, By 
I. 0, 
IALTE, Ph.D., Chief Botanist, National Herbarium, Depart- 
ment of 
[ines, Otta\\a..,... ....... . .., ,...... .. ... .. . ... ... .... .,.,.., ..,. .... 
I'aunas of Canada. By P. A. TAVEU"ER, Department of )lines, Ottawa... ............, 
Economic Grology of Canada, HJ20-1921. By WYATT 
IALCOL\f, Ceo logical :O;urvey, Ottawa... 


\. ARt:A A"\TD POPl'L.\TIOX. 
1. J and and Water Area of Canada, by Provinces and Territories, as in 1921..... . .. .., 
2. Population of Canada, by Provinces and Territories, in the Census Years 1871 to 
1921...... _..........,... . . ....................... .........,.,......... 
:1. Percentage Distribution of Canadian Population, by Provinces and Territories, 1871 
t.o 1921... . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .., . ., ......,., 
-t. \bsolute and Percentage Increase of Population of Canada, by Provinces and Terri- 
tories. 1921 a"i compared \\ith 1911. . . . . ..... ... '''.' _ . 
oj. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871 and 1921, and numerical 
increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. . ... . _ . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .... . 
6. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 18il, and increase per cent 
by decades from 1871 to 1921..... .. .. . ........... ......... . . .,. ..........,.,.... 
7. Rural and C'rban Population by Provinces and Territories, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 

. Percentage Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by Provinces and Terri- 
tories, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921.... . .. . . .. .................. ................... 
t. {;rban Population of Canada, divided by size of )Iunicipality Groups, 1901, 1911 
and 1921................,..... . . . _ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . , . . 
10. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901........ .... . . , . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 
11. Population of Cities and Towns having o\'er 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, compared 
",ith 1871-81-91-1901-11.... .... ,..... . '" ........".. ...... .. '" ............".. 
12. Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 
1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911....... ........ ..... .. .,. . ....... .... ..... 
13. Population of the Prairie Provinces, 1901, 1906,1911,1916 and 1921. _"... .,..... 
H. Population of the Prairie Provinces by Sex, at each Census Period from 1870 for 

Ianitoba, and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta....." . . . . . . . , . .., .. . ".. 
15. City Population of the Prairie Provinces. 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 and 1921....,...,.,.. 
16. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 1901, 1911 and 1921.."" 


'Tftal Statistics. 
ti. 
umber of Births, Marriages and Deaths, by Provinces, 1920..,..., .... ,.,..'",., 
18. Summary Analysis of Birth Statistics for the calendar year 1920. ....... ..",.,.. 
19. Xumber of Births, Marriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, during the calen dar 
year 1920.".................... . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


PAGE. 
iii 
xvii 
xvii 


xviii-xxiii 
886-909 


1-17 
17-18 


18-24 
24-27 
27-31 
32-39 
39-43 
43-54 


55-65 
60 
60-61 
62 
(:'-65 
65-68 
68-72 
73-81 
82-87 
87-95 


95 
97 
98 
98 
98 
99 
101 
102 
103 
104-108 
108-109 
110-112 
113 
113-114 
114 
115-117 


121 
121 
121-122 



v 


20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
2... 
'.!d. 


v. \REA AND POPUL...\TION-concluded, 
Immigration. 

umber of Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, 1897-1g22..................,.."",."" 
Arrivals at Inland and Ocean Ports in Canada in Fiscal Years 1915-1922....,.,..... 
Rejections of Immigrants upon arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after admis- 
sion, by principal causes, 1903-1921"., , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . 
Number by Nationalities of Immigrants Deported after Admission, 1903-1921...... 
Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Services, 1901-1921. . . . . . . . . . , . . .. . . 
Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in Canada for the fiscal 
years 1920 and 1921........ .,.".,..".,........... .............,., -..,.,...... 
Destination of Immigrants into Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1921.... 
Hecord of Chinese Immigration, 1886-1921..,... ." ... 
Record of Oriental Immigration, 1901-1922...... ...".... . 
E},.penditure on Immigration in the fiscal years 1868-1921. 


26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 


VI. EDUCATION. 


General Features of Canadian Education Systems .... , . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Higher Education in Canada. . . . . . . . , , . , . , . . . , . . , . . , . , . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .,. . . . . . . . . , . . 
Education Statistics of Canada..... , . , . . . .. .. . . ... .. . .. , . , . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 
Technical Education in Canada... . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . , , , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , . . , , , . . . . . . . 
1. Statistical Summary of Education in Canada, by Provinces, 1921, or latest year 
reported. . . , . .. ......,................ .........,....... ................ 
2. Number of Schools. Teachers and Pupils in Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1921...... 
3. Teachers in Training in Nova Scotia. New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Mani- 
toba, 1901-21, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1906-1920....,...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Roman Catholic Classical Colleges in Quebec, 
1901-1921,. .... .. ..... ... .... .. . ..,.. .. .,. . ..... _ ..... .. . . .... .... . . ..... ... 
5. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in On- 
tario, 1901-1921.. .......... . . . . . ... .. .... .. .. ....... . " . . .. . ...."... .. ........, 
6. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Continuation Schools in Ontario, 1911-1921.,.,. , 
7. 
umber of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in Sas- 
katchewan. 1908-1920......... .... _ _...,. _....,................. .... _. ,....", 
8. Number of Teachers and Pupils in High Schools in British Columbia, 1901-1921..., 
9. Vocational Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada, year ended June 30, 1921....., 
10. Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1921, 
11. Average annual Salaries of School Teachers, by Provinces. 1920-21 or latest year 
reported. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12. Universities of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees.. . .. .. . . .. . 
13. Gniversities of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff in the Various Faculties, 1920- 
1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , " ... . , 
U. Universities of Canada: Number of Students by Academic Years. 1920-1921.....", 
15. Gniversities of Canada: Number of Students in the Various Faculties, 1920-1921..., 
16. Universities of Canada: Financial Statistics. 1920-1921. . ......... ,............... . 
17. Colleges of Canada: Foundation. Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees. . . .. . . ......... 
18. Professional and Affiliated Colleges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 
Students, 1920-1921.,... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
19. Colleges of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1920-21. . . . 
Public J ihraries in Canada. . .. . .. . , . .. .. , .. ........,............. 


VII. CLUIATE AND IUETEOROLOGY. 
The Climate of Canada since Confederation, By Sir FREDERICK STUPART, Director, Dominion 
\Ieteorological Service, Toronto. . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. .. . . . . . 
1. Temperature and Precipitation in 1921, by Months and Observation Stations. . . . . , 
2. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at selected Canadian Stations. ... . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at selected Canadian Stations.,.,..,..... 


PAüE. 


J26 
127 


128 
128 
128 
129 
129-130 
130 
131 
131 


132 
133 
133-134 
134-135 
136-139 
140-143 
143-145 
146 
146 
146 


147 
147 
147 
148-153 
153 
154-155 


156 
157 
158-159 
160-161 
162-163 
164-165 
166-167 
168-169 


169-173 
174-185 
186-193 
194-201 


\
IlI. PRODUCTION. 
The Development of Agriculture in Canada. By J. H, GRISDo\LE, D, Sc,A" Deputy Minister of 

-\.griculturc, Ottawa..... , , , . , . , , . . . . ... , ,., " " , , .. , , ,. , , " , , . , " , , , . . . . . , . , . . . " ...,.,.. 202-210 


AJ!rlculture. 
Field Crops. 
1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916-21 and 
Five Year Average, 1916-1920.....,.......,...,................................ 214-230 

. Area under Pasture in Canada, 1918-1921.....,..........,.,...."..,............. 230 
':3. Annual Average Yields per acre of Field Crops for Canada, and by Provinces from 
1915 to 1921. with Decennial Averages for the years 1911-20.... .........,........ 231-233 
4. Areas and Yields of Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye and Fla'{Seed in the three Prairie 
Provinces, 1919-1921.,.... ... ... ..",.. ...,........"....."",.,..""..... ..,.. 233 
d. Total Areas and Values of Field Crops in Canada, 1916-1921. . . . . . . . . , , .. . . . . . . . . . . . 234 
fi. Field Crops of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 1920 and 1921... ... 235 
7. Quality of Grain Crops as indicated by Average Weight per measured bushel. 1912- 
1921 , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . , . . . , , , . , , . , , . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. _........... 235 

. Average Values per acre of Occupied Farm Lands in Canada, as estimated by Crop 
Correspondents, 1908-10. 1914-21.....,........,.....,..,.......,................. 236 
9. Average Wages of Farm Help in Canada, as estimated by Crop Correspondents, 
1915-21. . , . ., . . . . , , . ,.. " , . " " . , , . . . , . " . . . . . . . , , , , , . . . . , , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 237-238 
10. Average Wages per year of Farm Help in Canada, as estimated by Crop Corres- 
pondents, 1920 and 1921.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 



Cold Storage Ware}zouses, 

9. Cold StOTaR;a Warehouses in Canada, 1922........... .....,.,..,................... 260-261 
Agricultural Prices. 
30. Weekly Range of Prices of Wheat at Winnipeg and Fort William, 1021.....,...,.... 
:u. '[onthly Range of Average Prices of Whc.!.t at Winnipeg and Fort William, lÐ20-1921. 
32. Weekly Range of Prices of Oats at Winnipeg and Fort William, 1921... . . . . . . '..' , 
33. Weekly Range of Prices of Barley and Flax at Winnipeg and Fort William, 1921.. . ., , 
3t. Monthly Range of Average Prices of Darley, Oats and Flax at Winnipeg and Fort 
\\ïlliam, 1920-1921."""..,..,..............,.,.,.,.,..".....,......,......." 
:t.i. 
[onthly nanga of A veraga Prices in British 
larkets of Canadian Wheat and Oats, 
1920-1921, . . , ., . , , . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . , , . . , . . 
36. Yearly A vprage Prices of Home Grown Wheat, Barley and Oats in England and 
\Vales, HJ02-1921......,....,.. . , . . ,.. . .. . , ,. ,., ",,'., .....................,... 
37. A veragc 
[onthly Prices of Flour, Bran and Shorts. at Principal :Markets, 1921,..,.. 
.t... Average Prices of Canadian LivÐ Stock at Principal 
[arkets, 1919-1921. . . .,.,..,.. 
39. Average )[onthly Prices of Canadian Live Stock at Principal Markets, 1921, .... , , . 
40. Average Prices per lb. paid by farmers for Grade 1\0. 1 Clover and Grass Seed, 
by Provinces, during April and 'fay, 1922, and average prices for Canada during. 
April WId 
[ay, 1919-22....".,...... ..,....,'.. ..,......,.,."....,.. ..,.....,. 
41. Average prices per lb, paid to farmers for Clover and Grass Seed, by provinces, 
during April and May, 1922, and average prices for Canada during April and May, 
1919-22. . , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . , . , . . . , . , . . . , , . . , . . , , . . , , . . , . , . . . , , , . . . 
4
. Index Kumbers of Agricultural Prices for Canada, 1909-1921...,...."..,. ",.""., 


VB 


11. 
12 
13. 


'"III. PRU))LTTION-continued. 
Agrlrulture-continued. 
Farm Live Stock. 
Numbers of Farm Live Stock in Canada, hy Provinces 19"0 anù 19"1 
Eetimatl.d Xumbers of Farm J.ive ::;tock, 1916-19:H...,:..:..,.. .,.:,:::::::::::::: 
A T
f 

 Values of Farm Animals and of Wool, as estimated by Crop Correspondcnts, 
Aver
;\'
l

' 

.h

d' 
f'F


Li

' 
't
'c'k i
'b

d
:'
 

ti

i
d'bÿ ë;
p(jdr'- 
E:ti





't
rt:I

1 
è F
;
 .Ù

 'Si

k in' ë

ad
 'by. Pr





 . i9i6':'ió2i' , .. 
l:st!mateù Values of Milch Cows and Other Cattle, 191'6-1921.....,.:"..",... :::: 
}, stllnatcd Num?ürs and Values of Farm Poultry in Canada, 1920-21.........,..., 
Numoor of Fur I-arms, Value of Land and Buildings and Value of Fur-Bearing Ani- 
mals, 1920 and 1921.."...,.."...,.,.."",......",... ....".......,..... 
Number and , alue of Fur-ooaring Animals on Fur Farms in Canada, 1920 and 192Ï:: 
Dairying. 
Production and Value of Creamery Rutter, by Provincps, l!H 9-2 1. .,."....",.,." 
Production and Value of Factory Cheese, by Provinces, 1919-21....... , _... 

nscellancous Products of Dairy :Factories, 1919, 1920 and 1921. ... .... ... ..,. .... ... 
})roduc.tion and Value of Creamery Butter and .F'1ctory Chcctiû in Canada, by 
Pro\lnct's, ]900.1907, 1910 and 191.;-1921..., ........... ....... ...,.... .... ,...... 
Total Value of All Products of Dairy Factories, by Provinces, 1917-21.""" . . , . , , . 
Fruit Statistics. 
Production anù Value of Commercial Apples in Canada, 1919 and If120.. ............ 
Estimated Distribution of Commercial Apples, by Early, Fall and Winter Varieties, 
1 flJO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . , . . . , , . . . , , . , , . . , . . . . . . , , . , . , . . . , . , , . , . . . . , , , . . . . 
Production of _\pples in Ontario, by Fruit Inspection Districts, 1919 and 1920..,..... 
Total Quantiti{'s nnd Values of Fruit Tre<'8, Bushes and Plants sold by Nurserymen 
in Canada, by Provinces, years ended 
ptember 30,1919 and 1920.".,., .,..,." 


1-1. 


15. 
11. 
H. 
IS. 
19. 


20. 

I. 
2
. 


2'.1. 
2-1. 



.j. 
26. 


')... 
..., . 
28. 


Miscellaneous Agricultural Statistics. 
4.1. Estimated Production or Wool, by Provinces, 1921.""." ..,..",.,..",...."..,. 
U. Production and Yalue or Wool in Canada, 1915-21,. . , . . . , , . , . . . , , . , , . , , . . . , , , , . . . . 
40';. Area and Yield or Tobacco in Canada, 1919-21...,....,...,.............,.....,.... 
406. Area, Yield and Value of SUgar Beets in Can3.da and Production of Refined Beetroot 
Su!,!;ar, 1911-20. , , , . . , . . , . , , , . , . , , . , , . , . . . . , , . , . . . , . , , , . , , . . . .. . , .., ,. . . . . . . . . . . . 
47. 
Iaple Products in the Province of Quebec, 1918-21.,.."."..."'........."....,. 
4
. Stocks of Grain in Farmers' hands in Canada at the end of August, 1919-1921. . . ".. . 
49. Stocks or Grain in Canada at the close of the Crop Years, 1919, 1920 and 1921...., 
,.0. Stocks of Wheat in Canada, March 31, 1918-22...............,.............,...... 
51. Stocks in Canada of Oats, Barley and Flaxseed. 
Iarch 31, 1921 and 1922..,. ."."" 
52. Distribution or the Canadian Wheat Crops of 1919 and 1920.,'...., ,." " , , ". ,..,. , 
..a. Distribution of the Canadian Oat Crops of 1919 and 1920...........,....,..."...., 
,.t. Estimated Gross Annual Agricultural Revenue of Canada, by Provinces, 1918-1921. 
.>;). Estimated Gross Agricultural Wealth of Canada, by Provinces, 1921., .,... , ,.,.,.. 
International AgricuUural Statistics, 
51. Acreage and Production of Cereals and of Potatoes in Various Countries of the World, 
1919 and 1920,..,.",.. ... , . . , . , . , . . . . ., . . ., . . . . .. ,.".,......,..".,.",.."", 
;)1. Numbers of Farm Live Stock in the Principal Countries of the World, dates nearest 
1911 and 1921.,..,..., , . . . . , , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , . . . , . . . . . . , . , . . , . . , , , , . , . , , . . 
r;s. 
umbers of Farm Live Stock in the British Empire, dates nearest 1911 and 1921... 
59. World's Total 
umber or Farm Live Stock, dates nearest 1911 and 1921.. ........,. 


PAGE. 
239-241 
2-12 
243-244 
245 
246 
247 
248-249 
249 
250 


251 
252 
252 


252-254 
254 


255 


256 
256 
257-259 


262-263 
264 
264-265 
266 


267 


267 


268 
268 
269 
270 


270 


271 
272 


274 
274 
275 
276 
277 
277 
277-278 
278 
278 
279 
279 
281-282 
283 


287-291 
293-300 
301 
301 



Fur Trade. 
61. Numbers and Yalues of Pelts Purchased by Traders from Trappers and Fur Farmers, 
years ended June 30, 1920 and 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. ...................... . . . , . . 313 
62. Kind, Number, Total Value and Average Value of Pelts of Fur-bearing Animals 
taken in Canada, year ended June 30, 1921. .. ..".....,... .... '" .. ........ 313 
Forestry. 
63. Summary Statistics of Forest Products, 1917-1920...."... ... . . . , . ..... '" . . . . . 317 
M. Quantities and Values of the cut of Lumber, Shingles and Lath, by Provinces, 1918, 
1919 and 1920...... ....................... _ _ . . ..... ... ... .,.... . . ., ...,.,. ,.. 317 
65. Total Consumption and Value of Pulpwood, 1909-20.................. ......... 318 
66. Quantities and Values of \Vood used in the Manufacture of Pulp, 1918-20............. 318 
61. Kinds of Wood used in the 
Ianufacture of Pulp by Quantities and Values, 1918, 1919 
and 1920... . . . . .'" .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . .. . .. ... ..... . _'" ..,. 31
 
68. Quantities of Wood used and of Pulp manufactured, 1916-1920. .... . . . . . . .. . ....... 319 
69. Tonnage and Value of the Various Kinds of Pape
 Produced in Canada, by Provinces, 
calendar year 1920. . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . _ 320 
10. Production of Paper by Provinces, 1917-20....... "'.'.' .. .......................,. 320 
11. Exports from Canada of Wood Pulp, by Countries, in the fiscal years 1916-21.. . . . . . 321 
12. Quantity and Value of Wood, Blocks and Other, for Pulp, exported to the Pnited 
State", 1904-21. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 
Fisheries. 
13. Number .lnd Capital Value of Fishing Vessels, Boats, Nets, Traps, etc., used in the 
Fi.,heries of Canada, 1919 and 1920. .. . . .. .. . ". . "." ... . . . . .... . . . . . .... . ,.. '" 
14. Number of Per"ons Employed in the Fisheries of Canada, 1919 and 1920..,.,....... 
15. Government Bounties to Fishermen in the fiscal years 1917 to 1920.... . . . .. . '" . ... 
16. Quantities and Values of Sea Fish marketed in Canada during the calendar years 
1919 and 1920................................... .... .......... ....... .......... ... 
11. QU'lntities and Values of Inland Fish marketed in Canada during the calendar years 
1919 and 1920......... . . .......... . ... . . . . ... ... . ..... .... ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .... , 
78. Yield of the Fi"heries of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 1919 and 
1920 ("000" on1itted). . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1!f. Quantity and Value of Chief Commercial Fishes, fiscal year 1916-17, and calendar 
years 1917 to 1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 
80. Total Value of Fisheries, by Provinces, in the fiscal years 1916-1917 and calendar 
years 1917-1920 ........................................................"...... 
81. Total Value of the Fisheries of Canada in the fiscal years 1870-1921.. . . .. ,. , , . , . . . , . 
82. Value of Exports and Imports of Fish and Fish Products, 1902-1921........... ...... 
83. Exports of the Fi
heries, the Produce of Canada, by principal countries. in the fiscal 
years 192C and 1921. .... .. . . . . . . . '" . . . . . . . . . . .. ... ......................... 
84. Exports of the Fisheries, compared as to Quantity and Value, 1920 and 1921 ("000" 
omitted). . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . 


viii 


iVIII. PRODUCTION-continued. 
Agriculture--concluded. 
A.gricultural Experiment Stations of Canada. 
Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations.,.....",.... ....". ... .. ........ ... .. 
60. Dominion Experimental Farms and Rtations, 1921..".", . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Provincial Experimental Farms and 8tations..,........"...,... 


Minerals. 
R5. Quantities and Values of 'Minerals produced in Canada, calendar years 1920 and 1921 
86. Increaf'e or Decrease in Quantities and Values of Principal 
Iineral Products, for the 
Calendar Year 1920, as compared with 1919..... _ _ ...................,...,..... 
87. 
'Iineral production of Canarla, compared as to Quantity and Value, for Calendar 
Years 1919 and 1920 ("000" omitted).. ... .... ...... .........,............,....., 
88. Value of :Mineral Production in Canada, 1886-1921..... .. .. ., . . .... ........ ....... .. 
89. Value of :!\'Iinerals produced in Canada, by Provinces, in the Calendar Years 1919, 
1920 and 1921. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
90. Quantity of Gold produced in Canada, by Provinces, during the Calendar Years 
1901-1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
91. Value of Gold produced in Canada, by Provinces, during the Calendar Years 1901-1921 
92. Quantity and Value of Silver produced in Canada during the Calendar Years 1887- 
1921......................... ............................,....... ......... ...... 
93. Quantity and Value of Sil ver produced in Canada, by Provinces, during the Calendar 
Years 1901-1921..... .. .... ,.. .......... '" .,.. .. .......,.......... ......... . . 
91. Quantity and Value of Copper produced in Canada, by Provinces, during the Calendar 
Years 1901-1921...... ...........,.,..............,..,..............,.....,..,.. 
95. Quantity and Value of Nickel produced in Canada during the Calendar Years 1889- 
1921.............................. ..,.. ......................,.,..........,." 
96. Production of Principal Minerals in Canada, for the Calendar Years 1909-1921. . . . . . . 
91. Production of Asbestos and Asbestic in Canada for the Calendar Years 1909-1921.., 
98. Production of Cement in Canada for the Calendar Years 1902-1921, . " . . . . " , , . , . . . 
Iron Blast Furnaces in Canada in 1921. . . . . . . . . . , . . , , . . , , . . . . . , , . . . , , , . , , , , . . . . 
Electric Furnaces in 1921... .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. ..... .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . '" .... 
Steel Furnaces in 1921.... . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , , . , , . , . , . . . . . , . . . , , . . , , . , , . . , , , 
Mines Departments of Provincial Governments....,...,.................",.,. 
99. Value of the Mineral Production of Quebec, 1900-1921......................,.,...,. 


PAGE, 
301-305 
302 
305-310 


327-328 
328 
328 


329-330 


331 


331 


332 


333 
333 
333 


333-334 


334 


337-338 
339 
339-340 
340 
341 
341 
341-342 
342 
342-343 
343 
344 
344-345 
345 
345 
346 
346 
346 
347-350 
348 



\ III. PRODlTT)()N'" -concluded. 
3J1lleral", -concluded. 
}:roducti{)
 uf 
ilyer at the Cob!llt and Go\\ganda Camp, Ontario, 1904-1921........ 
'ulu(' of 1 otal 
Im('rnl ProrluC'Í1on of Briti:..h Columbia 1
52-1921 
Quantity and "alue of 
linL'ral Products in British ColUl'nbia for th
 'ë"u:l
nd

 1:'



 
l!111)-1 \}.) I ' 
Qu.mtity 
L
d. \-al

 of Ú

 W(;
I
i's' i)r
ducti

 '
i ë
id' a

i 8iÌ


 for th
 (

i

d

 
\emd919andI920... ......... 
Imports into Can:ula of Porthnd ('enl('nt . iS9;- iÒ22 
IIIII)()
t:i into Canada of .\nthracite and' Bitumino
s. ë
i 'f
r home COIlI'Ò
I
ptï
n 
durmg tlH' fi"C''l1 ye'lrs 1901-1922.... . . ........ 
Export:.. of Coal, the produ('(' of Canarl'l, 190:J-19:?2..." 
\ nllual COfu,ulIlption uf Coal in Can'uh, 1

ß-I!)21.. . .. " . ............ . . .. 
Cn,ll marle ßvailable for Con,umption in Canada, by Provinccs Calendar Year 
19:!O (!-hort ton..)... . . ' 
'Ian trfaft urt'''. 
TIi..torical :,ulIlmary of :'tati...tic:, of 
Ianura('tur('!", by ProvinceR, Ib70 to 1919.. 
:-:ullllllary Stati..ti{'s of 
Ianufactures of Canada. 1917. 1918 and 1919........... . .. ... 

um.nl!.lry 
t'L!i...tics of ManufaC'ture
, hy ,Grou
!': d IndusÞ'ie!':.' 1917, 1918 and 191
... 
:itatl:..tlCS of l'ulllher of 'Ianufacturm
 I.,:-tabh:-hment
, Cal.ltal, Co:-t of )Iatermls 
and Value of Product..., by Individual Indu:..tri('!'I, ]917, ]OIH and 1!)J9........... .., 
:'tati,ti("S of "xumlwr of :-:alary-I' lrnin
 and Wa
c-.Earning Emplov('C'!':, und of 
SalarÏl'<j ."lnd Wage- Paid in )I:mufacturing E::,tabli,hmenb in Canaùa, by Individual 
Indu....trip ,1917,1918undI919 ., ..... .............. ...._. 

tati,ti(,'S of 
lanufactur('s, b) Citie::, and To\\ru! of 5,000 Population and over 1917- 
1919.......... . ..... ... ...... ............. ....n.' 
)Ld(' ,md Fcmall' I;rnploy
 on 
alaril'::' and Wage!'. b
 Provinc('
, 19HÞ.... 
\\atn Po\u'rs of ("anada. 
116. De\ elop('d and .\ vailabl(' Watl'f Po\\er of J eading Cnuntries.. ,.... ....". " 390 
117. Available and ))c\.cluped Water PO\\('r in Canada, March 1, 1922.. ................. 391 
liS. J)('ve!oped Water PO\\(\r in Canada, 
l:1rch I, 1922... .. _. . ......... .. . ... . . .. .. ." 392 
119. D('\'eloped \\'atpr Power in Canad'l, L"tilized in the Central Electric Station Industry, 

larchl,I!)
:! .... .... .... . ........................................ 393 
1%0. Ð('\'eloped Wat('r Po\\er in Can"lda Ctilized in the Pulp and Paper Industry. March 
I, 1922. ., , . , . , . , . . . . . , , . , . . . 393 


IX 


tltU. 
101. 
to'!. 


103. 


10... 
to,;. 


106. 
tin. 
tU1\. 


t09. 
tHt. 
tit. 
112. 


tl3. 


1.... 


11,i. 


1'-.. TR -\n..
 A:\D {.O:\DU:R('..
. 
I. \
gr<'g.lte External Tr'ldp of Canada, 1
6S-1922......... ...... ... ........ 
%. Hatio of E'\:port"l to Imports and V alU(T per capita of Exports, Import'" and Total 
I'rade,lbßS-1922. " . . ........ .... ...... 
,I. 
Iovem('nt of Coin and Bullion, l'::h
-1918..... ... ....,.... ........... . . 
-I. I>utif'
 Collected on Exports, IS,j
-1892, and on Imports for Home Consumption, 
ISß'i-1922............ ......... ...... ...... ......................... 
,;. E
orts to the rnited Kingdom, to the {-nited States and to Other Countries of 
\I('rchandi!':e, the produC'e of Canada. I '\6"-19:?2. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Imports from the Cnited I
ini?;dom, from the L"nited States and from Other 
Countrit'S of 
Ierchandi"'p l'nterpd for Home Con!':umption, 18G8-1922 .......... 
7. Percentac(' Proportions of Imports from (-nited l
in
dom and (-nited Rtates, 
re
pe('tively, to Totals of Duti'lhle and Free in the 22 fi!':cal years 1901-]922....,. 
8. A veragp ad valorem Rat
s of Duty C'ollected on Imports from rnited Kingdom, 
{"nited Statt'S :md All Countries in the 55 fi
cal years 1868-1922. ................. 
t. Exports to the {"nitcd Kingdom, to the Cnitl'd'Rtate!': and to All Countrie!", by 
Cla!'ses of )!erchandise the Produce of Canada, by values and percentages, 1919- 
1922..... '.. . ................ .... . _ .... _............ 
to. Imports from the rnited Kini?;dom, from the Cnited :-:tate!'!, and from All Countries, 
by Clas!:ps of )lerchandÏ;:;e entered for Home Consumption, by value::; and per- 
cl'nta
l'
, 191!)-19
2... ..... ...... ........... . ........................ 
11. Exports of Canada to Cnitl'd Kingdom, rnited State.. and All Countries, in 
quantities and valul's. by Classes of Home Produce in the four fi::;C'al years 1919- 
1922..... .................................... ............... ............... 
12. Imports of Canada, from the Cnited IGngdom, the rnited States and All Countries, 
in quantitil'!' Rnd values, by classes. entered for consumption in the four fiscal 
Yl'.ars 1919-1922......... . . . . . . '. ................ ............................... 
13. Imports (dutiable and free) anrl Exports of Canarlian and Foreign Produce, by 

Iain ('lasses, during the fiscal vears ended 
larch 31, 1917-1921... " . ....... ... 
H. Extl'rnal Trade of Canarln, hy 
Iain Groups and Degrees of Manufacture according 
to Ori
in. year l'nded )Iarch 31, 1921... ...... . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
15. Summary of the Trade of Canada, by :\Iain Groups, Compiled On a Classification 
Accordin
 to Purpose. fiscal year ended March 31, 1921.. ... .... ....... .,..... .. 
16. Yalul's of Exports (dome
tic and forl'ii?;n) to the British and Foreign West Indies, by 
Countrie.., during the fiscal years 1920-1922.. ........................... ....... 
17. Value!'! of Imports entered for home consumption (dutiable and free) from the British 
and Foreip;n West Indie'3. by Countries, during the fiscal years 1920-1922. .. . . .. .. 
Hi. Value of Import!' and Exports from and to British and Foreign West Indies, 1901-1922 
19. Imports of certain Articles of Raw )Iaterial., for Home Consumption, 1902-1922.... 
20. 'alue of Total Exports and Imports entered for Consumption. and the Duty Col- 
lected thl'reon. at certain Ports. during the fiscal years ended )Iarch 31, 1920 and 
1921.......... ............................................................ 


PAGE. 


349 
350 


350 


351-352 
352 


353 
353 
354 


354-355 


362-363 
363 
364-365 


366-375 


376-385 


3b6-389 
389 


398 
399 
400 
401 
402 
403 
404 
404 


405 


406-407 


408-43J 


434-463 
464-465 
466-467 
467-471 
472 
472 
473 
473-474 


474-475 



x 


IX. TRADE AND CO:\UIERCE-concluded. 


PAGE. 


21. Imports of Canada by values entered for consumption from British Empire and 
Foreign Countries, under the General, Preferential, and Treaty Rate Tariffs in 
the two fiscal ye<:trs, 1920-1921...... . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. , . .. . .. . , . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . 476 
22. -\.!!;
regate Trade of Canada by Countries for the fiscal year ended }!arch 31, 1922., 476-4ï7 
23. Values of Exports from Canada of Home Produce to the British Empire and to 
Foreign Countries in the five fiscal years 1918-1922....."..."",... ,.......,." 478 
2:1. Values of Imports into Canada of Merchandise entered for Consumption, from the 
British Empire and from Foreign Countries, in the five fiscal years 1918-1922, 
also of coin and bullion..,.... ... '" ....... . _ _ .. .......,..,. ... .,..,.,...... ...,. 479 
25. Value of :Merchandise imported into and exported from Canada through the United 
States during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1920-1921....,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 
26. Quantities and Values of Selected Animal and Agricultural Food Products imported 
into the United Kingdom, by Countries whence imported, during the five calen- 
dar years 1916-1920..,.... ........... ..... . ....,.......,.....,. .......... .., . 481-484 
27. Quantities and Values of Animal and Agricultural Products exported from the 
United States to Principal Countries for the years ended June 30,1916,1917, and 
the calendar years 1918, 1919 and 1920 - . , , , . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , ,.. . . , . . , . . , , . 485-503 


Grain Statistics. 
2S. N urn ber and Storage Capacity of Canadian Grain Elevators in the license years 
1901-1922. . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..........",.......",.,. 
29. Quantities of Grain inspected during the fiscal years 1920-1922. . .... . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , 
30. Quantities of Grain inspected during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1914-1922.... 
31. Shipments of Grain by vessels from Fort William and Port Al thur for the navigation 
seasons 1920 and 1921...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
32. Shipments of Grain by vel'sels and all-rail route from Fort William and Port Arthur 
for the crop years ended August 31, 1920 and 1921..... ........,. __...,. ..,.,..... 


Bounties. 
33. Bounties paid in Canada on Crude Petroleum, 1905-1921..".".,.,.......,.,.,..,.. 
The Commercial Intelligence Service....,. , . . ., , , , . . . . , , , , . . . . . . . . , , , . , . . , . . . . , , . . 
Patents, Copyright, Trade 
Iarks, Etc. 
34. Number of Canadian Patentees, by Province of Residence, for the fiscal years 1912- 
1921..,........................ .....,...................... .......,.,......... 
35. Number of Electric Light and Power Companies registered under the Electricity 
Inspection Act in the Fiscal Years 1913-1921.......................,.,........... 
36. Electrical Energy generated or produced for Export in Canada under authority of 
the Electricity and Fluid Exportation Act during the Fiscal Years 1916-1921. ... . 
37. Electrical Energy Generated in 1919 and 1920, by Provinces. .,......,..".,.,.,.". 


X. TRANSPORTATION AND CO:\Il\IUNICATIONS. 


Steam Railways. 
The Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada,.."........,.............,.. 
t. Record of Steam Railway Mileage, June 30, 1835-1919, and Dee, 31, 1919-1920...... 
2. Steam Railway Mileage by Provinces, June 30,1914-1919, and Dec. 31,1919-1920.... 
3. Capital Liability of Steam Railways, June 30, 1876-1919, and Dec. 31, 1919-1920. . ._ 
4. Mileage, Capital Liability, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways for 
the Calendar Year 1920........................................................ 
5. Steam Railway Statistics, years ended June 30, 1901-1919, and for Calendar Years 
1919 and 1920...........................,.........................,............, 
6. Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways per mile of line and per train 
mile, for the years ended June 30, 1909-1919, and for Ca.lendar Years 1919-1920.. 
7. Distribution of Operating Expenses of Steam Railways for years ended June 30, 1918 
and 1919, and for Calendar Years 1919 and 1920.............,....".............. 
8. Summa.ry Analysis of Statistics of Passenger and Freight Services and Receipts, 
1910-1920. . , . , . .. . , . . . . . , . . ., . . , , . , . , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
9. Number of Steam Railway Employees, Amount of Salaries and Wages, and Ratios 
of the latter to Gross Earnings and Operating Expenses, for years ended June 30, 
1907-1919, and for Calendar years 1919-1920.. ......., ."..........,...,.. . . ". .. 
10. Mileage and Rolling Stock of Steam Railways for years ended June 30,1916-1919, and 
for Calendar Years 1919-1920.......,.................. ..,..,..................., 
11. Commodities hauled as Freight on Steam Railways for years ended June 30, 1917- 
1919, and the Calendar Year 1919............... ..............................., 
12. Commodities hauled as Freight on Steam Railways during the Calendar Year 1920. , 
13. Areas of Land Subsidies granted to Steam Railways by the Dominion and Provin- 
cial Gov('rnments up to December 31, 1920.............."...,..,...........,. 
14. Analysis of the Total Financial Aid given to Steam Railways up to Dec. 31, 1920... 
15. Aid to Railways in the form of Guarantees of Bonds, Interest, etc., by the Dominion 
and Provincial Governments up to Dec. 31, 1920...,.,......,.......,......"". 
16. Cost of Construction, Working Expenses and Revenue of Government Railways, 
for the fiscal years 1868-1900, 1901-1921, and before Confederation.......".."". 
17. Capital Expenditure by Dominion Government for construction of Government 
Steam Railways to March 31, 1921. . .. .. . ... , , .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. , .. .. , . . . . .. .. , .. 
18. Number of Passengers, Employees and others killed and injured on Steam Railways 
for the years ended June 30, 1888-1919, and for calendar years 1919-1920....,.,.. . 
19. 
umber of Persons Killed and Injured on Steam Railways, year ended June 30, 
1919, and for the calendar years 1919 and 1920.............................,.,.. 


507-509 
510-512 
513-514 
514 
515 


515 
516 


517 
520 
520 
521 


528-530 
532 
533 
533 
534 
535 
535 
536 
536-537 


537 
537-538 
538-539 
539 
540 
540 
540 
541 
541 
542 
542-543 



J(otor '('hil'l('s. 
2';. f'pc('d J imits in miJ. s per hour for 'Iotor Yehicles, bJ' Provin('c
 ......... 551 

6. Number of Motor \'ehicIe
 re
i__t('red in Canada, by Provinces, 1907-1921. 552 
2;. T
 p
 of :\Iotor Cars regi:,tered in Canada, by Provinces, 1921... ..,. ",.." .... ':;52 
J:'I)rl'ss COIU})3nil's. 
Op('rating :\Iil.E'age of FxprC'S!- Compnni('s in Camda, by Route.--, by Provinces and 
hy Compame..., for the year:> ended June 30, 1918-1919, and for the calendar years 
1919 and 19
0 
Enrnin
s of Exp

' ë
mp

i
 f

 the ÿ

r
 

.d
d"j


' 3Ö: Ï9ï&-:i9i9, ñ
d f

 'ih
 
("alendar 
 ears 1919 and 1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Op('ratin
 Fxp<'ng
 of Expre--..s Companies for the years ended June 30, HH5-1919, 
and for the calendar 
 e'lr.s 1919 and 1920.. .... ... ... ................., ....... 
Bu....inc." tran"'lctt'd by Expre, 'J \ompanié
 in fin'lncial paper for the years ended 
June 30,1918-1919, and for the calendar years 1919 and 1920.,. .,.. .,..,.. ... 


Xl 


'!O. 


x. TR.\

P()RT.\TIOX \
D ('O,nU'''I('ATIO:SS -continued, 
Hertrie lCallwaf's. 

umntar) 
tati
tics of Electric Rail"ay Operation, 
 ear" ended June 30, 1901-1919, 

nd for culc'ndar years 1919-1920....,... " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 

hleage and Equipment of Electric Rail\\a)s for the year ended June 30,1919, and 
for c:\h>ndar years HIl9-1920.... .....,.. 
Cdpitul Liability of Eledric Uailways, yeå
 '

d
d 'j


' 3Ö: ïóõs':'i9i9: '

dï

 
calendar year!:> 1919-1920.", ... ......... . ...... ...,.,....."......... ...",. .. 
:\lilMgt.>, Capital, Eurnim!:s and Operating Expen.....es of Electric Uailways, )'ear 
. ended Decent ber 31, 1920................,...................................... 

 umher of Pa...spngers, Emplo) neB and oth('rs Killed and Injured on Electric Rail- 
\\a)"8, year.. endeù June 30. IM)4-1919, and for calendar years 1919-l!1::?0.. 


:!I. 



2. 


23. 

j. 



ð. 



. 


30. 


31. 


:I
. 
33. 
3... 
3';. 

6. 
:17. 
3S. 
39. 
.fl). 
41. 


Canals. 
Canals of Canada, Lenj:!;th and Lock Dimen'iions, 19
1. . ..........,...... . ..... " ... 
Canal Traffic during the 
avigation Seasons of 1!1::?0 and 1921, by direction and 
orij:!;in of Carj:!;o. ........................,......................,... 
Distribution of Total Can'll Traffic, by month
, 1916-1921....., 
Tonnage of Traffic by Canals and Cla.'-Ises of Products, 1920-1921. . . . . ., . . .. ...'., 
Principal Arti(')C!'\ carried through Canadian Canals during the Navigation Reasons, 
1920 and 1921...... .. . . . . .... ........... . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... ... ... 
Traffic through the Canadian Rault Ste. Marie Can'll during the Navigation Seasoru:;, 
1900-21, by Xationality of Ye<;:-el and Origin of Freight. . ....... .... ...... . ... " 
Trnffic through all Canadian Canal., during the Navigation Sea.<;ons 1900-1921, by 
Kationality of Vps!=(>l and Origin of FreiJ!;ht. . _ . _' _ ,. ..,... _ _ _ _ _. 
Traffic through indiviúual Canadian Canals during the Kavigation Sea
ons 1914-1921 
Total Exp('nditure and Revenue of Canals, 1868-1921, and before Confederation... . 
Cdpital Exppnditure for Con<:truetion and Enlargement of Canals, 1868-1921 and 
before Confederation............ . '." . ..,................ ....................... 
Traffic through the Panama Canal by Nationality of Vessels for the years ended 
June 30,1918-1921... ....... . '" ".'" ................................. 
Traffic through the Panama Canal, August 1914 to June, 1921.... ................... 
ShlpplnJ!. 
Sea-
oing Ye
sel:- (e
clush..e of CO
I.<;ting Ves,.el
) Entered and Cleared at Canadian 
Ports during the fiscal )'ears HI20 and 1921.... . . ..,. . . ..... ................,..., 
Sea-going Yess('ls entered and Cleared at the Principal Ports of Canada, 1921... . , . . 
Sea-going Vessels Lntpred Inward.s and Outwards, by Countries, 1921..... . . . . . . . . , . 
Sea-going Yes::.els Entered and Cleared at Canaùian Ports with Cargo and in Ballast, 
1901-1921........... .... ...... .. . p' ............................. 
S33.-going and Inland Yes....,el::! (exclusive of Coasting Y cssels) arrived at and departed 
from Canadian Ports, 1901-1921. ..........................................."., 
British and Foreign Yeasels employed in the Coasting Trade of Canada, 1917-1921.. 
Canadian and American Vessels trading on Rivers and Lakes between Canada and 
"Cnit('d State.'3. excluf-ive of ferriage, 1917-1921.................................. 
Ves::.els built and re
istered in Canada and Yessels sold to other Countries, 1901-1921 
Number and :r-;et Tonnage of Vessels on the Registry of Shipping, Canada, calendar 
years 1916-1920...................................,............................. 

teamboat Inspection during the fiscal year 1919-1920. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . 

 urn ber of 
eamen Shipped and Discharged at Canadian Ports, calendar years 
1908-1920. ....... .............. ... . .. . ... ........ .. .,.. .. . .... ... .... ... . . . 
Canadian Wrecks and Casualties, for 1870-1900, for the years ended June 30, 1901-1917, 
and for the calendar year::! 1918-1920... . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ,. . . . . . . . 
Comparative Statement of Marine Danger Signals. 1911-1921. .". , . . , . . . . , . ,. . . . . , . 
Revenue of the Department of Marine, 1916-1921... . . . , . , . . . . . ., " . , .., , . , . . . . . . . . . . 
Expenditure of the Department of Marine, 1916-1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , .. . . . . . .. 
Total Revenue and Expenditure of the Department of Marine, 1868-1921. ,." , , . . , , . 


4
. 


-t:J. 


..... 


45. 
46. 
17. 
-is. 
49. 
.'i0. 


.il. 
..2. 


5:1. 
ã... 
55. 


.'i6. 
57. 
58. 
59. 


10. 
II. 
62. 


Tell'graphs. 
Summary Statistics of all Canadian Telegraphs, for calendar years 1919 and 1920... . 
Telegraph Statistics of Chartered Companies, June 30, 1911-1919, and for the calen- 
dar years 1919 and 1920.....,......,......".......,..................... .". - . 
Coast Stations for Communication by Wireless Telegraphy "\\-i.th Ships at Sea, fiscal 
year 1920-21"...,.......,.,.....".................,........................... 


PAGE 


544, 


545 


545 


545-546 
546 


554 


555 


555-556 


556 


559 
560 
561 
561 
561-562 
562 
563 
563-565 
565 
566 
566 
567 


571-572 
572-573 
573-574 
574 
575 
575-576 
576 
577 
577 
578 
578 
579 
579 
579 
580 
581 


582 
583-584 
585-586 



Employment and 1. T nemployment. 
I,'}. Percental!;es of rnemployment in Trade {"nions by Provinces, 1915-1921..... . . . . .. . G27 
16. Percentages of L'nemployment in Trade Unions by Groups of Industries, H115-1U21.. 629 
D. Index Numbprs of Employment as Reported by Employers during 1921...,...,..... 630 
Wages. 
Index Numbers of Rates of Wages for 21 Classes in 13 Cities of Canada, 1901-1921. . 
Index Numbers of Sample Rates of Wages for Common Labour in Factories, Mis- 
cellaneous Factory Trades, and I umbering, and of Wages in Coal Mines, 1911-1921. 
Rates of Wages and Hours of Labour of Employees of Steam Railways in Canada, 
September, 1920, and :September, 1921..,....,.,...,............ .....,........... 
Wages and Hours of Labour of Employees in and about Coal Mines in Canada, 
September, 1920, and September, 1921..,............. .... ..................."., 
Samples of Wages and Hours of Labour for Various Factory Trades in Canada, 
September, 1920, and September, 1921...........,.......... ..................... 


xii 


X. TRANSPORTATION AND ('03UICNICATIONS-conclùded, 


Tele(.!ra phs- concl uded, 
63. Canadian Government Steamers equipped with the Radiotelegraph, fi
cal year 
1920-21. . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ......... _ ..... 
6,t. Businesi' and Co,>t of Maintenance of Radiotelegraph Stations for the fiscal years 
1919-1920 and 1920-1921. 


Telephones. 
fi.i. Progre:-,s of Telephone..: in C'an:Hlu for the years ended June 30, 1916-1919, and for the 
('alendarye
ìrs 1919 and 1920. . __._................_........_ 
fi6. Xumher of Telephone Companies re
orting to the Department of Railways and 
Canab:, by Pnvince-;, D('('embcr 31, 1920, with total:,; for the years ended June 30, 
HHI-19, amI DcC'. 31, 1919 and 1923. .. . ....... ... ..... ... . ......... ... .... .. 
61. Telephé)nes in use, '\Iileage of "ïre and 
 urn ber of Employees, by Provinces, Decem- 
ber :31, 1923, with totals for the years ended June 30, 1911-19, and Dec. 31, 1919 
and 19:!0 _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . 
6ð. Capibl Liability, Cost, Revenue, and Operating Expenses of Telephones, Dec. 31, 
1920, with totals for the years ended June 30, 1912-19, and Dec. 31, 1919 and 1920. . 
Postal Statistics. 


69. 
'4'0. 


Xumber of Post Offices in 3peration if) the several Proyinces of Canad.), 
[arch 31, 
1921. .............. . . " ... . _. ... _.... . . . . ... _ _. . . . ..... ....... 
Stati...tics of Gross Postal Revenue of Offices collecting $10,000 and upwards, for 
the fisc
tl years 1920 and 1921. _ _..................... .......,.. ..... .. ... . 
Revenue and Expenditure of the Post Office Department for the quinquennial years 
1890-1910 and for the years 1911-1921. . . .. . . . . . . . . ...... ...... ... .... . 

Iail Subsidie
 and Steam
hip Subventions, 1919-1921. . . . . . . " .. ..... . . . .. .. .,. .. . 
Operation of the Money Order System in Canada, 1901-1921. . ...... . . . ... .... 
]lIoney OrdC'r,,;; by Provinces, 1917-1021. .. ................ 
Number and Total Values of Postal Note,"" 191G--1921. ..... 
Issue of Postage Stamps, etc" fiscal years 1920 and 1921... 


it. 


72. 
'4':1. 
'il. 
i5. 
76. 


XI. L"-BOUR, WAGES AND PRICES. 


Occupations of the People. 
1. Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations in Canada, by Ages, 1911............. 
2. Number of Males and Females 10 years of Age and over engaged in Gainful Occupa- 
tion., by Provinces, 1881 to 1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 
3. N um bers and Percentage Distribution by Industries of Persons engaged in Gainful 
Occupations, 1881 to 1911.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Percentage Di-:tribution by Sexe;,; of the Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations by 
Indu"'trie
Hmd Province,.:, 1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . ..... .. '" ..... . . ... . .. 
5. Numbers .:md Percentage Distribution by Nativity, Sex and Industries, of Persons 
Engaged in Gainful Occupations, 1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dominion Department of Labour. 
Canada and the IntJrn"ltianal Labour Organization, by Gerald H. Brown, Esq" 
_4 ssistant Deputy Minister, Department of Labour........,.., .......,...".",. 
Organized Labour in Canada. 
G. 
[embership of Trade Unions in Canada, 1911-1921. .......................... 
ì. International Trade Cnions operating in Canada.... ... ... " ..... ... ... _" 
S. Non-international Trade {"nions operating in Canada...... ....... ,.. ...... . . .. .. .. 


9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
H. 


Trade Disputes. 
Recorrl of Labour Disputes by Years, 1901-1921........... ............. 
Time T oss<,s by Industries in Working Days, 1901-1921. ..,....... ....... .....,. .. . . 
Industrial Disputes, 1921, by Industries..... ... . ..................... 
Industrial Disputes, 1921, by Causes and Results_..... .......... _... 
Industrial Disputes by Months, 1921...... .. _........ 
Industrial Disputes, 1921, by Methods of ::settlement.... . . . 


1
. 
19. 


20. 


21. 


PAGE. 


586 
586 


588. 


5
S 


589 
589 


,')92 


592-594 
594 
594-595 
595 
596 
597 
597 


599 
599 
600 
601-602 
602-603 


fi07-609 


615 
615-616 
fi17 


618 
620 
620 
621 
622 
622-623 


633 


633 


fi34 


635 


636-63r 



X III 


'!:I. 


'-I. 1..\801 R. \\.\Gt;"; .-\:\0 PRI('J:::o'-concluded, 
"a
('s -concluded. 
Wa
e" per Hour and Hours Worked per Week in Leading Trades in Canadian Cities 
In
l. .... ...,. ..,........ ..,. ............. ' 
Weekly \V
C8 in Canadian M3.Ilufacturin
 Indu::,trÍé
 i!li5'

d' iòi9..... ... ..'.'" 
\\agl' Earners Cla::>sifi('d b} Groups of Indu.,tries and 'of Wages, 1919:....::::::::::: 
Prlc\:s and the ('ost of I.hlng. 
Imlex Xumbers of Wholesale Price
 in Canada by 
Ionths and Groups of Commodi. 
ties. 1 !}! 1.. . .............., ... . . . . ., ......... 
Index Nu.mbers of All C
m.mo
litie8 by Group." lFì94-1920........... :::.::::'.. . 
Chan
es m the Cost of I Ivmg 1ß Canada, based upon \\eighted Retail Prices 1910- 
1 !ì!2. .. .......... .. . . . .' . . . .. . . ' 
\\eekly Co..t of a Family .Bud.lI:et of 
tapl.e Fo?<!s, :r\

i 
nd Ï igilt

: '

d'R

t: i
 
t9rms of thf'..\ verage Price!" In 60 Canadian C1tl
, Dec. 1900, 1905, 1910, 1913, 1916, 
1918. H\19. June nnd Dec., 1!ll0, and e.wh month, 1!\:!1. .....,. ............... 
Wel"l"h Cost of a Family Budgl,t of 
taple Foorl'l, Fuel and Lightin$!:. and Rent. in 
terms of the Average Price in ('ach Pro\ ince of Canada, Dec. 1
00, 1905, 1910. 
HH3, 1916, 1918, 1919, June and Dec., 1920, and each month in 1!U1. ., 


2-1. 
2';. 



G. 


., 
.. . 


2S. 


29. 


30. 



II. t'IS \ 
('.:. 
Dominlull Public Finance. 
1. Balance :--h('('t of the Dominion of Canada, as at ::\Iarch 31. 19:H- 
.
. RpC'pipt'if\n<.i I)i,...t1urs(\ment
, IHlS-1H22..... ........ ... 
3. ])\'h1.ill"o lh'cril>ts on \on:-olid'1.tf'd Fund Account, 1!118-19:!2.... 
t. J)1.t.lilt'd F'\pl'nditure on Consolidated Fund Account. 1915 1922.._ 
5. War T :1 lk\ enue durin
 the fi.'
cal y .1fS <'Dded :\larch :n, 191;)-11121.... -,..,.... . 
6. ":\r Tnx Hp\."l'nut' colll'ctl.d by the Inland Hcvenue DepJ.rtment, b
. ProÙnces 
Ilurine; tho ti<;cal year ended March 31, litH. . .. . . . . . .. ' 
i. Income Tax colleC'ted, by Provinces, lIH9-1921. . 
". rrincipal1telUs of I>om\nion Expenditure. l
fì
-1922......... - .. . . . . 
9. Princip.\l Items of H.eceipts of Canada on Con
olidated Fund Account, 1
6S-19!2.. . 
10. Populat ion and He'\enue and L"\penditure per Head, 1868-1922..... . . . 
It. Public I>d>t of Canada, ::\Iarch 31, 191ß-19:!2...... . ... .... 
1
. .\

et
 of the Public Debt of Canarla, 'larch :n, 191\1, 1920 and 1921...., 
13. TotalT í \bilitif''3 of Canada, :\farch 31, Hlli-192I. .. ..' .. ..... .. 
u. Funded Deht Payahle in london, K ew York and Canada, together with Temporary 
loan
.a<,at"arch31.1!ì!1... .. . ............ d... 
15. Puhlíc Debt of C'anarla. July 1, 1867, to :\I:.\.rch 31, 19!2........ ....... ... . ..... 
16. Sub
iJi(' and other Paymcnt
 of Dominion to Provincial Governments, 1915-1921., 
17. Total of Subsidy Allov.anc(';; from July 1, 1867, to 'larch 31, liJ
l......... ..... 


PAGE. 


638-63!1 
640-641 
6-11 


6-l4 
644-646 


647 


6-19 


650 


651 
658 
65!ì-660 
660 
6ûl 
662 


662-663 
663 
664.-665 
666 
66i 
66Î 
ß67 
668 
668-669 
669-670 
671 
671 


Inland Revenue. 
1"'. Excise and other Inland R('vcnue't for the fiscal years 1916-1921....",........, 6ï3 
19. 
tatist1('
ofDistilbtionforthefi....cal'\'earsI917-1921.... - .... ................. 673 
20. Quantities of Spirits. 'Ialt liquor, 'Iålt and Tobacco, taken out of Bond for Con- 
:.umption in the fiscal years 1916-1!ì21. .... .............. ........ ....... 674 
21. Con....umption per head of Spirits, Wine, Reer and Tobacco, and amount of Excise and 
Customs Duties per head, in the fiscal years 1914-1921..,. . . . . .' .. ... 674 
12. 
umber of Excise Licenses issued during the fiscal years 1913-1921 ...........,... 674 
Provlndal Puhllc Finance. 


2:1. 
2-1. 


Statement 8howin
 the Ordinary Revenues and E"\penditures of the Provincial 
Governm{'nts, Ib69-19
0... . ... ... ........ .. .,.. . . ........... .. .. ..... 
Annual Ordinary Receipts and Expenditure of the Provincial Governments per 
head of population, 191H-1920. ., .. . . . .......... . . '" ....... .... . 
Cla..,sified ::;ummary Statement of Ordinary Receipts of Provincial Governments 
for their respective fiscal years 1916-1920 ...,. ..' ............... ......",.,.. 
Cla.c;sified Summary Statement of Ordin:.ry Expenditures of Provincial Governments 
for their respective fiscal years, 1916-1920 . .. ................... ........... 
Combined Itemized Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts and Expenditures of 
All Provincial Governments, for their respective fiscal years, 1916-1920. ...... 
Asset.q and I iabilitie., of the Provincial Governments at the close of their respective 
fiscal years ending in 1920.. ..........,.....".,."., .... ,....,. .,.,..."..... 
:\Iunlrlpal Public Finance. 
:::'ummary by Provinces of ::\Iunicipal Statistics of Principal Interest of Cities of 
10,000 Population and over for the Calendar Year 19:!0. . , . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. 
Receipts, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities, for the fiscal year 1920.........". 
Expenditure, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities. for the fiscal year 1920..,. .... 
A
sets and I iabiIities of Cities for the fiscal year 1920..,.... ., .. ....... ...."..." 
Values of Building Permits taken out in 35 cities in 1918. 1919, 1920 and 1921...,.." 
The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 
Statement of Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Departments of Munici- 
palities served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission for the calendar years 
1917-1920.........., ..,...................,.,.,......,..........,..,..... ,..., 
Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Electric Departments of :}Iunicipalities 
served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission for the calendar years 1917-20. 


.)- 
..J. 


%6. 


21. 


28. 


29. 


30. 
31. 
:12. 
33. 


3-1. 


3.!j. 


677-679 
679 
680-681 
682-685 
684-685 
686-687 


690-691 
692-693 
694-696 
697-701 
702 


704 


705 


. 



Loan and Trust Companies. 
62. Liabilities and Assets of Loan Companies, 1914-1921.,....,."..,.........,. ...,... 730 
6:J. Liabilities and Assets of Trust Companies, 1914-1921..", . . , " , . .. " . , .... . . . , " . .. 730-731 
Commercial Failures. 
64. Commercial Fail ures in Canada, by Pro, inces, and in New found land for the calen- 
dar years 1920 and 1921 ,....".. .. ..,.,... ,.,. .. ..,.... .,.. ..........,."".,." 732 
65. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Branches of Business, 1919-1921..... .. .... .,.., 732 
66. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Provinces and Classes for 1921, with totals for 
1908-1920.. . . . .. . . . . . . , . ... . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . ., , . . . . . . , , . . . .. . . .. , . . . . . . , , . . , , 733 
67. Causes of Failures in Canada and the United States, by Numbers and Percentages, 
years ended December 31.1920 and 1921....,... .......,...".................... 734 
fi
. Commercial Failures and Business Confidence in Canada, 1900-1921 (Bradstreet).. 735 
. 69. Commercial Failures and Business Confi dence in Canada, 1900-1921 (Dun)....,.,... 736 
Government Annuities. 
'4ft. Gowrnment Annuities Fund Statement, :March 31, 1921.......................".. 737 
'41. Valuation on March 31, 1921, of Annuity Contracts issued pursuant to the Govern- 
ment Annuities Act, 1908...., .. .. . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . .. ... .,....,.,.,.........,....., 738 
Insurance. 
Fire Insurance, 
Fire Insurance Bu
ine
s transacted in Canada, 1920... .. .. ..,....". ,..,........... 
Amounts received as Fire Insurance Premiums and paid as Losses, with percentage 
of Lo
ses to Premiums, 1
69-19
0........ .... ...... ........,.,......: ..... 
Totals of Fire lnsurance Premiums received and Losses paid, with percentage of 
Losses to Premiums, by Nationality of Companies, 1869-1920....",., .. .."."., 
Amount of Fire Insurance at risk in Canada, lð(m-1920.,........".......... ....... 
Assets of Canadian Companies doing :Fire Insurance, or Fire Insurance and other 
classes of Insurance, and Assets in Canada of Companies other than Canadian 
transacting; such business in Canada, 1916-1920. ......",."... .",... .......,... 
Liabilities of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance, or Fire Insurance and other 
classes of Insurance, and Liabilities in Canada of Companies other than Canadian 
transacting such business in Canada, 1916-1920.,..,...,.....,.,.,.,..,.,.....". 
Cash Income and Expenditure of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance or Fire 
Insurance and other classes of Insurance, and Cash Income and Expenditure in 
Canada of Companies other than Canadian transacting such business in Canada, 
1916-1920, , , . . . . . . . . . . . " ..,.........,....."..",."..,..."..,...".,..,.,... 
Amount of Net Premiums written and Net I_osses incurred in Canada, by Provinces, 
by Canadian, British and Foreign Companies transacting Fire Insurance, 1920" 
Dominion and Provincial Fire Insurance in Canada, 1920..."........".,."...... 
Fire Insurance carried on property in Canada in 1920, under section 129 of the Insur- 
ance Act, 1917, by Companies, Associations or Underwriters not licensed to trans- 
act business in Canada. , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . , , . , . . . , . , , , . , . . 


xiv 


XII. FINANC, E-continued 
Currency and Banking. 
36. Coinage at the Ottawa Branch of the Royal :\fint in the calendar years 1919-1921. . , . 
37. Gold Coinages of the Ottawa Branch of the Royall\Iint, 1908-1921. . . . . . . , , , , . , 
3s. Canadian Gold Reserves, December 31,1905-1921..,........ '. _ _............." 
39. Circulation in Canada of Rilver and Bronze Coin, December 31, 1901-1921.......,... 
40. Dominion Notes Circulation and Reserves at June 30, 1890-1921.., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
4t. Denominations of Dominion Notes in Circulation, March 31, 1916-1921... 
42. Statistics of Bank Note Circulation, 1892-1921... . . . . , . . . . .. , . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . , , 
13. Circulating 
[edium in hands of the Public, 1900-1921,. .. . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Banking, 
U. Historical Summary Sho\\ ing Development of the Canadian Banking Business, 
1868-1921. . . . . . . . .., . . . . . .. . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
45. Number of Branches of Banks in Canada, by Provinces, 1868, 1902, 1905 and 1915-1921 
46. Number of Branrhes of Canadian Chartered Banks in other countries, with their 
location, Dec. 31, 1921.. ..............".......,...."......................,... 
4;. Number of Branches of Chartered Banks, by Provinces, as at December 31, 1921.. 
48. Assets of Chartered Banks of Canada, Decem ber 31, 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .., 
49. J iabilities of Chartered Bank!:! of Canada, December 31, 1921. . _..... ...... ...... . 
50. General 8tatement of Chartered Banks for the calendar years 1917-1921. ...... '.' 
51. Deposits in Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, lor the calendar years 1917- 
1921. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........"....,................................... 
52. Discounts of Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, for the calendar years 
1917-1921............................... .... ..... ... ."........... ... 
53. Assets of Chartered Banks for the calendar years 1918-1921. . ... ., . ...",. ... . ..... 
5-1. Liabilities of Chartered Banks for the calendar years 1918-1921........ ......... . ... 
55. Amount of Exchanges of the Clearing Houses of Chartered Banks in 16 Leading 
Cities, for the cal('ndar years 1917-1921............................. ......... 
56. Additional Bank Reserves, with Liabilities, 1893-1921,.. ... .. _'" ....... ......." 
57. Ratio of Bank Reserves to Net Liabilities, 1892-1921.......... " .. . ... .... . . ...,... 
58. Deposits with Government and other Savings Banks, as at June 30, 1868-1906, and 
:\Iarch 31, 1907-1922.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . , 
59. Business of the Post Office Savings Banks, March 31, 1917-1921...............""., 
GO. Business of the Dominion Government Savings Banks, )[arch 31, 1917-1921.,....... 
61. Total Business of Post Office and Dominion Government Savings Banks, March 31, 
1917-1921. . . , , , . . . . , . . , .... .. . . . . . . . , , . . . . . , . . , , . , . . , , , . , . , , , , . . . , , . . . . . . . . , , . . . 


'42. 
'43. 


'44. 


4,). 
76. 


'ì7. 


'48. 


79. 


80. 
st. 


PAGE 
70S 
709 
709 
709 
710 
711 
711 
712 


717-718 
719 
719 
720 
721 
722 
723 
723 
723 
724 
724-725 


725 
726 
727 
728 
729 
729 


729 


741-743 


744 


744 
744 


745 


746 


747 


748 
748 


748 



xv 


.:\.11. FI
.\ 
CF -eonduded. 



&!. 

I. 
1'\1. 
1'\.). 
8G. 
S7. 


I n'tlf.' nre - concluded, 
Life Insurance. 
lIistorical Note by A. D. WATSOS, Esq" Actuary. Department of Insurance.." ..., 
J ife IDburance in Force and J:ffl'ctcd in Canada, Ibß9 to 1!.I:!O. ,.. . . .. ....... .... .... 
T ,ife In:>urance in Force and Effocted in Canada, by Companies, 19
O... , , ", , . . , . , . 
Progress of life IDburanc(' in Canad.J., 1916-1920,.. , . . , , , , , , . " . , , , . , 
In
urance Death-rate in Canada, 1917-1920......., ..... ... ...... ... .........: 
A::':.ets of Cunadi'l.n Life Companies and Assets in Canada of Life Companies other 
than Canadian Compani08. HIl(j-1920 -............,.......................... . 
Liahilitic::I of ('anadian Life Compani(>c:; nnd Liabiliti('s in Canada of Life Companies 
oth('r than ÜlDJ.dian Compani<'"3, 1916-1920. ..............,.................,.,... 
Cn....h Income and I
xpl'ndituro of Canadian Life Companies and Cash Income and 
Expenditure in Canada of Life ('ompJ.nies otlu.'r than Canadian Companies, 1916- 
1!120. ..,....
..... ..,..."............................ 
Xct Amount of Life Insurance in force in Can'l.da, 1915-19:!0.... 
Premium Income of Life Companit..
. HJl5-1920.......". 
T ife In..;uranc(> on \
..e; ...ment Plan. 1916-1920 - 
Dominion and Provincial I if(' In...urance in Canada. 19
0... 


:0-:0.. 



9. 
90. 
tl. 
92. 


PAGE 
749-752 
754 
755 
756 
757 


757 


758 


758-759 
759 
759 
760 
761 


\[ iscellaneoua Insurance. 
t;
. In:-uunee nth(>r than Fire and Life, 1920.. . . .... _. .. ..... .., .. 762 
,-I. Income and Fxpen liture and A
 .ets and I iabilities of Canadian Companie.. doing 
In..ur lOe(' Bu
in('.
 othcr than IÏre and life, 1920. . '" . ..... ..... . . . . .... 762 
9.;. InC'onw :Lnd I'
pcnlliture in ("lO:Ld 
 of ('om paniC's other than Canadian. doing Bm,i- 
nt' other than IIreanll life. H20.... ......... ... ..... .... ....... 763 
9f'. Dom inion nnd Pro\- ineial I n..urunee in Canada, other than Fir(> and rife, 1920...,... 761-764 


'-III. \D1n'xISTR.\TIOS. 


Parlhm('ntar) Rel)r('Sen tatioll. 
1. Repre-entation in the Hou
e of Commons. according to the Di.."tricts of the R(>pre- 
:.entation Act. 1914.... ................... 
2. Governors-Gener.ll of C..I.nada, 1867-1922.. 
3. Dominion Parliament<:, 1'\6ï-19:!:L..... 
.f. 
Iinistrics bince Confederation. ." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
å. Lieutenant-Governor
 of Pro\- incest 1867-1922.. . . . 


I1onoral') .\d\fsor) ('ouneil for Scientific and IndustrlallRl'search, , . . ,..., , . 
Public Lands. 
,. Di.,tribution of the :Surveyed Ar('asin Manitoba. Saskatche"\\an, and Alberta, as at 
January I, 1921......... . ........... ............ - -... ................. .... .. 
7. Land Sale:< hy Hail\\ay Companies having Gov(>rnment Land Grants. and by the 
Huckon's Ray ('ompany, in the fiscal years 1919-1921........... .... .. .,..,.. 

. lIom
te.ld entries in 
[anitobR, Rnskatchewan, Alberta. and British Columbia, by 
:-.Intionalities, mnde during the fiscal years 1916-1921...."",... ."....,,'. ,... .. 
9. Receipts of Patents and Homestead Entries in the fiscal years 1916-1921."..,." ... 
nepartment of tbe 
eerctary of State. 
10. Naturalizations in Canad'1. by Principal 
ationalities effected under the Naturaliz- 
ation Acts, 1914-1920, during the Calendar Years 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919. 1920 
and 1921." . , . , . . . , . , . . . ......"."". . . . . . . . . . , . . ., .",., 
Indian \fI'alrs. 
11. Indian Population in Canada, by Provinceb, 1911-1917.. . ..... ..... ....., 
I') Attendance of Pupils at Indian Schools, by Provinces. for the fiscal year ended Mar. 
31. 1921. ..................,...........................,. 
13. Acreage anel Value of Indian Lands, by Provinces, 1920... .. . ...,.,. ,.., 
U. Area and Yield of Field Crops of Indian.<:, by Province
, 1920.... . .. . . .. .. .. . .. ... 
15. Number8 of Farm Live Stock of Indians, \\ith Total Yalues, by Provinces, 1920.... 
16. Sources and Values of Income of Indians, 1920........ .... ... .... ........... .... 
Pu.blic \lorks. 


17. 
1 'Ì. 


Dim(>nsions of Graving Dock'" 0\\ ned by the Dominion Government. . . . . . . . .. .., 
Dimen.c:;ions and Cost of Graving Docks sub:"idized under the Dry Dock Sub8idies 
.-\ct, 1910.,. ..... ... . . . . .. ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .. 
Expenditure and Revenue of the Public Works Department for the fiscal years 
1916-1921.. . . . .. ............. ....,.............,... . . . , . . . . .' .",.".,... 
Harbour Commissions, 794-795: National Gallery. - - . . , . . , . , . , . , . , . . , . . , , , , . . 
Public Defence. 
Expenditure and Revenue of 'Iilitia for the Fiscal Years 1917-1921. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Expenditure on A ccount of War Appropriation for the years ended March 31, 1915-1921 
Royal 
lilitary Cone
e, 800: Department of t
e Naval Service, 801-802: Air Boa!d, 
802: Creation of the Department of NatIonal Defence. 802: Royal CanadIan 
1tlounted Police..., .. ..",....... -. .....,............................. ...... 
Strength and Distribution of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. on September 
30. 1921..,...........,.,........,....".,. .......,....,...,....,."...,..,',.. 


19. 


20. 
21. 


2%. 


766-768 
768 
769 
770 
771-772 
772-775 


777 
777 
782 
783 


784-785 
790 
790 
790 
791 
791 
791 
793 
793 
794 
795-796 
797 
798-799 
802-803 
803 
, 



XVI 


XIII. AD)I1NISTRA TI01\-
oncluded. 


Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establishment. 


PAGE. 
'Var Pensions.... '. .. ...... ....... . ...... .. . ............,.. .. ........ ...... . ..., 804-805 
23. Scale of Annual Pensions granted to Dependants of Deceased Sailors and Soldiers 
of the Canadian Naval Forces and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective 
on Septem ber 1, 1921...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' .................,...... 805 
24. Scale of Annual Pensions to Disabled Sailors and Soldiers of the Canadian Naval 
Forces and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective for years commencing 
September I, 1921, 1922 and 1923, under the Pension Act. .... .. .. . .. . .. .. .. ... '" . 806-807 
25. Number of Pensions in Foree on Dec. 31, 1921, and the Yearly Liability incurred 
thereon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . .. , . . . . . . . _ . ... . . . . . . . . . . , . , , , , , . , . 808 
Returned Soldiers' Life Insurance...,...... . .. ... ...... . 808 


The Soldier Settlement Board...... . . , , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . 
Dominion Departnu'nt of Health. ...... 


Judicial and Penitentiary statistics. 


26. 


Convictions hy Groups of ('rim in'll Offences, and Total Convictions for )Iinor 
Offences, 1
76-1920, with Propartion to Population....................... ....... 
Ch'lrges, Conviction!':, and Percentages of Acquittals for Indictable Offences, by 
Provinces, 1918, 1919 and 1920. . '" . . . . . . . . ..,. . . . ". . " .. . . .. .. .. . ... . . " . 
Indictahle Offence>" by classes, during; the years ende=l September 30, 1919 and 1920 
Conviction'S and Senten
es for all Offences, by Provinces, 1914-1920.....,.,....... 
Juvenik Crimimls convicted of Indictable Offences by Classes of Offence, 1920, 
\\ith the total and yearly average for the period 1885-1920. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . '" . 
Charges, Acquittals, Convictions and Sentences in respect of Indictable Offences, 
1915-1920........ .. ................................ ............. ".00 
Classifimtion of persons condcted of Indictable Offences, 1914-1920. . . . .... . . . . . . . . . 
Convictions hy Classes of Offence, 1914-1920.......... ". 
Convictions for Drunkenness for the five years 1916-1920. 
Po;mlation of Penal Institutions, 1918-1920... ... 


27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
3
. 
33. 
31. 
35. 


Penitentiaries. 


809-810 
810-813 


815 
816 
816-817 
817-818 
819 
819 
820 
821 
822 
822 


36. Movements of Convicts, 1916-1921.... . . . . . .. ... . . . . . _ . ... 823 
37. Number of Deaths, Escapes, Pardon" and Paroles, 1916-1921..... 823 
38. Age of Convicts, 1915-1921...... ." ...................... 823 
39. Classification of Convicts, 1915-1921...... .. ..... . .. . ..... . .. . . .... . ... 824 


Divorce. 
40. Statistics of Divorces granted in Cann.da, 1868-1921. 
The Dominion Bureau of Statisti('s. 


Acts of Parliament and Publications. 


825 


826-834 


List of the Principal Arts of Parliament administererl by Departments of the Government of the 
Dominion of Canada, as compiled from information supplied by the respective Departments, 835-836 
List of Principal Publications of Departments of the Government of the Dominion of Canada, 
as compiled from information supplied by the respective Departments......,........".., 837-844 
Li
t of Principal Publication., of the Provincial Governments of Canaàa, as compiled from in- 
formation supplied by the respecth"e Governments. . . . . . , , . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . , , , 844-852 


XIV. LEf,aSLATION AND PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF TH"
 YEAR 1921. 


Dominion Legislation, 1921...,.. . . . . , , . . , . . . , . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . . , , . , " . . . . . . , . . . . . .. , , . . , , . , . . . , . 
Provincial Legislation, 1921......,.. . . . . . . , . . , , . . .. " , , " " , ... , ,. . ,. , , ,. , , , , . . , . " '. , . ,. , 
Principal Events of the Year 1921......... . . , , . , , . . . . . , , . . , , , , , . , . , . . , , , . . , . . . , . . . . , , , . . . , , . , , . 
The Imperial Conference, 872: The Wa"hington Conference, 873: Second Assembly of the 
League of Nation"!, 875: League of Nations Society of Can'lda, 876: Dominion General 
Election, 876: Provinchl General Election"!, 877: Acquisition of the Grand Trunk by 
the Government, 877: The Economic and Financial Year, 877: Obituary, 879. 


XY. EXTRACTS FRO)I THE CANADA GAZETTE. 


Privy Councillors, 881: Lieutenant-Governors, 881: New Senators, 881: New Members of the 
House of Commons, 881: Cabinet Ministers and other :Members of the Government, 881: 
Judicial Appointments, 881: Commissions, 883: Imperial Honours, 885: Official Appoint- 
ments, 885: Day of General Thanksgiving, 885, 


852-856 
856-872 
872-880 



xvii 


LIST OF 31 \PS -\SD DL\GR.\'IS. PAGE. 
'rho .\rllls of Canada,.,...,.. ... .".....,.,.".,.".."..".".,...,......".,...,...,. Frontispiece 
)Iap of thE' Dom inion of Canada and N ew!oundland. , .. .. .. . . . .. , .. . . .. . . .. . , , . .. . .. , . Facing Contents 
)lap: Botanic.,l PrO\ inces of Canada. . . . . . , . . , . , . . , , , . . . , , . , . . . , . . . . , . , . , . , . . . . . . Facing . 73 

Iap of Cana<b 
howing :i\ ormal )Iean Temperature and Precipitation in 1 anuary , , . . , , , . Facing 1 iO 
)[ap of Canu.da sho\\ing Normal 
I('an Temperature and Precipitation in Iuly.",.. ,.,.,. . Facing liO 
Diagram: Index N wn bers of Average Prices of Field ('rops, 190G-1921.,....... , . , . , . . . , , , 273 
Diagr,uns IlIUJ:Itrating the Pap('r- ,raking Indu
try. ...".,. . , , . . , . , , . , . . , . . . . . , , . , . - ,.,...",.. 316 

Il1p: Sourccg and Character of Power for Indu:.trial Centres and Districts in Canada,. . . Facing 390 
Diagram: Primary PO\\ er In.c;talled in Centr.,l Electric Stations in Canada, . . . . ,. ,..... Facing 392 
Diagram: Aggregate External Trade of Canada, 1901-1922..,..,.. ",.." ,...." ., '" ., ..Facing 398 
Diagram: Time Loss in \\orking Days by Indru"trics, and Total Time Loss, 1901-1921.....,..,. 619 
Dingram: Index N umber
 of Employment, 1920 and 1921. ,. .. , .. .. .. . . . ... .. .. . .. , . , .. .. .. , .. . 626 
Diagram: Percentage of Unemployment among Trade Unionists, 1916-July, 1922..,...,....,.. 628 
Diagram: Index Number:! of Employment 88 rðported by Employers, Ian., 1920-Iuly, 1922..,... 6
1 
Diagram: Course of \\ hole'iale Prices in Canada by Months, 1919-1921. . . . , . , . , . , , . , .. , , , . . . , . , 643 
J)i
am: Course of \\ hole:.a1e Prices in Canada, 1890-1921,..,...,..,.,.".,...,.. . . , . , , , . . . . , . 645 
Diagram: Chang<'S in the Cost of Living in Canada, 1913-April, 1922,., ...,:"."".,.,., "",. 648 
Dingram: Organization of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics,.......,...........,........ .. , ... 827 


RETROSPECTIVE INDEX. 



PECIAL .\RTICLES IS ('.\
.\D.\ YEAR BOOK 1913-1920. 


YE\R BOOK, PAGE. 
History of Canada, Prepared under the direction of ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY, C,M,G" 
LL.D" Deputy Minister, Public Archives of Canada. With 18 illustrations....... 1913 1-29 
Climate and :\leteorolo/il;Y. By A, 1, COXNOR, M.A., Climatologist of the Meteoro- 
logical 
ervice of Canada., , . . , " , . . .. ",..,..."...,..,.....",....,....,....,. 1913 113-122 
Natural Resources of the Dominion of Canada. By WATSON GRIFFIN, Department 
of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, With 10 illustrations,."."...,....,......,. 1916-17 1-61 
The Story of Confederation. By SIR IOREPH POPE, K.C.1\I.G., C,V.O., I.S.0" Under 
Secretary of State for External Affairs, Ottawa. With 2 illustrations"."..".,. 1918 1-13 
Fifty Years of Canadian Progrc<;s, 1"67 to 1917, By ERNEST H. GODFREY, F,S,S., 
Editor, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa...,.....",..,."...,.""....... 1918 23-72 
Hic;tory of the Great War. By Brig.-General E, A. CRUIKSHANK, LT
,D., F.R.S.C., 
Director of the Hi"torical Section, General Staff, Department of Militia and 
Defence, Ottawa. With appendices,........... ,., .. ..... . .. ...,....., ,... .... .. , 1919 1-73 
Reconstruction in Canada. By S, A, CUDMORE, B.A. (Tor.), M.A, (Oxon.), F.S.S., 
F.R, Econ, Soo" Editor Canada Year Book, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Otta\\ a, ... . . . . . , , . .. . . . , . . . . . . , , . , , .. , , . , . , . .. .. . , . , . . , . . , . . . . . . . , . . .. .. . . . . , . . 1920 1-64 


(Not repeated in this Edition,) 


ERRATA. 


Page 9. Line 5. The index figure "l" referring to foot-note, should be inserted here after 
the word "Council" instead of in line 24. 
Page 15Y. Twelve male and two female students of Queen's University, are erroneously 
entered as in V eterinary 
[edicine instead of in Theology. The totals in the 
theological faculties of all universities should therefore be 664 males and 7 
females, an1 in the faculty of veterinary medicine 20 males, 
Page 301. In table 58, the proportion of asses in the British Empire to the world total at 
the date nearest 1921, should be 25.4 instead of 20.7 p.c, 
pagc 663. In Table 7, last line but one, Business 'Var profit;;; tax revenue in 1921 yielded 
$40,841,401.25. not 548,841,401.25. 


38131-B 



xviii 
STATISTICAL SUl\UIARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA. 
Area of the Dominion of Canada in square miles:-Land, 3,603,910: Water, 125,755: Total, 3,729,665. 
Ö 1881. 1891. 1896. 1901. 
Z Items. 1871. 
1 Estimated population. . , , , , . . . . . No. 3,689,287 4,324,810 4,833,239 5,086,000 5,371,315 
2 Immigration,..,...,......".... No, 27,773 47,991 82,165 16,835 49,149 
Agriculture1- 2,701,213 4,224,542 
3 Wheat. . .. . . . . , , . . . . . , , . . . . . . , Acres 1,646,781 2,366,554 
4 Oats....... . . . . . , , . . . . , , , . . , . . " 3,961,356 5,367,655 
5 Barley, . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . , , . . . . , " 868,464 871,800 
6 Corn, . . . , . . . . . . , , .. ...".,.,. " 195,101 360,758 
7 Potatoes...,., , , . . . , , . . . . . , '. . " 403,102 464,289 450,190 448,743 
8 Hay and clover. , . . , . . . , . .. .. , " 3,650,419 4,458,349 5,931 548 6,543,423 
9 Wheat",......., ,. . . . . ,. ,. . , . Bush. 16,723,873 32,350,269 42,223,372 55,572,368 
10 Oats. . . . .. . . . . . , . . , . . , , , . . . . . . " 42,489,453 70,493,131 83,428,202 - 151,497,487 
11 g




::::::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :.: " 11,496,038 16,844,868 17,222,795 22,224,366 
12 " 3,803,830 9,025,142 10,711,380 25,275,919 
13 Potatoes. . . , . . , . . . , . , , . . , . , . , . " 47,330,187 55,268,227 53,490,857 55,362,635 
14 Hay and clover..."".....", Tons 3,818,641 5,055,810 7,693,733 7,852,731 
15 Wheat. . . , , . . . . . , . . , , . . , , . . . , . . $ 16,993,265 38,820,323 31,667,529 36,122,039 
16 Oats. . . . .. . . . , . . . , . . . . . , , . , . . . . $ 15,966,310 23,967,665 31,702,717 51,509,118 
17 





:: 
 
::::::: : : . : : : : : : : : : : : $ 8,170,735 11.791,408 8,611,397 8,889,746 
18 $ 2,283,145 5,415,085 5,034,348 11,902,923 
19 Potatoes. , . , . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . , , , , $ 15,211,774 13,288,510 21,396,342 13,842,658 
20 Hay and clover. , . . , . . . . . , . , , , . $ 38,869,900 40,446,480 69,243,597 85,625,315 
Field Crops- 
Total area.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. , Acres 
Total value".", . . , . , , . , , , . . $ - 194,953,420 
Live Stock- 
21 Horses, , .... . . . . , . . , , . . , . , , . , , No. 836,74R 1,059,358 1,470,572 1,577,493 
22 Milch cows.... , . ,. " . , . , ., . , , " 1,251,209 1,595,800 1,857,112 2,408,677 
23 Other cattle, . . , . . , , , . . . , , . . , . " 1,373,081 1,919,189 2,263,474 3,167,174 
24 Sheep, . . , . ..' . . , . . , , , . . , , , , , . , " 3,155,509 3,048,678 2,562,781 2,510,239 
25 Swine, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . , . . " 1,366,083 1,207,619 1,733,850 2,353,828 
26 Horses, .. . , . . , , . . . . , . . , . . , . . . . , $ - 118,279,419 
27 Milch cows, . , . . . . . . , . . . , , , . , . . $ 69,237,970 
28 Other cattle. . . , , . . . , . . . . . . . , . . $ 54,197,341 
29 Sheep......... , . , . . . . . . . , . . , , . . $ 10,490,594 
30 Swine.. .. .... . . . , , , . , . . . . , , . . . , $ 16,445,702 
Total value. , , , . , . . . . . . . . . , . . S - 268,651,026 
Dairying- 
31 Cheese, factory... . ........ .... lb. - 220,833,469 
32 Butter, creamery...,......",. " 36,066,739 
33 Cheese, factory. .. . .. . . . . .. .. , . $ 1,601,738 5,464,454 9,784,288 22,221,430 
34 Butter, creamery...,,""',... $ 341,478 913,591 7,240,972 
35 Miscellaneous dairy products., . $ 269,520 
Total value of dairy prod ucts S 29,131,922 
Fisheries- 
Total value.,..... '... ,. . . ,.. $ 1,513,199 15,811,162 18,971,814 20,401,424 25,131,153 
Minerals- 
36 Gold, . . . . . . . . . , , . , . , . . , . . , . , . oz. 105,187 63,524 45,018 133,262 1,167,216 
37 Silver. , . , . . . . . , , . , , . . . . . . . . . , . " 355,083 2 414,523 3,205,343 5,539,192 
38 Copper. , . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . lb. 3,260,424 2 9,529,401 9,393,012 37,827,019 
39 Lead"....,."'. ,..,.,..,.". " 204,800 2 88,665 24,199,977 51,900,958 
40 Nickel. , . , . . , , . . . . , . , . . , . , , , . . " 839,477 4,035,347 3,397,113 9,189,047 
41 Pig iron. , . . . , . . . . , . , . . . , . . . . .' Tons 24,827 2 23,891 67,268 274,376 
42 Coal...",..".,. ,.,'......,., " 1,063,742 3 1,537,106 3,577,749 3,745,716 6,486,325 
43 Cement,....... ,. . . , , '.. , , . ... brI. 69,843 2 93,479 149.090 450,394 
44 Gold. , . . . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . S 2,174,412 1,313,153 930,614 2,754.774 24,128,503 
45 Silver. . .. ..... . , . , . , , , . . , . . . , . . S 347,271 2 409,549 2,149,503 3,265,354 
46 Copper. . . . . . . . . , . , . , . , , . . . . . , . . $ 366,798 2 1,226,703 1,021,960 6,096,581 
47 Lead. . . . . . , , , , . , . . . , , . . . , . . . , , S 9,216 2 3,857 721,159 2,249,387 
48 N:ic
el. . , . , , , , , , . . , . , , , . . . , . . . . S 498,286 2,421,208 1,188,990 4,594,523 
49 PIg Iron"..,... , " , ,. . ,., . ,... . S 366,192 2 368,901 924,129 3,512,923 
50 Coal. . , . , . . . , , , . . , . . , , . . . , . . . , . S 1,763,423 3 2,688,621 7,019,425 7,226,462 12,699,243 
51 Cement....,., " , , , , , , , ,.. ,. ,.. S 81,909 2 108,561 201,651 660,030 
Total value,....,............ $ 10,221,255. 18,976,616 22,474,256 65,197,911 


1 The figures of field crops (1871-1911), are for the preceding years. 21887. 11874. .1886. 



xix 



T.\TISTIC.\L S1')BI \BY n.' TIO
 PROGR}:SS OF CANADA. 
Area of the Dominion of Canada in square milcs:-J.and, 3,603,910: '\\ater: 125,755: Total, 3,729,665. 


1906. 1911, 1916. 1917 . 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921 1 . 
6.171.000 7,206.643 8.035.584 8,180.160 8.328.382 8,478,546 8,631.475 8,788.483 
189,064 311,084 48.537 75,3ì4 79.074 57,702 117,336 148,477 
- 8,864,154 15.369,709 14,755,850 17,353,902 19,125.968 18,232,374 23,261,224 
- 8.656.179 10,996.487 13,313,400 14,790,336 14,952.114 15.849,928 16,949,029 
- 1,283.094 1,802.996 2.392.200 3.153.711 2,645,509 2,551,919 2.795,665 
- 293.951 In,OOO 234,339 250.325 264.607 291.650 296.866 
- 464.504 472,992 656,958 735.192 818,767 784,544 701.912 
- 8,289,407 7,821,257 8,22.'),034 10,544,625 10.595,3R3 10,379,292 10,614,951 
- 132,077,547 262, 7x 1. 000 233, 742,S50 1
9,075,350 193,260,400 263,189,300 300.858.100 
- 245,39
,425 410.211. 000 403,009,800 426,312,500 394.387.000 530,709,700 426,232,9001 
- 28.848,310 42,770,000 55,O.í7,750 77,287,240 56,389,400 63,310,550 59,709.100 ] 
- 14,417,59
 6.282,000 7,762,700 14,205,200 16,940,500 14,334,800 14,904,000 1 
- 55,461,478 63,297,000 79,892,000 104,364,200 125,574,QOO 133,831,400 107.346.0001 
- 10.406,367 14,527,000 13.684,700 14,772,300 ]6,348,000 13,338.700 11,366.1001 
- 104,816,825 344,096,400 453,03
,600 3Rl, 677. 700 457. 722,OOlJ 4:!7,357.300 242,936.0001 
- 86,796.130 210.957.500 277.065,300 331.
.í7.400 317,097.000 280.115,400 146.395,300 1 
- 14.653.697 3,
. 024,000 59.654,400 77.378,670 77,378,670 32,h21.400 28.254.150 1 
- 5,774.039 6,747.000 14,307.200 24,902.800 22,01'0,000 16,503,400 12,317,000 1 
- 27,426.765 50.982.300 80.804,400 102.235.300 118.894,200 ]29,
03.300 82,147,600 1 
- 90,115.531 168,547,900 141.376.700 241,277.300 338,713,200 348,166,200 267,764,2002 
- - 3
.930.33
 12.G02.2
S 51.427,190 53.019,640 52.1\30.865 59,635.346 
- 38-1,513,795 "'
G. -19-1,900 1 1. U-I.G36.4:i0 1.367,909,970 1,537,170,100 1,155,244..050 931,863,670 
- 2.598.
58 3.246,430 3.412.749 3.609.257 3,667.369 3.400,352 3.813,92121 
- 2.595,255 2.835,532 3,202,283 3.538.600 3,548,437 3,530,238 3.736.8322 
- 3.930,828 3.763.155 4,718.657 6.507,267 6.536.574 5,947,142 6.469.3732 
- 2.174,300 2,025.023 2,369,358 3,O.í2.748 3.421.958 3.720.783 3,675,8602 
- 3.634,778 3,484.982 3,619.382 4,289.682 4.040.070 3.516.678 3,904.8952 
- 381.915.505 418,686,000 429,123,000 459,155.000 435,070,000 361.328,000 314,764,0002 
- 109.575.526 198,b96.000 274.081,000 307.244.000 327,814.000 2R1.675,OOO 190.157,0002 
- 86.278,490 204.477.000 270.595,000 398.814.000 381,007.000 279,825.000 183.649,0002 
- 10,701,691 20,927,000 35,576,000 48.802,000 50,402,000 37,263,000 23,308,0002 
- 26.986,621 60.700,000 92.886.000 112.751.000 102,309.000 81,155.000 54,842.0003 
- '15.457,833 903.6
6.000 1,102,261.000 1,326,766.000 1,296.602,000 1,0,11.246.000 766,720.000 
204,788,583 199.904.20,i 192.968.597 194,904.336 174.878.313 166.421.871 149.201.856 161.062,62631 
45.930.294 64, 69
. 16.i 82,564.130 87.526.939 93.298,348 103.899.707 111,691,718 122.776,5803 
23.597.639 21.587.124 35,512.622 41.180.623 39.456,532 44.586,168 39.100,872 28.615.185 3 
10.949.062 15,645.845 26.966,355 34.274.218 41,859.156 56.371.985 63,625.203 45,893.0883 
910.842 1,814,871 - 18.424.485 26,025.162 34.238.449 43,610.416 35.699.581 3 
3.J. 457,543 39,0-17.840 - 93,879.32G 107.340.850 135.196,602 U6,336,491 110.207,854 
%6.%;9.4.S; 34. 667. S72 3.J.860.708 e 9 ,208,378! - - - - 
52.312.044 11 to, 250. 544 II 56,508,479 11 49,241.3393 34.931.935 11 
556.415 473,159 930,492 738,831 699.68] 766,764 765,007 926.3293 
8,473.379 32.559.044 25,459,741 22,221.274 21,383,979 16,020,657 13,330,357 13.490,7473 
55,609.888 55.648.011 117, 150,028 109.227,332 118,769,434 75,053,581 81,600,691 47.620.820 3 
54.608.217 23.7
4.969 41.497.615 32.576,281 51,398,002 43.827,699 35,953,717 66.679,5923 
21,490.955 34.09
.744 82.958.564 84.330.280 92,507.293 44.544.883 61,335.706 19.293,0604 
598.411 917,535 1,169,257 1,170.480 1.195,55] 917.781 1,090,396 665,67641 
9,762,601 11.323,3R8 14,483,395 14,046,759 14,977,926 13,681,218 16,631.954 15,057,4954 
2.128,374 5,692,915 5.369.560 4.768.488 3.591,481 4,495,257 6,651.980 5,752,8854 
11.502.120 9,781,077 19.234,976 15.272.992 14,463,689 15,853,478 15,814,098 19.148,920 4 
5,659,455 17,355,272 16.717.121 18,091,895 20,693,704 17.802.474 13,450,330 8,452.4934 
10.720,474 6,886.998 31,867,150 29,687.989 
9,250,536 14,028,265 14,244,217 5.953,5554 
3.089,187 827,717 3,532,692 3.628,020 4.754,315 3.053,037 3,214,262 3,828,7424 
8,948.834 10.229,623 29,035,498 33,732,112 37,002,917 17.817,953 24,534,282 6,752,571 4 
7,955, 136 12,307.125 16,750,898 25,025,960 33,495,171 24.577,589 30,319,024 17,307.5764 
19,732,019 26.467.646 38,817,481 43.199.831 55, 192. 
96 54.413.349 80.693,723 72.451.65650 
3.170,859 7.644,537 6,547,728 7.724.246 7.076,503 9.802,433 14.728,070 14,195.143 51 
79.2"'6,697 103,220,994 177,
01.53" 189.646,R
1 211,301,897 176,686.390 227,859,665 172.430,648 
I 


ö 
z 


2 


3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
o 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
o 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
o 


2 
3 
4 
5 


6 
7 
8 
9 
o 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


1 The figures for 1921 are subject to revision. 2 Fiscal year 1916-17, 3 Calendar years, 



xx 
STATISTICAL SUMl\lARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA-continued, 


ö 
z 


Items. 


1901. 



Ianufacturest-- 
1 Employees,......... ....... . ., No, 
2 Capital." . , . , , , . , " . ,.., , , , , . . S 
3 Salaries and wages.. . . .. . , . . . .. $ 
4 Products.. . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . $ 
Trade- 
5 Exports 2 , , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 
6 Imports 3 . , . , . . . , . , . . . , . . , . . . . , . S 
Total.. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . S 
Exports, domestic-- 
Wheat. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . Bush. 
Wheat flour................... Brl. 
Oats..,.,. . , . . , . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . Bush. 
Hay. . . . , , . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . .. Tons 
Bacon and hams, shoulders 
and sides.. , . . . . . . . . . , , , , , , , Cwt, 
Butter",.,..,......,.".".." Lb. 
Cheese,.,.".,. ..,..,."...... " 
\Vheat.....,. .,. .""",....... $ 
Wheat flour. , , . , . , , . . , . . . . . , . . S 
Oats..,.......,..".....,.,.... $ 
Hay.,...................... $ 
Bacon and hams, shoulders 
and sides. " ....... .
j. ... ..., $ 
19 Butter...... .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . $ 
20 Cheese...,.".. , , , . . . . . . , . ., . . . $ 
21 Gold 4 ......, .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. S 
22 Silver, , , . . , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Oz. 
23 Copper i ................. Lb. 
24 Nickel. .. . .. . . ... .....,...... " 
25 Coal. , . , , . , . . . , , . , . . , . . . , . , , , , Tons 
26 Silver.,...".. . , ., , , . . . , , . , . . . . $ 
27 Copper.. .. . .. . . . .. .. . S 
2ö Nickel.. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . , . . . . . S 
29 Coal. .. . .. .. , , .._. .. . . .. . . , .. . , , $ 
Exports, domestic- 
30 Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wo<;>d) $ 
31 Animals and their products 
(except chemicals and fibres) S 
32 Fibres, textiles and textile pro- 
ducts. . . , . . . . , . . , . . . , . . . . . . ., $ 
33 Wood, wood products and paper $ 
31 Iron and its products. ......... $ 
35 Non-ferrous metals and their 
products...... ... ..... .. ...., S 
36 Non-metallic minerals and their 
products. . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , S 
3ì Chemicals and allied products $ 
3S All other commodities."."", $ 


7 
8 
!-I 
10 
11 


12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 


1871. 


1881. 


187,942 254,894 
77,964,020 164,957,423 
40,851,009 59,401,702 
221,617,773 309,731,867 


57,630.024 
84,214,388 
1U,8U,U2 
1,748,977 
306,339 
542,386 
23,487 
103,444 
15,439,266 
8,271,439 
1,981,917 
1,609,849 
nl,227 
290,217 
1,018,918 
3,065,234 
1,109,906 
163,037 
6,246,000 
318,287 
595,261 
120,121 
662,4.51 


83,944,701 
90,488,329 
17",433,030 
2,523,673 
439,728 
2,926,532 
168,381 
103,547 
17,649,491 
49,255,523 
2,5J3,820 
2,173,108 
1,191,873 
1,813,208 
758,334 
3,573,034 
5,510,443 
767,318 
39,604,000 
420,055 
34,494 
150,412 
1,123,091 


1891. 


272,033 
353,213,000 
79,234,311 
368,696,723 
88,671,738 
111, 533, 954 
200,205,692 
2,108,216 
296,784 
260,560 
65,083 
75,541 
3,768,101 
106,202,140 
1,583,034 
1,388,578 
129,917 
559,489 
628,469 
602,175 
9,508,800 
554,126 
10,994.498 
5,352,043 
833,684 
238,367 
505,196 
240,499 
2,916,465 


1896, 


339,173 
- 446,916,487 
113,249,350 
- 481,053,375 
109,707,805 177,431,386 
105,361,161 177,930,919 
215,068,966 35ð,362,30ð 


9,919,542 
186,716 
968,137 
214,640 
537,361 
5,889,241 
164,689,123 
5,771,521 
718,433 
273,861 
1,976,431 
4,381,968 
1,052,089 
13,956,571 
1,099,053 
2,508,233 
3,575,482 
6,996,540 
1,025,060 
1,595,548 
194,771 
486,651 
3,249,069 


13,742,557 14,606,735 
36,399,140 48,763,906 
872,628 2,104,013 
25,351,085 28,772,187 
556,527 1,188,254 


9,739,758 
1,118,700 
8,1.'>5,063 
252,977 
1,055,495 
16,335,528 
195,926,397 
6,871,939 
4,015,226 
2,490,521 
2,097,882 
11,778,446 
3,295,663 
20,696,951 
24,445,156 
4,022,019 
26,345,776 
9,537,558 
1,888,538 
2,420,750 
2,659,261 
958,365 
5,307,060 


25,541,567 
68,465,332 
1,880,539 
33,099,915 
3,778,897 


1,618,955 3,843,475 33,395,0
ô 
3,988,584 4,368,013 7.356,324 
851,211 481,661 791,97,1) 
5,291,051 5,579,561 3,121,741 

8,611,738 109,701,805 111,431,386 


Total exports, domestic. ..' . $ 
Imports for consumption- 
39 Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wood). $ 
40 Animals and their products 
(except chemicals and fibres). S 
41 Fibres, textiles and textile pro- 
ducts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 
42 Wood, wood products and paper S 
43 Iron and its products....."..., S 
44 Non-ferrous metals and their 
products. . . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . . . . , S 
4.5 N on-metallic minerals and their 
products (except chemicals).. $ 14,139,024 
46 Chemicals and allied products, $ 3,697,810 
47 All other commodities........, S 8,577,246 
Total imports. . .. .. $ 8",214,388 90, 488, 329 111,533, 951 
Steam Railways- 
4h Milesinoperation............. No. 2,695 7,331 13,838 16,270 18,140 
49 Capital.................... , S 257,035,188 6 284,419,293 632,061,410 697,212,941 816,110,837 
50 Passengers.................... No. 5,190,416 7 6,943,671 13,222,568 13,059,023 18,385,722 
al Freight....................... Tons 5,670,836 7 12,065,323 21,753,021 24,248,294 36,999,371 
52 Earnings....... . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. S 19,470,539 7 27,987,509 48,192,099 50,374,295 72,898, 74!} 
5
 Expenses...................... S 15,775,532 7 20,121,418 34,960,449 34,893,337 50,368.72ü 
1 The statis
ics of manufactures in 1871, 1881, 1917, 1918 and 1919, include works employing le
 than 
five hands, whIle those of 1891, 1901 and 1911 are for works employing five hands and over, except 1D the 
- qse of butter and cheese factories, flour and grist mills, electric light plants. ll\mber, lath an<:\ shi.ngle 


57,630,024 


83,9-14,701 


24,212,140 


8,030,862 


28,670,141 
5,203,490 
15,142,615 


22,742,835 


7,599,802 


38,036,757 


14,022,896 


27,421,519 37,284,752 
4,787,288 8,196,901 
13,393,762 29,955,936 
2,967,439 7,159,142 
13,736,879 21,255,403 
3,810,806 5,692,564 
8,870,831 16,326,568 
105,361,161 177,930,919 


3,810,626 



xxi 
STATISTIC\L 
(1U:\I.-\RY OF Tn..; PROGRES
 OF CANiDA-continued. 


1906. I 1911. 1916, 1917, HH
, 1919. 1920. 1921. Ô 
Z 
. 
. 3

.9

1 
1
.203 - 674,910 678,337 68
.483 1 
SJ3.9Iu.1.1J 1.247.;n3.609 2. 786.6t!:l, 727 3,034,301.915 3,230.686,368 2 
162.155.57" 2U,OOi.416 - 550. I!}J, 069 ß29, 790,6H 6S9.435,709 3 
706,U,ì,57S 1.16j,975.639 3.015,577.940 3,45
.036,97,') 3,5
0, 731.589 4 
235,483.956 274.316.5!J3 141,610.6381,151,375,768 1,540.027.78.... 1.216,441,8061,239.492,098 1.189.163,701 5 

g3, 740.280 ti
,7!1,603 ,iOi,201.134 846.450.878 963.532.578 919,711.705 1,064,528.123 1,240.158.882 6 
51" 

 1 ":16 1 n7," 11,1>6 1. "11,811, 71
 1.117 .8.!G,'IG 
,;;7.I,;;Gø, 366 !,136, 1;;., 511 2, 301, 
:!2I 2.
t29,3

,583 
40,399,402 45,802.115 157, 74,j, 469 IS9,613.846 150,392.037 41, SOS, 897 77,978,037 129.215.157 7 
1.532,Ol.J J,O-l:9.0t6 6. tOO,214 7. 4J5, 723 9.931.148 9,20.j,439 8,863,068 6,017,032 8 
l,700.303 5,4:n,6û:? 26,816,322 66,36g,8:t
 ,j4,877,882 17,879,783 10,768,872 14,321,048 9 
20lJ,7H J26,132 2,j5.407 193,914 410,368 492,208 218,561 179,398 10 
I, 02!). 07t1 59
,7U 1,536,517 2.116.166 2.078,330 1,246,888 2,236,426 982,338 11 
34,031,52,) 3. 1t!,6.;1 3, 141.183 7,990,435 4, tU6. 1M 13.659,157 J7,61
.605 9,739,414 12 
215,8,<<,543 181.8Ji,724 l(ji, 961, .í'i3 180,7:33,426 lti!l, 5:30, 7,')3 1.')2, 207,037 126,395.777 133,620,340 13 
:J3, 6;;-\, :J'H 45.521,I:H I 72.S96, 44.) 244,394,586 366, 3.H, 51n 
6,985,056 185,014,806 310.952,138 14 
ti, 17:>,82.') 13,8."'>4.700 35,767,044 47,473,4i4 95,896,t9:? 99,931,659 94,262.928 66,520,490 15 
1.0
.3,34; 2,141.846 It. 637.8t9 33.918.479 37,64t,293 15.193.527 9.349,45.'i 14,152,033 16 
1.529.941 2,71:J,2!J1 5,1\49,426 4,219,001 5,073,814 7,666,491 4,01:s7,670 4,210,594 17 
I!, 0'\6, Slì'i 8,5:!ô,332 27,0 0,113 43,778,034 60,Oð2,494 40,242,175 70,123,580 31,492,407 18 
;.075,539 i.u,2ð
 I,Ù18.769 2, 4!Jt, 
192 2,000,467 6,140.864 9,844,359 5,128,831 19 
2t,t33,I69 20.73 1 1,507 26.6)3,500 36. nl, 136 36,602.50 35,223,983 36.336,863 37,146,722 20 
12.991.910 5.3U,tI)5 16,"ìO,39t 19,671,026 1316

.700 9,202,033 5,974,334 3,038,779 21 
7,261. 52; 33.731.010 27,7nt,566 23.8U,261 21. 9titJ. 82i 19,;;')9,478 12,379,642 13,291,050 22 
44,
'):!,34'" 5;),O
)).34! I11,015,:mo 126.H9.S00 77, 5:H. 900 6'>.612,400 42,003,300 36,167,900 23 

3,959.Stl 34,767,523 70.4! J.O.JO 8!.tBO,tOO S'3, 049,900 i9,1ß4,400 44,140.700 47,018.300 24 
1,820,511 2,315.111 1,971.124 I, 
9q, 185 1.902,010 1.826.639 2,120,138 2,277,202 25 
t, 310. 52h 17.269,16
 14. 2!K :J')1 15,
70,s03 18,428.571 19,519,642 14,255,601 11,127,432 26 
-:.14",633 5,575.033 14,670,073 22.744.825 10,710,705 8,684.191 5.253.218 4.336,972 27 
2,166,936 3, 
.l'!, 332 7,714,769 8. 925. 5,'}4 9.029.535 11,170,359 9,039,221 9,405,291 28 
4,tH3.198 6,014,095 6,OJ2,765 6,817,034 8,6St,038 10,169,722 13,183,666 16,501,478 29 
55,

8.252 &4.556,
ðll 257.249,193 386,011.190 587,431.967 288,893.218 416,122,771 482,924,672 30 
:'\-1.570.641 69,693,263 138,375,083 157,577,393 209,496,712 1 241,990,826 314.017,944 188,359,937 31 
2,602.903 1,
IS.931 15,097.691 11,979,554 30,804,81.') 28.030,3Rl 34,028,314 18,783,884 32 
4'>.716.762 56.334,695 83,116.2
:? 103,652,217 116.384.814 151.569.154 213,913,944 284,561,478 33 
t.705,296 9,8S1.346 66,127,099 63,310,063 64,837,223 81,910,926 81,785,829 76,500,741 34 
:!
, 4 ).'), 7
fJ 3t,0
O,996 66,036,542 90,263.731 89,523,168 79,260,732 54,976,413 45,939,377 35 
;,Slì,47,') 10.038,493 11.879,741 14,8t2,774 19.984.236 26,662,304 30,342,926 40,121,892 36 
1,7xt "'')0 2.900,379 15,94'\,4'\0 .=)2, .192. 935 49,1:31,OiU 56,799,799 22,581,049 19.582,051 37 
4.002,038 5. OSS, 564 87,780,527 271. It5. 911 372,433,7ö9 255.326,466 71,722,908 32,389,669 38 
t35,tS3,9
6 2l&. 316, 553 1 n, 6tO, G.'J
 l.tH,3i',),768 t ,5tO,O
7, 788 t,216,U3,806 1,239.t92,098 1,189.163,701 


.30,330.667 79,:!14,342 
23.616.835 30,671,90h 
;j9,292,
ô8 87.916,282 
14.341,947 26.851.936 
49.436, SiO 91,968,180 
li.527.922 27, 655. 
;4 


95,426,024 125,870,668 148,958,888 157.506,654 242,075.389 261,081,36439 
38,657,514 63,834.522 60,570,165 41,505,094 95.098,743 61,722,39040 
96,191.485 
18,277,420 
92,065.895 


142,868,038 152,311,282 178, 190, 241 231.559,877 243,608,34241 
23,931,265 28,470,715 35.399,852 43,183,267 57,449,384 42 
15:J.251.379 19.3,24
,713 192,527,377 186,319,876 245.625.703 43 
39.4ß4,210 46,203.053 41,649,431 52.103,913 55.553,902 44 


29,t43,661 
33, ;,'>7.284 53,335.826 53,427,531 79,227,545 129;7E-.ì,504 135,250.417 121.956,1i6 206,095,1I34,j 

, :?,')I, 378 12,4\;9, iili 19, 2.5S, 326 :?S, 672, 998 27,840,576 34,282,647 29,886,102 36.334.612 4b 
27,184,539 42,620.4791 65,4ti,:?78 189,330,253 174,140,682 103,399,992 62,344,780 72,688,07247 
281. it!), 


 4,')2,72:1,603 50S. 201,13-11 H6. .53,878 963,532, 57b 919.711,705 t,06t,528,123'1.2!O,158,88'! 
:!1,353 2>.400 1 37,434 3
.604 38,879 38.896 39,384 39,84148 
I ,o.n, "31.629 1,528,6S),201 1,893.125.774 1,985.119,991 1,999,830,494 2,00':1.209,510 2,170,030.128 2.164,687.636 49 
27,9
9,iS2 37,097,7b 4'3,503.4')9 43,106,.530 44,948.638 43,754,194 51,318,421 46,793,25150 
57966713 79884 28'> / 109659-088 121916272 127.543,687 116,699,572 127.429,1.')4 103,131,13251 
125:322:
6j Ib3:733:494 261:SSI;J:6H 310:771:479 330.220,150 382.976.901 492,101,1
4 1 458,008,89152 
87,129.414 131.014. 785 I)SO,!}42,2;)
 222,890,637 273.955.436 341.866,509 478.248,154 422.581.20553 
mills. lime kilns. brick and tile works and fish preserved, 2 Exports of domestic merchandise on!y, 
S Imports of merchandise for home consumption, 4 The figures for 1919 are for gold exported to foreign 
countries only. I Copper, fine, contained in ore, matte, regulus, etc. I Year 1876. 'I Year 1875. 



xxii 
STATISTICAL SUl\lMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA-concluded. 


ò 
z 


Items, 


Electric Railwaysl-2- 
1 Miles in operation.", . . '. " . " No. 
2 Capi tal. . . . , . , . , , . . , , . , , , . , . , . $ 
3 Passengers...."..."",...." No. 
4 Freight. , , . . . , , , , , , . . . , . , . , , . , Tons 
5 Earnings, , . , . . . , , , , , . , . . , . , , . , $ 
6 Expenses.. . . , . . , , , . . , . , . . . . .. , $ 
Canals- 
7 Passengers carried. .........,. No. 
8 Freight..... . . .. . .. . . , . . . . . .. . Tons 
Shipping (sea-going)- 
9 Entered, , , . . . . . . . , , . . , . . , . , . , . Tons 
10 Cleared...... , . . . . . , " 


Total. . , , . , , , . . . . . . . . . , , , , , , 


11 Telegraphs, Government, miles of line 
12 Telegraphs, other, miles of line.,...". 
13 Telephones...................... No. 
14 ,rotor vehicles. . . , , , . , . . . . . . . . , . " 


Postal- 
15 Money orders issued....,.,.",. $ 
16 Revenue....,..."",."......, $ 
17 Expenditure... ..".... . .. . .. . . .. . $ 
18 Revenue..... . . . . . . . , . . . , . $ 
19 Expenditure......... .. .. .., '" ... $ 
20 Gross debt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . S 
21 Assets",. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . , $ 
Net debt. , , . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . $ 
Chartered Banks- 
22 Capital paid up. ..,.... .,. ,.", $ 
23 Assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . , , . . . . , . $ 
24 Liabilities (excluding capital 
and reserves). ....".,.. ."" $ 
25 Deposits 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . , , . $ 
Savings Banb- 
26 Deposits in Post Office.....,.., $ 
27 Government........ S 
28 Special.. .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. $ 


Loan CompaniðsØ- 
29 Assets. . , . . , . , . , , , . . . , , . . . . . . , _ $ 
30 Liabilities.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .... S 
31 Deposits....... . . .... $ 
Trust Companies- 
32 Shareholders' assets........,." $ 
33 Investments on trust account", $ 
Dominion Fire Insurance- 
34 Amount at risk, Dec. 31.. , , . , , , $ 
35 Premium income for year. , . . , . S 
Provincial Fire Insurance- 
36 Amount at risk Dec. 31...., ,.., $ 
37 Premium income for year. , , . ,. $ 
Dominion Life Insurance- 
38 Amount at risk Dec.31....."., $ 
39 Premium income for year. .. .. $ 
Provincial Life Insurance-- 
40 Amount at risk Dec. 31......., , $ 
41 Premium income for year., . , , , $ 


" 


1871, 1881. 1891, 1896, 1901. 
- - - - 675 
- - - - - 
- . - - - 120,934,656 
- - - - 287,926 
- - - - 5,768,283 
- - - - 3,435,162 
100,377 118,136 146,336 151,342 190,428 
3,955,6
1 2,853,230 2,902,526 7,991,073 5,665,259 
2,521,573 4,032,946 5,273,935 5,895,360 7,514,732 
2,594,460 4,071,391 5,421,261 5,563,464 7,028,330 
5,116,033 8,104,337 10,695,196 11,458,824 14,543,062 
- 1,947 2,699 2,786 5,744 
- - 27,866 28,949 30, 194 
- - - - 63,192 
- - - - - 
4,546,434 7,725,212 12,478,178 13,081,861 17,956,258 
803,637 1,344,970 2,515,823 2,971,653 3,421,192 
994,876 1,876,658 3,161,676 3,752,805 3,837,376 
19,335,561 29,635,298 38,579,311 36,618,591 52,514,701 
15,623,082 25,502,554 36,343,568 36,949,142 46,866,368 
115,492,683 199,861,537 289,899,230 325,717,537 354,732,433 
37,786,165 44,465,757 52,090,199 67,220,104 86,252,429 
77,706,518 155,395,780 237,809,031 258,497,433 268,480,004 
37,095,340 59,534,977 60,700,697 62,043,173 67,035,615 
125,273,631 200,613,879 269,307,032 320,937,643 531,829,324 
80,250,974 127,176,249 187,332,325 232,338,086 420,003,743 
56,287,391 94,346,481 148,396,968 193,616,049 349,573,327 
2,497,260 6,208,227 21,738,648 28,932,930 39,950,813 
2,072,037 9,628,445 17,661,378 17,866,389 16,098,144 
5,766,712 7,685,888 10,982,232 14,459,833 19,125,097 
. 
8,392,464 73,906,638 125,041,146 143,887,377 158,523,307 
8,392,464 71,965,0-17 123,915,704 143,296,284 158,523,307 
2,399,136 13,460,268 18,482,959 19,40.4,878 20,756,910 
- - - - - 
- - - - - 
228,453,784 462,210,968 759,602,191 845,574,352 1,038,687,619 
2,321,716 3,827,116 6,168,716 7,075,850 9,650,348 
- - - - - 
- - - - - 
45,825,935 103.290,-932 261,475,229 327,814,465 463,769,034 
1,852,974 3,094,689 8,417,702 10,604,577 15.189,854 
- - - - - 
- - - - - 


1 Statistics for 1918 do not include Montreal Tramways, 2Calendar years 1920 and 1921. 
3 Including amounts deposited elsewhere than in Canada from 1901 to 1921. 4 Active assets only. 
Ii Figures subject to revision. 6 Including Building SocietieH and Trust Companies (1871-1911). 
7 Motor vehicles in 6 provinces numbered 2,130 in 1907. 



xxiii 
Sr\TI'STIC-\L SL"I:\I.\R\ 01' Tnt: PROGR.
S OF CAN..\D.\-concluded. 


1906. 1911, 1916. 1917 , 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921. Ó 
Z 
814 1,224 1,674 1,744 1,616 1,696 1,699 1,687 1 
- 111,532,347 IM,b95,5h4 161, 234, 739 167,253,093 171,894,556 170,826,404 177,187,436 2 
237,655,074 426,296,792 580,094,167 629,441, m.l7 487,365,456 686,124,263 804,711,333 719,305,441 3 
506,024 1,2
S,362 1,936,6ï4 2,333,5
H 2,497,530 2,474,8U2 2,691,150 2,285,886 4 
10,966,h71 20,356,952 27,41t),2
5 30,237,664 24,299,890 35,696,532 47,047,246 44,536,833 5 
6,675,037 12,096,134 18,099,006 20,098,634 17,535,975 26,839,070 37,242,483 35,945,316 6 
256,500 304,904 263,648 244,919 212,143 262,056 230,468 230,129 7 
10,523.185 38,030,353 23,583,491 22,238,935 18,883,619 9,995,266 8,735,383 9,407,021 8 
8,895,353 11,919,339 12,616,927 14,789,781 15,780,160 11,694,613 12,010,374 12,516,503 9 
7,948,076 10,377,847 12,210,723 14,477,293 17,006,967 13,566,780 13,234,380 12,400,226 10 
U,M:
,429 2
.:!97,18G -I, ,
;, 6.")0 2t,
6i,074 32,ih4',12; 2ã,261,393 2.;,214,7,H 2-1.916,729 
6,R29 8,446 10,699 10,924 10,950 11 , 428 11,454 11,207 11 
31,506 33,905 38,552 39,196 39,438 37,771 40,939 41,621 12 
- 302,759 548,421 604,136 662,330 724,500 856,266 902,090 13 
., 21,519 123,4(;4 197,799 275,746 341,316 407,064 465,378 14 
37,355,673 70,614,862 94,469.871 119,695,535 142,959,168 142,375,809 159,224,937 173,523,322 15 
5,993.343 9,146,952 18,858,410 20,902,384 21,345,394 21,602,713 24,449,917 26,331,119 16 
4.921,577 7, P.'>4, 223 16,009,139 16,300,579 18,046,558 19,273,581 20,774,385 24,661,262 17 
80,139,360 117.7S0,41O 172,147,838 232,701,294 260,778,953 312,946,747 349,746,335 434,386,537 18 
67.240.641 
7, 774,198 130,3ãO.727 148,599,343 178,284,313 232,731,283 303,843,930 361,118,145 19 
392,269,6"'0 47-1,941,487 936,987,802 1,382,003,268 1,863,335,899 2,460,183,021 3,041,529,587 2,W2,482,117 20 
125,226,702 134,B99,435 321, 
31.631 502,816,970 671,451,836 647,598,202 4 792,660,963 4 561,603,133 4 21 
267,042,978 340,042,052 615,156,171 879,186,298 1,191,884,063 1,812,584,819 2,248,
68,624 2,340,878,983 
91,035,604 103,009, 2M 113,175,353 111,637,755 110,618,504 115,004,960 123,617,120 129,096,339 22 
878,512,076 1,303,131,260 1,839,286,709 2,111,559,555 2,432,331,418 2,754,568,118 3,064,133,843 2,841,7b2,079 23 
713,790,553 1,097,661.393 1,596,905,337 1,866,228,236 2,184,359,820 2,495,582,568 2,784,C68,6fS 2,556,454,lto 24 
605,968,513 980,433,.b8 1,418,035,429 1,643,302,0::0 1,912,395,780 2,189,428,885 2,43b,079, .92 2,264,5S6,736 25 
45,736,488 43,330,579 40,008,418 42,5
2,479 41,283,479 41,654,920 31,605,594 29,010,619 26 
16,174,134 14,655,564 13,520.009 13,633,610 12,177,283 11,402,098 10,729,218 10,150,189 27 
27,399,194 34,770,386 40,405,037 44,139,978 42,000,543 46,799,877 53,118,053 58,576,775 28 
232,076,447 389.701,988 70,872,297 69,676,223 69,995,036 74,520,021 90,413,261 96,698,809 29 
232,076,447 389, 701, 9SS 70,872,297 69,679,193 69,995,224 74,520,021 90,413,261 96,698,809 30 
23,046,194 33,742,513 8,987,720 8,934,825 7,802,539 9,347,096 15,257,840 15, bu8, 926 31 
- - 7,826,943 7,656,292 8,836,137 10,007,941 10,224,252 10,238,236 32 
- - 47,669,243 49,291,347 68,938,236 73,133,017 73,704,706 88,036,50733 
1,443,902,244 2,279,868,346 3,720,058,236 3,986,197,514 4,523,514,841 4,923,024,381 5,969,872,278 5,995,928,802 1i 34 
14,687,963 20,575,255 27,783,852 31,246,530 35,954,405 40,031,474 50,527,937 47,199,765 1i 35 
- ... 849,915,678 891,299,821 1,000,541,101 1,004,942,977 1,054,105,011 1,134,639,938 1i 36 
- - 3,902,504 4,081,815 4,185,851 4,302,492 5,216,795 5,010,302 6 37 
656,260,900 950,220,771 1,422,179,632 1,585,042,563 1,785,061,273 2,187,837,317 2,657,025,493 2,934,844,248 6 38 
22,364,456 31,619,626 48,093,105 54,843,609 61,641,047 74,708,509 90,218,047 98,866,458 6 39 
- - 348,097,229 415,870,273 239,126,190 223,853,792 174,740,215 202,863,578 6 40 
- - 5,311,003 7,397,193 4,821,839 4,407,833 3,282,669 4,371,301 6 41 


NOTE, 
In the foregoing Summary the statistics of immigration, fisheries (1871-1917), trade, shipping, the 
Post Office the public debt, revenue <wd expenditure and the Post Office and Government Savings Banks 
relate to th
 fiscal years ended 1une 30 up to 1906, and from that on to the years ended March 31. Agricul- 
tural, dairying, fisheries (1917-21), mineral, 
anufactu:i
g, banking, insurance, loan and trust companies' 
statistics relate to the calendar years and raIlway statistics to the years ended June 30, 1871-1919, and to 
the calendar years 1920 and 1921. Canal statistics are those of the navigation seasons. Tþe telegraph 
stati
tics relate to the fiscal years for Government lines and to the calendar years for other lines. 




I.-TIlE COXSTITUTION Al';D GO,TERNMENT OF 
CANAD,A. 


By 
. A. CUD110RE, B.A. (Tor.). M.A. (Oxon,). F,R's" F:R. Econ. Soc.; Editor Canada 
Y car Book, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. 
The' Donlinion of Cnnada is the largest in area ànd the most 
POI?uloUH of !hc great 
elf-
ovcrning }Jolninions of th
 British Empire, 
wluch also Includl' the COlnmon\vealth of ,Australia, the Union of 
bou th . \frira, the I)on1Ïnion of N ('\v Zealand and the island colony 
of Xc\\foundland (\vith Labrador). These Dominion
 enjoy respon- 
sible 
overnln('nt of the British type, aùnlÍnistered by Executive 
Council
 (or Cabinets) acting as advisors to the representative of the 
SoveI'C'ign, thPIIlsl'hres responsible to and possessing the confidence of 
the representatives elected to Parliament by the people, and giving 
place to othC'r persons lnore acceptable to Parli:unent \vhenever that 
confidence i
 
ho\vn to have ceased to exist. 
Of thp:,e })oIIlinions, Canada, Australia and South Africa extend 
over ellorUlOUs area!::; of territory, the first two approxirnating in area 
to Europe. Each section has its o\vn problenls and its o\vn point of 
vie\v, so that local parlÜllnents for each section, as \vell as the central 
parlialuent for the "rhole country, are required. These local parlia- 
Inent
, establisher! \vhen transportation and con1munication 'were more 
difficult and expensive than at present, \vere chronologically prior to 
the eputral hody, to \vhich on its fonnation they either resigned certain 
powers, a 
 in the case of Australia, or surrendered all their powers 
,vith certain specified exceptions, as in Canada and South Africa. 
Of };uch local Parliau1cnts, Canada at the present time has nine, 

-\u:,tralia 
ix and 
outh Africa four. 
As regards the division of pow.ers bet\veen central and local 
legislatures, Canada 
tan(b midw'ay bet\vt:'en the two more recently 
fornle'd fed(1ration
 of the Empire. The founòers of the Dominion 
of Canada, con
tituted as it \vas under the shado\v of the great Civil 
,\".. ar in the United 
tates, aimed at settling once for all the issues 
of State right
, State sovereignty and the right of the State to secede 
frolH the Union, \vhich had occasioned so much bloodshed in the 
neighbouring republic. They created, therefore, a strong federation 
,,-here the residue of power appertained to the central rather than to 
th(1 local authorities and \vhere the central po\ver could legally dis- 
aIlo\\' in the general interest of Canada, the legislation of the local 
ParIÜ
n1ent:"" even \vhen these \vere admittedly acting within their 
reserved po\vers. 
I t is a curious paradox of political science that whereas in Canada, 
a bi-lingual country inhabited by peoples of different races and 
religions, it should have been possible to establish a stron
 cent:al 
O'overnment the founders of the Common\\realth of AustralIa, 'WhICh 
had a practically homogeneous population throughout the six States 
of the Common\vealth should only have been able to establish a 
relatively \veak federation of the American. type \vith the residual 
po,vers in the hands of the States, among whIch all surplus Common- 
wealth revenue \\raS to be divided. 
38131-1 



2 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


Again, in the South African federation, also formed in a bi- 
lingual country where the white population of one province was 
almost altogether British, of another almost wholly Dutch, of the 
other two nearly equally divided, we find a strong federation where 
the powers of local governments are more restricted than in our own 
country. The decisive factor necessitating the formation of a strong, 
central Government seems to have been the presence in South Africa 
of a native population vastly outnumbering the whites. 
Besides the Dominions above enumerated, the Irish Free State 
may now (1922) be said to possess full Dominion status, while the 
six counties of Northeast Ulster may also be regarded as a separate 
self-governing colony. The great Empire of India has internationally 
been accepted as a member of the League of Nations, and in its 
internal administration has been placed on the road, formerly 
traversed by the Dominions which are now fully self-governing, 
towards responsible government. Indeed, the whole evolution of the 
Empire, throughout all its parts which are more than mere fort- 
resses like Gibraltar or trading stations like Hong Kong, is in the 
direction of responsible government, to be attained in the depend- 
encies as it has been in what used to be called the colonies, by the 
gradual extension of self-government in proportion to the growing 
capacities of their respective populations. It is the recognized aim 
of British administrators, by the extension of educational facilities 
and by just administration, to develop these capacities to the utmost, 
so that in the dependencies, as well as in the Dominions and in the 
Mother Country, the constitutional history of the future may be a 
record of "freedom slowly broadening down from precedent to pre- 
cedent." 
It is the purpose of this article to relate as briefly as possible, 
the process of this development of free government in the Dominion 
of Canada. 
The French Régime.-The settlement of Canada commenced 
a t a time when the extension of European trade and commerce 
throughout the world was being mainly carried on by Chartered 
Companies of merchants belonging to various nations, more particul- 
arly England, France and Holland. These Companies each tried to 
monopolize the trade of the regions in which they established them- 
selves, receiving from their sovereign charters which, theoretically at 
least, gave them a monopoly so far as their compatriots were concerned, 
while against foreign competition they maintained their position 
with the sword, even when their respective mother countries, thou- 
sands of miles and months of time distant, were at peace. Among 
such companies of this period were the English and Dutch East India 
Companies, the Guinea Company, the Russia Company, the Vir- 
ginia Company, and a little later, the Hudson's Bay Company. 
Similarly we find in the earliest stage of French enterprise in Canada 
that several short-lived companies successively possessed a monopoly 
of trade and employed such men as Champlain as governors and 
explorers of the opportunities of the new territories. The charters 



THE E.\?GLISH COLONY 


3 


of these cOlnpanics were, ho\vever, cancelled for violation of their 
ternlS, and at la
t in 1627, the monopoly of trade and the right to make 

rants of land ,,'as conferred upon the Conlpany of One Hundred 
l\ssociatcs, in consideration of its undertaking to settle the country 
and support nli:,
ionaries to christianize the Indians. Government- 
ally, therefore, the first stage in Canadian history may be said to 
have been the autocratic governlnent of a trading company. This 
company, however, failed to live up to its agreement and its charter 
"as cancelled in 16ß3, \yhen Canada bec:une a royal province, governed 
like an ordinary French provin ce of those days, by a Governor to 
,vholn as personal representative of the I\:ing, ,vere entrusted the 
general policy of the country, the direction of its n1Ïlitary affairs and 
it
 relations ,vith the Indian tribes. The Bishop, as the head of the 
Church, ,vas supreme in Inatters affecting religion, and the Intendant, 
acting under the authority of the I\:ing, not of the Governor, was 
responsible for the adn1Ïnistration of justice, for finance and for the 
direction of local administration. A Superior Council also existed, 
"ith certain adn1Ïnbtrative po,,'ers ,vhich were Inore formal than real. 
Thi:-; systcln continued until the end of the French régime. 
The English CoIony.-From the capitulation of Quebec on 

ept. 18, 1759, and of l\Iontreal on Sept. 8, 1760, to the signature of 
the Treaty of Paris on Feb. 10, 1763, Canada was ruled by British 
military officers ,vho instituted courts ,vhich applied French la\v, and 
administered the country as an occupied territory, the final disposition 
of 'which ,vas as yet unsettled. 
Upon the final surrender of the country by France under the 
Treaty of Paris, a Royal Proclamation of Oct. 7, 1763, defined the 
frontiC'rs of the ne\v Province of Quebec, and provided that as soon as 
circuIllstances 'would admit, General A
semblics should be summoned, 
,vith po,,'er to enact la'ws for the public "
elfare and good government 
of the colony. In the meantime, Courts \vere constituted for "dealing 
with civil and crÏ1ninal cases according to the laws of England," with 
an appeal to the Privy Council. Under the Quebec Act of 1774, 
passed 'with the purpose of conciliating the new colonies at a time 
,,'hen the old colonies "?ere falling off from their allegiance, the use 
of the old French civil law was resumed, while English criminal law 
continued to govern throughout the Province of Quebec, which was 
now' extended to the banks of the Ohio and the Mississippi. These 
boundaries ,vere, ho"Tever, abandoned at the Treaty of Versailles, 
1783, when the Great Lakes became the dividing line. The influx of 
the United Empire Loyalists, English-speaking people accustome
 to 
Eng-lish la,vs, necessitated the division of the colony and the establIsh- 
ment of representative institutions. The Constitutional Act was 
passed in 1791, dividing the Canada of those days (the St. Lawrence 
valley) into t,vo provinces, establishing in each province a nominate.d 
Legislative Council and an elective Legi
lative Assembly. Under thIs 
Act, upon which the government of Canada was based througho,:
 half 
a century "the Executive was (through Crown revenue and mIlitary 
grants fr
nl the Home Governnlent) financially, and worse still, 
38131-1! 



4 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


constitutionally independent, and the House of Assembly, in seeking 
vaguely to cure a disease which it had not in reality diagnosed, frequently 
overstepped its sphere, with the result that it \vas dissolved time 
after time."-(Lefroy, Constitutional Law of Canada, pp. 20-21). 
The Constitutional Act ,vas at first accepted as an improvement 
on the previously existing method of Government, but as time went 
on, the increasing population and wealth of the provinces, combined 
with the narrow and selfish policy of the privileged few, led to fre- 
quent clashes bet\veen the Executive and the Assembly, complicated 
in Lower Canada by the difference of races. In 1837, a rebellion in 
each province, though speedily stamped out, led to the appointment 
of Lord Durham by the Home Government as a special commissioner 
clothed ,,,,ith more extensive powers than had ever before been held 
by a representative of the Crown in British North America, as he was 
governor-in-chief of the five provinces of Upper Canada, Lower 
Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, 
high commissioner for the adjustment of certain important questions 
respecting the form of and the future government of Upper and Lower 
Canada, and high commissioner and governor-general of all the 
provinces on the continent, and of Prince Edward Island and N ew- 
foundland. 
The famous report made by Lord Durham to Parliament is 
almost universally regarded as the greatest political document in our 
history. He saw clearly the necessity of re-establishing harmony 
between the executive and the legislative branches of the government 
by making the former, as in England, responsiblp to the latter. He 
insisted also upon the desirability of establishing a free democratic 
system of municipal government, by participation in which citizens 
would secure a training ,vhich would be of use in fitting them for the 
wider duties of public life. Upper and Lo\ver Canada were to be 
united under a single Parliament, and in the Act provision was to 
be made for the voluntary admission to the union of the other British 
North American Provinces. 
"Thile Lord Durham was disavowed by the Home Government, 
his report formed the basis of the Act of Union of 1841, which united. 
Upper and Lower Canada under a single Parliament; in which each 
province ,vas equally represented. This equality of representation, 
applied to provinces of differing race, religion and institutions, finally 
became unworkable; deadlock became the parent of Confederation, 
under ,vhich each province could legislate on its o\vn local affairs, 
while a common Parliament ,vas esta.blished for all the provinces 
agreeing to come into Confederation. 
Confederation.- While suggestions for the union of the British 
North American provinces datp as far back as 1789, the first legislative 
action looking to this end ,vas taken by the Asselnhly of Nova Scotia 
in 1861. In 1864 delegates from Nova Scotia, Ne\v Bruns\vick and 
Prince Ed\vard Island asselnbled in Charlottetown to confer in refer- 
ence to a union of these provinces. A second convention, at which 
the province of Canada \vas represented, met in Quebec on Oct. 10, 



co.\ S1'ITF'T/OJ.V of CA.V ADA 


5 


IbÔ4, at which scvpnty-t\VO re
olutions, w'hich afterwards formed the 
b
lsis of the Briti
h Xorth \.Jnericu. Act, we c adopted and referred 
to th(' rl':-'I)('('tive legislatures for their concurrence, ,vhich ,vas finally 
given. The British .xorth AJnerica Act received the }{,oyal Assent 
on !\Iarch 2U, IRQi, and c:une into force on July 1 of that year. 
Constitu tion of Canada.-In thp preamble to the British 

 orth ..\..luerica ...\et it is f'tated that the province8 of Canada, Nova 

cotia and N c". Brunswick "ha ve expre:-,
ed their desire to be federally 
united into one DonÚnion, "Tith a. Constitution :;ÌInilar in principle 
to that of the V'nited I
ingdonl." This declaration throws a flood of 
lip:ht upon our fOrIn of government. Our constitution is not an 
inlitation of that of the United State
, it is the British Constitution 
federalized. I.Jikc thl' Rriti
h and unlike the .Amprican Constitution, 
it i:-, not a ,vritten constitution. The many un\vritten conventions 
of the British Constitution are abo recognized in our o\vn; 'what \ve 
have in the British Korth ...-\..Iuerica Act is a 'written delin1Ïtation of 
the rcspf'ctivp powe
s of the Dominion and Provincial Governments, 
and an pnactIuent of the terlns of the Confederation Agreement. The 
British X orth .Anlerica Act ",in1ply divides the sovereign po\vers of the 

tate between th
 provincial and the central authorities. 
The Briti
h Korth Alnerica Act declares that the executive 
goverllluent of Canada shall continue to be vested in the sovereign of 
the United I
in
donl (
ec. 9), repre
ented for federal purposes by the 
Governor-General, ju
t fl.!' for provincial purposes by the Lieutenant- 
GOVl\rnor. The Governor-General is advised by the King's Privy 
Council of Canada. a cOlnmittee of 'which con
titutes the n1Ïnistry of 
the day. 
The Dun1Ïnion Parli:uncllt consists of the l{ing, the Senate and 
t he House of COlllIIlons. It must meet at least once a year, so that 
t,vplve ll10nths do not elapsp bet\veen the last meeting in one session 
and the first ml-'f'ting in tliP next. Senators, 96 in number, who are 
appointpd for life by the Governor-General in Council, must be 30 
years of age, British subjects, residents of the province for which they 
;tre appointed, and pOS
CSH 
4,000 over and above their liabilities. 
::\If'lnbcrs of the House of Commons (235 in 1921, but subject to 
increase as a result of the census of that year), are elected by the 
people for the duration of the Parliament, which lllay not be longer 
than five veal's. The Speaker of the Senate is chosen by the Gover- 
nor-Generàl in Council, the Speaker of the House of Commons by the 
members of that House. In the Senate, 15 constitute a quorum, in 
the Ifou
p of Comll1ons, 20. 
Dominion Finance.-Among the most important provisions of 
the British North Alnerica Act are those relating to the appropriation 
of public llloney and the raising of taxes for Dominion purposes. T
e 
House of Comlnons has the sole right of initiating grants of publIc 
money and of directing; and limiting appropriations, yet .the Hous
 of 
Conlnlons Inu
t not (sec. 54) adopt or pass any vote, bIll, resolutIon 
or address for the payment of any part of the public funds for any 


. 



6 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


purpose that has not first been recommended to the House by message 
from the Governor-General in Council during the session in which 
such vote or bill is proposed. This rule is of the most vital importance 
in promoting public economy, as it eliminates all possibility of private 
members combining to secure expenditures of public money in their 
constituencies, and leaves to the executive authority the initiation of 
all legislation requiring the expenditure of public funds. This rule 
is also operative in the Provincial Legislatures. 
Powers of Parliament.-The powers of the Dominion Parlia- 
ment include all subjects not assigned exclusively to the provincial 
legislatures. More especially, under section 91 it has exclusive 
legislative authority in all matters relating to the following: public 
debt and property; regulation of trade and commerce; raising of 
money by any mode of taxation; borro,ving of money on the public 
credit; postal service; census and statistics; militia, military and 
naval service and defence; fixing and providing for salaries and allow- 
ances of the officers of the government; beacons, buoys and light- 
houses; navigation and shipping; quarantine and the establishment 
and maintenance of marine hospitals; sea-coast and inland fisheries; 
ferries on an international or interprovincial frontier; currency and 
coinage; banking, incorporation of banks, and issue of paper money; 
savings banks; weights and measures; bills of exchange and promissory 
notes; interest; legal tender; bankruptcy and insolvency; patents of 
invention and discovery; copyrights; Indians and lands reserved for 
Indians; naturalization and aliens; marriage and divorce; the 
criminal law, except the constitution of courts of criminal jurisdiction, 
but including the procedure in criminal matters"; the establishment, 
maintenance and management of penitentiaries; such classes of sub- 
jects as are expressly excepted in the enumeration of the classes of 
subjects by this Act exclusively assigned to the legislatures of the 
Provinces. 
Powers of Provincial Legislatures.-Under section 92, the 
Legislature in each Province may exclusively make laws in relation to 
the follo,ving matters: amendment of the constitution of the Province, 
except as regards'the Lieutenant-Governor; direct taxation within 
the province; borro,ving of money on the credit of the Province; 
establishment and tenure of provincial offices and appointment and 
payment of provincial officers; the manageInent and sale of public 
lands belonging to the province and of the timber and wood thereon; 
the establishment, maintenance and management of public and 
reformatory prisons in and for the province; the establishment, 
maintenance and management of hospitals, asylums, charities and 
eleemosynary institutions in and for the province, other than marine 
hospitals; municipal institutions in the province; shop, saloon, tavern, 
auctioneer and other licenses issued for ,the raising of provincial or 
municipal revenue; local ,yorks and undertakings other than inter- 
provincial or international lines of ships, railways, canals, telegraphs, 
etc., or works which, though wholly situated within one province, are 
declared by the Dominion Parliament to be for the general advantage 



EDUCATION 


7 


either O! Ca
ada or ?f 
wo o
 IIlore provinces; the incorporation of 
companIes ".Ith provIncIal objects; the solemnization of marriage in 
the province; property and civil rights in the province' the adminis- 
tration of justice in the province, including the constitution mainte- 
nance and organization of provincial courts both of civil and' criminal 
jurii'diction, Hnd including procedure in civil matters in these courts' 
the inlpo
ition of punishn1ent by fine, penalty, or imprisonment fo: 
enforcing any la,y of the province relating to any of the aforesaid 
subjects; generally all matters of a merely local or private nature in 
the provin ce. 
Education.-Further, in and for each province the Le
islature 
nlay, under section ü3, exclusively make laws in relation to education, 
subject to the follo,ving provisions.- 
"(1) Nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any right or 
privilege with re::-pect to denominational schools which any class of persons have 
by Jaw in the province at the union. 
(2) .All the powers, privileges and duties at the union by law conferred and 
imposed in lfpper Canada on the f'eparate schools and school trustees of the 
Queen's Roman Catholic subjects shall be and the same are hereby' extended 
to the dissentient schools of the Queen's Protestant and Roman Catholic 
subjects in Quebec. 
(3) 'Yhere in any province a system of separate or dissentient schools 
exists by law at the union or is thereafter established by the legislature of the 
province, an Appeal shall lie to the Governor-General in Council from any 
act or decision of any provincial authority affecting any right or privilege of 
t he Protestant or Roman Catholic minority of the Queen's subjects in relation 
to education. 
(4) In case any such provincial law as from time to time seems to the 
Governor-General in Council requisite for the due execution of the provisions 
of this Section is not made, or in case any decision of the Governor-General 
in Council on any appeal under this Section is not duly executed by the proper 
provincial authority in that behalf, then and in every such case, and as far 
only as the circumstances of each case require, the Parliament of Canada may 
make remedial laws for the due execution of the provisions of this Section 
and of any decision of the Governor-General in Council under this Section." 
1-'he purpose of these sections ,yas to preserve to a religious 
minority in any province the same privileges and rights in regard to 
education ,yhich it had at the date of Confederation, but the pro- 
vinciallegislatures 'were not debarred from legislating on the subject 
of separate schools provided they did not thereby prejudicially affect 
privileges enjoyed before Confederation by such schools in the 
province. 
A
 to the legal and other controversies affecting these questions, 
the student may consult Hansard between 1890 and 1897, "\Vheeler's 
Privy Council Cases," pp. 370 to 388, Supreme Court Reports, VoL 
19, and other authorities of a like nature. 
Judicature.-The appointment, salaries and pensions of judges 
are dealt "yith under sections 96 to 101. The judges, (except in the 
courts of probate in New Bruns,vick and Nova Scotia) are to 
e 
appointed by the Dominion Government. from the Ba
s of t
elr 
respective provinces, and to hold office durIng good behavIour, beIng 



8 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


removable by the Governor-General only on address of the Senate 
and House of Commons. Their salaries are to be fixed and provided 
by Parliament. 
Under the provisions of section 101, empowering Parliament to 
establish a general Court of Appeal, the Dominion Parliament passed 
in 1875 an Act to establish a Supreme Court and Court of Exchequer 
for the Dominion (38 Vict., Chap. II). In 1877, however, these courts 
were separated and the Exchequer Court of Canada, with one judge, 
a registrar, and other proper officers, was established. An additional 
judge was added to this court in 1912. 
The Supreme Court of Canada has appellate jurisdiction from 
all the courts of the provinces, and questions may be referred to it 
by thp Governor-General in Council. It has also jurisdiction in 
certain cases between the provinces, and in cases of controversie
 
between provinces and the Dominion. 'Vhile its judgment is final 
in criminal cases, there is in civil cases, subject to certain limitations, 
an appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in England, 
which also entertains appeals direct from the provincial Courts of 
Appeal. The decisions of the Supreme Court and of the Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council constitute the case-la\v of our con- 
3titution, the legal interpretation of the constitution and of the varied 
powers of the Dominion and provincial legislatures. 
Finance.- Part 'VIII of the British North America Act deals 
with public finance. Generally, the revenues which had previously 
accrued to the treasuries of the provinces \vere now transferred to the 
Dominion, notably the custom duties. The public works, cash assets 
and other property of the provinces, except lands, mines, minerals and 
royalties, also became Dominion property. In its turn, the Dominion 
was to become responsible for the debts of the provinces. Since the 
main source of the revenues of the provinces, customs duties, ,vas now 
taken over by the Dominion, the Dominion was to pay annual subsidies 
to the provinces for the support of their governments and legislatures. 
These subsidies have from time to time been increased. 
Miscellaneous.-Among the miscellaneous provisions contained 
in Part IX of the British North America Act, are sections providing 
for the retention of existing legislation of the provinces in force until 
repealed, the transfer of existing officials to the Dominion, and the 
appointment of new officials. The Parliament of Canada was also 
given power necessary to perform treaty obligations of Canada, as a 
part of the British Empire, towards foreign countries. 
Under section 133, either the English or the French language 
may be used by any person in the debates of the Houses of Parliament 
or of the Houses of the Legislature of Quebec, all Acts of which bodies 
are to be printed in both languages. Either language, too, may be 
used by any person in any court of Canada established under the 
Act, or in the Courts of Quebec. 
Veto Power.- Under section 56, it is provided that Acts of the 
Dominion Parliament, after receiving the assent of the Governor- 
General, may within two years be disallowed by the Sovereign in 



CONSTITUTIO.VAL DEIELOP
'lENTS SINCE CONFEDERA.TION 9 


Council. 
Ï111ilarly ._\..ct
 of the Provincial Legislature, after receiving 
the a

l'nt of the LIeutenant-Governor, lIlay be disallowed \vithin one 
year by the GovC'rnor-General in Council. 
This veto po".er on Don1Ïnion legislation has practically never 
been exerci:-;eù by the Sovereign in Council. In the case of contro- 
ver
ie:-; between thp l)on1Înion and the Provinces, ,vhile the veto 
power has been cxerci::5ed in the past, the \vhole present tendency is 
to let the lllatter be decided by the courts rather than ùisallow by an 
executive act legi
lation duly pa

cd by the elected representatives 
of thp' p('ople in the provincial legislatures. .The argument is that 
if such legislation is annulled as ultra vires of the Provincial legis- 
lature, then the ))olllÌnion Govpnunent, an executive body, has made 
it:-;elf the judge in its own case, \vhich could he lllore properly decided 
by the courts; if legislation, admittedly intra vires of the provincial 
legi::,lature, is annulleJ, on the ground of its imn10rality or unwisdonl, 
then the annulling power has set it
elf up as an authority on morality 
and ,visdoln. rfhe Dominion l\Iinister of Justice, in 1909, on the 
question of disallo\ving the Ontario legi
lation ,vith respect to the 
Hydro-Electric Pow'er COlnnlÎssion, stated the case as follo\\.s:- 
"In the opinion of the undersigned, a suggestion of the abuse of power, 
even so as to amount to practical confiscation of property, or that the exercise 
of a power has b('en unwi:-;(' or indiscreet, should appeal to your Excellency's 
government with no more effect than it does to the ordinary tribunals, and the 
remedy in such case is an appeal to those by whom the legislature is elected. HI 


CO

TIT(TTIOX.\L DEVEI.lOP'I.
NT
 81XCE CONFEDERATIOX. 2 


Since no attcIIlpt 'vas lnaùe in the British 
 orth America Act 
to define the relations betw'een the British and the Canadian Govern- 
Inent
, tho:::ip relation8 have nece
sarily passed and are still passing 
through a stage of gradual developInent in ,vhich they are influenced to 
a relnarkable extent by custoln and convention and the creation of 
"new' conventions of the Constitution." From the very COlIunencp- 
nlcnt of our hi:,tory a
 a nation there ha.s been a gradual development 
of the po\\
ers of the Canadian Gov
nllnent, aecoll1panied by a more 
liberal attitude on thp part of British statesmen, \vhich has been 
largely ùue to the more advanced ideas of government \vhich have 
pcnneated the adnlÎnistration of the n10ther country itself. In 1876, 
for ex:unple, the then Colonial 
ecretary proposed to issue pennanent 
instructions to the Governor-General providing that the latter should 
pre::5ide at meetings of the Council (a right ,vhich in the case of the 
Hovereign had long fallen into desuetude); that he might dissent 
froln the opinion of the major part or of the ,vhole; and that in the 
exercise of the pardoning po\ver in capital cases, he ,vas to receive 

is right has only been exercised in one rather technical case. In 1873 an Ac
 of tþe Dominion 
Parliament empowered any comm
tt.ee of the Senate or H<?use of Ço
mons to examme wItnesses up?n 
oath when so authorized by resolutIon. "There was a confusIon of opInIOn. as to the competency of Pa
ha- 
ment to enact it The law officers of the United Kingdom eventually advIsed that the Act was ultra VIres, 
and it was accordmJ!:ly disallowed for that reason and not upon considerations of policy. "-Borden, Canadian 
Constitutional Studies, p, 65. ' d ' I bl . h d 
I In this part of the article. considerable use has been made of SIr Robert Bor en s recent y pu IS e 
yolume. "Canadian Constitutional Studies." 



10 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


the advice of ministers, but to extend or withhold pardon or 
reprieve according to his own judgment (one of the last prerogatives 
to disappear in the case of the Sovereign). The then Canadian 
Minister of Justice, Hon. Edward Blake, secured in 1878 the issuance 
of a new set of instructions, in which the only provision that the 
Governor-General might act except on the advice of l\linisters related 
to the exercise of the pardoning power, providing that in cases where 
a pardon or reprieve might affect Imperial interests, the Governor- 
General should take these interests into his personal consideration in 
conjunction with the advice of his l\linisters. 
The development of inter-Imperial relations up to the Great 
War may be studied in the records of the Colonial Conference. In 
the first Colonial Conference of 1887, we have a purely consultative 
gathering in calling which the chief aim of the British Government 
was probably to devise a method of more effective co-operation in 
defence. After a second, but constitutionally unimportant Confer- 
ence had been held in Ottawa in 1894, the third Colonial Conference, 
attended only by Prime Ministers, was held in London in 1897, and 
the fourth, ,vhich Dominion Ministers attended to assist their Prime 
Ministers, in London in 1902. At the latter Conference a resolution 
was passed favouring the holding of such Conferences at intervals not 
exceeding four years at which "questions of common interest could 
be discussed and considered as between the Colonial Secretary and 
the Prime Ministers of the self-governing Colonies. In 1905 the 
Colonial Secretary, l\lr. Lyttleton, suggested to the Dominion that 
the Colonial Conference should be changed into an Imperial Council, 
consisting of the Colonial Secretary and the Prime Ministers or their 
representatives. On Canada objecting to the use of the term 
"Council" the name was changed to "Imperial Conference." In 
1907 the first "Imperial Conference" assembled; by an extraordin- 
arily significant change, it was provided that future Conferences should 
be bet,veen the Government of the United Kingdom and the Govern- 
ments of the self-governing Dominions, and that the Prime Minister 
of the United Kingdom (not the Colonial Secretary) was to be ex 
officio President of the Conference, while the Prime Ministers of the 
Dominions and the Colonial Secretary were to be ex officio members. 
'"fhis was a move toward recognizing that the Home Government was 
simply primus inter pares among the nations of the Empire. The 
Conference of 1911 met under this årrangement, and in 1912 the 
British Government gave Canada an assurance that a Dominion 
l\'Iinister resident in London would be regularly summoned to all 
meetings of the Committee of Imperial Defence and that no important 
step in foreign policy would be taken without consultation with such 
representatives. In 1917 there was evolved what was known as the 
Imperial War Cabinet, a gathering of the five members of the British 
War Cabinet and the Prime l\1inisters of the self-governing Dominions. 
A resolution on the question of future constitutional relations 
passed unanimously at this Conference is of profound significance. 
It was as follows:- 



COJ.YSTITUTIO
V_1L DEVBLOPAfENTS SINCE COJ.
FEDERATION 11 


"Th
 It
perial "ra
 Conference are of opinion that the readjustment of 
the con8tItut
ona.l relatIOns .of the component parts of the Empire is too im- 
portant and mtncate a subJect to be dealt with during the war and that it 
should fornl the subject of a special Imperial Conference to be 
ummoned as 
soon as po
sible after the cessation of hostilities. 
"They deem it their duty, however, to place on record their view that 
any such readjustment, '" hile thoroughly preserving all domestic affairs should 
be based upon a full recognition of the Dominions as autonomous natio
s of an 
Imperial Commonwealth, and of India as an important portion of the same 

hould, rec()
ize the 
ight C!f the D?minions and India to an adequate voic
 
m foreIgn poh
y nnd ill forClg
 rel
tlons! and should provide effective arrange- 
ments for contmuous consultatIOn In all Important matters of common Imperial 
concern, nnd for such necessary concerted action, founded on consultation, as 
the several Governments may determine." 
In regard to the first paragraph of the above, the 14th resolution 
of the ronference of 1921 stated that "having regard to the constitu- 
tional deyelopments since 1917, no advantage is to be gained by hold- 
ing a constitutional Conference." This sentence undoubtedly had 
rpferen('(\ to the cOllsulta tion of the Dominions in regard to the terms 
of peace and their n1embership in the League of };ations. On Oct. 
29, 1918, the question of representation of the Dominions in the peace 
negotiations ,vas raised by the Prime 
Iinister of Canada in a despatch 
to the Prime l\Iinister of the United I{ingdom. The Imperial \Var 
Cabinet eventually accepted the proposal, but ,vhen the question 
came before the reace Conference at Paris on January 12. 1919, 
strong opposition "
as encountered. This opposition, ho,vever, was 
finally overCOlne. Through a combination of the panel system, by 
'which the representatives of the British Empire might be selected from 
day to day as the nature of the subject demanded, with distinctive 
representation of each Dominion, the Dominions secured effective 
representation, and took no inconsiderable part in the Conference. 
.As a natural develop111ent of this representation came the signa- 
ture by the Don1Ïnion plenipotentiaries of the various treaties con- 
cluded at the Conference, the submission of these treaties for the 
approval of the Donlinion Parlialnents, and the appearance of the 
Don1Ïnions as 
ignatory Po\vers. Further, the Dominions claimed 
that they should be accepted as members of the ne\v League of Nations, 
and represented on its Council and Assembly. This claim was 
finally accepted, and the status of the Dominions as to membership 
and representation in the Assembly is precisely the same as that of 
other signatory members. ÅS to representation on the Council, the 
Prime l\Iinis ter of Canada obtained from President "\Vilson and 
::\lessrs. Clenlenceau and Lloyd George, a signed declaration that 
tc upon the true construction of the first and 
econd p
r!1graphs of 
that .Article representatives of the self-governIng DomInIons of the 
British Enl
ire Inay be selected or named as members of the Council." 
A t the first Assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva, from N ov. 
15 to Dec. 18, 1920, Canada ,vas represented by the Rt. Hon. Sir 
Geo. E. Foster, the Rt. Hon. Chas. Jos. Doherty and Hon. N. Wi 
Ro,,
eIl, the first of \vhom acted as a Vice-President of the Assembly. 

 account of the proceedin
s of this first Parliament of the Nations was given on pages 738 to 7420f 
the 1920 edition of the Year Book, 



12 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


The participation of Canada in the Peace Treaty and in the 
League of Nations made it necessary for an official definition of 
Canadian nationals and Canadian nationality to be made, since 
among different measures adopted in connection with the operations 
of the League of Nations, "\vere provisions defining certain rights and 
privileges to be enjoyed by the nationals of members of the League. 
A Canadian national was accordingly defined by 11-12 George V, 
chap. 4, as: 
(a) any British subject who is a Canadian citizen! within the 
meaning of The Immigration Act, chapter 27 of the Statutes 
of 1910, as heretofore amended; '- 
(b) the wife of any such person; 
(c) any person born out of Canada, 'whose father was a Canadian 
national at the time of that person's birth, or \vith regard 
to persons born before the passing of this Act, any person 
whose father at the time of such birth, possessed all the 
qualifications of a Canadian national as defined in this Act. 
In the debates on this Act it was thoroughly established that its 
effect was not in any way to supersede the term "British subject," 
but to create a sub-class of "Canadian nationals" within "British 
subjects. " 
A similar advance to\vard recognition of the existence of a Cana- 
dian nation is to be found in the gradual tendency toward direct 
negotiation instead of négotiation through London with the diplo- 
matic or consular representatives of other powers. For many years 
the consuls-general of other countries at Ottawa or Montreal, more 
especially the consuls-general of the United States, Japan, Italy and 
Germany, discharged diplolnatic or semi-diplomatic functions in 
Canada, and Sir Wilfred Laurier in 1910 considered that while "this 
has been done 'without authority and is contrary to the rules that 
apply among civilized nations, it became a necessity because of the 
development of the larger colonies of the British Empir
, which have 
become practically nations." Further, l\Ir. Blake in 1882, Sir 
Richard Cartwright in 1889, and Mr. .l\1ills in 1892 moved resolutions 
in favour of Canadian diploInatic representation at Washington
 
emphasizing the fact that a Canadian diplomatic representative 
would be an envoy of the Queen, that he \vould act in co-operation 
with the British Ambassador at 'Vashington, that he would be in 
direct communication with the Governn1ent of Canada, to whom he 
would be responsible, and that the growing importance of Canada's 
relations with the United States made such an appointment desirablE'. 
While at that tinle these proposals were regarded as premature, in 
1918, when Canada and the United States \vere both devoting their 
energies to the great struggle against a common foe, it was found 
necessary to establish a Canadian War lV1ission at Washington, 


lAccording to the Immigration Act. 1910, a "Canadian citizen" is 
"(i) a person born in Canada who has not become an alien; 
(ii) a British subject who has Canadian domicile; . 
(iii) a person naturalized under the laws of Canada who has not subsequently become an alIen or 
lost Canadian domicile." 



rO\'STITUTIO.VAL DHt'ELOPJ\lENTS SI^"CE CONFEDERATION 13 


\vhich in effect, though not in form, was a diplomatic mission. This 
b,roup;ht to n. h
ad th(' quef'tion. o.f C.anadian diplolnatic representa- 
tion at \Vaslllngton; the authOrItIes In London ,vere consulted, with 
the result that on ::\Iay 10, }920, it ,,
a
 announced to Parlialnent 
that "it has h(\
n agreed that his )Iajesty on advice of his Canadian 
u1Ïnisters, c;::hall appoint a 1\1inister Plenipotentiary ,vho will have 
charge of Canadian affairs and ,viII at all times be the ordinary channel 
of cOllllnunication ,vith the "{Tnited States Governlllent in Inatters of 
purely Canadian concern, acting upon instructions fronl and reporting 
direct to the Canadian Government. In the absence 'of the Ambas- 

ador the Can(ldian 1\Iinister ,viII take ('harge of the whole embassy 
and of the r(\pre
entation of IInperial as ,veIl as Canadian interests. 
He ,viII be accrerlitcrl by his 
Iajesty to the President ,,,ith the neces- 
sary po,,-ers for the purpose. This ne,\" arrangement ,,,ill not dpnote 
any dpparture {'ither on the paTt of the British Government or of the 
Canadian Governnlent frolll the principle of the diplomatic unity of 
thp British EnIpire." The principle involved in this arrangement 
had, as a matter of fact, already been accepted in the appointment 
of the International Joint COllnnission. Up to l\Iay, 1922, however, 
no Canadian 
linister to \Vashington had been appointed. 

egotiation of Treaties.-The right to negotiate cOll1llIerciai 
and other tr
atie::: has been developing almost from the beginning. 
In 1871, the PrÎ1ne l\lini
ter of Canada, Sir John .A.. l\1acdonald, 
becallIe one of the British cOlluni

ioner
 acting under instructions 
froIlI the British Governlllent, at the conference that resulted in th
 
Treaty of \Yashington. This dual function, ho\vever, he found a 
very difficult one. In 1874, Hon. Geo. Brown was associated with the 
British 
Iinister at 'Y. ashington for the purpo
e of negotiating a 
('onl1nerrial tr
aty bet,veen Canada and the United States. In 1878, 
the High COlnlni

ioner, Sir ..
. T. Galt, 'Ya
 commissioned to under- 
take negotiations ,vith France and Spain for better commercial 
relations, the
e negotiations, ho,vever, to be conducted by the British 
A.lnba

ador. In 1884, the High Commissioner for Canarla, Sir 
Charles Tupper, in conjunction ,,
ith the British Ambassador to 
Rpain, wac:; given full po,vers to conduct negotiations for a COlnmercial 
trea ty beh\-
en Canada and 
pain, the n
gotiations to be conducted 
by Air Charles Tupper, the convention to be signed by both pleni- 
potentiaries. In 1891, the Canadian Parliament petitioned for the 
denunciation of the COlnmercial treaties ,,'ith the German Zollverein 
and Belgiuln, ,,-hich prevented Canada from extending prefprential 
treatm nt to British products. The new Canadian tariff of 1897 
provided for the grant of preferential treahnent to British goods, 
and at the Colonial Conference of that year, the Premiers of the self- 
governing colonies unanimously recolnmended "the denunciation 
at the earliest convenient time of any treaties ,vhich no\v hamper 
thp conl1nercial relations bet\veen Great Britain and her colonies." 
The treaties ,,'erp accordingly denounced. In 1907, lVir. Fielding and 
)Ir. Brodeur negotiated a comIllercial convention bet\veen Canada 
and Franee, and in 1911, the negotiations regarding reciprocity 



14 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


,vith the United States were carried on directly between th
 Govern- 
ment of Canada and the Government of the United States. In 1914, 
the Arbitration Treaty concluded between the British Empire and 
the United States, made provision that in case the British interests 
affected were mainly those of some one or other of the self-governing 
Dominions, the minister of the In terna tional Commission of Arbi tra- 
tion chosen from the British Empire might be selected from the 
Dominion principally interested. In December, 1918, commissioners 
were appointed by' Canada and the United States to make a joint 
inquiry into fisheries questions arising between the two countries. 
As a result, a treaty looking to the preservation of the Pacific coast 
fisheries was signed by the Commissioners, but failed to secure 
ratification by the United States Senate. 
Defence.-As early as 1862 the Government of Canada, following 
British precedents, successfully asserted the principle that the raising 
and maintenance of Canadian military forces were subject to the 
absolute control of the representatives of the Canadian people. 
During the South African war, the last of the British garrisons was 
temporarily, and in 1905, permanently withdrawn and the defence 
of the naval stations at Halifax and Esquimalt was taken over by the 
Canadian Permanent Force. When on the outbreak of war in 1914, 
Canadian forces were sent overseas an important constitutional 
question was the sufficiency of Canadian legislation for the control and 
discipline of the forces 'yhen outside the Dominion. However, the 
Governor in Council is authorized by section 69 of the l\Iilitia Act 
to place the militia on active service beyond Canada for the defence 
thereof, and by section 4 of the same Act, the Army Act, the King's 
Regulations and other relevant laws not inconsistent with Canadian 
enactments have force and effect for the governance of the militia 
as if enacted by the Parliament of Canada. But the Army Act, in 
section 177, provides that where a force of militia is raised in a colony, 
any law of the colony may extend to those belonging to that force, 
whether within or without the boundaries of the colony. This settled 
the question of extra-territorial jurisdiction. Another important 
development was the establishment in London in October, 1916, of 
a Canadian Ministry of Overseas Military Forces with a resident 
Minister. In course of time this became an Overseas Canadian War 
Office, with an adequate staff and a systematic arrangement of 
branches, administering the Canadian forces as a thoroughly auto- 
nomous body, under the primary direction of the Overseas Ministry, 
but finally responsible to the Canadian Government and Parl'ament. 
Immigration.- Though provinces may legislate in the matter 
of immigration, their legislation falls to the ground if it is inconsistent 
with the legislation or with the international obligations of the Domin- 
ion. Several Acts of the province of British Columbia restricting 
immigration have been disallowed on this account. Under the 
Dominion law, Chinese immigrants are subjected to a head tax of 
$500, while Japanese immigrants are handled under a "gentlemen's 



CO
VSTITU'l'IOJ.Y
lL DEVEWPJIENTS SIJ.VCE CONFEDERATION 15 


"lgreclnent" \,ith the Inlperial Japanese Government Japan under- 
taking to restrict the fio,,
 of Japanese to Canada. The restriction 
of imn1Ïg
at.ion fronl other part
 of the Em
ire, and more particularly 
from India, IS, however, a very difficult question because of its reaction 
on the loyalty of the Indian peoples to the Empire. The question 
"
as discu
sed at the Colonial Conference of 1897 and at the Imperial 
Conference of 1911, ,vhen it ""as pointed out that the reasons for 
existing re
trictiolls ".ere purely econon1Ïc and did not involve the 
question of the inferiority of those restricted. In 1917, the matter 
\vas discussed at the Inlperial 'Var Conference. 'The principle of 
reciprocity of treatnlent "
as accepted, and at the 1918 Conference 
it "
as agreed that "It is an inherent function of the Governments 
of the scveral conlnlullitics of the British Common\vealth, including 
India, that each should enjoy complete control of the composition of 
its o'\"n population by means of restriction on immigration froln any 
of the other comlnunities." Provision ,vas, ho,vever, made for per- 
n1Ítting; tenlporary visits. This arrangement has, at least for the 
tÍIne, settled a dispute which endangered the stability of the Empire. 
Naturalization.-For a long period a very vexed question was 
the rip;ht of naturalization. Up to 1914, the Dominions were unable 
to grant full naturalization ,vhich ,vould hold good throughout the 
EIllJ>ire. In that year an act of the British Parlialnent (4-5 Geo. V, 
c. 17), provided for th
 issue of a naturalization certificate to an alien 
by the 
ecretary of State on proof of five years' residence, and the 
fulfihnent of certain other conditions. 'Vhere the Parliaments of the 
DonlÍnions enforced the same conditions of residence, their Govern- 
ments ,vere given po\v
r to issue certificates of naturalization, taking 

ffect in all parts of the Empire that had adopted the Act. This was 
done by Canada in 1914 (4-5 Geo. ,
, c. 44). 
Copyri
ht.-A difficult and anomalous situation with regard to 
copyright ,vas sitnilarly cleared up in 1911, the Ilnperial Copyright 
,A.ct of that year being based on the principle that in respect of copy- 
right, the Dominions must be free to legislate as they saw fit. The 
Act of 1911, therefore, does not extend to any Dominion except 
,,
here the Parlialnents of these Dominions have declared it to be in 
force; 
ilnilarly, Dominion Parliaments may repeal it where it is in 
force. \Yith regard to merchant shipping, the situation discussed at 
the Imperial Conference of 1911 has not as yet been cleared up. 
Grantin
 of Titles.-Another source of difficulty between the 
British Government and the Dominions has been the granting of 
titles by the fornler to citizens of the latter 

o have rend
red ser- 
vices to the Empire as a whole. OpportunIties of renderIng such 
service canle to IJlanv citizens of the Dominions during the war, and 
the British Government was generous in its recognition of these 
service
. Exception ,vas taken in the Canadian Parliament to the 
granting of titles to Canadians, and in 1919 Parliament passed an 
address to his l\lajesty praying that he. s
oul? "refrain from co
- 
ferring any title of honour or titular distInctIon upon any of hIS 



16 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 


subjects dOlniciled or ordinarily resident in Canada, save such appella- 
tions as are of a professional or vocational character or which apper- 
tain to an office." It is interesting to note that, in the case of the 
proposed grant of a peerage by the British Government to a dis- 
tinguished citizen of the Union of South Africa for war services, thp 
Lord Chancellor of England has stated that it is "realized that no 
British citizen or subject primarily belonging to a Dominion ought 
ever to be recommended for honour in Great Britain, except with 
the assent and approval of his Government." 
General Conclusion.- 'Vhile it can hardly be maintained that 
the Dominions have as yet secured an adequate voice and influence 
in the direction of the Empire's foreign policy, it is to be observed 
that the po\vers of the Dominions have hitherto developed as the need 
for more extended powers has arisen. Without any violent break 
with the past, the Dominions have secured through the League of 
Nations a voice in international affairs as least as powerful as that 
of such independent nations as Argentina and Brazil. Ten years ago 
this would have been considered unthinkable without a total separa- 
tion from the Empire, yet it has actually occurred, and there does not 
seem to be any reason why the process of evolution should not con- 
tinue until we have the continuance of the British Empire secured 
upon a "basis of absolute out-and-out equal partnership bet\veen the 
United l{ingdom and the Dominions." 
The progress of the Dominions in international status in the past 
decade is thus set forth by Oppenheim, in the third edition of his 
International Law, Vol. 1, sees. 94a and 94b: 
"94a. Formerly the position of self-governing Dominions, such as Canada, 
Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, did not, in Inter- 
national Law, present any difficulties. Then they had no International position 
whatever, because they were, from the point of view of International Law, 
mere colonial portions of the Mother Country. It did not matter that some 
of them, as, for example, Canada, and Australia, flew as their own flag the 
modified flag of the 1\JIother Country, or that they had their own coinage, their 
own postage stamps, and the like. Nor did they become subjects of Inter- 
national Law (although the position was somewhat anomalous) when they were 
admitted, side by side with the Mother Country, as parties to the administrative 
unions, such as the Universal Postal Union. Even when they were empowered 
by the Mother Country to enter into certain treaty arrangements of minor 
importance with foreign States, they still did not thereby become subjects 
of International Law, but simply exercised for the matters in question the 
treaty-making power of the Mother Country which had been to that extent 
delegated to them." 
"94b. But the position of self-governing Dominions underwent a fundamen- 
tal change at the end of the 'V orld War. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, 
South Africa, and also India, were not only separately represented within the 
British Empire delegation at the Peace Conference, but also became, side by 
side with Great Britain, original members of the League of Nations. Separately 
represented in the Assembly of the League, they may, of course, vote there 
independently of Great Britain. Now the League of Nations is not a mere 
administrative union like the Universal Postal Union, but the organized Family 
of Nations. Without doubt, therefore. the admission of these four self-govern- 
ing Dominions and of India to membership gives them a position in International 
Law, But the place of the self-governing Dominions within the Family of 
Nations at present defies exact definition, since they enjoy a special position 



CO.YSTITUTI06VAL DErELOPltlENTS SINCE CONFEDERATION 17 


corr
spon
ing to their special statuf' within the British Empire as "free com- 
mu!utle8, mdependcnt 
 regards all their own affairs, and partners in those 
WhI,C
 concern the Em.pIre at large." !\Ioreover, just as, in attaining to that 
posl
lon, th
y. ha
e sIlently w.ork
d changes, far-reaching but incapable of 
prl'Cl
e defimtIon, m the ConstItutIOn of the Empire, so that the written law 
maccurat
ly, rcpre"epts ,the actua,l situati?n, In a similar way they have taken 
11 place w
thm.the FamIly of NatIons, whICh IS none the less real for being hard 
to 
e
onclle 
vlth precedent. Furthe
o
e, they will certainly consolidate the 
posItlO
s whICh they have 'Yon, both wIthm ,the E
pire and within the Family 
of 
atIons. An advance III one sphere wIll entaIl an advance in the other. 
For 
nstance, they may well acquire a limited right of legation or limited treaty- 
makmg power. But from this time onward the relationship between Great 
Britain and the self-governing Dominions of the Briti
h Empire is not likely 
to correspond exactly to any relationship hitherto recognized in International 
Law unless the British Empire should turn into a Federal State." 
TilE 6\R:\1S OF CANADA. 
(See Frontispiece), 
,Armorial bearings o\ve their existence to the need of providing 
nlen 'with son1e mark of identification. They originated in the 

Iiddle \ges, ,,-hen fe,v nlcn could read, but \vhen all \yere trained to 
distinguish such synlbols at a glance. Under these circumstances, 
the arms of the sovereign became generally identified with the arms 
of the nation, ,v
re clnblazoned on shields and were later often incor- 
porated into the national flag. In the case of England, the royal 
standard bears the Coat of _\.rnlS of the Sovereign, ,vhile the Union 
Jack or national flag i
 conlposerl of the combination of the red cross 
of St. George on a ,vhite fiehl, borne as their banner by the English 
from the time of the second Crusade, the \vhite cross of St. Andrew on 
a blue field (3cotland), added in 1707, and the white cross of St. 
Patrick on a red field (Ireland), added in 1801. 
Until 1921, the question of the Arms of Canada remained in an 
unsatisfactory position. In this country the Royal Arms, in their 
English form, have ahvays been freely uscd. Soon after Confedera- 
tion, ,yhen a Great Beal ,vas required, a design approved by Royal 
"\\?arrant of 26 
Iay, 1868, displayed the arms of tpe four con
ederate.d 
provinreR-Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New BrunswIck. ThIs 
design, thouCTh not used for the Great Seal, ,vas gradually adopted as 
the Arn1s of Canada. As the number of provinces increased, it 
becanle a common practice to add their arnlS to the original de:-:ign. 
This resulted in overloading the shield with a multiplicity of detail, 
and a Committee, appointed to submit proposals, recommended the 
adoption of a coat of arms '\\"hich has been approved by the G?vern- 
ment and duly authorized, on November 
1, 1
21, by th
 
Ing. 
Three considera tions ,vere kept in VIew In determInIng the 
"achievement of arms," i.e., the combination of arms, crest, supporters, 
and motto, which has now been authorized. Th
se were: first, th
t 
Canadians stand to their King in as close a relation as do any of hIS 
subjects elsewhere' secondly that Canada, an integral part of the 
British Empire, h
s emerged 'from the war a member of the League 
of K a tions ; and lastly, that Canada was !ounded b! the men of 
four different races-French, English, ScottIsh and IrIsh-and that 
Canadians inherit the language, IR\vs, literature and arnlS of fill fonT 
mother countries. 
38131-2 


. 



18 


THE ARMS OF CANADA 


The arms are those of England, Scotland, Ireland and France, 
with a "difference" to mark them as Canadian, namely, on the lower 
third of the shield, a sprig of maple on a silver shield. 
The crest is a lion holding in its paw a red maple leaf, a symbol 
of sacrifice. 
The supporters are, with some slight distinctions, the lion and 
unicorn of the Royal Arms. The lion upholds the Union Jack, and 
the unicorn the ancient banner of France. 
The motto is new-"A mari usque ad mare"-"From sea to 
sea", or, in a phrase familiar in Canadian politics and Canadian 
literature, "ocean to ocean". It is an extract from the Latin version 
of verse 8 of the 72nd Psalm, which in the Authorized Version is: 
"He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto 
the ends of the earth." The Latin reads: "Et dominabitur a mari 
usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos orbis terrarum." 
There is a tradition that the Fathers of Confederation derived the 
designation "Dominion" from this verse. 


II.-PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN 
CANADA. 


MARITIME PROVINCES. 


By the late THOMAS BARNARD FLINT, M.A., LL.B., D.C.L., Clerk of the House of 
Commons of Canada, Ottawa. 


The constitution and legislative powers of the provinces of the 
Dominion are in their general outlines as settled and regulated by the 
British North Ame
ica Act, 1867, and amending acts. But in the 
development of local administration and in the working out of local 
problems, the provinces have varied considerably. These variations 
have depended primarily upon the stages and forms of local seIf- 
government in force at the time of Confederation, and secondarily 
upon the financial and industrial policies of the legislatures which 
then assumed control. N ova Scotia and New Brunswick were two 
of the original provinces which formed the federal union of Canada. 
Prince Edward Island became part of the federal system in 1873. 
N ova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, imme- 
diately after entering the union, found themselves each equipped with 
a Lieu tenan t-Governor a ppoin ted by the Governor-General. This 
official holds office, generally speaking, for five years from the date of 
his appointment. He is not removable except for cause assigned and 
communicated to Parliament. The provisions relating to the po\vers, 
duties and responsibilities of Lieutenant-Governors are to be found 
in sections 58 to 68, inclusive, of the British North America Act, 1867, 
and apply uniformly to all Lieutenant-Governors throughout the 
Dominion. 



MARITIME PROVINCES 


19 


1"he legislatures of each of the three l\Iaritime Provinces upon 
entering the union, con
isted of the Lieutenant-Governor and 
f two 
I-Iou
cs, fì
yled the Legi
lative Council. and the Legislative Assembly. 
Thc:5c le
n
lature8 had the same exclusIve powers assigned to them as 
to the other provinces entering the union at the san1e or at any sub- 
sequent period. One of the most Í1nportant of these powers is that 
of the alnrndnlcllt, fronl time to time, of the Constitution':of the 
province, except as regards the office of the Lieutenant-Governor. 
Like all the other provinces, they have the power of direct taxation 
,vithin the province, of borrowing money, of establishing public 
offices, of di:5posing of the cro,vn lands of the province, of the main- 
tenance and e
tablishment of a great variety of public and reformatory 
institutions and of Inunicipalities ,vith such po"
ers as the province 
nU1Y 
pe fit to grant. The list of exclusive provincial pO'wers also 
includes such inlportant matters as the Dlaking of la,vs relating to 
licenses for rai
ing revenue for provincial or municipal purposes; 
providing for local '\Torks and undertakings of every description 
(except certain classes specially reserved to the federal power); 
incorporating companies ,vith provincial objects; and legislation 
respecting the solenlnization of marriage. The whole vast field of 
property and civil rights ,vithin the province, the administration of 
justice and the constitution, maintenance and organization of provin- 
cial court
 ,vith both civil and criminal jurisdiction, as ,veIl as the 
procedure in civil nlatters in those courts, are retained under provincial 
jurisdiction. 
The cxclu
ive control of each province over the subject of educa- 
tion has given rbe to legal and con
titutional questions of the highest 
importance. Their adjustment has en
aged the attention of legis- 
latures, of parlian1ent and of the courts of Canada, as ,velJ as the privy 
council of the l\Iother Country from time to time almost since the 
day of the union. 

 1'he provinces havc also legislated upon, and devoted large sums 
of Dloney to the promotion of agriculture, and to some extent immigra- 
tion in ,,
hich they have been assisted by the federal administration, 
,vhich also has jurisdiction over these subjects. These powers are of 
eour5C common to all the provinces. 
NO'''A SCOTIA. 
This province has made no organic changes in its constitution 
since the union in 1867. In 1867, the Legislative Council consisted 
of 36 members and the Legislative Assembly of 55 members. The 
nunlber of melnbers of the Legislative Council is no,v 21 and of the 
.A.sselnbly 43. Legislative councillors are appointed for life, and the 
members of the .Assembly are elected for four years, the Assembly 
term consisting of that period. The constitutional r
lations. of. the 
ministry to the Assenlbly are based on the ,,:ell rec
gnized prI
c!ples 
of responsible government, in accordance ,vIth whIch 
h
 m!nIstry 
retains office only so long as it is supported by a maJorIt:y In the 
Legislative Assembly. This rule applies to all the proVInces. of 
Canada. l\iany efforts made towards abolishing the I..egislatJve 
38131-2i 



20 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVER_VME1VT IN CANADA 


Council in Nova Scotia have proved abortive. The local ministry 
or cabinet, styled the Executive Council, consists of the Prime Minister, 
(being the Provincial Secretary and President of the Council), the 
Attorney-General, the Minister of ,V orks and Mines and the Minister 
of Highways. These are salaried officials, and the other members are 
six in nUlnber "without office. Agriculture, immigration and education 
are under the control and management of the government through 
certain boards and councils, each with its secretary and staff of 
officials. 
The sources of the principal revenues are (1) mines and minerals 
upon which certain royalties are charged, together with license fees 
and rentals; (2) the federal subsidy and interest on balances due from 
the- Dominion, paid by virtue of the British North America Act; 
(3) interest on raihvay loans and advances, succession duties, pay- 
ments from the Dominion Government under the Agricultural Instruc- 
tion Act; (4) crown lands and other fees and dues paid into the Pro- 
vincial Secretary's office. In 1921, the total revenue from all sources, 
capital and ordinary, was $10,427,919.32. 
Municipal Institutions.-Municipal administration in Nova 
Scotia has been developed since Confederation. Previous to that 
event the locål government of counties and to\vnships was confided 
to the magistracy, which ,vas an appointed body, holding com- 
missions for life and not responsible in any \vay to the electorate. 
In the early years of its history this body did much useful and import- 
ant public service, yet abuses here and there' existed on account of the 
irresponsible nature of their tenure of office, which rendered reform 
and public accountability very difficult to obtain. Public opinion, 
ho'wever, and the controlling influence of the legislatures operating 
steadily upon even ir
ésponsible bodies of life-appointed lnagistrates 
lnade the institution as it existed fairly acceptable to the people 
generally. In 1864 an act providing for the optional incorporation 
of counties and to\vnships was passed, but few counties or districts 
took advantage of the privilege thus accorded. In 1875, the incor- 
poration of the counties and certain to\vnships was made compulsory, 
t\venty-four municipalities being then established. In 1895, the 
To\vns Incorporation Act was passed, making the incorporation of 
to\vns throughout the province optional. In 1921 there "rere 41 
incorporated towns. 
The county councils consist of councillors elected by the rate- 
payers every three years; usually one is elected for each polling dis- 
trict, but in some districts two are provided for. The warden or pre- 
siding officer is chosen by the council and holds office until the next 
election of councillors. The mayors of towns are elected by the rate- 
payers and hold office for one year. The city of Halifax, the capital 
of the province, has aspecial charter, the mayor being elected annually 
and the ei!!hteen aldermen (or members) for three years, six retiring 
each year but being eligible for re-election. 
The exercise of the po\vers of the councils, the election of their 
members and the duties and responsibilities of their officials, their 



l\
OV A SCOT I A 


21 


Iueeting-s, proceedings find by-ht\vs, their method
 and forms of taxa- 
tion, as ,veIl a
 the liInit
tion of their borro\ving po\vers are controlled 
and .rl'
ulatcd in. each particular by statutes rigidly enforced by 
provlncw.I authonty or by the courts. The traininO' of larO'e numbers 
of public spirited citizen
 in the practical exercis
 of th
 duties of 
self-governlnent is not the least of the advantages of the municipal 
systenlS 
f Canada. 'rhey furnish a rich fund of talent and experience 
upon \VhlCh to draw' for the \vider spheres of provincial and federal 
legislation. 
Judiciary.-1"'he provincial courts consist of (1) the supreme 
court, \"hich is a court of appeal and also a circuit court, and (2) the 
county courts. The suprelne court consists of a chief justice and six 
other jud
c::-ì. One of these is a judge in equity, who also acts in 
divorce causes and one is a(hniralty judge of the exchequer court of 
Canada. 1"his court has original jurisdiction in all matters not 
specially delegatpd to the lo\ver courts and appeal jurisdiction from 
the county courts. The county courts have a limited original juris- 
diction and an appeal jurisdiction froln probate and magistrates' 
courts in certain cases. 1"'he judges of this court are seven in nun1ber, 
each having a di
trict of jurisdiction covering a county or group of 
counties and holding terms of court in the county to\vns of their 
respertive districts. 
l
he judges of the supreme and county courts are appointed and 
paid by the Don1Ïnion Government, but the procedure of the courts 
in all civil matters is regulated by provincial legislation. 1
he purely 
provincial court:s and courts of probate have jurisdiction over wills 
and intestate e::;tates. Dtipcndiaryand police magistrates' courts and 
courts of justices of the peace are also under provincial jurisdiction. 
The judges of these courts and justices of the peace are appointed by 
the local govcrllm('nt and are paid, in some cases by salaries and in 
othcr
 by fees. ï""he sheriffs, clerks, registrars and officers of all the 
courts are appointed by the provincial authorities. 
In criminal CU:-5es the jurisdiction and procedure of all the courts 
are fixed by federal statutes. The procedure as to the selection of 
grand and petit jurors, of revisers of voters' lists and assessment 
courts is fixed by the provincial statutes. In each county, and in 
some counties in one or lnore districts of a county, are offices for the 
rerristry of deeds and of all documents pertaining to transfers of or 
aff
cting titles to real estate as well as those creating and discharging 
liens on personal property. 
XEW BRUNSWICK. 
The province of N"e\v Bruns,vic
 in. all essential featu;es of 
provincial administration is sin1ilar to Its n
Ighbour, Nova ScotIa, ?ut 
some differences may be noted. The prOVInce entered ConfederatIon 
with a Lerrislative Council of 40 members holding their seats for life, 
a Legislative Assembly of 40 members an? an Execu
iv
 Counci
 of 
nine lllembers. Under its po"rers of changIng the provIncIal constitu- 
tion the Legislative Council was abolished by an act passed on April 
16, 1891. For ll1any years an agitation for its abolition had continued, 



22 PROVINCIAL AND WCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


and the governments of the period refrained from filling vacancies 
until the number of members was so reduced that the passage of an 
abolition act became comparatively an easÿ matter. The retiring 
members of the Council retained their title and precedence for life. 
The Assembly at present is composed of 47 members, and the Execu- 
tive Council is composed of (1) the Premier, (2) the Minister of Lands 
and l\Iines, (3) the Minister of Public 'Yorks, (4) the Provincial 
Secretary-Treasurer, (5) the l\Iinister of Agriculture, (6) the Minister 
of Public Health, and (7) the Attorney-General. Each of these min- 
isters has a departmental staff under his direction. 
The ordinary revenue for the .fiscal year ended Oct. 31, 1921, 
amounted to $2,892,905 and the ordinary expenditure to $3,432,512. 
In New Brunswick the subject of public instruction is under the 
management of a Board of Education consisting of the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province, the members of the Executive Council, thp 
Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick and the Chief Super- 
intendent of Education. 
Municipal Institutions.-On the subject of municipal institu- 
tions, under which the people have more complete control over their 
local affairs, the province of New Brunswick has passed through stages 
of development similar to those of Nova Scotia. An interesting 
passage will be found in Hannay's History of New Brunswick, where, 
writing on this subject, he observes: 
"Sir William Colebrooke and Sir Edmund Head had both regretted the 
failure of attempts to establish municipal institutions throughout the province, 
but they perhaps did not discern that this failure was due to the influence 
of the magistrates in sessions, who did not like to be deprived of their power 
of controlling the affairs of the counties. These magistrates naturally resisted 
every improvement, which they denounced as innovations, and they were 
supported generally by the Legislative Council. 
"The system of county government was as bad as possible, because the 
magistrates were not responsible to any person. The condition of the county 
accounts was never made public, and it was not until a comparatively late 
period in the history of the province that the Grand Jury obtained legislative 
authority to inspect the county accounts. 
"Municipal institutions came in the course of years, but not till long after 
Sir Edmund Head had taken his departure from the province. Since then the 
influence of the people upon the municipal government has been strengthened 
by the incorporation of most of the towns in the province, so that the people 
have an opportunity not only of knowing how their money is being spent 
but of directing the expenditure." 
In New Brunswick the first municipal act was passed in 1851. 
This act, which was subsequently amended, rendered incorporation 
optional. But these acts were not in many cases taken advantage of. 
The counties \vere, however, divided into parishes, districts having a 
certain amount of local autonomy and some limited powers of ad- 
ministration, \vhich have been recognized in subsequent municipal 
legislation. They are provided \vith local courts presided over by 
commissioners who are ex officio justices of the peace, and in some 
cases they are provided ,vith stipendiary or police magistrates. These 
commissioners have civil jurisdiction in debts not exceeding eighty 
dollars and in cases of tort when the damages claimed do not exceed 
thirty-two dollars. 



.NEW BRUA'BWICK 


23 


. ...\.t the time of confed
ration the municipal 
y.stem had been very 
shgh
lr deycloped. .But In 1877. an act provldmg for compulsory 
nluIllclpallncorporatIon was put In force, and with its amendments 
is sub
tantially in. force at the p.resent time. Ìt provides that count
 
councIls be constItuted as bodIes corporate, having two councillors 
elected yearly from each parish in the county. The councils elect 
fro II} anlong their Illenlbers a presiding officer who is styled the warden 
and ,vho holds office until the next election of councillors. Councils 
Inay themf'elve
, however, provide by by-law for their election bien- 
nially, a provision \vhich does not apply to the municipality of the 
city and county of St. John. The city of St. John, which in 1785 was 
known as "Parr Town," received a charter in that year through 
Lieutenant-Governor Carleton, a brother of the famous soldier, Sir 
Guy Carleton (after\vards Lord Dorchester). The qualifications of 
voters for the councils are very liberal. Every male, or female 
person, being a \vidow or unmarried, of the age of 21 years or over, 
being a Briti:.;h subject, a ratepayer of the parish having an income or 
personal property or both combined to the amount of one hundred 
dollars, is entitled to vote. A resident of the parish having real 
property of any valu(\, or, if not a resident, having real property to 
the value of one hundred dollars, is also entitled to vote. The dates 
and time of meeting of the councils are fixed by statute and differ 
in different municipàlitie
. In addition to a warden each elects a 
secretary, a treasurer (the two offices may be combined in one person), 
and an auditor, \vho nlay not be a councillor nor hold any office under 
the council. The councils also appoint overseers of the poor, con- 
:-;tablcs, commissioners of highways, collectors of rates and other 
parish and county officials as may be necessary. Councillors under 
some circumstances also act as reyisers of voters' lists. The warden 
is required to publish each year a full and detailed financial statement 
of the affairs of the municipality which shall be signed by the auditor 
and himself. 


PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 
.A.t the time of entering the union the government of Prince 
Ed,vard Island consisted of a Governor and an Executive Council, a 
Legislative Council of 13 members, and a House of Assembly of 30 
members. The Legislative Council was made elective in 1862 and 
so continued until its abolition after the union in 1873. The former 
Legislative Council di:5tricts, after the passage of the Abolition A
t, 

lected members to the Legislative Assembly, fifteen in number, whIle 
the same districts elected members to the Assembly on a different 
franchise, thus practically amalgamating the two Houses int? o
e 
Absembly of 30 members. The electoral system, as "far as votIn
 IS 
concerned, is practically one of manhood suffrage. Th
 ExecutIve 
Council of Prince Edward Island consists of (1) the PresIdent of the 
Council (2) the Provincial Secretary-Treasurer, ,vho is also Com- 
mission
r of Agriculture, (3) the Commis.3ioner of Public Works, (4) 
the Attorney-General and (5) four member3 without portfolio. 



24 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT I1V CANADA 


\Vith regard to the judiciary, the supreme court has a chief 
justice and t\VO assistant judges. The chief justice is also the local 
judge in admiralty of the exchequer court. The supreme court is 
also a court of appeal and has jurisdiction in appeal chancery cases. 
I t has original jurisdiction .both in civil and criminal matters. In civil 
cases of debt the action must be for an amount above $32, and all 
cases beyond the jurisdiction of the county court may be tried before 
a judge of the supreme court. The assistant judges of this court have 
also chancery powers. 1'here is a surrogate and probate court for the 
province ,vith one judge. A system of county courts is established 
consisting of three judges, one for each county. These are appointed 
and paid by the federal government and have jurisdiction in suits up 
to the sum of one hundred and fiftv dollars. Education is under the 
direction of a Board of Educatio
 consisting of the members of the 
Executive Council of the province and the Superintendent of Educa- 
tion, ,vho is also secretary of the Board. 
In the calendar year 1921, the ordinary revenue amounted to 
$727,046 and the ordinary expenditure to $687,935. 


QUEBEC. 
By G. E. MARQUIS, Chief, Bureau of Statistics of Quebec. 
Political and Administrative Organization.-The visitor 
who for the first time enters the chamber of the Legislative Assembly 
of Quebec is sure to notice and admire the large painting placed 
above the Speaker's chair. This painting represents the first assembly 
of representatives of the people to be elected by popular vote, which 
sat in Canada at Quebec, the capital of Lower Canada, in' 1792, on 
the establishment of the parliamentary government which still 
exists and ,vhich originated in the Constitutional Act of 1791- 
A similar form of government was at the same time established 
in the province of Upper Canada. This state of affairs lasted down 
to 1840, when the two . provinces were united, and the territory gov- 
erned by the union of the t,vo Canadas received the name of province 
of Canada. Finally in 1867 a confederation of four provinces was 
set up. The provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia were the first to join in establishing a central government, 
the seat of ,vhich was fixed by the Imperial Government at Ottawa. 
To each province was granted a Provincial Government, having the 
right to legis1ate upon public instruction, public works (within the 
province), the administration of the lands, colonization, agriculture, 
asylums, prisons, reformatories and industrial schools, the organiza- 
tion of the civil courts, municipal institutions, as well as other points 
of Provincial interest. The respective po\vers of the Dominion and 
of the various Provincial Governments are exhaustively defined by 
sections 91 and 92 of the British North America Act. 
The legislature of Quebec is composed of three branches: the 
Legislative Assembly of eighty-one members representing the eighty- 
two electoral divisions of the province (the counties of Chicoutimi 



QUEBEC 


25 


and 
3guenay have the san

 repr<,s<'ntative); the Lcgislative Council of 
twenty-four Juen1bcrs nOlnlnnÜ.d for life by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council; and finally an Executive Council composed of the Lieu- 
tenallt-Gov('rnor and his advisors, the nlinisters of the Crown. 
rrhp Lpgi:,lative AsscInbly anti also the Legislative Council have 
t.he po"-('r to orin
 for" ard bills relating to civil and administrative 
nuttters and to nn}('nd or. repeal the laws ,,-hich already exist. A bin, 
to be approved hy thc I.JIPutenant-Governor, must have received the 
:l

ent of ooth IIouses. Only the Legislative Assembly can bring 
for"rard a bill rcquiring the expcnditure of public nloney. The extreme 
length of :t Parlianlent is five years. Since Confederation sixteen 
prenlÏer
 have been at the hpad of the administration of the Province 
of Quebec. _\t thc prespnt time the Premier is the Honourable L. A. 
rraschcreau, 'who has been President of the Executive Council and 
.A.ttorney-General since July, 1920. lIe is assisted by seven ministers 
ea
h ,,-ith dppartmental portfolios (one of them, the treasurer, having 
t.-.
 portfolio
) and by four ministers 'without portfolio. Sir Charles 
.Fitzpntrick, 1\:.C., G.C.
I.G., is the Lieutenant-Governor. 
l\lunicipal Organization.-For the purposes of local or muni- 
cipal adnlinistration the Province of Quebec is divided into county 
n1unicipalitil's, i4 in nUlnber; these include rural municipalities and 
villages, ns well as to,,-n municipalities hithf'rto organized under the 
fOrIner lllunicipal code. .A\..t the present time there are 20 city, 8i 
to\yn and 24U village municipalities, as \vell as 926 rural municipali- 
ties, making a total of 1,282 local municipalities. Each local munici- 
pality is adlllinistered by a corporation conI posed of seven members 
in the rural municipalitie
 and of a number varying according to the 
lllunicipality in the cities and to\vns. In rural municipalities the 
election of candidates for the municipal council takes place annually 
in the lllonth of January 'whpll three of the six councillors are replaced, 
\yhile the mayor is elected for a t\VO year term by the electors. The 
county council is composed of all the mayors of the villages and rural 
Hlunicipalities constituting the county. The head of this body bears 
the nallle of ,varden and is elected annually at the l\Iarch quarterly 
nleeting of the council. 
:\Iost of the to\vns and cities are organized into separate corpora- 
tions independent of any county council, in virtue of special charters 
granted by the legislature. The composition varies in different 
municipalities. The functions of t
e municipal. councils. 
re .v
ry 
extensive. They can make regulatIons concernIng munIcIpalItIes, 
provided that these regulations contain no p
ovision
 incompatible 
.with the la,vs of the country. They can appoInt officIals to manage 
the business of the municipality; form committees to undertake 
particular branches of the adIninistration; make all hig
,vay regula- 
tions' nominate a local board of health; see to the maIntenance of 
orde;' and finally aid colonization and agriculture by imposing 
direct taxes upon the taxable property of municipalities. 
The po\vers conferred u pon t
e ml!nicipal counci
 
re then very 
extensive, but these po.wers contaIned In the la\v of cItIes and towns 


. 



26 PROVINCIAL AND WCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


orin the municipal code extend only to questions of purely local interes
. 
In order to distribute the taxation necessary to the local pubhc 
administration every municipal council has the right to impose and 
raise by direct taxation on the taxable property of the muni.cip
litr, 
as well as on certain business stock, any sum necessary and thIS withIn 
the limits of its functions. Every two years assessors are named by 
the Council who establish the value of the real property of their 
n1unicipality. These assessors must make a new assessment roll 
every three years, but must amend and correct this roll every year. 
It is by basing itself on this assessment, that the municipal council 
raises the taxes which it needs to meet the expenses of administration. 
A few years ago a Department of l\lunicipal Affairs was established 
in the Provincial Government to supervise more closely the carrying 
out of the municipal law. At the present time the l\linister of l\Iuni- 
cipal Affairs is also the Treasurer of the Province, but he has a separate 
Deputy l\Iinister for each of the two departments. I t may be added 
that each year in the month of January the secretary or the warden 
of each municipal corporation, rural or urban, is under obligation to 
send to the Bureau of Statistics a report on the financial position of 
the corporation, as well as a summary of the operations undertaken 
in the various services in the course of the preceding year. 
School Organization.-Public instruction in the Province of 
Quebec is governed by a single act called the Law of Public Instruc- 
tion, although there are two kinds of schools, one for the Catholics 
and the other for the Protestants or non-Catholics. This is what is 
called the confessional system. Regulations for each of these religious 
units are prepared by the Catholic Committee or the Protestant 
Committee of the Council of Public Instruction, respectively, and 
submitted for the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council 
before going into force. The territorial unit administered by a school 
corporation is called a school municipality. This may differ in 
boundaries from the parish and even from the local municipality. 
There are 1,718 of these school municipalities, of which 1,367 are 
Catholic and 351 Protestant. 8chool municipalities are constituted 
at the request of a group of ratepayers by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council on the recommendation of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction or occasionally by an act of the legislature. Each of 
them must be divided into school districts, except in the cities and 
to,vns. The administrative body which directs them bears the name 
of school corporation. The corporation is composed of five commis- 
sioners or three trustees. In the same municipality the dissentients, 
that is to say those who are from the religious point of view in the 
minority, elect the trustees. 
The school commissioners and trustees are elected for three years, 
five of the former or three of the latter forming a school corporation. 
Their duties are numerous, but in brief it n1ay be said that they must 
erect a school in each school district, look after its maintenance 
provide the necessary equipment, engage teachers, supervise thei: 
teaching and settle the differences which may arise between teachers 
and parents. 



QUEBEC 


27 


Like the luunicipal corporations, the school corporations have the 
right to iIIlpO::'C ta}..es for the construction and maintenance of schools 
and for the paYlnent of the teaching staff. School taxation is dis- 
tributed oycr all the taxable property of the school Illunicipality; 
tht- a
::,(,
slncnt roll prepared by thp 
Iunicipal Coulleil must, except 
in rare ca::\('
, t-;crve as a ba
is for the taxation inìposed by thc school 
corpora tions. 
1'he school corporations have under their control 8chools of four 
kinds; kindergartens elementary prinlary, intcrrnediate prilnary and 
superior prilnary schools. Soon, ho,v('vpr, a Jnodifiration of the ahove 
classification ,viII Leconlc effective, under ,,'hich the last three types 
of schools ,vill l,c reduced to t".o. 1'he prograJnJne of studies ha
 
been Inodifit'd f'O :1S to give a nlor(' suitable typf' of education to 
country children, so :.is to keep thenl on the land, and to providp for 
to\vn anù city children an education" hich ,,'ill fit theJn for industry, 
COBnnerce and finance. 
Besides the 
chool:3 undpr control of the school corporation, there 
are also the classical colleges ,vhcrc ::,ccondary instruction is given, as 
well as four univerf'ities, not including several special schools. l"he 
,vhole school org;anization is directed by the Council of Public Instruc- 
tion, 'which prepares, as ,ve have already 
een, the school regulations 
and the programme of studies. I t choose
 also thl. profe::,
ors and 
principal
 of the Normal schools, a
 well a
 the exanlincr8 of candidate8 
for teachers' certificates; finally, it approves as it sees fit, the text- 
books 'which 
lre submitted to it. 'fhis Council i
 formed of t\VO 
conln1Ïtte('::;, Catholic and Prote:"\tant, each of \vhich ,vatchcs over 
the interests of its co-re]igionist
 in confornlity ,vith the la\v. 
'Vhen the two Comn1ittees 
it together, thus constituting the 
Council, its chairnlan is the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who 
also directs the Departrnent of Public Instruction. lIe is named for 
life by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, but the Provincial 
Secretary is the spokesman of thi
 DepartInent, and is responsible 
before the Provincial Legisl'lture for its administration. 
OXTARIO. 
By S. A. CUDMORE, B.A. (Tor.), 
r.A. (Oxon.), F.S.S., F.R. Econ. Soc., Editor 
Canada Year Book. 
Historical.-The northern part of "hat is no,,, the Province of 
Ontario canle under British rule in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht, 
the southern part in 1763, by the Treaty of Paris. At the latter date 
the whole white population ,vas only about 1,000, mainly f'ettled along 
the Detroit River. By Royal Proclamation of Oct. 7, 1763, the 
eastern part of the province, and by the Quebec Act of 1774 (14 Geo. 
III, chap. 83), the "Thole of what is now southern Ontario, became 
part of the Province of Quebec, under French civil and English 
criminal la\v and ,vithout any representative g'overnment. The 
immigration of the United Empire Loyalists and their settlement in 
the country led to an increa::5ing denland both for English civil la'\\
 
and for representat)ive institutions. This demand was met by the 


. 



28 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


passing of the Constitutional Act of 1791 (31 Geo. III, chap. 31), 
which established the Province of Upper Canada (Ontario) with a 
Lieutenant-Governor, a Legislative Council of not fe,ver than seven, 
and a Legislative Assembly of not fewer than sixteen members, to be 
elected by the people. These representatives of the people, ho,vever, 
had little control over the Executive Council, and the result was the 
struggle for responsible governJnent, i.e., the struggle to make the 
Executive Council responsible to the representatives of the people for 
its administration of the affairs of the community. This struggle 
culminated in the rebellion of 1837, after which Lord Durham's 
report paved the way for the introduction of responsible government 
and the union of the Canadas by the Act of Union (3-4 Vict., c. 35). 
The Legislative Assembly established under this Act consisted of 42 
members from each province, increased to 65 from each province 
in 1853. The Legislative Council was to consist of at least 20 mem- 
bers, appointed for life. In 1854 permission was granted by the 
British authorities to change this system, and in 1856 appointments 
to the Legislative Council were made elective; each province was 
represented by 24 members, one-fourth of the total number retiring 
every two years. 
Present Constitution.-By sections 69 and 70 of the British 
North America Act, the legislature of Ontario was established with a 
single elective chamber having 82 members, the Le
islative Assembly. 
In 1874 the number of members was increased to 88, in 1885 to 90, in 
1894 to 94, in 1902 to 98, in 1908 to 102 and in 1914 (4 Geo. V, chap. 4) 
to 111. I t is elected for 4 years on an adult suffrage basis and holds 
annual sessions, so that 12 months shall not intervene bet,veen the 
last sitting in one session and the first sitting in the next. The powers 
of the Legislature are defined in sections 92 and 93 of the British 
North America Act. The Executive Council consists (1922) of 
eleven members, ten of them holding portfolios as follows: Prime 
Minister and President of Counc
l; Attorney-General; Secretary and 
Registrar; Treasurer; Lands and Forests; Agricult'ure; Public 
Works and Highways; Education; Labour; Mines. 
Besides the regular Departments, certain Commissions have been 
created for specific purposes. These include the Niagara Falls Park 
Commission, established in 1885, under an act for the preservation of 
natural scenery about Niagara Falls (48 .Vict., chap. 21); the Railway 
and Municipal Board, established in 1906 by 6 Edw. VII, chap. 31, 
and entrusted with control of the construction, operation and main- 
tenance of railways incorporated under Provincial Acts; the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission, established in 1906 under an Act to provide 
for the transmission of electric power to municipalities (6 Edw. VII, 
chap. 15); the Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Raihvay Commis- 
sion, created under the TiIniskaming and Northern Ontario Railway 
Act in 1902, for the construction and operation of a raihvay from North 
Bay to a point on Lake Timiskaming, (the line was subsequently 
extended to Cochrane, to effect a junction with the National Trans- 
continental Railway). 



O
VTARIO 


29 



Iunicipal Government.- Under tl}(
 SYstí'nl e:stablished bv 
the Constitutional i\ct of L 791, lllunicipal ndn1fnistration ,vas carried 
on in t}H
 Jl1ain (ns ill t he England of tho..;C' ùay
) by the court
 of 
quartpr 
es"iolls, ,,"hObe Jllf'mhp:r,., \vpn' appointprl by nnd responsible 
to the governor in l'oun..ïl. \s urball c()Inmunitie
 began to gro,v, 
there cOnlnlCJ1('{\d an agitation for local 
df-government, ,vhich after 
nl:ln) rebuffs, f('..;:ultt'd in 1832 in the grant to Brockville of a 1iInited 
Jueasure of control of the local police. In 1833 HaInilton and in 1834 
llelleviHe, Corn" all, Port I-Iope and Prescott received sin1ilar po\vers, 
\vhile in the latter year York becanle a self-governing city ,vith a 
nlayor, uldenHen and councillors under the name of Toronto, I{ingston 
receiving in lS38 a 
ilniiar constitution, thöugh being denied the name 
of city. 1'h{\sc developlllents secured the cordial approval of Lord 
})urhnJI1, ,,-ho nUlintained in his report (1839) that "the ef'tablishment 
of '"t t!ood dystelll of nlunicipal in
titutions throup-hout this Province 
is a nUltter of vital ÌIllportance. . . . , . rrhe estfibli
hnlent of municipal 
illstitutions for the \vhole country should be made a part of every 
colonial cop-"titution." Upon the introduction of responsible govern- 
nlcnt, the District Councils Apt of 1841 ,vas passed, giving a consider- 
able nle
l::5Ure of loral self-government 'with a large measure of con- 
trol hy the central authorities. ,A nlore comprehensive measure, 
the :\Iunicipal ...L\ct of 1849, provirled "by one g-cneral law, for the 
erection of nlunicipal corporations and the establif'hment of regulations 
of police in and for the several counties, cities, to\\Tns, to\vnships and 
villages in Upper Canada." 1."his Act has been called the lVIagna 
Charta of Illunicipal in
titutions, not only for Ontario, but for the 
ne',er provinces ,vhich largely copied Ontario inl-ititutions. Its main 
fe:ltures are c::till clearly vbible in the nlunicipal systenl of today. 
lTnder this system there existed in 18G8, \vhen the first legislature 
of Ontario as"embled, 539 local self-governing units, including 36 
counties, 399 to".n
hipH, and 104 cities, to\vns and villapes. In 1921 
there ,,-ere in the Province 911 local self-poverning units, including 
38 county lnunicipalitie
, 557 to,vnships, 149 vil1ages, 143 tnwns and 
24 cities. There is thuH a local self-governing body for every 3,200 
of the population of the province, and the general effect has been to 
initiate the ma
s('s of the people in the problems of self-government, so 
that Ontario has been described by eminent students of democratic 
governnlf'n ts as one of the n10st perfect democracies in existence. 
The pre:;eut hnv respecting municipal institutions is contained 
in chapter 192 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1914, and its amend- 
lnents (4 Geo. \T, c. 33, 5 Geo. ,r, c. 34, 6 Geo. V, c. 39). 
The territorial division of the province for municipal and judicial 
purpose
 is governed by the Territorial Division Act (R.S.O., 1914, 
(', 3), Fection 11 of ,,,hich provides that, subject to the provisions of the 
)Iunicipal ....\,ct, the Lieutenant-Governor may by proclamation con- 
stitute and fix the boundnries of ne,v townships in those parts of 
Ontario in which to,vnships have not been already constituted. 



dO PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERVMENT IN CANADA 


Townships and Villages.-Township municipalities may be 
organized in hitherto unorganized territory when the popu lation of 
the geographical township of six miles square is not less t.han 100, 
and \vhere the inhabitants of an area not surveyed into townships 
exceed 100 on not more than 20,000 acres. The township is governed 
by a chief executive officer styled reeve, and four others who may be 
deputy reeves or councillors, depending on the number of municipal 
electors. (Deputy reeves, together with the reeve, represent the 
township on the county council). These provisions apply also to 
villages, which may be created out of districts or parts of townships 
where a population of 750 exists on an area not exceeding 500 acres. 
Police villages with certain limited rights of s
lf-government may 
be formed by county councils where a population of not less than 
150 exists upon an area of not less than 500 acres and where the major- 
ity of freeholders and resident tenants of the locality petition therefor. 
Police villages are administered by three trustees who may be created 
a body corporate where the population exceeds 500. 


Towns.- Towns may be incorporated on conditions prescribed 
by the Ontario Railway and Municipal Board, but must have not 
less than 2,000 population. A town in unorganized territory is 
governed by a mayor and six councillors, or if the population is not 
less than 5,000, by a mayor and nine councillors. A town not in 
unorganized territory is governed by a mayor, a reeve, as many 
deputy reeves as the town is entitled to have as its representatives in 
the county council, and three councillors for each ward where there 
are less than five wards, or two councillors for each ward where there 
are five or more wards. Towns having not less than 5,000 population 
may, by by-law approved by the electors, withdraw from the juris- 
diction of the county council. The towns of Walkerville, Prescott, 
Trenton, Smiths Falls, Brockville, Ingersoll, St. l\iarys, were in 
1921 in this position. 


Cities.-Cities, which are always entirely separate in govern- 
ment from their counties, must have, when constituted, a population 
of 15,000. They are governed by a mayor, a Board of Control if such 
exists, and, at the option of the council, two or three aldermen for 
each ward. Boards of Control, who may be elected by general vote 
in any city of more than 45,000 people and must be so elected in 
cities of over 100,000, form a sort of executive authority for the larger 
cities, giving a large portion of their time to the public service, and 
being paid a salary considerably higher than the alderman's indemnity. 
The duties of the Board of Control include the preparation of estimates, 
the awarding of contracts, the inspection of municipal works, and 
the nomination of officers and their dismissal or suspension. The 
Board reports to the council, in which its members also have a vote, 
and its action is subject to approval or reversal by the whole council. 
The council may not make appropriations or expenditures of sums not 
provided for by the Board's estimates, \vithout a two-thirds vote of 



O_y TA RIO 


31 


the l11cmbers present. Boards of control exist in Toronto, Otta,va, 
IIamilton and London. 


Counties.-All Dlcmbcrs of county councils are also lnenlbers of 
the councils of the Inunicipa1ities \\ ithin the larger county munici- 
pa1ity, h
ing the rc
Yes and ch'puty reeves of to"'n
hips, villa
l's and 
to,,'n"'. 1'he presiding officer of the county council is called the ,var- 
den, and is annually chosen from aDlong the reeycs ,,,ho are IneInbers 
of thc council. The county council has charge of the Iüain higlnyays 
and bridges, the courthouse, gaol, house of refl1g
, registry office, 
etc. Its ra.tes are collected through the constituent local municipali- 
ties. Provisions for the erection of one kind of urhan Inunicipnlity 
into nnother are given in the ,Act. Four of the thirty-ei1!ht county 
municipalities of the proyince are cODlpo'"'ed of a union of counties, 
viz. (1) Lecd') and Grenville, (2) K orthuInberland and Durham, (3) 
Prescott :1nd }{uss('U and (4) Dundas, 
tormont find Glengarry. 
Use of the Referendum.-Important questions and certain 
descriptions of by-I:rws :1re under th(ì l\Iunicipnl Act suhn1Ïtted to 
the direct vote of the electors, money by-l:,nvs generally to property- 
o,vners only. Exccpt in the cftc:;e of money by-Ia-ws, the decision of 
the elcctors is not legally hinding upon th(\ governing body of the 
Inunici})ality. .\Iunicipalities are enlpo\,'crcd to pa"'s by-Ia\vs to 
provide bonuses in aid of nuulufactures and raihvays; these bonuses 
may tnke the fOrIn of mOIlPY grants, guarantees, total or partial 
e:\.en1ption ironl municipal taxation or othcr spccial facilities. 


Judiciary.-Under the Law Rpform Act of lHO!) (9 Ed,v. 'TII, 
c. 2õ), thf' clupreIne Court of Ontario is e
tahli
hcd in t\\yo divi'3ions, 
the appellate division and the hi
h court division, the former being 
a continuation of the old court of appeal and the latter a continuation 
of the old high court of jtp"Ìice. The appellate divi
ion is composed 
of not less than two divisional courts, each \vith five justice
, \vho try 
appeals from the high court and the other courts of the province, and 
froni whose decision appeals n1ay in certain ca
cs be made to the 
Supreme Court of Canada. The justices of the high court hold 
assizes at least t\\yice a year in each county, with a very comprehensive 
jurisdiction. In each cou.nty or district there is a court prcsided over 
by a judge, who sits at least t,vice a year, "yith or ,vithout a jury, 
to try minor civil actions. Each county judge also presides at least 
twice yearly over a court of general session, \\Tith a limited jurisdiction 
in criminal Inatters. CriIninals may, ,vith their own consent, be tried 
by the county judge 'without a jury. Each judicial district is divided 
into court divisions in each of 'which a division court is held by the 
county judge, or his deputy, at least once in every t,vo months. 
These courts are for the recovery of small debts and damages. The 
county judges hold revision courts for the revision of assessment rolls 
and of voters' lists; they are also judges of the surrogate courts, 
\vhich deal with the estates of deceased persons. 


. 



32 PROVLVCIAL A1VD LQCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


MANITOBA, SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA. 
By the REV. EDMUND H. OLIVER, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., Principal of the Presbyterian 
Theological College, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 
HISTORICAL SKETCH. 
Establishment of Provinces.-On the prairies there have been 
two distinct trends of historical and political development-that of 
the Red River and that of the Territories. The whole region ,vas 
originally under the sway of the Honourable Company of Adventurers 
trading into Hudson's Bay. In the case of the Red River, responsible 
self-rule came ,vith the transfer to Canada. The Territories possessed 
absolutely no form of government prior to their incorporation in the 
DonlÍnion. 
MANITOBA. 
On September 4, 1812, Captain l\1iles Macdonell, in the name of 
Lord Selkirk, took formal possession of the District of Assiniboia at 
the forks of the Red and AS3iniboine Rivers. This was the first 
act of governnlent in \vhat is now 'Vestern Canada. 
The deed of the District of Assiniboia to Selkirk reserved to the 
Company "all rights of jurisdiction." For this reason the Company's 
commission ,vas given to the governor appointed by Selkirk. The 
governor could act as judge. But to do this correctly, he must act 
with his Council. A Council of Assiniboia was appointed to safe- 
guard the judicial functions of the governor. It ,vas not so much a 
Council of Assiniboia as the Council of the Governor in Assiniboia, 
not so much a legislative or administrative body as a judicial tribunal. 
From the time of Governors Bulger and Pelly the Council began to 
assume administrative and legislative functions. It beg
n also to 
divest itself of judicial functions. In the former it ,vas entirely 
successful; in the latter, only partly so. The minutes of the Council 
of l\Iay 4, 1832, sho\v the Council launched upon its career of legis- 
lative activity. It adopted regulations concerning pigs and stallions 
allo"red to range at large, fires, statute labour for the itnprovement of 
roads and bridges, public fairs and the taking of horses from their 
grazing grounds. 
The Council never was in any degree responsible to those whose 
interest it ,vas expected to regard and foster. But its membership 
was largely representative of the leaders in the community. It 
enacted a great variety of measures in relation to fires, animals, horse 
taking, hay, roads, intoxicating of Indians, liquor laws, customs 
duties, police, debtors, intestate estates, marriage licenses, contracts 
for service, surveyors, postal facilities, premium on wolves, adminis- 
tration of justice and other matters of general concern. On June 25, 
1841, ,vas formed the :Municipal District of Assiniboia, which extended 
in all directions fifty nlÌles from the forks of the Red and Assiniboine 
Rivers. To carry out its resolutions the Council of Assiniboia organ- 
ized a board of works, a committee of economy, a volunteer corps, 
legal and judicial machinery, a tariff system and postal facilities. 
It appointed public officials and erected the necessary buildings. It 



!\ "lX/TUB.l, SASK.tTCHFWA.J.V L\
J) ALBERTJ.l 


33 


1:;up('rvj
f'(1 thp ,\"hol(' social Jif(\ of th{\ spttIl'lll<'llt, iInpo...ing dutie
 and 
rC::5trictions on the :5aJe and ÏInportation of.liquor
, supprilltpndinJ! the 
building of road
, th{\ i:,sup of Inarriage liccll
es and thp l'lleourage- 
nlCnt of native indll
trj(':.;. 
The 
erie::5 of l)ornillion Acts relating to thp ""'cst begins ,vith 
"
\n _\..ct for the telnpora.ry govcrnnl('11 t úf l{llpf'rt'
 Land and the 
Xorth"cstern 1'crritory "hcn nnitpd ,\.ith Canada," JUHP 22, IbG9. 
This Act 
ought to prl'pare for the trau::5fer of the 'rcrritoric
 fronl the 
local nuthoritic::, to thl' goV{\rnnH'nt of Canaùa. .\ Y{\
tr later the 
)I:u1Ïtooa Act (33 \ïet.. c. ;
) launclu'd upon it
 indppclHlent ('Oll- 

tituti()nal carCl'r tl1(' old ])i-:;triet of A:,:",ÜÜboia, Iun\' in pO
:::;f':.;:::;ion of 
l'oInpll'te self-govcrulllell t. 1""he Lil\uH'nant-Gov('rnor in the fir:.;t 
day
 of the province naturally o('cupi{'d a. "\ pry irnportallt }>o:,itioll 
in thc Hthnini:-;tration of at1'ail"l"i. For a ",hort tilHe the1'p Wa."i a t('lupor- 
ary g:ovcflllnent with t\\.o u1ÏIlÎ:::;ters and the L{\
i:'5lative J\:-.:-.clnhly. 
.Alter this, gO\
prnIllcnt '\"a
 carried on ,vith the Lqd
lative 
\
:"\clllhly 
and a Lpgi
lative Coull(\il, but \vithout a prt'1l1ipf. ,At thp ('11<1 of 
ix 
year:; the Legi:-:lativl' (1ouncil "ras aboIi
h('d. \\"lthout a Ll'IÛ:.dativc 
Council hut with a Preu1Ïer and a. I.A'gi:-;lative \:'
PIllhly thp provincp 
H

tnlled the <:uIl
tituti()nal fonn \\"hi('h h:l:"\ ('ndurpJ to the p['('::5eut Jay. 


S.\SK.\Tt'II":"'.\
 .\:\ D \I.IU:UT,\. 
1""he lanlhllarh.
 in th(' gro,vth of provineial in:.;titution
 for :\[ani- 
toba are the conlÍng of th \ 
elkirk eoIoni::5t
, the devplopnlent of th(> 
rouncil uf ...\

iniboia, the pas:,ing of th(> IIudson '::; Bay COlllpallY a
 
a J.!:overnn}('ntal body, the cnaetIllellt of the )Ianitoha _\.ct and the 
abolition of the Legislatiye Council. 1""he chief 
t:l
("
 in the political 
Jeveloptnent of the X orth,,"pst 1'erritori{\s (that portion of H,upert's 
Land and the X ortlnvc:,tcrn 'ferritory not included in the province 
of )[anitoba) nre indicated by the capitals, Fort Garry, Hwan lliver, 
Battleford :lnd Regina. 'Yhen the UOVerUln('nt ""a
 at Fort Garry 
the Tprritorics were a(hl1ini
tprpd by officials rc:::;ident in a J1{'iJ!hbour- 
ing province. In Liying
tone, S\van H.iver, th,. Lieutenant-Governor 
and councillors belonged for the fir:-;t tinll' to thp ''fprritorips pxclus- 
ively. B
lttleford Illarkpd thc beginning
 but only the beginnin
s of 
self-gOyefIlInent. It \va::; re::;cr,"pd to n,egina to "Titnc
s the evolution 
froln the X ort Invest Council to the Legi
la tive 1\
:,{\n1 bIy, from repre- 
sentative to re:,pon
iblc governIl1Cnt, fronl territorie,-; to provinces. . 
The l'erritorie
 ,vere not at fir:::;t given a :::)eparate governlnent. 
They ".ere administered froIn Fort Garry by the Lieutenant-Governor 
of 
ranitoba ,vith the aid, first of a sluall executive COUIl('il of three, 
irregularly appointed, the lIon. 
Ir. J u:5tice Johnson, the Hon. D. A. 
t'n1Ìth and the Hon. Pascal Breland, and then \vith the aid of a nlore 
fonnal and nlore re
ularly appointed but still a(hnittedly provisional 
X orth,\"pst Council. This council addre:::;:'3eJ itself to the ta:::;k of 
laying the foundations of territorial a(hninistration. It did nluch, also, 
to secure the good will of the Indian trib
s. 
... The charter of the separate political exi.;;ten('e of the Territorie
 
is the X orth'\"e:,t Territories ....\..ct, 1875. It \vas under this _\ct that 
the late Hon. David Laird ,va.; appointed LiC'utenant-Governor. Hp 
38131-3 


. 



34 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNJ'.fENT IN CANADA 


held a legislative session under the Act of 1875 at Livingstone, Swan 
River in 1877. Battleford was the capital for three sessions of the 
council. The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway trans- 
ferred the seat of government to the line of railway, designated at 
first as Leopold, and then as Regina. Settlement ceased to follow the 
course of the rivers. Trade routes for freighters now began to run 
north and south from the railway. The old Northwest passed away. 
At the same time a profound change ,vas being effected in the 
constitutional character of the Territories. While the capital was 
still at Battleford, in 1881, Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke was elected 
to represent the district of Lorne. This constituted the first oppor- 
tunity given the settlers themselves to express their sentiments in the 
administration of affairs. Three years later the elected representatives 
of the people became numerous enough to exert an influence upon 
legislation. The years that ensued were wonderfully formative. In 
1884 the N orth,,?est Council laid the foundations of the territorial 
school and municipal systems. The crushing of the half-breed 
uprising in 1885 assured the dominance of the white settlers and 
permanently banished the spectre of Indian disorders. A year later 
was established a territorial judiciary. Then followed a parliamen- 
tary struggle for the control of the purse. In quick succession came 
the Advisory Council, the Executive Committee, the Executive 
Council. In this contest between representatives of the settlers and 
the Dominion officials victory lay "Tith the people and with the cause 
of popular government. It was not, ho,vever, till 1897, on the eve 
of a remarkable growth in population and economic development, 
that the government of the Territories, which for half a decade had 
been giving expression to the people's will, was made completely 
responsible in form as it had already been in fact. 
The increased volume of immigration necessitated heavier expend- 
itures upon education, public ,yorks and local administration. It was 
impossible to introduce municipal organizations into many districts 
outside the limits of the denser settlements. The result was to 
impose upon the Territorial Government excessive burdens. Finan- 
cial embarrassments gave rise to constitutional aspirations. Finally, 
after a prolonged agitation, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Acts 
provided for the erection on September 1st, 1905, of two provinces, 
Saska tche\van and Alberta. 
Provincial Constitutions.-The Constitutions of the Prairie 
Provinces are determined by the following Acts and their amendments: 
the British North America Act, the Manitoba Act (33 Vict., c. 3), 
the Saskatchewan Act (4-5 Ed\v. VII, c. 42), and the Alberta Act 
(4-5 Edw. VII, c. 3). 
Executive Power.-Each province has a Lieutenant-Governor 
appointed by the Dominion Government, who holds office for fiv
 
years. Within his term he is not removable except for cause assigned 
communicated to him in writing. His powers are exercised in accord
 
ance ,vith the principles of responsible government with the advice 
and consent of the provincial cabinet. ' 



llANITOBA , SAShATCIIEJrAN AND ALBFRTA. 


35 


Each province has in its cabinet a ?\IinistC'r of Public 'V orks, an 
Attorney-General, a ?\linister of Agriculture, a, Provincinl Treasurer, 
a 
Iinister of Education and a Provincial 
ecretary. A feature 
pcculiar to the prairie provinces is the Department of l\Iunicipal Affair
 
und('f the supervision of a 
finist('r in Sa8katchewan and .\.lbertfl, 
of a Commisç;ioner in :\IanitoLa. :\[ore than one departnlent or sub- 
department i
 frequently under one reç;ponsible mini
tcr. 
Legislative I
owcr.-Ench provinc(' hn
 a Lpgislature consisting 
of the Liputennnt-Governor and the I...q!islatiyc 
\SS(,lllbly. There 
lllust bC' a yearly s('

ion. 'l""houp-h th(' .A

{'nl hly )J1ny be dissolved 
at any time it lllUst not continue lon
er than a fixed period of years 
after a general election. Section 92 of the British Korth 
\.nlerica 
Act cnulnerates the exclu
ive pO"gers of the Provincial Legi
latures.l 


GRO"9TII OF )IUXICIPAL IXSTITurnoxs. 
1\fanitoba.-The stnges in the I!ro\\th of municipal institutions 
in the rrovincc of l\lnnitoha are n1arked by th(' legislation of thp yenrs 
1871, 1873, ISS2 nrd 19CO. In 1871 the County .A""e
snH
nt Act and 
the Pnri
h 
\:--
,:--
n-ent Act mad(' provision for dealing ,,'ith local 
financ(', The forn'pr ('onceTI
cd th
 taÀ roll of th(' province; the 
latter, purely lo('nl in'prov( n)('nts and a

()
-.:nl('nts for the parif'hes 
'within each of the fiVl' ('ountil
. An Act of 1873 provided for the 
erel'tion of :l local nn111icipnlity in districts ('ontfiinin
 not lc

 than 
30 freeholders. In Ih
a the provincc ,vas dividpd into 26 counties 
and three judicial di:;trict
. This .Act copi(.'d closely the Ontario 
..\ct of 1b-t9. J n the v;orh.intr out of the 
\ct it '" H
 found to be in 
1l1any parti('ular
 ursuited to 'rl'
tern conditions. By tll(' GCJ1('ral 

Iunicip31 Act of 1900 every city, to\vn, village and rural municipality 
became a body corporate. Over all, ex('('ptin
 cities having sC'parate 
charters of incorporation, of ,,'hich there are three, 'Yinnipcg, St. 
Boniface and FortaJ!'e-la-rrairie, is the general supervision of a 
Department of :\f unieipal Affairs, presided over by a l\Iinister of the 
t'Àecutive f,!overnment call('d "The 
Iunicipal Con1missioner." By 
le
ìslation enacted in 1921 a "ï""ax Commi'-'f-ion" was established in 
the province: its chief duties are to improve the character of municipal 
a::-;
e
::-;ment throughout the province, especially in rural areas, which 
theretofore had been lax, unfair bet\\een rat('payers, and unreliable for 
general statistical purposes. 
l';orthwest Territories (Saskatche\van and .Alberta).-As early 
as 1884 ,ve find among the Ordinances of the K orth\vest Territories 
one "respecting l\Iunicipalities." This contained provisions for the 
establishment of certain rural nlunicipalities und the D1unicipalities 
of the to.wn of Regina, the to\\Tn of !\Ioosejaw, etc. Only a limited 
number of rural municipalities found practical cÀistence under this 
Ordinance, 'which v;a
 planned on principles similar to those of the 
older provinces. In 1896 lep-islation "\\ as passed de-organizing certain 
of the rural municipalities "'here the system proved unpopular. In 


1 See r-age 6 for a résumé of the powers of the Provincial Legislatures. 
38131-31 



36 PROVINCIAL A.VD LOCAL G{)VERJ.VAIEJ.VT I
V rA
V.-tDA. 


1897 the Legislature of the Territories passed a Statute Labour 
Ordinance. The year following produced the Loral Improvement 
Ordinance which, with its amendnlents, was the law observed until 
1904. The average area of each local improvement district \vas one 
to\vnship. In 1903 a new local Improvement Bill de-organized all 
one-township local improvement districts and abolished the provision 
for statute labour. The ne'w Bill provided for local improvement 
districts \vith an area of four townships, each of which was a division 
electing a councillor annually. The four thus secured formed a Council 
Board. In 1904 the Legislature made financial provision for inquiry 
into municipal organizations in general in order to provide a safe, 
economiral system of rural municipalities and to inlprove the ordinance 
under \vhich cities, to'wns and villages were administered. The 
breaking up of the Territories in 1905 into the present provinces of 
Alberta and Saskatche\van caused delays; but municipal cOIIlInis- 

ions with urban and rural sections \vere appointed. As a result of 
the experience gathered during; territorial days and later, and of the 
findings of these Conlluissions, Local Improvement Acts \vere amended, 
Rural l\lunicipality, To\vn and .Village Acts were pas
ed in both 
provinces, and a City Act was passed in the province of Saskatchewan. 
Municipal Government.-The school district constitutes at 
once the most important and elementary unit of self-governlnent 
on the prairies. Of nlunicipal organization there are generally five 
different forms: (a) Improvement Districts; (b) Rurall\lunicipalities; 
(c) .Villages; (d) Towns; (e) Cities. 
Alberta has five forms of municipal organization, Improvement 
Districts, Municipal Districts, Villages, Towns, Cities. Inlprovement 
Districts are administered by the Department of Municipal Affairs. 
Each city is governed by the provisions of its own charter. 
In Manitoba the term "Inlprovenlent District" is used to denote 
a portion of a rural municipality or incorporated village formed into 
a particular territory to provide for local improvements. 
School Districts.-The school district is the local organization for 
the support and administration of educational affairs. In each of the 
three Prairie Provinces its organization is somewhat different accord- 
ing as it is a rural, village, town or city or consolidated district, but 
the most common of these, the rural district, is in all three provinces 
governed by a board of three trustees elected by the ratepayers for 
three years, one being elected and one retiring annually. In l\Ianitoba 
there is in addition to the types of district mentioned, a rural nlunici- 
pality school organization, being an aggregation of rural schools under 
one board of trustees. 
Improvement Districts.- These consist, except in l\Ianitoba, of 
those sparsely settled areas where there exists either no Illunicipal 
organization \vhatever or organization of a very sinlplified and elelnen- 
tary character. As a rule each local improvement district has exactly 
the same area as the r
r
l municipality into \yhich it nlay subsequently 
he t,ransformed. ThIs IS generally the territorial unit of 18 miles 



.\f L\ IT()U. t. ,'L 18/\.11'('11 f....r. LY .1 S /) t L/JEllTil 


37 



quan' or nillf' t(lwn
hip
. The forTIl und 
iz{\ of the
e units o('ca
ion- 
ally \"ary to fit into the phy
ieal fl'ature
 of thp country. rrhc local 
iInprov(1tnt ' nt district i
 not rCJ!ardcd as a p('rnl:lncnt organization. 
In Ba
katehrwan, thp loeal inl}>rOYC'nlcnt, puhlic rpycnucs and wild 
land
 taxe::5 are eoll('('t('d hy the D('part U1('nt of )[uniripal .\fTair
. 
The loeal iU1prOYPll1pnt ta'\:t.'
 are p"\.pt'ud('d for public ,vorks through 
the I)ppartnl('nt of Jliglnvay
 in thl' partieular local Ï1nprovpnlcnt 
<.li'4riet ill which th('y art' coll('('tt'd. ...\ ('rrtaill portion of tJH'
P taxc
 
is also exp('udcd for ,volf DOUlltiC::5 aud the t'Àterlllin:ltion of gophers 
and gra
:-;hoppt'rs. 
I?llral 11 u n icipalitit),
.- TIlt, rural munieipality i
 a pprnlancnt 
in!'titution and a DO<..1y corporah'. It pa:-;
('
 hy-Iaw
 for the' gpnt'ral 
"'('If are of thp cotnmunity. j'h(,sc relate to 
uch lnattcr" a
 public 
health. llui:-:anec grounds, e(,ln('t('rie
, ho
pital:::;, 
ranting :lid to the 
sick and ,,"orthy indigpnt, proyiding for trl'P planting in pu blic place
, 
impo
ing fiIlt!S for light ".cight anù short nlea
urelHent:5, prt'Yl'uting 
eruclty to Hnin1als, rf'
trainin
 the running at lurl!<' of dogs, the 
application of herd anù pound la"'
, preventing prairie fin'
, li('('n
ing 
ha\\.kers and p{'dlar
, rp
ul:lting 
pc 'eI on hi
hway
, J!:ranting aid to 
n.gricultural sori('ties, thc dp:4ruetion of noxiou
 \\'('cds, the aequiring 
of land for public pUrpo
('
. tlU' ('rt'ction of nlunicipal buildiugs and 
sinlÏlar n1atter
. It has charge of the coll(lction of s('hool taxes 
in rural di
trirt
 ".ithin th<, Jiluit::: of the n1unicipality. In ordpr to 
perfortn })('rI11al1('nt iU1prOYt'J}1cnts a rural Illuni('ipality can Lorro\\' 
bv dphcnturc::-. 
. 'fhr' rural 1Tlunieipalitif\!--. hayc authority to collect certain license 
f{'t'
, hut taxation ('()ustitut(,
 their principal 
ource of revenuc. Each 
council appoint;:; it., o""n auditor, but the hooks of the Jnunicipality are 

ubjcct to departInental insp<,ction. Under conditions that vary \vith 
tht' proviIH'e
 tht' el('ctor
 of thc Jnunicipaliti('
 may vote to come into 
pro\"iueial, group or co-o}>prati\"c hail insurancc 
ch('nl{,
. TIH'Y are 
not allowed to honus raih\"ays or comnH
rcial entcrpri
cs of any kind. 
Thl' 111('t hod of ('l('ction vari('s "ith th(' provine('s. In AILerta, for 
in
ttuH'l'. the coun('il i
 g('nerall

 plectrd at largt' by thp ('lector
 of 
t}H' 111unicipality, though the council tuay, by hy-Ia\\ approved by 
:t Inajority of thc electurs, providf' for the election of councillor
 by 
divi
ioll
, and thp reevc is {'ho
en at the first mpcting of th(' counril; 
in 
askntchr\van the recve only is elccted at large and each of the I-'ix 
('ouncillor
 i
 cho
t.'n hy fI divi
ion of a to\vnship and a half; in .:\Iani- 
tobn. the (10ulleil ('on
i
ts of the ref've and të'ix or four councillors a
 · 
determint'd by hy-la\\.. \. secretary-treasurer appointed by tht' 
('ounril lpvieb the a
ses
nlPnt and collects the taxcs. 
.Villages,-In Saskatchc\\'an .
o ppople must be actually rcsidcnt 
in 3. hamlet hefore it can claim village incorporation. Thp numher 
is counted by a person sent from the Department of 
Iunicipal Affairs. 
Each village shall levy. for taxation purposes, on land at its fair 
:tetual vnIue, and on huilding;s and in1prOVenlf'ntf' at no p.c. of their 
value, but if t\vo-thirds of the resident ratepayers desire, by \vritten 
petition, that the asseSf'ment 
hall be based on land values only, the 
('ouJ}eil nlay pa

 a by-Ia\v to that effect. 



38 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


Under the Village Act of Alberta, a village is not a corporate body 
and has only very limited powers. A village may be established where 
there is any centre of population containing 25 occupied dwelling- 
houses within an area not greater than 640 acres. The tax, which 
may not exceed 2 cents on the dollar, must be levied on the actual 
value of the lands in the village exclusive of the improvements thereon. 
A village may impose a business tax. It may assess improvements up 
to 50 p.c. of their value and must do so if any debenture payment owing 
by the village is in arrears. A village may borrow lnoney by debentures 
after obtaining authority from the Minister of Municipal Affairs. 
In Manitoba, villages, as in the case of towns and cities, excepting 
Winnipeg and St. Boniface, are incorporated under the Municipality 
Act. A village must have 500 inhabitants within 640 acres. The 
census is taken under the direction of the council of the municipality. 
The council consists of the mayor and four councillors. The village 
council, as in the case of the council of every municipality in Manitoba, 
may pass by-laws for exempting any industry in whole or in part 
from taxation for any period not exceeding 20 years. 
Towns.-In Saskatchewan a village must have at least 500 people 
actually resident therein, in order to become a town. The census 
must be taken by an official of the Department. L3:nd is assessed 
at its fair actual value and improvements at not more than 60 p.c. 
of their value. A town may impose a tax on personal property and 
may also impose an income tax. It may also impose a tax on improve- 
ments and must do so if any debentures o,ving by the town are in 
arrears. Power has been given to establish parks and recreation 
grounds, skating and curling rinks. 
In Alberta a village having 700 residents may be established as 
a town. The Act requires that all taxes must be derived from an 
assessment levied according to the actual cash value of the land 
without regard to any improvements made thereon by the expenditure 
of capital or labour. 
In l\lanitoba a locality containing over 1,500 inhabitants may be 
erected into a town on petition. The council consists of the mayor 
and two councillors from each ward. 
Cities.-In Alberta there is no City Act. The different cities 
in the province carryon business each under its own special charter. 
Accordingly the methods differ in the different cities. Where in 
other provinces COlnmon regulations exist, here can only be observed 
tendencies. They are strongly inclined to own their own utilities, 
not to give franchises and to exempt personal property and incomes 
from taxation. Buildings and improvements are assessed for a per- 
centage of their value and taxed on this percentage, which varies in 
different cities. 
In Saskatche,van tuwns Inust have a population of 5,000 to become 
cities. A general City Act governs in each case. This strictly pro- 
hibits the granting of bonuses. A Saskatchewan city may at its own 
volition assess land values, exempting huildings and improvements, 
but the change must be graùual. Land is as&essed at its fair actual 
\Talue and buildings at not more than 60 p.c. of their value. 



JfA."VITOBA, SASKATC!IEJVAN lLVD Al.JRERTLl 


39 


rrhc three provillccS of the pruirips have (':Lch a. different mcthod 
in regard to the appointnlent of city cOlnnli")::;ioners. In l\Jnnitoba is 
found the bO
lrd of control, in Saskatchewan the appointed COl11IUis- 
sioner, in l\ll>erta the elected COlllIlli,,
ioner anù appointed coul1nis- 
sioner. 
In l\Ianitoba, a to'Yll containing 0\,,('1' 10,000 inhabitants Iuay 
be erected into a city 'with a council con::;isting of the mayor and t\VO 
aldermen frotn eaeh ","ard. 
In all three provinces, cities, towns, villages and rural llluni- 
cipalities n1ay pass by-Ia\vs for contrncting debt
 by borro\ving llloney 
or other,,'i
e, and, if necessary, for bsuinl!: debpntur(
s for certain 
:-:pecified purpose::;, hut in all ('n::)e
 the by-Ia,vs for borro\ving money 
Blust receive the assent of the plertors. Particularly in connpction 
\vith the 
Inallcr muniripalitiLs the IÌ111it of debt is :specifically stated 
in the various acts governinp: the cases. 
Thp lef.!,islative po\vers of the l'ounrils of n1unicipalitics in the 
three prairie proyinces are in the Blain tll<' 
anH.',-nrquiring property 
for 1l1unicipal or public purpo:,c:::;, taking cen
us, u.ppoiuting (
ng;ineers, 
ronstnbl
s and other officer
, ellforCClTIent of hy-hn\'s, regulations 
rl'garding public health and cOlllfort, puhlic safety, public order and 
Inorality, protection from fire, care of children, rpgula tion of btreets 
and public places, drainage aud :se\vcrngc, fpnces, dairies, ,,-ateI' supply, 
lllatterb relating to agriculture, publie fair
, nninuds, dog taxes, 
ilupounding, cen1cteric:" coal and ,,'ood supply, libraries, advertising, 
Inarkets, boards of trade, trades find occupations, licensing travellers 
for commercial houses, street llulnLering und 
inlÏlar matters. 


BUITISII {'OI..IL')IßI \. 
By JOll
 HOSIE, Victoria, B,C. 
Briti
h Columbia entered Confederation on July 20, 1
71, and 
has a local constitution sin1ilar to that of the other provincpf'. ':rhe 
province had been constituted in 18GG by the union of the colony of 
'Tancouver Island and its dependencies (,,'herf' a government had been 
established in lð49) ,,-ith that of British Colunlbia, ,,'hich dated from 
18.38. Local responsible p.overnnlent began before Confederation, 
but previously the colonies had been adn1inistercd by t".o mixed 
elective and appointed councils. 
Executive.-The Lieutenant-Governor and. a cahinet not to 
exceed t,,'elve ministers constitute the present administration. The 
cabinet is compof->ed of the follo,,-ing: the Prpmier, 'who is also 1Iinister 
of H.ailways and President of the Council; Attorney-General and 

Iinister of Labour; 
Iinister of Finance and :\Iinister of Indust- 
ries; Provincial Secretary and :\Iinister of Education; ::\linister of Lands; 
::\Iinister of l\Iines and Commissioner of 11""isheries; l\Iinister of Public 
'Yorks; :\Iinister of .\griculture. 'Yith the exception of the Premier, 
\vho holds t".o other offices and receives 89,000 a year in respect of 
his position as Prelnier only (the portfolio of President of the Council 
is unpaid), each minister receives 
7,500 a year. The first cahinet after 
Confederation consisted of five nlembers. In 1900 the DepartInent 



40 PR01Yr^
CIAL Al\YD LOCAL GOVERlv},lENT IN CANADA 


of l\Iines was separated from other portfolios, with a Minister of 
its o,vn, but the Fisheries Department is now associated with that of 
l\1ines. Lands and Public VV orks, which had long been under one 
l\Iinister, were separated in 1908. In 1916, Agriculture, previously 
under the jurisdiction of the l\Iinister of Finance, became a Depart- 
ment ,vith a l\linister of its O\Vll. 
Legislative.-Unlike Quebec and Nova Scotia, British Columbia 
has a single chamber legislature, consisting of 47 members. The 
first ...\..ssenlbly after Confederation had 25 members, but redistribu- 
tion has been necessitated from time to time by increase of population, 
especially in the cities. Vancouver's representation has been in- 
crea:sed fronl 2 members in 1894 to 6 at present, elected at large. 
'Yictoria returns 4 members, while the other 36 ridings are one- 
member constituencies. The term of the Legislative Assembly, 
formerly four years, was increased to five years in 1913 by amendment 
to the Constitution Act. The sessional indemnity of members is 
$2,000, and an allo,vance of $2,000 is made to the recognized leader 
of the opposition in addition to his indemnity. The Speaker's 
additional allowance is $1,800, and that of the Deputy-Speaker $500. 
Judicial.- The courts of the Province in the order of authority 
are as follows: 
1. Court of Appeal, consisting of a Chief Justice and four puisne 
judges styled Justices of Appeal. The appellate jurisdiction of this Court 
is wide, covering appeals froln all jud
ments and orders of the Supreme 
Court, appeals from the County Courts, appeals from the opinion of 
a Judge of the Supreme Court on constitutional questions referred 
to him by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, etc. It is also the 
Court of Appeal for the Province in all criminal cases under the Crim- 
inal Code of Canada. 
2. The Supreme Court, consisting of a chief justice and five puisne 
judges. It has general jurisdiction throughout the Province as a 
superior Court of Record, and there are certain appeals under provin- 
ciallegislation .which are heard before it. I ts jurisdiction is exercisable 
by each individual judge as and for the Court. 
3. County Courts, of \vhich there are nine. These have jurisdic- 
tion in all personal actions .where the amount involved does not 
exceed $1,000; in actions of ejectment \vhere the value of the prem- 
ises does not exceed 
2,500; in equity cases where the amount involved 
does not exceed 52,500. They have wide jurisdiction under the 
provincial mining acts, and upon appeals from Small Debts Courts. 
The administration of crin1Ïnal justice is also largely in their handH. 
4. t;mall Debts ('10Uf'ts, \vith jurisdiction in personal actions up 
t<;> 
,lOO. They are pre:-3iùed over by judges appointed by the pro- 
VInCIal government. 
In addition to above Courts there ar
 many stipendiary magis- 
trates and justices of the peace, exercising a more or less limited 
jurisdiction under the Criminal Code of Canada as ,veIl as under the 
Sun11nary Convictions Act. 



BNITISI! COlA J[ /11.1 


1 


PoIicc.-l"nd(.r th{l 
\.tturney-UcIlt'ral arf\ tll(' Proyinrial Poliee, 
with J.!.eneral juri...dietioll, luaintaining: order in the unorg;anized 
di
trich" looking after the Indians, IpIHling a
..:i:-:taIH'(' to local author- 
itÎp
 in the pur
uit of criluinal
, and ('o-op('r:ltin
 ,,"hpn IH'cd ari
es 
,,,ith the Hoy:d Canadian :\[ounh.d Poli('('. rrh('f() arc the u
ual 
det 'ctive and L cOll:5tabulary for('ps lllaintaillcd hy the municipalitics. 
l\
riculture.-'Th(' DepartnH'llt of Agril'ulture is org'ulÏzed ,vith 
:llninbÜ'r, a dp}Hlty Iuinistt'r nnd vtlriou
 h('ad::; of branches, including 
a Ii, e '-tock ('on}lni

ionPf, proviucinl hurtieulturi:::;t, in:-\tructurs in 
poultry rai:,in
, in
p('ctor
 of fruit pe
t
, luark(.t (.Ollllllis....ioncr, Yctcr- 
inary in
p 'ctors, dairy conulli:-:...:ioner, plant pathologist, and soil and 
crop expcrt
. 
Land Settlement Board.-Thl' Land H('ttkuH'nt Bonn) 
('r('at('<1 in 191 ï, ha
 powpr to t akp oypr froIH the Cro\\ n and to acquire 
fraIl} private o""n('rs, pithpr uJ pureha!':) or cOlll})ul..:orily, land ,vithin 
thf\ f'rovinl'l) for agricultural purpu
l'
, to dcv(.lop 
uch land and erect 
huilding
 thereon and to 
ell or ll'a
e :,aid land:-:, ete. Loan
 Inay be 
luade for aCf}uiring lanù" for agricultural purposf'S, 
atisfaction of 
enClunoranrp:o: on :'
Ul1C, dl'arinJ!:, draininJ!" dykill
, ,vater :stura
e, 
irrigation ,,"ork:.;, prection of f:lrIll building..: purcha
' of live f'toek, ptc. 
Loan.... 11l1l"t be :-3ccllrcd by fir....t 1l1ortg:agc8 on survey'eI agricultural 
land
, and Blust not c"Xccûd GO Pl'f Cl:nt of the apprHi
l'd value of th(\ 
propf\rty ,,"ith :l IHinin1Uln of 
2.)O [lnd a Inaxinuull to anyone bor- 
ro,,"cr of 
10 000. Long daÜ'ù loans on al110rtizable plan Inay be for 
15, 20, or 25 years. Short datcd loanb, ::)trai
ht or aluortizahle, Inay 
be made for not lp:,
 thall :
 year
 and not nlorc than 10 ycar:-;, find 
Inu
t not c:\.('('pt! 
5,OOO to any individual, or ""10,000 to an a
..:o('iation. 
Lands.-rrhe ])q)artnlent of Lands i" undcr a nlÏnÎ::;tcr and 
deputy luinister, a 
urvpyor-gcneral, chief fore
ter, geographer, 
irri
ation 8up('ryi
(}r
, 
up('rint(\ndpnt of 
oldier
' S('ttI('lll('ut, and 
ot h(,1" official:-,. It Iuaintains a fore:,t prot(.('t ion 
prviee, ,,"ith a Rtaff 
of rangers to guard ag:ainst the dc::;truetion of timber hy fore
t firl,::;. 
Fronl tinle to tinlc ar('a
 have Le(\n "ithdrn,,-n fruln sale and f(>s('rved 
for pre-emption or hOH1(':-,tpad:--:. By kgi
lation of 1916, thp land
 
previou
ly 
old on d('fcrred paYIll('nts, on ,vhich unpaid anlounts 
relnained, reverted to the extent of the 
lmount unpaid for, and are hpld 
as homesten(b for return('d soldiers. {Tuder the provin{'ial rpturned 
soldiers' land ,('ttlf'nlent Fchclne various conce:s..:ions arc nlade to 
returned nlell taking up land, and thib, in ronjunetion ,,"ith the 
Don1Ïnion proyisions of a Iik(' nature, ha
 resulted in the succcfo':-,ful 
placen}('nt of many luen, 80111ctinles in colonies or groups (as at ::\Ierville 
and Creston) or indiyidually. Similarly, a large nUlnber of returned 
men have availed thelnselves of the advantages of the Better IIousing 
Act, 1919. 
Fisheries.-The adn1Ïnistration of the fb:heries is in the hands 
of the Conlnlissioner of Fisher' ;\"ho i:-, also 1Iinister of :i\Iines. 
Among other things the dep Dlent r

late
 the fish canneries, the 
inland fisherie
, and in c;.o ,-ratio 
 - 
i ) th the federal authorities 
-:/LIBRARY 

; 


" 
-1'1\ . ' <) 



42 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNl.IENT IN CANADA 


maintains stations and a staff for the study of the habits of fish, 
methods of propagation, preservation and protection. 
Education.-The Department of Education is under a Minister 
who is also Provincial Secretary. The Superintendent of Education 
has the rank of a deputy minister. Supervision is in the hands of 
t\VO high school inspectors, sixteen inspectors of schools, and one 
inspector of manual training schools. The system is non-sectarian. 
Attendance is compulsory froIn the age of 7 to 14. The provincial 
university was authorized by legislation in 1908, but was not opened 
until 1915. It confers degrees in Arts, Applied Science and Agricul- 
ture, and has po'wer to grant degrees in all branches except theology. 
Other educational institutions include two normal schools and 
over forty high schools. There are also night schools for instruction 
in academic and technical subjects. Manual training and household 
science departments are in operation in many high schools and elemen- 
tary schools. 
The maintenance of all city and town schools, and a large majority 
of the rural schools, is provided for by local or district assessment, 
supplemented by grants from the provincial treasury. Control of 
these schools is vested in the local authorities, subject to the regula- 
tions of the department. There are, however, in the more scattered 
districts, certain rural schools which are more directly under the 
control of the government. Cities and organized municipalities 
elect their boards by popular vote. These boards appoint municipal 
inspectors and other officers. 
Municipal G-overnment.-Local administration is at present 
based on the l\1unicipal Act and amending statutes, together with 
the Village Municipalities Act. Large powers of local self-govern- 
ment are conferred by the existing system. An urban municipality 
may be formed by a community of not less than 100 male British 
subjects, provided the owners of more than half of the land petition 
for it. District municipalities may be organized by 30 resident male 
British subjects of full age. Village municipalities may be formed by 
petition ",-here the number of residents does not exceed 1,000, but the 
provisions of the 1\1unicipal Act shall not apply thereto. The city 
organizations are of the same general type, differing only in details. 
In all, the chief executive officer is the mayor, and all have elective 
councils. 
The Municipal Act has provision for the Board of Control, hut 
neither this nor the COInmission system is in operation. All the 
larger cities have dropped the ward systeIn. Vancouver, the largest 
c>ity, has reduced its council to eight members. The municipal 
franchise for ordinary purposes is open to adult malp residents and to 
female householders and real estate o\yners. Only o\vncrs of rea] 
estate, male or female, may vote on m oney by-Ia\
rs. Such by-laws 
are r;ecessary for expenditures beyond the ordinary revenue, requiring 
the Issue of debentures. They require a three-fifths majority of the 
votes cast. 



BRITISII COLUltIBI.il 


43 


The chief executive of a district 1l1unicipality is the rceve. In 
D10St other respects the district municipality is similar to the city 
goverrunent. In cities, ,vith the exception f \T ancouver, the police 
are under the authority of a cOlumission, conlposcd of the nlayor and 
two members elected in the same Inanner and at the same time as 
the 11lnyor and alderlnen or councillors. V:lncouver's police commission 
is composed of three Inelnocrs, the lllayor and t\VO llleluLers appointcd 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, one of \VhOln nlust be a 
Dlemhpr of the city council. 
,rhile the general Illullicipal systenl i
 estahli
hed by comlnon 
legislation, several Inunicipalities have secured certain nlodifications 
by special pnactllll'nt. Each ha
 it
 o\vn systcln of a
seS::;Inent and 
taÀation. ""ane-ouver, for cx:unple, levie::; tnXC:i upon fifty per cent of 
the value of inlprovemcnts. 
Undcr the :\Iunicipal Cemetcries .\ct, 1921, Il1unicipalities are 
given power to estahlish ('elneteri(l::;, nUlu:..;oleUIl1S and ('rPIHa turiunu;. 
l\vo or lllore luunicipalities IlIUY act top;ethpr in the Blatter, \\ ith a 
joint board of control appointed by the re5pective councils. 
.\id i:; no\v givpn the InuniciJ>alitic
 frolIl the receipt
 frolil Govern- 
lllent sale of liquor, froBl rc('('ipts for Blotor lieen::;e
, and froln a 
ne\vly imposed tax on betting at rac 
 1l1ectings. The apportiOI1Illcnt 
of such nloncys is on a basi
 of population. 
Provincial Tax
s.-Rriti;..;h Cohunhia impù
(>
 direct taxation on 
its -natural resources. 1""he::;e taxes include 3 
nlall a:--s('s:--nlcnt on rpal 
and personal property, \vild land, timber and coal land, abo a grad- 
uated income t
xJ taxes on corporation
, 
ucce
sion dutil'
, and other 
licens;e fees. 


III.-CIIRO
OLOGICAL IIISTORY OF CANAD.\. 
1497 TO 1921. 


1497. June 24, Ea!'tern coast of Xorth 
America discovered by John 
Cabot. 
1498. Cabot discovers Hudson Strait. 
1501. Gaspar Corte Real visits 
ew- 
found land and Labrador. 
1524. Y crrazano ex-plores the coa
t of 
I X ova Scotia. 
1534. June 21, Landing of JacquC.::l 
Þ .<' Cartier at E:;quilnaux Bay. 
1535. Cartier's second voyage. He as- 
cends the St. Lawrence to :-5tada- 
cona (Quebec) (Rept. 14) and 
Jloche1aga C\Iontreal) (Oct. 2). 
1541. Cartier's third voyage. 
1542-3. De Roberval and his party 
winter at Cap Rouge, and are 
rescued by Cartier on his fourth 
voyage. 
1557. Bept. 1, Death of Cartier at St. 

lalo, France. 
1592. Straits of Juan de Fuca discovered 
hy de Fuca, 


1603. June 22, Champlain's fir
t landing 
in Canada, at Quebec. 
1ô05. Founding of Port Royal (Anna- 
poli
, 
 .S,). 
1608. Champlain's second visit. July 3, 
Founding of Quebec. 
1600. July, Champlain di:;covers Lake 
Champlain. 
1610-11. Hudson explores Hudson B'1Y 
and James Bay. 
lull. Brulé ascend
 the Ottawa River. 
1612. Oct. 15, Champlain made lieu- 
tenant-general of K ew France. 
ltH3. June, Champlain ascends the 
Ottawa Rivpr. 
1615. Champlain explores Lakes Kipis- 
sing, Huron and Ontario. (Dis- 
covered by Brulé and Le Caron). 
1616. First schooL" opened at Three 
Rivers and Tadous
ac, 
1620, Population of Quebec, (>0 persons. 


. 



44 


rHRO_VOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


1621. Code of laws is
ued, and register 
of births, deaths and marriages 
opened in Quebec. 
1622. Lake Superior discovered by Brulé. 
1623. First British settlement of Nova 
Scotia. 
1627. New France and Acadia granted 
to the Company of 100 Associat.es, 
1628. Port Royal taken by Sir David 
I{irke, 
1629. April 24, Treaty of Rusa between 
France and England. July 20, 
Quebec taken by Sir David 
lÚrke. 
1632, l\larch 29, Canada and Acadia 
restored to France by the Treaty 
of St. Germain-en-Laye. 
1633. l\1ay 23, Champlain made first 
governor of New France, 
1634. July 4, Foundation of Three 
Rivers. 
1634-35. Exploration of the Great Lakes 
hy Nicolet. 
1635. Dec. 25, Death of Champlain at 
Quebec. 
1636. March 10, De Montmagny ap- 
pointed governor, 
1638. June 11, First re('orded earth- 
quake in Canada. 
1640. Discovery of Lake Erie by Chau- 
monot and Brébeuf. 
1641. Resident population of New 
France, 240. 
1642. May 17, founding of Yille-Marie 
(l\1ontreal) . 
1646. Exploration of the Saguenay by 
Dablon, 
1647. Lake St. John discovered by 
de Quen. 
1648. l\Iarch 5, Council of New France 
created. Aug. 20, D' Aill<,boust 
de Coulonges J.?:overnor. 
1649, l\Iarch 16-17, J.\;Iurder of :Fathers 
Brébeuf and Lalemant bv In- 
dians, 
 
1651. Jan. 17, de Lauzon governor, 
1654, Aug., Acadia taken by an expe- 
dition from New England, 
1655, Nov. 3, Acadia restored to 
France by the Treaty of 'Yest- 
minster. 
1657. Jan. 26, Vicomte d' Argem
on gov- 
ernor. 
1659. June 16, François dè Laval 
arrives in Canada as Vicar- 
Apostolic. 
1660. May 21, Dollard des Ormeaux and 
sixteen companions killed at the 
Long Sault, Ottawa River, 
1661. Baron d'Avaugour governor. 
1663, Company of 100 Associates dis- 
solved, Feb. 5, severe earth- 


quake. April, Sovereign Council 
of New France established, May 
1, Saffray de l\lézy governor 7 
Population of New France 2,500. 
of whom 800 were in Quebec. 
1664. l\Iay, Company of the \Vest Indies 
founded. 
1665. March 23, de Courcelle governor. 
Population of New France, 3,215, 
1667. July 21, Acadia restored to France 
by the Treaty of Breda, 'Vhite 
population of New France, 3,918. 
1668. Mission at Sault Ste. Marie 
founded by l\larquette. 
1670. l\lay 13, charter of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 
1671. Population of Acadia, 441. 
1672. Population of New France, 6,705, 
April 6, Comte de Frontena(' 
governor. 
1673. June 13, Cataraqui (IGngston) 
founded. 
1674. Oct. 1, Laval becomes first Bishop 
of Quebec, 
1675. Population of New France, 7,832. 
1678. Niagara Falls visited by Hennepin. 
1679. Ship Le Griffon built on Niagara 
river above the Falls by La Salle. 
Population of New France, 9,400; 
of Acadia, 515. 
1682. May 
 ùe la Barre governor. 
Frontenac recalled. 
1683. Population of New France,10,251. 
1685. Jan. 1, l\1arquis de Denonville 
governor. Card money issued, 
1686, Population of New France, 12,373; 
of Acadia, 885. 
1687. March 18, La Salle assassinated, 
1689. June 7, Frontenac reappointed 
governor. Aug, 5, l\Iassacre of 
whites by Indians at Lachine, 
1690, May 21, Sir 'Villiam Phipp
 
captures Port Royal, but is 
repulsed in an attack on Quebec 
(Oct. 16-21). 
1691. Kelsey of the Hudson's Bay Co., 
reaches the Rocky J.\;Iountains, 
1ti92. Population of New France, 12,431. 
Oct. 22, Defence of VerchèreR 
against Indians by :\1agdeleine 
de Verchères, 
1693. Population of Acadia, 1,009. 
1697. Sept. 20, by the Treaty of Rys- 
wick, places taken during the 
war are mutually restored. 
D"lberville defeats the Hudson's 
Bay Co.'s ships on Hudson Bay. 
1698. Nov. 28, death of Frontenac. 
Population of New France, 15,355. 
1699. April 20, de Callière governor. 
1703. June 16, Sovereign Council of 
Canada becomes Superior Coun- 



(,1/flU' OLO ;IC lL II/STOHr' OF (,
L' AD t 


I,) 


cil and mpmbership increa
ed 
from 7 to 12. 
1703. ..\ug. 1, :\larquis d' Vauùrcuil 
p;ovcrnor. 
170(t Population of Xew Francc,16,417. 
170ft British inva
ion of Canada. 
1710. Oct. 13, Port Itoya! taken by 
Xicholson. 
1711. Sept. 1, Part of 
ir II. 'VaU"pr's 
fh'ct, proc('pding :1
3.i1I8t Quebec, 
wrecked off thp Seven blallcl
. 
1713. ..\pril 11, Treaty of V trecht. Huù- 
son Hay, .\cadia and l\pwfound- 
land ceded tv Great Britain. 
_\u
" J.,oui
hourg foundPtl hy tht' 
Freudl. Population of 1\ ('W 
FnuH'(" ] S, 1] 9. 
17:!0. Population of Sew Franc(',2-1.:!.H, 
of }",I(' 
t. .J('an \P.E,I.) ahout 
100. \pril 2.'j, Go\"prnor and 
COlllH'il of !\ova 
cotia ..lP- 
poinh'(1. 
1 7:! 1. J unp 1 H, hurninJZ: uf ahout one 
half of :\Iontr('al. 
17:!.j. Oct, 10, ùeath of Vauùreuil. 
17:W. Jl1I.lC 11, ...\Iarqui
 de Bcauhar- 
n01:-; p;ovprnor. 
1727. Population of l\'e\\ France,30,tH3, 
17:!8. Population of Isle St.Jean 
P.E,I.) 
330, 
1731. Population of the north of the 
peninsula. of Acaùia, 6,000. 
1734, Hoad openeù from Quchec to 
:\Iontrcal. Population of 1\e\\ 
};'rance, 37,716. 
1737. Iron smelted at Rt, 
Iauricf'. 
French population of th(' north 
of the.. \cadia. J)('ninsula, 7.fiHK. 
1739, Population of Xew France,42,701 
1745. June 17, taking of Loui
bourg by 
Peppcrell and 'Yarren. 
1747. :\Iarqui8 de La Jonquière ap- 
pointed J?;ovprnor, captured at 
sea by the English, took office 
.-\ug. 15, 1749. 
174&. Oct, 18, Treaty of Aix-Ia-C'hapelle. 
Loui
hourg re
tor('d to Frnnce in 
exchange for :\Iadras. 
1749. June 21, Founding of IIalifax. 
British immiJ?;rants brought to 
X ova Scotia by Governor Corn- 
wallis, 2..5-1-1 persons. Fort 
Rouillé (Toronto) built. 
1750. St. Paul's Church, Halifax (oldest 
Anglican church in Canada). built.. 
1752. :\Iarch 25, Issue of the Halifax 
"Gazette," first paper in Can- 
ada, British and German popu- 
lation of K ova Scotia, 4,203. 
:\Iay 17, Death of La Jonquière, 
July, :\Iarquis Duque
ne de 
If'n- 
neville governor, 


1754. Population of 
ew },""rance,55,U04.J. 
175,'). .July 10, :\larquis ùc Ynuùreuil- 
Ca.vaJ;?:l1'\1 
o\'ernor. 
ept. 10, 
I :
pul
ion of the ..\caùians from 

 \J'Pa, 
<,otia.. 
175ü. ":lr (H('ven Years') between 
Gn'at Britain and France. 
1758. Jul) :!û, Final capture of Louis- 
hourg by the Briti
h, 0<,1. 7, 
First nleetin
 of the Lcgislature 
of 1\ov3 S<,otia, 
I7:>U. July 25, Takin
 of Fort 
iagara 
hy the British. July 2t>, Jk
in- 
niuJ!: of the Siegt' of QU('hl'('. .July 
31, French victor) at Bt':mport 
Flat
. :-:ept. 1:
, J)t'ft'at of the 
l'rpneh on the Plain
 of \braham, 
j)pat h of \\
o1f('. 
(pt. 14, Dt'ath 
of :\lontealm. 
l'pt. 1
, 
ur- 
rl'I1IIt'1' of <llll.lw(', 
17üO. _\pril 2ð, \ iC'tory of the French 
undl'r Levi
 at Stp. Foy. 
('pt. 8, 
Surrender of l\Iontreal. l\lilitary 
rule 
et up in Canada. Popula- 
tion of Xe\\" Franc(', 70,000. 
17ô2. Briti
h population of Xo\'a Sco- 
tia, 
,101. Firðt Briti:.;h 
l'ttIe- 
mt'nt in K c\\ Brunf'wick. 
17tj3. Fpb. 10, Tn'aty of Paris by which 
Canada llnd its dependencies ar(' 
ceded to the llritish. l\Iay, 
H.binp; of Indians under PontiaC', 
who take no number of fort., and 
defeat the British at Bloody Run 
(July 31). Oct. 7, Civil govern- 
ment prodaimed. Cape Breton 
and 1:-:1(' St. Jean annexcd to 
.xova Scotia.; I.ahrador, Anti- 
costi and 
Iap;dalen I :.;lands to 
Newfoundland. r\ov. 21, G('neral 
Jas. :\Iurray appointed JZ:overnor 
in chief. Fir
t Canaùian post 
offices established at l\Iontreal, 
Three Rivers and Quebec. 
1764. June 21, First issue of the Que- 
bec "Gazette." Aug. 13, Civil 
governmen t e
t ablished. 
17û5. Publication of the first book 
printpd in Canada, "Catéchi
me 
du Diocè
e de Sens." May IS, 
:\Iontreal nearly dc
troycd by 
fire. Populn.tion of Canada, 69,- 

10, 
1766. July 24, Peace made with Pontiac 
at Oswego. 
176R. Charlottetown, P,E.I., founded. 

\pril 11, Great fire at 1fontreal. 
April 12, Sir Guy Carleton (Lord 
Dorchester) governor in chief. 
1769. I
le 
t. Jean (Prince Edward 
Island) separated from Nova 
Rcotia, with governor and council. 



46 


CHRONOWGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


1770-72. Hearne's journey to the Cop- 
permine and Slave Rivers and 
Great' Slave Lake. 
1773. Suppression of the order of Jesuits 
in Canada and escheat of their 
estates. 
1774. June 22, The Quebec Act passed. 
1775. May 1, The Quebec Act comes 
into force. Outbreak of the 
American Revolution. Mont- 
gomery and Arnold invade Can- 
ada. Nov. 12, Montgomery 
takes Montreal; Dec. 31, is 
defeated and killed in an attack 
on Quebec. 
1776. The Americans are defeated and 
driven from Canada by Carleton. 
1777. Sept. 18, General Frederick Haldi- 
mand governor in chief. 
1778. Captain Jas. Cook explores Noot- 
ka Sound and claims the north.. 
west coast of America for Great 
Britain. June 3, First issue of 
the J\.lontreal "Gazette," 
1783. Sept, 3, Treaty of Versailles, 
recognizin
 the independence of 
the United States. Organization 
of the Northwest Company at 
Montreal. Kingston, Ont., and 
St. John, N,B., founded by 
United Empire Loyalists. 
1784. Population of Canada, 113,012. 
United Empire Loyalists settle in 
Upper Canada and found Fred- 
ericton, N.D. Aug. 16, New 
Brunswick and (Aug. 26) Cape 
Breton separated from Nova 
Scotia. 
1785. 11:ay 18, Incorporation of Parr- 
town (St. John, N.D.). 
1786. April 22, Lord Dorchester gover- 
nor in chief. Oct. 23, Govern.. 
ment of New Brunswick moved 
from St. John to Fredericton. 
1787. C, Inglis appointed Anglican 
bishop of Nova Scotia-first col- 
onial bishopric in the British 
Empire. 
1788. King's College, Windsor, N,S., 
opened, Sailing packet service 
established between Great Brit- 
ain and Halifax. 
1789. Quebec and Halifax Agricultural 
Societies established. 
1790, Spain surrenders her exclusive 
rights on the Pacific coast. Popu- 
lation of Canada, 161,311. (This 
census does not include what 
becomes in the next year Upper 
Canada. ) 
1791. The Constitutional Act divides 
the province of Quebec into 


Upper and Lower Canada, each 
with a lieutenant-governor and 
legislature. The Act goes into 
force Dec. 26. Sept. 12, Colonel 
J. G. Simcoe, lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Upper Canada. 
1792. July 8, Simcoe sworn in at I{ing.. 
ston, Sept. 17, First legislature 
of Upper Canada opened at 
Newark (Niagara). Dec. 17, 
First legislature of Lower Can- 
ada opened at Quebec. Vancou- 
ver Island circumnavigated by 
Vancouver. 
1793. April 18, First issue of the "Upper 
Canada Gazette." June 28, 
Jacob Mountain appointed first 
Anglican bishop of Quebec. July 
9, Importation of slaves into 
Upper Canada forbidden. Rocky 
Mountains crossed by (Sir) Alex- 
ander Mackenzie. York (Toron- 
to) founded by Simcoe. 
1794. Nov. 19, Jay's Treaty between 
Great Britain and the United 
States. 
1795. Pacific Coast of Canada finally 
given up by the Spaniards. 
1796. Dec, 15, General Robert Prescott 
governor in chief. Government 
of Upper Canada moved from 
Niagara to York (Toronto). 
1798. St. John's Island (population 
4,500) re-named Prince Edward 
Island. 
1799. April 10, Lieut.-General Peter 
Hunter lieutenant-governor of 
Upper Canada. 
1800. Foundation of New Brunswick 
College, Fredericton (now Uni- 
versity of N,B.). The Rocky 
Mountains crossed by David 
Thompson. 
1803. Settlers sent by Lord Selkirk to 
Prince Edward Island. 
1806. Jan. 22, Francis Gore, lieut,. 
governor of Upper Canada. 
N ov. 22, Issue of "Le Canadien" 
-first wholly French newspaper. 
Population - Upper Canada, 
70,718; Lower Canada, 250,000; 
New Brunswick, 35,000; P .E.!., 
9,676. 
1807. Aug. 29, Sir James Craig gover- 
nor in chief. Simon Fraser 
explores the Fraser River. Esti- 
mated population of Nova Scotia, 
65,000. 
1809. Nov. 4, First Canadian steamer 
runs from 110ntreal to Quebec. 
1811. Lord Selkirk's Red River Settle. 
ment on land granted by the 



CIIRO.VOWGIC tL IIISTORY OF CA.V..4.DA. 


47 


Hud::,on's Bay Company. Oct_ 
21, Bir George Prevo
t governor 
in chief. 
1812, June IS, Declaration of 'Yar by 
the rnited Statf'::::. July 12, 
Americans under Hull cross the 
Detroit Riyer. Au
, 1(), Detroit 
surrendered by Hull to Brock. 
Oct. 13, Defeat of t he American
 
at Qucenston IIei
hts and death 
of Gell. Brock. 
1813. Jan, 22, British virtory at French- 
to\\ n, April 27, \ ork (Toronto) 
taken 3.I1d burned by the .Anwri- 
can
. June 5, British victory at 
Stoney Creek. June 24, Briti:--h, 
v.arned by Laura Secord, captured 
an American forrc at Beaver 
Dams. Sept. 10, Commodore Per- 
ry de
troys the British flotiJIa on 
lake Erie. Oct. 5, American
 un- 
der H:nrison d('feat the llriti:,h at 
l\loraviant.o\\ n. Tecum
eh killed. 
Oct. 26, Yictory of Frenrh-Cana- 
dian troops under de Salaberry 
at Chateauguay. 
ov. 11, 
l)('feat of the .\.meri('an
 at 
Crysler's Farm. Briti
h storm 
Fort :Kiagara. :md burn Buffalo. 
1814. l\Iarch 30, \.merirans repuL"ed at 
La. Colle, 
Iay t), Capture of 
O
w('go by the Brit i
}}. July 5, 
American victory at Chippawa. 
July 2;), Briti
h victory at Lun- 
dy's Lane, July, Britibh from 
Xova Scotia invade and occupy 
Nort.hern :\Iaine. Sf'pt. 11, 
Briti:-:h defeat. at Platt
hl1rg on 
lake Champlain. Dec. 24, 
Treatv of Ghent ends the \\ar. 
Popufation - rpppr Canada, 
95,000; Lower Cannda, 335,000. 
1815. July 3, Treaty of London regu- 
lates trade with the rnited 
Rtate
. The Red River 
ettlc- 
ment destroyed by the !\orth- 
we
t Company but re'5tored by 
Governor Semple. 
1816. 
Iar. 25, Sir John Sherbrooke 
governor in chief. June 19, 
Governor Semple kilkd. The 
Red River Settlement again 
dest.royed. 
1817. July 18, First treaty with the 
K orthwest Indians. Lord Sel- 
kirk restores the Red River Set- 
tlement. Opening of the Bank of 

lontreal; first note issued Oct. 
1, Population of Nova Scotia, 
81,351. 
1818. Jan. 6, 
Iajor-General Sir Pere- 
grine 
laitland lieutenant-gov- 


ernor of Upp('r Canada. 1Iay 8, 
t he Duke of Richmond governor 
in chief. O('t. 20, Convpntion at 
London regulating North ..\meri- 
C:ln ti:,heril'
. Dalhou
ie College, 
Halifa
, founded. Bank of 
Quebec foundc-d. 
1819. AUJ!:, 28, Death of the Duke of 
Ri('hmond, 
1
19-2
. Franklin's overland Arctic ex- 
pedit ion. 
Ib:.?O. April 12, The Earl of Dalhou!'ie 

ovcrnor in chief. Oct. 16, 
Cape Breton re-annexed to Nova 

('oti'\. 
1
21. ::\I:treh 2ô, Tl)(
 :Korth\\ ('
t Com- 
pany .lh:-:orbed by the IIud:..:on's 
Bay Company. Charter given 
to l\IcGill Collcge. 
1h22. PopulatIon of Lower Canada, 
427,4t)3. 
1824. Population of Upper Canada, 
150,006; of New Brunswick, 
74,17(). 
Ih:25. Oct, fi, (:r<>at fire in the l\Iira- 
rnichi di:4rict I X.B. Opening of 
the L:l('hinc ('anal. Population 
of Lower Canada, 47!),2S
. 
lS2û. Founding of By town (Ottawa). 
1
27. 
l'pt. 
N, Convpntion of London 
rclatin
 to the territory west of 
the Uo('ky mountain
, Popula- 
tion of 1\o,,-a Scotia, including 
Cape Hrpton, 123,û30. 
Ib:!b. Aug. 23, r..Iajor-General Sir John 
Colborne lieutenant-governor 
of tTpper Canada. The 1\Ietho- 
dist Church of t:ppcr Canada 

eparated from that of the 
"Vnitcd 
tat.es. 
Ib29. Nov. 27, First ""clland Canal 
opened. Upper Canada College 
founth-d. 
1830. Nov. 24, Lord Aylmer governor 
in chief. 
1831. June 1, The Korth l\lagnetic Pole 
di
('over('d by (Bir) James Ross. 
Population - rpper Canada, 
236,702; Lower Canada, 553,131; 
A
:--iniboia, 2,390. 
1832. Out.break of cholera in Canada. 
Incorporation of Quebec and 
!\Iontreal. Bank of Kova Scotia 
founded. 
Iay 30, Opening of 
the Rideau Canal. 
1833. Aug, 18, The Steamer Royal Tfil- 
liam, built at Quebec, leaves 
Pictou for England. 
1834. Feh. 21, The Kinety-two Resolu- 
tions on public grievances passed 
by the A

embly of Lower Can- 
ada. 1Iar. 6, Incorporation of 



48 


CHROJ.VOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


Toronto, Population of Upper 
Canada, 321,145; of New Bruns- 
wick, 119,457; of Assiniboia, 
3,356. 
1835. July 1, Lord Gosford governor 
in chief. Nov. 30, Sir Francis 
Bond Head lieutenant-governor 
of Upper Canada. 
1836. July 21, Opening of the first rail- 
way in Canada from Laprairie to 
St, John's, Que. Victoria Uni- 
versity opened at Cobourg (after- 
wards moved to Toronto). 
1837. Report of the Canada Commis- 
sioners. Rpbellions in Lower 
Canada (Papineau) and Upper 
Canada ny. L. l\lackenzie). Nov. 
23, Gas lighting first used in 
::Vlontreal. Dec, 22, l\lajor- 
General Sir G, Arthur lieuten- 
ant-governor of Upper Canada. 
1838. Feb. 10, Constitution of Lower 
Canada suspended, and Special 
Council creatf)d. March 30, The 
Earl of Durham governor in 
chief. Aprjl 27, l\Iartial law 
revoked, June 28, Amnpsty to 
political prisoners proclaimed. 
Nov. 1, I.Jord Durham, censured 
by British parliament, resigns. 
Dec. 13, Sir John Colborne 
governor in chief. Population- 
Upper Canada, 399,422; Assini- 
boia, 3,966; Nova Scotia, 202,- 
575. 
1839. Feb. 11, Lord Durham's report 
submitted to parliament, Sept, 
6, C. Poulett Thomson (Lord 
Sydenham) governor in chief. 
John Strachan made first Angli- 
can bishop of Toronto. 
1840. July 23, Passing of the Act of 
Union. First ship of the Cunard 
line arrives at Halifax. July 28, 
death of Lord Durham. 
1841. Feb, 10, Union of the two prov- 
inces as the province of Canada, 
with Kingston as capital. Feb. 
13, Draper-Ogdpn administra- 
tion. April 10, Halifax incorpor- 
ated. June 13, meeting of first 
united Parliament. Sept. 19, 
Death of Lord Sydenham. Oct. 
7, Sir Charles Bagot governor in 
chief. Population of U pppr 
Canada, 455,688; of P.E,I., 
47,042. 
1842. March 10, Opening of Queen's 
University, I(ingston, Aug, 9, 
The Ashburton Treaty, Sept, 16, 
Baldwin-La Fontaine adminis- 
tration. 


1843. Feb. 24, Sir Charles Metcalfe 
governor in chief. June 4, 
Victoria, B,C., founded. Dec. 12, 
Draper- Viger adminstration. 
I{ing's (now University) College, 
Toronto, opened. 
1844. l\lay 10, Capital moved from 
Kingston to Montreal. Knox 
College, Toronto, founded, Popu- 
lation of Lower Canada, 697,084. 
1845. l\Iay 28 and June 28, Great fires 
at Quebec. Franklin starts on 
his last Arctic expedition, 
1846. March 16, Earl Cathcart gover- 
nor in chief. 11ay 18, I{ingston 
incorporated, June 15, Oregon 
Boundary Treaty. June 18, 
Draper-Papineau administration. 
Oct. 1, The Earl of Elgin gover- 
nor in chief. 
1847. May 29, Sherwood-Papineau ad- 
ministration. Electric telegraph 
opened: Aug. 3, l\1:ontreal to 
Toronto; Oct. 2, Montreal to 
Quebec. Nov. 25, Montreal- 
Lachine railway opened. 
1848. March 11, La Fontaine-Baldwin 
administration. May 30, Fred- 
ericton incorporated. Respon- 
sible government granted to 
N ova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
1849. April 25, Signing of the Rebellion 
Losses Act, rioting in Montreal 
and burning of the Parliament 
buildings. Nov. 14, Toronto 
made the Capital. Vancouver 
Island granted to the Hudson's 
Bay Company. Population of 
Assiniboia, 5,391. 
1851. April 6, Transfer of the postal 
system from the British to the 
Provincial Government; uniform 
rate of postage introduced. April 
23, Postage stamps issued. Aug. 
2, Incorporation of Trinity Col- 
lege, Toronto. Sept, 22, Quebec 
becomes the Capital. Oct. 28, 
Hincks- Morin administra tion. 
Responsible government granted 
to Prince Edward Island. 
Population - Upper Canada, 
952,004; Lower Canada,890,261; 
New Brunswick, 193,800; Nova 
Scotia, 276,854. 
lRf>2, July 8, Great fire at Montreal. 
Dec. 8, Laval University,Quebec, 
opened. The Grand Trunk rail- 
way chartered. 
lR,54. .June 5, Reciprocity Treaty with 
the United States. Sept. 11, 
Macnab-Morin ministry. Sppt. 
20, Sir Edmund "T. Head 



('lIRO.\ULOG/r tL llISTORI. OF (' LYAJ)"t 


1
 


f!;overno
 in rhief. Seigncurial 
tenure In Lower Canada. ahol- 
ished. 
ecularization of the 
clergy re
erves. 
18.3,). Jan. 
1, Incorporation of Ottawa. 
Jan. 27, 'Iarnab- Taché admin- 
j'4ration. :\larrh 9, ()penin
 of 
the 1\ iagara. Hl
pcn8ion hridge. 
,,\pril 17, Incorporation of Ch:t,r- 
lottetowll. Oct. 20, Govern- 
ment moved to Toronto. 
IS.36. Thc Lcgi:-:lativc Council of Can- 
ada is maùe ell'C,ti,.c. First 
meeting of the Legislature of 
V anCO\l vcr Island. :\lu) 
-l, 
Tachp-J. .:\. l\lacdonald admin- 
istration, Oct. '27. Opening of 
the Grand Trunk r.lÏlwav from 
::\Iontreal to Toronto. Popula- 
tion ùf \;,sinihoi.t, 6,mn. 
1857. 
ov. 26, J. A. 
lncdonald-Cartier 
administration. Dec. 31, Ottawa 
chosen by Queen Yietoria. as 
future capital of Canaùa. 
1858. J'cb., Di
covery of gold in Frar.,er 
River vnlley. Julv 1, Intro- 
duction of Canadian decimal 
currency. Aug. 2, Bro\\ n-Dorion 
administration. Aug. 5, Com- 
pletion of the ..\tlantic cahle; 
first me
sage sent. Au
. 6, 
Cartier-J,A. !\Iacdonald admin- 
istration. Aug. 20, Colony of 
Briti
h Columbia estahlished. 
Control of Vancouver l=",Jand 
surrendl'red by the Hud
on's 
Bay Company. 
1859. Jan., Canadian silver coinage 
i:,,
ued. 
ept. 24, Government 
moved to Quebec. 
1860. Aug. 8, The Prince of "
ales 
(King Edward VII) arrivps at 
Quebec. Sept. 1, Laying of the 
corner stone of the Parliament 
buildings at Ottawa by the Prince 
of \Vales. Prince of 'Yales 
College, Charlottetown, founded. 
1861. Aug. 14, Great flood at 
Iontreal. 
Sept, 10, !\leeting of the first 
Anglican provincial synod. Nov. 
2, Viscount l\IOllCk governor in 
chief. Population-L pper Can- 
ada, 1,396,091; Lower Canada, 
1,111,566; New Brunswick, 252,- 
047; K ova Scotia,330,857; Prince 
Edward Island, 80,857. 
1862. l\Iay 24, Sandfield :\Iacdonald- 
Sicotte administration. Aug. 2, 
Victoria, B.C., incorporated. 
1863. l\fay 16, Sandfield 
Iacdonald- 
Dorion admini
tration. 
38131-4 


1864. :\Iarch 30, Tn.ché-J. \. :\hH'donnld 
administr:ltion. Couf('renees on 
confederation of Britif'h l\orth 
Aml'rira; Sept. 1, at ('hnrlotte- 
to\\I.l; Oct. 10-29, at (luehec. 
Oct. 19, Haid of ..\merican Con- 
federates from Canada on Bt. 
Albans, Vermont. 
l
ô5. Feb. 3, The Canadian L
gislature 
resolves on an addre
s to the 
Quc
n prayinp: for union of the 
provinces of British 
orth 

merica. Aug, 7. Bellcau-J. A. 
:\Iacdonald administration. Oct. 
20, Proclamation fixing th,- scat 
of government at Ott:l\\ a. 
18üG, :\Iar. 17, Termination of th
 
l{e("iprocity Treaty by the rnited 

tates. .i\lav :U. Raid of 
Fenian
 from'" the Cnitf'(l 
tates 
into Canada; they are defeat ed 
at Ridgeway (Junp 2) and retreat 
acro&! the hordC'r (June' 3). 
June 8, }1'irst nH'ctin(1; at OUa\\ a 
of the Canadian I J('gi:-:la ture. 
Xov. 17, Proclamation of the 
union of Vancouyer bland to 
Brit i:-,h ('olumbia. 
ISb7, ::\Iar(.h 2f), Hoyal a

('nt fl:ivcn to 
t he British Ì\orth America \ct. 
.July 1, The \ct eOllWS into force; 
(;nion of the Provincps of 
Canada. Xo\"a f'('oti:1. und Kew 
Brun:-:wiC'k as the Dominion of 
Canad:\; rpper and Lower 
Canada nlade :-,C'par'lte provinces 
a:-: Ontario and Quebec; \Ï!'count 
:\IODrk fu
t J!;overnor-J!:eneral, 

ir John ,,\, l\IaC'donald prC'mirr, 
Xov. 6, 
Ieptin(1; of the fin;t 
Dominion Parliament 
l
tig. \pril 7, l\lunler of ])' .\rcy ::\IrGee 
at Ottawa, Julv 31, Thp Rupert's 
Land .Act authorize:, thc [lcqui- 
:-:ition by the Dominion of the 

orthwe:-:t Tprritories, Dt
c. 2U, 
Sir John Young (Lord Ij:-;gar) 
governor-general. 
1869. June 
2, Act providin
 for the 
government of the Xorth'\\' est 
1'f'rritories. Xov. 19, Deed of 
surrender to the Crown of the 
Hudson'H Bay Company's terri- 
torial rights in the Korthwe
t. 
Out break of the Red River 
Rebellion under Riel. 
1870, l\lay 12, Act to cstablio;;h the 
province of ::\Ianitoba. July 15. 
Korthwest Territorips transferred 
to the Dominion and :\lanitoba 
admitted into Confedpration. 
Rent. 24, W obelev's expedition 



50 


CHRONOWGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


reaches Fort Garry (Winnipeg); 
end of the rebellion, 
1871. April 2, First Dominion census 
(populations at this and succeed- 
ing enumerations given in tabular 
form on page 97). April 14, Act 
{':-;tablishing uniform currency in 
t he Dominion, l\Iay 8, Treaty of 
\Vat-:hington, dealing with ques- 
tions outstanding between the 
1
nited KingdOln and rnited 

tates. July 20, British Colum- 
bia enters Confederation, 
1872. l\Iay 22, The Earl of Dufferin 
governor-general. 
1873. I\Iarch 5, Opening of the second 
Dominion Parliament, I\Iay 23, 
Act establishing the Northwest 
l\-founted Police, July 1, Prince 
Edward Island enters Confedera- 
tion. Nov, 7, Alexander Mac- 
kenzie premier. N ov. 8, Incor- 
poration of "Vinnipeg, 
1874. March 26, Opening of the third 
Dominion Parliament. l\rlay, 
Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph, opened, 
1875. April 8, The Northwest Terri- 
tories Act establishes a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor and Council of 
the Korthwest Territories. June 
15, Formation of the Presby- 
terian Church of Canada. 
1876. June 1, Opening of the Royal 
Military College, Kingston. June 
5, First sitting of the Supreme 
Court of Canada. July 3, Open- 
ing of the Intercolonial Railway 
from Quebec to Halifax. 
1877. June 20, Great fire at St, John, 
N,B. Oct., First exportation of 
wheat from Manitoba to the 
United IGngdom, Founding of 
the University of Manitoba, 
1878. July 1, Canada joins the Inter- 
national Postal Union. Oct. 5, 
The Marquis of Lorne governor- 
general. Oct. 17, Sir J. A, l\'1ac- 
donald premier. 
1879. Feb. 13, Opening of the fourth 
Dominion Parliament. l\lay 15, 
Adoption of a protective tariff 
("The National Policy"), 
1880. Royal Canadian Academy of Arts 
founded, first meeting and exhi- 
bition, March 6. May 11, Sir 
A. T. Galt appointed first Cana- 
dian high commissioner in Lon- 
don. Sept, 1, All British posses- 

ion" in North America and 
adjacent islands, except New- 
foundland and its dependencies, 
annexed to Canada by Imperial 


Order in Council of July 31. Oct. 
21, Signing of the contract for 
the construction of the Canadian 
Pacific railway. 
1881. April 4, Second Dominion census. 
lVlay 2, First sod turned of the 
Canadian Pacific railway. 
1
82. J\.Iay 8, Provisional Districts of 
Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Atha- 
basca and Alberta formed. May 
25, First meeting of the Royal 
Society of Canada, Aug. 23, 
Regina established as seat of 
government of Northwest Terri- 
tories. 
1883, Feb. 1, Opening of the fifth Dom- 
inion Parliament. Aug. 18, 
The Marquis of Lansdowne 
governor-general. Sept. 5, Form- 
ation of the Methodist Church 
in Canada; United Conference. 
1884. l\rlay 24, Sir Charles Tupper high 
commissioner in London. Aug. 
11, Order in Council settling the 
boundary of Ontario and Mani- 
toba, 
 
1885, l\Iarch 26, Outbreak of Riel's 
second rebellion in the N orth- 
west, April 24, Engagement at 
Fish Creek. May 2 Engage- 
ment at Cut Knife. l\:Iay 12, 
Taking of Batoche. 1\Iay 16, 
Surrender of Riel. Aug. 24, 
First census of the Northwest 
Territories. Nov. 16, Execution 
of Riel. 
1886, April 6, Incorporation of Van- 
couver. June 7, Archbishop Tas- 
chereau of Quebec made first 
Canadian cardinal. .June 13, 
Vancouver destroyed by fire. 
June 28, First through train on 
the Canadian Pacific railway 
from :I\lontreal to Vancouver. 
July 31, First quinquennial cen- 
sus of l\'1anitoba. 
1887. Interprovincial Conference at 
Quebec. April 4, First Inter- 
colonial Conference in London. 
April 13, Opening of the sixth 
Dominion Parliament, 
1888, Feb, 15, Signing of Fishery 
Treaty between United IGngdom 
and United States at \fashington. 
l\lay 1, Lord Stanley governor- 
general. Aug" Rejection of 
Fishery Treaty by United States 
Renate. 
1890. March 31, The l\Ianitoba School 
Act abolishes separate schools. 
1891. April 5, Third Dominion census. 
April 29, Opening of the seventh 



tï/J(().\U}j}(r!('AI I/IS7'()f.(}- or ('.1.\.1/).1 


51 


I }orninion Parliaml'nt, .1\1np fi, 
Dpat h of 
ir J. .\, 
[a('dona1d 
June I."), Sir .John 
\hhot t pr('lllit'I. 
I
H:!. Fch, :!H, \\ ashinJ!;toll Trcaty, pro- 
\-idinh for arhitrat ion of the 
Behring Sl'Ll 
('al I ï
h('rj('
 qu(':-;- 
t ion. .ruly :!:!. BoulHbrv con- 
Y('nt ion hi-twepn Canada :
nd the 
Cnitt'd 
t aft':" 1\ov, 
:j, 
ir 
John Thomp:-:on prclIlit'r. 
1
93. 
\priI4, First :,itting of the fl{'hrinJ!: 
:-\pa \rhitration Court. .:\[ay 
:!, 
l1t(' Earl of 4\bcrùèen go\"('rnor- 
J!:t'n('raI. })pe. 18, .\I"I'hhi::;hop 

Ia.chray, of Rupert's Land, 
t'lcett.d tir
1 \ngli('an primatt' of 
all Canada.. 
1

.-t. Jurw :!S, Colonial Conff'r('nC'c at 
Ottawa. Ð('c, 12, Death of Sir 
John Thompson at \\Ïnd:-:or 
Ca::;th'. I>ec, 21, (Sir) .:\Iackenzit' 
Bowell pn\mipr. 
1b
I,j. 
t'pt. IO,Op('ning of nc" 
au1t Stc. 

Iarie ca.na.l. Oct. 2, }'roclama- 
t ion na.ming the engava, Frank- 
lin, l\lackenzie and Yukon nis- 
t ri('(
 of "'\ort Irwp:--t Territorif'
, 
1f..!l6. .\pril 24, 
ir })onald 
mit h (Lortl 

trathcona \ high commissioner 
in London. 
\pril 27, 
ir Charlt':-: 
Tupppr premit'r. July 11, (
ir) 
\\ïlfritl Laurit'r prC'mi('r. ...\ug" 
Uold di
cOVPf(.tI ill the Klon(h-kp. 
.\ug, 19, Openin
 of the ei
hth 
Dominion Parlian)pnt. 
If..97, .July, Third Colonial Confprf'ncp 
in London_ Dec. 17, \.\\'ard of 
t}w Bl'hring HC'a. 
\rhitration, 
l
tt
. June 1:
. Thp Yukon Di..;trict 
(.:--tabli:-;hpd as n f-,f'paratp tf'rri- 
tor\" hv .\et of ParlinIlH'nt. 
.Jul
' 3U: Th{' Earl of 
lintü gov- 
pl'w'r-gt'npral. ...\ug, 1, Thp Brit- 
i
h Pn'frr(>ntial Tariff of Canada. 
g;op:, into forct'. Aug, 2
, ::\Ipf't- 
ing at Quehec of t}w Joint Hil!;h 
Commi:-::-:ion for the spUlpllwnt of 
que....t ions brtw('PIl Canada and 
the rnitcd Statp!,:. Dec. 25, 
Briti
h Imperial Penny (2 cent) 
Po
tag(' introduced, 
1 
!}!}. O...t. 11, BC'ginninJ:?; of thC' Routh 
African \\ ar. Oct. 14, Canadian 
Governmen1 decides to send 
troops to South Africa. Oct. 29, 
Fir
t Canadian rontingent leav('
 
Quehcc for ðouth .\fric
l. 
H
OO, Fpb, 27, Battle of Paardeberg. 
April 2ô, Grcat fire at Ottawa and 
Hull. 
1901. Jan. 22, D{'ath of Queen Yictoria 
and accession of I\:ing Edward 
VII. :Feb, 6, Opening of the 
3g131-4! 


1 
.O:.!, 


lU03, 


lÛ04. 


I no:;. 


19ÛU. 


IÛ07. 


190
. 


nint h Dominion Parlinmf'nt. 
April 1, Cl'n
u
 of the Brit i:-:h 
J.:mpirc, total population, 3H7,- 
ü:m,:uß; Canada (Fourth Do- 
minion (.t.'nbll
), TJ,371,315. 
ept. 
U).-Úd, 
1, \ï:-,it to Canada. of 
t he Duke and Durhp1"s of Corn- 
wall HIul Y ol'k th.ing George V 
and QUt'('n ::\Iary). 
l\Iay 31, End of Houth Afri('an 
\\ ar, pl'acc :-:iJ!:Jwd at , p}'t'l'uil!inJ!:. 
.June 30, :i\Ie'ting of fourth 
('olonial Conft'rpIl('c in J ondon, 
Ja.n, 2-t, I"\igning of th(' Ala
k:1. 
Buundary ('onvl'ntion. June In, 
Incorporation of Hf'gina. Oct. 
20, Award of thf' .\hl
kan Buund- 
ary ConHni
.-:ion. 
}<'eb. 1, Dominion H,ailwa
" Com- 
mi:-:
ion pstahli:..;lu'd under tl1<' 
Hailwu
" Act of H)03, \pril 19, 
(;reat fin' in Toronto. 8<,p1. 2G, 
Earl C:rcy governor- general. Oct, 
8, In('orporation of Edmonton. 
Jan. II, Openin
 of th{' tenth 
Dominion Parliament. Scpt. 1, 
Creation of the provinces of 
.6\l1wrta. and Sa:-.katehcwnn, 
rlliversitv of AIl)('rta. foun({('d. 
Oct. 
, '1 nh'rprovin('ial Confer- 
pn Cp a. t Ott a \\ a, 
:\Iarch 22, Industrial Disputes 
Inve4igation Act pas
cd, .6\pril 
15-:\lay 14. Fifth Colonial Con- 
ferenl'e in London. Adjustment 
of Parliamentary representation 
in Saskatchewan and 
\lberta. 
X ew ('u
toms Tariff including 
introduction of Int('rm('diate 
Tariff. \u
. 29, Collap:-:p of 
Q\lt'bec Bridge. Sf'pt. 19, np\\" 
( 'ommpf('ial Con\ en tion wit h 
France signed at Paris. Oct. 17, 
Fir:-:t mc::;sage by wif('l('
s tel('- 
graphy hetwcen Canada. and the 
Unitpd I\:ingclom. tPniversity of 
Saskatchewan founded. 
Jan, 2, E
tah}ishment of Ottawa 
branch of Royal l\lint. April 11, 
Arbitration trcatv between 
rnited }{ingùom 'and Unitprl 
States. l\Iay 4, Ratification of 
Trcaty for dpmarcation of bound- 
ary betwcen Canada and (Tnited 
States, June 21-23, Bic'ent('nary 
of Bishop Laval cplebrated at 
Quebec. July 20-31, Quebec 
tercpntenary cclphrations: visit 
to Quebcc of Prince of Wales, 
representing thp King. Aug. 2, 
Great fire in Kootenay V allp
t', 
B.C. Universitv of British 
Columbia founded. 



52 


CHROIVOLOGICAI.J HISTORY OF CANADA 


1909. Jan. 11, Signing of International 
Boundary \tVaters Convention 
between Canada and United 
States. Jan. 20, opening of 11th 
Dominion Parliament. Jan. 27, 
Agreement between United I{ing- 
dOln and United States to submit 
North Atlantic Coast Fisheri{'s 
question to the Hague Tribunal. 
.J\tlay 19, Appointment of Cana- 
dian Comn1Ïssion of Conservation. 
July 28, Conference on Imperial 
Defence in London. 
1910. Feb. 1, Ratification of Commer- 
cial Treaty with France. Feb. 1, 
International Opium Commis- 
sion met at Shanghai. May 4, 
Passing of Naval Service Bill, 
May 6, Death of King Edward 
VII and accession of I{ing George 
V. June 7, Death of Goldwin 
Smith, Sept, 7, North Atlantic 
Coast Fisheries Arbitration award 
of the Hague Tribunal. New 
trade agreement made with Ger- 
many, BelgiuIn, Holland and 
Italy. 
1911. Jan. 21, Proposals for reciprocity 
with United States submitted to 
the Canadian Parliament. Mar. 
21, Duke of Connaught ap- 
pointed governor-general of 
Canada. May 23-June 20, Im- 
perial Conference in London. 
June 1, Fifth Dominion census. 
.July 11, Disastrous forest fires in 
Porcupine mining district. Sept. 
21, General election of Dominion 
Parliament. Oct. 10 (Sir) R. L. 
Borden, premier. O('t, 11, In- 
auguration at Kitchener of On- 
tario Hydro-Electric Power 
Transmission System, Oct. 13, 
The Duke and Duchess of 
Connaught land at Quebec. 

ov, 15, Opening of 12th 
Dominion Parliament. 
1912, April 15, Loss of the steamship 
Titanic. April 15, Appointment 
of Dominions Royal Commission. 
l\Iay 15, Extem;ion of the bound- 
aries of Quebec, Ontario and 
IVlanitoba. June 17, Judgment 
delivered by the Imperial Privy 
Council on the marriage question 
raised hy the ne temere decree, 
1913. April 10, Japanese Treaty Act 
assented to. June 2, Trade 
agreement with \Vest Indies 
ca.r.n e into ,force. July 26, King's 
PrIze at BIslev won bv Canadian. 
Spptember 1-
, Visit to l\Iontr('al 
of Rritish Lord Chancellor (Vis- 


count Haldane). Oct. 4, New 
customs tariff of United States 
goes into force. 
1914. Jan. 21, Death of Lord Strathcona 
and lVlount Royal, aged 94. May 
29, Loss of the steamship Empress 
of Ireland. Aug. 3, Acquisition 
by Canada of two sublnarines on 
the Pacific Coast. vVar with 
Germany, Aug, 4; with Austria- 
Hungary, Aug. 12; and with 
Turkey, Nov. 5. Aug. 18-22, 
special war session of Canadian 
Parliament. Oct 16, First Cana- 
dian contingent of over 33,000 
troops land at Plymouth, Eng. 
Nov. 1, Loss of four Canadian 
midshipmen by sinking of H.l\1.S, 
Cape of Good Hope in action off 
the coast of Chile. 
1915. Feb., First Canadian contingent 
lands in France and proceeds to 
Flanders. April 22, Second bat- 
tle of Y pres April 24, Battle of 
St. Julien. l\lay 20-26, Battle of 
Festubert. June 15, Battle of 
Givenchy; gallantry of Canadian 
troops highly eulogized by F.-M. 
Sir John French. July 14, Sir 
Robert Borden attends meeting 
of the British Cabinet. Oct. 30, 
Death of Sir Charles Tupper, Bt. 
Nov. 22, Issue of Canadian War 
Loan of $50,000,000, Nov. 30, 
war loan increased to $100,000,- 
000. 
1916. Jan. 12, Order in Council author- 
izing increase in number of Cana- 
dian troops to 500,000. Feb. 3, 
Destruction of the Houses of 
Parliament at Ottawa by fire. 
April 3-20, Battle of St. Eloi. 
June 1, Census of prairie pro- 
vinces. June 1-3, Battle of Sanc- 
tuary \V ood. June 3, Order in 
Council establishing Board of 
Pension Commissioners, Sept. 1, 
Cornerstone of new Houses of 
Parliament laid by Duke of 
Connaught. Sept., Issue of 
second war loan, $100,000,000. 
Oct. 16, Duke of Conn aught left 
Canada on completion of term 
of office as governor-general. 
Nov. 11, Duke of Devonshire 
(appointed Aug. 19) sworn in at 
Halifax, N.S" as governor- 
gpneral. 
1917. Feb. 12-lVlay 15, Visit to England 
of Prime Minister and colleagues 
for Imperial Conference, Feb. 
21, Final Report of Dominions 
Royal Commission. :\larch, 



ClIROSVLOG/CAL II/STORY OP (,A
Y41DA 


53 


Third war luan, $10>0,000,000. 
'larch 20-
I:lY 2, 
Il'l'tin
:i in 
London of Imperial \\ ar Cabinet. 
!\lnrch 21-April 27, Imperial 
\\ ar Conference. :\Iarch 31, 
Canaelian patriotiC' contrihutions 
amount to "19,271,012. .April 5, 
Dcclaration of \\ ar ngain
t Ucr- 
many by Unit{'d Htatt'
. April 9, 
Capture of \ïlIl) Hidbf'. April 
1tJ, \\'hcat plae'l'd on frpp list. 
June 11, _\ppointment of Board 
of (;rain RHpervi:"or
 \\ ith powpr 
to fix grain priecs. June 21, 
..\ppointmcnt of Food Controller 
undpr ()rde>r in Council of June 
Hi, July 1, Juhilec of Con- 
fedcrat.ion, 1
G7. Au
. 15, BattIe 
of Loos, capture of Hill 70. 
Aug, 29, Pa
in
 of 
lilitary 
Service _\ct. 
cpt. 20, Com- 
ph,tioll of st.ructure of Q\l<'bec 
bridge. Sept. 20, Parliamf'ntary 
f ranehisc ('
 tc'nded to women: 
DOIuinion (;overnment authorized 
to purcha:-;c t>>OO,OOO shares of 
C.N.H.. Oct. 4, Battle of Pa:-;
ch- 
cnd:u'le, ()ct. 6, l)i
:;;olution of 
12th Parliament. Nov. 12, 
Fourth war loan (Yictory 
Bond:-). Dec. 6, Di-;astrous 
f'xplo
ion at Halifax, X,::)., caused 
hv colli
i()n hf'twecn t h(' I mo and 
the .Alont Blanc, laden with 
powerful e'\:plo
i,.es. Dec. 17, 
General election nnd Cnion 
Govprnment sustained. 
HHS. Feh. 23, Appointuwnt of Canada 
Hegistration Board. l\Iar. 1S, 
Opening of first 
e:-:"ion of 13th 
Parliament. :\olar. 21, Germans 
launch critical offensive on west 
front.. 
Iar. 30, Gen. Foch 
appuinted generali.s.<.:imo. 
Iar.- 
. \pril, second ba ttIe of the Somme. 
April 17, 
{>cret session of Par- 
liament, 
lav 23. Parliament 
prorogued, June-July, Prime 
l\Iini:4er and colleagues attend 
Imperial 'Var Conferences in 
London, July 18, Allies fl
sume 
succes
fuloffensive on west front. 
Aug. 12, Battle of Amiens. Aug. 
26-28, Capture of ::\Ionchy Ie 
Preux. Sept. 2-4, Breaking of 
Drocourt-Quéant line. Sept, 16, 
Austrian peace note. Sept. 19, 
Establishment of Khaki Univer- 
sity of Canada. Sept. 27-29, 
Crossing of Canal du Nord and 
capture of Bourlon \V ood, Sept. 
30, Bulgaria surrenders and 
signs armistice, Oct. 1-9, Cap- 


turc of Cnmbrai. Oct. 5, Epi- 
demic of 
panish Influenza 
cau
in
 clo::;illg of ehurch('s tlnd 
ubandonment of public meetings. 
Oct. 6, Fir::)t Geruwn peace note. 
Oet. 
O, Capture of D('nain. 
Oct. 21, Appointment of Hibl'rian 
Econumic Commi:-
i()n. Oct. 
25-
ov. 2, Capture of Valen- 
ciennes. Oct. 28, Is'me of fifth 
war loan for 

()U,OUO,OOO in 
the form of Yictory Bonds. 
Oct. 31, i'm.key 
urrcDders and 
si
ns armistice. 1\ov. 4, Aus- 
tria-lIungary ,-,urrcndl'rs and 
8i
ns uru1Í
tice, Xov. 10, flight 
into Holland of Gprman EllIperor. 
C..tpture of 1\lons. Kov. 11, 
Germany burrend('rs and signs 
armistiCe>. Hpontallcous rejoic- 
ings throughout the Empire at 
the prospect of victorious pcace. 
Der. 1, Kational thanksgiving 
services for victory nnel pcap(', 
1919. }'ch. 17, DC'ath of 
it \Yilfrid 
Laurit'r. I,
('h, 20-.July 7, Second 

('s...,ion of 13th Parlianwnt of 
Canada. 
lar. 7, \ppointment 
of 
o\.ernmpnt recei,oer of the 
Grand Trunk P:lcifir railway. 

Ia y l-,huw 15, t;reat 
trikc at 
\\ innip('
 anù strik
 in other 
\Ve
f('rn pities. -l\lay 2U, Hdurn 
to Canada of Prime 1\1 inister 
from }>(':u'<'> Confer<'>llce, June 23, 
General election in Qud)('c, re- 
sulting in rch'ntion of Liheral 
ßdrnini
tration. June 28, 
igna- 
ture at V f'rsailles of Peact' Trcaty 
and I'rotocol; Canadian Pleni- 
potentiaries: the Hun, Charles 
J. Dolwrty and the Hon. 
Arthur L, Sifton, July 24, 
General election in Prince Ed- 
ward Island, resulting in defeat 
of Con
ervative adminir;;;tration. 
Aug, 5-7, 
leeting at Ottawa of 
Liberal convention and election 
of the Hon. \V. L. l\Iackenzie 
King as leader of Lil'cral party. 
Aug, 1.5, Arrival at St. John, 
N.H" of H.}{,H. the Prince of 
""ales for official tour in Canada. 
Aug. 22, Formal opening of 
Quebec Brid
e by H,R.H, the 
Prince of 'Vale
. Sept. 1, H.R.H., 
the Prince of \Vales lays founda- 
tion stone of tower or' new Par- 
liament Buildings at Ottawa. 
Sept. I-Nov. 10, Third or special 
peace session of 13th Parliament 
of Canada. Sept. 15, Opening at 
Ottawa of the National lndus- 



54 


CHROl'lOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 


trial Conference. Oct. 20, Gen- 
eral election in Ontario, result- 
ing in defeat of Conservative 
administration and formation of 
l\linistry by E. C. Drury, United 
Farmers' Organization. Issue of 
sixth war loan for $300,000,000 
in the form of Victory Bonds. 
Nov. 25, H,R.H. the Prince of 
Wales sails from Halifax, N.S. 
on completion of visit to Canada. 
Dec. 20, Organization of "Cana- 
dian National Railways" by 
Order in Council. 
1920. Jan. 10, Ratifications of the 
Treaty of Versailles having been 
exchanged, the war with Ger- 
many is officially declared at an 
end. Feb. 19, Grand Trunk 
shareholders ratify agreement for 
sale of the Grand Trunk railwav 
to the Dominion Government. 
Feb. 26-July 1, Fourth seHsion 
of the thirteenth Parlianlent of 
Canada. May 18, Budget 
speech. New taxation inlposed, 
estimated to yield an additional 
$100,000,000 of annual revenue. 
l\1av 31-June 18, Trade Confer- 
encè at Ottawa between Donlin- 
ion and 'Vest Indian Govern- 
ments. June 7-19, Convention 
of American Federation of La- 
bour at Montreal. June 29, 
Provincial general election in 
Manitoba. New political groups 
hold balance of power, but 
Liberal government is retained 
in office. July 8, Sir Lomer 
Gouin is succeeded bv Hon. L. 
A. Taschereau as Premier of 
Quebec. July 10, Sir Robert 
Borden is succeeded bv Hon. 
(now Right Hon,) Arthùr Meig- 
hen as Premier of Canada. July 
16, Ratifications of the Treaty 
of St. Germain-en-Laye having 
been exchanged, the war with 
Austria is officiallv declared at 
an end, July 27, Provincial 
general election in Nova Scotia. 
Liberal government of Premier 
Murray is sustained. Aug. 5-7, 
Imperial Press Conference at 
Ottawa, Aug. 9, Ratifications of 
the Treaty of N euilly-sur-Seine 
ha ving been exchanged, the war 
with Bulgaria is officially declared 
at an end. Sept. 18-23, Ninth 
Congress of Chambers of Com- 
merce of the Empire at Toronto. 
Oct. 9, Provinpial gpneral election 


in New Brunswick. Liberal gov- 
ernment is sustained bv a reduced 
majority. Oct, 20, Prohibition 
defeated and Government con- 
trol of the liquor traffic favoured 
by referendum in British Col- 
umbia. Oct, 25, Referendum re 
complete prohibition of the liquor 
traffic is carried in Nova Scotia, 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta. N ov.15, First meeting of 
League of Nations Assembly 
begins at Geneva, Switzerland. 
Rt. Hon. Sir Geo. E. Foster, 
G,C.M.G" Rt. Hon, C. J. Do- 
herty and Hon. N. 'V. Rowell 
representing Canada. M. Hy- 
mans of BelgiuIll is elected presi- 
dent, Nov. 24, l\IcGill Univer- 
sity Centennial Endowment Fund 
is èlosed with over $6,000,000 sub- 
subscribed. Dec. 1, Provincial 
general election in British Colum- 
bia, Liberal government is sus- 
tained by a reduced majority. 
1921. Feb. 14-June 4, Fifth Session of 
Thirteenth Parliament of Canada. 
April 18, Ontario votes for pro- 
hibition of the manufacture, im- 
portation and sale of alcoholic 
liquors, May 1, Government 
control of liquor traffic beÿ.-Omes 
effective in Quebec, lViay 9, 
Budget speech in House of Com- 
mons. Sales tax and excise dutv 
on liquors increased. l\1ay lÒ, 
Preferential tariff arrangement 
with British West Indies becomes 
effective. June 20-August 5, 
Imperial Conference, at which 
Canada is represented by Rt. 
Hon. Arthur Meighen. June 9, 
At general election in Saskat- 
chewan, Liberal government is 
sustained. July 18, At general 
election in Alberta, the United 
Farmers secure majority of seats. 
Sept, 5-0ct. 5, Second meeting of 
_\ssembly of League of Nations 
at Geneva; Canada represented 
by Rt. Hon. C. J. Doherty. 
Sept, 21, l\tIembers of reorganized 
Meighen Cabinet sworn in. Nov. 
11, Opening of conference on 
limitation of armament at Wash- 
ington, Sir Robt. Borden repre- 
senting Canada. Dec. 6, Domin- 
ion general election. Meighen 
government defeated. Dec. 29, 
New ministry (I.Jiberal), with 
Hon. (now Right lIon,) W. L. 
l\tlackenzip King as premier, is 
sworn in. 



PIlI"SIC tL ('lIARACTERISTICi.") OF CA.YJDA. 


55 


IV.- PIIYSICi\L CIL\Rl\CTERISTICS OF Cfu.
AI):\. 


(a:OGR_\PWCAL }'t: \T1:R'F.
. 
Situation.-The Don1Ïnion of Canada includes thp whole of 
the northern half of the Xorth ,AJ1H\riran continent, except the United 

tatc8 territory of .Alaska and the Labrador ('oa
t,which is under 
the juriç;dietion of Xe,vfounlllalld. fhe ßouthernnlo:::;t point in the 
J)onlinion is :\Iiddle bland in l:lkp ErÏl\, 
outh of Pelee island, in 
north latitude 41 0 41'; froin here Canadian territory extends north- 
'ward to\vard thp polp. In long:itudp the !)onlÌnioll str<\t('hp:-\ froln 
about ,ye:st longitud{> ;)7 0 -thp exact boundary ,vith Newfounùland 
tf'rritory i
 as yet undefin \cl -to Wl':-\t longitud(\ 141 0 , tht"' boundary 
,\'ith ...\Iaska. Cannd:l thus t.'xtf'nd'i over about b4. o of longitude and 
4S o of latitude. 
General Formatiun.-The topographic features of the present 

urface of the .\Illerican l'ontin('nt adn1Ït of it
 divi:-.ion, in Cannda, 
into :-\0vpral physio
raphic provinces. The 0xpo
('d surfaee of the 
old pre-Canlbrian continent fornls one of the largp:5t divisions and has 
been called the Canadian E-hip!ù, the ...\rchf'un Penpplain and, in its 
'-'outhern portion, the Laurentian highland. 1'he IHountainous 
country of the w(':-;t con
titutes thp Cordillera
, ,,'hilp the Inountnins 
of Eastern United 
tat('s, in their cuntinuation a('ro;:,s the borùer, 
forin th
 .A\ppalachian Ilighlandci of ea
tt'rn Canada. 'rhe Great 
Plains, "ith various subdivisions, occupy the area het,veen the 
mountainous urea of the ,ve
t and th > 
reat) roughened surface of the 
Canadian Shield. 'The St. La,vrenee lo\vland lies between the 
Laurentian and .Appalachian hif.!hlands. \Vithin the hord(\r8 of the 
Canadian Bhield an arpu' on the southern Dlargin of IIudsoll bay 
has been referred to as the Cluy Belt. I t occupi
:::, a part of the basin 
that ,vas submerged durin
 the glacial period and covered ,vith a 
coating of clay \vhich sn100thed oyer its inequalities and ('onccaled 
Inost of the underlying rocks. 
in('(\ its en1ergence the 
urface has 
been but slightly altered by drainag;e channeb cut acro
s it. 
Canadian Shield.-The portion of the prc-Canlbrian continent 
who
e exposed surface still forms a large part of Canada, has an area 
of about t\"O and a half n1Ïllion square miles. Its northern border 
crosses the _\.rctic archipelago, the ea
tern lies beyond Baffin island 
and Labrador and reaches the depres:::;ed area occupied by the St. 
La,vrence river, a 
hort spur or point cros:3ing thi
 valley at the 
outlet of lake Ontario to join the Adirondack mountains in N e,v York. 
The southern boundary runs froln the spur \\"e
t to C;eorgian bay, 

kirts the north shore of lake Huron and s\veeps alnlost entirely 
around the ancient depres
ed area occupied by lake 
uperior. The 
western edge, fron1 the lake of the \\T oods and lake \V'innipeg, bears 
north\vest to the \vestern end of lake Athabaska, and passes through 
the ba
ills occupied by Great t3lave and Great Bear lakes, reaching 
the Arctic ocean east of the 
lackenzie River delta. In detail, the 
"urface features of the Canadian 
hif'ld are irregular; but, vic\\ed 



56 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


broadly, it has the conformation of a great plain, depressed to'ward 
the centre and in the north and slightly elevated along the eastern 
and southern borders, 'where it presel
ts a some'what steep outward 
slope. 'fhe general elevation in the eastern portion is under 2,000 
feet, and over the larger part of the plain is about 1,000 feet. The 
highest portion is along the northeastern margin ,vhere it presents a 
steep face to the sea. 
Cordilleran Region.- The ,vestern part of the American con- 
tinent is more or less mountainous. The Andean chain, ,vhich extends 
throughout the length of South America and broadens out in North 
America and in Canada, has an average 'width of over 500 miles. 
This region is the most elevated in Canada, many of the summits 
reaching heights of 10,000 feet, with occasional peaks over 13,000 
feet above sea-level. The mountainous tract forming the Cordilleras 
can be divided broadly into three parallel bands; an old series of 
plateaus and mountains fonning the central part, referred to as the 
Central Belt, a young series of parallel ridges, east of the central 
plateaus, formed of fault blocks and folds and kno'wn as the Eastern 
Belt and a third division, between the plateau country and the 
Pacific, called the \Vestern Belt. The Belts are further subdivided 
as in the following summary:- 


Mountain Systems and Ranges in Western Canada. 
EASTERN BELT. 


SYSTEl\I. 


MOU
TAINS OR 
PLATEA1JS. 


RANGE, GROUP OR 
PLATEAU. 


l\iACKENZIE MOUNTAINS 


{ Hughes range, Brisco range, 
Livingstone range, Palliser 
range, other ranges and groups. 
{ Sayunei range, Tigonankweine 
range, other ranges and groups. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 


ROCKY MOUNTAINS 


ROCKIES 


FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS 


ARCTIC 


RICHARDSON MOUNTAINS 


CENTRAL BELT. 


MONASHEE MOUNTAINS 


t PUrcell range, l\1cGillivray range, 
Moyie range, Slocan group, 
N f' l
on range, other ranges 
and groups. 
{ Christina range, Midway group, 
other ranges and groups. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 


SELKIRK MOUNTAINS 


COLUl\1:BIA 


CARIBOO MOUNTAINS 



GEOGR..IPIIICAL FEATURES 


57 


CEKTRAL llELT.-Concluded 


S\ STE
I. l\IOUi\T
\IX8 On. IL\KGE, GROPP OR 
rL.\TEA"L8. PLATEAU. 
{Bonaparte platp3.u, Arrowstone 
FRASER PLA TF AU plateau, other plateaus. 
INTERIOlt 1\ ECIIAKO PLA TEA U {Ootsa-Frnnçois plat ('au, N adina 
Il1ountuin, other plat<'aus. 
UN-NAMED MOUXTAI
S AX}) {l T Il-nam('d ranges, groups and 
PLATEAl:S plateaus. 
[BABlXE MOUXTAINS 'Cn-nanwd ranges and groups. 
{I
lappan rang(', Groundhog 
CASSIAR STIKIXE !\tOU
TAINS range, other ranges. 
UN-NAMED MOUl'TAINS Un-named ranges and J!roups. 
}T
"lin rangr, GI
nlyon rang
, 
{YUKON PLATEAUS J>{'lly range', un-named ranges 
\UKO
 nnd pl:.tteaUR. 
UN-X.\. 'I}'D MOUNTAINS AXD IT n-nam('d ranges, groups and 
PLATEAUS l platf'aus, 


WESTER
 BELT. 


SYSTE:\I. 


:\lOUXT.\IXS on. 
PL..-\ TEA lJS. 


RAXGE, GROUP OR 
PL \TEAU. 


UN-NAMED MOUNTAIXS 


Un-named rangf'S and groups. 
j Tahtsa range, \Vhitesail range, 
Tdkwa range, un-named ran- 
gf'S. 
Zymoetz ran
e, Seven Sisters 
g:roup, Roeher Déboulé range, 
lludson Day group. 
Un-named ranges and groups. 


CASCADE MOU
TAINS 


COAST 'IOUNTAINS 


PACIFIC 


BULKLEY MOUKTAIXS 


INSULAR 


I v A KCOUVER ISLAND MOUN- 
TAINS 
QUEEN CHARLOTI'E MOUN- 
TAI
S 
ST. ELIAS MOUNTAINS (PART) 


{U n-Damed ranges and groups. 



58 


PHYSIC4.L CHARACTERiSTICS OF CA \ 1\.1 


.j H
 
Mountain Peaks.-Following is a list of th
.{' 
incipal named 
peaks exceeding 12,000 feet in elevation:- .q u 
r 
"' 


NAME. 


RANGE. 


ELEV A- 
TION. 


LAT. 


LONG. 


ALBERTA- 
Alberta, . . . . . . . . . . . , . , 
I
'orbf's. . . . . , . , . , . , . . . . 
The Twins. , , . , . . . . . . . , 


BRITISH COLUMBIA- 
Hobson, , . . ,. .."'.,, 


YUKON- 
Augnsta, ,., .' 
Cook. , , , . . . . . , , , . . , , . 
Hubbard, . . , . . . . . 
I\:ing . . , . , . . . . , . . . , . . . 
Lo
an. . , , , . . , . . , , . . , , 
Lucania. . , , . , . , . , , . . , , 
l\Ic.Arthur, . . , , . , , . , . . , 
N éwton, , , , . . . . . . , . , , . 

t. Elias. , , . . , .. ..,. . 
Steele.. ...,.,. ...... 
Htrickland, . . , . , , . . , . , . 
Yancouver. , , , _ . _ . ,. .. 
\Valsh. . . , . , . . " ...." 
\V ood, . . . . . . , . . . , ,. ., 


12,000 
12,000 
12,085 


13,068 


14,900 
13,700 
16,400 
16,971 
]9,539 
17,147 
14,253 
13,860 
18,000 
16,644 
13,818 
15,617 
14,498 
15,885 


52 0 14' 117 0 36' Rocky Mtns. 
51 0 48' 116 0 56' " 
52 0 13' 117 0 12' " 
53 0 07' 119 0 08' " 
60 0 18' 140 0 28' St. Elias Mtns. 
60 0 10' 139 0 59' " 
60 0 21' 139 0 02' " 
60 0 35' 140 0 39' " 
60 0 51' 140 0 21' " 
61 0 01' 140 0 28' " 
60 0 36' 140 0 13' " 
60 0 19' 140 0 52' " 
60 0 18' 140 0 57' " 
61 0 06' 140 0 19' " 
61 0 14' 140 0 45' " 
60 0 21' 139 0 42' " 
61 0 00' 140 0 00' " 
61 0 14' 140 0 31' " 


Appalachian Region.-The continuation of the Green moun- 
tains of Vermont into Canada may be traced in the Notre Dame 
mountains, which approach the St. La\vrence below Quebec and, 
continuing with more easterly trend, form the highland of the Gaspé 
peninsula. Over a large part these hills hard]y attain the dignity 
of mountains, but peaks rising 3,500 feet above the nearby coast are 
found in the Gaspé peninsula. The continuation of the White 
mountains of New Hampshire is found in the highlands of Maine 
and New Brunswick, the continuity being shown quite plainly by 
the rock-folding and other evidences of the great earth movements 
,vhich caused the topography. An additional ridge apparently 
forms the present province of Nova Scotia, and although the high- 
lands of that province in few places rise to elevations greater than 
1,500 feet, the rock structure indicates that it was a rnountainous 
country at no very remote geological period. 
Great Plains.-A great area, including many diverse features, 
lies to the east of the Cordilleras. The portion that is included under 
the term Great Plains extends from the south\vpstern edge of the 
ancient surface forming the Canadian Shield, to the eastern edge of 
the mountainous region of the Cordilleras. In the belt traversed 
by the raihvay linp
 a three-fold division into prairie steppeR. ri
inp
 



'- 
r{rSlr.1L GEOGR IPHY OF CA.\ A.DA 


59 


-: 


one nboyc tl ,leI', is clearly recognizable, though the divisions arc 
not di
tingui, 1 }le in thc region farther north to \vhich the terrll 
prairie i
 Ilof J plicable. For t h
 purpo
e of description these three 
divisions are 
 'lopted and n. fourth i
 added for the broken hilly 
eountry of the foot-hill
. 1"IH\ first or eastern division cOlnprises 
the plain lying betwecn the Canadian 
hield and the plateau forIlled 
of Cretu<'eous scdinlents; the seconù e)..tellds froln the eùge of thi
 
plateau "
e
t\Yaf(1 to the erosion relunallts of forlner Tertiary deposits; 
and thp third 
tretche
 fron1 this line ,vest\\ ard to the foot-hills. 
X orth of the prairie country these distinctions are less noticeabll', 
anù divisions t\'"O and three becolue lllerged into one. 


St. Lawrence Lowlands.- The southcrn interior of the con- 
tincnt cOllsist
 of a plain of low' reli(\f, bordered on the cast by the 
_\ppalnrhian 11l0unÜ1.Íns, on the ,,
cst by thc Cordilleran nlountain 
:5ystcnl
 and on thc north hy the old surface of the Laurentian 
plateau. 'fo the northeast thi!S plain hel'OlllC8 reduced in \vidth, 
anù in the vicinity of <luehcc ið reprc:5cnteù by a narro'v plateau or 
shelf un ('ach siùc of the 
t. LaWrpI1Cf" riycr. 'fhe triangular area 
beyond, in \vhi<.h i!-o. the islanù of Anticosti, is structurally related to 
the cpntral lowland::,. The 
t. LawrPllce lo\vland
 Ill:ty bc divided 
into three ::;cctions: (1) the 8t. Lfl\VrCnCe river plain separateù from 
(2) the EU:3tcrn Ontario basin by a point of crystalline rocks, and (3) 
the Ontario pcninsula H, 
lightly IHore elevat<'d plain who
e eastern 
bortler is a 
teep e
earpnlent, the eastern outcrop of a heavy lilllC- 
stone bed \vhich underlies the \vcstern peninsula. 


\Vaterways.-'fhc watcf"\vays of Canada constitute onc of the 
1l10st fpn1urkable of its geoJ!;raphieal featureS. East of the Itocky 
lnountain
 the Houthern part of the Don1Ïnion slopes northeastward 
to\vards Hud
on bay, and the river::) in the south flow ea
t\vard. 
Thu
 the Saskatchc\van river, with its northern and 
outhern Lranehc:-;, 
tlO\VS east\vard into lake \Yinnipcg and thence nortlnyarù by the 
Xelson riyer into Hudson bay. On the north the Great Plain has a 
northerly slope, and the 
Iackenzie river, \vith its tributaries, the 
Slave, Liard, A..thabaska, and Peace rivers, flo"
s into the .Arctic 
ocean. The ::\Iackenzie, exclusive of its tributaries, but including 
the Slave, Peace and .Finlay rivers, of ,vhich it is the continuation, 
has [1 total length of 2,525 n1Ïles. The Yukon river in the Yukon 
territory also flo\ys north,yard, passing through ...
laska, into Behring 
strait after a course of 2,300 nÜles. In British Colulnbia, the Fraser, 
Colulnbia, Skeen a and Stikine rivers flow into the Pacific ocean. 


Drainage Basins.- The large drainage basins of Canada are the 
.Atlantic (554,000 square nlÌle
), the Hudson bay (1,486,000 square 
lll
les), thp Arctic (1,290,000 square miles), the Pacific (387,300 square 
mIles), and the gulf of 
Iexico (12,365 square miles). rrable 1 gives a 
list of the river drainage basins, and Table 2 gives the lengths of the 
principal rivers \vith their tributaries and :-;ub-tributaries. 



60 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


1.- Dra!nage Basins of Canada. 


Drainage Basins. 


Area 
Drained, 


Drainage Basins. 


Atlantic Basin. 
Hamilton... ...., , 
Mimmichi.,.,.." . 
St. John. , , . . . . . . , . , , , , 
St. Lawrence....... .' . , . . . . 
Saguenay, . , . . , .. ........,.,. 
St. Maurice".,.".,. . . . . . . . . . 
French. . , . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
Nipigon...",...,. ...... . ,... 
Ottawa, . . , . . , . , . . . . , . , . . . . . , . 
Liè vre. . . , , . . , . , . . , . , . . . . . . 
Gatineau,.... . . , . , . , , . . . , . . 


Total. , . . , , . . , , . . , . , , . . . . 


Hudson Bay Basin. 
Koksoak, . , , , . . . . , . . . , . . . , , . . . , . . 
George. , , . . , . . . , . , . . . . , . . , , , . . , . . 
Big.............". .,.,.,...".. 
Eastmain..".,....""....,.", . 
Rupert. . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . , . . , . . . . . . . 
Broadback."".. ...."."..".,. 
N ottaway, , . , , , . , , , , . . . . , . . . , , , . . 
Moose.,...... .,..,.....,."..,. 
Abitibi. . . , . . . , , , . . , . . , , , . . . , . 
Missinaibi. .. .. , . . , , . , . .. . , . . . 
Albany. , . " ,., . . . . , . . . . . , , , . , . 
Kf'nogami. . . , . . . . . . , , . . . , . . . . 
Attawapiskat,.",.....,...,..... . 
'Yinisk... , . . . . , . . . . , . . , . . . . , . . . . . 
Severn, . . , , , . , . , . , . , . 
Hayes. ".,.,...,..,. , . . . , . . , . . 
Nelson.,.. . . . . . , . . . , . , . . . , ,. , , . , . 
\Yinnipf'g.,.. . . . , . . , . . . . . , , , . . 
English. , . . . , , , , . . , . . , , , . . . 
Red..".,'...,.,.....""'. 
Assiniboine. , , . . , , . . , , . , . . , . 
Saskatchewan.,.........,.., . 
Korth 8askat('hpwan,.,.... 
South Saskatchewan,...... 
Red De r....,.,.....".. 
Bow. , . . , . , . . . . . . . , , . . , , . 
Bplly. , . , , , . , . , . . . , , . . , . . 
Churchill. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 


Sq. miles. Hudson Bay Basin-con\luded. 
29,100 Kazan,. ., . . . . , . . . . , . . . , . , . , , . 
5,400 Dubawnt...... , , , , , , . . " , .. , . 
21,500 
309,500 
35,900 
16,200 
8,000 
9,000 
56,700 
3,500 
9,100 


554 s 000 


62,400 
20,000 
26,300 
25,500 
15,700 
9,800 
29,800 
42, 100 
11 , 300 
10,600 
59,800 
20, 700 
18,700 
24, 100 
38,600 
28,000 
370,800 
44,000 
20,600 
63,400 
52,600 
158,800 
54,700 
65,500 
18,300 
11,100 
8,900 
115.500 


Total, . . . . , . , . . . , , . , , . . , , . 


Pacific Basin. 
Yukon. . . , , . , . . . . . , . . . . , . , , , , . . , . 
Porcupiñe,.,." . . . , . , , , , . . , , . . 
Stewart, , , , . , . . , , . , . . , . , . . . , . . 
Pelly. . . . , . . . . . , , . , . , . . . , . . , , . 
Lewf's....".. .. ."..,.,.. .,. . 
White,.,..,.,. . , . , . . . . . , , . , , . . 
Alsek. .. , . . . . , . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . 
Taku, . , . . . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
Stikine. . , . , , . , , , . , , , , . . . , . , . , . . . 
Nass",.,.,... , . , , . . . . . . . , . . . 
S keena, , . . . , , . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fraser, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
Thompson........,.... . 
N echako. . . . . . . , . . , . . . . , , ., . 
Blackwater. , . . . , , , . . , . . , . . . . . 
Quesnel. , , , , . , , . , , , . . , . . . , . . . . 
Chilcotin... .. . .. . , , . . . , . .. . 
Columbia....... _...., " ,. . 
Kootenay, , . , . , . . , . . , . . . , . 
Okanagan, , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kettle..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pend d'Oreille... .. .,.. '" .... 


Total. . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 


Arctic Basin. 
Backs, . , . . . . . , , , , . , , , . , , , . , , . , . , 
Coppermine....... . . . , . . . , . , . , . . . 
Mackf'nzie, , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . 
Liard, , , , . . . , , . . , . , , . . . . . . , . , . 
Hay, , . . . . . . . , . , . . , , . . . . . . , , . . 
Peace."""."..."" """.. 
Athabaska,....., . , , , , , .. . , , , . 
Total. . .. . . . , . , , , , , . . , . , . . 


Gulf of Mt>dro Basin...... 


Area 
Drainf'd. 


Sq, miles. 
32,700 
58,500 
1,486,000 


145,800 
24,600 
21,900 
21,300 
35,000 
15,000 
11, 200 
7,600 
20,300 
7,400 
19,300 
91,700 
21,800 
15,700 
5,600 
4,500 
7,500 
39,300 
15,500 
6,000 
3,160 
1,190 
387,300 


47,500 
29,100 
682,000 
1,700 
25,700 
117,100 
5S,900 
1,290,000 
12.365 


N afE.-Owing to overlapping. the totals of each drainage basin do not represent an 
addition of the drainage areas as given. Tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated by 
indentation of the names. 


2.-Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada. 


Names. 


Miles. 


Names. 


MiJes. 


Flowing Into tbe Atlantic Ocean. 
Hamilton (to head of Ashuanipi).. 
Natashkwan.. , . . . , . , . . . . . , ... , . 
Romaine,..... , . , , . . , , . . . , . . . . . 
M oi
ie, , . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . ., "......" 
St. Marguerite........ _ . , , . . , . . . , . 
St. John.,.,... . , . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . _ . . 


350 
220 
270 
210 
130 
390 


Flowing in to tbe Atlantic Ocean 
-con tinued. 
Miramichi, , . . . . . . . , .. .. .,.,.,. 
St. Lawrence (to head of St. Louis), 
M anikuagan. . '. .." ....",.,... 
Ou tarde. . . . . . , . . , . , . . , . . . . . 
Bersimis..,..,' , . . . . _ . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Saguenay (to head of Peribonka). 


135 
1,900 
310 
270 
240 
405 



PHYSICAL GFOGRAPIlY OF rA YADA 


\H 


2.-1 'nJ:tlJ" of l-rlncJpaJ Uiu'rs and TributarÏl'
 In t'anada -concluded. 



 anws, 



f\m('
, 


.l\Iil(,8. 


...tonlng Into the \tlantl(' ()(,t'an. 
St Lawrence (to head (f 
t L( uis) 
-('oncluùed 
P('rihonka.",.. . 

li...tß'"...ini.... . 
Ashwnpmu('huan.. . , . .. 
Chauòièrp. '" '" 
:-'t. l\Iauri{'p, ...... 

Iattawin. 

t. Frane'i
".. 
Rich('Iieu,..,., . 
Ottav. a. . 

orth.,. , 
Hou
p. . .. , . . . , 
Xorth Nation... , . . .. . . . 
Lih.re. , . , . . 
(;atinpau,.... . 
Coulonge..... . 
J)umoinp.,. . 

outh "'\ation.. 
'ris
i
!';ippi. 

racla" a
ka. 
}>etawav.a. . 
'Ioira. ,. . 
Trent, . 
Grand. . . . 
Thames, . . . ,. _ . . . . . . . . . 
Fr('nch (to h('ad of 
tur
C'on). , . . 
f:\tur
C'on" .,...........,........ 

panish. .... . . .. .. .. 
?\I bsissagi. . . . . . . . 
Th(>ssalon, . . . . . . . . . . . . , 

ipigon (to h(>ad of Ombabika).. 
}'Io"ln
 into Jllld
on Ba). 


2
0 
lS5 
HiS 
]20 
32.') 
]()O 
Hì.) 
210 
6,\\.3 
70 
115 
liO 
205 
240 
135 
80 

O 
10.) 
130 
95 
LO 
150 
140 
135 
ISO 
110 
15:
 
140 
40 
130 


'
Io\\ill
 Into IhuhoIJ Uay- 

loo::-c (to he.ld e f .Mattngami) 
-conclud('d. 
Mattagami 
O\bitibi,. . 
Mi
",inaihi. 
If arricanaw. . . 
:Kottaway (to he'aù of Wn
v. anipi), 
Wa
wanipi, 
Rupt.rt. . , 
Eastmain. ... 
Big,., 
G ren t "hale..... 
I
('af. . _ . . . . . . . , . . . , . . _ . . 
hok:-oak (to head of Kaniapi
kau), 
I{aniapi
kau. . , . 
Geor
e . 


Mil('R. 


275 
340 
265 
2;'}0 
400 
HJO 
380 
3;5 
520 
3ü5 
295 

3;} 
445 
3ü5 


1,150 
4ô5 
400 
695 


270 
18;') 
]20 
]45 
]40 
2S5 
220 
335 
205 
335 
260 
1,765 


Hay('s.. . .. . . , . . , . . . 300 

 dson (to Lake Winnipeg'. 390 
Xplson (to head of Bo,,). " " ],660 
R('d (to hc'ad of Lake Traverse). . 3.1,) 
Re(! <to 
('ad of Sh(>yC'nne). . , . . . . 54,) 
Assml home, . . . , . , , . . . 4.í0 
:'ouris..,.... 4.iO 
Qu'AppelIe.............. ..... 2ïO 
WinnipeJ( (to head of Firested),. . 4ï5 
English..,.,.. ..,.,.....,.,... 330 Flo\\lng Into the Arctic Ocean. 
Sa
kat chI''' an (to hpad of Bow). . 1,20.') 
Xorth'Saskatchewan........... 760 'Iackenzic (to head of Finlay)...... 2,525 
!:;outh f:\askatchpwan (to head Ped, . . . 365 
of Bow).. . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , . 
ß5 .Arctic Red. . . . . . . . 230 
Bow. . , . . . . . 315 Liard. . . _ . 550 
Bellv. . , . . , . . . ]80 Fort Kdson........ . . , . . . . . 260 
RC'd
Deer", 385 Athabaska.... 76S 
Churchill. , , , , 1,000 Ppm bina, . . . , , . . . . . 210 
Bpaver.... 30,j Slave...... ......... . 265 
Kazan..... 455 I>pace (to head of Finlay).,.,.... 1,065 
Dubav.nt... 580 Finlay..., 250 
Severn... . . , , . . , 420 Parsnip..., . . . 145 
Winisk... . . . . .. . .. . ., ......... 295 Smoky.. . . . 245 
Attawapiskat, , . . , . . . . .. ....... _ 465 Little Smoky..... 185 
Albany (to h('ad of Cat river). .. .. 610 Coppermine....... , , . . , , . . 525 

Ioo
(' (tohpadofMattagami)...... 340 Ba('ks........,._. ......... 50!) 
KOTE,-In thp above table the tributaries and sub-tributaries arp indicated by inden- 
tation of the nameR, Thus the Ottawa and other rivers are shown as tributary to the St. 
Lav.rence. and the Gatineau and other riv('rs as tributary to the Ottawa, 


tlo\\in
 Into th(' PadOc Orcan. 


Columhia (total)"....., 
Columhia (in Canada)" 
hootenay.. . . . . . . . . , 
Fras('r. . " ...,.',..... 
Thomp--on (to hC'ad of Xorth 
Th()mp
on).. . 
:\ ort h Thomp"on,., . . , . 

out h Thomp:>on. ,..... . 
Chil('otin. 
Black" ater. ... . . . 
K('chako. . 
Stuart. . . 
",h.C'('na. . , . 
:'\30.......,.,..... 
Stikinc. . 
AIst'k... .. 
Yukon (mouth to head of 
i
utlin). 
Yukon (Int, boundary to hpad of 
Ni
utlin)... _.... 

tf'wart, . . . . . . . . . 
'\hite,..... . 
Pelly. , . , , , 

lacmi11an. . 
Lewes. 


6,j5 
320 
]8S 
330 
200 
338 



62 


PHYSIrAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


St. Lawrence River System.-l\lost important of the lakes 
and rivers in Canada is the chain of the Great Lakes 'with their 
connecting rivers, the St. La\yrence river and its tributaries. This. 
chain is called the St. La\vrence River system. The Great Lakes, 
separating the province of Ontario froln the United States and con- 
nected bv a series of canals \vith the St. La\vrence river, allo\v of 
access fr
nl the Atlantic ocean to the interior of the Don1Ïnion at 
Fort 'Villianl and Port Arthur, t\vin cities situated on lake Superior. 
The Great Lakes.- Table 3 sho\vs the length, breadth, area, 
elevation aboye sea-level and maxinlunl depth of each of the Great 
Lakes. 


3.-Area, Ele\.ation and Depth of the Great Lakes. 


Maxi- Elf'vation 
Lakf's, I-ength. Breadth, luum Area. above 
Df'pth, Sca-Icyf'l. 
l\1ile
 . Miles, Fef't. Sq. Miles. Feet. 
Superior. . .. a........ 254 162 1,008 31,800 602 
Michigan.,.,.. . . . .... .. 316 118 870 22,400 581 
Huron. . . . .. .. ....... 207 101 802 23,200 581 
St, Clair..... 26 24 21 445 575 
Erie. . . ...... ......... 239 59 180 10,000 572 
Ontario.. , . .......... . 193 53 738 7,260 246 


Lake Superior, vlith its area of 31,800 square miles, is the largest 
body of fresh water in the ,vorld. As the international boundary 
between Canada and the United States passes through the centre of 
lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario, only half of the areas of 
these lakes given in the above statement is Canadian. The \vhole of 
lake Michigan is within United States territory. From the western 
end of lake Superior to the mouth of the St. La\vrence there is, with 
the aid of the canal system, a continuous navigable water\vay. rThe 
total length of the St. La\vrence river from the head of the St. Louis 
river to the Pointe-des-lVlonts, at the entrance of the gulf of St. 
Lawrence, is 1,900 miles. The tributaries of the St. Lawrence, 
several of \vhich have themselves important tributaries, include the 
Otta\va river, 685 miles long; the St. Maurice river, 325 miles long; 
and the Saguenay (to head of Peribonka), 405 miles long. 
Other Inland Waters.-In addition to the Great Lakes there 
are large bodies of inland \vater in other parts of Canada. Of these 
only the follo\ving principal lakes, with their respective areas, need 
be mentioned here: in Quebec, lake Mistassini (ü75 square miles); in 
Ontario, lake Nipigon (1,730 square miles); in lVlanitoba, lake \Vinni- 
peg (9,457 square miles), lake Winnipegosis (2,086 square miles) and 
lake Manitoba (1,817 square miles); in Saskatche\van, Reindeer lake 
(2,437 square n1iles); in Alberta, lake Athabaska (2,482 square miles). 
All these are within the boundaries of the provinces as at present 
constituted, and are exclusive of lakes situated in the North\vest 
Territories, as, for instance, the Great Bear lake (11,821 square miles) 
and the Great Slave lake (10,719 square miles) in the district of 
Mackenzie. 



PI1F;Slr lL G
OGRAPlIY OF l ASAn.:1. 


63 


1""ahle -1 
iy('s a li
t of the prin('ipallak('
 of Canada hy proyin('('
, 
v;ith thp :tn'a of p:\('h in 
quan' Jnilps. rrhp tnhlp ('()rr('''p()lld
 \vith 
th(' l}(,lin1Ïtation of thp pro\"in('e
 as aItprpd by the Boundary E:xt('n- 
sinn A(,t
, IH12 (2, Oeo. ,
, ('c. 32, 40 and 4.=)). 


.t. &\r('a
 of .>>rindpal ('anadian I
a

 b) .>>r0\1n('('!o.. 


Xamf'S of I..ak{.... 


Area.... 


'!\ ova 
('ot ia- 
Bra.... d'Or. . 
I ittlp Bras d'Or... 


Tofal ..,. 


:\'('w Rrun..." il'k- 
Grand. 
Qupbf'('- 
.\bitihi, portion in Qm.b('c 
Api
kiJ!;ßmi
h 
Ashuunipi. . 
Atikonak. 
Aylmer. . . 
Baskatonp;. . 
Burnt.., .. . . . . _ . . .. . 
Champlain. portion in Qu<'b<.'c.., 
Chi bou
umau. . 
Clean\ ater . . . . . 
Evans",.... . 
Expanse. . _ . 
Gull.. .. ......"".". 
Grand Victoria,.,.., , 
Great Lonp;."."... 
Indian House....... 
Ishiamikuagan. . 
J\:akabonga..,.".. . 
haniapi:,kau. . , , . , , , 
Kip3.\\ß., . . . 
Lowt'r 
f'al. 

I atappdia. ." 

Ianuan. 
}Iatta
ami.. . 

I egant ie . . . . . , 
?\Ielville. , " .. .. 

I('mphremagog. part in Que},p('. 

Ipnihek. ..... 

Iinto... .. 

li
hikalUua... ,.' 
Mi
hikamats,.,., . 
1\Ii8ta
sini. 
1\Ii
ta:-;sinib. 
Xemi--kau..", . 
N'ichikum. 
Nomining. . 
Ohatogama.u. . . 
Olga.. . . . . . .. 
O

okmanuan 
Papinpau. . , . 
Patami
k, . 
Payne. .. , . . . . 
Petitsikapau.,.,." . 
Pipmaukin... . 
Pletipi.. .. ... 
Quinze, Lac des.,. ., 
Richmond.. . . 
St. Franeis, Beauce county. . , ., . 


I \r('a
.1 



(I unr(' 
'I i I('
. 
230 
130 
'6 


2,') 
392 
3W 
331 
8 
17 
56 
3 
13\ 
47b 
231 
59 
12.') 
57 
24.') 
30û 
H7 
65 
441 
117 
220 
IIi I 
113 
R7 
14 
1 , 2!N 

..... 
112 
73.') 
tH2 
122 
975 
20jì 
5fi 
20
 
9 
56 
50 
131 
5 
44 
747 
94 
100 
138 
46 
269 
13 


Xauws of Lak('!';. 


74 


QUf' b('('-("one} u( J<<'d, 
St. Fran('i
, rin'r 
t. Lawrenre 
purt. 

t, John. 

t. Loui
. 

t. P('ter .. . 

nnù
irt . 

ilUon. . 
TiIUÜ..kamin
, part.... ..,...., . 
1't'mi'couatn.. . . .. 
Thirh-onc Mile, 
1'\\0 jIountains. 
r ppf'r Seal.. . . .. 
\\ akonichi.. 
" a."\\ anipi, , 
\\ hitefish.,... 


Total, , 


Ontario- 
\bitibi, portion in Ontario. .., , . , . 
Bald . . . , . . . , . , , , . 
Bah,am, , , 
llU('khorn. .,.., . 
Canu.ron. 
Couehi<<'hin
. 
Deer. 
Dog.. , 
f
.
I('. . . . 
Erie. portion in Ontario. . 
G('orw'. portion in Ontario.... ", . 
Huron. in('luding Georgian bay, 
portion in Ontario.. . 
I.a Croix, portion in Ontario,..,.. 
I an
do\\ np 
Long. 
'Ianitou, 
Ianitou i
land. 
\IiUe La('
, Lac de'.. . . . 

Iud. .. 

I u
koka. 
!'\amakan, portion in Ontario, 
!'\ipiJ!;on.. ... 

ipi

ing... ... 
Ontario, portion in Ontario... 
Panache 
Pig('on, . . , , _ _ _ 
Rainy, portion in Ontario.. 
Rice... _.... . . . . . . .. . 
St. Clair, portion in Ontario.,., . . 
St. Franci'-, river St. La\\rcncc, 
part. . . _ . . . , , . . . 
St. Joseph. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
SaJ!anaga, portion in Ontario., . . . . 

andy... , 

pul. . . . . . , 
Simcoe. .. 

 
, cugog. 

ton
 



quar(' 
Mil(,
. 


59 
350 
SÛ 
130 
106 
12 
65 
29 
23 
63 
270 
44 
100 
19 


11, 330 
331 
2 
17 
14 
6 
]9 
7 
61 
]2R 
5,019 
11 
14,3:H 
23 


 
i.') 

8 
10-1 
13 
,54 
19 
I,no 
0330 
3,727 
35 
15 
2üO 
27 
257 


24 
245 
21 
24,'} 
392 
27] 
39 
]9 



64 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


4.-Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Pro,illces.-continued. 


N ames of Lakes. 


Ontario-concluded. 
Sturgeon, English river...."".. 
Sturgeon, Victoria county. . .,., 
Superior, portion in Ontario... . . 
Timagami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Timiskaming, part. . . . , , 
Trout, English river. . . . . . . . . . 
T.rout, , Seyern river, . . , . , . . . , . 
" anapl tel, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
'''oods, lake of the, part in On- 
tario., . . , , . , . , . . . ., ...... 


Total, , , . , ... ,. . . .. . . 


Manitoba- 
Atikameg. . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Cedar, . . , . . . . , . . . . . . 
Cormorant, . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . 
Dauphin, . . , . , . . . . . . . . .. .... 
Dog. . , . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ebb-and-flow.,. ......,. 
Eta wney , . . . . , , . . , . . . . . . . 
Gods, . , . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . 
Granville. . , . . , , , . . . . . . . 
Island.. . . . .. .. .... , . . . 
Kiskitto. ..................,.. 
Kiski tt ogisu .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . , . , . 
Mani toba. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Moose,..,.,. , . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . 
N amew, part, . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
North Indian,....... , . . . . , , . . . . 
N eul tin, part... - . . . . . . , , , . , . . . . 
Playgreen".. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Reed. . , , , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . - ., . 
Red Deer, west of lake Winni- 
pegosis. . . . . , . , , , . , . . . , . . . . . . 
Reindeer, part....... . . . . . . . . , . . 
St, Martin,..".. , , . . . . . . . 
Setting..... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shoal. . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . 
Sou th Indian, . . . , . . , , . . , , . . . . 
S\van. . , , , , . . . . , . . . , . . , . . . . . . . 
Todatara, part, . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
Water hen,............... .. 
'

k
sko,... . . , . . , . . . . . . . . , . . 
'\\ lnnlpeg, . . . . . , . , . , . . . . . . . , . . 
\Vinnipegosis..,..".. . . . . . . .. .. 
Woods, lake of the, part, . . . . , 


Areas. 


Sq uare 
Miles, 
106 
18 
11, 178 
90 
52 
134 
233 
45 
1,325 
41,188 


90 
285 
141 
200 
64 
39 
625 
319 
392 
551 
69 
122 
1,817 
552 
12 
184 
76 
224 
86 
86 
134 
125 
58 
102 
1,531 
84 
156 
83 
83 
9,459 
2,086 
60 


Total..............., .. 19,894 


Saskatchewan- 
Amisk. , . . , , . , , . , . . . . . . . . . 111 
Athabaska, part...".,.. 1,801 
Buffalo,....... . . .. .. . .. . . . 281 
Candle. . , . . , , , , , . . . , . . . , . . . . 150 
Chaplin. , , . . , , , . . , . , . . . . . . . 66 
Cree... . .... .... .. .. ., .. ...,. 406 
Cumberland.........., ......". 166 
Dove. . . . . . , . . . . . , . , . , , , , , , , . 242 
Ile-a-Ia- Crosse. , . , , , . , . , . . . . . - 187 
Johnston.. . . . . , . . . , , , , , , . . . . - 131 
Last l\lountain. ......, , .. . . 9R 
Little Quill........ . . . . . . 70 
Manitou,..", . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - fJ7 


N ames of Lakps, 


Saska tchewan-concluded. 
Montreal. , . . . . . , . . . . 
N amew, part. , . . . . . , . , . . . . , . . . 
Plonge, Lac la. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 
Quill.."..,. .. . . . . . . ..' ..,...,... 
Red Deer on Red Deer river." -. 
Reindeer, part.,. .. .. .".,.,. 
Ronge, Lac la, . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
White Loon.... . . . . . . . . . . 
Witchikan.. , ., ., .".. ... ... .. 
Wollaston.".,. . . . ...,.. .. .... - 


Total . . 


Alberta- 
Athabaska, part...,..... ., .,..... 
Beaver. . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . , . , . . . . . . . 
Biche, Lac la,.. . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . 
Buffalo,., . . . , , . . . . , . . . , . , , . . . . . . 
Claire. . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . . . 
Lesser Slave.... .. .. . ,..,... .,. . . 
Pakowki, , . . , . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . . . , , . 
Sullivan, . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . , . . . 


Total, . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . 


British Columbia- 
Adams. . . , , . , , . . . . . . . . . . , , , , , . , . 
Atlin, part..., . . . . . . . , . . , , . , , . , . . 
Babine. , . , , , . . , . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . , . 
Chiko., . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , , , . 
Harrison.,.,. , . . . . . ,. . , . , . , . , . 
Kootenay. , . . . . . . . . . . , . , , , , , , . . , . 
Lower Arrow. . , . . , . . , . . . . . . . , . , . 
Okanagan. . . , . , . . . . . . , . , . , . . , . . 
Owikano".."... .,.,.,..."..... 
Quesnel. , , . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . , . . . 
Shuswap, . . . , . . . . , . . . . , , . . . . . . , 
Stuart,.. . , . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . 
Tacla.,...... ..".. ...", " -. 
Tagish, part",. ..... ..., .. " ..,. 
Teslin, part,.,. . . . . . . . . . . , . , . 
Upper Arrow. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , , , . 


Total , . , . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . 


Northwest Territorie::s- 
Aberdeen.,.. .,..... . .. .. ...,. 
Aylmpr. , , , ,-. . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Baker. . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clinton-Colden.,."... . , . . . . . . . . . 
Duba\vnt. , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Franklin..,.. , . , . , , . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Garry, . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 
Gras, Lacde........ .. .... 
Great Bpar. , . . . . . 
Great Slave..,.,.... 
Kaminuriak. . 
Macdougall,. . 
Maguse. . . . . . , . . 
Martre, Lac la.... .. 
Mackay. . . . , . . . . . . . . 
Nueltin, part.. ... .,. . . , . . 
Nutarawit..,.. .,.. ., . . .. 
Pelly ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - 


Areas. 


Sq uare 
Miles. 
138 
54 
383 
163 
97 
2,302 
343 
97 
70 
906 
8,329 


1,041 
89 
125 
55 
404 
480 
72 
94 
2,360 


52 
331 
306 
172 
122 
220 
64 
135 
98 
147 
124 
220 
135 
91 
123 
99 
2,439 


514 
612 
1,029 
674 
1,654 
122 
9RO 
674 
11,821 
10,719 
368 
318 
490 
1,225 
980 
230 
243 
331 



PHrSlr AL GEOGR 11'1/Y OJ? ('.cLY.l/JA 


65 


4.- \n..... of l
rlnclI).tI ('an
dlan I ake:> b) l
rO\ll1rc
-('on('lud('d. 


X 8.lm.'s of LtLkf'
, 


I Arm., 
 


!\anu's of LtLkf'
. 


An'tLs, 


To tal ,...'. 
). ukon - 
.\i:,hihik.. . , . . . . 
.\ tlin, part..,...... .. .. .. .' 
h.luanc...... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 


, :-'q mLft'U 
Xort h" l':,t 1\'rritori('s-('oneluclpd. :\1 ilt.s. Yukon-('on('lud('ù. 
:,('hultz... , 1:2:J II Ku:--a.wa,...,..., 
Thoalintoa. 1
4 II I.aberg(.,. 
Todatara, part. 52 \lar:.;h.. , 
\. athkYl'd, . . . . . , 8fj8 II TUJ!;ish, part. 
Tf':,lin, part... 
JI,3D1 II 
0 ... II 
1 , 
I::? 
1 '-4 II 


:--:q uaro' 
)1 ilt's. 
,"){) 
S7 
a2 
48 
12:1 


Total "". 


61!t 


('anada 


r!o,!'
 I 


Islands. -'rhe northern anù wp",tt'rn eoasts of Canada are 
:-:kirted hy rlu
tl'rs of islands. 'fhosp on the north ar' 1l10::stly ,,"ithin 
th(' Aretie ('irelp. On tlH' wpst, 'alH'{)UVer and (l\H'pn (
harlotte 
I
lands are the largest and JlIO::;t illlportant. On tlH' past, h(':..;jdp
 the 
s('parat(' i
land l'olony of Newfoundland, tlu're are Cape Br'ton 
Island, fortnin
 part of t hl' provilu'(' of X ova Hcotia, Prince Edward 
Island, fonning onp of t he nine proviIH'('s of Canada, thE' \f agdalE'1l 
r
land
 and the i
land of Antico
ti. '1'0 the south of Xe,vfoundland 
are thl' two SIllall i:,lands of 
t. Pi('rrt' and l\Jiquplon belonging to 
France. In lak(' Iluron is th(' island of .:\fanitoulin and the :-:o-('allpd 
'rhirty 'rhou
and l
land:" of Georgian Bay. In the 
t. Lawrence 
riv('r, ju
t helo,," lake- Ontario, art' the' pieturl'
quP l'hou
and Islands. 


G}:OI
O(
 1 .\
 D }
l'():\ 0)11(' \u:\ J..;U.\l

. 
By R. \\"... BROCK, 
I.A., LL.D., F,G.S., D('an, Faculty of Applied Science, 
Univt'l'sity of Brit i
h Columbia, 
Geological Investigations.- The geulogical invt'stigation of 
(1anada nlay be said to have ('OUlIl1eIH'ed in 18-1:3 with the organiza- 
tion of the Gpological Surycy of Canada. under Sir \Yïllianl Logan. 
1'h(' clas:,ieal ,york of Logan and hi
 little coterie of a
sistants, :\Iurray, 
IIunt, Bil1ing
, and others, ,vas sUllunarized in the Gpology of Canada, 
published in 181)3, \vhich deals \vith the 
outhern portions of Ontario 
and Qu('hec. Sincp this "Ya.;; ,vritten, the ,vork of thp Geological 

urYey has gradually \videned until at pre
ent it elllhracp:, th(' northern 
half of the continent of North _\.Inerica. 
Iuch of this ,vork has been 
exploratory. The great field to be covered 'with a small force ha<; 
prev('nted concentration of effort, and in no single district can it he 
claimed that the geological probleIl1s are cOlIlpletcly solv('d. The 
natural difficulties of travel in the northland haye rendered the pro- 
gr(':,s of even reconnais
ance work tedious, and a large part of Canada 
is still practically unexplored. X cverthelpss .sufficient has been done 
to make kno,vn its Illain geological features, to indicate roughly the 
tprritories that will be found to be mineral bearing;, to pre
age the 
character of its Illineral resources in the ùiffen'nt geological province:-; 
and to demonstrate that Canada is destined to become one of the 
great mining countries of the 'world. 
38131-5 


I 



66 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


A brief summary of the characteristics of the main natural 
divisions of the country will at least suggest the possibilities of great 
expansion in the mineral development of the country. 
Appalachian Region.- The southeastern portion of Quebec, 
together with the l\laritime provinces, forms the northeastern exten- 
sion of the Appalachian l\1ountain system. The Appalachian region 
is characterized by rock formations, ranging from pre-Cambrian to 
Carboniferous, that a,re typically disturbed and thrown into a succes- 
sion of folds. In Canada the Appalachian extension is found to possess 
many of the min
rals which have placed some of the eastern States 
in the foremost rank of mineral and industrial districts of the world. 
Important deposits of coal, iron, and gold are mined in Nova Scotia. 
Of lesser but still considerable importance, are the gypsum, stone and 
building material industries; manganese, antimony, tripolite and 
barite are also mined, and some attention has been paid to copper. 
The principal minerals of New Brunswick are gypsum, iron, coal, 
stone for building purposes -and grindstones, clays, antimony, man- 
ganese, mineral water and oil-bearing shales. Natural gas is also an 
important product. The chief asbestos mines of the world are 
situated in southeastern Quebec, and there are important deposits 
of chrome iron ore, copper and pyrite. Iron ores and gold also occur.. 


Lowlands of the St. Lawrence Valley.-The southern portion 
of Ontario and the valley of the St. La,vrence are very similar geologi- 
cally to the state of New York, and consist mainly of flat-lying 
Palæozoic rocks. The mineral products are the same, viz., clay, 
cement and other building materials, petroleum, natural gas, salt, 
gypsum and other non-metallic minerals. 
Laurentian Plateau.-North of the valley of the St. La,vrence, 
from Newfoundland to beyond the lake of the 'V oods, and enclosing 
Hudson bay like a huge V, is an area of pre-Cambrian rocks, estimated 
to cover 2,000,000 square miles, or over one-half of Canada. Over the 
greater portion reconnaissance surveys only have been made, and the 
southern fringe of it alone may be said to be kno,vn, and of this 
fringe only a portion has been prospected. These rocks of the pre- 
Cambrian are remarkable for the variety of useful and valuable min- 
erals they contain. Iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, plati- 
num, lead, zinc, arsenic, pyrite, mica, apatite, graphite, feldspar, 
quartz, corundum, talc, actinolite, the rare earths, ornamental stones 
and gems, building materials, etc., are all found, and are, or have 
been profitably mined. Most of the other minerals, both common 
and rare, that are used in the arts have been found. Diamonds have 
not been located, but from their discovery in glacial drift from this 
area it is altogether probable that they occur. 
A tongue of these pre-Cambrian rocks extends into N ew York 
state, ,vhich supports some large and varied mineral industries. An- 
other extension crosses over from Canada into lVlichigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota. In it are located the Michigan copper mines and the 



GFOLOGY L\"n RCOXOJIIC }'[I.\TERL1LS 


67 



reat Lake Buperior iron ran
e
. .\.Iong the southern C'dgp of the pre- 
Calnbrian in Canada, the only portion that has yet re('C'ivpd any 
pro
pe('ting, theft' arC' already kno".n copper and 
old deposits in 

askatchewan and :\fanitoha, the gold rangf>S of the lake of the '" oods, 
the 
ilY(>r of rrhunder bay, a succest)ion of iron rang,{'
 cÀtplHling frOIl! 
)[innesota for hundreds of ll1Ïlcs to Quebec, copper rocks of l\liehi- 
picoten and Bru('(> lHines, the budhury copp(>r-nick(>} d(>po
its (prob- 
ably the largest hiJ,!:h grade ore Lodies in the world), thp l\Iontrcal 
river and Cobalt silver areas, the ,vorld-falllous Porcupine and other 
J,!:old deposits, the eorund\un dl'}>o
its of t'a
t(>rn Ontario, tll<' lna
ne- 
tites of eastern Ontario and (
u(>he(' and thpir lar
(' apat it(>-n1Ïc:t 
dl'TH.)sits. In the far north about Coronation gulf, are rOl'ks that 
,,'ill warrant prosp{\eting, since they bear native copper very sin1Ïlar 
to the great l\Iichi1!,an occurrCIlCCS. 
Interior Plain.-The great(>r portions of .:\Ianitoha and Sa
kat- 
che\van, that lie outside of the pre-C:unbrian, and the province of 
.AlIwrta, arc prc-ell1inently a
ricultural; but in addition to furni:-,h- 
ing an Ì1nportant nlarh.et for the product of th(' nlÏn(>s they ".ill have 
a larf!e output of non-1l1etallic lllilleral
. 'fhe IntC'rior plain i" under- 
lain for the most part by sedilnentary rocks, chi('fty of Cr(>tal'cou
 
age, containing ('oal, building stone
, clay
, !-\onle of th(,lJl high grade, 
and celn(>nt Inatpria.I
. X atural gas OVl'r wide ar('as ulHI under great 
pr('
sure ha:-: been tapped, and there is ('very indication of a lar
c 
oil field in the northern portion, at least, of Alb('rta, and 
Onl{\ oil 
ha
 been encountered in the southwest. Tll(
 10'we1' sandstolH'" of the 
Cretaceous along the .Athaoa
ka river, \vh('re they COllIe to the surface, 
arc for n1ÏI(>
 saturated with bituillen. 1'hcRf' tar sands 'will prohahly 
average 12 per Cl'nt in Inaltha or asphaltulu. Hecent prosp('cting has 
discovered oil at Puuce Coupé Oil the Peace river, and at Fort NOrInan, 
on the ::\Iaekenzie river, near the Arctic circle. 
\.t other points in 
the Devonian rock" of the :\Iack(,llzi(> ha
in oil indications occur. 
The lig-nites of the east(>rn plains are useful for local purposes, and 
highly bitun1Ïnizcd coals ar(' found as the mountainb arc approached. 
'''ast areas are und(>rlain hy lignite o('cb in 
a
katchc,van and .Alberta, 
and the reserves of bitulninous coal in Alherta are enornlOUS. Gold 
i
 found in a numher of th(> rivers con1Ïng froln the mountains. Clay 
ironstone occur
 in nlany parts of the north,vpst, and ,viII in time be 
utilized. Salt and gypSUDl also occur. 
Cordilleran Belt.-The Cordilleran belt in Bouth .America, ;11 
l\Iexico, and in the Western States, is recognized as one of the grcatest 
mining regions of the world, noted principally for its ,vealth in gold, 
silver, copper and lead. The Cordilleras stand unparalleled in the 
,vorld fot the continuity, eÀtent and variety of their mineral resources. 
In Canada and in .Alaska this belt maintains its rC'putation, although 
in both, for the greater part, it is unprospected. In Canada the belt 
has a length of 1,300 miles and a ,vidth of 400 miles. It is pre-emin- 
ently a great mining region. Its rocks range from the oldest fornla- 
tions to the youngest; vulcanislu and mountain building processes 
have repeatedly been active. 
38131-5! 



68 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CAN ADA 


'Yhile a nUlnber of mining camps have been developed near the 
International boundary line (Sullivan, Slocan, Rossland, Boundary, 
Copper l\It.) and along the Pacific coast (Britannia, Surf Inlet, 
Anyox, 
tewart), and ,vhile some of the lnain streams have been 
prospected for placer gold, the greater part- of the Cordilleran belt 
in Canada is as yet untouched. Probably not one-fifth can be said 
to have been prospected at all, not one-twentieth prospected in detail, 
and not one area however slnall, completely tested. The chief products 
of the lode mines of the Cordilleran belt in Canada are copper, gold, 
silver, lead and zinc. Yukon is noted for its production of placer 
gold and is now attracting attention with rich silver ores. In addition 
to these minerals there are, in this portion of the country, enormous 
resources of coal of excellent quality, varying fronl lignite to anthra- 
cite, and conveniently distributed. Only the coal areas of the southern 
part of the province and a few small areas on the rrelkwa, Skeena 
and N ass rivers and on the Yukon have as yet been examined. 
Great unprospected areas are known to contain, in places, coal 
formations, and will no doubt when explored add greatly to the 
present known reserves. The coal production is not large as compared 
with the supply; but a large increase in production may be expected 
in the near future, as these are the best steaming and coking coals 
in the west. 
Upon the kno,vledge already gleaned concerning the economic 
deposits of the Dominion by geological exploration, by prospecting 
and by actual mining, it is safe to predict that the mineral industry 
will become a very great and valuable one. I ts development ,viII 
render essential a close study of the geology of the country. The 
geological field in Canada is as rich and inviting as the mining. 
Perhaps half the rock history of the world is written in the pre- 
Calnbrian, and it is of this portion that most remains to be deciphered. 
Since the greatest spread of these old rocks occurs in Canada, much 
of this ,york will fall to Canadian geologists, and the careful solution 
of the problems presented will be as valuable to science as to the 
mining industry. 


GEOLOGY IN RELATION TO AGRI('ULTURE IN CANADA. 
By 'VYATT MALCOLM, Department of Mines, Ottawa. 
The agricultural pO::5sibilities of any country are dependent upon 
the character of the soil and on the physiographic features. Both of 
these are closely related to the geology and geological history of the 
coun try. 
Soils.-
oil, strictly speaking, consists of but a thin surface 
layer of loo
e material containing humus, derived from the decompo- 
sition of organic mattf'r and other cOlnpounds suitable for plant 
growth. The great proportion of both the soil and the subsoil consists 
of mineral matter. From the mineral constituents are derived potash 
and phosphoric aciù, two of the chief compounds essential to the 
growth of vegetation. The mineral constituents are derived from 



Gl/uLOG}? I.V UA'L.t TIO.\''' TO tGR1CrLTl UP 


()!} 


roek
 that through va riOU:-ì pro('p
:-\('
 ha vp I>ppn dP('otll P 0"'; ('d into 
incohpr 
nt partielps. 
oils Inay be "'holly residual, that is, tllPY Inay 
('on:-\i
t of nlaterial d('rived fro III thp decay of iU1I1lpdiatply undprl} ing; 
roek
; or they Illay eon
i
t of transportpd Jnat('rial or of a Iuixtuf(> 
of rp
idual and tran....portcd Inatcrial. 
'rlu> levpl, hilly or lllountainous character of the coun try is deppnd- 
pnt on the naturp of the roek
 and on the pro('(':-\sps of uplift, foldin
 
and >ro",ion to which thpy havp }W('1l 
uhj('et('(l. 
editlleJltary rorks 
like sand
tolH'
 and shale' vield r >adih'" to the aetion of sueh dpstnH'- 
tivc a
pnt:-; a:-, v:lriations òf tptnpt'r:lt.u(>, fro
t, rain. "ind, running 
\Va tel' and i('p, and of Chpulical pf()('('
:-:P=-, such as o:\.ida t ion, hydration 
and carhonation. 'fh(\ har<1pr rocks, on the othf'f hand, 
uch a
 
(]uartzites, slatp:'( and granih's, :lre n10f(' rc:,i
tant; I110untains COlllPOSP(1 
of th('
p ar(' t hprpforp tllore 
Iowl:v --uhdupd than are tho
e ('OJlll)():-\pd 
of StlIH.lstoJlPS and cihales. 
l\gricultural Re
ions.-'Thc portion of Ca.nada, thp cliluatiC' 
C'onditions of which arc fa\"'ourablp to agriculture, l11ay be divided 
into fiyp 
rpa t rpp:ions: 
1. 'fhp LaurpntiaB platpau, con
i
tÍng of the vast uplalHI 
ur- 
rounding Ilud
on hay and undprlain chiefly by igneou
 rocks, :-5uch 
as granite, tog(,thpr \\ ith a k

 :UHount of hard('oed s('dilnent
. 
2. TIlt'" 
\ppalaehiall rt'gion, Ol'('upyÍng thp 
Iariti1l1P PrOVitH'PS 
and east('rn Quphp(' and und(>rlain by foldp<.l sc<.lÍ111cnt
 and igneous 
rocks. 
:t 1""he 
t. Lawrpnc(> lowland
 of :-,outh('rn Qu('bcc and southprll 
Ontario, undprlain by n('arly hori/ontal f'('dinlpllts. 
4. l'hp Plain region of 
Ianitoba, 
a:-ìkatchewan and .A.lherta, 
underlain by fiat-lying 
pdilnpnt:-,. 
5. rfhe Cordillpran region, the nJountaiJ.ous rpg-ion extpIHling 
frotH thp Ro('k
r nlountain...; to thp Paeifie coast and uIHh>rlain hy 
fol<.lpd st>diIHent...; antI igncous ro('l
. 
Thf'
e five rpgions have all bepn e:\.p()
('d to ,,
pathpring for a 
long tina'. Thp Laurentian plateau i-; the oldp:-;t land an'a of any 
grea t extpnt in Canada. 
During the long H
es that thi
 Laurpntian contint>nt ha
 been 
eÀpù::--ed. the arpa to the 
outheast, 
()uth and ,ve
t has })('PJl 
ub- 
I1lprged for long pl'rio<l
 heneath the 
ea, and great thicknp

es of 
sandstollPS, 
hales, and lil11estones ha.ve been laid do,vn. 'fhpse 
sedilnent
 have been plpvated 
ubspqu('ntly above 
ea l('\"'cl, cprtain 
sections sueh as south,yp:"Ü'rn Quebec, 
outhern Ontario and tlH' 
plains of 
Ia.nitoha, Saskatche,van and Albert3 ri:-,in
 so gpntly as to 
produce little disturbanc(' of the rock strata; ,yhile in ('astprn Qu('Lec, 
X p,v Brunswiek, 
 o\"'a 
cotia and British ColuInhia the strata ha\"'P 
bepn folded and crushed into Illountain ranges and intruded by igneou
 
rocks, 
The 
oils dprived from the:-;e roC'ks hy long subjection to decolnpos- 
ing agenciC':-ì ,verp greatly di
turbed in recent tim(--; by gla('iation. 
Xearly the whole of Canada ,vas covered by ice, ,vhich in the 
outh('rn 



70 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


part of the country had a general southerly movement. The result 
of the glaciation was that great stretches of country were denuded of 
soil, and other areas received accessions of a great quantity of trans- 
ported material. . rrowards the close of the glacial period .the out!ets 
of nlany depressIons were closed by lobes of the retreatIng glacIers 
and becaTIle filled with ,vater. These lakes formed areas for the 
deposition of fine sediInents, such as clay Hnd silt, and on the final 
melting of the glaciers large stretches of level fertile land remained. 
Laurentian Plateau.-The most extensive physiographic unit 
of Canada is the subdued Laurentian plateau. This is a gently sloping 
plateau of rather even surface, comparatively low and seldom rising 
2,000 feet above the sea. The hills breaking the even surface rise 
but a few hundred feet at most above the general level. 
It is a great V-shaped area surrounding Hudson bay and extends 
from the Atlantic ocean, on the Labrador coast, west to a line running 
north,vest through lake Winnipeg, lake Athabaska, Great Slave 
lake and Great Bear lake. It extends south to lake Huron and 
lake Superior, and occupies nearly all the provinces of Ontario and 
Quebec, except the area southwest of a line running from Kingston 
to Georgian bay, that part of eastern Ontario forming the angle 
between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers, and that part of Quebec 
south of St. Lawrence river. 
This plateau is underlain by hardened sediments and igneous 
rocks. The latter are much more widespread than the former, and 
granitic types predominate. The rocks of this reg
on are among the 
oldest rocks of which geologists have any kno,vledge. They are very 
resistant, and although they have been exposed to weathering since 
very early in the earth's history the inequalities in the surface features 
have not been wholly reduced. These inequalities have been 
augmented by glacial action. A further effect of glaciation was the 
denuding. of much of this region of its soil. Generally speaking, 
therefore, the physiographic and soil conditions are not favourable 
to agricultural pursuits. Over a great part of the area, however, 
sufficient soil has been retain.ed to support a forest growth, although 
insufficient for agriculture, and it is to be regretted that large stretches 
of such land have been depleted of their forests and have become 
dreary, barren wastes. 
Within the plateau there are valleys where areas of softer rock 
have afforded a greater abundance of soil that has not been removed 
by glaciation, and beautiful cultivated fields lend a pleasing contrast 
to the surrounding forest. In places the sediments deposited in the 
basins of glacial lakes have reduced the inequalities of the surface and 
produced large level areas of arable land. Interesting examples of 
these are furnished by the Clay Belt of northern Ontario and Quebec, 
traversed by the Grand Trunk Pacific raihvay, and by the flat section 
of country along the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway a few 
miles north of Sudbury. 



GFOWGY lJoY RFLATIo).r TO AGRICULTURE 


71 


...\ppalachian Region.-'rhe \ppalachian region occupies the 
hilly' pnrt of 
outhefistprn f
uebcc :tnd the l\laritime Provinces. Ilere 
durin!! rCluote geolop.ieal ages the spdinlpn :try beùs of liInestone, 
Nllldstone and shale that had been deposited beneath the sea ,vere 
folded into 1110untain ranges, and "ere llluch altered and hardened 
and intruded hy ip,ncous rocks. Duril1
 lon
 succcedin
 
tgcs these 
nlountains have been subdued, and little is left that nHlY hc regarded 
as nlountains CXC{'pt the Kotre Daule range of Quebec ,,,ith a gcner.a,} 
{'lcyation of 1,000 to 2,000 feet and with peaks rising ahove 3,500 
fept, the broken hillY' country of the nortlnn'stcrn part of N C\v Bruns- 
,vick, fi -;pction of this province bordering the bay of l-;'undy, and a 
ccntral rid
e in Nova 
octia. 
In the ordinary proceS
C8 of erosion 1l1uch of the loosened material 
re
ulting from rock decay "rns carried s('a,,'ard, and in recellt tunes 
glaciation denuded a great deal of thl
 more elevated sections of 
country, lcavin
 barely enough soil to support a forest 
ro,vth. 
In some places sedilnents hayc be('n ùepo:;itecl subsequently to 
the great foldin!!, procc

ps of earlier a
t
:-3; they are unaltered, easily 
attacked by "reathcrin
 agencies find are overlain by an 
unple depth 
of 
oil. The soils of Prince E(hvard Island, the Annapolis-Corll\\ allis 
vaHey and other sections are derived fron1 these s:tndstones and shales 
of later depoBition, the ,,-hales producing the clayey constituents and 
thp sandstones yieldin
 the 
and that renders the soil porous and 
tillable. Calcareous 
lates have in pla('e
, :such as in Carleton and 
York co lnties, X e\v Brunswick, broken do,vn into fertile soils. In 
eastern Quebec sufficient 
oil has been retained in the valleys to render 
the land arable.. 
The great fertility of the rec1aillled ruarshes of K ova Scotia and 
New Bruns".ick is due to the fine silt deposited by the tides by 'which 
they ,vere formerly submerged ' 
St. Lawrence Lowlands.- The St. LawTcnce 100wiands consist 
of the 
enerally level, arable land south of the Laurentian plateau. 
This lies on both sides of the 
t. L1,\vrence above Quebec, reaching 
south to the international boundary, occupies the eastern part of 
Ontario, east of a line running southward from a point about 50 Iniles 
west of Otta",'a, and fornlS that portion of Ontario lying southwest of 
a line C'xtending from Kingston to Georgian bay. 
These lowlands are among the most fertile of Canada's agricul- 
tural sections. They are underlain by flat-lying shales and limp
tones 
which yield readily to weathering. The physiographic features are 
favourable, and the residual material derived from the deconlposition 
of limestones and shales results in a fertile, calcareous, clayey soil. The 
loose surface deposits are of great depth, in places exceeding 200 feet. 
The lowlands were overridden by the great glacier. This glacia- 
tion, ho"yever, had apparently slight denuding effect on this part 
of the country, but served to mix the loose Dlaterial::; resulting from 
the '\veathering of the shales and limestones, and contributed thp 
potash-bearing ingredients transported from the granitic areas of the 
Laurentian plateau. 



72 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


In SOlne sections, as in the vicinity of the Great Lakes, sedimenta- 
tion took place in large lakes produced by the blocking 0(' the outlets 
of the present lake basins by lobes of the retreating glacier. Recent 
sedimentation took place also over south\vestern Quebec and eastern 
Ontario during submergence beneath the sea about the close of the 
glacial period. 
Plain Region.-The plains of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta are underlain by nearly flat-lying shales and sandstones. 
These have \veathered do\vn into the clays and clay loanls that have 
made the plains one of the great \vheat-producing districts of the 
world. This part of Canada was also subjected to glaciation, but 
the great proportion of the surface deposits is derived fronl the under- 
lying rocks. 
Some large stretches of the Plains region \vere submerged by 
glacial lakes in which fine silts and clays carried down from the sur- 
rounding land and introduced by glacial strean1S \vere deposited. 
Such is the very fertile Red River valley. This is a part of the bed 
of a great lake that extended from the Laurentian plateau west to 
the l\Ianitoba escarpment; it reached southward into the United 
States and northward 100 miles beyond lake 'Vinnipeg. '- 
The great fertility of the prairie provinces is due in part to the 
mineral constituents of the soil and in part to the great acculnulation 
of nitrogenous organic matter, the remains of ages of vegetable 
growth. 
Cordilleran Region.- The Cordilleran region, extending from 
the Rocky mountains to the Pacific ocean, is underlain by igneous 
rocks of various kinds and by sediments that have been folded into 
mountain ranges and much altered. The whole region renlains 
mountainous, though the interior section is reduced tu an elevated 
plateau. Agricultural pursuits are therefore limited to the valleys. 
In these there arc numerous terraces composed of silt carried do\vn 
by streams issuing from former glaciers, the latter acting as eroding 
agents on the underlying rocks. These valley deposits are fertile 
and are welJ adapted to fruit culture. r-rhe soil of the lo\ver Fraser 
is a heavier soil and consists chiefly of alluvium. 
Thus is Canada's rich heritage in green forests and broad waving 
fields of grain the result of the geological processes of ages. Nature 
in her sterner n100ds produ('ed thof'e great upheavals, foldings and 
crushings of the earth's crust that resulted in the rugged and uneven 
stretches of country suited to the growth of forests; in her kindlier 
moments she slowly and gently and \vith little disturbance elevated 
above the sea the level or slightly undulating areas so \vell adapted 
to agriculture. Ages before man appeared upon the earth had the 
geological proce

es already determined \vhat his pursuits should be 
and ,vhere they should be carried on. 



. 



rov nee 
I - ret c P. 'rovlncc 

- Sub- rc;IC 
rc5t '.Jrov nee 
1- ., 


. 


,'1$ 


4 - Care 
5 - PrDi, 
a 1st 
b 2nd 
C 3,.,/ 



40 0 


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L A I 


anical Provinces 
01-- 
CANADA 


IOO 
Q 


Scale of miles 
100 4 QO 


fÃ). 


o 


d 5 


90. 


6 . 
80 


700 


? Inee 


6 -Roc
 Mountal,ns province 
7 -Selk,rk MountaIns province 
B - Coast Mountains province 
9 - Dry Belts province 


'C
 




e 

 



72 



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(. 


15ft 


30 0 


ti( 
of 
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0] 
gI. 


A 
T 
In 


. cal Provinces 
OI 
NADA 


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tl- 
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81 
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tJ 
8 


n- 
o: 
go 


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p 
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lhctoria Memorial Museum 


To face page 73' 



TUB FLOR.! OF rA.YAlJA. 


73 


'I.'lIE }'LOlt.\ OF CA
.\DA.l 
By :\1. U. :\IALTE, Ph,D., Chief Botanist, National Herbarium, Dppartlllent of 
l\Iines, Ottawa. 


I XTRODUCIT,ION. 
1,1 is a "C'll1..nown fact that, at a geologically recent period, 
pra('tH'ally the ".hoIe of Canaùa froll1 the llocky mountains east 
"'us covprC'd ,vith glueial ice ,,,hich, 
lo,,"ly advancing 
outhward, 
rpaehl'd a
 far a
 c(\ntral 
rissouri in the "(Tnit<,ù States. 'Vhatever 
v('g('tation Illay havp tiourisht'd in Canada hefore the glacial period 
was gradually fo}"cf'd to luigrate south,,'ard as the ice advanced. 
J)uring thi
 retreat Inany sppci('s ,vere no doubt ,vip<,d out of exist- 
('11('P, but a certain nUIn1>('r, IJplonging })('rhaps largely to types which 
now art' found in the arc,tiC' r('gion
, InanagC'd to 
urvive. In fact, 
WP n1u
t surn1Ì
e that, durin
 th(' glacial pC'riod, the vpgetation ÏInmed- 
iatply in front of thC' 
ontinC'ntal icp ,vas arctic in character and that, 
\dH'n thp glaeiation rpaelH'd its Ilulxin1ulll, tho:5e parts of tlH' United 

tatf'S whieh ,,"ere inuHPdiatdv to the south of the ice had a flora 

ilnilar to that no,,, cxi
ting in 
tlH' far nurth. 
,\rith thp r<'turn of a warnH'r eIinultp and thC' gradual rf'cession 
of the continC'lltal icC', vegetation bpgan to lnove back nortlnvard, 
with th
 ...\rctic typt.s ;:lS a vanguard followed by 1110re te1l1perate 
and t'oU t hprn ont's. (
('nC'raIly spt'aking, t hC' Canadian flora, as it 
pxist
 today, Inay thprefore 1)(' :-;aiù to h(' (,olHposeù of inunigrants 
that took pú:-:....\,

ion of the country after the glacial period and 
f'stahli:-:hC'd thpnlsC'lveð in hotanical provin('e
 in accorùance ,vith 
their spe('ifi(. rpquireIlll'n t
. 'fhC'st' hotanical provinces, genprally 
referred to as zones, will he hriefly de
cribcd in the following pages. 
For the houndaril'
 of tht' various ZOIll'S, Ref' thp accon1panying 111ap. 
The Arctic Zone.- Botanically, thp arctic zone is the re
ion 
lying north of thl' tr('(' linC'. In Canada it extt'nds far to the south 
of thC' arcti(' ('irele, C'
r('cially in the eastprn parts of the Dominion. 
It
 
outhprn lin1Ït i:" roughly, a line running from the estuary of 

rack('nziC' rivpr to thC' Inouth of Churchill riv('r on the "
est coast 
of Hudson hay. Ea
t of Hudson hay, the tree line, i.e., the southern 
boundary of thf' arctic zone, runs froln about lat. 56 0 on Richlllond 
gulf to th(' 1l10Uth of GC'or!!l' river on thC' ea
tC'rn f'hore of Ungava bay, 
and frolll thC'rC' in a southt'astprly direction along the cost of Labrador 
to IIan1ÏIton inlet. Bouth of IIarnilton inlet a narro\v strip along the 
coabt as far bouth as the strait of Belle Isle and extending a short 
distancC' to thC' \v('
t froln there i
 also barren of real trees and thpre- 
forf' ha:-; an arctic a
pC'ct. 'fhis strip ('an hardly be included in the 
arctic zone propC'r, however, although a fe\v arctic plants 111ay be 
found there; the lack of tree
 and the barren appearance in 
eneral 
arC' cau
('d by thl' arctic current \vhich flo"T;') fron1 the north along the 
coa"t .and th
ough the strait of Belle Isle. 


IThis article is a revised and popularized edition of a paper, entitled "Flora of Canada," b
r the late 
:\rr. J. 
I. .Macoun, c.
r.G.. F.L.S" and the writer, published in Canada Year Book, 1915, and also as 
'Iu
('um Bulletin Xo. 26, Geological 
urvey, Department of 
[jnes, Ottawa, HH7. 



74 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


The vegetation in the arctic zone is, generally speaking, of a 
low-gro,ving and even d,varfed type. As mentioned above, the arctic 
zone has no real trees. The ,voody plants, even when half a century 
old or more, reach a very inconspicuous height in con1parison ,vith 
their next of kin farther south and are often prostrate or even trailing 
along the ground. In the more northern parts of the arctic zone the 
most conspicuous ,voody plants are ,villows and dwarf birches. Far- 
ther south, on the tundra, i.e., the more or less boggy lo,vlands north 
of the tree line, the ,voody plants are chiefly represented by members 
of the blueberry family. 
In respect to herbaceous vegetation, the arctic flora of Can- 
ada is very closely related to the so-called circumpolar flora in 
general. Not only are there n1any species in arctic Canada which 
occur all around the north pole, but in general characteristics the 
Canadian arctic plants are very sin1Ïlar to arctic plants elsewhere, 
and particularly to those growing in Greenland and arctic Europe. 
A striking form of growth encountered in many species is the 
dense, compact, bunchy type, which especially is found well developed 
on rocky ground in the northern sections of the arctic zone. This 
form of growth, as is ,veIl kno,vn, is characteristic also of arid and 
sen1i-arid regions in hot climates, and at first sight it may seem strange 
that it should also be found in the arctic. The arctic zone, however, 
from a plant physiological point of view, is somewhat akin to arid 
regions farther south. In the latter regions the bunch growth is 
generally considered to be associated with a shortage of water supply 
in the ground, and so it may also be considered in the arctic, to some 
extent at least. For, even if the. ground may apparently be well 
supplied ,vith moisture, the plants relying upon the moisture are 
often unable to utilize it on account of the temperature in the ground 
being at tin1es so low that the water-absorbing parts of the plants are 
incapable of functioning. 
Compactness of growth is also displayed by a number of plants 
which, although not growing in defined bunches, form dense and often 
rather extended mats. On the other hand, however, there are quite 
a number of species which grow neither in bunches nor in mats; 
these are common especially on the tundra. 
Practically all arctic plants are perennials. Owing to the short- 
ness of the season they are often caught by early frost before they have 
ripened their fruit and when still developing blossoms. Indeed, many 
species enter the winter regularly in this condition and hibernate 
with flower and leaf buds in an advanced stage of development. When 
the returning sun again wakes them up to renewed activity, they are 
therefore ready to spring into blossom over-night, as it were, and to 
present a surprisingly rapid development of vegetative as well as of 
floral organs. 
The Sub-arctic Forest Zone.-The sub-arctic or so-called 
coniferous forest extends, in the east, from the arctic zone south- 
ward to a line running approximately from Anticosti to the south end 
of lake "'"innipeg. This line is practically identical with the northern 



TIlE FLORA OF C.L\"lD 1 


75 


lirnits of thp ,vhite and the red pine. "est of lake 'Yinnipe
 the 
suh-aretic for('st is hounded to thp south and west by the prairil>s 

nd the foothills of the Rorky mountains, rcspectivcly. The Gaspé 
peninsula and 
cctions of Ne'v Brunswiek Jl1ay abo be indudcd in 
the sub-arctic forest zone. 
rrhe sub-arctic fore
t, as the name indicates, is decideùly horeal. 
1"he trees do not reach any ÏIllpo:-:ing height and the nunlbcr of spe('ies 
,vhich II1a1..e up t he for(;
t is SIllall in cOlnpari:,on ,,'ith the IHlIll hpr 
occurrin
 in the hard,,'ood forest 70ne to the south. 1""he sub-areti(t 
forest is largely coniferous in character, the hlack ..lnd ,vhite ::ipruce 
hein
 the dOIninating trees. Of the other coniferous trt'Ps the ]\ank- 
sian pine is the 11l0st iInportant species. It reaches perfection in the 
,,'est('rn part of the zonc and ('on:,titutes the chicf source of supply 
of IU11lber for the northern prairie region. 1"lu> other trpcs character- 
istic of thc zone in J,!;cneral are a
pen and bals3.Ill poplar, ,vhitp hireh, 
larch. and babanl fir. Bt'twePIl the 
ulf of St. LawTence and lake 
'Vinnipeg, ,,'hite cedar, ,vhite elIn, and ash arc occasionally Inct ,vith, 
hut these trees l"an not be considered to belong to the suh-arctic 
forest proper. 
Perhaps the 1110st striking characteristic of the sub-arctic for(;::,t 
is the abundance of berry 
hrubs; as ex
unples Iliay be IneIltiorwd 
gooseberries, currants, hlupberries, ra
pLerric:-:, yello,,
-berrics, and 
hi
h-b Ish cranberries. .Another striking feature in the conlple
ion 
of the sub-arctic forest is the reIllarkahle uniforn1Ïty, in grneral 
character as ""ell as in specie
, exhibited throughout the zone. rrhi
 
lack of variety is e"pecially strikin
 in the vegetation of the hogs, 
"rhich are very nUlnerous throu
hout the zone, the species encountered 
in the bogs of anyone part of the zonr being characteristic of prac- 
tically the ,vhole sub-arctic forest. 
Òn the ,,'hole, the herbaceous flora of the sub-arctic forest is 
renlarkably unifor11L throughout, and hardly a species is found that 
docs not occur either in the arctic zone or in the hardwood forest 
zone to the south. _\. notc"9orthy exception to this rule is a snu1l1 
,vater lily, in fact the smalle
t of the ,yater lilie
, ,yhich is found in 
the sub-arctic forest zone only. 
The sub-arctic forest zone is as yet almost undisturbed by 
settlers except in some 
ections of the eastern provinces, for instance 
in parts of the so-called clay belts of northern Quebec and Ontario. 
I t forms a vast reserve of national ,yealth and nlay in the future, 
subject to judicious nl3.nagement, furni
h the chief supply of wood for 
the pulp and paper industries in eastern X orth Anlerica. 
The Hardwood Forest Zone.- J:'he hard,,'ood forest zone 
includes all eastern Canada south of the sub-arctic forest, ,vith the 
exception of 3 small region in southern Ontario ,,'hich extends bet\veen 
the shore of lake Erie and a line running approxinlately from Toronto 
to 'Yindsor. 
The hard\yood forest zone is characterized chiefly by deciduous 
trees, the principal ones being ba

,vood, sugar ITlaple, red maple, 
black a
h, ,vhite ash, ,vhite elm, yello,y birch, red oak, burr oak, and 



76 


PHYSICAL CHARA.CTERISTICS OF CANADA 


beech. Of the coniferous trees 'white pine, red pine, helnlock, and 
'white cedar are the most in1portant. The underbrush, although very 
variable and rnade up of a great nun1ber of species, is generally rather 
scanty and becon1es conspicuous, as a component of the forest, only 
along the borders of the \yoods or \vhere the ,voods are open. _\mong 
the n10st typical shrubs may be mentioned service berry, moosewood, 
purple flo\vering raspberry, sun1ach, poison ivy, and arro\v-\voods. 
As the rainfall is abundant throughout the hard\vood forest 
zone, the herbaceous vegetation is rich, in species as well as in indiv- 
iduals, everywhere where li
ht aud soil conditioJls are favourable. In 
the \voods proper it is rather insignificant after the foliage of the trees 
is fully developed. In the spring, ho\vever, it is very luxuriant and, 
especially \vhere the soil is rich and deep, there is a magnificent 
display of beautifully coloured and sho\vy flowers, for instance 
trillium, belh\"ort, dog's-tooth violet, showy orchis, jack-in-the-pulpit, 
spring beauty, violets (blue, yello,y and 'white forms), hepatica, 
dutchman's breeches, squirrel corn, bloodroot, pepper-root, barren 
stra\vberry, flo\vering \vintergreen, blue phlox, etc. Others, less con- 
spicuous but characterist.ic of the hardwood forest's spring flora, 
are specieR of sedges, ,vild ginger, blue cohosh, mitre\vort, star flo\ver, 
sho\v
" lady's slipper, etc. 
During the sumn1er the herbaceous vegetation is chiefly confined 
to the borders of the \voods, clearings, and other places \vhere the 
gro\vth is not suppressed or kept back on account of too much shade. 
Characteristic of the bogs are, among others, various species of orchids 
and the pitcher-plant. 
The autumn flo\vers are chiefly members of the con1posite fan1ily, 
,vith asters, golden rods, and joe-pye in greatest profusion. 
,r ery characteristic of the hard\vood forest zone is the autumr al 
colouring of the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. This 
autumnal colouring lasts a cornparatively long tin1e, fro In about 
the first ,veek of Septernber to the second \veek in October, dependent 
on the dryness of the season. During that period a splendid display 
of colours is exhibited, especially in open, n1ixed ,voods where the 
underbru
h is ,veIl developed. Shades of yello,v, golden bropze, 
red and scarlet are mixed in a gorgeous symphony of colours, generally 
modulated n10st n1arvellously by the sombre, deep, dark or bluish 
green of the conifers \vhich are dotted an10ng the deciduous trees. 
K 0 such \vealth of autumnal colour is met ,vith in any of the other 
zone
. 
The Carolinian Zone.- This zone is confined to a small tract 
of land in southern Ontario, bounded to the south by lake Erie 
and to the north by a line running approxin1ately from the northern 
shore of lake Ontario to 'Vindsor. Its flora is lnost typically developed 
on the Niagara peninsula and on the shore of lake Erie. In general 
physiognolny it is rather similar to the harchvood forest flora just 
described, but it differs greatly as far as characteristic species, and 
even genera, arc concernC'd. I t is decidedly southern as to species, 
and exhibits a large nun1ber of plants, \voody as \vell as herbaceous, 
\vhich occur no\\"here else in Canada. 



TIlE PLoR 1 of rA.Y 1})
1 


77 


1'hc Jno
t charact 
ri
ti(' tr' '''' arc thl' hi('kori<.'s (
ix 
p('('i('s), 
tlH' oak
 (trn 
plTil'
), thl\ hl..l('k ,valnut, the che
tnut, anù the sy('a- 
1l10fP. L(':,
 ahundant and 1I1or(' IOf'al in t hpir di:--trihutiun a}'(
 the 
('u('uluher trl'(" the tulip tre \, the Howprillg dogwood, whieh all havp 
hl':lutiful and very con
pi('uou:, flower:;, the pap
n,r, tllf' red lllulLerry, 
the l\nH'rlean era1>a pplp, t hp 
()\lr 
unl. th \ 
(t

afra
s, and others. 
The h(
rhaceou'S ve
etation is Y('r
v rieh and at l('a
t a hundn'd 

pl'l'ie::' \yhil'h occur nowhl'rc ('h; 
 in ('anada an' found in the lone. 
_ \ f('\\ of tlu' 1l1ost e{)n
picuotls 00(':5 rnay be 1llcntiollPd, viz: ypllo,v 
nphllllho or lotus tlo\\l'r. lllay applp, \\.ild lupillP, ti('k trl'foil, f1owerinJ.! 
spurg('. sw
uup ros(' lJudlo\\r, wild pallðY, prickly pear, po1..(' nlillnyeed, 
\vild potato vinp, do" ny phlox, \vatl'r-l('af, be"\ bahn, fox-glove, 
tall LeU flo" er, p;f('at lohelia, iron \\'(\pd. d('ll
P hutton snakproot, prairie 
do('k, cup plant, 
unfto\\ (,I'S, tall cor 'op:,is, Indian plantain, 
howy 
lady'
 :-,lipppr, l'tc. 
(
old('n :,('al and J!in
('n
 \veI'(' at one tillle ahundant hut arc no\\ 
praeti(,:111y extinct. I ndpcd a. 
Ï111ilar fatp i::; al...o thr(,:1 h'ning lllany 
of t h(' ot her spl'('i('
 eharal"tpristic of th(' zone, the reason g(,l1('rally 
Lcing dearing of th(' land for uJ!rieultural purpo
('
. 
The Prairic.- Undpr th(' p;PIH'ral t('nn prnirip i
 ulldf'rstood t}H
 
vu
t gra

-cov('r('d ar<.'a of the pro\"ince
 of ::\Ianitoba, Sa
katchewan, 
and ...\.lberta. It is bounded to the ea
t and north by the :3ub-arctic 
for('
t and to the w('
t hy th(' foothill:, of the l
ocky nI0\1l1tain::;. 
'rhe prairie, which hegins a fe\\p 111Ïlc'" ea",t of \finnippg, has h('('n 

ubdivided into three zon('
, kno\\"n a::; the fir,,;t, 
\'\coll(l alHI third 
d prairip 
tcpp('." Thc
p zone
 are rath<.'r indefinit(
. botanil'ally 
:,peakin
, and thpy have one thing in COlllillon a
 far as tl1(' ve
('ta- 
tion i:5 concerned. rrhp luxurialH'p and general appearance of their 
flora an" to a ('on
picuous d('gn'p d('}1(,IHh'nt on th(' rain and 
nowfall. 
In ca
e of the 
prinp: vegetation, the rainfall during the pre\"iou
 year 
and the sno\"fall during the }1recedin
 winter are (lolninant factors, 

o mueh 
o that, in thl' evpnt of lack of 
ufficient pn\cipitation, the 
sprinp; flora lllay in C'crtain year
. he either very poorly rl'pre:-;pntcd or 
even a.lnlost entirely absent. rrhe sunlnler and fall vegetation are 
to an equal extent deppndent on the pre
ent "'ea
un's preeipitation 
and thu
 it 111ay hapPPll that a di
trict ".hich one ypur displays a 
luxuriant gro".th, rich in species and individuals, may a follo,ving 
year appear almo
t barren of flowering plant:5. Lack of precipitation 
is also largely re
ponsible for the fact that in SOlne seasons the p;ra:'f 
vegetation, so characteristic to the prairie, Inay renu1Ïn practically 
at a standstill ,vithout he
ld
 or 
L'eds heing forn1pd. 
First Prairie Steppe.-This, a::, defined by the late Professor 
John 
Iacoun, inc1udef' "the lo,v plain of 
Ianitoha, hounded by a 
line of elevated country, "which COlnn1ences at the international 
boundary at a point some distance ,vpst of Emerson, and extpnds 
north"west,,'ardly under the nan1es of Peluhina, I
iding, Duck, f'or- 
cupine and Pa
 mountains." 
The southeastern part of the area so defined differs from the true 
prairie in that it i
 characterized by many ,voodland plants ,vhich have 



78 


PIIYSICAL CHARACTERI6TICS OF CANADA 


their home east of the Great Lakes but which occur rarely, if at all, 
between lake Huron and the lVIanitoba border. Among these plants 
may be n1entioned nettle tree, basswood, wild plum, hawthorn, 
Virginia creeper, moonseed, bloodroot, columbine, hog peanut, tick 
trefoil, prickly cucun1ber, species of gentian, louse,vort, Indian 
paint-brush, ox-eye, cone-flower, etc. 
The prairie proper of the first prairie steppe is confined chiefly 
to what is known as the Red River valley, i,e., the lo,v, flat plains 
south and west of "'
innipeg. In this region trees are met with only 
in narro,v fringes along the rivers, oak, elm, poplars, and Manitoba 
maple being the most abundant. Away from the borders of strealns 
the prairie is treeless. It is covered with an abundance of herbaceous 
plants, the most widely represented families being the composite 
family (asters, golden rods, etc.), the rose family, the pea family, the 
grass fan1ily, and the sedge family, but the species representing 
them can hardly be said to be characteristic of the zone, as practically 
all of them are found in suitable localities farther west. 


Second Prairie Steppe.-This extends westward to a line 
running approximately from the international boundary at longi- 
tude 103 0 30' in a northwesterly direction to BattIeford. 
The flora is rather diversified and several very different plant 
associations are met ,vith. In the north, where the prairie and the 
sub-arctic forest meet, the flora is com"posed of species characteristic 
of both zones, as is also the flora of the northern parts of the third 
prairie steppe. In the southwestern part of the second prairie steppe, 
i.e., the country southwest of 1\loose n1ountain, in Saskatche,van, 
the vegetation is in many respects similar to that of the drier sections 
of the third prairie steppe. rrhe grass is very short and the vegetation 
in general of a type adapted to regions with a scant precipitation. 
In places, large sandy tracts exist ,vhich are covered with a profusion 
of cactus, and in others there is no vegetation except that peculiar 
to arid land. Extending from the hills forn1Ìng the boundary bet,veen 
the first and second prairie steppes there is much broken or park- 
like country. This is also, met with in the Qu' Appelle River valley 
and in other parts of the zone. Poplar and oaks are the chief trees 
of the bluffs and the herbaceous vegetation, as n1ay be expected, is 
made up of a n1Ìxture of prairie and \voodland forn1s. 
The maj or part of the second prairie steppe is true prairie, with 
no trees except in the river valleys. Shrubs occur, generally in low 
thickets or copses, and very frequently in small clumps composed of 
a single species. On the exposed prairie, where their grnwth al"ways is 
stunted, occur: snowberry, silver berry, buffalo berry, saskatoon, 
roses, and others. In dan1p situations meadow sweet is met with, 
and in wet places, such as the borders of ponds and marshes, willows 
are abundant. The herbaceous vegetation varies somewhat with 
soil conditions but, takin
 the second prairie steppe as a whole, the 
nUlnerous members of the pea family, ,vhich are n1et ,vith every- 
,vhere, are perhaps the most characteristic flowering plants. 



THE FLORA OF C_L\ lDA. 


79 


Third ProiT1'e Sf ppe.-1""hi
 includes the rest of thp pralrlt} 
up to the foothill
 of tht' Hocky mount:lins. In its nurthprn parts, 
i.e. north of lat. 52 0 , the flora is very sÌInilar to that of the seeouù 
prairie steppe, but in the south
rn part
 it is vpry diffcrent. 
Excppt on 'V ood mountain and CyprC':-;s hill:') no trl'l'S Ul'l'Ur 
exccpt alon
 the horders of strranlS in tht' vallt'Y
, and thl
 ponds, 
marshes, and lakC's are not even fringed ,,,ith shrubs. rrhe rivers anù 
crcpk" flow in dpcp, narrow valleys :lnd tlIp country in 
en(>ral is 
broken by coulees and lo\v hill
. rfhe prrcipitation is scant and, 
a
 a rC'sult, the vegetation has a poverty-strick
n app }arance and i
 
oft
n alnlu:-;t d
sert-like in character. In fact, n large nUIl1her of flo\vcr- 
ing plants occur ".hich approach typical dr:,crt plants ill bl'ing: pro- 
tûct
d, in SOllIe ,,,ay or othpr. against a too rapid lo

 of the 
Inoisture ,,,hieh they InflnflhC to ah::,orb froIn the soil. ...\rnong such 
plants could he lllputiolH'd tHan)"' 
pt'('ie8 charactpri.t.ed by a. dcnse 
grayish or ,,-hite covcring of thick, ,,'oolly hairs, nnù others ,,-hich have 
no IpavC'
. 
Lar!!:e di:,tri('t
, C'specially in th(. Cotp:tu de ::\ri-;:-;ouri hplt, firc 
characterizcd by the absence of drainage valleys, the result being 
th:lt th
 '''ntC'r in thp lake
 and ponds is gencrally saline and that 
nUßIProus alkali flat:; occur. The vpoptation in such 
ituations is 
sparse and largcly luade up of plants e,pccially fitt 'd for soils rich 
in salt. Indeed, in thl'
e inland pond
 and Blarshl'c;, a nlunber of 
plant
 thrive \vhich norJnally occur in profu
ion all the :::;horcs of the 
Atlantic ocean. 
The Rocky :\Iountains.-
\ grpat nUIuber of prairie 
pecies 
rea
h a considerable altitude in the foothills of the l{ocky nlountains. 
On the other hand, a Ilunl},pr of f'uh-alpine forIns d('
eend practically 
to the prairie, the result heing that in the foothilI
, ,vhpre the t"ro 
types of vegetation intern1Ïngle, the flora is vpry rich in species. 
\.s 
the foothill
 and the lo\"cr 
lopp
 are ascended, the prairie fornlS 
gradually disappear and are replaced hy mountain 
p('cies. rrhe 
vegetation in general becoßles ßlore luxuriant in appearance, the 
herbaceous plants grow taller, shrub::, become an important feature 
in the flora, and finally real fore
ts are reached. 
In the ,yell developed forests on the slopes the trees are largely 
coniferous, the principal ones being lodge-pole pine, \vhitebark pine, 
'white spruce, balsam fir and, highest up, larch. rfhe shrubs are fe\v 
in nUluber, ex('ept in open and springy places, ,,"here be\\ildering 
thickets conlposed of n1any specie
 of ,,-illo,vs are found. The herb- 
aceous ve
etation is abo rather bcant, except along the edges, in open 
spaces, and along brooks and rivulets, In the dense forest, nlerubers 
of the blue-berry and ,vinter-green families are conspicuous, 
On the grassy slopes above the tree line the herbaceous vegeta- 
tion again becomcR yery rich in speci('
, exhibiting the richncf,
 and 
brilliancy of colour in the flo\vers so characteristic of alpine vegeta- 
tion in general, until, just below the sno,,
 line, it takes on an appear- 
ance suggestive of arctic vegetation. In fact, many species occur on 
the higher level,:; in the Rockies \yhich also have their hOll1es in the 



80 


PHYSICAL CHARJ.-lCTERISTICS OF CANADA 


arctic regions, a fact ,vhich nlay be satisfactorily explained, in the 
,vords of Dar\\yin, as a result of conditions caused by the glacial 
period, as follows: "...\.s the \varmth returned (after the glaciation 
had reached its height) the arctic forms ,vould retreat northward, 
closely follo,ved up in their retreat by the productions of the nlore 
temperate regions. And as the snow melted from the bases of mount- 
ains, the arctic fornls ,vould seize on the cleared and thawed ground, 
ah,yays ascending higher and higher, as the ,varlnth increased, w'hilst 
their brethren ,vere pursuing their northern journey. Hence, ,vhen 
the warnlth had fully returned the same arctic species, ,vhich had 
lately lived in a body together in the lo,vlands . . , . . \vould be 
left isolated on distant mountain summits (having been exterminated 
on all lesser heights) and in the arctic regions . . . . . . ." 


The Selkirk Mountains.-'Vhile the Rockies may be looked 
upon as a chain of individual mountains, the Selkirk rangp has more 
the character of a high-level plateau from \vhich the peaks rise. As 
a result then> are real alpine meado,vs in the Selkirks whereas, in the 
Rockies, similar plant forrriations are generally met with on steep 
slopes. The differences in the vegetation of the Rockies and the 
Selkirks ahove the trpe line are conspicuous and are due largely to 
differences in the amount of precipitation, the Selkirks being favoured 
,vith a nluch more abundant moisture supply. For this reason the 
alpine meado.w plant associations of the Selkirks extend almost to 
the sno,v line and, for the sarrie reason, a number of high-alpine plants, 
.which in the Rockies are characteristic of the bare peaks above the 
grassy slopes, are not nlet with at all in the Selkirks. 
The Selkirk forest differs from that of the Rocky mountains with 
regard to cOlnposition, as far as the trees are concerned, the principal 
species being cedar, Douglas fir, hemlock, and Engelmann's spruce. 
The undergro,vth is, on the mountains proper, quite similar to that 
of the Rocky mountain forest and, although more luxuriant, is not 
represented by many species. 
In the lo,ver valleys, however, and on lower levels ,vhere the 
forest is more open in character, the shrubby as ,yell as the herbaceous 
undcrgro,vth is very different. Not only is it luxuriantly developed, 
but the species of which it is composed are of a different type. The 
Rocky nlountain flora is disappearing, its place being taken to such 
an extent by Pacific coast species that the casual observer will find it 
rather difficult to detect any conspicuous difference between the flora 
of the Selkirk valleys and that of the coniferous forest of the Pacific 
coast. 


The Coast l\lountains.-Although having a large number of 
plant species in common 'with the Selkirks, the Coast range must be 
considered a distinct botanical zone, as many species occur there 
which are confined to the Pacific coast. The coast range is also the 
home of several species ,vhich are very local in their occurrence and 
which, as far as is known at present, do not gro-w any,vhere else. 



TIlE FLUR_l UF (,A.YatD.! 


81 


O\ving to the lon
 J!:rowin!!: .-:
ason, the high avpragp tplnppraturt', 
and the abundance of the prel:ipitation, the \ pgetatioll in the vall('y
 
all(llowland
 of the Coa
1 range is nhno:-ìt t:5ub-tropieal in appearance. 
Th(' tre '::;, e....pecially the cedar, the I)ougl:t.:-; fir, and the spruc{\, reaeh 

iganhc ditnen
ioIl
, and the forE'st, eVf'1l ".hen very den
p, pO
:-ìl':-ì
(,S 
a luxuriant uIHI('r
rowth. In old, untoueh('d fon'st
, falleIl trunks, 
shrubs, and herb
 fonn an ahno
t ilnpenetrable tangle. l'his is e
p , 'i- 
ally the case where 
alal and devil's club art
 luxuriantly dcvplop('d. 
Of tret'
 rharartf'ri:.Üic of the valleys and th(' 10\vland
 11lay hp 
Jll('ntionpd cedar, })ouglas fir, ;-:;itka 
pruee, hClnloek, \vhite fir, rpd 
aldpr, crabapple, hrond-leavpd Inaplf', cascara, and of shrubs, sev('ral 

peri('s of \\'iIl()\y
. Or('gon grape, spprit>s of currants and goo:-ìplH'rri<'s, 
thiIllhlp})('rry, 
ahllOnhl'rry, ro:,(':" juneherry or 
a,",katoon, devil's cluh, 
salal, hlu
h('rries, and red-fruit 'd ('l<l('r. 
'rhe h('rbac 'OUH v('getation is very rich. :\[any sppdcs of hpau- 
tiful ferns are nhundant, and the gra

 vegptation, ('
p('cially along 
the coast, i'-' luxuriantly <lev('lop('d. Of other herbaceous plnnt:-: 
nU1Y' be lllentioI1('d 
kunk cahhage, trilliuln, ".ild lily-of-t }l{>-vallpy, 
Y'pllo\\ pond lily, fringp-eup, fn]:-:p nlitr<'wort, alunl root, blccdin
 
heart. goat's beard, t\\ inflower, ast
r, etr. 
"fhf' nlajor part of ,. ancouy('r island hus a typical Coast T{angp 
flora. Thp southpa
tprll spction, howpypr, has a veg('tation of a quite 
different typ('. 1'herp, the 
ro\\.th i.::: influenced by the cOlnparativply 
scant precipitation, \\'ith little rain ht'Í\\'C'f'n spring and fall. 
\s a 
re
ult the 
pring vpg('tation i
 Jl1u('h IHorp ron:-:pi('uous than thp sunnupr 
and fall vegetation, c....pecially on open and rocky land. In addition, 
the section is charact('riz('d by a nUlnher of specie
 ,,'hich arc nlore 
or lp
:-ì of a Californian type and \"hich o('cur no\\'herp ('1'-\<, in Canada. 
..Among the plant
 in the southea....tcrn section of Yancouvcr island 
Inay be luentioned an exceedingly lar
('I number of grat>
es among 
,,'hirh th(' most conspicuou
 on('
 arp spv('ral :,p('cie
 of bronle' gra

<'s, 
canla
, ,,'ild hyacinth, blue-eyed gra
..:, 
pring-beauty, lupins, binl- 
foot clover, tall vetch, n1arsh hollyhock, godeti
l, arbutus or nladrona, 
gilitt, groyp-Iover, paint-hrll
h. etc. 
Dry Belts of British Columbia.-....\ fe\\ \vords Inay finally be 
said about the IllO:-:t inlportant dry belt
 of Briti
h Columbia, including 
the Okanagan and the l\:aIllloops di::;trict
. These regions, owin
 to 
the scant precipitation and to th(' nature of the Foil, have' a flora. 
\\'hich :-:trangely contrasts \vith that of the other parts of the I
ritif'h 
COlulllbia Inainland. 
In the dry bdts t".o floristic 
ubdivi
ions nlay bp recognized 
,vhich, ho,vever, run nlore or l('s
 into each other and for thiB rea
on 
"'ill not be dealt \\'ith separately. One subdivision is characterized 
by so-called bUllch gra
ses, of \vhich "\vild rye" is the most conspicu- 
ous I'\pecip
, and is luore or le:"':-ì de:-ìtitute of forefo;t-fonuing trees. The 
other flori
tic subdivi
ion of the dry belt::; is Blare den'5ely ,,'ooded, 
the characteri
tic tree of the forest being the yello,v pine. On the 
,vhole, the dry belt
 may be 
aid to be park-like in general character, 
\vith a rather desert-like ground ve
etation. 
38131-6 



82 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA1VADA 


FAUNAS OF CANADA. 
By P. A. TAVERNER, Department of Mines, Ottawa. 
"\Vhether the fauna of the ,vest ern hemisphere was derived from 
that of the eastern, or vice versa, as is contended by various authori- 
ties, there is a close relationship between them, and one of these con- 
tentions is certainly true. Geological evidence shows that in previous 
ages types now found in but one of the great continental circumpolar 
divisions were once common to both. Old and now submerged land 
connections between the continents have been postulated both from 
zoological and geological evidence, and a more or less complete con- 
tinuity of land throughout the northern hemisphere, in former times, 
must be acknowledged before present American biotal conditions can 
be thoroughly understood. That this connection was in the far 
north and in what is now arctic or sub-arctic climate did not prohibit 
a continual interchange of warmth-loving species, for the presence of 
coal in very high latitudes points to milder if not tropical or sub- 
tropical conditions where now we find perpetual snow and ice. "\Ve 
must therefore conceive of a pre-glacial time ,vhen tree-ferns and 
other luxuriant coal-producing forests occupied extreme northern 
lands, and such animals as elephants, horses and other warmth-loving 
species could spread from one continent to the other. 
This intercontinental connection must have been made and broken 
numbers of times by the recurrence of glacial periods which covered 
this country with ice to well south of the present Great Lakes and 
must at times have formed barriers to the passage of life across the 
far north more complete even than ,ve find today. During these 
periods of alternate isolation and connection there was ample time 
and opportunity for ,vide divergence in development in the faunas 
of the separated land masses, the extinction of connecting links and 
the occurrence of many complexities to confuse the clear picture of 
the historical succession until today we find a nearly identical cir- 
cumpolar fauna at the north progressively breaking up and differ- 
entiating into peculiar and special NevI and Old World forms as it 
proceeds south. 
Having considered the history and consequent relation of North 
American life to that of the world in general, we can take up the details 
of its distribution on our continent. The general trend of geographical 
distribution in Canada is from southeast to northwest. Ocean 
currents have much to do vlÎth this. Our east coast is chilled by the 
cold arctic current coming directly down from the polar ice fields 
through Davis strait, and the west coast is ,varmed by the grateful 
temperature of the great final sweep of the Japan current. "\Vhen ,ve 
realize that the barren Labrador coast of the gulf of St. Lawrence 
is in almost the same latitude as southern British Columbia and is 
slightly south of the most southerly point of the British Isles, we can 
see what a great and fundamental influence these ocean currents 
have on the distribution of life upon our continent. Elevation is 
another factor that has a determining influence on climate and the 
distribution of animal life. I t is well knO"wn that high mountains 



. 


F#\ UX,JS OJ' C.\.Y#4D..4 



3 


even in the tropic:i prc
ent arctic conditions at their peaks. Less 
elevation ha'3 silnilar effect in proportion to its height and oftt'n n. 
rbc of a fe,," hundred feet ,,-ill protluce conditiuns that oth('r,yi
(\ 
,,'ould only oceur at eon
iderahle distance to the north. Not onl) 
do hill and luountain ranges thus project long tongues of northern 
faunas into southl\rn lo('alities but 011 the retreat of the ice :It the end 
of glacial epochs they fonned northern oa:,es for the retn'ating cold- 
loving forIll" as they \\ ithdrew froln the gradually \vartning lo\vlands. 
"e thu
 have true arctic c. relict
" of an ancient order {solated on ' 
Hlountain tops far fronl their natural geographical habitats,- boreal 
island:-. in a 
ea of IHore 
outhern life. 
The general out line of zonal lifp distribution is ,veIl l..no,,'n. ,All 
arc fanliliar "it h the fact that tropical life difTers froIn telllperatp :1nd 
fronl an'tie. Clo
e study, ho,\('v('r, shows that be....idcs these broad 
and obvioufo' a
so 'iations are Dlinor ones. 'Tariou
 attpmpts havp bcen 
Illade to IIlap thCIIl out, aI1d pprhap::) thc Jl10st f-:ucce

ful and genprally 
aeecpted one for our purpo:,es is that by Dr. C. Hart ..\lcrriam. Thi:-; 
divides X orth ':\..Iuerica into three regions, a Boreal, .\u
tral and a 
1'ropical one, ,,'ith th(' fir
t t,,"o cach divirled into three life ZOIlC
: 
the Aretie, IhHbonian and Canadian 
ones for the Boreal region and 
the Tran
ition, and tTpper and Lower .'\.ustral zone
 for the Austral 
Region. In C'an:llla "e haxe five of the
e zones reprc
ented-fron1 
the north: the ,Arctie, llud:.;onian, Canadian, l'ransition and Upper 
..\u
tral. l'he....c ('xtend aero..... the continent, roughly agreeing ,,,ith 
latitude, hut thro" n out of r(.gularity, a
 previously indicated, by 
local eonditions and ag;reein
 dO
l'ly with thp nlÎd-SUllln1er Ü:;othenu:; 
or tenlperature belt
. 
rrhe Arctic zone i.... the 
o-called "barren land" of the far north, 
treelc:-;:-; and ahno:-;t f'hruhle

, Hnd extend:.; south to include all th(' 
north 
hore of the continent as ,veIl a
 the island
 above. 1""he di
- 
tinctive land mamlnal
 of thi
 zone c.lre tlI(
 polar hear, the mu
k oX, 
Barren L:uHl c:lrihou, aretie fox, nretic harp and IplIllning. 
Anlongst the eharaetcrbtic birds are sno,," bunting::" ptannigan, 
longspur:5, sno,,'y o,vl and the g:yrfalcons. Thb is the great ne
ting 
ground for Hlnny of our "'nder:, and Ill0re nort!H'rn ducks and gl'e
l'. 
1'here are fe\\r residents, as IIlOst fornls n1Ïgrate in "'inter. 
The Hudsonian zone is the land of scrub fore
t::" slnall stunted 
trt
es, n10
tly conifpfou:-" and 
cattered d,,"arf ,,-illo,\"s nnrl poplars. 
The southern boundary of this zone extend" from the north 
hore 
of the gulf of St. La,,'rence to near the mouth of James Bay, 
thence in 3 wavy curve to Great Slave lake ,,-here it drops 
outh 
suddenly to a latitude about on line ,,"ith the lower point of the Ala
ka 
Pan-handle, and thence to near the coast. It thus includes the 
southern Un
ava peninsula, a narro" belt extending northwest 
fronl J
lI11eS òay, the Yukon, northern British Colulnbia and 
southern Alaska. It is penetrated from the north by the Arctic 
zone which persists on the mountains of the ì
 ukon and fron1 the 
south by the Canadian zone \\'hich follo".s up the vall('ys of 
the 
Iac1..enzie and Peace rivers. I t is shut off from the sea on the 
Pacific side by the ...
laska Pan-handle ,vhieh ha
 an intrusive Canadian 
38131-6! 



84 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA.vADA 


. 


fauna. On the other hand, it works down the Rocky mountains in a 
narro\v band and scattered isolated spots to across the United States 
boundary. This zone can be considered more as a transition bet,veen 
the Canadian and Arctic zones than a primary division itself. It 
contains species whose centres of abundance are on either hand and 
a few peculiar to it. l\lusk oxen, caribou and ptarmigan range into 
it in "Tinter from the north, and it forms thp extreme northern dis- 
tribution of woodland caribou and moose. It
 most characteristic 
birds are the rough-legged hawk, great-grey o\vl, northprn - shrike, 
pine grosbeak, white-\vinged cross-bill and fox sparrow. 
The Canadian zone occupies the greater area of Canada and 
can be roughly defined as the heavy coniferous forest belt. It includes 
practically all the remainder of the Dominion except the inner shores 
of the K ova Scotia peninsula, southern Ontario and Quebec in a 
narro\v strip from about Montreal to just below Georgian bay on lake 
Huron, the prairies, a small irregular fringe along the Pacific coast 
opposite Vancouver island and a fe,v mountain valleys penetrating 
the southern boundary of British Columbia. Beyond our borders it 
extends irregularly south on the mountains and high land near both 
coasts, including the south shores of lake Superior, and penetrates 
the H udsonian zone on the north along the valleys of the Mackenzie 
and Peace rivers and runs up most of the Alaska Pan-handle. This 
is the first land fit for systematic cultivation. The characteristic life 
is more nunlerous than in the preceding zones and includes the 
moose, woodland caribou, lynx, marten, porcupine, varying hare, 
white-throated sparrow, numerous warblers, olive-backed thrush, 
three-toed woodpeckers, pileated woodpecker, spruce grouse and 
Canada jay. 
The Transition zone is agriculturally the most important Cana- 
dian faunal division. It lies just along the southern border, including 
most of both shores of the bay of Fundy, Quebec, belnw the gulf of 
St. La,vrence, a narrow belt follo\ving the north shores of lakes 
Ontario and Erie, all of the ,vestern prairies and intrusive valleys into 
the south of British Colurnbia and the shores of the strait of Georgia. 
The name Transition well describes this fauna. It contains compara- 
tively few distinctive species, but is ,,,here many northern and southern 
forms meet. Except in the prairies it is the country of the hard\vood 
forests where many of the temperatp and hardier fruits, vegetables and 
cereals reach their highest perfection and is the northern limit of some 
of the tenderer ones. Its southern limit lies in the United States 
below, striking almost squarely across the continent on a line "Tith 
the lo\ver points of the Great Lakes, 'with excursions soutlnvard along 
the Inountain ranges east and ,vest and penetrated by extensions of 
the Upper Austral fauna along ,varm lowland valleys in the ,,,pst. It 
forms the northern limit of range of the cotton-tail and jack-rabbits 
and the .AInerican elk, and is just touched upon by the varying hare 
Irom the north; the common mole of the south meets the Star-nosed 
and Brewer's mole of the north and the wild cat partially replaces the 
Canada lynx. Amongst birds, the wild turkey, bob-white, two cuckoos, 
towhee, wood thrush and yello\v-throatecl vireo are at the northern 



FAUNL1
 uF A.VAD..1 


8j 


liIuit of thpir ranges, and the Balti11lore oriole, bluebird, catbird and 
bobolink overlap thp 
olitar.Y' vireo LLnd 'filson 's thru
h. 
The lTpper Au
t ral ZOIlP in Canada is :;nudl in area but Î111portant 
in produ('tion. It just cro:-:
('s our horden, in a narro\\r shore L \It along 
lake Erie extpnding to the south 
idc of lake Ontariu L1nd including tht) 
Kia1!,ara Penill
ula. It fornl
 thp fUInous Ontario fruit hplt and is 
cOIllparati\"('ly strolll!;ly Inarh('d hy quitp a nUlllher of characÌl'ri...;tic 
fOrIll:-', e....pcC'ially :llllong:-:t plants. It l'xtelHb south as far n
 thl\ 
nurthern border:" ùf the (
ulf 
tat('s. \ ariou
lv dotted and ('ut Î11tO hv 
intru:-:ivp hran('IH':-: of the n('il!;hh()urin
 fauna
 fronl either 
id.., t':-:p ,d- 
allv in the broken country of th ) "r('....t. 
. 'fhpre are not Illany
 pt.'l'uliar nlanllnal
 that art' "ell hnO\\n to 
tlu"\ f.!('ncral puhli(', and p('rhap
 the OPO:-::'UIJl i:-: th.. lIH):-:t di
tin('ti\"c. 
AlllOIlJ.., bird
 "re have the y \Ilow-hrea::)t \d ('hat, moC'kinJ!hinl, 
Carolina \Vrell, Carolina chick:tdt'c. orchard oriolp, harn owl. a 
nUJ11h('r of di
tin('tÏ\ p 
outh('rn \\'arhkr:-; and :-:outIH'rn f-\uh:-:IH'('ifi(' 
fonns allied to 1l10n\ northern variation;;;. 
These Innkp the latitudinal or tlH)rInal di\"i
ions of our f:lunnl 
lifl). Out
ide of thl' 'p('('ip
 Il1('n tiollpd ar(' Jl unH'rous fOrIn:-: that 
cxt('IH! 0\"('1' thp ".holp area, hut 
ho\\. in diffprput zones variations 
recognizable to till' eÅpl'rt hut stopping :-:hort of :"\pt'('ifi(' di:-:tinC'tion. 

\ 
ùud pXHlnple is the hairy "oodppck('r. Thi
 bird hrppd
 oypr all 
the ".ooded part:-: of X ort h An1pril'u, hut thp birds frolll thp Low \T 
..-\.u:-:tral zonp aI" quite' 
('paraLle hy thp trainpd pYC' froln tll()
l' of thl' 
U pI>pr .Aust ral a nd rrran
ition anrl t h(':-:(' froIl1 t hf' larJ.!,p Hort 11('1'11 fOrIH 
of the IIud:..;onian. l'hi
 i
 hut one l'a
(' of 1I1any ".IH'rp a northprn 
and a 
outhpru race pÅi
t in the 
al)lC 
pp('ie:-, and' ,,-hich "e d('
ignat(' 

u},
pe('il.':--. 
ùlne of tlH':'f' gpographic:l.1 raC'P
 arf' :-;0 slightly diffpr- 
entiatpd as to n'(}uirp an p'XIH'rt to :--eparatp th(,111 whilp othprs arp 
IHarkpd and 
trihing. rrhp critical diffpr('IH'e Lpt\\"pC'n a full :--j>e('ips 
and a 
uh
pp('ip:-: i
 the fact that the lattpr intprgradp and hlpnd into 
('a('h other 
rndualI). 'Yit h 
pf'('ies thp hreak 1>(,twP(,11 is suddcn, and 
intprnlpdiates do not oceur. 
'\ïth thi
 zonal dbtribution and a varia tion of lifp groups dPI)(,Ild- 
inp; ba:-:ically upon tplnppraturp. ".p hayp anotlH'r sy
telIl of di:-:tribu- 
tion ('a
t and "-P:-:t, dppending larg,ely upon phy
ical condition
 of 
habitat-the a rrn n
PlllPnt of land and "ateI' or mountain rangps 
fonninp; harripr
 or higln,.ay:-; of Inigration and l('ading certain forms 
in ('crtain direct ions ".hile harring thelIl frolD other
 - and the conlpara- 
tiye rainfall and humidity of clilnate. 1""his ha
 a priInar
. dirpct 
influence upon the form
 of life ""e are con
idpring. a
 \\"<'11 aH a 
e('ond- 
ary and indirec t one throu
h the plants and in
cct"i which give them 
food or 
helt('r. 
The prine ipal divi::,ion::; 
ël
t and ,,"est are dividpd by t hp Hoe ky 
mountains, \v hich succe:-:
fully C'ut the ra('ific ('oa....t off fro In ('lose 
('on tact \\.ith ea:-:tern fonn
. Thi
 
reat backbone of the continent 
extends in a north\\-c
terly direction and forms th(' politi('al houndary 
het\veen Albe rta and British Cohunhia. An ext{ìn
ion of this linp 
until it strike:-: the C'pntre of the Inain Alaska-Yukon boundary roughly 
approxinlates the dividing line of the PLtst and "rest fauna
, leaving a 



86 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


triangular patch to the west including British Columbia, southern 
Yukon and southern Alaska as the western or mountain fauna, and 
cutting through three of the trans-continental zones, the Transition, 
Canadian and Hudsonian with fragments of the arctic on the higher 
elevations to the north. 
1"he mountain district is characterized by an abundant rainfall, 
a high average humidity and a greatly diversified and rugged topo- 
graphy, forming a succession of mountain ranges with deep valleys 
bet,veen, paralleling the coast, facilitating intercoIl1munication in 
this direction but obstructing it from east to ,vest. These topographical 
conditions continue to the south "well into l\1exico and enforce migration 
routes and conditions and associations more or less isolated. 
1"he marked humidity of the climate, especially near the coast, also 
causes or encourages special physiological changes in numerous 
organisms tending as a rule to produce larger size and browner or richer 
colouration. These differences in physical conditions and the isolation 
formed by the barrier mountains have produced a great nun1ber of 
forms peculiar to the trans-mountain district. In fact, comparatively 
fe\v species, either of birds or animals, extend across the Inountains 
froln the east unmodified, and the native population can be divided 
into three heads: subspecific variations of eastern forms, species 
confined to the area and forms of evident mountain origin but spreading 
from them a certain distance east\vard. Typical amongst the first 
may be mentioned the moose and woodland caribou, the Oregon 
subspecies of the ruffed grouse, Harris' Rocky-mountain and 
Gairdner's woodpeckers, northwest flicker, dusky and streaked 
horned larks, many forms of the ,varblers and sparrows and others. 
Of full species confined to this fauna are: Douglas squirrel, 
black-tailed deer, pika, yellow-bellied marmot, bushy-tailed wood 
rat, little striped skunk or spilogale, blue and Franklin's grouse, 
band-tailed pigeon, red-breasted and Williamson's sapsucker, 
Steller's jay, black and Vaux s,vift, black-chinned and rufous hum- 
mingbirds, Clark's nutcracker, northwestern crow, dipper, chest- 
nut-backed chickadee, varied thrush and others. Of forms typical 
of the Inountains but spreading a little way east are: hoary marmot
 
mule deer, grizzly bear, red-naped sapsucker, Lewis's woodpecker, 
red-shafted flicker, Han1mond's and \Vright's flycatcher, black 
headed grosbeak and many more. 
The Eastern fauna is comparatively homogeneous across the 
continent in a diagonal direction from the Atlantic coast to Alaska, 
,vith but slight variation in physical aspect, except in the prairie 
region of the central \vest. It is a country of lo\v, even topography 
\vith good rainfall and covered with a uniform forest of little variety 
except such as is due to latitude and zonal distribution, but into it 
project the upper limits of the Great Plains characterized by great 
dryness, near-desert conditions and almost an entire absence of trees. 
This penetrates the moist continental fauna as a semicircular extension 
of the Transition zone, its chord on the international boundary 
extending from the eastern Manitoban line to the mountains and 
north to Edmonton and Prince Albert. 



PA Ul\
L1S OF C.&1.\
L1])A 


87 


'rhe J..!,(,I1('r:ll tendency of thi
 prairie fauna is to'wards sInall size 
and pale, blcaehed colouration. 
uch :"\pp('ips as 21r(' characteristic of 
it (ire those lil

 th
 prong-horn antelope, bi"\ou, coyote, gopher, 
pr:lÏrif' chicken, 
a:--C laIn, burro\\ ing 0"'1, L
eonte's sparrow, and 
1:1rh. huntiIl
 who",p OP('Il country requirCIl1f'l1ts dehar then1 frOtIl 
".oodcd land. The reInninder of it 
 fauna i
 
iInilar to t hat of thp 
pa8tern country but gpnf'rally hub
peeifically difl'
rentiated froIn it 
through the (lr
 er rliInate and d('st'rt-lih.l' rondition
. 
olHe spccic
 
that can he eXalllpled under this divi
ion arc \v('
t('rn horned owl, 

ay'
 phæbe, dcsert' horned lark, pale goldfinch, ,vestf'rn clay- 
('oloun'd 
parro"., })akota song 
parro\\r, prairip D1arsh \vr('n, etc. 
'fhe true Eastern fauna, though 
(,ll('r:illy 
ilnilar froIH the far 
northwest to the Atlantic coa'5t, doe
 ...ho\\' a slight h'nth l nry to 
varhi tion north of thl'
f' plain
, but the infhICI}('P is 
Iigh t and in 
broad treaÍlllent l'an be di
n'
ar<h'd. 
raJlY :"\peci('
 ('Àt('IH.I ulunodificd 
throu
hout the ar 'a, or when ulodific,ltioll o('('nrs it ean u:"\llally be 
attrihutf'ù to either t hf'rn1al difT(1renc(:
 or the infh}('nce of th ' closcly 
allied neighbouring pra iri{1 fornls it COII1('" into contact ,vith in B1igra- 
tion or on it
 edp.l'
. In 1!,eneral, 1110:"\t of tla' sulJ...;pecifie fonn::, nlen- 
tioncd a
 prairie or "cstern are rl'pre'l'ntf'd by type suhf'pf'ril's in 
this great eastern fauna, \"hi('h is perhaps th
 typical fauna of Canada 
and \\'hich gives distinctive eharaetl'r to our biotal f(\:"\ourcl's. 


Eeoxo,oc (
}:OLOGY 01' ('.\SAD.\, 1920-1921. 
By \\ 1:AIT l\IALCOL'I, Geological durvey, OUa.\\a. 
The purpo:-:e of the \\Tih'r in prpsl'nting this paper b to call 
attention to th(' Inost illlportallt reports and articles treatin
 of the 
economic g('ology of Canada, published during 1920 and 1921. Brief 
notf'S are givcn on the contcnt
 of the Ino:-:t ilnportant rcports. It is 
hoped also that this papcr ".ill f'('rve to indicate wht'rc detailed 
infonnation regarding the mint'ral resources of the country Dlay be 
obtainf'd, since the articles revie,ved, although recently published, do 
not nete
:-:arily l'ontain the bc:-,t and nlost cOlllplete illforInation on 
the subject. 'fhe numbers appearing in brackets after the nalllCS of 
\vriters refer to the publishers listed at the end. 
Bauxite.-This is the mineral from which the Dictal alun1Ïnum 
is produced. As Canadian D1anufacturers are dependent on foreign 
sources of supply of this ra\\" n1aterial and as geological conditions 
in parts of British Columbia appear favourable to its occurrence, 
the )Iunition Resources Comn1Ïssion of Canada authorized 'Y. }.,. 
FERRIEH. to D1ake a, search for this rnineral in the Interior plateau 
region during parts of the field seasons of 1917 and 191
. Although 
no discovery of bauxite was made the report on the ,vork contains 
valuable geological and D1Îneralogical inforniation. It appears in the 
final report of the :\Iunitioll Resources COIl1mission. 
Chromite.-The results of certain investigations Inade by the 

Iunition Resources Commission of Canada appear in their final 
report. W. F. FERRIER reports on a deposit about 6 miles from 



88 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


Ashcroft, B.C., \vhere finely crystalline chromite is found in serpentine. 
J. C. G'VILLIl\1 reports on the chron1Ïte situation in Quebec. A des- 
cription is given by L. REINECKE (1) of the deposit discovered about 
20 years ago on Chrome creek, a tributary of Scottie creek. 
Clays and Shales.-Among the most Ï1nportant clays tested 
and reported on by J. KEELE (1,2, and 3) are the fire clays of l\leso- 
zoic age on l\lattagami and Missinaibi rivers, northern Ontario 
and S0111e residual clays from British Columbia. Residual clay from 
central British Colulnbia is reported as suitable \vhen mixed with more 
plastic clay for the manufacture of firebrick, òr for sewerpipe. The 
:\leRozoic clay deposits of northern Ontario \vere examined in the 
field by J. KEELE. Laboratory tests sho,v that they are suitable for 
the Inanufacture of a ,vide range of products such as stone\vare 
goods, se,ver pipe and other vitrified products. Some of the clay is of 
very high grade and ,vould be suitable in the crude state for retorts, 
crucibles or fire brick, and if \vashed could be used for the manufacture 
of electric or sanitary porcelain and floor and ,vall tiles. lVIARY E. 
YOUNG (2) contributes the results of interesting investigations on the 
pottery clays of Canada. 
Coal.-A description of the coal fields of the upper Highwood 
river, Alberta, is given by BRUCE ROSE (1). There are no working 
mines in the area, but the coal measures have been ,veIl prospected 
on Cat creek. Fourteen seams ranging from 4 feet to 38 feet in thick- 
ness are here exposed in a distance of about three quarters of a n1Ïle 
across the I{ootenay measures. From thef:e it 
hould be practicable 
to Inine coal ,vith a carbon content of 70 per cent and an ash content 
of less than 15 per cent. The geolo
y of th(' upper Elk River basin 
has been described by J. l\IARsHALL (1). Here also the I{ootenay 
ll1easures have been found to carry a number of thick seams of bitu- 
minous coal. The coal fields of th
 Crowsne
t pa
:::;, British Columbia, 
,vhere very thick 
eams of l{ootenay coal have been mined for many 
years. are described in a paper by ROBERT STRACHA
 (6). 
In a paper by A. l\IACLEAN (6) information is given in conci
e 
form regarding the lignite seall1S of southeastern Saskatche"wan, 
their thickness, areal extent, depth and estimated reserves. The 
question of the extent and character of the lower seams is also discus- 
sed by D. B. DO"
LI
G (1). 
A short report by A. l\Ic"VICAR (1) contains information regarding 
a nUlnber of coal seams found in an unprospected area north,,-est of 
Brulé lake, Alberta; investig
tions into the stratigraphy of the Sydney 
coal basin, Nova Scotia, are presentf'd by VV. A. BELL (1); and G. A. 
Y OUKG (1) presents a consideration of the possibilities of the occurrence 
of a cûnlmercial seam of coal in Gloucester county Ne"w Bruns\\tick 
and of reI'S suggestions on the method of prospecting the area. ' 
Copper.-A numher of papers appenred during 1920 and 1921 
descriptive of copper deposits of British Colun1bia and l\lanitoba. 
The copper produced in Ontario is dt-'rived fron1 the nickel-coppEr 
depo,-,it:::; of Subdury and papers on these will be referred to undt'r 
the heading "Kickel." 



ECU.'OJIIC GEU]uGY ()ft' CA1\"AD..t, 19
{)-19;r..1 
. 


c\
þ 


In northcrn .:\Ianitoba a hody of ('opper Of(' at the :\randy lninp 
\\:1" found suffici('ntly high grade' to pprnlit of long hauJug p by hor
p 
te'aHl
 nnd hy ,\"a t('r to t ht' raih\'a
 and by rail to thp 
lncIÜ'r a t Trail 
in :50utlH'rn ßriti",h Cohullhia. K ot('1" 011 tlH' di:-;('oypry und ('xploitn- 
tioll of thi
 orc hody are p:ivPIl hy J. E. SIJùHH in t he l
ng:inp('ring and 
::\Iining Juurnal and G. H. BA:\CH.OPf in a hull('tin of thp Canadian 
lu",titutt.' of 
lining and 
rptallul'g.y. ..\ dPH'1'iptiun of the Flintion 
min{,l'al dcpo:5it, a larpc low 1!radc <,oPI)('r d('p()
it in thl' vicinity of 
th(' :\Iandy IHine, is givt'n by H. r. 'VALLACE in thp Canadian 
lining 
J ourIla), 1 H21. l""hp (
t'ologi('a I Sur\ P} pu hli:-;h('1" t h(' rt'
Hlt:--: of a 
('ureful ::;tudy of tlu" 8unlo('h on' hodil':O:, \ :lIH'OUV('r island, lllad(' hy 
'T. I)(>I l\L\t.E. Valuahle papPI'S d(':..:erihin!!: thl' gcologicul fpatun's of 
a n und)('1' of eopppr d('po:-.it
 ha VP appt':lf<'d in t-.l"Ìpn tifip period i('als. 
In ECOB(HUie GeoloJ!Y an' pa pl'r
 hy \ . I)()L
IA(a
 on t h(' .:\ [:uhlp Bay 
IHine, TpÀuda i
land, and by E L. HULCE aud G}
OH(a
 11Ax::;o
 on 
th("1 (,oppf'r df'po
its uf :\Ianitoha. In the-- 'rran
a('tions of tht' C
nadian 
::\linin
 In:-;titutp pnJ>l'rs hy E. E. CA
IPBELL on th(> I-lidd('n Cr<\pk 
n1Ïne at _\nyox anù hy J. J. ü'Xrn L on nativc copp('r d('po:-;it
 of the 
6\rctic appf':lr. 
Fluorspar.- Thi:-. mÎnpral b usrd a
 n. fiu'\: in InptallurgÎcal 
JH'OC(':-;...:PS and as a, 
()ur('p of fluorinc in thp nlanufa('tul'(, of hydro- 
fluoric acid. 'fhe two souret 
 of fluorspar in ranada are' thc l{ock 
randy nlinr n('ar Grand Forks, c:.outh('rn Br
ti
h Columhia, and 3. 
ntllll hp1' of n1lIH'S in t he' vieilli ty of ::\f :1do(' , On t ario. 'rhp l\fadoc 
depo
it::; have bCPll l'Àau1Ïncd by .:\1. E. ,\ ILt;OX (1), \\ ho give:-; a g('HPral 
description of thrir Inod(' of oc('urrpncc, di
cu:--:--l'S thl' problpm of their 
origin
 and d('serib('
 in d('tail the yariou...; proprrtic...;. 
Gold.-
('Y('r3.l valuahlp rpport
 on p:old nlinin
 di
tri('ts or 
pro:o:prctivt' gold nlinin
 dj
tri('t'" of Canada ""('1'(' publi:-;hpcl by 
go\'crnnlcnt d('partIllents durin
 HJ20 and 1 921. A.nlon
 thp IHOst 
valuable of thf'sf' arf' several r('ports on Ontario J-old dppoRits. .An 
inlportant ('ontrihution to our kllowlc'dJ.!,p of the J!,('ology and 01'(' 
d('po...;it::3 of l{irkland lakl', next to ror('upin 
 the 1I10"'it productive 
gold lllining district of Untario, is lnad(' by ..\. G. BLHRO\\ S (3) and 
P. E. IIoPh.IX:-;. 'fhp rt'port is ae(,oIllp
1ni(>d hy a d(.tailed lllap on a 
f:('ale of noo feet to one ineh. 1'hp ore bodies con
i:5t of lode
 or COlllpO- 
site veins forlH('d und('r strong cOlnprcssive forces ,vith thp solutions 
folIo\ying opcnin
s along fracture pia ups in an irrpgular rnanIlel' and 
partly l"('placing porphyry or other country rock adjacent to the 
fractur(' planp
. The len
t:-, of quartz are sOlnetinlc:; scveral f('('t wide 
and contain vi:,ÜLlc gold \\ ith tellurid('s, pyritp, chalcopyrite and 
11lolyhdenite. SOlne of t he ore 
hows very little' v('in quartz, and speci- 
Inen
 of altered red 
yenite have been found to contain grains of gold 
in thp ::,econdary Inineral
. 
Other gold area
 in Ontario that have heen dc,;cribed are: 
:\latachewan area by H. E. COOh.E (1) and A. G. BUHRO"::; (3); 
\\ est 
hining 'I'ree by P. E. HOPKIXS (3); Ben X evis and .Argonaut 
an-a,:; by C. \Y. KXIGHT (3); Hchr('iber by T. L. TA:\TOX (1); and 
Goudrpau by _\. G. BrHRo" S (3). 



90 


P}lYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


Gold deposits occurring in rocks of Precambrian age in the vicinity 
of lake Demontigny, Timiskaming county, about 30 miles south of 
the K ational Transcontinental railway have been described by A. 
J\iAILHIOT (4). The gold occurs in quartz veins in which tourmaline 
is sometimes found in abundance. 
K orthern l\Ianitoba has in recent years attracted considerable 
attention on account of its mineral possibilities. Gold deposits on 
'Vekusko lake \yere considered sufficiently rich to justify a consider- 
able capital expenditure in their development and exploitation. 
These have been described by F. J. ALCOCK (1 and 6). A short 
description by R. C. vV ALLACE of the recent gold discovery on Elbow 
lake appeared in the Canadian J\lining Journal, 1921. 
Notes on nunlerous gold mines and prospects in British Columbia 
have been presented by Resident Engineers (5) of the provincial 
Department of l\Iines and by members of the staff of the Geological 

urvey (1). 
A. contribution to our knowledge of the placer gold deposits of 
Yukon is made by W. E. COCKFIELD (1) ,vho in a detailed report 
describes the deposits of Sixty-mile and Ladue rivers. The report 
also sets forth the general topographical and geological features of 
the section of country drained by these rivers. 
Graphite.-A monograph by HUGH S. SPENCE (2) entitled 
" Graphite" contains descriptions of the known Canadian deposits 
of graphite together 'with notes on the history of their development. 
I t deals ,vith the different methods of concentrating and refining 
graphite, and the uses of the product, and presents a survey of the 
general situation of the graphite industry in Canada. Papers by 
H. P. H. BRUMELL on graphite in Quebec have appeared in the 

"ransactions of the Canadian l\1ining Institute and in the Engineer- 
ing and l\lining Journal. 
Iron.-In a paper entitled "Michipicoten Iron Ranges," ,V. H. 
COLLINS (6) describes an enormous body of sideritic iron ore found 
at the Helen mine, gives notes on the pyrite deposits of the Michipi- 
coten area, points out the stratigraphic sequence to be observed in 
the iron ranges and the existing structural relations. Deposits 
of siderite occurring on l\lattagami river about 80 miles north of 
the Kational Transcontinental railway have been examined and 
described by J. G. CROS8 (3) for the Department of l\1ines, 
Toronto. The limonite deposits of Taseko River valley, British Col- 
umbia, which have attracted considerable attention, are described 
by 'V.l\I. BREWER (5), F. J. CROSSLAND (5) and J. D. MACKENZIE (1). 
l\luch interest has been shown in recent years in the mineral 
possibilities of the part of the country adjacent to Hudson bay. 
Very little had been kno\vn regarding the Belcher islands until recently. 
A description of the geological features of these iRlands and of the 
iron formation found on them is given by E. S. l\100RE in the 
Transactions of the Canadian Mining Institute, 1919, and by E. S. 
MOORE and D. E. WOODBRIDGE in the Engineering and J\Iining 
Journal, 1920 and 1921. 



FCO..VO.U/C GFO/OGY OF C LV IDA., 1920-19'>1 


91 


Lead and Zinc.-'fhc ar
entifcrous lead dcpo
its of tlH.
 \fayo 
di"trict, Yukon, that have rpcently attractpd Jnuch attpntion have 
hepn dl'scribed by" . E. COChFIEI n (1). 'rhe
p ar{\ suffiriently rich 
in 
ilv('r to bear the h{\avy transportation charges frOlll the ill terior 
of Yukon. 
Th{\ J.!.pological feat 1 Jrps of the SJoran ar{\a, British Cohunbia, 
arl
 dp
cribed by :\1. F. BANcRor'l' (1), and papers by J. C. BEID:E;L:\IA v 
and A.. l\L-\.ILIIIor in tht' Canadian :\Iillinp: Journal and the 'rransac- 
tions of the Canadian ::\rinin
 Institute rpspectively give dflsrriptions 
of a zillc-Ipfi(l dp}>osit of considerahle prolnise near the hpad of Casc:l- 
pedia river, Ga
pé, (
ueLcc. 
:\Iang,anese. -Th{\ final rp])ort of the l\Iunition Hp
ources 
Conl1ni

ioll of Canada prcs('nts the re
ults of investigntiolls nlade by 
J. C. r;" ILLIl\l, (L C. 
IAChL:\ZIE and 'Y. L. DOLO" into nun}(
rous 
Inanganese dcposits in 
 ova Rcotia, X c,v Bruns" irk, and British 
COlulllhia. The lach. of 
hippin
 availahh:, during the ,var for the 
tran
portation of lllallp:alH'
l' on.
 frOIH forl'i
n 
ources fPn(}pr('(} it 
iJnpcrative that Xorth .....\.llleri('an dppo::;Ït
 of 
ufficicntly hi
h graùe 
Inatprial be opened and t'Åploih\d to the utInost, and attention ,va
 
thus directed to the }>o:-;
iLiliti('
 of Callada's fe
ource
 in lIlan- 
gane
e. 

f olybdenite.-O,,"inf! to the deI11and during the ,,"ar for 1l101yh- 
dpnitc, examinations "ere Inade for the :\1 unition Itcl..;ourccs Conl- 
n1Ï

ion of Canada by J. C. GWILI..Ul of a great numher of nlolybdt
n- 
ite deposits ill the provinces of X ova 
cotia, Quebec, Ontario, find 
l
ritish Colun1hia. Descriptions of these appcar in the final report 
of the Conln1Ìf:
ion. Pnplrs on thc molybdenite d(\po
itf:. of La Corne 
to\\ Il"hip, Abitihi, Quehec, and in the lo,ver Ott
l\va vall
y hy A. 

IAILHIOT (4) and :\1. E. " 11.8 OX (6) re
pectivclr, have been published. 

ickel. -The nickel deposits of Canada continue to demand 
considerable attention from geoloJ!ists, not disproportionatc, ho,,"cver: 
to their econon1Ìc inlportallcc. One of the I110st valuahle contri- 
butions n1ade in fecen t years bearing on the question of the origin 
of the 
udbury ores is that I11ade by the staff of the International 
Xickel Company of Canada LinlÌted (6), in an article de
crihing the 
n1Ìning and snlelting operations of the COlnpany. 1"he article con- 
tains a description of the Creighton ore body and is illustrated by a 
cro:--
 section showing in an iJIuI11ina ting Inanner the geological rela- 
tions existing het\veen the ore body and 
djacent rocks. I tis clainled 
that facts have been disclosed that indicate that the ore ,vas intro- 
duced in a molten condition along a plane of shearing in the foot,vall 
rocks adjacent to the norite after the norite had solidified. The 
question of the origin of the nickel-copper ores of Sudbury is also 
discussed by 'V. LINDGREN and J. 'V. YOUNG in Economic Geology 
and the Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of l\Iining and l\letallurgy 
respectively. 
Although Canada produces over three-quarters of the world's 
consumption of nickel much interest is taken in any discoveries that 



92 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


might lead to an increase of the country's ore reserves. Results of 
investigations of the \Vindy Lake area ,vhich lies in that part of the 
Sudbury area kno,vn as the northern nickel range are presented by 
C. 'V. !(NIGHT (3). A number of other occurrences of nickel minerals 
in Ontario are described by the same ,vriter (3), and a deposit lying 
south of lake Shebandowan west of Fort William is described by J. G. 
CROSS (3). A. deposit has been discovered on l\lask,va river in the 
province of l\ianitoba in ,vhich n1inerals similar to those of the Sud- 
bury district are associated with norite. R. J. COLONY (6) who made 
an exarnination states that the copper content of a large number of 
samples analysed ranged from 0.68 per cent to 3.60 per cent, the 
nickel content froln 0.29 per cent to 1.68 per cent and the platinum 
content froln 0.01 ounces to 0.03 ounces per ton. 1'he deposit has 
also been exan1ined and lnapped by W. S. l\lCCANN (1) ,vho describes 
the geological relationships of the occurrence. 
Petroleum.-The prominence of the oil question in recent 
years has led to much government investigation into the geological 
features of areas where it has been thought that conditions might 
exist favourable to the occurrence of petroleum. An area that has 
attracted \vorld-,vide attention is the l\Iackenzie River basin. Oil 
"was struck in 1920 in a ,vel] drilled on l\Iackenzie river at a point 45 
miles belo,v Ko"rman. The oil occurs in rocks of Devonian age. 
FOrlnations of the Devonian system are of ,vide distrihution through- 
out the. l\iackenzie basin, oil seepages are lìUlnerous, and further 
drilling operations lnay reyeal great possibilities. The sedÏ1nentary 
succeRsion and the structural features of the Korman area are des- 
cribed by E. :\1. KIKDLE and T. O. BOS"\VORTH (1), and by J. NESS (6), 
and the question of oil possibilities on Great Slave lake is discussed 
by G 
. HUME (1). 
Considerable drilling has been done in the province of Alberta. 
K otes on geological conditions existing at the points ,vhere drilling 
operation
 ,vere conducted, and on the progreRs of operations are 
given by D. B. DO'YLING (1). The results of detailed investigations 
in the operating oil field of Alberta on f3heep river are presented by 
S. E. SLIPPER (1), and a report on the geology of the Pouce Coupé 
area h
v J. A. ALLAN and A. E. CA
IERO
 is to be found in the l\lining 
and Engineering Record. 
Attention has also been given to the oil p08sihilities of the Peace 
River section of British Colun1bia. Invef'tigations into the geological 
formations ,vere lnrrde by J. C. G"WILLIM, J. A. DRESSER and E: 1\1. 
SPIEl\.ER for the Department of Lands, British Columbia, by which 
reports ,vere published. 
A study has been made by :ðI. Y. \VILLIAMS (1) of the palæozoic 
formations exposed along Ahitihi, :\Iattagami and Albany rivers with 
a vie"'
 to ascertaining their. oil possibilities. l\Ir. 'VILLIAMB (1) has 
also reported on the oil posRibilities of l\lanitoulin island and on 
parts of southwestern Ontario. 



FrO.\OJIIC GEOIJOG}' nF (' L\r tHA, 19JO-19 J 1 


ù3 


Phosphate.- \.. 1l10nOl!,raph on pho
phate in Canada b
r II. S. 

PE'\ ',8 (2) appparl'd in H)21. .\.. chapter i.., <kvot \(1 to the nutnu- 
farhlf{\ of phosphoru:-: product 
 in Canada, but the grpat{\r part of the 
report i:-: dpvotell to a cle:--;eriptioll of apatitp d('po:-:its of thp provineps 
,)f Ontario and Quchrc. 1'he hi
tory of pho
phate 111ÏninJ,!; in Canada 
:,110" 
 t ha t tIll. indu:-;try flourishpd for a ntunber of y('ar:-\. Thr 
di
('()vpry of thl' clH.'aply Illinl'd Florida dlìpo
its, ho\\ ('vpr, had a 
:-,prious clI 'et upon the Canaùian ilH.lu'-'tr) , and 
illce about lðÐ4 little 
phu
phate hn
 b{\cn prOdlH'('d except a
 n hy-product in thr lllining 
of nlÍca. 
Platinull1.- O\\'in
 to thp in('rpa:o:pd d('I11an<1 during thl' war for 
piatinuill for U'5l' in thr chclnical indu::5trip,-, and in internal COlllhustion 
pnginp::) tIlul"h int{\r('
t "'a:-; 
ho,\"n in the I>o
:--ihilitil'
 of ohtaininp; a 
gf(\ntpr :-\uppl
r frotH Canadian :-:OUf('(':O:. 1""h(' \Iunition Hp:-:ouf('l'
 
COlntlli
:o:ion of Canada UUl({(' iny{\"'tigation
 of thp plarpr
 of 'fulanH'l'n 
river. H.C., "hrrp a 
Inan annual produetioll of platinlllTl i
 Inadp, of 
other pl:1('pr:-: in ]
riti:o:h Cohtn} hia and 
\)hf\rta ,,'her{\ t hl' o('eUrf('IH'C 
of platinulll had bl'PIl reported, and of ('crtain 
ulphidc dpposit",. 
''['he r(\sult
 of the. inv('
tigatjon
, ".hieh unfortun
lt{\ly diù not 1(':lÙ 
to tht' di:o:eoy{\ry of any ilnportnnt 
our('{\:-i of tll(' IJletnl, arc :--ct forth 
in th
 final report of the COllllni";:...;ioll, and in the publication
 of the 
Canadian ::\Iining Institute. 
Road ::\laterials.-In\Pp:-,ti
ationR hayp h{\cn Inade hy 1(. _\.. 
CLAHK, H. II. I'IcIIEH, and H. (-;AU'1'IIIEH (2) into tlu) nU1Ìl'rials suit- 
ahle for road eOIl'-'tructioll found in thp yieinity of 
onlC of the Blain 
higln\"a}:::. of the eountry. Ou tl'rops of bed roek and deposits of 
houldpr:-\ and gravcl h:1VC be('n ('xarniIH'd and lahóratory t(\
t:-; n1adp 
of sanlpl('
 t
lkpn froIH 1.h(':-:(-' d('po
it::,. 
Ollle of the area,-; ('xalninf'ù 
arc th0se along the ::\Iontreal-'foronto hiJ!h,vay, fronl the Quebec 
houndary to f'n'seott and fronl Xapnnep to f'ort }Tope; diffrrt'llt 
points in ea
tprn Ontario and :-:outln\'c:-:tern Quehpc; hehveell ,\ iUllipeh 
and Brandon; and the Horky ::\Iountain park. The problcll1 of the 
utilization of the hitun1Ïl
ouR 
and of ...-\thnha
ka river in road con- 

trurtion in AHwrta i
 di
ru
:-:ed hy (
. ('. I 'ARKEH (2). 
Salt.- Th{\ ::\Ialaga
h :-:alt dl'po
it, X ova Scotia, ,,-hil'h ,vas 
discovered a fe\\p Yl'ar
 ago, i:::; desrrih{\d hy A. O. II A YES (1). 1""he 

alt i
 purt' t'nough and nefir enough to thr 
urfatP to be recovered 
econolnicully hy u1Ïninp, and it i:-; the only dppo:-:it in Canada that is 
,,'orked by this n1ethod. The nlain 
alt indu
try of th{\ country is in 
Ontario ,,-here horing
 are Inade and the 
alt hrou
ht to the :::;urface 
in tlH' fOrIn of hrinc. 
The discovcry of rock salt in a boring nUlde at ::\lc::\Iurray, 
Xorthern Albcrta, i:-; of ilnportance. In a well drilled to a depth of 
58j feet a bed of 14 feet of tran:-:parell t l'onul1prrial ror k salt" as 
penetrated bet" een ß48 and ß(j2 feet. In the lo,,-er 55 feet of the ,v('ll 
there is po
:-)ibly 2.3 to 40 fect of cOluparatively pure rock baIt inter- 
bedded ,,-ith anhydrite and shale. The discovery is d{\scribed by 
J. A.. ALLAX in the 
econd 
\.nnual Report on the ::\Iineral Hf'
ourccs 
of 
-\Iberta. 



91 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


Silica and Moulding Sand.-A preliminary report on the 
results of investigations of silica deposits of eastern Canada has been 
lnade by L. H. COLE (2). Short descriptions are given of the character 
of numerous deposits of sand, sandstone, quartzite and quartz of 
high silica content together with analyses of samples. The results 
indicate that there are in eastern Canada a number of localities 
conveniently situated 'with respect to consuming centres ,vhere good 
grades of silica could be profitably produced. Notes are also given on 
deposits of nloulding sand in eastern Canada. 
Silver.-Two silver camps that have recently attracted con- 
siderable attention have received detailed study by the Geological 
Survey. These are the l\Iayo district, Yukon, and the Salmon 
River district, British Columbia. The former, where rich argentiferous 
galena is being mined, has been mapped by and reported on by W. E. 
COCKFIELD (1); the latter has been studied by J. J. O'KEILL, S. J. 
SCHOFIELD and G. HANSON (1), short reports have been made and a 
map prepared. 
The ore deposits of Cobalt camp have not lost interest and con- 
tributions to the study of the origin of these ores were made in 
Economic Geology, 1920, by A. R. WHITMAN and W. L. WHITE- 
HEAD. The Gowganda camp, which might be consided a satellite of 
the Cobalt camp, has been re-studied and reported on by A. G. 
BURROWS (3). A study of the geology of the north shore of lake 
Superior in the vicinity of Silver islet where a rich silver deposit 
was mined many years ago 'was made by T. L. TANTON (1 and 6) 
with a view to determining the relationship of mineralization to the 
faulting system, and thus giving direction to further search for silver. 
Tungsten.- The final report of the Munition Resources 
Commission of Canada contains reports by J. C. GWILLIM on tunp'sten 
deposits of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Near Burnt Hill 
brook, K e'v Bruns"Tick, quartz veins carrying wolframite are found 
in slates near the contact of an intrusive granite mass; 12 miles 
southeast of lVliddle Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia, scheelite-bearing 
veins are found in the altered sediments kno,vn as the gold-bearing 
series. Shipments have been made from both places. 
Miscellaneous.- Mineral deposits of a great variety are des- 
cribed by L. REINECKE (1) in a report on the mineral deposits bet,veen 
Lillooet and Prince George, B.C. Among the most important of 
these are hydromagnesite and epsomite or hydromagnesium sulphate, 
commonly kno,vn as epsom salt. The epsomite occurs in conlmercial 
quantities in small lakes having no outlet. These lakes are found 
near Clinton, B.C. Similar deposits occur near. Basque and on 
Kruger' mountain. An estimate is made of the amount of comwercial 
material available in the hydromagnesite deposits. Mr. Reinecke 
also gives interesting notes on the geological occurrence of peridot 
found in basalt on the summit of Timothy mountain. 
Certain deposits of infusorial earth, also known as diatomaceous 
earth, occurring at a number of points in the western part of Nova 



ECONO},I1C GEOLOGY IV r A.YA]).ll, 19_0-1921 


95 


Beoti:l have been dc
cribed by E. lL l1'AuIBA"lL r r (1). 1\ df
posit of 
t hi::; n1a t(\rial in ("olchl'
ter county ha.s b 'Cll ,vorked for lllauy years, 
the product being used in the luanufacture of rubber goods and silver 
polish. 
rrlH
 results of a study of the Pleistocene g('oloJ..!;Y of part
 of 
::\[anitohn have been prescnt('d by ,Yo .&\. JOHK80X (1). rrhis includes 
to,,-n...;hips 1-10, ran
cs 8-1
, cn
t of the principal meridian, and town- 
ships 30-37, rangeS lü-23, ,vpst of the principal llH'ridian. 'I'he soils 
derived from the Pleistocene dep(,:--it
 are elnssified and the report 
is arconlpanied by lnaps :,ho" iHp: the di
trihution of th(\ soil
. 

\n int(\r('
ting occurrence of nativc lllcreury on 8('chart chann(\l, 
''''nl1('ouvcr i
land, is thought by". lJOLl\IAGE (1), ,vho exanlÏl1cd it 
to b(\ (\IH'ouragin
 cnou
h to justify thoroug-h prospl'cting. 
Investigations Inade by J. C. l\lcLB"\:\AN (2) and oth(\r
 f'how 
that th(' ell'lnl'nt helitun is found in the Bo,v Islanù natural 
as, 
Alberta, to the l'ÅÍt'nt of 0.20 per (,(,Ilt. JI('lium i':) fI non-inftanunable 
ga:5 superior to hydrogen for the inflation of halloons. 
1-1. FRECHETTE (2) hn.
 ßladc a 
hHly of the lilue'-'tone depo:-\its 
of Ontario and Qu(\bce and pr(':-\ents analy:--l'
 of hample
 of lilnestone 
and dolOlnite ohtainable at ditTercnt quarri('
. 
Surveys of pc
tt bogs in Ontario anù Quebec hay 
 L 'en 1l1adp by 
.A. 
\XHEP (1). 


SOURCLq 01' REPORTS AND ARTICLES fuI'ERRJ:D TO L'Il THE TEXT. 
(l) Geological Surver, Ottawa. (2) 
fines Branch, Department of 
Iin
. Ott.a'\\a. (3) Department 
of !\Iines, Toronto, OntarIo. (4) 
lin(lg Branch, Department of Colonization, Mines and Fisheries, Quebec. 
(5) Department of Mines, Victoria, B,C. (6) Canadian Institute of 
finin& and Metallurgy, Drummond 
Building, Montreal, Quebec. 


'T.-
\RE,,\ 
\
D POPUL,,\TIO
. 



\rea by Provinces and Territories.-Tablc 1 sho,vs the total 
area of the Dominion in land and ,vater and its distribution into 
provinces and territories. 
I.-I..and and Water Area of Canada by Prodnces and Territories as In 1921. 


Provinces, 


Total 
Land, Water. Land and 
Water, 
sq, miles. sq. miles. sq, miles. 
2,184 - 2,184 
21,068 360 21,428 
27,911 74 27,985 
690,b65 15,969 706,834 
365,880 41,382 407,262 
231,926 19,906 251,832 
242,808 8,892 251,700 
252,925 2,360 255,285 
353,416 2,439 355,855 
206,427 649 207,076 
500 , ()()() - 500 , ()()() 
205,973 6,851 212,824 
501,953 27,447 529,400 
3,&03,335 12S,3
9 3,729,66;; 


Prince Ed v..ard Island."..., , . . . , . . , . . , . . , . , . . , . . . , . , . . . , . , . . . . , . , 
N ova Scotia. , . . . ,. .' - . - . , . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . . - . . . 
New Bruns\\ ick.,...,. , , . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . , , . . . . , . . . , . , . . , . , . . 
Quebec. , . , . , . . . , . . , , . , , , . , . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . - . . , . . . . . . , , 
Ontario..,..... . .. . _ . . , , , . . . . . , . , . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , . . " , ., . , . . . . . 
},Ianitoba..., ,. . ,.,. . . , .. . , . , .. . . . , '.' .' , . , . , , . . ,. " , , . . , . , . , . , 
Saskatchewan. . .. . . , . . . - - - . . . - - -. . - - . . . . . . . . , . , . . . 
Alberta...". , .., , . . , . . . , .. . , . , , " . , ., . . ., . . .. , . . , , , . . .. , .. . , . . . . . 
British Columbia..... ... ....... ....... _.. ..... . ......... . 
yukon",.,. . . ,. . . . . . . . , . .. .. . , . , . , . ,.. . . . , . .. . . ,. . . . .. ,. , . . " , . . , 
Northwest Territories- 

r
:

i
 
 : : : : : : . , , . : : : 
 : : : : : : : : : . - - . . . . . . . . . , . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
MacKenzie, , . , . . . .. ,.'" _ . . 


Total. , . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . .. ."...... ... .. 


. .... 
.t 



96 


AREA A1VD POPULATIO
V 


The \vß,ter area is exclusive of Hudson bay, Ungava bay, the bay 
of Fundy, the gulf of St. La\vrence and all other tidal \vaters, except- 
ing that portion of the river St. Lawrence which is between Pointe- 
des-1Ionts and the foot of lake St. Peter, in Quebec. 
Increase of Population.-The decade bet\veen 1911 and 1921 
was peculiarly unfavourable to a rapid growth of population among 
the \vhite races of the \vorld, since by thenl the Great 'Var \vas mainly 
waged. The war and the pestilence and famine "'9hich followed the 
\Var both devastated Europe and affected the ne\ver countries by 
drying up the sources of their immigration. Their effect on immigra- 
tion to Canada will be seen in Table 20 of this section of the Year 
Rook. 
According to the final results of the sixth census of the Dominion 
of Canada, the total population on June 1, 1921, was 8,788,483, as 
compared \vith 7,206,643 on June 1, 1911, an increase of 1,581,840 or 
21.95 per cent in the decade, as compared \vith 34. 17 per cent during 
the decade fro In 1901 to 1911. Reduced as is the rate of increase 
during the past ten years, it is yet higher than the rate of increase in 
any other of the principal countries of the British Empire except 
Australia, \vhere the rate was only slightly greater, and considerably 
higher than that of the United States. 
The countries which comprise the British Empire, as also the 
United States, have on the whole suffered much less in actual loss of 
life from the war and its consequences than have the continental 
countries of Europe. None of them has actually declined in popula- 
tion during the period, as many continental European countries have 
done. Their percentage increases, howevpr, have in almost all cases 
been lo\ver than in the previous decade. Thus the population of Eng- 
land and 'Vales increased bet\veen 1911 and 1921 only from 36,070,492 
to 37,885,242, or 4.93 per cent, as compared with an increase of 10.89 
per cent in the previous decade; Scotland, again, increased only from 
4,760,904 to 4,882,288, or 2.5 per cpnt, as compared with G. 5 per 
cent bet\veen 1901 and 1911. 
Of the oversea Dominions, N e\v Zealand increased from 1,008,468 
to 1,218,270 or 20.8 per cent, as compared \vith 30.5 per cent, while 
the \vhite population of South Africa increased from 1,276,242 to 
1,522,4-12 or 19.3 per cent. On the other hand, the Commonwealth 
of Australia, the only Dominion to grow lllore rapidly in the second 
decade of the twentieth century than in the first, increased from 
4,453,005 in 1911 to 5,436,794 in 1921, or 22.04 per cent, as compared 
\vith 18.05 ppr cent. The population of the continental United 
States increased bet\veen 1910 and 1920 from 91,972,266 to 105,710,- 
620, an increa:se of 14.9 per cent as cOlllpared with 21 per cent in the 
pr
pcling decade. 
Considering now the Dominion of Canada itself, it beCOllles 
evident from Tables 2 and 3 that in this country, as formerly in 
the United States, there is a distinct movement of population from 
East to 'YesL In the decade from 1911 to 1921, there occurred in 



\ UF.! ..\ YD l'O/>rL..\ flOS' 


97 


the four "e...;t('rn proyinl'e
 an inl're
l
C of population fronl 1,720,ßUl 
to 2,-lbO,Gô-1 or ll.2 per ('cnt, ,vhile thl' five Ea:-\tprn provinl'c,-, in- 
creaseù fronl 5,171.023 to ü,2U3,189, a.n increa'-'e of 
2-1,lö() per
ons, 
,vhich, though ah:-ìolutply larger than the figure for the 'Vc=-,t, con- 
stitut('s an increasc of only I;> Iwr ccnt oypr the 1911 populatiun. rrhl' 
:-;all1(' ('ollclu:-ìion Inay L' ,lelluccd frolll rrablc 3, ,vhich 
hows that 
while in lS71 only 2. 9ô per (,Pllt and in 1
81 only 3. ð8 p 'r ccnt of the 
population of the country d\vplt 'Vl':-ìt. of the Lake of the 'V uotis, thc 
}>l'rcentagl' in Ih91 ,vas ';.21, in 1UU 1, 12.02, in 1911, 2-1. on and in 
1921, 2S .37 pf'r ('ent. On the other hand, the three ca-.:ternUlost 

Iaritinle provin(,l':-ì, ,vhi('h in 1
71 cont aineù 20.80 p(.r cent of the 
population of the DOlllÏnion, had in 1bð1, 20.1-1 p('r ('('nt, in 1
91, 
18.22 p('r cf'nt, in 1f)(}1, 16.6-1 ppr cent, in 1911, 13.01 pl'r cent, and in 
1921 only 11':
ð p('r ('('lit of tlH' population. Untario and (luf'bec- 
the old pre-C'onfcllf'ration Pro, ilH'C of Canada - 
till r('Inain tlu' 
('hif'f Cf'ntr(' of population, their population being in lU21 no. 23 per 
('ent of the total as ('onlparpd "ith 7ü.2-l per Cent in IS7I, 73.Ð8 per 
('cut in1ððl, 71.5-1 per ('('nt in It'Vl, 71.34 p('r C('llt in lU01, anù t>2.90 
pl'r 
('nt in In11. In uther ,vord
, th(' BPt re
ult of the half c(,lltury 
has hepn that in 1n:!1 only threc-fifth:-; of th(. population of the ])om- 
inion lived in the
' provinces as ('olHparpd "it h 1l10rf' than thref'- 
fourth
 in 1871. 
Thl 1 ab
ulutl' and perccntag:e illCrea:5es of population by provinces 
and territorie
 arc :-ìhown for tht' la:-ìt d('('ade in 1\thle 4, ,vhi<.'h I:;hows 
that .\.lbcrta and Saskatl'hc,,-all illl'reascd proportiollat('ly nlo
t 
rapidly during thc pcriod, followcù bv 13riti:.;h COlulllbia anù :\lanitoLa. 
Ontario and Quphcl' 
how('d a fair pprc('ntacrp of increase and the l\Iari- 
tillH,;;:, a. blIlall one, ,vhile Prin('c Eùward l:-ìland-an ahno:-\t purply 
agricultural provincp-and the lukon- a Inining l'alnp
"howeù a 
decline in population. .A.h
olute inCrf':l:-ìL'R Rin('(' IX71 nrf' slH>\vn by 
decade;, in 1'able 5, anù percentage increa=-,c
 since 1871 by dec
lùes 
in Table 6. 


2.- Po)ndation of C'anada b) Prm1n('cs and Terrltorle
 In the Censu
 ) ears IS.1 to 19:H. 


Provinces_ 1871. 1881, 18!H 1001. 1911. Inl. 
Prince Ed ward Island,.,..., 94,021 108,891 109,078 103,259 93,728 88,615 
N ova Scotia".. , , , . . , , . , . , . 387,800 440,572 450,396 459,574 492,338 523,837 

ew Brunswick.".,.... :?ti5,594 321,233 3
1,263 231,120 351,
89 387,876 
Quebec. , . . . , . . . . . . , . , , , , . . . 1,191,516 1,359,027 1,488,535 1,648,898 2,005,776 2 2,361,J99 
Ontario..,.. . .,. . , . .. , . . . . . . 1,620,851 1,926,922 2,114,321 2,182,947 2,527,292 2 2,933,662 
?tlanitoba.... . ,.. , , , . ... '.' . 25,228 62,260 152,506 255,211 461,394 2 610,118 
Saskatchewan. .. .. . , . , , . . , . . - - - 91, 279 492,432 757,510 
Alberta...... . . , , ... . . - . . . . . - - - 73,022 374,2
5a 588,454 
British Columbia.,.. . . . , .. . 36,247 49,459 98,173 178,657 39l,4
 524,582 
Yukon Territory,..... - - - 27,219 8,512 4,157 
Xorthwest Territories 4 ...,.. 48,000 56,446 98,967 20, 129 6,507 2 7, 988 
Royal Canadian Navy, . , .. . - - - - - 485 
Total ...."....".. 3 ,689,257 -:I,3U,810 -:1,833,239 6,311,31. 7,206,6-:13 8,788 ,-:183 


1 The population of the Prairie Provinces, according to the quinquennial census of 1916, is given OR 
pali/;e 113, I AB corrected as a result of the Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. I As corrected by transfer 
of population of Fort Smith (368) to !\orthwest Territories. 4 The decrease dhown in the population of 
the Northwe.qt Territories after 1891 is due to the separation therefrom of vast areas to form Alberta, 
:-:askatche\\aD and the Yukon Territory, and to extend the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and 
Ianitoba, 
38131-7 


. 



98 


AREA AND POPULATION 


3.-Percentage Distribution of Canadian Population by Provinces and Territories, 
1871 to 1921. 


Province or Territory, 1871. I 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911 I 1921. 
p.c, p.c, p.c. p.C, p.c, p,c, 
Prince Edward Island....,..... ... ....,. 2,55 2,52 2,25 1.92 1.30 1,01 
N ova Scotia. , , , , , , , . . . . , . , . . , . . . . . . . . , . 10,51 10,19 9,32 8,56 6,83 5,96 
New Brunswick......., . . . . , . , . . . , . . . , , . 7.74 7,43 6.65 6,16 4.88 4,41 
Quebec. . . , . . . . . , . , . . . . . , , , . , . . , , . . . , . . . 32,30 31.42 30,80 30,70 27,83 26,87 
Ontario..,.., , , " " ,. " . . " , , . . . . , . , . . , . 43,94 44.56 43.74 40,64 35,07 33,38 
1\lanitoba".,..""..,.,.".,.. ......". 0'68 1.44 3.16 4.75 6.40 6,94 
Saskatchewan, . , , , , . , , . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . , , . - - - 1.70 6,84 8.62 
Alberta. . . , . , . , . . . , . , . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . . . . - - - 1'36 5.19 6.70 
British Columbia. .. . . . . . . . . a . _ ... _.o..o.o 0,98 1,14 2,03 3,33 5,45 5'97 
Yukon Territory. , . , . , . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . , . - - - 0.51 0,12 0'05 
Northwest Territories....,.... . . , " '.' . , 1,30 1,30 2'05 0,37 0,09 0,09 
Royal Canadian Navy......,.....,..... - - - - - - 
100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100.00 100,00 


4.-Absolute and Percentage Increase of Population of Canada by Provinces and 
Territories, 1921 as compared with 1911. 


Increase of 1921 
Province or Territory. 1911, 1921. over 1911. 
Number. Per cent, 
Prince Ed ward Island.. .. . . .. . . .. . , , . , . . . , . . .. .. . . . . . 93,728 88.615 -5,113 - 5,46 
Nova Scotia....."..,..........,.,...,...,.,...,.,.. 492,338 523,837 31,499 6,40 
New Brun::;wick, , . . , . , . . , , . , . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . 351,889 387,876 35,987 10,25 
Quebec. . . , , . , , . , . . . . . . . . , , . . , . , , , . . , . .. ,...",.,.... 2,005,776 2,361,199 355,423 17.72 
Ontario.......,..... .....,.....",.",...,.,."..,." 2,527,292 2,933,662 406,370 16,08 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , , . . , . . . . 461,394 610,118 148,724 32.23 
Saskatchewan. . . . . , , . , . , , , . . . , , , . , . , , , . , . , . , . , . , , , . . . 492,432 757,510 265.078 53,80 
Alberta..........."..",..,.,.,.,......,.."".,... . 374,295 588,454 214,159 57.22 
British Columbia. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . , . . . , . . . . . , . , , . . 392,480 524,582 132,102 33,66 
Yukon Territory.... ,.,.",.."..,.,.,.,...,.....,.. 8,512 4,157 - 4,355 -51,16 
Northwest Territories..........."...,...., ."....". 6,507 7,988 1,481 22,76 
Royal Canadian Navy.. .. . , .. , .. . . . .. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . - 485 485 - 
Totals for Canada.......,.................. 7 ,206 ,64.1 8,788,483 1,581,840 21"5 


NOTE,-The sign (-) denotes a decrease, 


5.-Population of Canada by PrO\inces and Territories in 1871 and 1921, and numerical 
increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. 


P 


Popula- Increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921, Popula- Increase 
Province or tion tion 1871 
Terri tory . in 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 in to 
1871. to to to to to 1921. 1921. 
1881, 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 
rince Ed ward I. . 94,021 14,870 187 -5,819 -9,531 -5,113 88,615 -5,406 
Nova Scotia....,., 387,800 52,772 9,824 9,178 32,764 31,499 523,837 136,037 
New Brunswick. , . 285,594 35,639 30 9,857 20,769 35,987 387,876 102,282 
uebec. . . . . , , , . . . . 1,191,516 167,511 129,508 160,363 356,878 355,423 2,361,199 1,169,683 
ntario. . .. . . . . . . . . 1,620,851 306,071 187,399 68,626 344,345 406,370 2,933,662 1,312,811 
anitoba......... . 25,228 37,032 90,246 102,705 206,183 148,724 . 610,118 584,890 
Saskatchewan.... . - - - 91 , 279 401, 153 265,078 757,510 757,51(). 
lberta......... . . . - - - 73,022 301,273 214,159 588,454 588,454 
ritish Columbia. 36,247 13.212 48,714 80,484 213,823 132,102 524,582 488,335 
ukon Territory. . - - - 27,219 -18,707 -4,355 4,157 4,157 

 orthwest 
Territories 1 ..,.. . 48,000 8,446 42,521 -78,838 -13,622 1,481 7,988 -40,012 
Royal Canadian 
Navy.,.,.,..._. - - - - - 485 485 485 
Canada. . 3,689,251 635,553 508,429 538,076 1,835,328 1,581,840 8,788,483 5,099,224- 


Q 
o 
M 
A 
B 
Y 


1 The decreases shown in the population of the Northwest Territories since 1891 are due to the separa- 
tion therefrom of immense areas to form the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the Yukon 
Territory, as well as to extend the boundaries of the older provinces of Quebec, Ontario and .Manitoba, 



RUll..tL .I1Xn URB.LV J>VJ>UL.\ TIO.V 


99 


5.
Pol)l"atlon of l
anada by .Þrmlnces and 'l'erritori
 In IS.1, and Inrrea
e pt'r cent 
b) decades from lS71 to 19'!I. 


Popula- Per cent increase by decadl'8 from 1871 to 1921. Per cent 
Province or tlon increase 
Terri tor)' , in 1871 1S81 l...nl 1901 1911 in 50 
1871. to to to to to years. 
Is
1. UN1. 1!t() 1. 1911. 1021. 
Prince Eùward Island. .. . 94.021 15,R2 0,17 -5.33 -9,23 -5,46 - 5,75 

 0\ a ticotia. . . ,. . 387.800 13.61 2.23 2.().4 7,)3 6,40 35.08- 

 ew Brun8" ick. , . 2b.'),594 12.48 0.01 3.07 6,27 10,23 35,82 
Quebec........ . . " . 1,191,516 14.06 9.53 -0,77 21,64 17,72 98,17 
Ontario.,.", , .. . 1,620,851 IS'
'" 9.73 3.25 15,77 16.01\ 
0.Ü9 

Ianitoba. .. .. . .. . ._ ,. ., , 25,228 146,7\1 144.95 67.34 bQ,79 32,23 2,318,42 
Ra:,;katche\\ an, , . , ,. , . . , , , . , . . - - - - 439.48 53,83 - 
Alberta.. . . . .. . . . - - - - 412'58 57.22 - 
British \,olumbia. . . , . . , " " . 36,247 36,45 98.49 81,98 119'68 33.66 1,347'24 
Yukon Territory... .". _ _ _, _, - - - - -ti
'73 -51.1t) - 

orthw{'St Territories l ...,.". 48,000 17'60 75.33 79.66 -67'67 22,76 -83 ,36 
('anada ............. 3 I '!
 ,2;). 11..3 11.;' 11.1:1 :14.17 21.'" 13
.n 
I 


H.ural and Urban Population.-In 1
ahle 7 are givpn st,t1tistic
 
:--howing th(' 
rowth of rurnl nnt! urhan pupulation re::;pectively since 
1hUl. For the purpo
('
 of th(' c('nsu
, tlH' population f(\siding in 
cities, to,\"ns and incorporated villagps ha::; been ùefin('d as urban, 
and that outsidp of 
u('h localitil'
 a
 rural. 'fhu::-- th
 distinction her(' 
lnaùe between "rural" and "urban" population is a distinetion of 
provincial l('
al status rather than of 8ize of fif!g:rcgatioll::; of popula- 
tion "ithin limited nrea
. 
ince th
 la \\"8 of th(' variou:; province
 
differ in rl'
ard to the population JU'('p:.;:.;ary hefof(' a Jnunicipality 
lnay be incorporated as urban, (the law
 of Sa,-,katch(',van, for cxtllnple, 
lllnkillg provi
ion that 50 people actually rcsid('nt on an area not 
greater th:111 ß-to acrps lllay clailll incorporation a:-- a villagl', whil
 
the Ontario hnv no\v rC'ql1Ìre'-' that yillnges a,-,king for incorporation 
shnll hnve a population of 750 on an area not ('xceeding 500 acres), 
th(' lilH' of df'lnarcat ion het\\ een rural and urhan population is not 
unifonuly drawn throughout the !)olninioll, as far as cOlllparable 
aggregations of population are concerned. To a lilnited ('xtent, 
ho,,
ever, Tahle 9 ,vill pCflnit the student of population stati
tics to 
make, at lca
t for ranada as a ,vhol(', his o,vn lilH' of delnarcation 
bet".epll rural and urhan population. 2 
'Yhile a sununary cOlllparison b('t,vcen urbanization in Canada 
in 1921 and in the United States in 1920 ".ould lead us to th(' ('on- 
elusion that our country, though far lc:-;s d('n8ply peopl('d than th<" 
United States, had an ahnotit eflually larg-e percenta.ge of its popula- 
tion in urban cOlnmunitics, viz., 49.52 per cent in Canaùa tl.-; eOlnpared 


1 The decreases shown in the population of the 
orthwC';t Territories since 1891 arc due to the separa- 
tion therefrom of immense areas to form the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the Yukon 
Territory, as well as to extend the boundaries of the older provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. 
2 In the T:nited States, urban population is classified ty the Census Bureau as that re5idinsz; in cities and 
other incorporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more, and in "towns" having 2,500 inhabitants or 
more in 
lassachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. While 8uch "toWDB," under the form8 01 
local government existing in these states, are partly rural in character, the 'Pnited States Census Bureau 
con8iders that the total urban popub.tion of these 8tates is not greatly exaggerated thereby. 
38131-7! 



100 


AREA Al'lD POPULATIOl\- 


,vith 51.4 per cent in the United States, the fact that in the United 
States inhabitants of places having under 2,500 population are 
included ,vith rural population, ,vhile in Canada the inhabitants of 
Inany places \vith less than 100 population are classed as urban, must 
be taken into account. A fairer basis of comparison is secured if the 
same population limits are taken for both countries, as may be done 
by using Table 9. Thus, at the census of 1920 the United States had 
25.9 per cent of its population resident in cities of 100,000 and over, 
,vhile Canada in 1921 had only 18.87 per cent of its population in 
such places. The United States had an additional 16.4 per cent of 
its population residing in cities of between 10,000 and 100,000 popula- 
tion, and 4.7 per cent in cities and to\vns of 5,000 to 10,000, while 
Canada had in cities of these categories only 13.32 per cent, and 
4.36 per cent respectively of its population. Thus, taking all places 
of 5,000 and over-the lowest population for ,vhirh comparative 
figures are readily a-vailable-47 per cent of the population of the 
United States resided in such places as compared \vith 36. 55 per 
cent of the population of Canada, sho\ving the much higher degree 
of urbanization ,vhich has been reached in the United States-a 
natural thing in an older settled and more densely peopled country. 
On the basis of the census classification, it is apparent from 
Table 7 that in the last decade, as in the previous one, urban com- 
munities absorbed some,vhat over t,vo-thirds of the total increase in 
population, ,vith the result that the urban population of Canada ,vas in 
1921 nearly equal to the rural. Out of every 1,000 persons in the 
country 505 were resident, on June 1, 1921, in rural and 495 in urban 
communities, as compared with 545 in rural and 455 in urban communi- 
ties on June 1, 1911, 625 in rural and 375 in urban communities in 
1901, and 682 in rural and 318 in urban communities in 1891. 
From Table 9, showing the distribution of urban population in 
Canada by size of cities and towns, it becomes evident that for the 
first tÏ1ne in its census history Canada possesses cities of more th
n 
half a million population. These are l\Iontreal and Toronto, with 
618,506 and 521,893 inhabitants respectively, the former having in 
its neighbourhood several "satellite" cities, Verdun, 'Vestmount, 
Lachine, Outremont, which, with other slnaller to,vns in its vicinity, 
bring the population of "Greater l\lontreal" to the 700,000 Inark. 
No other city has attained the 200,000 mark, but during the past 
decade Hamilton and Ottawa have been added to vVinnipeg and 
Vancouver as cities of over 100,000 population, while Quebec, which 
in 1911 was, together with Hamilton and Ottawa, in the 50,000 to 
100,000 class, has been joined in that class, though at a considerable 
interval, by Calgary, London, Edmonton and Halifax. Details of 
the population of these and other smaller cities and towns of 5,000 
and over, are given by censuses from 1871 to 1921 in Table 11, while 
the populations of urhan communities having a population of from 
1,000 to 5,000 are given for 1901,1911 and 1921 in Table 12. 



]lFR..IL ..1.\ D UHB..IY /J()PUL.l TIOA\ 


101 


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104 


AREA A1VD POPULATIO"V 


10.-Ar
a and Population of Canada by PrO\inces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901. 


Provinces and Districts. 


Prince Edward Island... . 
Kings. . . , . . . . , . , , , , . , . . . . 1 
Prince. . . . . . , , . . . . , , , . . . . . 
Queens. .. ... . . . , . . . . 
N ova Scotia. . _ . .. ........ 
Antigonish and Guys- 
borough. .. .. .. . . . . 
Antigonish........... .. 
Guysboroug;h.......... . 
Cape? Bre
on North and 
"\ lctona......... ... , . 
Cape Breton North..... 
Victoria....... . . . . . . . . . 
Cape Breton South and 
Richmond.......... . 
Cape Breton South. . . . . 
Richmond. . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Colchester. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cumberland............ .. 
Digby anrl Annapolis..... 
Digby Co. (part)...,.,. 
Annapolis. . . . . . . . . _. .. 
Halifax City and County. 
Halifax City.. . . , , . . . . . 
Halifax County"..,.... 
Hants....". . . . , . . . , . . . , . 
Inverness....... ... ..,.,. 
Kings. .......,.......". 
Lunenburg. . . . . . . , . . . . . , . 
Pictou. . . . . . . . , . . , , , . 
Shelburne and Queens. , , . 
Shelburne..... . . . . . 
Queens. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . 
Yarmouth and Clare. . . . . 
yarmouth..,......... . 
Clare (Digby Co, part) 
New Brunswick..",.,..,. 
Charlotte........,....., . 
Gloucester. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
Kent..................... 
Northumberland........ _ 
Restigouche and 
Iada- 
waska. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Restigouche.. .. .. . . . . , . 
Madawaska........... . 
RI
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 : : : : : . : : : : : : : 
Queens. .......... _... 
St, John City, County 
and Albert.... . . . . .. . 
St. John City. . .....,. . 
St. John County....",. 
Albert County . . . . . . . 
Victoria and Carleton..,. 
Victoria. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . 
Carleton. . . , . , . . . . . . . . . 
Westmorland. ..,.....,... 
York and Sunbury,."... 
York. . . . , . , . , , . . . . , . , . . 
Sunbury.....".. . . ., .. . 


Lanrl 
area il' 
sq. miles. 


2 ,18t. 36 1 
641,18 
778,23 
764.95 
21,068.00 1 
2,212.00 
556.00 
1,656,00 
1,355.10 
250.34 
1,104.76 
1,210,90 
721.90 
489.00 
1,451.00 
1,683'00 
1,983'65 
659,77 
1,323,88 
2,123'38 
6,72 
2,116.66 
1,229,00 
1,408,75 
864.00 
1,202,00 
1,124.00 
2,022'48 
1,009.43 
1,013.05 
1,198,99 
85
.76 
340.23 
27,911.00 
1,283.40 
1,869.81 
1,778'02 
4,740'60 
4,542.56 
3,269,68 
1,272.88 
2,855,53 
1,414.73 
1,440.80 
1,302,88 
14.31 
601,57 
687.00 
3,402.64 
2,092'04 
1,310.60 
1,442,18 
4,693.74 
3,605,26 1 
1,088,48 


opulation 1921. 
1911. 1901. 
Per 
ota!. SQ, 
mile, 
88,615 40.56 93,728 103,259 
20,445 31,88 22,636 24,725 
31,520 40,50 32,779 35,400 
36,650 47.91 38,313 43,134 
5
3,837 24.86 492,338 159 ,57J 
27,098 12.25 29,010 31,937 
11 , 580 20,82 11,962 13,617 
15,518 9,37 17,048 18,320 
31,325 23,11 29,888 24,650 
22,511 89.92 19,978 14,079 
8,814 7,97 9,910 10,57] 
76,362 63,06 66,625 48,602 
63,785 88,35 53,352 35,087 
12,577 25,71 13,273 13,5]5 
25,196 17,36 23, 664 24,900 
41,191 24.4ï 40,543 36, 16
 
28,965 14.60 29,871 30,579 
10,812 16,38 11,290 11,737 
18.153 13.71 18,581 18,842 
97,228 45.78 80,257 74,662 
58,372 8,686'31 46,619 40,832 
38,856 18,36 33,638 33,830 
19,739 16.06 19,703 20,056 
23,808 16'90 25,571 24,353 
23,723 27.45 21,780 21,937 
33,742 28,07 33,260 32.389 
40,851 36.34 35,858 33,459 
23,435 11.58 24,211 24,428 
13,491 13.36 14,105 14,202 
9,944 9.81 10,106 10,226 
31,174 26.00 32,097 31,454 
22,374 26.05 23.220 22,869 
8,800 25,86 8,877 8,585 
387,876 13.90 351,889 331,120 
21,435 16,70 21,147 22,415 
38,684 20.68 32,662 27,936 
23,916 13.45 24,376 23,958 
33,985 7,16 31,194 28,543 
42,977 9.46 32,365 22,897 
22,839 6,98 15,687 10,586 
20.138 15.82 16,678 12,311 
32,078 11.23 31,491 32,832 
20,399 14.42 20,594 21,655 
11,679 8,11 10,897 11, 177 
69,(.193 53.03 63,263 62, 684 
47,166 3,296,01 42,511 40,711 
13,320 22.14 11,061 11,048 
8,607 12,52 9,691 10,925 
33,900 9.96 32.990 
0,446 
12,800 6,12 11,544 8,825 
21,100 16.09 21,446 21,621 
53,387 37,02 44,621 42,060 
38,421 8.18 37,780 37,349 
32,259 8.94 31,561 31,620 
6.162 5,66 6,219 5,729 


P 


T 


Increase (+) 
or 
Decrease (-), 
1921 1911 
over over 
1911. 1901. 
-t=. ,113 -9,531 
-2,191 - 2,089 
-1,259 -2,621 
-1,663 -4,821 
31,499 32,764 
-1,912 -2,927 
-382 -1, 655 
-1,530 -1,272 
1,4'37 5,238 
2.533 5,899 
-1,096 -661 
9,737 18,023 
10,433 18,265 
-696 -242 
1,532 -1,236 
648 4,375 
-906 -708 
-478 -447 
-428 -261 
16,971 5,595 
11,753 5,787 
5,218 -192 
36 -353 
-1, 763 1,218 
1,943 -157 
482 871 
4,993 2,399 
-776 -217 
-614 -97 
-162 -120 
-923 643 
-846 351 
-77 292 

,
87 20,769 
288 -1. 268 
6,022 4,726 
-460 418 
2,791 2,651 
10,612 9,468 
7,152 5,101 
3,460 4,367 
587 -1,341 
-195 -1,061 
782 -280 
5,830 579 
4,655 ],800 
2,259 13 
-1,084 -1,234 
910 2,544 
1,256 2,719 
-346 -175 
8,766 2,561 
641 431 
698 -59 
-57 490 


NOTE.-The land areas here given for the province
 and electoral districts are as measured by a plani- 
meter :>n the map, and include the areas of small lakes and other waters which have not been measured. 
1 By map measurement. 



At llE.61 1^. /) PUIJUL 1 T I01'
 


10,) 


10.-6\r..'a and. IJ o l)u1ation of t:anada b) IJ rm inn's and. "
Icctorall Ulstrlcts, 1921, 1911 
and t90t.-continm'd, 


Ek'Ctoral Di:òtricts. 


Qm'ht'(, . 
\rguntcuil, 
Bagot. , 
Bcauce.". . 
Be.1uharnoÏß 
Bl'IlechMeo....,. . 
Berthier."." . 
Bonaventure.......,"" . 
11rome.... . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. , 
Chamblv and Yerch
reø. 
Champlåin. . . 
Charlevoix- 
(ontmorency 
Chtueo.u
a:r- Huntingdon 
Chicoutimi
lo(ucnay"., . 
Compton... ,.,. 
Dorchester. . . . . , . , . . . , . , , 
Drummonù &. Arthabaska 
Gaspé..... ....".. .. 
Georgf>-Etienno Cartier. . 
HochelaAA.. " 
Hull. 
Jacqu('g Cartil'r 
Joliette 
Kamour.,.,l..n. . . . . 
Labelle. . ..... . 
Laprairie anù "upien ilIe 
J 'Assomption-)(ontcalm. 
LuuriE"r-Outremont. .. 
Laval-Two 
lountains.... 
L
vis.., . , - . - . . . . . . . 
I:Islet.... " , . . , ,. , . 
Lotbini
re. . . . 

[ aisonneU\'e 
:\IRSkinon
é. . 
"atane.., .- 
\lél!;antic..., . 
\J issisq uoi. . . . 
)Iontmusrnv. . 
:\icolet.. - 
Pontiac. . 
Portneuf...,. . 
Quebec County. 
Quebec East. . 
Quebec Sou th . . 
Quebec \\ est . . . . , . 
Richelieu. . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . 
Richmond and \\ oUe. .... 
Rimouski. 
Ht, Ann. . . , 
SL Antoine. 
St. Denis.... . ..... .... 
St, Hyacinthe-ltouyiIle. . 
St, James.,.. . .. .... . .... 

t, John8 and IberviUe... 
St. Lawrence-St, George. 
8t. Mary...... ,........ 
:--:hefford.. . .. . . . ... .. . .. . 
Sherbrooke. , 
Rtanstead." . 
Témiscoua ta. 
Terrebonne.......... 
Three Rivers and St. 

[aurice ...........,... 
Vaudreuil-:--:oulan!!;es.".. . 
Wætmount-St. Henri. 
Wrig;ht. . . . . . . . , . _ 
Yamaska. . . . . 


Lund arc..\ 
in square 
miles, 


'941 ,bG.; .1Ju1 
7
3,36 
346,14 
I, 8
1.04 
14 7.03 
652'64 
2,19
,74 
3,463'61 
488.15 
3:17.00 
1,407,95 
4,303,09 
626,52 
492,140.74% 
1,419.04 
941,60 
1, HI7.
2 
4,551,47 


1,023'18 
86.94 
3,013.50 
I, O,
7 .50 
2,948.bQ 
319.20 
4,44g.40 
378,12 
')71,83 
77'2,80 
ï
t
 . 40 
58.10 
2,9-10.00 
3,495.67 
780,16 
375.21 
630,13 
626,07 
126.437,191 
6.722,91 
2,799.59 
2,20 
3,59 
116.66 
193 . 10 
1,224,32 
2,089.44 


520'58 
403,02 


567,20 
237'59 
43
.4ï 
1,80ß.18 
781.82 
2,568,05 
336,75 
2,297,27 
393.12 


Population IH:?1 


Total. 


2,361,'" 
17, 165 
18,035 
53,
n 
19,bSð 
21,100 
19,517 
29,092 
13,471 
34,643 
48,009 
28,H74 
26.731 
90,6æ 
3') '>R.) 
28: 954 
44,h
3 
40,375 
54,
OO 
73,526 
43,541 
H9. 2
17 
25,913 
2:?,014 
35,927 
20.065 
2S.31
 
72,047 
2ð,314 
3:
 , 323 
17.859 
21,837 
64,933 
16,fl45 
36.303 
33,633 
17,709 
21.997 
2!).6Q5 
46. 
Ol 
34,452 
31,130 
38,330 
27,706 
37,993 
18,764 
42.
4F 
27.520 
52,0-19 
32,394 
78,fI:?O 
36,754 
42,443 
23,518 
36,912 
63.975 
25,644 
30,786 
23,380 
44,310 
33,908 
50, 845 
21.620 
62,909 
21.850 
18,840 


rl'r 
811 uuro 
mile. 


3.12 
21, 
Il 
52.10 
2S.4i 
13;).26 
32.47 
9.04 
8.40 
27.60 
102.80 
32.05 
6.71 
42.67 
0.18 
22.44 
30.75 
37.42 
8,87 


42.55 
1 , 027 . 11 
8.60 
21.22 
12,18 
62.86 
6,37 
74.8Q 
122.59 
2:
'l1 
30,06 
1.117.61 
5,76 
10.39 
43,11 
47,20 
34.91 
47.43 
0.36 
5,12 
11.12 
17.-122,73 
7,717.55 
325,67 
97,17 
34.51 
13,17 


70.60 
58.35 


45.21 
129'58 
54.06 
24.53 
43,37 
19,80 
64,20 
9'51 
47.92 


1911. 


2,00';,;.6 
16,76li 
IS,20li 
61, 3
m 
20,802 
21. 141 
19,872 
28, 110 
1:
, 210 
2h.715 
J9.
24' 
27,972 
26,562 
65, ",... 
29,630 
2.') . 096 
41. 500 
35,001 
51,937 
4-1, 
"4 
:H.
117 
56.855 
23,911 
20, 8bö 
30,115 
19.33fi 
2
,500 
44,2G-t 
2,'),275 
28,913 
1(,,435 
22, 158 
33,796 
16,509 
27.539 
31,314 
17 ,466 
17,356 
30.055 
31,479 
30,260 
28,046 
30,922 
24,163 
30,506 
19,810 
39,491 
23, fI.51 
41,541 
34,794 
45, 141 
35,4 i3 
44,057 
21, 882 
38.883 
62.521 
23.976 
23,211 
20,765 
36.430 
29,018 
36,1.'i3 
20,439 
56,0F.
 
21, 171 1 
20,387 


1001. 


1,6"'\.
9" 
16.407 
Ih.lXl 
43, 12
1 
21,n2 
Ib,706 
19,9ðO 
24,495 
13, 3t
7 
24,318 
32,015 
25,813 
27,56'2 
48,291 
26,4t)Ü 
21 ,007 
38,999 
30.f\Q3 
53.673 
14.193 
33,h51 
21. !166 
22,
.'j5 
19,099 
22,2!H 
19,6.13 
2b,996 
13,23'; 
24,686 
26,210 
14.439 
20,039 
12,402 
15,813 
18,521 
23.878 
17,339 
14,757 
27,209 
2!:i,127 
24, 176 
24,381 
28.645 
21 , 833 
24,897 
18,576 
34,137 
21,636 
41,225 
47,653 
10,391 
34,950 
42,618 
20,679 
21. 889 
40,631 
23.62R 
18,42b 
18,998 
29,185 
26,816 
29,311 
20.373 
40,960 
19,589 
21,506 


Increase (+) or 
))l'C.:Il"lLSl' (-), 


1921 HIll 
O\'l'r o\'cr 
1911. 1!IOl. 


3.),,),n3 
399 
-171 
2,442 
-\114 
49 
-55 
.982 
255 
5,92S 
8,1ö5 
90
 
169 
21. 721 
2,655 
3, b.,)8 
3,233 
5,J74 
2,863 
28,642 
5.b24 
32,442 
2,002 
1. 126 
5,812 
730 
-1M 
27,783 
3,039 
4,410 
1.424 
-321 
31,137 
436 
8,764 
2,319 
243 
4,641 
-360 
14,722 
4,192 
3,084 
7,40b 
3,5-13 
7,4S7 
-1,046 
2,757 
3.569 
10,508 
-2,400 
33,779 
1,281 
-1,614 
1,636 
-1,971 
1 454- 
1:66X 
7,575 
2,615 
7,8bO 
4,890 
14,692 
1,181 
6,821 
679 
-1,547 


3.)G,811S 
359 
2.1 
8,270 
-930 
2.435 
-IOS 
3,615 
-181 
4,397 
7,b09 
2,159 
-1,000 
17 ,597 
J,170 
4,089 
2,591 
4.318 
- 1 , 736 
30, mil 
4,066 
34, &")9 
1,6.')6 
1.7
9 
7.824 
-298 
1.510 
31,027 
58!. 
2,70:\ 
1,996 
2,119 
21,394 
696 
9,018 
7,436 
127 
2,599 
2,!:W6 
3,3,52 
6,084 
3,66.1) 
2,277 
2,330 
5,609 
1,214 
5,35t 
2,315 
316 
-12,859 
34,750 
52:
 
1,439 
1,203 
16,994 
21,890 
34S 
4,785 
1,767 
7,245 
2,202 
6,842 
66 
15,128 
1,582 
-1,119 


1 By map measurement. 2 Includes part added by Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. a Includes un. 
organized parts. 



106 


AREA AND POPULATION 


10.-Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 190t.-continued. 


Electoral Districts, 


Land 
area in 
sq, miles. 


Population, 
1921. 
1911. 1901. 
Total. Per sq. 
mile. 
2,933,662 8.02 2,527,
92 2,182,9"7 
40,ß18 1,96 37,699 25,211 
33,676 1,52 28,752 17,894 
20,085 60.09 19,259 18,273 
33,292 383,28 26,617 19,867 
20,872 21'95 23,783 27,424 
23,413 33,47 26,249 31,596 
32,673 50,19 24,417 22,S\80 
15,415 27,69 17,740 21,036 
24,388 42'33 25,973 28,3.50 
24,629 39.16 26,411 27,570 
17,306 47.74 17,597 17,901 
27,678 77,40 26,715 25,685 
71,150 297.36 38,006 28,789 
31,425 67,21 29,541 29.955 
39,661 3,10 32,158 18,461 
20,390 12,77 21,944 24,746 
38,573 55.31 38,226 40,580 
16,644 35'96 17,545 21,021 
30,667 45,78 33,957 33,003 
28,384 27,34 31,934 36,587 
21,287 43,60 21,562 21,233 
24,899 68.65 22,208 19,545 
49,820 18,520,44 39,793 24,000 
39,298 11,101.11 37,279 28,634 
23,072 17.86 24,978 27,943 
34,451 33,39 30,825 31,348 
23,540 35.66 26,886 30,966 
23,548 37'06 26,097 30,854 
52,139 63.70 49,391 49,673 
24,104 6,809'03 20,660 19,788 
25,801 39'82 28,827 34,440 
32,888 57,13 29, 109 29,723 
32,993 28.99 34,375 37,232 
34,909 38,80 36,753 37,975 
18,994 16.23 20,386 23,346 
48,625 146.28 35,429 30,552 
53,838 8,095.94 46,300 37,976 
27,994 58,18 23,465 23,339 
25,033 33,28 27,300 31,387 
19,439 12,26 21,233 20,971 
58,565 5,25 43,679 24,93J 
26,366 41,56 27, 110 29,147 
30,512 43,32 32,892 33,550 
15,420 30.54 17,141 18,390 
31,074 89,37 23,865 22,018 
93,740 19,734.74 77,182 59,140 
24,527 59.74 25,077 25,644 
22,235 62,81 22,294 22,760 
80.780 - 59,609 22,303 
27,022 6,23 26,547 24,936 
23,896 51,01 22,102 21,475 
32,461 75'53 30,235 29,256 
18,382 44,85 18,947 20,615 
13,716 15'38 15,499 16.291 
29,318 52,93 26,151 20,704 
43,300 .21 39,109 10,526 
26,478 53,56 26,968 27,035 
16,806 43,04 11,150 17,864 
23,956 22.64 23,617 24,556 
27,061 16.45 27,852 27,676 
43,413 62.13 39,434 35,166 
37.122 70,12 35,294 29,845 
22,100 38,44 24,699 26,071 
24,810 44,41 25,060 26,399 


On tarlo.. .. . . , , , , . . . , . , . .. 36
 ,880.00 1 


Algoma East, , . , . . , . , , , . . 
Algoma West...,.... . .. .. 
Brant. . . . . , , . . . . . , , , , , , . . 
Brantford. . . . , . , . . , , . , . . . 
Bruce N ort h. .. . , , , , , . . . . 
Bruce South ....,......,. 
Carleton., . . . . . . . , , , .. , . . 
DlÍfferin. . , . . . . . .. ,. .. . . . 
Dundas. .. . , . . . . . . , . . , . . . 
Durham. . , , , , . . , , . . . , . , . 
Elgin East. . , , . , . . . . , , , . . 
Elgin West. . , , . , . , , . , . . . . 
Essex North, , , . . . . , . , . . . 
Essex South. , . . , . . , . , . . . . 
Fort William and RaiIlY 
River..... , .., . . . . , . ,. . 
Frontenac, , , , . . . . , . , . . . . . 
Glengarry and Stormont. 
Grenville......... . . , .. . . . 
Grey North......... . . . , . 
Grey Southeast" . , . .. , , . 
Haldimand. . , , , . , , , . . . , . 
Halton.......,..",."., . 
Hamilton East.."., , . . . . 
Hamilton West"..",.". 
Hastings East, . , , . , , , , . . . 
Hastings West.,.", , , , . . . 
Huron North............. 
Huron South. , . , . , . , . , , . . 
Kent. . . . , . . , . , . . . . , , , , , , , 
Kingston.. . .. . . , . , . . . , . . . 
Lam bton East. , . , , . . , , . . 
Lambton West...",.",. 
Lanark,......, . , . . . . , , , , . 
I.eeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , , , . 
Lennox and Addington. . . 
'I.incoln. , , . . . . , . , . . , , . . , , . 
J...ondon. . . . . . , , , , . , , , . , . . 
Middlesex East."...,. '., 
Middlesex West. . , , , " , , . 
M!ls
o.ka."", . , . , . ,. , , . . 
N Iplsslng.. , , .. .. , . , , , . , . . 
Norfolk. , , . . . . . . . . . , , , , , . 
Northumberland.. , . . . . . . 
Ontario North, , , . , . , , , , . 
Ontario South.,.......". 
Ottawa. . , . . , , , . , , , , . . . , . 
Oxford North............ 
Oxford South........ . . ... 
Park dale , , , . , , . . . , . . . , , , . 
Parry Sound., . , , , , . , , , , . 
Peel. . . . . . . . . . . , . , . , . . . . . . 
Perth North... , . . . . . .. . . 
Perth South.. . . . . .. , . . , . . 
Peterborough Fast", , ., . 
Peterborough West.,.... , 
Port Arthur and Kenom.. 
Prescott. . . , , , , , , . , . . , . . 
Prince Edward"..,..,.., 
Renfrew North.,..,..... , 
Renfrew South.." , , . , .. . 
RURselL . . . . . . . , . . , . , , . . . . 
Simcoe East. . , . , .. , . . .. . 
Simcoe North., , , , , . . , . , . 
Simcoe South,.""."". 


20,678'J7 
22,153'98 
334,23 
86,86 
950.95 
699.46 
650,87 
556.64 
576.11 
628,98 
362'52 
357.58 
239,27 
467,53 
12,784'68 
1,595'91 
697'33 
462,83 
669,79 
1,038'03 
488,13 
362'69 
2'69 
3'54 
1,291,41 
1,031'57 
660,11 
635,31 
818,50 
3.54 
647.81 
575'57 
1,J37.99 
899.68 
1,169.77 
332,41 
6.65 
481,00 
752,14 
1,585,38 
11,157.32 
634,26 
704.29 
504'82 
347'69 
4,75 
410,56 
353.99 
4,336,00 
468,51 
429.77 
409,81 
891, 38 
553,81 
207,570'90 
494,29 
390,40 
1,057,81 
1,644,95 
698,68 
529,39 
574,88 
558,61 


Increase (+) or 
Decrease (-), 
1921 1911 
over over 
1911. 1901. 
406,370 3U,345 
2,919 12,488 
4,924 10,858 
826 986 
6,675 6.750 
-2,911 -3,641 
-2,836 -5,347 
8,256 1,537 
-2,325 -3,296 
-1,585 -2,377 
-1,782 - 1, 159 
-291 -304 
963 1,030 
33,144 9,217 
1,884 -414 
7,503 13,697 
-1,554 - 2,802 
347 -2,354 
-901 -3,476 
-3,290 954 
-3,550 -4,653 
-275 329 
2,691 2,6ti3 
10,027 15,793 
2.019 8.645 
-1,906 - 2,965 
3,626 -523 
-3,346 -4,080 
-2,549 -4,757 
2,748 -282 
3,444 872 
-3,026 -5,613 
3,779 -614 
-1,382 -2,857 
-1,844 -1,222 
-1,392 -2,960 
13,196 4,877 
7,538 8,324 
4,529 126 
-2,267 -4,087 
-1,794 262 
14,886 18,748 
-744 -2,037 
-2,380 -658 
-1,721 -1,249 
7,209 1,847 
16,558 18,042 
-550 -567 
-59 -466 
21,171 37,306 
475 1,611 
1,794 627 
2,226 979 
-565 -1,668 
-1, 783 -792 
3,167 5,447 
4,191 28, 583 
-490 -67 
-344 -714 
339 -939 
-791 176 
3,979 4,268 
1,828 5,449 
-2,599 -1,372 
-250 -1,339 


1 By map measurement. 



.\llJ-:A ..LYD PUPUL.t TIO.\" 


107 


It. - \r(':& an(1 Population of Canada by Provinces and }
Il'ctoral J)1'\trl{'f
, 1921. 1911 
and 1901.-continued. 


Electoral Di
trict.
, 


Ontario -oonclud d- 


Timiskaming. ..... 
Toronto Centre.".".,... 
Toronto East. ........'.,. 
Toronto X orth. . , ,. , . . . . . 
Toronto 
outh. . . , . , , , . , . 
Toronto Wcst... .. . 
Y iC'toria. . . . . , . . , , , , , . , . , . 
Watf>rloo Xorth",.,., .,. 
\\ aterloo South........... 
Wella.nd. . . . .. . . . , . , , .. .. . 
\\ cllingt.on X orth... 
Wellington $outh, ....,... 
Went\\orth.....,...,.,.. , 
York Ea....t.. . . , . . . , . . 
York 
orth. 
York 
outh. 
York West, .,.. ..,..,.,. 
\l3nltoha ... 


Land 
area in 
eq, mllcs. 


46,211,00 


2.'\.\4.23 
273.20 

4:!.63 
387,27 
580.46 
438'8'\ 
451.97 
64.52 
430,56 

02.28 
158,52 



.U ,9'! . "I 


Hr3.l1don '" 
D"uphin. 
LisJ!;aT. . . . . . . .. . . . _ . . 
\I.iCllonald.. . . . , 
"arqueUf>..,.., _"...,.. 

cepawn. 

 plson. .. .. . _ . . . , , , . . , . 
Port aile la Prairie ,_..... 
Provencher. 

elkirk. . , . . . _ , , . , , . , 
RourÏ:'J. . . . . . . 

primdleM . .. . .. .. . . , . . . . 
\\ innipeg Centre.. _.. } 
Winnipef?; 
orth_.,. ." .,. 
Winnipeg South.... _ _ _ _... 
!i,a...kat ('hew.n. , , . . , , . _ , . .. 2-11 ,:J09.ðð 


Assiniboia_ _..,... ." , . . . . 
Bat tleford _ _ . , _ _ . _ . _ , , . . , . 
Humboldt ....,......, _ . 
K indeT:51ey . . . . . , , , . , , . , , . 
Last 
I.ountain. ....,. .,. 
'[ackenzie. . .. . .. ., . . _ . . . . 
'[aple Creek,. .. .. ... _ _ . 
:\[oosejaw _ . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . 

 ort h Batt leford. .. . .. , . . 
Prince Albert, . . _. _..... 
Qu' Appello..... . .. .. .. .. . 
R
ina.. 'h............. 
Salt coats , _..... . ,. _ ... , . . 
Raskatoon. . . _ . _ , . , _ . , . , , . 
Swift Current. . . . . . . _ . . . . 
Weyburn. ...,..,....... 


2.914.06 
5,468,75 
1,9i9.96 
2,390'90 
5,454,24 
3,491.53 
173,975,18 
1, ilO-22 
4.261-36 
10,689.84 
3.5I\fi.35 
15,944'15 


59,46 


5, s,')() - 86 
6.651.96 
8,320'95 
11,264.30 
i ,OS.j.51 
5.856,34 
15.149,09 
5.591-12 
72.000.00 
76.499.00 
4,458-06 
2,063.25 
4,554-69 
3.453-38 
7.9.jSj'48 
6,051-89 


Alberta. ...,. .. _ . . , .. _ , . ... 25
 ,
5.M 


Battle River.... . , , , . . . . . 
Bow River..,... _ . , _ , . . , . 
Call!;ary East. . __ . __. . . , . . 
Calgary West. . . . .. .. . .. . 
Edmonton East.... . .. .. . 
Edmonton West... _. , , . , . 
Lethbridge......... ... 
Macleod.. ................ 
1[edicine Hat.. 


1 By map me
urement. 


13,191-90 
11,259'86 
2,033,59 
4,ß30.00 
57,172.40 
112,497'43 
5,498'3a 
9.017.00 
12,497'00 


Popu la tiOD , 
}l121. 


Total. 


51, !)n
 
5I,7t)1\ 
U,825 
72.47'i 
37,596 
fN,397 
33.Qfl5 
41 . 698 
33,5ti8 
66,668 
19,R33 
34,327 
&i, 44
1 
77 , !I.')O 
23,U6 
100.0.>4 
70.681 


Pt..rsq. 
milt', 


11-99 
152,62 
1
8,3!) 
172 - 14 
34.16 
78.21 
142.59 
1,208'15 
53-73 
4
Þ4. 6.1 
445,RS 


&10 ,t1
 
. s:t 
40,1
 13.i
 
35.4

 6.49 
29,921 15,11 
2
,h
t 9.96 
41,254 7-56 
2
,356 8.12 
19,W6 0,11 
22.254 13.01 
29,308 6,8i 
55.395 5.18 

ô.410 7,36 
58,8iO 3.69 
76.470 } 
62,957 3,341,71 
59,628 
751,510 3.IJ 
34,789 1 5-95 
33.641 5-06 
5
,2
5 6.63 
44,772 3-97 
50.055 7-06 
55,629 9,49 
56.064 3,70 
50,403 9.01 
47.381 0,66 
56,829 0,74 
34.&16 7,81 
49.9i7 24.22 
43,795 9,62 
55,151 15'97 
53,275 6.69 
35.688 5,89 


.......
 t.,)t 


49,173 
55,356 
44,995 
44,341 
56.548 
74,267 
37,699 
34,008 
43,179 


3.73 
4.92 
22.13 
9,58 
0,99 
0-66 
6,86 
3,77 
3.46 


Hill. 


I,ll 


37,380 
54,792 
53,712 
51,3'" 
43,956 
57,
 
36.499 
33,6HI 
28,9b.... 
42.163 
22.29
 
3 ') ')00 
3t: 634 
32 , 
,)4 
22,415 
31.933 
35,8:31 


-Ij.,:l9' 
I 
39.734 
23.35Q 
25.97
 
20,802 
32,384 
23,923 
11. 737 
22,05Q 
24,276 
32.653 
2i,133 
37,247 
58,903 } 
45,682 
35,525 
-19:',(32 
31,975 
21,667 
36,617 
22,299 
33,093 
36,940 
19.730 
31,552 
24. 330 
35. &19 
30,470 
44.202 
32,313 
31,633 
28,691 
31,081 


2,3:J 37-1,29,j 


26,352 
27,304 
35.163 
30,023 
30,926 
35,3
6 
29.487 
30,779 
24,697 


1901. 


3.37b 
45,8.% 
36.763 
20, 76ti 
38.108 
41.069 
38,511 
27.124 
25,470 
31.5&1\ 
26.120 
29,526 
26,818 
8,4i
 
22.419 
18,U64 
17,905 


!:Þ5,2tt 


25,047 
12,617 
26.8
 
li,324 
20,435 
H
, 140 
2,359 
14,969 
14,129 
16,443 
22, 6.34 
20,200 
42,925 


tl,219 


9,053 
1.355 
1,652 
31 
1.575 
11 , 984 
1.473 
3,725 
4,579 
16,644 
17,133 
6,581 
10,874 
2,964 
484 
1.172 


r ncrease (+) or 
Decrease ( - ). 
19
1 1911 
ov('r over 
1911. 1901. 


14,188 
-3,024 
11,113 
21, 160 
-6.360 
10,593 
-2.504 
8,079 
4,580 
24, 505 
-2,459 
2.127 
29,815 
45,OSf\ 
721 
{\
, 121 
34,850 


itS, ;2-1 


44!1 
12.124 
3.943 
3.022 
8,870 
4,433 
8,069 
195 
5,032 
22,742 
-723 
21,623 
17.567 
17.275 
24,103 
265,018 
2.814 
11,974 
18.608 
22.473 
16,962 
18,689 
36,334 
18,851 
23,051 
20,990 
4.366 
5,775 
11 ,482 
23,518 
24,584 
4,607 


34,002 
8,004 
16.949 
30,552 
5,848 
16,735 
-2.012 
6,49'> 
3,518 
10.575 
-3,82S 
2,674 
7,816 
24,386 
-4 
12.969 
17,926 
201,183 
14,Ii'\7 
10,741 
-921 
3,478 
11,949 
4, 78.1 
9,378 
7,090 
10,147 
16,210 
4,4mJ 
16,957 


401,153 
22,922 
20,312 
34,9ß5 
22,268 
31,518 
24,956 
18,257 
27,827 
19,751 
19,195 
13,337 
37,621 
21, 4
9 
28,669 
28,207 
29,009 


13 ,O
 
H ,159 301,"!73 


597 
1,565 
5,526 
3.546 
7.685 
7,641 
5,995 
8,228 
3.185 


22,S21 
28,052 
9,8.32 
14,318 
25,622 
38,881 
8,212 

,229 
18,482 


25,755 
25,739 
29,637 
26,477 
23.241 
27.745 
23,492 
22,551 
21,512 



108 


AREA AYD POPULATION 


10.-Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901.-('oncluded. 


Electoral Districts. 


p 


Increase (+) or 
Decrease (-). 
1901. --- 
1921 1911 
over over 
1911. 1901. 
7,568 12,122 29,939 
12,635 14,165 15,720 
8,851 18,423 29,465 
ti8,657 132,102 213,823 
1,267 21,429 47,226 
29,155 2 13,293 
8,444 12,270 11 , 295 
8,219 6,166 14,426 
8,446 -3,329 14,020 
23,516 2,129 4,857 
22, 293 16,132 9,585 
14,855 16,598 14,529 
13,013 6,249 9,672 
27,010 775 33,094 
1,520 25, 691 18,926 
20,919 7,067 10,741 
3 7,632 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles, 


opulation, 
1921. 
1911. 
Per 
Total. square 
mile. 
49,629 3,69 37,507 
42,520 8.01 28,355 
56,739 8.88 38,316 
521,582 1.48 392,480 
69,922 112.63 48,493 
39,834 0.24 26,541 
32,009 1.75 19,739 
28,811 94,48 22,645 
19,137 1,43 22,466 
30,502 2.35 28,373 
48,010 17,67 31,878 
45,982 7.54 29,384 
28,934 0.23 22,685 
60,879 10,624.60 60, 104 
46,137 1,431.04 20,446 
38,727 5,163.60 31,660 
i 35.698 3.41 28,066 


Alberta-concluded- 
Red Deer..." . , . . . . . . . . . 
Strathcona..,..,..,..... , 
Victoria.,..,., ,. . , . , , , , , , 


British Columbia.... . . . . , 
Burrard. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cariboo....., . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Comox-Alberni."... . . . . . 
Fraser V alley. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kootenay East.,.. . . . . . . _ 
Kootenay West... , . . . . .. . 
N anaimo. . . .. . .... ..., 
New Westminster. , . . , . , . 
Skeena. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , , , . 
Vancouver Centre.....". 
Vancouver South......." 
Victoria....... . . . . . . . . 
yale........... ....... ." 


13,431'84 
5,309,09 
6,386'45 
353,416.00 
620.79 
164,693,50 
18,227.46 
301,95 
13,367.11 
12,979.11 
2,717.00 
6,102,41 
123,896.14 
5,73 
32,24 
7,50 
10,462.06 


1 By map measurement for provinces and electoral districts. 
2 Includes Yale District, 3 Included in Cariboo District, 
11.-Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, 
compared with 1811-81-91-1901-11. 
NOTE.-The cities and towns in which a Board of Trade exists are indicated by aD asterisk (*), In all 
cases the population is for the city or town municipality as it existed in 1921. 
Population, 
Cities and Towns, Provinces. 
1871. 1881, 1891. 190 l. 1911. 1921. 
.Mon treal. .. Quebec. 115,000 155,238 219,216 328,172 490,504 1 618,506 
*Toronto. . . Ontario _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 59,000 96,196 181,215 209,892 2 381,833 2 521,893 
*Winnipcg.. . . Manitoba.. 241 7,985 25,639 42,340 136,035 179, 087 
*Vancouver. . . . British Columbia... - 13,709 27,010 100,401 117,217 
*Hamilton. . . ........ . Ontario.... . 26,880 36,661 48,959 52,634 81,969 114,151 
*Ottawa. . . . . .... . " 24.141 31,307 44,154 59,928 87,062 107,843 
*Quebec. _ . . Quebec.,.. . 59,699 62,446 63,000 68,840 78,710 9õ, 193 
*Calgary. . . . . . Alberta. , . . 3,876 4,392 43,704 63,305 
*London.... . Ontario.... . 18,000 26,266 31,977 37,976 46,300 60,959 
.Edmonton. . .. Alberta....... _ - 4,176 31,064 3 58,821 
*Halifax. . . . . . . . . .. Nova Scotia. . . . . . . . 29,582 36,100 38,437 40,832 46,619 58,372 
.St. John.. . New Brunswick. . . . . 41, 325 41,353 39,179 40,711 42, 511 47,166 
*Victoria........ . .. British Columbia... 3,270 5,925 16,841 20,919 31,660 38,727 
*Windsor. . . . . . . . .. Ontario....,..... . . . 4,253 6,561 10,322 12,153 17,829 38,591 
*Regina..... . .. Saskatchewan......, 2,249 30,213 34,432 
*Brantford. . .. Ontario........ , 8,107 9,616 12,753 16,619 23, 132 29,440 
*Saskatoon..... . .. Saskatchewan......, 113 12,004 25,739 
Yerdun........ . .. Quebec.,..,..... 296 1,898 11 , 629 25,001 
*Hull. . " 3,800 6,890 11 , 264 13,993 18,222 24,117 
*Sherbr
ke: : : : 4,432 7,227 10,110 11, 765 16,405 23,515 
*Sydney. . . . . . . . .. Nova Scotia... - 1,480 2,427 9,909 17,723 22,545 
Three Rivers. . .. Quebec.". 7,570 8,670 8,334 9,981 13,691 22,367 
*Kitchener. . . . . . ., Ontario..... 2,743 4,054 7,425 9,747 15,196 21,763 
*Kingston.. . " 12,407 14,091 19,263 17,961 18,874 21,753 
"'Sault Ste. ::\l.arie... 819 780 2,414 7,169 14,920 4 21,092 
*Peterborough _ 4,611 6,812 9,717 12,886 18,360 20,994 
*Fort William " - 3,633 16,499 20,541 
*St. Catharines. , " 7,864 9,631 9,170 9,946 12,484 19,8
1 
*Moose Jaw..... :: Saskatch


l
:: ......... - 1,558 13,823 19,285 
*Guelph....... . .. Ontario..... 6,878 9,890 10,537 11 ,496 15,175 18, 128 
Westmount. . .. Quebec......::::::: 200 884 3,076 8,856 14,579 17,593 
*Moncton. . . ...... .. New Brunswick.. . . . 600 5,032 8,762 9,026 11 , 34;) 17,488 
*G lace Bay .. Nova Scotia...,. - 2,459 6,945 16,562 17,007 
*StratCord. " . Ontario... . 4,313 8,239 9,500 9,959 12,946 16,094 
*St. Thomas. . . ..... . " 2,197 8,367 10,366 11,485 14,054 16,026 
*Lachine.. . Quebec. : : : : . . . , . . . . 1,696 2,406 3,761 6,365 11 , 688 5 15,404 
-Brandon. . . . " . :\Ianitoba.... . . . . . . . 3,778 5,620 13,839 15,397 
.Port Arthur. .. . Ontario.". . 3,214 11. 220 14,886 
*Sarnia........ . " 2,929 3,874 6,692 8,176 9,947 14,877 
*Niagara Falls. CI 2,347 3,349 5,702 9,248 14,764 



j)(JPUI...\ TInS" OF CITIES .\^'D 1'OlrNS 


) OH 


11.- ..olnJlation of l.1tIt.s :uul To" us lI.ning OH'r 5.00u iuh<ahifanb In t9
t. 
('oml).irt'd "it h tS7t-
t-9t-190t-tt.-('onclud(.c..1. 


Citi
'8 and To\\ns. 


Provinces. 


.
 ew \\"l-stminstcr.... ,. British Columbia. .. 
.Chatham . . , . .. . .. , . Ontario.,...".. . . . . 
Outremont. ..... . Quebec..",. 
.Galt. ... __' ...,....... ontario...,.. 
.:'t. Boniface."... . . . . . .. \lnnitoba... 
.Charlottcto\\n&..Royalty P. E. Island 
.Belleville...",.,.. . Ontario...".,.. 
.0", en 
ound..., . ,. ..,.. .. 
.Osha\\a. ... 
.LethbridJ!;E'.."..." .. .\lh
'rta..,...,.. 
.St. lIyacinthe... . . . Quebec.. , .. -- - 
· =' ort h Bay......... .. , ,. On tario. .. . .. , , . . 

ha'" inigan Falls. ..... .. Quebec.. ... ....... 
.L
vis.. , , . . _ _ . . . . . . , .. Quebec.. , . . . , , . . . , . 
*Brock... ilIe.. '" ...., .. OnhU'io.......... . 
· \rnherst... ... .. :\0'" a Scotia....... . 
*\\ ood..tock.. . . .. Ontario......."... . 
.'It..'dicine Hat. . Alberta........ . 
.Yalleyfield. ...._........ Quebre.....,,"..,. 
.Joliette..."..,. . . , . . . " . ". . , , . . . . . , . , . 
*:\nnaimo and suburbs. . Briti8h Columbia... 
*:'\ ew G Ins
ow . . .. , ,. :\ 0... a 
cotia. .. . , . , , 
.C'hieoutimi...,..,...,... Quebec.....,.. 
.Ori11ia ........... . Untario........... . 
.W clland. .. .".". .. 
.:4udbury. . .. , " 
Sydney 
Iincs..,.. :: 
 ova Sc'
Úf\',::, . . : : 
.
rel. . . . . . . . , . , . . . .. Quebec.. . . . . . . 
.Fredrrieton.... .. 
ew Brun:ò\\ ick. .,. 
.Dartmouth. . " ,. 
o-.. a Scotia...., . . . 
*Thetford Mines..... ... Quebec.... _'" 
Pembroke......... .. Ontario......,. .., .. 
.
t. Johns.......... ., Quebec.... 
.Rivi
reduLoup......... .. ....."...". 
."orth Vancouver. .... British Columbia... 
Granel' :\Ière.. .. .. . __ . . .. Quehec.... . . . . , . , , . 
*1 inds..1Y . .. .... . , . . ,. Ontario.....".,.. , . 
.Truro. . . . . . . . .. ,'...... N ova 
cotia. . . . . . . . 
.Prince Albert.".,...... :-\ß8katche\\aD...,... 
.Corn\\all.,....... ,.. Ontario.......... .. 
· Y armou t h. . . , . . . . .. X ova Scotia.... . , , . 
Walkervillo.., ,.. Ontario....... 
'Iidland. . .. ..' ,. .. 
.Barrie. . . . . . , .. , . . . . . " 
.
mith Falls......."..,. ...,.. 
.Grnnby. . . . . . , . . . , , , . . ,. Quebec..,.... . , . 
.Porta
e la Prairie....... Manitoba.,.....,... 
Cap de la 
Iadeline.... __ Quebec,...... .. , .. . 
.:\orth SydnLY....... .... );ova Scotia.,.,.... 
.
'I ince Rupert. . . . . . British Columbia.,. 
.T renton, , , , , . . . . . . , .. Ontario"".."., . . . 
.\Vaterloo.,..,..,.,.. .. ,..'"".... 
.Collin/Z:wood. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .,. 
Ford City".".. . . , . . . . , , , . . . . 
.Sprin/Z:hilL.. . . ....,. . 
 ova Rcotia.... ... 
New Waterford.......... 
o....a Rcotia....,.,. 
La Tuque. . .. , , , , . , . . Quebec... . . . . . . . . . . 
.Campbellton..., ,... 
ew Brunswick..... 
.Hawkesbury .... . Ontario. ",."..".. 
.
t .1
rOme... . Quebec...",....... 
.Preston.. ., ,. , . . . Ontario.",...,.,.,. 
.Kenora.,.,.,.,. . . . .. . . . . " . ..' , , , .. . , . 
.Cobourg. . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , , , . . . 
Eastview, '" , '. . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , . , , , . . 
Stellarton.,............. 
ova Scotia........ 
.
elson,...,.. . British Columbia.. 

[a
og.. ". . Quebec... ..... .. 
.Yorkton..,. ."... . I 
askatche
an....." 
.In
ersol1.. . .. . . . . . , . . . .. Ontario...... . . . . . . . 


!)opulation, 
1871. IhRl. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1!)21. 
- 1,500 6,6i
 6,4!1\Þ 13, HI!! 14,495 
5,873 7,873 9,052 9,068 1O,7iO 13,256 
- 3S7 795 1,I.IS 4,820 13.249 
3,827 5,b7 7.535 7, ht.6 10,2119 13,216 
- 1,283 1.553 2,019 7,4
3 12.
21 
8,807 11,4'-5 11,373 12,O
O 11, 20:i 12,347 
7,305 9.516 9,916 9.117 9,876 12,206 
3,369 4,4:?6 7.497 8,7i6 12,5.i... 12,100 
3.IS5 3,9!12 4, Qt... 4.394 7,4:
ß 11,940 
- - - 2,0;2 9,m5 11,097 
3,746 5,3:?1 7,01C 9,210 9.7!17 10,859 
- - - 2.530 7,737 10,692 
- - - 2,71iS 4,21i5 10,625 
6.691 7,597 7,301 9,242 8,703 . 10.470 
5,102 7,009 8.791 8,MO 9,374 10,04.3 
- 2,274 3,7
1 4,964 8,973 9,998 
3,982 5,373 8,612 8,833 9,320 9,935 
- - - 1,570 5,liOS 9,6:i4 
1.800 3, !106 5,515 11.055 9,4-19 9,215 
3,047 3.268 3,347 4.220 6,346 9,113 
- 1,645 4,595 6,130 8,306 9.088 
- 2,595 3,776 4.447 6,3h3 8,974 
1.393 1 , 935 2 ')"" 3 , h:?fi 5."''''0 8. !I:H 
, ..II 
1,3:!2 2,911 4,752 ,1107 6.1'28 8,774 
1,110 1,870 2,035 t,Rli3 5.318 8,654 
- - - 2,027 4.1.i0 8,621 
- 2,340 2,442 3,191 7,4;0 8.327 
5,636 5,791 6.669 7,n;)7 8,420 X.174 
6,006 6,21X 6.502 7,117 7.208 8,114 
- 3,7h6 6,252 4,
06 5.05
 7, S!}!.1 
- - - 3,256 7,261 7,b8fi 
1.508 2,h:?0 4,401 5.156 5,626 7.875 
3,022 4,314 4,722 4,mO 5 , 90:\ 7,734 
1,541 2,291 4,175 4,569 6.774 7,703 
- - - - 8.1%7 7.6.52 
- - - 2,511 4,ih3 7,631 
4,049 5.0RD 6,081 7,003 6,964 7.620 
- 3,461 5,102 5,993 6,107 7,562 
- - - 1. is.=) 6,254 7,558 
2,033 4.468 6,805 6,704 6,5!18 7,419 
2,500 3,4
5 6,089 6.430 6. f;OO 7.073 
- - 933 1,59,=) 3.302 7,059 
- 1,095 2,O
8 3,174 4,663 7,016 
3.398 4.854 5,550 5,949 6,420 6,936 
1.150 2,O
7 3.
64 5,155 6,3;0 6,790 
876 1.040 1.710 3,773 4,750 6,785 
- - 3,363 3,901 5,
m2 6,766 
1.226 1,437 1,289 1,464 2,101 6,738 
- 1.520 2,513 4,646 5,418 6,585 
- - - - 4,1F4 6,3!13 
1.796 3,042 4,363 4,217 3,988 5.902 
1,594 2,066 2,941 3.537 4.359 5,8&3 
2,829 4,445 4, 
1:J9 5,755 7,090 5,882 
- - - - - 5,870 
- 900 4,813 4,559 5,713 5,6xl 
- - - - - 5,61
 
- - - - 2,934 5,603 
- - - 2,652 3,817 5,570 
1,671 1,920 2,042 4,150 4,400 5,544 
1,159 2.032 2,86'- 3,619 3,473 5,491 
1,408 1,419 I,M3 2,308 3,883 5,423 
- - 1,&06 5,202 6.158 5,407 
4,442 4,957 4,829 4,239 5,074 5,327 
- - - 776 3.169 5.324 
- - 2,410 2,33.1 3,910 5,312 
- - - 5,273 8 4,476 5.230 
1,174 1,248 2,100 3,516 3,978 5.1.59 
I - - - 700 2,309 5,151 
4,022 4.318 4,191 4,573 4,763 5,150 


I Includes Maisonneu....e. Cartierville, Bordeau and Sault-au-Recollet. t Includes North Toronto less 
67 in 1911 transferred to Township of York. I Includes town of Strathcona, 'Includes town of Steel- 
ton. I Includes Parish of Lachine and SummerIea town. II Includes 
otre Dame Is Victorie, 7 Includes 
North Vancouver District. 8 Included suburbs in 1001. 


, 



110 


AREA A.f{D POPULATIO.V 


12.-Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,003 and 5,003 inhabitants in 
1921, as 
ompared with 1901 and 1911. 


Towns and Villages, 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


Prince Edward Island. 
Summer5ide................... 2,8752,678 3,228 
Sour is .. , . . . . . .. . , . . . .. .. . .. , .. 1 . 140 1 , 089 1 , 094 
N o\'a Scotia. 


Westvillc.,... ..... '" ."...". 
Windsor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bridgewater, . , . , . . . , . , , . . . . , . . 
Pictou. , . , , , , . , . , . . , . . , . , , . . . . , 
Inverness"".,. . , . . . . . . , , . . , , . 
Trenton., . , , , . , , , , . , , , . . . . . . , . 
Lunenburg. . , . - . , , . . , , 
Parrsboro. . . . . . . . . , . , . . . , , . , . . 
Kentville....... . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . 
Dominion.. . , , . . , . , , , , , , . . . . . . 
Liverpool. , . , , . . , . . . . , . , , , . , , . . 
Antigonish. . .. .. , .. . . , . .. . . . . . . 
Wolfville""."... .".."..,.. 
J o
gins.. . , . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . - . 
Canso. . . . . , . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , , . 
Wedgeport. .. . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
Oxford. . . . . . ,. ""...,. - . . . . . 
Shelburne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Digby. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . , . , . , . . 
Mahone Bay, , , . . , . , . . . . . , , . , , . 
Louisburg. . , , , . . , . . , . . . , , . . , , . 
BridgetowI'l . , . , , , . , , , . . , . . , . . . . 


New Brunswick. 
Chatham." ",. . . . . , , . . . . . . , . . 
Edmundston. .. .. .. , . . . . , . . . . . . 
N ewcnstle. . . , . . , . . , . , . . , , , , , , . 
St, Stephen..... . . . . .. .. . .. , . 
Woodstock"....." ,.,..."", 
Bathurst, . , . , . , . , . , , , , , , , . , , , . 
Sussex. . .. ., .,..".,.,....,.. 
Sack vi lIe , , , , , . , . . . . , , . , , , , , . , . 
Milltown. . , , , , , . . . . . . , , , . . , . , . 
Shediac.. . . . . , , . . , . , , , . . . , . , . , 
Dalhousie. . .. .. , . . . . . . . .. . . . , . 
Devon. . . . . , , . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Marysville. . , . , , . , , . . , , , . . , . , , . 
Grand Falls. . . . . . , , , , , . , , , . . , . 
Sunny Brae,.", ., , . , . . . , . . , , , . 
Richibucto...... .. . .. .. . . . . . . . 
St, George.....,.,., , ,. . . . . . " , 
St. Andrews, , , . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Quebec. 


Lauzon.....,.,...,. ....... 
Jonquière..."".,.. ....... ... . 
Longueuil{city)..",.".,.,.,. . 
Montmagny.,...... .".. ,..". 
St, Lambert....... ..... __... . 
Buckingham.....,.. ...... .... 
Ea.
t An
s.,." . , . , , . , . . . , . , . . 
Victoriaville. ...... . , . . . . . . . . , . 
Rimouski. , . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . , . . 
Coaticook, , . , . . . , , . . . . , , , . . . 
St. Pierre..,....,. . . , . , . . , . . . . . 
Farnham. . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . , . 
Beauport. . . . , . . . , . . . , . . . . , . , , . 
St, Laurent...... . . . . , . . . . . . , , . 
Megantic.,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . 
81. Jl!rOme de Matane"..,." . , 
Ste. Thêrèse......."...."., -. 
Aylmer. . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . , . , . 
Drummondville...,......".. . 
8te, A
athe des :Monts.,.,., . .. 
Mont Joli........,.,.".,.,.". 
Black Lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


3,471 
3.398 
2.203 
3,235 
306 
1.274 
2,916 
3.391 
1,731 
1.546 
1.937 
1,838 
1.412 
1.088 
1.479 
1,026 
1,285 
1,445 
1.150 
866 
1,046 
858 


4.868 
2.507 
2,840 
3,644 
1.044 
1,398 
1.444 
2,044 
1,075 
862 
1.892 
644 
100 
733 
1,064 


3.416 3,978 1:,966 
- 2.354 4,851 
2.835 3.972 4.682 
1.919 2,617 4.145 
1.362 3,344 3,890 
2.936 3.854 3.835 
- 3, 802 
1.693 3.028 3,759 
1.804 3,097 3.612 
2,880 3.165 3,554 
505 2,201 3,535 
3.114 3,560 3.343 
3,240 
1.390 1,860 3,232 
2.171 2,8163,140 
1.176 2,056 3.050 
1.541 2.120 3,043 
2.291 3,109 2,970 
1,450 1. 725 2, 852 
1.073 2,020 2,812 
822 2,141 2.799 
- 2,645 2,6.I}ß 


4,417 
3,452 
2.775 
3.179 
2,719 
1,749 
2.6RI 
2.856 
2,304 
2,589 
2,109 
1,787 
1.458 
1.648 
I.H7 
1,392 
1,392 
1,435 
1.247 
951 
1,006 
996 


4,666 
1.821 
2.945 
2.836 
3,856 
960 
1.906 
2,039 
1,804 
1,442 
1,650 
1,837 
1,280 
871 
988 
987 


Towns and Villages. 


4,550 
3.591 
3.147 
2.98S 
2.963 
2.844 
2,792 
2,748 
2.71i 
2.390 
2,294 
1. 746 
1,743 
1.732 
1,626 
1,424 
1.402 
1,360 
1.220 
1,177 
1,152 
1. 086 


Quebec-continued, 
Point Claire St. Joachim. . . , , . 
Bromptonville..,." , , . . . 
Lachute,.., . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . , . . , 
Kenogami. . . . . . . . . , . , . . . , . , . , , 
Iberville.......... . .. , . . . . . . ., . 
Richmond. , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . 
Nicolet..",.. . . .. , , . . . . .. , . ., . 
\Vindsor.... . . . .' . . , , . , . , . , , .. . 
Baie S1. Paul. . , . . , . . , , , , . . . . , . 
Beauharnois...,."",.",.... . 
St. Anne de Bellevue.".". ,.,. 
Mont-Laurier.... . , , , . . . . , . . . . . 
Bagotville...,.. .. ,.........,. 
Berthier. . , . . . , . . , . . , . . . . . . , . . . 
Asbestos. . . , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Laprairie. , . , . . . . . , , . . . . . . . , . . . 
Roberval. . , . , , . . , . , . , . . . . . , . . . 
Loretteville. . . , .. . . . . , .. . . , . , . 
Waterloo.""...,.,.,........ . 
Terrebonne. , , . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Plessisville... . . . . . , . . , , . . , . . , . 
Laval des Rapides.,.. "..,.... 
Pointe Gatineau. . . . . . , . . . . , . . . 
Montmorency. . . . . , . , . , . , , . , . , . 

lalbaie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . , . 
Montreal West................. 
Ste, Rose.......".",."".... 
Saindon. , . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . , , . . . 
St. Tite.. . . . . . , . . . . , . . , . . . . . , . 
Montreal East. . . . . .. . . . . , . . . . . 
r
ouiseville. . . . . . . . . . . . , . , ,. . , . 
Point-aux-Trembles.. . . , .. . , , , . 
Chandler. . . , . . . . , . , . . , , , , . . . . . 
Marieville. . . . . . , , , , . . . , , . . , . , . 
Grande Baie. . . . . . .. . . , , .. . . , . . 
Sacrê Cæur de nsus . . . , , . . . , . . 
St. Raymond.".,." , . . , , . , , , . 
Bedford. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , , . . 
St. Gabriel de Brandon.,.., . . . 
St. Joseph {Richelieu),.,...... 
Ste. Anne de Beauprê.."..,... 
Disraeli....".........",..,. . 
Lennoxville. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . 
Acton Vale.,........,.....,.,. 
St, Marc-des-Carrières..... . . , , 
Amos..."..,..,.............. 
Dorval. . , . , . , . . . . . . . , . . . . , , . , . 
Bienville........""". ". .,.. 
St. Casimir. . . . . , . , , , . , . . , , , . , . 
Trois-Pistoles....,.... . .. . . . . , . 
Beauceville..........."....., . 
St. Joseph CBeauce).,."".",. 
Rock Island,.". , , , . , , . . . . , . , . 
Pont Rouge,..,.,... , , . , , . . ., , . 
Belæil. . . . . , , , . . . . , . . , . , , . , , , . 
St. Benoit Joseph Labre..".,. 
Huntingdon,...."....,..."., . 
Pierreville. . . . . . . , . , . , . . . . . , . , . 
Montreal North. . . , , . , . . , .. . , . 
IJac-au-SaumoD. . . . . . , . . . , . , . , . 
St. Jacques."",." ...,....". 
L' Assomption. , . . , . . , , , . . , , . . . 
Ste. Marie.",.. . , . . . . . . . . . , . , . 
St. Fêlicien.,. . . , . . , . . . . , . . , . , . 
Courville. . . .. . , . . . , . , . . . , . , . , . 
Danville..,.",.,..""......, . 
Charlesbourg.......... ....... . 
Giffard.. . . .. ., . , . . . . , . . . . . , , . . 
Arthabaska.".........."... . 
Donnaconna. . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . , , . 
Baie Shawinigan.. . , , . , . . , . , . , . 
Port d' Alfred. .. .,..,...,...,. 
Almavilleo,... . . .. . .,. . ., ..... . 


4,506 
4,035 
3,507 
3.452 
3,380 
3,327 
2,198 
2,173 
1,97f 
1,973 
1,958 
1,924 
1,614 
1.327 
1,171 
1,158 
1.110 
1.065 


I 
1901. 1911. 1921, 


555 793 2,617 
1.239 2.603 
2.022 2;407 2.592 
- 2.557 
1.512 1,905 2,454 
2,057 2.175 2,450 
2.225 2.593 2.342 
2,149 2.233 2.330 
1,408 1,857 2,291 
1.976 2.015 2.250 
1.343 1.416 2,212 
752 2,211 
507 1.011 2,204 
1.364 1.335 2,193 
783 2.224 2,189 
1.4512,388 2,158 
1,248 1,737 2,068 
1 . 555 1 , 588 2. 066 
1.797 1,886 2,063 
1.822 1.990 2.056 
1.586 1.559 2,032 
1.989 
1.583 1.751 1.919 
1.717 1.904 
826 1.449 1,883 
352 703 1.882 
1,154 1.480 1.811 
1,793 
991 1.438 1.783 
1.776 
1.565 1.675 1,772 
1,167 1.764 
1.756 
1,306 1.587 1.748 
1,355 1.735 
206 996 1, 709 
1.272 1.653 1.693 
1.364 1,432 1.669 
1.199 1.602 1.667 
647 1,416 1.658 
847 2.066 1.648 
1.018 1.606 1,646 
1,120 1.211 1.554 
1.175 1.402 1.549 
296 1.224 1.492 
1.48S 
481 1,005 1.466 
851 1.004 1,462 
1.457 
1,454 
1.677 1.448 
1.117 1,440 1,445 
615 861 1,442 
1.419 
702 1.501 1.418 
1.070 1.416 
1. 122 1, 265 1.401 
1.108 1.363 1,394 
1.360 
1 . 171 1 . 354 
1.332 
1.605 1.747 1.320 
1.311 
581 1,306 
1,293 
1.017 1.331 1.290 
1.267 
1.254 
995 1.458 1.234 
1,225 
1.024 1.213 
1.213 
1.174 



PUPULATIOi\ OF TOß.NS LYD VILL tOES 


111 


12.-)'opul,tlon of '1'own
 and \ illa
cs ha\lnl: bt't"een 1,0 0 and 5,080 inhabitants (n 
1921, a
 l'ompared \\ itb 1901 and 1911.-rontinucd. 


TOWI"8 nnd V
c@. 


Qllehec-conclutled 
I aurentides.... ........ 
Conlo,., . . . ,. . " ,.. ,., . .. . 
DæchailloDS.. _. ,..,. 

t. H.em
........... 
Greenfield Park...."..,...." 

[acamic..... ..,. .."... ... 
St. Eustache....... , 
Cowansvillc. . . , . . 
La Providence........ ..., , , . , , 
Chambly Basin......... . ,.. . . . 

t. George Eust.. , . .. , .. .. . . . . 
J{awdon. . .... . . , , . . , , , . , . , , . . , 

fontreal 
outh. .... .. , 
Abord-à.-Plouffe.. ,..",.". .., 
Ont:ulo. 


Dundas.... .. 
Rf>nfrpw. 
T horuld. . . _ . . . . 
Hrampton. , . . . , , . 
Port Hope..",., 
Cobalt. . . 

andwicb......... , 
Paris. , ..,....'. .. . . . . . ., 

tur
ffin Falls..... . .. .. . . , .. .. 
Godt'rich . .. . , . , . . . , , . . , , . . . , , , 
Arnprior, '" .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ,. 
Penetanguishene.,..,. ... ..,.. 
Wallaceburg. . , . . . . . . . . 
Sinlcoe... " ,.".,.".",.. 
8,
' 
[
rys..... .,......, 
111n m 1ns. . . , . . . . ,. ........... 
Carleton Flace.. ...."..,.",. 
Perth... .... 

Iimico. ."....,."..,..,..... 
Haileybury. . . . . . . . . , , . . , , . . . , . 
L('amington. . , . , . , . . . . . . 
K ewmarket... . , . , . , . .. .. . , . . . 
Gananoque..... .... 
Parrv Sound.....,.. , . . . , . . , , . . 
Rockland. _. .. .... . . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Port Colbornc.", , . , , . . . . . . . , . 
Picton. . . , , .. , . . . , . , . , . . . , , . , , . 
Cochrane...... .... .",." . 
Oakville. . . . . '" . . . . , , , . . , . . , , . 
Bowmanville....... .., ......, . 
Dunnvillo. . . . . . , . . . . . , , , . . . , . . 
\V æton. . . . . , . ., .,......,..". 
Petrolia. ...........,.....,... 
Fort Francis. . .. . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . 
N apanee. , . . , . . . ,.. ....".... 
Tilsonbur
.,.,.",.. '" .' '" " . 
CampbelUord""."." . . , . . " . 
Whitby..,...... . . . . . .. ....,.. 
Hanover, . , . . . . . , , , . . , , . . . , 
}Iespeler. . . . .. .. . , .. .,.." 
Amherstburg,.......,..,...,. . 
Burlington.,.".. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Strathroy ., , . . . . . , . . , , . , , . . . . , 
New Toronto. , . . . , . . . . . . . , . , , , 

r eaford. , , . . . . . _ . . . . , . , . . , 
Prescott....,. . . , . . . . . . . ,. . .., . 
Copper Cliff. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 

ferritton.""." . . ,. . , , . . . . ... 
J.istowel. . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . , , . . , . 
Bracebridge,... . . , . . . . _ . . . . . . . 
Almonte..,..,.. . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . 
Bridstcburg. . . , , . . , , , , . 
Portsmouth.. , , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Walkerton., ... _ .........,.. 
Aurora.. ., .. . . . .. . . ,. . . . . . . 

 ew Liskeard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1901. 1911, 1
:!1. 


fI
4 1, 121\ 
621\ 89b 
1,213 1,161 
I,O
O 1,021 


1,079 996 
699 881 
819 bfl4 
849 900 
544 1,410 


3,173 
3,153 
1,979 
2.748 
4,188 
1 , 41)() 
3 ')0)9 
1:4Ï8 
4,158 
4,152 
2.422 
2,763 
2,627 
3,384 
4,059 
3,588 
437 


2,4.')1 
2,125 
3,526 
2.ð84 
1. 998 
1,253 
3,698 
1,643 
2.721 
2,105 
1,0
 
4,135 
697 
3.143 
2,241 
2,4h5 
2,110 
I, 392 
2,457 
2,222 
1,119 
2,933 
209 
1,916 
3,019 
2,500 
1,710 
2,693 
2,479 
3,023 
1,356 
1,827 
2,971 
1,590 


790 


4,299 
3,&16 
2,273 
3,412 
5,092 
,'},638 
2,302 
4 , ()IJ8 
2,199 
4,522 
4,405 
3,568 
3,42R 
3.227 
3,388 


3,621 
3.5
 
1.373 
3,874 
2,652 
2,996 
3,804 
3,42!1 
3,397 
1,t.J24 
3,564 
1,715 
., 37'> 
2:814 
2,
61 
1,875 
3,518 
1,611 
2,807 
2,75S 
3,051 
2,248 
2,342 
2.368 
2,560 
1,831 
2,823 
686 
2,811 
2,801 
3,082 
1,670 
2,289 
2,776 
2,4.52 
1,770 
1,786 
2,601 
1,901 
2,108 


Towu and Villages. 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


I, l:i(' 
1,141; 
1,142 
1,13,,) 
1,112 
1,101 
1, &.11' 
I,Ot I 4 
1,07
 
1.06
 
1.0;," 
1,04
 
1 , 03ü 
1,011 


()ntarht -continued. 
Huntsville. .. . . .. 2, 152 2. 3.'iS 
All.xandria............ 1.911 2,32
 
.\ylmer........... .........2,204 2,102 
OranJl;e\ ille. , .. , .. .. 2,511 2,340 
Win
ham...., 2,392 2,238 
]Gncardinc.. . 2,077 I, !156 
(}
rJl;eto
íß.,..,',.,. 1,313 1,5S3 
Clinton. ..............,. 2,547 2,254 
Elmira........ .....,......,..1.01,0 1,782 
Grimsby...................... 1,001 1,669 
\1 ilton .. _ , . , . , . 1,372 1,654 
Hid
pto\\n...,.,.......,.,.... 2,405 I,P54 
D<'tIeronto...........,.......,. 3,527 2.013 
Blind Hinr.......... ,... ,.... 2,656 2,55S 

l
ort h. .........,.,..,."... 2,245 1.983 

f itchdL.,.... 1,94,') 1,766 
Fcr
u8, ...",... 1,396 1,534 
], inRSville. . .. . .. .. .. . 1,537 1,427 
\\ iurt on .. . . , . .. . , . .. .. . , . .. . .. 2, 443 2, 21i6 
AC"ton. ...,.."",.,. ,.",'.. 1,484 1.720 
'fount ForCRt .. 2,019 1,839 
Chesle, ". , . , , , , " ",." .. 1,734 I, 734 
Tilburÿ....... ... ........... 1,012 1.368 
TI1('8!>slon. . . 1.205 1,945 
Essex., . ...... , , . . . . , . , , , , . , . . . 1,391 1. 35
 
Blcnh{'im 1,t:5
 1,387 
Fort Erie. '.. ...,....... 800 1,146 
Muthampton.. ................ 1,636 1,6b5 
numbp
tono....... ". .,...,. . 
Pulmerston. . . . .. . . . , .. , . . , . , .. 1,850 1.665 
"anklC(>k HilL..... 1.674 1,577 
Durhum... .. .... ,.,. .. . . .,. 1,422 1,581 
Port Dalhousie...,. , . . .. . . .. .. I, 125 1, 152 
Grav('nhurst.. ,............... 2,141) 1, b24 
Victoria Harbour,.... .... . . '. . 989 1,616 
Port Dover......... .. .. ... 1,177 1, 138 
'Intta\\a.....,..,.,........... 1,400 1.524 

lorri8burg.. . .. . .. .. . .. .. , .. .. 1,693 1.696 
Rainy River. ...,.,......".. 1,578 
Fxetcr, ..... .. .. . , . , . . . . .. , .. . 1,792 1,555 
FOre"lt. ... _ _ , . . . . _. ,., . . . 1. 553 1,445 
nri
hton. .. .. .. , .. . . . .. .. , .. .. 1,378 1,320 
A.I.liston.. ... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. 1,256 1,279 
::'\1QRarf\. ........,............ 1,25
 1,318 
Xe\\ Hamburg........,....... 1,208 1,484 
Dn>sden........... _........... 1,613 1,551 
'k


ti
: ,:::,::::::'::::::::: 
: 


 
:
:
 
T.'Oris.mal.. .........,......... 1,026 1,347 
Port Eh!;În..............,...,.. 1,313 1,235 
CaJ:reol. . . , . . . .. , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . 
Havelock..........,. ...,.,... 984 1,436 
Barriston..........., ...... 1,637 1,491 
Point Edward..., ,...... '" ... 780 874 
Heams\.ille.... .. ..... ... . . ... . 832 1,096 
Cardinal............,.......,.. 1,3781,111 
Caledonia. .."............... 801 952 
Kemphille...... _...,........ 1,523 1,192 
Lakefield. . . . . . .. , . . . , . , , , . . , .. 1,244 1,397 
Iroquois Falls. ............... 
Xorwich,......,............,. 1,2691,112 
Hagersville.. . . , ... .. . . .. . .. ... 1,020 I, 106 
Riverside.. ....... ,_. ...,... ,. 
Parkhill.. ....,.......,........ 1,430 1,289 
Port Perry..... ........... 1,465 1,148 
Chippawa.... .. . . '" . . ... .., . . 460 707 
Elorn...............,..,....... 1,1871,197 
Sioux Lookout..... . , .. . .. . , . . . 550 
\\ inch ester ...., ......, '..... 1,101 1,143 
Port Credit. __................ 
Waterford,..,................. 1,122 1,083 
Arthur. ___.. ......,.....,... 1.285 1.102 
Bobcaygoon................... 914 1.000 


4,97" 
4,90f 
4,825 
4,527 
4,456 
4,44!1 
4.415 
4.36R 
4,12,1 
4,107 
4,077 
4,037 
4,OOf 
3.!I,'i3 
3,Mi 
3,M3 
3,MI 
3,790 
3.751 
3,743 

,b75 
3,626 
3, 60-1 
3,54f) 
3,4!}( 
3,415 
3,
5f 
3,301; 
3,2f1
 
3.233 
3,224 
3.16(, 
3.14
 
3,lO! 
3.03f 
2,974 
2,8oo 
2,800 
2,71'\1 
2,777 
2,ili!f 
2,709 
2,691 
2,669 
2,650 
2,63t" 
2,597 
2,544 
2.477 
2,451 
2,42t\ 
2,401 
2,351 
2.344 
2,307 
2,268 


2,246 
2, III;) 
2,194 
2,11'7 
2,0!12 
2,077 
2,061 
2,01S 
2,016 
2,004 
1,873 
I,S5.'i 
1,847 
1,843 
I, 
2f1 
I,SOO 
1,79b 
1,783 
I, 72fi 
1,722 
1.718 
1.708 
1,673 
1,651 
1,588 
1,565 
I, 546 
1,537 
1. .')24 
1,523 
1,499 
1,494 
1,492 
1.478 
1,463 
1,462 
1,462 
1,444 
1,444 
1.442 
1 4 9 <) 
1:4ïï 
1,376 
1. 357 
1,351 
1,339 
1,339 
1,327 
1,298 
1,291 
1,287 
1,268 
1,263 
1,258 
1,256 
1,241 
1,223 
1,204 
1,189 
1,178 
1,176 
1,169 
1,155 
1,152 
1,143 
1,137 
1,136 
1,127 
1,126 
1,123 
1,123 
1,104 
1,095 



112 


AREA AND POPULATIOY 


12.-Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,00D inhabitants in 
1921. as compared with 1901 and 1911.-concluded. 


Towns and Villages. 


Ontario-concluded. 
Port 
lcNicoll".",... 
Shelburne.,.... ..,.... 
Watford.,... .. , . . . . . . . 
)Iadoc. , , . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Richmond Hill, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stouflville. , " ,.. 
Chelmsford. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fenelon Falls".......... ... 
Dryden. . , . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Eganville..,.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Markham.. .,................ 
Ta vistock . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . 


l\lanitoba. 


Transcona..,... . ........... 
Dauphin........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Selkirk.. . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . 
Neepawa.... .,...,.... ...... .. 
The Pas. .. . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Souris. , , . , , . . . . . . . . . . 
Carn1an. . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Minnedosa.. . . . . . . . . . . . - 
'Tirden. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Morden. . . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 
Stonewall. . , . . , . , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Tuxedo, . , . . . . . , . . . . , . , . , , . . . . . 


Saskatchewan. 
North Battleford (city)... . . . .. 
Swift Current (city)..... ... ... 
Weyburn (city). ............... 
Melvine.,.. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Estev!l.n. . , . . . . . . . - . . . . . 
Kamsack..,. . ,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Humboldt." . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Ielfort,.,.", . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 
Biggar. . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Indian Head... . .. . . . . . . 
Canora. , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Battleford...... . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shaunavon."................ . 
Gra velbourg.. . . .. . . . . , . . . . . . . . 
Watrous. , , . , . . . . , . . . .. ... 
Moosomin. . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro
tl:e
. , , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
AsslmbOla.................... . 
Kindersley. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Maple Creek. . . .. . . .. . . . ... ... 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


Towns and Villages. 


Alberta. 


1,188 
1,279 
1,157 
629 
1,223 
493 
1,132 
140 
1,107 
967 
403 


- 1,074 
1,113 1,072 
1,092 1,059 
1,058 1,058 
652 1,055 
1,034 1.053 
550 1,045 
1,053 1,031 
715 1,019 
1,189 1,015 
909 1,012 
981 1,011 


Drumheller. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Red Deer {city)...... . ..... 
Wetaskiwin (city)............. 
Camrose. . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . . , . . . 
l\lacleod, , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
Taber. , .. . , . , . . 
Cards ton , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ponoka."".... ............ 
Coleman. , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
B lairmore. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
Vegreville.... . . . ., .... .. . ..... 
Stettler. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rayn1ond. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hanna. , . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Vermilion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
High River......... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Eòson. ..., . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Redcli ff , , , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Lacon1 be. . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
l\lagrath. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grande Prairie."............. 
Big V alley. . , , . , . , , . , , . . , . , . . . . 
Beverly, , . , . . , . . . . , , . , . . , . . . . . 
British Columbia. 
(Cities) , 
!(amloops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
F&nie. . . . . , . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
'T ernon..."... ,.. .. _ . .... .. ... 
Cumberland,.,... . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Trai1......,.,.,........... ..' 
Revelstoke..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cranbrook.. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kelowna. . . . . . . . , . .. -.. - . . . . . 
Port Coquitlam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rossland. , . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Prince George, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ladysmith",.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chilliwack, . , , , . 
Merritt....,..". .,. . . .. . . . . . . . 
Grand Forks.... . . ..... .. . . -- . 
Duncan. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Port Alberni. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Port Moody. . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


- 2,499 
323 2,118 2,328 
550 2,411 2,061 
- 1,586 1,892 
796 1,844 1,723 
- 1,400 1,705 
639 1,207 1,612 
151 642 1,594 
- 1,557 1,590 
231 1,137 1,552 
- 1,029 1,479 
- 1,444 1,416 
- 1,465 1,394 
- 1.364 
625 1,272 
153 1,182 1,198 
497 1,138 
220 1,137 
49!) 1,029 1,133 
424 995 1,069 
1,061 
- 1,057 
- 1,039 
- 3,772 4,501 
- 3,146 4,343 
802 2,671 3,685 
732 1,237 3,176 
1,360 1,460 3,020 
1,600 3,017 2,782 
1,196 3,090 2,725 
261 1,663 2,520 
- 2,148 
6,156 2,826 2,097 
- 2.053 
746 3,295 1,967 
277 1,657 1.767 
703 1,721 
1,012 1,577 1,469 
- 1,178 
1,056 
1,030 


1,135 
2,188 
1,418 
839 
1,439 
1,052 
901 
1,522 
589 


- 4,185 
2,815 3,885 
2,977 3,726 
1,864 1, R87 
1,858 
1,854 1,710 
1,271 1,591 
1 , 483 1 , 505 
1,550 1.361 
1,1301,268 
1,005 1,112 
- 1,062 


POPULATION OF THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES. 
The Census and Statistics Act, 1905, provided for the taking 
of a census of population and agriculture in 1\1anitoba, Saskatche,van 
and Alberta in 1906 and in every tenth year thereafter, thus insti- 
tuting, in addition to the general decennial census for all Canada, 
a quinquennial census of population and agriculture for the three 
Prairie Provinces. The quinquennial census of Manitoba, Sa
katche- 
wan and Alberta was therefore taken as for June 1, 1916, and the 
complete results were published in a Report dated January 12, 1918. 
A summary of the principal data ,vas published in the Ye3,r Book 
for 1918, pages 105-112. 


- 2,105 4,108 
121 1,852 3,518 
113 2,210 3,193 
- 1,816 2,808 
141 1,981 2,290 
473 2,002 
859 1,822 
599 1.746 
315 1,535 
768 1,285 1,429 
435 1,230 
609 1,335 1,229 
- 1,146 
- 1,106 
781 1,101 
8e8 1,143 1,099 
413 1,172 1,074 
- 1,006 
456 1,003 
382 936 1,002 



])VJ>UI
ATIO..\ OP ]JR.tIRIE PROVIK.rES 


11
 


rrotal Population of Prairie Provinces. -1"'hc IHah' and 
fpIl1al(' population of 
Ianitoba, ;4:1
katrhe\van and \..Ihprta (a) by 
provinces, (b) by th(\ (\l(\ctoral di'4ricts con
titutpd hy the !{ppre- 

elltatioll ,Art, 1014 (4-5 0(\0. ", c. 51), and (c) by ('itie
, to\"n
 and 
villages, fiS cOin pared ,,'ith the population hy sex for 1911 and by 
tohlls for 1901 and 1906, "'as published in the .1" car Boo],\- of 191ß-17 
(pp. 95-10.")). The total population of the three prairie provinces in 
191H ,vas returned as 1,098,220, cOll1p.trcd 'with 1,328,723 in 1911, 
S08,8ß3 in 190G and 419,512 in 1901. 1\
 the population of the 
prairie province.:; in 1f>21 wa
 1,9.'){),082 the increase during th(' five 
year period since 191ü \va
 2,
7 ,8ß2 or 15. 18 per cent. 1'hi:; conlpnra- 
tively lo\v rate of increase as cOlnparccl \vith the increase of 28 })pr 
cpnt dHrin
 the five yenr
 ended 1916 \vas undoubtedly dup to the 
effect of the ,var in rpstrirting ilnmigrntion. Table 13 sho\vs t hp 
population of the prairie provincps for 1UD1, 1906, lUll, 19]ß and 
1921, th
 population being di
tinguishcd hy sex for 1911 and 19IG. 
13.- Population of the Prairl(' PrO\hu'('
 1901, 1906. 1911. 1916 and 19'!1. 


HUG, 1921. 
'Iates. Fe- Total. Total. 
malee. 
294,609 259,251 553.800 610,118 
36.J,7,(;7 2M,O-li 647,8.J5 757,510 
277,256 219,269 496.525 58,13,454 
t:W , 
2 ;62.1 "\ 1 ,C9S ,220 1 1.1.;6 ,082 


1001. 1906, 


lÐll. 
Fe- 
males. 


Provinces. 


Total. Total. 
rales. 


Total, 



{ßnitoba........... 255,211 365,(jR8 253,056 208,574 

asl
tchev.an....... 91,279 257.71;3 291.730 200,702 
Alb('rta...... .. , . .. . 73. 022 1
, 412 223,989 150,67-1 


461,630 
492,432 
374.663 


TotaL,....,... 1l',.;I
 "o
,bS3 ì'
,77,) 5
',9
11.3?...8,7
1 


U.-Popubttoll of Prairit' Prm Inc(,4ii; by 
el. at (,3('h Cen'\us '-('riod from 1870 for 
;\Ianitoha and from 1901 for Saskat('hewan and \lherta. 


Provinces and '\ ears, 


Population. 


Increase over Preceding Census. 


Fe- 
:\lalcs. males, Total. 
1_- 



lall'8, 


Females. 


Total. 


!\o, 


:No. 


No. 


No. p,c, No. p.c. No. p.c. 



[anitoba- 
1870.,. . 
18S1. .. . 
1886., .. 
1891..,. 
1896..., 
1901 1 .. .. 
1906. ... .. 
1911 ... 
1916", . 
1921., . 
Saskatchev. an- 
1901. . .. 
1906.,.. 
1911.... 
1916.... 
1921 
\lberta- 
1901.. .. I 41. 019 32,003 73,022 
1906.... 108,283 77,129 185,412 67,264163,98 45,126141.00 112,390153,91 
1911 ... 1 221.989 150,674 374,295 115,706106'86 73,545 95,35 189.251 102.07 
1916.. 277.2 _ 56 219.269 496,525 53,267 23,78 68,595 45,53 121,862 32.53 
1921 - 588.454 91.929 18'51 
1 In 1896 the Census consisted of ß count of population only. 
2 Ten-year increase 8ho\\ n, 


6,317 5.911 12,228 
35,123 27,137 62.260 28,806 456.01 21,22f1 359.10 :>0,032 409.16 
59,594 49,046 108.f.40 24.471 69.67 21,909 SO'73 46,380 74,49 
84,342 68.164 152,506 24.748 41.53 19.118 38.98 43,866 40,37 
1 1 193,425 - 40,Y19 26.83 
13'3.504 116,767 255,211 54,162 64,22 4S,543 Îl'22 102,705 67,34 
:!').j, 18.3 160.505 365,688 66,679 48.14 43.798 37.53 110,477 43'29 
..!53,O56 208,574 461,394 47,873 23.33 48,069 29,95 95,942 26,23 
2:)4.600 259.2,)1 553,860 41,553 16..(2 50.677 :?4,30 92,230 19,98 
- 610,118 56,258 10"6 
I \9.431 41,848 91.279 
./ 152,7!.11 104,972 257,763 103.360 209,10 63,124 150.84 166.484 182,39 

!.H, 730 200.702 492,432 138.939 90.93 95,730 91,20 234.669 91,05 
'363,787 284,048 647.835 72.057 24.70 83,346 41,52 Ij5,403 31.50 
- 757.510 - 109,675 16,93 


38131-8 



114 



1REA AS.D POPULA.TION 


H.-Population of Prairie Provinces by Se'( at l'aeb Census Period from 1870 for 
l\lanitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta.-concluded, 


Provinces and Years. 


Population, 


Increase over Preceding C
nsu.'). 


, Fe- 
1\lales. malefl. Total. 


Females. 


Mabs, 


Total. 


No. No. No. No, p.e. No. p.c. No, p,c. 
Prairie Provinces- 
1901................,........ . 228,954 190,558 419,512 
1906. , .......... . 456,257 342,606 808,863 237,303 103.64 152,048 79,79 389,351 92,81 
1911...... ............. .... . 768,775 559,950 1,328,121 302,518 64,88 217,344 63,44 519,862 64.27 
1916. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 935,652 762,56E 1,698,220 166,877 21.71 202,618 36,19 369,495 27'81 
1921..............."..".." . - 1,956,082 - 257,862 15.18 


IS.-City Population of the Prairil' Provinces, 1901, 1908, 1911, 1916 and 1921. 


Provinces. 


1901. 1906. 


1911. 1916, 1921. 
s. Fe- Total. Males, Fe- Total. Total. 
males, males, 
- - - - 
62 6,477 13,839 7,697 7,518 15,215 15,397 
118 2,774 5,892 2,978 2,901 5,879 6,766 
29 3,454 7,483 5,488 5,533 11,021 12,821 
06 61,629 136,035 82,227 80,773 163,000 179,087 
ß4 4,859 13,823 9,007 7,927 16,934 19,285 
58 847 2,105 1.679 1,466 3,145 4,108 
27 2,527 6,254 3,397 3,039 6,436 7,558 
67 10,446 30,213 13,655 12,472 26,127 34,432 
17 4,787 12,004 10,719 10,329 21,048 25,739 
96 756 1,852 1,681 1,500 3,181 3,518 
02 908 2,210 1,574 1,476 3,050 3,193 
03 1,006 2.309 1,596 1,548 3,144 5,151 
65 17,139 43,704 29,278 27,236 56,514 63,305 
54 13,425 31,064 27.462 26,384 53,846 58,821 
62 3,588 9,035 4,896 4,540 9,436 11,097 
07 2,401 5,608 4,781 4,491 9,272 9,634 
13 905 2,118 1,127 1,076 2.203 2,328 
ß4 1,147 2,411 1,047 1,001 2,048 2,061 


Manitoba- 
Brandon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Portage la l'rairie.. . . . 
St. Boniface......... .. 
Winnipeg......... . . . . . 
Saskatchewan- 
1\1 ooseja w . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
North Battleford..... 
Prince Albert......... 
Regina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Saskatoon........... . 
Swift Current....... _. 
Weyburn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yorkton.............. 
Alberta- 
Calgary. . . . . . . .. ..... 
Edmonton 1.... . . . . . . . 
Lethbrid
e _ . ., ...... 
Medicine Hat.,....... 
Red Deer....".. . . . . . 
Wetaskiwin........., . 


Total. Total. )lale 


5,620 10,408 7,3 
3,901 5,106 3, 
2,019 5,119 4,0 
42,340 90,153 74,4 


1,558 
1,785 
2,249 
113 
121 
113 
700 


6,249 8,9 
824 1,2 
3,005 3,7 
6,169 19,7 
3,011 7,2 
554 1,0 
966 1,3 
1,363 1,3 


4,392 13,573 26,5 
4,176 14,088 17,0 
2,072 2,313 4,4 
1,570 3,020 3,2 
323 1,418 1,2 
550 1,652 1,2 


1 Includes Strathcona, 


POPULATION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 
During the decade 1911-1921 the boundaries of the British 
Empire were contracted by the voluntary giving up of Egypt and 
expanded by the addition of various territories as a result of the war. 
The increases of territory were mainly in Africa, where the Tanganyikn 
Territory, Southwest Africa, and portions of the Cameroons and 
Togoland were added to the Empire, with an aggregate area of 731,000 
square miles and an estimated population of slightly over 5,000,000. 
In Asia the territories acquired by mandate from the League of 
Nations include Palestine and ThIesopotamia, with 3,619,282 inhabit- 
ants on an area of 152,250 square miles. In the Pacific the territories 
added to the Empire include Western Samoa, the Territory of N elV 
Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and part of the Solomon Islands, 
aU of ,vhich were formerly German possessions. According to the 
most reliable estimates the total area of these regions is 90,802 square 
miles with a population of 637,051. 



POPUL...tFIO.Y OF r/IE Bll/TIS// El\1PIRE 


115 


f'tati
ti('s of the :lre:t and population uf the; territories included 
in the Briti
h Enlpin
 in 1921 are given in Tahle 16, together with 
conlparative figures of population for H)01 and 1911. 


16.-Arl'a and l.ol'lIlatloo of the Urltlsh Empir('. by COllntTic
. 1901. 1911 and 1921. 
(From the British f:;tatistical Abstract, Statesman's Year llook, and other sourc -s.) 


Countries. 


Arro in 
8<] uare 
mill",1921. 


".urope. 
Enl!:land and Wales.. 

cot land. . , . . . , , . . . . . , . . , . . , , 
Ir('land. . , . . , , . . , , , , . . , . , , . , . , . . , 
IsIsnds. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Total, L'nUed h.ln
doJ11 
G i bral ta.r4 . . . , . , . . . . . . , , . . , . . . , . . . , . . . . . 
'lalta... . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . , . . . . 
1.'otaJ, Europf' , ,. . 


5
, 360 

0.405 
32,586 
302 


1?1, -;} 


Census of 
HIOI. 
Total. 


1')1;;11 11,M . ,1 

 


11 
117 


32.527,b43 
4,472,103 
4,4.

, 775 
I!'iO.370 
4.1 10' ,091 
20,355 
IM.742 


\
a. 
AdM1, indudinlZ; Pl'rim . . . , . " . 
F:ocotra..,... . . , . , . . '" , . , . 
Borneo- 
Rriti!-\h 
orth Borneo." . 
Brunei. . . . , . . . . . .. ..........,.. 
Sarawak.... ... 


80 
1,382 
31, 106 
4.000 
42.000 


Total ICornf'o .. 


'l71 


RahTl'in Is. Prot........ , .. .. . . 
Ceylon. ..,..... 
\lnldivc Is,. __ ... ... 
Cyprus I '. . . . , . . 
Hon
 Koni!;I... __ __.... ... ..... 
X ew Territorics.. .... , . ... . ..... 


275 
25.481 


....
:'} 


3,584 
391 


India. Rriti!'\h... 
Xative Statæ...,., 


1 , {)!)2 , 
4 
709,583 


1 'ß
,577 291,317 8

 
ld 110, 31 31',075,806 


247,13',000 
71.937,000 


Total. India. 


Straits Spttlements. ...,.",.,..... 
Labuan _ . 
Christmas Is. . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cocos or I(eeling Is. .. . .. .. .. .. , . . .. . .. . 


1,572 
28 
81 


Total. 
tralts 
ettlements.,.,.. 
Asiatic 'Iandates- 
Palestine. . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . , , , . 
Mesopotamia (Iraq,),., . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Total, \siatic 'Iandatf'S_ 
Federated Malay States- 
Perak. . 

elan
or . . . , . . . . 
K egri Sem bilan. . . . . 
Pafïa.ng. . . . , . . ,. .,. 


1,6M 


9,000 
143.250 


15"',2.0 


7,875 
3,138 
2,573 
14,037 


Total, Federated 'IaJa) Mates., 27,'23 
rnfedernted "Ialay States- 
lohore...............,. ..... .... 8,000 
Kedah.........., 3,800 
Perl is. ... . . . . .. . .. . . 305 
Kelantan... ........... . 5,500 
Tren
:;
. 
:
;;

aled ,,
;

 '
;
;
I_ 
',
 
38131-8
 


43,974 
12.00<r- 
104,527 
10,000' 
500.000 


61t 5"'7 


3,565,954 


{ 


237.022 
2&1, 005 
102,254 


231,F\.55,5
3 
62,461,549 


573.5f1h 
8,411 
704 
645 
583.3:Js 


329,665 
168,789 
96,028 
84,113 


C78,59;; 


! :
0002 ! 
available, 


Populat ion. 
C('nhiiS of 
1911, 
Total. 


36,0;0,492 
4, 7tìO, 904 
4.390,219 
14
,915 
4. ,.170;30 
19,120 
211, !í64 


;) ,SOl ,%11 


46,1f103 
12,000 2 
208,lh3 
21,7181 
500.000 


7"", 01 


4,106,350 


273 .{\f}-\ 
366,14.1) } 
9O,5!14 


244,221.377 
70,&88,8.)4 


715,52!' 
6,546 
1,463 2 
749 
72l,
S7 


494,057 
294,035 
130.199 
118,708 
1 ,0:16,999 


180.412 
245,986 
32,74ß 
286,751 
154,073 
899,168 


Census of 
1921, 
TotaL 


37, RR5, 242 
4,882,288 
4,496,000 1 
149.852 
47,413,38% 
17,690 
2'>1,859 


47,6.).;,931 


54,923 
12,000 2 
20
.183 
25,454' 
500,000 


i33,637 


110,000 2 
4,504,28.1 
70,000 2 
310, bOR2t 
625,lG6 


} 


ðHl,939 1 
2,1808 
832 8 



 ,9.')1 


770,000 
2,849,282 21 
3 ,til9 ,28% 


Popu1ation 
by states 
not yet 
available. 


1 ,=n. ,000t 


282,244 
338.544 
40,091 
309,293 
153.092 
1,123,%'4 


. 



116 


AREA AND POPULATION 


16.-Area and Population of th.. British Empir.., by Countries, 
1901, 1911 and 1921.-c Ætinued, 


Countries, 


Population. 
Area in .- 
square Census of Censu<; of Census of 
miles. 1921. 1901, 1911, 1921. 
Total. Total. Total. 
285 130,792 147,133 _II 
34 410 400 250 
245,060 . 4,000,000 10 2,402,863 11 2,630,000 2 
365,000 - - 4,106,700 12 
111 , 828 13 3,500,000 10 2,843,325 } 3,071, 608 11 
640 - - 197,000 2 
380 - - 
720 371,023 6 368,791 } 376,108 
89 4,859 6.690 
39,956 706,000 970.430 1,201,519 
47 3,342 3,477 4,000 
- - - 105 15 
156 19,237 22,691 24.811 
68,000 153,000 344,323 300,000 2 
11,716 348,848 18 404,507 500, 504 2 
275,000 120,776 111 125,350 152,983 
148,575 503,065 771,077 } 1,736,000 
291,000 746,000 17 822,482 
6,678 85,491 18 99,959 133,563 
276,966 2,409,804 18 2,564,965 2,782,712 18 
35,291 1,108.754 18 1,194,043 1 ,427, 706 18 
50,389 387,315 18 528,174 618,802 18 
110.450 1,269,951 18 1,686,212 2,087,772 18 
322,400 - - 237,237 
795,496 5,175,824 16 5,973,394 7,154,229 
257,355 9,161,700 111 9,269,000 8,500,000 
79,880 { 3,055,546 } 7,857,983 7,750,000 
1,388,847 
31,000 - - 400,000 2 
4,132 90,354 146,101 248,000 2 
79,506 1,486,433 1,503,386 2,029,750 
31,100 Not available. 360,000 2 - 
12,600 - - 300,000 2 
30,000 1,024,178 1,403,132 21 1,400,000 2 
525,573 16,201,0.!i8 20,539,602 20,627,750 
1,014,000 - - 3.400, 000 22 
19 17,535 18,994 21,987 
3,729,665 5,371,315 7,206,643 8.788,483 
7,500 2,043 3,275 3,255 
90,500 293,958 296,041 297,691 
8,598 37,479 40,458 45,317 
42,734 217,037 238,670 259,317 
120,000 3,947 3,949 3,621 
4,404 53,735 55,944 53,031 
166 195,588 171,983 198,000 2 
4,207 755,730 831,383 857,921 
89 5,000 5,486 3,945 
166 5,287 5,615 5,612 
56 4,908 5,557 5,082 
68 29,782 26,283 } 
50 12,774 12.945 38,214 
34 3,890 4,075 
169 34,953 32,265 
33 12,335 12,200 12,120 
305 28,894 33,863 37,059 


\Vei.Hai-'Vei" 0'" ",.". ,.""..,. .",... ,., 
Africa. 
Ascension., . , . 0 , , . . , 0 , , . . , , . . , , , . , , , . . . . , , , , . 
British East Africa- 
Kenya Colony and Prot." , , . , , , , , . . . , , . . 
Tanganyika Terr, (late German East 
Africa)... 0" . 0 . , , , . , , , , . , , " . , . . , 0 " 0 
IT ganda Prot...,. , , . . . . . . . , . , , , . . . . . , , . . 0 
Zanzibar Prot. , . . , , . . . , . , . . , , . . . 0 . . .. " 
Pemba,. 0'... . . 0 . , , . , . . , , , . , , , . . . , . . . 
l\Iauritius. . , . . . . , , . . . . . . . , . , , , . , , , , , . , , , . . , . . 
Dependencies of. .. .".",...... 0 
Nyasaland Proto.,.. .... ..,..,. . ., .".". ,.. . 
St. Helena.. . . 0 0 , . " '" 0 . , . . . . , . , . . . 0 . 0 ,... 
Tristan da Cunha. 0.0'.......",.,.,..".",. 
Seychelles o. 0 . ...., . . . , , . . . , . . . . , , . . . , , . , , , , . . 
Somaliland Prot, , . 0 . . . , . . . . . , , 0 , , . . , . , , . . . , , . 
South Africa- 
Basutolando..,...... .00."...",. ,.. ,.. 
Bechuanaland Prot. . . . . . . . . , , . , , . . . , . . . . . 
Rhodesia, Southern.. . . , 0 , . . , . , . , . , . , . . . . 
RhodCtSia, Northern. . . , 0 . , . . , . . 0 . 0 . 
Swaziland,.". .. . , , . , , . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . 
Union of Soutb Africa- 
Cape of Good Hope. . . . , . . . . , . , . . , . . , . , . . 
Natal..,.. .....,., .00..00......0. 
Orange Free State"..., . . . . . . . , , , . . , , . , . . 
TransvaaL. . . .0 . . . . . . 0 . . 0 0 0 0 . , ., ...,., . 
South 'West Africa...................... . . 


Total, Union of South Africa.. 
West Africa- 

 igeria, Northern Protectorate of. . . . , . , . 
Nigeria, Southern. and Colony of 20 ... . 0 . 0 . 
Britisb Cameroon.... . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . 
Gambia20"..,," , 0 '.' , .' , , " ., , . . . . . . 
Gold Coast, Ashanti and Prot, , . 0 . . . . 0 . . . 
Northern Terr, Prot........,... .".... .. . 
Togoland 0 . . . , 0 . . , . , , . . . . . . . . , , . . , . , , . . . . 0 
Sierra Leone 20 . . . . L' , . , . , , . , . . , . . , . , , , . . , . 


Total, West Africa"..".,.,.". 


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.. .. ... . . . . . . . , , , . , . , , , . 
America. 
Bermuda 5 , . . 0 . 0 , . . . _ . , , , , , . 0 . , . . , . ., .",. . 
Dominion of Canada.,.,..,.....",.....",.. 
Falk land Is.. . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . , , , , . , , . , . , . . , . . 0 
Bri tish Guiana 23 0 0 .. 0 0 . 0 . .. 0 0 0 0 . . .. . .. . .. , . . , . 
British Honduras..,..,..,. . , . . , , . . , . , , . , . , , . 0 
Newfoundland.....,.,. 0...... .. .. .. . . . 
Labrador. . , . , . , . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , , , . . . . . . 
West India Islands- 
Bahamas. . , . , , . . . , , , . , . . , . , , . . , , , , , , . , , , . 
Barbados 0 , , . , , , . . . 0 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . 0 
1 amaica. . , , , , , . , , , , , . . . . . . , , , . , , . , . , . , . . . 
Cayman Is, 0 .. . . , . . , . , . , , , . . , , , , . . 
Turk's and CaicoB Is......,..."""..... 
Leeward Is.- 
Virgin Is.. , . , , . , , . . , , , . . . , , , . . , , . , , , . 
St, Christopher, , , . , , . , , . . , , , , , , , , , . . 
Nevis. . . . . 0 0 , , . . . . , , . , . . . . , , , . . . . , . , 0 
Anguilla....,.,. , , . " ., " , . , ,., , , . , , . . 
Antigua, including Barbuda.. , . . , . , , , . 
1\Iont
errat, including Redonda.."", 
DominIca, . , , . 0 . . . , . , , . , , , , . . . . . . , , , . 



POPUL
17'IOJ.V OF TIll' BRITISH EJfPIRF 


117 


16.- \rea and POlnllation of fhl' ßrifl"''' Emplr(', h) Countrh.'
, 
1901, 1911 and 1921-concludcd. 


I PopuL'ltion. 
I Area in 
Countril'S. t4q uftre Census of Cen
u8 of CensU8 of 
miles. 1921. 1001. HIll, 1921. 
Total. Total. Total. 
frinitlad, . , , , . 1,862 255,148 312,803 } 
Toba
.,.. .... . . 114 18,i51 20,749 391,2i9 1t 
Wind
ard Ú.- 48,637 
:o;t. Lucia. . , , , . .. . 233 49.883 51,505 
St. Vincent,.,.,...., ,.,. . ., , 150 47,548 41,877 44,447 
Grenada and the Grcnadin
.", ... . 133 63,438 73,636 75.6ú3 J . 
Total, "l'st Indll'!'o. . . 12,:ùt 1,577,IU 1,S9
,
t J ,'773 ,87
 
\u!\trab!'ola. 
ustralia, Commonwealth of- 1,646,734 

ew South Wales. oo} 309,432 1,354.846 2,099,7(,3 
Federal Capital Terr....... . . 940 - 1.714 2,572 
\ïctoria. . . . . . . .. . .. . 87,
 1.201,OiO 1,315,551 1,531, 52
1 
:O:outh Australia. ..:} 3
,070 363, 157 408,658 495.336 

orthern Tcrr. . . 523.620 - 3,310 3,870 
Western Austra1ia. ... . 975,920 184.124 282,114 332,213 
Tasmania.,.. . , . . , . , 26,215 172,475 191,211 213.877 
Queensland, . . . , . . . . . . . . .. . 670,500 4!}8, 12!} 605.813 757.634 
Total, Commoll\\ealth U.... Z ,'ll ,5M l,n3,801 4,t.i5,Ð 
 5,43',794 
erritory of Papua. __ 90.540 350,()()()2I 380, ()0()21 2 1 )1.392 26 
om. of New Zeal:Lnd 17.... 104.151 772.719 1.008,4G8 1,218,913 
Terr. of "estcrn &moo. . . . . . 1.250 - - 37,051 
X auru . .. . 10 - - 1,985 
ij i. .. 7,435 120,124 139,541 162.604 1 . 
ifio Islands- 
Tongan Is. Prot, ,Friendly Is.).... ". .." 390 22,011 23,737 23,562' 
Terr. of New Guinea (late German 
ew 
Guinea)- 

ew Guinea (Kaiser Wilhelm's Land) 70,000 - - 395,000 2 
Bismarck Archipelago..... 15.752 - - 188.000 2 
Solomon Js. Prot... . 3,800 - - 17.000 3 
Bri t. Solomon Islands Prot.. . . . . 11.000 - UO.OOO 150.750 1 
Gilbert and Ellice Is. Colony. ... . 187 37,600 31,121 33,000 2 
Phænix Group,.............. 16 59 59 59 
Pitcairn.,.......,. n. , 2 126 14()21 - 
Starbuck Is.""... 1 uninhabited 
Jarvis Is......., It 30 30 30 

lalden . . . , . . . . . . , . , . , , . , , , , . , 35 168 168 168 
Total, Parlðc hland:oo .. .. ... .. .. .... .. .. .. . 101,bl 59,f9t 20,j ,2.i.'; 
1 ,56!' 
rand Total ... _ . . . . . . .. .. .. 13 ,U' ,Ot6J an ,126 ,1
 "
O,535,912 UI,H
 ,232 


A 


T 
D 


F 


Pac 


G 


1 Estimated population in the middle of 1921. No census in 1921. 2 Estimated population. 'Estimated 
population, 1919. · Excluding the military nnd persons on ships in harbours. Ii Excluding the military end 
personCJ on ships in harbours. I Cyprus. which had been administered by England under a convention, 
dated 4th June. 1878. was annexed on the 5th November, 1914. t Inclusive of Labuan. 8 Estimated popula- 
tion. 1918, 8 By the Shantung settlement at Washington, January. 1922. Wei-Hai-Wei is to be restored to 
China. 10 Estimated population, 1903, 11 Administered provinces only, 12 From Colonial Office list. 1922, 
13 Including 16,377 square miles of watpr "ithin theterritoriallimits of the Uganda Protectorate, 14 Fstim- 
ated population. Dec,. 1920, Ii Population in 1916. 11 Population in 1904. It Partly estimated. a cen
us of 
nativeg not being available. 11 Preliminary census figures as taken from the Monthly Bulletin of Union 

tatistiC8. May. 1922. 1. Population as stated in the Northern Nigeria report for 1904-5, and based on 
estimates made in 1904 by Residents in charge in the various Provinces of the Protectorate. 20 Includin
 
the Protectorate districts, 21 Including 567.561 children-sex not stated. 22 Estimated population. 1917. 
23 Exclusive of certain Aborill;ines estimated to number 13.000 at the census of 1911. 2. The population stated 
for Australia is exclusive of full-blooded Abori
ines. estimated at 100.000 in 1911. iii Number of Papu&ns, 
estimated. 21 Population in 1920, rr The aTt'& (280 equare miles) and population (12,598 in 1911) of the 
Cook and other islands of the Pacific are excluded. The 
faori population (43,143 in 1901 and 49,844 in 191J' 
is also excluded. U Population in H114. 2t Preliminary return. 



118 


AREA AND POPULATION 


VITAL STATISTICS. 
The collection of vital statistics commenced in Canada, as in Eng- 
land, ,vith the registration of baptisms, marriages and burials by the 
ecclesiastical authorities. These registers, maintained by the priests 
from the first settlement of the country, have made it possible for 
the vital statistics of the French colony to be compiled from the year 
1610. 1 In the beginning, only one copy of such records was made, 
but in 1678 the Sovereign Council of Quebec ordered that in future 
such records should be made in duplicate,. and that one copy, duly 
authenticated, should be delivered to the civil authorities. This 
arrangement ,vas continued after the cession of the country to 
England, and was extended to the ne'\vly-established Protestant 
churches by an Act of 1793, but the registration among these latter 
remained seriously def
ctive, both in Lo,ver Canada and in the newly- 
established province of Upper Canada. 
In English-speaking Canada, vital statistics were from the com- 
mencement seriously defective, the pioneer settlers often going out 
into the wilds far from the authority of government and the ministra- 
tions of religion. ",-rhile a law existed in Upper Canada requiring 
ministers of religion to deposit duplicates of their registers of bap- 
tisms, marriages and deaths ,vith the clerks of the peace for trans- 
mission to the provincial secretary, this law remained practically a 
dead letter. Again, the efforts made to secure records of births and 
deaths at the censuses of 1851 and 1861 produced most unsatisfactory 
and even ridiculous resu}ts, as was pointed out by Dr. J. C. Taché, 
secretary of the board of registration and statistics, in a memorial 
published in the report of the Canadian Minister of Agriculture for 
the year 1865. Nevertheless, in spite of the inherent unsoundness 
of securing at a point of time in a decennial census a record of births 
and deaths occurring over a considerable period of time, this method 
was persisted in down to 1911, when the obviously untrustworthy 
character of the results obtained led to the discarding of the data 
obtained at the inquiry. In Montreal and Toronto, for example, the 
local records showed 11,038 and 5,593 deaths respectively in the 
calendar year 1910, while the census records showed only 7,359 and 
3,148 deaths respectively in the year from June 1, 1910, to l\1ay 31, 
1911. Similar discrepancies were shown for other areas, proving the 
census data to be very incomplete. 
The Dominion Government instituted in the early 80's a plan for 
compiling the annual mortuary statistics of cities of 25,000 population 
and over, by subsidizing local boards of health to supply the inform- 
ation under special regulations. A beginning was lnade with the five 
cities of l\lontreal, rroronto, Hamilton, Halifax and St. John. By 
1891 the list had grown to 25, at a time '\vhen in most of the provinces 
the only birth and death statistics were those of the lnunicipalities. 
Upon the organization of provincial bureaus of vital statistics, how- 
ever, this work was abandoned, though a conference of Dominion 


IFor a summary of the vital statistics of the Roman Catholic population from 1610 to 1883. see the 
Statistical Year Book of Quebec. 1921. English or French edition. p. 51. For details by years of this 
movement of population. see Vol. V of the Census of 1871, pp. 160-265 and Vol IV of the Census of 1881, 
pp. 134-145. 



\ 17'AIJ S1'1I TIS1'lrs 


119 


and provineial officials, held in 1t;
)3, pa:-;
e(l a r('solution ('ailing upon 
the provincial and ]Jon1Ïnion authoritics to co-operate in the ,vork 
of collecting, cOlnpiling and publishin
 the vital btatistics of the 
})on1Ïllion. l"his f{\:5olution had, however, no inllnediate practical 
results in :-;ccuring accurate or conlparable vital statistics. 
Eaeh province (except 
e\v Brun
nvick, ,vhich had no vital 
statistics) cnacted its own legislation 011 vital 
tatistics and adn1inis- 
tered such legislation according to it:) own indi ,rid 1 1alrnethods. \Vhilc 
the vital stati
tie
 of Ontario \vere published in considerablc detail 
annually since 1871, the arrangelnent
 for the collection of data ,vert' 
unsati:-,factory. Only in 1906 ,vas the publication of vital statistic:; 
hegun in Prilll'l' Ed,,"anl l:-,land (no report for 1912 has ever been 
i
::;u('d), and in Kova. Reotia the puhli('ation of vital stati:;;;tics datetJ 
only fronl 1909. Because of the lllru.næ, and even Inore hecause of 
the incomparability of facts collecled, of lllethods of collection and of 
standard of enfor(,(,IlH\nt, Canadial1 vital statistics reillailled e:\.trelIl('ly 
unsatisfactory and ilnpo
sible to he cOlupilcd on a national basis, 
as ,vah pointed out hy thp 1912 comll1Ïssion on official statistics, 
which recolllIlleIHled that "for the Dorninion, now engaged in huildin
 
up its national unity, it is ilnportant that uniforIll data should render 
po
sible to stati
ticians the institution of true interprovincial and 
intf'rnatÌonal cOlnpari=-,ons. fly effective co-operation of the provinces 
,vith the Don1Ïnion this objf'ct 
hould he capable of attajnnlent 
\vithout sacrificing the liberty of each province to sati
fy its o\vn 

pecial 
tatistical rrquirernent!-.." 'fhe s('helnc of co-operation, thus 
outlined, has no\v been hrought into effect as a l'onsequence of the 
establislunent of the Don1Ïnion Bureau of 
tatistics, under the 
Stati
tic
 .,.\ct of 1918, ,vhich specifically provided that the Burp3,u 
should publish an annual report on vital statbtics, and the DOlninion- 
Provincial conferences on vital statistics held in June and Decelnber, 
191h. 
At the conff'rpnl'e
 of i 91 ð, it wa:-; a
reed: (1) that the model 
Yital Statistics Act prepared by the DOlllÏnion Bureau of Statistics, 
when :tccepted by the legislatures, should form the basis of the 
vital statistic:5 legislation of thp sf'veral provinces, thus securing 
uniforn1Ïty and conlparability; (2) that the provinces should under- 
take to obtain the returns of births, marriages and deaths on the 
prescribed fornls as approved and adopted at the December Confer- 
ence, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics to supply the fOrIns free of 
charge; (3) that the provinces .should forw'ard to the Dominion 
Bureau of Stati:.-tics, at such times as lnight be agreed upon, either 
the original return of births, Iuarriages and deaths, or certified tran- 
scriptions of the same; the Dominion Bureau of Statistics to under- 
take the nlechanical compilation and tabulation of the saIne. 
Under the scheme outlined above, the vital statistics of all thp 
provinces, except Quebec, have been secured and compiled on a 
uniform basis for the year 1920, and with the commencement of 1921, 
it became po:-;sible to i
sue cOInp!ete lllonthly statements for the 
eight provinces. The first annual report to be issued \vill be a report 
for the year 1921. 



120 


AREA AND POPULATION 


Summary statistics showing the births, marriages and deaths in 
the nine provinces of Canada during 1920, ,vith the birth, marriage 
and death rates as compared ,vith the estÏ1nated population of that 
year are presented in Table 17. The figures for Quebec are taken 
from the provincial returns. The totals for the nine provinces arc 
approximately equivalent to what they would be for the Dominion as 
a whole, since the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, 
,vhich are not as yet covered by the new scheme of vital statistics, 
contain bet,veen thenl less than 1-700th of the population of the 
Dominion. This summary table sho,vs births, marriages, deaths, 
crude annual birth, marriage and death rates for the provinces, based 
upon the estimated population for 1920, as well as the excess of 
births over deaths. In Table 18 ,vill be found an analysis of the birth 
statistics for the year, 
howing living births by sex, single births, 
births of twins and triplets, illegitimates, and still-births. The 
proportion of illegitimate to total living births in the eight provinces 
for which statistics were available ,vas very low, 18 per 1,000. 
In Table 19 are presented statistics of births, marriages and 
deaths in the principal cities of Canada for the calendar year 1920. 
Since the local estimates of population have been shown by experience 
to be sonletimes seriously defective, the census populations, as sho\vn 
by the Census of 1921, are included, and are taken as a basis for the 
determination of the annual natural increase per 1,000 population, 
this involving a slight under-estimate of the rate of natural increase. 
Two important considerations should be borne in mind by the 
students who use either these tables or provincial reports for compar- 
ative purposes. 
First, in spite of the improvelnents recently effected, registration 
generally, and the registration of births in particular, is not universally 
carried out. The great extent of the country, and the isolation of 
many of its inhabitants, partly account for this unsatisfactory 
situation. 
Secondly, the great differences in the age and sex distribution of 
the population in different provinces, as shown by the Census of 1911, 
(these statistics are not yet available from the Census of 1921), make 
comparisons (of birth rates, for instance), as among the provinces 
unfair and misleading. Thus, for instance, in British Columbia in 
1911, there were only 428 females of ages 15 to 49 to every 1,000 
males of these ages, while in Quebec there were 972 and in Prince 
Ed,vard Island 1,027. Evidently in view of the enormous dispro- 
portion between the sexes in British Columbia, the crude birth rate 
per 1,000 of population in that province cannot properly be compared 
with the crude birth rate in Quebec or Prince Edward Island. Again, 
in consequence of different age distributions of population in the 
different provinces-the Prairie Provinces, for instance, have a very 
young population because of the healthy young Ï1nmigrants whom 
they attract-a comparison of crude death-rates of the provinces 
is misleading. In the Prairie Provinces, taken as a unit, only 126 
per thousand of the 1911 population and 137 per thousand of the 
1916 population had passed 45 years of age, \vhile in Quebec 176, 




 ITAL 81' i1'ISTIrS 


121 


in Ontario 218 and in Prince Edward Island 24U pf'r tho\1s:ìnd of 
the population ,,"pre in 1911 over 43 ypnrs of age. These lattf'r pro- 
yinct's, having a 1l1uch larger proportion of persons of adv
\nc('d ages, 
\\ ill inevitably have a high{,f crude death fate per thol1
nnd of 
population than the Prairi{' PrOViIH'f'
, 


17.-:\ umber of ßirth
9 'larrla
es and ))(,3ths 9 b) Pr(nilltl's, 19'.!O. 


Provinces, 


p, E.1sland.... h.... 
Nova Scotia. . 
New BrunsYtick..". 
Quebec, ,.,.. 
Ontario. . 
Manitoba...... . 
Saskatche\\ an. 
Alberta... . . . . . ..... 
British Columbia. . . . . . 
Total for the nln
 
pro' hi C('S .. .. . . , . 


Mar- FxcE"88 
I Hirth- rilLRe D('ath- of 
Births, rote p('r Mar- rate per Deaths, rate per Births 
1,000 ri
es. 1,000 1.000 over 
living. living. living. Deaths. 
2,301 25.85 007 6.82 1,279 14,36 1,022 
13,181 25,34 4,411 8,48 7, 560 14,50 5,621 
10,778 28.08 3,71'10 9'8.') 5,628 14'66 5.150 
86,328 37,16 21,587 9,29 40,686 17,51 45.642 
72,297 25.02 29,361 10.16 40,4]0 13,98 31,887 
18,322 30.62 6,068 10,14 6,511 10,8S 11.811 
22,839 31,07 5,320 7.24 5,918 8.05 16,921 
16,531 29.02 5,107 8.96 5,674 9,96 10.857 
10,492 20,54 4,690 9,18 4,739 9.21 5,753 
I W,069 %'.31 bO,931 '.39 11
 ,40.. 13'74 13', I 
I 



oTll:,-Birth, marriage and death rates for 1920 arc calculated on the estimated population of 1920. 


lS.-:-ummary .\nal) 
j
 uf Birth statistics for the calendar) car 1920. 


Living Births. Number 
Province1!. Single Pairs of 
Male. Female. Total. Births. Twins. 
Prince Edward Island,., 1,172 1,129 2.301 2,25; 22 
Nova Scotia....... ....,. 6,740 6,439 13,179 12,872 152 
New Brunswick. , . 5,578 5.200 10,778 10,549 113 
Quebec".. . . ... ... . ... ... 44,9;5 41. 353 86,328 _1 _1 
Ontario.,...... . . . 37,044 35,253 72,297 70,655 791 
Manitoba..... . .. . 9,399 8,923 18,322 17,845 231 
Saskatchewan. . . ......... . 11.836 11. 003 22.839 22.221 303 
Alberta........... . 8,463 8.068 16,531 16,107 209 
British Columbia.....::: 5,45:-. 5,034 10,492 10,292 100 
Canada (exclusive of 
the Terri tories) . , . . 130 ,G$.) 122,402 2':3,0;7 112 ,79- 1,921 
I 



umber 11- 
Cases of legiti- Still 
Tripleta mates. Births. 


71 80 
1 453 615 
1 234 
10 
_1 -1 1,5GO 
20 1,287 3,364 
Ó 328 623 
4 219 65:
 
2 273 411 
96 392 
- - 
3.12 3,011 2 8, 


1 These statistics are not available for the province of Quebec. 2 Partial totals for eight provinces, 
figures for Quebec not being available. 


19.-N'umber of ßirths, 1larriages and Deaths, by Principal Cities, durin
 the calendar 
} ear 19"0 


! 
Census 
Cities. Population, Births, :Yarriages. Deaths. 
1921. 
P. E. Island- 
Charlot teto""I1. - . , 10,814 320 - 277 
:Son Scotla- 
Halifax.... . . . . . .. . .. . . . 58,372 1,764 - 1,067 
Sydney, . , , . , . . . . , . , . . , . . . 22.545 524 - 319 
Glace Bay.,.. 17,007 284 - 300 
Amherst,....,. .. . . . _ . _ . . . 9,998 257 - 133 
New Glasgow.. ...,.. 8,974 246 - 105 
New Brunswick - 
St. John.. . , . . , . . . . . , . . . . . 47,166 1,380 - 1,001 
Moncton. . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 488 62-1 - 


288 


Excess Natural 
of Births Increase 
ov<.r per 1,000 of 
Deaths. Population. 
43 3.98 
697 11.94 
205 9 ,()(J 
-16 
124 12,40 
141 15.71 
379 8.04 
336 19,21 



122 


AREA AND POPULATIOJ.V 


19.-Number of Births, Marriages and Deaths. by Principal Cities, during the 
calendar Yt.'ar 192&-concluded. 


Excess Natural 
Census of Births Increase 
Cities, Population, Births, Marriages, Death."!. over per 1,000 of 
1921. Deaths. Population. 
Quebec- 618,506 12,846 ð,334 13.47 
Montreal.. ."." , . . . . . . . . . 21,180 7,123 
Quebec. . . . . . . . , , . , , . . . . , . 95, 193 3,823 926 2,043 1,780 18.70 
Verdun. . . . , - . . , . , , , , . . 25,001 739 111 341 398 15,92 
Hull.,.,., ..... .,..,., .,.. 24,117 1,064 274 571 493 20.44 
Sherbrooke. . . , , . . . , . . . . . . 23,515 770 214 464 306 13.01 
Three Rivers.,. , , . . . , . . . . 22,367 915 258 497 418 18,69 
\Vestmount. , . . , . . . . . ., . . . 17,593 247 36 132 115 6,54 
Lachine. . . . , . , , . . , , , . . . . . . 15,404 538 79 224 304 19.73 
Outremont. ...,.. , . , , . , . , . 13,249 120 44 101 19 1'43 
St, Hyacinthe... ..,...... 10,859 310 116 192 148 13,63 
Ontario- 
Toronto...."..,. ..,...,.. 521,8!}3 13,388 - 7,261 6,127 11,74 
Hamilton....,. . , , . . . . . . . . 114,151 3,312 - 1,841 1,471 12.89 
Ottawa. . ,. .. . . . . , . , . , . . . . 107, R43 3,256 - 1,937 1,319 12.23 
London, , , _ . .........o.o.....o . 60,959 1.469 - 1,021 448 7,35 
Windsor.............,... . 38,591 1,225 - 603 622 16.12 
Brantford. .".. . . , . . , , . , . . 29,440 859 - 419 440 14.95 
Ki tchener . . . . . , , . . . . 21,763 532 - 266 266 12,22 
Kingston. . . . , . . . . . . , . , . , . . 21,753 687 - 522 161) 7.59 
Fort William.. ........ . . 20,541 627 - 334 293 14'26 
Peter borough . , . . . , . , . , . , . 19,477 533 - 342 191 9.81 
Sault Ste, Marie.......... 21,092 605 - 298 307 14.56 
St. Catharines. , . . . . . . . . . . 19,881 657 - 295 362 18,21 
Guelph.. . . , . . . . , . . . , . , . , . 18,128 422 - 366 56 3.09 
Stratford. . . . . . . . . . , , . . . , . 16,094 462 - 199 263 16,34 
St. Thomas......, . . . . , ., . 16,026 417 - 225 192 11,98 
Port. Arthur. , . . . , . . . . , . . . . 14,886 520 - 289 231 15,52 
Sarnia..... . . . ... ....,.,.. 14,877 366 - 235 1'31 8'81 
Niagara Falls...... . . . , . , . 14,764 365 - 216 149 10,09 
Chatham. . . . .o.......o.o I.. 13,255 385 - 270 115 8.68 
Galt...... .... .,. .,.,.".. 13,216 337 - 158 179 13,54 
Belleville. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 12,206 352 - 247 105 8.60 
Owen Sound. . . . . . . . . . , . . . 12,190 334 - 190 144 11,81 
Woodstock..........,.... . 9,935 191 - 154 37 3,72 
3lanitoba- 
Winnipeg. . , . . . . , . . . , , . , , , . 179,087 6,105 - 2,271 3,834 21.41 
Brandon. . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , , . 15,397 521 - 249 272 17.67 
St. Bonifacp...,....,. . . , , . 12,821 456 - 395 51 3,98 
Saskatchewan- 
Regina. ................. I... 34,432 1,106 - 471 635 18,44 
Saskatoon...,...,.,..... . 25,739 904 - 332 572 22,22 
l\foosejaw. ......."....,.. 19,285 721 - 202 519 26.91 
Alberta- 
Calgary. . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 63,605 2,310 - 831 1,479 23.36 
Edmonton... ,...,. 58,821 2,232 - 902 1,330 22.61 
Lethbridge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,097 433 - 186 247 22,26 
Medicinp Hat...... . . .. . . . 9,634 446 - 175 271 28.13 
British Co1umbia- 
Vancouver....... .....,... 117,217 3,061 - 1,658 1,403 11.97 
Victoria. . .... ...........o.o..... 38,727 1,195 - 559 636 16.42 
New Westminster."... .,. 14,495 406 - 243 163 11'25 


IMMIGRATION. 
Immigration to Canada, as to other new countries, is generally 
greatest in "boom" periods, when capital as well as labour is leaving 
the older countries for the newer in order to secure the more remuner- 
ative investments generally to be found in virgin territories where 
the natural resources are still unexploited. In periods of depression, 
however, the sending abroad of both capital and labour is diminished, 
both preferring at such times to endure the evils which they know at 
home rather than take the risks of a new departure at a distance. 



I \IJIIGR
l 1'/0.'- 


12J 


'fhc 
lbove proposition is aptly illustratpd by the statistics of 
Table 20, "hich show that during thp p:l
t 25 years, immigration 
was at it::; n1ÏllÏInuIll in the year of dCPpt's dppressioll, 1897, tha.t it 
steadily increascd froin that tinlc for\\"ard until 1908, that a decline 
took plae(\ in the fiscal year enllcd l\Iareh 31, 1909, on account of thl"' 
8hort d<'pression of 1908, that thereafÜ'r inlIuigration sh'adily in- 
creased till 1913, \vhile the fiscal year ended :\larch 31, 1914, bho,ved a 
decline due to the dcpre

ion \vhich occurred in the y('ar preceding th<, 
,val'. In the fiseal Y<':lrs 1915 to 191H political rath<,r than econon1Ïe 
conditions restrictccl inllni
ration, but \vith the expan"ion of business 
at the end of the ".ar our ilnn1Ïgration ,nts Inore than douhled, whilp 
the dcprc
sion ,vhich characterized thc calendar year 1 !)21 is r<,fl{'ct{'d 
in the declining ÏInn1Ïgration of th(' fi",cal year endcd 
[arch 31, 1922. 
rrhc improveln
nt already visihle in business conditions ,viII undoubt- 
edly he 
hortly f('flected in incr<,asing inlllligration. 
Iuunigration has throu
hout Canadian history played a great 
part in reinforcing Canadian population, especially the Engli
h- 
speaking population. 'Yhile thp great Inajority of French-Canadian
 
can trace their genealo
y back to ancestors ".ho left the Old ,V orId 200 
or 250 years ago, or even longer-the great bulk of En
lish-:5peaking 
Canadians are cOlnparative neWCOIl1ers both to Canada. and to this 
continent, though a considerable nUlnber of the United Empire 
Loyalist falnilies had been resident in the old colonies for generation!) 
before they Illoved north to e"tahli:;;h En
li,",h-speaking 
ettlclnpnts in 
Canada. Durill
 the n1Ïddlc third of the nineteenth century there \vas 
a great English-:;peaking Imnligration which bettled the province of 
Ontario and Inade it for thc first time more populous than the sister 
province of Quebec, thus bringing about the agitation for representa- 
tion by population. Thereafter immigration slackened until the da,vn 
of the twentieth century brou
ht another flood of in11üigrants to the 
newly opened territories of the Grt'at North 'Vest, resulting in an 
increase of population bet\veen the censuses of 1901 and 1911 greater 
than the combined increase of the three decade
 from 1871 to 1HOI. 
Inunigration during the second decadc of the t,,"pntieth century 
promised at its commencement to be even greater than during the 
first. In its first three years no fewer than 1,141,547 imn1Ïgrants are 
reported as having entered Canada. for purposes of settlement. If 
this rate had been maintained, the population of Canada in 1921 
would certainly have been in excess of ten millions instead of being less 
than nine Inillions. The war, ,vhich commenced on .August 4, 1914, 
dried up the sources of our immigrants in Great Britain and Contin- 
ental Europe, "There every able-bodieù man ,vab needed for the 
defence of his country. Imn1igrants from the United l{ingdom in 
1918 only numbered some 3,000 as cOlnpared \vith 150,000 in 1913' 
from Continental Europe immigrants numbered only about 3,000 i
 
1916 as compared with approximately 135,000 in 1914. Since the ,val', 
immigration, though increasing, has never approached that of the 
pre-war period, \vhich is probably a fortunate circumstance, since the 
capital necessary to set in employment such great bodies of labourers 
as came to Canada in 1912 and 1913 could hardly have been :;ccured. 



124 


AREA AND POPULATION 


.L\ltogether, the total number of immigrants entering Canada 
bet\verll June 1, 1911 and June 1, 1921 (the dates of the t\VO cen- 
suses), was 1,728,921, whereas the total increase of population bet\veen 
these dates was only 1,581,840. This clearly indicates a return move- 
ment of immigrants of very considerable proportions, especially as 
our vital statistics show a fairly high rate of natural increase of popu- 
lation, an10unting to 134,664 in the calendar year 1920 (see Table 17 
of this section), or at the rate of 15 per 1,000 of population per annum. 
Until accurate official statistics of emigration are secured, the demo- 
graphic statistics of Canadian population, which have been so greatly 
ilnproved in the in1mediate past by the collection of uniform and 
accurate vital statistics, must continue to be incomplete. 
Immigration Policy.-The normal immigration policy of Can- 
ada, as is natural in so sparsely peopled a country, aims at attracting 
suitable immigrants from older and more densely settled countries, 
including above all, those ready to take part in the culti- 
vation of the soil, \vhether farmers with capitål or farm labourers, 
\vhile female dOlnestic servants, too, are always regarded as desirable 
immigrants, the demand for these latter being continuously greater 
than the supply. On the other hand, the immigration of persons 
mentally defective, of persons physically defective and without 
means of livelihood, of criminals and prostitutes, beggars and 
vagrants, alcoholics, revolutionaries, and of illiterates over 15 
years of age unless belonging to a family already resident in Canada, 
is prohibited under the Immigration Act, which also provides in 
section 37 that immigrants may be required to possess a prescribed 
amount of money, and in section 38 that the Governor-General in 
Council may at any time prohibit the landing of immigrants coming 
otherwise than by continuous journey from their native country or 
that of \vhich they are naturalized citizens, and may also prohibit 
temporarily or permanently the admission of immigrants belonging 
to any race or nationality or of immigrants of any specified class or 
occupation, on account either of economic conditions prevailing in 
Canada or of the unfitness of such persons for Canadian citizenship. 
An Order in Council issued under this clause on May 9, 1922, pro- 
hibited the landing of immigrants, unless it could be shown that the 
iInmigrant was an agriculturist, a farm labourer, or a female dOlnestic 
servant. The immigration officer in charge was, however, allowed 
also to admit the wives and families of persons already settled in 
Canada, nationals of any country with which there is in operation a 
special treaty or convention regarding immigration, British subjects 
coming directly or indirectly from Great Britain or Ireland, the self- 
governing Dominions, Newfoundland and the United States of 
America, having money enough to maintain themselves until employ- 
ment was secured, and finally American citizens whose labour or ser- 
vice was shown to be required in Canada. The Immigration Act also 
makes provision for the rejection and return of immigrants applying 
for admission to Canada and for the deportation of those misbehaving 
or becoming public charges \vithin two years after admi
sion. 



1.11 J[ I Gll,,1 T 10a\ 


125 


Oriental Ilnlni
ration.-1.""he inllnigratioll to Canada of labour- 
t'rs belongin
 to the ,Asiatic ral'PS, ahle bCl':\u::-,e of thcir lo,v standard 
of Ii" in:r to underbiJ the \vhite Ulan 
n spllinv; their labour, if;) funda- 
lllentally an PC'OllOIHic rather than a racial proùlcln, afTe('ting nlost of 
all tho
c portions of the country whirh arc n0arf'st to the East and the 
('la"'
l':-1 "hieh feel thcir ccononÜc position threatcned. ...\s a rp
tllt of 
the influx of Chinc"c into Canachl, legi
lation ,vas pas
ed in 1883 
(-!S-!9 'Tict., c. 71) providing that thereafter rhine
{\ of the labouring; 
('la";:3 shoulJ be required as a condition of their entry into Canada to 
pay a head tax of :::'50 earh; on January 1, 1901 (63-ß4 Viet., r. 32), 
thi
 amount \vas in{'reaspd to 
lOO and on January 1, 1004 (3 Echv. 
\ II, r. 8) to 8500. This tax is paid by Chine:,f' inllnigr
lnts, ,vith the 
(x('pption of cOIl:..;ular offir(;r
, lIH'rehant:i and ('lpr
Ylnen find their 
families, tourists, nlPn of science, 
tudents nnd teachers, a record 
..;ho" ing thf' nunlber of Chinese uchnitted who paid thf' tax, the nUlnber 
pxenlpt fro III it, and the revenue realiz('d lwing 
iypn by y('ar
 from 
l8b6 in 1.'able 27. In recent ypar:-ì tht' nUlllher of Chinf'
e illulligrants 
entering Canada has ù(\pn Blueh redu(,f'd, owinv; to the operation of 
Order:::; in Council (r('ne'wC'd every six Inonths fronl Dc('elllbpr 8, 1913, 
and replaced by an Orùer ill Council of June U, 1919) under \vhich the 
landing in 13ritish Columbia of skilled and ullHkilled nrtis.tn
 and 
labour('r::; is prohibited. 
Japanese iUlluif!ration to Canada ".a:-; C'ulnpnratiyely negligible' 
prior to the Ru::)::)o-Japa.nese ,val' of 1UU-I:-j, hut thl'reafter a

ulncd 
('on
idl'rablc proportion
, no fe\ver than 7,601 Japaue':.;e illunigrants 
enterin
 Canada, largely frolll IIaw
lÏi, in the fiscal year endpd 
Iarch 

1, 1908, ånd settling lnainly in Briti..;h Cohl1nhia. In that year an 
agr0enlent \va:; 111ad0 with the Japanese Gov('rnlnent under ,vhieh the 
latter undertook to linÜt the nUlllbpr of pa

ports iss1Jed to Japanese 
emigrating to Canada, \vhile the Canadian G'overnrnent agreed to 
adn1Ït tho
e po
:.;c:-,
ing 
uch pa
sports, while prohibiting others from 
entering. The statistics of l'abl0 28 sho,,, t hat in this ,yay Japanese 
inlnlÌgration has been effectiyely linÜtcd. 
Ifindoo inulligration to Canada, like Japanese, is sho\vn by the 
statistics of Table 28 to have been negligible Jo\vn to 1907, when no 
fe,ver than 2,124 Hindoo in1lnigrants arrived. Ho\vever, as a conse- 
quence of the operation of section 3
 of the Imlnigration Act of 1910, 
IIindoo immigration has sine{' that date been comparatively 
;Inall. 
A resolution of the Imperial 'Yar Conference of 1918 declared that 
"it is the inherent function of the Governnlents of the several com- 
luunities of the British COllullolHvealth that each should enjoy 
complete control of the composition of its o\vn population by means 
of restriction on immigration fronl any of the other conln1unities." 
Ho,vever, it ,vas recOlnlnended that Indians already permanently 
domiciled in other British countries should be alIo" ed to bring in 
their ,vive
 anù n1Ïnor children, a reconlmendation ,vhich was irnple- 
lnented, so far as Canaùa. \vas concerned, by Order in Council of 

Iarch 2G, 1919. Ho,vever, in the fiscal years ended 1\Iarch 31, 1921 
and 1922, only 10 .tnd 13 Hindoo immigrants respectively were 
adn1itted. 



126 


AREA AI'lD POPULATIOJ.V 


Under Order in Council of April 12, 1922, no immigrant of any 
Asiatic race is permitted to land in Canada who does not possess in 
his own right $250; this regulation, however, does not apply where 
there is in operation a special treaty, agreement or convention regulat- 
ing immigration. 
Immigration Statistics.-Summary statistics of the number 
of immigrants entering Canada from the United l{ingdOni, the 
United States and other countries are furnished by years from 1897 
to 1922, in Table 20, while immigrants of the last eight years are 
analyzed by nationalities in Table 21. Tables 22 and 23 deal respec- 
tively with rejections of immigrants on arrival and deportations after 
admission. In Table 24 statistics are presented of ju venile immigrants 
brought out by charitable organizations and the demand for their 
seryices. Tables 25 and 26 deal with the occupations and destinations 
of imlnigrants to Canada, Tables 27 and 28 with Chinese and other 
oriental immigration, while Table 29 states, on the basis of the figures 
of the Departnlent of Finance, the expenditure on immigration by 
years since 1868. 


20.-Number of Immigrant Arrivals In Canada, 1897-1921. 


Immigrant Arriva.ls Immigrant Arrivals 
from from 
Fiscal Total. Fiscal Total. 
Years, United Other Years, United Other 
King- United Coun- King- 1:Tnited Coun- 
dome States. tries, dom, States. tries. 
- -- .--- - 
No. No. No, No. No. No. No, No. 
1897 1. . ,. , . . . . . , . . l1,3R3 2,412 7,921 21,716 1910........... 59,790 103,798 45,206 208,794 
1898 1, , . . . . . . . . , . . 11,173 9,119 11, 60S 31,900 1911.....,.,.. . 123,013 121,451 66,620 311,084 
1899 1. , , . . , . , . , . , . 10, 660 11,945 21,938 44,543 1912.,.,.,..... 138,121 133,710 82,406 354.237 
1900 2 ......".... . 5,141 8,543 10,211 23,895 1913..... ...... 150,542 139,009 112,881 402,432 
1901.,...."...,. . 11,810 17,987 19,352 49,149 HH4........... 142,622 107,530 134,726 384,878 
1902.,....,..,... . 17,259 26,388 23,732 67,379 1915.. ... ...... 43,276 59,779 41,734 144,789 
1903..,....,.,.,. . 41,792 49,473 37,099 128,364 1916."....... . 8,664 36,937 2,936 48.537 
1904. .. ____ 50,374 45,171 34, 786 130,331 1917. . . .. , .. .. . 8,282 61,389 5,703 75,374 
1905............. . 65,359 43,543 37,364 146,266 1918.......... . 3,178 71,314 4,582 79,074 
1906. . . . . . . , . .. . , . 86,796 57,796 44,472 189,064 1919. . . . ... . 9,914 40,715 7,073 57,702 
1907 I. . , . .. . . , . . .. 55,791 34,659 34,217 124,667 1920. . . . . .. . . . . 59,603 49,656 8,077 117,336 
1908. . , . , . . . . . . , . . 120,182 58,312 83,975 262,469 1921.,..."... . 74,262 48,059 26,156 148,477 
1909.".."...... . 52,901 59,832 34,175 146,908 1922. . . . . .. . . .. 39,020 29,345 21,634 89,999 
I Calendar year. 2 Si'{ months, January to June, inclusive. 1 Nine months ended March 31. 



111.11 /GR. t T/O.Y 


127 


21.- \rrhal
 at Inland and Ocean J'ort.s In {'anada In )o'is('al Years 1915-1922. 



 ntionalitics, 


1915, 


191ft 


1917. 


1918, 


1919, 


. 


l!:120, 


H}
1. 


1922. 


British- 
.Endish..,...... .. .. '.... .. .... 30,807 5,857 5,174 2,477 7,954 45,173 47.687 23,225 
Irish....,......... 3,525 "'ìlH ttj!\ 174 336 2,751 6,384 3.572 

cot('h.. ... " ........,... 8,346 1,8
7 2,062 473 1,51S 10,997 19,248 11,59b 
Webh...............,......... 
I






 
TofaIBrltL...h......,......,....... 43,
.' 8..J 8,m 3,t7ts ',,1-1 59,.03 74,m 39,020 


African. South,.".. , , . . ..., , , " " . 
Arabian. .. . . , , . . , .. , . . ... . .' . 
Arm('nian. , . . . . . .. , , , . . . , , . , , . . . . , . 
Au8tralian........., .,..." '" 
Au8tro-Hun
ri'\n- 
Austrian, X .E.S.. , . , , . . . , , . , .. } 
ßohem ian. . .. . .' . 
Hung1U'ia.n. N .E,:::>.....,...".. 
B('lsÜan. . , . . " . , . . , , . . . . . , . , , . . . , . . 
Bermudian.. .,. .,..'., ... ..,.. 
Brazilian. .""..,...".",.,..,.. 
Bulgarian _ . . , , . 
Chinese. . . . . , , . . . , . . , , . . , , , . , , . . . . 
Cuban.. . .'" . . . . , . ,. . .., ,. , . , " ., . 
('z<,<,ho-Slovak.. . .. .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . 
Dutch....,.. . , , . , . . . . . . . , , , , . . , , . , 
EJ(}ptian." , 
Finnish.,..". '" .. . , . " " , . , , . . '. . 
French. . . . , , . . , . , . . . . . , . . . 
German .,..".."..,...,......... 
Grt"t'k. ". 
I1ebrev. - 
Hebrev., X .E,S,....., ..,. 
, .\ustrian...., .. .... . . 
Polish.." ,., .. . , . 
n.ussÌan. . . , . . . , , , . , 
II indoo .. . .. . ... ..........,., 
I tal ian . . , . . , , . , . . . , . . . , . . 
J amaica.n. . . . . .. .,.....'. ,.,.,.., 
JapanN'le......., . . , . , , , , . .... . . 
JuJ(o-Slav..,...,. . . . . . .. . , , . .. .,.. 
Luxem burg. .... ......... . 

Ia("edonian... ....,.,.,.....,."". 

f:\ltese........ ......,......,... 
Xegro...... .... ........,...,... 
!'\ ewfoundland. , , . . . . . , . , .. '...,., 

 ew 7.ealand.. ........... . 
Persian. , . . . . . . . , . . . , . . , , . , , , . . , , , . 
Polish- 
Polish, N .E.R.... .. . .. ... .. .. . 
" Au..trian..., " . . .... " . 
Ru
ian. . . . , . . . . . . . . , , . 
PortuJ(uese. . .. ., . , .. , , ,. ,. '" . ,. . . 
Iwuma.nian. . . . . . .. .....". 
Russian- 
Russian, N'.F .S... . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Scandina\'ian- 
Danish. . .. . . , . . , . . , . . . . , , , . , . . 
Icelandic... . . .. . .. . ... ,..,.., 
N orwell,ia.n. . . , . . , . . , . . . . , . , . , . 
Swedish. . , ,. '.... , . . , . . . , . . 
Serbian,......,. . , . , , . , , , , . , . . . . , . . 

pa'1ish. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . . 
Swi,>s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Turkish. cfe.- 
Turkish, N.E.S... 
ekr

b

",' ......:: . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :: : 
u S. -\. Ci tizens, via ocean ports.... 
\Vest Indian.. . . ........ ....... ... . 
Other nationalities.......,. . 


7.150 
1,149 
4 


4,04
, 
1,258 
1 
605 
459 
1.206 
2.472 
1,147 


2Gh 
160 
f) 
2.6
41 
6. 22ð l 
2!) 
59:! 


132 
19 
202 
338 
21 
7 
153 
1.272 
544 
8 
361 
5,201 
326 
145 
7Sð 
916 
220 
755 
200 


23 
36 
51 


33 
79 


41 
356 
44 


11 


32 


15 
172 
2 
1 
8S 
1 
ISO 
119 
ISO 
2; 
145 
18 
1 
46 
1 
3ts8 
9 
401 


4 
34 
255 
18 
3 


109 
98 
1,243 
12 


3 
18 


126 
16 


393 
3 
151 


249 
199 
P 
258 


28 


108 
75f; 
6 
f,4
 


144 
35 
1,199 
13 
2 


1 
8 
3 
1 
4 
25 
145 
9 
303 
332 
1 
76 
3û 
5 
9 
20 
293 
1 


4 
2 
34 


10 
10 


769 
I 
94 
113 
114 
I 
45 


4,333 


35 


2 
48 
1 


{ 
1,532 
1 


23 
10 
88 


63 32 
8 5 
85 70 
90 76 
26 14 
234M 
1,645 503 
8 2 
4 27 
2,435 1,746 
3()
 1 ')2 
5!)5 183 
9 2 
1,401 274 
861 332 
137 178 
357 209 
920 2,336 
1 1 
1,600 5,216 
242 851 
10 13 
3,880 2,413 
18 13 
532 471 
89 180 
16 5 
140 34 
144 42 
1,042 367 
40 25 
1 9 
3, 99<> 1 . ! 
2,707 
65 
4 
96Q 759 
1,077 321 
511 541 
50 31 
42!) 480 
715 442 
202 6 
235 187 
8 3 
443 123 
4!H 89 
110 67 
lIC 24 
11 25 


7 


40 


167 
15 
232 
177 
6 
11 
42 


3 
15 
38 
1 


2 


30 
189 
24 
883 


7 
49 
2 
1,178 


59 
2 
222 
1 
4 
15 


1 
544 
2 
1 
154 
44 
1,584 
12 
39 
32 
31} 
48 


5 
3 


69 
7 
3 
21 
51 
23.1 
11 
179 
241 
12 
15 
100 
1 
I
 
55 
62 
5 


Total ('ontln('ntal, etc... no...... 41,73-1 
,':n 5,70J 1,582 7,073 8,07'4 
6 ,1-)6, 21,63,1 
From the U.S.A............ .... á9'779 1 36'93' I I1'3
9 71,3U 40,715' 49,"';}6 1 
,059 29,3,15 
---1--1-- 1 - 
Totallmmlgratloll.............,.. U.,.S9 48,5371 7ã,37", 79,07-1 57,7821117,33& 14.8,477 8',199 
X .E.S.-Not elsewhere specified, 


42 


74 
3 
235 
156 
28 
12 


2 
2R 
273 
1 


2 
22 
512 
15 
2 
3 


1, 1 f.5 
3 
711 
16 
405 
61 
443 
31 


42 
44 
12 
91 
101 
1 
12 
11 


21 
220 
1 



128 


AREA Al'tD POPULATION 


22.-Rejections of Immigrants upon arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 
admission, by principal causes, 1903-1921. 
Number Rejected at Ocean Ports. 
Principal Causes. 
1903- 
1911. 1912, 1913. 1914, 1915. 1916, 1917, 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921, Total. 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Accompanying patients. 353 53 28 76 58 4 8 1 9 13 603 
Alien enemies...... . , .. . 4 4 
Bad character. . . . . . , . . . 562 112 80 102 56 17 4 11 2 1 9 956 
Contract labour.,.... . . . 84 3 4 1 92 
Criminali ty . ... , , . . , . , , . 56 5 4 3 2 4 1 1 3 14 93 
Head tax....,.",. "". 6 6 
Lack of funds,.... . .. . . , 1,225 246 204 994 452 38 55 19 10 28 255 3,526 
Likely to become a pub- 
lic charge.. , . . , .. , . . . . 1,548 164 56 76 71 55 55 19 27 125 236 2,432 

Iedical causes.,.., , , . . . 3,578 256 328 398 319 34 30 12 19 21 99 5,094 
Not complying with 
regulations. . . . . , . , , . . . 121 119 55 178 40 11 22 8 7 474 291 1,326 
Previously rejected. . . . , 1 8 1 10 
Unskilled labour, B.C.. 32 32 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
Totals. , . .. , . . , . . , , . 7,528 912 756 1,8
7 998 163 174 71 70 662 953 14,174 
Principal Causes, Number Deported after Admission, 


P 


ccompanying patients. 112 17 16 10 34 5 9 39 10 18 37 307 
ad character...,...". 221 120 165 159 128 68 60 84 35 22 52 1,114 
riminality.....,. . . , .. . 507 242 334 376 404 329 277 274 236 334 586 3,899 

Iedical causes",... .... 1,697 229 370 570 379 206 98 39 70 123 133 3,914 
K ot complying wi th 
regulations..,..." .,. . 12 8 4 4 - - - - - - - 28 
ublic charges,..... .. .. 2,118 343 392 715 789 635 161 91 103 158 236 5,741 
Totals.. ......,.,.. .1 4,681 9.>9 -- --- 
1,281 1,8.'14 1 ,73-1 1 ,243 fi05 527 454 655 1,044 15,003 


A 
B 
C 


23.-Nunlber by Nationalities of Inlmigrants Deport...d aft...r AdnlÏssion, 1903-1921. 


Nationalities. 


Deported after Admission, 


Hì03- 
1911, 1912. 1913, 1914, 1915. 1916, 1917, 1918. 1919. 1920, 1921. Total. 


Bri tish.. . .. . . . . . .. ... 3,259 540 559 952 877 602 186 36 99 184 295 7.589 
American. , . , . . , , , . , . , . . 433 256 377 405 461 437 324 407 279 392 616 4,387 
Other countries.". "... 

 I 

 
 


 2 
 
 3.027 
Totals...,.., , . '. " 'I 4,667 959 1,281 1,834 1,734 1,243 605 527 454 655 1,04415,003 


2!.-.Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Services, 1901-1921. 


Fiscal luvenile Applications Fiscal Juvenile 
Year. immigrants. for their Year. immigrants. 
services. 
No, No, No. 
1901",. . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . 977 5,783 1912... ....... ....... 2,689 
1902... 1,540 8,587 19U... .,. ...o.. . 2,642 
1903, . .. . . . . . . . , , . : : : : : 1,979 14,219 1914.............." . 2,318 
1904..,.........",... . 2,212 16,573 1915. . .......... . 1,899 
1905."...........".. . 2,814 17,833 1\)16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 821 
1906.".,.,.....,...., . 3,258 19,374 1917.......... ...... 251 
1907 1" , , , . , , , . , , . , . , , . 1,455 15,800 1918. . . . .. - 
1908.,........."",.. . 2,375 17,239 1919.,.,.. ........... - 
1909 . .. . ............. .. 2,424 15,417 1920. , ...... . 155 
1910. .. 2,422 18,477 1921"".,.,.",.", . 1,426 
1911",.,.....:::::::: : 2,524 21,768 
Total. . , , . , , , . , , . 36,181 


Applications 
for their 
services, 


No, 
31 ,040 
33,493 
32,417 
30. 854 
31,725 
28,990 
17,916 
11,718 
10.235 
19,841 
4.19 ,299 


NOTE,-The above are included in the total number of immigrants recorded el'3ewhere, 
J
ine months. 



I JL\l IGR t T /ú.Y 


129 


25.-0rcupatlon and Destination ofTotallmmI
ant -.Urhals In Canada for the }'Iscal 
'Y('ars I!Þ'!O and I!Þ21. 


1020. 1921. 
Description. Via From the Via From the 
Ocean rnited Totals. Occ.m rnited Totals. 
Ports. States. Ports, States, 
Farmers and farm labourcr&- 

I cn. , , , . . . . . . , . , , , . , . . . , . . . . . , . . , , , 5,037 13,561 IS, 598 15,604 11,122 26,726 
\\ omen. .. . , , . . . . . . . . . , , , . . , . . . . . , . . 2,:?f\7 3,932 6,199 4,O
á 2,980 7,065 
Children, . . .. .. , . . . . , . . . . . , , . , . , , , . , 1,542 4,943 6,4
 4,027 3,645 7,672 
Gcnera.llnbourcre- 
\\ en. , . , . . . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . , , 1,897 2,bð6 4,583 6,736 5,34j 12.081 
\\ omen. . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . . . . . , . , 958 646 1,604 1,920 1,1ß6 3,086 
Children. , , . , . , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . , 559 626 1,185 1,206 908 2,114 
'frehnnics- 

ICD. . , , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . , 2,655 6,136 8,791 9.217 6,231: 15,451 
\Vomen. .. , . . . , , , . . . , . . . . , , , . , . , , . , . 1,514 1.844 3.358 4,171 1,244 5,415 
Children. , , . . . . , . , . , , , . . , , . , . , . . . , . . 940 1,551 2,491 2,297 1,135 3,432 
Clerks. traders, ete,- 

{eD..., , ... ....... ... ...... ...... 947 I,O
i I,OSI 3,916 I, 917 5,833 
\\" omen. . . , . , . . , . , , . . . . , . , , , , . . . , . . , 890 519 1 , 40
} 1,973 820 2,793 
Children, , .. , " , , , . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . , . , 186 229 415 513 375 888 
!\fincr:.- , 

leD.. . . . ...... ...... .. .. .. .. . . .. . . 331 343 674 1,5!)1 427 2,018 
\\ omen. . . , . . . . . , . . , , . . . . , . , . , . . , . . , 120 50 170 303 58 361 
Children, , . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . . . 118 41 159 348 59 407 
Domestics- 
"omen... . . ........... ....... 4,9.ò 1,0;6 6,054 9,432 1,010 10,442 
Xot cla.ssifieJ- 
'I('n,. . . , , , , , . . , . . , , , .. . . , . , . . . , . '. , 3,311 2,934 6,24.) 5,9P3 2,716 8,699 
\\. omen. , . . . , , , . . . , . , . . . , , . . , . . , . . . . 20.928 4,284 31,212 16,191 4,024 20.215 
Children. . . . . .. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . 12,502 3,221 15,723 10,005 2,874 13,779 
Totals- 
'I cn., . , , . . , , , . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . , . . . . . 14,178 2ò,694 40,872 43,047 27,7lJl 70, bOS 
\\ onlen. . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , . . , . . . , , , . . . . 37. ß55 12.351 50,006 3S,075 11 , 302 49,377 
Children. . . . . , , . . . . , . , . . , , . , . , , , . . . , 15,847 10,611 26,4,)8 19,296 8,996 28,292 
Totals. , .. , . . . . - . . . , . . . . . . , . , . . , tiì,&hO t9,6.31 117,336 100,418 48 ,0.')9 US ,477 
Destination- 
)[aritime Provinces...,......., " '" 3,169 2,3&5 5,554 4,132 2,2
1 6,353 
Quebec.. , . , , , , , . , . . , . , . . . . , , , , , , , , . 7,273 5,805 13,078 14,019 7,Oðl 21,100 
Un tario . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 27,405 11 ,939 39,.'-14 49,103 13,41)9 62,572 
'[ani toba, . . . . . . , , , . . , . , . , , . . . , . . . . , 6.899 4 , -188 l1,3S7 8,2b9 4,3 ' ,0 12,lA
. 
Saskatchewnn.......,., ... ... " . 6,26-1 8,023 14.287 7.335 6,0:>7 13,392 
Alberta. ..... _ . . , , . . . , . . . . , . . , . . 6,71; 13,283 20,000 7.097 10,6M 1i,iSI 
British Columbia.....,..",.,...." 9,945 3,601 13,546 10,439 4,078 14,517 
Yukon, " , . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . , , , , 8 132 140 4 109 113 


26.-D('stination of Immigrants into Canada, by Prmin('('s, 1901-1921. 


British 
Ma.ri- Sa.sk- Colum- 
Fiscal Year. time Quebec. Ontario, )Iani- atche- Alberta, biaand Not Totals. 
Pro v . toba. wan, Yukon shown, 
Terr'y, 
- - - - - - - - 
No. No. Xo. Xo. Xo, No. Ko. Ko. Ko, 
190 1. _ , , . , , . _ , . . , . . . , . . . , , 2,144 10,216 6,208 11,254 14,160 2,600 2,5ß7 49,149 
1902. , , . . ., ,. '... , ,..'. " , 2,312 8,817 9,798 17,422 22,199 3,483 3,341., 67,379 
1903... . ................. 5,821 17,040 14,854 39,535 43,89S 5,378 1,838 128,364 
1904. , , , . , , , . . . . , . . . , , , . . . 5,448 20, 222 21,266 34.911 40,397 6,994 1,093 130,331 
1905. , , , . .,.. . ..... ....... 4,128 23,666 35.811 35,387 39.289 6,008 1, {in 146,266 
1906. . . . . . , . . .. .. ,. . . . . , . , 6,381 25,212 52,746 35,648 28, 728 1 26, 177 12,40tJ 1,766 189,064 
1907 (9 mos.)....,........, 6,510 18,319 32,654 20,273 15,307 17,559 13,650 395 124,667 


38131-9 



130 


AREA AND POPULATIOf..... 


26.-Destinatlon of Immigrants into Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1921-concluded, 


Bri tish 
Mari- Sask- Colum- 
Fiscal Year. time Quebec, Ontario. Mani- atche- Alberta, bia and Not Totals. 
Prov. tobs. wan, Yukon shown. 
Terr'y, 
- - - - - - - 
1 No. No, No. No. No, No. No. No. No. 
1 1908 . . , . . , . . . . , , , . . . . . . .. . 10,360 44,157 75,133 39,789 30,590 31,477 30,768 195 262,46 
1 909 , . . , . . , , . . . , . . . . , , , , . , 6,517 19,733 29,265 19,702 22,146 27,651 21,862 32 146,90 
int : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10,644 28,524 46,129 21,049 29,218 42,509 30,721 - 208,79 
13,236 42,914 80,035 34,653 40,763 44,782 54,701 - 311,084 
15,973 50,602 100,227 43,477 46,158 45,957 51 , 843 - 354,237 
1913. .. ,. , ,., , , . , ,. , . , , ,. , 19,806 64,835 122,798 43,813 45,147 48,073 57,960 - 402,432 
lÖ 
t : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 16,730 80,368 123,792 41,640 40,999 43,741 37,608 - 384,878 
11,104 31,053 44,873 13,196 16,173 18,263 10,127 - 144,789 
916. . . ,. ,.. , " , ., , , , . , '. , 5,981 8,274 14,743 3,487 6,001 7,215 2,836 - 48,537 
917,."..".,.,..,...,.. . 5,710 10,930 26,078 5,247 9,874 12,418 5,117 - 75,37 
918. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . , , , . , 5,247 9,059 23,754 6,252 12,382 16,821 5,559 - 79,07 
919,..,..",.,.."."... . 3,860 6,772 13,826 4,862 8,552 11,640 8,190 - 57,702 
. 920..""...,.,."".",. 5,554 13,078 39,344 11 , 387 14,287 20,000 13,686 - 117,33 
. 921.,.,.,."..,..."..... 6,353 21,100 62,572 12,649 13,392 17,781 14,630 - 148,477 
- - - - - - 
Totals. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 169,819 5ã4,S91 915,906 49,'),683 911,724 396,127 13 ,211 3,577 ,311 


9 
8 
4 


4 
4 
ß. 


27.-Record of Chinese Immigration, 1886-1921. 


Fiscal Year 


1886-91.,.,. . . . . " . , . , . , . , , . . 
1892,."...........,.,....., . 
1893. .,.......,.,.....,...... 
1894...........,.......,.... . 
1895..".,.", '.'.,.',....." 
1896. ..,..........,..."...., 
1897,.".,.......,...,...... . 
1898.,.. , . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . , . . . . 
1899" ,..""..,.,..,.."",. 
1900. ."...,.,. ,.",."."" 
1901..,.".",.".",.",." , 
1902......".,.,.,.,.,.,.,., . 
1903. . , . . . , . , . . . , . . . . . , . , . , . , 
1904".,...,..,....""",.. , 
1905.... , .. " .......,.."... 
1906..,.,.....,."",.."", . 
1907 1 .,...,. . . . . . . . . . , . , . , . . . 
1908.... . , , . . . , . , . . . , . , . , . , . , 
1909.. " , , . , , , , , . , . , . . . . . , . . . 
1910..., , . . . , . , . , , , , . , , . . . , , , 
1911. . '. . . . , , . . , , , . , . , , , , , , . , 
1912..., , . , . . , . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . 
1913,." , , , , , , , , , , ,.. , '. . ,. . . 
1914..., . , , , . , , , , , , , , . . , . . , , , 
1915.,.. . . , , . , , . . . . , , . , , . . , . , 
1916, , .. , , , , . , . . , . . , , , . , , . . . , 
1917. , .. . . . , , . , , . . , . . , . , . . . . . 
1918.... . ,..., ,. " ,., . ,...... 
1919., . . , . , . . , . . . , . , , . , , , , , . , 
1920, . . . . . , . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
1921.." . . , , . . , . . , , , , , . . , . , . , 
Totals. . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . , 


Percentage of 
total arrivals Registm- 
Paying Exempt admitted tion for Total 
tax, from tax, exempt leave, Revenue. 
from tax, 
No. No, p.C. No. S 
.................................. .. 4.590 222 4,61 7,041 239,664 
................................ .. 3,276 6 0,18 2,168 166,503 
.......... .. .................... .. 2,244 14 0.62 1,277 113,491 
.................................. .. 2,087 22 1.04 666 105,021 
., , ................... .. 1,440 22 1.50 473 72,475 
.................................. .. 1,762 24 1,34 697 88,800 
.................................. .. 2,447 24 0,97 768 123,119 
.................................. ... 2,175 17 0,78 802 109,754 
.................................. .. 4,385 17 0.39 859 220,310 
....... .. .............. .. 4,231 26 0,61 1,102 215,102 
.................................. .. 2,518 26 1'02 1,204 178,704 
................................. .. 3,525 62 1.73 1,922 364,972 
........................ . 5,245 84 1,58 2,044 526,744 
................. . 4,719 128 2,64 1,920 474,420 
,. . ............. - 8 69 89.61 2,080 6,080 
................. . 22 14G 86'90 2,421 13,521 
................. . 91 200 68.73 2,594 48,094 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,482 752 33.67 3,535 746,535 
................. . 1,411 695 33'00 3,731 713,131 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,614 688 29'89 4,002 813,003 
................. . 4,515 805 15,13 3,956 2,262,056 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,083 498 7,57 4,322 3,049,722 
................. . 7,078 367 4,93 3,742 3,549,242 
................. . 5,274 238 4,32 3,450 2,644,593 
................. . 1,155 103 8,19 4,373 588, 124 
................. . 20 69 77,53 4.064 19,389 
................. . 272 121 30.78 3,312 140,487 
................. . 650 119 15.47 2,907 336,257 
................. . 4,066 267 6.16 3,244 2,069,669 
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 363 181 33.27 5,529 538,479 
................. . 885 1,550 63.66 6,807 474,332 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79,633 7,562 8,81 87 ,012 21,011,793 


1 Nine months. 



IJIJfIGR.1TIUS' 


131 


.S.- R('('ord of Orlt'ntal Imml.rratlon. 1901-1922. 


Fiscal Chi- Ispan- Hin. Fist's} Chi- Jnpnn- Hin- 
Year. Dcaa. ese. dooø, Total. Year. ncae, ese, dOOR. Total. 
- - - 
No. Ko. Ko, Ko. 1\0. Ko. Ko. No. 
1901, . . . . . . .. . . .. . 2,544 6 - 2,550 1912,.,..., , . , 6,581 765 3 7,34 
1902. . . , , . . . . . , . . . 3,587 - - 3,587 1913, . . . . . . . . . , 7,445 724 5 8,17 
1903. . ............ 5,32{) - - 5,329 1914. , .. . . .. '" 5,512 b.56 88 6.45 
1904.., ....... ,... 4,847 - - 4,841 1915,.,.....,.. 1,258 5{)2 - 1,85 
1905, . . . , . , , . . . . . . 77 354 45 476 1916........,. , 89 401 1 491 
1906. .... ..' ...,.. 168 1,922 387 2,477 1911, . . . , . , . . . , 393 648 - 1,041 
1907 1, , . , . . . . . . , . . 291 2,042 2,12-1 4,457 1918.,...."" . 769 583 - 1,65 
1008,......... .... 2,234 7,601 2,6
3 12,4j
 1{)19..... ....,. 4,333 1,178 - 5,511 
1909". ,......,.. 2,106 495 6 2,607 1920. . . . . . . . . . , 544 711 - 1,25 
1910.......... ,... 2,302 271 10 2,583 1921, . . . .. . . " . 2, 35 632 10 2,97 
1911..... . ....... 5,320 437 5 5,762 1922, . . . . . , . , . . 1,746 471 13 2,23 
- - - 
Total ...... 5','10 '0 
tt9 i,J
O ba,II' 


9 
4 
6 
o 


2 


5 
7 
o 


9.-fupendlturc on ImmlgJ' atlon In the }'lscallears 1
6"-19
1. 
(Compiled from the Public Accounts.) 


'\ ear. I '\ ear. I Year. I Year. I 
Ihôò..,.,...... . 36,050 l
b2.. . . . . . . . . . 215,339 ISc;)6....... .. 120,199 1910,. . , . . 960,676 
1869,.,..., . . , , , 26,952 1883. ,.. ....... 373,958 1897. . . . . , , . . 127,438 1911..,..... , 1,079,130 
1870, . . , . " . , . , , 55,966 1884, . , , , . . . . . , 511,209 1898.... ..... 261.195 1912,...... .. 1,365,000 
1871.,........ ,. 54,004 1885. . . . . . . . . . . 423,861 1599. , . . . , , . , 255,879 1913,....... . 1,427,112 
1872"""",.. , 109,954 1886,...,.,.... 257,355 1900....,.... 434,563 1914.. . .. . . . , 1,893,298 
1873, . , .... . . . . . 265,718 1887, . . . , . . . , . . 341,236 1901. . .. .. . . . 444,730 1915........, 1,658,182 
1874 . . , . . .. . . . . , 291,297 1888. , , , . , . . , . . 244, 789 1902.,....... 494,842 1916, .. . . .. .. 1,307,480 
1875. ,....,..,.. 278,777 1889. , , , , . . . . . . 202,499 1903,. , , .. . .. 642,914 1917. , , . . . , . . 1,181,991 
1876,........., . 338,179 1890. . . , . . . . . . . 110,092 1004.. , . . . . . . 744,788 1918,. . , . ... . 1,211,9&: 
1877. , , .. ,. . . . . . 309,353 1891. . . . . . . . , . . 181,045 1905........ . 972,357 1919.".",. , 1,112,079 
1878....... . . ... 154,351 1892. . . , , . . . . . . 177,605 1906......... 842,668 1920. , . . .. . .. 1,388,185 
1879. . , .. " . . . . , 186,403 1893, , . , . , . , , . . 180,677 1907 1.... .. . . 611,201 1921. , . . . , , . . 1,688,961 
1880 , . . . . .. , . . . . 161,213 1894. . , . . . . . . . , 202,235 1908.,.... . , , 1,074,697 Total . . . . . 30,380,866 
1881,.".... . . .. 214,251 1895. . . , , . , , , . . 195,653 1909...... . . 979,326 


Kine months. 


38131-9! 



132 


EDUCATION 


VI.-EDUCATION. 


GENERAL FEATURES OF CANADIAN EDUCATION SYSTEl\IS. 


Under the British North America Act, 1867, the right to legislate 
on lllatters respecting education was reserved exclusively to the pro- 
vincial legislatures, subject to the maintenance of the rights and 
privileges of the denominational and separate schools as existing at 
the tilne of union or admission of provinces. In Ontario, Roman 
Catholics, Protestants and coloured people have each the right to 
establish "Separate Schools" for elementary education, the local rates 
for the support of these schools being separately levied and applied. 
In Quebec, the religious minority in any municipality, whether ROinan 
Catholic or rrotestant (the Je\vs being "Protestants" for all the 
purposes of the School La\v), may dissent and maintain its own 
elementary and model schools and academies or high schools, the 
taxation of the nlinority being separate fronl that of the majority 
for the three elasses of school, except that in the case of the assess- 
ment of corporations, the taxes are levied by the majority and 
divided bet\yeen the nlajority and n1Înority in proportion to the 
number of children of school age. In Saskatehe\yan and Alberta a 
separate school lnay be established by the n1Înority, \vhether Pro- 
testant or Roman Catholic, subject, however, to identical regulations 
as to courses, certificates, inspection, etc. In the remaining pro- 
vinces th
re are special provisions for the education of Roman 
Catholics in the larger cities and towns. 
In all the provinces the cost of education is defrayed from the 
public revenues, provincial and local, and public elementary educa- 
tion is free to parents or guardians, except for certain small fees which 
are payable in parts of the province of Quebec. 'Vhat is understood 
in most provinces as secondary education, that is, \vork of high 
school grade, is also either free or subject to fees so small as to be 
seldoln or never prohibitive. 'Vith the exception of Quebec all the 
provinces have la\vs providing for cOlnpulsory education, but under 
conditions that differ as bet\veen one province and another. As a 
rule, the provincial la\vs provide for unifonnity in the training of 
teachers, the use of text books and the grading of pupils. Second- 
ary schools or departments under government control and colleges 
or universities for higher education, exist in all the provinces, and the 
three classes of teaching institution are more or less co-ordinated. 
to allow of natural transition from the lower to the higher. Arrange- 
ment.s for the superannuation of teachers are applied in most of the 
prOVInces. 
l{ecent nlovements in the direction of nature study, manual 
instruction, school gardens, agriculture, domestic science and tech- 
nieal education are all energetically in progress. 



llIGIIER BDUC 4. TIO..V I,V C.1N lV.l 


133 


DIGU}
1t Enrl'.\TION 1:\ L.\X.\n.\. 
lIi
]ll
r edlu'.l tiOll in Canada is proviJC'd for Ly :t llUlULf'r ùf 
univer::;itics and ('()IlC'p:(
:-:. Of the univcrsities, 1'orollto, l\.Jc.Gili 
(l\Iontreal), and the UlliYC'r
ity of 
rontrcal, are the largest. rrhe 
olde
t university in Canada, viz., ]
ing'8 College, 'Yinclsor. Xova 
Bcotia, date
 frolH 17õ9, and cl:1.inls to be abo the olde
t univC'r
ity 
in I-lis l\Iajesty's Over
cas Don1ÏniOlls. Sevcral of the universities 
are affiliated to the ol<.1C'r uni \'er::,ities of thC' llH)ther country, vÌz., 
Oxford, ("alllhridg{> and] )uhlin, whilst 
onle of thp 
lllall('r Canaclian 
univprsitic"-, a
 ,veIl as nlo
t of the coll(\p:cs, in Ontario alHI (
lleh('c 
arC' affili:1ted to either rroronto or ::\IcGill. In thC' "\>:4, provin('ial 
uBivrr;..:itie
 haY(\ b('C'n cstahlished for ::\lanitoba at "innipcg (lh77), 
Saskat('hcwan at 
a
katoon (lU07), Alberta at Ec.hnontoll l]90H) 
and ßriti
h Coltullhia. at Yallrouvpr (1907), ,,:hilC' in the East, 'roronto 
(1827) and Kew Brunswick (1800) are provincial llniversitip
. 

onH" of thp univC'rsitics and colleg ;:; are uIHh'r the l'ontrol of 
reli!!;iou
 dcnoInination
, a
 folIo\\ :=;:- 
... \nc:lic:tn or Chureh of En!!.lancl in C aua(Ia :-l
inJ!
' College, 
\Yin(bor, N .
.: e niycrsity of Bishop'::; Colle1-!,c, LCllllOX' ille, (luC'hcc; 
l"lliy('rsity of 'rrinity Collpgt
, 1'oronto; \Yyclitïe Collev,e, 'roronto; 
and Ennnanuel ('oll('
p, 
a
katoon. 
HOlnan Catholic C'hurch:-f't. J)un
tall'
 1.nív('r
i1y, Char10tt >- 
town, P.E.I.; TTniver..:ity of Ht. Franei:5 :\.ayil'r, \ IltiJ!.oni
ht X .H,; 
lTniv{'rsity of 
t. J():,pph'
 Collp.!!p, 
t. Jo
eph, X.B.: Laval Univer- 
sity, Quebcr; lJ niver
ity of ,:\fontreaJ, 
Iontr{'al; U nivpr;o;ity of 
Ottawa, Otht\ya; Rt. ::\liehael's College, 'roronto. 
Other ])elloll1Înatiolls:- J\:nox CollC'
e, rroronto (Prpshytc.'rian); 
::\1ount Alli
on Cniversity, 
a('kyillp, X.B., \Ïrtoria Vnivprsity, 
Toronto. and ,\ C'sley Collp
e, 'Yinnipeg (::\I('tho(li:-;t); ..\.('adia Uni- 
Yer
ity, '\
olfyille. X.
., :\lc
Iaster (jniyersity, rroronto, and Brandon 
Collrg,e, Brandon, ::\Ianitoh:l (Bapti:4). 


'
I)rr \TIOX ST.\TI
TI('S 0.... C.\X.\UA. 
Statistics of Public Schools.-In the l'ahh'
 llunt1){'red 1 to 11 
an attelnpt is nUHIe to bring tOAether by provincps (1) the lluluher 
of publicly controlled 
chools, teaeher
 and pupils, \vith the avprage 
attendance of the pupiJs; (2) the nUluber of trHeher:; and pupils in 
Bonnal schools for the training of teachers; (3) statistics of secondary 
:-;ehool
 
o far as they are 
cparately gÏ\-pn; (4) the stati:,tir..; of 
vocational schoob under public control; (5) the aUlount of re('('ipts 
and expend
ture for public education under thp school la,," of each 
province and (6) the average annual salaries o' teachers by provinces. 
In Tables 1 and 2 the nUlnLer of :srhoob, teachers and pupil:-3 in 
all the provinces includes both eklHentary and foìecondary 
choo}s or 
grades; in Nova 
cotia, X e\\" Drulls,vick and Saskatche\van the ternl 
"school" ha
 <1. technical :::,ignificance, heing 
lpplied to a Ch15
 ,yith 
one t
acher, irre
pective of the nUIUDC: of da
:,es in a sehool huild- 
ing. The cla
sical colleges of Quehec are not incJudf'd in 1'able 2 



134 


EDUCATION 


but are g
ven later in Table 4. In l\lanitoba the sex of the pupils 
is not separately dist nguished. Statistics of secondary schools are 
separately available for Ontar=o, British Columbia and Saskat- 
che,van. They are given in Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. The academies 
of Quebec take up hoth the elementary and secondary grades of 
school work, and are not all classed in the reports as secondary schools. 
Statistics of teachers in training in seven of the nine provinces are 
given for the years 1901-1921 in Table 3. 
Growth of Expenditure on Public Education.-Probably the 
most remarkable feature of these statistics is the extraordinary 

rowth during the present century of the expenditure upon public 
education. In 1901, the first year of the century, the total expendi- 
ture for the purposes of public education in Canada was $11,751,625; 
in 1921 or the latest year reported, as shown by Table 1, it was 
$102,561,425, an increase of $90,809,800, or 773 p.c. 
Statistics of Higher Education.-In Tables 12-20 are pre- 
sented statistical particulars relating to the universities and colleges 
of Canada, which are summarized from information furnished by 
each of the institutions mentioned. Tables 12 and 17 give the dates 
of foundation, the affiliation, the faculties and degrees; Tables 13, 
14 and 18, the number of teaching staff and students, and Tables 16 
and 19, statistics of property, income and expenditure. For the 
23 universities in Table 16 the total value of the endowments and 
property in land, buildings, equipment, etc., amounts to $59,282,456. 
For 22 of these universities the total income amounts to $6,737,816, 
of ,vhich $1,771,586 is derived from fees and the ba ance from invest- 
ments, government grants and other sources. The total expenditure 
of the 
ame universities amounts to $8,018,440. The total number 
of students attending the 23 universities of Canada in the academic 
year 1920-21, as shown by Table 16, was 35,342. Adding to these 
the 20,486 students attending co leges having students doing ,york 
of universlty grade in the same year, and excluding 12,749 duplicate
 
'who 2re registered at both the universities and colleges, the grand 
total of student::;; in attendance at Canadian institutions of higher 
'edu( ation was -13,079. 


TECH
ICAL EDUCATION IN CANADA. 
Technical Education in State Schools is a comparatively ne"
 
institution. Until recently, vocational training was undertaken after 
the completion of or at the expense of academic education. 
Among the fir:-;t technical courses to be introduced into schools 
were conllnercial courses. Courses designed to fit pupils for business 
careers were introduced into the high school curricula of Ontario 
and l\Ianitoba in 1899, of British Columbia in 1905, and Saskatchewan 
and Alberta about the same time, while the classical colleges of Quebec 
have long provided business courses and a school for higher com- 
Inercial studiés ,va
 founded at Montreal in 1907. 



HIGIIER EDUCATIOJ.V IJoV CA
YAD.tt 


135 


.\griculture ,vas at first taught in colleges, ,vhich provided 
trainill
 for teachers ,,'ho rarried the subject into the schools. Apart 
frolJI certain sehoo]s in Quebec Hnd industrial sl'hools having farIlls 
attached in other provinces, the 
tudy of agrif'ulture in elelnentary 
and sl'condary day schools ha
 hithprto been confiÎled to school 
gard('n:-: and lessons on the science of agriculture. 
Training in handicrafts 'V
l
 introduced into the 
chool in the 
fOrIll of m'lllual training for boy
 and donlP
tic seience for 
irls. The 
formpr ".as originally intended lllerely 3S a trainin
 in the u
e of tools, 
affordinh an agreen,ble diversion froln the ordinary school ,,"ark, and a 
means by \yhich the boy could 
ain SOUl(' id('a of his TIlcehanical 
capacities. _\. forIn of Iuanual training "'a
 introduced into Ontario 
schools in 1883, 
lnd in IS91 into Nova 
cotia, where it ,vas Blade 
COlllpulsory for teacher
 in training in 1RB3 and into the \vestprn 
provinces in the early years of this century. By 1915, Inanual train- 
inJ!: cours('
 in Ontario had hranched out into industrial, technical 
and art schools, and in that year a large Technical School" [is opened 
in Toronto. Evenin
 technical clas
es, which ,,,ere organiz0d in 
nearly all the provinces in the first years of the century, carried out a 
BchPIn(> of actual vocational CO\lr
e
. 
uch cour
('
 "ere for bonle 
time given by certain day schools in Quehec. rrhe idea of part tiJl1C 
day vocational courses is nc,v to Canaùa. The _\dolescent .Act pas'3ed 
in Ontario in l
n9, n1a1..l'
 part tiule 
Lttcn(lanre cOInpul
ory for 
adolescents from 1-1 to 1b years of 3!!;C who have not attained Inatricu- 
lation 
tanding or are not attending full tiIllP. By 1919, cOlnrnercial, 
a
ricultural and dOIIll'stic 
cienre eour:-;l':-\ "ere operating in all pro- 
vinces and other technical cour
l'
 in all hut Prince Edward Island. 
In 1919, the DOlllinion J>arlialllpnt pa:,:,ed an Act offpring assist- 
ance to the provinces in proßloting technical education anù a })irector 
of Technical Education \va
 appointed under the :\[inister of Labour. 
Thc provineial govprnnlpnt::; accpptpd thp offer and a teehnical 
education officer ha'3 been appointpd in all but t,vo provinces. rrhe 
benefits of the .\.ct are extended to person::; over 14 years ,,'ho are not 
provided for by the ordinary day school:-\; the a
reen1ent al::;o excludt'::) 
agriculturnl studjes, the training of nurses and teachers for ordinary 
schools and all ,,'ork of university grade. The expenditure in1920-21 
on technical education by local boards wa
 about ;':;2,Oß-!,5G3, by 
provincial govcrnlnents Sl,15
,051 and by the feùeral goVerIllllent 
$585,469. Details of teaching staff and enrohnent of students are 
given in Table 9 on page 147. This table dops not include all the 
pupib or 
tudentH in technif'al school.; or ('ourbCS in the different 
provinces, but only those of such ;::;chool
 fl." come under the _\ct. 
Statistics of agricultural education, to ,vhich the Dominion contributes 
under the \.gricultural Instruction Act, are given in the ,Agricultural 

ection (see " .Agricultural In
truction Act" in thc index). Statistics 
of Indian education are given in the ...\.dministration section (see 
"Indians, school attendance of," in index). 


. 



136 


EDUCATION 


NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING 


t.-Statistical Summary of Education in Canada, 


No, 


Type of Institution. 


1. Ordinary day schools under public control. , . , . . . . . , . . , . . . 
2. Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial and other Technical 
Schools, including short courses in universities and 
colleges and all evening schools ... . , , , , . . , , . . . . . . . , , , . . 
3. Normal schools for teacher-training. . ". . , . , , , .. . . , . . , .. . 
4. Indian schools. . . . .. ......,.,..,.....,.".,......,..,... 
5. Schools for. the blind and deafl. , , , , . . . , . , , . . . , , . . . , , , . . , 
6. Classical colleges. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . , . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . , . . .. . . 
7. Affiliated and professional colleges (including regular 
courses of agricultural and other technical college5). . , . , , . 
8. Universities {regular courses)".......,.......,.".....,. 
9, Business Colleges lprivate)........ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . " , . .. .. . 
10. Other private schools under college grade,....",......". 
Grand Total {exclusive of duplicates}.". " , . " , , .. , 
Population of 1921. , . , . , , , , . , . , . . . , . , . . . . . , , , , . . , , . , 


P.E.I. 


N,S. 


N,B. 


Quebec. 


17,510 


109,483 


73, 712 


453,512 


145 


1,755 
216 
264 


21,192 
1,376 
1,334 
579 
9.033 
5,381 
4,775 
5,147 
50,708 


3,399 
241 
246 
308 


42 


241 
241 


765 
1,468 
1,226 
2,072 
119,208 
523,837 


78,087 552,213 2 
387,876 2,361,199 


797 
811 
532 


260 
18,439 
88,615 


DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS IN ORDINARY DAY 


No. 


1, N urn ber of boys enrolled. . , , , , , . . , . , , , . , , , . . . . , , , , . . , . . . . 
2. N urn ber of girls enrolled..., . , .. , . .. . . .. .. , . .. . , .. .. .. . . , 
3. Total in elementary grades.. , . .. .. , . , . , , , , . , . , . . , . , . . . . . , 
4, Boys in elementary grade.:!. , . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . 
5. Girls in elementary grades..". . , , . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . 
6. Total in secondary grades., .,.., , . , . . . . . . . . . . , . , , , . . . , . , . 
7. Boys in secondary grades. , . - . , . , , , . , , , . , . , . , . . . . . , . , , . . . 
8. Girls in secondary grades.. . . . . . . . .. .. . . , . .. . . . . . , .. , . . , . 
9. N urn ber of pupils in graded schools. . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . , . 
10. Number of pupils in ungraded schools.."..,..,.."..,.., 
11. Number of pupils in rural schools.......,.,...,..."""., 
12, Number of pupiIs in village, town and city schools.......,.. 


P.E.I. N,S. N.B. Quebec. 
8,913 54,355 33,615 239,648 
8,597 55,128 34,477 256,239 
16,325 99,778 65,832 472,564 
-- 50,930 - - 
- 48,848 - - 
972 9,705 2,270 9,633 3 
- 3,425 - - 
- 6,280 - - 
- 69,020 34,350 - 
- 40,463 33,742 - 
- - - - 
- - - - 


ATTEXDAXCE OF PUPILS IN ELEMENTARY AND 


No P.E,!. N,S. N,B. Quebec, 
1. Aggregate number of days attended during the year. , , , . . - 14,658,404 9,335,052 - 
2, Average number attending each day.,.",............", 11,446 73,238 49,655 372,377 
3. Average num ber of days schools were open during year, . .. . - 192 188 - 
4, Average number of days pupils attended during year...... - 134 127 - 
5, Percentage of average attendance to total attendance.,.,. 65,36 66,88 67.35 75.09 
6. Percentage proportion of secondary to elementary grades. 5,95 9,93 3.45 - 


1 The blind and deaf of Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick are accommodated at the institu 
are accommodated at the Institution for the Blind in Brantford, Ont" by arrangement between 
Saskatchewan and Alberta are accommodated at the School for the Deaf in Winnipeg, Man. 
'l Excluding 761 students of university grade attending classical colleges, already included with 
3 These are exclusive of classical colleges, convents and other independent institutions, which are 
Roman Catholic primary schools and the 9th, 10th and 11th years of the Protestant schools. 



STATISTICAL SUM1.fARY 


137 


br IÞrO\lnce
, 1921, or tat'st ) ear rtl)orted. 


EDUCATIO
AL 11'\STITUTIO:-'S, 


. 
Ontario. 'fanitoba, Bask. Alberta, B,C. Yukon, Total for No. 
N.W.T.,ete, Canada. 
604,923 129,015 174.92,) 135,;.)() 85,950 - 1,784,180 1 
40.279 6,2
4 1.234 4.111 4.910 - 83.379 2 
2.221 642 723 694 - - 6,113 3 
3,5!IU 1,944 1,337 1,033 2,393 375 12.558 4 
416 164 - - 51 - 1,518 5 
- - - - - - 9,033 6 
4.441 1,435 62 8,1.0,3 298 - 13.506 7 
11.2:>1 1,353 {1M 1.106 962 - 22,917 8 
13,992 3.473 521 2.216 1,923 - 29.309 9 
6,970 911 3,3b6 2,274 USb - 68,101 10 
SSG. 3.'" H.., 111 1!\3.17
 1t",l
7 91, :'3.) 3;.) 2,0:10, 4,)0 
2, ':1;1, GI;
 b10,l1!'1 7,)1,510 ,)
" ;,.f 52-1,5!'\2 12.
 8,7t)
,4b3 


SCHOOLS UNDER PL""BLIC CO'TROL, 


I 
I 1: ukon, Total for 
Ontario. :\1 ani toba. Sask, Alberta. B.C. N. W. T. ,etc. Co.nada. No 
302.887 - 89,993 68,045 43,442 - 840.R!l8 
302.036 - 85.93l 67, 705 42,508 - b,=j2, ij2
 
55ð.804 12U,460 164.629 126,602 78,691 - l,i03,6b5 
285.362 - - - 40,349 - - 
279.610 - - - 38,34! - - 
46, 119 8,615 10.296 9,14
 7,259 - 104,017 
17,525 - - - 3,093 - - 
Z:.!,4:!t:i - - - 4,166 - - 
- 93,503 76,822 15,864 69,231 - - 
- 35,512 1t8. 103 59,8S6 16,719 - - 1 
226.444 - 98,103 59.&>6 39,041 - - 1 
37b,479 - 76,822 75, btH 46,909 - - 1 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
o 
1 
2 


SECONDARY SCHOOLS UNDER PUBLIC CO:-'TROL. 


Ontario. lIanitoba. Bask. Al berta. B.C. 1: ukon, 
N.W,T"ete, 
- 16,929,66<> 20,075.534 15,082,2.!)8 - - 
396,141 86, 137 106,997 82,417 68,498 - 
- 196,50 188 Ib3 - - 
- 142,19 115 111 - - 
65.4
 66,80 61,16 60.ï1 79,70 - 
8,25 7'15 6.25 7.23 9.22 - 
. 


Total for No. 
Canada. 
1 
1,241,264 2 
3 
4 
67.58 5 
6 


tions in Halifax, N .S., by arrangement "ith that pro' ince; the blind of the three prairie provinces 
the different prairie provinces and Ontario; by a similar arrangement with }Ianitoba, the deaf of 


item 7. 
the real secondary in'ititution:3 of Quebec. The 9,633 above are those in the 7th and 8th years of the 



138 


EDUCATION 


I.-Statistical Summary of Education in Canada by 


TEACHERS AND ACCOMMODATION IN SCHOOLS 


No P.E.I. N.S. N.B. 
1. Teachers in schools under public control........... . ........., . 591 3,089 2,142 
2. l\{ale teachers,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 103 203 155 
3. Female teachers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . , 488 2,886 1,987 
4. Number of school districts. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . 461 1,779 1,291 
5. Number of school houses.., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . , , , , . . 461 1,787 1,973 
6. Number of class-rooms in operation,.............,....."...., 590 2,898 1,984 
7. Number of graded class-rooms in operation..,.,..". , . ... ..... - 1,500 823 
8. Number of ungraded one-room schools..... . . . . . . . . , , , . , , , , . . . - 1,398 1,161 
9. Average number of pupils to a class-room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , 29.68 38.1 37.15 


EXPENDITURE IN SCHOOLS 


No P.E,!. N.S. N,B. Quebec. 
$ $ $ S 
1. Total expenditure on education...., . .. .. . . . . . , .. , .. . . . . , , 396,778 3,442,546 2,278,622 19,201,40 
2, Total expenditure on education by Governments...,.,. .. . 244,347 576,591 352,693 2,334,10 
3, Total expenditure on education by ratepayers, etc,..,... . . 152,431 2,865,955 1,925,929 16,867,291 
4. Expenditure on secondary schools.. ,.............. ... , . . . - - - - 
5. Expenditure on elementary schools,....... ......... . . , '.' - - - - 
6. Expenditure on teachers' salaries.,....... ,. ., ,...,....... . - - - - 
7. Expenditure on teachers' salaries in secondary schools..,... - - - - 
8. Expenditure on teachers' salaries in elementary schools,., - - - - 
9. Average annual cost per pupil enrolled.,... . . . . .. .. , . .. .. . 22.66 31.44 30.91 36.00 
10, Average annual cost per pupil in average attendance., . ... . 34.67 41.00 45,81 51.51 


5 
8 


1 School Municipalities: the number of school "districts" during the same year was 7,259. 



STATISTICAL SUMl.fARY 


139 


IÞrmlru.t's. 1921. or late
t ) par report('d-concludí'd 


UNDER PUBLIC COlloTROL. 


Quebec Ontario. 
Ianitoba. Sask. Alta. B.C. Total for No 
Canada. 
16,710 15,331 3.708 6.809 5.014 2.557 55.951 
2.548 2.164 796 1,477 1.161 572 9.179 
14.162 12,836 2,912 5,332 3,853 1,!185 46.441 
1.718 1 - 2,077 4.344 3.154 665 - 
7.481 7.042 1.893 4,200 2.826 922 28,585 
13,042 15.331 3.596 5,565 4.289 2.557 49.852 
- - - - 1,700 1,
46 - 
- - - - 2. ','\9 - - 
29.6 39.46 35.88 32.6 81.6 3i,5 34-4 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


UlIoDEB PUBLIC COXTBO
 


Ontario. Manitoba. bask Al berta. B.C. Indian Total for No. 
8choolB. Canada. 
$ $ $ I I $ I 
30,626.435 13.079.205 14.609.665 10,644,329 7,170,030 1,112.410 102.561,425 1 
2,413.996 822, 1b6 1,337,067 885,524 2,931,572 - 11, 898,01)4 2 
28,212,439 12,257,019 13,272,598 9,758,805 4,238 t5g - 89,550,931 3 
5,409,923 - 468,477 - - - - 4 
25,216.512 - 14,141,18ð - - - - 5 
I 
16,112,929 4,335,529 6,266,366 4,371 50
 - - - 6 
3,042,891 - 325,497 - - - - 7 
13,070,038 - 5,940,869 - - - - 8 
47,57 77,70 71,60 58,06 83,42 - 53,00 9 
77,31 116,30 117, 00 95-63 104,68 - 79,00 10 



140 


ED UCATIO..Y 


2.-Number of Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada by Pro\'inces, 1901-1921 or 
latest year reported. 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (All publicly controlled Schools except Prince of Wales CoUege, for year 
ended June 30). 


Average 
Pupils Enrolled. Attendance 
of Pupils. 
Boys. Girls. Total. No, Per 
cent. 
11,319 9,460 20,779 12,330 59,34 
11,271 9,532 20,803 12,884 61'93 
10,845 9,111 19,956 12,112 60.69 
10,259 8,772 19,031 11, 722 61.59 
10,427 8,815 19,272 11,621 60.33 
10,196 8,790 18,986 11,903 62.69 
10,213 8,823 19,036 11,543 60,63 
9,449 8,563 18,012 11,647 64.66 
9,578 8,495 18,073 11,543 63,86 
9,573 8,359 17,932 11,632 64,86 
9,152 8,245 17,397 10,511 60,40 
8,995 8,083 17,078 10,916 63.91 
9,186 8,369 17,555 11,003 62.67 
9,514 8,555 18,069 11.170 61,81 
9,714 8,688 18,402 11,694 63,54 
9,565 8,797 18,362 11 , 347 61,79 
9,291 8,899 18,190 11,319 62.22 
9,101 8,760 17,861 11,334 63.50 
8,882 8,705 17,587 10,908 62,00 
8,842 8,512 17 ,354 10,991 62,86 
8,913 8,597 17,510 11,446 65.30 


Teachers. 
Year, Schools. 
.Male, Female. Total. 
- - - 
1901. . . , ............. .. 474 299 290 589 
1902, .. . , , , . , , , . . . 474 293 295 58
 
1903. . , ,. " " . , .. . 480 274 298 572 
1904. , . , . . , . . . . . . . 480 268 294 562 
1905.."..,....,. . 475 246 324 570 
1906. , ... , , , . . . . . . 478 246 327 573 
1907. , . . . .. .. .. . . 479 227 345 572 
1908..,.... . ........ .. 476 205 375 580 
1909..... ............. . 479 200 395 595 
1910. 0................. .. 478 188 403 591 
1911. . .. ........ .... 478 178 413 591 
1912......,..",. . 474 162 428 590 
1913....,.",.,.. . 475 161 422 583 
1914.,....,...... . 474 162 426 588 
1915............, . 477 152 434 586 
1916...... ..,..,.. 476 138 457 595 
1917.,......,.... . 473 110 491 601 
1918.,."........ . 468 100 497 597 
1919........... . 466 102 492 591 
1920..,.......... . 454 91 486 577 
1921. . .................... .. 461 103 488 591 


:r\OVA SCOTIA (Elementary and secondary publicly controlled schools for the year ended July 31). 
1901."..",.,.., . 2,387 I 540 1,952 2,492 49,76S 48,642 I 98,410 53,643 54,5 
1902.........,... . 2,394 485 2,007 2,492 50,247 48,812 99,059 55,438 55,9 
1903.,.,...".,.. . 2,395 441 2,053 2,494 49,789 48,979 98,768 55,213 55.9 
1904,."..,..",. . 2,331 388 2,053 2,441 48,536 48,350 96,886 54,000 55.8 
1905. , . . . '" , . . . . . 2,429 386 2,180 2,566 50,465 49,787 100,252 56,342 56,3 
1906..."..,."., . 2,446 366 2,212 2,578 50,198 50, 134 100,332 59,165 58'9 
1907. ,.."."..... 2,465 354 2,272 2,626 49,849 50, 158 100,007 57,173 57,1 
1908. , . , , . . , . . , . . . 2,516 355 2,309 2,664 49,906 50,199 100, 105 58,343 58'2 
1909. . . , . . , . , . . . . . 2,577 352 2,342 2,694 50,758 50,922 101,680 61,787 60,7 
1910...,.,."..,. . 2,579 339 2,384 2,723 50,918 51,117 102,035 65,630 64.3 
1911.",.,....,.. . 2,639 331 2,468 2,799 50,985 51,925 102,910 61,250 59,5 
1912.".."..,.., . 2,662 293 2,511 2,804 51,498 52,486 103,984 63,640 61.2 
1913,..,.,..."" . 2,692 278 2,583 2,861 52,105 53,164 105,269 65,686 62.4 
1914.."..,.,..., , 2,724 272 2,620 2,892 52,656 53,695 106,351 66,599 62.6 
1915, " , , ., . . . , ,. . 2,795 256 2,689 2,945 53,649 54,119 107,768 70,361 65.3 
1916..,..,.,."., . 2,837 246 2,773 3,019 53,944 55,245 109,189 69,227 63,4 
1917. , . . , , . , , , , . . . 2,856 198 2,847 3,045 53,560 55,472 109,032 70,118 64.3 
1918.. . , . . ,. . . , . . , 2,859 185 2,852 3,037 52,731 55,361 108,094 67,923 62.8 
1919. . . . , '... , . ,. . 2,812 163 2,849 3,012 52,491 54,491 106,982 65,906 61,6 
1920.",..",.,.. . 2,835 199 2,816 3,015 53,179 54,917 108,096 66,442 61.6 
1921, , . , , , . . . , . . . , 2,898 203 2,886 3,089 54.355 55.128 109,483 73,291 66.9 
NEW'BRUNSWICK (Elementary and secondary publicly controlled schools for second term ended June 30). 
1901."..,...,... , 1,741 353 1,488 1,841 30,870 29,550 60,420 37,717 58.34 
1902, ,. " " . , , , ,.. 1,736 348 1,477 1,825 30,767 29,710 60,477 38,736 59,62 
1903. , . . '" " , , " . 1,726 341 1,474 1,815 30,172 29,141 59,313 37,552 58,79 
1904.".. ,..."". 1,722 313 1,503 1,816 29,892 28,867 58,759 36,920 58'50 
1905."., ,..,.",. 1,750 304 1,562 1,866 30,854 29;546 60,400 35,675 59.60 
1906. ,...""..". 1,762 302 1,577 1.879 30,913 29,768 60,681 37,540 61,86 
1907,.,..",.".. . 1,766 253 1,621 1,874 30,289 29,262 59,551 35,367 59'38 
1908..,....".." . 1,767 259 1,602 1,861 30,600 29,795 60,395 36,972 61'22 
1909. . , , . . , , . . . . , . 1,854 251 1,691 1,942 31 , 489 30,448 61,937 38,731 62.53 
1910, " . , . '" '.' , . 1,860 233 1,741 1,974 31,933 31,061 62,994 39,822 63,21 
1911, , , . , , . , . . . . , . 1,885 221 1,754 1,975 31,871 31,202 63,073 39,215 62,17 
1912. , , . , , . . , . , , . . 1,906 201 1,811 2,012 32,062 31,502 63,564 40,612 63,89 
1913..,....."... , 1,897 193 1,809 2,002 31,924 31.656 63,580 41,276 64'91 
1914.,...,..,..,. . 1,922 201 1,831 2,032 32,244 32,066 64,310 40,882 63.57 
1915. , , . . . , " ,. . . . 1,964 184 1,922 2,106 33,437 33,068 66,505 44,683 67.18 
1916..,.,..".,., . 1,996 196 1,965 2,161 33,089 33,459 66,548 43,914 65.98 
1917.,.,.".,..., . 1,981 167 1,962 2,129 32,025 32,751 64,776 42,884 66.22 
1918..,....,.,... . 1,986 149 1,973 2,122 31,858 32,990 64,848 44,970 69,41 
1919.",.,.,.,." . 1,950 136 1,971 2,107 31,784 33, 136 64,920 46,358 71,41 
1920..",.,."". , 1,898 141 1,913 2.054 32,015 33,035 65,050 45,860 70.49 
1921,."....,.... . 1,973 155 1,987 2,142 33,615 34,477 68,092 46,777 74.00 



SCHOOLS, TEA.CHERS A.VD PUPILS 


141 


2.-' umht'r of S('hooh" T('óU'lwrs and PUI)lIs In Canada b) PrO\ll1c('
, 
19nt-1921 or laft'!"f )('ar r('l)orfed -c.mtinued. 
QUEBEC (Elementary nnd 
(odel 
choo1s and Academies for year ended June 30). 


Teachers. 


Pupil
 Enrolled. 


A verago 
Attendance 
of Pupils. 


Year. Schools 


Male, Female, Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


No, 


Per 
cent. 


1001..,........... 5,970 1,208 8,92410,192 153,801 161,080 314,881 232,255 73.76 
l002.....,...,....6.0:t! 1,236 9,O

 10.319 156,304 164,984 321,2Sg 236,9:?4 73.74 
H.l03......,...,.., 6,112 1,327 9,:?:!6 10,553 1.')
,987 167,206 32t3,IS3 243,123 74.53 
1904............., 6,222 1,304 9,4303 10,i37 160,014 169,652 329,666 246.319 75.03 
190.;.............. 6,2ð
 1,336 9.607 10,943 lß2,U

 172,j
6 335,768 255,420 76,07 
1006..........,.,. 6,JtH 1,422 9.779 11,201 166,967 174, Soil 341,808 263,111 76,97 
1007........, .6.417 1,52710,05011,577 170,193 177,-121 347,614 266,510 79,54 
1003.............. 6,43:i 1.57910.19211,771 171,471 1
1,473 352,944 271,019 76,79 
1009.......,...... 6,52.') 1.600 10,526 12,126 179,146 187.866 367,012 2\ìj.729 77,85 
1910.......,...... 6,617 1,704 10,677 12,381 1
2,4:H 192,116 374,547 293,O:J5 78'25 
1911.......,...... 6,799 1,786 11,104 12,890 IS9,116 200,007 389,123 301,678 77,52 
1912...... .... . 6,720 I,S77 ll,:U2 13,209 193,:!63 206,773 400,036 314,520 78,62 
1913,........ ..,. 6,798 1.952 11,6-11) 1:J,601 19i3,492 213,29:? 4J1,7
4 324,447 79,77 
1914........,.,.,.6.961 2,05212.29214,344 210,937 224,9.')8 4
5,ð!15 344,547 79.44 
1915............,. 7,040 2,1
4 12,612 14,796 217,bliO 230,427 4H,Oh7 360,h!17 80.54 
1916.....,......., 7.0!.l.
 2,261 12,81:J 15,076 225,425 239,032 46-1,447 373,:J64 80.39 
1917.., 7,19.') 2,2b5 13,373 15,638 223,362 2-10,028 463.390 367,468 79,29 
1918....,..,...,.. 7,255 2,394 13,800 16.194 224,248 243.260 467,508 369,057 7
,94 
1919.............. 7,'J66 2,473 13,740 16,213 233,834 252,367 4S6,201 365,803 75,23 
1920,.......,..,.. 7,4'11 2,5-1,03 14,16
 16,710 239,6b 256,239 49:i,8ö7 372,377 75,09 
O
T^RIO (Elementary and Secondary publicI) controlled schoolR for cal('ndar years up to 1916, since which 
date the Hccondary School} ear has endt'd on June 30). 
1901...,.......... 6,166 2,666 7,131 9,800 247,351 233,778 H12,534 275,234 55'81 
1902...,........,. 6,196 2,717 7,4
O 10,207 244,509 2:
4,151 190,860 275.910 56,21 
1903. .. ....... 6,:!'\l 2,61
 7,677 10,3:!5 24:!,61S 233,3S2 4,"'7,8hO 275,3S5 56.41 
1004...,.......... 6,315 2",)
1 7,tI
6 10,470 240.674: 232,016 4"'4,351 273,815 56,53 
1905....... '.... 6.361 2,-161 8,1371O,5t 1 8 242,061 233,094 4S7,635 2 1 H,674 57,56 
1906.............. 6.31\2 2.376 8,368 10,744 243,572 214,812 492,';44 2&5,330 57,81 
1007..,....,...... 6,411 2,304 8,616 10,920 243,593 234.956 493,791 28-1.998 57,69 
1908...... ....... 6,479 2,379 8,789 11,168 24
,0:t! 237,101 501,641 2'J2,052 5R.22 
1009,......,.,..,. 6,52.') 2,279 9,127 11.406 2.')0,652 238,751 507,219 295.:J52 ,')8,43 
1910.. .. .' . 6,5.')3 2,233 9,472 11. 705 250,3
7 241,-130 510,700 299.747 58.69 
1911,.............6,6t\:J 2,14!) 9,871 12,016 253,220 244, 70S 518.605 30;;,648 58.94 
1912,............, 6,738 2,14-1 10,127 12,271 256.532 248,857 526,9;;1 315,255 59.82 
l!.13.........,.... 6,770 2,2-14 10,505 12,749 263,154 2;;6,379 542,S22 330,474 60..b8 
1914.....,........ 6,841 2,2bS 10,914 13,202 271,677 264,696 561,927 346,50tl 61'66 
1915..... .., . 6,ð9J 2,322 11.182 13,504 27S,508 271,792 569,030 36.'),959 64.31 
1916......... .... 6,923 2,007 11,730 13,737 273,676 26!I,214 560,340 355,36-1 65.44 
1917.. ........... 6,9.')0 1,913 12,141 14,054 280,597 281,268 561.865 369,Ohl 65.69 
1918.............. 6,995 1,663 12,604 14,267 2S1,41;2 283,193 564.655 328,197 58.16 
1919.....,.,......7,113 1.96512,83614,801 292.310 292,414 584,724 388,768 66,49 
1920.............. 7,042 2,164 13,177 15,331 302,887 302.036 604,923 396,141 65.49 
The discrepancy bet\\ccn the total of pupils enrolled in Ontario from 1001 to 1916 and the number by 

ex for the same years is due to the inclusion of kindergarten pupiL:! in the total, The number by sex of these 
kindergarten pupils is not available. 

^l'Io"TOB^ (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended JWle 30). 
1001....".". .,., 1,416 618 1,051 1,669 51,888 27,550 52.9 
1002....., . 1.4S8 629 1.220 1,849 54,056 28,306 52,4 
1003.",.,..",... 1.5M 628 1,466 2,094 57,409 36,479 63,5 
1904. .. . .. .. . . .. .. 1,669 682 1, ;;36 2,218 58,574 31,326 53.4 
1905.......,...... 1,761 597 1,675 2,272 63,287 33,794 53.4 
1906.....,........ 1,847 596 1,769 2,365 64,123 34,947 54.5 
1007..........,.., 1,943 595 l,bð5 2,480 67,144 37,279 55.5 
1008..,........... 2,014 598 1.928 2,526 71,031 40,691 57.3 
1009. ........." 2,10.') 637 2,025 2,662 73,044 41,405 56.7 
1910..,.,......... 2,227 621 2.153 2.774 76,247 43,885 57'5 
1911..............2.341 651 2,2172,868 80,8-1S 45,303 56.3 
1913..............2,430 500 2,464 2,964 83.679 48,163 57,6 
1914.,.,.,.".,... 2,688 474 2,390 2,864 93,954 58,778 62.6 
1915....,.,., . 2,727 598 2,378 2,976 100,963 68,250 67.5 
1916...........,.. 2,888 491 2,500 2,991 103,796 66,561 64.1 
1917..............3,043 530 2,494 3,024 106,588 69,209 64'9 
1918.............. 3,089 52-1 2,573 3,097 109,925 69,968 63,65 
1919............., 3,256 114.662 72,072 62.86 
1920...........,.. 3,479 669 2.810 3,479 123,452 88.563 71,74 
1921....,......... 3,596 796 2,912 3,708 129,015 86,137 66.76 
NOTE.-The 
Ianitoba school year from 1901 to 1911 ended December 31st Owing to a change in the 
date of the school ye_\I' no report \\ as is3ueu for 1912. 



142 


EDUCATION 


2.-Number of Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada by Provinces, 
1901-1921 or latest year reported-continued. 


SA8KATCHEWA..
 (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended December 31). 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Teachers. Pupils Enrolled. Average 
Attendance 
Year. Schools, of Pupils. 
Male. Female, Total. Boys. Girls, Total. No, Per 
cent. 
- - 
906. . . , . , , , . .. , , . 873 563 733 1,296 16,376 14,899 31,275 15,770 50,31 
907, , . . , . , , . . . , , , 1,101 - - 1,470 19,454 18,168 37,622 19,841 52.48 
908, , , , . . . . , . . . . , 1,418 - - 2,180 24,773 22,313 47,086 26,081 55,00 
909, . . . , . . . . . , , , . 1,705 959 1,335 2,335 28,930 26, 186 55,116 28,998 52,25 
910, . . , . , , . . , . . , , 1,925 1,074 1,598 2,726 34,084 31,308 65,392 34,517 52'80 
911, . . , . , , . , , . . , . 2,123 1,316 2,175 3,547 37,692 34,568 72,260 38,278 53,00 
912. , . . . . . . . , . . . . 2,459 1,245 2,122 3,434 42,380 39,516 81,896 49,329 60.31 
913, , , , . . . . , , . . , , 2,763 1,413 2,739 4,236 52,679 48,784 101,463 56,005 55,10 
914. .. . . , . . . . , . . , 3,073 1,552 2,949 4,600 59,340 54,645 113,985 65,009 57.02 
915",.."."". . 3,388 1.609 3,340 5,078 63,710 59,152 122,862 72, 113 58.70 
916. , . . , . , . . . , . , , 3,629 1,490 4,187 5,787 66,497 62,942 129,439 71,522 55,30 
917. , . , . . . . , . . . , , 3,816 1,304 4,430 5,853 72,691 69,926 142,617 88,758 62,24 
918. , , . , . , , . . . , . . 3,963 1,015 5,047 6,233 76.896 74,430 151,326 91,010 60,14 
919,."....,.... . 4,183 1,269 5,117 6,550 83,916 80,303 164,219 98,791 62.16 
920. . , ,. ........' 4,177 1,477 5,332 6,809 88,993 85,932 174,925 106,997 61,16 


ALBERTA (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended December 31). 
1006. . , . . . , . . , . , . . 570 280 644 924 14,701 14,083 28,784 14,782 51,00 
1907. . , , , . . . . . . , , . 694 318 892 1,210 17,707 16,631 34,388 17,310 54,00 
1908. , . . , . . . , . , . . , 851 435 1,033 1,468 19,516 20,137 39,653 18,923 48.00 
1909, " " , , ,. " , . . 970 570 1,245 1,815 23,701 22,347 46,048 22,225 48,24 
1910. " " ., " . ,. , . 1,195 716 1,501 2,217 28,406 26,901 55,307 29,611 53,54 
1911. . . , . . . . , , , , , . 1,392 867 1,784 2,651 31,753 29.907 61,660 32,556 52,08 
1912, , , ,.,... . , .. . 1, 600 956 2,098 3,054 36,717 34,327 71,044 39,226 55'21 
1913. . . . . . , . , . , . , , 1,705 980 2,314 3,294 41,449 38,460 79,909 45,888 57,41 
1914. , , . , , , , . . , , , . 2,027 1,375 2,603 3,978 46,769 43,141 89,910 54,582 60,71 
1915. , , , , . , . . . , . , , 2,138 1,418 2,800 4,218 50,140 47,146 97,286 61,112 62.81 
1916. . . , . . , . . , . , , , 2,170 1,355 3,252 4,607 50,375 48,826 99,201 60,271 60,75 
1917, , , . , , , . . . . . . . 2,321 1,267 3,866 5,133 54,446 53,281 107,727 65,374 60,68 
1918, . . . . , . , . . , . , . 2,766 1,090 4,565 5,655 56,011 55,098 111,109 68,489 61,64 
1919.., .. ,.., ... , , 2,796 1,082 3,820 4,902 61,206 60,361 121,567 74,776 61,51 
1920.,........". . 2,826 1,161 3,853 5,014 68,045 67,705 135,750 82,417 60,71 
BRITISH COLUMBIA (Elementary and Secondary publicly controlled schools for year ended June 30), 
1901, . , . , . , . . , . . , , 318 185 343 543 12,069 11,546 23,615 15,335 64.94 
1902, , . . . . , . . . , . , , 337 194 355 570 12,254 11,647 23,901 15,808 66,13 
1903. . . . . . . , . . , . . , 346 189 391 607 12,559 11, 940 24,499 16,627 67.87 
1004. , , , . , , , ,.. . , . 349 182 413 624 13,330 12,457 25,787 17,071 66,16 
1005. ., , , . ,....., , 360 177 452 663 14,104 13,250 27,354 18,871 68.94 
1906. , . . , . , . . , , , , . 374 176 477 690 14,524 13,998 28,522 19,809 68.39 
1007. , , , . , . . . , , _ . . 381 163 530 735 15,347 14,692 30,039 20,459 66.63 
1908,."."".." , 415 181 576 806 17,162 16,152 33,314 23,473 69-62 
1909. .. ,... ,., ,., . 447 213 628 900 18,659 17,568 36,227 25,662 69.97 
1910. , . . . . . _ , , . , . , 497 288 749 1,037 20,351 19,319 39,670 28,423 70.54 
1911. . . _ , . . . , . . , . . 533 323 856 1,179 23,162 21,783 44,945 32,517 71.27 
1912. , , . . , . . , . . . , , 574 351 1,002 1,353 25,734 24,234 49,968 37,384 74.88 
1913, _ . _ . , . . , , . . , , 644 406 1,191 1,597 29,544 27,840 57,384 43,072 75,12 
1914."."....,.. . 716 485 1,374 1,859 31,890 30,067 61,957 49,090 79,30 
1915. . , . , . . . . . . , . , 767 521 1,445 1,966 33,059 31,205 64,264 52,494 81.73 
1916. , , , , . , . . , . , , . 810 523 1,541 2,064 32,874 31,696 64,570 50,880 78.78 
1917. , , . , , . . . . . . . . 848 468 1,656 2,124 32,480 32,638 65,118 52,577 80,74 
1918,., .., '.. , , , , , 855 436 1,810 2,246 33,540 33,976 67,516 54,748 81.08 
1919, . . . , , , . , . . , . . 873 486 1,846 2,332 35,944 36,052 72,006 56,692 78.73 
1920,.........,., , 922 595 2,139 2,734 39,772 39,471 79,243 59,791 75,45 
1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946 572 1,985 2,557 43,442 42,508 85,950 68,497 79.69 
NOTE.-The totals for teachers in British Columbia from 1001 to 1909 are greater than the sum of the 
male and the female teachers because no infonnation as to the sex of high school teachers is available. 
This discrepancy also appears in the Summary for Canada. 



SCllOOLS TEACHERS AND PUPILS 


113 


2.-Xumbt.'r o( 
('hools. Tt'arht'rs and Pupils In Canada, b) Prmln('t.'s, 
1901-1921 or latt'st )t'ar rt'portt'd-concludcd. 
SUMYART roR CANADA (1901-1920). 


Year. 


Schools. 


Average 
Teachers. Pupils enrolled. Attendßnce 
of Pupils, 

ale. Female, Total. Boys. Girls. Total. No. Per 
cent. 
- - 
6.919 11,181 27.126 606,118 494,058 1,062,527 654.064 61.56 
6,961 11,881 27,860 506,
61 498,8
6 1,070,444 664,006 62,03 
6.8
 11,585 2b,660 504,910 499.759 1,074,008 676,491 63,92 
5,711 IS, 118 28.908 601,706 500,114 1,073,054 671,173 62,55 
6.607 IS. 9$1 29,4h3 610,89
 601,
8 1, 093, 
'68 693,403 63.88 
8, 
!1 16,888 32.263 647,447 541,
15 1,167,055 742,357 63.61 
6. 741 18.111 33,457 6M,646 649.111 1,189,142 750,480 63.11 
6,991 18,804 35,027 670,868 666.89
 1,224,090 779,201 63.66 
7,081 19,
1.f 36.4bO 691,91
 681,68
 1. 266,356 811 ,432 64,08 
1 , 
98 
.678 38, 104 608.01
 601,611 1,304 ,t":!4 846,302 64'81 
1.818 

, 641 40,502 616,951 611,
45 1,350, &21 866,956 64.18 
1,119 
1,4
1 
8.711 647,181 645,778 I,S14.611 870,881 68,15 
8.117 
6,876 43,872 678,6
8 677.944 1,463,445 96tl,014 (ì6'OI 
8,881 
7,
99 46,318 716,017 711 ,81
 1,546,358 1.037,166 67,07 
9,1-U 
8. 801 48,156 1
9,877 7
6,817 1,595,167 1.107,563 69.43 
8,709 .f1,118 50,307 745,4U 149,111 1,615,
92 1,102,450 68.23 
8. Iff 
,t60 51,601 758,451 774,t6
 1,639,303 1,135,788 69,28 
7,566 45,711 53,438 765,847 787,088 1,662,
42 1,105,696 66'49 
7,676 41,671 50,611 800,381 817 ,8t9 1,73
,868 1.180,074 68,10 

 , 


1901......,....... 18,472 
1002............., 18.657 
1903... .....,. .... i8, !)24 
1004.......... .... 19,08
 
1005.. .. , .. , .. .. .. 19,424 
1906.............. 21.09ß 
1007.............. 21,657 
1908.....,...,.... 22,371 
1909....,.. .., .... 23,187 
1910. ..... . ... ,... 23,931 
1911. ...' .. . ... ... 24, 8ö3 
1912.............. 23,133 
1913.., .......... 26,174 
1914.......... .... 27,426 
1915............., 28,188 
HII6.......... .... 28,824 
1917.......,.,..., 29,483 
1918......,......, 30,236 
1919.............. 30,815 
1920.... 31,814 9,045 46,6_ 8 55. 733 8

,
81 847,S47 1,804,6 0 1,229,579 67 5 8 
Xon:,-From 1901 to 190,1>, inclusive, the Summary for Canada comprised the tleven provinces of Prince 
Edward Island, Xova Scotia, Xev. BruDsv. ick, Quehec, Ontario. "anitoba and British Columbia, The 
two provinces of Saskatchev.an nnd Alberta were formed in 1005, and from 1006 all the nine provinces are 
included, v.ith the exception of )Ianitoba for 1912. v. hen no Education Report \\118 issued by that province. 
The sex of the teachers in the 8econd3.ry schools of Saskntchewan is not given, end in )Innitoba the sex 
of the pupils was not Itivcn for any of the years. \\ hile Ontario did not gi
e the sex of its kindergarten pupils 
until 1917. In the Summary, therefore, these defects are indicated by printing Cf'rtain items in italics. 
.-\. general summary for 1921 for all elementary and eeoondary schools under public control is gi\ en in Table 
I, pages 136-139. 


3.-Tea('her
 in Tralnin
 in XO\a Scotia. Xl',," Uruns\\lrk, Quebe('. Ontario and 
Jlanltoba, lSOl-19'Þl, Sa
b.atchewan and .\lberta, 1906-19'JO. 
XO
A ScOTIA. 
Number of Teacller. in Training in the PrcmnciGl Normal College. 


Enrol- Enrol- I Enrol- Enrol- 
Year. ment. Year, ment. Year. ment, Year. mente 
1901,.. . , , , . . , . . 240 1006.""..". 154 J91I.,.... .. 268 1916....., .. 388 
1002 . .. , . .. . . . . , 182 1907. . , , , . . . _ , 142 1912...... .. 293 1917 263 
1003........,.. , 145 1008, ., . ".., , 161 1913 302 1918...... ,. 260 
1904....,."... . 191 1009.....,..., 215 1914........ 318 1919......., 255 
1905........,.,. 14b 1910,.,....", 260 1915......., 355 1920, . , . , . , , 228 
1921........ 241 


XJ:W BRUNSWICK, 
Number oflrutructor. and Teacher. in training in 'lie Normal School. 


TEACHERS IN TRAINING TEACHERS IN TRAINING 
Year. Instruct- IN 1\ ORMAL SCHOOL. Year. Instruct- IN NORMAL SCHOOL. 
ora. ors. 
Male. Female, Total. Male. Female. Total. 
- - 
1901..... . ... . . . 11 41 155 196 1911. .. . . . , . , 16 46 324 370 
1002, . . .. . , , . . . . 14 68 201 269 1912, . , , . . . , . 16 46 330 376 
1003, . , , .. . . , . .. 16 35 189 224 1913........ , 18 53 305 358 
1904,.......,... 19 35 253 288 1914,....... . 16 45 312 357 
1005. . . . .. . , . . . . - 54 231 285 1915........, 16 52 299 351 
1906. . . . . . , , . . . . 16 44 263 307 1916...... ... 19 45 327 372 
1007. , . . . . . . . . . . 18 45 315 360 1917,.....,. . 18 41 331 372 
1008, ,.......... 18 35 299 334 1918. ....... . 20 29 258 287 
1909.,....".,., 18 53 290 343 1919,...... .. 19 13 250 275 
1910............ 15 63 295 358 1920........ . - 25 242 267 
1921. ..... . .. - 15 201 216 



144 


EDUCATION 


3.-T('arhers in Training in Nova Scotia. New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and 
Manitoba, 1901-1921, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1906-1920-continued. 
QUEBEC, 
Number of Teachers and Pupils in Normal Schools, 


INSTRUCTORS. TEACHERS IN TRAINING. Average Per 
Year. Schools. attend- cent. 
Male, Female. Total. Male, Female. Total. anee, 
- - - - - - - 
1901, , , , , . , , , . , . . . , . . . , , , . 5 31 27 58 97 256 353 345 97,7 
1902, , , . .. , .. " , ,.. ..., ,. . 5 31 30 61 130 290 420 415 98.8 
1903. , . . . , . , , . . . , . . , , , , . . . 5 31 30 61 138 322 460 455 98,9 
1904,.,.,..,."".,.,..., . 5 30 31 61 151 241 392 388 98.9 
1905. , ,. , , , . , . . ., , .. , , ,., , 5 32 30 62 142 274 416 410 98.5 
1906. " . .. , , , .. .. '.' . . ,.. , 5 35 27 62 143 280 423 420 99.2 
1907 . . . , , , . , , , , , , . . , , . . . . , 6 34 38 72 159 308 467 462 98,9 
1908. . . , ,.. , ,.,... , .... ,., 7 39 27 66 165 361 526 524 99.6 
1909..",.,.,.,."..,.". , 10 58 59 117 182 533 715 710 99,3 
1910, ,. ., , , ... , . , ,. , ,., , , , 11 53 75 128 177 610 787 780 99.11 
1911, . , , , . , , . , , . . . , , . . , , , . 11 50 79 129 174 666 840 835 99'4 
1912, . , , , , , , . . , , , . , . . . , . , , 11 43 77 120 160 676 836 - - 
1913, . , . , . , . , . . . . . . . . . , . . , 13 50 86 136 175 913 1 ,088 - - 
1914, . , . , . , . . . ........... 14 48 98 146 189 1,081 1,270 - - 
1915. . , , , , , , . . , . . . _, , , . . . , 14 54 131 185 191 1,121 1,312 - - 
1916, , , . , , , . , , . , , . , . , . , , , . 14 52 144 196 191 1,166 1,357 1,357 100,0 
1917."...,..",.".,..,. . 14 52 144 196 180 1,181 1,361 1,361 100.0 
1918, . , . . . . . . , . . , . , . , . , . , , 14 52 153 205 180 1,159 1,339 1,339 100,0 
1919, ., ........., , ,.... " , 14 57 148 205 159 1,064 1,223 1,135 92,8 
1920, , , . , . , . , . , , . . , , . . , . , , 14 50 157 207 182 1,320 1,502 1,395 92,8 
- - - - - - 


1921. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . , . , . , 


3 
1 
1 
8 
6 
9 
3 
2 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
7 


166 1,210 1,376 


NOTE.-In Prince Edward Island, teachers are trained in Prince of Wales College: the number of the 
students of this college training for teachers' diplomas in 1919-20 was 68 men and 152 women, or a total of 
220. In British Columbia, teachers are trained at the Normal Schools in Vancouver and Victoria. In 
1921-22 there were enrolled in these schools 543 students. 


ONTARIO. 
Teachers trained from 1901 to 19t1 inclusive. 


Model Schools. 


Provincial No 
Normal Schools. 


Year, 


Male. !:l-e. Total. :Male. !:l
. Total. 11a 


1901, . , , , . , , , . , , . , , . , . 
1902. , . , . . . . . . . . , . . . , , 333 838 1,171 123 496 619 
1903. . , , , , . , , , . , , . . , . . 305 843 1,148 54 532 586 
1904.,...,...,.".", , 295 827 1,122 22 282 304 
1905. . . . , , , , . . , , , , . . . , 308 901 1,209 18 288 306 
1906. . . . , , , . . . . , , . , . , . 389 1,361 1,750 21 324 345 
1907-8. , . , . . .. . , ,., ... 365 995 1,360 1 23 405 428 1 
1908-9. , . , . . , . , , , . , . , , 37 224 261 128 1,021 1,149 
1909-10. , , , . , , . . , . . , , . 48 227 275 121 1,114 1,235 
1910-11, , , , . , , , . , . . .. , 31 177 208 121 1,145 1,266 
1911-12....,.,.,., ..,. 81 368 449 114 950 1,064 
1912-13, , " , , , . , . ., " , 94 356 450 114 872 986 
1913-14..,.,...,..", . 77 285 362 124 1,077 1,201 
1914-15.."."".,." , 61 204 265 126 1,034 1,160 
1915-16. , , ,. . ,.. ,. , , . . 43 167 210 2 211 1,398 1,609 
1916-17. . , . . . , . , , . , , . , 14 131 145 137 1,156 1,293 
1917-18..".".".", . 5 157 162 59 1,455 1,514 
1918-19..., ,...,.. ... . 86 86 44 1,056 1,100 
1919-20...,.."...." , 4 77 81 203 1,045 1,248 
1920-21. . . . . . . . . . . , , . , 41 460 501 199 1,282 1,481 


rmal Colleges, Total. 
etc. 
I Fe- Total. Male. Fel
 
e, male. ma . 
- - - - 
- - - - - 
7 75 132 513 1,409 
7 90 127 396 1,465 
5 121 166 362 1,230 
5 125 170 371 1,314 
2 139 191 462 1,824 
- - - 388 1,400 
- - - 165 1,245 
- - - 169 1,341 
- - - 152 1,322 
- - - 195 1,318 
- - - 208 1,228 
- - - 201 1,362 
- - - 187 1,238 
- - - 254 1,565 
- - - 151 1,287 
- - - 64 1,612 
9 304 473 213 1,446\ 
7 262 559 504 1,384 


Grand 
Total. 


613 
1,922 
1,861 
1,592 
1,685 
2,286 
1,788 
1,410 
1,510 
1,474 
1,513 
1,436 
1,563 
1,425 
1,819 
1,438 
1,676 
1,659 
1,888 
2,208 3 


5 
3 
4 
4 
5 


16 
29 
150 


76 226 390 1,818 


IPrevious to 1908 there were 55 County Model Schools in Ontario in addition to three Normal Schools 
and the Normal College. The function of these )lodel Schools was the training of third class teachers, 
while that of the Normal Schools was generally the training of second class and kindergarten teachers, 
and that of the College, the training of first class and secondary teachers. In 1908, most of the County 
Model Schools were abolished and the duty of training teachers for all the Public and Separate Schools 
except those in the districts and poorer sections of the province ",as placed upon the Normal Schools, which 
were increased in number from 3 to 7. 
The Department of Education ceased to report the attendance at the Normal College after 1906, This 
college has been since known by various names. Recently, and up till 1920, its work was done by the 
Faculty of Education of the Universities of Toronto and Queen's and the figures for the Normal College 
given in the above table for 1918-19 and 1919-20 represent the enrolment in the Faculty of Education of 
these Univerl"ities, In 1920 their functions were transferred to the Ontario College of Education. 
2Autumn )Iodel Schools. 
BIn addition to these there were 13 extra mural students at 1\1<. del Schools in 1921. 



TEACHERS IN TRAI^ïÞ;C 


1-l.3 


3.-Tt':u'hl'rs In Tralnln
 in 1\o\"a Scotia. !\('w Urunswlrk. (Iucbec. Ontario and 
\Ianltoba. 1901-1921, Saskatchewan and \lbcrta, It 06-19')0 -concluded. 
)IA
ITOBA, 
Number of Teac1aer, and Student' in Normal Srhool" 


STUDENTS AT I
8TRU 
2nd 3rd Pro- 
clMt! (' 1888 Year. vincial 
sessions. setiSions Nomlal. 
- 
90 161 1911, . , , , , , " , 6 
86 234 1912........ School 
82 237 1913.."".., . 6 
129 261 1914.....,.... 6 
171 320 1915.""..." 6 
148 328 1916. . 14 
128 272 1917.. . . . . 13 
131 279 1918,...,...,. 10 
136 312 1919...,.,.... 10 
122 3bl 1 !I
n . . .. . .... . 10 
1921.......... 10 


INSTRUCTORS. 
Pro- 
vincial Local 
Xormal. Normal. 


Year. 


1901. . , , . , . , . . , . , , 
1002... . . ...... ,., 
1903.,.. .,. .,'...' 
1904.. ..,..,.... 
1005... . .,..,., 
1006..., ",.,.. '.. 
1907 ..__...... 
1908.. ..,....,.. 
1909......,..",. . 
1910. .. . . _.. . . , ,. . 


7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 


13 
14 
14 
14 
18 
14 
11 
10 
10 
10 


CTOR8, 


STUDE'i'TS AT 


Local 2nd 3rd 
...... mal class cl888 
!... or 'sessions. sessions. 


-- - 
11 126 502 
year chanJ!:('d, 
11 139 390 
10 1
0 401 
14 206 466 
12 331 40ó 
11 30!) 290 
7 288 225 
5 251 303 
4 285 308 
4 321 3,n 


SAAKATCHFW A
. 
Teacher, trained from 19(,6 to 1910 inclu8i
. 


First Ch\88. 


Second CIMt!. 


Third CIMS, 


Total. 


Year. 


Grand 
Male. Female, :Yale. Female, :Yale. Female. Male, Female, Total. 


1906. " , . , ,., , , . .. ......., 
1007. . .. _.' _ . . , , . . . . , , . . 
1908. . , . , . , . . . , . . , . . . . . . .. 
1909. . .. _..........,...., 
1910"".... ,.. .........,. 
1911.." .,..", ...,.,..... 
1912.... ._,._ ....... 
1913, , , , , , , . , . . . , , , , . , 
1914. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , 
191')....... ..........' 
1916..., .".,., ,...'...'. . 
1917. . . . . . _ . . . . . . _ _ . . , . . _ . 
1918. , , , , , . , . , , , , . . , . , , , . . 
1919..... ... .__.. ..., 
1920.... .",." .,...,. ,',' 


Totals.... . " . ,., .., . , 


17 
6 
13 
5 
4 
14 
32 
46 
68 
40 
26 
15 
36 
15 


337 


15 
14 
13 
3 
11 
51 
57 
72 
93 
76 
66 
91 
95 
37 


46 
33 
35 
12 
32 
28 
29 
20 
22 
43 
4h 
3... 
35 
57 
31 


98 
7:! 
45 
41 
78 
104 
9(1 
118 
97 
100 
212 
2:-.7 
3
2 
420 
164 


2 
20 
115 
94 
Ib 
92 
83 
196 
241\ 
149 
89 
H 
71 
91 


10 
7 
103 
235 
228 
91 
304 
333 
453 
590 
356 
575 
83 
379 
385 


65 
39 
6q 
132 
130 
46 
131) 
135 
264 
359 
237 
153 
M 
1M 
137 


694 


509 2,418 1.282 4,132 2,128 7,244 


123 
93 
161 
279 
317 
195 
44;) 
508 
622 
863 
674 
928 
556 
894 
586 


188 
132 
229 
411 
447 
241 
5öO 
643 
886 
1,222 
911 
1,081 
620 
1,058 
723 


9,372 


.\LBERTA. 
Teacher, trained at Calgar" and Camro,e Normal School, from 1908 to 1910 inclusi
. 


Year 


First Class 


Second Class. 


Total. 


)Iale, Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. )Iale. Female. 


Grand Special 
Total. Classes 1 . 


1906......,...,. 25 77 27 7.') 102 
1907...,......., 29 68 23 74 97 
1908............ 44 96 140 
1909............ 19 36 55 33 94 127 52 130 Ih2 
1910........ . ,. . 24 31 55 47 lIti 163 71 J.t7 218 
1911............ 34 47 81 42 125 167 76 172 248 
1912.. _. __ , 32 50 82 46 150 196 78 200 278 
1913..,.,......, 33 78 111 29 L
2 181 62 230 
92 
1914............ 45 69 114 43 200 243 88 269 357 7 
1915............ 95 83 178 113 287 400 208 370 57R 23 
1916........... . 58 88 146 66 203 269 124 291 415 23 
1917...... ..., 31 54 85 32 217 249 63 2il 334 24 
1918..,......... 30 121 151 30 286 316 60 407 467 21 
1919. _ ........ 44 132 176 74 348 422 118 4xO 598 345 
1920............ 39 176 215 75 405 4ï9 114 51,,0 694 
1-------- 
Totals'..,.... 484 965 1,503 630 1,583 
,
57 1,208 3,792 5,000 
IThese classes are desiJ!:ned principally for the purpose of giving teachers from the L:'nited Kin
dom 
a?d United States a short period of training in the special requirements of the Alberta Department of Educa- 
tiOn. In 1918 a class was added for the purpose of enablmg second class teachers to train for a higher pro- 
fessional certificate. The large enrolment in 1919 contained a number of students who desire special quali- 
fications for teaching foreigners, . 
2The italics indicate partial totals, A third Xormal School '" as opened in Edmonton in the latter 
half of 1921 with an enrolment of 116 students. 
38131-10 



146 


EDUCATION 


!.-Number of Teachers and Pupils in Roman CathoDe Classical Colleges in Quebec, 
1901-1921. 


Number of Average 
Year Attend- 
Col- Profes-I Pupils ance. 
leges. sors. enrolled, 
1901.".,.". , 19 549 5,915 5,468 
1902. , .. .. . . . , 19 562 6,096 5,698 
1903.....,." . 19 559 6,174 5,694 
1904........ .. 19 590 6,265 5,758 
1905. . . , .. . .. . 19 621 6,269 5,772 
1906.. .. . , . .. , 19 621 6,318 5,895 
1907...,. .. 19 624 6,268 5,796 
1908.......,. , 19 624 6,274 5,709 
1909.,... ,. '" 18 609 6,397 5,872 
1910......,... 19 642 6,599 6,053 


Year. 


Number of Average 
Attend- 
Col- Profes- Students ance. 
leges. Bors. enrolled. 


1911..",.. 19 642 7,140 6,521 
1912.,."., 21 662 7,818 7,280 
1913. ..... 21 687 8,189 7,677 
1914."",. 21 726 8,444 7,841 
1915....... 21 754 8,251 7,664 
1916."",. 21 704 7,696 6,602 
1917....... 21 747 8,128 6,790 
1918...,... 21 747 7,622 6,956 
1919....,.. 21 744 7,711 6,338 
1920...,.,. 21 742 8,632 7,940 
1921....... 21 '('48 9,033 8,15 9 
NOTE,-The Roman Catholic Classical Colleges are not included in Table 2 with the other public 
institutions for the reason that they are special institutions doing university, secondary and even elementary 
work, The following statistics of secondary schools in Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia 
havE> been included in Table 2 and are repeated here mainly to show the differentiation between the sexes 
in the higher grades, 


5.-Number of Teach('rs and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools 
in Ontario, 1901-1921. 


Year, 


Schools. Teachers. 


1901.. .",.",."...,."..... 
1902.. ,.,..",.,...,.",....,. 
1903 . . . . . . . . . , . , , . , , , , . , . , , . . . 
1904......"...,."",.",.,. . 
1905... .".,.."",."."" ,.. 
1906...,...."",.".,.,..,., . 
1907.,."."".,.,..,....",. . 
1908. . . . . . , , . . , . . , , , , , . . , , . . , . 
1909.,.,.,.,."....."""". . 
1910......"...,..,."",.,.. . 
1911."".., .,.."........",. 
1912 ,......,...,.,.".....".. 
1913...,..,.,. ".."",..,..". 
1914. , . . . , . . . , . . . . . , . , . , . , , , . . 
1915...",.,..,."".,.""" . 
1916-17....,."."."..",... . 
1917-18......,.., ......."... 
1918-19."""".."",.,.,., , 
1919-20.,..... . . , . , " , , , , , . , . . 
1920-21.."", , . , . , , , , , , , . , , , , 


131 
134 
135 
138 
140 
142 
143 
145 
145 
145 
148 
148 
161 
160 
160 
161 
162 
164 
167 
168 


579 
593 
619 
661 
689 
719 
750 
795 
820 
853 
898 
917 
970 
1,023 
1,020 
1,038 
1,051 
1,088 
1,168 
1,207 


Boys. 


Pupils Enrolled. 
Girls. Total. 


10,869 
11 , 629 
11, 988 
12,718 
13,035 
13,336 
13,799 
14,731 
15,776 
15,196 
14,679 
14,846 
15,489 
17,001 
17,705 
12,339 
12,353 
13,228 
14,681 
15,221 


11,654 
12,843 
13,734 
14,991 
15,626 
16,056 
16,532 
17,181 
17,325 
17,416 
17,548 
17,427 
18,257 
19,465 
20,721 
16,494 
16,744 
17,504 
18,355 
18,907 


22,523 
24,472 
25,722 
27,709 
28,661 
29,392 
30,331 
31,912 
33,101 
32,612 
32,227 
.32,273 
33,746 
36,466 
38,426 
28,833 
29,097 
30, 732 1 
33,036 
34,128 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


13,224 
14,430 
15,317 
16,730 
17,567 
18,078 
18,485 
19,862 
20,791 
20,389 
20,177 
20,268 
21,448 
23,360 
24,825 
22,781 
22,740 
24,500 
26,816 
28,952 


Per 
cent. 


58,71 
58,97 
59,55 
60,38 
61,29 
61.50 
60,94 
62,23 
62.81 
62,52 
62,60 
62,80 
63,55 
64,06 
64,60 
79,01 
78,15 
79.72 
81,17 
84.83 


6.-Number of Teachers and Pupils in Continuation Schools in Ontario, 1911-1921. 


Year, 


Pupils Enrolled. 
Teachers. 
Boys. Girls. Total. 
218 2,394 3,359 5,753 
226 2,499 3,595 6,094 
218 2,229 3,315 5,544 
237 2,474 3,595 6,069 
238 2,803 3,997 6,800 
234 1,979 3,103 5,082 
241 1,989 3,115 5,104 
234 1,867 3,139 5,006 
244 2,001 3,125 5,126 
255 2,304 3,519 5,823 


Schools, 


Average 
attend- 
ance, 


Per 
cent. 


1911....,...............,.,... 129 3,487 60,61 
1912..................,....... 138 3,777 61'97 
1913.......,.,......,......... 125 3,386 61.07 
1914...,..,...........,....,., 131 3,812 62.81 
1915...,.........,........,... 132 4,274 62,85 
1916-17................,.,.,.. 132 3,729 73,37 
1917-18...,.....,....,....,... 137 3,734 73,15 
1918-19...,.............,..... 136 3,773 75,36 
1919-20....................... 137 3,955 77.15 
1920-21......, ................ 144 4,790 82, 2.6 
NOTE,-Previous to 1911 the statistics of these schools are included with those of Elementary Schools, 



SECONDARY SCIIOOL STATISTICS 


147 


7.-", umlwr of Tt'adu'rs and 1.lIpll
 In ('oll('
lat(' Instit 11((' and IlJ
h 
('h(Htls In 
SaskatdlC\\an, 1.0 '-I. "0. 


), ear. Schools. 


190
........,.. ,., 
1 
)()9 . . . . . , . . , . . . . , . 
1910.. .......... 
I
H 1. ............. 
1 
H 
 . , . . .. . .. ... 
1913... . 
Hlt4..,.. 
1915. 
1916............,. . 
1917..,..... ..... 
1918.... . . .. 
l!IHL , . .. .. ... , 
19:!0.... . 


8 
13 
13 
13 
15 
IIi 
18 
21 
21 
22 
22 
24 
24 


. 
})upils, 
Teachers. 
Bo)s. Girls, J 1st and 3rd 4th Total 

nd yenrs. }ear. 
 eur. 
23 335 399 4
7 183 64 7 
41 504 643 6\14 338 115 1,1 
54 b23 h05 81'\4 355 189 1,4 
56 766 927 1,003 4'-.() 204. 1,6 
67 8
5 1, 1
9 1,237 5.'>0 227 2,0 
84 I,02
 1,326 1,446 658 250 2,3 
99 1, 304 1.622 1,
14 763 319 2,ß 
129 1.545 2,O
8 2.429 Sfì3 291 3.5 
13S 1.566 2.

3 2,398 1 .090 31il 3,
 
119 1,445 2,441 2,507 \þ;'4 40.1 3,8 
161 1,533 2.';61 2,533 1,065 49Q 4,0 
164 1,910 2,h41 3,O().; 1,207 539 4,7 
19
 2,492 3.425 3,f146 1,400 571 5,9 


34 
47 
28 

13 
14 
54 
26 
83 
1!1 

6 
94 
51 
17 



.-Xumber of T('al'lU'rs and PUI)iI
 (n lIi. r h :'\('hCHtls in Urlfl"h (oilimbla. 1901-1921. 


I Pupils Enrolled. A vernJ!:e 
Year, I Schools. Teachers. attenrl- Per 
! Ho
s. Girls. Total. ancc. cent. 
1901. . . .. .. .. .. .. .......... - . . 5 15 215 369 5h4 373 63,x7 
I !1()2 . .. . 7 21 313 4;'1 7
4 4.'>1 71. !}4 
1903. ., . 8 27 316 540 
M ti27 73.25 
1904....... .. , 10 29 3
1 fìoo 
11'\1 6b5 69.S3 
1!
}5...""".., . .... . .. . 12 34 433 6.')7 1,090 834 76.51 
1906.... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. " . 13 :J7 473 71i3 1,236 023 74,68 
1907. __ . ....... .. 15 42 132 823 1,355 \Ji6 72.03 
1908. . . " . . , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . 16 49 613 1'-5;' 1,470 1,124 76,46 
1909.......,..... ..... . 1'.. 59 812 997 l,h09 1,441 79.66 
1910.,.",. , , , , , . , . , ..... . 21 66 919 1,122 2,041 1,549 75.8!J 
1911. . . . . , . , . . , , . . . . . . 23 71 
I-IO I,O-lS 1,9
R 1.533 77.11 
1912. . . . . . . . , . . , . . . , ,. . 24 77 \173 1,178 2,151 1,645 76.48 
1913.., ,.,.....",.",." 30 96 1,232 1,ltb 2,680 2, Ill!) 78,69 
1914. 34 110 1. 414 1,593 3,007 2,535 h-l.30 
1915..""... ", .,...,. 37 132 l,ö44 2,008 3,912 3,332 
.5.17 
1916. . . . , . , , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 40 162 2,21)0 2,!í1O 4,;'70 3,f\16 80,00 
1917. . .. . . . . . . . . , . . ...... . 41 169 2,074 2,767 4.ð41 3,999 R2.61 
1918.."... . . , . . . , . ...... . 43 184 2,151 2.999 ,I), 1.1)() 4,201 81,57 
1919. 45 197 2,392 3,414 5,806 4,670 80.44 
1 !):!O . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . 48 23-1 2.826 3,HIO 6,636 5,359 HO.79 
1921....... . . . . 52 251 3,093 4.166 7.259 6,132 84.48 


9.-'.o('ational 
d)(Htls, Tt'ad1l'rs and Pupils In Canada. y,'ar t'ndt'd June 30, 1921. 


Province, 


Prince Edward Isl'd 1 

 oya Scot ia. . . . . . , , . 1 
Xew Brunswick. .,.. I 
Quebec.......... .... 21 
Ontario..,.,......... 15 
'Ianitoba... _ .., 9 

askatchewan. , . , . . , 4 
\Iberta.............. 7 
British C'Æ>lumbia.... 10 


Totals.,.,.." .. 


K urn ber of Schools. 


Kumber of Teachers. 


Pupils Enrolled. 


Day. 


E I E Corres- E I Corres- 

en- Total. Day, ;('n- pond' ce Total. Day. yen- pond' ce Tota: 
g. g. Dept, mg. Dept, 
---------- 
1 2 7 7 - 14 35 110 - 145 
36 37 - 151 - 151 - 2,754 - 2,754 
13 14 7 63 1 70 561,434 2651,755 
20 41 133 153 - 286 1,078 3,933 - 5,011 
73 88 177 845 - 1,022 4,790 26,527 - 31,317 
4: 13 47 98 - 145 2,173 3,592 - 5,765 
4 8 55 52 - 107 250 825 - 1,075 
21 28 72 101 2 175 1,860 2.069 220 4,149 
21 31 75 135 1 211 1,441 3,197 135 4,773 


69 


193 262 573 1,605 


4 2,181 11,683 44,441 


620 56,744 


:KoTE,-Schools conducting both day and evening classes are included under both headings, TeacherS 
engaged in both day and evening work are also shown twice. Enrolments are the maximum number 
reported during the year, In Ontario the commercial clag
es in each locality are shov. D separately. 
38131-10! 



148 


ED UCATIOJ.V 


to.-Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provin('es, 
1901-1921. 


(RECEIPTS). 


PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 


Govern- Local Govern- Local Total. 
Year, ment Assess- Total. Year, ment Assess- 
Grant. ment, Grant. ment-. 
$ $ $ $ $ $ 
1901. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 128,288 36,647 164,935 1913.,....".."" . 150,732 56,874 207,606 
1902... ...,.......... 127,495 38,827 166,322 1914.....,.....,.. . 156,503 61,490 217,993 
1903......,.....". . 123,919 42,698 166,617 1915.,......."." . 168,413 91,258 259,671 
1904............... . 121,696 47,069 168,765 1916......,.,...., . 173,962 70,610 244,572 
1905.,..... , 122,897 45,695 168,592 1917.",......".. . 178,607 72,623 251,230 
1906 1 . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . 91,946 34,763 126,709 1918.,.",....,.,. . 173.579 94,968 268,547 
1907............... . 123,898 46,429 170,327 1919...,......,.., . 187,488 98,472 285,960 
1908...........,.., , 127,092 49,874 176,966 1920. . . , , , , , . . . , . . . 211,618 131,030 342,648 
1909,..,.....,..,.. . 129,179 54,027 183,206 1921, , , , ., ., ,. . . " . 244,347 152,431 396,778 
1910... , .. . . . . .. . . . . . 127,548 53,924 181,472 
1911..,......,.,." . 126,438 54,738 181,176 
1912 2 - . , . . . . . . . , . . . . 179,956 81,685 261,641 


1 Nine months, 2Eighteen months, 


N ov A SCOTIA. 


(RECEIPTS) , 


Year 


Govern- 
ment Grant, 


Municipal Local Total. 
Funds. Assessment, 
$ $ $ 
119,876 470,108 844,762 
117,376 538,851 913,843 
121,016 552,350 936,458 
146,382 569,745 985,031 
145,627 576,560 993,844 
147,089 655,705 1,073,720 
146,959 616,431 1,040,805 
147,130 666, 590 1.149,304 
147,400 711 ,428 1 , 199, 886 
146,936 761,014 1,265,233 
146,823 804,125 1,329,674 
147,170 859,284 1,381,264 
156.864 944,992 1.487,590 
164,980 1,002,967 1,556,618 
168,009 1,066,892 1,642,114 
168,114 1,037,302 1,620,154 
163,535 1,157,907 1,753,726 
163,994 1,280,965 1,872,444 
204,519 1,460,578 2,097,593 
224,025 1,978,242 2,634,763 
495,242 2,370,712 3,442,546 


1901.............,.""... ..,.."......',.. ..,...,.... 
1902. _ . . . . . , . . . , . . . , . , . . , . , . . . . , , . . , , . , . . 
1903 . . . , . , , , . . . . . . . . , , . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . 
1904...............,...,..."..,.....,...,.........,. . 
1905.,.,... , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . , . . . . . 
1906......"..................,.........,."....,.... , 
1907,.. ...... ................ ..,..... 
1908.,.,.............,...,..........,....,.........,. . 
1909..........,.....,..........,.......... ........... 
1910....... . . . . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . 
1911..........".............,.,.,.,....."........" . 
1912........ ...... ...' ".,......'.......... 
1913........ .,.,...... .....,. ...,... ......,'.",.,.,. . 
1914 . . . . . . . , . . , . , . . , . , . . . . , . . . . . , . , . . , . . . . , , , . , . . . . . . . 
1915.........,... ...,................,............". 
1916.,..,......,..,..............,...,....""..,.". . 
1917,.. . ..,.,....,....... ..................... 
1918.,..... . . " . , ,. , . , . . , . . . , , . , , . , ., , . , , . . , , , . . , . , . . . 
1919........ .....,. ." .,..". ...",.,.. '" .,..",.... 
1920..,..,.,.,.................,.........,.,...,...,. . 
1921,..,......".,.....,..,.,..,.....,......,..,..... . 


$ 
254,778 
257.616 
263,092 
268,904 
271,657 
270,925 
277,415 
335,584 
341,058 
357,282 
378,726 
374,810 
385,734 
308,671 
407,213 
414,738 
432,284 
427,484 
432,496 
485,787 
576,591 


NEW BRUNSWICK (RECEIPTS). 


!5L

:: 

::::::::::::
:: 
::::::::::: 
:: 
 
 
 
:: 
 
: 
:/ 
1905.... .,.... ..........."....,.... 
1906..,.. ... ......."......... 
1907....,......... ................"".,....,.. 
1908............,..,........ ,..........",....,.,.... 
1909. ..,.,."...,..,...",.....,........,.,."....",. 
1910....... , . .. , . . . , . . . ,. , . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . " . . , . ., , . . 
1911.. ...... ... ....... 
1912.....,...,..... .,.,.,..... ....,.""..,."".,. 


5 
163,225 
162,227 
160,825 
156,982 
159,741 
160,957 
160,553 
182,453 
190,854 
195,363 
196,082 
196,958 


$ 
90,492 
92,095 
94,969 
94,835 
91,947 
91,718 
91 , 429 
91,620 
91,235 
90,454 
90,193 
93,783 


$ 
346,623 
341,475 
374,196 
380,000 
387,200 
No record, 
No record. 
494,947 
539,002 
580,069 
593,073 
632,384 


769,020 
821,091 
865,886 
879,348 
923,125 


$ 
600,340 
595,797 
629,990 
631,817 
638.888 



RECEIPTS AND EÀPENDITURE 


149 


10.- R('('('lpts and Expt'ndlturc for Public 
ducatlon In Canada, b). .trminces, 
1901-1921 -continued, 


:-;E\\ BRU1\S\\ ICK (RJ!:CEIPTs)-cQPcluJed, 


I Govcrn- Municipal Loc"\l Total. 
Year ment Grant. l"undl:l, IIlcnt, 
S S 5 S 
1913. , . . . . , , . . . . . . . , , . , . , . . . . . . . , . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 196,320 97,404 618,479 942,203 
1
14.. .. _e. ........ ....... ....... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 195,261 96,946 704,476 996,6
3 
1915..,.,.", ..,. ,., .,."., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200,635 97,423 761,7j3 1,059.811 
1916....... .. 206,4"6 00,141 M4,256 1,146,883 
1917."...... .,...., .,.,.., ,.,..,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20-1,754 97,2f\4 843,357 1,14.1),395 
1918.",.... . . . . . . . , . , , . , , , , . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . , 2ð6.949 97,230 930,567 1,314,746 
InI9..,.......... '" ....", ,..., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 277,9 f1 6 99,097 1,1.1)3.163 1.530,256 
19
0 , . , , . , . . . . . . . 290,028 103,629 1,361.915 1,758,572 
19::!1..... . , . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 352,693 146,003 1,779,926 2,278,622 


QLEBEC (EXI'ZNDlTURE), 


r 
I Local J o("a 1 
I Govern- Assees- Govern- A 8b..88- 
Year. mcnt mcnt Total. Year. ment ment Total. 
Grant. and other GrJ.J1t anli other 
sources. sources. 
S S S S S S 
1001....... __ .. .... .. .. .. 453, 150 2,919,804 3,453,7j4 Hnl . 1,()('5,429 5, 72Y, 104 6,7{)4.533 
19')!... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 473.450 3.051,109 3.5
4,5 .9 19U. . 1,204,5_9 fì,212,4-10 7,416,969 
1903. , . , , . . . . . . . , . . . 4"14,960 3,"'34,074 3,718,0"'8 1913 .'...'.'.'.'.' l,bl9,OO6 7,66.765 9,225,771 
1!'104. ...... __ .. . . . . . 4fl),2 c /\ 3,347,115 3,M6.3 '5 1914. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1.724.110 7, 172 ,t-ï
 8,8f'ß,9i9 
1905......,.,. . 4"\0,760 3,603,75
 1,0M,.I)I1) 1915. .. .. .. .. .. . . . 1,7h2,417 9,( "1.206 11,463,623 
19V6..... 536,1:->0 3,b02,402 4,t) ,5\l 1916. 1 ,
 o.h3
 10. f 3,7\1\1 12.4lü,G07 
1907. . . , . . . . , . . , , . . . 540.650 4,05O.7.n 4.5
1,391 If117. . 2. ()(ìx. 766 11,b
7.4j4 13,950,220 
1908..."" , ,.' " " , 6S3.410 4,505,537 5, 14
, 947 1918..... .. , 2,077,569 12,405,301 14,4h2,87 
1009............. ,., 837,450 4,6.0,416 5,517.866 1919... . , 2, U5, 976 14,(1 d.7u
 16,844,6
 
1910. . . , ., . , . , , , , , . . 908.391 5,302.139 6,210,530 1920 , 2.334,108 16,867,297 19,201,40 
I 


O
TARIO (HECEIPT8). 


o 
4 
5 


"\ ear 


S 
377,3n
 
3 3,666 
3JO,156 
405,362 
414,004 
509,795 
655,239 
770,426 
810,5% 
805,6
.') 
8 12,377 
842,278 
778,150 
760,845 
849,872 
831,988 
907,846 
9;0,585 
1,316,529 
1,612,837 


LLEME:!IoTARY ScHOOLS, 
Local I Clergy Re- Tot'll for 
A. - serve Fund f'econdary 
menta. anù other Total. Schools. I 
8l)urCeB. 
S S S S 
3,7f't,070 1,46'l,6';"b 5,6

,056 7R4,626 
3,959,912 1,42:l.924 5,766,502 832, 8.
3 
4,263,f"3 1,406,957 6,061,006 876,737 
4.464,227 1,600,9 1. 6,470,571 9,5,Pu7 
4,928,790 1,8 6,490 7,229. 1 0 4 I,OH6,266 
5,529,496 1, bn3, 3'14 7,922,6b5 1,20
,7b2 
6,146,h_5 2,455,f!f\4 9,2,)7,928 1,611.5')3 
6.581,232 2,6_0,523 9,972,181 2,001,307 
6,574,3n 3,013,501 10,3PQ,468 2, li3, 5 .3 
7,334,458 3,573,507 11,713,600 2, ]Ð5.322 
7,826,(''-13 3,778, b3 12,4%.643 2,180,026 
9,478,
 ')7 3,936,Sh7 14,258,052 2,709,3 9 
9,fl)l ,:;öO 4,025,284 14,6"",814 3,6 6,267 
12,608,865 4,Ofì9,5f\5 17,439,275 4,b57,437 
11,810,023 4,0'\9,210 16,749,105 3,35
,731 
11,010.356 4,3
7,n6 16,080,01,2 3,300,9Û 
12,193,439 4,16
.OOO 17,269,2
5 3,412.115 
13,114,725 4,271'1,9.57 18.364,267 3,241,478 
14.364,049 6,912,656 2
,5ú3.234 3,605.113 
18,766,800 9,413,521 29,793,158 3,086,440 


\ Government 
Grants. 


1901" ..................,.. 
1002.,.... ...." ....'...... 
1903. __ _ .. . .. . 
1904,.,." ".,.., .,'.." "" 
1905."." ,...." ,...... ,... 
1906.... .. . .. .. , , . . , ., " , ., . 
1007. . , . , . . , , , , , , , , . , . . , , . . . 
1008.. 
1909.,. ". ..",., ...,." ..,. 
1910.. .,................... 
1911. , . . , .. , .., ., . . , . . , , , , . . 
1912, , . , . , . . , . . , , . , , , . , , , , . . 
1913., ._..._... ._..... 
1914". .,. .,...., ..,..., .... 
1915. . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... . . . 
1916, . . . . , . . . . . , , . . , , . , , . . , . 
1917, . . , , . . , , . , , , . , . . , . . . . . . 
1918... ...... .......... ... 
1919... .....".,. ..,..., ".. 
1920, . . , , . 


Grand 
Total 


S 
6,414,682 
6,599,355 
6,937,743 
7,431,438 
8,325,400 
9,132,467 
10, f ;9, 4>>1 
11,973,488 
12,572,001 
13,908,922 
14,6;6,659 
16.967,441 
18,346,081 
22,296,712 
20,101,836 
19,4fH,009 
20,6bl,400 
21,605,745 
26, l!1
,347 
32,b79,598 


lIt is uncertain whcther or not these fiJ1;ures include the InduQtrial, Technical and Arts Schools. The 
total receipts for these schools in 1920 were $1,489,496, an increase of 8657,361 over the year belore. 



150 


EDUCATION 


lB.-Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provinces, 
1901-1921--c)ntinued. 
ONTARIO (EXPENDITURE), 


Year, 


1901.. ."" . . , , . . . . . , . , , . . . . . . 
1902. .,..".,............,.., 
1903... .,.. , . , , , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
1904. ...,.,."...."....,..,.. 
1905.,.....,.....,...,...... . 
1906.... ...,.,................ 
1907.. ..."..,............... 
1908.....,.,.,............... . 
1909........... 
1910.......,.,.....,...,.,... . 
1911.......,.."............. . 
1912,.. .......,.............. 
1913. ......,...,.,.... ....".. 
1914.,.... , . , , . . , , . '.' . . , . , . , . . 
1915..,....,..,...".,.....,. . 
1916.,...."..,..,...,....... . 
1917. . . _ . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . 
1918. ...,.. . . . . . . , . . , . . , . . . , , . 
1919....,..,.,.,.,.." ,.,.,.. 
1920, . . . , , , , , . . , , , . . . , . . . . . . . , 


Elementary Schools, 
Rent, 
repairs, 
fuel, 
and other 
expenses. 


Sites Maps, 
and 
Teachers' building apparatus, 
Salaries. school- prizes, 
houses. etc, 
$ $ $ 
3,055,321 531,072 81,685 
3,198,132 432,753 86,723 
3,309,993 428,817 74,486 
3,473,710 578,656 87,997 
3,669,230 959,137 98,209 
3,880,548 854,452 108,547 
4,389,524 1,220,820 213,096 
4,643,571 1,419,754 139,330 
.'},008,542 1,264,989 136,627 
5,310,039 2,140,200 131,171 
5,610,213 2,164,459 139,229 
6,109,547 2,777,960 167,755 
6,648,255 2,869,830 149,167 
7,203,034 4,626,030 167,283 
7,614,110 3,561,951 177,038 
7,929,490 2,232,110 192,212 
8,398,450 1,987,644 290,207 
9,027,151 1,242,642 169,136 
10,160,399 2,870,349 302,046 
13,070,038 4,792,571 333,288 


Total 
for 
Elemen- 
tary 
schools. 


$ $ 
1,052,232 4,720,310 
1,107,5524,825,160 
1,264,573 5,077,869 
1,319,130 5,459,493 
1,434,670 6,161,236 
1,559,659 6,403,206 
1,732,739 7,556, 179 
1,741,171 7,943,826 
1,731,265 8,141,423 
1,761,792 9,343,202 
1,990,383 9,904,284 
2,218,698 11,273,960 
2,658,651} 12,325,907 
2,854,62\ 14,850,968 
2,914,37714,267,476 
2,998,093 13,351,905 
3,435,534 14,111,835 
4,737,794 15,176,723 
5,518,833 18,851,627 
7,020,61525,216,512 


Total 
for 
Second- 
ary and 
Technical 
schools. 


Grand 
Total 


$ $ 
728,132 5,448,442 
769,680 5.594,840 
816,082 5,893,951 
877,087 6,336,580 
1,004,498 7,165,731 
1,029,294 7,432,500 
1,213,697 8.769,876 
1,385,832 9,329,658 
1,621,637 9,763,060 
1,636,166 10,979,368 
2,200,138 12,104,422 
2,218,148 13,492,108 
2,942,384 15,268,291 
3,739,06518,590,533 
2,781,76817,049,244 
2,794,40216,146,307 
2,743,59616,855,431 
3,412,16718,588,890 
3,795,81622,647,443 
5,409,92330,62G,435 


MANITOBA, 


Year, 


Legis- 
lative 
grant, 


1907. . . , . . , , . . . , . . , . . . , . . . .. . 
1908. . . . . , , , , . . . . , , . . . , , . . . . . . 
1909.....",..".....,.,..... . 
1910.......",.,.,.,...,..... . 
1911....... ....,..". .... ..,.. 
1913.". ,..................... 
1914....,.""".."....".,. . 
1915,.,...."..",.."."..,. . 
1916....,....,...,....,..". " 
1917..,..."..."..,.,.....,. . 
1918....,.. ., '.' . . . . . . . . . , , . . , 
1919...,..,..,.,.,.....,..... . 
1920.....,.".,......"",.., , 
1921. . . . , . , , . . . , , , . , . . . , , , , , . . 


$ 
242,383 
267,645 
282,200 
296,115 
325,410 
351,745 
390,582 
468,335 
503,774 
522,293 
616,977 
589,174 
691,981 
822,186 


Receipts. 


Muni- Deben- Prom- 
cipal tures. issory 
t.axes. notes. 
$ $ $ 
1,223,336 315,271 802,574 
1,475,473 285,091 777,417 
1,539,047 356,962 905,747 
1,682,238 425,320 1,336,370 
1,847,380 1,318,068 1,275,239 
2,198,459 987,457 960,215 
2,673,449 1,545,042 396,459 
3,047,670 1,738,926 2,071,397 
3,296,667 344,673 2,080,204 
3,445,239 321,370 947,486 
3,736,452 240,855 1,142,289 
4,200,519 188,931 1,165,751 
4,947,186 402,181 2,208,019 
6,922,864 2,250,073 2,773,212 


Balance 
from 
Sundries. pre- Total. 
vious 
years. 


$ 
141,452 
424,666 
274,803 
281,988 
76, 172 
213,283 
150,429 
122,974 
239,176 
108,046 
133,111 
264,710 
432,110 
280,644 


$ $ 
115,677 2,840,693 
111,741 3,342,033 
119,970 3,478,729 
162,736 4,184,767 
399,539 5,241,808 
302,407 5,013,566 
518,388 5,674,349 
466,837 7,916,139 
609,982 7,074,476 
376,318 5,720,752 
416,194 6,285.878 
508,3486,917,40(j 
436,168 9,117,644 
457,31213,506,292 


Year. 


Expenditure. 
Teachers' Building, Repairs Salary 
Fuel. and of 
Salaries. etc. caretaking. Sec,- Treas. 
$ $ $ $ $ 
1,009,224 460,260 79,963 126,216 23,420 
1,103,990 582,034 89,756 126,952 25,656 
1,203,232 641,900 80,921 132,421 26,174 
1,237,010 830,432 87,002 148,932 28,689 
1,452,630 1,199,288 109,299 167,734 29,218 
1,734,854 1,420,882 99,918 132,222 32,493 
1,861,809 1,426,758 146,664 242,270 37,684 
2,066,440 1,358,533 110,049 379,318 65,025 
2,195,226 823,266 165,697 358,315 41,530 
2,314,006 382,988 171,462 385,226 19,806 
2,382,840 440,221 197,258 418,660 46,249 
2,648,230 556.072 243,155 372,323 51,553 
3,296,035 958,933 354,076 479,192 96,086 
4,335,529 2,081,176 393,160 741,058 91,412 


1907, .."".,..",.,..,.. ..".,.,.,..., 
1908.". . . , ,., ., , . . . , . " . . . . , . . . , . . . , . , . , 
1909,." " ,. , , " ., . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . 
1910...,..,...... , , . " , , , , , , , . , . , , . , , , . , , 
1911.. . . . . . . . . . , , , , . , , . . . . . , , , , . , , , . , , , , , 
1913.", , . , , . . , . . , , . , . . . . . . . , . , . , . , , . . . . . 
1914.,., . , . , , , , , .. , , , . , . . , . . , . , , , . , . , , , . , 
1915,.,.. ,.,." , . , .., , .,.. . , , . , , , . ,. , , , , . 
1916.." ,. ,.., , " , , , , , ., . . . , , . , . , , . . , . , , , 
1917""..., .. '" , " '" . " . . . . . . . . , . . . .. . 
1918.""""",.,."""..."..."..", , 
1919. , . . , . . , . , , , , , , , . , . . . . . , , , , , , , , . , . , , , 
1920. . . , . . , . . . , . , . . , . . . , . . , . , . . . . . . , , , , , , 
1921. . . . . , . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . , , , . , , , , , , , , . . , 



RECEIPTS AND EXPE1VDITURE 


151 


1'.- Rl'ftll)ts and }:\pt'lldlturl' for Publlt' I:dlu'atlon In Canada, by l-roflnct's, 
1901-1921-cont illul'd. 


)[ANlTOBA (EXPENDITuRE)-concludcd. 


'lear, 


Total. 


Principal Intereøt 
of on 
Debentures, Debentures. 


1007. . , , , . , , , , , . . , . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . , . , . , . . . 
1908. , " , . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
1909. . ., , . . . , . . , . , , . . . . . . , . . . , . , , , , , , , . , , 
1910, , , . , . , . . . . . . , . . , . , . , . . , , . . , . . , , , , , . , 
HHl....,......... ... ...., ,.,.." "..,. 
1913. , . . . . , . . , . . . , , , . . , . . , . . , , , . , . , , . , , . , 
1914....,.. ..,......,.".,.. .......... .' 
1915...... .......... ....,. ,...... ..,... 
1916"" ".. ,., . " , . " , " , , . .' ..., , ,.. , ,. 
1917.............. .,... ,.. ........, 
1918.,.. ." ""... .,. ....." "..... ,., ... 
1919,. . , , , , , . . , , , , , . , . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
19
O . , . . , . . . .. ,."....".,..""..,...,. 
1921",... , , , , , . . , , , ., . , , .. , , . , . . . . , ,.. , . 


I 


hl,795 
190.893 
111, :?9.1 
269,660 
131,975 
294,030 
230,523 
1......,910 
194,257 
241,223 
360,134 
391,332 
3-17,356 
420,323 


Promissory Other 
notes. expenditure, 


I 
80,392 
99,24t> 
244,600 
127,589 
144,735 
96,979 
260,3H2 
344,476 
409, H)3 
155,619 
357,409 
400,754 
439,946 
496,565 


I 
667,791 
St>9, 334 
757,200 
1,013,076 
1,500,565 
838,162 
1,412,515 
2,260,906 
2,132,2
 
1,19t3,806 
1,055,581 
1,30.j,433 
l,b02,294 
3,049,437 


I 
200,856 
141,90" 
137,770 
169,281 
199,446 
387,255 
471,105 
34 7 , 241 
338,459 
466,166 
651,031 
M9,8Sb 
1,053,174 
1,470,545 


I 


2,729, m 7 
3,229,766 
3,335,500 
4,000,671 
6,024,890 
6,036,795 
6,079,720 
7,118,898 
6,65h,229 
5,333,302 
5,909,383 
6,61
.740 
8,b27,092 
13,079,205 



OTE.-For a summary of the principal items of Receipts nnd Expenditure from 1901 to 1006, see Year 
Rook of 1915, page 128. From 1907 the items are givcn in greater detail, 88 above, O\\ing to change 
of;) ear, no figuI"C::J were published for 1912. 


S'SKATCHEWAN (lbCEIPT8). 


Elementary Schools, 
Govern- Local Proceeds Other 
ment Assess- of De- I"ources. Total 1 , 
Grants. mcnts, bcntures, 
I I I I I 
174,218 602,624 360,206 328,313 1,465,361 
218,385 707,835 607,006 524,246 1,957,472 
402,O:!h 992,157 651,828 737, 140 2,783,153 
513,604 1,249,192 5h4,873 M4, 6O
 3,192,271 
557,299 1,369,531 5
4,741 1,2
1,011 3,672,5S
 
555,438 1,519,528 659,270 1,295,556 4,029,792 
622,088 1,929,345 1,430,603 2,048,577 6,030,613 
722,002 2,913,135 2,075,375 2,649,910 8,360,422 
867,500 4,451,326 1,037,587 2,180,074 8,536,577 
980,296 3,997,392 1,009,025 2,441,780 8,428,493 
969,709 4,694,242 649,300 2,999,443 9,312,694 
1,104,156 4,954,200 - 4,213,371 10,271,727 
1,162,400 5,618,192 455,777 1,874,459 9,110,925 
1,255,094 7,121,046 1,105,602 2,012,422 11,494,164 
1,229,934 8,826,175 1,516,765 2,341,770 13,914,643 


"\ ear, 


1906.,.". ,.,...... 


1007"" . . , , , . , , . , . 


1908..,. ,.... . , ,., . 
1909. , . , . , , . . . , . . . , 
1910. . . , . . . . . . . , , . , 
1911. .. 


1912.... . , . , , . . ... . 
1913. , . . . . , . . , , , , . . 
1914........,..... , 
1915,.,., , " ", ,., , 
1916....,..,....,. . 
1917, . . . , . . , , . , , . . , 
1918 , . , . . . . . , , . . , . , 
1919. , . , . . , , , , . . . . . 
1920"..,... ,....., 



ccondary 
Schools. 


Grand 
Govern- Total 
ml'nt Total 1. 
Grant. 


I $ $ 
- 1,465,361 
1,957,472 
- 2,783,153 
- 3,192,271 
- 3,672,582 
- 4,029,792 
36,945 242,148 6,272,761 
42,163 461,260 8,ts21,682 
53,019 483,834 9,020,411 
70,349 512,334 8,940,b27 
77,158 593,144 9,905,838 
83,496 704,485 10,976,212 
00,793 2276,161 9,387,086 
83,925 2355,74111,849,905 
107,133 444,791 14,359,434 


IThe total expenditure for secondary schools was included in that of the elementary schools up to 1912. 
2This item in 1918 and 1919 does not include money borrowed by note. 


. 



152 


EDUCATION 


IO.-Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provinces,. 
1901-1921.-continucd 
SASKATCHEWAN (EXPENDITURE). 


1906.. 
1907.. 
1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 


$ 
471,736 
585,594 
831,842 
1,044,011 
1,208,651 
1,298,925 
1,596,616 
2,059,456 
2,588,669 
2,817,412 
2,956,666 
3,303,929 
3,831,942 
4,813,000 
5,940,869 


$ 
29,076 
44,047 
59,106 
73,098 
83,635 
84,603 
94,358 
130,728 
169,491 


Paid on School 
Paid on Notes buildings 
Deben- (renewals and 
tures. and repairs, 
interest). 
S $ $ 
113,958 303,739 339,933 
149,301 423,717 530,050 
207,780 608,515 577,925 
317,173 700,483 519,302 
379,695 877,978 627,740 
369,951 1,071,783 619,601 
455,949 1,820,705 1,149.986 
678,430 2,605,280 1,898,101 
975,508 2,317,158 1,429,173 
- - 1,253,187 
- - 1,105,765 
- - 1,136,599 
1,020,574 1,588,995 845,974 
809,999 1,737,892 1,369,833 
813,266 2,178.134 1,928,150 


Care- 
taking 
and 
fuel. 


Secondary 
Total Schools. 
Expend i- Grand 
ture. Teach- Total. 
ers' Total 1 , 
Salaries, 
S S $ $ 
1,448,915 - - 1,448,915 
2,000,675 - - 2,000,675 
2,679,373 - - 2,679,373 
3,032,999 - - 3,032,999 
3,655,428 - - 3,655,428 
3,990,036 - - 3,990,036 
5,931,844 94,481 312,536 6,244,380 
8,327,179 131,414 460,725 8,787,904 
8,588,462 150,808 483,834 9,072,296 
8,163,897 157,850 501,960 8,665,857 
9,211,390 175,098 580,628 9,792,018 
10,117,716 190,703 686,392 10,804,108 
9,183,975 209,085 1,293,110 9,477,085 
11,433,258 235,460 1,350,685 11,783,943 
'> 


T h ' Offi- 
Year, eac .era cials' 
Salanes. Salaries 


S 
47,251 
84,565 
95,762 
130,558 
144,206 
172,993 
202,531 
294,710 
369,802 


- 14,141,188 3",,5,497 468,47714,609,665 


IThe secondary school expenditure was included in that of the elementary schools until 1912: the items 
for 1918, 1919 and 1920 do not not include promissory notes. 


ALBERTA (REC.EIPTS,) 
Govern- Local Proceeds Borrowed Other 
1: ear. ment Assess- of Deben- by Sources, Total. 
Grants. n
ents. tures. Note. 
S $ S S S $ 
1906... __ 142,836 416,344 297,158 292,786 140,797 1,289,921 
1907. .. . . . . , . .......... . 197,768 544,716 442,431 431,561 160.224 1,776,700 
1908...................,... . 220,712 917,515 764,069 539,939 106,382 2,548,617 
1909. . . .......... . 307,186 961,959 9!)2,516 535,896 234,440 3,031,997 
1910...,.. ............... . 301,239 1,278,013 673,333 848,625 86,155 3,187,365 
1911...__, 432, 877 1,575,412 1,481,173 1,461,208 120,363 5,071,033 
1912...... .. , ...... . 414,116 1,793,480 1,491,498 2,665,063 262,761 6,626,918 
1913............ . 461,289 2,901,214 3,497,863 1,959.495 228,650 9,048,511 
1914......,..........,.. .... 507,682 3,028,776 966,350 2,771,380 279,324 7,553,512 
1915. , . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540,235 3,133,323 951,205 2,473,976 258,865 7,957,604 
1916....... " . 553,141 3,749,007 155,883 I, 105, 538 1,203,814 6,767,383 
1917. .. .. . . .. , ............ . 652,557 3,657,510 268, 102 1,451,229 497,479 6,526,878 
1918............,.... ....." 625,830 5,132,232 433,126 1,173,546 195,990 7,560,724 
1910. . . , . . , , . , . , . . , . . , . , . . . . 713,083 5,601,713 655,960 1,388,001 410,235 8,768,992 
1920. . , . . , . , . . , . . . . , . . . , , , , . 885.5
4 6 894 401 865 195 1,948,257 279,776 10,873,153 
ALBERTA (EXPENDITURE.) 


1906., "" , , _ . , , . . , . , . . . . 
1907 . . . , , . . , , . . . . . . , . , . . , , , . , . 
1908.,.."...,....,.,.,..,." . 
1909..................,...., . 
1910.. ,.,.. ",.""....,.,... 
1911.. .....,.. '....,.... .., 
1912. , . , . , . . , . . . . . . , , , , , . , . , . , 
1913...,.., , . " ...,.,..,.".. 
1914..,..., . . , . , , . , . , , , . , . , , , . 
1915. , .. . , , . . , . . . , . , , . . . , . , , . . 
1916...... , .. . . , . . . , , . , , , . _ . . , 
1917, , , , , . , . . . . . , , , , , . . . , . , . , , 
1918.".", " .,. , . , " ., . . " ,. . 
1919.."", . . , . . . , . . . . , . . , . , . , 
1920, . . . . . . , , . . . , . , . , . , , . , . , . . 


$ 
386, 108 
497,746 
592,223 
758,816 
908,045 
1,144,584 
1,411.20] 
1,672,526 
2,050,697 
2,244,964 
2,421,404 
2,620,085 
2,860,352 
3,560,318 
4,371,508 


Paid on School 
Officials Paid on Notes buildings 
Salaries. Deben- (renewals) and 
tures. and repairs, 
interest). 
$ $ 8 S 
23,796 94,947 298,984 274,525 
36,755 131,488 295,517 486,824 
39,974 207,775 639,459 607,635 
52,785 244,185 574,725 638,065 
64,241 347,220 653,987 862,295 
87,409 408,442 1,309,134 1,223,142 
114,382 482,906 2,021,030 1,526,001 
180,165 594,051 3,160,030 1,816,203 
179,453 815,062 2,350,462 1,324,470 
185,616 1,06:>,437 2,731,279 443,641 
230,931 956,563 1,266,884 325,297 
193,484 1,100,181 1,068,058 414,105 
198,870 1,054,044 1,59ð,757 604,891 
225,242 1,051,171 1,503,944 765,935 
258 249 1 053 328 1 785 432 1 92 86 


Other 
Expen- 
diture, 


Total 
Expen- 
diture. 


Year, 


Teachers' I 
Salaries. 


s S 
180,747 1,259,107 
345,623 1,793,953 
306,616 2,393,682 
467,282 2,735,858 
526,606 3,362,394 
853.062 5,025,773 
1,111,762 6,667,282 
1,261,211 8,684,186 
1,114,747 7,834,891 
1,294,533 7,965,470 
920,535 6,121,614 
1,199,640 6,595,562 
1,179,777 7,496,691 
1,698,919 8,805,529 
,0 , 3 2,082,94910,644,329 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE 


153 


10.-Uf'crlph and }
xpendlture for Public Education In Canada, b) Pro,incc
, 
1901-19')1.-concluded. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA (EXPF.XDlTURJ:.) 


I t 
Cities, Cities, 

tuni("ipal- 'funicipal- 
Provincial ities, Provincial ities, 
Year, Govem- Rural and Total. Year. Govem- Rural and Total. 
mento. Assisted ment, Assisted 
Schools, Schools, 
S S S S S S 
1901.",.., . , . 350,532 182,160 532,692 1912. 1,151,715 2,730,773 3,8
2,48 
1902.....,.. .. 438,
6 150,4b2 5
'1,568 1913. . 1,663,003 2.995,8f!2 -I,658,R9 
1903. . , . . , , , . . 473,802 130,556 604,358 191-1.,.,..,.. I, bb5, 6,'>-\ 2,749,223 4,634,87 
lOOt....,.... . 453.313 144.451 5n,764 1915. , , , , . . . . 1,60;,651 2,309,7"15 3,917,44 
1905......... . 479,158 249,891 729,049 1916.,.. ,.,.. 1,591,3.!2 1,625,028 3,216,3 
1006..... 444,543 244,19g 6R8,ï.n 1917 , . 1,600,125 1,537,539 3,237,66 
1907, . , , , . , . , . 474,60
 3f10, 163 6tH,771 1918.. , 1,6,'>3,797 1,865,218 3,519,01 
1908....... .. . 544,672 675,838 1,2
O,510 1919.,..::::: 1,791,154 2,437,:>66 4,228,72 
1909,.... 62t> ,074 921,6_6 1 , 54 7 . 700 U
20..,.,., ., 2,155,935 3,314,246 5,470,18 
1910..... 818,576 1,098,660 1,917,236 1921.,...... . 2,931,5;2 4,238,458 7,170,0 
1911..... , 1,001,b08 1,639,714 2,641,522 


8 
5 
7 
6 
50 
4 
5 
o 
o 
30 


11.- \H'raa;l' \noual 
alaril's of School Tt'achers, b)' PrO\lnces, 19"!O-
1 or 
lat,'st )'('ar r
'p.Þrted. 


Pro\ ince and Class of 
Certificate. 


Femalo. 


Prince l:dward Island, 1921- 
rirst class... . . , , ,. ".".., 
:"'l cond cla..
...., . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 
1'hird cl88S....".......""... 
Xova Scotia, 1921- 
Class. \ . . , , , . . " , . . . . . . , . . , . . . , 
Class B......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Class (" . . , , , , , . , . , , , . . , , , . , . 
Cb--8 D... . . . . . , , . , , , , , , , 
Academic.. ... ... ...... 
Xew Brunswick, 1921- 
rirst class. . . . , . , . . , , , , , . . . , , . . 
Second cl . . . , , , . , .. ......,. 
Third cl . . . . .. .. . .. ... , 
t;uperior school!'!. . .. , . . . .. .. , , . 
Grammar schools..... ... , 


Quebec, 19201- 
Protestant schools.."......,., 
Roman Catholic schools. . , , . . . 
Ontario, 1920- 
Public and Separate schools- 
First class. . . . . , . , . . , , , , , . . , . 
f-:econd class..... . .. . . . . . . , . . 
Third class and district certi- 
ficate..,..... . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
High Schools and Collegiate 
InatitutPR, 1921- 
Principals. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . 
A
<1iqt
nts. , . , . . .. .. . , ,... . 
Continuatbn 8chools- 
Principals. . . . __ __ . . 
Assistants.., . , , . , ,. , . . . . . , . . 

Ianitoba, 1918- 
Highest salary. . , . . . , . . . .., , . . . . 
A verage salary for province. .. 
A verage, cities and toW'DS, .., , . 
Highest rural school.,. . . , . . . , . 
A verage rural school. . . . . . , . , . . 


'[ale. 


Female 


Male, 


S 
8R6 
574 
563 


1,471 
1,075 
791 
547 
1,802 


007 
6'i7 
5.J7 
431 
1,2
2 


Province and Class of 
Cf>rtificate. 


, 
650 
503 
3 


Saskatche", an. 1 !J.lOL- 
Rural schools- 
FIl'bt cl' . , , , . , . ,. .,.". 
Second class,. . . . .... . . .. . 
Third claäs.. 
Provisional.. .. .. 
Cit iM, to\\ ns and vill3goe- 
First cla88., , , , , . , , .. . , . . . 
Serond clnss.. . .. .. .... .. . 
Third class., , . , .. . . .. . 
Pro\ isional. , 


S 
1,387 
1,323 
1,273 
1,301 
1,8
1 
1,6;7 
1.354 
1,225 


1,676 
1,209 
1,152 
1,091 
2,178 


2,514 
2,453 
2,3;5 
1,6b2 
1,477 


1,504 
2,114 
1,694 
1,194 


1,445 
1,311 
1,171 
1,047 


S 
1,279 
1,223 
1,171 
1,200 
1,352 
1,217 
1,123 
1,171 


1,224 
1,123 
1,0 9 
1,027 
1,583 


1,980 
1,393 
1,411 
I, 278 
1,281 


1,158 
1,222 
1,134 
1,072 


I, 178 
1,069 
1,055 
1,042 


1,525 965 
779 716 
570 5i7 
1,2'11 
2,008 


1,925 827 
1,13; 251 


1,960 898 
1,101 844 
66-1 592 


2,719 
2,471 I 1,900 
1,736 
1, 556 1 1 ,374 
3,600 
794 
962 
1,000 
628 


Alh('rta, 1920- 
First class. .. .. , .. .. . 

cond class,. , . .., '.' 
Third clase... ,....... . . 
Permit ". ....... ... 
Speciahst.... , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 


British Columbia, 1921- 
JIiJ!;h schools- 
Academic , . , , . , . . , , . , . . , 
City graded bchools- 
AC1.demic.. __.......... . _ . 
First. . . . . , . . , . . , . . . . .. .,. 
Second. . . ... ... _ , . . 
Third. , , , , . . . , , , , . . . . . , , . . 


Rural Municipality schools - 
Academic. ,." '.. 
First. . . , , , " .......,.",. 
Second. . , . , . , . , . , , . . . , . , . . 
1'hird, , , . . . , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Rural and .\ssisted schools- 
Academic........ '......., 
First.. .,..,.. . , . . . . ... . .. , 
Second. . , , . . . . . , , , . . . , . . . . 
Third. . . _ . _ .......,.,..,. 


IIn the figures for Quebec lay teachers only are included. 2 In Saskatchewan, only elementary school 
teachers are included; in 1920 the average salary of secondary teachers ",as about $2,222. 



154 


EDUCATION 


i2.-Unlversltles of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Facultl
s, and Degrees. 


Name and Address, 


University of 
St, Dunstan's, 
Charlottetown, P.E,I. 
Universit) of 
Kings' College, 
Windsor, N.S. 


Dalhousie University, 
Halifax, N .S. 


Acadia University. 
Wolfville, N ,S. 


University of St, Francis 
Xavier, Antigonish, 
N,S. 


University of New Bruns- 
wick, Fredericton, 
N.B. 


Mount Allison University 
Sackville, N ,B. 


University of St. Joseph's 
College, St. Joseph, 
N,B. 


McGill University, 
Montreal, Que. 


University of Bishop's 
College, Lennoxville, 
Que. 


Laval University, 
Quebec, Que. 


University of Montreal, 
Montreal, Que. 


Date of 
Affiliation 
Original to other 
Present Universities, 
Founda. Charter, 
tion, 
1855 - Laval. 
1789 1802 Orlord and 
Cambridge, 
1818 1863 Oxford and 
Cambridge. 
1838 1840 Orlord, Dal- 
housie and 
McGill, Nova 
Scotia Tech- 
nical. 
1855 1909 - 
1800 1860 Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, Dub- 
lin, McGill. 
1858 1886-1913 Dalhousie, 
Oxford and 
Cambridge. 
1864 1898 Oxford. 
1821 1852 Acadia, :Mount 
Allison, St, 
Francis 
Xavier, Al- 
berta, are 
affiliated to 
l\lcGill in the 
Faculty of 
Applied 
Science. 
1843 1853 Oxford and 
Cambridge. 
1852 1852 - 
1878 1920 - 


Faculties, 


Degrees, 


Arts, Preparatory B,L.. B,A., B.Sc., 
and Commercial, Ph.l\I. 
Theology, 
Arts, Law, Science, B,A" :!\I.A., B.Sc" 
Divinity. D,Sc" lVI.Sc" 
B.C,L" D,C,L., 
B,D" D.D. 
Arts and Science, B,Ä., M,A., B,Sc., 
Law, Medicine L. Mus., M.Sc., 
and Dentistry. B..Mus" Phm,B., 
LL.B" M,D., 
C,M., D,D,S" 
LL,D. (Hon,), 
Arts, Divinity, Law, B.A" B.Sc., B,Th., 
Science, Applied and M,A. 
Science, Litera- 
ture. 


Arts, Science, B,A" M,A., B,Sc., 
Engineering, Law. LL.D. 


Arts, Applied Sci- B.A" M.A" B.Sc" 
ence, Partial In Civil Engineer- 
Course in Law, ing, Electrical En- 
gineering or F or- 
estry, D,Sc. 


Arts, Theology, 
Engineering, 


Arts, Science. 


Arts, Applied 
Science, Law. 
Medicine, 
Agricul ture. 


B,A., M,A., B.Sc., 
B,D. 


B,A" B,S" B.L., 
B,C,S" M,A. 


B,A" M.A" B.C,L., 
D,C,L" LL,D., 
B,Sc., D,Sc" 
D.D,S., M,Sc., 
Mus, Bac" Mus. 
Doc,. B,S,A" 
D,Sc" B, Arch" 
l\l,D" C.M" 
D.Litt" Ph,D" 
LL,B., LL.M., 
B.Com" B.H,S. 


Arts, Divinity, B.A" M.A" B,D" 
Medicine and Law D.D., D,C,L., 
Mus. Bac., Mus. 
Doc., L.S.T. 


Theology, Law, 
Medicine, Arts. 


Theology, Law, 
Medicine, Arts, 
Domestic Science, 
Drawing, Relig- 
ious and Profane 
Music. 


M,A" B,A" B.S" 
B.L" Ph.D,. 
Ph,L" Ph.B" 
M.D" M,B., LL. 
B" LL.L" LL.D" 
D,B" D,L" D,D., 
C,L,B., C,L.L., 
C.L,D. 


Bachelor, Licenci- 
ate, Doctor. 



HIGHER FDUCA TI().V I.V CA.Y.llDJ 


135 


12. - rnhcr...Uh's of C:ulad<,: }'olludatlon, .\ftlliatl.on, }'arultlt'''' nnd D('grces-con- 
eluded. 


:-; ame nnd Add
. 


eniversity of Toronto, 
Toronto, Onto 


Victoria Unh ersity, 
Toronto, Unt. 
University of Trinit) 
College, Toronto, Onto 
Western l:'nhersity, 
London, Ont, 


Queen's Cniversity, 
Kin&ston, Ont 


Vniversity of Ottawa, 
Otta" a, Onto 


Original 
Founda- 
tion. 


1827 


1
36 


1551 


1878 


IMI 


1
49 



c)[8dter University, 
Toronto, Ont, 
University of )[nnitobn, l
i7 
Winnipeg, Man. 


Ib57 


University of Saskatche- 1907 
".an,Saskatoon,Sask. 


university of Alberta, 1906 
Edmonton, Alberta. 


University of British 1907 
Columbia, Vancouver, 
B,C. 


DATI: OJ' 


Present 
Charter, 


Cam- Arts, Medicine, Ap- B.A")LA,, Ph,D" 
and plit>d Hcit>l1ce, I'ng- LL,B., LL. )1., 
lßeerin
. Agricul- LL,D,. Mus, 
ture, l'orestry, Bac., 'Ius. Doc., 
Eòu("ation. )1.8., .!\I,D., B. 
Household A,
c., )LA.Sc" 

cien('C. C.K. E.F." )LE., 
B.Pæd" D, Pæd., 
B.S. \,' n.
c.A" 
B,
(',F" F.E., 
J>.D.
" l)hm. ß" 
B.V$c., D,V.Sc. 
Arts and Theology, D,D" D,D. 


Affiliation 
to other 
UniveI1!ities, 


1906 


Oxford, 
hridge 
Dublin, 


Faculties, 


Degrees. 


Arts and Dh inity. L.Th" B,D" D,D. 


Arts, )redicino and ß. "",, 1\1 .A" 
LD" 
Public Health, LL.D" D,Sc" 
Music. D,P,ll" Mus. 
Bach. 


8,A" 'f ,A., B.Sc., 
D.Hc., MoHc., 
)I.D., M.R, 
LL,D., B, D" 
D.D., ß, Pæd., 
D. Pæd., U. Com. 
Theolog}, PhilO8O- LT".D.. D,D"B.Ph., 
phy, Law, Artø D,Ph"B.A".M,A. 
nod Commercial. 


Arts, Science, 
Enginet'ring, 
)Iedicinc, 
Theology. 


1887 Oxford, ("am- Arts, Theology. 
bridge, Lon- 
don. 


- Arts, Science, Law, B.1\., 
1.A.t ß.Sc., 
'Iedicine, Engin- )I.D,. C.M., 
eeril1g, Architec- B.C.E" B.l
.E., 
ture, Pharmacy, l\LC.F" l\LKE., 
Agriculture, B.'I.E" B, Arch" 
Phm,B" B.S,A., 
LL.B., LL.D. 
Oxford. Arts. Science, Law, B,A" B.Sc., B.S,A., 
Agriculturl', Eng- B.E"LL,B,,
LA.. 
ineering, Pharma- 1\1.Sc. 
cy, Accounting, 
Edu("ation, 
Veterinary 
)ledicine, 
Oxford, McGill Arts and bciences, ß,A., B,Sc., M.A., 
and Toronto. Applied Science. B$.A" )[,Sc" 
Agriculture, 'Icdi- I
L.B.. Phm. R, 
cine, Dentistry, B,D., LL.D. 
Law, Schools of 
Pharmacy and 
Accountancy. 
- Arts, Applied f:,ci- B.A., B,Sc. 
ence and Agricul- 
ture. 


1836 


Toronto. 


B.A.. 
f.A., B.
c" 
B.Th., ß,D. 


hs52 


Toronto. 


1008 


IMI 


1866 


1
77 


1907 


1910 


1908 



156 


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158 


EDUCATION 


1S.-Universities of Canada: Number of Students 


Name and Address of 
University. 


St. Dunstan's "Pniversity, Char- 
lottetown, P .E.I. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . 
University of !(ing's College, 
Windsor, N.S................... 
Dalhousie University, Halifax, 
N,S,.",.,..,......,........... 
Acadia University, Wolfville, 
N.S...,.......... ..... .....,... 
University of St, Francis Xavier, 
Antigol'ish, N .8,. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
University of New Brunswick, 
Fredericton, N,B........ ....... 
University of Mt. Allison, Sack- 
ville, N.B. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
University of St. Joseph's College, 
St.Joseph,N.B..... .......,.. 
:McGill University, Montreal, Que, 
University of Bishop's College, 
Lennoxville, Que.............,. 
Laval University, Quebec, Que... 
University of Montreal, Montreal, 
Que......,..................... 
University of Toronto, Toronto, 
Ont..."............,.... 
Victoria University, Toronto, 
Ont...,."............,........ 
University of Trinity College, 
Toronto, Ont....., . . . , . . . . . . . . . 
Western University, London, Onto 
Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont"..."...,..,.............. 
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 
Ont....",..., .,...,., .,.,..... 
Mc)laster University, Toronto, 
Ont......"..,......,......,... 
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 
l\{an,......,.." ......,.......,. 
University of Saskatchewan, 
Saskatoon, Sask....... . . . . . . . . . 
University of Alberta, Edmonton, 
Alta...",.. ..,....... ....,.... 
University of British Columbia, 
Vancouver, B.C..",.",.",." 


Total by sex. . , . . , , . . , . . . . , ,. M. 
F. 


Grand total.. . . , , . , , , , . , . . , . . 


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1\ Exclusive of 407 men and 232 women in Arts, Pure Science, etc., registered at Victoria and Trinity 
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>-4 



162 EDUCATION 


17.-Colleges of Canada: Foundation, .-\.fIl1iation, Faculties and D('grees. 


Name and Address. 


Prince of Wales College, I 
Charlotteto" n, P ,E.I. 
Presbyterian College, 
Halifax, N .S. 
College of Saint Anne, 
Church Point. N .S. 
Technical College, Hali- 
fax, N .S, 


J\.gricultural College, 
Truro, N ,S. 
Holy Heart Theological 
College, Halifax, N .S. 
St. Mary's College, Hali- 
fax, N .S. 
Macdonald College, Ste. 
Anne de Bellevue, Que. 
Ecole Des Hautes Etudes 
Commerciales. :Mont- 
real, Que. 
Stanstead Wesleyan Col- 
lege, Stanstead, Que, 
Presbyterian College, 
:)Iontreal, Que. 
Congregational College of 
Canada, )Iontrpal, Que. 
Montreal Diocesan Theo- 
logical College, '!tlont- 
real, Que. 
Wesleyan Theological 
College, Montreal, Que. 
Wycliffe College, Toron- 
to, Ont. 
Knox College, Toronto, 
Ont, 
St. 
Iichael's College, 
Toronto, Onto 
Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege, Guelph, Onto 
Ontario College of Art,2 
Toronto, Onto 
Ontario Law School, Os- 
goode Hall, Toronto, 
Ont, 
Toronto Bible College, 
Toronto, Onto 
Ontario College of Phar- 
macy, Toronto, Ont. 
Royal College of Dental 
Surgeons of Ontario, 
Toronto. Onto 
Ontario Veterinary Col- 
lege, Toronto, Ont, 


Waterloo College.Luther. 
an Theological Semin- 
ary, Waterloo, Ont, 
Huron College, London, 
Ont, 
St. Jerome's College, 
Kitchener,Ont. 
Royal Military College, 
Kingston, Onto 


Original 
Founda- 
tion. 


1888 
1894 
1841 
1907 


1907 


1872 
1865 
1839 


1873 


1f,72 
1879 
1843 
1852 
1874 


1912 


1871 
1868 


1862 


1911 


1863 
1864 
1875 


DATE oJ!' 


Present 
Charter. 


1836 


1820 
1890 
1907 


{T niversity 
Affiliation. 


Faculties. 


1860 


Practicallv all Arts, 
Canadiån 
r ni versi ties. 
Dalhousie, Theology. 


1892 


- Arts, Science. 
Acadia, King's, Engineering. 
St Mary's, 
Dalhousie, 
M t. Allison, 
St, Francis 
Xavier. 


1905 
1906 
1841 


:McGill. 


1907 


Laval. 


1872 


1865 


)lcGill, 


Amended 11cGill, 
1864 & 
18b9 
1879 )lcGill, 


Taken 
over by 
Govern- 
mentin 
1908 
1912 


1879 )lcGill. 


1916 Toronto. 
1858 Toronto, 


- Toronto. 


1874 


Toronto. 


1912 


1884 
1911 


foronto. 


Toronto, 


Toronto. 


1863 
1866 


Agriculture. 


Degrees. 


D.D., B.D. 
B,A" B. Sc., M.A. 
B. Sc. in l\I.E., C. 
E., E,E" Mch. E. 


Associate Diploma. 


Theology, Philoso- T.B., T.L,. D,D., 
phy. Ph. D. 
Arts, Partial Course B.A. 
in Engineering, 
Agriculture, House-M.S,A., B.H,S" 
hold Science, B,S.A., B. Sc. in 
Agr, 
Commerce. L.S,C" C,L. 


Arts, Commercial, Diploma. 
:M usic. 
Theology, 


Theology. 


Divinity. 


Theology. 
Theology. 
Theology. 
Arts. 


B.D.,D.D, 
B.D.,D.D, 


B,D" D,D, 


B,D" S,T,D., D.D. 
L. Th., B.D" :p,D. 
B,D" D,D. 
B,A" M.A., Ph. D,l 


Agriculture, Domes- B,S.A. 
tic Science, Man- 
ual Training. 


Pharmacy. 
Dentistry . 


Veterinary . 


Arts, Theology. 


Western Univer- Theology. 
sity, 


Arts, Scholastic 
Philosophy. 


Diploma. 


L.D,S.C 


V.S.& 


B,A" M.A. 


Diploma with title 
L. Th,e 


Diplom
 and Diplo- 
ma wIth Honours. 



lIIG/lEll ED
.C t7'IO.V IS' C1.V.tDA. 


Ih3 


17.-Colle e of Canada: }'oundatlon, ..\lIillatlon. }'aculti('s dud Degrees-concluded. 


Name and Addre. 


Branllon College, Bran- 
don. Man. 


The 'hni toba Law 
School. Winnipeg. )Ian, 
\\ e..ley Colle&e. Winnipeg. 

Ian, 

anitoba College. Win- 
nipeg. )Ian. 

Ianitoba -\gricultural 
Colle&c.Winnipc&. .\I.1n. 

t. John.
 Collep;e, Win- 1866 
nipeg. )bn, 
Emmanuel College. Sask- Ibj9 
atoon.
ac:;k. 
Presb
 teriun Theological 1911 
College. :5askatoon. 

3.'!k. 
"t. Chad's College. Re- 1907 
p;ina, 
"\Sk. 
Edmonton Je:,uit Collegp, 1913 
Edmonton. Alberta. 


Robertson Colll'ge, 1910 
Edmontun ,::;outh), 
\Iherta. 
Institute of Technology 1916 
and .\rt. Calgary, 
Alberta, 
fhe Anglican Theological 
College. Vancouver, 
R.C, 
C'olum bia :\Iethodist Col- Ib92 
lpge. Xew Westminster, 
B.C. 


Royal Xaval College. 
Esquimalt. B.C. 
Victoria College, Vic- 
toria. B.C. 


DATE or 


Original 
I.'ounrla- 
tion. 


Pr
nt University 
Charter, Affiliation. 


Facultil'!I. 


\rts. Theology, 
Academic, 
Business, 
Music. 
Law. 


\rts. Theology, 
:\Iatricul,\tion, 
Theology. 


Agriculture, 
Home 
Economics. 


1 3 


'\Ianitoba. 
Saskatche" an , Divinity. 
Saskatchewan. Divinity. 


De&rl'l'f'I. 


B.A. bv "(."aster 
U nÎ\ èrsity. 


LL,B. by rniver- 
sit\", 
B. D
, D,D.7 
B.D. 
B.S.A. 


B.D. 
L,Th" B.D., D,D. 
ß,D"D.D. 


D.D. 


Diplomas. 


1911 


British Colum- Artø and pure Sci- 
bia. encc. 


:\lidshipman, R C. 

. 


1913 


Laval. 


Sa.skatche"an, Divinity. 


Preparatory, 
Commercml, 
Classical. 
Theology, 


Technical 
CoUl'8C8. 


Academic, 
'I usic, 
Busincøs. 


1899 



Ic
laster. 


1914 


'Ianitoba. 


IDegrees oonferred by the t:'niversity of Toronto, 
Succeeding Ontario School of Art founded in 1876. 
'The rniver.;:ity of Toronto grants the degree }>hm, B. 41'he degrel' of D.D$. is conf{'rred by the rm- 
versity of Toronto. 'The degrees of B.V. Sc. and D.V$c. are conferred by the 'Cnivcrsity of Toronto. 
IIDegrees in Arts and Theology are conferred by the" estern Lnivprsity. 7The degree of B.A. i
 conferred 
by the rniversity of l\Ianitoba, 


Ibjì 


1877 :\Ianitoba. 

Ianitoba. 

Ianitoba. 


KOTE.- 
In addition to the above colleges there are 21 cla
ical colleges and 2 agricultural colleges in the province 
of Quebec. The ela..c:;sical colleges with the dates of their foundation are as follo"s: Chiooutimi (1873), 
Joliette (1846). L'Assomption (1
32). Uvis (lS53). :Mont Laurier (1910), Montreal (Loyola) (l8n6).l\Iontreal 
(Ste, 
Iarie) (1848). 'font real (St, Sulpice) (1767). :Kicolet (lh03). Quebec Petit Séminair{" (1663), Rigaud 
(1851), Rimouski (1855), St, Alexandre de la Gatineau (1911), Ste Anne de la Pocatière (1827), St, 
Hyacinthe (1811). St. Jea" (1911), St. Laurent (1847). Ste. Thêr
e (1825). Sherhrooke (1875), Troi8 Riv. 
ières (1860) and Valley field (1893). The t"o agricultural oolleges are the Institut d'Oka and the agricul- 
tural school at Ste. Anne de la Pocatière. Of the 9,033 pupils in the classical colleges in 1921, 804 were in 
pnmary courses. 2.539 in commercial courses and 5.690 in classical courses, Of the last mentioned 650 were in 
colleges affiliated or annexed and 114 in colll
ges associated with Laval rnivcrsity. These "ere evi- 
dently doing work of univer"it}, grade. 


38131-11! 


1
71 


1003 


1916 


Alberta. 


1893 


Toronto. 


, 



164 


EDUCATION 


IS.-Professional and Affiliated Colleges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 
Students, 1920-21. 


Number of Teaching Number of Students, 
Staff . 
Name and Address. 
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female, Total. 
-- - - - 
Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown, P.E.I........ 7 5 12 78 163 241 
Presbyterian College, Halifax, N ,S" (1920),......... 4 4 32 32 
College of Ste. Anne, Church Point, N .S., . , . . . . . . . . , 10 10 130 130 
Technical College, Halifax, N.S.", , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 33 33 
Agricultural College, Truro. N ,S, ,.., .............., 16 2 18 388 170 558 
Holy Heart Theological College, Halifax, N .S... . . . , 7 7 92 92 
St, Mary's College, Halifax, N .S,. , . . .. . .. , . . . . . . . . . , 12 12 195 195 
Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Que...,., 46 19 65 204 299 503 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Montreal, 
Que. . , , . . , . , , . , , , , . . , , , , . , , , , , , , . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . . . . 22 22 253 253 
Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stanstead, Que......... 5 4 9 141 113 254 
Presbyterian College, Montreal, Que......., . . . . . . .. , 5 5 48 48 
Congregational College of Canada, Montreal, Que., , . 2 2 15 15 
Montreal Diocesan Theological College, Montreal, 
Que. , , . , , . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 4 4 20 20 
Wesleyan Theological College, Montreal, Que,....... 3 3 128 128 
Chicou timi Classical College.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 45 45 600 600 
.. 
J oliette Classical College, . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 46 46 405 405 
L' Assomption Classical College,......... . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 46 363 363 
Lévis Classical College.,..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 694 694 
Mont Laurier Classical College.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18 150 150 
Montreal (Loyola) Classical College........ ........ . 22 22 348 348 
Montreal (Ste. Marie) Classical College.............. 41 41 603 603 
Montreal (St. Sulpice) Classical College........... .. . 25 25 351 351 
Nicolet Classical College.. 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 42 373 373 
Quebec (Petit Sém.) Classical College........ ...... . 44 44 781 781 
Rigaud Classical College..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 40 316 316 
Rimouski Classical College.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 (0 308 308 
St. Alexandre de la Gatineau Classical College....... 15 15 208 208 
Ste, Anne de la Pocatiêre Classical College. . . . . . . . . . 47 (7 644 644 
St. Hyacinthe Classical College,.................... 39 39 478 478 
St. Jean Classical College, .......................... 31 31 279 279 
St. Laurent Classical College..... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 54 54 514 514 
Ste. Thérêse Classical College. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 38 366 366 
Sherbrooke Classical College..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 47 515 515 
Troia Riviêres Classical College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 35 452 452 



BIG/fER EDUCATION IJ.V C..tNAnA 


lü5 


lð.-Profl'sslonal and AUUiatNI CoUeJ:e
 of Canada: ",umber or Te:,chln 
taff 8n(1 
Students, 19')O-21-concludcd. 


Name and Addreøø. 


Number of Teaching 
Staff. 


Number of Stuùcnts. 


Male. Female. Total. Male, Female, Total. 


Valley field CI888ical College., . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
Oka A&ricultuml SchooL,......,.,..,.,.."........ , 
Ste. Anne de 1a Pocatiêre Agricultuml School. . . . . . . , 
Wycliffe College, Toronto, Ont.... . ..... . .. ........ 
Knox College, Toronto, Ont.... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Michael's Coltege, Toronto, Ont................ . 
Ontario Agricultural Colte e, Guelph, Ont.... ... . .. , 
Ontario College of Art, Toronto, Ont..... . . .... .... . 
Ontario College of Phannacy, Toronto, Ont. . . . . . . . , 
Ontario Law School, Osgoodo Hall, Toronto, Ont.., . 
Toronto Bible Coltege, Toronto, Ont, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
Royal College of Dental burgeons, Toronto, Ont.. . . , 
Ontario Veterinnry College, Toronto. Ont........ .... 
"aterloo College, Lutheran Theological Semi- 
nary, \\ aterloo, Ont.,.. . , . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
Huron College, London, Ol1t.,...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , 
St. Jerome's College, Kitchener, Ont..............., 
Ro)-al Military College, Kingston, Ont............., 
Brandon College, Brandon, 'Man,..................., 
)[anitoba Law School, Winnipeg, Man. ... .. ...... ... 
Wesley Coltege, Winnipeg, !\Ian............"........ 
Manitoba College, Winnipeg, Man..................., 
Manitoba Agricultuml College, Winnipeg, Man.... .. . 
St.1ohn's College, Winnipeg, Man.., ............... , 
Emmanuel College, Saskatoon, Sask,."..... . , , . , . . . 
Presbyterian Theologirol College, Saskatoon, Bask. . 
St, Chad's College, Regina, Bask....... . . . . . . , , . . . . , 
Edmonton Jesuit College, Edmonton, Alberta, . . ... . 
Robertson College, Edmonton (South), Alberta..... 
Institute of Technology and Art, Calgary, Alberta." 
The Anglican Theological College of B.C" Vancouver, 
B,C.""....................,.,....,."...,...., . 


Columbia Methodist College, New Westminster, 
B.C........ . , ... . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . , . . . .. . .. , .. , . .. . . , 
Royal Naval College, Esquimalt, B.C.....,... . .. .., 
Victoria College, Victoria, B.C.... , . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . , 


Total ..,.....................,...,...,.,.,..... 1,453i 
· 112 not given by sex. 


31 
17 
16 
11 
9 
25 
65 
7 
( 
7 
6 
79 
23 


6 
5 
10 
22 
18 
21 
22 
5 
60 


3 
4: 
7 
20 
2 
19 


4 


9 
6 
3 


12 
13 
7 


5 


1 
12 


12 


2 


31 
17 
16 
12 
9 


37 367 


78 1,237 


14 189 


4 
7 
6 
80 
23 


6 
5 
10 
22 
23 
21 
22 
6 
62 


3 
( 
8 
20 
2 
19 


( 


21 
6 
5 


285 
121 


82 


59 
130 


158 


420 
147 
873 
96 


56 
23 
200 
163 
119 
102 
245 
12 
621 


18 
43 
7 
226 
21 
657 


13 


61 
45 
35 


285 
121 
82 
59 


75 
117 
539 
371 
10 
16 
330 
17 


205 


484 


1,776 


560 


lÞb 


436 
477 
890 
9ð 


140 
2 
135 
5 
391 



6 
23 
200 
163 
3711 
104 
380 
17 
1 012 


18 
44 
7 


226 


21 
657 


13 


104 


165 
45 
76 


.7 1,550 17,331 3,038 20,481 1 


40 



166 


EDUCATION 


19.-Colleges of Canada: 


J 
z 


Name and Address. 


1 Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown, P,E.I..., . . 
2 Presbyterian College, Halifax, N .S, (1920).."",., . 
3 College of Ste,Anne, Church Point, N .S, , ". ..' . . .. 
4 Teehnical College, Halifax, N.S...,.....,.."..".. 
0) Agricultural College, Truro, N .S,. . . . .., ., . . . . , , . . , 
6 Holy Heart Theological College, Halifax, N .S., , , , . , 
7 St. Mary's College, Halifax, N.S..,...".,.,...,... 
8 
Iacdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Que.... 
9 Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Montreal, 
Que........,.,.,....."".,.,.".......,...... 
10 Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stanstead, Que, (1920) 
11 Presbyterian College, Montreal, Que.. . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
12 Montreal Diocesan Theological College, Montreal, 
Que..,...........",........"............ ... 
13 Congregational ColIege of Canada, Montreal, Que .. 
... Wesleyan TheologIcal College, Montreal, Que.,..... 
15 Wycliffe College, Toronto, Ont.,."....,..",...... 
16 Knox College, Toronto, Ont.........,......"...... 
1ì St. Michael's College, Toronto, Ont. (1920)......... 
18 Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont, (1920)... 
19 Ontario College of Art, Toronto, Ont.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
20 Ontario College of Pharmacy, Toronto, Ont,.... .., 
21 Ontario Law School, Toronto, Ont... , . . . . , . . . . . . . . 
22 Toronto Bible ColIege, Toronto, Ont. . . , , . . . . . . . . . . 
23 Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario, Tor- 
onto, Ont.."... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ",...... 
21 Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Ont. . , . . , . . . . 
25 Waterloo College, Lutheran Theological Seminary, 
Waterloo, Ont.. .."..,..,.,.,..." ............ 
26 Huron College, London, Onto . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
21 St. Jerome's College, Kitchener, Ont... ......... 
28 Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont... .... ...... 
29 Brandon College, Brandon, l\Ian........ . . . " ....... 
:10 The Manitoba Law School, Winnipeg, Man... _ , . 
31 Wesley College, Winnipeg, Man.,.,..............,.. 
32 
Ianitoba College, Winnipeg, Man. . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 
33 
Ianitoba Agricultural College, Winnipeg, 
r.an.... .. 
3-1 St, John's College, 'Vinnipeg, Man. (1919)....."..,. 
35 Emmanuel College, Saskatoon, &ask....... . .. . . . , . . 
36 Presbyterian Theological College, Saskatoon, Sask. 
31 St. Chad's College, Regina, Sa:sk. . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
38 Edmonton Je:mit College, Edmonton, Alberta...,... 
39 Robertson College, Edmonton (South), Alberta... . 
40 / , In"titute of Technology and Art, Calgary, Alta.... . 
41 Anglican Theological College of B.C" Vancouver, 
B.C..........................,................ 
42 I COIB



. .



.




, ?
l


:. 


. 
:








r: 
-13 Royal :N"aval College, Esqmmalt, B.C.. ". ..,'.,. . 
4-1 1 Victoria College, Victoria, B.C,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . 
Tðtal... .,. . . . . . . . " , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . 


Value of 
Endow- 
ment. 


$ 


149,042 


4,000,000 


154,328 
368,403 
191,672 
139, 105 
129,552 
291,245 
458,932 


12,080 


25,000 


64,026 


102,230 


155,910 
149,866 


200,000 


11,000 


4,000 


43,882 
10,000 


6,710,333 1 


Value of 
Land and 
Buildings, 


$ 
450,000 
180,000 
100,200 
2-10, 000 
400,000 
400,000 
150,000 
3,500,000 
640,444 
210,800 
213,489, 
105,927 
100,00(, 
300.000 
224,814 
700,000 
585,000 
2,000 000 
124,781 
50,337 


370,000 


60.466 
5
,030 


222,416 


707.oao 
430,000 
4,05tì,474 
2.jO,000 
70,300 
26.000 
140,000 
175,000 
12,000 
93,575 
20.347 
135,269 


1ì ,..164-,639 1 


Value of 
Scientific 
Equipment. 


S 
2,000 


1,260 
200,000 
25,000 


2,500 
250,000 
25,029 


5.000 


10,329 


80,000 


1,000 


7,813 


1,000 


1, 000 
1,000 
56, 519 


669,650 


Value of 
other 
Property. 


s 


4 550 


200 


10,000 
7,969 


"!7 , 394 


100,000 


10,000 
181,000 


11,000 


1,556 


19.1,469 


1lncluding $300,000 not specified by St. Jerome's CoJlege. 2lncluding: $153,98;' not specified by Manitoba 
Agricultural College. 3N et expenditure alter receipts from farm to the amount of $18,509, forwarded 
to the Government, were deducted. 



lIIGlIRR BDeC t1'JOAV I
\ C L\AD.l 


Itj7 


11nan('1a1 Statlsth.s, 19'!O-21. 


Sources of Income. Expenùi ture. 
Totnl Tohl 
Value of Inv
t- Govcrn- üth{'f Income. 
Propl'rty, moots. mcnt F
. Sources. Current. C.lpital. Totul. ;:) 
Grant.$. 
 
S S S S S S S S S 
.1.')2 , 00 - 25.000 1.400 - 26.400 22.000 3.000 25.000 1 
:l:?9, 04 
 12.379 - - 14.004 26.383 - - - % 
lOb. 010 - - 19.545 10.3.37 29.002 28. ,..0 - 2S.ÎhU 3 
.UO.OOO - 56.756 - - 56.756 56.756 1.732 58,4S8 4 
-I25,OOJ - 77 .156 - - 77 .156 5
.647 1.115 59.762 I 5 
-100.000 - - 12.500 3.000 15. ,')00 17.
00 - 17.800 , 
152.500 500 - 21.000 5.500 27.000 25.000 10.000 35.000 '1 
7.750.000 205.363 11.500 14.667 135.000 368.530 356.030 12,500 368,530 8 
66;).473 - 60.000 6.940 1.166 68, 106 80.377 - 80,377 t 
365.12
 4,30:1 800 55.597 8.863 67,5&3 81,608 - 81.608 10 
5!
:? , 092 16,435 - 4,000 300 20.735 26,945 - 26,945 11 
305.561'> 11.183 - 8.975 6.30; 26.4ll., 20.415 - 26.415 t
 
2-1-1. 105 7.561 - - 6,413 13,974 13. 107 2.375 15.4S2 13 
429.5,)' 6.482 - 307 IS,OnO 24. ;1'\" 25,317 - 25.317 If 
.')43,45. 18.401 - 150 64.3h6 82.93; 67,3hl 14.506 81,7S7 15 
1.15h,932 26,952 - 116 41.030 61'\.0(' 52.1,')1. 20,330 72.4
lì I' 
5ð5,OO' - - 24.000 8.750 33,650 33.650 - 33,650 11 
2.000,00.1 - 139.771 18.416 - 15S.187 471.06h - 471.06X IS 
124.7hl - 25.000 6.644 191 31.83,') 26.808 4.857 31. GG5 I' 
;2.741. 557 - 41,3\JJ 6.3-17 48.297 35.264 - 35,264 20 
- - - - - - - - - %1 
12.3,000 2,042 - 920 12.088 15.050 15,030 - 15,030 n 
450.00" - - 1
9,633 29.5;1 219.20-1 J65.077 119,142 284.219 U 
- - 42.850 8.100 - 50.950 42.850 - 42.850 
t 
61,40 - - 2.400 11,240 13.640 13.278 - 13,278 %5 
11-1.026 5.649 - 909 9.364 15.922 Ii, 547 - 10.547 , 
3JO.00 - - 40.000 3.000 43.00" 38.000 - 38,000 t7 
- - - - - - - - - 1 2S 
332,45
 5.028 - 26.271 64.80
 96,10; ;0.831 21.495 \12,326(' 
- - - 7.172 3.167 10.339 10.623 - 10.623 30 
873,970 9.744 - 11.000 37.
2 58.546 49.099. - 49.0\19 :11 
bI7.8-,lJ 11. 956 - - 11.30' 23.26\1 33.ðÍJO - 33.860 3
 
4.95ð.471 - - - - 153.9h5 325,321 19.307 344, 62
YJ3 
4:>0.00'1 - - 2,000 9,900 11.000 - - - 3-1 
iO.300 747 - 750 18.3ð-l 19.
1 19,794 - 19. Î94,3
 
26.00ù - - 150 12.124 12.2;4 11.572 900 12.172 35 
151.00 t 54" - 350 6.165 7.063 7.&';2 - 7.852 37 
190.000 - - 4S,224 6.29b 54.522 51.797 - 51.79i :J
 
li.OOO 242 - - 9.000 Y.242 6,:?-I2 - 6,242 3' 
151.650 - - 1.540 - 1.540 \J.939 ;5.625 85.561 to 
64 . 2

1 3.667 - 1,435 6.787 11.&
 11.566 3,200 14.766 .u 
145. 26
1 4.3
 1,311 37.911 25,S22 65. 50! 46.841 18.661 65,502 .J
 
- - - - - - - - - t:J 
- - - - - - - - - U 
2J,33S.U11 35'. , 197 4:10,1:14 615,315, 60:1 ,.j3
, 2,1';5,179' %,t 1;',12')1 2,,7-1
1 2,773,873 1 



168 


EDUCATION 


PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CANADA. 
Although in the early history of this country there are records 
of several libraries of varying types, it was not until the year 1800 
th'1,t the first public library in Canada was founded at Niagara. 
During the first quarter of the 19th (lentury libraries had their 
beginning in Quebec and lVlontreal and in Halifax and Yarmouth 
in Nova Scotia, while there is a record of a circulating library in 
Western Canada as early as 1824. N early all of these libraries 
have continued to exist in some form-either separately or in alnal- 
gamation-until the present time. 
Ontario was the first province to make legislation for the benefit 
of libraries. In 1835 the Government of Upper Canada made grants 
to l\lechanics' Institutes, which ,vere really library associations, 
These grants were continued until 1857, then withdrawn until they 
were restored by the Ontario Government in 1868, in which year 
an Association of l\lechanics' Institutes of Ontario was organized, 
continuing until 1886. During these years several acts were passed 
concerning these institutes, but the most important legislation was 
the Ontario Public Libraries Act of 1895, ,vhich changed the name of 
"Mechanics' Institute" to "Public Library." The revised Ontario 
Public Libraries Act of 1920 is chiefly important for the change made 
in grants and rate of taxation to be levied for library purposes. Both 
Saskatchewan and Alberta have Public Libraries Acts (passed re- 
spectively in 1906 and 1907) based, as is also the Free Libraries Act 
of Manitoba (passed in 1899), on the Ontario Act. The Free Libraries 
Act of British Columbia was passed in 1891. Quebec, in 1890 (2c.34) 
passed an Act to authorize city, town and village corporations to aid 
in the support of libraries. The Yukon Ordinance No. 20, 1903, 
provides for the management of free public libraries in Dawson City. 
There is no public library legislation in the lVlaritime provinces. 
The Mechanics' Institutes of Upper and Lower Canada ,vere 
modelled after that founded in England by Dr. Birkbeck. Their 
purpose was to provide lectures and study classes and a suitable 
reference library for labouring men and ,vomen. The early history 
of these institutes ill Ontario sho,vs that the use made of the libraries 
was small; but the provision in 1872 for inspection of these institutes, 
folIo-wed shortly after,vards by permission to include a larger range 
of literature in their libraries, helped materially in increasing the use 
made of the latter. The result of the Act of 1895 may be seen from 
the fact that, ,vhile in 1883 there ,vas one public library, and in 1895 
only 12, in 1896 there ",.ere 54, and in 1902 as many as 140 free 
libraries. 
Travelling libraries commenced in 1890, when the Aberdeen 
Association ,vas organized in \Vinnipeg ,vith the purpose of distri- 
buting literature among the scattered settlers in the Canadian 'Vest. 
Branches of the association were gradually formed in various cities 
throughout the Don1Ïnion and one in England, while the headquarters 
,vere at Ottawa. A new ,york in travelling libraries was begun in 
1897 among the sailors, under the auspices of the Upper Canada 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IS' CAV \DA 


lß9 


Tract Society. In the follo,ving year the Govf'rnmf'ut of British 
COhlIUbi:\ hf'gan ".ork amon
 the mining calnps anù agricultural 
districts. rrhi
 ,,"ork ha:-; 
r(}wn st('adily. In 1900 ,york ".a
 cOln- 
mcnccd ,vith trasclling libraries contrih t{'(l by the Canadian Club 
of Toronto and hy l\IcGill and QUf'f'n's univcr::;ities. In the next year 
the Canadian Hpading C:unp ..\:--.
()ciati()n 'nìS funned, and by this 

\
s()ciation the Frontier Collpgp ',":t
 ('
hthlislu'd ,vith the aim of 
placing a reading 1"00111 or tent in evcry frontier c:unp in Cana( la. 
T'his College ,vas incorporated by a DonÜnion _\ct of 19
2 and rf'ccives 
a grant through the Ontario ÐepartIupnt of l
duca.tion. In addition 

IcGill University has an excellent systelll of tra.velling lihrari{'s, as 
has also the Univ{'rsity of Alhertn; \vhile in Ontario and Sa::;katchc,van 
silnilar ,,"ork is carried on \'lIHlpr :rovf'rnlnent auspices. In K ova 
Scoti:1. the 'Vomen's Institutes, through the Provincial Df'partlnf'nt 
of Agriculturc, have made con
iderablc use of the 1\IcGill libraries. 
'The Ontario Library .A::;=-,ociation, the first library association in 
Canada, \vas or
anized in 1901, ,,-hile British ColuInbin. forlncd an 
...\S:30ci:ltion in 1911, Saskatchewan in 1914, the 
Iaritim('s, for the 
three nlaritime provinces, in 191h, and .Albcrta in 1920. The Pacific 
Northwest .Association, organized in 1909, has an intcrnational 
mClnbership. 
There arc t,vo library school
 in Canada: one connected ,,-ith 
:\IcGill University, founded in 1905, and one hcld in Toronto by the 
Ontario Department of Education since 1910. The course at l\IcGill 
has al,,'ays been a short 8UIllnler coursc, lasting one month. 'fhe 
Ontario school has been of varying lengths: one nlonth, 6 weeks, 
2 months, and, since 1919, 3 months. 
Up to the year 1919 the tlnlount of 
3,032,910 had been promiscù 
by the trusts established by _\.ndre". Carnegie in 146 grants for the 
erection of 15;:) library buildings. Of these buildings 114 had been 
erected at an expenditure of ":2,393,410. 


VII.-CLI
f.:\TE A
D 
IETEOROLOGY. 


TIlE CLlJI.\TE OF C.
X..\D.\ 
(XCE CO
}'EDEBA.TIOS. 
By SIR FREDERIC STUPART, Director, Dominion l\leteorological Service, Toronto. 


I t has been proved by geolop;i
ts that in 
eological time the 
clinlate of the ,vorld has under
one great change
, and lllany historians 
and archaeolo
ists haye in recent years carried on investigations as 
to ,vhether in historical tinH's there has been any appreciable change 
in the climates of the countries for \vhich exist either ,yritten records 
or evidences provided by the remains of man's handi,vork. 
Some, for instance, are of the opinion that there are evidences of 
increasing desiccation in Asia and southern Europe, \vhile in the 
".estern hemisphere, in Central _\merica and adjacent territories, 
the disappearance of a by-gone civi1ization has been explained as 
resulting fronl a change of climate which has rendered uninhabitable 
a land obviously once well suited to man's best desire:::;. 



170 


CLIJ.fATE AND J.fETEOROLOGY 


I t has, however, been found that there are many conflicting 
da ta, and as the question stands to-day the general consensus of 
opinion is that while there have been pulsations of both long and 
short periods during \vhich departures from averages have been 
quite pronounced, both as regards temperature and precipitation, 
yet there have not been appreciable progressive changes in either 
direction. 
In view of these facts, we may be fairly sure that in the seasons 
in Canada of the more than fifty years since Confederation there 
have been variations such as have occurred down through the centuries 
and \vill occur in the future, but \ye need not expect to find any 
marked, climatic change. There is, however, one factor which may 
have to some extent affected the climate of eastern Canada. That 
is deforestation, and yet, be it said in a somewhat guarded manner, 
the records that we possess do not indicate that this factor is as 
ÍInportant as it was once thought to be. 
Temperature.-On an inspection of the charts showing the 
curves of \vinter temperature for the different parts of Canada during 
the past 50 years, the most obvious fact is that the variations from 
average are largest in the \vestern provinces and that they diminish 
gradually eastward to\vard the Atlantic coast. At Edmonton the 
mean temperature of the winter of 1887 was -4 0 , while that of 1889 
was 220; the lowest ,vinter monthly average, -14 0 , occurred in 
January, 1886, and the highest winter monthly, 22 0 , occurred in both 
January and February, 1889. 'Vinnipeg shows even a greater 

ange, with a mean ,,,inter temperature of _9 0 in 1887, and a mean 
of 19 0 in 1878. The lo,vest monthly mean ,vas -16 0 in January, 
1883, and the highest 23 0 in February, 1878. 
At Toronto the coldest ,,,inters ,vere those of 1875 and 1904 
with a mean of 17 0 , follo,ved closely by 1885 and 1918 ,vith a mean 
of 18 0 . 1'he wannest ,vinter ,vas 1890 ,vith a mean of 31 0 and the 
next warmest 1919 \vith a mean of 30 0 and 1921 with a mean of 29 0 , 
which give a difference of 14 0 between the warmest and the coldest 
,vinters. The coldest nlonthly mean recorded ,vas 10.2 0 in Feb- 
ruary, 1875, the warmest January mean was 33 0 in 1880 and the 
,varmest February ,vas 30 0 in 1882. 
At 1Vlontreal the coldest ,vint
r means were 10 0 in 1875, 190 4 
and 1905 and the warmest 21 0 in 1878 and 1892; the coldest JanuarY 
was 4 0 in 1888 and also in 1893, and the warmest 22 0 in both 1880 and 
1913. The coldest February ,vas 6 0 in 1885 and the ,varmest 27 0 in 
1877. 
J n Nova Scotia, as represented by Halifax, the coldest winters 
,vere those of 1868 and 1905, with mean temperatures of 18 0 , and the 
warnlest were those of 1870 and 1889, each with a mean temperature 
of 28 0 . The coldest January was that of 1920 with a temperature 
of 14 0 , and the coldest Februaries were those of 1868, 1875, 1904, 
1905 ,1911 and 1914, each with a mean of 18 0 . 
The lo,vest temperatures on record at various stations in Canada 
are as follo,vs:- Fort Good Hope, lVIackenzie river, -79 0 ; Fort 




5 



 

 


NORMAL MEAN 
TEMPERATURE 
JA N UARY 
METEOROLOC;ICAL SCRVlcr 
5TATION6 = Ð 


NORMAL 
PRECIPITATION 
JANUARY 


.Ä 

 


so 



 C 


To/ace page 170. 



:\IAP OF CANADA SnOTtT ING 
n KORM.... L 'l\T 
'" .i..vl 


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To face page 170. 



'
1> PRECIPITATIO)J I
 JA
UARY. 


.v 


t' 



 


NORMAL MEAN 
TEMPERATURE 
JANUARY 
METEOROLOqlCAL SERVlcr 
STATION6 = Ð 


- NOR.MAL 
PRECIPITATION 
JANUARY 


.ïj 


so 


I 


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c 



11AP OF CANADA SHOWING N ORMJ 


To/ace page 170. 



I 


AND PRECIPITATION IN JuLY. 


<< 


NORMAL MEAN 
TEMPERATURE 
JULY 
METEOROLOGICAL SER.VICE 
STATIONS = ø 


, 


,,0- 
I -(I.
ø. 
. 
 
o.'i 


NORMAL 
PRECIPITATION 
fOR JULY 


... ".., 


50 



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CLIl1I_1TE OF CA
VADA SIJ.VCE CO\TFEDERATIV.Y 171 


Y'PrInilion -780; Edmonton -570; Prince Albert -700; '\Vïnnipeg 
- 53 0 ; '\
hite I{jv
r, Ontario, - 60 0 ; Toronto - 26 0 ; Othnva - 3
0; 
.:\Iontreal -2b o ; Quebec -340; IIalifax -17 0 . 
The record of 50 years at \Yinnipeg pre
cnts sonle very intere:4ing 
facts. In the first 2,:) years th
re ,vere but seyen ,vinters ,vith a 
111f'an ten1perature highcr than t he mean of thp ,vhole pC'riod, ,vhile 
in the last 25 vpars thf're ".cre hut fiyc ".inh'rs ,,"ith a lllean helo"r 
that of the ,v};ole period. 1""his 
c('nlS to indicate that the ".inter 
C'lilnate of the \'
est if: hecon1Îng n1Ïlòer, but it i
 a signific:lnt f[lct 
that the Inueh longer record at 
t. Paul, )[inn., indicatps that the 
thirties and forties of the last c
ntury ,vere cOluparatively nlild in 
the 'Vest, hence there if: 
u
picion of a long period ,,"cather cycle. 
In Ontario, as reprC'scnted by Toronto, the tcn1perature curve of 
.")1 years sho,vs sonle,vhat th(' ...:alne eharaetf'ristics as that of \\ïnni- 
pcg, ,,,ith luore ".inters bel 0". aY
rage in the first half than in the 
second. In thp Toronto record goin
 hack to 1831, there is, ho".- 
ever, confirIuation of the fact indicated by St. Paul that a long period 
beginning in the fifties find 
nding ahout 1888, during ,vhich the 
Inajority of the ,,"int<'rs ".ere ahuoflually cold, had hf'
n preceded by 
a period of ahout 20 y
ars during ,,-hich, while some fcw ,,,inters 
,vere very cold, II10Kt "'cre conlparatiy
ly nlÎld. rrhe decade 1841- 
1850 had, on thp :lYeragf', thp luildcst ,vintpr::; in the 'whole pcriod 
1R31-1Ð21. 
It is ohvious, therefore, that it ".ould hp ull,vi::5c to fOrIn any 
definite conclusion
 regarding rlinuttiC' ('hange
 on a record of even 
fifty years, a::; there are nlanifest ('vid('ncl's of puba tions of a long<,r 
period. 
Since the Toronto rc('onl is luuch the longest, it is the mO'5t 
in
tructive ,ve PO

l':'
. :lnd the folIo,ving are 
Ulne of tJ1f' n10st 1l0tiee- 
aLle fcatur(>", regarding tlu) wint
r:-) in (hnario. In the lð40-18.jO 
period thcre ""('re cight ,,-intf'fs aboye nOrIllal ten1pccature. 'rhe 
ncxt t".cnty .'.C'ars containcd nl0r(' ,vinters belo,v than ahove but no 
Yf'ry "ide c'Xtn'J}}C's. Then follo,ved froln 1
73 to 1883 a period 
during ,vhich t IH) ".inters alternated bet\veen cold and nlÏld, ,vhile 
the six con
f'clltive "'inters 1883-8S ,vere all cold. 1"hp next four 
,vintf'r'S ,verc nli!d and thC'u froBl Ig94 to 1903 thprc ,vpre ten succes- 
siv() ,,-inters of alnH)
t averap;e tenlperature. rrhe ,vintcrs of 1904 
and ID05 "-ere yery cold and then follo'wed eleven years abovt:) 
ayerage, ,vith but t".o exceptions. The \vinter of 191b ,vas extren1e 1 y 
cold, 1919 vcry nlild, 1920 very cold, and the past t,,"o winters 
exceptionally mild. 
The general form of the temperaturc curves of l\Iontreal and 
Halifax are very similar to tho
e of "-e
t('rn stations, but they do 
not give evidence of quit
 as n1arked a tendency to,vards a pre- 
ponderance of milder ".inters in the last quarter century. ,At 
.:\Iontreal the mean temperaturc of the last decade was 1 0 below the 
mean of the ,,,hole period, ,,-hile the mean of the first decade was 1 0 
above. At Halifax the mean of the last decade was a fraction of a 
degree higher than that of the first decade. 



172 


CLI1YIATE AND 1YIETEOROLOGY 


'Yhile, as we have seen, the winters vary very considerably in 
severity, yet as the spring advances departures froln a normal 
value diminish, and the summer season throughout the Donlinion 
is subject to relatively small variations. There are differences, 
ho,vever, and in Alberta the summers of the eighties, exclusive of 
1881, 1886 and 1889, were distinctly cooler than any term of years 
since then, while the summers of 1894, 1896, 1898 and 1906 were 
especially marked by higher temperature. In nearly all other years 
the mean of the season differed. very little from the normal derived 
from the whole period. 
The general character of the summers as regards temperature 
has been much the same in Manitoba as in the provinces farther 
,vest. In the seventies they were warm, while in the eighties they 
"
ere cool, especially in 1883 and 1885. The nineties were also cool, 
except '90, '93 and '94, but since 1900 warm summers have pre- 
dominated with marked exceptions, ho,vever, in 1904 and 1905 and 
again in 1915. 
From Ontario eastward the year 1869 had the coolest summer in 
52 years, and after that the coolest summers occurred from 1882 to 
1891, exclusive of 1887, and in 1902-3-4. A decade of warm summers 
commenced in 1892 and then since 1905 warm summers have pre- 
dominated, but 1912-15 and ' 17 were com para tively cool. The 
spell of greatest heat ever recorded in Ontario occurred in the first 
week of July, 1911, when temperatures above 100 0 were registered 
on several consecutive days in the peninsula of Ontario. The summer 
of 1921, was the warmest on record and July was the warmest month. 
There is some evidence of a tendency towards a somewhat 
higher mean temperature in both summer and autumn months in 
Ontario, a tendency ,yhich is more doubtful in the other provinces. 
In the early days of settlement in Ontario summer frosts were not 
uncommon but have since become quite rare. It would appear 
reasonable to suppose that deforestation of the country east of the 
Mississippi must lead to greater insolation in the northern United 
States and this would affect Ontario more than the other provinces. 
The dates and severity of late spring and early autumn frosts 
in the western provinces are not quite conclusive, but the general 
inference from the longer records. combined with those of short 
period, is that there has been no appreciable change since the early 
days of settlement. 
Precipitation.-Fifty years of meteorological records afford 
no grol!nd for belief that the precipitation of the Dominion has changed 
with the gradual deforestation and the general activities of man in 
covering the country with a network of railways and wires carrying 
electrical currents. Variations of a character which suggest cycles, 
probably due to cosmical causes, are, however, quite apparent, but at 
the same time perplexing, and it may be assumed 'with a high degree 
of probability that there has been no pennanent progressive change 
in either rainfall or sno,v. 
The \Vinnipeg records and also records from a shorter term of 
years in the West indicate that the eighties included more dry summers 



CLI.\f
lTE OF C.LLV.llD_l SIJ.VCE CO
 FEDEllA TIOlv. 173 


than in any subsequent corr('
ponding period, 'while the AlbC'rta records 
sho,," a rplnarkablt' pt'riod of nbuut 
ix" et sunl1ner::5 from 18ü9 to 1ü04 
and 3.J!:ain frOlti 1 HI1 to 1 H15. 
'Yhilc 1878 ,va
 the yC'ar of g:reate
t precipitation in Ontario, and 
also the 
umlnl'r of greatc
t rninfnll, th(l s(>venties a
 a ,,-hole had dry 
8UllllnerR. 1 n thp ('i
htil
S t h(' 
ulnmcrs of '80 find 'g3 :lnd '85 ,vC're 
,,'ct and others about normal, excepting '87 ,vhich ,vas very dry. In 
the ninctie::; the summcrs uf 'f)5, '96, '98 and '99 ,vere particularly dry, 
,vhile the other years had an ample but not excessive rainfall. Bince 
1900 the sunlIDer", of 1907, 1911 and 1913 ,,"ere exceptionally dry, 
,,-hile others ,vere nearly nornull. 
\.t l\Iontreal the year immediately 

uccceding Confederation and HH5 ,,'ere the y<>nrs of 1(':1,st precipita- 
tion, and 1ðtj!), 188j and 1900 ,,'ere the years of 
reatest precipitation. 
'rhe decade commencing 1R70 ,,-as that of least precipitation and that 
COIl1mencing U)OO of 
reatt'
t. Here again ,,-e have no indication of 
progres
iYe chall
e. 
The records of precipitation made fit IIalifax since 186
 sho,,- no 
evidenc("\ of progrt>
tiivc change during the fifty-four ypars ,,,hich have 
elap
ed. During the fir
t dpcade the average annual precipitation 
,,-as 34 inches, during th(\ second 5ö inches, the third 57, the fourth 58, 
the fifth 54 inches. 'rhe '\"ett('
t } e:1rð 'w<>re 185-1, 1888, 1896, 1 D07, 
1 DOb, 1 
n 0, "ith tot al precipita tion rl'
pcctively as follo,vs: 64, 67, 70, 
64, 63, ß8 inches. 'Ihe driest years were IbGö, 1879, IbS9, 189-1, 1903, 
1911,1916, the n.'
pl'ctiyc totals being 

O, 18,47, 45, t
, 48, 16 inchf's. 
In the fir
t d('('ad(' the greatest anllual sno".fall ,vas] 2.5 inch('s and the 
lca
t 29 inches. In the second decade these fil!ures bccalue respcctivt'ly 
13-1 inches and 32 inches; in the third 108 and 50
 inches, in the fourth 
108 and .5
>, and in the fifth l01 and 38. In January, 1894,56 inches 
of sno\\r fell and in October, 189ö, 15 inches of rain ""ere recorded on a 
total of 20 days. 
In the sevC'nties find parly cightiPR thpre ".ere many more years 
,vith heavy sno,vfalls in Thlarch in Ontario and Quebec than have 
occurred in any period of equa.llength since then. 1'he result ,vas to 
ID[tke thp annual average snowfall for that pC'riod considerably highpr 
than the HOrIual, although the annual total precipitation in years 
with a sno,vy ::\Iarch ,vas frequently below normal. Lack of 
obscrvation
 for thi
 period in the 'western provinces, except at 
1VinnipC'g, leaves us restricted to a consideration of the years since 
1883. The most remarkable feature of t.he ,vestern snowfalls was 
the change from light to heavy snowfall::; which occurred in the 
nineties. If v.e consider the decades 1b85-1894, 1895-1904, 1905- 
1914, and fonn the average annual totals of sno,vfall for these, we 
find at ßledicine Hat, 29 inches in the first decade, 45 inches in 
the second, 24 inches in the third. At Ednlonton the figures arc 
respectively, 36, 52, 39 inches; at Calgary 37, 51 and 42; at Qu' Ap- 
pelle, 45, 70 and 51. _\.t 'Vinnipeg, how'ever, the sequence is different, 
the respective dccadal averages running 52, 43!, 50!. At Prince 
Albert the fin
t of thesc decades is mi

ing, hut the second two have 
averages of 58! and 48! ,vhich sufficiently resemble the other records, 
as do also the figures for these two decades at Battleford, viz. 35 and 24. 



174 


CLllifATE AND lifETEOROLOGY 


I.-Temperature and Prpdpltation in 1921, by l\lonths and Observation 
Stations. 
JANUARY, 


Province or District. 


British Columbia- 
S. Vancouver I....... 37 
N. Vancouver I.....,.. 37 
Lower Fraser R.. . 37 
Lillooet L... _' 28 
VpperFraser R,."".. 16 
Pe.ace R,. , . .. . . . . . . . .. - 3 
Okanagan & Similka- 
meen Valleys.....,.. 27 
W. Kootenay.......... 26 
E. Kootenay. . . . . , . . . . 22 
Thompson R,.. 25 
N. Columbia R....,... 17 
N. Coast....... . . . . .. . 25 
Queen Charlotte I. . . . . 34 
Yukon-All Stations.... - 20 
Alberta- ' 
N, Saskatchewan R.. . 7 
Red Deer R....,.. ... 10 
Bow R..... . . . . . . . . 18 
Athabasca R..., ... . .. 4 
Peace R...... . . . . . . . .. - 2 
8askatchewan- 
Qu'AppeIle R.."....., 
S. Saskatchewan R..., 
N. Saskatchewan R... 
Saskatchewan Forks... 
Barrier R. . .. ,. 
Manitoba- 
Qu'AppeUe & Assini- 
boine Rs _ . . . . . . . 7 
RedR...... ... 7 
Winnipeg R....... . . . . . 6 
Dauphin Lake & R,.. . 6 
Nelson R....... . . . . . .. - 8 
Ontario- 
Rainy R. .. . .. . 
Kenora.. .... ... 
Thunder B. .. . . . . . . 
Algoma. . . . . . 
Sudbury. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . 
Timiskaming. . ,. . . . . . . 
Nipissing.... _. . 
Manitoulin I..... . . . . . . 
Upper Ottawa. R...... 
Upper 8t, Lawrence & 
Ottawa Rs.. . . . . . . . , 
Georgian B. Cos. . . , . _ . 
Lake Huron Cos...... . 
Lakes St, Clair & Erie, 
Niagara Pen....... . , 28 
W. Central Cos........ 25 
L. Ontario Coso 25 
E.Central Cos.,...... 21 
Queb
 
Middle 8t. Lawrence. . 
Lower St, Lawrence & 
Gulf. , . . . .. . . . . . . . , . . 
L. St, John............ 
Upper St. :Maurice.... . 
Northwestern Districts 
N .B,-All Stations. _ . 
N .S,-All Stations...,.,. 


P .E.I.-All StatIons.... . 


Temperature e Fahr,). 


b 
'
 
"Ö 
I:: 

 
Q) 

 


8 
>.
 
:;::S 

.
 
"ÖC'3 
ê S 
Q) 

 


9 
15 
7 
5 
2 


42 33 
41 33 
41 33 
33 23 
26 7 
5 - 11 
34 20 
32 20 
31 14 
33 18 
24 11 
31 20 
38 30 
- 12 - 28 
18 - 3 
22 - 1 
29 7 
15 - 6 
10 - 13 
19 - 1 
27 4 
17 - 2 
15 - 4 
12 - 7 


10 
6 
10 
8 
12 
5 
12 
20 
12 


17 - 2 
17 - 3 
17 - 4 
15 - 3 
o - 15 
22 - 2 
16 - 4 
21 0 
20 - 4 
23 1 
16 - 6 
24 0 
28 13 
23 2 
28 10 
31 14 
31 17 
35 22 
33 17 
33 18 
32 10 
24 5 
19 2 
14 - 8 
15 - 4 
18 - 5 
25 6 
33 11 
27 11 


19 
22 
24 


14 


10 
3 
5 
6 
14 
22 


19 


S 
>.
 
:;::8 

.... 
"Ö.9 
@8 
Q) 
"""' 
0<'; 



. 
.... Q) 
"'bl) 
"ÖI:: 
ã
 
Q) 

 


.; 
rIJ 
Q) 
Q)..o 
S.
 

..o 

 

 


9 
8 
8 
10 
19 
16 
14 
12 
17 
15 
13 
11 
8 
16 


54 19 
50 25 
55 17 
40 0 
50 - 30 
43 -45 
54 - 18 
49 - 18 
48 - 11 
51 - 10 
34 - 16 
42 - 12 
45 21 
39 - 52 


21 
23 
22 
21 
23 
20 
23 
19 
19 
19 



 
rIJ 
Q)Q) 
Ei:: 
Q)O 

- 

 

 


Precipitation, 


Ir1 
Q) 
..0 
C) 
,9 
.5 

 
-+'> 
o 

 


10.35 
10.90 
10.80 
7.30 
2.00 
2.65 
1.15 
4.10 
2.30 
1.65 
6.15 
7.40 
6.20 
0.40 


p.c. 
+ 30 
+ 5 
+ 30 
+ 30 


+ 40 
+ 25 
- 20 
- 20 
+ 20 
- 15 


- 35 


44 - 41 0.65 - 30 
50 - 45 0.65 - 15 
50 - 26 0.90 + 20 
44 - 45 1.40 - 
39 - 45 0.20 - 


41 - 34 0.45 - 30 
49 - 20 0.35 - 75 
43 - 37 0.50 - 25 
39 - 44 0.60 - 15 
27 - 34 0.85 - 


19 
20 
21 
18 
15 
24 
20 
21 
24 
22 
22 
24 
15 
21 
18 
17 
14 
13 
16 
15 
22 
19 
17 
22 
19 
23 
21 
22 
16 


36 - 33 0.65 - 25 
39 - 40 0.70 + 10 
32 - 37 1.45 - 
31 - 36 1.20 - 
25 - 38 0.70 - 


40 - 42 
36 - 42 
43 -40 
47 - 43 
42 - 44 
43 - 37 
46 - 42 
44 - 32 
44 - 38 


1.15 - 
0.65 - 
0.75 - 35 
1.35 - 
1.25 - 
1.85 - 30 
1.50 - 
2.90 - 
0.65 - 70 


49 - 31 1. 35 - 45 
47 - 38 1. 85 - 45 
47 - 8 2.05 - 45 
53 - 5 0.55 - 80 
50 - 17 1. 25 - 65 
53 - 16 0.60 - 80 
49 - 38 1. 10 - 75 
46 - 41 1. 90 - 40 


46 - 25 
41 - 43 
38 - 35 
41 - 41 
51 - 32 
54 - 17 


2.90 - 5 
2.30 - 
2.10 - 
1.65 - 35 
2.70 - 35 
3 . 10 - 25 


45 - 10 3.60 - 


8 
o 
.t: 
Q)
 
2S 
Q)I-< 
1-<0 

= 
i5 


Ir1 
>. 

 
"Ö 
Õ 
I-< 
Q) 
.D 
E 
Z 


22 7.06 
23 3.00 
23 4.46 
17 2.40 
9 1.62 
12 1. 30 
12 0.98 
16 1.00 
13 O. 78 
11 0.90 
18 1.40 
15 2.22 
18 1. 72 
6 0.15 


3 
..., 
rIJ 
Q) 
-+'> 

 
Q) 
I-< 
{) 


Station 
differences 
from nor- 
mal temper 
ature. 


0 0 to +20 
0 0 to +30 
0 0 to +80 
+60 
0 0 to +40 
-50 


+20 to +70 
+20 to +50 
+50 to +80 
+4 0 to+ 10 0 
+30 to +60 
+20 to +50 
_2 0 
_4 0 to _1 0 


6 0.70 +20 to +80 
4 0.60 +10 to +50 
3 1.40 +60 to +100 
8 0.75 +70 
4 0.15 +20 
4 0.40 +60 to +190 
4 0.50 +10 0 to+l1 0 
3 0.40 +70 to +110 
4 0.40 +50 to +120 
5 0.40 - - 


7 0.40 +70 to +110 
3 0.60 +70 to +110 
6 0.60 - - 
3 1.20 +110 to+13 0 
3 0.30 +70 


5 0.80 - 
5 0.60 
5 0.60 
9 0.65 
7 2.05 - 
11 O. 72 
7 1.15 
7 1.80 
8 0.30 


+100 
+70 to +100 
+70 


+30 to +60 
_2 0 
+50 
+30 to +50 


7 1.00 +20 to +70 
7 1. 75 +30 to + 7 0 
12 1.00 +20 to +50 
4 0.50 +10 to +60 
8 0.79 +50 to +80 
8 0.40 +10 to +60 
6 0.80 +20 to +110 
8 1.30 +20 to +90 


8 1. 20 
10 0.98 
8 0.80 
7 0.60 
8 2.00 
10 1. 80 
14 0.90 


+20 to +30 
+60 
+50 
+50 
0 0 to +40 
-2: to +20 
o 



TEJIl'ER lTUNE rl}tD l'RECIPIT.llTIO
Y 


175 


1.-Tt.'mþl'l'ature and I-n.t'lpltaflon In 1921. b) :\lonths iuul Obsl'na(loll 
station!". -cont inuC'd. 
FEBRU.\H.Y. 


Tt.>mJ)('rnture r Fahr,). 
Pro\ inee or Dù,trict. E Ë 
b >>=' >,=' >> .... 
-6 ::::6 ::::
 IIQ -oj 
G) tIJ 
'C:; :g'
 ",.- "'tIÐ CÐ..c CÐtJ 
" "'1:3.5 "'I:3r:: E.
 E
 
r:: gS 
6 r:: d f:..c tJO 
'" ",'" ..... .=- 

 
 
 ..:: Þ< H 
" 
 
 
- - - - - 
British Columbia- 
f'. '" ancou\ er I :;m 4:> 3-1 11 58 15 

,"&ncou\cr L. 40 4:) 3:) 10 52 24 
Lowpr Frß8l'r H.. 40 46 35 11 64 15 
I.iIIOOl't 1.,. 31 37 25 12 4\} - tì 
( . pper .. rßSt r H, 2.i 36 15 21 64 - 28 
Pearl! It. 12 2-1 1 33 50 - 37 
Okan
nn tt: 
imilkn- 
l1!e<'n , allev8... 31 31j 24 14 55 - 15 
W. Kootl.nay...., 29 36 23 I:J 53 - 1.') 
J;, h.oot('nay 27 37 I
 19 5'\ - 1
 
Thompson It.. 30 39 21 17 60 - 7 

 , Columbia H. 22 31 14 11 46 - 20 
:\ . Coast. 30 37 2-1 n 54 - 8 
Qu{'{'n Chnrlot tt.! I.. , . . 37 42 32 10 49 21 
\ uk on-A II 
tations... - 9 1 IS 19 44 -54 
.-\lbert8- 
1';. 
n<;kntchc\\nn R. 16 27 5 22 57 - 43 
Ih."(1 DN.'r I L .. .. .. 17 29 5 24 5
 - 30 
Ro\\ R.... 22 33 12 21 62 - 2;' 
AthnbMCn It.. Hi 2S 4 24 60 - 4:! 
Peuee It..... 15 26 4 22 50 - 38 
Saskat('h('\\ an- 
Qu'.\Pr><'IIt' Ie...... .,. 12 32 2 20 5,1) - 43 

. 
a8katchew&n R.... 20 32 9 23 57 - 26 
?\. Saskatche\\an It... 10 21 1 21 50 - 41 
Saskntche\\&n Forks.., 10 20 0 20 47 - 4':; 
)Ianitoba- 
Qu'Appelle & Assini- 
boine Its . 10 20 1 19 42 - 3q 
Rt'd R. . . . . . 10 20 0 20 47 -44 
\\ innip('jl; R . . , . . , 10 22 1 23 3
 - 36 
Dnuphin Lake & R. , . . 10 20 0 20 45 - 22 
I.ower Saskntche\\ an R 4 15 7 22 38 - <>... 
l\ebon It...... - 6 4 - 16 20 38 - 45 
Ontario- 
R3iny R 14 25 4 21 40 - 34 
Kenorn.... .. 11 21 1 20 40 - 35 
Thunder ß. 13 24 2 22 40 - 26 
Algoma. 8 23 7 30 44 -44 

ud bury. , , . . . .. . , . , . . . 13 27 0 27 49 - 35 
Timiskamin
......... . 6 20 7 27 46 - 42 

 ipissinp:.. .. 13 27 1 28 49 - 33 
:Manitoulin I..... . . . .. . 19 29 9 20 47 - 7 
l" pp{>r Ottawa R....... 13 26 0 26 49 -24 
V pJX'r 81. La\\Tence &. 
Ottawa R.... . . . .. . . 21 30 12 18 56 13 
Geo
hn ß, COS....... 22 21 14 17 57 18 
I..Huron Cos........ 25 32 18 14 55 2 
L, Rt. Clair & Erie, 
l'iagnra Pen. . ,. . . . . 28 35 22 13 62 5 
W. Central COS..,.. . . 25 33 18 15 60 1 
I.. Ontario Cos . . 26 33 19 14 57 0 
E. ('("ntml C08 22 32 12 20 53 - 15 
Quehec- 
Middl(' St. La\\rence. . 14 26 3 23 53 -29 
Lower St. I.a\\Tcnce &: 
Gulf...... . ...... .. 10 21 1 22 40 - 28 
I.akc St. John......... 1 16 - 13 29 45 - 37 
rpper St. Maurice... . 6 19 7 26 46 - 32 
Northwestern Districts 7 20 6 26 48 - 41 

 ,B.-All 
tation8. . . . . . 14 28 1 27 4R - 35 

 .S,-AII Stations,..,." 19 29 10 19 45 8 
P.E,I.-AII Stations..... 14 23 15 18 40 -10 


.. 
Precipitation. 
.; E 
 I 
C1I 0 '" 
..c .t "'1:3 :s 
C) c...ë; Õ 
.9 c),::: .... 
,9 r::.. ... IIQ 
c..... 
 
 
'3 "'0 Ë 

r:: '" 
C1I 
0 is ..=' ... 

 0 
- - - 
pc. 
7.1':; + 25 1U 5.57 
4.70 - 12 2 00 
9.00 + 35 IIi .. 01 
4.35 - 10 1 2.=) 
1.00 - 10 6 0.9,1} 
1.00 - 7 0.50 
0.45 - 50 6 o 32 
2,60 + 1.1} 11 1.25 
2.10 +10 8 1.13 
0.70 - 30 5 0.5'\ 
".80 + 30 12 1.15 
12.50 +110 Ii 3.R(j 
8.70 - 10 1.
'j 
0.50 - 40 5 0.30 
1.00 + 60 6 0.75 
0.60 - 5 O.
O 
1.10 + 10 4 1.57 
0.95 - 7 060 
0.55 - 3 0.30 
0.9,1} +10() 5 1.02 
0.40 - .'){) 3 O.ÔO 
1.15 +19,,) 5 1.00 
1.25 +165 4 2.40 
1.20 +00 7 0.80 
1.55 + 95 5 1.00 
1.00 - 10 0.35 
2.90 - 5 1.20 
2.1,1) - 7 0.80 
1.10 - 7 0.26 
1.30 - 8 O.fiO 
1.65 - 9 0.70 
1.35 + 45 9 0.40 
1.85 - 9 0.70 
1.25 - 9 0.53 
1.55 -40 11 0.50 
1.40 - 8 0.60 
1.50 - 6 0.40 
1.25 - 35 8 0.36 
1.35 - 45 8 0.60 
1.35 - 45 7 0.60 
1.40 - 45 10 0.50 
1.55 - 45 6 0.80 
2.00 - 25 9 0.97 
1.35 - 50 8 0.70 
1.40 - 45 8 0.60 
1.30 - 50 8 0.65 
1.00 - 55 5 1.20 
1.05 - 6 0.50 
0.90 - 5 0.71 
0.95 - 50 6 0.45 
2.30 - 25 6 2.00 
3.90 + 5 8 2.20 
- 


Rtntion 
d i If erence8 
(rom nor- 
mal temper- 
ature, 


_1 0 to +20 
+20 
+10 to +70 
+20 
+30 to +50 
+40 


+30 to +r 
_1 0 to +20 
+70 to +80 
+50 to +r 
+40 to +60 
0 0 to +4 0 
0 0 
-3 0 to 00 
+60 to +110 
+40 to + 8 0 
+.1)0 to +130 
+r 
+80 


+r to +160 
+90 to +140 
+40 to +110 
+90 to +120 


+60 to + 13 0 
+60 to +120 
+ 11 0 to-H2 0 
+60 
+70 


+120 
+90 to +100 
+r 
+40 to +r 
+20 
+50 
+20 to +50 
+4 0 to +100 
+40 to +110 
+60 to +80 
+30 to +80 
+40 to +80 
+4 0 to +90 
+6 Oto +100 
+20 to +90 


2.95 


_4 0 to +20 
-1 0 
+4 0 
_1 0 to +60 
_2 0 to +20 
-rto +10 
8 1.30 -4 0 



176 


CLIA/ATE AND AIETEOROLOGY 


1.-Temp2rature and Precipitation in 1921, by Months and Obs
rvatlon 
Stations-continued. 
MARCH. 


Temperature r Fahr.), I Precipitation. 
05 Station 
S 05 8 
 differences 
Province or District. S CD 0 
 from nor- 
..c:I .t: "'d 

 
::s 
::s >. 
 () Æ mal temper- 
-8 :=8 - . I7J 
 ,S CD"; Õ ature. 
.;; .;;.
 ,.... CD CD I7J 88 ..p 

..... 
bO CD..c:I CD CD .S J.. 
"'d "'d
 "':j.s "'d
 8.
 8
 CDJ.. CD IT.I 
.Q CD 

8 
8 ã
 J..o ..p 

 f
 CDO "; 

 8 
 

 J..- 

 
 ..p CD 
CD CD CD CD Þ<I 0 
 ::s J.. 
::s ::s ::s 
 rJ:l rJ:l 
 Z 0 
- - - - - - - - 
British Columbia- p.c. 
S. Vancouver I......., 41 48 34 14 71 21 2.90 - 35 13 2.10 _1 0 to +10 
N. Vancouver I... ...., 41 48 35 13 60 25 3.05 - 60 15 1'35 _1 0 to +20 
Lower Fraser R.. . . , . . 42 49 36 13 66 19 3.75 - 70 15 1.02 _1 0 to +20 
LiIlooet L.... . , .. .. .. , 36 46 26 20 60 10 1.95 - 8 0.80 _1 0 
Upper Fraser R....,... 28 39 18 21 66 22 0.75 + 10 5 0.50 _50 to +20 
Peace R.....,' . . . . . , . , 15 28 3 25 47 33 1.55 - 4 1.00 _6 0 
Okanagan & Similka- 
meen Valleys........ 38 47 29 18 66 5 0.90 + 55 8 0.58 _1 0 to +30 
W. Kootenay........., 35 44 27 17 63 - 1 2.55 + 50 11 1.17 0 0 to +20 
E. Kootenay..."..... 32 42 23 19 63 -11 2.00 + 45 10 1.20 0 0 to +30 
Thompson R,.. . , . . . . , 37 47 28 19 68 3 1.05 + 5 7 0.88 0 0 to +40 
N. Columbia R...., .. . 28 38 19 19 49 - 5 3.60 + 10 10 1.50 0 0 to +20 
N. Coast.. , . , . . . , , , . , . 34 42 27 15 56 - 6 3.85 - 50 11 2.20 _2 0 to +10 
Queen Charlotte I.. , . , 37 42 32 10 49 19 2.70 - 12 0.80 _2 0 
Yukon-All Stations,..., 5 18 -7 25 44 - 37 0.55 - 15 6 0.30 -4 0 to _3 0 
Alberta- 
N, Saskatchewan R.., 17 29 6 23 58 - 38 1.00 + 60 7 0.70 _7 0 to _2 0 
Red Deer R.......... . 18 30 6 24 62 - 44 1.50 +200 8 0.70 _9 0 to _4 0 
Bow R..,..."...,..., 23 34 13 21 61 - 40 2.45 +140 10 1. 70 _4 0 to +20 
Athabasca R....,,'.., 16 30 3 27 60 - 38 0.95 - 7 1.00 _8 0 
Peace R...... . , . . . . . . . 13 26 0 26 48 - 46 0.90 - 5 0.40 -13 0 to _4 0 
Saskatchewan- 
Qu' Appelle R........ .. 18 29 7 22 59 - 30 0.90 +100 10 0.90 -7 0 to +110 
S. Saskatchewan R,... 22 33 11 22 57 - 30 1.00 + 50 8 1.20 +20 to +60 
N. Saskatchewan R.., 14 25 4 21 53 - 40 1.10 + 70 6 0.60 _50 to +20 
Saskatchewan Forks... 11 23 - 1 24 48 - 44 1.85 +230 7 1.00 _2 0 to _1 0 
Manitoba- 
Qu'Appelle & Assini- 
boine R.s, , .. . , . . . . . . 15 25 6 19 53 - 24 0.90 + 70 7 0.80 _2 0 to +20 
Red R". . ....... ,., , . 16 27 6 21 51 - 28 0.80 - 20 6 0.50 _3 0 to +20 
Winnipeg R......,.,.,. 13 26 0 26 48 - 29 1.05 - 7 0.30 - 
Dauphin Lake & R.. . . 15 26 5 21 47 - 19 3.60 - 8 0.80 _1 0 
Lower SaskatchewanR 7 19 - 5 24 43 - 31 0.55 - 5 0.20 _3 0 
Nelson R......, , . . . . . , -4 7 - 15 22 45 -44 1.20 - 10 0.25 _4 0 
Ontario- 
Rainy R. . . . . . . . . . . . . , 19 30 9 21 55 - 22 1.20 - 7 0.45 - 
Kenora. . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 28 5 23 51 - 30 1.25 - 6 0.60 _3 0 
Thunder B. . . . . . . . . . . . 18 30 7 23 55 - 23 2.05 + 80 10 0.88 +20 to +70 
Algoma. , . . . . . . . , . . . . , 18 30 7 23 61 - 30 2.05 - 9 1.00 +40 
Sud bury.. .. . , , . . . . . . . , 25 35 16 19 58 - 26 3.20 - 15 1.05 - 
Timiskaming. , . .. . . . , , 17 30 5 25 60 - 26 2.50 + 20 15 0.79 +10 to +40 
Nipissing. , . . , . . . . . . . . . 28 38 18 20 62 - 17 4.70 - 15 2.10 +60 
Manitoulin I.... . , .. .. . 30 37 23 14 57 1 3.65 - 12 1.34 +50 
Upper Ottawa R..".. . 26 39 14 25 64 - 12 2.55 + 35 12 1.00 +40 to +50 
Upper St. Lawrence & 
Lower Ottawa R.s, . . 34 43 25 18 76 - 4 3.85 + 60 14 1.45 +70 to +140 
Georgian B. Cos..,. , . , 34 43 25 18 70 - 5 4.65 + 90 13 2.28 +80 to +120 
Lake Huron Cos.., . , . . 36 46 27 19 70 0 4.05 + 45 16 1.24 +90 to +110 
Lake.
 St. Clair & 
Erie, Niagara Pen... 40 49 31 18 85 9 3.35 + 30 13 1.44 +70 to +130 
W. Central Cos.. .., .. , 37 47 28 19 72 2 3.60 + 65 15 1.34 +90 to +13 0 
Lake Ontario COS..... . 37 46 29 17 71 2 2.45 - 5 16 0.52 +80 to +100 
East Central Cos... . . . 34 43 25 18 69 - 6 3.75 + 50 14 1.11 +70 to +110 
Quebec- 
Middle St. Lawrence... 31 41 21 20 70 - 12 3.70 +30 13 1.50 +60 to +12 0 
Lower St. Lawrence & 
Gulf.., . . , . . . . . . . . . . , 23 33 13 20 61 - 18 3.25 - 15 11 1.60 _2 0 to +40 
L. St, lohn ... ...... ... 19 31 8 23 57 - 26 3.10 - 13 1.60 +30 
Upper St, Maurice,... . 24 35 14 21 57 - 20 3.20 - 11 0.68 +90 
Northwestern Districts 21 32 10 22 62 - 32 2.75 -5 11 1.58 +40 to +70 
N.B.-All Stations...". 31 41 21 20 66 - 19 3.25 -5 11 2.21 +30 to +80 
N, S,-AII StatiODS...,.. 34 43 26 17 71 3 4.15 -5 12 2.80 0: to +1" 
P,E,I.-A i - 


II Stat ODS.... , 32 


40 


25 


15 


56 


12 3.90 


17 0.63 +5 



1'EJfPER..t TURE AX/) PRECIPIT t TIO..V 


177 


I.-Temperature and Prt'dl)1tatloll In 19')1, b) 'Ionths and Ob
er\atlon 

tations -continueù. 


Province or Di:.trict. 


British Columbia- 
So Vancouver I. .... ,. . 
N. Vancouver I....,.., 
Lower Fraser R.,..,,' 
Lillooet L.. ........., 
Upper Fraser R...... , . 
Peace R...,... 
Okanagan & ISlmilka- 
meen Valleys........ 
W. Kootenay....... ... 
E. Kootenay. . . . . , . . . , 
Thompson R....,..... 
N, Columbia R..,..,., 
N, Coast,... . . . . , , . . . , 
Queen Ch'ulotte I.. . . . 
Yukon-All Stations..... 
AI berta- 
N. Saskatchewan R... 
Red Deer R.... , .. . .. , 
Bow It... .....,....., 
.\thabasca R..... .. ... 
Peace R.."...... 
Saskntchewan- 
Qu'Appelle R.......... 
S. Saskatche'\\aD R..., 

. Saskatche\\an R,., 

askatchewan Forks... 
Barrier R............. 
Manitoba- 
Qu'AppeIIe & Assini- 
boine &. . . . . . . , , , . , 
Red R. ... "..."... 
Winnipeg R..... ......, 
Dauphin Lake &: R... . 
Lower Saskatchewan R 

elson R... ., ,... ,. '" 
Ontario- 
Itainy R. , . , . , . . . . . . . , 
henora. . . , . . . . . , . _ . , . . 
Thunder B. . , . , . . . . , . . 
Algoma. . . , . , .. .. , , . , . 
Sudbury.......,... ... 
Timiskaming, . ... . . , , . 

ïpissing. .... ., ...... 
Manitoulin I...,..,..,. 
Upper Ottawa R....., . 
Upper St. Lawrence do 
Lower Ottawa Rs" . 
Georgian B. COB.... _ . , 
Lake Huron Cos... . . . . 
Lakes St. Clair &:: Erie, 
Niagara Pen......... 
W. Central COs.",.,.. 
Lake Ontario Cos.., . , . 
E. Central Cos. . . , , , . . 
Quebec- 

Iiddle St. Lawrence... 
Lower St. Lawrence &: 
Gu](..... .., .."..., 
Lake St, John.. . . . . , . . 
{T pper St. 
faurice,... . 

 orth western Districts 
N.R-AII Stations. , .., . 
N.8.-AII Statio
s.."... 
P,E,!..-All Stations..,.. 
38131-12 


APRIL. 


Temperature ("Fahr.). 


il 
ïi1 
"tj 

 
::tt 


e 
>,=' 
-8 

.
 

E 
Q) 

 


8 
>.
 
:-:::c: 
d'- 
"tj.S 

s 

 


ã cP 

:f 

f 
o 
..... 


..; 
:i 
e>
 
S,!!!, 


 
... 

 


..; 
e>! 
8
 
Q)O 

- 

 
Þ4 

 


... 


Precipitation. 


æ 
.C1 

 
.9 
.9 


3 

 


e 

 
a>Cô 
gs 
Q)
 
&..0 

Q 
Q 


ai 

 
c:a 
"Ø 
- 
o 
... 
.8 
8 
=' 
Z 


-----
-- 


45 
44 
46 
44 
40 
37 
45 
43 
42 
45 
38 
42 
41 
30 
38 
37 
40 
39 
42 
35 
39 
35 
33 
31 


36 
38 
37 
34 
30 
20 
41 
36 
37 
37 
42 
36 
43 
44 
43 
47 
47 
48 
50 
49 
48 
48 
44 
34 
35 
37 
37 
42 
42 
40 


54 
63 
55 
56 
52 
51 
56 
54 
54 
57 
49 
51 
47 
42 
50 
49 
52 
53 
64 
46 
51 
45 
43 
42 


46 
48 
54 
43 
39 
30 
54 
46 
48 
51 
55 
48 
57 
54 
58 
58 
58 
ð9 
60 
60 
57 
59 
55 
43 
47 
48 
49 
53 
51 
48 


36 
35 
38 
32 
28 
23 
34 
32 
31 
32 
27 
33 
35 
18 
26 
26 
29 
25 
30 
25 
28 
26 
24 
22 


26 
28 
21 
26 
21 
11 
29 
27 
26 
24 
29 
24 
29 
34 
28 
36 
36 
38 
40 
38 
39 
37 
33 


25 
23 
26 
26 
32 
34 


33 


18 
18 
17 
24 
24 
28 
22 
22 
23 
25 
22 
18 
12 
24 
24 
23 
23 
28 
24 


74 23 2.95 
63 28 6.90 
76 27 4.60 
70 17 1.00 
74 9 0.85 
65 13 0.45 
75 161.25 
82 15 1.85 
71 18 1.20 
75 11 0.75 
69 12 2.10 
65 21 3.85 
57 29 3.90 
liS - 6 0.25 
74 - 4 1 .25 
67 - 1 1.50 
74 - 1 1 60 
78 5 0.75 
76 - 8 0.55 
75 - 5 1.60 
69 - 2 1. 3,1; 
68 - 6 2.45 
64 - 4 2.20 
61 0 2.25 


21 
23 
19 
19 
20 


20 
20 
33 
17 
18 
19 
25 
19 
22 
27 
26 
24 
2R 
20 
30 
22 
22 
21 
20 
22 
18 
22 
22 
18 
24 
22 
23 
21 
17 
15 


73 0 1.25 
76 10 1.10 
65 14 2.05 
71 3 0.85 
54 3 1.65 
58 -22 2.25 
78 8 1.80 
77 2 2.05 
84 - 2 2.60 
83 - 9 2.25 
85 - 4 3.40 
87 -10 3.5.5 
88 9 3.75 
74 9 3.00 
89 5 2.20 


87 
89 
82 
86 
84 
80 
85 
83 


12 2.60 
13 3.10 
11 3.55 
20 3.75 
17 4.55 
15 4.
0 
10 2.70 
5 2.10 
- 1 1. 45 
- 4 2.35 
o I 2.25 
- 3 \ 2.55 
3 3.05 
4 4.05 
15 3.15 


85 
8.5 
84 
87 
86 
81 


,4 


p.O. 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 30 


+130 
+ 20 
- 15 
- 15 
+ 25 
- 40 


- 50 
+ 60 
+130 
+ 70 
+ 70 
+130 
+ 75 
+370 
+290 


+ 10 
+ 5 


- 20 


+ 80 


+ 90 


+ 30 
+ 25 
+ 40 
+ 60 
+ 40 
+ 80 
+105 
+ 45 
-5 
- 45 


+ 30 
+ 25 
- 15 


15 2.94 
13 2.30 
17 1. 72 
7 0.37 
6 1.52 
2 0.33 
8 0.72 
10 1.50 
9 1.29 
6 0.50 
8 0.80 
13 1.89 
17 1.15 
4 0.12 


:3 
... 
cÐ 

 
c:a 
G) 

 
o 


Station 
differences 
from nor- 
mal temper- 
ature. 


_3 0 to +10 
0 0 
_3 0 to 0 0 
_1 0 
_30 to +30 
_4 0 


_3 0 to _1 0 
_4 0 to 0 0 
_1 0 to 0 0 
_30 to _1 0 
-1 0 toO O 
-2 0 to -1 0 
_3 0 
0 0 to +20 


6 2.03 -3 0 to+l O 
7 1. 10 _2 0 to 0 0 
"I 1 90 _30 to +3- 
4 0.65 +1- 
2 0.96 +90 
6 1.60 -8 0 to +10 
7 0.80 _30 
7 1.60 _50 to -30 
10 0.70 _7 0 to _2 0 
9 0.40 - 


6 0.83 
6 0.72 
7 0.80 
3 0.80 
7 0.50 
6 0.50 
6 1.10 
6 1. 00 
8 1.29 
7 1. 50 
10 1.60 
13 1. 38 
8 3.10 
8 1 .40 
10 0.70 


_30 to _1 0 
0 0 to _1 0 


_2 0 to +40 
_50 
_9 0 


+20 
+20 to +70 
+40 


+40 to +50 
+50 
+60 
+10 to +60 


9 1.50 +40 to +100 
9 1.68 +60 to +90 
11 0.97 +50 to +80 
10 2.01 +Z'to +go 
10 1.65 +60 to +90 
10 1.30 +50 to +80 
9 1.50 +60 to +90 
9 1.11 +40 to +80 
7 1. 18 00 to +1 0 
9 1.27 +10 
8 0.94 1+80 
9 1.20 1+30 to +50 
9 1.50 +20 to +50 
11 2.80 1+2: to +50 
13 0.75 +2 



178 


CLIMATE AND lrIETEOROWGY 


I.-Temperature and PrecipitaUon In 1921, by l\lonths and Observation 
Stations-continued. 
MAY. 


Province or District, i> 
.; 

 
s= 
C!3 
(I) 
"-"'4 

 


British Columbia- 
S. Vancouver I.... . '... 
N. Vancouver I..,.,.. 
Lower Fraser R,. .. ,. . 
Lillooet L. , . . . . . . .. .. . 
Upper Fraser R..". , , . 
Peace R...... . . . , . . . . . 
Okanagan & Similka- 
meen Valleys.,...... 
W. Kootenay..... . , , . . 
E, Kootenay. . , , , . , . . , 
Thompson R.......... 
N. Columbia R...,.... 
N, Coast,...,...,..... 
Queen Charlotte I,. , . . 
Yukon-All Stations,.... 
Alberta- 
N, Saskatchewan R.. . 
Red Deer R... , . . . . . , . 
Bow R.,.,. . , . . . . . . , , . 
Athabasca R.... , , , . . . 
Peace R. , , . .. . , . , , . , . , 
Saskatchewan- 
Qu'Appel1e R,.....,,'. 
S, Saskatchewan R.,., 
N, Saskatchewan R.. , 
Saskatchewan Forks... 
Lower Saskatchewan R 
Barrier R.. . , . . . . . . . . . 
l\Ianitoba- 
Qu'Appelle & Assini- 
boine Rs............ 
Red R..............,. 
Winnipeg R... . . . . . . . . . 
Dauphin Lake & R.. . . 
Lower Saskatchewan R 
Nelson R........,.,.,. 
Ontario- 
Rainy R. , . , , . . . . . . . , . 
Kenora. . . , . , , . , . , . , , , . 
Thunder B. .. .. . . .. . . . 
A Igoma. . . , . , . . . . . , . , . 
Sudbury..........,.., . 
Timiskaming... .. . , , , . 
Nipissing.. . .. . . .. .. .. . 
Manitoulin 1... . . . . , . 
Upper Ottawa R.... .. . 
Upper St, Lawrence & 
Lower Ottawa Rs. , . 
Georgian B. COB.... . , . 
L, Huron Cos.......... 
L, St. Clair & Erie, Nia- 
gara Pen....... .,. 
W, Central COs"".". 
L, Ontario Cos. . . . . . . . 
E. Central Cos..,.,... 
Quebec- 
Middle St, La"\\'Tence. . 
Lower St. Lawrence & 
Gulf.... ... ..,.".,. 
Lake St. John.. . . . . . . . 
Upper St. 
faurice.... . 
Northwestern Districts 
N.B,-All Stations..,... 
N.S.-All Stations....." 
P.E,I. .-All Stations..., 


Temperature COFahr ,). 


å 
bE 
.;.
 

C!3 

8 
Q,) 

 


52 
52 
54 
54 
48 
43 
56 
54 
51 
56 
48 
47 
45 
44 
49 
48 
49 
48 
50 
51 
50 
50 
52 
49 
49 


53 
54 
51 
49 
50 
38 
53 
51 
50 
49 
52 
51 
54 
54 
53 
58 
56 
58 
58 
57 
57 
58 
56 
48 
53 
52 
50 
52 
49 
50 


62 
62 
64 
70 
62 
56 
70 
69 
66 
71 
63 
57 
52 
56 
63 
61 
64 
61 
64 
63 
61 
62 
64 
60 
60 


67 
68 
63 
62 
60 
48 
66 
63 
63 
64 
66 
62 
69 
64 
70 
70 
67 
69 
69 
69 
67 
70 
69 
58 
66 
67 
62 
66 
60 
60 


S 
>>::1 
:;::8 
C!3.... 

,5 

8 
Q,) 

 


43 
42 
45 
39 
35 
30 
43 
40 
36 
41 
33 
37 
38 
33 
36 
35 
35 
36 
37 
40 
39 
39 
41 
39 
39 


40 
41 
39 
36 
40 
28 
40 
40 
38 
34 
39 
40 
40 
45 
36 
46 
45 
48 
48 
46 
47 
46 
43 
38 
40 
38 
38 
39 
39 
41 


b, 
,... (I) 
C!3t1/) 

= 
=C!3 
C!3J.. 
Q,) 

 


19 
20 
19 
31 
27 
26 
27 
29 
30 
30 
30 
20 
14 
23 
27 
26 
29 
25 
27 
23 
22 
23 
23 
21 
21 


27 
27 
24 
26 
20 
20 
26 
23 
25 
30 
27 
22 
29 
19 
34 
24- 
22 
21 
21 
23 
20 
24 
26 
20 
26 
29 
24 
27 
21 
19 


..; 
III 
Q,) 
(I)
 
8,
 

..t:: 
+:> 
H 

 


..; 
00 
(l)Q,) 
8
 
(1)0 
J..- 
+:> 
H 

 


89 
77 
84 
84 
90 
75 
90 
87 
85 
90 
77 
77 
67 
73 
88 
86 
89 
85 
85 
85 
88 
82 
82 
78 
77 


30 1. 75 
32 2.25 
33 2. 65 
28 1. 15 
20 1. 30 
19 3.60 


25 0.95 - 20 
24 1.05 - 45 
24 0.75 - 50 
25 0.95 - 25 
26 1.20 - 5 
27 2.50 - 40 
28 2.65 - 
19 0.80 + 45 
18 1. 70 - 25 
18 1.35 - 50 
11 1.50 - 50 
22 2.20 - 
17 1,75 + 15 
5 2.35 + 15 
18 1.90 + 10 
11 1.90 + 40 
20 2.40 + 65 
26 1.90 - 
10 2,75 - 


87 
92 
83 
86 
78 
76 
89 
86 
89 
92 
89 
91 
93 
83 
94 
95 
93 
88 
93 
91 
93 
92 
90 
87 
87 
90 
90 
89 
86 
80 


10 2.45 + 40 
17 1.80 - 
23 2.05 - 
14 2.05 - 10 
23 0.40 - 
- 8 0.60 - 


20 1. 90 
19 1. 85 
18 3.25 
5 3.30 
10 1.50 
23 1. 95 
20 1. 70 
31 1.55 
18 1.20 
28 1. 95 
24 1. 75 
27 2.30 


29 2.20 -25 
28 2.60 + 10 
29 1.85 - 35 
25 1.50 - 50 
20 0.85 - 75 
21 1.60 - 35 
19 2.70 - 
16 1.45 - 
6 1.10 - 45 
18 1.40 - 40 
21 1.95 - 35 
29 1.75 - 


Precipitation, 


a5 
Q,) 

 
o 
.S 
.s 

 
+:> 
o 
E-4 


p.c. 
- 25 
- 70 
- 30 


+ 25 


+ 30 


- 40 


- 60 
-35 
- 55 
-40 


8 
o 
.::. 


 
=8 
Q,)J.. 
J..o 


 
i5 



 
C!3 

 
Õ 
J.. 
Q,) 
.t:J 
8 
::I 
Z 


8 1. 23 
10 1. 43 
10 0.95 
4 0.65 
7 0.66 
9 1. 00 
7 0.72 
7 1.11 
6 0.42 
6 0.63 
4 0.52 
9 2.07 
16 0.79 
9 0.35 



 
+:> 
00 
Q,) 

 
(1) 
J.. 
o 


Station 
differences 
from nor- 
mal temper 
ature. 


_2 0 to 0 0 
_1 0 to +10 
_2 0 to +10 
+10 
_2 0 to +10 
_6 0 


_1 0 to +20 
+10 to +30 
0 0 to +20 
+10 to +20 
_1 0 to +20 
_2 0 to +2 n 
_4 0 
_1 0 


7 2,16 -I O to +20 
7 1.13 0 0 to +10 
8 1.29 _2 0 to +20 
8 1.98 _1 0 
5 1.27 _3 0 to +20 
10 
8 
9 
10 
8 
10 


7 1.90 
7 1. 00 
5 0.90 
6 1 .40 
4 0.28 
6 0.33 - 


+10 to +50 
0 0 to +20 
0 0 to +20 
+10 to +30 
+10 


1.52 
1.48 
1.65 
0.99 
0.90 
0.65 - 


0 0 to +60 
+20 to +40 


+30 to +40 
+20 
0 0 


6 0.90 +50 
5 0.70 +20 to +40 
8 1.13 +30 
9 1.26 
8 1.60 +40 to +70 
10 1.01 +30 
6 1. 10 +50 
5 1.37 _1 0 to +30 
6 0.63 - 


6 2.03 +20 to +70 
5 1.72 +4 0 to +50 
6 3.08 +30 to +40 


6 1.87 0 0 to +50 
6 2.34 +20 to +60 
8 1.35 +20 to +50 
7 0.89 +30 to +40 
5 
7 
7 
5 
6 
6 
8 
12 


1.20 +30 to +60 


2.10 
0.92 
1.14 
0.68 
1.00 
1.75 
0.44 


0 0 to +60 
+6" 
+70 
+40 to +60 
+10 to +30 
0 0 to +20 
+20 



TEJfPER..t TUllE .LYD PRE '11'11'A T/O.\ 


179 


1. - T.'Jnln'rahare anul Pl't'dl)ltafl()1l In 19"1, b) 'Ionths and Obsrr\ation 

tatloo
 -continued. 
JUNE. 


Proyince or District. 


Briti"h Columhia- 

, Y:tncou,.('r I........ 

. Yan('ouver I...,..., 
Lo\\er Fraser It.. ,..., 
Lill()()('t L. , . . . .. . .. . 
e p(>{'r Fraser R.... .. . . 
P('l\re It. . . . , . . , , . , . . , . 
Ob.ana
an .\: Similka- 
m('('n Valleys.". , . . . 
W. Kootl'nß}."..."... 
.E. Koot('nav.......... 
Thompson Ìt.."...,.. 
1'\. Columbia R..,.... . 
X, Coast., . . , . , . , . , . . , 
Qu{'('n Charlotte 1. . . , . 
y ukon- \11 Stations,.... 
Alberta- 
8a,."b.atchc\\an R... ,... 
R('d Deer R... . . . . , . , . 
Bo\\ R.."...".....,. 
A thabasca R, , . , . . . . , . 
Peace It. , .. , . . . . . . . . . . 
Saskatchewnn- 
Qu' -\ppcllo R..... . ... . 
S. Saskatchewan R.... 
N. Saskatchewan R.. . 
Ra..'ìkatc he\\ an Forks... 
Lower Saskatchewan R 
Barrier R. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

ranitoba- 
Qu'Appelle &: Assini- 
boine Rs. . . . . . , . , . , . 
Red R. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Winnipeg R,... , . . ..... 
Dauphin Lake & R... . 
Lower Saskatchewan R 
X elson R...,..,.....,. 
Ontario- 
R.ainy R. . . . . . , . , . , . . , 
Kenora. , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Thunder B. . . , . . . . . . . . 
.-\IJ!:oma. , . . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Sudbury... , . , , . . . . . . , . 
Timiskaming,. , . . . , , . . 
Xipissinp;,. . . . . . . . . . . . , 
!\Ianitoulin 1.... .. .. .. . 
Lpper Ot18\\3 R.." , . . 
'(;pper ::;t. Lawrence & 
Lower Otta\\8 Rs... 
Georgian B. COB...... 
L. Huron Cos... . , , . . , . 
L. 
t. Clair & Erie, 
i\iagara Pen.... , . , 
W, Central Cos.. . . . . , , 
L. Untario Coso . . . , . , . 
E. Central COs......., 
Quebcc- 

Iiddle St, Lawrence... 
Lower St. Lawrence &: 
Gull. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
L, St. John. .. ......... 
Upper St, -'Iaurice..,.. 
Northwestern Districts 
X.B.-All Stations....,. 
N .S.-All Stations... . . . , 
P,E.I.-All Stations..... 
38131-12! 


i> 
ë;; 

 
c 
::1 

 


57 
56 
5t) 
60 
55 
53 
63 
60 
59 
62 
57 
56 
51 
54 
60 
59 
61 
57 
56 


Temperature rFahr.). Precipitation. 
S .; 
tation 
.; >. 
E Ë Q) 0 us differenc('s 
.c .!::. 
 
>'Ë >,=' >., ..; ..; tI CD"'; Õ ] (rom nor- 
==S GO .5 mal temper- 
==Q CD
 CDæ gE 
a'Þë us.... 

 J.o 
 

 "0.9 S.
 6 
 .5 
J.o 
 GO ature. 
Q) 
c6 cS 
f J.oO 
 

.Q Q)O t; 
= 
b- E 
 
i os Õ 
 
Q) Q.I H H a =' J.o 
.... :a 
 
 
 z ø 
.-; 
- - - - - - - 
p.c. 
63 52 11 84 36 3.00 + 80 15 2.46 _2 0 to +20 
63 48 15 ';6 41 5 15 + 40 19 2. :!:I 0 0 to +20 
67 52 15 
1 39 4.70 + 45 17 1.63 0 0 to +20 
';4 47 27 bt; 37 1.75 - 7 o 53 
69 41 28 89 24 1.60 - 9 0.77 _1 0 to +1. 
67 40 27 73 23 3.35 - 11 0.60 _1 0 
';6 51 25 90 33 1.75 + 10 10 1.21 0 0 to +20 
73 48 25 {l3 34 2.45 + 20 13 1.50 0 0 to +20 
73 45 28 91 32 1.60 - 40 11 1.38 +10 to +40 
;6 49 27 b9 29 1.40 - 10 9 0.9,1} +10 to +30 
72 42 30 85 35 3.05 + 30 14 0.70 +20 to +t o 
67 45 22 80 34 3.70 - 40 14 1.76 _1 0 to +20 
56 46 10 67 38 3.30 - 14 0.90 _30 
69 40 29 83 3 1.20 + 5 8 0.53 +10 to +20 
';4 46 28 93 24 2.70 - 35 10 2.10 +30 to +80 
74 45 29 92 29 1 .4.') - 60 9 0.85 +20 to +60 
76 47 29 QII 29 1.00 - 65 5 1.15 00 to +70 
72 43 29 86 22 1.95 - 9 0.95 +30 
71 42 29 84 18 2.00 + 5 8 1.02 _4 0 to +2. 
75 53 22 96 25 5.00 + 65 10 3.75 +40 to +10 0 
78 50 28 9:> 30 I.U5 -30 8 1.70 +60 to +70 
76 50 26 89 25 2.10 - 30 8 3.80 +40 to +7. 
76 53 23 Stl 2i 3.00 + 20 10 2.42 +60 to +70 
74 51 23 84 27 2.70 - 11 1.6R +50 
72 53 19 83 27 7.40 - 11 1.89 - 
77 55 22 100 27 2.65 - 10 9 1.82 +4 0 to +70 
78 56 22 96 26 2.00 - 35 9 1. 32 +50 to +60 
;6 5-1 22 95 32 3.00 - 8 2.15 - 
76 53 23 96 28 2.S0 - 15 8 1 43 +20 to +70 
76 63 13 85 42 0.20 - 3 0.14 +100 
66 46 20 88 28 3.30 - 12 1.57 +60 
69 55 24 102 28 1.50 - 5 0.79 - 
75 55 20 95 27 1.80 - 6 1.32 +60 
76 51 25 98 24 160 - 25 7 1.18 00 to +60 
77 46 31 94 J.t 1.60 - 6 1.95 +30 
i8 4!J 29 94 21 I 50 - 5 2 22 - 
76 51 25 95 20 1.20 - 50 8 1.02 +20 to +40 
80 50 30 99 26 2.10 - 4 1.41 +30 
75 52 23 92 36 0.80 - 4 0.59 +40 
- - - 93 - 1.55 - 50 5 0.66 - 
79 53 26 98 34 1.90 - 25 5 1.70 +10 to +40 
77 53 24 102 31 2.40 - 35 5 2.37 +20 to +80 
75 52 23 89 30 3.05 + 15 6 2.44 +20 to +40 
79 57 22 98 37 1.95 - 35 5 2.92 _1 0 to +70 
79 54: 25 94 33 2.30 - 25 7 2.10 +10 to +40 
78 54 24 93 38 2 30 - 20 7 1.61 00 to +50 
79 51 28 102 30 2.75 - 10 7 1.50 0 0 to +30 
76 51 25 103 27 1.90 - 55 7 1.18 +20 to +40 
65 44 21 92 26 1.70 - 40 6 3.00 _4 0 to +10 
72 4ft 26 90 25 2.20 - 9 1.12 +30 
74 45 29 92 22 1.75 - 6 1.03 +50 
75 47 28 98 28 1.75 - 50 7 0.82 +10 to +7<> 
69 45 24 91 22 1.30 - 55 9 0.83 _6 0 to +10 
66 46 20 85 28 1.75 - 40 8 1.51 -5<> to +20 
67 49 18 81 37 1.10 - 10 0.32 0 0 


:- 



 


fì4 
64 
63 
6i 
62 
62 


66 
67 
65 
64 
69 
56 
67 
65 
63 
61 
63 
63 
65 
63 


66 
65 
63 
68 
66 
66 
65 


63 
54 
5!J 
59 
61 
57 
56 
68 



180 


CLIMATE AND METEOROWGY 


1.-Temperaturt' and Precipitation in 1921, by Months and Observation 
Stations-c:>ntinued, 
JULY. 


Province or District. 


Bri tish Colum bia.- 
S. Vancouver I .... , . . , 60 
N. Vancouver I. ......, 58 
Lower Fraser R, . , . . . . 62 
Lillooet L. , , , , . . . . . . . . 62 
Upper Fraser Roo..... , 57 
Peace R. , , . . , , , . , . , . , . 58 
Okanagan & Similka- 
meen Valleys.", . . , . 67 
W. Kootenay,... . . .. .. 65 
E, Kootenay.. . . , . .. . , 63 
Thompson R. . . . , , , , . , 65 
N. Columbia R....,... 59 
N. Coast. , . , . , . , . . . , . . 57 
Queen Charlotte I. . , , . 53 
Yukon-All Stations.. , , . 58 
Alberta- 
N, Saskatchewan R. . . 60 
Red Deer R,.. . . . , . . , . 62 
Bow R." , , , . . . . . , , , . . 64 
Athabasca R." , , , . . , . 58 
Peace Roo,. . . . . . , . , . , . 60 
Saskatchewan- 
Qu'Appelle Roo,....... 66 
S, Saskatchewan R..,. 65 
N, Saskatchewan R, , . 64 
Saskatchewan Forks... 64 
L. Saskatchewan Roo. . 63 
Barrier R. . .. . . .. , . . .. 63 
Manitoba- 
Qu'Appelle & Assini- 
boine Rs.. , . . .. , . , . , 69 
Red R. . , . , . , . . , , , . , . . 69 
Winnipeg R...,..,.,... 68 
Dauphin L. & R... . . . . 68 
Lower Saskatchewan R 69 
Nelson R,............. 63 
Ontario- 
Rainy R, . . . . . . . . .. , . , 69 
Kenora. . . . . , , , , , . . . . . . 68 
Thunder B. .. , . , . , . , . . 69 
Algoma............... 69 
Sudbury... . . , , . . , . . , . , 71 
Temiskaming... . . . . . . . 72 
Nipissing.... . . . .. .. . . . 72 
Manitoulin I . . . . . . . 74 
Vpper St. Lawrence & 72 
Lower Ottawa R. . , , 76 
Georgian B, Cos, . , , , . 75 
L. Huron Cos... . . . . . , . 74 
L. St, Clair & Erie, 
Niagara Pen..".,... 77 
W. Central Cos.., .. , , . 75 
L. Ontario Cos..,.,.,. 76 
E. Central Cos..,.", 74 
Quebec- 

Iiddle St. Lawrence... 73 
Lower St. Lawrence & 
GulL. . .. . . .. . .. . . . . 65 
L. fit. John. . . . . . . . . . _ . 69 
{;pper St. !\Iaurice.... . 66 
North western Districts 71 
N.H.-All Stations....,. 70 
X.S.-All Stations.... ... 66 
P.E.I.-All Stations..,., 69 


b 
'ë; 
-t;S 
s= 
CIS 

 

 


8 
bs 

.
 

s 

 

 


Tempera 


70 
6ð 
72 
79 
72 
72 
82 
82 
81 
81 
74 
66 
58 
71 
74 
77 
79 
72 
74 
79 
80 
78 
77 
75 
75 


83 
81 
80 
81 
75 
74 
83 
79 
81 
84 
85 
85 
87 
85 
86 
88 
87 
85 
87 
86 
86 
87 
85 
76 
80 
83 
84 
83 
76 
79 


ture rFahr.) Precipitation. 
S 00 Station 
00 :>. 

 0 CIS differences 
.J::: .t:. -t;S 
:>. 
 ...; t.> Q,)tij õ 3 from nor- 
m .s 
==a5 Q,)] 00 88 mal temper- 
o3b1! Q,)Q,) ,S J.. ..p 
-t;Ss= 6.
 8
 Q,)J.. Q,) II) ature. 
.D Q,) 

f: ""0 ..p 


 Q,)o õ3 

 8 
",,- 03 
..p 
 ..p Q,) 

 M 0 is =' "" 
)! r.l r.l 
 Z 0 
- - - - - - 
p.c. 
0 20 92 38 0.20 - 60 3 0.77 _2 0 to +10 
0 16 81 41 0.90 -45 7 0.59 -2 0 to _1 0 
2 20 84 41 0.65 -55 4 0.94 -2 0 to 0 0 
Õ 34 90 30 0.15 - 2 0.11 
2 30 95 25 1.20 - 20 7 1.00 -4 0 to 0 0 
4 28 81 33 2.15 - 8 1.50 -1 0 
3 29 97 32 0.25 - 80 2 0.55 _2 0 to +20 
9 33 98 33 0.30 - 80 3 0.40 ._2 0 to +10 
6 35 98 35 1.15 - 55 5 1.91 +20 to +30 
9 32 95 34 0.40 - 80 3 0.43 _1 0 to 0 0 
4 30 88 36 1.50 - 20 7 0.61 0 0 to +10 
8 18 83 39 2.95 - 45 10 2.99 -4 0 to +10 
8 10 63 43 1.20 - 11 0.48 -50 
6 25 86 33 1.20 - 10 13 0.34 _1 0 to +10 
7 27 99 24 3.30 + 15 17 3.24 0 0 to +2" 
8 29 104 30 2.75 - 15 12 1.44 0 0 to +30 
9 30 105 30 2.35 + 20 8 2.50 _4 0 to +30 
5 27 102 28 3.45 - 14 1.05 - 
6 28 92 34 2.55 + 80 10 2.20 -1 0 to 0 0 
3 26 100 29 3.75 + 45 10 2.02 +10 to +60 
1 29 102 34 2.60 + 25 10 0.95 +e to +30 
0 28 103 35 2.45 - 15 II 0.82 +10 to +30 
1 26 96 36 3.60 + 30 14 1.68 +20 to +3" 
1 24 85 40 3.10 - 17 1.04 +20 
2 23 86 42 2.55 - 5 1.58 - 
5 28 105 - 35 1.45 - 35 7 4.56 +1 to +110 
7 24 99 35 5.15 + 95 9 4.35 +40 to +50 
6 24 90 45 3.45 - 10 0.98 - 
5 26 94 44 3.35 + 10 7 1.49 +60 
3 12 82 55 1.30 - 9 0.30 +50 
2 22 88 35 1.30 - 10 0.63 +30 
6 27 99 26 4.55 - 9 1.47 +30 
8 21 99 39 6.65 - 11 3.55 +60 to +80 
7 24 100 35 5.05 + 35 13 2.01 +60 to +80 
5 29 99 28 4.65 - 11 2.40 +80 
7 28 101 84 2.70 - 8 1.97 - 
0 25 102 39 3.30 - 5 12 1.31 +70 
7 30 103 32 2.65 - 7 1.25 +70 
4 21 96 52 2.75 - 6 1.00 +10 0 
8 28 104 45 3.50 +10 12 1.13 +40 to +80 
5 23 102 45 2,85 -10 7 4.18 +50 to + 10 0 
4 23 100 45 3.20 -5 7 2.95 +70 to +110 
4 21 97 45 6.10 +105 8 2,69 +60 to +80 
7 20 101 47 2.55 -10 7 2.17 +40 to +80 
4 22 101 49 5.45 + 80 9 4.05 +50 to +80 
6 20 100 51 2.90 -10 8 2.54 +40 to +70 
1 26 100 46 4.35 + 50 7 2.25 +40 to +80 
2 23 101 40 3.85 - 10 2.03 +'60 to +8" 
22 96 26 2.20 - 35 6 1. 75 -1 0 to +50 
8 22 96 33 5.15 - 12 2.12 +60 
9 34 96 25 5.50 - 10 1.80 - 
8 26 103 34 2.95 -5 10 1.42 +80 
8 25 97 32 1.90 - 40 5 1.52 +e to +50 
6 20 95 32 1.95 - 40 6 1.82 h O to +50 
0 19 90 46 0.75 - 5 0.31 +30 


s 
>>=' 
:=8 
03.- 
-t;S .S 

a 

 

 


5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
5 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
54 
5 
4 
5 
5 
5 
6 



TEJIPFRATUllH .LL.VD PRECIPITATIO..V 


181 


1.- remperatmc and .-recll)(tatloll In 1921, b). .llonths and Obsl'natioD 
:stations -continued. 
At:GUST. 


Temperature rFahr ,) 
8 8 
Pro, inco or District. i- >.=' >.=' 
ci ...; ...; 
-6 :::5 11'1 
Co) en 
.; 
.ã "'.- "'tIÐ CD..c CDc.> 

 "'C . S "'d
 8.
 Sz$ 

 cS cS 
... 

 f,g 
gJ us .. +> 
Q) 
 Q) H H 

 ::a ::s 
 
 
- - - - - 
British Columbia- 
S. Vancouver I. ,...... 60 69 51 18 98 39 
N, Vancouver 1..".., . 59 67 52 15 83 4'> 
Lo", er Fraser It, . . . . , . 62 73 52 21 90 43 
LilIooet L. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 76 48 28 93 34 
{jpper Fraser R..".,., 57 70 44 26 96 29 
Peace R .. Si
'iib: 55 68 
2 26 86 32 
Okanagan & 
IIlt'cn \ alleys. . , . . , . . 66 80 52 27 97 33 
W, Kootl'nay...." 64 bl 4..; 33 100 31 
E. Kootenay". . . . . . . . 61 79 44 35 95 28 
Thornbn It."". .,. 6-1 ï9 49 30 !/6 32 
X. Co umbia R,....,.. 58 72 44 28 S6 34 
K. Coast. . . . . . , . . . . . . . 58 66 50 16 87 39 
Queen Charlotte I. ... . 55 tlO 50 10 68 46 
Yukon-All Stations..." 65 68 42 26 88 29 
Alberta- 
N. 
a.8kat('he\\an R.,. 57 71 43 28 94 28 
Red Deer R...... . .. . . 58 74 43 31 95 26 
BowR. . .. .......... 61 77 45 32 105 22 
Athabascu R.,... . , . , , 56 69 43 26 96 30 
Pl'.ß.Cc It. ....... 57 70 t5 25 82 32 

fi8katche\\ 

:..:: 
Qu'_\ppelle R...... _... 62 76 48 28 98 31 
S. :-:askatchc\\an R..,. 63 80 47 33 98 29 
N. 8a:"katche",an R,.. 61 78 45 33 96 29 
Saskatchewan Forks... 60 74 46 28 J5 33 
Lo\\er SaskatchewanR 60 72 48 24 83 30 
Barrier It, . . . . . . . . . . , . 59 72 41 25 86 32 
'[anitoba- 
Qu'
\ppelle &: Assini- 
boine Re. .. . , . . .... , 64 78 50 28 99 29 
Red R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 63 76 60 26 95 29 
Winnipeg R....... ..... 61 74 49 25 86 37 
Dauphin Lake & R... . 62 75 49 26 88 39 
Lower S
tchewan R 63 71 55 16 82 42 
Nelson R..... . . . . . . . . . 65 65 
5 20 81 33 
Ontario- 

iny R. . . , . . . . . . , . . . 63 75 52 23 88 34 
Kenora. . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . 61 72 51 21 87 34 
Thunder B. . . . . , . . . . . . 59 72 4ï 25 92 28 
Algoma....,.,.,..... . 58 71 45 26 87 20 

udbury........ .. ...., 59 71 47 24 85 20 
Timiskami
 60 71 50 21 89 32 
Nipissing.. . . . ,. , , . ,.. , 57 72 43 29 88 29 
}[anitoulin L _ . . , , , , . 6-1 72 56 16 86 H 
Upper Ottawa R...... . 62 72 50 24 92 34 
Upper ::;t. La\\ renee &: 
Lower Ottawa Rs... 66 77 55 22 89 37 
Georgian B. COs..,.". 64 75 54 21 87 35 
L. Huron COS......,.,. 66 76 47 19 86 39 
L. St. Clair & Erie, 
Niagara Pen... ...... 68 79 58 21 92 40 
W, Central COM,. . . . . . . 65 76 54 22 92 40 
L. Ontario COS......., 6& 76 56 20 91 42 
E. Central COi,....." 63 75 51 
4 87 35 
Quebec- 
lfiddle St, Lawrence., 63 75 52 23 101 25 
Lo..er St. Lawrence & 
GuU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 65 47 18 89 31 
L. St. John... . . . , . . . , . 60 70 50 20 84 38 
{; pper 8t, 
Iaurice.., . , 56 70 42 28 83 20 
Northwestern Districts 59 70 48 22 88 26 
N.B.-AII Stations....., 61 73 50 23 89 28 
N .S,-AII Stations. _ . . . . . 60 72 49 23 90 30 
P.E.I.-AII Stations...,. 63 71 55 16 80 46 


Precipitation. 
rti S iii Station 
>. 
0 us (lifferencee 
..c .t: "'d 3 from nor- 
0 CDë;; "õ 
,8 mal temper- 
gS J.o 
 
,9 11) ature. 
Q)J.o Q) .E 
"3 
8 ..0 
S us 
tt: f 
0 Q =' 
f-I Z 0 


p.c. 
2.25 +100 9 4.46 _3 D to +10 
5.25 + 70 14 1.71 _1 0 
3.15 + 40 10 2.50 _2 0 to +1- 
2.35 - 6 O.
IO I 0 0 
2.00 +10 10 O.
 -3" to +2. 
2.25 10 1.22 -4 0 
0.80 - 25 6 0.56 _1 0 to +2- 
0.80 - 45 5 1.2\1 _2 0 to +30 
0.55 - 55 5 0.47 +10 to +20 
0.80 - 25 7 0.37 0 0 to +20 
2.45 + 15 9 0.90 +10 
5.80 - 5 15 2.43 -to to DO 
2.50 14 0.86 _4 0 
0.75 - 20 9 0.42 +10 to +2. 
1.70 - 35 9 0.90 _2 0 to +2- 
1.25 -50 7 1.01 _1 0 to +20 
1.10 - 35 5 1.80 _2 0 to +30 
1.75 9 1.40 _1 0 
2.90 +130 9 3,15 -30 to +10 
1.85 - 5 7 2.57 _1 0 to +4 0 
0.85 -JO 4 1.22 +10 to +30 
1.00 -50 5 0.80 _1 0 to +
 
0.80 -55 6 0.49 0 0 to +
 
0.95 9 0.33 _2 0 
1.00 9 0.33 
2.65 +20 9 1.55 +1 Oto +40 
2.45 9 1.50 _1 0 to +20 
2.35 11 1.00 
4.05 +85 8 1.97 +20 
1.20 4 0.57 +20 
3.15 8 1.04 _1 0 
2.15 7 1.19 
3.85 7 2.04 _1 0 
1.45 - 55 8 1.00 _3 0 to +:r' 
2.80 9 l.ðO 
2.15 9 0.89 
3.10 + 15 10 2.43 
2.40 6 1.06 _1 0 
3.70 8 1.58 +20 
3.20 + 5 9 1.45 _2 0 to +1- 
2.35 - 25 6 2.49 -3 0 to +1- 
1.95 - 40 7 1.16 -1. to +:ao 
2.30 -10 7 1.09 _1 0 to +20 
3.40 + 30 8 2.2.') _4 0 to +10 
2.40 - 10 8 2.71 _2 0 to +z>> 
1.80 - 25 6 1.64 -1. to +10 
2.70 + 5 7 1.48 -3. to _to 
3.15 - 5 7 1.77 -2" to +2" 
3.15 - 30 9 1.70 _6 0 to _10- 
3.60 14 1.20 _1 0 
3.80 11 1.10 
3.10 - 5 9 2.14 0- 
4.15 + 5 8 2.58 -3" to _1 0 
1.75 - 45 6 2.17 _50 to _1 0 
3.20 6 1.24 _1 0 



182 CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 
I.-Temperature and Precipitation In 1921, by l\lonths and Observation 
Stations-continued. 
SEPTEMBER. 
Temperature C"Fahr.) Precipitation, 
00 8 Ii Station 
S :>. 
S Q,) .g 03 differences 
Province or District, b bS >>::s ...; 
 "tj 3 from nor- 
b. ...; 0 Q,)"; "õ 
::::13 00 .5 mal temper- 
'tij .tij,
 '.... Q,) Q,) 00 88 +:> 
03'.... o3bO Q,)
 Q,)Q,) J.. 
"tj,S 8
 .s 00 ature. 
"tj "tj03 "'C
 S.
 Q,)J.. Q,) Q,) 
= 
S 
8 

 Q,)o 
 J..o .D -+'> 

J.. J..- 
= 8 03 
03 +:> 
 +:> Q,) 
Q,) Q,) Q,) Q,) M 0 Q ::s J.. 
)1 )1 ...... )1 r.l r.l 
 Z 0 

 
----- ----- 
British Columbia- p,c. 

. Vancouver I.,...... 54 62 46 16 83 32 5.65 +125 15 4.28 _4 0 to _1 0 
N. Vancouver I......,. 54 61 47 14 72 33 8.90 +120 17 2.49 _3 0 to 0 0 
Lower Fraser R"..... 55 63 47 16 75 34 8.10 + 65 14 3.90 -4 0 to +10 
Lillooet L. . . . . . . , . . . . , 54 64 45 19 72 28 5.60 - 14 1.62 -2 0 
Upper Fraser R..,..... 48 60 37 23 79 20 2.25 + 65 10 1.07 -50 to 0 0 
Peace R. . . , . , . . . . . . . , . 47 61 34 27 80 18 1.20 6 0.55 -4 0 
Okanagan & Similka- 
meen Yalleys..,..... 54 65 43 22 76 24 0.70 - 35 9 0.47 -3 0 to _1 0 
W, Kootenay.., . , . , . . . 51 63 39 24 80 21 2.00 + 35 12 1.10 -50 to _1 0 
E. Kootenay. . . . . . . . . . 47 59 35 24 78 19 1.80 + 5 10 1.70 -50 to _4 0 
Thompson R..... ,.,.. -<) 64 40 24 79 20 1.10 - 5 9 0.60 -3 0 to _1 0 
i)
 
N, Columbia R.,. . . .. . 44 53 35 18 69 26 6.20 +115 16 1.20 -4 0 to _a o 
N, Coast...., 52 59 45 14 75 32 8.65 + 15 18 1.91 -2 0 to _1 0 
Queen Charlotte I.. ... 52 57 47 10 62 40 7.00 - 15 1.25 -2 0 
Yukon-All Stations.... 41 53 30 23 72 9 0.30 - 35 7 0.42 -2 0 to _1 0 
Alberta- 
N. Saskatchewan R. , . 47 61 34 27 81 17 1.05 - 35 6 1.07 -4 0 to _1 0 
Red Deer R......,.... 46 60 32 28 87 16 0.95 - 35 5 1.33 -50 to _1 0 
RowR................ 48 61 36 25 82 11 1.40 - 15 6 1.00 -50 to _2 0 
A thabascø, R. , , . . , , . . . 46 59 33 26 76 12 0.85 6 0.85 _3 0 to _1 0 
Peace R...,.........,. 48 62 35 27 78 21 1.65 + 25 5 1.21 _1 0 to +30 
Saskatchewan- 
Qu'Appelle R........., 50 62 39 23 99 20 3.85 +205 11 1.88 _1 0 to +50 
S. Saskatchewan R,.,. 48 60 36 24 85 11 2.85 + 90 8 2.17 _3 0 to _1 0 
N. Saskatchewan R. , . 48 60 36 24 86 23 2.35 +105 8 1.62 _3 0 to _1 0 
Saskatchewan Forks... 49 60 38 22 80 27 3.15 +105 10 1.70 +10 to +20 
Lower Saskatchewan R 50 61 40 21 75 31 3.60 12 0.66 +10 
Barrier R. .. .. . . , . . . . , 50 59 42 17 75 32 4.05 9 0.78 
Manitoba- 
Qu'Appelle & Assini- 
boine Rs, , . , , ,. , . . , . 54 65 44 21 98 29 4.35 +180 12 2.81 0 0 to +40 
Red R. . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . 56 67 45 22 95 24 3.10 + 70 13 1.23 0 0 to +30 
Winnipeg R..........,. 55 64 46 18 85 34 2.95 - 14 1.00 
Dauphin L. & R.,..". 54 66 43 23 93 30 3.60 +55 7 2.00 +30 
Lower Saskatchewan R 51 60 43 17 68 30 2.80 10 0.77 +20 
N olson R.............. 45 62 38 14 72 30 2.75 12 0,72 
Ontario- 
Rainy R. . , , . . , , . .. . . . 56 66 46 20 98 30 4.20 12 1.30 
Kenora. , . . , . . . . . . . , . . , 54 63 46 17 86 29 4.65 7 1.40 +go 
Thunder B. . . . . . . . . . . , 54 63 45 18 93 25 3.85 + 5 15 1.69 _1 0 to +70 
Algoma.. , . . . . . . . . , . . . . 54 66 43 23 88 22 4.75 11 2.48 +40 
Sud bury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 71 47 24 94 25 4.50 13 2.07 
Timiskaming. , . . . . . . . . 56 67 46 21 90 33 6.25 +85 16 2,55 +40 to +50 
Nipissing. , , , . . . . . . . . . . 55 69 41 28 90 26 4.20 8 1.69 +40 
Manitoulin I..., ... ,. . , 63 71 55 16 84 37 4.05 6 1.37 +50 
Upper Ottawa R..,... 58 72 44 28 92 14 3,25 - 55 7 2.04 +10 to +30 
Upper St, Lawrence & +20 to +60 
Ottawa Ra. .. .. .. .. , 63 75 51 24 95 32 2.40 - 20 6 1.25 
Georgian B. COs.;.... , 63 74 53 21 93 28 2.45 - 5 8 1.00 +40 to +80 
L. Huron Cos.. ..,..,., 64 74 54 20 87 38 3.00 + 10 7 1.25 +40 to +60 
Lakes St. Clair & Erie, 
Niagara. Peninsula, . . 67 78 57 21 94 37 2.30 + 20 7 2.09 _1 0 to +70 
W. Central Coso . . . . . . , 64 76 52 24 90 32 3.35 + 25 10 1.32 +10 to +80 
L. Ontario COS....... , 66 77 55 22 92 37 1.45 - 45 6 0.70 +2" to +90 
E, Central Cos......., 61 74 48 26 90 29 2.05 - 30 7 0.94 _1 0 to +60 
Quebec- 
Middle St, Lawrence,. 58 70 46 24 92 27 3.30 - 5 9 2.30 0 0 to +40 
Lower St. Lawrence & 
Gulf. . . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . 52 62 42 20 88 23 3.15 - 10 9 1.50 _3 0 to +10 
L. St. John... . . .. .. .. , 54 65 44 21 92 30 4.30 16 1.32 +10 
Upper St, Maurice. , . . . 54 65 44 21 88 24 2.85 5 0.95 
N orthwesternDistricts 55 66 45 21 89 22 4.80 + 30 11 2.62 +30 
N ,B,-AII Stations....., 57 70 45 25 92 22 3,10 - 5 8 1.51 _2 0 to +30 
N .S.-All Stations.,..., 58 69 47 22 93 23 2.40 - 30 7 2.60 _3 0 to +30 
P.E.I.-All Stations...., 59 68 51 17 85 36 4,35 11 0,97 +10 



TEJlPER.I1TRE LYD PRECIPITATIO..V 


183 


1.- 't>ßlI)('rature and Prprlpltatlon In 19')1, by Uonths and ObSl'r\ation 

tat1ons -continued 
OCTOBER. 


Province or District. 


Temperature rFahr.) Precipitation, 
.,; S 
 Station 
8 ... CI.I 0 as differences 
.d -= 
 

 >,::S >.:; >. 
 ...; () 8-; õ 3 from nor- 
-8 :::8 :::a.i at! .s mal temper- 

 at! 
'ë; ëa." as'a d
 

 CD a.> =8 ... .... 
,S crJ ature, 

 
aS 
.- 

 s
 a.>'" Q,) CI.I 
=8 c2 1::._ CI.IO ...0 ..0 -;; 
= 
... 
..c:: t;- ëij 
c 8 

 
 ø:s 
 .... CIJ 

 CIJ ... 0 t5 ::J ... 

 
 ..... ::;;: 
 
 
 z 0 
- - - - - - - - - 
p,c. 
50 57 43 14 8
 2t 10.65 +12.) 15 7.83 0 0 to +30 
4Q 55 43 12 66 :i2 11.25 - 20 2.27 +10 
51 59 44 15 Xl 2S 12 90 + 85 1-1 4.MJ 0 0 to +4" 
46 55 37 I
 68 21 840 - 14 2.07 0 0 
43 55 32 23 79 9 1 20 -30 9 0.70 -2 0 to +40 
43 55 32 23 73 15 0.70 - 9 0.17 +30 
4'1 59 37 22 81 16 0.55 - 2.1) 8 0.66 +10 to +30 
46 j, 3tJ 
I ,",0 15 1.95 + 10 12 1.29 0 0 to +40 
44 57 3') 9- 74 10 o.!!;') -10 7 0..54 +20 to +40 
..J 
47 59 35 24 76 2:! 0.6.í - 35 7 0.56 +10 to +4" 
42 51 3:1 1!'ì 70 19 3.2;) + 5 12 1.33 +2" 
4t.> 51 41 10 69 29 14.4;) + 15 1
 3.!!8 +10 
4
 53 4-1 9 b2 3.1 9.90 - 2:1 1.49 +10 
29 36 23 13 60 - 3 1.50 + 40 13 0.65 0 0 
43 58 29 29 bb 7 o 15 - 75 3 0.30 +3" to +60 
4.') 60 30 30 
t 7 OW - 90 2 0.20 0" to +70 
4S 62 34 2'" t:lb 12 o 20 -80 2 0.52 +20 to + 10 0 
43 57 :10 27 80 8 o 50 - 4 0.97 +3" to +40 
43 64 32 22 74 19 0.65 + 30 4 0.66 +5" to +100 
43 55 31 24 76 12 1.20 + 70 4 1.67 +20 to +60 
45 5U 32 27 M} 18 0.65 - 30 3 0.8-1 +5" to +70 
43 57 30 27 7S 14 0.2;) - 70 2 O.5
 +2" to +70 
43 5.J: 32 22 76 16 0.4.; - 45 5 0.26 +30 to +5" 
41 52 30 22 72 22 0.35 - 6 0.15 +6" 
40 51 30 21 68 20 1.56 - 4 1.25 - 
44 51 3::, 13 ifj 20 0.1S0 - 30 7 0.50 +10 to +6" 
45 56 35 21 7S 12 0.70 - 35 7 0.37 +30 to +5" 
44 53 36 17 70 23 0.85 - 7 0.35 - 
44 56 33 2:1 i5 2.) 2.5.; +160 7 1.55 +3" to +40 
41 51 31 20 69 2,) 0.20 - 
 0.15 +40 
37 43 32 11 63 20 1.10 - 10 1.01 +40 
43 55 31 24 75 13 1.10 - 7 O.bO - 
43 51 35 16 68 19 0.95 - 6 0.53 +4" 
42 51 34 17 70 17 1.45 + 35 8 O.
 +1" to +60 
40 50 30 20 67 8 1.25 - 6 1.00 +1" 
43 52 34 IS 68 16 1.80 - 10 1. 8.') 
40 48 33 15 67 13 1 45 - 50 11 0.84 0 0 to +10 
43 54 33 21 65 21 4.00 - 13 1.10 00 
48 56 41 15 65 28 1.85 - 8 0.48 +10 
44 52 36 16 70 lö 1.60 -5 16 0.93 00 
47 56 38 18 
O 17 3.80 + 40 12 1.75 -1" to +30 
47 56 38 18 79 22 3.30 - 12 1.40 -2" to +?" 
49 57 42 15 67 28 5.30 + 50 14 1.40 0 0 to +20 
51 59 42 17 78 27 3.15 + 25 9 1.32 _2 0 to +20 
48 57 39 18 85 21 4.15 + 35 12 1.89 0 0 to +30 
48 57 40 17 72 26 440 + 70 12 1.85 -2" to +3" 
45 54 37 17 74 19 4.30 + 60 11 1.60 -3" to +20 
45 54 37 17 82 14 4.50 + 30 12 2.20 _2 0 to +30 
40 48 32 16 79 - 2 1.80 + 25 10 1.70 0" to -3 0 
39 46 32 14 77 12 5.00 - 15 1.25 _2 0 
40 48 33 15 69 18 5.35 - 14 2.00 - 
39 47 31 16 65 8 2.75 - 10 10 1.96 _1 0 
46 57 35 22 82 12 2.40 - 35 8 1.33 0 0 to +40 
48 57 39 18 77 15 3.05 - 30 9 2.69 0" to +3" 
49 56 42 14 68 26 2.45 - 12 0.77 +1" 


British Columbia- 
S. Vancouver I.".... 
r\. Vancouver I..,..... 
I.ower Fraser It. . . . . , , 
Lillood L., . . . , , , , . .. . 
L pper Fraser R.... . . . . 
Peace H , ,........... 
Okanngan & Rimilka- 
mN'n V allrys.... . eo , 
"'. Koott>ru&V.,'" . . . . . 
F. Kootenn v . . . . . . .. 
Thompson it ... ...,. 
X. Columbia R.. ... . 
K. Con.....t .,. . . , , , , . 
Quren Charlotte I."., 
"\ ukon-AU :5tations.. -.. 
Albctn- 
X. Haskntche\\an It... 
H.rJ J)wr It... . eo .. . , . 
Bow It ... . , , . . , . . . . 
.-\ thaba:,jC8 R,.. .. eo . .. 
P('url> R...., , , . " .. . , , 
Saskntchl>\\ an- 
Qu'Appell(' R ..,....., 
s. 
I\.'.katch<>wan R.... 
N. Soiakatche\\ILD R., , 

8.8katche\\ an Forks... 
Lower Sa.skatche\\ an R 
Barri<>r R. , , . . . eo ., eo . 
Manitoba- 
Qu'.-\pJX'lIe &., AßSini- 
boine It. , , . . . . , . . . . . 
Rl'd It. . . . , . . . . . . . , . . , 
Winnipeg R... .. . , ..... 
Dauphin Lake & R... . 
Lower 8askatchewanR 
Nelson R.............. 
Ontario- 
Rainy R, . , . , , . . . . . . . . 
Kenora. . . ., , . . . . . . . . . . 
Thunder B. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Algoma. , . . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Sudbury.....,........ . 
Timiskaming,. . . . . . . . . 
Kipissin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Manitoulin I.. . . . . . . . . , 
l:' pper Ottawa R.... . . . 
Upper 8t, Lawrence & 
Ottawa B.s. . . . . . . . . . 
.Georgian B, COS....., 
Lake Huron COS.,.... 
Lakes St, Clair & Erie. 
r-;iagara Pen... ....., 
W, Central COs........ 
L, Ontario C08,....... 
E. Central Cos. ., .. .. . 
-Quebec- 

nddle 
t, La\\rence.., 
Lo\\er St. Lawrence & 
Gu If... . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 
Lake St, John. . . , . . . . . 
Upper St. 
faurice..." 
NorthwesternDi8tricts 
N .B.-All Stations. .. .. . 
N ,S,-All Stations......, 
P .E.I.-All Stations.... 



184 


CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 


1.-Temperature and Precipitation In 1921, by Months and Observation 
Stations-c:mtinued. 
NOVEMBER. 


Temperature eFahr.) Precipitation, 
S S 00 s 
 Station 
Q,) 0 
 differences 

 of:: '"tj 
Province or District. i> >,::1 >,::S 
. ...; c.> 3 from nor- 
-6 :;:8 00 ...; ,S Q,)"; è5 mal temper- 
.; .;.
 .... Q,) C,) 00 88 

.... 
bIJ Q,)..c: Q,)Q.) ,S J.. 
 
"'C "'C
 "'C.s "'Cc S.
 8
 Q.)J.. Q,) Q.) sture. 
&:: 
S 
S ê
 Q,) ..... Q.)o '; J..o ..a 
 
J..'- J..- 
&:: S 
 
0:: ...., 
 
 Q,) 
Q,) Q,) Q,) Q,) 
 0 Q ::I J.. 

 
 :g :g riJ riJ 
 Z 0 

 
- - - - - - - - 
British Columbia- p.c, 
S. Vancouver I..." , . 42 47 37 10 64 21 8,00 - 15 17 2,95 _2 0 to +10 
N. Vancouver I.. . . . . , . 43 48 37 9 58 25 8.55 - 45 20 1.75 +10 to +30 
Lower Fraser River. . . 41 46 37 9 60 11 10.30 - 19 2,53 _2 0 to +10 
Lillooet Lake. . . . , . . . . . 35 39 31 8 55 5 6,40 - 13 2.20 0 0 
Upper Fraser River.... 23 31 15 16 68 - 30 2,05 + 5 10 0.70 _1 0 to _6 0 
Peace River........... 12 20 4 16 47 - 27 2,95 - 9 1,85 -8 0 
Okanagan and Simil- 
kameen Valleys,... . . 34 40 28 12 60 - 13 2.05 + 40 14 0,62 -1 0 .0 _30 
West Kootenay........ 33 3g 27 12 58 - 13 2.85 + 5 13 1,30 _1 0 to _50 
East Kootenay........ 28 36 21 15 60 - 21 2,15 + 20 11 1,00 00 t-o _1 0 
Thompson River.. 31 38 24 14 75 - 17 2,40 + 45 12 1.30 _4 0 to +10 
North Columbia RivH 28 34 22 12 57 -10 5.25 -10 14 1.20 0 0 to -3. 
North Coast....,.,.... 33 38 29 9 57 8 9.30 - 30 15 4,96 0 0 to _2 0 
Queen Charlotte I .,.. 38 44 33 11 53 19 7.60 - 18 1,50 -2 0 
Yukon-All Stations.... - 4 3 - 10 13 44 - 36 0,30 - 70 4 0,28 -10 0 
Alberta- 
N. Saskatchewan R. . . 16 25 7 18 60 - 33 0,55 - 20 7 0.50 _30 to _9 0 
The Red Deer River. . 17 28 7 21 66 - 35 0.95 + 60 6 0.65 -7 0 to -12 0 
The Bow River..."... 21 31 12 19 70 - 38 1.70 +105 8 1.23 _2 0 to -11 0 
Athabasca River... . . . 17 25 9 16 62 - 37 0.70 - 7 0.50 _4 0 to _8 0 
Peace River,., . , , . , . , . 14 23 6 17 56 - 33 0'75 - 20 5 0.39 -30 to -8 0 
Saskatchewan- 
Qu'Appelle River...... 16 25 8 17 58 - 34 1,05 + 60 7 0,44 _2 0 to -10 0 
S. Saskatchewan River 20 30 11 18 66 - 35 1,30 + 85 6 1,40 -4 0 to _50 
N, Saskatchewan R.. . 15 23 7 16 57 - 30 0.75 + 60 6 0.50 _2 0 to -10 0 
Saskatchewan Forks... 15 24 7 17 56 - 29 1.60 +105 11 0.45 _4 0 to -7 0 
J__ower SaskatchewanR 12 20 5 15 50 - 27 1.20 - 4 0,30 _9 0 
Barrier River.,.,.... . . 13 22 5 17 50 - 25 2.45 - 11 0,40 
Manitoba- 
Qu' Appelle and Assini- 
boine Rivers......... 16 24 Q 15 58 - 30 0.90 + 10 8 0.40 _30 to _9 0 
The Red River.....,.. 18 25 11 14 M - 25 0,80 - 25 9 0,40 _30 to -8 0 
\Vinnipeg River..... . . . 17 24 11 13 43 - 20 0,50 - 7 0.20 
Dauphin Lake and R. . 17 25 10 15 55 - 19 1,25 - 3 0,60 _4 0 to _6 0 
Lower SaskatchewanR 10 18 2 16 41 - 30 0.30 - 9 0,05 _8 0 
Nelson River.,.,.. . . . . 6 13 - 1 14 37 - 31 1.00 - 12 0.40 _go 
Ontario- 
Rainy River....... .... 18 25 11 14 44 - 21 1.50 - 6 0.85 
Kenora. , . . . . . , . . . . . , , . lð 
3 10 13 53 - 20 1.10 - 7 0.60 -9 0 
Thunder Bay.. , . , . , , , . 19 
7 12 15 50 - 25 2.00 + 5 9 LiD 0 0 to _7 0 
Algoma. . , . . , . , . , . . . . . 19 29 10 19 56 - 28 2.15 - 12 0.60 _6 0 
Sudbury. . . . .. , . . . , . . . . 23 50 16 14 53 - 13 2,35 - 11 0.96 
Timiskaming.. ."., . . . 19 26 12 14 53 - 15 2.50 - 20 13 1.06 _50 to _6 0 
Nipissìng. , . , , . . . . . , , , . 25 36 15 21 60 - 14 3.15 - 12 1.11 _50 
Manitoulin Island... . . . 30 36 24 12 51 9 3.59 - 12 0.73 _2 0 
Upper Ottawa River... 25 31 19 12 51 - 5 3,35 - 12 0,83 _50 
Upper St. Lawrence 
and Ottawa Rivers.. 30 37 24 13 78 1 2.20 - 20 11 0.90 _1 0 to _50 
Georgian Bay Counties 32 38 26 12 M - 1 2.30 - 10 2,00 _4 0 to +10 
Lake Huron Counties,. 35 40 30 10 61 17 2.50 - 30 12 1.06 0 0 to -3 
Lakes St. Clair & Erie, 
Niagara Peninsula.. . 37 43 32 11 69 12 2.95 + 20 13 1.10 0 0 to _4 0 
West Central Counties. 34 40 29 11 66 9 2.05 - 35 11 1.09 0 0 to _30 
Lake Ontario Counties 34 40 29 11 65 14 1.55 - 45 10 1.10 -3<> to +10 
East Central Counties. 30 37 23 14 64 0 1.55 - 40 9 1.07 _2 0 to _4 0 
Quebec- 
Middle St, Lawrence. . 27 34 20 14 72 - 15 2,90 - 12 1.27 _1 0 to _50 
Lower St. Lawrence 
and Gulf. . . , , . . , , . , . . 24 32 17 15 65 - 10 2,05 - 35 10 1.00 -2.00 _10 0 
Lake St.10hn.,..,..,. 23 31 16 15 66 -10 1,90 + 20 10 0.95 0 0 to _2 0 
Upper St. Maurice..... 22 32 13 19 60 - 18 2,19 - 9 0,69 _4 0 
N orthwesternDistricts 20 28 12 16 52 - 12 3.10 + 20 11 1.17 -5. 
N.B.-All Stations. ., , , . 28 35 21 14 62 -11 4.20 + 35 12 1.90 _4 0 to _50 
N.S.-All Stations. . . . , . 34 41 28 13 67 - 5 5.90 + 25 15 1.60 _2 0 to _4 0 
P,E.I.-All Stations. ". . 33 38 28 10 59 13 4.20 - 19 0,92 _4 0 



TE1'IPERATURE AND PRECIPIT.llTION 


18.5 


1.- T
mperature and Precipitation III t'21. by 'Ionths and Ol)ä,,'r,atlon 
stations -c Included. 
DFCEMßER. 


Tcmperature ("Fahr,) 


Province or District. 


8 
>>ê 

.
 
J::E 
-= 
(I) 

 



 
ëë 
"t:S 
J:: 

 
..g 

 


British Columbia- 
S. Vancou,"cr L."..,. 36 41 

. Vancouv('rI...._.. 35 41 
JA>\\ er :Fraser Ri," er. . 34 39 
Lillooet Lake... . . . , . . . 20 25 
Vpper Frn8er Ri, err .. 12 21 
Pe.,ce Rivcr .....,. 17 27 
Ok3.n
an and Simil- 
kamcen \" alley8..., 22 28 
West Kootcna) 22 28 
East Koot<>nay.. 14 22 
Thomp:.on River....,. 18 25 

orth Columbia River 12 20 
!'\ ort h C'.oa
t. . 28 33 
Queen Charlotte I..." 37 42 
Yu1.on-All Stations..,. 0 9 
A I bl'rt '1- 
Xorth 
askatchf'wanR 12 2t 
The Red Det>r River., 14 26 
TheBo\\Rivcr........ 17 27 
A thabascß Ri \rer. .. . . . 13 23 
Peace Rh er.. , , . , , . . , . 12 22 

nsJ...atche\\an- 
Qu'Appelle niver,..... 11 21 
f:. Saskatehe\\aD River 16 26 
N. 
askatchewan R., , 8 18 

askatch<>\\ an Forks, . 7 16 
Lo\\ <>r BaqkatchewanR 8 17 
Barrier Ri ver.... . , . . . . 4 13 
1!anitoba- 
Qu'.-\ppelle nnd AS5ini- 
boine Rivers...... . . . 11 20 
The Red River.., .,., 8 17 
Winnipe
 Uiver........ 9 17 
Dauphin Lake and R. . 15 24 
Lo..er :-:a
katchewanR 8 17 
Nelson Ri vcr... . , . .. . . 2 9 
Ontario- 
Rainy River....,.... .. 10 19 
Kenora...... .....,... 9 16 
Thundpr Bay.......... 11 19 
Algoma.....,......... 10 21 
Rudbury. ...........,. 13 24 
Timiskaming.., ....... 11 20 
1\ipissing. ............ 16 28 
Manitoulin Island..,.. . 23 30 
lJpper Ottawa River... 13 22 
Lpper St, Lawrence" 
and Ottawa Rivers,. 20 28 
Georgian Bay Counties 22 30 
Lake Huron Counties.. 27 33 
Lakes St. Clair & Erie, 
1\iagara Peninsula.. . 29 36 
'Vest Central Counties. 26 33 
Lf1ke Ontario Counties 26 33 
Eal"t Ce.u.tral Counties, 20 29 
Quebec- 
Middle St. Lawrence,. 15 24 
J..ower St. Lawrence 
and Gulf. . . .. . ...,. . 14 22 
LakeS
,John,...,.... 9 19 
l
pper St. l[aurice..., . 10 20 
NorthwC8ternDistricts 11 21 
N.B.-All Stations. .' " . 17 26 
N,S.-All Stations., , " . 26 33 
P,E.I.-All Stations, , ., . 24 30 


8 
>>=' 
==8 

:9 
J::S 
CIS 
(I) 
::F. 


>. 
==cD 
CIS
 
"t:Sr:: 
r::CIS 
CIS'" 
(I) 
'-4 
,oirI 


31 
30 
29 
15 
3 
8 
17 
16 
7 
12 
5 
24 
32 
9 
1 
3 
7 
3 
3 
2 
7 
1 
2 
1 
5 


3 
o 
1 
6 
1 
5 
2 
2 
4 
1 
2 
3 
5 
16 
5 
12 
15 
21 
23 
19 
19 
11 
7 
6 
10 
1 
2 
8 
19 
19 


...; 
to 
GI.,ê 
e.
 


 

 
Þ4 

 


10 
11 
10 
10 
IR 
19 
11 
12 
15 
IJ 
15 
9 
10 
18 


5
 6 
56 10 
57 - 4 
41 - 19 
4Y - 42 
50 -28 
50 -20 
52 - 17 
5:; - 30 
53 - 31 
48 - 33 
5
 - 3 
51 19 
40 - 32 


23 
23 
20 
20 
19 
19 
19 
19 
18 
I
 
18 


Precipi tn t ion 


... 
II) 
GlCII 
E
 

.9 

 
Þ4 

 


.,; 
(I) 

 
c:J 
.!: 


.9 
d 

 
o 

 


p.C. 
6.00 - 20 
3.25 
8.10 - 10 
3.80 
0.85 - 55 
0.70 
1.25 + 25 
2.40 - 10 
2.35 + 10 
1. 10 - 45 
2.b5 - 30 
10.95 + 10 
7.25 
0.70 - 25 


59 - 48 0 15 - 75 
51 - 40 O. 20 - 70 
60 - 4-1 0 80 + 5 
53 - 46 0.25 
51 - 45 0.50 - 35 


52 - 57 
57 - 34 
45 - 
 
42 - 44 
42 - 34 
31 - 46 


17 
17 
16 
18 
18 
14 
17 
14 
15 
22 
22 
17 
23 
14 
17 
16 
15 
12 
13 
14 
14 
18 
17 
16 
19 
U
 
U
 
18 
14 
11 


40 - 40 
43 - 40 
36 - 30 
49 - 28 
40 - 30 
33 - 37 
38 - 36 
41 - 36 
40 - 41 
60 - 45 
57 - 40 
4
 - 40 
44 -35 
49 - 14 
46 - 32 


0.45 - 25 
0.35 - 50 
0.15 - 60 
0.35 - 35 
T 
0,70 


0.30 - 55 
0.40 - 45 
0.60 
0.30 
0.65 
0.55 
0.80 
0.85 
0.90 
3.05 
4.00 
4.25 + 45 
3.85 
4.15 
1.90 


58 - 20 2.15 - 15 
58 - 21 3.40 - 10 
53 0 4.20 + 10 
58 - 3 2.35 - 10 
60 - 6 3.40 + 15 
55 - 7 2.45 + 10 
50 - 21 2.55 
62 - 31 2.65 - 10 


50 - 30 
45 - 48 
4ð - 36 
54 - 44 
65 - 25 
57 - 10 
47 0 



. 15 - ðO 
1.95 + Ii 
2.50 
2.65 + 75 
1.90 - 35 
3.70 - 15 
4.95 


8 
o 
.t: 
(I)"; 
c:J- 
r::C: 
CJ ... 
"'0 

J:: 
t5 



 
-= 
"t:S 
Õ 
... 
(I) 
.c 
E 
=' 
Z 


12 3.
0 
10 1.20 
11 2. us 
6 1.50 
5 0.97 
3 0.60 


9 U 
11 
11 1. 20 
10 2. i2 
8 0.57 
9 1.20 
16 6.13 
17 1. 37 
10 0.18 


:3 
.... 
$ 
CIS 

 
o 



tatjon 
differences 
(rom nor- 
mal temper- 
ature. 


_2 0 to _50 
_50 
0 0 to _
o 
_6 0 
_1 0 to -13 0 
+60 
_4 0 to -10 0 
_6 0 to +10 
_3 D to _7 0 
_4 0 to -10 0 
_50 to -13 0 
_1 0 to _4 0 
_2 0 
+50 to +80 


2 0 IS _2 0 to +3 . 
2 0.20 _I O to_8 0 
4 1.10 _50 to +10 
3 0.28 0 0 to +70 
4 0.30 +30 to +80 


3 0.53 
3 0.49 
2 0.40 
3 0.45 
o T 
3 0.30 


5 0.20 
5 0.30 
7 0.15 
2 0.20 
2 0.40 
7 0.13 


5 0.50 
5 0.70 
6 0.80 
11 1. 62 
12 1.81 
16 1.40 
12 1. 80 
7 1.45 
8 0.35 
9 
9 
15 


_50 to +80 
+10 to +60 
-1 0 to +
 
_1 0 to +4' 
+50 


+30 to +50 
+10 to +50 
+50 
+ð o 
+50 


+
 
+10 to +40 
0 0 


+1 to +30 
_4 0 
_2 0 
_2 0 


1.44 -3 0 to +1' 
2.50 -3 0 
 +1(" 
1,70 0 0 to +20 


8 1.53 -1 0 to +3' 
10 1.89 0 0 to +ð o 
8 1. 70 -2" to +10 
7 1.57 _1 0 to +3 
10 1.70 -ð to +40 


8 1. 33 
12 0.70 
11 1. 36 
10 2.40 
9 1. 20 
10 1.82 
16 1.80 


_
o to +10 
00 to +
 
+
 
+30 
0 0 to -W 
-3 0 to +1' 
_1 0 



186 


CLll\fATE AJ.VD ].IETEOROLOGY 


2.-Norrnal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations. 
VICTORIA, B.C. 
Observations for 30 years. 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
:Months. Mean Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily Daily est. est. Daily 
Max. Min. range. Rain, Snow. Total. Greatest, Least. 
- - - - - - - 
Jan..,...... . 39.2 43.5 35,0 56,0 -2,0 8'5 3.88 6.3 4.51 6,54 2.56 
Feb......,.. 40.3 45,0 35,6 60,0 6,0 9,4 3,08 4,5 3,53 6,20 0,96 
March,..... , 43.1 49,2 37,0 68,0 17.0 12.2 2,40 1,5 2,55 4'58 0,67 
ApriL..... , 47.7 54,9 40,6 75,0 24'0 14,3 1.73 S 1.73 5.40 0.21 
May. . . . , ... . 53.0 60,7 45.3 83.0 31,0 15,4 1,30 - 1,30 2.83 0.35 
June...,.. . . . 57.1 65.1 49.0 88,0 36.0 16.1 0.93 - 0.93 2.37 0,08 
July..,..... , 60,3 69,2 51,2 90.0 37.0 18,0 0,36 - 0,36 1.15 R 
Aug,..., ..., 60.0 68,8 51.2 88.0 37,0 17.6 0,65 - 0.65 2'26 0.00 
Sept........ . 55.6 63.3 47.9 85,0 30'0 15.4 2,01 - 2.01 4.27 0.32 
Oct........ . 50.4 56,0 44,8 70,0 28,0 11,2 2.55 - 2'55 5.60 0,46 
Nov,."..,. . 44.5 48.6 40.5 63.0 17.0 8,1 6,31 1,5 6.46 11.50 0.91 
Dee.... . . . . . 41,5 45,1 37.8 59,0 8,0 7.3 5,86 0.5 5.91 12.41 1.66 
- - - - - - - - 
year........ 49,4 55,8 43.0 90.0 -2,0 12,8 31.06 14,3 32.49 51,03 22.58 


VANCOUVER, B.C. 
Observations for 30 years. 
Ian...,..... . 35,0 39.2 30.9 55,0 2,0 8,3 7,12 14.4 8.56 10.54 6,08 
Feb..... ..., 37.8 43.1 32,5 58,0 10.0 10,6 5.90 3.2 6.22 10.17 2,60 
March...... . 41.9 49.0 34.8 61,0 15.0 14.2 4,31 1.5 4'46 10.29 0,89 
April.. . . . . . , 47.0 55'8 38,3 79,0 27,0 17.5 3.09 3.09 5.29 1,04 
May. . . . , , .. . 53.5 62.3 44.7 80,0 33.0 17,6 3,56 3.56 5.39 1,44 
June....,... . 58.4 67.7 49.1 88,0 36.0 18,6 2,82 2,82 5.42 1,43 
July...... --. 63.2 73.3 53.0 90,0 43,0 20,3 1.33 1.33 2.45 0.32 
Aug,........ 61.5 71.0 52.0 92,0 39,0 19.0 1.71 1.71 5,86 0.22 
Sept,...... . . 55.7 64.0 47.4 82,0 30,0 16,6 4,29 4.29 9.09 1.61 
Oct....... .. . 49,2 55.7 42,6 69,0 23,0 13'1 5,69 5,69 9.20 1,76 
Nov..,. ...,. 42,4 47.1 37,6 63,0 15,0 9.5 10.97 3.1 11.28 18.99 4,18 
Dee. ... . , , . . 38.9 42.8 35,0 58,0 17.0 7.8 7,27 2'9 7.56 9.55 4,21 
-------- 
year..,..... 48,7 56,0 41,5 92.0 2,0 14.5 58.06 25.1 60.57 72.29 52.27 


PORT SIMP8ON, B.C. 
Observations for 20 years. 
Jan,........ . 34.0 40.0 28.1 64.0 - 9'0 11,9 8.62 9'8 9.60 16.74 1.08 
Feb.... .,. . 34'8 41.8 27.7 63.0 -10,0 14,1 6.07 11.8 7.25 16,65 1,93 
Mar,....... . 37.6 44'8 30.3 63.0 11,0 14.5 5.06 5'3 5.59 8.16 1,41 
ApriL...,. . 41.6 49,9 33.4 73,0 18.0 16.5 4.85 3.0 5.15 14.31 2,24 
May. . . . . ... . 48.3 56,5 40,0 79.0 27.0 16,5 5.14 5.14 9.84: 1.63 
I une. . . . .. . . . 52,8 60,5 45.1 88,0 34,0 15,4 4,26 4.26 7.50 1.20 
July........ . 56,0 63,3 48,8 88.0 29,0 14,5 4.42 4,42 9.41 1,28 
Aug........ . 56,7 63.8 49.5 80.0 31.0 14.3 6.93 6.93 14.11 1,74 
Sept........ . 52.2 59.1 45,2 74,0 30,0 13.9 9.03 9,03 14.63 2.20 
Oct......... . 47.1 53.5 40.7 65'0 28.0 12.8 12.21 - 12.21 16.99 6.71 
N ov . . . . .. .. . 39.7 45.6 33.7 65.0 6.0 11.9 11.47 1.6 11.63 23.90 3.26 
Dee......". 36.9 42.6 31.2 62.0 5.0 11.4 10.11 8.7 10.98 18.82 5.23 
-------- 
year......,. 44.8 51,8 37.8 88.0 -10.0 14,0 88.17 40,2 92,19 126.48 62,05 



TEJIPER
lTURE AlVD PRECIPIT
lTIO.V 


lS7 


1.- 'ormar Ttßlprratllre amI Prt"dl)U"UOIi at :o.elected ("alladlan 
tatlons-continued. 
KAYLOOPS. B,C. 
Observations for 22 yea
 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
)lonth8. )[ean 'lean )[e
m 'High- Low- ,rean Averages. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily DUlly Cl:it cst. Daily Total, 
'lax. Min, ' range, Rain. Snow. Greatest. Lca,:,t. 
- - - - - - - 
Jan........, . 22,4 28.3 16.5 54,0 -31,0 11,8 0.13 7.7 0,90 0'60 0.35 
.Fcb,..,.,.., 26,5 33.4 19.6 64.0 -27.0 1:1,8 0,20 6,0 O.bO 1.17 0,02 
)Iarch...... . 037.6 47,3 27,8 70,0 - 6,0 19,5 0,20 1.2 0,32 0,83 0,01 
April.... . . . 49,7 61'1 38.3 92.0 19.0 22,8 0,36 
 0,36 1',36 H. 

Iay . . .. .. . 57'5 70,3 44.8 100.0 26,0 25,5 0.93 - 0,93 2.50 R 
June..,... , . . 64'6 76.4 52,7 101.0 35.0 23.7 1,23 - 1.23 3,07 0.57 
July..... . . . 69.6 82.7 56,5 102.0 42,0 26,2 1.27 - 1.27 3,50 0,35 
A ug.. 68,1 80.9 5.'),. 101.0 35.0 25,5 1,0') - 1,05 3.73 0,00 
S{'pt........ . 58'4 69,3 47.. 93.0 28.0 21'9 0,94 - 0,94 2,34 0.10 
Oct..... , 47,8 56,2 39.3 82.0 16,0 16.9 0,57 0.2 0,59 1.41 n 
Nov......, . 35'
 41,5 30.2 72.0 -22,0 11,3 0,40 6'5 1,05 1,23 0.07 
Dee,....,... 28'8 32.6 2-1.9 59.0 -17,0 7.7 0,20 13,5 1.55 0.64 0.12 
- - - - - - - - 
Year.., , ' 47,2 56.7 37,8 102,0 -31,0 18.9 7'4
 35.1 10.99 13'47 7.07 


DA
r40X. YUKOS'. 
Ubservations for :30 YCBN. 
Jan....... --24,6 -18.0 -31.3 :iO,O -68,0 13,3 0,00 8.6 0.
6 
Feb... . -12,0 - 4'3 -19.6 4.').0 -55.0 2J,9 U 7'3 0,73 
)lar. ... 5.6 16.5 - 5.3 :ï2.0 -47,0 21,8 0,01 4.7 0.48 
ApriL... . 27.6 40,2 15.1 67.0 -30.0 2.,),1 O.I
 4,7 0,65 
}\Iay, , . . .. .. . 46.8 59.0 34.6 &),0 12.0 24.4 0-83 0.4 0,87 
Juno...... 56.9 70,3 43.6 00.0 27.0 26.7 1,1
 0.3 1,21 
Jul
- . ... . . . . . 59'4 71.9 46.8 95.0 31,0 25.1 1.61 1.61 
Aug. .. , , , .. - 54,0 66.2 41,7 85,0 23.0 24.5 1,51 1.51 
S{'pt....,... 41,6 51.1 32.2 78,0 8.0 18,9 1.40 1.8 I.SS 
Oct. . , . . . , . . , 26.4 32,7 20,1 68.0 -22.0 12.6 0,29 8'8 1.17 
Nov........, 0.4 6,4 - 5.6 46-0 -48.0 J2'O 0,01 12,4 1.25 
Dee, ... . . . . . -10.2 -4.3 -16.1 38.0 -63,0 11,8 R 10.9 1.09 
-- - - - - - - - 
year,..,.,.. 22.6 33,0 13,0 95,0 -68,0 20,0 7.02 59,9 13,01 


I 1.73 R 
1.35 0,20 
1,21 0.00 
1,68 0,23 
2,00 0.25 
2,66 0.25 
3.32 0,62 
2,38 0,07 
3'52 0.
6 
4,09 0-10 
2.60 0.24 
2.09 0'08 
17,75 6,28 


EDYONTON. ALBERTA, 


Observations for 30 years, 


I 
Jan......... . 5'9 ]5,6 - 3.8 57,0 -57.0 19,4 I 0,06 7,0 0.76 2.49 0.05 
Feb....,.,.. 10,6 21.1 0.1 62,0 -57.0 21-0 I 0'00 6,7 0,67 2.33 S 
Mar,..."... 23.4 34'9 11,9 72.0 -40.0 23,0 0.05 6'2 0.67 1,93 R 
April.. .. , . , . 40,8 52.9 28.6 84.0 -15,0 24.3 0.44 3,6 0,80 2.60 0.04 
May........ . 51.2 64.4 38.1 90,0 10,0 26.3 1,73 1,3 1,86 4.04 0.20 
June....... -. 57.3 70.1 44.4 94,0 25,0 25.7 3.26 S 3.26 8'53 0.00 
July......,. . 61,2 73,7 48.8 94.0 33,0 24.9 3.56 - 3,56 11,13 0.15 
Aug...".... 59,0 71,6 46.4 90,0 26.0 25.2 2,47 - 2,47 6-43 0.49 
Sept......,. . 50.4 62.9 37,8 87.0 ]2.0 25.1 1,33 0.7 1'40 4'32 0.00 
Oct......... . 41.7 53.2 30.3 82,0 -10,0 22.9 0,39 3,5 0,74 1,86 0,00 
Nov........ . 24,5 33,3 15'6 74.0 -37.0 17,7 0.06 6,7 0,73 3.57 0,00 
Dec......,' . 16,0 24.7 7,3 60.0 -43,0 17.4 0.07 6,8 0.75 3,21 0.00 
- - - - - - - - 
year..".,.. 36.9 48'2 25,6 94.0 -57,0 22.6 13.42 42.5 17.67 27.81 8,16 



188 


CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 


2.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 
)I:I!:DlClNE HAT, ALBERTA. 
Observations for 30 years. 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months, Mean Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily Daily est. est. Daily 
Max, Min, range. Rain. Snow, Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - 
Ian,........ . 11,2 21.6 0.7 62,0 -51.0 20,9 0,00 6,1 0,61 1,72 0,00 
Feb,.. ,.. ... 12.8 23.5 2,1 64,0 -46,0 21,4 0,01 6.0 0,61 1,51 0,00 
Mar......... 26,7 38.4 14,9 84,0 -38.0 23,5 0,11 5,0 0,61 1,62 S 
April. ... . .. . 45,1 58,8 31.4 96,0 -16,0 27,4 0.37 2'4 0,61 2,26 0,03 
May",..... . 54,7 68.0 41.5 99,0 12,0 26,5 1,70 0'5 1.75 6,29 0,12 
lune",.,.... 62.5 75.6 49,3 107,0 30,0 26.3 2'57 S 2'57 5,62 0,00 
July........ . 68,4 82,7 54.1 108.0 36'0 28.6 1.73 - 1.73 4.86 0'09 
Aug... ....., 66,0 80,7 51,4 104,0 31,0 29.3 1.51 - 1,51 5,65 0,00 
Sept,.".". . 56.5 70,2 42,7 94.0 17,0 27.5 0,88 0,4 0.92 2,41 0,00 
Oot,."",.. . 45,8 58.7 32,9 93,0 -10.0 25,8 0.51 1.1 0,62 3,48 0,00 
Nov.,...... . 29,3 39,9 18,7 76,0 -36.0 21,2 0,08 6,4 0,72 3,11 R 
Dec.,.. . . 21.1 31'0 11.2 68.0 -37,0 19.8 0,06 4,7 0.53 1,42 0.00 
- - - - - - - - 
year,....... 41.7 54,1 29,2 108,0 -51'0 22,2 11.53 32'6 12.79 22,28 6.72 


FORT VERMILION, ALBERTA. 


Observations for 18 years, 


Ian,......... - 14,8 - 2'5 - 27.1 50,0 -77.0 24,6 0,00 4.7 0'47 1,80 0,15 
Feb........, - 3,9 9,7 - 17,5 :;3,0 -58.0 27,2 0,00 3,7 0,37 0,65 0,20 
Mar. ... . . . . . 11'8 26'0 - 2,4 63,0 -41.0 28.4 0,01 7,0 0.71 1.70 0.00 
April.. .. . . . . 32,0 44'5 19.5 78,0 -29.0 25,0 0,23 6,1 0,84 1,85 0,00 
May, , , . , , .. . 49.3 63.3 35.3 93,0 13,0 28,0 0.78 0'6 0,84 2,06 0.00 
June"".. . 57,9 72.2 43,7 98.0 26-0 28,5 1,65 0,1 1.66 3,44 0,25 
luly..,..... , 61,0 75,2 46,9 94,0 28,0 28.3 1,60 - 1.60 3,49 0.51 
Au/l:.,...... , 57,1 70,4 43.8 101,0 28'0 26'6 1,57 - 1.57 3.32 0,53 
Sept. .. .. ... . 47,3 58,
 36.4 84,0 9,0 21'8 1,40 0,1 1.41 2.33 0.64 
Oct. , , , . . , .. . 33,1 43,1 23,1 70,0 -14'0 20,0 0,26 2,1 0.47 0.81 0,00 
Nov.""... . 14,0 22,4 5.6 48.0 -26.0 16,8 0,02 7,2 0.74 1.40 0'20 
Dec.... . . . . . - 1.7 10.2 - 13.6 ö5,O -50.0 23,8 0,00 5,0 0.50 1.60 0.20 
- - - - - - - - 
year,....... 28,6 41.1 16,1 101,0 -77.0 25.0 7.52 36,6 11,18 14,78 7,60 


FORT CHIPEWTAN, ALBERTA. 
Observations for 16 years. 


Jan,........ . - 11,9 - 3,5 - 20,4 45,0 -55.0 16,9 0.00 9,0 0,90 1,68 0.02 
Feb...... .. - 9,1 0.5 - 18,7 46.0 -56,0 19,2 R 5,8 0,58 2.03 0,03 
Mar..,..... . 5.0 15,1 - 5,0 47,0 -41'0 20,1 R 5,8 0,58 1,58 0.09 
April..... . . . 28.5 39,4 17,6 69.0 -22,0 21'8 0.20 4,4 0,64 3.04 0,06 
May, . . , . . .. . 44,5 53,8 35,1 83.0 - 3,0 18,7 0,65 1,6 0,81 2,08 0.02 
June,... .. 54,0 64.6 43.3 90,0 24,0 21,3 1.56 0'1 1,57 3'31 0,10 
July........ . 61,5 71.g 51,9 93,0 26.0 19.1 2'M - 2,64 9,5
 0,21 
Aug,........ 58,1 68,1 48,2 89.0 25,0 19,9 1.64 - 1.64 3,67 0,39 
Sept........ . 45.2 53,0 37,3 79,0 13.0 15,7 1,52 0,5 1.57 2.93 0,27 
Oct,........ . 33,7 40'1 27.3 66.0 - 9,0 12.8 0.32 4.3 0.75 5,30 0,02 
Nov ,........ 11,0 17,9 4,2 56.0 -33,0 13.7 0,05 8,6 0,91 2,28 0.26 
Dee...."... 2.2 10.3 - 5,9 49,0 -48.0 16.2 0,01 9.1 0.92 3.20 0,09 
- - - - - - - - 
year..."". 26.9 35,8 17.g 90,0 -56'0 17.9 8.59 49,2 13.51 16,99 6.70 



TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 


189 


2.-l\ormaJ Tt'mptrature and Predl)ltatlon at 
Iected Canadian Statlons-oontinued. 
Qu'ApPZLL!I, SA8K. 


Observations for 30 years. 


. 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. Mean ){enn )o( can High- Low- Mean A vera&e8. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily Daily est. est. Daily Total. Greatest. 
Max. Min. range. Rain. Snow. Least. 
- - - - - - - 
Jan......... . - 0.6 8,5 - 9.7 50.0 -47,0 18.2 0.00 6.9 0,69 2,28 0,05 
Feb...",., . 2,0 11,2 - 7.2 50,0 -55,0 18.4 0,00 8.1 0,81 2.85 0,12 
.lIar.,.. . 16,0 25.7 6.2 76,0 -45,0 19.5 0,06 9,6 1,02 4,11 0,05 
April... .. 37,3 49,1 25,5 89.0 -24.0 23,6 0.43 6.7 1,10 3,59 0.29 
?tlay,...".. . 49,Il ö2.4 37,3 92.0 8,0 25,1 2'40 3.1 2,71 6,95 0.25 
June...... ... 59.6 70,8 48,4 101,0 25,0 22,4 3,69 S. 3,69 7.19 0,32 
July......., . 63.8 75,9 51,7 100,0 34,0 24.2 2.84 - 2.84 7,25 0'58 
Aug.. ,.,.. 61.1 73.3 48,9 100.0 27,0 24,4 2.04 - 2,04 5,03 0.30 
Sept..,..." . 52.0 64,0 39,9 93,0 12.0 24.1 1.2S 1,0 1,38 4,61 0,08 
Oct......,.. . 40.8 51,5 30,2 86,0 -12,0 21,3 0,53 4.5 0.98 3.35 S. 
Nov....., .. . 21'8 30.4 13.3 73.0 -30,0 17.1 0.14 8,4 0,98 2,51 0'12 
Dee,..",.,. 10.7 18,5 2,8 49,0 -40,0 15.7 0,01 7.1 0.72 3.11 0.03 
- - - - - - - - 
year....." , 34.5 45,1 23,9 101,0 -55,0 21,2 13,42 55,4 18.96 26.47 10,14 


PBINa ALBUT, SASE. 
Observations [or 30 years. 
Jan.......... - 5.9 5.3 -17.1 5.1.0 -67,0 22.4 0.00 8.2 0.82 2,00 0,22 
Feb...,.. .. . - 1.3 11.3 -13.9 52.0 -70.0 25,2 0,01 6.8 0.69 2,15 0.04 
Mar.,.." ." 12.1 26,2 - 2.1 68,0 -44'0 28.3 0.10 7.7 O,S7 2,56 0.17 
April. .. . . 3b.l 48,7 23'6 86.0 -23,0 25'1 0,38 4,4 0.82 3.37 0.03 
?tlay...,.,.. , 48,9 62.6 35,2 90,0 2.0 27.4 1,34 1.6 1.50 4,87 0'01 
June,...., ... 58,1 71.0 45,1 96.0 17.0 25,9 2'6i 2,67 7.36 1'00 
July..... 62.0 ,4.2 49'8 93.0 33,0 24.4 2,31 2,31 5,31 0.17 
:\u
.." . . . . . 58,8 71.7 46,0 {)4.0 22,0 25.7 2,31 2,31 8,01 It, 

('pt....,... . 49,4 61.7 J7,1 87.0 14.0 24,6 1,32 0,7 1,39 2.94 0,09 
( )ct... .. . , . , . 38,3 49,2 27,4 85.0 - 5.0 21.8 0.57 2,3 0,80 1.97 0,10 

ov... . 18.5 27.4 9.5 66.0 -41.0 17,9 0,12 8.7 0.99 3,06 0,07 
Dt>C......:: : 5.3 15,1 - 4,5 58.0 -57,0 19,6 0.01 8,0 0,81 2.61 0.19 
--------- 
'-ear........ 31,7 43,7 19.7 96.0 -70.0 2-1.0 11.13 48,4 15,97 29.88 9.25 


Ian.......,' , 
:Feb..., ,. 
!\Iar........, 
April.... , . . , 
l\lay....., . . . 
June. . .. . , . . 
July..,..... , 
Aug......., 
Sept.. . , . , . , 
Oct......... . 
N ov.. '... . , . 
De.. . .. , , . . . 


- 3.5 
- 0.5 
15.2 
38'7 
51.5 
62,6 
66,2 
62'7 
54'1 
41,6 
22.0 
7.2 


year....... - 34.8 


WINNIPEG, MAN. 
Observations for 30 years. 


6,8 
10,7 
26,7 
50,1 
64.5 
'H,9 
78,1 
75.0 
65,9 
52,0 
30,8 
16,7 


-13,8 1 42,0 
-11.8 I 46.0 
3.6 73,0 
27,4 90.0 
38.5 94,0 
50,2 101,0 
54,3 00,0 
50,4 103,0 
42,2 99,0 
31,3 85,0 
13,3 71,0 
- 2,4 49,0 


0,1 
1.4 
8,2 
8,6 


8.1 
7.4 
9.6 
4,4 
0.9 


0,82 
0.75 
1,17 
1..54 
2.15 
3.03 
3.25 
2.18 
2.08 
1,36 
0,99 
0.92 


0.01 
0.01 
0'21 
1.10 
2,06 
3.03 
3,25 
2.18 
2,07 
1.22 
0,17 
0.06 


-46,0 
-46'0 
-37.0 
-13.0 
11.0 
21.0 
35,0 
30,0 
17.0 
- 3.0 
-33,0 
-44.0 


20,6 
22,5 
23,1 
22.7 
26,0 
24.7 
23,8 
24'6 
23.7 
20,7 
17.5 
19.1 


46,0 


23,6 103.0 -46,0 22.4 15,37 48,7 20.24 


2,12 
1.80 
3,00 
5.64 
6,38 
6.30 
7.14 
4,75 
5.49 
5,67 
2,34 
3.99 
28.40 


0.12 
O.O:J 
0,29 
0,25 
0.11 
0.45 
0,87 
0,77 
0,60 
0.29 
0.06 
0.11 
14.38 



190 


CLIMATE .LiND METEOROLOGY 


2.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 
PORT ARTHUR, ONT. 
Observations for 30 years. 
Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months, Mean Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages, Extremes, 
Daily. Daily Daily est. est. Daily 
Max, Min, range, Rain, Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
----- - - - 
Jan.,.,.,. .,. 6.2 17,} - 4'6 48,0 -40,0 21,7 0,02 7,4 0,76 1,46 0,21 
Feb.... . . . . . 8.2 19.7 - 3,3 52,0 -51,0 23,0 0,05 6'5 0.70 2.77 0,04 
Mar..,...... 19.6 30.8 8,4 70.0 -42.0 22,4 0,11 8.1 0.92 2,76 0.18 
ApriL. . .' . . . 35,6 44.7 26,4 78.0 - 3,0 18.3 1.19 3,6 1,55 3.09 0,07 
:May... . 46'0 55.6 36,5 89.0 16,0 19,1 1,98 0.5 2'03 4.10 0,36 
June. , .. .' . . . 57,1 67'2 47.0 91,0 20,0 20,2 2,69 2'69 6.94 0.50 
July. .. . , . 62'6 73.5 51.7 96,0 33.0 21,8 3,76 3,76 9,21 1,39 
Aug.,.... 59,0 70,6 47.5 94,0 31,0 23,1 2,77 2,77 5,06 1'02 
Sept. .. . . .. . . 52,8 62,3 43,3 88.0 19.0 19.0 3.26 3.26 7,54 1.30 
Oct..,' .',.. 41.5 50,6 32.9 80,0 1.0 17,7 2,39 0.9 2,48 5.27 0'37 
N ov,... . . . . . 26,7 34.6 18,7 69,0 -22'0 15'9 0,84 6'2 1,46 4,29 0.35 
Dee,.,....,. 13,4 22,7 4.1 51,0 -38.0 18,6 0,18 6,6 0.84 2.68 0,02 
------ - - - 
)Y ear ..,..,. . 35,7 45.8 25.7 96,0 -51'0 20.1 19.24 39.8 23,22 29.43 . 18.80 


TORONTO,ONT, 
Observations for 70 years. 
Jan.,....,... 22.1 29,1 15,2 58,0 -26'0 13.9 1.14 17,3 2.87 5.72 0,61 
Feb...".,'. 21.7 29,2 14.1 54,0 -25,0 15,1 0.93 16.5 2,58 5.21 0,29 
Mar.....,.,. 29.0 36.3 21,9 75,0 -16.0 14'4 1,50 11.5 2.65 6,70 0,66 
April.. . . , , . . 41,4 49,6 33.3 90,0 6,0 16.3 2.15 2.5 2,40 4.90 0.09 
May....... , . 52.7 62,0 43,3 93.0 25.0 18,7 2.97 0'1 2'98 9,36 0,52 
June....,." . 62,6 72'4 52,9 97,0 28,0 19,5 2.76 2.76 8,09 0,57 
July.. . .. . . . . 68,1 77,9 58.2 103,0 39,0 19,7 3,04 3.04 5.63 0.36 
Aug.... ,...,. 66'6 76.1 57.1 102,0 40.0 19.0 2.77 2,77 7,09 R. 
Sept.. . , , , . . . 59.2 68,2 50.2 97,0 28,0 18.0 3.18 3,18 9.76 0,40 
Oct,....". :. 47.0 54,9 39.1 86.0 16.0 15,8 2,40 0,6 2.46 5,96 0.56 
Nov....... .. 36-3 42,5 30.1 70.0 - 5.0 12.4 2.49 4,6 2'95 5,84 0,11 
Dee. , .. . . . . . 26.3 32'5 20,0 61.0 -21,0 12.5 1'53 13.0 2.83 6,00 0.47 
- - - - - - - - 
year,..",.. 44.4 52'6 36.3 103,0 -26,0 16,3 26,86 66,0 33.46 50,18 24,84 


Jan......... . 
Feb....,.... 
Mar...... 
ApriL.... , . . 
May...." .. 
June..,.,. . , . 
luly...... . , . 
Aug. ... . , . , . 
Sept..,. , . . . . 
Oct..,..",. . 
Nov......... 
Dee.. .. . . . . . 


14,3 
13.7 
23,5 
39,0 
51,5 
61.8 
66.5 
64,2 
55.7 
45,8 
33.5 
20.5 


year........ 41,0 


24'5 
24.9 
34'3 
49,4 
62'4 
72.7 
76,9 
74'5 
67,6 
54.5 
40'8 
29.7 


PARRY SOUND, ONT. 
Observations for 40 years, 


4.0 54.0 -38,0 
2'6 58.0 -38,0 
12,8 71,0 -27.0 
28,5 82,0 - 3,0 
40.6 90,0 16.0 
50'9 94.0 31.0 
56.198,0 37.0 
54,0 93,0 35.0 
47,9 90.0 24,0 
37,1 84.0 9.0 
26,2 69,0 -20,0 
11'4 56'0 -39,0 


20.5 0,87 31.5 
22,3 0,76 23.4 
21.5 1.33 14.8 
20,9 1,76 3.1 
21,8 2,96 0'6 
21,8 2,47 
20,8 2.80 
20,5 2.83 
19.7 4.49 S, 
17.4 3.83 0.9 
14,6 2,63 14,9 
18,3 1,22 32,3 


4'02 
3.10 
2.81 
2,07 
3'02 
2.47 
2,80 
2,83 
4.49 
3'92 
4.}2 
4,45 


7,75 
6,31 
5,49 
4.03 
6.06 
5,47 
0.92 
5,46 
8,43 
6,33 
7,33 
8.16 
50.30 


1,76 
0'46 
0,75 
0.75 
0,58 
0.70 
1,10 
0.63 
1.52 
0,57 
2,09 
2,18 
31.59 


51.0 


31,0 98.0 -39,0 20.0 27,95 121'5 40.10 



TEJfPERA.TUllE AND PRECIPITilTIOJ.,9 


191 


2.-:\ or mal Temper.turt' and .-nflpltatlon at St'It'cted Canadian 
tatlon
-continued. 
COTTAM,ONT. 
OU:,l'rvations for 20 yeurs. 


Temperature o}.'. Precipitation in inches, 
Months. 
h'un 
lc[LD 'lean lIiJ1;h- I ow- )((>nn Averages, Extn'mes. 
Daily. Daily Daily est. eet, Daily 
,Max, Min. range, Rain. SJIOW'!- Total. Greatest, Least. 
Jan....... 22.0 31.6 12.3 62,0 -20,0 19,3 1 .59 11.8 2 ' 77 6.01 1.45 
Fl.b. .. 21,1 30,9 11.3 57.0 -25.0 19.6 1.61 10,1 2.62 6'16 1.11 
::\Iar .. "". 32.8 2.8 22,8 80.0 - 8.0 20.0 1,{IO 6'8 2.58 6.30 1.07 
ApriL..... . 43.7 .54,6 32,7 87.0 10.0 21,9 2.34 2,1 2,55 4.54 0.47 
::\I.t.} ... " . 55.6 67.6 4:
'6 95.0 19.0 24.0 3,5'\ 0.2 3,60 6'76 1,4'1 
June.., . 64,6 76'6 52.6 9.1.0 30.0 24.0 4,1h - 4.18 7-21 0.41 
July...... ,. . 70-6 .
,O 53,2 100.0 36.0 24.S 3,38 - 3,38 7,O'S O,lj6 
AUJ(. .. . 68,9 81,6 56.2 100.0 3.j.0 25.4 2.49 - 2,49 5,66 0-00 

(>pt... 61,6 .4.4 4,
,9 97,0 26.0 2.,),5 2,1S - 2,18 5.50 1.09 
Oct.. .. 49.4 61.7 Jj.l S5.0 10.0 24.6 2.4'\ 0.1 2-49 5'36 1.07 
Nov... 37-S 47,9 27-8 74.0 8-0 20.1 2,40 2,7 2,67 5,04 1,05 
Dee.. . .. .. 26,4 35.0 17,9 70,0 -11.0 17,1 1.82 8,2 2.64 4.42 0.90 
-- - -- - - - - - 
Year... 46,2 57,3 35,1 100,0 -25.0 22.2 29,95 42.0 34.15 38.97 26,67 


Jan.......,' . 
}'eb, .. . ,.. 
)Iar.... . , . , . 
April...... . , 
" a
' .. .. 
June...,.,.., 
July.. . . . . . 
A ug. . . . . . . . . 
Sept.. , . , . . , . 
Ort.... . 
Xov,........ 
Dee.. , 


6,4 
7,8 
19.4 
37,1 
50.8 
61.7 
66.0 
62.2 
55.3 
43,0 
23,2 
13,6 


HAIL&YBUBT. ONT. 
Observations lor 20 years. 


17.4 
14-0 
21.6 
4'i,O 
6 '> 'J 
M'_ 
73.4 
76,
 
72,7 
64,9 
51,5 
35.2 
22,0 


- 4'6 1 4
'0 
- 3.4 4....0 
8,2 66.0 
26.2 SI.O 
39.4 !I:
.O 
50.0 100.0 
55.4 IO;!,O 
51'8 94.0 
45'7 91,0 
34,4 80,0 
21.1 67.0 
5-2 51.0 


-40.0 
-1...-0 
-34-0 
- 3,0 
14,0 
28,0 
36,0 
30,0 
24.0 
13,0 
-15.0 
-34,0 


22-0 
17,4 
13.4 
21,8 
22-8 
23-4 
21,4 
29,9 
1!1,2 
17.1 
14,1 
16,8 


0.27 
0.20 
0.52 
1,2.) 
2,&3 
2,91 
2,72 
2,88 
2,31 
2,58 
O.!I
 
0,75 


17,5 
lð'O 
16,0 
5.8 
1'5 


2.8 
1:
, 7 
19,9 


2,02 I 
2.00 
2,12 
1.83 
2.98 
2,91 
2.72 
2,&
 
2,31 
2.86 
2-3tt 
2,74 


3. 3 I 
3'94 
4.43 
4.38 
4.73 
5.5.5 
8'21 
4.45 
7,44 
5,20 
4-35 
3.95 


1-20 
0,54 
0,.1)9 
0,88 
0,75 
0.72 
1.5,,) 
1.14 
0,96 
0.97 
0,43 
O'8
 


year....... 


------------- 


27.13 


37,1 


46,7 


27,5 102,0 -48.0 19-2 20,21 95.2 29,73 


39,77 


Jan,.,..,. 
Feb.... . 

Iar . ... _." 
April.. . .. . , 
May..... ... 
June."... . . . 
July... " . . . . 
Aug.... ... . . 
Sept... . . . . . . 
Oct..,. . . 
X ov.... . , . . . 
Dee... ..... 


)
ear..... . 


12.7 
14.3 
24,6 
41.3 
52.9 
63.9 
69,1 
66'1 
58.5 
46'0 
33.3 
19,6 


41,8 


'[O:loTREU., QUE. 


Observations for 50 years, 


20.81 
21.8 
31, ; 
49-3 
61,6 
73.6 
77-4 
74.0 
66,2 
52,9 
39.2 
26,5 


4'6 1 5.3,0 
6,8 47,0 
17.4 tH.O 
33.4 77,0 
44,3 89.0 
54.3 92,0 
60,8 95.0 
58.2 00.0 
50,8 90-0 
39-J 
,O 
27.4 68-0 
12,7 59.0 


-26.0 
-24.0 
-15.0 
8,0 
2:3.0 
38.0 
47'0 
43,0 
33.0 
21-0 
0'0 
-21,0 


16,2 
15.0 
14,3 
15-Q 
17,3 
19.3 
Ib'6 
15,8 
15-4 
13,8 
11,8 
13-8 


0.S5 
0,72 
J.45 
1,69 
3.01 
3.21 
3.95 
3.35 
3,46 
3.13 
2,26 
1.17 


31.4 I 
26,1 
19.5 
5'3 
0,1 


3,99 
3.33 
3'40 
2.22 
3,02 
3,21 
3.95 
3,35 
3,46 
3.27 
3,43 
3.69 


49.6 


34.1 95,0 -26.0 15.5 28,25 120.7 40,32 


1.4 
11.7 
25,2 


6'18 
6'35 
7,32 
4.19 
6,22 
g.OO 
i.72 
7.89 
6.65 
7,47 
6.40 
5.94 


4'3,01 


2.0
 
0.49 
1,01 
0.48 
0,11 
0-90 
0.96 
1.23 
0,88 
0,65 
1,44 
1.12 
30.97 



192 


CLIMATE AND METEOROWGY 


2.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations-coatinued. 
QUEBEC, QUE. 
Observations for 20 years. 


Months. 


Jan,..,..... . 
Feb.,..,.... 
Mar.... 
April.,. . 
May".",.. . 
June........ , 
July........ , 
Aug., .... 
Sept....... _ . 
Oct......". . 
Nov....".. 
Dee. .. 
Year.. 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
IIean Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes, 
Daily Daily Daily 
Daily. Max. Min. est. est. range. Rain, Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - - 
9,7 17.7 1,8 47.0 -34,0 15,9 0,64 30,7 3,71 6'58 1.10 
12.0 20,2 3,7 49.0 -32.0 16,5 0.74 27.3 3,47 6.22 0,98 
22,8 30.7 15,0 64,0 -23.0 15.5 1.29 19,9 3,28 6.16 l.ð5 
37,0 45,3 28,7 80.0 3,0 16,6 1.42 6'4 2,06 6,57 0,70 
52,0 62,0 42.0 88.0 21.0 20.0 3.01 0,4 3,05 6'93 0,27 
61,2 70,8 51,5 90.0 34.0 19,3 3,83 - 3.83 9,23 1,32 
66,1 75.7 56,6 96,0 39,0 19,1 4,30 - 4,30 7,12 0,53 
62,8 71.5 54,1 90,0 38,0 17.4 4,00 - 4'00 9,58 1,35 
55,3 63.6 46,9 88,0 29,0 16,7 3,77 - 3,77 8.75 1,08 
42.0 47,8 36,3 77,0 14.0 11'5 2'94 1,5 3,09 6,99 0,93 
32,2 35.7 28,7 66,0 -10.0 7,0 1.75 14,2 3,17 7.09 0,90 
15,0 22.2 7,8 55,0 -27.0 14,4 0.85 25'2 3.37 6.78 1.13 
- - - - - - -- - - 
39,0 47.0 31.1 I 96.0 -34'0 15,9 28,54 125,6 41,10 52,39 32,12 


Jan...,..... . 
Feb... . . . . . . 
Mar... ... 
April. .. . . . . . 
May.",.,.. . 
June...., . 
July....,. .. 
Aug... '" 
Sept...,.... . 
Oct...".... . 
N ov , . , . , , .. . 
Dee... ..... 


ANTICOSTI (SOUTH WEST POINT), QUEBEC. 
Observations for 30 years, 


11,9 
12,5 
21,0 
30,5 
39,8 
48,4 
56.6 
56,2 
48,7 
39.8 
30,2 
20,5 


19'8 
19,7 
27,1 
85,4 
45'0 
53.4 
62.3 
61,5 
54,4 
45,1 
35,4 
27,2 


4.0 47.0 -40.0 
5.3 46.0 -35.0 
15.0 47.0 -20.0 
25.6 71,0 - 3,0 
34.5 78.0 19.0 
43.5 85.0 26.0 
51'0 79.0 34.0 
51.0 80.0 28.0 
43.0 73,0 20.0 
34.5 68.0 8.0 
25.1 57.0 - 1.0 
13,8 52.0 -39.0 


15,8 0,58 18'3 
14,4 0'25 14,7 
12.1 0'50 12,0 
9.8 1.12 5.6 
10.5 2.40 0.4 
9.9 2.93 0.1 
11.3 3.14 
10.5 3,43 
11.4 2.92 
10,6 3.40 0.5 
10,3 2'05 6,4 
13,4 0'65 14,7 


2,41 
1,72 
1,70 
1'68 
2.44 
2,94 
3.14 
3.43 
2,92 
3.45 
2'69 
2,12 


6,70 
4,70 
4.95 
7,92 
4,68 
5,58 
8,70 
4.92 
4.81 
9,85 
4,54 
5.10 
45,43 


0,54 
0.27 
0,29 
R,05 
0,05 
0.40 
0,43 
0,76 
0.70 
0.54 
0.49 
0,32 
15,83 


year...... 34.7 


40.5 


28.9 85.0 -40.0 11,6 23,37 72,7 30,64 


FREDERICTON, NEW BRUNSWICK. 
Observations for 30 years. 
Jan......... . 13,3 24,3 2.2 55.0 -34,0 22.1 1,64 23.9 4,03 8.34 1.36 
Feb......" . 15,4 26,6 4.1 51.0 -35,0 22'5 0,96 47.0 5,66 4,78 0,48 
Mar. . .. . . . . . 26,5 36.9 16,0 65.0 -20.0 20.9 2,16 25,6 4,72 7.58 1,32 
April.. ...: . . 38,9 49,5 28.3 82.0 - 2.0 21.2 1,97 10.0 2.97 4'43 0,30 
May. . .. .... . 51,2 62.8 39.6 92,0 24,0 23.2 3.21 0.1 3.22 9.08 0.88 
June.. .... 59.6 71,7 47,5 92.0 26.0 24.2 3.71 3,71 8.01 1'47 
1uly,. .. 65'9 77.0 54.8 96.0 40,0 22,2 3-03 3.03 6'28 1.26 
Aug,.... ..: 
 63,2 73,7 52.7 95.0 35,0 21,0 3,97 3,97 6,99 0.76 
Sept,....... . 55.3 66.} 44,5 92,0 25.0 21'6 3,54 3,54 7,73 0,91 
Oct......... . 43,4 54,2 32.6 81.0 15.0 21.6 4,02 0,5 4,07 9,99 0.85 
Nov",.".. . 33,0 40,9 25.0 68,0 - 3,0 15'9 3,17 9.0 4.07 6'47 0.96 
Dee..,. 19.4 28.2 10,5 58.0 -26,0 17,7 1,56 18.9 3.45 6.42 1,18 
- - - - - - - - - 
year,....... 40.4 51.0 29,S 96.0 -35,0 21,2 32.94 135,0 46,44 54,62 35,02 



TElYPERATURE AJ.VD PRECIPITATION 


193 



.-:\ormal rem perature and PrtcJpltatfon at Selected Canadian Stations -concluded. 
YAIU10UTH. l';,S. 
Observations (or 35 years. 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
\1onths. 1Iean 
Iean Mean IIigh- Low- .Mean Averages. Extremes. 
Daily Daily Daily 
Daily. Max. Min. est. est. rnnge. Rain. Snow, Total. Grea.test, Least. 
- - - - - - - 
Jan...,.. 30.0 34.3 19,6 54.0 - 6'0 14.7 2,7
 20.3 4.78 0.92 1,97 
Feb.. . . 2j.; 32,7 18.8 52,0 -12,0 13.9 2.13 21,8 4,31 7,77 2.28 
'Iar. ., . . 31.8 37,8 25,7 55,0 - 2.0 12.1 3.3! 13.3 4.65 10,75 1.45 
\pril. ... 3!).7 46.4 33,1 72,0 17,0 13,3 3.17 5.5 3';2 7.12 0,82 
'lay. . . . .. 48,1 55'6 40,6 73,0 25.0 15.0 3.77 S 3,77 7,66 0,93 
June 5.').3 6.1.0 47.6 79,0 31.0 15.4 2.83 - 2,83 6.68 0,69 
July...... . . . tjO.8 68.2 53.2 R6.0 41,0 },'j . 0 3.38 - 3,38 8,42 0.52 
Au
. 60.7 67,9 53,6 ð3.0 39.0 14,3 3,51 - 3,51 9.59 1.08 
:,('pt ......., 56,0 63.2 1,'\,8 79.0 31,0 14.4 3,50 - 3,50 5.70 0,88 
I )ct ,.",.. 48.6 55,4 41.7 74,0 25.0 13,7 4.15 0.3 4.18 lI,J8 0.78 

O\'. . . .. 41.8 46,6 37,1 {jt}.0 11.0 9'5 3,;; 4.0 4.17 8,56 1,51 
Dee... 31'1 37,6 24.5 58,0 - 3.0 13,3 3,31 14,7 4'78 9.20 1.88 
- - -- - --- -- - - - 
Year.. 4-1,1 50,7 37.0 86,0 -12.0 13,7 39.59 ;9.9 47.58 70,90 35,06 


CHARLOTTETOW:-1. P,E.I. 
Observations (or 30 years. 
Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. 11ean 
Iean !t[ean High- 1..0\\- 
[ean -\ verages. Extremes. 
Daily. Daily D..Üly est. est. Daily Total, 
Max. }Iin. range. Rain. Snow, Greatest. Least. 
-------- 
Jan......_ .. 19,0 27.0 11,0 52.0 -19.0 16.0 1,46 19.6 3,42 7.62 1,10 
Feb,...,. .. 18,0 26.0 9,0 49,0 -21.0 17.0 0,86 17.5 2,61 6.37 0,88 

[ar . . .. . . . , . 27,0 34.0 20,0 54'0 -15'0 }4,O 1'67 13,9 3,06 5.54 1,48 
April.... . , . , 37,0 44.0 30,0 74,0 8,0 14.0 2.11 8.8 2,99 6'10 0,82 

Iay . . . . . . .. . 48.0 56,0 40.0 81,0 26.0 16.0 2,51 1.0 2,61 5,85 0.40 
June..... . 51.0 66.0 49,0 87.0 32,0 17.0 2'54 2'54 5.37 0,47 
July........ . 136'0 74.0 58,0 91,0 37.0 12.0 2,96 2.96 8,97 1.81 
:\ug........ . 65,0 73.0 57,0 92.0 42.0 16,0 3.37 3'37 8,44 0,94 
:5ept........ . 58,0 6.'),0 50,0 
7.0 34,0 15,0 3.36 3,36 8,75 0.06 
Oct....,.. .. . 48'0 54.0 41.0 77.0 26.0 13.0 4.46 0.2 4.43 10,38 0,50 

ov"...,' 37.0 42.0 32,0 62,0 11,0 10.0 3,48 6.0 4.03 8.00 1.74 
Dee.. . . 25'0 32,0 19,0 52,0 -11.0 13-0 2.19 16,0 3.79 7.25 1.41 
------------ 
Year... 42,0 49,0 35,0 92,0 -21.0 14.0 30,97 8.3,0 39.27 56.43 32.45 


38131-13 



194 


CLIMATE AND ltIETEOROLOGY 


3.-A\'l'raJ;!es of SunshhU', Wind and \\'eather at Selected Canadian Stations. 
(The ;years indicate the period of observation on which averages are baRed,) 
VICTORIA, B,C, 


)Ionths, 


Sunshine 
Average 
1895-1910, 

 .= 
:::I ,g 
0 .... +" 
...c:= O
 
õ,.c; Q) r-. 
b,():::1 
r-.+" 
"d 
Q)= +"Q) 
.Do =- 
sS (V.D 
1:).... 
:::Ir-. 

 
z
 
g 
I - 
.
3.4 19.6 
79.4 27.9 
143.0 39.0 
184.8 44.9 
198.6 41.9 
215,1 44.7 
293.7 60.4 
256.9 58.0 
183.3 48.6 
118.3 35.3 
57.3 20.8 
38.1 14,9 
-- -- 
1.821.9 - 


Jan. ........... 
Feb.... . 
)Iar.. 
April.. . . . . .. . . 
)Iay..... ..... 
June.........,. 
July.........,. 
-\ug. 

ept .. . . . . . . . . . 
( .ct..... . . . . . . . 
)J" ov... . . . . . . . . 
Dec.. 


Year..... . 


Jan....... 
Feb...... . 
)Iar.......... . 
-\pril.. .. . . 
)Iay... . , . , . . . . 
June....,...... 
July .. _ . 
.-\ug. . , . . . . . . . . 

ept... 
Oct.,., 
X ov... 
Dee. .. 


46.4 
51.5 
135.6 
179.4 
220.0 
228.0 
265.6 
252.7 
162.9 
111.3 
51.1 
38.8 


17.3 
18,2 
36.9 
43.7 
46.5 
47,2 
54.6 
57.0 
43.3 
33.4 
18.6 
15,3 


s . Wind Average 
o
 
I:)
 1896-1915. No. of days 
00. 1896-1915 with 
;>,..... 

o 
"d
 Strongest 
Õ.-d r-. , 
Q) :>, I:) Wind 

 Q) 
o
 "i: r-. 
S g 
 Recorded, 
Zg :::I Thun- Fog, Hail. 
= ...c:: bI) 
(V"'Z g
 
Lb ;5 I-< .= der. 
Q) 
bL';>, P, :ß 

ë3 
}
 ce.... .
 00 . 
1-<1:) 
 . Q)I-< I:) 
Q)+" Q)I,., Q)O Q)= =:::5 Q) 
>Q) 
 
'ãi r-. O .!::: 
<õ. <c <:::> 
'';:: 
...c:: 
 


14 3 9,0 N 50 RE 
7 2 8.9 N 48 SW 
5 2 9.0 SE 52 SW 
2 2 9,0 SW 50 H\Y 
:3 2 8.8 HW 41 W 
1 2 9.7 
W 49 RW 
1 2 9.1 
W 44 SW 
1 1 7.8 SW 43 H\Y 2 
3 1 6.5 SW 44 SW 3 
7 1 6.8 E 56 HW 4 
10 3 9.9 NE 57 HE 1 
13 3 8.8 KE 59 SE 1 


67 24 8.6 SW 59 SE 15 
*YANCOUVER, B.C. 
17 4,3 E 40 l\W 3 
]0 4.0 E 26 W 4 
7 5.0 E 30 SE 1 
4 -\. verage 4.8 HE 25 W 
3 less 4,8 HE 23 \Y 1 
2 than 4,5 E 27 W 1 
2 one 4,1 R 22 W 2 
2 per 3.7 S 20 W 1 
5 month 4.6 H 26 XW 1 2 
8 3,8 SE 35 W 6 
13 4.3 E ?- XW 4 
""l) 
15 4,4 E 30 W 4 


-- - - -- - - -- -- - - - 
Year... 1,743.3 88 4.4 SE 40 :r\W 6 24 
*Sunshine, 1908-19]1; days clouded, 1909-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1905-1920, 
tKAi\fLOOP8, B.C, 
J an .. .. .. 6.5.0 24.7 12 3.5 [0; 25 SE 
Feb., 87.0 31.1 7 3,1 [0; 24 NE 

Iar . ... . . 166.0 45.2 4 4.5 HE 31 W 
April.. .. 187.0 45.2 3 A ,"erage 4.8 S 30 \V 
May..... " 224.0 46,8 3 less 4.4 S 30 W 
June.... .. 240.0 50.1 3 than 4.1 SW 25 HE 
July.. .. , 295.0 59.9 1 onp 4,1 HW 40 
E 
.-\ug.., . . . 262.0 58,6. 2 per 3.5 SW 30 HE 

ept, .. . . .. 185,0 49.1 3 month 3.5 S 40 H 
Oct... .. . 140.0 42.3 6 3.6 HE 40 XW 

ov.,...., 70.0 26.2 10 4.4 SE 40 W 
Dee. 50.0 20.1 13 3.3 H 30 SE 
-- - - -- -- - - -- - - - 
Year... _., 1, 971. 0 67 3.9 S 40 Several. 
tSunshine, ]906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; "ind, etc" 1897-1916, 
tED1\IONTO
, ALTA. 
J an .. . .. 79 31.6 10 4.4 W 36 W 
Feb.... . 125 45.7 3 4.9 W 34 NW 
)Iar. ... . 174 47.4 3 5,6 S 28 NW 
April. 212 50.7 3 7.2 SW 42 NW 
)Iay.. . .. . . 222 4.5,1 3 6.8 HW 36 SE 1 1 
June... .. 242 47,8 3 5.9 W 34 ]\;W 3 1 
July.. . .. . . . .. . 2ì3 53.8 2 5.3 H\V 30 
\V 4 1 
Aug... . 256 56.3 2 4.7 W 26 XW 2 1 
Hept..... , 184 48.6 3 5,3 W 36 W 1 1 
Oct. . .. 150 46.2 4 5.2 W 28 Xw 
-:\ o\" . . . . . . . 87 33.9 7 4.6 
\\ 25 XW 
Dee. .. 77 33,2 11 4.2 S\\ 34 XW 


Vpar.. 2,OSl 54 1 5.3 RW 42 
:Sunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916, 


XW 


11 


5 



SU.YSll J.\PF, 1r IS /) AS]) n' F \ I'll FH 


1 t}.3 


3. - '\'l'raJ!\."
 of 
un'hhll'. "Iud and \\.'athrr at 
,'h'('h'(1 ('.madhn 
t:,tlon" -cQntinut'tl. 
l flu" Yl'lm
 indit'att' t hl' lX'riod of uh:wr\"ution on \\ hich nH'ragt's nro LH1:Ol'tl.) 
\lFl))(1-";E H.'T, ALT', 



unshin(' Êö \\ ind \ vcragc 
o
 
\ \ ('ragt' ,,
 11)96-1!)J;), );0. of days 
1906-Ut16, IIJI Ib!16-HJ15 "ith 

o 
ceC':> 

 ë -c- :::;1 rongcst 
.o
 r.. 
 
=' ,g ::,a >, Wind 
\lonths. .8 õ
 ..:::) -.: 
 H.L'COrucd, 
ö-:: a =' 
õ
 
 
5 ::I .2 Thun- Fo Hail. 
r::: bI! 
t ë ce.... 
(; ::,acÐ 
>. 
 !-' ë (!l'r, 
-
 
i:' C. .s 
.cS 
:a :of":: ;f.
 .;; . 
;::
 è:
- ... :.> 
..::: 

 >c !:...: 
 
;... ... II 
.... ;::'-' 
.a -::I 
:'0 
 :... >ë:: .- 0 ... 

8. 
c. ,.- "0 <> :::.,... ::;:...::: 
 
Q. 
- - - - - - - - - - 
Jan ", .J:J .1 
 2 5.9 :'\\ .ati 
 
F l'l) . 11; .11.6 b 2 b.O :'\\ .il 1-\ 
'lar .. 169 4f).0 3 2 6.6 :'\\ 41 
, 
\\ 
\pril 22U ,i:J .4 2 3 7.4 W :JO H 
'Ia
 ... 2:J
 4'\. 9 3 2 7.5 :' 60 
,W 2 
Jun(' 26' 55.0 I 2 7.5 
\\ I)} 
\\ 4 
July 321; 66.6 I I 6.4 :'\\ 46 
\\ 4 
\ug 2M 63.x I I 5.(i :'\\" .")1) \\ :J 
:'t'pt 1% .i2.0 :1 I 5.S 
\\ .')() S I 
( kt . . . .. 15, 4i.7 4 I ,:;.g \\ liO \\ 
;\ o\" .. 102 37.S 6 2 Ii. I :'\\ tj() S\\ 
Dl'f" b2 :t?'9 9 2 6.5 :'\\ ôO 
 
I - - - -- 
, '''lr 2,24:J .ii 21 6.4 :'\\ lil 1-'\\ 14 
.H.osT1n
n', 
\"I\.. .PIH'n', \LBun. .... \1"1\.. 
.Jan. \H.6 :Jf).1 10 3.3 :' 2(; '\' \\ 
Fl'l) . 137.; ,)0.0 4 3.2 :-:\\ 2!) ,\\ 
'hr ! ;f). I 47.\1 4 4.0 :'\\ :J.') :\ \\ 
\pril. .. 220..
 53.6 3 
.O :'1.: 36 :\ \\ 
'I:L
 . 
li1. ; 5:J.
 2 4.!. :' 2.'i SE 
.r unt
 :?I\O. I .:;6.0 2 4.2 
F :H :\ I 
July :?H4 . 
 6,),2 2 3.6 :'\\ .n SE 3 
.\ug. 
7:!.!.I tjf).3 2 3.0 :'\\ 14 E 2 
'ppt.., . J!.IO . S ,jO.4 4 3.
 :'\\ 2-1 
('\ t'ral 
( )ct. 141.4 4'1.3 6 :J.g :'\\ 2
 :\ \\ 
X O\". ...".. 111.6 -I:J. I 7 3.4 :' 20 
c\"('ral 
DL'C. . . 7').3 :J:J .0 II 3.2 :'\\ :12 
 
- - -- ---- ------ 
\car.. 2,.!5ð.
 57 3.)00, :-\ 36 X\\ 6 3 
· :,unshine and (h
 8 d
urll'(!, I'll 1-1
1:!f); \\ ind IX!tt)-HIi ï, I
!.t\ mi...-ling; da

 \\lth thundt'r, etc.. 1
\J6-1917 , 
.1... 1>1\" HE\D. 1'-\..1\.. .Ql' \PPt"LLE. 1-'.-\"'1\., 
Jan. 
I,4 32'b to 2 9.4 :\\\ 66 :\'"W 
Fl'b. 103.; 37.0 6 2 g..) 
\\ 46 \\ 

Iar.. , I:n.s 3,j.9 6 2 9.6 \\ -I" !'\\\ 
\pril. ., 170. I -I 1.2 4 2 10.0 SW .")
 
 
\Iay. . 214.4 44.6 5 2 \I.S :-:W .iO :\\\ 2 
Jum' 20i.4 42.4 4 I g.O :' H S\\ 4 1 
Juk 272.4 5.j.5 2 I 
.2 
\\ -12 
W .) 
_\ug 22S,9 51.3 2 I 7.4 
\\ :J
 :"\W,:\"W 4 
:'ept. . .. .. 162.S 4
.2 j 1 S.4 W oil 
\\ I 
Oct. I:m..j 3!1.5 6 2 9,1 \\ -15 
W 

o\"....... 68.8 25.7 8 I g.1 W 42 
W 
Dee 5S'ð 23.8 12 2 9.0 \\' 4.:; 
W 1 
- - - - - - - - - 121
 
Ymr.. 1.1'31.0 70 19 9.0 W 66 ,W 16 
---':-:un
hine and days cloudl'Ù, Ib
l-HnO; \\inu, etc.. nm;-HH7 (1008 mi

in
), 
t\\ I' ""PEG, 'I , "1'OB'. 


J 
l- 
, 
.\ 
, 
.J 
J 
.\ 
:-; 
o 

 
D 


d.ß..... 110,3 41.4 9 7 12.8 \\ 50 
, \\ - - - 
t'h .. ,. . 138,6 49.2 6 5 12,2 f:\\ 55 
W - 1 - 
lar.. . 175.0 4i.; i 6 13.1 :-; 66 
W - - - 
pril. ... 206.7 50.2 5 7 14.5 E 60 \\ 1 - - 
lay. 250.7 ;')2.3 4 6 1-1. .j E titi 
\\ 2 - - 
un(' . . 2,)0.4 51.6 3 5 12.7 E 46 XW 4 - - 
uly. .. .. 290.5 :;9.5 2 5 12.1 l' .j.j S\\ 5 - - 
u
.. ;!,jlj.7 57.8 3 4 lJ .3 l' 43 W 3 - - 
ept. .. .. . 17g.6 47.7 4 6 13.0 :-: 5.j W 2 - - 
ct. ......... 124.8 37.6 " I) 13.R :' 60 ,W I - - 
TO\" . 89.6 3.'3 ' 2 to .i 12.4 ....W 45 );,W - I - 
('(' 81.2 32.2 14 .. I') 0) 
W 59 \\ - - - 
.'... 
-- - - - -- - - -- - - --- 
Year.. 2,154.1 - 75 66 12.9 S 66 'l;W IS 2 - 


fSunshinc, 1'
2-191O; days clouded, 1901-1921): wind, etc., 18Jï-l!)lfJ. 
38131-13! 



196 


CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 


3.-Averages of Sunshine, \\'Ind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations-continued 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based,ì 


CALGARY. ALT.\. 


}Ionths, 


January... ,.. 
February. .. .. . .. . 
March. . .. .. . . . . . , . 
April. .. . . . . . 
May",.",........ 
June.,.... 
July.. ... - 
August.... .'. 
Reptember. . , . . . . , . 
October.... . 
November. .. 
December"", .. 
year........., 


Wind (1897-1916). 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
12 


6,4 
6,6 
7.6 
8'5 
8.8 
8.6 
7.6 
7'3 
7,5 
6,5 
6'0 
6.5 
7.3 


tro 
wi 
Prevailing Recor 
Direction, 
)Iiles 
per hour, 
W 52 
W 48 
SW 48 
W 56 
NW 48 
NW 50 

W 48 
NW 36 
N\V 62 
KW 40 
W 36 
W 52 
W 62 


A verage Average 
Number Hourly 
of Gales, Velocity, 


S ngest 
nd 
ded, 


Direction. 


NW 
W 
SW 
NW 
Nt NW 
W 
NW 
W 
NW 
W 
Several. 
W 


NW 


Average Number of days 
(1897-1916) with 


Thunder. Fog. 
- - 
- - 
- - 
- - 
1 - 
1 - 
3 - 
2 - 
- - 
- - 
- - 
- - 
7 - 


Hail 


LE PAS. 
hNITOBA, 


Months. 


January..... ..... , 
February,........ _ 
March, . , . , . . . . . . . . 
April.... . . . . . . . .. . 
May. . . . . . .. . . . . . . , 
June....... ..... 
July, , . .. . . . , . ,. ,. 
August. . ,........ 
September. .,. 
October. . . . . . . , , . , 
November. '. ,.,.. 
Decem her. . .. . . . . , 
year,........, 


Average 
Num ber 
of Gales. 


Wind (1910-1920). 


1 
1 
1 


Stron 
Average wi 
Prevailing Reeo 
Hourly Direction, 
V eloei ty. :Miles 
per hour. 
7,5 W 43 
7,2 W 40 
7,5 S 45 
8,3 E 41 
8,5 E 40 
7.8 SE 44 
8,9 W 54 
7.7 W 48 
6,8 W 41 
7,5 W 42 
7,9 W 33 
7.1 SW 38 
7.7 W 54 


gest 
nd 
rded. 


Direction. 


NW 
W 
W 
SW 
SW 
SW 
NW 
NW 
W 
NW 
W 
SW 


Average Number of days 
(1910-1920) with 


Thunder. Fog. 


HaiL 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


9 


2 
2 


2 
1 
1 


4 


5 



SUX::;I1IXE J n"I_YD ..LYD JrEATlIHll 


197 


I, \H'rag('
 of Stln
hhu'. \\llul and \\t'atlu.'r at 
l'lt'de(1 Can:uU"n 
taU:m-; -cJntinueJ 
(The )"cars indicate tho period of observation on which averalt('s are ba.qeù) 
PORT N EL80S, )[AN. 


:\fonth(!l. 


Januar
 . , . . . . . . . . " 
],'ebruar\' . , . , .' . . . . 
'Iarch.,
, . 
\pril 
1\lay ..,'." 
June. . . . " . . . . . . . . . , 
July.. 
Augu
t , . . 
:"'\eptern})("r. ......' 
Ùctober. . , . . .. , . , . 
:-':ovember. ...... . 
December."",.. , 


\
 ear.. . . . . . . , . 


A verngo Average 
11. urn ber Hourly Prevailing 
of Gales, Velocity, Direction, 


0). AvemJ1;e Number uf days 
(1916-1920) with 
- 
Strongest 
\\ ind 
Recorded. 
Thund('r, Fog, Hail. 
)[ iles Direction. 
p4.'r hour. 
Ji W,XW - 1 - 
4S 
\\ - - - 
41 
g - 1 - 
51 X \ \ - 1 - 
40 
E - 3 - 
38 KE, N\\ 3 :.'. - 
53 
B 3 1 - 
42 N"E,="W 2 2 - 
42 
\V, 
W 1 1 - 
40 - - 1 - 
43 X - 2 - 
42 XW - - - 
53 
E 9 15 - 


"ind (1916-192 


2 
3 
3 


12.4 
12,9 
11,4 
12,8 
12.4 
13.6 
13'8 
12,4 
12,b 
13,6 
13.1 
11.7 
12,7 


\\ 
\\ 
\\' 
:-:E 
XF 
!'\F 
X 1-: 
1"\\ 

W 
XW 
XW 
\\ 


2 


1 
3 
2 
2 
3 
4 
5 
2 


32 



\\ 
PORT ARTHUR, ONto 


Months. 


January. .... , . ,. . . 
}'ebruar).,...., . ..' 
'larch...,... . , , . , , 
-'\ pril. , . . . , . . . , . . . . 
)lay, . . . . , , . , , . . , . . 
June ........,.,... 
J ul)' , .. ",."..", 
August. . ........ 

eptRrnber.."..,. . 
Uctobe r .. . .. , . , . . , 

ovember. . . " , . . 
December.,.,.,.. . 
\
ear..."".. . . . 


\\ ind (1896-1920). AveraJ!;e Number of days 
(1896-1920) with 
Strongest 
A, erago I A veruge winù 

umber Hourly Pre, ailing Recorded . I 
of Gales. \" eloci ty, Duection. Thunder, Foit. Hail. 
\1 ilea Direction, 
per hour. 
1 6,9 
\\ 37 .:\'\\ - - - 
1 7,1 
\\" 50 XW - - - 
1 7.8 XW 52 XW - - - 
1 7'b 
 39 
W,

 1 1 - 
'- 
1 7.8 
B 41 XI-; 1 2 - 
- 6,7 E 51 
W 2 
 - 
- 6,4 
 34 XW 4 1 - 
- 6,7 SW 41 
\\ 3 2 - 
- 7,1 ::;W G
 ;..;W 2 2 - 
I 7.4 SW 42 XW I 3 - 
1 8,1 XW 40 
W - 1 - 
1 7.4 XW 52 
W - 1 - 
8 7.3 SW 62 1\W 14 15 - 


\\ HITE RIVER. ONT. 


'Ionths. 


January. , . . , , . . . . . 
February.. .. . . , .. . 
March, , . . . , , , . . . . . 
April, . , , , . , , , , . , . . 
J\lay, , , , . , . , " ,. . 
June....". ."",.. 
July.".., " '" . ,., . 
August. . . , , . . . , , . . 
September",.,.. . 
October.. . . . , . ,. . 
November,."... . 
Deæmber.,....., . 
Year... ...... 


Winù (1896-1920). Avern
e 
umber 
(1896-1920) wi 
Strongest 
Average Average wind 

umber Hourly Prevailing Recorded, 
of Gale::.. Velocity, Direction. Thunder. Fog. 
'Iilea Direction. 
per hour, 
- 4.2 SE 28 
\\ - - 
- 3'3 E 22 ::5, XW - - 
- 4.4 E 30 X - - 
- 5.0 E 30 X - - 
- 5.6 SB 28 SW 1 - 
- 5.0 S 32 :sW 1 - 
- 4.4 SW 23 
 2 1 
- 3,6 ::; 24 SW 2 1 
- 3,9 S\\ 24 ð 2 1 
- 4.1 :-:E 25 S\\ - - 
- 4,6 
E 25 XW, :::;\\ - - 
- 3,7 S 24 
 - - 
- 4.3 
E 2 :;:W 


of days 
th 


Hail. 


3 


8 


3 


. 



198 


CLIl1L.4.TE A}.;'D JIETEOROLOGr 


3.-A'era
es of Sunshine, "Ind and "'eather at Sl'lected Canadian stations-c:JntinueJ 
(The ) ears indicate the period of observation on which averages are based,) 


COCHRAXE, OXT. 


Months. 


Wi 
Average Average 
X umber HourI) 
of Gales. Yelocity. 
--- 
- j.b 
- ,.2 
- 
.2 
- 
.4 
- ð.5 
- ,1\.4 
- , . 1 
- 6.5 
- 7.3 
- 7.2 
- fj.6 
- 6.8 
- 7.5 


Januan'. . . . . . . . , . . 
Februàn'. . . . . . , . . . 
Maf('h. ... . . . . . . . . . . 
April.. .. . . . , . . . . . . 
-:\lay. .............. 
June.............. . 
Juh', . . . . 
Auguðt. . . . . . . . . . . . 

eptember. ....... 
October. 
Ko\"ember. ...... 
December........ . 


Year... ... ... 


nd (1911-1920), 


Average Number of daYIi 
0911-1920) with 


-- 
Strongest 
wind 
Prcvailing Recorded. 
Direction. -- Thunder. Fog. HaiL 
:\1iles Direction. 
per hour. 
-- --- 
W 34 NW 
XW 32 NW 
SW 33 Xw 

E 35 
\V 

 35 "'
W 1 
S 34 
W 2 
W 29 SW 3 
W 31 
W 2 
SW 30 
W 1 
::;W 35 
E 
S\r 30 H\r 

\\ 27 
\\ I 
SW 35 
W, SE 9 .) 


.\ '\TICOSTI, 
o{;"rH WEST POIXT, Ql:"EBEC, 


. 
Average Number 
(1897-1920) wi 
- 
Strongest 
wind 
Re
orded . 
- Thunder. Fog. 
ile:s Direction. 
r hour, 
72 NW - - 
65 KW - 1 
68 NW - 1 
70 XW - 3 
52 XW - 3 
56 W - 5 
44 " - 7 
68 W - 5 
58 :N\\ - 3 
67 W - -1 
98 K - 1 
71 XW - 1 
- 
98 
 - 34 


Hail. 


Wind (1897-1920). 


of days 
th 


)!onths. 


A vera"e 
.IS" u m b
r 
of Gales. 


Average I 
Hourly Prevailing 
Yelocity. Direction,- 
M 
pe 


J anuar
" . . . . . . . . . . . 
Februarv......... . 
March. .... .. . . , , , . . 
April. .. . . . .. . .. .. . 
J


......::..:
 
::::.: 
July....,.,...,.. . 
Augu::,t. ." ...... 
September... .. 
October. . . . . . . . . . . 
:Kovember....... . 
Decem ber. . . . . . . . . 


21.9 
19.9 
18,6 
15'b 
13.8 
13'3 
12.1 
12.3 
14.3 
16.6 
18.8 
20.6 


16 
13 
12 
8 
6 
4 
3 
4 
6 
10 
11 
14 
107 


1Ij.5 


"\" ear.,. . . . . . . . 


XW 
SW 
S 
SE 
SE 
SE 
SE 

E 

E 

 
HE 
S\\ 


S 



SU!\-"III.VE, n-IYD ..LY/) nï
'&l TIIFU 


199 


:J.-.\ H'ra
t'
 of 
u IIshlllt'. "hul allcl Wt'at ht'r at 'l,IC'C.It'(1 ('alla(1I311 :'\Iatlllil" -cont inul'c.I. 
(The )t.urs mdicnte tht" period of oh"l'n"ntion on "hich R\"erages Rre bused.) 


II \lLEYBt. RT, ()'T\RIO. 


Winti 
ISCJ6-1 CJ20, 
b 
trongest 
"'5 :.. ..J Wind 

 
 Recorded. 
ö =' 

 .,g ::.Q .
 
CI) c.>
 
 a.. 
:I 
be 
... Co' 
'" . E'- .; a.. 
 
a..
 on =' 
CJJí >c 
.8 
CJ_ 
o .!::j 
>
 :,...:" ....- 

O ... ' 
..... ;::: Q 
.", 
- - - - - 
] 2 X\\ 
 
,XW 
2 2 X\\ 9 
\\ 
.! 2 
 9 :-;\\ 
] 2 :' 
 ""N\\' 
] 2 :-: ;.. '\"W 
] 2 :,F ;.. :'\\ 
1 :? :-:\\ 
 Se\ pml. 
1 .J :-: 
 :\" \\ 
2 :! ;00:\\ 
 S 
2 :? :'\\ 9 :\"W 
2 2 :\\\ 10 
\\ . \\ 
] 2 \\ R X\\ 
---r7 -Z '-;\\110 
\\, \ \ 



unshine Eo 
A vcra
o OC'J 
(,I
 
If10ô-1916. 00' 


o 
=':> 
ctJ r:: "'::I.... 
... .9 õ
 
=' 
)lonths, 
 õE CI) 
ö"'::l 
- - 
=' 
g 
0::: 
"'::I 
a.. C ,SeJ 
ü 

o ä
 
.:JC c- 
C- CJ.D 

l a..CI) 
_a.. CJ..... 
=,c.. >:1 

Co ......... 
,Q. 
- - 
.I:.n. !I2 33,4 10 
Ft.b... :. ,. . " . 119 41.6 7 
\hr.... 16,) 44'
 5 
\pril 193 4i.3 5 
'by 210 4.).0 4 
Jum' 2.,)!) 54.!) 2 
July. 21ìlì 55.5 ] 
\uJ!;.... ... 221 50.3 2 
:,ept ]i4 4fì'3 4 
Oct ]10 32.S i 
"'0\"...,. . 56 20.1 ]3 
})l'C. 61 23.2 ]2 
], i33 1--=- - 
Year 72 


.A vernge 
No. of da}s 
1891)-1920 witb 


Thun- Fog. Hail. 
dcr. 


2 
4 
6 
i 
2 
J 


19 J J 


*GR.-\\"E'\IfLRsr, O....TARIO, 


.P'RRT ;OO:Ol",1), O'T\IUII. 


Jan.. 
rl'b 
\Iur. 
\pril. .. . . . 
\Iny,.".".., . 
.Jum' 
Juh-. 
\ug. 
...:('pt....," " . . 
t Ict. , , , , , . , . . . . 
Xu\" 
J)t:'C .. 


!f' 4 1 


.o 
9.1 

.9 
;.9 
6.1'\ 
6.5 
6.9 
i.4 
t-,.7 
10..) 
9.4 


:' 


:--1' 


I" \\ 
4
1 \\ 
52 :,\\, 
36 'I; 
39 S \\' 
36 S \\" 
36 X\\ 
30 
\\, SJ' 
36 :':\\ 
36 :'W 
." S\\" 
37 \\, X\\ 



().; 
126.3 
]5:3.0 
];..9.4 
2Ji'2 
22!1.8 
265,2 
252.6 
liO.6 
13
.5 

5'4 
6] .5 


2S,4 
43,4 
41.5 
46.9 
4i.4 
4!1.4 
.,)fì'4 
58,2 
45,6 
4J ,0 
:?9,!j 
2] ,5 


]2 
X 
7 
5 
5 
2 
I 
] 
4 
7 
11 
14 


:' 


2 


:'\\ 
:' 
:-: 
:-:\\ 
:'\\ 
... 
.""\\ 
:' 
S\\ 


year.,.... J. 9iO.2 


8,4 



 


52 


sw 


7i 


8 


*:;un::ohine, ]!)O:?-J91O, 1915-1920; \\ ind, etc., ]
fld-Ifl20, 


+ TOROXTO. O:l.T. 


- I 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 


2 


2 


]4 


, 


an. ........... . 7i.9 27.0 JJ 6 J3.6 :'\\ 56 XF. - 2 - 
t'b..,... .,.,. 108.1 36.7 6 5 13.i \\ 56 L - 1 - 
tar...., . 150'0 40,5 6 5 12.8 :-:W 60 XW 1 1 - 
pril. . . , . , . : : : 190.i 47, I 4 3 JI.9 :'1 : ,')0 E J J - 
Ia) .... . . . . . . 2J8'9 47,9 2 2 9.9 :'1-: .)4 W 3 1 - 
une........ . 2.')9.
 .56.3 I I "".7 :,E 35 
E 4 I - 
uly.,."..". . 2
2.2 60.4 1 1 h.O :-: 36 W, f-;\\' 5 1 - 

Ug .. .... 252.7 59.8 1 - 8.0 :'\\ 48 SF. 6 - - 
pt... .. 20i.8 5,').4 2 J 8.g :'1-: 50 :.; 3 2 - 

ct....",.... . )49.3 43.8 4 2 9.9 S 53 W J 2 - 
0'-"........... 
,)'3 29.4 8 4 J2,2 :-:\\" 50 W - C) - 
- 
ec H ....., ... 
I 23.5 10 "j )3.2 :'\\" 50 
\\' - I - 
year..,.. . 2.046,9 - 56 37 10.9 S 60 XW 34 J5 


J 
F 

 
\ 
, 
J 
J 


:--{' 
( 

 
D 


T:'un'ihine, J
'2-HìlO; days clouded, J!lOI-I!120: "inù. etc., h%-HI20, 



200 


CLIMATE AND METEOROWGY 


3.-Anrages of Sunshln(>, Wind and Weath(>r at Selected Canadian Stations-continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are ba.sed,) 


\\OODSTOCK, ONT. 


Sunshine 
Average 
1882-1911. 
11) r;; 
.... 
=' .!a 
Months, 0 -.... 
..&:: o
 
-
 G>=, 
0.... 
'"Ø 
....s= 
G.JO ....G> 
.c8 s=- 
G.J.D 
8.... C).... 
=,G.J t æ 
ZCo P-48. 
- 
........... . 62.0 21,4 
eb.,.......,. 88,7 30,2 
ar...".,.... 122.6 33.2 
pril. .. , , , , , , . 167,4 41.7 
ay."""".. 206,8 45,6 
ne. , . . . . , , , . . 246,1 53,7 
ly,."""" , 275,4 59,4 
ug...,. .",.. 238,0 55,4 
pt".".", " 181,8 48,7 
ct.,..""." . 135,7 41,7 
ov""".., ., 76,4 26,3 
ec...,.,.", . 54.1 19.4 
- - 
),Tear....,. 1,855,0 - 


Jan 
F 
1\1 
A 
M 
Ju 
Ju 
A 
Se 
o 
N 
D 


SO 
OC'l 
C)
 
11)' 

õ 
'"Ø
 
õ-ë 
ö
 
Z5 
G>Q 

>. 
tG.'i 
:>
 
<ë. 


Wind 
1896-1920. 
I Strongest 
õ >. C) Wind 
G.J 
í: .... Recorded. 
Ö =' ;a 
Z 0 
..&:: bO ,
 
G.J G.J>. ;Ê .... 
G.J 

. 
:
 Co' 
.t; . .... .... 
t] ....C) 11)=' C) 
G.JO :>s:: G.JO G.J 
:>
 :>G.i G.JO :;::..&:: .
 
....,... 
<0 <> P-4.... 
 
 
- - - - - 
4 12.4 SW 57 SW 
4 12.3 W 47 NW 
5 12'2 SW 52 SW 
4 12,1 SW 48 SW 
3 10,5 S\V 46 SW 
1 8,9 W 36 E 
1 8,4 W 36 SW 
1 8,0 SW 40 SW 
1 8.4 \V 34 NW 
2 10.5 SW 40 NW 
3 11.9 SW 53 SW 
4 12,4 SW 49 SW 
- - - - - 
33 10,7 SW 57 S\V 


Average 
No. of days 
1896-1920 with 


Thun- Fog. Hail. 
der. 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 


14 
8 
9 
6 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
6 
10 
15 
81 


12 


15 
I 


Jan.",.,.,. ,.. 76,0 34 12 6 15,5 SW 56 SW - 1 - 
Feb..,.,.,.". 103,4 41 9 7 16,7 SW 66 NW - 1 - 
1.lar. , , , , . . , , , . 145.9 45 6 8 16,7 S\V 60 SE,SW - 1 - 
April. . , , . , , , , . 173,7 50 6 4 14.9 S 53 SW 1 1 - 
1.lay. . , , , , , . , , . 204,6 51 4 2 12.8 S 49 W 2 - - 
June.".."", . 217,3 50 2 2 11,6 SW 48 SW,N"W 3 - - 
July""."." . 238.4 59 1 1 11,3 W 42 SW 5 - - 
Aug.., . , . , , , , . 218.6 58 2 - 10,6 SW 36 \V 4 - - 
Sept"..,.,.... 171,5 53 4 1 11.7 SW 38 SE, 
W 3 1 - 
Oct".",.,.., . 122,2 41 6 2 12,9 SW 45 NW 1 2 - 
Nov,..."...,. 68,5 30 11 5 14,6 SW 58 W - 1 - 
Dec.,..".,... 60,0 26 14 5 14,0 SW 50 NW - 1 1 
-- - ------- - - - 
year...., . 1,800.1 - 77 43 13.6 SW 66 NW 19 9 1 


*1\IoNTREAL, QL'E, 


*Days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 


t QL'EBEC, QUE. 


Jan..,.., ,. .". 86 31,0 11 9 15.0 SW 62 NE - 1 - 
Feb....,."". 105 36.5 8 8 16.1 SW 69 NE - - - 
l\lar...."",.. 152 41,4 ï 8 15.3 SW 72 
E - 1 - 
April.. , . .. . .. . 174 42'5 5 7 14.4 NE 54 NE 1 1 - 
May.",..",.. 197 42,1 4 6 14.4 NE 52 W 2 - - 
June...,.",.. . 248 44,6 4 4 13.2 SE 46 NE 4 - - 
July""""" . 223 46,8 2 2 11'6 S 43 NE, SW 7 - - 
Aug..""..,.. 224 48,4 2 1 10.7 SW 39 NE, SW 5 - - 
Sept..,."".,. 152 45.2 5 3 11,5 SW 42 NE 2 1 - 
Oct..,...,.,., . 123 40,2 8 4 12,4 SW 66 NE 1 2 - 
Nov"""".,. 65 24,0 10 5 14,0 SW 58 NE - 1 - 
Dec."""".. 70 28,8 13 6 13.9 SW 68 NE - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - -- 
year....,. 1,819 - 79 63 13.5 S 72 KE 22 8 - 


tSuDshine, 1903-1912; days clouded, 1903-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 



SU.VSIIIXF, TrlSD A.\ v JfE61THEll 


201 


%.-.1u'ra ffl of :o;.un!o-hlne, "had and "rather at 
('If'('t('d ('anall.an station!'; -concluded. 
(The :years indicate the period of obscn ntion on v. hich averages are bnscd,) 


"OLFVILLE, 
 ,S. 


Months. 


f 
=' 
] 
õ
 
tS 
.oS 
S... 
Z
 


J nn , , , , , . . , . . . . 
-I ' 0 
Fcb.....,..... !t9,6 
)l:1r. , . . , . .. . . . 13-1 ' 0 
April... , ....., 147,6 
)Iay........ , . . 200.8 
June.....".,.. 230.0 
July........... :?35.6 
Aug........... 232,4 
Sept..,......., 18:?5 
Oct. ... 151.4 
:xov.......",. 98,9 
Dec... 67.2 


year..... 1,b6!'0 


Sunshine 
A verap;e 
1895-1910, 


d 
,sa 
- ... 
oøS 


 

 
_CI) 
c- 
CI),!) 
t).- 

I 


29,6 10 
34.4 10 
36.4 8 
36.6 7 
43,8 5 
49.4 2 
50,2 2 
53,6 2 
4,\,6 3 
44.8 ; 
3-1.7 
 
24,8 11 


. 
Y AR\fOt"TII, X ,8, 


Eo 
g
 
III' 
>>- 
",0 


 
õ-d' 
Qj 
'
 
o=' 
Zo 
G)
 

>> 
e- 
Cl)B 
>C1 
<-a. 


Wind Average 
IStl6-1915. No. of dayl' 
1896-1915 "it 
Stronge8t 
Õ ,?} to; Wind 
c. 

 .
 Recorded. 
Ö =' 
Z 0 tit Thun- 
.c .
 Fog, H 
Q Q>, ;ê &..: der. 
t>/). 
] .; ... 


 >c !=' 
 
Qj- QjO ;.:..8 
 
>øS >c. Lo'- ..... 
 
<0 <
 
.... 
 
- - - - - - 
4 13,2 :xW 53 SW,
\\ - 2 
4 13.1 "\W 60 :-\W - 2 
4 12.5 
W 60 
W - 4 
2 11 .1 
W 43 NW - 4 
1 9,9 
\\' 44 - 1 .. 
i 
- 8.6 
 40 SE 2 7 
- 7.7 r'W 36 
 2 13 
- 6.7 ...w 65 SW 2 11 
1 8.0 R\\ 4R W 1 7 
2 JO.O :-\ 54 BE 1 4 
3 12.0 :-;W 60 - - 2 
3 12.6 ...:w 62 f'W - 2 
- - - - - - 
24 10,5 SW 65 SW 9 65 


h 


811. 


75 


- I"REltERICTO}\;', 1\ .D. 


Jan.. 110,3 39,2 10 2 f\.2 :x\\ 38 :-;W - 1 - 
Feb...:::::::: 124.2 43,1 b 2 9.3 
W 49 t\W - 1 - 
'Jar. "........ 1,)4'8 42,0 8 2 
1.5 :\"\\ 40 \;W - 1 - 
\pril......... . IM,6 45,6 ; 1 
.2 '\\\ 36 N\\ - 2 - 

lay .. . . .. , . 205.4 44.4 6 1 
'O :-'\\ 37 :r-;W 1 1 - 
June....... , , . 217,6 46.4 5 - 7.4 \\ 34 NW 2 1 - 
Julv .. 236.8 50.2 3 - fHi :-' \\ 32 :r-;W 3 2 - 
.-\ u g . . . . . . , , , , , 223.0 51,2 3 - b.7 \\ 28 :xW 2 2 - 
:-:cpt. .. . . . .. . . . 179,0 47,8 5 - 6.0 :\W 30 !';\\ I 4 - 
l)ct. . . , , , , . . . . 151.4 44.8 6 I 7.7 W 33 SE, 
W - 3 - 
:Xov.......,.. , 91.3 33,3 11 1 
.1 "\W 37 - - 2 - 
Dee,......,., 9-1.1 35'9 12 2 8.5 
W 42 NW - 2 - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Year. , , , . . 1,972,5 - 84 12 7.9 W 49 NW 9 22 - 


-:-;un.,hine, 1881-1911; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, 1
96-19:!O. 


t CH',RLOTTETOWX, P.E I. 


Jan,.,."...... 89 31,8 13 2 h.8 I XW 46 
W 
- - - 
Feb...,...... . 112 38.9 10 1 ð.4 =-'W 55 :-\E - 1 - 

Iar...,...,., . 130 35.3 9 2 h.6 :" 41 SW - 1 - 
April. , . . . , . 153 37,6 9 - b,4 :,E 33 SE 1 1 - 

Iay . , . . , , , . , . : 195 42.1 ï - i-.l 
 32 !\E 1 - - 
June.......... . 226 48,2 6 - ;.0 
 28 S 2 - - 
July...., . , , , , . 238 50.2 4 - 6.3 SW 32 S\V 2 - - 
Aug...,....., . 229 52,4 5 - 6.5 
W 31 S\V 2 - - 
::;ept,.,.." . , . . 179 47,8 6 - 7,2 SW 32 S, 
\\ 1 - - 
Oct.. , . . . . . . . . , 114 33,9 11 ] i-,2 ;-;W 38 S - 1 - 
Xov........ . . . 73 25,9 13 1 9.1 W 38 
E - 1 - 
Dee.... .. .. .. . 60 22.3 17 1 9.0 :\"\\ 38 BW - - - 
- - - - - - -- -- - - - 
year..... . 1,79ö - 110 '8 8.0 S\\' 55 SE 9 5 - 


t=-,unshine, 1906-1916; days clouded. 1907-1920; wind, etc., Ib96-19!O. 




02 


PRODCCTIOS. 


'lIII.- PRODUCTION. 


In thi., bcction are included the statistics of agriculture, the fur 
trade, forebtry, fisherie
, nlÏnerab, lllanufacturcs and water po\ver::;. 
A 
ketch of the developulent of each of these branches of produ('tiou 
i
 prefixed to the f:ltatistical tablp
. 


THE DEVELOPJIEXT OF AGRI('L
LTURE IN CAX:\D.\. 


By J. H. GRISDALE, D. Sc. A.. Deputy }linister or Agriculture, 
Ottawa, 



-\.griculture in Canada dates back to prehistoric time
, \Vhen 
Cartier :5ailed up the St. La\\TenCe in 1535 he found fields of maize 
gro,ving around the Indian yillage of Hochelaga at the foot of 
Iount 
Royal \\
here l\Iontreal no"
 stands. Later travpllers reported sinlÌlar 
fields in many parts of \vhat is no,v Ontario. 
lon
 especially. the 
Huron Indians, ,vho occupied the territory around Geurgian Bay and 
Lake Huron, and were not as ,varlike as the other tribes, cleared 
large patchef' of land and gre\v corn, peas, beans, and other ('rops. 
The BegÙun:ng,
 in 
!cadia and Quebec.-In the ,vhole area no,,, 
C'on:-:tituting (janada, the first settlement, and at the same tÍIne the 
fir:"t effort at agricultural production lllade by ,vhite lllen "Ta
 Inost 
pruhably that begun at Port Royal, no,v Annapolis, Nova Scotia, by 
tlu' French under dp 1\lont:.; in 1605. Here some of the :-;ettlers culti- 
yated patches of land and gre,v lllaize, pumpkin
 and bean
, ,vhile 
('o,,
s ,v('re brought here by Poutrincourt in 1606. The Indians also 
gre\v Inaize to a small extent to supplenlent food obtained by hunting. 

-\.ccording to the cenf'US of 1671, the Acadians, then numbering 14:1, 
had 429 arpents under cultivation, together ,vith 866 cattle, 107 

heep and 36 goats. Thereafter the settlers continued to clf'ar the 
lalld:-; and reclaim the fertile marshes from the sea, chiefly along the 
Basin of 
linas, on ,,,hich }u.t
r gre"
 abundantly. 
Iil the valley of the St. La,vrence farn1Ïng on a slnall seale appear
 
to have heen carried on by Champlain, thp founder of Quehec, as 
early as 1608, ,vhen cattle \vere imported and hay and fodder gro,vn, 
together \vith \vheat and othpr grain
. In 1626, Champlain estahlished 
a farnl at Cap Tourment<
 for cattlf' ,yhich he Hent from (
uehec. 
Tht' first real farmer, ho\vf'ver, ,vas Louis HéLert, ,vho landed in 
Quebec in 1617 and immediately bf'gan to clear and cultivate the soil 
on ,,-hat is no,,, part of Upper To"rn, Quebec. Hi:-; only tool \vas a 

pade, but he ,vorkf'd a\vay till the :3oil ,vas ready to receive the seed 
and also planted some apple tree:-;. IIéLert ,vas follo,ved by other 
farnler
, among them Guillaulnp Couillard, ...\.brahaln ::\lartin and 
l{obert Giffard, th(' latter of ,vhonl "ras said to have had in 1635 large 
crops of ,vheat, pea
 and Indian corn. In the district of Thret' 
Rivers, Pierre Boucher had large crops of grains and vegetables, and 
in 1648, Pierre Gadboi
 and other
 conlnlen
ed f:1nning on land ,vhere 

IontJ pal no,v stand
. 



/) fJ" \ PEl {J J J \I E S r OF A G N I (' r L r r R F J.Y L' A 1 S' A f) 
 \ 20;3 


TIH' land wa:, held llnd(>r :'PigIH'urial or f('lHInl tenun', :5in1Ílar tu 
that preyailillJ.!, in old Franel'. a :-:y...t(,lll "hi('h '-'('('111:-; to haY(' pro- 
luot('d th.. ùeyelopl1H'nt of agrieulturl'. 
Iany fonller huntel":-O: :u1(1 
t rad('rs :--{'tt led d(J\\ n r:-o: ('ultiyator:-: of the :-:oil. and ('arhP to hp known 
a:-: .. hahitant:-:." 
In lOti, th('r<, ,,('rp 11,l-t
 aq't'nt
 of land llndpl' (,lllti\":itIOIl. 
\\ hil<" t h(' f:u U' rrs OWIl('d :
,l 07 en tt It, apd 83 :-o:1H'<'p. :\Ior<' li\"(' 
tock 
of all kil:d
 ".n:-: gradually} rouJ.:ht into tilt' ('(;untr
p. ..\ l'pn
u:-: of 1721 
giYl'
 tIlt' f('llnwing :--tatisti(':-:: arr('nt
 UIH1('r l'ultiyation. t}
,1 L"): in 
pa
tuJ"(', 1
.
r3; 
rain hal"y(,:-:t("(l- \\ It. 'it. 2
2,700 hu
hel:",; harlt'Y. 
-I-..>S.") 1nl
}ll'b: (at
, (j-1.c:
.) } u:-:lu.l:-:: I pa
, .")7 ...100 hu:-:lH.I
: ('orn, 7,20;) 
bu:-:hels; fl:t
, .":-l,(j.')O 11 :-:.: } (In)>. 2,1('0 11>:",.; toh:H'('O, -j
.O:
S Ih
. 
rrhen' w('r(' at t hi:-; tilPt' .
.ftn;
 hor:-i(':-:. 
:
,2

 eattl.." 1 :
,
:!:
 :-:1H't'p and 
1 t),2.")O 
winp in tl1(' ('oluny. 
(}lld)f C.- I)uring t" () l'plltul'i(':-: and :l half the' hahitant \"ari('d 
hi
 :-:y:4t'IIl of fnrn1ing Yer
 littl('. \\ Ill'll t h(' land \\"a
 ('It'ared of tret's. 
Wh('
l1 and oat
 'Yt'l"t' 
o\\'n :Huollh till' 
tunlp
. 'fwo ('rop:-: of thi:-; 
nn tur(' ""('1'(' har\'l'...:t ('d and t IU'll hay' an (1 ot hpr gra:-:';:('
 \\"pl"(' 
rown 
for :'('\"l'ral y('ar
. \\lH'n th(' :-:tUlllp'" \\'t'I"(' 
uffi('ipJltl
" rott('n, th(' land 
"-a:-, plought'(l. 1 faIf t h(' land wa:-: ploughed in thf('(' ('OJl:,('('utiy(' 
ypar
 and ....t,pf!pd to ('l'rt'al
 :t nti root:-:; t hf' ot 11('1' half ""a:-: k<'pt for 
tl1<' production of hay a
 pa:-:turp for livt' :-:t()ck. 1'hi
 \Ya:-: ehang('d 
around durill
 the IH'xt th1'PP Yt'ar:-:, and 
o 011. '1""l1p quantit
r of liv(' 
:-:toek kppt \\'a
 :-:nlall (,()lllpan.d with tlu' area of tlH' fun)}, rrhi
 was 
not a vpry 
l'i.'ntific 
y!-'teln. hut tlH' 
oil wa:-: :-:0 ri<.'h t ha t t hp ('rops of 
grain, root
 and hay \\'('1'(' alway:, rl('ntiful. so lllU('h ...:() that flour. 
wh('at and ppa...; ""('f(' heing pxportpcl in 17 -t
). Buttpr :\11<1 eh('ps(' ""('rp 
alway
 lnad('. whilf' Inapll' ...:ugar ha:-: 1w('n OIl(' of thp rp
\lbr products 
...;iIH'P ll;
)() :llld potat()('
 \\,('r(' first J2:rown in 173h. 
I'll(' l'priod follo\,"inJ?; t hp Er gli:-:h ('()nqut'
t of {lUl'h('(', l7ôJ to 
Ib;)O, \ni
 a rritical OIl(' for agrieulturp, tlw govf'rnin
 ("la:-:"';t'
 })('inQ; 
too nlueh t'ngro:-::-:<.>d in politi(" to p
l:r nluch attl'ntion to it. 
IloWPYl'I", t h(' 
pttl('nH'llt of t hp Ea:-:t('rn rrown
hip:::; ,\pas })('gun in 177 l 
hy the l
 nitpd EIllpirp Loy:di
t
, ,,-ho hrought tllf'ir cattle ,,-it h theIn. 
Thl'
(, :-:('tt ll'r
 ""('1'(' grantpd land:-o: ,,-hi ph ,yer(' lu'ld un(lf'r t h(. t('nUf(
 
known a:", "fl"t,<, and ('0l1U110n :-:()('ca
('," rrhf's(' :-;pttlcmcnt
 ma(le good 
pl".ogn :-:
. anti 'n'l"c rcinforp('d latpr on hy Fn.nch-Can:ulian:-5 frolll the 
:-;('lgn(,UrI(,
. 
FrolH a y('ry early ppriod nunlProu:-. ('ffort
 ha YC 1.('('n Il1ad(' to 
dcvplop the agriculturf' of tht, p
)untry hy a
ricultural ('llueation 
or trainillJ!, hy the organization of a
:,ociation:-- and 1.y the l'
tahlish- 
111eut of agrieultural sehoob and coll('gf'''';. A, parly as lüü8, :\IoHspig:- 
Hcur de Layal opeu('d an indu
trial 
eh()ol ,vhcr(' agriculture ,va
 
taught at 
t. Joachim. nf'ar Quphec, and in 17
9 a society ,vhich pub- 
li
hpd pan)phl('t
 on agricultuJ"(' was founded by Lord Dorch('
ter. 
Later, various hooks and panlphlpt
 un agriculturf' ,,-cre puhlished and 
agricultural newspap('r
 begun. In 1ð-! 7 th(' Canadian legislature 
pa:-::-:ed an ..\ct authorizing t hf' fonnation of agricultural :-:oci('tips 
and granting tl1('ln 
uhv(,lltioll"'; to he U:-:('t I for prizE's at fair
 all(l for 


. 



204 


PRODUCTIO^' 


the importation of live stock and seed. In 1852 a law. ,vas passed 
creating the Department of Agriculture, the Board of Agriculture 
and authorizing the establishment of schools of agriculture and model 
farms. The first agricultural school in Canada ,vas opened in 185P 
at Ste. Anne de la Pocatière, ,vhile the Oka Agricultural Institute 
,vas opened in 1890 and 1\Iacdonald College in 1908. 
.J.'
 al'a Scotia.- vYhile the territory ,vhich is no,y Nova 8cotia 
became a British possession by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the 
first English-speaking settlement was made in Halifax in 1749, but 
for military rather than economic purposes. Ho\vever, between 1751 
and 1753 about 1,615 German and S,viss immigrants had settled in 
what is now the county of Lunenburg. Further, after the expulsion 
of the Acadians fron1 Port Royal in 1755, a considerable nun1ber of 
Ne,v Englanders had settled in the Annapolis Valley. As early as 
1762, 14,340 acres were under cultivation producing hay, grain and 
potatoes and supporting some live stock. In 1783, after the Peace of 
Paris, many United Empire Loyalists came to Nova Scotia, bringing 
their live stock with them. They received from the British Govern- 
Inent grants of land, agricultural implements and seed corn. 
In the l\Iaritime Provinces g;enerally, the farmers were unpro- 
gressive and farming was at a rather lo\v ebb ,vhen, in 1818, a series 
of letters published in the Acadian Recorder under the signature of 
"Agricola," attracted public attention. These letters dealt with all 
phases of the industry. The people \vere a \vakened from their lethargy 
and the outcome was the formation at the end of 1818 of the Central 
Agricultural Society of which " A
ricola ", no\v found to be J ohn Young, 
a Scotsman who had come to Nova Scotia a few years previously, 
became secretary. T\venty-five other agricultural societies were 
organized \vithin the next t\VO years. 1'" early exhibitions \vere held, 
improved stock and seed ,vere distributed and conditions improved 
generally. The agricultural societies \vere in 1864 put under the 
control of a Board of .Agriculture, and in 1884 under the office of the 
Secretary for Agriculture. 
In 1885 a Chair of Agriculture \vas established in connection ,vith 
the Provincial Normal School, and in 1888 the Nova Scotia School of 
Agriculture was established. In 1893 a School of Horticulture ,va
 
established at Wolfville and in 1905 the t,vo schools were united as 
the College of 
\.griculture at Truro. 
Prince Edward I sland.- The first record of settlement in Prince 
Ed\vard Island or St. John Island, as it ,vas then ca.lled, ,vas in 1713, 
'when some families of Acadians migrated to its shores, bringing a fe". 
cattle ,vith them. In 1763 the island was ceded to Great Britain. 
divided, and granted to persons ,vho had claims on the ground of 
military service, but practically no attempt ,vas made to cultivate 
the land. However, farming received a slight impetus on the arrival 
in 1783 of the United Empire Loyalists, who brought their cattle 
with them and began to cultivate the land. The country ,yas undulat.- 
ing and the soil a bright red loam very suitable f or the gro,ving of 
cereal crops and potatoes, Rich deposits of n1ussel mud ,vere found, 



DEVELOPJIENT OF AGRICULTURE I.V CAN.llDA 205 


"hich "ere used :ts fertilizer "ith good rc
ult
. Soon Priuce Ethv:1rtl 
l:::dand oats and potntcc
 ,,"ere listed un the Illarkcts of the ::\laritimc 
Provinccs. 
T}H
 
igitatiol1 in K ova Scotia, c:,ulspd hy the public:1tion of the 
lettcr
 of ",A.gricola", spread to Prinec E(I\\9ard Island, and in 1
27 
agricultural societies ,yere fonned and exhibitions hcld. Bctter 
nlethod
 of fanning" ere adoptcd and attention ,vas given to horse 
rai
ing nnd lat('r to s" ille and poultry. rrhe first 1loyal .Agricultural 

ocietr \n\:5 organized in 1845, r('ceiving an annual grant of 1:100 froln 
the government; yariouhS Lranche
 "'cre c&tablishcll at diffprcnt 
plnce
. Thp Provinei:tl EÀhihition, l'
tahlisheJ in L gOO, is h(\l<l annually 
at Charlottetown, ,,-hih' annual 
('ed fairs abo tal\.e pla('('. 
...Y tlC Brll n."lcick.-As early a
 1 {)(}5 Fn'nch adypnhlr('r:-: a:-:ccnding 
the 
t. John river, noticed fiplds of Indian corn on the flats along it:::> 
shore:::" but thc first l:>L:ttlcnlent 'Y:1, nUHI{' by 
ume fifty ,Acadian
 \\ ith 
a f(,"9 eat tIt' Bear that riycr in 1 HU:t "hen .Aeadia \Va:, ceded tu (;reat 
Britain in 1713, others 1l10ycd north fronl the p('ninsula of X ova 

cotin into X e\y Bruns" ick, ::>C'tt led in t hl' "alleys and d(\voted thelll- 

elYe:-: to growing corn and hay. The hUl(l ,,':lS v('ry fertile and produced 
abundant crops. ' 
...\bout 17G2 a nurnLcr of ::\la;:,;:,:lehu:-: ,tt
 colonists fornlt'd a scttle- 
luent at a place no'" called ::\Iaugeryille; uther::; touk the :tlluyiallallJs 
bet,,-eeB there and the Jelll..;pg Hiypr. In 178-1, ,,,hell 3, large part of 
the land belonging to the _\..cadians \"as 
cizpd by the British allf} given 
to the ITnited Empire Loyalist
, the Al:adians nlovpd tu the northern 
part of the Pruvince and fuundpù the flouri:-:hing :5cttlclllcnt of 
lada- 
waska. 1"he rich soil along the 
t. John riycr, ,,-he'n only c1pared of 
the trees and harro"9('d, produced 20 husheb of curn and 20 hu
hels 
of ,,,heat per acre and \vh('n prop('rly ,,'orkeù {.!;ave Inuch bettcr yields. 
In 17bh scycnty acres of land '''cre sold for .f-12 3s. öd., but in the early 
years of the ninctecnth century, land ro

 rapidly in v..t!uP. Large 
qu
tlltitie
 of hay, routs and vegctahh's of all kinds, as \\gell as beef 
and mutton, \\rere marketed at St. John. 
The pcriod bet'ween 1840 and 1h45 \yas a prosperous one for 
farming in K e,v Brun,,\yick; the crop::; "were abundant, Inuch land 
"-a
 hrought into cultivation anù the peoplp ,ycre contented. Ho\vever, 
at the close of this period there \\?as a great change, brought about by 
various cau:::,cs. Farming conditions ,,?ere such that fe"\\" cared to 
enloark in this industry and in lö4g Jalnc
 F. \V. Johnston of Great 
Britain ,"as asked to investigate the agricultural situation. His 
report "\\9a<5 mo:::>t favourable. ::\lany fine farms of 100 to 200 acres of 
cleared laud "'ere found throughout the province, yielding large 
crops of grain, potatoes, etc. Average yields in the county of X orth- 
umberland, in 1850, per :tcre, ,,-ere-"\\-heat, 17 bushels; oats, 32 
bushels; maize, 50 busheb; barley, 32 bushels; turnips, 350 bushels; 
potatocs, 200 bushels; hay, 2 tons. Three crops ,vere gro\vn without 
manure and sometimes as many as eight. Land was valued at from 
1:3 to .f15 per acre. 1\lr. Johnston suggested "\\Tays and means for 
developing the industry "ohich proved beneficial in later years. On 



206 


PRODFCTIO
V 


his advice a K e'v Brun
"yick Agricultural Society ,vas founded in 1851. 
Its ,york ,vas taken over by a provincial board of agriculture in 1855. 
,vhich in turn ,vas replacf'd by a central provincial farmers' a
socia- 
tion in 1876. The portfolio of Comlnissioner of Agriculture ,va
 
created in 1898. 
The first Agricultural 80ciety in X e,v Bruns,vick was organized 
in Bt. John, N.B., in 1790. Soon otherg 'vere established throughout 
the Province. Better agricultural Inethod
 ,vere introduced and 
conditions improved. In 1R25 the Board of Agriculture Inade t h{' 
first importation into Canada of pure-bred shorthorns, thus laying 
the foundation for the fine Rtock found in the Countv of 'Vestmore- 
land and other sPf'tions. 
 
OntQ1"io.-Agriculture in Ontario may he 
aid to haye heen begun 
in ] 671, ,vhen Frontenac founded the fir
t RPttlement near Kingston. 
He ,va:-,: granted a vast territory on the understanding that he ,voultl 
foster agriculture and steck rai
ing, but little agricultural ,york ,vas 
actually done, as all of the RPttlers' tinle ,vas taken up in ,varring 
,yith the Indians. In 1701, a 
mall 
ettlement on the Detroit I
iver 
,vas started hy La 
lotte Cadillac, ,,
ho is :-iaid to have brought sonlC 
co'v
 ,vith hÌIn. 
The first English-speaking agricultural settlement ,vas not conl- 
IDel1ced until 1783, ,vhen the TTuited Empire Loyalists arrived fronl 
the lTnited States. They settled principally around Xiagara, Yark, 
'Vestern Ontario and the Bay of Quintp, the settlement
 along the 
Bay of (luinte and the St. La,vrenee River being among the nlost 
populou
. To,vnships ,vere suryeyecl and grants of lan(l giyen. ...-\.s 
these exiled settler
 ,vere very poor o,ving to the confiscation of their 
property, they had to bp provided ,vith ration
, clothes. implement
, 
seed grain, etc. _-\ co,v ,vas allotted to every t,yO families an(l other 
articles divided among them. The implen1ents supplied them 'vere 
very crude. hut by combining their efforts they 'were ahle to clear 
open spaces in the forests, build rude huts and RO'V the seed aluong the 
stumps. 1'hp crops of ,vheat, corn, ptc., gro,vn on this virgin soil 
gaye ex('ellent yields for the fir
t three years, but the crop uf 1788 
,va
 a f,.tilure. During these year
, flour n1Îlb ,vere built at Cataraqui 
River, 
apanee, :\Iatilda, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie and Grand River. 
The pionf'er
 had In::1ny harcbhip:::; to contend with, not the It'ast 
being the dppredations of the Indians and \yiJd beasts, Later, during 
the Crilnpan ,val', the price of ,vheat rose from 30 cents to 
2 per 
bushel, ,,'hich, followed by the high price
 obtaining during the 
Anlpricall Civil \Yar, gave many of the fanners their first real start, 
enabling then1 to bring in cattle, horses and sheep from Lo"Ter Canada 
and the 1 T nited Rtah-'s. 
The building of roads, under an Act of 1793, opened up the 
country, aud 
oon grain, especially corn, ,vas being exported. Checsp 
and butter ,vero lnade, and a market ,yas opened at I\:ingston in 180l. 
'Vheat ,vas the leading cereal produced, the vaHey of the ThamE':-; 
hping notf'd for the quantit
T anfl quality of its ,vheat. After tliP 
"yar of 1812. grants of 100 acres ,vith provisions and in1plelnents 



lJH1" f:l..()}' \1 E.\' l' OP AGH /(' C L1' r U h' J.Y ('..4 Y. t J). t 207 


"pr(' luadp tot hp :--()ldipr
. Ll'J!i:,la tion "
a
 pa:,
p(l to ('neouragp 1 h.. 

rowill
 of h(,1l1P, but little :-:Ul'('P:-;
 wa
 obtained in thp ha.ndlin
 of 
t hi
 ('rop, \l' 'ording to t he 'pn:'l1
 of 1 h 17, the' ::\Tidland dist ri(,ts of 
(hltario ('ontainpd :3,öOU h()rs('
, 1 00 o
pn, ö, 1 
,) ('ows and 1,H,')-l 
young l'att It,. 
. FroBl a ('olllparativdy ('arl

 }>priod local agril'ultllral 
o('iptif'
 
havp h('p)l :l ff'atllre of agri('uIturp in ()nt:\rio, soBU' half (loZPIl :,ueh 

oci(.ti(.
 h(lill
 or
ani/('d l)('tw('('n 1 X20 :uHI IS:
O, in which y('ar t Il(' 
legi
l:lturp of l 
 pper (t:1nada pro\"id(.ù a 
rant of t 1 00 for a sOl'if'ty 
in (,H('h distri('t on condition that 1 h(' Ill(,lllb('r
 of tlIp 
u('i(.ty suh.,('rib('d 
and paid in at l('a:,t 1.:.')0. lIlt h(' }1priod fronl I S;{() to 1 S i,} JHlr('-hr(.d 
(':1 tt I., ".el'(' illl pOJ"t ('. 1. a 11d t he' foundation:, of t he Ii \
e stuck indu:"\try 
laid. In lstfi ""('rl' organi.lpd thp Pro,
inei[ll ..\grieultural .,(\
so- 
('iat ion and Board of .. \gri<'uh lIrE' for Can:tf la '\T(':-:t, and t 1)(. first 
provincial p,hibition ,,"W, }H'ld in T'orontu in that ypar, foll()\\"('d hy 
annual ('
hibition
 in otlH'r ('it i(':-,. l'lh'
'. l'xhihitioHS prolI1otpd t Ii(' 
widl'r U:"\t
 of t h(' labour-:"\:l yin
 agri('ultural 1l1:ll'hilH'ry which wa
 no\\
 
Il('ill
 Inanufad un'd. I II 18.)
) t It.. Ontario Fruit-{ 
ro\\ ('1':,' .\:,:,ol'ia- 
t ion "":1:'\ ('-.:t abli:,lu.d at J I:uuilt ou and iu ] ötJ:.? a ypt prinary ('oll('g(' 
(no" tlh' Ontario Y'('tprinary Collq!(') "as (.:-:tabli:,lwd in 
ror()nto. 
,,"hill, tlu' Ontario .,(\
I'il'ultural College \\"a:-; fouud(.d at (:u('lph illl
;-1. 
In Ib
() the' Ontario .\AricultuJ":ll Conlllli
:,ion "as appointt'cl to 
inquire into tl1(. agrieultur:d f(.'
Ollr('('
 of t hp PrOyill<'(' of (}ntario. 
tht", pro
r<'s:-; and condition uf agriC'ultun', and oth('r f('lat('d rn:lttpr
. 

\
 :1 rt':,ult of it:-\ report, t h(' Ontario Bun'au of Industrip::) \\
a:-\ forBlpd 
in 1 ,,

 . for t hp eollpetiol1 and pu hli('a tion of -.:ta ti:-\t i('
 of ag;rif'ulturC' 
and 3lliE'd indu:,tril'-':. Finally, a D('part lllf'llt of .A
riculture 'Ya
 
('J"('at('d in 1 
SS. t}lP HetÏ\'it ip
 of which }Ul\"P :-,tp:ulily incrp.l
f'd do\\-n 
t () the' 1 >I'('-,:p 11 t tilU('. 
Jlallitobn.-The earli(':-,t att(,lllpt:, at clllti\
ation in 
Ianitf)La 
and th(' \\ p
t datf' froln thp arriyal of the' 
('lkiJ"k s(.ttlers at the l
{\d 
Hiypr in IS12. TIlt' t\Y('llty-t wo Bu'n who eonlpo
ed the ßcttlenleut 
iBllue(1iatcl
" COll1nll'llcp<l to bf('ak th,' land, ,,"hich \Y:U; sown \yith 
winter wht'at. 1"h(' whpat erop::, of 1
1:3 and 181-1 ""erp cOluplct(' 
failuf<'-': uwing hoth to laek of knowlf'dge and to the on]

 in1plPInpnt 
a\
ailahl(' for hrf'aking th(' :,oll being the ho('. The 

i(']d uf }>otato(':j 
and turnip::, wa
, ho,,"cY(\r, good, 3nd the crop of 181,j \\"a
 a 
ucee

. 
During the fir"t fc'\" yp3r-.: of th(' 
pttl('nlellt, there \vas grf1at 
riYalr

 h(.twpell the Xorth-'Y('
t COlnpany and the lIud
on's Bay 
C\nnpany, ,,'hich ended in hloodsh('d in 181ß, l\I3n

 of the spttlprs 
\vere killl.d and the relnainder ftpd up Lakp \Yinnipcg to Jack I{Îy('r. 
Early in 1 
 17 a rl'lief force \\"a
 
ent by Lord 
clkirk, Fort ])oug13:-: 
\V:1:-; reca pt ured and thc settl{'rs ""{'rp l)('r:;uaded to f(.turn and f<':;Ullle 
funuing. 
Iisfortun(', ho\\
ever, 
('{'n1ed to folIo'\" the efforts of thb 
colony, it
 crop:" h('ing \\'iped out hy gra
:-:hopp('rs in 1818 and 181 U, 
A
 the :,upply of 
eed waf' exhau::5ted, 
OIne of the s(,ttlprs \v('nt south 
to \'ï
con
in 3nd, aftpr much hard labour, returned \\
ith 2,
O bU::5hcls 
of spcd. 
nlall ('rops followf'd and the p('ople WPI"(' only 
aYed froln 
-.:uffpring and "':lnt by the p:en('ro
ity of Lord 
(>lkirk. 



208 


PRODUCTION 


In 1822, the population \vas 681; the numbers of live stock \vere- 
cattle, 48; calves, 39; oxen, 6; sheep, 10; pigs, 12; horses, 78. The 
quantities of seed so\vn: .wheat, 235 bushels; barley, 142; Indian corn, 
12; potatoes, 570. The first satisfactory crop of grain was reaped in 
1824, 'wheat yielding 44 bushels from the plow and 68 bushels after 
the hoe. It \vas gathered w'Îth the sickle and threshed with the flail. 
The crops varied during succeeding years, but by 1830 the colony 
was in a flourishing condition. 
For more than half a century, ho\vever, l\Ianitoba remained an 
isolated community, the first railway reaching St. Boniface, opposite 
Winnipeg, only in 1878, and the Canadian Pacific shortly afterwards. 
The farmers of :\lanitoba thus secured a market for surplus products and 
agriculture flourished apace. 'Yhile the production of such hardy 
varieties of \vheat as Red Fife and 
larquis has added greatly to the 
area in \vhich wheat can profitably be grown, recent years have seen 
a great increase in n1Îxecl farming. The l\lanitoba Agricultural 
College was founded in 1903. 
Saskatchewan,-In \vhat is no\v 
askatche\van the Hudson's 
Bay Company had in the early days trading-posts at Carlton, Prince 
A.lbert and Battleford; about these posts the settlers gre\v vegetables, 
barley, oats and \vheat. Two flour n1Ïlls \vere erected, but the market 
for the flour was purely local. In the seventies the Indians \vere placed 
on reserves, taught agricultural methods and given horses and 
cattle, many of them making good progress. 
About 1882, settlers from Eastern Canada and the British Isles 
began to settle in the eastprn part of \vhat is no\v the province of 
Saskatchewan while the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
brought in more settlers in 1883. These new settlers knew little about 
producing crops under semi-arid conditions, and the soil and climatic 
conditions of the country fOrIned problems which were hard to solve. 
They kept a little stock, a fe\v Co\VS, hens and pigs, \vorked hard and; 
on the whole, \vere blessed \vith good crops. 
The Riel Rebellion in 1883 interfered considerably with farming 
operations. l\lany of the farmers hired their horses to the Govern- 
ment for transporting supplies, and were thus unable to work their 
land. A fe\v farmers, after finishing seeding, ploughed the land in 
June and July and kept ,\\rorking it in order to check the \veeds. The 
next year was dry and although most crops failed these farmers had 
over 23 bushels to the acre on their summer-fallowed land. The 
problem of conserving the moisture in the soil \vas solved, and the 
principle of summer-falln\v remains the best for successful crop gro\ving. 
The establishment of the Experimental Farm at Indian Head, in 1888, 
assis
ed greatly in the proper development of agriculture in the 
provInce. 
While the majority were engaged in growing wheat, a number of 
the earliest settlers chose the raising of live stock as their work. 
Horse and cattle ranches were established in the Qu'Appelle 'Talley, 
Moose l\1ountain, Cypress Hills, etc., and sheep ranches around 



DEI'ELúP\fE.VT OF ..tGif/CULTURE IS' C.A.V..1D
1 209 



\\ ift Current ::\faple Crl'ek, etc. Thp excellent pasturf'S :111(1 thf' 
abundant supplY' of ""atpr lllad(' the country 'spccially adapt'd to 
:-,tuck rnisinO'. "ït It the tncre:!:, · in population and th(' dcvclopnu'nt 
of t1H' 
rain-gro\\ ing indu:-\try, tlH' rancher has b<'l'n obliged to scpk tht' 
rougher parts of the province for hi:-\ range
. A lar
e nUlnber of the 
fanncr::; af(' no,," dcyoting thclnsrlve
 to nlÌx('d farming, ,yhich a1>pear
 
to he gaining in popularity, c:,pecÏ:111y in the uldcr di
tricts. 
,Albcrta.-In ,,-hat is no,y the province of ,Alberta agriculture ,vas 
carri<'d on in a :-'lnall 'V
lY :1:0; ('arly :1::) 18
n at the tradin
 posh; of the 
Hud
(\n's Bay Conlpany, wh('re "'underful crops of Ye
('tables and 
field crop:"! ""cre 
ro" n. In the sevcnties cattle '\"cre brou
ht in fronl 
-'lontana. to the 
Iaclf'od district, hccolnin u ' the nuclcus of the great 
_\lberta ranchc;3. 
A.lberta. i" divid<'d into three ....ect ion", t he Peace l{iYf'r, central 
and 
outhern. The Peace Hiyer ur northern :,ection ,vas fir:;t settled 
hy th · IhHI
(}n'8 nay rOlnpany, ,,'hich latpr at it
 Yariou
 forts and 
Ini:,,,,ion ::;tation
 grc"r potato('
, b('('ts and all :--orts of ganh.'n truck. 
The :,oil is a rich dark IO
lln, ,ypH 
llppIi('d "rith the plant food:-- Blost 
llpeded 
lnd the ,vhl'at produc('(l its of tl}(' hp
t quality. Yl'ry 
11lallY varieties of 
ra

e:j ahounù and tht':o;e luakc c
cellt'nt pasture, 
the chinook Inaking this gra

 a ,'ailahll' t hrou
hout t he year. 'rhc 
central sectiun is nlorp of a nlixt'(l fanning country. In this sCt;tion 
nlo
t of the dairy and liye stock entt'rpri:-:e...; of the pro\"ince arc found. 
.-\11 sorts of 
rain crops do well. l'he :-,oU t hprn pa.rt of t he province 
,vas originally a ranching countr
. for eattlp, hor
\"'F: and 
h('ep. This 
has been considerably changed through thp intn)(luctiou of irrigation 
t-'ntcrprisp
, a 
eat diversity of crol':o; buch r.,s grains, fora
p and 
roots heing grown, and tlu" yit'ld:-: an' pxreptionally l:lr
p. A largp 
quantity of grain hay i
 grO\\ïl. 1""h(' ,,"hole JH'oyiIH'P i:-, ht'ill
 
turned into a nlixcd fanning country, and ,,"hilf' th(' lar
t' horfo'e-and- 
cattle rang('
 arc gradually di:-,appparing, the farmer::; of th(' pre
pnt 
day are rai5in
 a Letter cla
:o; of ",tock. 
BritÙ:h Colllmhia.-Dunif'l '\
illialn:; 1-I
lrnlon ,vas the first farnlPr 
in Britj",h COlulllbia, settling in the Fr:l:,er Lake di
trict. Entrif';-\ in 
hi::; diary 
ho\\" that in 1811, Ib13 and other years, he planted potatoes, 
Y('gl'tahles and harlpy and that the yicltlb ".ere laq
p. one bu
ht'l of 
potatoe
 producing forty-one, and five quart
 of harley sown yielding 
fiye busheb. For many years fine crops ".cre gro\vn in this district 
and at the posts of the IIudson's Bay Company, ".hich, together with 
the Xorth-\Ye
t COlnpany, ""as the pioneer in agriculture in British 
ColulnLia. In 1837 the Hudson's Bay Conlpany had a large fann 
near Fort '''ancouyer, producing p;rain, Ye
etabl('s and other crops 
and carrying all kind:-, of live stock. Thl'Y had large fann:; at Xisqually 
and Co,vlitz and smaller ones on ,... allCOUyer i::;land, Dr. J ohn )IcLou
h- 
lin being one of the great prollloters of agriculture. \Vith the gold 
rush to the Cariboo in the 50's, and the 
l)l"inging up of nlÎning c:unps. 
an inlpetus ""as giyen to farnling in order to supply produce to these 
calnps. This ,vas the b{'ginning of c;;tock rai:-,ing in the yalleys of the 
38131-14 



210 


PRODUCTION 


Thompson and Nicola. Later n1any of the miners turned to farmin
 
and :--tock raising. 
In \vhat is no\v Briti:5h Colulnhia agricultural societies "Tere forlued 
and exhibitions held at a yery early date in the history of the colony. 
Th{' first agricultural association \yas formed at Victoria in 1861 and it
 
first exhibition was held in the same year, \vhile on the mainland the 
first exhibition was held at Ne\\T 'Yestminster in 1867. Later, under the 
provisions of the Fanllers' Institutes and Co-operation .A..ct of 1897, 
a number of Farmers' Institutes w"ere formed, ,vith a Farnlers' Centr:tl 
Institute having annual n1eetings. 


AGRICrLTURE. 
Field Crops, 1916-21.-In Table 1 are presented for Canada, by 
provinces, estimates of the area, yield, quality and value of the princi- 
pal field crops for each of the six years 1916 to 1921, \vith the five-year 
averages for the period 1916 to 1920. The estinultes of 1921 are 
based upon statistics collected froln about 160,000 farmers throughout 
Canada in June of that year under arrangenlents Inade between thl' 
DOlllinion and Provincial Governments in accordance \vith plan:-; 
dating from 1917 for the four provinces of Quebec, Saskatchew'an, 
Alberta and British Colunlbia, and from 1918 for the relnaining five 
provinces of Prince EdvçItrd Island, Nova Scotia, N e\v Bruns\vic k, 
Ontario and l\Ianitoba. As was pointed out in previous editions of 
the y
 ear Book (see 1920 edition, p. 188), comparability \vith thE' 
statistics of 1917 and 1918 \vas some\vhat affected by the change in 
the Inethod of estimation ,vhich then took place. In preparing the 
estimates of totab for the year 1921, partial use \vas made of pre- 
lin1Ìnary census data sho\ving the total nUlnber of farllls in Canada, 
The effect was to increase considerably the areas estinlated to be 
sown to wheat in 1921, as compared with the final estimate of 1920. 
the difference being partly due to actual increase and partly to 
correction by use of the census datal. The estimates for 1920 and 
1921 are subject to final revision according to the results of the censu;':) 
of 1921, \vhpn available. 
Season of 1920-21.- The ,vinter of 1920-21 proved to be eÀcep- 
tionally mild, as a consequence of \\Thich the loss of potatoes through 
freezing and rotting in cellars \va::; reduced to a nlÎnimum. The 
pereentage of fall-so\vn ,,-heat that \vas ,,,inter-killed \vas, ho\vever. 
higher than in either of the t\yO previous seasons \yhen the \vinters 
were J110re ::5evere, the proportions for all Canada being 10 p.c. in 1921 
as against 4 p.c. in 1920 and [) p.r. in 1919. The sumnler of 19
1 
\vill be relneluhered for the extraordinary and prolonged drought, 
\vhich prevailed in most countrie:::; of the northern hemisphere. N ot- 
withstanding this, ho\vever, Great Britain and France produced 
excellent \vheat crops, ,yith average yields per acre the highe
t on 
record in both countries. In Canada the \vheat crop on the \vhole 
proved fair, although thp yield per acre for the Dominion \yas less than 


IFor more detailed explanation, see }Ionthly Bulletin of Agricultural Statistics for November, 1921 
(Vol. 14, No, 159, p, 431). 



.\(;R/{'CI TrRF 


211 


in 1 !t!O nnd ,\'a
 hplow the dp('pnnial avpra
e. 'rhrf'aÌ('IH'd disaster, 
tIut' to th(' pr('yailing: drouJ!.ht. ,,'n.=-, aVt'rt<'d hy ht':lvy raill
 which fell 
OYt'f HU)....t of t hI' pro\'ilH'(' of 
:1skat('h('\\ an in J HIH', givin!! :t hundant 
111oi
tur
 whpn 111 0"" t ne '(h'd. In 
t'ptt'llll)(,l, \Vht'll fillt' \n':ttlu'r i
 
u:-;ual. heavy rain
 in the 
:Ullt' proviIH'P, whibt tht' grain wa:-; in :-:took, 
dd:1Yt'd thrt'
hin
 and lowered hoth yi('ld and gnul('; hut the av(')"- 
ag(' turncd out to 1)(' 
ll}>efior to that of IH
J hy 2
 hUS}H'I:-: pf'r H,crp 
and t h(' total yipld of ,,,hpat for 
a'SkatelH'wan, as finally p:-;tilllatt'd, 
wa:-: 1

 Hlillioll hu:-;h('b. a:-: ('oloparl'd with 113,13,),OuO hu::;hc]
 ill 
1 H:!U, and it ii5 the hig.lH'
t total for Sa:-;katdu'\\ au 
ilH l' HH.). In 
1110:--t of thp pr()\'illC(':-- t hl" grain 
'ipld w:\ 
 :-'t'riou
ly afYt'('t ('d hy t IH' 
drou
ht, ".hilst t h(. aVl'ra
f' yipld IJ('r :1('1'(1 of hay und ('10\,('1' for 
(iallada, only !-ili
htly 0\,('1' OIl(' tOll, wa:; th(' It)\\(.:-:t on recurd. ..\s usual 
durin
 a hot ;-;t'a....on, ('orn }H'oy('d ('x('pptionall:v tin(', and wh('re' PI' 
('n:-:ila
t' i
 pr:u.ti....('t! farlllf'rs WPft' ahl(' to fill flu'ir "ilo'-\ wit h fodd('r 
('orn, which ('on1J)('n
:tt(.d lar
d
" for t h(' 
('ar('it
 of hay. Fortu- 
natt'ly thp drough t wa
 hroken during 
eptl'IHht'r in t illlt' for t h(' rains 
to pro,'p of 
OIIH" b('l1pfit to latl" potat() .
, to ruot crop
 anù to pa:-:tun's 
upon which, owing to th(' ah:-'('IH'(' of fro
t. cattlp \\C'r(' ahl,' to graze 
up to a latpr t.lat(' than usual. 


Areas and \"ieIds of Gr
lÏn Crups.-Thf' total yield of whpat 
in Canada for th(' year 1 U21 wa;:5 finally pstilllat('d a t :
OO,
.)
, IOU 
hu:-:h('l
 frOtH a 
o\vn Hrt'a of 23,2H 1,22-1 a ('rC'=:" as ('onlpared \vith 
2f)3.1
0,:300 bu
hel:-: frolH 1 R.
:t? ,:
7 -l a('rt's in 1 
t
O and wit h 228,-iOn,780 
bn:-:hel:::; frolH In.Uti7 ,.Jö 1 uere:o::, the anllual a Y('ra
e for the fivp yC'ar
 
1 H1ö-20. 'fhp total for 1 n21 C'onsbtpd oi 1.),;j20,
OO bu
hel
 froJIl 
720,G3,=) harYl'stpd :l(TP
 of fall WlU':l t and of 2S;),:
:
7 ,gOO bushels 
froln 2:!,5-10.5h9 
own :1.('1'(':-: of 
pring \\ lH'at. 'rhe av('rag(' richl per 
:1cr(' for fill whpat ill Canada "'n
 13 bu
h('ls for 1
_'21, a:-, again
t 14! 
hU
}H.ls in 10:?O and 1:
 
 hu....lu.l:-:. t hp fiv('-ypa r a '''P"tagp. 'T'}tp a Y('ra
e 

.it'ltl per :!cr(' for fall ,,-heat in 1921 W:l:-, 21 
 hu=,hp]
 and of :-,prin
 
wht'a t 12 
 hu:-:hPls. For on t
, the finally r
t ilnat(.d total yipJcJ in 
1021 wa:'\ ..J2H,2:t!,!)OO hu:-:h(':
 fron1 lß.n..l'
.():!H 
lrrl'
. n
 cOlllparcd 
with ,
30,7()H,700 hu
hpI:-: frolH 1.1,
--19,n2S H('I"(':-: in 19:20 and with 
4:t!,
 2ß,COU bUS}H
]
 frolH 1:
,OhO,4,j3 
1rr('s, the' fiYf'-year averagc. 
The aY('rapt' y'pld }>t'l" :!rl"P \va
 2,')l l)u:-;hp

 in 1921, as a
ain:-:t 33
 
hu
h('b in 1920 and 31 bu:-:lH'b, th(' fiy('-y('a 
 :1v('r:..gp. Barley 
yield('d a Ìl)tal of .>9,70n.l00 hu:-,hel
 frolH 2.79,
.()f)5 u('rc
. a
 ('olnpan.d 
with (5:3,:310,,),10 Inl:-,hd:-, frnlll 2..J,')1,Ðlf) fi('1"(':, in 1920 and with ,=)8,062,- 

Jð
 hu
h('l:-, frOtH 2,.)Cn.
f); :1('1'(':-;. tlw fiv('-
'('ar av('ragp. The aVt'ra
f' 
yiC'ld
 ppr aere \y('r(' 21l hu:-;heb in 1921, 2--1 
 hu:-,h(" s in 1920 and 2:3
 
hu
hpIs th(' fiyr-year aypragf'. Flax
('cd gayp a t')tal yipld of 1,111,- 
SOD bu:-,h(; 
 
 1'0111 :>:3:3,147 :H'rC's, as e0l11 parptl wit h 7,997, 700 hu
hel
 
frolul,428,16--1 arrcs in 1920 and ,,-ith ö.744.0
0 hu:-:h('h; frOlll I,03:3,3:3() 
arre<;:, the tiY
-year average. Th(' yif'ld per 3,('rp \\'a:-; 7i bu::;hels, as 
rOIHparpò ".ith .1.00 hu:-,IH.I:-; in 1920, and \yit h (). Ô;j hu:-,hels, the 
ayprage. For thc relnaining crops the total yields for 1921 were in 
hush pIs a
 follo\\?s, the ('orre
ponding total
 for 1020 and for t h(' five- 
y('ar 3vpragf' hf'ing giVPll "ithin hral'kpt
: ry(' 21,-t-.1,1,2HO (11.20ß.400; 
38131-14
 



212 


PRODUCTIO.V 


7,350,3(0); peas 2,769,981 (3..328,100; 3,298,448); beans 1,089,900 
(1,265,300; 1,580,776); buck,,
heat 8,230,100 (8,994,700; 8,809,280); 
n1ixed grains 22,271,500 (32,420,700; 24,535,316); and corn for 
husking 14,904,000 (14,334,800; 11,905,040). 
Root and Fodder Crops.-The final estÏInate of the production 
of potatoes ,vas 107,346,000 bushels froln 701,912 acres, as compared 
\vith 133, 831,400 bushels fronl 78-:1,544 acres in 1920 and \vith 101,- 
388,300 bushels from 693,690 acres, the five-year average. The 
yield per acre was 1521 bushels for 1921, as against 170! bushels in 
1920 and 146.15 bushels, the average. Turnips, mangolds, etc. 
produced a total of 79, 150,300 bushels from 227, 675 acres, as conlpared 
\vith 116,390,900 bushels from 290,286 acres in 1920 and ,,-ith 90,- 
350,220 bushels from 258,538 acres, the five-year average. Thp 
yield per acre was 3471 bushels, as against 401 bushels in 1920 and 
349! bushels, the average. Sugar beets produced 268,000 tons froBl 
28,367 acres, as againRt 412,400 tons fronl 36,288 acres in 1920 and 
204,200 tons from 21,558 acres, the average. The yield per acre 
"
as 9.45 tons in 1921, as compared \vith 11,37 tons in 1920 and 
\vith 9.45 tons, the ayprage. 
The total yield of hay and clover \va
 11,366,100 tons froln 
10,61-:1,951 acres, as con1pared "Tith 13,338,700 tons fronl 10,379,292 
acres in 1920 and \yith 14,534,140 tons fronl 9,513,118 acres, the 
five-year average. The yield per acre in 1921 \va:;; 1.07 ton, as COBI- 
pared \vith 1,30 ton in 1920 and \",ith 1 ,55 ton, the five-year average. 
The average yield per acre for 1921 \vas the lo\,rest on record. Grain 
hay in British Cohunbia yielded 155,500 tons fronl 57,603 acres, 
as cOlnpared with 136,400 tons frOB} 60,612 acres in 1920. A return 
of 1,133,-:17ö tons of grain hay in Alberta in 1921 \vas lnade for the 
first tinle. Of alfalfa the total yield in 1921 \vas 662,200 tons froln 
263,892 acres, as conlpared \vith 583,790 tons from 238,:556 acres 
in 1920 and 414,708 tOUR from 174,206 acres, the five-year average. 
The yield per acre \yas 2,50 tons, as against 2,45 tons in 1920 and 
2.40 tons, the average. Foclcler corn gave the excellent yield of 
6,361,600 tons from 585,395 acres, as against 5,641,750 tons fro III 
588,977 acres in 1920 and 3,994,036 tons froln 452,478 acres, the 
five-year average. The yield per acre was 10! tons, as cUBlpared 
"with 9.60 tons in 1920 and 8.83 tons, the five-year average. The 
total yield of fodder corn for 1921 is the highest on record for Canada, 
and the average yield per acre \yas the highest \",ith only one excep- 
tion, viz., II! tons in 1908. 


Values of Field Crops.-According to return
 of crop correspon- 
dents, thp average prices per bushel, as received by fanners, for grain 
and other crops of Canada in 1921, \vere as follo\vs, the corresponding 
prices for 1920 and for the five-year period 1916-20 being given with- 
in brackets: fall "wheat $1.02 (51.88; $1.98); spring \vheat 80 
cents (
1.60; 81.79); all "'heat 81 cents ($1.62; $1.81); oats 34 cents 
(53c.; 65c.); barley 47 cents (83c.; $1); rye 72 cents (:n;1.33; $1.40); 
peas f\1.96 (
2.42; 
2.84); heans 82.90 (
3.88; 
5.33); buck\vheat 




1(;HI 'ULTUHE 


213 


f'9 cent
 (''''1.28; 
1.11); lllixed grains 62 ccnt';) (DOc.; 1.11); flaxseed 

lA4 (
l.U-!; '
.G()); corn for hu
king 
3 c(\nts (
1.1ß; 81.42); po- 
tatoe
, 77 cent:, (v7c.; 93c.); turnips, 11langold
J etc., 34 C(,llt
 (41('.; 
-t4c.). For fodder crop:-- the price.::) ,,"pre l)t
r tOll: hay and e!OYt.'l" 

23.5G (,"2().10; 
 17.03) ; alfalfa :)19.7.3 (::;23.79; lR.67); foddpr 
corn 
7.0.) (:--.7.75; 
G.5-1); 
ugar he('t
 
o.50 (
12.80; 
lO.7--l). In 
j.!;enpral. thc unit prices for all dC:-5eriptioBs were cOll
ideraLly l(l'

 for 
1
t
1 thall they wprc for f'itlH'r of the t,vo prcn
Jing y(
ars; in f
1ct, 
for ,,"heat the price ppr Lu
hel fur IH21 wa.:-\ only G ('('nt
 above the 
pr('-\yar fiyc-yt>ar 3xerag(' 1910-14, whilst for oat::; anù barley the 
priep
 per hu
h('l \vcre 
Olllewhat lc
"", 
'I'he total value:, of ('rops on fanns in IH:!1 ,vere p
tinlat('d as 
follo,,'s, the correspondill
 values for 1920 and for the five-year average 
1 D 1 {)-20 b('in
 
iY('n \vithin hraek('ts: W}H;:tt ':?-!2,U30,000 ('-'-127,- 
:357,300; :'-!12,77b,400); o'tt
 
14ü,3n;),:300 (::t2RO,115,400; :-';
83,3IR,- 
520); barley '"'í2
,25-1:,130 ('32,b21,400; 
.)ö,ð41,73-1:); rye $15,3UU,300 
(
}.5,OS:>,ü;)O; 
l 0,:303,-!nO); pea
 ,"5,4;)U, luO (
,334,:)OO; 
O,3G3,- 
1GO); heans :,3,133,bOO (:--.-!,tn
,100; 

,-12ï,ü-lU); hllclnvlH'at 
7,2h5,- 
100 ('11.512,300; 
12,43ß,OOO); lllÏxpd grains 
13.U01,220 (
:!U,23l),- 
200; '-'27.1l)ð,150); tiax
l'crl '5,9:
8,-l()O (
15,.)U2,200; '-'17,V:37,ü20); 
eorn for hu:,king XJ2,:n7,OOO (....lU,;)D:3,-lOO; $Iß,02G,(80); potatoes 
:;
2.14 7 .UOO (" 1:!9,b03.::>OO; 
9(),5!3,9()O); turnip::;, llunlg,ohl
, etc., 
S
t).t)2n.l00 ( -!
.2] :?,700; '-'3H,801 ,U
O); hay and clover ....2G7 ,7()4.
OO 
(
:
-lS,l()G 200; ....2-t7,GIH.2(0); grain har ":14,17H,OOO; alfalfa 
1:
,- 
211/JÙO ('
13,

7,700; 7,751,740); fodder eorn ;:,-I4,
ðO,
OO (;;1:3,70],- 
UOO; ":!t3,110,lOO); bu
ar hcct:-- 1,742.000 (:--\.),27
,7uu; 
:.!.ln2,7UO). 
The agp:regatc yaluc of all field crops ill 1921 ,,'as :-;B31,Xl):3,G70, as 
cOIHpared with 
1,43;),244,030 in IU20 and 
1,337,170,10() in lU1U, the 
hi
he:'o:t on record. 


Grain Yields of the Prairie Provinces.-'T'he total yield
 in 
the three Prairie Province
 C!\Ianitoba, 
askatchewan and 'Albprta) 
\\('re e
tillulted a
 follo,vs: ,vht'at 2S0,09
,OOO bushcb frolH 22,181,32H 
SO\\'ll acre
. as COllI pared ,,,ith 2:14,138,:3UO bu:;hel
 frolH 10,841,174 
acre;5 in 1920; oat., 28-1,147,500 bu
hc1s fronl 10,b19,ö41 acres, a8 
cOIn pared ,,'ith 314,297,000 bushels frolll 10,07U,475 acres in 1920; 
barley 4-1:.übl,üOU bu:-,hels frolH 2,109,OG3 acn'
, as cOBlpared ,,'ith 
-10,7GO,500 bu:shels froin 1,S3ö,791 acres in 1920; rye 19,109,ïOO 
bushel
 frOl1l 1,688,228 acr(;s, a
 cOlupared \vÏth 8,273.000 bushels 
frolu 482,011 acre
 in 1920; and flaxseed 3,9-13,700 bush('ls frorn 516,- 
972 acres, as cOluparcd ,,'ith 7,5ðb,800 bushels fronl 1,391 ,07G aeres 
in 1920. _\.ccording to reports froln crop correspondents in Decclnher 
last, the follo"Ting area
 ,vere estimated to have produced no grain: 
".heat 1,560,847 acre
 (7 p.c. of area 80\\'n); oats 2,305,758 acre=-, 
(21.9 p.c. of area 80'nl); barley 129,200 acres (6.1 p.c. of area so\vn) ; 
rye 308,687 acres (18.3 p.c. of area SO\\l1); flaxsecd:30 723 acres 
(ö . 3 p,c. of area :,o\vn). 


. 



214 


PRUDUCTIOlf 


I.-Area, Yield, Qualit)- and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916...21, 
and Five Year Average, 1916-.20. 


Yield 
Field Crops. Area. per 
acre. 
Canada- acres. bush. 
Fall wheat............ _ _ _..., ,1916 818,264 21.50 
1917 725,300 21.50 
1918 416,615 19.00 
1919 672,793 23.75 
1920 814,133 24,00 
1921 720,635 21,50 
Averages.. ... _ _ .. .. . _., .1916-20 689,421 22.25 
Spring wheat, ..,.......,...,. .1916 14,551,445 16,85 
1917 14,030,550 15,50 
1918 16,937,287 10.75 
1919 18,453,175 9,50 
1920 17,418,241 14.00 
1921 22,540,589 12.75 
Averages"",."..".,. .1916-20 16,278,140 13.10 
All wheat,.,.,., " ,,_ ,. . , ,.. , .1916 15,369,709 17,10 
1917 14,755,850 15.75 
1918 17,353,902 11,00 
1919 19,125,968 10.00 
1920 18,232,374 14'50 
1921 23,261,224 13,00 
Averages"........,....,1916-20 16,967,561 13,50 
Oats."... . , " ..' .,.. .. ,. , , .. ,1916 10,996,487 37,30 
1917 13,313,400 30,25 
1918 14,790,336 28,75 
1919 14,952,114 26,25 
1920 15,849,928 33,50 
1921 16,949,029 25,25 
Averages...,."..."". ,1916-20 13,980,453 31,00 
Barley, , , ".", , . . . . . , , . , . . , . .1916 1,802,996 23.72 
1917 2,392,2ÛO 23.00 
1918 3,153,711 24.50 
1919 2,645,509 21.25 
1920 2,551,919 24,75 
1921 2,795,665 21,25 
Average;:),.,."..,...,., ,1916-20 2,509,267 23,50 
Rye, , , . . . . . , . . . . , . . . , . . . , , , . ,1916 148,404 19,38 
1917 211,880 18,25 
1918 555,294 15,25 
1919 753,081 13.50 
1920 649,654 17,50 
1921 1,842,498 11.75 
Averages..".,........, .1916-20 463,663 15,85 
Peas".,. ." . . , , , , , , . . . . . . . , . .1916 151,790 14,50 
1917 198,881 15.25 
1918 235,976 18,25 
1919 230,351 14.75 
1920 186,348 19,00 
1921 192,749 14,25 
Averages""..,.....". ,1916-20 200,669 16,50 
Beans, , , . . , . . . . , . . . , . . , . , , . . . .1916 32,500 12,70 
1917 92,457 13.75 
1918 228,577 15,50 
1919 83,577 16,50 
1920 72,163 17.50 
1921 62,479 17.50 
Averages. . . . . . . . . . . , . , . ,1916-20 101,855 15.50 
Buckwheat,. . . ...., ... . . . . , . ,1916 341,500 17.50 
1917 395,977 18,00 
1918 548,097 20.75 
1919 444,732 23.50 
1920 378,476 23.75 
1921 360,758 22.75 
Averages,..... _.,.".. _ ,1916-20 421,756 21,00 


Weight Average 
per price 
Total Yield. measured per Total' alue, 
bushel. bushel. 
bush. lb. $ $ 
17,590,000 59.52 1,54 27,118,300 
15,533,450 59,37 2,08 32,336,900 
7,942,800 61,19 2,08 16,516,000 
16,006,000 61,20 2,45 39,336,000 
19,469,200 60,14 1,88 36,550,500 
15,520,200 58,77 1,02 15,846,000 
15,308,290 60,28 1-98 30,371,540 
245,191,000 56'51 1.29 316,978,100 
218,209,400 59,48 1,93 420,701,700 
181,132,550 58,69 2.02 365,161,700 
177,254,400 58,53 2,36 418,386,000 
243,720,100 59,07 1-60 390, 806, 80n 
285,337,900 58.10 0,80 227,090,000 
213,101,490 58,46 1,79 382,406,860 
262,781,000 57,10 1,31 344,096,400 
233,742,850 59,46 1,94 453,038,600 
189,075,350 59.44 2.02 381,677,700 
193,260,400 59.12 2,37 457,722,000 
263,189,300 59.35 1'62 427,357,300 
300,858,100 58,11 0.81 242,9J6,000 
228,409,780 58,89 1,81 412,778,400 
410,211,000 33,86 0,51 210,957,500 
403,009,800 33,55 0'69 277,065,300 
426,312,500 35,61 0-78 331,357,400 
394,387,000 34.16 0.80 317,097,000 
530,709,700 35,62 0,53 280,115,400 
426,232,900 32.97 0,34 146,395,300 
432,926,000 34,56 0,65 283,318,520 
42,770,000 45,66 0,82 35,024,000 
55,057,750 46,97 1'08 59,654,400 
77,287,240 47.24 1,00 77,378,670 
56 389,400 46,32 1-23 69,330,300 
63,310,550 47,62 0,83 52,821,400 
59,709,100 46.05 0.47 28,254,150 
58,962,988 46,76 1,00 58,841,754 
2,876,400 54,95 1.11 3,196,000 
3,857,200 53,44 1.62 6,267,200 
8,504,400 55,60 1.49 12,728,600 
10,207,400 55.09 1,40 14,240,000 
11,306,400 55.44 1,33 15,085,650 
21,455,260 55,06 0,72 15,399,300 
7,350,360 54,90 1-40 10,303,490 
2,218,100 59,88 2,22 4,919,000 
3,026,340 59,81 3,54 10,724,100 
4,313,400 59,93 2,99 12,899,100 
3,406,300 59.60 2-86 9,739,300 
3,528,100 60,44 2,42 8,534,300 
2,769,981 59,42 1,96 5,439,400 
3,298,448 59,93 2,84 9,363,160 
412,600 60,00 5,40 2,228,000 
1,274,000 59,70 7,45 9,493,400 
3,563,380 58,67 5,41 19,283,900 
1,388,600 59,99 4.48 6,214,800 
1,265,300 59,73 3,88 4,918,100 
1,089,900 59-30 2.90 3,155,800 
1,580,776 59.62 5.33 8,427,640 
5,976,000 46,35 1,07 6,375,000 
7,149,400 46.49 1.46 10,443,400 
11,375,500 47,41 1.58 18,018,100 
10,550,800 47,23 1,50 15,831,000 
8,994,700 47,95 1.28 11,512,500 
8,230,100 47,35 0,89 7,285,100 


8,809,280 


47,09 


1,41 12,436,000 



...lGRICULTFRF 


215 


1.- \rt'a \ ({'hi, Qu:allt)' &uul Yahlt' of PrII1r1pal "leld Crops In Canada, 1916-2J, dud 
}'he Year .\ \cra
e, 1916-')0 -continued. 


Field Crops, 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Weight Average 
Total Yield. per price 
measured per Total Value. 
bushel. bushel. 
bush. lb. S S 
10,584,800 43,13 0'88 9,300,000 
16,I57,OðO 44.41 ],16 18,bOl,750 
35,662,300 46.39 1.14 40,726,500 
27, &51, iOO 44,83 1,36 37,775,400 
32,420,700 44.65 0,90 29,236,200 
22,271,500 1.6
 0,02 13,OOI,2.?() 
2-1,535,316' 44.68 I,ll 27,16b,l50 
8,2.')9, f,()()1 5-1,P9 2,04 16,
M',OOU 
5,934,900. 54,73 2,65 15,737,000 
6, O,j,j , :!UU 53'72 3,13 IS, 1151,000 
5.472,bOO 5:>,14 4,13 22,609.500 
7,997,700 54.79 1,94 15,502,200 
4.III,
lJ() 54 '3-1 1,44 5,938,400 
6,744,
 54,67 2,66 17,937,920 
6,:?
2.000 56,51 1,07 6,747,000 
7,762,700 56,18 1'84 14,307,200 
14,20,).200 53,97 l.i5 24,902,hUU 
Ib,940,5oo - 1,30 22, OSO, 000 
U.3.H,hOO 56,45 1.16 10,593.400 
14,904.000 55,56 0,83 12,317,000 
11, 005, (}10 5.j'7b 1,42 16, !126,080 
63,297,000 - 0.81 50,902,300 
79. b92, 000 - 1.01 ""O,b04,400 
104.3-16,200 - 0.9b 102,235,300 
125,57-1,900 - 0,95 118.8

,200 
133,631.400 - 0,97 129,803,300 
107,346,000 - 0.77 82.1t7,6nO 
101, 3h
, 300 - 0,95 96,543,900 
36,921,000 - 0,39 14,329,000 
63,451,000 - 0.46 :l9, 253, 000 
122,699,600 - 0,43 52.252,000 
112.288,600 - 0,50 54,Q58,700 
116,390.900 - 0,41 48,212,700 
79,150,300 - 0,34 26,620,400 
00,350, 220 - 0,44 39,801,080 
tons. per ton 
14,527,000 - 11.60 168,547,900 
13,6
,700 - 10,33 141.376.700 
14.772,300 - 16,25 241,277,300 
16.348,000 - 20.72 338.713,200 
13,338.700 - 26.10 348,166,200 
11,366,100 - 23.56 267.764.200 
14.534,140 - 17 . 03 247,616.260 
1.133,476 - 10.00 11.335,000 
151,000 - 29,00 4,379.000 
I 136,400 - 33.12 4,518.000 
I 155,500 - 20,20 3,141,000 
143,700 - 30,96 4,448.500 
I 
2St'), 7,
O, - 10,69 3.066,1100 
262,400 - 11,59 3,041,300 
446,400 - 17.84 7,963,500 
494,200 - 21.85 10,800,200 
5'3,790 - 23,79 13,887.700 
6ô2,2oo' - 19.95 13,211,000 
41t,7OS. - 18,67 7,751,740 


'Ii'tcd grains............... .1916 
HH7 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
.\veruges,........,... .1916-20 
Fla
d...,... , .. ... .. .. . ..1916 
1917 
1918 
1!1H1 
1920 
1921 
Avera&cs... ,......." .1916-20 
Corn for husk
 _ . . . . . . . , . . ,1 fIl6 
1917 
1918 
HH9 
1920 
1921 
Average::!..".....,.. ..1916-20 
Potatoes...... .. . . , . . , . . . .. .1916 
1917 
191
 
1919 
19
O 
1921 
Averages.,..,.,...... ,1916-20 
Turnips, mangolds, etc......1916 
191i 
191h 
1919 
H/20 
1921 
.\verageø.........,...,1916-20 
Hay and clover.... .. . . . . . . ,1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages.......,...,. ,]916-20 
Grain hay. (Alberta)".... .1921 
Grain hay, (B.C.)......... .1919 
1920 
1921 
Avera&es......,...... .1919-20 
Alfalfa,... .. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . ,1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages............. .1916-20 
Fodder corn, . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages,.."......., .1916-20 


Area. 


acres. bush. 


412,6iO 
497,236 
921,826 
901.612 
ð 11,634 

61, 136 1 
708,996 


657,781 

1l9,500 
I, OtiS. 120 
1.093,11;, 
1.42S,164 
533,147 
1,033,336 
173,000 
234,339 
250,000 
264,60i 
291,65U l 
296 , hllu , 
242,719 


472,f)92 
b56,958 
i3:>,192 
818,767 
784,544 
701,912 
693,600 
141.839 
218,233 
325,037 
317.296 
290.286 
227.675 
258.538 
7,821,257 
8..?25,034 
10,544.625 
10,595,383 
10,379,292 
10,614,951 
9,513.118 


60,390 
60,612 
57,603 
60.501 
99, 350 
109,825 
196,42b ' 
226,869' 
238.556; 
263.892 
174,206, 
293.05h i 
366,518 
502,069 
511.769 
588,977 
585,39.
 
452,47& 


1Including "Other Grains" in :Manitoba. 


25,75 
32'50 
38,75 
31,00 
40.00 
25,75 
34,50 
12,56 
6,50 
5.75 
5'00 
5.60 
7.75 
b,55 
36.25 
33.00 
56.75 
64.00 
49,25 
50'25 
49.00 
133'82 
1:!1,50 
142,00 
153,50 
liO'50 
152.75 
146.15 


264,24 
290,75 
377,50 
354.00 
401,00 
3-17.75 
349.50 
tons. 
1.86 
1.66 
1,40 
1.55 
1,30 
1.07 
1,55 


2.50 
2.25 
2.70 
2.40 
2.91 
2.39 
2.25 
2.20 
2.45 
2.50 
2.40 


1,007,boO i 
2,600,3iO 
4,7
i,500 
4,942, i60 1 
5,641,750 
6,361.600 
3,99-1:.036 1 


4,92 
5,14 
6,15 
6.92 
7.75 
7.05 
6.54 1 


9.306,000 
1:3,834,900 
29,439.100 
34,1;9.500 
43,701.000 
14.880,1'\00 
;?Iì. 110. 100 


-I 


6'65 
7,34 
9,50 
9.75' 
9.1)0 
10.75 
S.85' 


. 



216 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and '
alue of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916..21, and 
Five Year Average, 1916-2o-continued. 


Field Crops, 


Canada-con, 
Sugar Beets.....,.... .., ... .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
llverages.""..... ....1916-20 
Prince Edward Islalld- 
t:pring wheat.."..... .,.,., .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages. , ,. .. . . ... .. .1916-20 
Oats...". . . , , , " ,. , , . . , . '. .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
_
verages.....,........1916-20 
Barley"..", , , , , , , , , , , . , . , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Ayerages."..,.,.,.., .1916-20 
Peas. . . , , . . , , . , , , . , , . . . , , , . ,1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
llverages",.,.,.",.,.1916-20 
Buckwheat.."."".....,. .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
llverages."..".,...,.1916-20 

Iixedgrains.,.,.,""",...1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages."",.,..". .1916-20 
Potatoes..," . . , , , , , . . , . . , , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
6
verages.".,.,'"",,1916-20 
Turnips. mangolds. etc..,. , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
AYerages. ..."...,.".1916-20 


Area, 


acres, 


34.500 
36.000 
30.352 
35.595 
37,601 
34,106 
34.810 
199.000 
201,000 
169,729 
174,937 
183,452 
189,453 
185.623 
3.600 
3,500 
5,672 
5,636 
5,046 
6,334 
4,691 
60 
60 
460 
490 
164 
212 
247 


2,500 
2,500 
5,592 
4,094 
4,035 
2,932 
3,744 
8.000 
7,800 
13,475 
18,900 
16,504 
16.770 
12,936 
31,000 
35,000 
31,543 
36,234 
36,322 
36,921 
34,020 
8,000 
8.100 
8,246 
12,337 
9,397 
9.961 
9,216 


15.000 
14,000 
18,000 
24,500 
36,288 
28,367 
21.558 


Weight I 
Yield per II verage 
per Total Yield, measured price 
acre, bushel. per ton. 
tons. tons, lb. $ 
4,75 71.000 - 6'20 
8,40 117,600 - 6'75 
10.00 180,000 - 10,25 
9,80 240,000 - 10,86 
11.37 412,400 - 12.80 
9,45 268,000 - 6,50 
9,45 204,200 - 10.74 
per 
bush, bush. bush, 
16,75 578,000 58,79 1.52 
14,50 522,000 57,63 2.09 
20,00 606.000 59.93 2,22 
li.OO 624,600 59.00 2'73 
12.00 452,900 55.56 2'00 
16.75 573,000 59.89 1,00 
16,00 556,700 58'18 2,13 
37,25 7,413,000 36,93 0,61 
32.25 6,482,300 34.80 0'80 
34.50 5,839,000 36.42 0,77 
34,00 6,038,000 36.00 0.85 
27.75 5,095,000 32,15 0'70 
27,00 5.118,000 36.04 0'50 
33'25 6,173.460 35,26 0'75 
29,25 105.000 47'40 0.95 
28.50 99,750 46,45 1.22 
28,50 162,000 49,31 1.25 
29,00 164,000 50'00 1,40 
24,50 121,000 47,47 1.27 
23,25 147,400 48.41 0.75 
27,85 130,750 48.13 1.24 
22,25 1,300 59,71 2,19 
14.00 840 60.60 2.86 
16,00 7,300 60'66 2.90 
16'00 8.100 60'00 3,25 
16,50 2,700 60.00 3.00 
23.50 5,000 55,00 1.25 
16.40 4,048 60.19 3,00 
27.25 68,000 49.10 1.00 
29'00 72,500 47'80 1'32 
21,75 122,000 48.77 1.44 
20.75 87,800 48.80 1.50 
23,50 95,000 46.67 1,30 
24,75 72,800 46.15 0.75 
23,80 89,060 48,23 1,34 
41,25 330,000 47'60 0,75 
38.25 298,400 42,61 0,98 
44.50 600,000 45.00 1,04 
44.00 843,400 44.00 1,22 
33,75 556,600 41.44 0.85 
29,25 491,900 41'47 0.80 . 
40.65 525.680 44,13 1,02 
206,00 6,386,000 - 0,52 
175.00 6,125,000 - 0,75 
170.00 5.362.300 - 0,63 
125.00 4,529,000 - 0.85 
170.00 6,174,700 - 0'65 
162.00 5.965,800 - 0,45 
168,00 5,715,400 - 0,67 
477' 00 3,816,000 - 0,28 
505.39 4,094,000 - 0.31 
520.50 4,292,000 - 0,29 
518.00 6,396,000 - 0,26 
481,75 4,529,000 - 0.30 
570.00 5,682,200 - 0.20 
501.90 4,625,400 - 0.28 


Total Value. 


$ 
440,000 
793,800 
1,845,000 
2,606,000 
5,278,700 
1,742,000 
2,192,700 


879,000 
1,091,000 
1,344.000 
1,705,200 
906,000 
573,000 
1,185.040 
4,522,000 
5.185,800 
4,535,000 
5,132,000 
3,567,000 
2,560,000 
4.588.360 
100,000 
121,700 
203.400 
229,700 
156,200 
110,550 
162.200 
2,800 
2.400 
21.200 
26,300 
8,100 
6,300 
12,160 
68.000 
95,700 
175.500 
132,000 
123,500 
54,600 
118,940 
248.000 
292,400 
623,400 
1,039,400 
473,000 
393,520 
535,240 
3.321,000 
4.594,000 
3,378,000 
3,850,000 
4,013,600 
2.684.600 
3.831.320 
1.068,000 
1,269.000 
1,244,706 
1.638.80J 
1,359.000 
1.336,400 
1.315,900 



_1(rRICULT(9RJ" 


21'; 


J.- \.rea, '\. ll'I(' Quality and \'alue of }-rlnrlpal }'il'ld CrOI}S In l':ulad", 1916-21, and 
t'hl' Year .\ \era
('. 1916-"0 -continued. 


Field Crops, 


I . " eight 
Yield per 
per Total Yield. measur{'d 
acre, bushel. 
tons. ton". lb. 
1,70 338,000 - 
1,55 305,400 - 
1,50 331,000 - 
1.80 4:?S, 000 - 
1,25 301,200 - 
0.&0 215,200 - 
1,55 341,920 - 
I 13.00 3,300 - 
I r:
gl 1,800 - 
2,200 - 
12,00 6.260 - 
8.00 1,500 - 
10,00 4.
00 - 
9,25 J.012 - 
hu..h, hu....h, 
19.50 261,000 59,95 
1.).75 2.')5,1.')0 .17.93 
22.25 72lS, 000 59.43 
19.50 56\,000 5
.32 
19.50 5!.t,fì OO :>9.00 
-- 


Area. 


8<,res. 


PrllU
e I'd" ard blan(1 -con. 
Hay and clover....,...,.,.. HU6 
HIl7 
1918 
1919 
1!'
0 
1921 
.\verag
,.,.,..... 1916-20 
Fodder corn. . .......,... .,1916 
1917 
1918 
HI19 
1920 
1921 
Averages. ,. ........ ..1916-20 
'0\3 Stotla- 
:-:pring wheat.....,... ... . . ..1916 
1\H7 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages. , . " . . , ...' . .1916-20 
Oats,..".. , . . . " ,. , , ,., .1916 
HH7 
1918 
19H' 
1920 
1921 
Averages... ....... .1916-20 
Barley....... . .. , .. .... ,. 1916 
1917 
HJ1
 
1919 
1920 
1921 
A vera&es. ...., .. ..... .191&-20 
R).e.................,. ..,.1916 
1917 
191h 
1919 
1920 
1921 
A verageP. ... , . . . , . . , , .1916-20 
Peas,..,..... ,... . . , , " ., . , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1910 
1921 
Averages,.... ....". .1916-20 
Beans.,...... , , . . . . . . . . . . . . .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages......".,..,.1916-20 
Buckwheat.. . . . .... ...... ,1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
.\verages, ,."..,..... .1916-20 


199,000 
197,(100 
222,691 
237.883 
243,394 
255,010 
219,994 


13,400 
16.200 
32,737 
28,931 
26.llû 
16,294 
23,477 


116,000 
1 :?:
. 000 
145,036 
158,838 
152,9ï6 
136,904 
139,170 
4.700 
4,800 
11,571 
13,894 
11 ,487 
8,686 
9,200 
320 
300 
531 
1,0-16 
470 
369 
533 
ISO 
170 
1,753 
1,896 
1,046 
775 
1,009 
850 
1,000 
8,829 
6,8:)9 
4,617 
2,
82 
4,431 
10,000 
10,900 
19.342 
17 , 3ð4 
13, 106 
9,404 
14,146 


250 
250 
420 
522 
190 

.j 
326 


};).50 1 
19.';5 
34.j.') 
29,25 
37.25 
36.00 

0.25 
2
.75 
33 - 60 
26,25 
24-75 
30,00 
31,2.:; 
26.00 
23.00 
28.45 
17,00 
15.00 
14,50 
29.50 
l.j.OO 
14,25 
20.90 
17,75 
14,25 
18,75 
20.00 
20,50 
16,75 
19,40 
16.2:; 
17.75 
16.25 
12.75 
18.50 
19'25 
15.68 
24-50 
21.00 
23.00 
25.25 
22.25 
20.50 
23,30 


2.12.000 
46'1,010 


4,031,000 34.19 
3,597, bOO 32'2ð 
5,403,000 1 34.69 
5,71S,000 34,54 
4.636.800 33,45 
3,927,400 34-15 
4,677,320 33,83 
123,000 48'5R 
1l
.800 46,54 
317,000 48,19 
4:
4.000 46.97 
298,400 46,76 
200,100 47,58 
264.240 47.41 
5.400 56,00 
4.500 .54,50 
7.700 55,67 
31.000 53.00 
7.100 56'00 
5,260 52.50 
11,140 55,03 
3,200 59,80 
2,400 58,50 
33.000 59.50 
38,000 58,50 
21.400 56.81 
12,981 58'20 
19,600 58,62 
13,800 60.00 
17.750 59.00 
143.000 59.14 
87,000 57-56 
85,900 58.50 
57. 
OO 59,86 
69,490 58.84 
245,000 46,97 
228,900 46,56 
445.000 47.10 
439,000 47.23 
291. 400 47.27 
192,500 48.07 
329, 
I)O 47.03 


A vernge 
prico Total,"nlue. 
per ton. 
S S 
11,56 3,907.0{JO 
12,67 3.S6!1,000 
H.17 4,732,800 
20'00 8.5M,00Ù 
26.00 7.90H,000 
30,00 6,455,200 
16.95 5,796,360 
2.50 8.
OO 
5,00 9,000 
9,00 19,f'OO 
8.00 50,000 
10,00 15,000 
6,00 28,800 
6,78 20,420 
per bush. 
1'70 444,000 
2-34 5!J7,000 
2,36 1,718,000 
2'Fìl 1,5.....').000 
2.15 1, O!lS, 000 
1-42 3;,7,000 
2'35 I,ObS, -100 
0.71 2,862,Oùfr 
0'92 3,310,000 
1'06 5,727,000 
1,14 6,519,000 
1,00 4,614,000 
0,74 2, fl97, 300 
0,98 4,606,400 
0'99 122,000 
1,34 159,200 
1,62 562.000 
1,77 768,000 
1.51 452,000 
1'16 231,600 
1,56 412,640 
1.25 6,800 
1'(}7 7,500 
1.85 14.200 
1.55 48,000 
1,50 10,650 
1.50 7.900 
I-56 17.430 
2.73 8,700 
4.44 10,700 
3,20 106,000 
3'84 146,000 
3.67 78,500 
3.36 43,600 
3.57 69,980 
5,62 78,000 
7.95 141,100 
7'34 1,050,000 
6,37 554,000 
6-00 515,400 
4,36 251,800 
6,73 467,700 
0.84 1 206,000 
1'14 261,000 
1.35 601,000 
1.55 680,000 
1.36 397,000 
1-06 203.50ú 
1,30 429,000 


5H"i 
58.93 



218 


PRODUCTIOl\'" 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916-21, and 
Five Year A veral?;e, 1916-29-continued. 


Yield Weight Average 
per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield, measured per Total Value. 
acre, bushel. bushel. 
acres, bush. bush. lb. S $ 
No\a 
cotia-con. 
)lixed grains..". , . . , , , , , , . .1916 4,100 34.00 139,000 44,07 0,92 128,000 
1917 4,000 24,00 96,000 39.91 1'24 119,000 
1918 5,407 36.00 195,000 42'24 1,30 254,000 
1919 8,628 37.50 218,000 46,77 1,53 334,000 
1920 6.171 32.50 200,600 39,20 1.32 265,000 
1921 4,713 30.00 141,100 44'46 0,97 136,700 
Averages."."..,.,.. .1916-20 5,661 30,00 169,720 42.44 1.30 220,000 
Potatoes....."...,..".,., .1916 34,500 201'00 6,935,000 - 0,69 4,785,000 
19lï 41,000 174,94 7,173,000 - 0,92 6,599,000 
1918 51,250 190.75 9,776,000 - 0,93 9,092,000 
1919 62,060 161.00 9,992,000 - 1'09 10,891,000 
1920 50,092 203.75 10,209,000 - 0.98 9,966,000 
1921 39,168 163,75 6,414,000 - 0.95 6,093,000 

verages,.,.",..".,.1916-20 47,781 1
4'50 8,817,000 - 0,94 8,266,600 
Turnips, mangolds, etc"." .1916 9,000 404'00 3,636,000 - 0.42 1,527,000 
1917 9,100 350.93 3,193,000 - 0.47 I, 50 I, 000 
1918 23,823 391'25 9,320,700 - 0.58 5,406,000 
1919 30,291 537,75 16,289,000 - 0.60 9,773,000 
1920 19,946 431,75 8,611,000 - 0'62 5,368,000 
1921 15,436 495' 00 7,641,000 - 0,20 1,528,000 
Averages, ..., ,... , ., . ,1916-20 18,432 445,40 8,209,940 - 0.57 4,715,000 
tons, tons, per ton. 
Hay and clover., , ..... ,.., .1916 553,000 1,80 995,000 - 12,25 12,189,000 
1917 542,000 1,65 894,300 - 11,83 10,580,000 
1918 605,464 1.45 878,000 - 20,00 17,560,000 
1919 678,357 2,10 1,425,000 - 22,34 31,835,000 
1920 632,069 1,50 948,000 - 35,00 24,966,000 
1921 571,661 1'35 771 , 700 - 23'00 17,749,000 
Averages, ,.., ....., ,. ,1916-20 602,178 1,70 1,028,060 - 18,90 19,426,000 

lfalfa. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . , , , . . . . 1916 30 5.00 150 - 15,00 2,300 
1917 30 3.50 100 - 15,00 1,500 
Averages..........." ,1916-17 30 4,15 125 - 15,00 1,900 
Fodder corn, , . . . . . , . . , . , , , , 1916 500 8.75 4,400 - 2.50 11 ,000 
1917 480 9,20 4,400 - 6-00 26,400 
1918 4,644 9.50 44,000 - 9'00 396,000 
1919 2,960 9,50 28,000 - 8,00 224,000 
1920 1,451 8,00 11, 600 - 10,00 116,000 
1921 1,466 6,50 9,500 - 6,00 57,000 
Averages. , .... . .. . . . . ,1916-20 2,007 9,20 18,48(
 - 8.37 154,680 
Xew Brunswick- bush, bush, per bush. 
Spring wheat..,..........., ,1916 14,000 17.25 242,000 59.20 1,72 416,000 
1917 16,000 12.00 192,000 58,43 2,25 432,000 
1918 49,453 19.00 940,250 59,68 2,32 2,183,700 
1919 35,641 17,50 623,000 59,61 2.80 1,744,400 
1920 29,485 15,75 464,400 58.25 2.11 979,900 
1921 28,028 15.25 427,000 59,20 1.50 641,000 
Averages,.............1916-20 28,916 17,00 492,330 59.03 2.34 1,151,200 
Oats...... . . , . . ...... . , . , , . ,1916 198,000 30,50 6,039,000 35,49 0,68 4,107,000 
1917 190,000 22,50 4,275,000 33,33 0.94 4,018,500 
1918 224,442 31,50 7,051,400 35,32 0,97 6,877,400 
1919 305,484 30.25 9,261,000 35'10 0.98 9,086,000 
1920 309,071 29,50 9,117,600 34,93 0,60 5,470,600 
1921 284,728 25,00 7,118,000 31.50 0,65 4,627,000 
.\.verages..........,.. .1916-20 245,399 29.15 7,148,800 34.83 0.83 5,911,900 
Barley, . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . ,1916 1,900 23'75 45,000 46.70 1,00 45,000 
1917 1,800 22,00 39,600 42,84 1.36 53,900 
1918 6,601 24,75 163,140 47,87 1.55 253,270 
1919 10,662 26.75 285,000 47,48 1,35 385,000 
1920 8,177 23.75 194,200 46,50 1.41 273,800 
1921 8,898 17,00 151,000 47.64 1.11 168,000 
? . 221 


Averages............, .1916-20 


5,828 


46 28 


...4 95 


145,388 


1 39 


o , 94 



..HrlllCr LTrTRR 219 
1.- \rea, '\. h-Itl Quallt) and "ahl(, of lÞrlndl)al 1<1cld 
'rops In C.ulad.'J 1916-21 and 
}'he "lear \.\era
e, 1916-')0 -continued. 
Weight Average 
Yield per price 
Field Crops. Area, per Total Yield. measured per Total' nlue 
acre, bushel. bushE'l. 
X ew Brunswick -con. ncres. bush. bush. Ib, $ $ 
R\e..,....,......"....... .191b 30ð 16,25 5,000 1,85 9,000 
- 1919 353 20.00 7,000 56,00 2,00 14,000 
1920 254 14.00 3, 600 
 1,80 6,500 
1921 479 17,50 b,400, 1'00 8,400 
_\ verage:.. . . , . "..,...1918-20 305 17,05 5,200 56.00 l'bY 9,833 
I 
Peas. , . . . , . . . , , , , . .., .. .. . . 1916 1 400 16,50 6.600 60,21 2.4fì 16,200 
1917 400 15.00 6,000 60,45 2.8:
' 17,000 
HUh 4, 077 1 11.75 60, 100 59,37 3'6
 221,200 
1919 .,6t 1 7 14' 75 1 69,000 ,'>9.85 3' 03 1 2ml, 000 
19:!U 2,844 15.00 42,700 bO,50 2,35 100,300 
1921 2.124, 12.75 27,000 59,75 2,2')1 61,000 
A verag
. ,. " ,.. ,.. _ . .1916-20 2'41>41 14'&)1 36,ððO 60,08 3,(}( 112,740 
Be-.lDS....,. . , . , , _ . . , , , . , , . , ,1916 250 15'
;) 3,
00 60,54 6.11 23,000 
1917 300. 19',)U 1 5,
501 59.00 8,75 51, 200 
1918 5,491 15.50 'J,5
U 59,39 h'O;; liS
I, 400 
1919 1 6,40!1 16.:;0 106,000 58'5b 5.25 556,000 
1920 4,254 16.25 69,100 60.00 3,39 234,200 
1921 2.292 12.75 29,000 59'50 4.00 116,000 
..herogcs...,...."... ,1916-20 3,341 16,20 54,006 59'50 5,75 310,760 
Buckwheat., ....., ........ .1916 53,000 22,75 1,206,000 46'51 0,84 I,013,ouu 
1917 57,000 19,50 1,111,500 45.48 1,13 1,256,000 
1915 72,4S3 20,75 1 ,4 !19, ,')(1() 47,38 1,65 2,477,000 
1919 7-&,642 2500 l,
71,OOO 47,74 1,36 2,547,000 
## 1920 66,366 22.75 1,.j09,h()() 6.6() 1,45 2,189,200 
HI'!. 1 4!I,812 22,2,} l,lOS,OOO 47.84 1,00 1.108,000 
Averages,......,..", ,1916-20 61,698 22.25 1,439,5 '0 46-76 1.32 1,896,440 
)lixed grains...,. ... .. . .. . . ,1916 S70 34.25 30,000 43,25 0,78 23,000 
1917 840 19.50 16,3"0 43,29 1,10 18,000 
1918 4,2U:! 3
..jO 139,900 42,97 1,25 175,200 
1919 5,297 33,75 179,000 43-83 1,23 220,000 
1920 3,395 29,75 101,000 41,00 1.17 lIS, 200 
}Y21 4,Oð9 23,50 96,000 41,67 0,88 84,000 
Averages., _...."'., _ ,1916-20 2,939 31-75 93,256 42.87 1,19 110,880 
Potatoes.,.". ... .,. , " , . ,. ,1916 39,000 192'00 7,4ðð,OOO 0.84 6,200,000 
1917 46,000 149'SO 6,MH,OOO 1,13 7,7
7,OOO 
HU8 57,272 158,50 9,077,WO 1.00 9,077,600 
1919 75,573 142,75 10,790,200 0,97 10,466,000 
1920 78,335 198,00 15,510,300 0.70 10,857,200 
1921 74,875 216.25 16,19:!,OOO, 0.90 14,573,000 
Averages,..,..."., _, ,1916-20 59,236 168'00 D,951,420 0,89 8,895,560 
TurnIps, manKolds, etc_, . . , ,1916 7,700 411,00 3.165,000 0,45 1,424,000 
1917 7,700 300,54 2,314,000 0.61 1,412,000 
1918 18,507 350, 00 6,477 ,500 0.58 3,757,000 
1919 24,279 366,50 8,8%,800 0,58 5,155,000 
l!J2ü 20,030 353.00 7,070,600 0,20 1,414,100 
1921 17.745 1 349,50 6,202,000 1 0.17 1,054,000 
Averages,....,. _.".. ,1916-20 15,644 357, 00 5,58.'j,180 0,47 2,632,420 
tons, tons. per ton. 
Hay and cloyer......,...... _1916 574,000 1,48 850,000 11,27 9,563,000 
1917 568,000\ 1-60 909,000 10,29 9,354,000 
1918 740,637 1.50 1,111,0001 15,30 16,99
,300 
1919 786,175\ 1,40 1,111,000 20,26 22,512,000 
1920 726,380 1,20 871,700 27-87 24,294,300 
1921 694, 497 1 0,90 625,000 25,00 15,625,000 
Averages. _,...., _. _.. .1916-20 679,038 1,43 970,540 17.04 16,544,320 
Alialfa. . . . ... , . , , , , . , _ , . _ . . .1918 1,17
 1,50 1,800 9,00 16,200 
I 
Fodder corn, . . , . _ , , , , . ...,1916 100 10,00 1,000 4,00 4,000 
1917 85 9-00 770 6.00 4,600 
1918 3,459 4,50 15,600 10,00 156,000 
1919 5,906 5.00 30,000 8.00 240,000 
1920 5,243 8.00 41,000 10.00 419,000 
1921 3,738 7,00 26,000 10,00 260,000 
Averages"."..,."" ,1916-20 2,959 6,05 17,854 9,23 1 164,720 


. 



220 


PRODUCTIO
Y 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and ''''alue of Principal Fi
ld Crops In Canada, 1916-21, and 
Five Year Average, 1916-20-continued. 


Weight 
Yield per 
Field Crops. Area, per Total Yield. measured 
acre. bushe! , 
Quebec- acres, bush, bush. lb, 
Spring wheat.,.,.....".", .1916 64,000 15,00 960,000 57,71 
1917 277,400 14.00 3,883,600 57,94 
1918 365,670 17,25 6,308,000 58,82 
1919 251,089 16,75 4,206,000 59,12 
1920 222,045 17 .00 3,775,000 59,45 
1921 180,616 15,25 2,754,000 58,19 
Averages..",..."... .1916-20 236,041 16,20 3,826,520 58,61 
Oats..",.., , " . , , , _. , , ., , . .1916 1,073,000 22,75 24,411,000 33'55 
1917 1,492,700 21,75 32,466,200 34.34 
1918 1,932,720 27'25 52,667,000 35'98 
1919 2,141,107 26,75 57,275,000 35,47 
1920 2,205,908 30,25 66,729,000 36,51 
1921 2,366,810 21,25 50,591,000 35,24 
Averages. , , . . , , , . . , . . .1916-20 1,769,087 26,40 46,709,640 35,17 
Barley... _", ,.. , , , .. .. . .. . .1916 72,800 20.00 1,456,000 46,67 
1917 165,600 18,50 3,063,600 48,14 
1918 189,202 24,00 4,551,000 48,16 
1919 234,892 22,75 5,344,000 47.63 
1920 194,444 25,25 4,910,000 47'83 
1921 191,673 21,25 4,073,000 46,19 
Averages., ....",.,.., ,1916-20 171,387 22,55 3,864,920 47,69 
Rye", , , , , . , . ,., , , , . ,... " ,1916 8,300 14,25 118,000 53.97 
1917 22,450 16,75 376,000 53'36 
1918 29,063 16.25 472,000 54'78 
1919 33,481 17,25 578,000 55,87 
1920 28,462 18,75 534,000 55,70 
1921 24,940 17,25 430,000 53,88 
Averages.".".."..,.1916-20 24,351 17-05 415,600 54,74 
Peas.,., _.., , , . , . ....,. ,..' ,1916 21,600 14.00 302,000 59,95 
1917 66,457 12.00 797,500 59,75 
1918 107,386 15,50 1,664,000 60,26 
1919 81,642 15,00 1,225,000 60,14 
1920 (i0,870 17,00 1,035,000 60,74 
1921 65,259 14,75 963,000 59,43 
Averages..""",..., .1916-20 67,591 14,85 1,004,700 60,17 
Beans,.,..,., . . , . " ,.. " ." .1916 4,400 17,75 78,000 60,18 
1917 55,157 15.00 827,400 59,90 
1918 109,803 17,00 1,867,000 59'45 
1919 43,202 19.75 853,000 59,81 
1920 35,835 18,00 645,000 60,15 
1921 28,272 18.75 530,000 59.16 
Averages"......,.", ,1916-20 49,679 17.20 854,080 59,90 
Buckwheat. , . , . . . . , . . . , , , . .1916 101,000 19,00 1,919,000 46,35 
1917 163,577 16.50 2,699,000 46'55 
1918 227,018 20,75 4,711,000 48.20 
1919 170,043 24,00 4,081,000 47.72 
1920 151,765 25,75 3,908,000 48,19 
1921 150,666 23.25 3,503,000 47.08 
Averages....",.",., .1916-20 162,681 21,30 3,463,600 47.40 
)Iixed grains..,., '.,..., ,., ,1916 91,000 20,25 1,843,000 44.04 
1917 122,819 21.25 2,609,900 44'50 
1918 194,288 27,00 5,246.000 45.49 
19HI 157,637 27.00 4,256,000 44'54 
1920 143,423 29,25 4,195,000 46.10 
1921 168,245 24.00 4,033,000 43.31 
Averages, . , , . . , . . . , , , .1916-20 141.834 25,60 3,629,980 44,93 
Flaxseed. .. .. , , , , . . , . . . . , , . , 1916 500 10.50 5,300 54,50 
1917 5,700 8.25 47,000 53.21 
1918 7,357 11,25 83,000 54'66 
1919 11,384 9'75 111,000 53,46 
1920 16,035 11.50 184,000 55,79 
1921 8,641 11,50 09,400 52.78 
A vera es....,.",..., .1916-20 8 195 10,50 86 060 54,32 


g 


Average 
price 
per Total Value. 
bushel. 
$ S 
1,86 1,786,000 
2,46 9,553,700 
2.28 14,382,000 
2,86 12,029,000 
2'24 8,456,000 
1.59 4,379,000 
2,42 9,241,340 
0,77 18,796,000 
0,92 29,868,900 
1,00 52,667,000 
1,06 60,712,000 
0,88 58,722,000 
0.60 30,355,000 
0.95 44,153,180 
1,15 1,674,000 
1,58 4,840,500 
1.62 7,373,000 
1,64 8,764,000 
1,41 6,923,000 
1,00 4,073,000 
1.53 5,914,900 
1,40 165,000 
1.78 669,300 
2.10 991,000 
2,00 1,156,000 
1,88 1,004,000 
1,25 538,000 
1.92 797,060 
3,22 972,000 
4,51 3,596,700 
4,14 6,889,000 
3.62 4,435,000 
3'36 3,478,000 
2,50 2,408,000 
3,86 3,874,140 
5,56 434,000 
7'77 6,428,900 
5,72 10,679,000 
4,52 3,856,000 
4'08 2,632,000 
3.18 1,685,000 
5'63 4,805,980 
1,21 2,322,000 
1,73 4,669,300 
1'77 8,338,000 
1.70 6,938,000 
1,38 5,393,000 
1,00 3,503,000 
1.60 5,532,060 
0.99 1,825,000 
1,33 3,471,200 
1.46 7,659,000 
1,50 6,384,000 
1.26 5,286,000 
0.85 3,432,000 
1.36 4,925,040 
2.50 13,300 
3.37 158,4uO 
3.74 310,000 
3.91 434,000 
3.57 657,000 
3,56 354,000 
3,66 314,540 




l(,RlrUL'rURE 221 
t.-Area, 1lrld. ()uallt) and "alll(, or Prlnd(tal Fh'1d CrOftS In f'anad.1 191G-21. dnd 
i'he 1 ear .1'cra
e, 1911-20-continued. 
Weill:ht A vernge 
Yield per price 
Field Crops \ re-n . per Total \ ÎeIJ. me:!suI'E'd per Total Value, 
Ber.... bushel. bushel. 
I,u('bet-con. n.Cfl'S. bush. husb. lb. S S 
Corn (or hU::>king.... , . . . . .. . 191" 13.000 24.75 322. 000 I 56.1
 1.52 -11'\1.000 
1917 74.339 24,25 1.
O2,700 116 ' 89 2,25 4,056.000 
1915 .;4 , 690 21.75 1. 1\10.000 56.41 2.10 2.518,000 
1919 43,hO
' 41.00 1,7SS,000 1'84 3.290,000 
1920 4i,741 29.75 1.420,000 55,97 1.59 2.25R,000 
1921 4ð.l
2 29.50 1 . :
t;2 . 000 55.2ð 1,15 1,567,000 
\veragee..,..."...,.,. .1916-20 46,674 27.95 1.30-1.540 56.36 1.{)3 2,522.200 
Potatoes...... . , . , , . , . . . . . . . Hllh 112,010 131.00 14. b7?, 000 0.97 14.232.000 
1911 226.91:- 
a.oo 11\. 15S.000 1.3
 25.058.000 
HI1
 :!ti4.S71 147.00 :
S. !t
t). 000 I O,9
 3R.157.000 
1919, 315,
90 PH .50 57,21\0,0001 0.85 4
,68S,000 
IH20 310,692 t
.'i. .'if) .1)7, In;{, 000 1.00 57. 6:t
,000 
1921 :!22.0M 162.50 36.0"\9.000 0,80 2R.
71,OOO 
.\ "Cr3g08, . '" .... ,.., ,1916-20 2-16.014 151.75 37.335.800 0.90 36.753.600 
Turnips, rnnngold" etc.... , .1916 10.0!)O 265.00 2,6.jO, 000 0.48 1.272,000 
HH7 70.192 22-1.51 15.759,000 0,59 9.2f1....000 
HilS 95,526 295.50 28. 22R,OOO 0'53 14.960,800 
1919 87.496 317,50 27.780.000 0.53 14,7n.000 
1
120 
3,613 ;{29.25 27,530,000 0.50 13.765.0JO 
1921 ,j3. OS4 319.00 16,934.000 0.40 6.774,000 
..\\'Pragc'J,. ....' .,. ... .1916-20, 69,365 293,95 20.3S!I.400 1 O'5
 10,803,760 
tonq. tnn
. per ton. 
Hay and clov("r,......... ... HI16 2.9'5,000 1,75 5,224.000 11.00 5;.464,000 
HIl7 2.961. !ISJ 1,71 5,065.000 9.á
 4S.523.000 
1918 4,533.266 1,50 6.799.900 15,75 107.0%,400 
1919 4,299,360 1.50 6,419,000 20.54 1:{:? 462.000 
1920 4,290.121 },25 5. 36.J. 000 29.00 155.527.000 
1921 ..426.671 0,95 4.20.'),ono 29.00 121.94'-..000 
.-\ "('rag
 . . ,. .., , . . .1916-20 3. "13, 941; 1.50 5, 7
0.lhO 17,34 100.214,&0 
Alfalfa..,... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1916 2.600 2'65 7.000 9,50 67,000 
1917 3.ðlF. 2.26 S,6!>O 1).37 72.000 
If118 4, }-I.I 2.25 9,300 11.70 109.000 
1!IIQ 28,4
'" 2.35 67.000 14,22 9.=J:J,000 
1920 2S,200 2.40 61\.000 21.00 1. 4:?S. 000 
1 
I:? I 29,300 2.20 64,500 2;) . 00 1,613.000 
_\'\ crD.ll;es.,.. ", ,.,.', ,1916-20 13,450\ 2.40 31.0ðO 16.14 525,600 
Fodder corn...,..,....,.., .191b 31.000 8.00 24'.000 5'';'.1 1.426,000 
1917 69.030; 8.50 51016.800 5.0(1 2,934,000 
1!H
 
6,3;)S 7.25 62tL 100 7,.t! 4,645.700 
1919 74,00;1 8,25 611,000 8,41 5,139.000 
1920 >-6 . 
:33 8.00 69:>. uOO 10'20 7.089,000 
1921 '9,.')46 9'00 806.000 9,50 7.657,000 
Averages. _ , " . ,.,1916-20 69,446 1 7.95 553.380 7.67 4.246,740 
Ontulo- bu"h. bl1
h. per bu"h. 
Fall whrot. ..... . . ,. . . . .. . .1916 774.S00 21.25 16.46.j.000 59,42 1,55 2.').521.000 
1917 6.')6, ,jOO 21,50 14.114,800 59.38 2.09 29.499.900 
1918 362,616 19.50 7.05t.800 59,80 2.09 14.763.000 
1919 619,494 2-1,30 15.0.')2,000 61,33 2,45 36.877,000 
1920 .62,371 24.30 IS. 492, 000 60,20 1,89 34,890.500 
1921 621.420 22,00 13,667.900 58,55 1.05 14.362.000 
Averages...",.", '" .1916-20 635,156\ 22.40 14,235.720 60,03 1.99 28.310,200 

priDl
 wheat.. ...,....".., .1916 90.200 16,25 1.466.000 57.80 1.55 2.272,000 
1917 113.000 19.50 2.203,500 á9,32 2.08 4,583.300 
1918 351.423 23,25 8.186.200 .'i!1.84 2.03 16.638.000 
1919 361.150 15.60 5.646.500 58,27 2,46 13.890.400 
1920 26í.367 16.80 4,4S0.500 57.92 1,81 8. 112,600 
1921 152.904, 12.50 1. 907.500 56,85 1.06 2.014.000 
.\ verages. _ . . .,..1916-20 236,628 18.55 4,396,540 58,63 2,07 9,099.260 
All wheat........ . . .. .. . .. ..1916 865.000 20,73 17,931.000 58,79 1.55 27,793.000 
1917 769,500 21.2,j 16.31S.300 59,36 2.09 34.083.200 
1918 714.039 21,25 15.241.000 60.54 2.06 31,401,000 
1919 980.644. 21.20 20.698,500 59.76 2.45 50.767,400 
1920 1.029. 738 1 22.30 22.972.500 59,10 1.87 43.003.100 
1921 7;4.324 20.10 l.j,575.400 57'88 1.05 16,376.000 
_'\xcrag("S. ..,. ....,. '. .1916-20 871. 7"4 21.3.), 11\.632,260 59'51 2.01 37.4OfI.540 



222 


PRODUCTION 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916-21, and 
Five Tear Average, 1916-2D-continued. 


Field Crops. 


Ontario-con, 
Oats......,. .,.",..,....., .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\verageR."",.""...1916-20 
Barlev. . . "" . . . , . , . . . , , , , . .1916 
. 1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\ verages.,.""..".. .1916-20 
Rye.,.."...",.."".,.. . ,1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\ verages. . , . , , . . , , . . . .1916-20 
Peas,.".."..,."".,..". .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\verages..,..,..,.",.1916-20 
Beans..... ... . , . . . . . , . , . . , , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages.,.,."".." .1916-20 
Buckwheat.. ........., ... _ .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\verages.""".,.". .1916-20 

Iixed grain
..... .. , , , , . .. , .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\verages."",.."",.1916-20 
Flaxseed,.,.,. , , , , . ,. , . , . . . .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
Averages...., ....... ,,1916-20 
Corn (or husking..,., .. , , " .1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1\verages.",',.,.",.,1916-
0 


Area, 


ncres. bush. 


1,991,000 
2,687,000 
2,924,468 
2,674,341 
2,880,053 
3,094,958 
2,631,372 
326,000 
361,000 
660,404 
569,183 
484,328 
462,176 
480,183 
69,000 
68,000 
112,726 
140,072 
133,090 
122,868 
104,578 
126,000 
126,000 
113,862 
127,253 
109,187 
105,964 
120,460 
27,000 
36;000 
100,082 
22,920 
22,744 
26,509 
41,749 
175,000 
162,000 
223,662 
178,569 
143, 204 
147,944 
176,487 
286,000 
295,000 
619,389 
628,761 
581,6891 
618,289 
482,168' 
4,500 
4,000 
15,925 
13,717 
21,053 
7,534 
11,839 
160,000 
160,000 
195,310 
221,004 
243,909 
250,684 
]96,045 


Weight 
per 
Total Yield. measured 
bushel. 
bu:sh. lb, 
50,771.000 30.30 
98,075,500 34.11 
131, 752,600 35..18 
78,388,000 32.76 
129,171,300 35,95 
72,575,000 28'69 
97,631,680 33.74 
7,498,000 44.94 
11,191,000 47'20 
24,247,700 48,13 
13,134,000 45.81 
16,660,3.10 48'70 
10,149,000 44.42 
14,546,210 46,96 
1,208,000 55'20 
1,207,000 55,69 
1,813,000 55'65 
2,219,000 54.97 
2,349,900 5.1,30 
1,775,600 54.29 
1.759,380 55,36 
1,796,000 59,71 
2,110,500 59.88 
2,381,000 59'85 
1,816,500 59,97 
2,209,500 60,43 
1,441,100 59,50 
2,062,700 59.97 
317,000 59,72 
423,000 59.42 
1,387,800 59.27 
288,500 61.74 
380,500 59,70 
427, 500 59'27 
559,360 59,97 
2,538,000 45.80 
3,037,500 46.69 
4,598,000 46,96 
4,072,000 46,71 
3,190,500 48,10 
3,353,800 47,38 
3,487,200 46'85 
7,436,000 40,77 
11, 136,300 44,99 
27,462,400 46.01 
19,735,300 44,71 
25,712,400 44,50 
16,188,500 39.95 
18,296,480 44.20 
42,000 57.17 
.
2, 000 55'00 
196,200 56,72 
129,500 59.86 
224,900 56.50 
66,700 52.53 
128,920 57,05 
5,960,000 57,18 
5,960,000 54,58 
13,015,200 58,23 
15,152,500 - 
12,914,800 56.60 
13,542,000 55,86 


Yield 
per 
acre, 


25,50 
36.50 
45.00 
29,30 
44.90 
23.40 
37,10 
23.00 
31.00 
36,75 
23,10 
34.40 
22.00 
30,30 
17,50 
17,75 
16,00 
15.80 
17,70 
14.50 
16,80 
14,25 
16,75 
21.00 
14.30 
20.20 
13,60 
17,10 
11,75 
11,75 
13,75 
12'60 
16.70 
16,10 
13.40 
14,50 
18.7.1 
20.50 
22,80 
22,30 
22.70 
19.75 
26'00 
37.75 
44,25 
31.40 
44.20 
26,20 
37,95 


9,25 
13.00 
12.25 
9,40 
10.70 
8,90 
10.90 
37,25 
37,25 
6ij,75 
68'60 
53,00 
54.00 
54.05 10,600,500 


56,6.> 


1\ verage 
price 
per Total Ya!ue. 
!:)Ushe
. 
$ $ 
0.64 32,493,000 
0,72 70,614,400 
0'78 102,212,000 
0.91 71,378,000 
0,58 74,670,300 
0,47 33,774,000 
0.72 70,273,540 
0.99 7,422,000 
1.16 12,981,600 
1.06 25,809,000 
1'32 17,215,000 
0.94 15,653,200 
0'63 6,390,000 
1,09 15,816,160 
1,17 1,413,000 
1,64 1,979,500 
1,55 2,818,400 
1.48 3,279,000 
1.35 3,176,200 
0.88 1,571,000 
1.44 2,533,220 
2.06 3,700,000 
3,21 6,774,700 
2,24 5,338,700 
2,31 4,180,000 
2.00 4,419,000 
1,50 2,166,000 
2,37 4,882,480 
5'34 1,693,000 
6.7fl 2,872,200 
4.66 6,464,500 
3,79 1,039,000 
3.10 1,181,100 
2.35 1,006,000 
4,74 2,649,960 
1.09 2,766,000 
1.37 4,161,400 
1,40 6,426,600 
1'36 5,534,000 
1.07 3,409,800 
0.72 2,416,000 
1,28 4,459,560 
0,89 6,618,000 
1,12 12,472,700 
1.09 29,823,900 
1.35 26,672,000 
0.81 20,709,000 
0.58 9,373,000 
1.05 19,259.120 
2.78 117,000 
3,70 192,400 
3,41 670,000 
3,48 450,500 
2.43 545,500 
1..58 105,400 
3'06 395,080 
1.05 6,258,000 
1,72 10,251,200 
1,72 22,384,800 
1,24 18,790,000 
I,ll 14,335,400 
0.72 10,750,000 
1.36 14,403,880 



.H,J( [r'fr.;L TC' H l!: 223 
1.
.\rt'" '\ h'I.) Qu:,IIt) und \ ahl(, of Itrlndpal ..'It.It, ("rOI)S In Canada. t9tS-.!1, 3Jul 
.'h t' '.l'4ar \ H'ra;:t.'. 1916-20 - ('ontinUt'ù. 
I Weight A'Vernge 
Yirld per price 
Field Crops Area, per Total Yield. mru
ureù (K'r Total Valu('. 
acre. bushel. blU!heJ. 
.191) &C'rí'8. Lu..h. bush 11>, $ S 
Un tarlo -('on. 
l'Ot:.LtoCS. . . . . . . . . . . 13:J.0.)0 61. OO
 x,113.0 10 1'28 10,3
5,00(J 
]!Hi 142.0JO 133,67 1
, m-1. O
O 1,00 18. !1
1. O(lU 
HI1
 l66, 203 116.6f) 19,3i6,OOO 1,26 24.-113.000 
19BI 1.,)7,
Mi !lh..jO V),14.'),OOO 1,37 20,s::!O.001l 
1920 157,509 1.')2.10 23, 
161. 700 0,97 23,131,200 
1921 16-t,Otl6 !1:3.80 15.400.000 1,00 Vi, 400.000 
.\\"crages,...,.,...", .19]6-20 151,200 113.20 17,115,340 1,14 19,546,04(1 
fumips, msnlto1d.., etc, ,', .191h !lï.OrlO 21t .00 :?O, 4#\7,000 0,36 7. :W\, 000 
191i {) L 000 340.93 32,047.000 0,35 11,216,000 
1m... 141.001 4,}f).25 6',
tl6, 000 0.32 20.767.000 
1919 123.U29 34
.0:) 42, i.')'>. 000 0.35 14,027,000 
1920 119,744 t
13.00 51.9
9,SOO 0.28 16.5Ih.00O 
1921 104,1.')1 3,') I. 25 36, .;'6,000 0.35 12,...0,').000 
.\\"l'
' ............ ..1916-20 114,955 3i{)'50 43,6:U,160 0'32 13, 9i9, 200 
ton..... to
. per ton. 
Hnv and clover.... . .. .. . . . HI16 3,059.000 2.00 6.118.000 11,90 i2,
û4,OOO 
1917 2. {I!I-i. 000 l.iO 5.097.000 10,26 ,')::! . :!!I,j, 000 
1918 3.470,036 1,32 4.596,900 16'50 75. 84S, 000 
191!\ 3.508,26ð 1.59 5,5
9.000 20.61 115.161,000 
1920 3,533,740 1.2tJ, 4,4,')9.000 .?4.30 lOX, 35fì. 000 
1921 3,551,655 1.111 3,954.200 1 21.25 84.027,000 
\ v(>r
up;l',.. ..,....",., .1916-20 3.313,80
 1.55 5,171.
'1 16,41 84, MI.?, hOO 
:\ lfalfa. . .. . . , .. . . . ' . . . . . . . .HH6, 56,000 3'001 16
.O.lO, 9'75 I,M8,000 
1917, ,')2.030 2.74 142.500 1 10.08 1. 4:J6, oon 
191
 I-t4.010 2.21-, 329.000 15'78 5.191,000 
HU9 146. i!IO 2.14 .H4,4nO I 20,20 6,3.51,000 
1 !l231 ]62.520 2.45 399,!m0 23.49 9,3M,400 
Int 177,23.i 2.5"" 456, -1')0: 20.00 9,128,000 
.\ '\ erages. . .. . . , , _1916-20 112.324 2. 40 1 2iO.b96 17'73 4,800.0ð0 
I 
(< ocid('r rorn, . , , . , . ..,., . 1916 1 2'
.000 6.50 I.IH2,030 4,RO 7,73
.000 
1917 26,'),000 7.54 1.99.\,000 1 5.00 9,9CJO,OOO 
HI1
 3
0,!l4tJ 10.35 3,9-14.300 5.73 22,601,000 
19191 3
.549 10.05 4.014,0.10 6.30 25.304,000 
l!1!!) U9.176 1 10.39 4.ß6"'.050, 6.85 31,976,000 
HI21 4:
",343 11.44 5.015,lOfI 6,50 32,591\,000 
A verag
.... ....... .. .1916-20 34
,535 9.30 3.:?4i.2ïO\ 6.01 19.521,800 
I 
:-,ull;ar bect". . . . .1916 15,000 4.75 il.000' 6,20 440.0uO 
1917 14.000 1:1.40' 117, 600 1 6.75 i93.800 
1918 18,000 10'001 1
0.000 10,25 1,
-I.i,OOO 
1919 24.500 9,80 240,000 10,86 2,606,000 
1920 36,::!R" 11.3. 412.4001 12.
0 5,278,700 
1921 28.367 9.45 21ì..., 000 6.50 1. 742,000 
-\\.era e
...,.......,. .1916-20 21,,')58 9.45' 204.200 10,74 2. Hi:? 700 
)Ianltoba- hu-h. I per 
bu..h. huc;:h. 
Fall wheaL. .....,......... .1916 3,
29 1.'),93 61,OOU 1.40 
.i, 4011 
1917 3,"60 22.25 S.5.900 62.33 2.20 189,000 
191& 2,734 IS'OOI 49,000 2.06 101.000 
Averag
.,.., _ - - .,.1916-18 3,474 18.80 65.300 62.33 1.92 125, 133 

prjng '\\ heat, ...,... .. .. ..1916 2,i21,896 10.f\,., 29,606,00U 51,23 1'23 36,415,400 
1917 2,445.000 16.75 40,953,800 60.82 2.05 b3, 95." 300 
1915\ 2,9S0,968 16.25 4S,142,100 60.16 2,06 99,173,096 
1919 2,8S0.301 14.25 40,9.5.300 57.22 2.40 91S, 341, 000 
1920 2.705,622 13,90 37,:;42,000 5
.56 1.83 68,i39,000 
1921 3,501,217 11,15 39,054,000 56'62 0,91 35,533,000 
.Averag
., ,.".",." .1916-20 2, 746, i57 14. 35 1 39.443,840 57.80 1.96 77,000,740 
.\ll wheat.......,.,.,....., .1916 2.725.725, 10'S
 29.667,000 1,23 36,500,800 
1917 2,445.860 16.7.1 41,0:N, iOO 60,86 2.0.i 84,144,300 
1918 2,9
3.702 16.35 48,191.100 2.06 99,274,000 
1919 1 2.SðO,301 14.25 40,975,300 57.22 2.40 98,341,000 
1920 2,705,622 13.90 37,542.000 59,56 1,83 68,769,000 
1921 3,501,217 11,15 39,054.000 :;6'62 0.91 35,539,000 
A veragf>s. . . ... . , . .. , , ,1916-20 2,74".842 14.35 3!),4
1.0:!O ,W.21 l,P6 77,405.8
O 



224 


PRODUCTlOX 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1916-21, and 
Five Year Average, 1916-2o-C'ontinued. 


Weight Average 
Yield per price 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield. measured per Total Value. 
acre. bushel. bushel. 
acres, bush. bush, lb. $ S 
\fanitoba-con. 
Oats.,..,. .. ,..... . , , , . . , . , .1916 1,443,599 33'55 48,439,000 33'05 0,49 23,735,100 
1917 1,500,000 30,25 45,375,000 27.27 0.67 30,401,30û 
1918 1,714,894 31,75 54,473,500 35.21 0,71 38,676,000 
1919 1,847,267 31,25 57,698,000 33.42 0,72 41,420,000 
1920 1,873,954 30,75 57,657,000 34,89 0.56 32,007,000 
1921 2,226,376 22.27 49,442,500 32.03 0'30 14,833,000 
.\ verages. . , . , , . . , . . . . ,1916-20 1,675,943 31.45 52,728,500 32.77 0.63 33,247,880 
Barley.",.., , , . . , , , . , , . , . . .1916 6S7,503 19,97 13,729,000 42,78 0.80 10,983,200 
1917 708,000 22,50 15,930,000 46,27 1.07 17,045,100 
1918 1,102,965 25'25 27,963,400 48,54 0,89 24,887,000 
1919 893,947 19.25 17,149,400 43,90 1.17 20,137,000 
1920 839,078 21,00 17,520,000 46,31 0.80 13,988,000 
1921 1,043,144 18,87 19,681,600 4,1).02 0,43 8,463,000 
Averages"",..".,.. .1916-20 846,299 21.80 18,458,360 45,56 0'94 17,408,060 
Rye.""",...,. , ., , , , " , . . .1916 30,0;)0 18,54 557,000 56.50 1.06 590,400 
1917 37,000 17.2.5 638,300 54.03 1,62 1,034,000 
1918 240,469 16,25 3,935,700 73,66 1,41 5,549.000 
1919 298,932 13.75 - 4,089,400 54.89 1.28 5,228.000 
1920 148,602 15.50 2,318,600 54,91 1.35 3,140,100 
1921 2,57,793 13.83 3,564.700 54.90 0,79 2,816,000 
.\.verages....".".,.. .1916-20 1.51,011 15,30 2,307,800 58.80 1'35 3,108,300 
Peas...... . .. . .. . , , . , , . . . , . .1919 5.666 14.2.5 81,400 60.00 2.08 170,000 
1920 4,162 15.00 62,200 60,00 1,10 68,400 
1921 10, 958 15.02 151,400 60.00 2'50 378,500 
Averages"."".". ...1919-20 4.914 14,60 71,800 60.00 1.66 119,200 

Ii",ed grains,.... . , ,. . , . , , . ,1916 1.400 32,25 45,000 42.00 0,45 20,300 
1917 1.400 31'00 43,400 - 1,25 54,250 
1918 30,309 28.25 856,000 43.50 1'03 882,000 
1919 30.355 25.00 759,000 40,56 1.40 1,063,000 
1920 28,800 21,25 612,000 43,50 1.87 1,144,000 
1921 10,473 1 19.85 208,000 42,50 0,40 83,000 
.\verages.".",.",.,,1916-20 18,453 25.10 463,080 42'39 1,37 632,710 
Flaxseed.,.... ,. , ..., . . , , , , .1916 15,684- 13.38 210,000 - 2.13 447,300 
1917 16,300 9.00 146.700 54.50 2,85 418,100 
1918 107,961 10'00 1,091,000 54,72 3.15 3,437,000 
1919 57,379 9'00 520,300 55.05 4,26 2,215,000 
1920 146,455 7,90 1,157,800 54,66 2.25 2,387,700 
1921 61,689 8.83 544,700 54,78 1.50 817,000 
.\.verages,.,.".....".1916-20 68,756 9.10 625,160 54.73 2,91 1,821,020 
Potatoes. . . . , , , , , , , . , , . . . . , . 1916 31,987 147,22 4,709,000 - 0.61 2,872,500 
1917 34,400 105.90 3,643,000 - 0,76 2,769,000 
1918 45,000 185.00 8,325,000 - 0.56 4,662,000 
1919 42,000 126'00 5,287,500 - 0.81 4,266,000 
1920 37,000 92,2,5 3,410,000 - 1,36 4,733,300 
1921 3R,081 153.10 5,858,200 - 0,45 2,636,000 
_\.verages......,."... .1916-20 38,078 133,25 5,074,900 - 0,76 3,860,560 
Turnips, mangolds, etc,. , . . .1916 3,118 145'00 452,000 - 0.49 221,500 
1917 2,500 185,12 463.000 - 0.63 292,000 
1918 9,910 251,75 2,494,800 - 0,44 1,097,700 
1919 6,045 184.00 1,11:3,000 - 0.60 663,000 
1920 7,404 145.25 1,076,000 - 0,93 1,005,100 
1921 4,411 231 . 00 1,020,100 - 0.27 275,000 
Averages.,.,.."",.. .1916-20 5,795 193,25 1.119,760 - 0,59 655,860 
Hay and clover.........,... ,1916 ton,.;. toni;. per ton. 
77,642 1.83 142,000 - 7'80 1,107,600 
HH7 75,000 1.00 75,000 - 11.11 833,300 
1918 74,000 1.00 74:,000 - 16.00 1,184,000 
1919 260,378 1,50 401.400 - 16,99 6,818,000 
1920 208,512 1.50 311,900 - 16.00 4,968,900 
1921 244,672 1.55 378,500 - 13.00 4,921,000 
1 1 -20 139 1 . . - 14.85 2 082 360 


Averages , .. , , .. .. , , , ,. 9 6 
1 Including other grains. 


, 06 


1 4) 


200,860 



AGH]CULTlJ-RE 


225 


1.-.\rt.'3, } leld, (luaUt) and 'aillt" of Princlp.,1 "'it.'ld ('rOIJS In Canada, 1916-21, and 
.'1\(' \Pt.'ar \\('ra
(>, 1916-20 -continued. 


I Yield Weight Average 
per price 
Field Crops. Area, per Total Yiold. measured per Total Value 
acro, bushel. ton, 
acrt's tOM. tOM. lb. , S 
'fanltoba- COD. 
Alfalfa" , ,.." , . .. . . . , .. . . , .1916 4.422 2.75 12,200 - 11.
1 144,30f 
HH7 4.400 2'07 9.100 - 13.45 122,40( 
1918 3.600 2.25 R.100 - 18,00 U5,80! 
1919 5,HH 2-20 11.400 - 22'40 256,201 
1920 3,679 2,00 7.410 - 22.45 166,40 
1921 5.676 2.59 U,700 - 17.00 250,00 
A v{'raeeø, , . . , . ... .. . . . HIl6-
0 4.25f. 2.25 9.642 - 17.32 167,02 
Fodder corn.. ....... ,..... ,1916 9,8.10 2.75 :!7.000 - 4,67 126.001 
HIl7 9.800 4.86 47,600 - 7'50 357,00 
191h 12,340 5'50 67.900 - 10,50 713.001 
1919 16.867 6'
0 114,500 - l:i.2S 1,520,00 
1920 17.042 4.40 74.400 - 19,00 1.412,00! 
11121 17. 2t}6 7.20 124.t)00 - 9,00 1,124,00 
.\ verageø, , ,..., ,... , , ,1916-20 13. 176 5,05 66,2hO - 12.46 8'>5,60 
Saskatche"an - hu
h, bu
h, per bush. 
Fan wheat........"..".., ,1916 15.258 21.24 32-1,000 59,50 1,41 4:>6,
0 
1917 10,000 17,00 170.000 60,00 2.07 351,90 
A verageø,.,., ,...., " . 1916-17 12.629 19'55 247.000 59.75 1,64 404,35 
:--pring wheat.,........... .. ,1916 9,016.851 16,33 147,23;).000 :>5,18 1-28 188.460,80 
1917 8,263.250 14-25 117,751.300 60,92 1,95 229. fi15, 00 
1918 9.249,260 10-00 !I:? 49:
. 000 60,97 1-99 184.061.00! 
1919 10.5
7.363 8'50 89, 9!}4, 000 59,00 2'3
 20
, 7'ð7 , 001 
1920 10.061.069 11,25 113. t:J,'>,300 59.95 1'55 175. 360, OO! 
1921 13.556.701) I:J'75 IM,OUO.OOO 5R.36 0'76 142,8
0.00 
.
verages,.,."........1916-20 9,435.559 11.90 112,121,720 59,20 1,76 197,256,761 
All wheat........,.,...,." .1916 9.032.109 16,34 147,55Y,000 55.27 1.28 Ih....917,60 
1917 8.273,250 14,25 117, 921. 300 60,91 1.95 229.966,90 
1918 9.249.260 10.00 9:!,4!n.oOO bO.97 1.99 lR4.061,00 
1919 10.587.36.3 8.50 X9,994.000 59,00 2'32 208.737, Of/{ 
19:!0 10, OHI. 069 11.25 113,135.300 59.95 1'55 175,360,00! 
1921 13.5.'>6.708 13'75 1&').000.000 58'36 0.76 142,880,OO! 
.\ verag08, ..... ,..., ,. .1916-20 9,410,610 11,90 112,220,520 59,22 1,76 197,408, 50! 
Oats. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. , , . . . . ,1916 3,791.807 43,06 163.27ð.000 35.76 0,46 75,107, \to! 
1917 4.á
I.t)OO 27.2.'> 123.213.600 34.58 0,62 76.392,40 
1918 4.988,499 21,50 107.253.000 34,38 0.70 75. 077, O()( 
19H} 4.KH,747 23.10 112.157.000 35.48 0.70 78.510,00 
1920 5.106,822 27'70 141.549.000 35'00 0.41 58,035,00 
1921 5,6\\1.522 30,00 170,513.000 35,24 0.24 40.372.00 
A veragee,.,. '..." '.. .1916-20 4,649,295 27'85 1:!9.490,120 35,04 0,56 72,624,46 
Barley,..".. , . .. . , , , . , . . . , .1916 367,207 27,00 9.916.000 46'02 0,77 7.635,30 
1917 669.900 21.00 14,067,900 46'84 1,00 14.067,90 
1918 699.296 17,00 11.888.000 46.10 0.88 10,461.00 
1919 492.5
 18.20 8,971.000 46,87 1.08 9, 6
9, 00 
1920 519,014 20.25 10.501,500 46,75 0.66 6, 931. OO( 
1921 497.730 26.75 13.343.000 47.75 0'36 4,858,00 
A veragee,........., " ,1916-20 549.601 20,15 11,068, SSO 46,52 0.88 9.756,84 
!{ye,....., ,.., ,. '..' . , " .. .1916 22,759 24.08 54
.000 55,91 1.10 602,80 
1917 53,250 18.75 998,400 43.00 1.63 1.627,40 
1918 123.500 11.50 1,420.000 55.19 1,50 2,130,00 
1919 190.1
2 10.50 2,000.000 55.52 1.31 2,620,00 
1920 172,449 14,70 2.535.000 56.14 1,26 3,194,00 
1921 1,208.200 11.25 13.546.000 56'04 0,67 9,080.00 
\ verage::l. . .. . . , . . . . . . .1916-20 112,488 13,35 1,500,280 53.15 1.36 2.034,84 
Peas,...,...." ',. .......,.1916 1,600 32,50 52,000 60'00 2,25 117, 00 
1917 2.605 17,25 44,900 60.00 4.00 179,60 
1918 4.251 20.00 85,000 60.00 1,50 128.00 
1919 4. 
;j:
 18'00 87,300 60,00 4.00 349,00 
1920 2.519 14: . ;')0 36,500 - 2,00 73.00 
1921 2,535 19.25 48.800 61,00 2.50 122.00 
Avera ea.,... .,....... .1916-20 3 166 19,30 61 140 60.00 2.77 1{j9 3:! 


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226 


PRO DUCT/ON 


I.-Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops In Canada, 1916-21, and 
}'Ï\-e Year Average. 1916-2D-r'ondnued. 


Weight Average 
Yield per pri('e 
Field Crops. Area. per Total Yield, measured per Total Value. 
acre, busheL bushel. 
acres. bush. bush. lb. $ $ 
Saskatchewan-con. 
Beans.,...... . . . , .... .. , . . . ,1918 861 18.00 15,000 - 6,45 97,000 
1919 1,820 10.00 18.200 60,00 4.00 72,800 
1920 793 17.00 13.500 - 4,00 54,000 
1921 967 16.25 15,700 60,00 2.00 31.000 
Averages...,.......... .1918-20 1,158 13,45 15,567 - 4.80 74,600 
Mixed grains.... . . . . .. . . . .. ,1916 14,150 35'00 495.300 40,00 0.46 227.800 
1917 39.500 32'00 1,264,000 50.00 1,25 1,580.000 
1918 23.449 21.00 492.000 45,00 1,10 541.000 
1919 22.017 35.00 771.000 - 1.40 1.079.000 
1920 18.361 33.50 615,000 - 1,25 769,000 
1921 23,081 30.00 692.000 40.20 0,28 194.000 
Averages...",..., .. .. ,1916-20 23,495 30.95 727,460 45.00 1.15 839,360 
Flaxseed...... . , . . . . .. , .. . . ,1916 542.034 12,35 6,692,000 55,29 2.23 14,923.200 
1917 753,700 6,25 4.710,600 55,55 2,60 12.247,600 
1918 840,957 5.00 4.205.000 54.43 3,10 13.036,000 
1919 929.945 4.80 4,490,000 53,82 4.14 18.589,000 
1920 1,140.921 5'00 5,705.000 53,95 1.82 10.3